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iftPi9iPi!ll'.t?.^9P^^ °' Erasmus. 

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HIS is a pleasant, gossipy book, — full of wise 
saws» if not of modern instances. It may be con- 
sidered one of the earliest English jest books. 
The wit in it is not as startling as fireworks, but 
there is a good deal of grave, pleasant humour, and many 
of those touches of nature which make the whole world kin. 
It is very interesting to have not only the great thoughts of 
great men, but to see these men in their moments of leisure, 
when they unbend and come down to the level of ordinary 
mortals. Weak stomachs cannot bear too much of a good 
thing, and nothing is so tiresome as the everlasting preach- 
ing of very good and very wise people. We find that even 
in the palmy days of Greece the greatest orators had occa- 
sionally to recall the attention of their wearied: hearers by 
some witty and humourous tale, such as the " Sha>dow of 
the Ass," (p. 84). Erasmus, complains of this- same kiat- 
tentiveness in his Praise of Folly ^ and says, the preacher on 
such occasions would tell them a tale oat of Gesta, Raman- 
onum, when they would " lyft vp theyr heads, stand vp, and 
geue good eare." Plenty of instances may be found here 
to prove a universal truth, that really great men are gene- 
rally fond of a joke. It was sound advice, depend upon it, 
which the philosopher gave to the young man — " Be not 
anything over muck" The familiar life of the ancients is 

viii - PREFACE. 

also brought pleasantly before us, reminding us of the well- 
.known saying that " there is a deal of human nature in a 

Was it good nature in the Greeks that made them so pa- 
tient under the coarse reproofs of Diogenes .' If so, one 
cannot help wondering that, while they were so tolerant of 
him, they put Socrates to death, who was in all things so 
much wiser and better. Was it not that Diogenes was a 
crafty man, who was shrewd enough 'to see that it does not 
do to prove one's superiority too strongly? So, like our 
mediaeval jesters, he mingled a little wit with a good deal of 
folly. He was fully aware of the great truth lately uttered 
by a bucolic friend here : — " To git on i' th' world, a man 
wants to appear like a fool, we'out bein' one. Men's des- 
p'rately afread ov a clever fella' — they doant feel safe we 
'im. Nice, soft-lookin' chaps alus git on best." So Dio- 
genes made himself purposely dirty and contemptible. His 
coarse buffoonery was the traditional " tub " thrown to the 
whale (by-the-by, do they really throw tubs to whales ?) to 
amuse it while the harpoon which was to pierce through its 
blubber was being prepared. And the Greek public, so 
fond of seeing and hearing new things, was amused ac- 
cordingly, — and pierced in due course ; and very barbed some 
of the harpoons were. Socrates scorned to stoop to this, 
, and consequently had to pay the price usually paid by those 
whose virtue is a reproach to their neighbours. 

This reprint is made from the second edition, — that of 
1562. The two have been read very carefully together, 
and no difference discovered between them, except in the 
spelling. A facsimile of the first leaf of the 1542 edi- 
tion is given, which will show how much this varies. The 
second was chosen principally because it is very much 


the rarer book. The reprint is literal ; the only differ- 
ence being that, to make it easier for the general reader, 
the contractions have been filled in, and the Greek quota- 
tions, which were exceedingly incoirect, have been, in most 
cases, put right. The Rev. E. Johnson, M.A., kindly con- 
sented to write a short sketch of the life of Erasmus, and 
an Appendix of Notes and Illustrations has been added. 
The list of curious and unusual words might have been in- 
creased ten-fold ; but, as in most cases a careful reading of 
the context will show sufficiently well their meaning, it was 
not necessary to make it larger. 

When Nicolas Udall undertook to translate this work he 
was the right man in the right place. Probably no old Eng- 
lish book so abounds with colloquialisms and idiomatic ex- 
pressions. It is very valuable on that account. It has 
always been a favourite with the editor, and seeing that a 
fair copy of the original fetches £$ or £6 by auction, he 
thought 250 readers might be found who would be glad to 
have a reprint of it. The production of these antiquarian 
works in short numbers is necessarily very expensive, and 
after " trade allowances " and other deductions have been 
made, it is impossible in this instance there should be any 
profit ; but it has been a labour of love, and the editor will 
be quite satisfied if he has succeeded in giving the slightest 
help to a wider knowledge of so fine and loveable a char- 
acter as Erasmus. 

R. R. 


July 3, 1877. 


Desiderius Erasmus Rotero- 

IN the great market-place of the Dutch port whence Birth and 
Erasmus derived his surname, there stands a 
bronze statue of the great scholar ; and in the 
Breede Kerkstraat the house is pointed out in which 
he was born, bearing the inscription, Haec est farva 
domus, magnus qua natus Erasmus. With the excep- 
tion of the fact of his place of birth and parentage, 
however, there is little that connects him with Hol- 
land ; nothing in his character or history to remind us Not much to 

remind us that 

that he was a Dutchman. There was no flavour of he was a 
peculiar nationality in his genius ; his greatness is the Dutchman, 
common boast of lettered Europe. His name is linked 
by important associations with France, with England, 
with Italy, and with Germany. Our own country in 
particular, to which he owed the greatest benefits and 
sweetest friendships of his life, may claim the largest 
share in his reflected renown. But in truth he was a ' No fixed home, 
man without a home, in any fixed local sense ; his ^^yT to ^e 
outward history is the record of a series of wanderings ioxinA in the 
to and fro, and changeful sojourns in various cities, of wit and 
and with various friends and patrons ; but in the best •«*"»'"?• 
society, that of men of learning and wit, he was always 
to be found ; anywhere, within the free territory of 
the glorious Republic of Letters, he felt himself to be 
at home. He may well have made the motto his 
b own : 



Ubi lene, ilii 

May be styled 
the Ulysses of 

Was a liberal 
man in illib- 
eral times. 

tions of his 

His writings 
shook the 
ancient sys- 
tem of religion. 

own : Vii bene, ibi patria. Calling to mind his many 
travels and toils, together with the patient unconquer- 
able temper which sustained him under them, — ^his 
penetrating insight into human nature, joined to his 
powerful rhetorical gift, we might discern something 
of a resemblance to the most intellectual of Ho- 
meric heroes, and term Erasmus the Ulysses of 
Letters. Had his mind been naturally prone to- 
wards contracted views of religion and philosophy, 
his opportunities of intercourse with many of the 
best minds of Europe would have had a counter- 
active influence ; but in fact his genius was naturally 
sympathetic, expansive, and catholic. His eminence 
in this quality of character was the more conspicuous, 
considering the harsh and narrowing tendency of the 
religious controversies of his time, which few minds in 
Europe were found great enough to resist. 

It is open to question whether the character and 
spirit of Erasmus, with reference to his services in the 
cause of learning and of religion, and more especially 
with reference to his attitude towards the contending 
parties at the Reformation, has been fairly understood. 
His memory, like the reflection of a star in troubled 
water, has come down to us somewhat confused by 
the great conflict of that epoch. There exists, prob- 
ably, a general impression that he was a trimmer, 
possibly that he was a coward. It is knovm that 
he shook the ancient system of religion by means of 
his widely-circulated writings ; and it has been gene- 
rally believed, from the time of his contemporaries 
downwards, that his keen satire contributed as power- 
fully towards bringing about the Reformation as the 
fearless denunciations and open attacks of Luther. 



But it is remembered that he never threw himself But he died in 
into the ranks of the Lutheran party, notwithstanding nion of'Jhe" 
the eager sohcitations of Luther himself, and his fol- Church of 


lowers ; that in the end he broke with the Reformers, 
and died as he had lived, in the communion of the 
Church of Rome. 

On the other hand, the Papal party were equally 
anxious to secure his literary services for the defence of 
the Church : and he so far yielded as to write a treatise He wrote a 

■^ . treatise on 

on Free Will in opposition to the Reformers' doctrme Free Will. 
of Divine grace. But like a dart flung from a lax and 
unwarlike hand, it failed to strike home : — 

" telumque imbelle sine ictu 
Conjecit rauco quod proHnus aere repulsum, 
Et summo clipei nequidquam umbone pependit ; " 

while the author awaited in trepidation the unsheathing 
of Luther's terrible controversial sword, and after re- 
ceiving the return thrust in the Reformer's work De 
Servo Arbitrio, he retired once for all from the ranks 
of conflict. 

The result was that Erasmus enjoyed the hearty He pleased 
confldence of neither party, and was regarded with ""''^'■^ P^^'y- 
considerable disfavour by both. The more ardent of 
the Reformers loaded him with moral reproaches ; 
and Rome has placed some of his works in the Index 
Expurgatorius. And thus it has come to pass, that 
the mental image of the great scholar appears double or 
blurred in the popular conception of him, but not, we 
believe, altogether justly so, if an accurate estimate be 
taken pf his character, and in relation to the epoch in 

which his lot was cast. To live in times when men's ^^ "^? v"^"*^" 

tunatem living 

fierce and wrathful passions are stirred to their ex- in troubled 

^ times, 



Luther was a 
spirit formed 
to live in 
stormy times. 

was for all 

tremest pitch is not a fortune to be envied. Yet 
there are spirits who thrive congenially in such times, 
and are thrown up into eminence by them : of such 
was Luther. But to those of a delicate, sensitively 
humane, or passionately peace-loving temper, such by 
way of parallel, as Lord Falkland, in the time of our 
own great civil struggle, the air of strife is baneful ; 
and their reputation is likely to suffer, in proportion 
as they keep themselves free from the bigotry of par- 
tisanship. Their sigh of "Peace, peace!" is sweet- 
ness wasted on the desert air.* To state the truth in 
other words : there are two classes of great men : 
those whose greatness is related to their generation, 
those whose greatness is for all time ; those whose 
work has a particular, and those whose work has an 
universal significance. So far as this division is valid, 
Luther ranks amongst the former, Erasmus amongst 
the latter. The controversialist has his day : the true 
scholar is immortal. 

It will be the design of the present brief sketch to 
bring the figure of Erasmus afresh into the light, to 
attempt some loving and not less just estimate of his 
spirit, and to offer some genuine, though slight, tribute 
to his services in the cause of civilization in Europe. 

Erasmus was 
a man 6f 


Erasmus was specifically, characteristically, and by 
eminence, a Man of Letters. And in so describing 
him, we separate him, and nobly distinguish him from 
the mere ecclesiastic, or the theologian. He was in 
early life a monk : he subsequently assumed the in- 
delible orders of the priesthood ; but who that is con- 

* Erasmus wrote The Complaint of Peace in early life, at Paris. It is significant 
of his constitutional temper. 


versant with his genial writings ever pictures him as Erasmus was 
monk or priest ? As the conception of humanity dis- ^^^^ " * 
solves all national and sectarian distinctions, so the 
conception of Letters dissolves all partialities of human 
thought and doctrine. 

For what do " Letters " stand for but the record of 
the catholic experience of human mind, in its inter- 
course with self, with nature, with man, with the in- 
finite and the unseen ? The glory of literature — as The glory of 
contrasted with the lesser glories of Science, Philosophy, he/ humanity. 
Theology — is her humanity. She counts nothing that 
is of man foreign to herself. 

To speak historically, the Land that we call Hellas 
or Greece, is th^ mother of Letters, as Palestine is the 
mother of Religion, to us Europeans. 

Erasmus, and generally all the line of lettered men a votary of 
since the Revival of Learning, loved to invoke the 
Muses, and to profess themselves votaries and disciples 
of the Muses. These phVases, through loijg use, have 
become in our day somewhat out-worn ; yet let us not 
forget the eternal truth and beauty which the glorious 
myth of the Muses enfolds. The birth of those nine 
sacred sisters, daughters of Zeus and Memory, instructs 
us that Art, and Religion, and Philosophy, and Science, 
and History, — all that is fair and great in human 
life — ^proceeds from the intercourse of mind with 
the Infinite, of man with God. Their choral dance 
around the fount of Helicon typifies the eternal har- 
mony of Religion with Knowledge, Passion with Rea- 
son, which the bigotry of partial creeds is ever seeking 
to disturb. When we read, in Hesiod's noble hymn 
in their praise, of the untiring sweet sound which flows 
forth from their mouths, and the halls of Father Zeus 


the Muses. 



Mount Olym- 

Erasmus was 
a friend and 
favourite of the 

the mighty Thunderer smiling at the delicate diffusive 
voice of the goddesses, with echoes from the snowy 
crests of Olympus, and halls of the immortals — ^we are 
reminded of the all-pervading charm of truth, beauty, 
apd love, in heaven and earth. And when mother 
Memory is described as bringing forth in the persons 
of her daughters, 

XtjO'iioirvvyp/ re KaKutv a/iirau/ia re fiepfiripaw, 

" of ills oblivion, rest from cares," we reflect how 
much of enduring solace we have found in books of 
treasured wit and wisdom in many hours of loneUness 
and sorrow. 

Erasmus, we repeat, was by natural bent and genius, 
a Man of Letters, in the noblest sense, — a friend and 
favourite of the Muses. 

His great ser- 
vices as a revi- 
ver of Learn- 


The interest which attaches to his memory is due, 
in the larger measure, to his relation to the literary 
history of Europe, to his prominent services as a 
herald of the re-advent of Learning to the world. 
Following the favourite metaphor of historians and 
poets, which represents the resuscitation of knowledge 
and enquiry as the rising of a great light after ages of 
darkness, his figure, we may say, is suffused by the 
rosy dawn : he is like an angel standing in the sun. 

In order to esiamate his services to literature, let us 
take a rapid glance at the intellectual movements 
which preceded him. 

It is difficult to picture to ourselves with sufficient 
strength of impression the blank and dreary condition 
of the general mind of Europe during more than five 



hundred years from the dissolution of the Roman em- Dreary condi- 
pire. It reminds one of a vast stretch of black fen, or ^ftertoe disso- 

of the boundless Russian steppe. Here and there a lution of the 
,. . . , ,,..,., Roman Em- 

solitary specimen of culture, a scholastic prince like pire. 

Charlemagne, Alfred, or St. Louis, an athletic thinker 

like Erigena, arises, to break the depressing monotony, 


" For leagues no other tiee doth mark 

The level -waste, the rounding grey." 

The track of the Saracens in the South was marked by The School- 
a bright belt of culture, but its seeds were not widely ™™ derived 

° ' ■' their learning 

diffused for the general enrichment of Europe. The from the 
Schoolmen, who inherited their knowledge, such as it ^^■'^™'' 
was, of Aristotle through the Arab Averroes, were 
otherwise all ignorant of literature, and rendered no 
services whatever to general enlightenment. The 
splendid intellectual energies of Erigena, Roscellinus, 
Anselm, Abelard, Peter Lombard ; of Albertus Mag- 
nus, Thomas Aquinas, Duns Scotus, and others were 
kept in thraldom to the Church system. Thinkers 
could only enjoy their mental faculties on a much 
harsher tenure than the feudal ever was in political re- 
lations. The spirit of inquiry, rudely thrust back, 
on threat of the last ecclesiastical penalties, from all 
fields of genuine human and spiritual interest, was 
cramped within a narrow arena, and forced to exhaust , , , , . 
itself in laborious idleness. The Schoolmen were tellectual ath- 
simply a band of intellectual athletes, and their achiev- hibit'edTgym^' 

ments were simply a series of gymnastic feats. " After nastic feats, 

but solved 
three or four hundred years, they had not untied a nothing. 

single knot, nor added one uneqivocal truth to the 
domain of philosophy" (Hallam). It is important to 
note that one of Erasmus's characteristics is his re- 


Erasmus led 
a reactionary 
agEiinst the 

Light has ever 
come from the 

had been the 
library of the 

presentative character, as leading a reactionary move- 
ment against the hybrid metaphysical theology of these 
his intellectual predecessors. We shall have occasion 
to recur to this subject presently, when speaking of his 
theological position. 

But hope for the culture of Europe was beginning 
to arise from another quarter. Light has ever come 
from the East, for the spiritual as well as for physical 
nature. And this spiritual phenonemon was once more 
to be repeated in history. Roughly speaking, we may 
date from the middle of the fourteenth century (a.d. 
1350) the flow of Letters westward. Constantinople 
had been for several centuries the library of the world. 
There the Greek tongue, that " golden key," in the 
sonorous periods of Gibbon, " that could unlock the 
treasures of antiquity, a musical and prolific language 
that gives a soul to the objects of sense, and a body 
to the abstractions of philosophy," lived on as an oral 
speech. Yet learning, amidst the effete life of a de- 
cayed civilization remained in a state of congestion 
and uselessness. But the time was come when the 
wealth of ancient knowledge 

" No more should rest in mounded heaps 
But smit ivith freer light should sloivly melt 
In many streams to fatten lonver lands." 

A steady flow The intercourse between the churches of the East and 
scholars from ^^ West at the time of the council of Florence occa- 
Constantinople sioned a Steady drift of Greek scholars from Constan- 
tinople to Italy, beginning with Barlaam, and Leontius 
Pilatus, the friends and tutors of Petrarch and Boccac- 
cio, continued in Chrysoloras, Theodore of Gaza, 
George of Trebizond, John Arguropylos, and ending 
with Demetrius Chalcocondyles. 



Among the pupils of the latter were our own coun- Grocyn, Lin- 
trymen, Grocyn, Linacre, and Latimer j and in their Ladnu;" 
persons an interesting link is found between the move- 
ment of Greek learning in Italy and its communication 
to our own country. Erasmus, joining the English 
scholars at Oxford, received instruction in Greek from ^'^^,^."\"?, , 

' studied Greek 

them, and proved an earnest ally in the effort to plant at Oxford. 
Greek learning in the universities. They had, as is 
well known, to encounter a senseless outburst of literary 
Toryism which has always had deep root in the old 
universities, in the party of the " Trojans." 

From an early age it appears that Erasmus was His great 

. , _ . esteem for 

conscious of the surpassmg value of the Grecian Grecian 
classics, and was seized with an enthusiasm for the •''«■^'""• 
study. He felt that the revival of letters meant above 
all the revival of living Greece to breathe her spirit of 
power and beauty again over the withered intellect of 
Europe. In Paris, he utters a passionate wish for 
money, that he might buy books first and clothes 
afterwards. To know the great Roman poets and 
philosophers, whose more familiar language the Church 
had preserved in her services, was not enough. He 
must ascend the stream, and drink of the fount. 
" The Latins, he said, " had only narrow rivulets, the 
Greeks pure and copious rivers; and their streams 
were of gold." 

His industry in exploring the treasures of ancient His Industry 
literature, and acquainting himself not only with, their t)io'^'ied"eun- 
contents of thought, but with the force of words, and der difficulties 
with shades of meaning, must have been something ^^'^'^"'^P'^ ^ "S 
simply Herculean, when we recollect that lexicons and 
grammars and editions did not exist in his day. But 
a memory of the literary kind, strongly tenacious by 




Greek Testa- 
ment a noble 
of zeal and 

General survey 
of his literary 

His transla- 

nature, was doubtless developed into extraordinary 
power through the enforced habit of self-reliance. 
His edition of the New Testarhent is, with reference 
to the then state of scholarship, a noble monument 
of his zeal and patience. To collate the various ac- 
cessible MSS. for the Greek Text, to amend the cor- 
rupt Vulgate version, to examine with scrupulous care 
every verse and every word, to complete the explana- 
tion by annotations and paraphrases, to bestow the 
toil of two or three days occasionally on a single ex- 
pression : all this implies a task of immense severity, 
of which he could not but himself speak in the most 
impressive way. 

Perhaps we shall not be wrong in naming his Testa- 
ment as his noblest contribution — ^whether we look at 
the spirit, the execution, or the design of the work — 
to the literary and religious life of Europe. 

Turning to his general writings, which fill nine or ten 
ponderous folios, we may take a brief bird's eye view 
of their subjects under a few different heads, byway of 
reminding ourselves of the character and extent of his 
services. In the field of classical literature, he was 
a " gatherer and disposer of other men's stuff" ; he 
devoted himself to the humble but most useful em- 
ployment of providing conduits through which the 
streams of ancient wisdom might flow to the minds of 
those who had begun to feel the new thirst for know- 
ledge. We find among his works translations or notes 
on portions of Lucian, of Galen, of Euripides, of Ovid, 
of Plutarch, of Socrates,, of Xenophon ; while in his 
Adages and Epigrams, as well as the following Apoph- 
thegms we have rich gatherings from the oft-gleaned 
harvest of Greek and Roman letters. But the name- 


less spirit of noble antiquity, the taste, the judgment, The true clas- 
the harmony of feeling which we have long been taught feeiine^pt"- 
to call classical, pervades all his writings. They are vades all his 
seasoned with Attic salt ; or sprinkled with Helico- 
nian dew. 

A further great service to literature and theology His editions pf 
was rendered in his editions of the Fathers. One of ^ ^^ "^' 
his chief objects, as he explains in his " Ratio verae 
Theologiae," was to explode that false and absurd sys- 
tem of exegesis of Scripture which prevailed amongst 
the Schoolmen, and which indeed still survives in the 
popular preaching of our day, — ^by which a verse or Some of the 
phrase torn from its context, and historical connexion, ^^^^ niethods 
is made to yield any sense that may suit the fancy of 'he Schoolmen 

, . ' _ . ^ . . . , yet survive in 

the expositor. He pomts to Ongen m particular as the popular 
exemplifying the true historical method, which, applied Pleaching of 
in our time with fuller and ever-widening knowledge, 
is constantly throwing fresh light on the religious life 
and opinions of mankind. These editions of the 
Fathers — including Jerome, Hilary, Ambrose, Irenseus, 
Augustine, Chiysostom, with fragments of Basil, Lac- 
tantius, Epiphanius, Cyprian, Athanasius, constitute 
another of the toils of this Hero of Letters. 

In his works on practical religion, Erasmus pre- His works on 
sents himself in another aspect, that of the ethical and ij^on"^* ^' 
Christian teacher. This is not the place in which to 
give any detailed account of this branch of his life- 
work; it must be sufficient to name in passing the 
" Institute of a Christian Prince," the " Handbook of 
the Christian soldier," the " Institute of Christian Ma- 
trimony," the " Christian widow," the " Mode of Prayer 
to God," the "Preparation for Death" (written in his 
closing days), the "Expostulation of Jesus with perish- 


This sentence did the Poete thus expresse, in one of 
his Satires woorde for woorde. 

Non viuas vt edas, sed edas, vt viuere possis. 

Line not as a glutton, still for to eate. 
But feede to maintain life, by thy meate. 
CQ^ Those persones, whiche would glue credence 
vnto the vnlearned, and vnexperte multitude of 
the people, Socrates affirmed to doe euen like, as 
if a man refusyng one peece of money of fower 
grotes, would not take it in paimente, and yet a 
greate nomber of like refuse peces, cast in an 
heape together, he would allowe for curraunt, and 
receiue them in paimente. 
He that is not ^ Whom ye would not trust by hymself alone, is 
himself^s not °°^ °^^ whitte better to be trusted, in a greate rable 
to be trusted in of soche like feloes as hymself is : for it forceth not 
a multitude, of j^^^ greate a nomber thei be, but howgraue and sub- 
he is. stanciall. A counterfaict pece of coigne, be it euen 

in neuer so greate an heape, is a counterfaict peece. 
This maketh against the estem)aig of witnesses, by the 
multitude of theim, and againste the iudgementes of 
the common people, beyng vnlearned. 

_ J AVhen Machines sued, to be one of the nomber 

jEschines vrsis of Socrates his disciples and scholars, ^nd did 

afterwarde a shamefasjly laie pouertee for his excuse, sai)mg, 

and at contin- that it was a great greef vnto him, where the 

uaii strief with other frendes of Socrates, beyng wealthie, gaue 

His saiyngs' vnto hym many greate giftes, that he had no- 

foioeinthis thyng for to giue, excepte his owne self : Dooest 

The entle'to *^°" ^°^ vnderstande (quoth Socrates again) 

wardnes of how great a present thou hast brought and giuen 

raiuTng s"cho- '"^' ^^^epte percase thou estemest thy self at a 

lars. lowe price ? Therefore, I shall doe my diligence, 

The office of a that I male restore thee home again to thy self, 

maister! ° '' ^ better man then I receiued thee. 

H Other Sophistes whereas thei taught nothing but 



mere trifles, yet thei would receiue,''ne take not a 
scholare, without a greate fee. But Socrates tooke 
this poore man, euen with a good will, as the greate 
riche gentlemen. 

When a certaine persone tolde hym newes, 52. 

saiyng the Atheniens haue Judged thee to death : Death com- 

Euen so hath nature doen theim, quoth he againe. ^°"s° ^oSgh 

11 Meanyng, that it is no verie greate shrewde '" f""* ""^ 

" . . ° waie to some 

toume, if a bodie be violentlie put to death, assured an other, 
naturally to bee dedde ere long after, although no 
man should slea hym. Albeit certaine writers ascrib- 
yng this saiying to the Philosophier Anaxagoras. 

Unto his wife, after the womennes facion wail- 53. 
lyng, and saiyng : Ah my sweete housbande, thou ?*"" '° *"" 
shalt dye nothing guiltee, and without any of- an offender, 
fence doyng : What, wife (saith he) haddest thou 
rather, that I should dye an offender .' The death of 

goodmen is 
% The death of good men, euen for this poinct is nottpbe 

' .„,,,., T . , wailled. 

not to be warned, that thei bee put to execucion with- Amoche more 
out desemyng : but thei been double worthie to be miserable 
wailled for, which suflfre death for hainous offences, de'J^^ed pun- 
but yet of the two a moche more miserable thing it is, ishment then 
to haue deserued punishement, then to haue sufifred. frej"^"* ™^' 

Thesame daie that Socrates should drinke the 54. 
poison, one * Apollodorus ( for to comfort him '" Athenes the 

, ' 1 - , i\ 11 1 racion was, 

by soche meanes as he could ) cam and brought that persones 
vnto hym a riche robe, of a greate valour, that condemned to 

, . , , . ,. , , 1 • 1- death Should 

he might haue it on his backe, at his diyng drinke tempred 
houre. But he refusing the gift, What ( saieth T'i* wine, the 

, , , . , r 1 1 • 1 1 ^1 '"'<=e of Hera- 

he) this robe of myne own here, which hath locke.whiche is 

been honest enough for me in my life tyme, woll so extreme 

... , , r T 1 , cold,thatwhen 

it not be euen like honest for me, after 1 bee de- the heat. of the 

parted out of the worlde > ^'"^^ ^°^ ^°- 

^ damly conuey 

^ Utterly damning the pompepus facion of some !' '° '*?« hart, it 
people, with wonderfull high studic, makyng prouision & de"threme°-" 



dilesse. Fotim- afore hande, that thei maie be caried to their bunall, 
medially shall g^ ^^^^ ^j^gj ^^^^ ^jg lajgd in their graues, with aU wor- 

the extreme . . , 

partes of the ship possible. 

body (as the handes andfeete) waxe cold,and so by litde and little, the colde waxelh 
to the harte, & as sone as it striketh to the hart, there is no remedie,but death out of 
hand. Albeit, if one drinke thesame iuice, first by it self alone not ternpred with 
wine, there is remedie enough. For, if one drinke a good draught of wine after it, 
the heate of the wine, shall ouercome the cblde of the heille, aiid driue it from the 
harte and so saue the life. 

* This Apollodorus was of Athmes, a Poete that wrote comedies,ther was an other 
Apollodorus of thesame citee, a teacher of Gramnjer, there were also fower mo of 
thesame name, but of other countrees. 

55. To one bringyng hym woorde, that a certaine 
UnwrathfuUie fgiQg (jj^j gpeake euill of hym : and gaue him a 
^P° ™- verie euil report. Marie (quoth Socrates) he hath 

not learned to speake well. 
Thei that giue f Imputyng his toungesore, not vnto malicious- 
vs euill repotte nesse ; but vnto the default of right knowlege. Neither 
mente,\m rft ^^^ ^^ iu^ge to perteine to hym, what soche persones 
cancardnesse talked Oil hym, as dooe speake of a caficardnesse of 
of harte, are to stomacke^'& not of a iudgemente. 

be contempned ' ° 

56. When Antisthenes a Philosophierof the secte 
Of the secte of of the Ciniques, did weare vpon his backe a robe, 
thesame'pf^. with a great hole or rupture in it, and by turnyng 

- thesame rupture outwarde, did purposely shewe 
it, that euery bodie might looke vpon it : Through 
the rent of thy cloke ( quoth Socrates ) I see thy 
peignted sheath, and vain gloriousnesse. 

H Featelie notyng, that ' vainglorie of poore gar- 

mentes and couer clothyng, is moche more shameful! 

'^'1^ "?^'^ ^t ^°<i abhominable, then of gorgeous apparell, orgalaunt 

W6H 06 in S3.CK , » 1 11 ^-^ 11 1 * 

cloth, as in rich araie. And would God there wer not emong vs chris- 
^'■^'^- tian menne, many Antisthenes, whiche vnder a rustie, a 

The cloisterers course, & a sluttishe vestute, hidden more pride and 
wer fui of pride ostentacjoh, then the riche gentlemen haue in their vel- 
v^nglorte.^"'' uettes, and fine silkes. ^° This was verified in Eng- 
land also, vntill the deuill had his Monkes, Freeres, 
Nunnes, and other cloisters again. 

27. To a certaine persone," wondryng that he was 



not greuously moued in displeasure against one, 

by whom he was shamefully railed at, and 

reuiled. He railleth not on me ( quoth Socrates) Unwrathfullie 

for the thynges that he speaketh are not in me, ^^° ™' 

nor take any holde on me. 

H But the moste part of people, is euen for this 
verie cause, the more testie and fumishe, if ought be Good men re- 
spoken against one, hauyng not deserued thesame. joice 'hat thei 
Good men when thei be euill spoken of, ar glad of mischieues as 
their own behalfes, that thei be clere of those mis- beepatte vpon 
chiefes, whiche are put vpon them, and laied vnto 
their charge, nor doe take it to be spoken against 
them : no not a whitte more, then if a feloe bee3mg 
deceiued in his iye sight, should call P/aio by the name 
of Socrates, &: should call Socrates all that naught were, 
and speake aU the mischief possible againste Socrates : 
that feloe railleth not on Plato, but on him whom he 
supposeth that Plato is. 

The olde comedie vsed commonlie to make 5°- 
iestyng and scoffyng, at the citezens by name, ^"^''/am"^^ 
The plain open speaking of whom where many moch striefe & 
did feare, Socrates saied, to be expedient, that a ate^'cree was°^' 
man should wetyngly and willyngly, come in the made that no 
presence or waie of them. For if thei speake any JJ^amed'to^hls^^ 
thing against vs (saieth he) worthie to be rebuked, reproche, & 
being told of it, we shal emend it, and so thei ^fj^''^^'"' 
maie in deede doe vs good f but if thei shall spoute, comedie. 
railyng, slaunderous, or reprochefull wordes ^jte"! ^th- 
againste vs, and no truthe in theim, it nothyng out truthe, no- 

touchethvs. thyngtoucheth 

Socrates after that he had within dores for- 59- 
borne his wife Xantippe, a greate while scoldyng, 
and at the last beyng wearie, had set him doune 
without the strete doore, she beyng moche the 
more incensed, by reason of her housbandes 
quietnesse and stilnesse, powred doune a pisse 




The pacience 
of Socrates. 

Merily spoken 
and pactently 


The pacience 
of Socrates. 

The scoldyng 
of brathels, is 
no more tp bee 
passed on,then 
the squeking of 
vrell wheles. 

easeth the 
tediousnes of 


Wiues must 
bee sufFred for 
foorthe child- 


Socrates had ii. 
wiues at ones, 
Myrtho and 

bolle vpon hym out of a windore, and al beraied 
him. But vpon soche persones as passed by, 
laughing and hauing a good sport at it, Socrates 
also for his part, laughed again as fast as the best, 
saiyng : Naie, I thought verie well in my minde, 
and did easily Prophecie, that after so greate a 
thonder, would come a raine. 

To Alcibiades greatly wondryng that he could 
take so continualle pacience with Xantippe in his 
hous, beyng soche an vnreasonable scoldyng 
brathell : I haue (saied he) now a long season, 
been so well enured with soche maner geare, that 
I am therewith no more offended, then if I should 
heare the squekyng of a wheele, that draweth vp 
water out of a welle. ' 

^ For that maner squekyng, soche persones maie 
verie euill abide, as haue not been accustomed vnto it, 
and he that daily heareth thesame, maie so well awaie 
with it, that to his knowlege, heareth it not. 

To thesame Alcibiades saiyng a moche like 
thing, Why, euen your self (quoth Socrates) doe ye 
not paciently suffer at home in your hous, the 
cacklyng of Hennes, when thei make a clockyng ? 
Yes, I lette them alone (saied Alcibiades) but my 
Hennes laie me egges, and bring me forthe 
Chekins. And my sweete spouse Xantippe 
(quoth Socrates) bringeth me forthe children. 

Some there be that suppose Socrates to haue 
kept in his hous twoo wiues at ones Myrtho and 
Xantippe. Therfore to a certain man greatly 
meruailyng to what vse he kept twoo women at 
ones (especially beyng scoldyng quennes, euer 
chidyng and braulyng) and did not beate or driue 
them out of his dores, thus he saied : These women 
dooe teache me at home within the hous, the pa- 
cience and suffraunce, which I must vse, when, I 



am abrode forthe of dores. Beyng exercised 
afore, and well broken with the facions of these 
ii, I shalbe the better, and more gentle to Hue 
or to deale withall, for the companie of other 

^ The demaunder of this question Awlus Gellius 
maketh Alcibiades. 

Aulus Gellius a Latin writer of elegancies for the Latine tongue, and of other 
many pretie rehersalles and discussynges of diuers thinges. . 

When Xantippe had pulled awaie her house- 63. 
bandes cope from his backe, euen in the open 
strete, and his familiar companions gaue hym a 
by warnyng, to auenge soche a naughtie touche 
or pranke, with his tenne commaundementes : Merelie spo- 
gailie saied (quoth he) Yea Marie, that while she ently withall. 
and I be touzing and topleyng together, ye male 
crie to vs, on, now go to Socrates, an other holde 
thyne owne Xantippe. 

^ For, with soche maner woordes doen the lookers 
on, chere and harten twoo parties, matched and sette 
together by the eares. But this wise man, thought 
better to shew of himself an example of pacient suf- 
fraunce then to shewe a gase or sight, for folkes to 
laughe at, in striuyng or contendyng with his wife. 

To one demaundyng,why he had and kept in his g . 
hous the saied Xantippe, beyng a woman of soche The gentlenes 
condicions and facions, as no man might well and pacience 

. , , , , . 1 1 .11. , of Socrates. 

awaie withall, or abide he saied : that men ought 

in like maner, to Hue with crabbed and testie Crabbed wives 

wiues, as thei that exercise and practise theim be compared to 

' > ^ rough stieryng 

selues, to the feate of beyng good horsemen, get horses, 
horses of feerse stieryng natures, and of rough 
condicions : which if thei haue ones throughly 
maistered, and made to the bridle, and bee able 
at all assaies to abide thei shall haue all other j^^ ^.^^^^ ^^^ 
horses as gentle and easie to rewle, as thei can abide a curst 
desire. And semblablie, he that hath learned to ^<;[Vfe^'* 




what com- 
panie he 
liueth in. 


Lysias was an 
orator in 
Athenes and a 
frende of Socra- 
tes, and a man 
(as saieth 
of swete and 

Not all maner 
oracions will 
serue for alma- 
ner persones. 

beare, with the facions of a crabbed and testie 
wife, shall with moche more ease be able to com- 
pany with al others, of what sort so euer thei be. 

When Lysias had rehersed, and read over vnto 
Socrates an oracion, whiche he had made for 
Socrates, to pronounce in the defence of hymself 
before the Judges : It is a ioily and an elegaunt 
oracion, saied he, but it is nothyng conueniente 
nor comelie for Socrates. 

^ For, it was more fitte to be made of some man 
of lawe, in pleadyng a courte matter or a case in lawe, 
then to be pronounced by a Philosophier, and namely 
by soche a Philosophier as Socrates. Again to the- 
same Lysias demaundyng, for what'cause if he iudged 
the oracion to be good, he thought it to be inconue- 
nient for hym. 

Why, saied Socrates, is it not a thyng possible, 
that a garment, or a shoe male be galauntly made 
and wel facioned, and yet thesame not be mete 
for sofne bodies wearyng. 

^ This self same historic doeth Valerius Maximm 
report, after a more churlishe sort, & more vnlike to 
the maners of Socrates. For, he reporteth Socrates, in 
this wise to haue made answere vnto Lysias: awaie 
with thissame I beseche thee hartily. For, if I could 
by any meanes bee brought, to pronounce this oracion, 
from the beginnyng to the endyng, euen in the ferthest 
and vttermoste wildemesse, of the barbarous countree 
of Scythia, then would I graunte and yelde myself well 
worthy to suffre death. 
gg When thei that sate in iudgemente vpon 
Boidnesse and Socratcs, could not agree emong themselues, 
what punishmente Socrates was worthie to suffre, 
Socrates euen of himself sodainly brake out and 
saied : for the thynges that I haue doen, J my 
self iudge and giue sentence, that I am worthie 


trust on a 
mannes well 
doing Eind on 
an vpright 


to haue my findyng allowed, & assigned for terme 
of life, out of the chamber of the citee, in the 
Pritanei. wpwavts 

IT For that honour was wonte to be shewed and doen Pritanis in 

to soche menne, as had doen some especiall gale bene- f^^ ^er ^' 

fite, to the common weale. Marcus Tullitis in the that we cal 

firste booke, intided * of a perfite Oratour, reherseth PJ^sident of 

this histone. There was (saieth he) m Athenes, when and chief or 

any persone was vpon arainment condemned (if it ^^ °f ^ ^'^ 

were not by the lawe a penaltee of death) as ye would whiohe office 

saie a sette fine, and an ordinarie forfeite of money, at he that had in 

the arbitriment, pleasure, and discrecion of the iudges, ■^**«»«*> had 

^ , o ' assigned vnto 

when the partie aramed, or defendaunt was ones yelded him out of the 

into the handes of the iudges : he was asked what fine Gofers and 

he would confesse hymself, verie well to haue deserued ^itee an hon- 

to paie, whiche thyng, when Socrates was asked, he ourable aiid a 

answered, that he had well deserued, to bee aduaunced f "t'fp";''"? . 

' 'in \xitrrytansi, 

with verie high honours and rewardes, and to haue that is to saie ! 

continuall findyng, for terme of life, of the charges of '" *^ f^^ 

the Citee, freely allowed vnto him, whiche honour and tower or castle 

preeminence, was estemed and accompted the highest, of *e citee, 

that could be emong the Grekes, with whose answer, ^j^hed^coun- 

the iudges wer so set on fire with anger, that thei con- saiUour-had 

demned to death, the moste innocent persone of the 1"^ l°<*g^JP& 

world. place. That 

if it chaunced any man to dooe vnto the citee, some singular and incomparable 
benefite then had he a lordes lining, or an honorable porcion to liue on, as- 
signed out of the chamber of the Citee, and was allowed with the president 
of the counsaill, duryng his life, and this was the highest honour that might bee 
among the Grekes. And this did Socrates claime, as one that with good enstruccion 
& bringing vp of youth in vertue and good maners, and in right moral Philosophic, 
had doen as high benefite to the common weale, as did the chief counsaillours of 
the citee, and that he thereby had deserued, as good and as beneiiciall a lining, as 
the best of them all. 

* Marcus TuUius writeth twoo volumes entitled in Latine, De oratore, that is of 
a perfite oratour, whiche werke himself rekeneth the best that euer he made. 

Socrates met full but with Xenophon in a nar- 67. 

row back lane, wher he could not stert from him, 

when he espied him to be a young stripling of rare 

towardnes, & like to proue so well as fewe did, 

he held out his staffe, & charged him, that he 




The auctoritee 
of Socrates in 
matters of 

Fewe persones 
knowe or take 
heede where 
vertue is to be 

How Xenophon 
scholar vnto 

The furniture' 
of the mynde. 


One of the best 
dishes at sup- 
per, is hounger 


and oiles, been 
more meete for 
women then 
for raenne. 

The sweete 
sauours, mete 
for menne 

should not a foote ferther. Assone as he stode 
stn, Socrates asked of* him where sondrie wares 
were made & sold, that men did commonly 
occupie, when Xenophon had therunto redily and 
quickly shaped an answer : Socrates eftsones de- 
maunded, in what place of the Citee, men wer 
made good, honest, and vertuous, when the young 
man had answered, that he was of that matter 
ignoraunt : then come with me (quoth Socrates) 
that thou maiest learne. 

H For, that tyme forthward begon Xenophon to be 
disciple and scholare vnto Socrates. It is a thing con- 
trary to all good reason, to haue knowlege, where thou 
maiest be seraed of a welfauored and clenly garment, 
or of a faire cuppe, and to be ignoraunt, where thou 
maiest purchace the good fumiture of the mynde and 
soiile. ^p° That is vertue and cunnyng. 

On a certain time as he was walking before his 
doore a greate pace, euen till the going awaie of 
the daie light, when one of the folkes that passed 
by, had saied : What meane ye Socrates, by thus 
doyng: I procure my self some cates for my 
Supper (quoth he) meaning of houngre, whiche he 
prouoked with chasyng vp and doune, ^^ Marcus 
Tullius doeth set it out with these wordes : That 
I maie suppe the better, I doe with walking pro- 
cure hungre, for my chief cates & viandrie. 

His saiyng was, that sweete sauours & swete 
oiles, wer to be let alone for women and as for in 
young men, no sweete sauour to haue a better 
smell, then the oile whiche thei occupied in exer- 
cisyng their bodies, at the prouyng of maisteries, 
or at werke. 

T[ For with oile of baulme, or of Spike, a slaue and 
a gentleman, haue bothe of theim by and by, one 
maner sauour. 


THE I. BOOKE. 3 1 

Being asked wherof it was most comely for 70. Of what 
aged men to smell : Of honest and vertuous dis- j^ comdyTr' 
posicion (quoth he) then beyng eftsones asked, aged men to 
where pomanders therof were to bee solde : he ^i*A„„ 
rehearsed this verse of the Greke Poete Theognis. emong other 

. /i\ « y X V ,, AW f ^ If- bokes writeth 

€orO\xi>v ficv yap ar' eo-e'Aa dldaf £<u. one, whiche he 

Of honest men, wheresoeuer thei bee. entiteleth 

. Ye maie at all tymes, leame honestee. avftma-iov, 

. that IS the 

^ Diuerse sentences of this sorte, Xenophon heapeth banquet. 

together in his banquet. 

When a certain riche man had sent his sonne, 71. 
being a proper ladde vnto Socrates, for to ex- 
amin and trie his towardnesse, and the tutour 
that had been the bringer vp of thesame, from 
his childhood, had said in this wise : The father of 
this ladde, hath sent him vnto you Socrates, that 
ye should haue a sight of him : by and by said 
Socrates to the child : Speake some what then, 
goode Sonne, that I maie see thee. 

\ Signifiyng that the disposicion of a manne, doeth A mannes 
not shewe so clere in his face or visage, as in his talkyng, *^''""S '*°*'' 

. , ° ' , , , nioreclerely 

for, this is the moste sure and true glasse, of the harte shew his con- 
and minde, and fewest tymes liyng. dicions then 

He saied that the woman kinde, if thesame bee 72. 
diligently enstructed and taught, is no lesse apt 
then men are, to take aswell all maner disciplines. The woman 
or facultees of learning, as also all maner vertues apt to' learn^al 
moral, yea euen fortitude and hardinesse, whiche maner thynges 
as though it should properly appertein onely to ™ ™*" ^'*' 
men, and not to women, is called by the Greke 
vocable ai/Spta, in Englishe, manhood, or manlie ^y^ia. 
hardinesse. Manhood. 

^ This did he gather by the sight of a maiden, that 
was a dauncer and a tumbler, who beyng brought in, 
where company sate at a table, did with wondrous 
sleight and conueighaunce cast vp, and receiue again 




beaiitie and 

one after an other, twelue trendies or roundelles, the 

space of the heigthe, and the measures of footyng the 

daunce, so tempered and proporcioned, that she neuer 

missed. And thesame maiden, where the lokers on 

quaked and trembled for feare, daunced without any 

feare at all emong sweardes and kniues, beyng as 

sharpe as any thyng. 

73. As Socrates beyng bidden to a supper by one 

Agatho was a Agatho, was going with trick voided shoes on 

Siauaof^lt&enM ^is fectc, and perfumed with sweete sauours, and 

of excellent that Contrary to his accustomed vsage : when he 

was asked of a frende of his, that mette hym on 

the waie, why he was more nette and piked at that 

season, then he had vsed to be aforetymes? He 

saied merily in this wise : That to soche a minion 

feloe as Agatho is, I maie go trim nette, and well 


^ Where in deede there was no man aliue, that had 
lesse mynde or phantasje to soche thynges. 

The same daie that Socrates should drinke the 
poison, when he after the striking of, of his shades 
or fetters, had feled great pleasure of clawing 
where it itched, he said to his frendes : How won- 
derfully is jt''of nature ordeined, that these twoo 
thinges doe by course, feloe either other, pleasure, 
and greef : for, excepte pein and greef, had pro- 
ceeded or gone afore, I should not now haue 
feeled this pleasure. 

Of the vnder gaillour, deliueryng vnto him the 
iuice of Hemlocke in a cuppe, he demaunded, how 
that medecine was to be taken ? Forasmoche as the 
same officer was well practised, and could good 
skill in that science. 

% Alludyng to the sicke folkes, who doe leame of 
the Phisicians, when and how it is best to receiue a 
medicinablb drink, that thei haue made. And when 



Pleasure and 
pein, by course 
folowen either 


The poison 
that Socrates 
should dye of, 
he called a 

Alludyng to 
the sick folkes 
that is : vsyng 
soche wordes 


die seruaunt had answered, that he muste vp with it, all and termes, as 

at a draught if he could, & that after it he must walke {[ad bS'a"' 

vp and doune so long vntill he feele soche weakenesse PhUician and 

& feblenesse, that he should drawe his legges after hym, ^ ?• sicke man 

and that after this he must lye hyva. doun in his bedde, lo^rs paoiente. 

vpright vpon his backe, and then the drinke would 

werke his woated efiect : Soa-ates enquired, whether he In feastes and 

might not leefully poure put some parte thereof, in the *^'^fo*owe* 

waie of sacrificyng, and taking .assaie to the Goddes^ out a little of 

because in merie diners, suppers, & banquettes, it was *^ ''"?'' '" 
.1 • 1 /■ ■ I ,■ , .'*,■, . thewaieof 

the guise and facion ( a little quantitee of the wme sacrifice, and 

poured out ) to sacrifice thesame, jn the waie of assaie taking assaie 

to some Godty name (whiche was caUed in Grpke Se^G^ds!"^ °' 

\ei/3av, and in Latine, Libare). The officer answered, 

that he had tempered so moche and no more, as 

was requisite for the purpose, meaning by those 

wordes that there was none thereof spare, to bee 

poured out. Then saied Socrates, Well, yet is it both? 

leefiil and also requisite to beseche the goddes, that 

this my passyng out of tWs wojrlde, amaie bee happie 

and fortunate. 

When the vnder officer ,c^ tie prison had 76. 

vncoiiered hym, and laied hyta naljed, because 

he was now alredie cold at the hart. ^ And 

should ■there^'pon die iiuimediatlie : Crfto i( quoth 

Socrates) we bee now endebted to the God 

Aesculapius of a cocke, whjche dvilie to paie in Aesculapius 

1 _ji ■ t the Sonne of 

no wise bee ye neghgente, ^pp„ao the 

first inuentour and practiser of Phisicke. Whom for that science the antiquitee, hon- 
ored as a God,and soche as recouered from any disease, did sacrifice vnto Aesculapiu} 
a line Cocke, But the Poetes doe fable that he was ^lain, with lightening of Jupiter, 
because he had with his cunnyng of Phisike, restored HippoKtus again to life, 

f Euen as thou^ he had vpon thetakyng of a 
medicinable drinke, perfectly recouered agaiije all his 
health. For * Crito had afore dooen, all that euer he 
might possible doe, that Socrates should make meanes 
to saue his life. And in Socrates there was so roted 

* Crito was an honest citezen in Athenes, and a true frend vnto Socrates, and the 
other as good, and as Ipuyng a frende againe to hym in all poinctes, of mutuall 

3 a certain 



The beautee of 
minds, is more 
to be loued 
than the beau- 
tee of the 


Socrates died 
in perfite 

A holy kinde 
of diyng, in a 
Gentile or 


Honest and 
veituous loue. 

a certain vein of honest merines, euen naturally geuen 
him in his cradle, that he could ieste & speake meriliei- 
euen at the houre of death, for these axe reported to 
haue been the last wordes that euer he spake. 

He taught that the beautee of the myndeSj is 
moche more to be fauoured, then of the bodies, 
and that thesame pleasure, which a welfauored 
face when it is loked on, doeth engender in vs, 
is to bee translated and remoued, to the beautie 
of the mynde, ferre excedyng the other in faire- 
nesse, albeet liyng hidden from the bodily iye. 
But to haue a sight thereof, Philosophicall iyes 
to bee requisite and necessarie. 

^ He noted the Greke vocable tjuXaa-Bai, to bee 
of significacion indiiferent to kissyng or louyng, of 
whiche twoo thjTiges, the former perteiaeth to them 
that doe carnally loue the bodie, the other to soche as 
doe vertuouslie loue the mynde. 

Unto Crito after a verie earnest facion coun- 
saillyng and auisyng him, that if he for his owne 
part, passed not on his life, yet at least wise he 
should preserue thesame, and continue in his 
former good state and condicion, for the respect 
of his children, being euen then but little babes, 
and for his, frendes sakes, whiche had all their 
staie in him. As for my children (saied he) God, 
who gaue theim vnto me, shall take care. And 
as for frendes, when I depart from hens, I shall 
find either like vnto you, or els better then ye be, 
and yet I shal not long be defrauded of the 
companie of your selues neither, for asmoche as 
ye are like shortely, to come to dwelle euen in 
the self same place, that I now go vnto. 

Those persones, whiche doe beare carnall loue 
onely to the bodie, Socrates affirmed to be moche 
like vnto Phisicians, that be euer nedie, and that 



still do call on their pacientes, importunely crau- 

ing. one thing or other. And £igain, those that The di6Ference 

bee honeste frendes, rather then camall louers, nail louer and 

to bee like vnto persones possessyng, and hauyng an honest 

land of their owne, which thei continually studied "" ' 
;& labored, to make better & better. 

^ A camall louer seketh to satisfie, and to fulfil 
his beastly or bodily pleasure. A true and honeste 
, frende, hauyng none iye nor respecte to his owne per- 
son, thinketh himself so moche the richer, how moche 
the more honest and vertuous, he maketh his frende 
to be. 

Sitting at the table at meate, in Xenophon his 8q. 
hous, euery one of the geastes, being bidden to 
tell, in what occupacion & crafte, or in what good 
propertie or feacte that he could doe, he liked 
himself best, when the course and tourne to 
speake came vnto Socrates, he saied in the waie Laiodmum 
of iesting, the best thing that he could bragge or 
crake of, to be Lenocinium, whiche souneth in pame\boue'ai 

Englishe, enticyng and alluryng, of soche sort as thinges, pur- 

j . •. _ r i_ J . chaseth to man 

is vsed m houses of baudne. beneuoUnce 

^ But the meanyng oi Socrates w|s, that he taught ^ndloue. 
true and sincere vertue, whiche doeth {Specially aboue 
al other thinges, commende and set out the hauer : and 
the whiche as wel priuately, as in open face of the 
world doth purchace vnto man beneuolence & loue. 

A feloe hauyng sight in Phisiognomie (who 8 1 . 
professed and openly toke vpon him, by the com- The art & prg- 
plexion and pleight of the bodie, and by the siognomiers. ' 
proporcion and settyng, or compace of the face 
or visage, to be able vnfalliblie and without mis- 
sing, to find out and iudge the naturall disposi- Of what nature 

. \ 1 1. 1. J 11 J anddisposicion 

cion of any man ) when he had well vewed socrates had 
Socrates, gaue plain sentence, that he was a been, if he had 
loutish feloe, a dulle blockehed, besides that also, "elf w™he ^"^' 




studie of Phi- 

Philosophie al- 
tereth, and 
clene chaun- 
geth nature. 


firste of all the 
scholars of 
Socrates, sette 
vp teaching of 
philosophie for 
The familiare 
ghost or aun- 
gell ofSow'otes, 
called in Greke 
Sdi/jiMV in 
Latin Genius, 

alowed not 
that any man 
should take 
money for 
teachyng ver- 
tue, & estemed 
money so got- 
ten, to be 


one of the fa- 
hiiliare frendes 
of Socrates 
in Athens and 
a Philosophier. 

rtloche geuen to the wanton Ibue of women, foufe 
steined with the filthie cohcui)istfence and desii'e 
of boies, a gr'eate boiler of wine, and a vicious foloet 
of all naughtie appetites, and lustes of the bodie. 
And when the frendeS of SoCrites, beeying 
brought in a highe funie, thretened the feloe, and 
would haue been vpbrt him, Socrates kept them 
backe, saiyng : He hath not lied one whit, I should 
haue been soche an one in all pbinctes, in verife 
deede, if I had not committed my self vnto Phi- 
losophie to be gouemed, and kept in better staie. 

When Aristippus, the disciple of Socrates, had 
of his gaines, of setting vp the teaching Philoso- 
phie for money (which thing he first of al the 
scholars of Socrates, did set vp and begon to doe) 
had sent -.20. poundes vnto his maister : Socrates 
sent the money backe again vnto hym forthwith, 
alleging that his familiar good Aungell, would In 
no wise suffer him, to take it 

% For Socrates saied, that he had a familiare ghost 
or Aungell peculiare and proper to himself, of whom he 
was hy a priuie token forbidden, if he attempted, or 
went about to'looe any vnhonest thyng. Verely, 
that familiare' fobd AungeU, I suppose, was reason. 
And in the meane tyme, vnto Aristippus he did after 
a gentle sort, signifie hymself not to alowe, ne to thinke 
well doen, that he kept a schoole of morall Philoso- 
phie for money, and therefore thesame giftfe of his as 
a thyng gotten by plaine sacrilege, he vtteriy refused, 
and would none of it 

One Euthydemus returnyng and coftirtiing 
awaife from the wrastling place, Socrates, wheii 
he had mette with hym by chaunce, brought 
home to supper with him. And 4s thei twoo wer 
studiously disputing and treactyng of many 
thynges, Xantippe beyng therewith very angrife, 


of Socrates. 


arose vp from the table, and spake many bitter 
wordes of contumely, and despite against her The canoard. 
houseband, with whiche wordes, forasmoche as ^^°. 
he was nothing moued, at last she tiped the tabl? 
ouer and ouer, and floung dovine all that euer was 
vpon it. But when Euthydemus beyng there- 
withal! verie sore moued, arose and begon to 
depart, Why, what harme haue ye ( quoth Socra- The pacienoe 
tes ? ) Did not euen this self same thing, chaunce 
at your own hous the last dale, that a henne 
mounting, cast doune all thynges that wer on 
the table ? Yet did we your geastes then, not 
one whitte fume at the matter. 

When in the comedie of Aristophanes entitled, 84. 
the cloudes, he was with many & bitter wordes, Socrates sore 
of railling'& defamacion, as ye would sale torn, ^amltn'tL 
and mangled in peces: and one of the companie comedie of 
standing by, said Doth not this go to your hart ^'SieifdtThe' 
Socrates ? By lupiter saieth he again, it greueth cloudes, or, 
my stomacke nothing at all, if I bee snapped at, ™'^'^' 
and bitten with merie tauntes at the staige where j^ pacienoe 
enterludes are plaied, no more then if it wer at a of Socrates. 
great diner or banquet, where wermany geastes. 

^ This cu,ston)e & vsage euen yet still endureth The custome 
among certain of the Qermaines, (ft" (yea, & in En- "^^'""^P'^'^ 
gland also) that in feastes of greate resort, there is and scpfifers at 
brought in for the nones some iesting feloe, that male solemne 
seoff and ieste -vpon the geastes, as thei sitten at the ^^'*^' 
table, with the which iesting to be stiered to angre, is 
accompted a thyng moche contrarie to all courtegie or 
good maner. 

He vsed often to saie, that he, whiche moueth 85. 
his bodie to and fro, with leapyng and dauncing, 
hath nede to haue an hous of large roume, but 
who so exerciseth hym self with singyng, or talk- 
yng to thesame, either standing, or sitting, or 




Moderate exer- 
CLtacions of the 
bodie, allowed 
by Socraies, 
and the con- 
trarie disal- 


Merely spoken 
and nippyngly 

In rebuking an 
nother,to com^ 
mit the self 
same fault, 
that one 


and gredie 
rebuked by 


The chief ver- 
fue of yong 
men not to 
eagrelie to at- 
tempt any 

* Terence a 
lAtin Poete, a 

leaning, any place whatsoeuer it is, to be suffi- 
cient, and wide or lage enough. 

^ By this saiyng, he did allowe moderate exercita- 
cions of the bodie, especially after meate taken : & 
exercises any thing buisie or full of stiering be disal- 

Unto Socrates, somewhat sharpely and rough- 
lye chydynge one of hys famylyare frendes, at 
the table, as they sate at meate Plato sayd : Had 
it not been better, to haue tolde him these thinges 
apart out of companie ? To whom Socrates saied 
againe : And should not ye also haue dooen better, 
if ye had told me this apart out of company, 
betwene you and me. 

^ He merily and sharpely withall taunted Plato, as 
the whiche in rebukyng hym, did commit jpie verie self- 
same fault that he rebuked. 

Socrates as he sate emong companie at a table, 
espiyng a young man somewhat greadily eatyng 
the fleshe, and euer emong deping or sopping his 
bread in the pottage or brothe : Maisters, all that 
sitte at this table (quoth Socrates) whiche of you 
vseth his bread in steade of his meate, and meate 
in stede of hif|f read .' A disputacion hereupon 
arisyng emorig {he companie : ^ { For, it is not 
I quoth one, and it is not I quoth an other) the 
yong man perceiued the matter, & blushed as 
rede as fire, and begon more leasurely and mode- 
rately, to feede and eate of the meate. 

Beeyng asked, whiche was the chief vertue of 
young menne : That thei doe not (saith he) ouer 
feruently or angrely attempt assaie, or enterprise 
any thing. 

^ For, the feruentnesse of that age ^ being as hole 
as coales, will not suffre theim to kepe a meane. * To 
this thyng had Terence an iye and respecte in the yong 
manne Pam^hilus. 



writer of comedies, Sc in the firste comedie, entitled Andria Sirao hauyng espied, 
that his Sonne PamphUus, had fallen in loue with a single woman, named 
Glicerie, talketh of the matter, with his late seruaunt Sofia, and in processe of 
communicacion, where Simo would haue Pamphilus, not to ferre to procede in 
wanton loue of paramours, no by saincte Marie, saieth Sofia, for this I thinke in 
the life of manne, to bee as good a thing as can be, that he attempt not, ne enter- 
prise any thyng ouermoche. 

Letters or writyng (whiche the moste part of 8g. 
folkes, supposeth to haue been first deuised and Whether letters 
found out, for helping the naemorie) Socrates saied heip^the me-* 
to bee verie hurtful! to the memorie. moiy, or els 

■ ii- /.^,.,N, 1 rather hurte 

^ For in old time, menne (if thai had heard any the same, 
thing, worthie to be knowen ) thai wrote and graued 
thesame, not in bokes, but in the harte and minde. 
And the memorie by this confirmed and made stedfast, The exercise of 
thai kept in their remambraunca, whatsoeuer thai ware '^^ memone. 
willyng, and what euery man perfectly knew, he had .f^ u f ' 
alwaies redjg with hym at his fingers endes. After- of writing ons 
ward the vse of writjoig beyng ones founde out, while found ow ™«" 
men put all their affiaunce Sa trust in bookes, thai were Jh"f/bo"es ^ 
nothyng like eamesta, to imprinte in their mind, soche than to their 
thinges as thei had learned. By that maanes it came "leraones, 
to passe, that thexarcise of memorie neglected, and 
nothyng passed on, the knowlage of thinges was no- njo^g ^gth 
thyng so quicke, nor freshe as it had been, and eche euery of vs 
man knewe still lesse and lease. For so mocha and no j,aursueriv' 
more, dooath euery of vs knowe, as we haue faste im- imprinted in 
printed, and dooe kepe in our memorie. °^^ memone. 

When the time of his diyng drewe fast vpon 90. 
hym, beyng asked of Crito, how his minde was 
to be buried : O my frendes (quoth he) a greate '^f^ soule pa^- 
deale of labour haue I spent in vain. For vnto this worlde, 
Crito your frend & mine, I haue not ye^ per- JJJ°^^^'^bfrde 
swaded, that I shall more swiftly then any birde, fiieth. 
flie from hens, and not leaue behynd me here, any 
part or porcion of me. Yet neuerthelesse Crito, 
if thou shalte bee hable to ouertake me, or if thou 
shalt in any place come by me, or gette me. The soile is the 
burie me, euen how so euer to thee shall seme bodythe taber- 



nacle of the best : but bcleue me, not one of you al shall ouer- 
*°"^' take me, when I shalbe departed from hens. 

To take care ^ Socrates meaned the soule to be the man, and the 

how to be bodie to be nothyng els, but the instrument or taber- 
burled is fbhsh- ^^^^ ^^^^ ^^^ . ^^^ therefore those persones to doe 


like fooles, that take care or thought how to be buried. 
q J Thesame Socrates was wont to saie, that death 
C^ath is liice ^® ^^^ *° soundc slepyng. Cn- ( And of this, we 
vnto sound call in Englishe a sounde slepe, a ded slepe ) or els 
b4n^ii'a"'° to a long pilgrimage, that is to saie, longe be- 
strannge yng in a straunge CoUrttree, from whens at length 

StS soule to retourne home again. 

shall at *([ Verie sounde slepyng, taketh awaie for the time, 

lengthe ^ operacion of the bodily senses, & the soule beeyng 

agaihe ihto the departed awaie from the bodie, shall at leM;th retourne 

bodie, not only a£aine ifito his tabernacle, that is to saie wo thesame 

shalbe at the ^ \. 

generalle re- DOQie. 

surreccion, a<£ording to Our bdefe, but also was the opinion of Socrates, of Plato, 

and of their disciples, albeit after an other s6rte. 

Q2. Thesame vsed also many times to sale, that if 
the vniuetsall calamitees of all men, should be 
If the vniuer- gathered all in an heap together and immediately 
ofaUmtn'wer toeche man^euerallie by himself, should bee dis- 
inanheape tributed egual^porcions out of the same heape, 
dfitribnttti''^ it would come to passed that eche man would 
eche man rather chose to receiue his owne former calami- 
^keWs^^ne ^^^^ agalne, then eguall porcion with his feloffi 
again, than out of the common heape> 

vriSTall^'hu'"" IT This maketh against the common maners & guisp 
feloes. of men, who grutche and repine, at the state and con- 

dicldh of others, and whine continually at their owne. 

93. He karned to plaie oh the Harpe, after that 

he was well striken in age, and that, emong 

It is no shame children. And vnto soche persones as meruailled 

lelrne"tharhl° ^^ thesame, as a thii^ verie vnconuenient and 

knoweth not, foolishe, he saied, that it was no shame nor fool- 


THE r. BOOKE. 4 1 

ishe thing, for a man to learne those thinges, of of what age 

I'll. . . soeuer he bee. 

whicne he were ignoraunt. 

H For, it is turned to no mannes rebuke, to procure qa 

and gette soche thinges, as he hath nede of, if thei be To hane made 

wanting, neither in this behalf is to be regarded a mans a good begin- 

i_ 1 • , nine, is no 

age, but his nede. smalporcionof 

He saied, that to make a good beginning is not t^ewerkedoen. 
a little, but next cousin to a little, or els thus, to 
make a good beginning, is not a little, but a little 

^ The Greke wordes ren thus, ei apxea-Oai (UKpav 
firi etvai TrapafiiKpbv 84, whiche he that translated Zaer- 
iius out of Greke into Latine, hath interpreted in this 
sense : That to make a good beginning is not a small 
matter, but a verie great thing. Albeit the woordes of 
Socrates do^expresse an other sense, in maner con- 
trary. But he meaneth (if I be not deceiued) that, 
to make a good beginning, is not a little matter in ve- 
rie deede, but to be little estemed, or els to make a 
good beginnyng not to bee a little, but to be nexte 
doore by a little, or nexte cousin to a little. For, men 
ought to begin thynges faire and softely, and to procede rj.^^ ^^^^ ^^^ 
by little and little, because that soche persones, as do thewurstspede 
make moste hast in the beginning, h$ue commonly (ac- 
cordyng to our Englishe . fttouerbe ) worst spede to- » 
ward- the endyng. So that he alludeth vnto the Poete 
Hesiodus, who biddeth, that wee shall adde a little to a 
little. The quickenes & pithe of the saiyng resteth in 
the Greke vocable jjuxpov and impaniKpov,* and the- 
same cannot well be expressed in Latine. 

* No nor yet in Englishe neither. Albeit I thinke the saiyng of Socrates, to haue 
this sense and meaning, that to haue made a good beginnyng or entreaunce, is 
not a little, "but a little more, or a degree ferther then a little. That is to saie : as 
good a forthdeale, & auauntage towards thende of the werke, as if agoodporcion 
of tbesame wer alredie finished. For, according to our Englishe Prouerbe, a thing 
well begon, is more then halfe doen. For, who so hath ones made a good begin- 
ning of his werke, shall easily bring thesame to soche ende, and to soche passe 
and efifect as he would doe. As for alludyng vnto Hemdvs (las Erasmus here 
taketh it.) I suppose Socrates meaned nothing so, at lest wise, in this present 
saiyng. For, in Hesiodm is no soche worde as irapa/iucpov. Whiche Erasmus 



interpreteth, luxta pusillum, besides a little, aadvapa/JUKpov, is an aduerbe, sighi- 
fiyng, Fere pome, that is in Englishe : almoste, or welnigh, so that the saiyng of 
Socrates male purporte this sense, and bee thus interpreted, to bee ones entredisnot 
a little begon, but the whole matter welnigh doen. 

95- It was also a lesson of his teaching, that Geo- 

itfrnxTKc Selv metric ought to be studied, vntil a bodie bee 

ycjo/terpciv, sufficiently able, bothe to receiue or take, and 

uCT^oj" ^^^° ^° S^^^ °^t, or deliuer ground by measure. 
Svvyjrai yiju H I suppose he meaned, that men ought not to 

■TapaXaPcLv purchace, "but landes and possessions moderate, whiche 

" """t - it might well stande with a bodies ease and commoditee, 

™^ ^ ' bothe to receiue of his auncestours, and also to leaue to 

What Geome- . '. 

trie Socrates his heu^es. For ouer great possessions of landes, as 

would to be thei be not purchaced ne gotten, without mocha a do, 

labored. ^° *^^^ come to the heires handes not peaceably, nor 

Ouer great without great trauerse. The quickenes & pithe of the 

possessions ar saiynff.consisteth in the Greke wordeYemikTperi' whiche 

incommodious ^ . . .... i rf^ r 

bothe to the m significacion, is mdififerent to the arte of Geometne, 

owner, & to and to meters oflandes, or ground in a feld. (J:!* Yea, 

& also in the Greke worde ixtTpwthat is, by measure. 

Purchace of ^^''i ^^ would mennes purchases not to extende be- 

landes ought yonde the compasse of sufficiencie, but to consist 

to be moderate, ^itjiju the boundes of Mediocritee, whereby he re- 

proued the vnsaciable desire of men, to haue possessions 

infinite. Albeit, this saiyng can not well be expressed, 

to haue any grace in the Englishe toungue. 

96. To a certain persone taking greuously, that he 
In Athenesthe ^as cleane out of regard and estimacion, at what 
was gouerned tyme the thirtie tyrannes had inuaded and vsurpe'd 
by the com- the gouernaunce of the common weale : Why, hast 
^°So'crates ^ thou docn any thing (quoth Socrates) that greueth 
time, 30 tiran- thy consciencc, or repenteth thee? 

nes vsurped & , . . . 1 -n 

tokevpon them H Meanyng that It is not to be taken m the euill 
the regiment, parte, if a man be despised or made an abiect, by vn- 

which tirannes , „ .... ,., ,, 

were after- honest & naughtie disposed feloes : and that no persone 
wardedestroied ought, for any soche cause to mislike hyjnself : but if 

of one ^° '"' ^^ ^^^^ ^°^^ ^°"^^ ^*'^*' trespace, or offence, where- 

Thrasiiulus. fore he should iustlie encurre, the displeasure & indig- 

k naciom 


nacion, bothe of hymself and of other honest menne. of the nomber 
For, to be misliked of euill persones, is a poincte of of those 
high praise and commendacion. tyrauntes were 

When him semed that one saied vnto hym in 97.Charicles, 
his slepe, this verse of the Greke Poete Homerus. is made men- 
i^lMXTi ix,€V rpurdTm ^eirjv^ipL^aXov iKoio. the"2^o°sli" 

On the third daie, nexte after this, of Socrates. 

Come to Phthia, and doe not misse. Socrates knewe 

and saied, that 
he said vnto Aeschines, This daie thre daies shall he should die, 

I bee a dedde man. L^"- vf^inf/^,! 

by a. vision and 

^ Interpret)mg & expouning the verse of Homerus, voice that he 
for an aunswere or declaracion of Gods will and plea- ^ " issepe. 
sure, and the thing came euen so to passe. Phthia % XFUUa a citee 
was a citee in the region of Thessalia, the countree of '" *^ countree 
* Achilles. And the frendes of Socrates did what thei t^e region of 
<:ould to pers'wade vnto h3an, that he should flee into Achilles. 
Thessalia, because he had there many good frendes. ^j^^*^ sonne^of 

Peleus kyng of Thessalia, and of Thetis doughter of Chiron the moste puissaunt 
and valiaunt warrier, that was emong- all die kynges of the Giekes at the bat- 
taill of Troie. 

It was also one of his saiynges. That menne Qg_ 
wer bounden, to be obedient to the lawes of the 
citee or countree : and wiues to the maners and 
facions of their housbandes, that thei line in com- The rewie to 
panie withal. ' ''"^ by for the 

-wifer is her 

^ Thei rule to hue by, and to be ordered by for the husbande, if he 
wife, is the housebande, whiche wife liueth well and ^ obedient to 
vprightly, if her housebande bee obedient, to the lawes pubiike. 
publique of th6 realme. 

He gaue warnyng, that naughtie pleasures of 99* 
the bodie, ought none other wise then the Mer- "^'jj'^a'vertu? 
maides of the sea called Sirenes, to bee passed by, must aiioide 
and eschewed of any persone, that maketh haste J^^J^^^I^^^'I^ 
in his waie toward vertue, as though after a long the bodie, as he 
iourney, had gotten at last a sight of his countree. ^°'^g* ^ ^ 

U He alluded vnto die fable of Vlysses, who stopped the sea. 
his eares with waxe, and by that meanes in saillyng, 



passed awaie by the monstres of the sea, called Sirem 
(in English? Mamjaides) when he had after his retume 
from Troie, ones espied the sinoke of his countree 
Itacha, mountyng into the aire out of the chimneies. 

The poetes fables saien the Sireaes, were these thre, Parthenope, Lygia, & Leucom. 
doughters of the flood Achehms, and of Calliope, one of the nine Muses, and that 
thei had their abidyng in a certain Isle,ibetwene Italie and Sioilie, and by the 
swetenes of their syngyng, thei allured passengers on the sea, and when thei had 
theim, slue them. Wherefore flysses retumyng firom Troie, to Ithaca his countree, 
stopped the eares of all his companie with waxe, and caused hymself to be fast 
bound to the mast of the ship, and so escaped from the Sirenes,, sis Homtrus writeth. 
And the Sirenes for anger and sorowe, that thei war so despised, tumbled hedlong 
into the sea, and doe still lemaine there. 

lOO. When he heard the dialogue of Plato, entitled 
Socrates of an Lysides, readen. Oh lorde in heauen (saieth he) 

humblenesse , i- .1 r .1 

of minde, oow many lies the young man forgeth on me. 
would not ^ Either for that of his humilitie and lowlines, he 

l^dls^and ^ would not knowlege the laudes and praises, which 
praises that J'/afo did attribute vnto hym, or els because h^ feigned 
^h^m""^ many thynges on Soeratef in that dialogue. 

lOi. Unto Aeschines, who was sore oppressed with 
irop' kmnaa pouertee, he vsed to giue warning and auise, that 
Samfeo-^w Ij^ thesaici Aeschiijes should borowp or take vsurie 
ho°i^blndmaie "^^ Ws own Self, arjd moreoqcr shewed the wai^ 
borowe money Jjow, that was, W atatvng of Ws sumptuous fare 

of hymself, to _f !,:„ <._i-,- 

g« aforehand. ^^ ^" tapip. 

Mneimm va^ ^ Accordyflg to the prouerbe : good husbandrie, 

Cood'hoi!^"' and sparyng in an hous, is a great pwie rent pf yerely 

bandrie is a fcuenues. The mogte readie waie tp encrigase a mannes 

greateyerelie jichesse, IS to abate of his charges, (tr And (as ora 

reuenuetoan „ ,. , ' , . ,.„ , '^ .'.■,- 

householder. Englishe Prouerbe saieth) Hous kepyng is a pnme theef. 

102. Beyng asked concerning Archelaus the spnne 

4rcheiaMspe of Perdjcca, who at that season was estemed ^ 

^ verie valiaunt and hardie man, whether he iudged 

hym to bee in perfecte blisse, or not : I can not 

huirf^tare *^^^ (saieth he) I neuer had communjcacion with 

of a man, con- him. And to the Other partie then saiyng. After 

ve,^^ of*e *^* ^"'^ o"" '"^"er, Ye maje aswgl dopbt pf the 

minde and not king of the Persians, whether he be in the stat? 


THE 1. BOOKE. 45 

of perfecte felicitee, or not : Yea, what els (quoth •*> worWUe 
Socrates) forasmoche as I knowe not how well y"^*'" 
learned he is, or how good and how honest he is. 
IT Socrates measured the blissefulnes of a man, by 
the verie true good qualitees and vertues of the mindfe. 
This doeth Cicero reporte and cite in the .5. booke of 
the Tusculane questions, out of the dialogue of Plato, 
entitled Gorpas. 

^ The smynges of 


Ext after the maistar, I thinke most congru- 

ente to set his owne scholare, that was bothe 

in age and time first, and in aucthoritie ^^'■'■PP" ^ 

,.?,,,, , ' . . . . pmlosophier of 

chief of all the Others, that is Anstippus : an excellent 

then whom emong al the PhUosophiers, ther hath not ■"''> ^ °f ^''\- 

been any one, either of a more apt or readie & prompt teerihe^first' 

wit, in conueighaunce or Casting of th3?nges, & more and chief of all 

agreable to all maner states, sortes, or facions of lining, of'sg^'at^ 

or els in his saiyinges more merie conceipted, within the Who taught 

bondes of honestee, or more pleasavmt Albeeit he Ph'losophie for 

, , ' , , , ,• ,. money, as is 

semeth not to haue shewed that holmesse of maners, aforsaid. The 

and behauour in liuyng, whiche all men doe honour disciples & 

and highly esteme in Socrates. A^uppw, wer 
called after his time, Cyrenaiei because he came to Athenes out of that countree. 

Betwene Aristippus and Diogenes the Cynike, !• 

there was tnoche good Cocking, and striuing, ^^^^^"" 

whether of them should win the spurres, and Dwgmes •wa.s 

bearethe bell, because thei wer of twoo sondry, ^°f^^°°d 

and in maner contrary sectes, trades, or profes- .^mulacion. 

sions of liuyng. Diogenes called Aristippus the Aristippus one 

kynges hound because he was a daiely waiter, and "f the Courte 
gaue continually attendaunce in the Courte of ™ 'on!^««« 




the Tyranne of Dloriysius the tyranne of Sicilie, Against whom 
Sicihe. Arlstippus on the other side vsed to saie: If 

The countring 
of AristippiLs 
and Diogenes. 

A drax:hine 
was about the 
sterlyng, or 

Aristippus de- 
spised gold and 

Who so is 
driuen from 
buying, by 
reason of 
the high price, 
setteth not little 
by the thing 
but setteth 
moche by the 

A right Phi- 
losophier des- 
piseth money. 

Diogenes could behaue hymself, to be familiare 
with kinges, and daily about theim, he should not 
jieede to eate rawe or grene herbes. Then Dio: 
genes again countreyng, saied : If Aristippus had 
learned to bee contented with rawe herbes, he 
should not nede to be the kinges hounde. 

When he had on a tyme, commaunded a Per- 
trige to be bought, whiche he might not gette, 
vnder the price of .50. drachmes, that is .i6s. 8d. 
sterling, or there aboute, vnto a certain person de- 
testing and criyng abominacion on soche riotous 
superfluitee or prodigall excesse in a Philoso- 
phier : Why euen thou thy self (quoth Aristippus) 
if the price of a Pertrige were an halfpenie, would- 
est not thou buye of theim .' When he had an- 
swered, Yes : And euen as moche & no more doe 
I set by a merke and fowertie pens (saied Aristip- 
pus) as thou doest by thy halfpenie. 

^ Thesame thing that the other iudged to bee an 
abominable poinct of riot, excesse, and prodigalitee ; 
the Philosophier toumed an other waie, to the laude 
& praise of despisyng money. For, who so is by rear 
son of the costlinesse or high price, feared and driuen 
awaie from buijrng, thesame doth not sette little by the 
meate, but setteth moche by the money. But to the 
estimacion of the Philosophier, no whitte more in 
valour wer .50. drachmes, then to the other feloe an 
halfpenie. Then Aristippus htyag in the desirefulnesse 
of that cates, nothyng worse then the other felowe, in 
the contempte of money, was ferre better. 

When Dionysius had brought forthe before 
hym, three beautifull young damiselles, of light 
conuersacion, biddyng hym to chose" one, whiche 
soeuer he would of the 3 : Aristippus laied hande 

* on 


on theim all, and tooke theim to hym, saiyng : When Eris, 
That Paris of Troie had founde it a thing, not a sJife and^con- 
little to his pein, that of three ladies, he gaue tencion, had 
preeminence to one, before the other twaine. the taWe (wLct 

^ And so he brought theim all three vnto the courte ^ ** S°^' 
gates, and there tooke his leaue of theim, and sufifred a banquet 
them to depart, no lesse gentle, quicke and readie in assembled) a 
abandonyng, then he had been afore embracyng. wUh^diis^poise 

written or engrauen about it. Bee this giuen to the fairest. luno, Pallas, and 
fenus, all three claimed to haue the saied aple. After moche striuyng in presence 
and compaignie of all the Goddes. In fine, lupiter sent Mercurius with the 
same three goddesses and the aple, vnto Paris the sonne of Priamus, then kynge 
of Troie, who adiudged the aple vnto Venus, whiche Verms promised hym in 
rewarde, that he should haue the fairest ladie, that was on the yearth, of all mortall 
creatures, and that was Helena, the wife of Menelaus, then kyng of Lacedeamon, 
whom thesaied Paris stole from her housebande, and conueighed to Troie. And 
for her begon the battaill of Troie, whereof ensued not onely the vtter destruc- 
cion, exterminacion, and death of hym, and of all his blood, but also the subuer- 
sion and desolacion of the noble citee of Troie, whiche the Grekes burned, not 
leuyng so moche as one hous standyng. 

Strato, or after other writers, Plato, said to 4. 
Aristippus : Vnto thee onely is this gifte giuen, to To Anstippus 
weare bothe the shorte or cutted cape, of a ga- geuMiTws 
launte and ruffleyng courtier (whiche was called gift » bee 
Chlamys) and also the side robe or cope of gaiaunte cour- 
homely & course clothe, soche as the beggerie tier, and also 
Philosophiers, and none els vsen to weare. Phufs^hier. 

^ Thesame thyng did the Poete Iforadus note, 
when he saied. 

Omnis Aristippum decuit color. 

All colours, and facions of araie 
Became onely Aristippus, alwaie. 

In the Courte of Dionysius, he would daunce in purple Aristippus 
and crimasin silkes or veluettes, and somtymes he euermorecon- 

. J sidered and 

would weare a course pilche, mantle, or cope doune to remembred 
the foote, but yet euermore hauyng in mynde, what, honestee and 
when, and how, beste became hym, and to doe neither '^ ""^ '"esse, 
of these thinges other wise then might stand with hon- 
estee, comelinesse, and good facion. 

Beyng all beraied in the face, with the spetting of 5 • 




paciently to be 
spitten vpon, 
so that he 
might win 
Dionysius, to 
thestudie of 

No small 
vtilitee groweth 
to common 
weales by the 
sapience of 
lemed princes. 


The fruicte of 
Philosophie is 
that a man 
shal speake 
plainlie as 
lieth in his 

feared no man, 
nor disdeined 
any peisone. 


loued gaie 
apparell and 
good fare. 
Whether in 
gaie clothing 
& in deintee 
fare be any 

Dionysius, he tooke it verie paciently, and to them 
that fumed at the spiteful! touche, thus he saied. 
The fisher men, to take a little Gougeon, doe 
abide to bee all embrued with the foule salte 
water of the Sea : and should not I, to take a 
greate Whale be contented, to be sprincled with 
a little spettle of ones mouth ? 

^ By the name of a Whale, notyng the kyng, whom 
he did all that in hym laie, with his pacience to allure 
vnto the studie of Philosophie. And m deede no 
small vtilitee and benefite it is, that groweth to common 
weales, by the sapience and high knowlege of learned 

Beyng asked what fruicte he had receiued, of 
the studie of Philosophie : Marie (quotih he) that 
I can to all persones whatsouer thei bee talke 
boldely, franklie, and plainly as lieth in my 

^ For, neither did he fear men of power and auc- 
thoritee, nor disdein inferiour persons of lowe degree 
forasmoche as he had a minde free, and clere voide, 
aswell from hope, as from feare, he was no mannes dog- 
bolte, ne in any mannes bondage, nor helde vp the 
yea and naie of any persone, contrary to that he thought 
in his owne harte. 

When certain persones did by the waie of re- 
proche, caste in his teeth, that he lined gentleman- 
like, and passyng deintily, beyng one that pro- 
fessed Philosophie : If that wer a vice (saieth he) 
it should in nowise be doen, in the sokmne 
feastes of the goddes. 

^ For in thesame solemnitees, men vsen of a cus- 
tome, bothe to be gaily and trimmely apparelled, and 
also to haue the moste deintee fare, that can bee gotten 
or dressed. And forasmoche as the Goddes, been 
earneste enemies to all vices, thei wuld not be appeaced, 
but rather stired to wrath and angre, by soche maner 



roialtee, if thesame conteined any spice of sinne or 
viciousnesse. Thus indeede he auoided & clene de- 
feacted the contumelious checke, but he did not shewe 
what was best. 

Unto Dionysius demaunding of him, what high g. 
thing was in the Philosophers, more then in other PhiiosoWers 
men, he said : That if all lawes wer anulled & S^°"gh"Si\r'' 
fordoen, yet would we Hue still, after one maner wer no lawes. 

^ The moste parte of people, is barred from of- To a Philoso- 
fendyng, onehe by prescripcions of lawes, but a Philo- jf ^ l'awr°" 
sophier accompteth and vseth reason in stede of lawes : 
not dooyng that is vpright and honeste, because the 
Lawe hath so commaunded, nor refreinyng fro deedes 
of mischief, because the lawe hath forbidden thesame : 
but for that he knoweth the one, to be of it self vpright 
and honest, and the other of it self, to be abhominable. 

Aristipptis and Plato bothe of them were 9. 
awaiters in the court with Dionisius. But Aris- ^'a«o and 
tippus absteined not from the pleasures of the bo7h w^Tn' 
cOurte, when . thei came in his waie. Plato euen <^^^te with 
in the middes of all superfluitees, and excesse of 
the courte, endeuoured to kepe a sobfe trade in 
all behalfes. Therfore, when Plato checked and 
rebuked Aristippus, for that he was so swete 
mouthed and drouned in the voluptuousnes of 
high fare, he asked of Plato, what he thought of 
Dionysius, whether he semed to bee an honest ^^^^^ j^ ^^^ 
man, or not. When he had answered, that he thing to the 
semed to be honest : & yet he (quoth Aristippus) t^at a mkn"' 
liueth moche more delicately then I dooe. may Hue 

^ Therefore nothyng letteth, but that a man bothe good^fare,"and 
male liue, takyng his part of good fare, and also liue yet Hue verte- 
well and vertuously. °"^ "^" 

Unto Dionysius demaundyng how it chaunced, xo. 
that the Philosophiers did frette and weare the Why Phiioso- 

4 thresholdes 


phiers haunt thresholdes of riche mennes houses, and not con- 
house^^r trariwise, he saied : Because the Philosophiets doe 

not contrari- knowe what thei wante, and the riche men knowe 


Without monie ^ The Philosophiers do know, that without money, 

liSngf "° there is no liuyng, & therefore thei drawe to soche 

persones, as been able to giue them that thei haue 

nede of. That if the riche men, did Uke well vnder- 

stande and perceiue, that thei lacke and nede wisedome, 

thei would moche more haunt and trede the doores of 

the Philosophiers houses. For^ more miserable is the 

pouertee of the minde & soule, then of the bodie. 

at)iris"thr" ^^ s° moche the more pieteously beggered, and with 

pouertee of the extremitee of nede oppressed are the riche men : that 

minde, then of jj^gj ^j^g j^qj ynderstande, of how precious and how 

the bodie. . , , . , , . 

necessane a thyng thei be destitute. 

1 1, Being asked in what point the learned dfffred 
What differ- from the vnleamcd : In thesame point (saith he) 
betwen the that horses Well brokeny doe differ from the vn- 
leamed & the broken. 

vnlearned. „ . , < , . , , . 

^ As an horse not yet broken, is by reason of ig- 

As an vnbro- noraunce what he should doe, and of skittishenesse, 

ken horse is nothing apt, but all vntoward for any vse or seniice to 

any''seruice° so ^^ P^*- ^^^° " ^° ^^ ^^^^ ^^ forceably rewled, or violently 
thei that bee led led with afFeccions, that is to saie : with the cormpte 
by affeccions, mocions and sodaine pangues or passions of the mynde 
for all com- (whiche pangues and affeccions or passions, nothyng 
paignies & but onely PhilosopWe, rnaistreth and subdueth) is vnapt 
so eso luyng gnd vnmete for all compaignies and facions, or sortes 
of liuyng. 

1 2. When he resorted on a tymcy to a paramours 
hous of his, he perceiued one of the young menne 
that were there presente, to blushe as read as fire, 
as though it was a foule shame for a Philosophier, 
to sette his foote in to any hous, where bauderie 
were kept : to hym Aristippus turned, and saied; 


THE I. BOOKE. 5 1 

Young man, to entre into soche a place as this, is 
no shame at al, but not to be able to go out again 
in deede that is a foule shame. 

^ He meaned that it is but a veniall and a pardon- 
able matter, if a man dooe moderately vse the companie 
of women, not ofFendyng the lawe. But to be a thing 
worthie no perdone or forgiuenesse, if one be as a 
bondseraaunt, vnder the continual yoke of filthie plea- 
sures of the body. This saiyng might in that worlde That excuse 
be well taken, when no temporall lawe, nor ciuile ordi- °^ ^'°"^' ^^^ 

,.,.,., . . , ■ , , may seerae to 

naunce did forbid men to companie with harlottes : but seme a Gentile, 
now beside the wittines of makyng a readie excuse of ™aie not serue 
his sinne, there is in it nothyng worthie laude or praise, ^^n."^ '*" 
g:^ And it was the saiyng of a corrupt Gentile, to whom 
the lawe of God was no parte of his profession, and 
not of a christian manne. 

To a certain person that had propouned an 13- 
harde reedle, and was verie earneste to haue hym 
soile thesame, he said : What thou foolishe felowe, ^''^^^ '^°^'"- 
wouldest thou haue me to looCe that thyng, 
whiche euen beyng faste bounden, setteth vs all 
werke enough to do ? 

^ He found a mery toie in the ambiguite, of the 
worde loocyng, for the Greke worde, Xvav and Latine 
woorde soltiere (whjche souneth in Englishe to looce, or 
to vnbinde) is indifferent to soilyng a" doubtefuU ques- 
tion, and to loocyng a man or a beaste, that is faste 
bounden. And in deede it wer a foolishe pranke, to 
vnbind & looce a madde manne, or a perillbus beast, 
whiche beyng looced would doe the more scathe and 

It was a saiyng of his that moche better it is 14' 

to be a begger, then to be a man without learning, be^^^lggCT 

for that the one wanteth onely money, and the then a manne 

other lacketh al pointes to a man belongyng. ^^^^J^^""* •="■ 

^ He is neuerthelesse a man that hath no money, 




Soche persons 
as lacke wise- 
dome will not 
seeke it. 


beeyng rallied 
at went his 
waie and gaue 
not a worde 
again to aun- 

To giue place 
to a railler. 

1 6. 

haunten the 
houses of the 
riche men, as 
doen the houses 
of sicke folkes. 

Sapience is 
definedlo bee 
the knowledge 
of thinges per- 
teining to God 

but he is no man, that hath no maner knowlege nor 
leamyng. And yet he that wanteth money, beggeth of 
soche persones, as he meteth withall, but he that lacketh 
wisedome, is nothyng buisie in askyng any man to haue 
it on hym. 

When he had many despiteous woordes giuen 
him of a certaine feloe, he wente his waies, and 
answered not so moche as one worde : but when 
the railler, the faster that he wente awaie, came 
still the faster after him, saiyng : Why rennest 
thou awaie ? Mary (saith he) bicause thou hast 
power to speak railyng woordes, and I to choose 
whether I will heare them or not. 

^ He did with a verie curste taunt, checke and re- 
buke the shameles facion of the felowe, whiche whereas 
hymself tooke vpon hym free libertie and aucthoritie, 
to speake all that euer naught was, wduld not graunt to 
an other at lestwise so moche libertie, as to conueigh 
hymself out of presence, & to leaue hearyng eiuill. 
For this voice. Why rennest thou awaie ? was, as it had 
been of a maime, laiyng to ones chgrge, and makyng 
a querele for some iniurie or shrewed tourne doen vnto 

A certaine persone of rancour, malice, and 
greate hatered speaking against Philosophiers, the 
worst wordes that he had in his bealie, emong 
other thinges saied also, that he might espie and 
se theim euermore awaityng, & as it wer laiyng 
siege at riche mennes gates. To whom Aristip- 
pus said : And the Phisicians to be continuall 
resorters to the houses of sicke folkes, and yet is 
there no man that would rather choose to bee the 
sickeman, then t6 be the Phisician. 

1[ He did finely and subtilly toume the checke to 
a contrary pmrpose. The Philosophiers make moche 
preachyng of felicitee and perfecte blisse, whiche 
thei doe wholly reserue and aduouche to belong to a 



man of a perfecte sa;pience onely, and to none other, * man, or of 

and yet thei be daily and howerly conuersaunt in riche and world"'"^ 

mennes houses, proUyng for somewhat at their handes, which thei that 

whereby thefeloe gathered, that the riche men are in had gotten wer 

a more blissefull state, then the PhUosophiers. But to, that is men 

Aristippus interpreted and declared the Philosophiers of perfecte 

chiefly for this entent and purpose, to be continual re- t "e°& hmestle" 

sorters vnto lichemen, because thesame beyng thorowe For of right 

superfluitie or excesse, and through delicious pleasures ^nowlege con- 

'^ ' ° ^ sequenthe en- 

more foolishe, and more corrupte then any other huyng sueth honestee 
creatures, had more nede of the preceptes and holsome ?f ^*- 

, . . , , « ■, niche men are 

lessons of sapience, then any other persones. And a through ex- 
Philosophier is the Phisician of mindes and soules dis- cesse and deli- 
eased. And to conclude more nere the state of bhsse, morefooUshe&' 
it is to be the Phisician, then to be the sicke man : ergo, more corrupte 
^Q then any others 

A philosophier is the Phisician of mindes diseased. 

On a time when he was in a Ship, sailyng to- 1 7. 
wardes the citee of Corinthus, and a tempest be- Aristippus be- 
yng sodainly arisen, made them euery minute of djf of deat""' 
an hower, to looke when the Ship should sinke feared & 
and be drouned, Aristippus weaxed wanne of ^^^^ P 
colour, and pale as, ashes for feare. One of the 
passingers, a grosse carle, and soldiarlike feloe, 
and one that loued no Philosophiers, espiyng and 
markyng thesame, as sone as the tempeste was 
laied again, begun proudely to cocke and crowe, 
saiyng: Why do ye Philosophiers, whiche are 
euer preachyng & teaching that death is not to 
be feared, yet neuerthelesse loke with pale faces, 
by reason of fear in tyme of perill and ieoperdie, 
and we beyng men vnlearned, are in no feare at A great difFer- 
all ? Aristippus answered : Mary bicause thou & ^e sof oTT^ 
I doe carke & feare, for a soule or life of vn- PhUosophier, 

, , , and of a ver- 

eguall valour. lette. 

H Aultis Gel/ius addeih this to it, I feare perishyng 
of the life of Aristippus, and thou fearest not lesyng the 




We feare not 
harme taking 
of thinges of 
small valour. 

* Hydria in 
fmilms, A 

life of a knaue : which wordes yet for al that, be more 
fall of galle, then to be conuenient for ArisHppus, 
whose vrbanitie and merie conceipted wordes, are not 
of so poynaunte a sorte. We feare not the harme 
takyng of thynges of verie small valour, whereof 
Cometh the Latin Prouerbe, Hydria in Foribus. * A 
stene or a canne in the doore. For this respect Aris- 
tippus found a merytoie, that the other feloe chaunged 
not colour : not for that he was of a better stomacke and 
courage or of more hardinesse in time of perill, but 

in the doore, 
is a prouerbe, 
by whiche 
Aristoteles and 
other aunciente 
writers, vsed 
to signifie a 

stene or a can because forasmoche as he was a feloe of no price, but 
a villaine and a rascall, and had a minde or soule, clere 
void of all vertue, it should haue been a small losse or 
none at all, if he had turned vp his heeles and perished. 
A man of profounde leamyng, and highly endued with 
sapience, perisheth not, but to the sore losse and dam- 

tliffZ 7^1 "^^ge of the common weale. 

valour that no manne would attempt to purloine or steale, or if any did, there 
wer no greate losse in it, forasmoche as an other of like sort, might be euery where 
gotten for an half penie or lesse monie. And because it wai a thing of so small 
price, if an yearthen pot stoode in a bodies doore, no thefe or false knaue, would 
stoope to take it vp, nor set his minde to conueigh it awaie. But ouches and 
pearles with other like thinges dooen soche feloes studie how to come by. As Ibr 
a pitchaer euery bodie male without any feare of stealing, sette (if him please) in 
the open strete. So writeth Pbitarckus, that the Briers, whiche by them selfes will 
catche & take bolde on eche bodies goune euery man neglecteth and passeth by, 
but Vines and Oliues, no man but desireth & will seke for, Seneca also in bis 
Epistles, writeth in this maner. Many persones dooe passe by thinges that lien 
open, but for thinges liyng hidden in secrete comers, thei will make narrow serch. 
Thinges curiouslie and surely sealed, or faste locked vp, doe sale to a thefe, come 
steale me. It semeth not worthie taking vp from the ground whatsoeuer lieth 
abrode. And thinges liyng open, a breaker of houses will not soile his handcs 
withall t but to breake into secrete comers, is sette all his minde and desire. 

1 8. 

Variette of ler- 
ning ^nd rea- 
ding, diuerse 

To a certain persone making his vaunt, that 
he had very good sight in sondrie facultees or 
disciplines (as though he had learned, all that 
might bee learned) Aristippus said : Like as, not 
those persones that eaten moste meate, and dooe 
by good digestion voide thesame again, be in 
better health of bodie, then soche as take that is 
sufficient and no more : euen so, not thei that 
haue had most varietee of reading, but soche as 



haue read thinges profitable, are to be accompted bookes maketh 

, , , . , /- .1 not a learned 

good studentes, and men of learnyng. manne. 

IT He gaue a vengeable checke to those persones, 
who with trobleous or inordinate, and vnmeasurable 
reading, porre their throtes and bealies thrastyng full, 
and doe not conueigh vnto the botome of the minde or 
harte, soche thynges as thei read to line therafter, but 
doe onely laie it vp and couche it in the memorie, by 
reason whereof in the ende, thei bee neither any thyng 
encreased, or ferthered in cunnyng, nor yet any thing 
emended, or bettered in their liuyng. 

A certain orator had in a court of iusttce, made 1 9. 
a plea in the defence of Aristippus, beyng there 
personally arained, and preuailled in the matter 
of trauerse. And when thesame oratour, as 
auauncyng his art of Rhetorike abouePhilosophie, 
saied What good hath Socrates doen thee O Aris- 
tippus ? This profite haue I gotten by Socrates Philosophie is 
(saied he again) that the Oracion, whiche thou 5^„™°^? *^^^^" 
hast made in my defense and commendacion, then rhetorike. 
hath been true. 

^ The oratour had defaided hyra, as beyng a right 
honest man, and innocent in the matter that was laid 
to his charge. And, that euer he was a man of soche 
sort, as he was by the oratour reported for, had been 
the act of onely Socrates, whose scholare he was in 
Philosophie. It is no part of an orators plaie, to 
make that a man be of perfect honestie and vertue, 
but that he male appere to the iudges to bee soche an 
one, although in verie deede he be not so. Then a 
thing of moche more exceUencie it is, that the philoso- 
phier doeth performe, then that the orator can do. 

His doughter, beeyng named Areta, he brought 20. 
vp and enstructed with holsome doctrine, and ^^eta die 
preiceptes of vertue, accustoming her in ai cases, 2^ti^p^. 
to refuse and renounce whatsoeuer passed the Measure is in 
boundes of mediocritee. treiurf ^ ^ 




The chief ver- fi Because in euery thing measure is chief and 

man? ^ ^°' principall, & in a woman it is a point of most high 
vertue, to rewle the sensuall lustes & appetites. 


What auaun- 
tage children 
getten by go- 
yng to schole. 

The facion of 
stage plaies in 
old tyme. 

A persone void 
of learning 
and sufficient 
vtteraunce, diif- 
freth nothing 
from a stone. 


The peines of 
teachyng, is 
worthie greate 

Moste parte of 
men giue more 
wages to their 
horse kepers, 
then to the 
good bringers 
vp of their 
children in 

To a certaine persone demaundyng in what be- 
half his Sonne should at length bee the better, if 
he should bestowe the labour and coste, to set 
him to schoole: Though nothing els (saied he) yet 
at leste wise at Maie games and open sightes, 
there shall not one stone set his taile vpon an 

^ In old time the places, where open sightes and 
shewes of games were exhibited, were made circlewise 
round about wjth settles or benches of Marble, staier 
wise one aboue an other on which the people sat and 
beheld the games and sightes. And a stone, thei com- 
monly called grf" (Euen as we also do) a feloe that had 
neither leamyag, nor good vtteraunce of tongue. 

A certain man was in hande with Aristippus, 
to take his sonne to schoole to hym, but when 
the Philosophier required in reward for his peines 
of teaching, 500. drachmes ( g^ whiche was about 
the sume of eight pounds sterling.) The other partie 
being clene discouraged, with the greatnesse of the 
price, saied : For lesse money, or better cheap then 
so, might I buie a bondman, that should doe me 
tall and hable seruice: But here now (quoth 
Aristippus) thou shalt haue twain. 

^ His mening was, that with thesame summe of 
money, which was to be paied for one bondman, he 
should purchase bothe a Philosophier, that should stand 
him in good steed, and also a sonne obedient to his 
father. He did feactly checke the iudgemente of the 
common people^ who in no behalf are greater haines 
and niggardes of their purse, then in prouidyng to haue 
their children, well and vertuously brought vp in leam- 
yng and maners, and doe bestowe more cost on kepyng 



or dressyng their horses, then on the good guidyng and leamyng and 
orderyng of their sonnes and doughters. venue. 

Being reproued for that he was a taker of 23. 
money of his frendes, he said, that he did not take ^'^^ ^ruup- 

■' pits tokemonej 

any soche money, to thentent and purpose, to of riche folkes. 
conuerte it to his owne vse and commoditee, but 
that thei might leame vpon what things money T*'^ "^"^ ^^ 
ought to be bestowed. money. 

H For, the moste part of riche folkes casteth awaie 
their money, either vpon-horses, or on buisie and sump- 
tuous buildynges, or els other riottous waies : whereas 
it ought to be giuen in almes to good and honest men, 
if thesame be in nede. Yea, and a manne male an 
other waie also vnderstand and applie this saiyng. 
Aristippus did not spend any money, but on thinges Aristippus did 
for his liuyng necessarie, and therefore he toke rewardes ■«" spende mo- 
of richemen, to declare plainly vnto thesame, the right JhEige^'^eras- 
waie to apply it to good vses, and that could he not sane, 
do, onelesse thei had founde vnto his handes, wher- 
withal to doe it : as he that hath an earnest desire to 
learne the feacte of writyng, findeth and deliuereth 
paper, penne and ynke, to the partie that shall teache 

To a feloe laiyng vnto him, in the waie of re- 24. 
proche, that in a cause to his own persone ap- 
perteinyng, he had with money hired the help of 
an oratour, to plead for him at the barre, he saied : 
Why, thati«is not so greate a wonder, for when I 
would haue any Supper dressed too, I hier a 

^ The other parties minde was, that it should ap- A philosophier 
pere, the Oratour to bee of more excellencie or dignitie exreUencir^d 
then the Philosophier, for this poincte, because the dignitee, then 
Philosophier gaue money to haue his helpe, and he ^" Oratour. 
turned it cleane contrary, notifiyng him to be the in- 
feriour, and of lesse dignitee, that is hiered. For the 
office of an oratour, or a man of Lawe, is of a more 
base sorte, then to become a Philosophier. He 


25. He was on a tyme bidden this and that to 
talke out of his bookes of Philosophic. And 
when Dionysius wondrous earnestly and in- 
stauntely required hym thereunto, beyng at that 
time verie euill willing and lothe to media, he 
saied : It is a fonde and a mad thing, if ye desire 
me somwhat to saie in Pbilososphie, and yet your 
self wil teach me, and apppinct when my moste 
oportunitee and occasion is to speake. 
The Philoso- ^ jje meajtied that one of the chief poinctes, to a 

knoweth'when Philosophier belongyng, is euen this, to knowe what 
to speake, and times it is moste meete to speake, and when not to 
when not. speake. But he that maketh request to heare any one 
thjmg or other, out of Philosophic, declareth that he 
would leame Philosophie of the Philosophier. On the 
other side againe, he that would constrain a man to 
speake, whether he be disposed or no, sembleth and 
pretendeth to bee maister or superiour in leamyng, 
to the Philosophier self, in that he taketh vpon him, 
to haue better knowlege of the due and conuenient 
time when to speake then the very Philosophier in 

The king beyng for this aunswere of Aristippus 

^acrmakedi "^ ^" ^^S^ '^"'"^ commaunded hym to sit in the 

the man of lowcst place of all, at the table. Aristippus in 

but of th^ wor- ^^^^ ^^^ nothyng discontented, saied in this 

thinesseofthe maner : Sir king it is your pleasure (I perceiue) 

honoure grow! to nobilitatc this place, and to make it honour- 

ethto the place, able. 

% Signifiyng not the place to make the man of lesse 
dignitee, but of the worthines and honestie of the per- 
sone, moche honour to redounde and growe vnto the 

26. A certain feloe standing highly well in his owa 

conceipt, for his cunnyng in swimming, Aristip- 

it is a fooiishe pus could not abide. And art thou not ashamed, 



said he, with soche a saucie and presumpteous *'"S *°^ * 

, , •!<•<■» 1 ».» man to bost 

braggue, to bost thy self of those thinges, whiche himself, of 
been naturall propertees of the dolphin fishes. soche feactes 

'■ '^ ^ as other 

^ It had been more pretie & feact, if he had saied, thinges can of 

of frogues. It is comely for a man, to glorie and '^o"e^e"dooe 
braggue of soche thinges, as bee naturall for a man beter then he. 
onely to doe. And nothyng is more agreable with the 
nature of man, then to excelle in reason, wisedome, 
and discrecion. There is no man so expert a swim- 
mer, but that in this feacte & qualitee, he is ferre 
passed and ouercomed of the Dolphin fishes. 

The Dolphin fishes haue a propertee to swimme aboue the water, and thei are 
delited in the melodious armonie of musicall instmmentes. Thei beare notable 
loue towardes man, in so moche that diners of them haue caried children aboute, 
and ouer the sea dailie of course and custome, as we read in Cicero, in Plinius, in 
Aulus Gellius. and in other writers. 

Beyng asked in what thing a manne of perfect 27. 
sapience, differed from a man voide of all learnyng 
and knowlege. Sende one of either sorte naked, 
saied he,vnto menne vnknowen, and thou shalt see. 

^ He signified that a man indued with sapience, 
carrieth about with him, wherwith to commende him- 
self, and to be welcome vnto al maner persones in the 
worlde. If therefore ye should sende a leamed man 
and a persone vnleamed, either of them as naked as 
euer thei wer borne, into a straunge countrie, where What diffrence 
neither of theim bothe haue any acquaintaunce : the ^fe^e^^J^an 
sapiente man vtteiyng and shewyng foorthe, the trea- and a persone 
sures of his high knowlege and cminyng, should anone ™leamed. 
finde and get bothe money and firendes, the other not 
hauyng a raggue to hang about him, should be skomed 
and laughed at, a^ a lacke of Bethleem, and should 
hardly escape to perishe and dye for hounger. 

To a feloe making his bost, that he could drinke 28. 
moche, & yet not bee drunken : What wonder fs Boste of drink- 
it thou talkest of, said Aristippus, sens that euery 
mule & horse doth thesame. 

A certain 


29. A certain persone laied vnto the charge of 
Aristippus as a vice, that he kept company with a 
common stroumpet. Whom he confuted with an 
induccion, soche as Socrates commonly vsed, in 
maner as foloweth : Go to, tel me this, doest thou 
thinke it to make any matter, whether a bodie 
take an hous, which many haue inhabited, or els 
an hous whiche no manne.hath afore dwelled in ? 
When he had said that it made no matter : What 
saied Aristippus, doeth it any thyng force, whe- 
ther one be a passinger, and doe saile in a shippe, 
that hath carried a greate nomber aforetymes, or 
els in a shippe that hath caried none ? When he 
had, saied naie to that also : What matter of force 
is it then (quoth he) whether a man haue to dooe 
with a woman, that hath bestowed herself on 
many sondrie persones afore, or els vpon none at 
all ? 

^ This saiyng also might be (as a thing merily 
spoken) accepted emong them, in whose opinion, sim- 
ple fomication was not rekened for a sin. 

,Q_ When he was taken vp, and reproched of a 
feloe, because that being the disciple of Socrates, 
he was (contrarie to the vsage of Socrates) a taker 
of money for his teaching, of Philosophie; I doe 
that (quoth he) not without good cause why. For 
yihy Ansttp- vnto my Maister Socrates, a greate nomber of 
^u* was a taker riche and welthie frendes, did sende bothe Wheate 

of money, for , . , , . 

teachyng Phi- and Wmc, of the whiche, his maner was to re- 
losophie, more ggrue a small porcion for his necessary occupiyngj 
was. and the residue to sende backe againe. In deede 

he had to his stewardes, the greatest gentlemen 
of all the Atheniens and I haue none other stew- 
Eutychides the ard, but mync owne bondseruaunt Eutychides, 
A^7p^l whom I bought with my money. 

U He notified that he did set euen as little by 


THE I. BOOKE. 6 1 

money, as did Socrates, but that Socrates had frendes 

of more bountie. By this colour might some persones The excuse of 

excuse them selues, euen now of daies, professyns some persones, 

' "^ . that in wordes 

outwardly m wordes, excedyng greate contempte of professen con- 
golde and siluer, whereas thei haue right good store of t^""?' °f ™^^Y 
money liyng in the handes and custodie of their frendes, money enough 
that foreniers, thei had bounteous stewardes and proc- liyng in store 
tours, for all their necessarie store of food & viandrie, '" *?*. ''^"''^f 

' . ' of their frends. 

but that now thei should make ful many an hungry 
mele, if thei had not a good summe of money in one 
place or other laied vp in store. 

The reporte goeth that Aristippus was a cus- 3 1 . 
tomer of one Lais, a very notable misliuing AHstipfus a 

T7 1.--U ii. ■L. rij customer of 

woman. For whiche matter, wheras he had a iais the harlot, 
verie eiuill name abrode among. al the people, to ^«" was a 
a feloe obiecting vnto hym that beyng a Philoso- lingTn Co-^^ ' 
phier, he was at the becke and commaundement rivxhe, vnto 
of Lais. Naie Mary (quoth he) Lais is at my excellent beutie 
commaundement and not I at the commaunde- resorted many 

. /. T • rich louers out 

mentofLaiS. of al parteis of 

U Sienifiyng that it was no matter of dishonestee, *® countree of 

? , , , ... , ' Grece, but no 

now and then to take pleasure : whiche at that season manne had his 

was thought lawfiill, but to bee as a bondman, and to pleasure on her 

be wholly giuen thereunto, worthie to be rekened in the herown afk-"* 

nomber of things shamefiiU and abominable. ingwhichewas 

verie greate. 

At an other season, to a feloe laiyng to his re- 32. 

buke, that he was ouer deintie of his mouthe and 

diete, he did with this reason giue a stopping 

oistre. Coldest not thy self (quoth he) finde in 

thy harte, to buie of thesame kind of meates or 

dishes that. I doe, if thou mightest haue theim for 

a dandiprat ? And when he, that would nedes 

shewe himself to bee a despiser of all delicates, 

had therevnto aunswered. Yes : Then doe not I, tende'the^con-' 

saied Aristippus, so earnestlie minde or tender tempte of deli- 
I.. .1 J , . cates, would 

sensualitee, as thou doest auarice. fa^ of t^e best 



if thei might of ^ For, he would fain haue vsed as delicate fare as 

a littirmonw' ^^^^PP'^h if it would haue come of free coste, or for a 
verie little money. In thesame wise doen certain na- 

The Germains cions laie vnto the Germains quafifyng, and to the 

are noted of Englishe men, gourmaundyng and eating while the 

mi'd then" '"^ bealie will hold, whereas there bee no greater raueneis 

gUsheraen of or gluttons in the worlde, then themselfes, if at any 

moche eatyng. ^^^^ ^^^^ chaunce doe fall, that thei maie of free 

„ ^ coste eate and drinke their fiUe. Then more couet- 

Couetuousnes , . , 

oft times begi- ous afc those naaons, and not more temperate or sober 
leth the bealie. of diet. Verie moche like vnto this, it is : that I 

shewed of the pertrige afore, in the second saiyng of 

thissame Aristtppus. 
- , The receiuer generall and treasourer vnto Dio- 
Sim.usias.K- nysius, named Simus, a Phrygian borne, shewed 
ceiuer generall y^to Aristiopus his mainof place, beinsr in euerv 

3J1Q trcflsorcr ■»■■»■ * ' o j 

to Dianynus. comer veric neat and clene, yea, euen the very 

floore couered and checkerwise sette, throughout 

with square pauyng stones of greate price. Aris- 

tippus, virhen he had well looked about, and vewed 

ArisUppus euery thing, voided the spetle of his mouth euen 

euill fauoured full in the beard of Simus : and to thesame Simus 

face of Simvs. highly fuming at the matter, he excused hym 

self by this colour, that he could espie no place 

ne thyng in all the whole hous, more meete to 

receiue the filthie dreiuill or spattreyng of the 


The face ought ^ Notyng thereby, that in the whole hous, there 

to be themoste ^^g nothyng more lothsome to beholde, or more vn- 

partes of the cleane, then the face of that barbarous felowe, whereas 

bodie. that part of a manne ought to be moste cleane of al. 

Albeit this saiyng is more like to bee of some Cynike 

then of Aristtppus, how so euer it is fathered on hym. 

34. Being on a time delited with a notable, swete 
smel, that was about a delicate feloe,thus he saied, 
Now a mischief on the hartes of these naughtie & 
wretched muttonmungers, that haue brought 



soche a singulare good thing as this, in slaunder Many good 

p • r . thinges be re- 

& inlamie. iected through 

^ Menyng, that a greate nomber of thinges of them- the faulte of 
selfes good, be abandoned and reiected from honeste ys^^l^thesame 
mennes occupiyng, through the faulte of other leude naughtelie. 
persones, who putte thesame thinges to euill vses. 

Beyng asked the question, How Socrates ended 35. 
his life : Euen so as I would wish to doe, saieth ^ristippm 

- wished to die 

"^' no wurse then 

^ Meanyng that soche diyng is rather to bee SocrateshaA 
wished for, then any kinde of life in this transitorie ^°°^^- 
worlde. Neither was it possible for him in few wordes. 
to describe a more bUssed maner of diyng. The pith 
of the saiyng consisteth in this poinct, that the Philoso- 
phier aunswered an other thyng, then the demaunder 
looked for. The one asked his question of the kinde It forceth not 
of death, that is, whether he had died of some sicke- death we haue 
nesse,of a sweard, by poisone,or by breakyng his necke, so we dye ver- 
by reason of some fal from an highplace : the other ^^^^Ls made 
thinking that matter to be of smal force aunswered a blissed ende. 
that he had made a blissed, a perfecte, and a vertuous 

Polysenus the Sophiste, beyng entered into the -g 
hous of Aristippus, when he espied there, women PoUamus a 
gorgeouslie apparelled, and a feast of high pro- Sophiste. 
uision and furniture, begon to reproue soche 
greate excesse in a Philosophier. Aristippus 
making as though he had not marked that chi- ^ou^den^r 
ding, within a while said vnto him: Maieyefinde fare&deiicates 
in your harte, to take peines at diner here with vs fn'^ieifhaitel 
for this ones ? When the other had answered, to take parte 
that he could be contented so to do with all his °^*^ ^^'"^• 
harte r Why finde ye fault at it then, quoth' he ? 
For ye seeme not to reproue the table for the 
dentie fare, but for the coste. 

^ For, if the feast had for this poincte misliked xo allow the 
him, that it was ouer delicate he would haue refused fare, and to bee 




offended with 
the cost of the 
same, argueth 
not a man so- 
bre of aiete, 
but lothe to 
spend money. 


Arialippus a 
despyset of 
golde and 


caste his 
golde into the 

Better that 
money bee 
caste away by 
a. man, then a 
man to be 
caste awaie 
for moneis 


Why Aristip- 
pus lefte 
Socrates & 
went into 

to be one of the geastes. And as for the ordinaunce 
to allowe, and with the charges of thesame to be offen- 
ded or discontented, semeth to bee apoinct, notofone 
that abhorreth excesse of meat and drinke, but of a 
niggarde, and of one that is lothe to spende any money. 

It is vneth beleueable that Bion reporteth of 
hym, when his seruaunte bearyng money of his, 
as hetrauailled in a iournie was ouercharged with 
the heauie burden of thesame, he said cast away 
the ouerplus and carrie that thou maiest with thin 

Trauaillyng by sea on a certain tyme, after 
that he had due knowledge, that the shippe be- 
longed to Pirates and rouers on the sea, he laied 
abrode his golde, and begon to tell it, and anon 
after sodainly let it fall ouer boorde into the sea 
for the nones, and then gaue a greate sigh, sem- 
bleyng that it had fallen out of his hande vna- 
wares, and moche against his wille. 

^ By this ingen or subtile deuise, he found meanes 
to saue his owne life, when the matter and occasion 
why to kille hym, or to trie maisteries with hym for his 
money was ones taken awaie from the Pirates. Some 
writers there bee, that reporten hym to haue spoken 
these wordes also. Better it is that all this geare be 
cast awaie by Aristippus, then Aristippus to perishe, 
and to bee caste awaie for this geares sake. 

Unto Dionysius demaundyng, why Aristippus 
was come into Sicilie, forsaking Socrates, he aun- 
swered : Marie to the ende that of soche thinges 
as I haue I male, giue you parte, and of soche 
thinges as I haue not, to take parte with you. 

If There been that reporten hym in this wise to 
haue answered. When I wanted sapience, I resorted 
vnto Socrates, and now because I want money, I am 
come to your grace. 


^ THE I. BOOKE. 65 

Aristippus vnto Plato chiding with him for 40. 
that he had bought a great deale of fishe for one ■Aristippus 
Diner, he aunswered, that he had bought it all f^tLtiyng 
for an halfpenie. And when Plato had thus said : diuerse cates at 
Of that price euen I myself could hauefounde in ""^sw^^d/' 
my harte to haue bought it : Ye see then O Plato, P>^to loued 
quoth Aristippus, tliat, not I am gredie to haue ^^^A^p- 
plentee, and variet«e of sondrie cates, but your pu* loued good 
self to beare greate loue to money. *^^'„ ^ *^ 

% Certain saiynges mocha like vnto this, been afore ^^^ '" *^ -s^- 
. " ■' ° ' saiynges of 

recited. Aristippus. 

Thesame man in the citee of * Aegina at the 41. 

solemne feastes of •{• Neptunus, had to doe with * Aegina was 

t Phryne a misliuyng woman there. And when X°em vtto 

a feloe had cast him in the nose, that he gaue so Peloponnesus, 

large monie, to soche a naughtie drabbe, who S,°e hauens""" 

sticked not to let beggerie Diogenes the Cinike, mouth called 

to haue parte of her bodie : Aristippus in this u^tod^'^u^"** 

maner answered : I giue her money, and many directly agsunst 

other gaie good thinges, to haue my pleasure on Att^^^d °^ 

her for myne owne part, and not to the intent, therforewasof 

that no man els should. lilT^iT' 

^ This is lefte in writyng of the said Phryne, LippitudoAt. 

that although she was a passyng faire woman, yet was ^' *^'if^* 

she as common as the cart waie, on who soeuer came tioa. For the 

without preferring or choice of this man, or that man, goodlmesse of 

whether thei wer riche, or poore, shewing her self dis- mSe di's- 

dainfull & coie towardes no persone, come who would, grace the 

To this had the poete Horaiiiis respect in thus saiyng. ^^a^and did'" 

Me libertina, nee vno contenta Phiyne macerat. ye would saie : 

drowne it. 

I frette and pein with bumyng loue Some giue the 

Of Phryne, who this odier daie "fT °^^'fj^ 

., , ,,.,., tothc whole lie. 

Out of her bondship did remoue. 

And now is common, as carte waie. 

f Neptunus, lupiter and Pluto, were three brethren, and sonnes oSiSatusnmsgoi- 

ten vpon Ops the sister and wife of the same Satumus, Thei so diuided.the regions, 

5 that 



that lupiter should haue vnder his dominion, the high countries, Pluto the lower 
countries, 'and Neptunus the Isles and the seas. Whereof the Poetes haue feigned 
lupiter to be the God of heauen, PLuto of helle, and Neptune of the waters. In honor 
of Neptunus were yerelie celebrate in the Isle or toune of Aegina, certain solemnities, 
whiche were called Neptimalia, of Neptunus his name, and by an other name 
Solatia of Salum, the Sea. 

t Phryne was an harlot of excellent beautie, but so common that she refused 
none, whatsoeuer he were : and (as occasion serued for her mercate) she custom- 
ablie resorted to all places, where any solemnitie of Sacres or martes, or any other 
occasion of greate haunte and resort was. Albeit her moste dwelling was in the 
citee of Athenes. She is mocbe mencloned, not onelie in the Poetes and Historio- 
graphiers, but also in sondrie places of this present werke. 


Aristippus re- 
buked of Dio- 
genes for 
keping com- 
paignie with 
Phryne the 

Afore in the 
.22. saiyng. 
Athenaeas a 
Greke historio- 


Aristippus a 
man of good 
possessions & 

When a man 
hath lost anie 

Diogenes in this maner rebuked Aristippus, for 
hauyng to doe with Phryne ; O Aristippus, thou 
art a greate medler with this woman, beyng a 
stewed strumpette, and therefore either plaie the 
doggue as I doe, or els leaue soche facions, as 
thou doest vse. Aristippus by induccion in this 
wise, shifted hym of. Diogenes seemeth it vnto 
thee, a thyng to be abhorred, that a manne should 
dwell in an hous, whiche others afore tymes haue 
inhabited ? When he had saiedNo: What (said 
Aristippus) is it shame to saile in a Shippe, that 
hath aforetymes caried a great nomber mo ? 
When that also he had denied to stande againste 
reason : Why then doest thou suppose it to be vn- 
reasonable (quoth he) to ioigne with a woman, 
of whom a greate nomber of persones, haue to- 
fore had their pleasure. 

H This is aboue mencioned, sauyng that Athenaeus 
dooeth in this maner and forme tell the tale. 

When he had loste a wonderfuU pleasaunt 
mainour place, with al the appurtenaunces, vnto 
a certain persone earnestly lamentyng thesame 
his pietous chaunce, he saied : What, doest thou 
not knowe well enough, thou hast but one little 
poore hous with a small piece of lande to it, and 
that I haue yet three whole lord.shippes left.? When 
the other partie had therto graunted, he said: 



Why do we not then rather lament thy case, panofhissub- 

IT Meaning that it had been an vnwise part of hym, l^^^i^ ta^e 
rather to take sorowe for that that he had lost, then coumforte of 
ioye and comfort of that that was lefte. kaltf^^ '^ 

To one that by the waie of opposyng hym, 44. 
asked this question. Arte thou euery where ? I 
leese no freite money then (quoth he) or I spende 
no freite money in waste, if I bee in euery place. 
f Aristippus with a mocke alone, wiped awaie the 
Sophisticall question, Whether one and thesame bodie, 
maie at one time be in diuers and sondrie places at Whether one & 
ones. When he aunswered, that so beyng, there was "^^a™^ bodye 
no perill of lesyng his freite money, or of spendyng ^^''pi^^^at"' 
freite money in waste. For he leseth his freite money, ones, 
who when he hath paied his money, is not caried thi- 
ther, as his deshe is. It maie, by leauyng out the 
negacion, bee taken in this sense also. Then haue I 
in my daies lost some freit money, or then haue I spent 
in waste, and haue loste moche good money giuen 
heretofore for freite or bote hiere. 

As though he should haue said : If one body maie be in 
mo places then in one at ones, I haue many a tyrae in my daies 
paied money in vain, and haue like a foole spent money in waste, 
to be carried ouer sea in a shlppe, from one place to an other, for- 
asmoche as I was there alreadie before I came. 

The meaning & sense of the words of Aristippus in so 
saiyng, (as I vnder the correccion of Erasmus take it) was : I lese 
no freite money then, &c., I cast awaie no freit money then, &c. 
That is, I spend no freite money then, &c. For he leeseth his 
money that spendeth, when he hath no maner nede nor occasion 
to spend it. And he that is alreadie in euery place where he 
would bee, nedeth not to spende money, to bee carried thither. 
As if he should haue saied to the feloe : if one bodie maie bee 
in all places at ones, thou maiest be assured, I would not bee 
so madde as to giue freite money, when I wer disposed to take 
shipping, & to go ouersea from one place to an other. 

Beyng confounded and made blanke, in a dis- ac, 
putacion of a certain feloe that was saucie & Aristippus was 
presumpteous, but thesame a furious ragyng feloe, "°j ^"^iS'a 
of no more witte then a beaste : when he sawe blanke in dis- 
him hoppe and fett his gambaudes for ioye, and P"'™'°"- 



swellyng in pride, by reason of that victorie. In 

dede, quoth he, I go awaie confounded, but yet 

Unwrathfullie like to slepe this night more swetely and soundly 
spoken. jjj^j^ ^j^y ggjj. ^^^^ jj^g^ py^ jjjg ^Q jjjjg bianke. 

46. Helicon of the toune of fl^ Cysicus a philoso- 
phier in Plato his tyme, had Prognosticate the 
zilmZaPhi- eclipse of the Sunne: who after that it had 
losophier of chaunced, according to his Prognosticacion, had 
lyng in 'all the of Dionysius a * talent of siluer in reward. Then 
Mathematical! saied Aristippus to the rest of the Philosophiers : 
same time I also haue a right wondreous thjmg that I could 
when Plato Prophecie. Thei hartly desiryng him thesame to 
vtter : I Prophecie ( quoth he ) that Plato and 
Dionisius of- Dionysius wil erre many daiea to an ende breake 
"Sere a strawe betwene them. 

he would f For, he had alredie perceiued the king now a 

wEu^lle'.' ''°'" g°°^ while to keepe his mynde secrete, and to dissem- 
ble his angre and displeasure^ conceiued against Flato. 

Cyzicus or Cyzicum, an Isle in Propontis, hauihg a waie to the maine 
land by 2 bridges, & hauing also a citie of thesame name, with walles, castles, 
and toures of marble stone, as faire and goodly as might bee, and in largenesse, 
compare, and amplitude, hable to compare with the chief citiees in all Asia. It was 
so named, by one Cyzicus somtime kyng there, whom lason vnawares slewe. It 
was also a citee of great power, and indifferently set, either for peace or warre. 

* A talent of siluer, tbe Frenche enterpreter folowyng Budaeus doeth translate, 
sixe hundred crounes, whiche after the rate of fowertene grotes the croune, 
amounteth to the summe of one hundred and fowertie poundes of our currant 

47. He said, this in the maners and facions of men, 
to be the worst thing that was possible to bee, 
Frendes ought that in publike sales thei dooe narrowly serche 
thei^ereceiued pottcs and pannes, ere thei will buie them, and 
into familia- will not serche and examine the life of soche 
persones, as thei matche to themselfes in frend- 
A greate dis- gjiip^ and entiere familiaritee. 

auauntage, if -^ 

a man chose ^ And yet a moche higher vtilitee and profite, re- 

not his frendes doundeth to a man of faithfull frendes, then of pottes 

of the best , , , . ,. 

sorte. °^ pannes, and a moche greater losse and disauauntage, 

except he chose of the right sorte, soche as should be. 





Purple in olde 
tyme, was for 
the wearing of 
none, but 
kynges & 
Plato refused 
to daunce in 
purple at the 
request of Dio- 

To bee dis- 
guised in 
womannes clo- vnfitte 
for a man. 

When Dionysius at a banket, had commaun- 
ded that all the companie should addresse them- 
selfes, to maske ech man in purple. H And pur- 
ple in those dales, was for the wearyng of none, but 
kinges and princes, where now it is commonly taken 
vp with euery Sowter and Cobler. Plato refused to 
doe it, recityng for his purpose these metre 
verses, out of sum Tragedie. 

OVK av SwaC/iifu 6^\.vv evSvvou. ajoX,rjv 
apprtjv n-E^vKus, Knl yevam ii oppevos. 

My harte abhorreth, that I should so 
In a womans kirtle, my self disguise, 
Beyng a manne, and begotten to 
Of a mannes prosapie, in manly wise. 

But Aristippus made no courtesie at the matter, ^^^^\o' 

but being dressed in Purple, & readie to goo to daunce in pur- 

dauncyng, he pronounced these verses, without dyn^'o^zS- 

any studie sodainly. sius. 

Kai yap kv l3aK)(cufUTiv 

6 vovs 6 craxjipbtv ov Zuu^aprfO'erai. 

Euen emiddes, the furious ragyng 
Of sacrifice doen, to the God Bacchus, 
A minde, wholly addicte, to sober Uuyng 
Will not be corrupt, ne made vicious. 

As he was making suite and intercession, on a 49. 

time to Dionysius, in the behalfe and fauour of a 

frende of his, and the king would not heare his 

suite and peticion, Aristippus fallyng doune flat 

on the ground before him, begun to embrace and 

kisse the kinges feete, and by that meanes at 

laste, obteined his purpose and request. And „, , 
, -. '^ '^ ,,^ . , Wittyly spoken 

when certam persones, reproued thesame fact of mmysius had 
his, as more vile and more humble then was 5^'^ ^^''^ '" **'* 

■ feete. 

.comly for a Philosophier, I am not in the blame 


Nothing can 
<x)rrupt a mind 
wholly dedicat 
to veitue. 



witte, aswell 
to dooe as to 
excuse any 


generall in 
Asia vnder the 
king of the 
Aristippus ar- 
ested in Asiaby 

stood in diede 
of no manne 

Aristippus a (quoth he ) but Dionisius, which hath his eares 

^nge°re\dy?" Standing in his feete. 

^ A wittie like prompt and ready in all assaies, as- 
well to doe as also to excuse any thyng whatsoeuer it 

In the countree of Asia, he was attached by 
Artaphernes the high capitain, or liuetenaunt 
generall there, vnder the kyng of the Persians. 
And at thesame present season, when one de- 
maunded of him, whether euen there also, his old 
accustomed stoutnesse of harte failled him no 
more, then it had been wont to doe. Foolishe 
dawe (quoth he) as though I haue at any time in 
all my life been, of a better courage or stomacke, 
then euen at this presente houre, that I muste 
speake to Artaphernes. 

^ Verely this thyng, by the benefice of philosophie, 
was roted in hym, that he stode in drede of no man 
liu)nQg, but would be frank and free witheuerypersone, 
to saie his mynde. 

Those persones, who beyng furnished with the 
liberall studies of humanitee & of the tonges, did 
slouthfuUy neglect the study of Philosophie Mo- 
ralle, he likened to the woers of * Penelope. 

H For thei entred loue with Melanthon and with 
Polydora, beyng her handmaidens, and conceiued hope 
soner, to obteine all the worlde besides, then mariage 
of the ladie her self. His meanyng was, that the liberall 
sciences been, as it wer, the handmaidens of morall 
philosophie, whiche morall Philosophie is, with the 
first of all to be put in vre, and for whose respecte and 
cause, all the other disciplines t are learned. A 
moche like thyng Aristo f^ also is reported to haue 
saied to Vlysses, who when he was descended to hell, 
thesaied Aristo affirmeth, that he talked familiarely with 
all the souUes there for the moste parte, sauyngthathe 



Suche as bee- 
yng furnished 
with other dis- 
ciplines, do 
neglect morall 
are lyke the 
woers ot Pene- 
lope, Doughter 
not of Icarus, 
but of [cariicSf 
and-the wife of 
VLysseSj who 
during the ab- 
sence of her 
ten yereSibeing 
awai at the 
battaille of 
Troie,and other 
tenne yeres 


could not so moche as ones, come to the sight of the wandryng on 
Queene her self. iT/courgen: 

home into his countrie of Ithaca, kept her self chaste and true wife vnto the- 
same Vlysses. And where she had raoste importune, and thesame continuall suite 
made vnto her,, by many ioylie rufHyng wooers, to haue her in mariage, she droue 
them of all by this colour, that she had a loume of linnen clothe in weauyng, 
which beyng ones finished, she would giue vnto her woers, a determinate and 
a final aunswere. Then vsed she this policie, to vnweaue in the night asmoch werke, 
as she had made vp in the dale before. By reason wherof diuers of the gentle- 
men that wooed her, beyng with their long suite weried and tiered, fell in hande to 
haue wanton conuersacion with Melanthon and Polydora her handmaidens, as vt- 
terlie dispairyng that euer thei should achiue to the obteinyng of Penelope her self. 

* For morall Philosophic was to them, that diuinitee and holy scriptures are to 
vs christian menne. 

t This Arista was a Philosophier, and was called in msmer as by a surname, 
ScepOcus, because he was altogether occupied, in considering & serching the state of 
humain thinges. He was borne in the isle of Coos albeit some sale he was Chius, 
and was scholar (as some writers saien) to Zeno, the first author and bringer rp of 
the Stoikes secte, after some writers, he was a PeripateHke, that is, of Aristoteles 
his secte. But as concerning Philosophie, aswell morall as natural, his determi- 
nacion and doctrine is of all the auncient good writers reproued, and vtterly con- 
demned as naught. For by his opinion, all thinges are indifferent, and no diuer- 
sitie betwen being in perfect good health, & in extreme sicknes and so of other 
thinges. Wheifore his doctrin was disallowed of all menne, as testifieth Cicero in 
the proheme of thoffices & in his werke dejinibus bonorum & mahrum. Ther was 
also an other Aristo father vnto Plato, 

To one demaundyng what thinges wer most 52. 

requisite, and necessarie to be learned of younge ^'^^t things 

folkes, he saied : Thesame that maie doe them quisUe to be 

best seruice, when thei shal beat the full mannes lernedofyong 
. . folkes. 


^ This saiyng is ascribed to others also, besides testtw'nees at 
Aristippus. The principal! best thinges are euen at euen with the 
the first beginninET to be learned, neither the tender ^''^) *° ''^ ^^^' 
and vnbroken yongth, whiche is of it self moste apt most apt to 
to learn is to be forepossessed, with thinges superfluous, leame. 

After that Aristippus had gathered together 53- 
greate gooddes and substaunce of money, & So- ^'^iftip^s 
crates hauing conceiued great meruaill thereof, gether moche 
said : How hast thou come by so moche richesse ? "chesse. 
How haue ye come by so little > quoth he again. 
If For, he thought it a thyng, no lesse worthie ad- 
miracion,that Socrates beyng a Philosophier of so greate 





Wittilie and 
featlie spoken. 


caste of his 
Sonne, & let 
him run at 

Menne maye 
iustely refuse 
those sonnes, 
in whiche is 
no grace at all. 

* The words 
of Menedemus 
to his Sonne, 
Clinia in the 
third comedie 
of Terence. 


gaue in re- 
ward, to At^iS' 
tippus money, 
& to Plato 

estimacioo, and hauyng soche greate frendes, shouMbe 
poor, then that hymself should be riche. 

To a certain common woman, saiyng I am 
with child by you Aristippus : That can ye not 
for a suertie knowe (quoth he again) any more 
then goyng on Thornes, standyng as thicke as is 
possible one by an other, ye maie truely auouch 
this Thorne it is, that hath pricked me. 

A certain persone openly blaming him that he 
did in soche wise exile, caste of, and let ren at all 
auentures his sonne, as if thesame had neuerbeen 
begotten by hym, he saied : Doe we not cast 
awaie from vs, as fer as we can, bothe flegme and 
spettle, & also Lice, with other vermine, breedyng 
of our own bodies, as thinges seruyngto no good 
vse ne purpose. 

^ He meaned them not wortliie to bee accompted 
for a mannes soonnes, that had nothing els wherewith, 
to shewe themselfes worthie the fauor of their parentes, 
but onely that the! wer of them begotten, and brought 
into this worlde. So the old man in the comedie saieth. 

* Ego te meum did tantisper volo, dum id 

quod te dignum est facias. 
So long &: no lenger, thou shalt my son be, 
As thou behauest thy self, with honestee. 

When Dionysius had giuen in reward, vnto 
Aristippus money, & vnto Plato bookes, Aristip- 
pus beyng checked of a certain persone, as one 
whose minde was more on his halfpenie,then Plato 
had set his : What matter maketh that ( quoth 
he) I had neede of money, and Plato of bookes. 
^ Meanyng, that neither of them bothe was blame 
worthie to take the thing which might best serue his 
purpose : 

^g" For of a likelihoode Dionysius had put either of them to the 
choise, whether thai wold haue money, or bokes. 



Being asked for what cause Dionysius did in 57. 
soche wise call hym foole, and all to naught, For Dioninus 
the verie same cause (quoth he) that other folkes ^Aristipfius 
doen. f°°'^ ^ 3" '" 

^ Men3mg the plain and franke speakyng of a Phi- "f"^ 
losophier, to be combrous and hatcML to all persones, gpeakyne of a 
and therefore no memaill to be, if the kyng might euill philosophier, 
abide it : al vnder one together, intimatyng the kynges "°ii"^"o^" 
iudgemente, nothyng to diifer from the iudgemente of gapience is not 
the grosse multitude, for that fortune dooeth not con- geuen by^for- 
ferre the indewmente, or gifte of Sapience. *""^- 

He asked of Dionysius at a tyme, by the waie eg. 
of peticion, a Talent. And when the kjng hauing 
gotten an occasion, to confounde him by his owne 
wordes, and to cast hym in his owne turne, saied : 
Diddest not thou openly afSrme, & sale that a 
Philosophier is neuer in penurie, or extreme nede ? a Philosophier 
Well, giue the talent (quoth he) and then we shall 
afterward reason of that matter. When he had re- 
ceiued the money : And was it not well & truly 
saied of me, quoth he, that a Philosophier is neuer He is not in 
in extremitee of neede ? penurfe, who 

_ _, . . ^ . ^ . , ^ at al times of 

Tl That persone is not m extreme penune, who at neede is as- 
all tymes of neede, is assured where to receiue, and to sured wher to 

haue enough. haue enough. 

Unto Dionysius reciting out of a tragedie of 
Sophocles, these twoo little verses. 

IS neuer in ex- 
treme penurie. 


irpos Tov Tvpawov ocrris efi/TrofteveTeu, 

KeCvov CTTt S0SX05, Kav IXeuOepos iJLoXrj. 

Who so a tyrannes courte, doeth haunt. 

There to bee a continual! dweller 

Is vnto thesame, a bondseruaunt. 

Though he wer no bondman, ere he cam ther. 

Aristippus aunswered onelie a sillable or twaine 
of the latter verse, corrected in this maner. 

". . s -V « .X //) /» A free mynd is 

ouK ecTTi oowAos KOI' eAevffepoi fio\g. euerywher free. 




Trae libeitee 
perteineth to 
the mynd 
more then to 


A breache of 
loue betwene 
ArisHppus and 

A small vari- 
aunce doeth 
cdmmonlie, by 
reason of si- 
lence, grow to 
a scab of open 

Aristippus be- 
ing the elder 
man, offreed 
firste to be 
agreed with 

Is not to thesame a bonde seruaunt, 

If he wer no bondman, ere he came there. 

^ Signifiyng none to bee free, and out of bondage 
in deede, except whose verie minde and hart philoso- 
phic hath dehuered discharged, and made free, bothe 
from hope and feare, for to be a free man outright, it is 
not enough, to haue been borne in fredome, or out of 
seruitude and bondage. Some writers ascriben this 
sai)mg vnto P/ato. 

When betwene Aristippus & Aesehines had 
bee fallen a little distaunce and breache of loue, 
and a certain feloe had said, Where is now that 
your great high frendship become ? It slepeth 
(quoth he) but I shall awaken it, and raise it vp 

^ Hereupon Aristippus by reason of this season- 
able, or oportune and plain speakyng of the saied feloe, 
with a trice ended all the strief, and made all well 

To the entent that the sore might not by rea- 
son of silence, growe to an open scabbe (as 
moste commonly it dooeth, he of his owne volun- 
tarie will came vnto Aesehines, and said in this 
maner: Shall not we twoo, euen now out of 
hande be at one again, as good frendes as euer 
we wer, and ceasse thus to playe the children .' 
Or els shal we rather tary vntil wee shall mini- 
ster to iesting knaues matter, to prate & iangle of 
vs twaine on the ale benche .' To whom when 
Aesehines had made aunswere, That he would 
withal his hart, be reconciled & full agreed. 
Then, yet remember (quoth Aristippus) that I 
beyng the elder and the more auncient persona 
of the twain, haue come & sought on thee first. 
Then said Aesehines : Of a verie truth, thou art 
a greate deale more perfect honest man then I 


THE I. BOOKE. 75. 

am, for of me begun al this our falling out, and 
of thee to haue a perfect atonement. 

^ By this meanes thei wer reconciled of newe, and 
as good loue and frendship betwen theim, as euer there 
had been tofore. 

At a certain season, sailling in the companie of 6 1 . 

three or fower of his own countree men or neigh- ^'>y^Pi>^^ 

° sauling to 
bours, he was cast on land by shipwracke. And Rhodus was 

when he had on the sandes, espied the prente of =ast on land 

. - _ , by shipwracke. 

mathematicall figures of Geometric drawert m the 

sande : All is wel maisters (quoth he) I haue es- 
pied the steppes and signes of men. 

^ And beeyng entred the cifee there nexte by, he 

neuer left searchyng vntill he founde out what persones ArisHppus 

were there studious of disciplines : & after that he was ^^^^ that he 

ones mette with thesame, thei did with al hAmanitee Uaraed menne 

possible, entertein not onely him for his own persone, i" a- straunge 

but also the others that came with hym, yea and be- whly^weUn- 

sides that, gaue them money enough in their purses, treteined both 

for their costes and charges, vntill thei should retoume ^^ ^"'' f'^ ^^^ 

... ..,.., , coumpaignie 

thither againe m their waie homeward. for hys sake. 

After certain dales when the others that had 
come at the firste with Aristippus, addressed 
themselfes to returne in to their countree, and 
asked of hym, whether he would any message to 
bee dooen at home to his neighbours and countre- 
men, he saied: Nothing but that thei applie ^™'„^hlJof 
them selues, to acquire and purchace soche maner the mynde. 
richesse, as male not perishe and be lost by ship- 
wracke, but male get to land with their owner. tethiTlltin"' 

^ The selfsame matter dooeth Vitruvius reporte, in volumes of 
the sixth volume of Carpentrie or deuisyng, saiyng carpentrie, or 

. . . 1 , deuisyne of 

more ouer that Arishppus at that season, came to the buildynges. 
citee of Rhodus. 

When Socrates ^spake sore against soche per- gj. 
sones as were perfumed with swete sauours, and 




A man by ex- 
temall goodes 
is not made 

Charondas, or (as some writers holden opinion) 
Phsedon demaunded what feloe it was, so per- 
fumed with swete oiles and sauours, Aristippus 
saied, Euen I it is miserable & wretched creature 
that I am, and a more miser then I, the kjmg of 
the Persians. But marke, said he, that like as he 
is in this behalfe nothyng superiour to any other 
liuyng creature, so is he not a iote better then any 
other man. 

^ His meanyng was, that manne by externall or 
outward gooddes is made not a whitte the better. 
Bothe an horse aU bg smered with oile of balme or 
spike, should haue thek self same sauor, that shuld a 
king : & a sely poore begger, being anointed or per- 
fumed with the hke kinde of oile or sauor, smelleth 
euen as well as doeth the highest prelate of them all. 

^ TAe saiynges of 



*Cynici, wer 
of the sect of 
Antistheaes & 
Diogenes and 

fa Es 

HE order (as I suppose) shall appere to 
hang verie well together, if next after the 
holinesse of Socrates, by sai3mges of mirthe 
vttered, and. after the merie plamesse of 
were called Cy Aristippus, we make mencion and rehersall of % Dioge- 

nid, either of 
the place Cino- 
sarge, wher 
kept his 
schoole, or els 
of thegreke VO' 
cable Kwes 
Doggues. Be- 
cause thei 
were euer 

fies of on* Sinqpe, who in all manerfold grace of his 

saiynges, ferre passed and excelled the others. How- 

beit, all these three Philosophiers, though in deede 

far vnlike, and in maner contrarie qualitees, yet neuer- 

thelesse do I iudge one, euen as highly as an other to 

be estemed & had in honour : so that although thei 

were of very vnlike facions, yet male ye well sale, that 

thei were in degree, feloes like one with an other, 
moste impor- ° 

tunelie backing and lailling againste the vices of menne or els because in woordes 

of rebaudrie and shamelesse speaking, thei did with their foule mouthes represent 

the currishenesse of Doggues. 



% Diogenes was scholar vnto AntistKenes. And thei twoo were the first and 
principal autours of the sect of the Cinikes, & theifore was he called Cinicus, 
whose life doth Diogenes Laertius write & largely prosecute. ^^° Sinopa (o 
long) was a citee of Pontus, or els verie nigh to it. Builded by the Milesians, a. 
florent citee, and of greate power, in whiche wer many goodlie houses, and man- 
sion places of roiall building, with schooles, mercate steedes, walking places, and 
gorgeous temples. And in this citee were borne Timotheus Patrion Diphilus a 
writer of Comedies, and Diogenes Cinicus, who was thereof called Siruypensis, or 

First of all, hauing departed out of his owne I. 
countree, and placed himself in Athenes, he re- ^«»«* 

, . would nedes 

sorted to the Philosophier Antisthenes, to be his be scholare vn- 

disciple: by whom although he was oft tymes ^° ^^tisthenes. 

put backe, and shifted of, (for Antisthenes would 

take no scholares) yet would ihe not ceasse stil to 

be an hanger on about him : in so moche that 

when Antisthenes on a tyme, offered to giue hym ^„^^ft„,jj 

a stripe with a staffe, he willyngly put out his hed would haue no 

vnder the staffe, saiyng : Strike if thou be so dis- scholares. 

posed, yet shalt thou not finde any staffe so 

harde, where with to beate me awaie from thee, 

as long as thou shalt speake that male concerne ^^ ^^ ^^^ 

matters of leamyng. a wonderful 

IT A notable example of Sapience, with whole harte 
and minde, feruently desired and zeled. 

> When he by chaunce sawe a mous renning, and 2. 

whippyng aboute from place to place, in a cer- 

taine greene, within the citee of Athenes called 

Megaricum, whiche mous neither sought any hole, 

nor was afeard with the stiryng of folkes, nor had 

any lust to eate meate : A ioilie gaie example of 

libertie, saied Diogenes. Whereof z)to- 

' ° genes tokeocca- 

f And euer forthwithall, renouncyng and iorsakyag sion to take vp 
the worlde, he begun to take vp his dwellyng in a ^f '^'T^'lyg 

uIaCc 1X1 cL 

tubbe. tubbe. 

To men wondryng that he had neuer a little 3. 

hous, or corner of his owne, where he might Why Uiogenes 

. 1 . , . "ad "o house 

quietly eate his meate : he shewed with pointyng of his own to 


loue & zele to 


eate&drinkein of his finger, the galerie or walking place that was 
luppiterhis ' Called louis Porticus, and saied, that the people of 
aley or galerie Athenes had builded to his vse a roial mansion 
waike, a place place where to dine & suppe, & to take his repast. 
A ^*^"^' ^ ^ The thing that was publike, he enterpreted to be 
like is ordeined made and ordeined for him also particularely. Neither 
for the vse of could he wishe or desire, a fresher or a more galaunt 
iTr^sonfaUo P^rlour to eate in. 

seuerally. 4. jhc schoolc of Euclides (for that thesame Eu- 
Euciides was clides semed to teache in deede wittie conclusions, 
da'es ofp^ato ^^^ ^^^ nothing to the furtheraunce or helpe of 
who wrote vertuous Huyng) h^ palled not oxoXip', a schoole 
tnuch of con- ^g ^.jjg vsuall worde was in deede, but by a nicke 

elusions m Ge- x 1 • t "'>-n.v 

ometrie, which name x°Mv> which souneth in Englishe cholera, 
^"tnGreke"^ angre & trouble, 'Contrary to the significacion 
and Latin. of the right worde <r}(pXri, whiche souneth quiet 
namedThT''''" vacacion. Semblablc, the scholasticall exerci- 
schoies of Eu- tacion & Conferring of Plato, called in Greke 
So ^""^ °^ SiaTpi^ijv, Diogenes by deprauyng and corruptyng 
XoX^ (TXo^V *^^ worde called KOTarpi^SV. that is, mispendyng 
Siarpi^^ of moche good labour and time, because that 
Ka.Ta.Tpi.p-q Plato beyng sequestred and exempted from the, 
practike liuyng emong men abrode in the worlde, 
did spend all his dales and tyme, in disputacions 
Diogenes set of wordes, where as Diogenes liuing emonges the 
morriolfue thickest of the worlde abroade, had more minde 
after Philoso- and affeccio^, to Hue Philosophically, that is, ac- 
dUputt^erMf. cordyng to perfecte vertue, then onely in woordes 
to dispute and reason thereof. 

5. The games called Dionysiaca, whiche wer with 
greate charges, and moche pompe celebrated and 
holden at the citee of Athenes in the honour of 

*h^e°fdgning*of * ^acchus, he Called the greate wondermentes 

the poetes) was & gazinges of fooles. 

/«/.tto-hisson, 51 For that in thesame was nothyng doen, but all 

begotten vpon . , ^ ,. , ' ° 

together foohshe and worthie skome. 



Semele the doughter of Cadmus, who being slain with lightening, Jupiter toke the 
childe, and sowed it within his thigh, and so kept it, vntil it was of maturitee to be 
borne, & then was he borne out of the thigh of lupiter. He is called the God of 
wine, because he first found out the vse of wine, he is called in Greke Aiovucroi 
and thereof is derived DUmysia. And of Dionisia is denominated Dionisiaca Cerla- 
mina, whiche the Latine menne callen of Bacchus Bacchanalia, the rites of Bacchus, 
which in the most part of the citees of Grece, wer kept euery third yere. 

The oratours and aduocates (who wer had in ^• 
high price and estimacion in Athenes) he called 
the common droudges and pages, of euery lacke 
and Gille, for that thei wer of force constreined, 
to speake all that euer thei did, to please men, 
and euen like bonde slaues, to flatter the beastlie 
foolishe rable of the pe6ple..j,|.And the assembles Jj^^iggg^^i 
of the people, swarmyng about thesame orators, people gather. 
he called the pimples or little wheales of glorie. y"^, ^''°"' *^ 

i^ r a oratours been 

IT The Greke word that he vsed, was i^vOT^/xara, *« pymples of 
that is, little pimples or pushes, soche as of cholere ^ 
and false flegme, budden out in the noses and faces of 
many persones, & are called the Saphires & Rubies of 
the Taueme. 


' Mening thereby (as I suppose) that like as soche pushes in 
the visages of men, are angrie things and greffull, and also finall 
discomfort to the parties, that the same may not for shame shewe 
their faces, but liiden theimselfes, and refrein to come in com- 
paignie : so the frequent assembles of people, swarming about 
oratours, doe finallie purchase and conciliate vnto the same moche 
enuie, displeasure, hatered, trouble and vexacion, ensuyng of the 
glorie that thei haue in the beginning. As chaunced to Demos- 
thenes, and to Aschines in Athenes, and to Cicero in Roome. 

Diogenes as often as in the life of men he con- 7. 
sidered and thought vpon the gouernours of 
citees, Phisicians, and Philosophiers, affirmed no Nothmg more 

' . ' '■ sapiente then 

lining thmg to be more sapient then man. The- manne. 
same Diogenes consideryng in his minde ex- 
pouners of dreames, readers what shall foloe this 
dreame or that, southsaiers, and others of like 
sort, or els soche persones as wer wholy subiect 
to glorie and riches : auouched, that to his sem- foof^Jhe^JTen^ 
yng there was nothing more foolishe, then man. manne. 




f Notifiyng the witte of man, to be appliable and 
Thewitteof apt to all goodnesse, if it be exercised and enured 
manne, apte to therewithall, but if it fall from his right kinde to vice, 
tf if be se?^^' then to be many degrees worse then the dumme brute 
therto. beastes. 



What thyng, 
desperate per- 
sones should 

In tymes of 
misfortune is 
wisedome & 
most to bee 

Menne oughte 
to haue no 
cion but suche 
as may be 
fruitfiil and ed- 
ifiyng, aswel 
to the hearer 
as to the 

He vsed customably to saie, that in our life we 
should oftener prouide \6yov ^ Pp6\ov, that is, a 
talker then an halter. 

IT The Greke woorde, Xoyos signifieth in Latine 
sermonem, in Englishe communicacion or talkyng. 
And the Greke vocable l3p6xoi, is in Latine, laqums, 
in Englishe an halter , or a strynge, soche as a bodie 
male by the necke be hanged withaU. Whiche he 
spake, for that soche persones as ar werie of their liues, 
and are in soche despaire, that thei would fain be out 
of the worlde, do many of tiiem by and by hang and 
strangle theim selues, whereas thei ought rather to haue 
recourse to good communicacion, that might recom- 
forte their spirites, and bryng them again from des- 
paire. For, to the hart beyng in heauines and vtter 
discomfort : the beste Phisician is good and wholsome 
communicacion. Neither shall the sense be out of 
square, if ye take the Greke vocable Kaymi (as in an 
other significacion it male well bee taken) for reason. 

^^ And then the sense shalbe, that men ought rather in times 
of displeasures and misauentuies, to slaie them selues by reason, 
and to vse thdr discrecion and wisedome, in taking miscbaunces 
paciently as men should doe, then vpon trifling occasions to fall 
in despaire, and so wilfully to cast awaie them selues, as many 
haue doen. Albeit taking Xoyou, for talking, I thinke Dwgeins 
mened that menne ought so to prouide, that their wordes and 
communicacion at all times be vertuous and fruitfull, aswell to 
the hearer, as to the speaker, and not of soche sorte as the speaker 
male afterwarde haue cause to repent, and wishe within his bealie 
again. As Seneca noteth the improuidencie, & vnaduisednesse of 
many persones, Whiche often tymes (as he speaketh it in Latin 
Emittmit voces per mgulum redituras, that is, letted escape wordes, 
that must afterward come back again by lieir own throtes, and 
cost them their neckes. So that Diogenes would no mennes com- 
municacion to be soche as might afterward bee found hanging 
matters, and redounde to their owne confusion, but rather to be 
fruitfull and vertuous. For, onelie soche woordes and none otlier, 
been worthie the appellacion, or name of communicacion and 


THE I. BOOKE. 8 1 

tklkyhg, of vrhiche redoundeth aswell to the hearer, as to the No man ought 
speaker some fruite, profite, and edifiying: and for whiche bothe to leate escape 
parties rnaie be the better, and not haue cause afierward to beshrewe wordes, whiche 
them selues. And soche as vsennaughtie and pernicious bableling muste after* 
doen often times procure their owne harmes, and been autours and warde come 
werkers of their owne confusion. home again by 

the throte. 
||^° No woordes been worthie the name of talkyng, but such as been fruitefull. 
Suche as vse pemicius wordes are commenlie autoures of their owne confusion. 

When Diogenes at a feast of high fare sawe g. 
Plato, not ones to put his hande to any of the 
deintie dishes, but to feede onely vpon a fewe P'ato a manne 
Oliues, he saied : What is befallen moste sapient 
father, that wheras to come to soche maner fare 
as this, ye made ones a viage in to Sicilie, ye Syracuse the 
dooe here now abstein from ready prouision of hed citee of all 
meates, purposely dressed for you ? To this saied bienesse and ' 
Plato again, Yet iwis, O Diogenes; euen in Sicilie richesseof 
also I was satisfied with soche meat for the moste doo'eth at large 
parte, as this that I eate now : Why then needed describe ir. the 
you to saile vnto the citee of Syracuse, saied Di- again^Verres. 
ogenes.' Wer there no Oliues at that season, 
growyng within the countree of Attica .' 

^ This saiyng some writers ascriben to Aristippus. 

Diogenes on a tyme, as he was eating figges, lO. 
mette with Plato, and offeryng to him a fewe of 
his figges, said : Ye male take some parte with 
me, if ye bee disposed. And when Plato had 
taken some, and eaten them, Diogenes saied : Ye ^etaxryfiv 
maie take some parte, with me, wer my wordes, «'r'>''> o" ^ 
and not to raumpe theim vp on that facion. Karaip oyeiv. 

\ This metie iesting worde, maie be applied to a 
saious matter, that is to wete, to be spoken on soche 
persOnes, as abusen the gentle permission & sufiraunce 
of their prince, of their scholemaister, or of their 
parentes to the attempting or doyng of thinges vnlaw- 
ful. As (for example) if one beyng aduertised, that it 
is a thing not vnprofitable to take a taste, and to haue 
6 a little 


a little sight in Logike, doe bestowe all the daies of 
his life on that studie. The saiyng is, in soche wise 
recited by Zaeriitts, that one maie doubt whether of 
the ii. did ofifre the figges to thother. 

I J. Plato in deede was a frugall man, and a greate 
Plato a spar- sparer or housbande, but yet one that loued to 
Tbufinof' " 1^^*^^ ^11 thinges picked net and cleane.. And 
clenlynesse. contrariwise, Diogenes a verie slouen, and one 

that cared for no clenlinesse. Therfore trampling 
verajTSoouen. ^ith his durtie feete, vpon Plato his fine piloes, 
Diogenes tta.m- and other bedding, to certain the familiare frends 
durtic'feete ^^ °^ Dionysius, beyng therein companie, whom 
vpon Plato his piato had desired to diner, he saied, I dooe now 
peloe and bed- ^^^^^ ^j^^ ambicion of Plato vnder myrfeete, Plato 

anone aunswered thus, Yet in how greate pride 
The ambicion swellest thy self, O Diogenes, while thou thinkest, 
Zhogen'es! ° t^y self to trede another mannes pride vnder thy 

fete. The self same thyng is by other writers, 
To make host niore pleasauntly reported. To Diogenes, saiyng 
pridris"^"^ I trede the pride of Plato vnder my feete: So 
high point of thou docst in deede (quoth Plato) but it is with an 
ambicion. Other kinde of pride, as greate as mine. 
More dishon- €r For, euen thesame was a poinct of pride, that he 

ing prease, by ^^ide SO greate boste and vaunte of contemnyng clen- 
countrefeacted linesse. And those persones that do glorie and bragge 
Tertue. ^j- ^j^^jj. ujggigjig slouenrie, and simplenes of their habite, 

Wh t th k ^^^^ °f ^si' appetite, and in their hartes, no lesse 
Diogenes ren- ambicious, then soche as setten out themselfes in 
dred vnto gorgeous, apparel albeit of an other sort, & in an other 
ing h'ym ■mme ^nde. And a greate deale more dishonestee is there 
and fyggues in that ambid^n, whiche seketh laude and praise, of 
MkKl!''*" ^^ *^ ^^^^ colouir and cloke of vertue counterfeited. Yet 

Socion ascribeth this saiyng, not to Diogenes but 

vnto F/ato the Cynike. 

1 2. -Diogenes had desired of Plato a little courtesie 
of wine, and eflsonesto haue also a fewe figges. 



Plato sent hym a whole stene or pitcher full. To Diogenes noted 
whom the Cynike rendred thankes in this maner : mesurable" 
When it is demaunded of thee, how many is twoo verbositee, and 
and twoo, thou aunswerest, twentie : so neither teles aXso!^ "' 
doest thou giue thinges, according to a bodies The eloquence 
askyng, ne makest a directe aunswere to soche aii writers es- 
questions, as are demaunded of thee. temed to be 

H He noted Flato, as a man out of measure talkatif, ^^pplt^^ ' 
which self same thing did Aristoteles also note in his shoulde speake 

writynges. Greltehewold 

_ vse the phrase 

^g° Notwithstanding Aristotle his noting, .which preceded of ^f piato. 
enuie, Plato is of al the Grekes estemed to be of so wittie inuencion 
in his writinges, and of so greate varietee, shifl, eloquence, and '; ' 

good vtteraunce in speaking, that thesame Grekes pronounced, 
5iat in case lupiter should or would speake Greke, he would speake 
with Plato his^tongue and phrase. And no lesse dignitee and 
excellencle is to thesame Plato attributed by Cicero, QumHlianus, 
and all other Latine writers also, beyng of any iudgement. 

To one demaunding in what parte of all 13- 
the countree of Grece, he had seen good men : 
Men (quoth he) no where: but in the citee of 
Lacedaemon, I sawe good laddes. 

II Notyng the moste corrupt and vicious maners The moste cor- 
of al Grece throughout, in so moche that euen emong ™P' ^ ™o"s 

^T- 7- 7 • • , , ^ , maners of all 

the Lacedemonians, a nacion least corrupted of al the countree of 

others, onely in the children remained the aunciente ^■'^96 through 

integritie and vncorrupcion. And all vnder one he of Dios-raes.""* 

signified, that in the residue of the countre of Grece, 

not so moche as the children neither wer good, honest, 

or vertuous. And this thing moreouer did he notifie, 

the men to be moche more vicious, then the boies, „ V.'^™<: 

' ' oughteof con- 

whereas of congruence the children ought by them, to gmence to be 
be trained and nouseled in vertuous disposicion, and '■"^'"fi'* * fra- 
fiamed to an honest trade of liuyng. ous disposicion 

When Diogenes on a certain time treatyng, 14. 
and making a declaracion of an earnest and saige 
matter of Philosophie, had not one hearer, that 
would giue diligente eare vnto him, he begun to 
s^ng soch another foolish song as (Robin Hood in rebuked thr** 


84 mOGENES. 


people, for that Bamsdale stode, &c.) and sembleedi as though he 

to h Jken ^o would , daunce withall. And when a verie greate 

matters of multitude of people had now gathered together, 

siao£"to^giue and swarmed about him, he tooke them all vp for 

eare to matters stumblyngj becausc that to thinges^ foolish; &1, 

o grauiee. ggfuyng to no good purposBi thei' came rennyng 

by whole flockesi and as merie as Pies, where as 

to serious matters, and thesame moche auailable 

vnto good liuyng, thei neither would resort or 

approch or diligently giue eare. 

IT Yerie like vnto this it is, that some writers as- 

criben to Demosthates of the * shadoe of an Asse. 

* So it was, that Demosikenes on a time being hot in malting an oracion to the 
AHienieris the people wer sodainlie in soche a greate rore emong themselfes, that 
thei gaue no eare to Demosthenes, but rather troubled hym in his tale. Whereupon he 
saied, that he hadtwoo or threewoordes to sale vnto theim requiring tbeim to hold their 
noise, and to giue good eare what he would saie. Immediately was made silence and 
Demosthenes in this wise begun.;, A certaine young man bad hiered an Asse from 
Athenes, to the toune of Megara. And bothe the parties went together in company 
and being Somer season, about noone ihe Soime weaxed so fcruente hot, that for to 
couer theimselfes from the Sonne, either parde would nedes hide himself vnder the 
shadowe of the Asse. But thei fell at variaunce about it, and either partie would- 
needes put of the other. The one saied, that, he had set out the Asse to hiere, but 
not the shadoe, the other on his partie auquched, that forasmoche as he had hiered 
the Asse he had best right and title for the time during, to the shadoe of the Asse 
to. And immediatly after thus moche of the tale told, Demostheaes came doune 
from the pulpite or scafiblde. The people were so faine to heare the test of the tale, 
that thei ca,ught Demosthenes by the goune, and held him backe, nor would at no 
hande suffer him to departe, but required him in any wise, to make an ende of his . 
tale. Then saied Demosthenes vnto them : Why are ye so desirous and fain, to 
listen a tale of the shadoe of an Asse, and haue no wiU ne minde at all to herken 
me, speaking of matters weightie, serious, and touching the common weale. 

15- He rebuked men for that thei exercised and 

theimseiues to P'^^'^^'^ed themselfes with fettyng gambaudes^ and 

peines, for the with sembleable toies, to the ende that thei m^ht 

*in"'"^sau^" ^^ length be exercised and cunnyng therein, and 

ing vertue and not One of them all would' putte hymself to any 

honestee. peine, that thei might in fine, proue wel disposed, 
and honest menne. 

1 6, From no sort of men in the worlde,r,did he 

Diogenes sp!^. refrein or chamber, the tauntyng of his tongue. 

red taun^ng --. -j,, •<& ° 

nomanneiiu- He saied, that he greatly, wondred at the Gra- 
y"^- marians. 


marians, * that thei did with soche earnest study, Dmgenes 
make depe inquisicion, of the hard auentures of cl^mariLs. 
Vlysses, and knewe nothing of their owne mis- 
chaunces. * ^„^^^. 

IT The Grammarians rn olde time spent moste of ttci, were those 
their study and wer moste famihare ui the % Rhfipsodies 5^^ sp™"''^'' 
oiHomems. And he in his werke entiteled Odissea, manitee.Md 
maketh mencion andrehersall of diuers the wander- whomwecal 
ynges of Vlisses on the seas, and aboute sonderie 1"^^^^* 
countrees, ere he could gette home to Ithaca, after the ar that we cal 
bumyng ofTroie. thinges patch- 

' ° ed together, as 

the werkes of Homenis were, fotHomerus himself was blirtdjaiid made voluhtane,and 
song ex tempore, that is without studie. And.after his de^ltit^'Aristarehus gathered al 
his nuLkinges together, and compiled theim into twoo wetkes, the one entitled /2«u, 
whiche is of the batt^ and destmccion of Tioie, and the other Odissea, of the wan- 
dring of Flisses, ere he could get home to Ithaca, after that Troie was burned. 
And because those werkes wer compiled by patches, thei were called Rhapsodic, as 
ye would saie, patches or cloutes boched together. 

With the Musicians also he found fa^ult, for that 1 7. 
about their Harpes and other niiisicall Instru- How z»«igmes 
mantes, thei would bestowe greate labour & with Ac Musi- 
diligence, to set the strjmges in right tune, and "^^ns. 
had maners gerring quite & clene out of al good 
accord or frame. 

He reproued also the professours of the * Ma- 18. 
thematicall sciencies, for that thei wer alwaies How fOw^encs 
gazing and staring vpon the Sun, the Moone, and prof™^ours rf 
the Sterres, and yet could not see what thinges *e Mathemat- 
laie before their fete. ical disciplines. 

* Mathematid, war the professours and studentes of Geometric, Musike Arithme- 
.tik^, and Astrologie. For, these were called sciencies Mathematicall, because that 
where thei are learned by clene intelligence of the witte, yet thei procede of so cer- 
taine and sure principles and conclusions, that thei male bee more certainlie arid 
perfectlie perceiued and , proued then . Logike, Rhetorike, and Philosophie, or any 
other soche. 

At the oratours also he had a saiyng, for that I9- 
thei wer busie enough to speatke thinges standing ^°^J^^ 
with right and iustice, but to put thesame in Oratours. 
execueion, and to doe therafter, thei wer verie 




The couetuous persones he rattled and shooke 
vp, for that in wordes thei dispraised money, 
wheras in their hartes thei loued thesame of life. 


How tHogenes 
ratteled & 
shooke vp co- 
uetous per- 
None doe in 
woordes more 
cry out on 
auarice, then the couetous persons. 

IT For, this speciall propertee the couetous persones 
haue, that none aliue dooe in woordes more defie and 
deteste auarice, then themselfes doe. 


How Diogenes 
checked the 


How Diogenes 
lahated soche 
persones as 
did sacrifice to 
haue bodily 

Diogenes hated 

The common people also he toke vp for stum- 
bling, because thei praised and commended good 
men, principallie vpon this ground and title, for 
that thei wer despisers of money, and yet in the 
while, thei would neuer the more foloe the steppes 
of thesame good men, whom thei moste highlie 
commended : but rather foloed those persones 
that had the grummel seede, and mucke of the 
worlde, whom in woordes thei did greatlie dis- 

He neuer linned rahatyng of those persones, 
thatoffred sacrifice for to haue good health of 
bodie, and euen in the very sacrifice doyng (in that 
thei wer vnmeasurable raueners, and gourmaun- 
ders, and would not leaue eatyng while the beallie 
'would hold) thei did all together agaiftstthe good 
health of the bodie. 

He saied, that he meruailled at the seruauntes, 
that when thei sawe their maisters deuoure meate, 

Diogenes found v j 11 ^i • ^ 1 i. 

withbonde ser- beyond all reason or measure, thei tooke not 
uauntes. awaie the meate from them, allegyng that to be 

the waie to preserue their maisters in helth. And 
for bonde seruauntes, or slaues, it is more con- 
uenient then for honest menne, to bee euer maun- 
ching and filling the gutte. .. ", 

IT Thus ferre hath it been mencioned and rehearsed 
what persones, for what causes thesaied Diogenes re- 


What feulte 

It is not for 
honest menne 
to bee euer 


buked and founde faulte withalL Now listen wliat 
sort of men he praised. 

He allowed them that wer towarde wiuyng, 
and yet wiued not: that wer in a readinesse to whatpersones 
saile on the sea, and yet tooke no shippe : Diagmes al- 
that wer about to giue children their findyng, ^^^ * P'^'" 
and yet found none at all : that addressed them- 
selfes to entre doinges in the common weale, and 
yet entered not in deede: that had prepaired 
and framed theimselfes to be in the courte,.and 
to liue in housholde with high states, or men 
of greate power, and yet came not therto. 

IT Signifiyng, that best it was from all thesaid When a man 
thynges vtterly to absteine, and therefore those persones jjg*j ™f,^ ^"" 
to seme wise, which hauing had earnest mocion, greate mater, 
or prouocacion to any of thesame, had in season '* '^ "*" '" ^^^ 

, , , . ,- " , own power, to 

chaunged their nqmdes, for that when men are ones goo backe a- 
alredie entred in soche matters, it is not in their owne ga-ine,' or to 
power or free libertee to alter that thei haue aduisedly purposf ? '* 
resolued vpon, although it repent them of the trade or 
waie that thei haue chosen. Whoso hath ones married 
a wife is not now from thensforthe, all together The state of 
his owne man : but in maner half maisterfast : whoso varied men, 
hath auentured to commit hymself to the sea, must of tij^ ^^ ^^^ of 
force stande in the grace of the wyndes, whither to officers in a 
bee conueighed or caried : whoso hath ones stepped '=°'"'"°" 
forth, & sette in foote to take charge of a commen 
weale, and to haue dooynges in pubhque aflfaires, must 
remedylesse serue * the staige, & go through with the 
parte that he hath taken in hande to play, yea and ^j^^ "t^^'^is a 
though his herte would neuer so faine, yet is it as much prouerbe taken 
as his life is woorthe, from a publike office of gouem- owoftheLatm 

. * . ° Scenae serurre, 

mga commonweale, to retire vnto a priuate state and by whiche is 
condicion of liuyng. signified, to 

■ dooe as the 
time will sufire, and as the presentecase requireth, so eche persone to applie him- 
selfe. Cicero writyng vnto Brutus, saieth to hym : Tibi nunc populo Sf scenae, vt 
dieitur, -seruiendam est. Nam in te mm solum exereitus tui, sed omnium duium, ac 
pane gentium coniecti sunt oeuli ; that is, Thou must nowe of necessite serue the 





people and the staige (as saieth the prouerbe) For on thee are directly and , wholly 
cast the iyen, not onely of thyne owne armie, but also of all the Citisens of Rome, 
yea and in maner of al nacions in the world too. So that the prouerbe maie veiy 
congruentlye bee spoken of suche persones, as haue taken in hande some high 
office or charge in a common weale, or els the conueighaunce and execucion of 
soihe very noble acte or matter to be doen in the face of the worlde, whiche thei 
must of force, either to their higbe honour, praise, glory, and renoume goo through 
withall and finishe, or els wi5i the greate in&mie, ^iS'i^e, and reproche, ^uaill 
and laye .all in the dust, because of the expectacion of menne in suche a case, 

25. Diogenes hath the name to bee the aucthor 
How we ought and first brynger vp of this ridle also: That 
seifcstoourr' nienne ought not to putte forthe their handes to 

theii: frendes with theire fyngers fast clynched 


f Betokenyng that it is not enough if we shew our 
selfes lowly, gentle, & familiare to ourfrends, <butthat 
to thesame coiuissy of behaueour, we ought, also to 
couple liberalitee and bountee for a compaignioiL 
Whoso dooen. gently and courteously handle and en- 
treacte their frends, are saied proprely in Greeke 
Seiiova-Oai, that is to take by the righte hande, and 
courteouslie and louynglye to entreteine. 

At what tyme Diogene^s beeyng taken prisoner 
in the Isle of Crete .lyhic^ ,is npw called Candie, 
was broughte fqrthe to bee sold, vnto ^he cryer 
demaundyng wherin.hi^ chief feacte or cunnyng 
did stand, and by what title he should commend 
hym to the buyers, Marie (quoth he) saie that 
thou hast a feloe tomake money of, that hath the 
right knowelage how to rewle menne of freedome, 
One Xeniades a Corinthian hauyng liiuche mer- 
uaill at the straungnesse of the crye, approched 
vnto Diogenes, and demaunded whether he had 
perfecte skylle to doe that he professed & tooke 
vpon hym. And when by the communicacion of 
the philosophier he perceiued him to bee a man 
both of high wisedom, & and also of profouncle 
learnyug, jie bought hym, & had -him home with 




By, what title 
Diogenes ' 
wotild be com- 
mended to the 
buiers,wBfen be 
' should be solde 

Xeniades a Co- 
bought Diog- 
enes to his 

THE jl. BOOKE. 89 

him to his hous, and committed his children to Xeniades com- 
hym for to bee taught, whiche children Diogenes JJ^"^ thegul- 
toojce vnto his cure, and thesame right gentle- ding&teach- 
manlike traine;d both in learnyng and maners. '"^° togmes 
And fii;st and -foremoste, he taught theim the Whatthinges 
liberallsciencies, and shortly after he tayghttheim ^|h?theson- 
the feacte.qf ridyiig an horse, hetaughttheimto nesoiXmiades 
bend a bowe & to shoote in it, to whurle with a 
sling, and to picke or cast a darte. In the 
wrastleyng place, he would not suffre that their '^^■^^T 
tutour (whiche hadde the cure of their bodies & ffe»es permitted 
health) should exercise them with peinfuU labours sch^oilrra?^ 
after the maner ofmenne of sense, but so ferre and 
somucheasmight bee auaillable to the roddynesse Diogenes his 
of colour, and for good healthe of the body. He ^tng p°JL^es^' 
founde the meanes that they shoulde learne by and other au- 
hearte and memorie al that euer good was out of we'^Siue per- 
the poetes, and other writers. In consideracion fccte knewe- 
that we haue true knowls^e and perfecte intelli- more°then is 
gence, onely of suche thinges as wee haue suerly engrauen in 

• .jj . Aip our memorie. 

enpnnted and engrauen m our memory. At fewe 

woordes, the summe, the effecte and pith of all ^g™«*'ifewe 

. ' ' . ^ ■ - out the summe 

doctrine he drewe out for theim, compiled to- of all discipii- 

gether by abrigemente, to the ende that bothe 

they might in sjhorter timp haue a ithrpugh slight 

in it, & also the mqre smfestandallye for i^uer 

conteine it in their memorie. Thesame children trXed the"'" 

he broke and taught howe to awaj^e on their sonnesof^e»- 

parentes at home in their hous, and to be wel 

pleased with light meate, and such as was easie to 

bee gotten, and to bee contented with water to TOrii^sed or~ 

their drynke : and where others kepte their long "f f'gned by 

^ X o Otogenes, 

lockes wel trymmed and decked, for an prnamqqte, 
and for the better settyng forth of their fauour 
& beautie, Diogenes commaunded these children 
to haue their Heddes polled. And if iat any tyme 


nes for his 

iadesin their 

Childrens diet 



The Lacede- 
monians broke 
& exercised 
their children 
and youth in 


The habite of 
the minde is 
best perceiued 
by a mannes 


The ouersight 
of many per- 
sones in bui- 
yng of menne. 

suche occasion chaunced, that they must goo 
foorth of dooi-es, he brought theim foorth vn- 
kembed, and vnpiked, withoute cotes, bare foote 
and bareleggued, and not a woord with theim 
Ouer & besides this, he did breake theim in tlie 
feacte of Jiuntyng, in this behalfe followyng the 
guyse and custome of the Lacedemonians. 

IT By reason of these thinges it came to passe, that 
Diogenes had muche reuerente attehdaunce dooen to 
him 'by the saied children, and that he was for their 
sakes highly estemed and accepted with their father 
Xeniades. Other writers tellen the tale, that the crier 
by the biddyng oi Diogems^xA. in this maner speake 
his wordes. Is there any manne that is willyng 
or mynded to bye a maister .' 

When he sate hym downe in the sale time, he 
was forbidden to sit on his taille, and was charged 
to stand vpon his feete, for this entente (I sup- 
pose,) that the cheapman might the more easylie 
vieue and trie what hee bought. Tushe, (quoth 
Diogenes) what mater maketh that, sens that 
fishes, after what facion so euer they lyen, bee 
bought vp. 

H Notyng the folishenesse of the common people, 
whiche gooyng about to bye a bondman, wil bee wise 
and well aware that no faulte of the bodie maie escape 
vnespiedi and will not with like prouision and caucion 
serche. and trye; what state and case the mynde is in. 
And as for the habite of the mynde is moste euidentlye 
perceiued by a mannes communicacion and talkyng.. 

^^ • And hot by sittyng or standyng. 

He saied that it seemed to hym a meruaillous 
mater, .that whereas men would riot bye a potte 
or a potteled, but wel tried with knockyng on it, 
or els -by the tincklyng and soune therof: in 



biyng a manne they could be contented and satis- 
fied with onelye lookynge on hym with theire iye. 

^ Signifiyng that a manne is by nothyng in the A manne is by 
worlde better knowen, then by his communicacion. terknowen 
Therfore hke as they that goo about to bye an then by his 
yearthen potte, or vessell for an orkyn, dooe knocke ^0™.""""°^" 
vpon it with their knuccle, and by the soune that it 
geueth doe soone disceme whether it bee whole, of 
suche claye or metalle as it shoulde bee, and seasoned 
in the keil, or not : so before that they bye a man 
with poundes moo then one or twoo, meete it wer to 
prouoke the partie to speake, and to tell one tale or 
other, and by his talkyng to fynd out what maner feloe 
he is. To the selfsame purpose apperteyneth the 
saiynge nexte afore. 

A fyshe is dumme and cannot speake, neyther 
maketh it any force howe thesame lyetH on the ,,. 
stalle, forasmuche as no man can makpTthereof 
anie thyng but a fyshe. 

% Sembleably it is no matter ne difference at all, ■ 
of what habite, pleight, or complexion of bodie ye bye 
a manne, if ye bye hym, neuer hearyng hym speake. 

Unto Xeniades by whom he was bought, he 29. 

saied : Sir, ye must remedylesse bee obediente to 

me, and rewled by me, although beeyng now 

i_ J . • .J - j^i j^ 1 The maister 

your bondeseruaunt, m consideracion that whoso g„g^^^ ^ ^ee 
hath to his bondeseruaunt a shipmaister, or a auised by his 
Physician, is of force driuen to bee rewled by the he™e'wise.' 
same, if he bee disposed to haue any commoditee 
or profitable seruice of hym. 

The reporte gooeth, that in the hous , of this 30. 
same Xeniades he contynued and liued vntill he - 
was- a veraye aged manne, and was there buryed 
of his owne scholares. And beeyng asked by yiow Diogenes 
Xeniades howe his desire was to bee buried, bSried. ° ^ 
Grouelyng, quoth he, with my face toward the 



grounde. And to thesame Xeniades demaund- 
yng the cause why, he said: For, ere long time 
to an ende, it will come to passe, that those 
thynges whiche now lyen downward shalbee 
turned vpward. 

*|[ Alliidyng hereunto, that at that presente season, 
The Macedo- ,t\ie Macedonians hadde gotten the ouer hande vpon 
mam conqu- jjjg Athenims, and hadachiued the empier ofal Grut, 

ered all Grece, „ , . ., , , -^ , ' 

and helde the ,& pf, m maner vilaynes.or slaues, they wer become ve- 

dominion of ,raie baulte, & from veraye basse,, they were mounted, to 

thrtyrae'of high domyniqn. That if all thynges should so be 

Diogenes. tumed vp side down, it should saunce fail come to 

passe that his dedde carkesse also should ere many 

daies after bee tumed from liynge grouuleyng, to liyng 

with the face vpward. Percase his menyng was diis, 

to bee no mater to bee passed on, after what maner 

of Uyng or fecion the dedde bodie be putte in the 

graue, about whiche mater, great was the superstidon 

The maner of of the moste parte of people, for they wer carried to 

buiriynginold tjjeir burial with their feete liyng forth towarde the 

tyme. - . 

towne gate, they were Ibumed m maner of standyng 
bili^'^^ir v^ight, and at this daye the lewes (as I heare sayfi) 
wer standing are putte in theire graues as if it wer standyng. omtheii 
on their feete, fgetA at lest wjse the ^Christians euery one of theiro 

and the Chns- . , . ,.,.,. . , , . 

tians with their Without excepcion are laied m thejr graues iwith their 
faces vpward. faces vpw^de. 

3 1 . Standyng on a time in the open mercate place, 
he cried with a loude voice. Approche ye 
menne, approche ye menne, as though he had 
had some earnest matter to sale vnto the people. 
And when they had gathered veraye thicke about 
hym, and he for all that, ceassed not but still 
cryed: Approche ye menne, certain of theim. 
takyng greate indignacion at the mater: aun- 
swered : Loe, here wee bee, saie thy mynd. 
Then Diogenes driuynge theim awaye with a staf, 

saied : 


saied : I bade menne toapproche* and not dounge Theithaiiiuen 
hylles or draffesackes. "<" accordyng 

to reason, but 

Tl He thought not the name of a manne to- bee a are leden by 

congraente or a right name for suche persones as ^^nsuaU affec- 
1- J i 1 1 . - , tes and pas- 

Iraednot accordyng to reason, but were leden and sions, arenot 

rewled by sensuall mocions, and pangueSj after the worthie to bee 

maner of swyne and other brute beastes. '^^^^ '"^""^' 

Alexander Magnus when he was at the citeeof 32., 
* Corinthus, wente vnto Diogenes sittyng in his .Alexander tal- 
tubbe, and talked familiarelye with hym manie ^^tlyM^Z 
thynges : from whom after that he was departed, with Diogenes 
to his familiare frendes takyng highe disdeigne ^"1"! '"^^^ 
and indignacioh, that beeyng a kynge, he had Howe highly 
dooen so muche honour to such a doggue as jfeOTus'este- 
Diogenes, who would not vouchesalue so muche as med the pwio- 
ones to aryse vp from his tail to doe his duetie of TJ'ofDio^s. 
humble obeysance to so greate a prince, he saied : 
Wei, yet for all that, wer I not Alexander, I 
would with all my hert bee Diogenes, 

^ So meruaillous highlye did he esteme, that same Nothing more 
the mynde and herte of the same Diogenes constitute '"'^ t° * '""g- 
and beeyng in moste perfecte freedome, and ferre sur- twephilosophi- 
mountyng the coumpace or reache of al worldlie or call mynde. 
transitorie thynges, that he iudged nothynge to be Theprincipall 
more like to a kyngdome or Empier. The principall and chief felici- 
and chief felicitee of kyngs is, that thei ought semice ^athirfw' 
or homage to no yearthly creature, but whatsoeuer commoditees 
thyng standeth with their wille and pleasure, they '^1™'^^^°' 
doe and veraie easilie bryng to eflfecte, and secound- 
arily, that they feele wante of nothyng yearthly, and ToheeAUxan. 
all this doeth philpsophie more substanciallie and <'«■. -Alexander 
more assuredly performe to a manne, then doeth any more^tiieirto'* 
empier vnto kynges. Albeeit to bee Alexander, be a kyng. 
Alexander deemed in hys opinion to bee a somewhat 
higher and greater pointe, then to bee a kyng. 

% ,Cor3mthus sometyme a right noble and. a riche citee in Achqia, situate and 
liyng betwene two seas, the one called Aegmm, and the other Ionium, a marte 




towne of greate haunte. It was first builded by Sisyphus the sonne of Aeolus and 
called Carcyra. After that it was called Ephyre. Then was it destroied, and 
eftsones reedifyed by one Corinthus the sonne of Orestes, and called CoriiUhm. 
Then was it yet again burned and clene destroied by the Romaines, and finallye 
reediiied by Augustus Emperour of Roome. 


What folkes 
thought wor- 
thie to be cal- 
led feble & 
maimed per- 

He auouched that suche folkes as wanted 
theire hearyng or lacked theire sight, ought not 
for that respect to bee called feble and maimed 
persones, but such as had no scrip hangyng by 
their syde. 

f He dalied with the affinitee or likenesse of twoo 
greeke vocables, the one,di'aini7pos, and the other ainypos. 
For drainypos, of the Grecians is called, a maimed 
persone, a creple, or one that hath lost the vse of 
some membre or lymme of his bodie, and am/pos, he 
that is without a scryppe, suche as the poore that 
asken almes from doore to dobre haue hangyng by 
their syde. Notifi)mg in myne opinion, a manne to 
be ferre vnmeete for all good occupacions to bee doen 
in this life, that is voide of Philosbphie. For the 
scryppe was for al prouision and store of vitailles 
that the C)Tiikes hadde. 

Hauing on a time entreed a place wher a 
coumpaignie of younge ruffleers were banquet- 
tyng & makyng good chere with his polle shoren 
pate, he was not only nothing courteously wel- 
comed and entreteined, but also sent away with 
as many stripes of whippyng and scourgeyng as 
his backe could beare, on which pefsones in this 
wise he auenged himself. .The names of the 
young menne, young menne by whom he had been scourged,he 

that had whip- ' ° , . . . „ , 

regestred in a piece of paper, and so walked vp 



A man void of 
philosophie is 
fer vnmete for 
al good occu- 
The Cynikes 
had no proui- 
sion or vitailles, 
but in their 


How Diogenes 
auenged him- 
self on certain 

ped and 
scourged him. 

and down with his cope wyde open. 

IF The markes or scrattes of the stripes declared 
as plainly as if he had spoken it with his tongue, how 
he had. been handled, and the white paper vttreed 
theim that had doen the dede. By this meanes he 



published the vngentle yong feloes, to be chidden & 
rahated of al the world. 

Because he was a Cynike, he was called 35- 
doggue, & this kynde or secte of liuyng was of ^"f"many™ut 
many persones highly praised, but yet no man no manne'will 
would foloe thesame. Wherupon he vsed oft ^°'°^ "• 
tymes to sale, that he was the hounde of manie 
that praised him, but yet that neuer a one of 
his praisers had the herte to goo on huntyng 
with the hounde that was so muche praised. 

A certain feloe making vaunt and bost of ,g 
hymself, and saiyng ; I winne euer the victorie 
of men in the games called *Pythia, No, it is I games' a^d 
(quoth Diogenes) that wynne the victorie of piaiesyereiy 

J.I ' r 1 celebrated, and 

menne, and thou, of slaues. holden in the 

IT Ones again he dalyed with the affinitee and ^onour of 
likenesse of the Greke woordes that is betweene ^^ ^^ g. 

avSpas, men, and avSpdiroSa, bonde slaues. And great serpent 

bondeslaues did he cal, whatsoeuer persons wer as maundemente 

subiecte and geuen vnto sensual! lustes, and desires. &beckeofluno 

And these cupiditees by philosophie to ouercome, is (^^ the Poetes 

a more honest and ioylie th}Tig, then in the games gette vpon 

called Pythia to ouercome men. ApoUo to de- 

stroie him, 
when he was an infaunte, but ApoUo euen in his tendre infauncie, with his bowe 
and aroes slewe the serpente Python, and therof was surnamed Pythius, and 
therof Cometh Pythia, Of these games is afore mencioned. 

To a certain persone auisynghim, that beeyng 37. 
nowe a manne striken in age, he should repose 
hymself & rest from labours, What, (quoth he) 
if I wer rennyng in a race : whether wer it con- 
uenient, beeyng nowe approched nigh to the gole, 
and to the ende of the race, to slacke my course 
and pace of reilnyng, or els rather to streigne 

J r ,1 The lesse time 

and enforce the same. ,hat a man 

IT His iudgemente was right and true that the 'j^* '° ''"*' 

, . - . , , , , the more ear- 

studie of vertue is so much the more earnestly to bee ngsdy jg ti,e 




study of vertue pursued, as the lesse tyme to liue doeth remaine : in 

to bee proceded consideracion, that it wer a foule shame in a. mannes 

later dales to bee discomforted, or to haue a cold herte 

in prosecutyng an honest trade. 


A philosophier 
deserueth high 
thankes, that 
beeynge de- 
sired he will 
to bee a geast 
at an other 
mannes table. 

A philosophier, 
he Cometh 
paieth well for 
hys repast if 
he talke in phi^ 


How Diogenes 
rebuked De- 
Ttwsthenes con- 
hymselfe preu- 
ylye ferther in- 
to a tauern 
when he was 
found ther at 
diner in an 
outer roume. 

Beejmg on a time inuited and bidden to 
supper, he saied plkinlye that he woulde not 
come. And tb the partie demaundyng the 
cause why, he aunswered : Because* I had not 
my thankes yesterdaie for my comyng thyther. 

f The moste part of men requireth to haue thankes, 
as it were for some great benefite, if they haue had a 
bodie at dyner or supper with theim. But Diogenes 
(although beeyng; a poore man) demed ^eat thankes 
to bee duelie owyng, vnto him, that he would vouch- 
salue and not refuse to make one at a mannes table, 
for that he came no whither without bearing his 
porcion of the shot for his repast, but did with com- 
municacion of Philosophic muche more dentylie feede 
the myndes aswell of the partie that made the feast, 
as also of the other geastes, then thesame maker of 
the dyner fedde the body with good viandrie. 

He tooke on a tyme Demosthenes beyng at 
that season but a.yong strepleyng, euen with 
the maner dinyng in a comen taueme, and when 
the same Demosthenes hauing espyed Diogenes 
conueighed himself awaie into an inner roume 
of the house, So muche the ferther in (quoth he) 
shalt thou bee in the taueme. 

II Signifiyng that hee was like muche the more for 
that to be a talkyng stocke to all the geastes in the 
coimipaignie, that not onely he haunted suche a place, 
but also had conueighed hymself priuely out of sight, 
as though he had been found in some matter or deede 
of mischief. For that was a thyng more to bee talked 
of, then that he was makyng good chere there. Other 
writers tellen, that this was spoken to a certain young 



manne, not naming what he was, but thesame might 
bee euen Demosthenes too. As for the sense is the more 
plain and open, that wee take or vnderstande, that 
the young manne was put in remembraunce that he The more se- 
should auoide not ferther into suche a place, but clene ""^ *^' 't ■ 
out of doores. For the ferther in that he hidde him- an eiuill place, 
selfe secrete out of sight with in the tauerne, the more the more ve- 
truelie he was in the tauerne. '^^ '" *"'. '" "• 

To certain straungers beeyng veraie desirous ^q. 
and fain to haue a sighte of that ioylie feloe How Diogenes 
Demosthenes that had eueriewhere so srreate a shewed Cemos- 

° tneraes vnto cer- 

name, Diogenes stretchyng out, his middle finger, tain straun- 
and pointing with it : saved : Thissame is that ^^'^ ^^^^ ***" 

■^ ° ' sirous to see 

ioylie felowe Demosthenes the oratour of the him. 

IT The fore fynger nexte vnto the thumbe is called 
in latin, in^ex, as if ye should saie in English, the point- index. 
yng fynger, or the. shewyng fynger, because that 
stretching forth thesame finger, on length wee vse to 
shew this, or that. And the middlemust fynger was 
emong menne of old tjnne rekened slaundrous, for a 
cause at this presente not to bee rehearsed. And 
Demosthenes had in euery mannes mouthe an eiuill re- 
porte, of misliuyng and abusing his body. Which 
thing Diogenes notifiyng, had more phansie to poincte to- 
wardes hym with the middle finger, then with the fore 
finger, as other folkes vsed to doe. 

A piece of breadehad fallen from a feloe, who 41. 

lefte thesami; liyng on the ground, for that he Fol'she shame 
was ashamed to take it vp again. Diogenes 

myndyng to refourme the folia of the partie, putte ceramicus, 

a corde aboute the necke of a potte, and trailled it ^^ * 9^°^ 

after hym on the grounde along the Ceramicus, uyng for the 

doyng thesame thyng in a potte, which the other buiriall of 

-. .'Ill 1 L t ' ' r theim that had 

felowe was eiuilI ashamed to dooe m a piece of been slaine in 
breade. battaiii. 

7 Where 



42. Where he semed to manie folkes toto muche, 
How Diogenes and toto earnest a philosophier, he aunswered 
thdmto^whom ^^ that ther in foloed the maner of the maister 
he semed toto chauntres that sette the kaye, or take the first 

earnest a Phi- . j- ^ ■• ■. ■ ■ , . 

losophier. P^rte of a song to begynne it in a quiere, who of 
a custome and vsage, dooen somewhat excede 
the righte tune that they should take to the ende, 
that the others maie take the due tune, that they 
ought to'dooe. 

U For what excedeth or passeth the meane, al- 

All vertues doe though it be vicious. ^g" For all vertues sayen the 

consiste in the ,,_,,., , • \ , . . , 

meane, be- morall Philosophiers) doen consiste m the meane be- 
twene twoo twene two vices, as for example, liberalitee betweene 
nigardship and prodigalitee, true religion behvene 
supersticion and contempte.) yet thesame muche 
auailleth to stiere vp, and to quicken the sloug- 
gardie of others. Sembleablie the robe or cope, & 
the tubbe of Diogenes, did not without their greate 
reproche vpbraide to the riche and welthy folkes their 
nicitee and their delices. 

43. It was one of his saiynges, that no small 
Many are in a noumbre of menne are in a deeper kynde of 
madnesse madnesse, then the errour of mispointyng with 
then if thei the finger extended vnto. 

should poincte . . 

with one finger " For if a bodie should still stretche oute the mid- 
in stede of an lemust finger to pointe therewith in stede of the for^ 
finger, he should echewhere be accoumpted as one out 
of his witte, if one putte forth the forefinger to that vse, 
he is thought sad and well auised. But many a thou- 
sand folkes there been,whiche dooemuch more greuous- 
lie plaie the mad menne in serious maters, then if they 
should put out one finger in stede of an other, and yet 
suche persones are not emong the people commenly 
The foly of taken for misauised. As euen at this present dale, 

some parentes '^ . 

in chasticing the parentes dooe in their children chastice for a 
their children, greuous offence if they vse the lieft hand in stede gf 
the righte hande, but they dooe not sembleablie chas- 


tice theim, when they chose and take thyngs abhom- 
inable in stede of honest. 

He taunted the folic and madnesse of men in 44. 
this pointe also, that thynges precious, thei '^^ preposte- 

* t^ i ' rous cstinicL- 

bought and solde for litle or nothyng, and cionofthe 
thynges nothyng woorthe at very high prices, people in bying 
for he saied : i hat the porture of a man m brasse thinges. 
or stone, should bee bought vp with three thous- 
and J pieces of coyn, where as a pecke of mele images and 
was to bee solde for twoo brasse pens. poneratures of 

^ menne wer in 

% And yet ther nedeth no such image or porture oldtimebought 

for anie necessarie vse of mannes life, without meale ^' ^^ prices, 

there is no possibilitie of mainteinjoig the life. It had ~ 

therfore been conueniente that meale should bee sette estemen the 

at a much higher price then images of stone or brasse. P''i<=es °f 

The Philosophier estemed the prices of thynges by natiu^l vse of 

the naturall vse or necessarie occupiyng of thesame, thesame. 
the peuish multitude of the people estemeth it by 
their foolishe persuasion. 

J Trihis nummum millilms. The Frenche interpreter translateth three hundred 
crounes, whiche after the rate of fowertene grootes acroune, raaketh the full summe 
of three score and tenne poundcs of oure Englishe coyne. 

The same tale that a litle afore we recited of 45. 
Xeniades, certain writers tellen in this maner, 
wher as it was Diogenes that was bought, yet as 
though himselfe had bought Xeniades he saied 
vnto thesame : See that thou be obedient to my 
commaundements. And when the other saied 
again in Greke, av(o ■n-oraiuav, as ye would sale That "^^e maister 
were euen the riuer to renne vp the hylle, betoken- ied\y theVe"- 
yng the matter to goo clehe arsee versee, if the ser- "ainte beeyng 
uaunte shoulde commaunde the maister : Why, ^ ' ° °^ '"' 
quoth Diogenes, if thou beeyng in some greate xranquillitee 
sickenesse or maladie haddest bought a physician, of manne. 
wouldest thou not bee rewled by him prescrib- 
yng, thy diet ? Wouldest thou saie to him, 
avia irorafjiMV, The riuer renneth vp the hille ? 




hep.leth all the 
diseases of the 

How moche 
the soule is 
better then the 
bodie, so 
moche the 
more greuous 
are the diseases 
of the soule 
than of the 

Diogenes woijld 
nedes bee solde 
to one that had 
nede of a 


shame to no 

U If the maister beeyng eiuill diseased in his bodie, 
bee glad and faine to obeie the seruaunt hauyng good 
sight and practise in Phisike, muche more doeth it be- 
come one that is sore sicke in the mynde or soule, to bee 
obediente to his seruaunt, beeyng profoundlie experte 
in Philosophie. For what the facultee or arte of 
Physike performeth to the body, thesame dooeth phi- 
losophie accoumplishe to the mynde or soule. The 
one healeth the feuer, the other healeth the corrupte 
and naughtie appetites. And how much the mynde 
or soule is of more dignitee then the bodie, so muche 
the more greuous and dedlye are the diseases of the 
solle, then of the bodie. Laertius saieth more ouer, 
that Diogenes, when he was asked of the cryer, by 
what title he would bee sette out in wordes, and he 
had aunswered that he could skylle to rewle and to 
ordre men of freedome. Assone as he had es- 
pied a certain manne passyng by trimmelie 
decked & araied, he saied to thesame crier, Sell 
me to thissame felowe here, for he hath neede 
of a maister. 

To one makyng suite to be receiued of 
Dic^enes vnto his secte and discipline of philo- 
sophie, after the admission of the felowe, for to 
proue and trye the same, Diogenes deliuered 
vnto him a gammounde of bakon to carie in the 
strete, & commaunded him to come after him. 
The partie castyng awaie by reason of shame, 
the thing that he bare in his hand, stole priuely 
from him & conueighed him quite away. With- 
in fewe dales after Diogenes by chaunce meetyng 
with him, laughed and saied. Thy frendship and 
myne, a poore gammounde of bakon hath set 
at twaine. 

^ Doyng to wete, that he was no meete orapte 
disciple for philosophie, that could not contemne and 
shake of foUshe shame. For it is not a thyng vn- 



honest for one to carrie a gammonde of bakon in his 
hande, but to shiynke awaie from honestee and vertue 
is a thyng shameful! and abominable. Diodes telleth To shrinfce a- 

. \° , . . , waie from ver 

the selfsame mater, some what variyng from the tue, is a foule 
wordes aboue mencioned. shame. 

When a certain persone makyng suite to bee 
a disciple of Diogenes, had saied vnto hym, 
Maister Diogenes commaunde me to doe some 
seruice : To thesame receiued into his seruice, he 
deliuered a lumpe of chese to carrie, and when the 
young man for shamefastnesse, refused to beare 
the saide piece of chese. A litle piece of chese 
(quoth Diogenes) hath clene dashed the amitee 
and frendship of vs two. 

When he had espied on a time a ladde drink- 47- 
yng out of the palme of his hande, he saied : 
This lad is in frugalitee a degree aboue me, -^^^^^ hath 
that dooe carrie about me superfluous furniture of prouided for 
houshold, & forthewith toke cute of his scrippe ^"feLarit to" 
a litte treen tankard or dishe that he vsed for his nimre of hous- 
cuppe to drynk on, & thesame cast awaie from '^""^ ^'"*'^' 
him, saiyng I knewe not that nature hadde in * L^ticuid,is 
this behalfe also made prouision for vs. When a poultz, called 
he had seen an other boie, for asmuch as his treen (b^"^^;^"^^ * 
saucer was broken, to take vp * peason oute of here in Eng- 
the potte with a crust of breademade holowe for |^^^3e*'t"*erte) 
that purpose, he, cast awaie from him his treen i translate Pea- 
potagedishe too, as a thynge superfluous. ^°"' 

IT I can bee veraie well contented that these The frugalitee 
thynges bee thought worthie skome and derision, so '^^"^^l 
that wee graunt this excedyng great exaumple of sim- our superflui- 
plicitee and plainnesse, to make verie well to this pur- '^^^^^"^ ^^' 
pose, that wee maie bee ashamed of our superfluitees 
and excesses, that are vsed eche where emong vs at 
these dales. 






A syllogisme 
is a perfect ar- 
gument of Ld- 
gike, in which, 
twoo thinges 
or mo, first 
put, & thesame 
graunted, the 
doth ineuitably 
foloe of neces- 

How Diogmes 
concluded that 
a man sapient 
hath all things 
in his posses- 


Howe Diogenes 
rebuked a wo- 
man lying vn- 
comly pros- 
trate afore the 

Diogenes con- 
secrated to 
Aesculapius, a. 
Gyant with a 
clubbe in his 

Tragicall exe- 
crations raette 
with Diogenes. 

That to a manne sapiente nothyng is wan- 
thyng, he concluded by this syllogisme: The 
Goddes are lordes of all thynges and haue all 
thyngs in their possession : the sapiente menne 
and the Goddes are mutuall frendes, either to the 
others, and all maner thynges that one frende 
hath, is commen or readiefor the other also. Ergo 
the sapiente menne are lordes of all thynges, & 
haue all thynges in their possession. 

IT But by the selfesame syllogisme he mighte haue 
been shaken of, when he desired any th3mg: Why 
dooest thou craue, sens thou hast aU th3Tigs already in 
thy possession ? 

When hee had espied a woman liynge prostrate 
before the Goddes, hir bodye so boughed down, 
that behind her, some partes of thesame appered 
out, whiche is not comelie, ne honest to bee made 
bare to the iyes of menne: he went vnto her, 
saiynge. Art thou not afeard thou woman, lest 
that some God standyng behynde thy back (for 
all places and things of the worlde are replen- 
ished with the presence of God (thou demeane 
thy selfe vncomelie ? He is reported to haue con- 
secrated to Aesculapius a tormentour, who 
shoulde come rennynge and all to trample and 
crushe suche persones as would falle downe 
prostrate vpon their faces before Aesculapius. 

f By this colour and false pretense causyng folkes 
vtterlie to renounce & abandon supersticion, which 
haue a beleef that tlie Goddes will not heare theim 
except they make much doukyng, stoupyng, beckyng, 
and prostracions vnto thesame with vncomelie gesture 
of their bodie. 

He vsed veraie often in the waie of iestyng to 
sale, that the tragicall malediccions and: cursses 
hadde mette with him, for that he was (accord: 




yng to the fourme of soche maner execracions) 
dveo-Tios, destitute of an house to putte his hedde 
in, airoXis, abandoned from dwellyng in any citie, 
airarpis, as a manne banished out of his countree, 
xToixos, constreigned to begge his breade, aX-qrirji 
driuen to wandre about from place to place as 
a vagabound, and ^/^tepd/Scos, nat sure on the one (j/^jj^^jj g^ 
dale, where to haue his dyner the next day noble and a 

^ This he saied, alludyng to some place of one or ^Y Erasmus, in 
other of the tragedies, Of the execracions and curses fathered cer^' 
of X Oedipus I haue spoken at large in my werke of tain thou- 
greke and latin prouerbes whiche is entitleed. Chili- g^^^yj • 
ades. prouerbes. 

t Oedipus (as the fables of Poetes maken relacion) was the sonne of one Laus,kyng 
of Thebes ; who perceiuing his quene locasta to be with childe, sued to the oracle 
of Apollo, to haue true knowlege, what childe his saied wife locasta should bring 
foorthe. Aunswere was made by Apollo, that she should bryng forthe a soonne, 
by whom he the saied Laus should be slain. In consideracion wherof, immedi- 
ately : as sone as euer the childe was borne, Laus deliuered it vnto his shepheard, 
to dooe the same to death. But the shepheard moued with some compassion, would 
not out right kill the infant babe, but bored through either of his fete an hole, 
and with a twig put through the holes, houng hym vp aliue on a bough of a 
tree. But one Phorlas beeyng shepheard vnto Polybius, king of the Corinthians, 
finding thesaid child, bare the same to his quene : who (forasmoche as she had no 
children of hir own ( kept and nourished the child, as if it had been of hir own 
bodie borne, and of the swelling of his feete, by reason of the holes he was by hir 
named, Oedipus (for oiScTv in Greke is to swelle, and iroiis JrdSos a foote.) 
When this Oedipus was come to mannes state, a strife & debate beginning emong 
the Phocensians, the saied Oedipus vnawares and vnknowing, slewe his owne father 
Laus aforesaled : vpon this, it fortuned that Sphinx the monster, standing on an 
hillocke, at the citee of Thebes, would not suffer any bodie to passe by her, but to 
all soche persones as trauailed on the waie, she propouned redles and doubtful! 
questions, and as many as could not soile thesame redles, she killed out of hande. 
Then was made a decree, and vpon thesame a Proclamacion, that whosoeuer 
could soile the redle, whiche Sphinx propouned, should haue the queene locasta to 
wife, and should enioye the kingdome of Thebes. The redle that Sphinx propouned 
was this : What one and the same liuing creatur it was, that went on twoo feete, 
on three feete, and on fower feete : this redle Oedipus soiled, affirming it to bee man, 
who in his infancie, creping vpon his handes and feete, was fower footed, after- 
warde being growen to more full yeres of youth, went vpright on twoo feete, and in 
age decrepite vsing a staffe, wente with three feete. Sphmx thus hearing, for angre 
and sorowe, toumbled her self hedlong doune of a greate rocke, and so perished. 
And Oedipus, according to the Statute afore made, had the quene locasta to wife, 
and with her the kingdome of Thebes. On locasta he begot twoo sonnes, the one 
Polynices, and the other named Eteocles. At length Oedipus had knowlege bothe 
that he had slaine his owne father, and also that he had married his owne mother. ' 



For sorowe whereof he pulled out his owne iyes, with his owne handea. And then 
was leden aboute blinde by his doughter Antigone, who saued him ones or twise, 
when he would wilfully haue slaine him self. Neuerthelesse, the Thebarm hauing 
sure knowlege, and due proof of all the premisses exiled and. banished Oedipm 
out of their citee and countree for euer. And he departing as a banished man, 
accursed his sonnes Polynices and Eteocles (because thei did not in soche an ei- 
tremitee aide their father) that neither of theim might enioye the enheritaunce of his 
croune, in the kingdom of Thebes, but that thei might slea either other in battaill, 
and neuer haue power to retourne safe into their citee, &c, with many other moste 
dire and bitter malediccions, whiche lighted on them, and on all the whole familie 
of them. For, Polynices and Eteocles, fighting hand to hande, for the succession 
of their fathers croune, gaue either other his deathes wounde : so that thei bothe 
fell doune, and died euen there, out of hand, locasta their mother slue her self. 
And Oedipus was with a flash of lightning, sodainly striken to death, and of 
this notable plague the malediccions of Oedipus, are in a prouerbiall speaking, 
taken for notable greate misfortunes, and eiuill chaunces, soche as OiogKites here 
in this present, his Apophthegme doeth mencion : and Erasmus in thesaid Chiliades, 
doeth more at large recite. 

51. Ferthermore, he is reported to haue vsed this 
matai^d to" saiyng also, that to matche against fortune, he 
tune, lawe and sette alwaies the confidence or stoutnesse of 
affeccions. courage : against the lawe, he set nature : against 

. affeccions, mocions, or wilfull pangues of the 
purchaced and minde, reason. 

tTanq^ite ^f' ^ ^°^ *^^* ^y *^^^ ^^^ *'°S^^ '^ purchaced 
menne. and maintcined, the tranquilitee of men. Against the 

bloustreyng stormes and rages of fortune, a strong 
hart, beyng voide of all maner feare, is to a sapient 
manne a sure bucler and defense : in stede of a lawe, 
the Wiseman foloweth nature, to the whiche nature if 
the lawe be repugnaunt, he despiseth the lawe. And 
with reason he caulmeth, asswageth, and kepeth 
doune, the troubleous assautes of desires, and affec- 
cions inordinate. 

52. When Alexander Magnus came to see Dioge- 
Cranmm jjg chaunced to finde him in the place that 

(e long) was a ' • 1. 1_ 

place of exer- was Called Craneum, sitting m his tubbe, & 
of'co^A»f' ^ patching together with glewe or past, the toren 
leues of his bookes. And after that the king 
hauing familiarly talked many things with him, 
addressed him self to depart, & said: Bethink 
thyself Diogenes, what thou woldest moste faine 



aske of me, for whatsoeuer thou shalt desire or Hoyre Diogenes 
wishe, thou shalt assuredly haue, Well (quoth Alexander the' 
Diogenes) of other thinges we shall talke g«at, inuiting 

° ', . , ° . , ., him to aske of 

anone at leasure, in the meane time stand aside him what gift 
from me a litle out the way. When the king had he would, 
gone back from him, supposing that the other 
was minded to consider with him selfe what he 
might best aske : to thesame, of a prety while 
speaking not a worde, he repeted his former 
wordes, and ones again said : Aske what thing thy 
mind and will is Diogenes., Mary euen this 
same was my will and desire to haue, quoth he 
again, for before, thou diddest keepe away from 
me the Sunne, being moste requisite and neces- 
sary for this busines or occupation that I am 
about now. ^ Other writers tellen, that he said thus : 
Do not make shadowe betwene the Sunne and 
me. If For that he was disposed to sunne him selfe. 

This also is recorded in writing, that Alex- 53. 

ander spake vnto him after this sort : I am come 

hether Diogenes, to succour & to relieue thee, 

because I see thee to be in great penurie and 

nede of many thinges. To whome Diogenes aun- Diogenes 

,,1 . ,■,„ 1 «• ■ . auouchedhim- 

swered thus againe. Whether 01 vs two is in more self to be richer 

penurie, I, that besides my scrip and my cope, thenMexander 

doe misse ne desire nothing at all, or els thou, 

whicih not being contented with the inheritaunce 

of thy fathers kingdom, doest put thy selfe in xhe insaciabie 

auenture, and hasarde of so many perils and myndeof^iex- 

daungers, to enlarge the limites of thine Em- Empder. 

pire, in so much, that vneth all the whole worlde 

semeth able to satisfie thy couetous desire? 

On a certain time when Diogenes had ben 54- 
reading of a lecture a very great while together, 
was at last come so farre that he sawe a voide 




Vain sophisti- 
cations, are 
rather to be 
skorned, then 
to bee soiled. 


Howe Diogenes 
confuted Zeno, 
labouryng to 
proue that mo- 
uing is a thing 


How Diogenes 
mocked a So- 
phist, arguyng 
him to be no 

Euety perfecte 
hath three 
partes or mem- 
bres, as, that I 
am thou art 

page of a leafe : Be of good comforte maisters 
(quoth he) I haue espied lande. 

^ Making resemblaunce to a company of men 
being weried with long sailing, who are well refreshed 
in their hartes, when the porte or hauen afarre of ap- 
peareth vnto theim. 

To one by sophistical! insolubles concludyng 
and prouing, that Diogenes had homes, feling 
and handling his forehead & his temples. In 
faith (quoth Diogenes) but I se ne fele none. 

H He thought better to laugh soch a peuish trifling 
argument to scome, then to soyle it. 

When Zenon reading a lecture in the scholes, 
laboured with most subtile & most craftie reasons 
to proue that neither was there, ne possiblie 
might be, any mouing. i^° (In which mouing de- 
pendeth a great portion of the verities, concluded in 
naturallphylosophie.) Diogenes arising vp out of 
his place, begonne to walk vp & down, Zenon 
marueiling therat, said : Why, what doest thou 
now Diogenes ? Marie (quoth he) I falsifie & 
confute thy blind reasons. 

U Rebuking, al vnder one, the vaine bragge & os- 
tentacion that Zenon made of his witte. 

A certain Sophist, willing in the presence of 
Diogenes, to shewe the quicknesse of his witte, 
made a sophisticall argument vnto him, in maner 
and forme as foloeth. That I am, thou art not : 
when Diogenes had therunto graunted : And I 
am a man, (quoth the other) Ergo, thou arte not 
a man. Then said Diogenes : Let the first mem- 
ber of thy syllogisme begin of me, and the con- 
clusion of thine argument shall assuredly be right 
and true. 


thou art not a 
man, the con- 

Aboue in the 
xxiii, saiyng 


f He would not vouchesafe to discusse what de- not, the maior -. 
fault and errour was in the argument, but thought ^^„ ^^^ 
better to geue a mock to the felowe that stode so minor; ergo, 
highly in his own conceipt, for the respect of soch 
trifling baggage. If his minor had ben this, Thou art elusion 
a man, then after Diogenes his sentence, the conclusion 
had ben good, for it had folowed that the Sophist was 
no man. 

To one for the ostentacion of his wit, busely 5°- 
pratling and making many gaye good morowes "o^STfeloe 
of the skie, and the sterres : I pray you good sir that made 
(quoth Diogenes) how long since, came ye down ^'t'fn^tion- 
from heauen .■" omie. 

IT In this he represented Socrates, whose sai)mg 
was, soch thinges as are aboue our reache, to be no 
part of our playe to medle withall. of Socraies. 

A certain Ennuch, being in sore infamie and 59- 
slaunder of vicious and vnthriftie lining, had gelded man! ^ 
written vpon the doore of his house, no euill 
thinge motte there enter here. Diogenes the 
same inscription espiyng, saide : The owner of 
the house for his owne parte, what waye doth he 
vse to goe in .' 

^ The Ennuch had set vp that title as a poysee, 
or a woorde of good lucke, that no misaduenture might r^^ ^-^^^ ^j 
light on the house, and the same did Diogenes wrest the minde one- 
and transferre to the vices of the mynde, whiche y'.,^"^!"" ^^^ 

1 • J J -n ^f euiUthynges. 

onely are m very dede euiU thmges. 

Diogenes hauing gotten perfume, rubbed and 6o. 
enointed his feete therewith, contrarie to the Diogaiestn- 
common vsage of all other folkes. And to soche ^th perfume, 
persones as made a great wondring therat, he wher others 
saide : Thus I doe because that perfume being heddes. 
powred vpon the head, reketh oiit into the aire : 
but from the feete it ascendeth vp to the nase- 




Menne should fl Semblably did an other persone disalowe & dis- 
flowCTs ^^their P^^Y^^ *e commen vsage, by which men set garlandes 
bosome, rather of swete herbes & floures vpon their heads, where as it 
then in their jg more conuenient to put the same benethe the nase- 
trelles, for that the vapour and aire of the redolent 
sauour, dothe not of his propertee so much descende 
& soke downward, as it, doth mount and ascende 



Howe Diogenes 
replied to the 
syng him to 
be a preste or a 
minister of 
their holie rites. 

ilauSf a 
noble & a v:c- 
torius kyng of 
the Lacedemo- 
nians, & Epa- 
right valiaunt 

The blisse of 
heauen is not 
conferred for 
the respecte of 
this ordre, or 
that, but for 
good liuyng. 


The priestes, or ministers (of soche diuine rites, 
sacres and misteries, as an the gentilitee of that 
time were vsed in Athenes) would haue persuaded 
Diogenes, and haue brought him in minde, to take 
ordres, and to be a minister of the temple among 
theim, alleging, that soch as in their life time 
had bene within holy ordres, had highest pre- 
eminence among the dead. To the which aduer- 
tisement, Diogenes thus replied. That is a mad 
rekening, saith he, as euer I heard, if the valiaunt 
Captaines Agesilaus & Epaminondas, because 
they were neuer priestes, be liyng in the back- 
hous ditche, and Patetion that theefe, with all 
the rable of other like spittle vilaines, for this 
onely respect that they ben within ordres, shall 
sit in God almightie his own lappe. 

^ It was a sore checke geuen to the facions of the 
priestes, who for their emolument, lucre, andauantage, 
did flatter, & with faire promises feede the supersticion 
of the blind and ignoraunt people, bringing thesame 
in ful beleefe that taking ordres, or professing religion, 
should conferre etemall blisse after this present life, 
whereas thesame felicitee is ordeined and prepared 
only for those, that by godly and noble doings haue 
deserued it, whether they be men of the church & with- 
in holy orders, or not. 

At his first entreyng into his philosophicall 
profession or trade, when he in his tubbe eatyng 



drie and mustie breade, all solitarie without the 
coumpaignie of anie creature, heard al the whole 
citee whoughtyng and shoughtynge eueriewhere 
with ioye and solace, (for it was a feaste daie of Howe Diogenes 
high solemnitee and pastyme) he feeled in his ^hen haife 
herte no small tediousnesse, and a good preatie rayndtd to 
while it ranne so in his hedde, that he was more phiiosophicali 
then half mynded, to geue ouer the trade of '^ade that he 

, . , . , , , . _, , had entred in- 

liuyng, wmche he was ^ntreed mto. But when to, was staied. 
at last, he sawe mice come crepyng about his 
tubbe, and eating vp the crummes of bread, he 
saied to himselfe, Why art thou out of conceipt 
with thyself Diogenes ? thou arte a greate estate 
out right, and kepest a royall porte, loe, thou 
kepeste a table for smelfeastes too, that are 
gladde, to seke their dyner with the. 

To Plato for the respecte of his slouenrie and q-, 
beggerlinesse of liuynge, callinge him curre and 
dogge: Yea marie (quoth Diogenes) ye say sothe, Diogmes tooke 
for I am come renning home again to theim that '" |°°^ P^* 
solde me away. dogge. 

H For it is the guise and maner of doggues, if 
they bee solde,' to renne home againe to their olde 
maisters. He was nothyng offended with the oppro- - 

brious worde, but rather to his own purpose interpre- 
ted thesame. In sailyng towards Aegina he was Crete, is the 
before his arriuall^ taken prisoner of certain pirates, & ^^^"^ca^l 
so brought into the Isle of Crete, and there solde. ofwhichewec' 
Those pirates (I thynke) wer Corinthians, or Atheniens, ^^^^ ^°^^^ '° 

, . , .J another place. 

or at lestwise Aeginetes. 

When certain persones had demaunded on hym 5 x _ 
as he was comyng homeward from the hotte baine 
hous, whether there were at thesame, many men. The appella- 
No verelie, saied he. And beeyng eftsones asked <='°? °f ^ '"^" 

, , . , , IS fit, but for 

whether there wer at the said stew much presse few. 
of folke, Yea, by the rood is there (quoth he.) 



IT Notifiyng, that to be called a man, is a fitte 
name, but for a fewe. 

65. This also goeth in a tale, albeit vneth beleuable. 

This diffinicion Plato had thus diflfined a man : A man is a liue 

<o«ealsoin his ^^Y^S with twoo feete, hauyng no fethers.. And 

Logike dooeth when the scholares of Plato hadde made signes 

improue. ^^^ tokens of well allowyng thesame diffinicion, 
Diogenes brought forth into the schole, a cocke 

„ _. pulled naked oute of all«his fethers, bothe great 

improued the and small, saiyng : Loe, here is Plato his manne. 

diffinicion of a ^ Whereupon it was added to the diffinicion, hauyng 

manne whiche .„ . , , i , . , ■' ° 

Plato gaue. brode nailles, for that no byrdes haue anie suche. 

65_ To one demaundyng at what houre best were, 
At what hower for a man to go to his diner : If he be rich 
it is beste for a (qyoth Diogenes) when his pleasure is, if poore, 
when he maie. 

67. Being at Megara, when he sawe the Rammes 
Megara was a goo with their wulle on their backes, vnshorne 
toun in the j- ^^kyng harme of the bittemesse of colde, and 

countree of -^ o ' 

Attica, not their young children go clene naked without any 
dt"e of"" *^ clothes at all, he saied : It is muche better to be 
Athmes. the Ram, then to be the sonne of a Megarian. 

TheMegarians ^ jj. j^ ^^^j^ ^f ^^it Megarians, that thei wer 

were rechelesse " , , . . , , , , . 

in kepinf their wondreful recheles m nounshyng and kepyng vp their 
children. children. 

gg A feloe carriyng a long loggue in the streete, 

gaue Diogenes a good rappe with the one ende 

of it, for lack of takyng hede, and incontinente 

itisoueriateto (as the guise is in suche case) saied: Beware: 

to bid beware, Why, (quoth Diogenes ) doest thou entend to 

whenthehurte ■" \ 1 t> ', ^, . , ,, 

is doen alredy. geue me an Other rap yet .' Other writers do thus 
tell it. When the feloe saied : Beware, Diogenes 
rapped his staffe on the pate of the other feloe, 
and after the stroke alreddie surelie sette on and 
past, sayd as thesame had don afore to him, 


IT Geuyng vnto thesame taunt pour taunte, or one 
for an other. For, beware, shoulde haue been saied 
before the harme doyng, and not after. 

Diogenes on a time, bearynge in his hande a 6q, 
lighted candle, walked vp & down the mercate 
stede, in a verie brighte and clere dale, like one 
that soughte a thynge lost. And diuerse persones 
askyng, what hee didde : Marie I s^eke a manne A man is a 

(quoth he.) . rare thyng to 

^ ^ ' . bee founde, 

1 Notyng the publique maners of the cittee scace though he be 
honest enough for anie persona, bearjmg the name of sought with a 

/ ^ o candle. 

a manne. 



When he had on a time been so souced with 
water, that he had neuer a drie thred about him, 
and stood droppyng on euerie syde and parte of 
his bodie, diuerse persones standyng about him 
(as commenly in suche case they will) toke muche 
pitie on the poore soule, as one that had been 
serued a verie vngodlie touche, and vsed or 
handled out of all good facion. To whiche per- 
sones. If ye bee willyng, saieth Plato, (for he also 
emong others was happelie at thesame time 
presente) to take pitie and compassion vpon 
Diogenes, departe hens and gette you from him. 

^ Notyng in him beeyng a Philosophier, desireflil- Priue ambition 
nesseofglorie. Forasmuche as therefore to be vnto and desire of 

° glorie m Dto- 

the bystanders suche a wonaieyng and gazyng stocke genes. 
was to Diogenes great pleasure and delectacion : he 
was rather happie and fortunate, then to bee pitied, 
but if he had been wetted from top to toe, no man 
standyng by to see it, then had he been miserable in 
verie deede. 

To one that gaue him a good cuffe on the eare, 7 r . 
In good south (quoth he) I had no such know- The pacience 
ledge ne warnyng to goe with a salette on my *f o°^",t'.°" 



^ And that was all that euer he did to be auenged 
on the partie that had striken him. 

72. But he didde not with sembleable pacience 
Howe Diogenes forbeare one Midias, who after a good whister- 

requited one . , , . 1 j • j ^1 

Midiqs geuing snefet, trueue paied on his eare, had saied : There 
him a blow on j,gg three thousand brasse pens now readie as- 

the eare. . , ,,., ,. 1-1 , 

Signed and laied out for thee m the eschequier: 

in the waie of mockage, biddyng much good do it 

The penaitee him, for that he was assured to recouer of Midias 

or forfaicte, for gQ muche monev for a forfaicte, if hee would 

geumg a blow <- r , 1 . t. t-^ . 

in the old time take the law for the blowe geuing, But Dioge- 
axAthmes. jjgg (.jjg nexte daye followyng tooke a brode 
thongue, suche as the champions vsed of neates 
leather, set with studdes and bosses, and thesame 
well fauouredlie bestowed about the ribbes and 
pate of Midias, he saied euen in the verye same 
wise, as the other had dooen afore to him : There 
be three thousande brasse pens nowe readie as- 
signed and laied oute for thee in the eschequier. 
*\ Aulus Gdius, telleth of a feloe which had a 
good sport to geue men buffettes with his hande, and 
immediatelie after, woulde commaunde to be tolde 
oute in readie monye the summe of the forfaicte, oute 
^ of a purse, whiche he had continuallie carried about 

with him for that purpose. But Diogenes plainlie de- 
clared, not al men to be of that pacience, that they 
can be satisfied, and holde theim contented with the 
penaitee of the sette forfaicte. 

T^i- The Philosophiers had in this behalf, a verie 
Howe Diogenes gyjn ^^^^ abrode, that either thei beleued not 

aunswergd i?/- 111 

mas, demaund- any goddes to bee, or els thei did contemne the- 
ing whether he game. This thing Lysias half signifiyng, asked 

beleued any a j b j a' 

goddes to be. Diogenes, whether he beleued that there were 
any Goddes. To whome Diogenes aunswered : 
Howe may it stande with reason that I shoulde 
not beleue, yes ; sens I am fully persuaded that 




thyselfe arte a feloe of the Goddes abandoned 
and accursed ? 

U This saiynge some writers doen attribute to 
Theodorus. He made none aunswere to the question, 
but reuersed the woordes to the parties selfe, that 
had in the waie of despite put the question to him. 

Espiyng a feloe for the obseruaunce of religion, 
washyng himself with riuer water, (for by this 
rite did men of olde time vse to purifie and dense 
theimselfes, if thei beleued any offence on their 
partie against the Goddes to haue been' com- 
mitted) Miserable creature, saied Diogenes, when 
thou hast erred in any pointe of grammer, thou 
art not assoyled by castyng water vpon thyselfe : 
then muche lesse shall sembleable sprincleyng of 
water ridde or deliuer thee from synfulnesse of 

IT He did verie well note the supersticion of folkes, 
in that they beleued the spottes and stainyng of the 
soule to be pourged and scoured awaie, with the 
sensible, grosse or carnall elemente of bodilie water, 
except they had also cut awaie the inordinate lustes 
and desires of the herte. 

He did wonderous highly rebuke those per- 
sones, who, if any of their maters framed not, 
but wente a wrie, would blame and wyte fortune 
therfore (as in deede the moste parte of men vsen 
to doe, and Diogenes auouched the parties selfes 
muche more worthie to be shent, whose guise and 
facion was, with all earnest requeste and in- 
staunce to craue at the handes of ladie fortune, 
not suche thyngs as in very deede were substan- 
ciall good, but such as in their owne phansie and 
opinion seemed good. 

^ For if men would permit or leaue to the arbitre- 
ment, wille and pleasure of the Goddes, tosende suche 

8 thynges, 

Lysias was an 
nes, whome 
for his exceed- 
ing swetenes 


Howe Diogenfs 
eluded a feloe 
sprincling wa- 
ter vpon hym 
selfe for pour- 
ginghis sinne. 

The supersti- 
cion of folkes 
in old time. 

Diogenes re- 
buked those 
persones, who 
blamed fortune 
when their 
matters went 

If God might 
be let alone, he 



would sende to 
man that were 
best for him. 


The supersti- 
cion of many 
folkes about 
their dreames 


The bondser- 



The Philoso- 
phier only hath 

This Philippus 
was king of the 
& father of 
Alexander the 

thynges, as thesame dooe iudge to be best and moste 
expediente, they woulde sende it. Now, forasmuche 
as men receiuen accordyng to their own most eagre 
and importune suites, thei doen like feloes hauynge no 
shame in theim, to laie vnto the Goddes the fault of 
quaillyng and misprouyng. 

The supersticion of suche persones as would 
be fraid with dreames, in this maner did he deride 
and skorne, What things ye doe while ye are 
awakyng, saieth he, that care ye not for, and 
what thynges ye dreame while ye are slepyng, 
ye doe carefully searche out. 

IT For to the felicitee, or miserie of a manne, it 
maketh not so greate force, what cometh to thesame 
in his slepe, as what he doth awak5rag, while one is 
awakyng, if he perpetrate any vnhonest or sinfuU act, 
it wer requisite to feare the wrathe of God, and the 
wofuU ende to ensue thereof, and not if menne see 
this or that, in their slepe. 

At the Olympia, the crier thus proclamyng, 
Doxippus hath wonne the maisterie of menne, 
Diogenes corrected him, sayng : No Doxippus 
of slaues or vilaines, and I of men. 

^ Signifijmge, theim that proued maisteries at the 
saied Olympia and other like games, not to bee men, 
but bondeseruauntes of glorie, onely the Philosophier 
& none els hath the ouerhande of men : like vnto 
this, is one other of his saiyngs aboue mencioned. 

When Philippus had an armie in the contree 
of Cherronea, ther to make warre, thither came 
Diogenes, and beyng taken by the souldiours, he 
was brought vnto the kyng, who, when he sawe 
Diogenes a persone vnknowen, cried out in a 
great furie, A spye, a spye. To whome Diogenes 
replied, saiyng : Yea, euen a verie spye in deede. 
For hither am I come to vieue the brainsiknesse 



of thee, who, not beyng contented with the kyng- aoweDiogmes 
dom of the Macedonians, for to gette other ThUi^pu^ch^. 
mennes kyngdomes, into thy handes, doest cast lenginghim 
thyselfe in great perill and daunger of leesyng ' ^ ^'^^^' 
bothe thyne owne kyngdome and also thy life. 
The king maruailing, at the franke plainnesse of 
the man, discharged thesame, and sette him at 
large, biddyng him goo where he would at his 
free libertee. 

* Cherronea, the oountree where Plutarohus was borne, a region nighe to Helle- 
spontus. And in this place did Philippus conquiere and subdue all Grece. It is 
called by an other name ChersonesuSf because it is in maner round about enui- 
roned with the sea, and is by reason therof in maner a verie Isle. And for the ex- 
cellencie, it is ofte tymes sette for HeUespontus. 

Alexander the king of the Macedonians had 79- 
sent letters vnto Antipater by a certain per- 
sone named Athlias, Diogenes at the same 
houre being happely in place. Who, accordyng 
to his Cynicall guise, saied: Athlius from 
Athlius by Athlias to Athlius. 

IT It was nothing but a toye, in daliyng, with the 

affinitee and similitude of wordes. For the name of 

the messager was, dflXias, with .a. and aflXtos in Greke 

souneth one being in miserable state or condition, & 

sore vexed or beaten with manifolde trauailes, peines 

and troubles. For whiche respecte the fighting men 

6r the champions and maisters of sense, had their 

name deriued out of thesame vocable, and were called 

both in Greke and Latin Athletae. The meaning of AthUtae. 

the Philosophier was, that princes for the ambition of _ . 

honour, rule and dominion, being in continuall strife, for ambition of 

and hurlee burlee, are in very deede persons full of honour rule & 

miserie and wo : and euen in like miserable state of continual strife 

wretchednesse to be all those that are ready, prest, be in miserable 

and willing seraauntes, aiders or furtheres of the ap- ^'?'^' ^^^ *"' 

n t ■ r 1 *^ bf woe. 

petites & desires of thesame. 

So then true it was, that Alexander for the careful and 
troublous life that he leed Worthely called Athlius that is miserable, 
wrote and sent letters by Athlias, being no lesse worthy the appel- 




Diogenes refu- 
sed to goe to 

graund maister 
vnder Alex- 



The life of man 
standeth not in 
carnal pleasure 
nor in sensual- 

Onely perfecte 
vertue geueth 
to man veray 
true life indede. 

The preposte- 
rous praiers of 
carnal persons. 


lation of Athlius then his maister, vnto yintipater as much worthy 
to be called Athlius as any of the other two, in that he was at al 
times bounde to obeye and serue Alexander. 

Being spoken to, and inuited to come vnto 
Alexander, he refused so to doe. But to Perdicea 
the high Capitain, or graund maister vnder the 
same Alexander threatning to take his life from 
him, excepte he would come. In feith, said Di- 
ogenes, then shall ye doe a noble & a valiaunt 
acte. For as well the Htle worme whiche (bothe 
in Greke & Latin) is called Cantharis as also the 
blacke spider called Phalangium, is able at all 
times to do as muche. 

^ Cantharis is a litle litle vermin, not much vnlike 
in facion to the beetle or the hornet, but hauing in it 
Starke poyson. Phaiangium is the spider of the most 
venemous sorte. Neither did he sticke or feare, on his 
partie again to threaten Perdicea, that he shoulde liue 
happely, though he liued without his company, notifi- 
yng theim to be in a very wretched case or state, that 
liued with Perdieea. 

He affirmed the Goddes to bee gentle and sone 
entreated to geue life vnto men, but thesame life 
to be a thing vnknowen to suche persones as 
seeke to haue of these marchpaines or wafers 
with other like iunkerie, and their swete perfumes 
or pomaundres, and other semblable delices. 

H For those persones who haue al the pleasure of 
the said thinges beleuen theimselues to liue, where as 
onely wisdome and perfect vertue doth assure the very 
true life in dede replenished with tranquilitee and 
pleasaunt sweetnesse. Wherfore not the Goddes are 
to be put in faulte, but man, who of his owne merefoly 
doth earnestly craue of the said Goddes, not life, but 
sensuall pleasures of the fleshe. 

Espiyng a delicate and nyce feloe, to haue his 
shoes put on and buccled by his seruaunte. Nay 



in feith (quoth he) thou lackest yet one pointe or 
degree of perfecte blisse, which is, that thesame 
feloe ther wype thy tayle to. And that should 
soone bee if thy hande or fyngers were cut of 

IT It semed to Diogenes a thing as much contrary Diogenes 

to reason to abuse the Page his seruice in doing on his thoughte it a 
1 • ,1 • . . -11 thing vnnatu- 

maisters shoes, in case the maister be strong and lusty ral,5iattheser- 

enough to helpe himselfe therein, as if he shoulde after uaunt should 

comming from the lakes, put his seruaunt to the office ^ais°ers shoes 

of wyping his taile. Albeit, it may be also vnder- 

standed of wyping the nose. To an Ethnike Philoso- 

phier, it semed nicitee, beyonde the course of nature, 

that an Ethnike or Gentile should haue his shoes doen 

on by his seruaunte. And yet I knew a Christian 

man, being a priest, yea and a Diuine, who although 

he hadde al his limmes perfect, and none of his membres 

maymed or lame, yet euer when he should goe to the 

stoole, would call seruauntes mo then one, for to vntie , 

his pointes : and also, when he came from thence, to 

trusse the same againe. Whiche thing when I sawe, 

thus did I thinke with my selfe. Now would Christ 

that Diogenes were here present, to behold this geare. 

When he sawe a feloe going to prison that had 83. 
embesled and conueied awaye a cup of golde 
out of the treasurie or chaumbre of the citee. 
(And so it chaunced that he was led to prison by 
the officers of the citee which they called in 
Greke {^"lejoo/xvjj/iovas :) See, see (quoth Diogenes) The graunde 
the graund theues leden the petie theef to ward. |{j'"^g/g'^^gf 

H Would God this same word might not be without *° Py^!?"' 

• ° sayOielJiogenes, 

a lye saide of some publique officers of Christentee, by 
whome sometimes is trussed vp, and hanged on the 
galoes a poore sely soule, that hath percase pielfed 
away tenne grotes, where theimselfes by great pielage, 
brybrie, or extorcion, yea and for a faire touch, by 
deceiuing & beguiling their prince or the commen 



weale, do growe daily and encrease in welth and 
richesse no manne saying blacke is their eyen. 

8^ In the olde time there was of an aunoient custome in Grece at certain seasons 
a comtnen assemblee, of certain the most sage and prudent persones, by election 
appointed thereunto, out of al the chief cities, after a much like sorte, as nowe here 
in Englande are chosen knightes for eche shier, and bourgeoisses for euery toune, 
and by a commen consent assigned at times requisite, to repaire vnto the parlia- 
ment. And it was called in Greke Aju,<^(.ktvovik6v (ruvtSpiov, of the latines, Am- 
phictionicus consessus, the sitting of the Amphictions, or Conuentus Amphictyonum, 
the assemblee of the Amphictyons, or Amphictyonicum tmrnlivm, the counsail or 
parliament of the Amphictyons, or els, Consilium Amphictyonum, the conuocation of 
the Amphictyons. Some writers holden opinion, that the name of ATnpkklyom was 
geuen vnto it of coming or resorting out from all citees & townes of Grece to the 
said parliamente (for the borderers, or bounders, inhabiting round about any place 
are called in Greke A/M^tK-ruores) and some authors deriuen the name from Am- 
phictyon, the sonne of Deucalion, who in time of his raigne here is chronicled to 
haue called together a counsaill or parliament of the nacions of Grece, and by a 
commen ordinaunce enacted to haue instituted the saied maner and forme of assem- 
bling. The pepple of Grece, whiche repaired to the said counsaill are numbred 
twelue : the Jonianz, the Dorianz, the Perrebiam, the Boetianz, the Medonitss, the 
Achaeans, the Phthiotes, the Melians, the Dolopians, the Aeneans, the Delphians, 
and the Phocemians. And the bourgeoisses, that were by publique autoritee chosen, 
appointed, and sent from any of the countrees aboue named vnto the said counsaill, 
were called icpo/ixv^juoves, and by an other name iniXayopai, of, TniXeua, 
the place where the parliament was holden. 

84. Beholding a lad hurling stones at a gibet, 
Well doen (quoth Diogenes) thou wilte surely 
hit the marke : ^ Signifiyng that a day would come 
when the partie should surely bee hanged. 

85. When a sorte of young streplinges standing 
about Diogenes had cried vpon him, Dogge, 
dogge, dogge, and immediatly beyng afraied, 
had begon to ren awaie, and beyng asked why 
thei ran awaie, had said, Lest thou shuldest bite 
vs, Bee of good chere my sonnes (quoth he) a 

*Beetesisan dogge eateth no *beetes. 

herbe called in IT Couertly and by a priuie nippe, vpraidyng them 

greke ^Xitos of maners effeminate, wanton, and foolish, 

in latin Beta, 

of whose exceding werishnes & vnsauerines, euen of old antiquitee dawcockes, 
lowtes, cockescamb?s & blockhedded fooles, were in a prouerbial speaking said: 
Betizare, to be as werishe & as vnsauery as Beetes. Plaulus in his comedie en- 
titled Truculentus, saith : Blilea est meretrix, it is a pekish whore, & as we say in 
english. As wise as a gooce, or as wise as her mothers aperen string. So a fcloe 
that hath in him no witte, no guickenesse, but is euen as one hauing neither life 
ne soule, Lalerius calleth Bliteam belluam, a beast made of Beetes. And in Meii- 



(tndes also (as citeth Erasmus in the prouerbe Betizare,) the husbandes reuile their 
wyues, calling theim Bliteas, of so smal shifte or helpe, that they were as good to 
haue wiues of Beetes, for which we saye in our Englishe prouerbe, wiues of cloutes. 
And because all effeminate persones dqen in fine growe to semblable folishnesse & 
dotage, as if they were not raaisters of their owne witte, but as persones rapt into 
another worlde, Diogenes tooke occasion of comparing and resemblyng the boyes (in 
whome was no likdyhode ne sparke of good towardnesse, but rather of al vngraci- 
ousnesse) to the werishe and vnsauerie beetes. 

To a feloe that tooke himselfe for no small 86. 
foole, because he ietted about the streates with a !^°^ Dwgmes 
Lions skinne on his back, Diogenes sayd. Thou that being but 
feloe, wilt thou neuer leue putting the mantell or ^ shepe, lettmg 

\ ° vp and downe 

gaberdine of manhode and prowesse to shame .' in aLions skin. 

^ He thought it a full vncomely thing, that a per- 
sona effeminate (and soche a sheepe that durst not 
shew his face among men, but was more like to crepe 
into a benche hole, then to doe any manly acte) would 
vsurpe the wearing of the wede of | Hercules. The 
selfsame may be saide to those persones that with mon- 
struous disguising of their vesture professen holinesse, % Hercules 
their maner of liuing being nothing aunswerable to the ^?^ *5 ^°""^ 

same. ten in the citee 

of Thebes vpon queue Aleumena the wife of Amphitruo, while he was from home in 
battaill. Hercules was a man of singular manhode and prowesse, and did in his 
time .xii. notable valiaunt actes, of whiche one was, that he slewe a fierse Lion in 
the forest of Nemea, and wore the skinne ot the same as a thing wonne by strong 
hand, and in that wede or habite, he is set out in all imagerie or pictures of hang- 
inges or peinted clothes. 

When certaine companie had great communi- gy^ 
cation of Callisthenes the Philosophier, that he Diogenes thou- 
was happie, fortunate, and euen in heauen, for ^ste°bli*ed" 
that he was in the court of king Alexander that lined in 
with much high fare & preparation enterteined. k'nges courtes. 
No Marie (quoth Diogenes) he is in wretched 
case, and in miserable condition, for that he must 
be fain to take his dyner and his supper when 
pleaseth Alexander. 

Nothing is in 

^ Meaning, nothing to be in the state of perfect the state of per- 

blisse, if libertee be awaye. This is Calisthenes the *?' '"'■^f^ '*^ 

disciple of Aristotle, whome Alexander at last did away. 




disciple of Ari- 
stotle, at length 
cast in pryson 
by Alexander. 


OVK aiTO), 

aXK' ajraiTm. 

A Philosophier 
doth not begge 
but required] 
his own dutie. 

Whoso restrei- 
neth & kepeth 
from his frend 
in time of ne- 
csssitee, with- 
holdeth that is 
none of his 


Ouer curious 
apparell, argu- 
eth wantonesse 
and nicitee. 

cast in prison, where he peryshed and died. Some 
wryters for CalHstheTies, doe put Aristotle him selfe, of 
whose singular good fortune and happe, when companie 
made much talking, for that he lined familiarly with a 
kynges Sonne: Yea (quoth Diogenes) Aristotle &a.t'(!a. 
at soche hour as pleaseth Alexander, and Diogenes, 
when pleaseth Diogenes. 

If Diogenes, at any time stode in great nede 
of money, he woulde take it of his frendes. But 
to soch persons as with many checking wordes 
did (as ye would saye baite him) for that contrary 
to the dignitee and honestee of a Philosophier, 
he woulde after the maner of beggers aske & 
craue. No, quoth he, I doe not aske their almes, 
but I require my dutie, 

^ For the Latin woorde Repetere, is vsed in his 
propre signification, when we demaunde or require to 
haue rendred or redeliuered vnto vs any thing, whiche 
either by the way of lone, or els by leaning it in the 
custody or keping of an other persone is out of our 
owne handes. And one frende geuing to an other that 
is in necessitee, doth not geue a free gift, but rendreth 
or paieth home againe that he owghed by true debte. 
For whosoeuer in soche a case doeth kepe or restrain 
his money, thesame doth wrongfully deteine and with- 
holde that is none of his owne propre goodes, but due 
to an other body. 

When a certaine young man being kembed, 
piked, & decked all of the mynion tricke, had 
moued and put forth a fonde or peuishe question 
to Diogenes, Certes, quoth he, I will make you no 
answere to your question, till by taking vp or 
doing abroode your clothes, ye shall haue shewed, 
whether ye be a man, or a woman. 

^ By his apparell and araye, nothing fitte ne comely 
for a man, he noted the effeminate wantonesse and ni- 
citee of the partie. 


THE I. BOOKE. 121 

To an other young man feactely and trickely 
representing at the baines, a certaine lasciuious 
playe, whiche to exhibite the Grekes callen 
^p° KOTTafii^eiv : Sirrha, young manne, quoth Di- ^i° Korrd- 
ogenes, the better ye doe, the worse it is. ^'?!'l' ""^^ ^ 

«r XT 1 T 1 • • ,- foolishe game 

^Utterly disalowing & condemning the feate that louers had 
whiche of it self was vnhonest and naught, of which ^""^ ^^^^ '° 
sorte is also plaiyng at dice, wherein the more cun- suppers and'^' 
ninge werkeman that euery persone is, the wurse man other ban- 
is he and the lesse honest. S"^f^=' ''^ *f 

bobleyng that 
the drinke made, whiche remained in the cuppe after they had dronken, for the 
drinke that was left, they would cast vp on high, and by the clocking, plashing, or 
soune that it gaue in the fall, they would take a signification whether their louers 
were true to them or not. And thereof Korra^i^kiv, to playe that kinde of playe. 

As it fortuned Diogenes to be present, and to 91, 
make one among the moo at a dyner, the com- „ 

,,.,., , ■' Howe Diogeiies 

panie calling him doggue, cast bones to him in serued a certain 

derision, in consideration that thesame is a thing company *at 
' , -r, , "^^^ bones to 

customably vsed to be doen to doggues. But he him, as if he 

in departing from the company, pissed vppon had ben a dog. 

euery of the geastes that sate at the table, behind 

at their backes, signifiyng thesame also to be 

one other propertee belonging to doggues. 

The oratours and other persones, doyng all 92. 
thinges for glorie and renoume, Diogenes called 
by a worde that might be taken in a double sense, 
TpuravOpdmovi, thrise double menne. rpurdvOpiiyiroi 

^ For, as the common sort of people denieth that oth«°persones 
persone to bee a man, that is neither learned, nor yet doing all thin- 
of gentle condicions, so did the Philosophier call hym ^^? ^°;[ef called 
a miser, that had no qualitee aboue the common rate thrise double 
of man. For according to the saiyng of Z?^»zi?rf : No ["™- , , 

,. . . . ,, , , , Manofalcrea- 

liumg creature is more miserable then man. And jures most mi- 
therfore, thrise double men, Diogenes called thrise ser. 
double misers, as the which bestowed and applied all 
their studies vpon a thing of most vanitee in the world, 
and were as bounde seruauntes or Pages to the multi- The people, a 



beast of many tude of the grosse people, being a beaste of many 
^'^^'- heades. , 

93. A certain riche man, hauing no maner know- 
Riche persones ledge nor learning at all, and yet going in gor- 
Jug^'niogZT geous and gallaunt apparel, he called in greke, 
ca.iled sheepe )(pva-6ii-qXov that is : a shepe with a golden flyce. 
flyces. If For in the Poetes it is founde written, that *soche 

*Soche a shepe maner shepe haue been. And those persones, who 
whos" flyce "* ^^^^ ^^^Y poo^e soules, and had no more store of witte 
lason by the then they must nedes occupie, wer euen then, and yet 
help of Medea g^jjj ^^^ jjj g^jj tgngues, and places by a common pro- 
daughter fet uerbe : called shepes heads, or shepe. 

awaye, sleyng 

thebuiiesQ^_ Passing by the house of a certain prodigall 
that keprif. ^"^ riotous persone, where it was written vpon 
the dore, this house is to bee sold, if any man 
Riot and pro- will buyc it. Yea by my feith, quoth Diogenes, 
clutetTmenne I ^spied very well, and prophecied in my minde, 
to spue vp that by reason of thine vnmeasurable gourmaun- 
w oe ouses. ^jjjjg ^nd surfeiting, thou wouldest at last spue 
vp some house. 

% For he -had already consumed and deuoured his 
house, before he offered thesame to sale, by setting 
that inscription vpon the dore. So that it might 
more truely be called a spuyng, then a vendition or 

95. To a young feloe, finding great fault, that he 

was euill combred and troubled of many persones, 

nor could bee in reste for them : Marie, and 

ceasse thy self also, quoth he, openly to shew 

tokens of being out of quiet. 
The best waye -r ^- -,- 1 , ■, ii- r 1, 

to cease the tI Signitiyng the saucy and busy medhnge 01 socii 

molestations persones as will neuer ceasse doing menne shrewd 
°yng"fdoes^is' tumes and displeasures, by no yearthly thing better to 
to dissemble be quieted or ended, then if the partie that is harmed 
greueTwUh °^ wronged dissemble his greef. For soche persones 
them. as doe haggue and baye at a bodye, purposly to bring 


THE I. BOOKE. 1 23 

him clene out of quiet, & to vexe him at the botome of 
the harte roote, will ceasse and leaue of in case they 
see the partie to be nothing moued with their doing. 
Albeit I haue half a geasse the Greke hordes compre- 
hende an other priuie or couered sense. For when 
the young feloe complained, and founde him 
selfe greued, that a sorte of busie medlars would 
not let him alone, ne suffer him to be in reste, 
Diogenes thus aunswered jn Greke : •Trava-ai. yap 
KoL (TV TO, Seiyiwra tov TracrxrfnwvTOi TrepKJjepear. That is. 
Yea and ceasse thou also to carry about with thee, 
the tokens of a persone wanton and effeminate. 

^^° For soche persons neuer lacke trouble or vexation but euery An euill per- 

body will haue a saiynge at theim, according to the latin prouerbe, son euen the 

Malum vel mus audet rodere. That' is, an euill persone euen veray mous 

the verye mous dareth to snappe at. And companie is both dareth to 

greuous and odious to those that are vnhonest, or malefac- snappe at. 

tours, as witnesseth Christ in the Gospell, saiyng : Men loued Euery one that 

darkenesse more then light, because their deedes were euill. For euil doeth ha- 

euery one that euill doth, hateth the light, neither cometh to the teth the light, 

lighte, lest his deedes should be reproued. Ihon iii. 

A minstrell that was a player on the harpe, q5_ 
being of no cunning in the worlde, and there- Why Diogenes 
withall a great gorrebealyed chuff, yea and be- ^""h^rpet* 
sides that, dispraysed of al persones that heard whome all 
him, for the wurst that euer twanged, onely Dio- °*[gg/"^" 
genes, did commende and prayse. And to theini 
that wondred wherfore he should so do : I allow 
him and gan him thanke, saied Diogenes, that 
being soch an one, he hath had more mind a:nd 
will to set himself on werke, and to be occupied 
with his harpe, then to take a standing by the 
high wayes side for a pourse or a bougette. 

.% Signiiiyng that the feloe being of body valiaunt 
and stourdy, and grosse or rude of witte, was by all 
similitude of outwarde tokens, more apte to haue been 
a robber on the high waye, then to be an handler of fhe place or 
any musicall instrument. The grace of the saiyng, rhetorike ab 
dependeth of the place of rhetorike, ab inexpedato, that i'«-^P^<^i'^i°- 




Howe Dioge- 
nes saluted an 
harper that 
droue away his 
audience as 
often as he 
plaied or song. 



This kinde of 
poultz, called 
LupinuSy we 
haue not ill En- 
gland grow- 


Howe Diogenes 
mocked a su- 
feloe, that was 

is grounded vpon a thing that a body wold lest thinke 
on. I^P° I^'or who would haue loked for soche an aunswere of 

An other harper, who, as often as he played 
on his instrumente was forsaken & left alone in 
place of all his audience : Diogenes, when he 
met him in the strete, saluted in this maner. 
God ye saue and see good man cocke. And 
where the feloe being oiifended with the straunge- 
nesse of that salutation, saied : Why goodman 
cocke .? Marie, quoth he, because that with thy 
crowing thou reasest euery body that heareth 

IT He deuised to finde a iesting toye of the ambi- 
guitee or indiflferencie of the Greke voice aveytLpar. 
For he is properly sayed in Greke, aveyeipav, both 
that reaseth a body out of his sleepe, as the cockes 
vsen to doe, when they crowe with an euill grace, and 
also that reaseth one sitting on his taUl, to arise out of 
his place, as this harper euermore vsed to doe. 

When a great nomber of people stode gazing 
and staring vpon a certaine young striepHng of 
excellent good fauour & beautie, Diogenes stoop- 
ing down very lowe, gathered into his lappe as 
fast as he could the poultz called Lupines. And 
the eies of al the folkes turned to behold that 
sight, he auouched, that he tneruailed why thei 
would leaue the young manne to looke on hym. 
IT Noting in that by worde, their intemperancie 
and wanton disposition. 

To a feloe that was exceading supersticious, 
and sore subiect to the terrours of bugges, and 
sprites, or goblins, that walken by night and in 
places solitarie, and yet manaced to slea Dio- 
genes, saiyng vnto him, I will at one stroke all 
to crushe thy hedde to powther : In faithe quoth 


THE I. BOOKE. 12$ 

he againe, if thou so doe, I shall be ready at thine afraid of 
elbow to plaie the parte of Hobgoblin or Colle- ening^to ska' 
pixie, and make thee for feare to weene the Wm. 
deuill is at thy polle. 

n Signifiyng that he was hable to make the other 
partie afraied, euen beyng dedde, of whom he was so 
contemned and set at naught beyng aliue. And yet 
thissame foolishe minde and fansie, euen at this verie „ „*f"^"!!!j'' 

' ous feare and 

presente daie possesseth no small nomber, who although imaginacionof 

they be fierse and ful of cocking against hues men, yet "J^ny •o'l'ss 

are diesame most fearfull creatures that possible may walken. 
be of soules walking (as they call it.) 

Being desired and praied, by one *Hegesias, ^OO- 
to lende him the vse of three or fower bookes : ^ PhUo^phkr 
Thou art a madde felloe Hegesias, quoth he, (that Cyrmaique, 
where in choosing figgues thou wilt not take of^Ep!c'ureYi's 
figgues painted or counterfeited, but very true sect, a manne 
and right figgues in deede) thou canst finde in quence7as^°" 
thy hart, (the very true actuall exercise and prac- Valerius Max- 
tise of philosophie neglected) to renne to the that'hl did'so 
philosophic scribled or peinted in paper. liuely declare 

& set out all 

H In this saiyng he noted those persons, who all their the euils of 
whole life through, dooe nothing but reade the bOokes *J"^ present hfe 

J 1 r Tjt.-i t,- .. ■ • . thatthe piteous 

and werkes of Pmlosophiers, contemmg preceptes or and lamenta- 

rules of vertuous huing, where as vertue is more effect- ble representa- 

ually learned by practising or putting the same in vre, g";"/ ,hr?u^° 

then by reading. The greke vocable ypatjieiv, whiche his wordes, 

Diogenes vsed, is a voyce indifferent to wryting and to "J^pely engra- 

.. .,ir oi-,, • uedandenpnn- 

pemtmg. And therfore vertue set forth m bokes, is tedinthehertes 

vertue much like in maner as if it were painted on a °f ">en, very 

cloth or table. And in dede against al reason it is, in tokroaiasion^ 

chosing figgues to be curious & precise to take none to hate this 

but of the best and in vertue to be nothing so. present hfe, & 

° had an earnest 

desirefulnesse willingly to ridde theitnselues out of the worlde. And therfore he 
was by the commaundement of king Ptolomeus forbidden any more to speake of 
any such matter. 

To a certaine persone in the waye of reproche r o i . 



obiecting vnto him that he was a man banished 
his countrie : Thou sely Creature, saied he, for 
this verie cause did I at the first become a Phi- 

f Either for that banishment had enforced & driuen 
Why Diogenes JDiogenes to enter the studie of philosophie, or els be- 
b'^' 'pht™* '° cause he had purposely learned philosophie, to thende 
phier. ' that he might be able with a pacient & contentfiill 

mind to endure banishment & other semblable chan- 

1 02. Vnto an other feloe saiyng to him in despite, 
WavrtDwgenes Nay, the Sinopians haue condemned thee with 
fhTt^^ttihis banishing thee, neuer to come more in that 
teeth that the countrie. And I theim, quoth he, to abide there 
b^&^' and neuer to come thence. 

f Signifiyng himselfe, in that he was bidden to go 
froraaplareby seeke him a dwelling place in an other countrie, to bee 
compulsion, no point in worse state or condicion, then those per- 
andtoabyde gQugs, which remained still dwelling in their owne 

in a place by ' ° . , .. . 

compulsion is countne, not able paciently to sufire banishment if it 
equal miserie. should chaunce. For egual miserie it is to make a 
A Philosophier bodie abide in a place by enforcement k. compulsion, 
indifferently re- and to be banyshed or exiled from a place by enforce- 
placK vnder ™^°* ^°^ compulsion. A Philosophier, who indifferently 
the cope of taketh euery grounde & euery land vnder the cope 
heauen, to be pf heauen (which so euer it be) for his owne natiue 

his natiue . ._, , , , 1 1 

countree. countrie, if he be commaunded to departe any whence 

by banishement, is a man exiled out of some one par- 
ticular Citee or nacion onely. But he that can not 
Hue in an other place besides his owne countrie, where 
he was borne & breden, is a man banished out of re- 
Why Diogenes gions almost innumerable. As touching Diogenes, in 
was banyshed deede he was banished his countrie for counterfaitinge 
countree? °''" °^ coyning of money, as men thinke. And borne he 
was a Sinopian. This present historic Plutarchus in 
that treatise, entitled of banishment/ reporteth in 
maner and fonne here ensuing. 


THE I. BOOKE. 12/ 

The Sinopians haue by their decree, banished *i>o„(„s & 

thee out of *Pontus for euer, Yea, but I condemne Eumnus, are 

them in this pein, quoth he againe, that they re- \^^^ IndTtis 

maine still enclosed and pend vp within Pontus, parte of the sea 

and the ferthermost strandes of all Euxinus, ^"J.f^Arac'e" 

neuer to come out from thence. vnto the great 

Marice of Scy- 

% Diogenes had chauilged his countrie, but thesame thia, called 

for the better. The Sinopians were more like folkes -"f™'"- '' '^ 
, . , , .,..,, ,., also abrode & 

banished or exiled, m that they were remeduesse, ap- „^de region 

pointed and assigned to continue all their Hues in soch marching 
an incommodious, vnfrutefull, and baren region, as [he co^tra"of 

Sinopd. the same sea 


Those persones, that were commen doers, in 103. ""^"y 
prouing maisteries at the games of Olympia, were ces, asS'L, 
called in greke oXv/imoviKau Of whiche sort when Armenia, Sf 

-r^. 1111 r 1 1 • Cappadocia. 

Diogenes had by chaunce founde one keping Andm Cappa- 
sheepe. O Moun sire Capitain (said he) with '^""'^ (being a 

, . 1 ■, Til -1 desert and bar- 

howe great celeritee and speede haue ye conueied ren countree) 
and gotten your self from Olympia to Nemea. stode Sinopa 

the citee, in 

IT Finding a mery toye in the affinitee or similitude which Z)iog-enfj 
of the Greke vocables. For N«/t£a in greke, are cer- ^ 
tain games of prouing maisteries so called of the place Nemea, is a re- 
where thesame were celebrated and holden, euen as TOuntree of^,^»-- 
Olympia, afore mericioned. And the greke verbe caMa, situate 
vkiiw, souneth in latin Pasco, in Englishe, to keepe or ^ ''y"& ^- 

,. ■, „ • , J / • • 1 • twenetwoo 

feede catalles m the pastures, and vo/aos is in latin citees, the one 
Pascua, in Englishe, pastures or leasues. Chaiu, and the 

in the whiche Clitorium, as witnesseth Ouiditis, was a wel or fountaine of which 
who so euer did'drinke, could not afterward away with drynking wyne. In 
the wodde or forest of this Nemea did Hercules kill the hougie great Lion, whose 
skynne he wore on his back for his weede. And in the honour of the said Hercules, 
did the people of Argos euen there celebrate and kepe solemne games, whiche were 
named Nemea, of the place in whiche thei were holden and kepte, in like maner as 
is afore saied of Olympia. 

Being asked wherfore the champions or fight- 104. 
ing menne called Athletae, had no sense ne feel- 
ing : Marie (quoth he) because they haue been 




brought vp altogether with porke & beef, and 
soch other grosse feding. 

•ff For that sort of men are fedde vp with the 
raaken rtie b'o! grosse kindes of meates, which in deed conferren to 
die strong but the body hard brai^ne, and clene strength, but as for 
the witte dull, ^j^g ^(.(le, it maketh as grosse and duUe, as can be 
thought. But to this present mery saiying, the ambi- 
guitee or doubtfiilnesse of the vocable, & nothyng els, 
gaue place, and was occasion of it. For as with the 
Grekes, aurOavia-Ocu & with the Latin men, Smtire, so 
in English, to haue a feling belongeth as well to the 
mynde as to the bodye. But the demaunder of the 
question, asked what was the cause, wherfore the 
said champions, lacking (as ye would saye) bodely 
sense and .felying, were neuer offended ne greeued 
with stripes or strokes. And Diogenes had more 
phansy to note the brutish grossenesse & dumping of 
the minde. 

To haue a feel- 
ing in a matter. 

For we saie commenly in Englishe, that we feele a mans 
minde, when we vnderstand his entent or meaning, and Con- 
trariwyse, when thesame if to vs verie darke, and harde to be per- 
ceiued, we doe commenly vse to say, I can not feele his mynde, 
or I haue no maner feling in the matter &c. 

105. He vsed nowe and then to resorte to Images 
of stone or brasse, or other metal, set vp in the 
honour of this or that God, & to aske one or 
other boune of theim. And to soch persones 
as made great wondring vv^herfore he so did, 

Vse assuageth That I may enure my selfe (quoth he) not to 
be moued, ne to take in euill part, if at any time 
I doe not obteine my requestes & peticions that I 
aske of men. 

106. After that Diogenes by extreme pouertee 

(coarcted and driuen therunto) had begon to 

begge for his liuing, his accustomed guyse was, 

Thefourmeof ^fter this forme to fall in hand with men for 
beggmg that , . , 

Diogenes vsed. their almes : If thou hast been a geuer of almes 


THE I. BOOKE. 129 

to any other persone heretofore, giue to me also, 
if to no bodye, begynne nowe at me. 

^ He signified that he was no lesse worthy to 
haue the charitee of men, then the residue of beg- 
gers, & therfore to be mete, that who were Hberall in 
geuing to eche body at auenture, should extende his 
liberaUtee vnto Diogenes also : and who were soch a 
niggarde or hayn, that he coulde not finde in his 
harte afore that daye to departe with an halfpeny to any 
creature liuing, for soch a feloe to be hyghe tyme ones 
in his life, to beginne to departe with somewhat to the 

Being on a tyme asked the question of a cer- 107. 
taine tyranne of what sorte of brasse metall it 
was most conuenient that images should be 
made : Of the very same (quoth he) 1n which 
*Harmodius and Aristogiton were casten. 

H Betokening, that the partie, if he were well ser- * When the ci- 
ued, was worthy to be dispatched out of the waye. ^^s oppressed 
For the sayd Harmodius & Aristogiton had been and holden in 
tyrannequellers. ^^t^L^ 

Harmodius and Aristogiton, by suche prouision as they made, did subdue and de- 
stroye the sayd tyrannes. Wherfore, the people oiAthmea agnifyng their vnesti- 
mable benefite recetued at the handes of thesaid Hermodius and Aristogiton, made and 
sette vp in their honour and perpetual memorie, their Images and portures in copper, 
which Images were long time after, had in soch reuerence and honour, that Xerxes, 
when he had wonne Athenes, toke from thence thesaid Images, & the same caried 
into his owne kingdome. And after many yeares Sileucus made prouision, and 
found the meanes to haue thesame Images conueighed home againe to Athenes, 
and to be set vp in their old places. Also the Rhodians did the same Images (being 
arriued at their citee in the waye homewarde) highly receiue with procession, and 
honourably entreate theim at the publique charges of the citie & did place theim in 
the tabernacles of the Gods, as witnesseth Valerius Maximus. 

To one demaunding after what sorte Dionysius 108. 
did vse, handle, and entreate his frendes that How Dionisius 
were familiare about hym : Like as if thei were vsed^hi^°femi- 
bottles, said he, the full he hangeth vp, and the Hare frendes. 
emptie, he casteth aside in a corner. 

II Signifiyng, that by the said tyranne Dionisius the 

ryche and welthy of his siibiectes, went daily to the 

9 potte 




Howe Hercules 
was worship- 
ped in old time 
and by what 



/A£TO TToX.t/lOV 

7/ arvfi-iw.)(ia, 
id est, post hel- 
ium auxilium. 
Aide after that 
the field is al- 


potte and were chopped vp, & soch beggery wretches 
as had nothing to leese were nothing medled withal, 
ne had any thing said vnto theim. 

Hercules was in olde time, worshipped vnder 
the name of d\t|tKaKos, that is : the depoulsour 
and driuer awaye of all euils : because of the 
valiaunt sleyng of many sondrie monsters, by 
him extincted. He was also the sonne of lupiter, 
and by another name called Callinicus, for res- 
pecte of his manifolde actes of p'rouesse, and 
noble victories that he had gotten, in subduing 
aswell his enemies, and giauntes, as also other 
hougie monsters, as aforesaid. And so it was, 
that a certain persone had written vpon the dore 
of his hoyse, this hyghe triumphaunt title' or poy- 
see: The sonne of lupiter, Callinicus, Hercules, in 
this house hath his habitation, no euiU thing 
therfore motte there entre into this place. Dio- 
genes by this inscription espiyng the folly of the 
feloe, said : When the stede is already stolen, 
shutte the stable dore, or when I am dead make 
me a caudle. 

II Noting that it was ouer lata to saye, God saue the 
house from al euils, nowe that soth a lewde feloe was 
already entred to dwell in it. For it had been neces- 
sarie that the sayde Hercules, aXeitKOKos, that might 
saue the house from all misfortunes, or misauentures, 
had taken vp his habitacion in thesame, before the 
owner selfe of the house had setled him selfe to dwell 
there, who on his owne partie and behalfe was soch 
a feloe as a man should rake hell for. 

Espiyng a ryotous surfeiting feloe in his hoste 
his house, eating oliues towards the euening: 
Sirrha said he, if thou haddest made thy dyner 
with soche meate as that, thou wouldest not nowe 
suppe with the meate that thou doest. 


THE I. BOOKE. 131 

^ Meaning, it not to be for any point of frugalitee, 
or spbre diet, that he had nothing to his supper besides 
a fewe oliues, but for that his stomake be)Tig ouer- The best medU 
charged, with the excessiue denty diner which he had "" '° ™^^ 

, . , . one haue a 

made at noone, had no appetite to take any thing at good appetite 
supper. For a light and a spare dyner, is the best "> his supper, 

J • • • .1- ^J . 1 ^. isalightdyner 

medicine or sauce in the worlde, to make one haue a ^^ noone. 
good appetite to his supper. 

Full often & many a time did he saye, couet- I lO. 
ousnesse of money to be the head * palaice, or ^'"'^''^ "^o"!' - 

ousnesse or 

the head citee of al euils or mischiefs. monie is, there 

^ Not very.moche variyng from the sentence of [^il^l^Jgf^ 
the wyse man Salomon, who sayeth, that couetousnesse 
of money is the roote of all euils. '• '^''"°* ^• 

* The greke worde is /iijrpoTroXis, as if ye should^aye, the place where all euils 
are concerned, or from whence all euils doen issue. For it is compouned not of inerpov > 
measuring nor of fuqTrip, rpos, mother, but of p^rfrpa, [ii^Tpas a matrice, that is 
to saie, the place of concepcion, and of issuyng. And tiierof is Metropolis, called 
the chief citee where the Archbishop of any prouince hath his See, and hath all the 
other diocesses of that prouince subiect to him, as Canterbury and Yorke, here in 

Vertuous and good men, he afifirmed to be the m. 
liuely and true Images of the Goddes. f^^d hon- 

^ Forasmuche as the Goddes, of their very nature est and vertu- 
been altogether fiiUipf all goodnesse the propertee of ^^ trae"lma-' 
thesame is, to doe good to all folkes, and to hurt no ges of the 
body. And this Image is muche better represented in Goddes. 
sapient and good men, then in dead Images of stone 
or metall, since that the Goddes are thinges mere 
ghostly or spirituall, and not materiall of bodily 

Loue he saied to be the occupacion or busi- 112. 
nesse of idle folkes, that had nothinge els to Lo"^ '^the 
set them selues on werke withall. idle"persones. 

IT Because this pangue or guierie of loue doth 
especially aboue all others, inuade and possesse soche 
persones as been altogether drouned in idlenesse. 
And so commeth it to passe, that whyle thei geuen 



theimselues wholly to idlenesse, they stumble on a 
thing that filleth their handes as full of combrous busi- 
nesse as they are able to awaye withall, and yet in the 
meane time, the Deuill of the one chare of good 
werke they doen. 

113. To one demaunding, what was the moste mis- 
What thyng erable thing in this life ? he made aunswere : 
ra'^d^he moste An aged bodye in extreme pouertee. 

miserable ra ^ yot when the sure stayes or lenyng postes of nature 

this life. , , .„ , , /, , , , 

,, . . doe faiU a man, then must the feblenesse of aee be 

He is not to be 1 •■ , , ■. ■ , , » 

accompted propped, bolstred vp, or vnderset with the succour & 

poore that hath help of worldly substaunce. Albeit, that persona is 

chSed good' ^°^ *-° ^^ rekened or accoumpted in the nombre of 

disciplines, & poore folkes, who hathe in his youth purchaced vnto 

honest frendes. ^imselfe g^d disciplines or other craftes and honest 

He is in the fj-gndes, the moste assured and trusty prouision to liue 

moste wretched . ' , , , my /■, ■ ■, 

state of beg- by m a mans olde dayes. That feloe is a beggar m 
gerie, that is moste wretched condicion, that is endued with no good 

endued with no , . 

good qualitee. qualltee. 

114. Being asked, what beast had the moste peril- 
What beaste qus and hurteful stingue : If thy question be of 
perilous and saluaige beastes (quoth Diogenes) the backbiter: 
hurtfuU stinge. jf of tame beastes the flatterer^ 

^ For the backbiter hydethnoOTiishatered towardes 
any body, ne recketh who knoweth the same : tha flat- 
terer, vnder the visour or cloke of a frende, hurtath 
tenne times more greuously then the other. 

115. Beholding twoo * Centaures fighting in a 
*The Cere- painted table, of wondrous euil werkmanship, 
people of the Whether of these two, saied he, is the worse ? 

ThessaKa not ^ Noting the rudenesse and default of cunning in 

ferre from the the Peinter, as though he stoode in doubte whether of 
mount Pelion. ^^ ^ ^-^^ j^^ ^^ drawen or sette out in peint- 

They were the • i • if i, 

first that euer ing. But the pith of the saijmg consisteth m that he 
fought on hors- vseda worde that may be taken in two sondrie senses: 

Q3f»jr vv niche • ' J 

thei were ^or the greke vocable x«P<"''. in englishe, worse, is said 


THE I. BOOKE. 1 33 

as well of one that is worse in estimation of value, or any driuen to, for 
other comparison, and also that hath the worse or i§ w destroye a 
put to the worse in fighting. ^.^ ^^^^ 

that did much scathe in all the countree about. And of this (because to the sely 
people beholding theim a ferre of, they appeared after a monstnious facion & shape 
the Poetes doe feigjne that they were gyauntes, in the vpper parte of the body men, 
and in the nether parte horses, and that /rion begot the first of theim on acloude, 
they are called of the latines Centauri, of the greke worde, kevtciv, that is to 
pricke, or to spurre, because they keeked and set spurres thicke to the horses sides, 
when they galopped in chacing the wilde buUes, but their greke name was a word 
compounde hippocentauri, for wtttos is an horse. 

Faire and smothe speaking, not proceading 116. 

from the bottome of the harte, but altogether fra- Faire & smothe 

med to please the hearer, Diogenes customably ^^^ onflyw" 

vsed to call an hony brake, or a snare of honey, please the 

IT Because thesame vnder the pretense of loue, g-^ei called' a 

embracing a man as though the speaker w^ ready euen trappeor snare 

to crepein to the bosome of the hearer, cutteth the °f^'^^y- 
throte of thesame. 

The bealy of excessiue gourmaunders & glut- 117. 

tons, he called the Charybdis of mans life, for Thebealiesof 

that thesame deuoured al that euer it might gette, g-mei called the 

and yet was neuer saciate. Charybdis of 

mans lyfe. 

^ Charybdis * swalloweth vp only soche thmges as *Charybdis 
are carried by sea^ & after a little tyme, casteth vp ^■"'l Scylla, 
again whatsoeuer ^i^oulped in before : but the bealies w of the^'^' 
of gulliguttes (that dan naught do, but eat & drinke & Poetes ar two 
slepe) neither the aire, nor the land, nor the floodes & "°"^^'^f^ty 
riuers, nor yet al the seas are able to suffise. Yea, & betwene Caia- 
rather then faill, both whole mainor places, & also l>naasiASiciiia 

, , ^ , , . ' . , , ' . , standmg the 

whole Lordships, thei make no bones, ne sticke not, one directly 
quite & clene to swallow doune the narrowe lane, and against the 

i ^ ■ other & the 

thesame to spue vp agam. ^^^^ 3o dau„. 

gerously, that thei destroy al the shippes that come within the reach of either of 
theim. For Charybdis they fable to be a. monster that swalloweth vp all thinges, 
and thesame shortly after spouteth vp againe : but in very dede, it is a daungerous 
goulfe, making sore ouerfalles by reason of the meting of sondrie streames in one 
point. And Sdlla in very deede, is a great rocke in thesame streight standing so 
directly against Charildis, that except the shippes cutte and take course euen iustly 
betwene both they hardely escape drouning. And because that Sdlla afar of, repre- 
senteth to the eye the figure and shape of a Christian body and to the eare (by reason 




of roring and beating of the wawes) it representeth the barking.of Dogges, therfore 
the Poetes haue feigned, that SeUla is a monster of the sea, haaing in the vpper 
part, the shape of a raayden, and in the nether part the likenesse of a fyshe, the 
bealy of a woulf, and the tayle of a dolphin fyshe, as witnesseth f^rgilius in the 
third volume of the Aeneidos. Albeit, Homere wrytteth, that Scilla hath sixe heades, 
and twelve feete, and barketh like a dogge. 

1 1 8. When certain persones made relacion to Dio- 
genes, howe that one Didymo was attached for 
liyng with an other mannes wife : If the wretche 
were well serued (quoth Diogenes) he should be 
hanged vp euen by thesame thing that he bear- 
eth the name of. 

Didymi. ^ In dede, Didfmi, is greke for a paire of mans 
stones, so that the mjmde of Diogenes was, that sochea 
sinfuU Caitife, ought to be hanged vp by that membres 
of the whichg he had his name, and by the which he 
had commiwed the offense & trespace. 

119. One that laboured the study of naturall Philo- 
For what cause sophie, opposed Diogenes with this question. For 
riwtye'paSe & what cause golde looked to the eye somwhat 
wan of colour, pale and wanne of coloure .' Marie, quoth he, 

because there be so many folkes liyng in awayt 
for it. 

^ Soche persones as knowe that they haue awayte 
or watche layde for theim, cannot Mt be a fearde. And 
the propertee of any body beyng^ great feare is to 
loke with a pale and wanne coloiir. 

1 20. When he sawe a woman sitting in an horse- 
litter, or charette, he saied : that another maner 
caige then that, had ben more mete for -a beast 
of that kynde. 

Tl Noting, that soche frowarde creatures as many 
women are, ought rather to be pended vp in a cage of 

' Lectica was a certain maner of seate for noble women, 
which I doe here call an horselitter, because we haue no kynde of 
seate so nyghe, or so like in facion to the Lectica, Albeit, they 
were not in olde time drawen with horses, but carried vpon sixe 
mens shoulders, and they were made with preatie lattesse windores 


THE I. BOOKE. 135 

and crosse barres or grates, and paines to shutte &to open, for'lok- 
ing out at pleasure. So that it shewed and represented to the eye 
muche what the facion or likenesse of a caige for byrdes, or of a 
pende, wherein to kepe other beastes. 

^ And in soche did the ryche or welthy women : yea 
and also the other nycibecetours or denty dames, cus- 
tomably vse, both to sitte for their pleasure, and also to 
be carried about the stretes for their solace and re- 

Espiyng a bondseruaunt, that was a rennewaye, 121. 
or at lestwyse a strayer from his maister, sitting 
by a welles side: Take hede young man, saied he, 
that ye sitte fast for getting a fal. 

^ He did no more but daly with a worde, that may 
indifferently be taken in diuerse senses. For the greke 
verbe, eiorMrTctv, souneth in latin Eoccidere, in english to 
get a fall, or to haue a fall. And he is properly saied in 
greke tKiriinuv, in latin Excidere, in englyshe to geat a 
fall, both that falleth down into a pit or a welle,and also 
that is violently tombled or taken out of his place. And 
mine opinion is, that welles in old time emong the 
Gentiles, had the strengthe of sanctuarie, and that it 
was not leeful violently or by force, to plucke any body 
from thesame, no more then out of the temples of the 
Goddes, or from the Image and porturature of the 
prince. |^ 

When he had espied at the hotehouse, a feloe 122. 
that vsed to steale away gownes & coates, or 
other garmentes (and soche an one the Grekes 
callen Xmro^vryjv) he said vnto him : Syrrha, ar ye 
come to the bath, or els to the bayte. 

^ Albeit, Diogenes Aslytdvath. the affinitee of greke 
voyces, whiche it is not possible with eguall grace to ex- 
presse either in latin, or yet in our mother tongue. The 
greke wordes ben, hr', ^ hr oXA." lixariov, 
betwene the wordes, at (lestwise in soune) there is won- 
drous smal difference; For of the verbe aXei^m, is 
deriued a noune, aXeififw,, that is, oyntment or enoynt- 




*Alipte were 
those to whose 
cure were com- 
mitted those 
persones to be 
anointed (that 
thei mighthaue 
their iointes 
nimble & lithy) 
that should 
fighte in the 
solemne games 
that were cele- 
brate & holden 
in the honour 
of any of the 
goddes. He is 
also called 
Alipta that 
woundes or 
sore places of 
the body to 
souple theim. 



ing, and thereof 'dXeHrrai, whose office was to enoynt 
men, had their name. And of oXei/i/ta, is fourmed a 
diminutiue, aXEt/ijuaxtoi' : nowe, oAA' IfiAruov, are two 
sondrie wordes, albeit by reason of the figure called 
Synalephe (whiche is, when two vouels concurring to- 
gether, the former leeseth his power and soune by colli- 
sion) it seemeth in maner no more but one diction, for 
if one take away the Synalephe, the whole wordes ben 
oAAo i/AciTtov. That is, an other litie garment, so that 
the veray righte wordes that Diogenes spake to the feloe, 
were these : Are ye come to be enoynted, or els to 
steale an other garment .' 

f For in the bayne or hotehouse, folkes were in olde 
time enoynted, & in the selfe same place, the pikepurses 
and stealers of apparell diligently applied, and went 
aboute their oecupacion : for it was the guise to washe 
naked, their clothes put of, and laid aside. Diogenes 
therfore gaue a quippe to the embesleer or briber, that 
thesame hauing stolen some garment elswhere afore, 
was nowe come thyther to purloyne and conueigh away 
an other. 

|g^°And'because a gowne or a cote so rechelesly cast aside, is a 
good bayte for one that seefceth it: and to thintent that the saiyng 
might haue some what the more grace, I haue thus translated it, 
to the bath, or els to the baite. That if it had not been more for 
discharging the duetie of a translatour, then for any greate delite, 
or profite to the vnleamed reader, I woul^ haue passed ouer this 
Apophthegme, and left it cleane out. 

When he was on a time entrfed into an hot 
hous, that laie horrible filthie, sluttishe and vn- 
cleane, he saied in this maner : Thei that washe 
in this place, wher be thei washed after it } 

^He signified that soche persones as came in 
thither pure and clene, wer there embrued with durte 
and filthinesse, and soche as were at any time washed 
there, to haue veray great neede of a second lynsing, 
wherewith eftsons to be scoured and made clene. 

When he had on a time espied women hanging 
vpon an oliue tree, & there strangled to death 


THE I. BOOKE. 137 

with the halters : Would God (said he) that the 

other trees to had like fruite hanging on theim. Diogenes was 

IT For Diogenes was one that loued no women in no M'o^<^yw»js 

sauce, but hated theim dedly, and for that cause had a jj^^g^ vromen 

great zele and affection to see theim euery one swinging to the deuill of 

and tottering in halters. ***''• 

Diogenes seing a certaine feloe, that had a 125, 
very euill name and reporte, that he should be a Howe Biogmei, 

1011 /- 1 .■ saluted one 

spoyler & robber of dead mens tombes and herses, that had an 
salued, or hailed hym with this verse of Homere. eiil) name for 

•' • robbinge of 

TiTTTi crir 58e Aipurre, '^^^^ /"^""^^ 

"^ toumbes. 

1) Ttva miXrieroyv vcuvosv KarareOveuaTiov, 

Moun sire, for what purpose hath your good grace, 
At this present now approched hither ? 
To spoile any of these, whiche in this place 
Lye dead, and buried here together ? 

Being asked the question whether he had any 126. 
man or woman seruaunte of his owne, he aun- Diogenes had 
swered, No in good faithe, not one in the worlde. ^0*^"^^ "' 
And when the demaunder had ferther saied, uaunt. 
Why, who shall then carie thee to thy graue, in 
case it fortune thee to die ? Marie (quoth he) 
euen whosoeuer shall haue neede of my house, 
for to dwell in it. 

fl Many persones are very supersticiously carefull, 
how and by what persons they shalbe brought to their Diogenes toke 
graues, and laied in the ground : of all soche maner "° thought 
thought or care, was Diogenes clere voyde, casting no persones he 
doubtes, but that there should come one or other should be 
bodye, that would conueigh his dead carcasse out 'Of 
doores, though it were for nothing els, but to make the 
house voyde. Albeit his chaunce was in fine, to be 
very honestly buried. 

» Beholding a certain young springal, as he slept 127. 
rechelesly at all auentures, he pqunched thesame 



with his staffe and recited the verse of Homerus 

here foloyng. 
The daunger /t^Tis <70i ev^oWi fueratjipevio Iv 8dpi; irqta- 

lygemlyliTeu- Sus, lest some body while thou slepest here, 
erjr comer. Come and gore the through the back with a spare. 

' The grace of the saiytig consisteth in this pointe, that 

Diogenes feactely applied the verse of Homere to his purpose, by 
saiyng erSovTt, instede of tjieuyovTi for '" Homere it is, jmn% 
cot fjieuyovTi fiera^pivia ev 86pv trfj^ that is. 

Lest some man, whyle thou rennest awaye for feare. 
Thrust the behinde, quite through with a speare. 

It been the wordes o{ Diomedes, in the .viii. of the/Masvnto Flysses: 
whome, when he was renninge away, Diomedes, biddeth to turne 
I againe for shame, & not to flee : lest some man, &c. 

1 28. To a feloe that was beyond al reason, or out 
of all course euen full and whole geuen to good 
chere; and all kindes of riot and excesse, he 
applied that piece of Homer his verse : 
(UKv//,o/)OS 8); fioi, TeKOi, arireaj. That IS. In feith my 
childe, your dayes are but short. 

H Signifij^g that the partie would with his riotous 
facions kill himselfe ere he wer halfe olde. 

129. The * Idees, that Plato deuised, and muche 
♦Like as in treatcth of, euen Aristotle laughed to skorne. 
materiaii and j^^^^ ^^ ■ j,j^^^ ^^ certain season, when Plato 

sensible grosse . ' ' 

thinges we see made a great long circumstaunce, about the de- 
hauehlSnge ^^^^^g of the Idees, and toke much peine with 
by them in vocables of his owne forging, to expresse and 

?osly'ce°rmine" pl^'"!^^ ^° ^^^ °"* *^ ^ame Idces, a thing feined, 
paternes.outof and founded onely in the conceipte of imagina- 
u^e'fc:i?nof^^e ^^°^' hauing in his mouth at euery second worde 
clockeof an the said forged vocables of the Idees, as for ex- 
euertheym^'st ample, tabletes, for the facion of a table, by it 
make any soch self to be conceiued in the imagination of the 
thesiToemakers minde for a comen paterne as it were laide vp, 




and kept in the mynd, wherby all other like hauealwayes 

tables are to be deuised & shaped. And cup- on^t^„aT/'"^ 

pitees, for the commen paterne whereby all drin- patemes of 

king cups are to be deuised, facioned & wrought jy^esemed and 

by the maker : Diogenes mocking soch qu|difi- kepte wherby to 

call trifles, that wer al in the cherubins, said: Sir pe^^P^^erir 

Plato, your table and your cuppe I see very well, and also other 

but as for your tabletee, & your cupitee, I see Ks of all the 

none SOche. shoes that thei 

IT Albeit there be euen at this present daye to, that p^^^o affirme 
with their sorteitees, and their ecceitees be in their own that ther be, 
conceiptes euen doctours of the chaire. f ""^ eternally 

'^ haue ben, of 

Yet neuerthelesse Plato paied Diogenes home thing"Mrtatne 
againe well enough, and gaue as good as he generall pa- 
brought. It is no meruaill, said Plato ; for thou ofTesamT"^ 
hast eyes with the whiche cuppes and tables are kindes seueral- 
seen, but witte and reason thou hast not with which pltemes 
whiche are perceiued and seen the tableitees and onely the ima- 

. 1 . eination and 

the Cuppytees. ™derstanding 

of mans reason, is able to comprehend or to conceiue. And that out of 
the example or copie of those generall paternes, nature from time to 
time hath still, doth, and continually shall forme and shape all singfular or 
particulare thinges of euery seuerail kinde : so that an Idee is the appropriate 
forme, and peculiar likenesse of thinges in euery kinde, out of the whiche as being 
a substancial, paterne eternally remaining, ar figured shaped and produced, al par- 
ticular thinges in this or that kinde. For example and declaration wherof as when 
we see in waxe a thousand sondrie imprintinges all of one likenesse, we doe easely 
& promptlie conceiue that all thesame emprintinges were originally made and em- 
printed with one scale, so may we by our intelligence comprehende that all the par- 
ticular menne in the world, haue ben formed of one generall paterae of mankinde, 
whiche hath in eternal substaunce remained ready for that purpose. And semblably 
must the imagination or reason conceiue of an horse, of a table, of a cuppe, and of 
all other kyndes of naturall thinges. And this the position and assertion of Plato 
dothe saint Augustine allowe and vpholde {as ye may reade in his treatise of the 
.Ixx. questions) and also Eusebius in his werke De praeparatione Euaiigelica, both 
whiche autours Amhrosius Calepinus, doeth in his dictionarie cite for testimonie and 
declarations of the said Idees. 

To one demaunding when best season were to 1 30. 

wedde a wife : For a young man, (quoth he) it is ^^^" Diogenes 

, . ,j I ^ thought moste 

to soone, and for an olde manne ouerlate. expedient for a 

IT Albeit the greke wordes by reason of a certain ^^j"* ° 

a wife. 



Vicinitee, haue most grace, fi-r^hrori, not yet, and 
jaijSeTToijroTc not at all. Geuing a pretie watch worde, that 
best war vtterly to abstein from matrimonie. But the 
The ripe time demaunder would very faine haue learned, at what yeres 
of being mar- of a mans age, or in whiche part of the yere, it were ex- 
& wornan tnT" pedient for a man to chose his make : As Aristotle doth 
the prescription by prescription appoint the conuenient or ripe time of 
oiAnstotle. being mariable, to a virgin, the age of eightene yeares, 

and June lucky Romaines thought the monethes of Aprile arid lune 
monethes to propice and good to wedde in, & the moneth of May 

mariye in, & ^ , •" 

May vnlucky. vnlUCky. 

131. To a feloe demaunding what he would haue, 
to take a blowe or a buffette : Marie (quoth he) 
a sallette. 

H This merie ieste to, hath all his grace of the 

•*■ niery answer godain aunswere that no man would haue looked for. 

For the "Other partie looked to heare what recompence 

or hier, Diogenes would require for a blowe on the 


132. When he sawe a young ruffler trimming him- 
What Diogenes ggjf after 'the moste galaunt and minion facion: 

said to a youngs . ° 

man trimming If that trimming bee for men (said he) it will not 
him sdfe, after ^^g . jf f^^ ^omen, it should not be. 
the gallant sort 

IT This saiyng souneth more pleasauntly in Greke; 

by reason of thafiinitee of the two voices, druxcis thou 

failest of thy purpose, and dSiKew thou doest plain iniurie. 

For it is in vaine for one man to trimme himselfe for 

Awife ought to 3-11 Other, sence that betwene theim can be no mariage, 

be wonne with And a wicked deede doth any young man, if by setting 

andlllha^oTr ^°^ °^^^^ beautie, he do laye abaite to beguile the 

fraile sexe of womankinde, where as a wife ought to be 

wonne, not with the lure of wantonesse, but with 

honest maners & behaueour. 

133- To a certain young ladde blushing, & by reason 
Blushing in a of the same blushing sore dismayed : Take a 



good heart my sonne (quoth he) that same hewe young thinges 
or coloure is of vertuous diyng, or doth the dieuat vertu?us^d?^g. 
of vertue geue. 

When he had heard two cunning lawiers con- 1 34. 
tending, trauersing, & earnestly laiyng the law What Diogme* 
betwen themselfes together, about a matter of lawiMSMnten- 
theft : he saied they were false knaues both of ding, laiyng 
them, and condemned aswell the one as the theXrf^'"" 
other, alleging that the one had committed theft, 
and that the other had lost nothing. 

IT Signifiyng that both of them wer well worthy to 
be hanged. The subtilitee of this present saijTig con- 
sisteth in this point onely, whoso piketh or priuely steal- 
eth awaie any thing hath some auauntage & gain ther- 
by : & the partie, from whom any soche thing is pielfed 
& bribed away hath by thesame, disauantage & losse. 
But in this present case, there had a mad or fond 
knack befallen. The one partie had pielfed, or embes- 
leed awaie a thing of the others, & yet the partie from 
whom the thing was pieked, susteined no losse ne 
damage, for himself had stolen thesame thing afore, 
which his feloe bribed away afterwarde from him again. 

To one demaunding what wyne he best loued 135. 
and liked with his good will to drinke, Marie The best wine 
(quoth he) of an other mannes purse. dr'inketh of an 

^ Here also the ready answering much contrary to °^^" ""^"^ 
the expectation of the demaunder geueth to the saiyag 
all his grace. The other partie looked for an other 
maner aunswer, as the whiche in his question asking, 
meaned of the k)mde of wyne. 

To one that saied vnto him : All the worlde 1 36. 
almost doth mocke thee. Yea, but for all that, 
saied he again : I am not mocked. 

^ And this a man would thinke to be a thinge vn- 
possible that one should strike you, and yet ye not 
be. stryken. But Diogenes denied that he was had in 



Diogenes derfsion, either for that he was no maiine worthy why, 

thought the J J. ^jj^j jjg thought the skomirig of the fonde 

skornmg of the , , • t- ir i_ • 

fond people, people, nothing to touche mm, nor himseli to be in any 

nothing to point the worse for thesame. 
touche him. 

137. To another persona afifirming that it was a 
miserable and a wretched thing to Hue here in 

Toliueisno this world. No (said Diogenes) to Hue is no 
tat totdfl"^ miserable ne wretched thing, but to leade an 
vicious life. euill or a vicious life, is a thing wretched and 

^ The moste part of folkes calleth it a miserable 
life, or a dogges life, that is subiect or in present daunger 
Nothing is of trauailes, of "bodely grief or peines, of sicknesse or 
fs"coupledvrith diseases, of losse of goodes, of exilinges & banishe- 
dishonestee mentes, and many semblable incommoditees. But the 
and with vice, philosophier rekened nothing to be euill or miserable, 
sauing that was lynked or coupleed with vice and dis- 

138. Diogenes had a seruaunt, that was called 
Manes, and when this Manes had taken his 

uaunTof i)fe-" heeles and renne awaye from his maister, the 
genes. freildes of Diogenes, auised him to seeke out the 

The answer of renneawayc : Marie sir_ (quoth Diogenes) that 
Diogenes to his were a mad thinge of all thinges, if Manes doe 
[nge^hirair already willingly Hue without Diogenes, and 
pursue after Diogenes could by no meanes Hue without the 
'hlt"enn^e companie of Manes. 

awayfromhim. ^ yet many men pursue after their seruauntes in 
mynde and purpose, to be auenged on thesame : but 
Dioemes had regarde to the nede of vsing or occupiyng 

The best Philo- * ^ t^^^-c -du-i u- u x -LI 

sophier is he ^ seruaunt. That if any one Philosophier be 01 nghter 
thatfeleth nede sorte then atfother, it is' he, that nedeth fewest thinges.. 
thin^^' And in consideration therof Diogenes would not in any 

wyse seme worse then his bondman. 

lS^°For Manes had renne away from him, because he could 
lyue without his maister well enough. 


THE I. BOOKE. 143 

On a time Diogenes made all his dyner with 1 39. 
Oliues onely : and tarte & other sweete meates, 
anone after brought in place, he flong from him, 
and therewithall songe this greke .verse, out of 
some olde tragedie. 

0) eeve rvpdwoi'S eioroSuv KaOioToa'O. 

Stand vtter ye geast vnbidden, pick you hence 

Aback, out of our sight and regal presence. 

And also this piece of Homere his verse. 

aXXore jxatTTiicv 8' eXctav. 

Somewhiles with scourges, he chaced away. 
IT Calling himselfe a kyng, a contemner of all temn^'of^EJl"' 
sensuall delices, whiche delices, his will & mynde was sensual delices. 
to haue clene out of all mens pfesence and occupiyng 

Diogenes was commenly abrode called dogge. 140. 
And of doggues there ben diuerse sortes mo then one. 
For ther be hariers, or buckhoundes, there be spanyels 
made to the hawke, or for taking of foule, ther be shepe- 
herdes curres, there are tye dogges or mastifes for Whatmaner 
keepinge of houses, there ben litle minxes, or pupees a doggue Dio. 
that ladies keepe in their chaumbersfor especial iewelsto ^"'^* ^^^" 
playe withall. And so, to one demaunding what 
maner a dogge he, for his part was, he feactely 
aunswered and saied : When I am hungry I am 
a litle mynxe ful of play, and when my bealy is 
full, a mastife. 

^ For that, when .he had good lust or appetite to 
eate, he would fawne vpon folkes, and speake theim 
faire, and when his bealy was well filled, he would euer- 
more buffe, & barke, & bite a good. 

Being asked, whether Philosophiers were eaters 1 4 1 . 

of tartes or sweete meates to? Yea, of all thinges Philosophiers 

(saied Diogenes) euen like other Christian bodies, meates as o- 

11 In this also, he made an vndirecte answere, to '^'"^ *^' ^''^ 

" ... menne. 

the question that was asked of mm. The demaunders 






question was, whether it wer conuenient for Philoso- 
phiers) who professen frugalitee or temperaunce) to 
feede of tartes and marzepaine, the meates of deintye 
mouthed persones. Diogenes sembleing to haue no 
great witte ne knowledge, but to be more then halfe a 
foole, so shaped his aunswere, as though Philosophiers 
were no men in deede, and yet did eate meates to the 
diete of man belonging. For eueiy kynde of the brute 
beastes, do not eate all maner thinges at auenture with- 
out exception. The oxe eateth heighe, the lyon well 
none of it : the sheepe loue the lefes and toppes of 
willowe twigges, the horses woulde haue otes. Some 
byrdes are fedde with the beries of luniper, some foules 
are deuourers of fleshe,, some doe fede altogether on 
fyshe. And to this alluded Diogenes.. . 

When Diogenes on a time at the table emong 
companie, was eating of a tarte, and one that 
sate in thesame companie, said : What art thou 
eating now Diogenes ? (darning that the cynike 
Philosophier had no knowledge what maner 
thing a tarte should be:) he aunswered bread, 
of a very good makingj or bread' very well 
handled in the baking. 

IT Pretending that he knew not what it was. To 
others it was swete tarte, to Diogenes it was no better 
then bread, who did not eate it for sensualitee, or for 
to sweete his lippes, but for his necessarie foode and 

To one demaunding why men were liberall to 
geue akaes bounteously to other beggers, and to 


Why menne 

moie bo™nte- Philosophiers nothing so, ' Mary, (quoth he) be- 
ously to other cause they haue hope to see it sooner come to 
Phftosophiers!° P^sse, that they shall ae lame or blynde, then 
that they shalbee Philosophiers. 

IT Soch folkes as taken pitee and compassion vpon 
persones visited with aflKction^) of which sorte are all 


THE I. BOOKE. 1 45 

beggers for the moste part) doen thesame in considera- 
tion of the state, condicion or chaunce of this worlde, 
being indifferent and commen to all mortall menne in 
this present life. So they releue a blynd body, casting 
thus in their mynde: This veray selfsame thing, may in 
time to come, chaunce vnto my self : but of a Philo- 
sophier, they haue no soche cogitation. The saiyng 
hath somewhat the more grace, by reason of the im- 
proprfe vsing of the latin word sperant, in Englishe, thei 
haue hope or affiaunce : for a man in processe to 
become a PhUosophier, may be hoped for, but for the 
losse of the iyesight, or for halting like a creple, no 
man vseth to hope. 

Diogenes asked, whatsoeuer it was, in the waye 144' 
of almes of a feloe being a niggarde and lothe to 
depart with any thing: whome when he sawe 
long in doing, and more like vtterly to saye him 
naye then to geue him aught : O thou man, saied 
he, I aske thee for a dyning not for a diyng. 

IT To expresse as nere as may be, the aifinitee of the 
Greke vocables, Tpo^\ and rai^ij, of the whiche Tpo^, 
in latin Cibus, in englishe meate, and Ta<^^, in latin 
Sepultura, in Englishe a graue. 

I^p° As if he should haue said : What nedest thou to make so 
muche sticking at the matter : I doe not require thee to go hang 
thy selfe, but onely to geue me as muche money as may sufBse to 
paye for my poore dynner, whiche he spake, because the feloe made 
as much sticking, and shewed himselfe as lothe to departe with 
any money, as if Diogenes had said vnto him : go thy wayes at 
ones, & hang thy selfe. All the matter is in daliyng with the Greke 

To a certaine persone laiynge to his charge, 145. 
that he had in time tofore, been a false coyner of 
countrefeite money, ( for he was vppon soche a 
matter banished his countree, as is aboue men- l" 'he .cii. apo- 
tioned : ) I confesse ( saieth he, the time to haue ^o^^°_ 
ben, when I was soche an one, as thou art now, 
but soche an one as I am at this present, thou 
art neuer like to be, while thou shalt Hue. 

10 It 


Many doe re- ^ It was a checke to those persones, who doe in 

rtiewe'spaces of Others finde great faulte at the errours and folies of 
youth and yet youth, where as thesame doe amend and correcte their 
emende not owne misdedes, no not in their old age neither. 

their owne in ' ° 

oMe'a e^4^' "^^ ^^ Other feloe casting him in the nose with 

neither. the Selfsame matter, he defended his crime by 

the pretexte of youth, saiynge : ^p° Yea I did in my 

youth many thinges moo then that, whiche I doe not nowe in 

myneage. For at that age I could haue pissed 
quickely without any payne, so doe I not nowe 
at this daye. 
'Many men doe IT With a Cynical circuition or going about the 
of foly in youth hushe, he signified young age, whiche doth easely and at 
which tli'ei will the first assayc make water, where as old folkes be much 
oe in age. (.Qjjj]3j.g(j ^^jj g^ gpiece of the strangurie, that they can- 
not pisse, but with great pein, one droppe after an other. 

1^^ So meaned Diogenes, that in his olde age he could not pos- 
sibly by anye persuasion or meanes haue ben brought to ooyne false 
money, wherunto the foly of youth had afore brought him, 
through default of mature discretion. 

147- Taking a iorney on a time to the towne of Myndus, when he sawe great wide gates and of 
gorgious or royall buildmg, where as the towne 
was but a litle preaty pyle : he said. Ye towne 
dwellers, or ye enhabitauntes of Myndus, shutte 
fast your toune gates, that your citee go not out 
at theim. 

IT Noting the towne to be so litle, that it were 
possible for the same to go forth at the gates. 

■ 148. Seing a feloe attached, that hadde by pnue 
stelthe embesleed a piece of purple silke, he ap- 
plied to thesame, this verse of Homere. 

IXXa^c wopiftvpeoi Odvaros koI fioipa Kparaii;. 

That is. 

The death of purple, hath thee by the back 
And by princely destiney, thou goest to wracke. 

Purple death |J^° It can not haue the full grace in englyshe. But iroptjivpeoi 

and princely in greke, and Purpureas, a, um, is a denominatiue of Purpura ■■ 


THE I. BOOKE. 147 

and the poetes doen often ioyne it for an epitheton with the substan- destenie. Pur- 

tiue Mors, death. Because that when a body is slaine, the gore pureus, a,um,, 

bloud that issueth out of the wounde is of purple colour. And an epitheton of 

he CEilled it princely destiney to dye in riche araye, or for precious Mors, 
and gaye thinges, 

Craterus the lieutenaunte or high Capitaine 149. 
with Alexander the great, being a man of great ^^^^'^^^^^' 
welth and riqhesse, had of his owne mere mocion Alexander the 
inuited and hartelye praied Diogenes to come |^^^' ^^.^ ^^^^^ 
and dwell with him : To whome Diogenes made aunswered to 
answer. I can better be contented to Hue in Crater^ mm- 

, , „ ting him to 

Athenes with bread and chese, then with Cra- come and dwel 
terus at mine owne will, to haue all the deinties ^^J^'^l :. 

. ' Libertee, bee it 

m the WOrlde. neuer so poore, 

IT Meaning that libertee (be it neuer so poore) is f^°^ t/^ll" 
rather to be chosen then all the delices and iunkerie, or delices, wher 
sumptuous fare of the ryche cobbes, to be restreined ''•'^rt^^ *s re- 
and kept short of libertee. 

* Anaximenes the rhetorician, had a panche as 1 50- 
fatte and great as he was able to lugge away with- ]^^,^,^^. 
all, to whome Diogenes came, and spake in this meiies, the rhe- 
maner: I pray you geue to vs lene craggues agrea"bealy.^ 
some bealy to : for both yourselfe thereby shalbe 
well lighted and eased of your burden, and ye 
shall do to vs a good turne and a pleasure. 

* Aiiaximenes a. philosophier, the scholar and successour of Anaximander, & the 
msiister and next predecessour of Anaxagoras. 

As Anaximenes was on a time in making an 151. 
oration to the people, Diogenes bearing in his 
hande, and holding out a pestle or gammond of 
bakon, made all the audience full and whole to 
turne awaye from Anaximenes to gaze vpon 
him. Anaximenes fuming and taking highe in- 
dignation at the matter, helde his peace, as a 
man destitute and forsaken of his auditorie. 
Then saied Diogenes, Loe, one poore halfpeny 



matter hath clene dashed all this earnest and 
solemne talke of Anaximenes. 

f Signifiyng that all his babling was of light and 
friuelous matters, which made not the audience very 
attent, or willing to geue eare vnto him. 

152. Certain persones obiecting vnto him as a point 
Why Diogenes against all good nourture, that he would go 

would c3.te sls 

he went in the maunching and eating euen in the open streate : 
open streate. What meruaill, quoth he ? bounger commeth on 
me in the streate. 

IT He made a reason, of that the logicians callen, 
Relatmeoppos- relatiue opposita. If honger were not hasty on a man 
ite orrelatiues, jn the open Streate, it might percase, bee a matter of 

in loffike, are , . , o -. _ , , ,, 

two Siinges so shame to eate m the open streate. But by the selfsame 
connexed, and colour he might haue defended himselfe if he did his 
pendinfftheoiie casement or els made water in the open streate. 

of the other, that thesame doe euermore either the other importe and notitie, as to 
being a father belongeth hauing a child, & to being a sonne or doughter, belongeth 
hauing a father and semblably of hongre & eating. 

153. There be wryters that doe father this also 
Howe Diogenes vpon Diogenes, Plato happely finding him wash- 
taunted Ptoo .*^ ^ r 1 J u u -J . -L- J 
secretly, re- ^g a sorte of salade herbes, said vnto him round- 

prouing him j^g in his eare. If thou wouldest haue ben 
fare. rewled by Dionysius, iwys thou shouldest not 

after this maner washe these herbes. Diogenes 
rounded Plato in the eare againe, saiyng: Iwys if 
thou wouldest haue washed herbes for thine owne 
dyner, thou shouldest not in this maner haue 
been a Ihon hold my staf to Dionysius. 

% But this appeareth to be a tale forged after the 
Afore in the Hkenesse or example of the saiyng afore reported' on 

first saiyng of - ... , , . . , ., , . , t -n 

Aristifipus. Aristippus, as this same m like maner, whiche I will 
put nowe next of all. 

154. To one saiyng, many a man hath thee in de- 
Diogenes no- "sion ( O Diogenes ) And theim peraduenture, 
thingpassedon many an asse (quoth he) again. The other feloe 




saiyng moreouer, and thus repliyng. Yea, but thei *eim that had 
care nothyng for the Asses, he aunswered. And '''•"'"<'="=*°"' 
I asmoche and not a iote more for theim that ye 
speake of. 

^ He attributed vnto Asses, the propertee of mock- 
ing or skoming, because thei do euery other while, by 
shewyng their teeth bare, as ye would saie, counterfeact 
grennyng and makyng mowes with their lippes. And 
besides that, when men doe mocke any body, thei wagge 
their handes vp and doune by their eares at the sides 
of their hed and doe counterfeact the facion of an Asses 
eares. So then the Asse also appereth by waggyng his 
eares vp and doun, to mocke & skome folkes yet is 
there no bodie therwith displeased, or greued. 

Seyng a young strieplyng to applie the studie 
of philosophic. Well doen, quoth he, theharkners 
of carnall beautie thou callest awaie to the beautie 
and goodlinesse of the minde and soule. 

^ Meanyng, that the partie, in that he laboured to 
gamishe and adoume his minde with vertues or good 
qualitees, and with honest disciplines, should finally, 
atteine to be assured of better frendes by a great waie. 
For there is nothyng more goodlie or beautifuU then 
Sapience, nothyng then vertue more amiable. 

The custome and vsage of men in olde tyme 
was, soche persones as had been saued from 
greate perilles, or misa,uentures to hang vp in the 
Temples Donaries,that is to saie, giftes, presentes, 
or oblacions,as agnisyng to bee the onely benefite 
of the Goddes, that thei had been preserued and 
saued harmelesse. Therefore, when to Diogenes, 
hauing taken a iourney into the countree of 
*Samothracia, were shewed the iewelles or obla- 
cions that sondrie persones hauyng been from 
perishyng in battaill, from diyng by sickenesse, 
from beyng drouned and loste onjthe sea, or from 



Who laboureth 
to adoume the 
minde with 
good qualitees 
and honest dis- 
ciplines, shal- 
be assured of 
much the better 


*Samos is an 
Isle in the sea 
called Mare 
Aegeum adia- 
cent, marching 
and bordring 
vpon the coun- 
tree of Thracia, 
whiche after- 
warde by reason 


of the commix- any Other great hasard preserued, had offred vp : 
peoples, was Yea, quoth Diogenes, but .these would bee a 
named Samo. moche greater nomber, if all those persones, which 
nessethVej-gii- i^^ like case haue not been saued, had offered vp 
ius, saiyng : soche giftes as these. 

Thrdciam quae 

Samum, quae nunc Samothracia fertur. This Isle was consecrate to luna, who 
was in thesame Isle home, breden, and brought vp, and finallie maried to lupiter. 
There was also an other Isle in the same sea of thesame name foreayenst Ephesus. 

Diogenes sup- ^ ^^ meaned (mine opinion is) those persones that 
posed men to were saued from misauentures, to bee saued by very 
be saued from chaunce, and not by the benefite or grace of the 

misauentures /-,,, _, .., ,., 

by mere Goddes, That m case it be to bee imputed to the 

chaunce and Goddes, if a man be preserued, to thesame is it also to 

graceor'eM'te ^^ imputed, that mo in nomber do perishe, then are 

of God. escaped. There been writers that doen attribute this 
present saiyng to Diagoras Melius, a miscreaunt and a 

philosophier wicked despiser of the goddes. And as for the Samo- 

surnamed throcians wer sore blinded and infected with greate 

afleos that is, supersticion in soche maner thynges. 

a miscreaunt, 

not beleuing that there were any Goddes, ne thesame to be of any power. 

157' To a welfauoured young springal, goyng on 
his waye towardes a feast or banquette, he saied: 
Thou wilt come home again worse man then 
thou goest foorth. So when thesame young man 
returning homewarde again from the banqvet, 
had said to Diogenes, I haue been at the feaste, 
and yet am returned nothing the worse man 
therfore. Yes (quoth Diogenes) and so muche 
Afyoungeman the worse euen for that worde. 

from excessiue 

reuelling re- f Notifiyng to be vnpossible, but that soche a young 

man^ then'he strepling must remedilesse from excessiue and vnsobre 
went thither., reuelling, come hortie lesse honeste, then he went thither. 

l^g°And that he hadde of the pottes and cuppes taken soche 
stomack and impudencie, as without ferther prouocation to chatte, 
and choppelogike with an auncient Philosophier, was a mani- 
fest argument and an euident declaration, that his condicions 
were rather appaired then emended, besides diat it was a token of 
small grace, to be so blynded m foly, that he would not see ne 
knowlege his faulte. 


•)(a,pw/ \i.ev am 


Diogenes asked of one Euritius some great 158. 
thing, whatsoeuer it was, and when thesame (as is 
the guyse) saied naye to his requegte with these 
wordes : I will doe it : if thou canst persuade 
me therunto : If I were able (quoth Diogenes) to 
persuade thee to do all thinges after mine aduise, The Cynicall 
I had long ere this daye, geuen thee counsell to plainnesse of 
hang thyselfe. ^^^'^ 

II In this saiyng, out take Cynical plainesse and mind, 
boldnesse of speaking, and there is no great point to 
be maruailed at. 

S^Exoept percase he thought requisite, to reproue the fast- 
holding of soche niggardes, as will departe with nothing to the 
poore, but with more suite and praiyng then the thing is worth. 

He had been to see the citee of Lacedemon, 159. 
and being from thence returned to the citee of 
Athenes, one asked of him (as the maner is) 
whether he would, and from whence he was The corrupt & 
come. Forsoth (quoth he) from very men to effeminate 

maners of the 

very women. _ Mheniens. 

II Noting the maners of the Atkenims with sensual 
pleasures & delices effeminate, wher. as" the Lacede- 
monians war hardely brought vp. 

One asked him as he returned homeward from 1 60. 
the Olympia, whether he had not seen ther a ^^^^ com- 
great companie, Yes truly, (quoth he) a very panieandfewe 
great companie, but woondrous fewe men. 

^ This also appeareth to be counterfaited and ^oreinthe 
forged by the other saiyng, that is afore rehersed of this same Dio- 
the hotte house. ff««"- 

Those persones, who of a ryottousnes did 161, 
prodigally lauesse out and waste their sub- 'Wasteful and 
staunce or goodes vpon cookes, on reuellers, or sers of their 
ruffians, or harlottes, and vpon flatterers: he |1°J^^'°;^^^ 
auouched to bee like vnto trees, growyng on the likened, 
edges or brinkes of cliefTes and rockes of a down- 
right pitche, or a stiepe down fall : the fruites of 



whiche trees no man could euer geat a taste of, 
but thesame were from time to time, deuoured 
Thei that ser- by the crowes and the rauens. 

uen onely the • „ , , . , , i 

throte and the ^ Menuig CD that One part, soche persones as 
bealie, are not serucn onelye the throte and the bealie, not to be 

woorthie the .1 ii. __ r _ ' 

name of men. worthy the name of men. 

I^g° And on the other side, goodes so wastefuUy spent, to be 
worse then cast awaye. 

162. The Grekes, if they wishe to any body extreme 

Diogenes 3.- mischiefc, or shamefull death, they do (by a 

more'daunge^r- prouerbiall speaking, in their toungue vsed ) bidde 

oustofalinthe theim go pieke theim to the crowes, in greke, 

terers^ thtn^of ** Kopaxa^. But Diogenes of a Customable wonte 

wilde beastes. auouchcd to bee a thing muche more daungerous 

*« Kopaxas to fall in the handes of * flaterers that will hold 

a-^ekdav 7/ is yp 3, mans yea & nay ( be it true or false) then to 

„ ,. ^ lighte emong crowes. 

Tolightemong ° '^ 

crowes then e- 8^° For the crowes doe not pecke but the carkesses of dead men, 

mong flatterers 'he flatterers deuoure men euen whyle they are aliue, be theyneuer 

Diogenes allu- so honest and good. 

ded to the greke f The pleasauhtnesse of this saiyng (which in the 

fi^XX' ^' greke by reason of the afiinitee of the vocables hath 

KoflOKas ^^ exceadyng great grace) both in latin & in english 

hence to the vtterly quaiUeth or dieth. For crowes the Grekes callen 

crowes and (as Kopaxa and One litle sole letter chaunged, thesame 

ghrshe) to the ^^^^ flatterers KoXaKas. This saiyng is ascribed to 

deuill of hell. Antisthenes s\.s6. 

Erasmus in his Chiliades citeth Zenodotus for his autour, that there was a cer- 
tain place of execution in Thessalia, called the crowes, into the which, persones 
founde giltie of any cause or crime of death, and therevpon condemned, were 
caried and cast hed long so to perishe there. The originall cause why thesaied 
plara was so named, whoso is desirous to know, if he be learned, may at large 
reade in Erasmus vpon the prouerbe aboue cited. 

1 63. * Phryne a naughtie packe, or a woman of light 
*OiPhryne\t.\s conuersation, hanged vp for a iewell, by thewaye 
noted afore in of oblacion in the temple of Apollo at the 
oiAri^^p^^ towne of Delphi, an Image of Venus, made of 
As touching clene golde.' Diogenes espiyng thesame Image, 
ApJ^Mhe^e, Wrote and set this posee or testimoniall vpon it : 


THE I. BOOKE. 1 53 

Of the inordinate and vicious liuing of the the most liteiy- 

rirpb-pe hod is, that vp- 

'^'^^*^"- on the Image 

^For it was a plaine conuincing of the Grekes, *^«^'"^»« 
that they were too too muche drowned in the vice of the ted, was thus 
body, that a commen strompet had gathered together '^T;"^" i ^*" 


so muche golde, of money gotten by soche abhomin- \ath Phryne 

ation. offred and 

geuen vnto A- 
pollo. When Diogenes read this scripture, he wrote hard at the taile of it this 
addicion : Of the inordinate liuing of the Grekes. 

There been that ascriben to Diogenes this 164. 
saiyng to. When Alexander the great had come 
vnto hina, and saluted him, Diogenes demaunded 
who he was : And when the other had in this ^iogenes gio- 

1 1 » 1 t ned as muche 

maner aunswered, I am that noble Ales^ander in his libertee, 
the king : Mary (quoth Diogenes againe : ) And ^ did ^tean- 

, . , - , T-v- 1 , dej-ofhiskme- 

I am that loyly feloe Diogenes, the doggue. dom. 

^ Taking no lesse pride & glorie of his libertee, 
that he was at no mans becke ne commaundement, 
then Alexander did of his kingdome, and crowne 

Being asked for what prankes or doynges it 165, 
had come to his lot to be commenly called Howe it came 
doggue of euery body: Mary (quoth he) because fottoTrcaUed 
that, on soche as geue me ought, I make muche doggue. 
fanning : at soche as wyll nothing i departe with- 
all, I am euer barking : and soche as be naught, 
I b)d;e, that they smart again. 

To Diogenes plucking fruite of a certain figge x66. 
tree, when the keper of the orchyarde had spoken 
in this maner: Vpbn the same tree, that thou 
gatherest of, a feloe not many dales agone 
hanged himselfe. Mary (quoth Diogenes) and I 
will purifie and dense it againe. 

f The other partie supposed, that Diogenes being 
so aduertised, would haiie forborne the tree inquinate 



or polluted, in that it had borne a dead carkesse. But 

Diogenes clere Diogenes beyng free and clere from all spiece of super- 

voydeofall gticion, estemed the fruite to be no point the more 
spiece of super- ' *■ 

sticion. polluted, or impure for that respect. 

167. Marking one that was a greate prouer of 
maisteries in the games of Olympia, to set an 

What Diogenes earnest iye on a common strumpet, in so moche 
sawe achalen! that he tumed his hed backe, and behelde her, 
geioiOiympia after that she was gone paste him, he said : Loe, 

CR^ 3,11 C3,rncst 

eyeonawenche ^ow a principall ram, for the toothe of Mars him- 
self, is leed awaie in a bande (his necke set 
clene awrie) by a damisell, that is as common as 
the cartwaie. 

IT He thought it a matter of laughter, for the feloe 
to bee a prouer of maisteries, with pieked or chosen 
men of price, and thesame to be haled or drawen 
awaie as a prisoner, without any chordes at all, by a 
shitten arsed gerle. 

168. Well fauoured or beautiful! strumpettes, he 
BeautifQl auouched to bee like vnto bastarde or Muscadine, 
ogfflT/ukSed'" tempered arjd mixte with dedlie poison. 

to swete wyne ^ For that thesame caused in deede at the begin. 
d^Syepoyson ^Y^St delicious pleasure & voluptie, but euen at the 

heeles of whiche pleasures immediatly ensued endlesse, 

dolour & wofulnesse. 

1 69. As he was making his diner euen in the open 
strete : when a greate nomber stoode round 
about him, for the straungenesse of the sight, 
and euer emong made a criyng at him, Doggue, 

Diogenes ca\Ui doggue : Naie, quoth Diogenes, ye be doggues 

theira dogges, rather, in that ye stand round about a manne 

'"boute beyng at his diner. 

hyrn whilp he ^ For that is one of the common propertees that 

*""''• dogs haue. 

1 70. When mencion was made of a boie, in moste 


THE I. BOOKE. 155 

detestable abominacion abused, Diogenes beyng 
asked .what countreeman the boie was : made 
aunswer, by daliyng with a worde that might be 
twoo maner waies taken, and saied : He is a 

H For, Tegea, is a citee of Arcadia. And therof is Teg-ea, a citie of 
deriued a noune gentile Tegeates, a Tegeate, or a per- j'^^^ 
sone of Tegea borne. And the Greke vocable reyos, ' 
is otherwile in one significacion, Lupanar, a brothell 
hous, or a place where bawderie is kepte. And thereof 
the Philosophier vsurped a worde of his owne deuisjmg, 
or forgyng, and called the boie a Tegeate, of reyos, for 
respecte of the moste abominable vice, with whiche he 
had been defoiled. 

When he sawe a feloe now taking vpon him, 1 7 1, 
to practise and minister Phisike, who had afore ^°^^ Diogenes 

. /-I mocked one 

been a common dooer m the games of wrastlyng that from a 
but in deede, was a verie slouche, and a verie wrasteleer fell 

, ,1 ., , TTT-1 1 1 to be a Phisi- 

dastard, he said vnto thesame : Wilt thou now by dan. 

course ouerthrowe them againe, that haue here- ,r 

tofore Guerthrowen thee ? 

IF A wrastler is properly saied, to cast or ouer- 
throwe any partie whom he ouercometh and putteth 
to the wurse. And the phisician also ouerthroweth Two kyndes 
those persones, whom he coucheth in bedde, or throwing' or 
bryngeth to their longe home. As for the meanyng of gluing a fall. 
Diogenes was, that the partie was now as eiuill a 
Phisician, as he had afore been a falseharted wrastleer. 
A merie ieste moche like to thissame, there is in the 
poete Martialis, of a feloe whiche from a Phisician, 
hauing become a fighter in hamesse, did none other 
beeyng Hoplomachtis, then what he had dooen being a 

To a bastarde or basseborne boie, that had a 172. 
common harlotte to his mother, and was whurl- 
ing little stones emong the thickest of the people 




To be worthy 
a. benefite is 
more then to 
haue geuen a 

The aunswere 
of Diogenes to 
one that had 
geuen him a 
mantell, and 
would needes 
haue had it 
from him a- 

at auenture, he said : Take heede sirrha & beware, 
lest thou hit thy father. 

H For he was bom of a common naughtipack & 
by reason therof, his father not certainly knowen. 

172. Certain persones highly magnifiyng & praising 
the bounteous liberalitee of one, that had giuen 
to Diogenes a thing, what euer it was : And why 
doe ye not praise me to, saied he.tha^ haue de- 
serued to haue it giuen me } 

IT For to be worthie a benefite, is more then to 
haue giiien a benefite, accordyng to that the sentence 
of Fublius Mimus. 

Beneficium dando accepit, quid digno dedit. 
Hymself by giu)Tig receiueth a benefite 
Who giueth to a person worthie to haue it. 

To one that required of Diogenes, restitucion 
of his robe or mantel, he thus made a wondreous 
feacte and pleasaunte aunswer. If thou gaue it 
me freely, I haue it : if thou diddest lende it me, 
I doe stil occupie it. 

H Signifiyng, that he was nothing minded to restore 
it home again, whether it was of free gift or els by the 
waie of lone for a tyme, that he had receiued it It is 
shame for a bodie to require again, that he hath freely 
giuen. And it is a poinct of inhumanitee, hastily to 
snatche awaie that the occupier hath neede of, and 
cannot well forbeare. 

^75* ^^' Supposititii partus, are in Latine called children, that be 
feigned or sembled to haue been borne of that wombe foorth of 
whiche they neuer came (as for example) if a woman should be 
deliuered of a monster, or of a dead childe, and haue an other liue 
childe of due forme and shape laied by her in the place of thesame, 
or if a woman should bring foorth a wenche, and thesame con- 
ueighed away, should haue a manne childe of an other womans 
bearing, laied by her in stede of hir owne, or if a woman should 
counterfaite trauailing and labouring of childe, and haue an other 
womans childe lajed by her, and vsed as though she had been de- 


liuered of it her selfe in very dede, that childe so impropreed to a 
wrong mother, may proprely in latin be called partus mpposititms, 
as ye would saye in englishe, a. childe mothered on a woman that 

neuer bare it, or a chaungeling, and suche persones are euer after $uppositus, is 

called supposititii, or suppositi. There is also an other latin worde, also a partici- 

indormire, in englishe, to slepe vpon, or to lie vpon while we slepe. pie of Suppon- 

And it male be taken in two diuerse, and in maner contrarie senses, or and souneth 

For wee are saied in Latin, indormire, to lie vpon, or to slepe vpon in englishe laid 

our gooddes or treasure, for safe keping of thesame, and we are also vnder as a pi- 

saied in Latin indormire, to slepe vpon, or to lie sleping on a thing loe is layde vn- 

that we sette no greate store by, nor doe any thing passe on as a der ones head 

matte, or a couche. And in deede Diogenes vsed his mantell in the in the night, 
night season, in stede of a mattresse. 

Howe Diogenes 
taunted a 

And SO it was, that when soche a chaungelyng, 


as is aboue mencioned, had saied to Diogenes in who in skome 
skorne : Loe, he hath gold in his mantell, Dio- ^".d, derision 

, . , , , . ... , r 1 said that jDto- 

genes laied the reproche vene well in the feloes gees hadde 

owne necke, saiyng. Yea and therefore supposito s°^^ sowed in 
..'■''" ^^ the patches of 

indormio. his cope. 

@^° Meaning the partie to bee a chaungeling, and there- 
fore despiceable, or worthie to be contemned: wheras the 
wordes might in the grosse eare of the feloe, soune also to this 
sense, that Diogenes laid the mantell nightly vnder him when he 
slept, for safe keping of soche a precious iewel. 

To one demaunding, what auauntage he had 1 76. 
by his Philosophie : Though nothing els, saied What auaun- 
he, yet at lestwise this foredele I haue, that I am ^gfi^ jg gouen 
readie prepaired to almaner fortune, good or by Philosophic, 

H This saiyng hath scacely any smelle or sauour of 
Diogenes, although he beareth the name of it. 

Beyng asked of a feloe what countreeman he 177. 
was, he aunswered Kotr/xoTroXm^s that is, a citezen What coun- 

. , , J treeman Dio- 

Ot the WOrlde. genes affirmed 

f Signifiyng that a Philosophier, in whatsoeuer hymselfe to be. 
place of the worlde he is resiaunte, or maketh his abode, 
liueth in his owne natiue countree. 

l^°And all the worlde to be but as one citee for man to inhabite. 

When Diogenes on a time asked an almes, and 1 78. 




After what jn speakyng to the publique almener of the citee 
a°sk™danlfmes (who IS in Grekc called cpampx^s) he vsed none 
ofthecommen other stile but this verse of Homere. 

Almener of the 

'^'"*- Tois oAAous evdpi^ airo 8' Ekto/jos tcrxco x^ipas- 

That is 
As for other persons, despoile of their geare 
But thy handes from Hector, se thou forbeare. 

H The festiuitee or mirthe and pleasaunt grace of the 
saijmg, in this poinct consisteth, that wher he should 
haue said ipdvi^e, giue me your almes or, giue me your 
charitee, he vsed a worde of contrarie significacion, 
sai3mg empire, dispoile out of harnesse, or tume naked 
out of the cloutes. By the name of Hector, noting his 
own self And that person committeth plain robbery 
or spoile, who denieth an almes to any poor creature, 
being in extreme nede. And in dede, men of this 
ordre ben most commonly full of bribing, embesling, & 

. . 179- 

& paramours, 
Diogenes af- 
firmed to be 
the queenes 
of kinges. 

To paramours 
nothing is de- 

Paramoures, he affirmed to be the queenes of 
Kynges, because thesame mighte craue of the 
saied kinges, whatsouer their phansie lusted, and 
bee assured to obteine their asking. 

IT For, vpon this he gaue to them the name of 
queenes, not for that thesame were pieres, mates, or 
feloes like with wiues of the kynges : but for that thei 
abused the kinges selfes as subiectes vnto theim, at eche 
becke and commaundement. The kynges selfes doe 
not at all seasons impetrate of the people, that thei 
would haue by exaccion, but to a paramour nothyng is 
denied. Of this sort & trade, mine opinion is, that the 
barbarous or saluage kinges were in old time. 

f 8o. The Atheniens of mere adulacion or flaterie, 
How iHogenes to please Alexander, made a decree, that the- 
«e°e mtde^by' ^ame Alexander should be taken & wurshipped 
the Athmiem, for Bacchus (who by an other name was called 


THE I. BOOKE. 1 59 

Liber pater.)* This honour Diogenes laughyng AiatJlexaiida- 
to skorne, saied : And I pray you my maisters, *houHbe'tai«en 
make me t Serapis to. & wurshipped 

H For in thesame degree that Bacchus was emong that L to saie^ 
those that were called } Satyri, was Serapis wurship- &' Bacchus. 
ped of the Egipcians, in the similitude or likenesse of * iij,^ p^ter, 
an oxe. was one of the 

g®^And Diogenes thought himself as truiy to be thone as "5""=^ of Boc- 
Alexander was thother. chm,oi Diony- 

sius the God of 
wines, for Bacchus first inuented the vse, and the making of wine; and because 
wine deliuereth the harte from all care and thought, when a bodie is pipe merie, 
Dionysius was emong, the latines called liher, of the verbe libero, ras to deliuer, 
to ridde, to dispache, or to discharge. 

t Serapis or Apis the highest and the chief God of the Egipcians, whom thei wur- 
shipped in the likenesse of a Hue Oxe. For so it was, that Osiris the Sonne of lu- 
piter, and of Niobe the doughter of Phoroneus, being the king of the Argiues, first 
succeded the same Phoroneus in the kingdom of the saied Argiues, and when he had 
there reigned certaine yeres, he left his brother Aegialus, protectour and gouernour 
of the kingdome of all Achaia, and to winne victorie, honour, and conquest, made a . 
voiage into Egipt, and the Egipcians subdued, he tooke to wife Isis, by an other 
name called lo, the doughter of Inachus, first king of thesaid Argiues, and reigned 
ouer the Egipcians. Emong whom, aswell Isu for inuenting the forme of letters, 
and the feact of writing, as also Osiris for many other roiall artes and feactes, 
whiche he to theim taught, were bothe honoured and wurshipped as Goddes. At 
laste Osiris was priuelie by his brother Typhon slain, and Iqng sought by Isis, & at 
length found hewed and mangled all to gobbettes or pieces, not ferre from the 
citee of iSyme, whiche iSyejie (as Plinius in the seconde booke testifieth) is situate in 
Zona torrida, so directly vnder the tropike of Cancer, that when the sunne being at 
the highest, doth entre into the saied signe of Cancer at midsomer (about fiftene 
dales afore the feaste of the natiuitee of Saint lohn Baptists) it lieth lust ouer the 
toppe of the citee, and causeth in thesame no maner shadoe of any thing at al to 
be seen or to appere. Isis caused hir husband with much mourning jmd lamenta- 
cion to be buried in a litle Isle then called Abatos, in the Marice nighe to the citee 
of Memphis (being the chief or principal! citee of al Egipt next after Alexandria, 
whiche Marice was from thenceforth named Styoi, that is the place of mourning and 
wailing.) But when in thesame Marice had sodainly appered to the Egiptians a 
certaine oxe, they esteming the oxe to be Osiris, fell prostrate, and kneled to it,'and 
toke the oxe aliue and brought him to a temple (whiche afterward was called Sera- 
pion) where they did to him, all honour and homage, and worshiped thesame as 
their God, seruing him daily with gold and al pirecious vessels, and with all delicates 
mete for a king or a God to be serued withall. And called him Apis, whiche in 
that language is an oxe. And euer after a certain time, thei would cast him aliue 
as he was intoja floode, where he should be drouned. This doen thei would go with 
mourning and-lamentacion, and neuer ceasse seking vntill they had found a newe 
oxe as like in colour and all proportion of feacture vnto thefirst Apis, as might pos- 
sible be. And thus from time to time worshipped the Egiptians a liue oxe as their 
God, & gaue to thesame first of all, the name of Apis, & afterward that the first was 
dead or the second in processe Serapis by a worde compouned of Apis and copos 
a cophin, (sochp as the carkesses of noble persons ar cheisted in, ere they be laied in 


l6o - DIOGENES. 

their graue.) And so was it first Sorapis, and in conclusion by chaunging the 
letter o into e, Serapis, so that Osiris, Apis, and Serapis is all one. 

tSktyri, (as the poeticall fables tellen, and Plirmls in the fifth booke doth testifie) 
wer fewer beastes in the mountaines of Ethiopia, & of the Indes, of exceding lighte- 
nesse of fdbte, and swiftnesse in renning, of the figure, shape, and likenesse of a 
man, sauing that thei had homes, and had the feete and legges of a gote clouen, 
and full of rough hiere. And these maner monstres the olde antiquitee beleued to 
be the Goddes of the forestes, of wildernesse, and of all rusticall places of husband- 
rie. Whereof saint Hierome saieth in this maner, speaking of saint Antonie. He 
sawe an elfishe man, with a long croked haukes nose, and a forehead or brough 
with homes sticking out, whose nether partes of the body grewe out into feete soch 
as gotes haue. And when Antonie, (the signe of the holy crosse premised ) had in 
the name of God demaunded, what he was, it is reported that the other thus made 
aunswere. I am a mortall man of the worlde, one of the bordrers on the edge of 
wildemesse, who, by the gentilitee with vain errour deluded, are called Fauni, 
Satyri and Incubi. 

1 8 1 . Being chidden, for that he was a goer into places 
full of stinke and all vnclenlynesse, he saied: 
Why, the sunne also doeth crepe vnder houses of 
office, and yet is not therwith defoyled nor em- 
brewed, or made durtie. 

is not the worse ^ His meaning was that the honestee of a perfect 
for the infamie vertuous man, is nothing, empeched, stayned or made 
tha^he r^rt- '^°^^^ ^r the infamie of anye place that he resorteth 

eth vnto. vntO. 

182. When it fortuned hym to bee at supper in a 
temple, and mustie or sluttishely kept, loues of 
bread, to be sette afore him : he cast the loues 

None impure and all out of the temple, allegeyng, that none 
S&e tern!" impure or sluttishe thyng ought to entre into the 

pie of God. hoUS of God. 

183. To a feloe, malapertlie demaundyng why Dio- 
genes, sens he had nomaner learnyng ne knowlege, 
professed and openlie tooke vpon him the name 
of a Philosophier : he saied : If I countrefaicte a 
Philosophier, or if I shewe any neere towardnesse 
of a Philosophier, euen that verie poinct is to be 
a Philosophier outright. 

II Halfe noting philosophic to be a'thing of so high 
difiicultee, that euen to counterfeacte thesame, and to 


THE I. BOOKE. l6t 

shewe any towardnesse of it, is no small porcion of To shewe nigh 
Philosophic. As that persone hath an high poincte, 1° phUosophierf 
and a greate fordeale, toward being a king, that can ex- is a great por- 
pertly and cunningly, in gesture & countenaunce re- "hUoso hie'/^ 
present the state of a kyng. So in deede, whoso outright, 
counterfeacteth or maketh shewe or countenaunce of 
a thing, doth as moche as in hym lieth, imitate and 
foloe al the facions to thesame belonging. And by 
imitacion to drawe nigh to all the facions or poinctes 
of a Philosophier, is a greate part of beyng a right 
Philosophier in deede, that is to saie, of beyng a 
studious and peinfiiU. labourer, to atteigne Philosophic 
or perfecte sapience. 

A certain persone brought a childe vnto Die- 184. 
genes, to the ende that thesame childe might 
take some part of his doctrine. And so,, to comr 
mende hym, that he might be the more v/elcome, 
and the better accepted of the Philosophier, the 
partie auouched the ladde to bee alreadie, bothe 
with excellente witte, and with singular good 
maners and behaueour highly endued. At these 
wordes Diogenes saied : Why, what neede hath 
he than of my help, if he be alredy soche an 
one ? 

IT He gaue a shrewd chcckc to the vnmeasurable UnmeasuraUe 
praiser, who attributed to the ladde that thing for the; •^'i"*' * P.''^y=^ 
sole atteinyng and gettyng whereof, children are at all proueed. 
tymes set and committed vnto the handling and 
trainyng of Philosophiers. It had been enough to "ssforTpri^' 
praise and exalte in the childe, an honeste toward- tude and good 
nesse, disposicibn or aptitude, and good hope of well ^°P^ '^ ^ ^"®" 

• ■■ , , , 1 , , , cs"' prayse in 

prouyng m sodie thyiages, as should be taught hym. a' childe. 

Those persones who talked moche of vertue; 185. guch, 
and yet did not lede a vertuous life he affirmed persones as 
to be like vnto the harp, which with the soune taeandlyued 
or melody, did pleasure and good to other, but it not vertuousiy 
self neither perceiued, ne heard any thing at all. ed'to^n harp!' 
1 1 This 


1 Corinth. 13. ^ This saiyng varieth not verie moche from the 
saiyng of sainct Paule, of a tinkleyng Cymballe. 

1 86. On a certaine dale, as the people wer comyng 
out from the place, where sightes and plaies wer 
exhibited, he on his partie with all his might, 
thrustyng and shouldreyng, against the throung 
of the people, heaued shoued and laboured to 
get in. And beyng asked why he so did, he 
saied : This am I of purpose eamestlie bent all 

The better phi- d^ies of my life to doe. 

losophier the If MeanjTig, that to doe the duetie and parte of a 

{r°'^^™^'d[ "S^* Philosophier, is, in all accions or thinges to be 

fromthepeople. doen, al that euer male be to discord and to be of 
contrarie waies, from the multitude or common rable 

The most part Qf the people, for because the most parte of folkes are 

with carnal ap- ledde with camall lustes and appetites and not by 

petites. reason or good discrecion. 

187. Beholding a yong man, bothe of apparell and of 
demeanure, nothing comely ne conuenient for one 

Havre Diogenes that should be a man : Art thou not ashamed, 
toke vp a quoth he, to bee more backe frende to thyself, 
that"ap^reUed then the minde or will of nature self hath been ? 
& demeaned For she created and made thee a man, and thou 
ma^fy. ™' dooest disguise and reforge thyne ownself into a 

IT Theself same wordes male be wellspoken of 
many an one, whom, where as nature hath aeated 
and made men, themselfes of their own voluntarie in- 
clinacion, fallen from their proper nature and kind, to 
thabusions of swine, & other brute beastes. 

188- When he sawe a certain minstrell, settyng his 
instrument in tune, where hymself on his owne 

Howe Diogenes bgh^lf, waS' a lewde and vicious feloe, and of de- 
rebuked amm- ' - 1, , 1 , r 

■ streil of inordi- meanure clene out of all good order and frame, 

natemaners& j^g gg^j^^j . jj^^^ f^i ^^^ jj^^y ^^^ ashamcd of 
behauiour. ' 

thy self, that thou knowest the waie how to sette 


THE I. BOOKE. 163 

tunes in true corde vpon a piece of woode, & 
canst no skille to frame thy life, by the rewle of 
right discrecion and reason ? 

IT This Apophthegme too, appereth to haue been 
deuised and drawen out of some others aboue written. 

To a certain feloe, who, at what tyme Diogenes 189. 
moued & auised him to the studie of sapience, ^'"ff™** '^°^- 

,,,,,, . ^T Shte that per- 

found and alleged many excuses, saiyng, I am sone not wor- 
nothyng apte to learne Philosophie : Why dooest '^^^ '° *'"® *^' 

, ..... , , , ,..,■, . , ., wouldenotstu- 

thou hue m this worlde then (said he again) if dy to Hue ver- 
thou haue no regard to lede a vertuous life .' teously. 

\ For a man doeth not liue here to this ende, that 
he may goe vp & doun loitiyng, and nothyng els : but ggueth the gift 
that he maie leame to liue in a right trade of vertue & to Hue verte- 
honestie. To liue, is the gift of nature, but Philoso- °^^^' 
phie giueth the gifte to liue vertuously. Nature pro- Nature produ- 
duceth vs into this worlde apt to learn, and to take ?^* ^^ ^P' '° 

^ , ^ .,,.,,., . learne, but not 

vertue, but no man is alredie endued with cunning at alreadyleamed 
the first daie that he is bom into this worlde. 

To a feloe that despised and would not knowe> i^o, 
ne looke vpon his owne father, he said : Hast 
thou no shame to despise that persone, to whom rebuked one"" 
onely and no man els, thou art bounde to thanke *a' despised 
euen for this veraie poincte, that thou settest so ^ 
moche by thy peinted sheathe ? 

H The grace of the saiyng, resteth in the collacion 
or comparyng of twoo contraries. For these twoo 
thynges will in no wise accorde, to despise an other, 
and to stande well in ones owne conceipte. 

Hearyng a young strieplyng, of a verie well 191. 
fauoured and honeste face, vsyng vnhonest Todrawea 
communicacion. Art thou not ashamed, quoth he, ouTof an ieuo- 
to drawe a sworde of lead out of an leuorie "« sheath, 
sheathe ? , 

^ leuorie was taken for a precious thyng in old 
tyme, and moche sette by. And the minde or solle of 

Howe Diogenes 


The mind doth man is couered, and (as ye would say) housed or hid- 
in^ones^com- *^^" within the tabemacle or shrine of the body, and 
munication. doeth in a mannes communicacion clorely appere and 
euidentlie shewe itself. 

192. When a feloe had in the waie of reproch laied 
vnto his charge, that he was a drinker at common 

geuen'to hy'm" tauerns : So am I shoren at the barbers shoppe 
for drinking in to quoth he again. 

a tauerne. . 

IT Signifiyng, that it is no more dishonestee to 

drinke then to bee rounded, or to bee shauen. And 

as no man findeth faulte at beyng shauen in a barbers 

shoppe, because it is a place for that thjmg purposely 

ordeined, so it ought not to bee thought a thing vn- 

honest, if a body drinke in a common taueme, so that 

ofdrinkeis eu- he drinke with measure and with reason : for to take 

erywhere ab- excesse of drinke, in what place soeuer it be, is athyng 

hominable. ghamefuU & abhominable. 

193. To one reprochfully casting in his nose that he 
The answer of h^d taken a Cope or a Mantell, of Philippus the 

Dio£63i6s to one ' X A, 

obiectins that kyng, he aunswcred with a verse of Homere in 

he had taken a this maner. 
cope of Philip- 
pus. ovTOL OKoPKifT e(rri Sew. ipiKV&ia BHpa. 

Giftes of honour are not to be refused. 

With the which men ar by the gods endued. 

^ That Jlomerui -wrote of the beautie and fauour of 

Erasmus fotta.- ^^^ bodie (whiche is the benefite and gifte of God) 

king giftes & that did Diogmes wreste to a mantell, giuen him by a 

bir^nf"o°f ^™S- Thesame verse might euen I my self also, ring 

bishops. in the eares of soche persones, as do by a wrongfiill 

querele obiecte vnto me, that I do now and then take 

of noble men or of bishoppes, soche thinges as be 

giuen me for to doe me honestee. There is not one 

of them, of whom I haue at any time in all my life 

craued any thyng, either by plaine wordes, or by other 

meanes, but in deede soche thinges as thesame of their 

owne voluntary willes and mere mocions, doe laye in 


THE I. BOOKE. 16$ 

my lappe, I receiue gladly with al my heart, not so 
greatly for rewardes to the enriching of my purse, as 
for testimonies of their beneuolence and fauour to- 
wardes me, especially sence their habilitees are of more 
welthie enduemente, then to wrynge at the abatement 
of so smal a porcion as commeth to my snapshare. 

l^p°In the thirde boke of Homere his Ilias, Hector, rebuking his 
brother Paris, emong other wordes of reproch saieth vnto him in 
skome & derision after this maner. 

Your harpe and singyng melodious 

With the other giftes of Venus 

As, your goodlie heere, and aungelsTace, 

So amiable, and full of grace, 

Will not you saue, ne helpe, this is iuste. 

When ye must lye toppleyng in the duste. 

To whiche poinct, emong other thinges, Paj-is maketh aunswere 
after this sorte. 

Thou doest naught, to entwite me thus, 
And with soche wordes opprobrious 
To vpbraid the giftes amorous 
Of the glittreyng Goddesse Venus. 
Neither ought a man in any wise 
Proudely to refuse or els despise 
Any giftes of grace and honour, 
Whiche the Goddes of their mere fauour 
Conferren, after their best likyng, 
And no man hath of his owne takyng. 

Diogenes curiously and with earnest diligence, T94. 
teaching a lesson of refreining angre, a certaine 
saucie or knappishe young springall (as ye would 
saie, to take a proof and trial!, whether the Phi- 
losophier would in deede shew and performe, that 
he taught in wordes) spetted euen in the verie 
faceofhym. This thyng Diogenes tooke coldely "^ol^^T 
and wisely, saiyng: In deede I am not angrie 
iiitherto, but yet by sainct Marie, I begin to 
doubt, whether I ought now of congruence to 
bee angrie, or not. 



__ ■ He meaned that sharplie to punishe soche a saucie pranke 
of a lewd boie, had been a deede of almes, and of charitee. 

ige. Yiyng a certain persone humblie crouching 

and kneling to a woman of euill conuersacion of 

her body, for to impetrate that he desired, he 

said : What menest thou wretched creature that 

thou art ? It wer moche better for thee, not to 

obtein that thou suest for. 

To be reiected ^ To beg reicctcd and to haue a naie of a stroumpet 

is^a morehap- ^^ ^ ™°''^ happie thing, then to bee taken to grace and 

pie thing then fauour. And yet many one maketh instaunt suite to 

to be taken to purchase their own harme and buien thesame full dere. 
fauour. ^ 

iq6 To a certain persone hauyng his heere per- 

Swete sauours fumed with sweete oiles : Beware sirrha quoth 

of the body, do jjg jgg^. ^.jjg sweete smelling of thy hedde, cause 

cause a mans , ' . . . , 

life to stinke. thy life to stinkc. 

^ The Greke vocables, that giuen all the grace to 
A mans fame j.}jg saivng, are evwSLo, firagraunt odour, and Svo-oSio, 

is the chief o- , , . t^ . -, j 

dourethathe ranke stenche. For swete ones or pouthers, ui one 

sraelleth of. that should be a man, plainly argueth womanly tender- 

^t^ell"of sweete ^esse & nicitee of the life. And thesame of euery per- 

odours is an sone, is (as ye would saie) the odour that he smelleth 

euill sauour in ^f ^ moche like saiyng hadi the Poete Martialis. 

a man. 

Neuole, non bene olet, qui bene semper olet 

O Neuolus, that man smelleth ill, 

That smelleth of sweete odours euer stilL 

197. Betwene bondeseruauntes, and their maisters, 
Masters Joeing beyng vicious and euill persons he auouched to 
and" vofd™ be none other poinct of difference, besides the 
grace, doe liue names, sauing that the drudges or slaues, did 
tudeThen their seruice vnto their maisters, and the maisters vnto 
boundse^^ants naughtie appetites. 

Whoso is led ^ Signifiyng, bothe parties to be bondseruauntes, 

with euery and yet of bothe, the maisters to liue in more miserable 
pangueof nat- ^^^^ ^f bondage then the slaues : in case the maisters 
ural mooions, ... ° „ .„ ,. , ., r 

hath many be vicious persones & euilI disposed, or voide 01 grace. 


THE I. BOOKE. 167 

For whoso is led by the direccion of the corrupte maistersto 

mocions or appetites of the miode, hath many maisters same detest 

to seme, and thesame bothe detestable, and also able & merci- 

mercilesse, and voide of all pietee. '^^^^ maisters. 

IT Bondseruauntes, namely soche as be ren awayes 1 98. 
are called in greke di'SpairoSo, which vocable semeth to 
be compouned of dvijp avSpbs a man, & of ttSvs iroSos, a 
foote. Albeit the grammarians declare another maner 
proprietee of signification, for they saien theim to be 
called ovSpaTToSa, because that bondmen are in res- 
pecte and comparison, the feete of their maisters, and 
these as the heads of the seruauntes. 

So when a feloe, full of vngraciousnesse and of 
lewde disposition had demaunded of Diogenes, 
vpon what original cause, bondseruauntes that bondrnen'are 
would ren away from their maisters, were called called avSpd- 
hy the name of dvSpairoSo, Marie, (quoth he) be- '^°^ '" ^'^^ 
cause they haue the feete of men, and a minde or 
herte. of soche disposition as thy selfe hast at this 
present, which mouest the question. 

H Meaning that the partie had the mynde or sto- 
make, not of a man, but of a very brute and saluage 

Of one that was a prodigal and wastfull spen- 199. 
der of al that euer he had, he asked fourty shil- 
linges at ones, in the waye of almes. The partie 
meruailing at his earnest and importune crauing, 
asked this question of Diogenes : Where as thy 
vse & custome is of other men to desire an almes 
of an halfpeny, vpon what occasion doest thou 
aske of me the summe of a whole pound or two ? 
Marie, said he again, because that of others, I 
am in good hope after one almes to haue another 
igain at another season : but whether I shall 
euer haue anye more almes of thee, after this one 



Why, BJogmes time, or not, Oe&vh/ yovvaxn Keimt, that is, Heth in 

w^terrfffs" Gods -hand onely, or must bee as pleaseth God. 

IntSe^"^ IT F6r that halfe verse of Homere, he lynked to his 

xl. s. at ones, saiyng, to make it perfect, because it made so directly 

and was so fit for his purpose. And in dede a good 

plain maner of knowledge. geuing, it was and a shrewd 

lilkelihood, to be toward and euen at hand, to light on 

the necke of soch a wastfiil consumer of his goodes 

within few daies to be brought to soch extreme penurie, 

that he should not haue so moch as one poore halfpeny 

left to comfort or helpe himselfe withall. 

200. Certain persones laiyng to him in reproche, 
Diogenes saied ^^f* ^^ ^^s a commcn crauer, and asker of 
thatPtoo was thinges at euery body his hande, where as Plato 
Lat/an open ^eing a Philosophier (as he was) did not so, he 
asker. saied : Well, Plato is a crauer as well as I, 

But laiyng his head to another mans eare. 
That no straunge persones may it heare. 
H For that is the englishe of this greke verse of 
Odyssse, a. Siyxi. <r\<iiiv.K€(l>a\rp' tva n^ TreuOoiaff oi oAAoi, whiche 

verse Diogenes abused in an other sense then Homerus 
did, to signifie that Plato was euen as great a begger 
and poller as he was, sauing that Plato did craue 
priuely whispering in mens eares, & he apertly, making 
no counsail of it. 

20 1. Espiyng a feloe shooting very euill at .his 
marke, he sate him down euen hard by the prick: 
and to soche persones as demaunded the cause of 
his so doing, he saied, lest he should by some 

Meriiy spoken, chaunce hitte me. 

H Signifiyng, that the feloe was like to hitte what 
soeuer other thing it were, sooner then the marke: yet 
other lokers on conueighen themselfes aside as ferre as 
possible is, wyde from the marke, for feare of catching 
a clappe. 


THE I. BOOKE. 1 69 

Tliose persones that shote or cast wide of their 202. 
marke, or other wyse misse to hitte it, are saied 
properly in greke amxio', to lese their shotte or What persons 
oast, or to shoote or cast awrie. But Diogenes j^n ^^ 
auouched plainlie, not those persons to misse, to 
lese their shot or to hitte awrie, that wer wide or 
short of their marke, but them that directed and 
leuelled their cares & studies, toward sensual! 
pleasures, as toward their marke or hutte. Through sen- 

f For, by soche pleasures, thai seeke and desire to sualitee menne 
haue perfecte beatitude, wheras by meanes of thesame, deepeDitof mis- 
thei fall or tumble doune, into the moste deepe pitte of erie and wret- 
miserie and wofulnesse. chednesse. 

Beeyng asked the question whether death were 203. 
an eiuill thyng : By what meanes possible should 
it bee eiuill, quoth he, sens that we feele it not, at 
the verie houre when it is come ? And when it 
is awaie, it is euil or harme to no bodie. As HovreDiogmes 
long as a manne hath perfecte sense and feelyng, nofJo'^bee^an 
he is aliue, so then death is not yet in place, that euili thing, 
if thesame be present, then sense and feelyng is 
awaie. And eiuill is it not, that is not felt. 

H This maner of argumentacion or reasoning cer- 
tain writers ascriben to Epicurus. And in deede death 
it self is not euU, but the ioumey or passage to death 
is pieteous and fiill of miserie. Of thesame ioumey if 
we stande in feare, all the whole life of man, what other 
thyng is it, but a passage or ioumey toward death ? 

Thei tellen that Alexander the greate, stand- 204. 
yng at the elbowe of Diogenes, demaunded of 
thesame, whether he were in any drede or feare ^he answer of 
of him. Then saied the other again. Why, what DwsenesxoAi- 
art-thou, a good thing, or^ an euill thing ? Alex- manning" 
ander aunswered; A good thing. And who whether he 
standeth in drede of a good thing (quoth Dio- ofhfm? 
genes .' ) 



11 He plainly conuinced that a king was not to be 
feared, except he would to all the worlde denounce 
himself to be an euill or a mischieuous persona. But 
if that wer a sufficient good argument, he might therby 
haue gathered & concluded that God were not to be 

205. Erudicion or learning, Diogenes by these 
Howe Diogmes wordes commendcd vnto all men, alleging that 
erudicrrai to al thesame vnto young folkes geueth sobrenesse, 
men. to aged persones comfort and solace, to the poore 

richesse, to rich men ornament or beautifiyng. 

IT For because that the tender youth, being of the 
owne propre inclination ready to fall, it brydleth and 
restreigneth from all inordinate demeanure, the incom- 
moditees or displeasvues of a mans later daies, it easeth 
with honeste pastimes and recreation, vnto poore folkes 
it is sure costage to liue by ( for they that are learned, 
be neuer destitute of necessaries.) And the substaunce 
of welthie persones, it doth gaUy vemishe and adoume. 

206. The Greke vocable ko/ji/, doth indifferently be- 
Of the self- token the balle of the eie, and a virgin or a 
same DHymo maiden. And so it was, that one Didymo, (who 
^i^f=o!™!,„f was in great slaundre or infamie, and had in 

cviu. saiyngot ^ ' 

this Diogenes, euery bodies mouth a very euill name of being a 
muttonmongre) had in cure the lye of a certain 
young damisell. To this Didymon Diogenes 
saied, See that ye bruise not your cure. 

U For that waye, the saiyng maye haue some grace 
in englishe, by reason that the worde, cure, may be 
taken iu a double sense, like as Diogenes dalied with 
the ambiguitee of the Greke worde, Kopijv. 

207. Being aduertised and doen to wete by a cer- 
tain persone, that awayte was laid for him by 
those whome he tooke for his frendes, to thintent 
that he might beware thereof and prouide for 


THE I. BOOKE. 171 

himself: Why, what should a man doe (said he) 
if in our conuersation we shall be all in one 
maner case & taking, both with our frendes, and 
with our foes ? 

II We vse to beware of our enemies that they may itissmallplea- 

not hurt vs, our frendes we do nothing mistrust. That sure to liue, if 

if we shall haue nede, to be as wel ware of the one as no"ttust"ws 

of the other, smal pleasure or comfort it is, to liue in frends. 
the worlde. 

Being asked What was the principall best thing 2 08. 

in this present life, he saied libertee. The best thing 

in this present 

H But that persona is not in very true libertee or ''*:' 's I'bertee, 

-J , . , , . . . , said Diogenes. 

fredome, who is vtterly subiect to vices : neither may 
he possibly be a mg,n of perfecte fredom, that stand- xhe couetous 
eth in great nede of many sondrie thinges : and very persone, the 
many thinges wanteth the couetous persone, the am- otherwise^' °' 
bicious persone, & whosoeuer is drouned in delices or geuen to vice, 
sensualitee. '=^" "°* ^^ *^" 

In scholehouses, there were comenly peinted of 209. 
an auncient custome, the Muses, as presidentes 
and the ladie maistresses of studies. Entring 
therfore into a schole, when he sawe there many 
Muses, and very fewe scholares, he saied vnto the 
scholemaister : With the Goddes ye haue many 

II Daliyng with the phrase of greke speaking, in- 
different to be taken in a double sense, for the Grekes 
sayen : otiv Oeoi^, with the Gods, for that that we saye 
in Enghsh Gods pleasure being so, or by the wil and avv, the pre- 
grace of God, or & God before, or God saying amen, position of 
And sometimes the preposition, <ruv, which signifieth a 
thing ioyned with an other compaignion, as in this 
maner of speaking, that here foloeth. With many per- 
sones I toke thy part. That is to say : I & many per- 
sones mo besides me, toke thy part, or held on thy 






thing were not 
«t it self euill, 
Diogenes affir- 
med not to bee 
euill in the o- 
pen streete nei- 

Vertuous and 
well desposed 
persones loue 
honestee and 
in all places. 


Use in al 
things maketh 

Neither 212. 
is ther 

any law with- 
out a dtee, ne 
citee without a 
lawe. 213. 

Noblenesse of 
birth or digni- 
tee with other 
high giftes of 
fortune Dioge- 
nes called the 
clokes ofvn- 

Whatsoeuer thing wer not of it selfe vnhonest, 
he affirmed not to be vnhonest in open presence, 
or in the face of all the worlde neither. Where- 
upon he made a reason or argument in this 
maner & forme. If to dyne be not a naughtie 
or euil thing, then to dyne abrode in the open 
streate is not euill neither, but to dyne is no 
pointe of naughtinesse, Ergo, to dyne in the mids 
of the streete is no euill thing neither. 

, IT Thus ferre the Cynicall syllogisme might be rea- 
sonably borne withal, but who could abide him that 
after like forme of arguing would conclude, to ease the 
body by going to stoole, or to make water, or one to 
compaignie with his wyfe, or a body to tume him- 
self naked out of al his clothes, is no euill thing, £rgi>, 
to doe thesame in the open strete is no pomt of 
naughtinesse neither : Vertuous and weldisposed per- 
sones loue honestee & shamefastnesse euerywhere. 

He auouched vse and exercitacion, as in out- 
ward "actions concerning the bodie : right so, 
euen in the action of vertue and of the minde, to 
engendre both a certain celeritee or spedinesse 
of doing thinges, & also facilitee or easinesse 
to thesame. 

It was also a saiyng of his, that neither is 
there any lawe without a citee or bodye politike, 
nor any citee or bodye politike without a lawe. 

Noblenesse of birth, or dignitee & other sem- 
bleable enhauncementes of fortune, Diogenes 
affirmed to be none other thing els but the clokes 
or couertes of mischief & vngratiousnesse. 

IT For richemen, whereas they be not one iote 
better then others, yet they doen amisse and perpe- 
trate much vnhappynesse, with lesse restreint of cor- 
rection or punishment, according to that, the saiyng of 
the Poete Flaccus, of a lyche persone : 


THE I. BOOKE. 1 73 

Et quicquid volet, hoc veluti virtute peractum 
Sperauit magnse laudi fore. 

Whatsoeuer thing, shal stand with his will, 

He hath assured trust and affiaunce 

To turn to his laude, be it neuer so ill. 

As a thing doen by vertues gouemaunce. 

. J Great gentle- 

And m deede the moste part of the galaunt rumeers, men thinke all 

euen at this present daye, thinke all that euer theim- welthattheim- 
selfes doe, to be lawfully & well doen. ^^ "^* °*" 

Whyle he was bondeseruaunt with Xeniades, 2 14. 
his frendes war together in communication for to 
bie his fredome, and to rid him out of seruitude. Diogenes wii- 
No, not so, quoth Diogenes, is it not to you leth his frendes 
knowen, that not the Lions are as bondeser- himoutofser- 
uauntes to those persones by whome they are ™ta(le. 
kept vp, but rather the kepers as bondeser- 
uauntes to attende vpon the Lions 1 

IT For a Lyon whersoeuer he is, continueth al- 
wayes a Lyon. 

TAnd a Philosophier is not by his condicion of seruitude any 
thing the lesse a Philosophier. 

When he was awaked out of his mortall slepe, 215. 
that is to saye, the last that euer he had before 
his death, and the Phisitian demaunded, howe it 
was with him .■■ Right well (quoth he) for one 
brother embraceth the other. 

IT Alluding vnto the Poete Homere, who feigneth Homere feign- 
Bdvarov, death and vttvov, slepe to be brothers germaine. siepe^o*be bro- 
For that slepe is a certain Image and representacion of thers germain. 

Being asked how he would be buried, he bidde 216. 
that his dead carkesse should bee cast out in the 
fieldes without sepulture. Then said his frendes: 
What, to the foules of the aier, and to the wyld 
beastes ? No by saint Marie, quoth Diogenes 
again, not so in no wyse, but laie me a litle 




Diogenes neg- 
lected all curi- 
ousnesse of 

Ouermuch hu- 
manitee in a 
Dwgenes repro- 

The propre of- 
fice of a Philo- 
sophier is to 
cure the vices 
of men. 


To a vertuous 
and wel dispo- 
sed persone 
euery daye is 
high and holy. 
All thisvniuer- 
sal world is the 
temple of God. 

God presently 
beholdeth all 
With idle per- 
more holiday. 

rottocke harde beside me, wherwith to beat theim 
away. The other eftsones replied, saiyng: 
Howe shal it be possible for thee to doe so.' 
for thou shalt fele nothing. Why then (quoth 
Diogenes) what harme shall the tering, mangle- 
ing, or dismembring of the Tvylde beastes do 
vnto me, being voide of al sense & feling ? • 

When Plato gaue a greate laude and prayse 
to a certain persone for this pointe & behalf, that 
he was exceding gentle and courteous towardes 
al folkes : Whalt laude or thanke is he worthy, 
saied Diogenes, that hauing been so many yeres 
a student continually occupied in philosophie, 
hath yet hitherto geuen no bodye a corrosif ? 

U Meaning to be the proper office of a philosophier, 
to cure the euill condicions or vices of men, & to be 
vtterly impossible thesame to take effecte, but by the 
only meanes of feare and of grief: feare of reproche, 
and greef of the open shame and slaundre present 

Thesame Diogenes, eiyng a certaine feloe of a 
straunge countree, in the citee' of Lacedaemon, 
curiously trimming and decking himselfe against 
the solemnitee of an high feastfuU daie, said: 
What doest thou } is not euery daie without ex- 
ception highe and holy to an honest man ? 

II He meaned all this vniuersall world to be a 
temple for God conuenient, in the whiche man being 
constitute and set, ought of his bounden dutie, to be- 
haue himselfe and to liue perpetually after an honest 
sorte, as in the sight & face of the deitee, who presently 
beholdeth all things, and from whose yie nothing is or 
may be hidden. And to this matter he wrested the 
prouerbe, in whiche it is saied : That with the slouthfull 
and idle lubbers that loue not to do any werke, euery 
day is holidaye. 


THE I. BOOKE. 1 75 

It was his commen saiyng vnto young striepe- 219. 

linges being towardes mans state, Syrrha, go Whatgood- 

into the houses of harlots, that thou maiest g^en'by the°° 

throughly see, what vile and filthy thinges, how consideration 

J , ,, , , , of harlots 

derely they ar bought. facion. 

II To this matter alluded Terence, saiyng : All this 

geare to knowe, is helth and safegarde vnto youth. 

Unto the helth and safegarde of a man, he 220. 
said that it was nedefull to haue, either feithfull Unto the safe 
frendes, or els eagre enemies. In consideracion, ^" nedefull"^ 
that the one geuen a bodye gentle warning of his to haue fither 
faulte and the others doen openly reproue and ofdfeagre en! 
checke. emies. 

H So bothe parteis (in deede after contrarie sortes) 
but yet egually, doen to vs benefite and profite, while 
by thesame we leame our faultes. This saiyng doth 
Laertius appointe to Antisthenes, and Plutarchus to 
Diogenes. .,„ 

Being asked by a certain persone, by what 221. 
meanes a body might best be auenged of his Howe one may 

• t iT,-i ii/- • o^^* °^ auen- 

enemie, he aunswered: If thou shalt from time to ged on his en- 
time approue and trie thyselfe a vertuous and an *""^" 
honest manne. 

II This poinct whosoeuer doth accomplishe, both 
doth to himselfe moste high benefite, and in the best 
wyse possible vexeth and tormenteth his enemies. For 
if a mans eiuill wiUer beholdinge his ground well tilled 
and housbanded, is therewith greued at the very herte 
roote, howe shal it be with him, if he see thine owne- 
selfe beautified and adoumed with the substanciall and 
vndoubted Jewels of excellent vertue ? 

When he came to visite Antisthenes liyng 222. 
sicke in his bedde, he spake vnto the same in this 
maner. Hast thou any neede of a frende "i 

H Signifiyng, that men should in time of afiliction. Men should in 
moste of all be bolde on their feithfull and trustie affliction moste 



of all be bolde frendes, whiche may either helpe theim in very deede, 
ontheir frendes ^^ ^j^ ^^ geuing good wordes of comfort, ease some 
portion of their grief and woe. 

223. Unto thesame Antisthenes, at another season 
(for because it had come to his eare, that the- 
same Antisthenes, for loue and desire that he 
had to liue, did take his sickenesse somewhat 
impaciently) he entreed with a woodknife by his 
Death riddeth side. And when Antisthencs bemoning himselfe 
peines[ ""' ° ^^^ saied vnto him : Alas, who will dispetche & 
ridde me out of these my peines > Diogenes 
(the hanger shewed foorth) said : Euen this same 
Antisthems feloe here. Naye quoth Antisthenes (repliyng 
again) I saied, out of my peines, not out of my 

was loth to die. 

224. Making a iourney vnto the citee of Corinthus, 

he entreed the schoole whiche l^°Dionysius 

being expulsed and driuen out of his kingdome, 

had ther set vp. And heard his boyes saye 

their lessons veray naughtyly. Dionysius in the 

meane whyle coming in, because he thought 

What Diogenes merely that Diogenes had come to comfort him, 

entreyng the saied : It IS gently doen of you Diogenes, to 

schole of Di- ^Qjjjg j^jjj see me. And loe, soche is the multa- 

onysiuSf saied ' 

vnto him. bilitee and chaunge of fortune. Yea, quoth Dio- 
Dionydus as S^^^^ ^g^^"^' ^^^ ^ meruaill, that thou ar^suffreed 
lewde a schole- still to Hue, that diddest perpetrate so muchmisr 
hldbena'kin^ chief in the time of thy reigne. And I see, 
afore. that thou art in al behalfes, euen as lewd a schole- 

maister now, as thou wer an euill king afore. 

I^g° There reigned in Sicilia DianysjMs the father,, and next aifter hym Bimysm 
the Sonne, who for his moste horrible tyraunie was expulsed out of his kyngdome, 
and afterwarde receiued again, but at last, by finall exterminion banished for ener. 
And being expulsed from Syracuse, he went to Corinthus, and there after that he 
had a certain space lined a bare life, at length, for very,extretne nede, he was driuen 
to excogitate some waye and meanes whereby to get his' fiuing. Wherupon he sette 
vp a schoole and teaching of children, and so continued vntiU his diyng daye> 


THE I. BOOKE. 1 77 

Another of the saiynges of thesame Diogenes 225. 
was this ; Emong the other sortes of men, to 
suche as Hue in welthe and prosperitee, life is 
sweete, and death hateful! : & contrarie wyse, to 
soche as are with calamitee and misfortune op- Unto Tyrans 
pressed, life is greuous, and death to be wished d°ath are^Kim- 
for: but vnto tyrannes both life and death are breous. 
peinfuU and cbumbrous. 

II For like as they liuen more vnpleasauntely, then 
those persones who doen euery daye with all their 
heartes wyshe to die, euen so doen they none other- 
wyse stande in continual dred and feare of death, then 
if thei ledden the moste sweete and pleasaunt life in all 
the worlde. 

To a certaine persone that shewed him a diall: 226. 
In feith, quoth he : A gave instrument, to saue p«>gmes d\s3.\- 

. , . , . , \. lowed Geome- 

vs from bemg decerned of our supper. trie with the 

^ Meaning the arte of Geometrie, with all other ojher sciences 
thesciencies * Mathematical!, to bee to very htle vse or ♦-phe artes or 
purpose. sciencesMathe- 

tnaticall, are, 

To another feloe making great vaunte of his 22 7.9*°™^' 

, " , . trie, Mu- 

cunning in musilce and m playmge on mstru- sike, Arithme- 
mentes, he made aunswere with these two grel^e 'i'''?"'! Astro- 
verses : 

yvtd/xais yap dvSpuv ev fiev oiKovvrat iroXeis, 

cv S' oiKOi, ou ^oX/xorcri Kai'tv. 

By the prudent auise of men veraily Housholding 

The states ofcitees are well preserued. isnotmaintein- 

With the glye of caroUes and mynstrelsie, f^J^^* pipin|". 
Priuate housholding is not wel mainteined. 

When Speusippus being impotent by reason of 228. 
shaking with the palsey, was carried in a wagen 
toward the schoole called *Academia, and to *Academiav!z.s 
Diogenes meting him on the waye by chaunce, a place full of 
had said, x^'V"'; Well art thou : So art not thou mT from the 
I 2 (quoth 


citeeof/*</imei, (quoth Diogcncs again) that wheras thou art in 

c^WeiAmde- soch taking, canst fynde in thine herte to Hue. 
mia of one If Mening to be a point of a true or right Philoso- 

nobk™rnmat P^*^? °^ ^^ °'*™ niinde to preuente the tyme of 

had there in- death, after that he wer ones no longer able to stiere 

habited. In about and to helpe himself, as other menne did in this 

ground was a present life. And that thing XSpmsippus did after, 

mainour place ward in deede. 

in which Plato 

was borne, & in thesame afterward taught philosophic, of whom for that cause the 

Philosophiers of his sect haue been from thence hitherto named Academid, 

t Speudppus was a Philosophier of Plato his secte, brought vpvnder him, and in 
teaching bis schole succeded him, and continued viii. yeres maister of that schole. 
He was Platoes sisters doughters sonne. At length he killed him selfe for paine and 
sorow bemg a very aged man, albeit Plutarchus & some others writen that he 
died of lice continually growling out of his fleshe as Scylla and Herode did. 

229. When he sawe a little boye vnmanerly behauing 
himself, he gaue the creansier or tutour, that had 
the charge of bringing vp thesame childe, a good 
rap with his staf, saiyng : Why doest thou thus 
teach thy pupill ? 

It is to be im- ^ Notifiyng that it is principally to be imputed vn- 

puted vnto the ^.^ ^j^g breakers and instructours of tendre childhood at 

brmgers vp, if . . . 

youth proue the beginnmg, if youth proue well manered, or other- 
well manered ,(rise. The reporters of the tale ar Afhthonius and 
orotherwyse. .^^^^-^^^ 

230. To a certain persone obiecting pouertee vnto 
\iowt Diogenes jjjj^ jj^ reproche, wheras himself was a feloe ful 

aunswered a '^ ' ,,., .it 

fiagicious feloe of naughtmesse & mischief, he saied : I neuer yet 
obiecting po- g^we any man put to open pynishement for his 

uertie vnto him ' "^ '^ ^ 

in reproche. pouertee, but for knauery many one. 

231. To pouertee he gaue a prety name, calling it, 
Pouertee a ver- apeTrp/ airoStSaKTov, a vertue that IS learned by it- 

tue lerned with 1 <• ..i. . . v 

out a teacher. Self Without a teacher. 

^ Riche folkes haue nede of many rewles, preceptes, 
and lessons, that is to wete, to liue a frugall or sobre 
life, to exercise their bodies with labours, not to set 


THE I. BOOKE. 179 

their delite or felicitee in pompeous or stately apparel- Riche folkes 
ling and deckyng of the body, & others mo out of Jlf"ny"essonI 
nombre, all which thinges pouertee teacheth hir owne to doe well, 
self without any other scholemaister. 

UNext after these three Philosophiers, but the same in 

this kynde, most excelling, we shall adde like nombre of 

kynges & no mo, whiche for their saiynges with ciuilitee 

and good facion replenyshed, haue a name 

of honour aboue all other kinges. 

That we may not with to, 

many thinges pestre 

and cloy the 



^ The saiynges of Philippus. 


F al the kinges, that emong the Grekes in 
auncient time haue reigned, in my sentence 
and m)mde hath not ben one, whome we 
maye vAxh Philippus king of the Macedonians, 
and father of Alexander the great, worthely compare, 
either in dexteritee and good conueighaunce of witte, 
or els in disporte of saiynges consisting within the 
boundes of honestee and good maner. 

This Philippus vsed many a time and oft to 
say, that him thought the Athenians to be much 
happie, who could euery yeare finde the full 
nombre of tenne sondry persones, whom to 
create their Capitains for battaill : where he for 
his parte in many yeres had founde one sole 
Capitaine for warfare onely, that is to wete, 

U Signifiyng to be a thing title to the benefite of a 
commen weale, eueiy other whyle to chaunge the 
Capitaines, but to be muche better, when ye haue ones 
found a fitte or mete man for the purpose and trustie 
withall, in no wyse to chaunge thesame for a newe. 
Ferther and besides that, to make no force how many 
Capitaines ther be in nombre, but howe apt and mete 
for conueighing a battaill, and for warre keping. 

When tidinges was brought vnto him, that 
many sondry thinges had in one daie happely 


Philippus king 
of the Macedu- 
nianSf & father 
of Alexander 
the great, first 
Athenes and 
brought all 
grece vnder his 
subiection. A 
manne of all 
writers muche 
praised for his 
greate human- 
itee, curtesie & 
most princely 

Parmenio the 
onely capitain 
of Philippus 
his warres. 

Often to 
change Capi- 
taines tobevn- 
profitable to a 
commen weale. 
It forceth not 
how many 
Capitains there 
be, but how 
meete for kep- 
ing warre. 

1 82 


The praier 
of Philippus 
when he had 
sondrie good 
chaunces all 
in one dale. 

and prosperously fortuned on his side, and for 
his behouf (for at one and thesame tyme Teth- 
rippo had gotten the price and chief maisterie at 
Olympia, and Parmenio had in battaill discouili- 
fected or vanquished the Dardanians, and his 
quene Olympias had been -Jirought a bedde of a 
Sonne,) lifting vp his handes on high to heauen, 
he cried with a loude voice, and saied : And 
thou lady fortune, for so many and the same so 
greate good chaunces, dooe me no more but 
some light & small shrewd turne again, at an 
other season. 

H This man beyng of passyng high prudence, & 
moste profounde experience or knowlege in the course 
of the world, did not insolently skippe and leape, or 
shewe tokens of ioyfull gladnesse for his well spedyng. 
The cockering or for the successe of thynges, but rather did suspect 
be sus" ected & ^^^ mistrust the cockeryng of fortune, whose nature he 
knewe to bee, that to whom she werketh vtter confu- 
sion and exterminion, thesame persones she death firste 
laugh vpon, and flatre with some vnquod prosperitee of 
thinges. To this matter apperteineth that Plinius re- 
porteth of * Poly crates the t3rranne of the Samians. 

the other Historiographiers written, that Polycrates the 'lyranne of the Samians, had 
lined many yeres, in soche incotnparable prosperitee, that in all his affaires either 
publique or priuate, neuer any thing went against him, nor any mischaunce fell 
vnto him, in so moche that being, (as ye would sale) wearie of Soche continuall suc- 
cesse of thinges, euen in despite of good fortune, (to the ende that it might not bee 
saied of him, that he neuer liad in all his life any losse, or mischaunce,) as he 
rowed in the sea for his pleasure and solace, he willingly and of purpose castaway 
into the sea a golde ring with a precious stone in it, of valour vneth estimable. And 
yet in soch wyse did fortune flatre him, that widiin a dale after, his cooke founde 
thesame ring in the bealy of a fyshe, whiche he garbaiged to dresse for his lordes 
diner, and restored to thesame his own ring again. Yet this notwithstanding, in 
his later daies fortune chaunged hircopie, and Poiycratei taken prysoner by Oronfes 
the high Capitain or leuetenaunt of Darius king of the Persians, was after moste 
peinfuU and moste greuons tormentes, hanged vp on a iebette vpon the top of an 
high hill. The wordes of Plinius, whiche Erasmus here speaketh of, are jn the 
first chapter of the .37. volume of his naturall historic, in maner and forme as 
foloeth. Of this originall begon auctoritee and dignitee in precious stones, auaunced 
in processe and hoysed to so high loue, desirefulnesse and fansie of men, that vnto 
Polycrates of Samos the rigorous tyranne of all the Isles and sea coastes of the 
countree in the voluntarie losse & damage of one precious stone, semed a sufficient 
and large emendes for his felicitee and prosperous fortune ( whiche felicitee euen 



* Falerius 
Maximus, and 

THE II. BOOKE. • 1 83 

himselfe would oftentimes plainly confesse and graunte of very conscience to bee 
ouer greate) if he might bee euen with the rolling and mutabilitee of fortune, and 
touch touch like, mocke hir as wel again : & that he plainly thought himself to be 
largely raunsoned, and bought out of the enuie of thesame continuall prosperltee, 
if he had had no more but this one sole grefe or hertesore, to byte him by the 
stoihake. Being therefore clene weried with continuall ioye and gladnesse, he rowed 
in a vessell for his pleasure, a great way into the chanell pf the streme, and 
wilfully cast one of his ringes into the sea. But a fishe of exceding bignes, { euen 
by destiney appointed to bee a present for a king) euen purposely to shewe a 
myracle, with a trice snapped vp thesame in stede of feeding, and by the handes 
of fortune awayting him an euill turne, restored it again into the kechin of the 
owner thesaid Polycrates. 

After that he had subdued all the Grekes, 3. 
when certain persones moued him & would haue 
had him to kepe the citees with garisons,. that 
thei might riot forsake him, or fall from him 
againe, he saied, I haue more will and desire, 
long time to be called good and easie or gentle 
to awaye withS.1, then for a fewe dayes and no 
longer, to be called souerain. , ^ ^^^^^ ^^ 

^ Mening a reigne or empier, that wer with bene- empier with 
fites and with hertie loue holden, to be for euer perpet- hertteToue"'' 
uall that by power arid dred onely, to be of no long holden, is 
continuaunce. perpetuall. 

A certain buisie open mouthed feloe was a 4, 
daily and a commen speaker of railing wordes Phiiippuscon- 
against Philippus. And so it was that his frendes J™"^^ * j^°,^ 
aduised him thesame feloe to exile Snd banishe tospeakerayi- 
the countree. But he saied, that he would in no ling wordes 

, against him. 

wise do it, and to theim greatly meruailing why, 
he saied: Lest that he wandring.and rouing 
about froi^ pla9e to place shall report euill of me 
among mo persones. 

f That he did not hange the railler vpoe the galoes, 
was either a point of clemencie and mercifulnesse that 
he forgaue him, or els of magnanimitee and princely 
courage that he contemned him : that he would in no 
wyse driue him out of the countree, came of prudence. 
For the feloe beyng in straunge places should haue ben 
able to do to him the more vilanie. 


1 84 


The clemencie 
and modera- 
tion of Philip- 

It lieth in our 
selfes, to bee 
wel or euill 
spoken of. 

' 6. 

oughed most 
hartie thankes 
to the rewlgrs 
of the Athen- 
iens, for their 

Smicythus complained to the king vpon Nica- 
nor that he still without ende spake euill of the 
king. And when the frendes of Philippus ad- 
uised him, that he should commaunde the feloe 
to be fet, and so to punish him, Philippus aun- 
swered in this maner. Nicanor is not the worste 
of all the Macedonians. Jt is therfore our parte 
to see lest we do not our duetie, but be slacke in 
some thing that we should doe hereupon, after that 
^e had knowledge thesame Nicanor to be greu- 
ously oppressed with pouertee, & yet to be neg- 
lected and nothing looked on by the king, he com- 
maunded some giro or reward to be borne to him. 
This dooen, when Smicythus eftsons enformed 
the king, that Nicanor did in a^ companignies 
without ende reporte muche prayse and good- 
nesse of him : Now then, ye see (quoth Philippus) 
that it lieth in our selfes, to haue a good report, 
or euill. 

^ An exceding thing it is, how ferre odde those^ser- 
sones are from the nature of this prince, whiche neuer 
thinken theim selfes to be jfl-wsed enough wheras they 
do nothing worthie laude or praise, neither doe they 
study with benefites to wynne or allure beneuolence & 
harty good wil of men, but haue more appetite & fansie 
to be dreded, then to be loued. And whereas they 
doe oftentimes perpetrate thinges to be detested and 
that in the open face of al the worlde, yet fare wel his 
life for a halfpeny that presumeth or dareth so hardie 
in his hedde, as ones to open his lippes agdnst theim. 

He saied, that to those, who in ordring or ad- 
ministring the common weale of the Atheniens 
were the chief ring leders he was much bound to 
ough most hertie thankes, for that by reason of 
their reprocheful 'railyng at hym, thei caused 
hym aswell in vsyng his tongue, as also in his 
maners, and behauour to proue mbche the more 


THE II. BOOKE. • 1 85 

t • 

honest man, while I endeuour my self, quoth 
he, aswell by my wordes, as by my doynges, to 
make & proue them Hers. 

^ O the right Philosophical! harte of this prirtce, who The right phi- 
had the waie, euen of his enemies, also to take vtilitee o^^hiUppus'*^ 
and profite, neither (as the common sorte of men are 
wont) to this sole thyng^^ Jp haue an iye how to do 
scathe, & to werke some mischief, to soche as railled 
on hym, but that hymself might be emended & made ""iJ^^&'rofite 
lesse euil, being wel admonished & put in remem- of a mans ene- 
braunce of himself, by their slaundrous reporting. ""^* < 

When he had freely perdoned and let go at 7, 
their libertie the Atheniens, as many as euer had 
been taken prisoners in battaill at Cheronsea, and 9^ Ckeronea it 
thei, not thinkyng that to be enough, required also at this Chero- 
to haue restitucion of their apparell, & all their "^"^ <^'<' P^mp- 
baggage, and did for thesame entfe accions of deti- andT^bdural 
nue, and commense suite against the Macedo- Grece. 
niens, Philippus laughed, saiyng : What ? Doeth 
it not appere, the Atheniens to deme and iudge, 
that thei haue been ouercomed by vs, at the 
hucclebones ? ^ ' 

\ So mildely did he beyng the conquerour, take 
the vnthankefulnesse of persones by hym conquered & 1?^°!^'*"^°^ 
subdued who did not onely, not render thankes ne saie 
remercies, for that thei had been let bothe safe and The ingrati- 
sounde, and also without any penie of raunsome paiyng tude of the 
to escape, but also with naughtie language sued the ^ardK PAt^" 
Macedonians, and laied to their charges, because the- lippus. 
same did not also restore vnto them, bothe their ap- 
parell, and also all their other ragges and baggage. 
As though thei knewe not of what nature the Lawe of 
armes was, and as though, to trie the matter with dinte 
of swearde, were nothyng els, but to trie it at the « ^ 
*huccle bones, whiche is a game for 'boies and chUdren. °^P°-yf^ 

' ° IS m Latin, ta- 

lus, and it is the little square huccle bone, in the ancle place of the hinder legge in all 
beastes, sauing man, and soche beastes as haue fingers, as for example. Apes and 
Mounkeis, except also beastes that haue the houfe of the fote not clouen, but 




whole. With these hucclebdtaes they had a game in olde time, as children haue 
at this daye also, whiche game was in this maner. If the caster chaunced to cast 
that syde vpwarde, whiche is plaine, it was called, Canis or Canimla, and it stoode 
in stede of blanke or of an ace, and that was the lest and worste that might be 
cast, & the caster should thereby wynne no part of the stakes, but was of force 
constraigned in the waye of repele to laye downe to the stake one peece of coyne, 
or one point, or one counter, or one whatsoeuer thinges were plaied for, and to 
take vp none at al. The contrary to this (whiche was the holowe syde) was called 
f^enus or C(ms, and , that was cocke, the best that might be cast. For it stoode for a 
sixe, by whJche casting, the caster should winne and take vp from the stakes, six 
pieces of coyne, qj sixe poyntes, or sixe counters, &c., and besides that, al the re- 
peles by reason of Canis found sleping. The other two sydes of the hucclebone 
wer called, the one Chms, by whiche the caster woonne & toke vp three, and the 
other Senio, by whiche the caster gotte & toke vp fower. In the hucclebones, 
.there was no Mewce, nor cinque. This was the coramen game, but there wer 
other games, as there ben varietee of games in diceplaiyng, whiche dice they 
called, Tesseras, of their squarenesse. Albeit, Tali are sometimes vsed for Tes- 
serae, and taken to signifie diceplaiyng Eis euen here also it may be taken. 


8. When the canell bone of his throte, or his chest 

bone had been brooken in battaile, & the Surgeon 
that had him in cure, was from d'aye to daye euer 
crauing this and, that, he saied : Take euen vntil 
thou wilt saie hoe, for thou hast the keie thyself. 
^ Daliyng with a word that might be in double sense 
taken. For the Greke voyce k\eU, signifieth both a 
keye, soche as a cupborde or a dore is opened withall, 
and also the canell bone, ,or chestbone, that knitteth 
The ciuilitee of together a mans shoulder with the breste. And what 
Philippus. thing could there be of more ciuilitee, then this the herte 
of Philippu^ who had a pleasure to vse iesting wordes 
and to be mery, both in his dolorous greef, and also 
towardes his couetous Surgeon, neither to be for his 
moste peinfuU smarte any thinge the more waywarde or 
testie, nor with the importunitee of the incessaunt cra- 
uer any thing displeased or offended. t 

9, There were two brethren, of whome the ones 
name was in Greke Amphoteros, whiche vocable 
souneth in englishe, both : the name of the other 
Hecateros which by interpretacion souneth in 
englishe, the one and the other. Philippus ther- 
fore espiyng and marking the saied Hecateros 
to be a prudent feloe, and a fitte man to haue 


THE II. BOOKE. 1 87 

doinges in thinges, & contrariwyse Amphoteros 
to be a loutyshe persone, vnmete to haue doings, 
and a very beast: clene turned, and countre- 
framed their names, affirming, that Hecateros 
was Amphoteros, and Amphoteros was to be 
named Vdeteros, whiche souneth in english nei- 
ther of bothe. 

^ Signifiyng the one of the brethren, that is to wete, 
Hecateros, in himselfe to comprise the vertues and 
good quahtees of both twain, and the other brother to 
haue in him not so muche as one good point or pro- 
pertee. Therfore the name of him that was called 
Amphoteros he chaunged to the contrarie that he should 
bee named Vdeteros, in tooken that he was for the re- 
spect of his qualitees not to be estemed worth a blgwe 
point or a good lous. 

To certain persones, geuing him counsaill, 10. 
that he should deale with the Atheniens and PWlippus cal- 
handle theim after a more sharpe and rigorous, the 
sort then he did, he aunswered that they did staigeofhis 

srlonc & rc— 

against all reason in that they aduised him, both noume, that is 
doing & suffring althinges onely for mere glorie '° ^aie, the 

, place in whiche 

and renoume to cast awaye the staige of thesame all the worlde. 
his glorie and renoume, whiche he studied and ^ifh' jjeue & 

, , ^ , , . ' behold his 

laboured to achiue. glorie. 

f Signifiying that he studied and went about, not 
how to destroye the citie of Athenes, but how to ap- ^«A™«* |n the 

, ■' ... ' . ,. '^ time of Philip- 

proue and to commend his vertues or good qualitees, pus flourished 

vnto that right famous citee being in moste florant with the a- 

state by reason of the great aboundaunce and multi- mamr excellent 

tude of many excellent high clerkes and men of learn- highe clerkes. 
ing in the same citee reciaunte. 

Two feloes being like flagicious, and neither II. I- 
barell better herring, accused either other, the Theiudgement 
kyng Philippus in his own persone sitting in °^ on't'''o fla i 
iudgement vpon theim. The cause all heard, he clous feloes ac- 


1 88 



condicion of 


cusing either gaue sentence and iudgement, that the one 
hirn."^ ^ °'^ shoulde with all spede and celeritee auoide or 
flee the royalme or countree of Macedonia, and 
the other shoulde pursue after him. 

H Thus Philippus acquited neither of theim bothe, 
but condemned both the one and the other with ban- 

When he addressed to pitch his tentes in a 
faire goodly ground and was put in remem- 
braunce, that there was in that place no feeding 
for the horses and other catals, he saied : What 
The miserable maner of life is this that we haue, if we must of 
force so line, as may be for the commoditee of 
asses ? 

When he had prefixed and appointed to take a 
certain castle and fortresse being very strong and 
well fensed, and his spies had brought word 
again, to be a thing out of perauentures hard to 
doe, Yea and (the south to say) vtterly vnpos- 
sible : he demaunded whether it wer of soche 
hardnesse and difficultee, that it were not pos- 
sible for an asse being heauie loden with gold to 
haue accesse and entraunce or passage vnto it. 

H Signifiyng, that there is nothing so strongly fensed, 
but that it may with golde be wonne. Which very 
selfsame tiling the Poetes haue signified by the fable of 
*Danae by Jupiter defloured, but not until thesame 
God lupiter had first transformed himself into gold, 
wherof the poet Horatius speaketh in this maner. 
Aurum per medios ire satellites, 
Et perrurapere amat castra potentius 
Golde hath a fansie, and great delite, 
Through harnessed men, passage to ieperde. 
And to make waye through tentes of might 
More forceably then deynte of sweorde. 

goodly and a, parsing beautifiill ladie. And ^o it was, that^msiio 


There is no- 
thing but that 
with golde it 
may be ouer- 
comed & won. 

*vlia! the xii. 
king of the 
Argiues, had a 
Sonne called 
whiche Aen- 
sius succeded 
his father in 
the kingdome 
of the saied 
Argiues, and 
had onely 
one doughter 
called Danae, a 

THE II. BOOKE. 1 89 

had knowledge geuen to him, by an oracle, or voice coming from heauen, that he 
should be slaine of his ddughters sonne. Wherfore he enclosed and shut vp the 
saied Daiiae his doughter in a very strong toure, and there kept hir, to thentent that 
she might neuer haue sonne. At lengh lupiter in forme of a shoure raining droppes 
of golde gotte Danae with childe. So by lupiter she had a sonne called Perseus. 
Whiche thing being come to light, and being knowen, hir father set both hir & hir 
infant childe enclosed in a trough or trounke of wood in the wilde sea. So was she 
carried by auentures on the sea, vntill she arriued in Italic, and there Pilumnus the 
king, and graundfather of Tumus, toke hir to wyfe. And afterward Perseus 
being ones come to mans stature killed Medusa, and deliuered Andromeda. And at 
last returning to Argus, he slew the king Acrisius his graundfather (according to 
the prophecie) and reigned in his stede. 

When those person es that wer at Lasthenes 14' 
found theimselfes greued, and toke highly or 
fumishly, that certain of the traine of Philippus 
called theim traitours, Philippus aunswered, that "^^ Macedo- 

. '.^ _ . mans wer plam 

the Macedonians wer feloes of no fine wytte in feioes in cal- 
their termes but altogether grosse, clubbishe, and 'j"??* fc*"* 

. .. , ,- , , t , • , thmgbyits 

rusticall, as the whiche had not the witte to cal a right name, 
spade by any other name then a spade. 

^ Alluding to that the commen vsed prouerbe of 
the Grekes, calling figgues, figgues : and a bote a 
bote. As for his mening was, that they war traitours rh. trvKa o-Cico 
in very deede. And the fair flatte truthe, that the vp- -njv a-Ka<l>riv 
landishe, or homely and playn clubbes of the countree ^^"*^'' 
dooen vse, nameth eche thing by the right names. 


It was his guyse to aduertise his sonne Alex- 15, 
ander after a courteous and familiar gentle sort A good lesson 
to vse himselfe and to Hue with the Macedonians, princes."""^* 
and through beneuolence & hertie loue in the 
meane time purchaced abrode emong the com- 
minaltie, to gather vnto him mighte and puis- 
saunce, while during the time of an other mans 
reigne it lay in him without any his harm or 
hinderaunce to shewe humanitee and gentlenesse. 

IT Like a prudent and an expert man right well per- 
ceiuing and vnderstanding, like as an empier by no 
earthly thyng better or more fermely to be establyshed, 
then by the hertie loue and good will of the subiectes 
towardes their prince, euen so, to be a thing of moste 



A kyng maye highe difficultee & hardnesse for any persone that 

sones^'thout ^^^ °^^^ ^^^^ ^°° ^'"^ *^ °*'=^ °^ * ^'"& & ^ath 

exception shew nowe alreadie in hande the gouernaunce and ordring 

fauour. Qf g^ royalme or empier, towardes all parties without 

Haynous exception, to shewe gentlenesse and fauour, not onely 

muTtffn^t^Tsi. t'ecause the office and power of a king, lieth in the 

tee be suppres- Open waye to be enuied, but also for that a commen- 

sed by duecor- weale may not possibly be preserued and kept in per- 

i^^ement.''""' ^^^t good State, onlesse haynous transgressions be re- 

streigned and suppressed by due punishement and cor- 
KmEres must ° _, , ■^'^ / . "^ , , 

so ferre extend rection. For kynges must so ferre extende humanitee 
fauour, that and fauour towardes their subiectes, as they maye in the 
tneaiTtime not i^^ane time accordingly vpholde and maintein their 
empeche their autoritee and estate royall. For goodnesse & fauour, 

autontee and. without ende or measure shewed is many a time and 
state royall. , , . 

oft the mother of contempte. 

1 6. Thesame Alexander, he auised and counsailed, 

that he should winne and make frendes vnto 

Kynges must him, all suche persones both honest and vnhonest, 

sone^°& abuse S^^*^ ^"^^ baddc, as bearc any rule, stroke or au- 

the vnhonest. toritte in the commen weale, and that the good 

men he should vse, and the euil persones he 

should abuse, that is to saie, applie to some good 

vse, that of theimselfes they are not apte nor 

inclined vnto. 

The chief feact ^ The chief and highest feacte of kinges is to reiecte 

reiecte^no per- ^° persone, but rather to applie the labour and seruice 

sone, but to of all men to the publique vtilitee and profile. As 

make all per- almightie God being the only Monarche and prince of, 

sones pronta- . " ° . ■' ... 

ble to the com- the whole vniuersall world abuseth the euil spirites 

men weale. and the weeked men, to the vtilitee and profile of the 

Wise princes churche, SO, princes of high wisdome and policie haue 

haue the feacte the feacte to make instrumentes as wel of the honest 

able tnstra- '" P^rsones as of the vnhonest, not that theimselfes been 

mentes, aswell werkers of any euill thing, by the helpe of the euillper- 

of the euil per- gones, but that by the eiuill, they doe punishe the 
sones, as of the ..,'.,, , , ^ . , , i • i 

good. emiU. Nerethelesse, many princes there be, which 



contrarie to the right course, dOen abuse the good men 
and vse the euil. In executing matters of cruell 
tyranny, thei associate and ioyne vnto theim soche 
persones as for the opinion of holinesse are famous & 
of great name, to thentent that the people should es- 
teme all thing that they doe, to be good and godly. 

Thesame Philippus when he laye for hostage 17- 
and pledge in the citee of Thebes, soiourned and 
was lodged in the house of one Philo a Thebane, 
and besides his high entretainment in that be- 
half, he receiued at the handes of thesame Philo 
many high beneficiall pleasures. And when the 
saied Philo would in no wise take any rewarde 
or gifte of Philippus again. Niaye, (quoth Phi- Neuer man did 
lippus) robbe me not nowe (by leauing me be- pMip^^but 
hind hande in bountifulnesse,) of that laude and that PHUppus 
prayse whiche hetherto I haue euer had, that, yet joj j,ira again.' 
vnto this present daye no man hath passed me, 
or gon beyond nie in doing mqtuall pleasures & 

H Oh an hert and stomake worthy a crowne empe- 
rial. He demed it a more high and ioly thing to haue 
the ouerhand in^ doing deedes of bountie then in the 
prerogatife of power. 

When a great many hauing been taken pris- 1 8. 
oners in warre, wer in sellinge, Philippus sate at 
the portesale, his garment or robe short tucked 
vp about him, muche vncomely. And so it was, 
that one of the captiues that was to be solde, 
cried with loude voice : Be good and gracious 
lorde vnto me O Philippus, and graunt me par- 
don, for I am your frende, and my father was an 
olde frende of yours. And Philippus demaund- 
ing in this maner, howe so good feloe, and by 
what meanes is this frendship betwene vs two 
come about } If I may approche nerer to your 




Philippus be- 
ing a great V 
king was no- 
thing displeas- 
ed to haue 
fault found at 

The benifi- 
cence of 


grace, quoth the partie, I shall shewe you. And 
being here vpon licenced & bidden so to doe, 
as though he- should haue told him some se- 
cret matter in his eare, the feloe said : Sir, let 
down your cape a litle more about you, for after 
this cutted facion as it sheweth nowe, ye sitte 
wondrous euilfauouredly and vnsemely for a 
king. Immediatly saied Philippus, let this feloe 
depart free. For I knew not till nowe, that he 
was to me in verye deede a welwiller, and a 

^ Being so great a king, he was nothing greued ne 
displesed, neither with the coulourable pretense, nor 
with the fault finding or admonicion of a feloe that 
was to him a straunger of none acquaintaunce : but did 
all vnder one, both with mutual simulation on his 
partie gouer and keepe secrete the colorable doyng of 
the saied feloe, and also recompense that very slendije 
poiijte of kjmdnesse with the great and highe rewarde 
of free charter and dimission, when he stoode to be 
solde as a bondeman. 

Being on a time, by an especial frend of olde 
acquaintaunce, desired to a supper, in going 
thitherward, he tooke with him to be his geastes 
a* great many that he happely mette on thewaye ' 
as he went. But when he perceiued the partie, 
whiche receiued him into his house, to be sore 
dismaied, for that the purueiaunce that he had 
made, was nothinge nere enough for so great a 
compaignie, he sent a ladde aforehand about to 
euery of his frendes then present, and bid theim 
to keepe a corner of their stomakes for thetartes, 
wafrie, and iounkettes, that wer to be serued and 
to com in after the meat. Thei being brought In 
full beleef therof, while they gaped for tarte and 
other like confections, fed litle or nothing on the 


THE II. BOOKE. 1 93 

other cates, so came it to passe, that the supper 
was sufficient to serue all the companie. 

^ With this pleasaunt mery toye, he both liiade his 
frendes beleue the moone to be made of a grene chese, 
and also founde a waye to saue the honestee of him 
that made the supper. 

Hipparchus of Euboia being deceassed, Philip- 20. 
pus by manifest tokens declared how heauily he 
toke his death. Whereupon, to a certain persone why PhUippus 
being desirous to mitigate and asswage his do- sogreuously& 
loure, and alleging in this maner : Well, he is at 'he'deTth^o?''^ 
a conuenient age and time departed, being nowe mpparchusaxi 
already wel striken in yeares. Yea (quoth Philip- " ""'"" 
pus) for his owne partp in deede* he is at a con- j.^^^ liberall 
uenient age departed, but to meward, long afore hem of PhUip- 
his daye. For death hath by preuencion taken ^"*' 
him away before that 'he hath receiued at my 
hande any benefite worthie and meete for the 
frendship that was betwene him and me. 

^ It is a very rare thing in Princes to feele the mo- 
cions and pangues of the graces, but many noble men 
vsen their frendes none other wyse, but euen as they 
doen their horses. As long as they be able to doe 
theim seruice they set by theim and keepe theim, when 
-they be past occupijnig and doing any more seruice 
they ridde and dispetche their handes of thesame, and 
shift theim away. Yea and rather spoyle theim of that 
they haue, then doe theim good or helpe theim with 
condigne beaefites or preferrement. 

When he had secret knowlege brought vnto 21. 
him that Alexander his sonne found himselfe 
greued, for that his father was a getter of children 
by sondrie weomen he gaue vnto Alexander an The exhorta- 
exhortation, in this maner. Well then, sens it is ^astohis"^' 
so that thou hast mo feloes beside thyselfe to sonne Aiexan- 
stand in election for to haue this empier and to "^' * 

13 weare 


weare the .crowne after my deceasse, so applie 
thyselfe that thou maiest at length proue an hon- 
est or vertuous and a well-disposed man, that 
thou maiest appeare to haue achiued the croune 
not by me, but by thyne owneselfe. 

IT This man with right princely wisdome and expe- 
rience endeued, did not with swete wordes put his sonne 
in any comforte, but put thesame farther in feare, to 
the ende that he might the more pricke him forthward 
It is not of so vnto vertue, geuing notice and intimacion that therwas 
great moment, none Other waye for him to conceiue any hope to be 
pier^as to'be'e' ^^S ^^er him, except he shewed himself a man worthy 
worthy to be a to succede in the crowne, neither to be of so great mo- 
kyng- ment to attein and get an empier, as worthily to haue 

deserued to be a kyng of a royalme. 

22. He exhorted thesame Alexander that he 

should geue good eare and attend well to Aris- 

pusTxhoited' totle, to whome he had been committed to be 

his sonne Alex- broken and brought vp, and that he should dili- 

stucMe of Phllo- gently applye himself to the studie of philosophie, 

Sophie. Lest that thou doe committe and perpetrate 

(quoth he) many things, whiche thinges in time 

past to haue doen, it doth nowe repent me. 

^ Right wel perceiued this excellent wyse prince that 
Alearnedkyng no man beyng vntraded in philosophie, is an apt and 
mete persone to be a king. Neither was he ashamed 
to confesse that he had through errour doen amysse in 
many thinges, by reason that he had not euen from 
his tendre babeship ben nousled in the "preceptes of 
philosophie. For those persones, who by their own 
mere practise assaiyng & experimentes, doe leame to 
ordre & goueme a royalme and to execute the office 
of a king, although they haue euen from their mothers 
wombe, been of neuer so excellent high witte, yet 
both ouerlate, & also to the great scathe and impeche- 
ment of the commen weal, after long processe of yeres 




they grow to be good kynges. But * who cometh to * Who com- 

the administration of a roialme, armed aforehand fi^e'of°a. wne 

with the holsome preceptes and rules of philosophic, if armed afore- 

there' be in him a mynde and herte with no spice of ^^^^ ™* ** 
,,.,,, , , . , . precepts of phi- 

corruption entangleed, it shall vneth lye m his power to losophie, can 

swerue from the perfect right trade of honestie and "°' 'yghtly 

vertue. Where ben thei now, which yalle & rore, that the'' right trade 

learning and the studie of philosophic is vttcrly no- of vertue. Thei 

thing auailable to the goucmaunce and administration ^'^ '." ^ wrong 

° ° opinion that 

of a COmmen wcale ? supposenlearn- 

ing to be no- 
He had created and autorised one of the 23. *'"S 
frendes of Antipater to be of the nomber of ^g the gouern- 
the iudges. But afterward, when it was come to aunceofacom- 
his knowlege that the partie vsed to dye his q! > ,. 
beard and his heare, he deposed thesame again read in his sai- 
and discharged him of that office, alleging' that y"ges. 
who in the heare of his head was not faithfull ^tlnd guile 
and vpright, the same in publique doinges semed in smal things 
full eiuil worthy to be put in trust. j^ tlZ^^ 

IT He vsed deceipt & falshod in diyng his heare, higher & more 
whereby was no great auauntage ne gainc to be gotten, ^^'^ '^ "" 
muche more was it like that he would vse deccipte and 
falsehod in publique affaires, where guile dooeth at a 
time auauntage to a man a good pot of wine. And 
this ought to bee the chief care of kynges, that they 
put in autoritee persones vpright and void of all cor- 
ruption to be head officers in hearing and iudging of 
causes. And howe may that possibly be, where the 
offices of sitting in iudgement be sold for money, and 
that persone appointed and made iudge, not that pass- 
eth others in honestee and goodnesse, but that cometh 
first to enoincte or greace the handes of him that 
geueth the oflSce, or biddeth most mony for it ? But 
with Philippus, no not the autoritee of his dere beloued 
frend Antipater might weighe and do so much, but 
that he deposed the suspected persone from the benche 
and ordre of the iudges. 





The equitee of 
the law is that 
the lawers cal- 
len the Epical, 
which thai take 
for the modera- 
tion of all se- 
uerite and ri- 
when iustice & 
law is minis- 
tred with fa- 

Howe Philip- 
pus vsed one 
Machaetes by 
his sentence 

Sitting in iustice on the benche, he had before 
him, to geue sentence & iudgement vpon the 
cause of one Machsetes, but he was so heauie of 
slepe that he coulde in no wyse holde vp his iyes, 
ne geue his mynd, as he should haue doen, to the 
equitee of the lawe. Whereupon he gaue sen- 
tence and iudgement a,gainst Machsetes. And 
when thesame criyng with a loude voice, he said 
that he appealed from thesarpe sentence, the king 
being angrie, saied again. To whome doest thou 
appeale.' For the worde of appealing, ij^" (Whiche 

is euermore from the inferiour iudge & power to an hygher) 

vnto kinges very odious. Then (quoth Machae- 
tes) euen to your ownself sir king, doe I appeale, 
if your grace will awake, and with more earnest 
and tendre attencion of mynde, heare my cause. 
Immediatly here vpon, the king arose & stood 
him vp. And when he had better weighed the 
matter with himself, and well perceiued that the 
said Machsetes had had wrong in deede, the sen- 
tence of iudgement ones geuen and already pro- 
nounced he would not reuoke ne breake, but the 
summe of money, in whiche Machaetes had ben 
cast and condemned, himselfe paied out of his 
own purse euery ferthing. 

^ Loe, in one facte, how many sondrie arguments 
and tokens of princely vertue. He continued not to 
be angry with the feloe both appealing from his sen- 
tence, and also openly in the face of the court laiyng 
slepynes to his charge : but leasurly with better dili- 
gence he considered the matter in his own mind, 
being now clere voyde of all wrath and indignacion. 
Be this a point ofciuilitie and of princely moderacion. 
but that nowe ensueth, was a point of high prudence 
and wisedome, that by a wittie and politique deuise, 
the partie condemned he did in soche wyse deliuer and 
despetche of all losse & damage, that yet neuerthelesse 


THE n. BOOKE. 1 97 

he did not stayne ne put to lacke or rebuke his royall 
autoritee in geuing sentence of iudgement, the penaltee 
and fyne that Machaetea was cast in, he priuately satis- 
fied and paied as if him selfe had been therein condem- 

The frendes of Philippus fuming and taking 25. *The 

high indignation, for that the * Peloponnesians Peinponnesiatis 

did with hissing mocke and skorne him at the ytauntes'^of^' 

games of Olimpia, especially hauing receiued Peioponesus 

many benefites at the kinges hande. and with TrSn^'of 

that tale prickine and " ' ~ ••• - 

Grece, in old 
time called ^- 
chaia and now 
Morea, liyng 
betwen two 
seas, the one 

pricking and stiring Philippus to 
auenge himselfe on theim : Why, quoth he, 
howe will the matter then go if we doe vnto 
theim any euill ? 

If Graciously and with wondrous ciuilitee turned he called /o«mm, 
the argument of his frendes to the contrarie, thus : Aegeaum, and 
If thei be of soche frowarde nature and disposition, with the same 
that they mocke and skorne those persones who haue clos^ed°that it 
doen theim benefite, they will doe much more annoi- is in maner a 
aunce and harme, if a bodie thereunto prouoke theim ^^^ '^'®' , '' 

■ii 1 1 11 ..,.„. . was named of 

With shrewd tumes or dedes of mischief. A manifest Peiops, the 
token & proufe it was not onely of moderation or pa- 
cient sufferaunce and of mercifulnesse, but also of a 
certain excellent high magnanimitee, a king to neg- 
lecte and set light by the hissinges of ingrate persones. 

the doughter of Oenomaus, king of the saied region, on whom went a prophecie, 
that whensoeuer his doughter marled, he should leese his life. Wherfore with all 
soche princes and knightes as came to sue for the raaxiage of Hippadamia, he (the 
saied Oenomaus) appointed tornamentes for life and death with this condicion, diat 
who so could that waye winne his doughter should haue hir, who so were ouer- 
comed should suifre death. After many wooers thus slaine and put to death, came 
Peiops, and corrupted Myrtilus the maister of the chairettes with Oenomaus prom- 
ising to the same Myrtilus, that in case he would be his frende that he might haue 
victorie, he should lie with Hippodamia the first night. Then did Myrtilus sette in 
the chairette of Oenomaus, an axeltree of weaxe by reason whereof at the first ioyn- 
ing it brake, and Peiops wonne the victorie. Whereupon Oenomaus killed himselfe. 
And Peiops not only obteined and enioyed the ladie Hippodamia, but also succeded 
Oenomaus in the kyngdome of Achaia. And when Myrtilus required his promisse, 
Peiops caused him to be cast into the sea, whiche sea of his name was called 
Mirtoum. In the region of Pelopennesus wer these noble and florent citees, Argos, 
Micenae, Corinthus, Lacedaemon, Patrae, the mountaine of Malea, liyng on the 
sea caste Epidanrus, and these countrees, Arcadia, and Siciona. 


Sonne of 7<m- 
tabts kyng of 
the Phrygians. 
And Peiops 
was husband 
to Hippodamia 




The vpright- 
nesse and in- 
tegritee of Phi- 
lippus, in min- 
istring the 
lawes and in 
doyng iustice. 


Antipater the 
deputie and 
high Capitaine 
vnder Phi- 

Not to be the 
part of a prince 
to take his full 
rest and slepe, 
especially in 
time of warre. 
A prince maye 
be in securitee 
that hath a 
trastie and a. 
vigilaunt depu- 


Harpalus in the fauour and behalfe of Cratesj 
being both his familiare frende & of aliaunce, 
and sued at the lawe vpon an accion of trespace 
for wronges and extorcion by him doen, made 
instaunt request and peticion vnto Philippus, 
that thesame defendaunt might paie the damage 
and fyne, but yet might foi- sauing his honestee 
be quieted and dispetched of the suite and ac- 
cion, leste that being in the face of the court 
condemned, he shoulde haue all the worlde to 
raile and speake euil on him. At these wordes, 
better it is (quoth Philippus) that he be euill 
spoken of, then me to haue an euill name for his 

IT He was tendre and fauourable to his frendes, and 
beare with theim albeit no farther then he lawfully 
might without empechement of tlae existimacion and 
credence of a iudge. 

When Philippus being in the campe Avith his 
armie had slept a great long while together, 
being at last awaked, I haue slept in safegarde 
saieth he, for Antipater hath in my stede watched 
& forborne slepe. 

IT Declaring by that watche worde, not to bee the 
part of a prince, to lye in bedde all daye, or to take 
his full reste and slepe, especially in tyme of warre, 
and yet nerethelesse, that thesame may at a tyme 
without pereU or daungier be doen, if a kyng haue a 
tmstie and a peinfuU deputie. Thus with the laude 
and prayse of his frende, he made a good excuse in 
that he had ouerslept himselfe. 

At an other season eftsons it fortuned, that 
while Philippus in the daye time toke his reste 
and slepe, a sorte of the Grekes, (whiche had in 
a great nombre assembled about his doore) toke 
peper in the nose, and spake many wordes of re- 


THE II. BOOKE. 4 1 99 

•proch by the king, for that by reason of his slug- How Parmmio 
ging they might not at the first chop be brought puslkping't 
to his speche : then Parmenio being in presence, the day time, 
in this maner defended the kynge, and made parmmio was 
excuse in his behalf, saiyng: Meruaill ye not if one of Phmp- 
Philippus doe nowe repose himselfe and take a ^nd ?"capi-" 
nappe, for when all ye wer in your ded slepe, he taine & in 

. V J very hisrh fa- 

watched. uourandtruste 

II Signifiyng, that the Grekes rechelesly conueighing w^'* *''.'"' '*"'! 

• • otj 3,ftcr his dcLvcs 

their affaires, Philippus brooke many a sleepe to pro- y,i<i\i Alexander 
aide for their defense and safegarde. Magnus. 

Like as himself was mery conceipted and full 29. 
of pretie tauntes, so did he muche delite in the 
saiynges of others, if thesame had any quicken esse 
or grace in theim. Wherefore, when he was dis- 
posed on a time, as he sate at his supper, to com- 
trolle a minstrelle plaiyng at that present before Euery body is 
him, and talked his phansie of fingreing & bfst '"dge of 
striking the stringes of the instrumente : God facuit«e. 
forfende sir king (quoth the minstrelle) that ye 
should haue more sight and knowledge in this 
geare, then I. 

^ Pleasauntelyand as might stand with good manner, 
did the feloe take vpon him to iudge in his owne arte 
and facultee, and yet nothing offended or displeased 
the king, whome he iudged to be of more dignitee & 
high estate, then for to contende or striue with a min- 
strelle about the twangyng of harpstrynges and lute- 

Yea and the right sharpe or poynaunte sai- 30. 
ynges of others, so it wer spoken in time and 
place oportune, and not toto ferre out of course, 
he could take in good parte. For when he was andpacienceof 
foule out, both with ^"Olympias his wyfe, and Philippus. 
also with Alexander his sonne, he demaunded of 
Demaratus a Corinthian euen at that present 




from Corinthe 
with Philippus. 

time happely comming vnto him in Ambassade, 
what Concorde, peace and vnitee the Grekeshad 
emong theimselfes one with another. Imme- 
diatly saied Demaratus to him again. Iwys 
iwys, ye dooe of likelyhood take great thought 
and care for the concord and tranquillitee of the 
Grekes, when those that are nighest and moste 
dere vnto you, beare soche herte and minde to- 
wards you. 

^ What would a man in this case haue loked for, 
but that the king being highly displeased wilii the 
bolde and plain speaking of Demaratus, should haue 
commaunded thesame to bee had away out of his 
sight ? Yet for all that, because the wordes of Dmor 
ratus meaned to reuoke him from ire and wrath, to 
taking better waies : the kyng pacified and reconciled 
himselfe at the correption of the straunger, and all m- 
dignacion and wrathe laied a parte, fell to a full atone- 
ment with all his folkes. •*■ 

° The debate and dispJeasure of Philippus with Olimpias and Alexander, doth 
Plutarchus in the life of Alexander shewe, in this maner ; When by reason of 
the loue and sondrie manages of Philippus, muche troublous mourmuring and 
fraiyng, arose and begonne within the court of Philippus, emong his owne follies, 
in so muche that the kinges wife and the other women could scarcely abide one 
another, muche quereling, bralling and discord grewe and daily came in vre, euen 
vnder the nose of Philippus. Whiche grudges, quereles, debate and variaunce, the 
sharpenes or curstnes, the zelousie, and the eagre feerse^es of Olimpias did aug- 
mente and sette on Alexander against Philippus. Also of debate and enmitee one 
Attains ministred a wondrous good cause at the mariage of Cleopatra, whome where 
Philippus had fallen in loue withal being yet a young damysell vnmariable, anon 
after he tooke to wyfe. For Attalus being vnole to the maiden being through 
drunken, euen in the feaste time of the mariage, exhorted and encouraged the 
Macedonians to make praier vnto the Goddes, that a laufuU and right borne heire 
for the succ^sion of the croune and empier might be begotten betwene Philippus & 
Cleopatra, with whiche thing Alexander being highly moued, said : Why thou 
naughtie vilain, what thinkest thou of vs that we are bastardes, or misbegotten ? 
and euen with that word he caught a goblet in his hande, and cast it at the hedde 
of Attalus. Philippus immediatly thereupon arising ranne at Alexander with a 
naked sword to haue slain him, but (fortune beying theim bothe good ladie) what 
by reason of furie, and what of wyne the stripe did no harme at all. Then Ala- 
ander beginning to raill on his father Saied This is the ioyly feloe and gaye man, 
whiche making preparation to passe out of Buropa into Asia, and about to go but 
out of one chambre into an other stumbleed and hadde a great fall. After this high 
woordes and reasoning had in cuppes, when the saied Alexander had conueighed 
awaie with hira his mother Olimpias, and had left hir in the region of Epirus, hym 


THE n. EOOKE. 201 

Selfe abode and liued in the countree of llliris. And at thesame season, it for- 
tuned that one Demaratus a Corinthian a very familiar acquaintaunce and frende of 
Philippus, pretending to be one that woulde hym selfe in all causes frankely, frely 
& boldely sale his mynde, was come vnto Philippus. Of whome after they had 
shaked handes, and had with pleasaunt and frendly wordes salued either the other, 
thesaied Philippus enquired, how the Grekes agreed and accorded within theim- 
selfes. To whome Demaratus thus aunswered : O Philippus, of all men lest of al 
it behoueth you to haue care and charge of Grece, that haue thus heaped your owne 
courte and palaice with so many kyndes of discorde & with so many troubles and 
aduersitees. Whereupon Philippus repenting his folye, sent the saied Dertmratus, 
to desire and praye Alexander to returne home again, and so he did. 

To an olde wyfe being a poor sely sole, and 31. 
criyng and calling vpon Philippus to haue the 
hearing of her cause before him, nor ceasing 
with this importune and earnest prayer in maner 
dayly to ring in his eare, he» at last made aun- "^ ^^\f 
swer, that he had no leasure. And when the olde heare the com- 
wife hadde eftsons cried out vpon hym, saiyng ^^^"g of^^u 
Why : then be no longer kyng neither : Philippus persones with 
greatly meruaillyng at her bolde & franke speak- °"' exception, 
ing, did from thenceforth geue eare not onely 
vnto her, but also to all others like. 

11 This selfsame thing the latines doen attribute 
vnto Adrian Emperour of Rome. 

Philippus, when it was come to his eare that 32. 
his Sonne Alexander had in a certain place 
shewed himself to be a cunning musician, gra- 1^°' euery acte 

IS ni££t£ tor 3. 

ciously & courtisely chidde him for it, saiyng : king. 
Art thou not ashamed of thy selfe to haue so 
good sight in musike ? 

IT Signifiyng that other artes then musike were more 
mete and seming for a king. 

Thesame Philippus hauing on a time gotten a 33, 
fall in the wrastlyng place, when in the arising ^^^^^ ^ 
again he 'had espied the print and measure of his prouedtheam- 
whole body in the dust, he saied : Oh the foly of b'<=ion of man 

, , r . 11 '" desinng em- 

man, howe we to whome of nature a veray small pier. 

porcion of the yearth is due, desire to haue in 

our handes all the vniuersall worlde. 

II Would 



The ambicion 
of Alexander. 


ought to bee 
purchased by 
vertue and not 
by giftes. 


* Demochares 
one of the Atn- 
sent in legacie 
from the Jthe- 
nieiis vnto Phi- 

The boldenesse 
that some per- 
sones haue, 

H Would God this saiyng had been well enpriented 
in the herte of his sonne, to whose ambicion and cou- 
etous desire all the whole world semed but a little 

Philippus chiding his sonne Alexander for that 
he laboured and sought with presentes and giftes 
to purchase the beneuolence and hertie loue of 
the Macedonians, did thus frame and set his 
woordes: What (the deiuill) consideration or 
meanes hath put soch a vain hope in thy head, 
& brought the into this fooles paradise, to sup- 
pose that they will in time to come be faithfull 
and true vnto the^, whom thou shalt haue cor- 
rupted and bought with money? What doest 
thou go about to bring to passe, that the Mace- 
donians shall esteme thee to bee, not their king, 
but their almoynerj or pursebearer ? 

The Atheniens had sent an Ambassadt vnto 
Philippus. Thesame graciously receiued and 
heard, to thende that he would with all possible 
courtesie and humanitee, dimisse the Ambassa- 
dours, he willed them to speake, in what thing 
he might doe to the Atheniens any good plea- 
sure. Anon, Demochares taking the tale in 
hand, said : Forsouth sir, if ye goe and put your" 
neck in an halter and hange your selfe. 

IT This Demochares was one of the Ambassadours, & 
for his malapart tonge called at home in his countree 
in their language * Parrhesiastes (as ye would say in 
english) Thom trouth, or plain Sarisbuirie. The 
kings frendes at suche a carlishe aunswere fumyng and 
taking highe indignation, Philippus appeased theim, 
and commaunded theim safe and sounde to let go that 
same \Thersites. Then turning himself to the residue 
of the Ambassadours, he saied : Go bear word home 
again to the Atheniens, much more pride and stately 



presumption to rest in the speakers of soche vngodly plainly and 
wordes as these, then in theim whiche heare thesame without res- 
spoken vnto theim, and suffer it to passe vnpunished. oeption or spa- 
When al is doen these are the stomakes and heartes ringe of any 
worthy to haue empier. 1°^ ^^-^'^^ 

vtter and to speake that lyeth in their stomake, yea, whether it be to geue a checke 
and a rebuke to ones face, or els any other wise howsoeuer it be, is called in greke 
wapfyrjcna, & thereof whatsoeuer persone hath that propretee without feare or spar- 
ing to saye his minde in al thinges as he thinketh, is called Parrhesiastes. And 
soch an one was this Demochares. TrappTjirta, is in a, manne the qualitee con- 
trarie to assentacion, whiche assentation is the southing of eche tiodies tale and 
saiynges, and holding vp their yea and nay. 

fThersites was one of the Grekes, and came emong the mo out of the countree 
of Aetolia vnto the battaill of Troye : a great gentleman born, but the worst of 
feacture, of shape and of fauoure, that possible might be, and a very cowarde : 
Whome Uomerus in his second volume of his werke, entitleed Ilias (that is, of the 
battaill of Troie) describeth both in wordes and sense, much like as foloeth : 

Emong all others, to Troie there came. 
An eiuill fauoured geaste, called by name 
Thersites, a pratleer be ye sure. 
Without all faciun, ende or measure. 
Whatsoeuer came, in his foolyshe brain. 
Out it should, wer it neuer so vain. 
In eche mans bote, would he haue an ore. 
But no woorde, to good purpose, lesse or more : 
And without all maner, would he presume 
With kinges and princes, to cocke and fume. 
In feactes of armes, nought could he doe, 
Nor had no more herte, then a gooce therunto. 
All the Grekes did him, deride and mocke. 
And had him as their commen laughing stocke. 
Squyntyied he was, and looked nyne wayes. 
Lame of one leg, and himping all his dayes. 
Croump shouldreed, and shrunken so vngoodly, 
As though he had had but halfe a bodye. 
An hedde he had (at whiche to ieste and scofFe) 
Copped like a tankarde or a sugar lofe. 
With a bushe pendente, vndernethe his hatte, 
Three heares on a side, like a drouned ratte. 

And not long after his arriuall to Troye, for that he was so busie of his tongue, 
so full of chatting and pratleing with euery kyng and noble man of the Grekes, 
Achilles being moued with his saucines & importunitee, vp and gaue him soche a 
cuff on the eare, that he slew him out of hande, with a blowe of his fist. 

ir TAe 


^ The saiynges of Alexander, 


I N the saiynges of Philippus there was no- 
I thing, but whiche besides the vrbanitee 
I and pleasaunt grace, might not also auayl 
to good maners and honest behaueour. 
Neither dooe I see, whome more conueniently to ioyn 
vnto Philippus, then his owne sonne Alexander. 

1 . This Alexander beyng yet but a little boye, 
when his father Philippus executed many righte 
highe enterprises, and many right puissaunte and 
noble actes of prowesse, achiued with veray pros- 
perous happe and successe : was therewithall no- 
thing wel apaied, but to his plaifeers, and soche 
as wer brought vp at nourice with him, he vsed 
thus to sale : My father will leaue nothing at all for 
me. They saiyng again : Yes iwys, it is you and 
none other for whome he purchaceth and pro- 
cureth all this same. And what good may it 
dooe me (quoth Alexander) if being a Lord of 
great possessions, I shall haue none affaires 
whereabout to be doing, and to be sette on 

Alexander ^ Euen at that age might a bodye right wel espie 

w^<rf an am- ^^^ knowe in him a sparke of an ambicious and actif 
bicious and or stiering nature towarde. . 


2. Thesame Alexander whereas he was passing 
light or nymble of body and veray swifte of foote 

fymWerfbodT ^ renne, to his father willing him at the games 

and swift to of Olympia to renne the race emong the others, I 

'™"^" would sir with all my herte, saieth he, if I should 

haue kinges to renne for the price or maisterie 

with me. 



^ In this pointe also may ye euidently espie and The hault coa- 

knowe a man of haulte courage, and one that woulde akf^of 1/°"' 

not to any persone liuyng geue place, or yeld an ynche, ander. 

in the triall of laude and dominacion. Himselfe was Alexander in 

not yet come to be a kyng, and for all that would he prating mais- 

not vouchesalue in prouing maisteries to be matched noJb'e'matched 

with any persones being vnder the estate of kynges. butwith kinges 

When a certain young woman was veray late 3. 
in the night brought vnto Alexander to be his 
bedfeloe, the king demaunded, where she had 
ben so long : the woman making aunswer, that 
she had taried and awayted, vntill hir husband 
might first be gon to bedde : he called his ser- 
uaunts that had brought hir and gaue theim an 
highe and a sore rebuke, saiyng conueighe this 
woman home again, for I was not ferre from the 
point, nor failed but veraye litle through your 
default, to be made an auoutreer. 

H A passing gaie example of chastitee, on the oneside A notable 
in a young man, and on the other side in a kyng, «''^'".P'«of 

^g°Cand most of all in an Ethnike.) For emong theim, AlexavAer. 

simple fornication was reputed for no crime ne sinne at 

all. And by this historie it semeth likely, that the ^lues laye^a ^ 

maner and vsage at those dayes was, (as in Italie yet part in a son- 

stil at this ptesent daye it is) that mens wiues laye ^'^^^ f™^'^ 

aparte in a sondrie chaumbre and bedde from their hus- their hus- 

bandes, onlesse they were at this or that season called, bandes. 

To Alexander in his childhood excessiuely 4. 
making incense and sacrifice vnto the goddes, 
and euery pater noster whyle renning to take still he that hath 
more and more of the frankincense, * Leonides *e tuicion, 

, , . , , , , . ^ , Efouernaunce, 

who was his gouernour and had chief cure and nourturing, 
charge of his body and of his bi^fnging vp, and at breaking & 
that time was there present, saied : Sirrha, my ofa^MdJas 
childe, then shall it be meete for you with thus wel in maniers 
great largesse to make incense vnto the Goddes, ^hiche was in 




among the 
Rotnaines as 
the Grekes, an 
bothe name 
and function. 
Neither was 
there any noble 
mannes sonne, 
but that he 
had a peculiar 
ernor. But 
Alexander be- 
cause he was 
Sonne to so 

old time as wei when ye shall haue subdued the countree where 
this incensse groweth. After long processe of 
time, when Alexander had in deede conquered 
thesame countree, hauing fresh in his remem- 
braunce the saiyng of Leonides aboue especified, 
he wrote letters vnto him with this clause: I 
send vnto thee * certain talentes of frankinsense 
and of casia, to thentent that thou maiest not 
from hencefoorth be a niggarde towardes the 
Goddes, sens thou art not vnknowing, that we 
are now conquerours and Lordes of the countree 

noble a kins ^^^^ produceth frankincense and swete odours. 

and also was of singular courage, stomake & towardnes had many paedagogm, 
nourturers and scholemaisters, emong whom the chief preeminence had Leomdes, 
and to him by especiall commission apperteined the principall, cure, charge, an- 
toritee and rule ouer Alexander, partely for that he was a man of singular graui- 
tee, wisdome, and seueritee of maniers, and partly because he was of nere kynred 
and frendship towardes Olympias the mother of Alexander. Nerethelesse because 
Leonides thought the name of Paedagogue ouer beisse and vile for a man of soche 
dignitee as him selfe was, Lysimackus had the name of Paedagogue, and in veray 
deede was he that continually attended and tooke daily peines in nourturing, teach- 
ing, and breaking Alexander, & Leonides was called his tutour, gouemour, direc- 
tour, and (as ye might saye) Lorde Maister. 

* Thee countree where odours growen, that is here meaned was Gaza, whiclie 
was a towne of the countree of Pallestina or lewrie in Phenicia, being a part of 
Arabia, whiche Alexander (as Plularchus writeth) did subdue and conquere. And 
when he sent from thens to his mother Olympias and to Cleopatra, and to his 
other frends, cote armours & spoyles there wonne, he sent also at thesame time 
(as thesame Plutarchus maketh mencion) to Leonides his old maister, fiue hundred 
talentes of frankinsense, that is of ofir Troy weight or poyse fowertie sixe thousande 
and fiue hundred poundes of weight or thereabout, and of Myrrhe, one hundred 
talentes, that is of englishe poyse, nyne thousand three hundred poundes of weight 
or thereabout. For I take here a talent for the commen talent Altique whiche con- 
teined of englyshe poyse thre score two poundes and one halfe pounde or thereabout 

1^. When he was readie and would nedes auenture 
battaill vpon the souldiers of Darius at the floude 
t Granicus, he badde the Macedonians to feede 
lustely at their dyner, not sparing to fille their 
bealies with soche vitailles as they had, for they 

making a vi- 
age & going 
with an armie 
royall of thirtie 

fowrethousand should be assured the morowe next folowing to 

footemen, and _ , , . . /- . i • 

fiue thousand suppe of the prouision of their enemies, 
horsemen ^| ^ lustie courage, and an herte that could not 

kmgof thelpej^- ^^.int ne be dismayed, and as touching the ende of the 



battaill being in no maner doubt, mistruste, ne feare, wan*, con- 
but that the victorie should go on his side. holfe& passed 

ouer HellespoTitMS (which is a narowe and veraye daungerous sea, reaching from the 
Isle of Tmedus, vnto propantis) & so came to Granicus a floudde in the countree 
of Phrigia, whiche Phrigia is a region of Asia the lesse. At Granicus because it 
was (as ye would sale) the gates of Asia, and for that there was none other en- 
treaunce ne passage into Asia to come to the Persians : the Capitaines of Darius 
had so sette there souldiers in araye to resiste Alexander, that ther might be no 
waye made but with dynte of sweorde. Wherfore Parmenio the dere frende, the 
moste feithful herted counseillour and the moste trustie Capitaine of Alexander 
auised him for many considerations in no wyse to enterprise so harde and so daun- 
gerous an auenture, Why, quoth Alexander again, Hellespontus would blush for 
veray shame now that I haue alreadie passed ouer it, if I should be afearde to wade 
ouer so litle a floudde as Granicus, and then after that Ije had encouraged his 
souldiers to haue cherefuU hertes, taking with him thirteen rayes of horsemen, 
himselfis flounced me into the floudde, & at length in despite and maugre the 
heddes of all his enemies, he gotte to the other side of the same. 

Parillus one of the noumbre of Alexanders 6. 
familiare frendes, desired of Alexander some Pamius one. of 
dourie of money towardes the mariage of his miliar frendes. 
doughters. The kyng bad him take fiftie ta- 
lentes of money. And wlien the other had aun- '^^ bpuntee & 

1 , rr ■ -XT / 1 munificence of 

swered tenne talentes to be sufficient, Yea, (quoth Alexander. 
Alexander) so much is enough for thee to take, 
but the same is not enough for me to geue. 

IT Gaily and roially spoken, had not his towardnes 
vnto vertue ben vitiated and corrupted with ambition. 

Alexander had commaunded his treasourer to 7. 
delyuer vnto the Philosophier Anexarchus how 
muche money soeuer he would aske. And when 
thesaied treasourer had herde the request, and 
being therewith more then half astonned, had 
made relacion vnto Alexander that the Philoso- The bountee & 
phier asked no lesse the'n an ' hundred talentes : """"'ficence of 
he doeth wel (quoth the king) knowing himself 
to haue a frende, whiche is both able and willing 
to geue so great a summe. 

H Here may a man doubte whether of these two 
thinges he ought rather to maruail at, the kings liberal- 
itee in geuing, or els the vnreasonablenes of the Phi- 



losophier in asking, except we lust rather to call the- 
same assured trust and confidence that he had in the 
k3mges beneficence. 

8. When he had seen in the citee of Miletus many 
and thesame right greate, and bowerly images 
and porturatures of soch persones as had tofore 
times wonne the victories or chiefe prices in the 

* games of Olympia & of Pythia, he saied : And 
ther name was where were these so great gyauntlike bodies, 
called Pythius when the barbarous did besiege your citee. 

of the great 

dragon Py-^ II Nippingly did he taunte and checking the folishe 

tho7i, whiche ambicion of theim, who glorie and braggued of soche 

dragon to his , . . ° j, i ,. 

great honour persones as being m greatnes and strength of body 

glorie and re- perelesse, had gotten victorie in tumamentes,' iustes, 

w?th"his^bowe wrastleyng, renning and other sembleable games made 

and arroes. for pleasure and disporte, where as in so great perelles 

And for a "le- ^ daungerS of the citee, there had been none at all, 

morialofthat ,? . , , , . ,,. , , . , 

act ther were that could trie and shewe theimselfes to be soche loyly 
holden & kept yaliaunt feloes. 

in the honour T 

of Apollo Pithius, certain games of lusting, renning, wrastlyng, and shooting, & 

of the name of Apollo they were called Pythia. 

9. Where Adas quene of the *Carians had a 
This Ades great delitc and phantasie stil day by day, ordi- 
fauourthat he narily to sende vnto Alexander presentes of cates 
had to hir, of and of iunquettes or confections dressed and 
tookTfor his ^ Wrought with great cunning, by the finest diuisers 
mother, and so pastlers & artificers of soche thinges, that could 
madehir quene begotten: Alexander sa;ed, that himselfe had of 
of the Carians. bis owne muche better »tookes and dressers of 
The cookes ^'^ viandrie, that is to wete, for dyner, his iour- 
that Alexander neyeng the night afore, and for supper, a spare 
Ws^'r^eai"''' ^^d light repast at noone. 

* Caria is a prouince in the countree of Asia, the lesse, liyng betwene Lym. and 
Ionia, the inhabitauntes whereof were called Carians, a vile people and very abiect, 
in so muche that diuerse prouerbes the Grekes inuente^, in reproche of their vilanie. 
As, Itejbras, Cares, non ampliui Anthisteria. & in Care pericubim. Of whiclie 
prouerbes reade in the Chiliades of Erasmus, 



On a certain season, al thinges being in a per- 10. 
feet readines to ioyne battaille and to fighting 
the fielde, when he was asked the question, 
whether his pleasure were that .any thing els 
shuld be doen? Nothing (quoth he) but the 
beardes of the Macedonians to be shauen of. 
Parmenio wondering what this saiyng should 
meane : Why, doest thou not know, saied Alex- ' 
ander, that there is in battaill nothing better or 
more apte to take holde on then a bearde ? 

11 He signified that fighting in wane ought to be Beardes are in 
within handy gripes, in whiche kynde of strife and battaill a great 
triyng beardes are great hinderaunce, for that the soul- a,nce. 
diours or men of warre, may very easely be caught by 
the beardes and be holden faste. 

Darius offred vnto Alexander these condicions, 1 1 . 
that he should haue tenne thousand talentes of ije condicions 

. /- 1 offred by Da- 

money, & besides that the empier of the whole nus vnto Aiex- 
countree of Asia to be egually deuided betwene '""'"'• 
theim twaine. When Alexander this oflfre re- 
fused : I would surely haue taken it (quoth Par- 
menio) if I wer Alexander. And so would I 
(quoth Alexander) if I wer Parmenio. But vnto ^XaX" 
Darius he made aunswere in this maner. That concerning the 
neither the yearth might endure or abyde two off"ed'^j°"him 
sonnes, nor the countree of Asia, two kinges. by Danus. 

IT Here also might one allowe & commend his Alexander 
haultnesse of, courage or stomack : if the saiyng did J^,j'^^"f^f(he 
not sauour of a certain inormnat wilfiill heddines to be world alone. 
Lorde alone, and to haue all vnder his owne subiection. 

When Alexander was like at a certain toune 12, ^ 
called *Arbeles, to be put to the plounge of ^^/„,'^«^„f 
making or marring, & of habbe or nhabbe to der and Darius 
Wynne all, or to lese all (for he had to fight with [^fj/^^^t 
a million of menne of armes wel appointed, and 

14 prepared , 



Howe Alexan- 
der tooke that 
his souldiers 
had conspired 
emong theim 
selfes to con- 
uert all the bo- 
ties that they 
should geat, to 
their own pti- 
uate vse. 

prepared to trie it by strokes) there came vnto 
him certain of his souldiers that bare towards 
him very good and true feithful hertes, and com- 
plained on their feloes, that in the campe thei 
made a muttreing emong theimselfes, and con- 
spired together, of all the preaye & bootie that 
they should get, not to bring a iote into the kinges 
■pauilion, but to conuerte it ful and whole to 
their owne peculiare profite & auauntage. These 
thinges heard, Alexander smyled, and saied; 
Sers, ye haue brought me good tidinges. For I 
heare the wordes of feloes mynded to wyn the 
victorie, and not to flee. 

II Neither was he ddceiued in his geasse. For vnto 
hym came right many an one of the souldiers, saiyng : 
Be of good chere sir kyng, and haue good herte, 
^ neither feare ye the great nombre and multitude of 
your enemies, they shall not be able to abyde, no not 
so muche as the very smell of vs. 

* Plutarchus, in the life of Alexander saieth in maner and fourme here foloyng. 
Immediatly hereupon was there a great field foughten with Darius, not (as some 
autours wtiten) in the toune of Arbeli, but at Gaugameli. Whiche worde Gavgameli 
is as much to saye, as the Camels hous. Whiche it is saied, that a certain king 
in forne yeares, when he had on a Dromedarie Camele escaped the handes of his 
enemies, builded there, and appointed to the ouersight and the charges of thesame, 
Vhe reuenues of certain townes g-nd villages. 

The same Alexander, his armie nowe already 
set in araye, and appointed euen out of hand to 
figllt the field, when he espied one of the soul- 
diers euen at thesame: present houre trimming a 
strop or laop'e to set oh his darte, he put out of 
wages, and discharged of his roume, as one like 
to doe no good seruice at al, whiche then and 
not before begonne to make readie his weapens 
when it was alreadie high time to occupie the- 

% This was to be put rather emong Stra/agemes^itea 



A strop is the 
stryng that is 
fastened in the 
mids of a darte 
wherein to put 
ones fynger 
when he pick- 

It is an euill 
man of warre 
that will haue 
his weapon vn- 
ready when he 
should occupie 


emong apqphthegmes, euen as is also this same, whereof 
I shall nowe next after make rehersall. 

Alexander was reading a letter sent from his 14. 
mother, whiche letter conteined certain secrete 
matters of counsail, together with false crymes ^af^sTwghly 
surmised against Antipater. These letters did in fauour with 
Hephsestion after his accustomed maner read to- hi^^ikdhi^' 
gether with the kyng. Neither did the king for- alter se, tiiese- 
bid him to reade, but after reading of the epistle, der,''LdvseT" 
he pulled his signet ryng from his finger, and set him as famil- 
it hard to the mouth of the said Hephaestion, o^'Je^Llfe 
warning thesame by thus doyng, to kepe his hydingfrom 
counsaill secrete. him none of 

all his secretes. 

II An example of notable truste and affiaunce hauing 

in his frende, yea and also of passing great humanitee, 

in that he would these false accusacions and com- 

plaintes to be spied abrode, although in dede he loued 

* AnHpafer.&t that tyme no better then a doggue. *At the first be- 

ginning,, who 
so highe in price, estimacion or trust with Alexander, as was Antipater- ? in so 
muche thatPfotorcAKS in the life of Phooion reherseth for a thinge notable and 
worthy memorie, that thesame Alexander neuer wouldevouchsalue to shewe to any 
persones so muche honoure, as in his Epistles or lettres to wtyte vnto theim this 
iamiliare clause in the beginning of his lettres, We grete you wel, sauing only to 
Phoeion of Atheiies, and to Antipater, whiche twoo persones he had in especia 1 
high regaide and honour. And lolas one of the sonnes of Antipater, was vnto 
Alexander chief butler and cup bearer. But in the latter iayes Antipater lost vtterly 
all the fauour of Alexander, and was of thesame suspected, mistrusted and deadly 

In the temple of ^"Ammon, when he was 15- 
by the president or chief priest there, called the 
Sonne of lupiter : It is no meruail (said he) for 
lupiter in deede of nature*is father vnto all men, 
but of theim he taketh for his very own children 
in dpede, especially all soche as are good and 

H He did after a very humble sorte expoune the fOracaZam an 

+ oracle. For the ministre of the temple called him oracle, is pro- 
, „,..-, ,- j3 ii • ■!■ prely the mmd 

the Sonne of Jupiter m the waye of flatterie, as if ^^^ aunswer 

Alexander had ben likewyse begotten oi lupiter as of God by some 

; Hercules 


diuineinterpre- Hercules was reputed and beleued to be the sonne of 

by S'pr'o!^ lupiter. But Alexander confessed that lupiter was of 

phet, priest, or nature thei autour and parente of all mortall men, but 

otherwyse by yg(. jjjg^t thesame did agnise and knowlege peculiarly 

or proprely for his sonnes, soche persones and none 

other, as by vertue and noble actes drewe nighest, and 

were moste aunswerable to the nature of God. And that 

is, vnto al persones without exception to be beneficialL 

■ Ammiom., was lupiter worshipped in the fourme and likenesse of a ramme. 

For when Bacchus otherwyse called Liter pater (all the whole countree of Asia nowe 
subdued) was conueighing his arraie through the wyldemesse of LyMa (whiche 
LyMa is a region or coste of the countree of Afrike, bounding vpon Egipt, and 
sometime set for all Afrike,) being almoste lost for draught both he and all his 
armie, he besoughte his father lupiter of helpe and succour. Whempon immedi- 
atly appered vnto him a ramme, whiche ramme while he pursued, he came by 
chaunce to a right pleasaunt and a plenteous welle. Bacchus theifore tbinlcing 
this ramme to be lupiter, anone builded there a temple, and sette in it the Image 
and porture of a ramme to be worshipped for lupiter. And it was called Ammm 
(as ye would sale in english lupiter of the sande, because the temple was edified 
& builded in a sandie place) for the Greke vocable afi/ws, souneth in english the 
sande. Albeit, some there be that affirmen lupiter in the language of die Egip- 
tians to be called ^mmon, and thereof this temple to haue taken the name ofAmmon. 
But Pausanias holdeth opinion, that it was so named of one Amman a shepehearde, 
who first builded thesame temple. 

1 6. When his leggue was wounded with an arroe 
What Aiexan- in battaile, and many came renning about him, 
1j^^^' wound" whiche had of a custome ofte times vsed to call 
ed with an him a God, he with a bolde and a mery counten- 
^'°^' aunce alluding to a verse of the Poete Homere, 

saied : 
Alexander yse- This that ye See, is bloud withouten oddes 
ing wounded Euen suche like as commeth from the Goddes. 

himself to be a ^ Mocking in very deede the vanitee of those flat- 
man mortal!, treers, for as muche as the thing selfe declared him to 
be nothing els but a mortall man, as others wer. As 
for the allusion that he made, was to a place of Homere 
in the fifth volume of his werke entitleed Ilias, where 
it is tolde howe Venus was wounded of Diomedes. 

1 7- Many persones highly commending and prays- 
ing the frugalitee and spare maner of liuing that 
Antipater vsed, who led a life very homely or 



grosse, and farre from all delices : Yea (quoth he) ^niipata-, 

Antipater weareth a white mantell outwardly, semWedtoiiue 

but within he goeth in purple euery inche of him. homely, yet in 

U Noting the feigned and colourable sparing of bicious and 

homelinesse of the saied Antipater, where as he was, stately, 
that notwithstanding, in very deed as ambicious and 
stately as the best. 

When he was on a daye in the winter season, 1 8. 
and in sharpe cold weather, feasted by a certain How Aiexan- 
frende of his, and sawe there a litle litle herthe, frOTde o^f hts to 
and in thesame a litle preatie small fier, he saied : piaye the nig- 
Sers, either lay on wood, or cast in frankincense, woodde. 

IT Half geuing a checke vnder a colour, that the 
feaster or banquetter plaied as muche the niggard of 
his wood, as if thesame had been frankincense, wher unseasonable 
as in soche extreme colde, euen very frankincense husbandrie. 
ought not to haue ben spared : and farther signifiyng 
that there was fier sufficient for makinge incense to the 
Goddes, but not enough to defende and kepe awaie 

When he supped on a time at the hous of 19. 
Antipatrides, and the same had brought in be- 
fore Alexander at the supper, a passyng faire 
damisell, being a minion doer in singyng, Alex- 
ander beyng rauished with the sight of her, was 
sodainly striken with hot burning loue. And 
anon demaunded of Antipatrides, whether he for 
his owne parte, were not ferre in loue with the The continen- 
damisell, Antipatrides plainly confessyng that ^'^ * S''^^ 

.' , . J >, • .„ chastite of 

yes, Alexander saied : O vngracious man, wilt Alexander. 
thou not with all hast, haue her awaie from the 
table and this compaignie.' 

H How ferre was that hart and minde from defilyng 
an other mannes wedded wife, whiche stoode in so 
greate feare of himself, lest he should fal ouer ferre in 
loue with the leman of his frende, making him a supper. 





Plutarchus in 
the life of Al- 
exander nam- 
eth this man 

wold not en- 
force or com- 
pelle any per- 
sonefree borne. 


How Alexan- 
der vsed the 
Grekes which 
toke wages of 
his enemies to 
fight against 

At what tyme Alexander reuersed backe again 
to the sea, (to departe out of his armie) as many 
of the Macedonians as wer sickly, maimed and 
feble, or impotent of their limmes, there was one 
persone bewraied, that had billed hymself in the' 
nomber of the sickfolkes, whereas in deede he 
had no disease, nor impediment at all. This 
manne, when he was brought to the sight and 
presence of Alexander, and beyng examined, 
did confeSse that he had made a pretext and 
semblaunce of a disease or maladie, for the loue 
of a woman called Telesippa, who was gon 
afore toward the sea, Alexander asked, to whom 
might be committed the charge, to commaunde 
the saied Telesippa to return backe again to the 

armie. (l^®° Snpposyng that she had been bondwoman to one or 

other of his soldiers.) But when he had due know- 
l&ge that she was no bondwoman, but free 
borne : Why (quoth Alexander) then lette vs 
Antigenes (i^° for that was the feloes name) entreacte, 
and by faire meanes perswade Telesippa to tary 
still with vs. For by force or violence to com- 
pell her therunto, being a free woman born, in no 
wise lieth in vs. 

H In soche sort did he fauour the loue of a stoute 
& valiaunt man of warre, whom he was desirous to 
kepe still in his armie, that n6uerthelesse he would not 
that freborne woman to come backe againe, but if she 
might bee brought in mynde so to dooe, with her owne 
consent and agremente. 

When the Grekes, that tooke waiges to fight 
againste Alexander, vnder the baners of his 
enemies, were come vnder his power and iuris- 
diccion, as for the Atheniens, he commaunded to 
be laied fast in shaccles and fetters, because that, 
where thei might haue had waiges competent, at 


THE II. BOOKE. 21 5 

home at the publique charges of their own citee, 
thei had for all that become souldiers with his 
enemies. Of the Thessalians also, he com- 
maunded thesame, for asmoche as thei hauyng 
a right fertile countree of their own, did let it lye 
waste, without bestowing any tillage or hotis- 
bandrie vpon it : but the * Thebanes he demised 
and let go at their libertee, saiyng : These poor^ 
soules are by vs put out of all together, nor haue 
any thyng at all left vnto them, neither citee to 
dwel in, nor lande to tille. 

^ So did he moderate the punishment of them all, 
that those persones who had well deserued to dye, he gjon of ^^^^ 
commaunded no more but to be laied in irons, & the ministered by- 
fault of them, which might iustly make their excuse, ^'j GretL™'" 
that by verie necessitee, thei had been driuen to dooe thathadhighly 
as thei did, he laied from them, and toke vpon hym- offended him. 

* When the Thebanes became rebelles against Alexander, and had procured vnto 
thesame, the aide and help of the Athenians, Alexander with a great puissaunce 
laied siege to the citee of Thebes, and yet willing to geue them space to repent their 
foly and by submitting themselfes to be reconciled, offered them bothe pardon that 
present, and from thens forth to be free, vpon condicion to deliuer into his handes 
Phoenix, and Prothytes (who had been thaucthors of the defeccion.) The Thebanes 
on their partie required of Alexander to haue deliuered to them Philotas and Anti- 
pater, twoo of the capitjrines of Alexander, and made aji open Proclamacion, that 
whosoeuer was desirous to haue all the countree of Grece, to be set in their old state 
of fredome, should come and take their parte. Thsa Alexander with all his power 
of the MacedoniAns set vpon theim. The Thebanes wer nothing slacke, but fought 
stoutely and valiauntly against their enemies, being in nomber ferre mo then thei 
wer. But anon came in vpon them at their backes, others of the Macedonians, and 
so in fine were thei beaten doune, their citee taken, spoiled and destroied, bothe 
sticke and stone. The Atheniens he pardoned, and by this acte he put all Grece in 
soche terrour, that thei laie all quiete, and durst not ones to stiere against him. 

A certaine Indian taken in the warres, bearyng 22. 
name of a felowe perelesse in the feacte of shoot- 
yng, in so moche that by the common reporte 
and bruite that went on hym, he could as oft as 
hym lusted, shoote his aroe quite and cleane, euen 
through a ring, Alexander commaunded to 
shewe a point of his cunnyng. And where the 



partje refused so to doe, the kyng taking ther- 
with high displeasure and angre, commaunded 
that he should be putte to death. As he was in 
ledyng to the place of execucion, he saied to theim 
that ledde hym, that he had not of long tyme 
afore practised his feacte of shootyng, and by 
reason thereof to haue stande in feare, lest he 
should haue missed. When woorde hereof was 
brought backe again, and relacion made vnto 
Alexander that the feloe had not of any disdain 
or frowardnesse, refused to shoote, but onely for 
feare of beyng openly shamed for euer, if he 
should haue failled, the kyng hauyng wonder at 
Glorie and re- the nature of the feloe, so desireful of glorie and 
noume is to renoume, bothe gaue vnto the same perdone of 
mMe^swerte ^is life, and also dimissed him bounteously re- 
then life. warded, because he had been in mynde and wille, 
rather to suffer death, then to appere vnworthie 
the name and fame that went on hym. 

Like beareth ^ Here it appcTCth not to be altogether a lie, that is 

loue vnto like. SO Commonly spoken in the prouerbe. Like beareth 

fauour and loue vnto like. For Alexander being out 

of al measure desirous of renoume, loued the sem- 

blable affection and appetite in other persones. 

2 3. Taxiles one of the kynges of India, presentyng 

This Taxiles hymself vnto Alexander, spake vnto hym in this 

(as testifieth jxianer, I prouoke thee sir kyng (saied he) not to 

the life of Al- fightyng, nor yet to battail, but to an other sort 

exaiider) was ^f triyng maistrfes. If thou be inferiour to me^ 

a man of sing- j a ' , , .. 

nlare wise- take som benefite at my handes : if supenour, 

"^ieT ^ had' ^^* "^^ receiue some benefite at thyne. To whom 
vnder his gou- Alexander thus aunswered. Marie, euen for that 
ernance the ^,qx\q. pointe ought we to strfue together, whether 

more parte of '^ =• 1 , 1 j r 

India, enui- male in doyng benefites, haue the ouer hande oi 

roned with al ^j^e Other, 
the whole cir- 

cuiteofthevni- ^ And hereupon, with al possible humanitee, em- 
' bracing 


bracmg the saied Taxiles, he did not onely not depriue uersal Coun- 
thesame of his dominion, but also gaue him more to it. fee of Egipte, 

aranke ground 
for pasture, and an ezcellente good come countree. And of this Taxiles Alexander 
toke many ^reat giftes and presentes and gaue to him as many againe, and lasts 
of all seme vnto him for a gifte, a thousande talentes at ones. 

When he had heard of a certaine rocke in the 24. 
Indies, whiche by reason of the exceding heigth 
of it, is called in Greke aopvos, birdelesse, as if aopvoi, a rock 
ye would saie, so high, that the birdes male not '" *' ^'^'"• 
get to the toppe of it. When Alexander had 
heard of this rocke, that the place self was harde 
to be wonne, but the capitain that kept it, to be 
a fearful feloe, & to haue no more hart then a 
shepe : By this time, quoth Alexander, the place 
is ecisie enough to be gotten. 

11 Signifiyng, that fortresses and municions dooe no- Fortresses and 

thyng auaile at all, excepte an hardie mannes bodie municions doe 

defende and maintein thesame. For a castle, or any ^cept hardie& 

stronghold is not so sure and safe from enemies, by the valiaunt mens 

sense of diches and walles, as by vaJiaunte and hardie •'°*es, defend 
. ' and mamtame 

mennes bodies. thesame. 

Plutarchus thus telleth thesame historic. Alexander hauing with siege encoum- 
paced the towne of one Sisimethres standing on a rocke impenetrable, when he 
sawe his souldiers to be of heauy chere, he demaunded of one Oxiartes, what herte 
& courage thesaied Sisimethres was of, Oxiartes aunswering that he was the 
veraiest dastarde alyue, Well, then (quoth Alexander) by thy saijmg the rocke will 
sone and easily be wonne, forasmuche as the lorde thereof is a cowarde and no 
man of warre. And euen so came it to passe, for Sisimithres was with the onely 
menacing, thretning and facing of Alexander so feared, that he yelded and gaue 
vp his holde without any resistaunce at alU 

An other certain capitaine, where he held, and 25. 
kept a rock vnpossible to be won (as it was 
thought) neuerthelesse submitted and yelded Howe Aiexan- 
himselfe into the handes of Alexander. But dervsed a cap- 
Alexander, not onely did make thesame partie gaue himselfe 
Lord and gouernour of air that seignourie and & his holde in- 

, , , , . , ■ to his handes 

countree about, but moreouer spake and saied as and mercy, 
foloeth. I holde this man sapient and wise, in 



that he thought better, and had more phansie, to 
put his trust & affiance in an honest & a good 
man, then in a place strong & well fensed. 

26. After the taking of a certain strong holde or 
fortresse standing on a rocke, when the frendes 
of Alexander saied, that in feates marciall and in 

temnedH^c". noblc actes of prowessfe, he ferre surmounted 

<es in respect of Hcrcules : Nay (quoth he) I thinke the actes that 

im e e. j j^^^g dooen sens I haue been a king, are to to 

ferre oddes, to be in the way of comparison con- 

The mynde of ferred with the thinges which Hercules did in his 

Akxander no time. 

eu^gh to^a. 11 The other spake to flatter him, but the mind of 
tisfie. Alexander no flatterie was enough to satisfie. 

27. Certain of his frendes he punished by the 
How Aiexan- purse, and put to their fine, because he had per- 
^fhTs'frendel" ^eiued them, in plaiyng at dyce, not to playe for 
for being ouer pastime, as mcctg was. 

TO^atdfffi. ' *T For many there ben that bestowe and vse them- 
selfes in this gaiAe, as if it were in the moste earnest 
matter of the worlde. For those persones do not 

The incom- playe, who doen hasarde and auenture all their sub- 

moditees that r j j ... , 

come by plai- staunce at ones, yea & sometimes their sonnes and 
yng at dyce. heires to, to stande to the grace and direction of the dice. 

1^^ At lest wyse, homely playe it is and a madde pastime, 
where men by the course of the game go together by the eares, 
and many times murdre one an other, or at lestwyse of right lou- 
ing frendes, are made mutuall enemies all dayes of their life after. 

Alexander 2%. Emong those, whome he reputed and tooke 
fren^es'and ^°^ ^^^ principall. frendcs, or chiefe seruauntes 
true seruaunts, about him and most of power, he shewedhimselfe 
S°Cra?^r'" to honour Craterus aboue the Teste, but aboue all 
but most loued others to loue Hephaestion. For Craterus (saieth 
Hephaestion. j^^^ j^^^^ ^^^ ^^^^^ ^^^ Hephsesteon loueth 

Craterus <t>i- Alexander. ^ 

HepUest^, ^ ^his saiyng hath more grace in the Greke, by 

<^iXa\eiav- reason of these two wordes 0iXoj8o<rt\«uj and ^iK. 

hpo'i aXe^avBpK 

THE 11. BOOKE. 219 

oXc^vSpos. The meaning di Alexander was, that Cror 
tents in soch things as concerned his dignitee royall 
did the partes of a trae faithfull frende, but H^haestion 
of a certain priuee affection to beare his hertie loue 
and beneuolence towardes the persone of Alexander, 
g^ without the respecte that he weis a kyng. Wherfore 
these two parties, whose loue and affection to- 
wardes hym proceded of vnlike respectes, he did after 
twoo sondrie sortes egually rewarde, either according 
to his demerites. * For Craterus he auaunced to high 
dignitees, and Hephaestion he receiued to moste entiere * So highe in 
familiaritee about his persone. Stee we 

these two with Alexander, that all the Macedonians whiche had any sute to the 
court, were from time to time assigned to fette their aunswer & despetche at the 
handes of Craterus, and all the Barbarians of Hephaestion^ And so highly did 
the kyng honouie Craterus, that when thesame Craterus was on a time sore sicke, 
Alexander did openly muche sacrifice to the Goddes for his helth, and wrote letters 
with his own hand to Pausanias his phisician, that he should with all diligence & 
atendaunce possible, not onely tempre drinkes and medicines for him, but also bee 
present with him to teache him howe thesame should be receiued. 

Unto Xenocrates the Philosophier, he sent of 29. 
free gift fiftie talentes ; which when the Philoso- Xenocrates re- 
phier refused to take, .alleging that he had no money of 4;eii> 
nede of money, the king dentiaunded whether he and^. 
had not so much as any one frende neither, that 
had nede. For to me (saieth Alexander) vneth 
al the treasoures and richesse of Darius hath 
suffised to bestowe & to deuide among my 

f Whether of these two mens mindes is in this be- The bountee of 
halfe more worthy admiration, I cannot yet determine Alexander and 
nor perfectly saye : either of the k)aig so propense fo'eeue.^™'" ^ 
vnto liberalitee, or els of the Philosophier, whiche sent 
backe again so great a gifte by so great a king of his 
owne mere motion offred. 

Kyng Porus being subdued and taken by 30. 
Alexander, and after the field foughten being 
asked by thesame Alexander this question. How ^°y !""^ ^,°' 

11 1 •> T. rasbemg taken 

shall I now handle and vse thee ? Porus aun- by Alexander, 




& asked howe 
he would be 
vsed, made 

The humanite 
and modera- 
tion of Alex- 
ander toward 
kynge Porus. 

swered in this maner, Regally : Alexander farther 
demaunding, & nothing els but that ? In this one 
word, regally (quoth Porus) all thinges possible 
are comprised, Alexander hauyng admiration as 
well at the wisdome of the man, as at his haulte 
courage and magnanimitee, conferred vnto the 
same besides his owne former royalme a dominion 
of muche more large and ample circuitee then 
thesame whiche he was Lorde of before. 

IT To the saied Porus humbly summitting himselfe, 
The affection and falling downe at his fete, Alexander would not 
toward" hertes ^^^ shewed SO muche goodnesse. Soche fauour, 
that would not zele, and afifeccion did the courageous yong man beare 
shnnke. towarde hertes that would not shrinke. Quinlus Cur- 

tins telleth it somewhat of an other sorte. 

Porus being at the daye of his taking asked 
the question. What waye he thoughte moste mete 
and conuenient for Alexander (by whome he was 
nowe conquered,) to take with him : Soche waye 
(quoth he) as this present daye may putte in thy 
minde, in whiche thou hast by experience found, 
how sone felicitee or high estate may haue a fal, 
and be brought full lowe. 

IT He gaue a by warning vnto Alexander not to be 
ouer proude of his good fortune, but to vse it with 
moderation bearing wel in mynde, to be a thing pos- 
sible, that lyke chaunce might befall him, as had 
lighted on Porus. 

That kinges 
may vse their 
good fortune 
with modera- 

■ This Porus was one of the kinges of India, a stoute and a valiant man of 
armes, and also a man of greate puissaunce, whom Alexander had a busie piece 
of werke, and muche a doe to vanquishe. Plutarchus in the life oi Akxander 
affirmeth many wryters to agree in this pointe, that Porus was in height sixe foots 
and one hand bredthe, where as the naturall Philosophiers auouchen the vttemioste 
extente that maye possibly be of the height of a man, not to excede seuen foote. 
Porus was so tall of stature and personage, that when he sate on his Elephantes 
backe (for he vsed to lyde on no other beaste) his tallnesse was answerable to the 
greatnesse of the Elephant that he rode on, although it was a mighty big Ele- 
phant. And Plutarchus writeth that thissame Elephant shewed euen at that sea- 
son wondrefull prudence, and no lesse vrondrefuU loue towardes his maister, tben 




if it had ben a creature with reason indued. For as long as the king was safe 
without receiuing anye wounde, the Elephaunt made great stienng, & fought 
hardily against his enemies, and destroyed theim on eueiy syde. And as soone as 
he perceiued Parus to be sore wounded, and to haue sticking in sondrie partes of 
his bodie very many dartes, fearing lest he should by reason thereof sinke and fall 
downe from bis backe, of his owne accorde he sounke downe fair and softly vpon 
his knees, and with his snoute tenderly plucked out of his maisters body all the 
saied dartes, one after an other. And in deede of Elephantes howe disciplinable and 
of howe great prudence, docilitee and (as ye would saie) capacitee and aptitude 
they are, and also what tender loue & affection they doe naturally beare towardes 
man: Aristotle, Plinius, and other naturall Pbilosophieis shewen exaumples 
almoste bothe innumerable and also incredible. 

When it came to his eare, that there was a cer- 
tain feloe, who ceassed not speaking the worste 
of him, Yea (quoth he) it is a thing to kinges 
peculiar, for their good desertes, to be euill 

U Neuer was there any thing more noble, or of a 
more righte sort, then this saiyng, albeit thesame is 
named on diuerse others as well as on Alexander. 

Being euen at deathes doore, he cast his yie 
on his frendes, and saied : I see a great *epi- 
taphie towarde. 

IT As hauinge halfe a foreknowlage, that his actes 
should after his death bee to his great honour and re- 
noume chronicled and set out by the eloquence of 
many wiyters. Neither did his geasse deceiue hym. 


No persones so 
mucheas kings 
for their wel- 
doinges are of 
som persons 
euil reported. 

*An epitaphie 
is the writinge 
that is sette on 
deade mennes 
toumbes, or 
graues, in 
memory pr 
of the parties 

' For what wtyter almoste at leste wise in matters prophane 
is not full of the actes of Alexander ? Albeit the meaning of 
Alexander was, that he plainly perceiued to be no waie but death. 
For epitaphies are not commenly made, or at lest wise not set out 
till the parties be deceassed. Alexander therfore as he knewe that 
his actes should by wryters bee spred throughout all the worlde, 
so he perceiued the time of thesame nowe approche and be at 

At what time he had the doughters of Darius 33. 
prisoners with him, he would bid theim good Piuterckus 

morrowe, good euen, or good spede, not casting ^fe^^J^^^- 

his iye on theim, but looking downe to the teth largely of 

grounde, and that but seldome neither, standing ^^t^J,"f^f 

in feare of himselfe to be rauished with their and chastitee 




of Alexander, excellent bcautie. And emonges his familiares 
fngaSdaugh- these words folowing wer much in his mouth: 
ters of Darim, The damiselles of Persia maken sore iyes. 
, he saith al- 
though the wife of Darius did in beautie & feacture excel & passe all other 
quenes (like as Darius on his partie also was both of beautie and tallenesse one 
of the goodliest men of the worlde) and the two doughters of theim in all pointes 
of beautie and making tguall with their parentes : yet not one of theim in all the 
time that they wer with Alexander, to haue heard come out of his mouthe so 
muche as one wanton word, ne to haue seen by him any wanton loke or token to. 
wardes any of them, but from their first entreing into his tentes, aittT muche com- 
fortable and cherefuU wordes, and right honourable entreteinement, they had pur- 
posely prouided and appointed vnto theim a priuie lodging, wher they might Hue 
at their owne arbitriment, without al maner feare of any point of vilanie to be 
offred vnto theim, either by Alexander, or by any other persone. This wiyteth 
Plutarchus of the continence of Alexander, with many lyke thinges worthy admi- 
ration, namely in an Ethnike or Gentile, in a king, in so victorious a Prince, yea 
and immediatly vpon so noble a conquest, eis might in a Christian Prince per- 
chaunce be an occasion of insolencie, and some cause of forgetting himselfe. 

34. He gaue streight charge and commaundement 
Alexander jjy proclamation, that his physiognomie or por- 
proclamatron '^ turature should not be drawen by any other 
not to be paint- peinter, then by * Apelles, nor engrauen or cast 
les, nor to^be ™ brasse or other metall by any other persone 

engrauen in then by LysippuS. 

metall but by . . . „ , 

Lysippus. "I Being the two prmcipaJl and moste excellent 

* Apelles the werkemen of that same time. For he iudged that 

peynter^of the ^^™^ point also to appertain to the dignitee of a 

old time, & ii/- prince. 

sippiis the best 

And with Cherilus the Poete he was at a 
couenaunt, that thesame for euery good verse 
that he made, shoulde receiue a + Philippes gil- 
ls not mened dren, and for euery euill verse a good buffet. 

here the coyne 

that is nowe curraunt in Flaundres by that appellacion, but an olde coyne of fine 
golde, in whiohe was striken the Image of Philippui father vnto Alexander, which 
coyne Budeus/vaXuetb attenne Frenohe crownes. 

A nians ^5. Being askcd the question in what place he had 
no°wherTmore ^is treasures liyng : In the handes of my frendes 

safelyelaydvp, (quOth he,) 
then in the ^^ . ' 

handes of his " Signifiyng that a mans goodes are no where more 
frendes. safely then so layed vp in store. For when the case 


t By a Phi 
lippes gildren 


reqireth, goodes so bestowed come again to ones 
handes with encreasse. 

When a certain persona, that liadde brought 36. 
some message or tidinges, came renning towardes 
him hopping for ioye, and holding out his hande ^^^'^^^ °^ 
as ferre as he could stretche it, about to make wardes Homere 
relation of the good successe and preceding of 
his affaires : Alexander saied What great good 
newes haue ye to shewe good sir, if ye doe not 
bring worde, that Homere is aliue again ? 

IT Signifiyng that all the glorie of his noble actes 
was like to perishe neuer after to be spoken of, onlesse 
it might be his happe to haue soche a trumpet of his 
laudes as * Homere was. 

* In the werke of Homere entitleed, Ilias, are moste excellently described and set 
out the actes, the laudes, and the prowesse marciall of Achilles to his imtnortall 
glorie and renoume. For whiche cause Alexander had soche loue and zele to- 
wardes the saied Poete, that wheresoeuer he went, he caried thesame his werke en- 
tideei Ilias, euermore about him in the daye time, and in the night vsed euermore 
to haue his dagguer, and the saied Ilias of Homere liyng vnder his bolster at his 
beddes heade. So desirous he was of honour, renoume and eternall memori, and 
to be set out of the best and most cunning doers, as male appeare by somethings, 
afore mencioned, and also by the .xlix. saiyng of this Alexaiider, 

A certain countree to the ende that it might 37. 
haue quiet and rest, no more to bee vexed with 'What Aiexan- 
the armure and ordinaunce of Alexander, offred to^aceitata"^ 
vnto thesame a good porcion of their posses- citie offreing 
sions, and also the one moytie of all the other th^r'i^di 
goodes that they had. To whom Alexander thus & halfe their 
aunswered. I am come into Asia in this minde rest and quiet™, 
and purpose, not to take what liked you to geue 
me, but that ye should haue what liked me to 
leaue unto you. 

Alexander had in seruice one Eudemonicus 38. 

^W a Philosphier, but more full of flatterie then Eudemonicus a 

any parasite. This Eudemonicus, on a tyme fi'^?!" w!S'" 

when it thoundreed verie s^re, in somuche, that Alexander a 

all the coumpaignie were right euill afraied, saied libeS Pto- 



chus maketh unto Alexander : the sonne of lupiter, Why doe 

fhelS^e not ye also Alexander the sonne of lupiter 

speakerof these thoundre in this wyse ? But the other not able 

wordes. ^^ abide the woordes of soche a vile Philosophier, 

laughed and saied: For I am not willing to be 

terrible, as thou teachest me to be, which biddest 

me to make a supperseruice for my table with 

the heddes of Dukes and Kinges. 

*Athenaeusa. ^ Thus doeth *AtAemeus rehearse it. But iVa- 

graphier. ' tO'^chus in the life of Alexander, telleth it somewhat 

The tender loue variyng from this. What? art thou angrie with me, 

towlrf^s'h^ because I am serued at my table with iishe, and not 

Lordes. rather with the heddes of noble menne. 

_ _ ■ Parasites, were called soche smellefeastes as would seeke to be free geastes 
at richemens tables. Who to the ende that they might at all times be wdcome, 
would speake altogether for to please and to delite the ryche folkes, flattering theim, 
and holding vp their yea, and naye, whatsoeuer they saied, were it neuer so con- 
trarie to reason, truthe, or likelyhood, 

39. Alexander as he conueighed his hoste from 
The exceding place to place in the wynter season, sitting by a 
A^^,Li. fier made in the fielde, begonne to take vieue 
tendrenesse of his armie, as they passed by. And when he 

ouer his soul- . j , . , 1 • j t. 

diours. espied a certain aged persone quaking and she- 

ureing for colde, and seeking to haue a place to 
Emong the stande in by the fier, he commaunded the feloe 
was a'matter '° ^'*^ down in his chayre, saying : If thou had- 
of death for dest been borne in Persis, it would cost thee thy 
pereon^'tcTsltin ^^^^ to sitte in the kinges seate, but for one bom 
the kings seate in Macedonia it is not vnleefulL 

40. Alexander being yet but euen a young striep- 
leing, when he sawe his father Philippus, about 
to reiecte and cast awaye (as a thing that would 
neuer be brought to doe any good seruice,) an 
* horse that was passing fierce, and would not 
suffre any man to mounte or get vp on his backe, 
saied : Oh what an hbrse these folkes doe marre, 
while through default of skill, and by reason of 




;oward stomakes, they haue not the waies to 

landle him. So when himself with meruaillous 

jolicie and cunnyng, without beating or striking 

lad had the handling of the saied horse, at last 

le lept vp on his back, and put him to a galop, 

md then clapped spurres to him. And when he 

iawe his time, gently turning his head with the 

Dridle : assone as he had brought the horse 

aacke again, and had elighted down, his father 

moste louingly kissing his cheeke, said : O my 

iere sonne, go serche out some other kingdom f^^^^f ".("Jfor 

meete for thee, for Macedonia is already all to Alexander. 

iitle for thee. 

H Full well did it geue this prudent and wyse Prince 
in his mynde tofore that to soche an haulte courage, 
md excellent nature, his fathers dicion might not suf- 
fice. But this horse is an exaumple for vs, that many 
ivittes at their first beginning excellent, are in processe 

Many goodly 
wittes marred 

rtterly, destroyed and loste through the fault of those through the 
that haue the breaking, trainyng, and bringing vp of [nstJ„°^tou^g. 
theim, who for the moste part knowe not the waye 
howe to ordre & rewle theitn, excepte they shall first 
haue made theim of kindly horses, very sterke asses. 

* This horse was called Bucephalus, as ye would saye in English, buUes hedd, 
either of his ougly looke, or els of the figure and prient of a bulles hedde, with an 
hotte iron marked on his shoulder. One Philonicus a Thessalian had bought him 
for .xiii. talentes, purposely to the vse of king Philippus, But after this facte, Alex- 
aiider had the horse, & vsed him for his owne sadle in all his warres afterwarde, 
vntill the horse was thirty yeares olde. And then was he deadly wounded in a cer- 
tain battaill, and had moche cure doen vpon him to saue him,' but it would not be. 
The death of Bucephalus Alexander tooke as heauely, as if he had lost one of his 
nighest and derest frendes, in so much that he builded a citie in the place where 
the horse died, and for a memorie of the same called the citee Bucephalon, or B«. 
cephala, or (as it is in Plutarchui) Bucepkalia. 

Thesame Alexander did continually shewe 41. 
great honour and reuerence vnto Aristotle, to Alexander did 
whome he had in his childhod been committed e^nle toVis"" 
to be enstriicted & taught, auouching himselfe master Aris. 
to bee no'lesse beholding to thesaied Aristotle, wearenolesse 

I S then 


boundentoour then to his father, for that of his father he had 
toen'r^ufpa. receiued entreaunce into this life, and of his 
rentes. schoolcmaister to Hue well. 

42. When a rouer on the sea was taken & brought 
How a Pirate before him, anj was asked vpon whose supper- 

dcihq'' t3>kcti 

answered Ai- tacion he durst be so bolde to do soche mischief 

exander, when on the seaes, he answered at fewe wordes as • 

ined. foloeth : I (saieth he) because I so doe with no 

more but one sely poore foyste, am called a 

pirate, and thou, wheras, thou doest thesame 

with a greate nauie, art called a king. 

IT Alexander meruailing at the fearelesse herte of the 
feloe, gaue him perdone of his life. 

^!^\ 43- Where he had in his own persone purposely 
toune in thei«- made a iourney to Delphos, when the Prophetisse 

where°Xtlto ' ^^^""^ ®^^^^ ^^^'^ ^^^ ^""^'^ ^" "° ^^^^ ^* *^' 
had a notable present tyme desire of that goddes, any aunswere 
goodly temple, ^f ^^6 matter whiche he was come for, (because 

and gaue vnto ' ^ 

Pilgrimes that it were daies prohibited, during the which it was 

oradS&aHs "°* ^^^^^^' ^° "°' ^° m\xc\iQ as for the oracles 

to say answers neither, to speakc, or to geue aunswer in any 

ken'^fromheL "^^tters,) Alexander haling and pulling with him 

uen of soche thesaid .prophetisse parforce, ascended into the 

sol"|h? to*^^ temple. And when the Prophetisse by his im- 

know, which portunitee and violent compulsion, enforced to 

S^^rrclS'"! S°^ whether she would or not, spake these words, 

thinges shewed Thou art inuincible my sonne. This is euen 

^tew^tke enough of the oracle for me (quoth Alexander.) 

all to his au- ^ Accompting and rekening the womans priuate 

auntage, that , ^ ° . , . ° j- ^i .„„ 

was to his ap- wordes for an answere of his purpose directly geuen 

petite and pur- vnto him from the God. 


44. After that Alexander hauing taken a viage on 

The assured warrefare into Asia, had distributed, and in 

trust and confi- . . . ^ 1 • „: 

dence of Alex- "^aner geuen awaye by patentes vnto his capi- 

ander to pros- taines & men of armes all his possessions and 

lande : 


lande : vnto Perdicca asking this question, What per in all his 
haue ye nowe left to yourself sir king ? Mary p^Xca^one 
(quoth he again^ hope. Then saied Perdicca: of Alexanders 


And as for hope shal be indiiTerent and com- And Piutar- 
mune for vs your souldiours, as well as for you, "*«" wrfteth 

o ,. , . 1 1 1 1 • • 'hat as Per- 

& SO refused to take the lordship or mainour, cUcca did, so 
whiche Alexander hadde assigned out for him. ^id a great 

nombre mo, to 

^ Soche assured truste & confidence had they on whome Alex- 
all handes conceiued, to make a prosperous and a °^^ ^as- 
luckie viage. signed por- 

cions of 

Thesame Alexander at the beginning of his 45- landes 

reigne, when he sate in iudgemente vpon causes ?,^°^f^^^'°"^' 

concerning life and 'death, he would euermore wold in mat- 

stoppe thone eare as long as the accuser was '7^. °^ ""^' 
^ ■*• ^^ , plaint euer 

telling his tale. And beyng asked why he did more reserue 
so, The other eare (quoth he) I do wholy reserue one eare wiioly 

' . , ^ , for the party 

& keepe for the partie defendaunt. defendaunt. 

^^Woulde Christe all ludges would doe likewyse at these dayes. 
Against *Caellisthenes in no behalf framing 46. Cailis- 
himselfe to the facions and guyse of the kinges contemning 
court, but both in woordes and in his other de- *e facions of 
meanour openly pretending and shewing himselfe cou^^at kngth 
to mislike all that euer was doen there, Alex- grew out of fa- 
ander had ofte in his mouthe this litle Greke curre'd Ms nwr- 
verse. tall hatred. 

fiurlo tTot^urTrjv, otrris ov)( avrS) o^o^os. 

I hate that wyse man, what euer he is, 

That to his owne behouf, is not wyse. 

* Callislhenes was a Sophiste, and a man of great eloquence as declareth Plu- 
tarchus in the life of Alexander: He was brought into Alexanders court, by the 
meanes of Aristotle, whose nere kinsman he was. For Aristotle and Hero the 
mother of Callisthenes were come of twoo sisters. Plutarchus saieth that some 
writers affirmen Alexander to haue hanged him on the galoes, and that other 
wryten him to haue died in prison, by reason of long keping there in cheines & 
fetters, and that others saien him to haue died of the congeling of greace or talow 
betwene the skinne and the fleshe. 

Being about to make assaute vpon the toune 47. 
of * Nisa, for to wynne it, when he perceiued his 




The froward- 
nesse of jilex- 
ander in mar- 
ciall entre- 

souldiours by reason of the deapth of the flood, 
whiche renneth a long by the citie, to be clene 
discouraged and afearde to auenture, he stamped 
and sterted at it, criyng out with a loude voice, 
Oh the naughtiest feloe aliue that I am, whiche 
neuer learned to swymme, and euen with a trice 
laiyng his bodie vpon his shielde or terguet in 
stede of a corke to staye him aboue water, he 
swimmed ouer the floodde first of all his own 

* This Nisa was a toune in India, builded by Bacchus. Foir there was another 
Nisa in Egipt, where Bacchus was nouriced by the Nymphes. There wer also 
other tounes mo then one or twaine of thesame name elswhere, as testifien the 

48. Makyng a iourney to Troie, and there arriued, 
Aiexa7ider pro- he decked and trimmed the image of Achilles 
iej"happie that '^^^^ garlandes, and saied, Oh, happie art thou 
euer he was Achilles, that euer thou were borne, to whom in 
thy life time, it fortuned to haue soche a frend, 
and after thy deceasse soche a trompet and dis- 
plaier of thin actes. 

IT Speaking of Patroclus and of Homere : of which 
the one was vnto Achilles a moste faithful! & trustie 
frende, and the other, through all his whole werke en- 
titled Bias, contein)mg.24. volumes spredeth and 
bloweth about all the worlde, his glory and renoume, 
now when he is dedde and gone. 

* Patroclus a Loerensian, the sonne of Menetius, when he had doen a murder in 
his own countree, fled into the countree of Thessalia, vnto Peleus the king there, to 
whose Sonne Achilles he was derely beloued, and a mutuall louyng frende to hira 
again, for he would neuer after forsake Achilles, but wente with thesame to the 
battaille of Troie. And when Achilles (for displeasure and angre that Agamemvon 
king of Grece had parforce taken awaie his paramour Briseis) would no more 
fight against the Troianes, but did a long time forbeare and refuse to come forthe 
of his paailion vnto battaill, Patroclus did on his owne body, the armour and har- 
nesse of Achilles, and mindyng thereby to make the Troianes afeard, (for of all 
thinges in the worlde, thei could not abide the sight of Achilles) he bickered and 
fought with the Troianes and was slaine with the handes of Hector. Wherfore 
Achilles to auenge his death, bethought himself again, & returned to battaill, & 
slue Hector, and buried Patroclus honorably, & oft times did moche sacrifice to the 
Goddes at his toumbe. 



Patroclus the 
frend of Achil- 
les in his life 
time, and Ho- 
mere the trora- 
pette of his re- 
noume after 
his death. 


Where he was by the commune talking of 49. 

many one reported to be a God, he saied that by By whatargu- 

twoo thinges especially, he did well perceiue him .^j-^erceiu"- 

selfe to be a man or creature piortall, that is to ed his mortal- 

wete, by slepe, and by compaigniyng with women. ' ^' 

IT For that these two thinges did principally aboue 

all others discrie the feblenesse of mannas bodie. As siepean Image 

touching all thinges els, he was inuincible. For slepe of death & the 

is an Image and representacion of death, and the a^"pi^e"of^rtie 

acte of venerous copulacion a playne spiece of the falling euil. 
falling euil. 

■ Plutarchus addeth hereunto that onely the infirmitee and 
wekenesse of mans nature is the breder and cause of werinesse, & 
of camall pleasure. » 

Being entreed into the palaice of Darius, when 50. 

he sawe a chaumbre of a great highth, and in What i4tea;i- 

thesame, the bedde of estate, the tables to eate he sawe the pa- 

on, and all other thinges after a wondrefull gor- laiceofDaW^, 

geous sorte furnished, euen to the pointe deuise : ap^inted. 

Why (quoth Alexander) was this to be a king } 

IT Esteaming that it was vnmete for a king to geue king to geue 

hym selfe to soche maner delices. himselfe to 


Thesame Alexander, whensoeuer he went vnto c i . 
his bed, he would of a custome diligently serche 
his robes, and all his wearing geare, and saie : AUx^nder ab- 
Hath not my mother (trowe we)> put some point horred efifemi- 
of delicatenesse or some superfluous thing here "^'* 
about my clothes ?. 

^ So greatly did he abhorre from dehces more ap- 
perteining to women, then to men. 

Being brought vnto his handes a litle caskette 52. 
Dr gardeuiaunce, in whiche there was not founde The precious 
:mong all that other rychesse of Darius, any one ^s'^^Sish^of 
:ewell either more precious or elles more goodlie Darim. 
-.0 the iye. When the question was moued, vnto 
.vhat vse it might best bee applied, eche man 



Howe AUxan- geuyng, one this auise, an other that. It will be 
m^^rm- ^ the best thing in the worlde (quoth Alexander) 
mo-e,andwhy. wherein to keepe the Ilias of Homere. 

% Esteniyng no treasure to bee more precious then 
thesaied boke. Soche was the conceipt of this king 
being in his lustie youth, & wholly in all behaJfes 
framing himself after the paterne of Achilles. 

53. When Parmenio gaue thesame Alexander coun- 
saill to set vpon his enemies by night, allegeing 
that otherwyse it would be a very great daunger, 
if he should openly by daye time auenture ba- 
taill vpon so great a multitude, (for of the roum- 
bleing noyse rebounding from a ferre, as it had 
ben the roring of the sea, thei might coniecture 
the contrarie part to be in maner a noumber in- 

The animositie finite) he Said : I came not hether to steale the 

oi Alexander. . '. 


IT Refusing to wynne the victorie by the defense or 
aide of the darkenesse. 

54. When he had read a long bible written and 
Antipater sur- sent to him from Antipater, in whiche lettres wer 
accusacions^ contbined many surmised matters and false com- 
against OZym- plaintes against his mother' Olsmipias: It ap- 
ofVi^^t" peareth (quoth he) to be a thing to Antipater 
Howe muche vnknowen, that one teare of my mothers iyen, 
mighH^with shal at al times washe away all epistles that 
Atexandervfith come, be they neuer so many. 

one tere of hir 

yies. 25. When he had perceiued and founde that his 
sister vsed wanton conuersation with a certain 
young man of excellent beautie, he toke no dis- 
pleasure therwith, but saied, to be a thing rea- 
sonable, or, to bee a thing to bee borne withall, 
that she also should in some behalf haue prerog- 
atiue to take fruicion of being a princesse in a 
royal me, l^g° Forasmuch as she was a kinges doughter. 

f Being 

THE II. BOOKE. 23 1 

II Being of a muche contrarie mynde to Augustus Read of this 

Eihperour of Rome, who toke nothing more greuously, '^^. "''.'''[.■... 

then the laciuiousnesse of his doughter and of his apo'phthegmes' 

doughters doughters. of Augustus. 

When he had heard the Philosophier Anaxa- 56. 

goras holding opinion and mainteining in a cer- The insaciable 

tain lecture, that there wer worldes out of s^e^f "em^i^' 

noumbre, the reporte goeth, that he fell on that reigned in 
weping. And to his frendes demaunding, whe- '"""'*^- 
ther any mischaunce had befallen him, meete to 
wepe for, he saied : Haue I not, trow ye, a good 
cause to wepe, in that, whereas there ben worldes 
innumerable, I am ript yet come to be full lord 
of one ? 

Philippus at the fighting of a certain field re- 57. 

ceiued of the Triballes a sore wound by hauing The Tnbaiies a. 

a spere thrust quite and clene through his thighe. ^Hungarie.'^' 

And being afterwarde by the cure and helpe of puuppus 

his Surgeon saued, and recouered from perill of wounded in 

death, yet he toke heauily, that the deformitee afainsfthe^ 

and disfigure of hymping on the one legg^, r"*«''«*- 

whiche had come to him by thesaied wounde. ^""^ AUxan- 

,.,.,, . _, 1 Ai OCT- coumforted 

did still remain. To whome Alexander saied : PhiUppus tak- 

Sir, take no discoumfort to shewe yourselfe a- '"S *oig*i' 

' , , - for that he 

brode, but euer when ye sette foorth your foote should haite 

to goe, haue minde on your valiaunt manhood. ^^'^'^ of ^^^ 

^^And prowesse that ye shevred when ye receiued this wounde. 

IT This saiyng is ascribed to others mo besides 


If at any time, either in familiare communica- 58. 
tion, or els at the table, there had come in place 
any contencion about the verses of Homere, one 

What vexseAl- 

saiyng this verse to be best, an other that verse, fxanier aX- 
verse here ( 
th? booke. 

Alexander would euermore allowe & prayse this lowed best of 

, .,,,,,., . all the verses 

verse here ensuing, aboue all the other verses in of uomere. 




• afi,<f>6Tipoy, PoATiKeui r'dya^os Kparcpos Tal^ifryf;, 

That is, 
Both a good Capitaine to guide an annie, 
And with speare & shield valiaiint and hardie. 

Alexander a- He would morcouer saie, that Homere did in this 
ffome^e in col- verse both make honourable report of the man- 
lauding Aga- hood and prouesse of Agamemnon, and also 
ecied of him. prophecie of thesame to come m Alexander. 

At what time Alexander hauing passed ouer 
Hellesponttis, went to see Troie, reuoluyng and 
castinge in his mynde the actes pf auncient 
Princes of renoume, a certain persone promised 
to geue him the harpe 6f ?aris, if he had any 
mynde to it. No, no, (quoth Alexander quickely 
again) I haue no neede at al of the harpe of 
Paris, forasmuch as I haue alreadie the harpe of 

IT Achilles beyng on his owne partie a knyght stoute 
and actiue, vsed euermore on his harpe to plaie 
songes of the laudes arid prayses of hardie men and 
valiaunt, whereas Paris with his harpe did nothing 
but twang fonde fansies of daliaunce and lasciuious- 

On a tyme he went to see the women of ' 
Darius his courte, taking Hephsestion with him. 
And this Hephsestion (because he went at that 
tyme in thesame maner apparell that the king 
did, and also was of personage somwhat bigger 
made then he) Sygambris the mother of Darius 
kneeled vnto, in stede of the king. And when 
she had, by the nodding and becking of those 
that stoode by, well perceiued, that she had taken 
hir marke amisse, she was muche dismaied with- 
all, and begonne of freshe to doe hir dutie vnto 
Alejjander. Anon sayed Alexander: Mother, 



betwene Grece 
& Asia. 

AchilleSf cared 
not for the 
harpe of Paris. 

of Pnamus 
king of Troie, 
of whom is 
noted afore in 
the .iii. Apoph- 
thegme of ArU 


The women of 
Darius his 
court were his 
wife, his moth- 
er, and his two 

somwhat big- 
ger made, & 
taller of person- 
age then Alex- 

Sygambris the 
mother of Da- 


there is no cause why to be dismaied. For this Alexander es- 

. • « 1 J temed Hephae- 

man to is Alexander. ,^,„„ ^ ^^^^^ 

■ f Doyng to wete, that his frende was a seconde -^'^f^^ifer, ac- 

... cording to the 

Alexanaer. prouerbe ami- 

When he was come into the temple of Ham- 61. ipse that 

mon, the minister there being an auncient saige '«> two frendes 

father, welcomed him with these wordes, All haill and one body. 

*my Sonne, and it is not I that doe call thee by Howe Aiexan- 

this name, but the God lupiter. Then saied <«»■ coming in- 

. '^ , ^ f 1 to the temple 

Alexander, I take it at your hande O father, of Hammon 

and wilbe contented from henceforth to be was saluted by 

,. . 1 ™^ pnest, or 

called your sonne vpon condicion that ye graunt minister there. 

vnto me the empier,. and dominion of all the 

whole worlde. The priest went into the priue 

chauncell, and (as though he hadde spoken with 

God,) came forth againe, and aunswered that 

lupiter did by assured promisse make him a 

graunt of hjs boune that he asked. Then eftsons 

saied Alexander. Now would I fain knowe, if 

there be yet remaining vnpunished of any of 

those persones whiche killed my father. To this 

the priest thus made aunswere : As many as put 

their handes to the sleing of Philippus, haue re- 

ceiued- condigne punishement for their offense 

euery one of theim, but as for your father, no 

mortall creature hath power to destroye, or to Alexander 

, ,. , , 1 • , r 1 • madetobeleue 

werke displeasure vnto, by laiyng awayte for him. that he was 

H Signifiyng that he was the soonne of lup'ier and *!„Y™^d°ot 
not oi Philippus. o( Philippus. 

* Plutarehus writeth certain autours to afferme, that the minister welcomed hym 
in Greke, & mynding tenderly & gently to salute with this word TraiSCov, sonne- 
kin, or litle sonne, tripped a litle in his tongue and by a wrong pronunciation in- 
^teade of TraiSCov, said waiStos which being diuided into two woordes irai Sios, 
souneth the sonne of lupiter. 

Where as Darius had set his armie royall of a 62. 
wondrous great noumbre, in a readinesse to 



fight, Alexander was taken with a meruaillous 

dead slepe, in so much that being euen in the 

dale time, he coulde not holde vp his hedde, nor 

awake. At the last great perill and daunger 

being euen at hande, his gentlemen entring his 

Alexander bcddc chaumbre, made him to awake. And 

Sdde d^e^ when they saied vnto him, that they meruailled 

eueninthedaye how he could in that present state of his affaires 

MyMl be so quiet and voide of all care, aS to slepe so 

campe ready soundely. Mary (quoth he) Darius hath deliu- 

srt 7pon hhnr ^^^'^ ^"^ 1"**^ discharged me of great careful- 

what he saied nesse and trouble of mynde, in that he hath 

awSenedT^ gathered all his puissaunce together into one 

place, that we may euen in one daye trie, whether 

he shall haue the soueraintee, or els I. 

_ ■ Plutarchus in the life of Alexander saith that Darius had in his armie vi. 
hundred thousand fighting men, besides those whiche were in his nauie on tlie seas. 

63, The Corinthians had by Ambassadours geuen 
The Corinthi- to Alexander Magnus to enioye the right of all 
ew^'fr^'" t^^^*" libertees and franchesse. This kynde of 
burgesse of pleasure doing, when Alexander had laughed to 
their citee. j^gkornc. One of the Ambassadours saied : Sir, we 

neuer yet vnto this daye made any for euer free 
of our citie sauing now your grace, and ones 
afore time Hercules. This heard, Alexander 
with all his herte, accepted the honour vnto him 

H Whiche honour, partely the raritiee made vnto 
him acceptable, and partlye, that he was therein ioyned 
with Hercules, a knight of moste high prayse and re- 

64. At the siege of a certain citee, whyle he serched 
for the weakest places of the walles, he was 
striken with an arrowe, but yet he would not 
leaue of his purpose. Within a whyle after 



that, the bloud being staunched, the anguishe of 

the drie wounde encreaced more and more, and 

his legge flagging down by the horses syde, by 

litle and litle was all aslepe, and in maner sterke 

stife, he being of force constreigned to geue ouer 

that he had begonne, and to call for his Surgeon, ^le^ander ag- 

saied to soche as were present : Euery body re- nised & know- 

porteth me to be the sonne of lupiter, but this ^^^^ a mortal 

wounde saieth with an open mouth, that I am a man. 

mortall manne. 

One Xenophantus customably vsed by certain 65. 

measures plaiyng on a flute, to set Alexander 

forthwarde to battaill. And all persones 

woundring that musike should be of 

soche force & power, one emong 

theim saied : If Xenophantus be 

soche a cunning doer, leat him 

plaie some measure to 

call Alexander home 

againe from 



U Meaning that it was no very high point of cun- 
ning to bring a body to the thing, 
whervnto thesame is of him 
self prepense, and of 
his owne propre 
nature in- 



How Antigo- 
»us excused his 
greuous exac- 
cions of money 
emong his 

spoiled Asia & 
lefte it as bare 
as lob. 

U The saiynges of Antigonus 



1^^ This Anlifonui was of all the successours of Alexander 
moste puissaunt and . mightie. And Plutarchus in the life of 
Demetrius saieth that Antigonus had by Stratonice the douglitet 
of Corthaeus twoo sonnes, of which the one he called (of his 
brothers name) Demetrius, and the other (of his fathers name) 
Pkilippus. And thesame Plutarchus in the life of Paulus AmU- 
ius, and els where in mo places then one saieth, that this Anti- 
gonus euen by the title of his birthe and descente, claimed to haue 
the name of a king, and first begun to reigne in Asia, after the 
deceasse of Alexander. Albeit (as thesaid Plutarchus in the life 
of Demetrius testifieth) the successours of Alexander wer not eueii 
at the first called kinges, but certain yeres after, when Demetrius 
the Sonne of Antigonus, had on the sea subdued Ptoltmeus the 
king of Egipt, & had destroied al his nauie, then came one Aris- 
todenus a Milesian from Demetrius in post, & salued Antigimus 
by the name of kyng. Then Antigonus not onely on his owne 
partie and behalfe vsurped the name, the honour, the estate, & the 
ornamentes and armes of a king but also sent vnto his sonne 
Demetrius a diademe, that is to saie, a kynges croune, together 
with letters, in whiche he called him a king. Antigonus reigned 
.xxii. yeres, and kepte in the time of his reigne many wsures, and 
at last was slain, and died euen in the field. 

jlNtigonus was an egre and a sore man, 
in taking exaccions of money of his 
subiectes. Whereupon, to a certaine 
persone, saiyng, I wis Alexander was 
no soche man : A good cause why, quoth he 
again, for he reaped Asia & had all the eres, and 
I doe but gather the stalkes. 

^ Meanyng that Asia sometime the richest and 
welthiest countree of the worlde, had been afore his 
tyme spoyled by Alexander, and that he must be glad 
and faine to scrape together what he might be able to 
get emong theim, hauing been afore in soch wyse 
pilled, and left as bare as Job. 

Beholding on a time a certain of his soul- 
diours to plaie at the balle, hauinge both their 




iackes and their salettes on, he was highly well 
pleased with the sighte therof, and commaunded 
the capitaines of thesanae soldiers to be called 
and fette, to thintent to geue theim thanke, & to 
prayse theim in presence of their capitaines : 
but when woorde was brought him, that the saied 
capitains wer drinking and making good chere, 
he conferred their capitainships vnto those actiue 
souldiers, whiche hadde plaied at the balle, in 
their Ijarne'sse. 

' f All vnder one both punishing the sluggishenesse of 
the capitaines, and with honour and promocion re- 
warding the actiuitee of the souldiers. 

Euery bodie meruailing that wher in the be- 
ginning of his reigne he had been a very sore 
man, nowe being striken in age, he gouerned his 
royalme with all mercie and gentlenesse : At the 
beginning, saieth he, it behoued me to haue a 
kingdom, and at this dale I haue more nede of 
glory and beneuolence. 

II Mening, that an Empier is ofte times by the 
sweord and by roughnesse purcliaced or acquired, but 
thesame not reteined, or long yeares continued, with- 
out the honest opinion that the subiectes haue of their 
king, and the hertie good wil of the prince mutually 
towardes his subiectes. 

Thesame Antigonus vnto his sonne Philip 
being full of questions in presence of a great 
noumbre, and saiyng : Sir, when shall we remoue 
the campe.' thus aunswered : What, art thou 
afeard, lest thou alone of all the coumpanie shalt 
not heai-e the trompette blowe ? 

H Noting the lacke of experience and skylle in the 
young man, in that he would in the hearing of a great 
conipaignie moue soche a question to his father, 
whereas in time of warre, the ententes and pur- 

How Antigo- 
nus vsed cer- 
tain of his cap- 
itaines whicti 
sate drinkyng-e 
whyle their 
souldier? exer- 
cised them- 
selfs with plai- 
yng at the ball 
in their harnes. 

Antigonus in 
the beginning 
of his reigne, a 
sore man, but 
in the later end 
full of al mercy 
and gentle- 


What Antigo- 
nus aunswered 
to his Sonne 
being muche 
when the 
campe should 
remoue. Albeit 
Plutarchus na- 
meth that it 
was Demetrius 
that was so in- 


The ententes* poses of princes, Ought in noTvyse to bee vttered ne 
purposes of disclosed, but as often as the campe must remoue. a 

princes oughte ' ijiT/- 

in no wise to be troumpette geueth a knowledge therof to the vniuer- 
vttreed in time gaji multitude all together, 
of warre. 

5. When his sonne the saied Philip being a young 
HovrAntigonus man, had made wondreous earnest request and 
the purpose of Suite to hauc his lodgeing appointed him at a 
his Sonne, wedoes house, that had three faire & welfauoured 
lodged in an doughters, Antigonus calling for the knight her- 
housewherhis binger, saied vnto thesame: Wilt thou not see 


my sonne voyded out of soche a streighte corner ? 

^ He did not discrie howe the young mans herte 

was set, although he knewe thesame to seeke wheron 

to bestowe his loue, but founde an impedement by the 

narrowe roume of the house in which the wedoe liued 

' with hir thre doughters. 

6. After that he had perfectlie recouered of a 
Sicknesse put- sore disease and maladie. Well (saieth he) al this 
membrance " is no harme. For this sicknesse hath giuen vs a 
riottobeproude good lessoij, not to be proude in hart, forasmoche 

in hart foras- , . , 

moch as we as we be mortal. 

beemortalle. , ^ y^^^^ ^^^ ^^gj^^ ^j^j^ Heathen kyng soche a 
poincte of philosophie, mete and worthy for any chris- 
tian hart ? His frendes lamented and bewailled, as a 
great euill, that he had been so sore sicke, but he enter- 
preted and toke, that to hym thereby had redounded 
Insolencie one more good then euiU. The maladie had made his bodie 
of the moste leane, and bare of fleshe, but it endued & replenished 
perilous dis- jjjg y^^^ ^^^ sobernesse and humilitee. It had 

eases in the 

worlde. shreudly abated the strength of his bodie but from his 

, harte it pulled awaie insolencie, that is to saie, pre- 
It eoeth not al . . , , , . , , . , 1 ■ i • 

amisse, when sumpcion m takyng highhe vpon hym, whicne is one 

the lighter dis- of the moste periUous diseases in the worlde. And 

awaie'the* therefore the matter goeth not allof the wurst, when 

grater. the lighter maladie either forefendeth and debarreth, or 

els expelleth and diiueth out the greater. 



Hermodotus a Poete had in his versis, writen 7. 
Antigonus to be the sonne of lupiter. Antigo- 
nus readyng thesame, saied : To this thyng was The humilitee 
that pissepot bearer, neuer made priuie, nor of of Antigonus. 
counsaill by me. 

% After a very pleasaunt sorte, mockyng the flaterie 
of the Poete, and with no lesse humilitee, agnifyng & 
knowlegyng the base hnage that he was come of, 

li^° in comparison of heyag sonne to lupiter. Lasanum is Lasanum. 

Greke and Latine for an yearthen pissepot, or chaumber 

vesselle, l^g° and thereof Lasanaphorus, a chambrer, or, a Lasanophorus. 

grome of the stoole, SO that if Antigontis were the soonne 
of lupiter, thesame thing had vnto that presente houre 
escaped vnknowen, aswell to his grome, whose daily 
office it was, to giue vnto hym, his vrinall in his cham- 
ber, as also to him self the saied Antigomts. 

A certain persone saiyng, that All thynges wer 8. 
honest and iuste, or leefuU for kingeg to do : By How^niigonas 
lupiter, saith Antigonus, and euen so thei be, for aunswered 

, , . _ , , ., , , , one, saiyng- al 

the kmges of barbarous wilde, and saluage na- thinges to bee 
cions, but to vs that knowe what is what, those ^^^^'^ & lefuH 
thinges onely are honest, whiche be honest of dooe. 
themselfes, and onely soche thinges leefull, or to good 
standingf with iustice, which are of their nature i^y^ges onely 

. . J , r IT • • J J ^°'^'' thynges 

lust and leefull m verie deede. ar honest and 

iust as been in 

II He did with high grauitee dampe and put to verie deede hon- 
silence, the flattiyng wordes of the partie, by whose ^^'* ^""^ '"^"=- 
mynde and will all thinges should be permitted as ^^^.^ .^^^^ 
leful vnto kinges and gouemours. For truly a kinge the rewle of 
is not the rewle of honestee and of iustiqe, bu,t the honestee and 
minister of theim. And would God the eares of chris- °he'minUter"of 
tian Princes neuer heard any lyke wordes spoken, or them, 
if they did, that they would with sembleable seueritee 
reiecte and abandon thesame. For what other thing 
saien those persones, who are alwayes harping on this 
streng, and synging this songe, that foloeth : What 



stan'deth with the liking and pleasure of a Prince hath 
the force, strength and vertue of a lawe. And those 
who doen affirme a king not to be vnder bond or sub- 
iection.of any lawes, and soche as doen attribute and 
assigne vnto a king twoo distincte powers, the one or- 
dinate, and the other absolute, of which the first may 
doe no more nor no otherwyse, but as the lawes and 
statutes of a royalme, as couenauntes and bargaines 
betwene partie and partie, and as leages and agre- 
mentes publique bdtwene royalme and royalme doen 
require, & the other, whatsoeuer standeth with the 
pleasure, appetite, and phansie of the Prince. 

9. Marsyas the brother of Antigonus had a mat- 
Vfhat Antigo- ter of suite and trauerse in the lawe : but he be-' 
syas his bro- sought the king that the inatter might be heard, 
ther,beseching and a secrete court: purposely holden at home 
of his might within his house for it. To whome Antigonus 
be heard and in this wyse made answere. If we doe nothing, 
secrete plare, ^ut according to iustice, it shalbe muche better 
andnotinopen that it be doen in open courte, and in the face & 
hearing of all the people. 

The vpright H The naturall zele and tendre loue towarde his 

mstice of owne brother could not obteine of the king, to haue so 

Anttgoiius. . , , , , , , I- ■ ■ 

much as one lote of the lawe or of the ordre of mstice 

And as for Marsyas he cloggued & bound on 

all sides with this saiynge that could not possible 

be auoided. If thou knowe thy matter to bee 

naught, why doest thou sue, or trauerse the 

lawe ? if thou know thy cause to be good, and 

the lawe to be on thy side : why wouldest thou 

itistobegretly auoide to hauc al the world priuie to it, and la- 

™e'\abour M bourest in any wyse to haue a matter of open 

bring a matter court to be doen Secretly in hugger mugger, as- 

°nto°"'a"secrete* sured there, not to escape or auoide the sinistra, 

chamber. mistrusting, of al the countree, yea although thou 




shalt cast thine aduersary, and haue the matter 
rightfully to passe with thee ? 

Where he had on a time in the winter season, i o. 
constreined his army and tentes to be remoued, 
vnto a place where was no store ne prouision of 
thinges necessarie, & for that cause certain of the, 
souldiers spake many naughtie wordes of re- 
proche by the king, not knowing him to be euen fhe lenitee & 
at their polles, he put abrode the Jouures of the mercifuinesse 
tente with a ruttocke that he hadde in his hande, ° " ^S"""*- 
and saied : Sirs ye shall beshrewe yourselfs, ex- 
cept ye go ferther of to speake eiuill of me. 

IT What thinge more full of mercie then this worde 
of pleasaunce ? or what thing more full of pleasaunce 
then this deede of mercie ? he sembleed and made as 
though he toke not indignation or displeasure for their 
speaking euill of him, but for that they did it so nere 
his nose, that they might easely be heard of the partie, 
on whome they rallied. 

Unto one Aristodemus (who was one of the 
kinges ,priue chambre nere and familiar about 
him, but descended (as it was thought) of a cooke 
to his father) vnto this Aristodemus, auising him 
to abate somewhat of his great charges, and of 
his bounteous geuing rewardes and fees, he said. 
Aristodemus thy wordes doe smell and sauour 
all of the gruell. 

^ Couertely and by a preatie colour telling him that 
sparing, pinching and plaiyng the nygardes or haynes, 
belonged to cookes, and not to kinges : and therefore 
that he the saied Aristodemus in soche counsaill geuing 
had no remembraunce ne consideration with whome 
he was of housholde in high degree, fauour, and ac- 
ception, but of what man to his father he was de- 

16 When 


Mov! Atitigonus 
aunswered one 
auising him to 
abate of his 
charges & pen- 
sions giuing. 

Bountie & lar- 
gesse is befal- 
ling for kinges 


12. When the Athenians, to shew honour vnto 
v/ha.t ATiiigo- Antigonus, had admitted & recorded or enrolled 
Thelttol^r a bondman of his in the number of their free 
had made a citezens or burgesses, as though thesame had 
^is"free^citezen ^^^ come of an honest stocke, or had ben borne 
emong theim. out of seruitude and bondage. It is no point of 
my minde or wil (quoth Antigonus) that any 
In olde time it citezen of Athenes should come vnder myhandes 
Thrmai^Lfto to be scourged with whippes. 
beatetheirbond ^ Signifiyng t(f bee a thing of their own voluntarie 
with roddes, doyng and of their owne handle working, that he might 
or to scourge lawfully scourge, or beate with whyppes one citezen of 
whippes at Athenes, beyng & remaining still his bondman : but 
their owne yet in the citee of Athenes many mo then one to had 
pleasures,* j| deserued to be whipped of the king, for that as- 

as often & as . , . , . f^ , , \ , , 

moch as them muche as m theim laie they releassed and made free 
lusted. another mans bondseruaunte. 

13, A certaine young strieplyng, beyng a disciple 
or scholare of Anaximenes the rhetorician, pro- 
nounced in the presence of Antigonus an Oracion 
deuised and made by his maister not without 
great studie, and the young thing taught afore 
for the nones, and purposely brought in to pro- 
nounce it, g^ (As though the Oracion had been of his own 
making, and that it might none otherwise appeare vnto the Iting.) 
And so when Antigonus in the middes of geuing 
audience vnto the proposition (being desirous to 
be certified and to haue knowledge of whatso- 
euer it was) asked a question, and the young man 
forthwith had sodainly stopped in his matter not 
able to proceade in it, nor hauinge a worde more 
to saie : Why howe saiest thou (quoth the king) 
was not this also drawen and copied out "for thee 
afore in a booke ? 

\ That this kyng iudged contrarie to all reason and 
reprocheable, in one that was in maner but euen a 



very cliilde, thesame nowe at this daie is accoumpted Bosome Ser- 
an high point and royall thing, that is, euen graund ^^^ of'an^^' 
seigniours hauing to saie before kinges and princes, to other mannes 
cunne by herte, and to rendre again after the maner of making, 
an oration or sermon, hauing ben in making a whole 
halfe yere together with sore labour and" study by some 
rhetorician or learned man hiered thereunto. And 
many times it chatmceth, that soche persones, (yea 
euen no body at all breaking their tale) forgetten 
theimselfes, and fallen clene out of their matter, & 
maken all the presence to laugh at theim. 

Hearing one other rhetoritian rolling in his ^4- 
peinted termes, and telling his tale after this . .. 

^ _ ' *^ Anngoims was 

curious sorte, X'0''o/8oXos ^ <Spa yevofi.evy) XeLTTOpOTaveiv raocheoffended 

hroC'qa'e tt/v x<apav that IS, The snowe casting season ^^^^^f^*"' 

nowe coming in place, hath made this climate ouer curious 

vtterly desolate of herbage, or hath brought this fj)^*"™^^,. 

climate to clene disherbageing : Why (quoth he) ling his tale. 

wilt thou not surceasse to deale with me, in thy 

termes, as thou doest with the simple innocentes 

of the commen people ? 

IT The king was muche offended and displeased 
with the ouer exquisite maner of telling his tale, with 
the which maner curious filed termes the Rhetoricians 
vsen to set out their peinted sheath emong the vnex- 
perte or ignoraunt multitude of the people. But the 
same to do before a king was an abusing of the Princes 
pacience. In stede of these wordes, ^'ovo^SoXos ij wpa, 
the snowe casting season, he might haue saied, the 
wynter season. And these wordes, Xairo^SoTaveiV hrotqa-e, 
that is, hath brought this climate to clene disherbage- f^^^^^^ '^^^^^ 
ing, smellen all of the inkehome, and maye scacely be of a countree. 
well licenced vntO a Poete, 1^° muche lesse to an Oratour. 

Unto Thrasillus a Cynique asking of him, in 15. 
the wave of a rewarde agrote or six pence : That ^omAntigonus 

, „ , , / ii 1. \ Ti defeacted a oi- 

ls no rewarde for a kyng to geue (quoth he) Ihe ^i^^ phiioso- 




phier aslt3mg a 
reward of him. 
Of the valour of 
a drachme & a 
talent it is no- 
ted afore in the 
seconde saiyng 
of jirisHppits 
& xlvi. leafe> 

Cymfque eftsons repliyng Well, then glue me a 
talent : Nay (quoth he) that is no mete reward 
for a Cinique to receiue. 

f So on both sides he defeated and disapointed the 
importunitee or saucinesse of the crauer that would 
not bee aunswered, whom he deamed not worthie to 
haue any good doen hym. 

1 6. 

Havi Antigonus 
exhorted his 
soonne Defnef 
trius when he 
sent him forth 
with an armie 

When he sent his' soonne ^° Demetrius with 
a great nauie and with a great puissaunce of sol- 
diers for to deliuer the Grekes, and to set theim 
free from all yokes of homage or forren subiec- 
cion : he saied, that glory and renoume was like 
a beaken, enkendled or set on fire from Grace, as 
from a mountain with an high top, to extende & 
sprede light ouer all the whole vniuersall worlde. 

H Prickyng forthward the yong man with desire of 
glorie, to make hym doe the part of a valiaunt knight, 
forasmoche as by so doyng, the bruite of that same 
:his high praise and commendacion was not to be hid- 
den or pended, within the limites and precintes of 
Grece, but rather to ren abroade, throughout all coastes 
and partes of the worlde, by reason of the greate fame 
and name that Grece had eueiy where all readie. 

r Wher it is afore noted that Aniigomis had two sonnes, & named the one by his 
brothers name Demetrius, & the other by his fathers name Philippe, Plutarchus 
saith that soche was the fame & bruite that went of him. Albeit (saieth Plutar- 
chus in the life of this Demetrius) many chronicleers haue left in wryting, that this 
Demetrius was not the sonne of Antigonus, but his brothers sonnes sonne. For 
the father of Demetrius being deceassed, and his mother being married vnto Anti- 
gonus, Demetrius being a very young infant, was beleued to be the sonne of Anti- 
gonus, and muche the more, because that Philippe being twoo or thre yeares 
younger of age then Demetrius died, and Demetrius was by Antigotms made his 
.heire apparaunt, to succede him in his crowne and empier. 


The farailiare 
iesting betwen 
the king Anti- 
gonus, &thepo- 
ete Antagoras. 

The Poete Antagoras he founde on a time in 
his tente sething a coungre, & buisily stiering 
the panne with his own hands : and standing 
eueh herd at his polle behind him, he saied: Doest 
thou suppose O Antagoras that Homere, when he 



wroote the actes of Agamennon,* did sethe * Agamemnon 
coungres as thou doest nowe? To thissaied An- *ekingof^y. 

° , cena, and of all 

tagoras again : And thou sir king, doest thou the Argiues, 
suppose that Agamemnon in the. tyme of doing ^^tri^lndlh^ 
those noble actes, made soch curious searchyng brother of Mm- 
as thou doest, if any bodie in the hoste sodde f ««^ ^ing of 
any Coungers ? (for whose wife 

Helene, all the 

H The Kyng toke paciently & in the good part, to kings of Grece 
be paied home ieste for ieste, euen as though the mat- ™^^ "^^^"^ . 

, , , , /- •!• 1 •/- 11 r against Troie.) 

ter had Den betwene twoo famihare plaifeers eguall of And Agamem- 
degre or feloes like. «<>» was the 

hedde and chief 
king of theim all. But at his retourne from Troie he was slaine by his owne wife 
Ctitemnestra, by the helpe of Egiptus who kept hir by adulterie, because he had 
(as Clytemnestra supposed) slain Iphigenia his doughter and hirs in sacrifice vnto 
Diana, at the porte of Aulia, when the Grekes should take their viage towardes 

Antjgonus had on a season in his dreaming, 1 8. 
seen Mithridates reping golden corn, and ther- 
fore laied awaite to haue thesame Mithridates by 

the backe, and to despeche hym out of the waie. of Demetrius 

And when he had opened this matter vnto his towarde Mt<A- 

soonne Demetrius, he bound thesame by an oth, ftgnd sauing 

to make no wordes at all of it. Wherefore De- his oth vp- 

, . ^ir. 1 . , , . ■ . -,, right, and not 

metnus taking Mithridates in compamie with breaking the 
him, went walking vp and doun on the sea commaunde- 

,,-.,,, , - , . , mente of jinti- 

banke, & with the nether ende of his spere wrote g.<,„,<s. 
in the sande, as foloeth : Mithridates auoide the 
countree. Mithridates* well perceiuyng what , *P^*'* 

* 11 Mithridates 

the matter meant, fled into Pontus, and there kyng of Pm- 
reisfned as kyng, al the dales of his life after. '^' j' "« writ- 

° ^ o' ten that he was 

H But this historie, forasmoche as it is no apo0- ^ ™^ °^ ^ 

' ' mightie great 

thegme, ^g° (for an apophthegme consisteth in woordes spoken) stature, strong 

semeth to haue been put in by some other bodie. of bodie, of a 
^g° Then by Plutarchus who compiled the treatise of apoph- "f g^ggiig^^^^t 
Ihegmes. Albeit woordes after soche sort, and for soche purpose and policie and 
written, maie haue the force, strength, and place of wordes, with of incredible 
the tongue and voice pronounced. memorie. For 



where he was king of .22 naciofts, it is certain that vnto euery of thesame, seue- 
rally he made lawes, and kppt courtes, and ministred iustice in their own tongues, 
and that during the time of his reigne, whiche continued by the space of .56, yeres, 
he neuer neded the helpe of any interpreter betwene him and any of the nacions 
being vnder his obeisaunce & subiection, but would talke withall and singular per- 
sones of thesaied nacions in their own languages. He kept warre against the 
Romaines many yeares. At last he was discomfaicted by Lucius Scylla, and vtterly 
ouercoramed by PompHus Magnus. And at last being besieged in a certain castle 
by his owne sonne, he toke poyson to destroye himselfe, but when he sawe that it 
would not worke vpon him (for he had by the continuaunce of long and many 
yeres, accustomed himselfe to take euery dale preseruatiues & immediatly vpon 
the preseruatiues to take poyson purposely, that if any soche chaunce fell it might 
not hurte him) he called one of his trustie seruauntes to slea him, and where as the 
feloe being with the very sight of his maister dismaied, failed in herte, nor had the 
power to execute that deed called him backe again, and helped his 
hand to the ministerie of cutting his owne throte. 

19. When the frendes of Antigonus aduised hym, 
that in case he should winne and take the Citee 

foun^amente °^ Athenes, he should fense and ward thesame 
of all Grece, with Strong fortresses, and sure garisons, to 
poste to ?"ane thende that it might no more fall to rebellion, & 
to. that he should with most earnest cure and dili- 

gence kepe it, as the foundament, the stale, or 
The most sure the leaning poste of all Grece : he aunswered 
reaime,"is°t^ ^^^^ ^^ ^^^ euermore been of this mynde, that 
beneuolence of he beleued none to be a more sure fortresse 
towMdertlieir °^ garison of a royalme then the beneuolence 
Prince. and hertie loue of the subiectes towardes thgir 


20. Thesame Antigonus when he heard reported 
What Antigo- that all the other kynges of Grece had conspired 

7!t« saied when 1 ■ 1 . .. , , , 

it was shewed "1^' destruction, woundrous presumpteously aun- 
him that al the swered, that he would with one stone, & with 
Grece, had con- °^^ shought make them al to take their heeles 
spired his ex- and to ren euery man his waye, euen as one 

should spring a whole flight of byrdes pecking 

vp corne newly sowen. 

I^r But neuerthelesse in this battaill was Antigomis slain, and 
Demetrius vanquished and put to flight, and al their kingdome 
spoiled, and parted emong Aviiochus Seleucus, and the other 
Princes that made warre against theim, as testifieth Plutanhus in 
the life of the saied Demetrius. 




When Antigonus had camped in the browes 2 1 . 
or edges of felles and cliefes, and in places . all 
vneuen and full of pittas, arising and hanging in 
height muche aboue the plain champian grounde, 
Pyrrhus after pitching his tentes about Naplia, This was 
sent on the next morow by an harald of armes ^2rgos TfobL 
to bidde him come downe into the plain, & citee in ^cAaia. 
there to assaie and trie what he could dooe in ^"XS"«* 
battaill. But Antigonus made answer, that his came thither 
maner of battring stode not a whit more in the ll^, anTboth 
furniture of harnesse and ordinaunce, then in the in mynde and 
oportunitee of times when to fight, and that for Ktee!" slTt 
Pyrrhus, (in case thesame were wery of his life) the Argiues 
■ there wer wayes many enough open or readye ['her'' 'oMheim 
to dispetche & ridde him out of the worlde. Ambassa- 

dours, & prai- 
yng theim to holde their handes, and to absteine from doing iniurie to a foren citee 
whiche neither of theim bothe had anye right or title vnto, Antigonus promised 
to departe and gaue vnto the Argiues in hostage thereof his sonne Alcyonem. But 
Pyrrhus, where as he promised to doe thesame, yet did it not, but by night entreed 
the citee vnawares and vnknowyng to the Argiues till he was euen in the middes 
of their high streete. Then were the Argiues fain to desire Antigonus to come with 
aide and rescue and so he did. And ther and then was Pyrrhus slaine. 

Antigonus beyng asked the question, Whiche 22. 
of all the capitaines of his time, he iudged to 
surmount all others in worthinesse, Marie, * Pyr- * Pyrrhus 
rhus (quoth he againe) if he might Hue to be an T^^™'"^ °^ 

old man. (a nacion be- 

ir He gaue not a determinate sentence, that Pyrrhus ^^^e,^^% 
was alreadie the verie best, but that he was like to be ricum whiche 
the principall best in deede, if age & continuaunce of J^''»»^«™ 's 

. , . , . , . , now called 

tyme might acquire, the expenence and perfect know- siauonie) 

lage of thynges. moche praised 

of all writers, 
for a gentle and a courteous king, wittie, politike, quick in his buisinesse, auentur- 
ous and hardie, and of soche a stiering nature, that (as Plutarchus in his life testi- 
fieth) neither hauing gotten any victorie or conquest, nor yet being venquished or 
ouercomed, he could quiet himself to be in rest and peace. And Plutarchus in the 
life of Anniball, and also of Titus Quirttius Flaminius telleth, that when Scipio 
emong many other thinges, required anniliall to shewe him, euen as he thought in 
his minde whom he reputed of all that euer had been, or were then aliue, to be the 
moste worthie and moste noble capitain of an army. Marie (quoth Annibal) Al- 



exander the greate, I esteme to be chief and principall, and next vnto him Pirrkiu, 
& my self the third. And of thesame Pirrhus he saied at an other time, tliat if he 
had had the feacte to hold and kepe an Empire, as well as he could achiue and 
winne it, he had had no cousin. Al this was doen when Pirrhus would haue 
taken the Citee of Argos, as is saied in the annotacion of the apophthegme neit 
afore going. 


The tendernes 
of Antigonus 
towardes his 
soldiours if 
thei were sicke. 

Felicitee ma- 
keth menne 
timorous and 
false harted. 

This Antigo- 
nus was the 
firste king of 
that name and 
there was be- 
sides him an 
other Antigo- 
nus theseconde 
king of Mace- 

Thesame Antigotlus seyng one of his sol- 
diours, beyng in all behalfes, or, at all assaies 
stoute and valiaunt, and foreward or prest to en- 
terprise all maner hasardes or auentures, to bee 
not verie well at ease in his bodie, demaunded 
what was the matter, that he loked so pale and 
wan of colour. When the partie had confessed 
vnto hym a priuie disease, liyng within his bodie. 
Antigonus commaunded his Phisicians, that if it 
might possibly by any meanes be doen thei 
should giue medicins that might cure him. But 
the soldier being now clene ridde of his maladie, 
begon to waxe euill willing, slacke, & lothe to 
fight, and with lesse forewardnes, to put himself 
in any perilles or daungers. The king greatly 
meruailling there at, asked of him, what was the 
cause of his minde so chaunged. Then saied 
the soldiour : For soth sir, euen you and no 
man els hath been the cause. For when I lined 
in continuall anguishe and pein, I had no feare 
of my life, beeyng in soche case, but now, sens 
by your meanes, my life is becom more dere 
vnto me, I am moche more charie, that it maie 
not be lost. 

Antigonus the first vnto a certain Sophiste, 

offryng him a booke, conteinyng a traictise of 

iustice, saied : Certes thou art an vnwise man, 

whiche, where thou seest me with all ordeinaunce 

of warre, werkyng and doing mischief, to the 

citees of foreners, yet neuerthelesse, wilt nedes 

talke to me of iustice. 

II His 


H His meanyng was, that soche persones as either Soche persons 
for the enlargyng of their dominion, or els for to pur- or fw gbrie'''' 
chace glorie and renoume, doen make warre vpon alien doen inuade 
citees, or foren countrees, can not saue the lawes of ^''^^" '^''**®' 

. . . ... cannot saue 

lUStlce vpnght. the lawes of 

Antigonus the first, when he had often times 25. i^stice 
suffred Bias importunatly, troubleing him with 
begging this and that ; at last beyng ouercomed With what 
with werinesse thereof, Sirs, (quoth he) deliuer nulglue^a^^- 
vnto Bias a talent, though it bee perforce and \ent vnto Bias, 
againste my stomake. porTune cr'au- 

II Signifing that £ias had not with his good harte y°? ^^ ^"'"^ 
and will, obteined that benefite, but rather had force- 
ably and by violence extorted thesame, with importune 
and endelesse crauyng. 

Antigonus, when he had heard in the derke 26. 
night season, certain of his soldiours wishyng 
all the mischief possible, vnto the kyng, that had 
brought them into that euill pece of waie, and 
into that moire, not possible to wade through, or 
to geat out of, he came to them that were moste 
encombred, and when he had dispeched them human^telfand 
out of the moire (the parties not knowyng who most noble 
had succoured and holpen them, so wel to passe ^^'"nfuengl 
through it : Now, (quoth he) curse Antigonus by ing euiii 
whose fault ye haue fallen into this encombre- by hymf'"''''" 
aunce, but wishe well to thesame, and praie for 
him, that he hath now recouered you againe, and 
brought you out of this goulfe or quauemoire. 

^ With this sole auengement, was the right noble 
hart of this kyng contented and satisfied. 

Thesame Antigonus when the Grekes wer be- 27, 
sieged, in a little pretie pile or castle and the 
same Grekes, vpon thaffiaunce and boldnesse of 
the place ( l^° because it was a verie strong holde, of so smal 

a thing) setting their enemie at naught, made 




moche and great iestyng, at the deformitee and 
bleamishes of Antigonus, and made many 
mockes and skornes, now at his dwarfishe low 
stature, and now at his nose as flat as a cake, 
bruised or beaten to his face : I am glad yet 
(quoth he) and trust to haue some good chaunce 
and fortune by it, now that I haue * Silenus in 
myne armie. And after that he had. with lacke 
of vitailles, brought those choplogeS or greate 
pratlers, as lowe as dogge to the bow (as the 
maner is to do with soche persones, as are taken 
prisoners in warre, that is to wete, soche as maie 
doe good seruice in warre to be appoincted, 
sorted, and placed vnder one baner or an other, 
emong the ordinarie soldiours, and the residue 
to bee offred to sale by an open crie) he saied 
that he would not doe so with them neither, sa- 
uing for that it was expedient for them, to haue 
some maister, to correcte and punishe them, 
which had soche naughtie tongues. 

% This saiyng I suppose to be al one with that 
whiche Plutarchus maketh mencion of, sauyng that it 
is otherwise tolde of Seneca. 

* Silenus was the fosterfather of Bacchus, whom for his monstreous misshape, & 
for his fonde toies, lupiter, Apollo, Mars, Bacchus, Mercurie and VuUan, and tlie 
vniuersall compaignie of the Poeticall Goddes, vsed for their foole (soche as our 
princes and noble men haue now of daies) to make them sport and pasdme to 
laugh at. For it was an euill disfigured apishe body, croumpe shouldred, short 
necked, snatnosed, with a Sparowes mouth, full of vngracious pranlies of tagh- 
ter, clad in a fooles cote, neuer without his belle and his cockes combe, and his in- 
strument whereon to plaie toodle loodle bagpipe, moche after the facion of fooles 
(soche as are exhibited in Morice daunces, and soche as are pointed in many pa- 
pers or clothes with wide mouthes, euer laughing with their Jille, hauing fooles 
hoodes on their heds, with long asses eares.) By the paterne and likenesse of this 
Silenus, wer deuised and made in old time, to set in the galaries and chambers of 
noblemen, little monstreous and eluishe mishapen Images, so wrought that thei 
might be taken one piece from an other, and that thei had leaues to fold and to 
open. These Images being shut close represented nothing, but the likenesse of a 
fonde and an eiuill fauoured mishappen bodie, made like a foole, blowing on abag- 
pipe, or a shalme, or on some other facioned pipe, but thesame being vnfolded and 
spred abrode, shewed some high misticall matter, and some excellente piece of 
werke full of maiestee, moste contrarie to that it shewed, to be at the first vieu when 


of stature, and 
hauing a fiatte 

What Antigo- 
nus saied when 
the Grekes, 
■whom he be- 
sieged in a 
castle, iested & 
rallied at hym 
ouer the walles 

How men ta- 
ken priesoners 
in battaill, 
wer vsed in old 

The humanitie 
of Antigonus 
and lenitee to- 
ward his ene- 

THE II. BOOKE. ■ 251 

it was shut. Unto this sort of Images doeth Aldbiades in the werke of Plato, en- 
titled, the Banquet, compare and liken Socrates, because thesame was a moche 
other maner man, if one sawe him throughlie, and tooke view of his minde and 
harte within, then at the first blushe, in apparaunce of bodie he semed to be (as 
who lusteth to reade, male se more at large in the prouerbe Sileni Aleiliadis, in 
the chiliades of Erasmus.) And to thesame alluded Antigomis signifiyng, that 
although he wer of personage, of feacture, and in shape not raoste comelie, nor all 
of the beste made, yet in good qualitees of the minde, in feactes of policie, in Mar- 
cialle prowesse, in knowlege of gouerning a realme, and in all semblable princelie 
vertues, he gaue place to none other of his progenitours, the kinges that had been 
tofore him. Yet Plutarchus saieth in the life of Demetrius, that thesame Demetrius 
was a verie tall manne of personage and stature, and yet not althing so tall as his 

Thesame Antigonus when he had taken vp 28. 
in his hande an instrument, written in greate Antigonus ies- 
letters of texte hande : Yea Marie (quoth he) p^edhnente'of" 
these letters are big enough to se, euen for a his owne iyes. 
blinde mannes iyes. 

^ Jestyng at the bleamishe and impediment of his 
own * iyes. For he had no more but one iye to see * Antigonus 
withall. But those same words, an other bodie should lare^good"^'^ 
not haue spoken without ieoperdie, and perill of his manne of war 
beste iointe, whiche thyng euen so proued, and came j" ^.'^ y°^S 
in vre by + Theocritus the Chian, of whom in an other .y^hen Philip. 
place and tyme shalbe mencioned. p^ the father 

of Alexander, 
laie in siege of Perinthus (a noble citee of Thrada, in the coste of Propontis now 
called Heraclea) had the one of his iyes striken cleane out with the shotte of a 
quarell, out of a crosse bowe. And many persones approchyng vnto hym, and ad- 
dressyng to plucke out the quarrell, Antigonus would not suffre them, but let it 
sticke still, neither did he plucke it out or departe aside orceasse fighting, vntill he 
had discomfaicted his enemies, within the walles of the citee, and put them to 

f The historic of Theocritus the Chian, doeth Erasmus write in the .vi. booke of 
his Apophthegmes, as foloweth : When Theocritus had been attached and should 
be brought afore the king Antigonus and the persones whiche led him by the armes, 
bid him to bee of good chere, for that he should escape, and bee aswell as euer he 
had been, at the firste houre of his coming vnto the kinges iyes. Naie (quoth 
Theocritus) now ye put me clene out of all hope of my life to bee saued. Geuyng 
a sore bityng, or bloudie worde towardes the king, that he had but one iye, and not 
iyes. The king no soner heard of the feloes iesting, but he commaunded thesame 
streight waies to be hanged on the galoes. 

Kyng Antigonus, when woorde was brought 29. 
vnto him, that his sonne Alcyoneus was slaine What Antigo. 
fightyng in the fielde : stoode hanging doune his Z^^i'^h^" 
hed a pretie space, musing or studiyng with him- his sonneAicy- 



ojjeui was slain self in his mind, and within a while he brake out 
into these wordes : O my sonne Alcioneus thou 
hast chaunged life for death, not so sone as of 
right thou shouldest haue doen, which hast so 
vndiscretely assailed thine enemies and auen- 
tured vpon them, not hauyng regard neither of 
thine owne life, nor of my often warnynges to 

thought hym beware. 

be mourned for IT He thought his owne Sonne not worthie to bee 
that had been moumed or sorowcd for, whiche had through his owne 
thoro^^^hls ^°^^^ miscaried, & had ben the procurer of his own 
owne folie. casting awaie. This is tolde of the report of Plu- 

30. Thesame Antigonus seyng his sonne Deme- 
trius somewhat fierslie or roughlie, and after a 
straunge sort of lordlinesse, vsing or handlyng 
his subiectes, ouer whiche he had empier and 
dominion, saied : Sonne art thou ignoraunt, that 
our state of reigning, or beyng kinges, is a serui- 
tude faced or set out, with dignitee & worship ? 
Reigne or Em- f Nothyng might possibly be spoken, with more high 
thr'ditnte ts ^^'^ ""^ prudence. For aswell is the prince constreined 
a mutualle to serue the commoditee of the people, as the people 
seruitude. ^.^ gg^^g (.j^g ^jjjg Qf jjjg Priflce, sauyng that the 

Prince dooeth it with a prerogatiue of dignitee, that 
thyng accepted, in verie deede it is a mutual seruitude, 

A prince per- of the One partie to the other, g^ For the prince bothe 
petualliecareth night and daie, perpetually careth for the safegard, tranquilitte, 
for the welth of defense, comraoditees, wealthe, and auauncemente of his subiectes, 
his subiectes. „g„gf satisfied ne pleased with his owne felicitee, excepte it bee all 
well with his people to. 

IT Now to the entent that wee male after a sorte 
make some likely matche of Romaines with the Grekes, 
we shall to Alexander sette lulius Cesar, to PMlip we 
shall sette Augustus, and to Antigonus we shall tourne 
Pompeius of Roome. 


^ The saiynges of Augustus 

' Octaums Augustus Cesar was the Sonne of Octauius by 
lulius Cesars sisters doughter, whiche lulius Cesar the first per- 
petuall Emperour of Rome, had before his death made a will, by 
whiche he adopted, that is to say freely chose thesaid Augustus to 
be his Sonne and heire, and executour, and successour, Augustus 
then beeyng a young man absent from Rome, a scholare or stu- 
dente in Apollonia (a good citee of Macedonie 7. miles from the 
sea into the lande ward, at the first inhabited by Corinthians, 
purposelie sent thether to inhabite, when it was deserte) afterward 
.this Augustus being come to Rome, and set in possession of soche 
gooddes, as thesaid lulius had lefte vnto him, and hauing pour- 
chased the fauour and benouolence of the citezens, by reason of 
distributing certain legacies of Julius vnto the people, he ioyned 
himself in societee with Marcus AnUmius, & Marcus Lepidus. 
And these three diuided all the whole Empier of Rome betwene 
them, to hold by strong- hande, as it had been by a iuste and right 
title of enheritaunce due vnto them. In processe Augustus and 
Antonius (npt withstanding all bondes of societee, league, and 
alliaunce) fell out, and warred either againste the other, Antonius 
at length was driuen into Egipt, where he was receiued into the 
citee (^Alexandria, and aided by Cleopatra the quene there (who 
loued him.) And there did he gore himself through the 
bealie with a sworde. And Augustus tooke Cleopatra, and all her 
richesse and iewelles, and wonne the citee, &c. ' , 

[Hen Rhjnuerales kyng of the Thracians 
(who had emong other kinges mo for- 
saken Antonius, and taken the parte 
of Augustus) did at a certain banquet 
verie arrogantly, or with many high braggyng 
wordes, make greate vaunte of his desertes to- 
wardes Caesar, and without ende entwityng the- 
same, with taking his part in warre, made moch 
tittle tattle, nor would in nowise linne pratyng 
thereof: Csesar makyng as though he marked 
not the reprochefuU chattyng of thesaied Rhy- 
mirales, dranke to one other of the kinges, and 
saied : The treason I loue well, but the traitours 
I doe not commende. 

II Signifiyng, no thankes at all to be due vnto soche 
persones, as haue doen a man a good tume, by com- 

king of the 
Thracians for- 
sooke Antoni' 
us, and tooke 
the part of Au- 
gustus Caesar. 

What Augus- 
tus Caesar 
said when 
made vaunte 
of his desertes 
towardes him. 

No thanke at 
al is due to 
them that dooe 
an other bodie 
a pleasure, by 


treason on mitting treason on their own partie. For though the 

behair"^ pleasure, that thai shewen be for the tyme acceptable, 

yet are the parties selues reputed for naughtie feloes, 

and breakers of league and faithfuU promises afore 

made to an other. 

2, When thinhabitauntes of Alexandria (^ the 
„, , . hedde citee of aU Egypte) after their citee entred and 

The cleraencie o^r , •.. . -l 

of Augustus to- taken by force of armes, thought to haue none 
wardes the ^jj grace, but vtter exterminacion by fier and 
when he had bloudshed, Augustus got him vp into an high 
won & taken pi^ce, taking with hym euen by the hande, one 
Arius a Philosophier of thesame citee borne, and 

saied vnto the people, that he did freelie perdon 
For what cau- . . „ i , . , ,,. - 

ses Augustus the citce : first for the greatnes and goodlinesse of 
freiie perdoned ^jjg ^.j^gg ggjjf. secondarily, for the respecte of 
AUxaTiria. Alexander the great, that was the firste founder, 

edifier, and builder of it : and finally for to do 
Arius a Philo- j^jg fj.gjj(jg Arius a pleasure. 

sopnier of Al- '^ 

exandria, to ^ ji .^yas a poincte of mercifulnesse, not many times 

tafox hislwn- Seen or heard of, not to riefle or spoile a citee whiche 
ing shewed had moste stubbemely and obstinatly rebelled, but 
&°rendshi"°& "^^ ^^^^^ praise deserued, that same his greate ciuil- 
f?,miliaritee. itee, that the thanke of soche a benefit as this was, he 
And (asPlu- ^q^q jjQt tg himself, but gaue one yea, and the princi- 
life of Marcus P^'U parte of thesame vnto the citee self, an other 
Antonius wri- porcion he attributed vnto Alexander, whose memoriall 
tWs tvm" b'- ^ knewe to be of moste high acceptacion emong the 
sides this highe Alexandrines, the_third piece he put ouer to Arius, a 
point of honor burgoise of thesame Citee, with so high a title, com- 
wardes Arius mendyng and setting forthe his frende, vnto his owne 
he did at the in- countremen. 


same, perdon many particulare persones, whiche had dooen him moche displea- 
sure, and had deserued not onelie his displeasure, but also all extremitee. 

' 3. When it was complained vnto Augustus, that 
one Erotes the solliciter of Egypte had bought a 
quaille, whiche in fightyng would beate as many 



as came, and at no hande could be beaten, or put 
to the worse, and the same quaille beyng rosted, 
to haue eaten vp euery morsell : he commaunded 
the feloe to be brought afore him, and the cause 
well discussed, immediatly vpon the parties con- 
fes&yng-, of the cause, he commaunded thesame 
to be hanged vp on the top of a maste of a ship. Erotes the sol- 
fl Judgyng hym vnworthie to line, who for so small p^( to°de^ ' 
a delite of his owne throte, or deintee mouthe, had not by Augustus 
spared a birde, whiche in fightyng might many a long ^^^^^^ ° 
dale, and to many a persona, haue shewed pleasure 
and solace, and the whiche furthermore, by a certain 
gladde signe of good lucke to ensue, betokened vnto 
Caesar perpetuall •successe, and prosperyng in his 

In the countree of Sicile, in the steede or place 4. 
of Theodore, he made Arius capitain or lieue- 
tenaunte. And when a certain persone put vp 
vnto Caesar a supplicacion or bille of complaint, 
in whiche were writen these woordes : The pield Tharsus the 
pated Theodore of Tharsus was a briber and a c.'i/i«Vi, where 
theefe, what semeth you .' the bil perused, Au- -s. Paule was 
gustus subscribed nothing but this onely. Me- °"^^' 

Unto * Athenodorus a Philosophier, by the pre- 5- 
texte or excuse of olde dge, makyng instaunt 
request that he might haue licence to departe 
home againe into his countree, Augustus graunted 
his desire. But when Athenodorus had taken 
his leaue, and all of the emperour, beyng in 
minde and will to leaue with thesame, some 
monumente or token of remembraunce, meete 
and seming for a Philosophier, this he said more 
then euer he had doen tofore. Sir emperor at 
what time thou shalt be angred, neither sale, ne 
do thou any thfng, before that thou shalte haue 



What coun- rekened vp by rewe, one after other in thy minde 
^^'rus I Philo- the names of the .24. letters of the Greke alphe- 
sophiergaue bete. Then Caesar frendly taking the Philoso- 
againstf the** phiers hand in his, said^ Yet a while longer haue 
furiousheate I nede of thy compaigilie and presence about 
ainanger ^^ ^^^ ^^ kept hym there with hym stil, euen 
a full yere more, allegyng for his purpose, that 
Of faithful same the Prouerbe of the Grekes. Of feithfull 
SI ence the silence, the rewardes are daungerlesse. 

rewardes are ' o 

daungerlesse. H Either alloDvyng the Philosophiers sentence for 
Tokepeinan- that in deede to represse and keepe in ones anger, 
gre that it brek that it breaketh not out into wordes, were a thing sure 
woordes is a ^^^ ^^^^ ^''°'^ ^"^ perill of after clappes : or els meanyng, 
pointeof saftie. that it should haue been a good tii|rne to the Philoso- 
phier, if he had spoken no soch worde at the later 

An holsom j i_ • j j- -i , . 

lesson geuyug ende, beyng in purpose and -redinesse to departe his 
deserueth at waic; Albeeit, soche an holsome and especialle good 
thehandesofa jgggou deserued to • haue some roiall rewarde and 

Fnnce an nigh ' 

recompense. recompense. 

* Athenodorus a Philosophier in the time of Augustus. Ther was also an other 
Athenodorus a Philosophier of Athenes, of whom Plutarchus both in the life of Ahx- 
ander and also of Phoeion raaketh mencion. And the .3. a werker of Imagerie in 
Hietalle, a Rhodian borne, of whom is mencioned in the .34. and in the .36. boke of 

6. When he had heard sale that Alexander being 
Alexander ^t .32. yeres of age, after hauing passed ouer not a 
yeres^hauing^' ^^^-6 regions OT countrees of the worlde, had put 
won almoste a greate doubte what he might haue to doe, all 
doubted^what ^^^ residue of his life to come, Augustus mer- 
he should haue uailled moche, if Alexander had not iudged it a 

to doe all the . . ' , ,, , . 

residue of his grater act or werke, well to gouerne an empire 
life. gotten, then to haue acquired or purchaced a 

How Augustus 1 J 1 J- • 

reproued the large and ample dicion. 

bidon of'^te' ^ ^^ ^°°^ "^'^^ ^^^ ^^ reproue the vnsaciable am- 
ander. , bicion of Alexander, whiche had estemed none other 
It is both more office belongyng to a kyng, but to enlarge the precint 
moreharfwith ^'^ limites of his dominion, wheareas it is a greate dele 
goodlawesand bothe a more goodly thing, & also, more hard, with 




right and iust lavires, and with honest or goodlie iria- 
ners to beautifie a realme, that to a man is fallen then 
with dint of sworde, to adde kyngdome to kyngdome. 

Augustus had enacted^ and published a Lawe 
concernyng adulterers, after what forme of pro- 
cesse, persones detected of this crime should be 
iudged» and what kinde of punishemente thesame 
should haue, if thei wer conuinced or found guil- 
tie. Afterward in a rage or furie of wrathe, he 
flewe on a young man accused of hauyng to do 
with luHa the doughter of Augustus, and all too 
poumleed thesame with his handes. But when 
the young man had cried out in this maner : O 
sir emperour, ye haue made and set forthe a lawe 
of this matter : it repented the emperour so sore 
of his doyng, that he refused to take or eate his 
supper that day. 

H The offence euen of it self was hainous, and be- 
sides that, trespaced in the Emperours owne doughter. 
What prince in soche a case, could temper his dolour 
and anger ? Or who in soche a case could abide the 
long processe of the lawes and of iudgementes ? Yet 
this so greate a Prince, tooke soche displeasure with 
hymself, that he punished his owne persone, because 
he had not in all poyntes been obedient vnto the lawe, 
whiche hymself had geuen vnto others. 

At what tyme he sent Caius his doughters 
Sonne into the countree of * Armenia with an 
armie againste the Parthians, he wished of the 
Goddes, that there might go with hym, the 
f hartie beneuolence of men which Pompeius 
had, the auenturus courage J that was in Alex- 
ander, and the § happie fortune that hymself 

^ Wliat was in euery of the saied three persones 
seuerally the chief & highest poincte, thesame did 

1 7 Augustws 

maners to ad- 
ourne a king- 
dome, then by 
warre to adde 

/■ to realm. 

C^sar made a 
la we, that there 
should be no 
adulterers, or if 
any soche wer 
found, that thei 
should bee pun- 
ished. And it 
was called Lex 

Augustus with 
his own hands 
beate a young 
man, detected 
of hauihg to 
dooe with luHa 
his doughter. 

Augustus sore 
repented that 
he had in his 
fury doen con- 
trarie to the 
law, whiche 
himself had 


What Augus- 
tus wished 
vnto Caius, 
his doughters 
Sonne, when 
he sent him 
into Armenia 
on warfare 
against the 


Augustus wish to be in one man alone. But as for 
I^\nd m'^od- ^^ *™g' '"^^y '* preceded of a singulare humblenesse 
estie of Angus- that beyng a man in witte, in knowlege, and in poUicie 
'"'• excellyng, he ascribed his owne noble actes vnto 

Fortune. |JS° And would not take them vpon himself. 

* Armenia, a realme in Ada, liyng betwene the two greate mountaineS Tamras 
and Caucasus, and stretcheth on lengthe from the countree of Cappadocia, vnto the 
sea called Mare Caspium. 

•f- Ol Pompeius it is written, that neuer had any other person of the Romajnes, the 
prepense fauour and beneuolence of all the people, either soner begon in his young 
dales, or in his prosperitie on all behalfes, more assured and strong, or els when 
good fortune failled him, more constaunte in long continuing. And iuste causes 
there wer (saieth Plutarckus in his life) mo then one, wherfore the people did beare 
soche hartie loue towardes him, his chaste liuing, his expertnesse in feactes Mar- 
cial, his eloquence of tongue, to perswade any matter, his substanciall and true 
dealing, and his sobrenesse or humilitie to be communed withall. He neuer desired 
or asked any thing of any person, but with an heanie moode as one lothe to aske, 
he neuer did any thing at the request of an other, but with a glad chere, as one 
prest and readie to doe all persones good. And of his good gifts or graces, one 
was to giue nothing after a disdainful or stately sort, an other to receiue nothing, 
but as though it had been a large and high benefite, were it in deede neuer so 
slender. Euen of his childhoode, he haid a countenaunce or looke, of no small 
grace to allure and winne the hartes and fauour of the people, &c. 

J Of the stomake, courage and hardinesse of Alexander, besides the testimonie 
of Plutarckus, of Quintus Curtius, and of other historiographiers, sufficient decla- 
racion male be taken by his ieopardiyng to ride the vnbroken horse Bucephalus, of 
whicth in the .xl. Apophthegme of Alexander it is afore mencioned) & by auentu- 
ring ouer the flood of Granicus, wherof read in the .J. apophthegfne of Alexander. 
Neither was there any so hie, so harde, or so daungerous an enterprise, that Alex- 
ander would feare to attempt and to auenture. At the age of .16. yeres he set vpon 
the Megarians, and thesame discomfited and vanquished. He sought the waie to 
the temple of Ammon through wildemesse, where bothe he and all his compainie 
should haue- been lost, had it not fortuned him to be brought into his waie again, 
and to be conducted or guided by a flight of Crowes. In pursuyng Darius he rode 
.400. miles in x. daies vpon one horse. At the toune of Gordium (the principal 
toune of all Phrygid) whereas there was in the temple of lupiter a waine with 
thonges, writhen and wound with so diffuse a knotte, that no man could vndooe 
it, and a prophecie depending of thesame, that whosoeuer could vndoe the knot, 
should aohiue and obtein the Empire of the whole vniuersal worlde. Alexander 
perceiuing the knot to be ouer buisie to bee vndooen with his handes, neglected all 
religin and supersticious feare, and with his sworde chopped me^ it quite in sonder 
at a stroke. These thinges and many others mo did Alexander, wherby is euident 
what stomake & corage he was of. 

§ As touching the felicitie and good fortune of Augustus, Cornelius Nepos in the 
life of Pomponius Atticus saieth in this maner. So high and great prosperitee 
foloed Augustus Caesar, that fortune left nothing vngiuen to him, that euer she had 
at any time afore conferred, or purchaced to any liuing creature, and that was pos- 
sible for a citezen of Rome to haue. Whiche he addeth, because Augustus was no 
king:. For at that dale it was not leefiill for a citezen of Rome to bee a king, and 
it was high treason if any man attempted to be a king. 



He said he would leaue behind him vnto the 9. 

Romaines, soche a successour in the Empier, as The readie wit 

neuer consulted or tooke deliberacion twis of one ^^^^^'^ ° 

IT Meanyng by Tiberius |^° a manne of a verie readie 
witte and of greate policie. 

On a tyme when his minde was to pacifie cer- 10. 
taine young gentlemen of high dignitee, and thei 
tooke no regarde vnto his wordes, but persisted The authoritie 
in their querele and noise tnakyng : Heare me, euenofayou'ng 
ye young menne (quoth Augustus) to whom manne. 
beyng but a yong man, olde folkes haue geuen 

IT For Augustus be)Tig scacely come to mannes state, 
was put to haue doynges in the coramon weale, S: was The clemencie 
of right high autoritee. With this onely saiyng he aiAu^stv,s. 
appeaced the parties that were at strief, neither did he 
minister any ferther punishemente to thesame, for the 
troubleous rumour and noise by them areised and 
stiered vp. 

When the people of Athenes semed to had 1 1, 
trespaced against him in a certain matter, he What^agiis- 
wrote vnto theim from the Citee of Aegina, in Aaimie\is\isxi.. 
this maner. I suppose not it to bee to you vn- '"g trespaced 
knowen that I am angry with you. And in ^^^'"^ ""' 
deede I purpose not to lye here at Aegina al 
this winter to c6me .' 

IT Neither did he any thyng els speake or doe vnto 
the saied Atheniens, rekenyng sufficient to manace and 
threaten theim, onlesse thei would surceasse so to 
abuse hym. 

"When one of the accusers of Euclides takyng 1 2. 
his libertee and pleasure, to tell his tale at large, 
and to speake euen his bealy full, at the 
laste had gone so ferre, that he spake moche 
what these wordes folowing : If all these thynges 




The clemencie 
of Augustus. 

* Brasidas a 

seme not to your grace high and great matters, 
commaunde him to render vnto me the seuenth 
volume of Thucidides : Caesar beyng highly dis- 
pleased with those wordes, commaunded the 
saied accuser to be had to wsirde. But as sone 
as he heard that thesame partie was alone re- 
maining aliue of the ofspring of * Brasidas, he 
stout and yali- bidde thesame come to hym, and after a mode- 
orthe iS" rate or gentle correpcion, let hym go at his 

mo7iia7iSj slain libertee, 
in battail in de- 
fending the Grekes, whiche inhabited Tkracia. For at his first setting forth to- 
wardes battail, he wrote vnto the officers of Lacedemon, that either he would put 
of for euer, all the eiuill that was in battaill, or els he would dye for it. And when 
woorde of his death was brought by atnbassadours, purposely sent therefore to his 
mother Archilemide, at the first Woorde that euer slie spake, she demaunded 
whether Brasidas had died with honour or not. And when the Thracians praised 
his manhode, and said that the citee of Lacedemon had not his feloe lefte in it. Yes 
yes (quoth the woman again) full little doe ye knowe, what maner feloes the Lace- 
demonians are. In deede (quoth she) Brasidas was a right good man of his handes, 
but yet the citee of Lacedemon, hath many better mennes bodies then Brasidas was. 
For the respecte and memorie of this noble and valiaunte capitain, Augustus per- 
doned the vnmeasurable accusar of EucUdes. 

Unto Piso substancially buildyng an hous, 
euen from the foundacion vnto the vttermoste 
raftreyng and reiring of the roofe, Augustus 
saied : O Piso, thou puttest me in good cumfort, 
and makest my harte glad, in that thou so mak- 
este thy buildynges, as though Rome must euer 
endure, and continue to the worldes ende. 

^ He was not offended with the euer curious fiirni- 
ture of edifiyng : but that some other prince would 
haue suspected and mistrusted to meane some spiecet 
expulsion and of tirannie, Augustus turned vnto a gladde beginnjmg 
finall exter- a.nd prophecie of the Empire of Rome long to endure. 

mmacion of ._,,,, i,, .... . , a , r jj 

kinges out of Thus ferre hath Plutarchus m his treatise of Apophthe- 

the Citee of gmes. g^ The yipophthegmes folowing, are for the most part 

. ', , ", taken of Macrobius, and out of Suetonius, 
man either had ' 

any high or large mansion place, or attempted any sumptuous or ample building, 

he encurred suspicion of tyrannic, & of taking a kinges croun and power vpon 

him : in so moche, that /Valerius Publicola a noble man of Roome, and one of the 

chief doers in expulsing Tarquinius the proude, the last king of Roome, because 



What Augus- 
tus saied vnto 
Piso building a 

preted the do- 
ynges of men 
to the better 
parte and not 
to the worse. 

t After the 

THE 11. BOOKE. 26 1 

he had a faire hous and high, and nere vnto the kinges palaice, was not free of that 
suspicion, but to declare himself, w£is faine to pulle doune his hous sticke and 
stone, euen to the plain ground. Thesame thing purchaced vnto Pompeius aXso, 
and diuers others tnoche enuy, & suspicion of vsurping a kinges power, which to 
do in Rome at those daies, was the most high & ranke treason that could be. 

Augustus had written a tragedie entitled Aiax, 14. 
and thesame tragedy afterward (bicause it mis- The tragedie 
liked him) he wiped out with a spounge. So, called^iax. 
when one Lucius a writer of tragedies demaunded, ^lugustus his 
what is Aiax did ? By my faith (quoth Augustus ^iax ran him- 
woundrous merely again) he hath renne hymself with aspofnge 
through with a spounge. 

IT Alluding to the argument or matter of the enter- * -j-j^j^ ^j-^^, 
lude, in the whiche it is conteined, that *Aiax, as sone was the sonne 
as he wist what thynges he had bothe said and doen, of TdamonaxiA. 

. , : ° , , , of Hesione the 

m the tyme of his madnesse, ranne or sounke doune doughter of 
vpon the poinct of his owne sworde, and killed hymself Laomedon and 

was the moste 
valiaunt and moste worthie knight of all the Grekes, next after Achilles. But 
when Achilles was slaine, Aiax required to haue his hamesse and weapon, as a 
manne moste apt and meete to haue the wearing and vse of it. Vlysses also made 
suite for thesame, & by help of his eloquent tong preuailled against Aiaac, and had 
thesaid hamesse deliuered vnto him by the iudges. For angre whereof Aiax fell 
madde, and in his madnesse went emong an heard of cattaill, and slue a greate 
nomber of theim, wening to him that he had slain Vlysses and his compaignie. 
Afterward being come to himself again, when he considered his folies, he killed 
himself, sinking doune on the poinct of his awn sword. 

To a certaine persone presentyng vnto him a 1 5. 
supplicacion fearfully, now putting forth his What.^«gt«- 

, , , 1, ., 1 1 -1 • 1 tessaidto one 

hande, and now pullyng it backe again, he said : fearefiiliie put- 

What ? doest thou thinke thy self to geue a penie tyng vp a sup- 
„, , plicacion vnto 

to an Elephant. hym. 

^ For little boies vsed to hold forthe and geue little 

pieces of coigne to an Elephante, whiche pieces of 

coigne, thesame Elephant (not without the woundryng 

of the beholders) will in soche wise snatch vp quickly 

with his long snoute, that he will not hurt the childes 

hande. In thesame wise do we se children put their it was greuous 

hand into the yanyng mouth of beares, not without our *° -^"gustus 
■'■''=> ' ... that he was 

feare. It was to this most good prmce a mater of gnef, feared. 

that he was feared. ' 



t6. When one Pacinnius Taurus asked a rewarde 
How Augustus of him, allegyng to be spred abrode by the com- 
Pad.nnias'^ask- ^^^'^ voicc of the people, that no small somme of 
ing a reward money had been geuen to him by the Emperour : 
notXoseSfo Well (quoth Caesar) yet be not thou of minde to 
geue. beleue it. 

H By a pleasaunt worde of ieste doyng hym to wete, 
that he would none geue hym. The other partie loo- 
ked to haue it come to passe, that Cesar would saue 
his honestie, lest that (in case it should come to light 
and be openly knowen, the saied bruite and commu- 
nicacion of the people to bee noth3mg true) he should 
be had in derision. But Augustus shewed him an 
other remedie, whiche was, that he shuld suiTre the 
people to talke their pleasure, & to sale what thei 
would, so that thei persuaded not to hym, the thyng 
that were false. 
1 7. An other persone beyng dismissed & put from 
How Augustus the capitainship of a companie of horsemen, was 
asking a pen- "ot afeard for all that to require of Augustus a 
sion when he greate fee to, by this colour, allegyng himself not 

was putte from . , , . . ,. , 

the capitain- ^o aske soche waiges or pension for any lucre or 
ship of a com- gaines, But (saith he) to the ende that I male ap- 
hOTfemen. P^r^ 'o haue obteined soche rewarde or recom- 
pense by your graces iudgement, and so maie be 
verely beleued, not to haue ben put from mine 
office against my wil, but willinly to haue re- 
signed and giuen it vp : Well (quoth Augustus) 
sale thou to euery bodie that thou haste receiued 
it, & I will not saie naie. 

II If nothyng els moued the crauer, but onely the 
feare of shame and reproche, a waie was shewed by 
whiche he might aswell saue his honestee emong the 
people, as if he had in deede receiued the money, that 
he asked. 

jg^ A certain yong man named Herennius being 
with many vices corrupted, the emperour had 



commaunded to auoide his campe and armie. 
And when the partie being discharged of his 
roume, did with falling on his knees, & with 
moste lanaentable blubberyng or weepyng in this 
maner, beseche the Emperour not so to put him 
awaie : Alas sir, with what face shall I retourne 
into my countree ? And what shall I sale vnto 
my father ? Marie (quoth Augustus) sale, that 
I haue lost thy fauour. 

^ Bicause the yong man was ashamed to confesse,' 
that hymself had encurred the disfauor of Cesar, Cesar 
permitted him to tourne the tale in and out, and laie 
the wite or blame on hymself the saied Augustus. 

A certain souldiour of his, hauing been striken 1 9, 

with a stone in a viage on warfare and beyng How Augustus 

therby with a notable scarre of the wounde in his silence' a'° 

forehed disfigured, because he bare the open souldiour of 

1J. . , ji_i.jj ij vnmeasurable 

marke of an honest wound, bosted and craked gionyngof his 
beyond al measure, of the greate actes that he actes and 
had dooen. The presumptuous vauntyng of this recduedTin 
soldiour, Augustus thus chastised after a gentle battaill. 
sorte : Well sir, (quoth he) yet beware that ye 
looke backe no more in your renning awaie. 

H Halfe notifiyng that it might full well bee, that 
the wounde, which he gloried and bragged of so highly, 
he caught not in iightyng manfully, but in fleyng 

One Galba hauyng a bodie misshapen with a 20. 
greate bunche, whiche bossyng out made hym 
crookebacked (in so moche that there wente a 
common saiyng on hym, The wit of Galba to be 
lodged in an euil dwellyng place) where this xhefeactand 
Galba pleadyng a cause before Augustus, euery meryaunswere 
other while saied these wordes, Emende and XxAoGdOia. 
streighten me Caesar, if ye shall see in me any 
thyng worthie to bee reprehended or disallowed : 



Naie Galba (said Augustus) I maie tell thee what 
is amisse, but streighten the I cannot. 

H A thyng is saied in Latin corri^, and in Englishe 
to bee emended or streightened, that is reproued or 
disallowed, and also that of crooked is made streight 

21. When a greate mainy persones arrained at 
Augustus ones, at the pursuite and accusacion of Seuerus 
7^d^s!^L Cassius were dispetched and rid in iudgemente 
had accused euery one of them, and the carpenter with whom 
diit^hrhad""' Augustus had couenaunted & bargained, for 
put to making, edifiyng a court hous, where to sit in iustice, de- 

ihouurh'aue ^^'^^ ^^^ ^ ^°"S ^^^^> with continuall looking 
ben rid and and lookyng,'when that werke should be finished ? 
alUhote tere ^"^^ S^^^^Y would I (quoth Csesar) that Cassius 
whomthesaied had accused my Courte * hous too. 
cused? * ^' ^ ^^ founde a matter of iestyng, in a vocable of 

* The L - double significacion. For bothe a piece of werke, is 
tinewoorde, saied in Latin, absolui, and in Englishe, to be des- 
Forum, in one petched or ridde, that is finished and brought to a 
is a court perfect ende, and also a persone that in a matter of 
hous, era iustice or lawe, is quitte and deliuered. Bothe a 
si^in iustice '° maister Carpenter riddeth his werke, and also a Judge 
soche as is riddeth a persone aunsweryng before h3an to the lawe 
Westminster at the barre. 

hall, or the 

stere chamber, or guild halle. And wee reade of three soche court houses, or 
Guilde halles in Roome, one that was called forum latium, or forum Romanum, 
whiche the aunciente Romaines vsed at the beginning : the seconde that was 
called forum Caesaris dictatoris, whiche lulius Caesar builded, and had there 
standing his Image in hamesse like a capitain, and a knight of puissaunce: and 
the .3. Augustus erected within the temple of Mars, that was called, FUor, Mars 
the auenger. 

22. In old tyme greate was the obseruaunce 
In old time the of sepulchres: and that porcion of mennes 
seruaunre of ' groundes, whiche was especially appoincted for 
sepuichreswas their monumentes or graues, was not broken 
^^^ ^' with any plough. Wherupon when one Vectius 
^i'saiedThe'n ^^V^Z with this poincte of religion nothing afeard, 
one Veciius had eared vp his fathers graue, Augustus mqde 



a pleasaunt ieste of it, saiyng : Yea Marie, this is brake his owne 

, , , , , . ., fathers Graue 

euen in verie deede to harroe and visite ones with a plough, 
fathers monument. 

IT Yet ones again he dalied with a worde of double 
significacion. For the latine verbe, colere, in one sig- 
nificacion is to.honour or to worship, and in an other 
significacion it is to tille or to housbande, as grounde 
or any other sembleable thyng is housebanded. 

|^g° Whiche I translate to harroe or to visite, as we sale that 
Christe harroed hel, and visited hell, when he descended doune to 
hel, Immediatlie after his passion, and pourged, scoured, or clensed 
thesame of soche soules as him pleased. And visiting is in En- 
glishe, a kind of shewing honour, as we visite sicke folkes and 
prisoners, to doe them honor and comfort., It had been a 
double amphibologie, ^g°_at lest wise for the Latine. If in 
stede of, monumente, he had saied, memoriall, as I 
thinke Augustus did saie in deede. For vnto vs high 
and holie is the memorialle of those, whom beyng out 
of this life departed, we honour, ^g° (as the memorialle 

of all sainctes & al folkes departed in the true faith of Christ. 

And the monumentes of persones deceassed, we cal 
their memorials by imitacion of the Grekes, l^°who 
callen thesame /ii/ij/AEia, or, /ivij/iiaTa. 

When the bruite of Herode his crueltee was 23. 
come to the eares of Augustus, howe that the 
saied Herode * had cbmmaunded to be murdred 
and slain, all the young babes in Jewrie, as many 
as were not aboue the age of twoo yeres, and , . ^ 

X? n , • I' 's better to 

how that emong the mo Herode his owne soonne be the hog of 
also had gone to the potte as well as the best : ^^'"'^ (f-'«<* 
Yea (quoth Augustus) it is moche better to be his soonne. 
Herode his hog, then his soonne? 

IT Herode was a Jewe. And the Jewes of a greate 
conscience & of a rule doen abstein from eatyng of al 
maner swines flesh. |gg° So that Herode would kill no swine. 

* It is, I thinke, to no christiati manne vnknowen, the moste detestable slaugh- 
ter qf infantes, whiche Herode caused to be slain round about the precinctes of 
Bethleem, for the hatred of lesus, and vpon the querele, that he had been mocked 
by the wise men that wer called, Magi, as appereth in the .2. Chapiter of the Gos- 




pell of Matthewe. And that the lewes should eate no swines fleshe, was prescribed 
vnto them in the law of Moses by God himself, in the .xi. of Leuiticus, and in the 
.xxiiii. of Deuteronomium. Where are forbidden all vncleane meates. And vn- 
cleane are accompted as many kindes of beastes, as doe not bothe dluide the hoof 
into twoo clawes and also chewe the cudde. 


Of Arms and 
of the taking of 
Alexandria^ it 
is noted afore 
in the .2, apo- 
phthegme of 
Sostratus an 
Alexandrine a 
man of special 
good vtter- 
aunce, but hed- 
dilie taking on 
hym to bee an 
Of philoso- 
phiers academ- 
iques is afore 
noted in the 
saiyng of 

Why Augustus 
would not at 
the first perdon 
emong other 
of the Alexan- 
drines, at the 
intercession of 


Ciiina the nef- 
fewe of Pompe- 
ius sought to 
destroy the 
persone of 

Augustus after the takyng and entring the 
citee of Alexandria, had graunted life to many 
perspnes, for Arius the Philosophiers sake : yet 
one Sostratus (a man in deede of a verie readie 
tongue, and especiall good vttraunce, but yet of 
soche sort, that he encurred the indignacion of 
Caesar, for that vndiscretly or harebrainlike, he 
would nedes in any wise bee reputed and taken 
for an Academique) he wold not hear, ne receiue 
to grace. But the said Sostratus, in ragged ap- 
parell, as one that had no ioye of the world and 
with his hore white bearde, hangyng doune of a 
greate length, begun to folowe Arius at the heles, 
whethersoeuer thesame went, hauyng euer in his 
mouthe this little verse of Greke. 

<ro(j>oi, <ro<^ovs ow^outriv ^v Ztriv <ro<l>oL 
Wise men, if in deede thai wise bee. 
Can saue wise men, and make them free. 
f By this craftie meanes he constreined Caesar in 
maner parforce, to geue hym perdone. ^g° Albeit Cesar 

perdoned him (saith Plutarchus in the life of Antonius) more for to 
deliuer Arius from enuie, then Philostratus from feare. For so 
doeth Plutarchus cal him, and not by the name of Sostratus. 

When he was now .40. yeres olde and vpward, 
and laie from Rome in Gallia, it was by present- 
mente brought vnto hym, that Lucius Cinna a 
yong gentleman of noble birth, that is to saie, the 
neffewe of Pompems, wrought treason against 
his person and went about to destruie him. 
Plain relacion was made, where, when, and how, 
the traitours entended to assaill hym. For thei 
had purposed & fully resolued to murder hym, 



when he should next be in doyng sacrifice. The A notable his- 

enditement and sentence of atteindour of the '^2^7aetr' 

saied Cinna was sette on werke to bee drawen "lade a perpet- 

and engrossed. But Augustus speakyng at that ISl^" 

present, many wordes to this and that sondrie had secretlie 

purposes, |^g° (Concemyng how Cinna should bee vsed) treason a- 

In Cometh Liuia the wife of Augustus. Sir, said gainst his per- 
she, do ye accordyng to the guise and vsage of ^°^^ '° *^''°'' 
the Phisicians, who at soche times as the custom- xhe counsail 
able medicins will not werke, doen assaie and of Lima the 
proue the contraries. With rigour and sharpe ^'s^geuen^o' 
execucion, yet vnto this dale little haue ye pre- her husbande. 
uailed, now an other while practise to be merci- 
full. Cinna being thus found and proued faultie 
or culpable, is not of power to doe a poinctes 
worthe of harme to your life, but to your renoume How Augustus 

, ., 1 jT Till vsed Cinna, 

he male doe moche good. Immediatly here- beyng found 

upon Augustus commaunded Cinna to bee sent and proued 

for by himself alone, to come and talk with high treason 

hym. As sone as he was come, the emperour against his 

caused an other chaire to bee set for Cinna. Then P"™"®" 

spake the Emperour & saied : First and foremust 

O Cinna, this I requirfe of thee, that thou dooe 

not interrupte ne breake me of telling my tale. 

Thou shalte haue tyme and leasure enough, to 

sale thy minde at large, when I haue doen. Thebenefites 

Then after the rehersal of diuerse and sondrie his of Augustus 

benefites towards Cinna, how that he had saued ^^rd^ Cinna. 

his life and pardoned hym, beeyng founde in the 

campe of his enemies : howe that he had releassed 

and graunted vnto him all his whole patrimonie 

and inheritaunce, ^g° (whiche of right he ought to haue 

forfaicted & lost) how that ouer and besides this, he 
had ornated, enhaunced or promoted hym, with 
the dignitee of a prebende, in a colledge of 
priestes : after the rehersall of al these thinges, 



he demaunded for what cause Cinna thought him 
woorthie to bee killed. Cinna being herewith 
vtterly dismaid, Augustus in this maner ended 
his chiding. Wei Cinna, nowe this is twise that 
I perdone thee of thy life, ones afore beyng mine 
open enemie, and now the second tyme a werker 
of priue treason against me, and going about to 
destruie me thy naturall Prince. From this dale 
forthward let amitee and frendeship begin be- 
twene vs twoo, let vs striue together, whether I 
haue more faithfullie to truste vnto, geuen thee 
thy life, or thou bounde vnto me for thesame. 
And foorthewith he offred vnto Cinna the Con- 

II Will ye knowe thende what folowed ? Caesar 
had of Cinna from thensforthe a verie assured frend, 
and when Cinna died, was made and left his sole ex- 
ecutour and heire. Neither was Augustus any more 
after that dale, by any person liuyng assaulted with 
any priue treason against his persone. 

26, Augustus vsed to saie naie, in maner to no 

nTT'saie^^^'' persone that would desire hym to any banquet, 

nay, almoste And SO being on a time receiued, and entreteined 

th^woulde'"^ ^^ ^ certain persone with a very spare supper, 

desire him to and in maner cotidian or ordinarie fare, when he 

any feaste or should departe from the maker of the feast, he 

banquet. ,.,..,. ' 

whispred softlie m his eare, nothyng but this : I 
Ti'tLid^f^ne ^^^ "^^^ thought my self to be so familiar vnto 

who had entre- thee. 

spare supper.^ ^ ^°^^ °*^^'' P™<=e ^0"^ haue enterpreted soche 
bare purueiaunce to bee a plain despite and mockage, 
but Augustus ferthermore saued the honestee of the 
partie that had desired hym to supper, imputing it 
vnto familiaritee, and that in the parties eare, lest 
thothers might thinke niggardship to bee vpbraided 
vnto hym, and caste in his teeth. What thing male be 


THE 11. BOOKE. 269 

more amiable than this courtesie, in so great a Augustus an 
Monarche, as at this daie vneth thirtie kynges set to- p^^^™^^^^ 
gether, were well able throughlie to matche ? 

Being about to buie a piece of purple of Tyros 2 7. 
making, he found fault that it was ouer darke Tyros anysie 
and sadde of colour. And when the seller said, pu^]e was^^ * 
Lift it vp on high sir, and then looke vp to it : ""^''e. 
Why then (quoth Caesar) to haue the people of 
Rome sale, that I go well be seen in myne 
apparell, must I bee faine to walke on the solares 
or loftes of my hous .' 

Augustus had a biddell verie obliuius, wheras 28. 
this sort of men ought chiefly emong all other 
thynges, to bee of specialle good memories, "^^^pp^^^^^l 
This biddell being about to go vnto the guilde '«« gaue vnto 
hall, demaunded of the Emperour, whether his beyngt 'fejowe 
pleasure wer to commaunde him with any seruice very obliuious. 
thither : Mary (quoth Caesar) take with thee our 
letters of * commendacion, for thou knowest no 
man there. 

IT And yet is it the proper office & dutie of soche The propre 
biddelles (who wer called in latin + Nomenclatores) to o*c« ^"<l ^utie 
haue perfecte knowlege and remembrauhce of the ° ^ ' ^ • 
names, of the surnames, and of the titles of dignitees 
of all persones, to thende that thei male helpe the re- 
membraunce of their maisters in thesame when neede 
is. Of whiche propretee was their name geuen them 
to. For thei were called Nomenclatores, by a woorde 
compouned of Latine and Greke mixt together. 

* Letters of commendacion, he meaned letters directorie, or letters of addresse, 
that is to saie, letters that should expressely contein, as well the name of euery 
person, that he had any matter vnto, as also the message that should bee doen or 
saied vnto thesame, that the biddell might not faill though he wrere of hymself 

■f Nomenclator is a vocable compouned of the Latine worde, nomen and of the 
Greke diccion KXyfrap a caller, reherser, or rekener. So that iiomenclatares, wer 
those that we call biddelles, to whom peculiarlie apperteineth to knowe by harte 
the names, orders and degrees of all persones. For their office was to call, and 
reken vp at all tymes requisite, all persones, as senatour, alderman, coraener, lorde, 




knight, esquire, gentleman, yeoman, freman, bondman, and eueiy partie accord- 
ing to his state, degree, hauour, office, or occupaoion. As for example, in courtes 
of lustice, persones sued at the lawe, or in solempne feastes (soche as in olde time 
the consuls, the pretours, and other hedde officers of Rome made vnto the citezens, 
and soche as now in London, and other citees and tounes of Englande, the Maiour 
make, doeth vnto the inhabitauntes, or the sergeanntes at the lawe, when thei be 
first created) the names of all the geastes, whom the feaster muste in the diner 
time haile, salute, and welcome eche paitie by his name, and accordyng to his de- 
gree. Thei did also attende on soche persones as stode for the consulship, the 
preatourship, the tribuneship, or any other of the chief offices, at euery chaunge, 
from yere to yere in Roome, and when neede was, shewed the partie that sued for 
the office, the names of those persones, whose fauour and voice thesame should sue 
and desire to haue towarde his eleccion and creacion. Wherefore Cato is moche 
praised in the histories, for that he duely obserued and kept the lawe, whiche lawe 
did forebid that any soche biddelles, should awaite on any persone suyng for an 
office, but would that euery soche suter, standing for any soch magistrate should 
knowe to salute and call euery citezen by his name, without the helpe of any Bid- 
delle to prompe hym. Soche Biddelles haue euery crafte in London, that knowe 
euery persone of that crafte that thei belong vnto, and their dwelling places, their 
degrees, their auncientee, who bee maisters of the crafte who haue been wardens, 
and wardens peeres, who be bachelers, who be in the liuerie, and who be not yet 
com to it. Soche biddelles haue the vniuersitees, whose office is to knowe who been 
regentes, and who none regentes, to presente the inferiour graduates to their superi- 
ours, at their circuites going, or at disputacions, at takyng degree of schools, at 
obites, at generall processions, or at other actes scholastical. And to vse and to 
place euery persone, accordyng to his degree, his auncientie of standyng, his dig- 
nitee, or his office, &c. And these biddelles maie well be called in latin Nomen- 

29. Augustus beyng yet a young thing vnder 
How Augustus mannes state, touched Vatinius feactly and after 
TatoTem- ^ pleasaunt sorte. For this Vatinius beyng eiuill 
bieing that he cumbred with the spiece of the goute, labored to 

appere that he had dene put awaie that impedi- 
ment, & made a proude bragge, that he could 
now goo a whole mile at a walk. I meruaill 
nothing there at (quoth Caesar) for the dales are 
of good length, more then thei wer. 

IT Signifiyng the other partie to bee not one whit 
more free from the disease of the goute, then he was, 
but the dayes to haue waxed longer. 

30. After the deceasse of a certain knight of Rome, 
it came to light and was certainlie knowen, the- 
same to be so ferre in debt, that the summe 
amounted to twoo hundred thousande crounes 
and aboue. And this had the saied knight, 


shaken of the 
disease, of the 


during his life tyme kept secrete. So when his 

goodes was praised for to bee solde, to the ende 

that the creditours might be satisfied and paied 

of the money, to bee leuied of the sale, Augustus 

willed & commaunded, the matresse or vnder- 

quilte of the knightes owne bedde chambre, to 

be bought for him. And to his gentlemen 

hauyng meyuaill at soche commaundement : It is 

a necessarie thing (quoth Augustus) for me (to J^^ ''efs^one 

the ende that I maie take my naturall slepe in beyng in great 

the night) to haue that same mattresse, on whiche jg^Jfuu^hin"" 

that man could take reste and slepe, beeyng 

endebted for so greate a summe of moiley. 

H For Augustus by reason of his greate cares, many The high cures 
a tyme and ofte, passed ouer the moste part of the p -ni,! °° 
night, without so moch as one winke of slepe. 

On a certaine dale, it fortuned hym to come 3 ^ • 
into the hous, where Cato surnamed the Vticen- ^"*'' .^/"^^ 

' . .... hiraselfe at 

sian, had enhabited in his life time. And so Ftica that he 
when one Strabo, for to flater Caesar, spake many "|f^i"°o™hT 
sore woordes againste the obstinacie of the saied handes of 
Cato,* in that he thought better to kil himself ^"'^'^ ^"''""'• 
with his own handes, then to agnise and know- 
lesre lulius Csesar for his conquerour, Whatso- „ . 

° ^ He that is con- 

euer persone (quoth Augustus) is vnwilling to tented with the 
haue the present state of a common weale, presentstate 

'^ ' of his time, is 

whiche is in his dales chaunged or altered, the- a good subiect 
same is both a good citezen, and member of a * ^" honest 
commenweale, and also a perfect good honest 

IT With one sole saiyng, he both defended the mem- 
orie' of Caio, and, also spake right well for the safe 
gard and continuaunce of hymself, puttyng al persones 
in feare from that dale forthward to set their myndes 
on new chaunges. For the present state was by the 
wordes of Caesar called, not onely thesame that was 





This latin 
diccion prae- 
sens, may be 
referred vnto 
the ty me paste, 
the tyme that 
nowe is, & the 
time to com. 

at that daie, when Augustus spake these woordes, but 
thesame also that had tofore been in the tyme of the 
conspiresie againste Julius Caesar. For this Latin 
diccion, praesens, emong the right Latine speakers, 
hath respecte vnto three times, that is to wete, the 
time past, the time that now is, and the time to come. 
As for example, we saie in Latine, of a man that was 
not contented with soche thinges, as wer in his daies, 
or in his tyme, praesentibus non erat contentus : wee 
saie also in Latine, praesens vita, this presente life that 
is now in ledyng, and thirdly, of a thing at a more 
conuenient, apte, or propice t)rme to bee doen, we saie 
in Latine praesens in tempus omittatur, bee it omitted or 
let alone vnto a time to seruice for it, that is to say 
vntill a propice t)rme of oportunitee, and occasion here- 
after to come. 

* Cato the Fiicensian, or Cato of f^tica, was Cato the elders soonnes sonnes 
Sonne. This Cato the younger in the ciuile battaill betwene lulim Caesar and 
Pompeius the greate, tooke parte with Pompeius. And when Caesar begun to 
weaxe stronger and to preuaill, Cato fled vnto Vtica (a toune in Aphrica, .30. miles 
from the citee of Carthago) and held thesame with a strong garrison of men of 
warre. And when he sawe that Caesar had conquered, & he must nedes bee 
taken, he killed himself, because he would not come aliue into the handes of Tulius 
Caesar. And because he did this at FUca, he was sumamed Fiicensis, Cato of 
f^tica, for a distinccion from the other Cato his greate graundfather. Read of this 
more in the .13. apophthegme of lulius Caesar. 

32. Like as Augustus had a great delit and phan- 

sie, to finde and make pastime at others with 

As Augustus wordes of ieste, consisting within the boundes of 

had a greate *^ 

delite to iest at honestee, SO would he wounderfull pacientely 
h^verie'Ti'''' ^^^^ merie bourdyng (yea some times beyng 
entlie take with the largest, and ouer plainly) either begun, 
or els reuersed backe againe vpon him. A cer- 
taine young gentleman, was come out of one or 
other of the prouincies vnto Roome, in the like- 
nesse of visage so meruaillouslie resembleyng 
themperour, that he made all the people fulle & 
whole to gase on hym. Augustus beyng hereof 
aduertised, commaunded thesaied young gentle- 
man to bee brought to his presence, and hauyng 


merie iestyng 


well vieued the straunger, he examined or op- 
posed thesame in this maner: Tell me young 
man, hath your mother neuer been here at 
Roome ? No forsoth sir (quoth thother). And 
perceiuing Augustus to ieste, reuersed scoffe for 
scoffe, saiyng more ouer in this wise : But mv "°^ Augustus 

/• W3.S 3.IlSWCr6Q 

father hath many a time and oft ? by ayong gen- 

ii Augustus being pleasauntly disposed, would fain he would haue 
haue laied vnto the yong'mans mother suspicion, as brought in sus- 
though he had his pleasure on her : but the ypng man his'soonnef^ 
with a trice, reuersed that suspicion to the mother of 
Caesar, or els to his sister : for the resembleaunce of 
the fauour or visage, did no more argue or proue the 
partie to be the sonne of Caesar, then to be his 
brother, or els his neflfewe, that is to sale, his sisters 
Sonne. I^g° For (except I bee moche decerned) Erasmus wrote 
it, sororis JiLium, and not, nepatem. ' For, nepos, is properly the 
soonnes soonne, or the doughters sonne, and not the brothers 
Sonne, ne the sisters soonne, as Augustus himself was vnto lulius 
Caesar, not nepos, but sororis filius, his sisters sonne, as afore is 

In the time while the * Triumuirate dured, 33. 
[tOctauius, Lepidus, and Antonius, all three to- 
gether holdyng thempire of Rome in their handes 
as lordes of the worlde] Augustus had written 
a great J ragmans rewe, or bille, to be soung on -v^hat Poiiio 
§ Pollio in derision and skorne of hym by name. saXie to Augus- 
At the same time, Well [quoth Pollio] poore I ,yritten rymes^ 
hold my peace. For it is not for mine ease, nor and raylinge 
it is no mater of iape, to write rimes or raillyng byname? ^"^ 
songes on that persone, in whose handes it lieth 
to write a man out of all that euer he hath. 

II Notyng the tirannicalle power of Augustus. And 
yet was not thesame Augustus any thing offended, 
with that franke and plain speaking of Pollio. 

* The Triumuirate here mencioiied was, when three persones beyng together con- 
federated as sworne brethren, jtooke into their handes by vsurpacion, the whole vni- 
uersall Empire of Rome, to be egually diuided emong them, and thei to haue the 

1 3 administracion, 



administracion, rewle, gouemaunce and ordryng of all thinges, and the one 
to maintein the other in al causes. Whiche begun in the tyme of lulius 
Caesar, beyng so coupled with Pompeius the greate and Marcus Crassus the riche. 

f And ended in the tyme of Axigustus, when thesame fell to like societee and 
composicion with Marcus Lepidus and Marcus Antonius. Of whiche is somwhat 
touched before, the first apophthegme of this Augustus. Ther were also in Rome 
diuers other Triumuirates, of whom it were superfluous in this present place to 
malse any mencion. 

t There was in Campania a toune called Fescenium, the first inhabitauntes 
whereof issued from the Atheniens (as Seruius reporteth.) In this toune was first 
inuented the ioylitee of minstrelsie, and singyng merie songes and rimes, for 
makyng laughter and sporte at marriages, euen like as is now vsed, to syng songes 
of the Frere and the Nunne, with other semblable merie iestes, at weddynges, and 
other feastynges. And these songes or rimes (because their originall beginnyng 
issued out of Fescenium) wer called in Latine Fescennina carmina, or Fescennini 
rythmi, or Versus. Wliiche I doe here translate (according to our English pro- 
uerbe) a ragmans rewe, or, a bible. For so dooe we call a long ieste, that railleth 
on any persone by name, or toucheth a bodies honestee somewhat nere. 

§ Because the name of Pollio is common to many, I haue thought good to ad- 
monish, that this Pollio was called Fedius Pollio, alias Atedius Pollio, a familiare 
frende of Augustus. Of whiche Pollio shalbee spoken more at large in the note of 
the .59. apophthegme of this Augustus. 

Curtius a 
knight of 


One Curtius a knight of Roome, a ruffler, and 
one drouned in al kindes of riotte and sensual- 
itee, when he supped on a time with Augustus, 
toke vp a leane birde of the kind of blacke 
mackes out of the dishe, and holding it in his 
hand, he demaunded of Caesar, whether he might 
sende it awaie. And when Caesar had thus 
aunswered, Yes, why should ye not? Thother 
without any more bones caste me the birde 

1^" (because it was so caren leane) OUt at the windoore. 

II Quickly taking an occasion to plaie that merie 
toye of ambiguitee, or double significacion of the 

^srf'hf R^me'' Y^ ^°'^'^ ^^^^''^' ™ Englishe, to sende. For meate 
to make dishes is sente from a table vnto mennes frendes, in the waie 
from their ta- of a present, which making of a dishe at a feast, was 

bles & sende it . 1 ■ ^i -n • ■• ■, 

to their frendes ^ *"™g emong the Romames, at al soche seasons or- 

dinarie, and a thing |^= (bothe by the significacion of the 

Thegentlenes Latine diccion, and also of the Englishe) is sent awaie, that 

tekinTthrnges ^^ ^°'''^. ^^^^^^ "^et was not Caesar oifended with 
doenformyrth. this merie pranke neither. 



Thesame Augustus, beyng not desired ther- 35. 
unto, had of his own mere mocion satisfied and Augustus of his 
contented the debtes of a certain Senatour, ^tk>n™ecret- 
whom he had in right good fauour, and loued lye payde .xx. 
verie well, and had paied doune for hym out of pou'Jf^s of 
his Gofers in readie money^ one hundred thou- debt for a 
sande Crounes. And the saied Senatour, after Rome whom 
that he had knowlege therof, wrote vnto them- he loued. 
perour to giue him thankes, nothing els but this : "°we ^ <=«■■- 

T, ^ . tain Senatour 

To me not a penie. of Rome 

U In the waie of mirth, pretendyng as though he had tanked 

had a querela to Caesar for that, whereas he had told paiyng a great 

out ready paiment to all his creditours, he had geuen summe of 

to hym for his owne part not a ferthyng. Suche hour- ™°cytours. '^ 
dyng as this, some other eagre persone would haue 

enterpreted and taken for ingratitude and vnthanke- hi^ly re- 

fulnesse, but this noble Emperour highly reioyced ioyced, if suche 

that the Senatour had so moche confidence and trust !^t'Jhe^f"affi-''' 

in him, that he durst be bolde to wryte vnto him after aunce in him. 
soche a familiare sorte. 

Licinius, whom Caesar of his late bondman 26. 
had made free, vsed euen of an ordinarie cus- Lidnius of a 
tome to geue vnto his old maister whensoeuer bondeseruaunt 
thesame begonne any newe werkes of building, ^2,^,^ and 
great summes of mony towardes the charges of enfranchesed. 
it. Whiche custome Licinius still continuyng, 
promised vnto Augustus against he should entre 
the erection of some new edifice whatsoeuer it 
was, one hundred thousand crounes by a bill of 
his hande, in whiche bille, after the summe of 
money expressed (whiche was marked and sette 
out with a capitall letter of C signifiyng an hun- 
dred, and a long strieke aboue the head of it, in 

this Wyse, C) ^^ whiche in writing Romain summes of 
money, betokeneth so many thousand pieces of coyne, whether it 
be gold or siluer, as the expresse letters doen signifie hundredes or 

scores, there stoode a space vacaunt. Caesar not 




How Augustus 
serued Licinius 
geuynge him 
by a bille of 
his hande a 
certain summe 
of money to- 
wardes his 

How Licinius 
serued Augiis- 
tus for dou- 
bleyng the 
somme of his 
bill of free gift 
made vnto him 

* Censura, 
in Rome was 
an office that 
wee call the 
highe consta- 
bleship, & he 
that bare the 
office was 
called C^or, 
high counsta- 
ble, or Lorde 
bis office was 
to enquier and 
examin of all 
persones how 

refusing soche an occasion, added an other .C. 
vnto the former summe that his late bondeser- 
uaunte now enfranchised had written, and so 
made it two hundred thousand ^i° (in this wyse cc5 
filling vp as trimme as a trencher the space that 
stoode voide, with his own hand, but forgeing 
the lettre as like vnto the hande of Licinius as 
could possibly be made. Whervpon he receiued 
at the daye of paimente double the summe of 
money that he should haue doen, Licinius ma- 
king no countenance at the matter, ne saiyng 
any woorde to it. But when Caesar not long 
after, pftsones entreed new buildinges, his old 
seruaunt touched him a litle courtesie for that 
facte, by making and geuyng him an other bille 
of his liand, of soche purport and tenour as fo- 
loeth : Souerain I shall depart with you towardes 
the charges of these your newe buildinges, as 
moche as shalbe your pleasure to appoincte me. 
H And did not expresse the iust somme how moche, 
or how little he would conferre vnto h3rm, that it 
might bee at his pleasure, to put in the bille as moche 
as he would himself, forasmoche as he had dubled the 
former somme at the other tyme. 

When Augustus was in the office * of Censour, 
that is to sale, of lorde Comptroller, or high 
Conestable. A cgrtaine knight of Roome, was 
by the waie of complainte presented vnto him, 
that he had decaid and wasted his substaunce. 
But the knight beyng brought to his aunswere, 
made due proofe that he had contrarie wise 
emended and encreased his substaunpe. And 
euen in the necke of this, it was laied to the 
charge of thesame knight, that he had disobeied 
the lawes, bidding eche man to marrie a wife. 
But he made his declaracion, and brought in his 



txialle, that he was Father of three children of they demeaned 

his owne bodie begotten by his lawfull wife. ^Tto^^u^jshe 

Whereupon thesaid knight thought not himself transgressours 

well, nor held him contented for to be freely ^^n^l'^wl"'' 

quite and discharged of these crimes, but vp- reade of Cen- 

braidyng vnto Caesar, his Hghtnesse_ of geuing ^'^^^^sen"" 

credence to reportes and enformacions, saied atours from 

moreouer in this maner : From henseforth Caesar Hjeir^de-'^"'^ 

when thou makest enquierie of honest persones, meanoure. 

geue it in commission to men of honestee. J^^ "f^"^ '^°"" 

° tinued m one 

IT After a metely plain sorte pronouncing, that those mannes hande 

war no honest feloes, whiche had presented vnto him ongg'^'tiie 

thinges manifestly vntrue. And by the waie laiyng yere there was 

shrewdly to the Emperours owne charge, in that he as" 'fere a 

1-1 1-1 , • „ . , .■ moustre of all 

made and auctnonsed soche surmuisers & pickers of the knightes 

querelas to be his deputies, or to represent his person. & gentlemen 

And this large talking also Caesar pardoned, for the ^hich"houlde 

respect and in consideracion that the partie was inno- passe through 

cent & giltlesse. . CenlouV^ if'' 

any war found a persone worthy blame, he was punished at the discretion of the 
Censour. And if the case so required he was deposed also from the ordre of 

Being in a certain mainour place in the coun- 38. 
tree, he toke verie euill rest in the nightes, by 
reason of an oule, breakyng his slepe euery halfe souWi^raue"! 
hower with her oughlyng. A launceknight or a turer serued 
soldiour auenturer beyng well skilled in foulyng, re^rdtog Wm 
tooke the peines to catche this Oulet, and vpon according to 
hope of some verie high reward, brought thesame '^ expectation 
vnto Augustus, who, after gannyng hym thanke, 
commaunded a thousande * pieces of money jnthe^so^V 
to be geuen him in reward. The other partie a.nd.36.apoph- 

tt\ 1. thesmes, is 

i^(bieause he thought, the reward ouer small) waS not taken for peces 

afeard, but had the harte to sale vnto the Em- of goide, & 
peror : Naie, yet had I rather that she line still, foVbr'isVpens" 
and with that worde let go the birde again. or els pieces of 

.,, , , siluer of the 

f What persone can but maruaill that socna a valuof adandi- 



pratori.d.ob. solain froward pranke should escape vnpunished in 
a pece or there- ^jjg goldior auenturer ? 

about, so that 

the thousand peces wet moche about the somme of twentie nobles sterlynges. 

The Frenche enterpreter translateth it flue and twentie crounes. 

39. One of the olde souldiours of Roome, when 
he was sued at the lawe, and in daunger of con- 
demnacion, came vnto the Emperour Augustus, 
euen as he wente in the open strete, desiiynghim 
of his aide, and to helpe to stande betwene him 
and harme, in the Courte before the ludge. 
C^sar out of hand appoincted to go with the 
feloe in his stede, one of his chief gentlemen, 
purposely chosen out of his owne traine, whom 
he required and charged in the suiters cause, to 
doe his true diligence. At these woordes the 
soldiour criyng out with an open mouth said: 
Iwis Caesar, when ye wer in daunger at the bat- 

*jcHum the tail of * Actium, I did not seke for a deputie, or 
peake of the assignev to fight in my steede, but I fought for 

countree of o j o ^ .,, ,, 

Epirus (that you myne owne handes, and euen with the 
is to sale, an ^ordes speaking, discouered the markes of 
to'aie'seaward, woundes receiued in thesaied battaill. Caesar 
soche an one shewed a red paire of chekes, and went euen in 
Migbeis mount his owne persone to help him in his cause, moche 
inCornewall) afeard lest he should seme not onely proude, 

where Angus- ii. 1 r 1 1 

tus discomfited but alSO vnthankiuil, 1^^ towardes soche persones as had 

Antonius & doen hym true and faithfull seruice. 
Cleopatra, and 

after .x.houres fighting, destruyed on the sea v. M. men, and toke all the nauie 
of Antonius, to the nomber of .iii. C. shippes. Antonius being so put to flight, 
Augustus recouered also his armie that tarried the comyng of Antonius on the lande, 
to the nomber of 18. legions of footemen, and 22. M. horsemen. At this Actium, 
after the vanquishing of Antonius and Cleopatra, Augustus builded a citee, whiche 
of that same victorie was called Nicopolis, for vikos, is a victorie, and 7rd\«, 
a citee. In this citee Nicopolis was there a noble temple, consecrated vnto Apollo. 
And the citte a free citee, inhabited with men of Augustus his sending thither. 

40. He had on a time at a supper, taken great 
pleasure and delectacion of singing children, 
brought purposely to syng afore hym, by one 



Turonius Flaccus, that brought theim vp in it 
for the nones, to get money by them, and had 
giuen to thesame for their reward Wheate, where- 
as his guise was to geue vnto others large re- 
wards of money. And so when Caesar an other "°^ Turomus 

' Flaccus made 

daie at supper, required to haue thesame boies aunswere vnto 
againe to sing before him, Turonius thus made an ^'^ff^'"*' "J- 

° ° ' quiiyngtohaue 

excuse: In faith (quoth he) thei are at the miUe. his boies syng 

•r TT 1 • 1 ^ 1 • ■/• /■ ■ before hym to 

1 Uporaidyng vnto Caesar his gifte of come in whom he had 
stede of money. Neither had he any punishement geuen in re- 
fer the worde that he had spoken, beyng not a man of ^^"^money^ut 
armes, that did continuall seruice in themperours wheate. 
warres, but a lewde bringer vp & seller of boies. 

When he returned to Roome, with all pompe 41. 
and ioilitee, from the victorie gotten at Ac- , 
tium, emong a greate multitude meetyng hym 
for to welcome him home, a certain persone 
bearing on his fist a crowe hauyng been taught 
to speake these woordes : All haile Caesar Em- 
peror moste victorious : Augustus being moche Augustm gaue 

^ 111 agreatsomme 

delited with this salutacion, bought the crowe, of money for a 
and gaue sixe thousande pieces of gold for hym. """"^ *^' ^^'^ 

° ,,,,.. lerned to speak 

The partener of him that had doen this feact, 
because no porcion of that liberal reward had 
come to his snapshare, did Caesar to weete, that 
the self same felooe had yet an other crowe to, 
which he besought of Caesar, that the feloe might 
bee compelled to bryng before him. When she 
was brought, she souned out plainly soche xhegoodnesse 
woordes, as she had learned) whiche were these : of Augustus m 
All haile Antonius moste redoubted conquerour. ii^fOTmacions"' 
Augustus being nothing stiered to anger, onely presented of 
commaunded the reward afore giuen to be ^uie?^" 
egually parted with the feloe that was the pro- 
moter of the later crowe. I^° Because he perceiued 
that his coraplainte, had proceded of mere malice and enuie. 





bought diuerse 
birdes that 
saluted him 
as they were 
taught to 

bought a Crowe 
that a poore 
souter had 
taught to 
salute him. 


serued a poore 
Greke poet 
geuing him 
of Greke, & 
howe he was 
serued of him 

Augustus being semblably hailed x)r saluted by 
a Popiniaie, commaunded her to be bought to. 
And meruailyng at thesame thyng in a Pye, 
bought her vp also. This example would not 
suffer a certaine poore Souter to be in rest, vntill 
he must take in hande the making of a crowe to 
a like maner salutacion. Who, when he had 
cleane beggered, himself with expenses, would 
euer now and then thus sale vnto the bird, when 
it would not saie after him : Both our labour and 
all our coste is lost. Yet in processe of tyme at 
last, by reason of continual beatyng it into the 
crow, he made thesame euen by strong hande, 
that she could soune the salutacion, so often 
ricited vnto her. And when she had therewith 
salued Augustus, as he passed by, Tushe, tushe 
(quoth Caesar) we haue enough of soche saluters 
as this at home alreadie: Anon the crowe re- 
corded al so the other wordes, whiche she had so 
often heard, brought out them also in this maner, 
Bothe our labour and- all our coste is loste. 
Csesar laughing hartely thereat, commaunded a 
greate dele more to bee paied for her, then he 
had geuen for any soche bird tofore. 

A poore Greke Poete (to creepe into the fa- 
uour of Augustus Caesar, vsed this facion. Euer 
when themperour should come doun from his 
palaice, the Poete would exhibite vnto him some 
Epigramme or other, in his honour and praise. 
And when he had oft times so doen in vaine, 
and Augustus sawe that he wold not leaue, he 
wrote out with his owne hande, a well made 
Epigramme of Greke, and sente it to the Poete, 
approchyng to meete hym, as one entendyng to 
recompense verses with verses. The Greke hau- 
ing receiued the Emperours Epigramme read it, 


THE II. BOOKE. 28 1 

and not onely in woordes, but also with counte- 
naunce and with gesture of bodie praised the- 
same, and made moche woundryng at it. And 
afterwarde, when he had approched to the littre 
that Caesar rode in, puttyng doune his hande into 
his threedebare pouche nigh penilesse, he tooke 
out a grote, or twoo or three, and putte it in the 
hande of Caesar, with these wordes : Not accord- 
ingly as your estate requireth, O Augustus, but 
if I had more, more would I geue : When all j,^^ liberalitee 
that wer presente, had taken vp a laughter ther- of Augustus to- 
ut, Caesar called his pursebearer or Coferer, and menne.^^'"^ 
commaunded him to deliuer vnto the Poete, an 
hundred thousande pieces of golde. 

H Niggardship in open presence cast in the nose of 
the Emperour happed well for the Grekes parte. 

lulia the doughter of Augustus, when she 44. 
came on a tyme to dooe her duetie vnto her , 

r -I • 1 1 ■ • 1 /v.,.. Augustus Of- 

father, perceiued his lyes to bee oflended with fended with his 
her ouer wanton and staryng araie, though he doughter luiia 

, , , . . „„ . , ° for going in 

would nothyng saie to it. Wherfore the next ouer dissolute 
daie folowing, her apparell chaunged into a more ^^'®* 
sadde sort, she enbraced her father. Then Caesar, 
who had kept in his grief the daie afore, was not 
hable likewise to kepe in his ioye and gladnesse, 
but saied : How moche better doeth this sadde 
sorte of apparel become the doughter of Augus- '^^ '^^^'•'s 
tus. The young Ladie had an aunswere readie luHa to Aii- 
quickely : Forsothe (saieth she) I haue this daie ff^*"' f" 
trimmed my self, to please the iyes of my father, gorgeus^oing 
and my yesterdaies araie was to please my hous- in her apparell. 

At a certaine sight of fightyng and tourneiyng, 45. 
Liuia the mother & lulia the doughter, had The diuersitee 
turned the iyes of all the people on theim twain, awaityng"o^ 
by reason that their traines wer so ferre vnlike, ^'«»« the 




mother, and 
lulia the 

Oi lulia reade 
more in the 
.63. apoph- 

The aunswere 
of lulia vnto 
her father 

her of her riot- 
tous coum- 
paignie of 


lulia the 
of Augustus 
begun to haue 
a white hedde, 
somwhat with 
the sonest. 

rebuked his 
doughter lulia 
for pluclcing 
the whyte 
heares out 


What lulia 
said to an 

the one to the other. About the persone of 
Liuia awaited a coumpaignie of menne sage and 
auncient, lulia came accompaignied with a sort^ 
of lustie young ruflers, & wilde merchauntes. 
Augustus therfore by letters, admonished his 
doughter lulia, to marke what great^ difference 
and oddes there was, betwene twoo women of 
high estate. She wrote to her father againe : 
Well, and these folkes shalbee olde to, when I am. 
U This aunswer if one doe interprete it in the good 
part, maie seme feately and properly made, if to the 
wurste, without either shame or grace. 

Thesame lulia begun somewhat with the sonest 
to haue white heares in her hed. And the so- 
daine comyng in of Caesar vpon her, tooke vn- 
awares the women, that had kembed her hedde, 
as thei wer pickyng vp her white heeres, & 
tooke vpon their clothes diuers of the heeres, that 
thei had plucked out of his doughters hedde. 
This matter Augustus made as though he had 
not knowen. And the tyme a preatie while 
passed forth, with communicacion of other mat- 
ters at last he brought in mencion of olde age. 
And by this occasion he demaunded of lulia, 
whether she had lieffer in processe of a fewe 
yeres, to haue an hore white hedde, or els to bee 
altogether balde. And when she had thus made 
aunswere : Forsoth father, of the twoo I had 
rather to haue a white hed : Why then [saied he] 
doen these damiselles all that thei maie, to make 
thee clene balde before thy tyme .? 

H With this pretie inuencion subtilly deuised, he 
tooke her tardie with a plain lye. 

To a certain frende of hers a manne of graui- 
tee, giuing her counsaill to frame her self after 
the exaumple of her fathers sobre and auncient 



maner of liuing, thesame lulia aunswered pertely aundem saige 
enough againe : He doeth not remembre (quoth hir^to^the°fru"/ 
luHa) that he is an Emperour, but I do remem- galitee of hir 
ber that I am an emperours doughter. 

Augustus setting twoo iesters together for to 48. 
plaie their merie partes in gesturing the one after 
the other by course, called the one of them a 
daunser, & thother a stopper. 

H Because the one was out of measure, full of his 
knackes and toies, and thother i^° (which when he 

should counterfaict to doe after hym, as he had doen afore, could 
come nothyng nigh to his facions) Seemed to doe nothjmg 

but to make pauses, and stoppe or let hym of his 

The inhabitauntes of Tarracon, for a glad token 49. 
of prosperous fortune, bringing him tidynges, that How Augustus 

, . , ^ J reproued the 

m his altare was sprongen and growen vp a flattene of the 
palmetree : Therby (quoth Augustus) full well Tarraconiam, 
appereth how often ye do sacrifice of incense in tidinges^ha^™ 

our honour. Date tree was 

. , , ,. . -1 ... , growen vp in 

IT That thei would fam haue attributed vnto the his altare. 
goddes as a miracle, he imputed to their negligence, 
who seldome or neuer, did sacrifice of burnyng incense 
in the altare of Caesar. 

* Tarraconia, a countree of Spaine, now called Aragousie. Tarracon, the chief 
citee of that counttee, where was an altare consecrated to Augustus Tarracanmses, 
the inhabitauntes of Tarracon. 

Thesame Augustus when the Galles had geuen 50. 
him a golden chain of an C. pound weight, & 
Dolobella prouing his mynd in sport, proceded How Augustus 
in merie communicacion, till at the last he saied, auoided Doio- 
Sir emperour I praie you geue me this chaine : goid^cSL^ 
Naie, (quoth Augustus) I had rather I might of him. 
geue you a garlande * ciuike or I wil rather gcue 
you a garland ciuike. 

H After a pleasaunt wittie sort, did he put back the 
vnshamefastnesse of one that craued to haue a rewarde, 




A garlande and yet had neuer been in battaille, ^p° (where he 
SJw nf h.'if miffht deserue a rewarde) and therefore a garland ciuike 

either of holie, ^ ..,.,• ^ a. x u j 

or els of oken was more meete for him, which was wont to be made 

leaues. of Oken leues, and of Holme leues, as the garlande 

triumphall of golde. Albeit, aswell castrensis corona, 

^g° otherwise called vaUaris corona, the garlande whiche was 
geuen by the high capitain of the Romains, vnto hym that first 
had enterprised to breake into the campe and tentes of the ene- 
mies, and ouer the trenches in the field,) as also COrofia muro- 
lis, the garlande murall (whiche was thesaid graunde capi- 
tain conferred to soche persone, as at the assaulte of any toune or 
fortresse, had firste scaled the walles, and braste into the toune or 
holdes of the enemies) and corona naualis otherwise called 
corona rostrata the garlande that was geuen to hym, that in bat- 
taille on the sea, had first horded any shippe of their enemies or 

els subdued any pirates) eueiy one of them ordinarily made 
of golde. Of whiche matter se Aulics Gellius in the 
.vi. Chapiter of the .v. volume. And the garlande 
ciuike, as a reward of more honour then any other, 
Augustus oflFered in sporte to Dolobella. For Suetoni- 
us teUeth that thesame Augustus (emong the giftes, 
wherwith men of armes wer rewarded for any worthie 
acte or feacte doen in warre) vsed of a custome, moche 
soner to geue golden trappour or bardes for horses, 
and chaines trappour, and whatsoeuer thing els was 
made of golde & siluer, then garlandes, vallares, and 
muralles, whiche (as touchjTig honour) were farre 
aboue the other th)mges. Whiche th)Tig excepte one 
men'of'armes ^'^^ knowe, the merie saiyng of Augustus hath no 
then garlandes grace in the worlde. ■ Albeeit as touchyng the stuffe 
thtt'were^Idi whereof euery of the saied garlandes was made, Gdlius 
of leaues. and Suetonius do square and disagree. 

* A garlande ciuike was called in Latine ciuica corona, whiche one citezen hau- 
ing been rescued and saued from killing in battaill, made and gaue to an other 
citezen by whom he weis so rescued and saued, as a testimoniall of his life saued 
when he should (but for the others aide and helpe) haue been slaine. And this gar- 
land was of more honour then any other gift, by manhode & prowesse marciall to 
be acheued (sauyng onely corona graminea, a garland of grasse, otherwise called 
corona oisidimmlis, a garlande obsidionaU, whiche was geuen to that persone, who 
by his aide & rescue, had saued the whole vniuersall armie of the Romaines, being 
besieged and beset, or on euery side enuironed with their enemies.) And yet wer 
there many garlandes geuen in battaill, of moche more price & value, then either 


The garlande 
Ciuike of more 
honour then 
any thyng of 
gold that was 
geuen for 
reward in 

would moche 
soner geue 
rewardes of 



of bothe aforesaid, as maie appere by the woordes of Plinius, which I haue 
thought good here to set, because it maketh to the declaracion & vnderstanding of 
this placei^ The garlande Ciuike (saieth Plinius) at the first was of holme, after- 
ward it was more fansied to haue it made of oken leaues with acornes. There be- 
longed vnto it many condicions and many circumstaunces were required, he that 
should haue it must bee one whiche firste of all gettyng vp to the walles of the 
toune, that he fighteth for in his own countree, hath slain whatsoeuer persone was 
so hardie to entreprise breking in. And one that had more desire to saue the life of 
one of his owne countreraen and feloes, then to slea his enemie. And how that 
thesame place where the deede was doen, the eneihies was like to haue enioied the 
same daie. And that the partie so saued, coiifesse thesame with his owne mouthe, 
'otherwise witnesses doen nothing auaile, & that he wer a citezen of Rome. Other 
forener coming to succour & aide the Romaines geue not that honour, though one 
saue a king. Neither doeth thesame honour passe the common rate in dignitee, 
though the high capitain be sembleablie rescued and saued. For the first founders 
would the highest of all to be in any that were a citezen whatsoeuer he wer. A 
Ciuike garlande ones receiued, it was lawfuU for him that had it ones geuen, to 
weare all daies of life after. If he came to any common plaies or open sightes, it 
is the guise euen yet stil that reuerence be doen to him, yea, euen of the Senate. 
He had aucthoritee to sit in the seates next vnto the Senate. He was exempted 
and chartered or priuileged from bearing almaner offices of charge, bothe for him- 
self, and his father, and his fathers father. 

When he had many diuerse waies both beauti- 5 ^ • 
fied and strengthened or fensed the citee of 
Rome, and had also for many yeres to come, as '^^^"^ame 
moche as in hym laie, made thesame suer and by him beiiti- 
safe from all daungiers, being proude thereof not ^^^ * fortised. 
without cause, he would often saie: I found prince^mlLbe 
Rome made but of Bricke, and I will leaue it of more roial then 

Ti/r 1 1 if he make the 

Marble. state of his 

H Nothing to a prince maie; be more magnificente realme better 

or regall, then if thesame doe meliorate and better the ■^^ carne^o^hir 

state of a dicion or roialme, descended and come to handes. 
his possession. 

When one of his men of warre begged shame- 52. 
fully of hym a thyng (what it was) & he had 

espied besides hym one Martianus, also coming UoweAugustus 

a pase towardes hym, whom he mistrusted, that P"' °^ '^° ""' 

^ ■' ' 1111 pudent crauers 

he for his parte to would beg hard on hym, ere he at ones, 
would haue a naie, he said : I will no more doe 
that thou desirest (good feloe myne) then that 
thyng whiche Martianus goeth about to craue on 



53. It was the lawe in Roome, that what person 
had killed his father, shuld be made fast in a 

The lawe for * sacke, (lS^& so cast into the riuer.) And yet waS not 

their'^f^h™.^'' this punishemente executed, but vpon the partie 
hauyng first confessed the case. Augustus 
therefore, to the entent that he would help saue 
from the moste greuous torment of the foresaid 
punishment, a persone arrained at the barre, for 
killyng his owne father, that all the world knewe 
to be so in deedej vsed this maner of examin- 
yng, and laiyng the matter against hym: In 
faith (I thinke for all this) thou diddest not kill 

The clemencie ^^^ ^^^^er. 

and gracious- IJ Dojoig enough to him for to make him saie naie 
iii^ministatae * ^^ *^^ matter. So great was the fauourablenesse of 
the lawe. this Prince in ministryng the lawe. 

* A lawe was made in Rome by Pompeius (& was of his name called, Lex 
Pompeia) that if any persone wrought the actuall deede of killyng his father or 
his Sonne, either priuelie or apert, thesame should bee sewed or fast knit in a poke 
of sacke clothe, together with a Hue dogge, a cocke, an adder, and an ape, and so 
should bee caste into the sea, if there were any nigh to the place, or els into the 
riuer : to the ende that being enbraked and hampered in the middes of those mor- 
talle streightes, he might euen in his life time begin to lacke the vse of all the ele- 
mentes, and that the aire should be taken awaie from him, while he were aliue, 
and the yearth when he wer dedde. 

54. He vsed commonly to saie, that there was 
Hastyng & nothing more vnconuenable for a perfecte good 

want of dis- ■, • .1 11. , . 

creoion, the capitame, then ouer moche hastyng, and vnaui- 
worste pro- sednesse, and he had almoste euer in his mouthe, 

perties that , . . r /- 1 -k n ^f > . \\ r 

maie bee in a ^nlS saiyng Oi (jrreke, oTreuSe /opaOEtus, axnpaA-qi yap 

goodcapitaine. ^oriv d/tetv(i)i' 17 ^paoTis oTpanjXaTijs. That is, hasten 

ffjrevSe f^jj.^ ^^^^ softely. For moche better is the capi- 

m^elhSt taine that will be sure of his matters, ere he go 

faire and about them, then he that is of courage, to ieop- 

softelie, or , . ,. . 

spede thee faire ^^^^ ^t all auentures. 

and softelie. ^ Qf whiche matter I haue saied at large in my 

werk of Prouerbes, whiche is entiteled Chiliades. 

"The Prouerbe, spede thee Jaire and softely, is a. lesson of 
counsaile, whereby all persones, and especially princes, rulers and 
capitaines are admonished, in doyng of thinges bothe to adhibite 



or shewe the quicke spedingf of actiuitee, and also the slownesse Prhtvwm con- 

of diligence and circumspeccion, according to that the saiyng of sulto : at vbi 

Sallustius ; nedefuU it is first to take good deliberacion, and assone consulueris, 

as thou hast ones consulted, expedient it is, not to forflow the mature opus 

tyrae of doyng when it cometh. est facto. 

Unto his wife Liuia, makyng instaunte re- 55. Augustus 

queste in the behalf of a certain Galle, to be in- graunte vnto 

corporated a citezen of Rome, he gaue a plain Liuia to haue 

naie, but that thesame Galle should enioye the incorporatedd- 
Priueleges and franchesses of Roome, ^i°(as if tezenofRoome 

he had been a citezen in deede) he PTaunted her of his ■<*«?«•'*«* wold 

own mocion vndesired: alleging that he could honour of the 

bee moche better contented to haue of his owne '^"'^^ °^ ^°™^ 

, ouer common. 

rentes and cofers abated, then the honor of the . ^^^ 

citee of Rome to bee made ouer common. ferred the dig- 

ir As one that preferred the dignitee or highe estate "omn^n weale 

of the common weale, before his owne singulare before his owne 

auauntage. smgulerauan- 

When he sawe at an oracion or proposicion, ^6. 
^g°(that he made vnto the people) a greate manie in 
vile apparell (readyng, palliatos, in stede of, 
pullatos, as I suppose verely the bokes of Sue- 
tonius should be) clad in great large cappes or 

mantelles, being very sore moued therewith, and died^'^bry'ne 

in an high fume, Loe (saieth he) these here been vp again in 

our Rpmaines, the lordes of the worlde, and ^emefecions' 

wonte in tymes paste, to go in auncient side decaied. 

IT So greatly did he studie and labour to calle backe 
again and to renewe the olde auncient facions, that it 
greued his harte to se the old goyng in apparell, and 
garmentes chaunged. 

Unto the people making great complaint of 57. 

the scarcitee of wine, & also of the dearth, he How 4«gjM««s 

' . aunswered the 

said, that by reason of great aboundaunce oi people of iJome 

waters, conueighed to ren out of newe conduictes complainyngof 

the sc3.rcit£c ct 

lately made by Agrippa his sonne in Lawe, there dearth of wine. 




many new con- 
duictes in i?ome 
for the con- 
ueighaunce of 
water to the 


Agrippa made was sufficietite prouision made, that men needed 
not to be in thriste. 

IT In deede Agrippa bestowed all his studie and 
diligence, from all places that could be, to prouide for 
the citee of Rome to haue aboundaunce of waters. 
And Augustus on the othfcr side, did sharpelie call 
backe the people from wine to water. 

Timagines a writer of Histories, had with open 
mouth spoken many bloudie wordes against 
Caesar, many slaunderous wordes by his wife, 
and many naughtie wordes by all his whole 
familie. Augustus sent him a gentle warnyng 
to kepe a better toung in his hedde, and to vse it 
more sobrely. And where the feloe persisted 
and held on still to make euill report, and to 
speake the worst, Caesar did nothyng els in the 
worlde, but forbid hym his hous. Well, Tima- 
gines solemnely afore audience read ouer cer- 
taine bookes, whiche he had written, conteining 
the actes or chronicles of Augustus, & when he 
had perused them, he cast them in the fier, and 
burned theim, for hatered of Caesar, as one cou- 
etyng to suppresse and extinguishe for euer, 
the memoriall of thinges from time to time, 
dooen by thesame. Yet for all this did not one 
of the Citezens of Roome kepe out of his doores 
thesaied Timagines, thus openly and stiffely 
shewing continuall enmitee against Caesar. In 
the hous of Pollio Asinius, he continued till he 
was a verie aged manne, and yet did Augustus 
neuer so moche as geue one foule worde vnto 
Pollio, in whose hous his enmie was lodged, & 
entreteined, sauyng that one time he saied vnto 
hym onely thus : erjptorpecj^eK, that is. Ye feede in 
your hous a beast, or a serpente, i^° (as if one should 
haue saied, your hous is a denne, or a caue for a serpent.) 


The incom- 
parable clem- 
encie & gra- 
ciousnesse of 
towardes one 
Timagines a 
writer of his- 
tories and 

for hatered 
of Augustus 
burned the 
bokes, whiche 
he had writen 
of his chronicle 

The lenitee of 
Augustus to- 
wardes Pollio 


And anon where PoUio addressed hymself to 
make his purgacion or excuse, Caesar broke his 
tale, saiyng: Naie, my friende PoUio, take the 
fruicion of hym hardely, take the fruicion of 
him. But when Pollio not being yet clene out 
of feare, said Sir Emperour, if ye so com- 
maunde, I will ere I drinke, forbid him my hous. 
Why (quoth Augustus) thinkest thou that I will 
so doe, which haue been the man, that once 
made you at one .' 

II For this Pollio had afore tyme been angrie and Vfhen Jugus. 
foule out with Timagines, and had none other cause (^^ d^kasur 
to surceasse his maugre, but that Caesar begun to take with Timagines 
displeasure with the saied Timagines. So the gracious- **". ''^s™ 
nesse of this prince tooke in good gree the eiuill will his frende. 
of bothe the saied parties against hym. 

It fortuned Augustus to suppe at the hous of 59. 

one *Atedius Pollio, alias -Vidius Pollio. And Thestraunge 

one of the bondpages of this Pollio, had by that AteHiis 

chaunce broken a drinkyng glasse of cristall ^"^^^ ^^^' 

. J a a m castyng his 

stone. Anon was commaundement geuen, that semauntes (if 
the paige should at ons be had awaie, and caste *^' displeased 

1 • T ■ "T^i r hym) ahue 

to his Lamproies. The lackey ran for succour, vnto Hue Lam- 
and fell doune at the fete of Caesar, mindyng to ?"'«=> 'T^'^'^^ 
desire of him nothing els in the world, but that stewe. 
he might dye some other kinde of death i^° (then 
to bee cast aliue vnto the liue Lamproies. Caesar beeyng • 

moued with the vnquod maner of crueltee com- 
maunded bothe the boie to be let go, and also as 
many cuppes, or other vessell of cristall as wer 
in the hous, to be broken in peces before his face 
euery one of them, and the stewe (where the 
Lamproies were kept) to bee filled vp with the- ^he sore rebuk 
same, in steede of the boie. And as for his that AugustMs 
friende Pollio he greuously rebuked : saiyng : |o«io™r°hi9 
Why, art thou soche an one so lordely, to bid crueltie. 
19 awaie 


awaie with thy men in all haste, euen from thy 
table, and to be gnawen piece mele, with a tor- 
mente of a newe sorte neuer seen afore ? If it 
chaunce a scalde cuppe of thyne to bee broken, 
The pitee and ^^^^ j.jjg bowellcs and guttes of a man, be toren 

mercifull com- . . ... ...r., , , • 1 1 ^ j • 

passion of Au- m pieces for it ? Wilt thou SO highly stande in 
gustus towards ^.j^j^^g Q^ne conceipt, or take, vpon thee, as to 


commaunde any bodie to bee had to death or 
tormentes, in soche place, where Caesar hymself is 
present ? 

* Of the straunge cnieltee of this Atedius Pollio, alias Vedius Pollio, Plinius (in 
the .23. chap, of the .9. volume, treacling of the nature of Lamproies) speaketh in 
this maner. Fedius Pollio a knight of Rome, and one of the familiare frendes of 
Augustus Caesar, deuised and inuented in this fishe, examples and waies how to 
doe cruell torment, casting in cloce pondes & stewes of theim, the liue bodies of 
bondmen condemned to dye, not as though the wilde beastes of the yearth, beyng 
for soche purpose vnsufEcient, but forbicause in any other kinde. he might not 
stande and loke vpon, while aliue man wer toren piece mele, in all the members 
and partes of his bodie at ones. Againste thesame Pollio for thesame crueltee 
doeth Seneca also sore inueigh. 

60. At a certain sittyng in iudgement, where vnto 
Corduha a the charge of one Aemilius Elianus of Corduba, 

citee in Spaine, ,1 . .. 1 • j 

where Smeca emong Other cnmes moe it was laied euen as one 
the Philoso- of the principall matters against him, that he was 
Poete Lucanus ^ Speaker of euill by Csesar : Augustus turning 
wer borne. to the accuser saied : I would haue thee to bryng 
The clemencie j^e in prooffes of that, and I shall make Elianus 

of Augustus 1 1 T 1 11 1 

towards Aemi- to knowe that I haue a tongue to as well as he. 

Urn Elianus ^jjj J ^;il ^elle as many good tales of hym 
accused for . , 

spekingwordes againe, 1 warraunte hym. 

agams ym. ^ ^^^ beyng contented with this manacyng, he 
made no ferther enquierie at all against the saied 

f 61. Unto Tiberius oftentymes by letters wrathfully 

This Tiberius complaining on soche persones as wer reporters 

Au^stus. of euill by Augustus, thesame Augustus wrote 

How Augustus letters againe, that he should not in that matter 

aunswered Ti- , . , . 

lerius wrath- be ouer eagre, as men of his age were wont to 




bee. For it is enough (quoth he) if wee haue 
the matter at this poincte, that no man is able 
to doe vs any harme. 

He neuer commended his soonnes vnto the 
people, but with this excepcion : If thei shall de- 
serue it, and bee founde woorthie. 

H Mindyng and willyng, that honour should bee 
deferred and geuen not vnto aucthoritee, but vnto 
merites and desertes. 

He had banished out of Courte lulia his 
doughter, and lulia his doughters doughter, yea, 
and after that Agrippa also, afore adopted and 
made his heire apparaunte, & afterward (because 
of his beastly and fierse or vnrulie facions) caste of 
again. At all times whensoeuer was made any 
mencioh of these three, he would customably 
crie out with this verse of Homere. 

aip o<t>iX.ov aya/[ids re fiiveiv ayovos T a,Tro\e(r9cu. 

That is, 
Oh, would God, would God, that my chaunce had 

To liue single, and die without children. 

Neither vsed he to call thesaid three persones by 
any other name, but three rotten apostumes, or 
three rennyng sores of his, or els his three can- 
cres. For he could moche more pacientely take 
the death of his children and kinsfolkes, then 
their dishonour. Yea, & ferthermore he prouided 
by his last wil, that, in case any thing should 
chaunce vnto lulia his doughter, or lulia his nice 
other wise then well, neither of them bothe should 
be buiried vnder his toumbe. 

He would take very greuously that any thing 64 
should be made of him, and set out in writing, Augustus 
but after a substanciall sorte, and by the princi- 


fully complain- 
yngof persones 
by hym. 


How Augustus 
vsed to com- 
mend his 
soonnes to 
the people. 


Augustus ban- 
ished out of his 
courte lulia his 
doughter, and 
lulia his 
doughter, and 
Agrippa for 
their lewdenes 
& vnthriftines. 

would sale, 
when any men- 
cion was made 
either of lulia 
his doughter, 
or lulia his 
nice, or of 
Agrippa, and 
what name 
he gaue theim. 

Augustus could 
better take the 
death of his 
children, then 
their dishonour 
would not haue 
his doughter 
lulia to be > 
toumbed J 
with hym. ' ' 

would not haue 
anything made 


of him in wri- pall best docrs. And to the iustices he signified 
rfubstancilu his pleasure, that thei should not suffre any 
sorte, and of poinct of vilanie to come vnto his name, by the 

metynges and comyng together of iesters, or of 

common plaiers of entreludes. 

H In deede in this behalf cousin to Alexander. And 
A^puhepw^ certes meete it is for the auctoritee of a Prince, euery- 
oi Alexander, where to bee mainteined in his roiall estate, without 

any maner spotte or touche of derogacion. 

5 1-_ An other certaine Isle, Hyng nigh vnto the Isle 
How Augustus of * Capres (into the whiche soche of Cssars 
ideHynsnt'h ^0"''^ Were wonte to departe for a season, as 
to the Isle of were desirous to seoiourne and repose theim 
Capres. sclucs) he commonly vsed to call in Greke, 

airpayoTToKiv as if ye should saie in Englishe, the 
Citee of dooe little. 

IT For the Greke worde airpayLa souneth in Englishe 
vacacion or resting from all buisinesse. 

* Capreae, arum, is a litle Isle beyond the toune of Surrentum in the realme of 
Naples, which realme of Naples is in latin called Campania. 

66. When he perceiued and feled his diyng houre 
VTaatAugustus to approche, he enquired of his familiares, beyng 

demaunded of,...,., ,, , ,. , 

his frendes a 1^* i^to his chamber to come and see him, whe- 
litle before his ther it semed to them, that he had any thing 
handsomely enough played his parte in passyng 
his life. 

^ Meanyng of the trade and course of this presente 
life, which many writers doen resemble and compare . 
vnto plaiyng a parte in an Enterlude. And then pro- 
nounced he this Greke verse folowing, customablie vsed 
to be soungen at the last ende of Comedies, exhibited 
and plaied to an ende. 

8oT£ KpoTOV Kol TOVTes ■^/uv fiera x<ipSs KTmqaaTt. 

That is, 
Clappe handes, in signe of conteAtacion, 
And with good harte, allow this our accion. 

t TAe 

^^91 w^Ji 


1[ TAe saiynges of lulius 

VHus Csesar, when he fled from Sylla, i . 

being yet but euen a stripleyng vnder Syiia a sena- 

. . ,1 . . tour of Rame, 

mannes state, came by chaunce mto and a man of 
the handes of pirates, beyng Cilicians. great power, 
And at the first when thesame pirates had ^uile battaille 
named the somme, whiche thei would require of with Manus, 
hym for his raunsome, he laughed the thieues to gd, and'^afterl 
scorne, as fooles that knewe not what maner ward wexed a 
feloe thei had taken priesoner, and promised of 
his own offre to geue them double their asking. ciUdans, the 
So, the time goyng on, wheras he was safely P«°P'= °f ^'''■i- 

ctcL whicnc is 

kept & watched, while the money was in fetchyng, 3, region in 
he would charge theim to kepe silence, and to ^V^ ** '^^^^ 

■ 1 -1 lit- 1-1 1 loming- vnto 

make no noise that might trouble him, while he syria, a good- 
was slepyng. Unto thesame Pirates he would liechampian 

, , . , , countree. 

euer read soche oracions and verses as he wrote 

being there, which his makinges, if thei did not The hault 

in the best maner allow, he would call them asses stomacke of 

luhus Oaesarj 

and barbarous fooles, and with laughter would beyng but a 

threaten to hang theim one dale on leobettes, y°"^ '"^"• 

whiche thing he did in deede to. For beyng let 

go, immediatly vpon the bringyng of the money, (^^^^^^j^^jj 

which the pirates patished for his raunsome, men vp the pirates, 

and shippes gotten together out of the countrie ^^^^°"^ ^^ 

of Asia, he caught the self sam robbers, and prisoner. 

hanged them vp, but first hedded, that the seuer- 

itee might not be vntempred with mercie. luiius Caesar 

„ „ , 1 ,- 1 , moste like in 

U Doe ye not here euen at the first chop se and facidns vnto 

knowe of old, the nature and facions of Alexander the Alexander iia. 
great, to whom no irieane thing could be enough ? greate. 

1^^ Because the woordes of Plutarchus in the life of lulius 
Caesar, seeme to geue no small light to the vnderstanding of this 
present place. I haue thought it worthy the doing, to annexe the 



same at large. Sylla rulyng the roste, & bearyng all the stroke 
in Rome (saieth Plutarchus) was in minde and wille to take awaie 
from Caesar, Cornelia the doughter of Cinna the dictator (that is 
to saie, the lord great maister, or the lorde comraaunder.) Whiche 
thing when he could neither for fear ne for hope, that is to saie, 
neither by foule meanes, nor by faire meanes bryng to passe, he 
stopped her dourie as forfaicted to the chamber of the citee. As 
for the cause of enmitee betwene Caesar and Sylla, was the alli- 
aunce of Marius and Caesar. For Marius the elder had to wife 
lulia the aunte of Caesar, of whom was bom Marius the 
younger, Gaisars cousin germain (thei twoo beyng sisters chil- 
dren.) When (Sylla settyng and bestowyng his minde, care, and 
studie about other matters, after the doyng to death and slaughter 
of many a persone, in the tyme while he reigned) Caesar sawe 
hymself to bee nothyng at all regardeii of hym, yet did not the 
same Caesar shrinke, ne spare, being euen a very child of age, to 
steppe to the people, and to entre suite with them for the obteinyng 
of a rorae, dignitee, or proraocion, in the ordre or college of priestes, 
whiche dignitee he was put besides, and could not obteine, by rea- 
son that Sylla was not his friende, but against hym in his suite, 
Sylla coritinually from that tyme forthward, deuisyng and con- 
sultyng how to destroie Caesar, and to rid hym out of the waie, 
where certain persones auouched to be contrarie to all reason and 
conscience, to doe soche a yong boie to death. Sylla affirmed 
them all to bee more then madde, if thei did not in that one boie 
alone, espie many soche as Marius, When this saiyng came to 
Caesars eare, he went for a space about from place to place, and 
laie hidden emong the Gabines (a people in Italic not fer from 
Rome) afterward, while he nightely remoued from one lodgyng to 
an other, though he wer verie sickely, it chaunced hym to come 
into the handes of Sylla his soldiours, then scouring the countree, 
to take all soche persones as laie lurking there in any place, and 
at the hande of Cornelius the capitain of the saied Launce- 
knightes, he raunsomed hymself for two talentes. Upon this, 
taking his waie to the sea, he tooke passage ouer into Bithynia (a 
region of Asia the lesser, buttyng fore right ayenst Thracia) vnto 
Nicomedes the king there, with whom no long tyme hauyng made 
abode, as he wente doune from thens, he was taken about Phar- 
macusa (a little Isle in the sea of Salamin, not ferre from the region 
of Attica) by a sort of pirates, whiche at that present season, 
with greate shippes of warre, and with whole nauies out of nom- 
ber, helde and kepte the possession of all the seas about. By 
whom when at the first wer demaunded of him .xx. talentes for 
his raunsome, he mocked them, for that thei knewe not what maner 
a man thei had taken, and therefore of hymself he promised to 
geue them .1. talentes. Then sendyng his folkes abrode, some to 
one citee and some to an other, iet spedie leuiyng of thesaid 
money, hymself remainyng prisoner emong the moste vncourteous 
Cilicians, with one and no mo of his familiare frendes, and twoo 
seruauntes. But as for the saied Cilicians he had in so vile repu- 
tacion, that as often as he was disposed to laie hym doune to 
slepe, he would sende one streightly to charge arid commaunde 
theim to kepe silence, and to make no noise. And makyng de- 
mourre there emonges them with greate sufFraunce .xl. daies 




lack3rng twoo, and vsying them not as kepers, but as seruauntes, 
and garders of his bodie, he would prouoke theim now at gamyng, 
now with prouyng one or other maisterie, otherwhiles wiityng 
verses and oracions, he would desire them to geue hym the hear- 
yng of thesame, and if thei did not highlie esteme his doinges he 
would plainly without any courtesie call theim fooles or loutes, and 
barbarous feloes, threatening theim vnder the cloke of laughyng 
and sporting, to hang them euery one on the gaJoes. In whiche 
thinges thei like fooles tooke greate ioye and pleasure, as attribu- 
tyng all that jilain and franke speaking vnto iesting and sim- 
plicitee. And immediatlie vpon the bringing of the money for his 
raunsome, from the toune of Miletum, and the deliueraunce of the 
same, beyng set again at his libertee, a nauie of shippes euen 
with a trice furnished & set out from the hauen of the Milesians, 
he made vpon these Pirates, whom liyng yet still at rode with 
their nauie all at reste and quiete about thesaid Isle, he toke and 
subdued almoste euery one. And so all their goodes and money 
taken from theim, he laied the ieloes faste and suere in irons at 
Pergamus (a toune in Asia, & a prouince of the Romaines) and 
went vnto Julius the chief iustice, hauing at that time the ordring 
of the prouince of Asia, vnto whom it belonged to punish soche as 
wer taken for any trespace. But the saied lulius rather hauing 
iye vnto the money (for it was no smal somme) saied that he 
would at leasure, se what was to be doen with the persons whom 
he had taken. Wherfore Caesar, when he sawe his tyme, biddyng 
him farewel, toke his iourney vnto Pergamus, and hanged me all 
thesaid thieues on ieobettees, from the first to the last, accordinglie 
as he had ofte times made promise vnto theim, while he abode in 
the Isle, &c. 

When he made suite and labour to haue the 
dignitee of high * prelate or ordinarie at Roome 
(Quintus Cajulus, a manne of right high dignitee 
and power emong the Romaines, standyng in 
eleccion with hym for thesame office) vnto his 
mother bryngyng him going to the gate : Mother 
(said he) this daie shall ye haue your sonne, 
either the high prelate, or els a banished man. 

H An hault courage toward, and that could in no 
sauce a bide to be put backe. 


What lulius 
Caesar saied 
to his mother, 
when he stode 
for the dignitee 
ofhighe bishop 
in Rome. 

lulius Caesar 
a man of a 
haulte courage 

* There was in Rome of old antiquitee a certain college, that is to say a com- 
paignie or feloship of magistrates, to whom apperteined the ordering, ministering, 
executing and iudging of all sactes, of all holy rites, ceremonies, funeralle obse- 
quies, & of all other causes that in any point concerned religion. And thei wer 
called Pontificis. And there were of them twoo orders, that is to wete, inferiours and 
superiours, as if ye should sale (at lestwise in case the terrae maie serue) bi- 
shoppes and archbishops. And emong them was one hedde, that was called 
summus Pontifex, the highest prelate, and as ye would sale : the chief ordinarie, to 
whose power and aucthoritee belonged to make constitucions, concernyng al the 



saied rites, ceremonies, and all poinctes of their religion, and to see reformadon of 
allinferiour magistrates, encurryng any contumac.e, contempte, or isobedience. 
This magistrate was iirste instituted by Numa Pompihus the seconde kyng of 
Rooms. , ■ , 

3. His wife * Pompeia, because she was m greate 
*iuiius Caesar slaunder (as one that had misused hirself with 
forsooke and ^lodius) in decde he forsoke & put awaie from 

put a.w3.ic nis '■ j ■ .1 

wife Pompeia. him. But yet when Clodius was vexed m the 
This Pompeia j ^ arrained for thesame matter, Caesar 

was Caesars *''■»») "»'" _ 

.iii. wife, as being called forth for a witnesse, reported no 
witnesseth m ^ i j^jg ^jf^^ ^nj ^hcH the accuscr 

Plutarckus, ^^•■'■^ • ^ j 

his firste wife saied, Why then hast thou made a diuorce with 
was Cornelia ^ , ' Forsothc (quoth he againe) because the 

the doughter *'^ " ? , i i r 

of Cinna afore wife of Csesar ought to be pure and cleare from 

mencioned, by jj gl^under tOO. lSS° as well as from the crime, 
whom he had . 

a doughter H Besides the witnesse of the aunswere, his cimlitee 

whiche was ^'^0 male well be praised, that he spared to defame 
afterward his wife whom he had abandoned. 

Pompeius A When he read the chronicle of Alexander the 
the greate. ' g^gate, he could not forbeare to water his plantes. 
h^rrerie rtie'" And to his frendes he said : At thissame age 
actesof^Zej;. (quoth he) that I am of now, Alexander had 
nof hold°"^'* subdued Darius, and I haue not yet vnto this 
wepyng. daie, dooen so moche as any one valiaunte acte 

of prowesse. 
The ambicion ^ Sudonius writeth this thing to haue chaunced, at 
ofluliusCaesar ^jjg^^ ^^^ Caesar beyng lorde * president in Spain, & 
* After that jjdyng his circuite, to holde the graunde iuries orlawe 
i?ome had sub- daies, in tounes appoincted for sises and sessions to 
dued many he kept, had seen the Image of Alexander in the tem- 
dTfrom'y*re ple of \ Hercuks within the Isle of Gades. But would 
to yere, create God soche a nature as this, would rather haue vsed 
eu^ ^^eueraU ^^^ forwaidnesse and quicke spirite, in taking after a 
prouince, that prince of a sober sort, then after one that would be 
thei had a seu- perelesse, & alone aboue aU others. 

eralle magis- 

trat, who was called Praetor, a lorde presidente. To whose aucthoritee apper- 
teined the determinacion of causes, and the redresse of all matters, concerning 
iustice and lawe. A magistrate of moche like sort, as is here in Englande the lorde 



president of the counsaill in Wales, and the lorde presidente of the counsaill at 
Yorke, sauing that the Praetor of Rome had the assistence, aide and maintein- 
aunce of men of armes, wheresoeuer he wente to kepe sises, sessions, courtes or 
lawdaies, or to sit in iudgemente. 

t In the moste ferthest part of Spain, beyonde Granado westwarde are twoo 
little Isles called, Gades. In the lesse of these twoo Isles, was a citee called lulia, 
inhabited all with citezens of Roome. There W£is also in thesame a temple, dedi- 
cated vnto Hercules, in whiche it is thoughte by many persones, that the twoo pil- 
lers of Hercules wer, whiche pillers wer of brasse, eight cubites high a piece : 
whiche Hercules (when he had per^grated all the worlde, as ferre as any lande 
went) did erecte and set vp for a memoriall that there he had been. 

As he passed by a beggerie little toun of cold 5. 
roste in the mountaines of Sauoye, his compaignie 
that were with hym, puttyng doubtes and 

questions, whether in that dog hole, also, wer The ambicion 

sedicions & quereles for preeminence and supe- oUuUusCaesar 

rioritee, as there continually were in Rome, he potuere pati 

staled and stoode still a pretie while musing with Caesarue pri- 

hymself, & anone. Well (quoth he) I promise you, ue paremf 

I for my part had lieffer to bee the firste, or the ^^^^-^^^ Caesar 

chief man here, then the seconde man in Rome, could abide to 

IT This certes is euen verie it, that is written in the ^^^^^ ^ "or^"" 

poete Lucanus, that neither Caesar could abide to Pompeius to 

haue any man aboue hym, ne Pompeius to haue any ^^"^ ^"^ ™^" 

He saied that thinges of high enterprise (be- 6, 
cause thei are subiecte vnto daungers, and wer 

greate) ought to bee executed and dispetched -fM'™* Caesar 

out of hande, and none aduise ne deliberacion to terprises'fo bee 

bee taken of theim, because that to the goyng g^en through 

through with soche matters, celeritee doeth verie ^ut castyng of 

greate helpe, and castyng of perilles dooeth any perilles. 
plucke a manne backe from bardie auenturyng. 

When he departed out of the prouince of 7- 
Galle, to matche against Pompeius, assone as he 
was ones passed ouer the flood of Rubicon, now 
(saieth he) be * it past casting the dice again 
(®^°as if he should haue said, now happe what shall hap, let , "^c a « 
altogether turn which waie it will.) 

^ Declaryng 


f Declaryng that he was vtterly mynded to put all 
in hasarde to make or marre, & to bee man or mous. 
For the said floud of Rubicon disseuereth the Galk 
Cisalpine from Italic. 

* There is a prouerbe, omnem iacere aliam, to cast all dice, by whiche is signi- 
fied, to set al on sixe and seuen, & at al auentures to ieoperd, assaiyng the wild 
chaunce of fortune, be it good, iDe it bad. Therefore when Caesar saied : be al 
dice alreadie cast. His meaning was, to bee now ouerlate to repente that he had 
doen, or to cal again yesterdaie. And therfore that he would now cast no more 
peniworthes in the matter, but go through with his purpose, chaunce as it would. 
Cadat aleafati (saith Lucanus in the persone of Caesar against Pompeiiis) alter- 
utrum mersura caput, that is, Let the dye of fate, chaunce as it •will, Thone or other 
of our Hues to spill. Euripides, Plato, Terence, Plutarchus, Lucianus, and other 
writers mo, liken the life of manne to the game of Dicing, in whiche plaie, what 
to caste lieth not in our handes, but onely in chaunce and fortune, but that that we 
haue ca^te, wee maia with policie, conueighaunce, and good orderyng, if it bee 
well caste, vse and applie it to our comraoditee, if the contrarie, yet tempre it the 
lesse to hurte vs. 

8. When Pompeius had forsaken Rome, and had 
fled to the seas, Metellus the high treasourer of 

Metellus letted ^i -.i ^ 1 /- 1 • 1 • , /• • 

Caesar going Kome withstoode Caesar, being desirous and fain 
aboute to taice to take money out of the treasurie, and shut vp 
the treasure thesame treasurie fast. But Csesar threatened to 
of Roome. slea him, whiche woorde when it had astouned 
the saied Metellus, I wis young man [quoth 
The manacing Cassar] this thing was more harde for me to 

of gireate men. speak then tO do. 

IT Meaning that it was in his power euen with a 
beck of his hed, to put to death whomsoeuer he war 
disposed, forasmoche as whersoeuer he went, he had 
with hym a bende of harnessed menne. 

9. At a toune of * Durach he taried, lokyng that 
* Durachium ^q soldiours footemen should bee sent thither 

or Dyrrachium 1 r j. 

a toune in iif a- vnto hym from t Brunduse. Which thing foras- 

cali'd^*'-? moche as it was very slacke and long in doyng, 

num, but the gettyng hym priuelie into a little foist, he assaied 

Romaneswhen ^q pagse ouer the sea of Adria. And the vessell 

thei had con- * 

queredit, would beyng euen wel nigh ouerwhelmed and sounken, 
called oli^a-" ^'*^ *^^ maine swellyng sourges of this fierse 
cAiam, this was sea, vnto his pilote being now clene in despair to 



escape drounyng, and thinkyng to be no waie when he went 
but one, Caesar opened who he was, saiyng : Put Po^ehlt 
thy trust and affiaunce in ladie Fortune, and fBmndusium 
weete thou well, that thou carriest Caesar in this ^ '°""^ '" *« 

,. , , . , royalme of 

little boate of thyne. Naples, liyng 

„ TT r 1 II, vpon the sea 

1j JHe was of scene excedyng hault courage, as of Adria, from 

though he had had bothe the goddes, and fortune euen which Brun- 

at his owne will and commaundement But yet at passWe ouer 

that present season the rage of the tempeste wexyng into Grece. 

stil worse and worse, he was letted of accomplishing The excedyng 

that he had entended. But assone as his souldiours haulte courage 

<l!^°that wer alreadie at ZlwracAj had knowelege of this 

his doyng, thei came fulle and whole rennyng vnto '^^ hartes of 
Caesar, and tooke verie greuously, if thesame looked ^^^^ towardes 
for any mo, or other bendes of men, as hauyng some hym. 
mistruste in theim. 

But when it came to the battreyng and triall 10. 
of strokes, Pompeius wone the field, but he did Pompduswone 

^ r , L- -i i^i ^^ ^ ..^-^ , the first felde 

not lOlOWe his victory to the VttermOSt ^g°(as he against Cocrar 

should haue doen,) but reculed backe to his campe. 

Then saied Caesar, This dale (quoth he) the vie- no ^iii (sa^ed 

torie was in the possession of our enemies, but Caesai>-) howe 

thei haue not a capitaine that can skille how to 

vse victorie, when he hath it. 

When Pompeius had commaunded his armie, n. 
albeet thesame wer prest and in full readinesse Pharsaium or 
to fight at Pharsaium, yet there to demourre, and ph^rmiia°'a. 
to tarrie the comyng of their enemies : Caesar c'te^ in Thes- 
auouched hym to had doen ferre wide, in that he ^ides S which 
had by soche delaie and tariaunce, in maner Coesa»- van- 
killed the habilitee, the fiersenesse, and a certain ^^^.^ "'"' 
diuine inspiracion of his souldiours hartes, beeyng ^«^^"* Caesar 
fully appoincted and redie to fall vpon their ^^^^ not onUe 
enemies. ■" ^^ fortune 

of battail, but 

IT So greatly did Caesar contende and striue with also in the 

Pompeius, sJ'P^'ence. 



Pompeius, not onely aboute the fortune of battaill, but 
also in the experte knowlege of warre kepyng. 

1 2. When he had euen at the first choppe of en- 

* Phama countreyng, vanquished * Pharnaces, he wrote 

or Pharnaces briefly to his frendes after this sort : I came, I 

kyngotPontus, looked, I Conquered. 

& soonne of '■ 

Mithridates, «] Signifivng the greate celerite and spede of doyng. 

whom beyng 

his owne father he persecuted, and at length droue to kil himself. For he fauoured 
Pompeius making warre against Mithridates. And in fine thesaied Pharnaces 
rebelling against Caesar, was by thesame discomfaicted, vanquished & driuen out 
of his countree. This feloe (saieth Lucius Floras, who writeth an abbridgement of 
the Chronicles of Home, out of the histories of Titus LiuiusJ was by lulius Caesar 
euen at one felde, & yet not that al foughten, so troden vnder feete, as it had 
been a thing with a flashe of lightenyng, sodainly crummed to dust and pouther. 

Scipio a noble 
capitain of 
Of Catoisafore 
noted inthe3i. 
apophthegme of 
Augustus Cae- 
sar, ■where vnto 
is to be added, 
that Caesar 
made all the 
speede and 
meanes pos- 
sible to haue 
Cato aliue, and 
when he could 
not, he wrote a 
enesse against 
him, whiche 
he entiteled 


What lulius 
Caesar said 
when he was 
warned to he- 
us £sf Dolobella 
lobella fat and 
well coloured. 

After that the soldiours and men of armes, 
whiche folowed Scipio in Afrike wer fled, and 
Cato being vanquished by Caesar had killed him- 
self at Vtica, these were the woordes of Csesar : 
I enuie to thee O Cato this death of thyne, sens 
thou haste enuied vnto me the sauyng of thy life. 

f Caesar thought it a thyng like to redounde highly 
to his honour and renoume, if soche a noble man as 
Caio hauing been ouercomed in battaill, shuld be 
bound to hym, and no man els for his life. But Cato 
rather chose death with honour, then after the oppres- 
sing of the publike libertee and fredom, to be as a 
bondseruaunt to any persone. And therefore Caesar 
enuied vnto Cato the honor of soche a death because 
he had enuied vnto Caesar the laude and praise of 
sauyng the life of Cato. 

Persones not a fewe (because thei had Anto- 
nius and Dolobella in great mistrust i^° lest thei 

shoul'd conspire and werke some treason against CaesarJ gaue 

warnyng vnto thesame, that he should in any 
wise beware of them. Tushe, no no (quoth 
Caesar) I feare not these ruddie coloured and fat 
bealied feloes, but yonder same spare slender 


THE 11. BOOKE. 301 

llkragges, & pale salowe coloured whoresoonnes, Brutus & Cas- 
shewyng with his finger Brutus & Cassius. p^g. ^^^ ^" 

II Neither did his suspicion deceiue him, for of Brutus & Cas- 
them .2. was he afterward slain in dede. Of which '^i^^^^^* ''"''"* 
matter soch as be learned male reade Plutarchus and 

Communicacion beeyng on a tyme in a supper 15- 
season begun, what kinde of death was best, he ^^j^ /Ite"^ 
aunswered without making any bones : That is Caesorthought 
sodain & nothing thought on. '° '°^ ''^^'''■ 

II And that he iudged to be best, chaunced to him 

m deede. 1^^ Plutarehus saieth that he supped thesame time 
(be3mg the daie next before his death) at the hous of Marcus 
Lepidus, his greate and faithfull frende. 

In a certain battree he caught fast by the 16. 

hedde and the cheekes, the standarde bearer of yS'.e" °^^ °^ 

one of the legion called Marciall, hauing turned standarde 

his backe to flee, and plucked backe the con- bearers wold 

trarie waie. And stretching forth his hande to Caerarpiucked 

his enemies ward, saied : Whether goest thou •'™ •'^•=''6 by 

awaie thou feloe ? Yonder been thei, that wee towards his ^° 

fight against. enemies. 

IT Thus with his handes he chasticed one persone The waie to 
and no moo, but with these sharpe and poinaunt winne victorie 
woordes, he cleane put awaie the fearfull tremblyng of & ^g „„„£ ' 
al the legions, & where thesame wer at the very poinct awaie from 
to bee discoumfaicted, he taught theim a lesson to *^ enemies, 
winne the victorie. 

After that Publius Mimus, a plaier of wanton 1 7. 
enterludes, and other iestyng toies had on the „ 

. 1 11 1 • "''w lukus 

staige m open presence, ferre passed all his Caesar gaue 
feloes, and emong them one Laberius ^i° a maker iudgemente of 

, . ,. ^ Laveriusheyag 

& a plaier as Publius was, tnesame lullUS Csesar prO- ouercomed by 

nounced the sentence of iudgemente in this wise. Publius Mimus 
Caesar shewyng thee O Laberius, all the fauour p"ai^ng?^ ^" 
that maie bee, thou art ouercomed of the Syrian. 

51 For 


^ For thesaied Publius was in condicion or state of 
liuyng a bondeman, Sr of nacion or countree a Syrian, 
borne. Ferre a waie is he left behind, that is ouer- 
comed the iudge beyng his frende, or shewjTig hym 

fauour. I^P° And the iudge beyng but indifFerent, it was to to 
ferre oddes, that a. Syrian borne should in Roome ouercome a 

1 8, When Caesar saw in Rome, certain aliens that 
What luiius -^yg^ riche and welthie persones, carriyng aboute 

Caesar said . . '■ ,,i., 

whenhesawin the streates in their armes and bosomes, httle 
Rome straun- young dogsres and apes, & to make all sporte and 

ffers came 

young puppees plaie with thesame, he demaunded whether the 
& in their women in their Countree, did bryng foorthe no 

armes to plaie , ., ,' ^ o 

withall. children. 

IT Meanyng that there were no soche young whelpes 
of any kinde, more pleasaunte to plaie or finde pas- 
time withal, then their own httle swete babes. Flu- 

PeWcteapoble to^rchus telleth this historiein the life oi Pericles, albeeit 

manof^iAewes he sheweth not whiche Caesars saiyng it was, I deme 

TrnLtthf com- " *» ^e Augustus Caesars. 

monweale there by the space of .xl. yeres, a man in naturall eloquence incomparable. 

19- When he sawe his soldiours to be wondrous 
What luiius sore afeard of their enemies, whiche thei looked 

Caesar said p im-i i i..i ii 

to his soldiers *o'" daily, he spoke openly to the whole com- 
beingingreate paignie in this maner. Be it knowen to you al, 
enTmies,whose ^^"^ within these very fewe dales, there will come 
comyng thei hither a kyng with x. Legions, xxx. M. horse- 
^ ° ° °'' rneri, of others in light harnesse an hundred .M. 
the king of the ^"^ .iii. C. elephantes. Therfore some emong 
Persians. you here, ceasse to make any ferther enquirie or 

serche, or to conceiue this or that opinion, and 
geue the credence vnto me, who haue certaine 
knowlege of all the truthe, or els in faithe I will 
cause all soche persones to be put in the oldest 
and moste rotten ship that I can get, and to be car- 
ried hens what soeuer winde shall blowe,into what 
soeuer Countrees it shall chaunce at auenture. 




H A straunge facion of puttyng awaie fear, not by Create matter 

naie saiyng, ne by lessenyng the nomber of the ene- °uire^"1,"rte' 

mies, but by encreasing the occasion of terrour, to & stomake ac- 

the ende that beyng adcerteined, of sore perille and crying, for *" 
hasard to come, thei might take vnto them stomakes 
& hartes for soch great daunger conuenable. 

To certain persones comyng in with their fine 20. 
egges, how that Sylla had geuen ouer his office '^.ha' ^"f*""" 
of Dictature, as he shuld do, wher as Caesar kept cuse "f nor' 
it still, and would not out of it at all (whiche leauyng- the 
thing to dooe, lacked verie little of plaine vsur- °atour. 
pacion of tirannie :) he aunswered that Sylla luKm Caesar 
was not bokishe, nor halfe a good clerke, and saiedthat^i/^a 

. 1 r 1 • ai -i^ ■ ' was not half a 

therefore gaue vp his * Dictature. good clerke. 

H Schoolemaisters, when thei shewe afore worde by 
woorde, or els recite vnto their scholares, what to 
write after them, ar said properly in latine Didare Dictare disd- 
disdpulis. Caesar hereunto alludyng, saied that Sylla ^"'"• 
was not halfe a cunnyng clerke. * ^°^ *^ '^^x.a 

^ ° vnderstanding 

l^° Meaning, as I suppose, ^at on the one side, if Silla had ?f *'S place, it 
ben so wel seen in histories, in chronicles, and in experience of '^ 'o ^^ noted, 
the worlde, as to consider what great daunger it was, from soche *^at by reason 
an office so long time by strong hande, continued, to returne to '^'^.t the citie of 
his former state of a priuate man again, he would haue looked Rome was 
twis on the matter, ere he would haue geuen it vp, (of whiche rewled by two 
matter is sorawhat touched afore in the .24. apophthegmit of Diogenes) persones of 
and on the other side, that - soche a persone as should be in a eguall power, 
rome, of soche high power and aucthoritee, that what soeuer he who wer called 
would commaunde, must and should nedes be doen, ought to be Consules and 
a manne of high wisedome, knowlege, and discrecion, to kepe him- wer chaunged 
self vpright in all behalfes, and to dooe nothing by violence and from yere to 
power, whiche he might not at all times after auouche and iustifie, y^'^' there 
as Silla had doen, who in the tyrae of his Dictature, would not chaunced ofte 
onelie be ruled by no lawes ne minister any iustice but ferthermore, f mes matter of 
vsed soche detestable crueltee and tirannie ouer the citee, and all coiitencion & 
degrees and sortes of men, as could not chuse afterward, but re- strief, whether 
dounde to his finall confusion and exterminion. Albeit (excepte °f '^^ twoo 
my memorie faile me) the histories saien that Silla gaue not vp Consules'shuld 
the saied office, vntill he laie sicke in his death bedde. S° '° battaille, 

or if thei kept 
warre in .i. places at ones, whether should go to this place and whether to that. 
And by reason of soche contencion, many times thafFaires of the citee proceded not, 
and the citee self was oft in greate daungier. It was therefore by a lawe pro- 
uided, that in soche time and state of 'the commonweale, if the twoo Consules be- 
twene theim twain, or els the Senate emong theim, did not ne would agree, there 



should bee elected an officer, who was called Dictator, as if ye should sale, a lord 
commaunder, he was called also, Magister populi, the maister of the people. His 
office was called Diclatura, the Dictatourship, or the Dictature. Whiche was as 
touching his aucthoritee, the verie absolute power of a king. And whatsoeuer the 
Dictatour commaunded, or bid to be doen, should bee executed without any maner 
let, contradiccion, or reasoning. And because the power was so greate, it was by 
thesame lawe prouided, that no one persone should continue in it aboue the space 
of 6 monethes at ones. And whosoeuer would not geue vp the Dictature at the 
6 monethes ende, encurred the suspicion of tirannie, and of conspiryng to be a 
king, and thereby the crime of high treason against the commonweaJe. This 
lawe notwithstanding, Silla being Dictatour, would not at his due time yeld vp his 
office, but by meanes vsurped a perpetual dictature, for the term of 1 20. yeres, yet 
at last he gaue it vp in his last dales. Then came lulius Caesar, and so semble- 
ablie vsurped the Dictatourship for terme of life. And of that came in, the power 
of them who wer afterward called Caesares. And the office of Dictature ceassed. 
Neither was there any that wer called perpetui dictatores, that is perpetuall dicta- 
tours, or dictaturs for terme of life, but these twoo afore named. 

21. As Caesar makyng his triumphe, passed along 
Caesar toke by the seatcs of the Tribunes, Pontius Aquila 
lie, that one " being One of the nomber of the Tribunes, alone 
Aquila a Tri- of them all not ones arose out of his place, to 
reuerence to ^oe hym any reuerence. This matter Caesar 
him at his tooke SO highly eiuill, that he said to him as 

^ _ ' loude as he could cry, Then come thou Aquila 
certain men of beyng a Tribune and take the commonweale out 
th^ritet fn "' °^ ^y handes. Neither did he by the space of 
Rome called a good many dales together after, make promisse 
wefarchief'of °^ ^^Y ^^Y^S vnto any persone, but with this ex- 
the commons, cepcion, At lest wise if we male be so bolde for 
And their pow- Pontius Aquila. 

er was as wel ^ 

in making of Lawes and decrees, as also in all other 'causes, to intercede be- 
twene the Senate and the people, that the lordes and nobles might not by any 
newe founde actes, statutes, or decrees, in any wise oppresse or greue the common- 
altee. And so greate was their aucthoritee in this behalf, that whatsoeuer the 
Consules or Senate would enacte, if but one of the Tribunes saied naie to it, all 
their doing was voide, ne could take any effect. The College of Tribunes for the 
people in Rome, might well be likened to the compaignie of the Bourgoeisses of the 
Parliament here in England. Ther were of the Tribunes at the first no more 
but twaine, afterwarde sixe, in processe a college of 36. There wer also Tribuni 
militares. Tribunes of the soldiers, whose office was to see that the souldiours wer 
wel armed and appoincted as thei should be. 

22. Unto the people for flatterie, salutyng hym by 

rrfu^d^'rbe *^^ "^""^ °f ''y"^ I ^"^ Caesar, (quoth he) I am 
called kyng. "O kyng. 

H He 


IT He rather chose to bee called by his own priuate 
name, than by the name of kyng, whiche at that tyme 
was sore hated in the citee of Rome. 

Some one feloe of the people had set on the 23. 
image of Caesar a garlande of Laurell wound Acrounwound 

L . 1 1 • 1. 11 T. aboutewith a 

about with a white linen roue. But when the white linen 

Tribunes, the lynen rolle pulled of, had * com- '"[gj^^! '^* 

maunded the feloe to prysonr, Caesar after that he kyng, and was 

had. geuen the Tribunes a sore rebuke for it, de- *^ ^^™ ^^^' 

priued thesame of their offices. And that he luUm Cesar 

might not by so doing seeme to attempte the puto"tofoffice 

° . ° r 1 *"* tribunes, 

vsurpacion of the name ai^d power of kyng, he whiche had 
pretended for an excuse, the glorie of refusing taken awaie 

1 . 1 ■ \r 1 ■, ■, . from his por- 

soche honour his owne selfe to had been taken terature, a 
away from hym by theim. kynges Dia- 

* Plutarchus saith that a diademe or croune Empenalle, was at this time set on 
sondrie Images of Caesar in diuerse places, and the twoo Trilmnes that plucked 
awaie the crounes, he nameth the one Flanius, & the other Mamllus, and addeth 
that thesame tril-unes did cast in prieson all soche persones, as thei founde had 
salued Caesar by the name of kyng. 

Because Caesar had chosen many alienes of 24. 
straunge countrees into the senate, ther was a bil ^"'''" Caesar 

, , . 1 1 1 i 1 chose many 

written and set vp, that it should be a good aliens into the 
deede, if some man woulde goe shewe the parli- 
ament chaumbre to one of the newe chosen 
Senatours straungiers. 

IT He mened (what feloe so euer it was that set vp 
the bill) those foreners newly made senatours of Rome, 
not so muche as to knowe the waie to the senate hous, 
except thesame wer shewed vnto them. 

A feloe wrote vnder the image of Brutus 25. 
Would God thou wer yet aliue : because that What poses 
Tarquinius the last king of Rome was expulsed sones" wrote 
and driuen out of the citee by the meanes of the vnder the^m- 
saide Brutus. And vnder the porturature of ^iCaesar. 
Caesar thei had written emong theim, verses of 
this sense and meanyng. 

20 Brutus 

nombre of Sen- 
atours of Rome 



Brutus quia reges eiecit, consul primus factus est, 
Cesar quia consules eiecit, rex postremus factus est. 

Brutus * for chac)mig of kynges out. 
Was created first Consul! of Roome, 
Csesar for driu5mg Consuls out, 
Is now last of all a kyng become. 

* There were seuen kinges of Rome, the first Romulus, the seconde Numa Pom- 
pilius, the thirde Tullus HostiUus, the fourth Aucus Marcius, the fifth Tarquinius 
Prisms, the sixth Seruius TuUiits, the seuenth Tarquinius the proude. Who for 
his high minde & ouerstately vsing his citezens, and for his moste horrible cruel- 
tee, encurred their mortal disdain and hatred. And so it was that while thesame 
Tarquinius was from Rome laiyng siege to the toune of Arde. His soonne Sextus 
Tarquinius came to Rome priuely by night, and by force and violence rauished 
Lucretia the wife of Tarquenius CoUatinvs <against her will, whereupon the said 
Collatings and lunius Brutus the kynges sj^ffirs sonnes confederated with Tricipi- 
tinus banished foreuer out of Rome bothe the sonne and the father, and shut the 
gates of the citee against thelm. And made a lawe that there should neuer after 
bee any more kynges in Rome, but twoo magistrates gouemours, whiche should 
be named Consules. And the first ConsuU in Rome were created thesaied Lucius 
lunius Brutus, and shortly after ioyned to Tarquenius Collatitius. And of thesame 
Brutus descended this Brutus here mencioned, who with Cassius conspired, wrougt 
and executed the death of lulius Caesarj 


Better ones to 
die then euer 
to feare said 
lulius Caesar, 

One were as 
good bee out 
of the world as 
to liue in per- 
petuall feare 
of death. 

When likelyhood appered treason and con- 
spirisie on euerie side to be wrought against him, 
and warning was geuen him that he should take 
good heede to himself, he aunswered, that better 
it was ones for all together to die, then to be in 
perpetual care of takyng heede. 

IT Signifiyng that persone not to liue, who liueth in 
perpetuall fear of deatL 

27. When Cesar, after that he had made the 

^"Tigurines crye creake,beynge on his waye to- 

Theanimositee wardes a certaine citee of people ioyned in leaeue 

& courage of . , , » , , , 

Julius Caesar, With hym, heard that another sorte of the t Suy- 
ceners were comming against him in the waye 
that he had to goe, he reculed into a certain 
place strong and well fensed. There all his 
compaignie gathered together, and wel set in 
aray, his horse J that he had been accustomed to 
ryde on, was brought vnto him. Well (quoth 



Cesar) after that I shall haue gotten this victorie 
and not afore, I will occupie this horse in pur- 
suing myne enemies. And so euen on foote he 
set vpon the Suyceners. 

' The Tigurines, a. people of Germanie, whiche dooen inhabite the fouith 
part of Suycerlande. 

t The Suyceners are the whole nacion of Suycerlande, whiche is called in Latine 
Heluetia, and the people of Helltetii, menne of soche sorte, that for money they 
will fight, they care not vnder whose banner. And subiectes they ar vnto no prince, 
ne do any thing passe on life or death heauen or helle. 

i Plutarchus in the life of Caesar, and Plinius in the .42. chapter of the eight 
booke doen write, that Julius Caesar had an horse vrith feete facioned and shaped 
like a mans foote, and the houfe deuidet^as it were into two toes euen as a man 
hath. And that he woulde not suffefanye body to sytte him, or gette vp on his 
back, sauing onely Caesar, A like straunge thing is afore noted of Bucephalus 
the horse of Alexander. 

Cesar now openly doing many thinges by 28. 
plaine might and power, and contrarie to all What Consi. 

z ^ . , . » r dius a Senator 

lawes, one Considius beyng a man veray ferre ^f Rome sayed 

striken in age, plainly and with a bolde spirite vnto Caesar 

saied vnto hjmi, that the senates were for this cause tto'^s\y 

onely slacke in meeting and sitting in cpunsaill, force & vio- 

that they stood in feare of his billes & glieues. 

And when Cesar at these wordes had saied. Why 

then doest not thou for thesame feare, kepe thy 

selfe at home within thy house ? Naye as for 

me (saied Considius) old age maketh me out of 

feare. For sence ther is but a very litle litle 

tyme of my lyfe behinde, there is no cause why 

I shoulde take any greate care or thought for the 


luHus Cesar vnto Pomponius a launce knight, 29. 
makine moche a doe of a wounde receiued in the 'What luUus 

° . 1-ioi-j.-* J Caesar saied 

face, at the msurrection whiche bulpitius * made to a Souidiour 
against the Senate, whiche wound thesaid {JJ^^'Jf™™'^ 
launce knight made a braggue that he had taken receiued a 
in fiehtyng for Cesar, Well (saied he) neuer looke wounde in the 

o J o ' ^ ' face for him. 

behynd thee agame when thou rennest awaye. 

II Soche 


* This Sul- ^ Soche a like thyng dooeth MacroMus father vpon 

pitius-vfos a Augustus Caesar, Quintilianus ascribeth it to lulius 
Tribune or Caesar. 

Bourgeoyse for i 

the people in the time of Sylla & Marius, when Caesar was a veray young man. 
Of whome Plutarchus in the life of Sylla writeth in this maner. Therfore Marius 
toke vnto him Sulpitius a Tribune of the people, a man in no poincte behinde, 
whosoeuer was moste flagicious. And neuer aske ye the question how he was 
more vngracious then an other, sence he was more mischeuous then his own self, 
a man of exceding crueltee, and set a gog with toto moche both presumpcion and 
auarice. To whatsoeuer deedes doyng abhominacion and all kindes of mischief 
had enticed him, he had no regarde, he had no consideration to sell the common 
weale of Rome euen in the open strete to men that had been not many dales afore 
bondeseruauntes, and to denisens hauing not a foote of lande of their own, and to 
tel soche money as was by them paied vpon tables set euen in the open mercate 
place. He mainteined three thousand persones that neuer went without sweordes 
and bucklers, he had also of young horsmien moste quicke and ready vnto all 
maner feactes a great power for the garde of his persone. And these he named 
Antisenatum, a coumpaignie to matche the Senatours. This man when he had 
made a lawe that no man of the degree and order of the Senatours might owe 
aboue two thousande drachmes at ones, him selfe when he was departed this 
worlde left thirtie hundred thousand drachmes that he owed of due debt. This 
man being set the people on by Marius, when he entended to doe all thinges with 
violence & with the sweorde, partely enacted many flagicious lawes, and especially 
one, whiche made Marius chief capitain of the warre to be made against Mitkri- 
dates. Wherfore, the Consuls geuing commaundemente that the rainistring of 
lawes should for a time ceasse, thesame Consuls declaring their myndes vnto the 
people in the temple of Castor Sulpitius bringing in among tlieini a coumpaignie 
of feloes in harnesse, both slewe many persones, and also thrust to the herte with 
3- dagger the soonne of Pompeius then CohsuU, being of age in manier but a veray 
chylde, euen in the middes of the guilde halle. But he was within fewe dales after 
condemned to death by Sylla, and by the treason of one of his owne bondeser- 
uauntes slaine, and the "seruaunt made a free man (as Sylla had promised) and 
immediatly by the commaundement of thesame cast down hedlong from a rocke 
where he broke his necke. 

30. Thesame Caesar, when a certain plaintife to 
aggrauate his harmes, and to make the most of 
them, alleged that the partie accused, hfid ' 
stricken altogether at his thighes and legges, 
said : Why, what, should he haue doen, thou 
hauing a salette on thy hed, and a cote of fense 
on thy bodie .' 

f He was not ignoraunt, for what cause the other 
feloe was desirous to strieke that parte chiefly, but the- 
same thyng dissembled, he had more phansie to ieste. 
An helmette and a Jacke or platecote, hideth all 
partes of a manne, sauyng the legges. 



Thesame Caesar vnto Metellus, withstanding 31. 
that he might not take any money out of the This is touched 
treasourie, or chamber of the citee and bringing apophtLgme. ' 
forthe lawes, forbidding thesame to be doen : The 
tyme of weapon (saith he) and of lawes is not al what luUus 
one. That in case thou canst not be contented '^"^'"'^ ^^id 

. , , . , . , vnto Metellus, 

witn the matter, now for this present get thee withstanding 
out of the waie, and after that (all leages and' '^^' ^^ ^^°^^^ 
bondes of peace throughly driuen) wee shall mony out of 
haue laied doun al weapen, then (if thou shalt so thetreasurie 
thinke good) laie to my charge in the behalf of 
the people, & I shall make thee aunswer. 

Thesame Caesar would often times sale that he S^- 
had like entent and minde of dealing against his J^nemies m 

° ° battaiU, are to 

enemies, as the most part of good Phisicians bee ouercum 
haue against the maladies and sores of mennes father with fa- 

.,.,.,. , . , , 1 . , minethenwith 

■bodies, which is, rather with hungre, then with- the sweorde. 
iron to ouercome them. 

IT For the Phisicians dooe not fall to cuttjoig except The Italians 

all other meanes and waies afore proued. And this 'n all diseases 

vsage euen at this present daie, still endureth emong abstinence^ 
the Italians : against all kindes of diseases, thai doe 
streightly enioyne abstinence. A like thyng vnto this 

it is, that Domitius Corbulo vsed moche to saie, that a Domitms Cor- 

mannes enemies in battaill, are to be ouercomed with *"'" would 

. , . . . . 1 • , enemies to 

a carpenters squanng axe, that is to saie, sokingly one i,g ouercomed 

pece after an other. A common axe, cutteth through sokinglie by 

at the iirst ,choppe, a squaring axe by a litde and a ''"'* ^""^ ''"'^• 
little, werketh thesame eifecte. 

It breded and areised greate enuie and grutch- ^^. 

ing against Caesar, that one of those persones, What thing 

, . . , was occasion 
whom he had sent to Rome, standing in the of great enuie 

senate hous, assone as he knew that the senate * gfufche 

againste Jutztu 

would not geue, ne graunt vnto Caesar proroga- Caesar. 
cion, that is to saie, a longer time in his dictature, 
gaue a greate stroke with his hand, vpon the 




luiius Caesar hiltes of his swerde, and saied : Well, yet this 
violence op- fisloe here shall geue it. 

pressed the ^ Threatenyng to the common weale, force and 

common weale . , ' ° 



What Caesar 
saied to Sylla 
thretening to 
vse his power 
vpon him. 
Silla purcha- 
ced the pretour- 
ship with great 
giftes & re- 


How Caesar 
turned an euill 
likelihod to the 
better parte. 
* Sextus Julius 
tine aucthoure, 
that wtiteth .4. 
'bo'kes oi strata- 
gemes, that is 
to saie, of the 
sleghtes and 
policies of 

Sylla hauyng obteined the pretourship, ma- 
naced Caesar verie sore, that he wold vse his 
aucthoritee and power vpon hym : Yea, (quoth 
Caesar laughing at it) thou doest of good right 
call it thy power, whiche thou haste bought with 
thy penie. 

H Noting Sylla, that thesame had purchaced the saied 
office, by geuing great® giftes and rewardes. 

Marcus Tullius in the third booke of that his 
werke entitled, de officijs (that is to say of 
honest behauour, or, how eche man ought to vse 
and to demean hymself) writeth that, Caesar had 
euer in his mouthe these Greke verses, out of the 
thirde tragedie of Euripides entitled, Phoenissae. 

ehrcp yap dSiKciv )(pil, rupawiSoi iripi 
koAAmttov dSiKEiv, ToXXa 8" evae^eiv 'xp^uiv. 
That is. 
If a man should nedes doe wrong, 
It ought to bee onely in this case. 
To make hymself a k3mg, by hande strong, 
In other thinges let right haue place. 

When Caesar goyng towardes the countree of 
Africa, had slipped and gotten a fall, in goyng 
out of a shippe, the likelyhood of euil chaunce to 
come, he turned to the better part, saiyng : I 
haue thee fast in my handes, o Afrike, 

U FronHnus * thinketh, that this happened at his 
taking of shippe, and that he said I haue thee fast, O 
yearth, whiche art my mother. Alluding (as I suppose) 
herunto, that, where he was on a time sore troubled 
with a certain dream, in whiche it semed to him, that 



he had to do with his owne mother, the reders or Thedreameof 

southsaiers expouned, thempire of al the whole world " "" aesar. 
to be prophecied vnto him. 

If TAe saiynges of Pompeius 


Neus* Pompeius, surnamed the greate, i. 

was with the people of Rome as ferre *Oi Pompeius 

in fauor as his f father before him, 'iJi'^the"".""'^ 

had been in gfutche and hatered. Apophthegme 

This Pompeius beyng yet a verie young man, °Caes^f'"^ 

wedded himself wholly to the faccion of Sylla. Pompeius 

And although he wer neither any officer of the •'^ing but a 

. , . , 1 • , /- veiyyongman, 

citee, nor senatour, yet he got vnto him out of gathered an 

one place and other of Italie, a greate armie. *■■""« '" ^'^.li, 

And when Sylla had commaunded thesame to was either any 

come and ioyne with hym : Naie (quoth he) I "f^^" of the 

will neuer presente an hoste vnto the high capi- senatour, & 

tain of Rome, with out booties or spoiles, nor tooke part with 
vnfleshed on their enemies. Neither did he re- . ' 

T FiutdYchus 

pair vnto Sylla, before that he had in sondrie in the life of 
battrees and encountreynges, vanquished diuers P<>^P^ wn- 
capitaines of enemies. Komaines 

% Euen at the firste daie, shewed he a greate token "euer shewed 

' . ° against any 

& likelihood of a prince moste worthie, and borne to capitain or hed 

doe greate thynges. It was not his entent to bryng c'tezen, either 

vnto Sylla philip and cheinie, mo then a good meiny, more eagre 

but to bryng hable soiildiours of manhood approued hatered, then 

and well tried to his handes. tbfTiT^'^ 

Pompeius. For duryng his life time, thei stode in perpetual fear of his great power, 
purchaced and gotten by the sweord (for he was a verie hardie and valiaunt 
manne of warre.) But after that he was ones departed out of this life, striken 
sodainly to death with a flashe of lightening, his corps being carried forthe to be 
buiried, the people violently haled the dedde bodie from the bere, and did vnto it all 
the most vilanie that thei could imagine. The cause why he was so sore hated, 
was estemed to bee his vnsaciable auarice and coueteousnesse. 




Pompeius euen 
at his first be- 
ginningdid the 
partes both of 
a valiaunt and 
of a righteous 

wolde not his 
souldiours to 
doe any op- 
pression or 
pielage where 
they went. 

* The Mamer- 
tines a people 
in Sieilie, 
whose toune 
was called 
Sthenius the 
lord of the 
toke parte with,iast 

The noble and 
manlie harte of 

This was doen 
in the Ciuile 
battaile betwen 
MarmsSa Silla 

Pompeius for 
the respect of 
Sthenius per- 
doned the 

And being now created a capitain, when he 
was by Sylla sente into Sieilie, he begun to doe 
the partes, not onely of a valiaunte and worthie 
capitain, but also of a iust and righteous capi- 
tain. For when he had heard, that his souldiours 
in going forthward on their viages, made by 
stertes out of their waie, and did moche oppres- 
sion in the countree as thei wente, and pieled all 
that euer thei could finger, soche persones as he 
toke rouyng & trotting, or scuddyng from place 
to place, thei could not tell where aboute theim 
selfes, he punished, and what compaignie himself 
had sent afore, he emprinted on euery one of 
their sweardes, the seal of his ryng, that thei 
should dooe no bodie no wrong, ne harme by the 

The * Mamertines (because thei had taken 
parte and sticked hard with the enemies of Sylla) 
he had appointed to slea euery mothers sonne. 
But Sthenius the Lorde of that citee or countree, 
came vnto Pompeius with these wordes : O 
Pompeius ye doe .not according to equitee and 
conscience, in that ye goe about, for one mans 
cause that hath offended, to doe a great noumbre 
of innocentes to death. Iwys euen veray I my 
selfe am the man that both haue persuaded my 
frendes, and also haue coarcted mine enemies to 
take the parte of Marius gainst Sylla. Here 
Pompeius greatly marueiling at the manly herte 
of this Sthenius, said that he "perdoned the Ma- 
mertines who had ben persuaded by soche a 
man, as preferred his countree aboue his owne 
life, & so deliuered bothe the citee and Sthenius. 

II In Sthenius ye haue an example, what herte a 
prince ought to beare toward the commen weale in 
case any perill or daungier doe chaunce: and in 



Pompdus a good lesson of placabilitee or myldenesse 
in that he was more prepense to shewe honoure vnto 
one that had a natural afifection and zele toward his 
countree, then to execute his wrath to the vttermost. 

When he had passed ouer into * Libya against 4- 
Domitius, and had ouercomed the same in a o/IL^J'ad^ 
•f great & sore battaill, his souldiours full & ioynaunte to 
whole saluting him with the title of Emperour, ^fi^ed of 
he saied, he would not take at their handes the libya. the wife 
honour of that high name, as longe as the trenches °i^pi^f "* 
and bulwerkes of his enemies campe was stand- soonne. 
ing whole. This heard, his soldiours (although The good cou- 
it were then a greate raine to leat theim) so- ^age of Pom- 
dainly with all their might assailing the campe diours. 
of their enemies, wonne it, and beate it downe Pompeius re- 
hande smoothe. fused honour 

vntu he knewe 

^ Thus thesaied Pompeius refused an honoure not himself to haue 
yet truly deserued with deedes, 

t He calleth it a great victorie, for thesaied Domitius (a noble Senator of Rome 
and Consul! with Messala) perished in the battaill. And of .xx. thousande, 
whiche he hadde in an armie, there escaped aliue no mo but three thousand. At 
this victorie Pompeius subdued all Aphrike into the power of the Romaines. And 
for this victorie was he surnamed Magnus, and was called Pompeius the great. 

Thesame Pompeius beyng returned from the 5- 
saied victorie, was partely with other honours The surname 

. 11 f> 11 o -1 1 O' Magnus, 

highly receiued by bylla, & also besides other when, where- 
things he first of al gaue vnto him the surname ^°'^' ^"^ ^y 

° , _, 1 •!-. • whomeitwas 

Magnus, the great. But when Pompeius not geuen to 

satisfied with al this, would nedes triumphe to, Pompeius. 
Sylla would none therof, because Pompeius was 

not yet of the degree of a Senatour. ; But when Mo persones 

Pompeius had saied vnto the coumpanie then ^unne'whenlt 

present, Sylla to be ignoraunte, that mo persones ariseth, then 

doen worship the sunne when it ariseth, 1!hen ^owne'sired*" 

when it goeth down, Sylla cried with a loude Pompeius. 
voice. Let him triumphe. 

IF He 



Pompeius tri- 
umphed being 
a very young 
man not yet a 


would rather 
make no tri- 
umph at al, 
then flatter his 
souldiours, or 
buie it with 

% He was stricken in feare of the courageous sto- 
make of the freshe young man, and of his gloiy daily 
more and more encreasing. Neither sticked he or 
put any doubtes to geue place vnto soch an one, as he 
sawe coulde in no wyse be brought to yelde an inche 
to any man lining. 

lS^° The meanynge of Pompeius was, that the people woulde 
bee more prepense to fauour the honoure and glorie of a young 
man comyng vpward, and growyng towardes the worlde, as him- 
selfe was, then of an olde man beyng almoste past, and begin- 
ning to decaye, as Sylla nowe did. 

In the meane whyle, euen against the tyme, 
Seruilius, a ioyly feloe and emong the heade 
menne in the commen weale highly estemed, 
was madde angry that a *triumphe was graunted 
to Pompeius. The souldiours also not a fewe of 
them made manye stoppes and lettes, that there 
might be no friumphe doen, not for that they bare 
Pompeius any grutche,' but they required to haue 
certain rewardes distributed emong them, as 
though the triumphe must haue been bought at 
their handes with greate largesse : or els the 
souldiours threatened that they would echemanne 
for himself catche away of the treasures and 
richesse that should be carried about in the 
triumphe. And therefore the saied Seruilius and 
one Glaucia, gaue him aduise and counsaill rather 
willingly to parte the saide money emong the 
souldiours, then to suffer it to be taken away 
euery man a slyce by stronge hande. But when 
Pompeius hadde made theim aunsw'er that he 
would rather let al alone and haue no triumphe 
at all, then he would make any seeking or en- 
treating to his owne souldiours, and euen with 
that worde set downe before theim the roddes 
bounden together with an axe in the mids gar- 
nished and decked with garlandes of laurell, that 
they should thereof first begyn their spoyle if 




shewe worthy. 

thei durst : Nay (quoth Seruilius) nowe I see 
thee in veray deede to be Pompeius the great, 
and worthy to haue a triumphe. 

IT For Pompeius iudged no triumphe to be honour- 
able and worthy shewe, except that it were as a thing 
in the waye of recompense or of dutie repaied to good 
demerites, without anye great suite making, and frith- 
out giftes geuyng. 

* When any consul! or other high Capitaine by the Senate and people thereunto 
deputed, had holden great warres, and had with sauynge his owne armie (or at 
leastwise with smal losse of men) achiued some notable high conquest, or 
had gotten some excellent victorie vppon anye foren nation, kyng or capit^in, to 
the high honour, renoume and auauncement of the common weale of Roome, or to 
the victorious enlargeing of the empier of thesame, he should at his retourning 
home bee receiued with all honour, ioye, solemnitee, pompe, and royaltee that 
might be deuised. He should haue to goe before him the kinge or capitaine by 
him subdued, and all captiues taken in the warres, he shoulde haue pageauntes 
as gorgeously set out as might be : of al the tounes, castels, fortresses, and 
people of prouinces by him subdued, himselfe should ride in a chairette moste 
goodly beseen, bare hedded sauinge a garland of laurell, and after his taile should 
come his owne souldiours with all ioye, mirth and solace that was possible to be 
made. And this was called a triumphe, the highest honour that might be shewed. 
Neither was it awarded to any man, but by the iudgement of the whole armie, with 
the decree of the Senate vppon the same, and consente of the whole vniuersall 
people, nor without the desertes aboue rehersed. 

It was the guyse in Roome, that the horsemen 
whiche had been a conueniente space of tyme 
foorth in the warres, should bryng foorthe their 
horse into a solempne place appoincted before 
by the twoo officers called Censours, and there, 
after rehearsall as well of soche viages as they 
had been in, as also of the capitaines vnder 
whom they had been in waiges, accordyng to 
their demerites, either to haue thanke and prayse, 
or els rebuke and blame. So Pompeius beeyng 
Consul!, euen in his owne persone, came and 
brought his horse before Gallius and Lentulus 
then Censours, whiche persones according to the 
custome and vsage demaunding, whether he had 
truely exercised and doen all the partes and 
dueties to a souldiour belonging, Yea (quoth 


The guise & 
custome in 
Rome for soul- 
diours that had 
been horsemen 
in the warres. 

Of the office 
of cemours in 
Romeit is afore 
noted in the 
.37. saiyng of 

How Pompeius 
presented bim 
self & his 
horse to 
Gallius and 
Lentulus the 



Pompeius so 
executed the 
office of a cap- 
itaine, that 
he accom- 
plished all the 
partes of an in- 
feriour soldier. 
The higheste 
praise and 
cion that a 
capitain may 


The modera- 
tion and clem- 
encie of Pom- 

Pompeius) to the vttermost in all behalfes Vnder 
mine own selfe the Lorde high capitaine. 

IT Signifiyng, that he had in soche wyse executed 
and ministred the office of a capitaine, that he did 
neuerthelesse like no sleeper accomplyshe all poinctes 
that euer belonged to an inferiour souldiour. So was 
he one and thesame man, bothe an especiall good 
capitaine, and a lustie valiaunt man of his handes, 
then the whiche praise and commendacion there may 
none higher or greater possible chaunce to a capitaine. 

When he had in Spaine taken the packette of 
* Sertorius his lettres, in the whiche were close 
trussed the lettres of capitaines not a fewe in- 
uiting and calling thesame Sertorius to Roome, 
there for to make a newe turne of the worlde, 
and to chaunge the state of the citee, he burned 
the lettres euery one, to the ende that he woulde 
geue vnto the caitifes time and occasion to re- 
pent, and leue or power to chaunge their traitre- 
ous ententes to better. 

IT This historic like as it might well be rekened in 
the nombre of thinges vnwrathfully and prudentiy 
doen, so doe I not see what it shoulde make emonge 
Apqphtkegmes. Albeit, right many of soche like sorte 
are founde in the collections of Plutarchus. If he 
had discried their names, thei would vndoubtedly by 
and by addressed theimselues to a manifest sedicion for 
veray feare of punishement. On the other syde, in 
that he suppressed and kepte secrete the lettres of his 
enemies, he gaue a good lesson what a great offence it 
is to open other bodies lettres, or to crie at the high 
crosse, what thou hast been put in truste withall by 
lettres vnder seale. 

* Sertorius was borne in Nursia, a toune of the Sdbines, and was a citezen of 
Rome, at last an outlawe and a banyshed man, of whome Plutarchus thus tel- 
leth. Capitaines that haue been as good men of warre, as euer were any, haue 
lacked the one of their yies, as Philippus, Antigonus, Jnnibal, and this Sortorius, 
of whome no manne can denie, but that he was a man more chaste of his body in 


To open an 
other bodies 
lettres, or 
to discouer 
thinges com- 
mitted to thee 
by lettres 


absteining- from women, then Philippus : more assured and feithful to his frendes, 
then Antigonus : lesse furious and eagre on his enemies, then Annibal : in wytte 
inferiour to neuer an one of theim all, but ferre behinde theira all in fortune, 
whiche fortune although he founde at all tymes more heauie and sore vnto him 
then he founde his enemies, yet did he matche to the vttermoste in perfectnesse of 
warre, Metellus : in hardinesse of auenturing Ppmpeius, in fortune Sylla, in power 
the whole people of Rome, being a man banished his owne countree, and bearing 
rule among the Barbarous, that is to weete the Portugalles, whose countree is 
called in latine Lusitania. 

Unto Phraates kyng of the Parthians requi- 9- 

ring of him by Ambassadours to be contented "nswe^tr""' 

that the floodde * Euphrates might be the forth- Phmates king 

est marke for the boundes of the dominion of °lim^Kqu\. 

Rome, Naye, (quoth he) this were a more meete imgEuphrates 

request to bee made, that iustice may disseuer ^'fndes rf the 

the boundes of the Romaines from the royalme dominion of 

of the Parthians. ^°'"^- 

H Signifiyng, not to be any prescribyng to the Ro- it ^as no pre- 

maines, how ferre they ought to extend their Empier, scribing to the 

from daily enlargeing whereof not hilles and flooddes fc°"^hd ou °h[ 

ought theim to keepe backe : but in soche place & to extend their 

none other euermore to bee appointed the limictes empier. 
and boundes of the Segniourie of Rome, where right 
would not sufire theim to passe any ferther. 

* Strata in his werke of geographie, that is to saie, of the description of the 
yearth, wryteth that out of Niphates (an hille in Armenia) springeth and issueth 
Euphrates, a great, a depe and a swifle ryuer, not ferre from the riuer of Tigris, 
It is the great ryuer of the Parthians, and passinge through Bnbilon it renneth 
into the redde sea. In the first booke of Moses Euphrates is rekened one of the 
foure ryuers, whose fountaines or hedspringes are in Paradise. 

When Lucius Lucullus after hauinge a long xo. 

space folowed the trade of warre, gaue himselfe Lucius Lumi- 

at the latter cast vnto all sensualitee, ne would daiesgauehim 

doe any thing but spende & make good chere, selfe altogether 

and on a time called Pompeius fook, for that the ° ^^°^" "^''' 
same before he was of age conuenient, had great 

desire & mynd to be enwrapped in many coum- Whatpom- 

breous affaires, and highe- doynges, Iwys (quoth ^ZihU^re" 

Pompeius again) moche more out of season it is prouing hym 

for an olde man to bestowe himself altogether on doyngeJ^f the 



commonweale scnsuall deliccs, then to be an hed gouernour in 

ouer yong of , 

age. a commen weale. 

IT He greuously reproued the mynde & iudgement 
of those persones, which thinken, that aged folkes 
should haue no maner thinge at all to doe, whereas 
Riot & idlenes it were a gaye thing for a man hauing the rule and 
in yong men gouernaunce of a commenweale to die euen standing 
folkes abhom- on his foote. And as for ryot and idlenesse, is in 
inacion. young men foly, in olde folkes abhominacion. 

11. Unto Pompeius liyng sicke, his Phisician had 
prescribed that his diete should be nothing but 
blackbyrdes. And when the parties that had 
the charge to purueie them, saied that there were 
none to bee gotten, (for it was not the season of 
the yeare in whiche this kynde of byrdes are 
wonte to be taken) one persone there, put theim 
in remembraunce, that there myght some bee 
founde at Lucullus his house, who vsed to kepe 

hart of Pnm- of theim aliue al the yere long. Why (quoth 
perns, in con- Pompeius) IS the wynde in this doore, that except 

temnyng sen- -r ,-, , 

suall deiices. Lucullus were a man geuen to delices, Pompeius 
might in no wise continue aliue.' And so the 
Phisician abandoned, he tooke him to meates 

IT O a manly herte of the right sorte in deede, 
whiche would not bee bounde to ough thankes vnto 
delicate piekyng meates, no not for to saue his veray 
lyfe thereby. 

1 2. When there was on a time befallen in Rome a 
great scarsitee of corne, Pompeius beyng declared 
in wordes and in title the purueiour of corne, 
but in veray deede the lorde bothe of the sea 
and lande, saylled in to Africa, Sardinia, and 
Sicilia: and a great quantitee of corne shortly 
gotten together, he made haste to returne to 
Rome againe. But the Mariners by reason of a 




sore tempest sodainly arisen, being lothe to take 
the seas, Pompeius himselfe first of all entreed 
into the shippe, and bidde the ancores to be 
waied or hoysed, criyng in this maner: To 
auenture sailyng necessitee constreineth vs, to 
Hue it doeth not. 

II Declaryng that more regarde ought to bee had of 
our countree beynge in ieoperdie, then of our owne 
priuate safegarde. For to spende our life in the cares 
of succouring & relieuyng the commenweale is a highe 
honestee : but our countree in extreme perill to be 
desolated through our slouthfulnesse or slacking is the 
foulest shame in the worlde : here be we put in re- 
membraunce, that not onely brute beastes doen let go 
libertee, and come into seruitude, but also sturdie & 
stifnecked men are with famyn brought downe and 
made to stoope. We bee also taught that our priuate 
safegarde is lesse to be tendreed then the welth 

When the breche betwene Pompeius & lulius 
Csesar was come to light and openly knowen, 
and one Narcellinus (as Plutarchus saieth,butby 
the Judgement of others, Marcellus,) one of the 
noumbre of those persones whome Pompeius was 
thoughte to had set on loft, had chaunged his 
mynde from thesame Pompeius vnto Caesar, in so 
moche that he was not afearde to speake many 
wordes against Pompeius, euen in the Senate 
house, Pompeius cooled & wyshed him in this 
wyse : Art thou not ashamed O Marcellinus 
(quoth he) to rayll on that persone, by whose 
benefite thou arte made of a tounglesse body, 
eloquente, and of an hungresterued feloe, 
brought to soch point that thou mayest not hold 

IT He layed sore to the parties charge ingratitude, 
who abused all that the dignitee, autoritee, and elo- 

More regard 
ought to be 
had of our 
beeyng in 
ieoperdie then 
of our owne 
priuate safe- 

Menne be 
thei neuer so 
high are with 
famyn made 
tame enough. 


How Pompeius 
putte to silence 
one Marcelli- 
nus, raWyngon 
hym in the 
Senate hous. 


The shamefuU quence that he hadde,-to the displeasure of thesame 

mlnypert.nL persone whome his bounden duetie had been to 

thanke for thesame. For this kynde of ingratitude is 

of all others moste vnhonest, but yet alas toto comenly 

vsed in the worlde. 

14. Unto Cato ryght eagrelye yalUng at Pompeius, 
because that where he the saied Cato had often- 
times afore tolde that the power of Caesar from 
daye to daye encreasing, would in fine be no 
benefite at all to the publique gouernaunce of 
the citee, but was rather enclining & growyng 

towards tyrannic, ^g° yet Pompeius that notwithstandinge 
would nedes entre familiaritee & bee allied with him, PompeiuS 

The ende,of made aunswere after this sorte : Thy doynges 

casual thinges _ , , ... 

in the worlde, Cato doen more nere approche vnto the spirite 
no man dooeth ^f prophecie, but myne are moch better stand- 

ne male for- . ., - t». i 

knowe. ing With frendship and amitee. 

H Mening that Cato talked at rouers, forasmuche as 

no man liuing may foreknowe of certaintee the ende 

of casuall th)fnges in the worlde to fall, and that he on 

his behalfe tooke soche'' wayes as the amitee and 

frendeship whiche was betwene him arid Caesar at that 

present time required. It was a thing certain what of 

Humanitee dutie Ought to be doen for ones frende, but vncertain 

wil of a frende it waS, whether one that was nowe his frende would 

rather hope the afterwarde in time to come be his enemie. And of a 

beste, then for- . , . . , , 

deme the worst frende it was more standing with humanitee and gen- 
tlenesse to hope the best, then to foredeme the worste. 

15' He would frankely make open vaunte of him- 
Whatyaunte ggif ^hat euery publique office that euer he had 

Pompeius ^ . , 

would make borne in the citee, he had bothe obteined sooner 

touX^gofE- *^^" ^^ ^°'' ^^^ P^^^^ loked for, and also had 
ces bearyng sooner geuen vp againe, then was of other per- 
in Rome. gones looked for. >' 

IT That he haji so timely taken in hand to beare 
rewle and office, or to be hygh capitain of an armie, 



came either of fortune or of manlynesse before the 
commen course of age werking in hym. That he 
gaue vp any office in due season againe, came of a 
•moderate mynde, hauing an iye and respect not vnto 
tyrannie, but vnto the profite of the commenweale. 

After the battail on the doiines of Pharsalia 1 6. 

foughten, he fledde into Egypte. And when he ™L''w£cll- 

should come dOune out of his galie into a little led ptoiomms 

fisher bote, sent purposely vnto hym by the king ^f *e'most^" 

of Egypte, tournyng hymself backe to his wife part) he had 

and his sonne, he said no more but these wordes ?°' 'j".^ ^^°'^ 

ben dnuen 
of Sophocles. out of his 

realme, and 
Trpos Tov T-qpavvov ooTii ifjoropeverai, cam to Rome 

KeCvov 'kttl SovXos, kov iXev6epo^ tuokri. ^°' ^'"* *• ^"'^' 

'' cor & was by 

Whoso goeth, to dwell with a tyranne, Pompeius 

Thou^ he came free, is made his bondman. a™a"ne UtT^ 

irit appeareth, that his herte throbbed afore, at his ^" armie.and 

i^r ' ■ ' set in posses- 

death approchmg, for as soone as he was descendmg sion of his 

into the bote, receiuing a stripe with a sweorde, he "°""' *, '" 

gaue but one sole grone, and wrapping vp his hedde in Pompdus, (by 

a thyng he helde it out to be strieken of. whom he had 

been restored 
to his kingdome) and sent his hedde vnto Caesar, who as soone as he saw it wepte. 

Pompeius because he could not, to dye for it, j 7, 
awaye with the chatting and continual bableing What Pom- 

r y-^. .J .. J ri. 1 ' iteius said of 

of Cicero, said many a time and ofte emong his cicero whose 

familiare frendes, I would with al my hert that chattyng he 

Cicero would departe from vs to our enemies, to ^wde. "° 
thende that he might be afeard of vs. 

IT Not)Tjge the nature and facion of thesame, of Cicero of his 
whiche by mens reporte he was to his enemies full of "at'^^a facion 

to nis cncrnics 

crouching and lowely submission, and towardes his lowly, & to his 
frendes froward in opinion, and wondreous self-willed, frendes fro- 
This saiynge of Pompeius doeth ' Quintilian thus re- ^ 
herse, Departe from vs to Caesar, and then thou wilt 
be afeard of me. 

21 Thesame 


1 8. Thesame Pompeius after that he had had woon- 
Pompeius dreous mishappe in battayle against Caesar, 
vtte"^desplire. being brought vnto vtter despaire, he came into 

his pauilion like vnto a man vtterly amased or a 
stonned & spake not one worde more, but 
onely this, Why then streight into our campe 
to. And by & by doing on him a wede aunswer- 
able vnto his present fortune, he fled awaie se- 

19. The sedicion of Sicilie suppressed and ap- 
peased, and the citees whiche had made the in- 
surrection or rebellion peaseably & quietly re- 
ceiued to grace again, only the Mamertines re- 
quired to be heard, allegeyng & reciting certain 
lawes many yeares afore graunted vnto theim by 
the Romaines, Why (quoth Pompeius) -wriU ye 
not surceasse to b^ng foorth and read lawes 

Where the or- yj^j.^ ^g hauing your sweordes gyrded about you. 
maie serue IT Signifiyng that, in case they were disposed to be 

weapen hath ordreed by the right of the lawes, they needed not to 
no place. ■' , , . ' ■' 

weare weapen about theim. 

20. Thesame Pompeius when by lettres from the 
What Pom- Senate to him directed he hadde perceiued, all 

peius saied r- 1 1 

when all that that euer Sylla hadde by the sweorde vsurped, 
Syiia had ^^ ^g ^y. j.]^g whole Consent, agrement, and voices 

vsurped, was ' > a > 

bytheconsente of the vniuersall people committed vnto his 
of ^TmrTtte P°'^^*" ^'i*^ gouernaunce, he gaue a greate clappe 
into his handes on his thighc with his hande, and saied: Oh 

perill and daunger neuer like to haue ende. 
Pompeius Howe moche better had it been for me, to haue 
b'eefbome a^"^ been borne a poore mannes childe, if I shall 
poore mannes neucr obtcine to retire from the cures of war- 
childe. f^re, ne beeyng clearely dispetched of soche 

matter and occasion of ertuie as to be myne 
anTluwhTri- T"^ maister, that I maie with my wyfe lede a 
tee who hath quiet life in the countree. 

IT Great 



IT Great power and autoritee, who hath not assaied not assaied, 

it, maketh hyghe suite to haue, who so hath proued htth^prouedr 

it, hateth deadly, but to leaue it, is a matter of no hateth. 
small daungier and perill. 

Certaine persones allegeing that they could 
not see howe he should bee hable to sustein or 
beare the furour of Caesar, Pompeius with a 
merie countenaunce bidde theim to take no 
maner thought ne .care for that matter. For 
(saieth he) as soone as euer I shall haue geuen 
but a thumpe with my foote on the grounde of 
Italy, ther shal anone come leaping foorthe 
whole swarmes, of bothe horsemen and foote- 
men till we crie hoe again. 

IT A stout courage and a veray mans herte, if for- 
tune had been aunswerable in doyng her parte. 


What Pom- 
peius saied to 
certain per- 
sones, suppo- 
sing that he 
could not bee 
able to beare 
the maugre 
of Caesar. 

The stoute and 
manlie harte 
of Pompeius. 

Nowe if ye haue not yet your bealy full of this 
banquet, we shall adde also out of the nourabre of 
the Oratoures twoo or three of the principalles and 
veray best. 

^ The saiynges of 


|^p° Phocion a noble Counsaillour of Athenes, a man of high 
wisdome, singulare prudence, notable policie, most incorrupted 
maniers, incomparable innocencie and integritee of lyfe, meruail- 
ous clemencie, moste bounteous liberalite, and to be short, a rare 
myrour to al Counsai Hours. Yet all this notwithstanding, he was 
at length through enuie and falsely surmised accusacions, guilt- 
lesse condemned and put to death by his owne countremen the 
Atheniens, and that so cruelly, that not only he sufFreed the accus- 
tomed peines of death, but also after the execution, was cast out 
into the fieldes without sepulture or hauing so moch as one poore 
turf of earth to lie vpon him. Suche was partly the ingratitude 
and partly the madnes of the Atheniens in Phocion, Socrates, Solon, 
Aristides, and many moo innocent persones by their whole con- 
sent and agreement to persecute moste highe vertues in steede of 
moste haynous offenses, and with moste horrible iniuries to requite 




Phoeion 3. man 
in tellyng his 

Phoeion was 
neuer seen 
laugh ne 


fHeh firste and foremooste shall ye haue 

Phoeion of countree a man of Athenes, but 

a veray Lacedemonian as well in integritee 

of maners, as also in knitting vp his tale 

shortly at fewe wordes. He was euen Socrates y^ 

and downe in this pointe and behalfe, that no man 

euer sawe hym either laughe or weepe, or chaunge his 

moode, of so great constancie of minde he was. 

I. Unto this Phoeion sitting in a greate assem- 
blee of the people, a certaine persona saied in 
this maner : Phoeion ye seeme to be in a great 
muse or studie. Right well coniectured of you 
it is (quoth he again :) For I am musing if I 
may cut of any part of the wordes that I haue 
to saie emong the Atheniens. 
Phoeion la- IT Other persones take great care & studie, to tell 

boured in few ^j^gj^ ^^^^ ^^ lengthe with all that maye be saied, to 

wordes to com- " . •' . - ' 

prise the effect the ende that they may appeare eloquent : but he did 

of his matter, all his endeuour and diligence to the contrarie, that is 

to wete, . how . to comprise and knitte vp in fewe 

wordes, soche thinges as should directly serue to the 

effecte and purpose of his matter. 

A voice "being by reuelaeion sent to the Athe- 
niens, that in thesame their citee one certain 
man there was, who euermore contraried and 
againsaied the myndes & sentencies of all the 
vniuersall multitude besides, and the people 
being in a great rore willed enquierie and serche 
to bee made who it was, Phoeion diseried him- 
selfe, saiyng : Euen I am the man, whom the 
oracle speaketh of. For, me only nothing plea- 
seth of all that euer the commen people either 
doeth or saieth. 

IT What may a bodie in this behalfe first maruaill 
at? The herte of this man being voyde of al feare? 
or els the pietie and compassion of him in. that he 



Phoeion liked 
nothing that 
the grosse and 
rude multitude 
either did or 

THE .II. BOOKE. 325 

would not suffre this suapicion to light on the necke 
of one or other innocente persone ? or els the singu- '^^ multitude 
lare wisedome, by which he perfectly sawe that the neither'doen' 
rude & grosse multitude (for as moche as they are led ne saien any- 
all by affections and pangues) neither dooe ne saye *'"^ "S^'" 
any thing standing with good reason or discretion ? 

On a certain daye Phocion making an oracion 3- 
in presence of the people of Athenes pleased all 
parties veray well. And when he sawe his tale 
to be well allowed & accepted of the whole au- phodon was 
dience, he turned himselfe to his frendes, and tully persuaded 

• J -iTTi IT t '"3-' nothing 

saied : What, haue 1 1^" (trowe we) vnawares spoken, procedyng of 
any thing otherwyse then wel ? ^ "g*^' iudge-, 

° ' ment might 

IT So throughly was he perswaded, that nothing please the 
might content or please the grosse people, that pro- ^^^ ^' 
ceded of a right iudgement. 

When the Atheniens of a course made a gath- 4- 
ering about of the citezens to contribute eche ^i^\o certaL 
man somewhat towardes a sacrifice that they Atheniens 
prepaired and went about to make, and (other ^^oneytward 
folkes geuing their deuocion towardes it) Pho- a Sacrifice. 
cion was more then a doosen timea spoken to, 
It woulde be a shame for me (quoth Phocion) if 
I should with you make contribucion, and make 
to this man here no restitucion, (poincting to a 
creditour of his.) 

^ Right many ther been that thinken highly well 
emploied all that is bestowed or spent on temples, and a man^oweSi' 
on sacrifices, or on feasting at churche houses. But is an holie and 
this ferre seyng man, did the people to vnderstand, a- godhe thing, 
that a moche more holy and godly thing it is, to re- 
paie whom to a body is endebted, and what is it lyke 
that hee would now iudge i^g° (trowe ye) of those per- 
sones, who (their wyfe and chyldren defrauded) dooen 
edifie to the vse of men of the clergie or spiritualtee, 
palaices meete for kynges, and to mainteine the idle 



loytreyng of thesame, doen deburse & laye out no 
small porcion of their substaunce. 

5- To Demosthenes the Oratour saiyng, the 

Atheniens will put thee to death one daye, O 

Phocion, if they shall ones beginne to be madde, 

he answered in this maner : Me in deede ^g° (as 

yesaye) if they shall beginne to be madde, but 

thee, if they shall come to their right wittes 


Demosthenes ^ pgj. Demosthenes in open audience of the people 

alfortoulease, spake in maner all that euer he did for to please 

& rather sweete theim, and to obtein fauoure, and woulde speake 

whol^me^ rather sweete wordes, then holsome. 

6. When Aristogiton a false accuser and bringer 
of men to trouble was now already condemned, 
and in pryson there for to dye, and hertely praied 

best place pos- Phocion to come and se him, and Phocions 
sibie, where to frendes would not sufifre that he should goe to 
and thesame soche a vile bodie : And i^° i praie you (quoth he) 
haiiious male- jn what place shold a man haue better phancie 
to speake vnto Aristogiton ? 

IT The argument of his frendes he did moste finely 
wrest to the contrarie of their menyng: signifiyng 
that he would not go thither to be a supporter or 
bearer of a commen malefactour, but to take the fru- 
icion of his iustely deserued calamitee. 

7. The Atheniens being sore moued with the 
Bynaniium, a. Byzancians, for that thesame woulde not receiue 
nigh to the One Charetcs, whom thesaied Atheniens had 
seas side, firste gent with an armic for aide and defense of their 
ded by Pi^isa- citee against Philippus king of Macedonie, when 
nias Capitaine Phocion hadde saied that there was no cause 

or king of the , , ,., .,«.-,,. 

Lacedemonians Why to take displeasure With their frendes for 

& afterwarde hauing soche mistruste, but rather with the Cap- 
enlarged by . . , '■ 
Constantinus itaines that were men npt to be trusted, he was 




chosen Capitaine himselfe. And the Byzancians Emperour of 
putting their affiaunce in him, he brought to T^^tT' 
passe that Phillippus departed thence as wise as hedciteeofal 
he came without his purpose. 'n'ameTa;.*' 

IT The mistrustfulnesse of the Bizandans he layed stantinopoiis, 
on the necke of the Charetes the Capitain, who was ^ Constmii^ 
soche maner a man, that it semed an vnsure thinge for noble it obtein- 
the saied people to committe theimselfes to his pro- ^'Ij & keepeth 

'^ ^ . '^ yet still vnto 

tection. To mistrust an vntrustie persone is a poinct this day, it was 
of wisedom : but to put theimselfes into the handes ^'®° '^"«'' 
of Phocion beyng a man of honest estimation and new Rome. 
credit, thei made no maner sticking nor no bones at all. To mistrust an 

vntrustie per- 

Alexander kyng of the Macedonians, had sent 8. ^°?^' '^ * 
an hundred talentes vnto Phocion in the waie of wisedom"'. °^ 
a reward. But Phocion demaunded of them 
which brought the money how it happened, that, 
wher there wer Atheniens many mo then he, 
Alexander would sende soche a rewarde to^ hym 
alone. The messagers in this wise answering, i^Aonoji refused 

, , , 1 , agreatsomme 

Because he ludgeth thee alone emong them al to of money sente 
be an honest and a good man, Wei (quoth Pho- ™'° '\'"V'" 

° ^ rewarde. by 

cion) then let him suiire me bothe so to be repu- Alexander. 
ted, and also to bee soche an one in deede. 

IT Howe proprely he tooke their reason out of their 
mouthes, and applied thesame to an occasion of the 
refusing the gifte. Now, what man maye in this mat- 
ter any other then meruail at the sinceritee of an herte 
which could not be corrupted ? Phocion was a man Those persones 
in pouertee, and yet was hee nothyng at all moued ha°dfs*'^ad!* 
with the greatnesse of the rewarde. And all vnder ministracion 
one did he notiiie, that soche persones as hauing the ofthecommon- 

, , . . . . , weale doth 

conueighaunce and admmistracion of the commen- passe be 
weale, doen yet for all that not holde their handes naught if thei 
from takynge rewardes, neyther been good men, nor ' ^ '^^" ^" 
ought to be accoumpted for any soche. 

When Alexander made instaunce to haue cer- 9. 



What oounsaii tain galies founde vrito him by the Atheniens at 
to tLTlte-' their coste and charge, & the people cried earn- 
ietts, consult- estly for Phocion by name to apere, that he 
ihfi shoS" i"ight declare what aduise and' counsaill he 
sende to Jiex- would geue : he arising vp out of his place, saied : 
Galils M^'not. Then, myne aduise & counsaill is, that either ye 
suppresse with weapen soche persones as ben of 
. power to ouermatche you and to hold you in 
muTst^bTobeied subiection, or dls shewe amitee and frendship to-- 
&hauehiswil. wardes thesame. 

IT At few wordes he gaue counsaill that nothing was 

to be denied vnto Alexander on their behalf, onlesse 

thei had assured trust and confidence, if he would take 

peper in the nose, or stiere coles, to wrynge h)Tn tc 

the wurse with dsoite of sworde. Wherin \i Alexander 

Aiexaiider seemed the stronger of bothe, that then it was no pro- 

could in no- uoking of the youngman beeyng all herte, and one 

imue any nay 'that to dye for it could not abyde to haue any naye in 

inhisrequestes his requestes. 

10. ~ There was a brute and rumour noysed (of 

* whose bringing vp ho man could tel) that 

Alexander was deceassed. Anone out sterten 

the Oratours, exhorting the Atheniens to make 

„, . no fe'rther delaie ne tariaunce but incontinent 

What PAocioJt • 1 1, , t . -r. 1-.1 • 

saied when the With all haste to begmne warre. But Phocion 
Oratours of willed theim, not be ouer hasty vntil some more 

Athenes gaue . , .-,■,■,■, -r- ^ . 1 » \ 

them counsaill Certain knowlage might be had. For, (saith he) 
to make warre jf Alexander be dedde this daie, he wilbe dedde 

vpon a ru- , ' 

mour of the the morowc too, and the next daye also. 

Alexander. ^ ^e grauely restreigned and staled the heddie 

vndiscretenesse of the Oratours. 

* Plutarchus in the life of Phocion saieth, that one Asclepiades was the first that 
tolde the newes of the death of Alexander in Athenes. Unto whomc Demades an 
Oratour saied, that ther was no credence to be geuen, allegeing that it could none 
otherwyse bee, but all the whole vniuersall worlde to be replenished and stuffed 
with the odour of soche a dede body euen the firfet daye, if it had been true that 
Alexander wfis dedde. "\ . 



When * Leosthenes had perswaded the citee 1 1 . 
of Athenes to make warre beeyng set agog to 
thinke all the worlde otemele, and to imagin the ,j^^ wordes of 
recouering of an high name of freedome and of Leosthenes 
principalitee or soueraintee, Phocion affirmed his ^6°°^ "^'a^" 
woordes to be sembleable vnto Cypres trees, the Cypres tree 
whiche although they bee of a great heighte, f^^^bufiJiVetde 
and goodly to beholde, yet haue no fruite ne vnfruitefuU. 
goodnesse on theim. 

H Nothing could possible haue been spoken to bet- Uneth any tree 
ter purpose of talke that promiseth many gaye good "* u"^\^,°i"*''' 
morowes, and maketh ioylye royall warantyse of afarre of, then 
thynges in wordes, but without any effecte or comming the cypres 
to passe of deedes, euen sembleably as the cypres tree deede"more' 
t shoting vp into the aier with a toppe of a great tarren. 
highthe, and growing shaipe with a bushe great beneth 
and smal aboue of a trimme facion, semeth a ferre of 
to make assured warauntise of some especiall gaye 
thing, and yet in deede there is almoste no tree more 

* Leosthenes was a man at this time, of great autoritee and estimaclon in 
Athenes, who woulde not reste prouoking the people to make warre vpon the resi- 
due of Grece, vntill he had brought theim in minde so to doe. And himselfe was 
Capitain in thesame warre, and fought a great fielde against Antipater and the 
Beocians, and the Atheniens woonne the fielde. But Leosthenes was slaine in that 
batlree. And wher as the Atheniens mynding to continue warre and perceiuing 
Phocion to be altogether against it, had deuised a wyle to haue one Antiphihis suc- 
cede Leosthenes, and to put Phocion by lest he would turne the warre into peace, 
Phocion commaunded by proclamacion that as many as were betwene the age of 
sixtene yeres and seuentie, should out of hande geate theim to their horse and har- 
nesse, and prouiding theimselfes vitailles for fiue dayes to come and folowe him. 
This the people cried out vpon, & they that were by reason pf yeares impotent or 
vnhable or otherwyse by the lawe discharged of goyng to warre, grutched at soche 
an vnreasonable proclamacion. To whome Phocion thus aunswered : Why what 
wrong- doe I vnto you, sens that I must goe foorth with you my selfe beeyng Ixxx. 
yeares olde ? But thus at the last he abated their haste towardes warre, and 
quieted the citee to keepe theimselues at home in reste and peace. This annota- 
cion may serue for the perfecte elucidation of the xvii. apophthegme, 

. f The Cypres tree (saieth Plinius in the .xxxiii. chapiter of the xvi. volume) is 
elfishe and frowarde to spring vp, of a fruite that may well be spared, of beries 
euilfauouredly wythered and shronken, of leafe bittur of sauour rammyshe, and 
not so moche as for geuing shadowe to bee loued or set by, of bougties, branches 
and leaues no more but here and there one io maner euen like a litle thinne 
shrubbe» &c. 




But when the first beginning of thesame war 

had happelie fortuned (l^° For as is aboue noted, thei 
wonne the first field, & vanquished the Beocmns, and put 

Antipater to flight) and the citee for the prosperous 
tidinges therof gaue laude and thankes to the 
Goddes with Sacrifice *and high solemnitep, 
Phocion beyng demaunded whether he would 
not with his good wil haue had thesame thinges 
so doen saied, Yes verely, my will was neuer 
other but to haue all executed and doen euen as 
it hath been nowe, but that notwithstanding I 
am yet styll of this mynde, . that I would the 
other waye had been decreed. 

H Mening, that thinges also without aU wysdome or 
good aduyse purposed, haue at manye tymes prosper- 
ous and lucky happe, and that, as often as thesame 
doeth so chaunce, the partes of men is, to reioyce in 
the behalfe of the commen weale, but yet that men 
ought not for anye soche respect or cause, not to pur- 
pose euermore the best and take the best wayes. Yea 
and parauenture this ranne in Phocions hedde, that 
men ought not euen at the first choppe to put assured 
truste and confidence in the luckie chaunces that hap- 
pen at the first beginning of thynges, but that the later 
ende of all the whole matter must be it that shall 
declare of what sorte the first attemting and appointe- 
ment of thesame entreprise was. 

* Immediatly vpon the hauing foorthe of the armie (saieth Plutarckus) thei had 
a faire daie vpon their enemies, and the Beodans ioyning with them in battaill yra 
discomfeicted, and Antipater put to flight, and chaced into Lamia ( ^^ a toune in 
Grece) and there pended vp. This same good fortune in the firste beginning, sette 
the citee of Athenes in greate pride, being inflated and puffed vp with no lesse hope 
then ioyfulnesse. Whereupon wer made plaies for a triumphe, almoste in euery 
corner throughout the citee, and no temple ne chapell yoide of processions, and 
thankesgiuing to the goddes whiche had shewed soche propice, fauoure and 
goodnesse towardes theim. And euen emiddes all this glye, the reporte goethe, 
that many persones (from whom Phocion as touching battaill to be made had dis- 
sented) demaunded of Phocion in the waie of contumelie and despite, whether he 
would in his herte these thinges not to haue chaunced, to whom he thus shaped 
his aunswer. Nay verayly not so, and yet doe I nothing repente my first aduise & 
eounsail. Thus ferre Plutarckus. He was (saieth faleritis maacimus) so stedfast 
a defender of his constancie that in open audience of the people he affirmed hym 



The constancie 
of Phocion in 
not repentinge 
his good coun- 
sayll geuen, 
though the 
contrary hap- 
pened Well and 

Thinges vn- 
discretely pur- 
posed, doen 
many times 
succede well, 
but yet the 
beste wayes 
are euer more 
to bee taken. 

Not the begin- 
ning of things 
but the last 
end muste de- 
clare, whether 
thesame was 
well attempted 
or not. 

THE 11. BOOKE. , 331 

selfe in deede to be very ioyous of their prosperous good procedinges, but yet that 
notwithstanding his first aduise and counsail to had been moche better. For he 
would not graunte that to be naught, for thesame that he had afore right well seen 
and perceiued to be best, he would not afterward graunte to be naught, because 
thei had had good happe and fortune in that, whiche an other body had naughtyly 
counsaylled and persuaded theim vnto, as one that estemed more happye lucke in 
that that thei had doen, but more wisedome in that that he had counsailled. For 
veray chaunce doeth oftentimes helpe temeritee, when it sheweth tendre fauour to 
wrong counsaill, and doeth more desperatly shewe furtheraunce, to the ende that it 
may more vehementlie hurte afterwarde. 

When the * Macedonians had by forceable ^S- 
entreaunce broken into the countree of Attica, * gggj ^f j^is 
and destroyed the sea costes of thesame round in the apo- 
aboute, Phocion tooke forth with him a coum- note ^^t afore 
paignie of younge men beeyng in their best luste goynge. And 

. r- 1 t t 1.1 of thesame 

and age, of whom sondrye persones hastyly ap- matter read in 
proching vnto him, and like as if thei had ben 'he xvii. apo- 
capitaines geuing him counsaill that hee should f^is Plwlion. 
by preuencion geat to a certain hillocke, ^i° that 

was euen there in sight of the Macedonians, & should in the- 

. , , . This is added 

same pltche his Campe, l^p° & ther set his footemen : out of Plutar- 

othersome affirming to bee best that he should sodainly enuirbn cAks in the life 

the saied Macedonians with his horsemen : and other some taking of Phocion. 
vppon theim to teache him to sette vp on his enenues, one out of 

one place, another out of another place and one this wave, and . "' P ," 

13.1 nCS 3.HQ 

another that waye. Oh God HerCulcs (qUOth Phocion) fewegood 

what a mainy of capitaines I see here, and good soldiours 

, ,. •' , '^ . ' ° quoth PAoaoM. 

souldiours woondreous fewe. 

IT Noting the vnaduisedneSse and vndiscrete facion 
of young folkes, whiche was so prest to take in hande The duetie and 
to leade and teache the capitain, where as the duetie parte of a good 
and part of a souldiour is not to bee a buisie geuer of 
counsaill, but when the case requireth, lustily to be- 
stiere him about his buisinesse. Yet neuerthelesse bat- j.^^^ Atheniens 
tail ioyned, he wonne the victorie, ^d ouercame Nicion in conclusion 
the capitain of the Macedonians. But ere long time ouercomed by 
after, the Atheniens being clene ouercomed & sub- tepte by his 
dued, were driuen to take ia garison of Antipater garrison. 
|^p° to be ouer theim in the castle of their citee. 

When Menyllus the capitain of the garrison, 14, 




Menyllui Cap* 
itain of Anti- 
pater his gar- 
rison in j^iAenes 

Phocion refused 
to talce money 
of Menylhis 
his gifte. 

This is touched 
afore in the 8. 


Antipater ' 
could neuer 
persuade Pho- 
cion to take 
any money, 
nor fill Dem- 
ades with 
Demades had 
no feloe in 
making an 
oracion with- 
out studie, 
wheras De- 
Ttiosthenes jA 
all his matters 

How Phocion 
made aunswer 
to Antipater 
requiring him 
to do a certain 
thing contrary 
to iustice. 
One frend 
ought not to 
require any 
vniust thing 
of an other. 


For feither de- 
claracion herof 
reade the an- 
notacion of 

woulde i^° (for loue and good wille) haue geuen Pho- 
cion money, Phocion takynge great indignacion 
and foule skorne at the matter, saied, that neither 
he the said Menyllus was better man then Alex- 
ander, & the cause to take any reward or gift 
of money now was worse then at that time when 
he refused to take money sent vnto him by 

IT O an herte that could not bee coniured ne bought 
with money. 

Antipater would many times saie, that where- 
as he had two frendes in Athenes, he coulde 
neuer in all his lyue perswade Phocion to take 
any money or other thing of his gifte, nor neuer 
fille Demades with geuing.- 

IT This same was Demades the oratour who was 
excellent and passing good in making an oration, or 
setting out of a tale without any study or vnprouided; 
whereas Demosthenes made none oracions but diligently 
penned afore. 

Unto Antipater requiring hym to dooe for his 
sake some thing whatsoeuer it was not standing 
with iustice, he saied : O Antipater thou cannest 
not haue of Phocion .a frende and a flatterer both 

H A frende is at commaundement so ferre as con- 
science and honestee wiU suffre, and no ferther. For 
in deede one frende ought in no wyse to require of 
another frende a thing that is vniust. But as for a 
flaterer, he is a readie and a seruiceable paige for 
whatsoeuer a body will haue him doe. 

When the people" of Athenes were importune 
that Phocion should take an armie with hym 
into Beotia, and Phocion judged in his mynde 
that so doing would be nothinge for the profite 
of the commen weak, he made a proclamacion, 



that as many as were in the gitee betwene six- *e xi. Apo- 
teen yeares • of age and sixtie, should be in a ^lis pZli^n. 
readinesse and come foloe him. The aged men 
in this case criyng out against him, and allegeyng 
for their excuse that they wer impotent and 
feble for age, Why (quoth Phocion) there is none 
vnreasonable thing conteined in my proclamacion. How Phodon 
sens that I my selfe doe make ready to goe staiedthe il<7ie- 

r 1 -11 1. ..,., nieris being 

forth with them as their capitain being .Ixxx. in a sodain 

yeres of age. pangue to 

' _ continue 

IT By this subtile meanes he appeaced & cooled the warres with 
sodain heate of the commens. the Beocians, 

After the death of Antipater, the commen- 18. 
weale of- the Atheniens beyng come again to 
soche state that the people *rewled, and wer 
euery man like maister, Phocion was at a com- phocum beyng 
men assemblee condemned to die. And so it innccente, con- 
was that his other ^p° frendes whiche had been dg^th by the 
condemned to death together with him at the- people of 
same time, went piteously wepyng and making ' 
lamentacion when they were led to prieson, but 
Phocion went as stil as a lambe- not speaking a 
woorde. But one of his enemies meeting with 
him in the streete, after manie despiteous and 
railling wordes, spette in his face. Then Phoci- 
on looking backe vpon the officers, saied : Will The pacience 
no man chastice this feloe here vncomely de- of Phodon. 
meaninge himselfe ? 

U This moste vertuous and godly man euen when „, . , 

° ' , , , Pmcnmi when 

there was with him none other way but death, had he was cast 
care of the publique good ordre to be kept He to die yet had 
made no complainte of that so hainous- a touch of ordre°to^bee 
vilanie, neither did he require auengement against the kepte in the 
partie who contrarie to the lawes was eagre to shew "'*^' 
crueltee vnto a cast man : he onely willed the euil 
exaumple, that was contrary to good mannier and be- 



haueour to bee repressed : and to that horrible cruell 
dede he gaue no worse name but vncomely de- 

*The Philosophiers that doen write of politique gouemaunce describen the state 
of commenweales to haue been diuerse in diuerse places. Somewhere, kinges 
gouemed, as in Persia and in Rome at the beginning, and now in Englande, 
whiche was called Monarchia, & this state all wiyters doen agree vpon to be the 
best. Some commenweales haue been gouerned by a certain noumbre of magis- 
trates and counsailours, as in Rome, from the exterminaclon of kinges vntill the 
tyme of lulius Caesar, and at this present daye in Uenece, and this was called 
OUgachia, or Aristoaratia. Somewhere all the people ruled and were echeman of 
egaall autoritee, as in Aihenes vntill they were yoked by the xxx. tyrannes, and 
afiterwarde conquered and subdued by Philippus, and after him holden in subiection 
by Alexander, after him by Antipaiert after whose deceasse thei obteined again 
their first state, which was called Democratia. And this was of all other the worst, 
as here may tyght well appere, for the people beyng sembleable to a monstreous 
beaste of many hedes did thinges heddily without due counsaill, aduise, delibera- 
tion, discretion or reason, as the Atheitiens be3rhg in furious ragies moste wrong- 
fully put to death many innocent persones, highe clerkes and noble counsaillours, 
as afore is noted in the v. apophthegme of this same Phocionl 

1^^ With Phoeion were condemned to death Nicocles, Thudippus, Hegenum, and 
Rithocles. And besides these were condemned being absent Demetrius, Phalereus, 
Calli-medon, Ckaricles and sondrie persones mo. 

19. Of those persones whiche were to suffre death 
Howe Phoeion with Phocion, One man especially emong all the 
%ppus being' Others, being woondrefuU impacient bewailled 
out of pacience his mishappe whom Phocion coumforted after 
dye!" ^^ °" this sorte : Is it not enough for thee O Edippus 
(or as some readen Thudippus) to dye in com- 
paignie with Phocion. 

It maie be a IT Phocton was doen to death, not onely be)mg 

comforte for 
an innocent 

without gilt but also beyng one that had doen highly 
wrongfully'to wcU for the commenweale. It ought therefore to haue 
suffer with been estemed a great comfort and reioycing for the 

mnocentes. _i- -u • ^ /- n •. , ■ 

partie- beyng mnocente, wrongfully to be put to death 
with soche an innocent and good man as Phocion was. 

20. . At his laste houre, when the bruage of wyne 
Of the maner ^"'^ ^^ ^"^'^^ °f hemlocke tempreed together was 
of putting con- brought vnto hym, one demaunded of him whe- 
so™s"t^o deft in ^^'^ ^^ ^^""^ disposed any thing to sale vnto his 
Aihenes, read sonne, (for thcsame was there present :) Dere 



Sonne (quoth Phocion) I both streightly charge afore inthean- 
and commaunde thee, and also right hertely de- the 54. ^po- 
sire and praie thee, neuer to beare towardes the phthegmed 
Atheniens any grutch or malice for the remem- ^^ 

breaunce of this matter. saiedtohisson 

IT To other persones when they suffre execution the hL'dea'th"'* °^ 
chief comfort, that thai commenly haue, is the hope of 
their death to be afterward auenged : but Phocion did "^f entier zele 

,,.,., . , , , , , , and affeccion 

al that in him laye to prouide that the sonne shoulde of Phocion to- 
not reuenge the wrongful murdreing of his own father, ward his 
and was more desirous that thesame should beare ''''"""■^^" 
tendre zeale and affection toward his countree, then 
toward his parente. 

Unto Nicocles making instaunt request for 21. 
licence to suppe of his part of the poison before 

that Phocion should, Well (quoth Phocion) ■ 

though this bee an hard thing to obtein and Phocion\oM&i 

° , . , , and fauoured 

moche against my stomake, yet must it nedes be mcociessmga- 
graunted vnto that man whom I neuer saied larriieweii. 
naye of any thing in al my life time. 

^ Phocion had euermore borne singulet loue and 
affection towardes Nicocles the moste feythfuU and Wcoc/es the 
truest herted man emong all the frendes he had, and "^"ste trustie 
for that consideracion it would haue ben a great grief p^o^ion had. 
to the herte oi Nicocles to see the other passyng out of 
this world. Which grief to auoyde, he desired to 
drinke first himselfe. And in this thyng also did 
Phocion shewe pleasure to his frende. 

When all the cast men sauing he alone had 22. 
dronken, and onely Phocion was remayning vn- 
serued by reason that the poysoning had been al 
consumed by the others, the hangman saied 
plainly and swore that he would not serue hym 
excepte there wer laied doun in his hand .xii. an ounce of 
good drachmes l^° (litle vnder vi. s. sterlyng,) for an Hemlocke 

ounce of hemlocke luice (ae saied) would coste 




What Phocion 
saied when the 
would not 
minister the 
poison vnto 
him without 


How Phocion 
rebuked De- 
mosthenes cast- 
yng forth 
many railyng 
wordes against 

not a ferthing Ifesse. Phocion therfbre to thende 
that his death might not be delaied or slacked 
through the feloes brableing, to one of his frendes 
purposely called, thus he spoke. For as moche 
as it is so (saied he) that in the citee of Athenes 
a man can not die neither but he must paie for 
it, I beseche you hartely, paie the hangman 
here his askyng. 

When Demosthenes was busie casting out 
many bloudy wordes against Alexander being 
now at the veray point to winne & entre the 
citee of Thebes, Phocion tooke him vp with this 
greke verse of Homere, out of the first booke of 
his werke entituled Odyssea. 

cr)(er\ie, twit iOiXti^ ipiOi^e/JXV aypiov avSpa j 

O weked creature, what phansie hast thou, 
Soche a sower feloe, to prouoke now ? 

% The saiynges of Marcus 
Tullius Cicero, 

Of Marcus Tullius Cicero to speake as his worthinesse requi- 
reth, were to write an infinite volume couched and replenished 
with whole heapes of laudes and prayses. But for this present 
purpose and place it shal be enough to saie, that he lyneally de- 
scended from the house of Tullius an auncient kyng of the Folstes. 
But (as the world and all thinges are full of chaunges) so in long 
processe of yeres the ioylitee of that bloud and name fell to depaye 
and to ignobilitee. Albeit euen in the time of Cicero the T'ullies 
remained in the degree and acceptacion of geritlemen, and Cicero 
euen at his firste comming to Rome, enioyed the degree of a gen- 
tleman, and like as he was vnder the estate of the Senatburs 
whiche were lordes, so was he aboue the condicion and degree pf 
the yeomanrie or comenaltie, his father was called Tullius, a man 
of no great name nor porte, his mothers name Olbia a ryohe 
woman. He was borne in a toune of the Folstes called Arpium, 
(free of Rome to enioye all maner fraunchesses, libertees, priui- 
leges, and offices in thesahie). Neuerthelesse all soche persones 
as neuer had their parentes dwelling at Roome, ne bearyng any 
magistrate Or office there, were called, Nmti homines, new men, 




that is to saye, come of straungiers & men vnknowen to beare 
autoritee and rule in the citee. Tallius was at last the father of 
all eloquence, a greate writer of bookes in all kindes, and a man 
(as Plinius of him sayeth) for Witte and eloquence out of all com- 
parison, he gotte vp by litle and litle to beare offices in Rome 
euen to the veray Consulship, and that with as moche honour, 
autoritee, glorie, and renoume as euer man did, in so moch that 
he was the first that euer was called in Rome, parens patriae, the 
father of his countree, that is to saye, the onely sauer and keper 
of the countree. NeuertheleSse, was he at length and his house 
in despite, beaten and throwen down to the hard ground, but at 
last he was fette home againe of^their owne accorde, and receiued 
with soche honour as neuer was any man there before or sence, 
and hadde a newe house builded for hym at the charges of the 
citee twys so good and double so fayre, as his owne was afore. 
In fine he was by the permission & suffreaunce of Augustus Caesar 
with all vilanie possible slain at the commaundement of Marcus 
Antonius his enemie, who caused his right hande with whiche he 
had wryten to be stricken of, and his toung to be cut out of his 
head with which he had made many noble oracions before the 
Senate & people of Rome. And after that the saied Antonius had 
had bis hedde presented in a dyshe at his table, and had saciated 
his moste cruell iyes with the contemplacion of it, he caused the- 
same for extreme contumelie and despite to be nailed vp in the 
place that was called Rostra, where Tullius had before that time 
pronounced many a sore inuectiue against him. 

Arcus Tullius, (for as moche as he was 
moche iested on for the surname of 
* Cicero) being warned by his frendes 
to chose and take vnto him some 
other surname, answered that he would ere he 
died make the name of Cicero more noble and 
famous, then was the name either of the tCatons, 
or of the Catules, or els of the JScaures, 

^ For these houses were of especiall fame and re- 
noume emong the Remains, wher as Tullius was a 
man but newly come to Rome, and as yet vnknowen 
there. And as for the surname was a readie thyng to 
to be iested at, because it appered to haue been de- 
riued of the moste vyle Poultz called Cker. Yea 
iwysse, as though the familie of those Romaines 
whiche wer called Fabit, semed not to haue had that 
surname first of Benes (whiche are in latine called 
Fabae) and they that were called Lentuli, to haue been 
sumamed of an other Poultz which the latine men do 
22 cal. 


moche iested 
at for the sur- 
name of 

What Tullius 
saied when his 
frendes aduised 
him to take 
sum other sur- 
name instede 
of Cicero. 

The houses of 
the Colons Ca- 
tules and the 
iScaures were of 
great renoume 
in Rome. 

The surnames 
of those which 
wer called 
Falrii & Len- 
tuli, wherof 
thei came vp. 

338 CICERO. 

Of slendre no- cal, Lmtem. But to this present purpose, of slendre 
bilitee "3 that nobiijtee & renoume is that manne, whiche hath none 

man,wnonatn . i_ -j i_ t 

nothing but Other poinct of nobihtee m hym besides the Imeall 

the petigree of descent of his auncestours ^and his surname. The 

tours'anrhis moste honorable kynde of nobihtee is that which euery 

surname. man doeth purchace to himself by his own propre 

The most vertues and good qualitees. Neither proued Marcus 

laudable no- Tullius a false man of his worde, for the name of 

^'h'^h '^ **' Cicero is at this present daye more commen in eche 

man achiueth mans mouthe, then are thre hundred soch as the 

by his own pro- Qatules, and the Scaur es with all their garlandes, their 

pre vertues. images of honour & their petigrees. 

* As touching the surname of Cicero, it is to be noted, that this Marcus Tullius, 
right well knowing his owne petigree and auncestrie, resumed the surname of the 
stocke, from whiche he was descended. For the firste Tullius was surnamed 
Cicero, of a little piece of fleshe growing in the side of his nose, like to a cicer, 
whiche is a little pultz, moche like to a pease, some there been that call it the 
Fatche, but I doubt whether truely or not. But in the time of old antiquitee, a 
common thing it was, that families wer surnamed of diuerse soche thinges (saieth 
Plinius in the third chapiter of the i8 booke) as the familie of those, whiche wer in 
Roome called Pilumni, was first surnamed of the inuenting of Pilum, whiche is a 
pestell, soche as thinges are braied withall in a mortare, and in olde time thei 
hadde none other waie to grinde their come. Also Pisones wer surtaamed, a pisendo, 
of grinding with a querle, because it was their inuencion. Those also (saieth he) 
whiche wer called Fabii, Lentuli, & Cicerones had their surnames at th^ first of 
soche thinges in the sowing and housebandrie, whereof thei excelled others. 

t For the renome of the Catons, of the Catules, and the Scaures, & of their 
families in the Jiistories of Titus Liuius, Floras, Plutarchus, and Valerius Maxi- 
mus. For some more light to be geuen to this present place, as touching Cato 
the first, I haue thought good to set the woordes of Plinius in the 27 chapiter of 
the J. bdke. In other kindes of vertues saieth many persones haue many sondrie 
waies excelled. But Cato the firste of the hous, that was called in Roome Gens 
fortia, hath been thought to haue in most high degree, to haue performed and 
shewed the moste high thinges that maie bee in any mortall creature, being the 
beste oratour that euer was before his time, the best capitain of an armie, and the 
best Senatour. And as for this was in a Cato alone, and neuer in any man els 
that he was vpoh accusacions 44. times, brought to his aunswer before iudges 
at the barre, and neuer any man moo times arrained, & yet euer quite. For this 
Cato because he was a graue and a sage father, and a continuall enemie and pur- 
suer of all vice, he had the hatered of many persones, who of malice wrought to 
bring him to confusion, but his innocencie euermore deliuered him. From this 
Cato lineally descended Cato Vticensis, a verie noble man also, as is afore in the 
saiynges of Augustus, largelie mencioned and noted. 

X Of Quintus Lactatius Catulus, it is written in the Chronicles of Rome that in 
the first warre that the Romaines made against the Cartaginiens, he with a nauie 
of .iii. u. shippes, made vi. c. shippes of theirs couche, and toke their vitailles and 
other lading, and the chief capitain of thesame Himilcon. But the memorie of 



these mennes actes is now cleane extincted, the memorie of Cicero by reason of 
his moste noble bokes is immortall, and shall neuer die while the worlde shall 
stande. Of whom Plinius in the 30 chapiter of the 7. volume, emong many high 
praises mo saieth in this wise : All haill Cicero the firste man that euer was 
called parens patriae, the father of our countree, & the first man that euer deserued 
a triumphe, and neuer diddest on harnesse for the matter, and yet diddest as wor- 
thelie deserue to haue the garland of a triumpher for thy toung, as euer had any 
other befor for the swearde. ^^ Whiche he speaJcedi of the suppressing of the 
sedicious coniuracion of Catiline, whom Cicero did peacablie destroie and put to 
death with all his complices & adherentes, without bloudshed of any of the true 
citezens.) All haill the parente and chief founder of all eloquence of the Latine 
toung, and (as lulius Caesar the Dictatour, sometime thy greate enemie hath left 
in writing of thee) one that had achiued a garlande of triumphe, so ferre sur- 
mounting the garlandes of all other mennes triumphes, as it is more highlie to be 
estemed to haue so highlie auaunced and extended throughout all partes of the 
worlde the boundes and limites of the wit, which the Romaines haue, then of 
their Empire. 

t Marcus Aemilius Scaurus, in the time of his Consulshippe, passing by chaunce 
along by Puhlius Deems then chief Justice, when he sawe thesame lustice not to 
doe his duetie of obeisaunce, commaunded thesame to arise from the benche, and 
then did Scaurus cutte the garment of Decius (whiche was as greate a dishonour 
and ignomie, as if a chiefe lustice should haue his coif rolled from his hedde here 
in Englande, and be disauctorised or deposed from his office) he cutte the benche that 
Decius had sitten on, in token of his deposicion or depriuacion, and proclaimed 
that no persone should any more resorte vnto thesame Decius for lustice. Also, 
being Consull he triumphed of the Legures and the Gantiskes. And at other sea- 
sons did many noble actes, bothe of buildinges & otherwise. He was of so high 
aucthoritee in Roome, that of his owne bed, without any other bodies counsaill, he 
set Opius in harnesse against Gracchus, and set Marius to warre against Glaucia 
and Saturninus. In his old age he was accused and appealed by Varius one of 
the Tribunes for the people, that he had enforced the frendes of the Romaines, and 
all the countree of Latium to battaile, for aunswere to whiche complainte and ac- 
cusacion, thus he saied openly vnto the people : Masters all, Varius saieth Aemili- 
us Scaurus enforced and droue soche as are in League with this citee to harnesse 
and weapen, and Scaurus saieth it was nothing so, to whether of the tyiroo doe ye 
geue credence ? Upon these wordes was he dimissed. 

When he offred a siluer bolle to the goddes, 2. 

he had his * forename, and his name stamped and MarcusTuiUus 

set out in plain letters, but for his surname, Cicero, ^^" the°sur- ' 

he engraued the figure & proporcion of a cicer. name of 

. . , , , . . . Cicero. 

H Not shrinking an yncne for the mterpretacion of 
capcious bourders. 

* The Romaines for the moste part, especiallie soche as wer of any nobilitee and 
renoume, had three names, the first was called Praenomen,- the forename, as 
Marcus, whiche we doe call the christian name : the second was called nomen, the 
name, as Tullius, whiche was the commen name of the house stocke or familie that 
they were descended of, and this we call our surname, because we haue not the 
thyrde in vse, (except it should be called our sire name that is to saye the name of 
our fathers bloud and auncestrie.) The thirde was geuen vpon some other exter- 
nall chaunce, cause or consideracion, as Cicero, and sembleably in others. 




bralljmg Ora- 
tours Cicero 
likened vnto 
lame creples. 

3. Suche oratours or aduocates as in vttring their 
Clamourous & matter, or in making their plea dooen vse to crie 
out as if they were in a mylne or in a roode 
lofte, Cicero auouched to be sembleable vnto 
lame creples, for that suche maner oratours sem- 
bleably had all their refuge vnto soche clamour- 
ous, yalling, as lame bodies to their horses. 

IT Yea & euen at this present daye, a rief thyng it 
is to see feloes enough of the selfsame suite, which as 
often as thei see theim selfes to haue the worse ende 
of the staffe in their cause, doen make their recourse 
wholly vnto furious brallyng, to thende that where they 
are not of facultee and cunnyng with good argumentes 
& profound reasons to make their matter good, they 
may with malaperte facing and with feare, by hooke 
or crooke drieue it to their purpose. 

When *Verres, who had a sonne viciously 
mispending the floure of his youth rallied on 
Cicero vnder the name of a sinnefuU abuser of 
chargevnchast jijg body in abominacion. Thou art ignoraunt 
myng. (quoth Cicero) that a man ought to chyde his 

children secretly within doores. 

IT Signifiyng that woorde of reproche not to take 
place in him, but in the sonne of the fault finder or 
quereler. And in deede to parentes it apperteineth to 
blame or chyde their chyldren, but yet not without the 
circuite of their owne houses, neither ought thesame 
woordes of rebuke to be notified foorth of doores. But 
that persone doeth no lesse then publyshe it abrode, 
who laieth to others abrode, that thyng whiche his 
children doe perpetrate at home in his owne hous. 

lageand extor- 

cion there. Whereupon he was accused, and broughtto his aunswer in Rome. Cicero 
made and pronounced against him certain inuectiues, and in theim so layed to his 
charge, and brought in witnesse vpon thesame, that Verres was condemned in a 
great summe of a rierage. And not many yeares after, he was cast in a forfaicte 
of all his goodes and landes by Marcus Antonius, vpon none other cause ne 
grounde (saieth Plinius) but for that on a time bragging and cocking with An- 
tonius, he craked and made vaunte that he would droppe plate of Corinthe metalle 
with him ounce for ounce and not be one piece behinde hym. 



Howe Cicero 
taunted Ferres 
laiyng to his 

Parentes ought 
to rebuke their 
children se- 
cretly within 
their houses. 

* Ferres, a. 
gentleman of 
Rome who 
beeynge Prae- 
tor in Sicilie 
did moche pil- 

THE II. BOOKE. 34 1 

Unto Metellus laiyng to the charge of Cicero, 5. 
• that thesame had been the death of mo per- 

sones by geuing euidence against theim, then How Cicero 

euer he had saued by pleadyng for them, Yea ^.^^^^^"^^i. 

marie (quoth Cicero) for I haue in me more truth yngetohis 

of my worde in bearing witnesse, then I haue of had'been riie° 

eloquence to persuade. death of mo 

IT With a meruaillous wittie braine did he wrest the ^fdence geu- 

other parties woorde of reproche to his owne laude ing, then he 

and prayse. For in a geuer of euidence truthe is to ''f a^rT^fo^^ 

be regarded, in an aduocate or attoumey, eloquence theim. 

it is that doeth most auaile. . 

Eftsons to thesame Metellus demaunding of 6. 

Cicero who was his father (as casting him in the ^o^ ^'"""o 

teethe with the bassenes of his birthe) he saied : Metellus de- 

Thy mother is in the cause that a right hard maunding, 

,,..,.. , ,. , . who was his 

thmg It is to make a direct answer vnto this father. 

question of thine. it is aforenoted 

IT For the mother of Mdellus hadde a name that ''^tc^tT^Z. 

she was no veray good woman of her body. Yea and of no name. 

Metellus himself being of his mothers condicions was r^^ mother of 

veray * light and mutable, and one that could none Metellus vn- 

other but folowe euery sodain guerie or pangue that ^^^t of her 

shotte in his braine. Cicero chaunged the contumelie „ ' ,. . 

from the father to the mother. For then is the father & inconstant, 
vncertain to be knowen, when the mother kepeth not 
herselfe to one sole manne. 

* Metellus was so shuttle brained that euen in the middes of his tribuneship he 
left his office in Rome, and sailled to Pompeius into Syna, & by then he had ben 

with him in a whyle, came flynging home to Rome again as wyse as a capon. 

When thesame Metellus after the deceasse of 7- 

Diodorus (whom he hadde to his maister in Oio<hrus alias 

,.,,,. . -11 1 Dioaotus mai- 

rhetorike) had sette for a memoriall vpon the ster vnto Me- 

toumbe of thesame a crowe of stone, Cicero 'f""* '" *«'°- 
saied : Truely he is rewarded according to his " 

desertes. For he hath taught Metellus to flygh saied when 

and not to make oracions. Metellus had 

IT Noting 



sette vpon the "(I Noting the lightnesse and inconstancie of Metellus. 

SioS^a "^^^ "°^^ ^^ ^ ^'^^'^ *^' ^^* '^""^ "''^^'^ musike, nor 
crowe of stone, can none other songe ne tune but ka, ka. 

^g° Plutarchus calleth the Rhetorician Philagres, and saieth 
that the toumbe was of marble, & that Metellus caused the crowe 
to be grauen in the marble stone, whiche thing in deede is the 
more likely. 


What Cicero 
saied when one 
had told newes 
that f^atinius 
was dedde, and 
afterwarde the 
thing was • 
found other- 


nameth this 
man Octauius, 

Thusein Lylna 
was to haue 
their eares 
bored full of 
holes, for to 
hang ringes 
and precious 
Stones thereat. 

Marcus Tullius had heard saie that Vatinius 
(a mortall foo of his, and besides that of himselfe, 
a persona full of mischief) was dedde, shortly 
after when he had heard contrary worde againe, 
that thesame was aliue and merie : Eiuill chieu- 
ing come to him (saied Tullius) that euill lied. 

H Signifiyng that Vatinius was vnworthy any longer 

to liue. In deede eueiy lye is euill, but this lye was 

double euil, because it hadde brought honest men 

into a fooles paradise. Yet neuerthelesse the saiyng 

was doubtfuU, as the whiche might haue been spoken 

of soche a persone also, whom a body would not with 

his good will haue had dedde. 

|^p° As if some light feloe should btyng vs newes that some 
one of our kynne, or of our dere frendes, or some learned man 
were departed this worlde, and thesame newes were afterward 
founde vntrue, we myght and would geue him Christes curse that 
had made soche an euill lye to put vs in discoumforte and heaui- 
nesse. And in this poincte of speakyng, ambiguouslye resteth the 
wittynesse of the apophthegme. 

When Marcus Tullius was makyng an oracion 
on a tyme, and a certaine persone supposed of 
all men to bee borne in Lybia, spake in this 
maner, I heare not this tale, (meaning by the- 
same wordes, that he did no poinct lyke the 
matter whiche the Oratour treated of) And yet 
(quoth Cicero) ye haue holes plentieth in your 

11 For the nacion of a custome had their eares bored 
full of holes, to hange therat rynges & precious stones, 
whiche we nowe a dayes doe weare about our necke, 
or on our fyngers. And howe soche holes are made, 
Ceisus doeth teache. One 


One Caius Popilius (who would in any wyse lo. ^P'' 

seeme to be an expert lawier, where as in deede mocked one 

he was but a boungleer and a veray asse in Popuius heat- 

knowlage of the lawe) beyng on a time called tenaunce of a 

foorth to geue euidence in a certain matter of S<^^ lawier, 

trauerse, aunswered, that he knewe nothing in deede he had 

the matter, nor nothing could say. Yea (quoth "^.^'.^ p' '" "' 

Cicero) ye think perchaunce that ye are nowe chus in the life 

asked a question of some poincte of the lawe. °f Cicero, na- 

'■ meth this man 

Hortensius the Oratour, had receiued of Verres 1 1 . ^""^ '" 

the Apo- 

an image of Sphinx all of clene siluer in part of phthegmes, c. 
a reward to defend his cause against Cicero ^"f^'™*- 

(at what time he was accused as aforesayed). And thelifeof Cicero 

when the same Hortensius vpon a certain poincte saieth.thatthis 

^ , . . ,, SphtKcwasall 

somewhat coulourably aferre of and mistically of cleaneluerie 

vttreed by Cicero, had thus saied : I haue not Hemajewell 

1 1 t • •>, T . ■ 1 . soilendles 

learned to soyle no riedles I, he saied agame : (saiethTuiims) 

And yet hast thou Sphinx dwelling at home in ^^5*'^'^ , 

thy house with thee. ling at home 

H The fable of the monstre Sphinx is well knowen, ^^^ j,im. 

whiche with condicions of prices and rewardes did Of this read 

put foorth riedles to men, and of soche persones as ^"^e fiftie'^^ 

coulde not soyle theim the rewarde was death. Apophthegme 

of Diogenes. 

When he met one Voconius by chaunce in the 12. 

strete with his three doughters, beeyng notable What dcero 

foule & euil fauoured beastes, he recited to his ^^ftj ^g^^o- 

frendes softely this little verse of Greke. conius, & his 

three foule 

4>oi)3ov TTOT oiiK iuivTos ecTTTEtpev TCKva. doughters. 

In the despite of Phebus clene, 
This feloe begotte his children. 

II Mening, that Voconius of likelihood went about chji^renbeeot- 

the getting of children vtterlye against the wil, mynde ten towardes 

and disposition of Apollo : either because Apollo is of *? Sunne 

the poetes feigned to be amiable and all full of beautie, conceiuedmore 

or els for that the folkes thynken children begotten perfecte of 




limme, shape towardes the Sonne arising, to be concerned more per- 

& fauour. 

fecte of fourme, shape, lymme, and fauour. 

_ _ ' Or els for that Cicero thought in his merie conceipte, that 
The Sunne forasmuch as according to the prouerbe, Sol omnia videt ac reuelat, 

seeth all '^* sunne seeth all thinges and disouereth all thinges, and 

thynees, saieth bringeth all to light, except Phebus (which is the Sonne) had 
the Prouerbe. oughed P^oconius a shame, he would neuer haue sufFreed him to 

begette socbe foule babies and oule faced doudes as all the worlde 

should afterward wondre at. 


Of the double 
of this worde 
it is afore 

Of Sylla it is 
largely noted 
afore in sondrie 
of lulius 
Caesar & of 


said, when 
Caesar & 
Pompeius wer 
fallen at strife. 
Of the vari- 
ance betwene 
lulius Caesar 
and Pompeius 
it is afore men- 
cioned in their 
Cicero ^ c 
blamed ^' 
Pompeiusioi de 
parting awaye 
out of Rome. 

At what tyme Faustus Sylla (the sonne of 
Sylla the dictatour) for to discharge the greate 
debte that he was in, had made an inuentorie of 
all his mouables to set foorth thesame to sale : 
Yea marie [quoth Cicero] this proscription I doe 
moche better allowe, then the proscription that 
your father vsed to make. 

% He made a meiy ieste of the double signification 
of this woorde, proscription. For thinges are said 
proprely in latine, proscribi, which are at an open pray- 
sing sette to out vent or sale, and men also are saied 
in latine, proscribi, that are proclaimed traitours to be 
slaine of any man that will doe it whersoeuer they be 
found, after which cruell forme and sorte Lucius Cor- 
nelius Sylla the father had proscribed no small noum- 
bre of the citezens of Rome in the tyme of his 

Pompeius and Caesar beeyng fallen at debate 
and variunce, Cicero saied Whom to eschewe I 
knowe veray well, but whom to ensue I cannot 

IT Mening that both the said parties tooke the 
sweorde in hand, not for the libertee or freedome of 
the commenweale, but whether of them two should 
haue the soueraintee. 

He found a great faulte with Pompeius for 
that thesame had abandoned the citee and had 
in that his doyng folowed |^° Themistocles 



rather then Pericles, seing that the cases of ^^ ThemU 
Themistocles and Pompeius were nothing like at *''"^'«* ^ ™f " 

11 01 rT->'i oT^ • 1 of great rule 

all, & the cases of Pericles & Pompeius muche- and autoritee 

what of a rate in all behalfes. For Themistocles !° ^<''™f» (as 
fljj IT.. i-T.., -I'S afore noted; 

iledde vnto the Persians, and Pericles remained was at last 

still resyaunt in Athenes. banyshed his 

' countree, and 

pursued in soche wyse, that he was constreined to take refuge vnto Xerxes king ot 
the Persias, against whom he had afore kept battail, with whom at last he grewe 
so ferre in fauour & credite, that Xerxes made him high capitain of his armie 
against the Atheniens. But Themistocles, when he sawe his countremen, toke re- - 
morse of conscience, and because he would neither deceiue the king whiche had put 
him in trust nor yet be the destroier of his owne countree, poysoned himselfe with 
drjmkjfng the bloud of a buUe. Themistocles was a man of no eloquence, fauour 
nor maiestee. But Pericles was a man beautiful, passing eloquent, wyse, politike, 
in high estimacion & autoritee emong the Atheniens, in so moche that he gouemed 
and ruled the commenweale of Athenes by the space of xl. yeres with al mens fa- 
uour, beneuolence and supportacion. And in like case was Pompeius in the citee 
of Rome, so that his case was more like vnto the case of Pericles then of Themi- 
stocles. And in deede (as Cicero by the testimonie of Plutarchus writeth) Pompeius 
his cause stoode more with the commenweale then Caesars, and all the auncient, 
graue, wyse and good men fauoured Pompeius, and drewe to him as Cato, Cicero, 
Lentulus, and soche others mo. 

When he was come to Pompeius, and repented 16. 

his foly of coming, beyng asked the question "*^hat dcero 

wher he had left Piso his sonne in lawe : Marie ^eJMidemaund- 

(quoth he) with your father in law. y°g ■»'*i«f« ^^ 

„ ' had left Piso 

^ Speakyng by lulius Caesar, Cicero euen like as his sonne in 
though he had had halfe a rebuke, for that he had ^'^^• 
separated and deuided himself from Piso, who had 
married his doughter, gaue Pompeius again taunt pour pjj„ married 
taunt, for that the same kept warre against his own the doughter 
father in law, whose doughter he had marled. "oke parte with 

Caesar. Pompeius had maried the doughter of Caesar, and yet warred aginst him. 

When a certain persone hauyng ren awaie ij. 
from Caesar to Pompeius saied, that for greate 
desire to make hast, he had lefte his horse be- 
hinde him in Caesars campe, Marie (quoth Cicero) 
then haste thou dooen better by thy horse, then 
by thy self. 

^ Esteming that the feloe should haue doen moche 
better, if himself had taried still with Caesar to. 




1 8. 

saith that one 
Lentiilus tolde 
these newes. 


Of this bat- 
taille is aboue 
mencioned in 
the saiynges 
of Caesar and 

What Cicero 
saied when one 
Nonius would 
with. 7. Eagles 
crie a new field 


What Cicero 
said when 
Caesar set vp 
again the 
Images of 
Pompeius i n 
their places. 

To a feloe bringyng tidynges that Caesars 
frendes wer all sadde, and in their dumpes. That 
is euen as moche (quoth Cicero) as to saie, that 
thei thinke a mischief on hym. 

IT He mocked the flatering bringing of newes, as 
though Caesars mennes hartes were in their heles, and 
thei sore afeard of Pompeius. 

After the battaill foughten in Pharsalia, when 
Pompeius was fled, one Nonius said, there wer 
seuen Eagles yet left, and therefore encours^ed 
the soldiours to be of good chere, and to take 
their hartes to them. Thy chering wer very 
good O Nonius (said Cicero) if our warre should 
be against laies. 

IT But Nonius, when he saied Eagles, spake of the 
Romaines baners or standardes, whiche had euermore 
the picture of an eagle displaied on them. 

I^g° The meaning of Cicero was, that for their 7. eagles 
Caesar who had alreadie vanquished them, and against whom 
thei had to fight the new felde had ten, and that he had in his 
armie no dastardes, but expert soldiours, yea, and better men of 
their handes, then Pompeius had any. In deede a laie is nothing 
in the talauntes of an Eagle, but an Eagle to an Eagle is a fiiU 
matche, tenne Eagles to seuen, is an ouermatche. - 

When Caesar being lorde of all, had with 
moche honour set vp in their places again, the 
images of Pompeius, whiche some bodie had in 
despite cast doun, Cicero said Caesar, while he 
restoreth the images of Pompeius to their old 
places, doeth sette vp and stablishe his owne sure 
for euer. 

^ Doyng to wete, that Caesar did not thesame for 
any fauor, that his harte did beare towarde Pompeius, 
but to the ende that by the colourable semblaunce of 
mercifulnesse, hymself might purchace fauour emong 
the citezens, and by soche meanes might estabhsh his 
own reigne & dominacion the longer to endure. 



So carefull was Marcus Tullius to .tell his 21, 
tale after a good & perfect sort, & wold be- The carefui- 
stow so thoughtfuU studie on soch a matter TaHiKs an^"* 

that no woorde might bee placed out of square, that studie that no 

where he had an oracion to make, before the oradon might 
benche of Judges, whiche wer called * Centu- be amisse or 

muiri, and the dale was come euen at hand, he „ , / 
^ r 1^ I- ■• ■ n ■^''<" a bond- 

made free one Erote a bondman of his, for onely man of Cicero, 

bringing hym tidynges, that the sittyng was ^ponwhat 

adiourned, & put of one daie ferther then had made free. 

been appoincted at the first. *The people 

n This historie also hath some bodie put in emonges °f Roome were 

: !^ ° dmided mto 

the Apophthegmes, whereas in deede it is none. 35. Tribes, as 

l^g° And yet (as I haue afore noted any facte or example, that , , . . 
male be to vs an honeste lesson or instruccion (though it contein , 

no woorde at all) maie worthely be estemed to haue the strength, ^ ^ , ' 

name & place of an Apophthegme. And soche good examples _ •. 
doeth not Ptutarchus refuse, ne abhorre to put in emong his apo- , , . 

phthegmes, as namely this present historie of Cicero his facion. , ^ tvme 

And would Christe our grene preachers now of da,ies, whiche haue ^ (.0 nse re- ' 
neither shame ne feare, to steppe into pulpites, ere thei can well • j , „ _ 

construe the Gospell or Epistle, whiche thei boldely take vpon them ^_ Assemble for 

to preach, wer of Cicero his modestie and carefulnesse in this :„j_.i__. :_ 

^ ^ , speciall causes 

of controuersie betwene partie and partie. Their iudgementes and sittinges wer 
called centumuiralia indicia, the iudgementes of the C persones. And the Benche 
self, though thei wer an hundred and fine persones in all, yet were thei of the greater 
and the more worthie nomber called centumuiri, and not centum quinque viri. 

At his arriuall into the campe of Pompeius, 22. 
vnto soche as saied, Ah Cicero, ye are come tardy. 
No neuer a whit tardy (quoth he again) for I se 
nothing here yet in a redines. 

II He alluded to Soche as come late to a dinner or 
supper. The mirthe of the saiyng to come tardie, is 
grounded vpon the double meaning of the word tardie, 
for thei come tardie, that come late to the beginning, 
and thei come tardie, that come when all is past and 

When Pompeius had admitted a certain Galle 23. 
free citezen of Rome, because thesame had for- 



Howe Cicero 
taunted Pom- 
peius, for ma- 
king a Gall 
free citezen 
of Rome. 

Howe Cicero 
was begiled, to 
leaue Caesar & 
cleue to Pom- 

Caesar went 
in his goune 
girte aboute 

With what 
woordes Sylla 
would often 
times, wame 
PoTnpeius to 
beware of 

How Cicero 
answered one 

praising his 
wine of xl. 
yeres olde. 

The wine 

The wine Fa- 
lernum if it bee 
either to newe 
or to old, is 

saken Caesar, for to come and to bee on his side. 
A gaie feloe in deede (quoth Cicero) to promise 
aliens the citee of other menne, whereas he is not 
hable to restore vntb vs our proper owne. 

, After the victorie and conquest of Csesar, 
Cicero beeyng asked the question, how he had 
so ferre missed the cushin in chosyng of partes, 
saied : In faithe the girdyng of their gounes de- 
ceiued me. 

IT Meanyng hymself neuer to had trusted that the 
victorie would haue gone on soche a nice and eifemi- 
nate persones side. For Caesar vsed to go after soch 
sort girded in his goune that he would go (euen as 
wanton or volupteous feloes doen) training after him 
the skirtes of his goune, al pounced in cuttes and 
iagges. Wherefore Sylla would many a time and ofte, 
giue Pomfeius warnyng to beware of the bodie, that 
went so lewdely girte. 

Thesame Cicero beyng at supper with one 
Damasippus, when the maister of the feast had 
set vpon the table wine that was but easie and 
soso, & minding to praise thesame vnto his 
geastes, of the oldnesse of it, saied, Maisters 
drinke ye well of this wine, for it is .xl. yeres 
olde : By my faithe (quoth Cicero) it beareth the 
age right well. 

\ After soche forme of wordes doe we vse to speake 
of a manne whose beautie and strengthe, age doeth 
not verie moche abate nor breake. But it was a fond 
thing semblably to commende wine for beyng toto old. 

S^g" This wine was called mnum Falemum, of Falemus, an 
hill in Campania, where it was made. This wine Falemum 
(saith Plinius) was estemed emong all wines, the seconde in dig- 
nitee. Thesame neither being very newe, nor on the other side 
verie old, was thought wholsome for a mannes bodie, but beyng 
of a meane age (whiohe meane age beginneth from .xv. yeres, and 
so vpwarde, vntil he be sowre, as I think Damasippus his wine 
was) and then it is ouer old, so that when Cicero affirmed it to 



beare it age wel, he meaned that it was sterke soure, and that the 

sowrenesse declared it to be ouer olde, though Damasippits had 

saied neuer a worde. And where in a man to beare his age Wine of .ii. C. 

faire is an high grace, so wine to beare the age well (by an ironie) yeres old Pli7i. 

signifieth thesame to be souer and sterke naughte. Albeeit xiiii. C. iiii. 

Plinius maketh raencion of wines of twoo hundred yeres old. 

When he sawe on a tyme Lentulus his dough- 26. 
ters housband, being a man of a verie lowe sta- WhenPisowas 
ture, girte with a veraie longe sweorde by his ^^'Pi"^" 

•J 1 -1 i,Ti 11-1 -1 mariedhis 

Side, he saied : Who hath tied my sonne m lawe doughter to 
to a sweorde .' Lmtuius. 

_ _ , , , , , , , ^^° hath tied 

II i^or the man semed to bee bounde to the sweorde, my soonne in 
aud not the sweorde to the man. lawtoasweord 

quoth Cicero. 

When he had espied in the Prouince of Asia 2 7. 
(where his brother Quintus Cicero had before Quintusdcero 
that time been srouernor) the image of thesame 'ii? brother of 


Quintus made with his terget (as the facion then The one halfe 
was) from the middle vpward, moche greater of my brother 

, , , , . , . .,.,,. is more then al 

then the verie true proporcion of his bodie was his whole body 

in deede, Whough [saieth he] halfe my brothers ^^^^ dcero. 

bodie is more then the whole. For the said ft^^'^tr^Z^ 

Quintus was but a little pretie bodie of stature, of stature. 

Where TuUia the doughter of Cicero went 28. 
with a more stieryng and faste passe, then was 
comely for a woman, and contrary wise Piso his How dcero 

1 .,1 . < J . •!] with one sai- 

sonne in lawe, with a more slowe and still passe yng rebuked 

then beseemed a man to do, he rebuked them his doughter 

bothe at ones with one saiyng, when he spake to f^tf°&°liIo 

his doughter in this maner, her housebande Piso for going to 
beyng present : For shame vse in your goyng 
soche a passe, as your housebande doeth. 

Upon Vatinius [who was Consull but a verie 29. 
shorte tyme] he iested in this wise. In the yere ^''^'l^ Vatinius 
of Vatinius there befelle a greate woonder, that there was ' 
while he was Consull, there was no winter, ne "either winter, 

„ TT , nespring tyme, 

springtime, no bomer, ne Haruest. ne Somer, ne 

IT For harueste. 



ir For by these fower seasons, the whole yere is 
deuided, of which seasons euery one conteineth the 
PolUo wrote complete tenne of three monethes. I can not certainly 
Chronicles tell whether this be not thesame thing that Follio 
inGreke. otherwise rehearseth in the Chronicle of Marinus 

In the tyme of the tyranne, where he saieth thus. The Consult that 
one CoTistiii, ^ jjg^jj ^jggjj Consull no more but sixe houres, beginnyng 
supped, ne ' aboute the middes of the daie, was euill araied with 
slepte. Cicero his iesting. We haue had a Consull (saieth he) 

Caninius ^f goche seueritie and so rigourous, that duryng his 

Cm^ii no^ office, no man made so mocha as one diner, no man 
more but .vi. ones supped, no man slept a winke. Except percase 
houres. Reade ^ historic seme rather to pertain to Caninius 

30. Eftsones to Vatinius making a querele. that 
Of raHniMs Cicero had disdained to come and visite him 
of'thi gout^^it whyle he laye sicke iS^ of the goute & could not 
is afore men- stiere : Forsouth (quoth Cicero) I was minded 
AT^hth^t and on my waye to come to you in your consul- 

of Augustus ship, but the night tooke me ^^ (ere I could reache to 

Caesar, u^ ,\ 

your hous.; 

H This might well seeme a repaiyng home again of 
How Vatinius ^ mocke. For Vatinius afore that time vnto 
mocked Cicn-o, Cicero ,gloriyng and bragguing that the com- 
feuoScfon '^ menwealc had called him home again from ban- 
frora banishe- ishmente, and had brought him home againe on 
'"^"'' their shoulders, had geuen a curst mocke saiyng : 

Howe then hast thou come by the swelling or 

broken veines in thy legges } 

IT For the maladie of swellyng or broken veines 
(whiche is in latine called Varices) are wont to fall in 
the legges not of persones sitting at their ease, but of 
men long standing or els traueilyng on the waye. 

21. Caninius Reuilus, was Consul no more but 
Caninius onely one daie. This Caninius when he had gon 

cZmin^more vp into the placc Called Rostra (where oracions 

but one daie. were 



were made to the people) he in one houre bothe 
entreed the dignitee of Consulship, and also com- 
mitted periurie, on whom goeth about this 
saiynge of Cicero, Caninius the Consul isAoyo- 
6eu)pt]T0i that is, a wel aduised speaker : On the- 
same Caninius he cast out this^saiyng to, Reuilus 
hath had this one chaunce aboue all other men 
that the recordes were serched in the time of 
whiche Consuls he was Consul. 

IT For the noumbre of the yeres was wonte in Rome 
to be rekened and set out by the names of the Consuls, 

|^g° (as here in Englande wee reken the tyrae by the yeres of eche 

kinges reigne.) But nowe Reuilus for his parte bothe 
was Consul!, and yet had neuer a yere at al to reken 
by. And this saiyng also had Cicero on thesame Ca- 
ninius. We haue a good vigilaunt Consul as the 
whiche neuer slept one wynke duryng the tyme of his 

Of Rostra is 
afore noted. 
Reuilus is one 
houre entered 
the dignitee of 
and committed 

The recordes 
wer serched 
said Cicero : in 
the time of 
whiche C<m- 
suls Reuilus 
was Consull. 

The yeres wer 
rekened in 
Ronie by the 
names of the 

Reuilus a vigi- 
launte Cortsullj 
for he neuer 
slepte winke in 

What meanes 
Caesar vsei to 
establisbe his 
power in the 
citee of Rome. 

' Plutarchus in the life of lulius Caesar, telleth that thesame 

Caesar when all the ciuill warres were ones ended, and all thinges 
brought to some staie of quietnesse, left nothing vndooen iSat 
might purchace vnto him beneuolence, fauour, autoritee, power & 
rule emong the Romaines. To his olde enemies he shewed no- 
table mercifulnesse, to his frendes great bountie. He would often 
tymes kepe open housholde, he woulde diuerse tymes diuide wheate 
to the commens house by house. He was ful of geuing landes, 
fees, and rewardes. To soche as would be suiters vnto him to 
haue this or that ofBce, dignitee, or worship of the cifee, he would 
readily make promisse and graunte of their petioions, & serue 
their turnes in deede as soone eis the time would suffre him, in so 
moche, that Maximus the CounsuU beyng deceassed, although 
there was but one sole daye to come of his yere to be completed, 
yet did Caesar declare and create Caninius Rehulus (who is here 
called Reuilus) Consul. To whom where many of the nobles re- 
sorted in the waye of gratulacion, and of keping him coumpaignie, 
Cicero saied : My lordes, leat vs make speede, that wee may come 
to my lorde before the time of Consulship bee expired. 

Caius Caesar had electted into the senate many 32, 
persones vnworthy to be of that ordre and de- ^^ ^^^'^ ^''*«- 

viiUiS IS 3.for6 

gree, and emong all other one Laberius of a mendoned in 
ffentleman of Rome became a commen gester. thei?. ^^po- 

o *-" 4}hth6S7n€ of 

And as this Laberius passed by Marcus Tullius i^iius Caesar. 



How Lalerms 
paled Cicero 
home againe 
with a ieste. 

The lightnesse 
and inconstan- 
cie of Cicero. 


Publius Man- 
lius the hoste 
of Cicero. 

lulius Caesar 
would for euery 
mannes plea- 
sure, and for 
euery light 
matter cal a 


a noble citee 
in jisia, nigh 
vnto the floud 
Lycus, and 
thereof Laodi- 
cenus, a man 
of Laodicia. 


in the Senate house seeking a place to sitte in, I 
woulde take you in here (quoth Cicero) & make 
you roume here besides me, but that I sitte in so 
narrowe a roume my selfe. 

IF AH vnder one bothe reiecting the partie, and also 
making a ieste at the newe coumpaignie of Senatours, 
the numbre of whom Caesar had encreaced more then 
lawful! was. And yet was Laberius euen with 
him for it wel enough againe ere he went, thus 
saiyng vnto Cicero, I meruaill, if thou sitte in a 
narrow roume, whiche art wont to sitte in two 
seates at ones. 

IT Laiyng to his charge lightenesse and ficlenesse, 
that beeyng a slipper man to trust vnto, he would be 
hanging nowe of one side, nowe of another. 

Ig^° For in deede Cicero was moche noted of in constancie, he 
was ones of great amitee and frendship with Clodius, afterward 
his mortall enemie, and likewyse with Dolohella, with M. Crassus, 
Si: with diuerse others. Sembleably he was now frende to Pom- 
peius, anon he repented thesame and wyshed that he had folowed 
Caesar, and that so manifestly, that (as Plutarchus testifieth) 
Pompeius well perceiuing thesame, neuer would ne durst put him 
in trust with any matter of great weight or importaunce. 

Thesame Cicero being hertely desired by his 
hoste Publius Manlius, with speede to helpe his 
wiues Sonne to the office of a peticaptainship, 
made this answer (a great coumpaignie of the 
citezens standing thick about him) If it shalbe in 
the power & autoritee of Pompeius to call a 
Counsaill, it wilbe no light matter. 

IT Noting the facilitee of Caesar in assembleing the 

Senate. I^^ For euery mans pleasure, and for euery light matter. 

Being saluted of a certain Laodician named 
Andro, when he had demaunded the cause of his 
comming, and had well perceiued that thesame 
was come as an ambassadour vnto Caesar for the 
libertee of his countree of Laodicia, Cicero ex- 
pressed in Greke wordes the publique seruitude, 


THE II. BOOKE. ^ 353 

in this maner: iav CTrtTuxs? koI irepl ij/«ov Trpea-peva-ov, ^°^ ^^^'f" 
■T/> 4 ii^ii* t expressed tiic 

It ye specie well, and obteine your purpose, bee pubUke seruu 
an Ambassadour for vs of Rome here also. '^<*e vnder 


'This latin worde, quoque, is a coniunction & souneth in 2C_ 
Englishe (also) Cocas is in Latin for a Cooke, & the vocatiue case 

of it, is Coce. And SO it was that a certain per- 
sone standing in eleccion for a publique office 
in Rome, (who was verely supposed to haue 
come of a Cooke to his father) desired of an 
other man in the presence of Cicero to haue 
his voice, to whom Cicero thus saied in latine : 
E^o quoque tibi fauebo. mfZZ. 

I^g° Whiche woordes might bee taken twoo maner wayes, the Quoque the 
one, I wyll be thy frende with my voyce to, thou Cooke : the other, coniunction. 
And I also wilbee thy frende with my voyce. & coce the vo- 

f Wherofit is gathered that Coce the vocatiue of catiue of cocai. 
Corns, and quoque the coniunction wer in the time of ute ;„ Cicero 
Cicero either of one and the selfesame soune in pro- his time, 
nunciacion, or els veray like. 

When the accuser of Milo, by the argument or 3^* 
presumpcion of the time of the day, prouing and Howe Cwero 
concluding thesame * Milo to had purposely lien ^e"a&"ser 
in awaite for Clodius, at euery other woorde de- oiMUo, de- 
maunded what time or season of the dale Clodi- "hat"t1raf ^' 
us was slain, Cicero made aunswer thus : Veray cunus was 
late. ^'^'"• 

IT Signifiyng by that woorde late, beeyng a worde of * ciodius 
double vnderstandinge that it shoulde haue been for ^ Romain 
the profite of the commen weale, if Clodius had been ^,m ^ yg„ vi- 
slaine moche sooner. cious persone 

l^p° It might haue been vnderstanded also, that the deede was jj „_„.. jj. 

doen veray late towardes the euening. „jt , ' 

■^ = was a swome 

enemy vnto Cicero, and in his tribuneship founde meanes and brought to passe 
that Cicero was banished from Rome, wherfore Cicero neuer could fauour him 
after, and at length procured that Miki should set vpon him on the high waye, & 
slea him, whiche was doen, and Milo banyshed for the death of Clodius, notwith- 
standing the defense of Cicero, and all the frendship besides that he could make. 

Tidinges being reported that Vatinius was de- 37- 
ceassed, where the firste bringer vp of that bruite 

23 was 



What Cicero 
said when vn- 
certaine newes 
were told of 
the death of 


What Cicero 
CaeiiuSf who 
could better lai 
to raennes 
charges, then 
defende theim. 

was not certainly knowen, Well (quoth Cicero) 
yet will I take the auauntage whyle I may. 
IT Mening that he would take ioye of the death of 
Vatinius while he might, though it were but for a time, 
sembleably as one that hath borowed money applieth 
it to his owne vse and commoditee, and hath his own 
full pleasure of it for the time, euen as though it were 
his propre owne. 

I^p° So that Cicero mened to take as moche goodnesse of the 
newes in the meane time till the contrarie wer certainly knowen, 
as if thei wer true in very deede. 

Marcus Cselius more effectuously laiyng crymes 
to mens charges, then defending thesame, he 
auouched to haue a good right hande, and an 
euill left hande. 

H Alluding hereunto that at suche time as we fight, 
in the right hand we holde our sweorde, and in the 
left hande our bucler. With the sweorde we laye on, 
with the bucler we beare of. 


Howe Cicero 
proued lubius 
Curtius a lier. 

Howe Cicero 
mocked FaKa 
Dolobella, dis- 
sembling her 

' Marcus Caelius an Oratour of excellent witte, & of singu- 
lar doquence, to whom Cicero writeth many epistles, & Caelius 
many to him again so purely Wei endited, that Cicero thought 
theim worthie to be put in emong his owne epistles, whiche honour 
he geueth but vnto fewe persones, and Cicero in his epistles fa- 
miliare, is not ashamed to confesse himselfe to be inferiour to 
Caelius in witte and faceciousnesse. 

lubius Curtius liyng like a dogge of the yeres 
of his age, to the ende that he' myght be thought 
yoriger then he was in deede, Cicero thus proued 
a Iyer: Why (saieth he) then at what season 
you and I were young schollars first, and ex- 
ercised making of oracions together, ye were not 

Unto Fabia Dolobella saiyng herself to be 
thirtie yeres of age. It is true, quoth Cicero, for 
thesame haue I heard euery daye these twentie 
yeres already. 

IT Her 



auoyded the 
reproche of 
marriyng a 
young maide 
in his olde age. 

* Cicero being 

IT Her desire was to be thought younger then she 
was in deede. Therfore Cicero mocked her to the 
harde teeth with sembleyng that he graunted her 
saiyng, and neuerthelesse signifiyng that she was fiftie 
yeres olde. 

To soch as made it a matter of reproche that 4 r. 
being a man of thre score yeres of age he had ^°^ Cicero 
married a young * damyselle beyng a maide : 
Well (quoth he) to morowe she shalbe a woman. 

II Declaring by a mery worde that same reproche to 
bee a thyng that woulde with a trice be washed away, 
for the next morow folowing it Could not be obiected an aged man" 
vnto him, that he had a maide to his wyfe. diuorced his 

y wife Terentia, 

with whom he had lined many yeres. The caugea-Sfdeuorcement wer these. 
That she had so slendrely regarded him, that when he should take his iourney to- 
ward warfare, he was drieuen to go very barely prouided of all maner necessarie 
prouision. Besides this, after that he was returned home again from thence into 
Italic, he founde his wife coumbresome, crabbed and snappishe vnto him. Item 
whereas he made long abode at Brundusium, herself would not take peines to 
come thither to him, and yet when his doughter TuUiola should take her iourney 
thither, Terentia let her goe with a verie slendre porcion of money towardes her 
charges. Ouer and besides all this, she had let his hous fall sore in decaye, and 
had made the walles of it bare, and brought it sore behinde hande in debte. All 
these articles Terentia denied, but Cicero with a long oration proued euery one of 
theim to be true. Within fewe dayes after, he maried a young gierle being rau- 
yshed with her beautie (as Terentia affirmed) but (as Tiro his late seruaunt 
auouched) to thentent that he might be hable to paie and discharge his debte. 
For the maiden had a greate dourie and was a very riche marriage. Not long 
after this newe marriage the doughter of Cicero died, for whom he toke wondrefuU 
sorow. And because his young wife seemed to be glad of the death of TuUiola, 
Cicero forsoke her to, and put her away from him by diuorce. 

Thesame Cicero in this maner pleasauntly 42. 
iested on Curio (who at no tyme would faile to "°y f''^"'". 

,., <\r • 1- ri- mocked Cuno 

begm the preamble of any oracion makmg of his beginning his 
old age) that he affirmed the same -to haue the options al- 

° ' . waies of his 

promes of his Oracions, euery one daie more age. 
easie and lighte to make then other. 

ft By reason of age growing euery daye more and 
more vpon hym. 

Yet ones again for a cast more at Vatinius 43. 
(who although he wer sore diseased in his feete, 




mocked of 
Cicero for sai- 
ing that he 
had walked 
a couple of 

It is afore 
in the .xxx. 
of Augustus'. 


What Cicero 
saied to Oui- 
nius of bruit 
of Fatmius 
his death, 

Ouinius a late 
seruaunt of 
Fatinius, and 
by him man- 

and vtterly lamed with the goute would nedes 
yet neuerthelesse appere to be verie well emended, 
and saied that he was able now to take a walke 
of a couple of miles at ones) Yea, I thinke wel 
(quoth Cicero) for the dales ar a good deale longer 
than thei wer. 

^ This apophthegme doth Quintilian attribute vnto 
Cicero, & MacroMus vnto Augustus Cesar. Ther goeth 
another tale about at this day also euen as mery as 
this, sauyng that it hath not semblable antiquitee, ne 
auncientnesse to commende and set it out withal. 
A certaine launceknight made his vaunte at a 
banquette where he was, that he had a crosse- 
bowe so good of casting, that it would sende a 
bolt or a quarrel of soche a fersnes, as no man 
aliue could beleue or think, and named a certain 
space. All the compaignie whiche sate at the 
table criyng fob, at soche a shameful lye, he 
abode by it that his own seruaunt had seen the 
thing doen. The seruaunt being called in. How 
saiest thou sirrha (quoth his maister) diddest not 
thou see soche a thing, and soche a thing doen ? 
Then saied the seruaunt. Yes sir ye tell a true 
tale, but at that tyme when ye shot, the winde 
was with you. 

|^g° It had been moche merier, if he hadde saied, yes sir your 
quarell flewe so ferre ss ye speake of in deede, but it was at twoo 

Cicero after hearing the false rumour that was 
bruited of the death of Vatinius, when he had 
enquiered of one Ouinius late seruaunt with the- 
same, whether all went wel, and the partie 
aunswered, yea verie well : Why is he dedde in 
deede then, quoth Cicero ? 

^ Signifiyng that all went not fight, if Vatinius 
were still aliue. 



Thesame Cicero being called forth for a wit- 45. 
nesse to geue euidence, when he had read in the 

bill of complainte, The defendaunte sued by EnniusanoUe 

Sextus Annalis, & this accuser still called buisily auncient Latin 

vpon him in this maner, speak on o Marcus au&oriteer^^' 

Tullius, if thou canst any thing sale of Sextus whom Cicero 

Annalis, he begon by and by to recite versis, out tirnes°citeth 

of the sixth booke of the werke of Ennius, en- i" sondrie 

titled Annales, in this maner. Quipotes inzentis ' ^^' ^' 

What di0rence 

causas euoluere belle, &c. For Ennius wrote in is betwene His- 
verses a cronicle of actes doen from yere to yere, ^°^)^ ^""^ ■'^"- 

, , , , , . , nales, soclie as 

m ordre as they were doen, and soche are m la- be learned may 

tine called Annales, ^g° and this latine woorde, sextm, ^^.d in the .18. 

_ , chapiter of the 

souneth in english the sixth. "I And the name Oi the ac- fiueth booke of 

C^X^&xyiZS,, Sextus Annalis. |^° a mery conceipt to those Aulus Gdlms. 

that are of capte to take it, sauing that it can not in englishe haue 

eguall grace with the latine. 

An other time also at one Accius beyng a 46. ^""^ 

wylie pie and a feloe ful of shiftes, when thesame escaped the 

was suspected in a certain matter, Cicero had a daunger of a 

cast with this litle verse of latine out of some meme. 

olde Poete, Nisi qua Vlysses rate euasit Laertius. Of Syiia, & 

^ Charibdis, it 

That is, is afore noted 

With the selfsame ship and none other thing in the 117. 

Wherewith Vlysses escaped scouryng. of iXogJ^^ 

% Vlysses beyng subtile and craftie, escaped ,safe ^J^^l^g^l^ 

with his shippe from bothe Charybdis &• Sylla : So ertes, whom 

Accius by his wylinesse auoyded & shifted himselfe Homere in all 

r . -1, V- . 1 • J . places maketh 

from the penll of the ludgement. Jo be wilie, sub- 

. tile, prouidente 

Upon an other certain persone, who after bemg . y_ and full 
come to a good wyndefal of inheritaunce, was first .°^ ^'^ 

of all the coumpaignie asked his sentence in a worlde possible 
matter of consultacion, whereas before the ob- 
tein^ng of thesame inheritaunte, he was reputed 
for the veraiest fpole in the worlde, Tullius sem- 
bleablably iested, saiyng : Cuius hereditas quam 




Who hath 
landes & 
enoughe shall 
sone haue the 
name of a wise 


What Cicero 
saied when 
Seruilia had 
purchaced of 
Caesar a riche 
piece of lande 
for a little 

vacant sapimtiam : that is, whose liuelehood 
whiche they callen wysedome. 

^ In the verse in steede of facilitas, he chaunged 
it and saied, hereditas. For in the Poete the verse is 
thus written, Cuius facilitas quam vacant sapientiam i 
that is, whose facihtee whiche they callen wisdome. 
The meaning of Cicero was to signifie that landes and 
goodes had chaunced vnto the partie in steede of 
wisdome and sapience, and that for the respect of his 
liuelehod thesame was now estemed and taken for a 
wise man. 

II Seruilia the mother of Marcus Brutus, hadde a 
doughter called lunia Tertia, which lunia Tertia was 
wife vnto Caius Considius. And Caesar the dictatour 
had bothe the mother & the doughter at his com- 
maundement for his wanton pleasure. 

|^g° Also this latine woorde tertia is the feminine gendre of 
the nowne numeral, terttus, betokening the third in noumbre or in 
ordre. There is also a verbe, deducor, whiche in one signification 
is to bee rebated out of a noumbre or out of a summe, and in an 
other signification it is to be cpnueighed or to be brought as one 
conueigheth home to his hous or chamber, his wife or paramour. 
Of deducor is deriued a participle deductus, deducta, deductum, con- 
ueighed or brought. 

When Seruilia the mother of Marcus Brutus, 
had for a small deale of money, gotten awaie a 
riche pece of lande, out of the handes of Caesar 
(who made open sale of many of the citezens 
landes and goodes) Cicero made this iest on it. 
Yea maisters (quoth he) & that ye maie knowe 
this piece of lande, to haue been the better cheap 
purchaced, Seruilia hath bought this lande tertia 

^ Whiche twoo wordes might twoo maner waies be 
enterpreted and taken, either the thirde parte of the 
price aba.ted, by vnderstanding, part, or els tertia the 
woman taken home into his chamber to hym, so that 
Cicero his ieste is grounded on the ambiguous sense of 
these twoo Latine woordes tertia deducta. 



And to one that hath a good sight in the latin, the saiyng 
is pretie. 

Thesame Cicero made a pleasaunt riedle, in 49. 
the way of iest, on the mother of Pletorius The riedle of 
(whiche Pletorius accused Fonteius) saiyng, that the mo^erof 
while she liued, she had a school and taughte : Pietorius. 
and when she was dedde, she had maisters her 

IT Notyng that in her life time women of euill name 
were commen resorters to her hous, and after her 
death, her gooddes wer preised and openly sold. The 
tale in apparence bothe is standyng against all naturall 
reason, and also setteth the carte before the horses. 
For those persons who haue a schole, been maisters 
on their parties, and haue scholares vnder their teach- 
yng and gouemaunce. And Maisters are called, not 
onely soche persones as doen teache, but also those 
that haue the rewle and ordreyng of others. 

He made also a iest on the name of Verres, as 50. 
though he had been so named of the Latine Howe Cicero 

, - . . . lested on the 

verbe VerrO (whiche is to SWepe.) of Ferres 

IT Noting that Verres whersoeuer he came, played 
swepestake, and left nothing behinde hym, as being a 
taker and a bribing feloe, and one for whom nothing 
was to hotte nor to heauie. After which sorte of 
bourdyng, one feloe whatsoeuer he was, minding to 
signifie that Cicero was a briber and a priuie theefe, in 
steede of TuUius called hym Tollius. 1^- For MU, is T^oliim for 

in Latine, to take awaie, as theues and piekers dooe take awaie by " '"*■ 

enbeslyg. IT And some there wer that nickenamed an 

emperor of Rome calling him Biberiiis in steede of Baerim for 

_,., . Tiberius, 


For bihere is Latine to drinke. And of Tiberius the successour TiberiusCaesar 

of Augustus it is written, that in his youthe he was prone to ;„ hjg youth 

drinking and boiling, in so moche, that in his time was brought loued drink- 

vp a newe founde diete, to drinke wine in the morning nexte the yng, and so 

harte. And Drusus because he loued drinking, was for that by did Drums 

the commen voice of the people saied, to haue regenerate his father ^fjgj hym. 
Tiberius, and made him aliue again. 


36o CICERO. 

51. I,t was no rare thing with him to speak of 
What Cicero lulius Cffisar in this maner as foloeth : As often 
ckmency^and ' ^s I Consider the wilinesse and ambicion of this 
nicitee coupled manne, liyng hidden vnder the cloke and semble- 
together. aunce of humanitee and gentlenesse, I am afeard 

on the behalfe of the commenweale, lest thesame 

• shall haue a tyranne of hym, and againe when I 

behold his hear hanging doune so nicely and so 

* Vno digito like a minion, and him self scratting his hed * 

caput scalpere, ^jt}i one finger, I can scacely thinke in my 

ths-t is to scr&t o ^ ^ j 

the hed with minde, that euer he will conceiue in his harte, 
one finger was soche an high enterprise. 

a prouerbiall 1 

speakyng, whereby to notifie a wanton felowe, and a persona effeminate, because 
soche doe take care and feare lest thei ruffle their trimme combed bushe and set 
some one hear out of order. It is thought that one Calnus a poete brought it first 
vp on Pompeius, & from therof the same to haue been taken vp in a prouerbe. And 
that the saied gesture was in the old tyme, accompted for an argument of vnchast- 
nesse and of nicitee. Seneca in his Epistles beareth witnesse : of all thinges (saieth 
he) if thei be well marked, there been priuie tokens, yea, and of the lest thinges 
that bee, male a man gather argumentes and presumpcions of mennes maners & 
condicions. An vnchast person, or a vicious man of his bodie, both pace of going 
doeth shewe, £ind the mouing of his handes and at a time one sole aunswere, and 
one finger put vp to the hed, & the casting of his iyes, &c. 

52. To sondrie men obiecting vnto him that he 
Howe Cicero jjad taken a great summe of money, of a person 

pourged him- ,. , ^ • 1 ■, , , 

self of taking endited to be tried by the law, with the which 
rfhis^clientes "^^^^V ^^ should purchace a stately mansion 
It is a wise place. I wiU confesse that I toke soche money 
point of house- in dede of my client [said Cicero] if I buye the 
sembtl?one' ^°"^ hereafter. And when he had bought it in 
go about to bie deede, to thesame men casting him in the teeth 

fcir 'te h°s ^'* ^^^ ^^y"& ^'^y (l^ot'^ he) do ye not know it 
bargain should to be a point of a good houseband to dissemble, 
o?hu hande. '^ ^^ ^^^^^ purposed to buy a thing ? 

IS^ This historic doth Auhts Gellius moche more pleasaundie, 
and with more grace tell in the 12. chapiter of the xii. booke. 
Where he noteth, that when a. crime is laied to ones charge, 
whiche he can by no meanes coulour ne auoide, one poore hdpe 
and one poinct of shifte it is, to make a ieste of it & to turne 
it (if one male) to a matter of laughter. This persone accused, 
Gellius naraeth Publius Sylla, and sheweth that Ciceyo did but 
borowe the money of hym. 


THE II. BOOKE. 36 1 

Betwene Cicero and Crassus there was a priuie 53. 

malice. And so when one of the twoo soonnes Betwene Cicero 

of Crassus, being not vnlike of fauour vnto one Crass>a\he 

(whose name was Dignus) and by reason therof, oratour, there 

suspicion entred into the heddes of the people, gr^tch anT 

vpon the wife of the said Crassus [that she had malice, 

had ouermoch familiaritee & companie with the- one of the 

same Dignus] had made a gaie oracion in the sonnes oiMar- 

senate nous, Cicero being asked the question, of fauour to 

what maner a feloe he that had made the oracion one Dignus. 

seemed vnto hym, thus made aunswere in Latine. ^hat Cicero 

Dignus Crasso est. saied of one of 

the soonnes of 

IT Couertly alludyng to the name of Dignus. i^g° For Crasms, hau- 

of those wordes, Dignus Crasso, might indifferentlie be taken, ing made a 
either that he was a young man aunswerable to the eloquence of good oracion 
Marcus Crassus his father, or els that he ought of right to be , 
called Dignus, though he beare the name that Crassus was his 
father, for Dignus, is also latin for worthy. 

IT So that the ieste shall bee moche more pleasaunte, 
if ye frame the Latine wordes accordyng to the Greke 
phrase and sale, Dignus Crassi est. Understanding 
that there were in deede twoo of the right and true 
name of Dignus, that is to wete one thadulterer that 
occupied the wife of Marcus Crassus, and the other 
like of fauour to thesame Di^us, though he were 
called the sonne of Crassus. 

Cicero had been attourney to defend one Mu- ^4, 
natius, being arrained of a certain crime, & Mu- 
natius therby quit. Afterward when thesame ^°^^^^'' 
Munatius sued one Sabinus a frend of Cicero, to Munattus of 
the extremitee of the lawe, Cicero throughly en- '"gf^'i'^de. 
kendleed in wrathe, vpbraided to Munatius what 
he had doen for him : Why Munatius (saieth he) 
diddest thou thy self escape iudgement (when it „. 

11 ,11 Ctcero could 

was) by thine owne meanes, or els by the helpe cast a mist 
of me, that did caste a greate miste ouer the °"" '^^ ^^^'^ 

of ludgemente. 

benche, where the Judges sate ! 




Marcus eras'- 
sus in an ora' 
cion, & after- 
warde dis- 
praised the 
same again. 

are wont for 

55. When he had openlie praised Marcus Crassus, 
Cicero praised jn the place that was called Rostra, the people 
highly well allowing his oracion : and afterward 
baited the self same man in thesame place with 
many poinaunt and nipping wordes of reproche. 
What [quoth Crassus] diddeste not thou in maner 
euen the last dale praise me, and geue me high 
commendacion, in this same self place 1 Yes 
exercise to take [quoth Cicero] I praised thee in deede, but it was 
mfntes oP"' onely for exercise, to assaie what I could do in a 
naughtie matter. 

H For Rhetoricians are wont for exercise, to handle 
matters inopinable, as for example, when thei make 
an oracion in the praise of *Busyris, or of the Feuer 
quartane, or when thei praise ingratitude. i^° So did 

Horfiere write the battail betwene the Frogges and the Mice. 
Erasmus wrote the praise of foolishhesse, an other the prajse of 
baldenesse, an other of drounkenship : and this last argument, I 
handled for mine exercise, being a young student, albeit thesame 
declamacion now lieth all worme eaten, as right worthie it is. 

matters m- 
opinable, and 
soch are prop- 
rely called de- 
clamacions & 
not oracions. 

* Busyris, a 
kyng of Bgipt 
for his moste 
horrible cra- 
eltee, detested 
of all nacions 
in the worlde. 

For there came vnto him on a time a. sothsaier geuing him counsajll, that if he 
would auoide sterilitee and barrennesse he should kill vp as many straungers as 
wer within his realme, which counsaill Busyris folowed, and executed, beginning 
iirste of all with the Sothsaier self. 


None of al the 
Crasses liued 
in Rome past 
the age of .Ix. 

Crassus could 
curry fauor 
ioylily, as Plu- 
tarchus in his 
life maketh 
mencion and 
was a man < 
of greate elo- 

When thesame Crassus in an Oracion, whiche 
he made had saied, that neuer any manne of the 
name of Crassus had liued in Roome paste the 
age of .Ix. yeres, and then repenting himself of 
that worde speaking said in this maner, what 
ailed me to speak soche a woorde as this ? 
Marcus Tullius in this wise sodainly aunswered : 
Marie thou knewest full well that the Romaines 
would geue eare to that tale with all their hartes, 
and by soche a waie art thou come, to beare 
rewle in the commenweale. 

H Signifi3mg twoo thinges, that is to wete, bothe 
that the name of the Crasses was odious vnto the 
Remains, and also that this Crassus had been auaunced 

,. to 


to honors not by vertue, but by fauour curriyng. 
I^g° For, when he saied by soche a waie arte thou come, &c. 
He meaned, by speaking soche thinges as might be delectable and 
pleasaunt to the eares of the people. 

Crassus allegeyng it to bee one posicion or 57. 

opinion of the Stoikes, that * a > good man is he The exceding 

that is riche. Naye (quoth Cicero) see whether ^Cr^^s°^ 
this be not rather their opinion, that a wyse man 
is lorde of all th^e worlde, or hath al thinges of *}\ was an 

the worlde in his possession. IT Couertly noting ^^0;^°^, that* 

the auarice of Crassus, to whom nothing was enough, good men and 

IS^° But al things semed to litle. vertuous men 

^^ areryche, &an 

other that a sapieme man is lorde of all thinges in the woorlde, because that onely 
soche persones, are contented with that that thei haue, and if they haue goodes, 
they can and also doen bestowe it well, and applie it to good vses : if they haue 
no substaunce, none they care for, but are contented with their vertues and hon- 
este qualitees, as the whiche doe persuade theimselfes, that he can not be poore, 
who hath the grace of God, and is not couetous. And of this conclusion it is afore 
mencioned in the .xlviii. apophthegme of Diogenes. But whereas the position or 
conclusion of the Stoikes mened that no man was riche (though he had millions 
of talentes) excepte he were a good and a vertuous man withall. Crassus (be- 
cause he was couetous) did interprete and take it to his purpose, that no manne was 
a good man except he wer riche, so that he would his richesse to be a cloke of 
goodnesse, of vertue, and of perJFect honestee. Therfore Cicero mocked him with 
an other opinion of the Stoikes, whiche was, that in a sapieute man all thinges are 
possessed, whereby Cicero by an ironie exhorted Crassus to peruerte the sense 
therof to, as he had doen of the other, and to persuade him selfe, that if he could 
get all the worlde into his possession, he should be a sapient and a perfect good 
man. Whereas the mynde of the Stoikes was clene contrarie. But Crassus was 
so couetous, that he would oftentimes auouche no man to be worthie the name of 
a riche man, except he were able with his yerely reuenues to kepe an armie, and to 
maintein an hoste of men, wherefore when he warred vpon the Parthians, and was 
by thesame taken and slain in that warre, thei cut of his head, and in despite 
melted gold into his mouth, saiyng these wordes Aurum sitisti, Aurum hile, golde 
hast thou thirsted, nowe drinke golde enough- 

When Crassus was towarde a iourney into 58. 
Syria, being more desirous to leaue Cicero his 
frende then his foe, when he should be gon, he 
saluted Cicero diligently, and said that he would What Cicero 
suppe at home with him that night. Whom ht^frendes" 
Cicero with a cherefull and gladde countenaunce laboured to 
receiued and entreteined. Within a fewe daies ^f-J^ius 
after this, certain of his frendes went in hand at one. 
with him, and made meanes vnto him for to be 





Cicero called 
Vatinius an 
oratour gailie 
puffed vp, be- 
cause thesame 
had a swelling 
in his throte. 

The pompous 
maner of the 
Asiatiques in 
making ora- 


What Cicero 
saied when 
Lucius Gellius 
an aged man 
spake of a 
thing that it 
should not be 
so long as he 


at one with Vatinius also. Why (quoth Cicero) 
is Vatinius disposed to haue a supper at my 
house to ? 

IT Signifiyng that thesame Vatinius did make meanes 
more to haue a supper then to haue his frendship. 

Yet one cast more he hadde at Vatinius, who 
had a swelling in the throte (whiche is in latine 
called Strumm, l^° a disease like that is called the kinges 
euill, if it be not the veray same, when the Saied Vatinius 

made a plea for a client of his in a certain cause. 
Oh (quoth Tullius) we haue here an Oratour 

gayly puffed vp. I^° In the latine it hath a veray good 
grace. For this worde Tumidus, souneth in Englishe swollen, in- 
flated or puffed vp. Whiche termes as well the latine as the Eng- 
lishe, by translation are referred not onely to swelling in some 
part of the body, but also in pride, bragguing, and vaingloiie. 

^ As the Oratours Asiatique were called, Tumidi, 

swollen, or inflated, |^g° because their sorte and facion of 
making oracions, was proude, solemne, pompeious, bolde, perte, 
and replenished with vaunting, hosting, craking, bregguyng, and 
vaingloriousnesse : As witnesseth Plutarchus in the life of Anto- 
nius. And thereunto did Cicero allude. 

lulius Caesar had earnestly purposed to dis- 
tribute the landes of Campania emong his men 
of armes, This thing both many others in the 
senate tooke greuouslye, and especially one 
Lucius Gellius being a man euen with veray age 
almoste clene dooen, saied and swore, that it 
should not so be, as long as he liued. Well 
(quoth Cicero) leat vs tary so long hardily, for it 
requireth no long delaie. 

H Signifiyng that Gellius was euen at the last cast, 
and in maner at deathes doore. 

When a certain young feloe to whose charge it 
had been afore times laied, that he had killed his 
father with a spiececake infected with poyson : 



when this young feloe being angreed euen at the Howe Cicero 

checked 3i 

herte roote thretened in his furie that he would young feloe 
haue a flyng at Cicero with wordes that should thretening to 
soune litle to his honestee, so hadde I rather 
thou shouldest (quoth Cicero) then with spiece- 

IT Under that colourable woorde of double interpre- 
tacion obiecting vnto the feloe the murdring of his 

One Publius Sextius had taken Cicero together 62. 
with certain Aduocates mo to assiste him, and Howe dcero 
to help defend him in a cause of his. And when ^i^tsextu" ' 
thesame Sextius woulde nedes declare his owne taking on him 
matter, and haue all the saiyng his owneself, and p°J^him self. 
would not geue any of his aduocates place or 
leaue to speake a worde, as sone as the matter 
was clere and out of parauentures that Sextus 
should bee quitte and discharged by the iudges. 
Take the time O Sextus (quoth Cicero) this dale 
while thou maiest. For to morow thou shalt be 
a priuate man again. 

IT Geuing him halfe a checke for that he had taken 
vpon him in the matter to doe altogether himself alone 

at his owne pleasure. ^g° Where as the next daye folow- 
ing he shuld haue no publique ofSce of a patrone or Oratour, nor 
be adhibited to any soche vse, but bee as other men wer, that had 
nothing to doe with pleading in courtes, as Cicero and the other 
publique oratours had. 

When Marcus Appi^us in the preamble of a 63. 
certain oration or plea, said that he had been by Howe Cicero 
a frende of his greately desired to vse and to ™° Jppim. ' 
shew all his diligence, eloquence, and fidelitee in 
his clientes cause, at this worde, spake Cicero 
and said : and hast thou soche an herte of Steele 
of thine own, that of so many thinges whiche 
thy frend hath desired thee vnto, thou doest 





Cicero gaue 
vnto Marcus 
Aquilius the 
name of 

neuer an one at all ? 8^° Mening that in his oracion 
appered not so moche as any one poincte of diligence, of eloquence, 
or yet of trastinesse. 

Marcus Aquilius hauing twoo sonnes in lawe, 
that were housbandes to his two doughters, but 
bothe of theim banished and exiled, Cicero called 

IT Because that he alone kepte his standing lyke a 
manne, g^ and saved himselfe vpright. Alluding to the 
propre signification of the Greke vocable. 

1^^ For aSpaoTOS signifieth : infected or els, one from whom 
is no sterting away, nor escaping of a shrewde turne. And therof 
Nemesis (the Goddesse of taking vengeaunce on soche as are 
proude and disdeignefiill in time of their prosperitee) is called in 
Greke dSpacTTEta, because that no soche persone may escape her 
handes. Neuerthelesse (vnder the correction of Erasmus) I take 
that Cicero alluded to Adrastus king of the Argiues, who had two 
doughters, the one called Deiphile, & the other called Argia. 
Deiphile was married to Tydeus, the sonne of Oeneas king of 
Aetolia or Calydonia, whiche Tydeus beeyng a right valiaunt and 
an hardie man, when he had vnawares slain his brother Menalip- 
pus at an hunting, fledde from his countree, and came to Adrastus, 
& there married thesaied Deiphile, and there liued a banyshed 
man, and neuer went again into his owne countree as shall ap- 
pere. The other doughter Argia, was married vnto Polinices the 
Sonne of Oedipus king of Thehes and of locasta, quene of thesame, 
of whom and of his brother Eteocies, (who would not according to 
his promisse suffre Polinices to reigne in Thehes by course when his 
first yere was expired,) it is upon the .1. apophthegme of Diogenes 
in the first booke largely noted, and sufficiently for the perfect 
declaration of this place and purpose that Polinices liued and died 
a banished man. And so it befell that Tideus was sent Ambas- 
sadour from Polenices vnto Etiocles, that thesame should remem- 
bre his couenaunt and promisse, and according to thesame should 
surrendre vnto Polinices the kingdome of Thebes there to reigne by 
course one full yeare as Eteocies had doen. When Eteocies had 
made him a plain resolute aunswer that he would not suffre Poly- 
7iices to reigne ther, Tideus sharpely rebuked him ot breaking his 
feithful promis, and spake many high and bolde wordes. 'Wherat 
Eteocies taking great indignacion, priuely sent fiflie stoute men of 
armes to lie secretly in a woode and sodainly to kill Tideus in his 
waye homewarde. These men mynding to execute and accom- 
plishe the commaundemente of their lorde, set vpon Tideus in the- 
saide woode, & Tideus slewe theim euery mothers sonne except 
one, whom he saued purposely and sent back to beare tidynges of 
that feaste vnto Eteocies. Then Adraitus and Polinices made 
warre on the Thehanes, Where Tideus after many noble actes of 
chieualrie at last was slain by one Menalippus a Thehatie, and yet 
after the receiuing his deathes wounde, he slewe thesame Mena- 



lippus, and chopped of his hedde and gnawed it in pieces with his 
teeth. Thus for our present purpose it appeareth that the twoo 
sonnes in lawe of Adrastus were both outlawes, and therefore did 
Cicero geue Marcus AqmUusiixe name of Adrastus. 

In the time whyle Lucius Cotta was Censour, 65. 
(who was taken for the srreatest swielbolle of Of*e office 

^ =• .of Censour is 

wyne in the woorlde one of theim,) where Cicero afore noted, 
standing in election for the consulship happened Lucius Cotta a 
to be very drie, and had drounke a draught of f^^J^""^' 
water enuironed and hidden from the Censours cmct-o drounke 
sight on euery side with frendes, he saied : Ye water. 
doe well to feare lest I should haue the Censour 
my heauie lord, because I drinke water. 

^ Cicero made as though he beleued his frendes for 
this cause to stande thicke about him, that the Censour 
might not se him drinking water. For like beareth Like beareth 

fauour to like. 8^ And vnlike hateth vnlike. So that the feuour to like, 

and vnuke 
Censour being soche a gredie drinker of wyne, if he had seen jjateth vnlike. 
Tullius drinking water, would haue suspected him to doe it in con- 
tumelie & reproche of him. 

When Marcus Cselius (who was thought to 66. 
be discended of father and mother not fre but What Cmct-o 
bonde] had with a loude and a whole voice reade uus, who had 
a lettre before the Senate, Cicero saied: Maruaill a loud voice, 
ye nothing hereat my lordes. For this is one of 
theim that hath had a good loude breste in his 

IT Signifiyng, that Caelitis had been a commen cryer, 
and that by long vse it had come vnto him to haue a 
shrille voice. And in dede bondmen that were to be 
sould, wer wont to bee made the beste of, by the oyes 
of the ciyer. 

Unto one Memmius reproching Cato the 67. 
Vticensian, and saiyng that he would bee drounke Howe Oca-o 
euen whole nightes through, Yea [quoth Cicero] fo^making " 
but thou speakest nothinge at all that all the merienow & 
daye time he would be plaiyng at dice. night 'ttae* 

IT Manerly 



Cato would bee 
busie in the 
day time, and 
merie in the 


What Cicero 
saied to Julius 
Caesar, de- 
fending the 
doughter of 
kyng of Bi- 


Howe Cicero 
defeacted the 
accusacion of 
Marcus Cal- 
lidus against 

■ ^ Manerly excusing Cato, who bestowed all the 
whole daye vpon the affaires of the commonweale, and 
would take an houre or two or three of the night to 
take some recreacion of mynde, and to refreshe his 

spirites. |^p° And in deede it is written of Cato that he would 
now and then be merie and make good chere. 

Unto Caius Caesar earnestly defending the 
cause of Nicomedes his doughter in the senate 
hous, and rehersing the benefites & great plea- 
sures of the king towardes him, Cicero saied : 
No more of this I beseche you, for it is not vn- 
knowen what he gaue to you, and what ye gaue 
to him. 

IT The pith and grace of the saiyng dependeth of 
the double sense that might be taken of the woorde 
dare. For in latine he is proprely said, dare, to geue, 
that conferreth a benefite : and also a woman is saied 
in latine, dare, that is gentle and kinde of her fleshe. 
Wherof the Poete Martialis thus writeth to a woman, 
vis dare, nee dare vis, that is, ye will geue and ye will ^ 
not geue, &c. Caesar had an euill name, that when 
he was in BUhynia in his youthe. g^ at what time he 
fled from Rome for feare of Sylla, whereof is mencioned in the 
firste Apophthegme of thesame Julius Caesar, he was somewhat 
more at the commaundement of king Nicomedes, then the lawes of 
chastitee do require. 

Marcus Callidius accused Gallus, and Marcus 
Tullius defended Gallus. And when the accuser 
affirmed that he would both by witnesses, by 
Gallus owne handie wrytihges, and also by ex- 
aminacions confessed afore, make due proufe that 
there had been vennyme tempreed and made 
readie in a cuppe for him by the partie arrained : 
but yet all the while pronounced soche an 
hainous matter, with an vnearnest countenaUnce, 
with a dedde voice, and with the residue of his 
iesture, nothing bote nor vehemente, Marcus 




Tullius saied : O Marcus Callidius, if thou did- 
dest not feine this gear wouldest thou handle 
thy plea so faintelie ? 

U Gatheryng, of his countenaunce and iesture, that 
his wordes came not from the harte. 

Thesame Cicero after this sort iested on Isau- 
ricus : I meruaill what the matter is, that thy 
father being alwaies one maner a man, hath left 
thee vnto vs so diuerse. 

U A mery worde depending of ambiguousnesse of 
the vocable. For, Varius, in latine, and diuerse, in 
englishe is called one that is of a waueiyng mynde and 
nothing substanciall, he is also called in latine Varius, 
in englishe diuerse, that is marked with the prientes of 
stripes. And in deede it was commenly noysed that 
this Isauricus had been scourged afore of his father 
with whyppes. And thereof came thatsame, not the 
sai3nig, but the deede of Marcus Caelius, whose cha)Te 
of estate when Isauricus beeyng ConsuU had broken, 
he set vp an other with whippes kerued in it, without 
any wordes thretenyng thesaied Isauricus, and also 
castyng in his teeth, that he hadde ones been scourged 
with whippes of his father. 

of aplea, argu- 
eth the cause 
to be weake 
and vntrue. 


How Cicero 
iested on Isau- 
ricus who had 
been beaten 
with whippes 
of his father 

Howe Marcus 
Caelius serued 
Isauricus for 
throwing doun 
his chaire. 

^ TAe saiynges of Demosthenes 


Plutarchus and other historiographers dooen write that Demos- 
thenes had a poor woman to his mother and a woman vnknowen, 
his father kept a Cutlers shoppe and solde kniues, a good honest 
man and meetely welthy, as die whiche when he died left vnto his 
Sonne honeste substaunoe, but because Demosthenes was then but 
a litle childe, he and his patriraonie was committed to certain ex- 
ecutours or feoffers who beguiled Demosthenes so ferre, that they 
neither regarded to sette him to schole, nor while he was at schoole 
to paie his schoolemaisters duetie. At last he became the most 
noble Oratour that euer was in Grece. And then tooke in hande 
to be a doer in the commenweale, and spared not to sette against 
Philippus with moste vehement orations inuectiues, and wore out 

2A Philippus 



PhUippus wel enough, and after him Alexander. But Antipater 
sent certain of his garde to sJea him. Demosthenes hearing thereof 
fled priuely into a litle Isle named Calauria, and there kept him- 
selfe secrete. At last he was founde out. And when he sawe that 
there was no remedie but that he should be had to Antipater, he 
desired that he might haue licence first to write an episfle to the 
Athmims. And taking a penne in his hande he begonne his 
epistle thus : Demosthenes to the Atheniens greting and well to 
fare. And euen so brake of writing and receiued poyson whiche 
he had long time of a purpose kepte vnder the stone of his Ring, 
and so poisoned him self out of hande. Pbitarchus ioineth the 
life of Demosthenes and of Cicero bothe together, arid compareth 
them twoo together as a verie good matche and well coupled. 
For (saieth he) when God at the firste beginning, formed Demos- 
thenes and Cicero, bothe after one pateme, he semeth to haue 
putte and enspired into their natures and disposicions, many like 
qualitees, as for example, that bothe the one and the other was 
ambicious, bothe the one and the other a Citezen franke, bolde, & 
plain in telling his minde to the people, bothe of them to perilles, 
ieoperdies & warres not verie hardie men. There wer in their 
fortunes also many thinges commune, as well to the one as to the 
other. For I can not finde any other twoo oratours, whiche being 
of sembleable lowe birthe, grewe to bee so greate men of auflhori- 
tee and dignitee, and whiche durst auenture to withstande kinges 
and chief goueraours, and lost their doughters, wer banished 
their countrees, and returned, fette home againe with honour, eft- 
sones voided their citees, came into the handes of their enemies, 
and finallie, whiche were extin£ted together, with the libertee of 
their countree. 

Ne * Pythias obiected to Demosthenes, 
that his argumentes of Rhetorike 
smelled all of the candle : signifiyng, 
that he pronounced none oracion, but 
out of writyng, and made with greate studie, by 
Candle in the night time. Whiche saiyng De- 
mosthenes in soche wise reuersed backe again, 
*This/>2/tfte<w that he auouched himself and the other partie, 
not to be at equall charges for candle. 

•H Noting that the other was a continuall reueller 
and gourmander by night, and bestowed more money 
on riotous banquettyng, then he on his behalf did on 


How Demos- 
thenes aun- 
swered Pytheas 
laiyng to his 
charge that 
his oracions 
smelled of 
the candle. 

was in the 
and Demosthe- 
nes, a man 
newly come vp 
in Athenes of 
late, and by 


eleccion put in 

au£Uioritee to haue doing and saiyng in the publique affaires of the citee, partly by 
giftes and rewardes, and partely by speaking faire vnto the people. And when he 
was ones gotten vp, to beare some stroke in the citee, he would haue to doe in 
eueiy matter, and weaxed a wondrous buisie medler in al causes, insomoche that 
at commen assembles, he would often times trouble all the whole compainie with 


THE n. BOOKE. 37 1 

his dailie pratleing, vntill Phocion at last said: Will this feloe here neuer holde his 
peace, that came but yersterdaie in maner out of the shel, and one that hath brought 
the people of Atkenes to be his owne ? 

Unto others obiecting vnto him, vnmeasurable 2. 
affectacion of eloquence, he thus aunswered, the How Demos- 
study of eloquence to declare a manne that himself ort^e 
loueth the people, and can be contented to be obieccion of 
feloe like with the people : and contrariwise to swd™of ^ 
neglect the study of eloquence, to be the guise of eloquence, 
soche persones, as sought to bee lordes ouer the 
people, as the whiche went aboute, not to per- 
swade men by fine vtteraunce of a matter, but 
to compell them parforce. 

As often as Phocion should arise to saie his 3. 
minde in any assemblee, Demosthenes would -PAo""" ^e 

T.i • 1 • I- ^^e of De- 

saie of thesame Phocion to his frendes that sate Tnosthenesias 

nexte by hym : Nowariseth vp the axe of al my reasons, 

^ For Phocion was brief in telling his tale, but Phocion and 

sharpe as an axe. And his custome was for the moste {^"^j^" 

parte to be of a contrarie minde and opinion to De- agreed. 

The people of Athenes importunely required 4. 
Demosthenes to take vpon hym the accusyng of ^hat Demos. 
a certaine persone. And when Demosthenes y,h^^eAthe. 
refused to doe it, the people begun to be vp in a »!e»«earnestlie 
fore against hym (as commenly thei wil in soche accuse a"cer- 
a case) then Demosthenes arisyng, spake in this tain persone. 
maner : O ye men of Athenes, ye haue of me a 
faithfull counsailor & helper at al times of nede, 
whether ye will or not, but a false accuser shall 
ye neuer haue of me, wold ye neuer so fain. 

Demosthenes had been one of the tenne whom 5, 
the Atheniens had sente ambassodors vnto Phi- Demosthmes ' 
lippus kyng of Macedonie. So after that Xom*he'"' 
Aeschines and Philocrates (which two Philippus Atheniens 




sente ambas- 
sadours to 
kyng of 


Philippus king 
of Maeedonie, 

eloquent, & a 
good drinker. 

To drink wel 
is a properte 
mete for a 
but not for 

had especially aboue the residue, familiarely 
embraced and made of) being come home again 
from the said ambassade, gaue the king moche 
high praise, partly for many other thinges, and 
especially for these three folowyng, that he was 
was beaut|fuil, full of fauour and beautie, that he had a goodly 
eloquent toung, and that he could drink lustily. 
Demosthenes made this cauillacion that he 
auouched in all those praises, to be not so moche 
as one poincte comelie for a king. For the first, 
he said, belonged to women, the seconde to 
Sophistes and Rhetoricians, and the thirde to 

a. [Ticuiiic. 


* This ambassade was at thesame time, when Denwchares said to Philippus, 
that he might doe to the Atheniens moche pleasure, if he would put his necke in jui 
halter, & hang himself, whereof read the .35. apophtheg. of thesaied Philippus. 

6. Demosthenes had written vpon his shilde, in 
ayadii Tvyri letters of golde ayaSri tu^^, that is. Good fortune, 
written aboute yet neuerthelesse, when it was come to handle 

Demosthenes ' 

his bucler in Strokes, t Demosthenes euen at the first meting, 
letters of golde. ^^^^ j^jg ghilde and al awaie from him, and to go 

How Demos- as fast as his legges might beare him. This 
poincte being cast in his nose, in the waie of 
mockage and reproche, that he had in battaill 
cast awaie his bucler, and taken him to his 
heeles, like a pretie man, he auoided it with a 
little verse, commen in euery bodies mouth. 
X mrqp 6 tttevyuyf koX 7raA.1v /na;^(r£Tot. 
That same man, that renneth awaie, 
Male again fight, an other dale. 

IT ludgeyng that it is more for the benefite of ones 
countree to renne awaie in battaill, then to lese his 
life. For a ded man can fight no more, but who 
hath saued hymself aliue by rennyng awaie, maie in 
many battailles mo, dooe good seruice to his countree. 

8®° At lest wise, if it be a poinct of good seruice, to refine awaie 
at all times, when the countree hath moste nede of his helpe to 
sticke to it. whiche 

th£nes auoided 
the reproche 
of renning 
awaie in 

saith that 
Pitheas it was 
which thus 
mocked De- 
mosthenes for 
his manlie 
rennyng awaie 

tThis was at 
the battaill in 
(wherof is 
afore spoken 
in the 7 apo- 
phthegms of 
Philippus) in 


whiche battaill he subdued and conquered al Qreee. And of this battail Demosthmes 
was the chief procurer and setter on, in so moohe that he onelie persuaded the The- 
hanes and others thereunto, and was one of the chief ringleders and capitaines himself, 
in so moch that the king of the Persians wrote letters about to his nobles in al 
places, that thei should aide Demosthenes with money enough on al sides, for the 
suppressing of PMlippus. The bataill was kepte in Chreronea (the countree of 
Plutarchus) at Thermodon. Whiche Thermodon (as the report goeth saieth Plu- 
tarckus) should bee a little pretie floud renning into the riuer of Cephisus. But the 
same Plutarchus saith, that he knoweth no soch floud there aboute of that name, 
nor yet in any place of all Cherronea. Neuerthelesse he beleueth that the floud 
Haemon (which renneth along by Herachum, where the Grekes at that time pitched 
their campe against PMlippus) was at the firste in olde time called Thermodon, and 
from that battaill foorthward, the same to haue taken the appelacion of Haemon, 
because it was then filled vp with dedde corpses, and with bloud. For aijua, is 
Greke for bloud. But this was soche a sore battaill, that Philippus feared Demos- 
thenes all dales of his life after, for that thesame had persuaded the Grekes to 

+ avijp 6 tjieuywv koI ttoXiv jUoj^i^creTai, (that is : A manne that flieth will 
renewe battaill again) is a prouerbiall verse (as Erasmus in his Chiliades admon- 
isheth) by whiche we are warned not by and by, to bee brought in despaire, if 
some thing haue not well come to our passe. For though a man bee now ouer- 
comed, he male at an other time haue better hap. Wherof Homere calleth it 
erepaXKca viktjv, that is now strong on the one side, and now on the other. And 
Alexander (Paris the soonne of Priamus, king of Troie) thus speaketh in Homere, 
viKT) 8' iirafi,eij3eraL ai/Spas, that is : Victorie chaungeth from parte to parte. 
And thesame Alexander in an other place again saieth : 

Menelaus now, through Pallas hath wonne. 

And so shall 1 at an other season. 
So Davus in Terence : 

Hac non successit, alia aggrediendum est via. 
That is. 

This waie it will ne frame nefaie. 

Therefore must we proae an other waie. 

So meaned Demosthenes, that though he had had missehappe at that season, yet 
an other more propice time should come, when his chaunce should be to doe his 
countree better seruice, &c. And this was a meetely honeste excuse. 

When Alexander on this condicion offreed 7. 
peace vnto the Atheniens, if thesame _ would ^^^-/--, 
yelde vp into his handes eight of the citezens, being deliuered 
emong whom Demosthenes to be one : Demos- '^l°J^l^^^^^ 
thenes told vnto them the tale of the Woulf, 
who vpon this condicion offred peace vnto the 
shepe, if thesame would yeld & deliuer him their 
dogges, that kepte him from the folde. 

IT Under the name of the woulf betokenyng Alex- 
ander, by the dogges meanyng those persones, who at 




and rulers, bC' 
traieth the 
whole people 
& countre. 


Of Areopagus 
& the Areopa- 
gites, it is afore 

Who betraieth thftt prescnte season had the cure and charge of all 
the gouernors ^j^^ puyiqug affaires, and by the shepe signifiyng the 
commenaltee of the Atheniens. He added more- 
ouer an other example. As the mercatemen 
(saieth he) do bring out a little modicum of 
wheate or other corne, in a Treen dishe for a 
sample or shewe, desiryng by thesame to selle 
whole greate heapes : so ye, if ye betraie & de- 
liuer vp the .8. Citezens, whiche are demaunded 
of you, ye betraie and deliuer the whole vniuer- 
sall people euery mothers childe. 

When Demosthenes being condemned of the 
Areopagites, had escaped out of prieson, and was 
renning * awaie, and had met in the teeth not 
ferre from the citee, certain persones of the con- 
trarie part, that wer not his frendes: firste he 
would fain haue hidden himself. But when the 
parties speakyng to him, and calling him De- 
mosthenes by his name, bid him to be of good 
comforte, and also offred hym money to helpe 
hym on his waie, he gaue an heauie sigh, euen 
from the botome of his harte, saiyng : How can 
I possible forsake this Citee, in whiche I haue 
soche enemies, as I shall not finde frendes of the 
like sorte, in an other countree ? 

* The cause of the banishment of Demosthenes, was this. Then was one Har- 
palus (of whom it is afore mencioned) who partely of remorse and conscience of 
euill handleyn^ himself in matters committed vnto bis fidelitee, and partly for that 
he sawe Alexander begin to weaxe verie rigourous and sore to his frendes, fled out 
of jisia and came to Athenes, And when he had with certain shippes and greate 
substaunce of money, submitted himself to the pleasure and will of the people of 
Athenes, the other Oratours counsailled the people to receiue and protecte him, but 
Demosthenes at the first beginning, gaue them connsaill in no wise to receiue him, 
but to be well aware, lest thei should by reason of him, areise battaill of an vniuste 
and vnreasonable cause. Within fewe daies after, when Harpalus (who by like 
had a good insight in soche matters) espiyng and marking Demosthenes to haue 
an earnest iye, and a greate fansie vnto a goodly cup of gol<f that was of excellent 
werkmanship, caused thesame to be weighed, Demosthenes moche wondred at the 
weight of the cuppe, & demaunded what the cuppe drawed (meaning of weight in 
the balaunce) I wis quoth Harpalus (smiling vpon him) it shall drawe you 20. 
talentes, and the next night foUowinge sent vnto Demosthenes the saied cuppe of 


The naturall 
loue and de- 
sire of eche 
man toward 
his natiue 


golde secretlie, and 20. talentes withall, whiche Demosthenes receiued. And when 
Harpalus his cause within a daie or twoo after, was had againe in communica- 
cion, Demosthenes came to the assemblee of the people, with his necke all stuffed, 
lapped, and wrapped in woUe, furres, and cloutes. He was bidden to saie his 
minde, he refused to speake, allegeing that he had a bone in his throte, & could 
not speake. But the people perceiued the matter well enough, that he had been 
corrupted with money by Harpalus. And without any more businesse, first and 
foremuste thei expulsed Harpalus, & bid him voide. And that doen, forasmoche 
as thei stoode in feare and drede, lest the money whiche the oratours had receiued, 
should be required of them by Alexander, thei serched the oratours houses, for al 
soche money and iewelles. Then Demosthenes being manifestly found culpable, 
would haue pourged himself, but the people would in no wise heare him speak. 
No? (saied one) will ye not geue eare vnto him, that hath soche a goodly golden 
cuppe ? Well, the people cried out vpon him. Demosthenes put the matter vp to 
the iudgement and sentence of the Areopagites, by whom he was condemned in a 
fine of .1. talentes, and commaunded to warde, vntill the fine shoulde be satisfied & 
paied. Demosthenes partly by reason of that extreme iudgement, for that he was 
feble and weake of bodie, nor hable to endure the enpriesonment, broke awaie 
priuely, and fledde into Arcadia, whiche is a region of Achaia. 

It is reported that Demosthenes in his depart- 9. 
ing from the citee, looked backe vnto the toure '^hat Demos- 
of Pallas, and his handes lifted vp vnto heauen, Paiias, at his 
saied : O Pallas ladie of citees, why settest thou> departing out 
thy delite in three the moste vnluckefull beastes 
of the worlde, the Oulette, the Dragon, and the 
people ? 

H The oulet, where she is of all birdes the moste The Oulette 

vnluckfull, yet is she dedicated vnto Fal/as, like as f^i^^""^" 

thesame Pallas hath a Dragon also, whiche she beareth 

about with her, for her cognisaunce. And as for the ^^a^st^of^'maV 

people is a monstrous beast of many heddes, accus- heddes. 

tomed with the moste naughtie vnkindenesse possible, . 

to reward soche persones as hath doen them bene- tude of the 

fite, as thei did Socrates, Fkocion, * Scipio, and right people to- 

' warde their 

many others mo. benefaSours. 

* Of the ingratitude of the people of Athens towardes Socrates & Phocion, it is 
afore declared. As touching Scipio, there wer fewer of the name in Rorne, one 
after an other, as noble men, as wise counsaillours, and as valiaunte capitaines, 
as euer wer in Rome, and whiche did asraoche benefite to the commenweale, as 
vneth any penne male write. And yet euery one of theim, founde at the handes of 
the people of Roome, incomparable ingratitude. The first of theni wone Carthage, 
and made it tributarie vnto Rome, when it had so tiered Rome with long warres, 
that it was moche more nigh to subdue Rome, then to bee subdued vnto Rome. 
This Scipio triumphed on Carthage, and had geuen vnto him the surname of 
Africane (because he subdued Carthage, and therby Afrike.) And yet was he at 
last exiled, and did die out of his countree a banished man. Scipio surnamed the 




Asiatike (because he subdued king Antiochus vnto Rome, and besides him al Asia, 
of whom he also triumphed) was afterward falslie arrained of robbing the trea- 
sourie of Rome, and moste wrongfiilly commaunded to prieson. Scipio AJrieane 
the second (to whom that surname was geuen, because he beate doune and de- 
stroied bothethe citeeof iViimaMfaa, & also the citee of Carthage, being with al 
their power and puissaunce, bent and set ag^nst the citee of Rome) was wekedly 
slain in his bedde in the night, & yet in all the citee of Rome, could not one be 
found that would se soch an hainous murder auenged or punished. And this 
Scipio it is, that Erasmus here speaketh of, Scipio sumamed Nasica (who saued the 
commenweale from the violent oppression of Tiberitis Gracchus the Tribune) was 
in his latter daies, sent as balfe a banished man to Pergamus, & there spent the 
■residue of his life. 

lO. Unto the yong men with whom he vsed fami- 
The affaires Haritee, he would often times saie, that know- 

ofacommen- . ' ' 

weaie are dan- ing as he now did, how moche enuie feare, false 
^^th"u'°™d''' surmuised querelyng, and how moche perill, a 
Demosthenes, man Coming to the affaires of the commenweale 
hath to looke for, if the one of twoo wer to be 
chosen, he would rather go to his death, then vp 
into a pulpite to make an oracion, or els vp to the 
benche to sitte vpon matters of iudgemente. 


Contencion be- 
twene Pytheas 
& Demosthenes, 

How Demos- 
thenes was 
restored from 

At what tyme he liued in Arcadia a banished 
man, and Pytheas in the fauour and behalf of 
the Macedonians, had said in this maner, As we 
deme that hous to haue sum eiuill maladie within 
it, into the whiche is carried milke for to bee solde, 
so male wee thinke that citee to be corrupted 
with some eiuill disease, vnto the whiche is sente 
any ambassade of the Atheniens : Demosthenes 
thus turned that clause clene arsee versee. As 
milke (saieth he) is brought into houses for to 
restore sicke folkes to their healthe again, so are 
the Atheniens alwaies readie, for the safegarde 
and preseruacion of other foren citees. As sone 
as the commenaltee of the Atheniens had know- 
lege of this, thei foorthwithall sent for hym, to 
come home again from exile. K^ After this saiyng, 

the commenaltie of Athenes, whiche had afore condemned him 
were sodainly stricken againe in loue with hym, and saied that he 
was an honest man again, & loued the citee & many gaie good 


morowes. Wherupon Damon Paeanieus the nefFewe of Demos- 
thmes, made mocion vnto the people, that Demosthenes might be 
restored to his former state, & might come home to the citie 
again. The people made a decre vpon it. And vnto Aegina 
was sent a galy for him to fet and bryng hyra home again with 
honor. And when he was approched nere to Atkenes, al the 
magistrates of the citee, all the ministers and presidentes of the 
temples full and whole, and the other citezcns by whole flockes 
went to meete him, and receiued him (as ye would saie) with gen- 
erall procession, and with all, triumphe, honour, and solemnitee. 
Yea, and the fine of 50. talentes, whiche he had afore been con- 
demned in (because thei might not by iustice or lawe releasse or 
forgeue it) thei ordeined by a publique decree to conuerte vnto the 
altare of Minerua, & to be deducted of the money whiche was to 
bee leuied for the behouf of thesame altare. For the Athmims 
had a vse and custome at a certain feast (whiche thei called the 
feast of lupiter the saueour) to make a commen boxe for the re- 
pairing, decking, and furnishing of the altare of Minerua, and 
for the doing of this, they appoincted a gathering of fiftie talentes 
in the name of Minerua, to be conuerted and applied to the satis- 
fiyng and paiyng of Demosthenes his fine, for in so muche a. 
summe he was condemned, as afore[]is saied. 

When a shippe was sent him returning home 1 2. 

againe from exile, and many of the magistrates Demosthenes 

or publique officers, and citezens had come foorth panw uTk- 

of the citee to meete him, Demosthenes lifting turning from 

vp his handes to heauen, saied, that a more hon- returning of ^ 

curable returning hadde chaunced vnto him then AidUades. 
vnto Alcibiades, for that * Alcibiades had come 

home again, the citezens constreigned parforce bey'^g'abs^te 

to sende for him, and he on his partie, the cite- on warrefare 

zens through peaceable and gentle perswasion Zy^or^'n^s- 

condescending and agreing thereunto. saius, that he 

had a certain 
brethreed which vsed to resorte and gather together at his hous, and there to as- 
sembly like plaiers on a staige, to countrefaicte the sacres of Ceres (the goddesse of 
come) and to represent the misteries of thesame sacres whiche wer wont to be cele- 
brated, and kept of the .^<Aenie?w with great reuerence , and deupcion. He added 
moreouer, that AliiiMades and his adherentes diuided the executing of all the offices 
apperteining to those ceremonies, and that one Polytion was the candlestick bearer 
or torche bearer, and one Theodorus to be the chautiterj or Gierke, and Alcibiades 
being the executour and chief president of all the sacres to reade a lecture vnto all 
his compaignie of all the said' misteries, &c. Alcibiades was gently required to 
come home to Athenes for to make his aunswer and declaration in the premisses, 
he drewe backe & would not come to Athenes, and to one demaunding whether he 



mistrusted his own natiue countree & citee,he aunswered, that he trusted his coun- 
tree veray well, but as for the hasarding of his hedde and life he thought not best 
to put in the handes of his veray mother neither, lest she nught chaunce to bnnge 
& cast in a blacke stone in stede of a white. Vpon this he fledde, arid would not 
come to Athenes. Wherupon he was condemned being absent, and all his goodes 
forfaicted, and to the ende that no poincte of ignomie should lacke, all the minis- 
ters of all the temples were bidden to accurse AleiUades as an impious persone and 
a wicked miscreant. They also by a decree condemned him to death as a traitour. 
Whereof when relacion was made vnto Alcibiades, he answered that the Atheniens 
should finde him to be aliue. Then went he to their enemies, and did the ^Me- 
niens muche scathe, till at last they were glad and fain to desire & praie him to 
come home and helpe theim. Then partly remorse of conscience and partely the 
naturall desire of his countree so pricked him, that euen at the very plounge when 
the Lacedemonians should vtterly foreuer haue confounded the Atheiiiens in battail 
on the sea, AleiUades sodainly with out the knowledge of either partie came with 
certain shippes vpon the Lacedemonians behinde at their backes, & turned the vie 
torie to the Atheniens, and so came home highly welcomed, although they had by 
necessitee been forced to seeke vpon him. 

13. After that Demosthenes for feare of Anti- 
Reade the an- pater had fledde into the Isle of Calauria, and 
"tt^mt kept himselfe in the temple of Neptunus, and 
This temple Archias, of a plaier of tragidies now growen and 
was a sure come vp to bee a manne of power assaied and 
i^as^rtual! laboured with honey sweete wordes to perswade 
Jrchias first a Demosthenes that thesame should putte himselfe 
plaier of entre- jjj j-jje grace of Antipatcr, by whom not onely to 
terward a gret hauc no maner harme at all, but also to be hon- 
man of power oured with moste high and bounteous rewardes : 
^' he said in this maner: O Archias thou neuer 

diddst like me in thy life on the staige being a 
piaier, nor shalt perswade me to thy purpose 
nowe at this present beyng an Oratour. But 
when Archias beeing throughly out of pacience 
r^e'in'the puUe hym parforce out of the Tem- 
^7 ^^'^j*^^ °^ pie : Yea marie (quoth Demosthenes) nowe at 
* The oracles ^^^^ thou hast plainly opened the * oracles of 
oiMacedome, Maccdonie. For vntill the speaking of this 
^rr tfiT" worde, thou diddest but countrefaicte and make 
pleasure of a feigned countenaunce, accordynge to the guise 
of"a«^^ ^"d facion of enterlude plaiers. 

Mening that Antipater had commaunded Archias to bring DeTnosthenes by faire 
meanes or foule. Demosthenes alluded to the propre signification of an oracle, 
mening that Antipater toke vpon him in maner no lesse then if he had been a God. 



THE H. BOOKE. 379 

Demosthenes is reported to haue sailled on a 14. 

time to the citee of Corinthe, enticed and allured Of cdnnthus 

with the fame of Lais* a Courtisan, there of great in^he33.°aj!io. 

name, to thintent that he also emong the mo p>^hegme of 

might haue his pleasure of the paramour whiche "'^^'*' 

all the worlde spake of. . But when she by coue- sailed to Co- 

naunt required for one night tenne thousande rinthe to bme 

drachmes, Demosthenes feared with the great- of^io^. " 

nesse of the price chaunged his mynde, saiyng : Lais a costely 

ovK ayopaZfa too-ovtov UEravono-ai, that is : I will not ^^"1^ '0 ''^ 
,. ^ , with, of whom 

Die repentaunce so dere. reade the .31. 

IT Signifiyng, that vnto vnhonest pleasure repen- ^T^lf^^ 

taunce is a prest compaignion to come after, j®" Yea „ „(a„n(.g 

& one propretee more it hath, that the pleasure is small, & is gone euermore en- 
in a moment, the repentaunce great, and still enduring as long as sueth of vn- 
life continueth. honest pleasure 

* Lais an harlot of CoritUhe of excellent beautie, but so dere and costly, that she 
was no raorsell for mowyers. She was for none but lordes and gentlemen that 
might well paie for it. Whereof came vp a prouerbe, that it was not for eueiy man 
to go vnto Corinthe. This historic of Demosthenes is rehersed of Valerius Maximus, 
Aubis Gellius, and others. 

The saiyng of Pytheas is commen and muche 15. 
spoken of, that the oracions of Demosthenes Reade the first 

,,,,,., ,1 f 1 1 Tj • apophthegmeof 

smelled all of the candle, for that thesame did in Demosthenes. 

the night season wryte and recorde soche thinges 

as he had to saye to the people in the daye time. 

So when another feloe, which had an euil name 

abrode for the suspicion of picking and brybinge, 

veray malapertly ihueighed against thesame 

thing : I knowe it ful wel (quoth Demosthenes) Pnuie theues 

, 1.1 1 ■ ii. i loue the darke, 

that we doe werke thee muche sorowe, m that 

we light candles in the night. 

H For priuie stealers loue the darke. 

One Demades criyng. Oh, Demosthenes wil 16 
take vpon him to correcte me, the sow wil teache 
* Minerua, thesame Demosthenes saied : Yea, "oeZades. 
but this Minerua (quoth he) was taken the last 
yeare in aduoutrie. ^ He 

How Demos- 
thenes taunted 



Mmeraa by the IT He laied vnto the charge of Demades aduoutrie, 
fiction of the j^ ^ Poetes do make Minerua to be a perpetual 

poetes a perpet- 
ual! virgin. virgin. 

* A swine to teache Minerua was a prouerbe against soche, as either being 
themselfes of no knowlege ne wisdome at all will take vpon theim to teache per- 
sones that are excellently skilled and passing expert, for whiche we saie in Eng- 
lishe, to teache our dame to spinne, or els, that wil take vpon theim to be doctours 
in those thinges in which theimselfes haue no skill at all, for whiche we saie in 
Englishe, to correfi): Magnificat before he haue learned Te deum. For Minerua was 
thought the patronesse of all witte and of all ingenious artes (as is aforesaied) and 
the swyne, by the tradicion and writing of all the naturall Philosophiers is declared 
to be of all beastes the moste brutyshe, and lest apt to learne any thing; 



Thesame Demosthenes withstoode the Athe- 
niens importunely desiryng him to shewe his 

at°fee becke of aduise, and said : ov ovvTiTayimt. That is, I am 

the people. 

1 8. 

How Demos- 
thenes by a 
•subtile ingine 
saued a poore 
woman from 
paiyng one 
summe twis. 

none of those whiche are brought vnder coram. 

IT Signifiyng, that he was not as a bonde seruaunt 
made to the beck of the people, but at his owne will 
and pleasure at all times to doe what thing he had 
iudged expedient to be doen. 

A certain bonde maiden had receiued of two 
men of her acquaintaunce a certaine summe of 
money to keepe for theim, with this condicion 
and agreement, that she should redeliuer the- 
same sum vnto theim both together. The one 
of these two parties within a shorte space after, 
comynge cladde in a mourning garment, and 
going as though he had no ioye of his life, & 
feigning that his partener was dead, beguiled the 
woman, and gotte the money out of her fingers. 
This doen, anon came the seconde partie vn- 
looked for, and begonne to require that had been 
leafte in her custody. And where the woman 
being in a. peck of troubles, was halfe in minde 
and purpose to hang herself, Demosthenes was 
so good vnto her to become her aduocate, who, 
as soone as he came to make his plea in her be- 
halfe, went roundely to the demaunder of the 


THE II. BOOKE. 38 1 

money after this sorte : This woman (saieth he) 
is readie well and truely to discharge herself of 
the money, which she was put in truste withal 
to kepe, but onles thou bring thy partener to, 
she may not doe it, because that by thine owne 
confession and wordes, this was a plain compo- 
sicion made betwene you, that the money should 
in no wise be deliuered to the one of you with- 
out the other. 

^ By this sutle ingen he saued the poore seely wo- 
man, and clerely defeacted the conspirisie of the two 
vilaines, who had driuen a drift to receiue double pai- 
ment of one summe. 

To a certain persone demaunding what was 19. 
the principall poincte in eloquence, he made aun- 
swere, hypocrisis, that is, action or pronunciation. 
To thesame persone eftsones asking, what was 
the next poinct and what the thirde, he still made 
none other aunswer but, action, action. 

IT Referring so moche to pronunciation, that he 
thought altogether to consiste in thesame. And in 
deede the action or pronunciation comprehendeth 
many things mo then one, that is to weete, the temper- 
ing and qualifiyng of the voice, the earnest loke of the 
yies, the porte of the countenaunce, and the gesturing 
or conueighaunce of all the whole body. 

When the fingers of the Atheniens ticleed to 20. 
aide and succour Harpalus, & were nowe alreadie 
vp towardes warre against Alexander, sodainly 
was seen Philoxenus arriued in the countree of 
Attica, whome Alexander had made his high 
amirall. At this sodain arriuall of the said 
Philoxenus when the people being with feare 
astouned were sodainly whished & weaxed 
dumme : What would these men doe (quoth 




Demosthenes) if they should see the sqnne which 
haue not the power to looke against a candle ? 

H After soche sorte did he vpbraid to the people 
their rashe and vnaduised stiering of coles, and ari- 

singes to warre. g^° By the Sunne he meaneth Alexander, 
in comparison of whom, this Philoxenus was scacely to be 
estemed a candle. 

21, Certain persones esteming and saiyng that 
Demades had nowe geuen ouer to be soche an 
haine, as he had been in time past : Yea marie 
(quoth Demosthenes,) for nowe ye see him ful 
paunched, as Lions are. 

Demades was IT For Demodes was couetous and gredie of money. 

coueteous of ^jj^ in deede the Lions are more gentle when their 
money. , 

beahes are well filled. 

22. When he was by a certain persone reuiled with 
In reuiiiug one moch naughtee language : I am now matched 
so ouercometh (quoth he) to buccle in a strife, in whiche who 
leseth the go hath in fine the ouerhande, gfetteth the wurse. 

victonCa ' o f 

and who so ouercometh leseth the victorie. 


Not al that is 
greate is well, 
but all that is 
well is greate. 

One dish alone 
to feede one, is 
more holsome 
for the bodie, 
then variete of 

Thesame Demosthenes, when he heard a cer- 
tain oratour speaking out of measure loude and 
high, and altogether in Pilates voice, saied : Not 
all that is great, is well, but all that is wel is 

^ This saiyng is ascribed to others also. And some 
folkes there been, that esteme feastes whiche are 
drawen of a length to sit all dale, and are furnished 
with sondrie dishes, or courses of the moste, to be 

roiall deintie geare, ^i° whereas by the plain determinacion 
of all naturall Philosophiers, and of all good Phisicians in the 
worlde, one good dishe alone to feede on,'is more naturall and 
more holsome for the bodie, then the varietee of many cosdie dishes 
at one repaste. 

H The ende of the seconde booke. 

f Cftat tftou tnapest tf)t sorter anli 

jaflper fpntie (motte gentU aaacr) jit^etr 

t5« name of anp perCone oj anp ot^er 

gooti mattter contetneti in tf))0 boo&e, 

31 fiaue tere atiUtit a la?0e anU plaint 

'arable aftej t^e oj&je of tlz a* 

^, C* fet out toitf) tfie noum-- 

bje of tje leafe, Vofiere 

tlbou flljalt fjntie an? 

fuclje tfijnff a0 

t^ou tie0pjeS 

to Imt 



Cl)e Cable* 


ilBas the .xii. kyng 
of the Argiues 1 88 
Abstinence the 
Italians vsefor 
all diseases . 309 

Achilles 203 

Acidemia, a place full of 

groues .... 177 
Acrisius had a doughter 

called Danae . . . 1S8 
Academiques . . . 266 
Adtium the paeke of the ,* 

countree of Epirus . .278 
Accius escaped the daun- 

gier of a iudgement . 357 
Action or pronounciation is 
the chiefest poindl in elo- 
quence .... 381 
Ades quene of the Carians . 208 
Adrastus, reade the note . 366 
Aeschines . . . 2'2, 74 
Aesculapius . . -33 
Aegfina the citee . 65 

Aged men wherof they 

should smelle . . .31 
Agatho of Athenes . . 32 
Agesilaus . . . .108 
Agamemnon king of My- 

cena .... 245 
Agrippa made many new 

condui6tes in Rome . 288 
Aide after the field is fough- 

ten, commeth to late . 130 
Alcibiades of Athenes _. 13 
All maner of oracions will 

not serue for all persones 28 
Alexander talked with Di- 
ogenes sitting in his tubbe 104 

Alexander had Diogenes in 
high estimation . . 105 

Alexander thought it a 
greater thing to be Alex- 
ander then to be a king . 93 

All vertues consiste in the 
meane betwene two vices 98 

Alipte what thei were . 136 

Almese geuen to beggers 
rather then to Philoso- 
phiers .... 144 

Alexanders ambicion 202-4, 231 

Alexander his haultnesse of 
courage .... 205 

Alexander was swift and 
nimble .... 204 

Alexander his armie against 
Darius .... 209 

Alexander his cookes . . 208 

Alexander his aunswer 
made to Darius . . 209 

Alexander wounded with an 
arrowe .... 212 

Alexander enforced no per- 

sone free borne . .214 
Alexander, howe he vsed 
the Grekes whiche tooke 
wages of his enemies to 
fight against him . .214 
Alexander howe he vsed a 
captaine that submitted 
himself vnto him . .217 
Alexander contemned Her- 
cules in respedt of him- 
selfe .... 218 
Alexander euer reserued one 

eare for the defendaunt . 227 
Alexander reproued Darius 
for the gorgeous decking 
of his house . . . 229 




Alexander abhorred effem- 
inate delices . . 229 
Alexanders animositee . 230 
Alexander, what verse he 

allowed best of Homere . 231 
Alexander was saluted the 

Sonne of lupiter Ammon 233 
Alexander taken by daye 
with a dead slepe in the 
campe .... 234 
Alexander made free of 

Corinthe .... 234 
Alexander knowlaged hym- 

self a mortall manne . 235 
Alcyoneus the sonne of An- 

tigonus slaine in battail . 251 
Alexanders courage and 

stoomake . . . 205 
Alcibiades accused of one 

Thessalus . . . 377 
Ambicion of Diogenes 82, 1 1 1 
AmphiSHonum concilium, 

what it is . . . 118 
Amphoteros . . .186 
Ammon was lupiter . .212 
Amicus alter ipse . . 233 
Ambicion of lulius Caesar 296-7 
Antisthenesthephilosophier 16 
ai/Spta Manhood . 31 

Antisthenes woulde haue no 

scollars . . . -77 
Anaximenes the successour 

of Anaximander . .147 
Antisthenes was lothe to dye 176 
Antipater high capitaine 

vnder Philippus . . 198 
Antipater highly in fauoure 
with Alexander, but at 
the last dedly hated . 211 
Antipater his ambicion . 213 
Antigenes . . . .214 
Antipater surmised mar- 
tiers against Olympias . 230 
Antigonus saiynges begin . 236 
Antigonus how he vsed cer- 
tain of his souldiours . 237 
Antigonus first cruel and 

then mercifuU . . . 237 
Antigonus disapoindled his 

Sonne of his lodgeing . 238 
Antigonus his boldenesse 

. 248 
• 249 



and presumption . . 246 
Antigonus was tendre to^ 

ward his soiildiours. 
Antigonus lowe of stature 

and hauing a flat nose . 
Antigonus iested at the im- 
pediment of his own iyes. 
Antonius and Dolobella 

fatte and well coloured 
Antipater ouercame the 

oio/Dvos a rock in the Indies 217 
Appollodorus the poete howe 

he visited Socrates . . 24 
Approuing of good fare and 

to be offended with the 

cost, &c . . . .63 
Appellacion of a man is a 

fitte name but for a fewe 109 
Apparell to curious, argueth 

wantonnesse . . .120 
Apollo otherwyse called Py- 

thius . . . .208 
Apelles .... 222 
Atte of gouerning a com- 
'menweale ... 5 
Arrogancie of Sophistes . 17 
Xrchelaus king of Mace- 

donie . . . ■ 19 
Arte and profession of Phi- 

siognomiers . . -35 
Aristippus taught Philoso- 

phie for money . . 45 
Archelaus the sonne of Per- 

dicca . . . - . 19 
Aristippus brauled and 

stroue with Diogenes . 45 
Aristippus one of the courte 

with Dionisius . . 45 

Aristippus despised golde 

andsiluer . . 46,57 
Aristippus was bothe ga- 

launte and also sage . 48 
Aristippus regarded noneste 

at all times . . .47 
Aristippus feared no man 48, 70 
Aristippus loued gaye ap- 
parell . . . .48 
Aristippus weaxed pale . 53 
Areta the doughter qf Ar- 
istippus . . . .55 



Aristippus tooke money of 
his frendes and why 57, 60 

Aristippus spent not his 
money in vain . . 57 

Aristippus kepte compaignie 
with a stroumpet . . 60 

Aristippus was a customer 
of Lais the hariotte. . 61 

Aristippus spetted on the 
face of Simus . . .62 

Aristippus wyshed to dye 
no woorse then Socrates 
had doen . . -63 

Aristippus cast his money 
into the seji . . .64 

Aristippus beyng chidden of 
Plato, what he answered 65 

Aristippus rebuked Dio- 
genes for compaigniyng 
with Phryne the hariotte 66 

Aristippus a man of great 
possessions . . .66 

Aristippus was nothing 
greued to take a blanke 
in disputacion. . . 67 

Aristippus refused not to 
daunce in purple . . 69 

Aristippus had a passing 
ready witte . . -72 

Artaphernes . . • 1° 

Aristippus arested in Asia 
by Artaphernes . . 70 

Aristo, the Philosophier . 71 

Aristippus gathered muche 
richesse . . . • Ti 

Aristippus did lette his sonne 
ronne at rouers . . 72 

Aristippus beyng thelder 
man submitted first to 
Aeschines . . -74 

Aristippus cast on lande by 
shipwracke . . -75 

Aristogiton . . .129 

Arte, euery arte is not mete 
for a king . . 201 

Aristotle was maister to Al- 
exander . . . . 225 

Aristodemus . . • 241 

Arius a philosophier of Al- 
exandria. . . ■ 254 

Armenia a royalme in Asia 258 

Aristogiton a false accusar 
condemned . . . 326 

Areopagus . . -374 

Archias first a plaier of en- 
treludes and afterward a 
great manne of power 
with Antipater . . 378 

dorpayoXos • • .185 

A true frende is an highe 
treasure .... 6 

Athenes was ruled by the 
commons . . .42 

Athenaeus the Greke histo- 
riographier . . 66, 224 

A thing publique is or- 
deyned for the welthe of 
the priuate also . . 78 

Athlete, what they bee that 
are so called . . •, i IS 

Athenes the foundament of 
all Grece. . . . 246 

Athenodorus . . . 256 

Atedius pollio, alias Vedius 
pollio .... 290 

Artica a countree . -331 

Aulius Gellius . . -27 

Augustus reproued the in- 
saciable ambicion of Al- 
exander .... 256 

Augustus Caesar made a 
lawe for adulterers . . 257 

Augustus enterpreted the 
doynges of menne to the 
better parte . . . 260 

Augustus Aiax . . .261 

Augustus was not desirous 
to be feared . . . 261 

Augustus aunswere to a 
feloe that asked a pencion 
of him .... 261 

Augustus answer to Galla . 263 

Augustus perdoned Cinna . 267 

Augustus vsed to saye naye 
to none that desired him 
to any feaste . . . 268 

Augustus an highe and 
mightie prince. . . 269 

Augustus delited to ieste & 
also would take iesting . 272-3 

Augustus bought diuerse 
birdes .... 280 



Augustus gentlenesse in 
hearing complaintes . 279 

Augustus how he serued a 
Greke Poete . . 280 

Augustus, what he saied of 
Rome .... 285 

Augustus put of two impu- 
dent crauers . . 285 

Augustus preferred the dig- 
nitee of a commenweale 287 

Augustus, how he vsed to 
commend his sonne vnto 
the people . . . 291 

Autoritee, who so hath not 
saied, seketh: whoso hath 
proued, hateth . . 322 

Aurum,sitisii, Aurum bibe . 363 

TD Attain betwene Alexan- 
-'-' der and Darius . . 209 
Beneficial! to a whole mul- 
titude .... 4 
Bettre of birth that a childe 
is the better ought his 
bringing vp to be . . 9 
Betwene a beast and a man 
of brutishe condicons ther 
is no difference . .12 
Better to die an innocent 

then an offender . . 23 
Beautie of the minde is to 

beeloued . . .34 
Begon well, is half done . 41 
Better to begge then to be 

without learning . .51 
Better that money be cast 
awaye then man for mo- 
neis sake . . .64 
Beetes is an herbe called 

in latine 5£^a . . .118 
Beaste of many heddes is 

the people . . .121 
Beastes that are most harm- 
ful 132 

Bealies of gluttons, &c . 133 
Best time to wedde a wife . 140 
Beautiful strumpettes are 

like to dedly poyson . 154 
Beneficence of Philippus . 192 
Beneuolence howe it should 

be purchased . . 202 

Beardes are an hinderaunce 

in battaill . • .209 
Bedde of a persone that is 

in debte, &c. . . .271 
Bias receiued a talent of 

Antigonus . . 249 

Biddelles what their officies 

is 269 

Blisse of heauen, whereby it 

is obteined . . . 108 
Blushing is a token of vertue 140 
Bondeseruaunt to the plea- 
sures of the bodye . . 3 
Boldnesse and trust on a 

man's well doyng . . 28 
Bosting of a mannes selfe 

is a foolyshe thing . . 58 
Boste of drinking is vayne . 59 
Bondeseruauntes of glorie . 1 14 
Bondeseruauntes, howe they 

are called in Greke. . 167 
Bountie of Alexander. 207, 219 
Bountie and largesse is be- 
falling for kynges . .241 
Bosome sermons and ora- 
tions .... 243 
Breach of loUe betwene Ae- 

schines and Aristippus . 74 
Brasidas a capit^ne of the 

Lacedemonians . . 260 
Brundusium a towne in the 

kingdome of Naples . 299 
Brutus and Cassius slewe 

lulius Caesar . . . 301 
Buriyng of Diogenes . . 91 
Buriyng of the lewes . . 92 
Buriyng is not to be cared 

for (saied Diogenes) . 137 

Bucephalus an horse . 225, 307 

Busyris a kinge bf Egipte . 362 

Byzancium a citee of Thra- 

cia ..... 326 

CAlamitees vniuersall . 40 
Cantharis a litle vermin 116 
Calisthenes the disciple of 

Aristotle. . . .120 
Caiges for women . .134 
Caria a prouince in Asia . 208 



Calisthenes contemned the 
facions of Alexander his 
court .... 227 
Casket, deske or standyshe 

of Darius . ■. . 229 
Cassius Seuerus . . . 264 
Cares of a good prince . 271 
Cato kylled hymselfe at Vti- 

ca . . . 271,300,367 
Caprae an Isle . . . 292 
Caesar hanged vp the Py- 

rates .... 293 
Caesars excuse for not lea- 

uing the dictatourship . 303 
Capitaines many, & good 
souldiours but a fewe . 331 

Cato 338 

Caius Popilius . . . 343 
Caesar went in his gowne 

wantonly girt about him . 348 
Caninius Reuilus was con- 
sul but vi. houres . . 350 
Cato would be busily occu- 
pied in the daye time and 
mery in the night . . 367 
Caelius had a loude voice . 367 
Ceramicus a place of burial 

in Athenes . . -97 
Centaures what they were . 132 
Censour a magistrate in 

Rome . . . 276, 315 
Centumuiri, what thei wer . 347 
Chiefest vertue of youn men 38 
Children, what they get by 

goyng to schoole . . 56 
Children, how thei should 

bee brought vp . -83 
Childrens dyete assigned by 

Diogenes . .89 

Chiliades of Erasmus . . 103 
Cherronea a region nighe 

to Hellespontus . 115, 185 
Charibdis and Scylla . 133, 348 
Cherilus a Poete . . 222 
Children begotten towarde. 

the Sunne rysing, &c . 343 
Cyniques sect & what they 

wer . . -76 

Citee is there none without 

a lawe .... 172 
Ciuilitee of Philippus . .185 

Cinna sought to destroye 

Augustus . . ■ . 266 
Ciuica corona what it is . 284 
Cilicians the people of Cilicia 293 
Cicero was lowely to his 
enemies, but to his 
frendes frowarde . .321 
Cicero, what it is . . 337 
Cicero taunted Pompeius 
for making a Gall free 
citizen of Rome . . 348 
Cicero, howe he rebuked his 
doughter for going to fast 
& his Sonne for going to 
slow . . . . 349 
Cicero his answer for Milo 353 
Cicero diuorced. his wife 

Terencia . . . 355 

Cicero mocked Curio . . 355 
Cicero his riedle . . . 359 
Cicero coulde caste a miste 
ouer the seates of iudge- 
ment .... 361 
Cicers what they are . . 337 
Cicero howe he checked a > 

young feloe . . . 365 
Cicero drounke water. . 367 
Cicero what he saied to lu- 

lius Caesar . . . 368 
Cicero defea(5ted the accu- 
sation of Marcus Callidius 368 
Cicero iesting on Isauricus 369 
Cloystures were full of pride 24 
Climate is a region or coste 

of a countree . . . 243 

Clemencie of Augustus 260, 286 

288, 290 

Clemencie of Pompeius . 316 

Clamorous and bralling 

Oratours . . 340 

Clodius a Romaine of noble 

birth . . . .353 
Cneus Pompeius . • 311 
Corrupt maners of the 

Atheniens . . .16 
Compaignie of wise menne 20 
Couetousnesse oft time be- 

guileth the belly . . 62 
Communication oughte to 

bee frutefull . . .80 
Couetous persones doe 



moste of all crie out on 
auarice . . . .86 
Commoditees of philosophie 93 
Corinthus a citee in Achaia 93 
Communication oughte not 

to be vaine . . .80 
Couetousnesse the roote of 

all euill . . . .131 
Corrupt & effeminate man- 

ers of the Athenians . 151 
Communication declareth a 

mans minde . . . 164 
Cookes of Alexander . . 208 
Continencie or chastitee of 
■ Alexander . . 213, 221 
Corduba a citee in Spaine . 290 
Consuls of Rome . . 303 
Considius a Senatour. . 307 
Constancie of Phocion . 330 
Coce of Coats '. . . 353 
Contencion betwene Py- 
thias and Demosthenes . 370 
Critias and Charicles, what 

they were . . .10 
Credence is not to be geuen 

to the ignoraunt . . 22 
Crabbed wiues compared to 

rough horses . . .27 
Craneum, what it is . . 104 
Crete the Isle, nowe called 

Candie . . . .109 
Craterus desired Diogenes 

to dwell with him . . 147 
Craterus auaunced by Al- 
exander .... 218 
Cruelnesse of Vidius . . 289 
Crassus could curry fauour. 362 
Custome easeth the tedi- 
ousnesse of incommodi- 
tees . . . .26 

Customes in diuerse places, 

what they are . . -37 
Curtius, a knight of Rome . 274 
Cyzicus or Cyzicum an Isle 

in Propontia . . .68 
Cypres trees are elfishe and 
frowarde to spring . . 329 


Anae the doughter of 
Acrisius . . .188 


Darius his offre to Alexander 209 

Damasippus praised, his 
wyne of xl. yeres olde . 348 

Deseases of late banquet- 
ting 8 

Death is commen to al per- 
sones . . . -23 

Death is like to a sound 
slepe . . . .40 

Desperate persones what 
they should doe . . 80 

Demosthenes his tale of an 
asse . . . .84 

Death is no euill thing . 169 

Death riddeth a body out 
of peines . . . .176 

Demaratus a Corinthian . 200 

Demochares Parrhesiastes . 202 

Delphos a toune in the re- 
gion of Phocis. . . 226 

Demetrius the sonne of An- 
tigonus .... 24s 

Death which is beste . . 301 

Demosthenes spake to 
please menne . . . 326 

Demades had no feloe in 
making of an oration . 332 

Demosthenes what he was . 370 

Demosthenes his aunswere 
to Pythias . . . 370 

Demosthenes his excuse for 
the studie of eloquence . 371 

Demosthenes one of the x. 
whom the Atheniens sent 
ambassadours to Philip- 
pus king of Macedonie . 371 

Demosthenes mocked for 
fliyng from battaill . . 372 

Demosthenes escaped be- 
yng in the handes of Al- 
exander . . . ~ . 373 

Demosthenes, why he was 
banished. . . . 374 

Demosthenes, what he saied 
to Pallas . . . .37s 

Demosthenes auouched it 
a daungerous thing to 
medle with the affjures 
of a commenweale . . 376 

Demosthenes restored from 
banishement . . . 376 



Demosthenes compared his 
returning with the return- 
yng of Alcibiades . . 377 

Demos, taunted Demades 379 

Demosthenes would not bee 
at becke of the people . 380 

Demosthenes howe he de- 
fended the cause of a 
poore woman . . . 380 

Demades was couetous of 
money .... 382 

Diete temperate to be vsed 3 

Difference betwene a carnal 
louer and a frende . . 35 

Difference betwene the 
learned and vnlearned 50, 59 

Difference betwene the solle 
of a Philosophier & of a 
verlet . . . .53 

Dionisius offended with 
Plato . . . .68 

Dionysius had his eares in 
hisfeete . . . .69 

Dionysius gaue in rewarde 
to Aristippus money, and 
to Plato bookes . -72 

Dionysius would call Ari- 
stippus foole and all to 
naught . . . -73 

Diogenes was Antisthenes 
his scholare . . -77 

Diog. his zele to sapience . 77 

Diogenes dwelt in a tubbe . 77 

Diogenes had no house of 
his owne . . . -77 

Diogenes confuted Zeno . 106 

Diogenes nicknamed the 
scholes of Euclides . . 78 

Diogenes gaue himselfe to 
Hue after philosophie . 78 

Diogenes was a very slouen 82 

Diogenes noted Plato of 
verbositee . . -83 

Diogenes could finde no 

good menne . . -83 
Diogenes willed the people 

to heare no vaine thinges 83 
Diogenes taunted al men . 84 
Diogenes reproued the Mu- 
sicians . . . -85 
Diogenes reprouing the 

Oratours couetous per- 
sons and commen people 85 

Diogenes rebuking soche as 
did sacrifice for bodelye 
health . . . .86 

Diogenes hated gluttons 
and boundeseruauntes . 86 

Diogenes praysing diuerse 
persones . . . 87 

Diogenes what he taught 
to Xeniades his sonnes . 89 

Dioge. maner of teaching . 89 

Diogenes made an abrige- 
ment of al disciplines for 
his scholars . . .89 

Diogenes, howe he would 
be buried . . . 91 

Diogenes talking with Al- 
exander in his tubbe . 93 

Diogenes whipped of young 
menne . . . .94 

Diogenes thought himselfe 
thanke worthy for com- 
ming to a feaste or a 
supper when he was de- 
sired . . . .96 

Diogenes fynding Demos- 
thenes in a tauerne. . 96 

Diogenes howe he pointed 
out Demosthenes . . 97 

Diogenes his aunswer to 
soche as saied he was 
ouer earnest in philoso- 
phie 98 

Diogenes to whom he would 
be solde .... 100 

Diogenes rebuked a woman 
for liyng prostrate before 
the Goddes . . . 102 

Diogenes consecrated to 
Aesculapius a gyaunt 
with a club . . . 102 

Diogenes, howe he matched 
fortune, lawe & affedlions 104 

Dioge. sitting in his tubbe . 104 

Diogenes auouched himself 
to be richer then Alex- 
ander .... 105 

Diogenes what he saied 
espiyng a whyte lefe of 
paper .... 105 



Diogenes confuted Zenon . io6 
Diogenes mocked a So- 
phiste & one prating in 
Astronomie . . . io6 

Diogenes anoynted his feete 
where others annoynte 
their heddes . .107 

Diogenes was desired to bee 
a prieste .... 108 

Diogenes, almoste per- 
swaded to geue ouer his 
philosophical! trade. . 109 

Dioge. was called doggue . 109 
121, 143, 153, 154 

Diogenes had a blowe with 
alflngeloggue . .110 

Diogenes sekinga man with 
a candel in the daylight . 1 1 1 

Diogenes deluded a feloe 
for springklyng water 
vpon him for the purging 
of synnes . . .113 

Diogenes chalenged for a 
spie by Philippus . .115 

Dio. threatened of Perdicca 116 

Diogenes rebuked a feloe 
for wearing a Lions 
skynne . . . .119 

Diogenes called Ofatours 
thrise double men . .121 

t)iogenes commended an 
harper that all others dis- 
praised . .123, 124, 162 

Diogenes had cast in his 
teeth banyshement . . 126 

Dio. his maner of begging . 128 

Dionysius how he entreated 
his frendes . . .129 

Diogenes, why he became 
a philosophier . . .126 

Didymi what it is 134 and 
of Didymo reade in the . 170 

Diogenes what he saied to 
a renneawaye . . -135 

Diogenes what he saied to 
a feloe that came to the 
hotehouse . . .136 

Diogenes hated women . 137 

Diogenes salutacion to one 
that robbed graues & 
toumbes .... 137 

Diogenes had neither man 

nor woman seruaunt . 137 
Diogenes asked his almes . 145 

Diogenes banished for coyn- 

ing of money . . 126, 145 

Diogenes, why he vsed to 
eate in the open strete . 148 

Diogenes taunted Plato for 
his course fare . .148 

Diogenes his aunswer to 
them that derided him . 148 

Diogenes demed menne to 
bee saued from misauen- 
tures by veray chaunce, 
and not by the grace of 
God . . . .150 

Diagoras a Philosophier . 150 

Diogenes, his aunswer to 
Alexander . . 153, 169 

Diogenes voyde of super- 
sticion . . . .154 

Diogenes mocked a wrast- 
lear 155 

Diogenes, what countre- 
manne he was. . . 157 

Diogenes drinking in a 
tauerne . . . .164 

Diogenes asked a large 
almes of a prodigall 
spender .... 167 

Diogenes what he saied 
being in a scholehouse . 176 

Diogenes howe he would 
bee buried . . .173 

Dionysius an euill schole- 
maister . . . .176 

Displeasure of Philippus 
with Olympias & Alex- 
ander .... 200 

Disshes made from Augus- 
tus his table . . . 274 

Dictare discipulis . . 303 

Dimitius Corbulo . . 309 

Diadorus .... 341 

Difference betwene histories 
an annates . . . 357 

Dignus crasso est . . 361 

Dolphin fyshes, what their 
propretee is . . -59 

Dolobella asked a golden 



chain of Augustus . . 283 
Dptnitius a senator of Rome 313 
Drachme, what valure it is 

of . . . .46, 243 
Drinking muche is mete for 

a spounge but not for a 

man .... 372 
Durachium or Dirrachium 

a toune in Macedonia , 298 
Diademe what it is . . 305 


"[7 Ating vnmeasurable . 38 
J--' Euill, what it is . . 142 
Eloquence of Plato . . 82 
Empier, a reigne or Empier 

holden with loue, &c. . 183 
Ennuchus .... 107 
Englyshe menne noted of 

excessiue eating, & Ger- 

maines of drinlting . . 62 
Enemies, how a man should 175 

be auenged on his enemy 
Enemies how they are to be 309 

Ennius an auncient poete . 357 
Epaminondas what he was. 108 
Epitaphiae is a writing set 

on dead mennes tombes . 221 
Eris the goddesse of strife . 47 
Erasmus defense for taking 

giftes .... 164 
Erudicion or learning, what 

it profiteth? . . .170 
Erotes put to death by Au- 
gustus for eating of a 

quail .... 25s 
Eros a bondman of Cice . 347 
Euripides a philosophier . 18 
Euthidemus the frende of 

Socrates . . . • 3^ 
Eutichides the seruaunt of 

Aristippus . . .60 
Euclides was in the later 

daies of Plato . . -78 
Euxinus and Pontus are all 

one 127 

Eiuill what is eiuill . . 142 
Euery body is best iudge of 

his owne facultee . . rgg 
Eurylothus. . . ■ 214 

Eudimonicus a philoso. . 223 

Excesse not beyng vsed, 
maketh all thinges good 
chepe . . . -19 

Exercise of the memorie . 39 

Excuse of sinne . . -Si 

Excuse of some that pro- 
fesse the contempte of 
money . . . .61 

Externall thinges make no 
man the better . . 76 

Exercise of Diogenes his 
scholares. . . .89 

Excesse of drinking is 
abhominable . . .164 

Exhortacions made by Phi- 
lippus to his Sonne Alex- 
ander .... 194 

Exaumple of chastitee in 
Alexander . . . 205 

TJ* Ame honeste, howe it is 

-^ to be purchased. . 5 

Passion that the Atheniens 

vsed with condemned 

men . . . .23 
Passion of stage players in 

old time . . . -56 
Pace of a man ought to be 

moost cleane . . .62 
Pauour, the fauour of a 

stroumpet is better lost 

then had. . . . 166 
Familiare iesting betwene 

Antigonus & Antigoras . 244 
Fabia Dolobella mocked of 

Cicero . . . .354 
Fainte handleyng of a plea, 

argueth the cause to bee 

weake .... 369 
Feede onely to meynteyne 

life 21 

Felicitee of kynges what it 

is 93 

Feeling in a matter . . 128 
Felicitee maketh menne 

false herted . . . 248 
Felicitee and good fortune 

of Augustus . . . 258 
Piggues we choose and take 



of the beste, &c . .125 
Flaccus a poete . . .172 
Foolyshe hast and nedelesse 1 7 
Foolyshenesse of menne . 79 
Foolyshe shame to no pur- 
pose . . . . 97, 100 
Folye of the parentes in 

chastising their children . 98 
Fortune is not to be impu- 
ted to euery thing . 113, 182 
Fortresses doe nothing a- 
uaill without hardy cap- 
taines .... 217 
Forum hath a double signi- 
fication .... 264 
Frendesareanhigh treasure 6 
Frugalitee of Socrates . 13 
Frendes that are true ar 

great possessions . .14 
Fruitelesse being in a 

straunge countree . . 20 
Fruite of philosophie . . 48 
Frendes should be tried ere 

thei be familiar . . 68 
Fredome of the myndeis the 

right fredome . . -73 
Frequent assembles of the 

people . . . .79 
Frendes, howe men should 
not put foorth theirhandes 
to their frendes 88, 171, 175 
Frugalitee of Diogenes . loi 
Frendes should not desire 
any vniuste thynge one 
of another . . . 332 
Furniture of the mynde . 30 

GAza, a countree wher 
odours growe . . 206 
Galba had a misshapen 

bodye .... 263 
Garlande Ciuike . . 284 
Gallius .... 315 
Geuing a thing after it is 

ones asked is to late . 20 
Geometrie that Socrates 

wold haue studied . . 42 
Germaines noted of muche 

drinkyng, and Englyshe- 

men of much eating . 62 

Gentlemen are pleased with 
their owne doynges . 173 

Giftes not profitable, ought 
to be refused . . -13 

Giftes Socrates would none 
take, &c. ... 19 

Gluttons . . . .21 

Glorie, is to many persones 
more sweter then life . 216 

God is to be foloed as nere 
as we maye . . .1 

Good men reioyce when 
they are troubled . . 25 

Good thinges are rejected 
because of the lewde per- 
sones that abuse theim . 63 

Golde, why it looketh pale 134 

Golde ouercommeth all 
thynges . . . .188 

Good fortune written aboute 
the bucler of Demosthe . 372 

Grammarians, what they 
wer 85 

Graunde theues lead the 
petie thieues to prieson . 117 

Grosse meates make the 
bodie strong, but the 
wittes dull . . .128 

Granicus a floudde . . 206 

Grreat thinges are not al- 
waies good, but good 
thinges are alwayes great 382 

TIJ Aste maketh waste . 41 
■'^ Harmodius . .129 
Harlottes . . . .175 
Haynous transgressions 
must be suppressed by 
due correction. . .190 
Harpe of Achilles and of 

Paris .... 232 
Hesiodus, his verses . 10, 17 
Heraclitus a philosophier . 13 
Hemina, what it is . . 19 
He that can abide a curste 

wife nede not, &c. . . 27 
Helicon Cyzicenus a philo- 
sopher . . . .68 
He is not in penurie, that 
may haue when he need- 













Hercules the sonne of lupi 

ter . 
Hegesias a philosophier of 

the Epicures sefte. 
Herculesj howe he was wor 

shipped in olde time 
Hecateros . 
Hephaestion highly in fa' 

uour with Alexander 
Herode kylled his owne 

Hephaestion taller manne 

then Alexander 
Herennius . 
Hemlocke iuice, the price of 

an ounce. 
High cares of a good 

Prince . 
Hungre the best sauce 2, 14, 30 
^onest name and fame, 

howe to be purchaced . 5 
Honest matters to set foorth, 

euery man is loothe . 8 

Homere his verses 10, 137, 138 

165, 168, 212, 336 

Honest geastes take all fare 

in good woorth. 
Holily died Socrates . 
Honest and vertuous loue 
How an euill husbande 

maye borowe money of 

himselfe .... 
Honest menne may vse de- 

lycate fare 
Homeres Rapsodies what 

they are .... 
Horsse vnbroken, apte to 

no seruice 
Housbande, the rule for the 


Houres best to eate meate. 
Honest and vertuous men 

are the true ymages of 


Honye mouthed persones, . 

Hote houses 

Honest menne are not the 

wurse for the infamie of 

any place that they resort 








vnto .... 160 
Homere feigneth death and 

slepe to be broother ger- 

maine .... 173 
Housholding is not main- 

teined with singing, . 177 
Horacius the poete his sai- 

ynges . . . 20, 188 
Homeres Ilias highly es- 

temed of Alexander . 230 
Humilitee of Socrates. l6, 44 
Husbandrie is profitable . 44 
Humanitee and pacience of 

Philippus . . .199 
Humilitee of Antigonus . 239 
Humblenesse and modestie 

of Augustus . . . 258 
Humanitee will hope the 

best of a frende . . 320 
Hydria in foribus, ex- 

pouned . . . -54 
Hypocrisis the chief poyn<5te 

in eloquence . . . 381 

IAmbique verses . -13 
Idlenesse is euermore 
worthie blame . .10 
Idees that Plato deuised . 138 
Ignoraunce is the onely 

euill thing of the worlde . 15 
Immoderate and gredieeat- 

ing 38 

Inordinate liuing is more 
peinful, then to Hue ver- 
tuously .... 3 

Incommoditees of wedlocke, 
and out of wedlocke. . iS 

Insaciable mynde of Alex- 
ander .... 105 

InexpecSato, a place of rhe- 
toricke . , . .123 

Ingratitude of the Atheniens 
towardes Philippus , .185 

Incommodities that come 
by plaiyng at dyce . . 218 

Insolencie, a daungerous 
disease .... 238 

Ingratitude of many per- 
sones .... 320 

Ingratitude of the people.of 



Athenes .... 375 

Italians vse abstinence for 
all diseases . . . 309 

ludgement of the commen 
peqple .... 5 

ludgement preposterous of 
the commen people. 14, 99 

lustice executed by Antigo- 
nus. . . . '. 242 

lulia the daughter of Au- 
gustus . . . 281, 282 

lufia banyshed out of the 
court of Augustus . .291 

lulius Caesar moste like in 
facions to Alexander the 
great . . . .293 

lulius Caesar, a man of a 
wondrous hault courage 295-9 

lulius Caesar put awaye 
his wyfe Pompeia . . 296 

lulius Caesars ambicion 296-7 

lulius Caesar would that 
high enterprises shoulde 
bee dispetched without 
casting perilles . . 297 

lulius Caesar matched Pom- 
peius .... 299 

lulius Caesar, what he saied 
when he sawe in Rome 
straungers carrie young 
puppes .... 302 

lulius Caesar, howe he en- 
couraged his souldiours . 302 

lulius Caesar said thatSylla 
was not half a good clerke 302 

lulius Caesar refused to bee 
called a king . . . 304 

lulius Caesars horse . . 307 

lulius Caesar oppressed the 
commenweale . . 310 

lulius Caesars dreame . 31 1 

lulius Caesar and Pompeius 
at variaunce . . . 344 

lulius Caesar called Sen- 
ates for euerysmal matter 352 

lulius Curtius proued a 
Iyer by Cicero . . 354 

T^ Nowleage of moral phi- 
**■ losophie, what it pro- 

fiteth . . . . II 

We knowe no more then is 
in our memorie . . 89 

Kinges maye not shewe fa- 
uour to all persones . igo 

Kinges, howe farre thei 
maye extende f auour . 1 90 

Kinges must vse honest per- 
sones and abuse the vn- 
honest .... 190 

Kinges learned, is an vnes- 
timable treasure . -194 

Kinges are euill reported 
for well doing . .221 

Kinges are not the rules of 
iustice, but the ministres. 239 


T Aercius a greke autour. 17 
^—' Lais an harlote of Co- 
rinth . . .61, 379 
Lacedemonians exercised 

their children in hunting. 90 
Lawyers contending . . 141 
Laboring for good qualitees 149 
Lawe, is there none with- 
out a citee . . .172 
Lasanum and Lasanopho- 

rus ..... 239 
Lawe for soche as killed 

their fathers . . . 286 
Laberius a plai'er . 301, 352 
Laodicia a citee in Asia . 352 
Lenocinium, what it is . 35 
Lettres or wrytinges help 

not the memorie . . 39 
Lenticula, what it is . . loi 
Learning is no shame . 40 

Lessons for young princes . 189 
Learned kinges an vnesti- 

mable treasure . . 194 
Leonides the gouuernourof 

Alexander . . . 205 
Lex lulia . . . 257, 281 
Lex Pompeia . . . 286 
Lentulus .... 315 
Leosthenes a manne of 
greate autoritee in 
Athenes .... 329 
Lentulus girt to a sweord . 349 
Libertee of the mynde . 73 



Libertee is the state of 
blisse . . 119, 147, 171 

Liber pater, one of the 
names of Bacchus . .158 

Life and death both are 
peinful to tyrannes . . 177 

Liberalitee of Philippus . 193 

Like beareth loue to like . 216 

Liuia the wife of Augustus. 267 
281, 287 
Licinius of a bondeser- 

uaunte made free . . 275 
Liberalitee of Augustus to- 

warde learned men . 281 

Libya a parte of Afrike . 313 
Libians^ had their eares 

bored full of holes . . 342 
Loue honest and vertuous . 34 
Loue purchaced by vertue . 35 
Loue, the occupation of Idle 

persones .... 131 
Lust must be refrained . 3 
Lupines a kinde of poultz . 124 
Lucius LucuUus . . -317 
Lucius Cotta, a great 

drinker of wyne . . 367 
Liuing inordinately, is more 
peinfull then to lyue ver- 
tuously .... 3 
Lysias an Oratour . 28, 112 
Lyue to lyue is no mise- 
rable thing . . . 142 
Lysippus .... 222 

MAny'menne giue great- 
er wages to their 
horsekepers, then to the 
teachers of their children 56 

Many pretende the con- 
tempte of delicates &c. 61, 63 

Many good thinges are re- 
iected because of the 
lewde persones that vse 
theim . . . -63 

Man is moste sapient and 
moste foolishe . . 79 

Mannes witte apte to all 
thinges . . . .80 

Mathematici, what thei wer 85 

Maistre that is wyse, wilbe 
aduised by his seruaunt 91-9 

Macedonians conquered 
Grece . . . .92 

Man, what it is . . -92 

Mannes life standeth not in 
carnall pleasures . .116 

Man of al creatures the 
moste miser. . . .121 

Manes, the seruaunt of Di- 
ogenes . . . .142 

Manye rebuke in others, 
that they emende not 
theimselues . . .146 

Maisters geuen to vicious- 
nes what they doe . . 166 

Macedonians were plaine 
feloes . . . .189 

Machaetes wrongfully con- 
demned of Philippus . 196 

Macedonie was euer to litle 
for Alexander. . . 225 

Menacing of great men . 298 

Mamertines a people in 
Sicilie . . . . 312 

Magnus the surname of 
Pompeius . . . 313 

Manly herte of Pompeius .318 

Many men punyshe in 

others that thei offend in 

theimselfs ... 7 
Marcellinus put to silence 

by Pompeius . . . 319 
Marcus Tullius Cicero . 336 
Marcus Aemilius Scaurus . 339 
Marcus Tullius woulde not 

forsake his surname . 339 
Marcus Tullius his greate 

care and studie . . 347 
Marcus 'Caelius an oratour. 354 
Marcus Crassus an oratour 361 
Marcus Appius mocked of 

Cicero .... 365 
Marcus Aquilius called of 

Cicero Adrastus . . 366 
Meate and drinke must be 

taken with reason . . 3 
Mecenaes of Rome . . 4 
Medleing to moche in other 

mennes matters . .11 



Menne that desire to Hue 
must frame, &c. . . 15 

Men that are good, doe suf- 
fer slaunders gladly ! 25 

Mery saiynges of Socrates. 26 

27. 38 
Men wherof thei should 

smel . . . .31 
Merie speaking of Aris- 

tippus . . . .51 
Measure is in all thinges a 

treasure . . . • 55 
Menne may iustly refuse 

their sonnes if, &c. . . 72 
.Menne should haue no 

vayne communicacion . 80 
Menne take peynes in 

vayne thinges . . 84 

Menne should not putfoorth 

emptie hands to their 

frendes . . . .88 
Mennes woordes declare 

their myndes . . .90 
Men should weare sweete 

floures in their bosomes, 

rather then on their 

cappes .... 108 
Men there are but a fewe . 109 
III, 151 
Megara, a toune in the 

countree of Atica . .110 
Megarians were rechelesse 

kepers of their children . 1 10 
Medecine for good appetite 131 
Merie saiynges of Diogenes 140 
155. 156. 168 
Mercifulnesse of Antigonus 241 
Men taken prisoners in 

warre, how they were 

vsed .... 250 
Metellus withstode Caesar 

from taking money out of 

the treasourie 298, 309, 341 
Menne, be they neuer so 

highe are with famine 

made tame enough. . 319 
Menillus a capitaine . . 332 
Miserable is the pouertee of 

the mynde . . .50 
Myce howe they resorted to 

Diogenes his tubbe. . 109 

Midias, how Diogenes han- 

dleed him . . .112 
Miserie, what thing is 
moste miserable in this 
worlde . . . 132, 142 
Miserie of warre. . .188 
Miletus a citee . . . 20S 
Mithridates ky nge of Pontus 245 
Minerua by the fiftion of 
the poetes a perpetual 
virgin .... 380 
Moderate exercitacions of 

the bodie . . .38 
Money bringeth a liuing . 50 
Money, the right vse of it . 57 
Moral philosophic, what it 

profited the philosophiers 70 
Diogenes, howe he was 

mocked .... 141 
Moderation of Alexand. 215, 220 
Moderation of Pompeius . 316 
Myndus a toune in Asia . 146 
Mynde of man, wherein it 
is shewed . . . 164 

"Vr Ame and fame honest, 
■'■ ' how to be purchased 5 
Nature hath prouided for 
vs al necessarie houshold 
stuffe . . . .101 
Newe commedie what it is . 25 
Neptunus, lupiter and Pluto 

were brethren. . . 65 
Nemea a region in Arcadia 127 
Nicolas Leonicenus . . 4 
Nicenesse and tenarenesse 

hurteth men ... 8 
Nisa a toune in India. . 228 
Nicocles the trustie ser- 

uaunte of Phocion . . 335 
Nothing more sapiente then 

man, &c. . . .79 

Noblenesse of birth, Dio- 
genes called a cloke . 172 
Nomenclatores . . . 269 
Nummus how it is taken . 277 

/^Bseruacion of sepulchres 264 
^-^ Octauius Augustus 



Caesar .... 253 
Oedipus . . . .103 
Office of a scholemaister . 22 
Office of kynges, is to heare 

euery man . . . 201 
Office of a biddell . . 269 
Olympia, games of renning 

& wrastleing . . 7, 127 
Olde supersticion . .113 
Olympias, what she might 

doe with Alexander . 230 
Omnis iacta sit alia . . 297 
Oracion made by Lysias 

for Socrates . . .28 
Oratours, Diogenes called 

theim thrise double men . 121 
Oracle what it is. . 211, 378 
Oulet taken by a souldier . 277 
Ouinius the seruaunt of 

Vatinius .... 356 
Oulet dedicate to Pallas . 375 


pAcience of Socrates 11, 12 
■*^ 20, 24, 26, 27, 37 

Pacience of Aristippus 48, 52 
Parentes folie in chasten- 

inge their children . . 98 
Pacience of Diogenes . .111 
Parmenio, the onely capi- 

tain of Philippus warres . 181 
Parmenio excused Philip- 
pus for sleping in the 
dale time. . . -199 
Parrhesiastes . . . 202 
Paedagogus, what he is . 205 
Parillus one of Alexander 

his frendes . . . 207 
Parrasites, what they wer . 224 
Patrocius the frende of 

Achilles . . . .228 
Paris, what he was . 47, 232 
Pacinnius Taurus . . 262 
Pacience of Phocion . . 333 
Persones that ought to be 

receiued into frendship . 7 
Persones that liue in all 

ease & pleasure . .14 
Persons that liue to be 

gluttons . . . .21 
Peines of teaching, is wor- 

thie great wages . . 56 
Penelope the doughter of 

Icarius . . . -70 
Persones desperate, what 

they should doe . . 80 
Persones feble and maymed 

who they be ; . . 94 
Penaltee of a blowe in the 

olde tyme . . . 112 
Perdicca, graund maister 

vnder Alexander . .116 
Peloponnesians . . .197 
Perdicca one of Alexander 

his capitaines . . , 227 
Pericles a noble manne of 

Athenes .... 302 
Persons condemned to 

death . . .23, 334 
Philosophic altereth nature 36 
Phthia . . . .43 
Philosophic, what fruite it 

bringeth . . .48, 157 
Philosophiers would lyue 

well without lawes . . 49 
Philosophiers haunte ryche 

mennes houses' . 49, 52 
Philosophiers are phisicians 

of the mynde . . .53 
Philosophic is aboue Rhe- 

torike . . . .55 
Philosophiers are more ex- 
cellent then Oratours . 57 
Philosophiers knowe when 

to speake, and when not . 58 
Phryne an herlotte . 66, 152 
Phylosophiers are neuer in 

extreme penurie . . 73 
Phylosophie, what commo- 

ditees it bryngeth _ . 93, 163 
Philosophiers howe they 

paye for their meales . 96 
Philosophic healeth al dis- 
eases of the mynde . .100 
Philosophic knowen, what 

it proffiteth . . 11, 70 
Philosophiers haue the 

ouerhande of men . .114 
Philippus king of Maced. . 1 14 
181, 371 
Philippus chalenged Dio- 
genes for a spie . .114 



Phalagium a venemous spi- 
der 1 16 

Philosophiers beggenot,but 

requyre their owne . . 120 
Philosophiers are best that 
nede fewest thinges . 142 

Philosophiers are eaters of 
all maner of meates . 143 

Philosophiers what are their 
offices .... 174 

Philippus his prayer when 
he had sondry good 
chaunces, &c . . .182 

Philippus condemned afeloe 
that rayled on him . .183 

Philippus his clemencie & 
moderation . . .184 

Philippus oughed most 
thankes to soche as railed 
at him .... 184 

Philippus called Athens the 
staige of his glorie . .187 

Philippus his iudgement 
vpon two flagicious feloes 
that accused either other 187 

Philippus suffred no man 
that gaue him anything, 
to passe vnrecompenced . 191 

Philippus deposed a iudge 
for diyng his heade . 195 

Philippus guildren . . 222 

Philippus wounded in fight- 
ing against the Tryballes 231 

Pharnaces king of Pontus . 300 

Phraates king of the Par- 
thians . . . .317 

Phocion a counsailour of 
Athenes .... 323 

Phocion was neuer seen 
laugh ne wepe. . . 324 

Phocion vsed few wordes . 324 

Phocion liked nothing that 
the grosse people either 
dyd or saied . . . 324 

Phocion refused money that 
Alexander offred him . 327 

Phocion his counsaill to the 
Atheniens . . . 328 

Phocion condemned to 
death by the Atheniens 333 

Phocion died an innocent . 334 

Phocion what he saied to 

the hangeman. • . 336 
Phocion the axe of Demos- 
thenes his reasons . .371 
Pirates . . . .226 
Piso maried the doughter 

of Cicero . . . 345, 349 
Pleasure and payne foloen 

either other . -32 

Plato and Aristippus were 

in courte with Dionisius . 49 
Place maketh not the per- 

sone of lesse dignitee . 58 
Plato loued money better 

than Aristippus did good 

fare 65 

Plato refused to daunce in 

purple . . . .69 
Plaine speakirfg all menne 

cannot alowe . -73 

Plato a man of sobre diete. 81 
Plato checked of Diogenes. 81 
Plato loued clenlinesse . 82 
Plato his eloquence . . 83 
Plato his diffinicion of a 

man .... 109 
Possessions, none so good 

as a true frende . . 14 
Poyson that Socrates dranke 23 

Pouertee of the mynde is 

myserable . . .50 
Polyaenus the Sophiste . 63 
Poincfting with the fyngers. 98 
Pontus and Euxinus are all 

one. .... 127 
Pouertee, a vertue soone 

learned . . . -178 
Porus his answere to Alex- 

der 219 

Porus one of the kynges of 

ludia .... 220 
Pompeius had the beneuo- 

lence of menne . . 258 
Polleo Asinius . . . 289 
Pontifices, what they were . 295 
Pompeius wonne the first 

field against Caesar . 299 
Pompeius coulde not skyll 

saied Caesar, howe to vse 

a victorie. . . . 299 



Pontius Aquila made no 

reuerence to Caesar . 304 
Pomponius a launceknight . 307 
Pompeius refused honour 

till he had deserued it . 313 
Pompeius triumphed beyng 

but a young man . . 314 
Pompeius had more regatde 

to the commenweale then 

to his owne safegarde . 319 
Pompeius his vauntes of 

hymselfe .... 320 
Pompeius what he saied of 

Cicero . . . .321 
Pompeius brought to vtter 

despaire . . . .322 
Pompeius wyshed to had 

been borne a poore mans 

Sonne .... 322 
Pompeius and Julius Caesar 

at variaunce . . . 345 
PoUio wrote Chronicles in 

Greke .... 350 
Prayers, of what sorte they 

should be . . . i 
Pride may be in sackclothe. 24 
Pritanei, what it is . . 29 
Pride of Diogenes . . 82 
Princes learned, the highest 

treasure to a common- 

weale . . . .48 
Priue ambicion in Diog. 82, 1 1 1 
Prayers preposterous . . 116 
Prouerbes 87, 118, 123, 130, 

152, 174, 189, 208, 233, 286, 
298. 344. 360, 379 
Profite by a man's enemy . 185 
Princes may not take their 

ful rest in time of warre . 198 
Princes myndes should not 

bevttered in time of warre 237 
Prisoners taken in battaill, 

how they were vsed. . 250 
Princes doen perpetually 

care for their subiectes . 252 
Praesens, howe it may bee 

taken . . . .272 
Praetor .... 296 
Priue theues loue the derke 379 
Purchacing of landes ought 

to be moderate . ■ 42 

Purple, none weare but 

kynges in olde time. . 69 
Purple, death and princelye 

desteiny 146 

Publius Manlius the hoste 

of Cicero. . . . 352 
Publius Sextius mocked of 

Cicero .... 365 
Pythia . . . _ • 95 
Pyrrhus kyng of the Epiro- 

tes 247 

Pytheas what he was . 370, 379 

QUintus Luctacius Catu- 
lus . . . . 338 
Quintus Cicero, the brother 
of Marcus Cicero . . 349 

■pAillyng against menne 

■t^- withoout truthe touch- 
eth theim not . . .25 

Repastes, measurably to bee 
taken .... 9 

Reache not at those thinges 
that are aboue our com- 
pace . . . .11 

Rebuking euill, and yet to 
committe the same . . 38 

Reason is a lawe to a philo- 
sophier . . . ■49 

Relatiue opposita . _ . 148 

Reigne or Empier, sauing 
for the dignitee, is a 
mutual seruitude . . 252 

RepentaunQp foloeth of vn- 
honest pleasures . . 379 

Reuilyng one another, who- 
so ouercometh, getteth 
the worse . -. • 382 

Rhapsodies of Homerus, 
what they are . . -85 

Rhymirales kynge of the 
Thracians . . .253 

Rhetoricians for their exer- 
cise are wont to talke 
feigned argumentes . 362 

Riche menne are more fol- 
yshhe then others . . 53 




Right vse of money . . 57 

Riche persones voyde of 

learnyng, Diogenes called 

shepe with the golden 

flyces .... 122 

Riche menne haue -nede of 

many lessons . . .179 
Romaines had thre names 339 
Rome howe it was deuided. 347 
Rostra . . . 351, 362 
Rule for the wyfe is tlie 

husbande . . -43 
Rubycon a flouc}? . . 298 
Ryotand prodigalitee,caus- 

eth penurie . , .122 
Ryot is in youngm^n foly .318 

SAcrifice to God, ought 
not to be ouersuthp- 

tupus .... I 
Sacrificing meate & drinke 33 
Sapiente and learned Prin- 
ces 48 

Sapience diffined . . 52 
Sapience commeth not by 

fortune . . . -73 
Sapient, nothing more then 

manne . . . -79 
Sapient men haue althinges 102 
Samos an yslp in the sea . 149 

Satiri 159 

Sacrifices, whicjie are best . 325 
Science the oneiy good thyng 

of the worlde . . -IS 
Scholemasterj & their office 22 
Scolding of bratbelles . . ?6 
Scipio a noble capitaine in 

Rome .... 3po 
Scylla and Charibdis . 133, 357 
Seruaunts how to be bought ' 90 
Sextarius . . . • IQ 
Seneca . . , .19 
Secte of the Ciniques . . 24 
Secrete hydinge an euyll 

thing, &p. . . ! 97 
Serapis or Apis . . .159 
Sensualitee bringeth wretf 

chedpesse . . . 169 
Seuerus Cassius , . . 264 
Sertorius . . . , 316 

Sextus Julius Frontinus , 316 
Seruiliathe mother of Mar- 
cus 3S3 

Shame it is none to learne . 40 
Shepe with golden flyces 

were in Colchos . .122 
Sirenes, what they were . . 43 
Sinopa a citee in Pontus . 77 
Sillogisme, what it is. 102, 106 
Sinopa a baren region . 126 
Sicknesse putteth vs in re- 
membraunce npt to be 
proude .... 238 
Silenus the fosterfather of 

Bacchus . . . 250 

Slender fare is to muche for 

euill geastes , . . 2 
Slepe is an ymage of death 229 
Small variaunces growe to 

scabbes 74 

Sophistes what they are , IS 
Socrates refused to take 

giftes . , . .19 
Socratesmadestoneymages 21 
Spcrates had two wyues at 

once . . . . 26 
Socrates died in perfite se- 

curitee . . . .34 
Socrates, wherunto he was 

enclined . . . -35 
Socrates familier gooste . 36 
Socrates thought it euil 

doen to teache for money 36 
Soule of man, howe it pasi- 

seth awaye . . .39 
Soule of man what it is , 39 
Soule of man shall retourne 

agayne . . . .40 
Socrates had a vision at his 

death . . .43 

Sophocles his verses . . 73 
Soule and body what they 

differ . . . .100 
Sophistications are not to 

bee soyled . . . 106 
Sostratus an Alexandrine . 266 
Souldiours aunsweres to 

Augustus . . . 277 
Sol omnia -videt at reuelat . 344 
Spuesippus, . . .177 
Sphinx the mostre . 103, 343 



State of blisfulnesse . . 44 
Staige to serue, what it is . 87 
Stoones hurled at a gybette 118 
Stroumpettes . . . 158 
Sthemus Lorde of the Ma- 

mertines .... 312 
Strabo .... 317 
Supersticion of olde time . 1 13 
Supersticious feare that 

many folkes haue . .125 
Suppositii partus . .156 

Suyceners . . . . 307 
Sulpicius a Tribune . . 307 
Sweete sauoures more meete 

for women then for menne 30 
Sweete sauours defended by 

Aristippus . . .76 
Swoerde of leade, but of an 

iuereye sheath . .163 

Sweete sauoures, what they 

doe .... 166 

'T'Alkyng sheweth what a 
J- man is . . . 31 
Taxiles one of the kinges of 

India .... 2l6 
Tarraconia a countree in 

Spayne .... 283 
Terepce . . . .38 
Tegea a citee of Arcadia . 155 
Thinges made rype by arte 

are bought to dere . -17 
Thankes that Diogenes 

gaue to Plato . . .82 
Thersites, whose discription 

ye may reade . . 202 

The Thebanes rebelled a- 

gainst Alexander . .215 
Thrasillus a Cinique . . 243 
Theocritus the Chian . . 251 
Tharsus the chiefe citee in 

Cilicia .... 255 
The Tarraconians flattered 

Augustus . . . 283 
Themistocles a man of great 

autoritee in Athenes . 345 
Title that Diogenes was 

solde by . . . .88 
Tiros an ysle where the best 

purple is made . . 269 

Timagines for hatred of 

Augustus burned the 

bookes that he had wryt- 

ten of his chronicle . . 288 

Tiberiussucceded Augustus 290 

Tigurines, a people of Ger- 

manie . . . •307 
Tiberius for Biberius . . 359 
To geue place to a ruler . 52 
ToUius for Tullius . . 359 
True libertee is of the minde 75 
Tria nummum millia, howe 

muche it is . . -99 
Tranquillitee of man . . 104 
Tragicall execrations mette 

with diogenes . . .102 
Treasure, where it is surest 

kepte .... 292 
Triballes, a people nighe to 

Hungarie . . , . 231 
Tragedie of Augustus called 

Aiax , . . .261 
Tribunes of Rome . . 304 
Triumphing, what it is . 314 
Turonius Flaccus his an- 
swer to Augustus . , 279 
TuUia the dough ter of Cicero 349 
Tullius his iestyng . .,331 
Tyme wel spent, is a good 
possession . . .16 

VArietee of learning ma- 
keth not a learned man 54 
Vaine sophistications are 

not to be Soyled . , . 106 
Valerius Maximus . .182 
Vatinius had the goute . 270 
Vatinius the enemie of Ci- 
cero 342, 349. 350. 354, 3SS 
Varius, hath a double sig- 

riificacion . . . 369 
Vertue and temperate dyete 

to be vsed ... 2 
Vertuous lyuing is profitable 3 
Verses of Hesiodus . 10, 17 
Verses of Homere 10, 137, 138 
158, 164, 168 
Vertue must be sought for 18, 95 
Vertue is learned of afewe 3^0, 95 



Vertue purchaceth loue . 35 
Vertue in young men is 

commendable . 
Vertue auoydeth naughtie 

Verses recited by Plato 
Verses recited by Aristippus 
Verses out of a tragedie of 

Vertues consist in the meane 
Verses recited by Diogenes 143 
146, 177 
Verses of Publius Minus . 156 
Verses of the poete Marcial 166 
Vertuous persones loue 

shame fastnesse 
Verses cited by Alexander 
Vectius brake vp his fa- 
thers graue 
Vedius PoUio, alias Atedius 

PoUio .... 
Verses cited by Augustus . 
Verses out of a tragedie of 

Verresagentlemanof Rome 359 
Verses cited by Cicero . 343 
Verses cited by Demos- 
Vinum Chium . 
Vitruuius . 
Vices of the mynde 

onely euill thinges . 
Vlysses the sonne of Laertes 357 
Vnfruiteful doynges is idle- 

nesse . . . .10 
Vnfruiteful being in 

straunge countees . . 20 
Vnwrathfull speaking 24, 25, 68 
Vniuersall calamites . . 40 
Vnlearnedmenne are called 

stones .... 
Vnmeasurable laude and 

praise is to be reproued . 
Vnseasonable housbandrie 
Vno digito caput scalpere . 
Voconius and his three 

foule doughters 
Vse assuageth greefes 













■\XrAyes to styl vnquiet 
* * persones . 

WastefuU lauessers of their 

WToodes . . • -151 
aye to wynne victorie . 301 
Weapon nedeth not, where 

lawe may serue . . 322 
Whether one bodie may bee 

in many places at once . 67 
William Warrham arche- 

bishop of Caunturburie . 4 
Wisdome, when it should 

bee vsed . . . .80 
Wyse men esteme thingea 

for the necessite of theim 99 
Wise princes make proflfit- 

able instrumentes as well 

of the good persones as 

of the euill . . . igo 
Womankinde is apte to 

learne all thinges . . 31 
Wordes spoken by Mene- 

demus to his sonne . . 72 
Wordes foolishly spoken 

bring men to trouble . 81 
Wordes declare the mynde go 
Women, how they should 

bee wonne . . . 140 
Wyues are to be borne with- 

all for their children sakes 26 
Wittie speaking of Aristip- 
pus . . . . 70, 72 
Wyne, whiche is best . . 141 
Wyues in the olde time laye 

apart from their hus- 

bandes .... 205 
Wittes excellent, marred by 

euill maisters . . 9, 225 
Wyne of Falernum . . 348 
Wyne of two hundred yeres 

olde . . . .349 

"V" Antippa, Socrates his 

■*^ wyfe. . . .21 
Xantippa threwe a pisse 

boUe on Socrates his head 25 
Xantippes cancardnesse . 37 
Xenophon became scholer 

to Socrates . . .30 
Xenophon his booke en- 
titled the banquet . . 31 
Xeniades , . . .88 
^eniades sonnes were 



taught of Diogenes . . 89 
Xenocrates refused to take 

money of Alexander . 219 
Xenophantus . . . 235 

VT'Mages are bought at 
*■ high prices . . 99 
Ymages, the true ymage of 

God . . . .131 
Yongmenneschiefestvertue 38 
Young folkes to vieue theim 

selues in a glasse . .21 
Younge age, moste apte to 

learne 71 

Young rufflers rebuked of 

Diogenes . . . 141 

ZEnon confuted by Di- 
ogenes . . .106 
Zele of Alexander towardes 
Homere .... 223 



Proverbs, Quaint Sayings, Out-of-the-way 

Words and Phrases, allusions 

to Customs, &c., &c. 

Perhaps some of the expressions in the explanations may 
be considered too vulgar ; but I cannot see how better 
to illustrate old vulgar (common) sayings than by parallel 
modern vulgar sayings. 

It will be better, in many cases, to refer to the page and 
read the whole passage where an unusual word or expres- 
sion occurs : this will frequently make the meaning pretty 
clear, and this is why several words and phrases are merely 
quoted with the page number, without any comment. 

For the most part, the meanings of the unusual words 
and phrases are attempted to be illustrated only by parallel 
passages from other writers, in accordance with the advice 
of Quintilian : 

" It is not inugh for hym to haue red poetes, but all kyndes of 
wryting must also be sought for, not for the histories only, but also 
for the propretie of -wordes, which comunely doo receiue their auctor- 
itie of noble auctours." — Sir T. Elyofs Govemour (1537),/. 57. 

It was thought this would be better than giving a for- 
midable array of references to Cotgreve's, Bosworth's, 
Nare's, and other Dictionaries, the common practice of most 
makers of Glossaries. 


Redubbe v., xviii., 21 

To repair, mend, redress, to re-do-up s and is a form of the 
old English word " Dub," to do-up, which, again, is very 
likely from the French " Addouber, to dress, patch, mend, 
to set fitly together." 

" He was therwith asswaged of his fury, and reduced in to 
his fyrst astate of reason i in suche wise, that in redoubing his 
rage, and that there by shuld not remaine to him any note of 
reproche, he reteining his fiers & stourdy countenaunce, so 


tempered him selfe, .... that they reputynge al that his 
fiers demeanour to be (as it were) a diuine maiestie, neuer 
embraided him with any inordinate wrath or fury." — Elyot's 
Go-vernour (1537),/". 21. 

Medleing ... ... ... ... ... ... ... v 

Mixing or mingling. 

Peignted sheath ... ... ... ... v., 24, 163, 243 

Pride, ostentation; an intimation that Whatever pride he 
might have about liis body, after all it was only the case of his 
soul, and of no more account than the sheath is to the sword. 
The expression is often used in this book. 

Capte vi., 357 

With a weate finger ... ... ... ... . . . vii 

This is the earliest instance known to me of this saying, which 
was so common with our ancestors. It means anything 
that can be done without trouble, or readily. There can be 
no doubt whatever that in the beginning it just literally 
described a common practice. Let it be remembered that 
until the time of Erasmus, almost the only books students 
could get were in Latin and Greek. Our own school-boy ex- 
periences remind us that the Mediaeval scholar would often be 
at a loss for the meaning of a word : then the Dictionary 
( Vocabularium) would be in request. " Look it out " would say 
our master, "Wet your finger and look for it" probably 
said their " creanser," which phrase having to repeat as many 
times in an hour as Coleridge's Jew had to say " Old clo," 
soon naturally got shortened into "Wet your finger." I 
have read somewhere that it is supposed to be an allusion to 
" sweillebollors " (as N. Udall would say) who would write 
names by dipping their fingers in the puddles of drink spilt on 
the top of the table. This seems far-fetched and unlikely. 
That dirty sots did dabble about with their fingers in the 
"slops" at their carouses is certain. That the practice of 
wetting the finger to turn over the leaves of books was very 
common in the isth and i6th centuries, collectors know too 
well, to their sorrow. Some years ago, I bought a copy of 
Peter Schoffer's Bible, 1472, so filthy from this practice, that 
I took it to pieces, and laid the leaves singly on a deal board ; 
and having first lightly scraped off the thickest dirt with a 
shoemaker s knife, -washed both sides of the paper with a 
soft sponge dipped in warm soap and water, then used Ben- 
zolene and other things for removing the stains left by 
greasy fingers, re-sized it, had it appropriately bound 
after an antique pattern, and made a very choice copy out of 
what some people would have thought an almost worthless one. 
It may seem odd to those not acquainted with the splendid 


quality of the paper used by the inventors of Printing to talk 
of washing a book with soap and water, but I can assure them 
it is a literal fact, and that it was not a mild damping, " a lick 
and a promise," (Line. Prcm.) but a regular scouring and 
"lathering," as one would scour cloth. If any choose to 
follow this example, let them try it only on " Fifteeners," for 
the art of making such paper appears to be totally lost in 
these degenerate days : let them also be careful not to scour 
too long without washing the soap off occassionally with pure 
water, for fear of removing some of the printing ink, for 
there appeared to be more danger of that than anything else. 

Earnest fenie ... ... ... ... ... ... ix 

Money paid to confirm a bargain, to show the parties are in 
earnest. In some parts of the country it is usual upon the 
hiring of servants at " May-day time " for the ensuing year, 
to give them a small sum, — ^half-a-crown or five shillings, as 
"earnest money," — in Lincolnshire it is called "fasten-penny," 
and if, any time between hiring and entering upon service, 
the servants should repent, or change their minds, they send 
their "fasteri-penny " back, and the bargain is at an end. 

Cloggued nor letted ... ... ... ... ... ix 

Burdened nor hindered. Let is used here, according to its 
old meaning, which, it need hardly be said, was quite contrary 
to its modern one. 

Ragmann's rolles x 

A jest or a satire. See N. Udall's note on the term, in his 
remarks on Apop. 33 of Augustus Caesar, p. 273 of this work. 

" With that I stode vp, halfe sodenly afrayd ; 

Suppleyng to Fame, I besought her grace. 
And that it wolde please her, full tenderly I prayd, 

Owt of her bokis Apollo to faSe. 

Nay, sir, she sayd, what so in this place 
Of our noble courte is ones spoken owte. 
It must needes after rin all the worlde aboute. 

God wote, theis wordes made me full sad; 

And when that I sawe it wolde no better be, 

I did what I cowde to scrape out the scrollis, 
Apollo to rase out of her ragman rollis." 

Dyc^s Skelton (Garlande of Laurell), Vol. /., ^, 420. 

The following passage from Piers Ploughman would seem to 
show that " Ragman " or "Rageman" is the devil. 
" In limbo infemi Filius by the fader wille 

There is derknesse and drede And frenesse of Spiritus sancti. 
And the devel maister. To go robbe that rageman. 

And Piers, for pure tene. And reve the fruyt fro hym." 
Of that a pil he raugtite ; Piers Ploughman, ( Wright 

He hitte after hym, 1856; Vol. ii., p. ^35. 

Hitte how it myghte. 


Missed the cushen xiii, 348 

Quite beside the mark. Probably an allusion to some part of 
the performance in the ojd Cushion-dance. 

"And when he weneth to syt. 
Yet may he mysse the quysshon." 

Dyc^s Skelton, Vol. I, p. 349. 

Or it may be an old term in Archery, meaning the target, 
which was generally stuffed with straw, or rather — made of 
twisted ropes of straw, and covered with a painted cloth. 

" He snacht at the bag. No haste but good, (quoth shee). 
Short shooting leeseth your game, ye may see. 
Ye mist the cushin, for all your haste to it. 
And I may set you beside the cushin yit." 

Heyivood's Prozierbs, Pt. II., cap. 9. 

Gaily well broken and exercised ... xiv., 3, 27, 89, 90, 194 

We " brake in " horses, and it is rather singular to see this 
term used concerning the education and training of youth, 
but that severity was the order of the day, is notorious. 
Roger Ascham's very pleasant and sensible book. The School- 
master, opens with a graphic account of a dinner "at 
Windsore," " when the great plague was at London, the 
yeare 1563." After telfing us that " M. Secretarie [Cecil] 
hath this accustomed maner, though his head be neuer so full 
of most weightie affaires of the Realme, yfet, at diner time he 
doth seeme to lay them alwaies aside : and findeth euer fitte 
occasion to taulke pleasantlie of other matters, but most 
gladlie of some matter of learning : wherein he will curteslie 
heare the minde of the meanest at his Table," he goes on to 
relate a conversation about " divers Scholers of Eaton " that 
" be runne awaie from the Schole, for feare of beating "; 
in which he strongly speaks against the practice. He recurs 
to the subject more than once, as in the following extract ; — 
" For commonlie, many scholemasters, some as I haue seen, 
moe, as I haue heard tell, be of so crooked a nature, as, when 
they meete with a hard witted scholer, they rather breake him, 
than bowe (bend) him, rather marre him, then mend him. . . . 
These ye will say, be fond scholemasters, and fewe they be, 
that be found to be soch. They be fond in deede, but surelie 
ouermany soch be found euerie where." — Ascham's Schole- 
master (Arber's Rp.),p. 32. 

The translator of this book (N. Udall) was a very severe 
schoolmaster, as Tusser testifies in the often-quoted verse — 

" From Paul's I went, to Eton sent. 
To learn straightwa)rs, the I^atin phrase. 
Where fifty-three stripes, given to me. 
At once I had. 


For fault but small, or none at all. 
It came to pass, that beat I was : 
See Udall, see, the mercy of thee. 
To me, poor lad." 

Tusser's Husbandry, C1812 ed.) f 156. 

Communication xiv., xxl., 91, 163, 301 

Conversation or discourse. To have communion is to impart 
our thoughts and opinions, and not merely to meet or as- 
semble together. 

Maugre their heddes xiv., 207 

In spite of, notwithstanding. 
Vneth xiv., 64, 269 

Hardly, scarcely, not easily. 
Recule xviii., 306 

Recoil, retreat. 

Put inure ... xix., 70, 125, 200 

Put in use. 

" What thing a man in tender age has most in ure 
That same to death alwayes to kepe he shal be sure 
Therefore in age who greatly longes good frute to mowe 
In youth he must him selfe aplye good seede to sowe." 

Ascham's Toxophilus, Arber's Reprint, p 5y. 

Cast in the teeth xx., 268 

" Threw in his face." 

Bourdyng xxiv., 272, 359 

Jesting, scoiBng. 
Olde Wiu£s foolishe tales of Robin Hoode ... ... xxv 

An allusion to the popularity of Robin Hood with the common 

" The Holy Bible grounde of truth and of lawe. 
Is now of many abiect and nought set by. 
Nor godly scripture is not ivorth an havje; 
But tales are loued ground of ribaudry. 
And many are so blinded with their foly. 
That no scripture thinke they so true nor good. 
As is a foolishe iest of Robin hood." 

Barclay's Ship of Fools (1570), y; 23. 

Hicke scorner ... ... ... ... ... ... xxvi 

Hickscorner is the title of one of the oldest dramas in our lan- 
guage ; it was printed by Wynkyn de Worde, who was one 
of the journeymen of Caxton, the first printer in England. 
Hickscorner is the name of the principal character in the play; 
he is a libertine who has travelled, and is a great scoffer at 


religion and proprieties in general. He is again alluded to at 
page IS. 
Gentiles and Miscreauntes ... ... ... xxviii 

Merely misbelievers, or persons not having a knowledge of 
Christian truth are here intended, although the modern mean- 
ing is more offensive. 

Regimen, rule, government. 

" He that goeth about to perswade a multitude, that they 
are not so well-governed as they ought to be, shall never want 
attentive and favorable Hearers ; because they know the man- 
ifold defects whereunto every kinde of Regiment is subject; 
but the secret lets and difficulties, which in public proceed- 
ings, are innumerable and inevitable^ they have not ordinarily 
the judgment to consider." — Hooker's Ecc. Polity, first sen- 
tence of the book. 

Bobbers 6 

Deceivers or cheaters. 

" Who careth, nor spareth, till spent he hath all. 
Of bobbing, not robbing, be fearful he shall." 

' Tzisser, (i%T.2 Reprint) p. ■x.wva. 

Arsee versee ... ... ... ... ... 6,99, 376 

The " tail " at top (reversed), clean contrary, quite the opposite. 

" To tumble ouer and ouer, to toppe ouer tayle." 

Ascham's Toxophiliis, Arber's Reprint, p. 47. 

Minionlie ... ... ... ... ... ... 7 

Delicately, prettily. The word is often used in this book. 

Coiling ... ... ... 7 

Tumult, trouble,' disturbance, rowing, scolding, (frequently 
used by Shakespeare.) Here it appears to mean beating. 

" Nay, as for charming me, come hither if thou dare, 
I shall cloute thee tyll thou stinke, both thee and thy traine. 
And cqyle thee mine own handes, and send thee home againe." 
N. Udall's Roister Doister, Act Hi., sc. 3. 

A blewepoinct ... ... ... ... ... 8 

A string or band. Sometimes means what are now called 
braces or "suspenders." A very common term at the begin- 
ning of the sixteenth century for denoting anything of small 
value. To illustrate this proverb, we give an amusing extract 
from (Merry) Andrew Boorde, that much maligned, genial, 
sound-hearted and sensible Englishman : 

" Myrth commeth many wayes, the princypal myrth is when 
a man doth lyue out of deadly syn, and not in grudg of con- 
science in this worlde, and that euerye man doth reioyce in 


God, and in charitie to his neyghbour, there be many other 
mjTthes and consolacions, some beynge good and laudable, 
and some vycuperable, laudable myrth is one man or one 
neyghboure to be mery with an other, with honesty and ver- 
tue, with out sweryng and sclaunderyng, and rybaldry speak- 
ing. Myrth is in musycall instrumentes, and gostly and godly 
syngyng. myrth is when a man lyueth out of det, and may 
haue meate and drinke and cloth, although he haue neuer a 
peny in his purse, but nowe a dayes he is merye that hath 
golde and syluer, and ryches with lechery, and all is not -worth 
a bleiue poynte." — Boorde's Breuiary of Healthe, 1552,/! 58. 

Trumpery excuses fornot reading ... ... ... 8 

It appears that Erasmus was as much aggravated then with 
the grossness, sensuality, and want of interest in refining 
occupations, as Professor Ruskin is now. When a man in 
comfortable circumstances says he has no time for reading, 
and we see he has plenty of time for eating, drinking, and 
smoking, it it very evident that the animal "bears the stroke" 
in his composition. Lord Bacon most pertinently observes 
" That learning should take up too much time or leisure : I 
answer, the most active or busy man that hath been or can be, 
hath, no question, many vacant times of leisure, while he ex- 
pecteth the tides and returns of business (except he be either 
tedious and of no dispatch, or lightly and unworthily ambitious 
to meddle in things that may be better done by others : ) and 
then the question is, but how these spaces and times of leisure 
shall be filled and spent ; whether in pleasures or in studies ; 
as was well answered by Demosthenes to his adversary 
/Eschines, that was a man given to pleasure, and told him. 
That his orations did smell of the lamp : Indeed, (said Demos- 
thenes) there is a great difference betvjeen the things that you 
and I do by lamplight. So as no man need doubt that Learn- 
ing will expulse business, but rather it will keep and defend 
the possession of the mind against idleness and pleasure, 
which otherwise at unawares may enter to the prejudice of 
both." — Lord Bacon's Ad-vt. of Learning, Bk. I„ p. 20. {Bell 
and Daldy's Rp.) 

Doggue wearie ... ■■• ■■• ■•• •■• ••• 8 
" Dog-tired " and as " tired as a dog," are common enough 

Leere ^ 

Empty or unburdened. 

Fardelle 9 

A pack or bundle. " I caste into the shippe jn the steade of 
marchandyse, a pretye fardell of bookes : bycause \ intended 
to come agayne rayther neuer than shortelye." — Raphe Rob- 
inson's trans, More's Utopia, 1551, sig, N., i. 


" And after those days we trussed vp our fardells and went 
vp to Jerusalem." " Breeches " Bible, 1582. Acts xxi, 15. 

Onelesse ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 10 

" Whit is dboue our reach, we kaue naught to doe with- 

alir II 

See the sentiment well illustrated in Gower : 

" Full ofte he heweth up so hye 
That chyppes fallen in his eye." — Goiver (1532)/. 18. 

Buffnebaffe ... ... ... ... ... ... 12 

Or as the modern vulgar proverb has it, " he could neither 
speak nor grunt." 

Occupie 13.30,63,99,156,210,361 

Use ; it also meant possess, practise, enjoy, &c. It had also 
an oifensive meaning, and was used in an equivocal sense, as 
at p. 361. At one time it appears to have been a cant word, 
much in use with the fast men of the period. Many of the 
early dramatists and writers allude to it. Ben Jonson has 
more than one "cut at it." Shakespeare says "These 
villains will make the word captain as odious as the word 

" To do shame they haue no shame. 
But they wold no man shulde them blame : 
They haue an euyl name. 
But yet they vryll occupy the same." 

Dyce's Skelton (Colyn Cloute) Vol I., p. 355. 
" But amonges the lewes as I began to tell, I am sure there 
was nothing so occupyed, or dydde so moche good as bowes 
dyd." — Ascham's Toxophilus, Arber's Reprint, p. 71. 

Gubbe ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 14 

Lot of money. 
Slougging 16, 199 

To make slug^sh or slow, to idle, or loiter. 

" These are but remone, and hindrances to stay and slug 
the ship from further sailing." — Lord Bacon's Ad-vt of Learn- 
ing, Bk. II., p. 148. 

He knewe nothyng sauing only this that he knewe nothyng 1 6 
— — " The wisest of all mortall men 
Said, • He knew nought, but that he nought did knoiv' ; 
And the great mocking-Master mockt not then' 
When he said, ' Truth -was buried deepe beUnv.' " 

Da-vies' Poeins, Grosarfs Reprint, Vol. i. p. 19. 


Leisure the most valtiable thing in the world 16 

" Wei can Senek and many philosopher 
Bywaylen time, more than gold in cofre. 
For losse of catel may recovered be. 
But losse of tyme schendeth us, quod he. 
It wil nat come agayn, withoute drede, 
Nomore than wol Malkyns maydenhede. 
Whan sche had lost it in hir wantownesse." 

Chaucer — Man of Lanves Tale. 

See what Lord Bacon says on the advantages of leisure and 
the " contemplative man " in his Ad-ut. of Learning, Bk. 1. 

He was iudged a perfect wise man because that 

albeit he had ignoraunce of all thinges, like as other 
men had: yet in this behalf he was aboue them, that 
he knowledged his ignoraunce, whereas the residue 
wer vnknowyng of this thing also, that thei perfectly 
knew nothing ... ... ... ... ... 17 

This calls to mind the j^est of the two Scotch innocents. One 
accused the other of bemg a fool. " I know it," replied he, 
" but thou art a fool and don't know it." By no means an 
unusual case. 

To haue well begonne, is a thing halfe doen ... ... 17 

" I haue herde say. 
That who that well his warke beginneth 
The rather a good ende he winneth." 

Goiver, 1532, sig. aa. iij. 

We yet haue this proverb. For further illustration of it, see 
N. Udall's remarks on the 94 Apoph. of Socrates (p. 41). 

Whether a man marry or not, he' will repent ... 18 

Women have employed the pens of men, especially of Poets 
and Writers of Fiction, more than any other subject since the 
world began. If we begin with Solomon's Proverbs and the 
downright and unflinching statement in Ecclesiasticus, that 
" All wickedness is but little to the wickedness of a woman " 
(cap. XXV. 19)., and take the classic writers of Greece and 
Rome, the mediaeval, as well as modern authors, the com- 
monest theme is still woman. At some future time, I may 
publish a volume containing the most elegant compliments 
and the bitterest epigrams which have been written on the 
fair sex, — not compilations from Byron and Tennyson, but fur- 
ther a-field. For the present, let the following suffice. First 
the " Moral Gower," who is complimentary enough : 

" Amonge the men is no solas 
If that there be no woman there 
For but if that the woman were 



This worldes ioye were awey 
This is trouthe, that I you seye. 
To knyghthode and to worldes fame 
They make a man to drede shame 
And honour for to be desyred." 

Gcm/er (lSZ2)f. 152. 

The next specimen, from Lydgate, is rather deprecatory in its 
mild pleadings ■ 

" It is no reason to atwite women all, 
though one or two whilome dyd faile. 
It fitteth not, nor it may not auaile. 
Them to rebuke that perfite ben and good, 
Farre out of ioynt though some other stode. 

The rich Rube nor the Saphir ynde, 

be not appeired of their freshe beautie. 

Though among stones men couterfets finde 

and semblably though some women be 

Not wel gouerned after their deg^e, 

it not def aceth nor doth no violence. 

To them that neuer did in their life offence. 

The white lylly nor the holsome rose 

not violence * spredde on bankes thicke, [* violets] 

their swetenes which outward they vnclose 

Is not appeyred with no wedes wicke, 

and though y' breares & many croked sticke 

Grow in gardeines among the flowers faire 

They may the vertue of herbes not apeire." 

Lydgat^s Fall of Princes, i$SA>f- 37' 

He afterwards changes his tone somewhat, and, after hinting 
at Serpents and Lyonesses, winds up with a cry of alarm at 
his temerity at daring to meddle with so tickle a matter. 

" They may of mekenesse shewe a fayre pretence 
Some Serpent is of siluer shene. 
And some floures ful freshe of apparence. 
Grow on thistles, rough, sharpe, and kene. 
And some that ben angelike to sene, 
and very heauenly with their golden tresses 
Ben at a prefe very Leonesses. 

To say the soth, a pore man may be shent 
I dare no more speake of this matter." 

Lydgate' s Fall of Princes, f. 82. 

The following, which is supposed to be by Chaucer, is 
also sufficiently complimentary, but, to our fancy, he grinned 
mischieviously when he wrote 1^ : 


" Lo, how redy hir tonges bin and preste 
To speke harme of women causelesse ! 
Alas, why might ye not as well say the best, 
As for to deme hem thus guiltlesse .' 
In your herte, iwis, there is no gentilnesse. 
That of your own gilt list thus women fame ; 
Now, by my trouth, me think ye be to blame." 

" Alle tho that liste of women evil to speke 
And sayn of hem worse than they deserve, 
I preye to God that hir nekkes to breke. 
Or on some evil dethe mote the janglers sterve ; 
For every man were holden hem to serve. 
And do hem worship, honour and servise. 
In every maner that they best coude devise." 
Chaucer's Praise of Women. 

It is about as genuine as his interpretation of the Latin sen- 
tence at the end of this extract. 

" Madame Partilot, so haue I bliss. 
Of o thing God hath me sent large grace ; 
For when I see the beaute of your face.. 
Ye ben so scarlet hiew about your eyghen. 
It makith all my drede for to deyghen. 
For, al so sicker as In principio * 
Mulier est hominis conjfusio 
Madame, the sentence of this Latyn is 
Womman is mannes joye and manne's blis." 

However, if our book is ever published, it will certainly show 
that no man has written anything near so mariy tender and 
beautiful things on Women as Chaucer has, notwithstanding 
a few jokes. 

Jolly Andrew Boorde, makes a " bourd " of the matter, and 
truly it is most excellent fooling : 

" Now why a woman is named a woman, I wyll shewe my 
mynde. Homo is the latin worde, and in Englyshe it is as wel 
for a woman as for st man, for a woman the silables couerted 
is no more to say as a man in wo, and set wo before man, and 
then it is woman, and wel she may be named a woman, for as 
muche as she doth bere chyldren with wo and peyne, g.nd also 
she is subiect to man, except it be there where the \vhite mare 
is the better horse therfore Vt homxi non cantet cum cuculo, let 
euery man please his wyfe in all matters, and displease her not 
but let her haue her owne wyl, for that she wyll hatie who so 
euer say nay. 

f^'The cause of this matter. 
" This matter doth sprynge of an euyl education or bring- 

[*From the beginning the woman is the confusion of man.} 


ynge vp, aud of a sensuall and a peruerse mynde, not fearyng 
god nor worldely shame. 

t^^A remedy. 

" ^S^Physike can nat helpe this matter, but onely God and 
greate sycknes may subdue this matter, and no man els. 

Vt mulier nan coe at cum alio viro nisi cum propria. Isfc, 

' I^P' Beleue this matter if you wyll. 

"IfTake the gal of a Bore and the gal of a Wolfe, myxe them 
togyther, and put to it the oyle of Olyue ET VNG. virga. Or 
els take of the fatnes of a Gote that is but of a yere of age. ET 
VNG virga. Or els take the braynes of a ChofEe and myxe it 
with Hony. ET VNG. virga. But the best remedy that I do 
knowe for this matter, let euery man please his wyfe and beate 
her nat, but let her haue her owne wyll, as I haue sayde." — 
Boorde's Breuiary of Health (1552)/. 82. 

But this is mild, — almost complimentary in comparison with 
a "sentence" in "Michel's Ayenbite of Inixiyt (Again-bite, or 
Remorse of Conscience) edited by Mr. Morris, for the Early 
English Text Society. The spelling is modernised. 

" Fairhobd is but a white sack full of dung, — stinking, and 
as a muck-heap be-snewed." Which elegant comparison is 
evidently a " plagiarism " from S. Chrysostom, who says : 
" When thou seest a fair and beautiful person, a brave Bona- 
roba, a bella donna, qute sali-vam mo-ueat, lepidapi puellam et 
quam tu facile ames, a comely woman, having bright eyes, a 
merry countenance, a shining lustre in her look, a pleasant 
grace, wringing thy soul, and increasing thy concupiscence ; 
bethink with thyself that it is but earth thou lovest, a mere ex- 
crement, which so vexeth thee, that thou so admirest, and thy 
raging soul will be at rest. Take her skin from her face, and 
thou shalt see all loathsomeness under it, that beauty is a 
superficial skin and bones, nerves, sinews : suppose her sick, 
now reuiled, hoary-headed, old : within she is full of filthy 
phlegm, stinking, putrid, excremental stuff : snot and snivel 
in her nostrils, spittle in her mouth, water in her eyes, what 
filth in her brains," &c. 

On the whole, women would appear to have a great deal 
more reason to complain of the treatment they have received 
from Divines, of all shades of doctrine, than from any other 

Hooker (the judicious) accuses them of weakness, and of 
being easily led to believe nonsense (Ec. Pol. pref). Luther, 
among other uncomplimentary things, said they have " broad 
hips and seats, to the end they should remain at home, sit 
still, and keep house, carrie and bring up children " {Colla- 
quies, 1652, p. 72). R. Baxter speaks largely of their natural 
imbecility and childishness (1838 ed., Vpl. I. p. 399). Adam 


Clarke, in his Commentary, says, " in the best days they had 
to work hard," and quotes Homer, &c., to prove it (Vol I., p. 
311, &c). He also says that Woman is from the Anglo-Saxon 
Wombman, which means the man with the -womb (Comt., 
Vol. I., p. 49). Poole, another commentator, says, "The foot 
is not made for the shoe, but the shoe for the foot ; so man is 
not made for the woman, but the woman for the man." 

Cuckolde i8 

Poets and wits never tire of " running their rigs " on this un- 
fortunate class. The temptation to give here an extract from 
Skelton cannot be resisted, not only because it illustrates the 
word in delightful airy playful verse, but also because it quotes 
so many good old proverbs. 

" When the rayne rayneth and the gose wynkith, 

Lytill wotith the goslyng what the gose thynkith; 

He is not wyse ageyne the streme that stryuith ; 

Dun is in the myre, dame, reche me my spur ; 
Nedes must he rin that the deuyll dryuith ; 

When the stede is stolyn, spar the stable dur; 

A ientyll hownde shulde neuer play the kur; 
It is sone aspyed where the thorne prikkith; 
And wele wotith the cat whos berde she likkith ; 

With Mairione, clarione, sol, lucerne, 

Graundjuir, of this Frenshe prouerbe olde. 
How men were wonte for to discerne 

By candlemas day what wedder shulde holde ; 

But Marione clarion was caught with a colde colde, 

CAnglice a cokwolde. 
And all ouercast with cloudis vnkinde. 
This goodly flowre : with stormis was vntwynde. 

This ieloffer ientyll, this rose, this lylly flowre. 

This primerose pereles, this propre vyolet. 
This columbyne clere and fresshest of coloure. 

This delycate dasy, this strawbery pretely set. 

With frowarde frostis, alas, was all to-fret ! 
But who may haue a more vngracyous \yis 
Than a chyldis birde and a knauis wyfe ? 

Thynke what ye wyll 
Of this wanton byll ; 
By Mary Gipcy, 
Quod scripsi, scripsi ; 
Uxor tua, sicut -viiis. 
Habetis in eustodiam, 
Custodite sicut scitis. 
Secundum Lucem, &c" 
Dyc£s Skelton, Garlande of Laurell, Vol. I., p. 418. 


Cast in the teeth, andhaue daiely in your dish i8, 48, 258, 360 

Equivalent to the modern " thrown in your face," and " to 
have it every meal you go to." 

Very un^rallant remarks of Mister N. Udall's, considering 
what IS said of his fondness for " larking " with the servant 
girls at Eton. 

Your Mother-in-law^ s tattelyng toungue 18 

It appears the prejudice against these poor unprotected females 
is of very long standing. 

Xantippe the curstest qtceene that euer wetted <lowt ... 21 

Grosser versions of this saying have been current lii more 
modern days. Quean is a coarse or bold woman, not necessa- 
rily an uncbiatete one. 

Damning 23 

Here we see the word " damn " used correctly=coMdemn. 
Theologians are principally to blame for the meaning which 
is generally attached to it in modern times. It occurs in 
Chaucer more than once, where it can only mean condfeiBH or 
despise, as in Troilous and Creseide, after Trtjilus was slain 
by the Greeks 

" And when that he was slain in this manere. 
His light ghost full blissfully is went 
Up to the noUownesse of the seventh *ph6Ve ; 

And doun from thencfe, fast he gan auise 
This little spot of earth that with the See 
Enbraced is . 

And in himselfe he lough right at the wo 
Of hem that wepten for his death so fast. 
And damned all our weSrkes that foUdweth so 
The blind lust, which that may not last." 

TrcAhis and i^reseide, Bk. v.^ last stanza but 8. 

" If I see my brother siiine, I may betwehe hym and me re- 
buke him, and damne his AeeA&."-^Tyndale, (iS73)>f- I44' 

"2) ;ee biittes men of iialat|)ie' iii|)o Heteeuene ;ou for to not 
bileue to t^e tteu^t/ Bifote ta^oe t^m i|)u criQ in sanqmslie (ot 
efilitit)/t" — Epistle to the Galatians, cap. Hi, 6, Pickering's 
Rp. of Wycli/e's Test. (1858). 

" Agayne in some partes of the lande theis seruyng men (for 
so be thies damned persons called) ^o no common worke, but 
as euery priuate man nedeth laborours, so he cometh into 
the markette-place, and there hiereth some of them for meate 
and drynke, and a certeyne limityd wayges by the daye, 
sumvyrhaat cheper then he shoulde hire a free man." — Mare's 
Utopia, trans, by Raphe Robinson, 1551, sig. D. vi, verso. 


Windore ... ... ... ... ... ...26, 134 

' The old (and proper) form of " Window," that is, a door to 
keep out or let in the wind, ifioles only were once left in 
buildings to admit light, but men grew luxurious and put 
, in doors which might be shut when the wind was disagreeable. 
Gldzed windows are supposed to have been first introduced 
into this country late in the twelfth century. Piers Plowman, 
Chaucer, Gower, &c., have " Windowe " and " Windoe," but 
in Lincolnshire most of the middle, and all the lower classes, 
say "Windore," and they are right in this and in many 
other instances of what are called "vulgar " pronunciations.* 
" Glasewindores " are mentioned in the Paraph, of Erasmus, 
Pre/, to Luke. 

It seems that the word as a term for an opening for venti- 
lation was not confined to houses : — 

"As for example, how many ivindonves they must make to 
theyr shooes ? what color and number of knottes goeth to theyr 
gyTde\\es."—Prayse of Follie, 1577, K. Hi, -verso. 

Tenne commaundementes... ... ... ... ... 27 

Ten fingers, or two fists, a slang term yet in use in the prize- 
ring — if indeed there be yet a prize-ring. 

Full but. 29 

A colloquialism yet in use : right upon, suddenly met, &c. 
Pomanders ... ... ... ... ... ... 31 

See Note to p. 116. 
Trendies or roundelles ... ... ... ... ... 32 

Small hoops or balls. Compare the following : 
" And made many a faire tournyng 
Upon the grene gras springyng. 
There myghtest thou see these flowtours, 
Mynstrales, and eke jogelours. 
That well to synge dide her peyne. 

There was many a tymbester, [f'"?" °° "■= "»''"'] 

And saillouris, that I dar wel swere [dancers] 

■ Couthe her craft ful parfitly. 
The tymbres up ful sotilly 
They caste, and hente full ofte 
Upon a fynger faire and softe. 

Romaunt of the Rose. 

Trick-voided 32 

Decked, ornamented. " Tricked-out " is yet common enough. 

Tke reply of Socrates when asked how he would be buried 39 
" He that hath no graue ys couered wyth the skie, and the 
way to heauen owte of all places is of like length and dis- 
tance." — Raphe Robynson's trans. More's Utopia, 1551, B. iiij. 
* See also Note on " Solares " at p. 454. 


If all the calamities of men were put in a heap, each one 

would choose his own again ... ... ... 40 

Compare Addison's celebrated Vision of the Mountain of 
Miseries, Spectator, Nos, 558-9. 

Most haste worst Speed ... 41 

The old Proverb with several variations. 

A penny saved is a penny got ... ... ... ... 44 

See the remarks of Erasmus upon the loi Apophthegme of 
Socrates, where he gives this old proverb in various forms. 

Win the spurres, and beare the bell ... ... ... 45 

"An horse because he draweth nerest to man's sense, and 
is conuersant amonges men, is therefore partaker also' of suche 
myseries as men are subiecte to. As who not seeldome, 
whyles hee is ashamed to be ouer runne for the belle dooth 
tyre hym selfe." — Prayse of Follie, 1577, £. ■viii. 

No m.annes dogbolte ... ... ... ... ... 48 

A low class of serving men, who were as dependent as dogs, 
and as ready to be sent any errand as "bolts," 
" Where bankrupt Factors to maintaine a state 
Forlorne (heauen knows) and wholly desperate, 
Turne valiant Boults, Pimps, Haxters, roring boyes." 

Brathivaite' s Strappado for the De-uil, Rp., p. 151. 
" Farewell vnciuill Stinkards, skum oth' City, 
The Suberbs panders, boults to garden alleys." — lb. p. 162. 
Doubtless an allusion to bolts for crossbows, which were of 
different sorts and sizes, from small ones with square flat heads 
for shooting birds, up to large sharp-pointed ones for stags, &c. 
In the old days of the rigid and arbitrary forest-laws, only the 
great and wealthy (with a few exceptions) were allowed to keep 
dogs ; and any found straying on the grounds of rich landed 
proprietors were destroyed without mercy. Most likely a 
coarse, rough bolt would be used for this purpose (anything 
good enough to kill a dog with) which, as a murderous and 
barbarous instrument of oppression, would be held in peculiar 
detestation by the tillers of the soil, whose dogs were so de- 
stroyed. Hence to liken a man to a " dogbolt " would be the 
reverse of complimentary. 

" To bolt "^run off quickly, is yet common. 

He is a Man that hath no money, but he is no man, that 
hath no knowledge nor learnyng ... ... ... 52 

More would agree with Barclay than with Aristippus : — 
" But if he haue a great wombe and his cofers ful 
Than is none holde wyser bytwene London and Hul." 

Barclay's Ship of Fools, p. 12, Rp. 

He had turned vp his heeles and perished 54 

The modern vulgar proverb is " He has turned up his toes to 
the daises " = he is dead. 



" Against Maie . . . euery Parishe, Towne, and Village, as- 
semble themselues together, bothe men, women, and children, 
olde and yong, euen all indifferently : and either goying all 
together, or deuidyng themselues into companies, they goe 
some to the Woodes and Groues, some to the Hilles and Moun- 
taines, some to one place, some to an other, where they spende 
all the night in pleasant pastymes, and in the mornyng thei re- 
turne, bryngyng with them Birch, Bowes, and braunches of 
Trees, to deck their assemblies withall. ... I haue heard it 
credibly reported (and that "oiua -voce) by menne of great grau- 
itie, credite and reputation, that of f ourtie, three score, or a hun- 
dred maides goyng to the Woode ouer night, there haue scarcely 
the thirde parte o? them retourned home againe undefiled." — 
Stubbs' Anatomie of Abuses, 1583,/". 94. 

" Come, my Corinna, come ; and comming marke. 
How each field turns a street ; each street a Parke. 
4fi * ^ ^ ^ ^ 

There's not a budding Boy, or Girle, this day. 
But is got up, and gone to bring in May. 

A deale of Youth, ere this, is come 

Back, and with White-thorn laden home. 

Some have dispatcht their Cakes and Creame, 

Before that we have left to dreame : 
And some have wept and woo'd, and plighted Troth, 
And chose their Priest, ere we can cast off sloth ; 

Many a greene-gown has been given ; 

Many a kisse, bothe odde and even : 

Many a glance too has been sent 

From out the eye. Love's Firmament : 
Many a jest told of the Keyes betraying 
This night, and Locks pickt, yet w'are not a Maying." 

Herrick's Hesperides {16/^) p. 75. 

" God forbydde that Christian women shoulde come forth 
among the holy congregacion in such maner of apparail, as 
the commen sorte of vnfaythfuU women are wonte to goe forth 
vnto iveddynges* and may games, trymmyng them selues fyrst 
with a greate a doo by a glasse, with fynely rolled heare or 
enbrodryng of golde : eyther with precyouse stones hangyng 
at their eares or neckes, or otherwise in sylkes or pui-ple, as 
well to set out theyr beautie vnto suche as loke vpo them to 
play the naughtye packes,\ as also in shewyng their Jewelles 
and substaunce, to vpbrayde suche as be poorer than they of 
theyr pouertie." — Paraph, of Erasmus, 1549, Tim. f. 8. 

The Maie Games alluded to in the text, are the dancings 
and merry-makings round the May-pole, after the return from 
the gathering of the May, which Stubbes describes so savagely, 

* See Note on p. 433. t See Note on p. 439. 


and Herrick so tenderly and gracefully. The truth, probably, 
was between the two, — or they were both true. 

I remember getting up before sunrise, forty years ago, on 
the First of May and eight succeeding mornings, and wash- 
ing my face in dew to take away freckles, for which washing 
in May-dew nine mornings together was said to be a cure. 

A stone, thei commonly called (Euen as we also do) a 
feloe that had neither leamyng nor good vtter- 
ance of tongue ... ... ... $6 

" What vnkinde appetite were it, to desyre to be father rather 
of a pece of fleshe that can only meue and fele, than of a 
child, that should haue the perfecte fourme of a man ? what so 
perfectly expresseth a man as doctryne ? " 

" Diogenes the phylosopher, seynge one without lernynge 
sytte on a stone, sayde to them that were with him, Beholde 
where one stone sytteth on an other, which wordes well con- 
sydered and tried, shal appere, to conteyne in them wonder- 
full matter, for the approbation of doctrine."— fi/yo^'i Gover- 
nor [\<,zi), f. AT,- 

Men bestowed more money on the keep of their horses, 

than on the education of their young sons ... ... 56 

" And it is pitie, that commonlie, more care is had, and that 
emonges yerie wise men, to finde out rather a cunnynge man 
for their horse than a cunnyng man for their children. They 
say nay in worde, but they do so in dede. For, to the one, 
they will gladlie giue a stipend of 200. Crounes by yeare, and 
loth to offer to the other, 200. shillinges. God, that sitteth in 
heauen laugheth their choice to skorne." — Ascham's Schole- 
master, Arber's Reprint, p. 38. 

See the Babee's Book, capita:lly edited by Mr. Furnival, for 
the Early English Text Society, which throws a flood of light 
on the State of England in the 15th and i6th centuries. 

lacke of Bethleem ... ... ... 59 

The treatment of the poor lunatics in asylums waS very dread- 
ful in former times. The patients were exhibited for money, 
like wild beasts in a cage, and visitors were allowed to tease 
them, as cruel or thoughtless people now tease monkeys in 
a menagerie. Hogarth, in the seventh plate of the Rake's 
Progress, represents some fashionable ladies thus amusing 
themselves by examining some nearly naked' lunatics. Some 
of the only half crazy, oi: more harmless of the patients, were 
sent out to beg for the support of the hospital, with badges on 
their arms, and they were called " lack-of- Bedlams," or 
" Tom-of- Bedlams," and, of course, in the "good old times " 
were treated in the brutal manner, which seems an instinct 


in so many Englishmen, whose choicest sport is to shed the 
blood of some harmless and innocent creature, or to see ani- 
mals tear each other in pieces. 

Give a stopping oistre ... ... ... ... ... 6i 

In vulgar parlance " stopped his mouth," " shut him up." 
" I have a stoppynge oyster in my poke 
Truste me, and yf it come to a nede : 
But I am lothe for to reyse a smoke, 
Yf ye coude be otherwyse agrede." 

Dyce's Skelton, Vol. I., p. 48. 
" Herewithall his wife to make up my mouth. 
Not onely her husbands taunting tale avouth. 
But thereto deviseth to cast in my teeth 
Checks and choking oysters." 

Heyivood's Proverbs, cap. II. 
Muttonmungers ... ... ... ... ...62, 170 

The context sufficiently explains the word. 
Ingen or subtile deuise... ... ... ... ...64, 381 

Piece of ingenuity or contrivance. 

Cast him in the nose 65, 146, 164, 281, 372, &c. 

As we now say, " threw it in his face," or " taunted him " with it. 
Common as the cartwaie ... ... ... ...65, 154 

" For leasinges and periuries, false subtylties and gyles, and 
many other wickednesses ben as common as the cartiuay with 
such inordinate louers of ryches." — D'vves and Pauper, 1536,^! 
Ai •verso, 

Fett his gambaudes ... ... ... ... ...^T, 84 

Fetching gambols, the old way of saying gamboling and frisking. 

" For women vse to loue them mdste of all. 
Which boldly bosteth, or that can sing and iet. 
Which are well decked with large bushes set. 
Which hath the mastery ofte time in tournament. 
Or that can gambauld, or daunce feat and gent." 

Barclay's Eclogues. 

Break a straw between them 68 

Would quarrel. 

Atonement 75) 200 

At-one-ment, to lie brought to agree. It would be scarcely ne- 
cessary to explain a word whose meaning lies so evident on the 
face of it, but that theologians have wrested it to mean more. 
" If it might please you, to enforce no further _ 
The griefes betweene ye : to forget them quite 
Were to remember : that the present neede, 
Speakes to attone you."— Ant. and Cleopatra, Act ii., sc. 2. 


"And as saynt Bernarde byddeth, take hede by the image 
how his heed is bowed downe to thee all redye to kysse the and 
come at one with the." — Bives and Pauper, 1536,/. 13 •verso. 

Miser 76. 121 

The exact meaning of the Latin word is a wretched person, 
such as we now term " miserable " ; — and not only a man too 
fond of money. 

" With loue's disdaine at such a riual's seed. 
The wretch, compeld, a runnagate became. 
And learn'd what ill a wji^er-state doth breed." 

Sidney's Poetical Works, CiSjJJ, Vol. II,, p. 171. 

Nicke name ... ... ... ^% 

A very early instance of the use of this word. To " nick it " 
is just to hit it, or to do it exactly right. " In the nick of time" 
=iust at the right moment. So " nick-name " just "hits off " 
the character or quality of a man : "nicks him to a T." 

lacke and Gille ... ... ... ... ... ... 79 

" Great unwashed " — members of the rustic " residuum." 
Out of square ... ... 80 

Out of agreement. 
Raumpe theim vp ... ... 81 

Snatch them up in a violent manner, fiercely, like a rampant 

lion. " Rampagious " is yet common enough, 

" They sigh out of the shelle crepe 
A lytell serpent on the grounde 
Which rampeth all aboute rounde 
And in ayene he woll haue wonne 
But for the brennyng of the sonne 
It myght not, and so he deide." 
, GoTuer, 1532, f. 139 verso. 

" Is all your delite and ioy 
In whiskyng and ramping abroade like a Tom boy." 

N, UdalPs Roister Doister, Act II. sc. iiij. 

Robin Hood in Barnsdale stoode... ... 83 

Robin Hood was evidently considered "low " in those days. 
Tyndale says : " This threatning and forbidding the laye 
people to reade the Scripture is not for loue of your soules 
(which they care for as the Foxe doth for the Geesse) is euident 
and clearer then the Sunne, in as much as they permitte and 
suffer you to read Robbin Hode&c Beuisof Hampton, Hercules, 
Hector, and Troylus, with a thousand histories and fables of 
loue and wantonnes, and of rybaudry, as filthy as hart can 
thinke."— 7>«rfa/fi'« Works, (1573)/. 104. 
" I write no ieste ne tale of Robin Hood, 
Nor sowe no sparkles ne sede of viciousnes ; 
Wise men loue vertue, wilde people wantonnes." 

Barclay's Ship ofFoales (1570),/. 259. 


" Rhapsodies ar that we cal tkinges patched together, as 
the werkes of Homerus werey . . . and because those 
werkes were compiled by patches, thei were called 
Rhapsodic, as ye would sale, patches or chutes 
boched together^ 85 

Grummel seede, and mttcke of the worlde 86 

Evidently a cant term for money ; equivalent to the modern 
" tin," " yellow boys." Grummel is a large coarse weed, which 
grows by the sea and in waste places ; some species have a 
hard seed, which the rustics used to string on a thread and 
make into bracelets, &c. It appears from the following pas- 
sage that cakes were made of it. 

" The Altars euery where now smoaking be 
With Beane-stalkes, Sauine, Laurell, Rosemary, 
Their Cakes of Grummel-seed they did preferre. 
And Pailes of milke in sacrifice to her." 

Broitme's Brit. Pastorals, ft, I., 1613, p, 66. 

" What he would have, he nj^ght have ; his wife was set 
In such dotage of him, that faire words did fet 
Gromel-seed plenty ; and pleasure to prefer, 
Shee made much of him, and he mockt much of her." 

Heyivood's Proverbs, Pt. II., Bk. I. 

He neuer linned rahatyng of those persones ... 86, 95 

He never ceased scolding. To "rate" is a common term. 

" Maunching and filling the gutte." 86, 148 

Munching is commonly said to be eating, but that is scarcely 
definite enough. Is it not doggedly and slowly eating, rather 
from greediness than to satisfy hunger ? , 

Maisterfast 87 

Fast to a master — not entirely his own master. Compare this 
passage with the often-quoted sentence of Lord Bacon's : — 
" He that hath a wife and children hath given hostages to for- 
tune :;for they are impediments to great enterprises^ either of 
virtue or mischief." — Essay vii. 

Menne ought not to putte forthe their handes to their 
fricndes with their fyngers clynchedfast together 88 
That is, of course, they ought to be open-handed and generous. 

" For men that yift holde more dere. 
That yeven is with gladsome chere. 
That yift nought to preisen is 

That men yeveth maugre his." P" ■''"' °' """l 

Romaunt of the Rose. 


Cheapman <.. 90 

The bid form of Chapman, one who buys and sells, or makes 

A man is more particular in testing the soundness of a 
pot-lid before he buys it, than he is in ascertaining 
the menfal qualities of a man he may desire to 

purchase ... ... ... 91 

This topic was handled by Erasmus more than once, especi- 
ally as it applies to .marriage. He thought it a monstrous 
thing that any one should be more particular about the sound- 
ness and suitability for breeding purposes of their pigs and 
cattle than about the mental qualities and healthiness of the 
husbands they choose for their daughters. There are some 
very graphic and striking dialogues on this matter in his 
Colloquies. His friend Sir T. More was equally in earnest 
on the subject, and readers of the Utopia cannot fail to recol- 
lect how gravely he relates that " a sad & an honest matrone 
sheweth the woma be she maide or widdowe naked to the 
wower. And lykewyse a sage and discrete man exhibiteth the 
wowere naked to the woman . . . They do greatlye wonder at 
the follye of all other nations, whiche in byinge a colte, where 
as a lytle money is in hassarde, be so charye and circumspecte, 
that though he be almoste all bare, yet they wyll not bye hym, 
oneles the saddel and all the barneys be taken of, leaste vnder 
those couerynges be hydde som gall or score. And yet in 
chewsynge a wyfe, whyche shalbe other pleasure, or displea- 
sure to them all theire lyfe after, they be so recheles, that all 
the resydewe of the wooman's bodye, being couered with 
cloothes, they esteme' here scaselye be one handebredth (for 
they can se no more but her face) and so do ioyne her to them 
not without great ieoperdie of euell agreing together, if any- 
thyng in her body afterwarde do offende and myslyke them. 
For all men be not so wyse as to haue respecte to the vertuous 
condicions of the partie. And the eridowmetes of the bodye 
cause the vertues of the mynde more to be estemed and 
regarded; yea euen in the manages of wyse men."— Raphe 
Robinson's trans. More's Utopia, 155 1. Sig. N v. & -vi. 
" Thou saist, that assen, oxen, and houndes, 

Thay ben assayed at divers stoundes, 

Basyns, lavoUrs eek, er men hem bye, 

Spones, stooles, and al such housbondrie. 

Also pottes, clothes, and array ; 

But folk of wyves maken non assay. 

Til thay ben weddid, olde dotard schrewe ! 

And thanne, saistow, we woln oure vices schewe." 

Chaucer's Prologeoftke Wyf of Bathe. 
Seasoned in the Kiel ... ... ... ... ... 91 

Baked in the kiln. 


Orkyn qi 

Most likely an earthen pot or pippin, from the Latin area. 

To aryse vp from his tail to doe his duetie of humble 

obeysance ... ... ... ... ... ... 93 

To get up from his seat and show his respect by a humble 
salute. Farmer's labourers may frequently be seen now-a- 
days to take off their hats, and, as they call it, " do their duty " 
to the " quality " by taking hold of their front hair and duck- 
ing their heads. 

His portion of the Shot 96 

His share. We yet hear of "paying the Shot," a "Shot in 
the locker," &c. This is merely inserted to show how 
old is the saying, not because it needs any explanation. 

" The reckning reckned, he needes would pay the. shot. 
And needes he must for me, for I had it not." 

Heyivood's Proverbs, Pi. I., cap. 11. 

Toto much and toto earnest 98, 199 

Very much. A common form of expression up to the first 
quarter of the seventeenth century. It is found in Shake- 
speare, Braithwaite, &c. 

Treen tankard — treen saucer... ... ... loi, 374 

Wooden cup and wooden dish. 

" Marcus Curius, the very rule & patterne of Fortitude and 
moderate liuing, wha the people, called Samnites, which had 
warres with the Romaynes, founde hyra sytting in his house 
by the fire vpon a homely fourme, eatyng his meate in a dyshe 
oftre." — Elyot's Go-vernor{i^2il)>f- 200. 

" Treen dishes be homely, and yet not to lack. 
Where stone is no laster, take tankard and jack." 

Tusser's Husbandry (1812 Rep.) p. 260. 

A tormentour 102 

Appears to mean a gyant with a clubbe, but why I cannot say. 
Probably it can be proved to come from the Gaelic or San- 
scrit, or some such language. 

A good whistersnefet 112 

A good cuffe or blow, equivalent to the modern "clout o' th' 

Sensible 113 

Evident to the senses, or acting on the physical frame. 


"Happely." ... "S 

Happened ; that is, by chance or accident. 

Atklias {a9\la<i) with .a. and ad\io'i in Greke, souneth 
one being in miserable state or condition, sore vexed 
or beaten with manifolde trauailes, peines and 

troubles 115 

From whence Athletse and Athletics. 

Hurleeburlee iiS 

Everybody knows that this means a big noise and how it 
is used in Shakespeare. It is only put here to show the early 
use of it. So far as I am aware, this is the first time it 
occurs. The edition of Shakespeare, 1803, vol. x. 13, quotes 
a passage from Peacham's Garden of Eloquence, 1577, as the 
first instance of the use of this expression ; but here we find 
Nicholas Udall using it in 1543, thirty-four years before 
Peacham. Also in Mare's Utopia, 1551 : — 

" Or finally who be bolder stomaked to brynge all in hurlie- 
burlie (therby trustyng to get sum wyndfall) then they that 
haue nowe nothing to leese ? " — Raphe Robinson's trans. More's 
Utopia, 1551, sig. F. iij. 

Marchpaines or wafers with other like iunkerie, and 
their swete perfumes or pomaundres, and other sem- 
blable delices ... ... ... ... ... ... 116 

Marchpanes were a kind of sweet cakes made with flour, al- 
monds, sugar, &c. Wafers were probably different sorts of bis- 
cuits. Pomaunders were balls of perfumes, so called 
either because they were made into balls like apples, or be- 
cause they were sometimes made of roasted apples, mixed 
with lard, musk, nutmegs, &c. 

The orange which it was observed Cardinal Wolsey gene- 
rally carried in his hand, and frequently smelt of when he 
went among the people, was undoubtedly a pomander. They 
were the mediaeval " smelling bottles." (Jur ancestors ap- 
pear to have been wonderfully fond of perfumes and spices of 
all kinds. Early literature abounds with references to them ; 
and no wonder, when we consider the evil smells which must 
have resulted from their manner of living. 

Characteristic anecdote of a priest and his "pointes." ... 117 

"Beetes," " werishness " and " vnsauerines "of 118 

Insipidity of. The same meaning is now expressed in Lincoln- 
shire by " wally,"— « as wally as raw tates " (potatoes), — and 
the same comparison is implied in the expression about feeble- 
minded men, that "they want a bit o' salt to 'em." 


No man saying black is their eyen u 8 

Modernize^ into " No man can say black is the white of my 

Dawcockes, lowtes, cockescombes, and block-headed fooles 1 18 

Various terms for ignorant and stupid fellows. 

As wise as a goo'ce, or as his mother's apron string ... 1 1 8 

Wede iig^ 322 

Dress ; more particularly an outer garment, as a cloak. We 
still speak of a " widow's weeds." 

K embed, piked, decked all of the mynion tricke ... ... 120 

Combed, dressed, and "rigged out" in the most fashionable 
style, like " regular swells. 

Haggue 122 

Seems to be used here in the same sense as "haggle." Most 
likely the old form of the modern " egg," " to &gg on," to 
incite, to encourage. 

An euil persone euen the verye mous dareth to snappe at. 123 

Not always. Socrates and others do not hesitate to say quite 
contrary : the man threw a stone at Aristides because " he ha- 
ted to hear him always called the just;" and some of us rather 
sympathise with him, for we often find " good " people ex- 
tremely aggravating. If he had said " a person with an evil 
name, it would have been true enough, according to the modern 
proverb, " Give a dog a bad name and hang him." But, as a 
rule, evil persons appear to be a good deal more popular than 
better ones. The proverb quoted at p. 367, " Like beareth 
favour to like," has ten times more truth in it. 

Great gorrebealyed chuff 123 

A great big-bellied, thick-headed fellow. This word continued 
in use until very recently ; it occurs in several places in N. 
Bailey's translation of the Colloquies of Erasmus (1733), in 
Tom-o-Bedlam, Songs, &c. 

Bougette 123 

Budget : a small wooden box or case, generally covered with 
leather, in which women put their valuables, jewels, work, &c. ; 
frequently carried on one hip, and confined round the waist 
by a leathern belt. It answered the same purpose as the 
modern satchell. 

Bugges, and sprites, or goblins that walken by night 124 

Something to frighten or annoy, still retained in bug-bear. The 



Bible printed by Day& Serres in 1549, gives Psalm xci. v. 5, 
as follows. 

" So that thou shalt not need to be afrayd for any bugges by 
night, nor for the arrowe that flyeth by daye." Beckys Bible. 

Hobgoblin or Collepixie ... ... ... ... ... 125 

CoUepixies, I believe, were black goblins, and were thought to 
haunt mines and other dark places. 

Pastures oi' least^s ... ... ... ... ... 127 

LeasoT^ is now gone out of use, although a good old English 
word. Readers of Shenstone will remember the Leasowes. 

Brutish grosseness and dumping of the minde ... ...128 

Dumping here seems to mean dwarfing or deadening. A 
" dump" is a lump, whence "dumplings °' which the Norfolk 
people are said to be fond of ; and a " dumpy " person means 
a short aud clumsy one. 

Coarcted ... ... ... ... 128 

Prest or thrust. 

Niggarde or hayn ... ... ...56, 129 

A mean and odious or hateful man. 

Went daily to the potte, and were chopped vp 130 

" To go to pot " is an every-day phrase. 
Hercules, the depoulsour and driuer awaye of all euils 130 

The repeller and driver away of evils. 
When the stede is already stolen, shutte the stable dore; 

or when I am dead, make me a caudle 130 

" When he the thynge may not amende 
Than is he ware, and sayth at ende 

A wolde god I hadde knowe 
Whereof beiaped with a mowe 
He goth, for whan the great stede 
Is stole, than he taketh hede 
And maketh the stable dore fast." 

Goiver (1532) f. 68. 
" He is unwise, and of prouision poore. 
That nought can see before he haue damage. 
When the stede is stolen to shet the stable doore, 
Commeth small pleasure, profite, or vauntage." 

Barclay's Ship of Fooles (1570 ed.)f. 25. 

Couetousnese of money the metropolis of all evils ... 131 
The place where all evils are conceived. 


Pangue or guierie of loue 131, 341 

Guierie, from the French guerre, and here means worry, 
anxiety, pining. 

Chare of good werke ... ... ... ... ... 132 

We still call a woman who goes out to do occasional work at 
people's houses a "charwoman," although we have given over 
speaking of the work as a " char." 

An hony brake, or a snare of honey ... ... ... 133 

A " brake " is a place full of bushes, thorns, brambles, &c., 
where it would be difficult to get along on account of being 
held fast by the briars, &c. Often used in Shakespeare and 
the early dramatists. 

Make no bones ... ... ... ... .••133, 301 

To make no difficulty ; to do it without any ceremony. 
Didymo 134 

See the curious explanation in the text. 

Nycibecetours, or denty dames ... ... ... ... 135. 

I am not able to explain this word, and have only met with 
one other instance of the use of it, and that is by the same 
author. It seems to mean fond, foolish, light or trifling. 

" But with whome is he nowe so sadly rounding yond ? 
With Nohs nicehecetour miserere fonde." 

N. Udall's Roister Doister, Act I., sc. iiij. 

Of a woman who hung herself on an Olive tree ... 1 36 

The modern version is : A farmer's wife having hung herself 
on an apple-tree, the widower was regularly pestered by appli- 
cations from his neighbours for a " graft " of that tree. 

For Diogenes loued no women in no sauce, but hated them 

dedly I37 

" A woman which was vsyd and accustomyd to stryue, 
walked by the fylde with her husbonde, and he sayde the 
fylde was mowe downe, & she sayd it was shorn. And so 
they multj^lyed so many wordis that at the laste her husbonde 
all to coryed her. But she wold not be styll, but sayd it was 
clyppid with sherys. Wherefore in a greate angir he cut owte 
her tonge. And whan she myght nomore speke, she made 
sygnes with her fyngers lyke sherys meaninge the filde was 
Clypped. A lyke tale is tolde of an other woman thewich 
stryuynge with" her husbonde sayd he was lowsye. And he 
was mouyd and greuyd withe her for her sayng, and bete her 
greuously, but she wold not amend her. But came befpre all 
her neybouris and callyd hym so to his rebuke. Wherefore 


he was replete with ire and threwe her in to a water and trade 
on her and drownyd her. And whan she myght not speke, 
she lyfte vppe her hondeys and made tokyns with her thombys 
as though she lylled lyce. Wherefore it is wryttyn Ecclesiast. 
xxviii. Many haue fall by the stroke of sworde, but not lyke 
to them that haue be destroyd by the meanys of theyre tonges." 
— Dialogues of Creatures Moralysed, cap. xxx. 

" Man aftir the saynge of the Philosofre is a mynde incar- 
nate. A Fantasye of tyme. A beholder of lyfe. A Manciple 
of deth. A walker goynge. A dweller of a place. A labori- ' 
ows mynde. An habitacle of small tyme. A woman as saith 
the philosofre, is the confusyon of man. A beaste insaciable, 
a continuall besynesse. A batell neuer endid, mannis man- 
ciple & to a continent man destruccyon. As vppon a tyme 
it happid that a man which was clene & chaste desired to 
haue famylyarite & speche with a woman, wherby he fell to 
delectacyon & was cawght in the nettys of synne, and lyghtly 
loste the seale of chastitie & comytted dedly synne. For whan 
he attendyd vnto the swettenesse of her speche, and behyld 
the beawte of her face, he was ouercome & destroyde, & sayde. 
Many mennys myndes for •women be broke 
And 'wolvnded sorer then ivith other strooke 

Wherfor an Autowr spekyth & saith, A Woman is the fourme 
of synne, & condicyonyd dedly. Jherome saith. The gate of 
the Fende, The waye of wyckednessd. The strooke of the Ser- 
pente, Anoyable kynde is the woman. That same doctowr 
saith. The beawte of woman is lyke a brinninge sworde. Re- 
membyr that Thamar was corrupte of her owne brodir, and 
euer remembyr that a woman put Adam from his possession, 
who was strenger than Samson, wyser then Salamon, more 
holy then dauyd, & all these were subuertid by women. It 
is wrytten Eccle : xxv. The oryginall of synne began of a wo- 
man, and all men suffir dethe, by the meanys of her, where- 
fore these olde Fadirs & philosofirs were very contynente & 
kepte them self chaste, as tellith Vigecius ttbro secundo, of the 
continence of Alexander, that whan a mayde of most excellent 
beawte was brought tp him, which was wedded to an other 
prince, he sparyd her, & vtterly abstaynyd him self from her, 
In so moche that he wolde not see her. But sent her agayn to 
her husbond." — Dialogues of Creatures Moralysed, cap. cxxi. 

The foregoing extracts from Dialogues of Creatures are fair 
specimens of the way in which women were spoken of by the 
grave and reverend fathers, — teachers of morality and re- 
ligion, — in the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries. Hundreds 
such could be produced, but very few indeed where women 
are spoken of decently, much less respectfully. The Poets 
were their best friends. I am not sure that sufficient attention 
has ever been drawn to this. Yet the poets could be suffici- 
ently uncomplimentary occasionally, as the following shows. 


" Ther nys, I wis, no serpent so cruel, 
When men trade on his tail, ne half so fel. 
As womman is, when sche hath caught an ire ; 
Vengeans is thanne all that they desire." 

Chaucer — The Sompnoures Tale. 
" The man who has a quiet house, has no wife." Certainly 
many of the Greek writers appear to have a great horror of 
matrimony, to which, perhaps, may be attributed the high 
colouring they give to the character of Xantippe, who was not, 
it is probable, so great a termagant as they have painted her. 
Some of their apothegms follow. 

' Mulier in tsdibus atra tempestas viro.' 

A wife, like a tempest, is a perpetual disturbance to the house. 

' Incendit omnem feminis zelus domum.' 

The restless spirit of the woman keeps the house in a perpetual 
flame; and 

' Muliere nil est pejus, atque ctiam hand.' 

Nothifig is worse than a woman, even than the best of them. 
' It is better,' Solomon says, ' to dwell in the wilderness, than 
with a contentious and angry woman; ' and in another place, 
• It is better to dwell in the corner of the house-top, than with 
a brawling woman, and in a wide house. Montaigne has an 
observation equally satirical : ' The concern' he saySj ' that 
some tvomen shetu at the absence of their husbands, does not 
arise from their desire of seeing and being -with them, but from 
their apprehension that they are enjoying pleasures in -which 
they do not participate, and ivhich, from, their being at a dis- 
tance, they have not the poiver of interrupting.' 

" To finish the bad side of the picture, one more of our 
adages shall be given. ' To see a woman weeping,' we say, 
'is as piteous a sight, as to see a goose go barefoot." — Bland's 
Proverbs, Vol. II., pp. 132-134. 

Quidifical trifles that were al in the cherubins ... 1 39 

Subtle trifles all in the clouds. 
Tabletee andcupitee ... ... ... ... ... 139 

The ideas or mental pictures of tables and cups. 
Sorteitees and ecceitees 139 

Pick you hence 89, 143, 152, 210 

To pitch, to fhrow, or to fling. " Pick you hence,"=" Take 
yourself off," " Cut your stick." 

Mastifes or tye dogges 143 

" Tye dog " seems from a very early date, to have been a 
term for Mastiffs and other large dogs, which from their 


strength and fierceness were commonly kept fastened up. So 
Lydgate : — 

" Than to represse thy sui-quedy at ones. 
Cruel Orchus the tye dogge infernal, 
Shal rend thy skin asunder from the bones." 

Lydgate's Fall of Princes, (1558) Bk. Hi. cap. i. 

Litle mynxe ful of play 143 

She-puppy. Now often used pla3rfully to young girls. 

Circuition, or going about the bushe... 146 

To " go round the bush," and to " beat the bush " are very 
old sayings. 

" One sleeth the dere with an hoked arowe ; 
whose part is none yet of the venison, 
one beateth the hush, another hath y' sparow 
And all the byrdes in his possession : 
one draweth his nettes in riuers vp & doun 
with sundry baites cast out line and hooke, 
and hath no part of all that euer he take." 

Lydgat^s Fall of Princes, f. 28. 

Ryche cobbes 147 

A jeering expression without any particular meaning. 

Diogenes better contented to litie in Athenes with bread 
and cheese then with Craterus ... 147 

"The pore man afore the theif doth sing 
Under the wodes with fresh notes shrill, 
the rych man ful fereful of robbing. 
Quaking for dreade, rideth forth ml stil : 
the pore at large goth where hym list at wyl, 
Strogly fraunchised fro al debate & strife, 
tho rich afeard alway to lese hys life," 

Lydgate's Fall of Princes riSS8) Bk. Hi., cap. i. 

It is all very well to look at the bright side of things, but it 
is very difficult to think either poets or anyone else quite believe 
all they say, when they sing -very loudly in praise of poverty. 

Lene craggues ... ... ... ... 147 

" Scraggy," which is an usual term for leanness. 

Ihon hold my staf 148 

At his beck and call, subject to his caprice. A Flunky, or 

Plato found Diogenes washing salade herbes 148 

Thus quaintly described by another old writer : — 


"Whan Aristipus had sayde to Dyogene y' stoode & 
wasshyd wortys, O Dyogene if thou haddiste pleasyd y' 
tyrante dyonyse with thi fayre woordes, thou shuldist not haue 
nedyd thus to do, truly quod he yf thou woldist db thus, thou 
shuldist not haue nede to flater y' sayd tyraunte. For this 
philosofre had moche leuyr to be fedde and rnaynteynd with a 
messe of wortys & say trouth then to be fed with y' kynges 
deyntis and to flater him or say to him other then trowth. — 
Dialogues of Creatures Moralysed, cap. ii8. 

Mocking: Erasmus says "when men doe mocke any 
body, thei wagge their handes vp and doune by their 
eares at the sides of their hed, and doe eounterfeact 
the facion of an asses eares ,,. ... ... ... 149 

Is this the "wagging " spoken of in the Gospels, where "they 
that passed by railed on Him, wagging their heads " ? 

Making mowes ... ... ... ... ... ... 14^ 

Grimacing, — yet survives as " making mouths." 

" But, al to litil, welawey the while ! 
Lastith such joy, ythanked be Fortune ! 
That seemith trusty whan she wole bygile. 
And can to foils so her song entune. 
That she hem hent, and blent, traitor commune ! 
And, whan a wight is from her whele ythrow. 
Than lawghith she, and makith hym the moiv." 

Chaucer — Troylus and Cryseyde, Book III., st. I. 

Nothing moregoodHe or beautffull then Sapience, nothing 

than vertue more amiable. .. ... ... ... 1 49 

"There is no man but approves of Virtue, though but few 
pursue it ; we see where it is, but we dare not venture to come 
at it : and the reason is we over-value that which we must quit 
to obtain it." — Seneca, (1722),/. 146. 

" Fond man ! though all the heroes of your line 
Bedeck your halls, and round your galleries shine. 
In proud display ; yet, take this truth from me. 
Virtue alone is true nobility." 

Gifford's Juvenal, Vol. I., p. 328. 

A naughtie packe iS*, 156 

Not much different from the modern "good for nothing < 
baggage," often applied to women. 

" So many newes and knackes. 
So many naughty packes. 
And so many that mony lackes. 
Saw I never : 


So many maidens with child 
And wylfully begylde. 
And so many places untilde 
Sawe I never." 

Dyc^s Skelton, Vol. I., p. 150. 

Scripture ... ... ... ... 153 

Writing. Here is the word " Scripture " applied to secular 
writings sifter the Bible was translated into English. 

Inquinate ... 153 

Defiled, contaminated, unclean. 

The bastard boy who threw stones into a crowd, and 
was told to cease, lest he might hit his father ... 155 
Copied into innumerable Jest Books. 
Paramours are the queens of kings ... 158 

"Is not the king great in his power ? do not all regions feare 
to touch him ? 

" Yet did I see him and Apame the Kingf's concubine, the 
daughter of the admirable Bartacus, sitting at the right hand 
of the king. 

" And taking the crowne from the king's head, and setting 
it vpon her owne head ; she also strooke the king with her left 

" And yet for all this the king gaped and gazed vpon her 
with open mouth : if she laughed vpon him, he laughed also : 
but if she tooke aily displeasure at him, the king was faine to 
flatter, that she might be reconciled to him againe. 

"O ye men, how can it be but women should be strong, 
seeing they doe thus ? " 

Authorised Version, Ci6l l) I Esdras i-v., 28 — ^32. 

Pipe merie ... ... ... ... ... ... 159 

The first or good-humoured stage of drunkenness, similar to 
what we now hear called " market-merry " when farmers go 
home from market with sufficient extra beer in their skins to 
make them all smiles and good humour, — ^when they want to 
" stand treat " to all the old cronies they meet. 

Gentilitee ... ... ... ... ... ... 160 


Diogenes said : If I counterfaict a Philosopher, euen 

that verie poinct is to be a Philosopher outright ... 160 

This reminds one of the anecdote related by R. Ascham, of 
" one here in England " who " did folow Syr Tho. More .- who 
being most vnlike vnto him, in wit and learnyng, neuertheless 
in wearying his gowne awrye vpon the one shoulder, as Syr. 


Tho. More was wont to do, would nedes be counted lyke vnto 
him." — Ascham's Scholemaster, Reprint, p. 146. 

It appears Diogenes meant, if he were not a Philosopher 
already, he was an admirer of them, and earnestly desirous of 
being one; and that to properly estimate the value of Philo- 
sophy and try to attain it was next to really having it. 

Why do you live in the world if you have no regard to 
a virtuous life ... ... ,,. 163 

— " Call to mind from whence ye sprang; 

Ye were not formed to live the life of brutes. 
But virtue to pursue, and knowledge high." 

Dante, Inferno, c. xxvi., 1. 115. 

A sworde of lead out of an letiorie sheathe ... ... 163 

"Will you say that's a good blade which hath a gilded 
scabbard, embroidered with gold and jewels ? No, but that 
which hath a good edge and point, well tempered metal, able 
to resist." — Seneca. 

Saucie or knappishe young springall. 165 

A fast and "cheeky" young scapegrace. 
Impetrate 158, 166 

To accomplish. 
Apertly 168 

Plainly, openly, clearly. Diogenes did openly what Plato did 

Hard by the prick 168 

Close by the mark. 

" In shootynge at buttes, or brode arowe markes, is a medi- 
ocritie of exercyse of the lower partes of the bodye and legges, 
by goinge a lytell dystaunce a mesurable pase. At rouers or 
pry ekes, it, is at his pleasure that shoteth, howe faste or softly 
he lysteth to go : and yet is the prayse of the shooter, neyther 
more ne lesse, for as farre or nyghe the marke is his arowe, 
whanne he goeth softly, as whan he renneth." — Elyoi^s Gov- 
ernor (1537),/. 92. 

Never to offend any one is nothing to a maris praise ... 174 

" For the company or communication of a person familiar, 
whiche is alwaye pleasaunte and without sharpnes, inclinyng 
to inordinate fauour and affection, is alway to be suspected." 
— Elyofs Governor (1537),/ 156- 

Nedefull to haue, either feithfull frendes^ or els eagre 
enemies ... 175 


Creansir ... ... ... ... ... ■•• 178 

( French) a creditor or truster— here it means a governor or 

"The Duke of York's creauncer whan Skelton was. 
Now Henry the viij Kyng of Englonde, 
A tratyse he deuysid and browght it to pas, 

Callid Speculum Principis, to bare in his honde." 

Byc^s Skelton, Vol. I., p. 411. 

Pestre and cloy ... ... ... ... ... 179 

Plague or tease and spoil all relish. " Pestered and heltered 
up " is an expression often heard. " Heltered up " is not fas- 
tened up, as with a halter, but = incommoded and "ham- 
pered." " Heeltrees " are the pieces of wood fixed amidst the 
horses of a team, between the heels of one and the cheSt of 
the next, to keep the chain traces by which they draw such 
a distance apirt that they shall not chafe their sides : when 
the team is unyoked, these "heeltrees," unless thrown on the 
backs of the horses, hang down on their heels and cause them 
to step short and gingerly — if they are quiet, — to kick, if they 
are irritable. So a good woman troubled with a lot of chil- 
dren in her house, on a rainy day (say) will crossly observe : 
" I am pestered and heltered up wi a pack o' bairns, this 
, mucky owry weather." 

Sentence ... ... ... ... ... 181 

Judgment, feeling, opinion, or decision. 

" And you, that do read Plato, as ye shold, do well perceiue, 
that these be no Questions asked by Socrates, as doutes, but 
they be Sentences, first affirmed by Socrates, as mere trothes, 
and after, giuen forth by Socrates, as right Rules." — 
Ascham's Scholemaster (Arber's RptJ, p. 43. 

Cockeryng 182 

" Some cockneys with cocking, are made very fools. 
Fit neither for 'prentice, for plough, nor for schools." 

Tusser (1812 Rp.) p. 276. 

" Cocker thy childe, and hee shall make thee afraid : play 
with him, and he will bring thee to heauiness.— Bcu/wiaaricas, 
XXX. 9, Authorised Version, 161 1. 

" A woman of nobilitiee brought vp in the Courte of a king, 
where Fortune commonly nourceth, cockereth, and pampereth 
hir derlynges." — Paraphrase of Erasmus, 2nd leaf of preface 
to Luke. 

Vnquod 182, 289 

Untold, unsaid. 

" A married man and yet — quod Chaucer. 
A merry man, quod Wat. 
He is a knave that wrote me that, quod Chaucer." 


Hucclebones 185 

A game played principally by children, with the little square 
bones from the feet of sheep and pigs. The manner of it 
is fully explained in the small-type note, at p. 186. 

" Gresed and annoynted 

Vp to the knockles ; 

The bones of her huckels, 

Lyke as they were with buckels 

Togyther made fast 

Her youth is farre past." 
Dyce's Skelton (Elynour Rummy ng). Vol. l., p. 96. 

In his Glossary, Dyce has wrongly described " huckels " as 
hips : the above passage in Erasmus proves them to be ankles, 
which makes sense of the passage in Skelton. It means that 
from old age, &c., she moved stiffly, as though her ankles 
(not her hips) were tied together, as cows are "hoppled " to 
keep them quiet while being milked, or to keep them 
from breaking over the fences into other fields. 

Remercies ... ... ... ... ... ... 185 

Not worth a blewe point or a good lous ... ... 1 87 

" Points " were laces and strings in the days of our fore- 
fathers. A "blue point " was evidently a very cheap affair j 
perhaps made of cruel or worsted. See note on p. 

Neither barrel better herring ... ... ... ... 187 

They were "much of a muchness." The proverb in the text was 
most likely familiar to Erasmus in his native place. It "smells" 
of Rotterdam. 

'Gold masters all things ... ... ... ... ... 188 

" ' Money masters all things.' All things obey, or are subser- 
vient to money, it is therefore the principal object of our at- 
tention. 'Sine me vocari pessimum, ut dives vocer,' call me 
what you will, so you do but admit me to be rich. ' Nemo an 
bonus : an dives omnes quserimus." When about to treat 
with or enter into business with any one, we do not so much 
inquire whether he is a good, as whether he is a rich man ; 
' Nee quare et unde ? quid habeat, tantum rogant,' nor by 
what means he acquired his money, but only how much he 
actually possesses. ' Gifts,' we say, ' break through stone 
walls,' for what virtue is proof against a bribe ? ' He that has 
money in his purse, cannot want a head for his shoulders.' 
That is, he will never want persons to advise, assist, and de- 
fend him. ' It is money that makes the mare to go.' ' Por 
dinero bayla el perro,' the dog dances for money; and 'Quien 


dinaro tiene, hazo lo que quiere,' he that has money may have 
what he pleases. ' Plate sin with gold, and the strong arm of 
justice cannot reach it ; clothe it in rags, a pigmy straw will 
pierce it.' Volpone, in the comedy of that name, addressing 
his gold, says 

' Such are thy beauties, and our love^, dear saJnt, 
Riches ! thou dumb god,, that giv'st all men tongues ; 
That canst do naught, and yet mak'st men do all things ; 
The price of souls ; even hell, with thee to boot, 
Is made worth heaven. Thou art virtue, fame, 
Honour, and all things else. Who can get thee, 
He shall be noble, valiant, honest, wise.' 
On the other hand, we are told, that Fortune makes those 
whom she most favours fools ; ' Fortuna nimium quem favet 
stultum facit,' and ' Ubi mens plurima, ibi minima fortuna,' 
those who abound in knowledge are usually most deficient in 
money. It has also been observed, that riches excite envy, 
and often expose the possessors of it to danger : the storm 
passes over the shrub, but tears up the oak by its roots. • God 
help the rich,' we say, ' the poor can beg.' 
' Cantabit vacuus coram iatrone viator,' 
the thief who makes the rich man to tremble, excites no alarm 
in the breast of the beggar ; he has nothing to lose. 

' Hence, robbers hence, to yonder wealthier door, 
Unenvied poverty protects the poor. 
' Non esse cupidum, pecunia est, non esse emacem, vectigal 
est,' not to be covetous, to desire riches, is wealth ; not to be 
extravagant or expensive, is an estate. Hence poverty has 
been called, the harbour of peace and security, where undis- 
turbed sleep and undissembled joys do dwell. ' Fidelius ri- 
dent tuguria,' the laughter of the cottage is more hearty and 
sincere than that of the court : g^eat wealth therefore conduces 
but little to happiness : and 'as he who hath health is young; 
so he who owes nothing is rich.' ' Dantur quidem boms, ne 
quis mala estimet ; malis autem, ne quis nimis bona,' riches 
are given to the good, St. Austin says, that they may not be 
esteemed an evil ; to the bad, that they may not be too highly 
valued." — Bland's Proverbs, Vol. I., p. 78. 
" Court. Ah. Money maketh marchauntes, I tell you, over all. 

Magn. Why, wyl a maystres be wonne for money and for 
golde \ 

Court. Ah. Why, was not for money Troy bothe bought and 

Full many a stronge cyte and towne hath ben wonne [soldeJ 

By the meanes of money without ony gonne. 

A maystress, I tell you, is but a small thynge; ' 

A goodly rybon, or a golde rynge. 

May Wynne with a sawte the fortresse of the holde ; 

But one thynge I warne you, prece forth and be bolde." 

Magn. Ye, but some be full koy and passynge harde harted. 

Court. Ah. But, blessyd be our Lorde, they wyll be sone 


Magn. Why, wyll they then be intreted, the most and the 

lest ? 
Court. Ab. Ye for omnis mulier meretrix, si celari potest. 

Dyce's Skelton (Magnyfycence), Vol. I., p. 377. 

" Riches (said Luther) is the smallest thing on earth, and 
the least gift that God hath bestowed on mankinde j What is it 
in comparison of God's Word ? yea, what is it to bee compared 
with corporeal gifts ; as beautie, health, Sf c. nay, what is it to 
the gifts of the minde j as understanding. Art, wisdom ? &c. 
yet are men so eager upon it, that no labor, travail, nor 
danger is regarded in getting of Riches : there is in it neither 
Materialis,jormalis, efficiens (Sf finalis caussa, nor anie thing 
els that good is, therefore our Lord God commonly givetn 
Riches to such gross Asses, to whom hee affordeth nothing els 
that is good. — Luther's Colloquies, 1652, p. go. 

He had not the witte to cal a spade by any other name 189 

We have much improved since then. It is now a "tool," or 
an " agricultural implement." 

Beare any rule, stroke or authoritte ... 190, 370 

Use, exercise, possess or prevail ; as Judas who had the bag : 
bare what was put therein, which means more than he carried it. 
" To bear the stroke" is sometimes explained, to be in subjec- 
tion, or at a disadvantage, which is directly contrary to the 
truth ; if there were any doubt about it, the synonyms with 
which it is associated in the above sentence would show 
the true meaning. " To bear the stroke " is not to suffer the 
stroke ; but to bear (or have) the upper hand, or as we say, 
" to have the whip hand of him." 

" But where the mighty may. 
Of force the weak constrain ; 
It will be wisely done, to bow. 

To 'scape a further pain : 
Like as in tempest great. 

Where wind doth bear the stroke. 
Much safer stands the bowing reed. 
Than doth the stubborn oak." 

Tusser (1812 Reprint), p. 213. 

To have the overhand I9i> 216 

Or "upperhand" as is commonly said. This generally 
means the same as "to bear the strpke." 

Happely, : 192 

" Happe helpeth hardy men alway, quod he." 

Chaucer — Legende of goode Women. 

Beleue the moone to be made of a grene chese ... 193 

The earliest instance known to me of this saying. 


To preuentethe tyme of death... ... ... ... 193 

That is, to be beforehand with death. This use of the word is 
in accordance with its root meaning ; other examples may be 
found in the Bible and Prayer Book. 

" Wisedome is glorious and neuer fadeth away : yea she is 
easily seene of them that loue her, and found of such as 
seeke her. 

" She preuenteth them that desire her, in making herselfe 
first knowen vnto them." — Bk. of Wisdom, v. 12, 13, (Autho- 
rised Version, 161 Ij. 

Vntraded in philosophie ~~ 194 

Nousled 194 

Nurtured, brought up. 
Yalle & rare ... ... ... ... ... ... 195 

" The power of magike is banished away and gon : the euill 
spirites are cast out that thei ontile and rare agayn : philo- 
sophie hath confessed her ignoraunce." — Erasmus' Paraphrase 
<fh leaf of preface to Luke. 

Guile dooeth at a time auauntage to a man a good pot of 
wine ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 195 

And so it continues to do. 

To greace the handes of him that geueth the office ... 195 
This also is a practice not altogether unknown in modern days. 

A man who dyed his hair not fit to govern ... ... 195 

A very good reason. The man's dyeing his hair showed a 
a very little mind and a tendency to dishonesty : yet Julius 
Csesar rejoiced to wear the laurel crown, chiefly because it hid 
his bald head. 

Toke peper in the nose ... ... ... ... 198, 328 

To take offence. 

" For ther are ful proude herted men, 
Pacient of tonge 
And buxome as of berynge 
To burgeises and to lordes. 
And to poore peple 
Han pepir in the nose 
And as a lyoun he loketh." 

Wrighfs Piers Ploughman, Vol. II., p. 307. 
" But speke ye no more of that 
For drede of the red hat 
Take peper in the nose : 
For than thyne heed of gose." 

Dyce's Skelton, Vol. II., p. 38. 


" Shall Presbyterian bells ring Cromwell's praise. 
While we stand still and do no Trophies raise 
Unto his lasting name ? Then may we be 
Hung up like bells for our malignity: 
Well may his Nose, that is dominical. 
Take pepper in't, to see no Pen at all 
Stir to applaud his merits." 

A. Brome's Poems (1664)/. 326. 

To stierre coles (or take peper in the nose) ... ... 328 

" For lowly life withstandeth enuy quite. 
As floating ship, by bearing sail a-low, 
Withstandeth storms, when boisterous winds dp blow. 

Thy usage thus, in time shall win the goal. 

Though doubtful haps, dame Fortune sends between ; 
And thou shalt see thine enemies hlotu the voal : 

Tusser C1812 RpJ p. 312, 
Correption ... ... ... ... ... ... 200 

Chiding, scolding. 

Fortune heying theim botke good ladie ... ... ... 200 

Sely 201 

Innocent, without guile, a very common word with early 
writers : the opposite — unsely, is more rarely met with. 

" And when he stode 
The kynge hath asked of hym thus 
Sey thou -unsely Lucius 
Why hast thou done this sacrilege ? " 

Govjer (\^J,2) f. 123. 

A shame for a Prinee to have a good sight in Musick 201 

Kynge Philip, whan he harde that his sonne Alexander dydde 
synge swetely and proprely, rebuked hym gentylly, sayinge. But 
Alexander, be ye not ashamed, that ye can synge so well and con- 
nyngly ? wherby he mente, that the open profession of that craft was 
but of a base estimation. And that it suffysed a noble man, hauing 
therin knowlege, eyther to vse it secretelye, for the refreshynge of his 
wytte, whan he hath time of solace : orels onely herynge the conten- 
tion of noble musicyens, to gyue iugement in the excellecie of their 
conninges." — Elyofs Governor (1537),/ 22. 

Fooles paradise 202, 342 

An early instance of the use of this phrase, which is so great 
a favourite with Mk. Gladstone. 

Thorn trouth, or plain Sarisbuirie 202 


In eche maris bote would he haue an ore ... ... 203 

Busy, meddlesome. We now say, " He would have a finger 
in everybody's pie." 

Squintyied he was, and looked nyne way es 203 

Modern " roughs " say " he looks nine ways for Sunday." 

Euery paternoster whyle 205 

A littte while ; — the time one might say a Pater-noster. 

Flouncedme ... 207 

A singular application of this vulgar term. The meaning now 
attached to the word is rather uncomplimentary. To 
" flounce " is to " pop in " suddenly or impudently, unex- 
pectedly : more particularly applied to women who "put their 
noses " in where they are not wanted. Such an one taking a 
seat uninvited, would be contemptuously described as "floun- 
cing" into a ch^r. 

Create aud bowerly images 208 

Big, this may mean burly, or, possibly, ornamental, decorative, 
fit for a lady's bower. 

Pastlers , ... ... ... 208 

Makers of pastry. 

Habbe or nhabbe ... ... 209 

To " nab •" and " grab " are now vulgarisms meaning to catch 
hold of hastil