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PE 1625.W92" mr'' ""^'^ 
^"1\nm&S?^L'''''*l°"^ry of the 

3 1924 027 443 419 

Cornell University 

The original of tiiis book is in 
the Cornell University Library. 

There are no known copyright restrictions in 
the United States on the use of the text. 


















Entered according to Act <il' Congress, in the year 1846, by Joseph E. "Wokcester, 
in the Clerk's Office of the District Court of the District of Massachusetts. 

Entered according to Act of Congress, in the year 1874, by Amy E. "Worcester, 
ill the (_>tfice of the Librarian of Congress, at "Washington. 


In the Introduction to this Dictionary, may be found remarks on ortho- 
epy or pronunciation, orthography, etymology or the derivation of words, 
grammEir, archaisms, provincialisms, Americanisms, and on various other 
points of philology and lexicography, and also explanations of the principles 
adopted in the preparation of the work. Prefatory observations are also pre- 
fixed to the enlarged edition of Walker's " Key," inserted in this volume, and 
likewise to the Pronouncing Vocabulary of Modern Geographical Names. To 
these several introductory pages the reader is referred for various explanations 
and remarks, which it is unnecessary here to repeat. 

In relation to etymology, or the derivation of English words, the general 
rule which has been followed is, to give the etymons of such words as are 
derived from languages foreign to the English, namely, the Greek, Latin, 
French, Spanish, Italian, Dutch, German, Danish, Swedish, <fcc. The Anglo- 
Saxon being the mother tongue of the English, and the greater part of the 
English words which are of most frequent occurrence being derived from 
that language, with more or less change of their orthography, the etymology 
of these words of Anglo-Saxon origin is, for the most part, omitted.. 

Much attention has been bestowed on the subject of orthoepy or pronuncia- 
tion ; and, with regard to words of various, doubtful, or disputed pronunciation, 
the authorities for the diiferent modes are exhibited ; so that this Dictionary 
will show the reader in what manner these words are pronounced by all the 
most eminent English orthoepists. With respect to words variously pro- 
nounced, Walker says, " The only method of knowing the extent of custom 
in these cases, seems to be an inspection of those dictionaries which professedly 
treat of pronunciation. We have now so many works of this kind, that the 
general current of custom, with respect li the sound of words, may be col- 
lected from them with almost as much certainty as the general sense of words 
from Johnson. An exhibition of the opinions of orthoepists about the sound 
of words, always appeared to me a very rational method of determining what 
is called custom. This method I have adopted." The method thus counte- 
nanced by Walker has been pursued, in this Dictionary, much further 
than he had the means of doing it, inasmuch as most of the works 
which are made use of, as the principal authorities, have been published 
since his time. With respect to many of the words about the pronunciatiou 


of which orthoepisis differ, it is difficult to decide which mode is to be pie 
ferred ; and it is not to be supposed that the mode for which the Conipilei 
nas indicated a preference, will, in all cases, be esteemed the best ; but when 
it is not, the reader will find the mode which he may prefer, supported bv 
its proper authority. 

About twenty years since, the Compiler edited " Johnson's Dictionary, 
MS improved by Todd, and abridged by Chalmers, with Walker's Pronouncing 
Dictionary combined ; " and while executing that task, he formed the plan 
of his small work, entitled, " A Comprehensive Pronouncing and Explanatory 
Dictionary of the English Language ; " but before completing this latter 
work, he was induced to undertake the labor of making the octavo abridg- 
ment of Dr. Webster's "American Dictionary of the English Language.' 
These tasks of editing and abridging were performed in accordance with 
certain principles and rules laid down by the publishers of the former work 
md by the author of the latter ; and as to the selection of words, their or- 
thography, etymology, pronunciation, or definition, or as to any want of con- 
sistency of the two works with each other, the Editor and Abridger had no re- 
sponsibility, further than was implied by the rules prescribed for his guidance. 

After beginning the preparation of his " Comprehensive Dictionary," the 
Compiler adopted the practice of recording all the English words which he 
met with, used by respectable authors, and not found in Todd's edition of 
Johnson's Dictionary. This practice was continued with a view to provide 
the means of improving the " Comprehensive Dictionary." But he found the 
words which were not registered in any dictionary more numerous than he 
anticipated, and, his collection having accumulated beyond his expectation, 
he at length formed the design of preparing a new and larger dictionary, 
which should contain as complete a vocabulary of the language as he should 
he able to make. 

The Dictionary of Johnson, as corrected and enlarged by Todd, and 
Walker's Critical Pronouncing Dictionary, have been made, in some degree, 
;he basis of the present work ; but the words found in those dictionaries have 
oeen revised with much labor and care, in relation to their orthography, pro- 
nunciation, etymology, definition, &c. ; and a great part of them, especially 
such as relate to the arts and sciences, have been defined entirely anew. 
Such of the words found in Todd's Johnson as are in common use, familiar 
to all who read and speak the language, and with regard to the propriety 
and use of which there can be no doubt, are, for the most part, left without 
any cited authority ; but for such words as are obsolete, antiquated, rare, pro- 
vincial, local, or disputable, the authorities found in Johnson's Dictionary 
(ire retained, and many not found there have been added. 

To the words found in Todd's edition of Johnson's Dictionary, nearly 

27,000 more have been added, and for all these, authorities are given, except a 

*ew, such as the participial adjectives amusing, entertaining, established, &c., 

or which authorities would be useless. All the verbs of the language that 


we often met wilh, both regular and irregular, are conjugated ; and tlie 
pretfirits and 'perfect participles of the irregular verbs are inserted separately 
in their alphabetical places ; but of the regular verbs, the present and perfect 
participles ending in in^ and ed are not inserted as separate articles. If this 
had been done, as it has been in several other dictionaries, it would have 
added upwards of ten thousand more articles to the vocabulary ; which wc uld 
have considerably increased the size of the volume, without materially in- 
creasing its value. 

To the words now added to the vocabulary, and not found in Todd's 
Johnson, an asterisk has been annexed ; and it will be seen that, on many of 
the pages, more than half of the words are of this description. The newly 
added words have been collected from a great variety of sources. The tech- 
nical and scientific terms have generally been taken from scientific works, 
or from dictionaries of the various arts and sciences ; as Brande's " Diction- 
ary of Science, Literature, and Art ; " Ure's " Dictionary of Arts, Manufac 
tures, and Mines ; " Crabb's " Technological Dictionary ; " Falconer's " Ma- 
rine Dictionary;" Dunglison's "Medical Dictionary;" Bouvier's "Law 
Dictionary;" Loudon's " Encyclopasdias ; " the "Penny Cyclopasdia ; " and 
many other dictionaries of the different arts and sciences, and various en- 
cyclopasdias, the titles of Avhich are to be found in the Catalogue of works 
of this kind, in the Introduction of this volume. The greater part of the 
miscellaneous words have been collected by the Compiler in the course of his 
reading during many years. A considerable number of words have been 
taken from several English dictionaries, particularly those of Ash, Richard- 
son, and Smart. With respect to Webster's Dictionary, which the Com- 
piler several years since abridged, he is not aware of having taken a single 
word, or the definition of a word, from that work, in the preparation of this ; 
but in relation to words of various or disputed pronunciation, Webster's au- 
thority is often cited in connection with that of the English orthoepists. — . 
The Rev. Dr. William Allen, late President of Bowdoin College, having, jt', 
the course of his reading, collected several thousand words not found in any 
dictionary, favored the Compiler with the use of his manuscript, who, on 
comparing it with his own collection, obtained between fourteen and fifteen 
hundred additional words, which have been inserted. — The authorities cited 
for the miscellaneous words are mostly English ; and in many instances the 
names of English authors have. been chosen in preference to the names of 
American authors of equal or even higher respectability; inasmuch as it is 
satisfactory to many readers to know, in relation to a new, uncommon, or 
doubtful word, that it is not peculiar to American writers, but that a respect- 
able English authority may be adduced in support of its use. 

A dictionary which is designed to be a complete glossary to all English 
books that are now read, must contain many words which are obsolete, and 
many which are low or unworthy of being countenanced. Many of the 
words which have been inserted by the Compiler, and still more of thosw 


ri PREFACt. 

which weie admitted by Johnson Eind Todd, no ■writer of good taste would 
now be likely to use. The Compiler has not, indeed, inserted all the words 
which he has found used by respectable writers ; yet he apprehends that ht 
shall be more censured for being too liberal, rather than too exclusive, in his 
views respecting the admission of words into a dictionary. He has deemed 
it advisable to insert a considerable number of words of very questionable 
propriety, found in respectable works, with the name of the author as the 
authority ; for it is believed that it will be satisfactory to many readers, when 
they meet with a rare or disputable word, to be able to turn to a dictionary 
and see by what other writer it may have been used. 

Much care has been taken to note such words as are technical, foreign, 
obsolete or antiquated, local or provincial, low or exceptionable. The gram- 
matical forms and inflections of words have been given more fully than 
ever before in any English dictionary ; and brief critical notes on the 
orthography, the pronunciation, the grammatical form and construction, and 
the peculiar, technical, local, provincial, and American uses of words, are 
scattered throughout the volume ; but among such a multiplicity of matters, 
it will doubtless be found that many things have been neglected or unsatis- 
factorily treated. The limits of the work, indeed, are not such as to admit of 
the discussion of every doubtful point, or of as much verbal criticism as would 
be necessary to settle the relative merits of every doubtful word. The design 
has been to give the greatest quantity of useful matter in the most condensed 
form, and to specify, as far as practicable, authorities in doubtful or disputed 

There are many English dictionaries, of various degrees of merit, now in 
use ; and it may be thought not desirable to increase the number. But the 
Compiler, encouraged by the manner in whicti his small work had been re- 
ceived, undertook the preparation of this larger one, with the hope that he 
might be able to give it some peculiar characteristics which would render it not 
wholly unacceptable or useless to the public. Though not without experience 
in labor of this sort, he was not, perhaps, when he formed the design, suffi- 
ciently impressed with the arduousness of his undertaking or the insufficiency 
of his qualifications ; of both of which he has had abundant and constant 
occasion to be sensible. No amount of labor or compass of knowledge can 
render an English dictionary faultless ; and this is doubtless susceptible of 
many and great improvements. Yet, defective as it is, it has cost the Com- 
piler no trifling labor to bring it to its present state, of which some evidence 
may be apparent to any one who will examine it. He therefore submits it to 
an impartial public, with no high claims or sanguine expectations, yet with 
the hope that it will not be adjudged entirely destitute of merit, either in 
its plan or in its execution. 



1. Principles op Prgkukciation, ...ia 

Key to the Sounds of the Marked Letters, ix 

Sounds of the Vowels, x 

Sounds of the Diphthongs and Triphthongs, ziii 

Sounds of the CoiisonantB, xvi 

Accent, xiz 

Orthoepy and Orthofipists, zzii 

IT. Orthography, xxv 

Remarks on Orthography, xxv 

A Vocabulary of Words of Doubtful or Various Orthography, xxi:5 

HI. English Grammar, xl 

A List of Words with the proper Prepositions annexed, xlvii 

IV. Origin, Formation, and Etymoloot of the English Langoaqe, ) 

V. Archaisms, Provincialisms, and Americanisms, Iv 

VT History of English Lexicography, lix 

English Orthoepists, Ixv 

Catalogue of English Dictionaries ; Dictionaries of the Various Arts and Sci- 
ences, Encyclopeedias, &c., • Ixvii 

freNS AND Abbreviations, used in this Work, Izxvi 



AND SCRIPTURE PROPER NAMES, Enlarged and Improved, 837 

The Editor's Preface, 841 

Introduction, 845 

Rules for Pronouncing Greek and Latin Proper Names, 849 

Initial Vocabulary of Greek and Latin Proper Names, 855 

Terminational Vocabulary of Greek and Latin Proper Names, 893 

Rules for Pronouncing Scripture Proper Names, 907 

Initial Vocabulary of Scripture Proper Names, 911 

Terminational Vocabulary of Scripture Proper Names, 925 

Obeiervations on the Greek and Latin Accent and Quantity, 934 


Remarks on the Pronunciation of Modern Geographical Names, 943 

Principles of Pronunciation of several European Languages, 943 

Pronouncing Vocabulary of Modern Geographical Names, 94S 


Preface 959 

Additional Abbreviations and Signs 960 

Vocabulary 961 to 996 





I X long. FXte, lXce, Xid, pain, flXtsb. 

i X ahart, FXt, mXn, lXd, cXkrt. 

5. A Img hifon R. . . FJlBE, bAee, pJlir, beXe. 

4. X Jtalum or grave, FXb, fXther, fXrt, Xrm, cXlm. 

6. X tntemniute. . . FXsT, bbXnch, qrXsp, obXss. 

6. X broad. FXll, HALL, hXul, wXle, wXbm. 

7. ^ otacwrt. LljiB, PALjiCE, RIV^, ABB4CT. 

I, £ hng. Mete, seal, pear, keep, 

5. £ short. MfiT, Hen, s£li., f£rby. 

3. £ likt X. H£iR, th£re, wh£re. 

4. K ftort and obtute. H£r, h£rd, f£rn, p£rvid 
B ¥ elaairt. Bri^b, pu^l, cbl};rt, 

1. i Img. FINE, PILE, PmD, MILD, PIRE. 

i. I thort PiN, PiLL, Miss, MIRROR. 

i.1 Of long £ Machine, folIce, mIen, marIne. 

4, I tkoH and obtuse. FiB, SI'B, bYbd, tIbtue. 

S I obeaare. ELIX|B, BDfN, LOSic, ability. 


1. 5 Umg. N5TE, POAL, TOW, SOBE. 

2. 6 ahort. N5t, c5i(, Odd, b6rrow 

3. d Img and dose. MdvE, pudVE, pOdD, sddx 

4. 5 broad, like broad X. , . . NoR, FORM, SORT, ought 

5. d Uke short 0. B6n, dSne, cSme, m6nev, 

6. Q obscure. ACTQR, CONFESS, felqnt 

1. Img. T0BE, TONE, SUIT, FORE. 

a short. TOb, tOn, hOt, hOrry. 

3. middle or obtuse. BfiLL, POLL, POLL, pOsH. 

4. U short and obtuse. FOB, TttBH, MtlRMUR, UUST 

5. t like bin mOte. ..... EOle, rOde, trOe. 

6. V obscure. Sulfhvr, murmvr, DEpyTt 

1. T tmg. TfPE, STtLE, L?RE. 

3. t short. SIfLTAN, SYMBOL, CRl^STiJ. 

3. y short and obtute. .... MVrbh, m¥rtle. 

4. V obscure. Tbuly, ENVy, MARTYR. 

81 and ot. B8IL, t8Il, bSV, T8t 

80 and 8^. B50ND, TbV^ic, r8^. 

E-^V like Img Fe^, ne#, de#. 



Vi f ) • • itfi, likes. A(ID, FLA^in 

£!,£,.. hard, likeK. FLAeciD, sjEEPTIC. 

Bb, ib,hard, like E. CHARACTER, jEHASM. 

^H,;b, soft, like SH. (Jhaise, f hetalieb. 

Ch. . . (unmarked) Uke TSH Charm, chobch. 

S, I, . hard, jEtET, eiTE, eiPT. 

^> ll • Stft, like J ^ENDEE, <?IAHT. 

f , f , . . ssft, likex Mu$E, CHOOSE. 

%. ....soft or fiat, tike sz Example, e^ist. 

Ta,ib,soft or flat, This, thee, then. 

TH, tb, (unmarked,) sharp Thin, thine, pith 

"^^ I m SHUN. 5 1*"'"' ""''"'''• 

iipw ) { Pension, missiqh. 





8I.«lL C . 

ciovs C 
Tioys ) 
fEoys > 
^loys 5 


Fh . 


( Ocean. 

tiJ;« SHAN. < „ 

( Optician. 



' Partial, marti^ 
r Fakikaceovs. 

like SHUS < CAFACioys. 

' Sehtentiovs. 
c courageovs. 

'^•"'"- aELI<?.OVS. 

(unmarked) Uke Kw. Queen, questioh 

do. . . . like HW When, while. 

do. . . . iitf I Phantom, sebafb 



1. The words which are used in the preced- 
ing K )y, as examples for illustrating the several 
lound i, exhibit accurately, when pronounced by 
eorrect speakers, the different sounds of the 
respective letters. Some distinctions are here 
made which are not found in moat other systems 
of notation ; they are, however, not intended to 
introduce any new sounds, but merely to dis- 
criminate such as are now heard from all who 
speak the language with propriety. 

2. When the marks of pronunciation are 
affixed to words in their proper ortliography, 
in this Dictionary, without respelling them, the 
vowels which are not marked are silent: thus 
a in beat, hear; e in able, give, h&rden; i in 
paxn, heifer ; o in mason, famous ; u in fur- 
lough ; and w in follow, are not sounded. 

3. The system of notation which is here used, 
while it makes a very exact discrimination of 
the different sounds of the letters, will be readily 
understood and easily applied to practice ; and 
it will also be much more easily remembered, 
than a system in which the vowels are marked 
with figures. By applying the marks to the 
letters of the words in their proper orthogTaphy, 
the necessity of respelling most of them has 
keen avoided ; and in this way much space has 
Keen saved, while the pronunciation is fixed with 
as much exactness as if the spelling of every 
word had been repeated. 

4. It is an advantage of this method of nota- 
tion, that it distinguishes the syllables which 
receive a secondary accent, or are pronounced 
with a distinct sound of the vowels, from those 
which are but slightly or indistinctly sounded. 
A great part of the words of the English lan- 
guage that have more than two syllables, have 
more than one syllable in some degree accented, 
or pronounced more distinctly than the rest ; yet 
this difference in distinctness is not made appar- 
ent by the usual modes of marking the words. 
In this notation, the vowels in the syllables 
which have either the primary or secondary ac- 
cent, have a mark placed over them denoting 
a distinct sound ; while those which are more 
feebly uttered have a dot placed under them. 
Take, for example, the following words, which 
are thus noted: sun'shine, pd'per, dn'ec-dote, 
ear-q-van', M'er-ql, mdn-i-fes-td'tiqn, In-dirvis-i- 
Wi-ty. In these words, it will be readily per- 
ceived, that all the vowels which have a mark 
placed over them have a distinct sound, or are 
■nore or less accented, while those which have a 

dot under them are but slightly or mcBtinctlj 
sounded ; and that the pronunciation is as clearly 
represented to the eye in their proper orthogra- 
phy, as it is, in otlier methods of notation, by 
respelling the words. 

5. There are many cases in which the vowels 
are pronounced with so slight a degree of dis- 
tinctness, tliat it may be a matter of indifferen.v 
whether they are marked with the distinct or 
indistinct sound ; as, for example, the last syOa- 
ble of the words consonant, diffident, feebleness, 
and obvious, might, with nearly equal propriety, 
have the vowels marked with a short or an indis- 
tinct sound. 


6. The first, or long, sound of each of tha 
vowels marked thus, d, e, i, o, it, is styled its al' 
phabetic or name sound, being the sound which 
is heard in Daming the letter. — The sound of 
the letter y, when used as a vowel, is the same 
as that of i; but as a vowel, it begins no 
properly English word. 

7. The long sound of the vowels is generally 
indicated, in monosyllables, by a silent e at the 
end of the word, preceded by a single conso 
nant, as in fate, mete, pine, note, tube, type. 
The following words, however, are exceptions 
namely, liave, are, and bade, the preterit of to bid. 
The vowels have regularly the long sound if 
final in an accented syllable, as in ba'sis, Ugal, 
trial, sono'rous, cu'bic, ty'rant. 

8. The second, or short, sound of the vowels w 
generally indicated, in monosyllables, by tiiu 
absence of mute e at the end of the word, as 
in fat, met, pin, not, tub, hyp. It is also the 
usual sound of a vowel in an accented syllable 
which ends with a consonant, as in aban'don, 
atten'tive, exhiVit, lacon'ic, reludtant, lyr'icaL 

9. The fourth sound of the vowels, a, e, t. 
0, and u, and the third sound of y, (called, wita 
respect to e, i, u, and y, short and obtuse,) marke(< 
thus, d, e, i, 5, u, y, is the short sound of thtse 
several vowels, when, in a monosyllable or in an 
accented syllable, they are succeeded by r finai, 
or by r followed by some other consonant ; as, 
far, hard ; her, herd ; fir, firkin ; nor, north ; fur, 
burden ; myrrh, myrtle. Some orthoepists make 
no distinction between the sound indicated by 
this mark and the proper short sound of theiw 
vowels ; others make a distinction in relation to a 
part of them only. The vowels having this mark 
are pronounced with as short a souna as the* 


readJy receive when thus situated. The pecu- 
liar character of this sound, which distinguishes 
tt. from the proper short sound of the vowels, is 
caused by the letter r ; and this letter, thus sit- 
aated, has an analogous influence on the sound 
of all the vowels. The difierence between the 
sound of the vowels when thus situated, and their 
proper short sound, will be readily perceived by 
the following examples ; as, man, marrow ; m&r, 
mart; — men, merry; her, merchant; — fin, mir- 
ror ; fir, niirth; — not, borrow; nor, border; — 
tun, hiirry ; fiir, hurdle. There is little or no 
difference in the sounds of the vowels e, i, u, 
and y, when under this mark ; as, her, fir, fiir, 
myrrh ; but tlinir proper short sounds are widely 
different when followed by r, as well as by other 
consonants, as in merry, mirror, hurry. — See re- 
marks on the sound of the letter R, page xviii. 

10. Vowels marked with the dot or period 
underneath, thus, a, e, i, g, u, y, are found only 
.n syllables which are not accented, and over 
which tlie organs of speech pass slightly and 
hastily in pronouncing the words in which they 
are found. This mark is employed rather to 
indicate a slight stress of ivoice, than to note 
any particular quality of sound. If the sylla- 
bles on which the primary and secondary ac- 
cents fall, are uttered with a proper stress of 
voice, these comparatively indistinct syllables 
will naturally be pronounced right. In a ma- 
jority of cases, this mark may be regarded 
as indicating an indistinct short sound of the 
vowels ; as in tenable, mental, travel, peril, idol, 
forum, carry ; but in many cases it indicates a 
slight or unaccented long sound, as in carbonate, 
sulphate, ebony, follower, educate, regulate, con- 
gratulate. The letter u, in the last three words, 
is pronounced like yu, slightly articulated. The 
vowels with this mark have, in some situations, 
particularly in the last syllable of words ending 
with r, no perceptible difference of sound ; as 
in friar, speaker, nadir, actor, sulphur, zephyr. 


11. The thrd sound of the letter a, marked 
thttSi a, is its long sound qualified by being fol- 
lowed by the letter r ; as in care, fare, pare. The 
diphthong ai, followed by r, has precisely the 
same sound, as in fair, pair; so also, in some 
cases, has the diphthong ea, as in hear, pear. 
There is obviously a difference in the sound of 
a in these words, as they are pronounced by 
rfood speakers, and its sound in pain and fate. 
There is the same difference between the sound 
of o in the word pair, and its sound in the word 

payer, one who pays ; also in the word prayer, a 
petition, and in the word prayer, one who prays. 

12. The ffth sound of a, marked thus, &, is 
an intermediate sound of this letter, between ita 
short sound, as in fat, man, and its Italian 
sound, as in far, father. With respect to the 
class of words, which, in this Dictionary, have 
this mark, there is much diversity among orthoS- 
pists. Most of these words, by Nares, Jones, 
and Perry, are marked with the Italian sound, as 
in^ar a.nd father; but Walker and Jameson mark 
them, or most of them, with the short sound, as 
a in fat, man ; Pulton and Knight mark them aa 
being intermediate between the short and the 
Italian sound ; and Smart, though he gives a in 
most of these words the short mark, says, in re- 
lation to it, " There is, in many words, a dispo- 
sition to broadness in the vowel not quite in 
unison with the mode of indication, as may be 
perceived in an unaffected pronunciation of 
grass, graft, command. This broadness is a de- 
cided vulgarism when it identifies tlie sound 
with a. The exact sound lies between the one 
indicated and the vulgar corruption." 

The following words belong to this class : — 
advance cast ghastly pass 

advantage castle glance passive 

after chaff glass past 

aghast chandler graff pasture 

alexander chance graft pastor 

alabaster class grant pilaster 

alas clasp grasp plaster 

amass contrast grass prance 

answer craft haft quaff 

ask dance hasp rafter 

ant dastard jasper rasp 

asp draff lance repast 

ass draft lanch romance 

bask disaster lass salamandei 

basket draught last sample 

bastard enchant mask shaft 

blanch enhance mass slander 

blast ensample mast slant 

bombast example mastiff staff 

branch fast mischance task 

brass flask nasty trance 

cask gasp pant vast 

casket gantlet paragraph waft 


13. The letter e has, in several words, the 
same sound as a in fare ; as in heir, there, 
where ; but were is properly pronounced wSr. In 
clerk and sergeant, it has, according to most or- 
thoepists, the sound of a in dark and margin.-' 
See Clerk and Seroea^nt. 



14. When e precedes I or ra in an unaccented 
final syllabli;, m some words it has an indis- 
tinct short sound, and in some it is entirely 
suppressed. It is sounded in flannel, travel, 
vessel, chicken, sudden, woollen, &c. ; and it is 
suppressed in drivel, grovel, hearken, hMven, &c. 

15. The letter e is generally suppressed in 
the preterits of verbs, and in participles ending 
in erf, when the e is not preceded by rf or / ; 
as, feared, praised, admired, tossed, suppressed, 
nronounced feard, praisd, admird, tost, supprest. 

16. The long sound of the letter i is heard 
not only in monosyllables ending with a mute e, 
as in Jile, time, &.C., but also in the word pint, 
and in the words child, mild, mid ; also in bind, 
blind, find, hind, kind, mind, rind, &c. 

17. There is a class of words, mostly derived 
from the French and Italian languages, in wliich 
i retains the sound of long e ; as, ambergris, an- 
tique, bombazine, brazil, capivi, capuchin, caprice, 
chagrin, chevaux-de-frise, critique, frize, gabar- 
dine, haberdine, quarantine, ravine, routine, fas- 
cine, fatigue, intrigue, invalid, machine, magazine, 
marine, palanquin, pique, police, recitative, man- 
darine, tdbourine, tambourine, tontine, transma- 
rine, ultramarine, verdigris. In the word shire, 
i commonly has the same sound ; and some also 
give it the same in oblige and oblique. — See 
Oblige and Oblkjue. 

18. In words which terminate in He and ine, 
with the accent on the penultimate syllable, the i 
in the final syllable is generally short ; aa,feii.ile, 
hostile, adamantine, intestine, &c. The follow- 
ing are exceptions : edile, exile, gerdHe, pentUe, 
feline, ferine, confine, and a few others. Also 
when the accent is on the antepenult, words 
ending in He generally have the i short ; as, 
juvenile, puerile, &c. ; but it is long in chamo- 
mile, reconcile, eolipile, infantile. 

19. With respect to words ending in ine, 
and having the accent on the antepenultimate, 
there is much uncertainty as to the quantity 
of i ; and in relation to a number of such words 
there is much disagreement among orthoepists ; 
yet the general rule inclines to the long sound 
of i in the termination of this class of words. 
In the following words, i, in the last syllable, is 
generally pronounced long: adulterine, almadine, 
xrmentine, asinine, belluine, Mzantine, brigantine, 
•xainabine, colubrine, columbine, celandine, concu- 
■ine, couniermine, coralline, crystalline, eglantine, 

gating, leonine, metalline, muscadine, porcupine, 
uxharine, aapphirine, saturnine, serpentine, tur 

peniine, uterine, vespertine, mperine, vituline.— 
In the folloT^ing words, i, in the last syllable^ 
is short : discipline, feminine, genuine, heroine, 
hyaline, jessamine, libertine, masculine, medicine, 
nectarine, palatine. With respect to alkaline, 
aquiline, as well as some others, the orthoepists, 
as well as usage, are divided. In the termina- 
tion ine of a class of chemical words, the i is 
short ; as, fluorine, iodine, nepheline, &c. In the 
termination ite, the i is sometimes short, as in 
respite, granite, favorite, irijinite, &c. ; and some- 
times long, as in expedite, appetite, satellite, &c. 
In a class of gentile nouns, and appellatives, 
formed from proper names, it is long ; as, Hivite, 
Widiffite ; also, generally, in names of minerals ; 
as, augite, steatia, tremolite. 

20. When i ends an initial syllable without 
the accent, and the succeeding syllable begins 
with a consonant, the i is generally short or in 
distinct, as if written e, as in civility, divine, 
finance ; but the exceptions to this rule are 
numerous, among which are biquadrate, chirog 
raphy, biography, divaricate, librarian, primeval, 
tribunal, vitality, and many others, in which the 
I is pronounced long. There is also a con- 
siderable number of words with regard to which 
there is a diversity, in relation to the pronun- 
ciation of the i, among orthoepists and in usage 
as, dilate, diverge, virago, &c. 


21. There is a class of words ending in j 
ft, ss, st, and th, in which o is marked with the 
short sound in most pronouncing dictionaries, 
though some ortlioepists give it the sound of 
broad a, as in fall. Mr. Nares gives the sound 
of broad a to o in the following words : off, 
often, offer, coffee, scoff, aloft, loft, soft, cross, 
loss, toss, cost, frost, lost, tost, broth, cloth, froth, 
cough, and trough. To these some others might, 
with equal propriety, be added ; as, offspring, 
dross, gloss, moss, moth, leroth. Mr. Smart 
remarks, "that before ss, st, and th, the letter 
is frequently sounded dw ; as in moss, gloss, 
&c., lost, cost, &.C., broth, cloth, &c. This 
practice is analogous to the broad utterance 
which the letter a [short] is liable to receive 
before certain consonants ; [see A, page xi. ;] 
and the same remarks will apply in the present 
case, as to the one referred to, namely, that, 
though the broad sound is vulgar, there is an 
affectation in a palpable effort to avoid it in 
words where its use seems at one time to have 
been general. In such cases, a med um be- 
tween the extremes is the practice of (he Iwfgt 


HieaKers." The sound of o is also somewhat 
prolonged m gone and begone, and in some 
words ending in ng ; as, hng, prong, song, 
strong, thong, throng, wrong. 

23. There are a few words in which o has 
the same sound as u in hull, or as oo in good; 
namely, bosom, wolf, woman, Wolsey, Wolver- 
hampton. It has the sound of short u in done, 
son, &c. ; and the sound of ii (as in hurt) in 
word, work, worth, &c. 

23. ]n many words ending m on, the sound 
of o IS suppressed, as in bacon, pardon, weapon, 
ttason, cotton, &c. 


24. With respect to the manner of designating 
the sound of the vowel u when it comes imme- 
diately after the accent, as in the words educate, 
nature, natural, &c., there is much diversity 
among orthoepists. By Walker, the pronun- 
ciation of Educate is thus noted — ed'jii-kdt; 
by Sheridan, Jones, Enfield, Fulton, and Jame- 
son, thus — ed'u-kdt ; and by Perry, Knowles, 
Smart, and Reid, thus — ed'u-kdt. Nature, 
by Walker, thus — nd'chur ; by Sheridan and 
Jones, thus — nd'chur; by Perry, Enfield, and 
Reid, thus — nd'tur ; by Jameson and Knowles 
thus — ndt'yur; by Smart, thus — nd'tur, or nd'- 
chdr. Natural, by Walker and Jones, thus 
— naVchu-ral; by Sheridan, thus — nat'chur-dl ; 
by Fulton, Enfield, and Jameson, thus — ndt'ii- 
ral ; by Perry and Reid, thus — ndt'tirrdl ; by 
Knowles, thus — nat'yur-Sl ; by Smart, thus — 
nat'chd-ral. There is a pretty large class of 
words with respect to which there is a similar 
diversity in the manner in which the pronun- 
ciation of u and tu is noted by the difierent 
orthoepists ; but the difierence is greater in ap- 
pearance than in reality. The u thus situated 
may properly be regarded as having the slight 
sound of long u ; and the sound may be noted 

by 1/M, slightly articulated Walker remarks, 

with respect to the pronunciation of nature, 
" There is a vulgar pronunciation of this word 
as if written na'ter, which cannot be too care- 
fuLy avoided. Some 'critics have contended 
that it ought to be pronounced as if written 
nate-yure ; but this pronunciation comes so near 
to that here adopted [nd'chur], as scarcely to be 
distinguishable from it." 

25. Y, at the end of a word, preceded by a 
consonant, is commonly pronounced short and 
indistinct, like indistinct e ; as, policy, palpably. 

lately, colony, &c. — The exceptions are mono- 
syllables ; as, by, cry, dry, fly, fry, sty, wry, with 
their compounds, awry, hereby, whereby, &.c. 
also verbs ending in fy ; as, fortify, magnify-, 
testify, &c. ; also, ally, occupy, and prophesy. 


26. A. diphthong is the union of two vowels, 
pronounced by a single impulse of the voice ; as 
oi in voice, ou in sound. 

27. A triphthong is the union of three vowels, 
pronounced in like manner ; as, ieu in adieu, ieus 
in view. 

28. A proper diphthong is one in which both 
vowels are sounded ; as, oi in voice, ou in found 

PROPER diphthongs. 

ea in ocean ; io in nation ; ua in assuage ; 

eu " feud ; oi " voice ; ue " desuetude 

ew " jewel ; ou " sound ; ui " languid, 

ia " poniard ; ow " now ; 

ie " spaniel ; oy " boy ; 

The diphthongs which begin with e or i, name 
ly, ea, eu, ew, ia, ie, and io, diflfer from the rest 
and they may, as Walker says, " not improperly 
be called semi-consonant diphthongs;" being 
pronounced as if y consonant was substituted 
in place of e or i ,• as, ocyan, ponyard, questyoru 

29. An improper diphthong has only one of 
the vowels sounded ; as, ea in hear, oa in coal 

improper diphthongs. 
SB or ae m Ctesar ; ea in beat ; ie in friend ; 
ai . . . . " pain ; ee " seed ; oa " boat ; 
ao ..." gaol ; ei " either ; oe " oesophagus , 
au ..." haul ; eo " people ; oo " soon ; 
aw . . , '- law ; ey " they ; ow" crow 


30. This IS a Latin diphthong, and is aJwaya 
long in Latin. In English, it is used only in 
words of Latin origin or formation ; as, aqua mice, 
minutiae, (esthetics ; and it is sometimes long, as 
in peean, and sometimes short, as in Dmd'alus 


31. The usual sound of this diphthong is the 
same as long a ; as m pail, pain, pronounced like 
pale, pane. The following are tlio principal 
exceptions. It has the sound of short e in saia 
says, and sailh, and in again and agair-* tha> 



»f snort a in plaid and raillery ; that of long i in 
tisle ; and in a final unaccented syllable, it has 
the obscure sound of the indistinct short t, as in 
fountain, mountain, curtain. 


32. Tills diphthong occurs only in the word 
gaol, pronounced, as well as very often written, 


33. The common sound of this diphthong is 
the same as that of broad a, or aw, caul and haul 
being pronounced exactly like call and hall. 
But when these letters are followed by n and 
another consonant, the sound is changed, in a 
number of words, to that of the Ita Ian a in far 
nnd father; as, by most of the orthoepists, in the 
following words: aunt, craunch, daunt, flaunt, 
gaunt, gauntlet, haunch, haunt, jaunt, jaundice, 
laundress, laundry, maund, paunch, saunter, 
staunch. Some orthoepists pronounce a part 
of these words with the sound of broad a, as 
most of them do the word vaunt. In the words 
laugh and draught, this diphthong has likewise 
the sound of a in far ; in gauge, the sound of 
long a, (as in page ;) in hautboy, the sound of 
long ,• and in cauliflower, laudanum, and 
laurel, it is commonly pronounced with the 
sound of short o ; as, col'iflower, &c. 


34. This diphthong has the sound of broad a, 
bawl and baU being pronounced exactly alike. 


35. This diphthong has the sound of long a, as 
in pay, hay, &c. ; except in quay, which is pro- 
nounced ke ; and in Sunday, Monday, &c., the 
last syllable is pronounced as if written Sundy, 

36. The regular sound of this diphthong is 
that of long e ; as in heat, hear, pronounced like 
beet, here ; but there are many words in which 
it has the sound of short e ; as, head, dead, ready, 
&c. In a few words it has the sound of long a ; 
as m break, steak, great, bear, bearer, forbear, for- 
twear, pear, swear, tear, wear. In some words it 
has the sound of a in fax ; as in heart, hearten, 
hearty, hearth, hearken; and, when unaccented, 
It has on ly an obscure sound, as in vengeance, 


37. This triphthong is used only in words 
derived from the French In beauty it has the 

sound of long u ; but its regular sound is thai 
of long o, as'in beau, bureau, fiamAeau, &c. 


38. This diphthong is almost always pro- 
nounped like long e; the principal exception* 
are been, (bin,) and breeches, (britches.) The 
poetical contractions e'er and ne^er, for ever and 
nxver, are pronounced as if written air and nair 


39. This diphthong has most commonly tna 
sound of long a, as in deign, eight, feign, feint, 
freight, heinous, inveigh, neigh, neighbor, veil, 
weight, hdr, their, &c. But there are many ex- 
ceptions. It has the sound of long e in ceil, 
ceiling, conceit, conceive, deceit, deceive, inveigle, 
perceive, receipt, receive, seize, seizin, seignior 
seigniory, seine ; commonly also in either, neither 
and leisure. (See Either, Neither, and Lei- 
sure.) It has the sound of long i in height and 
sleight ; of short e in heifer and nonpareil ; and, 
in an unaccented syllable, an indistinct sound 
of i, as in counterfeit, foreign, foreigner, forfeit, 
forfeiture, sovereign, sovereignty, surfeit. 


40. This diphthong is pronounced like long o 
in yeoman, and like long e in people ; like short e 
in jeopard, jeopardy, leopard, feoffee, f coffer, feoff- 
ment ; like broad o (as in nor) in georgic ; like 
long u in feod,feodal,feodary, (which are writter 
also feud, feudal, feudary ;) and, when unac 
cented, it has the indistinct sound of u, o, or i 
as in bludgeon, curmudgeon, dudgeon, dungeon 
gudgeon, habergeon, luncheon, puncheon, trun- 
cheon, surgeon, sturgeon, scutcheon, escutcheon, 
pigeon, vndgeon. 


41. This diphthong is always sounded ' 
long u, as vafeud, deuce. 


42. This diphthong is almost always sounded 
like long u, or eu, as in few, hew, new ; but if r 
precedes it, it takes the sound of oo, or of ft in 
rule, as in brew, crew, drew. \n the words shew 
and strew, (written also show and strow,i this 
diphthong has the sound of long o, as it also 
has in the verb to seto, and commonly also in the 
word sewer, a drain See Sewer. 


43. This diphthong has the sound of long 


«, as m hey, dey, grey, hey, prey, they, whey, 
tonvey, obey, purvey, survey, eyre, eyry. In key 
and ley, it has the sound of long e ; and, when 
unaccented, it has the slight sound of e, as in 
Roiley, valley, &c. 


44. This diphthong, in the terminations ud, 
ian, and iard, is often united in one syllable, 
the I being sounded like y ; as. Christian, Jilial, 
poniard, pronounced aa if written Christ'yan, 
JU'yal, pon'yard. In some words it has the ob- 
scure sound of indistinct short i, as in carriage, 
marriage, parliamevi. 


45. The regular sound of this diphthong is 
that of long e, as in chief, fief, Jiend, grenadier, 
grief, grieve, lief, liege, thief, &c. It has the 
sound of long i in die, hie, lie, pie, vie, &c.; 
and the #ound of short e in friend. 


46. The regular sound of this diphthong is 
that of long o, as in boat, coat, coal, foal, loaf, 
moat, &c. ; but in broad, abroad, and groat, it has 
the sound of broad a. 


47. This diphthong is derived from the Greek 
and Latin, and it is retained in but very few 
words used in English. It is found in assqfcet- 
ida, where it is pronounced like short e, and in 
(Edema, (Esophagus, ardced, also often in fatus, 
(often written fetus,) in which it has the sound 
of long e. 


48. This triphthong is found only in the word 
marueuwe, and it has the sound of oo in moon, 
or of u in ride, 

OI and OY. 

49. The sound of these diphthongs is the 
same ; and it is noted in this Dictionary, aa it 
is in that of Walker and in other Dictionaries, 
by the sound of b-oad o, (as in nor,) and short i. 
Although this is the manner in which Walker 
marks these letters in his Dictionary, yet in his 
"Principles," he says, « The general, and almost 
universal, sound of this diphthong is that of a 
in water (the same as o in nor) and the first e in 
tietre." Perhaps a better mode of representing 
iie sound of this diphthong would be to mark 
Jie t and the y with a dot under them, to de- 

note the obscure sound, or by the use of an a 
witli the same mark ; as, bSil or boel, bdy or bSe, 
Some orthoepists mark both letters short. There 
is no disagreement with respect to the sound 
itself, but merely with regard to the mode of 
representing it. 


50. The regular sound of this diphthong la 
heard in moon, food, stoop ; and it is the same 
as that of single o in mmie, prove. 

51. This diphthong has a shorter sound (the 
same as the sound of u in bvU, or of single o in 
wolf) in the following words: hook, brook, cook, 
crook, foot, good, hood, hook, look, shook, stood, 
understood, udthstood, wood, and wool ; and also, 
according to some orthoepists, in rook and soot. 
Walker says, diat "foot, good, hood, stood, un 
derstood, withstood, wood, and wool, are the only 
words where this diphthong has this middle 
sound." But the rest of the words above enu- 
merated are pronounced with the same sound 
of this diphthong by other orthoepists, as wel 
as by common usage. Smart says, that the pro- 
nunciation assigned by Walker to book {bdk] 
"is a decided provincialism." 

52. This diphthong has the sound of long o 

in door and. floor; and of short u in blood and 



53. This is the most irregular diphthong in the 
language. Its most common or regular sound 
is that in which both letters are sounded, as in 
bound, sound, cloud, loud, our, shout, south, &c. 

54. This diphthong has the sound of short u in 
country, cousin, couple, accouple, double, trouble, 
southern, courage, encourage, flourish, nourish, 
nourishment, enough, chough, rough, tough, toueh, 
touchy, young, youngster, &c. It has the sound 
of o in mjyoe, or oo in moon, in accoutre, ag- 
group, group, croup, bouge, amour, paramour, 
bouse, bousy, capouch, cartouch, rouge, soup, stir- 
tout, tour, contour, detour, tourney, tournament, 
through, uncouth, you, your, youth, and also in 
various other words derived from the French. 
It has the sound of long o in court, accourt, cout 
tier, course, concourse, recourse, discourse, source, 
resource, four, fourth, pour, though, although, 
dough, would, moult, mourn, shoulder, smoulder, 
poult, poultice, poultry, soul. It has the sound 
of broad a, as in ball, or of o, as in nor, in 
bought, brougM, fought, ought, nought sought, 
besought, thought, wrought. It has the soimd of 
M in bull, or of oo in good, in could, should 
umdd. It has the sound of short o, or, accord 



ing to some orthoepists, of broad a, in cough and 
trough, rhyming with off and scoff. 


55. The regular sound of this diphthong, the 
same as the regular sound of ou, is heard in 
how, now, down, town, tower, &c. It has the 
Bound of long o in below, bestow, blow, crow, 
flow, Jlown, grow, grown, growth, glow, know, 
knoion, owe, own, owner, show, snow, soum, 
straw, throw, throum ; also iu the following 
words, in some of their senses : bow, low, lower, 
mow, shower, sow. 

56. When this diphthong forms a final or un- 
accanted syllable, it has the slight sound of long 
0, as in borrow, follow, follower. 


57. When both the letters of this diphthong 
are sounded, they have the power of wa, as in 
equal, language, persuade. In some words the 
u is silent, as in guard, guardian, guarantee, 
piquant; and m victuals and victualling, both 
the letters are silent 


58. When these letters are united m a diph- 
thong, and are both sounded, they have the 
power of we, as in consuetude, desuetude, man- 
suetude, conquest. In some words the u is 
Bilent, as in guerdon, gu^ss, guest. When this 
diphthong is final, the e is in many words silent, 
as in due, hue, pursue, value, &c. ; and in some 
words both letters are silent, as in league, far 
tigue, harangue, tongue, antique, oblique, deca- 
logtie, demagogue, dialogue, &c. 


59. These letters, when united in a diphthong, 
and both sounded, have the power of loi, as in 
anguish, languid, vanquish. In some wwds the 
u is silent, as in guide, guile, build, guinea; and 
in others the i is sUent, as in juice, pursuit, 
fruit, &c. 


60. The consonants are divided into mutes 
and semi-vowds. The mutes cannot be sounded 
at all without the aid of a vowel. They are 6, 
d, k, p, t, and c and g hard. 

61, The semi-vowels have an imperfect sound 
of themselves. They are /, I, m, n, r, s, v, x, z, 
ind c and g soft. 

62. The four semi-vowels, I, m, «, and r, ar« 
also called liquids, because they readily unite 
with other consonants, flowing, as it were, into 
their sounds. 

63. The following consonants are styled den- 
tals, namely, d, j, s, t, z, and g soft, being pro- 
nounced chiefly by the aid of the teeth ; d, g, j, 
k, I, n, and q, are called palatals, from the use 
made of the palate in pronouncing them ; b, p 
f, V, and m, are called labials, being pronounced 
chiefly by the lips ; m, n, and the digraph ng" 
are called nasab, being sounded through the 
nose ; and k, q, c and g hard, are called gut- 
turals, being sounded by the throat 


64. B, preceded by m in the same syllable, 
is generally silent ; as, lamb, limb, comb, dumb 
&c. ; Tbut succumb is an exception. It is silenl 
also before { in the same syllable, as in debt, 
doubt, redoubt, &c. 


65. This letter is hard, and sounds \\ke k, be- 
fore a, 0, and u ; and it is soft, and sounds like s, 
before e, i, and y; except in sceptic and sdrrhm 
and their derivatives, in which it is hard, like k. 

66. When c comes after the accent, and is fol- 
lowed by eo, ia, io, or eous, it takes, like s and t, 
the sound of sh; as, ocean, social, tenacious, ce- 
taceous. In the words discern, sacrifice, suffice, 
and sice, and several words derived from discern, 
sacryke, and suffice, c has the sound of z 


67. The regular English sound of this di 
graph is the same as that of tch, or tsh^ as in 
chair, child, rich, church. When ch follows { 
or n, as in bdch, bench, JUch, Walker, Jameson, 
and Fulton, designate the sound by sh, as bekh, 
bensh, fish; but other orthoepists, Sheridan, 
Perry, Jones, Knowles, and Smart, give to ch, 
thus situated, the same sound as in rich. 

68. In words derived from the ancient lan- 
guages, ch is generally hard, like k, as in ache, 
alchemy, anarch, anarchy, anchor, anchoret, ca- 
chexy, catechism, chalcography, chalybeate, chame- 
leon, chamomile, chaos, character, chasm, chdy, 
chemistry, chimera, chirography, chiromancy 
choler, chorus, chord, chorography, chyle, chyme, 
cochleary, conch, distich, echo, echinus, epocK 
eunuch, hemistich, hierarch, hierarchy, machinaL 
machination, mechanic, mechanism, monarch, nut 
narchiccU, orchestra, orchestre, pentateuch, scheme 
schesis, scholar, school, stomach, stomachic, &c 


The exceptions are charity, chart, and charter. 
Ch is hard in all words in which it is followed 
by Z or r ; as, chlorosis, Christian. 

69. When arch, signifying chief, begins a 
word from the Greek language, and is followed 
Uy a vowel, it is pronounced ark, as in arch- 
ftng%2, architect, archive, archipelago, archetype, 
vrchiepiscopal, archidiacorud, architrave, archaism, 
ttrclueology; but when arch is prefixed to an Eng- 
lish word, it is pronounced so as to rhyme with 
march; as, archbishop, archduke, arch-Jiend. In 
drachm, schism, and yctcht, ch is silent. 


70. The termination erf, assumed by the pre- 
terit and participle, in some words takes the 
sound of d added to the preceding syllable ; as, 
healed, sealed, pronounced heald, scald; and in 
some it takes the sound of t, added in the same 
manner ; as, distressed, mixed, pronounced distrest, 
mixt. Some words, which, when used as parti- 
ciples, are pronounced in one syllable, are, when 
used as adjectives, pronounced in two ; as, 
learned, blessed, winged. 


71. This letter has a uniform sound, except 
in the preposition of, in which it has the sound 
of V. 


72. G, like c, has two sounds, one hard and 
the other soft. It is hard before a, o, and u. 
The only exception is gaol, which is commonly 
written, as well as pronounced, jaU. 

73. G, before e, i, and y, is sometimes hard and 
sometimes soft It is generally soft before words 
derived from the Greek, Latin, and French, and 
hard before words from the Saxon ; and these last, 
being much the smaller number of the words of 
this sort, may be regarded as exceptions. 

74. It is hard before e in gear, geek, geese, 
geld, gelt, gelding, get, gewgaw, shagged, 
tKagged, cragged, ragged, scragged, dogged, 
rugged, dagger, stagger, swagger, trigger, dog- 
ger, pettifogger, tiger, anger, eager, auger, finger, 
linger, conger, longer, stronger, younger, longest, 
strongest, youngest ; before i, in gibber, gibber- 
ish, gibbous, gibcat, giddy, gift, gig, giggle, gig- 
gler, gild, gill, gimlet, gimp, gird, girdle, girl, 
girt, girth, gizzard, begin, give, forgive, biggin, 
viggin, noggin, druggist, waggish, hoggish, 
sluggish, rigging, digging, &c. ; before y, in 
ioggy, buggy, cloggy, craggy, foggy, dreggy, 
jaggy, knaggy, muggy, quaggy, scraggy, shag- 
VI snaggy, swaggy, twiggy. 


75. The g in longer, (the comparative of long, 
stronger, younger, longest, strongest, and young 
est, must articulate the e ; and these words aro 
pronounced as if written witii gg. Thus longer 
the comparative of long, is pronounced long'ger, 
and longer, one who longs, long'er. 


76. In this digraph, at the beginning of a 
word, the h is silent, as in ghost, ghastly, gher- 
kin ; at the end of words, both letters are com- 
monly silent, as in high, nigh, sigh, thigh, neigh, 
weigh, inveigh, sleigh, hough, dough, thmgh, 
although, plough, furlough, through, ihorougli, 
borough. In some words this digraph has the 
sound of /, as in enough, rough, tough, trough, 
cough, chough, laugh, laughter; in some, the 
sound of k, as in hough, shough, lough. In 
dough and slough, it is sometimes silent, and 
sometimes has the sound of/. 


77. In this termination the letters gA aia 
always silent ; as, fight, right, height, &c. ; ex- 
cept in draught, which is pronounced, and ia 
some of its senses usually written, draft. 


78. This letter is a note of aspiration, and it 
is silent at the beginning of a number of words 
as, heir, heiress, honor, honesty, honorable, herb 
herbage, hostler, hour, &c. In hospital, hum- 
ble, humor, humorous, and humxirsome, according 
to some orthoepists it is silent, and according 
to others it is sounded. It is always silent after 
r, as in rheum, rhetoric, rhapsody, &c. 


79. This letter has the same sound as c 
hard, and is always silent before n, as in knet, 
kneel, know, &c. 


80. L is silent in many words ; as in calf, half, 
chalk, talk, balm, calm, would, could, should, &o 


81. M always preserves its sound, except in 
accompt, accomptant, and comptroller ; more com- 
monly written account, accountant, and con- 


82. JV has two sounds, one simple and pure^ 
as in man, not ; the other compound and mixed, 
as in hang, thank, banquet, acinous the threo 


hst being pronounced as if written thangk, 
tang'qtiet, angMshus. 

83. JV is mute when it ends a syllable and 
IS preceded by / or m, as in kiln, hymn, limn, 
column, avtumn, solemn, condemn, contemn, &c. 


84. P is silpnt before s and t at the begin- 
'n:ng of words, as in psalm, psalter, ptisan. 


R5. This digraph generally has the sound of 
/, as in physic, philosophy, &c. In nephew and 
Stephen, it has the sound of u ; and in diphihong, 
itriphthong, naphtha, &c., the h is silent. 


86. Q is always followed by it, and the di- 
graph qu has commonly the sound of kw, as in 
queen, quill, qruai; but, in many words derived 
from the French, it has the sound of A, as in 
..coquet, etiquette, masquerade, &c. 


■87. The letter r has a jarring or trilling 
.effect on the tongue, and it is never silent. It 
•has a peculiar influence on both the long and 
'the short sound of the vowels. It has the effect, 
■under certain circumstances, to change tlie short 
'Sound df a, as in man, into its Italian sound, as in 
far, and the short sound of o, as in not, into its 
'broad sound, like broad a, as in nor ; and it has 
- a corresponding effect on the short sound of the 
•<>ther vowels. — (See pages x and xi.) — When 
-r is preceded by a long vowel, it has sometimes 
ilhe effect of confounding the syllables. Thus 
the monosyllables hire, more, roar, sore, and 
Jlour, are pronounced precisely like the dissyl- 
\la.t)leB higher, mower, rower, sower, and Jlower. 
88. There is a difference of opinion among 
lOrthoepists resjiecting the letter r. Johnson 
-eays, that " it has one constant sound in Eng- 
lish;" and the same view of it is maintained 
by Kenrick, Sheridan, Perry, Jones, Jameson, 
and Knowles. Walker, on the contrary, says, 
"There is a distinction in the sound of this 
.etter scarcely ever noticed by any of our 
writers on the subject, which is, in my opinion, 
of no small importance ; and that is, the rough 
and the smooth r." The following is the view 
given by Smart : " K is a decided consonant 
when 11 begins a syllable with or without 
mother consonant, as in ra,y, pray, and also 
when it ends a syllable, if it should be so cir- 
«unstanced that, ending one, it alsc begins the 

next, as m and, tarry, peril, berry, spirit, Jlor:t 
hurry. Here the r has the same effect on th« 
previous vowel that any other consonant would 
have ! that is to say, it stops, or renders the 
vowel essentially short. But, under other cir- 
cumstances, final r is not a decided consonant 
and therefore the syllables ar, er, ir, or, ur, are 
not coincident, as to the vowel sound in each, 
with at, et, it, ot, ut; neither do the vowel 
sounds in fare, mere, ire, ore, ure, poor, war, 
quite identify with those in faie, mMe, ide, ode. 
cube, pool, owl." 


89. The regular or genuine sound of « is its 
sharp, sibilant, or hissing sound, like c soft, as in 
son, this. It has also a fiat or soft sound, (called 
by some its vocal sound,) the same as that of the 
letter z, as in wise, his. 

90. S has always its sharp, hissmg sound at 
the beginning of words, as son, safe ; also at the 
end of words when they terminate in as, except 
the words as, has, was, whereas, and the plural 
of nouns ending en, as seas, pleas ; in all words 
ending in ss, as less, express ; in all words end- 
ing in is, except the monosyllables is and his ; 
in all words ending in uj and ous, as genitis, 
famous ; in all words when preceded, in the 
same syllable, by either of the mutes k, p, t, or 
by/, as locks, hats, caps, muff's. 

91. i9 final has the sound of z when it imme- 
diately follows any consonant, except the mutes 
k, p, t, the semi-vowel f, and th aspirated, as in 
ribs, heads, hens ; also when it forms an additional 
syllable with e before it, in the plural of nouns 
and the third person singular of verbs, as in 
churches, boxes, prices ; likewise in some verbs 
ending in se, to distinguish them from nouns 
and adjectives of the same form, as abuse, use, 
dose, diffuse, as distinguished from the nouns 
and adjectives abuse, use, dose, diffuse. But it 
is impossible to give rules which will enable 
one to see, in all cases, how s is to be pro- 
nounced, whether with its sharp, hissing sound, 
or its flat or soft sound, like z. 

92. S aspirated, or sounding like sh or zh. — 
5 takes the sound of sh in words ending in sion, 
preceded by a consonant, as in diversion, expul 
sion, dimension, passion, mission, &c. ; also in 
the following words: censure, tensure, tonsure, 
sensual, fissure, sdssure, pressure, compressure, 
impressure, sure, assure, insure, nauseate, nau- 
seous, exosseous, sugar, sumach. 

93. S has the sound of zh in the termiiiatioi 
sion, preceded by a vowel, as in evasion, cohf 



lum, decisinn. explosion, contitsion, &c. ; also in 
A number of words in wiiich s is preceded by 
an accented vowel, and followed by the termi- 
nation ure, as in measure, pleasure, displeasure, 
treasure, rasure, closure, disclosure, enclosure, ex 
posure, composure, incisure, leisure ; also in sev- 
eral words ending in sier; as, crosier, cosier, 
osier, hosier, rosier, brasier, grasier ; also in am- 
lirosui, anArosial, elysium, dysian. 

t)4. T, like s and c, is aspirated when it 
comes immediately after the accent, and is 
followed by the vowels ia, ie, or to, taking the 
(ound, in these cases, of sA, as in partial, patient, 
natfon, partition, &c. 


95. This digraph has two sounds ; one, hard, 
Bliarp, or aspirate, as in thin, think, earth, breath, 
&c. ; the other, flat, soft, or vocal, as in this, the, 
then, hreathe, &c. 

96. At the beginning of words, this digraph 
IS generally sharp, as in thin, thorn. The ex- 
ceptions are the following words, with their 
compounds ; the, this, that, thou, thee, thy, thine, 
their, theirs, them, these, those, there, therefore, 
then, thence, thither, though, thus. At the end 
of words it is generally sharp, as in death, 
breath, &c. ; but at the end of some verbs it is 
flat, as to smooth, to mouth ; also in the follow- 
ing, which are written with a final e .• to bathe, 
to bequeathe, to breathe, to clothe, to loathe, to 
iheathe, to soothe, to swathe, to lereathe. 

97. In some nouns, it is sharp in the singular, 
Rs in bath, path ; and flat in the plural, as baths, 
paths. In some words the h is silent, as in 
Thomas, thyme. 


98. W, at the beginning of words, is a con- 
sonant It is always silent before r; as, unite, 
wren, wrist, &c. 


99. This digraph is sounded as it would natu- 
rally be if the order of the letters were reversed, 
thus, hw; as, when, while, whip, pronounced 
hwen, kurile, hwip. In some words the w is 
lilent; as, who, whole, &c. 


100. The regular sound of x is its sharp 
wiund, like ks ; as, excellence, execute, expect, tax. 

101. It has a flat or soft sound, like gz, when 
Uie next syllable following begins with an ac- 
cented vowel, as in exalt, example, exert, execu- 

tor; also in some words derived from pfmutivet 
which have the sound of gz in them ; as, exalta- 
tion, exemplary. 

102. At the beginning of words, it has tfie 
sound of z, as in Xenophon, xylography. 

103. X is aspirated, and taKes tlie sound ot 
ksh, in some words, when the accent immediately 
precedes it ; as, Jluxion, complexion, anxious 


104. This letter has the same sound as fla» 
or soft a. It is aspirated, taking the sound of 
zh, in a few words ; as, brazier, glazier, grazier 
vizier, azure, razure, seizure. 


105. All the words in the English language ot 
more than one syllable, have one accented sylla- 
ble ; and most polysyllabic words have not only 
a syllable with the primary accent, but also one 
with a secondary accent. 

106. It is the general tendency of the Ian 
guage to place the accent on the first syllable 
of dibsyllables, and on the antepenultimate of 
polysyllables. The exceptions, however, are so 
numerous, that this is not to be regarded as a 
rule, but only as a general tendency of the Ian 
guage. With respect to verbs of two syllables, 
the tendency is to place the accent on tho 
second syllable. 

107. A large part of the words of the English 
language, especially of the polysyllables, are de- 
rived from the Latin and Greek languages ; and, 
with respect to the accent of such words, these 
languages have great influence ; though, in re- 
lation to many of them, the analogy of the Eng- 
lish prevails over that of the original language. 

108. Words which are adopted from the Latin 
language into the English without any change 
of orthography, generally retain the Latin ac- 
cent, especially if they are terms of the arts 
and sciences, or words somewhat removed from 
common usage. The following words have the 
accent on the penultimate syllable, both in Latin, 
and English: abdomen, acumen, asylum^ bitur- 
men, curator, decorum, delator, dictator, horizon, 
spectator, testator. 

109. Some words which have the accent on 
the penult in Latin, are conformed to the Eng- 
lish analogy, and have the accent on the ante- 
penult; as, cmditor, character, cicatrix, orator 
minister, plethora, senator, sinister. 

110. Monosyllables are generally marked, 01 



proiDuncing dictionaries, with the distinct 
sounds of the vowels, as they are pronounced 
when uttered distinctly; but, in reading and 
speaking, a great part of them, especially the 
particles, as a, an, the, and, at, of, in, on, &c., 
dre generally uttered so as to give only an indis- 
tinct or obscure sound to the vowels. 

111. Simple words of two syllables have only 
one syllable accented, except the word amen, 
which, Walker says, "is the only word in the 
language which has necessarily two consecu- 
tive accents." There are, however, many com- 
pound words of two syllables which have both 
syllables more or less accented; as, backslide, 
downfall, highway, lighthouse, sometimes, way- 
lay, windmill, &c. 

112. Many words of three and four syllables 
nave only one accented syllable; as, sensible, 
penalty, reliance, occurrence, republic, admirable, 
agreeable, celebrity, congenial, chalybeate, &c. But 
some l\ave a secondary accent almost as strong 
as the primary; as, advertise, artisan, partisan, 
complaisant, caravan, countermand, reprimand, 
contraband, commodore, reprehend, navigator, 
regulator, detrimental, judicature, caricature, ani- 
madvert, &c. 

113. Almost all words of more than four syl- 
lables have both a primary and a secondary 
accent ; and some words of seven or eight syl- 
.ables have one primary and two secondary ac- 
cents ; as, indivisibility, incomprehensibility. 

114. The following list of dissyllables, when 
ised as nouns oj; adjectives, have the accent on 
Jie first syllable; and when used as verbs, on 
the second: — 

J^ouns or 


JVowTls or 






A b'sent 










Con 'tract 






















Col lect 












Com'pound compound' 
















. conduct' 



Con fine 








JWmttj or 






































































115. Of the words m the above table, cement 
complot, essay, increase, perfume, permit, survey 
and undress, when used as nouns, are often 
pronounced with the accent on the second syl- 
lable. — See these words in the Dictionary 

See also the words Contents, Detail, and Rb" 
TAii., which are more or less conformed to thi» 
analogy, with respect to the accent 

116. The following trisyllables, when nouna, 
are accented on the first syllable ; and when 
verbs, on the third: — 



117. A similar analogy hajs influence iv 
changing the accent of many other words, 
which are used as verbs, and also as nouns of 
adjectives. Thus, counterbalance and overbal- 
ance, when nouns, have the accent on the first 
syllable, and when verbs, on the third: and 
attribute, as a noun, is accented on the first syl- 
lable, and as a verb, on the second. A class of 
words with the termination ate, have the dis. 
tinct sound of long a, when used as verbs, anc 























me indistinct or obscure sound of a, when used 
lis nouns or adjectives ; of this class are deliber- 
ate, intimate, mediate, inoderate, &c. The word 
interest, when used as a verb, is pronounced with 
a more distinct sound of short e, in the last syl- 
lable, than when used as a noun. The verb to 
prophesy has the full sound of long y ; and the 
Qoun prophecy, the obscure sound of y ov e. So 
the whole class of verbs ending in Jy are pro- 
nounced with the distinct sound of long y. 

118. There is a difference in the pronuncia- 
tion of the following words, when used as nouns 
or adjectives, and when used as verbs. This 
difference is somewhat analogous to the change 
of accent in the preceding lists of words. 







119. All words ending in sion and tion have 
ihe accent on the penultimate syllable ; as, dis- 
un'rion, declara'tion, meditaftion, &c. 

120. Words ending in ia, iac, ial, ian, eoiis, 
and tow*, have the accent on the preceding syl- 
lable ; as, rega'lia, dema'niae, impe'rial, merid'ian, 
tponta'neous, mdo'dious. If c, g, s, t, or x, pre- 
cedes the vowels e or i, in these terminations, 
tliese vowels are generally blended with the 
vowel or vowels which follow, being pronounced 
in one syllable ; as, benefi'cial, magi'cian, fari- 
na'ceous, loqua'cioua, dissen'sious, coura'geoiis, 
conta'gious, corden'tious. The only exception 
to this rule, in relation to placing the accent, is 
the word elegiac, which is commonly pronounced 
slegi'ac, though some pronounce it, in accordance 
with the rule, elefgiac. — See Eleoiac. 

121. Words ending in acal and ical have the 
accent on the antepenultimate syllable ; as, hdi'- 
aeal, alphabel'{cal,fanal'ical,geograph'ical, poet'i- 
cal, &c. In words of this termination, the vowels 
jr. the accented syllables, if followed by a con- 
sonant, are snort, except u, which is long; as, 
'j/bical, mu'sical, scorbu'tical. 

122. Words ending in ic have the accent on 
the penultimate syllable ; as, algebra'ic, metaVlic, 
tpidem'ic, scientific, harmon'ic, paralyfie. If a 
consonant immediately precedes the i, the 
vowels in the accented syllable are short, ex- 
cept the fowel m, which is long if it is followed 
by a sn^lj consonant; as, cheru'bic, scorbu'tic, 
ndph.i' it iellu'ric, &c. ; but if u is followed by 

two consonants, it is sometimes short; as,/i«'<ic, 
rus'tic ; and sometimes long ; as, ru'bric, lu'bric. 
The following words, which are exceptions to 
this rule, have the accent on tlie antepenulti- 
mate syllable : ar'senic, (as a noun,) arith'metic, 
bish'opric, cath'olic, choVeric, ephem'esric, her'etie, 
lu'natic, pol'itic, rhet'oric, and tur'meric. The 
following words, according to some orthoepists, 
are conformed to the rule, and according to 
others, they are exceptions to it : dvmaderic, em 
piric, phlegmatic, splenetic — See these wordt 
in the Dictionary. 

123. Words of three or more syllables, enu 
ing in eal, have their accent on the antepenulti 
mate syllable ; as, bo'real, corpo'reai, incorpo'real, 
cu'neal, empyr'eal, ethefreal, fune'real, homogtf 
neal, hderoge'neal, ladteal, lin'eal, or'deal, svhter 
ra'neal; except hymene'al; which has the penul 
timate accent 

124. Of words ending in ean, the following 
being conformed to the English analogy, have 
the accent on the antepenultimate syllable : ce- 
ru'lean, hyperbo'rean, hercu'lean, mediterra'nean, 
subterra'nean, tarta'rean; but the following are 
pronounced by the principal orthoepists, in ac- 
cordance with the best usage, with the accent 
on the penultimate : adamante'an, MlarMan, 
colosse'an, empyre'an, epicure' an, Europe'an, hy 
mene'an, pygme'an. With regard to European, 
Walker remarks as follows : " This word, ac- 
cording to the analogy of our own language, 
ought certainly to have the accent on the second 
syllable ; and this is the pronunciation which 
unlettered speakers constantly adopt; but the 
learned, ashamed of the einalogies of their own 
tongue, always place the accent on the tliird 
syllable, because Europceus has the penulti 
mate long, and is therefore accented in Latin. 
Epicurean has the accent on the same syllable 
by the same rule ; while herculean and cervltan 
submit to English analogy, and have their ac- 
cent on the second syllable, because their pe- 
nultimate in Latin is snort" 

125. Words ending in tvde, ejy, ify, and iiy 
have their accent on the antepenultimate ; as 
for'titude, rar'efy, diver'sify, Mberai'ity, impu'rity 
variety, insensibil'ily. 

126. Words of three or more syllables end 
ing in idous, inous, eroiis, and orous, have the 
accent on the antepenultimate ; as, sed'ulotis, 
voMminous, vociferous, camit/orous ; except 
cano'rous and sono'rous, which have the accent 
on the penultimate. 

127. Words of three or more syllables endii^ 
in ative have the accent on the antepenultimate 



•r oil the preceding syllable ; as, rel'cdive, appeV- 
•ative, commu'nwative, spec'ulative. The only ex- 
eeption is crea'tive. 

la8. Words ending in live, preceded by a con- 
»o lant, have the accent on the penultimate ; as, 
ait'aClwe, invec'tive, presump'tive ; except ad'jec- 
tivi ana sub'stantive. 


1S9. The pronunciation of the English lan- 
^lage, like that of all living languages, is in a 
great measure arbitrary. It is exposed to the 
caprices of fashion and taste. It is liable to 
change from one age to another ; and it varies, 
jnore or less, not only in tlie different and dis- 
tantly separated countries in which it is spoken, 
but also in the different divisions and districts 
of the same country. No two speakers or or- 
thoepists, though inhabitants of the same place, 
would be likely to agree in the pronunciation of 
all its words. The standard of pronunciation is 
not the authority of any dictionary, or of any or- 
thoepist ; but it is the present usage of literary 
and well-bred society. 

130. Tlie question may be asked. Where is 
this standard to be sought, — this usage to be 
ascertained ? To this it may be answered, that 
London is the great metropolis of English litera- 
ture ; and that it has an incomparably greater 
influence than any other city in giving law, in 
relation to style and pronunciation, to the many 
millions who write and speak the language. 
The English orthocpists naturally refer to the 
usage of the best society in London as their 
principal standard ; but the usage of good so- 
ciety in that city is not uniform, and no two 
orthoepists would perfectly agree with each 
other in attempting to exhibit it. 

131. It may be further asked. How far is it 
proper for the people of the United States to be 
guided, in then- pronunciation, by the usage of 
London ? To this it may be answered, that it is 
advisable for American writers and speakers to 
conform substantially to the best models, whei^ 
ever they may be found ; and so long as London 
holds its rank as the great metropolis of the lit- 
erature of the English language, so long it must 
nave a predominating influence with respect to 
writing and speaking it If the influence of the 
usage of London were discarded, where should 
we seek for a usage that would be generally 
ickcowlolged as entitled to higher authority.' 

There is no one city in tne United Sfc.tes whiCB 
holds a corresponding rank, as a centre of in 
telhgence and fashion, — no one which is tha 
central and undisputed metropolis of Angit*- 
American literature, as London is of Englisn 
literature. The pronunciation in the United 
States is, indeed, now substantially conformed 
to the usage of London. The works of the 
English orthoepists, who have regarded tbs 
usage of London as their standard, have been 
as generally circulated and used in this country, 
as they have been in England ; and there is, un- 
doubtedly, a more general conformity to London 
usage in pronunciation throughout the United 
States, than there is throughout Great Britain. 

132. Although it is not to be questioned, that, 
with respect to the many millions who speak the 
English language, the usage of London is en 
titled to far more weight than that of any other 
city, yet this is not the only thing to be ob- 
served. The usage of the best society in the 
place or district in which one resides, is not to 
be disregarded. If our pronunciation is agreea- 
ble to the analogy of the language, and coi> 
formed to the practice of the best society with 
which we have intercourse, we may have no 
sufficient reason to change it, though it should 
deviate, more or less, from the existing usa^-e 
of London. A proper pronunciation is, indeed, 
a desirable accomplishment, and is indicative 
of a correct taste and a good education ; still it 
ought to be remembered, that, in speech as in 
manners, he who is the most precise is often the 
least pleasing, and that rusticity is more excu 
sable than affectation. 

133. "For pronunciation," says Dr. Johwon,. 
" the best general rule is to consider those as 
the most elegant speakers who deviate least 
from the written words." There are many 
words of which the pronunciation in England 
IS, at present, better conformed to the spelling 
than it was formerly ; and the principle of con 
formity between the manner of writing and 
speaking the language, has been carried some 
what farther in the United States than in Eng- 
land. This IS a principle which seems worthy 
of being encouraged, rather than checked. 

134. Much ingenuity and labor have been 
employed by various orthoepists, in their efforts 
to settle the pronunciation of the language ; and 
different systems of notation for designating tha 
sounds of the letters have been adopted. But 
it has been found difficult to form such a system 
as will correctly represent all the various souivt' 
of the letters, and not be liable to mislead ai * 



i such a s/stem ware formed, it would be a 
difficult jiid delicate matter to make a correct 
application of it to all cases. The language, 
B8 it respects pronunciation, has many irregu- 
larities, which cannot be subjected to any gen- 
eral rules ; and with regard to the pronunciation 
of particular words, the instances are numerous 
m relation to which there is a disagreement 
among the best orthoepists. 

135. In the preparation of this work, Pao- 
wuNciATioN has been made a special object, 
nd has received particular attention. A promi- 
nent feature in the plan consists in the exhibi- 
tion of authorities respecting words of various, 
doubtful, or disputed pronunciation; and this 
work is so constructed as to exhibit, with re- 
spect to all this class of words, for which a pro- 
nouncing dictionary is chiefly wanted, the modes 
m which they are pronounced by all the most 
eminent English orthoepists. The number of 
primitive words respecting which the authorities 
are presented, amounts to upwards of two thou- 
sand ; and, in addition to these, tliis process also 

determines the pronunciation of a .arge number 
of derivatives. As the pronunciation of these 
words is regulated by usage, and as there is 
a great diversity, with regard to them, both 
among good speakers and professed orthoepists, 
the exhibition of the different authorities seems 
to be the most satisfactory method of treating 

136. The following Table exhibits the man- 
ner in which the pronunciation of a numoei 
of words is represented by Sheridan, Walker 
Jones, Jameson, Knowles, and Smart, togethet 
with the mode adopted in this work. Thesa 
several orthoepists have each his own peculiar 
system of notation ; but as their different meth- 
ods of marking the letters cannot be hero 
exhibited without much inconvenience, and 
without causing great confusion to the reader 
their respective modes, with regard to the re- 
speUing of the words, are presented ; and 
instead of their marks on the vowela, thosii 
employed in this work are substituted, indicat 
ing, in all cases, the banie sounds of the letters 

A bn'i-ty j-bJl'e-t? 

AT'?r-*ge Sv'fr-jj 

De-lib'er-ate, v. de-Ub'?r-at 

De-IIb'er-?te, a. de-lib'^r-^t 

Ed'y-cate ed'yv-kat 

FSat'ijro fst'yur 

Sheridan, Walker. 

&-bIl'y-ty &-bU'c-t5 

Sv'S-raje Siv'SMdje 

d5-Iib'6-rate dS-Iib'£r-ate 

d5-Iib'5-r«t de-lib'er-ate 

€d'u-kate £d'ju-kate 

fe'tshur ffi'tshure 

Im-p^t'u-ous jm-pgt'yu-3s Im-pgt'tii-iia Im-pgtsih'ii-Qs 

In't^r-Sst, V. In'ter-est 5ll't6r-est In'ter-Sst 

In't^r-est, n In'ter-est 1n'tSr-6at In'tSr-est 

In'ti-mate, v In'te-mal In'ty-mate In'tS-mate 

In^ti-m^te, a. In'te-m^t In'ty-met In'tS-mat 

MSd'er-ate, v. ra5d'er-at mSd'der-ate mod'dSr-ate 

MSd'^r-gite, a. mSd'er-^t mod'der-et mSd'dSr^t 

rmt'u-rjl nM'yu-i?l nat'tshur-61 nSt'tshu-tSl 

Nat'yre nat'yur na'tshSr na'tshure 

P-bS'dj-Srt ?-b5'd9-«nt ii-be'dzhSnt 5-be'jS-Snt 

Vxrt'y-oila vi"rt'yiji-u8 vSr'tshu-us v5r'tshi5-ua 

137. In relation to all the words here exhib- 
ited, these orthoepists agree with respect to two 
of the most important points in the pronuncia- 
tion of words, namely, tne syllable on which 
the accent is to be placed, and the quantity of 
the vowel in the accented syllable. Though 
with regard to the mode of representing the 
pronunciation of most of the above words, there 
is considerable diversity, yet it is doubtless true 
that the pronunciation intended to be expressed 
differs, in reality, much less than it would seem 
to do; and that, in numerous instances, these 
orthoepists agreed much better in their practice, 
than in their mode of indicating it 

138. There is an obvious difference in the 
quantity and stress of voice with which the last 
■vUsbles of the words deliberaie, intimate and 

Jones. Jameacn. Knowles. 

&-bIl'y-ty fi-bil'e-t5 fi-MI'it-5 &-bil'e-ta 

&v'er-Sdzh &v'6r-aje SLv'^r-fij av'er-aje 

dS-IIb'er-ate d8-lib'«r-ate de-lib'6r-^t' dS-lSb'8r-at» 

dS-lib'«r-St de-lSb'5r-ue dS-lib'Sr at' d5-Kh'6r-at« 

ed'u-kate ed'u-kate £d'u-kat' id'u-kata 

fS'tshure fMe'ySr fEt'yur fet'ch'ooi 

Im-pStsh'u-us Tii-pSt'u-us Im-pSt'u-Ss Xm-p6t'u-ii» 

ln't6r-6st In'tSr-est Tn'tSr-est in'ter-est 

ln'tSr-«st Iii't«r-«st In'l6r-«st In'ter-est 

in'ty-mate Xn'tS-mate In'tim-at' In'te-mat 

In'ty-mSt In'te-mate tn'tim-et 5n'te-mat 

mod'der-ate m9d'der-ate m5d'6r-at' mod'Sr-at 

mSd'dSr-et mSd'dSr-ate lnod'€r-€t mod'er-at 

n£Lt'tshu-rul nat'u-rai nat'y5r-5I nalt'ch'oo-rd 

Da'tshilr nate'yfir nat'yur na'ch'oor 

5-b5'dy-Snt o-be'de-Snt o-bed'ySnt o-be'de-Snt 

vSr'tshu-ii3 vir'tu-us vSr'tu-ua vSr'ch'oo-iSi 

moderate, are pronounced, when verbs and when 
adjectives. All the above ortl oepists mark the a 
long in the last syllable of all these words when 
used as verbs ; Jameson and Smart also mark 
it long in all of them when adjectives ; Walker 
shortens the o in the adjectives intimate and 
moderate ; Sheridan and Jones change the a in 
all these words, when adjectives, into short e as 
Knowles also does in the words intimate and 
moderate. But there seems to be no advantage 
in changing the letter in such cases. It is but 
slightly pronounced, and has not the distinct 
sound of either short e, or short or long a ; and. 
with respect to most of the instances in which 
the vowels in this Dictionary have a dot placed 
under them, they are so slightly pronounced, that 
to mark them with a distinct sound, either Itng 


or short, would tend rather to mislead, than to 
assist in pronouncing them. If the syllables on 
which the primary and secondary accents fall, 
»re correctly pronounced, the comparatively in- 
distinct syllables will naturally be pronounced 

139. In giving tlie authorities for pronuncia- 
lion in this Dictionary, neither the lespelling 
Bor the notation of the orthoepists cited has 
been generally exhibited, as it was necessary to 
reduce them all to one system. Their precise 
difference is not always presented with exact- 
ness ; yet the cases of failure are not important. 
The different editions of the authors used as 
authorities differ in various instances ; and it is 
sometimes impossible to ascertain whether the 
intention of the writer has not been frustrated 
by an error of the press. 

140. Two modes of pronouncing a word are, 
m many instances, given in this work, besides 
the forms included within the brackets ; and 
alternatives of this sort would have been pre- 
sented in other cases, if different modes had 
not been cited from respectable authorities. 
The reader will feel perfectly authorized to 
adopt such a form as he may choose, whether 
it is exhibited within the brackets or out of 
them ; and every one will probably, in some 
cases, prefer a mode found only within the 
brackets. The compiler has not intended, in 
any case, to give his own sanction to a form 
which IS not supported either by usage, au- 
thority, or analogy. He has, however, in some 
.nstances, in deference to the weight of au- 
thorities, given the preference to a mode, which, 
in the exercise of his own judgment, independ- 
nnt of the authorities, he would not have pre- 
ferred ; for it would be unreasonable for him to 
make a conformity to his own taste, or to the 
result of his own limited observation, a law to 
those who may differ from him, and yet agree 
with perhaps the more common usage. But, 

though it has not oeen his design to maKe "\nu 
vations, or to encourage provincial or Amencar 
peculiarities, yet he has not always given the 
preference to the mode of pronunciation which 
is supported by the greatest weight of the author- 
ities cited ; and, where orthoepists are divided, 
he has generally been inclined to conntenance 
tliat mode which is most conformable to analogy 
or to orthography. 

141. The English authorities most frequently 
cited in this volume are Sheridan, Walker, 
Peny, Jones, Enfield, Fulton and Knight, 
Jameson, Knowles, Smart, and Reid, all of 
whom are authors of Pronouncing Dictionaries. 
In addition to these, various other English 
lexicographers and orthoepists are frequently 
brought forward, as Bailey, Johnson, Kenrick, 
Ash, Dyche, Barclay, Entick, Scott, Nares, 
Rees, Maunder, Crabb, and several others ; be- 
sides the distinguished American lexicographer, 
Dr. Webster. 

142. The different English orthoepists, who 
are made use of as authorities, are entitled to 
very different degrees of respect. There is no 
one of them who has obtained a. higher and more 
widely-extended reputation than Walker ; and 
no one appears to have bestowed longer and 
more patient attention in studying the analogies 
of the language, and in ascertaining the best 
usage. But there has been considerable change 
since his time ; and some, who have succeeded 
him, have corrected some of his mistakes, and 
made improvements on his system ; and they 
may, in many cases, be considered better guides 
as to the present usage than Walker. 

143. Of the successors of Walker, Mr 
Smart appears to have given the most care 
fu] and discriminating attention to the subject; 
and he may therefore be regarded as the best 
single authority for present usage. — For fiir> 
ther notices of English orthoepists, see page 
bcv. 1 



1. The orthography of the English language 
CM beei undergoing continual changes from 
Li3 time of its first formation to the present day ; 
nor is there any reason to suppose that this habit 
of change will cease, while the language con- 
tinues to be spoken. If we look into books 
printed in the reign of Queen Anne, we meet 
with many words having an orthography different 
from that in which they are now found. If we 
carry our observation back as far as the reign of 
Queen Elizabeth, we find the difference in or- 
thography greatly increased ; and when, in our 
retrospective examination, we reach the age of 
Chaucer and Wicliffe, we find many words, 
which, though they are words now actually in 
use, are so disguised in their orthographical 
form, and are of so odd and uncouth an appear- 
ance, that they can hardly be recognized. 

2. The early productions of English literature 
which are still much read, such as the works of 
bacon. Hooker, Shakspeare, and the common 
version of the Bible, appear now in an orthogra- 
phy very different from that in which they were 
at first printed. The first four verses of the 32d 
chapter of Deuteronomy, in the first edition of 
the common version of the Bible, printed in 
1611, stand thus : " Giue eare, O yee heauens, 
and I will speake ; And heare, O earth, the 
words of my mouth. My doctrine shall drop 
as the raine : my speach shall distill as the 
deaw, as the smal raine vpon the tender herbe, 
and as the showres vpon the grasse. Because 
1 wil publish the Name of the Lord ; ascribe 
yee greatnesse vnto our God. He is the rocke, 
his worke is perfect: for all his wayes are 
ludgement : A God of trueth, and without mi- 
quity, iust and right is he." In these few lines, 
which may be taken as a specimen of the whole, 
there are twenty-seven instances in which the 
words appear in an orthography different from 
that in which they are now printed. It is not 
uncommon to find the same word spelled in 
more ways than one on the same page, as 
i« genS'ally the case with works -even of the 

most distinguished writers, printed in the earij 
ages of English literature. 

3. It is incumbent on a lexicographer, in ad- 
justing the orthography of the language, to have 
regard to etymology, analogy, and the best 
usage of his time ; and if we examine the early 
English dictionaries, we shall find that the or- 
thography is conformed to the general usage of 
the age in which they were published. Thi 
unsettled state of orthography has long been 
regarded as a reproach to the language. It is 
an evil, however, which is unavoidable, and to 
which all living languages are more or less sub- 
ject It has arisen from the want of some fixed 
standard, not varying like usage ; but such a 
standard it is in vain to seek. Some ingenious 
men have attempted to introduce a uniformity, 
and establish an invariable standard ; but these 
attempts have been attended with little success. 

4. Johnson says, in his Preface, " In adjusting 
the orthography, which has been to this time 
unsettled and fortuitous, I found it necessary to 
distinguish those irregularities that are inherent 
in our tongue, and perhaps coeval with it, from 
others which the ignorance or negligence of 
later writers has produced. Every language 
has its anomalies, which, though inconvenient, 
and in themselves once unnecessary, must be 
tolerated among the imperfections of human 
things, and which require only to be regis- 
tered, that they may not be increased, and as- 
certained, tliat they may not be confounded 
but every language has likewise its improprie- 
ties and absurdities, which it is the duty of the 
lexicographer to correct and proscribe." 

5. The Dictionary of Johnson was first pub- 
lished in 1755; and with reference to it, Mr. 
Nares, in his " Elements of Orthoepy," published 
in 1784, remarks, " The English Dictionary ap- 
peared ; and, as the weight of truth and reason 
is irresistible, its authority has nearly fixed the 
external form of our language ; and from itf 
decisions few appeals have yet been made." T 
may be readily admitted tnat no ether work evel 




had so great an influence on the English la)i- 
guage as this ; yet it is not possible that tl>e 
work of any man, or of any body of men, should 
so &i the external form of tlie language, as to 
put a stop to further alterations. Johnson justly 
says, " No dictionary of a living language ever 
can be perfect, since, while it is hastening to 
publication, some words are budding, and some 
are falling away." And he also remarks, " The 
orthography which I recommend is still contro- 
vertible." It is undoubtedly true that there 
never was before, during any century since the 
first formation of the English language, so great 
an influx of new words into it, as there has been 
since the first appearance of Johnson's Ciction- 
ary. Various other changes have taken place. 
Some words, then obsolete, have been revived ; 
some, then in use, have fallen away ; to some 
new significations have been attached ; and 
many have changed their orthography. 

6. In adjusting the orthography of this Dic- 
tionary, much care has been taken; in doing it, 
attention has been paid to etymology, analogy, 
and usage ; and in cases in which good usage is 
divided, etymology and analogy have been con- 
sulted in deciding disputable points. But no 
innovation has been made with respect to in- 
variable and settled usage. 

7. Two of the most noted diversities, with 
regard to orthography, are found in the two 
classes of words ending in ic or ick, and in or 
or our; as, music, public, or mvsick, puhlick; 
favor, honor, or favour, honour. Johnson, in 
accordance with the general, though not inva- 
riable usage of his age, wrote tliese words with 
the k and u. 

8. The use of the k, in this class of words, 
was laid aside by many ivriters before the time 
of Johnson ; and it is omitted in Martin's Dic- 
tionary, the first edition of which was published 
ji 1749. Martin says, in his Preface, " In this 
resoect [orthography] our dictionaries most cer- 
tainly want a reformation ; for they all retain the 
old way of writing technical words with the 
redundant final k after c ; as, logick, rhetorick, 
musick, &c., which later writers have justly dis- 
carded, and more neatly write hgic, rhdorie, 
music, &c. ; and accordingly they here stand in 
that form through this Dictionary.'' 

9. In the class of words referred to, the k is 
Bti.l retained in the recent editions of Johnson's 
Dictionary ; also in the dictionaries of Sheridsm, 
Walker, Jameson, and Richardson ; but in most 
of the other English dictionaries which have 
Been published since that of Johnson, it is omit- 

ted ; and Walker, although he retaite it in nit 
Dictionary, condemns the use of it, and observes^ 
that " the omission of it is too general to b(l 
counteracted even by the authority of Johnson.' 
The genera] usage is now so strongly in favor 
of its omission, that it is high time that it shoulr 
be excluded from the dictionaries. It is, how- 
ever, retained in monosyllables ; as, stick, brick, 
lock; and in some dissyllables ending in ock; as. 
hillock, hemlock, &c. The verbs to frolic, to 
mimic, to physic, and to traffic, are written with 
out a final k in the present tense ; but on assum 
ing another syllable, in forming the past tensa 
and participles, the k must be used to keep 
the c hard; as, trafficked, trctfflcking. 

10. The question respecting the letter i', in 
words ending in or or our, — as, favor, honor, or 
favour, honour, — is attended with much more 
difiiculty. Most of the words of this class are 
originally from the Latin, and are regarded as 
coming into the English through the French, 
having the termination in that language of ew; 
33, faveur, honneur ; and this is the reason as- 
signed by Johnson for retaining the u. But he 
is far from being consistent in applying the 
principle ; for, with respect to the class of words 
which have the termination or in Latin, and eur 
in French, he gives many of them with the u, 
and many of them without it. 

11. The following words are found in John 
son's Dictionary with the it in the last sylla* 



posse ssonr 







































tremou ■ 
















12. The following words are tound m Jcihn 
son's Dictionary without the « in the last syi 
lable immediately before r • - 











































13. Th(! same principle will apply to the or- 
thography of the last syllable of most of the 
words in the two lists; and the inconsistency 
will be obvious by merely comparing the words 
anteriour and interiour, which are written by 
Johnson with the u, with posterior and exterior, 
which are written without it In some of the 
recent forms and abridgments of Johnson's Dic- 
tionary, the u is omitted in a part of the words in 
which he inserted it Some of the English dic- 
tionaries, which have been published since the 
first publication of Johnson's, scrupulously fol- 
low him generally in retaining the u ; yet they 
omit it in the words in which he omitted it 
Several of the English dictionaries omit it in 
all these words, except most of the dissyllables 
m the first of the above lists, and the following 
words, which are not derived from the Latin: 
behaviour, demeanour, misdemeanour, endeavour, 
and enamour, and their derivatives, disfavour, 
dishonour, favourable, honourable, &c. If we 
turn from the dictionaries to inquire what is the 
general usage of those who write the language, 
we shall find it in a very unsettled state. In 
the United States, it is the prevailing, though by 
no means the universal, practice to exclude the 
u from all this class of words. "In England," 
Bays Mr. Smart, (1836,) "such is not the practice 
of the day, although some years ago there was a 
great tendency towards it The following, indeed, 
are inclined to the Latin termination, and some 
of them so decidedly, that to write them with our 
would incur the opinion of great singularity, if 
not of fault : error, emperor, governor, warrior, 
superior, horror, tremor, dolor, tumor, tenor, 
dangor, f vigor, savor." To these he might have 
added a number of others found in the first of 
the above lists, with equal propriety ; yet, in 
England, it is the prevailing practice to retain 
the u in most of the dissyllables in the first list, 
and also in such of the other words as are not 
derived from the Latin. The eye is offended at 
seeing a word spelled in a manner to which it is 
unaccustomed; and the eyes of most readers 
would now be offended at seeing emperour, infe- 

nour, oratour, possessowr, successour, and errout 
written with the u ; and those of many are ot- 
fended by seeingyaitor, honor, and savior, written 
without it It is difficult to fix the limit for a 
partial omission; and the rule, which entirely 
excludes the u from this class of words, and 
which is in accordance with tlie prevailing usage 
in the United States, is the most convenient, i> 
not the most unexceptionable method 


14. Verbs of one syllable, ending with a sin 
gle consonant, preceded by a single vowel, (aa 
plan,) and verbs of two or more syllables, end- 
ing in tlie same manner, and having the accent 
on the last syllable, (as regret,) double the final 
consonant of the verb, on assuming an additional 
syllable ; as, plan, planned ; regret, regretted ; — ■ 
but, if a diphthong precedes the last consonant, 
(as join,) or the accent is not on the last sylla- 
ble, (as suffer,) the consonant is not doubled ; as, 
join, joined ; suffer, suffered. 

15. There is an exception to the last clause 
of the above rule, with respect to most of the 
verbs ending in the letter /, which, on assuming 
an additional syllable, are allowed, by general 
usage, to double the I, though the accent is not 
on the last syllable ; as, travel, travelling, trav- 
elled, traveller; libel, libelling, libelled, libeller, 
libellous; duel, duelling, dueller, duellist. But 
the derivatives of parallel are written without 
doubling the final I ; as, paralleled, unparalleled, 

16. The following list comprises the verbs 
ending in I, which, without having the accent 
on the last syllable, yet commonly double the 
final I: — 

dishevel handsi 

drivel hatch( 

duel imperi 

embowel jewel 

enamel kenne 

empanel label 
1 equal level 

gambol libel 
I gravel marsh 

grovel marve 

17. The derivatives of these verbs ar« 
spelled, in the Dictionaries of Perry and Web 
ster, with a single I ; and this mode is also more 
or less favored by the lexicographers Ash and 
Walker, by Bishop Lowth, and by some othei 
scholars ; and it evidently better acccrds with 
the analogy of the language ; tho «gh the pre 
vailinsr usage is to double the 2 



































tram mo 


















18. The verb to bias commonly doubles the s 
on assuming an additional syllable ; as, hiassing, 
biassed, biasser. The verb to kidnap, on assum- 
ing another syllable, always doubles the p ; ant 
the word worship also, according to genera 
usage, does so ; as, kidnapping, kidnapped, kid- 
napper ; worshipping, worshipped, worshipper. 

19 There is some diversity in usage, with re- 
spect to several other verbs ending in p, and 
also with respect to several ending in t, which, 
although the accent is not on the last syllable, 
are sometimes allowed to double the last con- 
sonant, when another syllable is added. But 
the more correct and regular mode is, to write 
them without doubling the final consonant, in 
the following manner : — 

Benefit benefited benefiting 

Buffet bufifeted buifeting 

Closet closeted closeting 

Develop developed developing 

Discomfit discomfited discomfiting 
Envelop enveloped enveloping 

Fillip filliped filliping 

Gallop galloped galloping 

Gossip gossiped gossiping 

Limit limited limiting 

Profit profited profiting 

Rivet riveted riveting 

Scallop scalloped scalloping 

Wallop walloped walloping 

20. There is a class of words, ending in tre, 
ts centre, metre, &c., which are often written 
tenter, meter, &c. ; but the former mode, which 
is followed in this Dictionary, is agreeable to 
the prevailing usage, and is supported by most 
of the English lexicographers. 

21. There is a diversity with respect to the 
use of the letters s and r in a number of verbs 
ending in ise or ize ; but the following rule is 
observed in this Dictionary : — When the word 
is a derivative of the French prendre, the termi- 
nation is tse, as surprise, enterprise; but verbs 
derived from Greek verbs ending in i%w, and 
others formed after the same analogy, are writ- 
ten with the termination ize ; as, agonize, char- 
acterize, patronize. 

22. Derivative adjectives ending in able are 
written without an e before a; as, hlamabh, 
movable, not blameable, moveable; except those 
of which the primative word ends in ce or ge ; 
in such the e is retained to soften the preceding 
consonant ; as, peaceable, changeable. 

23. Compound words formed by prefixing a 
word or syllable to a monosyllable ending in cdl, 
retain the double I; as, appall, befall, bethrall. 

downfall, forestall, fuzzbaU, heaastall, \nstaU, m 
thrall, laystall, miscall, overfall, recaU, saveaH 
thunAstall, waterfall, mndfaU. — H'ithal, there 
withal, and wherewithal, end with a single I. 

24. A class of other compound words retain 
the final double I which is found in the simple 
words ; as, bridewell, foretell, downhill, uphill, 
molehill, watermiU, windmill, handmill. 


25. Very few of the words which belong to 
the several classes referred to in the above re- 
marks, are comprised in the following Vocabu- 
lary ; but, with the exception of these classes, 
this Vocabulary contains nearly all the English 
words with regard to which a diversity of or- 
thography is, at present, often met with. 

26. The orthography found in the left-hand 
column of the Vocabulary is deemed to be well 
authorized ; but with respect to the authority of 
that which stands on the right hand, there is a 
great diversity. In some cjfces, this is nearly or 
quite as well authorized as tliat on the left hand 
but in some instances, it has only a feeble sup- 
port, and is rarely met with. 

27. In some cases, words are so variously 
affected by etymology, analogy, lexicographical 
authority, and general usage, that it is difficult 
to determine what orthography is best supported. 
This is the fact with respect to the words abridg- 
ment or abridgement, bass or base, (in music,) 
chintz or chints, connection or connexion, controller 
or coihptroller, contemporary or cotem,porary, de- 
spatch or dispatch, dexterous or dextrous, diocese 
or diocess, divest or devest, duehy or dvtchy, 
guarantee or guaranty, hinderance or hindrance, 
holiday or holyday, jail or gaol, judgment or 
judgement, marquis or marquess, loadstone or 
lodeslone, loadstar or lodestar, meagre or meager, 
naught or nought, preterit or preterite, pumpkin or 
pompion, recognizance or recognisance, sceptic or 
skeptic, strew or straw, thresh or thrash, waive or 
wave, (to put off,) woe or wo, yelk or yoUc, and 
various others. — See the following words in 
the Dictionary : Despatch, Guarantee, Judg- 
ment, Sceptic, Souped, Soothe, and Trav 


28. There is a class of words which have in 
their derivation, a twofold origin, from the 
Latin and the French languages, and are ir- 
differently written with the first syllal e en c» 


m, the former being derived from the French, 
and the latter from the Latin. With respect to 
some of these, it is difficult to determme ^which 
form is best supported by usage. This is the 
•act in relation to the words enclose or inclose, 
inquire or enquire, insure or ensure, and several 
others. A few of these words, respecting which 
the two forma are about equally authorized, are 
placed in the left-hand column in each mode, 
and stand in a corresponding manner in the Dic- 
tionary : but those which are not repeated under 
the two initial letters E and /, stand, with tlie 
orthography which is most approved, in the left- 
.4and column. There is a class of chemical terms, 
(most of which have been recently introduced 
mto the language,) which have the termina- 
tion ine or in; as, chlorine, iodine, olivine; or 
cMorin, iodin, olivin. They are often seen in 
scientific works in both forms ; but m this Dic- 
tionary the final e is retained in this class of 

29. There are some words, of which the 
present established orthography is at variance 
with the most approved dictionaries. This is 
true with respect to the words chemistry, chemist, 
dndeer, scythe, caste, in the sense of a class or 
tribe, and forte, denoting a strong side, or that 
in which one excels. The orthography of these 
words which is here countenanced, though dif- 
ferent from that best supported by the diction- 

aries, is the one which is now estattlished by 
general usage. 

30. Although the orthography of the word show 
as here exhibited, is uniformly supported by the 
best dictionaries, and also best corresponds to its 
pronunciation, yet the other form, shew, inaintaina 
its ground by a usage quite as common with the 
best authors. — See Snow, in the Dictionary 

31. With respect to the word mosquito or mus- 
quito, which appears in such a variety of forms, 
the spelling here preferred, though little sup 
ported by the dictionaries, is used in works of 
science. The form mosquito is the orthogra- 
phy of the Spanish and Portuguese languages, 
from which the word is derived, and the one 
commonly made use of with respect to various 
geographical places, to which the term is applied. 

32. The two difierent modes of spelling a 
few of the words in the Vocabulary, are in es 
tablished usage, and one is to be preferred to 
the other according to the sense in which the 
word is used ; as, for example, the orthography 
ofjlour instead of flower, though not recognized 
by Johnson, is now well established, when the 
word is used to denote the edible part of corn , 
also the orthography of dye instead of die, in the 
sense of color, or to tinge with color, is in com- 
mon and good use ; yet the forms flower and dit 
are unquestioned, when the words are used is 
other senses. 














Adz, Addice 

Aisle, (church,) Isle 



.ffidile ; see 






iEnigma ; see 






.Solian; see 






.Solic ; see 



Alkoran, Koran 



.Slolipile ; see 







Ayry, Eyry 

















.Etiology; see 













Aifear, Affere 








Almry, A mbry 






; Alnagar, \ulna 



















C Beast n^s 
t Beest ngs 


































C Bmacle 
C Bittacle 





JJl lilldUlC 
























Blende, Min. 




Bade,/rom Bid, Bad 


















: Baulk 
> Bank 











Boil, a tumor 

, Bile 




























\ Bannian 
'. Banyan 


\ Bombasin 
'. Bombasine 






























Barouch , 

















Bass, in music. Base 




' Appertenance 


Base- viol 













Breathe, v. 



1 Archeological 
\ Archaiological 

Bathe, V. 










■ Archeology 
. Archaiology 




C Brokago 
( Brocage 












Broach, Br cll» 

Arnt>tto 1 

\ Arnatto 
; Annotta 





Annotto > 















































A skant 








Berth, in a ship. Birth 






















Ass wage 






At^ eneum 









Cag, or 

Caiman, or 





Caliber, or 

















I I 

Cantilever ■? 

Canvas, cloth. 





Caravansary } 


Carnelian i 








Caste, a class, 






Catherine \ 

\ I 



Cesura, Cesu e 









Calif, Kaliph 























Caract, Carrat 























Causeway, or 



















Char, or 























Cion ; see 


Clam, V. 

















C Chalder 
C Chauldron 







C Chare 
I Chore 








f Chymistry 
I Chimistry 











Cyder, Sider 

I Cymetar 


. Simitar 






























Confidant, n. 













Coomb, 4 bvshelsCom\) 




C Glister 
( Glyster 





































Coquette, n. 







Counsellor, or 














Cosy, Cozey 








Co vine 







Desert, m. 



Dangh . 









Despatch, or 


Dye, color, 


Creak, v. 


Dessert, n. 






















Cruae, cruet. 








Devest, or 









■ Ecstaoy 
: Extasy 



















Dike, or 

















; Cuppel 
'. Coppel 



Embank, or 

































■ Disenthrall 
. Disinthral 





M-^ toAnvm UrXA 

Embed, or 



Tzar, Tsar 

Disk, or 


Embedded, or 


Dispatch, or 































Damaskeen, r. Damaskin 









Embosom, or 




Divest, or 


















Dodecahedron Dodecaedron 







r Empannel 



Doomsday-book Domesday-book 


} Impanel 



Dory, Doree 


' Impannel 











Empoverish, or Impoveriu 















Drachm, or 


Encage, or 



Delf, Delph 


C Drogoman 
C Druggerman 









Draught, or 





1 Demean 








Enclose, or 






Enclosure, or 














Dependaivt, n 

. Dependent 




Incurabrc nee 






Encyclop dia 

Dependent, a 

. Dependant 













Enditt, sec 


Esthetics, or 




Endite; see 





' : Flowk 

Endorse ; see 
































Forte, strong 

















Foundery, or 






Franc, coin, 
















Eyry, or 

Aerie, Ayry 




















Frumentaceous Frumentaci 

Enquire, or 





C Furmentv 
( Furmety 

Enquiry, or 





; Enrol 













Fugleman, oj 

• Flugelman 







Ensnare, or 


Farther, or 




Ensure, or 


Farthest, or 














Further, or 






Furthest, or 



















Ferrule ' 
Ferule :' 

f Ferrel 
i Verrel 






': Intitule 

























Gangue, tn ore. Gang 







Envelop, v. 


( Filigrane 






} Filagree 





' Fillagree 






C Filibeg 
i Philibeg 











Gauntlet, ^/oce,Gantlet 



Finery, a forge,Vina.Tj 






C Firmaun 
( Phirman 



E emite 











: Shallot 
' . Shalote 




Gel» in 



Gelly ; see 



; Escritoir 
'. Scrutoire 




C Ginnet 
t Jennet 







Espouse, V. 








Flour, meal, 










Ghill, ravine, 











Gybe, Jibe 























Gingle ; sst 


Hale, healthy, 











Girt, Garth 








Hollo, Holloa 



Hame, or 





Handicraftsman Handcraftsman 





























Imbody, or 










Hatchel ; 
Hackle '.' 

f Hetchel 
i Heckle 









Haul, to drag 







Halm, Hawm 









- Grandam 


Haust, cough. 





er Grandaughter 

















Gray, or 






r Greece 



Impoverish, or Empoverisn 

'Gieeze, a step 

J Grice 





C Grise 











' Grenadier 




Inclose, or 


. Greyhound 




Inclosure, or 


























C Grogeram 
'i Grogran 





Hiccough, or 












Hip, V. 
















Guild, or 






Guilder, or 








Holiday, or 






Hollo ; 

; Holloa 
> Hollow 













( Gypsey 
C Gipsey 


; Homony 

■'. Hommony 










C Ingraft 
I Engraft 





Hoop, OT 








cough, or 

, cough 









Iniuire, or 



( Maladministra 
t tion 

Inquirer, or 



Kail, Cail 

tration, or 

Inquiry, or 






Insnare, or 




















Keg, or 







or Cassimere 






Kan, Kann 

IVTn.11 In (?pra 

' Mallendera 
. Malandera 





■uXCLXlIllUCl 9 



Knarled, or 











Enterplea ler 



In thrall 

: Enthrall 
















Mantle, or 






Marque, license, Mark 











Marquiss, or 


Invalid, re. 




Mars ha) 

f Marshall 
( Mareschal 




Lan thorn 

XvXu-± OUUiX 





Marten, or 








In wrap, or 







In wreath 



Meslin . 

C Mastlin 
i Mislin 





Lea, a plain. 

Lee, Ley, Lay 




Leach, or 

Leech, Letch 






■ Matress 
: Mattrass 


















Jail, or 






Jailer, or 









Lieve, Leef 



Jamb, n 

Jam, Jaum 



Mere, a pool 


Janiza ■« 




















Llama, animal, Lama 










r Geniting 
I Juneating 




Millree, Milrt 

Loath, a. 




ettee. Jetty 

Jetta, Jutty 

Loathe, v. 




Jewelry, or 


Lode, a vein. 





















Jole, or 


Lustring, or 



; Misletoe 
'. Misseltoe 



Lje,fromashes,lAe, Ley 

Joust, re. 












C Moccasin 
I Maggason 

Junket, or 




lustle, or 


Maim, or 

; Mayhem 
[ Maihem 



A*AU»4BAA4 %^r 





Hff n 1 n aaoa 

' Melasses 

'. Molossea 













Otto, Otter 

Piony, Of 








Mood, or 



C Oxyde 

Plain, and 


























' Basha 




















Palette, atid 

Palet, Pallet 









Pandore, or 

















C Pap poos 
( Papoose 

Pontoon, and 










Parol, a. 



f Porpus 
< Porpess 




















. Patrole 







Muscle, and 



. Pavior 

Practism, ». 







( Pedler 
I Pedlar 














Pre tor 




















Net, a., clear, 








Peony, or 















C Pompion 
( Pumpion 






Nozzle, Nosle 



Puny, and 





Fan torn 








Phial, or 




Philibeg; see 
















CEconomics ; st 








































' ■ Pillowbere 
'. Fillowbier 


C Quarantam 
( CarentAnp 





XXX m 












> Secreurieaip 

Quay, a mole, 






( Quinsey 




; Signior 
: Signer 


• [ Quinzy 



' Squinansy 



SoinA /t tttif 

■ Sein 
. Seen 





OClllCa u ntstm 


Rental, Kentle 

Rotatory, or 






Route, course 

, Rout 








Runnet, or 



C Sentery 
( Centrv 




C Racoon 
( Rackoon 

r Cecchin 



• . Chequin 



^ Zechin 



Sabianism, or Sabaism 

Sergeant, or 




Sag, or 


Sergeantry, or Serjeantry 





Sess, or 



Ratifia, Ratafee 



Sesspool, or 





Sail que 



Raven, prey, 
















Shark, or 


Real, coin. 
















Sheer, pure. 





Savine, Sabme 


; Sheikh 
> Sheick 








( Escalade 
( Scalado 

Shemitic, or 























































Sciagraphy, or Sciography 





Sciomachy, or Sciamachy 




C Raindeer 
I Ranedeer 



Silicious, or 











C Chimera 
I Cymar 

Renard, or 



■ Schirrhus 
. Skirrhus 

Rennet, or 






C Cissors 

Sirloin, or 





< Cizars 





' Scissars 


' Syrup 
. Sirop 





RestiflT, or 




Sit, to incubate Set 


C Restifness 
(. Restiveresa 









Retch, to vomit. Reach 

Scymitar j see Cimeter 


Cize, Cisa 

Reverie, or 

Re very 


. Sythe 







f Riband 


C Sempstress 
I Semstress 

Skeptic; see 



" 1 Ribbana 



' Ribbin 













Slake, to ;uencA,Slack 



Ticking, or 


Sleight, n. 



C Sumac 
( Shumac 



Sley, a reed. 

Slay, Slaie 

f*/ UKIU^IA 




Sluce, Sluse 



Tier, a row. 




Surloin, or 






















Smooth, V. 














Swag, or 











C Soland 
I Solund 



Toll, to allure, Tole 









Ton, or 




Swop, or 







' Sicamore 
'. Sycamine 





Touchy, or 








Somerset > J Somersault 

Synonyme, or Synonym 



Summerset ', 

( Summersault 






Sonne tteer 













, Trunnel 












C Taffeta 
I Taffata 






C Tressel 
( Trussel 


; : Spinelle 
' . Spinell 





Trevet, or 




Talc, u. stone. 



or Trundlebed 















f Tambarine 






< Tambourin 


C Turquois 
C Turquoise 

Spurt, or 


' Tamborin 




■ Tarpawling 
'. Tarpaulin 


C Tutanag 
( Tutenaguo 

Stationery n 





C Twiddle 
I Twidle 

















Tease! , 

C Tassel 
i Tazel 





Streight, n. 





Strap, or 













I Straw 


f Texturist 





< Textuariat 





' Textuiat 







Subtile, thin, 





Subtle, sty 


Thrash, or 






Vaivode -' 
Vayvode . 

: Waiwode 
. Waywode 



Throe, a pang, Throw 



Thyine, wooe 

, Thine 








With, n. 


Vat, a tasd, 









I Wizzard 
I Wisard 


C Vavasour 
I Valvasor 



Waive, to defer. Wave 



Veil, cover. 






Vender, or 








Warranter, ot 

■ Warrantor 










; Verdigrise 
: Verdigrease 

Wear, u 

. Wezand 

Wreathe, v. 



; Vermillion 
'. Virmilion 











. Werst 




Whiffletree , 



Vertebre, or 












Vial, or 




Yelk, or 


Vice, a screw 

, Vise 























f Windlace 
I Windlas 





< Zaffar 


, Visier 



' Zaffer 



Zechin; tee 









Iw flus Dictionary care has been taken to give 
lIL the irregular grammatical forms of words. 
All the verbs of the language which are often 
met with, whether regular or irregular, are con- 
jugated ; the plural forms of irregular nouns are 
exhibited ; and occasional observations are made 
in relation to the grammatical construction and 
nse of words. 

It is not deemed expedient to give here any 
general system or outline of grammar ; but the 
design is merely to furnish, on various topics of 
practical grammar, some notices and remarks, 
which could not properly be introduced into the 
body of the Dictionary, and which may facilitate 
the use of the work. 

The parts of speech m the English language 
ere commonly reckoned nine, or, if the parti- 
ticiple is considered a distinct part of speech, 
ten; namely, the Article, Noun, Pronoun, Ad- 
jective, Verb, Participle, Adverb, Conjunction, 
Preposition, and Interjection. 


The article is a word prefixed to nouns to 
point them out, or to limit their signification. 
The articles are a, or an, and the ; as, a book, 
an apple, the man. — For the use of the arti- 
cles, see A, An, and The, in the Dictionary. 


A noun, or substantive, is the name of any 
thing that exists, or of which we have any 
idea. Proper nouns are the names of individ- 
uals, whether persons or things ; as, Alexan- 
der, America, London. Common nouns are the 
Dames of genera or classes. English common 
nouns are the appellatives or substantives of 
the English language, or are such as are con- 
tained in dictionaries of the language. 

English nouns are mostly formed by affixing 
to the radical parts of words the terminations 

an, ance, ant, or, ard, art, ary, eer, ent, er, ia 
ist, ive, or, ater, ate, ee, ite, acy, age, ancy, enoi, 
ency, head, hood, ion, ity, ism, meni, many, neia, 
on, ry, ship, t, th, tude^ ty, we, y, dom, ciUe, cle, 
d, U, el, in, ine, kin, let, ling, ock, vie. 

Nouns have three cases, nominative, possess- 
ive, and objective ; three genders, masculine, femr 
inine, and neuter; and two numbers, singvlar 
and plural. 

The plural number is generally formed by 
adding s to the singular; as, hook, books; dove, 
doves. But if the singular ends in s, ss, sh, ch 
soft, or X, the plural is formed by the addition 
of es ; as, rebus, rebuses; mass, masses; ktsh, 
lashes ; church, churches ; fox, foxes. If the sin- 
gular ends in ch hard, the plural is formed by 
adding s only ; as, monarch, monarchs. If the 
singular ends in o, preceded by another vowel, 
the plural is formed by the addition of s ; as, 
folio, folios ; cameo, cameos; bamboo, bamboos; 
embryo, embryos ; but if the final o is preceded 
by a consonan'-, the plural is commonly formed 
by adding es; as, cargo, cargoes; hero, heroes. 
The following nouns, however, canto, cento, grot- 
to, junto, portico, rotunda, salvo, solo, tyro, duode- 
cimo, octavo, quarto, and some others derived from 
foreign languages, and hardly Anglicized, as al 
bino, domino, &c., commonly have their plural 
formed by tlie addition of s only to the singular; 
as, canto, cantos. But there are some, respect 
ing which usage is not uniform. We some- 
times see the plural of duodecimo, octavo, and 
quarto, written with the addition of es, thus, du- 
odedmoes, odavoes, quartoes ; and we also some- 
times see the plural of volcano written volcanos. 

There is a class of nouns, forming the names 
of various arts and sciences, which have a plural 
termination in ics, but have no singular termi- 
nation ; as, ethics, jnathematics, mechanics, meta 
physics, mnemonics, politics, &c. All nouns ot 
this class are generally considered by gramma- 
rians as properly plural ; though we sometime« 
see them, or some of them, joined to verbs ir 
the singular number by respectable -wnt^ra. 



Nouns of the singular number ending in y 
iflreceded by a consonant, form their plurals by 
changing y into ies; as, lady, ladies; body, 
bodies ; but those ending in y preceded by a 
vowel, form their plurals regularly, by the addi- 
tion of s only to the singular ; as, valley, val- 
leys ; attorney, attorneys, &c. These plurals are 
sometimes enoneously written vaUies, attomies, 

There is a class of nouns ending in /, or fe, 
VIZ., beef, cay, df, half, knife, leaf, life, loaf, self, 
theaf, shelf, wife, wolf, which form their plurals 
by changing/, or fe, into ves ; as, beeves, calves, 
&c. The word wharf, according to the pre- 
vailing American usage, is conformed to this 
class, having for its plural wharves ; though, ac- 
cording to English usage, the plural is wharfs. 
— Staff commonly has staves in the plural ; but 
other nouns ending in ff, and also in J, except 
those above enumerated, form their plurals reg- 
ularly, by adding s to the singular; as, muff, 
muffs ; proof, proofs. Sue. 

There is a considerable number of words 
derived from the Greek and Latin languages, 
which are often used in English, and are more 
or less Anglicized, and of which the Greek and 
LAtin plurals are sometimes used, and sometimes 
plurals formed according to the analogy of the 
English language. Of this class are encomium, 
memorandum, medium, radius, dogma, of which 
the Latin plurals are encomia^ memoranda, me- 
dia, radii, dogmata ; the English, encomiums, 

emorandums, mediums, radiuses, dogmas. The 
wo plurals are generally given, in this Dic- 
tionary, under such words as admit the use of 

There are some words which have the plural 
form, but which are used in both the singular 
and the plural number, or respecting the number 
of which there is a want of agreement among 
grammarians. Of this class are alms, bdhws, 
gallows, means, news, and pains. — See these 
words in the Dictionary. 

Nouns formed by the addition of ful (from 
the adjective full) to another word, as mouthful, 
spoonful, are regarded as indivisible compomids, 
and form their plurals in a regular manner by 
the addition of »; as, movthfuls, spoonfuls. But 
some compound nouns, which have the parts of 
which they are compounded connected by hy- 
phens, have the plural termination affixed to 
the first part ; as, aide-die-camp, aides-de-camp ; 
tousin-german, cousins-german ; court-^martial, 
taurts-marticd ; father-in-law, fathers-in-law. 



The different kinds of pronouns are specified 
in the notice of the word Pronoon, in tiie Die 
tionary, where they are also sa orally noticed 


An adjective is a word added to a noun to 
express its quality, or limit its meaning; as, 
a good man ; a green field ; three apples. 

A great part of the adjectives of the English 
language are formed by aflSxing to the radical 
parts of words the terminations ac, al, an, or 
ary, en, ic, ical, id, He, ine, ory, ate, ful, ose, ous, 
some, y, ish, like, ly, ive, able, ible, ubk, less. 

Most adjectives have two variations from the 
simple or positive form of the word, called de- 
grees of comparison, namely, the comparativ^i 
and superlative. 

In words of one syllable the comparative is 
commonly formed by adding r or er to the posi- 
tive ; as, wise, wiser ; soft, softer ; and the super- 
lative, by adding st or est; as, unse, wisest; soft, 

Adjectives of more than one syllable are com- 
monly compared by prefixing more and most to 
the positive ; as, useful, more useful, most use- 
ful. — The termination ish, annexed to the pos- 
itive, denotes a diminution of the quality; as, 
blaek, blackish. 

Several adjectives form their degrees of com- 
parison in an irregular manner. These are 
good, bad, little, many, much, near, late, and 
old. — See these words in the Dictionary. 


A verb is a part of speech winch signifies to 
be, to do, or to suffer; or it is a word by means 
of which something is affirmed respecting some 
person or thing ; as, I am ; you hear ; he is m- 

The person or thing respecting which any 
thing is affirmed, is called the svlyect, A verb 
in the infinitive mode is not connected with any 
subject, and no affirmation can be made by iL 

Verbs are divided into active or transitive, and 
neuter or intransitive. In this Dictionary, as 
well as in most other modern English diction- 
aries, verbs to which v. a. is annexed are active, 
or transitive, verbs ; and those to which v. n. u 
annexed are neuier, or intransitive, verbs. 

An active, or transitive, verb expresses an ac- 
tion passing from an agent or actor to somt 



object acted upon; and it requires the addition 
of an object to complete the sense ; as, " The 
master teaches tiiepupU," or "The master tecKhes 
Im." Here pupil and him denote objects acted 
upon, and are in the objective case, governed 
ay the active or transitive verb teach. 

A neuter, or intfunsitive, verb expresses neither 
action nor possiun, but being or state of being ; 
and it does not require the addition of an object 
to complete the sense ; as, " He is ; " " The sun 
thiues." — There is a class of verbs which are 
generally ranked among neuter verbs, and which 
denote action confined to the subject, without 
any object acted upon; as, "I run;" "He 
walks." These are, by some grammarians, 
styled active-intransitive verhs, in distinction 
from adive-transUive verbs. 

A passive verb is formed by associating the 
perfect participle of an active verb with some 
tense of the verb to be ; and it implies an object 
acted upon, and an agent by which it is acted 
upon ; as, " Ctesar was slain by Brutus." 

A regular verb is one which forms its imper- 
fect tense and perfect participle by adding d or 
td to the present ; as, Icme, loved; coll, called. 

An irregular verb is one which does not form 
its imperfect tense and perfect participle by 
adding rf or ed to the present ; as, present write, 
imperfect wrote, perfect participle written. 

All the verbs of the English language, which 
are often used, whether regular or irregular, 
are carefully conjugated, where they severally 
occur, in this Dictionary. It is, tlierefore, not 
deemed necessary to insert here a table of 
irregular verbs. 

Auxiliary verbs, called also helping verbs, are 
those by means of which English verbs are 
prmcipally conjugated. They are do, be, have, 
must, may, can, shall, leiU, with their inflections. 
Might, could, should, and would, wliich are re- 
garded as the imperfect or past tenses of may, 
can, shall, and unll, commonly imply past time ; 
yet they are sometimes used in the conditional 
present and future tenses. 

Many verbs are formed by affixing, to the 
redical parts of words, ate, en, fy, ish, ise, ize. 

The Conjugation op Verbs. 

The conjugation of a verb is the regular com- 
bination and arrangement of its several num- 
bers, persons, moods, and tenses. 

The conjugation of an active verb is styled 
the ACTIVE VOICE, and that of a oassive verb, 


The auxiliary and the active verb To Uavi 
is conjugated in the following manner: — 

Indicative Mood. 

Singvlar. Fhiral 

1st Per.ion, I have. 1. We have. 

2d Person, Thou hast. 2. Ye or you have 
3d Person, He, she, or 3. They have, 
it, hath or has. 


Singular. Plural. 

1. I had. 1. We had. 

2. Thou hadst. 2. Ye or you had. 

3. He, &,c. had. 3. They had. 


Singvlar, Plural. 

1. I have had. 1. We have had. 

2. Thou hast had. 2. Ye or you have had, 

3. He has had. 3. They have had. 


Singular. Plural 

1. I had had. 1. We had had. 

2. Thou hadst had, 2. Ye or you had hau 

3. He had had. 3. They had had. 


Singular. Plural. 

1. I shall or will have. 1. We shall or will have. 

2. Thou shall or wilt 2. Ye or you shall or wis 

have, have, 

3. He shall or will have, 3. They shall or will hava 



1. I shall have had. 

2. Thou wilt have had, 

3. He will have had. 


1. We shall have had. 

2. Ye or you will have had 

3. They will have had 

Imperative Mood. 
Singular. Plural. 

1. Let me have. 1. Let us have. 

2. Have thou, or do thou 2. Have ye, or do ye o> 

have. yon have. 

3. Let him have. 3. Let them have. 

Potential Mood. 

Mayst and mighist were formerly, and they 
are still by some, written mayest and mightest. 
The second persons singular couldst, skovldst, 
and wouldst, were formerly written coudest, 
shouldest, and wouldest. 


Singular. Plural. 

1. I may or can have. 1. We may or can have. 

2. Thou mayst or canst 2. Ye or you may or cai 

have. have. 

3. He may or can have. 3. They may or can hava. 




I luight, could, would, 

or should have. 
Thou mightst, couldst, 

wouldat, or phouldst 

He might, could, 

would, or should 


We might, could, would, 
or should have. 
, Ye or you might, could, 
would, or should 
, They might, could, 
would, or shouM 


ar. Plural. 

I. I may or can have had. 1. We may or can have 


t. Thou mayst or canst 2. Ye or you may or can 

have had. have had. 

S. He may or can have 3. They may or can have 
had. had. 

I might, could, would, 1. 
or should have had. 
. Thou mightst, couldst, 2. 
wouldst, or shouldat 
have had. 
He might, could, 3. 
would, or should 
have had. 


We might,could,would, 

or should have hod. 
Ye or you might, could, 

would, or should 

have had. 
They might, could, 

would, or should 

have had. 

Subjunctive Mood. 



1. If I have. 

2. If thou have. 
S. If he have. 


1. If we have. 

2. If ye or you have. 

3. If they have. 

It IS very common to vary the terminations of 
verbs in the subjunctive mood in the same man- 
ner as in the indicative , as, " If thou lovest, if 
he loves;'" instead of "If thou love, if he fowe." 
So also, " If I am, if thou art, if he is; if we 
ore," &c. "If I was, if thou wast, if he was;" 
mstead of « If I 6e," &c. 

The remaining tenses of the subjunctive snood 
are, in general, similar to the correspondent 
tenses of the indicative mood. 

Infinitive Mood, 
Present, To have. Perfect, To have had. 


Present or Active, Having. Perfect or Passive, Had. 
Compound Perfect, Having had. 

The auxiliary and the neuter verb T\t Be ia 
miugated as follows : 

TO bjL. 
Indicative Miod. 



I am. 1. We are. 

Thou art 2. Ye or you are 

He, she, or it is. 3. They are. 


ir. Plural 

1. We were. 

2. Ye or yoa were 

3. They were. 


I was. 
Thou wast 
He was. 

I have been. 
Thou hast been. 
He hath or has been. 


1. We have been. 

2. Ye or you have been. 

3. They have been 


Singular. Plural. 

I had been. 1. We had been. 

Thou hadst been. 2. Ye or you had been 

He had been. 3. They had been 


I shall or will be. 
Thou shalt or wilt be. 

3. He shall or will be. 

1. We shall or will be 
2 Ye or you shall or wit 

3. They shall or will be 



1. I shall have been 

2. Thou wilt have been. 

3. He will have been. 


1. We shall have been. 

2. Ye or you will hava 


3. They will have been 

Imperative Mood. 


1. Let me be. 

2. Be thou, or do thou 


3. Let him be. 


1. Let us be. 

2. Be ye or you, or do y« 

or you be. 

3. Let them be. 

Potential Mood. 


Singular. Plural. 

1. I may or can be. 1. We may or can be. 

2. Thou mayst or canst be. 2. Ye oryou may or can b* 

3. He may or can be. 3. They may or can be 


I I might, could, would, 
or should be. 

2. Thou mightst, couldst, 

wouldst, or shouldst 

3. He might, could, 

would, or should be. 


1. We might, coulc^ 

would, or should be. 

2. Yeoryou might, could, 

would, or should be. 

3. They night, cot! 

would, or should tm 




. 1 may or can have 

I Thou mayst or canst 

have been. 
S He may or can have 



1. We may or can have 


2. Ye or you may or can 

have been. 

3. They may or can have 



•. I might, could, would, 
or should have been. 

i. Thou mightst, couldst, 

wouldst, or shouldst 

have been. 
"> He might, could, 

would, or should 

have been. 


1. We might, could, 

would, or should 
have been, 

2. Ye or you might, 

could, would, or 
should have been. 

3. They might, could, 

would, or should 
have been. 

Subjunctive Mood. 


. It I be. 
2. If thou be. 
1 If he be. 


1. If we be. 

2. If ye or you be. 

3. If they be. 


Singular. Plural. 

1 If I were. 1. If we were. 

2. If thou wert. 2. If ye or you were. 

3. If he were. 3. If they were. 

The remaining tenses of tiiis mood are, in 
general, similar to the correspondent tenses of 
the indicative mood. 

Infinitive Mood. 
Prtaent, To be. Perfect To have been. 


Present, Being. Perfect, Been. 

Compound Perfect, Having been. 

Conjugation op Regular Verbs. 
A nsgular active verb is conjugated in the 

billowing manner: — 

Indicative Mood. 


, I lore. 
C Thou lovest. 
9 He, she, ot t loveth 
or loves 


1. We love. 

2. Ye or you love 

3. They love. 


Singular. Plural. 

1. I loved. 1. We loved. 

2. Thou lovedst. 2. Ye or you loved 

3. He loved. 3. They loved. 



1. I have loved. 

2. Thou hast loved. 

3. He hath or has loved. 


1. We have loved. 

2. Ye or you have loved 

3. They have loved 


Singular. Plural. 

1. I had loved. 1. We had loved. 

2. Thou hadst loved. 2. Ye or you had loved 
3 He had loved. 3. They had loved. 



1. I shall or will love. 

2. Thou shalt or wilt 


3. He shall or will love. 


1. We shall or will love. 

2. Ye or you shall or wiS 


3. They shall or will love^ 



1. I shall have loved 

2. Thou wilt have l» -ed. 

3. He will have loved. 


1. We shall have loved. 

2. Ye or you will havi 


3. They will have loved. 

Imperative Mood. 


1. Let me love. 

2. Love thou, or do thou 


3. Let him love. 


1. Let us love. 

2. Love ye or you, or a* 

ye love. 

3. Let them love. 

Potential Mood. 



1. I may or can love. 

2. Thou mayst or canst 

3 He may or can love. 


1. We may or can love. 

2. Ye or you may or caa 


3. They may or can love. 



1. 1 might, could, would, 

or should love. 

2. Thou mightst, couldst, 

wouldst, or shouldst 

3. He might, could, 

would, or should 


1. We might, could, 

would, or should 

2. Ye or you might, 

could, would, ot 
should love. 

3. They might, could 

would, or should 



1. I may or cui have 


2. Thou mayst or canst 

have loved. 

3. He may or can have 



1. We may or can have 


2. Ye or yon may or can 

have loved. 

3. They may or can havi 





. 1 might, could, would, 
or should have loved. 

t Thou mightst, couldat, 
wouldat, or shouldst 
have loved. 

I. He might, could, would, 
or should have loved. 


1. We might, could, 

would, or should 
have loved. 

2. Ye oryou might, could, 

would, or should 
have loved. 

3. They might, could, 

would, or should 
have loved. 

Subjunctive Mood. 


Singidar. Plural. 

1. If I love. 1. If we love. 

S. If thou love. 2. If ye or you love. 

3. If he love. 3. If they love. 

The remaining tenses of this mood are, in 
general, similar to the correspondent tenses of 
the indicative mood. 

Infinitive Mood. 
Present, To love. Perfect, To have loved. 


Preient, Loving. Perfect, Loved. 

Compound Perfect, Having loved. 


Verbs passive are called regular when they 
form their perfect participle by the addition of d 
or ed to the verb ; as, from the verb to love is 
formed the passive, / am, loved, I was loved, 1 
shall be loved, &c. 

A passive verb is conjugated by adding the 
perfect participle to the auxiliary verb to be, 
through all its changes of number, person, mood, 
nod tense, in the following manner : — 


Indicative Mood. 


1. I am loved. 
S. Thou art loved. 
3. He is loved. 


1. We are loved. 

2. Ye or you are loved. 

3. They are loved. 


Singular. Plural. 

1 I was loved. 1. We were loved. 

2 Thou wast loved. 2. Ye or you were loved. 

3 He was loved. 3. They were loved. 


t. I have been loved. 1. 

8. Thou hast been loved. 2. 

3w He hath or has been 3. 

We have been loved. 
Ye or you have been 

They have been loved. 


Singular. Pliurat 

. I had been loved. I. We had been loved. 

, Thou hadst been loved. 2. Ye or you had beei 
He had been loved. 3. They had been loved 


Singular. Plural. 

I shall or will be loved. 1. We shall or will ba 


Thou shalt or wilt be 2. Ye or you shall or will 

loved. be loved. 

He shall or will be 3. They shall o> will ba 
loved. loved 


Singular. Plural. 

I shall have been loved. 1. We shall have been 


Thou wilt have been 2. Ye or you mil have 

loved. been loved. 

He will have been 3, They will have beei 
loved. loved. 

Imperative Mood. 




Let me be loved. 


Let us be loved. 


Be thou loved, or do 


Be ye or you loved of 

thou be loved. 

do ye be loved. 


Let him be loved. 


Let them be loved 

Potential Mood. 



1. I may or can be loved, 

2. Thou mayst or canst 

be loved. 

3. He may or can be 



1. Wemayorcanbelove<t 

2. Ye or you may or can 

be loved. 

3. They may or can be 




1. I might, could, would, 

or should be loved. 

2. Thou mightst, couldst, 

wouldst, or shouldst 
be loved. 

3. He might, could, would, 

or should be loved. 

, We might, could, 

would, or should be 

be loved. 
Ye or you might, could, 

would, or should ba 

, They might, could, 

would, or should ba 




1. I may or can have been 


2. Thou mayst or canst 

have been loved. 

3. He may or can have 
i been loved. 


1. We may or can have 

been loved. 

2. Ye or you may or can 

have been loved. 

3. They may or can havt 

been loved. 




1 might, could, would, 1. 

or should have been 

rhou mightst, couldst, 2 

vrouldst, or shouldst 

have been loved. 
He might, could, would, 3 

or should have been 



We might, could, 
would, or should 
have been loved. 
Ye or you might, could, 
would, or should have 
been loved. 
. They might, could, 
would, or should 
have been loved. 

Subjunctive Mood. 

If 1 be loved. 


If we be loved. 

£. If thou be loved. 
i. If he be loved. 


2. If ye or you be loved. 

3. If they be loved. 


Singular. Plural. 

J. If I were loved. 1. If we were loved. 

2. If thou wert loved. 2. Ifye or you were loved. 

3. If he were loved. 3. If they were loved. 

The remaining tenses of this mood are, in 
general, similar to the correspondent tenses of 
tke indicative mood. 

Infinitive Mood. 
Pretent, To be loved. Perfect, To have been loved. 


Present, Being loved. Perfect, Been loved. 
Compound Perfect, Having been loved. 


The partidple is, by some grammarians, con- 
sidered as a distinct part of speech, and by 
others it is regarded only as a form of the verb. 
It is derived from the verb, and partakes of the 
signification and properties of the verb. It is 
an adjective form of the verb, and, like an ad- 
jective, belongs to a noun ; and it signifies 
doing, being, or sufiering, without afiinning any 
thing. It becomes a noun by prefixing to it 
the definite article the. — There are three par- 
ticiples : the present, ending in ing, as moving ; 
the perfect, past, or passive, ending (if the verb 
is regular) in erf, as moved ; and the compound 
perfect, as hiving moved. 

The participle in ing, though properly and 
generally active, is sometimes used in a pas- 
live sense ; as, « Forty and six years was this 
temple in buHding." John IL — « The nation 

had cried out loudly against the eri;ne while ii 
was committing." Bolingbroke. — " My Lives ar> 
reprinting.^ Johnson. — Within a few years, n 
strange and awkward neologism has been intro 
duced, by which the present passive partidple is 
substituted, in such cases as the above, for the 
participle in ing; and in the above examples 
instead of " in building" " was committing^ 
and " are reprinting^' the modern innovators 
would say, "in being built," "was being com- 
mitted," " are being reprinted" This new form 
has been used by some respectable writem. 
The following are instances of it : " For tliota 
who are being educated in our seminaries." ]i 
Sovthey. — " It was being uttered." Coleridge. ■ 
"The foundation was being laid." Brit. Critir 
— "It [TSTVfi/j.ivog'] signifies properly, though in 
uncouth English, one who is being beaten." Mrp. 
WTwtely. — " The bridge is being built, and 
other phrases of the like kind, have pained the 
eye," D. Booth. — This phrase " in uncouth Eng- 
lish " has been censured by many, and defended 
by some. The Eclectic Review remarks, « That 
a need of this phrase, or an equivalent one, is 
felt, is sufiiciently proved by the extent to which 
it is used by educated persons and respectable 


An adverb is a word added to a verb, an ad- 
jective, and sometimes to another adverb, to 
express some quality or circumstance respecting 
it; as, "He writes well;" "A truly excellent 
scholar;" "He speaks very correctly." A great 
many adverbs are formed from adjectives by the 
addition of ly, or by changing eto y ; as, wise 
un'sely ; noble, nobly. 


Prepositions show the relations betiveeu 
words, and are generally placed before noui>ii 
and pronouns in the objective case. 

There are many nouns, adjectives, verbs, and 
participles, which are followed by their appro- 
priate prepositions; and there are instances in 
which it is a matter of some difficulty to de- 
termine what preposition is most suitable to be 
used. The following list comprises a consider- 
able number of words, with the proper preooai 
tion subjoined. 



A List of Words with the proper Prepositions annexed. 

Hbmdoned to. 

^.biite of. 

Abhorrence of. 

Abhorrent to, from. 

Aoide in, at, with. 

Abominable to. 

Abound in, with. 

Abridge of, from 

Absent from. 

Abstain from. 

Abstinence from 

Abut on, upon. 

Accede to. 

Acceptable to. 

Access to. 

Accessory to. 

Accommodate to 

Accord, V, n. with v. a. 

Accordance roitk. 

Account of, for, to. 

Accountable to a per- 
son ; for a thing. 

Accuse of. 

Acquaint teith. 

Acquaintance with. 

Acquiesce in. 

Acquit of. 

Adapted to. 

Add to. 

Address to. 

Adequate to. 

Adhere to. 

Adjacent to. 

Adjourn to. 

Adjudge to- 

Adjust to. 

Admonish of. 

Admission (access) to; 
(entrance) into. 

Admit of. 

Advantage over 

Advise of, to. 

Advocate for. 

Affection for. 

Affinity to, with, be- 

Agree with a person ; 
to things proposed ; 
upon things or con- 

Agreeable to. 

Alienate from. 
Allude to. 
Alteration in. 
Ambitious of, to. 
Amenable to. 
Analogous to. 
Analogy to, between. 
Angry with a person ; 

at a thing. 
Annex to. 

Animadvert on, upon. 
Answer for, to. 
Antecedent to. 
Antipathy to, against. 
Anxious about. 
Apologize for. 
Apology for. 
Appeal to. 
Appertain to. 
Applicable to. 
Apply to. 
Apprehensive of. 
Appropriate to. 
Approve of. 
Argue with, against. 
Array with, in. 
Arrive at. 
Ask of a person; for 

or after a person or 

Aspire to. 
Assent to. 
Assimilate to. 
Associate with. 
Assure of. 
Atone for. 
Attached to. 
Attain to. 
Attend to. 
Attentive to. 
Averse to, from. 
Aversion to, from, 


Ballot for 
Banish from. 
Bare of. 
Bargain for. 
Bear up, upon, witi 
Beguile of. 
Believe in, on. 
Belong to. 
Bereave of 

Bestow on, upon. 
Betray to a person ; 

into a thing. 
Betroth to. 
Bigoted to. 
Bind to, in, up, upon. 
Blame for. 
Blush at. 
Boast of. 
Border on, upon. 
Brag of. 


Call on, upon, at, for ; 

— on a person ; at a 

Capable of. 
Care for, to. 
Careful of, for. 
Careless of, about. 
Carp at. 
Catch at, up. 
Caution against. 
Certify of. 
Change for, with. 
Charge on or against a 

person ; vnth a thing. 
Clear of. 
Coalesce with. 
Coincide with 
Commune with. 
Commit to. 
Communicate to, with. 
Compare to, in respect 

to quality ; v>ith, by 

way of illustration. 
Compelled to. 
Compliance with. 
Comply with. 
Composed of. 
Concede to. 
Conceive of. 
Concerned at, for. 
Concur with, in, on, tc . 
Condemn to. 
Condescend to. 
Conduce to. 
Confer on, upon. 
Confide in. 
Conform to. 
Congenial to, with. 
Congratulate on, upon. 
Connect with. 

Conscious of. 
Consecrate to. 
Consent to. 
Consign to. 
Consist of, in, with. 
Consistent with. 
Consonant to. 
Consult with. 
Contend with, againct 
Contest vnth. 
Contiguous to. 
Contrast with. 
Contrary to. 
Conversant in, uiith, 

Convert to, into. 
Convict of. 
Convince of. 
Copy from, after. 
Correspond to, with. 
Correspondence to, 

Correspondent to. 
Covenant with, for. 
Cure of. 


Dash against, upon. 
Deal in, by, with 
Debar of, from 
Decide on, upon. 
Defend against, from 
Deficient in. 
Defraud of. 
Demand of. 
Denounce against a 

person ; on a thing 
Depend on, upon. 
Dependent on, upon. 
Deprive of. 
Derogate from. 
Derogation from, to 
Derogatory to. 
Descended from. 
Deserving of. 
Desirous of 
Desist from. 
Despair of. 
Despoil of. 
Destined to. 
Destitute of. 
Detach from. 
Detract from. 



Deviate from. 

Devolve ore, npon 

Devote to. 

Dictate to. 

Die of a diseaf e ; hy the 
sword or fai aine ; for 

Differ with a person in 
opinion; /fom a per- 
son or thing in some 

Different from. 

Difficulty in. 

Diminish from. 

Diminution of. 

Disabled from. 

Disagree with, to. 

Disagreeable to. 

Disappointed q^a thing 
not obtdinsd ' in a 
thing obtained. 

Disapprove of. 

Discourage from. 

Discouragement to. 

Disengaged from. 

Disgusted at, with. 

Dislike to. 

Dismission from. 

Disparagement to. 

Dispense with. 

Dispose of, to, for. 

Dispossess of. 

Dispute with. 

Disqualify for, from. 

Dissatisfied with. 

Dissent from. 

i)istinct from. 

Distinguish from,, be- 

Distrustful of. 

Divested of. 

Divide between two ; 
among many. 

Dote on. 

Doubt of, about. 

Dwell in, at, on. 


Eager in, for, after. 
Embark in, for. 
Embellished with. 
Emerge from 
Employ in, on, upon, 

Emulous of. 
Enamored of. 
Encounter with 

Encouragement to. 
Encroach on, upon. 
Endeared to. 
Endeavor after. 
Endowed with. 
Endued with. 
Engage in, with, for. 
Enjoin on, upon. 
Enter on, upon, into. 
Entrance en, upon, 

Envious of, at. 
Equal to, with. 
Equivalent to. 
Espouse to. 
Estimated at. 
Estranged from. 
Exception from, to, 

Excluded from. 
Exclusive of. 
Expelled from. 
Expert in, at. 
Exposed to. 
Expressive of. 


Fall under. 
Familiar to, with. 
Fawn on, upon. 
Fearful of. 
Feed on, upon. 
Fight with, against, 

Filled with. 
Fond of. 
Fondness for. 
Foreign to, from. 
Founded on or upon a, 

basis ; in truth. 
Free from. 
Friendly to. 
Frown at, upon. 
Fruitful in, of. 
Full of. 


Give to. 
Glad of, at. 
Glance at, upon. 
Glow loith. 
Grapple with. 
Grateful to a person , 

for a favor. 
Grieve at, for. 
Guard against 


Hanker after. 
Happen to, on. 
Healed of. 
Hinder from. 
Hiss at. 
Hold in, of, on. 


Immersion in. 

Impatient at, for 

Impenetrable by to. 

Impervious to. 

Impose on, upon. 

Inaccessible to. 

Incapable of. 

Incentive to. 

Incorporate into, with 

Inconsistent with. 

Inculcate on, upon. 

Independent of, on. 

Indulge with, in. 

Indulgent to. 

Influence over, with, on. 

Inform of, about, con- 

iTiitiate into, in. 

Initiation into. 

Inquire of, after. 

Inroad into. 

Insensible to, of. 

Inseparable from. 

Insinuate into. 

Insist on, upon. 

Inspection into, over. 

Instruct in. 

Insult over. 

Intent on, upon. 

Interfere with. 

Intermeddle with. 

Intervene between. 

Intimate with. 

Introduce into, in. 

Intrude on, upon, into. 

Inured to. 

Invested with. 

Irritated against or by 
a person } at or by a 

Jealous of. 
Jeer at. 
Join with, to. 

Knock Jit, on. 
Known to. 

Laden with. 

Land at. 

Laugh at. 

Lean on, upon, agima 

Level with. 

Liberal to, of. 

Liken to. 

Live in, at, with, ttpM 

Loaded with. 

Long for, after 

Lord over. 


Made of. 
Marry to, with. 
Meddle with. 
Mediate between 
Meditate on, upon. 
Meet, V. with. 
Militate againtt. 
Mingle with. 
Minister to. 
Mistrustful of. 
Mix with. 

Necessary to, jot 
Need of. 
Neglectful of. 
Negotiate with 


Obedient to. 
Object to, againtt 
Observant of. 
Observation of. 
Obtrude on, upon. 
Obvious to. 
Offend against. 
Offensive to. 
Offer to. 
Operate on. 
Opposite to, 


Partake of. 
Partial to. 



Psrtiality to, for. 

Participate in, of. 

Patient with, of. 

Pay for. 

Peculiar to. 

Penetrate into. 

Persevere in. 

■'crtain to. 

Pitch upon, on. 

Play on, upon, with. 

Pleasant to. 

Pleased with. 

Plunge into, 

lossesaed of. 

Pray for, with. 

Predisposed to. 

Prefer to, before, above. 

Preferable to. 

Preference to, over, 
above, bejore. 

Prefix to. 

Prejudice against. 

Prepare for. 

Preserve from. 

Preside over. 

Press on, upon. 

Presume on, upon 

Pretend to. 

Prevail on, upon, with, 
(to persuade) over, 
against, (to over- 

Prevent from. 

Prey on, upon. 

Prior to. 

Productive of. 

Profit by. 

Profitable to. 

Prone to. 

Pronounce against a 
person ; on a thing. 

Propose to. 

Protect others from, 
ourselves against. 

Protest against. 
Proud of. 
Provide with, for. 

Purge of, from, away. 


Quarrel with. 
Quarter bn, upon. 
Questioned on, upon. 


Reckon on, upon, with. 
Recline on, upon. 
Reconcile to, with. 
Recover from. 
Reduce to, under. 
Reflect on, upon. 
Refrain from. 
Regard for, to. 
Rejoice at, in. 
Relate to. 
Release from. 
Relieve from. 
Relish for of. 
Rely on, upon. 
Remain in, at. 
Remark on, upon. 
Remit to. 
Remove from. 
Repent of. 
Replete with. 
Reproached for. 
Resemblance to, be- 
Resolve on, upon. 
Rest in, at, on, upon. 
Restore to. 
Restrain from, of 
Retire from. 
Return to. 
Rich in. 

Rid of. 

Rob of. 

Rove about, over. 

Rub against. 

Rule over. 

Rush against, on, upon. 

Satiate with. 
Saturate with. 
Save from. 
Seek for, after, to. 
Seize on, upon. 
Send to, for. 
Sensible of. 
Sick of. 
Significant of. 
Similar to. 

Sink into, in, beneath. 
Sit on, upon, in. 
Skilful in, at. 
Smile at, on, upon. 
Snap at. 
Snatch at. 
Sneer at. 

Solicitous about, for 
Sorry for. 
Stay in, at, with. 
Stick to, by. 
Strip of. 

Strive with, against 
Subject to. 
Submissive to. 
Submit to. 
Substitute for. 
Subtract from. 
Suitable to, for. 
Surprised at. 
Suspected of, by 
Swerve from. 
Sympathize with 

Taste of a thing po»> 
sessed ; for a thinj 
desired or relished 

Tax with, for. 

Tend to, towards. 

Thankful for. 

Think on, upon, of, 

Touch at, on, upon 

Transmit to 

Troublesome to 

True to. 

Trust m, to 


Unison loith. 
Unite mth, to 
Useful for, to. 

Value on, upon. 

Vest in a person, wtal- 

a thing. 
Void of. 


Wait on, upon. 
Want of. 
Weary of. 
Weep at, for 
Witness of. 
Worthy of. 


Yield to. 


1. The earliest authentic event recorded in 
the history of Britain, was the landing of Julius 
Ctesar on the eastern shore, fifty-five years be- 
'fore the Christian era. The country was then 
finhabited by the Britons, a Celtic race, who 
continued to hold possession of it till the mid- 
<dle of the fifth century. Of their language, 
■styled the Celtic, or, with reference to Britain, 
the British, few traces now exist in England, 
-except in geographical names, as those of some 
'towns, mountains, rivers, lakes, &c. ; but the re- 
mains of it are to be found in the Gaelic of 
"the Scottish Highlands, in the Welsh, the Erse 
or Irish, and the Manks language, in the Isle 
of Man. 

2. About the middle of the fifth century, 
■the Saxons from Lower Germany invaded 
I the island ; and, before many years elapsed, 
-they established their authority over the most 

of that part of it which is now called England ; 
•and the Britons were driven into Wales. From 
a leading branch of the Saxons, called Angles, 
the country received its name of England, and 
the new language was denominated from them 
the Anglo-Saxon; often also called simply the 
Saxon. At the time of their invasion, the Sax- 
ons were an illiterate people ; but they after- 
wards cultivated learning to some extent ; and 
among their principal writers were Gildas, Cted- 
I mon, ^Ifric, Bede, and King Alfred. 

3. The Anglo-Saxon dynasty, after having 
continued about six hundred yeai-s, was tenni- 
nated, in 1066, by the invasion of William, Duke 
of Normandy, commonly called the Conqueror. 
The Norman French now became the language- 
of the court and the upper classes, while the Sax- 
on continued to be the only -speech of the com- 
mon people or peasantry. In the course of time, 
tliese two languages were blended into one, and 
became the basis of the present English. "The 
Raxon power," Dr. Bosworth remarks, " ceased 
when William the Conqueror ascended the 
flit >no. but not the language : for ifl.nglo-c5axon, 

after rejecting or changing many ot its inflec 
tions, continued to be spoken by the eld inhab 
itants till the time of Henry III., A. D. 1268. 
What was written after this period has gener 
ally so great a resemblance to ojr present lan- 
guage, that it may evidently be called Englisn." 
The following is the statement of Hippisley, a 
late English writer : " Although neither the ori 
gin nor subsequent progress of English can be 
assigned to any specified dates, yet, for the sake 
of perspicuity, we may (as in the case of general 
history) establish arbitrary and conventional di- 
visions. Thus we say, generally speaking, that 
about 1150 may be dated the decline of pure 
Saxon ; about 12.50 the commencement of Eng- 
lish ; ana tliat the century between these two 
dates was occupied by a kino of semi-Saxon 

4. After the Norman conquest, the Saxon 
laws were continued in force, and were trans- 
lated into Norman French. « The proceedings," 
as stated by Blackstone, (Commentaries, Book 
III. chap. 21,) " were all written, as indeed all 
public proceedings were, in Nonnan or law 
French, and even the arguments of the counse' 
and the decisions of the court were in the same 
barbarous dialect This continued till the reign 
of Edward HI., who, having employed his arms 
successfully in subduing the crown of Prance, 
thought it unbecoming the dignity of the victois 
to use any longer the language of a vanquished 
country. By a statute, therefore, passed in the 
36th year of his reign [1362,] it was enacted, 
that, for the future, all pleas should be pleaded, 
shown, defended, answered, debated, and judged, 
in the English tongue, but be entered and en- 
rolled in Latin." This is the date of the tri- 
umph of the English language over the French 
in the English courts of law. 

5. In the fourteenth century flourish-vl Chau- 
cer, the great early English poet ; also Sir John 
Mandeville, the traveller, and John Wi' lifte, the 
reformer, both distinguished as early Eng eh 


prose miters. But the times, long after the age 
of Chaucer, continued barbarous, and, till after 
the nvention of pnnting and the revival of 
learning, few writers appeared to cultivate and 
improve the language, or to enrich it witli val- 
uable works. It was in the sixteenth century, 
during the reign of the Tudor family, that the 
language assumed, substantially, the external 
form in which it is now found, and became en- 
riched by many productions which still form a 
part of its standard literature. 

6. The Saxon or Anglo-Saxon language, 
which 18 a branch of the Teutonic, the lan- 
guage of the Teutones, a people who inhabited 
a large part of central Europe, while the Celts 
overspread the west, is the parent language of 
the English. Some of the other north European 
languages, of the great Teutonic or Gotho- 
Tentonic family, which have contributed to 
enrich the English tongue, are the Danish, 
Swedish, Norwegian, and Icelandic, of the 
Scandinavian branch, and the German and 
Dutch, of the Germanic branch. The south 
European languages which have furnished the 
largest contributions, are the Greek, Latin, and 
French ; especially the Latin, through the me- 
dium of the French or Norman French ; also 
the Italian, the Spanish, and various other lan- 
guages, have afforded more or less. 

7. The Anglo-Saxon is the language to which 
the English owes its general form and structure, 
all the particles on which its syntax depends, 
all its pronouns and conjunctions ; nearly all its 
prepositions, most of its monosyllables, and, 
indeed, all the words that are most frequently 
repeated on the same page. 

8. The predominance of Anglo-Saxon will 
readily be seen by analyzing a passage in any 
common English writer. Of the sixty-six words 
which are comprised in the Lord's prayer, there 
are only five that are not Anglo-Saxon. Mr. 
Sharon Turner, in his " History of the Anglo- 
Saxons,'' has adduced from popular English 
writers sixteen extracts, in which he has dis- 
criminated, by Italics, the words which are An- 
glo-Saxon ftom those of foreign origin. Two 
of his extracts are here quoted, and also the 
results of the comparisons of all of them are 
given. The words which are not Anglo-Saxon 
are in Italics in the following extracts: — 

9. " And they made ready the preseni against 
Joseph came at noon ; for they heard that they 
ohould eat bread there. And when Joseph came 
home, they brought him the present which was 
in their hand into the house, and bowed them- 

selves to him to the earth. And he asked them 
of their welfare, and said. Is your father well, 
the old man of whom ye spake.' Is he yet 
alive? And they answered. Thy servant our 
father is in good health, he is yet alive. And 
they bowed down their heads, and made obei- 
sance. And he lift up his eyes, and saw his 
brother Benjamin, his mother's son, and said. Is 
this your younger brother, of whom ye spakd 
unto me ? And he said, God be gracious unto 
thee, my son." — Gen. xliiil 25 — ^29. 

10. " Of genius, that power which constitviea 
a poet ; that quality without which judgment is 
cold and knowledge is inert ; that energy which 
collects, combines, amplifies, and animMes; the 
superiority must, with some hesitation, be al- 
lowed to Diyden. It is not to be inferred, that 
of this poetical vigor Pope had only a little, be- 
cause Dryden had more ; for every other writer 
since Milton must give place to Pope ; and 
even of Dryden it must be said, that if he haa 
brighter paragraphs, he has not better poems." 
— Johnson. 

11. In tlie following table, the figures in the 
left-hand column show the whole number of 
words in the above two, and also in the four- 
teen other, extracts or passages from popular 
English writers; and those in the right-hanc 
column, the number of words m each, whicL 
are not Saxon. 

Words Ji'ot Saxo9 

Genesis, . . 130 5 

John xi. 32—36, . 74 3 

Shakspeare, 81 13 

Milton, 90 16 

Cowley, 76 10 

Thomson, 78 14 

Addison, 79 15 

Spenser, 72 14 

Locke, 94 20 

Pope, 84 28 

Young, 96 21 

Swift, 87 ... 9 

Robertson, 114 . . .34 

Hume, 101 38 

Gibbon, 80 31 

Johnson, 87 21 

Total, 1522 


12. Of the total number of words in these 
sixteen passages, the proporticn not Saxon ia 
somewhat less than one fifth. It is to be ob- 
served, that, in this computation, every repetition 
of a word is counted. In the verses quoted from 
Genesis, the word and, for example, ia repeated 
and therefore counted, twelve times. 



13. In the first chapter of the common version 
of St John's Gospel, there are one thousand 
&nd three words, of which, exceptmg fifty-three 
proper names, there arc only fifty-five that are 
not Anglo-Saxon. In this chapter the particle the 
occurs sixty-eight times ; and, sixty-one times ; 
of, thirty-nine times ; that, nineteen times ; unto, 
fifteen times ; to, tliirteen times. Of the three 
personal pronouns, /, thou, and he, including 
their oblique forms, those of the first person 
occur thirty-three times ; those of the second, 
thirty times ; those of the third, eighty times. 
The verb to be, in its different inflections, occurs 
forty-six times. All these words, of so frequent 
occurrence, are Anglo-Saxon. There is, per- 
haps, no book in the English language in which 
Anglo-Saxon words more abound than in the 
common version of the Bible. Works which 
treat of the common affairs of life, have the 
greatest proportion of sucli words, and scientific 
works, the least. 

14. " If we look not merely at the number of 
the words which the Anglo-Saxon has contrib- 
uted to the English, but to the kinds of words, as 
well as to the share it has had in its formation 
and development, we shall at once see that tliere 
is no comparison between the importance of 
this and that of any other element. English 
grammar is almost exclusively occupied with 
what is of Anglo-Saxon origin. Our chief pe- 
culiarities of structure and of idiom are essen- 
tially Anglo-Saxon ; while almost all the classes 
of words, which it is the office of grammar to 
investigate, are derived from that language. 
And though these peculiarities of structure may 
occupy little space, and tliese words be very 
few compared with those to be found in John- 
son's Dictionary, they enter most vitally into the 
constitution of the language, and bear a most 
important part in shaping and determining its 
character. Thus what few inflections we have 
are all Anglo-Saxon. The English genitive, the 
general modes of forming the plural of nouns, 
and the terminations by which we express the 
comparative and superlative of adjectives, er 
and est ; the inflections of the pronouns ; of the 
second and third persons, present and imperfect, 
sf the verbs ; of the preterits and participles of 
'he verbs, whether regular or irregular ; and the 
most frequent termination of our adverbs {ly), are 
all Anglo-Saxon. The nouns, too, derived from 
Latin and Greek, receive the Anglo-Saxon ter- 
minations of the genitive and the plural, while 
the preterits and participles of verbs, derived 
from the same sources, take Anglo-Saxon inflec- 

tions. As to the parts of speecli, those wtuci 
occur most frequently, and are individually o 
most importance, are almost wholly Anglo-Sax 
on. Such are our articles and definitives geu 
erally ; as, an, the, this, that, these, those, many 
few, some, one, none ; the adjectives whose com 
paratives and superlatives are irregularly formed, 
and which are, in every language, among the 
most ancient, comprehensive in meaning, and 
extensively used ; the separate words more and 
most, by which we as often express the forma 
of comparison as by distinct terminations ; all 
our pronouns, personal, possessive, and inter 
rogative ; nearly every one of our so-called ir- 
regular verbs, including all the auxOiaries 
have, be, shall, will, may, can, must, by which 
we express the force of the principal varieties 
of mood and tense ; all the adverbs most fre 
quently employed, and the prepositions and con 
junctions almost without exception." .... 
" The English language consists of about 
38,000 words. This includes, of course, not 
only radical words, but all derivatives, except 
the preterits and participles of verbs ; to which 
must be added some terms, which, though set 
down in the dictionaries, are either obsolete, oi 
have never ceased to be considered foreign. 
Of these about 23,000, or nearly five eighths, 
are of Anglo-Saxon origin In Bos- 
worth's Anglo-Saxon Lexicon, there are from 
25,000 to 28,000 words, counting, of course, 
compound words as well as roots. Supposing 
one fifth of these obsolete, there would remain 
nearly the numbers already stated." — Edin- 
burgh Review, vol. Ixx. 

15. "The peculiar structure of the English 
language is far from having been investigated, as 
yet, with that degree of attention and accuracy 
that it deserves. Among other things, we do 
not find that any grammarian has been at the 
pams to take a full comparative view of its two 
great component parts ; by which we mean, 
on the one hand, those words that are derived 
from the Saxon, Danish, and other noi-thern lan- 
guages, and, on the other hand, those from the 
Greek, Latin, French, and otlier idioms of the 
south of Europe. These two sets of vocables 
are so dissimilar from each other, that they ap- 
pear, at first view, incapable of being amalga- 
mated together, so as to form an harmonious 
whole ; yet who is there tliat can read, feel, 
and understand, and does not admire the sub- 
lime harmony which Milton, Dryden, Pope^ 
Shakspeare, Bolingbroke, and the other immor" 
tal poets and prose writers of Great Britain 



•ave produced out of those discordant ele- 
ments ? To analyze, therefore, those elements, 
from which have resulted such inconceivable 
eflfecta, is well worth the trouble of the gram- 
marian and philologer; and the interesting dis- 
coveries to which such an inquiry will lead, 
will amply repay their learned labors. — As far 
as we have been able to judge from a superfi- 
cial investigation of the subject, we are apt to 
believe that the English words of northern deri- 
vation are to those derived from the ancient, as 
well as the modern languages of Southern Eu- 
rope, in the proportion of something more than 
three, but not quite as much as four, to one. As 
the soutliern words are, in general, polysyllabic, 
and make a conspicuous figure wherever they 
occur, many are apt to think their number 
greater than on examination it really appears 
to be." — P. S. Duponceau. 

16. The number of words belongmg to the 
English language has never been accurately 
ascertained, and it is difficult to ascertain it 
with exactness ; for it is difficult to form and 
apply the rules for computing the number. 
The number which is stated in the preceding 
extract from the Edinburgh Review, is thirty- 
eight thousand, which is considerably less than 
the number found in Johnson's Dictionary, as it 
was left by him. Of the great number of words 
which have been introduced into the language, 
in the various sciences, since the first publica- 
tion of Johnson's Dictionary, very few are of 
Anglo-Saxon origin. By adopting so restricted 
B mode of computing the number of English 
words, as to exclude all compound and obsolete 
words, and all words introduced by the arts 
and sciences within the past century, and thus 
to reduce the number to 38,000, the proportion 
of Anglo-Saxon words would probably not be 
far from that above stated ; that is, five eighths. 
The computation of Mr. Duponceau of the 
proportion between the two classes of English 
words, those of northern and those of southern 
derivation, must have been formed, not by 
ana.yzing the vocabulary of an English dic- 
tionary, but by examining the words as they 
occur on the pages of English books ; and, as 
Anglo-Saxon words are much more frequently 
repeated than those of a different origin, there 
may be no material inconsistency between his 
computation and that of the Edinburgh Re- 

17. The fol owing are the pnnoipal Angh- 
Saxon prefixes namely, o, be, em, m, fore^ im, 
m,i» oti/, over un, and under; as ahead, 6e- 

friend, embody, enMe, forehoie, imbosom, ■nta- 
deed, outio, owracc, unbind, unlike, undergc. 

18. Some of the common Anglo-Saxon termi' 
nations are the foUowmg, namely, er, fid, less 
ly, ness, ship ; as, writer, mindful, helpless, just 
iyi goodness, partnersAip. 

19. The contributions of the Latin language 
to the English, are next, in importance and 
amount, to those of the Anglo-Saxon; and these 
contributions came chiefly through the medium 
of the French, or Norman French, in conse- 
quence of the Norman conquest. It has been 
stated by some philologists, that the English 
language is indebted to the Latin for the greater 
part of its vocabulary. This, however, ia 
greatly exaggerated statement ; yet the contribu 
tions from that language are great and important, 
and they enter extensively into the formation 
and etymology of English words. The Latin 
has furnished a large portion of the abstract and 
general terms, especially in the departments of 
theology, moral and political philosophy, and all 
the moral sciences ; also a great part of the 
terms used in polite literature, and the lan- 
guage of polite life. A great part of the mili- 
tary terms in English, come directly from the 

20. The following are Latin prefixes : a, ab, 
abs, from ; as, avert, aijure, aistract ; — ad, a, 
ac, of, ag, al, an, ap, ar, as, at, to ; as, adduce, 
accede, q/Yix, &c. ; — ante, before ; as, antece- 
dent ; — drcum, about ; as, aVcumjacent ; — con, 
CO, cog, col, com, cor, together, with ; as, conform, 
coeval, coflect, &c. ; — cr itra, against; as, co?i- 
tradict ; — de, down, from ; as, rfeface, degrade ; 

— dis, asunder; as, rfisarm; — e, ea;, out of; as, 
eject, exclude ; — extra, beyond ; as, extrajudi- 
cial; — in, ig, il, im, ir, (when prefixed to a 
verb,) in ; as, indue ; (when prefixed to an ad- 
jective,) not; as, mvisible ; — inter, between; as, 
intermix; — inlro, within; as, introduce; — ob, 
oc, of, op, for, in the way of; as, oftject, occur; 
— per, through; as, pervade; — post, after; as, 
postscript ; — pre, before ; as, precede ; — prefer 
beyond ; as, preternatural ; — pro, for, forward 
as, proconsul ; — re, back, again ; as, return, re- 
build; — retro, backward; as, retrospect; — se 
aside ; as, secede ; — sine, without ; as, sinecuro 

— sub, sue, siff, sug, sup, sus, under, after ; aa 
»u6dean, suffice, siig-gest, sitjoplant, suspect ; — 
super, above ; as, superabound, supernatural ; — 
trans, beyond ; as, transcend ; — idtra, beyond 
as, ultramarine. 

21. The following terminations are derivea 
from the Latin or tVenck: able, ibk, cU Ue,tal, 


id, tan, an, ant, ent, fy, lar, iiy, or, ous, turn, 
tive, tvde, ture. 

03. To the Greek, the English language is 
indebted for most of the terms in physical 
science, and, indeed, for a great part of the 
terms employed in all the arts and sciences. 

23. The following are Greek prefixes : a, (a,) 
trirJiout; aa, acephalous; — ana, (dfd,) through, 
again ; as, anogram ; — anli, (^vtl,) against ; as, 
anlichnstian ; — apo, (&n6,) from ; as, apostate ; 
—eata, (xoTd,) down, from side to side ; as, cata- 
l^gia- — dia, {dni,) through; as, duigoaid; — 

en, em, (ir,) as, endemic ; — epi, {bn,) upon ; as 
epidemic ; — hyper, (inig,) above ; as, fa/percritic 
— hypo, (Jjid,) under ; as, hypocrite ; — meta, 
(fiBxi,) beyond ; as, metaphysics ; — para, {nagd, 
by the side of, near ; as, |jarallel ; — peri, (negl, 
about; as, perimeter; — syn, sy, syl, sym, (oiv, 
together, with; as, si/nonymouB, syHogiam. 

24. The following terminatwns axe from the 
Greek: ic and ical, ftom the Greek iMog and 
Latin ieus ; logy, from Uyog ; grajAy, fiom 
YQiqxa; ize, fiom i^m. 


1. The English language, from the time of 
is first formation, has been subject to continual 
ehanges. Old words have been, from time to 
lime, falling away, and new ones have been 
formed and brought into use. A large part of 
the words found in the early productions of Eng- 
lish literature, such as those of Peter Langtoft, 
Robert of Gloucester, Robert Langland, (the 
reputed author of " Piers Ploughman,") Gower, 
Chaucer, Wicliffe, and Mandeville, are now ob- 
solete ; and in order to understand these works, 
further assistance is necessary than is afforded 
Oy modern dictionaries and grammars. Very 
tew of the English writers who preceded the 
reign of Elizabeth, are now much read ; and the 
obsolete words which their works contain may 
properly be consigned to glossaries accompany- 
ing the works, or to dictionaries of archaic 

2. Several of these early productions have 
Been published with glossaries attached to them, 
as the Chronicles of Peter Langtoft and Robert 
of Gloucester, by Hearne ; and the works of 
Chaucer, by Tyrrwhit Glossaries have also 
been appended to Spenser and Shakspeare. 
Some works of a more general nature, relating 
to obsolete or archaic words, have, not long 
amce, appeared ; as " Nares's Glossary or Col- 
lection of Words, Phrases, &c., found in Shak- 
speare and his Contemporaries," and Toone's 
'•Glossary and Etymological Dictionary of 
Obsolete and Uncommon Words." Jamieson's 
« Etymological Dictionary of the Scottish Lan- 
guage " also contains numerous archaic, as well 
aj9 provincial, words. Boucher's « Glossary of 
Archaic and Provincial Words " (designed to be 
a large work in 4to.) was commenced in 1832 ; 
but only two numbers of it have been published. 
The publication, in a series of numbers, of Hal- 
iiwell's " Dictionary of Archaic and Provincial 
Words, and Obsolete Phrases, Proverbs, and 
Ancient Customs, from the 14th Century," was 
commenced in 1844, and promises to embrace 

as great a number of words as are found in • 
dictionary of modern English. 

3. The early bilingual dictionaries, such aa 
the English and Latin, and English and French, 
contain many obsolete words; and this is the 
fact with respect to many of the English die- 
tionaries, as those of Bailey, Johnson, Ash, 
Richardson, and others. Johnson says, hu 
"fixed Sidney's work [Sir Philip Sidney, who 
died in 1586] for the boundary, beyond which 
he made few excursions." Johnson's Diction- 
ary, however, as he left it, contains many obso- 
lete words, a considerable portion of which were 
taken from Bailey's Dictionary, though of such 
words he did not take near all that are found 
in Bailey. Of the words added by Mr. Todd, 
a much larger proportion are obsolete than of 
those admitted by Johnson ; and of Todd's addi 
tional words, particularly in his second edition, 
there are many which are of merely local oi 
provincial use, and some of them are unworthy 
of being inserted in a general dictionary of the 

4. A dictionary of the English language, in 
order to be complete, must contain all the words 
whether obsolete or not, found in books which 
are mucli read, such, for example, as the com- 
mon version of the Scriptures, and the workt 
of Shakspeare and of Milton ; though there a»" 
many words in these works which are now oh 
solete, and many which, though not obsolete, art 
used in an obsolete sense, that needs explan 

5. William Caxton, who first introduced pnnt- 
ing into England, in his Preface to a Transla- 
tion of Virgil's jEneid, printed in 1490, speaking 
of the innovations then made in the English lan- 
guage, and the differences of the language in 
the different parts of the kingdom, says, that ha 
"toke an olde boke and redde therein, and c^-- 
taynly the Englisshe was so rude and brood, thai 

he coulde not wele understande it." " An<l 

certaynly," he says, " our language now usei* 


raiyeth ferre from that which was used and 
(poken when I was born. For we Englissh men 
ben borne under the domynacyon of the mone, 
which is never stedfaste, but ever waverynge, 
wexyng one season, and waneth and dis- 
creaseth another season ; and that comyne Eng- 
lisshe that is spoken one shyre varyeth from 
another, insomuche, that in my dayes happened, 
that certayn merchauntes were in a shipp in 
Tarayse; for to have sailed over the see into 
Zelande, and for lacke of wynde they taryed 
atte Forland, and went to lande for to refreshe 
them ; and one of them, named ShefFelde, a 
mercer, came into an hows, and axed for mete, 
and specyally he axed for egges, and the goode 
wj'f answerde, that she coude speke no Frenshe. 
And the marchaunt was angry, for he also 
coude speke no Frenshe, but wolde have hadde 
egges, and she understode him not And then 
at laste another sayd, that he wolde have eyren ; 
then the goode wyf sayd, that she understode 
bim well. Loo what sholde a man in thyse days 
now wryte, egges or eyren ? Certaynly it is 
hard to playse every man, By cause of dyversyte 
and chaunge of langage; for in these days 
every man, that is in ony reputacyon in his 
countre, will utter his communicacyon and mat- 
ters in such manners and termes, that fewe men 
ehall understonde them ; and som honest and 
grete clerkes have been wyth me, and desired 
me to wryte the moste curyous termes that I 
coude find. And thus between playn, rude, 
and curious, 1 stand abashed. But in my judg- 
mente, the comyn termes that be dayli used, 
ben lighter to be understonde than the olde 
ftuncyent Englisshe." 

6. England abounds in provincialisms and 
local dialects ; and in some districts of the 
country, the peculiarities of the language are so 
great, that the speech of the common people 
can be but imperfectly understood by those 
who are unacquainted with their peculiar dia- 
lect These peculiarities, or archaisms, are of 
great antiquity, and, as stated by Forby, "are 
all, in substance, remnants and derivatives of 
the language of past ages, which were, at some 
time or other, in common use, though in long 
process of time they have become only locally 
used and understood." 

7. Of tlie local dialects, one of the most noted 
IS the Craven Dialect, which is spoken in the 
deanery of Craven, a district of upwards of 
(hirty miles in length and nearly as many in 
Breadth, situated in the noHhem part of the 

west-nding of the county of York. Mr. Can 
the author of the " Craven Dialect and Glos- 
sary," maintains that it was " the language of 
crowned heads, of the court, and of the most 
eminent English historians, divines, and poets, 
of former ages.'' These provincialisms now 
form, to a great extent, the colloquial language 
of the lower classes ; and many of them are 
found in the early productions of English litera/- 
ture ; but in books of modern origin, they are 
seen chiefly in glossaries. 

8. The Edinburgh Review [vol. Ixxix. 1844] 
contains the following statement 

"The number of provincial words that navo 
hitherto been arrested by local glossaries, stand 
as follows : — 

Sussex, 371 

Essex, 589 

Wiltshire, 592 

Hallamshire, . . . 1,568 

Craven, 6,169 

North Country, . 3,750 

Cheshire, 903 

(Grose & Pegge)3,bUU 

Shropshire, . . . 


Devonshire an( 

Cornwall, . . . 

. 878 


(North,) .... 



. 370 

Herefordshire, . 

. saa 

Lancashire, . . . 



. 2,400 



Somersetshire, . 


Total, 30,687 

9. " Admitting that several of the foregoing 
are synonymous, superfluous, or common to 
each county, there are, nevertheless, many of 
them which, although alike orthographically, are 
vastly dissimilar in signification. Making these 
allowances, tliey amount to a little more than 
20,000 ; or, according to the number of EngJish 
counties hitherto illustrated, at the average ratio 
of 1,478 to a county. Calculating the twenty 
six unpublished in the same ratio, they will fur 
nish 38,428 additional provincialisms, forming, 
in the aggregate, 59,000 words in the colloquial 
tongue of the lower classes, which can, for the 
chief part, produce proofs of legitimate origin ; 
about the same number, in short, of authorized 
words that are admitted into Todd's edition of 
Johnson's Dictionary. Besides these and the 
private compilations made by individuals, m the 
course of their miscellaneous reading, there ary 
some very copious early English Vocabularies 
lying in manuscript in the cathedral libraries ot 
Durham, Winchester, and Canterbury, in the 
British Museum, King's Ccilege, and other de- 
positories, deserving collection ; as well as rare 
lexicographical volumes, which issued fion the 
press in the infancy of typography." 

10. A list of the English provincial glossariei 



irmcli contain tlie words above enumerated, may 
De seen on page Ixxi. A considerable number 
of these provincialisms are to be found in Ash's 
English Dictionary, and also among the addi- 
tions of Mr. Todd to Johnson's Dictionary. But, 
as they are not found in the classical or in the 
popular literature of England, and are rarely 
Been in print, except in the glossaries in which 
they have been collected, they have little claim 
to a place in a general dictionary of the lan- 
guage. Were education universally diffused 
throughout the country, and the children accus- 
tomed to use the same or similar elementary 
hooks of instruction, most of these provincial- 
isms would soon be disused and forgotten. 

11. The English language as it is spoken 
and written in the United States, differs some- 
what from the language as written and spoken in 
any part of England ; and it differs also, more or 
less, in the different States ; but there is nothing 
here at all to be compared with the local dia- 
lects of England. The greater uniformity of 
language which exists in this country, is to be 
attributed to the frequent removals of the in- 
haoitants from one place to another, their free 
intercourse with each other, and to the fact 
that elementary education is much more gen- 
erally diffused among the middle and lower 
classes here, than in England. The Americans 
have formed their language more from books, 
and less from oral speech, than the English ; 
and they are more in the habit of having re- 
course to a dictionary for instruction respecting 
the pronunciation and use of words. 

12. The settlement of this country was com- 
menced, upwards of two centuries ago, chiefly 
by emigrations from different parts of Great 
Britain. The emigrants brought with them not 
only the common language of the country in the 
state in which it then existed, but also more or 
.ess of the local peculiarities ; and in this way 
some of the English provincialisms have been 
widely diffused m the United States, and have 
oeen regarded as of American origin. The 
changes in tlie language, which have taken 
place within the last two centuries, have not 
been precisely the same on the two sides of the 
Atlantic ; yet the difference is much less than 
might reasonably have been expected ; and it is 
doubtless a. fact, that, among the great mass of 
the people throughout England, the deviations 
from what is there deemed the correct standard 
*f speaKiDg and writing the language, are much 

greater than among tlie mass of the people of 
the United States. 

13. The Americans have formed some net* 
words ; to some old ones they have affixed new 
significations ; they have retained some which 
have become obsolete in England; some Eng 
lish provincialisms they have brought into 
common use; and there are many neologisms, 
consisting in part of new words, and in part of 
old words with new significations, in use both in 
England and in the United States, with regard 
to which it is difficult to determine :n which 
country they originated. 

14. A great part of the differences with re- 
spect to the language of the educated classes in 
the United States and in England, grow out of 
the different institutions and the different cir- 
cumstances and employments of the people of 
the two countries. There is a considerable num 
her of words which owe their origin to Ameri 
can institutions, social relations, and occupations, 
and which are properly used by Americans, bu' 
which Englishmen have no occasion to employ 
except in speaking of American affairs. On the 
other hand, there is a stiU greater number of 
words which relate to the civil and religious 
institutions and social relations of Great Britain, 
and which are never used in the United States, 
except with reference to that country. Such 
differences as these have a legitimate origin, 
and may be regarded as proper, and not as cor 
ruptions of the language. But there are many 
neologisms, or new words, some of American, 
and still more of recent English origin, which 
are entitled to little countenance. A considera- 
ble number of such have been noticed in this 
Dictionary ; but many have been passed by as 
plants suffered to remain and die in their native 
soil, being regarded as not worth transplanting. 

15. Among the words which owe their origin 
or peculiar use to American institutions, are 
the following : congress, congressional, president, 
presidential, senate, senatorial, gubernatorial, 
state, territory, town, general court, general as- 
sembly, selectmen, message, &c. The words ex- 
ecutive and judiciary are often used in the 
United States as nouns, but not often in Eng 
land. The words electioneer and electioneering, 
which are much used here, are also used, in 
some degree, in England, though the more com 
mon terms used there, in the same sense, are 
canvass and canvassing, which are rarely used 
in this manner in the United States. Tha 
word caucus is of undisputed American origia 



Among the American ecclesiastical terms may 
be noted association, associational, consociation, 
tonsodaiiorwl, to approbate, to result, &c. 

16. Among the terms relating to the political 
and civil institutions of England, rarely used in 
this country, except with reference to England, 
may be enumerated the following: parliament, 
parliameniary, prorogue, prorogation, hustings, 
txehequer, postman, tubman, sergeant-at-law, as- 
lize, excise, bailiff, lords, commons, peerage, bar- 
onetage, knightage, &c. : among the ecclesiastical 
terms, establishment, conformity, non-conformity, 
dissenters, dean, deanery, archdeacon, archdeacon- 
ry, prebend, prebendary, canon, eanonry, vicar, 
vicarage, curate, curacy, dignity, dignifed, bene- 
fice, beneficed, advowson, cmnmendam, donative, 
preferment, impropriation, impropriator, &c. 
Among the many neologisms which may claim 
the undisputed honor of English origin, are con- 
stituency, boroughmonger, squirarchy, shopocracy, 
conservatism, radicalism, liberalism, chartism, Aiv- 
glicanism, high-churchism, dissenterism, voluntor 
ryism, &c. 

17. There is a difference between the two 
countries in relation to the terms employed to 
designate their respective literary institutions, 
and also with respect to the technical terms 
ust,d in their umversities and colleges. The 
following English university terms, for example, 
are not at all used here in the same sense : act, 
wrangler, optima, bursar, commoner, shear, pen- 
sioner, servitor, batteller, foundationer ; and the 
following American terms do not appear to be 
used in the same sense in England, namely, 
cirmmiencement, senior, junior, sophomore, fresh- 
man, salutatory, beneficiary. 

18. Some words, more or less in use, are re- 
garded as of Indian origin ; as, calumet, choco- 
late, hominy, moccason, mush, papoose, potato, 
fotmoow, quahaug, sachem, sagamore, samp, suc- 
lotash, S(^'uash, squaw, tobacco, tomato, tomahawk, 
toampum, wigwam, Yankee. 

11 Of the English provincialisms which are 

often used in the United States, may be eim 
merated, to vAlt, to slump, to rile or tu roil, slumpy 
slosh, slush, slosky, slushy, rily or roily, spunk, 
spunky, spry, squirm, squiggle, quackle, shote, 

20. There is a considerable number of words 
the propriety of which has been disputed, but 
which are now often used both in the United 
States and in England. Such are the follow- 
ing: to advocate, to base, to demoralize, to de- 
range, to expatriate, to locate, to obligate, to test, 
to veto, prayerful, prayerless, profanity, unwell, 
&c. The following words, which are moro or 
less used in the United States, are little used 
in England : to approbate, to belittle, to clapboard, 
to eventuate, to jeopardize, to loan ; sundown, 
bootable, freshet, sled, sleigh, clapboard, shingle, 
prairie, snag, sawyer, vendue, sparse, bindery or 
bookbindery, lot, as a building ht, a house lot, a 
wood lot. 

21. The following words have senses affixed 
to them in the United States different froir 
the senses in which they are commonly used in 
England: baggage, balance, clever, cob, com, 
creek, fall, lumber, merchant, quite, spdl, stage, 
store; also the verbs to imp-ove, to notify, to 
girdle, to guess, to eipect, &c. 

22. There are some words which both Eng- 
lish and American recent writers have used in a 
new sense ; as, to realize, to solemnize, to tran- 
spire; obnoxious, temper, &c. Many of the 
neologisms which have been stigmatized as 
American innovations or corruptions, have been 
sanctioned by the use of English authors. The 
adjective lengthy, and the verb to progress, with 
the accent on the last syllable, are reputed to 
be of American origin ; but, though they may 
probably have originated here, yet they seem 
to have been adopted in England; and com- 
paratively higher authorities may be adduced in 
support of their use from English, than from 
American, writers. — See the words Lenotbt, 
Pbooress, Clever, &c. in the Dictioo'cy 


L Lexicoorafht is a branch of literature 
whicli appears to have been but little cultivated 
in ancient times. It is doubtfiil whether the 
ancient Greeks and Romans ever wrote what 
would be properly called dictionaries of their 
respective languages. No such works written 
by them are now extant ; nor is there positive 
evidence that any such ever existed. The 
terms lexicon and dictionarium wer" not in use 
during the classic period of the Greek and 
Roman languages; but they are of compara- 
tively modem introduction. Varro, who died 
27 B. C, wrote a work entitled « De lAngud 
Latind," which consisted of twenty-four books, 
of which only six, and these much mutilated, 
are now extant. One of tlie books contained 
a sort of glossary of Latin terms. Apollonius 
of Alexandna, commonly supposed to have lived 
m the time of Augustus, though some suppose 
him to have been much later, wrote a sort of 
glossary to Homer, 

2. " The oldest extant Greek lexicographer," 
says the Penny CyclopoBdia, "is ApoUonius 
the Sophist, a contemporary of Augustus. His 
work, entitled AHetg ' OfiTjQixa], or 'Homeric 
Words,' though much interpolated, is very use- 
fiiL All the other original Greek lexicons and 
glossaries we have, such as the ' Onomasticon ' 
(or Collection of Synonymes) of Julius Pol- 
lux, tlie lexicons of Suidas, Harpocration, and 
Hesychius, and the ' Etymologicon Magnum,' 
■ometimes attributed to Marcus Musurus, al- 
though of the authors of some of tliem the 
exact age is disputed, were undoubtedly com- 
piled subsequent, and most of them probably 
long subsequent, to the commencement of the 
Christian era. It is supposed, indeed, that they 
were founded upon older compilations of the 
name kind ; but of the form of those lost 
works we know nothing. It may be reasonably 
doubted if either the Greeks or Romans were 
in the habit of making use of dictionaries in 
■tudying a foreign language or dialect, as has 
been the general practice in modern tunes." 

3. The following is a brief notice ot a few of 
the earliest lexicographical works that are now 
extan^ — Julius Pollux, a native of Naucratis, 
in Egypt, and a teacher of rhetoric at Athens, in 
the early part of the third century of the Chris- 
tian era, was the author of the " Omyhiasticon," 
a Greek Vocabulary, divided into ten books. It 
contains a vast variety of synonymous words and 
phrases, arranged under general heads, but not 
alphabetically, and it partakes more of tlie nature 
of an encyclopsBdia, than of a dictionary. The 
first edition of it was pnnted at Venice in 150'i, 

4. Hesychius of Alexandria, by some stated 
to have lived as early as the third, and by ottiera 
not before the fifth or sixth century, was the 
author of a Greek lexicon or glossary, consist- 
ing of short explanations of uncommon Greek 
words and technical terms. The first edition ol 
it was printed at Venice in 1513. 

5. Valerius Harpocration, a Greek rhetoricia* 
of Alexandria, wrote a work entitled " Lexicon 
Decern Oratorum," (" Lexicon to the Ten Ora- 
tors,") which contains an account of many of the 
persons and facts mentioned in the orauons o 
the ten principal orators of Athens. "W» 
have," says the Penny Cyclopeedia, " no partic- 
ulars of his life, nor of the time iii which h# 
lived." Mr. Watt styles him " an Alexandrian 
rhetorician of the fourth century," and entitles 
his work " Lexicon in decern Bhetores" It waj 
first printed at Venice in 1503. 

6. Photius, patriarch of Constantinople, who 
died in 891, was the author of the Ae^emv 
Swayatyrj, a Greek glossary or lexicon, an edi- 
tion of which, edited by Hermann, was pub- 
lished at Leipsic in 1808 ; and another, edited 
by Person, was published m London in 1822. 

7. Suidas, whose age and country are not 
ascertained, but who is supposed to have lived 
between 900 and 1025 A. D., was the author of 
a Greek Lexicon, styled by some an "Historical 
and Geographical Dictionary," also an " Ency. 
clopjedia." It comprises the names of men 
and places, as well as the words which properh 


belong to a dictionaiy. The first edition was 
printed at Milan in 1499. 

8. John Balbus, or Balbi, or John of Genoa, 
(being a Genoese,) who died in 1298, was tlie 
author of the " Catholicon," a Latin dictionary 
containing between seven hundred and eight 
hundred pages folio ; first printed at Mentz, in 
1460, by Gutenberg. "Although this work," 
Bays Watt, "contains many errors, it has the 
iiingnlarity of being the first Latin dictionary 
after the destruction of the language." 

9. Johannes Crestonus (Placentinus,) a native 
of Piacenza, was the author of the "Lexicon 
Graco-Latinum^ the first Greek and Latin 
dictionary extant The first edition, supposed 
to have been printed at Milan, is without date. 
The earliest edition, with a date, was printed at 
Vicenza in 1483. 

10. Calepin, or Calepino, a native of Calepio, 
near Bergamo, m Italy, who died in 1510, was 
the author of the " Dictionarium" a Latin dic- 
tionary, one of the earliest works of the kind, 
first pnnted at Ileggio m 1502. It went through 
many editions, and received such additions as 
made it almost a new worL Facciolati, assisted 
by his pupil Egidio Porcellini, prepared and 
published a '^ew edition in 1731. " It was," as is 
stated by the Penny Cyclopaedia, " in tlie course 
of his joint labors with Facciolati, that Forcellini 
concived the plan of a totally new Latin dic- 
tions'y, which, after more than thirty years' as- 
siduous application, he brought to .light under 
the *itle of ' Totius Latinitatis Lexkon,' four 
volumes folio, Padua, 1771. This work has 
superseded all other Latin dictionaries." An 
enlarged edition of this work, edited by James 
Bailey, was published in London in 1828 ; and 
It also formed the principal basis of the " Lexi- 
«\,n of the Latin Language," edited by F. P. 
Levorett, and first published at Boston in 1836. 
— " Cornucopia," " Breviloquus Vocabularixis" 
and " Gemma Vocahvlorum atque Medulla" are 
titles of other early lexicographical works on 
the Latin language. 

11. The earliest lexicographical labors in 
England were performed near the end of the 
fifteenth century ; and their object was to facili- 
tate the study of the Latin language. The title 
of the earliest work of the kind published in 
that country, as given in Dr. Dib din's " Typo- 
graphical Antiquities," was as follows : " Promp- 
torius Puerorum. Promptorium Paruulorum, m,ve 
Clericorum. Medulla Grammatice." It was first 
Drinted by Richard Pynson, in 1499, in folio. 
Editionp of it were printed by Wynkyn de Worde, 

in 1510, 1512, 1516, and 1528. « Richard Fraun 
ces, a preaching or blaCk friar," as is stated bj 
WiUiam Herbert, the typographical antiquary 
" was the author of this first English and Latin 
dictionary, in which are many old English words 
nowhere else explained." "This hook," says 
Dr. Dibdin, " is printed in double columns ; the 
English before the Latin ; the nouns first, under 
each letter of the alphabet, the verbs, adverbs, 
&c., aft«r them ; both nouns and verbs are de- 
clined very particularly. The work was intend- 
ed, as the commencement of the account of the 
third edition of it specifies, as a companion to 
the ' Ortus Vocabulorum,' in Latin and English." 

12. In 1500 (the next year after the first pub- 
lication of the work above noticed) was printed 
by Wynkyn de Worde the first edition of the 
work bearing the following title, as stated in Dr. 
Dibdin's " Typographical Antiquities : " — " Or- 
tus Vocabulorum : alphabetico ordine fere omnia 
qua in Caiholico breviloquo Cornucopia Genuna 
Vocabulorum atque Medulla Grammatices ponun- 
tur cum perpulcns Additoribus Ascens. et vernac- 
ulm lAngv/z Anglicana expositionem continens." 
This is the first edition of the first Latin and 
English dictionary, — " a work," says Dibdin, "of 
considerable importance to grammatical antiqua 
ries, and the parent production of our popular 
Latin and English Dictionary by Ainsworth." 
Subsequent editions were printed in 1508, 1509, 
1514, 1516, and 1518. 

13. The next lexicographical work, and the 
first entitled a dictionary, [dictionarium,) that was 
published in England, was the " Dictionarium " 
(Latin and English) of Sir Thomas Elyot, who 
was a distinguished scholar in the reign of 
Henry VUL, a friend of Sir Thomas More, 
and the author of various works. It was first 
published in 1538 ; and the dates of other edi- 
tions which appeared before the author's death, 
in 1546, are as follows; 1.541, 1542, and 1545. 
The title of the edition of 1542, as given by 
Ames, is « Bibliotheca EHotai, Eliotis Idbra- 
rie." It was dedicated to Henry VIII. ; and th«> 
following is an extract from the dedication: 
— "To the moste excellent prince, and our 
moste redoubted souerayne lorde Kinge Henry 
the VIII., Supreme head in erthe immediately 
vnder Christe, of the Churche of Englande. 

About a yere passed, J beganne a Dio- 

tionane, declaring latine by englishe. But 
whyles J was printyng, and vneth the hall 
deale performed, your hygnnes being informed 
therof, by the reportes of gentyll maister Antony 
Denny, for his nysedome and diligence worthily 


Mllyd by your hyghnesse, into your pnuie cham- 
Der, and of Wyllyam Tildisley, keper of your 
gracis lybrarie, and after mooste specially by 
the recommendation of the most honourable 
orde Crumwel], lorde priuie seale, &c., con- 
ceyued of my labours a good expectation, and 
declaryng your moste noble and beneuolent na- 
ture, in fauouryng them that wyll be well occu- 
pied, your hyghnesse, in the presence of dyuers 
of 3'Dur noble men, commendynge myne enter- 
prise, affirmed, that if J wolde ernestely trauayle 
Iherin, your highnes, as well with excellent coun- 
«iiile, as with suche bokes as your grace had, 
aijd J lacked, wolde therin ayde me. Wherfore 
incontinent J caused the printer to cesse, and 
beginninge at the letter M, where J lefte, J 
passed forth to the last letter with a more 
diligent study. And that done, J eftesones re- 
lumed to my fyrst letter, and with a semblable 
diligence performed the remnant ; — and under 
your gracious governance, your highnesse being 
myn onely mayster, — hauynge fynished for 
this tyme this symple Dictionarie, wherin, J 
dare affirme, may be found a thousand rao 
wordes, than were together in any one Dic- 
tionarie publyshed in this royalme at the tyme 
when J fyrste began to write this commentarie, 
which is almost two yeres passed. — Gyuynge 
to your maiestie mooste hartye thankes, as to the 
chiefe author thereof, by whose gracious rneanes 
menne, beinge studious, may vnderstande better 
the latine tunge in syxe monethes, than they 
mought haue doone afore in thre yeres, withoute 
perfyte instructours, whyche are not many, and 
suche as be, are not easy to come by : the cause 
J nede not reherse, sens J ones declared it in 
my booke called the ' Gouernour,' which about 
Vni yeres passed J dydde dedicate vnto your 

14. " This IS a work," says Dr. Dibdin, " of 
considerable ability, and deservedly held in 
high estimation, as one of the earliest and best 
attempts in the promotion of lexicographical 
literature." After the death of Sir Thomas 
Elyot, his Dictionary was corrected and en- 
larged repeatedly by Thomas Cooper, " Scheie 
maister of Maudlens in Oxforde," afterwards 
bishop of Lincoln ; and in the edition of 156.3, 
Jie title was changed to " Tltesaurus utriusque 
JAngucB Latince el Britannica ; " Cooper having, 
according to Anthony Wood, " augmented and 
enriched it with 33,000 words and phrases." 

15. After the appearance of some smaller 
Latin and English dictionaries, the "Alvearie, 
»r Triple Di<'tionarie, in English. Latin, and 

French," by John Baret, a wholai of Cam- 
bridge, was published in 1573 ; and to ths 
second edition, published in 1580, he added the 
Greek, and entitled it the " Alv(;arie, or Quad- 
ruple Dictionarie." In his address " To the 
Reader," he gives a singular account of the 
manner in which the " Alvearie " was formed, 
from which the following extract is given: — 
16. "About eighteene yeeres agone, having 
pupils at Cambridge, studious of the Latin 
tongue, I vsed them often to write epistles and 
themes togither, and daily to translate soma 
peece of English into Latin, for the more 
speedy and easie atteining of the same. And 
after we had a little begunne, perceyuing what 
great trouble it was to come running to mee for 
euery word they missed, (knowing then of no 
other Dictionarie to helpe us, but Sir Thomas 
Eliots Librarie, which was come out a little be- 
fore,) I appoynted them certaine leaues of tha 
same booke euery day, to write the English be- 
fore the Latin, and likewise to gather a number 
of fine phrases out of Cicero, Terence, Casar 
Livie, &c. and to set them under seuerall Ty- 
Hes, for the more ready finding them againe aX 
their neede. Thus within a yeare or two they 
had gathered togither a great volume, which (for 
the apt similitude betweene tlie good scholers 
and the diligent bees in gathering their wax and 
bony into their hiue) I called then their Jllut- 
arie, both for a memoriall by whom it was made, 
and also by this name to incourage other to the 
like diligence, for that they should not see their 
worthy prayse for the same unworthily drowned 
in obliuion. Not long after, divers of our 
fiiendes borrowing this our worke which we had 
thus contriued and wrought onely for our own 
priuate vse, often and many wayes mooued mee 
to put it in print for the common profit of others, 
and the publike propagation of the Latin tongue 
or else to suffer them to get it printed at theit 
proper costes and charges. But I both un^vill 
ing, and halfe ashamed to haue our rude noteR 
come abrode under the view of so many learned 

eyes, &c at length coming to London. 

there came unto mee a printer shewing 

mee Hulmts Dictionarie (which before I neuei 
sawe) and tolde me he intended to print it out 
of hand, augmented with our notes also if 1 
woulde. But this bargaine went not forward 
with him for divers causes Now there- 
fore (gentle reader) looke not to finde in this 
booke, euery thing whatsoeuer thou wouldest 
seeke for, as though all thinges were here so 
perfect that nothing lacked, or were possible ta 



be added hereunto. But if thou mayst onely 
here finde the most wordes that thou needest, or 
at the least so many as no other Dictionarie yet 
extant or made hath the like : take then, I say, 
in good part this our simple Muearie in the mean 
time, and giue God the praise that first moved 
mee to set my pupils on worke thereabout, and 
BO mercifully also hath strengthened vs (thus as 
it is) at length to atchieue and iinish the same." 

17. The Latin and English dictionary of Dr. 
John Rider (an Oxford scholar, and afterwards 
bishop of Killaloe) was published in 1589. 
His additions, as he states, "amount to 4,000 
words more than any one dictionarie now ex- 
tant affords;" and, in his Preface, he says, "No 
one dictionarie, as yet extant, hath the Eng- 
lish before the Latine, with a full index of all 
such Latine words as are in any common dic- 
tionarie." Rider's Dictionary was subsequently 
enlarged, first by Francis Holyoke, and af- 
terwards by his son Thomas Holyoke. Tlr? 
Latin and English dictionaries of Gouldman, 
Coles, and Littleton, which appeared within a 
few years of each other, passed through various 
editions, — that of Coles, as many as eighteen ; 
but they were all superseded by the Latin and 
English Dictionary of Robert Ainsworth, which 
was first published in 1736, in one volume 4to. 
The second edition, edited by Patrick, appeared 
in 1746, in two volumes 4to. In 1752, it was 
published in two volumes folio ; in 1773, "a new 
edition with great additions and amendments," by 
Dr. Thomas Morell, appeared ; and an improved 
edition, edited by Dr. Carey, was published, in 
J816, in one volume 4to. " There have been," 
as stated by Lowndes, "abridgments of this 
work by Young, Thomas, MoreU, and Jamieson." 

38. Of the early English lexicographers, the 
object of whose labors was to facilitate the study 
of foreign modern languages, may be mentioned 
Percivale, the author of a " Spanish and Eng- 
lish Dictionary," Cotgrave, author of a " French 
and English Dictionary," (with the English part 
by Sherwood,) and also Minsheu, author of the 
"Guide into the Tongues," first published in 
1617, in eleven languages, — the English, Brit- 
ish or Welsh, Low Dutch, High Dutch, French, 
Italian, Spanish, Portuguese, Latin, Greek, and 
Hebrew. A new edition was published in 1627, 
m nine languages, but with a considerable in- 
crease in the number of radical words. "In 
this," says Sir John Hawkins, " the author un- 
dertakes to ^ve the etymologies or derivations 
9f the greater part of the words therein con- 
tained ; but, as they amount, at the most, to no 

more than 14,173, the. work mjst be deeited 
not sufficiently copious." 

19. The object of the first lexicogriiphicoi 
labors in England was to facilitate the study 
of the Latin language, afterwards that of the 
Greek, and also of foreign modem languages • 
and it was in these bilingual dictionaries, such 
as Latin and English, and French and English, 
that the common English words were first col- 
lected. The early dictionaries, which were dft 
signed for mere English readers, were very lim- 
ited and meagre productions, their chief object 
being to explain what were styled the " hard 
words " of the language. Two of the earliest 
of these works were those of Bullokar and 
Cockeram. The former, the " English Expos 
itor," by Dr. John Bullokar, was first published 
in 1616. It passed through many editions ; and 
the title of the edition printed at Cambridge, in 
England, m 1688, is as follows : " An English 
Expositour, or Compleat Dictionary ; teaching 
the Interpretation of the hardest Words and 
most useful Terms of Art used in our Language ; 
first set forth by J. B., Dr. of Physick, and now 
the eighth time revised, corrected, and very 
much augmented." It is a little volume, 18mo., 
and contains only 5,080 words. 

20. The English Dictionary of Blount, often 
written Blunt, was a larger work than any othel 
of the kind that preceded it ; and it was soon 
followed by a still more considerable one, that 
of Edward Phillips, the nephew and pupil of 
Milton. The title of Phillips's dictionary is 
" The New World of English Words, or a Gen- 
eral Dictionary, containing the Interpretations 
of such hard Words as are derived from othei 
Languages, whether Hebrew, Arabick, Syriack; 
Greek, Latin, Italian, French, Spanish, British, 
Dutch, Saxon, &c., their Etymologies and per- 
fect Definitions." Sir John Hawkins says of 
this work, " ' The New World of Words,' which, 
as it is much more copious than tliat of Blount, 
and contains a great quantity of matter, must 
be looked on as the basis of English lexicogra- 
phy." Though Phillips is entitled to the credit 
of having advanced the progress of English lex 
icography, yet his " World " is hardly deserving 
of being regarded as its "basis." The first 
edition is a small folio, of only three hundred 
pages, containing only about 13,000 words. Of 
these words, a large proportion are such as do 
not properly belong to a dictionary of the Eilg- 
lish language, but rather to an encyclopiPdia, 
consisting of geographical and other propei 
names ; and it contains but fe\i words of genu 


lue English growth; but the subsequent edi- 
tions of the work were very much enlarged. 

21. Phillips gives a list of the names of thirty- 
four "learned gentlemen and artists who con- 
tributed their assistance.'' He quotes from 
another author the following remark: "A dic- 
tionary for the English tongue would require an 
encyclopedie of knowledge, and the concurrence 
of many learned heads." « Such an encyclope- 

dy," he says, " I present the reader with ; 

a volume which the so many years' industry of 
myself and others hath brought to such perfec- 
tion.'' In the publisher's advertisement of the 
work, it is thus characterized: "The so long 
expected work, The Nkio World of English, 
Words, or a General Dictionary, containing the 
terms, etymologies, definitions, and perfect in- 
terpretations of the proper significations of hard 
English words throughout the arts and sciences, 
liberal or mechanic, as also other subjects that 
are useful, or appertain to the language of our 
nation ; to which is added the signification of 
proper names, mythology and poetical fictions, 
historical relations, geographical descriptions of 
the countries and cities of the world, especially 
of these three nations, wherein their chiefest an- 
tiquities, battles, and other most memorable pas- 
sages, are mentioned : a work very necessary for 
strangers, as well as our own countrymen, — for 
all persons that would rightly understand what 
they discourse, write, or read." After the death 
of the author, the sixth edition, edited by John 
Kersey, was published in 1706, "revised, cor- 
rected, and improved, with the addition of near 
20,000 words from the best authors." 

22. Phillips's Dictionary was followed by 
those of Coles and Kersey, which, though they 
were pnnted in a much smaller form, contained 
many more of the common words of the lan- 
guage. Dr. Watts, in his "Art of Reading and 
Writing English," published in 1720, thus no- 
tices the work of Kersey : " The best dictionary 
that I know for this purpose [spelling] is entitled 
'A New English Dictionary,' &c., by J. K. The 
second edition, 1713, in small octavo." 

23. After Kersey's, and soon after 1720, ap- 
peared the celebrated Dictionary of Nathan Bai- 
ley, which was the first English dictionary in 
which an attempt was made to give a complete 
collection of the words of the language. Mr. 
Watt, in his "Bibliotheca Britannica," thus 
notices this work: "Bailey's Enghsh Dictionary, 
printed in 1728, (fourth edition,) was long the 
only one in use, and still continues a favorite 
with many readers. It was afterwards enlarged 

into two volumes 8vo., and some years aft«T 
printed in folio, with additions in the matliemat- 
ical part by G. Gordon, in the botanical by Philip 
Miller, and in the etymological by T. Lediard 
the whole revised [1755] by Dr. Joseph Nico. 
Scott, a physician. The octavo [24th edition] 
was revised by Dr. Harwood, 1782." 

24. A part of the long title of the first volume 
of the edition of 1728 is as follows : " An Uni- 
versal Etymological English Dictionary; com- 
prehending the Derivations of the Generality ol 
Words in the English Tongue, either Ancient 
or Modem, from the Ancient British, Saxon, 
Danish, Norman and Modem French, Teutonic, 
Dutch, Spanish, Italian ; as also from the Latin, 
Greek, and Hebrew Languages, each in their 
proper Characters ; and also a clear Explication 
of all diflacult Words derived from any of the 

aforesaid LangUEiges ; containing many 

thousand Words more than either Harris, Phil- 
lips, Kersey, or any English Dictionary before 
extant" The second volume was first published 
in 1727, as a supplement to the first ; and it con- 
sists of two parts: — "I. An Additional Collec- 
tion of some Thousands of Words not in the 
former Volume. II. An Orthographical Dic- 
tionary, showing both the Orthography and 
Orthoepia of the English Tongue." 

25. In his Preface to the first volume, Bailey 
says, "As for the eiymologiccd part, or those 
words from foreign languages, whence the Eng- 
lish words were derived, I think I am the first 
who has attempted it in English, except what 
Mr. Blunt has done in his ' Glossography,' which 
is but a. very small part, and those of a Latin 
derivation chiefly, besides a small extract of Dr. 
Skinner's ' Etymologicon.' " In his Introduction 
to the second volume, he remarks, "I have 
placed an accent over that syllable on which a 
particular stress or force of sound is to be laid 
by the voice in pronouncing." This appears to 
be the first instance in which any such aid to 
pronunciation was furnished in an English die 
tionary. The parts of speech were not noted u 
this nor in any previous English dictionary. 

26. This lexicographer, who was a school 
master at Stepney, was the author of severa 
other works, among which were the " Dictiona 
rium Domesticum, or a Household Dictionary,* 
and "An Introduction to the English Tongue;" 
and he was the editor of several classical au- 
thors for the use of schools. He died, as it i> 
stated in the " Gentleman's Magazine," in 1742 
The following remarks are extracted from tha 
Encyclopaedia Perthensij:" "It is somewhat 


BUT inaing that, though this work [Bailey's Dic- 
hoMry] is universally known, having gone 
Ihreugh at least twenty-six editions since the 
firsi; edition, dedicated in Latin to Frederick 
Prince of Wales, and his royal sisters, (his 
majesty's [George III.] father and aunts,) was 
published, yet no account whatever has hith- 
erto been given of the learned and laborious 
author, who excelled Dr. Johnson himself, in 
industry at least, by introducing a far greater 
number of words, in his small work of one vol- 
ume 8vo., than the Doctor has inserted in both 
his volumes folio. We have searched in vain 
for an account of this learned lexicographer." — 
In reference to the above comparison of the 
number of words found in the dictionaries of 
Bailey and Johnson, it may be remarked, that 
Johnson omitted many words that are in Bailey's 
Dictionary, because they were not in use ; but 
he inserted many not found in it. He speaks 
of "the deficiencies of dictionaries," with re- 
spect to the number of words, and says, he 
has much augmented the vocabulary." 

27. Dyche's Dictionary, a work in one vol- 
ume 8vo., ''originally begun by the Rev. 
'j'homas Dycho, and finished by William Par- 
don," has had an extensive circulation in Eng- 
land. The seventh edition was published in 
1752, and the sixteenth in 1777. This state- 
ment seems hardly consistent with the remark 
of Watt, a:bove quoted, that Bailey's Dictionary 
" was long the only one in use." 

28. Benjamin Martin, an ingenious man, and 
the author of several publications on scientific 
and philosophical subjects, published a diction- 
ary of considerable menu The first edition 
was printed in 1749 ; the second, in 1754. 

29. In 1747, Dr. Johnson published a « Plan 
for a Dictionary of the English Language," ad- 
dressed to the Earl of Chesterfield ; and soon 
afterwards he made a contract with some emi- 
nent London booksellers for performing the labor 
if preparing the work, for the sum of £1,575. 

30. The following account of his method of 
proceeding is given by Sir John Hawkins : " He 
had, for the purpose of carrying on this arduous 
work, and being near the printers employed in 
it, taken a handsome house in Gough Square, 
and fitted up a room in it with desks and other 
accommodations for amanuenses, whom, to the 
number of five or six, he kept constantly under 
nis eye. An interleaved copy of Bailey's Dic- 
tionary in folio, he made the repository of the 
several articles, and these he collected by mces- 
mnt reading the best authors in our language. 

in the practice whereof his method was to score 
with a black-lead pencil the words by him se- 
lected, and give them over to his assistants tc 
insert in their places. The books he used for 
this purpose were what he had in his own col- 
lection, a copious but a miserably ragged one. 
and all such as he could borrow ; which latter 
if ever they came back to those that lent them 
were so defaced as to be scarce worth owning 
and yet some of his firiends were glad to receiv» 
and entertain them as curiosities." 

31. Johnson completed his task, after seven 
years' arduous labor, in 1755 ; and it is justly 
regarded as one of the greatest literary achieve- 
ments ever performed by any man, within the 
same space of time. In a notice of the work 
in the " Gentleman's Magazine " for April, 1755^ 
just after its publication, the following language 
is used: "Let not any one attempt to witiihold 
the honor which is due to him who alone haa 
effected, in seven years, what the joint labor 
of forty academicians could not produce in a 
neighboring nation in less than half a century.* 

32. The publication of this Dictionary termed 
a greater era in the history of the language than 
that of any other work. No other dictionary 
has had so much influence m fixing the exter- 
nal form of the language, and ascertaining and 
settling the meaning and proper use of words 
Johnson was the first to introduce into English 
lexicography the method of illustrating the dif- 
ferent significations of words by examples from 
the best writers ; and his Dictionary, from the 
time of its first publication, has been, far more 
than any other, regarded as a standard for the 
language. It has formed substantially the basis 
of many smaller works, and, as Walker remarks, 
it " has been deemed lawful plunder by every 
subsequent lexicographer." 

33. The next year after the publication of his 
Dictionary, Johnson prepared the octavo abridg 
ment ; and he revised the large work for the 
edition of 1773, without, however, making great 
additions or alterations. Supplements to it, by 
Mason, Seager, and Jodrell, have been published 
in a separate form. 

34 In 1814, an edition of Johnson's Dic- 
tionary, with numerous corrections, and witli 
the addition of about 14,000 words, by the Rev 
Henry John Todd, was published ; and, in 1827 
there was a second edition, with the additioK 
of about one thousand more words, by Mr. 
Todd. The words added by Mr. Todd, in lii« 
first edition, were mostly derived from the early 
English writers ; and a considerable part of 


mem are obsolete ; and of those added in his 
Mcond edition, a large proportion are provincial 
M local words, some of them Hardly worthy of 
a place in a dictionary of the English lan- 

35. The merits of Johnson's Dictionary have 
been by some exaggerated, and by others un- 
derrated. But though many defects have been 
pointe.d out, yet no one of his countrymen has 
yet produced a work that has sunerseded it. 
It would be unrecsonable to expect, from the 
labor of seven years, a work for which " a whole 
life would be insufficient." If it had been per- 
fectly adapted to the language at the time of its 
first publication, it would be very defective now. 
Many changes have taken place in the language 
within the last century, and there has been 
a vast influx of new words from the various 
departments of the arts and sciences. In rela- 
tion to these matters this Dictionary was not de- 
signed to treat largely ; and the scientific terms 
which it contains generally need to be defined 
anew, and a great many new ones need to be 
added; but in these departments Mr. Todd 
made few improvements or additions. 

36. The "Penny Cyclopsedia" speaks of the 
work as follows : " Johnson's Dictionary has 
been accounted the standard work of its class 
since its appearance in 1755 ; but, although it 
was a great achievement for an individual, and 
its definitions, in particular, afford remarkable 
evidence of its author's ingenuity and command 
of expression, it is, in many respects, as far as 
possible from being what a dictionary should be. 
Its etymological part (as Home Tooke has long 
ago shown) is little better than so much rubbish ; 
and it is characterized throughout by a total 
want of method and philosophical views. Some 
valuable matter has been added by the Rev. 
Mr, Todd; but the philosophical character of 
the work has received no improvement in his 

37. Since the first publication of Johnson's 
Dictionary, many other English dictionaries, of 
various aegrees of merit, have appeared in Eng- 
land, the titles, dates, and names of the authors 
of which may be seen in the following Catalogue ; 
but they cannot, all of them, be here particularly 
noticed. The most considerable of these works 
is Mr. Richardson's "New Dictionary of the 
English Language," published in 1838. This 
IS an elaborate work, which indicates an exten- 
Bive and laborious research into the early and 
ilmost forgotten productions of English litera- 
ture ; and it is highly valuable and interesting 


to one who is desirous .sf studying the bistorv 
of the English language, though it is little 
adapted to popular use for the common pur- 
poses of a dictionary. 

38. The greatest and most important work on 
English lexicography, that has appeared since 
the first publication of Johnson's Dictionary, is 
the production of the American writer, Noah 
Webster, LL. D., eiititled « An American Dic- 
tionary of the English Language ; " the first edi- 
tion of which was published in 1828, in two 
volumes 4to. It is a work of great learning and 
research, comprising a much more full vocabu- 
lary of the language than Johnson's Dictionary, 
and containing many and great improvementa 
with respect both to the etymology and defini- 
tions of words ; but the taste and judgment of 
the author are not generally esteemed equal to 
his industry and erudition. 


39. But little attention was bestowed upon 
orthoepy, by English lexicographers, tili after- 
the first publication of Johnson's Dictionaiy.- 
Since that time, many dictionaries have been 
published in which the pronunciation of the laih 
guage has been made the principal object Ona 
of the first works of this sort was the Dictionary, 
of Dr. Kenrick, in a large quarto volume, pub- 
lished in 1772. This was followed, in 1775, by 
Perry's " B.oyal Standard English Dictionary^" a 
small work, which had an extensive circulation, 
both in Great Britain and in the United States. 
" The Synonymous, Etymological, and Pronoun- 
cing English Dictionary," a much larger work, 
by the same author, in royal octavo, was pub 
lished in 1805. — This latter is the work of Perry 
which is referred to by the abbreviation P. in 
this Dictionary. 

40. In 1780, Thomas Sheridan, a native of 
Ireland, who had been an actor of some note 
upon the stage, and was a distinguished lecturer 
on elocution in Londos, at Oxford, Cambridge, 
and elsewhere, pubhshed his "Complete Dic- 
tionary of the English Language, both with Re- 
gard to Sound and Meaning, one main Object 
of which is to establish a plain and permanent 
Standard of Pronunciation." This work com- 
manded much more attention, as a pronouncing 
dictionary, than any other of the kind that ^ro■ 
ceded it. 

41. In 1784, the Rev. Robert Nares a ter- 
wards archdeacon of Stafford, and one of tha 



fir* t editors of the British Critic," published the 
" Elements of Orthoepy, containing a distinct 
View of the whole Analogy of the English Lan- 
guage, so far as it relates to Pronunciation, Ac- 
cent, and Quantity." This is a judicious and 
valuable work, though not in the form of a dic- 

42. In J 791 appeared the first edition of the 
celebrated Dictionary of John Walker, entitled 
"A Critical Pronouncing Dictionary and Ex- 
positor of the English Language ; in which not 
only the Meaning of every Word is clearly ex- 
plained, and the Sound of every Syllable dis- 
tinctly shown, but where Words are subject to 
difierent Pronunciations, the Authorities of our 
best Pronouncing Dictionaries are fully exhibit- 
ed, the Reasons for each are at large displayed, 
and the preferable Pronunciation is pointed out ; 
— to which are prefixed Principles of English 
Pronunciation." The author had previously 
published a valuable work, entitled " A Rhym- 
ing Dictionary ; in which the whole Language is 
arranged according to its Terminations." And 
he afterwards, in 1798, published hia " Key to 
the Classical Pronunciation of Greek, Latin, and 
Scripture Proper Names." 

43. In the preparation of his Dictionary, 
Walker made pronunciation his leading object; 
and for this it is chiefly valued. His design 
was, as he expresses it, "principally to give a 
kind of history of pronunciation, and to register 
its present state." His Dictionary has been very 
extensively circulated both in Great Britain and 
the United States " It has been," as the Penny 
Cycloptedia states, " eminently successful, hav- 
ing gone through between twenty and thirty 
editions, and having superseded all other pre- 
vious works of the same nature." Walker was 
long a distinguished teacher of elocution in 
London, -vaa a careful observer, and favorably 
situated o become acquainted with the best 
usage. No other Englishman, probably, ever 
gave a longer, more laborious, and thorough 
attention to the subject of orthoepy than he, and 
no other ever obtained so high and widely ex- 
tended a reputation as an orthoepist* In mod- 

* Walker's employment, ts a teacher of elocution, 
waa amoivg the higher classes and best educated 
people of England. The following testimony to his 
merit, from the eminent statesman and orator Ed- 
mund fiurke, is found in " Prior's Life of Burke." 
" One 01 li.e persons who particularly solicited Mr. 
Burke's # .ertions on this occasion was Mr., or (as he 
Wig cojjKonly termed) Elocution Walker, author of 
Uhe ' P-'AOuncing Diotiofiary,' and ot>er works of 

em English literature, Walker holds a similai 
rank, as an orthoepist, to that of Johnson as a 
lexicographer. Their labors have been, in sev- 
eral dictionaries, blended together; and their 
names are, in a manner, proverbially associated 
with each other, as being each the first in his 
respective department, — Johnson for the au- 
thority and signification of words, and Walkei 
for their pronunciation. 

44. Since the fiirst appearance of Walkern 
Dictionary, various other pronouncing dictiona- 
ries have been published in England, the major- 
ity of them smaller works, designed especially 
for the use of schools. In pronunciation, fashior 
is changeable, as well as in other things ; and 
though Walker may be esteemed the best guide 
for ascertaining what was the pronunciation of the 
language at the beginning of the present cen 
tury, yet a considerable change has taken place 
since his time, and on this account, some of the 
more recent orthoepists may, in some cases at 
least, be looked upon as better guides, in rela- 
tion to present usage, than Walker. 

45. Of the dictionaries which have been pub- 
lished m London since the first appearance of 
Walker's, the one which evinces much the most 
investigation of the subject of orthoepy, is that 
of Mr. B. H. Smart, entitled '■ A New Critical 
Pronouncing Dictionary of the English Lan- 
guage, adapted to the present State of Litera- 
ture and Science," published in 1836. The 
same work, reduced in size, entitled "Smart's 
Pronouncing Dictionary of the English Lan 
guage epitomized," was published in 1840. To 
the title of this Dictionary is prefixed " Walker 
Remodelled ;" though it is more of an original 
work than most English dictionaries; and the 
author has introduced, as he states, "some 
twenty thousand words not found in Walkw." 
" With changes," he remarks, " that extended to 
every part of the Dictionary, it is plain that the 
altered work was mine, not Walker's. The 
title ' Walker Remodelled,' which the proprie- 
tors chose to give it, had, in fact, no other foun- 
dation than the original purpose for which they 
had engaged me." 

merit, and who had given lessons in the art to young 

Burke Mr. Burke, one day, in the vicinity of 

the House of Commons, introduced him to a noble 
man, accidentally passing, with the following charac 
teristic exordium : ' Here, my Lord Berkeley, is Mi 
Walker, whom not to know, by name at least, wonlt 
argue a want of knowledge of the harmonim, o» 
dences, and proprieties of our language.' " 


46. The following remarks are extracted from 
Mr. Smart's Preface : « Walker's Dictionary, in 
reality a transcript of Johnson's, with the addi- 
tion of the current pronunciation affixed to each 
word, and the omission of the etymologies and 
authorities, supplied for many years all that was 
demanded in a dictionary of its kind. But the 
ally or sixty years which have elapsed since its 
first publication, have produced changes in sci- 
ence, in opinions, in habits of thought, greater, 
perhaps, than any similar space of time in any 
past age has witnessed ; changes that have ma- 
terially affected our language, and rendered all 
dictionaries in some degree obsolete, tnat fairly 
reflected its extent and application only forty 
years ago. The oroprietors of Walker's Dic- 
tionary, finding it would slide entirely out of 
use unless it were adapted to the present day, 
engaged me, as a teacher of elocution, known 
in London since Walker's decease, to make the 
necessary changes. They believed that they 
Imposed no greater task upon me than the in- 
sertion of new words, and the revision through- 
out of Walker's pronunciation; but'I soon found, 

that, with any chance of success, much greater 
innovations must be attempted Dis- 
posed, on general points, to think entirely with 
my predecessor, 1 have not had any very exten- 
sive occasion for diflering from him in particu- 
lars ; but some occasions have occurred, as 
might be expected, from the distance between 
his day and mine. In short, I pretend to reflec 
the oral usage of English, such as it is at pres- 
ent, among the sensible and well-educated ir 

the British metropolis I am a Lon 

doner, have lived nearly all my life rn London, 
and have been able to observe the usage of all 
classes. As a teacher of the English language 
and literature, I have been admitted into some 
of the first families of the kingdom ; as one 
partial to books, I have come much into contact 
with bookish men ; while, as a public reader and 
lecturer, I have been obliged to fashion my own 
pronunciation to the taste of the day. Thus 
prepared, I may not unwarrantably believe that 
my opinion may have some value with those 
who seek the opinion of another to regulate 
their pronunciation." — See p. xxii. 


The first part of the following Catalogue com- 
prises not only dictionaries of English words, or 
of the English language, but also many bilingual 
dictionaries ; that is, dictionaries containing a 
vocabulary not only of the English but also of 
some other languages, ancient or modern, as 
English and Latin, English and French, &c., — 
dictionaries which were written for the purpose 
of facilitating the study of ancient languages and 
of foreign modern languages. All the earlier 
lexicographical labors in England were spent on 
works of this sort No attempt has been made 
to exhibit here a complete list of these bilingual 
dictionaries, except in the earlier part of the 
period embraced in the Catalogue. 

Withm a century past, a great many dic- 
tionaries have been published in England, and 
a considerable number also in the United States, 
for the purpose of facilitating the study of sev- 
eral ancient, and of numerous modem lan- 
guages. A few of these, that are particularly 
eonnected with English literature, are included 
in the f blowing Catalogue ; but the most of 
U\em are ntiro'y omitted. 

There are many points reiatmg to Engiisn 
lexicography that are not easily ascertained. 
Many of the dictionaries have had their titiea 
changed from those which were given them in 
the first edition ; many of them have been 
much altered by the labor of subsequent editors 
with respect to some, it is not easy to ascertain 
the date of the first edition; and somu have un- 
doubtedly been published which have passed 
into oblivion, and are now entirely unknown. 

It is not easy to form an unexceptionable 
classification of dictionaries ; and there are 
some respecting which it is difficult to deter- 
mine to what class they most properly belong 
The list of the dictionaries of the various arts 
and sciences, contained in the following Cata- 
logue, is not complete. The object has been 
to insert all the most important ones; though 
there are, doubtless, some that are omitted mora 
important than some that are inserted. Die 
tionanes of facts, comprising biography, geogra 
phy, history, mythology, &c., also most of thn 
glossaries to individual authors, are intentionallj 


1. English Dictionaries of Words. 

jluOtir. TMe. DtH. 

Richard Fradhces Promptorms Puerorum. Promptorium Parvulorum, give Cleri- 

coTum. Medulla Grammatice 1499 

(.^nonymmts) Ortus Vocabulorum 1500 

BiR Thohas Elyot Dictionarium (Latin and English) 1533 

Bibliotheca Eliotis Librarie (3d edition) 1543 

William Salesbcry Dictionarie Englishe and WeUhe 1547 

Richard Huloet Abecedarium Anglico-Latinum pro Tyrunculis 1559 

John Veroh Dictionariolum Puerorum 155? 

John Withals A Little Dictionarie for Children (Latin and English) 1559 

A Shorte Dictionarie for Yonge Beginners .... (.4 new edition) 1563 

Henry Sutton The Brefe Dyxcyonary 1562 

Thomas Cooper Thesaurus Linguse RomaneB et BritannicsB cum Dictionario Histor- 

ico et Poetico (Elyot' s Dictionarium or Bibliotheca, enlarged) . . . 1563 

y^nonymous) Dictionarie, French and English 1570 

John Higcins Huloet's Dictionarie newelye corrected, amended, set in Order, 

and enlarged 1572 

Lewis Etans A Shorte Dictionarie, most profitable for Tonge Beginners 1572 

John Baret An Alvearie, or Triple Dictionarie, in English, Latin, and French. 1573 

William Bulloear Booke at Large for the Amendment of Orthographic for English 

Speech 1580 

RoDOLPH Waddington ...Dictionarie in Latine and English, nevrly corrscted and enlarged 

( Verons Dictionariolum^ enlarged) 1584 

Thomas Thomas Dictionarium Latino- Anglicanum 1588 

John Rider Dictionarie in Latine and English 1589 

Richard Percivale Dictionarie in Spanish and English 1592 

John Florio A Worlde of Wordes ; a most copious Dictionarie of the Italian 

and English Tongues 1598 

John Minsheq Percivale's Dictionarie, in Spanish and English, enlarged and 

amplified ] 599 

Francis Holyoee Rider's Latin and English Dictionary, corrected and augmented ..1606 

Randle Cotorate A Dictionarie of the French and English Tongues 1611 

John Bullokar An English Expositour of Hard Words 1616 

loiiN MiNBBEU Guide into the Tongues: — English, British or Welsh, Low 

Dutch, High Dutch, French, Italian, Spanish, Portuguese, 

Latin, Greek, and Hebrew 1617 

Henry Cockeram An English Dictionarie, or an Interpreter of Hard Words 1632 

Robert Sherwood A Dictionarie, English and French (annexed to Cotgrave's French 

and English Dictionary) 1632 

William Walker The Taste of English and Latin Phraseology, or a Dictionary of 

English and Latin Idioms 1655 

Thomas Blount Glossographia, or Dictionary interpreting the Hard Words now 

used in our refined English Tongue 1656 

Edward Phillips The New World of English Words, or a General Dictionary, con- 
taining the Interpretations of such Hard Words as are derived 

from other Languages 1658 

James Howell Lexicon Tetraglotton, an English-French-Italian-Spanish Dic- 
tionary 1660 

Christopher Wase Dictionarium Minus, a Compendious Dictionary, English-Latin 

and Latin-English 1662 

Francis Gouldman A Latin and English, and English and Latin Dictionary 1664 

(4th edition, with many thousand words added by Dr. Scattergood) 1678 

James Howell Cotgrave's French and English Dictionary revised 1673 

Thomas Holyoke An English and Latin, and Latin and English Dictionary (Francis 

Holyoke's Rider's Dictionary, enlarged) 1677 

Blisba Coles An English and Latin, and Latin and English Dictionary . , 1671 


JU/UT Title. UaU 

tti. tut. Coles An English Dictionary, explaining the difficult Terms that are 

used in Divinity, Husbandry, Phyaick, Philosophy, Law, Navi- 
gation, Mathematics, and other Arts and Sciences 1677 

Got Mibqe A New Dictionary, French and English; with another, English 

and French .V»*, 1677 

Adam Littleton A Latin and English, and English and Latin Dictionary 167S 

William Sewel A Dutch and English Dictionary 1691 

A BEL BoYER Royal Dictionary ; French and English, and English and French . 1699 

J. Jones Practical Phonography, or the New Art of rightly Spelling and 

Writing Words by the Sound thereof. 1701 

(Anonymous) Glossographia Anglicana Nova, or a Dictionary interpreting such 

Hard Words, of whatever Language, as are at present used in 

the English Tongue 1707 

Jobs Kebset A General English Dictionary, compreheniding a Brief but Em- 

phatical and Clear Explication of all Sorts of Difficult Words, 
that derive their Origin from other Ancient and Modern Lan- 
guages 1703 

Nathan Bailet An Universal Etymological English Dictionary, comprehending 

the Derivations of the Generality of Words in the English 

Tongue, either Ancient or Modern (soon, after) 1720 

i Hawkins Cocker's [Edward] English Dictionary, Enlarged and Altered. 

(Cocker died in 1677) 1724 

Thomas Dtche and) ....A New General English Dictionary, peculiarly calculated for 
William Pakdon i the Use and Improvement of such as are unacquainted with 

the Learned Languages (7th edition) 1753 

K N. Defoe A Compleat English Dictionary, containing the True Meaning of 

all the Words in the English Language 1735 

Robert Ainsworth An English and Latin Dictionary 1736 

(Jli^onymous) A New English Dictionary, containing a large and almost com- 
plete Collection of English Words 1737 

Benjamin Martin A New Universal English Dictionary 1749 

Daniel Farro The Royal British Grammar and Vocabulary, being an entire Di- 
gestion of the English Language into its proper Farts of 

Speech 1754 

Joseph Nicol Scott Bailey's Dictionary, Enlarged and Revised (/o/io etfttzon) 1764 

f^AMOEL Johnson A Dictionary of the English Language, in which the Words are 

deduced from their Originals, and illustrated in their different 

Significations by Examples from the best Writers 1751) 

The Dictionary of the English Language, abridged 1756 

James Buchanan A New English Dictionary 1757 

J. Peyton A New Vocabulary, or Grammar of the True Pronunciation of the 

English Language, in the Form of a Dictionary 175H 

Joseph Baretti A Dictionary of the English and Italian Languages 176P 

Daniil Fenninq The Royal English Dictionary, or Treasury of the English Lan- 
guage 1761 

William Johnston A Pronouncing and Spelling Dictionary i ... 1764 

John Entice A Spelling Dictionary of the English Language 1764 

James Elphinston The Principles of the English Language digested 1765 

J. Seally The London Spelling Dictionary 1771 

Frederick Barlow The Complete English Dictionary 1773 

iViLLiAM Kenrick A New Dictionary of the English Language 1773 

f AMES Barclay A Complete and Universal English Dictionary 1774 

John Ash 1'he New and Complete Dictionary of the English Langnage . . . .1775 

William Perry The Royal Standard English Dictionary 1775 

John Walker A Rhyming Dictionary 1775 

Joseph Baretti A Dictionary of the English and Spanish Languages 1778 

Jiwnymous) .••• ....A Pocket Dictionarv, or Complete Expository ...i77« 


OlitJur TUle. DuH 

Thouab Sheridan .... .A Complete Dictionary of the English Language, both with Re- 
gard to Sound aod Meaning, one Main Object of which is to 
establish a Plain and Permanent Standard of Pronunciation . .,1780 

Edward Uarwood Bailey's Dictionary, Enlarged and Corrected ..(24(A edition, 8vo.) 1789 

George Wm. Lehon . . ..A Derivative Dictionary of the English Language 1783 

Robert Nabes..... Elements of Orthoepy, containing a Distinct View of the Whole 

Analogy of the English Language 1784 

William Fry A New Vocabulary of the most Difficult Words of tne Suglish 

Language 17S4 

George Picard A Grammatical Dictionary 1790 

William Scott A Spelling, Pronouncing, and Explanatory Dictionary of the 

English Language {^ new and improved edition) 1797 

John Waleer A Critical Pronouncing Dictionary, and Expositor of the 

Language 1791 

(Jlnonymous) A Dictionary of the English Language, both with Regard to Sound 

and Meaning 179b 

Stephen Jones A General Pronouncing and Explanatory Dictionary o" the Eng- 
lish Language 1798 

George Mason A Supplement to Johnson's English Dictionary 1801 

George Fulton and ) ...A General Pronouncing and Explanatory Dictionary of the Eng- 

G Knight 5 Hsh Language 180S 

William Ferry The Synonymous, Etymological, and Pronouncing English Dic- 
tionary 1805 

Thomas Brovitne The Union Dictionary, containiiig all that is truly useful in the 

Dictionaries of Johnson, Sheridan, and Walker. ..(2d edition) 1806 
Benjamin Dawson A Philological and Synonymical Dictionary of the English Lan- 
guage (First Part only published) 1806 

William Enfield A General Pronouncing Dictionary 1807 

W. F. Mylics A School Dictionary of the English Language (2d edition) 1809 

B. H. Smart A Practical Grammar of English Pronunciation ..1810 

Nicholas Salmon Sheridan's Dictionary, corrected and improved 1811 

Henry John Todd Johnson's Dictionary of the English Language, with Numerous 

Corrections, and with the Addition of Several Thousand 

Words 1818 

John Seager A Supplement to Johnson's Dictionary 1819 

Richard P. Jodrell Philology on the English Language (Supplement to Johnson's 

Dictionary) 1820 

Christopher Earnshaw . . A New Pronouncing English Dictionary (about) 1820 

Alexander Chalmers.... Johnson's Dictionary, as corrected and enlarged by Todd, 

abridged 1820 

George Fdltok Johnson's Dictionary in Miniature 1821 

Alfred Howard Walker's Dictionary, arranged for the Use of Schools 1826 

Thomas Rees Todd's Johnson's Dictionary in Miniature 1826 

R S. Jameson A Dictionary of the English Language, by Johnson and Walker, 

with the Pronunciation greatly simplified, on an entire new 

Plan 18a/ 

John Davis Walker's Critical Pronouncing Dictionary, Corrected and En- 
larged 1830 

Bamoel Mavndei A New and Enlarged Dictionary of the English Language 1830 

John G. FLiJGEL, A Complete Dictionary of the English and German, and the Ger- 
man and English Languages 1830 

John Oswald An Etymological Dictionary of the English Language 1834 

David Booth An Analytical Dictionary of the English Language 1835 

James Knowles. A Pronouncing and Explanatory Dictionary of the English Lan- 
guage 1835 

«J. H Smart.. A New Critical Pronouncing Dictionary of the English Language 

i" Walker Remodelled") 1836 


■author. TiOt. DaU. 

[•i*^)nymous) A New and Enlarged Dictionary of the English Language 1836 

Charles Richardson .... A New Dictionary of the English Language 1837 

J. RowBOTHAM A New Derivative and Etymological Dictionary 1836 

Charles Richardson ....A New Dictionary of the English Language, abridged from the 

Quarto Edition of the Author , 183'l 

B. H. Smart Smart's Pronouncing Dictionary of the English Language, epit- 
omized 1840 

Alexander Reid A Dictionary of the English Language 1844 

(Jimes Gilbert, publisher).. A New, Universal, Etymological, and Pronouncing Dictionary of 

the English Language (/a Parts. — Part I. ) 184.'; 

2. American Dictionaries of the English Language, 

Johnson and Elliot A School Dictionary (about) 1799 

Noah Webster A Compendious Dictionary of the English Language 1806 

BuRGiss Allison A New Critical Pronouncing Dictionary of the English Language 1813 

John Pickering A Vocabulary, or Collection of Words and Phrases which have 

been supposed to be peculiar to the United States 1816 

Noah Webster A Dictionary of the English Language, for the Use of Common 

Schools 1817 

Richard Wiggins The New York Expositor 1835 

J. E. Worcester Johnson's English Dictionary, as improved by Todd and abridged 

by Chalmers, with Walker's Pronouncing Dictionary combined. 1827 

Lthan Cobb An Abridgment of Walker's Dictionary 1827 

Noah Webster An American Dictionary of the English Language 1828 

^-^— An American Dictionary of the English Language, abridged from 

the Quarto Edition 1829 

A Dictionary of the English Language, for the Use of Primary 

Schools and the Coun ting-House 1829 

A Dictionary for Primary Schools 1834 

A Dictionary of the English Language, abridged from the Ameri- 
can Dictionary. — University Edition 1845 

William Grimshaw The Ladies' Lexicon and Parlour Companion 1839 

William W. Tprnek The School Dictionary 1829 

J. £. Worcester A Comprehensive, Pronouncing, and Explanatory Dictionary of 

the English Language 1830 

An Elementary Dictionary, for Common Schools 1835 

WiLLiASi Bowles An Explanatory and Phonographic Pronouncing Dictionary of 

the English Language 184h 

3. English Glossaries. 

JOHN Rat A Collection of English Words not generally used 1694 

(jlnonymous) A Dictionary of the Terms of the Canting Crew 1725 

Josiah Relph A Miscellany of Poems in the Cumberland Dialect, with a 

Glossary 1747 

(Anonymous) Exmoor Scolding, with a Glossary — [Devonshire] 1771 

Francis Grose A Glossary of Provincial and Local Words 1787 

(AnoKymous) A Glossary of Lancashire Words and Phrases 1793 

Francis Grose A Dictionary of the Vulgar Tongue, or of Buckish Slang, <fcc. . . . 1796 

R. Polwbele A Cornish-English Vocabulary 1808 

Robert Will an A List of Words at present used in the Mountainous District of 

the West-Riding of Torkshire , 181 1 

Bamuil Peooe Anecdotes of the English Language, with a Supplement to 

Grose's Prnviacial Glossary 181 


Author. Title. VtU 

White Kennet, (Bishop) . .A Glossary to explain t'ne Original, the Acceptation, arid Obso 

leteness, of Words and Phrases {Reprinted) I8U 

RoBEHT Nakes A Glossary of the Words and Phrases of Shakspeare and hif 

Contemporaries 1829 

Edward Moor Suffolk Words and Phrases 1823 

William Carr Horie Momenta Cravenro, or the Craven Dialect, to which is an- 
nexed a Glossary 1824 

J JHN T. Brockett A Glossary of North Country Words 1825 

J Bee The Sportsman's Slang, a Dictionary of Terms used in the Turf, 

Ring, &o 182? 

James. J endings, The Dialect of the West of England, particularly Somersetshire . . 1825 

Roger Wilbraham A Glossary of some Words used in Cheshire (2d edition) 1826 

Thomas Sanderson R. Anderson's Ballads in the Cumberland Dialect, with a Glossary 1828 

William Carr The Dialect of Craven, with a Copious Glossary (2d edition) 1828 

John Collier Tim Bobbin's Lancashire Dialect 1828 

Joseph Hunter The Hallamshire Glossary 1829 

Robert Forbt The Vocabulary of East Anglia (Norfolk and Suffolk) 1830 

William Toone A Glossary and Etymological Dictionary of Obsolete and Uncom- 
mon Words 1832 

Joseph Hunter and Jo- ) Boucher's [Jonathan] Glossary of Archaic and Provincial Words 

seph Stevenson J (In Parts. — Two Parts only published) 1832-3 

F. J. Palmer , ..A Glossary of Devonshire Words 1837 

William Hollowat A General Dictionary of Provincialisms 1839 

Charles Clark A Glossary of the Essex Dialect 1839 

John Phillips A Glossary of the Devonshire Dialect 1839 

(jlnonymous) A Glossary of the Provincial Words of Herefordshire 1839 

Abel Bywater The Sheffield Dialect 1839 

(Jlndnymous) The Westmoreland and Cumberland Dialects, with a Glossary ... 1839 

{■dnonymous) A Glossary of the Yorkshire Dialect 1839 

John Y. Akerman A Glossary of Provincial Words in Use in Wiltshire 1842 

• « „ /- A Dictionary of Archaic and Provincial Words, and Obsolete 

James Orchard Halli- \ ■' , . . ^ ^ \ -^ 

< Phrases, Proverbs, and Ancient Customs from the Fourteenth 

WELL ••••••••••■••■••J 

C Century (In Parts. — Part I.) 1845 

4. Dictionaries and Glossaries of the Scottish Dialect. 

John Sinclair Observations on the Scottish Dialect 178SI 

James Beattie Scotticisms arranged in Alphabetical Order 1787 

Hugh Mitchell Scotticisms and Vulgar Anglicisms 1799 

John Jamieson An Etymological Dictionary of the Scottish Language 1808 

An Etymological Dictionary of the Scottish Language, abridged. .1813 

Supplement to the Etymological Dictionary of the Scottish Lan- 
guage 1825 

5. Etymological Dictionaries, 

Btephen Skinner Etymologicon Lingura Anglicans IWH 

George Hickes Linguarum Veterum Septentrionalium Thesaurus Grammati- 

co-criticus et Archteologicus ] 735 

Francis Junius Etymologicon Anglicanum 1743 

John Ihre Glossarium Suio-Gothicum 1769 

AoBERT Kelham A Dictionary of the Norman or Old French Language 1779 

Walter Whitbr Etyraologicm Universale, or Universal Etymological Dictionary. .1829 


6. Saxon and Anglo-Saxon Dictionaries', 

Jtuthor TitU. Data 

William Sohner Dtctionarium Saxonico-Latino-Anglicum 165!1 

Thomas Benson Vocabularium Anglo-Saxonicum 1701 

Rdw ARD Lte Dictionarium Saxonico et Gothico-Iiatinum 1773 

J. Bos WORTH A Dictionary of the Anglo-Saxon Language 11^38 

7. English Synonymes 

Hester Lynch Piozzi.... British Synonymy; or An Attempt to regulate the Choice of 

Words in Familiar Conversation 1794 

William Tatlor English Synonymes Discriminated 1813 

George Crabb English Synonymes Explained ^..1816 

8. Theological and Biblical Dictionaries. 

D'Otlt and Colson Calmet's Dictionary of the Bible, translated from the French. . . • 1732 

John Brown A Dictionary of the Bible 1769 

Charles Tatlor A New Edi \ion of Calmet, with Fragments 1801 

Edward Robinson Taylor's Edition of Calmet, revised, with Additions 1 82fi 

Charles Buck A Theological Dictionary 1803 

John Robinson A Theological. Biblical, and Ecclesiastical Dictionary 1815 

William Jones The Biblical Cyclopaedia, or Dictionary of the Holy Scriptures . . .1816 

John Kitto An Encyclopcedia of Biblical Literature • 1844 

9. Law Dictionaries. 

John Co well A Law Dictionary ; or the Interpreter of Words and Terms used 

in either Common or Statute Laws 160> 

Thomas Blount A Law Dictionary and Glossary of Obscure Words and Terms in 

Ancient Law, Records, &c 1671 

Giles Jacob A New Law Dictionary 1729 

Tiiuotht Cunningham A New and Complete Law Dictionary 1764 

Richard Burn A New Law Dictionary 1793 

Th. E. Tomlins The Law Dictionary 1810 

James Whishaw A New Law Dictionary 1839 

John Bouvier A Law Dictionary, adapted to the Constitution and Laws of the 

United States, and of the several States 1843 

10. Military and Marine Dictionaries. 

Charles James A New and Enlarged Military Dictionary 1803 

William Ddane A Military Dictionary 1810 

E. S. N. Campbell A Dictionary of Military Science (A new edUion) 1844 

William Falconer A Marine Dictionary (.4 JVew £ditJon, iy J?*-. William Burney,\S\b) 176'J 

11. Medical Dictionaries. 

John Quinct Lexicon Physico-Medicnm, a New Medical Dictionary 1719 

Robert James A Medicinal Dictionary, including Physic, Surgery, Anatomy, 

Chemistry, Botany, &c 1745 

}oHN Barrow A New Medicinal Dictionary ■ ...1743 

Robert Hooper A Compendious Medical Dictionary ....I70j 

(10 (O) 


StUhor TUU Dttt 

Jons J Wi TT An EncyclopEedia of Surgery, Medicine, Midwifery, Physioicgy, 

Pathology, Anatomy, Chemistry, &c 1806 

Baiitholomew Parr...... The London Medical Dictionary 1809 

Bamdel Coofer Dictionary of Practical Surgery 1818 

RoBLEY DuNGLisoN A Dictionary of Medical Science and Literature 1833 

Forbes, Tweelie, and U Cyclopcedia of Practical Medicine 1835 


RicHARif D. HoBLTN A Dictionary of the Terms used in Medicine and the Collateral 

Sciences 1844 

Rhirlet Palmer A Pentaglot Dictionary of Anatomy, Physiology, Pathology, 

Practical Medicine, Surgery, &c 1 845 

William B. Costello .... The Cyclopcedia of Practical Surgery (^Commenced) 1841 

James Copland A Dictionary of Practical Medicine (In Parts. — Part XVI.) 1846 

Thomas Wallace The Farrier's and Horseman's Complete Dictionary 1759 

James Hdkter A Complete Dictionary of Farriery and Horsemanship 1796 

Thomas Boarohan A Dictionary of the Veterinary Art 1803 

12. Dictionaries of Chemistry, Mineralogy , S^c. 

Wm. Nicholson A Dictionary of Practical and Theoretical Chemistry 1795 

Andrew Ure A Dictionary of Chemistry and Mineralogy 1820 

Ottley A Dictionary of Chemistry and Mineralogy 

James Mitchell A Dictionary of Chemistry and Geology 

George Roberts An Etymological and Explanatory Dictionary of Geolo^ 1839 

13. Dictionaries of the various Arts and Sciences. 

Philip Miller The Gardener's and Botanist's Dictionary 1731 

Mawe & Abercrombie . . . a Dictionary of Gardening and Botany 1778 

Richard Rolt A New Dictionary of Commerce 1756 

Malacht Postlethwayt .Dictionary of Trade and Commerce 1764 

J. R. Maccclloch A Dictionary of Commerce 1832 

Nathan Bailey Dictionarium Domesticura ; or a Household Dictionary 1736 

Gibbons Merle The Domestic Dictionary and Housekeeper's Manual 1842 

Thomas Webster An Encycloptedia of Domestic Economy 1844 

CcTHEERT W. Johnson. ..The Farmer's Encyclopedia and Dictionary of Rural Affairs ....1844 

John C. Loudon Encycloptedia of Gardening 1822 

EncyclopEedia of Agriculture 1826 

Encyclopoedia of Plants 1836 

Encycloptedia of Cottage, Farm, and Viila Architecture 1838 

— EncyclopiEdia of Trees and Shrubs 1842 

(Anonymous) Dictionarium Polygraphicum ; or the whole Body of Arts 1736 

(Anonymous) Builder's Dictionary, or Gentleman's and Architect's Companion. .1744 

Peter Nicholson An Architectural Dictionary 1811-12 

John Britton A Dictionary of the Architecture and Archeology of the Middle 

Ages , 1838 

Joseph Gwilt An Encyclopsedia of Architecture 1844 

George Crabb Universal Technological DictionAry 1823 

James Elmes A General Bibliographical Dictionary of the Fine Arts 1825 

Wa ter Ha MILTON A Concise Dictionary of Terms used in the Arts and Sciencef . . .1825 

William Gkier The Mechanic's Pocket Dictionary (Sd edition) 1838 

Edward Scudamore A Dictionary of Terms in Use in the Arts and Sciences 1841 

G. Francis The Dictionary of the Arts, Sciences, and Manufactures 1842 

Andrew Ure. A Dictionary of Arts, Manufactures, and Mines 1839 

Wm. Urandk A Dictionary o." Science. Literature, and Art 1849 


14. EncyclopcBdias and general Dictionaries of Arts and Sciences. 

EdUitr. ^ Title. Butt 

oas Habsis .Lexicon Teohnioum, or an Universal Dictionary of Arts and 

Sciences (2 vols, folio) 1718 

Epuraim Chambeks A Cyclopaedia, or General Dictionary of Arts and Sciences. — 2 

vols, folio. (6th edition, 1778, 4 vols, folio) 1738 

Dennis de Coetlaoon . . .^n Universal History of the Arts and Sciences, and a Compre- 
hensive Illustration of all Sciences and all Arts. — 2 vols, folio, 1745 

John Barrow A New Universal Dictionary of the Arts and Sciences. — 3 aou.. 

folio 1751-4 

(W. Owen, publisher) A New and Complete Dictionary of the Arts and Sciences, by a 

Society of Gentlemen. — 4 vols. Svo 1763-4 

' ' > A Complete Dictionary of the Arts and Sciences. — 3 vols, folio , . 1766 

Clare ) 

William Smellie Bncyclopsedia Britannica, or Dictionary of Arts, Sciences, and 

Miscellaneous Literature. — 3 vols, ito .- 1771 

James Millar Encyclopsedia Britannica. — ith edition, 20 vols, ito 1810 

Macvey Napier Supplement to the 4th, 5th, and 6th editions of the Encyclopcedia 

Britannica. — 6 vols, ito 1824 

Macvey Napier Encycloptcdia Britannica. — 7tn edition, 21 vols, ito 1640 

{Thomas Doison, ) Encyclopsedia Britannica. — First American Edition ; greatly im- 

publisher) 5 proved : — With a Supplement. — 23 vols, ito 1798-1803 

(John Wilkes, pubhshex) . ..Encycloptedia Londinensis, or Universal Dictionary of Arts, 

Sciences, and Literature. — 24 vols, ito 1797 

(Kearsley, publisher) The English Encyclopedia, or Dictionary of Arts and Sciences. 

— 10 vols. ito..\ 1795 

A. F M. WiLLicH The Domestic EncyolopEedia, or a Dictionary of Facts and Useful 

Knowledge. — 4 vols. Svo 1802 

Alexander Aitchison.... Encycloptedia Perthensis, or Universal Dictionary of Knowledge. 

— 23 vols., large royal Svo 1807 

Georqe Gregory A Dictionary of Arts and Sciences. — 2 vols, ito 1807-8 

William M. Johnson J The Imperial Encyclopeedia.- 4 soZ*. 4«o 1809 

and Thomas Exley .. ) 

William Nicholson The British Encyclopeedia. — 6 vols. Svo 1809 

JohnM.Good,O.Grego- J Pantalogia, with a General Dictionary of Arts, Sciences, and 

ry, and N. Boswobth . ) Words. — 12 vols, royal Svo 1813 

James Millar Encyclopsedia Edinensis, or Dictionary of Arts, Sciences, and 

Miscellaneous Literature. — 6 vols, ito 1816 

Abraham Rees The Cyclopaedia, or Universal Dictionary of Arts, Sciences, and 

Literature. — 45 vols, ito 1802-19 

(Sam. F. Bradford, &■ -^ „ , „ , ,. ^. . . „,. . .... 

,, „ . f Rees s Cvclopsedia: — First American hdition. — il vols, ito.- 

Murray, Fazrman,\ „, „ , .„„ 

. ^ ur u \ S Plates, 6 vols 1805-1825 

4" Co. publishers) . J ' 

8iR David Brewster ....The Edinburgh Encycloptedia. — 18 vols, ito 1810-30 

(J. and E. Parker, "> The Edinburgh Encyclopsedia. — First American Edition, cor- 

publishers 3 rected and improved. — 18 vols, ito 1833 

Francis Lieber, Ed- ■\ Encyclopsedia Americana, or a Popular Dictionary of the Arts and 
ward Wigglesworth, > Sciences: — On theBasisof the Seventh Edition of the German 

and Th. G. BR.IDFORD 5 "Conversations-Lexicon." — ISvols.Svo.^ 1829-33 

/ The London Encyclopsedia: — Founded on the Encydopaaia Per- 

Thomas Curtis ^ thensis. — 22 vols, royal Svo 1829-34 

C. F. Partington The British Cyclopsedia of the Arts, Sciences, Geography, Natu- 
ral History, and Biography. — 10 vols. Svo 1838 

Edward Smecley, Hugh 5 j. n, . ,-. tt • 1 t^- .• j- r 1 

_ J Ti f Encyclopsedia Metropolitana, or Universal Dictionary of Knowl- 

Jamis Rose, and Hen- V . w of ok 7 ..- loia ^y 

_ \ edge, on a New Plan. — 25 vols, ito 1818-43 

BY J >HN Rose J * ' 

"eorge Long..., The Penny Cyclopffidia of the Society of Useful Knowledge. — 

27 vols., large royal Svo 1833-43 



^ Annexed to words added by tbe Com- 

piler of this IHetionary; the otber words 
being found in Todd's Johnson's Dio- 

f , . Prefixed to words, or meanings of words, 
that are obsolete or antiquated. 

S • • Prefixed to two or more words that come 
under the same principle of pronun- 

rB-T . Denotes " rarely used." 

ft^ ViTda printed in Italics are words which 
belong to foreign languages^ and are 
not properly Anglicized. 

■. stands for . . Adjective. 

«d. Adverb. 

ton, Conjunction. 

t> '- Imperfect Tense. 

tMterj. Inteijection* 

11. Noun. 

J). Participle. 

PP Participles. 

p. a. Participial Adjective 

fL Hural. 

prep Preposition 

pnm. Pronoun. 

nngt Singular. 

V. & Verb Active. 

« n. Verb Neuter 


ft . Btanda for Sheridan. 






. . Jones. 


. Enfield. 


Fulton and Knight 



K. . . . 

. Knowles. 


. . Smart. 


. Reid. 

Wh. ... 

. Webster. 


Arab I '^'^"'^^ ^°' Arabic 


. . Dntcb. 

Dan. . . . 


Eng. . . 

. . English, or England. 

Fr. . . . 

. French. 

6er. ... 

. German. 

Ootb. . . . 

. Gothic 

6r. . . . 

. Greek. 



ImL . . 

. . Icelandic 

It. . . . 

. Italian. . 


. Latin. 


. . Mceso-Gothlc 

Per. . . . 

. . Persian. 

Port. . . . 

. . Portuguese. 

Box. . 

• . Saxon. 


. . Scotch. 


. . Spanish. 

Su. Goth. . 

. . Suio-Gothic or Norse. 

Sw. . . . 

. . Swedish. 




Agtie. stands for Agricultuie 

AnaU Anatomy 

Ant, Antiquitiesw 

Arch. Architecture 

Arith. . . • Arithmetic. 

AstroU Astrology. 

AstroTu Astronomy. 

BoU ........ Botany. 

Car* Carpentry. 

Chenu , .... Chemistry 

Chron, Chronology 

Com Commerce. 

Conch, Conchology 

£Iec. Electricity. 

EnU ..... . . Entomology 

ForU Fortification 

Oeog. ... . Geography. 

OeoU . . . Geology. 

Oeom Geometry. 

Oram Grammar. 

Her. Heraldry. 

Hort. Horticulture. 

Ich. Ichthyology 

Law Law. 

Logic, Logic. 

Math. ..... Mathematics. 

JHech. ... . Mechanics 

Jtfed. Medicine. 

Met, .... . Metaphysics 

Meteor, Meteorology 

MU, Military AfiTairs 

JI/tTt. Mineralogy. 

Mus, Music. 

Myth, . . Mythology. 

JVauC . . . Nautical or Marim Aftir 

Opt. .... . Optics. 

OmitJi. . Ornithology. 

Persp. . . Perspective. 

Phren, , Phrenology. 

Rhet, . Rhetoric 

Surg, , Surgery. 

TheoL Theology 

Zoai . Zoiflogy. 


Brit, Crit, stands for British Critic. 

Ch. Ob Christian Observer. 

Ec. Rev Eclectic Review. 

Ed. Rev. Edinburgh Review 

Ency . Encyclopedia. 

Farm. Eney . . . Farmer's Encyclopedia. 

For, Qu. Rev. . . . Foreign Quarterly Review 
Oent. Mag, . . . Gentleman's Magazine. 

Month. Reo Monthly Review. 

JV, A. Reo North American Review 

P. Cye. . . . . Penny Cyclopedia. 

P, Mag. . • . ... Penny Magazine. 

Phil. Mag. Philosophical Magazine. 

Phil. TVflTU. . . Philosophical Transactions. 

Qu. Rev Quarterly Review. 

Sat. Mag. .... . . Saturday Magazine. 

Shak, Shakspeare, 

FT. Eney. Webster's Ency. Dora. Eco» 

West, Rev. . Westminster Review 




A(pronsvneed b. as a letter^ hut ^as a word.) The firat 
^ letter of the alphabet, and a vowel ; any j one ; 
some. It is an article aet before nouns of^the singular 
number j aa, a man, a tree. It is also prefixed to few and 
many; and in these cases it implies one whole number. 

Before words beginning with a vowel, or a vowel 

sound, it takes the letter n after it, for the sake of eu- 
phony; as, an ox, an hour. (See the word An.) — tf is 
placed before a participle or participial noun, and ia con- 
sidered as a contraction of at or on ,- as, To ^o a hunting^ 

To come a begging. Jl, initial, in many words from 

the Greek language, is a prefix of privative meaning j as, 
achromaticy witliout color. 

Ram,* (^ra) or aWME, n. A Dutch liquid measure. Crabb. 

jjn-RdN'jc,* (?-r6n'jk) a. Same aa ^aronical. Reid. 

i^A-R5n'i-cAL, (^-rSn'e-k^I) a. Relating to Aaron, or to his 

Ab, a prefix, of Latin origin, signifies from. — At the begin- 
ning of the names of English places, it generally shows 
that they Dave some relation to an abbey ; as, Abingdon. 

Ab* n. The 5th month of the ancient Hebrew or Syrian 
year, coinciding with our August. P. Cyc. 

Ab'a-ca,* n. A sort of hemp or flax prepared from an In- 
dian plant. Crabb. 

Ab-a-cIs'ct/s,* n. [L.] (Arch.) Any flat member; the 
square compartment of a Mosaic pavement. Brande. 

Ab'a-c!st, 71. One who casts accounts ; a calculator, [r.] 

A-bXck', ad. [jBackwards. Spenser.} {J^aut.) Noting the sit- 
uation of the sails when they are pressed against the masts. 

t^-BXcE', 71. [abacus, L.] A flat, square stone, or a square 

fAB'A-cdT, 7u The cap of state once used by English 
kings. Brande, 

A-Blc'TQRjn.rL»'] (ZflTfl) One who steals cattle in ' rds. 

^B'A-c&Sy n. [L.] pi. Xb'a-cT. A counting-table j a Ro- 
man game. — {Arch.) The upper part or crowning member 
of the capital of a column. 

Ab'^-da,* 71. (ZooL) A two-horned animal of Asia and Af- 
rica. Crabb. 

♦■^-bXd'dqn,* 71. Satan; destroyer; destruction. Milton. 

^-Baft', ad. {JVaut.) Towards the stern of a ship ; aft. 

fA-BAl's^NCE, 71. [abaisserj F.] Obeisance. Skinner. 

j^b-al'i:e'n-aTE, (?b-al'yen-at) v. a. [abaUenOj L.] fi. ab- 

trange. — {Law) To transfer one's property to another ; to 
xirenate. Abp. Sandys 

^B-AL-iEN-A'TipN, (^l>^l-yen-a'shun)7i. (Law) Actofab- 
alienating ; alienation. Bailey. 

\^-bXnd', v. a. To forsake. Spenser. 

.^"-bXm'DPN, u. a. [abandonnerjFr,'] [t. abawdowkd ; pp. 
aba:t30nino, abandoned.] To give up, resign, or quit j 
to desert ; to forsake ; to leave ; to relinquish ; to expose. 
— Abandon over. To give up to. 

f^-BXN'DQN, 71. Aforsaker; a relinquishment. Ld. Karnes. 

^-bXn'bqned, (ei-bSln'diJind) p. a. Given up; forsaken; 
profligate ; corrupted in the highest degree. 

A-bXn'dqn-ee',* 71. (Law) One to whom something is 
abandoned. Price. 

A-bXn'dPN-er, n. One who abandons or forsakes, 

^-BXN'DpN-lNa, 71. A leaving or forsaking. 


4i-BXN'i>9N-MfiNT, 71. Act of abandoning; dereliction , re- 
linquishment of possession, claim, or right. 

^-bXn'dvm,* 71. (Law) Any thing sequestered or proscribed. 

AB'A-NfiT,* or Xb'n:]?t,* n. A girdle worn by Jewish 
priests. Crabb, 

^-bXn'ga,* 71. (Sot.) A species of palm-tree. Crabb. 

fAB-AN-Nl^'TipN, (ab-sin-nish'un) n. [abannitio, L.] A ban 
ishment. Bailey, 

A-BAP-Tls'TpK,* or A-BAP-Tfs'TA,* 71. (Surgery) Th» 
perforating part of a trephine ; a kind of trepan. Crabb, 

Ij^-bAre', V, a. To make bare, uncover, or disclose. Bailey, 

Xb-ar-tIc-v-i-a'tipn, 71. (Anat.) That species of articula- 
tion that has manifest motion. Bailey. [R.] 

A-bXs',* n. A weight used in Persia for pearls, equal to 
3J grains. Crabb. 

A-BASE', v. a. [abaisseTj Fr.] [i. abased; pp. ababino, 
ABASED.] To cast down; to depress; to bring low ; to 

^-based', (51-bast') a. Lowered. — (Her.) Used of the wings 
of eagles, when the top looks downwards towards the 
pomt of the shield ; or when the wings are shut. 

^-base'ment, n. Act of abasing; humiliation; state of 
being brought low. 

^-bXsh', v. a. [i. abashed; pp abashinq, abashed.] 
To put to confusion ; to make ashamed. It generally 
implies a sudden impression of shame, in a bad sense. 

^-bXsii'ment, n. State of beingashamed ; confusion. EUis. 

^-BAS'ING-,* 71. The act of bringing low. Bacon. 

A-BAs'si* n. A Persian silver coin, nearly equal in value 

' to a shilling sterling. Crabb. 

A-bat'^-ble,* a. (Law) That may be abated. Dane. 

Ae~a-T4-m£:n' TX/M* », (Law) An entry by interpositioa 

A-bate', v. a. \aba1trey Fr.] [i. abated ; pp. abating, 
abated.] To lessen ; to diminish. — (Law) To defeat; 
to put an end to ; to quash. 

A-bate', v. n. To grow less ; to decrease. 

A-bate'ment, n. Act of abating ; the thingor sum abated , 
the sum or quantity taken away; a discount or allow 
ance. — (Zaio) The act of quashing or destroying a plain- 
tiff's writ or pflaint; removal of a nuisance. 

A-bat'er, 71. The person or thing that abates. 

Ab'A'TISj (ab'MJS, w^b-?i-te') {ih'^-lis^Ja. K. Wb ,• a-bat- 
te', Sm.\n. [Fr.] (Mil.) An intrenchment formed byi:ee« 
felledand laid together. 

Ab'a-ti9ED,* (abVtlzd) p. a. Provided with an abatis. 
Qu. Rev. 

A-BA'TpR, 71, (Law) One who abates ; one who enters on 

' land, after the death of the possessor, before the legal heir. 

Abattoir* (5b-?t-twBr'> n. [Fr.] A large public slaugh- 
ter-house for cattle. P. Cyc. 

fAB'A-TUDE, 7t. Any thing diminished. Bailey, 

JAB'A-TtJRE, 71. Grass trodden down by a stag. Bailey, 

ABB," (5b) 71. The yarn on a weaver's warp. Chambers, 

AB'B4y n. A Syriac word, which signifies father. 

Ab'ba-cy, n.-f pi. Xb'ba-cie$. The rights, privilegeSj 01 
possessions of an abbot. Ayliffb, 

Ab-ba'ti^l, (?b-ba'sh?l) a. Relating to an abbey 

AB'BE,*n. [Fr.] An abbot; an ecclesiastical title^ denoting 
an ecclesiastic who has no assigned duty or dignity. Hums, 

A.-BAN'Dpn-irvu, Tu A iciiviiig ui lur&aivuig. anecciesiasiic wuo nas HO assigneo auiy or aigniiy. 

i, £, i, 6, 0, ?, long; X, fi, I, 6, 0, ff, short; A, ?. h P» V» ¥> oftscure. — fXre, fXr, FisT, fAll ; HfeiR, 
KtBlf, SiR U6tK, k5b, s6k; bOll, bUr, rOle. — 5, JB, 9, i*, soft; £, jiJ, £, g, hard; 9 as Z ; f aa gz;— 


ktf'B^ss, n. ; pi Xb'B]^8S>^9. The governess of a nunnery 
or cnnviint. 

iB'B]?Y, rab'be) n. [abbatta^ L.] pi. Xb'b^Y?. A monas- 
tery unaer the superintendence of an abbot ; a convent j 
a house adjoining or near a monastery or convent j a 
church attached to a convent, 

^b'b^y-LXnd,* n. (Law) An estate in ancient tenure an- 
nexed to an abbey. Blackstone, 

!lB'BEY-LOB-B:q:H, n. A slothful loiterer in an abbey. 

Kb'bqt, 71.. [ahbas, low L.] The chief of a convent or 

Ab'bqt-shIp, n. The state or office »f an abbot. 

dBBREUroiRj (ab-ry-vwarO n. [Ft.] See Abreuvoir. 
,AE-B_Rii'vi-ATE, [gLh-bru've-at, fV. J. F.Ja. ST. Sm. ; ?b-br5'- 
vyat, S. E. ,■ g-b-brSv'e-at, P.] v. a. [abbreviarcy L.] [i. ab- 
breviated ; /);/. ABBREVIATING, ABBREVIATED.] To short- 
en by contraction of parts ; to abridge ; to cut short. 

fAB-BRE'vj-ATE, 71. An abridgment. Sir 7'. El/yot. 

^B-BRE-Vf-A'TipN, n. Act of abbreviating j contraction, 
the initial jetter or letters of a word ; as, JV. for nortli. 

Ab-bke'V|-a-TOR, r^b-bru've-a-t9r, Ja. K. Sin. Wb.; ?ib- 
bre-v«^ R't9r, W. J. F. ; ab -brev-ya'tpr, S. ; &b-brSv'e-a-.t9r, 
P,] n. One who abbreviates. 

^b-bre'VI-^-tq-bv, a. That abbreviates or shortens. 

^b-bre'vi-.^-ture, n. A mark used for sliorteningj a 
compendium or abridgment. £p. Taylor. 

XB'By, n. See Abbey. 

A) B, c, (a-be-se') tu The alphabet j a little elementary book. 

Ab'dal5,* Tuyi. A fanatical sect in Persia. Crabb. 

jiS-x>E-ZA'rij* n. {Bot.) An Egyptian plant, like a melon. 

Ab'de-bite,* n. An inhabitant of Abdera. .Ssh. 

Ab'dest,* n. A Mahometan rite of ablution. Pitt. 

Ae'di-cAnt,* 71. One who abdicates. Sinart. 

Ab'dJ-cXnt, a. Abdicating; renouncing; used with of. 

Xb^M-CATE, ??. a. [abdico^ L.] [(.abdicated; pp. abdi- 
cating, ABDICATED.] To renouncG, eis an office or dig- 
nity ; to resign ; to give up or deprive of a right. 

Xb'di-cate, v. 71. To resign ; to give up right. SioifL 

Ab-di-ca'tiqn, n. Act of abdicating ; renunciation of an 
office or dignity by its holder ; resignation. 

Ab'di-ca-tive, f^bMe-ka-tiv, JV.J. F.Ja. Sm.i &h-dlk'?i- 
tiv, 5. E. P.] a. Causing or implying an abdication, Bailey. 

fAB'Di-TiVE, a. That has the power of hiding. Bailey. 

^B~j}i~Td'Rf-i}M,* n, [L.] (^Law) An abditory or hiding- 
place. CoweU. 

A.B'DI-Tp-By, n, (Law) A place to hide goods in. Coweil, 
^b-d'6'm:?n, Tgib-do'men, S. W. J. E. F. Ja. K. Sm. ,■ ?b-d6'- 
^men, or ab'u^-men, P.f ab'dp-mSn, or fib-do'men, ff/j.J 
■ » '[L.] pU L. ab-dOm'i-na; Eng. ab-do'men^. The 
flower venter or belly, containing the stomach, intestines, 
'■{liver, spleen, pancreas, kidneys, &:c. 
'^>b-i>6M'{-n.^l, a. Relating to the abdomen, 

^B-i>6M'f-N^L,* 7U ; y?. ab-d6m'i-nal9. (Zool.) One of 
an order of fishes, which have ventral fins under the ab^ 
»donlen, behind the pectorals. Brande. It ia often used 
dn'the Latin form, Abdominales. 

•As-DdM-iN-Ss'cp-py,* n. (Med.) An examination of the 
itbdomen with a view to detect disease ; gastroscopy. 

^S~d6m'in-oCs, a. Abdominal ; large-bellied, 

AB-D-UCE', ■». fl. [ffl6rf«C0, L.] [i. ABDUCED J /(p. ABDUCIWG, 

Aaj>'troED.] To draw to a different part ; to separate. 

().B-du'cen:t, a. (^7ia(.) Drawing away; pulling back. 

^-d0c(ti9N, n. Act of abducing or drawing apart ; a form 
6f argument. — (Law) Act of taking away a woman or 
any person by force or fVaud. 

^B-DUC'TpR, 71. [L.] (Aiial.) A muscle that draws back a 
part of the body. 

tA-BEAn', (^-bir') V. a. To bear ; to behave. Spe^nser. 

^-BEA.r'ANCE, 71. (Law) Behavior. Blackstone. [r,] 

A-be-ce-da'bi-.^n, 71. A teacher or learner of the alphabet, 

A-B]E:-CE-DA'BJ-4,N,*a. Relating to orcontaming the alpha- 
bet. Seager, 

A-B¥-CE'DVRy» [a-b9-se'dvr?, K. Wb. Ash ; a'be-c?-dgi-r?, 
Johnson, Bickardson.'] a. Belonging to the alphabet. 

^-b£d', ad. 'la. bed. 

^-bele',* 7u (BoU) The white poplar ; the Dutch beech 
P. Cyc. 

S'bel-mSsk,* n. (Bot.) A species of hibiscus or mallow. 

^-BfeR'DE-vlN:^,'* 7^ (Omith.) The European siskin j a 
small green or^yellow finch. Brande. 

f^B-iJRR', V. 71. To wander ; to err. Robinson. 

^'b-£r'B4lnCE, n. A deviation from right; erior. OlanvUle. 

A,B-£R'RAN-cy^ n, ?ame as aberrance. Brown. [R.] 

fAB-£R'RANT, 0. 'Deviating from the right way, Bailey. 

XB-^R-RA'TipTf, 71. Deviation from the right way. — (Op- 
tics) Aberration (tfdight is the apparent alteration in the 
place of a star, arising from the combined motion of the 
spectator and the iight which brings the impression of 
the star to his eye. 

fAB-£R'RlNO, j7. a. Going astray. Sir T. Brown, 


tAB-5-RON'CATE, V. a. To pull up by the roots. BaCef 

.^-B£t', v. a. [i. ABETTED ; pp. ABETTING, ABETTED.] T« 

push forward another; to support, aid, or help. — (Law 

To encourage ; to set on ; to Instigate, as to a crime. 
fA-BfiT', 71. The act of abetting or issisting. Chaucer 
|^-b£t'm?nt, 71. The act of aberting. Wottou. 
^'-bEt'tjjib, n. One who abets ; abettor. Dryden. 
A-b£t'tpb, n. (Law) One who abets, or gives aid or en 

couragement ; an accessory ; used in a bad sense. 
t AB-:?-vXc-V-A'TipN,*n. (Med.) A partial evacuation. Crabb 
^-BEY'ANCE, (^-ba'sins) 71. (Law) Reversion. — Lands are 

in abidance which are in expectation, remembrance, ant" 

contemplation of law, though not yet vested, 
^-BEY'^NT,* (gi-ba'?nt) a. fLaw) Being in abeyance. Qm 
' Rev. 

fAB'SB^-GATE, V. fl. To Ittd out of the flock. Bailey. 
fAB-GRE-GA'TipN, 71, A separation from the flock. Bailep 
^B-Hoa', V. a. [abhorreo, L.] [i. abhorred ; pp. abhor 

ring, abhorred.] To hate with acrimony; to theri^b 

strong dislike to ; to detest ; to loathe. 
Ab-h6r'rence, 71. Act of abhorring; detestation. 
AB-H6R'REN-cy, n. Same as abliorrencc Locke, [b ] 
Ab-h6r'bent, a. Struck with abhorrence; odioub- con 

trary to ; foreign ; inconsistent with, 
AB-HOR'RENT-Ly, ad. In an abhorrent manner. 
Ab-hob'R]eb, n. One who abhors. t>onne. 
Ab-hor'rjng, n. Object or feeling of abhorrence. h»n-M. 
^'siBf* 71. The first month of the Hebrew year, more fp ler 

ally known by the Chaldean name of .Visan. Brande. 
A-bi'dance,* 71. The act of abiding; abode; stay. M^\th. 
' Rev. Tr.] 
^-BWWjV.n. [i. abode ; pp. abiding, abode.] To slay 

ina place ; to dwell ; to remain ; to endure. 
A-bide', v. a. To wait for ; to bear, support, endure, or suffer 
^-bid'er, n. One who abides. Sidney. [B.] 
A-Bli>'iNG,*p. ff. Continuing; permanent. Home. 
^.-bid'ing, 7i. Continuance; stay; residence. 
A'Bi-E^j* 71. [L.] (Bot.) A genus of trees, including the fir, 

spruce, larch, &c. Brande. 
tAB'j-GAiL,*7i. A lady's waiting-maid. Prior. 
f A-Blli'l-M^NTj 71. Ability. Ford. See Hadilihent. 
A-bIl'i-ty, 71, [habiUte^ F.] pi. A-BiL'l-TlE$. Power to do 

any thing ; mental power ; capacity ; talent ; faculty, 
Ab iN-1" ti-6* [L.] From the beginning. Blacksiotu. 
AB-fN-T£s'TATE, a. [tt6, from, and i-nlestatasy L.] (Law) 

Inheriting from one who died without making a will, 
Ab'ject. a. {abjcctus, L.] Mean; worthless; base; des^ 

pi cable.' 
fAB'jECT, 71. A man without hope. Psalm xxxv. 
f/\.B-jl£cT', V. a. [abjicio,!..] To throw or cast away; to 

cast down. SpeTwer. 
^b-jEct'ed-nEss,7i. The state of an abject Boyle. 
^B-j£c'TlpN, 71. Want of spirit ; act of humbling. Hoofter 
Ab'JECT-LY, oiZ. Meanly; basely. Titus Andron. 
Ab'j:ect-n£ss, n Abjection ; meanness 
fAB-jo'Di-cATE,* «. a. To give away by judgment. Ash, 
tAB-jO'Df-CAT-ED,;). a. Given by judgment to another 
^B-jxJ-Di-CA'TipN, 71. Rejection. C. J. Fox, 
fAB'JV-GATEjij. a. [ofiju^o, L.] To unyoke. BaUey. 
Ab-JV-ba'tipn, n. The act of abjuring ; a solemn recan 

tation of opinion ; a renunciation of a country by oath. 
Ab-JURE', tj, a. [aijuro, L.] [i. abjured; pp. abjuring 

ABJURED.] To cast off OT Teuounce upon oath ; to r» 

tract or recant solemnly ; to abandon or quit a country. 
|Ab-jure', v. n. To abjure the country. BumeU 
tAB-JURE'MENT,7i. Abjuratiou. J.Hall. 
ii.B-JUR'ER, n. One who abjures or recants. 
|Ab-lXc'tate, -0 a. [ablacto, L,] To wean from the 

breast. Bailey. 
Ab-lac-ta'tipn, ji. A weaning of an animal ; a method 

of grafting. 
tAB-LA'Ciu?-ATE,* V. a. To lay bare, as the roots of trees 

AB-LA-QUE-A'TipN, 71. [oftiagiicaiio, L.] The act of open 

ing the ground about the roots of trees. Evelyn, 
^B-LA'TipN, 71. {ablatio, L.] Act of taking away. Bp^ 

Taylor, [r.] 
Ab'l^tIve, a. That takes away:^a term noting the 

sixth case of Latin nouns. 
A BLAZE' * ad. In a blaze ; on fire, Millman, 
a'ble, (a'bl) a. Having strong faculties, great strength 

knowledge, riches, or other powers of mind, body, ot 

fortune; strong; skilful; sufficient. 
fA'BLE, (a'bl) V. a. To enable. B. Jonso-*-, 
a-ble-bod'jed, (a-bl-b5d'did) a. Strong of body. 
fAB'LE-GATE, 0. a. {ahltgo, L.] To send abroad on somo 

legation._ BaUey. 
f Ab-l:^-ga'tipw, n. Act of sending abroad. Bailey. 
Ab'len,* or ab'l]?t,* n. A small fresh-water fishj tb« 

bleak. Ash. (Local.) 
J^'ble-n£ss, 71. State of being able ; ability. Sheldon. 
AB'L?p-sy, 71. [a(i\i\liia, Gr.J Want of sight; blindness 

fAB'Li-GATE, V. a. [abliffo, L.] To tie up from. Bailey. 

A, E, I, 6, 0, f, /oB^ X, t, U ^, D, if nhort; 4., ?, |, p, Vf ¥» oftscwre. — fAre, fXr, fAst fAll ■ h£ir, h1£b 


AB-I,jGi'TlQN,*n. Act of tying up (Vom. Smart. 

Ab-L( GV-RI"TI<?n, n. [abliguritiot L.] Excess. Baileu. 
AB'Lp-cATE, V. a. [t'fiiwco, L.] To let out to hire. BaUey. 
AB-Lp-CA'TipN, n. A letting out to hire. Bailey. 
^B-LtJDE', V. n. [ahludo, L.] To differ. Bp. HaU. 

4b'lv-£nt, a. {ablueiis^ from ablao^ L.] That washes clean ; 
cleansing. BaUey. 

iB'LV-fiNT,* 71, {MecU) A cleansing medicine. Crabb. 

>B-Lu'TipN, n. Act of cleansing or washing ; water used 
in washing; purification ; a religious ceremony of wash- 
ing or bathing the body. 

^B-LtJ'Vl-QN',*Tu labluviwmj'L.'] Act of washing or carrying 
away by water ; a flood. Dwight. 

A'blv, (a'blf) ad. In an able manner ; with ability. 

rAB'NE-&ATE, V. a, [abiiego, L.] To deny. De Lolme* 

Ab-ne-GtA'TIPN, n. Denial j renunciation. Hamviond. 

AB'NE-GA-TjVE,*a. Denying; negative. Month. Re^, [n,] 

tAB^N^-aA-Tpa,*. One who denies or renounces. Sandys. 

AB'NETj^n. See Abafcet, Ask. 

[Ab'nq-DATE,* ». a. To cut off the knots of trees. Ash. 

fAB-Np-DA'TlQN, n. [abnodatio^ h.] The act of cutting off 
knots of trees. BaUey. 

AB-NOR'M^ii,'*' a. Contrary to rule; irre^lar. Brande, 

tAB-NOR'Ml-TV, I*- Irregularity ; deformity. BaUey, 

fAB-NOR'MOVS, 0. Irregular; misshapen. Bailey. 

A-BOARD', (^-bord') ad. (J^auU) In a ship ; within a ship ; 
on board ; in a state of collision. 

A-b6ard', prep. On board ; in ; with. Spenser. 

f A-b6d'^NCE, ("^-bo'd^ins) An omen. Dr. Jackson, 

<^-Bode% n. Habitation ; dwelling ; residence ; stay 

^-BODE^,'^ i. Sep. From abide. See Abide. 

f^-EODE', V. a. To foreshow. S}iak. See Bode 

JA-BODE', V, n. To bode ; to forebode. Shak. 

fA-BODE'MENT, n. Act of boding ; presage. SItak. 

A'-bod'jng-, 71. Prognostication. Bp. Bull. 

fAB-9-LETE% o. [abolitusj h*] Old ; obsolete. Skelton. 

' \boleOylj.\ \i. abolished; pp. abol- 
isHiNQ, ABOLISHED.] To aonul ; to make void; to put 

/^-Bdr/fSH, V. a, [aboleo.lj.'] 

an enil to ; to destroy, 

A-b6i.'}sh-^-ble, a. That may be abolished, Cotgrave, 

^-BdL':sH-^R, n. One who abolishes. 

^-b5l';su-m^nt, n. The act of abolishing; abolition. 

iB-<?-Lr'TipN, (Jlb-9-lish'ijin) n. The act of abolishing; 
state ol' being abolished ; destruction; annihilation. 

XB-p-Ll'^TipN-tSM,* (ab-^lish'yn-lzm) n. The principles 
and measures of the abolitionists. Martineau. (^Modern.) 

Ab-p-lI''tipn-Ist, n. One who attempts to abolish some- 
th ng, especially slavery. Ec Rev. 

^-bo'ma,'*' n. (ZooL) A species of large serpent ; a boa. 

■ P. Cyc. 

4ii-Q~MA's^My* 71. (AnaL) The fourth stomach of a rumi- 
nating animal. Orabb, 

^-b6m'J-n^-ble, a. [aAominabilis^ L.] That is to be abom- 
inated ; hateful; detestable; odious; unclean. 

i(V-BdM'}-N^-Bl.E-N£ss, n, Hatefiilness ; odiousness. 

i^-B6M'i-N-j.-Bty, arf. Most hatefully ; detestably. 

^-B6ai'i-NATE, B. a, [i. ABOMINATED ; pp. ABOMINATING, 

ABOMINATED.] To fiatfl Utterly; to detest with strong 
aversion or disapprobation ; to abhor. 

4 BdM-l-NA'TipN, 71. Hatred; detestation; pollution; de- 
nlement ; hateful or shameful vice. 

^-b6Sn', pr^. Above. Brockett, ( Torkshire and JVortk of 

f A-Bord', n. [abordf Fr.] Address ; approach. Chesterfield, 

f^-BORD'. V. a. To approach ; to come near to. Digby, 

AB-p-Rlja'l-N^L, a. Relating 1 1 the origin, or to the abo- 
rigines ; primitive j pristine. 

JS,B-P-Rfjfi'l-NAL,* n. One of the aborigines, or first inhab- 
itants of a country. J. Rogers. 

iB-p-K/jtr'r-ivS^f, (ab-9-rIjVnSz) n.pL fL.] The earliest 
or primitive inhaliitants of a country. 

fA-BORSE'M?NT, n. Aboftwu. Bp. Hall. 

fA-BOBT', V. n. [abortOy'L.] To bring forth before the time ; 
to miscarry. Ld, Herbert. 

f A-BOET', n. An abortion. Burton. 

^'■BOR'TipN, n. The act of bringing forth what is yet im- 
perfect ; product of such a birth j miscarriage. 

^-bor'tive, 71. That which is born before the due time ; 
something that causes abortion. Shak. 

^-bor'tive, a. Brought forth before the due time ; imma- 
ture; causing failure; untimely; not coming to maturi- 
ty; failing, 

A-BoR'tjve-ly, ad, Aa an abortion ; immaturely, 

A-Boa'TjVE-Ntess, 71. The state of abortion. 

f A-bort'M]?NT, 7U An untimely birth. Bacon. 

a'-BOOND', u. n, \abundo, L.] [t. abounded ; pp. abouwd- 
iNo, ABOUNDED.] To havo in great plenty; to be in 
great plenty. 

V-BOttND'lNfl-, n. Increase; prevalence. South, 

'\-BotTl' , prep. Round; surrounding; encircling; near to; 
not far from : concerning ; with regard to ; relating to. 

A-boOt', (w/. Circularly ; nearly ; here and there ; upon or 
to the point; rcund; the longest way. 


A-BdvE', (gt-bHv') prep. To or in a higher place j highq 
* than ; more than. ; too proud for ; too high for ; beyond. 
A-BdVE' (?-buv') ad. Overhead; in the regions of heav 

en. — {Law) Upper ; uppermost ; as, " The court a}}ovef 

i. e. a superior court. 
A-b5ve'-all, (gi-bav'ail) ad. In the first place; chiefly 
A-V&VE'-BOARD, ad. In open sight; without artifice. 
A-b6ve'-c1t-]ED, (gi-biiv'slt-?d) a. Cited before. Addison. 
A-B6VE'-0iacK,* (^-biiv'dek) a. Upon deck ; without arti 

fice. Smart. 
A-BdVE'-GRoONi}, a. Alive; not in the ground or grave. 
A-BdvE'-M^N-TipNED, (^-Diiv'-mgn-shvnd) a* Above 

A-bOve'-said,* (?-b5v'-sSd) a. Mentioned before. H. More 
Abp. Abbreviation for Archbishop ; which see. 
AB-K.A-CA-j>XB'R4fn. A charm against agues. [Acabalii 

tica. word.] 
A-BRADE', v. a, [aAradOf L.] [{.abraded; pp, abrading 

ABRADED.] To wcttr awtty from other parts ; to rub off 

to crumble down. Hale. 
a-br^-hXm'jc,* a. Belonging to Abraham. As/i, 
A-BR^-H^-MlT'i-CAL,* a. Relating to Abraham. Qu, Rev 
a'br^-h^m-MAn,^ n. An impostor who asks alms undiu 

pretence of lunacy. D^Israeli, 
f A-braid', v. a. To rouse ; to awake. 
Ab-ka'M|s,* 71. (Ich.) A species of fish without spine oi 

barbel. Brande. 
A-BRAJV'f^iii-4y* n. pi. (Zool.) An order of animals, of 
' anelli(LBj having '^o branchiae ; as the leech, Roberts, 
A-brAn'£;hi-^' ,*7i. One of the abranchia, Brande. 
Ab-ra'5IPN, (9b-ra'zhun) n. The act of abrading or rub. 

bing off; attrition ; friction. 
Ab-rax'as,''' 71. (Ent.) A genus of lepidopterous insects 

A-br£ast', (?-brSst') ad. Side by side. Shak. 
fAB-RE-NtJN-cj-A'TiQN, 7U Act of renouncing. Mede, 
f Ab-r£p'TIPN,7i. [abripiojlt.] A carrying away. HallywelL 
ABRETTVOIR* (Slb-nji-vwBrO n. [F.] A watering place 

Boyer, {Masonry) A joint between stones to be filled up 

with mortar. Britton, 
Ab'ri-c6ck, 71. Drayton. See Apricot. 
A-BRIdjge', (9-brij') v. a. [abr^ger, Fr.] [i. abridged; 

pp. abridging, ABRIDGED.] To make shorter in words, 

still keeping the substance ; to epitomize ; to reduce ; to 

contract ; to diminish ; to deprive «f ; to cut off from. 
A-BRlDjeED',* (9-br!jd') p. a. Made shorter; reduced in 

A-br!djs'er, n. One who abridges ; a shortener. 
A-BBiDj&'MJ^NT, n. Act of £^bridging: contraction of a 

larger work into a smaller one ; a compend ; a summary ; 

anejgitome; diminution. See Judgment. 
fA-BROACH', V, a. To lap ; to set abroach. Chaucer, 
A-br6ach', ^s-broch') ad. In a posture to run out, spoken 

of vessels ; m a state to be diffused. Shak. 
A-broacu'MENT,'^ 71, (Law) The act of forestalling the 

market, CowelL 
tA-BROAD', (j-brSLwd') V. n. To extend ; to issue. Leaver, 
A-bboAd', (9-bra.wd') ad. Without confinement ; widely 

at large ; out of the house ; in another country. 
lAB'Rp-eA-BLE, a. That may be abrogated. H. Moie, 
Ab'RP-GATE, v. a. fabroffOi L.] [i. abrogated ; pp, AbA<K- 

GATiNo, ARROGATED.] To repeal, to annul. 
fAB'Rp-GATE, a. Annulled ; abolished. K.Ed, VLInj, 
Ab-rp-ga'tipn, n. Act of abrogating ; a repeal. 
AB-Ro' MAy* n, [G.\ (BoU) A genus of plants. Crabb, 
fA-BR&OD', ad. In the action of brooding. Sancroft, 
f A-BRddD^|7ro, 71. Act of sitting abrood. Barret. 
tA-BR66K', V, a. To brook ; to bear ; to endure. Shale 
AB-RbT' Q-N&M,* n. [L.] {Bot.) The southern- wood ; « 
' plant. Cra&ft. 

AB-ROPT',fl. Broken ; craggy ; rough; steep; blunt; sud- 
den, without the customary or proper preparatives. 
Ab-rupt', v. a. [t To disturb ; to interrupt. Brown,'\ tm 

break off. Conybeare. 
AB-ROp'TipN, n. Violent and sudden sepEiration. 
Ab-rOpt'lv, ad. In an abrupt manner ; hastily. 
Ab-rDpt'n^ss, n. State of being abrupt ; an abrupt nwiii- 

ner; suddenness; roughness. 
Ab'rvs,* n. (Bot.) A West Indian tree, with papilionaceom 

flowers. Necklaces for children are often formed ol it« 

seeds. Brande, 
AB'scfiss, n. [abscessttSj L.] pi. XB'scfiss^JE?. (Med,) Aa 

inflammatory or purulent tumor. 
Ab-scInb', (^b-sind') v,a. To cut off. Johnson, 
Ab'scIss. n.i pi XB'sctss-59. l (Qeom.) A seg 

AS-scls'SAyn. [L.] pi. AB-scis' SJE. ] ment cutofffroM 

a straight line by an ordinate to a curve ; a line cut off 
Ab-scI§'¥I9N, (^tb-slzh'yn) r^b-slzh'un, W. J. F. Ja. K 

Sm. ; 9b-alsh'vn, S. P.] n. [abscissiOf L.] Act of cutting 

off; state of being cut off. 
AB-sc6nd', v. n, \i, absconded; pp. absconding, ab 

BCOHDED.i To hide, conceal, or absent one's self. Ray^ 
tAB-sc6ND*, V. a. [abacondoj L.] To conceal. Hewyt, 
tAB-sc6ND'?NCE,* 71. Concealment. Phillips. 

MSEN, SlRi M5VE, NbH, s5n BOLI., bUr, rOlE, — P, iS, V, t, aoft; R, fi, f, g, kardi ? M Z ; ^ « gz; — TUU 

fcf -sc5nd'i:r, Ti. One who abscond ; 

|kB'S^NCE,n. [absentia^ h. ; absence^ Fr.'j Tne state of being 
Absent, opposed to presence,* carelessness; inattention. 

Ib'S^nt, a. [absens^ L.] Not present 3 careless j inatten- 
tive J absent or abstracted in mind. 


To withdraw ; to forbear to come into presence. 

f Ab'sent, n. One who is not present. Bp. Morton. 

tAB-s:EN'-TA'N]f-oOs, a. Relating to absence ; absent. Bailey, 

Xb-s:i5N-tee', n. One absent from his station or country ; a 
landed proprietor who resides at a distance from his estate. 

XB-sigN-TiiE'l5M.* m. State of being absent; the state or 
condition of such as reside at a distance from their real 
estate. Qu. Rev. 

^b-s£nt'er, n. One who is absent from his place. 

»,^b-s£nt'ment, n. The state of being absent. Barrow. 

\b-sIn'thi-an, o. Of the nature of wormwood. 

^b-sIn'thi-at-ed, p. a. Impregnated with wormwood. 

\B~slNi THj-1 Sy,*n. [L.J {Med.) Wine impregnated with 
wormwood. Crabb. 

4b~s1n' THl-t^My (i\}-s\ii'l\\^-nm) n. [L.] Wormwood. 

<"^B-siST', i). 7u [absisto, L.] To stand off; to leave o*' 

Ab'sq-lute, a. [absolutusj L.] Clear from other things . 
independent of any thing else; positive ; complete ; ap^ 
' plied as well to persons as things; unconditional, as an 
absolute promise ; not relative, as absolute space ; not lim- 
ited, as absolute power or government ; not grammatically 
dependent, as the case absolute. 

As'sp-LUTE-Ly, ad. In an absolute manner ; completely. 

Xb'so-lute-ness, 71. State of being absolute. 

iB-sp-LiJ'TipN, 71. Act of absolving; acquittal; a remis- 
sion ; a ceremony of declari*.^ a repentant sinner ab- 
solved from guilt. 

iB'sp-LiJ-Ti5M,* n. Absolute government ; the principles 
of despotism ; despotism. Brande. Predestination. Jish. 

AB'sp-LU-TiST,* n. An advocate for despotism. Fn, Qu. Rev, 

^B-s6L'v-Tp-Ry, [gib-sol 'u-tur-e, fV. J. E. F. Ja. K. Sm. ; 
Ab's9-lu-t9-re, S. P. Wb.'\ a. That absolves. 

^B-sSl'va-tp-ry, a. Relating to pardon ; forgiving. 

^B-§6lvE', (^b-2olv') V. a. yabsohoo, L.] [;'. absolved ; 
pp. ABSOLVING, ABSOLVED.] To clear ; to acquit; to free 
from guilt, or from an engagement. 

^B-56LV'ER^n. One who absolves 

,^b-s6l'vj-t6r,* lu f£aw.] A decree of absolution. Sir 
W. Scott 

fAB'sp-NANT, a. Contrary to reason ; absonous. Q;uarles. 

tAB'sp-NATE,* V. a. (Law) To avoid ; to detest, jIs/i. 

j-AB'sp-NOOs, a. [absonuSf L,] Absurd ; contrary to reason ; 
unmusical. FotJierby. 

^B-SORB', v. a, [absorbeo, L.] [i. absorbed ; pp. absorb- 
ing, ABSORBED.] To imbibe ; to swallow up ; to suck up. 

^b-sorb-vbIl'I-tv,* «. Q.uality of being absorbable. 

i^B-SOEB'A-BLE,* a. That may be absorbed. Knoioles. 

t^B-^ORB'ENT, 71, A medicine that dries up humors : any 
thing that absorbs or dries up. 

^b-sorb'ent, a. That absorbs moisture, &c. 

fAB-soR-Bi"TlpN, (ab^Br-blsh'un) 7t. Absorption. Brovm. 

I.^B-SORPT', p. Absorbed; swallowed up. Pope. 

(^B-soRP'TipN, (?b-s9rp^shim) it. Act of absorbing, suck- 
ing up, or imbibing ; state of being absorbed. 

Ab-sorp'T|ve,* a. Having the power to imbibe. Smart. 

iBs'QVE ir6c,* [L.] (Law) Without this or that ; words 
of exception formerly made use of in a traverse. Crabb. 

AkB-STAIN', D. 71. [aftstiTieo, L.l [i. abstained; pp. ab- 
"■*iNiNO, ABSTAINED.] To keep from; to forbear; to 
refrain one's self. 

f^B-STAlN', V. a. To hinder. Milton. 

^b-ste'mi-oDs, a, [abstmniasj L.] Practising abstinence ; 
very temperate ; sober; abstinent. 

^B-STE'Ml-oOs-Ly, ad. With abstinence ; temperately. 

^B-STE'irti-oys-Nfiss, n. duality of being abstemious. 

fAB-STfiN'TipN, Ti. Act of restraining. Bp. Taylor. 

(JlB-STEB/JE'j v. a. [abstergOy L.] [i. absterged ; pp. ab- 
sterging, ABSTERGED.] Fo cleause by wiping Burton. 

^b-ster'/J?nt, a. Havmg a cleansing quality. 

I^B-STERSE', 13. a. To cleanse; to purify. Brown. 

^*B-STER'sipN, 71. The act of cleansing. Bacon. 

fAB-STiSR'sjVE, n. A cleanser. Sir W. Petty. 

^b-ster'sjve, o. Having the quality of cleansing. Pope. 

f,(>.B-ST^R'S}VE-N£ss,* n. Q-uality of being abstersive. 

iB'sTj-NENCE, 71. [&.bstmentia, L.] Forbearance of neces- 
sary food, or of any thing; fasting. 

Ab'ST|-n£n-CV» w- Same as abstinence. Hammond. 

Ab'st|-n£nt, a. Using abslmence; abstemious. 

AB'STi-prfiNT-LV, ad. With abstinence. Don-ne. 

♦^b-stokt']^d, a. [ahstortu.s, L.] Forced away by vio- 
len 'e. Bailey, 

(^B-S TRXct', d. a. \ab8tractus^ L.] \i. abstracted; pp. 
ABfrTHACTiNG, ABSTRACTED.] To take ouo thing from 
another ; to separate, as ideas ; to reduce. 

Ab'strAct, [Jlb'strtlkl, S. P. Ja. R %m. Wl. ,■ ab-«traki.', IT 
See Abstractly.] a. Separated ft. im something else ; ex 
istinginthe mind only; not concrete; independent 0* 
others, and not to be altered by time or circumstancee 
refined ; piire. 

Ab'strAct, [ab'strikt, S. W. P. J. F. K. Sm, fVb,] n. 4 
smaller quantity containing the virtue or power of • 
greater ; an epitome ; an abridgment. 

Ab-stbXct'ed,j». a. Separated; refined; abstruse. 

^e-strXct'ed-LV, ad. With abstraction, Dryden. 

^B-strXct'ed-nEss, 71. State of being abstracted Baxter 

Ab-strXct'er, n. One who abstracts. 

^b-strXc'tipn, 71. Act of abstracting; state of being ab> 
straeted ; separation ; absence of mind ; inattention. 

fAB-STRAc-xF'Tipus,* a. Abstracted or drawn from ves- 
sels without fermentation, ^sh. 

^b-strXc'tjve, a. Having the power of absiracling, 

Ab-strXc'tive~ly, ad. In an abstractive manner. 

Ab'strXct-ly, [?b-str5kt'le, S. m P. J. F. Ja. K. Sm 
ab'strakt-le, Wb.] ad. In an abstract manner. 95= Con 
sistency requires that the adverb abstractly^ and the sub 
stantive abstractnessj should receive the same accen< 
as the adjective abstract, from which they are derived ■ 
though most orthoepists are inconsistent in their mo(i« 
of accenting them. 

Ab'strXct-n:?ss, n. Q,uality of being abstract. See A» 

fAE-STRiCT'ED, p. a. [abstrictus, h.] Unbound. BaiUy. 

tAB-STRTK/SE', (^b-strinjO v. a. To unbind. Bailey, 

t^E-STRftDE'ji;. a. [abstrudOflj.lTo thrust away. Bailey 

4^B-STRtisE', a. [abstrususj L.] Remote from conceptioo 
apprehension, or view ; obscure ; not plain ; difficult. 

^B-STRtlSE'LY, o(f. In an abstruse manner; obscurely. 

AB-STRtlSE'NESS, n. duality of being abstruse. 

fAB-STRtr'si-Ty, M. Abstruseness, Brown. 

fAE-siiME', 73. a. [absumo^ L.] To waste ; to eat up. Hale 

t^B-siJMP'TipN, n. Destruction. Bp. Oaiiden. 

/iB-st/RD', a. [absurdus, L.] Contrary to reason or to man- 
ifest truth ; impossible ; unreasonable ; irrational ; incon- 

Ab-surd'i-ty, n. The quality of being absurd ; that whicb 
is absurd ; unreasonableness. 

AB-siJRD'Ly, ad. In an absurd manner. 

AB-siJRD'NESS, n. The quality of being absurd, 

A-bv'na* n. The high priest or sole bishop of the Aoy* 
' sinian church, .dsh. 

A-bOn'dance, 71, [abovdavce. Ft,] State of being abun 
dant; great plenty; exuberance. 

^-bOn'dant, a, l{U)undmtSj h.] Plentiful; exuberant ; ful 
ly stored, 

A-BON'DANT-Ly, ad. In plenty ; exuberantly. 

A-BtJ9'A-BLE, a. That may be abused. Dr. H. More. 

fA-Bu'5AjGE, n. Abuse. Wm. fVliateley, 

A-BiJ$E', (^-huz')v.a. [abutorj abasus^lj.l 'i abused ; pp 
ABUSING, ABUSED.] To make an ill use of; to violate ; t« 
defile ; to impose upon ; to revile ; to vilify ; to reproach 

^-BUSE', (5-biis') lu 111 use ; the opposite of good use ; a cor- 
rupt practice ; unjust censure ; rude reproach : contume- 
ly; seducement, 

t^-BUSE'FVL, a. Abusive. Bp, Barlow, 

^-bu9'er, (?i-buz'er) tu One who abuses or uses ill. 

tA-BU'sipN, (9-bii'zhtin) 71. Ill use or usage Spenser 

^-BU'siVE, a. Practising abuse; containing abuse, £» 
proachful ; reviling. 

^^-BU'siVE-LY, ad. In an abusive manner ; reproachfully 

A-bu'sjve-n£ss, 71. duality of being abusive. Milton 

A-Bi3T', V. 71. [aboutir, Fr.] [i. abutted ; pp. aputtino 
ABUTTED.] (Law Sf JlrchT) To be at the end or Ijorder 
to end at ; to border upon ; to meet ; wilh upon Shak. 
p:^ Johnson pronounces this word obsolete ; but it is still 
mjise, particularly as a technical word. 

j^-bu'ti-l6n,* n. (Bot.) The yellow mallows ; a species ol 
hibiscus. Crabb 

,^-BtJT'MENT, n. frcA.) That which receives the end of, 
or gives support to, or borders upon, any thing; a mass 
of masonry at the end of a bridge. 

A-bGt't^l, 71. (Law) Thebuttingor boundary of land 

A-BtJT'TEB, 71, He or that which abuts. R. Morse 

tA-BY',w. a. To endure ; to pay dearly ; to suffer for Shak. 

fA-BY', (9-bi') V, 71, To remain ; to pay dearly, Spenser, 

tA-B5§M', (9-bizmO n. [abysme^ old Fr.] Abyss. Skak. 

A-Bi?^$'MAL, fl. Belonging to an abyss. Coles [r.] 

^-B?ss', C^-bis') n. [abyssus, L,] pi. a-b?ss'E9. A deptb 
without bottom ; a great depth ; a deep pit ; a gulf. 

tA-Bl?s's^L,* a. Relating to or like an abyss. fVm. Law. 

Ac, Ak., or AKE, being initials in the names of places, ai 
.^cioTi, signify an oak, from the Saxon oc, an oaJc, Gibson. 

A-CA'CA-Lis,* 71. (Bot.) A shrub and flower. Crabb. 

A-ca'ci-a^ (9-ka'she-&) n. [L.J pi, L. A-CA'cf-JE ; Eng. ^ 
ca'ci-A5. A drug brought from Egypt. (Bot ) A genutt 
of plants of the pea tribe ; a tree called the loeitst ; a flow 
ering shrub ; rose »cacia. 

tAc'^-cy,* n. Freedom from malice. Jish, 

jAc-A-DEME', n. [academiay L.] An academy. Shak, 

£, i. 6, 0, ?, long ! X, tf I, 6, tt, i;, short ; ^, B, J, p, y, Y. obscure, — FkRV, TAB., fXst, fAll ; h£ie, hKk 


fA-C--) Dls'Mj .^L, a. Academical. 

JLc-^-ue'mi-^n, n. A scholar or member of an academy, [r.] 

&,c-A 1)£m'(c, n. A student of a university or academy j an 

acaiemical or Platonic philosopher. 
4,C-A Dfiai'ic, a. Relating to an academy or university. 
i,c-A-DiiM'i-CAL, a. Belonging to an academy. 
Ac-A-d£m'{-cal,-lv, ad. In an academical manner, 
^-cAd-e-m1"cian, (?i-kad-e-mish'^n) n. A member of an 

academy ; a man of science or literature. 
f^-cXD'?-Ml5M, H. The academical philosophy. Baxter. 
t-^-cXD'i^-MlsT, 71. A member of an academy j an academ- 
ical philosopher. Baxter. 
^-cXd'e-MV, n, [academiat L.] [^-kad^^-me, P. J. F, E. 
Jo, K. Snu Wb. ; ?-kad'?-me, or Jik'MSin-?, S. TV.] A 
society of learned men associated for the promotion of 
some art or science ; Plato's school of philosophy ; a uni- 
versity ; a grammar school ; a place of education ; a sem- 
^■ca'di-A-I-ite,* n. (Min.) A silicious mineral found in 

Nova Scotia ; red chabazite- .Alger. 
kc'j^-j6Vj*n. {BoU) The cashew-nut tree. Crahb. 
Sg-^-ZiE' PJlJE,* n, pi. [L.J {^Zool.) A class of animals; 

acalephans. P. Cyc. See Acalefhan. 
Xc-^-le'piIjJlN,* n,; pL Xc-a-le'ph^n$. (Zool.) One of a 
class of invertebrate aquatic and marine animals, having 
the property of irritating and inflaming the skin when 
touched, as the seit-nettle. jelly-fish, &c. Brande. 
Ic-A-NA'CEoys,* (&k-9-na^shi^s) a. Prickly, like a thistle. 

iC'4LJV-THA'CE-JSj* (JSo(.) A genus of plants. P. Cyc 
ic-AN-THA'CEOVS,* (^k-&n-tha'shys) a. Armed with pric- 
kles j prickly. Cr<^h. 
A-CAN* TH4-RtSy* n. [aKai>d>i, Gr.] pi. XC-4.N-THAR'f' 
' DE?. (Ent.) A species of cimex. Encyc. 
^-cXn'thjce,*™, (Bot.) A vegetable juice. Crahb. 
^-cXtt'thine,* a. Relating to the acanthus. Ash. 
A-clN' THi-QN,* n. [Gr.] {^ZooL) A genus of rodent ani- 
* mals. P. Cyc 
jS-clNf TMis,* n, [Gr.] (Bot) The groundsel, a plant; a 

bird, .^sh, 
A'CAn' THQ-DB9^* A genus of fossil fishes. Agassiz. 
Ji'CXjV TSQ-PHlSf* n. (Zool.) A genus of venomous ser- 
' pents. P. Cyc. 
Ac-AN-THflp-T]5-RlfjS'j-oDs,*o. (/cA.) Having prickly fins. 

ic-AN-THu' H17S* n, (/cA.) A genus of fishes. P. Cyc. 
4-cXn'thvs, n. [L.] pi. L. ji~GlN'THi; Eng. A.-CXN'- 
THVS-59. {Bot.) A spiny herbaceous plant, with pinna- 
tifid leaves, and large whitish flowers ; bear's-foot or 
bear's-breech. — {Arch.) An ornament which resembles 
the leaves of the plant, used in the capitals of the Co- 
rinthian and composite orders. 
B'CAn'zi-t,,* n. pi. The Turkish light-horse. Crdbb. 
io-4-FXT'Liy*n.{Bot.) The long pepper-plant. Cra^h. 
^-cXr' i-DE^,* n. pL {Ent.) A genus of spider-like animals, 
' or insects; mites; acari. P. Cyc. 
1c'a-r5n,* re. (Bot) The wild myrtle. Crabb. 
Zc' A-RifSj* n. [L.] pl.Xc'4-Rl. (J:n(.) A genus of insects j 

a mite. P. Cyc. 
^-cXT-^-Lfic'Tjc, n. [dKaTaXvKTiKOSi Gr.] (Rhet.) A verse 
which has the complete number of syllables, without de- 
fect or excess. 
^-cXT-A-Lfic'TlC,* a. Not halting short ; complete. Ash. 
A-nXT-A-L&p'si-4.i n. [dKaTaXTjipia, Gr.] Acatalepsy. 

(^-cXt-A-lISp'sy,* n. Incomprehensibility. Smart. 
^-cXt-^v-lKp'tjc,* a. Incf ii'.rehensible. Smart. 
fA-CA'TljlR, n. A provider of provisions. Cliaucer. 
\j^-CAT'BS' y a. pi VifiiUPls viands. Spenser. See Gates. 

A ciu'LOifs * I '^ ^^-"^^ iiaving no stem or stalk. Ash. 

i^ -clu'Lls,* M. [a & *f awA'S-] {Bot.) A plant having no stem. 

^C-Cede', v. n. [accedo. L.] [i. acceded; pp. acceding, 
ACCEDED.] To be added toj to come to; to come overj 
to assent. 

i^C-c£L'EB,-ATE, V o. [accelerOj L] [i. accelerated; 
pp. acceleratinOj a.'celbrated ] To hasten ; to quick- 
en the motion of. 

^c-c£L'?lt-AT-¥T>,*p.a. Hastened. — (Mech.) Accelerated 
motion is that in which the ve ^^ity of a moving body is 
contmually increased. Orier. 

^C-cfiL'^R-AT-jNO,*?, a. Causing acceleration ; hasten- 

^c-c£ii-iEa-A'TiON, n. Act of accelerating; increase of 
motion ; a hastening. 

Ac-cfiL'ER-A-TtVE, a. Increasing motion. 

f Ac-cfiwb', tJ. 0. [aceendo.Li.] To kindle. Decay of Piety. 

A'c-cfiN-»r-BlL'|-TV,* »• inflammability. Ed. Rav. 

Ac-cfiN'Di-BLE,* a. That insny be inflamed. Sinart. 

i\c-c£N'sipN, 7U The act ui kindling. Locke. 

iO'CENT, 71. (aeeentua, li J The modulation of the voice 
^n speaking ; a stress ^^f *ioice on a certain syllable ; a 
mark on a syllable to d )/-.t the moaulation of the voice. 


AC-C£NT', iJ, a. [i. ACCENTED ; pp. ACCEIfTIMO, AO 

cented.j To pronounce or utter with accent; to ex- 
press, write, or note the accent. 

^c-cf^Ni'^ji.,* p. a. Pronounced with the accent; having 
the accent. 

^c-cENT'9B,,*?i, {Mitsic) One who sings the highest part. 

^c-cfiNT'v-^L, (9k-sgnt'yu-9l) a. Relating to accent. 


ATiNG, ACCENTUATED.] To placc the acccnt properly , 
to accent. Bailey. 
Ac-c£NT-V-A'TlpN, n. The act of placing the accent. 
^C-c£pt', v. a. [acceptOy L.] [i. accepted ; pp. accept- 
ing, ACCEPTED.] To take ; to receive kindly ; to admit ; 
to agree to ; sometimes used with 0/, as, ^^ Accept of my 
hearty .wishes." Addison. 
Ac-c£pt--4.-bIl'i-tv, m. Q.uality of being acceptable. 
li-^C-c£PT'^-BLE, [9k-s6p't9-bl, P. Ja K. Sin. Wb. John- 
'sony Ashy Dychey Barclay; ak'sep-t^-b!, S. IV. J. E. F.] a 
Sure to be accepted or well received ; welcome ; grateful ; 
pleasing. ^ji^^'^Wuhm these twenty years, this won* 
has shifted its accent from the second to the first syllable. 
There are now few polite speakers who do not pronounce 
it ac'ceptable; and it is much to be regretted that this pro- 
nunciation is become so general." Walker. Such was the 
fact, as stated by Walker, near the end of the last cen- 
tury. But the accent of the words acceptable and com 
mendable has, in a great measure, been shifted back again 
from the first to the second syllable ; and they are so ac- 
cented by several of the latest English orthoepists. Sea 
jl Ac-c£pT'^-BiiE-N£ss, 71. The quality of being acceptable. 
l|Ac-c£pT'^-BLy, ad. In an acceptable manner. 
^c-c£PT'.^NCE, n. Act of accepting; reception with ajv 
probation : acceptation ; meaning. — (Com.) The subscrib 
ing of a bill ; the bill itself when subscribed. 
Ac-cep-ta'tiqn, n. Reception ; acceptance ; the meaning 

of a word. 
Ac-c£pt'?r, n. One who accepts. 

f Ac-cfiP-Tj-LA'TiQN, 71. [acca)tilatio,J4.'\\{CHvU Law) Th« 
remission of a debt by a creditor without payment. Cot- 
fAc-cfiP'TIpN, 71. Acceptation. Hammond. 
t^c-cfiP'TjVE, a. Ready to accept. B. Jonson. 
A*c-c£PT'pR,* 71. (Law) One who accepts a bill of ex- 
change, itc. Bouvier. 
^C-c£p'TRESS,* 71, A female who accepts, S. Oliver. [R.] 
^c-c£ss', or Ac'cfiss, [?k^Ss', W. P.J. F. Sm.i'ik'^a.S. 
E. K. ,' ^k'ses, or ^k-ses', Ja.] n, [accessus or accessioy L.] 
Approach ; increase ; addition ; admission ; external pas- 
sage or entrance ; a corridor. 

Ac'ces-s^-r;-ly, ad. In the manner of an accessary 
Ac'c?s-s^-RJ-NiiSS, 71, State of being accessary 
Ac'cES-s^-RV, [ak'ses-s^-re, S, W. P. J. E. F. Ja. K. Snut 
9k-aSs's^-re, Ash,] a'. Contributing to a crime ; addition^) 
See Accessory. 
||Ac'CES-s.^-R¥, n. An accomplice. See Accessort. 
Ac-cfes-sj-BlL'i-Ty,* n. Q,uality of being accessible, I 

Ac-cJ6s'si-BLE, a. That may be approached ; approachable 
j^c-cfis'sippi, (^k-sesh'un) 71. Enlargement; augmenta- 
tion ; act of coming to, or joining to ; approach. 
Ac-cfis'sipN-^L,* (^k-sesh'un-gtl) a. Additional. Ed, Rev 
Ac-CES-SO'RI-AL,* o. Belonging to an accessory. Smart 
||Ac'cES-sp-Rl-LY, ad. In the manner of an accessory. 
||Ac'ces-sp-ri-k£ss,* n. Tlie quality of being accessor/ 

l|Ac'CES-sp-BY, rak'ses-S9-re, S. TV. P. J. E. F.Ja.K Sm.; 
^k-ses'sp-re, Ash.] a. Contributing to a crime ; joined to 
another thing ; additional. 
l|Ac'cES-sp-RV, n. [accessoriitSy L.] (Law) One who is 
guilty of a crime, not principally, but by participation ; 
an accomplice. — An accessory before the fact is one who. 
being absent wlien the crime was committed, yet coun- 
selled or commanded another to commit it. 
AC-c^s'svSy* n. [L.] A climbing machine ; a mode o* 
electing a pope, called, in English, an election by acclamnk 
tion. Crabb 
Ac'ci-d£nce, n. A little book containing the accidents of 

first rudiments of grammar. 
Ac'cj-pSNT, Tu The happening of an event without th» 
design of the agent ; casualty ; chance ; a property of 
quality of any being that is not essential to it. — (Gram.) 
pi. The properties and qualities of the parts of speech. 
Ac-cl-DfiN'T^L, n. A property non-essential. Pearson. 
{Mils.) A flat or sharp pitfixed to the notes in a move- 
Ac-ci-l>fiN'TAL,a. Having the quality of an accident; not 
designed or planned ; non -essential ; casual ; fortuitoui 
Ag-ci-den-tXl'i-ty,* n. The quality of being accidental 

Coleridge, [r,] 
Ac-ci-den'tal-ly, ad. In an accidental manner; ca» 

Ac-C(-DfiN'XAL-N£ss, 71. Q,uality of being accidertal. 

4iEN sir; move, nop b6nj tOll, bUr, aOl.E. — g, f . ?, g, s^j e, o, £, g, hard; ^ as 1 ^ as «z, 

A * 

■ xri« 


'ic-Cl-DEN'T J-A-RV, (Sk-se-dSn'she-gi-r?) fl. Belonging to 

accidents oi accidence. Bp. Morton. 
0p' l-p£y'sh R* n, (Ich.) A genus of fishes ; the sturgeon. 

P que. 
»Ac-clP'j-ENr,n. [accipiens.h.] A receiver. Bailey, 
^C-ClP'f-T£R,* n [L.] A hawk; a fish, the mUvius. 

^C-ClP'l-TRlNE,* o. Relating to the hawk. Maunder. 
4o-ctP-f~TRp NAf* n. {Bot.) The herb hawk-weed. Dr. 

ScotU ^ „ , 

f^c-clP'l-TKA-RY,*n. A catcher of birds of prey. Drake, 
fAc-clTE', i'.'^. To call ; to cite ; to summon. SJiak. 
f^C-CLAIM', w. n. [acclamoy L.] To applaud. Bp. Hall. 
^'c-CLAlM', 71. A shout of praise; acclamation. Milton. 

tAc'CLA-MATE, V. a. To applaud. Waterlionse. 
ic-CLA-MA'TipN, n. A shout of applause ; applause ; unan- 
, imous and immediate election, viva voce. 
^c-clAm'^-TO-ry, a. Pertaining to acclamation. 

^C-CLl'MATE,* or AC'CLI-MATE.* V. a. \i, ACCLIMATED ; 

pv. ACCLIMATING, ACCLIMATED.] To inuFc or adapt to 
a' climate; to acclimatize, London Med. Rev. 
A.C-clI'M^TE-m£nt,* 71. Acclimation. Coleridge, [r.] 
ACtCLI-MA'tipNj* n. Act of acclimating; act of making 

or of becoming inured to a climate. Farm. Encyc. 
Xc-cIjJ-MAt-i-za'TIQN,* 71. Act of inuring to a climate. 

' Qu. Rev, [r.] 

^C-CLi'MV^IZE,* v. a. [i. acclimatized: pp. accli- 
MATiziNo, ACCLIMATIZED.] To inuvB or adapt to a cli- 
mate different from what is natural ; to acclimate. Brande. 
^c-CLi'MA-TURE,* 7i. State of being inured to a climate. 

Caldwell, [r.] 
t^c-CLlVE', a. Rising. Jiuhrey. 
^c-CLiv'j-TY, n. Steepness reckoned upwards ; the ascent 

of a hill Is the acclivity ^ the descent the declivity. 
^c-cl!v'ovs, [^k-kll'vysj S. W. J. F. Jo. K. Sm. ; ?k- 
kli^vus, P.] a. Rising with a slope. 

t^c-CLOIf', V. a. To stuff full ; to cloy. See Clot 

tAc-coIli', V. n. To bustle ; to coil. Speiiser. See Coil. 

f Ac-col.',* v. a. To embrace round the neck. Surrey. 

4c'c^L4,*n. [L.] A delicate fish found at Malta. — {Law) 
A husbandman ; a borderer. WMshaw. 

Ac-cp-LADE',* or Ac-CQ-lXde',* [ak-^-lad', K. R. fVb. ; 
ak-9-l'4d', Sm.] 71. [Fr.] A blow on the neck or shoulder, 
or an embrace ; a ceremony formerly used in conferring 
knighthood. Hallanu 

tAc'CQ-LfiNT, n. [accoicTw, L.] A borderer. Bailey, 

^c-c6M'Mp-i>^-BLE,a. That may be fitted. WaOs, [r.] 

f^c-c5M'Mp-D^-Bi<E-N£ss, n. State of being accommo- 

^c-cSm'MO-DATE, v. a laccommodo^ L.] [i accommo- 
dated ; pp, accommodating, accommodated.] To sup- 
ply with conveniences of any kind ; to adapt ^ to fit ; to 
adjust ; to suit ; to serve. 

Ac-cdM'MQ-DATE, V. u. To be conformable. Brown. 

^C-c6m'mp-date, a. Suitable ; fit. iZai/. [K.] 

^c-cdM'MQ-DXT-£D,* p. a. Supplied ; adapted ; suitable. 

^c-c5m'M9-DATe'-LY, ad. Suitably; fitly. More. [R.] 

1^c-c6m:'M9-bate-n£ss, n. Fitness. Hallywell. [r.I 

.^c-cSM'Mp-DiT-iNG,* p. o. Affording accommodation ; 
disposed to oblige. 

<^c-c5m:-mp-da'tipn, 71. State of being accommodated; 

' provision of conveniences ; adaptation ; fitness ; recon- 
ciliation ; adjustment: — pi. conveniences; lodgings. 

^c-cGM-Mp-DA'Tlp>-BlLL,*7t. (Com.) A bill of exchange 
given as an accommodation instead of money. Crabb. 

^c-c6M'Mp-i>A-T}yE,*a. Tending to accommodate. Reed- 

^C-c6lvi'Mp-DA-TpR, n. One who accommodates. 

t^c-c6M'PA-N^-BLE, a. Sociable. Sidney. 

Ac-c6m'pa-ni-er, n. One who accompanies. 

^c-c6m'pa-nJ-m£nt, 7J. That which accompanies. -(Mu- 
sic) An Instrumental part added to the composition by 
way of embellishment. 

Ac-c6m'pa-nIst,*71. (Music) One who performs an ac- 
companying part. Crabb, 

i^C-c6m'P^-NY, (9k-kum'p9-ne) v, a. [accompafrner^ Fr.] 
' ft. accompanied; pp. accompanying, ACCOMI'aHIED.J 
To be with another as a companion ; to join with ; to go 
along with. 

i!yc-c6M'PA-Ny, v. n. To associate with ; to cohabit. 

^c-cdM'PLICE, n. An associate, usually in an ill sense; 
an abettor. — (Law) One of several concerned in a felony 
or crime. 

^C-c5m'PLJCE-shTp,* n. State of being an accomplice. 
H. Taylor, [R.] 

Ac-cpM-PLlp'j-TV,* n. The character or act of an accom- 
plice. Qu. Rev. [r.] 

Ac-c5m'PL{SH, v. a. [accomplivj Fr., from compUo^ L.] 
[i. accomplished ; pp. accomplishing, accomplished.} 
To complete ; to execute fully ; to fulfil ; to obtaiu ; to 
adorn, or furnish. 

^c-c6m'pljsh-a-ble, o. Capable of accomplishment. 

^c c6m'pljshed, (^k-kSm'pljsht) [jk-kSm'plisht, J. F. 


K, Sm.; ?ik-k5m'pliBh-ed, S. W. P. Ja, ©^ ^heridin, 
Walker, ice, pronounce -^lishedj in unuccouplished, ai 
one syllable.] p, a. Complete in some qualification ; el 
^C-c6m'pljsh-]er, n. One who accomplishes. More. 
4c-c6m'pljsh-m£nt, n. Act of accomplishing; ataVe of 
being accomplished ; completion ; fUU performance ; or- 
nament of mind or body ; attainment, 
Ac-compt', (9k-ko0nt') n. [coynpter a.nd compte, anciently 

aecompter, Fr.] An account. See Account. 
^c-coMpr'vBLE,(sik-koan't?-bI)a. Accountable. Beaum» 

^c-coMPT'^NT, (jik-koun'tsint) n. A reckoner ; computer. 
South, ^If^Jiccompt and accoiaptant are technical, or are 
often used when the words are officially applied ; as, .do* 
comptantr-Oeneral, an officer in the English Court of Chan- 
cery ; but in other cases they are generally written accoun 
and accountant. 
Ac-compt'}hg-Day, (^k-koflnt'ing-da) n. Day of reckon- 
ing. Denham. 
,^c-cord', V, a. [accorder, Fr.] \i. accorded; pp. kc- 
coadino, accorded.] To make agree; to compose, 
to grant. 
^c-cord', v. n. To agree ; to suit one with another. Sha^ 
(Scotland.) Used impersonally ; as, " as accords," or " a« 
accords of law," i. e. conformable to law. Jamieson. 
^c-coRD% 7t. A compact ; agreement ; a satisfaction agreed 
upon ; union ; harmony ; consent.— Oton accordy volun- 
tary motion. 
f^c-coRU'^-BLE, a. Agreeable ; consonant. Oower. 
A'c-cord'Vnce, 71. Agreement ; conformity ; consent. 
Ac-cord'an-CY, 11. Same as accordance. Paley. 
^C-CORD'^-NT, a. Consonant; corresponding; consistent 
Ac-cord'^nt-ly, ad. In an accordant manner. 
^c-CORD']ER,7t. An assistant; helper; favorer. Cotgrave 
^c-cbR»'|NG,*;>. a. Agreeing ; harmonizing ; as, " accord- 
ing voice,'* Shak, 
Ac-cbRD'iNG-LY, fflrf. Agreeably; conformably. 
Ac-coRD'iNG-T6,prep. In accordance wjtli ; agreeably ta 
i^c-coR'DJ-dN,''' n. (Mtis.) A modern musical instrument, 
the sound of which is produced by the vibration of ine- 
tallic springs, occasioned by a current of air rusliing from 
a bellows, where it is accumulated, through valves at- 
tached to the keys, and which are opened by the fingerl 
of the musician. Francis. 
fAc-coR'pp-RATEjV.o. [ofland corpus^'L.'] To incorporate. 

^c-c6st', v. a. [accoster^ Fr,] [i. accosted; pp. ac- 
costing, accosted,] To speak to first; to address. 
tAc-c6sT', V, 71. To adjoin. Spenser. 
Ac-c6sT'A-Bi.E, a. Easy of access ; familiar. Howell. 
Ac-c6sT'ED, p. a. Addressed. — (Her.) Side by side 
Ace OVCHEMENT^'^ f^^-ko&h' H&.ii^)n. [Fr.] (Med,) Child 

birth ; delivery ; a lying-in. Crahb, 
AccoucHEVJty (ak-ko-shiir'j [ak-kfl-shar', Ja.; &k-k6'- 
shar, K. ; 5k-k6sh-iir', Swi.] n. [Fr.] A physician who 
assists women in childbirth ; a man-midwife. 
Accoucheuse,'*' (ik-kfi-shfiz') n. [Fr.] A midwif& 

j^c-coOnt^ 71. [occ(wnji(, old Fr.] A computation ; estima^ 
tion ; advantage ; regard ; sake ; narrative ; relation ; ex- 
planation. — (CoTTi.) Account current, a running account, 
and the statement of the mercantile transactions of one 
person with another, drawn out in the form of debtt.:r and 
j^C-COOnt', v. a. \i. accounied; pp. accounting, ac- 
counted.] To esteem ; to think ; to hold in opinion ; to 
reckon ; to compute. 
^c-coOnt', v. n. To reckon ; to give an account ; to aj* 
pear as the medium by which any thing may be explained 
^c-coOnt-a-bIl'i-ty,* n. State of being accountable ; ao- 

countableness. R. Hall. 
Ac-coOnt'a-bi.e, o. Liable to account ; responsible, 
AC-coOnt'a-ble-n£ss, n. State of being accountable. 
t^c-eoOwT'ANT, o. Accountable to. Shak. 
-^c-c60nt'^nt, 71. One skilled or employed in accounts. 
^c-coOnt'^nt-G£n'er-^l,* n. The principal or respon 
aible accountant in a public office, or in a mercantile of 
banking house or company; an officer in the English 
Court of Chancery. Brande, See Accomptant-General. 
^C-coOm'^nt-shIp,* n. The office of an accountant. 

^c-coGnt'-Book, r-bfik) n. A book containing accounts. 
jjic-coONT'jNG, n. The act of reckoning up accounts. 
^C-cotJP'LE, (»k-kiip'pl) V. a. [accoupler, Fr.] [i ao- 


link together ; to couple. 
^c-coDp'LE-MtNT, (gik-kiip'pl-m6nt)7i. A junction. [R 
tAc-cotJR'-4jBE, (flik-kiir'5ij) v. a. To encourage. Spenser 
f Ac-c6uRT', o. 0. To entertain with courtship ; to cou-\ 

AC-c6u'TRE, (9k-ku'tiir) V. a. [accoutrer, FrJ 'i. Accor 



S E I. o, a, tj hngi X, £, I, 6^ 0, i, short; 4., ^, (, p, y, Yp o&*«tre. — fAre, fAr, fAst, fAt.i.; H£ia, Hlcfr 


^c-t5u'TRE-MfiNT. (?ik-k8'tvr-mfint) n, Orew ; equipagej 
tnpiringa ; ornaments. Shak. 

tAc-c6l?S V. a. [accoiserj old Fr.] To quiet ; to soothej to 
caresB. Spenser. 

^0-CRfiD'lT, D, o. [accrediter^ old Fr. ; accredoj L.] [i. ac- 

niince ; to procure honor or credit for. Burke. 

^C-CRfiD-i-TA^TipN, n. Act of accrediting ; that which 
gives credit. R. Cumberlaiid. 

Ac-CR£D'iT-?B,* p. a. Intrusted ; confidential. 

^c-CR£a'cENcE,* n. Act of growing to^ increase. Colo- 
ridge, [r.] 

^c-crE3'cent, a. [accrescoy Tj.] Tncrending. Shuckford. 

4c-or£:s-ci-m£i^'to* (^k-krfis-she-mSn't?) n. [It.] 
(Mus.) "The increaae, by one half, of its original dura- 
tion, which a note gains by having a dot placed at the 
right of it. Brande. 

Ac-cre'TIQM", n. Act of growing to another ; increase. 

(^c-cre'T|ve, a. Growing J increasing by growth. 

♦■Ac-crTm-j-na'tiqn, n. Accusation; reproach. 

^C-CROACH', (5ik-kr5ch') v. a. {accrochery Fr.l [i. ac- 
croached ; pp. ACCROACHING, ACCROACHED.] To gripe J 

to draw away by degrees. Blackatone, [r,.] 
♦Ac-CROach'ment, n. Act of accroaching. Bailey. 
^c-crCe', (^ik-krtS') v. n, [oecru, from accroHrey Fr.] [u ac- 
crued ; p^. AccRuiHG, accrued.] To accede to; to be 
added to ; to append to. — ( Com.) To arise, as profits ; to 
follow, as loss. 

tC-CRtl'Mil^N'T, 71. Addition ; increase. Bp. Taylor. [R.] 
c-CV-BA'TipM", 71, [accufto, L.] The posture of leaning at 
meals. Broion, 
^c-ctS'N.B'j V. n. [aceumhOf L.] To recline or lie at the table. 

^c-cOm'ben-cv, «■ State of being accumbcnt. 

^c-c6m'bjent, a. Leaning ; lying against. jSrbutknot. 

f^C-CtiM'BENT,7t. One placed at a dinner-table. Bp.Hall. 

^C-CU'mv-late, 7) a. [occu.7/wt?o, L.J [i. accumulated ; 
yp, ACCUMULATiNO, ACCUMULATED. J To heap, as one 
thing upon another ; to pile up : to amass ; to collect. 

i^C-ctJ'MV-i'ATE, V. 71. To increase. Ooldsmith. 

^C-CU'AIV-I''^7E, a. Heaped ; accumulated. Bacon, 

^C-cu-mv-la'tiqn, 7*. Act of accumulating ; that which 
is accumulated ; increase. 

^C-ClJ'MV-LA.-TlVE, a. That accumulates. 

^c-cu'MV-LA-TlVE-Ly, ad. In an accumulating manner. 

,^c-cu'MV-LA-TpR, 71. One who accumulates. 

Ac'cv-RA-cy, Tu (accuratiOj L.] State of being accurate ; 
correctness ; exactness. 

Xc'CV-fiATE, a. Free from error ; correct ; exact 

Ac'cV-B-ATE-liY, ad. Exactly ; without error. 

ic'cy-RATE-Nfiss, 71. Accuracy ; exactness. JVewton. 

j^C-ciJRSE', V. a. [i. ACCURSED ; pp. accursing, ac- 
cursed.] To doom to misery ; to curse. 

j^C-CURSED',p. a. (9k-kUrst', 2>. ; ^-k-kiirs'^d, a.) Cursed; 
execrable ; hatefUI. 

Ac-cu'$A-BLE, a. Blamable ; that may be accused. Brown. 

fAC-cu'p^NT, (^k-ku'z^nt) 71. One who accuses. Bp.Hall. 

Xc-CV-9A'TI9N, n. Act of accusing ; tliat of which one is 
accused ; a charge made in a legal form ; blame ; censure. 

AC-CU'$A-TlVE, a. Accusing. — {Oram.) Noting a case in 
which the force of the active verb terminates ; objective. 

^c-CU'5^-tIve,* 71. The fourth case of Latin nouns. Harris. 

^C-CU^5A-T!vE-L"y, ad. As the accusative case. 

j^C CU-9A-T6'Rl-^L,*a. Accusatory. Ec. Rev. [r.] 

Ac-cu-^A-Td'Rf-^L-iiy,* fl(Z. By way of accusation. JEc. 

' Rex. [a.] 

j^C-ctJ'?A-Tp-Ry, a. Containing an accusation. Ayliffe. 

f^c-CU9E',*7t. Accusation. Shak. 

i\*C-CU9E', (gik-kflz') v. a. [ommso, L.] [i. accused ; pp. 
ACCUSING, accused.] To charge witli a crime or an of- 
fence ; to impeach ; to arraign ; to blame ; to censure. 

(^C-cu^ed'j* (^k-kuzdO p. a. Charged with a crime ; cen- 

^C-Cu^'er, 71. One wlio accuses, 

f^c-cu^'jER-fiss, 71 She who accuses. Sherwood. 

^'c-cC^'iNG,* p. a. Bringing accusation; censuring. 

,Af '-cC'ii'TpM, V. a. [accoutumerj Fr.] [i. accustomed ; pp. 
ACCUSTOMING, ACCUSTOMED.] To make customary or ha- 
bitual ; to habituate ; to inure. MiitJtn. 

•Ac-cOs'TpM, V. n. To cohabit- MiltoTi, 
Ac-cGs'TpM, 71, Custom. Milton, 
AC-ctts'TpM-A-BLE, a. Customary. Hale. 
Ac-cDs'ipM-A-BLy, a(i. According to custom. Bacon, 
Ac-cCs'TpM-ANCE, n. Custom; habit; use. Boyle. 

Ac-cOs'TpM-A-RJ-Ly, ad. Customarily. Cleaveland, [r.] 

AC-cDs'tpm-^-RV, o. Usual ; customary. Featley. [r.] 

^C-cCs'TPMED, (?ik-kii3'tumd) a. Frequent; usuaL 

AC-cDs'TpM-?D-N£as, n. Familiarity. Piette. 

iCE , n. [as. L.] a piece of money j a unit ; a single point on 
cards or dice ; a particle ; an atom. 

A-o&L'nA-M^yTi. [Heb.] A field of blood 

'd-a&PH'4~LAy'^ n. pU [L.] {ZooL) A class of mol'uscous 
animals which are without heads, as the oyster. htjeU. 



A-c£PH'A-L^N>* n* iZool.) A mollus 'uus animal w: Jioui i 
head, as an oyster* Brande. 

X9'];:-PHAiiE|,* n. pi. (Zool.) Same as acepjiala Kirtty, 

A-cSPItA-Lij n. pi. [a«£0aAos, Gr.l Levellers, who ac- 

* knowledge nu head ; a sect of Christian heretics so called 

fA-clPH'^LlaT, 71. One who acknowledges no head oi 
superior. Bp. Oauden. 

A-c£ph'a-loOs, (gt-sef'^-li's) a. Having no head, as an an- 
imal or plant ; deprived of its first syllable, as a line of 
poetry. Brande. 

A'OERf*n. [L.] (Bot.) A genus of trees ; the maple. P. Cye. 

Ap'lB-RATE,''' n. (Chetn.) A salt formed of aceric acid and 
a base. Francis. 

fy.-c'k'BJ^', a. [acerbiiit, L,] Acid, with an addition of rougb' 
ness.. Qiiiney, 

A-cer'bate, v. a. To make sour. Bailey, 

^-cer'bi-tude,* Ti. Sourness; acerbity. Smart 

A-ciER'BJ-Ty, n. A rough, sour taste ; severity, 

^-cSr'ic,''' a. (Chetn.) Relating to or obtained frcn^ ttw 
maplCj as " aceric acid." P. Cyc, 

A9-:e:-rose',* a. (Bot.) Sharp; pointed, like a needle vl 
pine leaf. Loudon. 

fA-CER'VATE, V. a. [acervoy L.J To heap up. Scott. 

tAg-ER-VA'Tipw, n. The act of heaping together. Johnson 

tAp'?R-vosE, a. Full of heaps. Besiley. 

t^-c£s'cENCE,* 7i. Acidity ; acescency. Shak. 

A-c£s'cEN-cy,7i. [flcfeffco, L.J Tendency to sourness; acid- 
ity. Jones. 

A-c£s'c]ENT, (^-sSs'ent) a. Tending to sourness or acidity. 

Ap~e-tXb' v-i.t^M^'^'n. [L.] A vinegar cruet; a cup. Crahb* 

Ap'E-TATE,* ras'e-tat, K. Sin. CrabbjMaundtir,Dvnglijtonf 
^-se't^it, P. Cyc] n. (Chem.) A salt formed from a combi- 
nation of acetic acid with an alkaline, earthy, metallic, or 
vegetable base. P. Cyc. 

A-CET'jc,* a. (Chem.) Having the properties of vinegar 

A-c£T-j-F^CA'TipN^*7i. The act of acetifying. Ure 

A-C£T'1-FY,* v. a. [i. ACETIFIED ; pp. ACETIFYING, AC»- 

iFiKD.] To make acid or sour ; to acidify. Ure. 
Ag-E-TJM'iE-TiER,* n. An instrument or apparatus for 

measuring the strength of vinegar and acids. Ure. 
A?-E-tIm'e-try,* n. (Chem.) The art of measuring the 

strength of acids. Ure. 
Aq'e-tite,* n. (Chein.) A salt formed of acetous acid an* 

a base. P. Cyc. 
A<?-¥-t6m'e-ter,* 71. Acetimeter. Scudamore. 
Ap'jE-TONE,* 71. (Chem.) Pyroacetic spirit. Ure. 
fAc?-i:-T6sE', a. [aceteuXi Ft.] Sour ; sharp. Bailey. 
f Ap-?-t6s'j-ty, 71. The state of being sour. Bailey. 
A-CE'TOys, [j-s5'tus, fV.J. Sm. R. ; as'e-tiis, ff*.} a. [acetuTn, 

L.] Having the quality of vinegar; sour. Boyle. 
^-/siiM'* (^-ke'^n) a. Relating to Achaia or Achxa. 

A£;he, (ak) 71.; pL ajEhes. A continued pain. 

AjCHE, (ak) V.71. [i. ACHED ; pp. ACHING, ACHED.] Ti» 

be in pain, 
Ajch-ee-N£$e',* 71. sing. Sept. An inhabitant or the inhab 

itants of Acheen. Eamshaw. 
AjBH-ee-ne§e',* a. Belonging to Acheen. Earnsbxiw. 
A-^he' Nl~^Mj* n. (BoU) A small, hard, one-seeded fruu 
' P. Cyc. 

AjCH-ie-rC'siak,* a. Relating to Acherusia. Appleton. 
A-CHIEV'^-BLE, (?-chEv'&-bl) a. That may be done. Ban 

^-CHIEV'ANCE, (si-ch5'v^fts)7i. Achievement. Sir T. Ely- 

ot. [R.] 
^-CHIEVE',(5i-chev') w.a [ocAeMer, Fr.] [i. achiev^ed ;rp. 

ACHIEVING, achieved.] To perform ; to finish ; to gain. 
^-chieve'ment, 71. Act of achieving; performance; a 

great exploit; a deed; a feat; an escutcheon, or ensigk 

A-CHIEV';]? R, (^-che'vur) n. One who achieves. Shak, 
Ap!ll-fl^ZB'A*n. (Boi.) A genus of plants; milfoil. P. Cyc 
AjEH'jNa, (a'king) 77.. Pain ; uneasiness. South. 
AjBH'i-rite,* 7i. (Min.) A silinate of copper. Philips 
AjEH-L^-Mii?^D':ip-oDs,* d. (BoL) ^laving neither calyx noi 

corolla. Brande. 
^jE3H-LXM'y-DoDs,* fl. (Bot.) Having no calyx cr corolla. 

AjEh'mite,* n. (Min,) A crystallized, silicious mineral 

A'fflidRj (a'k3r) n. [L,] (Med.) A species ol ihe herpes. 
AfJH'RASy*n. [L.] (Bot.) A genus of tropical plan s. P. Cye 
AfJil-Rp-MiT'ic, (ak-r9-mat'ik) fl. [*i & x/'^'Voj ^r.] (Op- 
tics) Without color ; preventive of the effect tf colors ; 

noting telescopes which prevent optical aberrati m arising 

from the various colors of light. 
^-jEiiRO-M^-Tlp'j-Ty,* 71. State of being achronatic. Phil 

A-jBHRo'ma-tIsm,* n. The destruction of the primary col- 
ors which accompany the image of an object seen tlirougk 

a prism or lens ; want of color. Brande. 
A-clc' v-LA* n. [L,] (Bot.) A plant, the chervil. — (/cA. 
' A fish. Crdbb. 

vIen, SIR; m6ve, nor, s6n; bOll, bUr, rDle — 9, /J, 9, g, sojl; jB, e, e, g, kar<* ; 9 as Z; t^ as i,z\' - qpiii* 


5-cIc'v i.+K,» o. Slender, sLarp-pointed, and rather Btiff, 
as a prickle. Brandt, 


A-c£c V-^ATE,* a. {BotA Needle-shaped. P. Cyc, 
S.g'jn, (ais'id) o. [ocidiw, L.] Sour; sharp to the taste. 
i<?'iu, (aa'id) 71. (Ckenu) A substance sour and sharp to 

the taste, that changes vegetable blue colors to red, and, 

by combining with an alkali, forms a salt. 
jLg-iD-lF'ER-oOs,* a. (CAcm.) Containing or producing 

acid. Brande, 
<t-clD-i-Pi'^-BLE,* o. That may be acidified. Brande, 
A-clD-i-Fl-CA'TIpN,* 71. The act of acidifying. Brande. 
^-cId'j-fy,* v. a. [i, acidified j pp. acidiftino, acidi- 
fied.] {Chem.) To convert into an acid. Brande. 
Ag-iD-m'E-TER,* 71. ( ilkem.) An instrument for measuring 

the strength of acids acetimeter. Henry. 
A<;:-;i>-tivi'E-TRV,'*' 71. (Cliem.) The measurement of acids ; 

acetimetry. Henry. 
tAg'fD-Isi, 71. One who maintains the doctrine of acids. 

Xh. Slave. 
^-cId'j-TV, n. Q,uality of being add ; sourness. 
Ap^ID-NJ^as, (Ss'jd-nes) n, duality of being acid. 
^-cfD'V'^-^i (?-sid'ii-le) 71. pi. [L.] Medicinal springs 

impregnated with carbonic acid. Q^uincy. 
^-cId'V-LATE, B. a. [i. acidulated; pp. acidulating, 

ACIDULATED.] To tmge with acids in a sliglit degree. 

Aq'j-dule,* n. (Chem.) A salt that has an excess of acid. 

^-clD'y-LOtSs, a. Somewhat acid; sourish, Burke. 
J,g-l-NA'cEOVS,*(as-§-na.'shus)a. Full of kernels. JlfawTiiier. 
A9-i-NX<?'i-FdRM:,* a. (Bot.) Scymitar-shaped. P. Cyc. 
^-ctN'l-FORM,* a. Having the form of grapes. Smart. 
Aq-|-nose',* j a. Consisting of minute granular concre- 
Ag'j-NOtlfS,* i tions. STiuirL 
Jlf'i-jvus,* n. [L.] (Bot.) A bunch of succulent berries, as 

grapeij. P. Cyc. 
ACIURGY,* n. A demonstration of surgical operations ; a 

description of surgical instruments. Monthly Rev. 
AcK':^R, u. A ripple on the surface of the water ; a curl j 

fine mould. Craven Dialect. [Local, Eng.] 
f-^c-KNOW', ^k-no') V. a. [agnosco, L.] To acknowledge; 

to confess. B. Jonson, 
^c-K.N5wL']EDjGrE, (gik-nSl'ej) v. a. [z. acknowledged ; 


knowledge of ; to own in a particular character j to rec- 
ognize ; to avow ; to grant ; to confess. 

^c-kn6wl']?dj&ed,* (gik-nSl'ejd) p. a. Avowed j con- 

^c-KNdWL'j^DjS-ER, n. One who acknowledges. Ii. 

(^c-kn6wl'edjG-!ng, (9k-n51'ej-!ng) a. Grateful. 

^c-kn6wl'ed/s-m£nt, (&k-n'51'ej-ment) n. Act of ac- 
knowledging ; confession ; recognition ; gratitude ; ex- 
pression of gratitude. See Judgment. 

ic'ME, 71. [d^/i(}, Gr,] pZ. Xc'ME?. The height , the sum- 
mit j highest point ; criHis. 

Xc'iviiTE,*7t. (Min.) A mineral containing silicia, iron, and 
soda, Dana, 

ic'N?,* 71. {Med.) A small pimple or tubercle on the face. 

^-cold', a. Cold, " Poor Tom's ocoW." Shak. 

^-c6L'(?-jGrY,* 71. {Med.) The doctrine of remedies, or the 
materia niedica. Brande, 

^-c6l'P-THIst, 71, [titfijXoD^fw, Gr.] (Romish chnrch) One 
whose office is to prepare the elements for the ofhces, to 
light the church, &:c. Aijliffe. 

Ac'OLYTHE \ "* ®^™^ *^ acolothyst. BrevinU 
Ac'p-NlTE, n, [aKdvirop, Gr.] The herb wolPs-bane j a 

(^-c6n'T}-Xs,* 71. (Zool.) A genus of S(^rpents. P. Cyc. 
f A-c6p', ad. At the top ; high up. B. Jonson. 
S'cpRN, (a'kprn) n. The seed or fruit of the oak. 
A'cpRN, V. 71. To pick up and feed on acorns. Cheshire 

X'cpRN-BXR'NA-CLE,* 71. A species of barnacle. Rirby. 
S cpRNED, (a'k^rnd) a. Fed with acorns. SItak. — (Her.) 

Having acorns, as an oak-tree with acorns on it. 
X'CpRN-SHJ&Li.,* n. The shell of the acorn. — (Zool.) A 

multivatve crustacean. Goldsmith. 
Jc'Q-Ri/tiy* n. [L.] (Bot.) A plant with sword^haped 

teaves and aromatic stems, found in the meadows of 

England. Brande. 
i-c6T-¥-LE'l3pN,* or Ac-p-Tf l'^-dSn,* [a-kSt-e-le'dpn, 

Brande, Wh, ; iiK-fl-til'e-dSn, Scudamore.] n. [d and kotv- 

Xi^Sojv.} (BoL) A plant whose seed has no distinct cot- 
yledons. Braise. See Cotyledon. 
A-c6t-v-l£i>'p-noOs,* a. (Bot.) Having no cotyledons. 

P. Cyc 
^-coO'M^-T^iR,* n. An instrument to measure hearing. 

^-coOs'Tjc, a, [a.K0VfTrtK6g, Gr.] Rehiting to hearing. 
^-coOs'Ti-c^L,*a. Relating to acoustics or hearing. Far- 


4-cbOs'Tics, fc. pi. The science of hea ing or of sound 
theory of 


nds -J 

theory of sounds; medicines or instru.uents to help th« 

.^C-QUAINT', (^k-kwantO v. a. \accointer, Fr.] [i. ac 


familiar with ; to inform. 

t^c-QUAiNT^.^-BLE, a. Easy to be acquainted with. Ckccn^ 

^C-QUXINT'^NCE, n. f pi. .^C-QUAINT'^NCE, Or AC- 
QUAINT'.^N-C¥g. Familiarity ; knowledge of; intimacy j 
fellowshio; a person or persons with whom we are ac 

Ac-QUAINT'.^NCE-SH][P,* n. State of being acquainted 

' Ch. Ob. 

fj^c-QUAiNT'.^NT, M. A person with wtom vie is ac- 
quainted. Iz. Walton. 

Ac-QUAINT'ED, a. Fajniliar ; well known. 

Ac-QUAIi>rT']ED-N£ss,*m. State of being acquainted Dr 

' J. Pye Smith 

tAc-Qu£sT', 71. Acquisition ; the thing gained. Bacon. 

AC-QUJ-£sce', (ak-kwe-€sO v. n. [acquiesco, L.] [i. ac- 
quiesced; pp. acquiescing, Acq.uiESC£L.j To rcst is 
or remain satisfied with ; to agree. Boyle. 

Ac-QUJ-£s'cence, (ak-kwe-Ss'ens) n. State of acquies- 
cing ; a silent appearance of content ; compl iance ; assent 

Ac-Q,ul-£s'cEN-c¥,*n Same as acquiescence. Smart. 

Ac-Quj-fis'cENT, a. Easy; submitting. Johnson. 

fj^c-QUl'ET, V. a. [acguieto, low L-] To render quiet. Sir 
A. SUrley. 

./^c-QUlR-.$.-BiL'}-Ty,* 71. Quality of being acquirable. Pa- 

Ac-QUIR^a-ble, a. That may be acquired ; obtainable 

Ji.C-Q,UIRE', V. a, [acquiroj L.] [i, acquired ; pp, ac 
QUIRING, ACQUIRED.] To gain by one's labor orefiort; 
to come to ; to obtain. 

^c-quTred', (&k-kwlrd') [^ik-kwird', J. K. Sm ; jk-kwlr'- 
ed, S. W.'] p. a. Gained by one's self; obtained. 

.^c-QUIre'MENT, 7{. That which is acquired ; acquisitkui. 

.^c-QUI'rer, n. One who acquires. 

itC-<lUlR'iN&, n. Acquirement. J^aunton, 

t^c-QUi'BY, 71 Acquirement, Barrow. 

tAc'QU|-9lTE, (ak'we-zit) a. That is gained. Barrow. 

Ac-QU(-5l"TipN, (&k-we-zish'un) 77. Act of acquiring! 
that which is acxiuired ; acquirement. 

.^C-QUl9'j-TlVE, a That is acquired. Wotton. [B.] 

4c-QUl5'j-TlVE-LY, ad. By acquisition. Lilly, [r.] 

./^c-QUl^'j-TtVE-NESS,* 71, (Phren.) The love of acquiring 
property or possession. Combe. 

.^c-Qul$'i-TpR,* 71. One who makes acquisition, Richard' 
son. [r.J 

fAc-QUlST', 71. {^acquistum, low L.] Same as acquest. Milton, 

.^C-QUIt', (gik-kwit') v. a. [acq^uitter, Fr.] \L acquitted ; 
pp. ACQUITTING, acquitted.] To Set free ; to clear from 
a charf;e, imputation, accusation, &c. ; to discharge 

j^c-QOXt'meht, n. Acquittal. Soutii. 

^c-QuXT'TAL,7i. Act of acquitting, — (Law) A deliveranco 
from a charge or accusation of an offence; a judicial dis- 
charge ; a verdict of 7io£ ^ilty. 

jAc-QUlT'TANCE,!), o. To acquit. Shak. 

AC-QUIt'tance, n. A discharge from a debt ; a receipt; a 
written discharge from an engagement or debt. 

fA-CRA^E', or t-^-CRAZE', V. a. To craze. Orafton. 

tXc'RA-sy, 71, [aKpaaia^ Gr.] Excess ; irregularity. Cornish, 

a'cbe, (a'kur) n. A piece of land forty rods long and four 
broad ; 160 square perches or rods ; or 4840 square 
yards ; or 43,5li0 square feet. 

a'cre-ajGe,* (a'ker-9j) n. The number of acres in a piec« 
of land ; measurement by the acre. Ed. Rev. 

A'CRED,_(a'kyrd) p. a. Possessing acres. Pope. 

A'cre-daee,* (a,'kyr-dal)7i. Land in a common field, dif- 
ferent parts of which are held by diflerent proprictora 
Brockntt. [Local, Eng.] 

Ac'rid, o. [acer, L.] Hot and biting, or rough to the taste; 

A-crid'i-AN,* n. (Ent.) An orthopterous insect. Brands, 

j^-CRtu'i-TY,* ) n. Quality of being acrid ; a sharp, bitter, 

Ac'rid-n£ss,*J biting taste. P. Cyc. 

Ac-ri-'mo'ni-OCs, a. Full of acrimony ; corrosive; stveio. 

Ac-Bi-MO'N}-ot)s-Ly, ad. In an acrimonious manner 

Ac-bi~mo'nj-oDs-nEss, 71. Qualitj of being acrimonious. 

Ac'RI-Mp-NV,7i,. [acrimoniaj li.'] Sharpness ; corrosivenesa , 
bitterness ; severity ; applied to plants, or to the temper ol 

./^.-crICt'i-C-^l,* a. (Med.) Having no crisis. Dunglisen, 

Ac'R|-tCde, 71. An acrid taste. Orew. 

tAc'Ri-Ty, 71. Sharpness ; eagerness. Bacon. 

Ac-RP-a-mAt'|C, j fl. [liKPodupai^Gi.] Of or pertclntog 

Ac-BP-.^-mAt'J-cal, i to fliiep learning; abstruse »bo- 

Ac-RP-.^-mXt'jcs,*7i. pi. Same as acroatics. Smart. 

Ac-RP-Xt'jc,* o. Relating to acroatics ; acromatic. Eneye, 

Ac-Rp-AT'(ca, 71. pi. [(iKpoariKaj Gr.] Aristotle's lecturel 
on the more subtile parts of philosophy, to which nott< 
but intimate disciples were admitted. 

4 ^ I, 5, 0, f, longi A, t, T, 5, 0, i thorti ^, 9, r, p, v» ¥1 obacun vAre, fXb, fAst, fAll ; HtiR, uttK 


Sv^RQ-^rriJR'D^S,* n. (Zool.) A genus of serpents P. Cyc. 
ic'R(>- sEn,* n. {Bot.) A cryptogamous plant, as a fern, 

&c. Brands. 
(^-c]R6w'RA-PHy,*Ti. The art of producing blocks in relief, 

for ftae purpose of printing from, along with type, and 

thus to supersede wood-engraving, invented by M. Schcin- 

berg Fra7icis. 
fr-CRo'M|-^L,* a. Relating to the acromion. Dwngliaon, 
4'CR6> Mi~<?N,n. [Gr.] pi. vi-Ciio'JifJ-4. (^Tiat.) The upper 

process of the shonlder-blade. 
^-CR.6w'¥-CAi,, a. \aKpo^ and ruf, Gr.] Opposite to the 

sun, or rising when the sun sets, and setting when the 

Bun rises, as a star j opposed to cosvtical. 
4^-CR5N'¥-CAL-ijy, ad. At the acronycal time. Dryden. 
4-CRbp' <^-Lls* n. [Gr,] An upper town, or citadel, as of 

Athens. .P. Cyc. 
Ac'RQ-sPiRE, n, jTitpof and aireipay Gr.] A shoot or sprout 

f^om the end or seeds when germinating, or of barley 

when malted j plumule. 
J^c'rq-spired, (S-k'r^-spIrd) p. a. Having sprouts. 
^-cr6ss', prep. Sc ad. Athwart j crosswise ; laid over. 
^-cr6s'tjc, n. [fiifpos and orixoSj Gr.] A poem in which 

tlie first letters of the lines spell some name. 
i^-cros'tic, a. Relating to acrostics. Dryden. 
^-CRos'TJ-c^L,* a. Relating to an acrostic. S-mart. 
^-crSs'tJ-c^l-ly, ad. In the manner of an acrostic. 
ic'Rp-Ti^iR, n. \aKpQv, Gr.] {Arch.) A little pedestal. See 

SC-RQ-TE'RI~pMy* n. [li.] pi. XC-Rg-TE'RI-A. (Arch,) 

A terminating member, pedeiital, or ornament, at the apex 
or angles of a pediment. — (Anat.) An extremity of the 
body, as the end of a finger. Crabb. 

Ac-RO-THfai^ 4-bN^* Tu (Med.) A species of wart. Crdbh. 

Act, aj. n. [a^o, actum, L.] [i. acted j pp. actino, act- 
ed.] To be in action ; not to rest ; to practise. 

Act, v. a. To perform ; to imitate j to practise ; to feign. 

Act, n. A deed ; exploit ; performance ; something done ; a 
part of a play, or division of a drama ; an exercise per- 
^rmed by a student at a public seminary or university ; a 
decree of a court of justice, or edict of a legislature j a 

Mc-T^'4.^* n. fL.] (5oe.) A genus of plants. Prout. 

J^C-t1n'e~a^* 71. (ZooL) A genus of animals belonging to 

* the sea-nettles ; the animal flower. P. Cyc. 

AcT^iNG, 71. Action; performance of an assumed part. 

AcT'iN&,*p. a. Performing service, duty, or labor. — Act- 
ing governor^ &c., one who performs the duties of gov- 
ernor, though not elected to the office. 

^c-tIn'q-cri'nite,* 71. (OeoU) An extinct animal of the 
encrinite genus Brande. 

^c-TTN'p-LiTE,*». (JJfm.) A variety of hornblende ; a min- 
eral of a green color. Brande. 

^C-TlN-p-T^'iT'ic,*a. Relating to actinolite. Ure. 

Ac-t}-n6m'?-teb,* 71. (Op(.) An instrument for measur- 
ing the intensity of the sun's rays. Herschel. 

Ac'Tj-woTE,*7i. {Min.) A radiated mineral. Hamilton. 

Ac'TlpN, (ak'shun) n. State of acting j a deed; operation ; 
a battle ; engagement ; share ; stock ; gesture ; gesticula- 
tion; accommodation of the countenance, voice, and ges- 
ture, to the matter spoken. — {Law) A legal process or 
suit. — Real acUonj an action for the recovery of real prop- 
erty. — Personal action, an action of contract or tort, or 
local and transitory. — Criminal actionj a prosecution for 
a crime. 

Ac'tion-4.-bi-e, a. {Law) That admits an action. Howell. 

Ac'Tipw-^-BLy, o^ In a manner subject to a process of law. 

Ac'Tippf-A-RY, I n. One who has a share in actions or 

Ac'TipN-isTj J stockSj as in France. 

iAc'TIpN-TAK'm&, a. Litigious. Shale. 
lC'tipn-Thr£"at'en-er, (ak'shun-thrSt'tn-ur) n. One 
accustomed to threaten actions at law. Harmar. 
tAc-Tj-TA'TipN,». [ac(i£o,L.] Action quick and frequent. 

iAc'Tj-VATE, V. a. To make active. Bacon. 
.c'TjVE, (Sk'tiv) a. [activusj L.] That acta, opposed to 
passive; busy; engaged in action; practical; nimble; 
agile; quick, not passive. — (OT-am.) A verb active, or 
transitivej expresses action passing from an agejit or ac- 
tor to some object. 
Ac'TfVE-LY) aa. In an active manner ; busily ; nimbly, 
Ac'Ti:VE-NE3S, 71. duality of being active; quickness. 
(^c-Ttv'j-TYj 71. State or quality of being active ; the virtue 
or faculty of acting; nimbleness. 

iAcT'LESS, a. Without spirit; insipid. Som(Ac7*?u 
LcT PF Faith.* See Auto da Fe. 
Ac'TpR, n. One who acts, especially on the stage or in a 

play ; a stage-player, 
Ic'TRESS, 71. A female actor or player. 
iCT'V-AL, (^kt'yu-91) fl. Really in act; real; certain; ef- 

<fective ; positive ; not merely in speculation or pretence. 
JtCT-V-Xl.'1-TVj w. The state of being actual. Cheyne. 
Jct'V-A^-i^^i*"* "• ^° render actual or real. Coleridge. 
KcT'lj-k.l^-l'Vi (ikt'yui-^l-e) ad. Positively; in act; really. 
ACT'V-A.i'-N^ss, 71. The quality of being actual. 

9 ADA 

AcT'V-A-B,¥f n. [aetuarius, L.] A registrar or clerh ct ■ 
court or society; the managing officer of an insuiftnc* 
company or corporation ; register 

tAcT'v-ATE, (akt'yy-at)a. Put into action. South. 

ACT'V-ATE, (akt'yy-at) u. a. [i. actuated; pp. actuat* 
iNo, ACTUATED,] To put luto actlou ; to move; to in- 

AcT-v-A/TipN, n. Operation. Pearson. j^R.J 

fACT-V-OSE', a. That has powers of action. Bailey. 

AcT-v-6s'[-Ty,* n. Power or state of action. H. More. 

Ac'v-ATE, w. a. [acMO, L.J To sharpen. Harvey. [R.] 

fAc'V-ATE, a. Sharpened ; pointed. Ashmole. 

f Ac-V-l"TipN,* 71. The act of sharpening. Crabb. 

fA-cu'l-Ty, (5t-ku'9-t§) n. Sharpness. Perkins. 

A-c0'l?-4.te, a. Having a point or sting ; prickly. 

A-cu'liE-ATE,* V. a. To form to a point; to sharpen 
Mojith. Rev. 

^-cu'l?-^te,* 71. {Ent.) A hymenopterous insect. Brande 

^-cu'IjE-At-ibx),* o. Having prickly points; aculeate 

^-cu'LE-oi5s,* o. (Bot.) Having points or prickles. BrewA- 

A-CU'L'jE'&S,*n. [L.] p\. 4~CU'X.J^~I. {Bot. ^ Zool.) A 

' prickle ; a spine. Crabb. 

-^-cu'men, n. [L.] A sharp point ;^5Tira(iDei7/,quickneei 
of perception ; acuteness ; discernment. 

^-cu'mj-hate, v. 71. To rise like a cone : — v. a. To whe< 
or sharpen. Milton. 

A-ctJ'Mi-N^TE, a. {BoU) Tapering to the point, but flat ^ 
pointed ; sharp. 

A-cO'M|-NAT-ED,p, a. Sharp-pointed. Brown. 

A-cu-Mj-NA'Tipw, 71. The act of sharpening ; a point. 

a-cv-pOnct'vre,* 71. {Med.) A method of bleeding by 
many small punctures. Crabb. 

Ac-VT-Xn'&V-I'ARj* «• Having acute angles.' WarburUm 

^-CUTE',(?-kut')tt. [acntus, L.] Sharp; ending in a point ^ 
ingenious; penetrating; keen; shrewd; vigorous; sharp 
in taste; high and shrill in sound. — Acute disease, any 
disease which terminates in a short time ; opposed tc 
chronicdL — Acat£ accent, that which raises or sharpens 
the voice ; opposed to grave. — Acute angle, an angle leu 
than 90 degrees ; not obtuse. 

^-c1JTE',u. a. To render the accent acute. Walker. [R.J 

A-ctJTE'Ly, ad. Sharply; ingeniously; keenly. 

A-cute'n?ss, n. duality of being acute ; sharpness ; quick 
ness of the intellect ; penetration. 

fA-ctJ-Tj-A'TpB,* 71. A sharpener of an instrument. Crabb 

tXp-y-RdL'p-jey,* 71. Careless or improper diction. Crabb 

AD,* a prefix of Latin origin, signifying to. The d is often 
changed for the letter that begins the word to which it is 
prefixed ; as, ac-cede, oi-fi^ ag-^ess, al-literation. 

tAD-XcT', V. a. [adigo, L.] To drive ; to compel. FotJierby. 

AD'A^e, (SLd'9.jJ n. Jadagmm^.^ A maxim ; a proverb. 

f ^d-a'jSI-al, (5id-a'je-5il) a. Proverbial. Barrow. 

Ad-'a' ^1-6, n. XjX. at leisure.] {Mus.) A slow time: — od 
' slowly. Dr. Wliarton. 

fAD'^-^xV, n. Same as adage. Smith. 

k'D'AM,* n. [Heb.] The first man ; the progenitor of tba 
human race. Calmet. 

Ad'V^Xnt, n. [adamas, L.] A very hard stone ; the dia. 
mond ; loadstone. 

Ad-a-man-te'an, a. Hard as adamant; adamantine. Mil 

Ab-^-mXn'tine, o. Made of adamant; resembling ada- 
mant: very hard. 

A-dXm'ic,* a. Relating to Adam. Southey, 

Ad'^ki-Tte, 71. An ancient heretic. 

Ad-am-Tt'ic, a. Like an Adamite. Bp. Taylor 

Ad'am's-Ap'pi-e, (a.d'gimz-a,p'pl) n. A prominent part of 
the throat. 

Ad'am'5-NeE'dle,* 71. A tropical tree; the yncc^ Loudon. 

Ad-an-so'nj-a,* 71. {Bot.) A genus of plants; the baobabs 
P. Cyc. 

Ad'j.-p1s,* 7^ {Zool.) The hyrax, or cony of Scripture 
Qesner. An extinct pachydermatous quadruped. Cuvier 

A-dXft', v. a. [adaptOyli.] [i. adapted; pp. adapti no- 
adapted.] To fit ; to adjust ; to suit. 

A-DiPT-A-BtL'f-TY, 71. The Capability of adaption. 

A-dApt'^-ble, a. That may be adapted, 

AD-*P-TA'TlpN, n. Act of fitting or adapting; suitable 
ness ; harmony ; fitness. 

A-dXpt'ed,* p. a. Having adaptation or fitness ; suitable 

A-i>Xpt?ed-n£ss,* 71. State of being adapted. SUliinan. 

k-vXVT'^R,* n. He or that which adapts. — {Chem.) A glass 
tube, open at both ends, used to connect a retort with its 
receiver, when the neck of the former is too short ; called 
also adopter. Francis. 

jfi-DXp'TipN, 71. The act of fitting. Swijl. [r.] 

j^-DXPT'jVE,*a. Tending to adapt ; suitable. Coleridge. [SW 

tA-DXpT^LY,* ad. In a convenient manner. Prior, 

Ia-dXpt'ness, 71. duality of being adapted. Bp. JfewtoTu 

ad-ap-to'rI-^i,,* a. Tending to adapt or fit; suitabla 

A'VAR,* n. The twelfth month of the Jewish sacred year, 
and the sixth month of the civil year. Calmet. 

m!en, Bl'Bi MOVE nor, s6n J bOlLj BiJR BtJLE, — p ^ 9, 4, gqftf/S, fi, 5. g, hard; 9 at Z;^as gzi - TiXIS 


9.1> ARSTi* Rf-ifsSi*' [L.l At pleasure or discretion. 

4-d'arIme* n. [Sp.] A small Spanish weight, the sii- 
ceenth part of an ounce troy, JVeuman. 

Alf'4~TAis,* n. A clear, fine, Bengal muslin. Crahb, 

t-^-DXUNT', (gi-danf) v. a. To daunt. Skelton. See Daunt. 

tA-i>A.W', V. a. To daunt i to k^ep under; to subject. 

f^-vkw', V. n. To be daunted. Spvrtser. 

j^-d1w'let,* n. (Law) An East Indian word, denoting a 
court of civil or criminal justice. Hamilton, 

^-IVAYS', (Maz') ad. On days. Goioer. — In use in com- 
position — JVuw-itndays, 

Ad c^p-tan' dum* L^'L^" order to attract or captivate. 

fAi>-coR'Pv-KATE, 1). a. To incorporaltj. Bailey. 

Xdd, (3.d) V. a, \addOf L.] [i. added ; fp. adding, addxd.] 
To join ; to subjoin ; to increase by addition. 

Ad'da,* n. (Zool.) A species of small lizard. P. Cue, 

Ad'd^-BL£, a. See Addible. Cocker. 

kjy'n^Xf* n. (Zool.) A species of rummating animal. P. 

f^D-DiS(?'l. mate, w. a. To decimate. Bailey. 

f Ad-deem', v, a. To award ; to sentence. Daniel. 

4d-d&n'dum, n. [L.] pi. 4.13-D^N' J3A. Something added 

' or to be added ; an addition j an appendix. 

Ad'D]£R., n. Venomous reptile ; a serpent \ a viper. 

AD'D5B-FLY,*7t. A species of fly ; the dragon-fly. Scott. 

AD'D]ER-(^i5M,* m. A species of charm. Pennant. 

Ad'd:]e:r'$-Gii£ss, (jid'durz-gris) n. A species of plant. 



Ad'd:er-Stone,* n. A stone or bead used by the Druids as 

an amulet. Brockett. 
Ad'd?r'§-T6ngue, (Sd'durz-tung) n. An herb. Miller. 
AD'DER'$-WoBT,(aa'durz-wUrtJ'ft. An herb j snakeweed. 
AD-Dj-BlL'f-Ty, 71. Possibility of being added. 
Ad'di-ble, a. That may be added. Locke. 
Ad'dice, 71. A cutting iron tool, now written adze. See 

Adze. Mozon. 
fAD-DlcT', (^d-dikf) a. Addicted. Hom'dies. 
^d-dIct', 1). a. [addico, L.] [i. addicted ; pp. addicting, 

ADUicTEo.] To devote j to dedicate ; to devote one's self 

to ; to habituate. 
AD-dIct'ed,* p. a. Devoted to ; accustomed ; habituated. 
j^d-dIct'ed-nEss- n. The quality of being addicted. 
Ji.D-Dltc'TlQ]V, Ti. Act of devoting; habit. Sliak. 
i^D-DiT'A-Mi^NTjTi. [additamentiim^ It.'] [jid-dit'ai-mSnt, W. 

P. F, Ja. K, Sm, ; ad'e-tgi-mSnt, S. J. E.] n. Addition, or 

thing added- Bacon. [R.] 
j^D-Dr'Tipw, (?id-dish'un) n. The act of adding one thing to 

another ; the thing added ; accession ; increase. — {Arith,) 

A rule for adding numbers together. — (iaw) The title 

given to a man's name besides his Christian and surname. 

tD-D!"Tl<?N-AL, (gid-dlsh'un-9l) a. That is added. 
D-Dl''TiQN-AL, (^d-dish'yn-^l) n. Something added. 

^D Dl"TipN-AL-Ly, (?d-dish'nn-?I-le) ad. In addition to. 
f^D-Dl^TipN-VRV) (5Ld-dish'yn-;j-r§) a. Additional. Her- 

Ad'di-tIve,* a. That is to be or may be added. Brande. 
Ad^dJ-tq-ry, a. Having the quality of adding. ArhutJir- 

not, [r.] 
Ad'dle, I(a.dMl) a. Barren ; empty ; unfruitful j originally 

appliecf to such eggs as produce nothing. 
Ad'dle, (aid'di) v, a. To make addle, ^t-cwti. 
(■Ad'dle, (iid'dl) V, n. To grow, to earn or produce. 

Ad'dle,* 71. The dry lees of wine. Ash. 
Ad'dled,* (ad'dld) a. Putrid ; rotten ; confused. Cowper. 
AD'DLE-HfiAD'igD, (ad'dl-h6d'ed) ) a. Having addle 
AD^DLE-PAT'JpD, (5d'd!-pat'ed) \ brains. Dryden. 
ADD'L.:fNG$, 71. -pi. Earnings ; wages for labor. Brockett. 

[Localj Eng.] 
t^D-D6oM', c. a. To adjudge. Spenser. See Doom. 
d^D-DORSE', V. a. (Her.) To place back to back. 

^D-DR£S&', v. a. [i. ADDKE9SED; pp. ADDRESSING, AD> 

piiEBsEu.] To prepare for; to get ready; to direct; to 
speak or apply to another by words ; to court. 

^d-dr£ss', n. [adressCj Fr.] Verbal application ; peti- 
tion ; a discourse written or spoken ; an oration ; a 
speech ; manner of addressing, or speaking, or writing to 
another; courtship; skill; dexterity; direction of a let- 
ter; name, title, and residence of a person. 

-^D-DR£ss'er,, n. One who addresses. Burke. 

,^D-DR£ss'Ft)L,* a. Skilful; dexterous. MaUet. 

i^D-DUCE', v. a. [adducoj L.] [i. adduced ; pp. adducing, 
ADDUCED.] To bring forward ; to urge ; to allege. Reid 

^d-dC'cent, a. (.^naU) A word applied to such muscles 
as bring or draw together the parts of the body to which 
they are annexed. 

^D-Du'CER,* n. One who adduces. Coleridge. 

^D-DU'ci-BLE, a. That may be brought forward 

^D-Dtic'TipN, 71. The act of adducing. Smith. 

(ld-dOc'ttve, a. That fetches, or brings down. 

^D-DtJc'TpR,* 71, (jSTMEt.) The muscle that dravk 6 forward 
cr contracts. Crabb, 

f/^D DOLCE'.tj a. [dulcia L.] To sweeten. Bacon, 
A'D&s.* n. An Egyptian weight less than a \ ound. Cra»k 
^ Dfip'^-TlsT,* 71. One who is not decimated, or who r» 

fuses to pay tithes. Crabh. [r.1 
Ad-E-LjUN'Ta' DQf [ad-e-lstn-taMp, Ja K.i^A-eA^ii^dJA^ 

Sm.] n. [Sp.] A high officer in Spain. 
fAD'^-LlNG, n. A word of honor among the Angles, proi> 

eriy appertaining to the king's children. Cowel. 
Ad'e-lite,* 71. A sort of Spanish conjurer. Ed. Eticyc. 
A-d£mp'TIPN, n, [admo, ademptumiy L.] (Law) Act of tak 

ing away, as of a legacy. Whishaw, 
AD-E-N6G'RA-PHy, 71. {&6iivov and ypd^w, Gr ] (Anat.) A 

description of the glands 

^S/f '2^fS'* \ a- Relating to or like a gland ; glandiform. 

Ad'e-noO.<* S ^^'^ 

Ad-E-kp-LojG'i-c^l,* a. Relating to the glands. Scott. 
Ad-e-nAl'p-pV)* «• A treatise on the glands. Scotu 
Ad-en-6t'p-mv,*7i. a dissection of the glands. Dangluon, 
Ad'^PS.* 71, [L.] Animal oil or fat. Farm. Encyc. 
A-d£pt', 71. One who is completely versed in any art. 
A-d£pt', a. [adeptus, L,] Skilful ; thoroughly versed. 
f^-DJSp'TipN, 71. Attainment; acquisition. Bacon. 
AD'E-Quvcy,* n. Sufficiency; state of being adequate. 

IAd'e-QUATE, v. u. [adaquo, L.] To resemble exactly 

Ad'e-qu^te, a. Equal to ; proportionate ; sufficient. 
Ad'e-quate-L¥, ad. In an adequate manner. South, 
Ad'e-quate-hess, 71. The state of being adequate. 
|Ad-E-q,ua'tipn, 71. Adequateness. Bp. Barlow, 
J-Ad-es-pOt'ic, a. Not absolute ; not despotic. Bailey, 
Ad-fIl'j-at-ed, p. a. Affiliated. See Affiliate. 
AD-FlL-l-A'TipN,*7i. See Affiliation. 
^D-HERE', v. 71. fadhtereoj L.] [i. adhered ; pp ad- 
hering, adhered.] To stick to; to remain firmly fixed. 
Ad-he'rehce, n. State or quality of adhering ; tenacity; 

constancy ; attachment ; adhesion ; fidelity. 
^d-he'ren-cy, 71. Attachment ; adherence. Bp. Taylor. 
Ad-he'rent, a. Sticking to; united with. Soutfi. 
^d-he'r:ient,7i. One who adheres ; a follower ; a partisan 
^D-HE'RENT-Ly, od. In an adherent manner. 
J^d-her'er, 71. One who adheres ; an adherent. 
^D-HE'§i'pN, (^d-he'zhun) 71. The act or state of adhering 

or stacking to something ; adherence. 
Ad-he'sive, fl. Sticking; tenacious. Thomson. 
^D-HE'sivE-Ly, ad. In an adhesive manner. 

^D-HE'sivE-N£ss, 71. Tenacity; viscosity (Phren.) A 

' propensity to form attachments, or to live together in so- 
ciety. Combe. 
AD-HlB'jT,u.a. [adhibeoj L.] To apply ; to use. Forbes. [R ' 
fAD-iri-Bl"TipN, (S.d-he-bish'Mn)«' Application. fVhitaker 
Ad HbMff-jvkaij* fL.] (Logic) Applied to an argument 

drawn from the acknowledged principles of tlie person to 

whom it is addressed. Watts. 
tAD-HOR-TA'TipN, ju [adhoHotiOj L.] Exhortation. 

^D-HOR'T^-Tp-Ry,* a. Admonitory; giving advice, .flpft 

Ad-i-A^N* ti;m* Tu [L.] (Bot.) A genus of plants. Crabb. 
jAD-l-XPH'p-RA-cy, 71. Indiflference. Diet. 
f Ad-i-Xph'p-rIst,* 71. One who is moderate or neutral 

tAD-}-XpH'p-ROOs, It. la&iai^Qpoi^ Gr.] Neutral ; indiffisr- 

ent. Bp. Taylor, 
t AD-j-XPH'p-Ry, (ad-e-&f 9-re) n. Neutrality ; indifference. 

A-DlEtJ', CMii') ad. [d Dieu, Fr.] Farewell. 
A-DiEij',*7i. A farewell ; act of taking leave. Cotoper 
At> Iw-Fi-Nii tvm^* [L.] To infinity; without end. 
Ad ItN-qm-REN'Di/My* [L.] (Law) A judicial writ coiu 

manding inquiry to be made. Crabb. 
An iNiTER-iMj* [L.] In the interim ; meanwhile. 
Ad-i-p6p'e-rate,* V. tt. To convert into adipocere. Smart 
Ad'i-pp-cere',* n. [L. flrfeps, fat, and cera, wax.] An oily 

or waxy substance, formed from the decomposition of the 

soft parts of human or animal bodies, in moist situation i 

or under water. Brande 
AD-|-p6p'?-ROtis,* a. Relating to adipocere. Brit, AU 
Ad'i-PP-cIre',* 71. See Adipocere. P. Cyc. 
Ad- POSE',*ff. Fat; consisting of fat. P. Cyc 
tAi "i-POOs, a. [adiposusy L.] Fat ; of the nature of lal. 

Ad'it, ffid'it, S. W. J. F. Ja Sm. j a'djt, P. K.] n. [aditns^ 

L.] A subterraneous passage for water ; an approach 01 

entrance ; an entrance to a mine. Carew. 
fAD-V'TlpN, (^d-ish'vn) ii. [adeo, adiium, L.] Act of going 

to. Bailey. 
tAD-JA'cENCE,*n. Proximity ; nearness. Bacon. 
AD-JA'cipW-cv, n, [adjaceoy L.] State of being adjacent 

Ad-ja'c:?nt, a. Lying near or close ; adjoining. 
Ad-ja'cent, 71. That which lies next to another. Locke. 
^d-j1^ct' yV.a.[adjiciOjadjectumy'L.] Toaddto. Leland. [r. 

4, fi, 2, 6, 0, y, long ; A, fi» I, 6, C, t, short ; ^, ?, i, ^, v, y, obscure. — wkRBj fXr, fXst, fAll ; ji£ir, iiisB 

ADM 11 

t>-lEc'TION, n. Act of adjecting; addition. B. Jorison, 
I)-J¥C-Tl"Tlovs, (ad-jek-tiah'ua) o. Added. JUaundrelL 

lli'j^C-TlV-^,* a. Belonging to or like an adjective. 
Pr(if, Lathavu 

4.l>'J?C-TlvE, (ad'j§k-tlv) n. (Cfram,) A word or part of 
upeech added, or flt to be added, to a noun or substan- 
tive, to expresa its quality, or some circumstance respect- 
ing it ; as, " Ji ffood man." 

Ad'j^c-tIved,* (id'jek-tivd) p. a. Formed into an ad- 
jective. Bofwort/u 

AD'j^c-TlvE-Ly, ad. In the manner of an adjective. 

^i>-j5In', V, a. [adjoindre. Fr.] [t. adjoined j pp. ad- 
joining, ADJOINED.] To Join to i to unite to. 

^D^oIn', d. n. To be contiguous to. Dryden, 

fAD-JOtN'ANT, a. Contiguous to. Carew^ 

^D-y61n']N9j* p, a. Close to; near to; contiguous. 

^D-JoiJRN', (yd-jurn') «. a. [ajoumery Fr,] [i, adjoubwedj 
pp, ADJouHNiNo, ADJOURNED.] To put off to another 
cfay ; to defer ; to postpone ; to prorogue. 

^D-journ'm?nt, n. Act of adjourning ; postponement ; a 
putting off till another day ; delay. 

^D-jDdjSE', b. fl. [adjuger, Fr 1 [i. adjudged; pp. ad- 
jCDoiNo, ADJUDGED.] To glve oy a judlclal sentence; to 
decree ; to sentence ; to judge. 

<^d-jDdjG'mj:nt, n. Adjudication. Temple, [a.] 

^S-JU'l>f-CATE,v. 0. [arfjiirfico, L.] fi. adjudicated ; jjp. 
ADJUDICATING, ADJUDICATED.] To soutence j to ad- 

' Judge. BaUey. 

AD-ju-di-ca'tiqn, 7t. Act of adjudging ; sentence, 

i^D-jfJ'Dj-cA-TQR,* 71 One who adjudicates, Ec. Reo 

tAD'JV-&ATE, o. a. [adjugOy L.] To yoke to. BaUey, 

IXd'JV-M^NT, n. [adjumejUuvif L.] Help ; support. fVater- 

Ad'jGnct,*. [adjuTietumt L.] A person or thing Joined to 
another; an adaition. 

KD'JtSNCTftt. United with ; adjoined. Shak. 

jA.d-jOnc'TIPN, M. Act of adjoining; the thing joined. 

^D-jbwc'TjVE, 71. He or that which joins ; a thing joined. 

^d-j&nc'tjve, a. Tending to join. 

i^D-JlJNc'TiVE-L.y, ad. In an adjunctive manner 

^D-jONCT'Ly, ad. Consequently; in connection with. 

AD-jv-ra'tiqn, 71.' Act of adjuring or charging another 
solemnly by word or oath ; the form of oath. 

^D-JURE% (?d-jur') V. a. [arfJMro, L.] [i. adjured ; pp 
ADJURING, adjured.] To impose an oath upon anotlier; 
to charge solemnly or earnestly. 

i^d-jur'er, 71. One who adjures or exacts an oath. 

;^D-jDst', v. a. [ajuater, Fr.] [?". adjusted ; pp. adjust- 
ing, adjubted.J To regulate ; to put in order; to settle ; 
to adapt ; to fit ; to make conformable. 

^D-JiJsT'^-BliE,* a. Capable of being adjusted Rees [R.] 

^D-jDST'4i>iE,* n. Adjustment. Sylvester, [ii ] 

i^D-jDST'EB, 11. One who adjusts. Dr. Wharton. 

i^li-jDs'TlVE,*a. Tending to adjust. Maunder. [R.J 

^d-jDst'M]ent, 71. Act of adjusting; state of being ad- 
Justed ; settlement ; regulation. 

i.D'Jv-TXN-c¥, n. The office of an adjutant; skilful ar- 
rangement. Burke. 

Ad'jv-tXnt, 71. [adjuto, L.] A military officer, whose 
duty it is to assist the major of a regiment, formerly called 
aidr-majori an assistant. — A gigantic crane. P. Cyc. 

AD'jy-TANT-<?^£N']ER-AL,* 71. (JIfU.) A Staff otficer, who 
assists a general with his counsel and personal service ; 
an assistant of the General of the Jesuits. Brande. 

f^D-JUTE', V. a, [adjuvOf adjutunif L.] To help. B. Jonson. 

fAD-Ju'TpR, n. A helper. Bailey. 

f^D-jiJ'TQ-RY, a. That helps. Bailey. 

fAD-jC'TRjx, 71, She who helps. Bailey. 

UXd'JV-vXnt, [ad'jy-vknt, S. W. F. Ja. K. Sm.; ^d-ju'- 
v?nt, J. E. Wb.] a. [adjuvanSf L.] Helpful; usefiil. 

|14d'jV-vXnt, 7U An assistant. Sir H. Yelverton. — (Med.) 
A medicine or substance that assists and promotes the 
operation of others. 

fXo'jy-VATE, 7). a. To help. Bailey. 

4d LlB'i-Tif'M,* [L.] At discretion ; at pleasure 

^D-mXR'PTN-ate,* v. a. To note or write on the margin 
Coleridge. [R,] 

^D-MfiAS'vitE,* (gtd-mSzh'yr) v. a. To measure by a stand- 
ard. Ash. [R.] 

^D-M£A9'VRE-MfiNT, (^d-mSzh'yr-mSnt) n. Result of 
measuring ; adjustment of proportions ; measurement. 

^D-MfiN-sv-RA'TipN, n. Mensuration. Bailey. 

f^D-ME'Tj-ATE, (^d-md'she-at) v. a. To measure. Dii^ 

^Ad-mIn'J-CLE, ». [odmiTticuZttm, L,] Help; support. Bai- 

'l^u, (Scotch Law) A writing or deed used for evidence. 

Ad-M|-nIc'V-LAB, fl. Helpf\il. Bailey., 

Au-MIn'JS-TER, V- a. [adnaniatrOfli.'] [i, administered ; 

pp. ADMINiaTERlNG, ADMINISTERED.] To give ; tO SUp- 

u 7 ; to dispense ; to tender ; to manage ; to act as minis- 
ter, agent, or administrator j to take legal charge of, as 
rrgards the estate of a person dying without having made 
■ will 


^d-mIn'js-T]?r,*7». 71. To contribute; ti perTorn the d» 
ties of an admin istrator. Spectator, 

Ad-mIn']S-TRA-ble, a. Capable of adminisiratioT. 

fAD-MlN'|s-TRATE, V. a. To administer. fVoodwatd. 

AD-MiH-ls-TRA'TipN, 71. Act of administering ; manage- 
ment, especially of public affairs; the executive officer! 
or executive part of government — (Law) Tiie rights and 
duties of an administiator of the estate or property of a 
person who died intestate, or of a minor, lunatic, ^c. 

^D-lviiN'^6-TR^-T"IvE, a. That administers. 

AD-M|N-is-TRA'TQB, 71. One who administers: one whc 
administers on the property or estate of a perHon dyinf 

Ad-min-is-tra'tqr-shIp, 71. Office of administrator. 

AB-MiN-is-TKA'TRiX, 71. A Woman who administern. 

AD-Mi-R^-BlL'l-TY, 71. Admirableuess. BaUnj. 

Au'MI-R^-BLE, a. [admirabilis^ L.] Worthy of being ad 
mired ; wonderAil ; very superior ; excellent. 

Ae'M}-r^-ble,''' 71. A drink or liquor made of peaches, 
plums, sugar, water, and spirit. fV. Encyc. 

AD'Mf-R^-BLE-N£ss, n. duality of being admirable. 

As'MJ-RVBLV] fl''* I^n ^n admirable manner. 

Ad^MI-RAL, n. [amiralj Fr.] A high naval officer, who ha« 
the same power and authority over the maritime forces 
of a state that a general has over its land forces ; the chief 
commander of a fleet ; a ship that canies the admiral : a 
great ship. — Admiral oftheficet, the highest officer undei 
the admiralty of Great Britain. — Vice-admiral, an officei 
next in rank to the admiral. — Rear-admiral^ an officei 
next in rank to the vice-admiral. 

An'Mj-R^L-SHfeLL,* 71. (Conch.) A beautiful shell; a va- 
luta. Scott, 

Ad'mi-RA^'-shTp, a. The office or power of an admiral. 

Ad'M|-ral-ty, n. [amiraut^, Fr.] The power or officers 
appointed for the administration of naval affairs; a board 
of naval commissioners; a jurisdiction which takes cog- 
nizance of naval or of marine affairs. 

t4i.l>-MlR'ANCE,*n, Admiration. Spenser. 

AD-Ml-RA'TlpN, 71. [admiratio, L.] The act of admiring; 
wonder; surprise; amazement. 

■fAn'Mj-RA-ftvE, n. The point of exclamation or admira- 
tioHj marked thus [ I ] Cotgrave. 

^B-M1RE', v. a. ladmiroTf L.l [i, admired ; pp. admiring, 
ADUiKED.] To regard with wonder or with love; to es- 
teem or prize highly. 

Ad-mire', v. n. To wonder. Ray. 

^d-mired',* (^d-mlrd') p. a. Held in admiration; highly 

Ad-mTr'^R, 71. One who admires ; a lover, 

Ad-mIr'jng-i.y, ad. With admiration. Shak. 

^D-Mls-S{-Bli.'i-TV,* n. Q-uality of being admissible. Eb. 

Au-Mts'sj-BLE, a. That may be admitted ; allowable. 

AD-Mla'si-BLy, ad. In a manner whieh may be admitted. 

^D-Mls'siQN, (^d-mish'yn) n. Act of admitting ; state cj 
being admitted; admittance; introduction; the allow- 
ance of an argument. 

Ad-mTs'sipn-M6n'?y, (5id-mXsh'yn-mun'ne) 71. Monej 
paid for admission. Sprai. 

^D-mIt', v. a. \admitto, L.] [i. admitted ; pp. admitting, 
ADMITTED.] To suffoT to cntcT ; to suffer to enter upon 
an office ; to allow, as an argument or position ; to grant. 

AD-MlT'Ti^NCE^ 71. The act of admitting ; permission to 

* enter; admission ; the power or right of entering; coo- 
cession of a position. 

Ad-mIt't^r, n. One who admits. Bp. Hall 
Ad-M'/t'TJ-BLE, a. Admissible. Harrison. [R.] 
AD-m1x', v. a. jfadmisceo, L.J [i. admixed ; pp. admixino, 

ADMIXED.] To mingle with ; to mix. [r.] 
AD-Mlx'TipH (&d-mixt'yijn) n- The minglmg of one body 

with another- Bacon. 
^d-mIxt'vre, (?id-mixt'yyr) 71. That which is formed b| 

* admixtion ; mixture, 
^i>-m6n'jsh, V, a. [adTTioneo, L.1 [i. admonished; pp 

ADMONISHING, ADMONISHED.] To wam of a fault ; to 

reprove gently ; to advise ; to counsel ; to inform. 
Ad-m6n'ish-:?r, n. One who admonishes. Dryden. 
f^l>-M5N'jSH-MfiNT, n. Admonition. Shak. 
A'd-mp-nI"tipn, (Sd-mp-nlish'un) n. Act of admonishing 

reprimand ; hint of a fault or duty ; reproof. 
AD-Mp-Nl"TipN-ER, (ad-m^-nlsh'i^n-cr) n. A dispenser of 

admonition. Hooker, [r.] 
AD-M6N'l-TlVE,a. That admonishes; monitory. Barront. 
Ad-mSn'I-tpr, 71. An admonisher. Hohbes. [R.] 
Ad-M!6n'i-TP-R¥, 71. Admonishing; monitory. Hooker 
fAD-MOVE', V. a. [admoveo, L.] To bring to another 

tAiJ-MUR-MV-RX'TIpN, [admurmuro, L.] A murmuring lo 

another. Bailey. 
Ad-nAs'c:?nt, a. [oiTwwceTW, L.] Growing upon. Evelyn. 
Ad'nate, a. [adnatust L.] (Bot.) Growing to any thin| 

by the whole length. 
Ad'noOn,* 71. An adjective ; a word added to a noun jJbA 
A-i>6', 71, Trouble ; difficulty ; bustle ; tumult. 

MlBN, siEi MdVB NbR s6n ; bOli., bWr, rCle. — p, p, ^, g. aqfti jB, &, 9, g, hardi 9 aa z; f as gz;--TUia 


JD-O-lEs'cenCE, I Tu [adoleseentiaj L.J Youthful age 

iD-»^-i.£s'cEN-ov, i or growth; the age between pu- 
berty and majority, or between childhood and man- 
hood J among the ancients, the period from twelve to 

Jd-(?-les'c?nt,* o. Relating to adolescence i youthful. 
^ fXD-p-NA'TipN> n. Union. Boyle. See Aduwation. 

^-dGn'ic,* a. Relating to Adonis; denoting a kind of 
verse. Crabb. 

4-l>o'ms,* B. (BoL) A genus of plants. Crabb. 

(■^-BOOR^', (9-aorzO ad. At doors ; at the door. Beaum. 8f 

^-d6pt', u. o. [adoptOf L.] [i adopted; pp. adopting, 
ADOPTED.] To make a soi? or child of one who was not 
eo by birth ; to take or assume as one's own. 

^-DopT'iiD,*^. a. Taken as one's own son or child ; ad- 
mitted to fellowship. 

^-DOPT'ED-LY, ad. By means of adoption. ShaJc. 

^-dCpt'eb, n. One who adopts ; a vessel with two necks 
placed between a retort and a receiver ; adapter. 

^-D6p'TipN, 71. Act of adopting ; state of being adopted ; 

^-DOP'TJVE, a. That adopts or is adopted ; not native. 

s'dqr,* n. [L.] (Hot ) A name for spelt. Crabb. 

^-l>OR-^-BltL'f-TV,* 71. duality of being adorable. Cole- 
ridge. [R."! 

^-dor'vble, o. That is to be adored; worthy of adora- 
tion ; divine. 

^-d6r'^-Ei.e-n£ss, n. duality of bein^ ndorable. 

K-Ti6n'A.-BL.Y,ad. In a manner worthy *r' adoration. 

iD-o-R5.'TiQN, n. Divine worship ; homage. 

^-DORE', v. a. ladoroj L.l [i. adored; pp. adoring, 
ADORED.] To worship with external homage ; to rever- 
ence ; to honor j to love Intensely. 

•A-dore'ment, n. Adoration. Brown 

V dor'er, ii. One who adores ; a worshipper. 

^-dorn', v. a. [adomoj L.] [i. adorned; ^.adorning, 
ADORitED.] To dress with ornaments; to decorate; to 
ornament ; to einbellish. 

rA-DORN', n. Ornament. Spenser, 

fA-DORN', a. Adorned. MUton. 

A-DORN'lNG, 71. Ornament. More. 1 Peter 

f'A-DORN'M?NT, 71. Ornament ; embellishment. Raldgh. 

^D-6s-cv-i.X'TipN,* n. The joining or inserting of one 
plant into another. Crabb. 

^-JiO^TH^j (?-doun') ad. Down ; on the ground. Spenser. 

^-t>o\Vn', (ji-dbfin') pr^. Down; towards the ground 

Ad QJ70i> DXm^N'^m,'*' [L.] {Law) A writ to inquire 
whether a grant will be attended with injury to any one. 

Xd'ra-gXnt,* 71. Gum tmgacanth Brande. 

fA-DRfeAD', (9-dredO ad. In a state of fear. Sidney. 

Mo R&F-E-JREN'j}pM\* [L.] To be further considered. 

^-drTft', ad. Floating at random. MUton. 

An-Rp-GA'TlpN,* n. {Civil Law) The adoption of a child. 

i^-droIt', a. [Fr.l Dexterous ; active ; skilful. 

^-droTt'ly, ad. In an adroit manner ; dexterously 

^-droIt'ness. 71. Dexterity ; activity. Home. 

t-DRY', (51-dri') ad. Athirst ; thirsty. Burton. 
D^ci-Tl"Tipvs, (S.d-se-tish'ijs) a. [adscitTis^ L.] Taken to 
complete something; supplemental; additional. 

Ji,i>-sci-Tl"Tiovs-ii¥)* 0^- In an adscititious manner. 

^D-STRTc'TipN, 71. '{adstrictiis^'L.'l Act of binding. 

Xd-V-I-a'si-A,* 71. (Min.) An ornamental stone ; the moon- 
stone ; a variety of felspar. P. Cyc. 

Ao'V-JjATE,*?). a. To show feigned devotion to; to flatter. 
Writer^s Assistant. [R.] 

XD-V-LA'TlpN, [ad-du-la'shun, S. J. Jo. ; ad-ju-la'shun, JV. ; 
a,d-yii-la'shun, E.] n. [adulatio, L.] Flattery j high com- 
pliment. Shak. 

tAu'V-LA-TpR, 71. A flatterer. Bailey. 

k.T>'v-L^-Tp-RY, a. Flattering; full of coniplvnents. 

►Au'v-I-A-TRESS, n. She that flatters. Huloet. 

^-dDIjT', a. [adultusf L.] Grown up ; arrived at manhood. 

^-DOljT',n. A person grown up, or full grown. — (Coimnon 
Lata) A person of fVill age. — (CivU Law) A boy who has 
attained the age of fourteen, or a girl of twelve, years. 

fj^-DCLT':ED,p. a. Completely grown. HoweU. 

*^-DDl.'T3q:R, V. n. [advZtero, L.] To commit adultery ; to 
'pollute. J?. Jonson. 

^-dOl'T]5R-ant,71. That which adulterates. Bailey, [r.] 

((^-dOl'teR-ATE, v. n. [i. adulterated; pp. adulterat- 
ing, ADULTERATED.] To commJt adultery. Shak. 

^-dDl'ter-ate, V, a. To corrupt by some foreign mix- 
ture ; to pollute. 

^-dOl'ter-ate, a. Tainted with adultery or foreign mix- 
ture ; corrupted. 

^-dRl'ter-^TE-LV» ad. In an adulterate manner. 

^-dOl't^R-ATE m£ss, ft. duality of being aduherate. 

12 ADV 

^-dDl-ter-a'tipn, n. Act of adulterating; state of beir| 

adulterated; contamination. 
^-dDl'ter-er, n. A person guilty of adultery. 
^-dDl'ter-£ss, n. A woman who commits adultery 
II^-dCl'T^R-ine, [Mul't?r-In, S. W. J. Ja. Sm. ,- j-dl 

ter-in, P. K.J n, (Law) A child born of an adulteress. 
IIA-DtyL'TER-iNE, o. Of an adulterous intercourse. Bp 

I^-dOl'tier-Ize, V, n. To commit adultery. Milton. 
^'-dDl't^'r-oDs, a. Guilty of or tainted by adultery j spa- 

^-dOl'ter-oUs-ly, ad. In an adulterous manner. 
^-dOl'te-ry, 71, Violation of the bed of a married persot 

— (Law) Criminal intercourse between two persons, o 

whom one or both are married. 
j^-dDlt'ness, 7i. State of being adult. Bailey, [r.] 
AD Dm'br^nt, a. Giving a slight resemblance. 
4k.D-DM'BRATE, V. fl. [odumbro, L.] [i. adumbrated; pp 


sent faintly. 

AD-vM-BRA'TipN, 71. A faint sketch ; a shadow. 

fAD-v-NA'TipN, n. [adunoy L.] State of being unitei 

A-DDw'cj-Ty, n. Crookedness. Arbutknot. 

A-dCn'cous, (si-dung'kii8)(i. Crooked ; hooked. DerJiam, 

f A-dOnq,ue', ffl. [aduncuSf Ij.\ Crooked ; bending inwardfe 

fA-DtJRE', V, n. [aduroj L.] To burn up. Bacon. 

A-dGst', a. [adustus, L.] (Med,) Burnt up; scorched 
parched. Quincy. [R,] 

A-dOst'ed, a. Burnt; scorched; dried with fire MUton. 

f A-dOst'i-BLE, fl. That may be burnt up. Bailey. 

^'-DOs'TipN, (5i-dSst'yyn) 71. Act of burning up or drying 

Ad V^-lo'rem* [L.] (Com.) To the value. — An adva 
lorem duty is one that is levied according to the value ol 
the goods. Brande. 

AD-vAnce', v. a. [avaTiceVj Fr."] [i. advanced; pp. xiy 
VANciNo, ADVANCED.] To bring forward ; to raise U 
preferment ; to improve ; to heighten ; to aggrandize ; tc 
promote ; to allege ; to adduce ; to assign ; to pay befoifr- 

Ab-vXnce', v. n. To go forward ; to proceed ; to make im- 

Au-vAnce', n. Act of advancing or coming forward ; prog 
ress ; progression; improvement — (Com.) Anticipation 
time ; money paid before it is due. 

>^i>-vXnce',* a. Being in front ; advanced; as, "advanet 
guard." Crabb. 

Ad-vXnced',* (^d-vftnstO p. «• Promoted; come forward 
having made progress ; proceeded far. 

r^D-vXNCE'M]?NT, 7?. Act of advancing; state of being 
advanced ; that which is advanced ; progress ; prefer- 
ment ; improvement ; promotion. 

Ad-vXn'cer, 71. One who advances. Bacon. 

^d-vAn'C|N&,* p. a. Going forward ; making progresa, 

AD-viN'ciVE,* o. Tending to advance. Smart, [r.] 

^d-vXn'taj&e, n. [avantage, Fr.] Superiority; conven- 
ience ; favorable circumstances ; gain ; profit ; benefit. 


ADVANTAGED.] To benefit ; to promote. Shak. 

fAD-viN'TJiPE-A-BLE- a. Profitable. Sir J. Hayward, 

^D-viN'TV/iED, (^d-van'tgjd) a. Possessed of advantages. 

Ad-vXn't^jGE-GroOnd, It, Ground that gives superi- 

Ad-van-ta'jGeous> (Sd-vjn-ta'jus) a. [avantageux, Ft,\ 
Affording advantages ; beneficial ; profitable ; useful. 

Ad-v^N-ta'jGEOVS-ly, ad. In an advantageous mannei 

Ad-v^n-ta'>5EOVS-ness, 7i. Profitableness; usefulness. 

tAD-VEC-Tl"Tiovs, tt. Brought; carried. Coles. 

^d-vene',u. 71. [adveniOyll.^ To accede ; to come to. .^i/Ii^ 

fAD-VE'Nl-ENT, a. Superadded. Brown^ 

Ad'v£wt, 71. [akventiis,'L.'\ A.coming; appropriately, the 
coming of Christ ; a season of devotion during the foul 
weeks before Christmas. 

fAD-vfiN'TjNE, a. [advenioj adventumy L,] Adventitious 

Ad-ven-tVtiovs, (ad-ven-tish'us) a. Accidental; inci- 
dental} supervenient; not essentiaUy inherent; addi- 

Ar>-V¥X-Tl"TiOVs-LV, (ad-v^n-lTsh'ya-l?) ad. Accident* 

t^D-vfiN'TiVE, 71. The thing or person that cornea from 
without. BojiOTU 

tAD-v£N'TiVE, a. Adventitious. Bacon. 

f Jvd-v£n'try, n. An enterprise ; an adventure. B. Jojiatm. 

Ad-v£nt'v-al, a. Relating to the season of advent. 

,^d-v£nt'vRE, (^d-vent'yvr) n. [Fr.] An accident; a 
chance ; a hazard; an enterprise in which something ii 
at hazard ; a thing or sum sent to sea. 

^D-vfiWT'VB-E, V. n. H. adventured; pp. adtentcr- 
iNG, adventured,] To try the chance; to dare; tt 

t, E, I, 6, 0, Vt longi X, fi, I, 0, ', if short i a, ?, I* C» Vi Vi ofiacur*. — FARE, fXr, FIst, fAll ; HfilR, IlfiA 

A small vessel em- 

AUV 13 

ft -VftNT'VRE, V a. To try the chance of; to dare 

ft i-v£NT'VRE-FOL,* a. AaventurouB. Bentham. [R.1 

Aij-v£wt'vr-i;r, n. One who adventurea. 

^D-v£NT'vRE-s6ME, o. Venturesome, [r.] 

,^d-v£nt'vRE-SPME-n£ss, n, Adventurouenesa. Sailey. 

^D-vfiNT'v-RoOs, a. Inclined to adventures ; bold j dar- 
ing ; courageous j venturesome ; dangerous. 

^d-VENT'v-RO&s-LV, arf. Boldly ; daringly. ShaJc. 

^d-v£nt'V-rovs-n£ss, n. auality of being adventu- 

Ai^'VERB,n. [adverbiuviy 1,.] A word joined to a verb, ad- 
jective, or other adverb, to express some circumstance, 
quality, degree, or manner of its signification. 

^D-v&R'Bi-^L, a. Relating to or having the quality or 
structure of an adverbt 

Ad-ver'bi-^l-ly, ad. In the manner of an adverb 

fAD-vER's^BLE, a. Contrary to; opposite to. Bailey. 

fiD-VER-SA' Ri-Ay ii. pi. [h.] A common-place book; an 
account or note book ; a journal. 

Xd'y^r-sa-rv, n. [adveraariusj L.] An opponent ; enemy ; 

Xl>' ver-sa-ry, a. Opposite to ; adverse ; hostile. Bp, King. 

^D-vfeR's^-TivE,a. {Oram.) Expressing opposition or con- 
trariety; as, 6ut is an adveraaUoe conjunction. 

^D-vfiR's/L-TlVE,* n. An adversative word. Harris, 

^D^VERSE, a, {(inversus. L.] Acting with contrary direc- 
tions^ calamitous; amirtivej turned against. — {Bot.) 
Turnmg the under surface to the sun, as leaves. 

I^D-vErse', v. a. To oppose. Oower. 
LD'VEEsr.-LV, o(i. Oppositely ; unfortunately. Shak. 

JtD'vfeRSE-NESS, 71. Opposition. Bp. Morton. 

^D-VJER'si-TY, n. Affliction ; calamity ; misfortune. 

j^D-VERT', V. n. [adverto^ L.] [i. adverted ; pp. ad- 
verting, ADVERTED.] To observe ; to attend to; to 

f^D-VERT', V. a. To regard ; to advise. More. 

^d-ver'tence, > tu Attention to; consideration; heed- 

^d-ver'ten-cy, \ fulness; regard. 

^d-VER'tent, fl. Attentive i^heedful. Hale. 

iD-v?R-Ti'9E', or AD'V?R-TI9E, [Sd-ver-tlz', S. W. P. J. 
F. Ja. K. R. Wb.i Sld'ver-tTz, Sm.] v. a. (avertir, Fr.] 


announce j to publish; to proclaim; to inform; to give 
public notice by means of an advertisement in a news- 
paper. {1^ According to Smart, the primary and sec- 
ondary accents of advertise "have now changed places." 

^t)-VER'T]5E-MENT, | [^td-visr'tiz-mSnt, P. Ja. Sm. R. Wb 

iu-VER-Ti^E'MENT, ) J3sh ,* ^d~vc!r'tiz-m6iit, OT ad-v^r- 
tiz'ment, S W. J. F. K.'] n. Act of advertising; an- 
nouncement ; intelligence ; information ; notice of any 
•hing published in a newspaper ; legal notification. 

5^ "This word, if use would permit, should have 
Its primary accent on the first syllable, and a secondary 
accent, lengthening the i, on the third." Smart. — " We 
frequently hear adveirtisement taxed with the grossest ir- 
regularity for having the accent on a different syllable 
from advertise." wSker. — In the United Statesy It is a 
very common practice to pronounce it with the accent 
on the same syllable as in advertise. 

Xd-ver-ti5'i:r, n. One who advertises ; a newspaper. 

)LD-VER-Ti9'jNG-,p. a. Giving intelligence. 

f^D-vfis'PER-ATE, V. n. To draw towards evening. Bailey. 

^D-VICE', n. [avisj Fr.] Counsel; instruction; consulta- 
tion. — (Com.) Intelligence ; information. 

^D-VICB'-B6at, ^^d-vis'-bot) n. A sr 
ployed to convey mtelligence. 

f^D-vtjS'lL-ATE, V. a. [advi^lt>j h.] To watch diligent- 
*|y. Bailey. 

<^i>-vi9'A-BLE, a. Fit to be advised j expedient ; prudent. 

Ad-vis'a-ble-n£ss, tu The quality of being advisable. 

jkD-Vi9E', V. a. ijaviser, Fr.] [i. advibbd ; pp. advis- 
ing, advised.] To counsel; to give advice to; to give 
information. i 

^d-VISe', v. 71. To consult ; to consider ; to deliberate 

Advised, (jid-vs'zed, or ?d-vTzd') [gtd-vl'zed, S. W. J. F. 
Ja. i 9d-vlzd', K. Sm.] p. a. Actmg or performed with 

<lD-Vi9'ED-iiY, ad. Soberly ; heedfully. Ascham. 

^»-Vl9'ED-NJ6ss, 71. Deliberation. Sanderson. 

^d-vi9e'ment, n. Counsel ; advice ; prudence Spens^. 

Ad-vi9'er, n. One who advises. 

^d-vi9'er-shIp,*w. The office of an adviser. Ch. Ob. [h,] 

A.D-vi5'|N&, n. Counsel ; advice. Shak. 

\j^v-Vl'so, n. [advisoj low L.] Advice ; consideration. 

AT)-vi'5P-RY,* a. Giving advice ; counselling. Dr. A. Reed. 

Ji,D'vp-CA-c"v» «■ Act of pleading; vindication; defence. 

ilD'vp-CATE, V. a. [advoco. L.j [i. advocated ; pp. ad- 
TocATiNG, ADVOCATED.] To plcad the causc of ; to sup- 
port. MiltoTU To defend ; to vindicate. Burke. 

Rd'vp-cate I*, n. To act as an advocate. Dawbeny^ 

Xd'vq-CATE, n. One who defends or pleads the cause of 

another ; a counsel or counsellor ; i vindi;.at( r ; an Intet 

cessor; a defenAer.-— Judge Advocate^ a lawyer or offices 

who manages a prosecution in a court-martial. — LnrdAd 

vocate^ the principal crown officer in Scotland, who pro* 

ecutes crimes before the court of justiciary ; attorney* 

AD'vp-CATE-SHYp,7t. The office of an advocate. B.Jongon 
tAD'vp-CAT-£ss, 71. A female advocate. Bp. Taylor. 
AD-vp-CA'TipN, 71. Act of pleading; defence. Sfiak. 
■ Ad-vP-lA'tipn, 7U Act of flying to something. Bailey, 
AD-vp-Lu'TipN, 71. Act of rolling to something. Bail^, 
Au-v60'TRER, 71. An adultertr. Bale. 
7VD-vbt)'TR]?ss, 71. An adulteress. Bacon. 
Ad-voO'trovs, a. Adulterous. Sale, 
■^D-vbO'TRY, 71. Adultery. Bacon. 
Ad-vo^-ee',71. One who has the right of advowson, 
AD-vbiS^'9PN, 71. (Law) The patronage of a church; th« 

right of presentation to a church or ecclesiastical bena 

fice. — (Scotland) A parsonage. 
An- ro PERy* 1 71. The chief magistrate of one of the SwiM 
A-rdf'ERi* \ cantons. <Boiste. 
A'dYj* n. (Bot,) A species of jialm-tree, Crabb, 
A-DY^ TVMj* n, [L.] p\. A-DV'TA. (Arch.) The interior of 

a temple ; the chancel or altar end of a church. Britton, 
Adze, n. A cutting iron tool ; addice : — also written adz, 
AE, or JE. A diphthong in the Latin language, which 

seems not properly to have any place in the English 

,SE-cTd' I- ifMj* n, (Bot.) A genua of parasitic plants. P. Oye 
jE'dile",* 71. S«e Edile. 
^'dil-ite,* (e'djl-it) n, (Min.) A species of mineral 

/E'fil-i.dv3, (e'je-15ps) n. [afj'fXwi//, Gr.] —(Med.) An ab 

scess or fistula in the corner of the eye, — (Bot.) A genut 

of plants, 
.^'jff/s, (6'j!s) «• [L.] A shield. — (Jlfe/i.) An affection ol 

the eye. 
t^EG'LSG-UE, (Sg'log) n. An eclogue. Spenser. 
iE-G6PH'p-Ny,* 71. A peculiar sound observed in using tha 

stethoscope. Scudamore. 
^-jsyi'-r/'4-Cf£?'iW,(e-jip-ti'?-ki5m) n. [L.] (Med.) A deter 

sive ointment of 'loney, verdigris, ana vinegar. Qui/ici/. 
iEL, or Eal, or Ar , in compound names, signifies aU, ol 

altogether. So JEaof" is a complete conqueror. Oibson. 
jElf implies assistance. So ^^Ifioin is victorious^ and ,^1/ 

wold an auxiliary governor, Oibson. 
^neid,* (e-ne'id, ore'ne-jd) [e'ne-id,P. CycBrande, Wb. 

e-ne'jd, Sm. Ash.'] The Latin heroic poem of Virgil, of 

which ^neas is the hero. Dryden, 
iEJ-NlO-'M^, 71. See Enigma, and its derivatives. 
iE-o'Li-AN,* (e-o'Ie-?n) a. Belonging to ^olus, or the wincl 

^-o'li-^n-HSrp,*™. a stringed instrument played on bj 

a current of wind issuing through a crevice or bole 

-^-6L'jc,*a. Belonging to -^olia. Eneye, 
--E-oii'i-PlLE, 71. See Eolipile. 
A'ERy*n, [L.] Air: — used in various compounds. Ain* 

a'e-rate,*u. a. To supply or fill with carbonic acid of 

with air. Ure, 
A-E-BA'TipH",* 71. Act of aerating; exposure to the atmos- 
pheric air. Roget. 
a-e'ri-^l, a. [a^T-iiw, L.] Belonging to the air; inhaMt 

ing the air; placed in air; high ; elevated. 
Ae'rie, fE're, or a'e-re) [5're, fT. Ja. K Sm. ; a'e-re, J. F 
Wb. ,- a're, S.] n, [aire, Fr.J A nest or brood of hawk 

or other birds of prey ; eyry. Shak. 
A'E-RI-form, [a'e-re-fdrm, J, ,* ar'e-fdrm, Ja, K. Sm,.] a. 

Having the form of air; ressmbling air; gaseous. 
A'E-Rp-DY-NXM'ics,*tt. pi. The science whirh treats of 

the motion of the air, and of the mechanical effects of the 

air in motion. Brandt, 
a-B-rGg'ra-phy, [a-e-rSg'r?i-fe, ./. ,■ ar-Sg'r^i-fe, Ja.K. Sm . 

71. [lifip and ypd0co, Gr.] A description of the air or atmoa 

phere, its nature, properties, &c. 
A'e-rp-IjITE,* n. A meteoric stone falling from the at 

mosphere. Brandt, , 

A'E-R';-IitTH,* 71. Same as aerolite. Arago, 
a-e-RP-l6/3^'I-cal,* a. Relating to aerology. Knowles 
a-:i5-r6l'p-j&Tst'* 71. One versed in aerology. Knowles, 
A-E-R6L'p-jt5Y, fa-e-rSl'o-je, S. W. J. F. ; ar-5I'o-je, Ja, K 

Sm, 71. [df]p and Myog, Gr.] The doctrine of the air. 
A'E^p-MAN-CY, [a'e-rp-man-se, W.J.F.;air'<}-min~3eyJa 

k. Sm,"] n, [drip and ikavreiay Gr.] Divination by the ail 

A-e-r6m'e-ter, 7U a machine for weighing the air. 
A-e-rp-m£t'rjc,* a. Measuringor containing air. Loudon 
a-E-r6m']e:-tr¥, [a-e-rSm^e-tre. S. W. J. F.; ar-om'e-trg 

Ja. K. Snu] n. The art of measuring the air. Frauds. 
A'e-RP-nAut, (a'e-r9-naut) [a'e-r^-naut, IV. J. F. ; ar'9 

liaut, J(i. fi". Sttu] n. [d}}p and vaiTtjs^ Gr-] One who saiM 

through the air in a balloon. 
A-?-rp-nAut'ic,* a. Relating to aeronautics. P. Cye. 

wfEN, SIR". m5ve, NbR, s6n ; Bt)LL, bUr ; rClt. p, j&, Q, g, sofit fi, a, £, », hardi 9 «* z; T a* gz;— *ui« 





■-5-R0-WAuT'|CS,* TU pU The art of sailing In and navi- 
gatio I the air. Brandt. 

i-E-Rt^PH6fBr-Aj*n, (Jlfcd.) A dread of fresh air. Scud- 
amor i. 

I'?-Rp-PHYTE,* It. (BoU) A plant which lives excmaively 
in tlie air. Braiide, 

X-E-R5s'CEp-sy,* ju Same as aeroscapy, Kirhy. 

A-?-R6s'cp-pyi ra-9-r5s'k9-pe, S. JV. J. F. ; ar-Ss'kp-p?, 
Jo, K, SmS\ n. [dhp and aKenrw, Gr.J The observation of 
the air. Crabb. [r.] 

X-Er'p-3ite,* n. (JwiTu) A sulphuret of silver. PhiUipa. 

fA'E-Rps-TXT,*7t. An air balloon. Crabb. 

X e-rqs-tXt'ic,* I a. Relating to aerostation or aSros- 

A-E-Rps-TXT'j-cAi.,* j tatics. Crabb. 

i-lE-Rpa-TlT'ics,* 71, pi. The science which teaches the 
equilibrium or weight of bodies supported in air, gas, or 
vapor. Brande. 

R-]E-Rps-TA'TipN, [a-?-^s-ta'shyn, P.J.F.; ar-ys-ta'shun, 
Jcu K. Sm.J n. [airostation, Fr.] The science of weighing 
air, also of guiding machines in and through the air ; ae- 

JER-v-P^N'?-ot5s,* (er-v-jtn'^-as) a. Rusty,having the rust 
of copper, or verdigris. Chamhers. 

jE-RU'pi-NOOs,* a. Same as tBrugineotts. Crabb. 

JE~Ru'&6,* (?-ra'go) n. [L.] The rust of copper j verdigris. 

/Es-THfiT'(c,* (es-thSt'ik) ) a. Relating to ffisthetics. 

^s-TH£T'l-CAl.',*(?s-thet'e-k&l) j Qeat. Mag. 

iEs-TnET'jcs,*77.pZ. The science of the sensations, or that 
which explains the cause of mental pain or pleasure, eis 
derived from a contemplation of the works of nature and 
art ; the science which treats of the beautiful in nature 
and art^ Francis. 

/Es-Ti-VA'TipN,* (es-te-va'tipn) n. (Bot.) The arrangement 
of the parts of a flower before they expand. P. Cyc. 

A-e-the-5g'^-mo&s,* a. (Bot.) Same as cryptogamous. 

iE'Tni-pps-MlN'ER-AL, (e'the-9ps-min'er-?l) n. (Med.) A 
powder formed of mercury and sulphur. 

iE'THRi-p-scoPE,* (e'thre-9-sk6p) n. An instrument, in- 
vented by Sir Jobn Leslie, for measuring the relative de- 
grees of cold produced by the pulsations from a clear sky. 

tSi-THU'SA,*(e-thvi'B^)n, (Bo(.) Agex^usof plants. P.Cyc 

;ET-l-6l/p-jSY,* n. See Etiology. 

JE-TpTE^^n. sin^. &,pl. [a£rds,Gr.] (Min.) Eagle-stone; 
a kind of ore. 

i^-fXr', ad. At, to, or from a great distance. — From afar^ 
from a distant place. —Afar-off^ distant. 

A-feard', (51-ferdO ffi> Frighted ; afraid. Spenser. Johnson 
says it is obsolete ; but it is still a provincial word in Eng- 
land. Forby. And also used by the vulgar. Todd. 

A'FERy n. [LJ The south-west wind. Milton. 

4f'F4.,* n. (Guinea) An ounce weight of gold. Crabb. 

AF-F^B^i-'j-Ty, 71, duality of being affable; civility. 

X.f'f^-ble, fl. [affabilisj h.'] Easy of manners ; courteous ; 
civil; complaisant j mild. 

Xf'f^-BLe-nEss, n. Courtesy ; affability. 

Af'fvbt-<V, o-d. In an affable manner; courteously. 

Af'f^-broGs, raf f^-brus, S. W. J. Ja. K. ; iif-ia'brya, Sm.] 
a. [affabrCf L.J Skilfully made. Bailey. [R.l 

fAr-FXB-U-LA'TipN, n. [affabulation^ Fr.] The moral of a 
fable. Bailey. 

-frF-rAiR',71. [affaireyFr.] Business; something to be trans- 
acted ; matter ; concern ; an engagement ; a rencoun- 
ter. — Public affairsy matters relating to government; 

t^F-pXM'jsH, V. a. [affamery Fr.] To starve. Spenser. 

fAF-FXlrt'iSH-MfeNT, 71. Starving. Bp. Hall. 

fAF-FEAR', (pf-f^rO V. a. To frighten. Spenser. 

i^f-fear', v. a. (Law) To confirm. Shak. See Affeer. 

[Af-f£ct', 71. Affection; passion ; sensation. Bacon. 

^'f-f£ct', v. a. [qfficioj affectuniy L.] [i. affected; pp 

AFFECTING, AFFECTED.] [f To be foud of ; tO lOVC. Hook- 

er J To act upon ; to move the passions ; to aim at ; 
to make a show or pretence of; to imitate unnaturally. 

iAF-Ffic'TAT-ED, a. Far-fetched ; affected. Barret. 
iF~F]^c-TA'TipN, 71. The art or quality of assuming a 
manner or character not one's own ; insincerity ; an ar- 
tificial show ; false pretence ; artifice, 

^f-f£( t'ed, p. a. Moved ; touched with affection ; full of 
affectation; formal; artificial; assumed; feigned. 

AF-FficT'ED-Ly, ad. In an affected manner; feignedly, 

^f-f£ct'^d-n£ss, m. The quality of being affected. 

Vf-fEct'er, n. One who affects. See Affectoh. 
AF-f£c'ti-ble,*o. That may be affected. Cudworth. 

Af-f£ct'in&,*P. a. Moving, or tending to move, the pas- 
sions; moving; exciting; pathetic. 

A.F-F£cT'jNG-Ly, ad. In an affecting manner. 

^f-f£c'tipn, n. [State of being affected; sympathy, 
ShaJc'] Passion ; love ; kindness; tenderness; good-will; 
state of the mind. 

^F-Ffic'TipN-^TE, u. FuII of affection; warm; zealous; 
fond ; tender. 

JAF-FEc'TipN-AT-?D,*fl. Disposed ; inclined. Locke. 

AF-Ffic'Ti<>N-ATE-LV, ad. In an affectionate mannet 
Af-f£c'tipw-^te-n£ss, n. Fondness: tenderness, 
Af-f£c'tipned, (^f-fek'flhund) a. [fAffected ; conceit** 

Shak.'] Mentally disposed. 
IAf-fISc'tiovs-ly, flrf. In an affecting manner BaUep 
AF-f£c'T?ve, a. Capable of affecting. BiinieU 
AF-Ffic'TiVE-Ly, ad. In an impressive manner. 
Af-f£ct'pr, n. One guilty of affectation. Cotgrave. 
f AF-FficT-V-6s'f-Ty, 71. Passion ate n ess. Bailey. 
|Af-f£ct'v-oDs, a." Full of passion. Leland. 
AF-FEER',v.a. [flj^er,Fr.] (Eng.Law) To confirm. Sidoel 
Af-feer'er, 71. (£71^. Law) One who, upon oath, mod- 

erates and settles fines in courts-leet. 
JiF'FST'TP'-Q-?Oj(!^f-fet-t-6'zi}) ad. [It.] (Mus.) Adirectioi 
* noting something to be sung or played tenderly. 
Af-fi'^nce, n. A marriage-contract; confidence; trual 

trust in the divine promises. Hammond 
AF-FI'ANCE, v. a. ifiancer. Fr.] [i. affianced ; pp. At 

piANciNG, affianced.] To betroth ; to give confidence 
AF-Fi'AN-c?R, n. One who makes affiance. 
fXF-Fi-DA'TipN, 7u [affido, low L.] A mutual contract *, 

fidelity,_ Bailey. 
tXF-Fj-DAT'vRE, it. Mutual contract, Bailey. 
Af-fi-da'V|T, 71. [affidavit^ low L,] (Law) An oath, ta 

writing, sworn to before some person who has authority 

to administer it. 
Af-fied', (^{-tiA') p. a. Joined by contract; affianced 

tAF-S'lLE', V. a. [affUern Fr.] To polish. Chaucer. 


affiliated.] To adopt as one's child ; to establish tha 
sonship or paternity of; to associate or unite with. Ou 

Af-fIl-I-a'TIPN, n. [ad and JSKjm, L.] Adoption ; act of 
taking a son. 

Af'fi-NjSjBE, 71. [t^nagey Fr.] The art of refining metal* 

Affined, (gLf-fin'ed, or gif-find') o. [affinis, L,] Joined by 
affinity, Shak. 

AF-FlN'i-T^-TlvE-Iiy,* ad. By means of affinity. PML 

Ap-fIn'i-T¥, 71. ; pi. af-fTn'i-tje?. Relationship by mar- 
riage : opposed to consanguinity, or relationship by birth : 
relation to ; connection with ; relation or similarity of an- 
imals to each other, — (CheTiu) That kind of attraction by 
which the particles of different bodies unite and form a 
new compound. — Elective affinity is where one body ia 
formed by the decomposition of another. 

Af-firm', v. a. [affirmoj L.] [u affirmed -ypp. affiemiwu, 
AFFIRMED.] To declare positively ; to aver ; to asseverate } 
to ratify or approve; to confirm. 

Af-FiRM', v. ru To declare or assert positively: opposed to 
to deny, 

Af-firm'A-BLE, a. That may be affirmed. Hale. 

AF-FiRM'^-BLy, ofZ. In a way capable of affirmation. 

Af-firm'^nce, 71. Confirmation ; declaration. Bacon, 

^F-FiRM'^NT, n. One Who affirms ; one who makes afflf- 
mation instead of an oath. 

AF-FjR-MA'TipN, n. The act of affirming; thing affirmed. 
— (Law) A solemn declaration, answering to an oath. 

Af-firm'^-tIve, a. That affirms or may be affirmed ; de- 
claring a fact to be true ; positive. — Affirmative, or poai- 
tivcy sign^ the sign of addition ; thus, [ + ]• 

Af-f'irm'^-t1ve, 71. That which contains an affirmation. 

AF-FlRM'A-TlVE-Ly,ffl(Z. In an affirmative manner. Brown. 

Af-firm']er, n. One who affirms, 

Af-fIx', v. a. \affigOj fflj^iim,, L,] [i, affixed; pp. Ar- 
FixiNo, AFFIXED.] To uuitc to the end; to subjoin- 
to annex. 

Xf'fix, [af iks, S. W. J. F. Ja. K. Stn^i ^f-fiks', P.] n. 
(Orammar) Something affixed or united to the end of a 

AF-Flx'ipN, (?f-fik'shvn)7(. Act of affixing. Bp. HaU. [r.) 

AF-FtxT'VRE,* n. That which is affixed. Knmoles. 

AF-FLA'TlpN,7t. [a#o, affiaiumjli.'] Act of breathing upon, 

Af-fla' T^s, n. [L.] Breath; divine inspiration. Wkitin^ 

Af-FlIct', v. a. [affiicto, L.] [i. afflicted ; pp, af- 
flictinq, afflicted.] To visit with sorrow or ca- 
lamity: to put in pain ; to grieve ; to torment. — [Affiiga^ 
L. t To throw ; to overthrow. MilUm.} 

AF-FLlcT']pD,*p. a. Visited with affliction, pain, or boa 
row ; grieved. 

^f-flIct'ed-n£ss, 71. State of being afflicted. 

Af-fl!ct'5R, n. One who afflicts. HuloeU 

Af-flIot'ing,* p. o. Causing affliction; grievous; pal»' 

j>f-flIct';n(J-ly, ad. In an afflicting manner 

Af-flTc'tipn, 71. State of being afflicted ; calamity ; cans* 
of pain or sorrow ; sorrow ; grief. 

Af-flIc'tjve, a. Causing affliction ; painful ; tormenting 

AF-FI.Ic'TJVE-I.y, ad. Painfully. Brown. 

AF'FiiV-?NCE, n. Exuberance of riches ; plenty ; wealttk 

AF'FLV-^N-cy, 71* Same as affiuenee. 

I, E, 1, 6 0, V, ion/; X, fi. 1. 6 0, * short; ^, ?, j, p, y* Vi obseurt — li^RE, r'Ar FJtST, pall; utiK B)t« 



|F'FLV-?NT, a. f(#uefw, L.] Flowing to; exuberant; op- 
ulent; abundant; wealthy. 

Ii'flv-ent,* 71. A stream or river that flowa into another 
river. P. Oyc, 

iF'FLV-i?HT-Ly, ad. In an affluent manner. 

(AF'flv-?nt-n£ss, 71. State of being affluent. Bailey, 

AF'flDX, (af'fluks) n. [affiuxusj L.] Act of flowing to ; 

^f-flOx'iqn, (jf-fluk'shiin) n. The act of flowing to. 

AF'FpR-^jGE,* n. {FH-eiich Law) A duty paid, in France, to 
the lord of a district for the privilege of selling wine, &c., 
within his seigniory, Crahb 

tAF-FOR'c;-VM£NT,* 71. {Law) A fortj a stronghold. 

(kF-FORD', TJ. o. [afforer, Fr.] [i. afforded; pp. af- 
fording, AFFORDED.] To yield or produce; to grant 
n't confer; to be able to sell, support, manage, pay, or do 

tAF-F5RD'METfT, 7U A grant ; donation. Lord. 

^f-f6r'^st, v. a. [agoTsstare, L.] To turn ground Into 
forest. Sir J. Dames. 

*5kF-F6R-Es-TA'Ti9N, n. Act of turning ground into, for- 
est. Hale. 

i^F-FRXN'cH|9E, v.a. [o^ancMr, Ft.] To make free; to 

i^F-FRXN'cHj$E-MENT, n. Enfrfuichiaement. [r.] 

f^F-FRiP', V. 71. To strike ; to make a blow. Spenser. 

|Af-frXp', u. a. To strike down. SpeTtser 

j^F-FRAY', (^f-fra') n. A quarrel ; disturbance ; tumult. — 
(Law) A nght between two or more persons in a public 

t^F-FRlT', V a. [effraycTj Fr.] To fright ; to terrify. Spen^ 
ser. To put one in doubt. HuloeU 

fi^F-FRAY'MENT, n. Same as afflray, Spenser. 

Af-freight',* (?f-frat') V. a. To hire a ship for freight. 

f^F-FREiOHT'MENT,* (^f-frat'ment) n. {Law) The freight 
of a ship. Crabb, 

f^F-SRfiT', 71. Furious onset ; immediate attack. Spenser. 

f AF-frIc'TI<?w, n. [affrictio. It.] Actof rubbing one thing 
on another. Boyle. 

f-AF-FRlfiND'ED, p. a. Reconciled ; made friends. Sp6nser. 

I^F-FRIGHT', (jlf-frit')'?' 0^ [i- AFFRIGHTED ; ^Jp. AFFRIGHT- 

iKo, AFFRIGHTED.] To afffect with fcar ; to frighten. 

Af-FRIGHT', (gif-frlt') ti. Terror ; fear ; fright. Dryden. 

^F-fright'eb-lY, ad. With fear. 

i^F-FRiGHT'Ew,* (jf-fri'tn) w. a. To terrify; to affright. 

^f-frTght':er, (^f-frlt'er) n. One who frightens. 

f^F-FRiGHT'Ffil,, (^f-frit'ful) ft. Frightful. Hall. 

^AF-fright'ment, (?f-frit'ment) ti. Fear; terror. Bar- 

^f-fr6nt', (pf-friint') v.a. [affronter^ Fr^ [i. affront- 
ed ; pp. AFFRONTING, AFFRONTED.] [f To meet face to 
face. Skak.] To insult; to oflend; to irritate; to make 

^F-FRONT', (jf-friint') n. Open insult; contumely; out- 

^F-FRpN-TEE',* ft. (Her.) Placed front to front. Ash. 

Af-front'er, (^f-frunt'?r) n. One who affronts. 

^F-FR6NT'fNG, (?f-frant'ing) p. a. Contumelious. Watts. 

Af-fr6nt/{ve, (^f-frunt'iv) a. Causing affront. Ask. 

fAF-FR6NT'jVE-N£ss, n. The quality that gives affront. 

^F-FU9E', V. a. [affundoj afusum, L.] To pour one thing 
upon another. Boyle. 

^F-FU'9iON, (gtf-ffl'zhun) 71, [affasio,Ij.] The act of pour- 
ing upon. Grew. 

^f-fy', (?f-ft') V. a. [a#er, Fr.] [i. affied ; pp. afft- 
iNo, affied.j To betroth in order to marriage ; to bind ; 
to join. ^ 

iAF-FY', (^f-ft') V. n. To put confidence in. B. Joiison, 
Lf'SH^H",* tu a native of Afghanistan. Eamsliaw. 
Xf'GHAN,'*' a. Belonging to Afghanistan. Eamshaw 
^-FIELD^ (^-feidO ad. To tlte field ; in the field. MUton 
^-FIRE'. ad. &, a. On fire ; burning. Oower. 
A-FliXT', ad. Level with the ground. Bacon. 
A-FLOAt', (p-flot') ad. in a. floating state. SAofc, 
^-FOOT^, (^-{OlV) ad. On foot; in action ; in motion. SAoft. 
^-f6re, prep. Before ; nearer in place ; sooner. [R.] 
^-FORE', ad. In time past; in front; before. Sltak, "[Anti- 
quated, and superseded by b^ore.] 
iA.-f6re'g6-ing, o. Going before, Lilly, [r.] 
^-FORE'HXNl),a(2. Beforehand. Bacon.. 
^-fore'm£;n-tipned, (-shund) a. Mentioned before. Ad- 
^-fore'named, (9-fSi'namd) a. Named before. 
^-FORE'said, (g^•K^r's£d) a. Said or named before. 
i(i.-FORE'THOT;oHT,* (gt-for'thS-wt) a. (Law) Prepense ; 

premeditated ; aa, " malice aforethought.^^ fVhishaw. 
A-fore'tTme, ad. In time past. Isaum. 
e pdB^Ti'd'nij* (a.-f6r-Bhe-c'Tl) With stron^rer reason 
<i-FRAiD'i a. Slruck with fear; terrified ; fearful. 
^-FRfisH', ad. Anew; again. Knolles. 


Af'bIC, a. Belonging to Africa; AfVican, MUton. 
Af'rJc, 71, The country of Africa. SAoA. 
Af'rj-c^n, (affre-k^in) a. Belonging to Africa. 
Af'rj-can, 71. A native of Africa; a kind of marig/^W 
Af'rJ-c^N-I^M,* n. A word or phrase pecu^r to Africa 

A-fr6nt', (?-fri5nt') ad. In front. Shak. 
Aft, ad, (}i'aut.) Abaft ; astern ; behind ; ax, " fore an4 

Af'ti^ir, prep. Following in time or place ; in pursuit of ^ 

behind ; according to ; about ; in imitation of, 
Af'ter, ad. In succeeding time : afterward. 
tXF'T?R, 71. Succeeding time. "An after^s tale." Young. 
AF'TER,*a. Succeeding; subsequent; as, "o^er editions." 

Coleridge. {fCf This word is sometimes used in a sep* 

rate form as an adjective, and often in composition, of 

which several examples follow. 
AF'TER-Ac-CEp-TA'TipN, n. A sense not at first admit 

ted. Drydeia. 
AF'TER-Ac-cotywT', n. Future reckoning. 
Af'ter-Act',71. An act subsequent to another. 
AF'TER-Ac'TipN,* 71. A subsequent action or conduct 

Af't:?r-AjGE, n.ipl. Af't^r-a-jEes. Succeeding time oi 

age. MUton, 
Af'ter-All', ad. When all has been taken into the view , 

in fine ; in conclusion ; upon the whole. Atterbury, 
Af'ter-Ap-plj-ca'tipn, n. A subsequent application 
Af^ter-^t-tXck', tu An attack made afterwards. 
Af'ter-BXnd, 71. A fiiture band or chain. MUton. 
f Af'ter-BeAr'jng, 71. A subsequent bearing or product 
Af'ter-BIrth, 71. (Med.) The secundine; the placenta. 
Af'tier-CXl-cv-la'tipn,* n. A subsequent calculation 

AF'T:^R-CliXP,7E. A subsequent, unexpected event. Spenaa 
XF'T:]^R-C6ivi':q;R, (ftf ter-kum'^r) n. A successor. 
Af'ter-CCm'fprt, 71.' A subsequent comfort. B.JmisoTi ' 
Ap'T¥R-C6n'dvct, n. Subsequent behavior. Sherlock. 
AF^Ti^R^CdlT'TRXcT,* Tt, A subsequent engagement. Mil- 
AF'TER-CpN-vtc'TipN, 71. Future conviction. South, 
Af'T]^r-C63T, 71. A subsequent expense or cost. 
Af't^r-Course, 71. Future course. Brown. 
Af't:?r-Cr6p, 71. A second crop, or harvest of the dame 

Af'ter-Day, (if t?r-da.) n. A future day. Congreve. 
Af'ter-DIn'ner, 71. The hour just after dinner. Shah. 
fAF'Ti^R-EAT'^jGE, n. An after or second crop, as of 

grass. Bum. 
Af'teHt-^n-dJSav'PR, (ftf'ter-en-dEv'gr) n. An endeavoi 

made after the first effort. Locke. 
fAF'TER-EYE, (Sf'ter-i) v. a. To keep one in view. Shak. 
Af'ter-Game, n. A subsequent game or expedient. 
Af'ter-GrAs^,'*' n. A second crop of grass; aftermath. 

Af'ter-GuXrd,* n. (JVaut.) The seamen stationed on tb« 

poop and quarter-deck of vessels. Crabb. 
Af'ti^ir-Hope, 71. Future hope. B. Jonson. 
AF'TER-Hot)R9, (4f'ter-bfirz) n. pi. Succeeding hours. 

Af'ter-Ig'np-RANce, n. Subsequent ignorance 
Af'ter-Ing9, n.' pi. The last milk taken from a cow; 

strokings. Chose. [Provincial in England.] 
Af'ter-In-qui'ry, 7^. A subsequent inquiry. SAoA, 
Af'ter-KIng, n. A succeeding king. Shuckford. 
Af'ter-LAw,* 71. A subsequent law or statute. Milton, 
Af'ter-Life, n. Remainder of life ; a life after this. 
AF'TER-Ltv'ER, 71. One who lives in succeeding timea. 
Af'Ter-LTv'i'ng, n. Future days. Beauvu Sr Fl 
Af'Ter-L6ve, (if'ter-luv) ji. Second or later love. Shak. 
Af'ter-MXl'jce, ti. Succeeding malice. Dryden, 
Af'ter-MXth, n. The second crop of grass mown in au- 
tumn ; called also ^fter-grass, lattcr-matk, eddlshj rowen. 

or rowetti and when left long on the ground, it is called 

fogg in some places. P. Cyc. 
Af'ter-M£d-;-ta'tipn,''' n. Subsequent meditation, 

Af'ter-most, a. superl. Hindmost. Havskesioortk. 
Af'ter-n56h", 71. The time from the meridian to tltt 

Af'ter-n56n,* a. Relating to the latter part of the day 

AF'T^R-NotJR'jsH-MfiNT, tu Future nourishment. Peri 

Af'ter-Pain?, (ftf't$r-panz) ti. pi The pains after child- 

Af'ter-PXrt, n. The latter part. Locke. 
Af'ter-PAst'vre,* n. Pasture after the grass is mowe4 

Af'ter-piece, (4f't?r-peB) n. A farce, or any smaller e» 

tertainment, after tbe play. R. Cumberland. 
Af'ter-PrXc'tjce,* n. Subsequent practice. Dryden, 
Af'T]^r-Pb66f, Ti. Posterior evidence or proof. Wotton, 
Af't:ie:r-R£c'kon-jng, n. An account given afterwardi. 

K EN sYr m6ve, HOR, sCn; bOll, bUr, rOle — g, ;j, 9, g, soft-, je, «, j, g, hard; 9 o* 2; 5 o« gzj^TOU 



Xr'TER-Rr-pfiNT'ANCE, ru Future repentance. South, 

Xp'ter-Re-port'Jti. a subsequent report. South, 

Af'ter-R5t'ten-n£ss, n. Future rottenness. South. 

Af'T?r-S6no,*7U a subsequent song or ode. Congreve. 

Af't:^r-State, 7t. A future state. GlanvUle. 
, Af T]^r-StYn&, 71. A subsequent sting. Ld. Hervey. 

AF'T:q:R-STbRM:, 71. A succeeding storm. Dryden. 

Af'ter-SGp'per, 71. The time after supper. SJtak. 

Af't:^r-Taste, n. Taste remaining after the draught. 

Af't?r-Thought, (ftPter-thawt) n, Reflection after the 
act ; a later thought. Dryden. 

Af'ter-TIme, 71. Succeeding time. Kill. 

Af'ter-Toss'ins, n. Motion of the sea after a storm. 

Af'ter-ward, (ftf'teir-wurd) ) ad. In succeeding time. 

Af'Ter-ward5, (ftf t^r-wurdz) j " Sometimes written 
afterwardsj but less properly." Johnson. " To the termi- 
nations in wardj as, inward, forward, toward, an added 8 
begins to obtain even in classical books." MLtford 

Af'ter-wi^e, a. Wise afterward or too late. Addison. 

Af'Ter-W/t, 71. Contrivance too late. VE^trange. 

Af'ter-WIt'NESS, 71. Future witness. Ld. Ilervey. 

Af't?r-WrXth, (if'ter-rath) n. Anger when the provo- 
cation seems past. Shak 

Af'ter-WrIt'er, (irter-rlt'?r) 71. A succeeding writer. 

Aft'ward, ad. (JVauU) Aftermost ; hindmost. 

a'efAj (a'ga, or a'g?) [a'g?i, S. F. J Ja. Sm. ,• a'g?, P. IC.] n. 
The title of a Turkish high officer at court or in the army. 

^-GAIN', (51-ggn') ad. [^-i&n', S. W. J. E. F. Sm. K. ; ?-gan', 
Jo.] A second time j once more ; in return, noting reac- 

^-GAINST', (^-gSnstO [J-|enst^ & W. J. E. F. K. Sm. ; 
^-ganst', Ja.] prep. In opposition to ; contrary ; in con- 
tradiction to J opposite to ; to the hurt of another ; in pro- 
vision for. 

|A-qain'w^ard, (j-gen'wgrd) ad. Hitherward. Gower. 

IAg'a-lXx-V, CSg'H^k-se) 71. [Gr.J Want of milk. Baiie?/. 

Ag-'al-lGjEh,* OT- j^-gXl'l<?-jBHUM* n. (Bot.) Aloes 
wood. Crabb. 

j^-gXl'ma,* 71. (Law) The impression or image of any 
thing on a seal. Tomlina. 

A-g^l-mXt'9-lite,*71. (Min.) The mineral which the 
Chinese earve into images. Brande. 

Afl-'A-MA,* n. (Zdol.) A genus of reptiles belonging to the 
order of saurians. P. Cyc. 

Ag'a-mi,* It. (Omith.) A species of pheasant or crane, 
sometimes called the gold-breasted trumpeter. P. Cyc. 

Ag'a-mSst, 71. A person unmarried. Coles. 

Ag'a-moId,* a. Denoting the agama or lizard. Brands. 

Ag'4-MOOs,* a. (Bot.) Having no visible flowers or sexual 
organs ; cryptogamic. Brande. 

de'A-JPJR,* [L. ; dyaTrn, Gr.] Love feasts, or feasts 
of charity, common among the primitive Christians. J\I/Z~ 

ijL-GXPE', [?-ga.p', W: J. F. f ?-gap', P. Ja. Sm.] Staring 
with eagerness. Milton. See G-ape. 

AG'^-PHiTE,*n. (Mm.) The turquoise stone. Phillips. 

Ag'^-rIc, 71. {agaricum, L.] A genus of fungi compre- 
hending many hundred species ; a mushroom j a drug 
used in physic and in dyeing, 

Ag-a-rI"ci-a,* 71. A mushroom madrepol'e; a genus of 
coral madrepores. P. Cyc. 

4.-gXr'|-cDs,* 71. [a^aricum^ Ij.] (Bot.) A generic name of 
musiirooma coHectively. P. Cyc. 

^ gAst', a. Struck with terror. Milton. See Aghast, 

4-gate', ad. On the way ; a-going. Brewer. [Local, Eng.] 

ACr'ATEjTi. [agate, Fr.] (Min.) A silicious, ornamental 
stone used m jewelry and for some purposes in the arts j 
sometimes called Scotch pebble. 

Ag'^te-RIng,* 71. A ring embellished with agate. Sliak. 

Ag'a-thIs,* n. (Bot.) The dammar or kawrie pine. P. 

AG'A-TIZE,* v. a. U. AOATIZED ; pp. AOATIZirfO, AOA- 

TizED.] To change into agate. Peck. 

Ag'a-ty, C^g'?-te) a. Of the nature of agate. Woodward. 

^-Ga'vie,* 71. {ayavog, Gr.] (Bot.) A genus of American 
plants resembling aloes ; the great American aloe. Brande. 

^A-GAZE^ V. a. To strike with amazement. Spenser. 

^-gXzed', (9-gazd') ;*. a. Struck with amazement. Shak. 

SjBE, (aj) 71. [Fr.] Any period of time ; a definite period j a 
succession or generation of men ; the time in which one 
lived ; a hundred years ; a century ; maturity ; decline of 
life; old age. — (Law) The period at which individuals 
are qualified to ur.dertake certain duties and offices. A 
male at fourteen years is said to be at years of discretion, 
and may consent to marriage, and choose a guardian, &:c. 
A female at twelve is at years of discretion or maturity, 
and miy consent to marriage; at fourteen, is at years of 
legal discretion, and may choose a guardian. At twenty- 
one, h 'th male and female are of full age, and at their 
own disposal. Bouvler. 

A'jfl^D, (a'jed) a. Old; stricken in years. Hooker. 

fA'jBED~i.y, at/. After the manner of an aged person. Hu~ 


Aj&e-ew-f££'bled,* (-bid) a. Enfeebled by ag(|, PoU^ 
ApE-B6N'pRED,* (aj-on'urd) o. Honored on account ot 

age. Potter. 
t^MvfiH', ad. Again, Dryderu See AoAinr. 
A'/i?N-C¥, n. Action ; performance ; office of an agent ; ojr 

eration ; management, 
f A'jGrEKD, 71. [agendum, li.] See Aoenduu. Bp. Andrews 
Ji-^^N' lyjjM, 71. [L.] pi. A-0Mi]!i'D4.. A raenorandua 
' book: — pi. Things to be done. 
A'jGJENT, a. [agen-s^ u.] That acts ; acting. Bacon.. 
A'j&ENT, n. An actor ; a substitute ; a deputy ; a factor 

that which has the power of operating. 
a'jG?nt-shIp,7i. The office of an agent. Beaum. Sf FL 
AjSE'woRN,* a. Worn or wasted by age. Jodr&U, 
lAp-jSE-LA'TIpN, (ad-je-l*'shun) 71. Concretion into ic« 

f^jG-jG£N-ER-A'Ti<?N, (jid-jSn-ner-a'shun) ti. The state ol 

growing to another body. Brown. 
t-fljS'jffE^, (SLd'jyr) n. [L.l A fortress, orlrench. Hearae. 
JAp'pER-ATE. (ad'jer-at) -o. a. To heap up. Bailey 
fAjG-j&ER-OSE', (5d-j'er-os0 a. Full of heaps. Bailey. 
^g-gl6m'er-ate, v. a. [agglomero, L.] [i. agglomeu 


up in a ball, _as thread ; to gather together. Young. 
Ag-gl5m':er-ate,u. 7i. To grow into one mass. Thomson^ 
Ag-gi.6m-er-a'tiqn, n. Act of agglomerating. 
Ag-gIiU'tj-nXnt, n. (Med.) A uniting and healing medi- 
^g-glu'tj-nXwt, o. Uniting parts together. Gray, 
Ag-GLU'tJ-NATE, v. a. [i. agglutinated; pp. aoglv 

TiNATiKo, agglutinated.] To Unite one part to an 

other. Harvey. 
AG-GLU-Tj-NA'TlpN, 71. Union ; cohesion. Howell. 
^G-GLtJ'Ti-NA-TivE, a. Tending to agglutinate or unite. 
f AG-grace', v. a. To favor. Spenser. 
tAG-GRACE% 7i. Kindness; favor. Spenser, 
tAG-GRXN-Dj-ZA'TlpR", rt. Aggrandizement. Waterkouse,- 
Ag'GRAN-DIZE, v. a. [aggramlir, Fr.][i. aggrandized , 

pp. AGGRANDIZING, AGGRANDIZED.] To make great; to 

cause to excel in rank or dignity ; to enlarge ; to exalt. 
Ag'graw-dize, v. n. To become greater; to incremea. 
Ag'gran-dize-mewt, or Ag-grXn'djze-m£nt, [Sg'- 

r^n-dxz-ment, S. TV. J. F. Stiu R. ,■ 3g~granMiz-ment, Ja. 

Wb. ; ag'r?n-diz-ment, or ^g-grSln'djz-ment, P.] n. Stata 

of being aggrandized; exaltation. 
Ag'gr^n-diz-:?r, n. One who aggrandizes. 
fAG-GRATE', V. a. To please; to treat with civility. Spem 

tAG'GRA.-v^-BLE, it. Making woree; aggravating. Dr. 3. 

XG'GR-flL-VATE,.». a. [aggravo, L.] [L aggravated; pp 

AGGRAVATING, AGGRAVATED.] To make worse ; to exas* 

perate ; to enhance in guilt or evil ; to provoke. 
Ag'gra-vat-]ed,* p. a. Rendered less tolerable; mada 

Ag'gra-vat-jng,* p. a. Causing aggravation ; provoking. 
Ag-gra-va'tiqn, n. Act of aggravating ; state of being 

aggravated ; provocation ; something which increases an 

Xg'gre-gate, a. Formed by the collection of parts, 
Ag'gre-gate, 71. The sum or result of parts collected.— 

(Min.) A rock composed of two or more simple mineral* 
Ag'gre-GATE, I), a. [aggrego, "L.] [i. aggregated; pp. 


cumulate. Milton. 
Xg'gr:e-gate-lv, ad. Collectively. Chesterfield. 
Ag-gre-ga'tiqn, n. Collection ; accumulation. 
Xg'gre-ga-tive, a. Taken together. Spelman. 
Ag'gre-ga-tpr, 3t. [L.] One who collects material 

^G-GREss', v. 71. [aggredior, aggressvm, L.] [i. a& 


first act of violence. Prior, 

Ag-gr£ss%* v. a. To attack. Qu. Rev. [R.] 

fj^G-GREss', n. [aggressus, low LJ Aggression. Hate 

Ag-gr£s'siqn, (&g-grSsh'un) n. The first act of injury, 
an attack ; an invasion. 

j^g-gr£s'sive, a. Making the first attack; beginning % 
quarrel ; offensive. Sir Walter Scott. 

Ag-gres's?ve-nEss,* 71. The quality of being aggressive. 

Ag-gr£ss'qr, n. One who commences hostility. 

^g-griev'ance, 71. Injury. Beaum, Sr FL See Griev- 


AGGRIEVED.] To glvc sorTow J to vcx ; to harass; to 

fAG-GRlSVE', V. n. To grieve. Mir. for Magistrates. 

i^G-GRiEVED',* C&g-grevd') p. o. Afflicted; grieved; in- 

Ag-gr6up', (9g-gr3p') v. a. [i. aggrouped ; pp. as- 
GRoupiNo, AGGROUPED.] To bring together into on* 
figure ; to group ; a term in painting. Dryden. 

A, E, I, o, tJ, y, long; X, E, t, 6, tJ, S, short j ^, ]E, ;, Q, y, y, obscure. — fAre, fXr, fAst, fAlL; H^IR. B^B 


fr-flHXsT^ r?-gftat') a Struck with horror ; amazed. JifiltoTU 

i/5'lLE, (aj'jl) a. [ag'iZtSjL.] Nimble ; ready ; active. Slialt. 

^>a'lLE-NEss, (ajfil-nga) n. Nimbleness; agility, [r.] 

^-.cIl'i-ty, n. Nimbleness : activity ; quickness. PVatts. 

4-trJi-' i-Q-psirMj (?i-iil'l9-kum) n. Aloes-wood, Q,uincy. 

A't.rl-6^ (a'j?-o, or Sid^j^-o) [a'je-o, P. J. F. K. ; &d'je-o, 
Ja Sm.] 71. [It.] pi. Ai0i~o^. (Com.) The difference 
between the values of the current or bank notes, und 
standard money or specie of any place. 

A/*'}-p-TA^E,* 71. The management or manoeuvres by 
which speculators in the public funds contrive, by dis- 
seminating false rumors, or by other means, to lower or 
enhance their price. Brande* 

A-iitlST', V. a. {Law) To take in and feed cattle. BlownU 

A-^ist'ajGE,* n. {Law) B'o.mQ 3.S agistmenL Crabb. 

A->5lsT'MENT, 71. {Law) The feeding of cattle in a com- 
mon pasture, for a stipulated price, tithe due for the 
profit made by agisting. Biackstone. An embankment j 
earth heaped up. 

^-jais'TpR, 71. An officer of the king of England's forest, 

Aj&'jT-A-BLE, a. That may be agitated. Bailey. [R.] 

Aja'j-TATE, V. a. [offito, L.] [i. agitated; pp. agitat- 
ing, AGITATED.] To put In motlon J to disturb; to stir; 
to discuss ; to contrive ; to revolve. 

ip-l-TA'Ti9N,7i. Act of agitating; state of being agitated ; 
motion either of body or mind; discussion; deliberation. 

^jff-j-rJi'rp,* [It.] {Music) Denoting a rapid and broken 
style of performing. Crabb. 

AjG'i-TA-TpR, n. One who causes agitation. — {Eng, Hist.) 
A person chosen by the army, in 1647, to watch over its 

Ao'let, 71. [fliffTiiHeMe, Fr.] A tag of a point carved into 
the shape of little images ; a pendant at the ends of the 
chives of fiowers. 

AG'LET-HJSAD':ipD,* a. Pointed with a tag at the head. 

fAG^Mf-N^L, a. {agmeriy L.J Belonging to a troop, Bailey. 

Xg'nail, n, A disease of the nails;- a whitlow. 

Ag'nate, a. [agnattiSj L.] Akin from the father's side; 
allied to. 

X.G'NATE,*n. One connected by the father's side or by 
mates. Bojivier, 

Aa-NS.T'ic, a. Related oi'akin by descent from the father. 

^o-NA'TipN, 71. Descent by the father's side, or from the 
same father in a direct male line ; alliance. 

tAG-NT["Tl9N, 71, J^ao^itio, L.] Acknowledgment. Pearson. 

fAG-NlZE', V. a. [affniser. Fr.] To acknowledge. Shak. 

Aq-No'mbNj* n. [L.] A name derived, among the Ro- 

' mans, from some illustrious action or remarkable event, 
and given to a person, although he might already have a 
prienomen, nomen, and cognomen; as, ^ricanus was 
the agnomen of the two Scipios. Brands. 

i^O-NOM'l-MATE, u. a. [agnomina, L.] To name. Locrine. 

Ag-nom-i-na'ttqw, n. Allusion of one word to another, 
by sound ; an additional name. Caindcn. 

Ao-'NON,* n. A species of dragon-fly. Bratide. 

^o-no-the'ri-O'M,* n. (OeoL) An extinct fossil animal, 
allied to the dog, but as large as a lion. Roberts. 

^G'N^s^n. [L.] A lamb. — (iioTttisA C/mrc/O The image of 
a lamb representing our Savior. Srevint. 

Acf'N^S CXs'Ti/Sjn. [L,] The chaste-tree. Dryden. 

^-Go', ad. In time past ; smce j past ; as, ** long ago," 

A-gog', ad. In a state of desire. [A low word.] 

Jj-eo'jff^,* 71. [Gr.] The drift, current, or force of any 

* thing in progress ; a little channel. Crabb. 

A-GO'iXG,p. a. In the act of going; in action. Dryden. 

\A&'0JV,n. [Gr.] The contest for the prize, .^fip. Sa7icrq/?, 

\A&'(?-N'A.R€iij* n. [dyayudpxriSy Gr.] A master of revels, 

♦A-oSne', (gi-g5n') ad. Ago; past. B. Jonson. 

Jta'Q-Nl^M, n. [dyo}i>t(rniif Gr.] Contention for a prize, 
' Bailty. [r,] 

A«i'P-n1?t, 71. A contender for prizes. Bailey, [r.] 

^ l<i 'Q-fiW T'ATiBii,* n. One who took the charge, in an- 
cient times, of exercising combatants. Crabb. 

tXG-P-Nfs'Tl3R,* 71. A prize-fighter; agonistes. Maunder. 

4'a o-JVts'TEi^jn. [Gr.j A prize-fighter; one that contends 
at a public solemnity for a prize. Milton. 

*i5-p-Nl's'TIC, a. Agonistical. Hammond. 

AG-p-wis'Ti-CAL, a. Relating to prize-fighting. Bp. BvlL 

Xg-P nIs'ti-cal-lv, ad. In an agonistical manner. 

AG-p-Nts'Tics,* n. pi The art or theory of prize-fighting. 
Qu. RcD. 

Ag'P-NJZE, V a. [dyctivi^ui^ Gr.] [i. agonized ; pp. aoo- 
fTiziwo, agonizjbd.] To afflict with agony. Feltkam. 

iG'p-NiZE, w. 71. To feel agony; to be in excessive pain. 

Ag-P-niz'JNG-LY, ad. In the most painfully feeling man- 

\Xg'<? Np-THETB, n, [dYCtivo6sTr]g, Gr,] A judge of mas- 
teries in activity. Bauey. 

(Ao-p-Np-THfiT'jC, a. Presiding at public gam'ia. BaileTf. 



(Ao-p-Np-THET'jc, a. rresmmg ai puoiic gam'ia. aaiieij. wnen tollowed by tiiat^ 

KiBN, SIR; m6vb, n5b, s6n; bOll, bWr, rOle. — V, jG, c, I, soft; a, », s, g, 

AG'p-«0s,*7i. (Ich.) A genua of fishes. P. Cyc 

Ag'p-ny, n. UiyoiVj Gr.] The pangs of death ; vkdett 
pain ; anguish : — distinctively, of Christ in the garden. 

fA-GOOD', (^-gdd') ad. In earnest ; not fictitiously. Shak, 

A-g6u'tj, (^-gS'te) 71, {Zool.) A genus of rodent animals 

f A-grace', v. a. See Aggracb, 

|.^-GRAM'MA-TiST, 71. [ti and ypafifxa, Gr.] An iliiterat« 
man. Bailey, 

^-gra'r(-an, a, [agrariusf L.] Relating to fields or 
grounds; agrestic. — .Agrarian taw, a. law for the distri- 
bution of lands among plebeians, soldiers, or all the citi- 
zens. Crabb. 

A-gra'ri-an,* 71. An advocate of agrarian principles ot 
laws. Qu. Rev. 

A-GRA'iii-AN-i?M,* 71. The distribution of land or ot&ei 
property among the people. Sir J. Mackintosh. 

A~gra'ri-an-ize,* V, a. To distribute among the peopie 

^-GREii', V. n. [anrcBr, Fr.] [i. agreed; pp. agreeing 
AGREED.] To thmk or act in unison ; to be in concord . 
to grant; to yield to; to settle amicably; to concur; (*■* 
suit with. 

I^-grke', v. a. To reconcile. Spenser. 

A-GREii-A-BlL'(-Ty, 71. Agreeableness. Chaucer. 

A-GRiiB'A-BLiE, a. Suitable to; consistent with; accord 
ant; concordant: conformable; pleasing. 

A-gree'a-ble-ness, 71. Q,uality of being agreeable 

^-gree'^-bly, ad. In accordance with; pleasinjjiv 

A-greed'jJj. a. Settled by consent. Locke. 

A-GREE'ing-LY, ad. In conformity to. Sheldon. 

A-gree'ing-n£ss, 71. Consistence; suitableness, [r.] 

^-gree'ment, 71. Act of agreeing; state of being agreed j 
concord; resemblance of one thing to another; stipulflr 
tion ; compact ; bargain. — {Law) That wh'.ch is consented 
to by two or more parties. 

f A-gr£s'tj-al, (?-grest'ye-Fil) a. Agrestic, 

A-gr£s'tic, ) a. [agrestisj li.] Rude; rustic ; belong 

^-GRfis'Ti-cAL, ) ing to the country or to fields. 

fA-GRlC-p'-LA'TIpN, n. [agricolaj L.] Culture of th« 
ground. Bailey. 

A-grIc'p-lIst,* n. An agriculturist; a husbandman 

Ag'BI-cOlT-PR, n. An agriculturist ; a farmer. Farm, Etie^ 

Ao-Ri-ctjLT'v-RAL, a. Relating to agriculture. Smith. 

AG-Ri-ci)LT'v-RAL-IsT,* 71. Agriculturist. Thacher. [r.1 

Ag'ri-C&lt-VRE, (4g'ri-kalt-yur)7i, [agricultura, 1,,] Tna 
art or science of cultivating the earth ; tillage ; husbandry 

Ag-ri-CDlt'v-rism, 71. The science of agriculture. [R.] 

Ag-ri-c&lt'v-rIst, 71. One versed in agriculture; a 

Ag'ri-MP-nYj «• [agrimonia, L.'] A spriggy plant ; a genui 
of plants. 

f i^-GRigE',!;. 71. To shiver for fear, or through pity. Chancer. 

f A-GR15E', V. a. To affright ; to terrify ; to disfigure. Spenser. 

a'gr6m,* n. (Med.) A disease of the tongue in India 

A-grSn'p-MV,* ?i. Cultivation; agriculture. Brande. 

AG-Rps-Ti5M'MA,* V. {Bot.) A genus of plants. Crabb 

A-gr6s'tis,* 71. {Bat.) A genus of grasses ; bent-gran 
Farm. Encyc. 

Ag-RPS-t6g'ra-phy,* 71. A description of grasses. Zh 

Ag-rps-t6l'p-jGv,* 71. That part of botany that relates u 
grasses. Brande. 

A-gboOnd', ad. On the ground; stranded; obstructed: — 
applied to a ship wJii;n it rests on the ground so as to bfl 

a'gve, (a'gu) «. An intermittent fever, with cold fits sue 
ceeded by hot: — a swelling or inflammation from taking 
cold. Forby. 

a'gve, v.a. To strike as with an ague. Haywood. 

a'gve-CakEj* 71. An enlargement of the liver or spleen, 
caused by the ague. Brande. A composition adapted In 
the ague, Milton. 

A'GiJED, (a'gud) a. Struck with an ague. SJialc. [a.] 

a'gve-Fit, 7i. A paroxysm of the ague. Shak. 

a'gve-Proof, (a'gu-prof ) a. Proof against agues. Shak. 

t.^-GU£R'RY, V. a. [ajraerrir, Fr.] To inure to the hard- 
ships of war. Lyttleton. 

A'GVE-SPEtiL, 71. A charm for the ague. Oay. 

A'gve-8TR0ck, a. Struck as with an ague. Hewyt. 

a'gve-Tree, 71, A name sometimes given to sassafrEis. 

A-guJl'a-nbuf'* n. [d gut Pan neuf J Fr.] A ceremony 
of the ancient Gauls, on the first day of the year, gather- 
ing misletoe, and repeating, .8 gui Van neuf. Crabb. 

t^-GUT^E', (gi-5iz') V. a. To dress. Spenser. See Guisb. 

tA-GUI^E', (5i-|tz') 71. Dress. More. 

A^GV-tsH, a. Partaking of or producing ague. B. Jonson. 

a'gv-}sh-n£ss, 71. duality of resembling an ague. 

A'GVL,*7t. {Bot.) A littl'j prickly shrub. Crabb. 

A-jGy'r^te,* 71. (Bot.) An osniundaceous plant. Brande 

Ah, (a.) interj. Sometimes noting dislike, contempt, or efc 
ultation ; but most frequently compassion and complaint 
When followed by that., it expresses vehement desire 

ftard ; 9 as Z] % as f^ic' - TU'» 

AIR le 

hA' , H ~VV . interj. Noting triumph and contempt. Ps. 

|.-h6adS r>-h6d') ad. {JVauU) Farther onward j onward; 

In advance. 
f^-HEiGHT', (?-hIt') ad. Aloft ; on high. Shak. 
fA-HiGH', (?-hiO ad. On high. Shak. 
(^-HOliD^, ad. (JVnut.) To lay a ship ahold^ is to bring her 
to lie as near the wind as she can, in order to get her out 
to sea. Shak. 
4~h6u'4I^ (^-h6'») 71. A poisonous plant of the genus 

A-Hb^', intetj. (JTauU) Noting a call ; holla. 
A-hDn'orv, a. Hungry. Sfiak. The expletive an is thus 

prefixed to hunffer in aji^himgered. Matthew. 
A-Hu'SAL,* 71. {Client.) The sulphur of arsenic. CriUtb. 
Aid, (ad) v. a. [aider, Fr.] [i. aided; pp. aiding, aided.] 

To help ; to assist ; to support. 
iiD, n. Help ; support ; a helper. — (Law) A subsidy ; pecu- 
niary tribute paid by a feudal vassal. Blackstone. 
TAlD'^NCEjTi. Help; support; aid. Shak. 
fAID'ANT, a. Helping ; helpful. SliaJc. 
jUide'-db-Cami', (ad'e-liawng') [ad'e-k^wng', Pf^. Ja.; 
ad'e-kong', E. K. Sm.,- ad'e-k5inp, IVb.} n. [Fr.] pi. 
AIDES-DE-CAMP. A military officer appointed to attend 
a general officer, to receive and carry his orders. 
Aid 'E a, 71. One who aids; abettor; a helper. 
AlD'lNG,*p. a. Affording aid ; assisting; helping. 
Sid'less, (ad'les) a. Helpless ; unsupported. Shak. 
tAiD'-MA-JQR,* 7U The former titla of the adjutant of a 

regiment. Booth. 
AI'GRE,(a'gLir)7i. Theflowingof the sea; eagre. [Provin- 
cial. Eng.]* See Eagre. 
Al'GRET, (a'gret) n. [aigreUe, Fr.] An Oriental orna- 
ment for the head. Tweddell. The egret, or heron See 
idi'GRETTE'j* n. [Fr.] A tuft of feathers. Loudon. 
^i-guil-lette'j* (di-^ei-\W) n. [Fr.] (MIL) A point; a 

tagged point ; an agulet. C. Gratiot, 
Al'GV-Li^T, (a'gy-let) n. [agvillette, Fr.] A point of gold 
at the end of fringes; a tagged point; an aglet. See 
5iK'RAw,*n. (Bot.) A species of lichen or moss. Smart. 
AIL, V. a. [i. ailed; pp. ailing, ailed.] To give pain; 

to pain ; to trouble ; to affect in any manner. 
SiL,* V. n. To feel pain ; to be in pain or trouble. Smart. 

Ail. 71. A disease; pain; illness. Pope. 
AlL'iNG, p. a. Sickly ; full of complaints. 
AlL'iviENX, 71. Pain ; disease. OranvUle. 
AIM, (am) V. 7U [i. aimed; pp. aiming, aimed,] To en- 
deavor to strike with a missile weapon ; to direct toward ; 
to point. 
■Aim, v. a. To direct, as a missile weapon. Dnjden. 
Sim, n. The direction of a missile weapon ; intention ; de- 
sign; purpose; a scheme. [Guess. Spejiser.] 
Aim'er, (a'mer) n. One who aims. fVood. 
Aim'JNG,* 71. The act of taking aim; purpose. South. 
"Axm'less, (am'l?s) a. Without aim or object. May. 
AIR, (ir) 71. [ai^r, L. ; air, Fr ] The fluid which we breathe, 
and which surrounds the globe, esteemed by ancient phi- 
losophers a simple element, but found by modem chem- 
ists'to consist of two simple substances or gases, oxygen 
and /nitrogen, or azote, in the relative bulks of about 91 
arid 79, or 90 and 80 ; the atmosphere ; any aeriform fluid ; 
■gentle wind ; scent ; vapor ; blast ; pestilential vapor ; the 
ppen weather; utterance; publication; melody; a tune; 
a song; attitude, manner, look, or appearance of the per- 
son ; an affected manner or gesture. 
AIR-, (ir)-i?. a. [i. aibed ; pp. airing, aired.] To expose 
to the air ; to gratify, by enjoying the open air ; to warm 
by the fire. 
Air'-Bal-l66n', 71. A machine filled with air. See Bal- 
Air'-BlXd-der, 71. A bladder or vesicle filled with air. 
Air'-blown,* (ir'blon) a. Wafted or Mown by the wind. 

AiR'-BORN, a. Born of the air. Congreve. 
Air'-BRAV-ing, p a. Defying the winds. Shak. 
Air'-br£d,* a. Produced from or in the air. Potter. 
Air'-buIlt, (Ar'bilt) a. Built in the air. Pope. 
Aik.'-C£ll,* 71. A cavity in the stem or leaf of a plant ; a 
membranous receptacle communicating with the lungs of 
birds. Brandt. 
AiR'-CGn'RENT,*7r. A stream or current of air. Ooldsmith. 
f Aib'-drAwn, a. Brawn or painted in air. S/uik. 
AlH-'-EM-BRACED, (ir'em-brast) a. Encompassed by air. 

Sandys. Ps. civ. 
Aib'en,* 71. A Tartar liquor made of cow's milk. Booth. 
Aiit'ER.. 71, One who airs or exposes to tlie air. 
AlB.'--FbRMED,*(ir'formd)(fc, Formed from the air. Jodrell. 
^IK-'-GDn, n. A gun in which air is used, instead of pow- 
der, to propel a ball. 
Abr'-Hole, (ir'hol) 71. A hole to admit air. 
Air'I-ly,* ad. In an airy manner ; gayly Sterne. 


AIR'I-Nfiss, 71. duality of being at./; openness; expo«iM 

to air ; lightness ; gayety ; levity. 
Air'ing, 71. A short excursion to enjoy the free air. 
Air'ljess, a. Wanting communication with the free air. 
AiR'LiNG, 71. A thoughtless, gay person. B. Jonson. 
AiR'-PiPE,* 71. A pipe used to draw foul air out of a ship^ 

hold. Crabb. 
Air'-PlAnt,* n. A plant which possesses the power of 

living a considerable time suspended in the air. P. Cyc 
ArR'-P6l5E, n. An instrument for weighing air. 
Air'-PGmp, n. A philosophical instrument for removinf 

the air out of a vesseL 
Air'-ShAft, 71. A passage for the air into mines. Ray 
AiB'-STiR-RlNG, (ir'stir-rjng) a. Putting air in motion. 
Air'-thrE at'en-Ing, (ir'thrfit'tn-Ing) a. Threateningtht 

air ; lofty. Mir. for Magistrates. 
Air'-tight,* (ir'tit) a. Impervious to air. Prancis. 
Air'-V£s-s:el,* 7u A receptacle of air; a duct in plants. 

ki^'^lt (ir'e) a. Relating to or composed of air ; surrounded 

with air ; high in air ; thin ; unsubstantial ; wanting real- 
ity ; light: gay; sprightly. 
AiR'y-FLY'jNG, a. Flying like air. Thomson. 
Air'V-light, (ir'e-lit) a. Light as air. Milton. 
Aisle, (ll) n. (aile, Fr.] A walk in a church ; a wing of 

the choir in a church. .Addison. 
Aisled,* (I'led, orild) a. Furnished with aisles. Byron. 
ait, 77. A small island in a river. Skinner. A little island 

planted with osiers. Brande. 
ai-z6on',* n. [aizoon, L.] (Bot.) A genus of plants 

houseleek. Crabb. 
^l-zo'vM,*7i. (Bot.) An aquatic evergreen. Smart. 
A-JAK ', ad. Half or partly open : — applied to a door. 
Aj'V-ta/5E, 71. [Fr,] A tube or pipe by which water is dis 

charged to or from water-wheels and other hydraulic en- 
A-kXn'ti-c6ne,*71. (Min.) A term sometimes applied to 

epidote. Cleaveland. 
AKE, V. n. To feel a pain, SJial:. See Ache. 
A-ke'ni-Dm,* 71. (Bot.) A seed-vessel; a spermidium. 

^-idM'Bp,* ft. Arched; crooked. — The arms are o-fciTnfto, 

when the hands are on the hips, and the elbows arched 

outwards. Arbuthnot. 
A-kTn', a. Related to ; allied to by blood or by nature ; kin , 

AL. An Arabic prefix to many words ; as, al-coran, al-cove, 

aUckemy, aUcmbic, al-^manac. 
Al'a-eAs-ter,7j. [dAa/3uo-rpoc, Gr.] A white stone used for 

ornamental purposes. It is of two kinds ; one of which 

is a carbonate of lime, the other a sulphate of lime or 

gypsum ; and to this the term is now generally applied. 
Al'a-bAs-ter, a. Made of alabaster. Addison. 
AL-A-BAs'TBi-AN,*a. Relating to or like alabaster. Maian- 

der. [r.] 
AL-A-BXs'TRVM,*n. [L ] An alabaster box 6f ointment 

^-lXck', (9-l^kO 771(677. Alas ; noting sorrow. Shak 
A-lXck.'a-day, interj. Alas the day ; noting sorrow 
tA-LAc'Rj-otis,*a. Cheerful ; lively. Hammond. 
tA-LAc'Rl-oOs-LY, ad. Cheerfully. Oov. Tongue. 
tA-LXc'Ri-OVS-N£ss,7i. Brislcness ; liveliness. Hammond. 
^'-lXc'ri-ty, 71. [alacritas, L.l Cheerfulness ; sprightU- 

ness ; liveliness ; gayety ; readiness. Hooker. 
A-lXd'jn-Ist,* n. A free-thinker among the Mahometans. 

A LA FRANpAlSE,* (a-la-frin-saz') [Fr.] After the 

French fashion. 
Al'^-lite,* 71. (Min.) A species of diopside. Phillips. 
A l'a~m1're, ("i-V-me'r?) [&H-mer', Ja. Wb. ; ai-a-ral'r(u 

K.'\ n. Tlie lowest note but one in three septenarieaof 

the gamut or scale of music. 
Al-a-mode', ad. & a. [Fr.] Pashionab y or fashionabte. 

in or according to the fashion. Arbutknot. 
Al-a-moi>e',*7i. a thin, silk stuff. Whitlock. 
■fAL'A-M6TH,* 71. A Hebrew musical instrument A*h. 
A-lXnd', ad. At or on land ; on dry ground. Drydet 
A z'jSiVGi^7SE,* (a-Ving-glazO [Fr.] After the Inglish 

fashion or manner. 
A-LXN'TjNE,*7r. An amylaceous substance extract* d from 

the root of the angelica archangelica. Brande. 
^-lArm', n. [aZarme^ Fr.] A cry of danger ; a sud( en ter- 
ror ; a tumult or disturbance. 
A-lXem', v. a, [alarmcry Fr.] [L alarmed ; pp. alv rmiwo- 
ALARMED.j To call to arms ; to surprise with fear to ter- 
rify ; to disturb. 
A-lXrm'-B£ll, 71. A bell that is rung to give alarm MiltJ)n 
A-Larm'-GOn,* 71. A gun fired as a signal o alarnt 

A-lXrm'ing, p. fl. Causing alarm ; terrifying. 
A-Larm'Jng-lx, ad. In an alarming manner. 
A-lXrm'jst, 71. One who excites an alarm. 
A-lXrm'-Post, n. A post ajpointed for a body of men to 
appear at in case of an alarm. 

I E, I, 6, V^ Y, long; X fi, 1, 0, ti, Y, shoH; A, E. j, Q, Vi V» obscure - FAre, far, fAst, fai i,j u£ir, h£b 



.v-iAEM'-WiTCH, (H^rm'w8ch) ti. A watch that strikes 
Uiehourb} regular movement. Herbert. 

^-LX'rvm, [gi-Ia'rym, P. Jo,; gi-I&r'iJim, F. Sm.,- H'4'rym, 
jr.] n. An alarm ; an alarm clock. Sltak, 

^-LAS', inter/, [hilaa, Fr.] Noting lamentation, pity, or con- 

^-lXs' the Day, inteW. Ah, unhappy day ! Shah. 

i^-l^is' ¥h:^ While, iTtter;. Ah, unhappy time ! Spenser. 

f^-LATE', atU Lately; not long since. Hawes. 

^-LATE',* a. {alatusj L.] (But. & «^nat.) Bordered by a 
leafy or memoraneous expansion. Brande. 

a LXT'E-REf'* ""L.] From tlie side. — The cardinal legates 
a latere were the pope's assistants and counsellors in or- 
dinary. HamUtoTu 

X,L-a-ter'nvs, re. (BoL) Evergreen privet. Evelyn, 

Alb, 7u [album, L.] A vestment worn by Catholic priests. 

Al'ba,* n. [L.] A surplice, or white sacerdotal vest; an 
alb. Wliishaw, 

^L-BA'Nj-^N,*7t. A native of Albania. P. Cyc. 

^l-ba'nJ-^n,* a. Relating to Albania. Qm. Rcu. 

^L-Bis'TRVS,*re. (Bot.) A flower-bud. P. Cyc. 

iLL^B^-TRoss, n. {OmWi.) A genus of large web-footed 

f£L-BE', o^ Although; albeit. Spenser. 

AL-Bc'|T, acZ. Although; notwithstanding. Bpenaer. [An- 

Xl'bj-core,?). a sea-fish. Davors, 
AL-Bl-Fj-CA'TlpN, n. Act of making white. Chaucer. 
'l-ei-^Ew'ses, n. pi. A sect of Christians that first ap- 
peared in the twelfth century, and so called (lom^lbif in 
Upper Languedoc, France. 

Al'b|n,* 71. (J^iwl.) A variety of apophylite. Phillips. 

^l-bi'nI^m,* n. The state of an albino ; a state in which 
the skin is white, the hair flaxen, and the iris of the 
eyepink. Brande. 

^L-Bi'Np,* or ^l-bI'nq,* n. [Port. & Sp.] pi ^l-bi'no$, 
or ^L-Bi'N6$.* A person of preternatural whiteness of skin 
and hair; a white negro. P. Cyc. 

4L'BlTE,*7i, (JUin.) A Species of felspar. Cleaveland. 

lii-BV-j&tH']B-oDs, a. [albugo., L.j Resembling the white 
of an egg. Brown. 

I^L-BtJ'j&jN-oGs,* a. Albugineous. Brown. 

ilz-Bu'GOjn. [L.] ■p\. Al^BV'pi-NE^. (Jlffid.) A White 
speck in the 6ye ; a disease in the eye, by which the 
cornea contracts a whiteness. 

JLl'bvm, n. [L.] pi. Xl'bvm?. A book for the insertion 
of autographs, short literary compositions, &c. 

i^L-Bu'M]?-^N,* a. Relating to an album. C. Lamb, 

AL-bV MEN,* n, [L.] A peculiar substance found m the 

' white of an egg, and in the blood, muscles, bones, &c., of 
animals ; a substance found in vegetables, particularly in 
some seeds ; the white of an egg. P. Cyc. 

^L-Bu'lvil-NOSE,* a. Same as albmiimous. Smith. 

^L-BC'MiN-Otts,*a. Relating to or containing albumen. 
P. Cyc. 

Xl'bveNj a. See Axtrurn. 

AL-BUR'Noys,* o. Relating to alburnum. Loudon. 

iS.l^BifR'NJ/M,*'n. [L.l (Bot.) The softer and whiter part 
' of wood, next to the mner bark, called sap-wood. P. Cyc. 

Al'ca,* 71. (Omitli ^ A genus of anserine birds. Brande. 

^Ii-cAde',* Ti. [alcalde, Sp.] A Spanish justice of the 
peace ; a judge. Encyc. 

Al'ca-hEst, 71, [Ar.] See Alkahest. 

i^L-cA'ic, n. A kind of verse used by the poet AIceeus, 
consisting of two dactyls and two trochees. 

i^L-CA'ic, a. Noting the measure of the verse of Alcffius. 

^l-caid', n. [alcayde, Sp.] A governor of a castle ; a keep- 
er of a jail; a jailer. J^fewman. See Alcade. 

^L-cXw'Nji, n. An Egyptian plant used in dyeing. Brown. 

tiJu-CAR-ii'A'ZA,* n. [Sp.] A large earthen vessel for cool- 
ing water. W, Encyc 

(^l-ce'd9,* n. {OrjatJt.) A genus of birds; king-fisher. 
Bra ade. 

^L-jEHfiM'j-CAL, o. Relating to alchemy. 

^L-jeH£M'|-CAL-LV, ttd. In tlie manner of an alchemist 

Al'Xjhe-mIst] n. One who is versed in alchemy. Skak. 

AL-eHE-inis'Ti-cAL, «. Acting like an alchemist. Burke, 

Al JBH?-MIZE, V. a. To transmute. Lovelace. [R.] 

Ai 'JBHE-MV» «■ [xvii^toy Gr. ; alcliimie, Fr.] The science of 
chemistry, as practised in former times ; or the pretended 
art of the transmutation of metals, or of making gold and 
silver ; occult chemistry ; a mixea metal. 

jL'jeHy-MVj "• Now commonly writtt-n alchemy. 

AL'cg-Hoii, ju [Ar.] Highly rectified or pure spirit; the 
chem cal name of ardent spirit; spina of wine: — for- 
merly, an impalpable powder. 

Al'cp-hq-late,* 71. (Chem.) A salt in which alcohol ap- 
pears to replace the water crystallization. Brande. 

AL-cp-HdL'Jc,* a. Relating to or containing alcohol. 

Al-co-hSl-t-zA'tipn, 71. The act of rectifymg spu-its. 

iL'cp-HQ-LlZB, [BI'kp-hQ-lIz, fV. P. F. Jo, K. Sm, ; ?l-ko'- 
fa9-l]Z, S. J.J w. fl. To mike an alcohol ; to rectify i^rits. 

19 ALE 

Al-cp-hGm':?-t:ee,* n. An instrument to ascertaih thi 

quantity of spirit or alcohol in vinous liquids, Scadamor^k 
AL'cq-rXn, [al'k9-r5n, S. fV. P. J. F. E. Ja, Sm. R. ; gil-kS' 

rjin, K. — " Orientalists, in general, pronounce this wor«J 

ai-kv-r^n'." Sm,'] n. [al and koran,Ar.'] The JNIahometaii 

bible, or the book written and left by Mahomet, and con- 
taining the doctrines and precepts of his religion. 
AL-cp-RAN'(c,*a. Relating to the Alcoran, or to Mahnmn 

tanism. Jameson, 
Al-cq-rXn'jsh, a. Relating to the Alcoran 
Al-cp-rAn'ist,* 71, One who adheres strictly to the \eitet 

of the Alcoran. Crahh. 
AL-COVE', [^I-kov- , S, TV. P. J. E. F. Ja. K. Sm. R. ; Sll'kov, 

WJ.l n. [alcoba, Sp.] A recess in a chamber, or place fri 

a bed ; a recess in a library ; an arbor in a garden 
Al'cV-QN,* 71. (Ent.) A species of insect Kirby. 
AL'cy-^N.* 71. See Halcyon. Brande, 
Al-cv-^n'jc,* fl. Relating to submarine plants. Crdbh. 
Al-cv-On'j-form,* a. Having the form cf a submarine 

plant. P. Cyc. 
Al'cy-<?-nite,* n. (Min.) A fruit-like, spongiform flinl 

fossil, found in chalk formations. Brande. 
AL-CV-6'ifi-tiM,* n. [L.] A genus of marine polypes 

Al-da-Ba'r^K,* b. A star Xn the constellation of Taurus 

Al'der, 71, A small tree growing in wet ground ; the oZnui 

of botanists. 
tSL-DER-LIEV'?ST, o, super. Most beloved. Shale. 
Al'dier-mXn, 71. ; jii. Al'der-m£n. [fA senator or gov- 
ernor ;] a magistrate or member of a town or city cor- 
AL-DER-MXN'lC,*a. Relating to or becoming an alderman. 

Ed. Rev. 
fAL-DER-MXN'j-TV, n. The society of aldermen. Dnder- 

^L'DiiiR-MAN-LiKE, a. Like an alderman. Shelton. 
aIi'd^r-man-ly, a. Like an alderman. Swift. 
Al'der-man-ry,* n. The office or quality of an alderroan 

Ed. Rev. 
Al'dern, a. Made of alder. Manj. 
Al'dine,* a. (Bibliography) Noting editions of booKs 

whicti proceeded from the press of .Aldus Manutius uf 
_ Venice. Dihdin. 
ALE , 71. A fermented malt liquor, or a liquor obtained oy 

the infusion of malt and hops by fermentation. 
A-LEAK',* ad. In a leaking state. Hale. 
Al'e-a-tq-ry,* a. (Civil Law) Noting a contract of which 

the effects depend on an uncertain event. Bouvier. 
ale-B£nch, n. A bench In or at an ale-house. Homilies 
ale'b£r-ry, n. A beverage made by boiling ale with spkea 

and sugar, and sops of bread. Beaumont. 
Xle'-Bbew-:?r, (al'brfi-er) ti. One who brews ale. Mo^ 

ale'-C5n-ner, (al'kSn-ner) 71. An officer whose businesi 

it is to inspect the measures of public houses. 
ale'c6st, 71. A plant; the costmary. 
^-l£c-tq-r6m'an-cY, n. Same as alectryomancy. 
^-L£c-TRY-6M'A-jeHY,* 71. Cock-fightlng. Bailey. [rJ 
A-Lfic'TRY-P-MXN-CYj »• [dXEKTpvojv and pduTis, Cfr | 

Divination by a cock. Bailey. 
A-LE'E',*ad. (JVaut,)The position of thehHm when pushed 

down to the lee-side. Cra66. 
ale'-f£d, a. Fed with ale. Stafford. 
Al'^-GtAR, n. Sour ale ; a kind of acid mo^e of ale 
fAL'E-GER, a. Gay ; cheerful ; sprightly. Bacon, 
JA-lEgge', v. o. [fdleger, old Fr.] To lessen ; to assuagw 

Ale'ho6f, 7u a plant, so called from its use lo clear aU 

or beer ; ground-ivy. Temple. . 
Ale'-HoOse, n. A house where ale is sold. Sliak. 
Ale'-HoOse-Keep'^r, 71. A keeper of an ale-house. 
tALE'-KwiftHT, (al'nit) n. A pot-companion. Camden. 
Al-E-mXh'njc,* a. Belonging to the Aleinanni, an ancleitf 

people of Germany. Bosworth. 
Al-E-mXn'nic,* n. The language oPthe Alemanni, or an 

cient Germans. Bosworth. 
^-l£m'bic, 71. [ai, Ar., and a^/?t^, Gr.] A chemical vesse 

used in distillation, of various forms ; a still. 
^-l£m'br6th,* 71. Salt of wisdom ; a term applied by the 
' old chemists to a salt composed of ammonia, muriatic 

acid, and the oxide of mercury. Brande. 
aLE'-MEa§'vRE,* (al-m6zh'ur) ti A liquid measure (o 

ale. Aslt. 
f^-LfiNGTH', (9-lSngth') ad. At flill length. Chancer. 
/C-lert', o. [alerte, Fr.] Being on guard, or on the look- 

out; watchful; lively; brsk ; smart. — On the alert, on 

guard ; on the look-out. 
A-LiSRT'NESS, 71. WatchfulncRS ; sprightliness ; pertness 
ale'-Stake, 71. A maypole or stake set up before an alfr 
■' house. 

Ale'-Tast-eRjTi. An officer who inspects ale orbeer.Cowe^ 
Ale'-VXt, re". A tub or vessel in which ale is fermented. 
t^-LEW', f^l-lo') 71. A shout ; loud call j halloo. Spenser 

ttiEN, SIB ; mGve, nob, s6n; bOll, BiJE, Kt f ' = - 6. ^^Jl; JB, 9-, c, 1, hard; 9 o* Z; j aa gz* j— th:« 


|I«E WASHED, (al'w^aht) a. Steeped in ale. ShaJc. 
ILE' A^IFE, n, ; pL ale'wive5. a woman that keeps an 
ale-house. Swift An American fish BmaUer than a shad. 


^L'E¥-Xn-d?r, (ai'eg-zSin-der) n. A plant ; a garden vege- 
table, now generally superseded by celery. 

iL'^^p-XN-DER'ig-FoOTj n. The name of an herb. 

&l-:e3^-Xn'i>ri-^n,* o. Belonging to Alexander or Alexan- 
dria. P. Cyc. 

AL-E^f-Xw'DRiNE, ru A kind of verse first used in a poem 
called Alexander J consisting of twelve syllables. 

JLl-e^-Xn'drine, a. Including twelve syllables, as a verse 
or line. Wurton, 

iL-E:f-XN'DRiTE,* n, (^Miti.) A species of chrysoberyl. 

A,-Lfix-i-PHXR'Mic,* n. (Me4.) An antidote against poi- 
■lon. Bryant. Written also alexipkarmac. 

'^-L£x-l-PHA.R'MlC,rt. [dXeiiio and t^apiiaKOVyGr.] Same as 

i^-Lfex-j-PHXp'nn-CAL, a. Counteracting poison. 

A-l.iSx-1-TfiR'lc, I a, [dAEfetjjGr.] That drives away 

^-i.£x-; TfiR'j-c^L, i poison or fevers. 

^-L£x-i-T£R'ics,* 7u pi. (Med.) Preservatives against in- 
itection or poison. Brande. 

Xl'fet,* 71. A caldron or furnace. Tomlins. 

^l'G4j n. [L.] pi. XL'pjB. (Bot.) A tribe of plants, com- 
prising seaweeds, lavers, and some fresh-water plants. 

dlr GA-RO' BA* n. [Ar.] {Bot.) A tree bearing pods con- 
taining a Tiutritious powder, supposed by some to have 
*rtjen the lucusts on which St. John fed in the wilderness. 

Al'O^-rSth,* tu (Med.) A substance containing antimo- 
ny ; formerly used in medicine. Vunglison. 

■al'gates, ad. On any terms j every way. Fairfax, 

^L'GA-TRANE,* 71. (Chem.) A sort of pitch or bitumen. 

Al-ga-z£l',* 7u (Zool.) A beautiful species of antelope. 
P. Cyc 

Al'jGE-bra, tu [It. & Sp., from Arabic] A kind of arith- 
metic, or the science of computing abstract quantities by 
means of signs or symbols ; an important branch ol the 
mathematical sciences. 

Xi4-;G¥-BRA'[C, ) a. Relating to algebra ; containing op- 

XL-jSE-BRA'j-c^li, i erations of algebra. 

AL-jGE-BRA'(-CA.L-LY,*arf. By means of algebra. Maunder. 

X.L-jGE-BRA'lSTJ 71. One who is versed in algebra. 

Al-jGE-rIne',* n. A native of Algiers. Murray. 

Xl-js^-rIne',* o. Belonging to Algiers. Dr. Shaw, 

tAL'j&lD, a. [algidus^ L.] Cold ; chill. Bailey. 

ftL'flSl"IJs'>-Chi»nesSiC0ld. BaU^. 

fAL-plF'lC, a. That produces cold. Bailey. 

AL'GQli,* n. UistToyi?) A star ; Medusa's Head. Crabb. 

\AL'6'6R^n.{lt.'\ Rxtreme cold. Bailey. 

tAl'(5Q-RI5M, n. [Ar.] Same as algorithm. Sir T. More. 

A.L'&<?-RtTHM, 71. [Ar,] The art of computing by numeral 
figures ; arithmetic ; algebra. fVarton. [r.] 

jAl-gose', a. Extremely cold. Bailey. 

AL'govs,* a. Abounding in seaweed. Ash. [r.] 

Al'gu^-zTl, (&l'gfi-z51) [&l'gfi-zel, Ja. Sm. ; &i'g?-zll, E. ,- 
?l-gwa'zil. or a.l-g?i-z6l', K.] n. [alguacU, Sp.] An inferior 
officer of justice ; a constable. 

AL-Li-A'CEoys,* (ai-le-a'shus) a. Having the properties of 
garlic. Francis, 

A'li-Xs, (a'ie-Sa) ad, A Latin word, signifying otherwise ,- 
asj " Simson, alias Smith, alias Baker." 

a'Li-ASy* n. (Law) A second or further writ issued after a 
capias. Wldshaw. 

AlJl-Bi^ n. [L.] Elsewhere. (Z,aw) The plea of a person, 
who, to prove himself innocent of an otfence or crime, al- 
leges that he was elsewhere, or at another place, at the 
time when the act was committed. 

fAl-'l-BLE, a. [alibilis, L.] Nutritive ; nourishing. Bailey. 

4z'i-l}ADE,*n. [Ar.] The index or ruler that moves about 
the centre of an astrolabe or quadrant. Brande. 

Sl'ten, (al'yen) a. [alienns^ L.] Foreign ; estranged from. 

iL'iEN, (al'yen) n. A foreigner, as distinguished from a 

natiiral-born citizen (Z.ffiw) A foreigner who isaresident 

or subject ; or one born m a foreign country, and never 

iL'IEN, (al'yen) v. o. [i, aliened ; pp. aliening, al- 
iened.] To make any thing the property of another ; to 
alienate. Hale. [R.l 

$.14-i^sH'^-b1l.'1-i:Yj* 1^ (Law) State of being alienable. 

5l'ien-a-ble, (aI'yen-5^-bl) a. Capable of being alienated. 

iLli'iEN-Aj&E,*7i. (Law) The condition or state of an alien. 

5l'1?n-ate, (al'yen-at) [al'yen-at, S. W.J. F. Ja. K. Sm. ; 

Bll'e-^n-at, P, Kenridc] v. a, [i. alienated ; pp. alienat- 

iNfl. alienatedJ To transfer property to another; to 

withdraw the atFections from : to estrange. 

Ifc'iEN-ATE, (al'yen-^it) o. Withdrawn from; alienated. 

20 ALK 

aL '^N-^TE, (al'ypn-^t) Tu A stranger; an alien. StapU 

ton. [r.] 
Ali-IEPI-A'TIQN, (al-yen-a'shun) n. Act of alienating ; stati 
of being alienated ; a transfer ; estrangement ; mental d(^ 
rangeraent. —(iaio) The act of parting with p-operty, pa"* 
ticularly real property. 
AL'lEN-A-TpR, (al'yen-a-tpr) n. One who alierates 
AL-IENE',* (al-y5n')'w. a, (Law) To convey property to 

another ; to alienate. Blackstone. 
al-ien-ee',* (al-yen-e') n, (Law) One to whom a tranafei 

of property is made. Blackstone. 
Al'ien-I5M,* 71. The state of being an alien. JV. Y. Stat- 
utes. [_R.] 
al-ien-6r',* (al-yen-ar') n. (Law) One who transfer* 

property to another. Blackstone. 
|A-LlFi:', ad. On my life. Shak. 

JA-ljtF'?R-oGs, a. [ala and/ero, L.] Having wings. Bailm 
Al'i-form,* c Having the form of wings. Crabb. 
I^-lIjGt'er-oDs, a. [aligerjlj.] Having wings. Bailey 
f A-lTgge', v. a. See Alboge. 

A-LIGHT', Cti-lit') i>, n. [i. alighted; pp. alightino, 
ALIGHTED.] To come down and stop; to fali upon; ta 
lig^ht. Dryden, 
A-like', ak. &. a. With resemblance ; without difference. 
A-like'-mind']ed, a. Having the same mind. 
Al'i~m6nt, n. [alimentum^ L.] Nourishment; nutritioB ] 

food ; things necessary for the support of life. 
Al-I-m£nt'al, a. That nourishes. Milton. 
AIi-J-mEnt'^l-ly, ad. So as to serve for nourishment. 

Al-i-mEnt'^-rj-nSSss, 71. Quality of being alimentary. 

Al-i-Ment'a-ry, a. Belonging to aliment; nourishing.— 
Aiimentarycaual^ a tube or cavity in an animal bcdy, into 
which nutriment is taken to be digested. 
Al-i-men-ta'ti.qn, n. Act of nourishing; state cf being 

nourished. Bacon. 
Ai.-j-mEn"'tive-n£ss,* n, (Phren.) The organ of appetite 

for food. Combe. 
AIi-i-m6'ni-oDs, o. That nourishes. Haroey. [R.] 
AL'i-MQ-NY, 71. [alimonta^ L.] (Law) An allowr.nce t«' 
which a married woman is entitled, upon separatitn from 
her husband. 
Ai-'i-Pfiu,* a. Wing-footed ; swift of foot. Ash, 
Al't-quXnt, (ril'e-kwiinl) [il'e-kwant, S. P. J, F. Ja. Sm,\ 
ai'e-kwont, fV. K.] a. [aliquantus^ L.] Aliquant parts o{ 
a number are such as will never make up the num »er ex- 
actly ; as, 3 is an aliquant part of 10, thrice 3 bting 9, 
four times 3 making 12. 
Al'i-QuOt, (iil'e-kwot') a. {^aliquotj L J Aliquot piirts ol 
any number are such as will exactly measure it without 
any remainder ; as, 3 is an aliquot part of 19. 
Al-i-sXn'der,* 71. A plant used as a salad and pctherb 

written also Alexajider. W. Encyc 
AI^'iSH, a. Resembling ale. Mortimer, 
AL'i-TRiJNK,* n. (Zool.) The second and third segmentl 
of the trunk or thorax of an insect, called by Roget vieso- 
thorax and metathorax. Kirby. 
■fAl-^i-TURE, 71. [alituray h.'j Nourishment. Bailey. 
A-live', a. Having life ; living ; not dead ; lively ; cheerful, 
^-lIz'a-rIne,* 71. A peculiar coloring principle obtidned 

from madder. Brande, 
Al'ka-hest, n. The pretended universal solvent of the 

Al-ka-h£s'tic,* rt. Belonging tn alkahest. Ash 
AL-KA-Lfes'cEN-cy,* n. A tendency lo become alkaine 

Al-ka-lEs'cent, a. Partaking of the properties of ali^nJi 
Al'KA-LJ, or Al'KA-LI, [SFkH?, S. JV, P J. E. F, Stn 
ai'kHij -/a. -K". '^■l J^ [«' and kalij Ar.] pi. Xl' 
(Chem.) A substance that has a caustic taste, volatilizabla 
by heat, capable of combining with and destroying the 
acidity of acids, soluble in water, and capable of con- 
verting vegetable blues into green; potash, soda, ammo- 
nia, &c. 
AL-KXL'i-Fi-A-BLE,*ffl. That may be alkalified. Qu.Jour 
Al-kXl'i-fy,* 7). a. (Chem.) To change to alkali. Smart 
AL-KA-LtjG'E-NOOs,* o. Generating alkali. Smart, 
Al-ka-lIm':^;-ter,*7i. (CAeTiu) An instrument for ascei- 

taining the strength of alkalies Hamilton. 
Al'ka-lIne, or Al'ka-line, (Sl'k^-Iin, W. J. E. F. Sm. 
ai'kai-lin, S. P. Ja. K."] a. Having the qualities of alkalL 
AL-K^-LtN'i-Ty,* 71. The quality of an alkali. P. Cyc 
Al-ka'li-oOs, o. Having the quality of alkah. Kin tier. 
f Al-kXl'i-zate, v. a. To make bodies alkaline. 
IAl-kXl'j-z^te, a. Impregnated with alkali. Boijlc 
JAl-ka-li-za'tion, 77. Impregnation with alkali. 
Al'k^-loId,* 71. (Chem.) A substance analogous to an a. 
kaline base of vegetable origin, and generally possessed 
of great medicinal activity ; any vegetable principl d whicl 
has alkaline properties. Brande. 
Al'ka-loId,* a. Relating to or containing alkali. Brandt, 
Al'ka-n£t, 71. The bugloss, a plant. Miller. 
AL-Ki?-Ki!:N'jQI, n. A fruit or berry called winter-cher^ 

£. 1, 6, C, Y, longi i, £, I, 6, 0, t, shoHi *» ?, j, Q, v» ¥» obscure, — TkR-B, fXe, fXst, fAli.- \ ^1 w-«s 

ALL 21 

mt^M Sr^ote?, n, [Arab.] A confection containing kenues 
ber 'les 

iL'Hp-RXN,*Ti. See Alcoran. 

ftLL, a. The whole of; every one of; every part of. 

ALL, ad. Q,uite ; completely ; altogether ; wholly. 

ALL, n. The whole; every thing Ml is much used in 

composition ; but, in most instances, it is merely arbilra- 
^ ry, as appears in the following compounds. 
ALL-a-bXn'dqned, (ai-j-bin'dund) a. Deserted by all. 
all-ab-iiorred', (ai-stb-hHrd') a. Detested by all. 
ALL-^D-MiR'jN<5, ft. Wholly admiring. Sliak. 
ALL-A.D-VI5ED', a. Advised by all. 
Sll-A-l5ng',* orf. Throughout ; in the whole South. 
AiiL-AP-PROVED', a. Approved by all. More. 
Xll~a-ton'jng, a. Atoning for all. Dryden. 
ALL-beAr'jng, (M-bir'ing) a. That bears every thing. 
Sll-beau'te-oDs, (ai-bu't^-us) a. Completely beautiful. 
all-b^-hold'jng, a. That beholds all things. 
XLL-ErND'iNG,*a. That binds all. SkiUt. 
Xll-blXst'ing, a. That blasts all things. 
Xll-chanjG'ing, a. Perpetually changing. Shak. 
ALL-CHiiER'iNG, a. Cheering all. Skak. 
all-cqm-mXnd'ing, a. Commanding all. Raleifrk. 
Xll-cOM-ply'|nOj a. Complying in every respect. 
Xll-cPM-po^'jng, a. That quiets all. Crashaw. 
Xll-c6ivi-pre-h£nd'jng,* a. Comprehending all things. 

Dr. Allen. 
&ll-c6m-pr?-h£n'sive, a. Comprehending all things. 

Xll-cqn-ceal'JNG a. That conceals all things. 
Xll-c5n'Quer-Tng, (ai-k5ng'ker-ing) a. That subdues 

every thing. Milton. 
All-c6n'sciovs,* (-kiSn'ahus) a. Conscious of every 

thing. Pope, 
Sll-cqn-strain'jng, a. That restrains all. 
All-cpn-sum'ing, a. That consumes every thing. 
&ll-^re-at'ing-,* a. Creating all things. Coioper. 
iiLLL"A.R'jNG, a. That dares every thing. 
Xll-de-sign'ING,* a. Designing all things. Bowring. 
All-de-stro5'ing, a. Destroying all things. 
fALL-DiE-vXsT'fNG, o. Wasting all things. Sandys. 
Xll-de-voOr'jng, a. That eats up every thing. 
Xll-dIm'ming, a. That obscures all things. 
Xll-di-rj5ct'ing,* a. Directing all things. Bowring. 
XLL-Dis-c6v'ER-mG, a. Disclosing every thing. Mare. 
X.LL-Dis-GRACED', (fl,l-dis-grast') a. Completely disgraced. 
XLL-Dis-pJSws'fNG, a. That dispenses all things. 
Xll-di-vine', a. Supremely excellent. Howell. 
Xll-di-vin'jmg, a. Foretelling all things. 
Xll-drEad'ed, a. Feared by all Skak. 
Sll-dro^'^Vj '*• Very drowsy. Brown. 
Sll-£l'q-quEnt, a. Most eloquent. Pope. 
XLL-EM-BRAg'fNG, fl. Embracing all things. 
Sll-£nd'|NG, & That ends all things. SUak. 
Xll-eN'LIGHt'en-ing, a. Enlightening all things. C. 

Sll-:?n-ra/jed', a. Greatly enraged. J. Hall. 
Ali.-flam'jng, a. Flaming in every direction. 
Sll-F66l5-Day', n. The first of April, so named from 

the custom of making fools on that day. Spectator. 
ALL-fqr-gYv'ing, a. Forgiving all. Dryden. 
Xll-Fotjr5', ('9.1-fBrz') n. A low game at cards, played by 

two; the all-four are high:, low, Jack, and the game; — the 

arms used together with the legs on the ground. 
Xll-j&Iv'er, 71. The Giver of all things. Milton. 
Xll-Good', (&.l-gud') n. A being of unlimited goodness ; 

used also as an adj.. supremely good. Dryden. 
All-guId^ing, (9.1-gid'ing) a. Guiding all things. 
Sll-hail'J interj. All health ; a term of salutation. 
JAll-HAIL', v. a. To salute. SJiak. 

ALL-HXl'lqw, (ai-hai'lo) ) n. All-eaints-day ; the first 
XLL-HXL'Lpwy, C9.l-hai'l9z) \ of November. 
Sll-HXl'lqw-m^s, 71. AU-hallowtide. Bourne. 
Xll-HXl'lc-wn, (ai-hJil'lun) a. Relating to the time about 

All-saints-day. Shak. ^ 
ALL-HXL'Lpw-TiDE, (Stl-hai'l^-tld) 71. All-saints-day } 

November Ist, or the time near it. Bacon. 
Xll'-Heal', n. A name of several plants ; woundwort. 
Xll-heal'ing, a. Healing all things. Selden. 
ALL-HfiLP'JNG, a. Assistmg all things, Seldeiu 
All-hid'ing, a. Concealing all things. Shak. 
Xll-HO'ly,* a. Perfectly holy. Bowring. 
Xll-h6n'qred, (ai-Sn'nurd) a. Honored by all. 
£LL-HiJRT'jNO, a. Hurting all things. Shdc. 
&LL-l'DOii-iz-jNG, a. Idolizing every thing. Crasham. 
ALL-T]!(I'i-tat-|NG, a. Imitating every thing. More. 
Xll-IM-pr£s'sive,* a. Highly impressive. Bowring. 
Sll-Jn-form'ING, a. That forms or actuates all. 
Xll -Jn-t£r'pret-Ing, a. Interpreting all things. 
Sll-JOdjG'ing, a. That judges all. Rowe. 
Xll-know'ing, (ai-no'ing) a. Omniscient; all-wise, 
Xll-li'censed, (9il-Ii'senst) a. Licensed to every thing. 
SLL--Lftv'lNG a. Of infinite love. More. 
Xll~MAK'}N», «. That created all ; omnific. Dryden. 


XLL-M^-TUR'l7fG, o. That matures dll things. Drfien, 
Sll-mer'c?-fOl,* fl. Perfect in mercy. Ch. Ob. 
ALL-MiiR'DER-iNG, a. Completely destructive. 
All-P-be'dJ-£nt. o. Absolutely obedient. Crashaw. 
ALL-Q-BEY'fNG, (al-9-ba'jng) a. Faying entire ooedlenca 
All-qb-lIv'}:-oDs, a. Causing entire forgetfulness. 
AiiL-pB-sctJR'lNG, a. That hides all things. 
Xll-pSn^^-tbat-jng, o. Pervading all things. 
Xll-Per'fect-mISsSj 71. Complete perfection. More, 
Xll-pierp'ing, a. Discovering all things. Marsron. 
XLL-PP^'iipR-FUL, a. Almighty ; omnipotent. Sxwift 
Xll-praised', (il-prazd') a. Praised by all. 
Xll-rOl'tng, a. Governing all things. M'dton. 
All-Saints-Day', (Sil-sants-da') 71, The Ist of November 

the day on which there is a general celebration of th 

Xll~sXnc'tj-fy-ing^ a. That sanctifies the whole. W&f« 
Xll-sav'ing, a. Savmg all things. Selden. 
5ll-search'ing, fl. That searches all things, 
ALL-SEE'|NG,'a. That beholds every thing. Dryden. 
All-se'er, n. He that sees or beholds every thing, 
Sll-shak'ing. a. That shakes all things. Shak. 
Xll-shDnned', fai-shund') a. Shunned by all, Sltak. 
Xll-Spul9-Day', (ai-solz-da') n. The 2d of November 

the day on which supplications are made for all souls Ih 

the church of Rome. Shak. 
Xll-svb-m^s'sive,* a. Perfectly submissive. Bowring. 
ALL-SuF-FF'ciEN-CV,(a.l-suf-nsh'en-se) 71, Infinite ability. 
Xll-svf-f1"cient, (ai-suf-fish'en't) a. Sufficient for all 
Xll-Suf-fVcient, (ai-suf-fish'^nt) n. The Deity. 
Sll-svr-Vey'ing, (ai-syr-va'jng) a. Surveying all things 
All-svs-tain'ing, fl. That upholds all things. 
Ill-tEll'ihg, a. That divulges all things. Sh(Jt. 
All-tri'vmph-Ing, a. Everywhere triumphant. 
All-watched', (ai-wScht') a. Watched throughout. 
SLL-W19E', a. Possessed of infinite wisdom. South. 
All-wTt'ted, a. Possessing every kind of wit. B.Jonson 
All-wor'shipped, (ai-wiir'shipt) a. Adored by all. 
AL'L^-piTE,* 71. (Min.) A magnesian mineral ; diallogite. 

Al'l'ah^* iu [Ar.] The Arabic oame of the Supreme Be 

ing, which, through the Alcoran, has found its way into 

all the j^anguages of the Mahometan nations. P. Cyc. 
Al'lan-ite,* n. {Min.) A silico-ferriferous oxide from 

Greenland. Brande. 
Al-lXn'toId,* or Al-L^n-t6Id',* 71, (jliuU'i Same as 

allantois. Dunglis'Vi. 
Al-lXn'tp-Ys,* or Al-lan-t5Ts', n. [dX\avTOEiSf]s,Gr.] 

(.Snot.) A thin membraneous sac situated between the 

amnion and chorion of the fffitus. 
fAL-LA'TRATE, u. 71. [ollotro, !>.] To bark. Stubbes. 

^L-LAY', v. a. [l. ALLA.YED ; pp. ALLAYING, ALLAYED.] To 

soothe ; to assuage ; to soften ; to qui'>t ; to pacify ; to re- 
press : — to debase a metal. See aIlot. 

f Al-lay',* v. n. To abate ; to subside ; to grow calm. Shak 

AL-LAY', 71. [aloi, Fr.] See Alloy. 

Al-lay'er, n. He or that which allays. Harvey. 

f^L-LAY'M]j:NT, 71. That which allays. Shale. 

fAL-LECT', V. a. [allectQ, allicio, L.] To entice Huioe%^$ 

■|-Al-lec-ta'tipn, 71. Allurement ; enticement. Coles, 

Al-lEc'tive, n. Allurement. Sir T. ElyuU 

f Al-lISc'tive, a. Alluring. Chaucer. 

AL-Li^-GA'TipN, 71. Act of alleging ; thing alleged j n(hr 
mation ; declaration ; an excuse ; a plea. 

^L-l£/tE', (^l-lej') V. a. [allegOj L.] [i. alleged ; pp. Ai. 
l£ging, alleged.] To affirm; to declare; to maintain; 
to advance ; to adduce ; to plead as an excuse, or produce 
as an argument. 

Al-l£jBE'4i-ble, a. That may be alleged. Browne. 

f AL-L£jGrE'MENT, n. Allegation. Bp. Sanderson. 

Al-l£jg'er, (gil-lej'er) 71. One who alleges. Boyle. 

AL-le'jGiance, (^l-'lS'j^ns) n. [alligeance, Fr.] The obe- 
dience which a citizen or subject owes to the government 
or sovereign ; loyalty. 

tAL-LE'jBlANT, (91-le'j^nt) o. Loyal. Shale. 

Al-le-g6r'ic, fl. Partaking of or like an allegory. 

AL-Li:-G5R'i-CAL, fl.. Being in the form of or like an alio 
gory ; typical ; figurative. 

Al-le-g6r'i-c^l-ly, ad. After an allegorical manner. 

AL-L:^-G5R'i-CAL-NJ6ss, 71. duality of being allegorical 

Al^le-gq-eIst, n. One who makes use of allegory, 

AL'Li:-Gp-RIZE, V. a. [i, allegorized ; pp. allegobizino, 
ALLEGORIZED.] To treat allegorically i to turn into alle 
gory. Raleigh. 

Al'le-gp-rize, v. n. To make use of allegory. Pulke. 

Al'l:^-GP-riz-er, n. An allegorisL Coventry, 

Al'le-gp-ry, n. [dWriyopia, Gr.] A figurative represent 
tation, in which the words, signs, or forms signify some 
thing beyond their literal and obvious meaning; asyiD- 
bolical writing or representation ; a fable; a type. 

Ai^le-grMt'tq* ad. [It.] {Mas.) Denoting a time leap 
quick than allegro. Crabb. 

Al~le'gro, [^l-le'grp, S. W J. E. F. K. Sm.; ^}-\^'%V) 

M^EN, sib; m6vEj wor, s6n; bOll, bOp, RtTLD — g, fi, 9, ^, aofti jB, jS, s, I, hard; 5 a* Z i ^ a* g?;;— TBIt 

ALL 22 

Mu] md, [IL] (jMus.) Denoting a sprightly motion. It 
originiUIy means gay^ as in MUton. 

iz-ZB-i.x/'J4.H, (fl-le-la'y^h) inlerj. & n. [Heb.] Praise ye 
Jehovah, or, Praise God ; a song of thanl^sgiving. — Most 
commonly written Hallelujah. 

iz-L^-MJiNDE'j [ai-e-miind', Jo. Sm. ; ai-e-mSind', K.'] tu 
[Ft. ; allemanniay ba*b! L.] A brisk German dance. — (Mus.) 
A slow air. 

iL-Li^-MXN'NJc,* o. P. Cye. See Alemannic. 

^l-le'ri-6n,* iu (Her.) A small bird, painted with wings, 
but without beak or feet. Crabb. 

4z~£.E-rE&it£:',* n. (Com.) A brass Swedish coin worth 
3^(2.'English. Crabb. 

^L-Le'VI-ATEjW.o, [allevo, li.'] [i. alleviated ; pp. alle- 
viating, ALLEVIATED.] To make light J to ease; to soft 
^n ;_to allay. 

^Ij-Le'vi-at-ing,* p. a. Affording alleviation ; relieving. 

^l-le-vJ-a'tiqn, n. The act of alleviating; mitigation. 

i^L-LE'vi-A-TtvE,?i. Something mitigating, [r.] 

Al'ley, (al'l?) n. J pL Xl'ley?. [aHce, Fr.] A walk in a 
garden, Sec. ; a passage, in a town, narrower than a 

AL-Li-A'CEoys,* (ai-e-a'shus) a. Having the smell or na- 
ture of garlic or onions. Brande. 

^L-li'ance, n. [aKmTice, Fr.] State of being allied ; a con- 
federacy ; a league ; affinity ; relation by marriage or by 
kindred ; the persons allied. — (Politics) A league between 
two or more friendly powers. 

f^li-Li'ANCE, V. a. To ally. Cudwortk. 

f^L-Lj'ANT, n. An ally. Wottoiu 

|-^L-l!"ci?n-cy, (5il-lish'en-s§) n. [o/Zicw, L.] Magnet- 
ism; attraction. OlanvUle. 

f^I--Ll"ci:?NT, (?l-lish'ent) n. An attractor. Robinson. 

^l-lied',* (gl-lid') p. a. United by kindred or alliance; 

iL'Li-&ATE,u. a. [alligOjli.] To tie one thing to another ; 
to unite. Hale, [r.] 

AL-LI-aX'TlQN, Tu Act of tying together. — (^ritA.) A rule 
that teaches the solution of questions concerning the 
compounding or mixing together of different ingredients, 
or ingredients of different qualities or values. 

iL'Lj-GA-TpR, n. [allagartOf Port.] (ZooL) A large Ameri- 
can reptile, resemoling the Egyptian crocodile ; a species 
of crocodile having a wide, obtuse muzzle, and unequal 

AL'L|-GA-TpR-PEAR,*n. (JBot.) A West India fruit. Crabb. 

tAr-'Lj-fi^-TURE, n. A link or ligature. Bailey. 

^L-LIGN'MENT,* (?il-lln'ment) iu [alignement, Fr.J The 
act of reducing to a right line or a level. Tanner. 

X,l'l}-6th,* n. (.dstroTi.) A star in the tail of the Great 
Bear, Crabb. 

i^L-Ll"§IpN, (^I-lSzh'tin) n, {allidoj allisum, L.] The act 
of striking one thing against another; collision. Wood- 
ward. [R.] 

(^L-LlT-^R-A'TlpN, n, {ad and litera^ L.] The repetition of 
the same letter, chiefly at the beginning of different words. 

^l-lIt'er-^TIVE, o. Relating to alliteration. 

^L-LtT'ER-^-TlVE-NEss,*7i. Quality of being alliterative. 

i^L-LlT'ER-A-TQR,* 71, One who uses alliteration. Coti- 

&j.'l.f-i^My*n. [L.] (Bot.) A genus of plants ; garlic. Crabb, 

Al'lq-cate,* r. a. To place; to set. Barlce. [r.] 

Aii-Lp-CA'TlpN, TU [aUocoy L.J The act of putting one 
thing to another; the admission of an article in reckon- 
ing, and addition of it to the account. — (Law) The allow- 
ance of an account in the English exchequer ; a certifi- 
cate of an allowance of accounts by a master, on taxation 
of costs. Crabbt 

AL-LQ-CA'TJ/Rf*n, (Law) The allowance of a writ. Bou- 

^L-L6jeH'RP-lTE,*7t, (Min.) A massive mineral allied to 
the garnet. Brande. 

Ai*-ii<>-cu'TipN, 71. [aUocutiOy L.] Act of speaking to an- 
other. Wheeler. [R.j 

^L-l o^Dl-^L, a. \aUodudiay barb. L.] (Law) Not feudal ; 

^L-co'Dj-^jLL-LV,* ttrf. In an allodial manner. A. Smitlu 

{Ll> LO'dJ-Cm, 7t. (Law) hand held by an individual in his 
vwn absolute right, free from all feudal obligation. 

^l.-LftNjt>E'j C?l-lunj') (>l-lunj', S. PF.J.Ja. Sm.i gl-lonj/, 
P, K.] n. lallonge^ Fr.] A pass or thnist with a rapier, in 
fenring ; a lunge ; a long rein, wlien a horse is trotted in 
Ihf hand. 

AL-ljfiNjGE'y* V. n. {allonger, Fr.] To make a pass or thrust 
with a rapier ; to lunge. Smart, 

Al-l66'. d. a. To set on. Philips, To halloo. See Halloo. 

iL-Lp-pXTH'jc,* o. (Med.) Noting the ordinary method of 
medical practice. Dunglisoii. 

iL-Lp-PXXH'l-c^L-LV,* ad. In accordance with allopathy. 

^L-L6p'A-TuTST,*n. One who adheres to allopathy. Ells. 

,^L-L6p'^-THY,*n. (Med.) Ordinary medical practice, as 
opposed to homoBopathy. Danglmon. 


AL'T.p PUANiS,* n. (Min.) An argillaceous minera Varu 
|Al'LP-qu¥, n, ^idloquium^ L.] Address ; conversatioa 



distribute by lot; to grant ; to distribute. 

^l-l6t'ment, n. Act of allotting; that which is allotted; 
distribution by lot ; part ; share. — .Allotment system, (Eng- 
land,) The allotting to every poor family in a pansh a 
piece of ground to be cultivated with the spade. 

tAL-L6T'TE-R¥, 71. Allotment. Shak. 

^'l-lo^', w. a. (aMouer, Fr.] [i. allowed ; pp. allowing, 
ALLOWED.] To admit ; to permit ; to grant ; to yield ; to 
pay to ; to give to ; to make abatement. 

Al-loWa-ble, a. That may he allowed ; admissible. 

Al-loaVa-ble-n^ss, n. Exemption from prohibition 

.^L-LOA^'-A-BLV, ad. With claim of allowance. Lowth. 

^L-LoW^NCE, 71. Tliat which is allowed ; admission ; 
sanction ; license ; permission ; a settled rate ; salary ; 

^L-LoWance,* «. a. [i. allowanced ; pp. allowancing, 
allowanced.] To put upon allowance; to limit in tha 
supply of food, &:c. Smart. 

^l-l6w'er, tu One who allows or approves. 

j^L-Lol?', 71. ; pi, AL-Lo T?9'. The baser metal which is mixea 
with a finer one ; a debased substance ; the evil which 
is mixed with good. — Formerly written dXay. 

i^L-LOf,* V. a. [{.alloyed; pp. alloying, alloyed.] To 
reduce the purity of a metal by mixing it with one of less 
value; to corrupt or reduce in purity. Ure. — Formerly 
written dXay, 

^L-LO?'^j&E,*7i. The act of alloying; alloy. Smart, 

Ale?, n, pi. All one's goods. [A vulgarism.] 

Ale'spice, 71. The dried, immature berry of the myrtus pi- 
metUa ; called also Jamaica pepper. 

fAE-LV-Bfis'cEN-cy, 71, [allubescentiaj L.] Willingness. 

Ae-LUDE', v. n. [alludo, L.] [t. alluded; pp, ALLnuirfj, 
alluded.] To make or have some reference to a thing 
to hint at ; to insinuate. 

AL-Lu'MfN-ATE,*«. a. To color ; to embellish, Jiih. fR.J 

AL-Lu'MJ-NpR, n. [allumer, Fr.] One who colors, deco- 
rates, or paints upon paper or parchment ; a limner* 

^L-lure', p. fl. [lewrrer, Fr.] [i. allured; pji. ALhVRiy a, 
ALLUHED.l To entice ; to decoy ; to attract ; to lure. 

|Al-lure', n. Something set up to entice ; a lure. 

^L-EtJRE'MENTjTi. That which allures; enticement; tevap 
tation of pleasure. 

AL-lur'er, ri. One who allures. Dryden. 

Al-lur'jng, 71. The power to allure. Beaum, 8f FL 

Al-lur'Jng,* y. ffi. Tending to allure ; enticing, 

AL-LUR'iNG-LY, ad. Enticingly. 

i^L-LUR'iwG-Nfiss, 71. duality of being alluring, 

AL-LU'SlpN, (^l-lu'zhun) 71. [allusio, lI] Act of alluding 
a reference to something supposed to be already known . 
a hint. 

Al-lij'sive, a. Making allusion ; hinting. 

AL-Lu'sivE-LY, ad. In an allusive manner. Hammond. 

AE-EU'sivE-Nfiss, n. The quality of being allusive, Mor^ 

AL-LU'sp-RY, a. Allusive ; insinuating. HeatJt. 

^L~Eu'vi'^E, a. Relating to alluvium; carried by watei 
and lodged. 

AL-Lu'vi-pN, n. [aUuvio, L. ; alluvion, Fr ] Alluvial land 
See Alluvium. 

tAL-Lu'vj-oDs, a. Alluvial. Bailey. See Alluvial. 

,dz-LU'rx-&M,* 71. [L.] p\, Ai^Lu' vi-4. (Geol.) An accn 
' mulation of sandj earth, gravel, &c., brought down by 
the currents of rivers, which, when spread out to any 
extent, forms what is called alluvial land. P. Cyc 

Al-LY', (til-U') V. a. [oilier, Fr.] [i. allied ; pp. allying 
ALLIED.] To unite by kindred, friendship, or confed- 
eracy; to make a relation or connection between two 

.^L-LY^ (5il-liOn. ,- pi. AE-LIE5', One that is allied: — pL 
States that have entered into a league for mutu il defence 

^l-ly',* v. n. To be closely united. Hume. 

Al'ma,*^i.'me^* OTAJL'MEH,*n, In the East, a dancing 
girl, one whose employment is to amuse company by 
dancing and singing, P. Cyc. 

Al^M4-cXTf' T4R, n. [Ar.] A small circle of the sphcri 
parallel to the horizon, [r.] 

Al-M;J.-cXn't^r'§-StAff, n. An instrument used to taKC 
observations of the sun, when it rises and sets. 

Al'ma-dy,* n. A vessel, in the East Indies, in the form ot 
a weaver's shuttle ; an African hark canoe. Crabb. 

Al-ma'gr^,* 71. (Min.) A fine, deep-red ochre. Smart, 

JiL'MA Ma' ter,* [h.] Benign or fostering mother ; a tenn 
* applied to the university or college where one was ei u 
Gated. Eney, 

Al'ma-nXc, 71. [ahnanaeh, Fr. & 8p., from Ar.l An annual 
publication, giving the civil divisions of the year, the 
times of the various astronomical phenomena, &c. ; UB 
annual register with a calendar; a calendar. — AViuticai 

i, S, i, 5, u, ¥, lonffi £, t, 6 tj, i? short,- ^, e, j, p, y, V» oftacMre,— fAre, fXe, fAst, fJS^e; h£ir, h£h 




JllmantuTj an almanac for seamen, containing a copious ac- 
count or astronnmical phenomena at sea. 

&L'jyiA-NAC-MA.'KER, 71. A maker of almanacs. Oayton, 

(if'MAN'DiNEj n. [almandaia. It.] (Mhu) An inferior kind of 
rubyj a precious garnet. PhiUips. 

Al-mb'N4l^* n. [Sp.] An East Indian weight of about two 

' pounds. J^Teuman. 

&,ii'M:^-RY,* tu (Jlrclu) A niche or cupboard let into the 
substance of a wall ; the same as locker. Francis. 

£L-ivii&H'Ti-N£ss, (£ll-mi'te-n€8) n. Omnipotence ; an at^ 
tribute of God. 

Sli-MlGH'Ty, (U-rai't?) a. Of unlimited power; omnipo- 
tent. Oeiip^is. 

Sl-migh'ty, (a,l-mi'te) n. The Omnipotent; God. 

IAlai'ni^r,-* n. Game as almoner. Bailey. See Almuner. 
Al'm<?nd, (i'mynd) [i'mund, S. W J F. K. Sm. Ja. ,* Ul'- 
inund, P.] n. [rniiande^ Fr.] The nut, cejd, or fruit of the 
alniund-tree : — fl. {Anai.) Two round glands on the sides 
of the basis of the tongue; the tonsils. 

3Ai/MpND-FuR.-NACE, Ci'mund-fiir-nis) ) n. A kind of fur- 
Al'man-Fur-nace, (a'm^n-fur-n(s) ) nace used in re- 
fining ; c[illed_also the sweep. 

||AL'MpND-snAPED',*(a'mynd-shapt')a. Shaped like an 
almond. P. Cyc» 

JAl'MQNd-Tree, (U'mund-tre)n. TYi&tTeeamygdalus com- 
munis^ which bears almonds, and resembles the peach-tree. 

liAL'MQND-WiL'LOW, fi'mynd-wil'lo) 7J. Awillow whose 
leaves are of a light green on both sides. Shenstojie. 

iL'MQ-N:ER, tu An officer of a prince or of a religious 
house, to whom the distribution of alms or charity is 

S.ii'MpN-RV, I*. The place where the almoner resides, or 
where the alms are distributed. 

Jli'MOST, [ai'most, W. Ja. Sm. ; ai-most', S. P. J. ; ai-most', 
or M'most, J!'.] ad. Nearly ; well-nigh. Locke, 

tALM'Ry, (ara'r?) ti. Same as almonry. See Almonry. 

ALM$, (amz) m. sinff. & pL A gift or benefaction to the 
poor ; a charitable donation. J):;^ Johnson says, alms " has 
no singular " ,• Todd, that it is " without a plural.^' Gram- 
marians regard it as of both numbers : some say, " gener- 
ally singular " ; others, " generally plural." — " An alms." 
Acts, SkaJCf Drydeit, Swifi. — " Alms are of diverse kinds." 
Rees^s Cyc. — " Some say, ' These alms are useful ' ; others 
say, ' This alms is useful.* The Anglo-Saxon form was 
slimesse. Hence the word alnis is, in respect to its origi- 
nal form, singular ; in respect to its meaning, either sin- 
gular or plural." Prof. Latham. 

iS-LM^'-BAs-KET, (amz'bis-ket) n. The basket in which 
provisions are put to be given away. B. Jonson. 

Xlm$'deed, (Imz'ded) 71. An act of charity. Acts ix. 

SLMg'DRfHK,* QLmz'drink) 71. " A phrase among good fel- 
lows," says W arburton, " to signify that liquor of an- 
other's share which his companion drinks to ease him." 

|ALM5'-Foi.K, ('imz'fok) n. pL Persons supporting others 
by alms. Strype, 

KLM9'-^f v-er, (imz'giv-^r) 71. One who gives alms. Bacon. 

S.iiM5'-;G(v-}NG,* (amz'giv-ing) ji. The act of giving alms. 

XLMg'HoOsE, (amz'hyfia) tu A house devoted to the re- 
ception and support of the poor; a poor-house. Hooker. 

X.LjVl9'iViXN, (amz'man) n. A man who lives upon alms. 
Shah. He who gives alms. Homilies, b. 2, 

Alms'-Peo'ple, (amis'pe'pl) n. pi. Members of an alms- 

J^l'mvg-Tree,7i. a tree of an unknown kind, mentioned 
111 Scripture. 1 Kings x. 

iL'N^jSE, 7i. [aulrmge, or aunage, Ft.] Ell-measure ; meas- 
ure by the ell. Blount, 

Al'n4-j&er, n. A measurer by the ell ; an English officer, 
who used to inspect the assize of woollen cloth: — writ- 
ten also aZnagar and aulnager. Blount, 

IAl'night, (SLl'nit) 71. A great cake of wax, with the wick 
in tlie midst, to burn a long time. Bacon. 

•d-Lo'Aj* n. [Gr.] A Greek festival after the harvest. Crabb. 

Al'oe, tu [Fr., and d}\6ri, Gr.] pi. Al^oe?. A tree or spe- 
cies of wood used in the East for perfumes ; a genus of 
succulent plants. — (Med.) A resinous substance or drug 
formed from the juice of a species of tlie plant, — The 
plural of this word, in Latin, Xl'q-£$, is of three sylla- 

&l-p-£t'ic, ) a. Relating to, obtained from, or consist- 

iL-p-£T'i-c^L, ) ing of aloes. 

/ll*-Q-fiT'ics, n. ^Z. (Med.) Medicines consisting chiefly of 
aloes. Crabb. 

^-l^6VT',ad. On high ; above. — (JVaut.) At the mast-head, 
or in the top of the rigging. " All hands aloft.'' 

^-1.6vt' , prep. Above. Milton, [r.] 

m,-9-G6T'RA-PHY,* 71. (Med.) A disproportionate nutri- 
tion in different parts of the body. Crabb, 
Ali'p-jGY, n, [alogie, old Fr.] Unreasonableness; absurd- 
ity. BaUey, 

^'LONb'jO. Without another, or without company ; single; 
nnly ; solitary. 

t^-L5NE'i«Vi Only* HidoeU 
t^-LONE'iiV, ad Merely; singly. Qneer, 
f^-liOWE'Ni^iss, T, The state of being alone. Mt-mtagM. 
^-lidNG', ad. At length ; through any space le Igthwisi 

onward. — All along, throughout. — Along wit/ ^ in ''ou 

pany with. 
^-1.6k a',* prep. By the side of; near to. Hiley, 
^-L 6ng'-Shore ,''' ad, (JVaut.) Being along or near the coaKi 

A-lOng'-Side, ad, (J^avt.) By the side of the ship. 
fA-L6KGST', ad. Along ; through the length. KnoUes, 
4^-l66f', ad. At a distance ; far apart. 
A-loof'ness,* 71. State of baing aloof. Coleridge. [R.J 
AL-Q-PE-cu'Rjja,* n. [L.] (BoL) A genus of grasses o( 

the foxtail kind. Farm. Ency. 
Al'P-pe-cy,* n. (Med.) The fox-evil, or scurf, a diseaM 

which causes the hair to fail off. Bailey. 
^-LbOD', ad. Loudly; with great noise. Waller, 
fj^-LOW' (9-I0O ad. In a low place. Dryden. 
ALP, n. A mountain ; that which is mountainous or dura- 
ble, like the Alps. Milton. 
^L-pXc'^,* 71. A species of Peruvian sheep ; llama. Famu 

Al'fma, n, [Gr.] The first letter in the Greek alphabet, an 

swering to our A ; tlierefore used to signify the first 

Rev. 1. 
Al'ph*-b£t,71. [aA0a and jff'"iTa,Gr.] The letters of a lap 

Aii'PHA-BJ5'.T, J), a. To range in the order of the alphabet- 
Al-pha-be-ta'rj-^n, n. An A B C scholar. Sancroft. 
Al-ph^-bIt'ic, I a. Relating to or in the order of tlib 
AL-PHA-BiiT'i-cAL, j alphabet. 
AL-PiiA-BiST'i-c^L-LV, ad. In an alphabetical mannei 

AL-vnii'Nic,* TU (Med.) White barley sugar ; sugar candy 

Al-ph6n'sin,* n. (Surg.) A surgical instrument used foi 

extracting balls from wounds. Brande. 
AL-phon'sine,* a. Relating to Alphonso, king of Leon 01 

his astronomical tables. Ed. Ency, 
Al'pjne,* 71. A peculiar kind of strawberry. Mawe. 
AL'piwE, or Al^'PiNE, [al'pin, W. P. Sm. ; SUpIn, E. Ja. K. ! 

a. [Alpinus, L.] Relatmg to or resembling the Alps ; higli 
Al'(4VI~f6u,'^ (jil'ke-fo) iu (Min.) A sort of mineral lead 

ore. Crabb. 
5,l-r£ad'y, (ai-rSd'de) ad. Now, at this time, or at somfl 

time past; before the time expected, 
f AliS, ad. Also ; likewise. Spenser, 

AL-SA'cian,* (5il-sa'sh?n) a. Relating to Alsace. Ency. 
Al SEGJVOy* (91-san'yo) 71. [It.] (Mus.) A notice to thd 

performer that he must recommence. Brande. 
Al'sine,*7i. (Bat.) A plant, called also c/iicA-Mjeed. Crabb 
Al'sp, ad. In the same manner ; likewise. 
ATj'sq,* conj. Noting addition or conjunction. Crombit 
Alt, a. &. n. (Mus.) High ; a term applied to the higu 

notes of the scale. See Alto. 
Al-ta'ic,* or Al-ta'ia.n,* a. Relating to the mountains 

of Altai in Asia. Ency. 
Al't^r, n. [aUare, L.] A place or sort of pedestal on which 

sacrifices were offered ; the table in churches where tho 

communion is administered. 
Sl't^r-AjSE, 71. [altaragium, L.] (Law) An emolument' 

arising from oblations to the altar. Ayliffe. 
Sl'tar-Cloth, 71. A cloth thrown over the altar 
Al-tar^Piece, n. A painting placed over the altat 
Al'TAR-WI^E, ad. In the manner of an altar. Hoioell, 
Sl'TER, v. (I. [a^t^rfir, Fr., from flZicr, L.] [i. altered ; py 

altering, altered.] To change; to make otherwise; U 

Al't?r, v. 71. To suffer change ; to become otherwise 
Xl-ter-a-bIl'i-ty,* n, Quality of being alterable. Sman 
Al't:?;r-A-ble, a. That may be altered. 
Al'ter-^-ble-n£ss, n. The quality of being alterable. 
AL'TER-A-BLy, ad. In an alterable manner. 
tSL'T?R^A/iE, n. The fostering of a child. Sir J. Davie* 
Sl'ter-jj,nt, a. Producing change. Bacotu 
AL-T?R-i'Tlpw, 71. Act of altering ; state of being aJtered ; j 

variation ; change. 1 

Al'ter-^-tIve, a. (Med.) Producing change ; 

Al'ter-a-tIve, 71. (Med.) A medicine which cures ai»- 

ease by slow and imperceptible degrees, I 

Al'ter-cate, v. n. [altercorj L.] [L altercated; pp. 

ALTERCATING, ALTERCATED.] To wraugle ; to conten4 

AL-TER-CA'TipN, [ai-ter-ka'shiin, S, JV. J. E. F. Ja. K 

Sm. i aMer-ka'shi^n, A] n. Debate ; controversy ; wran- 
gle ; contest. 
^L-TER'i-TY,* 71. State of being another or differenL Col» 

ridge. [R.] 
fAL-TERN', a. [altemiLs, L.] Acting by turns ; reciprocal 

fAL-TER'NA-cy, 71. Action performed by turns. 
JAL-TER'NAL, a. Alternative. Sherwood, 
I^L-TfeR'NAL-LY, ad. By turns. May, 

■lEN, SlB; MOVE, MOB, s6n J bCLL, bUr, rOle p, fi, ^, g, sqft; jB, G, £, g, hardf $ aj Z i Tf. as gz;— XHUI 


^L-TER'N^TE, a Foll)wing in order or by turns; being 

by turns ; one after another ; reciprocal. 
^1-ter'n^te,7u What happens alternately; vicissitude, 

I^L-rfiR'NATE, orAL'TEB-NATE, M-ter'nSt, IV. P. F. K. 
Sm. ; ai'tf r-nat, E. Wb. ; a.l-ter-nat^, Ja.] v. a. [alt^niare. 
It,] [i. alternated; pp, alternating, alternated.] 
To perform alternately ; to change reciprocally. 

UAl-ter'kate, c. 71. To succeed by turns. Mallam. 

^ii-TER'N^TE-Ly, ad. In alternate succession. 

^l-t^r'n^te-nEss, ?i, Quality of being alternate. Bailey. 

IjJtL'TER-NAT-iNG,* p. a. Succeeding or changing by turns, 

iL-TER-NA'TiQN, n, Act of alternating ; reciprocal succes- 
sion ; reciprocation j alternate performance. 

^l-ter'na-tIve, m. The choice given of two things ; ex- 
pedient ; resource. 

AL-ter'n^-t1ve, a. Implying alternation. Hakewell. 

^L-TER'Ni-TlVE-LY, ad. By turns ; reciprocally. Ayliffe. 

i^L-Ti3R'NA-TlVE-N£ss. Ti. Reciprocation. Bailey. 

t^L-T^R'Ni-xy, n. Reciprocal succession. Browiu 

^l-thm'a^ or ^l-the'a, n. [aXQaia^ Gr.J pL L. AL- 
THJ£'^; Eng. al-the'A5. {Boi.) A beautiful flowering 
P-lant or shrub ; the marsh-mallow. 

Al-thou&h', (il-tho') covj. Grant that; however; though. 
See Though. 

IAl'ti-rrade, a. Rising on high. Bailey. 

fAL-TiL'p-QtiENCE, n. Pompous language. Bailey 

fiiL-TlL'p-QUfeNT,* a. Pompous in language. Bailey. 

^L-tIm'e-t:^r,* 71. An instrument for taking altitudes. 

^L-TtM'E-TRy, 71. [altimetriaj L.] Art of measuring alti- 

XL'Tipr,*n. A small Russian coin, value about three cents. 

T^L-Tis'o-NXNT,a. [altisonus^ L.] High-sounding. Evelyn. 

fAL-Tls'p-NoOs, a. [altisonits, Jj.j High-sounding. Bailey. 

Jl^Tlts'sr-MOj* [It.] (Mas.) Highest; the superlative of 
altOj high. P. Cyc. 

iL'Tj-TUDE, 71. [altitudo, LJ Height of place ; elevation ; 
higJiest point. — (.Sstron.) The angle of elevation of a ce- 
lestial object, or the angle of the visual ray with the ho- 
rizon. _ 

Al-ti-tu-dj-na'rj-^n,* a. Having altitude ; aspiring. Cole- 

fAL-Ttv'p-LANT, a. [altivolansf L.] Flying high. Bailey. 

Al' to* [It.] IMus.) The highest part for male voices. Slmw. 

HjJto £:t Bas'so* [L.] (Law) High and low ; including 
all matters. Bouvier. 

Sl-tp-g£th':er, ad. Completely; without restriction; 

AiJto Rt-ziE'ro, n. [It.] High relief; a mode of sculp- 
ture representing figures standing either entirely or nearly 
detached from the background. 

AiJto RI-pi-e'no,* (re-pe-a^no) [lul^Mus.) The tenor 
of the great chorus in the full parts. Crdbh. 

Sl'to VP q-jla* \li.] (JIfMs.) The small tenor of the vio- 
lin. Crabb. 

AL'y-DEL, (51'yi;-del) n. (Chcm.) An earthen tube or vessel 
without a bottom, used in sublimations. 

Al'u-1.a,* (ai'yu-l^i) n. (Omith.) The group of feathers at- 
tached to the joint of the carpus, as in the snipe. Brande. 

AL'vm, 71. \aXumen, L.] A mineral or earthy salt, of an acid 
taste. It IS a sulphate of alumina, combined usually with 
- pulphate of potash. 

AL'VMEi), (ai'i^md) a. Mixed with alum. Barret. 

A-Lu'MEN,* «. (Ckem.) Alum, a genus of salts. LifelL 

^-Lti'Mi-NA,* 71. (Chem.) A kind of earth ; the earthy ox- 
ide of aluminum: — called, also, argil^ or argillaceous 
earth. P^ Cyc. 

^-liU'Mi-NATE,* 71. (Min.) An earthy combination of alu- 
mina. Brande. 

AL'y-MiNE, 71, Same as alumina. Crabb. 

^ Lii'ivriN-iTE,* ». (Min.) Native subsulphate of alumina. 

^ l-u'Ml-TfODs, a. Relating to alum. Brown. 

^-lu'mi-nDm,* n. (Ckem.) The metallic base of alumina- 

Xl-'VM-IsH, a. Having the nature of alum. 

^'Z&JH^jyvSi* n. [L.] pi. a-lGm'ni. a pupil; a foster- 
" child : — a graduate of a college or university. Aiiisworth. 

SL-V-Mp-cXL'ciT£,*n. (Min.) A silicious mineral. Phillips. 

Al'VM-Slate,* 71. (Miv.) A kind of clay-slate. Crabb. 

iL'VM-STPNE, 71. A stone or calx used in surgery. 

Al'vm-WA-t^r,* 71. Water impregnated with alum. .Ssh. 

;El'V-nite,*7i. (Min.) The alum-stone, Phillips. 

Al'-V-TA'CEoys,* (-shus) a. Being of a pale-brown color. 

f Al-V-ta'tiPN, 71. [aluta, L.l The tanning of leather, Bailey. 

JJi'VE-^-RV, n. [alvcarlum, L.] A beehive. Barret. 

AL'v?-AT-iD,* a. Formed or vaulted like a beehive. 
Blount, _ 

^L-VE'9-LAB,* or Al'VE-o-Lar,* r?l-v5'9-l5ir, K. Dun^li- 
nm, Brande ; ftl'v^-d-lgir, Sm. Wb.] Full of sockets or pits. 



AL-VE'p-LA-Ry,* or Al'v?-p-la-BVj* fl- Same a» alow 

lar. Loudon. 
AL-Ve'P-LATE,* or AL'VE-P-LATE,* [?l-v6'9-Ial, K 
' Brande; il've-^-Iat, Wb. Crabb.] a, (Bot.) Formed like i 

honeycomb. Ch-abb. 
AL-VE'p-LiTE,*7i, (Jl!fi7i.) A fossil zoophyte, allied to cor 

allines. Brande. 
JlL-VE' Q-zi}^Sj* n. [L,] pi. AL-rE'Q-Li. A small cavity, 

channel, hole, or socket, Buckland. 
Al'vine,* [al'vin, Sm.; Sl'vin, K.] a. Relating to the ab- 
domen, lower belly, or intestines. Dunglison. 
Al'way,* ad. At all times : always. Job. 
Al'way5, (ai'waz) ad. At all times; during life; perpnt 

ually ; constantly. 
A. M. Artium magister, or master of arts ; ante meriditm, 

1. e. before twelve o'clock at noon. 
AM, V The first person singular of the verb to be. See Bk. 
AM-A-BlL'l-Ty, 71. [amabilitas, L.] Loveliness. Bp. Tayln^ 

See AmiABiLiTr. 
aM-^-d£t't6, n. A sort of pear. Skinner. 
Am'^-d^ne,* 71. A substance produced from wheat ana no- 

tato starch. P. Cyc. 
Am'a-dGt, 71. A sort of pear. Johnson. 
AM-A-Ddu'* n. German tinder ; an inflammable substance 

used for tinder or touchwood. P. Cyc. 
^-main', ad. With vehemence; violently. Shak. — (J^faut.) 

By yielding or letting go. 
A-mXl'&am, n. [amalgame, Fr.] (Ckem.) A combination o' 

mercury with other metals ; any mixture. 
A-MAZ' GA~M^, n. Same as amalgam. B. Jonson. 

ING, AMALGAMATED.] To comblne mercury with other 
metals ; to mix different things. 

A-mXl'ga-mate,* v. n. To unite by amalgamation. iSmor* 

A-mXl-qa-ma'tipn, n. Act of amalgamating ; state of b*- 
ing amalgamated ; mixture. 

IA-mXl'game, v. n. To mix by amalgamation. Chaucer. 

f A-mXnd', V, a. [amando, L.] To "^end one away. Cock 

tAM'AN-DA'TipN, n. Sending on a message. 

4-mXn'i-tIne,* n. The poisonous principle of some fungi 

A-mXn-v-£w'sis, n. [L.] pi. A-MAN-v-fiN'sE§. A person 
who writes what another dictates. Warton. 

Am'^-rXnth, 71. [amarantJtuSflj.] (Bo(.) Agerus of jriants; 
a plant, of which the flower long retains its color. (Poe- 
try) An imaginary flower, which never fades : — a color 
inclining to purple. 

Am-a-rXn'thine, a. Consisting of amaranths; unfading. 

fA-MXR'i-TUDE, 71. [a7na7T(7ido, L.1 Bitterness. Harvey. 

fA-MXR'v-LfeNCE, 71. Bitterness. Bailey, 

tA-MXR'v-LJ6NT, a. Bitter. Bailmj. 

Am-^-r^l' Lis^* n. [L.j (Bot.) A genus of bulbous plants. 

A-MXss', v. a. [amasser, Fr.] [i. amassed; p/j. amassing, 
AMASSED.] To collect together ; to heap up ; to add one 
thing to another. 

fA-MXss', 71. [amas, Fr.] An assemblage ; a mass. Wotton. 

A-mAss'ment, 71. A heap; an accumulation. 

fA-MATE', V. W'^To accompany; to terrify; to perplex. 


Am-A-teub', Cam-9-lur') [Slm-a-tur', P. Ja. K. ; 5ra-?-tar', 
W. ; am-?-t6r', F. ; ^m'^-tur, -E. ,* ^m-fi^ur', Srn.] n. [Fr. | 
One versed in or a lover of any particular pursuit, art, or 
science, bu^ not a professor. 

Am-a-teur'shIp,* n. The character or quality of an ama 
teur. Ed. Rev. 

Am'a-tIve-nISss,* 71. (Phren.) The amatory principle, or 
the propensity to love. Combe. 

tAM-A-TOR'cv-LlsT, n. [amatorculus, L.] An insignificant 
lover. Bailey, 

Am-a-to'bi-al, a. Relating to love ; amatory. IVarton. 

Am-^-to'bJ-an,* a. Relating to love; amatory. John- 
son. [R.l 

fAM-A-TO'Bi-pns, o. Relating to love. MUton. 

Am'j>.-TP-ry, a. lamatorivs, L.] Relating to love ; causing 

AM-Au-Ro'STSf n. [dfiavpuois, Gr.] (Med.) Guttaserena; 
dimnesj of sight. 

^-mau'site,* 71. (JMiTi.) A species of felspar. Philips. 

A MXx'i-Mis Xd MIn'i-ma^* [L.] (Logic) From the 
greatest things to the least, ffamilttnu 

^-MAZE',7?. a.[i. AMAZED ; pp. AMAZING, AMAZED.] To M II- 

fuse with terror or wonder ; to astonish ; to perplex. 
|A-ma2e', 71. Astonishment ; confusion. Milton. 
A-MAZ'ED-Ly, ad. Confusedly ; with amazement. Shak. 
A-MAz':?D-Ni:ss, 71. Amazement. Shah. [B.] 
^-MAZe'ment, n. State of being amazed; wonder; e» 

treme fear ; extreme dejection ; astonishment. 
A-MAZ'iNG, jj. a. Wonderftil; astonishing. Addison 
A-MAz'iNG-i.y, ad. Wonderfully. Watts. 
AM'^-z6N,7i. [aand/i((g'dy,Gr.] Oneof theAmazona,aTve 

of women famous for valor, who inhabited Caucasus w 

i g. 1, ^ # Y, long tf t.Af 6, XSf ty shorti ^, ^y j, p, y, y, obscure.— fAbe, f'&b, fAst, fAll, h£is, ukE 


tall »d rrom their cutting off their right breast to use their 

weip<ma better. A warlike woman ; a virago. 
Im-a-zo'nj-an, a. Warlike ; relating to the Amazons. 
IkM'^-zpN-LiKE, a. Resembling an Amazon. Bp. Hall. 
^ia-BA.'ftK^,n. pi. [L.] Turnings and circumlocutions in 

speech J a circuit of words. Swift. 
^.M-bXjg'jn-oDs,*(i Circumlocutory j tedious. C/i. 06. [R.J 
fAM-BA'jBi-ot5s, a. Circumlocutory; tedious. Cotgrave, 
^M-EXjjr'l-Tp-ay,* o. Same as ambaginous. Scott, [ R.] 
iM'BA-LXM,^ ?i. [Bot.) An Indian tree and fruit. Crabb. 
^M'B^'lHEy* n. (India) An oblong seat furnished with a 

canopy and curtains, to be placed on an elephant's back 

for the accommodation of riders. Sir J. Mackintosh. 
kUL'B^-KYi* n. (Bot.) An East Indian plant ; the hibiscus. 

fAM-BAS-SADE', n. [ambossadBj Fr.] Embassy. ShaJc. 
^m-bAs'sa-^QK,, n. [ambassadeurj'Fr.] A person sent on 

public business from one sovereign power to another ; one 

of the highest order of foreign ministers. 
^m-bXs-sa-i>o'e.{-4.l,*o. Belonging to an ambassador. JEc. 

Rev. [r.] 
^m-bXs'sa-t>r1Ss3, n. The wife of an ambassador. 
tAlVl'B^s-SAjGrE, 71. An embassy. See Embassage. Bacon. 

iAw'BAS-SY, 7^. An embassy. Howell. 
lM'Be'r, 71. [ambar^ Ar.] A carbonaceous mineral, highly 
electrical, generally transparent, and of light yellow col- 
or, found in beds of lignite, and obtained mostly from the 
shores of the Baltic, near the coast of Prussia ; supposed 
to be an antediluvial resin ; chiefly used as an article of 
ornament, and in the manufacture of varnish. 

Am'ber, a. Consisting of amber. ShaJc. 

AiVl'BiER, V. a. To scent with amber. Beaum. Sf FL 

Am'ber-DrInk, 71. Drink of the color of amber. Bacon, 

Am'eer-drop'ping, a. Dropping amber. Milton. 

Am'ber-gris, (am'ber-gr6s)n. [a/nAer, and oT-i5,Fr.] A sub- 
stance of animal origin, found, principally, in warm cli- 
mates, floating on the sea, or thrown upon the coasts. It 
is fragrant, of a grayish color, used both as a perfume and 
a cordial.^ 

iM'BER-SEED, 71. Musk-seed. It resembles millet. 

Am'b?r-Tree, 71. A shrub having small evergreen leaves,' 
which emit, when bruised, a very fragrant odor. 

AM'BER-wfiEP'jNG, a. Distilling amber. Craskaw. 

Sm-ST-D&x'TER, 71. [L.] One who uses both hands alike,, 
the \e(t as well els the right ; one that plays or acts on 
both sides. — (Law) One who takes money of the parties 
for giving his verdict as a juror. Tomllns. 

AM-Bj-DEx-TiliR'i-Ty, 71. State of being ambidextrous j 
double dealing. 

Am-bi-d6x'trops, a. Having equal use of both hands; 
acting on both sides ; double dealing. 

Am-bi-d£x'trovs-w1Sss,7i. Ambidexterity, Bailey. 

Am'bi-Ent, a. \ambiens, L.] Surrounding. Milton. 

^lafBl-eUjn, [Fr.] A medley of dishes. King, 

Am-bi-gu'i-tY, 71. State of being ambiguous j «quivocal- 
ness ; doubtfulness of meaning. 

^m-eIg'V-oDs, C^m-big'yy-us) a, [ambiguus, L.] Doubtful ; 
having two meanings ; equivocal j uncertain. 

^M-BlG'v-otJs-LV, ad- Doubtfully ; uncertainly. 

AM-bT&'v-oOs-n£ss, n. Uncertainty of meaning. 

AM-Bl-liE'vovs,* a. Left-banded on both sides. Smart, 

f^M-BlL'p-j&Y^ [ambOf L., and Xoyoi, Gr.] Ambiguous talk. 

fAM-BlL'p-QUoDs, (pm-bil'p-kwus) a. Using ambiguous 
expressions. Bailey, 

tj^M-BlL'p-Quy, Ti. Use of doubtful expressions. Bailey. 

XM'BJT,7t. lambitvsjli,] Compass or circuit ; circumference. 

^M-Bt"TlQN, (jim-blsh'un) n. [ambitiOy L.] Eager desire of 
Buperiority, preferment, honor, or power j emulation: — 
commonly used in an ill sense. 

^M BJ"Tigw-L£ss,* a. Free from ambition. Pollok. [r."| 

^M-Bl^Tioys, (9m-bish'us) a. Possessed of or actuated by 
ambition ; desirous of superiority j emulous ; aspiring ; 

^m-bI"tiovs-i<¥i (?m-bish'Vs-l9) ad. In an ambitious 

^m-b1"tiovs-n£ss, n. The quality of being ambitious, 

fAM'BI-TU-DE, 71. CompEiss ; circuit. Bailey. 

£.M'BI-Tbs* n. [L.] A going round ; a circuit; circumfer- 
ence ; a sjKPe round a building. — (Bot.) The encompass- 
ing border of a leaf, Brande. 

Am'BLE, (am'blj V. n. {ambler, Fr.] [i. ambled; pp. am- 
bling, ambled.] To move upon an amble; to move be- 
tween a walk and a trot. 

Am'ble, (am'bl) 71. A movement in which a horse moves 
both his legs on one aide at the same time ; a pace. 

Aar'BiiER, 71. He or that which ambles. 

Am^bi4NQ,*7i. The motion of ahorse that ambles. Brande. 

AM'BliiNG,*j7. a. Moving with an amble. Smart. 

AM'BLING-Ly, ad. With an ambling movement. 

Am'BLV-Gon,*7i. An obtuse-angled triangle. Bailey. 

&M-Bl.i?G'9-NAL,* a. Relating to an amblygon. ./Ssft. 

SM'Biiy-GpM-iTB,* Tu (Min.) A crystallizeo mineral. Phil- 

25 aMK 

AM'Bp, n. [&p0{i}v, Gr.] A reading desk, or pulpil Str O 

Am-bo5-nese', 71. «7i^. &yi, A native or natives of Ai»- 
boyna. Ency. 

Am'bre-In,* n. (^Chem.) The fatty matter of amljergria,ccn 
vertible by nitric acid into ambreic acid. Brande. 

Am~bro' ^I'A^ (Sim-bro'zh§-5t) [?m-bro'zhe-fi, W. P. J. F 

' Ja. Sm. ,■ ^m-bro'sh^, S. ; ^m-brozh'y^, K. ; ^m-brS'zh? 

W6.] n. [L. ; dii0potTia, Gr.] (MytJi.) The food of the gods 

as nectar was the drink, the use of which conferred im 

mortality. — (Bot.) A fragrant plant or shrub, 

fAM-BRo'^i-AC, (&m-br6'zh?-5ik) a. Ambrosiai. B, Jonson. 

^M-BRd'$j-Aii, (^m-bro'zh^-^l) a. Relating to or partaking 
of ambrosia ; fragrant ; delicious. 

AM-BBo'^f-ATf, (^m-brd'zh^-^) a. Relating to or partak 
ing of ambrosia; ambrosial. Dryden. — (Mus.) NotiDj; a 
chant composed by St. Ambrose. 

Am'brv, (S.m'bre) n. A place where the almoner lives, oi 
alms are distributed. See Almonhv. — A place wjiere 
utensils for house-keeping are kept; a pantry. 

Ambs-ace', (amz-as') [amz-as', W. J. F. Ja. R. ; am 'as', 
5. ,- amz'as, P. Sm. ,- ^mz'as, K.] n. A double ace ; two 
aces thrown up by dice at once. Shak. 

Am'bv-lXnt,* a. Moving from place to place. Booth, f_R.] 

IAm'bv-I'ATE, v. n. iambulo, L ] To move about. Ooi/er 

am-BV-LA'tiqw, n. The act of walking. Brown. [R.] 

tAM'BV-LA-TiVE, a. Walking. Sherwood. 

am'bv-la-tqr,* 71. One who walks about. — (Eni,) An 
insect. — (Omith.) A walking bird. Smm-t. 

AM'BV-LA-Tp-Ry, a. Having the power of walking ; walk- 
ing or moving about ; formed for walking ; movable, 

Am'bv-L^-tp-rv, n. A cloister, gallery, or alley for walk 
ing in. Warton. 

Am'bv-r¥j n. A bloody wart on a horse's body. 

am-bvs-cade', n. {embuscade, Fr.j A private station in 
which men lie to surprise others ; a snare laid for an en- 
emy ; ambush. 

AM-BVS-CApE',*B. a. To lie in wait for. Sffia7^. [R.] 

fAM-Bys-CA'Dp, 71. An ambuscade. Shak. 

fAlvi-BVS-CA'DOEDj (im-bus-caMod) a. Privately postetl 

Am'eOsh, n. [embhchcj Fr.] A post where soldiers or as- 
sassins are concealed, in ocder to fall unexpectedly upon 
an enemy ; an ambuscade ; the act of surprising anofhc 
by lying in wait; the state of being posted privately, in 
order to surprise. 

Am'eOsh, v. a. To place in ambush. Sir T. Herbert. 

Am'eOsh,* v. n. To lie insidiously concealed. Pope, [r.] 

Am'eOshed, (^m'busht) a. Placed in ambush. Dryden 

f-AM'BOsH-MEHT, n, Ambush ; surprise. Spenser. 

I^M-bDst', a, [ambusUts. L.] Burnt. Bailey. 

a"m-bDs'tipn, (?m-bust'yunj n. (Med.) A burn or sc^ 

Am-e-be'an,* a. Answering alternately. J. Warton 

,&-MEEB'j* A-MiR'j* n. [Ar.] A nobleman. Hamilton, 

Am'EL, n. [cmaillerj emails Fr.] Enamel. See Eh'AMEL. 

Am'el-corn,* 7^. A species of corn used for starch. SrKart 

||A-MEL'ip-BA-BLE,* o. That may be ameliorated. JVcm 
.^7171. Reg. 

ll^-MEL'ip-RATE, (?i-mery9-rat) [?-me'le-9-rat, P.J. Ja,j 
^-m51'y9-rat, S;n.] V. a. [ameliorer., Fr.] [i. ameliorated; 
pp. ameliorating, ameliorated.] To ihiprove; to make 
better; to meliorate. See Meliorate. 

llA-MEL-ip-RA'TipK, (5i-mel-y9-ra,'shun) 7i, Improvement. 

ll^-MJEL'ip-RA-TpR,* (gi-mel'y9-ra-tur) n. One who amelio- 
rates. Ed. Rev. 

fAM'ELLED, (am'eld) a. Enamelled. Chapman. 

a'm£n', fa-mgn', S. P. J, E. Ja. K. R. ; a'men', W. F. Sm — 
In singing, it is commonly pronounced a'mSn'.] ad. [Heb.J 
So be it ; verily ; a term used in devotions, meaning al 
the end of a prayer, so be it ; at tlie end of a creed, so it is. 
J)t?"" This is the only word in the language that has ne- 
cessarily two consecutive accents." Walker. A number 
of compound words are to be excepted ; as, back-slide, 
strong-hold, way-lay^ &c. 

A.'M.^N'y 71. The term itself. " These things saith the .^mri " 

A-ME-NA-EtL'i-TY,* n. The state of being amenable; an» 
nableness. Coleridge. 

A-me'na-ble, a. Liable to be called to account; liable to 
punishment ; responsible. 

/i-ME'NA.-BiiE-N£ss,* n. State of being amenable. J. Pp$ 

f Am'e-na/se, v. ». [amener, Fr.] To direct or manage bf 
force. Spenser. 

fAM'E-NANCE, 71. [a77ien«r, Fr.] Conduct ; behavior ; mien 

j^-m£nd', v. a. [emendoj L. ; amender^ Fr.] [i. amenCed 
pp AMENDING, AMENDED.] To correct ; to make better 
to i-orrect that which was wrong ; to reform the life. 

A-m£nd', v. n. To grow better ; to improve. Sidney. 

A-mEnd'a-ele, a. Capable of amendment Sherwood, 

A-M£N'D^-Tp-R¥,*a. That amends or corrects. Hale. 

Amende, (il-m'ind') [9-mond', P.; a-m5ngd', S7/1. ,• % 

itfEM slRj MOVE, NOR. s6n; bOll, bUr, rOle. — p, , 

, 9, g, soft; £, jG, P, I, hard; $ as Z ; f as gz;--TWM 

AMI 96 

mind', ff.] n. [Fr.] A fine, by which recompenae is 
mideiortne faiit committed; amends. — ^Ttiende honor- 
al2e, {Law) A panalty imposed by way of disgrace ; a spe- 
cies of infamous punishment, formerly inflicted on crimi- 
nals guilty of an offence against public decency or morality. 

(i.-M£ND'ER, 7u One who amends. Barret, 

f^-M^ND'FOL., a. Fuil of improvement, Beatim, ^ FL 

^MfiND'iWG, w. The act of correcting. Bp. Taylor. 

^-m£nd'ment, 71. Act of amending; improvement; change 
.for the hptter ; reformation of life ; recovery of health. 
{Law) A correction of an error in the process ; an altera- 
tion in a bill. 

^-MiSND?', (gi-mSndz') w-. sin^. & pi., and used with a sin- 
gular or plural vurb. [Corrupted from amende^ Fr.J Kecom- 
pense; compensation. -SAoA. 

^-MfiN'l-TY, r?-inf n'e-te, S. W. P. J. E. F. Ja. R.'\ n. [amcEn- 
itasj L.] Pleasantness ; agreeableness of situation, place, 
or manners. 

ifl Men'S4 &t T^o'ROy* [L.] {Law) From bed and 
bnr:u'd ; a separation or divorce wnich does not absolutely 
dissolve the marriage. Hamilton. 

AM-EN-TA'CEOys, (aLm-en-ta'shus) a. [amentatus, L.] {Bot.) 
Hanging as by a thread ; bearing catkins or chaffy scales;. 

A-M&N' T^M* Ti. [L.] pi. a-mP.n'ta. {Bot.) The catkin; 
the male inflorescence of the hazel, &-c. P. Cyc, 

f/k-M£N'T¥, n. [amentie, Fr.] Madness. Diet. 

i^-MERCE', V. a. [wiercf, Fr.J [i. amerced; jjp. amercing, 
'amerced.] To punish with a pecuniary penalty or fine, 
at discretion ; to fine ; to mulct. 

A-merce'a-ble, a. Liable to amercement. Hale'. 

^-Merce'meht, n. {Law) A pecuniary punishment^ pen- 
alty, or fine, imposed on an offender, at the discretion of 
the judge or court. Punishmirint or loss. 

A-MisR'cER, n. One who amerces. 

^-mer'cj-a-m£nt, (?-mer'she-?-ment) n. {Law) A penalty 
or fine. Selden. See Amercement. 

^-m£r'j-can, 11. A native of America. Milton, 

A-m£r'}-can, a. Relating to America. Sir T. Herbert. 

.VmISr'i-Cj^n-I^m,* n. A word, phrase, or idiom peculiar to 
America. Witherspoon. 

^-mEr'j-c^amze,* v. a. To render American; to natural- 
ize in America. Jackson. 

XUE^-ACE, (araz-as')n* Two aces on two dice. See Ambs- 

iM'ESS, 71. A priest's vestment. Bailey. See Amice. 

A.-m£t-^-b6'li-an,* 71. {Enu) An insect that does not un- 
dergo any metamorphosis. Kirby. 

tAM-E-THOD'i-OAli, a. Out of method ; irregular. Bailey, 

fA-MixH'p-DisTjTi. An irregular physician ; a quack. Wkit- 

iM'E-THifST, n. [d/itfluo-rof, Gr.] {Min.) A precious stone, 
of two varieties ; one, the oriental amethyst, which is a 
variety of the adamantine spar or corundum ; the other is 
the common amethyst, which is a variety of quartz, of a 
violet or purplish-violet color. — {Her.) Purple in a noble- 
man's coat of arms. 

iM-E-TH!?s'TiNE, a. Resembling an amethyst. 

^m-hX.r'|C,* 71. The vernacular language of Abyssinia. P. 

A-mi-a-bTl'i-tv, a. Quality of being amiable; amiable- 
ness. Qu. Rev. — It is much more in use than amability. 

A'MI-A-BIiE, a. [aimable, Fr.] Worthy to be loved ; lovely ; 
charming ; delightful ; pleasing. 

A'MI-A-ble-n£ss, 71. Loveliness. Burton. 

a'mj-A-bly, ad. In an amiable manner ; pleasingly. 

Am'J-Xwth,* 71. Earth-flax, PkilUps. See Amianthus 

Am-1-Xk'thi-form,* a. Resembling amianth. Phillips. 

Am I-Xn'thjn-ite,* ?i. (MLn.) Asort of mineral. Phillips. 

iM-}-XN'THolD,* 71. (Mm.) A mineral. Phillips. 

iM-i-XN'THolD,* a. Resembling amianth. Phillips. 

Xm-I-An'THVS,* n. [aynianthasj L.] (Min.) Earth-flax, or 
mountain flax ; a mineral substance resembling flax ; as- 
bestos, or the flaxen variety of asbestos. Brande. 

Xlff-i-CA-BlL'j-TY,* n. duality of being amicable. Ash. 

Am'j-c^-ble, a. Friendly; kind; obliging. 

AM'i-CA-BLE-wfisa, 71. Friendliness ; good-will. 

A-irt'i-C^L-BLY, ad. In an amicable manner. Phillips. 

^-Mi'cAL,* a. [amieus, L,] Friendly ; amiable. English Syiv- 
onymes. [R.] 

IM'JCE, [Wis, S. W. p. J. K. Sm. R. ,■ ?im-mTs', Ja.] n. 
[amictas, L.] The undermost part of a Catholic priest's 
shoulder cloth or alb. 

4~mPcvs Cu'kj-^j* n. [L.] {Law) A friend of the court; 

' a stander-by who informs the judge, when doubtful or 
mistaken in matter of law. Tomlins. 

A-mIdst' [p^^' ^° **^® midst of; mingled with; among. 
Am'I-3Ine,* 7i. The soluble part of starch. Brande. 
^-mId'shIps,* ad. (JVavt.) In the middle of a ship ; be- 
tween the stem and the stern. Falcone. 
A-Miss', ad. Wrong ; faultily ; improperly ; criminally. 
tA-Miss', n. Culpability ; fault. Shak. 
.\-Mlss',* a. Wrong ; faulty ; improper. Dryden. 
f^-MlS'sipN, (9-mish'vn) n, [amissio, L.] Loss. More. 


tA-MTT', V. a. To lose ; to dismiss Brtmii. 

AM'l-Ty, 7i. [oTniiid, Fr.] Friendsl p; comord ; g03J-nih. 

tAsi''ni;-R^L, 71. Fuller. Admiral. See Admiral. 

AM'mQ'jOHRYSE,'*' n. (Min.) A soft stone, used to siren 
over writing paper. Crabb. 

AM'MO-DYTEi* 71. {Zool.) A venomous serpent. CrcAb, 

^M-Mo'ni-^, 71. (Chern.) A gaseous substance, of pun gen 
smell and acrid taste, consisting of azote and hydrogen 
volatile alkali. 

Am-mo'ni-ACjTI. A gum resin; the name of two drugs, fvil 
ammoniac^ a concrete juice brought from the East ; and so, 
ammoniaCf a compound of muriatic acid and ammonia, 
popularly called hartthom. 

Aai-MQ-ivi^Vc^ii, a. Having the properties of ammonia oi 

Am'mq-nite,* 71. {Oeol.) An extinct and nTimerous ordei 
of molluscous animals, curved like a coiled snake, vul- 
garly called the snake-stone. Lycll. 

Ant-MO'NI-Dai,* n. {Cherru) The metallic base of ammonia. 

Am-M9-ni'v-h,Et,* n. {Chem.) A substance containing am- 
monia and mercury. Phil. Ma^. 

Xm-MV-nI^TIQN, (am-mu-nish'yn) n. [munitio, L.] Milita- 
ry stores, powder, balls, shells, &.c. 

Am-mv-nI"tipn-Br£ad, (^ra-mu-nish'iJtn-bred) n. Bread 
for armies or garrisons. 

Am-ne' ^f-4.f* n. [Gr.] {Med.) Loss of memory. Dr. Dint' 

' glison. 

Am'nes-ty, 71. [}OTia^ Gr.] An act of general pardon 
or freedom from penalty granted to those guilty of some 

^M-nIc'P-lIst, tu [amnicola^ L.] One inhabiting near o 
river. Bailey, 

fAM-Nlj&'E-NoGs, a. Born of a river. Bailey. 

AstNi-tJN,n. [Gr.] (.^naC.) The membrane that surroundf 
the foetus in the womb. 

AJi^Ni-bs^ 71. (Bot.) A thin, gelatinous covering of the em- 

' bryo of a seed. Brande, 

Am-n|-6t'ic,* a. { Chem.) Obtained from the amnios. Brand*. 

Am-<E-Be'an,* a. See Amebean. 

tAM-9-Ll"TigN, (am-9-lish'un) n. A removal. Bp, Ward, 

^-Mo'MVM, n, [L.] {Bot.) A genus of plants bearing aro 
matic seeds, and ^affording cardamom. 

*;^-m6kg', (gi-miing') ) prep. Mingled with ; conjoined 

.J^-MbNGST', (gi-mungst') \ with. 

AM'p-RfiT.n. [flTBoretto, It.] A lover; a person enamored 
Oayton. [R.] 

fAM-p-RlTTE, f5m-9-r6t') \ 7i. An amorous woman j lo^ » 

JAM-ou-RiSTTE', (am-8-r6t') \ knots. Clumcer. A petlj 
amour. Walsh. 

tAM'p-RlST, n. A lover ; a gallant. Stafford. 

fA-MORN'jNGg, ad. In the mornings. Beaum. fy Fl. 

Am-q-RO' s^., 71, [It.] A wanton ; a courtesan. Sir T. Her 
hert. [r.] 

Am-q-ro's6* a, [It.] {Mas.) Tender; affectionate; win 
ning. Warren. 

AM-p-Ro'sOj n. [It.] A man enamored. Oayton, [r.] 

Am'P-roDs, a. [amor^ L.] Full of love ; belonging to love 
inclined to love; enamored ; loving; fond. 

Am^P-roDs-ly, ad. In an amorous manner ; fondly, 

Am'P-roOs-n£ss, 71. The quality of being amorous. 

A-M6R'PH0vs,a.'[aand ^op<p^,GT.\ Havingnoregularform 

fj^-MOR'PHY, 71. {a and poptpfi, Gr.] Departure from estab 
lished form. Swift. 

A.-MbR'PLA*n, [Gr.] {BoU) A genus of plants ^ bastard 
indigo. Crabb, 

^-MORT', ad. [d la mort. Fr.] Lifeless. Shak. 

4l-Mor'tI5E, or A-m&r'tize. [a-mSr'tjz, W. P. F, Ja. Sm, 
(t-mSr'tiz, S. E. K. Wo.} v. a. {Law) To transfer to mort- 
main ; to alien lands or tenements to a corporation, of which 
the law contemplates no decease or termination. Bacaa, 

A-MOR-Ti-ZA'TipN, n. {Law) The right or act of transfer 
ring lands in mortmain. Ayliffe. 

^-mor'T}ZE-m£nt, m. [amortissementj Fr.] Amortization. 

^-MO'TlpN, (^-mo'sh^n) n. [amotiOf L.J {Law) RemovaL 

^-moOnt', 73. n. \monterj Fr.J [i. amounted ; pp. amount- 
ing, amounted.] To rise to in the accumulative quan 
titjr ; to compose in the whole. 

^-mount', n. The sum total ; the aggregate. 

-^-MotJNi'iNG,*^. Rising to; equalling as a whole, 

A-m5ur', C^i-m&rO n, [amour, Fr.J An affair of gallantry; 
love intrigue ; generally in an ill sense. 

tA-M6'v^L, n. Total removal. Evelm. 

A-m6ve', v. a. [amoveoy L.] {Law) To remove fro* a p'isl 
or station. Hale. To remove ; to mov*. Spenser, 

Am'pe-lIs,* 71. ( Omith.) A genus of passerine birds Urmi i& 

Am'pe-lIte,* n. (Min.) Canal-coal ; a species bla tk 
earth regarded as medicinal. OiaJbb. 

Am'per, 71. A tumor, with inflammation Orose [Locid, 

Am'per-sAnd,* 71. [and per se and.] The character [& ' 
representing the conjunction and. JVores. 

u, Y, Ungi X, £, I, 5, D, t, thorti 4, 9, |, 9. y, Y* ohseurt. — fAre, eAr, fXst, fAll; u£ir. ultl 

AMP ! 

^M PH'fB'^^H,* 71. (Zool.) An amphibious animal ; an anl- 
mal having the faculty of living both in water and on 
land. Kirby. 

^M-FHYB-}-Q-L5ja'i-CAL}* a. Relating to amphlbiology. 

^K~t'iilB-l-6l,'Q-pYf* ^' A treatise on amphibious animals. 

^M-phKb'j-oDs, (jm-fEb'e-us) a. [dft<f>l and ffiui^ Gr.] Hav- 
ing the faculty of living in two elenkents, as in air and 
water ; of a mixed nature. 

^M-PHlB'f'O0s-N£ss, 71. Quality of being amphibious. 

AM-PHlB'l-i>M^ n. [L.] pi. am~PH1b' f^^. {Zool.) The 

* class of animals which live both on land and in water j 
amphibian. See Amphibian. 

AM'PHi-BOLE,*7t. (Jtfin.) Hornblende. Brande. 

JLM-Fiii-BdL'fc,'* a. Relating to amphibole or amphiboly; 
doubtful. Hamilton. 

^M-Ph1b'P-lite,* n. (Min.) A species of mineral ; a pet- 
rifaction of an amphibious animal. Hamilton. 

ifcM-PHYB-p-l.6j&'j-C^L, a. Doubtful ; ambiguous. Barton. 

ABI-PHtB-Q-L6>3'j-CJVL-LVi ad Doubtfully ; ambiguously. 

iM-PHJ-B6L'p-p¥, n. rd;/0(ifloAoyta, Gr.] Discourse of un- 
certain meaning ; ambiguity ; equivocation. 

^M-ph1b'q-loGs, a. [(i/J0l and ffaXXaj^ Gr.] Tossed from 
one to another. 

i^M-FHtB'p-LY, n. Ambiguous discourse. B. Jonson. 
iM'PHl-BRAjCH,* n. (Rhet.) A foot of three syllables, the 
middle one long, the other two short. Smart. 

^M-PHlB'R^-jEHf S,* n. Same as amphibrach. Crahh. 

AM-PHtc-T¥-6N'jC,* a. Relating to the amphir.tyons. P. Cyc. 

^M-PHlc'Ty-dN?,* Members of the celebrated coun- 
cil of ancient Greece. Mitford. 

jIm-phi-d£s'm^,* 71. (Conch.) A genus of marine bivalve 
shells. P. Cyc. 

ini-PHlo-'VMOVS,* a. (Bot.) Having no traces of sexual 
organs. Brande, 

t^M-PHi'L'p-py, 71. [d/t0( and XtJj'oy, Gr.] Equivocation ; 
ambiguity. Diet. 

^M-PHlM'A-CER,*n. (Rket.) A poetic foot of three sylla- 
bles, a short one in the middle, and the others long. Crabb. 

Am'phj-pod,* n. (Zool.) One of the third order of crusta- 
ceans in Latreille's arrangement. Brande. 

Am-phIf'Q-v^,'*' n. pi. (Zool.) A genus of crustaceans. 
' See Amphipod. P. Cyc. 

AM-PHlp'p-DO0s,*a. Belonging to the amphiporta. P. Cyc. 

4lM-PHlP'Rp-STYLE,*7i. (Mrch.) A temple having a portico 
or porch in the rear as well as in the front, but without 
columns at the sides. Brande. 

Am-phis-bm' NAj 71. [L.] (Zool.) A genus of serpents, 
whose bodies, from one end to the other, are of nearly a 
uniform size. 

•flJir-Pif Jfs' cr-/, (gim-fish'e-i) TT, pZ. {>iaKtni^ Gt.'\ Inhab- 
" itants of tlie torrid zone, who have their shadows turned 
to the north one part of the year, and to the south the 
other part. 

4,M-PHi-THii'A-TRE, (5m-fe-the'9-tuir)7i. [dpptBiaTpnv^ Gr.] 
A double theatre, or one of an elliptical figure ; a building 
in a circular or oval form, having its area encompassed 
with rows of seats, rising one above another, round about 
Its area ; used for public shows, such as combats. 

Am-phi-th^-Xt'rjc,* a. Am phi theatrical. Eney. 

iM-PHJ-THE-XT'Ri-CAL, a. Relating to an amphitheatre. 

AM-PHJ-THiE-XT'BJ-c^L-Ly,* od. In an amphitheatrical 
form. Observer. 

&M-phi-tri't:i^,* tu (Zool.) A genus of marine animals. 

Am-phIt'rp-pal,* o. (Bot.) Turned round albumen, or 
curved upon itself, as an embryo. Brande. 

Am-Ph6d'e-ljte,* n. (Mm.) A light-red mineral. Dtma. 

Mjo* PHQ-MAj* n. [L.] A jug or vessel with a double ear or 
tpout ; a vase with two handles. Francis. 

Xh'pI/E, a. [amplusy L. ; ample^ Fr.] Large ; wide ; extend- 
ed J great in bulk ; liberal ; diffusive ; not contracted. 

ilM'PijE-Pffiss, n. State of being ample. So7t(A. [b.] 

S/,K PtEX-A'TipN,* 71. An embrace. Bp. Hall. 
iW-PLft'x I-cAUL,* a. (Bot.) Clasping the stem, P. Cyc. 
iM'PL'J-iTE, V. a. [amplio, L.] To amplify. Brown, [r.] 
,iM-PLj-A'TlpN, n. Enlargement. — (Law) A deferring of 

judgment till the cause is further examined. Whishaw. 
fAM-PLlF'l-CATE, V a. [amplijico^ L.] To amplify. Bailey, 
AM-PLj-Fl-CA'TippT, 71. Act of amplifying; enlargement; 
exaggeration ; the lengthening of a discourse by an enu- 
meration of minute circumstances. 
iM'PLi-Fi-?R, 7u One who amplifies or enlarges, 


riED.] To enlarge i to extend ; to exaggerate ; to speak or 
write diffusely. 

&M'Pi*i-FY, V. Tu To Speak largely in mariy words. 

iM'PLl-TUDE, 71. State of being ample ; extent ; largeness ; 
copiousness; abundance. — (Astron.) The angular dis- 
tance of a celestial body from the east point when it rises, 
or from the west point when it sets. — (Oun.) The range 
of a gun. 

R.M'Pii¥i «''• Largely ; liberally ; copiously. Drtjden- 


AM-PifL' L4.,* n. [L.] A flagon; a Jug; a teasel ; « tiad 

der. Crabb. 
Am-pvl-i^a'ceovs,* ( -shys) a. Shaped lik( a oottle or blad 

der. Kirbyj 
Am~pvl-la'r^-4j* n. (Conch.) A genua of fresh water. 

spiral, univalve shells. P. Cyc. 
Am'pv-TATE, v. a. [amputo, L.] [i. amputated ; pp. ampu 

TAXING, amputated ] To cut Off, as a limb nr branch 
AM-PV-TA'TlpNy 7?.. Act of amputating. — (Sitr^O The oi> 

oration of cutting off a limb, or olhcr part of the body, 
A-MDcK',*or A-MOCK',*7i. An East India term forsiaiigh 

tRr. — To jnin amucky to run frantic about the striiretB. 

Am'v-l£t, n. [amulette^ Fr.] Something worn about th« 

person, and supposed to have the effect of protecting the 

wearer apaingt diseiase or other evil ; a charm. 
tXM-V-LfiT'lc,* a. Belonging to an amuiet.^ ^-^k. 
lA-MVR-cSs'i-Ty, 71. [amurcaf L.] The quality of lees ot 

mother. Bailey. 
A-MtJR'covs,* a. Full of dregs or lees; foul. Jlsh. [r.] 
A-MtJs'^-BLE,* a. Capable of being amused. Sir .7. Maek 

A-MU^e', (9-muz') V. a. [amuserj Fr.] [t. amused ; pp 

AMUSING, amused,] To entertain with tranquillity; to di 

vert ; to beguile ; to draw on from time to time ; to keep 

in expectation. 
fA-MU^E', V. n. To muse, or meditate. Lee. 
A-MU5E'ment, n. That which amuses; entertainment, 

diversion ; sport. 
A-MU9'er, (^-mu'zer) n. One who amuses. 
A-MU5'jNG,* p. a. Affording amusement j entertaining ; dl 
* verting. 

A-MU9'lNO-Ly, ad. In an amusing manner. 
A-Mu'sjVE, a. Affording amusement ; diverting. 
A-MU'SJVE-Ly, ad. In an amusive manner. Chandler. 
A-m5g'i>^-i.^te, a. [amygdala, L.] Relating to or made erf 

A-mS'g'b^-l^te,'* n. (Med.) An emulsion of almonda 

A-m^g'd^-lKne, [gi-migMgi-lin, fF. P. K. Sm.; ^-mig'd^ 

iTn, S. Ja.] a. Resembling almonds. 
A-MS&' DA-LITE,* 71. (BoL) A plant 6f the spurge kind 

A-M5&'DA-L6tD,* n. (Mill.) A variety of the trap rock, 

containing nodules, agates, &c., embedded like almonda 

in a cake. I/ijell. 
A-Ml?G-l)$.-l'OlD'^L,* a. Relating to amygdaloid. Knowles. 
AM-y-LA'CEoys,* (3.m-e-!a'shus) a. Being of the nature of, 

or containing, starch. Lovdon. 
Am'y-LlNE,* n. A farinaceous substance. Smart, 
Aj^v-zV-m,* [L.] A-m5l']e-6n, or AM'y-LlNE, it. Starch 

of wheat. I>unglison. 
An. The same with the article a, and used instead of it when 

the next word begins with a vowel sound. The article 

a must be used before all words beginning with a conso- 
nant and a consonant sound, as, a man, a unit, a onenes* ~ 

and the article an must be used before all words begin ■ 

ning with a vowel, except such as begin with the soiiiiil 

of u long, or a consonant sound ; before words beginning) 

with h mute, as, an hour, an heir, Sec. ; and be-fore word,* 

where the A is not mute, if the accent is on the secoml 

syllable, as, " an heroic action," " an historical, account,' 

&c. See A. 
|An, conj. If. — This word is used by Shakspeore, am 

other old authors, in the sense of if; but it is now ui 

longer thus used. Coote. 
A'NA, [ava, Gr.] A prefix, in words of Greek origin, iro 

plying repetition, upward motion, inversion, distribution 

parallelism, or proportion. — In the first of tht'se senses, 
_ it often stands by itself in the prescriptions of ohysiciana 
A'JV4., n. A termination of the neuter plural form in Latin 

annexed to the names of authors, or eminent persons, tc 

denote a collection of their memorable sayings ; as, Johi*- 

An-^^-bXp'tIsm, n. The doctrine of Anabaptists. Fea^eg^ 
Aw-A-bXp'T|ST, n. [ava and 0ajrTt^M, Gr.] One who holdi 

that those who have been baptized in infancy, should b« 

re baptized. 
An-a-bap-tIs'tic, a, Anabaptistical. Bull. 
An-^-b^p-tIs'ti-c*l,o. Relating to the Anabapt\ts. Jtfi* 

t AN-A-BlP'Tis-TRy, n. The sect of the Anabaptists PagitL 
|An-a-bXp'tize, 77. a. Torebaptize. WhiUock. 
AN'VBXs,*n. t/cA.) A genus of fishes. Brande, 
An-4-br6' SIS,* n. [Gr.] (Med) A corrosion; a wasUni 

away. Crabo. 
An-a-cXmp'tjc, «, [dvaKanTTTbif Gr.] Reflecting or !»• 

fleeted. [R.] 
An-a-cXmp'tjcs, n. pi. The science of the reflection oi 

sound, particularly echoes; — catoptrics. 
An-4-car' Di'&M,* n. [L.] (Bot.) The cassa, cajou, of 

cashew-tree ; a genus of plants. Crabb. 
Air-A'CA-THAs'sis,* n. fGr.l (Med.) A purgation of tiit 

lungs by expectoration. Crabo, 

UtCN, aYB, m6ve, nob, s6n; bOll. BiJR, RtTLE. — p, fi, ^, g, aqftj jB, j&, i, |, hard; 9 as X- f as gz-— 7m« 


tn~^< a-thXr'tjc, n. (JHed.) Medicine that works up- 
wards. Q^uincy. 

Ih-a-ca-thar'tic,*o. Purgii g upwards. Smart. 

i y-4.-c&Pir-4-LJE' Q-slfs, [&n-^-86f-&-15V-sts, Ja. Sm.J3shi 
tln-j-sef-9-le-o'sis, ^. JbATWon, Crabb.] n. [«(/uK£0aAoiwTiff, 
Gr.j {Rhet.) A summing up j recapitulation. 

^n-XjBh'p-rEt, in. [dvaxupjjT^s, Gr.] An anchoret; a 

^N-Xjeii'9-RiTE, j retired or solitary monk; an ancho- 
rite. Donne, [r.] 

fAN-^-jeiiQ-R^T'j-c^L, It. Relating to a hermit. Bp. Tay- 

Xn-^-jBHrSn'ic,* a. Containing anachronism. Coleridge. 

(^n-XjEh'rO-nTsm, n. [dva and xp6vos, Gr.] An error in 
computing time, or in chronolog7, made by placing an 
event earlier or later than it really happened. 

^N-XjeH-RQ-Kls'T(c, a. Containing an anachronism. War- 

An-^-clXs'tics, 71. pi. [avi and kAooj, Gr.] The science 
or doctrineof refracted light ; dioptrics. 

£N-A-p(E-No' sis^n. [diya;ff[foi(T(^, Gr.] {Rhet.) A figure 
by which the speaker applies to his opponent for his opin- 
ion upon the point in debate. 

An"-a-cp-lu'th6n,* n. [avaK6\nvQov, Gr.] (Rhet.) The 
want of sequence in a sentence. Brande. 

iN-A-c6]v'DA,*7i. (Zool.) A large Asiatic serpent; a spe- 
cies of the boa. Crabb. 

^-kXc-RE-6h'tjc, n. A little poem or ode in praise of love 
and wine ; so called from Anacreon. 

j^-nXc-r:?-on'tjc,* a. Relating to Anacreon ; noting a 
kind of verse or measure; amatory. Gent. Mag-. 

An'a-demjEj n. [dfddrinaf Gr.] A crown of flowers. Dray- 

dTf'A-Dr-PLd'sis,n. [di/a^tn-XfLXTt?, Gr.] (Rhet.) Redupli- 
cation ; a repetition, at the beginning of a verse, of the 
last word in the preceding. 

i^-nXd'rp-mo&s,* a. Relating to the classes of fish that 
pass, at certain seasons, from the sea into rivers, .dsh. 

An'a-gIj?fh, (lin'?-gnf)w. [dud and yXvijico, Gr.] An orna- 
ment effected by sculpture ; chasing, or embossing. 

XN-A-GLypH'jc,* ) a. Relating to or illustrating by an- 

Xw-a-glyph'i-cal,* ] aglyphs. Britton. 

&N-A-GLyp'Tic, a. Relating to the art of carving, chasing, 
engraving, or embossing plate. Evelyn. 

^n-a-glyp-tSg'r^-phv,* n. The art of copying works in 
relief. Ed. Rev. 

^NfA-GO-0Ej* n. [dvaywyfij Gr.] The mystical interpreta- 
tion of the Scriptures ; one of the four ordinary modes of 
Interpretation, In distinction from the literal, allegorical, 
and tropologioal ; an extraordinary elevation of mind. 

fX.N-A-G-p-jGiiT'1-CAL, a. [dvaytiiyrjj Gr.] Mysterious; su- 
perhuman. Bailey. 

5.n-a-g6jG'i-cal, a. Mysterious; mystical; religiously ex- 
alted. Bacon. 

3tN-A-G6j&'|-cAi:,-Ly, ad.. Mysteriously. 

iN-4-G6jG'ics,7i. pi. Mystical or allegorical interpretations. 
L. Addison. 

Xn'a-go-j&Y,* n. Same as anagoge. Hammond. 

iN'^-GRXM, 71. [dvd and ypniifia, Gr.] An inversion or re- 
dlstributiun of the letters nf a word or sentence ; as, Roma 
into amor; Pilate's question, " Q,uid est Veritas!" into 
Est vir qui adest. 

iN'^-GRAM,* V. a. To transpose, as the letters of a name. 
Warhurton. [r.] 

Xn-^-gram-mXt'ic,* a. Relating to anagrams; anagram- 
matical. Swift. 

iN-A-GRAM-MXT'l-CAli, o. Forming an anagram. Camden. 

A-N-^-gram-mXt'i-c^l-lv, ad. In the manner of an ana- 

Xn-^-grXm:'ma-tI9M, n. The act of making anagrams. 

Ari-^-GRXM'M^\-TlsT, n. A maker of anagrams. Qamage. 

An-^-grXm'ma-tize, v. n. To make anagrams. Herbert. 

JtN'A-GRXpiii,* 71. An inventory ; a commentary. Crabb, [r.] 

A'n^l,* a. Relating to or placed below the tail. Kirby, 

A-nXl'cime,* 71. (Min.) A variety of zeolyte. LyeU. 

^N-4-L^c'TA,* n. [L.] pi. Xn-a~l&c' T^. A servant in a 
Roman house, whose duty it was to collect scraps after 
a meal. Brande. 

ATf-A-i^Sc'TA,* n. pi. [L.] Fragments; refuse: — collec- 
tions of extracts or small pieces from different authors; 
analects. Crabb. 

XN-A-LiiC'Tic,* a. Collected together j relating to collec- 
tions. HaJL 

&n'a-l£cts, 71. pL Things gathered together; collections 
or fragments of authors ; select pieces. 

S.N~4.-l&m'ma^ n. [L.] (.8stroT}J) The projection of the 
sphere on the plane of the meridian : — a tabular mark, 
usually in the shape of the figure 8, on an artificial ter- 
restrial globe, to notify the sun's declination on any day 
in the year. Francis. 
Sn-^~i^ep' Si-Aj* 71. (Med.) See Analepsis and Analepst. 
i]V-4.-LJSp'siSj* 71. [Gr.] (Med.) Recovery of strength ; a 
species of epilepsy ; analeps}'. Dunglison 

28 ANA 

Xn'A-lEp-sy,* 71. (Med,) A species of epilejftlc attack 


Xw-A-Lfip'Tic, 1*. [dvaXriTTTiKSs, Gr.] (Med.) Comforting 

An-a-l£p'tjc,* n. (Med.) A restorative medicine or diet 
P. Cyc. 

tA-NXii'p-GAL, tt. Analogous; having relations. 

A'N-^-L5jG'f-c^L, a. Implying or containing analogy ; anal- 

An-a-l6j&'|-cal-ly, ad. In an analogous manner. Potter. 

An-a-l6jG'i-cai.-n£ss. n. Q,uality of being analogical. 

A-NXL'p-jsiSM, 7t. An argument from the cause to the ef- 

A-HXL'p-j&iZE,u.fl. To explain byway of analogy. ChsyTia. 

A-nXl'p-g6n,* n. Something analogous. Coleridge, [r.] 

^-NlL'p-GpfJs, a. Having analogy ; analogical; similar 

A-nXl'p-gpDs-ly, ad. In an analogous manner. Skelton. 

An'^-lGgue,* (5n'?-I6g) n. A thing analogous or cono- 
sponding to another thing. Kirby. 

4-NXL'p-jLrY, n. [di/aXoyia, Gr.] Proportion or parallelism 
between things which are in some respects different; re- 
lation or similarity between different things in certain re- 
spects ; similitude of ratios. — (Oram.) Similarity cf Ja- 
flection, or principle of pronunciation, &c., opposed to 

^-nXl'v-sTs, K. [dyaXuo-fff, Gr.] pi. ^-nXi.'y-se9. (Logio 
Chem. and Geom.) A resolution of any thing, whether an 
object of the senses or of the intellect, into its first ele- 
ments or component parts : — opposed to synthesis. 

AN'A-ii5?ST, 71. One who analyzes. Bp. Berkeley. 

An-a-l5t'ic, a. Relating to analysis ; analytical. B.JoTisen. 

An-a-lyt'i-cal, a. Relating to or containing analysis; 
performed by analysis. 

An-a-lyt'i-cal-lv, ad. By means of analysis. 

AN-A-Lt'T'ics, 7i. pL The science of analysi-i Milton. 

AN-a-lyz'a-ble,* a. That may be analyzed. Phil. Mag. 

AN-A-LY-ZA'TlpNj* TC. Act of analyzing. Oent. Mag. 

An'A-LYZE, v. a. (dvaXvoj, Gr.] [i. analyzed ;pp. analtb- 
iNG, analyzed,] To resolve a compouitd into its first 
principles or elementary parts ; to solve or resolve uj 

An'a-lvz-er, 71. He or that which analyzes , analyst. 

An-am-jve' SIS,'*' n. [Gr.] (RkeU) A remembrance or enu- 
meration of things. Crabb. 

fAN-^M-NEs'Tic,* a. Helpful to the memory, .dsh. 

Ajv-a-mqe-pho' sis^ or AJV-A-Mbn'p^o-sliS^ [an-^-mpr- 
fo'sis, S. W. J. E.'F. K. r an-9-mSr'f9~sis, P. Ja. Sm. fVb.] 
n. [dvd and /lopcbdoj, Gr.] (Perspect.) A distorted represen- 
tation of an object, so contrived as to appear symmetrical, 
or an exact representation, from a certain point of view. 

^-na'nas, [^-na'n^s, S. W. P. E. K. Sm. R. ; ^-na'n^s, iVb.] 
' n. The plant that produces the pine-apple ; the pine-apple. 

A-Na' NAS, [wild.] 71. The same as pinguin. 

MN-A-JvXs'sAj'f'iu (Bot.) The pine-apple ; ananas. P. Cyc. 

^n-Xn'drpvs,* a. (Bot.) Destitute of stamens; female 

An-Xn^gV-la.r,* a. Having no angle. Good. 

An'a-p£st, 7i. [di/rtTTflio-r"?, Gr.] (Rhet.) A metrical foot 
containing two short syllables and one long one ; a dactyl 

An-a-pjSs'tic, tu The anapestic measure Bentlcy. 

Arf-A-p£s'Tic i 

AN-A-pSis'Ti-CAL,* i "• ^^*^*i"^ *° ^^^ anapest. Beniley 

AN-A-pi!:s'Ti-CAL-Ly,*fl<Z. In an anapestic manner. Ch. Ob. 

A-nXph' Q-RA, 71. l^dva^opd, Gr.] (Rhet,) A repetition o( 
words or phrases at the commencement of sentences or 

f An-a-plE-r6t'ic, fl. [dvaTr\rip6(-}, Gt.] Filling up. BaiZcy. 

f An'areh, 71. An author of confusion ; anarchist. Millon, 

A-nar'£HJC, a. Without rule; anarchical. Burke. 

A-nar'jEhi-cal, a. Confused ; without rule or government 

An'ar-^hIsm, 71. Anarchy. Sir E. Dering. 

AN'AR-jeHl'sT, n. An author or promoter of anarchy 

An'ar-jbhv, 71. [dvapxia, Gr.] Want of governmeiil, a 
state without magistracy or government; confusion. 

A-NXR'RHl-£;HXs,*M.(ZooZ.)Tlie wolf fish; sea wolf. Crate* 

A-nXr'thrpvs,* a. (Ent.) Naked ; having neither wingv 
_ nor legs, as some insects. Ec. Rev. 

A'NASj* n. [L.] (Oniith.) The duck ; a genus of birds. P 

An-a-sXr'ca, 71. [dvd and cap^, Gr.] (Med.) A dropsy of tbe 
whole body. 

An-A-sXr'cpvs, a. Relating to an anasarca. Wiseman. 

^-nXs-tp-mXt'ic, a. [dva and aTiS/ia, Gr.J (Med.) Remov- 
ing obstructions. 

A-nXs-tp-mXt'jc,* 71, (Med.) A medicine that opera the 
pores or removes obstructions. Chambers. 

A-nXs'tP-m5ze,* 7j. n. (Bot.) To grow together, £l two 
parts whichmeet from different directions. P. Cyc 

A-nXs-tq~mo' sis^n. [Gr.] pi. 4-nXs-tq~m6' SEif. !Jlf«2.) 
A communication of vessels of tbe body with eacl other 

-^-nXs-tp-m&t'jc,*71. (Med.) An aperient medicine ana» 
tomatic. Dunglison^ 

, tj O. C, £, longi X, fi 1, 6, tJ, t shoH} ^, 5, I 9, y, y, oftscure. — fAre. fXr, fXst, fAll; b£ir, HltB 


U'VXs'TRQ-PHEj n. [dvncrpotp^, Gr.j (Rhet.) A species 
of inveraioDj or departure from the usual order of suc- 
eesslon in words. 

f-wXTH'^-M^, 71. [dvadsiiat Gr.] pi. a-nAth'^-MA?. A 
curse pronouncecf by ecclesiastical authority ; excommu- 
nication i curse J a person who is anathematized. 

^'i-c^, a. Relating to an anathema. 

^-nXth-e-mXt' j-c^L-Ly, ad. In an anathematical manner. 

(l-NXTH']f-M^-Tl5Mjn. Act of anathematizing. Bp. Taylor, 

^-NXTH-:ie-MXT-j-ZA'TlpN, n. An extreme cursing. Cot- 

^-nXtu']E-M4-TIZE, [?-n&th'?-mHiZi S. W.J.F.Ja. K. Sm. 
R. Wft. ; SLn-^-thSm^j-tiz, P. JoAtwom.] V. a. [i. anathema- 

with an anathema; to pronounce accursed. 

i^-NXTU'^-MA-Tiz-ER, n. One who anaihematizes. 

A.pj'a-th£me,* 7i. jJ/ia£Aema anglicized, Sheldon. [R.l 

Xn-A-tif'¥R-oOs, a. [aiias and /cro, L.] Producing ducks. 

^-nXt'0-cI9M,71. [ttTiatocwmiw, L.] Interest upon interest ; 
usury, [r.] 

iN-jL-TOM'j-c^-L, a. Relating to anatomy or dissection. 

An-^-tSm'j-c^lL-LY, ad. In an anatomical manner. Brown. 

^ nXt'p-mIst, 71. One versed or skilled in anatomy. 

1^ nXt'q-mize, V a. To dissect a body ; to lay open. 

^ nXt'<?-mv, «. [di/arojuia, Gr.] A knowledge of the in- 
tprnal structure of the human body ; the art of dissecting 
animal bodies j a skeleton. — Comparative anatomy is the 
Bcience which teaches a knowledge of the diffiircnces in 
the structure and organization of the classes, orders, and 
species of the whole animal kingdom. P. Cijc. 

i,N-A-TR|P-s6L'o-pv»* »• (J^nd.) A treatise on friction. 

Xn'a.-tr6n, n. The scum of melted glass ; natron. 

Xn'ev-ry, 71. A sort of fly? club-root, as found on turnips 
or cabbages, occasioned by an insect ; a kind of wen or 
tumor in an animal. 

A.n'c?s-T9R, n. [antecessor J L.J One from whom a person 
descends genealogically ; a forefather > a progenia' 

Xk-ces-TO'RI-al,* a. Relating to ancestors Wm. nouerts. 

AN'CES-tral, ran'ses-tr?!, S. W. P. J. F. K. Sm. R. ; ?in- 
sSs'tr?!, Ja. Wb. Ash.] a. Relating to or resembling an- 

Xn'ces-TREL, a. Same as ancestral. Hale. 

Xw'ciis-TRi^ss,* 71. A female ancestor. H. Martineau. 

XN'c?s-TRy, 71. Lineage ; a series of ancestors ; the honor 
of descent; birth. 

tAN'<?HEN-TRV, (an'shen-tre) a. Properly ancientry. S}uik. 

k.NjeH'i-L6PS,* 71. {Bot.) A genus of plants. Crabb. 

ANfiH'pR, (Sngk'ur) n. [anchora^ L.] A heavy iron, with 
two barbed irons, to fasten in the ground, and hold a 
ship; that which confers stability or security; ten gal- 
lons of brandy. — {Arch.) Part of an echinus; an orna- 
ment in the form of the fluke of an anchor, or arrow- 

ANjen'QR, (5ngk'yr) v. n. [i. anchored; pp anchoeing, 
ANCHORED.] To cast anchor ; to stop at. 

XiJjeH'QR, (ingk'ur) V. a. To place at anchor ; to fix on. 

tXNjBH'QR, (S.ngk'ur) 7U For a;ic/iti7-ei,- a recluse. Shak, 

AN£;h'or-VBEE, (angk'ur-^-bl) a. Fit for anchorage. Her- 

ANjEh'qr-j^jGE, (angk'ur-sj) n. Ground to anchor on ; the 
anchors of a ship ; the duty paid for anchoring in a port. 

Xn£;h'9RED, (angk'kurd)p. a. Held by the anchor; shaped 
like an anchor ; forked. 

XNjCH'p-Rfiss, (iingk'9-rSs) tu A female recluse, Fairfax. 

AnjEH'q-RJST, (angk'9-r6t)n. [a^axwiorjr^ff, Gr.] A recluse ; 
a hermit; one who retires from the world from religious 

ANjCH-p-RfiT'l-CAl*,* a. Relating to an anchoret or hermit 

XnjEh'Pk-Hold, 71. The hold of the anchor; security. 

ANjBH'q kite, (Sngk'p-rlt) n. An anchoret. Pope. 

XNjEH'PB -Smith, (a.ngk'Lir-smlth) tu One who makes an- 

^N-cHO'VVi '*• {anehova, Sp.] A little sea-fish, used for 

^n-cho'W-PeAb,* 71. {Bot.) A West India fruit. Crabb. 

Jjv^fSUV'ZO'siSy* n, [Gr.] {Med.) A stiff", immovable, or 
bent joint. Brande. 

iAN'ciEN-cy, (an'shen-ae) n. Antiquity. Jura Cleri. 
IN'CIENT, ^n'sh?nt) [an'shent, S. W. J. F. Ja. K. Sm. R. ; 

S.n'shent, P. — See Angel.] a. [antiquus, L. ; aiideny Fr.] 

Old ; not modern ; that has been of long duration ; past ; 

AK'cijent, (an'shent) n. An old man ; a man of former 

times. The ancients are those of times long since past, 

as opposed to the moderns. 
■ An'ci^nt, (an'shent) n. A flag or streamer of a ship. 
' Shak. The bearer of a flag, now called an e7tsj'ff7i. Shak 
Xn'cient-lVj (an'shent-le) ad. In old times. Sidiwy 
AN'ci-iNT-Nfiss, (an-shent-n6s) n. Antiquity. Bale. 
lN-ciENT-RY» (an'shent-r§) n. The honor of ancien: ou 

'^ ANE 

tXN'ciEN-Ty, (an'shen-t?) 71. Agr antquitj' M&rttn, 
AN-ct'LEy n. [L.] The shield of Mars th( sacred shield 
* of the Romans. Potter. 

AN'CfL-LA-Ry, a. [ancillaris, L.] Subservient, as a hand- 
maid. Blackstone. 
An-c1p'i-tal,* a. {Bat.) Having two opposite edges or on 

gles. Brands. 
AN-ctP'i-ToDs,* a. (Bot.) Having two opposite thin edges 

An'cle, 71. See Ankle. 
An'cqme, (ang'kijm)7i. A small ulcerous swelling, formed 

unexpectedly. Boucher. [North of England.] 
An~c6'NE!^* n. pi. [L.] {Arch.) The consoles or orna- 
' ments cut on the keystones of arches, or on the sides of 

door-cases. Brande. 
An'cq-ny, n. {Iron works) A bloom wrought into the flgura 

of a flat iron bar. Chambers. 
AN'cv-L&tSj'^n. (CoTicA.) A shell; the fresh-water limpet. 

P. Cyc. 
And, conj. [and, Sax.] A paiticle implying addition, by 

which sentences or terms aro joined. 
tXN'DA-BA-TT9M, 71. [andabaUtj L.] Uncertainty. She^fori. 
AN-DA-EtJ'siTE,* n. {Min.) A hard, infusible mineral, r« 

sembling felspar. Brande. 
AN'Dajv'te, a. fit.] {Mus.) Noting an exact or distino 

movement in playing. 
An-dan-tPno* a. [It.] {Mus.) Gentle; tender; slowci 

than andante. Crabb. 
An-di'r^,* 71. {Bot.) A tree of Brazil : — a bat. Crabb, 
And'I-ron, (Snd'i-urn) tu An iron at each end 'fa fire- 
grate, in which the spit turns ; an iron to lay wood upca 

in a fireplace. 
An'dr:?-P-lite,*7i. {Min.) Another name for harmotoma 

^N-DROj&'v-NAL, a. Having two sexes ; hermaphroditicaL 
AN-DR6jG'¥-Niir.-l.¥, ad. In the form of hermaphrodite'i. 
^N-DR6/J'¥-N?,n. [dv?}/3and j^w^,Gr.] An hermaphrodite 

^N-DR6j&'y-NotJs,* a. {Bot. and Anat.) Having the organi 

of both sexes. Brande. 
AN-DRHf^' v-JV&Sj n [L.] pi. AN'DR6i^' Y-^^' An hef- 
' maphrodite. 
An'droId,* n. An automaton like man ; an androidea 

^n-dr6T'de9,* n. An automaton in the form of man 

which, by means of springs, walks, handles, talks, &c. 

like a man ; an automaton. Crabb. 
AN-DRbM^E-DAj^n. [Gr.] (.yJstroTi.) A constellation in th» 
' northern hemisphere. — {Bot.) A genus of plants. Crabb. 
An'dron,* n. A passage between two houses. Francui. 
An-drp-p£t'a-loDs,* a. {Bot.) Noting double floweri 

which are produced by the conversion of the stameni 

into petals, as the garden ranunculus. Brande. 
AN-DROT'p-my, 71. [lii'^pand rc/ii'w, Gr.] Dissection of hu 

man bodies. 
AN'DRoys,* a. {Bot.) Denoting the male sex. P, Cyo 
AXE, 71. See Awn. 
fA-NEAL', v. a. See Anele. 
fA-NEAR^, prep. Near. Bp. Atterbury. 
An'^c-do-tal,* a. Relating to or containing anecdotes 

OenL Mag. 
An'ec-dote, 71. [dvc«-(J»roi', Gr.] [f An unpublisl^d history 

Pjnor.'] A biographical fragment, incident, or fact ; a mi 

nute passage of private life. 
An-ec-d6t'ic,* a. Relating to anecdotes; anecdotical 

An-:?c-d6t'i-cal, a. Relating to anecdotes. Bolingbrohe. 
Ah'ec-do-tJst,* 71. One who deals in anecdotes. Ch. Ob. 
f A-nele', (9-neF) V. a. To give extreme unction. SAoA 
An-E-l£c^trode,*77. (Elec.) The positive pole of a gal- 
vanic battery. Francis. 
^-n£i/li-dXn,* 71. {E-nt.) An earthworm. Branat. Sea 

Anellides and Annellidan. 
A-nEl'li-de9,* n. jji. [ajieMiw, L.] {Ent.) A class of ai*ic- 

ulate animals ; earthworms. Brande. 
Xn-e-mog'ra-PHY, n. {ave^ios and yoa^di-, Gr.] A descrip 

tion of the winds. 
An-e-m6ivi'e-ter, n. [avEfio^ and nirpoi', Gr.] An iL'Stru- 

ment to measure the force and velocity of the winu. 
A-nIm'P-NE, [^-nem'g-ne, S. W. P. E. F. Ja. K, Sm. ; &•» 

e-mo'ne, DanglisoTu] n. [dcE/iaJf/;, Gr.] A genus of plants ; 

the wind-flower. 
An-e-mo'ni-a,* 71. {Chem.) An acrid, cryslallizable sub- 
stance, obtained from some species of anemone. B'>anda, 
A-nEm'p-xv^* 71. Same as GTiejnoTie. Richardson. 
-^-nEm'p-scope, [g-nSm^p-skop, fV. P. J. F. Ja. Sm. fin' 

e-mps-kop, S. ; a.n-e-mo'sk5p, E. ; An-^-mSs'k?-])* iT.j 

71. [ayf/xws and aKdirog, Gr.] A machine tiiat sho • B tht 

course or direction of the wind ; a weather-vane. 
^-nEnt' ;wep. Concerning ; about ; over against. [A Scol 

AN'EV-Rit5M, n. {dvevpvvio, Gr.] {Med.) A tumor, formec 

by the morbid dilatation of an artery. 
An-ev-RI5'm^l,* a. Relating to aneurism. Dungtison, 

K?EN. h1k\ move, nor, s6n; bOll, bUb rCle — p, /J, 

^) St 'Oft; jB, ja, £, I, hard; ? w 2 ; y (W gz;--THl» 



fh. JJEW', t9-nu') ad. Overagain ; in a new manner j newly. 
^-XEWST^ OT ^-neust', (?i-niist') ad. Nearly j almost. 

[Local, EngJ 
^m-frXct'v-ose, c [anjractust L.J Full of windings, 

breaks^ or turns; mazy. Loudon. 
fj^N-FRACT-v-5s'i-TY, ) n. Fulness of windings and 
J^n-frXct'v-oDs-nEss, j turnings. Rabelais. 
^N-FRicT'V-oOs, a. Winding ; anfractuose. Ray. 

fAN-FRXcT^VitE, n. A mazy winding. Diet. 
j^N-gXr-i-a'tiqn, n. [angarlo^ L.] Exertion. Bp. Hall. 

An-j&E|-6&'ra-phy,* n. Dunglisim. See Angiography 

AR-jGEl-6L'p-jBy,* n. Dunglison. See Angiology. 

XN-jGEl-ST'g-My,* ji. Dunglison. See Angiotomt. 

A!V>jaEL, (an'jel) fan'jel, S. W. P. J. E. F. Ja. E. Sm. R.] 
n. layycXoijGr.j Originally, a messenger; a spiritual be- 
ing J an inhabitant of heaven ; a spirit employed by God 
in huma) affairs ; a beautiful person ; an ancient English 
gold coin equal to 6s. 8d. — 05= This word is pronounced 
dn'gcl by all the English orthoepists. In this country, it 
is by some pronounced An' gel; and Dr. Webster, in the 
early editions of his Spelling-Boo k, and in his " Compen- 
dious Dictionary," pronounced the words andetit and an- 
SsZ, &n'detit and Hn'gel. In the first edition of his large 
ictionar>", (1828,) he pronounces them an'dent and S.n'- 
gel; yet he says, "usually pronounced dn'dent and dn'- 
gel^ but most anomalously." In his second edition, how- 
ever, (1841,) he pronounces them dn'cient and dn'gel, 
without remarit 

Ksf'pEL, (an'jel) a. Resembling angels; angelical. Shak. 

&N';SEL-AjGrE, n. The existence or state of angels. Beaum. 

Sr Fi 

SN^jfiEL-BfiD,* 7^ An open bed without posts. Crabb. 

An'jGel-£t,* n. An English gold coin equal to half an 
angel. P. Cyc. ' 

iN'/JEL-FtsH,* n. The monk-fish ; a voracious fish. Hill. 

^N-j&£i.'ic, a. Relating to or partaking of the nature of 
angels; angelical; like an angel. 

^n-j&£l'i-c^, n. [L.] {Bot,) A genus of plants ; a biennial 

^N-jGiiL'i-CAL, a. Belonging to or partaking of the nature 
of angels ; angelic, 

^N-j&^L'i-CAL-Ly, ad. In an angelical manner. 

\N-ja£jj'j-CAL-NJiSS, 71. Resemblance of angels, 
n';G>]e:l-like, a. Resembling an angel. Shak. 

iN'jaE-L6T, Tt. A musical instrument, somewhat resem- 
bling a lute ; a gold coin, the value of half an angel ; a 
kind of cheese. See Angelet. 

J,n'j&ei.-Sii6t, n. Chain-shot ; a cannon bullet cut in two, 
and the halves joined together by a chain. 

iN'jGr]5i.-WA'TER,* n. A mixture of rose, orange-flower, 
and myrtle-water, perfumed with musk and ambergris. 

XN'j&:q:L-wlNGED, (an'jel-wTngd) a. Winged like an angel. 

AK'j&el-Wob-ship, (an''jel-wiir-ehjp)7i. The worshipping 
of angels. Trapp. 

JLn'&t^r, (^ng'g^r) n. Discomposure of the mind upon re- 
ceipt of an injury ; sudden or violent passion ; wrath ; 
ire ; resentment ; smart of a sore. 

S.N'jErER, V. a. To make angry or painful. Bacon, [r.] 

f An'j6ER-LY, ad. Now written angrily. Sitak. 

fAN'jSER-Niss, rt. The state of being angry. 

AN-fiT'JVA,* 71. [L.] (Med.) A disease in the throat; a 

* quinsy. Crdbh. 

AN-^i'NA PJhc'TQ-Rts^* u. [L.] {Med.) A dangerous 
disease, usually connected with the ossification or other 
morbid affection of the heart ; characterized by a sudden 
attack of severe pain in the lower part of tlie chest. P. 

A.W-j&f-p-CAR'POVs,* a. (Bot.) Having seeds enclosed in a 
pericarp. P. Cyc. 

An-jSI-6g'ra-phy, 71. [dyyeiov and j-paf^w, Gr.] A descrip- 
tion of the vessels in the human body. 

iN-jSf-OL'o-j&Y, K. [dyyEtov and XdyoSi Gr.] The doctrine 
of, or a treatise of^ the vessels of the human body. 

2n-/SI-P-m6n-P-sper'MOVS, a. IdyyeToVi fidvos, and (ttte/j- 
^a. Or.] (Bot.) Having but one single seed in the seed- 

AN-jQI-p-spgR'iiiOVS,*a. (Bot.) Having the seed enclosed. 

ilN-jB;-6s'pp-RO0s,* a, (Bot.) Hav^.ng spores enclosed in a 
hollow shell or bag, as certain fungi. Brande. 

J.N-jGI-6t'p-m;v, n. [dyyeiov and TEnuMy Gr.] The dissec- 
tion of the vessels of the human body. 

iN'GiiA-RiTE,* 71. {Min.) A phosphate of iron. Dana. 

i,N'Gl.E, ('gl) n. [angulusj L.] The inclination of two 
lines or planes to each other, which meet together at a point 
called the vertex or angular point ; the point where two 
lines meet ; a corner ; an instrument to take fish, consist- 
ing of a rod, a line, and a hook. — Angle of repoae, the 
utmost inclination at which a carriage will stand at rest 
on a railroad. 

An'OLE, (S-ng'gl) V. 71. H. angled ; pp. anghno, akgled.] 
To fish with a rod and hook. Sha^c. 

IN'SLE, (&ng'gl) n. a. To entice ; to try to gain. Sidney, 

30 ANl 

An'gled, ^&ng'gld)p. o. Having angles B.Joiuott. 
An^gl:^r, n. One who fishes with an angle. 
AN'GLE-RdD, n. A stick to which the line and hook art 

AN'Gi^E5,(5ng'glz)7t.pZ. [.3ngli,L.] A people of Germany 

an ancient name for the English. 
An 'gl:? -SITE,* n. (JUln.) A sulphate of lead. Dana. 
AN'GLJ-cXrf, a. English. FelL 
An'glj-cAn, 71. A member of the church of Englan 1 

An'gli-can-I$m,* n. The principles of, or adherence to, 

the established church of England ; partiality to England 

Ec. Rev. 
^N-GLl<?'i-FY,*B.a. To make English; to anglicize. Month 

Mag. [r.] 
An'gi.I-c!9M, n. An English idiom or phrase. MiUon, 


GLicizED.] To make or change to English. 

An'gling,_7i. The art of fishing with a rod. 

An'glp-Da-njsh, a. Relating to the English Danes. Wouon 

An'glp-Nor-man, n. An English Norman. fVotton 

AN'GLp-SAx-pN, n. An English Saxon. 

AN'GLp-Slx-pN, a. Relating to the Anglo-Saxons. 

AN'GLp-SAx'pN-I^M,* n. A word or idiom of the Anelfr 
Saxon language. Latham. 

An'gp-b?r, 71. A kind of pear. 

An'gor, 71. [angor, L.] Intense pain. Harvey 

An'GRJ-l.y, (ang'gre-Ie) ad. In an angry manner. Shak. 

An'grt* (S-ng'gre) a. Excited by anger; provoked ; wrath- 
ful ; choleric ; painful ; inflamed ; smarting. 

Ang-sX'na,* or ANG-sa' VA,* n. (Bot.) An Eadt Indian tree 
from which issues a gum resembling dragon's blood. Crabb. 

AN-evtL' L4.* n, [L.J (Ich.) The eel ; the sand-eel. Crabb 

^N-GUfL'lj|-FdRM, (sm-gwil'e-fdrm) a. [angailla and for- 

' THd, L.] Formed like the eel, and without scales. 

AN'GuIsH,(5ng'gwish)7i. [angoisse^ Fr.] Acute suffering of 
mind ; severe mental pain or suffering. 

fAN'GUlSH,* (Sng'gwish) v. a. To afflict with anguish 

An'guished, (&ng'gwisht) p. a. Seized with anguish 

An'gv-l^r, a. Having angles or corners. 

AN-GV-LJS-R'j-Ty, 71. The quality of being angular. Mor$ 

An'gv-Lar-ly, ad. With angles or corners. 

An'gv-lar-nEss, n. Gtuality of being angular. 

tAw'GV-LAT-iED, a. Formed with angles. Woodward. 

Ak-gv-I'OM'e-ter,* 71. An instrument for measuring ex- 
ternal angles. Francis. • 

tAN-GV-i'6s'j-TV, a. Angularity; cornered form. BaUeih 

fAN'GV-LO&s, a. Hooked; angular. Olanvillc. 

t>^N-GDsT', ffl. [angustus, li.] Narrow; strait. Burton, 

a'n-gDs'tate,* a. Diminishing in breadth. Brande. 

fAw-Gys-TA'TlpN, n. Act of making narrow. Wiseman. 

^N-Gi5s'Tj-CLAVE,* 71. [angusticlaviuSj L.] A robe worn 
by ancient Roman knights. Knowles. 

An-gDs'ti-d£w,* 71. A species of mastodon. Roberts. 

An-h:?-la'tipn, K. [anhelo, h.^ Act of panting. Cockeram, 

IAn-he-lose', a. Out of breath. Bailey. 

AN-hFm^,* 71. (Chmith.) An aquatic bird of Brazil, Crabb. 

An'hv-drite,* 71. (Min.) An anhydrous sulphate of limo 

AN'HY-BRPtis,* a. Destitute of water. Brands. 

■fAN'l-£NT-]ED, a. [aniantirj Fr.] Frustrated; brought to 
nothing. Chaucer. — (Law) Made null. Bouvier. 

■fA-NiGHT', f9-nit') ad. In the night. Chaucer. 

A-NIGHTS', (?-nits') ad. In the night time. Shak. 

An'il, 71. One of the plants that yield indigo ; a species of 

An'ile,* [in'il, Sm. Maunder; a'nil', K.] a. Weak or do^ 
ing from age ; like an old woman. W. Scott. 

An'ile-NJEISS, n. [anilitas, L.] Anility. Bailey. 

A-NlL'i-Ty, 7U State of being an old woman ; dotage 

fAN'i-MA-BLE, o. That may receive animation. Bailey. 

tAN-j-MAD-viER'SAii, n. Power of perceiving. More. 

AN-j-M^D-VER'sipN, 71. Act of animadverting; power of 
perceiving or noticing; perception; censure; reproof; 
punishment. Olanville. 

fAw-J-MAD-VER'sjVE, a. Able to perceive. GlavvUU 

tAN-j-MAD-vi3R'sjvE-N£ss, 71. Power of animadverting. 

An-I-mad-vSrt', v. n. [animadverto, L.] [i. animadvert- 
ed ; pp. akimadvertino, ANIMADVERTED.] To ceusure ; 
to turn the mind to with an intent to notice. 

AN-f-in^D-vfeRT'^R, n. One who animadverts. 

An'i-mal, 71. [anvmal, L.] A living, organized, material 
body ; a creature having animal life ; or a living, sensi- 
tive, locomotive creature ; commonly restricted to ir 
rational creatures. — Animals are divided into four clEtss- 
es: vertebrated, molluscous, articulated, and radiated. 

An'j-ivi^l, a. That belongs to animals ; sentient. Watts. 

AN-i-iaXL'cv-L^]^} \o.- Relating to or reseinl}):3!g animal- 

An-i-mXl'cu-lIne, ( cules. Q7^. Rtfo. 

An-;-mXl'cule,7i. a very small or minute animal, Tisltlt 
or invisible to the naked eye. Ray. 

&, £* I, o C, Y, itg ' A, £, I, 6, tj, ^, short i ^, ^, j, p, Vi T> o&^cure. — fAre, fAr, fAst, fAll; h£ik h£a 



•.if-j-HXl('cu-LTsT,*n. One versed In the science of ani- 
innlcules. Keith. 

iN-i-MAi/cv-Li^jir^*n. [L.] pi. Xni~mXz'cv-l^. An an- 
imalcule. 05= The word onimo/ciiis, which is Bometimes 
used, ia a barbarism. Smaru 

itH'|-M^L-FLoW:iE;R,*7i. The sea-anemone or sea-nettle j 
Ine urtica marina. Oent. Mag: 

JLn'i-mal-Ish,* a. Resembling or like an animal. Cud- 
toortJu [r.] 

!(N'|-M^L-ISM:,*n. Animal nal>i;ie j sensuality. Dwi^ht. [r.] 

Xn-}~iviXl';>TV, n. Animal existence or nature. Locke. 

iN-i-MAL-i-ZA'Tipw,* 71. A transformation into an animal 
or into an animal body. Scudamore. 

4,n'i-m^l-i2E,* v. a. To give animal nature or life to. 

An'|-M^L-MX€^'NET-I9M,*7^ See Maonetism. 

tAN'j-MAL-Nfiss,* n. The quality of an animal. Bailey. 

JLn'I-MATE, c. a. {anmiOy L.1 [i. animated j pp animat- 
iHG, ANIMATED.] To quicKcn J to malce alive; to give 
life or power to ; to encourage, 

Xn'j-ivi^te, a. Alive; possessing animal life. Bacon. 

An'i-mXt-ied, p. a. Lively ; vigorous ; having animal life. 

tAH'I-MATE-N£ss, 71. The state of being animated. Bai- 

Am'i-Mat-jng,*?. a. Giving life; enlivening; cheering. 

An-I-MA'tiqn, n. Act of animating ; state of being ani- 
mated ; vivacity; life ; spirit. 

Xn']-ma-tive, a. Having the power of giving life. 

X.N'j-MA-TgR, 71. He or that which gives life. 

AN'j-ME,*orGDM An'i-me,* 7i. \animCjYr.] A resin, of a 
pale brown, or yellow color, which exudes from the cour- 
baril of Cayenne. Ure. 

^n-1me',* a. (Her.) Denoting a color of the eyes of an an- 
imal different from that of the animal. Crdbb. 

A.n'1-mIhe,* 71. An oily fluid extracted from animal oils by 
distillation, and odorous like hartshorn. Prancia. 

fAw-i-MOSE', a. [animeux, Fr.l Full of spirit; hot. Bailey. 

JAw-i-MOSE'NESs, 71. Spirit ; heat. Diet. 
Ln-j-m6s'i-tv, n. [animositasj L.] Active enmity ; passion- 
ate hatred ; malignity. 
^Tff-M&s* n. [L.] pi. Zn'j-mu Mind; intention; pur- 
pose. Qu. Rev. 
An'i-6n,* 71. (CAem.) A substance which, in electro-chemi- 
cal decomposition, is evolved from its combination at the 
surface, by which the electricity enters the electrolyte. 

An'ise, 71. [anisum^ L.] A species of apium, or parsley, with 
large, sweet-scented seeds. Miller. 

An'ise-Seed,* 71. The seed of 'the anise ; an extract from 
it used as a cordial or medicine. Smart. 

SN-f-^STTE'* 71. [Fr.l A French liquor made by distil- 
ling anise, fennel, and coriander seed with brandy, and 
sweetening the product. Brande. 

Ank'er, n. [ancker, D.] ADutch liquid measure, equal to 10^ 
gallons English wine measure. McCuUoch. See Anchor. 

X.NK'ER-iTE,* 71. (Min,) A carbonate of lime. Daim. 

An'kle, n._ The joint which joins the foot to the leg. 

An'kle-Bone, 71. The bone of the ankle. 

An'kled, (ank'kld) a. Relating to or having ankles. 

An'kle -deep,* a. So deep as to reach to the ankle. Cowper. 

Ank'l:?t,* 71. A ring or ornament for the ankle. P. Mus- 

Xn'lace,* n. A short sword; a dagger; a wood-knife. 
Prior. Byron, 

iN'Njft.L-TsT, 71. A writer of annals. Milton. 

An'nal-ize,u. (I. To record according to years. Sheldon. 

An'n^L9, 71. pi. [annales, L.] The events of history di- 
gested in series according to years; a book of history 
digested by successive years. 

JIn'NjA.ts, 71. pi. [annates, L.] A year's income of a living, 
or the first fruits accruing to the new incumbent. 


To temper glass or metals by heat, or to change them from 
Q state of brittleness to toughness. 

An-neal'ing, fl. The art of tempering glass, tile, iron, 
' Bteel, &C. 

AN-Nfic'T^N'Xi,* a. Connecting; annexing. Ann. Phil. 

^N-NfiL'LJ-DA,* n. pi. [L.l Same as anndlidans. P. Cyc. 

^H n£l'li-d^n,* n. (Ent.) One of a class of soft, vermi- 
form animals, which appear to be divided into little rings, 
or have annular folds. Kirhy. 

An-n£x', V a. \annecto, annezum, L.] [i. annexed ; pp. an- 
nexing, ANNEXED.] To Unite to at the end; to unite a 
smaller thing to a greater ; to subjoin ; to affix ; to attach. 

lAN-Ntex', (^n-nSksO n. The thing annexed. Brown. 

fAN-Nfix'A-RY, 71. Addition. Sir E. Sandys. 

A'n-n^x-a'tipn, 71. Act of annexing; conjunction ; addi- 

An-n£x'I0n, (^n-nSk'shun) tu Annexation. Rogers. [R.] 
An-n£x'ment, 71. Act of annexing ; thing annexed. Shak. 
AN-NI'hi-la-ble, a. That may be annihilated. Clarke. 
AN Ni^HJ-L ATE, V. a. [ad and TuAiium. L.] [i. annib: lated ; 

pp. ANNiHiLiriNo, ANNIHILATED.] To rcduce to nothing; 

to destroy ; to annul. 


ANWf'HJ-L^TEjffl. Annihil.ited. Smfl [R.] 
AN-M-Hi-LA'TipN, n. Act of annihilating, or of reducUn 

to nothing; state of being annihilated; destruction. 
An-ni'hj-la-tqr,* 71. One who annihilates. Congreve. 
fAw-Ni-vER's^-Rj-Ly, ad. Annually. Bv. HalL 
AN-ni-v^r's^-rV, n. [anniversariusj L.] A day celebrated 
as it returns in the course of the year ; an annual celebia 
AN-Nj-vtR's^-RY, a. Annual; yearly. Ray. 
fAN'Nl-vfeRSE, 71. Anniversary. Dryden. 
An^nq D&ivti-Ni, (an'n5-dSm'e-nf) [L.l In the year ft' 

our Lori ; commonly abbreviated to A. D. 
An'no-d6n,* 71. {Conch.) A genus of bivalves, including 

the fresh-water muscle. Brande. 
t^N-Noi's^NCE, 71. (Law) A nuisance. Blownt. 
Xn'np-lIs, 71. An American animal, like a lizard. 
AN-NOM-j-NA'Tipw, 71. [annomhiattOj L.] Alliteration ; a 

pun. Tyrwhitt. 
An'nq MiJN'Di* [L.] In the year of the world. 
Aw'wp-TATE, V. a. [aTiTWto, L.] [t. annotated ; pp. anno 
TATiNG, ANNOTATED.] To maRc annotations, noies, or 
AN-Np-TA'TipN, 71. A note ; comment; explanation 
AN-Np-TA'TipN-IST, n. An annotator. Worthington. 
An'np-ta-TPR, n. A writer of notes or comments. 
Aw-No'TA-Tp-Ry,* o. Relating to or containing annota 

tions. Qu. Rev, 
AN-N5T'|-NOi5s,* a. {BoU) Being a year old. P. Cye. 
AN-n6t't^,* 71. See Annotto. Brande. 
An-n6t'tp,* 71. A dry, hard paste, obtained from the seeus 
of the tree Mza orellana ; used in dyeing, and for coloring 
cheese, Ure. — Written also 07^iotto. 
An-noOnce', v. a. [annuneiOj L.] [i. announced ; pp. an 
NouNciNO, ANNOUNCED.] To givc public noticc of; to pro- 
claim ; to declare ; to publish ; to pronounce. 
An-koCnce'm^nt, 71. Act of announcing; a declaration. 
An-npOn'cer, 71. One who announces; a declarer. 
^N-NO?', V. a. [annoyer. Norm. Fr.] [i. annoyed ; pp. ah- 
NOTING, ANNOYED.] To molcst ; to tcasc ; to incommode ; 
to vex. 
tAw-NPl?', n. Injury ; molestation. S?iak. 
An-no^'^nce, 71. Act of annoying; that which annov* 

state of being annoyed ; trouble. 
An-no!?'er, 71. One who annoys. 
fAN-N03?'FVi', «• Full of trouble. Chaucer. 
AN-NO^'fNG^* p. a. Molesting; vexing; troublesome. 
fAw-Nb1?'0VS, a. Troublesome. Chaucer. 
Ah'NV-AL, a. [annus, L. ; annuel, Fr.] Yearly ; that comef 
yearly ; that is reckoned by the year ; that lasts only a year 
An'nv-AL,* n. A literary publication issued once a yeas 

Ec. Rev. — (Bot.) An annual plant. Bailey. 
AN'NV-AL-tsT,* n. An editor of, or a writer for, an annuh 

publication. C. Lamh. [r.] 
An'nv-AL-ly, ad. Yearly; every year. Brown 
fAN'NV-A-Ry, a. Annual. John Halt. 
AN-Nu'|-TANT, 71. One who possesses an annuity. Idttr 
A-W-Nii'l-TV, n. [annuite, Fr.] A rent or sum receivaWe 

yearly for a term of years ; a yearly rent or allowance. 
AN-nDl', v. a. [07i7iuWer, Fr.] [i. annulled ; pp. annul- 
ling, ANNULLED.] To make void ; to abolish ; to nullify -, 
to abrogate ; to repeal ; to revoke ; to destroy ; to reduce 
to nothing. 
AN'Ny-LAR, a. [annvlaire, Fr.] Having the form of a ring. 
AN'MV-I-AR-Ly,* ad. In the manner of a ring. Ash 
An'sv-L^'^^Yj f^- Having the form of a ring. Ray. 
An'wv-late,* a. Having the form of a ring. Brande. 
An'nv-lat-ed,* a. Having rings ; annulate. Smart. 
AN-NV-LA'TlpN,* 71. State of being annular or annulate 

An'mv-lISt, 71. [annvlus,'ij.'\ A little ring. — (flisr.) A chargo 
distinguishing the fifth son. — (Arch.) A small, square 
moulding which crowns or accompanies a larger ; a fil- 
let ; a list. 
An-nOl'ment, 71. The act of annulling. 
An-nv-lp'san,* 71. (ZooL) A species of invertebrate am 

mal. Kirhy. 
An-nv-lpse',* a. Having rings or the form of a ring. Ro- 

AN'N^-L'&s,*n. [L.] p\.XN*Ki;r-ZT. Aring. — (So(.)Acol- 

lar or a rim^ or something encircling. Brande. 
A?f-Ni;'ME-RATE, V. a. [annumcro, L.] To add to a formei 

number. Wollasion. [r.] 
AN-NiJ-ME-RA'Tipw, 71. Addition to u former number 

An-nDn'ci-ate, (9n-nfin'she-at) v. a, [annundo, L.] [i 


bring tidinj:s of; to announce. Bp. Hall. 
.^n-nun-cj-a'tipn, (^n-niin-she^'shun) n. Act of an 

nouncing ; proclamation ; a name given to the day (March 

25) celebrated in memory of the angel's salutation of the 

Virgin Mary. 
AN-NLrK'C|-A-TpR,*7i. One who announces. Orabb, 
j>N-NDN'ci-A-Tp-Ry,* (&n-nan'she-?-t'?-re) a. Maklni} 

known; giving public notice. Alexander JT 

KiEN, sir; m6VE, NPR, s6N; BOliU BUR, rOlE — P, jS, ^, g, sqfti J0, fi, 9, g, hard; 9 o» Z; ^ 0« gZ; — 7HIC 




i^-yo'^,*7i. (Zoot.) A ruminating animal. P. Cyc. 
&N'ODE,*n. (Flee.) The way in which electricity enters 
substances through wliich it passes, or the positive pole 
of a galvanic battery ; opposed to cathode. Brande, 
An'q-dynEj n. [d and dSvvnj Gr.] A medicine which as- 
suages pain. 
Xn'p-dyne, a. Assuaging or relieving pain. Burke. 
^-noInt', u. a. [omdre, ointy Fr.] [i. anointed j pp. anoint- 
ing, ANOINTED.] To rub over with unctuous matter; to 
smear ; to consecrate by unction. 
A-NolNT'ED,*p, a. Rubbed over with unctuous matter; 

consecrated by unction. 
jJ.-noInt'er, n. One who anoints. Cfrey. 
^-NoInt'ing, tu Anointment. Hakewill. 
A-NolNT'ivtENT, w. ^^e act of anointing. Milton. 
JLn'o-lIs,* 71. (Zool.) A genus of saurian reptiles. P. Oije. 
tA-N6M-iE-6M'¥-RV»* «• A dissimilar atomology. Cud- 
A.n'p-mXl,* 71. An anomalous verb or word. Oreek Gfram. 
A-nCm'a-li-p£b,* «, An anomalous footed fowl or ani- 
mal. Smart. 
A-n6m'a-lT§m, n. Anomaly; irregularity. Paley. 
A-n6m-a-l1s'tic,* a. Irregular; anomalistical. Brande. 
^-HOM-A-l'TCs'Ti-CAL, a. {Astron.) Noting the interval of 
time in which the earth completes a revolution with re- 
spect to any point in its ecliptic: — irregular. 
A-N6M~A-Lls'Ti-CAii-LY,* od. Irregularly. Ash. 
A-NOM'vt'lTE,* n. (Min.) An irregular mineral. Smart. 
A-nSm'^-loDs, a. Deviating from rule ; irregular. 
A-N6M'A-LOt5s-LY, ad. Irregularly. Brown. 
^-n6m'a-ly. n. [dcwuflAo^, Gr.] Irregularity; deviation 
from rule. — {Astron.) The angular distance of a planet 
from its perihelion, as seen from the sun. 
i^-No'Mi-A,* n. (Zool.) A genus of testacean vermes; the 

bowl-shell. Brande. 
An'P-mite,* 71. A fossil shell of the genus anomia. Knowles. 
A-N6M-p-RH6M'BblD,*n. (Min.) An irregular spar or crys- 
tal. Smart, 
fAN'p-MY, ?i. [d priv. and' vtfjuoj, Gr.J A breach of law. 

A-n6n', ad. Quickly; soon. Shah. — Ever and (mow,- now 

and then. Milton. 
A-NO'wjs,* 71. (Bot.) A plant ; the restharrow. Crahh. 
A-N5N-y-Mos'j-TV,* n. State of being anonymous. Met. 
' Mag. [R.] 
A-n6n'y-moOs, a. [d priv. and SvopLO, Gr.] Wanting a name ; 

nameless ; not having the name of the author. 
A-N6N'y-MoDs-LV, ad. Without a name. Swift. 
A-NON'y-MpOs-Niiss,* 71. State of being anonymous. Cole- 
AN-Q-PLQ-THE'Rf-t}M^*n. [avoirAo?, WTiarmcrf,and dTjpioVj 
bejLst.'] (Ocol.) An extinct herbivorous animal, belonging 
to the order of pachydermata, shaped like a pig. LyeU. 
An'P-r£x-y, 71. (dvopv^ia, Gr.] Want of appetite. 
A-w6r'mal,* a. Irregular; contrary to rule. P. Cyc, 
A-nor'thite,* 71, (Min.) A siliceous mineral. Dana. 
^-n6s'mi-a,* 71. [d and do-^ij, Gr.] (Med.) A loss of the 

sense of smelling. Dr. Black. 
An-6th'er, a. Not the same ; one more ; any ; not one's 

self; different. 
tAN-6TH'ER-GAlNE9, a. Of another kind. Sydney. 
tAN-&TH'ER-G-ATES, a. Of another sort. Bp. Sanderson. 
AN-6TH'EiR^GUtess, (?n-uth'9r-ggs) a. Of a different kind. 
* ArhuthnoU [Colloquial or vulgar.] 
fA-NOUGH', (9-nuf fy-T^o^''. See Enough, Enow. 
fAN'sAT-ED, [ansatus, L.] a. Having handles. 
An'seKj* n. [L.] (Omith.) A genus of birds; the goose; 

a star. Crabo. 
An'ser-ine,* a. Relating to or like a goose. P. Cyc. 
fAw'sLAIGHT, (Sn'slat) n. An onslaught. Beaum. Sr Fl. 
Xn'swer, (ftn'ser) v. n. [i. answered ; pp. answering, 
ANSWERED.] To spcak in return ; to reply ; to he account- 
able for; to correspond to ; to suit ; to bear the expected 
proportion ; to be correlative or sufficient ; to appear as to 
a call. — To answer for, to guarantee, to secure. 
An'swer, (An'ser) v. a. To speak in return to a question ; 
to reply to ; to give an answer to ; to be equivalent to ; 
to satisfy. 
fiN'swER, (Sn'ser) n. That which is said in return to a 
question, demand, or position; a response; a reply; a 
confutation. — (Law) A confutation of a charge; a de- 
fence in writing made by a defendant to a charge. 95- An 
answer is given to a demand or question ; a reply to an 
answer or remonstrance ; and a rejoinder to a reply. 
An'swer-a-ble, (Sn'ser-^-bl) a. Admitting an answer; 
accountable; responsible; suitable; correspondent; pro- 
portionate; equal. 
A^'S"WER-^-BLE-NJSss, 71. Q-Uality of being answerable. 
An'swer-a-BLV, fftn'ser-si-ble) ad. In proportion ; suitably. 
tN'swER-EE, (in'ser-er) n. One who answers. 
An'sw:?r-Kng,* J), a. Furnishing an answer; correspond- 
ing to. 
tK'swER-J6B'B:?R, (Sn'ser-jSb'ber) n. One who makes a 
trade of writing answers. Swift. 

Aw'sWEit-LEss,* a. Being without an answer , unaawwrn 
able. Byron, 

Ant, n. A genus of insects ; an emmet ; a pismire. 

a'n'T,* (ant) A vulgar contraction for am noty are not, va I 
18 not. Smart 

t An t, (&nt; A contraction for an it, i. e. if it. 

AN'T4.,*n. [L.] 'p\.lN'T^. (Arch.) A pilaster or squar* 
projection attached to a wall ; a post or cheek of a door, 
door-post, jamb, &c. Brande. 

ANT-Ag'iD,*7i. (Med.) A medicine to remove acidity ; ant>- 
acid. Brande. 

An-tAg'p-hI^M, n. Contest ; opposition. Taylor, 

An-tXg'P-nIst, 71. One who contends against ; an oppo- 
nent. — (Anat.) A muscle which counteracts another. A»- 

An-tAg'p-nTTst,* a. Contending against ; opposite. Ec. Rev. 

An-tAg-P-nIs'tic, a. Contending against; acting in op- 
position ; opposing ; opposite. B. Jonson. 

An-tAg-p-n!s'tj-c^l,* a. Contending ; antagonistic. B* 

An-tXg'p-nize, v. a. &. n. To contend against. [R.] 

fAN-TAG'p-NY, 71. [diTi and dywi/ia, Gr.] Contest; oppo- 
sition. Milton. 

An-tAl'jSJC, a. [dvTi and aXyos, Gr.] (Med.) That softens 

An-tAl'jGJC,*7I. (JIfeiZ.) a medicine to relieve pain. Brande. 

ANT-XL'KA-Ll,*or Ant-Xl'KA-li,*71. (CAem.) Asubstanc* 
that counteracts an alkali. P. Cyc. 

Ant-A-na-cla' SIS, n. [Gr.] (Rhet.) A figure by whica 
that which is spoken in one is turned to another or 
contrary sense. 

Ant-4-na-go'jje,* 71. [Gr.] (Rhet.) Recrimination; an 
answer to a charge by a counter charge Crahb. 

ANT-^-PHRp-Dl^^i-Xc,* (-dizh'fr^k) n. (Med.) A medicine 
to quell amorous desires. Brande. 

Ant-A-PHRP-dIt'ic, a. [avri and ^A^po&irr}, Gr.] Good 
against the venereal disease. 

Ant-Xp-p-pl£c'tic, a. Good against apoplexy. 

ANT-Xrc'TIC, a. [nvTi and a/;/rroff, Gr.] Relating to the 
south pole : opposite to arctic. 

Ant-ar-thrJt^ic, a. [avTi and dpSpTrts, Gr.] Good against 
the gout. 

Ant-asth-mXt'|C, (ant-gist-mSLt'jk) a. Good against tha 

Ant-a-tr6ph'ic,* 71. (Med.) A medicine to cure atrophy 

Ant'-Be Ar, (ftnt'bir) n. An animal that feeds on ants. Ray 

An'te, [L.] A Latin preposition signifying before^ some- 
times employed to refer to something that precedes, and 
frequently used in composition ; as, antediluvian, before 
the flood. 

An'te-Xct, 71. A preceding act. Bailey, [r.] 

Ant'£at-er,*7i. An insect that feeds upon ants. Maundet 

fAN-TiE-CE-DA/NE-oDs, fl. Going before. Barrow. 

IAn-te-cede', ?J. n. [flTite and cedo, L.] To precede. HdU 

an-te-ce'dence, n. A going before; precedence. Hale, 

An-te-ce'den-cy, n. Act of going before. Fotherby. [r.] 

An-te-ce'bent, a. Going before ; preceding ; prior in point 
of space ; opposed to subsequent, 

An-te-ce'dent, n. That which goes before ; the first o( 
two terms composing a ratio. — (Oram.) The noun to 
which the relative refers. — (Logic) The first membei oi 
a hypothetical proposition. 

An-te-ce'dent-ly, ad. In an antecedent manner. 

An-te-c&s' SQR,n. [L.] One who goes before ; the prm 
cipai. — (Law) One who possessed the land before tlw 
present possessor. 

AN'TE-CHAM-BER, n. The chamber or room before or lead- 
ing into the principal apartment. 

An'te-chXp-el,?!. That part of the chapel through whicto 
the passage is to the choir or body of it. 

AN-TE-cuR'SQR,n. [Ia] One who runs before ; a precuf 
sor. Bailey. 

An'tE-date, •». a. [oTiEcand do^ datum, L.] [i. antedated. 
pp, antedating, antedated.] To date earlier than the 
real time ; to date beforehand. 

An'te-date, n. A previous date. Donne. 

An-te-di-lu'VI-an, a. [ante and diluvium, L.] Existing be- 
fore the deluge or flood. 

An-TE-di-lu'vi-an, 71. One who lived before the flood. 

IAn'te-fXct, n. That which represents the fact belorc it 

An't?-lope, 71. A genus of ruminating animals or mam 
mats, belonging to the hollow-horned family, resembling 
the deer and the goat ; a gazelle. 

An-te-lu'c^n, a. \antelucanu8, L.] Before daylight. Bp. 

AN-TE-M:E-RtD'i-AN, o. Before noon. 

Ant-:e-m£t'ic, d. [dfri and )7/i£ai, Gr.] See Antiemetic. 

An-te-mOn'dAne, a. [ante and mundus, L.] Before the 
creation of the world. 

An'te-NI-cene',* a. Anterior to the council of Nice. 

AJV-T^UffNA,* n. [L.] pi. AJV-T&N'TfjE. (Ejit.) A sort oi 

i, E, I, 5, fl, V, Itmg; A, £, I, 6, tt, ?, short; ^, E, j, p, y, y, nftficwre. — fAre, fAr, fAst, fAll ; Hi:iR, hHb 

ANl 33 

taorn^ or horn-like proceas, or movable, tubular organ, on 
- the head of certain insects ,- a tentacle ; a feeler. Brande. 
iN-TEN-NlF']^R-oOs,* a. Producing antennEE. Kirby. 
iN-TE-NDM'EER, n. A number preceding another. Bacon, 
&N-TE-N&P'TIAL,* a. Before marriage. Reid. 
Xn-te-pXo'ment,* iu (^Arch,) An ornamented jamb of a 

door FVancis. 
iN-TE-pAs'jEHAL, o. [ante and pascha^ L.] Before Easter. 
^n't^-pAst, n. [ante and pastum, L.] A foretaste; antici- 
An-te-pe-nOlt', n. lantepenultima, L.] The last syllable 

but two. 
MN-TE-PE-Ni^L' Ti-MA-y* 71, [L.J (i2Ae(.) Same as antepe- 

nulu Brande. 
A?r-TE-PE-NOL'Tr-MATE,*n. m antepenult. Crabb. 
iSN-TE-PE-wDL'Tj-MATE,* a. {Rhet.) Relating to the last 

syllable but two. Walker. 
Xnt-£p-i-lep'tjc, a. [uirt and ^iriXiji^iy, Gr.] Good against 

epilepsy^ Browne. 
tAN^TE-PONE, V. a, [ara^onOf L.] To set before, Bailey. 
Xn'te-port, n. An outer port, gate, or door. Todd. 
An TE-pp-9l"TiQN,*7i. An anterior position. Jlsh. 
An-TE-PRE-dIc'a-mEnt,7i. [aiitepredicamentnmjh.'] (Logic) 

An introduction to the categories ; a question requiring 

discussion before entering on the main subject. 
i^N'-TE'R;-9R, a. [anterior., h.] Going before j former; prior 

in point of time ; opposed to posterior, 
AN-TE-Rl-5R'j-Ty, n. Priority ; precedence. Pope. 
Aw-TE'Rl-pR-Ly,"*- ad. In an anterior manner. Ooldsmiih. 
A3('T?-r66m, n. A room leading to a principal apartment. 

^NfTE$, (Sn'tez) n. pU [L.] (Arch.) Square pillars on each 

side of the doors of temples, &c. See A^tta. 
<^n-t1Ss'ta-ture,*71. (FoH.) Asmall intrenchraent. Crabh. 
iN-TE-STfim'AjeH, (Sn-te-stum'^k) n. A cavity which leads 

into the stomach. Ray.' 
fAw-TE-TfiM'piiEj n. Now called the nave in a church. 
[An'te-vert, v. a. [antevertoj L.] To prevent. Bp. Hall. 
A.N-TME' Li~Aj* n. (Astrtn.) A species of halo round the 

sun. Scudamore. 
Aw-th:el-mI]s'tic, a, [avri and 2>^ii/0os, Gr.] That kills 

AN-TH:EL-MfH'Tics,* 71. pi. (Med.) Medicines to destroy 

worms. P. Oyc. 
An'them, 71. [oivOviJvos, Gr.j (Mas.) A composition set to 

verses from the Psalms, or other portions of Scripture or 

the Liturgy, and employed in public Worship ; a divine 

song or hymn. 
AN'THE-MtSj n. [L.] (Bot.) A genus of plants; camomile. 
An'them-wi9e, ad. In the manner of an anthem. 
An'ther,*7i. [avOYipa^Gx.] (£o(.) The case or part of the 

flower containing pollen, or male part of a flower. P. 

An'ther-al,* a. (BoU) Relating to anthers. BmarL 
AN'THER-bDsT,*n. The dust of anthers; pollen. LyeU. 
An-the-rIf'er-oOs,* a. (BoU) Producing or relating to 

anthers. P. Oyc. 
An'the-roTd,* o. (Bot.) Resembling an anther. Brande. 
Aiv^-TffE' SIS,* n. [Gr.] (Bot.) The period when flowers 

expand. Brande. 
Ant-HTll, n. A little hillock formed by ants. 
Ant-HIl'lqck, tu Same as ant-hill. Addison. 
An-tho'bj-^n,*w. (Ent.) A beetle that feeds on blossoms. 


Ah-tho-l5j&'i-cal, a. Relating to an anthology 

An-th6l'p-jGY, n. [avBo'koyla^ Gr.] A collection of flow- 
ers, of poems, or of elegant extracts from authors. 

An-th^l' v-sis,* n. (Bot.) A change of flowers from their 
usual state to some other, as leaves, branches, &c. Grande. 

Sn-tho-ma'ni-Aj* n. An extravagant fondness for flow- 
ers. Dr. Black. 

AN'THp-NY»9 Fire', (Jtn'tp-niz-fir') n. The ery«iipflfas. 

AN'THp-Rlf?M,* n. (Rhet.) A definition oppositt ;o that of 
an opponent, Srnart. 

^N'Tiibs,*n. [Gr.] (Bot.) A flower; rosemary. Oi -. \b. 

An Tiip-siD'E-RiTEj^m. (Min.) A mineral composed chief- 
ly of silica and iron. Dana. 

Xn-thpx-Xn'thvM,*ti, (Bot.) A genus of grasses. P. Cyc. 

iN'THRA-ciTE,* n. [avSpaf, Gr.l A species of hard, min- 
eral coal, which burns without name or smoke ; irineral 
carbi'^. It is difficult to ignite, but burns with intense 
Iftat- Frauds. 

Arf'THRA-ciTE,*ffl. Applied to a hard kind ofcosi. Phillips. 

AN-THR^-c^T'fC,* a. Relating to or containing anthracite. 
De la Beche. 

,Srf-THRA-o 0-the' Ri-i^M,* 71. [fivOpa^ and &»i/jioi/, Gr.] 
(Oeol.) An extinct quadruped. Lyell 

^N'THRAX, n. [^i/^pof, GrJ ^Med.) A scab ot blotch; a 
carbuncle ; coal ; carbon. Quincy. 

Aw-THROPH'YL-lilTE,*7i.CJtfm.) A siliceous mineral. Dana, 

^n-thr6p'P-Gl5t,* 71. An animal having a tongue like 

' that of man. Knowles. 

iN-THRp-p6e'RA-PHYi*n- A description of diflerent races 
or families of men. Brande. 

/i.N-TVR6F-Q-L6fi'l-CA.Lj* a. Relating to anthropology 

Month. Rev, 
Aw-THRp-pdii'p-jBlsT,* n. One versed in anthropology 

An-thbp-p6l'P-j&Y, n. [audpoirog and'X6yo5,Gr.] A dis< 

course on man, the human race, or bumait nature ; hu< 

man physiology. 
Aw-THR.p~p6M'Aif-oy,* n. Divination by the inspection ot 

a human body. Dwnglison. 
An-thrp-p6m'e -TRy,* 71. The measurement of the human 

body. DungUson. 
AN-THRO-Pp-MOR'PHt^M,* n, A representation of the hu- 
man form ; the doctrine that the Deity exists in human 

form. P. Cyc, 
An-thro-pq-mor'phIst,* n. An anthropomorphite. P. Cy» 
An-thro-pp-mor'phIte,* a. Relating to anthropomor 

phism. Qlaiiville. 
AN-THR-O-PP-MOR'PHITE, n. [dv9paiTr6iAOp(f)ns, Gr.] Ona 

who believes that God has a human form. More, 
AN-THRO-Pp-MpR-PHlT'}-Cjj.L,* a. Belonging toanthro 

pomorphism. Ash. [R.] 
An-thr6-pp-mor'phit-I9M,*w. The belief that God ex 

ists in human form. Wordsworth, 
AN-THRO-Pp-MOR'PHOys,* a. Formed like man. IJyell. 
An-THRP-pop'a-thI^m,* 71. Same as anthropopatky. Ec Ren 
An-THRP-p5p'a-thy, n. [dudpLjjTos and irddus, Gr.] Hh 

man passion or affection. 
AN~THR<;>-Pt>FJ£' A-i^i, 71. pi. [L.] [&vdpo>TTo^ and ^&yrA 

Gr.] Man-eaters ; cannibals. Shak. 
An-thr6-pp-phXj&'}-cal,* a. Relating to cannibalism 

Williams, [r.] 
AN-THRQ-POPH-JL-jGtN'i-^N,* 71. A cannibal. Shak. [r.] 
Aw-thrp-p6ph'a-g^o0s,* a. Feeding on human flesh 

An-thrp-pSph'a-jGY, 71. Cannibalism. Brown. 
Arf-THRp-p6s'p~PHV,K. [offQ/JWTTos and ffo0ta,Gr.] Knowl 

edge of the nature of man. 
j^N-THR6p'yL-LiTE,* 71. (Min.) A petrifaction of the hu 

man body, or a part of it. Crabb. 
AN'THVS,*n. [L.] (Omith.) A genus of birds. P. Cyc 
ANT-Hyp-N6T'ic, a. Counteracting sleep. 
Ant-hJp-p-jShon'drj-Xc, o. Good against hypochondria 
Alf-THy-PiypM'Q-JRAjn. [duBviro^opa^ Gr.] (Rhet.) A fig 

ure whereby the objections of an adversary are brought 

forward, in order to be answered. 
AwT-iiys-TER'ic, a. Good against hysterics. 
An'ti, [dvri, Gr.j A Greek preposition, much used in com 

position, and signifying opposed to, contrary to, or in plaei 

of; as, antimonarchical^ opposed to monarchy. 
AN-Tj-Sg'iD, 71. An alkaline absorbent ; a medicine to re« 

move acidity. Arbxubhnot. 
An-ti-a-phro-dj-^i'a-cal,* b. Checking sexual desirei 

An-ti-Xp-P-pl£c'tjc,* a. (Med.) A remedy for apoplexy 

An-ti-a-pos'tle, 71. One contrary to the apostles. Pott» 
AN^Ti-iR,* 71. A Javanese poison. Brande. 
AN-Ti-A'Ris,*n. (Bot.) The upas-tree. P. Cyc. 
An-ti-ar-mIn'ian, (§.n-te-ar-min'y9.n) n. One who' op 

poses the Arminians or Arminianism. Bp. Barlow. 
AN-Ti-AR-THRtT'ics,7i. jj/. Medicines to assuage the gout 
An-tJ-asth-mXt'jc,* (an-ti-gist-mat'ik) a. Good againsi 

asthma. Ash. 
An-ti-asth-mXt'ic,* (3.n-ti-?st-mat')k) tu (Med.) A rem- 

edy for asthma. DungUson. 
AN-Ti-AT-TRl"TipN,* 7/, A compound applied to machi 

nery to prevent the effects of friction. Brande. 
An-ti-bao-^hI' t'S,* n. [L,] (Rhet.) A poetical foot con- 
sisting of two long syllables and one short one. Crabb 
An-ti-ba-91l'i-can,* a. Opposed to royal state. Smart 
An'tic, a. [aiitiquus, L., old.] Odd ; ridiculously wild ; fe;> 

tastic. Shak. 
An'tic, 71. One who plays antics ; a buffoon ; a trick ; buf- 
foonery. Shak. Odd appearance. Spenser. A fanciful 

representation in the arts. Francis. 
fAN'Tjc, V. a. To make antic. Shak. 

AN-Ti-CA-£:H£c'Tic,a. (Med.)Goo6L for a bad constitution 
AN-Ti-cA-jeH:£c'Tjcs,*7i.p;. (Med.) Remedies for cachexy 

AN-Tj-cXN'C]pR-Ot}s,*a. (Med.) Opposed to cancer. Dun 

Aw-Ti-cAR-Ntv'p-RoOs,* a. Opposed to eating flesh. Qm, 

An-tj-ca-tXr'rhal,* n. (Med.) A remedy for catarrh. 

An-tj-cXus'tjc,* 7u (Med.) A remedy against a burning 

fever. Crahb. 
An'ti-cham-ber,* n. [antichambre, Fr.] See Antecham- 
Aw'Ti-jeiHRiST, n. The great enemy to Christianity. 1 Jokik 
AN-Ti-jCHRlfsT'iAiy, (an-t?-krist'y5in) a. Opposite to Chri» 

Arf-Tl-jGHRYsT'lAN, 71. An enemy to Christianity. Roger*. 
AN-Ti-jEHRlsT'iAN-TgM, 71. Opposition to Christianity. 

HlBN, s5(R; MSve, nor, s6n; bOlL, bUb, rOle. — <?, jG, 9, g, soft} je, », £, |, hard; ^ as z ; ^ as gz*— XHM 





,«y-T|-KJHRtsT-l-XK'|-TV, (Sln-te-krist-ye^n'e-te) n. Con- 
wariety to Christianity. Trapp. 

jB-T?-jE;HRlsT'i*if-iZE,*». a. To make antichristian. More. 

4w-TljeH'R9-Nl5M. (jn-tik'rp-nlzm) ti, [-ii/ri and XP'^""?) 
Gr.] Deviation from the right order of time ; anachro- 
nisoit Sdden, 

^N-Tlpnf th6n* n. [Gr.] An opposite or counter earth. 

AN-tI(?'i-pXnt,* a. That anticipates ; anticipating. Qm. Rev, 

^W-Tlp'j-PATE, u. a, [anticipo. L.] [i. anticipated; pp* 
ANTICIPATING, ANTICIPATED.] To take up beforehand ; to 
go before so as to preclude another j to enjoy, possess, or 
suffer, in expectation j to predccupy ; to foretaste. 

?^N-Tlg'i-PATE-liY, ad. By anticipation. Barrow. 

^N-Ttg-i-PA'Tipw, 71. Act of anticipating ; that which is 
anticipated ; prolepsis ; foretaste. 

^N-Tlg'i-PA-TYVE,* a. That anticipates j giving anticipa- 
tion. Coleridge. [R.] 

Aw-Tlg'j-pA-TpR, n. One who anticipates. 

AN-Tlg'i-p^-Tp-Ry, a. That anticipates. More. 

iw-Ti-CLi'NAL,* a. (Qeol.) Noting an axis or imaginary 
line where strata dip in opposite directions. Bravde. 

iN-Tl-ci-i'MXx,n. ['ii'TicLnd KM/xa^yGr.] (Rhet.) A sinking 
in thought, as opposed to climax ; or a sentence in which 
the last part expresses something lower than the first. 

An'tic-ly, ad. In an antic manner. Shak. 

An'tic-n£ss,* n. The quality of being antic. Ford. 

AN-Ti-coN-STi-Tu'TiQN-fAL, a. Unconstitutional. Baling^ 

XN-Ti-coN-STi-Tu'TipN-AL-IsT,* 71. One who is hostile 
to the constitution. Khowles. 

Jtw-Ti-cpN-TA'jGipN-tsT,* 71. An opposer of the doctrine 
of contagion. Knowles. 

An-ti-cqn-ta'j&iovs,* a. Destroying contagion. Knowles. 

AN-Ti-cpN-vDii'siVE, a. Good against convulsions. Ftoyer. 

An'TI-cor, n. [dvTif Gr., and cor, L.] A swelling, opposite 
to the heart, to which horses are liable ; a sort of quinsy. 
Farm. Ency. 

S.N-ti-cP9-m£t'ic, a. Destructive of beauty. Lyttelton. 

Xn'ti-court, (in'te-kort) a. Opposite to the court. Rercsby. 

iN-Tl-cOTJRT'lER, (^n-te-cort'yer) n. One who opposes the 

iN-Ti-CRE-A'TpR, n. One who opposes the creator. Milton. 

An'TJ-do-tal, a. Having the quality of an antidote. 

An'ti-do-tal-ly,* ad. By way of antidote. Browne. 

An'tJ-do-ta-rv, a. Same as anUdotal. Cotgrave. 

. Aw'Tf-DOTE, V. a. To furnish with preservatives. More. 

iN'T|-BOTE, 71. [aiTiJoroff, Gr.] A medicine that coun- 
teracts jjoi son ; a remedy or preservative against sickness. 

iN-T|-DOT'j-C^L,* a. Useful as an antidote. Knowles. 

JLn-TI-bSs-en-t1!:r'ic, a. [di^Tij Gr., and dysenteria, L.] 
Good against dysentery. 

iN-Tl-Dl?5',* a. Good against dysury. Dr. Barton. 

A.N-Ti-E-M£T'IC,*7L (JJfed.) A remedy for vomiting. Dun- 

A.n-ti-e-m£t'ic,* a. Checking vomiting. Ask. 

AW'TiENT, a. [oTitioKTW, L.] See Ancient. 

iN-Ti-EN-THU-9i-As'Tjc, a. Opposing enthusiasm. 

Xn-ti-£ph-i-XIj'tio,* 71. {Med.) A remedy for epilepsy. 

iN-Tj-i^-PIs'cp-PAL, a. Adverse to Episcopacy. Charles I, 

itN-Ti-E-VAN-jG£L'l-c4.i:.,* a. Not evangelical. Knowles. 

Xn'tJ-face, (an'te-fas) n. An opposite face. B. Jonson. 

An-ti-fa-nat'ic, 71. An enemy to fanatics. Milton. 

AN-Ti-FfiE'RlLE, [^n-te-feb'ril, W. J. F. Ja. Sm. ,- &n-te- 
fe'bVil, S. ; kn-te-fe'brji, P. K.] a. Good against fevers. 

X.N-ti-feb'rile,* rt. A remedy for fever. Crabh. 

Xn-TI-fEd'ER-AL,* a. Hostile to federalism. Adams. 

&N-Ti-F£D'ER-AL-l9M,* 7t. The principles of antifederal- 
ists. Jefferson. 

S.n-ti-f£d'er-al-1st,* n. One of a political party, in the 
United States, that opposed the adoption of the constitu- 
tion. Marshall. 

Xn-ti-elXt'ter-Tng, a. Opposite to flattering. Delany. 

AN-Ti-Fi.XT'u~lj£NT,*a. Counteracting flatulence. Barton. 

An-ti-gXl'li-can,* a. Hostile to France or the French. 

^n-tIs'sVrTte,* 71. (Min.) A mineral resembling schiller 
spar. Dav<i. 

An-ti-gDg'gler,* n. A small, metallic siphon. Ure. 

&N-Ti-H£c/Tic,* a. Good against hectic fever. Ash. 

iN-Ti-HY-DRp-PHfiB'ic,*7i. {Med.) A remedy for hydro- 
phobia. Dun^lison. 

AN-Ti-Hy-DR6p'jc,* 71.. {Med.) A remedy for dropsy. Dun~ 

^jv-tt-HY-fQph' Q-RAy*n. {Rhcf..)Therefuta.tionof an ob- 
jection by the opposition of a contrary sentence. Knowles. 
See Anthvpophora. 

X.n-ti-hys-tEr'IC, 71. A medicine good against hysterics. 

AN-Ti-LlTH'lC',* n. {Med.) A remedy for the stone. JDun- 

XN-TT-LtTH-p-TRlP'TlsT,* n. One opposed to lithotripty. 
Med. Jour. 

X,^-T|-l6o'a-rIthm, n. The number standing against the 

logarithm to make it up to ninety degrees ; or the conipla 
ment of a logarithm of any sine, tangent, or secant. 

■fAN-TlL'p-j&v,7i. [a f T iXoyi at Gr.] Acontradicti'n belweea 
any words. Bailey, 

Aw-Ti-Lol'Mlc,* 71. (Med.) A remedy used for the plague 

t^N-TlL^p-QUtsT, n. [dvTij Gr., and loquor^ L.] A contn 
dictor. Bailey, 

■fAN-TlL'p-Quy, n. A preface, proem, or peroration : — con- 
tradiction. Cockeram. 

fAN-Ti-MV/Jls^TRi-CAL, a. Against a magistrate. South. 

f AN-Ti-MA-Ni'.A.-CAL, a. Good against madness. Battle. 

An'ti-mXsk, 71. An inferior kind of mask ; a festive en* 
tertainment or revel. Warburton. 

An-tj-ma'sok,*7i. One hostile to masonry or freemasonry. 

An-ti-ma-s6n'ic,* a. Hostile to masonry. Stecens. 

An-ti-mA'son-rv,* n. Opposition to masonry. Ward. 

An-ti-mAt-ri-mo'nj-^l,* a. Hostile to matrimony. Oar^ 

AN-Ti-MfiL-APT-jeHdL'ic,* 7Z. {Med.) A remedy for melaa- 
chuly. Dimglison, 

An'-tl m^-tab' Q-i.E,*n. [dvri and n£Tapo)i^^GT.] (Rhet.) 
A figure of speech in which things are changed contrari- 
wise ; as, "A poem is a speaking picture ^ a picture a 
mute poem." Crabh. 

AN~TT-ME~TlTH'jE-slSy* 71. \Gt,'\ {Rhet) A figure 0, 
speech by which the hearer is, as it were, transported to 
the scene of action. Crabh. 

An tIm'e-ter,* n. An optical instrument for measuring 
angles. Sniart. 

An-ti-mIn-js-te'rj-al, a. Opposing the ministry. Oray. 

An-ti-mIn-xs-te'ri-al-Ist,* 71. One who is opposed to 
the ministry. Ask. 

An-ti-MP-nArjEh'ic,* o. Hostile to monarchy. ArbutknoU 

AN-Ti-Mp-NARjeH'i-CA.L, a. Contrary or hostile to mon 

• archy. 

An-ti-mSn'arjEH-Ist, n. An enemy to monarchy. 

An-ti-m:o'n?-^l, a. Relating to or made of antimony. 

An-ti-mo'ni-^l,* n. {Med.) A medicine containing anti 
mony. Smart. 

An-ti-mo'ni-ate,* 71. {Chem.) A salt composed of anti 
monic acid and a base. Smart. 

An-ti-m5h'ic,* / a. Pertaining to or containing anti 

AN-Ti-Mo'Ni-otJs,* ) mony. Francis. 

Ah'tJ-mo-nite * 71. {Ch&ni.) A salt composed ofantimo 
nious acid and a base. Crabb. 

An-ti-mp-n6ph'¥L-lite,* n. (Min.) A grayish-white min 
eral, Dana. 

An'ti-mp-ny, 71-. [dvri and fidvos, Gr.] {Min.) A brittle 
whitish metal ; or a metallic, solid, heavy, brittle sub 
stance, seldom found pure, but commonly mixed with 
other metals ; used in manufactures and medicine. 

Aw-Ti-MOR'^L-tST, n. An enemy to morality. JVarburton. 

AN-Ti-Mp-§A'j CAL,* a. Opposing the authority of Mosea 

An-ti-n:?-PHr1t'ic, a. Good against diseases of the kid- 

An-ti-no'mi-^n, 71. I dvri and vdfto^i Gr.] One of the seel 
who denied the obligation of the observance of the mora, 

An-tj-n6'mi-an, a. Relating to the Antinomians. Bp. HaU 

AN-Ti-N6'Mi-AN-I?M, 71. The tenets of the Antinomians. 

fAN-TlN'p-MlsT, 71. One who disregards the law. Bp. ^» 

AN-TtN'p-MV, or AN'TI-Np-MY. [?n-t!n'9-me, W.J.F.Ja. 
&n'te-n9-me, S. P. Sm. ; ?n-te'no-me, iT.j n. A contradio 
tion between two laws or two articles of the same law 

Aw-ti-p-dpn-tXl'jGIC,* 71. (Med.) A remedy for the tooth 
ache. Dunglison. 

AN-Ti-p^-Dp-BXp'TiST,*n. One who rejects infant bap 
tism ; a Baptist. Buck. 

An-ti-pa'p^l, o. Opposing the pope or papacy. Milton 

An-tj-pa-pIs'tj-cal, a. Opposing the papacy. Jortin. 

An-ti-pXr'al-l£l, a. Running in a contrary direction 

An-ti-PAr-a-lS^T'JC, o. Efficacious against the palsy. 

An-ti-pXr-a-l?t'i-cal,* a. Good against paralysis. Ash 

Aw-tJ-pa-th£t'jc, a. Same as antipatkctical. 

An-ti-pa-th£t'i-cal, a. Having an antipathy or contra 

An-ti-pXth'ic,* a. Relating to antipathy ; opposite Dut*- 

jAN-Tlp'A-THOtJs, a. Adverse. Beaum. ^ Fl. 

AN-TlP'A-THy, 71. [dvri and irdOog, Gr.] A natural contra 
riety or opposition to any thing j repugnance ; aversion 
opposed to sympathy. 

Alf-Ti-PE-Rfs' TA-sIf, 71. {^dvrtirepia'Taat?, Gr.] The op- 
position of a contrary quality, by which the quality it op- 
poses becomes heightened. — (Rhet.) A figure by which on« 
grants what an adversary says, but denies his infeience. 

An-ti-p£r-is-tXt'ic,* a. Relating to antiperistasis. Ash. 

AN-Tj-pfis-Tj-LfiN'TiAL, a. Efficacious against pesfflenca 

An-tp-phlp-jgTs'tjc, a. Counteracting inflammation. 

I, 6, tJ, y, fonf ■ A fi, I, 5, C, i?, short; ^, ?, i, p, v, y, obscure. — fAre, fXb, fAst, fA" L: h£ir, hek 

ANl 35 

■SN-Tj-PHLQ-cjUa'TVf'jTt. [dvTi and <})\nyt(TT6s, Gt.] Medi- 
cine for inflammat on. Bp. Berkeley. 

i.N'Ti-PH6rf, (ftn't^ fon) tu [dvTi and 0^.)vij, Gr.] (Mus.) A 
chant J an anthen.. Wotton. A sacred dialogue. SeeAw- 


<^N-TlPH'<?-N*L,(3i-tIfVn?l) a. Relating toantiphony. 
^N-TlPH'9-NA.L, (?n-tlf'9-n?J) n. A book of anthems j an- 

tiphonai^. Bumtt. 
^N-TlPH'o-NVRY,* n A service-book of the Catholic 

church, in which the antiphonies were written ; a book 

of anthems and responses. P. Cye. 
t^w-TlPH^pN-ER, n, Antiphonary. Chaucer, 
£N-Ti-PHdN'l-CAi,, a. Relating to antiphony. 
AN-TtPH'p-NV, (gin-tIP9-ne) n. (Mus.) A kind of ancien 

anthem, the verses oi which were chanted by each sid 

of the choir alternately ; a response. 
^n-t1ph'r*-sTs, n. [dvH and (ppda-iSj Gr.] (RheU) The 

use of words in a sense opposite to their proper meaning 

An-ti-phrXs'T|c,* la. Relating to or containing an 
&n-ti-phrXs'tj-c*L,* J tiphrasis. Msh. 
An-T j-PHRXs'Ti-c\At.-Ly, ad. In the manner of antiphmsis 
iN-Tj-PLEV-RlT'lc,*a. (Jtfe(L) Opposed to pleurisy. JDuti- 


An-tIp'p-DjJX, a. Relating to the antipodes. Brown, 

Arr'Tf-PODE,* re. One of the antipodes ; one who is in op- 
position. Stafford. Q^i-This word, as here given, is An- 
glicized ; and it is found in the dictionaries of Todd, Smart, 
and Webster ; but it is not countenanced by the other Eng- 
lish lexicographers ; yet, as the Latin word araipodes has 
no smgn]a.r^antipode may be sometimes convenient. 

$Dr^Tjp'Q-DE$y [jn-ttp'fl-dez, S. W. P. J. F, Ja. K. SnuR.; 
jin-tlp'odz, jE. ; 5n'te-p6dz, JVb.] [L., dvrt and n-odrfff, 
Gr.] (As a Latin word, it has no singular.) Literally, 
those who stand feet to feet ; the inhabitants of the oppo- 
site parts of the earth, in the same parallels of latitude, on 
opposite aides of the equator ; those opposite to each other. 

AN'T|~pbI-50N, n. An antidote. Brown. 

An'tJ-pope, 71. One who usurps the popedom. Bp. Hall. 

X.N'lj-PORT, n. Smith. See Anteport, 

iw-Tj-PRE-LXT'i-c^L, a. Adverse to prelacy. Bp. Morton. 

An'ti-Priest, n. An enemy to priests. Waterland. 

XN-Tl-PRlEST'cRiFT, TO. Opposition to priestcraft. Burke. 

Xw-ti-prIn'cj-ple, 71. An opposite principle. Spenser. 

(i.N-Ti-PR5PH'?T,n. An enemy to prophets. Mede. 

iN-TiP-TO'sis, [an-lip-to'sis, S. TV. Ja. K. Sm. ,• ^n-tip'tp- 
sis, P. Wb,'\ n, [aiTtTrrwo-iff, Gr.] {Oram.) A figure by 
which one case is put for another. 

XN-Tl-Pu'Rj-T^N,7t. An opposer of Puritans. Warton. 

XN-Ti-py-R£T'jc,*n. (Jlfcd.) A remedy for fever. Dunglison, 

Xn-tJ-QUA'ri-an, a. Relating to antiquity. Warhurton. 

An-ti-qua^RJ-an, 71. An antiquary. Milton. 95" -^"^ 
quary and antiquarian are now both in good use as substan- 
tives. The former, which is used as a substantive by 
Milton, Warburton, and many more recent authors of 
reputation, is designated by Todd as " improper." 

XN-Ti-QUA'Rj-^N-lgM, 71. Love or knowledge of antiqui- 
ties. FVarburton. 

An'ti-qu^-R¥, n. [antiguariusy L.] One versed in a knowl- 
edge of antiquity, or in the minute facts relating to an- 

fXN'Ti-QU^-RV, a. Oldj antique. Shak, 

AN'TJ-QUATE, v. a, [antiquOf L.] [i. ArfTicitrATED ; pp. an- 
TiquATiNo, AHTiqiTATED.] To make old or obsolcte. Hale. 

Xn'ti-quat-ed,* p. a. Grown old ; grown out of fashion. 

Xn't|-quat-ed-NJSss, 71. The state of being antiquated. 

fAN'Ti-QUATE-NEss,7i. The state of being antiquated. 

AN-Tf-QUA'Tipy, 71. State of being antiquated. Beaum. [r.] 

An-tIque', (?n-tgk') a. {antiqtius, L. ; antique^ Fr.] Relat- 

" ing to antiquity; aa, " an antigwe vase " j ancient j old; 
of old fashion 

^n-tIque', (&n-tSk') n. An ancient rarity ; a piece of an- 
cient art. Sv}\fl. 

ftN-TiQUE'LY,* ad. In an antique manner. Dr. Allen. 

\N-TiQtJE'N]?ss, (^tn-lek'nes) 71. (Quality of being antique. 

>.N-TfQ'ul-TY, (gin-tik'we-te) n. [antiquitas^ L.] Old times ; 
the people of old times'; any thing relating to man, in a 
social state, in past limes ; a relic of old times ; old age. 

Xw-Tl-Rfiv-p-LU'Tlpw-VRV* a. Adverse to revolutions, 

Alsr-Ti-RiSv-p-LTi'TipN-IST, 71. One who opposes chanpe. 

&N-Ti-sXB-BJ.-TA'Ri-AN, n. One who opposes the sabbath. 

XN-Tj-sXp-ER-DO'TAli, a. Hostile to priests. Waterland. 

AN~Tls'Cf-i^ (gn-tish'e-i) n. [L. ; avri and tJKia, Gr.] The 

' people who inhabit oh different sides of the equator, and 
who, consequently, at noon, have their shadows project- 
ed opposite ways.'Tlc,* a. Good against the scurvy. Ash. 

XN-Ti-scpR-BtJ'TJ-CAL,o. Good against the scurvy. 

S.N-Ti-scoR-BU'Tica, 71. pi. Medicines against the scurvy. 

'An'tJ-scrIpt, n. A writing in opposition to another writ- 
ing. Hacket, 

iN-Ti-scRlP^TV-R^SM, n Opposition to the Scriptures. 
Boyle. [B.] 


An-ti-scrTp'tV-rTsTjTi. Onewhodenieir*.velation Boyh 

AN-Ti-s£p'T;c, a. [rfiTt and o-^jTw, Gr.] A: itiputrefactiv« 
counteracting putrefaction. 

An-tj-sEp'tjc, 71. A substance which prevents or checkl 

AN-Tj-sfip'Tf-C^L,* a. S&me as antiseptic, Phil Trans, 

AN-tJ-slXv'e-R¥,* n. Hostility to slavery. Ec. Rev, 

An-TJ-si-av']E-ry,* a. Hostile to slavery. Ch. Ob. 

AN-Ti-so'ciAL,*a. Hostile or averse to society. Ch. Ob. 

AN-t1s' PA-sJSy n. [avTi and cnracoj Gr.] (Med.) The r» 
vulsion of a humor into another part. 

An-ti-SPA5-m6d'}c, a. Good against spasms. Ash. 

An-tJ-spa9-m6d'jcs,7i. pL Medicines that relieve spasms, 

Aw-Tl-SPXs'Tjc.a. [auri and cw hot tK6s fGi.] Causing a re 
vulsion of the humors. 

An-ti-splEk':?-tIc, [Sn-t^-spISn'^-tTk, S. W. J, Ja. K. 
S-n-te-sple-net'jk, P. Wb.\ a. Efficacious in diseases ol 
the spleen. 

AN-Tts' TA-sls,^ n. [Gr.] {Rhet.) A defence by showinj 
the expediency of doing what is laid to one''s charge. 

AN-Tlts'TE$jn. [L.] The chief priest or prelate Milton, 

AN-Tls' TRQ-PHE, 71. [dfTfOTpo^fj, Gr.] The stanza op- 
posed to the strophe. — {Rhet.) The changing of things 
mutually dependent. 

AN-Tl-STR5PH'lc,*a. Relating to antistrophe. Dr. C.Beck, 

An-t1s' TRQ-PHbN^n. (iJAei.) A figure which repeats a 
word often. Milton. 

An-ti-strv-mXt'ic, a, [dvTij Gr., and struma^ L.] Good 
against the scrofula. 

An-ti-s1?n-p-da'L|-an,* n. One opposed to synodals. JV. 
E. Elders, 

An-ti-s1?ph-i-lIt'ic,* n, (Med,) A remedy for syphilis. 

AN-Ti-THiJ'l9M:,* TU opposition to theism ; atheism. Choi- 

AN-TtTH'E-sts, n. [avrideais, Gr.] pi. ^N-TTth-E-SE?. 
(Rhet.) A figure by which contraries are opposed to con 
traries ; opposition in words or sentiments ; contrast. 

An-ti-th£it'|c,* a. Relating to antithesis ; antithetical 

An-ti-th£t'i-cal, a. Placed in contrast. Mason. 

AN-Ti-TH£T'i-CAL-LY,* ad. By means of antithesis. Byron, 

AN-TtTH' E-TbN^ 71. {avTiQErov^Gr.'] p\. 4JV~TlTltE~T4. 
' (Rhet.) Something contrary ; an opposite. 

AN-TfT'R^-CfS'Sj* n. [di/ri and r/pa^os, Gr.] (Anat,) The 
" process of the external ear opposite to the tragus. Brande, 

ATJ-Ti-TRtN-i-TA'Rj-AN, n. An opposcr of the doctrine oi 
the Trinity. Pagit. 

An-ti-trIn-j-ta'rj-aw,* a. Opposing the doctrine of the 
Trinity. Ch. Ob. 

AN-Ti-TRtN-i-TA'Ri-AN-I$M,* 71. The doctrine which de- 
nies a trinity of persons in the Godhead. Conder. 

Aw-TiT'Rp-PAL,* a. (Bot.) Turned away from the hilun* 

An'tj-t?pe, 71. [di'TiTVTTos, Gr.] That which is prefigured 
or represented by the type, and therefore stands opposed 
to, or correlative with, it. 

An-ti-typ'J-ca.l, a. Relating to an antitype. 

lAN-Ti-TY'PoySj* a. Antitypical. Cudworth. 

An-ti-vXc'ci-nist,*7i. One who opposes vaccination. Ed. 

An-ti-te-ne'r^-ai*, a. Good against the venereal disease 

tAN''Tl-wTT,*7i. An enemy to wit. Wyckerly. 

Ant'ler, 71. [andouiileTj Fr.] A branch of a stag's horn, 

Awt'l:ered, (Snt'lerd) a. Furnished with antlers. VernmK 

AN-T(e'ci, (?n-te'si) 71. pi. [L, ; dvri and oi>£ta, Gr.] Peo- 

' pie who, with respect to north and south, (not east and 
west,) live in opposite parts of the globe. 

An~to-nq-ma' ffi-A^ (3.n-t9-no-ma'zhe-5i) n. [ovti and tffo- 
/ia, Gr.] (Rhet.) A form of speech in which some general 
term is put in place of a proper name; as, "the Stagy 
rite," for Aristotle. 

fAN'TRE, (an^ter) n. {antrum^ L.] A cavern. Shak. 

AN-tr1m'p-lite,* 71. (Min.) A siliceous mineral. Dana, 

A'nus,* n. [L.] (Anat.) The orifice of the alimentary ca- 
nal. Brande. 

An'vil, 71. The iron block on which smiths hammer met- 
al ; any thing on which blows are laid. 

An'vjled, (an'vjld) p. a. Fashioned on the anvil. 

An^-i'e-ty, (jng-zi'e-te) ti. [anxietasj L.] Trouble of mind 
about some future event ; continual uneasiness ; concern 

Anx'iovs, (Snk'shus) a. [anxius^ L,] Full of anxiety ; con- 
cerned ; solicitous ; careful ; unquiet. 

Awx'ioys-LY, (Sink'shtis-le) ad. In an anxious manner. 

Anx'ious-n£ss, 71, The state of being anxious. Sj)ectator, 

An'y, (en'e) a. Every ; whoever ; whatever. — It is used i« 
composition ; as, '^anywhere," &.c. 

Any,* (gn'?) (wZ. At all; in any degree; as, " atit^ better " 

Any-how,* (Sn'e-hba) ad. In any manner. Booth, 

Any-where,* (en'e-hwir) ad. In any place. Booth 

I Any-whither, (6n'e-hwith-er)oi. Anywhere. Ba-^ow. 

KTEN, SIR; M6ve, nOb, s6n; bOll, BxJb, RtLE. — ^:, p, q, g, soji; fS, la, g, |, hard; % as 2.-jjas gx; — »uil 

AFH 36 


4Ny*wli^B> (en'9-wTz) ad. In any manner. Barrow. 

^-6'Nl-*N,* a. Relating to Aonia or ParnassuB, the resi- 
dence of the Aluses. Po^e. 

JK'O-RlsT, n. [d(ipi(rTOff, Gr.] An indefinite tense in the 
Greek ^ammar. 

X'p-RtsT,* a. Indefinite ti ith respect to time. Valpy, 

A-P-rTCs'Ti-c^l,* a. Keiating to the aorist i indefinite in 
time. Harris, 

J^-ok't^jU, [ do/jT ij, Gr.] (Anat.) The great vessel which 
arises from the upper and back part of the left ventricle of 
the heart, and from which all the arteries of the body, 
whicli carry red blood, derive their origin. 

t-bR'Tfc;** \ '^ delating to the aorta. BeU. 

^-PACE' ad. Q,uickly ; speedily ; hastily. Milton. 

4p'^-od-j:}Ef* n. [Gr.] {Logic) The same as reductio ad 
absurdum; a demonstration which does not prove the 
thing directly, but shows the absurdity of denying it, — 
(JUath.) The progress from a proved proposition to anoth- 
er. Crabb, 

Ap-a-g5g'j-c^L, a. [diraywyfjyGi.'] Proving a thing indi- 
rectly, by showing the absurdity of denying it. 

Ap-^-LA'CHJ-^N,* a. See Appalachian. Ency, 

Ap'^-N^9^e,* 71. See Appenage. 
A-PAw'THRp-py,* n. Aversion to human society. Crabb. 

jSp-^~RlTH'ME-stSj 71. [ap-fi-rith'me-sis, Jo. Sm. Wb.i 
Ap-^^-rith-me'sjs, K. Todd, Crabb.] n, [dira/ji^/iryo-if, Gr.] 
{Rhet.) Enumeration. 

A-pART', ad, [d partf Fr.] Separately j distinctly j at a dis- 

A-pArt'm?nt, Tt. A room j a part of a house. 

A-pAt':e-lite,*71. (Min.) A sulphate of iron. Dana. 

AP-^-THfeT'ic, fl. Having no feeling, Harris. 

AP-A-THfiT'j-C-fliL,* a. Free from passion j apathetic, .^sh. 

Ar'^-THlST, 71. A person without feeling, [r.] 

Ap-A-THIs't;-c^, a. Indifferent ; unfeeling, Seward, 

Ap'^-thy, n, [d and iraOus, Gr.] Want of feeling ; insen- 

AP'A-TiTE,*n. (Min.) A crystallized mineral. P. Cyc. 

APE,n, A genus of quadrumanous animals J a kind of mon- 
key ; an Imitator. 

Ape, V, a. [i. aped ; pp. afino, aped,] To imitate, like an 
ape ; to mimic. 

A-peak', od. In a posture to pierce; formed with a point. 

A-pe're-A,* n. (Zool.) A species of wild Guinea pig. P. 

A-PEli'LOVS,* fl. Destitute of skin. Brande. 

Ap']?n-kine, 71. A ridge of mountains running through 

Ap':?P-^Y, [ap'ep-se, Tf. K. ; ^-pep'se, Sm. JVb.] n. [dirf- 
xpia, Gr.] Want of digestion. 

Ap'^r, 71. One that apes ; an imitator. 

A-PE'R|-£NT,*n. A gently purgative medicine. P. Cye, 

A-PE'RI-Ent, a. [aperiOj L.] Gently purgative. Bacon. 

A-P£R'i-TlVE, a. Aperient; tending to open. Harvey. 

fA-PERT', a. \apertuSf L.] Open ; evident. Fotherhy. 

tA-PER'TipN, 71. An opening; act of opening. Wiseman. 

f A-pert'ly, ad. Openly. Bale, 

tA-PERT'N:]ESS, 71. Openness. Holder. 

A-PERT'pR,* n. A muscle that raises the upper eyelid. 

Ap'er-ture, [ap'er-tiar, S. P. J.F. Ja. K. Sm. R.; Sp'er- 
chur, TV.] n. An opening ; a hole ; a passage ; a cavity. 

A'PE-RY,* n. The act of aping; affected imitation. Feltham. 

A-pET'^-liO0s,a. [d and iriTahiVj Gr.] (BoU) Without pet- 
als or flower leaves. 

A'FEXj (a'peks)7i. [L.] p.. Xp'i-ce9. The summit or high- 
est point of any thing; the top. See Apices. 

^■phjEJR' e-sYs, [&-fgr'e-sis, TV. P. J. Ja. ,■ ^-fs're-sis, S. K. 
Sm.] n. [L., and d^'aipsois, Gr.] (Rhet,) The taking 
away of a letter or syllable from the beginning of a word. 

A-phAn'_]?-site,*7i, (Min.) An arseniate of copper. Dana. 

Aph'a-NITE,* 71. (Min.) Compact hornblende rock._Z>(i7(o. 

^-PHE'Lf-6JVj n. [flTTn and fJXios, Gr.] pi. a-fhe'li-a. 
(Astron.) The point of a planet's orbit that is farthest 
from the sun, and opposite to the perihelion. 

IA-I'He'T-a., n. (JJstrol.) The name of the planet imagined 
to be the giver of life in a nativity. Bailey 

fA-PHfeT'j-CAL, a. Relating to the apheta. Bailey 

A-phId'i-an,* 71. One of a genus of minute insects. Dr. 

Aph-;-lXn'THRP-py, ih [d and (pi'Savdp(oir(a, Gr.] Want 
of love to mankind. 

^'pSfS,* n. [Gr.] pi, Ap^'f-DE^. An insect; the plant- 
Inuse. Brande. 

APH-l^p-f^fs'Tic,* a. Without flame or fire. Brande. 

Xph'p-NV, (5f 9-n9) 7t. [a &nd (jxiivri, Gt.] (Med.) A loss of 
voice or speech. Q.mncy, 

iPH'p-Rl^M, K. [d<i>ofH(Tfi6sj Gr.] A principle or precept ex- 
oressed in few words ; a maxim. 

^ph-p-ri9-mXt'jc,* a. Relating to or containing apho- 
risms. Dr. O. Gregory. 
Aph'p-rI9-mer, 71. A dealer in aphorisms. Milton. 

iPH-p-Ri§'MIC,* a. Relating to ftj.horisms, Coleridge. 

Aph'P-rTst, 71. A w iter of aplLorlBOis. JVWsim. R 1 

APH-p-Rlfs'Tic,* a, lielating to or resemblir g an apnoriBia 
Month. Rev. 

Aph-p-rIs'tj-cal, a- Having the form of an aphoTiam. 

Aph-p-rIs'ti-c^l-ly, ad. In the form of an aphonsm 

APH'RiTEj* 71. (Jlfi7t.) A carbonate of lime. Dana. 

Aph'ri-zite,* 71. (Min.) A species of tourmaline. Dana 

APH-Rp-Dl9'j-Xc,* 71. (Med.) Medicine or food supposed ti 
excite sexual desire. Brande. 

APH-Rp-Dls'j-Xc, (af-fr9-dlzh'e-&k) ) a. Relating to 

APH-Rp-o?-5rA-CAL, (af-frp-df-zl'^-k?]) ( Venus ; vene- 
real ; exciting sexual desire. 

Aph'rp-di-te, [ftfrtj-dlt, K.,- af'r9-di-te, Sm.; aPrp-dlt, 
TVb.] n. [' AippoSirr}^ Fmus, Gr.] A follower of Venus.— 
(Zool.) A beautiful genus of annellidans, 

Aph'rP-DITE,* 71. (Jl^Ti.) A silicate of magnesia. Dana, 

Afh'th^* n. pi. [L.] (Med.) The thrush, a disease con- 
sisting of ulcers in the mouth. Crabb. 

APH-THlT^A-LiTE,* 71. (Min.) A white mineral. Dana. 

Aph'thong,* (ip'thSng) n. A letter, or combination of 
letters, having no sound. Smart. 

APH'THoys,* a. Relating to the aphths or thrush. Duif 

A-PHlfL'LPys,* [^-fil'us, Sm. Brande^ Crabb : af e-lus, fVh 
K.] a. (Bot.) Destitute of leaves ; leafiess. Hamilton, 

A-pi-a'RI-ax,* a. Relating to bees. Jardine, 

A'pi-A-RlST,* n. A keeper of bees. Kirby. 

A'pi--gi-R¥, n. [apisj L.] A place where bees are kept. 

Ap'T-cal',* a. Relating to the apex or top. P. Cyc 

Ap'I-CE^j [S.p'?-sez, Sm. Ainsworthy Leverettf Ash; ^-pl 
sez, Ja. ; a'pe-sez, F. R. TVb. ; ^-pe'sez, JST.] n, pi, [L»( 
From apez. Tipsj points; tufts. See Apex. 

A-pIc'V-lAte,* a. (Bot.) Abruptly pointed; sharp. P 

A-P^c'V-l-AT-ED,* a, (Bot,) Same as apiciUate, Smith, 

A-PIECE', (gt-pes') ad. To the part or share of each. HooJur 

IA-PIE'ce?, (9-pSs'ez) ad. In pieces. Beaum, ^ Fl. 

A'PfSy*n. [L.] A genus of insects; the bee. Brands, 

a'pish, o. Having the qualities of an ape; foppish. 

a'PTSH-ly, ad. In an apiah manner. Milton^ 

A'pisH-Nfiss, 71. Mimicry; foppery. Congrtve 

A-pIt'pAt, ad. With quick palpitation ; pitapat Congvfot 

A'PI-&M* n. [LJ (Bot,) Parsley; a genus of umbellifer- 
ous plants. P. Cyc. 

Ap-l^-nAt'|C,* a.' Free IVom error, or correcting error, a* 
an optical instrument. Francis, 

Ap-l6me',* 71. (Min.) A variety of crystallized garnet. 

Ap-l6t'P-my,* 71. (Med.) A simple Incision. Dunglison. 

A-PL t^s' TRE^ (?i-plus'tre) 71. [L.] The ancient naval stream- 
er or ensign carried in sea vessels. Addison, 

A-Poc'^-liYPSE, Ti. [dTroKa\vnT(o,Gx,] Disclosure ; revela- 
tion ; the last book in the sacred canon. 

A-p6c'a-l$pt,* 71. The author of the Apocalypse. Col* 
rid^e. [R.J 

A-poc-a-lyp'tic, a. Same as apoco^T^ticaZ. Spenser. 

f A-p6c-A-l1?p'tic, n. An apocalyptical writer. Lightfoot 

A-p6c-a-l1?p'ti-c^l, a. Keiating to the Apocalypse or Rev 

A-p6c-A-Ltp'TI-c^L-LY, ad. In such a manner as to r& 
veal something secret. 

Ap-P-car'povs,* a. (Bot.) Having carpels distinct from 
each other. P. Cyc. 

A-p6c'p-PATE,* V. a. To cut off the last letter or syllable 
of a word. Smart. 

A-P<^c'p-PE, 71. [diroKOTrfi^ Gr.] (Gram.) The abscission (tf 
cutting off of the last syllable of a word. 

Ap-P-crOs'tic, a, [dnoKfiuvoTtKdjGt.] (Jlfed.) Repelling 
astringent. Chambers. 

A-p6c'RY-PHA, 71. pi. [d7ro*fpTjTrrc-i, Gr. ; apocrypha, L. 
Literally, things hidden or concer ed ; books or writmgs 
of which the authors are unknow i, appended to the Ola 
Testament. J^^-Tbis word is properly plural, thoufrh 
sometimes used as singular. "The Apocr>p}iii are a se- 
ries of books not admitted into the canon of Scripture." 
Scholey^s Bible. "The Apocrypha is not a canonical 
book," Richardson's Dictionary. 

A-P6c'RV-PH^L,a, Relatingto or contained in the Apocry- 
pha; not canonica ; of doubtful authority. 

A-pOc'RV-phal, 71. A writing not canonical Hanmer, 

A-p6c'rV-ph^l-Ist,* n. An advocate lor the Apocrypha, 
P. Cyc. 

^-Pdc'RV-PHAli-LY, ad. In an apocryphal manner. 

A-pSc'r¥-ph^l-n£ss, 7*. (Quality of being apocryphaL 

tAP-p-CRl?PH'l-CAii, fl. Doubtftil ; not authentic. Bp.BuU 

AP'p-DXL,*a. Without feet; without central fins. Crabk 

Ap'oDE,* 71. (Zool.) A genus tjf fiahes ; an animal withou 
feet. P, Cyc. 

Ap-p-d!c'tic, o. Demon straifve. Robinson, [r.] 

Ap-P-dIc'tj-c^l, a. [d7rd<S£ifis, Gr.] Demonstratira 
Browne. [R.] 

AP-p-Dlc'T}-c^L-L-y, ad. With demonstration. 

i. f, I» 6, a, y, lonffi A, fi, 1, 5, tj, if, short; ^, ?, f, p v % e^xMre — fAre, far, fAst, f).ll ; utitt, iittn 




IF-P-d/x'/S, Ti. [L.] Demonstration. Sir O, Buck, 

ip'p-D6N,* n. (ZooL) An animal without feet. Kiriy. 

4-r ^D'Q-slSj iu [dffd^oo-ij, Gr.] {Rheu) The latter part of 
a )eriod ; the application of a similitude. 

4-^6D-y-TE'Ri-&M,n. [L.J dTroduTfipiui;, Gr.] A dressing- 
room ; a room for undressing at baths. 

(■ApHp-jBJE'pN, 71. Apogee. Fairfax. 

AJP-9-&^fV^, 71. [L. i dndyatop, Gr,] (Aslron,) Same as 
apogee. Bailey. 

iP'9-j&EE, n. ydwS and yij, Gr.] (.^siroTt.) A point in the 
apparent orbits of the sun and moon, in which they are 
at the greatest distance from the earth, — It is opposed 
to perigee, 

A-PO0-i-4~TVRAjn. [It.] (Mus.) See Appogoiatuea, 

Ap^Q-GdN,* 7U A Mediterranean fish. Knowles. 

Ap'P-grAph, 71. IdndypailtoVi Gr.] A copy, not an auto- 

iP'p-L£p-sy.* 71. (Med.) An obstruction of the blood. Scott. 

^-p6l-lj-na'ri-^n, ) n. One of the sect of Apollinaris of 

^-pSL-Li-NA'RjST, J Laodicea, who held peculiar no- 
tions about the nature of Christ. 

A-P6L'Ly-6N,* n. The destroyer; a name of the devil. 

A-p5l-p-jg£t'jc, ) a. Relating to or containing apolo- 

A p6L-p-p£T'i-cAt<) i gy ; said in defence or excuse. 

^ p6L-p-j&£T'i-c^L-LV, ad. In the way of defence or 

^ p6L-p-/j£T'(cs,*7i.jji. (TkeoL) A systematic defence ; a 
philosophical or systematic arrangement or exhibition of 
the evidences of Christianity. P. Cijc. 

^-p6l'p-jgIst, 71. One who makes an apology. Bp. Bull. 

^-POL'p-j&iZE, V. n, ("i. apologized; pp. apologizing, 
APOLOGIZED.] To ma^e excuse or apology; to plead in 
favor of. 

A-p5l'P-j&IZ-ER, 71. One who apologizes, Hanmtr, 

Ap'P-l6gue, (apVlog) 't- [aTtfAoj/off, Gr.] A fabulous sto- 
ry or fiction conveying a moral truth ; a fable. 

tAP'p-L5G-U]?R, (ap'g-13g-er) n. A fabler. Burton. 

^-p6l'p-j&Vs «■ [d7r'»Aoj/ia, Gr.] Primarily, a defence : — 
commonly, an excuse, a plea. 

Xp-P-me-c6m'e-try, 71. [dirS and /irj^oy, Gr.] The art of 
measuring things at a distance. Kersey. 

iS.P-p-NEV-R<5e'RA-PHY,* 71. {Anat.) A description of the 
aponeuroses. Ihmglison. 

Ap-P-nev-r6l'p-jGV)* n. {Anat.) The anatomy of the 
aponeuroses. Dunglison. 

dP-Q-NEV-RO' sis^ 71. [an6 and vtvpov^ Gr.] pi. JiP-p- 
NEU-Ro' SE^. '{Med.) The extension of a nerve, tendon, 
or chord. 

Xp-P-nev-rOt'ic,* a. (Anat.) Relating to the aponeuro- 
ses. Dunglison^ 

&p-p-NEV-R6T'p-My,* 71. (Anat.) Dissection of the apo- 
neuroses. Dunglison. 

XP-p-p£Mp'Tic,*a. Denoting a song, among the ancients, 
addressed to a stranger on his leaving a place. Knowles. 

A-P6PI£'4-sfS, n. [a7rtf0aff(s, Gr.] pi. A~PdPH'4-SE$. 
(RkeL) A figure by which the orator seems to waive what 
he would plainly insinuate. 


flgg'm?-tik, S- J^' P- Ja- -ff-j ap-9-fleg-mat'ik, Stti.] n. 

[dTTo and 0AEy//a, Gr.] (Med,) A medicine for drawing 

away phlegm. 
|jAP-p-PHL£G'MA-Tlc,*a. Drawing away phlegm. Smart. 
i.P-p-PHL£G-'MA.-TY9M,7i.Amedicine to draw away phlegm. 
Ap-P-phleg-mXt'j-2ANT, n. (Med.) Any remedy which 

causes an evacuation of humor. Q,mncy. 
XP'pPH-THiiG-M, (ap'9-them) 71. [d7rii00ej'/x«, Gr.] A short, 

sententious speech or saying ; a valuable maxim, Browne. 

See Apothegm, 
Ap-PPH'theo-mXt'j-cal, a. See Afothkghatical. 
^-p6PS'Y-^^in. rd7ro0u)-j7, Gr.] (jSrcA.) That part of a 

column where it oegins to spnng out of its base ; the 

scape or spring of a column. 
^-p5PH'¥ii-LiTE,*7i,(JMi7i-)Acrystallized mineral. P. Cyc 
j^-PbPH'T-SjtSjn. [d7rii0vo-(ff, Gr.l (.^nai.) A protuberance 

or process of a bone. — (BoU) The enlarged base of the 

theca of some mosses. 
Ap-P-pl£c'tjc, 71, One seized with an apoplexy, 
Ap-p-Piific'Tjc, ) a. Relating to or afli'ected by an apo- 
Ap-q-pl£c'tj-c^l, j plexy. 
fAP'p-PLfix, n. Apopkixy. Dryden. 
Ap'P-pl£xed, (ap'9-pl6kst) a. Seized with an apoplexy. 

AP'p-PL-fiX-y, 71. [dTroTrXi?? iflj Gr-l (Med.) A disorder which 

suddenly surprises the brain, and takes away all sense 

and motion. 
^-po'ri-A, 71, [dvopta^ Gr.] (Rhet) A figui-e when the 

speaker is in doubt what to do or where to begin. Smith. 
MP~QRnRil(E'4j cap-9r-r0» 71. IdnSp^oia,- "* (Med.) A de- 

fiuxion of humors, vapors, and erauvf: 
Ap-P-s£p'?-dIn,* 71, (Chem.) A :. "'-uliar ^.-ystallized sub- 
stance obtained from putrid cheeft-j. Brande. 
^-pQ9-I~(?-PE' SIS, (?-piSz-e-9-pe'sis) n. [diroiTidinncriij 
' Gr.] (Rhet.) A form of speech by which the speaker, 

from strong feeling, suppresses or omits a word or pat 

of his speech. 
A-P6s'T^-sy, 71. Departure from the principles which cno 

has professed ; desertion. 
A-p6s'tate, 71. [dTTocTiTJts, Gr.] One who has renounced 
' his principles : — used in an ill sense. 
A-pGs'tate, a. False ; traitorous. Spenser, 
tA-p6s'TATE, V, 71. To apostatize. Montagu, 
Ap-PS-tXt'j-cjJ[*, a. After the manner of an apostate. 

Sandys. [R,] 


apostatized.] To forsake one's principles or profession 

A-pOs'te-mate, v. n. To become an aposteme. Milton, 

A-p6s-te-ma'tion, 71. The formation of an aposteme. 

Ap-ps-TEM'A-TOtJs,* a. Relating to g-n abscess. Smart. 

Ap'P-STEMe', [ap'9-st6ra, S. TV. J. Ja, Sm.; gt-pSs'tSm, J* J 
71. [dirSoTTiija^Gr.J An abscess ; an imposthume. 

A Pos-TE~Rf-o'Ri,* [L.] (Logic) From the latter: — a 
term used in a method of reasoning when the cause it 
proved by the effect. Crahh, 

A-p6s'till,* n. A marginal note to a book. Brande. 

A-p6s'tle, (9-pSs'sl) 71. [dm5oToX'>ff, Gr.] Literallj^ a per- 
son sent by another : — appropriately, one of the Twelve 
deputed by Christ. 

A-pOs'tle-shIp, (gL-pSs'sl-ship) n. The office of an apos- 

A-P5s'Tp-LATB y'- i^stleship; office of an apostle. KH- 

Ap-ps-t5l'jc, ^ J. Relating to or taught by the apos- 

Ap-ps-t6l'j-cal, ] ties ; existing in the time of the 
a.postles.—Apos^iii'jC fathers J the writers of the Christian 
church, who lived in the apostolic age, or were, in any 
part of their lives, contemporary with the apostles. 

Ap-ps-TOL'r-cAL-Ly, ad. In the manner of the apostles 

Ap-PS-t6l'J-c^l-nj£ss, n. duality of being apostolical. 

Ap-ps-t5ij'i-cI§m,* n. The quality of being apostolicaL 
J. MorisoTU [R.] 

^-P6s-Tp-Llg''i-Ty,* 71. (Theol.) The quality of being ap- 
ostolical. Faber. 

Ap-PS-tSl'jcs, 71. pi, A sect of itinerant Anabaptists. 

A-Pos'TRp-PHE, 71. [dKO(rTpo(l)}i, Gr.] (Rhet.) A figure ol 
speech l"y which the orator or writer suddenly changes 
his discourse, and addresses, in the second person, some 
person or thing present or absent. — (Ghram,) The mark 
( ' ) showing that a word is contracted, or the sign of the 
possessive case. 

Ap-PS-tr6ph'ic, a. Relating to an apostrophe. 

PHIZING, APOSTROPHIZED.] To addross by an apostrophe 

AP'ps-TUME, 71. See Aposteme. 

fA-POT'^E-LJSgM,* 71. The event of a disease; the casting 
of a nativity. Ash. 

Ap-Q-THE'c4,n. [opotftecfl, L.] An apothecary's shop. Sfr 
W. Petty. — (Ancient Arch.) A storehouse for oil, wine, 
&C. Brande. 

j^-POTH'E-cA-RY, 71. A keeper of a medicine shop ; a dis- 
penser of medicines ; a compounder of medicines. 

Ap-q-the' Cf-t>M,* 71.; pi. Xp-q-the' ci-A. (Bot.) The 
shield or mass of reproductive matter in a lichen. P. Cye, 

Ap'P-th£gm, (ap'9-them) n, A sententious or remarkable 
saying of some distinguished person ; a valuable maxim. 
Walton. — Originally and properly written apophthegm f 
now commonly apothegm, 

Ap-p-THEG-MXT'j-cflLij, a. Relatingto an apothegm. 

Ap-p-th£&'m^-t1st, 71, One who deals in apothegms. 

Ap-P-th£g'MA-ti2E, «. 71, To utter apothegms. Paley, 

Ap-P-the'p-sIs, [ap-Q-thS'g-sis, S. fV. P. J. F. Ja. Sm. R,; 
a.p-9-the-6'sjS, Ora&6, Todd; ap-p-the-o'sis, or S.p-9-th8'^ 
sis, K] 71. [dTToyEwfl-tf, Gr.] The enrolment of a moTtik 
among the gods ; deification. 

Xp-p-the'p-s1ze,* v. a. To deify. Month. Rev. [r.] 

A-p5th'e-sIs, 71. [diT6dr}<Tis, Gr.] A repository or place fix 
books, &c., on the south side of the chancel, in the prim- 
itive churches. — (Med.) The placing of a fractured Iiiaa 
in its proper position : the reduction of a dislocation. 

A-pGt'p-me,7i. [dTTOTt/ij/w, Gr.] (JI/atA.) The remainder o( 
or difference between two incommensurable quantities. — 
(Mus.) The part remaining of an entire tone after a great 
tone has been taken from it. 

Ap'P-z£m, 71. [and and ^ttu, Gr.] (Med.) A decoction from 
herbs. Wiseman. 

Ap-P-zEm'i-cal, a. Like a decoction. WhitaJccr. 

t^P-pAlR', V. a. To impair. Sir T. Elyot, 

tAp-pAiR^, V. 71. To degenerate. Morality o^ Woery Man, 

Ap-p.^-la'cH|-an,* a. Denoting a cha3 of mountains i^ 
the United States, called also the Alleghany mountains. 
P. Cyc. 

Ap-pXlIj', V, a. lappaUrj Fr.] [« appalled , pp. appall 
iNG, APPALLED.] To frighten ; to terrify; to depress. 

fAP-pXLL', 73. 71, [palleoj L.] To be dismayed, Lydgate, 

*Ai'-P-S-L'ment, 71. Impression of fear. Bacon, 

IrtEK, SlfR, MdVE, NOB, s6Ni B > jl., BUr, rClE. — p, ja 9, g, ftoft! S, », £, g, hard; 9 

as Z\ % as 



fcPT^-N^/JE, n, [appanaffiumy low L.] (Law) Lands sel 
apart by princea for the maintenance of their younger 
children. Bacon. 

iP-P^-RA'TVS, TO. ; pi. Xp-p^-ra'tus, or Xp-pa-ra'tvs- 
JE9. [L.] Furniture, instruments, or means for the ac- 
complishment of some purpose or business ; equipage. 
^Cf Murray, Smart, and some other grammarians, regard 
apparatus as both singular and plural ; but the regular 
plural form is sometimes used; as, "ciitical apparatus- 
es." P. Cyc. 

Ap-pXr'?l, n. [appareil, Fr.] Dress ; vestuie ; external ha- 

PARELLED.] To dress ; to clothe ; to deck. 

tAP-PA.R'ENCE, n. [Fr.] Appearance. Chaucer. 

tAP-PAR'^N-CY, 71. Appearance. Qower. 

i^P-pAu'ENT, a. Such as appears to the eyej plain j indu- 
bitable; seeming; visible; open; evident; certain; not 
presumptive. — The hdr apparent is the immediate heir to 
the crown, in distinction from the heir preswmptive. — .Ap- 
parent time, true time, or the time or hour as indicated by 
the sun's passage over the meridian: — opposed to mean 

t^P-pAR'ENT, n. For heir apparent- Shale. 

^P-pAr'ent-LV, ad. Evidently ; seemingly. ShaJc. 

iJ^P-pAr'?nt-n£ss, n. The quality of being apparent. 

%.p-v^-rV'tiqs, (ap-p9-ilsh'un) n. Api)earaiice ; visibility ; 
the thing appearing ; a preternatural appearance ; a ghost ; 
a spectre. — (Astron,) The visibility of some luminary, 
opposed to oceultation. 

^p-pXr'i-tqr, n. [apparoj L.] (Law) Formerly, an officer 
of any court of judicature ; now, the messenger of an 
ecclesiastical court. 

{Ap-PAY', v. a. [appayerj old Fr.] To satisfy ; to content. 

fAP-PEACH', », u. [apescherf old Ft.] To accuse; to im- 
peach. Spenser. 

fAP-PEACH'ER,n. An accuser. Sherwood. 

(■Ap-peach'MENT, n. Impeachment. Ilayward. 

^P-peal', v. n. [appello, L.] [i. appealed ; pp. appealiivg, 
APPEALED.] To transfer a cause from one to another ; to 
refer to another or superior judge or tribunal ; to call an- 
other as witness. 

i\p-PE al', V. a. [t To charge with a crime. Sfiak.] To trans- 
fer to another. 

^p-peal', n. A removal of a cause from an inferior court 
to a superior court, or to a superior tribunal ; a call upon 
a witness ; an accusation : — a criminal prosecution. 

,&p-peal'4-ble, a. Subject to an appeal. Howell. 

fAP-p£Ali'ANT, (gp-pSr^nt) n. Appealer ; appellant. Shak. 

j4.'p-peal'er, n. One who appeals, [t An accuser. Fox.] 

AP-PEAR', v. n. [appareo, L.] [i. appeared ; pp. appearing, 
APPEARED.] To be in sight j to become visible ; to be evi- 
dentj to seem ; to look. 

JAp-pear', 71. Appearance. Fletcher. 

^p-pear'awce, n. The act of appearing; that which ap- 
pears or is visible ; mien ; air ; semblance ; not rea,lity ; 
pretence ; show ; apparition ; probability. 

^p-PiSAR'ER,7i. One who appears. Brown. 

^p-pear'jng, n. The act of appearing. Spenser. 

^p-pea9'a-ble, a. That may be appeased; reconcilable. 

Ap-pea9'a-ble-n£ss, n, Reconcilableness. 

AP-PEAgE', t), a. fappaiser, Fr.] [i. appeased ; pp. appeas- 
ing, APPEASED.] To calm; to quiet; to pacify; to rec- 
oncile ; to still. 

<^p-pea9E'ment, n. Act of appeasing. Hayward. 

i^P-PEA9'ER, Ti. One who appeases or pacifies. 

^P-PEA?'IVE, a. That mitigates or appeases. Sherwood. 

,^p-p£l'IiAw-cVj «• Appeal; capability of appeal. [R.j 

^p~Pj6l'lant, n. (Law) One who appeals ; a person or party 
by whom an appeal is made: — opposed to respondent. 

^P-PfiL'liANT, a. Appealing. Const, and Canons Eccl. 

^P-pfiL'liATE, a. (Law) Relating to appeals ; as, " appellate 
jurisdiction." BVadtstone. Created on appeal. Burke. 

Xp-pel-la'tiqk, n. The name by which any thing is 
called: title. 

^p-p£l'L^-tIve, n. A common name, as opposed to a 
proper one ; an appellation ; a title. 

^P-PEI*'L^-t1ve, a. (Oram.) Common ; usual; applied to 
name ; — opposed to proper. Bp Bull. 

^p-p£l'lvtIve-lv, ad. In the manner of nouns appella- 
, ^p-p^E'L^TtVE-N^ss,* n. duality of being appellative. 

^p-piiL'EA-TQ-BV) «• That contains an appeal. .Sy- 
life. [R.J 

iP-P?L-LEE', [Sp-el-e', S. jr. P. Ja. Sm.; ^p-pSI^e, E".] re. 
(Law) The party in a cause on which an appeal has been 
made, who is not the appellant. 

^p-P£l'L9R, or Ap-PEL-lor',* [^p-pel'lpr, Ja. K. Sm.; 
S.p-pel-lor', tVh.] n. (Law) One who makes an appeal ; an 
appellant. Whishaw. J):^^ When appellor and appellee are 
used in opposition to each other, they are commonly ac- 
i:ented on the last syllable. 


AP'P?N-AjBE,*n. (Law) Achild*s part or port'on Tom^M. 
See Afpanaqe. 

AP-p£nd', v. a. [appendoj L.] [t. appendbd ; pp appbw»- 
iNo, APPENDED.] Tohaugtoj to add to BometMng. 

Ap-p£ni)'^j&e, n. Something added, attached to, or at 

fAP-pfiND'ANCE, n. Something annexed. Bp. Hall. 

Ap-p£nd'ant, a. Hanging to; belonging to; annexed. 

Ap-p£nd'ant, re. An accidental or adventitious part. Hale 
(Law) An inheritance belonging to another inheritance. 

|Ap-p£nd':en-cy, re. That which is annexed Spdman 

fAP-piSN^Dj-CATE, V. a. To add to. Hale. 

|AP-p£N-Di-cA'TipN,re. Appendage. Hale. 

A'p-p£n'di-cle,* n. A small appendage. Smart. 

Xp-PEN-nic'V-LATE,* o. (Bot.) Having some kind of ap- 
pendages. P. Cyc. 

Ap-p£n'dix, re.,- pi. ^p-p£n'di-ce9, dt- ap-pSn'djx-e?. 
Something appended ; an adjunct or concomitant ; a sup- 
plement to a literary work. 

Ap-p£:nse'2* a. Being hung up, as a bat on a pin. Loudon, 

fAP-P?R-CElVE', V. 71. [apperc&ooirf Fr.] To perceive, 

tAP-PER-ciilv'lN&, n. Perception. Cliaucer. 

Ap-p?r-c£p'tiqn, re. That degree of perception which n^ 
fleets upon itself; consciousness. Reid, 

fAP-pfiR'lL, n. Danger. Shak. 

Ap-per-tain', "0. n. [appartenir^ Fr.] [i. appertained , 


right or by nature ; to relate to. 
tAP-PER-TAiN'MENT, n. That which appertains. Sliak. 
^p-per'te-w^nce, re. An adjunct. Brown. See Appur. 


t^p-PiiR'T?-NANCE, V. a. To have as an adjunct. Carew, 
tAp-PER'Tl-N£NT, a. Belonging to. Shak. 
tAP-PER'Ti-NJSKT, re. Any thing pertaining. SJiak, 
Ap'pe-t£nce, ) n. lappetence, old Fr.] Carnal desire ; sen- 
AP'PE-TliiN'-cy, J sual desire; appetite; desire. Milton. 
Ap'P]E-t£nt^ a. [appetens^ L.] Very desirous. Sir O. Buck, 
|AP-PE-Tf-BIL'I-T¥, re, duality of being desirable. Brairn^ 

fAp'PE-TI-BLE, a. [appetibilis, L.J Desirable. Brown. 
Ap'pe-tite, re. [appetitus, L.] Natural desire; desire 0/ 

sensual pleasure ; relish for food ; keenness of stomach ; 

tAP'P?-TlTE, V. a. To desire. Sir T. Elyot. 
|Ap-pe-tI''tipn, (Sp-pe-tish'un) n, [appetitio^ L.] Desire, 

tAP-PE-Tl"Tl0VS, a. Palatable ; desirable. Todd, 
tAP'PE-Ti-TlVE, a. That desires. Hale. 
Ap'PE-TiZE,*'0. a. To create an appetite. Sir W. Scott. [r.j 
Ap'pe-tIz-er,* re. He or that which appetizes. Byron. 
Ap'pt-an,* a. Relating to Appius ; denoting a way from 

ancient Rome to Brundusium. Eri^, 
Ap-plAud', v. a, [applaudo^ L.] [i. applauded ; pp. ap- 
plauding, applauded.] To praise by clapping the hand \ 

to praise highly; to extol. 
Ap-plXud':er, re. One who applauds. Burton. 
^p-PLAu5E',re. Act of applauding; ashout of approbation ( 

loud praise ; encomium. 
AP-PLAU'SfVE, a. Applauding. Sir R. Fanshaw. 
Ap'ple, (ip^pl) 71. The fruit of the apple-tree; the pupil of 

the eye. 
Ap'ple, plp'pl) V. n. To form like an apple. Marshall 
Ap'ple-DOmp-eing,* n. A dumpling made of apples 

Ap'ple-Gr^ft, re. A scion or graft of an apple-tree. 
Ap'ple-HXi>-vest, re. The time of gathering apples. 
Ap'ple-John, 71. See John- Apple. 
Ap'ple-Pie,* re. A pie made of apples. Ask. 
Ap'ple-SAuce, 71. Sauce made of apples. Parks. 
Ap'ple-TXrt, 71. A tart made of apples. Shak. 
Ap'ple-Tree, m. A tree which produces apples, 
Ap'ple-Wo-m^n, (-wiim-un) n, A woman who sells ep* 

Ap'ple-YXrd, n. An orchard. 
Ap-pli'A-bee, a. That may be applied. Hooker. 
J^P-PLI■ANCE, 71. Act of applying; application. Shdu 
AP-PLj-c^-BlL'j-Ty, re. Applicableness More. 
Ap'pli-ca-ble, a. That may be applied ; suitable. 
Ap'PLl-CA-BLE-Nfiss, 71. Fitness to be applied. Boyle, 
Ap'pli-ca-bly, ad. So as to be properly applied. 
Ap'pli-cXnt, re. One who applies ; a petitioner, 
Ap'pli-cate, re. An ordinate in conic sections ; that whtck 

is applied. 
fAp'PLl-CATE, u o. To apply to. Pearson. 
Ap-pl j-c A'TipN, n. Act of applying ; state of being applied 

solicitation; entreaty; assiduity; industry; intense study 
Ap'pli-c^-TIVE, a. That applies. BramkaU. 
tJlP'PEj-CA-Tp-Rj-Ly, ad. With application. Montagu. 
AP'PLJ-CA-Tp-RY, a. Including application. Bp, mlkins, 
Ap'pL^CA-Tp-RV, V. That applies ; fit. Taylor. 
tAP-pLi']ED-Ly, (wi. In a manner which may be applied. 
Ap-PM'?R, n. One who applies. Montagu, 
tAP-PLl'M^NT, re. Application. Marston, 

I* E, I, 5, S, S, ^fongt X, fi, I, 6, tJ, ff, short; ^, ip, j, p, Vi V. o&acure. — fAre, far, fAst, fAll; h£ir, HfiB 


^P-PLif'' V. a. [appUco, L.] [i. appli.zd ; pp. APPLTTwa, ap- 
plied.] To put to ; to lay upon ; to use ; to have recourse 
to ; to address to ; to suit to ; to devote ; to busy. 

(iP-PLY^ V. n. To suit ; to agree : to fit. 

dFFO&GiATUSA,* (sip-p5j-§-?-ta'r?) 77. [It.] (Mu8.) A note 
of embellishment or expression. P. Cyc. 

^P-POInt', v. a. [appointcr, Fr.] [i appointed ; pp. ap- 
pointing, appointed.] To fix; to settle ; to establish by 
authority or decree ; to furnish j to equip ; to direct. 

^p-POtNT', V. n. To decree. 9 Sam. xvii. 

^p-poInt'^-ble,* a. That may be appointed. Knowles, 

^F-volTHT'i^D,* p. (u Settled; established; equipped; ftir- 

^p-poInt-ee',* n. One who receives an appointment; a 
foot-soldier. Scott. 

^p-POtNT'ER, n. One who appoints. Qregory. 

4i.p-P0TNT'MENT, n. Act of appointing; state of being ap- 
pointed ; stipulation ; decree ; direction ; order ; equip- 
ment; an allowance paid. 

t^p-PORT^ER, 71. [apporter, Fr.] A bringer in. Hale. 

^P-POR'TIQN, v. a. [apportionneTj Fr.] [t. apportioned; 
pp. APPORTIONING, AKPoRTioNzD.] To Set out or divide in 
just proportions ; to distribute. 

♦Ap-p6r'tipn-ate-n£ss, n. Just proportion. Hammond, 

AP-r6r'tiqn-er, 71. One who apportions. Cotgrave, 

^p-p6r'ti9n-m£nt, n. Act of apportioning; that which 
is apportioned ; act of dividing a rent, &c., into parts. 

fAp-po^E', V. a. [apposBTj Ft. ; apponoj li.] To put ques- 
tions to ; to apply ; to pose. Bacon. 

;Ap-p65'er, 71, (Law) An examiner ; a questioner. 

ip'p<?-9iTE, (apVzit) o. Proper ; fit ; suitable ; well applied. 

Xp'P9-?lTE-Ly, (ap'9-zit-le) ad. Properly; suitably. 

iS.p'PQ-9'iTE-NESS, n. Fitness ; suitableness. Hale. 

iCP-Pp-9t"TipN, (Jip-9-zish'un)n. Addition. — (Oram.) The 
placing of one noun or pronoun by the side of another of 
the same meaning, in the same case. 

^P-p69'I-tIve, a. Applicable. Knatchbull. [r.] 

^P-PRAI5E', (?p-praz') V. a. \jprctium, L. ; appreder, Fr.] [i. 
appraised; pp. appraising, appraised.] To set a price 
upon; to estimate the value of; to value. Blackstone. 
5^ This word is commonly pronounced, and often writ- 
ten, apprize; and it was formerly so written by good 
English authors, as Lord Bacon, Bp. Hall, &.c. Dr. Web- 
ster spells it apprize i but the English dictionaries uni- 
formly have appraise ; though Todd, after giving the word 
appraisement, adds, " Formerly and rightly, appritement.^^ 

^p-prai$e'm^nt, 71. Act of appraising; valuation. Black- 

(^p-prai5'er, n. One who sets a price, or appraises. 

tXP-PRE-CA'TlQN, 71. [apprecor, L.} Earnest prayer- Sp. 

j-AP'PRE-CA-Tp-Ry, u. Praying or wishing any good. Bp. 

^p-pre'ci-a-ble,* (9p-pre'6he-j-bl) a. Capable of being 
appreciated or valued. Walker. 

Ap-pre'cI-ate, (?p-pre'she-at) u. a. [appricier, Fr.] [i. 

timate justly ; to value. 

^P-PRE-CI-A'TIQN, (^ip-pr5-she-a'shun) 71. Valuation. 

JLp-PBE-h£nd', v. a. [apprehendOj L.] [i. apprehended ; 


authority ; to seize in order for trial ; to conceive by the 
mind ; to think on with fear. 

iS.p-PRE-H£ND',* V. n. To think; to suppose; to imagine. 

Ap-pre-hEnd'er, 71. One who apprehends. 

Ap-pbe-h£n'si-ble, a. That may be apprehended, 

AP-PR?-H£N'sipw, n. Act of apprehending; seizure for 
trial ; conception ; fear ; suspicion, 

JI.P-pre-h£n's|VE, a. Q,uick to understand ; fearful 

Ap-PRE-h£n'sive-ly, ad. In an apprehensive manner. 

AP-PRE-H£VsivE-N£ss, 71. The being apprehensive. 

^p-PRJ6k't}CE (&p-pr6n'tjs) ru [apprenti^ Fr.] A person 
bound by indenture, for a certain time, to perform services 
for a master, receiving in return instruction in his trade or 

^P-PRen'TICE, v. a, [i. apprenticed ; pp. apprenticing, 
APPRENTICED.] To bind or put out as an apprentice. 

^p-prEn'tice-Fee,* 71. A pecuniary sum paid to the 
master of an apprentice. Blackatone. 

tAP-PRfiN'TlcE-HOOD, Hifid) 71. Apprenticeshij). Shdk. 

Ap-prEn'tice-shIp, n. The state or term of being an ap- 
prentice. Digby. 

t/LP-PREw'Ti-sAj&E, n. Apprenticeship. Bacon, 

^'p-PRi§E', V. a, [apprisj Fr.] [t. apprised ; pp. apprising, 
APPRIZED.] To inform ; to give notice of. Watts. 

j\p-PRiZE', V. a. To set a price upon ; to appraise. Bp. HaU. 

•■'^P-PRIZE', n. Information. Ooioer. 

^p-prize'MENT,* n. Act of apprizing; valuation; ap- 
praisement. Bacon. See Appraise and Appraisement. 

^p-PRlz'ER,* n. One who apprizes. Bp. Hall. 

W-VROACU', (9p-proch') V. 71. [approeher^ Fr.] ft. ap- 
proached ; pp. APPROACHING, APPEOACHED.] To draw or 
come near ; to approximate. 

39 APR 

Ap-pr6ach', w. fl. To bring or come near to. Temple 

Ap-Pr6ach', 71. Act of drawing near; acceBH. — (Fort,) 4 
trench or covered way by which a fortress may be ap 

^p-proach'a-ble, a. Accessible. Johnson. 

Ap-proach'er, 71. One who approaches. Shtik. 

A^P-pr6ach'in&,*P. a. Coming near to ; approximating. 

-^p-proach'less,* a. That cannot be approached. SU- 

tAp-PROACH'MlENT, n. Act of Coming near. Brown. 

AP'PRO-BATE, a. [approboj Ij.] [f Approved. SlrT,Ehjot 
(Scotch Law) Approved; accepted. Tomliiis, 

Ap'prq-bate,* v. o. To try ; to allow ; to commend ; tc 
approve. " The cause of this battle every man did allow 
and approbate." Hall^ Henry VII. 95° This word, once 
in use in England, has long been disused. It is, how 
ever, used by the American clergy as a sort of technical 
term, in the sense of to license, or to gwe approbation te 
preach. Pickering, 

Ap-prq-Ba'tiqn, 71. The act of approving; state nf being 
approved ; commendation ; support. 

Ap'PR9-ba-TIVE, [5p'pr9-ba-tiv, K. Sm, R, Wb, Tiddi jp- 
pro'bgi-tiv, ja."] a. Approving. Cotgrave. 

Ap'PRp-BA-TpR, 71, [L.] One who approves. Evelyn. [R.J 

Ap'PRp-BA-Tp-RY, [ap'rp-ba-tff-re, K. Sm. R. Wb Toddf 
&p-r9-ba't9-re, 5cott,.^5/t; ^-pro'bjt-tp-re, Jlfau7i(iflr.J a. Aj>- 
proving. Sheldon. 

Ap-prompt', v. a. To excite ; to quicken. Bac m 
Ap-pr6Cf', n. Approbation. Shak. 

■Ap-pr5p'er-ate, v. a. [appropero^ L.] To has^n. Bailey 
Ap-prp-pYn'quate, v. n. [appropinquo, L.] To draw nigh 
unto. Bailey. 

tAP-PRp-PJN-QUA'TipN, 71. Act of approachin,'. Bp.HaU. 

Ap-PRP-pInque', (5p-pr9-pink') v. a. To approach. JSwdi- 
bras,_ [A ludicrous word.] 

^p-PRo'PRi-A-BLE, a. That may be appropriated. 

^P-PBO'PRf-ATE, V. a. [approprio, low L.l [i. appropriat- 
ed ; pp. appropriating, appropriated.] To consign t« 
some use ; to set apart ; to take as one's own. — (Law) To 
alienate a benefice. 

^P-PRP'PRI-ATE, o. Peculiar; fit; adapted to; suitable. 

f Ap-PRO'PRJ-^TE, n. Peculiarity. Boyle. 

^'p-PRp'pRj-A.TE-Ly, ad. In an appropriate manner. 

.^p-PRo'PRf-^TE-Nfiss, 71. (Quality of being appropriate 

AP-PRo-PRi-A'TipNj n. Act of appropriating ; any thing 
appropriated ; consignment. — (Law) A severing of" a b|3n- 
efice ecclesiastical to the use of some religious house, oi 
dean and chapter, bishopric, or college. Cowel. 

^p-PRo'prj-.a-tIve,* a. Making appropriation. Ec. Rev, 

Ap-pRO'PRJ-A-TpR, 71. One who appropriates. — (Law) Ona 
possessed of an appropriated benefice. Jiyl\ffe. 

AP-PRp-PRi'E-T.^-R¥, n. A lay possessor of the profits of a 
benefice. Spelmom. 

Ap-pr6v'a-ble, a. Meriting approbation; laudable. 

.^p-pr6v'a-ble-n£ss,* n. State of being approvable 

^v-'^Rdy'^Jj, 71. Approbation ; commendation. Temple, 

fAp-PR6v'ANCE, 71. Approbation. Spenser. 

.^P-PR6ve', V, a. [approbOj L. ; approuvevj Fr.] [i. at 
proved; pp.'^ approving, approved.] To like; to express 
liking to ; to commend ; to make worthy. — (Law) To in- 
crease the profits of; to improve. 

Ap-pr6ved',* (^p-pr6vd') p. a. Examined ; tried ; accepted. 

Ap-Pr6ve'M]ENT, 71. [Approbation. Hayward.'] — (Law)lm 
provement; profits of lands. BlacJcstone. 

.^P-pr6v'er, 71. One who approves. — (Law) One who, being 
indicted, confesses the fact, and accuses his accomplice-s. 

Ap-prSv'jng,* p. a. Affording approbation ; justifying. 

f AP-pr5x'i-mant, a. Approaching. Sir E. Bering, 

^p-pr6x'i-mate, a. {ad and proximus, L.] Near to; ap- 
proaching. Browne, 

Ap-PR5x'i-MATE, v. a. \i. approximated; pp. approxi- 
mating, APPROXIMATED.] To causB to comc near; ta 
bring near. Barrow. 

.^P-pr6x'i-mate, v. n. To come near. Burke. 

Ap-PR6x'i-M.^TE-LY,* ad. By approximation. Sharpe. 

.^P-PRdx-i-MA'TipN, 71. Act of approximating; a drawing 
near; approach. — (Math.) A continual approach, nearer 
still, and nearer, to the quantity sought, but not expected 
to be found ; an approach to equality. 

^P-PR6x'l-M:A-TlVE,*a. Near to; approaching. Ed. Rev. 

Ap-PR6x'i-MA-TlVE-LY,* ad. By approximation. Wm. Jacob, 

Ap'pOlse, [Sp^pais, S. W. J. E. F, Ja.; &p-puls', P K. Sm. 
R. Wb."] n, [appulsitSy LJ The act of striking against.— 
(^stron?) The approach of two luminaries to a conjunction. 

^P-pDL'sipN,*7i. The act of striking against. Smart. 

.^p-pOl'sive,* a. Striking against. Smart. 

^p-ptiL'siVE-Ly,* ad. In an appulsive manner. Dr. ,3lletu 

Ap-ptJR'T?-N.^NCE, n. [apparteTiance, Fr.] (Law) Thai 
which appertains ; something belonging ; an adjunct. 

AP-PtJR'TE-N.^NT, a, (Law) Joined to. Blackstone. 

tAp'Rj-CATE, V. n. [apricorj L.l To bask in the sun. Rayt 

fA-PRlg'j-TY, 71. Sunshine. Bailey. 

MlEN, slRj m6ve, »5r, s6n; bOlL BUB; R0LB. — g, p, 9, I, tojt; je, «, £, I, hard; g o* Z; j o* gz.— THIf 

AR 40 


4'P»|-c6t, It, A stone fruit resembling a peacn. 
i'pRIX., n. [AprUiB, L.] The fourth month of the year. 
i'pRjL-FooL, 7U One imposed upon on the first of April. 

X'pril-F66l-Day, n. The first day of April. 

£ FRf-6'Ri* [L.] (Logic) From the former : — a term used 
in a method of reasoning when the effect is proved by the 
cause. CampbelL 

a'PRON, (a'pyrn) [a'pym, PF. P. J. F. K. ; a'pryn, S. E. Jo. ,- 
a'prun: — a'purn, coUoguiallyi Sm.] n. A cloth hung be- 
fore, to keep the other dress clean ; a cover worn over 
the lap in a chaise ; the fat skin covering the belly of a 
Eoosei a piece of lead covering the touchhole of a great 

(tS'pRONED, (a'pyrnd) a. Wearmg an apron. Pope. 

1(a'pron-Maw, (a'purn-m3.n) n. A workman j an artificer. 

JA'pron-StrTng,* (a'pLirn-iitiTng) n. The string of an 
apron. Savage. 

•4p-Rg-pds'j (SLp-rp-po') ad. [a propos, Fr.] Opportunely. 

ir'sxSj n. [dipL^j Gr.j pi. Af^si-ue^, or )ir'sE^. {Astroiu) 
Two points of the orbit of a planet, at the greatest and 
least distance from the sun and the earth; a concave wall 
or niche. 

X.PT, a. [aptus^ L.] Fit ; having a tendency to ; inclined to ; 
ready ; quick ; qualified for. 

(Apt, v. a, [apfo, L.] To suit ; to adapt; to fit. B. Jonson. 
Aft'4-bi.e, a. Accommodabie. Sherwood. 

fAp'TATE, V. a. To make fit. Bailey. 

Xp'ter,* 71. An insect. Smart See Apteran. 

S P' TE-R4,* n. pi. (£nt.) Aclass of wingless insects. Crahh. 
See Apteean. 

jS-P't^-rXl,* a. (Arch.) Not having wings or columns. P. 

^P'te-rXn,* n. (Ent.) One of a class of insects without 
wings. Brande. 

Ap'te-rTx,* 71. (Omitli.) A large bird of New Zealand, al- 
most destitute of wings, and valued for its feathers. Shaw. 

Ap'te-rous,* tt. Fitted to; apteral; not having wings or 
membranous expansions. Kirby. 

iP'Tl-TiJDE, 71. [Fr.] Fitness ; tendency ; disposition. 

fAP-TJ-Tu'DI-NAL,* a. Fit ; suitable. Baxter. 

[AP-Ti-TU'Dl-NAL-Ly,* ad. Suitably ; fitly. Baxter. 

Apt'lv, ad. Properly ; pertinently ; readily ; acutely. 

iPT'NESS, 71. Fitness; suitableness; disposition to any 
thing j quickness of apprehension ; tendency ; aptitude. 

Ap'tote, 71. [d and TrraJo-if, Gr.] (Oram.) A noun not de- 
clined with cases. 

^'Fijs^*n. [L.] The martinet; a constellation. Crahh. 

i.P-y-R£T'lc,*a. (Med.) Free from fever. Dunglison. 

Ap'y-R£x-Y,* 71. (Med.) Intermission of a fever. Crahb. 

Ap'v-ROCs,* a. Not chanced by the effect of heat. Brande. 

W'Qi/4, (a'kw?) n. [L.] Water: — almost Anglicized, in 
some compoimds, as aqua^iUB. 

\A' <iUA~FbR' Tis, [a'kw^-fdr'tjs, S. P. Ja. K. Stru; ak-w^- 
fdr'tjs, W. J F. R.'\ 71. [L.] Nitric acid. 

l^' CiUA-Ma-ri' NA^n. [li.] A stone of bluish green ;b''eryl. 

IJi'QUA-Mi-RXB'i-Lts^Ti. fL.] A medical water. 

'Aa' Q,UA~RE-eA'Lis,v-. [L.l Same as a<7wa-rc^'a. 

\^iciUA-REi}}i-A,n. [L.J Nitro-muriatic acid. 

^-QC^'iti-fotf,* n. A pond, cistern, or place in a garden, 
' formed for cultivating aquatic plants. Brande. 

4-CiUA' Ri-iTSj (?-kwa're-Ss) n. [L.] The Water-bearer, the 
eleventh sign in the zodiac. 

^-QuXt'ic, a, [aquaticus, L.] Relating to or inhabiting water. 

^-QuXt'ic,* n. (Bou) A plant which grows in the water. 

^-quAt'i-cal, o. Same as aquatic Evelyn, 

■ Aq'ua-tIle, a. Inhabiting the water. Browne. 
\A'ciU4-TlNT,*n. Same as (WMO-tiTiifl. Brande. 
\^' Q.jT^.-T'iN' T4.^ n. [L. ^ It.] A species of engraving re- 
sembling in effect a drawing in India ink. P. Ciic. 
i^' QU^-Tqp-FX' N4j* n. A poisonous fluid. P. Cyc. 
A' <iV4.-Vi' TJE.n. [L.] Brandy, or spirit of wine. Shak. 
lQ'u^-dGct, [itk'we-dSktjfT. J.Jf'. Ja.. S7n.i2, ;a'kwe-dukt, 
S. P. K."] n. \_a(}uaiductiLSy L.] An artificial channel for 

^A-QUe'j-T¥, n. Wateriness. B. Jonson. 

A'QUE-oiSs, (a'kwp-us) a. Containing water ; watery. 

A'QUE-ofis-NESS, 71. duality of being aqueous. 

X'QUJ-fOrm,* a. Having the form of water. Kirby. 

dQViLA,* fSk'we-lgi) n. [L.] pi. aquiz^. An eagle; a 
constellation. Crabb. 

ia-Q.ui~LE'f^z-4.,* n. (Bot.) A genus of plants ; the colum- 
bine. P. Cyc. 

Aq'uj-lYne, (a.k'we-liD, or 5k'we~lin) [^k'we-lln, S. J. F. 
Ja.; ak'we-hn, fV. P. Stti.,- Sk'we-Hn, or S.k'we-lin, K.] 
a. [aquilinusj L.] Resembling an eagle ; hooked, as an 
eagle's beak. 

iQ'UT-LOK, (&k'we-15n) n. [aquilo, L.] The north wind. 

fA-Qu6sE', (?-kw6s')a- [o^ita, L.] Watery. Bailey. 

A-Clu6s'|-TV, (^-kw6s'9-t?) 71. Wateriness. Bailey. 

A. R. s*%nds for anno reg-ni; that is, the year of the reign. 

a'rab, or Ar'^B, [a'rsb, ir.^aA; BLr'sb, EarTisAott-' ii A 

native of Arabia. 
Ar'a-b£sque, (ftr'st-bSsk) a. Tarabesque^ Fr.] Rekling U 

the Arabs, and applied to rancy ornaments of foliage 

plants, &:c. 
Ar'a-besq,uEj (Sj^^-bSsk) n. [t The Arabic languago 

Outhrie.'] A capricious or heterogeneous species of orna 

ment or flower-work. P. Cyc. 
A-rX'bj-^n, a. Relating to Arabia. Sir T. Herbert. 
A-ra'bi-an, 71. A native of Arabia; an Arab. Isaiah xiii 
Ar'a-bIc, a. Relating to Arabia; Arabian. 
Ab'a-eIc, 71. The language of Arabia. Worthington. 
A-rXb'i-cal, a. Arabian ; Arabic Shelton, 
A-RXB'i-C-j.L-LV, ad. In the Arabian manner. Sir T. Ber- 

Ar'jJ.-b1n,* tu (Chem.) The principle which forms the bam 

of all gums. FraMcis, 
Ar'a-bI5M,* 71. An Arabic word, phrase, or idiom. Ash. 
Ar'a-bIst,* n. One versed in Arabic literature. Knowles, 
Ar'^-ble, a.[arabilisj L.] Fit for the plough or tillage. 
Ar'^-BY, 71. The country of Arabia. Milton. [Poetical.] 
A-RA'CEOys,* (^-ra'shiis) a. (Bot.) Noting a genus of acrid 

endogens. Brande. 
A-rAjEH',* 71. See Arrach. 

Ar'a-^rIs^* n. The earth-nut ; a kind of pulse. P. Cyc 
A-rA^h'ni-da* n. pi. (Ent.) A class of small animali, 

including spiders, mites, and scorpions. P. Cyc, 
A-RXjBH'ni-dXn,* 71. (Ent.') One of the arachnida; a spi- 
der. — (Geol.) A fossil spider or scorpion. Bvckland, 
A-RXjEH'NoId,* n. (An^t.) A tunic of the vitreous humor 

of the eye ; a thin, transparent membrane between tha 

pia mater and dura mater. Brande. 
A-RXjBH'NblD,* a. (Anat. &. Bot.) Relating to an arach- 
noid ; resembling a spider's web. P. Cyc. 
Ar-4^I£-n61'dei}j n. pi. [apdxvjy and tZ^offjGr.] (AnaU) 

See Arachnoid. 
AR-^;eH-N6E'p-jGrIST,*7i. One versed in arachnology-jEirfti/ 
AR-AjBH-KOi-'o-p^y,* n. The science of the arachnida. 

Araignee, (9T-an'ya) n. JFr.] A spider. — (Fori.) A 

branch, return, or gallery of a mine. Bailey, 
•[\A-RAI9e', (&-raz') v. a. To raise. Shak. 
ar-.a.-m^'an,* ) a. Relating to Aram, or the Chaldees. P 
Ar-a-ma'ic,* \ Cyc. 

Ar-^-nei'dan,* 71. (Ent.) A species of spider. Kirhy. 
A-RA'ne-oCs, a. {aranea^ L.l Resembling a cobweb. 
A-rXn'g^o,*7i. a species of bead made of rough cornelian. 

A-ra'tiqn, n. [aratio, L.] Act of ploughing. Cowley, [e.] 
(Ar'a-TP-ry, a. That contributes to tillage. Bailey. 
A-RAu-CA'iii-4* n. (Bot.) A genus of gigantic firs. P 

Xr'ba-lIst, n. A crossbow. Camden. See Arcdbalist, 
Ar'ba-l1st-er, n. A crossbow-man. Speed, [r.] 
Ar'bi-ter, 71. [L.] One appointed to decide a point in dl9- 

pute; an arbitrator; a judge. 
fAR'Bi-TER, V. a. To judge. Huloet. 

Xr'bi-tra-ble, (ar'be-tr^-bl) a. Arbitrary; depending up- 
on the will ; determinable. Bp. Hall. 
tAR'Bj-TRAjBE,*7i. Arbitration. Sir Wm. Temple. 
Ar-bIt'ea-mISnt, 71. Will ; determination ; choice. JWitton 
Ar'bi-tra-ri-ly, ad. In an arbitrtiry manner. 
AR'si-TRA-Ri-Nfess, 71. Uuality of being arbitrary. 
fAR-Bl-TRA^Rl-oOs, a. Arbitrary; despotic. More 
JAr-bi-tra'ri-oOs-ly, ad. Arbitrarily. GUnville. 
Ab'bi-tra-ry, a. Bound by no rule or law ; depending on 

the will ; despotic ; absolute ; voluntary. 


BiTRATED.] To decidc ; to judge of 
Ar'bi-trate, ij. 71. To give judgment. South 
AR-Bi-TRA'TipN, 71. Act of arbitrating. — (iaw) The In- 
vestigation and determination of a cause by an unofficia. 

person, or by persons mutually chosen by the contending 

parties ; arbitrament. 
Ar-bi-tra'tion-B6nd,* ti. (Law) A solemn obligation to 

submit to an award. Blackstone. 
Ar'bj-tra-tpr, 71. An umpire ; a judge. — (Law) A ^ex 

son chosen by parties at variance to determine a nwttef 

in dispute. 
Ar-bj-tra'trix, 71. A female Judge. Sherwood. 
AR-siT^RE-MENT, 71. Decision ; determination ; award. See 

Ab'bi-tr£ss, n. A female arbiter. MiltoTu 
Ar'bqr, 71. [arftor, L., a tree.] A place covered will 

branches of trees; a bower: — the axis or spindle on 

which a wheel turns. 
tAR'Bp-RA-RY, a. Belonging to a tree. Bailey 
fAR'Bp-RA-TpR, 71. A planter of trees. Erodyn. 
Ar'bpred,* (ar'burd) a. Furnished with an arbor. Polhk, 
Ab-bo'r]e:-oOs, a. Belonging to or growing on trees. 
AR-Bp-R£s'g]gNT, o. Growmg like a tree; dendritic Eg 

Ab'bp-r£t, 71. [arbor, L.J A small tree or shrub. Milton. 
ar-bq-re' T^M,* 71. [L.JPI. L. Xr~bq~re'ta; Eng. Stt 

A, E, :, o, tl, \ , long; A, E, 1, 6, IT £, shorti ^, e, j, p, Vj Vi o6scur«. — fAbe, fXr, fAst, fAli*; h£ie, h£b 



B0-its'xvM9. A place where trees grow j a plantation of 
trees or shrubs. Loudon, 

i^R-B6a'i-CA.L, a. Relating to trees. HoweU. 
Lr-bq-bj-cOlt v-B^L,* o. Relating to arboriculture. Lovr- 

iR-Bp-Ri-cDLT'VRE,* n. The art of cultivating trees and 
shrubs. Sranie. 

R.r-bo-ri-oDi:.t'v-rIst,*71, One who practises arboricul- 
ture. Loudon, 

Xr'bqii-ist, n. One who makes trees his study. HoweU. 

X-R'bq-roDs, a. Belonging to a tree. MUtoiu 

S.r'b9R-VIne, 71. A species of bind-weed. 

i^R'BQR-Vi'TJE.* n, [L.] (Bot.) An evergreen tree. Crabb. 

Xr'bDs-9LE, (ar'bus-sl) n, [arbuscula, 1*J A little tree or 

Ar-bOs'tive,*o. Covered with shrubt. Smart, 

Ar-b1^^ TVMf* n, [L.] An orchard, hopyard, or vineyard. 

X.r'bute, 71. [ariiitiM, L.] A genua of evergreen trees; ti!e 

^R-BU'TE-^N", a. Relating to the arbute. Evelyn. 

X.BC, ». [areuBf h,j arc^ Fr.] A segment of a circle; any 
part of a curve line ; an arch. 

&R'cA»*«- (Zool) A Lin mean genus ot /ermes. Brands. 

^r^cKde', 71. [Fr.^ (_Arch.) A series j arches crowned 
wiLtt a roof or ceiling, with a walk o passage underneath ; 
£ small arch within a building. 

^b-cad'ed,* a. Furnished with an avcade. P. Mag, 

AR-CA'j>f-^N, a. Relating to Arcadia. Milton, 

X.r'ca-dv, n. The country of Arcadia. Milton. 

j-Ar-cane', a, [arcanus, L.] Secret; mysterious. Bp. 

AR-CA'Sf!/M,n. [L.] pl.4iE-f7A'iV^. A secret; particularly, 
a secret recipe or remedy. Swyft. 

^r-cIis'thi-djl,* 7u (Bot.) A small cone whose scales be- 
come succulent, and form a fleshy ball. Brande. 

K.RCH, n. [arcu3j L. ; arc, Fr.] pi. Xrch'^S. Part of a cir- 
cle or ellipse ; an arc ; a concave or hollow structure sup- 
ported by its own curve ; the sky, or vault of heaven. 

K.RCH, V. a. [j. ASCHCD ; pp. a-rchinq, arched.] To form 
or shape as an arch : to build arches ; to form into arches. 

Xrch, a. lapx<iS, Gr.] Chief; of the first class. Shak. Wag- 
gish ; mirthful ; shrewd. Swjft. 

&RCH, in composition, signifies cAt^, or of the first class; 
as, archanffelj arcfibisftop. 

«.ECH-^-BOM-i-WA'Ti9N,* n. A chief abomination. E. Eu- 

)lR-jeHiE-6»'R^-PHy,* n, A writing or treatise on antiqui- 
ty. Elmes. 

KR-^JHiE-O-Lo'^l-AN,* n. An archie ologist. J. Murray. 

*.R-£;H^-0-L6g-'jc, a. Relating to archaeology. 

A.R-eaM-o-i.6^'i~CA.ij,* a. Relating to arcbsology. «ff«A. 

Kk-01M.M-6i*'Q-4^1st,* Tt, One versed in archaeology. Seor- 

kK-£HM~6i.'Q-aYt w. [apxaio; and Adj^of. Gr.] Learning 
in, or knowledge of, ancient things; a discourse on an- 
tiquity; antiquities. 

^R-jGHA'fc, 0. Old ; ancient ; gone or growing out of use. 

^R-0N.Vl~c^,* a. Same as archaic. Hunter. 

X.r'£HA-Ii?M, Tb [dpxat<rt*6SiGr.] An ancient phrase or Id- 
iom. Watts, 

(RjeH-AN'9-EL,7i. One of the highest order of angels: — a 
plant CEilled dead nettle. 

KRjBH-AN-G-fiL'jc, a. Belonging to archangels. J)/if!£o7t. 

4rch-^-pos'ti.e, (irch-^-pos'sl) 71. Chief apostle. Trapp, 

4RGH-JiR';0H|-T£cT, n. The highest architect. Sylvester. 

S.rch-bea'con, (arch-'be'kD) n. Chief place of prospect. 

)t,RCH-BtsH'pP, 71. The primate of a province containing 
several dioceses ; a bishop of the first class, who superin- 
tends the conduct of other bishops, his sufiragans ; a me^Ml 
ropolitan. Iji 

iRCH-BisH'pp-RTfc, n. The state, jurisdiction, or provincSj' 
of an archbishop. 

)1.rch-b6tch'eb. 71. Chief mender. [Ironical.] Bp.Corbet. 

)Lbch-bvf-f66n',* 71. The chief buffoon. ScotL 

}lRCH-Bu!fliD']^R, (^ch-bild'er) Tt. Chief builder. Harmar. 

Kbch-bDt'ler,* iu The chief butlei : — formerly an of- 
ficer of the German empire. Ash, 

iRCH-CHAM'BER-LAiN,*7i. Formerly i high officer of the 
German empire. Ash. 

A,rcii-chXn'cel-lor,* iu A great officer, who formerly 
presided over the secretaries of a court. Ash. 

S.RCH-CHiNT'?R, n. The chief chanter, 

A.RCH-jenfiM'jC, a. Of the highest chemic power. Milton, 

)Irch-cqn-SPIb'^-t<>R, n. A principal conspirator. Maun- 

)LRCH-CRIt'ic, 71, The chief critic. Tr. of Boccalini, 

Rrch-dea'ccn, Ca.rch-de'kn) n, [archidiaconus, L.] A sub- 
stitute for a bishop, or one who supplies the bishop's place 
and office. 

I.rcu-dea'con-rt, farch-d5'kn-re) m. The office, Jurisdio 
tion, or residence of an archdeacon. 

4Rcii-DEA'coN-SHtP, n. The office of an archdeacon. 


XKCH-TH'Q-ct3B,* n. The dlocese of an archbishop. Oem 

Arch-dj-vine', 71. A principal theologian. Burta* 
Arch-drO'|d,* n. Thechief of the Druids. Asju 
Abcii-du'cal, a. Belonging to an archduke. Guthrie, 
Arch-dDch'?S3, n. The wife of an archduke ;' the daugb 

ter of the emperor of Austria. 
Xrch-dOch'v,* 71. The territory of an archduke or arcifc 

duchess. Butl&: 
Argh-dOke', 71. A title given to some sovereign princes 

as of Austria. Carew. 
ARCH-DtJRE'DQM, 71. The territory of an archduke. 
Arch'ed, (arch'ed, or archt) ['irch'fd, S. W. Jo. E. ; 'drcht, 

Sm. S:.] a. Having the form of an arch. Shak, JJ:^Thii 

word is colloquially pronounced archt. 
XRCH-fiw'^l-My, n. A chief enemy. Milton^ 
Arch'j^r, n. [archery Fr.] One who shoots with a bcw 

ARCH'ER-Eas, rt. She that shoots with a bow. Fanshaiae, 
Arch'ie-rv, n. The skill or practice of an archer ; the usa 

of the bow. 
ARCH'Eg-CoURT, (arch'ez-kort) n. An ecclesiastical court 

belonging to the archbishop of Canterbury, so called from 

Bow Church, or St. Mary-Zc-Aow, or de arcubus, in London« 

where it was anciently held. 
AR-jeH?-TY'pAL, a. Original. JVonis. 
Ar'jBHE-type, 71. [arcketypumy L.] The original of which 

any copy or resemblance is made. 
AR-je;HE-Tli?p'|-c^L,*a. Relating to an archetype. War 

Arch-eu'nvjBH,*7u The chief of the eunuchs. Ash, 
Ar-^he'x/s^ n. (Alchemy) According to Paracelsus, the 
* primum mobile^ or original principle in nature pervading 

all things. Crabb. 
Arch-fjSl'on, 71. The chief of felons. Milton. 
Arch-fiend', (arch-fend') n. The chief of fiends. MUtoi^ 
tABCH-FLA'M]EN, 71. Chief priest. Sir T.Herbert, 
Arch-flXt'ter-er, n. The principal flatterer. Bacon, 
Arch-foGnd'er, 71. The chief founder. Milton, 
Arch-friend^''' 71. A principal or chief friend. ArbvtAnot. 
Arch-g6v'ern-qr, 71. The chief governor. 
Arch-h£r'e-sy, 71. The greatest heresy. BuUer, 
ARCH-H£R':!E-Tic, 71. Chief heretic. Pearson. 
ARCH-H?P'p-CRTTE,7t. A great hypocrite. Fuller. 
AR-jEHVa-ter, [^r-kl'^-ter, ^. Todd,Maunderi ar-ke-a't?r, 

Ash, Cral}b.'\ n. [arcAioire, Fr.] A chief physician, or a 

physician to a sovereign. 
Ar/jBHI-caIj, a. [dpxiKds, Gr.] Chief; primary. HallywelL 
Ar-jOHJ-dJ-Ac^Q-n^, o. Belonging to an archdeacon. Wot- 

AR-jBHi-E-pIs^Cp-PA-cY, n. The state of an archbishop 
Ar-jGHI-e-pIs'cq-pal, (ar-ke-e-pis'k9-p9l) a, [arehiepiaco- 

pusy L.] Belonging to an archbishop. Bp.HaU. 
Ar-jEhi-e-p1s'cp-pate,* 71. The office or jurisdiction of 

an archbishop ; an archbishopric. Ch, Ob. 
AR-jBHto'RA-PHER,* Tt, The head secretary, J}r. Black, 
Ar'chjl*, or Ar'jBHJL,* [ar'chil, Sm, ; ar'kjl^ Wb. ; ar'chjl, 

or ar'kjl, K.] n. A species of lichen ; a violet-red paste 

used in dyeing; orchil. I/re. 
Ar-£hi-l5'£hi-an,* 7u Relating to Archilochus, or a kind 

of verse namedfrom him. Crabb, 
Ar-jCHI-mXn'drite, Tt. A Syriac word for monk or ab- 
bot. Crabb. 
Arch'ing,* p. a. Having the form of an arch; vaulted. 

AR-jBHj-Pi^-LXg-'lc,* a. Relating to an archipelago. Ed 

AR-jCHf-pfiL'A-Go,* [ar-ke-pSl'si-go, W. J. E. F, K, Sm. 

arch~e-pel'^-go, Eamshaw.] n. A sea which abounds In 

small islands ; the modern name of the ,3Bgean Sea. P. Cya 
AR'jGHj-TficT, 71. [architectu3y L.] A professor of the ail 

of building; a chief or master builder; a contriver oi 

Ar-£Jhi-tKc'tjve, a. Used in architecture. Derham. 
AR-je3Hj-T?c-T6N'ic,/r. Skilled in architecture. Boyle, 
tAR-jeHi-TEC-TbN'i-c^L, n. That which forms or buildt 

any thing. Fotherby. 
AR-je;Hl-T:?c-T6N'j-c^L, a. Relating to architecture. 
fAR'jBHI-Tfic-TpR, 71. A builder. Austin. 
JAR'jeHj-Tfic-TR^ss, 71. She who builds. Wotion, 
AR-jEHj-TficT'v-RAi., a. Relating to architecture. Warton, 
AR'jeH|-T£cT-VRE, (ar'ke-tefct-yur) n. The art or science 

of building ; the effect of the science. 
Ar'jBHI-TRAVB, 71. [dpxvy Gr., and trdbs, L.] {Arch.) Tb« 

chief beam, or that part of a column which lies imm^^ 

diately upon the capital, and is the lowest member of thi 

Ar-jBhs'vJuL,* a. Relating to archives. Oemt, Mag, 
AR'jBHiVEjTi. [w-cAioMTB, L. ; arcAwe, Fr.] pi, Xr'jEhIve? 

[ar'kivz, S. W. F. Ja. K. Sm. R,; ar'kSvz, J.i ar'chfivz 

orar'kgvz. P.] A repository of ancient or public recordl 

of a state or community ; the records themselves : — rare* 

ly used in the singular. 
Xr'£!HI-vI3T,* 7u A keeper of archives. Rees^a Cyc 

mIen, s/b; ai6vB, nob, s6n; bOll, bUb, rOle — g, ^, 9, g, aofli e, a, 5, |, hard; ^ <u 7; f a# gx-,— vma 
6 D * 

AR'jeJHl-v5LT,*7i. {Arch.) The ornamented band of mould- 
ings round the voussoirs or arch stones of an arch, which 
term'.nates horizontally upon the impost. Brande, 

|kRCH'LlKE,a. Built like an arch. Young, 

iRCH'LUTE,* n. (Mus.) A large lute, or double-stniiged 
theorbo, formerly u&ed by the Italians for bass. P. Cyc. 

Rrch'lv, ad. Shrewdly ; jocosely. Tkyer. 

)lRCH-MA-(jrl"ciAN, ('Arch-mpi-jish'^in) 7i. Chief magician 

5.RCH-M6CK', n. Principal mockery or jest. Shak. 

X.RCH'ness, 71. Shrewdness; sly humor. Dr. Warton. 

'£iR'^st>N^n. [fif)x<»J''»Gr.] The chief magistrate of ancient 

?1.r'£;hon-shTp,* n. The office of archon. Mltford. 

Xrch-pAs'tqr, 71. "The Shepherd and Bishop of our 

souls." Barrow. 

Rrch-phi-lSs'q-pher, 71. Chief philosopher. Hooker. 

XRCH-Plri'LAR, 71. The main pillar. Harmar. 

Arch-po'et, 71. The principal poet by repute. Pope. 

Jt.Rc:H-poL-j-Ti"ciAN, (arch-pol-c-tish'^in) n. Chief poli- 

ARCH-pr£l'ate, 71. Chief prelate. Hooker. 

iiRCH-PR£9'BY-TER, 71. Chief pre sbytcr. Ayliffe. 

XRCH-PR£5'Ey-T£R-y, n. The absolute dominion of pres- 
bytery. Milton. 

ARCH-PRiiiST', (arch-prEst') n. Chief priest. Myliffe. 

Arch-priest' ESS,* n. A chief priestess. Holdsworth. 

Xrch-prI'mate, 71. The primate over other primates; as 
the archbishop of Canterbury over the archbishop of York. 

Arch-proph'et, n. Chief prophet. Wartoiu 

Xrch-prot'es-t^nt, 7J-. A principal Protestant. 

Xrch-pDb'li-can, 71. Chief publican. Bp. Hall. 

Xrch-r£b'el, ji. A principal rebel. MUtoii. 

Arch-saint',* 71. A principal or chief saint. Drayton, 

tAacH-SEE',* 71. The see of an archbishop. Drayton, 

Arch'stone,* 71. A stone forming an arch. Lijell. 

Arch-trai'tqr, 71. A distinguished traitor. HakewUl. 

Xrch-tr£a9'vr-er, ("irch-trezh'yr-er) «. High treasurer. 

Arch-ty'rant, tu The principal tyrant. Bp. HaU. 

Arch-vIl'lain, n. An extraordinary villain. SJiak. 

ARCH-vIli'LAN-Y, n. Great villany. Beaam. 4" -F'- 

Arch'way,* n. An entrance or passage under an arch. 

Arch-wife', ti, A wife of a person of high rank. CJuiucer. 

Arch'wi^Ej ad. In the form of an arch. Ayliffe. 

Aroh'work,* (-wiirk) n. Formation of arches. Jodrell. 

Arch'V* ^ fiesembling or having arches : arching. Todd. 


•fXR-ctT'E-NENT, a. [arcitenenSj L.] Bow-bearing. Bailey. 

Ar'cp-grXph,* n. An instrument for drawing a circular 
arc without the use of a central point. Francis, 

Arc-ta'tiqn, n. [arctOf L.] Connnement; constipation. 

Arc'tic, a. [arctiatSj li.] Northern j lying under the Arc- 
toSjOr Bear. — Arctic circle^ one of the less circles, S3^ de- 
grees from the north pole, and forming the southern lunit 
of the frigid zone. 

ARC-Tp-STAPH'v-L6s,*n. (Bo«.) A genus of plants. P. Cyc 

ARO-TtJ' Ri?s,* n. [L.J (.^siroTi.) A star of the first mag- 
nitude. Crabb. 

Ar'cv-ate, a. [areitatus, L.] Bent in the form of a bow, 

tAR'cV-^-Tli.E, a. Bent; inflected. Bailey. 

AR-CV-A'TlpN, 71. The act of bending ; curvity. — {Hart.) 
The raising of plants or trees by layers. 

fAR'cV-A-TtJRE, 71. The curvature of an arch. Bailey, 

Ar'cV-bV^^s^) ^* [arcubalista^ L.] A crossbow j an en- 
gine to throw stones. 

Ar-cv-ba-lIs'ter, [iir-ky-bai'is-ter, S. W. P. ; 'ir'ku-b51- 
js-ter, Ja. ; "ir-ku-b&-ns'ter, K. Sm. fFb.} tu A crossbow- 

Ari> [Sax.] signifies natural disposition ; as, " Ooddardj" 
a divine temper ; '■'■ Reinard," a sincere temper; ^'- Bem- 
ard," filial affection. QiI)son. 

^R'i}E-4y*n. [L.] (Omith.) The heron; a genus of birds. 
P. Cyc. 

AR'D^N-cy, n. Ardor ; eagerness ; heat. Sir T, Herbert. 

Ar'i>i;i^t, a. [ardensj lu] Having ardor; hot; burning; 
fiery; vehement; eagec 

Ar'dent-lY} ad. In an ardent manner; eagerly. 

Ar'dent-n£ss, n. The quality of being ardent. Shenoood. 

Ar'dpr, 71. [ardor, L.] Heat; zeal ; heat of affection. 

(AR-DU'i-Ty, 7u Height ; difficulty. Bailey. 

Ar'DV-oOs, ""'iT'du-us, S. P, J. F. Ja. R. ; ar'ju-fis, JT.] [cr- 
duus, L.] 4r Lofty ; hard to climb or execute ; difficult. 

Ar'dv-oOs-l.Vj* ad. In an arduous manner. Smart, 

Ar'dV-oOs-n£ss, n. Height ; difiiculty. 

Are, [ar, S. W. P. J. F. Ja. K, Stiu Wb,] The indicative 
mode, present tense, plural number, of the verb to be. 
See Be. 

A-RE, (a-ra') [It.] (Mus.) A la mi re, one of the eight notes 
of the scale. Shdk. 

A'r?-^, n. [L,] pL a'r?-a9. The surface or superficial 
coiitent ; any open or fiat surface contained between any 

42 AUG 

IA-read . or A-REiJD', V, a. To advise; to d>ect. Spenser 
A-JtE'cA^* n. (Bot.) ThB betel-nut tree ; a species of paDn 
' P. Cyc. 

A-reek', ad. In a reeking condition. SwifU 
Xr-E-fXc'tiqw, 71. [ar^acio^ L.] Act of growing dr* 

Ar'e-fy,v. fl. To dry. Bacon. [R.]_ 

A-HE'ifA^n. [h.,sand.] pi. L. a-ke'NJB. Eng a-^e'na?. 
' A space covered with sand for the exhibition of combats, 

as in an ampliitheatre ; level ground or space, as £i>i 

Ar-e-na'ceovs, (5r-e-na'shus) a. Sandy. Browne. 
Ar-e-na'ri-oDs,* a. Relating to or partaking of sard. 

AR-E-NA'TlpN, 71. A Sort of dry sand bath. Bailey. 
A-r£n'i>^-lite,* 71. (JIfm.) Another name for epidote. 

Ar'eng,* 71. (Bot.) One of the palms tliat produce sago, 

P. Cyc. 
A-r£n-I-lTt'ic,* a. Relating to sandstone. Smart 
Ar-E-nose', a. Sandy. Bailey, [r.] 
f A-r£n'v-LoDs, a. Full of sand; gravelly. Bailey. 
A~RE' Q-LAj* [9-re'9-l&, K, Ash. Brande, Maunder ; ar'e-o-l?, 
* Crdbh ; ar-e-o^lj, Wb.] n. [L. J (Anat.) The colored circle 

which sul-rounds the nipple of the breast. Crabb. 
^-re'p-l^r,* o. Relating to or like an areola. Lawrence. 
A-RE'p-LATE,* a. Having small spaces or areolations. 

Ar-e-p-la'tipn,* 71. A small spacfi bounded by something 

different in color, texture, &.c. Brande, 
a-be-6m:':e-TER, ti. [areometre, Fr.] An instrument to 

measure the density or specific gravity of liquids oi 

A-RE-6M'E-TRy,* n. The art of measuring the specifio 

gravity of fluids. Francis. 
a-rE-op'a-^Yst,* n. A memberof tl>e Areopagug P.Mag, 
a-re-6p'a-(^ite, n. A judge in the court of Areopagus. 
a-re-Sp-A-^Tt'IC,* a. Relating to the Areopagus. Knojcles 
a-re-op'a-gDs, 71. [^ApetdirayoSi Gr.J The highest court 

of judicature at ancient Athens, held on Mars^ Hill. 
fA-RE-OT'lc, a. Efficacious in opening the pores Bailey. 
AE^E-Tii&S4,*n. [L.] (Bot.) A genua of plunt« • a flower 

Ed. Encyc. 
|AR-E-T6li'p-9Y, 71. \dpeTfi and Xej-w, Gr.] Ti. doctrino 

of virtue; a discourse concerning virtue. Diet. 
Arf-w^d's^n-ITE,* ti. (Min.) A species of hon Mende. 

Ar'g^L, n. Hard lees or tartar in wine vessels. Bailey. 
jAR'&Ali,* ad. A corruption of the Latin ergo ; therefore. 

AR'GArrD,* a. Applied to a large kind of lunij), (so named 

froin its inventor,) having a circular wick so constructed 

as to admit a greater quantity of air in the flame than can 

be done in the common way. P. Cyc. 
AE~fiE-Md'JffEj* n, [Gr.] (Bot.) A small genus of poppies. 

P. Cyc, 
AR'g^ENT, 71. [ar^cniUTTi, L.] (Her.) One of the metals em- 
ployed in blazonry; white or silver color in coats of arn^ii. 
AR'tj^ENT, a. Made of silver ; bright like silver. Milton. 
Ar-9£n'tal,* a. Consisting of silver. Cleaveland. 
Ar'^en-tate * 71. (Chem.) A combination of argentic acid 

with some other substance. Brande. 
AR-9-?N-TA'TipN, 71. An overlaying with silver. Bai 

ley. [R.] 
AR'9^ENT-HORNED,(ar'jent-hdrnd) a. Silver-horned. 
Ar-9£:n'T}c.* a. Relating to or obtained from silver. Ure, 
Ar-GEN-tIf'er-oDs,* a. Producing silver. Maunder. 
1|Ar'g?n-tine, [ar'jen-tin, Ja. K. Wb. ; ar'jen-tin, Sm. ; ar- 

jSn'tin, .^^A.] a. Relating to or like silver; sounding like 

||Ar'<^en-tSne,* 71. (JlfiTi.) Nacreous carbonate of lime, so 

called from its silvery lustre. Brande. 
|Ar'9^en-TRY, n. Materials of silver. Howell. 
Ar'^^JL, 7t. {argUlaj L.] (Min.) Potter's clay ; argillaceoua 

earth ; alumina. [clayey. 

Ar-^jl-la'cepvs, (ar-jiMa'shus) a. Containing clayj 
Ar-^il-lXf'er-oDs,* a. Producing clay Smart. 
Ar'(^|L-lite,* ti. (Jifm.) A species of clay-slate. Crabb 
AB-^iii-LlT'lc,* a. Relating tri argillite. SmaH. 
^r-^Il'lp-Xr^E-na'ceovs,* (-ehys) a. Containing clay 

and sand. De la Beche 
^R-GlL'Lp-CAiM3A'R¥-Ot3,*a, ConUlningclay and lime 

AR'p-iL-Lp-cXL'clTE,* TI, (JIAn.) A species of calcareoui 

earth. Smart, 
^R-^lL'LQ-F^R-RO'ij^jN-oGs,* o. Containing clay and iron 

De la Beche, 
AR'^iL-Lp-MO'RiTE,* n. Mdgnesla obtained from salt 

Ar-9Il'lpvs, [^r-jn'ys, S. W, P. Ja. K. ; ar'jjl-as, Sm.] a. 
_, Consisting of clay. Brown, 

AR'06j*n. [Gr.] The ship in which Jason sailed to Col- 
chis in search of the golden fleece ; a ship ; a constellct 

tion. Mitford. 

I. £, I, o, 0, ^t longi X, £, 1, 5, t), V, shorti ^, ^, {, Q, Vi Ti obscure,— vKke, fXr, fXst fXll; h£ir, h^b 



K i'oOl.,* n Tartar of wine; an acidulous, concrete salt, 
vbicb is deposited by wine, and used by dyers as a mor- 
iant. P. Cyc. 

K I'gq-nA JT^* n. One of the companiona of Jaaon, in the 
abip Arg ), in the voyage to Colchis. Milord. A shell-fish. 

4R-ep-ifAX7'T^j* n. [L.] (CoTwft.) A genua of shell-fisb. 

Xr-g-q-nI'j'tjo,* a. Relating to the Argonauts. Eiiey. 

&r'go-sv, 71. [JirgOf the name of Jason's ship.] A large 
merchant vessel ; a carack. Shak. 

Rr'gV-^-ble,* a. That may be argued j admitting argu- 
ment. Ed. Reo. 

Rr'GVE, (ir'gii) o. n. [arguo^'L.'] [i. aroui:d;;>p. aeouino, 
ARounD.j To use orapply arguments J to reason ; to dispute. 

Xr'gVE, V, a. To prove by argument; to debate ; to reason 

Xh'ov-er, 71. One who argues. 

*.K,'GV-FY,*r. n. To import; to have weight as an argu- 
ment. Forby. [Provincial.] — v. a. To argue. [Vulgar.] 

Kn'Gy-lNG, «. A reasoning; argument. 

Xr'gv-m£nt, 71. A reason alleged ; a syllogism ; a reason ; 
proof; a process of reasoning; a plea ; the subject of any 
discourse ; the contents of any work ; a controversy ^ a 
disputation. — (^Mstroji.) The angle or quantity on which 
a series of numbers in a table depends. 

tAR'GV-MfiNT, V. n. To reason ; to discourse, 6ower. 

AR-GV-MENT'^-Bl4E,*a. Admitting of argument. Dr. Th, 
Chalmers. [R.] 

AR-GV-MJ£NT'-fl.L, a. Relating to arguments. Pope, 

Au-gv-ment-a'tiqn, b. a process of reasoning. 

X.R-&V-m£nt'a-tIve, o. Consisting of argument ; reasoning. 

Xr-GV-mEnt'a-tIve-LV, ad. In an argumentative manner. 

Ab-gv-m£nt'a-t1ve-N]PSS,* 7t. State of being argumenta- 
tive. Dr. AUeru 

tAR'GV-MEA'T-TZE, «. 71. To debate. Mannyngham. 

iis.'evs^*ii. [L.] A watchthi person, so named from the 
fabled Ar°rus, who had a hundred eyes. Smart. 

K.R'g\I^-8uZIjIj,* n. (Conch.) A beautiful porcelain shell. 

f Ar-gute', a. [argutiLs, L.] Subtle ; witty ; shrill. Bgrroio. 

fAR-GUTE'NEss, 71. Wittiness ; acuteness. Drydcn. 

A'Ri~4,n, [I"] (Miis.) An air, song, or tune. 

A'Ri-^N, n. One of the followers of Arius, who denied the 
equality of the Father and Son, but taught that Christ 
was the greatest of created beings, 

A'RI--$.n, o. Belonging to Arius or Arianism. Trapp, 

A'Rj-^N'-lSM, 7u The doctrines of Arius, Leslie. 

5.'Rf-^N-i2E, u. 71, To admit the tenets of Arianism. WortJir- 

£'Ki-AN-iZE,'*' V. a. To render conformable to Arianism. 
Ck. Ob. 

Ar'id, a. [ariduSf L.] Dry ; parched with heat. 

Aa'i-3>Xa,* n. A kind of East India taffeta. Jish. 

A-RlD^i-Ty, 7t. Dryness; want of moisture. 

A'Ri-E^^n. [L,] The Ram; the first vernal sign; one of 
the twelve signs of the zodiac. 

tAR'|-¥-TATE, [fir'?-e-tat, S. P. K. Sm. Msk; ^-ri'e-tat, W. 
Johnson.'X v. n. [aridoy L.] To butt like a ram. Bailey. 

AR-l-15-TA'TipN, 71, Act of buttin* ; act of using the bat- 
tering-ram ; percussion. Bacon, [s..] 

AR-J-St'ta^ n. [It.] {Mus.) A short air, song, or tune 

^-right', fgL-rltO ad. Rightly; without fault. 

JLr'jl,* 71. {Bot) A peculiar wrapper of some seeds. P. Cyc. 

Ar'jl-late,* o. (BoU) Relating to or formed like an aril. 

^it-f-6j>'E-^,* [Xj.'](Bot.) Agenus of plants. P. Cyc. 

Ab-j-q-la'tipn, n. [harioltbSf L.] Soothsaying. Browne. See 

^jRni-dfsOj (&r-?-o's5) [It.] (Mas.) In the style of an air ; 

^-ri$e', v. n. [i. AROBB ; pp. arisino, arisen.] To mount 
upward ; to get up ; to come into view ; to ascend ; to 
rise ; to revive from death ; to proceed from. 

,d-Rls'T4.* n. [L.] (Bot) The beard or awn of grasses or 
" of corn. P. Cyc. 

AB'fS-TAR£H,* n. A good man in power. Sir W. ScotL A 
severe critic. Ktumles. 

tAR'js-TXBr-jBHV, n. \api<TTog and dpxfi^ Gr.] A body of 
good men in power. Harrington. 

^-rIs't^te,* a. (Bot.) Bearded, as the glumes of barley. 

^R-is-TE'Af* n. (Bot) A genus of plants. Oabb. 

AR-ja-T6c'R^-C¥, n. [Sptorof and (t/jurew, Gr.] A form of 
government which places the supreme power in the no- 
bles or principal persons of a state; the principal persona 
of a state or town ; the nobility ; gentry. 

^-rIs'tq-crXt, or Ar'js-to-cbXt, [ar-is-t9-krat', TT.P.; 
Slr'is-t9-krat, Jo. Sm. R.; ilr'is-t9-ki^t, or gi-ris't^-k^t, K. ; 
9-ris't9-ki%t, Wb.] n. One who supports or favors aris- 
tocracy ; a haughty or overbearing person. Burke. 

4r^js-T9-cbXt'jc, I fl. Relating to or partaking of ar- 

S.b-I8-T9-crXt'?-CAI., i istoiiracy; haughty:— common- 
ly* used in an ill sense. 


AI^■Ts-T<)-CRXT'^t'^L-^.y, ad. In an aristocratical maft 

AR-js-TO-CRXT'j-CAi-Nftsa, n. An aristocratical slate. 
Ar-J3-t5c'RVTIZE,* v. a. To render aristocratic, Qu 

Rev. [R.1 * 
tAR-Is-TOC'RA-TYjTi. Same as aristocracy. Burton. 
4-Ris-T<?~L6'^Hi-A* n. (Bot.) A plant; the Virginia 
' snakeroot. P. Cyc. 

Ab-is-T(?-phXn'jc,* a. Relating to Aristophanes. Beck 
Ar^Js-tq-te'li-an, a. Relating to Aristotle. 
Ar-IS-tq-te'lJ-an, 71. A follower of Aristotle. Sandys. 
AR-is-Tp-TE'Li-AN-l9M,* n. The doctrine or philosophy o* 

Aristotle. Coleridge. ' 
Ar-is-TO-t£Ii'ic, a. Relating to Aristotle. Warton. 
A-rI'th^man-CVi [si-rlth'm?n-se, S. W.Ja.; ar'ith-raan-s^, 

Wb.] n. [dniQ}i6s and (lavTcia, Gr.] n. Divination b* 

numoers. Bailey, 
^-rIth'me-tIc, 71. [djOi0/ii5s and fitTpiw, Gr.] The science 

of numbers, or that part of mathematics which treats of 

the properties of numbers. 
Ae^ith-m£t'i-cal, a. Relating or according to arithmeiic 
Ab-Jth-mSt'i-cal-lV) dd. In an arithmetical manner. 
^-r!(th-me-t1"cian, (?-rith-me-tish'iin) ti. One versed in 

Ark, n. [area, L.] A chest or close vessel ; the repository 

of the Israelitish covenant ; a close, large vessel or ship . 

usually applied to that in which Noah and his family 

were preserved: — a large raft, or rudely-formed boat 

[U. S.] 
ARK'lTE,*fl. Relating to the ark. Bryant. 
Arle§,* 71. pi. Earnest money given to servants. Jameson. 
Arm, 71. [armus, L.] The limb which reaches from the hand 

to the shoulder ; any thing formed like an arm ; the bough 

of a tree ; an inlet of water from the sea ; power ; might ; 

a bow or weapon. — (Mil.) A branch of military service, 

as cavalry or artillery. See Arms. 
Arm, v. a. [armo^ L.] [i. abmsd ; pp. arming, armed.] To 

furnish with arms or means of defence ; to fortify , t 

provide against. 
Arm, v. 71. To take arihs. Shak, 
ABt-ma' J>Aj n. [Sp.] A fleet; a naval or military arma 

ment ; specially applied to a fleet sent by Spain againsl 

England in 1558. 
AR~M4.-d1l' L4.,'*' n. [Sp.] A small fleet ; a squadron. Ash. 
Ar-ma-dIl'lo', 71.; ;)?. ar-ma-dIl'lo?. [9p.] (Zool.) A 

quadruped with a bony shell ; a genus of mammals be< 

longing to the order of edentata. P. Cyc. 
Ar'm^-mJSmt, 71. [armameatim., L.] A force equipped foi 

war, naval or military. 
fAR-M^MfiNT'^-Ry, 71. An armory. Bailey. 
IAr'MAN, n. A confection to restore appetite in horsea 

Ar'm^-ture,71, Armor ; oflTensive weapons, i2(iT/. Apiece 

or pieces of soft iron used to connect the poles of a mag- 
net, Prands. 
Arm'-ChAir,*7i. An elbow-chair. See Armed-Chair. Todd^ 
Armed, (armd) p. a. Furnished with arms. — (^er.) Ap- 
plied to beasts a^u birds when their teeth, horns, &c., are 

of a different color from t^e rest. 
Armed'-ChJlir, (ilrmd'-hir) n. A chair with arms ; an el- 
^r-ME'wi-^N, a. Relating to Armenia. — Armenian bole, a 

kind of earth, used as an absorbent, from Armenia, and 

called also£oZe Armemac. — Armenian stone, a mineral, ol 

a greenish-blue color, like the lapis lazuli, used as a pur 

Ar-me'ni-an,* 71. A native of Armenia. P. Cyc. 
f Ar-m£n'tai., o, \armmtali3, L.] Belonging to a herd o!t 

cattle. Bailey. 
tAR'MEN-TiNE, [ar'm?n-tln, S. W.; jr-mSn'tin, Sm. Ssh.] 

a. Belonging to a herd of cattle. Bailey. 
■(■Ar-men-tose', fl. Abounding with cattle. Bailey. 
Arm'fOi^, n. ; pL ^RM^Ff^L^. As much as the arm can hold 
tARM'GXUNT, (arm'g'int) a. Slender as the arm. Sliak, 
Arm'hole, 71. The cavity under the shoulder ; arm-pit 

a hole in a garment for the arm. 
^r-mIf'¥R-oOs,* ffi. Bearing arms. Blount, [r.] 
jiR'Mi-fiER,*n, [L.] An armor-bearer ; a knight or an ea 

quire. Orabb, 
Ar-m^o'^r-oDs, o. [armiger, Jj.'] Bearing arms. Bailey. 
AR-MII.'Z4,* n, [L.j A bracelet for the wrist or arm. P 
' Cyc. 
Ar'MJL-la-rv, [ar'me-l?-re, & JT, -E. F. Ja. K. Sm. Wb 

^r-mlF^r^, P.] a. {armilla, L.] Belonging to or resem 

bling a bracelet. See Cafillart. 
AR'M|L-liAT-?D, o. Having bracelets. Bailerj, 
Arm^ing?, 71. pi. (KauU) Cloths hung about the outside 
of the ship's upper works, fore and aft, and before the 
cubbridge heads. 
^r-mIn'iak, (jir-min'y9n) n. A follower of James Armin. 

ius, who differed, on several points, from Calvinism. 
^r-m1n'ian, (5J-mln'yiin) a. Relating to Arminius. 
^R-MlN'lJ^w-I^M, (9r-min'y?n-izm) ti. The system di 

doctrines of Arminius. 

m!ek stR; m6ve, nor, sSn; BOliL, bUb, rOZjE — 5, ^, 5, g, soft; jB, j&, £, g, hardi 5 (w Z; 5 os gz;--iSL't 


I i-mTp'p-t£nce, iL Power in war. Bailey, [r.] 
^r-mIp'p-t£nt, o. Powerful in arms. SA«&. [a.] 
^R-mIs'p-nXnt,* a. Rustling with armor. Jlsh. 
^R-M'is'p-NotJs, a. larmisonuSf L.] Rustling with armor. 

X.R'MfS-TTcE, 71. [armwCitraTrt, L., armisticej Fr.] A ces- 
sation from arms ; a suspension of hostilities ; a truce. 
Xrm'l]^ss, a. Without an arm ; without weapons. 
Xrm'let, tu a little arm ; armor for the arm j a bracelet. 
^r-mo'kj-Xc, n. See Ammoniac. 
Ar'MPR, n. DefensiV) arms. Sliak. 

Ar'mqr-beAr'^r, >- One who carries the armor of an- 
XR'MpR-ER, 71. One who makes or fits with armor. 
d^R-MO^Rj-AL, a. Bdonging to the arms or warlilce ensigns 

of a family j heraldic. 
^R-m6r'{c, a. Relating to Armorica ; Armorican. Milton. 
jJLR-AldR'l-c^N, a. Relating to Armorica, or Basse Bretagne, 

now Brittany, in France. fVarton. 
fXR'MpR-IST, n. A person skilled in heraldry. Bailey. 
Xr'MP-ry, n. [armarium, L.] A place in which arms and 

armor are kept ; armor or arms ; ensigns armorial. Spen- 
ser. — A manufactory of arms. U. S. 
AR-Mp-ZEEX' * n, A thick, plain, black silk. W. Ency. 
X.rm'pTt, n. The hMIow place or cavity under the arm or 

shoulder ; axilla. 
)IRM9, [amta, L." (the singular, arm, rarely used.) 

Weapons of otfence and defence j a state of war. — {Her.) 

Trie ensigns armorial of a family. 
Xrm'-shaped,* (-shapt) a. Shaped like an arm. Decan- 

S-RM'S'-Reach, (armz'rech) n. The extent of the stretch 

of the arm. 
A.R'M¥, n. [armee^ Fr.] A collection of armed men under 

a general or military commander ; a host ; a great number. 
AR-nAt'tp, 7u See AaNoxTo. 

IiR'nSut,* n. A native of Albania j an Albanian. Murray. 
AR-n6t't6, 71. An inspissated extract from the fruit of the 

bixa orellana, used in dyeing silks, called also annotto. 
(\-ROiNT', iMerj. See Arotnt. 
^-ro'ma, 71, [apoi/xa, Gr.] {Bot.) The principle of odor in 

plants \ a pleasant odor ; the spicy quality of a thing. 
^-ro'ma-^ite,* n. j^Gr.] (Min.) A precious stone, in color 

and smell resembling myrrh. Crabb. 
X-R-P-mXt'ic, a. Containing aroraa ; spicy ; fragrant. 
Ar-P-mXt'i-cal, a. Spicy ; fragrant j aromatic, 
Ab^P-mXt'jcs, n. pL Fragrant spices and herbs; con- 

Ar-P-mXt-j-Za'tipn, 71. The mingling of aromatic spices 

with any medicine. HoUand. [R.] 
HXr'P-MA-tize, or A-RO'MA-TIZE, [ar'g-mMiz, S. W. E. 

jr.iI.;gL-r5m'Miz, P.; g-ro'm^-tiz, Jii. Sm.'\v. a. [i. aro- 


spices ; to scent. Brovm. 

||Ar'p-ma-ti-z^r, n. He or that which aromatizes. 

^-RO'M^-ToOs,* a. Containing aroma ; aromatic. Smart. 

4\-RO$E^, i. From arise. See Arise. 

(^-roOnd', ad. In a circle ; on every side. 

<^-R<5f)ND', prep. About J encircling; near to. Drydea, 

i^-RoO^E', V. a, [i. AROUSED ; pp. aeoU8ing, aroused.] To 
wake from sleep ; to excite j to raise up ; to rouse. 

.i>.-ROw', (gi-roO ad. In a row : in order. SAafc. 

^-KO'iST' , (^-roint') interj Begone ; away. Shak. 

AR^F&f^'pl-d, (?r-pSd'je-6) n. [It.] {Mus.) The distinct 

' sound of the notes of an instrumental chord, accompany- 
ing the voice. Walker. — ad. Like a harp. Warner. 

Rr'pen,* &r Ilr'pent,* 71. [Fr.] An acre or furlong of 
ground, according to Doomsday Book, equal to 100 perches. 

iJKPiiivr,* (3j'p'4ng')n.rFr.l A French acre. Ency. 

Xr'pen-TA-TPR,* 71. {Law} A measurer or surveyor of 
land. Bouvier. 

Kr'quat-ed,* o. Shaped like a bow ; arcuate. E. James. 

^as^QUE-Bi/s-ADE', (ar-kwe-bus-ad') «■ [Fr.] {Med.) An 
aromatic spirituous lotion applied to strains and bruises. 

Kr'QUE-eOse, rar'kW9-bua, S. W. P.J. F. Ja. K. R. ,- 'ir'- 
kwe-b(iz, -S/n.] %. A sort of hand gun used by infantry 
before the invention of the musket ; a fusee. 

Kr-QUE-bvs-ier', (ar-kwe-bys-er') n. A soldier armed 
with an arquebuse. KnolUs. 

XR'Qu:]E-iTE,* 71. {Min^ A silver amalgam. Berthier. 

Xrr, (ar) 71. A mark made by a flesh-wound ; a cicatrice. 
Relpu [Used in the north of England.] 

*Ar'ra, n. [arrha, or arra, L.] A pledge. Andersort, 

AR-RA-OA'Cf'^y* (&r-9-ka'she-fi) 71. {BoU) A genus of um- 
belliferous plants. P. Cyc. 

Ar-ra-cXn'n]?r,* Tt. A native of Arracan. Eamshaio. 

&r-rXch', tu A plant. See Orach. 

^r-rXck', [9r-r^k', W. P. J. F. Ja.; SiT'&k, S. K. Stti.] ti. 
A spirituous liquor distilled in India from the cocoa-tree, 
or rice ; and in Tartary, from mare's milk. 

^r-rXck'-PDnch, 71. A liquor containing arrack. 

XR-RA-G-pN-ESE',* 71. sing. &, pi. A native or natives of 
Arragon. Ed. Rev. 



AR'RA-GpN-iTE,* 71, (Mtu) A speties of carbonate of limft 

^r-RAIGn', (^r-ran') v. a. [arraigner, Fr.] [i. A»ii onid 

■pp. arraigning, arraigned.] To set forth; to call to 

answer in a court of justice ; to accuse. 
Ar-rai&n'ment, (9r-ran'ment) n. Act of arraign.z g. 
fAR-RAl'M]q:NT, 71. Clothing; raiment. Sheldon. 
■J-Ar'rand, 71. The old word for errand, HowelU 
AR-RAWpE', V. a. [arrang-er, Fr.] [i. arranged ,• jtp. ab 

HANOI NO, arranged.] To put in the proper order ; tr 

adjust ; to dispose ; to range. 
AR-RANGE'iffiENT, 71. Act of arranging; order. 
Ar-ran'p?r, 71. One who arranges. Burke. 
Ar'rant, a. Notorious, in a bad sense ; very bad ; vile. 
Ar'rant-jly, ad. Corruptly ; shameftilly. UEstarange. 
Ar'ras, 71. Tapestry made at Arras. Spenser. 
fAR-RAuGHT', (9r-r3iwtO a. Seized by violence. Spenser 
Ar-RAY', 71. [arroi, Fr.] Order, chiefly of war ; dress. — {Laie^ 

The ranking or setting forth of a jury or ln:iue3tj the 

body of jurors. 
AR-RA y', (jr-ra^) V. fl. [i. arrayed ^pp. arrati no, arrayed,] 

To put in order ; to dress j to adorn ; to deck ; to set in 

order, as a jury. 
AR-RAY'jer, C^r-ra'er) 71. One who arrays ; an officer who 

saw the soldiers duly appointed in their armor. Cowel 
tAR'KEAR', (?r-rer') ad. [arriire, Fr.] Behind. Spenser. 
Ar-rear', 71. That which remains unpaid ; the rear. 
Ar-rear'^PE, 7Z. Asum or part remaining to be paid alter 

it has become due ; arrear. 
fAR-REAR'ANCE, 71, The same with arrear. LHcU 
JAR-RficT', V. a. To raise up ; to erect. Skelton. 
AR-RficT', a. larrectus, L.] Erected ; erect. SwifL 
fAR-RJ6c'TA-Ry, 71- An upright post. Bp.HaJL 
AR-REN-TA'TlpN, n. [arrmidare, low L.J {Law) The li- 
censing of an owner of lands, in a iorest, to enclose 

them. BaiXey. 
^^R-R^-p'TiQN* n. The act of taking away. Bp. Hall. 
tAR-REP-Tl"Tl0VS, (air-rei>-tlsh'us) a. [arreptusj L.] Snatch 

ed away j crept in privily; mad. Howell. 
Ar-r£st', 71. [arrester^ Fr.l {Law) A seizure or apprehen- 
sion, commonly for debt, under a legal process, — A 

mangy humor in a horse. 
AR-R£st', v. a. \i. arrested ; pp. arresting, arrested.] 

To stop; to stay; to obstruct. — {Law) To seize for debt 

under a legal process. 
AR-RJ6sT'ER,*orAR-R£ST'pR,* 71. One who arrests. SouBww 
Ar-rj6st'ment,* 71. {Scotch Law) An arrest. Crabb. 
jAr-rISt', v. a. To assign ; to allot, denser. 
AR-REt', (^r-rSt'j or ?r-ra',) [^r-ret', Ja. Sm,; ^r-ra', P.f 

^-ret', or ?ir-ra', K.] [Fr.] n. A decree ; a decision of a 

sovereign court. 
fAR-RfiT'TED, a. Arraigned; arrested. Cowel, 
Ar-rha-ph6s'tic,* a. Made of one piece of leather with- 
out a seam: applied to a kind of shoe. Dr. Black. 
Arrheumatic,* (ar-ru-mat'jc) a. {Med.) Free from rheu 

matism. Dunglison, 
f A^-itiDE', V. a. [arrideo, L,] To laugh at ; to please welL 

B, Jonson. 
,aii^RiERE'yJ^T-TGx') n. [Fr.] The last body of an army 
^r-riere'-Ban, n. A general proclamation of the king ol 

France. Sir H. Sheere. 
AR-RIERE'-Fee, 71. A fee dependent on a superior one. 
fAR-RiERE'-FiEF, 71. A fief dependent on another. Ash 
Ar-riere'-VXs'sal, 71. The vassal of a vassal. Treooux 
Ar'rIS,* n. {Arch.) The edge of two surfaces meeting each 

other, or line of concourse of two planes. Brande. 
f AR-Rf''9lpN, (^r-rSzh'un) n, larrisio, L.] A smiling upoo. 

AR-R1^val, n. Act of arriving ; a coming to a place. 
fAR-Ri'v^NCE, n. Company coming ; arrival. Shak. 
AR-RIVE', w. 71. [a7*7*iuer, Fr.] [i. arrived ; pp. ahriyiwo 

ARRIVED.] To come to any place ; to reach any point , to 

gain any thing ; to happen. 
fAR-RlVE', V. a. To reach. Sha^ 
fAR-RlVE',*7i. Arrival. Drayton. 

Alt^Rd'BA,* n. [Sp.] A Spanish weight of 25.36 lbs. ; 
' Portuguese weight of 32.38 lbs. : — A Spanish measure of 

3.52 gallons, or 32 pints. P. Cyc. 
fAR-RODE', V, a. [arrodo, L.] To gnaw or nibble. Bailey. 
AR'Rp-Gr^NCE, 7t. Assumption of too much importance , 

haughtiness ; insolence of bearing ; presumption, 
Ar'rp-gan-cy, 71. Same as arrogance. Browne. 
AR'Rp-e^NT, a. Possessed of arrogance; assuming too 

much ; supercilious ; haughty ; proud. 
Xr'rp-Gt^nt-LY, ad. In an arrogant manner. Dryden, 
AR'Rp-SANT-Nfiss, 71. Arrogance. Bailey, [r.] 
Ar'rP-GATE, 7J, a. farrogo, L.] [i. arrogated ;pp, arrogat* 

I NG, arrogated.] To claim proudly or vainly ; to assume 
AR-Rp-eA'TipN, 71. Act of arrogating ; proud assumption 

More. {Civil Law) Adoption. Bouvier. 
Xr'rp-q-a-tIve, o. Claiming in an unjust manner. More. 
ArrondissemenTj* Cf«"-r8nM5s -mangO « [Fi.] A tep 

ritorial district ; a subdivision of a depaitment. Ed Ren 
tAR-RO'9ipw, (^r-ro'zhvn) n. A gnawing. Bailey 

\rragon. Ed. Rev. j^b.-ro'9\qn, (^r-ro'zhvn) n. A gnawing. Bailey 

£, I, o 0, Ttt long; A, t, I, 5, t), 1^, short; 4., ^, i, p, y, y, obscure. — fAre, fAr, fAst, fAll ; h£ b, hKk 



liR'Row, pLr'ro) n. A pointed weapon shot from a bow. 
JLE^RpW-GRitas.* «. (Bot.) A plant having leaves resem- 

oliiig the head of an arrow. Crabb. 
4r'rPW-H£ad, n. The head of an arrow : — a water 

plant : its leaves resemble the head of an arrow. 
i.R''ED,* a. Wedge-shaped, or cuneiform j as 

arrow-headed characters or letters. P. Cyc* 
X.r'rqw-r66t,* 71. A root from which starch is made ; a 

farinaceous substance prepared from the roots of certain 

plants. P. 0?/e. 
Ar'rqw-shapbd,* (-shapt) a. Shaped like an arrow. 

J. E. Smith. 
A.r'rqw-y, (S-r'r?-^) a. Consisting of or like arrows. 
4R-RP r'jl^* n. {Law) One day's work at the plough which 

the tenant was obliged to give his lord. Crahb. 
J^R'RHYTH-MVj;* lu Want of rhythm. Beck. 
S,RSE, (Urs) 71. The buttocks ; the posteriors. 
S-RSE'-PoOT, rirs'fat) n. A kind of water-fowl. Bailey, 
S.R's:?-Tf AL, n. {arsenate^ It.j A magazine of military stores j 

a manufactory of military or naval engines. 
j^r-se'ni-ate,* 71. i^Chem.) A neutral salt formed by the 

union of arsenic acid with a base. Crabb. 
Arsenic, ('ir'se-nik, or ars'nik) [Urs'njk, S, W. J. F. K.j 

ar'se-nik, Jo, SmJ] tu [dpaeviKOv,} A soft, brittle, peculiar 

metal, of a steel-gray color, which is a violent corrosive 

^e^Sn'jc,* a. Relating to or containing arsenic. — Arsemi- 

oiis acid contains less oxygen than arsenic acid. P. Cyc. 
^r-s£:n^i-c^l, a. Containing or relating to arsenic. 
^R-s£N'i-c axe,* V, a. To combine with arsenic acid. Smart. 
^r-se'nJ-oDs,* o. Containing arsenic. Brande. 
S.R'SE-NiTE,* 7u (Chem.) A neutral salt formed by the 

union of arsenious acid with a base. P. Cyc. 
ilR-s^-Ni'v-R^T,* n. A combination of arsenic with a me- 
tallic or other base. I^Vancis. 
X.RSE'sMivRT, 71. A plant ; polygonum, in botany. 
AK'szSf*n. [Gr.] (Mas.) The raising of the hand, as ap- 
plied to the beating of time ; as thesis is the falling. Crahb. 

— {Rhet ) The portion of time employed in a stronger op- 
eration of force to produce a rhythm. Beck. 

iR'spN, pir'syn, Ja.K. Sm. ; 'ir'sn, ffb.] n. [arsouj oldFr.] 
(Law) The act of voluntarily and maliciously burning 
the house of another. 

X.RT, 71. [ars, L., art, Fr.] The application of knowledge 
or power to effect a desired purpose ; practical skill ; a 
science; a trade ; artfulness ; cunning. — The ancients 
divided the arts into the liberal arts, which were seven 
in number, viz., grammar, logic or dialectics, rhetoric, 
music, arithmetic, geometry, and astronomy ; and the 
servile arts, which comprised the mechanical arts, which 
were practised by slaves. The moderns divide the arts 
into the jiTie arts, as poetry, music, architecture, painting, 
sculpture, &c. ; and the useful or mechanical arts. 

Srt 4ND Part,* (Scotch Law) The act of contriving and 
participating in crime. P. Cyc. 

^R- tSn'na,* n. ( Omith.) An aquatic web-footed bird. Oraftft. 

^R-TJs'Ri-Xc,* 71. (Med.) A medicine for diseases of the 
windpipe. Dmiglison, 

4^r-te'ri-al, a. Relating to an artery. Blachmorc. 

j^R-TE-Rf-AL-i-ZA'TiQN,* 71. The transformation of the 
venous biood and chyle into arterial blood by respiration ; 
formation of blood. Dunglison. 

^R-TE-Ri-oo'R^-PHy,* n. (Anat.) A description of the ar- 
teries. Dunglison. 

^r-te-ri-Sl^q-^V)*™- a treatise on the arteries. Dunglison. 

^r-te-rj-St'q-my, n. The opening of an artery. 

Xr'te-ry, 71. [artmaj L.] One of the cylindrical tubes or 
ramifications of the aorta, which convey the blood from 
tlie heart to all parts of the body. 

(^R-TE'9lAN,*(?r-te'zhgin) a. Relating to Artois in France. 

— An artesian wdl is a perpendicular perforation or boring 
into the ground, deep enough to reach a subterranean 
body of water, of which the sources are higher than the 
place where the perforation is made, — producing a con- 
stant flow or stream of water, rising above the surface. 
P Cyc 

J.rt'fOl, a. Full of art ; performed with art ; cunning. 

JLrx'fOl-ly, ad. With art ; cunningly ; skilfully. 

JtRT'FOL-Nfiss, 71. duality of being artful ; cunning. 

^r-thrIt'ic, jo. Relating to the arthritis or goutj 

AR-tur!t'>cal, S gouty. 

IAr-thrP Tis, (^-thri'tjs) [^-thri'tis, Ja.; ar-thrit'is, P. ; 

' arth'ri-tis, Ask.'] n. [dpBpiTis, Gr.] (Med.) The gout. 

^R-TllRo'J?z-4,* a. (Ajiat.) A species of articulation. Crabb. 

iR-THRp-Di?N'ic,* 71. (Med.) A rheumatic or other pain- 
ful affection of the jomts. Brande. 

Xr'tIc, a. [dpKTiK6s^ Gr.] Northern. Browne. See Ahctic. 

Ar'ti-ch6ke,7i. [artichaut, Ft.] A plant like the thiatle, 
but having large scaly heads, like the cone of the pine- 
tree. Jerusalem artichoke^ a plant which has a root re- 
sembling a potato. ,.,,,. 

Ar'ti-cle, (ar't^-kl) 71. [articidus, L.J A part of speech, as 

a an the : A single clause of an account ; a particular 

item ; point of time : ~pl Terms ; stipulations. 


AR'I f-3LE, v. d. [i. articled; pp. ARTICIINQ, ART CLSr 

To draw up in or bind by articles. 

Ar'ti-cle, v. 71. To stipulate. Donne. 

^R-xic'V-L^R} a> Belonging to an article, or to the joints. 

■^r-tKc'v-L^R^LV, ad. By articles or by joints. Iluloet. 

^r-tIc'v-l^te, a. Having articulations, joints, or arti- 
cles ; articulated ; jointed , distinct ; divided into articles. 

^Rr-Tlc'V-LATE, V. a. [i. articulated j pp. articulating 
ARTICULATED.] To Utter articulatoly, or with distincl 
sounds ; to form words -, to speak as a man ; to makn 
terms ; to treat ; to joint ; to form in articles. 

AR-tIc'V-late, v. n. To ^eak distinctly. 

^R^Tlc'v-LAT-ED,*p. a. Uttered distinctly. — (ZooZ.) Hav- 
ing articulations ; composed of movable pieces fitted into 
each other, as the joints of the skeletons of the third 
great division of animals, according to Cuvier. P. Cyc. 

4.R-Xlc'v-LATE-L¥, ad. In an articulate manner ; with 
distinctness of sound ; with articulations. 

^R-Tic'V-LATE-N£ss,7i. Q,uality of being articulate. Ash. 

AR-Tlc-V-LA'TipN, 71. Act of articulating; distinct utter- 
ance ; a consonant. — (Anat.) A juncture or joint of 
bones. — (Bou) A knot or joint. 

AR-Tfc'v-i'A-TpR,*7i, One who articulates. Bostodl. 

Ar'ti-fIce, 71. [artificium, L.] Trick ; fraud ; cunning ; d©- 
ceit ; duplicity ; finesse ; imposture ; stratagem ; art. 

Ar-tIf'i-cer, 71, A mechanic ; manufacturer ; contriver 

AR-T)-Fi"ciAL, (ar-te-fish'^il) a. Made by art; not nal 
ural ; fictitious j not genuine ; artful. 

Ar-ti-fI'^cial, ('ir-t?-fish'gil) ji. The production of art 
Sir'm Petty. [R.] 

XR-T}-Fl£-ci-Ai:j'i-TV,(ir-te-fish-?-ai'?-tc) -n. Appearance o* 
art. Shenstone. 

Ar-ti-f1'^ci^-IZE,* v. a. To render artificial. Month- 
Rev, [R.] 

Xr-tj-fI/'cji^L-LlT, (ar-te-ftsh'9Me) ad. Artfully ; by art 

AR-Ti-Fl"ci^li-w£ss, (ir-ti-fish'^l-nes) n. Artfuluess 

tAR-T|-Fl"ciOVs, (ar-tj-fish'iis) a. Artificial. 

JAr'tj-lIZE, v. a. To form with art. Bolingbroke. 

^r-tKij'ler-Ist,* n. One who manages artillery; ona 
skilled in gunnery. Byron. 

AH^TKli'LER-y, 71. [artillerie, Fr.] Weapons of war ; ord- 
nance ; gunnery j large ordnance, as cannon, howitzers, 
mortars, rockets, &c., with their carriages, ammunition, 
and apparatus ; also the troops appointed for their man- 

Ar'ti-^Xw. or Xr-ti-§Xn' [ar'te-zSn, P. J. K. Sm. R. JVb. i 
'ir-te-zin', S. W. F. Ja.^ n. [Fr.] One who practises s 
mechanic art ; a mechanic ; a handicraftsman. 

Ar'tjsT, 71. [artistef Fr.] One who practises one of the fine 

AR'TfST-G6D,* 71. A pagan deity employed in mechanism 

^r-tIs'tjc,* ) 0. Relating to the arts, or to the fine arts, 

AR-tIs'tj-c^i.,* \ relating to an artist. Qw. Rev. 

AR-Tls'Ti-c^it-Ly,* ad. In an artistical manner. Q«. Rev. 

fART'iZE, V, a. To form with art. Flvrio, 

Ari'less, a. Free from art ; simple ; unaffected ; sincere j 
unskilful ; void of fraud. 

Art'less-LV, ad. In an artless manner ; naturally. 

ART'LESs-NiSss, 71. Want of art ; simplicity. 

AR-Tp-CAR'PE-ot)s,* a. Relating to bread-fruit. P. Cyc 

^r-tq-cXr'pvs* n. [aproi and fctpffo,.] Bread-fruit, oi 
the br2ad-fruit tree. P. Cyc. 

fARTs'MXw, n. A man skilled in arts. Bocotu 

Art'spOn,* a. Spun or made by art. Savage. 

a'r VM,* n. (Bot.) A genus of plants ; the cuckoo-pink. Crabb 

Ar~VN-de'li-an,* a. Belonging to Arundel, or to a collec 
tion of Grecian marbles, illustrative of the history of 
Athens, &c., and presented to the University of Oxford, 
by the Earl of Arundel. Ency. 

Ar-VN-dIf'?r-o&s,* a. Producing reeds or canes. Blount. 

A-rOn-di-na'ceovs, (^-run-df-na'shus) a. [arundo, L.] 
Of or like reeds. Bailey, 

Ar-VN-d'In'e-oDs, a. Abounding with reeds. Bailey. 

A-R&JV'JDO,* n. [L.] (Bot.) A^enus of plants ; a reed. Crabb 

A-Ri/s' FEX, n. [L.] pi. 4~Rzrs'Pi-CE§. A diviner by the 
" entrails of victims ; a soothsayer. Dryden. 

A-rDs'pice, (?-rQs'pis) n, A soothsayer. Bp. Story [r.] 

^-rDs'pJ-cy, (?-r5a'pe-se) n. Divination by inspecting the 
entrails of victims. Butler. 

Ar'v?!., 71. A funeral. — Arvet-bread, or arvel-suppcr^ bread 
or supper given at a funeral. Brockett. [North of England.] 

Ar-vYc' Q~LA^* n. [L.] (Zool.) A genus of rodent animals 
of the family of the rat and mouse. Brande, 

Ar'vil,* n. A funeral. See Artel. 

^-RfT'E-NolD,* a. (Anat.) Shaped like a ladle. Dunglison 

As, n. [L.] TheRomanpound,consistingof twelve ounces 

A5, (S.Z) conj. In the same or like manner ; in the mannet 
that; that, in a consequential sense. — ad. Similaily ; 
equally ; like to ; in respect that ; while ; for example. 

As has sometimes the form of a relative pronoun, equiva- 
lent to who or which ; as, " Help such as need help." " Pro- 

M2en, sir; biSvb, hor, s6nj bOll, bOr, rCle. — 9, ^, 9, g, softj je, «, £, |, Aard; 9 a* Z; :f a* gz; — TUii 


de such things as are needed." — As ifj in the manner 
liat it would be if. — As to, with respect to. — As well asj 
equally with. — As though^ as if. — As it were, a qualify- 
ing phrase, used to soften expressions which might other- 
wise aeem harsb. 

gs-A-J>i^£,'cfs,n. See BEirzoirr. 

JlS-Jl-fcet'j-da., (a.s-ii-f?t'?-d9) 71. See A99af{etida. 

^s~4-R4~BXc'CA,n. [asarumj It.] {Bot.) A plant. 

Xs'A-RlN,*7i.(C/ie7n.) A crystallizable substance, somewhat 
resembling camphor. Brande. 

t9.-SA'jRi-&M* n. (Bou) A genus of plants. P, Cyc. 

^s-b£s'T}c,* o. Relating to or containing asbestos. P. Cyc. 

^s-b£s'T}NE, a. Relating to asbestos ; incombustible. 

AS-Bfis'TpS, or As-B£s'TVS, n. [affi^Etrroff.] (Min.) A 
mineral substance, incombustible, of flbrous structure, 
having the appearance of a vegetable, often of flax. 
The flaxen kind is often called amianthus, and is some- 
times manufactured into cloth ; and it was anciently used 
to preserve the ashes of bodies burnt on flineral piles 

As-iS^S TOys,* a. Same as ashestv>. Ed. Encyc. 

ds'c4~JRfSj n. [Gr.] pi. ^.s-CjLr'i-de?. A small intestinal 
worm, ^uincy. 

j^S-c£nd',«. n. {ascendOj L.] \i. ascended ;j?p. ascending, 
ascended] To move upwards; to risej to mount j to 
stand higher. 

As c£nd', (9s-s6nd') v. a. To climb up. Barrow. 

As-cl^rfD'VBLE, a. That may be ascended. 

As-c£nd'^nt, n. Superiority j height ; elevation ; the per- 
son having influence. — (Astrol.) The degree of the eclip- 
tic, which, rising at a person's nativity, was supposed to 
influence his fate. — (Law) One of such relations els have 
gone before, reckoned upwards ; an ancestor. 

^s-cjSnd'j^nt, a. Superior ; predominant j above the hori- 
zon ; making ascent ; rising. 

As-CfeN'DEN-cv, a. Influence ; power ; authority ; superi- 

As-c£n'sion, (?s-s6n'shun) n. Act of ascending ; the visi- 
ble rising of Christ to heaven, celebrated on Ascension- 
Day, i. e. the last Thursday but one before Whit-Sunday. 
— (Astron.) Right asce-nsion of a star, the arc of the equator 
intercepted between the first of Aries, and the point of 
the equator which comes to the meridian at the same 
instant with the star. — Oblique ascension of a star, the arc 
of the equator intercepted between the vernal equinox 
and that point of the equator which comes to the horizon 
at the same time with the star. 

^s-c£k'si9N-al, a. Relating to ascension or ascent ; rising 
up. Oent Mag 

^s-^ISn'sipn-Day, 71. Holy Thursday. See Ascension. 

fAs-ci^N'siVE, a. In a state of ascent. Brown. 

As-c£nt', n. The act of rising j way of rising ; elevation j 
rise ; an eminence. 

As-c^R-TAIN', v. a, [ascertainer, Fr.] [£. ascertained ; pp. 
ASCERTAINING, ASCERTAINED.] To make Certain J to es- 
tablish ; to make confident. 

A.s-cer-tain'a.-bIjE, a. That may be ascertained. 

As-c^R-tain'eh., n. One who ascertains. Ash. 

As-cer-tain'meht, 7U Act of ascertaining ; a rule. Swift. 

As-cfis'cEN-CY,* and As-c£s'c?nt.* See Acescenct, 
and Acescent. 

As-c£T'ic,a. [do-jcTjri/ftfff.] Relating to ascetics ; austere and 
contemplative ; employed in devotion and mortification. 

As-cEt'jc, n. One devoted to a solitary, austere, and con- 
templative life ; a hermit. 

^s-c:£t'j-cI9M, ju The state and practice of ascetics. War- 

AsciAN,*(ash'y?n)7i.,- pZ. ASCT\Ns. Such inhabitants of 
the globe, as, at certain seasons df the year, have no shad- 
ows at noon ; osciL Brande. 

As-cTd' i-Aj* (Zool.) A genus of molluscous animals. 

■ P. Cyc. 

As-cId'j-an,* n. (Ent.) A species of insect or invertebrate 
animals. Kirby. 

As-cln'i-i^M* 71. (Bot.) A hollow leaf like a water vessel. 

" F Cyc. 

As'CT-i, (ish'^-i) 71. pL [L.] [a and crKta.} Anglicized to 

As-0i'TB^,n. [L.] \ai7Ko^.']^{Mcd.) A collection of sercus 

' fluid in the abdomen j a kind of dropsy. 

Xs-ci-Tl'^Tioys, a. [AsdtUius, L.] Supplemental. See Ad- 

As-cle'pi-Xd,* n. A verse composed of four feet. Ask. 

AS-cle'pi~Xs,* n. [L.] (Bot.) A genus of plants, of sev- 

' eral species, mostly perennials and shrubs ; swallow- 
wort. Crabb. 

^s-cri'ba-ble, o. That may be ascribed. 

^S-CRIBE', w. a. [oscrtfio, L.] [i, ascribed ; pp. ascribing, 
ASCRIBED.] To attribute to as a cause, or as a quality j to 

^s-cRfp'Tipw, n. Act of ascribing; thing ascribed. 

fAs-cKTP-Tl"TIOVS, (as-krip-tJsh'us) a That is ascribed. 



A'sE-f,* n. pU (Bot.) The cases in which the spores of 

lichens are inclosed. P. Cyc. 
Ash, n. A tree useful for timber, of several varieties ; th« 

wood of the ash. 
Ash,* a. Relating to or resembling the ash. Ency. 
tA-SHAME', «. a. To make ashamed ; to shame. Barrow. 
Ashamed, f^i-sliamd', or ^-sha'med ) [^^sha'med, S. W. f. 

F. Jo. ; ^-snamd', E. K. Sm. R.] a rouched with shame 
A-SHAM'iED-Ly, ad. Bashfully. Hvlcet. 
Ash'c6l-pb,* n. The color of ashes ; the color of the barit 

or leaves of the ash-tree. Pennant. 
Ash'c6l-PRE1), (ash'kul-urd) a. Colored between brown 

and gray, like the bark of an ashen branch. 
A-sh£lf', ad. U^aut.) On a shelf, or rock. Massinger 
Ash'en, a. Made of ash-wood ; ash-colored. Dryden. 
Ash'e-ry,* 71. A manufactory of pot or pearl ashes. WUliantA 
Ash'e?, (ish'ez) 71. pi. The dusty or earthy substance re- 

mai'ning after the combustion of any thing ; the remains 

of the human body. 
Ash'-FTre, 71. The low fire used in chemical operations, 
Ash'-Fly, n. The oak-fly. Complete Angler. 
AsH'-HoLE,* n. A place for ashes; a hole in a fumaca 

which receives the ashes to be taken away. Crabb. 
Ash'lar, n. Freestone, as it comes out of the quarry. 
AsH'LER,* n. A facing made of squared stones. P. Cyc 
Asii'iiER-lNG, 7?, The act of bedding ashler in mortar: - 

an upright timber in a garret. 
A-SHORE^, ad. On shore ; to the shore ; stranded. 
Ash'-TDb, 71. A tub to receive ashes. Q^arles. 
AsH-W£DKE$'DAy, (ash-wSnz'd?) n. The first day of 

Lent, so called from the ancient custom of sprinkling 

ashes on the head. 
Ash'weed, n. An herb. 

Ash'y, ^sh'e) a. Ash-colored ; turned into ashes. Milton 
Ash'y-pale , (ash'e-pal) a. Pale as ashes. Shak. 
a'sian, (ash'ygin) a. Relating to Asia; Asiatic. 
a-sj-Xt'ic, (5-she^t'ik) a. Relating to Asia. 
a-si-Xt'ic, (a-she-^it'ik) -n. A native of Asia, 
A-si-AT'i-cI?M, (a-she-3lt'e-sizm) lu Asiatic fashion, stvl« 

idiom, or manner. Warton. 
A-siDE', ad. To one side ; away from those present. 
tAs'l-NA-RY, a. Belonging to an ass. Bailey. 
AS'i-NiNE, a.[asinus,li.] Belonging to or resembling ana V 
A'si-O,* (a'she-6) 71. {OrnOh.) The homed owl, Crabb. 
Ask, (Ssk) V. a. [i. asked ;pp. asking, asked.] To reques 

to solicit ; to entreat j to beg ; to petition ; to demand 

to question ; to inquire ; to require ; to claim, as a price 
Ask, -y. n. To petition ; to make inquiry. 
Ask, n. A water newt. See Asker. 
A-skAnce', orf. Sideways; obliquely; askant. 
A-skant', (V-skintO ad. Obliquely ; sideways. Dryden. 
Ask'er, n. One who asks. — A water newt, written also ash 
A-skew', (ci-skii') ad. Awry; aside ; with contempt. 
Ask'in&,* p. a. Making a request ; demanding ; demanded 
AsK'iNG,* n. The making of a request ; a petition. Bp 

fA-SLAKE', 1). a. To remit ; to mitigate. Spencer. 
AS-la'ni,* n. The Turkish name for a Dutch dollar, Ora&& 
A-slXnt', ad. In a slanting manner ; obliquely. Shak, 
A-SLEEP', ad. In a state of sleep. Bacoiu 
A-SLeCp',* a. Sleeping; being at rest; dead. MUtoiu 
A-slope', ad. With declivity; obliquely. Bacoju 
f A-slDg-', ad. In a sluggish manner. Fotherby. 
A"5-M:A-TOG'RA,-PHV,*7t. The art of composing songs. Dr 

A5-mp-N-e'an,* a. Relating to Asmonteus, the father oi 

ancestor of a race of Jewish sovereigns. A Cyc. 
A-soak',* o. Soaking in water; in a state of soaking 

A-so'MA-ToDs, [gi-so'm?-tus, Ja. Sm. Wb.; ^-sUm'^-iiis, 

P. k^.] a. [a and crw/xa.] Incorporeal ; without a body 

Bailey. [r.J 
Asp, n. [aspis, L.] A poisonous serpent of Egypt and Libya. 
Asp, 71. See Aspen. 

As-pAL'4-Tif&s, 71. [L.] A plant called the rose of Jero- 
' salem ; the wood of a prickly tree. 
As-pAr-^-^In,* 71. (Ckem.) A vegetable prmciple found in 

the juice of asparagus, the mallow, &:c. F7ancis. 
As-PAB'^-Q-tJs,7i. [(io-Trdpayoff,] An esculent garden plant 

93" Formerly this word was, both in England and tfa« 

United States, very commonly pronounced sparrowgraaa 

and it is still so pronounced by some persons, but chiefly 

by those who are not well educated. See Cucumber. 
As'pect, 71. [aspectus, L.] Look ; countenance ; appearanie , 

view ; position ; relation ; disposition of a planet to ot' ei 

planets, f^^ This word, which is now uniformly t o* 

nounced with the accent on the first syllable, had iti 

accent, two centuries ago, on the second. 
fAs-piScT', V. a. To behold. Temple. 
fAs-piScT^A-BiiE, a. That may be seen. Raleigh. 
fAs'PECT-ED, a. Having an aspect. B. Jonson, 
fAs-P fic'TlpN, 71. Beholding ; view. Brown. 
As'PEN, 71. A species of poplar, the leaves of which alwayi 

tremble ; sometimes called an asp. Mortimer. 

E, :, 5, t?, Y, longi A, fi, I, 6, tJ, 1?, shorti ^, E, f, p, v» Tj obscure. — fAre, fXr, FiST fAlZi; h£ir, bKk. 

ASS «7 

zi-PEN", a. Belonging to, made of, or emDifng an aspen 

^'PipR, Tu A small Turkish copper coin. 

^s'PKRj a. [L.] Rough ; rugged. Bacon. 

fAs'PJjiR-ATE, M. a. [asperoj L.J [i. abpbbated ; pp. Agtin. 
ATiNG, ASPERATED.] To Toughen } to make rough. Boyle* 

fAS-p^R-A'TipN, ru Act of making rough. Bailey. 

\^SFEJifiEOiitE,_r&3~p^T-jw'iiT') TU [aspersoirj Fr.] A holy 
water-sprinkle. fVarton. 

is-rsR-filL' Li^M^* n. (ZooL) Agenns ofshell-fiah. P. Cijc 

As-rErH-F6'Lj-.ATE,*o. (Boi.) Having rough leaves. Crabb. 

^s-p£r-i-f6'lj-o0s, a. Having rough leavt*3- 

^5-p£r' j-TV, 71. Unevennesfl j roughness of sound, manner, 
or temper ; harshness ; moroseness j sharpness. 

fAs'PER-Ly, ad. Roughly ; sharply. Sir T. Elyot. 

A-sper'movs,* a, {BoU) Destitute of seed. Brande, 

fAs-p:?R-NA'Ti9N, n. [aspematio, L.] Neglect; disregard. 

f As'p^R-otJs, (S.s'p9r-Qs) o. Rough. Boyle. 

As-perse', v a. [aspergo, L.] fi. aspersed ^pp. AaPERsrwG, 
ASPERSED.] To sprinkle; to bespatter with censure; to 
vilify ; to slander ; to calumniate. 

As-p^rs'er, n. One who asperses. 

As-PER'sipN, 71. Act of aspersing ; calumny. 

^s-per'S|VE-ly^ ad. By way of aspersion. Richardsoji. 

^s-phXlt',* 71. The same as asphaltum. Br. V. Mott. 

As-phXlte',* n. {Min.) A bituminous stone found in 
several countries of Europe, particularly in Gennany and 
Prussia: used as a cement, Francis. 

As-phXl'tic, (js-f ai'tjk) a. Bituminoua. 

^s-phXl'tite,* n. {BoU) A kind of trefoil. Crabb. 

i^s-PHlL'TQSj n. [a'o-(/»aXro5.] Same as asphaltum. See As- 

^s-psXl' TUM^ n. [L.] A bituminous substance, solid, 

' dry, combustible, and commonly brittle ; found especially 
on the Lacus Jisphaltitesj or Dead Sea. 

J.s'ph9-d£l, 71. [liMo-asphodeluSj L.] A genus of plants ; 
the day-lily._ 

^s-PHU'RE-LATE,* n. (Min.) A semi-metallic fossil. Crahb. 

^s-PH^x' V,* n. {Med.) An apparent privation of pulse. Crabb. 

As'pj;c, 71, A piece of ordnance. — A serpent. See Asp. 

l|AS-piR'ANT, or Xs'PJ-rXnt, [^s-pir'?nt, K. Sm. R. Todd. 
fVb. ; Ss'pe-rSnt, or ^.s-pir'^int, Ja.} n. ;_Fr.] An aspirer ; 
an ambitious candidate. 

11 As-pir'ant,* a. That aspires ; aspiring. SouViey. 

a's'pi-rate, v. a. [oOTirotiis, L.] [i. aspirated; pp. aspi- 
rating, ASPIRATED.] To breathe upon ; to pronounce or 
mark with the aspirate, or a full breath. 

Xs'Pi-RATE, V, 71. To be pronounced with full breath. 

Xs'Pl-RATE, a. Pronounced with the aspirate or full breath. 

As'pi-RATE, 71, A mark to denote an aspirated pronunci- 
ation ; one of a class of consonants ; a rough breathing, 

As'pi-RAT-ED,*p. a. Pronounced with the aspirate ; rough- 

Xs-pi-ra'tiqn, 71. [aspiraUOf L.] Act of aspiring ; a breath- 
ing after ; an ardent wish ; the pronunciation of a vowel 
with full breath. 

^s pire', u. 71. [twrpiT-o, L.] [i aspired; pp. aspiring, as- 
pired.] To desire with eagerness; to pant after; to 
risej to tower. 

fAS-PiRE', V, a. To aspire to. Donne. 

rAS-PlRE'MENT, tu The act of aspiring. Brewer. 

As-pir'er, 71. One who aspires. MiUon. 

As-pir'ing, 71, Eager desire of something great. 

^s-pir'ing,* a. Attempting to rise ; ambitious, 

As-pir'Jng-ly,* ad. In an aspiring manner. 

As-PpR-TA'TlpN, n. [asportatioj L.] (Law) A carrying 
away of goods. Blackstone. 

^s-pre'do,* n. (Zool.) A genus of fishes. P. Cyc. 

A-squInt' (9-3kwint') ad. Obliquely ; not in a right line. 

Jisa, n. [astnus. L.] pi. Xss'E^. A domestic animal of bur- 
den ; a stupid fellow. Shak. 

A.3-SA-FCET'f-DA, ^Ss-g^-fet'e-d^) 71. A gum resin obtained 
from the rootsof a plant found in Persia, of very offen- 
sive smell ; used in medicine as a stimulant and anti- 

^s-sa' J,* (fis-sa'e) [It.] (JIfiis.) Denoting increase, as oZZe- 
grOj quick; allegro assai, very quick: — adagio, slow; 
adagio assai, very slow. Crabb. 

^S-SAIIi^ V. a. [assailUr, Fr.] [i. assailed: pp. assailing, 
ASSAILED.] To fall upon ; to attack in a hostile manner; 
to attack with argument. 

As-sail'a-ble, a. That may be assailed or attacked. 

\s-SAiL.'ANT, 71. One who assails ; an invader. 

As-SAIL'ANT, a. Attacking; invading. Milton. 

As-sail'?R, n. One who assails or attacks. 

As-SAlL'MENT,7i. Attack. Johnson. [R.] 

i&-SAM-E?E',* n. ; sing. & pi. Natives of Assam. Eamshaw. 

Ap-RA-PXN'iC,7r. The flying squirrel. Trevonx. 

s's' sa-r6jVj* n. A Hebrew measure ; an omer. Crabb, 

tAs-sXRT', n. (Law) An offence committed in the forest, 
"by plucking up trees by the roots. Cowel. 

►As-sXrt', v. a. To commit an assart ; to grub up. Ashmole. 


As-sXs'S|N, n. {assasamy Fr.] One who kills, or atlempta 
to kill, by violence and treachery or secret assault ; as 

fAs-sXs'sjN, V. a. To murder. StUHngfieeL 

f A-S-sXs^sr-NA-cV, n. The act of assassinating. Hammond 

f AS-sXs'sj-NATE, n. An assassin. Dryden. Murder. Pope 

^s-sXs'sj-WATE, 7J. a. [assassiner, Fr.l [i. assassinated 
pp. assassinating, ASSASSINATED.] To murder by sur 
prise, by secret assault, or by lying in wait. 

As-sXs'si-NATE, V. n. To murder by secret assault, Sandya 

As-sXs-si-KA'TipN, n. Act of assassinating; secret murder 

As-sXs'sj-na-tqr, 71. One who assassinates ; assassin. 

tAS-sXs'sj-NODs, a. Murderous. Cockeram. 

f^s-sX'TlpN, 71, [assation, Fr.] Roasting. Browne. 

^s-sault', 71. [assault, Fr.] An open attempt to carry ■ 
fortified post or fortress ; attack ; storm, — opposed to sap 
or siege; hostile violence; invasion. — (Law) A 'ioleni 
kind of injury done to a man's person. 

^S-sAulT', v. a. [i. assaulted; pp. assaulting, assaui* 
ED.] To attack ; to fall upon with violence. 

As-sault'^-BIjE, a. Capable of assault. Williams. 

As-sAult'er, 71. One who assaults. Sidney. 

As-sault'|NG,* 71. The act of making an assault. Richard' 


As-say', (^a^a') n. [essai, Fr.] Examination ; trial j at- 
tempt ; trial of a metal. — (Law) Examination of weights 

and measures by the proper officers. 
AS-SAY', (5is-sa') V. a. [i. assayed ; pp. assatino, assayed } 

To make trial of; to try ; to ascertain the purity or alloy 

of metals. 
As-say', (9S-sa') V. n. To try ; to endeavor, 
As-say'-BXl'4.nce,*7i. a balance used by assayers. Crabb 
As-say':er, 71, One who assays metals, &c. 
As-say'jmg,* n. (Metallurgy) The act of ascertaining^e" 

purity of the precious metals. — (Mus.) A flourfining 

previous to the performance. Crabb. i^- 

Ass'driv-:^.r,* n. One who drives asses. Steeven^. 
f As'SE-cLE, 71. [assecla, L.] A dependant. Shelahu 
fAs-SEc-TA^TlpN, n. [assectatio, L.] Attendance. Bailey. 
fAs-SE-ctJR'ANCE, 71. Assurance. Sheldon. 
JAs-SE-cv-RA^TipN, TU Assurance; freedom from doubt 

Bp. Hall. 
fAs-s]E-cuRE', V. a. [ossecuro, low L.] To make one sure 

f As-SE-cu'TlpN, 71. \assequor, assecutum^ L.] Acquirement 

As-sISm'bl^^e, 71. [Fr.] A collection of individuals; f 

company : a mass ; an assembly. 
tAs-sEM'BLA.NCE, n. [Fr.] Representation. Shak. 
As-s£m'BLE, (9s-sem'bl) v, a. [assemble^y Fr.] [i. assem 

BLED ;j}p. assembling, ASSEMBLED.] To bring together 

to collect ; to call together ; to convene. 
As-sEm'ble, (9s-s§m'bl) v. n. To meet together. 
As-sEm'bled,* (^s-s6m'bld) p. a. Collected together. 
As-s£m'bler, 71. One who assembles. Hammond. 
As-s£m'bling-, 71. Meeting together. Fleetwood. 
AS-s£ivi'bly, 71. \assemhUe, Fr.] A company met together, 

a meeting ; a political body, a legislative body, or an 

ecclesiastical body collected together. 
As-sfiM'BLy-RooM, 71, A room for company. 
As-sEnt', 71. [assensus, L.] Act of agreeing to any thing 



To concede, or agree to ; to acquiesce ; to consent. 
Aa-sEN-TA'TipN, 7u Compliance out of flattery. Bp. HaU 


tAs-s]EN-TA'TpR, 71. A flatterer ; a follower. Sir T, ElyoU 
f As-sfiN^TA-TP-Rl-Ly,* ad. In a flattering manner. Bacon. 
As-sEnt'e*r, n. One who assents. Sir T. Herbert. 
As-sEn'tient,* (^s-sen'shent) a. Yielding assent. Qa. Reo. 
As-sEht'ing-ly, ad. By way of assent. Huloet. 
As-sEn'tive,* a. Giving assent ; (fomplying. Savage. 
tAs-sENT'MENT, 7?. Consent. Brown. 
As'sER,* 71. '(.^rch.) A thin rafter, board, or lath. Frauds 
As-sert', v. a. [assero^ L.] [i. asserted ; pp. assebtinOj 

ASSERTED.] To maintain ; to aflirm ; to aver ; to claim 
As-SER'TipN, n. Act of asserting ; that which is asserted ; 

affirmation ; position advanced. 
fAs-SJEB'TiVE, a. Positive ; dogmatical. Olanville. 
f As-ser'tive-ly, ad. Affirmatively. Bp. BedelL 
A's-ser'tpr, 71. One who asserts; maintainer. 
As's:?R~Tp-R¥, j^s'ser-tur-e, Ja. K. Sm. R, Todd; ^-ser't? 

re, Wb.} a. Ararming ; supporting. Bp. Hall. 
f As-serve', v. a. [asservio, L.] To serve. Bailey. 
As-sEss', V, a. [assesser, old Fr.l [i. assessed ; pp. assess- 
ing, ASSESSED.] To charge with any certain sum ; to rate 

to fix a proportion to be paid, 
j As-sEss', Ti. Assessment. Princely Pelican. 
As-sEs'sA-BLE, a. That may be assessed. 
As-sEssed',* (9S-aest') p. a. Rated or fixed by authority 

jAs-sEs'sipN, (9S-sesh'un) ti. A sitting down by. Bailey 
A's-sEs'sipN-A-Ry, (gts-sesh'vm-^-re) a. Pertaining to a» 

sessors. Carew. 

UlEW, sYe; m6ve, n5r, s6n; bOll, EtiR, bCle - 9, 9, 9, g, soft; jB, fi, £, g, hard; 9 as z; j <w gz}— tb» 


{ls-3£ss'MENT, n. Act of assessing ; the sum assessed or 
levied on property. 

As-s£ss'QR, n. [assessorj L.] One who sits by another as 
an assistant in council. — (Law) One appointed to assess 
persons or property for taxation : — a person appointed to 
advise and direct the decision of a judge. 

As'sfiTS, [Ss'sets, S. 7V. P. J. F, Ja. K. Sm. R. ; ^is-sSts', 
Wb,'] n. pL [assez. Fr.] (Law) Funds, or goods and chat- 
tels appropriated for the discharge of debts, legacies, &c. 

^^s-sfiv'liR, V. a. Same as asseverate. Bailey, 

As-sfiv'ER-ATE, V. a. [assevero. LJ [i. assevebated ; pp. 
ASSEVERATING, ASSEVERATED.] To asscit or affirm with 
great solemnity ; to aver ; to affirm. 

As-sfiv-iER-A'TipN, 71. Solemn affirmation or assertion. 

ass^h£aI}, (is'hed) n, A blockhead. Bale. 

As'si-d£nt,* a, [assidensj L.] (Med.) That accompanies 
or attends; concomitant; applied to symptoms of a dis- 
ease. Smart 

f AS-sId'v-ate, a. Daily; assiduous. King Charles L 

Xs-sj-Dij'j-Ty, 71. Diligence; closeness of application. 

^s-sijD^V-otJs, (gis-ald'yii-fis) a. [assidmiSy L.] Applying 
constantly ; verj' diligfnt ; constant. 

As-sli>*V-Otts-ii¥, (5is-sid'yy-us-le) ad. Diligently j con- 

As-s1d'v-oBs-n£ss, 71. Assiduity; diligence. 

f AS-sie^-e', ^js-sej') V. a. [assicger^ Fr.] To besiege. Spenser. 

ds-sl-&N'TO^ 71. [Sp.] A contract between tlie king of 
Spain and other European powers for furnishing the 
Spanish dominions in America with negro slaves. Burke, 

^S-SIGN', (js-sln') V. a. [assigno^ L.] [i. assiohep ; ;jp. 
ASSIGNING, ASSIGNED.] To mark out; to appropriate; to 
fix the quantity or value. — (Law) To make over a right 
to another, as to assign an estate or other property ; to 
appoint, as a deputy. 

^s-siG-N% (?s-BinO 71. One to whom property is assigned ; 
an assignee. - 

-A.s-siGN'A-BLE, (^-sin'st-bi) a. That may be assigned. 

As-sio-n1t\ f&s-jn-y'i' or as-jg-nat') n. [Fr.] A sort of pa- 
per money in Prance, issued during the revolution. Burke. 

As-si&-NA'TlpN, n. Act of assigning; assignment: — an 
appointment to meet ; used generally of love appointments. 

Jls-si&N-Eii', (3.s-se-ne07i. One to whom any right or prop- 
erty is assigned ; one who is appointed by another to do 
any act. 

As-siGN']Eii, (^s-sln'er) n. One who assigns. 

As-sig-n'ment, (^s-sin'ment) n. Act of assigning; thing 
assigned; act of alienating, or transferring to another of 
some right, title, or property. 

As-sign-or',* ca.s-se-nor') n. (Law) One who makes an as- 
signment ; correlative of assignee. Whishaw. 

As-slM-i-L^-BiL'i-T¥ ,* n. The quality of being assimilable. 
Coleridge, [r.] 

A.S-slM'i-L^-BLE,fl. That may be assimilated. Browne. [R.] 

i^S-stM'l-LATE, V. n. [assiviilo.'L.'] [i, assimilated ; pp. 
ASSIMILATING, ASSIMILATED.] To gfow or become similar. 

As-sIm'i-late, «. a. To bring to a likeness ; to make simi- 
lar ; to turn to its own substance by digestion. 

tAS-slM'i-l^ATE-HEss, n. Likeness. Bailey, 

^s-slM-f-LA'TlpN, 71. Act of assimilating ; state of being 
assimilated ; a function of nutrition. 

■fAs-slM'i-LA-TlVE, a. Having the power of assimilating. 

^s-slM'j-LA-Tp-Ry,* a. Tending to assimilate. Roget. 

(■AS-sIm'v-LATE, v. a. [assimuloj L.] To feign. Bailey, 

[As-slM-y-l'A.'TipN, n. Dissimulation. Bailey. 

Xs-SJ-NE'GO, 71. [Port.] An ass. Sir T. Herbert. 

AS-SI^§QR,* 71. (Scotch law) A juror. WhisJiaw. 

i^S-sTst', v. a, [assistOf L.l [i. assisted; pja. assisting, 
ASSISTED.] To help ; to aid ; to relieve ; to succor. 

As-sIST', «. 71. To help. JVelso7i. [r.] 

As-s1st'ance, 71. Help ; aid ; support ; relief. 

^s-s1st'^nt, a.- Helping ; aiding ; auxiliary. 

As-sIst'^nt, 71. One wiio assists ; an auxiliary. 

As-sIST'?R, n. An asi.stant; a helper. 

i\s-slST'jNG,* p. a. Alfording assistance ; helping. 

As-5lST'L]ESS, a. Wanting help. Pope. 

As-sIze', 71. [assise, Fr.] (English Law) A court of judica- 
ture held twice a year in every county, in which causes 
are tried by a judge and jury: — an ordinance or statute 
to determine the weiglrt, or fix the price of bread, ale. Sec. 

As-siZE%«. a. To fix a rate of weigiit or price. Oower. 

As-siz'er, 71. An officer who has the care of weights and 
measures. — (Scotland) A juryman: — often spelt assisor. 

Ass'like, a. Resembling an ass. Sidney. 

jAs-SO'B^R, f. a. To keep sober. Oower. 

^"s-a5'cj-A-BLE, (5s-s6'she-5i-bl) a. That may be associat- 
ed ; sociable ; companionable. Cotgrave. 

As-s6'cj-ATE, (^s-s5'she-at) v. a. {associo^ L.] \i. asso- 
ciated; pp, ASSOCIATING, ASSOCIATED.] To Unite With j 

to adopt as a friend ; to accompany. 
As-s5'ct-ATE, (^s-so'she-gt) a. Confederate; united with; 

conjoined ; acting with, as, "an associate judge." 
^s-so'ci-^TE, (9is-so'she-5tt) 71. A partner; a confederate; 

a companion ; an associate, not presiding, judge. 

48 AST 

As-s6'ci-ATE, V. n. To unite with another. ThomaMi 

As-so'c}-AT-:?D,* (9s-so'sh?-at-ed) p. a. ConfederaCflfl 
united together. 

As-so-cj-A°TipN, (3S-s5-sh?-a'shun) n. Union ; confedeia 
cy ; partnership ; connection ; apposition ; an assemblv o( 
persons ; a political society ; a number or body of clergy 
men associated. — .Association of ideas \s that connection 
between certain ideas which causes them to succeed each 
other, involuntarily, in the mind. Crabb. 

As-so-cj-A'TipN-Aij,*a, Relating to an association of cie?- 
gymen. Dwlght. [A word sometimes used in the United 

As-s6'cj-A-TlVE,*(9s-35'she-9-tiv)a, Tending to associate 
or unite. Coleridge, [r.] 

As-so[ci-A-TpR, (js-s6'she-a-t9r) n. A confederate. Drydtn 

f As-soIl', 1). a. [ossoiter, old Fr.] Tu solve; to release or 
set free ; to absolve; to soil. Bp. Tavlor. 

|As-so/L'MENT,* n. The act of assoiling. Speed. 

As-soIl'zie,* v. a. (Scotch Law) To acquit or free from an 
accusation. Dr. Jamieson. 

As'sp-nXnce, n. [Fr.] A jingle or imperfect rhyme; re- 
semblance of sound. Brande. 

As'sp-hXnt, a. Having a resemblance in sound. 

As' so-NlNT^* It. [asonantc, Sp.] (In Spanish verse) A re- 
semblance of sound, differing from rhyme. P. Cyc. The 
last word in a verse whose accented vowel is the same aa 
that of the last word in the verse preceding ; as, " mUdneSf 
azdtes." JVeuman. 

fAs'sp-NATE, V. n. {^assono^ L.] To sound. Cockeram. 

Assort' fV. a. [ossoriir, Fr.] [i. assorted ;pj7. assorti:**^, 
ASSORTED.] To furnish with all sorts ; to arrange in classed 

As~s6rt',* V, 71. To agree or associate with ; to consort 

As-sort'ment, 71. Act of assorting ; class; a quantity aEi> 
sorted or properly selected. 

fAs-SOT', V. a. [assoter, Fr.] To infatuate. Speitser. 

AS-SUA^e', (^s-swaj^) V. a. [assoa^er, old Fr.] [u a». 
suAGED ; pp. ASSUAGING, ASSUAGED.] To mitigate ; to afv 
pease ; to soften ; to allay ; to soothe ; to ease. 

As-suA(jtE', (?s-swaj') V. n. To abate. Gen. viii. 

As-sua^-e'mewt, n. Mitigation ; abatement. Spenser, [r. 

As-SUA9^']ER, 71. One who assuages. 

As-suAG'|NG,*p. a. Tending to assuage ; mitigating. 

As-SUA'siVE, (^s-swa'sjv) a. Softening; mitigating. Pope 

fAs-sOB'jECT, V. a. [assoubJEcUr, old Fr.] To make subject 

tAs-aOB'JV-GATE,tJ. a. To subjugate. Shak. 

fAs-suE-FAc'TlpN, Cas-sw?-fak'shun) n. [assu^ado, L,] 
The act of accustoming to any thing. Browne, 

Aa'svE-TUDE, (a.s'swe-tud) n. Use; custom. Bacon, [R.J 

AS-sume', v. a. [asswtnoj L.] \i. assumed ; pp. assuminGi 
ASSUMED.] To take ; to take upon one's self; to arrogate , 
to take for granted without proof; to appropriate. 

As-stJME', V. n. To be arrogant. Burnet. 

fAs-su'MENT, n. [assumentuviy L.] A patch. Lewis 

As-sum'er, 71. One who assumes. South. 

As^suM'iNG-jp. a. Arrogant; haughty; overbearing. 

As-sum'|NG, n. Presumption. B. Jonson. 

.As-sUmp' siTj (&s-siim'sit) n. [L.] (Law) A voluntary 
promise, made by word, wherety a man takes upon him 
to perform or pay any thing to another. — in action of as- 
sumpsit is one of anomalous character, having the form ol 
tort and the substance of contract, Brande. 

tAs-stjMPT', (^s-sumf) V. a. To raise up. Sheldon. 

f As-sDmpt', 71. That which is assumed. ChilHngworth. 

As-sOmp'tipn, (5is-sum'shun) n. Act of assuming; thing 
assumed ; supposition. — A festival of the Catholic church, 
celebrated on the 15th of August, for the alleged miracu- 
lous ascent of the Virgin Mary into heaven. — (io^ic) 
The minor proposition of a syllogism. 

As-st5MP'TiVE, (as-sum'tjv) a. That is assumed. 

^s-sCmp't;ve-ly,* (^is-sum'tjv-le) ad. By assumption. 2>r 

As-sCr'awce, (?-shur'?tns) n. Act of assuring ; state of be- 
ing assured; certain expectation; freedom from doubt; 
firmness ; confidence ; persuasion ; impudence ; want oi 
modesty; ground of confidence; spirit; intrepidity.— 
( Theol.) Security with respect to a future state, or accept 
ance with God. — Security to make good a loss; insur 
ance. See Insurance. 

As-stlRE', (^-shitr') V. a. [assurer^ Fr.] [i. assured ; pp. 
assuring, ASSURED.] To make sure or safe ; to give confi- 
dence by promise ; to secure to ; to make secure ; to insure 

Assured, (ji-shur'ed, or ^-shurd') p. a. Certain ; indubita 
ble ; not doubting ; confident ; Insured. 

As-stJR'ED-LY, (9-shur'ed-le) ad. Certainly. Shak. 

As-st!lR'ED-N£ss, (9-8hiSr'ed-nes) ru Certainty. 

As-stlR'ER, (9-shur'er) tu One who assures. 

As-stiR'9ENT,* a. Rising upward or archwise. Loudon. 

AS^Wa^e', v. a. See Assuage. 

As-ta'cian,* n. (Zool.) A crustacean ; astacus. P. Cyc 

as'ta-cTte^* n. A fossil crustaceous astacolite. Smar.^ 

As-tAc'p-lite,*7i. (Qeol.) The fossil remains of a long 
tailed or lobster-like crustacean. P. Cyc. 

S, E. I, o, u, Y, long; A» t, 1, 5, tJ, t, short; *, ?, I, p, y, y, o&<«tre. — tAre, far, fXst, fAll ; HfilR^ HJBR 


4a'T4.~ons^*n. [L.] (Zool.) A genus of cnistaceoua ani- 
mals. P, Cyc. 

^8-tXt'jc,*o. Being without polarity, applied to a pecu- 
liarly-constructed magnetic needle. Francis. 

Xs'Tif-I?M,* n. (RheU) A pleasant trope; a kind of deli- 
cate irony. Crabb. 

is'TER,* n. [L., a star,] (Bot,) A genus of plants having 
a radiated flower ; the starwort. P. Cyc. 

^s-te'rj-^,* n. {Min.) The bastard opal j a sort of gem. 

^s-T£'Ri-Xs,* n. {Zool) A genus of radiated animals. P. 

As-TE'Ri-AT-ED,*a. Radiated, as a Star. Smart. 

AS'TER-ISK, », [dtTTep'KrKo^jGT.] A little star, [thus, *] 
used in printing, and directing to a note in the margin or 
at the bottom of the page. — In MSS., it denotes an omis- 
sion, sometimes addition, or something remarkable. 

As'TER-t9ivi, 71. [ncrripi(Tii-s,Gu] (.;3siron.) A Constellation 
of stars:-— an asterisk. Dryden. See Asterisk. 

i,s'TER-iTE,*7t. [asteritesj h.] The star-stone; a kind of 
glittering opal : — called also astroite and astrite. Si}iart. 

As-TK-Ri'TE9,n. [L.] See Asterite. 

^-STfeRN', ad. (JVatt(.) In the hinder part of the ship ; be- 
hind the ship. 

As'te-roId,* 71. (.Sstron,) A small planet ; a term applied 
to the four newly-discovered planets, Ceres, Pallas, Juno, 
and Vesta, P, Cyc 

As-te-roId'^Ii,* a. Relating to an asteroid. Smart. 

As-te-r6ph'¥L-i.ite,* n. {Geol.) An extinct fossil plant. 

As'ter-P-p6de,* tu {Mln.) A gem ; asteropodium. Smart. 

As-TER^g-FO' Di-i>M* n. {M'nu) A sort of gem ; a fossil. 

tA,-STERT', V. a. To terrify; to startle. Spenser. 

fyS-tnt^'lc, a. \a and uQivo^.'] Feeble ; marked by great 

As-THE-NSii'p-^^V, n. A description of weakness or de- 

Asth'MjV, (Ssl'm?) n. [acQiia.'] (Med.) A disease, the 
leading symptom of which is a difficulty of breathing, ac- 
companied with cough and expectoration. 

^STH-MAT'ic, C^st-mat'jk) tu One troubled with an asth- 
ma, .^rbuthnot. 

^sth-mXt'ic, (gist-mat'jk) ) a. Relating to or afflict- 

^sTH-mXt'J-cal, (jst-mat'e-k^l) \ ed with an asthma. 

Asth-mXt'^-cal-lV,* ad. In an asthmatical manner. Rich- 

f AS-tTp'v-LATE, v. n. [asUpulor, L.] To stipulate. Bp. Hall. 

TAs-tTp-U-la'tiqw, n. Stipulation. Bp. Hall. 

^'-stir',* a. Stirring ; active. Dickens. 

fAs-TONE', V. a. To terrify ; to astonish. Chaucer. 

fAs-T6N'l-ED-N£ss, n. State of being astonished. Barret. 

^s-t6n'ISH, v. a. [estonnerj Fr.] [i. astonished; pp. as- 
TONisHiNo, ASTONISHED.] To amaze ; to impress with 
wonder or terror ; to surprise. 

As-TSN'jSH-tNG,* a. Tending to astonish ; amazing. 

As-t6n'|SH-Ing-i.y, ad. In a surprising manner. Fleet- 

As-T6N-iSH-lN(3-wfiss, rt. Q.uality to excite astonishment. 

j4s-t5n'ish-m:£nt, n. Amazement; confusion of mind 
through fear or wonder ; terror. 

f-^s-TON'v, v. a. To terrify ; to astonish. Spenser. 

^S-ToOnd', v. a. [estonner, Fr.] [i. astounded ; pp. 
AsTouNorNo, ASTOUNDED.] To Strike with wonder or 
terror ; to astonish. Milton. 

tAs-TOUND',iJ. 7^. To shake ; to strike terror. ThomsoTU 

^"s-toOnd'ing,* p. a. Causing astonishment. 

As-toOnd'ment,*7i. Theactof astrunding. C. Lamb, [r.] 

A-strXd'dle, ad. With one leg on each side ; astride. 

As-TRJe'a,* n. [L.] The goddess of justice ; the sign Vir- 

" go. JilnswoTth. — (Zool.) A genus of polypiiers. P. Cyc. 

As'tra-g-XLi^ 71. [atTTpaYiiXo^.'] {Arch.) A small moulding 
whose pronle is semicircular, serving as an ornament at 
the tops and bottoms of columns. 

^^trag' A'Z&Sf* n. [L.] The ankle-bone. — (Bot.) A ge- 

' nus of leguminous plants. P. Cyc 

As'tral, a. Relating to the stars; starry. — Astral lamp^ 
a large, standing, parlor lamp, having a ground concave 

jA-STRAY', (9-stra') ad. Out of the right way. Spenser. 

^9-TH(ct', v. a. [astriiigo,!,.] To contract by applications j 
to restrict. Arbuthnot. [r.] 

f^s-TRtcT', a. [astrictusj L.] Bound ; compendious. Weaver. 

As-trTc'tiqn, n. A contraction ; a binding. Bacon. 

i^s-TRtc'TiVE, a. Binding; astringent. Holland. 

fAs-TRic'TQ-RY, rt. Astringent ; apt to bind. Bailey. 

X-stride', ad. With the legs wide apart. Boyle. 

tAs-TRlP'E-RoDs, a. {astrifer, Xj.] Bearing Stars. Bailey. 

fAs-TRi(j»-'E-RODs, a. [astriffcr, L.] Carrying stars. Bailey. 

A's-TRING-E'', v. a, [astriniro, L.] [». astringed; pp. as- 

* TEiNGiNG, AstRiNQEO.] To prcss by Contraction J to draw 
together. Bacon. ^^. j. 

As-TRlPf'i^^^N-cy, 71. The power of bmdmg or contractmg ; 
power of giving firmness. 

49 ATK 

^s-trTn'9-ent, a. Binding; contiacting; opposed lo la% 

^s-TRiN'(^^NT, n. An astringent medicine. Bucon. 
As-TRlN'^ENT-Ly,* ad. In an astringent manner. Rich 

As-TRQ-OA'RY-&m^*n. (Bot.) A genus of palms. P. C^e 
AS-TR6&'Np-sy,* n. The science of the stars. Francis. 
^s-trcg'ra-phy, ?i. [doTpuv and ypdtpu).] A description 

of the stars. [r.J 
As'trq-Ite, 71. [astroite^ Fr.] A atone sparkling like » 

star ; star-stone or star-she.ll. Warton. 
As'trq-laee, 71. [Fr.] An instrument formerly used foi 

taking altitudes or observations of the stars at sea, now 

superseded by the quadrant: — a particular projection erf 

the sphere. 
fAs-TR6L'-fi-TR¥,* n. The worship of the stars. Cudworth 
As-TR6ii'Q-9-ER, n, [astrologtiSf L.] One who is versed i i 

or who practises, astrology. 
tXs-TRp-LO'jBi-AN, 71. Same as astrologer. Camden. 
As-trp-lS^-'ic, ( a. Relating to or partaking of astrn^ 
As-tr9-l69-'}-cal, \ ogy. 

As-trp-l69^'|-caIj-ly, ad. In an astrological manner 
As-TROL'p-ijtizE, 1?, 7t. To practise astrology, [r.1 
^s-TR6L'p-^j^Y,7^. Uistrologia^'L.'] The science of the stars: 

— appropriately, tne pretended science or art of foretell 

ing future events by means of the appearance or aspe« 

of the heavens, and the position of the heavenly bodies 

It is founded on the supposed influence of the heavenly 

bodies on sublunary and human affairs, 
As-tr6n'p-mi:r, n. One versed in astronomy. Bacon, 

As-trp-n6m'i-cal-L¥, ad. In an astronomical manner. 

tAs-TRp-N6M'f-c6N,* 71. A treatise on the stars. Hold% 

^s-TRON^p-MlZE, V. 71. To studv astronomy. Browne. 

As-TROw'p-My, n. [darpovofiia.] The science of the heav- 
enly bodies, including their magnitudes, distances, mo- 
tions, changes, and the laws by which they are directed. 

As'TRp-scoPE,* n. {Astron.) An ancient astronomical in- 
strument, consisting of two cones, on which the constel* 
lations were depicted. Francis. 

fAs-TRds'cp-py, n. I'laTfip and oKoitioy.] Observation ol 
the stars. Scott. 

As'TRp-THE-6L'p-p^Y, 71. Theology founded on the ob 
servation of the celestial bodies. Derliam, 

^-strOt', a. In a strutting or swelling manner. Cowpw 

IA-StOjv', v. a. To stun. Mirror for Magistrates. 

as'tvR,* n, (Omith.) A genus of hawks. P. Cyc 

^s-tute', a. [astutus^li.] Cunning; penetrating; acui* 
shrewd. Sir M. Sandys. 

As-tOte'ness,* 71. Craft; cunning; subtlety. Mawider 

^-sDn'deb, arf. Apart; separately. Spenser. 

fA-swooN', ad. In a swoon. Qower, 

^'-sy'LVM, (?-siMum) n. [L.] pU L. A-sfZA: Eng. A~sV* 
L VMS. A sanctuary ; a refuge ; a place of refuge for criro 
inals ; a i>lacc of retreat and security ; a charitable insti 
tution, as for the blind, deaf and dumb, lunatics, &c 

A-svm'me-tral, a. Wanting symmetry. More, ^r.] 

As-YM-MltT'Rj-CAL, o. Wanting symmetry ; uregulai 
Boyle. [R.] 

lA-svM'ME-TROtJs,* a. Asymmetrical. Barrow. 

A'-SYM'ME-TRy, n. [a and aypperpia.] Want of symmetry 

As'yMP-TOTE, (Ss'im-tot) [&s'im-tot, JT. Ja. Sm. R. ; ji-sim* 
tot, S. K. Ash.] n. ; pi. Xs'ymP-TOTES. [u, aui/, and t:t6u).\ 
{Oeom.) A right line which continually approaches nearci 
and neari-r to a curve, without ever meeting it. 

As-ymP-t6t'ic,* a. Same as asymptotical. Bailey. 

As-ymp-tOt'i-cal, (^s-im-tot'e-k^l) a. Relating to asymp 
totes : approaching, but never meeting. Barrow 

A-SX'N'DE'TijNj n. ; pi. A-Sfjy'DE-TA. [ilavv^STOV.'] 

' {Rhet.) The omission of conjunctions in a speech; a- 

*' Veniy vidi, vici." 
At, prep. Denoting presence, or nearness; near to; in, 
by ; on ; with ; coincident with ; in the state of; towards. 
— At allj in any manner; in any degree. — ^t first^ in 
the first place. — At last^ in the last place. — d.t oncCy all 
together ; in the same instant. 
At'a-bAl,». a kind of tabor used by the Moote.. Dryden. 
^-tAc'^-mite,* n. (Min.) An oxymuriate of copper. D^im 
At-a-ohIn'* n. A small Turkish sabre; a dagger. M. J 

At-a-mXs'co,* n. (Bot.) A species of amaryllis. Crabb. 
■fAT-A-R^x'l-Ayiu [.iTupa^ia.] SAxne as ataraxy. OlanviUb 
tAT'A.-RXx-y, 71. Calmness of mind ; tranquillitj 
fAT'AX-y, 71. [dTa^i.i.] Disturbance; confusion. HallywelL 
At'ciie,* n. The smallest Turkish coin, of the value of 

two thirds of a farthing. Crabb. 
Ate, (at, or et) [at, S. F. Ja. K. R., €t, Sm,] i. from eat. 
See Eat. ^fCf A^ in ate^ vianyj and any, has been short- 
ened into 2 " Smart. 
A'TE,* n. [Gr.] (Myth.) The personification of revenge, 
punishment, or fatality. Brande. 

MtEIf, SiB; MOVE, NOR, SON; BOlt, BtJR, rCle. — ^, 9, 5, g, sofii jEJ, jS, 2, g, hard; § <w Z ; $ iw gz ; — TWI»- 
7 E 



MT*^LSi$y*n. pi, (Zool.) A genus of American monkeys. 
P. Cyc, 

(1-t£l'la.n, 71. A satirical or licentious drama. Burton. 

^ tSl'LAPT, o. Relating tn the dramas at Atella. 

is TMm'pOj* [It.^ (Jyius.) Signifying that after any change 
of motion, the ongmal movement is to be restored. K Cyc. 

TH'A-NXSy* n. (^Zool.) A genus of long-tailed crustaceans. 
P. Cyc. 

Xth-a-na'sian, ('shgin) ['she-jn, Ja. ; &th- 
?-nazh'e-?n", Sm. ,- Sth-^-na'zh^n, i?.] n. A follower of 
Athanasius, or a believer in his creed. Waterland. 

Ath-a-na'sian, a. Relating to Athanasius, a bishop of 
Alexandria in the fourth century, the reputed author of 
the creed which bears his name, and which is an explicit 
avowal of the doctrine of the Trinity, against Arianism. 

Ath'a-nor, n. A furnace formerly used by chemists. 

A'TH^-iSM, 71. The denial or disbelief of a God. 

A'THE-lST, n. [a0£o^] One who denies the existence of 

a'the-Ist, a. Atheistical ; denying God. Milton, 

a-th^-Is'tic, a. Relating or adhering to atheism ; impious. 

A-THE-ls'TJ-c^L, a. Relating or adhering to atheism. 

A-THE ^s'TJ-c^L-Ly, ad. In an atheistical manner, 

X-THE-Ts'Tj-c^ii-NiSss, 71. Cluality of being at'ieisiical. 

f a'the-ize, -0. n. To talk like an unbeliever. Cudworth, 

[a'TH?-iz-er,* ?t. One who atheizes. CudworUi, 
■iTH'EIj, ATH'EL-tNft, A'DEL, and J&'TUT^l., from fflrfeZ, 
Germ., noble. Oibsoru 

i th-e-jvjE' V2tT^* n. [L.] pi. h. athenjka; Eng. ath- 
ENJEUMS 1 as an Anglicized word, it is often spelt athene- 
7(T?i, atjteneums. A public edifice at Alliens, dedicated to 
Minerva, and frequented by philosophers, poets, rheto- 
ricians, &c. : — in modern times, a public seminary or 
gymnasium ; also, a public library with a reading-room. 

fATH-]^-<?-Lo'9J-^K,7i. The opposite to a theologian. Hay- 

fA-THE-6L'9-g-y,* n. The doctrine of atheism. Cudworth. 

rA'THE-OtJs, fl. Atheistic; godless. Milton. 

ath'er-ine,* 71. {Zool.) A fisii very full of bones. Crabb. 

S TH-E-Ro' MA, n, [d9:pw^a.] {Med.) A species of tumor 
or wen. Sharp. 

JlTH-E-R6M'^-TOt5s, a. Relating to an atheroma. Wiseman. 

^-THIRST', a! Wanting drink J thirsty. 

yiTS-LE' TJBj* n. pi. [L.] Athletes ; contenders at games 
for victory ; wrestlers; combatants; champions. Crabb. 

Xth'I^ete, [^th'let, Ja. R. Todd ,*^th-iet', Stn.] n. ; pi. Xth'- 
letes. [aB\r}T^S'] A contender for victory; a wrestler, 

.4TH-LET'rc, a. Belonging to wrestling or muscular exer- 
cise i strong of body ; robust ; vigorous. 

A.TH-I.£T'i-ct9M,* n. Muscular strength. Maunder, [r.] 

'i^-thwSrt', prep. Across ; transverse to ; through. 

^tTHWARt', ad. In a vexatious manner ; wrong. 

i^-TlLT', orf. In the manner of a tilter. Sliak. In a tilted 
posture, as of a barrel raised behind. Spectator. 

Ht-lIn' TA,'*' n. {Zool.) A genus of molluscous animals. P. 

iT-LAN-TE'AN, u. [otlanteus, L.] Resembling Atlas; gi- 
gantic. Milton. 

At-lAn' TE ?,* n. pi. [L.] Images of men bearing up pillars 

' or supporting a building. Crabb. 

^t-IiXn'tic, a. Relating to the ocean called Atlantic, lying 
between the eastern and western continents ; relating to 

At-lan' Ti-DE ?,* n. pi. [L.] Another name for the Pleia- 
' des. Crabb. 

At'las, 71. [L.] pi. At'lar-e?. a collection or volume of 
geogrdphical maps or charts ; a large, square folio ; a sup- 
porter of a building; a kind of silk; a large kind of 
drawing paper. — (Anat.) The uppermost of the cervical 
vertt brte. 

^t-mCm'?-ter,* 71. [a ii-'i and fiiTpoi'.] An instrument 
for tscertaining the rate of evaporation from a humid 
Burfece. Brande. 

iT'MpS-PHERE, (at'm9S-f5r) n. {arfm^ and atpaTpa; at- 
mosphere, Fr.l The body of air, or assemblage of aeriform 
vapors, which surrounds the earth ; air. — (Elect.) A me- 
dium conceived to be diffused over the surface of electric 
bodies, and to extend to some distance from them. 

AT-MP5-ph£r'ic,* a. Rehiting to the atmosphere. P. Cyc. 

AT-Mps-PHfiR'f-CAL, a. Relating to the atmosphere ; con- 
sisting of the atmosphefe. 

AT'pM, 71, [aropog.] An indivisible particle of matter; a 
minute particle ; any thing extremely small. 

^-TOM'lc,* a. Relating to atoms ; atomical. P. Cyc. — The 
atomic philosophy , held by the ancient Epicureans, taught 
that atoms are endued with gravity and motion, by which 
all things are formed without tlie aid of a Supreme Be- 
ing. — The atomic theory, in modern chemistry, is the doc- 
trine of definite proportions. 

^-t6m'i-cal, «. Consisting of atoms; relating to atoms. 

tA-T6M'l-cl9M,*7i. Atomism. Cudworth, 

AT'pM-T$M, 71. The doctrine of atoms. 


AT'pM-TsT.n. One who holds the atomw philoeophy. I xfa 
At'om-Ize,* t). n. To speculate respecting atoms. [Tm^ 

At'pm-lIke, a. Resembling atoms. Browne. 
AT-pM-6L'p-9^y,* ft. The doctrine of atoms, Cudworth. 
AT'pM-WoRl.D,* n. A world composed of atoms. Young 
fAT'p-My, 71. An atom ; an abbreviation of anatomy, mean 

ing a meagre person. SJiak. 
^-TONE', v. 71, [from at one.] [t. atoned ; pp. ATowivfl 

ATorcED.] [t To agree; to be at one. Shale] To stand a 

an equivalent for something ; to answer for. Dryden 
^-TONE', V. a. To reduce to concord ; to expiate. Pope. 

tA"T-T5HE', i '^- ■*' ^'"^J together. Spenser. 

A-tone'M¥NT, 71. [f Agreement; concord. Shak.] Rem* 

. ciliation ; expiation. Milton, 

A-ton'er, 71. One who atones. 

A-t6n'ic, a. Wanting tone or tension ; relaxed. 

A-T6N'ic,*7i. {Oram.) A word that has no accent. Ash, 

A-Tow'rN&j* p. a. Making atonement ; expiating. 

AT'p-Ny, 71. (atonie, Fr.] (Med.) Want of tone or tension 

A-t6p', ad. On the top. Milton, 

jA T-n4-Bi-£,AiitE' ,* a. [Fr.] Melancholy ; atrabiliary. War 

At-r^-bi-la'rj-^n, a. [atrabilis, L.] Melancholy ; full o- 
bile. Arbuthnot. 

At-ra-bi-la'ri-oDs, a. Melancholic ; full of bile. Q;itinc9 

AT-RA-Bi-LA'Ri-oys-NEss, 71. Melancholy. [R.] 

AT-RVBiL'iA-RY,* o. Melancholy ; atrabilious. Dungiison 

AT-RA-MEN-TA'cEoys,* (-shus) a. Black as ink. Dcrham. 

AT-ra-m£k't^l, a. [atramentum, L.] inky. Brown. 

At-r^-m:en-ta'ri-o&s,* a. Suitable for making ink. Smart 

AT-RA-MEN'Toys, o. Inky: black. Swift. 

fA'TR^D, (a'terd) a. [ater, L.] Tinged with a black color 

A' TRi'&M,* n. [L.] p\.A'TRf-4, A court before a house 
and sometimes a churchyard. Crabb. 

A-TRo'cioys, (^-tro'shys) a. [airox, L.] Wicked in a higt 
degree ; enormous ; flagitious ; heinous. 

A-TRo'cioys-Ly, (51-tro'shiis-le) ad. In an atrocious man 

A-tro'cious-nEss, (^-tro'shus-nSs) 71. Atrocity. 

A-TRog'i-TY, 71. Horrible wickedness ; enormity. 

At'rq-pa,* 71. (Bot.) A genus of plants. Crabb. 

AT'Rp-PHy, 71. [dTpo<pia.] (Med.) A consumption or waal- 
ing away for want of nourishment. Milton. 

^-TRO'PI-A,* 71. (Chem.) A vegetable alkali, P. Cyc 

At-tAc'c'a,* n. [It.] (Mas.) A direction which denotef 
' that the next movement is to follow immediately without 
any pause. P. Cyc. 

AT-tAch', r. o. [attacher, Fr.] [i. attached ; pp. attach- 
ing, ATTACHED.] To arrest ; to seize or take in a judicial 
manner ; to lay hold on as by authority ; to gain over ; to 
fix to one's interest. 

fAT-TAcH',* 77. Attachment. Pope. 

At-tXch'a-ble,* a. That may be attached. Seager 

Attach:^,* (2X-!ksha.') n. [Fr.] A person attached to, of 
dependent on, another person, or a legation, or company 
an adherent. Machintosh. 

At-tXched',* (9t-tacht0 p. a. United by affection ; seized 
laid bold of. 

At-tXch'ment, 71. Act of attaching; state of being at- 
tached; union of affection ; adherence; fidelity; regard 
— (Law) An apprehension by virtue of a precept, differ- 
ing from an arrest, inasmuch as it lays hold of the goods 
as well as the person. 

At-tXck', V, a. {attaquer,'FT,] [7'. attacked ; pp. attack 
ING. ATTACKED.] To assault } to assall ; to impugn. 

At-tAck', tu An assault ; an onset; invasion. 

^t-tXck'er, 71, One who attacks. 

At't^-9^£n,* 71. {Omith.) The Asiatic partridge, Crabb 

AT-TAIN', V, a, [attingo, L. ; atteindre, Fr.] [i. attaikeu 
pp. attaining, attained.] To gain; to obtain ; to over 
take ; to reach. 

At-tain', V, 71. To come to a certain state ; to arrive at. 

fAT-TAiN', 71. Attainment. OlanvUle, 

AT-TAiN-^-BlL'f-T¥,* 71. State of being attainable. Cole- 

AT-TAIN'A-BLE, a. That may be attained. 

At-tain'a-ble-n£ss, 71. duality of being attainable 

At-TAIN'der, 71. [attainder, old Fr.] (Law) The stain oi 
corruption of blood from being condemned for a capita 
crime ; conviction of a crime. 

At-tain'ment, 71. That which is attained; act of attain 
ing ^ acquisition. 

At -taint', v. a. [i, attainted; pp, attainting, attaint 
ED.] To taint; to corrupt; to disgrace. — (Law) To find 
guilty of a crime, especially of felony or treason. 
AT-taint', a. Convicted ; attainted. Sadler, [r.] 
At-taint', 71. [[Any thing injurious, as illness. Shak. 
A taint. — (Law) A writ against a jury for false judgmeiU 
AT-TAlNT'ED,*p. a. Convicted of a crime ; disgraced 
At-taint'ment, 71. State of being attainted. Ashvwle, 

t E, I 6, tJ, V longj A, £, I, 6, 0, 'i, sho-t 4., 1^, j, p, v» ¥» n&.-cwre.— fAre, far, fAst, fAll; h£:ir, H^t 



^t-tXin p'vRE, rtt-tant'yyr) n. A stain j an impediment ; 
leg;' censure. Skak. 

k^T-TXal'T-NXTE, V, a. [attamino, L.] To corrupt. Colca. 
T'TAR,* (0/ Rosea,) n. An eiwential oil, obtained in India 
from the oetala of the roaa eent\foUa and sempervivens ; 
called also oMo of roses. P. Cyc, 

^t-tAsk', 37. a. To task ; to tax. Sfiak. 

AT-TASTE', o. 0. To taste. Miiror for Magistrates. 

^T-TfiM'PER, V. a. [attempero, L.] [i. attempered; pp. 
ATTEMPERING, ATTEMPERED.] To mingle J to dilute; to 
soften ; to mix n just proportions ; to fit to ; to temper. 

f At-tISm'per-^nce, 71. Temperance. Cliaucer. 

fAT-TfeM'PER-ATE, r. a. To attemper. Hammond. 

*At-t£m'p?R-IiY, ad. In a temperate manner. Chaucer. 

A'T-Ti£M'PER-M£NT,*7i, Act of attempering. Dr. Chalmers. 

j^T-TtiWPT' , (^W.^mt') V, a. [attentery Fr.] [i. attempted ; 

' j»p. attempting, attempted.] To try; to essay; to en- 
deavor ; to make experiment or trial of. 

/It-tEmpt', (5it-t6mt') 6. n. To make an attack or a trial. 

(^t-t£mpt', (flit-tSmt') Tu An effort ; endeavor ; essay ; ex- 
periment ; trial ; enterprise. 

At-tEmpt'vbi-e, (git-temt'?-bl) a. That may be attempt- 

' ed. Shak, 

j\t-t£m:pt'?r, (^t-tSmt'er) 71. One who attempts. 

^T-TfiND', V. a. [attendo, L.] [i. attended ; pp. attend- 
iKO, attended.] To wait on ; to accompany ; to be pres- 
ent with, upon a summons ; to expect ; to remain to ; to 

^T-TfiND', tJ. TU To yield attention ; to stay ; to he within 
reach or call ; to wait, as compelled by authority. 

^t-t^nd'ance, 71. Act of attending or waiting on j ser- 
vice ; the persons waiting ; a train ; attention ; expectation. 

^t-t£wd'ant, a. Accompanying as subordinate. 

^t-t£nd'ant, n. One who attends; a concomitant; one 
of a train ; suitor or agent ; one that is present.— (iiaai) 
One who owes a duty to another. 

j^t-t£ni>'er,7i. One who attends ; an attendant, 

^T-TfiND'jNS,* p. a. Giving attendance ; waiting on. 

f AT-tEnt', a. Intent ; attentive. 2 Chron. vii. 

^t-tEk'tates, n. pU (Zmw) Proceedings pending a suit, 
after an inhibition is decreed. Ayliffe. 

j^T-TEw'TipN, n. Act of attending; heedj regard; a 
steady exertion or application of the mind. 

^t-tEn'tive, fl. Paying attention ; heedful. 

^T-TEN'TivE-LY, ad. In an attentive manner. 

ijiT-TETf'TivE-Nfiss, Ti. duality of bein^ attentive. 

^t-tEn'V-Xnt, a. Diluting ; making thin. 

^t-tEn'V-Xnt,* tu (JIfed.; Medicine to dilute the blood. 

^t-tEn'v-A-TE, (?t-tfin'yH-at) v. a. [attenuo, L.] [t. at- 
tenuated ; pp. attenuating, attenuated.] To make 
thin or slender; to lessen, 

^T-TfiN'v-*TE, a. Made thin ; made «:lender; diluted. 

^T-TEN'V-AT-ED,*a. {BoU) Gradually tapering to a point, 
without becoming flat. P. Cyc. 

At-tEn-v-a'tiqn, n. Act of attenuating ; a thinning. 

Xt'tjer, tu Corrupt matter. Skinner. [Local, Eng.] 

fAT'T]ER-ATE,* V. o. To Wear away, as by the sea. Smart 

AT TEE-A'TipN,* n. The act of wearing away, or the for- 
mation, of land by the wearing of the sea. Smart. 

AT-tEst', V, a. [attestor, L.] [i. attested ; pp. attesting, 
attested.] To give proof of ; to certify ; to bear witness ; 
to call to witness. 

^t-tEst'j^?(. Witness. Shak. [r.] 

Xt-tes-ta'tiqn, tu Act of attesting; testimony. 

^T-T£s'TiVE,*a. Giving attestation ; attesting. Month. Rev. 

^t-tEs'tI?r, 71. One who attests. Spenser. 

Xt'tic, a. Belonging to Attica or Athens ; pure ; classical ; 
elegant. MiUon, Belonging to the upper story of a build- 

Xt'tic, n. A native of Attica. Bentley. — (Arch.) The up- 
pfir story of a building; a garret, — Attic Base, a peculiar 
kmd of basCj resembling the composite base. 

Xr'Tf-CAL, a. [Atticas, h.] Relating to Attica ; Attic. 

Xt'TJ-cT^M, n An Attic idiom or phrase. 

AT'rj-cIZE,t).7t, [dTTiKii^u.] To use an Atticism. Bentley. 

t..\T-TlN(^E', o. a, [attmgo,lj.] To touch lightly. Coles. 

^T-tTre', v. a. [i. attired; pp. attiring, attired.] To 
dress ; to array."" 

At-tTre', n Clothes; the head-dress; decoration; the 
horns of a buck or stag. 

^t-tired',* C?it-tlrd') p. a. Furnished with attire ; dressed. 
— (Her.) Attired is used in speaking of the horns of a 
buck or stag. 

At-tir'er, 71. One who attires ; a dresser. 

AT-TiR'iNG, 71. A dressing; the head-dress. Sidney. 

fAT-Ti'TLE, (?t-ti'tl)T). o. To entitle. Oowcr. 

ATTi-TUDE, 7u [attitude, Fr.] PostTire ; the gesture and 
position of a figure, in which the action or sentiment of 
the person is represented. 

XT-ri-TO'Dj-N^Lj+fl. Relating to attitude or posture. Smart. 

5,T-ri-TCf-ni-NA'RJ-AM',*7i. One studious of attitudes. Oalt. 

S,T-TJ-T0'l)i-NiZE,* V. Ti. To assume affected attitudes, 
airs, or postures. Ck. Ob. 


At-t5l'l^nt, a. [attollena, l,.} That lifts up. Derhan^ 

^t-t6ne', v. n. See Atone, 

^t-torn', (9t-tUrnO v. a. [attomer, old Fr.] To tranafrt 

the service of a vassal. Sadler. [H.] 

At-torn', (5it-tUrn') v. n. (Law) To acknowledge a new 
possessor of property, and accept tenancy under hiia 

At-tor'nj?y, (?it-tiir'n?) n. ; pi. ^t-tor'ney§. One whi 
acts for another ; a proxy, — Attorney, or Attnrney at Umi 
one legally qualified to prosecute and defend actions is 
courts of law ; a solicitor ; a lawyer. 

tAT-TOR'NEY, (^t-lur'ne) v. a. To perform by proxy; tu 
emjiloy as a proxy, Sltak. 

^T-TOR'NEY-t^l^N'lEiR-AL,* 71. A prosecuting officer o, 
government ; a ministerial officer, who acts foi the gov- 
ernment by which he is appointed, as an attorney does fot 
his employer. RomUly. 

At-tok'n? y-(^En'er-^l-shIp,* 7u The office of attomer 
general. Month. Rev, 

^^T'TOr'ney-shIp, (&t-tUr'ne-ship) ti. The office of an at 
torney. Shak. 

^^t-TOrn'mj^nt, (?t-tUm'ment) tu (Law) Ayielding of Um 
tenant to a new lord. CoweU 

AT-trXct', V, a. [attraho, attractum, L.] [i. attracted 
pp. ATTRACTING, ATTRACTED.] To draw to ; to bring to- 
gether ; to unite ; to entice ; to allure. 

fAT-TRXcT', n. Attraction. Uudibras. 

AT-TRAcT-A-ElL'l-Ty, 71. Capability of being attracted 
Sir W. Jones. 

A.T-TRXc'Ti-CAL,a. Having power to attract. Ray. 

At-trXct'ing-ly, ad. In an attracting manner. 

^t-trXc'tiqn, tu Act of attracting; that which attracts | 
allurement; fascination ; tendency of bodies to approach 
one another and adhere together ; the power, principle, ol 
tendency in bodies to unite, distinguished into the attraa. 
tion of gravity, or gravitation, and the attraction of eoh^ 

AT-trXc'tjve, a. Having power to draw ; inviting. 

At-trXc'T|VE,7i. That which draws or incites. Herbert 

AT-TRSc'TiVE-Ly, ad. With the power of attracting. 

At-trXc'tive-nEss, 71. Q.uality of being attractive. 

At-trXc'tqr, n. He or that which attracts. 

At'tra-hEnt, [at'rj-hSnt, S. JV. P.Ja, K. Sm.i gLt-tm 
hent, Wb.] n. That which attracts. Olanville. 

t^^T-TRXP', V. a. To clothe ; to dress. Spenser. 

fJLT-TREC-TA'TipN, 71. [attrectatio,L.] Frequent handling 

AT-TRIB'V-TA-BLE, a. That may be attributed ; imputable. 

^T-tr1b'VTE, v. (u [attribuo, L.] [i. attributed ; pp. at- 
tributing, ATTRIBUTED.] To Set dowu to J to ascribe ; to 

At'tri-butEjA. a thing attributed or belonging to any 
one;"property; quality; a perfection or excellence belong- 
ing to the Deity. 

At-trt-bu'tiqn, n. Act of attributing ; attribute. 

AT-trIe'v-Tive, a. That attriijutes. Shak. 

AT-TRTB'v-TlVE,n. A thing attributed. Harris. 

AT-Trite', a. [attritus, L.] [Sorry. Abp. Usher.] Groun« 
or worn by rubbing. MUton. 

At-trIte'ness, n. State of being attrite or much worn. 

^t-trI"tiqn, (git-trish'un) n. [attntio, L,] Act of wear- 
ing; state of being worn. — (Theol.) Such a grief for sin 
as arises only from fear, distinguished from contrition. 
Bp. HalL 

^t-tune', v. o. [i. attuned; pp. attunino, attuned.] 
To make musical ; to adjust to another sound ; to tune 

tA-TWAlw', C9-twan') ad. In twain ; asunder. Shak, 

l^-TWEEPf', ad. or prep. Between. Spenser. 

A-TWlsT',* a. Awry ; distorted, Seager. [R.] 

fA-TwIXT', (9-twIkstOjwep- Betwixt. Spenser, 

|A-TW6', (?-t6') ad. Into two. Chaucer. 

Ai'y-A,* n. (Zool.) A genus of crustaceous animals. P. 

AfylI^s,* tu (Zool.) A genus of crustaceous animals. 
P.' Cyc 

A-Tl?P'jc,* a. (Med.) Having no type; irregular. Diingli- 

AuBAilfE,* ((f' n. [Fr.] (French Law) A prerogativa 
by which the kings of France formerly claimed the prop- 
erty of a stranger who died in their kingdom, not having 
been naturalized. P. Cyc 

Xxj'BEii-fxtNE,* 71. [Fr.] An annual plant, used for food. 
Oeiit. Mag. 

Xu'BER-plSTf,* n. [aubergiste, Fr.] An innkeeper. Smol- 
lett. [R.] 

Au'BVRN, a. Of a tan color ; reddish brown. 

Au-eHE'Nj-^,*Ti. (Zool,) A genus of ruminating animala 
P. Cyc. 

Auc'TlpN, (awk'shun) ji. [auetio, L.] A public sale <l 
property to the highest bidder; the place of such sak 
things sold at auction. 

AUc'TiQN, if. a. To sell by auctiuru [R.] 

Suc'TipN-A-RY, a. Belonging to an auction. Dryden 

Auc-TipN-EER', TU One who sells by auction. 

fciEN, sir; m3ve, nob, s6n, bOli., BtJE, rOle —5, (f, 5, 4, sofi! e, B,, £, I, Aard; 5 oj z ; j « gz;— Toil 



fcUC-TipN-fiER',* u, a. To sell by auction. Cowper. [R.1 

Huc'TTpN-RdoM,* n, A room where an auction is held. 

fAuc'T|VE, a. Of an increasing quality. Bailey, 

i vfrO p■-il^l,* n. {Bot.) A Japanese evergreen plant or shrub. 
P. Cyc. 

fAu-cV-PA'TipN, Tt. [aitcupatiOf L.] Fowling; bird-catch- 
ing. Bailay. 

Xu-da'ciovs, (atw-da'shus) a. [awrfoa:, L.] Daring^ confi- 
dent; impudent; bold, commonly in a bad sense. 

Xu-DA'cioys-Ly, (aw-da'shiis-le)arf. Boldly; impudently. 

Su-da'ciovs-n£ss, (aw-da'shus-nSs) n. Impudence. 

Xu-DAp'i-Ty, ^a.w-dSl8'?-t?) n, Quality of being audacious ; 
impudence; mtrepidity ; boldness. 

Xu-DJ-B[L'[-Ty,* n. Audibleness. Journal of Science, [r.] 

Au'Df-BLE, a. [audibiliSf L.] That may be heard j percep- 
tible by the ear. 

Au'dj-ble, n. The object of hearing. Jtforc. [r.] 

Xu'di-ble-n£ss, n. Q,uality of being audible. 

Xti'di-bly, atJ, In an audible manner. 

1jAu'd£-£nce, [£Lw'de-6ns, P. J. Ja. Sm. R,; iw'dyens, S. F. ; 
awd'yens,^.^. faw'je-ens, IV.] n. [Fr.] Act of hearing; 
a heariog ; an assembly addressed by a speaker ; an au- 
ditory ; the ceremonial hearing of ambassadors or minis- 
ters by a sovereign or authority. 

giiu'Di-£NCE-CHAM'BER, 71. The place of reception for a 
solemn meeting. 

J1u'di-£nce-Court, n. A court belonging to the arch- 
bishop of Canterbury. Bum. 

Xjt-di-^n'do St ter-mi-nXn'oo* [L.] {Law) A writ 
or commission to certain persons for appeasing and pun- 
ishing any insurrection or great riot. Whishaw. 

[Au'Dl-fiNT, n A hearer. Shelton. 

AU'DiT, n. Thfi settling of accounts by examining docu- 
ments and heaimg parties concerned ; a final account. 

Xu'dit, V a. [i. audited; pp. auditing, audited.] To 
settle by an audit; to examine and settle or adjust, as 

Au'dit, v.n. To sum up. Arhuthnot. 

Au'dit-HoOse, 71. An appendance to most cathedrals, for 
the transaction of affairs belonging to them. Sir O. 

tSu-Dt"TiON, (£lw-dtsh'un) n. A hearing. Bailey, 

tAu'Dj-TlVE, a. Having the power of hearing. Cotgrave. 

Au'di-tqr, n. A hearer; one who audits; a person ap- 
pointed to settle or audit an account. 

Xu'dj-tqr-shIp, 71. The office of an auditor. Johnson, 

Au'D|-Tp-Ry, a. Relating to the sense of hearing; having 
the power of hearing. 

Au'Di-Tp-RVj 71. An audience ; an assembly of hearers ; a 
place in which auditors are used to assemble. 

Xu'dj-tr£ss, 71. A woman or female who hears. Milton. 

Xu-dIt'v-AL,* a. Relating to hearing. Coleridge. [R.] 

fSuF, (awf ) 71. A fool, or silly fellow. Burton. 

j3u FAIT* (d'fai') [Fr.] Well-instructed; skilful ; expert. 
Qu. Rev. 

Au-Pe'an,* [9LU-je'9n, Sm.; au'je-^n, Jlsh.} a. Belonging 
toAugeas; full of dirt or filth. Tooke. 

Au'jGER, n. An iron instrument for boring holes, 

Xu'fiER-H5LE, 7t. A hole made by an auger. Shak. 

jfcUGHT, (Iwt) 71. Any thing. Shak. 

Au'piTE,* 71. ^Min.) A mineral of a dark green or black 
color, found in volcanic rocks. LyelL 

Aug-m£nt', v. a. {^augmenter, Fr.] [i. augmented; pp. 
AUGUENTiNo, AUGMENTED.] To make larger ; to enlarge ; 
to increase ; to multiply. 

XuG-MfiPTT', V. n. To grow larger. Sidney. 

Xug-'ment, 71. Increase ; state of increase. 

XuG-M£NT'^-Bl.E,a. Capable of being augmented. 

XuG-MEN-TA'TipN, n. Act of augmenting; increase. — 
(ffer.) An especial mark of honor, borne either as an es- 
cutcheon or a canton. 

AuG-MEN-TA'TlpN-CouRT, 71, A court erected by Henry 
VIII. for the increase of the revenues of his crown, by 
the suppression of monasteries. Warton. 
Xug-m£n'ta-tTve, fl. Tending to increase. 
JUG-MiSN'TA-TtvE,* n. A Word formed to express great- 
ness. Latham. 
AtTG-MiSNT'ER, n. One who augments. Johrison, 
Xu'GRE, (SLw'gyr) n. See Augeb. 
Su'gvRj n. [augurj L.l One who pretends to predict by 

omens, as tlie flight of birds ; a soothsayer. 
&u'guR, v. n. {i. augured; pp. auguring, augured.] To 

guess ; to predict or conjecture from signs. Shak. 
Ju'GVR, V. a. To foretell. B. Jonson. 
S.u'gu-R^I',* a. Relating to augury ; foretelling. Bryant. 
^u'GV-RATE,7>. 7i. To judge by augury. JVarburton. [R.] 
Su-GV-itA'TipN, 71. The practice of augury. Browne. 
Au'gvR-1?R, n. An augur; a soothsayer, Shak. 
Xtj-gu'ri-^l, a. Relating to augury. Browne. 
Au'GV-RisT,*7i. An augur; an augurer. Booth. [R.] 
fkrj'GV-RiX'EfV.n. To practise augury. Bailey. 
^A~}'Gij-RoOSj a. Predicting ; prescient. Chapman. 
Iu'gvr-shIP,* 71. The office of an augur. Bacon. 


Jiu^GV-RY) n. Prognostication by omens an omen ; m ftigm 

a prediction. 

Au'GVST, 7U [jtugv-stas^h,] The eighth nonth of the yeaf 
so named in honor of Augustus Ciesar. 

Xu-gOst', o. Great; grand; majestic; awful 

Xu-gOs'tan,* k. Relating to Augustus ; literary CnmpbeU, 

Au-gDs'tine5,*7!. pi. An order of monks, bo named from 
St. Augustine ; called also jSustin Friara. Milne^ 

Au-GD3T'LV)*flrf' In an august manner. Young. 

Au-gOst'n^ss, 71. Elevation of look ■ dignity 

SUK, n. A sea-bird. Pennant. 

Suk'WARD, a. See Awkward. 

Xu-la'ri-an, 71. \aula^ L.] A member of a hall, as distin- 
guished from a member of a college, at Oxford, in Eng- 

Au-la'ri-aw,* a. Relating to a hall Smart. 

AULD, a. Old. Shak. [Scotch.] 

kuz,n Lang Syne,* [Scotch.] A phrase usee to express, 
days long since past. Burns. 

Au-i.£t'[C,o. [fliAdy.] Belonging to pipes. Bailey. [R.] 

Au'lic, a. [aulicua, L.] Belonging to the court. — AulU 
Council J the personal council of the emperor of the lats 
German empire. 

XuLN, (^wn) 71. [aulnej Fr.] A French measure of length ; 
an ell. 

Sul'n^-^^e,* (Stw'ngij) n. Measurement by the ell. SmaH. 

3.ul'NjJL-9^er,* (a,w'ngi-jer) n. A measurer of cloth; aina 
ger. Blackstone. 

tXu-MAiL', t). o. [mailUj Fr.] To variegate ; to figure. Spenao 

Aum'BRY, n. See Ambry, 

Aunt, (int) 71. [a7iefi, old Fr.] A father or mother's sister 

fXuNT'ER, 77. An old word fox adventure. 

Au'RA,* 71. fL,] pi. AUR^. A gentle gale or breath of aif 
— (Med.) A vapor ; an exhalation of fine particles from s 
body. — (Omith.) A species of raven. Crabb, 

fSu'RAL,* a. Pertaining to the air. Maunder. 

Su'RATE, Tt, A sort of pear. 

Su'RATE,*7i. (Chejn.) A combination of auric acid and a» 
alkali. Francis. 

Au'rat-ed,* a. Resembling or containing gold. SmarU 

tXu'RE-AT, a. [aaratasj ±j.] Golden. Skelton. 

Au'r?-ate,* a. Containing gold ; aurated. Southey 

Au-re'li-^, b. [L.] The state of an insect, commonly 
called the chrysalis or papa. P. Cyc. 

Su-Rii'Lj-^N,* a. Relating to or like an aurelia. .dsh. 

Au~RE'g-L^j* n. [L.J A circle of rays ; a crown of glory 

Xu'Ric,*a. (CAem.) Relating to or partaking of gold P. Cye, 

^u-Ri-enXL'ciTE,* n. (JWin.) A mineral containing coppei 
and zinc. Dana. 

Au'Ri-CLE, (3.w're-kl) n. [auricula^ L.] The external ear* 
also one of the two venous chambers or appendages ol 
the heart, resembling the external ear. 

Au-Rlc'v-LA, n.ipL AU-Rlc'V-LA?. (Bot.) A flower; a 
species of primrose. 

Xu-Rlc'v-LAR, a. Relating to the ear; conveyed by hear 
ing; traditional; within the sense of hearing; secret 
being conveyed only to the ear, as, " auricular cunfeo- 

Xu-Rlc'v-I*AR-Ly, ad.. In an auricular manner. 

Xu-rIc'V-late,* a. (Bot.) Like the ear; having two lobes, 
like ears, at the base. P. Cyc. 

Au-rIf'er-oDs, a. [auriferj L.] Producing gold. 

Au-Rf dj^* n. [L.] \i[. AURIGA. A charioteer. — {Astron.) 
The Wagoner, or Charioteer, a constellation. Orabb. 

Au-Ri'GAL,* a. Belonging to a chariot or carriage. Bui- 
wer. [R.] 

Au-RJ-GA'TlpN, n, [aurigaf L.] Act of driving carriages 
Bailey. [R.] 

Su-rIg'R^-phy,* 71. A writing, or the art of writing, with 
gold. Maunder. 

Au-Ri-PHR^p'i-ATE,* a. Embroidered with gold. SoutJief 

Su-rJ-PIG-MEn'TVM, n. See Orpiment. 

Su'RI-sciLP,* 71. An instrument to clean the ears. STiwrf, 

Au'rist, n, [auris, L.] A surgeon for disorders in the ear 

3.u'rJt-:^d,* a. Having ears ; formed like an ear. HiU. 

Xu-R5'RA,n [L.] pi. L. aurora; Eng. auroras, Tha 
goddess that opens the gates of day ; daybreak ; the morn- 
ing ; the dawning light before sunrise ; a species of crow'ii 
foot^ a luminous meteor. See Atthora Borbalis. 
Au-RO'RA Bo-RE-a'LISj 71. [L.] J^orthem daybreak, so 
called because it usually appears at or near the north, and 
presents a light somewhat resembling that which precedes 
sunrise ; called also northern lights^ polar lights, or strearH' 
ers. — .Aurora ^ustralis, the same phenomenon seen to- 
wards the south pole. 
Au-ro'rai.,* a. Relating to the aurora or aurora borealiSL 

Phil. Mag. 
Au-r<?-t£l'lv-iii'EE,* 71. (Min.) An ore of tellurium, con- 
taining gold and silver. Dana. 
Xu'Rt/M F&l'mi-n1n!S, 71. [L.] A preparation made by 
dissolving gold in aqua-regia, and precipitating it vrith 
salt of tartar. Quitict/. 
Sus-cvl-ta'tion,;!. {auscidto^'li.'] Alisteningto. — {Mid, 

X, i» 6, C, 2, long' i, fi, I, 6, 0, 1?, short i ^, ip, j, p »;, V, oiscure. — fAre, fXr, fAst, fAMiJ HfilR hEb 

n method of distinguigliing diseases by list jning to Boiinde 

through a tube, or stethoscope. 
Aus'cVL-TA-TQR,* n. (Med.) One who practises ausculta- 
tion. Month. Ren 
aus-ctlL'T^ Tp-RY,'' a. Relating to auscultation. Qu. flew. 
£u'sPf-c ATE, «. a. To foreshow. B.Jojison. To begin. Burke. 
iu'spjcE, n. [aa^-^icitun^ L.] pi. Au'spi-CE?. Oinen or 

omens, such as used to be drawn from birds j favorable 

appearances ; protection j influence. 
£u-spi"ciATi, (5iw-spish'al) o. Relating to prognostics. 
Su-spI"cro ys, (aw-spish'ys) a. Having omens of success ; 

prosperous ; favorable ; propitious ; lucky ; happy. 
3i:u-SPl"cioys-Ly, (aw-spish'us-1?) ad. Prosperously. 
Xu-spF'ciovs-nEss, (a.w-spi8h'us-n6s) 7u Prosperity 
Su-stere', a. [xLiLstema. L.] Severe i harsh } rigid. 
&u-STERE'Ly, ad. Rigidly ; severely. Sltak. 
Xu-stere'ness, 71. Severity; austerity. Shale, 
Xu-stJSr'i-tv, 71. Severity ; mortified life ; harsh discipline. 
Xu'sTRAL,_a. Relating to the south ; southern 
&u'sTttAL-iZE, t?. 7u [aiwicr, L.] To tend towards the 

south. Browne. 
ius'TRf-^N,* n. A native of Austria. Coze. 
&us'TRK\N,* a. Relating to Austria. Butler. 

Xu-THiiN'T|c, a. [autltenticus, L.] Resting on proper au- 
thori^ ; properly attested ; true ; rea) ; genuine. 

TiCATiNG, AUTHENTICATED.] To prove authentic } to prove 
by authority. JVartoiu 

Au-th£n-ti-ca'tiqn,* tu Act of authenticating ; a proper 
or legEil attestation. Oladstone. 

Au-THEN-Tig'i-TV, n. The quality of being authentic, or 
of resting on proper authority ; genuineness. 

Xu-THJeN'Tic-Ly, ad. Authentically. Bp. Barlow. 

&u-th15n'tic-n^ss, tu Authenticity. Stdlia^jlcet. 

&u-THlLN'Tics,* n. pi. A collection of the Novels of Jus- 
tinian, made by an anonymous author. Bouvier. 

iu'THpR, 71. [auctor, L. ; auteur, Fr.] The first beginner 
or mover ; the efficient ; the first writer of any thing ; 
a writer of a literary or scientific work ; a writer. 

\Av'THQK,v. a. To occasion; to effect. Beaum. ^ Fl. 

iu'THQR-ESS, n. A female author. Pope. British Critic — 
{)::^This word is now well established. Heretofore aur- 
tlior was commonly applied to writers of both sexes ; and 
some still so use it. 

Ru-tho'rj-^l,* a. Relating to an author. Ed. Rev. [r.] 

&.u'thor4?W[,* 71. Authorship; quality of an author. 
Anva Seward. [R.] 

&u-th6r'[-t^-tIve, a. Having due authority ; exercising 
authority ; commanding ; magisterial ; dictatorial. 

Au-TH6R'i-TA-Tiv'E-Ly, ad. In an authoritative manner. 

i.i>-TH6R'i-TA-TlVE-NEss, 71. Q,uality of being authorita- 
tive. Baileij, 

Au-thOr'i-tv, n. {auctorita3j L.] Legal or genuine power; 
influence ; power ; rule ; support ; testimony ; credibility ; 
a citation of some act or decision ; a precedent. 

itu'THpR-I-2A-BLE,*a. That may be authorized. Hammond. 

itu-THpR-(-ZA'Ti<?N, n. Act of authorizing ; establishment 
by authority. Hale, 

iu'THpR-IZE, V. a. [t, authorized; pp, authorizing, 
AUTHORIZED.] To give authority ; to make legal; to es- 
tablish by authority : to justify ; to give credit. 

Au'THQR-iZED,*(auM;li9r-izd)y.o. Having authority; sup- 

S.u'thqr-l£ss, a. Without an author. Sir E. SackvUle. 

X,u'TiipR-Ly,* a. Belonging to an author. Cuwper. [r.] 

X.u'THpii-SH:[p, 71. State or quality of an author. 

iiu-Tp-Bi-6u'RA-PHER,* ji. One who writes his own life. 
Sir E. Brydges. 

itl-Tp-Bl-p-GrRAPH'jC,* a. Same as autobiographical. Dr. 

Au-Tp-Bl-p grXph'i-c^l,* a. Relating to autobiography. 
Ed. Rev, 

(iu-Tp-Bj-6G-'BVPHl(sT,*7i. as autobiographer. Month. 

4u-Tp-Bl-6a-'RA-PHy,* 71. [ai>T6^ and biography.l The 
life of a person written by himself; the act of writing 
one's own history. Brande. 

5u-TP-cXr'pi-oOs,* a. Noting fruit consisting only of 
pericarp, without any additional organ. Brande. 

f.u-T6BH'THpN,* n. [avT6xB(^}v.^ One who is supposed to 
have sprung from the soil itselron which he lives. Smart. 

tu-TOjCH'THp-N-^L,* a. Aboriginal ; original. Ed. Rev, 

HV'-TQf.H'TSQ-NE^f* n. pi [L.] The aborigines or first 
inhabitants of a country. Ash. 

£r-T6c'RA-sy, n. [tvr •KparEia.'] Government residing 
in or exercised by a single person ; self-derived power. 

&U'tp-CRXt,* n. An absolute sovereign or ruler. Q«. Rev. 

53 AVA 

.^u-tp-crXt^|C,* a. Relating to an autocracy ; aLwluW 

Ec. Rev. 
Xu-tp-crXt'i-c^L, fl. Relating to an autocracy. 
Au-Tp-cRXT'j-C-^L-liV,* ad. In the manner of an autocral 

Ch. Eng. Rev, 

fSu-T6c'R*-TpR.*7i. The same as flMiocroi. Smart. 

fAu-Tp-CRA-TSR'l-CAL, fl. Same as autocratical. Pearson. 

Xu-t6c'rV-TRIce,* n. A female absolute sovereign. Danit^ 

Au-t6c'rA-TrIx,* n. Same as autocratrice. Smart. 

Xu'Tp-CRiT-SHjP,* 71. The office of an autocrat. Ch. Ob 

A UTO DA FEf* (iu'tp-cfe-faO [Sp. ; properly a uto de fe 
act offaith.'\ n, j pi. AUTOS DA fe. A sentence given by 
the inquisition for burning a heretic. Brande. 

fXu-Tp-^^E'NE-AL, a. Self-begotten. fFater/touse, 

AU'Tp-G-RXPH,n. (autographcj Fr.] A person's own hand 

tXu-T6G'RA-PH*L, fl. Autograph ical. Bennet. 

Su-tp-grXph'jc,* fl. Relating to an autograph ; autograph- 
ical. Oent. Mag, 

Xu-tp-grAph'}-cal, a. Belonging to an autograph. 

Su-t5g'r^-ph¥, 71. A person's own hand-writing, in op 
position toa copy ; autograph. Snox. 

Au-t6m'a-lite,* n. (Min.) A dark greenish mineral, 
called also gahnite. P. Cye, 

Xu-t5m'ji-tal, a. Same as automatic. Todd. [R.] 

Su'tp-mXth,* 71. One who is self-taught. Smart. 

Au-tp-mXt'jc,* fl. Relating to an automaton ; produced by 
machinery. Ure. — (Med.) Acting of itself ; spontaneous 

Xu-tp-mXt'i-c^l, a. Belonging to an automaton. 

Au-t6m'a-t6n,* n. [avrdfiaTov.] pi. Gr. XU-tSm'^-T^ , 
Eng. Au-t6m'a-ToN9 ; — both in good use. A machine dt 
constructed as to imitate the actions of men or animals. 

fXu-TSM'A-ToDs, a. Automatical. Browne. 

Xu-Tp-NO^ME-A,*Ti. (Zool.) A genus of crustaceans. P. O^c. 

f Au-Tp-NO'Mi-AN,* n. One who practises autonomy. Bax^ 

|Au-T6N'p-My, 71. [ai'Tovoiita.'] The living according to 
one's own law or mind. Bailey, 

Su-t5p'sic,* ) a. Seen with one's own eyes ; autoptical 

Au-t6p'si-C-A.l,* ) Dr. Francis. 

Au'T6p-sy, 71. \dvTotpia.] The seeing with one's own 
eyes; ocular evidence. Quincy. Examination by one'i 
self. Ray. — (Med.) A post mortem examination. Mott. 

fAu-TOP'Ti-cAL, fl. Perceived by one's own eyes. Evelyn 

fAu-T5p'TJ-CAL-L¥, ad. By means of one's own eyes 

fXu-Tp-sjBHfiD-j-Xs'Tr-cAL, (a-u-tp-skSd-e-Ss'te-kjl) a. [ai 
T(Jf and (rxEdiaart«-dsj Hasty ; slight. Dean Martin, 

Su-Tp-THE'l^M,* 71. The doctrine of the self-existence ol 
God. Maunder, [r.] 

Au'tvmn, (aw'tiim) n. [autumnus, L.] The season of the 
year between summer and winter, comprising, astronomic 
cally, from the autumnal equinox, about the 23d of Sep- 
tember, to the winter solstice, about the 23d of Decem- 
ber. — Autumn popularly comprises^ in England, August, 
September, and October ; in the United Statesy September, 
October, and November. 

Au-tDm'nal, fl. Belonging to autumn. Donne. 

Xu-tDm'nal,* 71. A plant that flowers in autumn. Smart 

fAu-TDM'Ni-Ty, n. The season of autumn. Bp, Hall. 

AUjf:-E'sis,n. [L.] (Rhet.) Amplification. SmitJi. 

tAu?;-£T'ic, fl. Increasing ; amplifying. Hutchinson, 

Au^-Tl'iar, (3.wg-zil'y?r) a. [aaxilium, L.] Assisting. Popa 
See Auxiliary, 

fAuy-TL'lAB, (SLwg-zil'yjir) n. Helper. Olover. See Auxii^ 


Au3j:-lL'lAR-Ly,* ad. By means of aid or help. Coleridge. 

Au3f-lii'i^-ay, ^9LWg-zn'y&-re) fl. Assisting; helping.— 
(Oram.) Auxiliary Verb, a word that assists in the conju- 
gation of other verbs. 

Au)j:-lL'iA-Ry, (a.wg-zTl'y?-re) n. A helper; an assistant ; « 
confederate, — pi. Foreign troops employed in war. 

fXuif-lL-i-X'TipN, (a.wg-zil-e-a'shyn) 71, Help. Bailey, 

f Au3f-lL'i-A-Tp-RY, a. Assisting. Sir E. Sandys. 

^-vXil', (^-val') V. a. [valoir, Fr.] [i. availed; pp. ATAiif 
iNO, AVAILED.] To profit ; to promote ; to benefit 

A-vail', (?-val') v. lu To be of use. Dnjden. 

^-VAii,', Tu Profit ; advantage ; benefit. Locke. 

A-VAiL.-^-Bli.'l-'rY,* n. duality of being available. Haugl^ 
ton. [B-1 

A-vail'a-ble, fl. That may be used with success or ad- 
vantage ; valid ; profitable ; powerful ; useful. 

^-vail'^-ble-n£ss, 71. Power to promote an end; legal 

/k -v All.' A-BljYt ad. Powerfully; legally; validly. 

fA-VAiL'MENT, 71. Usefulness; avail. Bailey. 

AV^-LANpHE',* [^v-9-l^nsh', ^. ,■ av'9-l8ngsh, Sm,\ n, 
[Fr.] A vast boay of snow, ice, &c., sliding down 1 
mountain. LyelL 

fA-VALE', V. fl. [avatery Fr.] To let fall j to depress, ^ensef 

tV'vXLE', V. n. To sink, ^enser. 

tA-vXNT', n. The front of an army. Oower. 

AVAHT-COURIER, (^-Ving'-ko're') [^t-vSng'k^rCr, Ja, ; ^ 
vong'kor'ya', ^.,'&v'i5ng-k6r'er, Sm,] 71. [Fr.] A meaaen- 

la7£N, sir; move, i-'or, s6n; bDll, bur, rOle — p, 9, ^, g, 

■oft', e, jQ, C, I, hard; ^ as Zj X as gz , — TUIM 
R • 



fflr who is despatched before to notify thb approach of 


-VAm'-GuXrd, (9-v3lnt'gilrd, or ^-vang'gard) [^-v^nf- 

gaxdyW. P.J. F,; 9-va,unt'giLrd, S, -■ gL-vaung'^lird, Ja. ; 

a-vSng'gArd, K. Sm.] n. [Fr.] The van ; the hrst body 

of an army. 
^-vXn'TV-rine,* n. A beautiful quartz stone, having 

grains of gold dust or mica interspersed. fV. Ency. 
Av'A-RlCE, n. [avaritia^ L.] Insatiable desire of gain or 

property ; cupidity ; penuriuusne^ ; covetousness. 
Av-VRi"ciova, (av-?-rIah'ya) a. Having an insatiable love 

of gain i penurious ; miserly ; sordid ; covetous. 
X.v-A-iii"cioi;s-Ly, (av-^-rish'ys-'?) od- Covetously. 
Xv-^-ri"ciOi;s-nEss, (4v-j-rish'iis-nes) iu Covetousness. 
fAv'A-ROGs, a. Covetous ; avaricious. Qower, 
^-viST', iiiterj. (JVauft) Hold ! stop I enough ! 
dy~A-T'AR'J^ n. [av-gi-t'ir', Sm. Wb.; ^-va't'Ar, K. Maunder^ 

Campbell.} In Hindoo mythology, an incarnation uf a 

deity. P. Qtjc. 
Xv-a-ta'ra,* 71. An incarnation of the deity j avatar. 

tA-vAuNCE'M^NT, n. Advancement. Bale. 
ifr-vAuNT', iTiter/. Hence I begone! Shak. 
t^-vAuMT', (?-v2LntO V. a. To boast; to vaunt. Abp. 

t^-vSuNT', V. n. To come before; to advance. Spenser^ 

t^-VAUNT', 1 

i^-VAUNT'^wcE, >;i. Boasting. Chaucer. 


^'VEj (a've) ji. [ffluB, L.] The first part of the salutation, 
used by the Roman Catholics, to the Virgin Mary ; an 
abbreviation of the A've Mqr-ri'q.y or A've Ma'ry. 

(A-VfiL^ V. 0. \aveUo, L.]' To' pull away. Brmone. 

iv-E-NA'cEoys,* (av-?-na'shus) a. Belonging to or like 
oats. jSsJi, 

&v'EN-Aij)^E, lu (Law) A quantity of oats paid as a rent. 

^-V£N(jI-E', (gi-venj') v. a. [vengerj Fr.] [i. avenged ; pp. 
AVENGiHa, AVENGED.} To take vcngeauce for without 
malice; to revenge; to punish. 

f A-v£nge', (9-v6njQ 71. Revenge. Spenser. 

(■A-v£n'9EANCE, n. Punishment; vengeance. Philips. 

^-v£N9E'F0L,*a. Revengeful. Ec. Rev. [R.] 

A-v£no-e'm?nt, n. Act of avenging. Spenser. 

A-vEn'^^er, n. One who avenges. Dryden. 

A-v£n'(^er-£ss, n. A female avenger. Spenser. [R.] 

f'Av'E-NOR, n. [avenorj old Fr.] An ofiicer of the kmg of 
England's stable, who provided oats for his horses. 

Av']EN5, n. The herb bennet, a perennial plant. 

fA-viiNT'vRE, 11. [aventure, Fr.] (Law) A mischance, 
causing a man's death, without felony ; properly, ad- 
venture. CoweU 

iv'E-NDE, (av'e-nfi) n. [avenue^ Fr.] A way by which a 
place may be entered ; an alley of trees before a house ; 
an entrance ; a broad walk. 

1^-VER', v. a. [averer^ Fr.] [i. averred ; pp. averring, 
AVERRED.] To declare positively ; to affirm ; to assert. 

i.v'ER-AGE, n. [averagium, L,] A mean proportion ; a me- 
dium of any given quantities ; a contribution to a gen- 
eral loss. — Oeneral average. (Law) Whatever damage or 
loss is incurred by any part of a ship or cargo for tlie 
preservation of the rest ; a small duty paid to the master 
of a ship, for his care of goods over and above the freight. 

JtV'ER-A^E, r. a. [i. AVERAGEB ; pp. AVERAGING, AVER- 
AGED.] To fix a mean of uneven or different quantities ; 
to make equal ; to proportion. 

Xv'ER-A9^E,* V, Tu To exist in or form a medial quantity. 

' Qrant. 

Xv']?R-A9E,* a Being of a mean proportion or quality. 

Jl V'ER-CORN,* n. (Law) A rent paid in corn. TVhishaw. 

(^.-ver'ment, n. Affirmation; declaration. — (Law) An 
offer of the defendant to justify or make good an excep- 
tion, or of either party, in pleading, to prove what he 
assei ts. 

A-ver'nat, n. A sort of grape. 

^-ver'n!-an,* o. Relating to the lake Avemus. Booth. 

4v'5R-Pil:N-NY, n. (Eng. Law) Money paid towards the 
king of England's carriages, by rent from land, instead 
of service by beasts in kind. 

5-v£r'RHP-a,* n. (Bot.) A genus of plants belonging to 
the wood-sorrel tribe. P. Cyc. 

Jiv er-rOn'cATE, e. a. [avemmcoy h.] To root up. Hudi- 
bras. [R.] 

tAv-ER-RVN-cA'TlQN, n. Act of rooting up. Robinson, 

Av-er-rvn-CA'tqr,* n. A pruning instrument, having 
two blades fixed at the end uf a rod, acting like scissors. 

Xv-ER-sa'ti^N, n. Hatred ; abhorrence. SouVi. [r.] 

^- verse', a. [flperjMJ, L.] Disinclined to; unwilling; re- 
luctant ; malign ; not favorable. 

^-vSrse'lv, fli. Unwillingly; with aversion. 

^-VERSE'wiss, n. Unwillingness ; disinclination. 

^-vEr'siqn, (^^TfeVshyn) n. Repugnance; antipathy La 

tred ; dislike ; cause of aversion. 
tA-VER'sfVE,*a. Averse; turning away Daniel. 
^-vfeRT', V. a. [avertOy L.] [i. averted j pp. ateH' iwq 

AVERTED.] To tuTD aslde Of aviTay ; to cause to dit &ke 

to put by. 
^-VERT', V. 71, To turn away. Thomson. 
A-visRT'ER, Ti. He or that which averts. Bartfm. 
fA-VER'Tj-MEwT,* 71. Advertisement. MilUm, 
A'VJ-A-RV, 71. [avis, L.] A place enclosed to keep birdt in 
.^-vic'v-ii^,* 71. (ZooQ A genus of bivalves. P. Cye. 
AV'iD,* a. Eager; greedy. Sir E. Brydges. [r.] 
fA-vlD'l-o&s,* a. Eager; greedy. SmarL 
tA-vlD'i-oDs-Ly, arf. Eagerly; greedily. Bale. 
A-vId'j-T¥, 71. Greediness ; eagerness ; strong desire, 
fA-viljE', V, a. [avilir, Fr.]^ To depreciate. B. Jonsoiu 
A Vlif'c^-jJd MXt-ri-mo'ivi-i* [L.] (Lftw) " From th 

bonds of matrimony ; " a form of divorce. Hamilton. 
tA-vi^E', c.Ti, [aviscTy Fr.] To consider. See AvizE. Spenser 

tAvl^^' i "* [""^j Fr.] Advice ; intelligence. B. Jonson. 
tA-vi^E'MENT, 71, [Fr.] Advisement. B. Jonsoiu 
JAv'l-TO&s, a. [avitus, L.] Left by ancestors ; ancient 

tA-viZE', V. a. To counsel ; toconsider ; to advise. Spemstr 
Ar-Q-CA'j>df n, (Sp.] A tree found in the West Indiei 

tAv'p-cATE, V. a. \avocOj L.] To call oflf; to remove 

Lord Herbert 
Xv-p-cA'TipN, n. Act of calling aside ; business that call*. 

aside : occasional business ; occupation ; employment. 
tA-v&^V-TiVE, 7U Dehortation ; dissuasion. Barrow, 
A-voId'J V, a. [vuiderj Fr.] [i. avoided; pp, avoidino 

AVOIDED.] To shun ; to escape; to elude; to endeavoi 

to shun ; to evacuate ; to vacate ; to annul. 
A-VoId', V. n. To retire ; to become void, ^yliffe, 
A-voId'a-ble, a. That may be avoided or shunned. Bofyle, 
A-voId'ance, n. Act of avoiding ; state of being vacant 
' the course by which any thing is carried off. — (iflw> 

The act of becoming vacant by death, cession, depriva- 
tion, &c. ; the condition of a benefice when void of aa 

A-voId'er, n. One who avoids. 
A-volfD'l.ESS^ a. Inevitable. Dryden. 
Av-0|R-Di;-p6l9', (S-V-er-di^-pbiz') n. &. a, [avoir du poida 

Fr.l A weight, of which a pound contams 16 ounr*«, 

and is in proportion to a pound Troy, as 17 to 14. 
tA-v5KE', ■«. a. [auoco, L.J To call back. Cockeram. 
AV-O-LA'TlpN, n. [onoto, L.J Flight ; escape. OlanviUe. [R.^ 
Av'P-s£t * n, (Omith.) A species of palmiped bird. P. Cyc 
A-v60cH', «. a. [avouer,Fr.] [i. avouched ; pp. avouch 

iNo, AVOUCHED.] To affirm ; to maintain ; to vouch; to 

fA-voOcH', n. Declaration ; testimony. Shak. 
A-voOch'^-ble, a. That may be avouched. Sherwood. [B.' 
A-voOch'er, 71, One who avouches, 
tA-VoOCH'MENT, n. Declaration. S/uz/c. 
A'-VO"^', v. a. lavoueTj Fr.] [i. avowed; pp, avowiwo, 

AVOWED.] To declare openly; to affirm. 
f A-vo^' 71. Determination ; vow. Oower. 
A'-vo^'a-BI'E, a. That may be avowed, Donne. 
fA-voiV'A-BLY,* ad. In an avowable manner. DanieL 
A-vb'^'AL, 71. Open declaration ; justification. 
A-voWant,* 71. (Law) One who makes an avowry, o" 

avows or justifies a plea. Blaclistone. 
A-vo\Ved',* (51-vBud') p. a. Declared openly; professed 
A-vo*'ed-ly, ad. In an open manner. Clarendon. 
Av-o^-ee', [av-ofi-e', W. Jo. Jish; 51-vbu'e, SL Wb.\ 

One to whom the right of advowson of any churoh be- 
longs. See Advowee. 
A-vot^'er, 71. One who avows or justifies. Dryden. 
A-vd^'RV, n. (Law) A justification advanced in pleadin| 

by one who has taken a distress in his own right whea 

sued in replevin. 
fA-voNV'SAL, n. A confession. Di^U 
tA-v6iR^'TRy, 71. Bailey. See Advowtbt. 
A-yDlsed', (9-vulst') p. a. [anulsus^ L.] Plucked away 

A-vDl'sipn, (9-vuI'shun) 71. Act of taking suddenly away 
A-WAIT', v. a. [i. awaited; pp. awaiting, awaited.] To 

be in reserve for; to expect; to attend. Milton, 
lA-WAlT', 7U Ambush ; a waylaying. Spenser. 
A-WAKe', v. a, [i. AWOKE or awaked; 7^. ywAKiNn, 

AWOKE or AWAKED.] To rouse out of sleep ; to 1 iise from 

torpor ; to put into new action ; to wake. 
A-wake', V, n. To break from sleep ; to wake. i>Aak, 
A-wake', a. Not asleep ; in a vigilant state. 
A-Wa'kem", (gi-wa'kn) u, a. & 71. \i. awakened ; pp. aw* 

KENiNO, AWAKENED.] To awake ; to wakc. Pope. 
A-wak'en-^r, (gt-waTtn-^r) -n. He or that which awakens 
A-wak'en-tno, (51-wa'kn-ing) 71. Act of awaking ; revivaL 
^-WAK'EN-JNa,* p. a. Rousing from sleep ; alarming. 
A-wArd', v. a. [i. awarded; pp. awarding, awaeded. ' 

To adjudge ; to determine ; to sentence. 

fi i, 6, ff, S, long', A, £, 1, 6, tJ, 2, short; ^, 5, f, p, v» Vi o6a«*rj — fAre, fAr, fAst, fAll; h£ir, hK& 


^-wArI)', v. n. To judge ; to decree. Pope. 

i^-wArd', 71. The judgment of an arbitrator or arbitrators ; 
determination ; sentence. 

,^-wABD'jf R, 71. One who awards. 

*^-wA.RE^ a. Vigilant ; apprized ; informed of. 

f^-wARE% V. n. To beware. Par. LosU 

t^-WARN', V. a. To caution ; to warn. Spenser, 

A-way', (^-wa') flrf. In a state of absence j at a distance ; 
aside; off; witli absence. — Away wilhj sometimes used 
as having the nature of a verb ; as, " X cannot aww^ witfiy" 
I cannot endure; ** AwaywWi anch a fellow," (./ic^,) take 
away, cast away. 

tA-WAY'w^RB, ad, away ; aside. Qower. 

AWE, fiw) n. Reverential fear; reverence j dread. 

Awe, (^w) v. a. [i. awed; pp awing, awed.] To strike 
with reverence or fear. Bacon, 

tA-WEA'Ry, (?-we're) a. Weary; tired. Shak. 

Iawe'-BXnd, (^w'bind) B. A check; a restraint. Bailey. 

Awe'-cpm-mAnd'|N&, a. Striking with awe. Gray, 

XwE'-cpM-PfiL'LiN&,* a. Enforcing awe. Crdbb. 

Awe'-strOck, a. Impressed with awe. Milton, 

Aw'fOl, a. That strikes witli awe; venerable; dreadful ; 

iw'FfiL-EYED, (a.w'fiil-id) o. Having eyes exciting awe. 

Aw'pOii-LV, ad. In an awful manner. 

Aw' rOL-Nfisa, n. The quality of being awful. 

f^-WHAPE', (j-hwap') V. a. To strike ; to confound. Spen- 

fA-WHEELS', (9^-hw5lz') ad. On wheels. B. Jonson. 

^-while', C^-hwil') ad. Some time ; for a time. Shak, 

fA-WHlT', (9-hwTtO arf. A jot; a tittle. Bp. Hall. 

tAwK, a. Odd; out of order. L^Estrange. 

Awk'w^rd, a. Inelegant; impolite; wanting skill, po- 
liteness, or ease ; unhandy ; clumsy. 

Awk'ward-LV» ad. In an awkward manner. 

AwK'w^RD-NiSss, n. Quality of being awkward. 

Awl, n. A pointed instrument to bore holas with. 

Aw'l.:^:ss, a. Wanting awe or reverence. ShaJc. 

Awl'-SHAped.* C-shapt) a. Shaped like an awl. Smith. 

AwjL'wort,* (ai'wiirt) n. (Bat.) A plant with awl-shaped 
leaves. Sma?^ 

AwME, or AwM, n. A Dutch measure ; aam. See Aam. 

Awn. n. The beard or bristles of grasses and grain ; arista. 

AWN'jNGjTi. A cover spread over a boat, or any place with- 
out a roof, for shade ; a temporary covering of clotli for 
plants, &.C. 

Xwn'less,* a. Having no awn or beard. Smart. 

A-woke', i. Sep, from Awake. See Awake. 

t^-woRK', (9-wiirkO ad. At work, Sftdc. 

^-work'|N&, (5i-wUrk'ing)o. Working. Spenser 

^-WRY',(^-ri')orf. &;a. Not in a straight direction ; asquint; 
unevenly; perversely; distorted; a»kance, crooked. 

Ax-^-ya'c^t,*71. a species of Mexican fly. Crabb. 

Axe, (d.ks) n. An iron instrument, with a sharp edge, for 
hewing and chopping. 

Axe,* v. a. The old English verb for ash. " Or if he axe 
a fish." fVickliffe. It is still in use, in various parts of 
England, among the common people. Forby^ Brocketty ^c. 
It is also heard in some parts of the United States. 

Axe'hEad, n. The head of an axe. 2 Kiiigs vi. 5. 

Axe'stone,* 71. (Jl/ift.) A subspecies of nephrite. Crabb, 

A,x'i-^L,* a. Relating to or resembling an axis. Pront. 

Ax'i-^L-LV,* ad. According to or in a line with the axis. 

^x-'fF'JjiR-oDs,* a, {Bot.) Noting plants which consist ex- 
clusively of an axis, as lichens, fungi, &c. Brande. 

Ax'i-FORM,* a. Having the form of an axe. Smart. 

4X-Wl4j n. [L.] pi. 4X~Xl'lje. The arm-pit. — (Sot.) 
The angle formed by the separation of a leaf from its 
«tam. P. Cyc. 

55 BAB 

Ax'tl-LAR, 0. Axillary. Bailey. SeeAxiLLiRV 

Ax'jL-L.VRV, [ak'zjl-la-re, W. Sm. fVb.; jk-zll'j^-re, S. /• 
— See Capillary.] a. Belonging to the axilla. 

Ax'fN-iTE,* 71. (Min.) A mineral commonly crystallizevt 
and of vitreous lustre, P. Cyc. 

^x-1n'p-mXn-c¥,* 71. Divination by an axe. Crabb. 

Ax'lQM, (aks'yym) [ak'sliym, S. JV.} Sik'she-um, F. Ja. 
^k's^-um, J. Sm. ; aka'yym, K.] n, [a^i'w^a.] A self- 
evident truth or proposition; an established principle, 
a maxim. » 

Ax-i-p-MXT'ic,*(ak-she-^-mat'jk)a. Axiomatical. EcRev 

Ax-j-p-mAT^f-CAL, a. Relating to or consisting of axioms 

Ax-j-p-mAt'j-c^L-i-V,* ad. By the use of axioms, nr 

Ax'js, n. [axisy L.] pi Ax'e§. The line, real or imagi 
nary, that passes through any body on which it may br 
supposed to revolve, — (Bot) The root or stem, or both 
together, P. Cyc. 

Ax'LE, (ak'sl) } n. A piece of timber, or bar ci 

Ax'le-Tree, (ak'sl-tre) \ iron, fitted into the holes m 
naves of wheels, round which they turn. 

Ax'led,* (ax'ld) a. Furnished with an axle. Warton, 

Ax'p-LoTL,* n. (Zool.) A genus of reptiles. P. Cyc. 

Ay, or Aye, (^e) ad. Yes; certainly. This word is com 
monly written aye. 

Ave,* (a?) 71, ; pi. AYES, (Uez) An affirmative ; one who 
votes in the affirmative ; as, " The ayes have it." HatseU 

Aye, faj ad. Always; for ever. Spenser. 

AyE-XyE,* (ae''ie') n. (Zool.) A singular nocturnal quad- 
ruped of Madagascar, so named from its peculiar crv 

tAV'GREEN, (a'grSn) 71, Houseleek, Diet. 

Ayle,* n. (Law) A kind of writ. Blticlistone. 

Ay Me, intcrj. Implying dejection ; same as afi me. MUton 

AY'Ry, (a'rej n. The nest of the hawk. See Eyry. 

A-za'le-a,'* 71. ,■ pi, AZALEAS. (Bot,) A genus of plants 
or shrubs having beautiful flowers ; an American honey 
suckle, P. Cyc, 

Az'e-role, 71. [azeroUy Fr.] The three-grained, or Nea 
poiitan, medlar-tree. 

Az'i-mDth, 71, [Ar.] (Astron.) The arc of the horizon in 
tercepted between the meridian and the vertical circle, 
passing through a star or other celestial body j or the an- 
gle made at the zenith by the meridian and the vertical 
circle in which the body is situated, — Azimuth cij-cle, or 
vertical circle, a great circle of the sphere passing tliruugli 
the zenith, and intersecting the horizon at right aneles. — 
Azimuth compass, a compass used at sea for findin<^ ttio 
horizontal distance of the sun or a star from the magnetic 
meridian. — Mzimuth dial, a dial of which the style is per 
pendicular to the plane of the horizon. 

Az'OTE,* ra.z'ot, Stiu R. Wb. Maunder, p. Cyc; 9-zot', K.] 
n. [a andi^wij.j {Chem.) A kind of gas which is fatal to 
animal life ; called also nitrogen. It is one of the con 
stituents of common air. P. Qfc. 

A-z6th',*7i. (Alch.) A universal remedy. Crabb. 

A-z6t'ic,* a. Relating to or containing azote. Mackintosh 

Az'p-TITE,* 7^ (CAem.) A salt containing azote, Crabb, 

Az'p-TIZE,* V. a. To impregnate with azote. Ure. 

)[a'zvre, (a'zhur or azh'ur) fa'zhurjS. E. F. K. R. ; a'zhai, 
W. Ja. ; Szh'uir, J. Wb. ; a'zhSr, Sm. f Sz'ur, P.'] a, [aiury 
Fr.] Sky-blue; faint blue. — (-Her.) Blue. Sidney. 

IIA'ZURE,* 71. [azur,¥i:] Sky-blue. — (Her.) One of tliK 
colors or tinctures empioyed in blazonry. Brande. 

IJA'zi/RE, V, a. To color any thing blue. Elyofs Diet, 

IJA'ZVRED, (a'zhurd orSzh'urd,) a. Colored blue. Shak. 

Az'u-RiTE,*7i. (Min.) A mineral; the lazulite, P. Cyc. 

lit A'ZVRN, (a'zhurn or Szh'urn,) a. Of a bright blue colot 

fAz'VME, (SzMm) 71. [azyme, Fr.] Unleavened bread. Bible. 

Az'y-MOOs,* a. {azymus, L.] Unleavened. Smart 


Bthe second letter, and first consonant, of the English 
« alphabet, is a mate and a labial, being pronounced 

by the aid of the lips. — As an abbreviation, it gener- 

&l\y stands for baccalaureus, or bachelor; as, B. A., B. 

D., B. L. 
Baa, (ha) n. The cry of a sheep. Shak. 
Baa, (ba.) c. 71. [balOfh.] To cry like a sheep. Sidney. 
Ba^az,* n. (Ant.) The principal deity of the ancient Ca- 

naanites, Phoenicians, &c. ; an ancient idol representing 

tiie sun. CalmeU 
B 4'^RD,* B. (JVflut.) A sort of sea-vessel or transport-ship. 

iAB^BLE, (ba.b'bl) V. n. \i. babbled; pp. babblinq, bab- 

bled.] To prattle like a child ; to talk idly, thoughtlesalx 

or much; to prate ; to tell secrets. 
BXb'BLE, V. a. To prate; to tell. Harmar. [R.] 
BXb'ble,?!. Idle talk ; senseless prattle. Shak, 
fBXB'BLE-MfiNT, n. Senseless prate. Milton. 
BXb'bl:^r, n. One who babbles ; an idle talker 
BXb'bl;ng, 71. Foolish talk ; prattle. 1 Tim. vL 
Babe, n. An infant ; a young child ; a baby. 
Ba'bel,7U [Heb.] Disorder; tumult. Beatim.,S[ FU 
BA'BE-Ry, 71. Finery to please a babe, Sidney. 
BXb-i-a'na,* 71, (Bot.) A genua of Cape plants havln| 

beautiful flowers, yellow, purple, or red. P. Cyc. 
BXB'iL-LARD,*7t. (Omith.) A small frugivoruus passerint 

KiEN SIR; MOVE, NOR, s6n ; bOlL, EUR, RtlLE. — 9, (^, ^, g, sofii jB, jG, £, g, hard; $ Of Z i f o^ gz ; - T5II» 


nt : calleit also the white-hreasted fauvette and neiite- 
creeper, Brande. 

^XB')NG-TQH-iTE,* n. (JUin.) A crystallized siliclous min- 
eral. DancL, 

Ba'bjsh, a. Childish ; babyish. Ascham, 

fBA'Bjsll-LV, ad. Childishly. Jibp. Usher. 

B^-b66n', 71 Vbabouin^ Fr.] A genus of quadrumanaj a 
large Kind of monkey ; an ape. 

B \'By, [ba'b?, S. W. P. J. E. F. Ja. K. Sm. ; vulgarly^ bib'?, 
W. Sm.] n. An infant ; a young child ; a feabe } a doll. 

Ba'bv, a. Like a baby; small. Shdk. 

Ba'bv, 0. a. To treat rne like a baby. Young. [r,.J 

Ba'bv-peat'vred,* (ba'b^fet'yyrd) a. Having infantine 
features. Covyper. 

Ba'bv-hood, (ba'be-Jiid) r,. Infancy; childhood. 

Ba'by-HoOse,* n. A place for children's dolls and play- 

Ba'bv-Ish, a. Childish. Bale. 

Ba'by-Tsm,* m. The state or quality of a baby. Booth. [R.] 

BXB'Y-Lo'Nf-AN,"^ a. Relating to Babylon or Babylonia; 
disorderly. P. Cyc. 

BXb-x-l6n'IC,* a. Relating to Babylon ; Babylonical. Fo. 
Qu, Rev, 

BXB-V-LdN'l-C^L, a. Babylonian ; disorderly. Harrington. 

BXb-v-lo'VJsh,''' a. Relating to Babylon ; Babylonian. Dr, 

BXB'v-LpN-iTE,* n. The arrow-shaped, Babylonish char- 
acter. Srjiaamore. 

tBA'BY-SHlP, n. Infancy. Min/theu. 

BXc,* n. A tub or vat for cooling wort or liquids ; a sort of 
ferry-boat. Crabb. 

BXa'A-NdN,*^ n. (Jlfe<2.) An antidote ; an hepatic medicine. 

BAc'(7J,*n.rL.](J?oe.)Aberry ;afruithavingseeds. P. Cyc. 

BXc-ca-lAu'RE-^te,* n. Ibaccalaurcus, L.] The degree 
of a bachelor ; the first or lowest academical degree in a 
university or college. Brande. 

BXc'cATE,* a. (Bot.) Covered with soft flesh; baccated. 
P. Cyc. 

BXc'cA-TJED, a. [baccatusj h.] Having berries ; beset with 
pearls ; baccate. Bailey. 

BXc'£H^-nXl, (bak'^-nil) a. [bacchanalia, L.] Drunken ; 
revelling. Crowley. 

BXc'jSHA-nXl, 71. A devotee to Bacchus ; a drunkard. 

BXc~^h'a-na' Li-A* n. pi. [L.] Feasts or revels in honor of 
Bacchus. P. Cyc. 

3Xc-jeHA-NA'Li-^N, [bak-9-na'le-^n, S. W. P. J. Ja.; b5k- 
^-nal'y^n, F. K."] n. A drunkard. 

BXc-jeHA-NA'Lj-^N, a. Relating to revelry. A. Smith. 

BXc'^h^-nXl5, n. pi. The drunken feasts of Bacchus. 

BS.C-^HAJVT'jn, [Fr.] A bacchanal ; a reveller. 

BAG-pHANTE'j n. [Fr.] A female bacchanal. 

BAC-^HXif TE^* n. pi. [L.] The priests or devotees of 
Bacchus. Jameson. 

BXc'jCHic, )a. Relating to the feasts of Bacchus ; jo- 

BXc'jChJ-c^Ij, \ vial ; drunken. Spenser, 

B4C-p!irI'vSi* n. [SaKx^Xos-] pi. bac-^hVi. iRheW) A 
lioetic foot, having one short and two long syllables ; as, 
*'8L-ma-vi." Crabb. 

BXc'jeHys-BOLE, (bSk'ys-bol) n. A flower. Mortimer. 

B^C-cIf'e-roDs, (b?.k-sif§-rus) a. [bacca and fero, L.] 
Bearing berries. 

B^c-<?lv'<?-RoOs, (b^k-siv'p-rus) a. Feeding on berries. 

BXcH'?-LpR, 71. An unmarried man ; a man who takes 
his first degree in the liberal arts, in law or divinity ; a 
knight of the lowest order. 

BXch'e-lqr-T^M * 71. The state of a bachelor. Const. Mag 

BXCH'E-LpR'S-BuT'TON,* n. A plant and flower; the 
campion. Ash. 

BXcH^E-LpR-SHlP, n. The state of a bachelor. 

B4'CWJLJ/Sj*n. [L.] A staff*; a stick. — (Sof.) The coty- 
ledon of the hyacinth. Link. 

GXcK, 71. The hinder part of the body in man, and the up- 
per part in animals ; the spine ; the outer part of the 
hand ; the rear; the hinder part of a thing, opposed to 
the front; the part out of sight; the thick part of any 
tool, opposed to the edge; a liirge rafter of a roof; a vat. 

BXCK, ad. To the place from which one came ; backward : 
behind ; towitrds things past ; again ; in return ; a second 

BXcK,«. a. [t. backed; j?p. backing, backed.] To mount 
on the back of a horse ; to place upon the bacK ; to main- 
tain ; to justify ; to second ; to move back ; to prepare by 
gluing, as the back of a book. 

BACK,* a. Being behind, out of sight, or passed by. Smart, 

BXck'bXnd * n. A part of the harness which, going over 
the back of a horse, keeps up the shafts of the carriage ; 
back-chain. — (Law) A counter-bond. Boucher^s Oloss. 
[Scotland.] [Ash. 

Cack'bXr,* n. A bar in the chimney to hang a vessel on. 

BXck'bIte, v. a, \i. BACKuiT ; pp. rackbiting, backbit- 
ten.] To speak ill of a person behind his back ; to cen- 
vure the absent. 

56 BAG 

BXcK'BiT-ER, a. One who backbites ; a secret detractor 
BXck'bit-ing, n. Secret detraction. 
BXcK'BiT-iNG,*p. a. Calumniating secretly. Ash. 
BXcK'BlT-iNG-LY, ad. Slanderously. Barret. 
BXcK'sTfr-TEN, fbak'bU-tn)p. from^flcAfiife. See Backbit* 
BXck'bone, n. The bone of the back ; the spine 
fBXcK'cXB-By, 71. (Law) A having on the back. Cowil. 
BXCK'cHAiN,* n. A chain that passes over the cart-saddU 

of a horse to support the shafts. Booth. 
BXck'dooR; (b^k^dor) n. A door behind a building. 
BXCKED, (b^kt) a. Having a back. Sltak. 
BAcK'EN,*(b5.k'kn)u.fl. To put back; to retard. 5fl(/Mf7-5«.[R,'i 
BXck':?r,* n. He or that which backs. — (Arch.) Ananow 

slate laid on the back of a broad, square-headed shite, 

where the slates begin to diminish in width. Brande. 
BXck'fIl-ljns,* n. The act of restoring to its place earl. 

which has been removed ; the earth so restored. Tanner 
BXck'fbi£ni>, (bak'frSnd) n. An enemy in secret So\aK 
BXcK-&XM'ivipN, 71. A game played with dice by two pot 

sons, on a table divided into two parts, having twelv 

black and twelve white spaces. 
BXck'&roCnd,* 71. The part behind, opposed to the^7i(, 

the part of a picture that is not most prominent to the ey 

BXck'hoOse, 71. A building behind a house. 
BXck'-lean-ing,"" a. Inclining towards the hinder pan 

BXcK'-LiSHT,* (bSlkMit) n. A light reflected on the hinder 
part. Fenton. 

BXcK'PAiNT-iNG,* 71. (Paint.) The method of painting 
mezzotinto prints pasted on glass, with oil colors. Crabb 

BXck'-PXr-lqr,* 71. A parlor in the rear. Johnson^ 

BXck'piece, 71. The armor which covers the back. 

BXck'-plate,* 71. A plate on the hinder part of armor. 

BXck'rXg,* 71. A kind of German wine. Mason. 

BXck'r£nt,=*' n. A rent paid subsequently to reaping 

tBXcK'RE-TiJBN, n. Repeated return. Shak. 

BXck'room, n. A room behind or in the rear. 

fBXcK'sfiT, ;?. a. Set upon in the rear. Anderson 

BXck'sIde, 71. The hinder part of any thing; rear. 

BXcK-SLiDE', [bak-slid', (V. E. F. Ja. Sm. JVb. ; bSk'slld 
iST. P. R."] V. n. [i. BACKS1.ID ; pp. back9liding, back 
sLiDDEN or BACEBLiD.] To fall otf ; to apostatize ; to de- 
Generate ; to revolt. 

BXck-slid'er, n. One who backslides; an apostate. 

BXcK-SLlD'lNG, 71. Apostasy; transgression. 

BXck-slid'ing,* p. a. Apostatizing; revolting. Fuller. 

BXck'stXff, n. An instrument used, before the invention 
of the quadrant and sextant, for taking the sun's altitude 
at sea. 

BXck'stXir9, (bak'stArz) n. pi. The private stairs in tho 
house. Bacon. 

BXcK'STXy,* n. (Printing) A leather strap used to check 
the carriage of a printing-press. Brande. 

BXck'stays, 71. pi. (JVavt.) Ropes for strengthening and 
sustaining the top-masts of a ship. 

BXck'sword, (bik'sord) n. A sword with one sharp 
edge ; a rustic sword, or a stick with a basket handle. 

BXck'-TrIck,* 71. A mode of attacking behind. Shak. 

BXck'w4.rd, ad. With the back forward ; towards the ba«k 
or the past ; regressively ; from a better to a worse state , 
past ; in time past. 

BXcK'w^RD, a. Unwilling ; sluggish ; dull ; behind in prog 
ress ; not forward ; late. 

fBXcK'wARD, 71. The state past. Shak. 

JBXcK'wARD, V. a. To keep back ; to hinder. UammoTta. 

BXck'wa"rd-ly, ad. Unwillingly; perversely. SluUc. 

BXcK'wARD-Nfiss, 71. State of being backward 

BXcK'WARD?, ad. Same as backward. J^ewtan 

BXcK'WASTiED,* (bSLk'wesht) a. Cleansec from the oil ai 
ter combing, as wool. Ash. 

BXcK'wX-TER,* n. A current of water from the inland 
which clears off the deposit of sand and salt left by the 
action of the sea ; water in a stream which, in conse- 
quence of some obstruction below, flows back up the 
stream. Hunter. 

BXck'wood5-man,* (bak'wfidz-m^n) n. ,■ pi. bXck'- 
wood5-m:]?n. An inhabitant of a newly-settled country, 
particularly the western part of the United States. Month, 

BXck'wSund, v. a. To wound behind the bAck. Shak. 

BXck'yXrd,* 71. A yard behind a house, &c. Blom^dd. 

Ba'con, (ba'kn) n. [bacon, old Fr.] The flesh of a hut 
salted, smoked, and dried. — To aoDe one's bacon, to es- 
cape unhurt ; to avoid loss. Prior. 

Ba'con-f£d,* (ba'kn-fSd) o. Fed on bacon. Shak. 

Bvco'nj-an,* a. Relating to Lord Bacon or his philos- 
ophy. Ency. 

BXc'v-lite,* 71. (Oeol.) A genus of fossil telrabranchiatt 
cephalopods, resembling ammonites, Brande, 

BXc-V-LOM'?-TRY,n. [baculusjh.yo.nd /xcr/)o<,Gr.]TheaH 
of measuring distances by baimli or staves. BaUey- [R.] 

A S F, 6, G Y, Umgi X, fi, t, 6, 0, t, short; *, ¥, f, p, y, y, o&«cure. — fAre, eXr, fXst, eXli.j h£ih Hfift 


pXXif a. [comp ivoRBi ; sup. worst ] III j not good ; vicious ; 
unfortunate ; hurtful. 

BXde, (bad) [bad, S. rr. J, F,K. Sm. R.i bad, E.] i from 
bid, gee Bid 

BXd^e, (ha.j) n. A. mark or cognizance wornj a token by 
which one is known ; a mark of diatinction. 

BXd^e v. a. To mark as with a badge. Sliak. 

Badi^e'less, a. Having no badge. Bp. Hall 

BAD(^'er, n. (Zool.) A carnivorous quadruped that bur- 
rows in the ground. — (Law) One licensed to buy victuals 
in one place to be sold in another ; a carrier; a porter. 

BXD<j^':l5R, V* a. To confound ; to persecute ; to teaae. Lock- 

BXd^'er-lEoged, (baj'er-lSgd) a. Having legs of an un- 
equal length. VEstrange. 

BXD'j-g-fim,* n. Same as badigMiu Scitdamore. 

Ba-dIg'epn* (b?-dTj'yn) [b^-dlj'un, ^. Sm.; bSd-e-jii'Qn, 
Wb.] n. [Fr.] (Jlrcfu) A mixture, as of plaster and free- 
stone, to fill little holes in the material on which a sculp- 
tor or other artist has to work : — a preparation for 
coloring houses, consisting of powdered stone, sawdust, 
slaked lime, alum, <Scc. Frands. 

BXit-i-NAjfE', (bid-e-nazh') n. [Fr.] Ll^ht or playful dis- 
course ; raillery ; foolish talk. Chesterfield. 

Ba-dXn'E'RIEj (b?-din'e-re) n. [Fr.J Nonsense. Shemtone. 

BXd'I8-t:?r,* 71. (En(.) A genus of the order of coleoptera. 

BXD'Ly, ad. In a bad manner. ShaJi. 

BXd'ness, n. State of being bad. Shak. 

BAp'fle, (barfl) V a. [&e#er, Fr.] [i. baffled j pp. baf- 
FLiNO, BAFFLED.] To clude J to coufound ;*to frustrate J 
to balk ; to disgrace. 

BXp'fle, v. n. To practise deceit. Barrow. [R.] 

BXF'FLE,re. A defeat. South, [r.] 

BXf'fl?r, n. One who baffles. 

BXg-, 71. A sack or pouch; part of an animal containing 
particular juices ; an udder ; an ornamental purse of silk 
tied to men's hair. — (Com.) A determinate quantity of 
goods ; as, a bag of cotton. 

Bag-, V, a. [u bagged ; pp. bagging, bagged. 1 To put into 
a bag; to load with a bag; to swell: — to nook up and 
gather grain. Loudon, 

BX&, u, n. To swell like a full bag. Chaucer. 

B1g-a~t&lle' (b^g-j-tel') n.[Fr.] A trifle ; a toy. Howd. 

BXG'G■A(j^E, 71. [bagag-Bj Fr.] The furniture of an army; 
goods to be carried away ; articles or matters carried by 
a traveller; luggage: — a worthless woman; a flirt. 

fBXG-'G-A-jGER,* 71. One who carries the baggage. Raleigh. 

BXe'eiNG,* n. Materials for bags ; the act of putting into 
bags: — a mode of reaping corn or pulse with a hook. 

BXg'n£t,* 71. An interwoven net for catching fish. Travis. 

BXgn'io, (ban'yo) n. [bagno, It.] pi. Bagnios (ban'yoz) A 
bathing-house; a brothel. 

BXa'PiPE, n. A musical wind instrument, consisting of a 
leathern bag and pipes. Chambers. 

BXg^pip-er, 71. One who plays on a bagpipe. Shak, 

Ba-ou&tte', (bj-|5t') m. [Fr.] A little round moulding. 

BX~har' y* 71. An Oriental measure equal to three piculs. 

BA'HiRy* 71. (JSnt.) The most ancient of the rabbinical 
books. Ash. 

f^BAlGNE, (ban) v. a. [baigjier, Fr.] To drench ; to soak. 

BAl'KAZi-iTE,^ 7z. (Min.) A magnesian epidote from Lake 
Baikal. Brande. 

Bail, (bal) n. [b(^ler, Fr.] (Law) A release of a prisoner on 
security for hia appearance in court ; the person or persons 
who give security ; the sum given for security ; surety, 
Whishaw. — The handle of a pail, bucket, &c. Forbij.— 
A division between stalls. Loudon. 

Bail, Vi a, [i. bailed; pp. bailing, bailed.] To release 
or give security for the release of a prisoner ; to give bail ; 
to admit to bail. 

Bail'^-ble, a. That may be bailed. B. Jonson. 

BAlL'-BdND,'*' 7t. (Law) A bond given for appearance in 
court. Tomlins, 

Bail-ee',* re. (Law) The person to whom goods are bailed, 
or delivered under a bailment. Blackstove. 

Bai'li?,* (ba'I?) 71. (Scotland) An alderman; a magis- 
trate who is second in rank in a royal burgh. Jamiesoii. 

Bail'iff, (ba'llf ) 71. [baUli, Fr.l A subordinate officer or 
deputy, in England, appointed oy a sheriff, whose business 
it is to execute arrests ; an under-steward of a manor. 

Baii-'i-wIck, 71. The jurisdiction of a bailiff or sheriff. 

Bail'ment, 71. (Law) The delivery of goods in trust; a 
contract resulting from the delivery of goods in trust. 

Bail'QR,* or BliL-(5R',*n. (Law) One who bails or de- 
livers goods in trust Blaekstone. Qi^-When used in op- 
position to baileej it has the accent on the second syUable. 

BAllj'-Pii:CE,* 71. (Law) A slip of parchment or paper con- , 
taining a recognizance of bail above, or to the action. Smart. 

tBAlli'V, «• Contraction for bailiff" or bailiioick. Wickliffe. 

rBAlN, (ban) n. [6ain, Fr.] A bath. HakewUL 



tBAiN, (ban) v, a. To bathe. TnbervLv. 

BAi'RAMy*Tu A Mahometan feast insiftuted jn imitktioi 
of the Easter of the Christian church, and following ttai 
fast of Ramadan. Brande. 

tBAiR'MArr,* n. (Law) A poor insolvent debtor left bare 
and naked. Whishaw. 

BAiRN, or Barn, n. A child. — [Scotland and North ol 
England: — in Shakspeare, beam.'] 

Bait, (bat) v. a. [i. baited ; pp. baiting, baited.] To put 
meat upon a hook to tempt fish ; to give food for refresh- 
ment on a journey ; to feed, as a horse. 

BAIT, V. a. [baUrey Fr.] To attack with violence ; to har- 

Bait, v. n. To stop for refreshment ; to flap the wings; to 
flutter. Shak. 

Bait, n. Any substance for food ; meat or food to allure 
fish ; a lure ; a temptation ; refreshment on a journey 
oats or provender for a horse, &.c. 

Bait'jng,* 71, The act of furnishing a bait ; refreshment 

Baize, (baz) n. A kind of coarse, open, woollen stuff. 

Bake, v. a. [i. baked ; pp. baking, baked or baken. 
BaJcen is seldom used.] To heat, dry, or harden by heat 
or fire; to cook in an oven. 

Bake, v. n. To do the work of baking; to be heated oi 
baked ; to become hard or crusty. 

BAKED.'*' (bakt) a. Hardened with heat ; cooked in an oven. 

Baked'-Meats, (bakt'mets) n. Meats dressed in the oven 

Bake'hoOse, 71. A place for baking bread. tVotton. 

Bake'-Meats, n. Baked meats. Genesis. 

fBA'KEN, (ba^kn)p. from Bake. 1 Kings. See Bake, 

Ba'ker, n. One who bakes bread, &c. 

Ba'ker-Foot, (ba'k?r-fut) 71. A distorted foot. Bp. Taylor 

Ba'ker-l£gged, (ba'ker-legd) a. Having crooked legs. 

Bak'e-rv,* 71. A bakehouse ; a house for baking. Smart. 

Bak'ing,* 71. The act of hardening with heat ; the em- 
ployment of a baker; the quantity of bread, j^c, baked 
at once. Ash. 

BXl'jH-ch6ng,* n. A substance consisting of pounded or 
bruised fish, and used in the East as a condiment to rice 

B^-jLje'na* 71. [L.] (Zool.) The Greenland whale. Brandt. 

BXl'ance, 71. [balance^ Fr.] One of the powers in me- 
chanics ; a macliine for weighing substances ; a pair of 
scales ; the act of comparing two things ; the overplus of 
weight; that which is wanting to make two parts of an 
account even ; equipoise ; as, " balanct of power." • 
[The remainder or rest of any thing, as of an edition, of 
an evening, <fec. Pickering. U. S. Corrupt or colloquial.] 
(Astron.) The sign Libra. — Balance of trade, (Com.) the 
difference between the commercial exports and import* 
of two countries. — Balance^ or balance-^hcel of a watch, 
that which regulates its motion, and which answers the 
purpose of the pendulum to a clock. 

BXl'ance, v. a. \i, balanced ; pp. balancing, bal 
anced.} To weigh in a balance ; to counterpoise ; to reg 
ulate, as weight or an account; to make equal. 

BXl'ance, v. n. To hesitate ; to fluctuate. Locke. 

BXl'a.nce-F1sh,*7i. The hammer-headed shark. Hill* 

BXl'an-cer, 71. One who balances. 

BXl'an-cIng, 71. Act of poising ; equilibrmm. 

BXl'a-nite,* 71. (Zool.) A species of barnacle. Kiroy 

BXl'as RO'by, 71. [balaiSi Fr.] A rose-red variety of sp* 
nel. P. Cyc. 

Ba~laus'ta* n. [L.] (Bot.) A kind of fruit having » 
leathery rind. Brande. 

Ba-lAus'tjne,* 71, The flower of the wild pomegranatn 

|Bal-bu'ci-nate,7). 71. To stammer in speaking. Bailey. 

fBAL-Bu'Ti-ATE, (b^l-bu'she-at) v. n. [Mfiweio, L.] Samw 
as balbucinate, Bailey. 

BXl-co'nied, (bal-ko'ujd) a. Having balconies. R. Jfort/i. 

BXL'c9-NY,tfrBAL-co'NY, [b^l-ko'ne, S, PV.P.J.E.F.;H\- 
ko'n?, or b51'k9-ne, Ja. R. ; barkp-ne,^. Sm. Wb. P. Cye 
fj;!^ " The accent has shifted from the second to the first 
syllable within these twenty years." Sm. (IS3t>).] n. [biiL- 
con, Fr.] A frame or projecting gallery in front of a win- 
dow or opening of a house. 

BAld, a. Wanting hair ; without the natural or usual cov- 
ering; unadorned; inelegant; mean; naked. 

BXL'DA-jCHtN, [bal'dj^-kin, Sm^; bSil'd^-chin, K.] [balda- 
chino. It.] 71. A silk canopy; an architectural canopy. 

BAld'bDz-zard,* n. A bird that feeds on fish ; the fish, 
ing-hawk. Booth. 

BAl' de r-dXsh, n. Arude mixture; jargon ; coarse tanguagu 

BAl'd?r-dXsh, v. a. To mix or adulterate liquors, [r.j 

BAld'-Head,* 77. A head that is bald ; a person having hii 
head bald. 2 Kings ii. 

BAld'lv, ad. In a bald manner ; nakedly ; meanly, 

BAld'm6w-v, (bald'mun-e) 71 A plant; gentian. 

BAld'ness, 71. State of being bald; want of hair or orna 
ment jinelegance. 

BAli>'pAte,71. a head without hair. Shak, 

BAld'pate, a. Destitute of hair ; bald. Dryden. 

HlEH SIR; m6ve nor, S&N; bOll, bOr, RtlLE, — g, ^^ ^, g, aofi; je, &t 5, I, hard; ^ as Z ; j as gz; — XHU 


BlLs'pAT ED, a. Having a bald head. Shak 

BA.L'DRfc, ft. [baudrier, Fi*-] A girdle used by warriors in 
feudal times ; the zodiac, ^e/isw. 

Bale, r. [Aa/«, Fr.] A bundle, as of goods ; ten reams of pa- 
per. — (ScotUtTid) A signal fire; a bonfire. — Bale goods^ 
^oods or merchandieie done up in bales. 

Bale, «. a. [i. BALED J pp. BALING, BALED.] To make up 
into a bale or bundle : — to lave out ; to empty. 

tBAL£,7i. Misery; calamity. Spenser. 

jBale,* a. Baleful; pernicious. King: 

BXL-E-XR'fC,* a. [Balearesj L.] Relating to the islands of 
Majorca, Wmorca, and Ivica. Oent, Ma^. 

Ba-le£n',* n. Tile substance called whaleboTie. Hamilton, 

Bale'fOl, a. Full of misery, sorrow, or mischief. Spenser, 

Bale'fOl-lv, fflfi. Sorrowfully J injuriously. 

Bai.e'pOl-n£ss,* n. The state of being balefii-. Spenser. 

BXl'is-ter, n. IbaZistay L.] A crossbow. Blount. See 
Ballister. [P. Cyc 

Ba-lIs'te^^* n. pi. (Ich.) An extensive genus of fishes. 

BAlk, (b3.k) n. A long piece of timber ; a great beam j a 
piece of wliole fir; drawn timber ; a ridge of land left 
unploughed between furrows ; a disappointment. 

BAIjK, (b^ic) V. a. [L balked ; pp. balking, balked.] To 
disappoint ; to frustrate ; to defeat j to heap, as on a 
ridge. Shak, 

fBALK, (blk) V. n. To turn aside ; to deal in cross-purposes. 

BAlk']e:e, (bSLk'er) n. One who balks: — one who watches 
the shoals of herring and gives notice of their course to 

Ball, n. Any thing made in a round form ; a round sub- 
stance or mass ; a round thing to play with ; a globe ; a 
bullet ; a cushion used for inking by printers. — An enter- 
tainment of dancing. 

BXl'lad, 71. [ballade^ Fr.] A song ; a small, light poem ; a 
short, lyric tale in verse. 

BXl'lad, v. a. To make or sing ballads. Shak. [r.] 

BXl'lad, v. n. To write ballads. B. Jonson. 

tBXL'L^l>-ER, n. A maker or singer of ballads. Overbury. 

BXl'l^d-Farce,* 71. A musical drama. Sir J. Hawkins, 

BXl'lad-Ist,* n. A writer or singer of ballads. Qu, Reo. 

BXl'lad-Mak'er, 71. One who writes ballads. Shak. 

BXl'lai>-M6ng']e:r, (bal'^d-miing-ger) n. A trader in bal- 
lads, Sliak. 

BXl'l^d-Op':e-ra,* n. A burlesque opera. Johnson. 

tBXL'LAD-Ry, n. The subject or style of ballads. B. Jonson. 

BXl'la'd-SI'ng'er, n. One who sings ballads. Oay. 

BXL'LAD-SlNa'lNG,*«. The act of singing ballads. Qarrick. 

BXl'l^^d-Style, 71. Air or manner of a ballad. Warto-n. 

BXl'lad-Tune, 71. The tune of a ballad. Warton. 

BXl'l.^i>-Writ'er, (-ri'ter) n. A composer of ballads. 

BXL'L^L-RXa, o. a. To threaten; to bullyrag. Wartoiu [Vul- 


58 BAN 

erally of silk, filled with a gas which :;auses it to ut tna^ 

and sail or pass in the air. 
BAL-Ld6N'E-RV,*7u The management ofballoon<«, Qb. R« 
BAL-LdoN'jN&j* n. The art of making and managing bal> 

loons ; aeronautics. Qu. Reo 
B.^-l6on'jst,*7i- One who constructs or manages bal» 

loons. Knox. 
BXl'LQT, 71. [hallotte, Fr.] A little ball, or any thing else- 

whicb is used in giving a secret vote ; a secret metJiod of 

voting at elections ; a vote ; act of voting. 


To vote or to choose by ballot. iVotton. 
fBAL-LpT-A'TlpN, n. Act of voting by ballot. Wotton, 
BXl'lqt-B6x,* n. A box used in balloting. Q«. Rev. 
BXl'lqt-?r,* 71. One who ballots or votes by ballot. Q» 

BXL'L9T-lNG,*n. The act of voting by ballot. Oent, Mag 
BXl'lqt-Ist,* tu An advocate for the use of the ballot 

Qu. Rev. 
BXll'room,* n. A room for assemblies or balls. More. 

BXl'last, 71. \hallaste, D.] Weight or heavy matter put at 
the bottom of a ship to keep it steady \ that which keeps 

EXl'last, v. a. To make or keep steady, as by ballast. 

BXl'l^st-.^9E,* n. {Law) A duty paid for taking up ballast 
from the bottom of a port. Boumer. 

JJAL'LAST-lNe,* 71. The covering of roads ; the filling in 
of earth or stone above, below, and between the stone 
blocks and sleepers upon raih-oads. Tanner. 

BXl'l^TED, p. a. Sung in a ballad, J. Webster, [r.] 

BXl-l^-toon',* 71. A luggage-boat used in Russia, Sec. 

tBXL'LA-TRy, 71, A jig J a son^. Milton^ 

BALL'-CdcK,* 71. A hollow sphere, or ball of metal, at- 
tached to the end of a lever, which turns the stop-cock 
of a cistern pipe, and regulates the supply of water. 

BXl'LET, (bal-la', or bariet) [bM-la', J. Sm. ; bal'la, orhW- 
l?t, jT.,' h'Al'l^tjE. fV.] n. [balletj Fr.] A mimic dance, 
or a dramatic story told in metrical action, accompanied 
by music. 

dXL'LfiTTE,* TU A ballet. Walker. See Ballet. 

BXl'li-age,* n. A duty payable to the city of London for 
the goods and merchandise of aliens. Crabb. 

BXl'liard?, (bil'ysrdz) tu See Billiards. 

B^L-Llsi TA^* n. [L.] An ancient warlike machine for 
throwing heavy stones and other missile weapons. Crabb, 

BXl'LIS-ter, [bal'js-t^r, Ja. K. Todd; bj-lis't?r, Sm. Wb.] 
n. [ballisiaj L.] A warlike engine j a crossbow. See 

Bal-lIs'tic,* a. Relating to missile engines: — noting a 
sort of pendulum or instrument for measuring the force 
or velocity of cannon and musket balls. Brande. 

Bal-lIs'tjcs,* n. pi. The art or science of throwing mis- 
sile weapons by means of engines. Crabb. 

B^-i*' Li-i^M,* n, {Atit.) Anciently, an outer bulwark; af- 
terwards an area or court-yard contained in an outer bul- 
wark orfortified castle; English, bailey. P. Cyc. 

B4L-L6dN', TU \ballony Fr.] A glass receiver, of a spheri- 
cal form ; an architectural ornament, being a ball placed 
OD a pillar: — a large, hollow ball, or immense bag, gen- 

BXlm, (b'im) 71. [baume, Fr.l A plant; a shrub; an herb 
the sap or juice of a shrub ; ' ' 
thing that mitigates pain. 

the sap or juice of a shrub ; balsam ; an ointment ; any 

Balm, (biim) v. a. To anoint with balm ; to soothe. Sliak, 
fBALin'i-FY, (bim'e-fi) v. a. To render balmy. Chei/ne, 
Balm'I-lY)'*' (b'd,m'e-le) ad. In a balmy or soothing manner. 

Balm qf j&Yl'e^d, (b'im ^v lil'ysid) n. The juice drawn 

from the balsam-tree. CalmeL A plant or tree. Miller. 
BXLM'y, (bilm'e) a. Having the qualities of balm ; south- 
ing; fragrant; odoriferous; mitigating. 
BXLM'y-BREATH'jNG,*a. Fragrant ; odoriferous. Thmnavn. 
BXL^TfE-AL, a, \ L.] Belonging to a bath. Ha» 

ell. [R.j 
fBXL'NE-^-Ry, n. A bathing-room. Brown. 
tBXL-N?-A'TlpN, n. The act of bathing. Brown, 
tBXL'N?-,fli-Tp-RY, a. Belonging to a bath. Coles. 
BAz'lfE-UMjU. [LJ A bath. {Chem.) A vessel. Benttey, 
BXl'P-TADE, (wBal'p-TADE, [bal'9-tid, .Sff(, ; btil'g-tiid, 

Ja. Wb.] n. [Fr.] The leap of a horse performed between 

two pillars. Farrier^s Diet. 
BXl'sam, n. An unctuous, aromatic, healing substance ; a 

vegetable juice or resinous substance; a plant; a shrub 

or tree. ' 
fBXL's^M, jj. a. To render balsamic ; to soften. HackeU 
fBXL-sAM-A'TipN, 71. Act of impregnating with balsam 
B/lL-sXm';c, 71. That which has the qualities of bolsai/* 

Bal-sXm';c, ( a. Having the qualities of balsam. Mi 

Bal-sXm'J-CAL, S buthnot. 

Bal-sXm'i-cal-ly,* od. In a balsamic manner. Dr.AUen 

BXL-SAM-lF'ER-otis,* o. Productog balsam. Smith, 

BXL-s^M-p-DiSN'DRpN,* 71. {Bot.) A genus of Orienta 
trees, having a powerfiil balsamic juice. P. Cyc 

tBXL's^M-oDa,* o. Containing balsam; balsamic. Stemt, 

B1l'sam-sw£at'ing, a. That yields balsam. Crashaw. 

BXl'vs-t^er, 71, [balustre, Fr.] A small column or pilaster) 
one of the supporters of a rail to a flight of stairs, or th« 
front of a gallery. — Corruptly written banister. 

BXl'vs-tered, (bil'us-terd) p. a. Having balusters. 

BXl'VS-TRADE, n. [Fr.] A range of balusters for a guard, 
protection, or support in porches, staircases, balconies, &c 

Bam, Beam, being initials in the name of any place, usual- 
ly imply it to have been woody ; from the Saxon beam, 

BXm,* n, A cheat; an imposition. Smart. [A cant word.] 

BXM-Bd5', n. An Asiatic genus of plants or arborescent 
grasses, with hollow, jointed stems, and a hard, woody 
texture, growing sometimes to the height of 150 feet ; — a 
cane-colored porcelain biscuit. 

BXm-b66',* v. a. To punish or strike with a bamboo : to 
bastinado. Wright 

BXm-boo'zle, V, a. To deceive; to Impose on; to con 
found. ArbuLthnot, [Vulgar.] 

BXM-B5d'ZLER, 71. A tricking fellow. Arbuthnot. 

BXm'lite,*7i. (JlftTi.) A translucent mineral. Dana 

BXn, 71. A curse ; excommunication ; interdiction ; a sui» 
pension of privileges; a public notice. See Banns. 

BXn, v. a. To curse. Hooker. To forbid. Bulioer» 

fBXN, V. n. To curse. Spenser. 

Bvna'na, (w Ba-na'na, [b^-na'n?, S, W.J. E. Sm, ,• h^ 
na'nsi, P. Ja. K, Wb.] n. [Sp.J A tall, herbaceous. West 
Indian plant, of the nature of the plantain ; the fruit of 
the plant, valued for food. 

BXn'c^l,'*' 7u An East Indian weight of 16 ounces and 
above. Crabb, 

BXw'chEr-ry,*7i. The herb Christopher. Ash. 

BXTf'c6,*n. [lu] A bank ; applied particularly to the ban* 
of Venice — It is used adjectiveiy to denote mo ley of the 
bank, as distinguished from current money. Crabb. 
(Law) A meeting or sitting of all the judges. See Bank 

BXnd, 71. Something that binds; a bandage; a tie; anj 
means of union or connection ; something worn about 
the neck ; any thing bound round another ; a company d 

i E, i 6 0, ?, long f X, £, I, 6, 0, 1?, sliort ; ^, ?, }, p, v, ¥, obscure. — pkRE^ far, fXst, fXll ; iiJiiR, uliB 

BAN 59 

soldiers ; a company of persona joined together, as mi'- 
flicians. — {Ardi.) Aflat, low, square member or mould- 
ing ; a face or fascia. 

IUND, «, a. [i. BANDED ; pp. HANDING, BANDED.] To Unite 

together; to bind with a band. — (J^er.) To bind with a 

band of diiferent color from the charge, 
6X.ND, V. 71. To associate ; to unite. Miltoru 
BXnd'^(^e, tu Something that binds ; a fillet ; a piece of 

linen or cloth for binding up a wounded limb, &c. 
BXni)'^(J^e,* v. a. To bind with a fillet or bandage. Gol(L- 

BlWD^^-tfisTy* n. One who makes bandages. JDvng-lison. 
BXn-dXn'na,* a. Noting a kind of silk handkerchief, or a 

style of calico printing, in which white or hriKhtly-col- 

ored spots are produced upon a red or daikly-colored 

f round. Ure, 
nd'b5x, 71. A slight box used for bands, bonnets. &c. 

BAifDEAU^* (bSLit! do) n. [Fr.] p[. BANJ>SAUX,(b&n'doz) A 
fillet or head-band. Sureniie, 

BX?f'D]E:-LET, n, [bandelettCj Fr.] Any little band, flat 

moulding, or fillet ; an annulet. Orrery. 
'BXnd'i^b, tu One who bands or associates. 

BAn*I)E-r£t,* n, A kind of magistrate in Switzerland. 

BXN'D(-c6oT,*n. (Zool.) A genus of marsupial mamma- 
lians, of Australia. P. Cyc 

BXn'dit, 71. [banditOj It.] pi. bXn'djts. An outlaw j a 
robber. Miltoiu 

BXn-dIt'ti,* (ban-dtt'e), n. pi. A Iwnd of outlaws, rob- 
bers, or ruffians. J)0-The word bandiui, the plural of 
itandittOf is sometimes used as a numerical plural; as, 
"among pirates and other banditti.'* Yet it ia more com- 
monly used as a collective noun ; as, " a fierce bamlitti,'*^ 
Covyper; **a military banditti.'*^ Sir J. Mackintosh. — It is 
derived from the Italian participle bandito^ banished or 

tnXN-DlT'TO, n. [banditOj It.] p7. bXx-dTt'ti. A man 
outlawed j a robber. Shak. Banditto is not now in use. 
See Banditti. 

BXn'dli:,?^. An Irish measure of two feet. Crahh. 

BXnd'let,* n. Same as Ja7^rfc/fi(,■ an annulet. Francis. 

BXn'd5&, n. [a corruption of band-dog.} A dog chained or 
bound ; a fierce dog. Skak. 

BXn-DP-leer', n^jpl. bXn-DP-leer?'. a little case or 
cases containing musket-charges, appended to the band 
formerly hung over the shoulders of musketeers. 

t B^ iV' JJ piV, n. [Fr.] Disposal j license. Cliaucer. 

BXn-dore', 71. \TTav6ovpa.'\ A musical instrument resem- 
bling a lute. Minshtu. See Pandore, 

BXwD'ROli, n. \banderollef Fr.] A little flag or streamer ; 

BXnd'strIn©, 7?, The string appendant to the band. 

BXn'dv, n. A club turned round or bent at the end for 
striking a ball at play; the play itself. 

BXn'DY, 7J. a. [i. bandied; pp. bandvino, bandied.] To 
beat to and fro ; to toss ; to exchange ; to agitate. 

BXn'dy, v. n. To contend, as at some game, in beating to 
and fro. 

BXn'd¥-l£g, n. A crooked leg. Smji. 

BXn'dv-l£&GED, (biin'de-legd) a. Having crooked legs. 

Bane, n. Poison ; that which destroys ; ruin ; a disease of 
sheep ; the rot, 

<Bane, -0. a. To poison. Shak. 

Bane'bI^R-RVi'^ n. A berry and shrub of several species; 
the actsBEU Farm. Ency. 

Bane'fOLjO. Poisonous ; injurious ; destructive. B.Janson. 

BANE'rOL-NEss, n. Destnictiveness. 

Bane'v/ort, (ban'wiirt) n. Deadly nightshade. 

BXnOjV.o. [t, banged ; pp, banging, banged.] To beat; 
to thump; to handle roughly. Shak. 

BXlfS, 71. A blow ; a thump, Shak. [Vulgar.] An intoxi- 
cating or narcotic plant and drug in India. Hamilton. 
Bee Bangde. 

BXlua'lNG-, a. Huge ; large of its kind. Forby. [Low.] 

fBXN'OLE, V. a. To waste by little and little! Burton. 

tiXv'Gi.'Ef*n. An Oriental ornamental ring for the wrist or 
ankle. Malcom. 

BXn'gle-EAR,* n. An Imperfectly formed ear of a horse. 
Farm. Encij. 

BXN'GXiE-EAEED,*(bain'gI-€rd) a. Flap-eared, like a span- 
iel. Crabb. 

BXngue,* (bUng) or BXng,* n. An East Indian plant, of a 
hot, narcotic, and intoxicating quality. Crabb. 

BBXn-iXn', (ban-ySn') [l^n~yan' S. JT. J. F. Jo, Sm. ; b&n'- 
e-iln, P. ; bSin'ySn', a.] n. A Hindoo belonging to one of 
the tribes that abstain from animal food ; a morning- 
gown ; an East Indian fig-tree ; the burr-tree. 

BBXn-iXw',* (b§n-yan') a. (Mavt.) Noting days when sea- 
men have no meat served out to them. Crabb. 

BXn'ish, v. a.[banmr^ Fr.] [i. banished ; pp. banibhing, 
banished.] To condemn to leave one's own country ; to 
exile ; to drive away. 

|IXh'|SH-:i?b, 71. One who banishes. Skak. 

BXn'|8H-m£nt, 7u The act of banishing ; exile. Shak. 


BXn'|S-TER, 7t. A wooden raiMng enclosi-g it3rs,&t, 4 
corruption of bdliLster^ which soe. 

BXWK, 71. i'he earth arising on each side of a water; any 
heap piled up ; a place where money is deposited ; an e* 
tablishment for the custody and issue of money; th» 
company of persons managing a bank. — A kind of tabl. 
used by printers. — (Z.OW)) A seat of jndgm".nl; a meet 
ing of all the judges, or such as may form a quorum 
as, "the court sit in banky" or in bancy or banco. Bouvier 

BXnk, v. a. [i. banked; pp. banking, banked.] To en- 
close with banks : — to lay up inuney in a bank. 

BXnk'-BIll, ji. A note for money issued by a bankini 
company ; a bank-nota. SwifU 

BXnk'ER, 71. One who keeps a bank : ^a stone br-nch on 
which masons cut and square their work. — (J^aut.) A 
vessel employed in the cod fishery on the banks of New- 

BXnk'er-l£ss,* a. Destitute of bankers, (^u. Rev. 

BXnk'f£nce,* n. A fence made of a bank of earth, ^sh, 

BXnk'ing,*71, The management of banks or money. Jf^imy 

BXnk';ng,*p. a. Belonging to bunks ; embanking, Ency. 

BXnk'-Note,* ir. A promissory note issued by a bankini 
company ; a bank-bill. Roberts. 

tBXNK'R<30T,*u. a. To make bankrupt ; to break. Shak* 

{BXnk'roOt,* n. A bankrupt. SKak. 

BXnk'rDpt, a. [banqueroutej Fr. ; bancorottOy It.] Unabt* 
to pay debts ; insolvent, 

BXnk'rDpt, n. A trauer or man unable to pay his debts, 
one who is subjected to the law of bankruptcy. 

BXnk'rCpt, v. a. To break. Beawn. Sf Fl. 

BXiVK'RVPT-cy, (bank'ryp-se) n. The state of a bankrupt; 
Insolvency. — (Law) An act of bankruptcy is an act tha 
makes a man legally a bankrupt; a commission of bank- 
ruptcy is a warrant granted in consequence of an act ol 

BXnk'rDpt-LAw,* 71. (Law) A law by which a bankrupt, 
upon surrendering all his property to commissioners, for 
the benefit of his creditors, is discharged from the further 
payment of his debts, and all liability to arrest for them. 
P. Cyc. 

BXnk'st-a,* 71. {Bot.) A genus of Australian plants. P. Cye, 

BXnk'-St6ck, 71. Stock or money in a bank, 

BXn'ner, 71, A piece of drapery attached to tlie upper pari 
of a pole or staff*: a flag ; a standard ; a streamer. 

BXw'NERED, (bSn'nerd) p. a. Displaying banners 

BXw'ner-j£t, n. A knight made in the field of battle . — • 
dignity now nearly or quite extinct. 

BXn'ner-ol, Ti. [banderolle, Fr.] A little flag; a bandrol 
See Bandrol. 

BXh-niXh', (bSn-ySn') n. See Banian. 

■fB^N-wI"TipN, (b^-nish'un) 71. [bannitusjli.] Expulsioiij 
banishment, jtbp. Laud. 

BXn'nqck, 71. A kind of cake ; an oaten or barley cake. 

BXkn?,* 71, pi. The proclamation in a church of an intend- 
ed marriage. Tomlins. 

BXn'quet, (bSng'kwet) ti. [Fr.] A feast; a grand enter 

BXn'quet, u. a. To treat with feasts. Shak. 

BXn'quet, v. 71. To feast ; to give a feast. Skak. 

BXn'QUET-eRj 71. A feaster; he that makes feasts. 

BXN'QUET-HbOsE_, > n. A house where banquets ar* 

BXn'quet-Ing-HoOse, \ kept. Sidney. 

BXn'quet-Ing, 71. Feasting. 1 P^ 

Banquette^ (h^^?r^^\') n. [Fr.] A foot bank, behind • 
parapet, for the soldiers to mount upon when they fire. 

Ban'shee, 71. A kind of Irish fairy. See Benshie. 

BXpf'STi-ciiE, (b&n'stik-kl)7i. The fish stickleback. 

BXn'ta'Mj+o. Noting a small species of dunghill fowls with 
feathered shanks. Crabb. 

BXn'ter, v. a. [badiner^ Fr.] [i. bantered ; pp. bantem- 
iNG, BANTERED,] To rally ; to jeer; to play upon. 

BXn'ter, 71. Light ridicule ; a rally; raillery. Watta. 

BXn'ter-er, 71. One who banters. VEstrange. 

BXn't^Rt-Ing,* 7*. The act of making a banter; raillery 

BXnt'ljno, 71. A little child. Prior, 

BXn-yXn',* 71. A kind of Indian fig ; a very large tree . — 
also written banian and bannian. Brands. See Banian. 

Ba'q-bXb,* 71. {Bot.) The adansonia, a very large African 
tree. P. Cyc. 

BXPH'p-MfiT,* 71. An imaginary idol or symbol which th« 
Templars were accused of employing in their ri'.,e» 

B^-Ti"5j-^,* 71. (Bo(.) A genus of plants ; wild ind'go 

BXp'TigM, 71. A Christian rite or sacrament performed bj 
ablution or sprinkling, and a form of words. 

Bap-tI9'mal, a. Pertaining to baptism. 

B^P-tX^'mal-ly,* ad. In a baptismal manner. Quin. 

BXp'tist, 71. One who baptizes. Matt. iii. One of a d» 
nomination of Christians who deny the validity of infan 
baptism, and maintain the necessity of immersion. 

BXp'tis-tEr-v, 71. A place where baptism is administttred 
or the part of a church containing the baptismal font. 

KiEM, sir; move, NOR, s6n J bOll, bUr, rAle — c. q. 9, g, softi jB, fi, £, |, hard; § a* zj y as gZi-.^Qiff 

BAR 60 

Bap-tTs'T, c^i^, a, Relcting to baptism. Bp. BranihaU. 

Bav-tTs'ti-cal-lv,**"^. In a baptiatical manner. Dr.AUen. 

B^P-TIZ'a^eLE,* a. That may be baptized. JV. E. Elders* 

[BXp-Ti-ZA'Tipw,* Ti. The act of baptizing. Bp. Hall. 

BaP-TIZE', D. a. [/^aTTTti^a).] \i. baptized; pp. baptizing, 
BAPTIZED.] To immerse in water ; to administer baptism 
to ; to sprinkle with water ; to christen. Milton. 

Bap-tized',* (b?p-tlzd0 p. a. Having received baptism ; 

Bap-tiz'er., n. One who baptizes or chriBtens. 

Bar, n. [fiarrc, Fr.] A long piece of wood or metal ; some- 
thing laid across a passage to hinder entrance ; a bolt ; 
obstruction J a gate j a rock or bank of sand at the en- 
trance of a harbor ; an enclosed place in a tavern where 
liquors ai'e dispensed : — a portion of the crust or hoof of 
a horse; also a portion of the upper part of the mouth of 
ahorse — {Law) A peremptory exception against a de- 
mand or plea ; a place in courts of law where lawyers 
plead, also where criminals stand ; the body of lawyers. 
— {Mils.) The line, or space marked off by the line, which 
includes one beat of time. 

Bak, v. a. [L barred; pp. barring, barred.] To fasten 
with a bar ; to hinder ; to prevent ; to shut out ; to ex- 
clude from use or claim ; to prohibit ; to except. — {Law) 
To hinder ; to obstruct ; to cut off or destroy, as an ac- 
tion or claim. 

BAR-A-l^lPTpNy* n. (Logic) An imperfect syllogism. Crabb. 

Ba-rXtz' ,^ n. A Turkish name for a letter patent given 
by the sultan to the grand patriarch, the bishops, &c. Crabb. 

Barb, ti. [harba^ L.] Any thing that grows in the place of, 
or resembling, a beard ; a tuft of hair ; a spine ; the 
points that stand backward in an arrow ; horse-armor ; a 
Barbary horse ; a pigeon. 

Barb, u. a. [i. barbed ; pp. barsing, barbed.] [f To shave. 
Shak.] To furnish horses with armor ; to jag arrows vvitii 

BXr'b^-cIn, n. A fortification before the walls of a town ; 
a watchtower ; an outer work of a castle, &c. ; written 
also barbican. See Barbican. 

B^R-ba'di-an,* n. A native or inhabitant of Barbadoes. 
Ed. Reo.' 

Bar-b a'rj-an, n. [barbarus^ L.] A man uncivilized ; a brutal 
er cruel person. Tt A foreigner. Shak.] 

B^R-ba'ri-an, a. Savage ; uncivilized ; brutal. 

Bar-bXr'Jc, a. Foreign ; far-fetched ; uncivilized. 

Bar'b^-rI^M, n. Ignorance of arts ; brutality ; cruelty ; in- 
civility. — {Rhet.) Anofl'ence against purity of style or lan- 
guage, by the use of uncouth, antiquated, or improper 

BAR-BAR'?-Ty, n. Savageness ; cruelty ; barbarism. 

BXr'bar-ize, v. a. To reduce to barbarism. 

Bar'bar-ize, v. n. To commit a barbarism. Milton. 

BXr'bar-oDs, a. Unacquainted with the arts ; uncivilized ; 
savage ; cruel ; contrary to the rules of speech. 

Bar'bar-oOs-ly, ad. In a barbarous manner. 

Bar'bar-oOs-nEss, n. State of being barbarous. 

Bar'ba-ry, v.. a Barbary horse ; a barb. Beaum. ^ Ft. 

Bar'eaS-t£lle,* n. A small kind of bat. Brande. 

Bar'bate,* a. {Bot.) Covered with long hairs, like beard. 
P. Cyc. 

BXr'bat-eb, fb'ir-bat'ed, Ta.S:. Maunder; b"lr'bat-ed, Sm. 
R. fVb.l a. Jagged with points ; bearded. Wdrton. 

BXr'BE-cue, v. a. [i. barbecued; pp. barbecuing, barbe- 
cued.] To dress wbole, as a hog, an ox, &c. 

BXr'be-cue, n. A b-9g dressed whole. 

Barbed, (barb'ed ot barbd) p. a. Bearded ; armed. 

BAR'BEL,-(bir'bi)7» [iarieZ, Fr.] A coarse river fish: — su- 
perfluous flesh in the mouth of a horse. 

BXr'ber, n. One tvhose occupation it is to shave. 

BXr'ber, v. a. To shave ; to dress out. Skak. 

BXr'ber-Sss, 7\ A woman barber. Mmskeu. 

BXr'eer-M6n GER, (^b*lr'her-mung-ger) Tt. A fop, Skak. 

BAR'EER-Ry^ n. [berberisf L.] A shrub and its acid fruit. 

BXR'BEB-Sljn'^^EQN, n. One who, in former times, prac- 
tised both shaving and surgery. 

BXrbe§,* or Bar'ble^,* n. pi. A disease incident to 
horses and cattle when they have excrescences under the 
tongue. Cfabb. 

BXr'bet,* n. A species of dog, having long, curly hair ; a 
poodle d'lg ; a species of bird having a hairy or tufted 
beak ; a small worm. Crahb. 

Bar'BI-C>N,* n. [barhicanumj L.] A watchtower for the 
purpose of descrying the enemy: — an opening to shoot 
out at: —the outer work or, defence of a castle, or the 
fort at "iie entrance of a bridge. Brande. 

fBXR'Bi cXN-^<J^E,*7l. Money paid to support a barbican. 

BXr'bi TON,* 71. (MtLs.) An ancient instrument somewhat 
reserftbling a I)Te. Brande, 

BAR'Bt/-L4j* n. [L.] {Bot.) A finely divided, beard-like 
apes to the peristome of some mosses. Brande. 

BXr'bule,* n. A little barb. Booth. 

B'ar' C^-ROLLEi* n. [Fr.] The boat-song of the Venetian 
gouifoliers. Brande. 


BXrd, n. Apoet; a Celtic minstrel: — trapping of a howa 

BJiRD'ED, p. a. Caparisoned. Holinshed, 
BXrd'jc, a. Relating to bards or poets. WartoTu 
BXrd'Jsh, a. Written by bards ; bardic. Selden. 
BS.RD'igM,*?!. The character or quality of a bard. £?<«•.[». 
Bard'ljng,* 71. An inferior hard. Cunningham, 
BARE, 0. Wanting clothes or covering; naked* uncQ* 

ered ; unadorned ; poor ; indigent ; mere, 
BARE, V. a. [i. bared ; jjip. baring, b*pjPD.] To strip, a 

uncover. Spenser. 
fBARE, i. from Bear; now bore. See Bear. 
BARE,''' 71, The part of an image or statue which repreaenti 

bare flesh. Francis. 
BAre'bone, 71, A very lean person. Shak. 
BAre'boned, (bir'bond) p. a. Having the bones bare. 5Aa&. 
BAre'faced, (b^r'fast) a. Having the face bare. Shak 

Shamejess ; bold. 
BAre'eaced-lv, (b&r'fast-le) ad. Shamelessly. 
BAre'faced-ness, fbir'fast-n?s) n. Effrontery 
BAre'foot, (bir'fut) a. Having the feet uncovered 
BAre'foot, (bdr'fut) ad. With the feet bare. 
Rare'foot-ed, (bir'fut-ed) a. Without shoes. Sidney 
BAbe'gnawn, (bir'nawn) a. Eaten bsare, Shak. 
BARE'HXiN"D-]ED,*a. Having the hands bare. Butler. 
BARE'iiiiAD-ED, (bir'h6d-?d) a. Having the head barOf 

uncovered out of respect. 
BAre'hj^ad-ed-n£ss, 71. State of being bareheaded. Bp 

BAr£^i.1^gg£d, (bAr'lSgd) p. a. Having the legs bare. 
Bare'ly, arf. Nakedly; poorly; merely. Hoo^. 
BAre'n£cked, (bir'nekt) p. a. Having the neck bare, 
BAre'Ness, 71. Nakedness; leanness; poverty, 
BAbe'p'/cked, (bir'pikt)p. a. Picked to the bone. SAoik 
BAre'rIbbed, (bAr'ribd)p. a. Lean. Shak. 
BAre'w^ORN,* a. Worn bare ; naked of turf. Goldsmith. 
BiR'-FiiE,*7i. {Law) Afee of twenty pence which English 

prisoners, acquitted of felony, pay to the jailer. Crabb. 
BiR'FOL,o. See Barrfdl. 
BXr'gain, (bar'gin) n. A verbal agreement ; a contract 

covenant ; the thing height or sold ; stipulation. 
Bar'gain, (bar'^in) v. n. \i. bargained ; pp. baeoainino 

eargainedJ To make a contract; to agree. 
BXr-gain-ee', 71. One who accepts a bargain. 
Bar'gain-er, 71. The person who makes a bargain. 
BXr'gaJn-Ing,*?!. The act of making bargains. A. Smith. 
BXr-gajn-or',*?;. (iaw)One who sells 10 or contracts with 

another, called the bargainee. Whishaw. 
BXr*^e, 71. [barge, Yx.\ A boat or vessel of state oi 

pleasure; a flat-bottomed boat ibr burden. 
BXr^e'course,*71. {Arch.) That part of the tiling of a roo. 

which projects over the gable end of a building. P. Cyc. 
BXr^-e'mXm, 71, ;pl. BARjGE'MfiN. The manager of a barge. 
BXr(^e'mXs-T5R, 71. The owner of a barge. Blackstone. 
BXr'^-er, n. A manager of a barge ; bargeman. Carew. 
BXr'goi^n,* 71. The gown or dress of a lawyer. BvMer. 
Ba-rIl'la,* n. A plant cultivated in Spain for its ashei^ 

and the alkali procured from it. — {Chem.) The name 

given in commerce to the impure carbonate of soda im- 
ported from Spain and the Levant. Brande. 
BAR'RiL-LiiT,* 71. [Fr.] The barrel of a watch; the fun- 

nelof a sucking-pump. Crabb. 
BXR'l-RpN,* (bar'i-urn) n. Iron in bars. Ash. 
B^-rIt' Q-Jv6f* a. i\l.i{Mus.) A low pitch of voice. Orab^ 
BA'Ri-ttM,* 71. {Chem.) The metallic base of baryta. Brande. 
Bark, n. [barck, Dan.] The rind or covering of a tree ; the 

medicine called Peruvian bark i — a ship having a gaff top- 
sail instead of the square mizzen topsail. 
Bark, v, a. [i. barked -^pp. barking, barked.] To strip ofl 

the bark ; to peel, [To enclose. Dorme.] 
BXrk, V, n. To make the noise of a dog ; to clamor. 
Bark'-bAred, (b'irk'bird) a. Stripped of the bark 
BXrk'-B£u,* 71. A hot-bed formed of tanner's bark. Booth 
BXBK'BbOND,*p. a. Straitened by the bark Farm. E-ney. 
BXr^kei^p-^^r,''' n. One who tends the bar of an inn. Som- 

Bark'er, n. He or that which barks. 
BXrk-i^-rYj"' 71. A tanhouse or place where bark is kepL 

BXRK'lNdj'^p. u. Making the noise of a dog ; divesting ol 

BXrk'ing,* n. The noise of a dog; act of taking off the 

bark. Ash. 
Bark'less,* a, Being destitute of bark. Drayton. 
BXrk'lo&sb,*?!.,- pi. bXrk'lice. A minute insect thai 

infests trees. Farm. Ev4yg. 
BXrk.'ivian,* n. One who belongs to a bark. Hackluyt, 
BXbk'pIt,* n. A tanpit, or pit for steeping or tannini 

leather. Booth. 
Bark'Vj a. Consisting of or like bark. Shak. 
Bar-le' Ri-4.,* 71. {Bot.) A genus of EE^t Indian plants. 

P. Cyc. 
BXr'ley, (b'ar'le) 7t. A kind of grain or bread-corn, a. 

which malt is commonly made. 

, fi, i, d, tf* f , Umg; X, £, 1, 6, t, 9 short; 4, ^, {, p, y, y, obscure — vArb, far, fXst, fXll; h£ir, Bttl< 


BSe'ley-Bird,* n. A name of the siskin Pennant. 

Bar'Tlek-brake, 71, A rural play or game. 

BXa'LEV-BR6TH. 71. Broth made of barley : — a low worJ 
fur strong beer. Shak. 

BXr'ley-Cake,*71. Cake made of barley. Pope. 

BXr'ley-corn, n. A kernel of barley j a third part of jin 
inch, THekell. 

BXr'ley-Fe'ver,* n. lUnesa caused by intemperance 
Brockett. [^North of Eng.] 

BXr'l?y-M6^, n. A place where barley is stowed up 

BXr'ley-sIck,* o. Intoxicated. [A cant word used in 

BXr'ley-SOg'ar, ^bar'le-shflg'gLf) n. Su^ar boiled till it is 
brittle, formerly with a decoction of barley. 

BXr'l:?y-WA'ter,* n. A decoction of pear! barley, a 
drink used in slow fevers. Crabb. 

BJiRM, n. A fermenting substance ; foam or froth of beer or 
other fermenting liquor, used as a leaven 5 yea^Jl. 

BXr'maid,* n. A maid or woman who tends a bar. Ooldr- 

BAr'MV, o. Containing barm. Dryden, 

Barn, ti. A building for containing; hay, p'nin, and other 
produce of a farm, and also for stabling cattle. 

Barn, v. a. To lay up in a barn. Shak. 

BiRN,* TT. A child. [Provincial in England.] See Bairn 

Bar'n^BEE,* 7i. An insect ; the lady-bird. Booth. 

Bar'na-cle, (ba.r'n?-kl) n. A sliell-fish, or shell adhering 
to suifStances under sea-water ; a bird like a goose, fabled 
lo grow on trees. — pL an instrument for holding a horse 
by the nose. 

BXrn'-Door, (bam'dor) 71. The door of a barn. Milton. 

Barn'-door,* a. Living near the door of a barn ; as, barn- 
door fowls. Coleridge. 

Barn'fOl,* n. As much as a barn will hold. HalL 

BXrn'yard,* 71. A yard adjacent to a barn. Booth. 

BX.rn'Vard-Fot5^l,* n. The common hen. Booth. 

BXr'p-lite,* 71. (Miru) A carbonate of baryta. Scudamore. 

BXr-9-M^-cr6m'e-ter,*7i. An instrument for measuring 
the length and weight of a new-born infant. Dunglison. 

Bvh.6m'e-ter, 71. [/?n/}osand //fr/joi'.l An instrument for 
measuring the weight or pressure of tne atmosphere. Its 
chief use is to determine the actual or probable changes 
of the weather. 

BXr-P-m£t'RIC,* a. Same as barometrical. Francis. 

BXR-p-MfiT'Ri-CAL, a. Relating to the barometer. 

BXR-p-MfiT'Ri-CAi'-i'Yj* o-ti' By means of a barometer. 
P, Cyc 

BXr'O-mEtz,* 71. (Bot.) A prostrate, hairy Btem of a fern. 
It is a singular vegetable production, of which, under the 
name of the Scythian lamby many fabulous stories are told. 
P. Cyc. 

BXr'qn, 7U [Fr. ^ Sp.] A degree of nobility next to a vis- 
count, being the lowest in the English house of peers : — 
the title of the judges of the English exclwquer. — (Law) 
A husband, opposed tofeme. — Barvn of beef. See Sirloik. 

BXr'QN-aoe, 71. The peerage ; the dignity of a baron j the 
estate wnich gives title to a baron. 

BXr'Pn-£ss, n. A baron's wife or lady. 

BXR'p-NfiT, n. The next title below a baron, and the low- 
est which is hereditary in England. 

BXR'^?-N£T-^(j^E,* n. The state or body of baronets. Oent. 

BXr'p-nEt-CY,* n. The dignity of a baronet. Booth. 

Ba-ro'ni-^l, a. Relating to a baron or barony. Warton. 

BXR^p-NViK* The lordship, honor, or fee of a baron. 

BXr'P-scope, n. [f^dpos and o-KJTrco).] A barometer; a 

BXR-p-sc6P'l-CAL,*a- Belonging to a baroscope. Boyle. 

BXr-9-s£l']E-nite,* 71. (Min.) A sulphate of baryta. 

Ba-R6uche,* (b^-rfishO n. A four-wheeled open carriage j 
a coach without a roof. Ed. Ency. 

BXR-du-pHfiT',* n. A small kind of barouche, or a four- 
wheeled open carriage, with a head. fV. Ency. 

B'/i.RQUE* (tiArk) n. [Fr.] See Bark. 

BXrr,* 71. A Portuguese measure of length, less than a yard. 

BXr'RA-cXn, n. [Fr.] A strong, thick kind of camlet. 

BAr'R-|ck, 71 A building to lodge soldiers in ; a cabin ; a hut. 

BXR'R4.CK-Mis-T:]ER, 71. The superintendent of soldiers' 
lodgings. SwifU 

BXR'RA(?r.,* 71. A linen stuff with worsted flowers. Crabb. 

fBAjR-k^-adu'fNj* n. [Fr.] Barbarous law language. 

RXr'k^Sj* 71. The resin which exudes from wounds made 
in the bark of fir-trees. Brande. 

BXR'RA-TpR, 71. {Law) One guilty of barratry. 

BXb'ra-TRYj "■ {Law) Foul practice, as the moving and 
maintaining of suits in disturbance of the peace, &c. — 
(ScoUand) Bribery in a judge. — (Rome) The obtaining of 
beneflceB. — (Com.) An act or offence of a master of a 
ship, or of the mariners, by which the owners or insurers 
are defrauded. 

BXb'REL, 71. A round wooden cask or vessel ; a particular 

61 BAR 

measure, as 33 gallons of ale, and 36 of beer ; any t4ln4 
ronnd and hollow, as the barrel of a gun : a cylinder. 

BXr'R^L, v. a. To put into a barrel. Spenser. 

BAr'r:c:l-B3£l'lped, (-bSl'lid) a. Having a large belly, 

BXr'relled,* I'bar'reM) a. Furnished with or put in t 
barrel. Jinh. 

BXr'ren, a. Not pro jfic ; not productive ; sterile ; unfniit 
ful i not copious; u/imeaning; uninvenfive. 

BXr'ren,* h. ; pi. bXr'ren^. A tract of unproductive 
land: — a term applied, in the western pnvu of the U»i 
ted States, to tracts of land (tf a mixed cJjaracter, partly 
prairies and partly covered with stunted or dwarfish trees, 

— The Pine Barrens of the Southern States are lands cov- 
ered with pine timber. Flint. 

BXR'REN-FiiONV'jiRED,* o. Having flowers without fruil 

BXR'REN-i-vy,* 71. Creeping ivy, that does not flowet 

BXr'ren-ly, ad. With barrenness ; unfruitfully. 
BXr'ren-nEss, n. Q-uality of being barren ; sterility ; wan 

of offspring ; unfruitfulness ; want of invention j arid 

BXR~REN-SPtR'iT-ED, a. Of a poor spirit. Shak 
BXr'ren-Wprt, (bS,r'ren-wUrt) n. A plant- 
IBXrr'fOl, a. Full of obstructions. Shak. 
BXr-ri-cade',71. [Fr.] Afortification hastifymade ot treei 

earth, &c. ; a bar ; an obstruction- 
BXr-ri-cade', v. a. [i. barricaded; pp. barricadixo 

HARRicADED.] To stop up J to fortify. 
BXr-ri-ca'bo, 71. [barricaday Sp.] A fortification. Bacon 

See Barricade. 
BXr-ri-ca'do, v. a. To fortify; to barricade. Milton, 
BXr'ri-er, (bSr're-er) [bnr're-er, JV. P. J. F. Jo. K. Sol 

b'ir'yer, S. E. .- — Pope, in one instance, by poetic licenso. 

pronounces it b^i-rer'.] n. [barridre, Fr.] A barricade ; a~ 

fortification ; a piece of wood-work intended to defend 

the entrance of a passage or intrenchment ; an obstruction j 

a stop i a boundary. 
Bar'ring-oOt, n. Act of excluding or shutting out a pe' 

son from a place, a boyish sport. SwifU 
BXr'ris,* 71. (Zool) A large baboon of the Guinea coast 

BXr'ris-ter, n. An advocate admitted to plead at the bai 

in the English courts of law and equity ; an advocate ; a 

counsellor at law. 
BXr'row, 71. [barrotj or berroette, old Fr.] A carriage 

moved by the hand : — a hillock or mound of earth : — » 

hog, properly, a gelded hog. 
BXr'rv-l£t,*71. (Her.) The fourth part of a bar. Crabb 
BXr'ry,* n. (Her.) A field divided by horizontal lines int« 

four or more parts. Crabb. 
BXr'sh6e,*». a particular kind of horseshoe. Farm.Enci/ 
Bar'shSTj 71. Two half bullets joined together by a bar, 
BXR'spw-iTE,*7i. (Min.) A mineral resembling scapolite 

Bar'ter, v. n. [barater, Fr.] ^i. bartered ; pp. bartkii 

iNO, BARTERED.] To traffic 'l)y exchanging commod 

BXr'ter, v. a. To give in exchange. Shak. 
BXr'ter, n. Trafficking by exchange of commoditiea. • 

(Jii-ith.) A rule by which the values of commodities of dif 

ferent kinds are compared. 
BXr'ter-er, 71. One who barters. 

jBar'te-ry, n. Exchange of commodities ; barter. Camden 
BXrth,* n. A warm, enclosed place or pasture for calves 

lambs, &c. Farm, Enoi TProv. Eng.] 
Bar-thGl'p-mew-TIbe, (b?r-th31'9-miJ-tTd) n. The terra 

near St. Bartholomew's day. Sliak. 
Bar-ti-zXn',* n. A small projecting turret. Francis 
Bar'tpn, (b'dLr'tn) n. (Law) The demesne lands of a manorj 

the manor-house and outhouses. HvloeU 
BXr'tram, 71, A plant; peliitory. 
Ba'rDth,* 71. An East Indian measure equal to 54 or 58 

pounds of pepper, Crabb. 
Ba-Ry'TA,* 71. [bii-ri't^i, K. Sm. R, Brande ; bS,r'e-t?i. JVb. 

n. [jffoptjs.] (Min.) An oxide of barium ; a ponc'erous, 

simple, alkaline earth, of a gray color, not easily fused. 

BA-ryte',* 71. (Min.) Same as baryta. Sciidavtore. 
Ba-ry'te5, n. (Min.) A simple earth ; baryta. P. Cye. Set 

Ba-R5?t'jc,* a. Containing or relating to baryta. Brande 
Ba-ry'tp-cXl'cite,* n. (Min.) A carbonate of baryta 

Ba-ry'tp-c?-l£s't|NE,* n. (Min.) A sulphate of strontiai 

and baryta. Dana. 
BXr'y-t6n,* n. (Mus.) An instrument of music now dis- 
used. P. Cye. 
BXr'v-tone,* 71. [Sapvg and t^^vos.] A male voice, run 

ning neither so low as a bass voice nor so high a^^ a tenor 

— ( Greek Prosody) A word not accented on the last sylla 
ble, and therefore not fin ishing with the sharp tone ol 
such a word. 

BXr'y-tone,* a. Noting a low pitch of voice, or a grave 

MiEN, SIRi mSve. NPR, s6n J bOLL, BUR, RtlLE. — 9, 9, ^, g, soft' E W, £, g, hard; ^ as Z ; ^ as gZ; — THi* 

BA8 62 


detjp sound ; applied to a verb having a grave accent. 

pa's^l,* a. Relating to the bast- or bottom. P. Cyc. 

UA-sAlt', |_b9-sait', Jo. Sm. R. ; b? sSIt', K. } bgi-zBIt', JVb.] 
n. A grayish-black mineral or stone ; trap-rock j a porce- 
lain imitating the mineral. 

B4-sXL'TE?f7u [L,] sinff.&pL Basalt. Pennant. 

Ba-sXlt'ic, [b^-sM'tik, Jo. Sm. it.; b^-sSl'tik, K. Davis; 
b?-z51'tik, Wh.] a. Relating to or like basalt. 

Ba-sXl'ti-F(5rm,* a. Having the form of basalt Maunder. 

Ba-sAl'tine,* n. (Min.) Basaltic hornblende j a column 
of basalt. Smart. 

BAs'^NiTE,* 7u (JWtTu) A variety of silicious slate or black 
jasper, sometimes used as a touchstone to try the purity 
of gold ; called also the Lydian stone. Brande. 

BXs'ci-NET,* n. [bassinet, Fr.] A light, basin-shaped hel- 
met, worn in England in the 14th century. Brande. 

Base, a. [&os, Fr.] Mean ; of mean spirit j low in station, 
place, position, origin, quality, or character ; illegitimate. 
— Applied to metals, of little value. — Applied to sounds, 
deep ; grave. See Bass. 

Base, n. [basis, L.] The bottom or foundation of any 
thing ; the pedestal of a statue, pillar, or column ; basis ; 
the broad part of any body, as the bottom of a cone, or 
the foot of a pillar. — (Chem.) An ingredient of a com- 
pound, usually applied to alkalies, earths, and metals, in 
their relations to acids and salts ; a metallic oxide. 

Base,* v. a. [baser, Fr.] [i. based ;pp, basing, basedJ To 
place un a basis ; to lay the base of; to found. Bp. Blom- 
Jield} BriL Critic. 

fBASE, V. a. To degrade ; to abase Bacon, 

Base'-born, a. Of illegitimate or low birth. Faller, 

JBase'-Court, (bas'kSrt) n. A lower court Shak. 

Base'l^ss, a. Without foundation. Shak. 

Ba-sEl'l^,* tu An East Indian plant cultivated instead 
of spinach. Brande. 

Base'lv, ad. In a base or unworthy manner. 

Base'ment, n. The lowest story of a building; a story 
of a house below, or partly below, the level of the street j 
the ground floor. 

Base'-mind'^d, a. Mean-spirited. Camden. 

Base'-m;ind':]e;d-nEs3, h. Meanness of spirit 

BAse'n^ss, n. State of being base ; meanness; vileness, 

Base'-spIr'{T-:^d,* o. Having a base spirit; low; vile. 

BASE'STRtNa, 71. The lowest note. Shak, 

BASE'-Vl'pL, n. See Ba3B-Viol. 

JBASH, V. n. To be ashamed. Bale. 

B^-SHAW', n. A title of honor among the Turks ; a viceroy ; 
a pacha. See Pacha. 

BAsh'fOl, a. Modest; wanting confidence; shy; having 
rustic shyness ; coy. 

BAsh'fCl-ly, ad. M'-destly ; in a coy or shy manner. 

BXsh'fCl-n£ss, 71. Outward modesty ; rustic shyness. 

BXSH'L?SS,* a. Shameless. Mason. [R.] 

BA^'jL, (biiz/jl) n. The angle to which the edge of a tool 
is ground ; a fragrant plant, or kitchen herb, of different 
varieties. [The skin of a sheep tanned ; bawsin. Farm. 

BA$'iL, V. a. To grind to a proper slope or angle. 

BXs'j-lXr,* )a, (Mnat,) Chief; principal; belonging to 

BAs'i-LA-RY,* ) the base ; noting an artery of the brain. 

Ba-?Tl'tc, or bX^'il-Ic, t*. A large hall. See Basilica, 
and Basilicon. 

Ba-s1^'I-*cal, I '*' Belonging to a basilica or basilicon. 
BV5tL'i-cA, n, [0a(Ti'SiKfi.] pi. Ba ^iL'i-cAg. A regal or 

large hall ; a magnificent church , the chief or middle 

vein of the arm. 
Ba~9Tl'I-c6n, ju An ointment of great virtue. Q,uincy. 
BX9'l~I.isK, 71. [/Jao-iAtV^ny.] (Antiq.) A fabulous serpent; 

a species of cannon. — (ZooL) A saurian reptile. 
Bawsin, (ba'sn) n, [bassin, Fr.l A small vessel to hold 

water ; a small pond ; any hollow place ; a dock for re- 
pairing ships ; the space of country drained by a river. 
Ba'sined, (ba'snd) a. Enclosed in a basin. Young. 
JBXs'i-n£t, n, Spenser. See Bascinet. 
Ba'sin-shaped,* (-shapt) a. Having the form of a basin. 

Ba'sis, 71, [basis, h.] pi. Ba'se§ The base; foundation; 

that on which any thing is raised ; groundwork. — (RfieL) 

The smallest trochaic rhythm. 
Ba~s1s'p-lute,* a. (BoL) Prolonged at the base, below 

the point of origin, as some leaves. Brande. 
BXsk, v. a. [i. basked ; pp. basking, basked.] To warm by 

laying out in the sun or heat. MUton, 
BAsK, V. n. To lie in the sun or warmth. Dryden. 
BXs'k:^-t, 71. A vessel made of twigs, rushes, or other 

flexible materials interwoven. —(-3rc/t.) Part of the 

Corinthian capital. 
BXs'K]et,* v. a. To put or place in a basket. Cmoper. 
BAs'KET-HliiT, n. A hilt of a weapon which covers the 

whole hand. 

BAs'ket-hIlt'eb, a. Having a baskf!t-hiU. 
BAs'ket-Wo'man, f-wfim'yn) n, A woman who i^m af 

markets with a basket. 
BAsk'jng,* w. The act of lying or standing in the sun. 
BXsQUE,* (bask) a. Relating to Biscay, or the language oi 

the natives of Biscay Bosworth. 
BXs'QUlSH, (bas'kjsh) o. See Basque. Sit- T. Browne, 
BAss, (bSis) n. A mat used in churches, &;c. Mortimer, 
BAss, (bds) 71. A sea fish : — an American tree of the gb- 

nus tilia, resembling the English lime or linden : — the 

bark of the bass or lime, used for mats, &c., called also bauL 
|Bass, v. n. To sound in a deep tone. ShcUc, 
Bass, a, (Music) Low ; deep ; grave. 
Bass,* n. (Mus.) The lowest part of harmony ; or .h. 

lowest or deepest part of the composition, which is r« 

garded as the foundation of the harmony Brande 
Bas'sa, n. See Bashaw. Sir T. Herbert. 
BAs'sET,*m. (Miru) The emergence at the surface of th« 

different mineral strata from beneath each other; an out- 
cropping. Hamilton, 
BXs's:^t, n. [bassette.FT.] A game at cards. Dennis. 
B4.S-S&TTE',* n. [Fr.] A game at cards. — {Mus.) 'km 

smallest species of the bass violin. Brande. 
BAS-s^Tf TO,* or BXs'ao,* n, [It] (Mus,) A small bas* 

viol. Crabb, 
BXs'si-A,* 71. (Bot.) A genus of tropical plants. P. Cyc, 
BAs'sj-iffiT,* 71. [Fr.] A kind of wicker basket for a 

young infant fr. Ency, 
BXs'spcK, n. A mat ; the same with bass. 
B^s-soon', 71. [basson, Fr.] A musical wind instrument 

made of wood, and serving as the proper bass to the 

oboe and clarionet. 
BAs'sg-Ri-LiE'VQ, n, [It] pL SASSi-RiziEri, See 

B ass-Relief. 
B^s-so'rine,* 7u a modification of a gum from Bassora. 

BXss-Re-lief', (bSs-rHefO [b&s-r^-lef, S. W. P. J, F. Jo. 

K. Sm. R. ; bas-r?-lef , IVb.] n. [basso Hlievo, It.J Sculp- 
ture, the figures of which do not stand out far from the 

Bass'-VI'ql, 71. A musical stringed instrument with foiii 

strings ; a violoncello. 
BXsT,*7u A rope or cord made of the bark of the baas, 

lime, or linden tree ; bark for ropes or mats. McCuUoch. 
Bas'ta,* [It] (Mus.) Enough; stop. — An expression 

used by the leader of a band. Craib. 
BAs'T^RD, n, [bastardd, Welsh.] An illegitimate child; 

any thing spurious ; a piece of ordnance ; [a sweet wine. 

BXs'T^RD, a. Illegitimate ; spurious ; base. — Bastari 

stucco, a coarse kind of plastering. — Bastard wing, three 

or five quill-like feathers at a small joint at tlie middle 

of the wing. 
fBis'TARD, V. a. To convict of being a bastard. Bacon, 
BAs'tVbi>-A.l'k^-n£t,* n. An annual plant or weed. 

Farm, Ency, 
BAs'tard-DIt't^-ny, n. Plant; white hoarhound. Booti 
tBAs'afARD-i5M, n. The state of a bastard, Cotgrave, 
BXs'T^KD-lZ^, V. a, [{.bastardized; pp, bastardizins, 

BASTARDIZED.] To make bastard or illegitimate ; to con- 
vict of being a bastard. 
fBAs'TARD-tv, a. Spurious. Bp. Taylor. 
JBAs'TARD-liY, ad. spuriously. Donne. 
BAs'tard-Toad'flAx,* n, Aperennial wild plant. Am. 

BAs'TAR-DY, n. State of being a bastard ; illegitimacy. 
Baste, v. a. [i. basted ; pp. basting, basted.] To beat 

with a stick; to drip butter or gravy upon meat while 

roasting; to sew slightly. 
BXs-TiLE', (bas'tel) [bis-tel', K. Sm, ; bSs'tel, iV.R. Todd,) 

n. [bastille, Fr.] The fortification of a castle ; the caalls 

itself; the state prison formerly at Paris. 
fBXs'TI-MfiNT, or jBAs-Tj-MfeN'TO, n. [basUment, ^T,] A 

rampart. Olover, 
BXs-Tl-NADE', n, Scv.a. Same as bastinado. See Bastinadw 
BXs-T j-MA'DO, n, [bastonata. It ; bastonnade, Fr. ; basti' 

nado, Sp.] A cudgelling; flagellation ; a mode of punish 

ing practised in Turkey, Persia, China, &c. ; commonly 

inflicted upon the soles of the feet 
BXs-ti-na'do, r, a. [i. bastinadoed ; pp. bastinadoiwo 

bastinadoed.] To beat with a cudgel or a bastinado. 
Bast'jng-, 71. A dripping : — act of beating with a sticlb 

BXST'IQN, (bSst'yyn) «• [FrO (•Mil.) A large projecting 

mass of earth or masonry at the angles of a fortified 

work ; a bulwark. 
BXs'TipNED,* (bist'yynd) a. Provided with bastions. 

Bas'to,* n. [It] The ace of clubs at the games of ombie 

and quadrille. Pope. 
tBAs'Tpw,* 71. A batoon. Bacon. See Batoon. 
BXt, n. An animal having the body of a mcuse antf 

wings like a bird, but without feathers ; a stick ; 1 

flat club ; a piece of brick. 

* E, i, 6, tJ, y, long; X, £, I, 6, 0, t, short; ^, ?, U <>, V» Vi o&scwre. — fAre, fXr, fXst, fAll; h£ir, hKb 


i>*r,« 3. n. To manage a bat at cricket. Duncombe. 

».Xt'a ble, a. [batable, Fr.] That may be contended for ; 
debatable : — causing fatness ; fattening ; as, " batabte her- 
bage." [Local, Eng.] Farm, Ency. See Battable. 

B^TA't^s,* n. A species of convolvulaceoua East Indian 
plant, having fleshy sweet tubers, cultivated for food j 
the sweet potato ; Carolina potato. Brande. 

Ba-ta'vi-a.n,* a. Relating to Batavia or Holland. E-My. 

BATCH, 71. The quantity of bread baked at one time. 

BXTCH'E-LpR, iu See Bachelor. 

BATE,7i. Strife J contention j debate. Shak. [R.] 

Bate, w. a. [i, bated; pp. bating, bated,] To abate. 
Shak, To cut off ; to remit. Drydea. To bar; to except. 
Farm. Ency. 

Bate, v. n. As a hawk. See Bait. 

Bateau,* {]iU^i)n. [Fr.] pl.Sxrji:Arar,(b!lt-5z ) A long, 
light \ioa.t._Hutchmson. 

tBATE'-BREED-jN&, a. Breeding strife. Shak. 

^Bate^pOl, a. Contentious; debateful. Sidney, 

fBATE'LESS, a. Not to be abated. Shak. 

fBATE'MENT, 71. Diminution; abatement. Moxon. 

BAt'-P6\Vi:.-^r, 71. One who practises bat-fowling. 

BAt'-Fo^l-jno, 71. Bird-catching in the night-time. 

{BXt'fOl, a. Fruitful. Drayton. 

Bath, [bath, W, P, J. F. Ja. K. Sm. ; bath, R.] n. ; pi 
Batii$. a place for bathing ; a receptacle of water for 
bathiBg ; a heating by means of water, steam, vapor, or 
Band ; a house containing a bath : — a Hebrew measure of 
74 gallons^ — Order oftheBath^a. British order of knighthood. 

Bathe, (bath) v. a. [i. bathed; pp. bathing, bathed.] 
To immerse and wash in water or. a bath ; to soften by 
washing ; to wash. 

Bathe, v. n. To lave one's body in water. 

Bathe,* n. Act of bathing. StanUy. 

Bath'^Rj* n. One who bathes. ChapmaTU 

Ba-th£t'jc,* a. Relating to bathos ; sinking. Coleridge. [R.J 

Bath'in&, 71. The act of immersing in a bath. 

BATH^JNa-RfiSM,* 71. A room used by bathers. Congreve. 

Bat-Horse,* or Baw-Horse,* (ba.w'hdrs) n. A bag- 
gage horse. Crabb. 

BA'THds, n. U3ad\]i., Gr., depth.] {Rhet.) A ludicrous de- 
scent from elevated to mean thoughts ; anticlimax. 

BAT'jNa, prep. Except ; abating. Rowe. 

BXt-Iste',* n. [Fr.] Fine linen cloth or lawn, made in 
Picardy, Flanders, &c. Rawson. 

BXt'Ij^t, 71. A square piece of wood for beating linen. 

Bat-Man,* or Baw-Man,* (b9.w'man) n, A man in the 
army who takes care of the bat-horse, and cooking uten- 
sils, &c. P, Cyc. 

Bat-Money,* or BAw'-M6n-¥Y,* tu Money paid to the 
bat-man. Washington. 

BXt'-NEt,* n. A net to put over the nests of bats. Booth. 

BXt'p-lite,* 7u (Min.) A genus of fossil shells. P. Cyc. 

BatoNj'*^ (b'i-tSng', or biVgn) n. [Fr.] (Mus.) A rest of 
four semibreves: — a marshal's staff ; batoon. Brande. 

BXi^QN-ifiER,* n. [Fr,] An elected president of an order 
or fraternity. Brande. 

Ba-t6on', n. [baton, Fr.J A staff or club ; a staff of a 
field-marshal. — {Ha:) In coats of arms, it denotes ille- 
gitimate descent. 

BA-TH.A'jBKl-f ,* n. [ffdrpaxos.] (Zool.) pi. An order of 
reptiles, including frogs and toads. Brande. 

Ba-tra'£;hi-an,* n. (Zool.) One of an order of reptiles ; 
a frog or toad. Brande. 

BA-TRA'jeHi-AN,* a. (ZooL) Relating to or resembling 
frogs or toads. P. Cyc. 

BAt'r^-jCHITE * rt. {Min.) Frogstone ; a fossil resembling 
a frog in color. Smart. [Reo. 

BXt'RA-^hoId,* a. Relating to or like batrachians. Qu. 

BXT-R^-jeHOM-V-dM'^-CHV,* n. A battle between tlie 
frogs and mice. Warton. 

BXT-RA-cnoFK' J^-&O^Sf* z. Feeding on frogs. Q,h. Reo. 

BXT'siifiLL,* n. (Conch.) The dusky brown voluta. HilL 

BXt't^,* 71. An allowance made to military officers in 
the ecrTice of the East India Company in addition to 
their pay. P Cyc 

BXT'T.A-BiiE, a. Capable of cultivation ; capable of being 
made fat. Burton. [R.] 

IBAt'tai-lXnt, n. A combatant. Shelton. 

Bat-TAL'IA, (b^t-tal'ysi) n. [battagtia. It.] pi. BATTALIAS. 
The order of battle. Sandys. The main tody of an army. 

B^T-tXl'iqn, (b^t-tail'yyn) «■ [bataillon, Fr.] A division 
"of the infantry in an army, variable, in number, from 
500 to eOO men ; an army. 

♦BXt'tA-LODs, a. Warlike. Milton. 

fBAT'TiSL, or BXt til, fbat'tl) v. a. To batten. 

BXt'tel, (bat'tl) V. n. To grow fat ; to batten. Spmser. 
To stand indebted in the college books, at Oxford, Eng., 
for what is expended at the buttery in the necessaries of 
eating and drinking. At Cambridge, size is used in a 
similar sense. In the former university there is a student 
named a batteller, or battler ; in the latter, a sizar. 

JBAt'tel, or BXt'ti.e, (bat'tl) a. Fruitful; fertile. fiboicr. 

63 BAW 

BXt'tel, (btlt'tl) n. A student's arcount at Oxford ; « 

small allowance of food at Eton College. Tooke. 
BXt tel-ler, (ba,t'tl-l?r) n. A student at Oxford, in Eaf 

land. See Battel. 
IBXt'ten, (bat'tn) V. a. To fatten; to fertilize. Milton. 
jBXt'ten, (bat'tn) V. n. To grow fat. Shak. 
BXt'ten, (bait'tn) n. A piece of timber usually from Q U 

4, and sometimes 7 inches broad, and 1 thick. 
BXT'TEN-tN&,* 71. (Arch.) Narrow battens fixed to a w^l 

to which the laths for plastering are nailed. Brande. 
BAt'tjer, v. a. [battre, Fr.] [i. battered ; pp. battering, 

battebed,] To beat down; to wear with beating; to 

wear out with service ; to put out of order ; to make dull, 
BAt'ter, v. n. To lean backward ; to jut out ; to mak* 

continued attacks : — to lean inward. 
BAt't^r, n. A mixture of ingredients beaten together: - 

a term applied to a wall leaning inward. 
BAt'ter-?r, n. One who batters. Bp. Taylor. 
BAt'ter-j'ng-RAm', 71. An ancient military engine, use* 

for battering down walla pf cities, &c. 
BAt't¥R-¥, n. The act di battering; a line of cannon , 

the frame, or raised work, on which cannon or mcirfars 

are mounted; an apparatus for giving shocks in electri- 
city or galvanism. — (Law) An assault upon a man> 

person, or any injury done in a violent manner. 
BXt'tjsh, a. Resembling a bat. Vernon. 
BXt'tle, (bat'tl) tu [bataille, Fr.] An encounter or en 

gagenient between two armies or fleets ; a fight ; a hostile 

BXt'tle,* v. a. To encounter ; to engage in battle. Swijl 
BAt'TLE, v. n. [i. battled ; pp. battling, battled.] Te 

contend in battle: to fight. 
BAt'tle-AR-RAy', tu Order of battle. 
BAt'tle-Axe, (bat'tl^ks) 7u An ancient military weapon, 

purely offensive. 
BXt'tle-door, (bat'tl-d5r) n. A bat or instrument used 

in playing with a shuttlecock. 
BAT'TLE-aifiNT, (bat'tl-mSnt) tu A wall or parapet on the 

top of a building, with embrasures or open places to look 

through, or to discharge missile weapons ; a breastwork. 
BAT'TL.E-MfiNT-:^D, a. Secured by battlement. 
B At'tle-PIECE,* 71, A painting representing a battle. Pop* 
BAt'tler,*7i, Same as battellcr. Crabb. 
BXt'TL|ng-, tu Conflict. Thomson^ 
Bat-t5l'o-(j^Xst, n. One who repeats the same thing 

B^t-t6l'0-9-ize, V. a. To repeat needlessly the same 

thin^ Sir T. Herbert. 
BAT-ToL'p-ij^y- 71. A needless or tiresome repetition. Milton 
BXt'tqNj* 71. That part of a loom which closes the work 

BlT-TUSE'j* n. [Fr.] An elevation of the bed of a river 

Bat-tCt^.,* n. [It.] (Mus.) The motion of beating with 

the hand or foot in directing the time. Brande. 
fBXT'Ty, a. Belonging to a bat. Shak. 
Bl TZ,* 71. A German coin of less value than a farthing. Crc6fr 
Bau-bee', n. (Scotland) A half-penny. BramsUm. 
Bau'blEjTi. See Bawble. 
BAu-D^s'sE-RiTE,* 71. (Min.) A carbonate of magnesia 

magnesite. Dana. 
BXuK,* or BXULK,* 71. A long piece of timber. Orier. A 

stripof unploughed land. Loudon, See Balk. 
BXu'LiTE,*7i. (Jlfin.) An Icelandic silicious mineral. Dan* 
Baulk, (blwk) v. a. See Balk. 
Ba-va'rj-^n,*ti. a native of Bavaria. Russell. 
Ba-va'rJ-an,* a. Relating to Bavaria. Murray. 
BXv-^-r6^', n. [bavarois, Fr.] A kind of cloak. Oay. 
BXv'in, tu a fagot; a stick; a piece of waste wood. Shak 
BAw'ble, 71. A gewgaw ; a trilling piece of finery ; a 

court-fool's truncheon. Oower. 
tBAw'BLiNG, a. Trifling ; contemptible. Shak. 
fBAw'cdcK, n. A fine fellow ; a fop. Shalt. 
BAwD, n. A procurer, or procuress ; a pimp. Skelton 
tBAWD, V. a. To foul ; to dirty, Skelton. 
BAWD, V. n. To procure for vice. Spectator. 
Baw^d'born, p.a. Descended of a bawd. SAoA. 
BAw'Dj-Ly, ad. Obscenely ; filthily. 
Baw'di-n£ss, 71. Obsceneness or lewdness. 
BAw'drick, tu a belt. Chapman. See Baldrick. 
BAw'drv, It. Procuration for purposes of lust; obscene 

language or conduct. 
BAwd'shIp,* n. The employment or office of a bawd. Ford, 
BAw'dy, a. Filthy ; obscene; lewd ; unchaste. Shak. 
BAw'dv-HoOse, 71. A house used for lewdness. Dennis. 
BAWL, V. n, H. BAWLED ; pp. bawling, bawled.] To hoot; 

to cry alouii; to cry as afroward child. 
Bawl, v. a. To proclaim as a crier. Smifi.' 
BAwL,* n. A vehement clamor ; an outcry. Pope, 
BAWL'ER, n. One who bawls. Echard. 
Bawl'i'ng,* 71. The act of crying aloud; loud crying. 
tBAwN, 71. (Ireland) An enclosure with mud or stone w^U 

to keep cattle ; a fortification. SpcTiser. 
BAw'rel, 71. A kind of hawk like a linnet. 

WtBN, SIB ; m6vE, nor, s6n; bOll, bOb ; bOle. — <?, (^, ^, f, softf 0, &, 5, g, hard; § as Z ; $ as gz;— THI4 

BEA 64 

BAw'siN, Tt. A badger; sheep's leather. Draiiton. 
P4.Y, (ba) a. [baye, bai, Fr.] Brown, approaching to chest- 
nut co'or, spoken of a horse. 
Bay, (ba) n. ; pi. BAY^. A portion of the aea enclosed be- 
tween two capes; a large gulf; an opening or space 
caused by the bend of a boundary line: — in a barn, a 
place for the mow between the floor and the end of the 
building: — a stand made by one pursued or attacked, 
during which the enemy holds off: — a tree ; the female 
laurel: — pi. A garland, such as rewarded victory in an- 
cient games ; learning. 
Bay, rba) v. n. To bark as a dog at a thief. Spenser. 
Bay. (ba) v. a. To bark at. Shah. 
Bay'ard, 71. [bayoH, old Fr.] A bay-horse ; a blind horse, 

often mentioned in old romances. 
Bay'ard-LY, o. Blind ; stupid. Bp. Taylor. [R.] 
Bay'Ber-rv,* n. The wax myrtle ; a plant that bears an 

oily berry. Bigelow. 
Bayed, (bad) a. Having bays, as a barn. 
BAy'mG,* 71. The barking of a dog. Hall. 
Bay'leaf,* 71. The leaf of the bay or laurel. Johnson. 
Bay'P-n£t, [ba'9-net, J. F. K. R.; ba'yun-gt, W. P. Ja. 
Sm. ,• bag'9-net, S.] n. [bayonn&tte, Fr.] A short, triangular 
I sword or dagger fixed upon the end of a musket. [" Fre- 
quently pronounced bag'9-net, chiefly by the vujgar." 
Bay'p-net, v. o. To kill or stab with the bayonet. Burke. 
Bayou,* (bi'6) n. {boyau^ Fr., a gut, or bawd.'] A narrow 
creek or inlet ; a small gulf or channel. Maunder. [Used 
in Louisiana.] 
BAY'-SlIiT, (ba'sait) n. Salt made of sea-water in bays, 
, pits, &ic. _ 

Bay'-Tbee,* 71. A small evergreen tree ; the laurel of an- 
tiquity. Farm. Ency. 
Bay'-WIn'dow, (ba'win'do) n. A window projecting out- 
ward, and forming a kind of bay in the room. It if now 
called ftow-wiTirfow. See Bow-Wikdow. 
Bay'-YXrs, (ba'yarn) Tt. Woollen yarn. Chambers. 
Bayze, 71. See Baize. 

B^-zIar', (bgi-z'ir') 71. [Per.] An Eastern market ; a place 
fitted up for various retail shops, all under one regulation. 
Written also bazar. 
BnfeLL'lVM, (del'yum) n. [L. ; PSeXXfJv, Gr.] A resinous 

juice or gum resin of an Oriental tree, slightly bittt-r. 
Bdel-t6m'e-ter,* (del-tSm'e-ter) n. (Med^ An instrument 

used in blood-letting. Dunghson. 
Be, 17. n. [i. was; pp. being, been. — Present, I am, thou 
arty he is; we are: — i. I was, thou wast, lie was; we 
were.] To exist ; to have existence or some certain state. 
J):5" It is much used as an auxiliary in conjugating other 
verbs, by means of which the passive voice is formed. 
When it is not separately expressed, its meaning or force 
is nevertheless included in every other verb. Hence it is 
called the substantive verb, or verb of ezisteiice. 
Beach, fbech) n. The sea-shore ; the strand. SAnfc. 
Beach'ed, (bSch'ed) a. Exposed to the waves. Shak. 
Beach'y, {b5ch'e)'fl. Having a beach or beaches. Skak. 
Bea'cow, (bS'kn) n. A fire lighted on a height by way of 
signal to navigators, &c. ; the place where such signals 
are maae ; a conspicuous mark. 
Uea'con, (fbS'kn) v. a. [L beaconed ;pp. beaconing, bea- 
coned.] To afford assistance as a beacon ; to light up. 
Bea'cow-^(ji-E, (be'kn-9j) n. Money paid for the maintain- 
ing of beacons. Minsheu. 
Bea'coned^ (be'knd) a. Having a beacon. T, Warton. 
Be a'c ON-LESS,* a. Having no beacon. Dr. Allen. 
Bead, n. A little ball strung with others, and frequently 
worn about the neck. They are used by Roman Catholics 
in counting their prayers. — {Arch.) An imitation of beads ; 
an architectural ornament ; a kind of moulding. 
BeA'dle, (be'dl) n. A messenger belonging to a court or 
public body ; a petty officer in a church, parish, univer- 
sity, &c. 
Bea'dle-ry,* n. The office or jurisdiction of a beadle. 

BEA'DLE-SHtP, 71. The office of a beadle. A. Wood. 
EtEAi?'ROLL, n. A listof persons to be prayed for. 
BEAi)?^MXH, 7i.;^Z. BEADS'MfiN. A man employed to pray 

for anotlier ; a monk. 
Bead'snake,*7i. The brown coluber, a spotted snake. Hill. 
Bead§'wom;-a.n, (bedz'wiim-fin) n. ; pi. beadswomen". 

A woman who prays for another. B, Jonson. 
Bead'~Tree,7i. An Indian tree that bears nuts which are 

used for beads in necklaces. 
Bea'gle, (be'gl) n. [bigle, Fr.] A small hound for hunt- 
ing hares. 
BEa'gle-hoOwd,* n. A species of hound. Johnson. 
Beak, n. [bee, Fr.] The bill of a bird ; a point ; the crook- 
ed end of a piece of iron to hold any thing fast ; a hard 
termination of any part of fructification. 
Beaked, (bek'ed, or bSkd) a. Having a beak. Milton. 
Bea'ker, (be'k'^r) n. A drinking-cup or vessel. Butler, 
|-Beal, (bel) 71. A whelk or pimple ; a boil. Bailey. 


fBE AL, ». n. To ripen ; to gather matter, as a sere. SherwoM 

IBe-All, 71. All that is to be. Shak. 

Beam, (bem) 7t. A main, horizontal piece of timber in 1 
building ; any large piece of timber ; a part of a balanca 
at the ends of which the scales are suspended ; the horn 
of a stag ; the pole between harnessed horses ; a cylin- 
drical piece of wood belonging to a loom, on which the 
web is gradually rolled as it ia woven : — a ray or portion 
of light emanating from the sun or some lumiiious hodv. 

Beam, v. n. [i, beamed ; pp. beaming, beamed.] To en;il 
rays or beams ; to shine. Pope. 

Beam. v. a. To shoot forth ; to emit in rays. 

Beam'-BXrd,*71. The spotted fly-catcher of England. Booth. 

Beam'f£a^h-er,* n. A long feather of a bird's wing. 

Beam'lesSj a. Yielding no ray of light. Dryden. 

Beam'-TreEjTI. Aspeciesof wild-service or wild pear-treto. 

BEAM'y, a. Radiant; emitting beams or rays; weighty or 
large, as a beam. 

Bean, n. A garden vegetable; the name of several kind* 
of pulse. 

Bean'-Ca-per, n. A fleshy, succulent shrub. 

Bean'f£d, jj. a. Fed with beans. Shak. 

BiiAN'FLY,* 71. A beautiful bluish-black fly. Fairm. Enai 

BEAN'G66sE,*n. A species of wild goose. P. Cyc 

Bean'-Tre-foXl,*?!. a fetid plant or shrub. Booth 

Bean'-Tr£s-sel,7i, An herb or plant. 

BeAr, (bir) v.o. (i, BORE (|bare) ; pp. bearing, bohnb ^ 
To carry as a burden ; to convey ; to carry ; to support, 
to endure; to suffer; to undergo; to permit; to sustain; 
to bring ; to produce ; to yield. — To bear a price, to have 
a certam value. — To bear in hand, to keep in expectation 
or dependence. — To bear off, to carry away.^ To fteor 
out, to justify ; to support. 

BeAb, (bir) 73. 71. [i. BORE ; ;jp. BEARING, BORNE.] To suffei 
pain; to be patient; to endure; to press; to be fruitful 
or prolific ; to take effect ; to succeed ; to be directed to 
any point ; to be situated with respect to other places.— 
To bear up, to stand firm. — To bearwlUt, to endure. 

BeAr, (bir) V. a. [i. bore (f bare) ; pp. bearing, born or 
BORNE.] To brmg forth, as a child ; to give birth to 
8:^ The participle bom is used in the passive form, and 
borne in the active form ; as, " He was bora blind," John 
ix. ; " The barren hath borne seven," 1 Sam. ii. Thih dis- 
tinction between bom and borne, though not recognized 
by grammarians, is in accordance with common usage, 
at least in this country. In many editions of the Bible il 
is recognized ; and in many it is not. It seems to have 
been mqve commonly recognized in American, than in 
English, editions. 

BeAr, (bAr)7i. A plantigrade, fierce animal, of several spe- 
cies : — an iron instrument or roller. — (Astron.)The name of 
two constellations called the Great or Greater Bear^ [Ursa 
Major,] near the north pole, and the Less or Lesser Bcar^ 
[Ursa Mi'iior,'] which includes the pole star. 

BeAr,* or BtG BeAr,* n. A species. of barley having foul 
rows in the ear. Jamieson. See Bere. 

BeAr'a-ble,* a. That may be borne; tolerable. Perry, 

BeAr'a-bly,* ad. So as to be borne ; tolerably. JVesU'Rev 

BeAr'-Bait-Ing, n. The sport of baiting bears with dogs 

BeAr'-B£r-ry,*7i. A plant bearing a red berry; arcto- 
staphylos. P. Cyc. 

BeAr'-Bind, (bir'blnd) n^ A species of bind-weed. 

Beard, (herd) [herd, fF. P. J. E. F. Ja. K. Sm. R. ; herd, S. 
Wb. ; bird, Wm. Johnston.] n. The hair that grows on the 
lips and chin ; prickles or awn on the ears or heads ot 
grain, or on other plants ; gills of oysters and other bivalve 
fish ; a barb on an arrow ; the chuck of a horse where th» 
curb goes. SS^I^ *8 pronounced bird, in Suffolk and 
Norfolk, in England, according to Forby ; and it is thui 
pronounced in some parts of New England. 

Beard, (bSrd) v. a. [i bearded ; pp. bearding, bearded ] 
To furnish with beard : to take or pluck by the beard ; to 
oppose to the face ; to defy openly. 

Beard':^:d, (berd'ed) a. Having a beard ; barbed; prickly 
Beard'-GrAss,* 71. A species of grass, of two varietie* 

Farm. Ency. 
Beard'less, o. Having no beard ; youthftil. 
Beard'less-nEss,*ti. The state of being beardless. -Smort- 
BeAr']ER, (bir'?r) n. One who bears ; a carrier ; a support- 
er; one who carries a body to the grave. — {Arch) Any 
upright timber used to support another. 
BeAr'-Fly, (bir'fli) 71. An insect. Bacon. 
BeAr'-Uar-den, (bir'ga.r-dn) 71. A piace in which bears 

are kept for sport ; any place of tumult. Spectator. 
BeAb'-GXr-den, (bir'gar-dn) a. Rude or turbulent, [r.] 
Be AR'HfeRD, (bAr'herd) n. A keeper of bears. 
BeAr'ing,7i. The position of one place from another by the 
points of compass; the place or relation of one thing as to 
another ; gesture ; behavior. — {Her.) The charges thai 
fill an escutcheon. 
BeAr'ing,* p. a. That bears ; sustaining ; yielding. 
BeAr-ing-Cl6th,7i, Thecloth with which a child is cov- 
ered when carried to church to lDc baptized. Sliak. 

S, E, I, o, U, Y, longi X, %, I, 6, 0, ?, short; ^ ?, j, p, V» Y» obscure. — fAre, fX.R fXst. fall; h£[R, U^K 

BKA 65 

BcAr Jsh, a. Having the quality of a bear. Hams. 

SeAr'LIKGj a. Resembling a bear, Shak. 

BeAbn, (bim) n. [ftam, Goth.] A child. Shak. See Bairk 

BeAr's'-Breech, (bdrz'hrSch) n. A plant. Miller. 

BeAr'9-kar, m. A plant; auricula or sanicle 

BEAa'$'-FooT, Cbirz'fat) n. A species of hellebore. 

BeAr'^'-Grease,* n. The grease or oil of the bear. Booth. 

Bear'-SkIn,* n. The skin of a bear ; a thick cloth with a 
long pile, used for warm clothing. fV. Emy 

BeAr'^'-Wort, (birz'wurt) n. An herb. 

BeAr'wArd, n. A keeper of bears. Shak. 

BEAR'WHELP,*n. The cub of a bear. Drayton. 

BiiASTjTi. [ftcsie, Fr.] An animal, distinguished from birds, 
insects, fishes, and man ; a quadruped ; a brute j a brumal 

Beast, n. A game at cards, like loo. Scoti. 

Beast'ings, 7i,;»i. See BiBaxiNGs. 

Beast'like, a. Resembling a beast. Mountatrti. 

Beast'li-nEss, n. Brutishness ; brutality. Spenser. 

Beast'lv, a. Brutal ; having the nature of beasts. 

Beast'lv, ad. In the manner of a beast, [r.] 

Beat, V. a. \i. beat; fp. beating, beaten or beat.] To 
strike ; to bruise ; to pound ; to thresh ; to hit ; to tread 
a path j to conquer ; to overcome ; to surpass ; to over- 
throw. — To beat down, to lessen the price or value. — To 
beat up, to attack suddenly. {JN'auU) To make progress 
against the wind by a zigzag course. 

Beat, v. n. To move in a pulsatory manner ; to dash, as a 
flood or storm j to throb ; to palpitate. 

Beat, [bSt, W.K. Sm. R. Wb.; bet, P.] i. &, p. from Beat. 
^fCf " The past time of this verb is, by the English, uni- 
formly pronounced like the present." Walker. 

Beat, ii. A stroke ; pulsation ; manner of striking ; a 
round or course ridden or perambulated. — (Mils.) A re- 
versed shake without a turn ; a short note. 

Beat'en, (be'tn)p. from Beat. 

Beat':er, n. One who beats ; the instrument used in beating. 

JBeath, v. a. To bathe or warm in fire. Spenser. 

BE-^-TtF'jc, ) a. [beatas, L.] Blissful ; affording heav- 

BE-A.-T]fF'j-cAlj, i enly bliss ; completely happy- 

Be-a-tIf'i-c^l-LY, ad. So as to complete happiness. 

Be-At-i-fi-ca'tipn, n. Act of beatifying ; an acknowledg- 
ment made by the pope that the person beatified is in 

Be-At'j-fy, v. a. [beatifieOf'L.'j [i. beatified ; pp. beatift- 
iNo, BEATIFIED.] To make nappy ; to bless with celestial 
enjoyment J to pronounce or declare to be admitted to 

Beat'ing, 71. Act of striking; correction. — (JVairf.) The 
making of progress at sea against the wind. 

BE-AT'j-TiJDE, n. Blessedness ; heavenly joy ; felicity ; a 
declaration of blessedness made by our Savior to particu- 
lar virtues. 

Beau, (bo) ti, [fteau, Fr.J pi. Fr. beaux; Eng. beaux, or 
BEAU$, (boz) A man of dress ; a fop ; a gallant ; a lover. 

Beau iDEALf* (b6-S'd^-^'tOrho~l-de'9.\) n. [Fr.] A species 
of beauty or excellence created by the fancy, and existing 
only in the imagination ; ideal excellence. Qu. Rev. 

^EAU'iSH, (bo')sh) a Foppish; like a beau. 

Beau-Monue, (bo-.ii5nd',orl)3-m6nd0 [bo-mond', W. Sm. 
Mavor ; bo'mdnd, P.; bo-mond', Ja. ; bo-mond', or bo-mong', 
K.] n. [Fr.] The gay or fashionable world. 

Beau-mont'ite,* (b6-m5nt'it) n. (Mm.) A hydrosllicate 
of copper. Jackson. [beau. Dryden. 

BEAU'SHfp,* (bo'ship) 71. The character and quality of a 

^Beau'te-oDs, [bu'te-iis, P. J. Ja. R. ; bu'tyys, E. F. K. ; 
bu'chus, S. ; ba'ch?-us, W. ; bu'te-us, or but'yys, Sm.] a. 
Fair ; beautiful. Shak. 

tBEAU'TE-oOs-LY, (bu'te-iis-le) ad. In abeauteous manner. 
Beau'te-oOs-n;6ss, (ba't^-ii's-nSs) 7t, Beauty. Donne. 
1eau'tj-fi-:er, (bii'te-fi-fr)7i. He or that which beautifies. 

BeaO'tj-fOl, (bu'te-ffil) a. Having the qualities that con- 
stitute beauty ; fair ; elegant ; handsome ; fine ; pretty. 

Beau'tj-fOl-lv, (bii'te-ful-1?) ad. In a beautiful manner. 

BEAC'TJ-FOL-irfiss, (ba'te-ful-n§s) n. Beauty. HaUywell, 

BEAU'Tf-FV, (bu'te-fi) V. a. [i. beautified; pp. beauti- 
rviNQ, BEAUTIFIED.] To make beautiful ; to adorn j to 
add beauty to. 

BeaO'ti-ft?, v. n. To grow beautiful, .dddison. 

BEAU'TJ-FY-iNfi, It. The act of rendering beautiful. 

jEAC'Tl-liiSss, a. Without beauty. Hammond. [R.j 

Be AU'Ty, (bu'te) n. [beaut4, Fr.] That assemblage of graces 
or proportion of parts which pleases the senses, especially 
the eye or the ear; that quality in visible objects which 
pleases the eye or the mind ; whatever is adapted to 
please a rightly-constituted mind ; a particular grace or 
feature ; a beautiful person. 

fBEAii'Ty, (bu'te) w. a. To beautify. Slialc. 

BeaO'tv-BEAM-IKG,* a. Diffusing beauty. Thomson, 

Beau'tv-Sp6t, (bu'te-sp3t) n. A spot placed to heighten 
some beauty; a black spot of silk ; a foil. Orew. 

Beau'tv-wan'ing, a. Declining in beauty. Shak. 

Beaux Espjuts.,* (b5z'?s-pre'J t*. pi. [Fr.] Men of wit 
or genius. Qu Rco. 


Bea'v:er, (bS'ver) n. An amphibious, rodent quadrupei^ 
valued for its fur; a Iiat made of the fur ; the part of 
helmet that covers the lower part of the face. 

Be a'v?r,* a. Made of beaver, or of the far of beaver. HaU 

Bea'vered, (be'v§rd) a. Wearing a beaver. Pope. 

Bea'v?R-Rat,* n. An animal resembling the musk-rat 

fBE-BLEED', V. a. To make bloody. Chamer. 

JBE-BiiOOD', (be-blud') } v. a. To make bloody She* 

tBi:-BLOOD'Vi (be-blud'e) ( doii. 

tBi-BL5T', V. a. 'To stain. Chaucer. 

Be-blDb'bered,^. a. Swoln with weeping. Shelton. 

BEc-A-Fi'co, (bek-gi-fe'ko) [bek-^-fe'ko, S. fV. J. F. Ja. K. 
Sm.) bek-?i-fi'ko, P.] n. [Sp.] A bird like a nightineale. 
that feeds on figs. 

B?-CALM', (be-kamO v. a. [i. becalmed ; pp. becalmino, 
BECALMED.] To keep still, quiet, or calm; to alla^ ; te 
calm. — To calm is to stop motion; and to becalm is to 
withhold from motion, 

Be-cX.lm'in&, (be-kim'ing) n. Act of quieting. 

Be-came'', i. from Become. See Become. 

Be-cAu9E', (be-kaz') ciwy. [6y and causc] For this'reason 
that ; on this account that ; for this cause that ; for. 

B&c'oOj* n. [It.] A beak J a goat; a cuckold. Massinffef 

Be-chAnce', v. a. To befall ; to happen. Snak. 

Be-chAnce',* ad. Accidentally ; by chance. Orajtim. 

Be-chaRM', tj. a. To captivate ; to charm. Beaum. Sf Ft 

tBE'jeHJc, 71. [/?r?x"f""] Medicine for coughs. Coto^ave. 

B£cK, V. 71. To beckon. Homily of Prayer. 

B6cK, V. a. To call by a motion of the head ; to beckon. Shak, 

B&ck, 71. A sign with the head; a nod ; a nod of com 
mand ; a beckon. [A small stream. DrayUm.] 

Bfic'KON, (bSk'kn) V. n. ^i. beckoned; ^. beckonino, 
BECKONED.] To make a sign or call attention by motion 
of the head or hand. 

Bfic'KON, (bek'kn) v. a. To call by a sign. Spenser. 

Bfic'KON, (bek'kn) 71. A sign without words; a beck Bo 

fB?-CLlP', V. a. To embrace. WicUiffe. 

Be-cloOd', v. a, [i. beclouded; pp. becluudinq, bk- 
CLOUDED.] To dim ; to obscure. Sidney. 

Be-c6me', (be-kumO u. 71. [i. became ; pp, becoming, be- 
come.] To enter into some state or condition ; to be ; to ba 
changed to. — With o/, it signifies to be the fate or end oC 

BE-c6me', (be-kum') -o. a. \i. became ; pp. becoming, le- 
come. To add grace to ; to oe suitable to ; to befit ; to suit. ' 

Be-cSm'iwo-, a. Graceful ; suitable; proper; fit. 

fBE-cSivr'lNa, n. Ornament. SAoi. 

Be-c6m'ing-ly, ad. In a becoming manner, .flftwe. 

BE-c6M;'ijfG-N£ss, 7t. Suitableness; fitness; propriety 

IBe-cra-vXt'ted,* o. Furnished with a cravat. Congrwa, 

Be-cr1p'ple, v. a. To make lame. More. 

BE-ciJRL', V. a. To curl. Search. 

B£d, 71. Something made to sleep on; a couch ; a bank of 
earth raised in a garden ; the channel of a river ; any hol- 
low on which something rests ; the place where any tiling 
is generated or reposited ; the horizontal surface on which 
the stones or bricks of a wall lie ; the lower surface ; a 
seam of strata ; a layer ; a stratum. — To bring to bed, to de 
liver of a child. — To make the bed, to put the bed in order. 

B£D,1]. 0. [i. BEDDED ; ^. BEDDING, BEDDED.] To place IK 

bed ; to make partaker of the bed ; to sow or plant ; to lav 

in order ; to stratify. 
B£;d, v. n. To occupy a bed ; to cohabit. Wtsenum. 
Be-dAb'ble, v. a. To wet ; to besprinkle. Shak. 
fBE-DAFF', V. a. To make a fool of. Ciiaucer. 
Be-dXg-'gle, v. a. To bemire ; to bedraggle. Richardson. 
BjSd'ale,* n. An entertainment at a country wedding 

among the poor people in England. .Ssk. 
IBe-dAre', v. a. To defy ; to dare. Peele. 
J-Be-dArk.', v. a. To darken. Oower. [Hacktu 

Be-dark'ew, (be-dir'kn) v. a. To obscure; to darken 
Be-dXsh', v. a. To bemire ; to bespatter; to dash. Sltak. 
Be-dAub', v. a. To daub over. Shalt. 
Be-dXz'zle, v. a. To dim by lustre; to dazzle. Sltak, 
BEd'cham-ber, 71. A chamber for a bed. 
B£d'clothe9, (bed'klothz, orbed'kloz) [bed'klSz, S. fP 

J.Ja,K.; bSd'klothz, P. F. B.; bed'klothz, coUoqviaUv 

bSd'kloz, Sm.] ji. pi. Clothes or coverlets for a bed 

BE?D£i'TER, i '*■ '^^^ "^'^^"^ ^'°"^ °^ ^^ °^''"™'" 

B£D'DmG,7i. The materials of a bed. Spenser. 
BEd'dJng-Mould'ing, 71. Same as bedmoulding. 
tB?-D6AD', (b?-d6d') V. a. To deaden. Hallywell. 
Be-djSck', V. a. To adorn ; to deck. ShaJc. 
BEDE'iiousE, n. A hospital or almshouse. 
Bb'del,* (be'dl) n, A petty officer. See Beadle. 
BE'DEL-^i-Ry,* (be'dl-^-re) n. Same as bedelry. PFhishaw 
Be'del-ry, (be'dl-re) iu Extent of a beadle's oflSca 

Blount. See Beadlebt. 
Bedes'mAn,* n. One who resides in a bede-house; oni 

who prays for another ; a beadsman. P. Cyc. 
BE-DfiV'iL,* (be-dSv'vI) v. a. To throw into utter confti 

sion ; to abuse. Sterne. 

BlBN, sir; MGVE, nob, s6n; BOLL, BOB, bOlE. 

~?» •?» ?i ft* S0jt;JS, e, 5J, g, hard; $ lu Z ; $ as gz;— THH 


BEE 66 

$?-'DE\V, fbe du') V. a. [i. bedewed; pp. bedewino, be- 
DBWED.j To moisten with dew ; to moisten gently. Shale. 
BE-de^']^r, (be-du^er) n. He or that which bedews. 
{Bl?-DEW'Vj^(b?-du'e) a. Moist with dew. Brewer^s Lingua. 
B£d'fi:l-lom% n. One who lies in the same bed. 
BteD'HXN»-jNG§, n. pZ. Curtains for a bed. ShaJc. 
tBE-DlSHT', (b?-dlt') V a. To adorn ; to dress. More. 
Be-dIm;', v. a. To malte dim ; to darken. Sidney. 
tBE-Dt5'MAL, V. a. To make dismal. 
Be-di'zen, (be-di'zn) [^e-dl'zn, S. W. P. F. Ja. K, Sm. R. ; 

be-dlz'zn, Wb.] v. a. To dress out. Headley. 
BJSd'l^M, 71. [corrupted from Bethlehem, the name of a re- 
ligious house in London, converted afterwards into a 
hospital for the insane.] A hospital for lunatics ; a 
house. [f A madman. Shak.] 
BEd'lam, 0. Belonging to a madhouse. Shak. 
B£d'i,^m:-ite, n. A madman; a lunatic. B. Jonson. 
Bi!iD'L^M-LiKE,* a. Resembling a maniac; like bed am. 

B£D'LtN-EN,* n. Linen for beds. Smollett. 
B6d'mak-]er, n. One who makes beds. 
BEd'matEjW. a bedfellow. Shak. 
BED'MOULU-mo, n. {Arch.) A moulding between the co- 

ronaand frieze. 
JBe-dote', u. a. To make to dote. Chaucer. 
3£d'pXn,* 71. A utensil for a person bedridden Garth. 
tBi^D'PHEER,* n. A bedfellow. B. Jotisotu 
Bi?:T)'POST, n. A post at the corner of a bed. 
BI!:d'pr£ss-er, ti. A heavy, lazy fellow. Shak. 
Be-drXg'&LE, v. a. To soil in the dirt. Sicift. 
Be-dr£nch', v. a. To drench ; to soak. ShaJi. 
B£d^rTd, a. Confined to the bed by age or sickness. Shak. 
iBtD'RtD-DEN,* (bSd'rid-dn) a. Confined to the bed. Psley. 
BfiD'RiTE, n. The privilege of the marriage bed. Shak. 
B£d'r66m, n. A room to sleep in. 
BE-DR.6P', 13. a. To besprinkle. Chaucer. 
B£b'side, 71. The side of the bed. Middleton. 
BSd'stEad, (bSd'stgd) tu A frame on which a bed is 
. placed. 

BEd'stEp,* n. A step for ascending a bed. W. Ency. 
BSd'strAw, 71. The straw laid under a bed ; an annual 

;B£D'swi3RV-?R- n. One who is false to the bed. Shak. 
'■B£d'tTck,* n. A case to hold the feathers of a bed. Pen- 
.BEd'tTme, n. Time of rest or of going to bed. 
>BE-!DtJcK', V. a. To put under water. Spenser. 
•Be-dOnGt'- V, a. To manure with dung. Bp. Hall. 
fBE-DOSK', V. a. To smutch. Cotgrave. 
, BE-DttST', V. a. To sprinkle with dust. Sherwood. 
^BiD'W4RD. ad. Toward bed. Shak. 
B]E-dwArf', v. a. To make dwarfish or little. Donne. 
; BfiD'woRK., (bed'wiirk) n. Work done in bed. Shak. 
!B?-dye', (be-di') v. a. To stain. Spenser, 
' Bee, 7^ An insect that makes honey and wax. 
: Beech, n. A well-known forest-tree, which bears a trian- 

^Jlar fruit or nut. 
• Beech'en, (be'chn) a. Belonging to the beech. 
Beech'sAll,* 71. A hard nut on the leaf of a beech, con- 
taining the maggot of a fly. Ash. 
'BEECH'MisT,* 71. The fruit of the beech ; called also 

beechnuts. Booth. 
Beech'oIl,*7i. An oil made of the beechmast. Ash. 
'Beech'y,* a. Made of beech; consisting of beeches. 

Bee-eat'er, 71. A bird that feeds upon bees. 
■ Bee-f, n. [6(em/, Fr.l The flesh of neat cattle, or of oxen, 
'bulls, and cows. TtAn ox, bull, or cow. Deut.xiv.'] — pi. 
BEEVE§. Oxen, bulls, and cows, fit for food. 
Beef, a. Consisting of the flesh of black cattle. Swiji. 
BBef'-EAT-er, (bef'e-ter) n. An eater of beef; a stout, 
hearty, fat fellow. — [bnauffetierj Ft.] A yeoman of the 
king of England's guard. 
Bee'-Flo'^-er, 71. A species of foolstones. Miller. 
Beef'steak,* 71. A slice or steak of beef broiled, or for 

broiling. Oarrick. 
tBEEF'wYx-TEB, fl. DuU ; stupid. Shak. 
Bee'-GXr-den, (b5'giir-dn)7i. A place for bee-hives. 
Bee'hive, n. A box or case for keeping bees 
Bee'-HoOse,* 7U a house or repository for bees. Oold- 

Beelb, or BlELD, 71. [Protection ; refuge. Fairfax.] A 
shelter or place of shelter for cattle. Fairfax. — [North of 
BEE'-Mis-TER, n. One who keeps bees. Mortimer, 
Bee'mql^ti. (Mus.) See Bemol. Bacon. 
Bee'm6th,* 71. An insect pernicious to bees; called also 

the wax-moth. Dr. T. W. Harris. 
Been, (bin) [bin, S. W. J. Sm. Wh. ; bSn, P. F. Ja. K. iZ.l 
p. from the verb Be. — Been and bm were anciently used 
as a verb in the present tense, instead of be. Spenser. 
Bee'n^l,* n. A medicinal evergreen tree of Malabar- 

Beer, 7J, A fermented iquor chiefly made of malt and hops. 


Beer'bXr-rel, TO. A Hnel which holds beer, Shak 
Beer'glXss,* n. A glass or vessel for beer. Hudihraa. 
Beer'hoOse, 71. A house where beer is sold. Oascnignf 
BEER'MfiAS-VRE,* (ber'mSzh-ur)7i. The measure I »■ whicl 

beer is computed. Ash. 
Beer'shQp,* n. A shop where beer is sold. Ec. Ret>. 

BEEST'ING?, 71. pi. See BlEaTINOS. 

Bee^'wXx,* 71. Wax made of the comb of bees. Eney. 

Beet, n. [beta, L.] A plant and its sweet esculent root 

Bee'tle, 71. An insect having a horny covering ; a coleop- 
terous insect, of which there are many species : — a heayy 
mallet or wooden hammer. 

Bee'tle, v. 71. To jut out ; to hang over. Shak. 

Bee'tle-bro^, 71. A prominent brow. 

Bee'tle-broN^ed, (be'tl-broftd) a. Having prominent 

Bee'tle-hEad-ed, (bs'tl-hed-ed) a. Having a large o» 
thick head ; loggerheaded. 

Bee'tle-stock, 71. The handle of a beetle. Spenser 

Beeves, (b5vz) n. ; pi. of Beef. Oxen, bulls, or cows. 


betide ; to happen to. 
Be-f1ll', v. n. To happen ; to take place. 
Be-f'/t', v. a, \i. befitted; pp. befitting, befittid.] To 

suit ; to become ; to fit. Shak. 
BE-FtT'TlNG,*p.a. Becoming; suitable; fit. 
B^-flXt'ter,* 7). a. To flatter; to cajole. Qit. Reo. 
B?-fl.otX^'er,* v. a. To besprinkle with eruptions or spoto. 

Be-foam^ v. a. To cover with foam. Eusden. 
Be-f6g',* v. a. To involve in fog. Irving. 
Be-f66l', v. a. To infatuate ; to make a fool of. 
Be-fore', prep. Further onward ; in the front of; in the 

presence of; prior to ; superior to ; in sight of. 
B:^-f6re', ttrf. Sooner than, in time past; previously to ; 

hitherto ; already ; farther onward in place. 
BE-FORE'-ciT-ED,*a, Cited or mentioned before. Dr. Allen. 
fBE-FORE'-G-o'iNG,* fl. Preceding. Milton. 
Be-fore'hXjjd, ad. In a state of anticipation ; previously ; 

by way of preparation : antecedently ; at first. 
Be-fore'-m£n-tipned,* a. Mentioned before. Foster. 
Be-fore'time, ad. Formerly. 1 Sam^ 
IB'e-forn',* prep. & ad. Before. Fairfax. 
tBE-F(5RT'yNE, (be-fdrt'yun) v. n. To happen to. Shak. 
Be-foOl', v. a. To soil ; to pollute ; to foul. 
Be-fri£nd', (be-fr§ndO v. a. [i. befriended; pp. b»- 

friending, befriended.] To favor ; to be kind to. 
Be-fri£nd'ment,* n. Act of befriending. Foster. 
Be-frYn^^e', V. a. To decorate with fringes. Fuller. 
BE-FiJR',* V. a. To cover or supply with fur. F. Butler. 
B^Gt, v. 7l [i. begged ; pp. begging, begged.] To live upon 

alms ; to ask alms. 
BiSGr, V. a. To ask ; to entreat ; to take for granted. 
£E'ff4,* 71. A Bengal land measure, about one third of an 

acre. Hamilton. 
Be-gXk',* I. from Begin. See Begin. 
BE-j&£t'^ v. a. [i. BEGOT or begat ; pp. begetting, begot 

TEN 07* BEGOT.] To generate; to procreate ; to produce 
Be-jBEt'ter, 71. One who begets ; a father. Dryden. 
B£g'ga-ble, a. That may be begged. Butler. 
BEg'gar, n. One who lives by begging; a mendicant; a 


B^G'GAR, V. a. [t. BEGGARED ; pp. beggaring, BEGGARED.] 

To reduce to beggary ; to impoverish ; to exhaust. 
B£g'gar-BrXt,* 71, An infant or child that begs. Drayton. 
BEg'gar-li-ness, 71. Meanness; poverty. Barret. 
BEg'g^r-ly, a. Like a beggar; mean ; poor. ShaJc 
BEG^G^R-Ly, ad. Meanly; poorly. Hooker. 
B£g'gar-Maid, 71. A maid who is a beggar. ShaJe. 
BSg'gar-MXn, 71. A man who is a beggar. Shak. 
B£g'gar-Wom-an, (beg'gur-wam-^n) n. A woman wih' 

is a beggar. SAofe. 
B6g'gar-y, 71. Indigence ; extreme poverty. 
B£G'fiiNG,* 71. The act of asking alms. Spenser. 
Be-gjiXrd',* 71. [Gen] An importunate beggar ; a mendl 

cant. Brande. 
BE-jetLT', p. a. Gilded over. B. Jonson. 
BE-£t"fN', V. n. \i. began; pp. beginning, begun.] To en 

ter upon something new ; to commence. 
BE-£ttN', V. a. To enter upon ; to commence ■ to originate 
fBE-jGlN', 71. For beginning. Spenser. 
Be-sTn'xer, n. One who begins ; one in his rudiments. 
Be-^^In'ning, n. The first original or cause ; first act ; firfll 

part ; commencement ; the rudiments or first grounds 
fBE-aiN'NiNG-Lfiss, ffi. Having no beginning. Barrow. 
B:^-fiIRD', V. a. [i. begirt or begirded; jrp. begirdino, 

BEGIRT or begirded.] To bind with a girdle; to sur- 
round ; to shut in. 
tBij-jSiRT', B. a. To begird. B. Jonsim. 
B&G'LER'BitG,n. [Turk.] The chief governor of a proT 

ince among the Turks. . [lerbeg. P. Cyu 

B£o'l?r-beg-l1!c,* 7t. A province governed by a beg' 

I, E, T, O, U Y, longi X, £, t. 6, t, 1?, short f ^, ^, i, q y, y, obscure. — vkKB^ fXr, fXst, fXll -. HfilR H&a 



^Ti:-»L06M', V a. To cast a gloom rjver ; to darken. Bad- 

B?-gnAw', (be-ngLw') v. a. To bite ; to eat away. Shak. 

BE-GdD' V. a. To deify ; to treat as a god. More. 

Bl^-GdNE^, (b9-g5n') 171(617. [*^ g'one.] An exclamation of 
rommana having the force of a verb in the imperative 
mode : — go away ; haste away. 

B?-»o'N|-A.,* 71. (Bot.) A genus of plants. P. Cyc. 

B?-gored', (b?-g6rd');?. a. Smeared with gore Spenser, 

Be-g6t', I. & p. from Beget. See Beget. 

B?-g5t'ten, (b?-gSt'tn) p. from Beget. See Be iST. 

tB?-GRAVE', V. a. To bury ; to engrave. Qowet. 

Be-grea^e', tj. a. To daub with grease. Minsheu. 

B?-grIivie', v. a. To soil with dirt deep impressed. Crowley. 

Bis-grOdjGe', V. a. [i. beqrudged ; pp. begrudgino, be- 
grudged.] To envy the possession of; to grudge. Sh^flea- 

BE-GUILE', fb?-gll') V. a. [i. BEGUILED ; pp, BEGUILING, BE- 

ouiLgD.] To impose upon ; to deceive. 

Bij-guii.e'ment,* (b9-|5Fm5nt) n. The act of beguiling. 
Jn. Foster. 

Br-OUIL'ER, (be-|il'er) n. One who beguiles. 

fBE-GUlL'Ty, (be-gU'te) v. a. To render guilty. Bp. Sander- 

Beoui^j (ba-gSng') n. [Fr.] A certain tertiary, or half 
morX, professing to follow the third rule of St. Francis. 
P Cyc^ A cap for a child. Surenne. 

Be-guIhe',* (ba-|en'> tu [Fr.] A sort of nun or female 
devotee. P. Cyc. 

B?-gDm',* V, a. To daub or cover with gum. Sio\ft 

BE-GftN',p. from Begin. See Begin. 

BE-HX.Z.F', (be-haf ') n. Favor ; cause favored ; interest ; ac- 
count ; sake ; vindication ; support. 

|BE-HXp'PEPf, (be-hS.p'pn) v. n. To happen to. ^enser. 
, BE-HAVE', v. a. [i. behaved; pp. behaving, behaved.] 
To carry; to conduct: — used with the reciprocal pro- 
noun as the object ; as, " He behaves himself well." 

Be-have', v. iu To act ; to conduct one's self. Porteus. 

BE-HAVED',*(be-havd')7i. a. Conducted; ordered. 

B?-HAV'lQR, (be-hav'yur) n. Act or manner of behaving ; 
conduct ; demeanor ; manner ; external appearance ; ges- 
ture. — (Law) Qood behavior, conduct authorized by law. 

Be-h£ad', (be-hed') v. a. [i. beheaded; pp. beheading, 
BEHEADED.] To decapitate; to deprive of the head. Clar- 

Be-hEld', u &p. from Behold. See Behold. Pope, 

tBE-u£i,L', V. a. To torture as with the pains of hell. HewyU 

Be'he-m6th, [be'he-mSth, fV. P. J F. Ja. Sm. ; be-h6m'- 
9th, S. ,' be-h@m'pth, or be'he-mSth, K. ; be-he'm^th, Jlsh, 
JVares, Maunder.] n, [Heb.] An animal described in Job, 
by many supposed to be the elephant, but some suppose 
it to be the hippopotamus, and others the extinct animal 
iguanodon, the fossil remains of which are found. 

B£'h:e:n, tu A plant and medicinal root. 

Be-h£st', 71. Command ; precept. Sidney. [Used in poetry.] 

|Be-hTgHt', (be-hitO v. a. [i. behot; pp. behighting, 
BEHioHT.] To' promise; to call; to command; to ad- 
judge ; to address ; to reckon. Spender. 

B^-HiNo' f prep. At the back of; in the rear of; following 
another ; remaining after ; inferior to. 

Be-hind', ad. In the rear; backwards ; remaining. 

Be-hInd'hXnd, arf. In arrears; backward; tardy. 

Be-hind'hXnd,*^. Backward ; being in arrears. Spectator, 

B^-hold', v. a. [i. BEHELD ; pp. beholding, beheld. — 
Beholden, once used as the past participle, is not now used 
except as a participial adjective.] To view ; to look at j 
to see, in an emphatical sense. [Smart, 

Be-holu',* v. n. To direct the eye towards any object. 

B^-hold', iTiier/. See: lo ; observe. Milton. 

Be-uol'den, (be-hol'dn) p. a. Obliged ; bound in grati- 
iude. .Addison. 

Be-hold'J5R, n. One who beholds or sees. 

JBE-HdLD'jNG, a. Obliged ; beholden. Ford. 

Bi?-hoi*d'jno, 71. [| Obligation. Carcw,] Act of seeing. 

fBi?-HOLl>'}Pf»-N£ss, 71. State of being obliged. Donne. 

Bip-H6w'?Y, (b^hun'nf) v. a. To sweeten with honey. 

BE-H66r', n. Profit ; advantage ; benefit. Spenser, 
JBe-hoov'^-ble, a. Fit ; expedient. Minsheiu 
Be-h66ve', v. a. [i. BEHOOVED ; pp. behoovinq, be- 
hooved.] To be fit for; to be meet for; to become. 
IBe-hSOve', ■». n. To be fit ; to be meet. Widdiffe. 
tBE-H66vE', 71. Advantage ; behoof. Oascoigne. 
Be-h66ve'f0l, fl. Useful; profitable. Spenser, [r.] 

BE-Hd6vE'F0L-LV, ad. Usefully. Spenser. 

Be-h5t', I- from Behight. Spenser. 

(E-li6v'A-Bl.E, a. Fit. Homilies. See Behootable. 
B?-iiove^ v. a. See Behoove. 

{■Be-hove'eOl, a. Fit. See Behooveful, Bp, Sanderson. 
fB^-HOVE'LV, a. Profitable. Oower. 
B^-HO^L', V. n. To howl at. Shak. 
Be'jng, p, from Be. See Be. 

Be'jng, n. Existence ; a particular state ; the person exist- 
ing ; a person ; any living creature. 


fBE'jNff, eonj. Since. Pearson. 

fBE^ING -Place, n. An existence, Spenser. 

Be |T so. a phrase of anticipation, suppose it to be n ; a 

of permission, let it be so. ShaJc. 
B:q:-JADE', 73. a. To tire thoroughly. Milton. 
fB?-JAPE', V. a. To laugh at; to deceive. Cliaucer. 
B:?-jAUN'DicE,*'u.a. To infect with the jaundice. Qu. Rm 
fBE-jfis'u-lT,* V. a. To convert into a Jesuit. Milton, 
B?-jOm'ble,* V, a. To jumble ; to put into a state of cor 

fusion. Ash. 
Be'k^h,*7i. a half shekel. Exodiu. 
B?-Kiss', v. a. To salute ; to kiss, B. Jonson. 
B:^-KNAVE', (b?-nav') v. o. To call or style knave. Pop* 
B?-knAw'.* ^b?-naw') iJ. o- SeeBEGNAw. Shak. 
JB^-KNOw', (be-no') v. a. To acknowledge. Chaucer, 
B:e-la'bqr, V, a. [i. belabokec ; pp. belabobing, bela 

BOHED.] To beat soundly; to thump; to ply diligentliv 

fBE-LACE'. V. a. To fasten ; to belay. Bailey. 
Be-laced', (h?-|ast') P- 0- Adorned with lace. Beaumoru 
B:^:-lXm', v. a. To beat; to bang. [North of England.] 
fBfiL'A-MOURjTi. [bel amowr, Fr.J Gallant; consort. SpCTw** 
JBiSL^^-MV, n- A friend ; an intimate. Spenser. 
B?-late', v. a. To retard ; to make too late. Davenant, 
Be-lat'ed, a. Benighted ; made late. Milton. 
B?-lat'ed-n£ss, 7t. Backwardness ; slowness. Milton* 
fB:E-LAVE', V. a. To wash. Cockeram. 
fBE-LAW'filVE, V. a. To give a law to. Milton. 
B?-LAY', v. a. [i. BELAID or belayed; pp. bklayino. b* 

laid or belaved.] To block up ; to atUck ; to besiege — 

(JVauU) To splice, mend, orTasten a rope. 
IIBElch, [belch, S. P. J. K. Sm. R. ; b61sh, IV. F, E. Ja.\ 

V. n. [i. belched; pp, belching, belched.] To ejeci 

the wind from the stomach ; to issue out as by eructtiipn 

IBElch, v. a. To throw out from the stomach. Shale 
BElch, 71. Act of belching; eructation. 
BElch'ing, n. Eructation. Barret, 
IEl'dXm, n. \helle dame, Fr.] An old woman ; a nag 
Be-lea'Gu^r, (be-15'|er) v. a. To besiege. Dryden. 
B]e:-lea'guer-:?r, n. One who beleaguers. Sherwood, 
|Be-leave', v. a. To leave. May. 
Be-IiEct'vre,* v. a. To vex with lectures; to lecture 

Be-lee', v_. a. (JVaui.) To place on the lee side of. Shak, 
B^-lEm'NITE,* n. ( Oeol.) The thunderstone or arrow-head 

an extinct marine animal classed among the cephaJopodt 

P. Cyc. 
Be-lem-ni'tes,7i. [/?£Ao?.] See Bblemnite. 
IBe-lEp'er, 73. a. To infect with the leprosy. Milton. 
Bel Esprit *{\i<i\'Q3-^ry)n. [Fr.]) ^\. beaux EsrRira 

(boz'es-pre') A wit ; a man of wit. Swift. 
BisL'Fiiy, n. A tower or place in which bells are hung. 
fB?L-GXRD', 71. A soft glance. Spenser. 
BEii'g^j-^N,* 71. A native of Belgium. Murray. 
BEl'^i-^n,*(W BEii'9fC,*a. Belonging to Belgium. Ask. 
BEl'^ic,* a. Relating to the BelgtE, ancient tribes that in 

habited the north of Gaul. Clarke. 
Be'li-al,* n, A personification of evil; a wicked man 

B?-Ll'BEi., V. a. To traduce ; to libel. Fuller, 
B5-LIE', (be-ll') 13, a, [i. BELIED ;p37. belting, belied J 

To counterfeit ; to give the lie to ; to calumniate ; to lep 

resent falsely. Dryden. 
BE-LiiSF', (be-ltif ') n. Act of believing ; the thin» believed . 

credit given to testimony ; conviction of the mird arisin| 

from evidence ; faith ; religion ; persuasion ; opinion ; 1 

Be-liev'*-ble, (be-l5vVhl) a. Credible. Sherwood. 


To exercise belief in ; to think to be true; to credit; te 

put confidence in, 
B5-LIEVE', V. n. To have a firm persuasion ; to exercls* 

faith ; to suppose ; to deem ; to think. 
Be-liev'?R, n. One who believes ; a Christian. 
Bi-LIEV'(NG,* 7i. The act of exercising belief. Cudworth 
BE-LiEV'lNG-Ly, ad. After a believing manner. 
B?-light',* (b?-lit') V. a. To display with light ; to illu 

minate. Cowley. 
B]^-LiKE', ad. Probably; likely. Shak. — Still in use as ■ 

colloquial or vulgar word. Forhtj. 
tB?-LiKE'LY, a(f. Probably. Bp. Hall, 
Be-lime',* v. a. To besmear with lime ; to soil. Bp. HaiL 
B^-lIt'tle,* v. a. To make little or less; to diminish 

JeffersoTU Ch. Examiner. [A word not authorized by Eng 

lish usage.] 
JBE-live'. ad. Speedily ; quickly. Spenser. 
BEll, n. A hollow, metallic vessel for giving a sound by 

being struck; anything in theforinof a bell. — (-3reA,) 

The body of a Corinthian composite capital, called also ■ 

tambour or drum. 
BEll, v. 71. To grow in buds in the form of a bell, [e.] 
BEl-LA-dOn'na, 71, [bella donna. It., fair lad'j.] A speciet 

of amaryllis ; lily ; a poisonous perennial plant: the deB4- 

ly nightshade. 

HlEH, siR; m6ve, kor, s6w; bOll, bOr, rOle. — 9, (?, ^, g, softi jE, «, £, g, hardi ^ as Z; ^ as gz;— tbib 

BEL 68 


ftfiLLE, (b6I) n. [beaUy belle^ Fr.J A young woman or lady 
admired for beauty and fashionable accomplishments; a 

fay young lady. 
LLED, (beid) a. (Her.) Having bells affixed to it. 

B£lle-Ii£t'trist,* n. One versed in belles-lettrea. Cole~ 
ridge. [B,.] 

B£i.LE-let-tr1s'ti-cal,* a. Relatine to belles-Iettreg ; as, 
"a bellettristical journal." Fo. Qit. Rev. [r.] 

Eel-l£r'p-ph5n,* n. (Oeol.) A genus of fossil shells, the 
animal of which is unknown. P. Cyc. 

Belles-lettreSj (bel-iet'tr) [bfil-la'tur, W. J. F. K.: 
bei-lgt'tr, P. Jo. Sm. R. ; bel'let-tr, E. Wb.] n. -pi. [Fr.] 
Polite literature j the fine or elegant departments of learn- 
ing, as rhetoric, poetry, criticisip, and philology j classi- 
cal authors. [bell. 

BEll'-fSsh-iqned, (-fSsh-iind) a. Having the form of a 

B£ll'^EL.o\V-¥R, n. A plant j a bell-shaped flower; cam- 

B£ll'foOnd-er, 7u One who founds or casts bells. 

Bell'hXno-ER,*™. One who hangs and fixes bells. Maun- 

B£l^ii'Hi]VG-iNG,*n. The hanging of bells. W. Encyc. 

fBf:ii'LJ-BONE, 71. \belle and bonne, Fr.] A woman exsel- 
ling in beauty and goodness. Spenser. 

bIl'Li-coDs'** i "* Inclined to war; warlike. Ash. [r.] 
I!EL-Lt(^']^R-XTE, V. n. \belligero^'L.'] To make war. Cocft^ 

B^l-lTi^'er-Ent, tt. Carrying on war; engaged in war; 

Bel-l1'i?^'er-£nt,* n. A state or nation carrying on war. 

^BEL-L^(j^'ER-otJs, a. Belligerent. Bailey. 
Bell'in&, 71. The noise of a roe in rutting time. Bailey. 
B?L-Lip'<?-T£NT, a. \bellipotenSy'LA.'\ Mighty in war. Bailey. 
^BEL-LtQ UE' ,(bel-l5k0 a. [Ft.] Warlike ; martial. Feltham, 
fBEL'LI-TUDE, n. [belUtudOj L.] Beauty, Cockeram. 
B£LL'L"?ss,*a. Being without a bell. Scott, [r.] 
B£LL'MAi<f, 71. One who sounds a hand-bell as a notice in 

the streets } a public crier ; a bell-ringer. Shah. 
B£ll'm£t-al, (-met'tl) n. The metal of which bells are 

made^ being an alloy of copper and tin. 

B£L'IjOW, B. 71. [r. bellowed; pp. BELLOWIltO, BELLOWED.] 

To make a noise as a bull ; to cry aloud ; to vociferate ; to 

F£l'l5w, 71. A roar; aloud noise. 

BEL'Lpw-?R, 7t. One who bellows. Chapmaiu 

C£l'lpw-1ng, n. Loud noise ; roaring. 

P£l'LQWS, (bgl'lus) [bSl'lus, S. TV. P. E. J. F. K. Sm. R.; 
bSrioz, Ja. Wb."] n. sing. & pi. A machine used to blow 
the fire, ffy^ Most lexicographers and grammarians, who 
treat particularly of this word, regard it as properly used 
only in the plural ; as is the fact with respect to the lexi- 
cographers Johnson and Walker, and the grammarians 
Lowth, Murray, Allen, Crorabie, and Hiley. Dr. Web- 
ster and some other grammarians, however, regard it as 
properly used in both numbers. There are respectable 
authorities for using it in the singular; as, "like a belr- 
lowsj" Dryden: — "the common bellows is formed," &:c. 
Francis's Dictionary of the Arts and Sciences ; — *' each bel- 
lows," P. Cyc. Smart says, " Though generally consid- 
ered as plural, some authors join it to a verb sinfrular; 
and this will justify the pronunciation bel'bis.^^ — Walk- 
er remarks that "the last syllable of this word, like that 
of ^flifows, is corrupted beyond recovery into lus," — As a 
plural noun, it would be analogically pronounced bel'lOz. 


B£L'Lpws-MAK-]?R,* 71. One who makes bellows. Maun- 

B£ll'rIng-er, n. One who rings bells. Bale. 

B£ll'rope, 71. A rope for ringing a bell ; an appendage 
to the vesture of a Catholic priest. Cowper. 

B£l'i-V-iwe, [bei'ly-ln, S. TV. F. J. Sm. R. ; b21'lu-in, P.] 
a. [belluinuSy L.] Brutal ; beastly. Atterbury. 

B£l-L'WEiiD,* n. A sort of weed or plant. Ash. 

B£ll'w£th-er, 71. A sheep which leads the flock with a 

B£L'Ly, 71. That part of the human body which contains the 
bowels or intestines, and reaches from the breast to the 
thighs ; the corresponding part in beasts ; the abdomen ; 
that which requires food ; that which encloses ; the worab ; 
the part of any thing that swells out. 

BEii'LY, V. n. To swell into a larger capacity. Dryden. 

BfiL'LV, _u. a. To fill ; to swell out. S}taH. [r.] 

BfiL'Ly-AjBHE, (bel'le-ak) n. Pain in the bowels ; colic. 

BEl'LV-bXnd, n. The girth of a horse in harness. 

B£l'lv-b60nd, a. Diseased so as to be costive. 

tB£L'Ly-CHEER, n. Good cheer. MiUon. 

|BEl'lv-cheer,*u. n. To feast; to revel. Mlton, 

tB^L'LV-clliJRL,* n. A rustic glutton. Drayton. 

B£L'i.v-i>orjB-i*ET,*7i. A doublet covering the belly. Sh-ak. 

B£L'Ly-FR£T-T jNfi, 71. The chafing of a horse's belly. Did. 

B£l'i.v-fOl, n. As much food as fills the belly. 

■B£l«'l-y-GftD, 71. A glutton. Jlalcewill. 

BfiL'L V-IWG,* a. Swelling out in the middy's O ahi 
tBfiL'Ly-PiNCHED, (-plncht) a. Starved. «/»aft. 
B£l'lv-roll, 71. A sort of levelling roll. Mortmer 
tB£L'Ly-sLAVE, n. A slave to the appetites. Homily. 
B£L'Ly'-TlM-B]E:R, 71. Food. Hudibras. [Low.] 
B£l'ly-worm, (-wiirm) 71. A worm that breeds in the bu 

ly. Ray. 
tBE-L6cK', V. a. To fasten with a lock. Shak. 
B£L'p-MXN-cy, 71. [|5eAos and pavrtia.] Divination by ar- 
rows. Brown. 
B£l'P-ne,* 71. A fish having a long, slender body. Crabb, 


To be the property of; to appertain to ; to relate to ; to bi 

the province or business of; to adhere to ; to have rela 

tion to. 
fBE-LON&'iNG, 71. Q,uality; endowment. Shak. 
BE-iuOti&'mGrj* p. a. Appertaining to ; attached to. Ash. 
Be-zHp' TE-RAf* n. pL {OeoL) A genus of fossil shf^lli 

P. Cyc. 
Be-l6rd',* 7?. 0. To domineer over. CalmeL [r.] 
fBE-LbvE', V. a. To love. Wodrocphe. 
Bj?-l&ved', (be-liivd')p. Loved; as, "he was much 6«- 

loved." — a. (be-luv'^d) Much loved ; dear; as, "a belovei 

Be-low', ^(7). Under in place, time, or dignity ; inferioi 

in excellence; unworthy of; beneath. 
Be-low', ad. In a lower place ; beneath ; on earth ; in belt 

— [Law) Court below, an inferior court. 
IBe-lovVt', v. a. To treat with opprobrious languaga 

tB£L'siRE,*7i. An illustrious ancestor. Drayton. 
B£L-swAa'jGER, 71. A whoremaster. Dryden. [Vulgar.] 
BEiLT, 71. A girdle ; that which encompasses. 
Belt, v. a. To encircle as with a belt. Wdrton. To sheaf 

the buttocks and tails of sheep. Farm, Eney. 
BEl'tane,* 71. May-day, and the traditional Celtic cu»* 

toms attached to it. Brande. 
BEl'tin,*?!. Same as beltane. See Beltane. B~ande. 
BE-LU'GA,*7t. {Ick.) A crustaceous fish. Foster. 
BiiL'VE-DERE,* 71. [bello and vedere, It.] (Arch.) A pavil- 
ion on the top of a Duiluing or palace, or on an eminence 

in a garden, P. Cyc. 
Be-ly', v. a. See Belie. 
Be'MAj n. [jff^fta.] (Arch.) A rostrum in Athens, whence 

the orators addressed the assembly ; a chancel. TVhcler. 
Be-mXd', v. a. To make mad. Sltak. 
Be-mXn'gle, (be-mang'gl) v. a. To tear asunder. Beau 

BemXsk', v. a. To hide ; to mask. Shelton, 
fBE-MX.T'TER,* V. a. To cover with matter. Swift, 
Be-maze', v. a. To bewilder ; to perplex. Cowper. 
B^m'beXj* n. (Ent.) A genus of hymenopterous aculeal' 

insects, of the tribe of fossores. Brande. 
fBE-METE', V, a. To measure. SAo/r. 
Be-m1n'gle, (be-ming'gl) v. a. To mingle. Mir. for Mag 
B¥-MIRE',u. a. To drag or immerse in the mire. Bp. Taylor 
Be-mire'ment,* 71. The state of being bemired. Qa 

Rev. [R.] 
fBE-MtST', V. a. To cover as with a mist. Feltham. 
Be-moan', (be-mon') v. a. To lament. Job xlii. 
fHE-MOAN'A-BLE, a. That may be lamented. Sherwoodm 
Be-moan'er, 71. One who bemoans. JV. Scott. 
Be-moan'ing, 71. Lamentation. Bp. Hall. 
fBE-MOCK', V. a. To treat with mocks. — Bemock at, I* 

laugh at. Shak. 
fBE-MolL', V. a. To bemire. Shak. 

Be-moIst'en,* (be-mbi'sn) v. a. To moisten. Dr. AUen 
Bf'MpL,*7i. (Mus.) Another name for B flat. Crabb 
fBE-MGN'sTER, V. a. To make monstrous. Shak. 
Be-mourn', (b?-m6rn') v. a. To weep over. Wicliffe. 
Be-mDe'dle,* v. a. To confuse; to stupefy. Fo. Qu. Ben, 
Be-mOf'fle,* v. a. To wrap up as with a muffler. Stem*, 
B^-mo^e',* v. a. To enchant or overcome by the Muses. 

BE-MU9ED', fbe-miizd') a. Overcome with musmg. Pope. 
tB£N, [Sax. ] Formerly used for are, fteeit, and be. Spenser. 
B£n, 7t. An expressed oil of the nut of the moringa aptf^ 

ra. Brande. 
||B£nch, [bench, S. P. J. K. Sm. Wb. ; bSnsh, W. F. E. Ja, 

R.] 71. A seat to hold several persons ; a long seat ; 9 

seat of justice; the persons silting on a bench; the body 

of judges. 

B£nch, v. a. To furnish with or seat on a bench. 
B£nch,* v. n. To sit upon a bench. Shak. 
B£nch'er, 71. {Law) A senior member of a society £ *- 

erning one of the English inns of court ; a judge. 
B£nd, V, a. [i. BENT or bended; pp. BE?tDiNG, bent or 

bended: — Bended is little used.] To make crooked; to 

direct to a certain point; to incline; to bow ; to subdue. 

— (JVajit.) To fasten, as one rope to another. 
BEnd, v. n. To be incurvated ; to yield to lean. 

B£nd, 71. Flexure ; a curve ; a bent ; a crooked timber form- 
ing the rib of a ship. — (flier.) A kind of belt occupyin| 
the shield diagonally. 

B, I. 6, fl, Y, long; X, £, t, 6, tJ, 1?, ahoH; a, ?, j, p, y. y, ofiscixre. — fXre, fXr, FiST, fXll j HfeiR, nt» 


BEnb, 71. A band or company. Spenser^ 

BfiXD'^-BLE, a. That may be bent. Skenoood. 

P£Nr)':^R, 71. He or that which bends ; the instrument used 
for bending. [band, Orabb. 

B£n1i'li?t, 71. A little bend (Her.) The diminutive of 

BEwD'wiTH, n. An herb. Bailey. 

Bene,* Ti. The oil-plant, or Oriental sesamum, introduced 
into the West India islands. Farm. Eney. 

Be'ne* a. A Latin adverb, signifying wellj used in the 
phrase nota bene^ mark well. 

Be-neaped', (be-nept') a. (J\raut.) A ship is said to be be- 
neaped when the water does not flow high enough to bring 
her over the bar or off the ground. Crabb. 

Be-neath', prep. Under ; lower in place, rank, excellence, 
or dignity ; unworthy of. 

Be-neatii', ad. In a lower place ; below ; on earth. 

BM:N~E-Dlp'r-TE* [L., bless ye.] The aong of the three 
children in the nery furnace, .dsh. 

fB^N'l^-DlcT, a. [benedictusjh.] Mild and salubrious. Ba- 

B£n':e-dIct,* n. A cant term for a married man. — Gener- 
alized from Shakspeare's ^^ Much Ado about J^otJiing." 

B6n-e-dYc'tjne, lu A monk of the order of St. Benedict. 

BiSN-:^-Dlc'T(NE, o. Belonging to the order of St. Bene- 

BfiN-?-Dlc'TlpN, tu An invocation of happiness ; an ex- 
pression of good wishes j good wish ; a blessing j the form 
of instituting an abbot. 

B£n-?-dIc'tivb, a. Conferring a blessinti. Oauden. 

B£N-E-Dic'Tp-R¥,* a. Conferring benediction. Sat. Mag. 

BfiN-]5-FXc'TipN, n. [benefacio^ L.] Act of conferring a 
benefit ; the benefit conferred ; donation ; gratuity 3 gift. 

BEn-?-fXc'tpr, 7i, One who confers a benefit. 

B£n-e-fXc'tress, n. She who confers a benefit. Delany. 

B£n']e:-fIce, (b6u'e-fis)7i. Advantage conferred ; a certain 
class of preferments in the church of England, as recto- 
ries, vicarages, perpetual curacies, and chaplaincies: — 
distinguished from dignities^ as bishoprics, deaneries, and 

B£n'?-fIced, (bSn'e-fisl) a. Having a benefice. 

fBliN'E-FTcE-LEss, a. Having no benefice. Sheldon. 

Be-n£f'i-c&nce, n. Active goodness; kindness j liber- 

Be-nSf^i-cI^nt, a. Conferring benefits ; kind ; charitable. 

B£-N£F'j-cJi:NT-LV, ad. In a beneficent manner. 

BEn-^-fF'cial, (b6n-e-fish'5il) a. Advantageous; helpful. 

fB£N-E-Flt"cf^L, (b6n^-flsh'?l) n. A benefice. Spenser. 

BEn-E-f1"cial-lv, (bSn-e-f ish'sMe) ad. Advantageously. 

BiSN-E-Ff"ciiLL-N£ss, (be'n-e~f ish'^l-nes) n. Usefulness. 

B£N-E-Fl"ciA-Ry, (bgn-e-f ish'y?-re) ffl. Holding something 
in subordination to another; relating to fiefs; receiving 

BEN-E-Ft"ciA-RV, (bSn-?-f ish'y9-re) il One who holds a 
benefice j a person benefited or assisted : — a student as- 
sisted by charity. Pearson. [Browne, 

fBEN-E-Fl"ciEN-cv, (bSn-e-flsh'en-ae) 7*, Kmdness. 

fBiLN-E-F("ciENT, a. Beneficent. A. Smith. 

B£n'e-fIt, n. [^beu^cium, L. { A kindness; advantage; 
gain ; profit. — (Law) Benefit of clergy was, in the middle 
ages, in various states of Europe, an exemption of cler- 
gymen from criminal process before a secular judge. It 
was variously modified in England, and in the reign of 
George IV. entirely abolished. 

FITED.] To do good to ; to assist ; to befriend ; to be use- 
ful to. 
•B£N'E-F!fT,iJ. n. To gain advantage. Milton^ 

Ben']?-fIt-Play,* n. A play acted for the advantage of 
some one. Hawkins. 

JBe-ne'CtRO, v. a. To make extremely dark. Hewyt. 

[Be-neme', or Be-nempne', (be-nem') v. a. To name ; to 
l^ronounce ; to promise ; to give. Spenser. 

Be'ne Pi.lp'f~Td* [li.] (Mas.) A phrase denoting that 
the performer is at liberty to exercise his taste. Crabb, 

fB£N-E-FLXp'j-TURE, n, [beneplocitunif L.] Will ; choice. 

Be-n£t', v. a. To iiisnare. Shak. 

BE-iV£v'p-I^£NCE, 71. [benevolentiay L.] Disposition to do 
good; the good done; good-will; kindness. — (English 
History) A species of tax or gratuity levied by the sove- 
reign ; devised by Edward IV., and abolished by Richard 
III. Bacon. 

BE-Nfiv'p-LENT, o. Kind; having good-will ; disposed to 
do good ; humane ; compassionate ; benignant. 

Be-nev'p-lEnt-LV, ad. In a benevolent manner. 

BE-Nfiv'p-LfirfT-Nfiss, n. Benevolence. [R.l 

JBe-nEv'p-lo&s, a. Kind; benevolent. Puller. 

B^n-gAl.', n. A sort of thin stuff, made of silk and hair, 
criginally fVom Bengal. 

B£n-»a-lee',* or BJeN-&AL'LV,* a. Relating to Bengal. 
i\. 6b. 

BfiN-GA-^^9^'»* "• sing. &LpL A native or natives of Ben- 
gal. P. Que. 

B^-nTght', (be-nif) v. a. [t. benighted ;;)|p, benighting, 



benighted.] To involve in darkness, to overtake wllft 

night; to darken. 
Be-.night'?d,* (be-nlt'?d) p. a. Involved in darkness. 
B^-NIG\', (b^-nln') a. [benignus^ L,] Kind; generoui 

wholesome ; benignant ; benevolent. 
B?-nIg'n^nt, a. Kind ; gracious ; good ; benevolent. 
Be-nIg'n^nt-lv,* ad. In a benignant manner. Boswell. 
B^-nTa'NJ-TYi ^ [benignitasj L.] Graciousness ; actual 

kindness; bounty; generosity. 
Be-nign'lv, (b?-nin'l9) ad. Favorably ; kindly, miller. 
fBEN'l-SON, (bSn'n^-zn) n. [fientfwi, old Fr.j Blessing; 

benediction. Sfiak. 
B£n'ja-mIn, n. A plant; a gum. See Benzoin. 
BISn'net, re. An herb. Same as avens. 
BjIn'shie,* (ben'she) 71. An Irish fairy or a fairy's wife. 

B£nt, re. State of being bent ; flexure; declivity; inclina- 
tion ; turn ; tendency ; a species of grass ; the commuv 

reed, called also starr ; a dead stem of grass. 
BISnt,* i. Sep. from Bend. See Bend. 
BJ^NT'GRj^ss,'*' n. A species of agrostis, common in pas 

tures. Farm. Ency. [Dryden, 

B£NT'jNG-TiME, 71. Time when pigeons feed on bent^ 
B?-nOmb', (b?-numO v. a. To make torpid ; to stupefy. 
Be-nOmb'?d-n£ss, (be-nGm'ed-nes) n. Torpidness. 
B^-nCmb'm^nt,* fb?-num'm?nt) n. Act of benumbing 

B£n'za-mTde,* 71. (Chern.) A compound obtained by ei 

posing chloride of hf^nzule to ammoniacal gas. Brandts 
BiiN'ziNE,* 71. A fluia containing benzoic acid. P. Cye. 
B£N'zp-ATE,* 71. (Chem.) A salt composed of benzoic acid 

and a base. Brande. 
Ben-zo'|c,* a. (Chem.) Derived from benzoin ; as, "ben 

zoic acid.*' Brande. 
Ben-zoIn', n. A resinous juice, commonly called gum-bet^ 

jamiuj flowing from a tree in Sumatra, &,c. 
Bjen-zo'jne,* 71. A crystalline substance without taste of 

colorj^ deposited from the oil of bitter almonds. Francis 
BEn'zone,* re. A compound of hydrogen, oxygen, and 

carbon. A Cyc. 
BEn'zule,* 71. (Ckem.) A compound of carbon, hydro- 
gen, and oxygen, regarded as the base of benzoic acid 

Be-paint', v. a. To cover with paint, Shak. 
fBE-PALE', V. a. To make pale. Carew. 
BJE-pfiR'i-wiGGED,* (-wigd) o. Adorned with false hair 

BE-pmcH', V. a. To mark with pinches. Chapman. 
Be-plAs't:er,* v. a. To cover with plaster; to embellish 

Be-p6^'der, v. a. To dress out ; to powder. Search 
BE-PRAI9E', V. a. To praise greatly. Ooldsmith. 
BE-piJR'PLE,u. o. To render of a purpiff color. Diggcs. 
Bi^-QUEATH', (be-kwetli') v. a. [i. be<iueathed ; pp. bb 

qUEATHiNG, bei^ueathed.] To leave by will to another 

to devise. 
Bi:-QUEATH'ER, (be-kweth'er) n. A testator. HuLoeU 
tBE-dUEATH'MENT, 71. A bequost. Diet. 
Be-qu£st', (be-kw6st') n. Something left by will ; a leg 

Be-q,u5te',*t). a. To quote frequently or much. Ec. Rev, 
fBE-RAiN', V. a. To rain upon. Cliaucer, 


To revile; to abuse in vile language. Holland. 
B)?-rXt'tle, v. a. To fill with noise. Shak. 
Bjb-rAu'nite,* 71. (Min.) A phospliate of the peroxide o 

iron._ Dana. 
fBE-RAY', V. a. To foul ; to befoul. Milton. 
Ber'B5-rIn,* re. A yellow, bitter principle contained in 

the alcoholic extract of the root of the berberry-tree 

BER'B?-Rts,* n. [L.] (BoU) A genus of plants; the bar- 
berry. P, Cyc 
BiSR'BJfR-RV, Tu [berberisj It.} A shrub which bears yellow 

flowers and red acid berries ; called also barberry. Brandt 

See Barberry. 
BERCEAUy* (\iQx-so')n. [Fr.] A full-arched vault. Crabb 
BerEj 71. A species of barley. Gray. 


BEREFT orsEREATED ] To Strip of ; to deprive of; to tak* 
away from. 

B?-reave'm?nt, k. Act of bereaving ; state of being ba 
reft; deprivation. Ec. Rev. 

BE-RiiAV'ER,* 71. One who bereaves. Speed. 

BE-RJtFT', I. &p. from Bereave. See Bereave. Dryden, 

IBerg, 71. A town. Oibson, See Bobough. 

Ber'g^-m6,* re. A coarse kind of tapestry. Orahb. 

Ber'g^-mGt, 71. [bergatnottej Fr,] A sort of pear ; the es- 
sential oil of the rind of a small pear-shaped fruit, used m 
a perfume ; a sort of snuff. 

tBfeR'(;j-?-R£T, 7». [6«*ff-ereMe, Fr.] A song. Chaucer. 

Berg'm>ln-ite,* 71. (JI/iTi,) A variety of scapolite. Philtif'% 

BERG'Mis-T?R,7i. The chief officer among the Derbyshiii 
miners, in England. 


bOll, BUr, RdLE. — f, 9, ^, ^, sojii jC. £, C, g, kardi ^ as Z i ^ as gz ; — TUIA 


BErg'm6tt:, iu A court among the Derbyshire miners. 

Ber'oq-mAsk,* a. [Bergomaseoj It.] Relating to a rustic 
dance. SliaJc. 

B?-RHYME', (b?-rlm0 v. a. To mention in rhyme. SJuiJc, 

Be-rIl'lj-Dm,* n. Same aa fflucmum. Francis. 

Ber-lIn', [ber-lin' S. JT. J. F. Ja.; ber'ljn, P. JC. Sm. R. 
Wb.] n. A kind of coach or chariot, first made at Berlin. 

BErmEjTi. (F&rt.) A space between the foot of the ram- 
parts and the side of the moat. C?-aiJ. — The banlc or side 
of a canal which is opposite to the tow-path. Tanner. 

BfeR'NA-CLE-G66sE,* or BER'Nj-CLE-Gft6sE,* n. A Spe- 
cies of wild goose. P. Cyc, See Barnacle. 

BSsk'nar-dIne,* w. One of an order of monlts ; one of a 
branch of the Benedictine or Cistercian order. P. Cyc, 

TBER'NET,*n. {Law) The crime of arson. Crabh. 

liER-NdusE'j* n. The outer mantle of an Arab. Th. 
Campbell, ' 

fBE-RdB', V, a. To rob ; to plunder. Spenser. 

B&r'q-e^* n. (Zool.) A genus of marine animals. P. Cyc. 

BfeR'RlED,* (ber'rjd) a. Impregnated with eggs or spawn. 
Travis. Having or covered with berries. Dyer. 

B£r'rV, 'n. Any small fruit containing seeds ; the impreg- 
nation of a fish. 

B^r'rv, v. n. To bear berries, 

B£r'rv-eeA.r-ing-, a. Bearing or producing berries. Lee. 

|Bert. Bright. Qibaon. 

BiSRTH, n. (JVaui.) A ship's station ; a room in a ship ; a 
place in a ship or steam-vessel to sleep in ; a station ; em- 
ptoyinent. B. Edwards. See Birth. 

/iER-TH£:x.'LAj*n. (Zool.) A species of marine molluscous 
animals. P. Cyc. 

Ber'th|-?r-ite,*7i. (Min.) A Sulphate ot antimony. Dana. 

BER-THp-LE'T{-4L,*7i. {Bot.) A large plant of South Amer- 
ica. P. Cyc. 

Ber'tram, n. An herb ; bastard pellitory. 

BfiR'yLjTi. [beryllusj L.] (Min.) Asilicious mineral, classtJ 
among precious stones. It is allied to the emerald, usual- 
ly transparent, of a pale green, and crystallized. 

KI^r'ze-lIne,''' ?i. (Min.) A mineral in minute crystals. 

BILr'ZE-lite,* tu (Min.) Magnesian pharmacolyte. Dana. 

tBE-SAlNT', V. a. To make a saint of. Hammond, 

Bi:-sa\le',* 71. (Laio) A kind of writ. Blaclcstone. 

Bje-scXt'ter. v. a. To throw loosely over. Spenser. 

tBE-SCORN', u. a. To mock at. Chaucer. 

tB:?-SCRXTCH', V. a. To tear with the nails. Cftaucer. 

fBE-SCRAwL', V. a. To scribble over. Milton. 

tB:^-scRE£N^ V. a. To cover with a screen ; to screen. Shak. 

\B^-acR'is'BijE, V. a. To write on. Milton. 

tBE-scDM'Bi?R, B. a. To load with something useless. B. 

BE-scDTCH'EPN,*u.a. Todeck with a scutcheon. Churchill, 

tBE-SEE', 7). n. To look ; to mind. Widiffe. 

ING, BESOUGHT, (fBESEECHED)]. To entreat i to supplicatej 
to implore ; to beg. 

fBE-SEECH', Tu Request. Beaum. ^ FL 

B:?-s£ech':?r, n. One who beseeches. Shak. 

Be-seech'jng-LV,* fld. In a beseeching manner. J^eale. 

tBE-SEEK', w. a. To request; to beseech. Chaucer. 

Be-seem', v. a. To become ; to befit. Hooker, 

B?-seem'ING, 71. Comeliness. Barret. 

Be-seem'ly, a. Fit ; becoming. Shmstone. 

tBE-SEEN',p. a. Adapted; adjusted. Spenser. 

B:?-s£t', v. a. [i. beset ; pp. besetting, beset.] To be- 
siege) to waylay ; to embarrass ; to entangle. 

fB^-SHINE'. V. n. To shine upon. Chaucer. 

Be-shrew', (b?-shriiO^' C" ^'o wish a curse to. 

IBe-SHDt', v. a. To shut up. Chaucer. 

Ee-side', ) prep. At the side of; over and above ; not ac- 

BE-SiDE?', ) cording to ; out of. 

Be-sIde', )ad. More than that; not in this number; 

Be-side^', ) moreover; except. 

Bii-Side'r^T, n, A species of baking pear. 

BE-SlE9-E',J'be-s5jO V. a, [i. besieged ; pp. besieging, be- 
sieged.] To' lay siege to ; to block up ; to invest ; to in- 
vade ; to attack ; to beleaguer. 

BE-SIE^j^E'M?NT,*n. The act of besieging. Month. Rev. [r.] 

Be-sie^^'er, 71. One who besieges. 

Be-si'r?n,* v. a. To allure or entice as a siren. Qu. Rev, 

fBE-slT', ». a. To suit; to become. Spenser. 

tB?-SLAVE% V. a. To subjugate ; to enslave. Hall. 

Be-slXv'er,* v. a. To defile or cover with slaver. Richard 
son. See Bxslubbbm. 

Be-slIme', V, a. To soil ; to daub. B. Jonson. 

B:^-sl6b'ber,* v. a. To daub ; to soil. Qm. Rev. 

Be-slDb'ber, v. a. To daub. Shak. 

Be-sMEAR', v. a. [i. besmeared ; pp. besmearing, be- 
smeared. 1 To cover with something greasy, adhesive, or 
dirty ; to bedaub ; to soil. 

Be-smEar'?R, n. One who besmears. Sherwood. 

fBE-SMlRCH', V. a. To soil ; to discolor. Sftak. 

BE-smoke', v. a. To foul with or dry in smoke. 

B^-smOt', V, a. To soil with dirt, smoke, or soot. 



tB? snow', v. a. To scatter like snow. Ooieer 

BE-sNttFFED',(be-snaft') a. Smeared with snuff. Totmg 

Be'^qivi, (be'zym) n, A broom made of tv igs. 

fB^-SORT', V. a. To suit; to fit. Shak, 

JB^-soRT', 71. Company ; train. Shak, 

Be-s6t', v. a, [i. besotted ; pp. besottino, besotted. 

To infatuate ; to make to dote. Shak. [r.] 
B^-s6t'tei),*p. a. Infatuated; stupefied, ^sh. 
B:E:-sdT'T:^i)-LiVi i^* I" & foolish, besotted mannei. 

Bj^-sdT'TJ^B-N^ss, 71. Stupidity; infatuation. Milton. 
B^-sovQU'e'j (be-s3.wtO i* ^ P- froni Beseech, See Beseech. 
B:]?-apXN'&LE,u'. a. To adorn with spangles. Pope. 

BiJ-SPAT'TER, v. a, [l. bespattered ; pp. BESPATTBRIlfa, 

bespattered.] To spatter ; to soil by throwing filth 
fBE-spAwL', 17. ffl. To daub with spittle. Milton. 

B?-SPEAK', v. a. [i. BESPOKE, (t BEaPAKE) ; pp. bespbakinq, 

bespoken.] To speak for beforehand; to forebode; u» 

speak to ; to address ; to betoken ; to show. 
B?-SPEAK'¥R, 71. One who bespeaks. Wotton. 
B^-SP£c'KLE, V. a. To mark with speckles. Milton 
|Be-sp£t', v. a. To daub with spittle. Oumcer. 
Be-spew', (b^-spuO V. a. To daub with spew or vomW 
B:^-SPICE', V. a. To season with spices. Slujk, 
Bi:-spIt', v. a. To daub with spittle. Widiffe 
Be-spoke', i. from Bespeak. See Bespeak. 
B?-sp6t', v. a. To mark with spots. Bp, Rainbow 
Be-spr£ad', (be-spr6d') v. a. To spread over. Dryden 
jBe-sprEnt', p'. Besprinkled. Milton. 
B^-sprIn'KLE,!). a. To sprinkle over. Dryden^ 
Be-spr1n'kler, 71. One who besprinkles. SkeriBood 
Be-sprTnk'IiJNGj* n. A sprinkling. Dr. Allen. 
BE-spiJRT',-u. a. To throw out scatteringly. Milton. 
Be-spDt'ter, v. a. To sputter over. 
B£sT, a. superl. ot good. Most good ; most excellent ; hav 

ing good qualities in the highest degree. — The bestj t*ie 

utmost power. — To maJte Vic best i^, to improve to the 

B£ST, ad. superl. of well. In the highest degree of good- 
ness. — It is sometimes used in composition; as, "btstr 

BfisT,* n. Highest perfection; greatest effort; as, "Th» 

duke did his best." Bacon, 
Be-stain', v. a. To mark with stains. Shak. 
■|-Be-st£ad', v. a. To profit ; to accommodate. Milton. 
BfisT'l^L, (bgst'y&l) [bSs'che-91, W. J.; bSs'ty^l, E. F, K. 

Sm. R. ; bes't^-^l, P. Ja, ; bSs'ch^I, S.] a. Belonging to a 

beast ; brutal. 
B£st-j-Xl'j-ty, (b5st-ye^l'e-te) n. The nature or quality 

of beasts j beastliness ; unnatural connection with a beast. 
BJ&ST'iAL-jZE, (bSst'y^l-iz) V. a. To make like a beast. 
BEsT'lAL-Ly, (bSst'y?l-[5) ad. Brutally. 
fBJEST'i-ATE, (b6st'y?-^t) V. a. To make like a beast 

Be-st:(ck', v. a.[i. Sep. bestuck.] To stick over with. 
Bi:-STIR', 77. a. To put into vigorous action. Milton. 
tB£3T'NESS, 71. The most excellent state. Bp. Morton, 
Be-st6rm', u. n. To rage. Young. 
B]^-ST6w', (be-eto') v, a, [i. bestowed; pp. bestowiivu, 

bestowed.] To give ; to confer ; to grant ; to supply ; ta 

Be-stow'al, (be-sto'^il) n. Act of bestowing j a gift. OeTit 

Be-stow']er, (be-sto'er) 71. One who bestows. 
Be-stow'ment,* 7i. Act of bestowing; bestowal. Per 

'ry- [R-J 

B:e-strXd'dle, 7J. a. To bestride. See Bestride. • 

tBE-sTRAUGHT', (be-str^wt');'. Distracted ; mad. Shak. 

Be^treak',* v. a. To mark or cover with streaks. SwiJU 

Be-strew', (be-strS', orbe-stro') [b?-strfS', S.J.Ja.K'.Sm.f 
b^-stro', JV. E. F.] v. a. [i. bestrewed ; jip. bestrewikOi 
bestrewed or BESTREWN.] To Sprinkle ovcr. Milton. 

Be-stride', v. a, [i. bestrode or bestrid; pp. bestrid- 
ing, bestridden or bestrid.] To place one leg over, so 
that one leg shall be on each side ; to stride ; to ride on. 

Be-stDd', v, a. To adorn with studs. Draytoiu 

Bl? stiRE,* (be-shfir') ad. Certainly. Lathrop's Sermons.-- 
Be~sure, foi to be sure, or surely^ is a colloquial phrase, not 
often sg;,en m print. 

tB]E-swlKE V. a. To allure. Qower. 

BJliT, 71. A w ager ; a stake, as a wager. Prior. 

B£t, v, a, [i, betted ; pp. betting, betted.] To wage* , 
to lay a wager or bet. Shak. 

tB£T. The old preterit of Beat. Bacon, 

Be-take', v. a. [i. betook ; pp. betaking, betaken.] [tT« 
intrust. Spenser,] To have recourse to ; to apply , to move 
to remove. 

|B^-tAu&ht', (b§-tSLwt') p. from Betake. Intrusted. 

Be-teem', w. a. Toprrjduce; to bring forth. Spenser, 

Be'tel, (bs'tl) 71. A small plant, tree, or shrub of the pep- 
per kind ; the leaf of the shrub, which is of an intoxi- 
cating quality, and is chewed in the East Indies alon| 
with the nut of the areca palm or lime. 

I C, i, 6, a J, lonffi X, tf I, 6, C, 1?, short; ^, 5, j, p, v» ¥» obscure — f^re, EAR. fAst fAli* h£ir HttE- 


B?-THI.NK', V. a. [(. bkthought; pp. bethinkiwg, be- 
THouuHT.] To recall to the memory j to rqcollect j to recall 
to reflection. 

Be-thInk', v. It. To consider. Spenser. 

BfeTH'LE-HEM, (bStli'l^-em) n. A hospital for lunatics: 
contracted to bedlam. See Bedlam. 

B£Tn'LE-H?M-iTE,(bgth'l?-^m-it)n. See Uedlamite. 

B^-THOVailT', (bg-th^wt') i. & p. from Bethink. See Be- 

fBE-TilRALL', c. a. To enthrall. Speiiaer. 

B?-thDmp', d. a. To beat; to thump. Shak. \n.'\ 

B]^-tjde' V, a. [i. & p. BETiDBD or BETiD.I To happen to : 
to befall. Milton. 

Be-tIde', u, 7l To happen j to become. SJiaJi. 

Be-TiaiE', ad. Seasonably. SAoA:. See Betimes. 

B?-TiME9', fbe-llmz') acU Seasonably ; early ; soon. 

Be'ti^e, 71. An Indian plant. See Betel. 

Be-to'ken, (b?-to'kn) V. a. To signify; to foreshow. 

Beton,*7i. [Fr.] A concretion used in foundations of hy- 
draulic works. Tanner. 

BILt'q-ny, n. [betoaica, L.] A medicinal plant. 

Be-took'^, Cb?-tiik') i. from Betalce. See Betake. 

*-Bi:-TOBN', p. a. Violently separated. Saclcville. 

R^-t6ss', v. a. To disturb; to toss into the air. Shak. 

iBi;-TR.Xp', '0. a. To insnare, Occleve. 

B:?-tray'. (b?-tra') v. a, [i. betrayed ; pp. betraying, be- 
trayed.] To deliver up by breach of trust; to give into 
the hands of enemies by treacht-ry; to discover or dis- 
close that which has been intrusted to secrecy ; to en- 
trap; to show; to discover. 

BE-TaAY'^L,*n. Act of betraying; treachery. -36p. tVhately. 

Bjp-TRAY'ijR, 71. One who betrays ; a traitor. 

BE-TRAV'M^NTj* n. Betrayal. Jefferson, [r.] 

Be-trIm', v. a. To deck; to dress. Shak. 

Be~tr6th', v. a. [i. betrothed; pp. betrothing, be- 
trothed.] To contract to any one in order to marriage ; 
to pledge to marriage ; to noiAlnate to a bishopric. 

Be-tr6th'al,* 71. Betrothment. Poladc [r.] 

Be-tr6thed',* (b?-tr6tht') p. a. Contracted or affianced in 

Bj^-trSth'mijnt,?!. The act of betrothing; a mutual com- 
pact between two parties, by which they bind themselves 
to marry. 

fBE-TRDST', V. a. To intrust. Bp. Hall. [ed. [r.] 

Be-trDst^ment,* 71. Act of intrusting; things intrust- 

B&t'so,* n. The smallest Venetian coin. Mason. 

fBfiTT, ad. The old English word for better. Chaucer, 

BjSt'ter, a. comp. ot ^ood. Superior; having more or a 
higher degree of goocf qualities. 

B£t'ter, n. The superiority ; improvement. Dryden. A 
superior. Hooker. One wno bets. See Bettor. 

BBt'ter, ad. comp. of well. More excellently; well in a 
greater degree ; more. 

Bet'ter, v. a. [i. bettered ; pp. bettering, bettered.] 
To improve ; to meliorate ; to amend. [nelt. 

tBfiT'TERj* v.n. To grow better; to become better. Par- 

B£t'ter-ing, n. The act of improving. 

Bj^t'ter-ment, 71. Improvement ; act of making better. 
Monta<rii. — {Law) Improvements made to an estate, 
by cultivation, fences, building, &;c. Bouvier. 

B£T'TER-M;osT,*a. Best, Palgrave. [R.] 

t^B£T'TER-N£ss, n. State of being better; improvement. 

BfeT'TiNG, u. Act of proposing a wager. 

BfiT'TpR, n. One who bets or lays wagers. 

BliT'Ty, n. An instrument to break open doors. 

Be-tOm'blei), (be-tum'bld)p. a- Disordered. Shak, 

Be-tu'tqr,* V, a. To instruct ; to tutor. Coleridge. 

Be-twat'tle, (b^-twQt'tl) V. a. To confound ; to stupefy. 
Gabriel John. [North o^Eng.] 

Be-tween', prep. In the intermediate space ; in the mid- 
dle of; from one to another; bearing relation to two; 

B¥-TWEETi'j-Ty,* n. State of .being between. Jefferson. 
[Low and rare.] 

Be-twIxt'^ (b?-twikst') i'T'ep. In the midst of ; between, 

BeO'danT-ITE,* 71. {Mi-n.) A crystallized mineral. Dana. 

UB£v'^L, (bev'el, S. W. P. J. F. E. Ja. K. ; bev'vl, Sm.] n. 
{Meek.) Any angle that is not a right angle or half a right 
angle ; an instrument for drawing or taking angles. 

iB£v'EL, V, a. To cut to a bevel angle. Moxon. 
Bfiv'^L,* «. Having the form of a bevel. Richardson. 
B£v'?l-m;£nt,* n. {Min.) A bevel form, side, or angle. 

BE'v:pll, a. See Beaver. 

fBU'v^R, n. A refreshment between meals. B. Jonsoji, 
fBE'VER, V, II. To partake of a bever. Brewer. 
BSv'?R-A(?E, 71. Drink ; liquor to be drunk. Shak. 
Bii v'Vj 1' A flock of birds, particularly of quails ; a compa- 
ny, commonly applied to ladies or women. ^ 
B^-W'All'', (be-wal') v. a. [i, bewaijed; pp. bewailing, 
BEWAILED.] 'To lament; to mourn for; to deplore; to 
BV-WAI /, V, n. To express grief. Shak. 

71 BVA 

B:^-WAIL^VBL£, a. That may be lamented. Skvrwfid 
Bij-WAII-'^R, a. One who bewails. Ward. 
Be-wail'(ng, n. Lamentation. Raleigh. 
B?-wail'm:eht,* 7i. Act of bewailing; grief. Blackwom. 
fBE-vl^AKE', ■«. a. To keep awake. Oower, 
BjP-wAre', w. n. To regard with caution ; to be cautio"B (■ 

aware of. 9::;>-This verb is not conjugated ; and it is )io-* 

used only in phrases which adrnittheverb^eor its tenses, 

as if be and ware were separate words, and not fonned 

into one; as, "he may beware" i "he s/toiUd beware -"i 

"he wiU beware" i though it was anciently sometimA* 

used otherwise. 
Be-weep', V, a. To weep over. Sliak. 
B^-WEEP', V, n. To weep. Shak, 
B]?-wfiT', 73. a. To wet; to moisten. Shak. 
BE-WHORE',D.a. To corrupt with regard to chastity. Beauts 

4' Fl. To pronounce a whore. Shak. 
6e-wIl'i>:er, v. a. [i. bewildered ipp. bewildering, bb* 

wildered.J To lose in pathless places; to confound; t4 

disorder ; to perplex ; to entangle. 
B?-w(l'd^red-njS8S,* n. State of being bewildered. 

Bentham. [Coleridge 

B:]?-wlL'D?a-M£NT,* n. Act of bewildering; perplexity 
tB]?-wlN'T:]?R, V. a. To make like winter. Cowley. 
B:c:-wTtch', v. a. [i. bewitched; pp. bewitching, bib- 
witched.] To affect by or fill with witchcraft or sorcery ; 

to injure by witchcraft ; to charm. 
Be-w1TCHEd',* (bg-wlchf) p. a. Under the influence of 

BE-wiTcu'ED-N£ss,7^. State of being bewitched. Oaudem 
B?-wItcii'er, n. One who bewitclies. Stafford. 
Be-wItch'e-rv, 7i. Fascination ; enchantment. 
fBE-wlTCH'FDii, ffl. Alluring; bewitching. Milton, 
BeIwItch'ING, n. The act of bewitching. Sherwood, 
B^-wlTCH'j:NG,*i). a. Tending to bewitch or charm. 
Be-wItch'ing-lv, ad. In an alluring manJier. Hallyweu 
BE-wlTCH'iNG-wfiss,* n. Q.uahty of being bewitching 

Be-wItch'ment, 71, Fascination; enchantment. Shak. 
tBE-w6N'DERED, (be-wun'derd) p. a. Amazed. Fairfax. 
Be-wrXp', (be-rip') v. a. To cover over. Fairfax. 
BJP-WRAY', (be-ra') V. a. To betray ; to show. Hooker, To 

soil; to befoul; to beray. Pope. [Antiquated.] 
fBE-WRAY'ER, 71. Betrayer; discoverer. Addison. 
tBE-WRAY'M?NT*,(be-ra'ment) n. Betrayal. Dr. Mien 
B^-Wr£ck', (be-rSk') v. a. To ruin ; to destroy. Mirror for 

fBlE-WROUGHT', (be-ra.wt')p. Worked. B. Jonson, ' 

Bey, (ba) n. [beg^ Turk.] A Turkish or Tartar title of dig 

nity ; a chief; a prince ; a governor of a province. I^ycaut 
Bey'ljck,* (ba'ljk) n. A province governed by a bey. Sit 

O. Temple. 
Be-y6nd', prep. On the farther side of; farther onward 

than; past; out of the reach of; before; above; re!:,ot£ 

from. — To go beyond, to deceive. 
Be-y6nd', ad. At a distance ; yonder. Spender. 
B?-zS.NT', [be-zant', .fa. K. Brande; bez'^nt, Sm.] n. A 

gold coin of old Byzantium : — also written byznnt, 

byzantinCj and bizaJitine. — (Her.) A circle ; or, [i. e. gold.] 
B^-zXnt'ler,* 71. The second branch of a stag's hora 

Bfiz'EL, [bSz'el, P. K. Wb.; bez'zl, Stb.,- be'zel, Ja,] n. 

That part of a ring in which the stone is fixed. 
Be'ZOAR, (be'zor) [be'zor, W. Ja. Sm.; b^-zo'^r, or bSz'-^ 

ar, K.] n. [Per ] A calculous concretion, found in tho 

stomach, intestines, and bladder of animals, formerly ea 

teemed of great virtue as an antidote. 
B£z-0-Ji.R'D!C, a. Composed of bezoar. Student* 
BEz-P-Ar'dic, 71. Medicine containing bezoar. 
Be'z6ar-G6at,* 7i. The Indian antelope. Hill. 
tB£z-p-JiR'Ti-CAlj, a. Acting as an antidote. Chillingwort/t 
Be-zon'ian,* n.[bisognoj It.] An indigent wretch, Shak* 
tBJSz'ZLE, V. a. To waste in riot. Milton. See Embezzle. 
BI,* [L., bis, twice,^ A syllable, when prefixed to a word, 

signifies two, twice, or double ; as, bicarbonate of potash, 

a compound of potash with two atoms of carbonic acid j 

bivalve, having two valves. Brande. * 
Bi-Xw'gv-i<AT-?d, a. Having two angles. Bailey. 
fBl-AN'Gy-LODs, a, [binus and anguluSj L.] Same as buuif 

jpilated. Bailey. 
Bi-ar-tIc'V-late,* o, Havixg two joints. Brande. 
Bi'^s, n. \biais\ Fr.] -pi. bi'as-e?. The weight lodged on 

one side of a bowl, which turns it from the straight line 

any thing which influences one ; propension ; inclinnticm. 
Bl'^S, V. a. \%, biased or biassed ; pp. biasing or hiassinc, 

BIASED or biassed. — Biosscd is the more common spi-Il. 

ing ; but biased is the more analogical.] To turn auay 

from a right, fair, or impartial judgment; to iuflueiiLe 

to incline to some side. 
Bi'as, ad. Across ; diagonally. Sluik. 
IBi'^s-DrAw-jng, n. Partiality. Shak. 
fBi'^S-Niiss, n. Inclination to some side. Sherwood. 
Bi-Au-Ric'V-l-ATE,* a, {Anat.) Having two auricles 


■TVV, aiB; m6ve, nob, ftifiw; bOll, BUk rOi.e. — 9, ^, ^, g, soft; jE, &, £, |, hard; § as 2 ; $ (w gz;— THia 




BT-Xx'AL,* a. (^Jilln.) Having two axes. Smart. 

KiB, n, A piece of linen put on a child's breast. 

BlE, I', n, [bibo, L.] To tipple ; to sip ; to drink. Camden. 

Bi-BA c:ous, (bl-ba'shys) a. [Wiox, h.] Addicted to drink- 
ing ; imbibing. Bailey. [R.j 

fIJi-RA(?'l-Ty, 71. Act or quality of drinking. Bailey. 

BfB'BER, n. Ibiberon^ Ft.] A tippler : —used in composi- 
tion ; as, whie-bibber. 

BIb'ble-Baib'ble, 7(. Prating; idle talk. Shak. 

Bi'BLE, (bi'bl) 71. r/?(/?AiiJi/, a book, by way of eminence, 
The Book,] — The sacred voIun?e whicU contains the 
revelations of God ; the Scriptures of the Old and New 

3i'BLE-OATH,* n. An oath on the Bible ; a sacred obllgn^ 
Won. Congreve. 

BIb'li-cal, a. Relating to the Bible j scriptural. 

BlB'LJ-cIST,* 71. One versed in biblical learning. Ed. Rev. 

BIb-lJ-og'r^-pher, 71. One versed in bibliography. 

BifB-Lf-Q-GRXPH'ic, / a. Relating to bibliography or the 

BIb-lj-p-grXph'J-cai,, ) knowledge of books. 

BIb-li-q-g-rXph'j-cal-lv,* ad. In a bibliographical man- 
ner. Dibdin. 

DIb-li-6&'ra-pht, 71* [0i0iov and ypa<}>0}.] The science 
nr knowledge of books, in regard to their authors, sub- 
jects, editions, and history 

BlB-Ll-6li'^-TR¥»* n. The worship of a book. Byrom. 

BlB'i.i-g-LiTE,* n. {Min.) Bookstone ; a fossil leaf. HamiU 

B's-Ll-p-LO^'f-CAL,* a. Relating to bibliology. P. Cyc. 

MfB-LJ-6L'p-9^¥,*n. Biblical literature, doctrine, or theolo- 
gy ; a treatise on books ; bibliography. P. Cyc. 

BiB'Li-o-MXN-cy,* 71. Divination by the Bible, or a book. 

BIb-lt-q-ma' Ni-A, 71. \_0L0\iov and piavta.] The rage of 
possessing scarce or curious books ; book-madness. 

BTb-li-p-ma'nj-^c, n. One who has a rage for books. 

BiB-Li-Q-MA-Nl'A-CAL,*a. Relatlngto bibliomania. Dibdin. 

BiB-Li-9-MA'Nf-^N-i'9M,* n. Book-madness J bibliomania. 
Dr. JV. DraJte. [Lamb. 

B1b-li-6m'a-kIst,* 71. One affected by bibliomania. C. 

BiB-Li-6Pll'l-Ll§lvl,* 71. Love of bibliography or of books. 

BIb-li-6ph'!-lI5T,* n. A lover *of bibliography or of 
books. Qent. Mag. 

BfB-Ll-9-PH5'Ej-^,* n. A dread of books. Dibdiii, 

BiB'LJ-9-P0LE,*n. A bookseller. Ec. Rev. 

BiE-Li-p-p6L'l-CA.L,* a Relating to bookselling or book- 
sellers. C. Lamb, 

BlB-Li-6p'9-Ll9M,* 71. The employment of a bibliopolist j 
bibliomania. Dibdin. 

BtB-Ll-dP'Q-LlST, n. {0il3\iov and n-wXerv.] A bookseller. 

fclB-Li-6p-<?-Lls'Tjc,* a. Relating to a bookseller or book- 
selling. Dibdin. 

BlB-Li-oT'VPHlsT,* n. One who hides or buries books. 

BiB-zi-p-THE' C4y* B. [L.] A libraryj a bibliotheke. 

fBlB-Ll-p-TllE'c^L, a. [bib-le-o-the'k^l, S. Ja. K. R. JVb.f 
bib-le-Sth'?-kgil, W. J. F. Sm.} Belonging to a library. 
Byrom. [Bp. Hall. 

tBl'B-Li-6TH'E-c^~RY, n. [0t/3Xiov and O^ktJ'] A librarian. 

BIb'li-O-theke, n, [Mbliotliecaj L.] A library. Bale. 

BIb'lvSj* 71. [L.] The papyrus, an Egyptian aquatic 
plant. Hamilton. 

BTb'v-loDs, a. [fiiJw^TW, L.] Absorbing ; spongy. Tliomson. 

UI-cAl'ca-rate,* a. Having two spurs Brande. 

Bl-cXp'sy-LAR, a. \bicapsularis, L.] (BoC) Having two 
capsules with seeds to each flower. 

Bice, n. A light blue color prepared from smalt. 

BI'CEPSy* a. [L,] {Aiiat.) Having two heads. Brande. 

Bi-cip'l-TAL, i a. [biceps^ bicipitis^ L.] Having two heads 

BT-cl'p'j-TOOs, \ or two origins. Bravme. 

BIck'er,* n. A small wooden dish or tub j a bowl. Brockett. 
[North of England and Scotland.] 


To skirmish ; to quarrel ; to quiver. Mdton. 
BIck'er-?r, 71. Aquarrelier; skirmisher. Sherwood, 
BlCK'ER-'lNG, 71. Q.uarrel ; skirmish. Sidney, 
fBIcK'?B-M£KT, 71. Quarrel. Spenser. 
B1ck':ern, 71. An iron with a beak or point. 
Ci-cflii'Li-GATE,* a. {Omith.) Connected by a basal web, 

as toes. Brande. 
Bt'otyL-QR^* a, [L.] Having two colors. Brande. 
BI-c6N'JV-€^A'^E,* a. (Bot.) Existing in two pairs, placed 

side by side. P. Cyc 
fBI'cbBW, a. Same as bicomoits. 
BT-cor'novs, a. Having two horns or antlers. 
Bl-cbR.'P9-R^li, a. [bicorptts, L.] Having two bodies 
BI-CbO'RAL,* o. Having two legs. Hooker. 
Bi-cOs'p;i>,* a. (^Med.) Having two points or tubercles. 

Bi-C&s'Pl-DATE,* a. (BoL) Twice-pointed. Loudon. 
Bi-cDs'pjs,*" 71- [bis and cuspis, L.] A tooth with two 

po'nts. Brande. 

BID,* 71. An offer to give a certain price, as at an auction. 

BId, v. a. pi. TADE, bid; pp. diddinq, bidden C*" Bil».] 

[fTo invite. MaWu] To order; to propose to five; to 

wish ; to desire ; to command ^ to offer ; to declare : — to 

make known, as bans To bid beads, to distinguish each 

bead by a prayer. Dryden. — To hid fair, to have a fail 

appearance ; to promise well. Qu. Rev. 
B/D'AiiE, or BId'all, n. An invitation of friends to drink 

at a poor man's house, and there to contribute charity 

BlD^DEX, (bid'dn) p. from Bid. See Bid. 
Bfi>'D]ER, 71. One who bids or offers. 
BiD'D:E-Ryj* a. Noting a kind of metallic ware niade el 

Biddery, in India. JV. Ency. 
Bid'djng-, n. Act of one who bids ; command ; order^ the 

offer of a price. SltaJc, 
BId'dy,* 71. A hen ; a fowl ; a chicken. Potter. 
Bide, v. a. To endure; to suffer; to wait for; to abide 

Sltalc. " In biding their time." Ch. Ob. 
Bide, v. n. To dwell ; to abide. SkaJc [r.] 
Bi-den'tal, a, [bidensj L.j Having two teeth. Swift. 
Bi-d£n'tate,* a. [bis &, dens, L.] (^nat. &. Bot.) Having 

two teeth. Brande, 
Bi-dSn'tat-ed,"^ a. Divided into two parts ; bidentate. HUL 
BJ-DfiT' (be-d6t', or be-da') fbi-det', Jo.; be-da', Sm. ; 

bti-det', or bid'a', K.] n. [Fr/] A little horse ; an article 

of bedroom furniture. 
tBiD'lNCr, 71. Residence; habitation. Rowe, 
Bi-en'ni-al, a. [biennia, L.] Continuing two years; hai«- 

pening once in two years. 
BI-En'nj-al,* n. {Bot.) A plant which endures two years, 

and which produces flowers and fruit the second seaso* 

P. Cyc. 
Bi-En'nj-^l-lv, ad. At the return of two years. 
Bier, (ber) n. [Mire, Fr., a co^n.] A carriage tor con- 
veying the dead. 
fBliiR'-BALK, (ber'b^wk) n. The church-road for buri- 
als, along which the corpse is carried. Homilies, 
BiEST'iNGg, (bSst'jngz) n, pL The first milk given by a 

cow after calving. B. Jonson. 
Bi-FA'Rj-oDs, a. [bifariusj L.j Twofold. — (5o£.) Ar- 
ranged in two rows. P. Cgc. 
BIf'e-roDs, a. [biferens, L.] Bearing fruit twice a year. 
BI'FID, [bl'fjd, & W. P. Ja. Sm. ; bif^id, K.] a. [bifidiUt L,] 

Cleft in two j having two parts. 
BIf'i-dat-ed, a. Divided into two; bifid. 
BT-FL6'ROVS,*a. (Bot.) Two-flowered. Crabb. 
Bi'FOLD, a. [bLniLij L., and/o/d.] Twofold. Shak. 
Bi-FO 'LI-ATE,* a. (Bot.) Having two leaflets. P. Cyc. 
BT-f6'r^te,* o, (Bot.) Having two perforations. Brande. 
BIf'q-rine,* 71. A singular body found in the interior of 

the green pulpy part of the leaves of some araceoua 

plants. Brande. 
Bi'forivi, (z, [biformisj h.] Having a double form. CroxalL 
Bi'formed. (bi'formd) a. Compounded of two forms 
Bl-FORM'l-Ty, 71, A double form. More, [r.] 
Bi-fr6nt'ed, (bi-frunt'?d) a. [bifrons, JL.J Having two 

Bi-fUr'cate,* v. a. To divide into two branches. Crabb. 
Bi-FiJR'cATE,* a. (Bot.) Having two prongs, like a fork. 

Bi-FUR'cAT-?D, a. [binus and furca, L.] Forked; having 

two forks. 
Bi-FUR-cA^TipN, 77. Division into two heads or branches. 
Bi-FUR'coys, a. Two-forked. Coles. 
BiG, a. Large; great in bulk ; teeming; pregnant; full of 

something ; great in air and mien ; great in spirit. 
BIg, 7U Winter barley. See Bigo. 
BiG, V. a. To build. BrockeU. [N^rth of England.] 
Bi'OA,*n. [L.] A chariot or car drawn by two Lurse*. 

P. Cyc. 
fBlG'^M, 71. One twice married ; a bigamist. Bp, Peacock. 
BfG'^-MiST, 71. One who has committed bigamy. Ayliffe 
BIg'^-my, ". [bigamiay low L.] The offence of coniriict 

ing a second marriage during the life of the husband 

or wife ; the having of a plurality of wives or husbaals 
BlG-A-B66N',*7t, The large white-heart cherry. Smart. 
BtG'BliL-LlED, (bIg'bSI-lid) a. Having a large beHy, or 

protuberance ; protuberant ; pregnant. 
BIg'boned, (big'bond) a. Having large bones. Herbert- 
BIG'CORNED, (big'kBrnd) a. Having large grains. Dryden. 
Bi-(?£m'}-n^te,* a. (Bot) Two-forked. Crabb. 
Bi-p-feN'TiAL,* a. Comprising two tribes of people. .V. .^ 

Rev. [R.] 
B^GG,* 71. A variety of winter barley Loudon. 
BIg'j&IN, 71. [b6pdn,FT.] A cap; a child's cap. — A smah 

wooden vessel; a can. — In the JSTorth of England, a bui d- 

ing. Brockett, 
Bight, (bit) 7i. The bend, double part, or coil of a rope 

when folded ; a shallow or smaB bay or inlet of the sea. 
BTg'lv, ad. Tumidly ; haughtily. Dryden. 
BIg'nAmed, (big'namd) a. Having a great name. 
BlG^Ni^ss, 71. Greatness of quantity; bulk ; size 

E, £ 1^ 6, u, Y, long; X, £, I, 6, t) 1^, skort; ^, ^, |, p, y, y, obscure. — F Are, fXr, fXst, fXll j utiR. Hfis, 


|1g-no'nj-a,* n (Bjt.) A genua of plants ; trumpet-flower. 

BT&'QT, n. A pel son unreasonably devoted to some party, 

denomination, or creed ; a blind zealot, 
IBlG'pT, a. Bigoted. Drydm. 

BlG-'pT-?», a. Full of bigotry J Irrationally zealous. 
BI&'ot-:ed-lv, a- In the manner of a bigot j pertinaciously. 
j;Bi-g6t'j-c^l,* a. Bigoted. Oiidworth. 
Bio'PT-RV» tt- Irrational partiality or zeal for, or prejudice 

against, some party or creed ; blind zeal ; prejudice. 
Blo'-ROUND,* a. Large ; of large circumference. Pope. 
BiG-'sbOwD-jNG-, a. Having a pompous sound, Bp. HalL 
Bla'sviroLlv, a. Much swelled j turgid. SluUe. 
BlG-'-OD-DBH.ED,(bIg'ud-d?rd)a. Having large udders.Pope. 
BzJOUf* (ba'zhb) n. [Fr.] A jewel; an elegant qrnament. 



Bi-Ju'G^TE,* a, (BoL) Existing in two pairs, placed end 

to end. P. Cyc. 
BiKHj* n. A poisonous plant of Nepaul. Brande^ 
Bi-la'B|-ate,* a. (BoU) Having two lips or parcels. Brande. 
BI-lXm:']^i<-lati:,* a. Divided into two plates or lamella>. 

Bi-lXm:':?l-lat-?d,* a. Same &3 bUamellate. Pennant. 
BIl'^n-der, n. [beUmdrCj Fr.J A small vessel, used chiefly 

in Dutch canals for the carriage of goods. Drydea, 
Bi-lXt'er-^l,* a. Having two aides. ^sA. 
BtL'BER-Ry, rt. A small shrub and its fruit. Sliak. 
BIl'bo, 71. ; pi. Blii'BOEg. A short sword or rapier, so 

named from B'dhoa^ in Spain, where first made. — -pi. 

Stocks or shackles for confining the feet of ofienders. 
BiL'BQ-QUET'f (bil'b9-ka') «. [Fr.] The toy called a cup 

and ball. 
B^ld'stein,* n. (Min.) A mineral composed chiefly of 

silica and alumina, and often carved into Chinese figures. 

Bile, n. [6iZts, L.] An animal fluid secreted in the liver, 

of yellow or greenish color and nauseous taste. It has 

been fancied to be the seat of ill-humor and contention. 
Bile, n. A tumor. Skak. See Boil. 
BlLijFE, (bilj) n. The broadest part of a ship's bottom j the 

protuberant part of a cask, called also bulge. 
BIL9^e, v. n. [i, BILGED ; pp. biloino, biloed.] To spring 

a leak ; to let in water. 
BIl'9^ed,* or BILLED,* a. Having the bottom stove in, 

BiL9'E'-P&M:p,*7i. Apurapto draw water from the bilge, .^s/i. 
BtL<j-E'-WA-T]j;R,* 71. Water lying in the bilge ; foul water. 

Bi'L'iA-Ry, (bil'y&-r?) a. Belonging to the bile. ArbuthnoU 

Bi-LtM'Bi,* or BLtM'BiNG,* n. An acid fruit, of the genus 
of averrhoa, used in pickles. P. Cyc. 

Bi-lIn'&u^l,* (bl-ling'gw^) a. Having two tongues 
or languages. Gent. Mag. 

BI-iilN'G-ufST,* 71. One who speaks two languages. Hamil- 

Bi-lIn'guovs, (bi-Ung'gw^s) a. [bilinguis^ L.] Having or 
speaking two tongues, 

BlL'ioys, (bil'yus) a. Consisting of or affected by bile. 

Bi-l1t'er-^l,* a. Consisting of two letters. $ir Wm. Jones. 

HJi-live', aii. The same as Seiiufl. Spenser. 

BIlk, v. a. [i, bilked ; j)p. bilking, bilked.] To cheat; 
to defraud ; to deceive, Dryden., 

BtLK,* M. A cheat; a trick. Congrene, [r.] 

BILL, n, \Ule^ Sax.] The beak of a fowl. 

BILL, n. \bille^ Sax.] A hatchet with a hooked point ; a 
sword ; a battle-axe. 

BILL, n. [billej Fr.] A written paper of any kind ; an ac- 
count of money due ; a statement of goods purchased, 
with the prices. — (Law) A declaration in writing of a 
grievance or wrong suffered by a plaintiff; a present- 
ment or indictment of a grand jury ; a legislative instru- 
ment, or a proposed law not yet passed by a legislature. 

— Bill of eic/tan^fi, an order addressed to some person 
residing at a distance, directing him to pay a sum of 
money in consideration of value received. — Bill ofkealth^ 
a writing signed by the proper authorities certifying the 
state of health in a vessel. — Bill of lading, a written 
statement of goods shipped, signed by the master of a 
vessel. — Bill of mortality, a writing or paper showing the 
number of deaths in a place within a time specified. — BUI 
o/ ri^-Atj, a declaration asserting the rights of a people, 

— Bill ofsale,a. contract or instrument by which a person 
transfers his interest in goods and chattels to another. 

BILL, V. n. To caress, as doves by joining bills. B. Jonson, 
Bill, v. a. To publish by an advertisement. URstrangt. 
BiL'L^^E,* n. (JVfljte.) The breadth of the floor of a ship 

-■vheh lying aground. Jameson. 
BH led,* (bBd) a. Furnished with a bill. PennanL 
Bii^'LET, n. [billetj Fr.] A small paper j a note ; a ticket 
directing soldiers at what house to lodge ; a small log of 
wood ; a piece of wood. — (Arch.) An ornament in Nor- 
man buildings. 
JI'l'LET, V. a, [i. billeted ; pp. billeting, bifaeted.] 
To send to quarters ; to quarter soldiers ; to lodge. 

BTl'l^T, X7. 7» To be quartered a soldiers; to lodge ftri 

BIl'let-Ca'ble,* 71. (Arch.) A Norman moulding. Ed. 

Billet doux,* (bll'l^-dS') [bll'le-da, P. E. F. .-bTI-ygi-Jd', 

Sm.] n. [Fr.l pl. billets doux, (bll'lji-ddz') A soft of 

affectionate billet ; a love-letter. Pope. 
BIll-FIsh,'* 71. A fish of considerable size, found in the 

great lakes of North America. Blois. 
Bu.L'iABD,* (bll'y^rd) a. Belonging to the play at billiards. 

Ash. ' 
BlLL'i^RDg, (blKyurdz) ti, pl. [Mllardy Fr.] A game 

played with balls and maces, or sticks, on a large table 

furnished with pockets. 
BlLL'lNGt,* n. Tiie act of joining bills, or of caressij g. 
BlL'LfNG^-QATE, 71. A market in London noted for fish 

and foul language : — profane or foul language ; ribaldry. 
BiLL'lQN, (blKyyn) n. [Fr.] A million of millions, ac- 
cording to the English mathematicians ; but according 

to the French, only a thousand millions. Cotgrave. 
BIll'mAs, n.i pl BIll'mSn, One who uses a bill. 
BfL'LpT,* n. Gold or silver bullion in the mass. Crabb. 
BIl'low, (bil'lo) n. A wave swollen and hollow, '^enser 
BIl'low, v. 71. To swell, or roll, as a wave. Prior. 
BIl'low,* (bil'lo) V. a. To raise in waves or billowi 

Bi'L'Lpw-BiJAT-EN, (bil'l^-bS-tn) a. Tossed by billows 
BTl'lqw-v, (bil'lp-?) a. Swelling; turgid. Thomson. 
BiLL'sTtcK-iiR,* 71. One who pastes up a bill or advef 

tisement. Booth. 
Bi-ii6'BATE,* a. (Bot.) Having two cells or lobes. Crabb. 
Bi-LO'BAT-ED,* a. Having two lobes ; bilobate. Pennant. 
Bi'lobe'd,* (bi'lobd) a. (Bot.) Having two lobes. P. Oye 
Bi-L5c'y-LARj* (1. Having two cells. Crabb. 
Bi-mXc'u-l^te,* a. Having two spots. Brande. 
Bi-MXc'y-LAT-:ED,* fl. Having two spots ; bufnaculat* 

BFMANE,*a. Having two hands. Kirby. 
BiM'^-NoDs,* a. Having two hands ; bimane. P Cyc 
fBi-MA'RJ-^N,* Bi-mXr'j-c^l,* a. Belonging to two bcab. 

BT-Mi:'Di-AL,* a. Belonging to a quantity arising from a 

particular combination of two other quantities. SmarU 
Bi-m£n'sal,* a. Occurring every two months. Stnart. 
Bi-MiSs'TRf-AL,* a. Happening every two months; con- 
tinuing two months. Q?*. Rev. 
BIN, 71, A cell or chest for grain, bread, or wine. 
fBlN, The old word for be and been, 
Bi'NA-R¥, o. [binus, L.] Two; dual; double. — A binary 

number isanuinber consisting of two digits; as, 15, 74, &«. 
Bi'na-ry, n. The constitution of two. Fotiierby. 
Bl'NAT,* a. See Binate. Brande, 

Bi'NATE,*a. (Bot.) Growing in pairs or couples; spring- 
ing from one point, as two segments of leaves. P. Cyc. 
BIND, V. a. [i. BOUMD ; pp. binding, bound. — Bounden ii 

not now used except in an adjective form.] To confine with 

cords or bunds ; to gird ; to fasten to ; to connect closely ; 

to cover, as a wound ; to oblige by stipulation, oath, oi 

by kindness ; to make costive. — To bind to^ to oblige to 

serve some one. — To bind over, to oblige to make appear- 
BIND, V. 71. To contract its own parts together. 
Bind, 7u A hop stem bound to the pole. Mortimer. Ligature : 

_— an indurated clay of coal mines. 
Bind'er, 71. One who hinds ; a man whose trade it is t« 

bind books ; any thing used to bind. 
BiND':E-RY,* n. A place where books are tound. [A new 

word, reputed to be of American origin. P. Cye.'\ 
Bind'ing, 71. A bandage ; the cover of a book. 
BlND'iNCr,*p. o. Making fast ; obliging ; obligatory : —noting 

a screw used by opticians. 
BlND'iNG-Ntess,* 71, Quality of being binding. Coleridge. 
BiND'WEiiD, n. A troublesome gepus of weeds. 
BInd'wood,* (bind'wud) n. The vulgar name of ivy !■ 

Scotland ; pronounced bln'wud. Jamieson, 
Bi-ner'vate,* a. Supported by two nerves. Brande, 
BfN'NA-CLE,* 71. (JSTaut,) The compass-box of a ship, tot 

merly called biUacle. Mar. Diet. 
Bi'N'NY,* n. A fish ; the barbel of the Nile. P. Cyc. 
BlN'p-CLE, 71. [binus and oculus, L.] A kind of telescope, 

fitted for both eyes. 
Bi-n6c'V-L^R, a. {biuus and oeulus, L.] Having or usiug 

two eyes; employing both eyes at once. 
Bi-n6'mi-al, a. Known by two names. — (Algebra) Noting 

a root composed of only two parts connected by tb* 

signs plus or minus. 
Bi-n6m'in-oOs, a. Having two names. Dr. T Fuller, 
BiNOT,*" 71. A variety of double mould-boarded plough 

Bi-n6x'!de,* 71, A combination of oxygen snJ a metal 

in which the oxygen is in a double proportion to what i* 

is in the oxide. Francis. 
Bi-6g'^L-LATE,* a. (Enu) Marked with two eye-like 

spots. Brande, 

h!en. atR; m6ve, nor, s6n; bOll, bUr, rOle.- 

s as gz ; — THU 

BIR 74 


ti O-d^-nXm'tcs^* fl. pi. The doctrine of vital forces or 

iictivity, Dunfflison. 
Bi-Sg'r^pher, (bl-Sg'grgi-frir) «. [Mographet Fr.J A 

writer of biography, or of livea. 
Bi-p-ORXPH'|c,* a. Same as Mographiedl. Seward. 
Bl-p-GRXPH'i-Cf L, a. ttelating to biography. fVarton.'j-caI'-I'V,* ttd' In a biographical manner. 

Ec. Rev. 
BT-Oo'R^-Piry, (bS-Bg'r^i-fe) n. [ptos and ypa(t>cx).'] The art 
of writing an account of the lives of individuals j the his- 
tory of the life of iin individual. 
Bi-Gii'p-<^V»* "• 1'hb science of life ; physiology. Dr. Black. 
Bi'p-tIne,* v. (Min ) Awhile or yellowiah mineral. Dana. 
BVQ-vXCiti. tSee Umouac;. 

BIP'^-RoDs, [blp'^i-r-is, W. P.J. F. Ja. K. Sm. ,• bi'p&-ras, 

S.] a. \bvn-m and pario. L.] Bringing forth two at a birth. 

Bi-pAr'tit^nt,* (bl-p'ir'sh^nt) a. Dividing into two equal 

parts. Crabb. 
BlP'^R-TiTE, [btp'sr-tTt, W. p. J. F. Ja. K. Sm. ; bl'p&r-tit, 
S,] [binvs an a partior^h.] Having two correspondent parts. 
BI-rAR-Tl"TiQN, (bi-p^r-tish'un) n. A division into two 

Bi-p£c'Tj-NJiTE,*a. Having two margins toothed like a 

comb Brande. 
Bi ■?]?», %. [bipesj L.l An animal with two feet. 
BlP'? D^-ii/a. Two feet in length ; having two feet. 
Bi-pfi-L'T^Ti3,* a. Defended by a double shield. Brande. 
Wj-pJSn'n^t-]j:i), a. Ibimis and pmnm^ L.] Having two 

winj:s. Derkam. 
Br.PKif* 11. [L.] {Zool.) A genus of reptiles resembling 

aeps } a biped or two-footed animal. P. Cyc. 
Bi-pISt'a-loOs, u. [bisj L., and TrIrttXoi/, Gr.] {Bot.) 

Having two petals or flower leaves. 
Bi-pIn'wate,* a. (BoL) Twice pinnate. P. Cyc. 
Bi-pin-nXt'j-fTd,* fl. (Bot.) Doubly pinnatifid. Crabb. 
Bi-po'lf^R,* a. Doubly polar ; having two poles. Coleridge. 
Bi'p6wt,* t a. {Bibliography) Relating to editions of 

B]-p6n'tjwe,* \ classic authors printed at Deux-Fonts 

(Btponiiura, L.), Germany. Dibdin. 
Bi-pDNCT'V-AL,*a. Having two points. Maunder. 
Bi-pu'pjl-LATE,* a. Having two dots or pupils. Brande. 
Bi-QUAD'RATE, (bi-lcw6d'r?t) rbi-kw8d'rat, J. F. Stn.i 
bi-kwa'dr'at, S. fV. Ja. K. ; bik'w^-drat, P.] n. (Mgcbra) 
The square of the square, or the fourtli power, arising 
from the multiplication of a square by itself. 
li-QtJA-DRJlT'jc, n. Same as biquadrate. Brande. 
■<i-<auVDRXT'ic,a. Relating to the fourth power in algebra. 
Bx-ra'dj-ate,* a. Having two raya. Brande, 
Birch, n. A well-known tree of several species. 
Birch, a. Made of, or derived from birch. 
BiRCH'BRGdM,* n. A broom made of birch. Booth. 
Bir'chen, (bi'r'chn) a. Made of birch. 
Bird, it. The generic name for the feathered race j a two- 
legged, winged, feathered animal j a fowl. 
Bird. v. n. To catch birds. Shak. 

Bird'BOLT, n. An arrow used for shooting birds. Shdiu 
Bird'cac^e, n. An enclosure in which birds are kept. 
Bird'cXll, n. A pipe for imitating the notes of birds. 
BiRD'cXTCH-:^R, 71. One who catches birds. 
Bird'cXtch-jng,* n. The act of catching birds. Booth. 
BiRD'cHliR-Ry,* n. A fruit much eaten by birds. BooHi. 
BiRD'.?R^ n. A birdcatcher. Mlnsheu. 
Bird'-Eye, (bird's) a. SeeBiRoaBYE. Burke. 
Bird'-eyed, (bi'rd'id)a. Having eyes like tlinse of abird. 
B'ird'-FAn-cj-er, n. One who delights in birds. 
BiRT>'|NG-PiECE, 71. A fowling-piece. Shah. 
Bird'like, a. Resembling a bird. JSTiccols. 
BiRD'LiME, 71. A glutinous substance, by which the feet 

of small birds are entangled. 
BiRD'l,Imed, (bird'limd) a. Spread to insnare. Howell. 
BYrd'm^n, n. A birdcatcher. VEstrange. 
Bird qf PAr'a-dIse,* n. A bird of several species, some 

of which are very beautif\il. Ed. Evcy. 
BIrd'-PEp-p^R,* n. A Species of capsicum, which affords 

the best Cayenne pepper. Farm. Ency. 
BiRD5'-CH£R-R¥, n. See Biedchbrry. 
Birds'eye, (bVrdz'i) n. The eye of a bird; a plant; a 

speciea of primrose, or wild germander. 
Bi'RD9'EYE, a. Noting a view of an object or place aa seen 

from above, as by a bird. 
BYrd^'foot, (birdz'fat) n. A plant, or birds-foot tre- 
foil j a species of clover. 
BiRD^'NEsV, 71. The place built by birds, where they de- 
posit their eggs. — A plant or weed. — The edible birds- 
nestj used as food by the Chinese, is a mucilaginous sub- 
stance, and is tlie nest of a species of swallow found in 
Java, Sumatra, &c. 
BYaD'-SPi-DER,*7i. A species of spider. KXrhy. 
BYrd^'tXre^, (bi'rdz'tirz) n. A plant. 
BYrd9't6ngue, (birdz'tiing) n. A perennial plant ; marsh 

Bi'REBTE,* n. A vessel with two ranks of oars. Smollett. 
BI-RE'm1b,* n. [L.] An ancient galley with two benches 
of oare ; a bireme. Crabb. 

BYr'gan-D]^r, n. A sort of wild goose. 

BYr'ken,* (blr'kn) a. Birchen. Collina. [B.] 

Bir'lAw,* or By'lAw,* 71. (ScoUaiid) A law natibll nod 

between neighbors by common consent. Crabb. 
Bir'm^n,* 71. A native of Ava or the Birman empirr. Incj 
BIr-98-tri't£9,* n. {Zool.) A singular fossil shiill. P. Cj/a 
Bf-Rdu's^,''' n. {Min.) The Persian name of the turguuiM 

stone. Cleavelaud. 
BiRT, n. A fish of the turbot kind, 

BYrth, n. The act of coming into life, or of being broughl 

into the world; act of bringing forth; extraction; rank 

by descent ; family ; the condition in which any man ia 

born : production. See Berth. 

BiRTii'OAY, n. The day on which one is born; the anni 

versary of one's birth. Shak. 
BYrth'dIy,* a. Rtilating to the day of one's birth. Pop* 
BYrth'd<)M, 71, Privilege of birth. Shak. 
Birth'L^SS,* fl. Wantmg birth. fV. Scott, [r.] 
Birtii'night, (-nit) n. The night on which one l» 

BYrth'place, Ti, Place where anyone is born. Shah, 
Birtii'right, (-rit) n. The right to which one is born, 
BYrtji'sYn,* 71. Sin from birth ; original sin. Prayer-booh, 
Birtii's6ng, n. A song sung at the nativity of a person 
BYrtii-strXn'gled, (-strang'gid) o. Strangled at birth 
BYrth'wort, (birth'wiirt) ti. A perennial medicinal plant 
Bits J* (Latin adverb.) Twice: — used in composition, con- 
tracted to bi; — also in accounts to denote duplicates of 
folios or accounts, Crabb. See Bi. 
B1s-Xn'nv-^l,* 71. {Bot.) A biennial plant. Perry. See 

Bt3-cay'an,* n. A native of Biscay, Murray* 
BYa'cQ-TlN, n. [Ft.] A sort of confection. 
BIs'cujT, (blH'k)t) 71. [bis, L., and cuitf Fr., baJced.] A kind 

of hard, dry, flat bread ; a cake: — unglazed porcelain. 
Bi-s£ct', v. a. [bis and seco, L.] [i bisected ; pp. bisect- 
mo, joi9£CT£D.] To divldc into two parts, or two equal 
j)arts. [parts. 

Bi-sJ^c'TiQN, n. Act of bisecting; division into two equal 
Bi-&£g'M]@nt, n. One of the parts of a bisected line. 
Bi-aiiR'RATE,* a. {Bot.) Twice serrate. P. Cyc. 
BJ-3e'tovs,* a. Having two bristles. Brande. 
BI-s£:x'v-.^L,''< a. Having two sexes; hermaphroditic. 

B'lsn'pP, 71, [irriaKOTTosj Gr. ; episcopus^ L. ; JiacAo/, Ger.J 
An overseer; a spiritual overseer or superintendent.— 
{Episcopacy) One of the highest of the three orders of 
clergy, (distinct from presbyter and priest,) who has tlie 
charge of a dioceae ; a prelate. — A cant term for a drink 
made of wine, oranges, &,c, ; a part of a lady's dress ; a 
BisH'pp, V. a. To confirm; to admit into the churciL 
Donne. To cheat or jockey in trading in horses. A cani 
term. Farm. Ency. 
fBYsH'pp-DfiM,* 71. The dominion of a bishop. Milton 
BiSH'pP-liiKE, a. Belonging to a bishop. Fulke. 
tBISH'pP-LV, a. Bishoplike. Hooker. 
BlsH'pp-RlCj n. The jurisdiction or diocese of a bishop* 
BIsH'pPS-WEED, n. An annual plant. 
BIsH'pPS-woRT, (bTah'iipa-wUrt) n. A plant. 
BI-slL'j-QUoOs,* a. (Bot.) Havingseed in two pods. Crabb 
BYsK, n. [bisquej Fr.] Soup made by boiling various meats 
Bls'KET, 71. See Biscuit. 
Bi^'MVTH, 71. {Min.) A brittle, brilliant metal of a reddisb 

white color, of lamellated structure, and not malleable. 
B1§'mvth-.^l,* a. Relating to or containing bismuth. Smart 
BYs'mvth-GlAnce,* n. (Min.) A crystallized mineraL 

P. Cyc. 
Bjs-MDTH'jc, or BIg'MVTH-tc,* a. Relating to or derived 

from bismuth, Brande. , 

Bl^'MVTU-lNE* n. (Min.) A sulphuret of bismuth. Dana, 
BIs'MV-TiTE,*7i. (Min.) A carbonate of bismuth. Daria. 
Bf-a6&fifdj* (b?-zon'yO) n. [It,] A person of low rank 

a beggar. Beavm. ^ FL 
BI'SON, (bl'sn, w Mz'yn) [bS'sn, Vn. ; bXz'9n, Ja. Sm. 
bi's^n. K. R.] n [bison, Fr.] A kind of wild ox, th« 
animal which in the U. S, is commonly, but erroneously 
called the buffalo. 
BIs-s£x'TlLE, (bis-sfiks'til) [Ms-sSks'tjl, S. W. P. J. F 
E. Ja. K, Sm. ; bis's^ks-til', Kenrick.] n. [bis and sextUii 
It,] Lenp year ; a year which contains 306 days, and in 
which February has 29 days. 
BIss'l|ng§,* n, pi. Same as bieaiings. Farm, Ency, [Lccfl' 

fBts'spN, a. Blind. Shak. 

BI-stIp'Oled,* (-aid) a. Having two stipules. Hooker 
BYs'TpN,* n. (Ent.) A genus of moths. Dr. Leach. 
Bis'TORT, 71, [bistorta^ L,] A plant; a apecies of polyg* 

num, uaed in medicine as a powerful astringent. 
BIs'TOVR-y, (bis'tur-?) n. [bisUmri. Fr.] A aurgeon' i» 

strument for making incisions. Chambers. 
Bis'TRC, (bis'tyr) n. [Fr.J A brown pigment, or 4ar| 

brown color made from the soot of dry wood, 
Bi-sCl'cate,* a. Resting upon two hoofed digits. Brand*^ 

i, E, I, 6, 0, 5, longi X, £, Y, 6, tJ, 1?, therti ^, 5, j, p, y^ y^ o&aciire. — fAre, far, fXsx, fall; .u£ie, utta 

BLA 75 

n-aOz.'cOyB, a. [biauleas, h.] Clovenfooted. Brortme. 

BiT^v. 0. [i. bitted; pp. bittinq, bitted.I To put a bit 
on; to bridle. ^ ^ 

BIT, n. The iron appurtenancea or mduth-piece of a bridle ; 
a small piece ; a mouthful ; a small silver coin ; money : 
— a small tool for boring wood or metal. 

BlTCH, n. The female of the canine kind. Spmser. 

Bite, v. a. [i. bit j pp. biting, bitten or bit.] To crush or 
sever with the teeth ; to give pain by cold; to hurt or 
pain by reproach ; to cut ; to wound ; to make the mouth 
smart : — to cheat ; to trick. Pope. — To bits in, to corrode 
copper or steel plates, as by nitric acid, Slc. 

BIte, n. Seizure by the teeth ; the act of a fish taking the 
bait ; a cheat ; a trick ; a sharper. 

Bit'er, 71. The person or thing that bites ; a tricker. 

Bi-TER'N^TE,* o. (Sot.) Twice divided into three. Loudon, 

BfT'lNG, iu The act of biting or wounding. 

BiT^JNa,* j). a. Sharp ; sarcastic ; severe ; caustic. 

BiT'JNO-liy, od. With sarcasm ; severely. Harringtmu 

BfT'Li:ss, a. Not having a bit or bridle. Faiishawe. 

BIt'mak-:er,* 71. One who makes bits. BootJi, 

BITS, n. pU (JVflut.) Two mam pieces of timber, to which 
the cable is fastened when the ship rides at anchor. 

BKt'ta~cle, 71. See Binnacle. 

BiT^TEPf, (bit'tn) p. from Bite. See Bitk. 

BIt'TEr, a. Having a hot, acrid taste; sharp; cruel; ca- 
lamitous ; painful ; reproachful ; mournful. 

B'It'ter, n. Any thing bitter ; a bitter plant, bark, or root. 

BiT'TigR,* V. a. To make bitter; to imbitter. Pilkington. 

BlT'TER-lP'PLE,* 71. A plant and fruit. Booth. 

BIt'ter-Ash,* 71. A tree ; called also biUer-wood. Booth. 

BIt'ter-BEan,* 71. A deleterious or poisonous nut. Booth. 

BlT'TiR-Cu'cuM-BER,* 71. A plant and fruit. Booth. 

BIt'Ter-DAm'50N,* 71. A tree ; a species of quassia. 

fBfT'i;ER-FOL, a. Full of bitterness. Cliaucer. 

BtT'TER-ctouRD, 71. A plant. 

BIt'ter-Ing,* called also BIt'tern, tu A preparation 
used' by brewers to adulterate beer. Francis. 

BiT'T?R-lSH,* o. Somewhat bitter. Ooldsmith. 

BIt't^r-IaY, ad. In a bitter manner ; sharply. 

BIt'tern, n. A bird of the heron kind, with long le^rs, 
and a long bill, which feeds upon fish : — a bitter liquor, 
which drains off in making salt. See Bitterinu. 

BlT'T]pR-N£ss, n. Quality of being bitter; malice; sharp- 

BiT'TipR?,* n. pi. A Mquid, or spirituous liquor, containing 
an infusion of bitter herbs or roots. Buchan. 

BlT'T?R-SPJiRj* n. (Mm.) A crystallized dolomite. P. Cyc. 

BiT'TER-sWEET, 71. An apple sweet and bitter: — the 
woody nightshade, a medicinal plant. 

BIt'ter-vetch, 71. A genus of plants ; the heath pea. 

BtT'TER-woRT, (bit't?r-wurt) 71. The yellow gentian. 

BfT'TOVR, (bit'tyr) ti. The bittern. Dryden. See Bittern. 

tBi-TOftlE'j n. Bitumen. May. 

Bf-TUMED', (be-tumd') a. Smeared with bitumen. ShaJc. 

Bj-TU'MEN, Jb^-tii'men, W. Jo. K. Sm. R.; bi-tii'men, -S. 
J. F.] n. [L.] A compact mineral pitch; a tar-like com- 
bustible substance, called also aspkalturn. Elastic bitumen 
is a softer species, and is sometimes called fossil caout- 


BJ-tO'MI-NATE,*7j.o. [i. bituminated: p;?. bitumina-bino, 
BrTOMiNATED.] To impregnate with bitumen. Smart. 

W[-tu-mj-nif':^r-o03,* o. Producing bitumen. P. Cyc. 

Bl-TU-MJN-f-ZA'TlpN,* 71. Act of bituminizing. Journ. Sci. 

Pi-TU'MJN-iZE,* V. a. To convert into or combine with 
bitumen ; to bituminate. Phil. Mag. 

Bi-TU'Mi-NoDs. a. Containing or resembling bitumen. 

Bi'vXlve, fbi'vaiv) a. \binua and valva^ L.J Having two 
valves or shutters, as an oyster. Woodward. 

B!'vXlve,*7i. (ZooL) a crustaceous animal having two 
valves. Kirhy. 

BVvXIjVED, or Bi'vALV-JpD,* «. Having two valves. 

Bi-vXl'vv-LAR, fl. Having two valves. Miller. 

il vXs'cv-L^^R,* a. {BoU) Having two vessels. Crabb. 

div'l-oOs, [bi'vf-us^ Ja. Sm. R. ; biv'yus, ^.yblv'^-us, fFb.] 
«. Having or leading two ways. 

f^BirouAC,* (biv'wak) [biv'wak, Ja. ; biv'6-ak, J.i biv'8- 
6k, Sm. i n. [bivouac, or bivacj Fr.] {Mil.) The act of an 
army or body of soldiers watching or remaining all night 
in the open air, in expectation of an engagement. 

flBivoUAC, (biv'wik or btv'8^k) v. n. [i. bivouacked; 
pp. BIVOUACKING, BIVOUACKED.] To pass the night in a 
state of watchftilness, ready for military action. 

BIx'a,* 71. (Bot.) A West Indian genus of plants. P. Cyc. 

Bjx'wort, (biks'wilrt) n. An herb. Diet. 

Biz'AN-TlNE, [biz'gin-tin, JV.Ja. Sm. ,■ biz-^n-tm', K. ; be- 
Kaii'tin, J3sh.\ n. [from Byzantium.] A royal gift on festi- 
val occasions, which consisted of a piece of gold of the 
value of J£15. Camden. See Bezant. 

Bf-ZARRE',* a. [Fr.] Odd ; fantastic ; whimsical. Karnes, 

3liXB, V, a. [l. BLABBED ; pp. BLABBING, BLABBED.] TO Icll 

what ought to be kept secret ; to tell. 


BlXb, v. 71. To tattle ; to toll tales. Sfunh 

BlXr, 7i. A telltale ; a prater; — tattle. Bacon, 

Bi.Kb'ber, ?i. A telltale ; a tattler. Sherwood, 

fBlilB'B^B, '0, n. To whistle ; to falter ; to f.b. Skinner 

Bi.Xb'b^R-LIlpfed, a. See Blodbeblifped. 

BlAck., a. Of the darkest color; of the color of night 

dark; cloudy of countenance; horrible; wicked; ol» 

scure ; dismal. 
BlAck, 71. The darkest of colors ; the color or eflect arisini 

from privation of light ; a stain ; a negro. 
BlAck, V. a. [i. »LACKED ; ^. blacking, blacked.] To 

blacken ; to make black. Boyle. 
BlXck'*-m66r, [brnk's-mflr, P, F. K, Sm.; bmckVni3r 

W] n. A negro. 
BlAck'-Art,* 71. Magical art; magic. Crabb. 
BlAck'bAcked,''' (-bakt) a. Plaving a black back. Pennant 
BlAck'bAll,* 71. A ball of black color, used in balloting 



BLACKBALLED.] To reject by blackballs or negative votes 

BlAck'b^r-rjed-Heath, (biack'b§r-rid-hGth) 7». A 

BlXck'bi^r-rY, n. A plant of several varieties and iti 

fruit ; the fruit of the bramble. Sliak. 
Bi.AcK'B]^R-R¥-^N&,* n. The act of picking blackberries. 

BLXcK'BliiLED,* (-bild) a. Having a black bill. Pennant. 
BlXck'b'ird, n. A black singing bird. 
BlXck'boarDj'*' n. A board colored black, used in school* 

for forming figures, diagrams, &c., for explanation ci> 

illustration. Mann, 
BlAck'bod-ing,* a. Betokening evil. Young. 
BlXck'-B6n-n?t,* 71. A bird J the reed-bunting. P. Cye, 
BlXck'-Book,* (bl^k'biik) n, A book containing a regis* 

ter of names of public ofhcers for defamatdry purposes j 

a book kept in the English exchequer. Crabb. 
BLXcK'-BROTa^ED, (-brbud) a. Having black eyebrows. 
BlXck'-Bry'o-nv, n. The name of a plant. 
BlXck'cXp,* n. A fine singing bird, the blackcap warbler. 

Sweet, An apple roasted till its skin is black. Mason. 
BlXck'-CXt-TIiE, 71. Oxen, bulls, and cowa. See Cattli 
BLAcK'cdcK, 71. The heathcock, or the male of th« 

black grouse or black game. P. dye, 
Bl.XcK'-CDR-R^NT,*n. A shrub and its fruit. Booth. 
BlXck'-ea'GLE,*71. The common eagle, called by somo 

the ring-tail eagle. Booth. 
BlXck'earth, fbldk'enh) n. Mould. Woodward, 
BlXck'en, (bia.k'kn)u. a, [i. blackened j^ip. blackening. 

BLACKENED.] To make black ; to darken ; to defame 
BlXck'en, (bmk'kn) v, n. To grow black. I>njden 
Bi.Xck'en-:ie:r, (bl^k'kn-er) n. One who blackens. 
BltXcK'^^Y^* n, A black person ; a negro. X)r, Abbot, 
BlXck'-eyed, (biak'id) a. Having black eyes. Dryden 
BlAck'-faced, (blik'fust) a. Having a black face. 
BlXce.'fIsh,'* n, A fish of the perch kind, in Cornwall, 

BlAck'-FlOx,* 7u a mixture of carbonate of potash and 

charcoal. Brande. 
BlXck'-Fly,=^ 71. An insect of the beetle tribe, injurioui 

to turnips. Farm. Ency. 
Bi>Xck.'fri-^r,* 71. A friar of the Dominican order. Crabb. 
BlXck'-Game,* Ti. A bird ; a species of grouse. Booth. 
BlAck'guArd,* (blSg'giird) v. a. To abuse with vile lan- 
guage. Jones, [vulgar, coUoquial.] 
BlXck'g-uXrd, (blag'g'ird) n. A man of coarse mannera 

and abusive or vile language ; a vulgar, base fellow. 
BlXck'g-uArd, (blag'gird) a. Scurrilous ; low j vile. 

BlXck'gua.rd-I9M,* 71. The language or behavior of a 

blackguard. Southey. 
BlXck'-GOm,* Ti. An American tree, which bears a deep 

blue berry, and is valued for timber :— called also yelloia 

gum and sour gum. Farm. Ency. 
BlAck'hAired,* (biak'hird) a. Having black hair. WesL 
BlXck'heArt-jbs,''' a. Full of rancor or bad intentions 

BlXck'ing,* 7i. Paste or liquid for blacking shoes. Day. 
BlXck'ish, a. Somewhat black. Boyle. 
BlAck'-JXck, 71. The leathern cup of elder tunes. Miltam 

A mineral called bleride. 
BlXck-L£ad', (blak-lSd') n, (Min.) A caiAuret of iron, 

used for pencils ; graphite ; plumbago. 
BLAcK'iifeG-,* n, A gambler; a sharper at race-courses. 

Potter. A sheep with diseased legs ; a disease in sheep 

and calves. Farm. Ency. 
BlAck'-LEt-ter,* n. A name now applied to the oM 

English or modern Gothic letter, or alphabet. Brande, 
BlXck'lv, ad. Darkly, in color ; atrociously. 
BlXck'-Mail, 7i. A certain rate formerly paid in ih« 

north of England for protection to men allied with rt b> 

BlAck'-MXr-tin,*^. Abird; the swift, t species of swal- 
low. Booth 

ttiEN. si'R; m5vb, nob, s6n i bOll, bub, BtlLE — 9, 9, ^, g, aqfti jB, a, s, g, hard; 5 aa Z; $ cu gzj — THJft 




BtX JK -MXtch,* iu Apyrotechnical match or sponge. Sm. 

BlXck-M6n'j)ay, (blak-mun'de) n. Easter-Monday, 
which, in the 34th of Edw. III., (then first ao named,) 
was very dark and very inclement. 

BlXck'm66r, n. A negro. Browne. See Blackamoor. 

BlAck'-moOthed, (biak'miiiitM) c Having a black 
mouth ; scurrilous. 

BlXck'ness, tu The state of being black; darkness; 

BlXck'-peo'pled, (-pe'pld) a. Having black people. 

RlXck'-POd'ding, iu Food made of blood and grain. 

K1jXck-R6d', n. The usher belonging to the English order 
of the garter, so called from the black rod he carries. He 
is of the king*a chamber, and likewise usher of the par- 

BlXck'smIth, 71, A smith who works in iron. 

BlXck'taiLi, 11. A fish, called also ruff or pope. 

BlXck'thorn, 71. The sloe ; prumis sylvestris or spinosa. 

BlXck'-thr6aT-ED,* a. Having a black throat. Pennant. 

BlXck'-toed,* (blik'tod) a. Having black toes. PenvanU 

BlXck'-tr£ssed,* (-trSst) a. Having black tresses. Scotu 

BLXcK'-TwiTCH,*7t. A noxious weed in wet grounds. 
Farm. Ency, 

BlXck-vI§'aoed, (blS,k-viz'jjd) «,. Having a black ap- 
pearance. MarsUm. 

BlXck'-Wash,* (-wSsh) ru A lotion composed of calo- 
mel and lime-water. Brande. 

BlXu'der,* v. a. To puff up ; to fill with wind. Fcltham. 

BlXd'd:]^r, 71. The urinary vessel; a thin, membranous 
bag containing some fluid ; a blister ; a pustule. 

BLXD'uERED,(blad'derd)a. Swelled like a bladder.I>ryden. 

BlXd'der-Kelp,* 7U A marine plant. Kirby. 

BlXd'der-NOt, n. A tree and its fruit. 

BlXd'der-S£n-Nj\., n. A shrub and its fruit, which is 
contained in pods inflated like a bladder. 

Blade, n. The spire of grass before it grows to seed ; the 
sharp or cutting part of a sword, knife, &c. ; the broad 
upper bone of the shoulder: — a gay, dashing fellow. 

Blade, v.a. To furnish with a blade, [r.] 

Blade'bone, 71. The scapula, or bone of the shoulder. 

Blad'ed, a. Having blades or spires. Shajt' 

BLADE'-RIiiiT-AL,* 71. Metal used for blades, Milton. 

Blade'smIth, n. A sword cutler. Huloet. 

BLAEf* (bla) 11. (Scotland) A thin plate ; a scale ; lamina ; 
a rough part of wood, as made by sawing. Jamieson. 

Blain, n. A pustule ; a botch ; a sore ; an inflammation of 
the tongue ; a disease in cattle. Exodus ix. 

Blam'4,-ble, a. Deserving censure ; culpable ; censurable. 

3lam'^-ble-n£s3, n. Culpableness. WIdtloch. 

Blam'a-bly, ad. Culpably ; cenaurably. Aijliffe. 

Blame, v. a. [blOmery Fr.] [i. blamed ; pp. blaming, 
BLAMED.] To censure; to charge with fault. — To be to 
blarney to be blamable. See Blame, n. 

Blame, n. Imputation of a fault ; fault ; crime ; censure. — 
ft^" There is a peculiar structure of this word," says 
Dr. Johnson, "in which it is not very evident whether 
it be a noun or a verb ; but I conceive it to be the noun ; " 
as in the phrase "He is to blame,^* which is equivalent 
to " He is blamabley worthy of blamBj or to be blamed.*' 

Blame'fOl, a. Culpable; criminal. Shak. 

Blame'less, a. Free from blame ; innocent. 

Blame'l:ess-lVj od. Innocently. Hammond. 

Blame'less-n£ss, n. Innocence, Hammond. 

Blam'er, 11. One who blames ; a censurer. 

Blame 'wor-tiii-nEss, (blam'wdr-tli?-nes) ti. The qual- 
ity of deserving blame. ^. Smith. 

Blame'wor-thv, (blam'wur-the) a. Culpable. Martin. 

iIlXnch, V. a. [6Za7M;flir, Fr.] [i. blanched; pp. blanching, 
BLANCHED.] To wMten j to make white by peeling; to 
change to white. 

vBlAnch, v. 71. To grow white : to evade ; to shift. 

IJlAkch'ier, 71. One who blanches or whitens. 

Blancii-Im'^-tjjr,* 71. An instrument for measuring the 
bleaching power of certain chemical agents. Smart. 

BlXnch'-Farm,* 71. (Law) A kindof quitrent; rent paid 
in silver; white-rent. Blackstone. 

BlXnch'ing,* 71. The art or act of making any thing 
white. Crabb. 

Blanc-Mange, *(br4-m5nj') [blp-mSnj', Wb..^sh; bl5ng- 
monzh', Sm ] n, [blanc, white, and manger^ food, Fr.] 
A confected white jelly ; food made of milk or cream, 
sugar, almonds, isinglass, sago, &c. W, Ency. — Now 
written blanc-mange by good authorities ; though here- 
tofore commonly written blanc-manger. 

3LANC-MANGEB,* (bli-mCnj') 71. [F- ] A confected white 
jelly. Merle. See Blakc-Manob. 

BlXnd, a. [blandus, L.] Soft ; mild ; gentle. MUtoju 

[BlXn-da'TIPN, n. A piece of flattery. Camden-. 

Pt.Xn-dIl'p-QUENCE, n. Fair and flattering speech, [net. 

I;BlXn'd|-m£nt, 71. [blandimentumj L.] Blandishment. Bur^ 

BlXn'dish, v. a. [blandiryFr.] [i. blandished ; pp. blan- 
DrsHiNG, BLAND iHED.] To soothe ; to flatter ; to smooth ; 
to SDften. MtUoT., 

BlXn'dish-er, 71. One who blandishes. Cotgrav* 
BlXn'dJsii-INO, 71. Blandishment. Beaumont. 
BlXn'dJsu-m^nt, 7u Art of blandishing; aoft words 

kind treatment, Dryden, [men 

BlXnd'ness,' n. State of being bland; mildness. CAal> 
BlXn-ouIlle' * n. A small coin of Barbary, value about 

3 cents. Crabb. 
BlXnk, a. [blanc, Fr.] White ; void of written or printed 

letters ; without writing ; pale ; confused ; not having 

BlXkk, n, A void space on paper ; a paper unwritten ; a 

lot by which nothing is gained ; the spot which the shot 

is to hit. 


damp ; to confuse ; to efface ; to annul. 
BLXNK'-CAR'TBfD(^E,* n. A Cartridge containing powder 

only. BootJu 
BlXnk'et, 71. [blancJietj Fr.] A soft, coarsely- woven, 

woollen cloth used for beds, for coverings of horses, &C4 
BlXnk'et, v. a. [i. blanketed; pp. blanketing, blank- 
eted.] To cover with a blanket ; to toss in a blanket. 
BlXnk'et-Ing, n. Act of tossing in a blanket ; cloth w 

materials for blankets. 
BlXnk'ly, ad. In a blank manner; with confusion. 
BlXnk'ness,* n. State of being blank, E. Erving, 
BlXnk'-Verse',* 71. Verse; metrical language; the b»- 

roic verse of five feet, without rhyme. Cowper, 
BlAre, v. n. To bellow ; to roar. Skinner. [R.] 
BlAre,''' n. A coin of Switzerland, value about 3 cent* 

Blar'nev,* n. A marvellous narration ; gross flattery , 

unmeaning or vexatious discourse. Jamieson^ [Low,] 
BL^s-PHiiME', (bl&s-lem') V. a. [blasphemoj low L,] [t 

blasphemed; pp. blaspheming, blasphemed.] To speak 

in terms of impious irreverence of God or of things p» 

cred ; to speak impiously of; to speak evil of. 
Blas-pheme', v. n. To speak blasphemy. Shale. 
Blas-phem'er, (bl^-fSm'er) ti. One who blasphemes 
Blas-phem'ing, n. The act of blasphemy. Sandys. 
BlXs'phe-moDs, a. Partaking of blasphemy; impiousFy 

irreverent with regard to God or sacred things ; impious 
BlXs'phe-moDs-lv, ad. In a blasphemous manner. 
BlXs'phe-my, (bias'fe-me) tu Some indignity offered to 

God, or to divine things, in words or writing; impious 

BlXst, n. A gust of wind ; the sound made by blowing 

any wind instrument ; a blight ; the infection of any 

thing pestilential ; a disease in the stomach of cattle. 
BlXst, v. a. [i. BLASTED ; pp. blasting, blasted.] To 

strike with a plague ; to make to wither ; to blight ; to 

make unproductive; to injure; to make infamous; to 

blow up mines, &.c. ; to rend asunder, as rocks by pow- 
BlXst * V. n. To wither ; to be blighted. Shak, 
BlXst'ed,* j). a. Injured or destroyed by some calamity; 

Blas-te'ma,* 71. (Bot.) The axis of growth of an embryo. 

(J3nat.) Homogeneous, gelatinous, and granular basis of 

the ovum. Brande. 
BlXst'jer, 71. One who blasts. 
BlXst'jng,'*' n. A stroke of wind ; a blight ; an explosion. 

BlXst'ing,* p. a. That blasts ; blighting ; destructive. 
tBLXsT'MENT, 71. Blast. Shak. 
BlXs-tq-cXr'povs,* o. {BoL) Germinating inside of lh« 

pericarp. Brande. 
BlXst'pipe,* 71. A pipe in a locomotive engine to convey 

the waste steam up the chimney, and quicken the firti 

Bla'tant, a. [blatanty Fr.] Bellowing as a calf Dryden. 
BlXtch, v. a. To blacken ; to blotch. Harmer. Se» 

Blate, a. BashfUl ; timid. Johnson. [North of England 

and Scotland.] 
tBLXT-ER-A'TlpNjTi, [blaleratiOy la.] Noise. Colts 
BlXt'ter, v. n. To make a senseless noise. Spems&r. [f 

BlAun'bSx,* TU (Zool.) A species of antelope. P. Cgc 

Blay, 71. A small river fish ; the bleak, or white-bait. 

Blaze, 71. Aflame; a stream of light ; a burning; a whits 
mark upon a horse's forehead ; a white mark on a tree 

Blaze, V. 71, [i. blazed; yp. blazing, blazed.] To bum 
with a flame ; to flame ; to be conspicuous. 

Blaze, v. a. To publish; to blazon; to mark, as trees, by 
taking off the bark. 

Blaz'er, 71. One who blazes. Sp&nser. 

Blaz'ing,* p. a. Giving a bright flame ; flaming. 

BLAZ'jNG-STAR,*n. A comet. Ferguson. 

Bla'zon, (bla'zn) u. a. [6i(Wore7in-, Fr.] [t. blazoned ; ;ip* 
BLAZONING, BL&zoNED.l To explaiH the figures on en- 
signs armorial ; to emblazon ; to deck ; to display \ tt 
celebrate ; to blaze about. 

i, I, 0, 0, if, long; A, £, 1, 5, t), 5, siort; A, ¥, J, P, V, V. olwcun!. — fAke, far, fAsT, fAll ; HfilR uttB 



BLX'Z0N,*(bla'zn) V. ru To make a brilliaat figure; to 

Bhiny. Br. Chalmers, [r.] 
BLA'zpN, (bla'zn) «. The art of drawing coats of arms ; 

show ; divulgation j celebration Shale. 
BLA'Z0N-?R, (bla'zn-^r) tu One who blazons. 
JLA'ZON-Ry, (bla'zn-r§) n. The art of drawing coats of 

arms; art of deciphering coats of arms; emblazonry; 

Ble A, (ble) n. The wood just under the bark of a tree. 
Bleach, (bl5ch) v. a. [i. bleached ; pp, blbachino, 

BLEACHED.] To whitcn by exposure to the air ; to 

w .liten. Shale. 
Bleach, (blech) v. n. To grow white. Shale. 
Bleach'er, n. One who bleaches. 

Bleach'er-¥, n. A place for bleaching cloths ; a bleach- 
er's office or grounds. 
Bleach'ino,* 71. Th9 act of making or growing white. 
Blcak, a. Exposed to the wind or cold ; culd ; chill. 
Bleak, tu A small river fish of the carp kind. iValton. 

See Blat. 
Bleak'ly, ad In a bleak manner ; coldly. May. 
Bleak'ness, n. State of being bluak; colJn^s:*. 
JBleak'v, a- Bleak ; cold. Dnjihn. 
Blear, a. Dim with rheum or water ; dim. Milton. 
Blear, v. a. \i. bleared ; pp. blearino, bleared.] To 

make the eyes watery, sore, or dim. 
Blear'?d,* (bler'?d yrblerd) p. a. Made dim j dim with 

BleaR'ed-ni?ss, n. The state of being bleared. Wiseman. 
Blear'-Eyed, (bler'id) a. Having sore eyes. Sackville. 
Bleat, (blet) v. n. [i. bleated ; pp. bleating, bleated.] 

To cry as a sheep. Shak. 
Bleat, n. The cry of a sheep or lamb. Chapman. 
Bleat'ing, n. The cry of lambs or sheep. Bale. 
BlI:b, n. A blister ; a vesicle ; a tumor. Sprat. 
BliED, i. &L p, from Bleed. See Bleed. 
JBlee, n. Color; complexion. CItaucer. 
Bleed, v.n. [L bled ; ^.bleeding, bled.] To lose blood ; 

to die a violent death ; to drop, as blood. 
Bleed, v. a. To let or take blood from. Pnpe. • 

BLiiED'|NG,*n. A discharge of blood; blood-letting. Crabb. 
Bleit, (Met) a. Bashful ; blate. [Provincifil.] See Blate. 
BlJ^m'ish, v. a. [blSmir, Fr.] fi. nLsimsHED; pp. blem- 

isHiNO, BLEMISHED.] To marK with any deformity ; to 

defame. [taint. 

BLfiltt'jSH, n. A mark of deformity ; reproach ; a soil ; 
Bl£m'ish-less, a. Without blemish or spot. Feltham. 
■BLteMhsH-MfiNT, n. Disgrace. Bp. Morton. 
BliLnch, v. n. To shrink ; to start back. Sltak. 
Bli^nch, v. a. To hinder. Carew, 
Blanch, n. [bleiickey Teut.] A start. Shak. 
Bl^nch'eRj 71. He or that which frightens. 
Jl£nch'-Hold-1ng-,* n. {Lata) A quitrent paid in silver. 



(jblent).] To mingle; to mix; to confound. [fTo pol- 
lute ; to blind. Spender.] 

BLliJrDE,* n. (^Min.) A metallic ore ; a compound of zinc 
and sulphur, called by miners black-jack. Lijell. 

Bl£nd'eb, n. One who blends. Sherwood. 

Bl£nd'iw&,* 71. Act of mingling or blending ; something 

Bl£nd'wA-ter,* n. A distemper incident to black cattle. 

BlSn'ny,* n. [Ich.] A fish of several varieties. P. Cyc. 

*Bl£wt, i.&;j). Blended. [Obsolete or antiquated.] See 

Bl£ss, V, a. [i. BLE3SED or blest ; pp. blessing, blessed 
or BLEST. — Blessed is used as a verb, participle, and ad- 
jective ; blestj rarely as an adjective.] To bestow blessing 
upon ; to make happy; to wish happiness to. JJ^^t 's 
Bometlmea used in the form of an interjection ; as, " Bless 
us ! " *' Bless me .' '* Miliviu 

BlEss'bSk,* 71. {Zool.) A species of antelope. P. Cyc. 

BLftsBE D,* (blSet) i. Sep. from Bless. Made happy. See Bless. 

Bl£ss'i:d, o. Happy; holy and happy; happy in heaven. 

BLJ6ss'ED-Ly, ad. with blessing ; happily. Sidney. 

Bl1Sss'?d-n£ss, iu Happiness; felicity ; heavenly felicity ; 
divine favor. 

BlISss'ed-ThIs'tle, (-this'al) n. The name of a plant. 

Bl£ss'er, n. One who blesses. Bp. Tayf-or. 

BlEss'i'ng, tu A good thing invoked, bestowed, or pos- 
sessed; a benediction ; divine favor ; b-jnefit. 

Bl6st, L &.p. from Bless. See Bless. 

Ble'tqn-Ist,* n. One who has the faculty of perceiving 
subterraneous springs by sensation. Smart. 

Blew-, (biu) i. from Blow. See Blow. 

dLEYME, (blem) n. An inflammation in a horse's foot. 

Bli&ht, (bKt) n. A pestilence among plants ; an injury or 
disease mcident to plants ; mildew ; any thing nipping 
or blasting. 

BlIght, (bllt) V. a. [i. blighted ; pp. rliohtino, blight- 
ed.] To injure by blight, blast, or mildew; to corrupt; 
to blast. 


BLfGHT'jN» *p. a. Making unfruitful- hlasilng 

tBLlN, V a. To cease or stop. Spenser. 

Blind, a. Destitute of sight ^ unable tu see ; Intellecti iUlf 

dark ; unseen ; not discernible. 
Blind, v, o. [i. blinded; pp. blinding, blinded.] Tf 

make blind ; to deprive of sight; to darken ; tu eclipse^ 

if^ fill interstices between atones with gravel. Loudon 
Blind, ft. Something to hinder the sigJit ; .something te 

mislead the eye or the understanding, c^ee Hi.i.ndagi. 
Blind'^jGE,* 71. A military building formed of stout lim 

her, to secure troops, stores, and artillery : called also 

blind. P. Cyc. 
Blind'-Bee-tle,* tu An insect, called also the cochchof 

er. Booth. 
Blind'ed,*^. a. Made blind ; deprived of sight. 
Blind'er,* n. He or that which blinds. — Blinders, CE,l!ed 

also winkers^ and bliitkersj are an appendage to a bridle. 

Blind'FOLD, v. a. [i. blindfolded ; pp. blindfoldimo, 

blindfolded.] To cover the eyes ; to hinder from seeing. 
Blind'FOLD, a. Having the eyes covered. Spenser, 
Blind'fold-^d,*^). a. Having the eyes covered with » 

Blind'ing,* p. a. Making Wind ; depriving of sight. 
BLiND'Ly, ad. In a blind manner; without sight. 
BLiND'-MiN,* 71. A man deprived of sight. Shak 
Blind'-MXn'^-BDff', tu a play in which one that is blinfl 

ed tries to catch others. 
Blind'ness, 71. Want of sight ; ignorance. Spenser 
Blind'n£t-tle, n. The wild hemp. 
Blind'side, 71. A weak side ; a weak part. Swift. 
Blind'worm, (-wUrm) n. A small viper ; a slow-worm, 
BlInk, v. 71. [bliTickeny Danish.] fi. blinked ; pp. blinkino 

blinked.] To wink ; to see obscurely, or with frequenf 

Blink,* v. a. To start from with aversion. Smart. 
BlInk, n. A glimpse ; a glance. Bp. Hall. 
BLiNK'^RD, 71. One who has bad eyes ; something twink- 
ling. ' [Crabh, 
BlInr'-Beer,* n. Beer kept unbroached till it is sharps 
BLtNK']?R,* n. One that blinks ; an expansion on the side 

of the bridle of a horse to prevent him from seeing ob 

either side. Brande. 
BLfNit'iNO-,* 71. The act of winking with the eyes. Ash 
BlInks,* 71. pi. Boughs put in the way where deer po«f 

Bliss, n. The happiness of heaven j complete happinem 

BL\'ss'FOii, a. Hanpy in the highest degi-ee ; blessed. 
Bt^Iss'fOl-ly, ad. In a blissful manner ; happily. 
BlIss'fOl-n£ss, 71. Happiness. Barrow. 
fBLtSS'LEss, a. Without bliss. Hawldns. 
JBLls'sOM, V. n. To be in a state to receive the ram. Scort 
IBlIs'sqm, V. a. To tup as a ram. Coles. 
fBLtsT. Formerly used for blessed or blest 
IBlXsTjJ). Wounded, Spenser. 
BlIs'ter, 71, A pustule; a vesicle ; a thin bladder on Iha 

skin ; a plaster to raise blisters. 
Blis'ter, v.n. ^i. blistered ',pp. blistering, blistered.] 

To rise in vesicles or blisters. 
BlIs'ter, v. a. To raise blisters ; to apply a blisteriug 

BlIs'teRt-y,* a. Having or resembling blisters. Hooker. 
BlIte, n. A genua of plants ; a kind of beet ; strawberry 

IIBlithe, [bllth, S. W. P. J. E. F. Ja. Sin, S:.] a. Gay j airy 

joyous. Hooker. 

BlTthe'fOl, a. FuU of gayety; blithe. Minsheu, 
Hlithe'ly, ad. In a blithe manner. 
BlIthe'ness, n. The quality of being blithe. 
Blithe'sqme, (bllt&'sum) a. Gay; cheerful. Philips 
ElIthe'sqme-nEss, 71.' The quality of being blitheaoni 

!3l6AT, (blot) t). O. [i. BLOATED ; pp. bloating, BLOATKf J 

To puff up ; to swell, or make turgid. Dryden.. 
Bloat, v. n. To grow turgid ; to swell. Arbathnot 
fBLOAT, a. Swelled with intemperance. Sliak. 
Bloat'ed,* ». a. Swelled ; puffed up; made turgid. 
Bloat'ed-ness, 71. Turgidness. ArbuthnoL 
Bloat'er,* 71. One who bloats; a kind of cured herring. 

W. En'cy. 
BLdB, 71. A small lump; something blunt and round; ■ 

bubble. Forby. rProvincial.] 
Blob'BER, n. A bubble ; blubber. Carew. 
BlSb'ber-l/P, h. a thick lip. Dryden. 
Bl6b'ber-lTpied, (blob'ber-lipt) a. Having thick iips. 
BlSb'l'(pped, (blob'lipt) a. Same as 6io66erZipj?fid. Grew 
IBlSb'tale, 71. A telltale. Bp. HackeU 
Bl5ck, n. \bloekj D.j A heavy piece of wood, marble, oi 

other stone ; the piece of wood on which hats are formed 

the wood on which criminals are beheaded ; an obstruo 

tion. — (JVawe.) The case that contains the wheel o. 

pulley ; a ship's block ; a pulley. [A blockher^d. Shak.] 
Bl6ck, v. a. \bloquBry Fr.] [i. blocked; pp dlockiko 

blocked.] To shut up; to obstruct. 

»i»iK, s'i'ai MdVB, Nbit, s6n; bOll, bUr, rUle — 9, <?, <:, g, softi jB, «, g, |, hardts i 

a» X\% at ^z\ — K Hia. 

BLO 78 

$L?^03:-Xde', v. a. [i. blockaded ; pp. nLOCKAUiTfa, dlock- 
ADKD,] To shut up, a8 a port, so as to prevent vesaels 
frou going in or out ; to close by obstruction. 

Pl6ck-ade', n. The act of blockading or shutting up a 
port, so as to prevent vessels from going in or out ; a siege 
earned on by shutting up the place to prevent relief. 

Bl5ck'h£ad, (blSk'hSd) n. A stupid fellow j a dolt. 

BlOck'-h£ad-¥I>, Cbl6k'-h6d-§d) a. Stupid; dull. i'E- 
atrange. [Low.] 

Bl6ck'h?ad-I?M,* n. The quality of a blockhead. Smart, 

BL6cK'ii£AD-Ly, a. Like a blockhead, Dryden. 

BL6cK'-H60sE,n. A fortress to defend a harbor, or a pass. 

Bl6ck'ing,* 71. A rough, square piece of wood glued on 
the jointH, on the under side of stairs. Francis. 

Bl6ck'ish, a. Like a block ; stupid ; dull. Skalc. 

BL6cK'isH-LV, ad. In a stupid manner. Harmar. 

BlOck'Jsh-nEss, n. Stupidity; dulness. Halcewill 

Bl&ck'like, a. Stupid. Beav.m. Sf Fl. 

Bl6ck'maK-er,* 71. One who makes blocks. King. 

Bl6ck-TIn', 71. Tin cast into blocks or ingots. 

Bl6m'a-rv, (biam'^-r?) rbl8m'»-re, K. tVb. Cobb; bia'm?- 
r?, Ja.] The first forge in the iron mills, or a mass of iron 
after having undergone the first hammering. Bailey. See 

fBL6N'KET, a. Gray. Spmser. 

B1.60D, (blud) n. The red fluid which circulates in the 
heart and bloodvessels of men and animals ; one who 
has received his blood from another ; child ; progeny ; 
family; kindred: descent; blood royal; birth; murder; 
a rake ; a man of fire ; juice of any thing. 

Be60D, v. a. [i, BLOODED ; pp. BLOODING, BLOODED.] To 

Stain with blood ; to inure to blood ; to let blood ; to 
bleed ; to heat. 
*l6od,* a. Of the color of blood ; of a superior or particu- 
lar breed ; as, a blood horse. Crabb. 
BL6oD'-BE-sp6T'T]jD,a. Spotted with blood. Shak. 
fBLdoD'-BOL'T^RED, (-terd) a. Clotted with blood. SJiak. 
Bl6od'-bought,* (blud'bawt) a. Bought with blood. 

Bl6od'-con-sum'jn&, a. Consuming the blood. Shak. 
BlOod'-dveo^* (blud'did) a. Dyed in blood. Everett. 
BLfloD'-?x-TbRT'{NG,*a. Forcing out blood. Cowper. 
Bl6od'-Fi*6^-?r, 71. A bulbous plant; the haemanthuB. 

Bl6od'-fro-zen, Cbiad'fr5-zn) a. Having the blood fro- 
zen. Spciiscr, 
BL6oD'aulLT-(-N£as, (blud'gTlt-^-nSs) n. Murder. 
BiiboD'HEAT,* n. Heat of the same degree as the blood. 

Bl^od'-iiorse,* 71. A horse of distinguished qualities or 

breed. Booth. 
Bl6oi>'-H6t, a. Hot in the same degree with blood. Locke. 
Bl6od'hoOnd, (blGd'hodnd) n. A hound that follows by 

the scent, and seizes with great fierceness. Dryden. 
Bl6od'i-L¥) (biad'e-le) ad. In a bloody manner. 
BLdon'i-Hfiss, (blud'9-n6s) n. State of being bloody. 
BlSod'l^ss, (bliid'les) a. Without blood ; dead. Shak. 
Bii6oD',* (bliid'l?s-le) drf. Without blood. Byron. 
BlSod'lEt, (blud'lSt) V. n. To bleed. Arhuthnot. 
Bl6od'let-ter, tu a phlebotomist. Wiseman. 
BLftoD'LfiT-TjNO,* 71. Act of letting blood ; phlebotomy. 

BlCod'like,* «. Resembling blood. Jodrell. 
BL6oD'-P9L-ivfJT'?D,* a. Stained with blood. Pope. 
BL6oD'-R£D,^blud'red) a. Red as blood. Mirror for Mag. 
Bi<6od'-Re-la'ti<?n,*7i. One related by blood or descent. 

Br-CoD'RdoT,* n. A plant; the root of the sanguinaria 

canadensis, the root of which is of a red color ; bloodwort. 

Bl6od'-SXc-ri-fice,* (-fiz) n. A sacrifice made with 

blood. Skalc. 
Bl6od'-ska-hen, (blud'sha-kn) a. Having the blood put 

in commotion. B. Jonson. 
Bl6od'sh1u, 71. The crime of murder ; slaughter. 
BI'Oob'shCd-d^r, 71. One who sheds blood. 
Bii60D'sH£D-Dj:NO, n. The shedding of blood. 
Bl6oi)'sh6t, (blud.'sh5t) a. Inflamed by turgidnessof the 

bloodvessels ; filled with blood. 
Bi-6od'sh6t-ten, (blud'sh5t-tn) a. Bloodshot. 
BL^OD-siidT'TEN-Nfiss, 71. State of being bloodshotten. 
BlSod'-sized, (bliid'sizd) a. Sized with blood. Beaam. 

Sc Fl. 
Bl6od'-SpAv-jn,* n. A disease incident to horses. .Ssh. 
Bl6od'-SpTll-:]5R,* n. One who sheds blood. Qm. Rev. 
BL6oD'-SpiLL-lNG,* n. The act of shedding blood. Z>r. 

BlCod'-stained, (blud'stand) a. Stained with blood. SAoft. 
Bl6od'-Stone, n. A dark-green, silicious mineral, vari- 
egated by red spots ; hematite ; an amulet to prevent 

bleeding at the nose. 
Bl6od's0ck-?r, (blud'suk-^r) Ti. He or that which sucks 

blood : a leech ; a cruel man. 
BlidOD'sDcK-jNG, a. Sucking blood. Shak. 


Bl6od'-sw6ln, , Sufl^sed with blood. May.