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Cornell University Library 
PE 1670.F33 

Stanford dictionary of anglicised words 

3 1924 027 444 680 

The original of this book is in 
the Cornell University Library. 

There are no known copyright restrictions in 
the United States on the use of the text. 





aottDon: c. j. CLAY and sons, 


aramirriSac : DEIGHTON, BELL AND CO. 

ILeiujis: F. A. BROCKHAUS. 

Jjlcto Botft; MACMILLAN AND CO. 







C. A. M. FENNELL, D.Litt. 





\All Rights reservedl 



A, H-M-o(3 





THE main objects of this work 2xt— first, to enable the 'English reader' to 
find out the meaning and history of the foreign words and phrases which 
occur so frequently in English literature ; secondly, to register the increase of the 
English vocabulary directly due to the adoption and naturalisation of foreign words since 
the introduction of printing ; thirdly, to record all English words of foreign origin which 
have retained or reverted to their native form. The smallness of the staff and the small 
number of contributors have made it inevitable that these objects should not be fully 
attained and that the work should be uneven, but it is hoped that the attempts may be 
found to have met with a satisfactory measure of success. More than 50 per cent. 
{i.e. more than 6400) of the articles of the Dictionary and Supplement are devoted to 
the first object, which is popular ; while the general public cannot fail to find very many 
of the remaining articles both useful and interesting even if the second and third objects 
above mentioned be not widely appreciated. 

The term "Anglicised" has. been taken to mean («) 'borrowed and wholly or partly 
naturalised ', as amity, bagatelle, calibre, calico, elegant, flummery, potato ; (b) ' used in English 
literature without naturalisation ' (often, however, with more or less mispronunciation), as 
amour (Mod.), caf^, embonpoint, enfant terrible, flotilla, genius, non compos mentis, onus 
probandi; (c) 'familiarised by frequent quotation', such as revenons a nos motUons, littera 
scripta manet, omne ignotum pro magnifico est, ora pro nobis, which are not Anglicised 
at all in the strict application of the term, but which it is convenient to include with 
such phrases as d tort et a travers, amende honorable, enfant terrible, non compos mentis, 
onus probandi. 

Several hundred carefully selected books have been read for the purpose of collecting 
the literary materials upon which the best part of the work is based. 

When the University of Cambridge, in 1882, accepted the bequest of ;£'sooo left by 
the late Mr J. F. Stanford to be employed in the production of a dictionary of " Anglicised 
Words and Phrases", the notes and collections made by Mr Stanford himself with a 
view to such a work were carefully examined. Mr Stanford's interpretation of the term 
"Anglicised" was found to be very free, in fact equivalent to that given above. 

The following Scheme, which fairly represents Mr Stanford's views of the scope of 
the work which he desired to found, was drawn up by a committee appointed by the 
Syndics of the Cambridge University Press, the editor being responsible only for the 
examples. The Rev. Prof J. E. B. Mayor, the Rev. Prof. W. W. Skeat, Prof R. L. Bensly, 
Mr Aldis Wright, and Dr J. P. Postgate took part in the preparation of the Scheme. 



It is proposed that this Dictionary, while not professedly including technical 
terms, embrace : — 

1. All words and phrases of non-European origin^ found in English literature, 
if borrowed directly (with or without change of sound or form) from non-European 
languages : 

e. g. Words : bulbul, bungalow, coffee, fellah, gobang, guinea, khaki, kismet, 
mahogany, pasha, ratan, proa, sago, selictar, seraph, shwanpan, sofa, tatty, toddy, 
tovtahawk, tom-tom, ukase, umiack, vizier, waddie, wigwam, zenana. 

' Under "words and phrases", throughout this Scheme, are included (a) such foreign proper names as are 
frequently used as common words, and words formed from foreign proper names, and {b) frequently cited foreign proverbs 
and short epigrammatic sentiments : 

e. g. (a) Names, &c. : Alexander, Bordeaux, cicerone. Hector, Machiavellian, Mentor, pasquinade, philippic, shaloon. 
Sybarite, tontine, Vandal, vestal, volt, Zolaism. 

(b) Phrases : ce n^est que le premier pas qui coAte, cosa fatta capo ha, ohne Hast ohne Rast, omne ignottmi pro 
magnifico est. 

2. All Latin and Greek words which retain their original form^, and all 
Latin and Greek phrases, in use in English literature : 

e. g. Words : animal, anem,one, antennae, aroma, augur, epitome, genius, 
habitat, index, medium, omnibus, pallor, paraphernalia, phalanx, prem.ium, radius, 
ratio, scoria, sinciput, siren, thesis, toga, tribunal, vertigo, zeugma. 

Phrases : ad amussim, deus ex machina, flagrante delicto, hoc age, particeps 
criminis, per annum,, timeo Danaos et dona ferentes, vade mecttm, viva voce, 
ariston men hudor, hoi polloi, hysteron proteron, •n-a^Tj/xara fiadtjixaTa, to ttolv. 

^ That is in general their original spelling : 

e.g. Aloe, conclave, &c., keep their old spelling but have lost their last syllable. We pronounce query and quaere, 
ether and aether, sulphur and sulfur identically, so that query, ether, sulphur keep their form with altered spelling. Such 
cases are rare. In most cases words which retain the original spelling of the Latin or Greek termination will be 
included. Words borrowed directly from Greek, as anaesthesia, hydrophobia, are regarded as unaltered in spite of the Latin 
method of transliteration. 

3. All words and phrases borrowed directly from modern European^ languages 
excepting French : 

e.g. Words: antic, baroiiche, droitzschka, Ewigkeit, floe, fresco, frowe, geyser, 
guerilla, palaver, passado, polka, poodle, quass, ranche, regatta, roster, schnapps, 
senhora, veneer, waltz, yacht, Zeitgeist. 

N.B. Turkish is regarded as non-European. 


Phrases : alia moderna, che sara sara, ragione del stato, rosso anlico, se non e 
vero e ben trovato, volti stibito, auf wiederseken, Sturm und Drang. 

^ Including modern importations from the Celtic dialects which still survive in Great Britain ; 

e. g. acushla, cairn, capercaihie, cromlech, dolmen, eric, gillie, kerne, loch, shebeen, shillelagh, skean, league, Tory. 

4. All words and phrases borrowed from the French which retain the 
French pronunciation* : 

e.g. Words: chignon, cotip, ennui, espieglerie, gendarme, jardiniere, lorgnette, 
naiveti, penchant, razzia, soupqon, viveur, vol-au-vent. 

Phrases : a outrance, cul de sac, de rigue^ir, enfant terrible, je ne sais quoi, 
noblesse oblige, revenons a nos moutons, saitve qui peitt, tablea^i vivant, . tour de 

* Words which approximately retain a definite characteristic French pronunciation of one prominent syllable or more 
will be included : 

e.g. aigrette, bagatelle, chagrin, chevron, envelope, guitar, hotel, ormolu, prestige, terreen. 

5. All words borrowed from French, Latin, and Greek, since the intro- 
duction of printing, whether now altered^ or but imperfectly naturalised and now 

^ That is, (a) all words borrowed from the French, which, having apparently come into use after A.D. 1470 (for 
1471), are found in French form before a.d. 1612 (chosen so as to include Cotgrave's French-English Dictionary), or 
afterwards in French form in italics, &c., though their form or pronunciation or both be now altered; ifi) all changed 
Latin and Greek words whose original form is found not earlier than 1470. 

e.g. (a) cab, kickshaws, passport, scene, sequel, synod, toupee, vivify ; (b) centaur, pyramid, syntax, tetrastich. 

The work shall not professedly include dialectic forms. 

An asterisk is to be prefixed to every article for which materials were found 
in Mr Stanford's collections, which materials in many cases consist of a number 
of extracts from periodical literature and newspapers. An asterisk is also to be 
prefixed to all quotations taken from Mr Stanford's collections. 

Articles which deal with the fifth section of the Scheme have presented most serious 
difficulties, the words in question having been let alone by nearly all the few voluntary 
contributors, so that illustrative quotations have fallen seriously short just where they 
were in many respects most important. In very many cases there has been danger of 
including words which ought to be excluded because they prove to be, or will eventually 
prove to be, Middle English; as there is — with the notable exception of the New English 
Dictionary {A — Consigner and E — Every) edited by Dr J. A. H. Murray and Mr Henry 
Bradley — no full register of Middle English words derived from Latin and French. 
Consequently, as the Stanford E was worked off before the Part E — Every of the New 
English Dictionary came out, five words which have been included prove to have been 
found in Middle English, namely, emblem, evacuation, evacue, evagation, evaporation. However, 
only two instances of evacue (from the same author) are given in the Middle English 


period, and only one instance of the four other words*. It is therefore possible that 
about 30 words would have been wrongly inserted up to Casss but for the information 
supplied by the New English Dictionary. It appears also that elope should have been 
excluded as a case of adaptation from Anglo-French instead of being included according 
to the previously current derivation from Dutch. On the other hand, efforce (sb.), efforce 
(vb.), elegance, epilogation, equipare, erode, erosion, and esquadron ought all probably to 
have been added under the fifth section of the Stanford Scheme to the 72 items of 
the kind which have been treated in the Stanford Dictionary between E — Every. The 
nouns ending in -or which have become or are becoming identical in spelling with Latin 
nominative forms in -or — such as actor, administrator, contributor, error, honor, minor, 
posterior, sponsor — have proved particularly troublesome, as many of them were Middle 
English derivatives from Anglo-French or French, and it seemed only fair to the public 
to take such merely English derivatives as abrogator, alliterator, comntiserator, which, as 
to form, range with the words which come directly from Latin nominatives in -or or 
ultimately from accusatives in -orem. The indebtedness of the Stanford Dictionary to 
the New English Dictionary (up to Cassz) and to other dictionaries is especially heavy 
with regard to these words and those treated under the fifth section of the Scheme, both 
as to illustrative quotations and items of vocabulary (possibly 10 per cent, of the latter 
being due to the New English Dictionary up to Cassz). This portion of the work has 
been the least satisfactory, but still in many of the articles in question there has been 
compensatory success in supplementing previous researches, as for instance under abarre, 
■\ abatement, •\ abbreviator, abdicator, •\ abettor, ■\ abstersive, ■\ acceptance, accorage, accrue, 
■\ accumulate]', f adage, ■\adhere, adjournment, ■\ adulterator, ^ aggregator, ample, amplitude, 
amity, amusement, anatomist, animator, annotator, anomal, anterior, antiphonal, aper{i)tive, 
apostrophe (Gram.), appetitive, architector, architrave, artifice, artist, atheism, attentive, attrac- 
tive, ball, cannonade, cataplasm, catarrh, cavalry, cavezon, censor, cerote, citadel, citron, cornice, 
director, emigrator, epithem, epode, equipage, escalade, esmotion, esplanade, estafette, estimator, 
etiquette, exiture, expulse, facility, falsify, fndtion, gallery, &c. 

In cases of doubt whether a word is of French or Latin origin, it has been assumed 
that ecclesiastical words and words which occur first (so far as the incomplete evidence 
suggests) in translations from the Latin are rather adapted from Latin than adopted 
from French, and such words have accordingly been excluded. Words which are adapted 
from Latin, Greek, and French, are regarded as English coinages, following English 
models, the original adapter or adapters being no doubt in many cases quite unconscious 
that a fresh item was being added to the English vocabulary. Such adapted forms 
which made their first appearance in English dress are not included in this work, which 
professes to deal only with words and phrases which have appeared in foreign garb in 
English literature. 

With regard to exotic words J— such rare specimens as are explained when used 
have been, as a rule, excluded ; except in the case of names of vehicles, vessels, implements, 
coins, and commodities, which have no English names and seemed likely to be imported. 
For instance, jinrikisJia was admitted long before the correspondence in the daily papers 
on the feasibility of introducing jinrikishas into London. 

The editor and those who have given help in the revision have in very many cases 

♦ The following table shows the dates of the one or two earliest 'Stan- t For these words see also the Supplement, 

ford' quotations for these words and of Mr Bradley's two or three earliest t That is to say, words which have been neither wholly nor partially 

quotations : naturalised ; such as names of foreign institutions, of articles which are 

emblem 1589, 1398 St. .. 1430, 1601 N.E.D. unknown in Great Britain, or only seen in museums and collections, of 

evacuation 1533 St. j c. 1400, 1532 N.E.D. foreign offices and dignities, &c., and foreign words which are seldom or 

evacue 1541 St. c. 1400, ... 1400, 1541 N.E.D. never used except by writers addicted to interlarding their pages with 

evagation 1502 St. c. 1425, 1502 N.E.D. foreign words and phrases, 

evaporation 1533 St. I 1398, 1533 N.E.D. 


had to trust to their memory to decide whether an exotic word or a phrase for which 
no quotat^pn or only one had been found was sufficiently common in literature to be 
taken, and again they have often had to divine whether a word or phrase seemed likely 
to become more common than it was, so far as they knew, at the time it was under 
consideration.. It would have been an endless and useless task to record all the words 
by which modern travellers and novelists have sought to give 'local coloring' to their 
narratives, such as numerous native words meaning ' milk ', ' meat ', ' rice ', ' grass ', ' horse ', 
'father', 'priest', &c., which have not been and are never likely to be Anglicised or to 
become familiar in English speech or literature. It has been thought well to omit 
geographical names applied only or mainly in trade to exports or in finance to stocks 
and shares ; such as Demerara (sugar). 

Many of the words which have been treated have severally developed in English a 
group of derivatives. No notice has been taken of such derivatives; e.g. echo and naive 
have been treated, but not echo, vb., echoic, echoless, echoy, naively, naivety. 

A great many technical terms, which are employed in the fine arts, architecture, the 
drama, history, music, and rhetoric, appear with comparative frequency in general literature. 
Such terms therefore have been more freely admitted than terms relating to other arts- 
and sciences. 

The Syndics of the University Press, who settled the form and method of the 
Stanford Dictionary, decided to confine the etymology in the main to the indication of 
the language from which a word or phrase has been borrowed and of its native form 
and meaning, unless there was some fresh light to be thrown upon a derivation. 
Accordingly there are not very many full etymological paragraphs, but several of those 
which have been given will be found interesting, viz. those under Abdalli, abdat,. 
Abracadabra, Alchochoden, alerce, aliquot, almuten, avast, burgoo, chemist, complot, elixir, 
fanal, hubbub, sentinel, stockade, tornado, while the assignment of a word to its native 
tongue supported by the illustrative quotations often corrects current derivations. For 
instance, many words hitherto derived from French have been assigned to Italian or 
Spanish ; e.g. comrade, crimson, scimetar. 

With regard to forms in -ado, it is in many cases difficult to determine whether 
a noun is borrowed from a Spanish form in -ada or an Italian form in -ada (Mod, 
It. -ata). Mr R. Seymour Conway has supplied a reference to Grober's Grundr. d, 
Roman. Philologie, Bd. I. p. 530, § 69. These earlier Italian -ada's have hitherto been 
ignored by English etymologists, though Florio gives several, e.g. panada, pomada, scalada 
(as well as panata, pomata, scalata), frisada, rodomontada. It is therefore almost certain 
that there were once in Italian the forms gambada, stoccada, strappada, and possibly 
passada, &c. In the isth and i6th, and even the 17th and i8th centuries, unaccented 
Spanish, Portuguese, and Italian a's were often turned into o's in English loan-words, 
as in the forms bagatello, bardello, barrico, berlino, bonano, borasco, botargo, chopine, comrade, 
grotto, hollock, jimto, montero, potato, primero, salvo (artillery), stockade, tobacco, tobdrdillo, 
umbrello, visto. 

The accentuation of naturalised words has been approximately indicated by using - to 
represent an unaccented syllable, ' to represent an accented syllable, " to represent a 
comparatively strongly accented syllable. If the mark ' or " be repeated with regard to 
the pronunciation of one word, it is not implied that the two stresses are quite equal, 
nor is it implied that all syllables marked as unaccented have precisely the same 

About 100,000 illustrative quotations with dates and references have been collected^ ■ 
over 30,000 having been -supplied by voluntary contributors, and of the total amount 
some 40,000 have been used. The date of composition or first publication is placed 

s. D. l> 


before a quotation. The date of the edition used (if not the first) is placed in brackets 
after the reference ; in the case of reprints the date of the edition reprinted (if not the 
first) is placed before the reference. 

Quotations from general literature which have been taken from other dictionaries 
have been specially acknowledged except in a few awkward cases (e.g. when a correction 
has been made upon verification) and perhaps in two or three instances (one has been 
discovered) through oversight. Indebtedness to dictionaries in respect of quotations from 
other dictionaries, cyclopaedias, glossaries, and works for which full indexes or concordances 
are available has not been specially acknowledged. A few such quotations or references 
are due to the New English Dictionary and to Prof. Skeat's Etymological Dictionary. 
Up to Cassz a very large number of literary quotations has been borrowed from the 
New English Dictionary, most of which have been specially acknowledged ; and the editor 
is also indebted to that colossal and admirable work for several Old French forms, for 
the suggestion of some books, and for the names and addresses of persons likely to 
help. The high standard of excellence set by this work must influence all succeeding 
dictionaries relating to the English language, in sundry ways which it is not easy to 
specify in a short compass. The late Col. Yule's Hobson-Jobson has been a great help 
in the treatment of Anglo-Indian words. In the etymological treatment of Persian and 
Semitic words Prof W. Robertson Smith has supplied almost everything of value ; while 
the Rev. G. W. Collins gave useful assistance in this branch at the outset of the 
work. Cassell's Encyclopaedic Dictionary and the ' Century ' Dictionary have continually 
been consulted with advantage. 

For careful revision and very many valuable suggestions the editor is under great 
obligations to Dr Henry Jackson (Trinity College, Cambridge); Prof. W. Robertson Smith 
^hrist's College, Cambridge) ; Mr R. J. Whitwell (Kendal) ; and to the Readers of the 
University Press. 

Illustrative quotations from the following contributors are gratefully acknowledged : — 
From the Rev. J. Pierson, D.D. (Librarian of Alma College, Michigan, U.S.A.), about 
12,000; from the Rev. W. H. Beckett (Chelmsford), over 4000; from Miss R. H. Busk, 
over 3000 ; from Mr J. Randall, over 2000 ; from the Rev. Dr A. Smythe Palmer 
(Woodford) and the Rev. Benjamin Talbot (Columbus, Ohio, U.S.A.), over 1000 each ; 
from the Rev. H. Thurston, S.J. (St Asaph), Mr F. G. F. Hutt, Mr R. J. Whitwell, 
Mr R. F. Sketchley (West Kensington), Miss Foxall (Edgbaston, Birmingham), Miss 
Gunning (Cambridge), several hundred each ; from Dr J. A. H. Murray, Dr F. J. Furnivall, 
Dr Henry Phillips, Junr. (Philadelphia, U.S.A.), Miss Haig (Stirling), Mrs Stuart (Edin- 
burgh), Miss Wilkinson (Cambridge), over 100 each ; from the Rev. J. Smallpeice (St Bees, 
Carnforth), about 100; together with smaller quantities from Mr G. L. Apperson (Wimbledon), 
Mr J. Dykes Campbell (Kensington Gore), Dr R. S. Charnock (New Thornton Heath, 
Surrey), Mrs Damant (Cowes), Mr H. Johnson (Cambridge), Mr J. Y. Johnson (Funchal, 
Madeira), the Rev. W. J. Lowenberg (Bury, Lanes.), the Rev. A. L. Mayhew (Oxford), 
Mr M. Pearson (Frisby-on-the-Wreke, Leicester), Miss Margaret Westmacott, Mr R. J. 
Whitely (Plymouth), the Rev. W. B. R. Wilson (Dollar). 

Prof. J. E. B. Mayor (St John's College, Cambridge) has kindly permitted the editor 
to use two richly annotated editions of Johnson's Dictionary. 

Information on special points has been kindly furnished by Mr E. G. Browne, 
the Rev. Prof. G. F. Browne, Miss R. H. Busk, Prof E. B. Cowell, the Rev. T. C. 
Fitzpatrick, Prof T. McKenny Hughes, Dr A. H. Mann, the Rev. A. L. Mayhew {Irish 
etymologies), Prof. J. H. Middleton, Prof A. Newton, Mrs Salmon, the Rev. Prof W. W. 
Skeat, Prof Sir T. F. Wade, K.C.B., Sir Richard Webster, Q.C., M.P. (the Attorney- 
General), Prof C. E. Wilson, Sir H. T. Wood, K.C.B., Mr W. Aldis Wright, and others. 



The editor's assistant, Mr F. G. F. Hutt, has displayed quite a genius for the 
kind of work, and his able and enthusiastic help has proved throughout of the highest 

The Dictionary, including the Supplement, contains 12,798 articles (which treat of 
13,018 words and phrases) and 2708 cross-references. The 12,798 articles are concerned 
with 10,927 words, 18 13 phrases, and 278 quotations, proverbs, or maxims. The distinction 
between ' word ' and ' phrase ' has been in many cases arbitrary, as also, in fewer instances, 
has been that between 'phrase' and 'quotation'. 

The 13,018 words and phrases comprise: — 

French* 2617 

Latin* 3797 

Greek* 495 

Italian 1199 

Spanish 716 

Portuguese 153 

Dutch 15s 

German 205 

Scandinavian 33 

Celtic 113 

Hindoo 336 

Sanskrit 32 

Persian 1 62 

Arabic 225 

Turkish, &c 147 

Aramaic, Ethiopic, Hebrew 133 

Dra vidian 31 

Malay 47 

Russian 48 

Chinese 25 

Japanese 27 

African 31 

American Indian, &c 81 

Various languages from which 

only a few words are taken... 134 

{from French 1380] 

from Latin ... 653>... 2076 
from Greek... 43 J 

* The French words which have not been naturalised, and the Latin and 
Greek words which have kept or reverted to their native form, are here 
classed separately from words derived from French or Latin, which have 
been altered or naturalised ; as very many words of the class in question 

are homologous with words which have been introduced too early or too 
late to be included in this work (see p. vii.). Words borrowed from other 
languages, whether adopted or adapted, are all counted together. 

b 2 



A. D = Anno Domini. 

A. V = Authorised Version. 

abl., abl. = ablative. 

abs., ais = absolute. 

absol., absol = absolutely. 

abstr. = abstract. 

abt = about. 

ace, ace. = accusative. 

act. , act = active. 

adj., adj = adjective. 

adv. , adv = adverb. 

Afr = African. 

aft = after. 

Alch = Alchemy. 

Amer = American. 

Anat. = Anatomy. 

Antiq = Antiquities. 

App = Appendix. 

Arab = Arabic. 

Aram = Aramaic. 

AnhcEol. = Archseology. 

Archit = Architecture. 

art = article. 

Astral. = Astrology. 

Astron = Astronomy. 

attrib., attrib = attributively. 

B. C = Before Christ. 

Beau, and Fl = Beaumont and Fletcher. 

bef. = before. 

Beng = Bengali. 

Bibliogr. = Bibliography. 

Bk = Book. 

Bot = Botany. 

Bot = Botanical. 

Braz = Brazilian. 

C = Century Dictionary, edited by Prof. W. D. 

t = century. 

C. E. D = Casseli's Encyclopcsdic Dictionary. 

Camd. Soc = Camden Society. 

Cant = Canto. 

Carib = Caribbean. 

cc = centuries. 

cf. = compare (confer). 

ch = chapter. 

Che7ii = Chemistry. 

Chin = Chinese. 

Class = Classical. 

collect = collectively. 

colloq = colloquially. 

combin = combination. 

compar., compar = comparative. 

concr = concretely. 

conj. = conjunction. 

Cotgr = Cotgrave, French and English Dictionary 


d = died. 

Dan = Danish. 

dat = dative. 

Davies =Davies, Supplemental English Glossary 


def., def. = definite. 

demonstr., demonstr. = demonstrative. 

deriv = derivative. 

Diet ^ Dictionary. 

dim = diminutive. 

Du = Dutch. 

E = East, Eastern. 

e.g., e.g = exempli gratia ('for example'). 

Eccl., Eccles., Eccles. = Ecclesiastical. 

Ed = Edition. 

Egypt = Egyptian. 

Electr. = Electric, Electrical. 

Eng. = English. 

Entofn = Entomology. 

esp., esp = especially. 

Eth = Ethiopic. 

etym = etymology. 

Fairholt = Fairholt, Costume in England (i8.^6). 

Fam = Family. 

/em = feminine. 

fl = flourished. 

Florio = Florio, TVorld 0/ IVords [i ^gS). 

fol = folio. 

Fortif. = Fortification. 

Fr = French. 

fr = from. 

Gael = Gaelic. 

gen. , gen = genitive. 

Geol. = Geology. 


Ger = German. 

gerund. = gerundive. 

Gk = Greek. 

Gram = Grammar. 

Halliwell = \i2XSvn^, Edition of Nares' Glossary (I'^ld)- 

Heb = Hebrew. 

Hind = Hindoo. 

Hist. = History. 

Hortic = Horticulture. 

i.e., i. e = id est ('that is'). 

ib = ibidem ('in the same place', in the same 


imperat. = imperative. 

Ind = Indian. 

ind. = indicative. 

indef. = indefinite. 

inf. = infinitive. 

interj. = interjection. 

intr = intransitive. 

Introd = Introduction. 

Ir = Irish. 

It = Italian. 

J = Johnson, Dictionary of the English Language 


Jap = Japanese. 

Jodrell = Jodrell, Philology of the English Language 


L = Latham, Edition of Todd's Johnson's 

Dictionary (1866). 
I. c = locus citatus ('the passage quoted'), loco 

citato ('in the passage quoted'). 

Lat = Latin. 

Leg- = Legal. 

Lib = Liber ('book'). 

Lit = Literature. 

lit. = literally. 

Log. = Logic. 

LXX = Septuagint. 

Mahr = Mahratta. 

Malay = Malayalam. 

marg. = margin. 

masc = masculine. 

Math = Mathematics. 

Med = Medieval. 

Med. = Medicine. 

Metall. = Metallurgy. 

metaph = metaphorically. 

Mid = Middle. 

Mil = Military. 

Mod = Modern. 

Mongol = Mongolian. 

Mus = Music. 

Mythol. = Mythology. 

N = North, Northern. 

N. & Q = Notes and Queries. 

N. E. D = Neio English Dictionary, edited by Dr J. 

A. H. Murray and H. Bradley, Esq., M.A. 
Nares = Nares, Glossary {i%z^). 

Nat. Order = Natural Order. 

neut. , neut = neuter. 

No = number (»«?««'<;). 

Norm = Norman. 

Numismat = Numismatics. 

Obs., obs = obsolete. 

orig. = originally. 

Ornith = Ornithology. 

Palsgr = Palsgrave, Lesclarcissement de la Langue 

Fraucoyse (:53o). 

part = participle. 

pass = passive. 

perf. = perfect. 

Pers = Persian. 

pers = person. 

Peru = Peruvian. 

Pharm = Pharmacopoeia. 

Philol. = Philology. 

Philos = Philosophy. 

phr. = phrase. 

Physic. Geog. = Physical Geography. 

Physiol. = Physiology. 

pi., pi = plural. 

Poet = Poetical. 

Port = Portuguese. 

pr = printed. 

Pref. = Preface. 

prep = preposition. 

pres = present. 

prob = probably. 

pron = pronoun. 

pronom = pronominal. 

Pros = Prosody. 

Prov = Provengal. 

Pt = Part. 

q. v., q. v = quod vide ('which see'). 

qq.v., qq.v = quae vide ('which see', of more than one 


quot = quotation. 

quott = quotations. 

R = Richai-dson, English Dictionary (i%i6—l). 

R. V = Revised Version. 

reflex = reflexive. 

Rhet = Rhetoric. 

r" = recto. 

Rom = Roman. 

Russ = Russian. 

S = South, Southern. 

s-v = sub verbo ('under the word'). 

•f^., sb = substantive. 

Sc = Scotch. 

sc. = scilicet ('supply'). 

Scand = Scandinavian. 

Sci. = Science. 

Sclav = Sclavonic. 

Shaks = Shakspeare. 

sig = signature. 

sing. , sing = singular. 

Skt = Sanskrit. 


Soc = Society. 

Sp = Spanish. 

^pec. = special, specially. 

specif. = specifically. 

Spens = Spenser. 

St = Stanford. 

subj. = subjunctive. 

-superl. = superlative. 

Swed = Swedish. 

Syr = Syrian. 

T = Todd, Edition of yohnson's Dictionary 


techn = technical, -ally. 

Test = Testament. 

Teut = Teutonic. 

Theatr. = Theatrical. 

Theol. = Theology. 

Tr = Translation of. 

tr = translation. 

trans = transitive. 

Turk = Turkish. 

U. S = United States. 

V. I. — varia lectio ('variant reading'). 

vb., vb = verb. 

vbl = verbal. 

11" = verso. 

Vol = Volume. 

w. U = variae lectiones ('variant readings '). 

W = Webster, English Dictionary (r88o, 1890). 

W = West, Western. 

Wks., Wks., = Works. 

Yule = Yule-Burnell, Hobson-Jobson (1886). 

ZDMG = Zeitschrift der Deutschen Morgenlandischen 

Zool. = Zoology. 

* implies (before an article or quotation) com- 

mented upon or illustrated by the late 
Mr J. F. Stanford. 

— = (before a quotation) same date and bookas 

the previous quotation. 

— = (after a quotation) by the same author as 

the previous quotation. 
= denotes 'equivalent to' or 'meaning'. 

* implies (before or on both sides of a word in an 

article) that the form is unrecorded. 

' = Semitic ain, when not used as an ordinary 

inverted comma. 


k la mode 3, quot. 1727: — For 'Purient' read 'Prurient'; and for 'in.' read 'ch. xii. 

§ 3'- 
accedence : — Insert '[N. E. D.]' after last quot. 
adaulet: — For last word of article read "adalai". 
Alfurcan, quot. 1665 : — For 'zA' read 'Sir Th. Herbert, Trav.' 
beegab, 4th and 5th lines of article : — Transpose 'former' and 'latter' 
■ben trovato: — For 'si' read 'se'. 
camlsado : — For 'Oudin' read 'Minsheu'. 
capias : — For quot. under date 1608 read 'Do but send out your Itermn Summoneas \ Or 

capias vt legatnm to attach | And bring him viua voce, tongue to tongue '. 
caste, 6th line of article : — For ' Kshetriyas ' read ' Kshatriyas '. 
certl flnls :— For 'finis' read 'fines', and delete bracket. 
cbetvert, 2nd line of article : — For ' 3 ' read ' 6 ' 
cblcane, last line but one of article : — For ' changdn ' read ' chaugdn ' 
clopplno: — For ' Lat.' read 'It.' 
cremona''^ : — For ^Krumhorn' read ^ Krummhorn' . 
disembogue, I. 2 : — Delete quot. 1658. 
Eden : — For ' Eden ' read ' 'eden '. 
estacade^: — Delete article. 

eta^, 5th line of article : — For 'open' read 'close'. 
frowe : — For ' vruow ' read ' vrouw '. 
galfere, 3rd line of article: — For 'has' read 'had'- 
badjee : — Transfer quott. dated 1623, 1684, 1717 to khodja. 
hanoiun : — For ' khanum ' read ' khanam ' 

P. 443/2 : — For last line read 'hoja: Turk, or Pers. See khodja or khoja'. 
inferior, I. i : — Transfer quot. dated 1596 to I. i. 
la spada: — For 'Sp.' read 'It.' 
mod^r^: — After ' sb. :' add 'Fr. :' 
ouvrler : — After ' adj. : ' add ' Fr. : '. 
rus in nrbe : — For ' Late Lat. ' read ' Lat. ' ; and add to definition ' a country-house in 

a city. See Martial, 12, 57, 21 '- 




^,prep.: It.: 'to, according to, on, in, for, with'. See It. 
phrases beginning with a (not k, or a), al, alia (a la). 

a, prep. : Sp. : 'to, according to, on, in, with'. See Sp. 
phrases beginning with a (not k or a), al, alia (a la). 

\prep. : Fr. : 'to, according to, for, on, at, in, with'. See 
k la, k r, au, aux, and phrases beginning with \ k la, &c. 

a, prep. : Lat. : 'from, by'. See ab. 

k \idi&,phr. : Fr. : 'down with'; usually in angry exclama- 
tions, as — 'k bas Robespierre!'. 

1835 he was silenced with cries oi ' A bas h iyran' : J. W. Ceokee, Essays 
Fr. Rev., vi. p. 416 (1857). 1845 the populace. ..was not very ready to devolve 
the sovereign power, of which it had— to the tune of 'a bas les Bourbons'— 
possessed itself: ib., I. p. 23. 1884 In Paris the latest cry of the Proletariate 
has been A bas la bourgeoisie ! A. Jessopp, in XIX Century, Mar., p. 397. 

[Composed of ^5, prep., = ' to'; i5aj, = 'low', 'short'.] 

k batons roiiipus,/^r. : Fr. : by fits and starts; lit. 'with 
sticks broken'. 

1883 The conversation having been of a friendly character, and conducted 
perhaps somewhat d. bdtons ro^npus, will explain the reason why a general sum- 
mary of it is preferable : Standard, Nov. 9, p. 5/4. 1886 answering absently 
and 4 b&tojts rompus: R. Broughton, Dr. Cupid, Vol. in. ch. vii. p. 163. 

a battuta: It. See battuta. 

a bene placito, phr. : It. : Mus. -. 'at pleasure', written to 
indicate that something is left to the performer's discretion. 

1724 BENE PLACITO, if you please, or if you will : SAort Explic. of For. 
Wds. in Mus. Bis. 1740 J. Geassineau, Mus. Did. 

a beneficio, phr. : Lat. See ab officio. 

1580 he maybe suspended. . .a ^^-m^cz'^j, if he be a clerk: Geindal, Remains, 
p. 454 (Parker Soc, 1843). 

*a Bengala, phr. : It. : (lit up) with Bengal (lights) ; /zV. ' in 
Bengal fashion'. 

*1874 in preparation for the Colosseo and Foro a Benp-aia : EcJio, Mar. 31, 
p. 2. [St.] 

k bis et k blanc, phr. : Fr. : by hook or crook, in every 
possible way; lit. 'to brown and to white'. 

[As Macdonnel and Webster give a wrong meaning, see these quott from 
Littr^ s.v. bis: — 1732 A bis, ^ blanc, de toute fa50n...tout ce qu'en ce temps, 
A bis, k blanc, on veut qu'on croie, Harangue des gens de Sarulle d M. de 

Vintimille co7itre Vunigenitus faire service ^ la noble assembl^e, k bis ou 

^ blanc, k tort et k droit. Sat. Min. , p. 97.] 

k bras ouverts, //%;'.: Fr. : 'with open arms'. Macdonnel, 
Diet. Quot. (1803). 

1830 who received me a bras ouverts: Gremlle Memoirs, Vol. I. ch. a. 
P- 359 (187s). 

a buena guerra, phr. : Sp. : on fair terms ; lit. ' according 
to honourable warfare'. 

1593 — 1622 The Spaniards. ..parled and invited us to surrender ourselves 
a buena querra [sic] : R. Hawkins, Voy. into South Sea, § 61, p. 294 (1878). 

[The phrase is repeated, as if it was familiar about 1600. 
En buena guerraj^^hy fair and lawful means'.] 

S. D. 

A. C. : Lat. See anno Christi. 

k cheval, phr. : Fr. : ' on horse '(-back), astride. Mil : 
crossing at right angles, of the position of troops or for- 
tifications in reference to a road or river. 

1876 Cheval — A body of troops is said to be "k cheval" on a road when it 
stretches perpendicularly across it: VoYLE, Mil. Diet. (3rd Ed.). 1884 A 
cheval as it was on the line of communications between Taitsan and Soochow, 
Quinsan was obviously a place of immense strategical significance: Arch. 
Forbes, Chinese Gordon, ch. ii. p. 42 (N. York). 

a congruo: Lat. See ab. 

a consequent!, /Ar.: Lat. See a parte ante. 

1565 it is an ill argument A conseguenti, when, in two propositions, things 
utterly unlike shall be compared together; and the one, by no mean, can infer 
the other: Calfhill, Ans. to Mart., p. 73 (Parker Soc, 1846). 

a consiliis, phr. : Lat. : 'counsellor'. 

1573 — 80 if he were not before and be not now a consiliis, yea and a secretis 
too: Gab. Harvey, Lett. Bk., p. 28 (1884). 

k contrecoeur, //%r. : Fr. : 'reluctantly'. 

1832 laughing rather d. conirecmur : Edin. Rev., Vol. 56, p. 153. 

k corps perdu, phr. : Fr. : desperate, desperately ; lit. ' at 
all hazards'. 

1824- the. ..renegade d corps perdu, had a particular aversion to the subject: 
Edin. Rev., Vol. 40, p. t66. 1851 Some of her family. ..threw themselves 
d corps perdu into republicanism : J. W. Crokee, Essays Fr. Rev., 11. p. 75 


*a coup de vent,//%r.: Fr.: 'as if in a gale'. 

*1874 flounces plaited a coup de vent'. Echo, Dec. 30. [St.] 

A. D. : Lat. See anno Domini. 

a deliciis, phr.: Lat.: a favorite; lit. 'belonging to 

1611 He hath. ..bene d Deliciis to the Courte : CoEYAT, Crudities, Paneg. 
by B. Jonson, sig. b 4 t/" (1776). 

k deux, phr. : Fr. : of (or between) two. 

1886 some keen happiness k deux; some two happy souls together blent: 
R. Broughton, Dr. Cupid, Vol. 11. ch, iv. p. 85. 

a dicto secundum quid ad dictum simpliciter, Lat: 
Log.: the name of a fallacy. See quotation from Mill. 

1646 The second is, A dicto secundum quid ad dictum simpliciter, when 
from that which is but true in a qualified sense, an inconditionai and absolute 
verity is inferred : Sir Th. Brown, Pseud. Ep., Bk. I, ch. iv. p. 11 (1686). ib., Bk, 
III. ch. i. p. 85. 1843 one of the obscurer forms of it [the fallacy oi changing the 
premises\, recognised by the schoolmen as the fallacy d dicto, &^c. This is 
committed when, in the premises, a proposition is asserted with a qualification, 
and the qualification lost sight of in the conclusion ; or oftener, when a limitation 
or condition, though not asserted, is necessary to the truth of the proposition, but 
is forgotten when that proposition comes to be employed as a premise : J. S. Mill, 
System, of Logic, Vol. 11. p. 372 (1856). 

a liio,phr.: It. 

1. 'to God'. 

1577 And sweetly thus, good Gaskoigne went a Dio : G. Gaskoigne, Life, 
p. 27 (1S68). 

2. also addio,='adieu', ^.■z/. 

1828 Addio (jyeyyofieva poSa my talking roses : Harrovian, p. 97. 



*k discretion, phr. : Fr. : 'at discretion*, as much as one 

1837 We,. .made our camels kneel down, unloaded, and then let them go free 
to\iTovfse:d discretion: Lord Lindsay, Letters on Sg-j/p£ (1866). 1875 two large 
decanters of cold water with tumblers d discretion: Ld. Lytton, Ken. Chill.., 
Bk. II. p. 63. 1886 they feed daily d. discretion at so much a meal : Blac/civood's 

a disparatis : Lat. See disparata. 

k droite et ^ gauche, /^r.: Fr. : right and left; ///. 'to 
right and to left (hand)'. 

1847 The Queen amuses herself cl droite et d.. gauche, is good-looking, and 
has graceful manners : H. Greville, Diary, p. 205. 

k flettr d'ime, phr. : Fr. : 'on a level with the souP, from 
a sympathetic point of view. 

1883 The emotions of the characters seem to be felt by them, or at least are 
drawn by the author somewhat cLjleur d'dme : Acad., No. 600, p. 296/2. 

k fleur d'eau, phr.: Fr. : 'at the level of (the) water'- 

1882 there was, at the very least, sixty feet of the animal d Jieur d'eau: 
BucKLAND, Notes a7id Jottings, p. 397. 1883 Strong fortifications, ..placed ^ 
Jiettr €€eai£, were powerless against the tremendous artillery : Sat, Rev. , Vol. 56, 
P* 347/1- 

k fond, phr.\ Fr. : 'to the bottom', thoroughly; strength- 
ened by adding /^r^/2<;, = *lost'. 

1809 That which ought to be done is to examine a subject of this kind dfond: 
Wellington, Disp., Vol. x. p. 366 (1838). 1886 Not only has every govern- 
ment the right, but it is also its duty, to make researches dfond perdn where the 
ijatural richness of the ground proclaims itself pn the surface by clear and certain 
proofs: G. Schweinfurth, in Atheneptim, Dec. 25, p. 865/1. 

*a fortiori, -^yphr.-. Lat: 'with stronger (reason)'; equiva- 
lent to the 'much more' of English Euclids. Thus '*if A is 
greater than B, and B is proved greater than X, a fortiori 
(or 'much more') is A greater than X^\ 

1688 his accommodation of this a fortiori to the chair of Peter, in this fashion, 
If those were to be heard who sat in the chair of Moses, much more those who sit 
in the chair of Peter: Whitaker, Disput., p. 427 (Parker Soc, 1849). 1606 

Yet cannot hee either taciti or d fortiore by vertue of this Maxi^ne \sic'\ take 
unto him all the power which the said President has: R. Parsons, Ansiver 
to Coke, ch. 3, p. 52. 1789 A fortiori, what is to be expected from a grain of 
a much weaker stimulus? Pettigrew, Mem. of Dr. Lettsom, Vol. in. p. 250 
(1817). 1847 — 9 pus contains more water than healthy, and a fortiori than 
hyperinotic blood; Todd, Cyc. Anat. and Phys., Vol. iv. p. 113/2. 1849 — 52 
if this be not proved by subsequent inquiry, or a fortiori, if it be shown to be 
unlikely, then the argument arising from their co-development ceases to have 
much force: i&., p. 1100/2. 

a fresco: It. See afresco. 

*a futura memoria, />^r. : It. : 'for future evidence'. Of 
witnesses in the Antonelli suit. 

*a gala, pAr. : It. : in gala fashion ; lit ' according-to 
holiday'. See gala. 

1886 TheStrada Constantinopoliwas illuminated «^rt/« with gas: Atkeft<sum, 
Aug. 14, p. 218/3. 

*a giorno, /^r.: It.: 'like {lit. according-to) daylight'. 

1882 The lights were softened by judicious shades, and set off the whole scene 
a giomo, as giomo should be, clear but not obtrusive: Herm. Merivale, Favcit 
of Balliol, I. p. 191. 1883 Viewed [Stafford House] when lighted a giomo : 

Ld. R. Gower, Reminisc.i i. 5. 

' *k huis elos,/-^r.: Fr.: 'with closed doors', 
k jamais, /^r. : Fr.: 'forever'. 

1761 Adieu, I am, d jamais, yours [Gray]: Gray and Mason, Corresp., 
p. 252 (1S53). 

k V : Fr. See k la, au. 

k ragonie,/^r. : Fr. : in the death-struggle. See k. la 3. 

1848 no one has the least faith in the duration of the present form of govern- 
ment, and many believe it to be already d Vagoniex H. Greville, Diary, 
p. 276. 

kl'aimable: Fr. See k la 2. 

k TAllemande : Fr. See allemande. 

*k TAnglaise, phr, : Fr. : in the English style, fashion, 
mode. See k la 2. 

1739 We supped k I'Anglaise. Imprimis, we had buttock of beef: Hor. 
Walpole, Letters, Vol. i. p. 22 (1857). 1837 these narrow limits, which are 
planted d lAnglaise: J. F, Cooper, Europe, Vol. 11. p. 126. 

k TanticLue, /Ar. : Fr.: in antique style. See k la 2, 

1644 [the roof] carved with foliage and roses overlaid with gold, in nature of 
a deep basso-rihevo, d Vantique: Evelyn, Diary, Vol. i. p. 126 (1872). 1651 
The music was twenty-nine violins, vested d Vantique: ib., p. 277.^ 1684 
adorn'd within with very fair Painting A Vantique : J. P., Tr. Tavemiers Trav. , 
Vol. I. Bk. i. p. 21. 1818 She always wears her very long black hair, simply 
dressed, d Vantique: Mrs. Opie, New Tales, Vol. i. p. 281. 


k Tarme blanche, phr. : Fr. : at close quarters, with cut- 
ting and thrusting weapons ; see armes blanches. 

1884 The Baearras...who like their Saracen ancestors, invariably attack & 
Varme blanche— t\en though it be certain death to them : J. Colboene, in Corn- 
hill Mag., No. 293, p. 449- 

kl'assassin: Fr. See k la 2. 
a I'encan, //%r. : Fr.: 'by auction'. 

1672 I suppose I may sell it & I'enfan [sic]: Savile Corresp., p. 30 (Camd. 
Soc, 1858). 

k I'Espagnole, phr. : Fr. : in Spanish fashion. See k la 2. 

1814 the insult offered him in sending away from Paris his Charg^ d'Affaires, 
thus A VEspagnole, taking no notice of all that was written on the subject from 
thence: Wellington, Disp., Vol. xu. p. 223 (1838). 

k rintention (de), fhr. : Fr. : Theol : for the intention of 
(i.e. for the object or person intended by) another; hence on 
behalf of, for the benefit of another. 

1756 Pray have.. .masses said...(i Vintention of your poor country: HoR. 
Walpolb, Letters, Vol. in. p. 17 (1857). [Faire des pri^res, donner des aum8nes, 
dire la messe, etc. \ I'intention de quelqu'un, faire ces choses dans le dessein 
qu'elles lui servent devant Dieu. Je m'en vais dire la messe \ son intention. 
Boss., Lett. Abb., 107. Littr^.] 

^.Torientale: Fr. See k la 2. 

a la: It. or Sp. See alia. 

*k la, k r before vowels and h mute, part of phr. : Fr. 
• I. 'after the, according to the' ; as — a la carte, 'according 
to the bill of fare', d. la mise en seine, 'according to the ar- 
rangement of the drama' (lit. 'setting in scene'), a la mode 
ig. v.), 'after the fashion, style'. 

2. equivalent to A la mode — with a fern, adjective, esp. of 
a proper name (as d. la Gothique, Grecgtie, Parisienne, mili- 
tatre), or A la mode de {du, de la, d'uti, d'lene) — with nouns, 
esp. proper names. Very comition in terms of dress and 
cookery. Most of the i-/fl-terms familiar in England are 
later than 1650, being from the names or titles of ministers, 
generals, or favourites of Louis XIV. and Louis XV.; e.g., 
A la Bdchamel (see B6chamel), A la Maintenon. 

1589 the breech A la Francoise [in French fa.shion]: Puttenham, Eng, 
Poes., III. p. 305 (1869). 1681 y" differences.. .will be referr'd to conferences, 
in order to compose things A I' amiable [in amicable fashion]: Savile Corresp., 
p. 182 (Camd. Soc, 1858). bef. 1733 all in a Fury, alia Tragique [in the tragic 
style], he rants it: R. North, Examen, in. vii, i, p. 504(1740). — mounted alia. 
Caparisonie [with rich trappings] : ib,, 98, p. 580. 1766 Stomachers and Paris 
netSj I Ear-rings, necklaces, aigrets, | Fringes, blonds, and migoionets. | Fine Ver- 
million for the cheek, [ Velvet patches a la Grecgiie [in Greek fashion] : Anstev, 
New Bath Guide, Let. in. 1837 then came the dishes dressed A la Turque. which, 
we partook of A VAnglaise : Lord Lindsay, Letters on Egypt ix?^. 1845 you 
are enjoying society A V orientate [in Eastern fashion]: Warburton, Cresc. and 
Cross, Vol. I. p. 56 (1848). 1878 Hair fastened back a la Chijwise [in Chinese 
fashion] : G. Eliot, Dan. Deronda, Ek. ii. ch. 18, p. 147. 

1660 they [monkeys and apes] were gallantly clad A la jnonde [in the style of 
the (fashionable) world]: Evelyn, Diary, Vol. I. p. 359 (1872). 1663 her. 
hair dressed A la negligence, mighty pretty: Pepys, Diary, in Fairholt, Cost, 
Eng., p. 317(1846). 1710 a neck of mutton dressed a la Maintenon: Swift, 

yourn, Stella, Let. v. Wks., p. 236/1 (1869). 1721 that image at the end of 

iris copy, A la malade [like a sick person] : Atterbury, in Pope's Letters, p. 236 
(1737)- 1777 I suppose since the attempt on the King all their fashions will 
be a V assassin : HoR. Walpole, Letters, Vol. lii. p. 59 (1857). 1804 the 
whim struck them to play A la guillotine : Edin, Rev, , Vol. 5, p. 85. 1815 his 
timid blushing school-girl of a princess, with her complexion A la Psyche; ib,. 
Vol. 25, p. 167. 1818 beef A la Psyche: T. Moore, Fudge Family, p. 38. 
1826 three drivers ride A la postilion : Subalterji, ch. ig, p. 277 (1828). 1828 
a ragout A la jUnanciere : Ld. Lytton, Pelham, ch. 67, p. 220 (1859). 1847 
chops A la Soubise : Barh AM, Ingolds. Leg,, 440 (1865). 1877 little maxims 
A la Roche/ojicauld: C. Reade, IVojnan-H ater, ch. iv. p. 44 (1883). 

3. A la also forms phrases with the prep. A {q. v.) in other 
senses than the above ; 3.5 A la hauteur {q. v.), a la mort 
{q. v.), A la voUe {q. v.), A la braise (q. v.). 

1620 they will proceed A lapereille [to the same treatment] with them: Reliq. 
Wotton., p. 501 (1685). 1818 treat him with Punch A la glace [with ice]: 

T. Moore, Fudge Family, p. 121. 

k la bonne heure, phr.: Fr.: in good time {lit. 'at the 
good hour'), well and good. 

1762 If curing old errors could prevent new ones, A la bonne heure: HoR. 
Walpole, Letters, Vol. iv. p. 19 (1857). 1750 If you can amuse yourself with 
that low play till supper, A la bonne heure : Lord Chesterfield, Letters, Vol. 
II. No. 2, p. 5 (1774). 1855 Royal children all weeping when the soi-disanf 
august pair took themselves away again — A la bonne heure: Carlyle, in 
J. A. Fronde's Life, Vol. 11. p. 175 (1884). 1884 there must be bread for all, 
equality of rights, and mutual good-will, A la bonne heure; these things are 
necessary : Tablet, Vol. 63, No. 2298, p. 729/1. 

k la braise, phr. ; Fr. : braised, half-baked and half-stewed,' 
esp. in a braising-pan, i.e. a stew-pan, the lid of which will 
hold braise,^'- hve coals'. 



1818 French dishes...^ la braise: T. Mooke, Fudge FaMily, p. 6.— beef (J 
ia Psyche and curls A la Iiraise: ib., p. 38. 

cl la brochette, phr.: Fr.: (roasted) on a {lit. the) skewer. 

1853 He made me this morning an idea of white bear's liver, A la brochette: 
-E. K, Kane, 1st Grinn, Exped.^ ch. xxxiv. p. 309. 

k la caparisonde: Fr. See k la 2. 

*k la carte, j^Ar.: Fr.: 'according to the bill of fare': a 
meal is a la carte when each person is charged for the 
separate items (priced on the bill of fare) which he may select. 
See k la I, and carte. 

1826 He will find comfortable apartments, civil attendance, excellent fare, a 
la carte, at any hour: Refl. on a Ramble to' Germany, p. 253. 1883 The 

dishes to be served when you dine or sup A la carte: Sat. Rev., Vol. 56, p. 242/2. 

k la chaude, phr. : Fr. : in the (first) heat (of passion), in 
hot blood. See k la 3. 

1670 they were taken and beheaded cl. la ckaude least some prince should 
have interceded for them : R. Lassels, Voy. Ital. , Pt. i. p. 48. 

*^ la Chinoise: Fr. Seek la 2. 

k la d6rob6e, phr. -. Fr. : by stealth, privately. 

1605 there, a la d^rob^e, affianced himself to his gentlewoman : Sir Edw. 
HOEY, in Court Sd' Times of Jas. I., Vol. I. p. '38 (i8j8). 1818 she may find 

some moment, ci la derao^e, for being more explicit ; Lady Morgan, Fl. 
Macariky, Vol. iv. ch. ii. p. 129. 

a la dozena: It. See alia dozzina. 

k la file, phr. -. Fr. : in file, one behind another. See file. 

1586 The Leaders... shall cause a halberd to be sett up in the plain, whereby 
every shot may pass in that order which the French call a la file, or as we term 
it, in rank like wild geese: F. Walsingham, State Paper, in Lodge, Illustr. 
Eng. Hist., Vol. II. p. 284 (1838). 

k la financifere: Fr. See k la 2. 

k la fleur, phr. : Fr. : to the prime or flower (of). 

1765 I hope your pilgrimages have brought Mrs. Garrick and yourself back 
A lafieurdejeunesse [of youth]: Sterne, Letters, Wks., p. 769/1 (Bohn, 1853). 

k la fourchette: Fr. See dejeuner k la fourchette. 
*k la Fran9aise, //^r. : Fr. : in the French style, fashion, 
mode. See k la 2. 

1589 [See ^ la 2]. 1805 We are treated with an animated account of the 
process of world-making <i la Fran^aise: Editt. Rev., Vol. 6, p. 132. 1818 
induced the whole party to rise, and adjourn to coffee and the drawing room & la 
francaise: Lady Morgan, Fl. Macarthy, Vol. iii. ch. iii. p. 107 (iSig). 

k la glace: Fr. See k la 3. 

k la GotliicLue,//^^: Fr.: in the Gothic style. See k la 2. 

1644 St Stephen's church is the cathedral, well-built a la Gothique: Evelyn, 
Diary, Vol. I. p. 80 (1872). 

a la Greca, alia G.,phr. : It: in the Greek {style, = mSda). 

1645 The church, a la Greca, consists of five handsome cupolas, leaded: 
Evelyn, Diary, Vol. i. p. 206 (1850). 1670 the back is richly adorned with 
divers rowes of little enamelled pictures a la Greca, set in gold: R. Lassels, 
Voy. Ital, Pt. II. p. 283. 

k la GTec(iVLe, phr.: Fr.: in the Greek style. See k la 2. 

1747 I have done speaking d la Grecque : Gray, Letters, No. Ixiii. Vol. I. 
p. 140 (1819). 1764 they begin to see beauties in the antique — everything must 
be A la Grecque: HoR. Walpole, Letters, Vol. iv. p. 2ig (1857). 1766 Fine 
Vermillion for the cheek, | Velvet patches a la Grecque: Anstey, New Bath 
Guide, Let. iii. 1870 her rough hair pushing its way resolutely from under 

the blue ribbons which make a vain show of confining it A la Grecque: R. 
BrOUGHTON, Red as a Rose, Vol. I. p. 260. 

Variant, 1873, aligreek, = Xh& Greek border or meander, 
quoted in N. E. D. from Burton, Hist, of Scot., I. iv. 156. 
Anstey's rhyme suggests this pronunciation. 

a la grottesca, alia g., phr.: It.: in the grotesque (style, 
= mdda). 

1665 in vacant places betwixt the Images the Wall is damasked & la grotesco 
or adorned with Trees and Landskips: Sir Th. Herbert, Trav., p. 141 (1677). 

&, la guillotine: Fr. See k la 2. 

k la hauteur, phr. : Fr. : on a level (with), keeping pace 
with ; lit. 'at the altitude'. 

1852 & la hatiteur of every current scandal of the day: C. Lever, Daltons, 
p. 164 (1878). 

k la lanterne, /<4r. : Fr.: 'to {or at) the lamp (-chain)!; of 
the early executions perpetrated by the mob in the French 
Revolution, when the victims were hanged on the chains 
which went across the street to hold a lamp in the middle. 
See k la I. 

1845 We wish we had been told whether this mock execution was d. la 
lanterTie, and a precedent of the real murders so soon perpetrated there : J. W, 

Croker, Essays Fr. Rev., I. p. 50 (1857). 1886 speech about revolution and 
■hanging d. la lanterne: J. McCarthy & Mrs. Campbell-Peaed, Rt. Hon.^ 
Vol. I. ch. V. p. 83. 

k la main, phr. : Fr. : in hand, at hand, ready, lit. ' at the 
hand'. See k la 3. 

bef. 1715 From Paris gazette a-la-main, I This day's arriv'd, without his train,] 
Mordanto in a week from Spain: Swift, Wks., p. 580/1 (i86g). 

k la Maintenon: Fr. See k la 2. 

k la malade: Fr. See k la 2. 

a la mi re, a lamire. See alamire. 

*k la militaire, /^r. : Fr.: in military style. See k la 2. 
Also name of a military cocked-hat worn in 18 c. Fairholt, 
'Costume, p. 366 (1846). 

1803 Mr. Quarrell, ^dressed a la m.iliiaire\ walked a minuet with the 
Marquisa: Edin. Rev., Vol. 2, p. 378. 1817 every thing is a la militaire 
in Germany: ib.. Vol. 28, p. 98. 1828 New South Wales has been governed as 
yet wholly ct la militaire: ib.. Vol. 47, p. 97, 

\ la mise en sc^ne: Fr. See k la i. 
, *k la mode, 2^.^.vs^o6.&, phr.: Fr.i in the fashion (of). See 
k la I. 

1. adv. : 

1594 my hands without gloves, all a mode French: Nashe, Un/ort. Trav., 
Wks., Vol. V. p. 40 (Grosart, 1884). 1656 only they [the shoes] will serve to 
burn by the fireside, and save my shins, rather than walk abroad a la mode 
according to the times : Th. Hearne, Surfeit, Libr. of Old Authors, Vol. iii. 
p. 249 (1869). 1665 knocking their foreheads a la mode against the ground : 

Sir Th. Herbert, Trav., p. 133 (1677). 1689 open and avowed luxury and 
profaneness d. la mode de France: Evelyn, Corresp., Vol. IIL p. 302 (1872) 
1693 there was an Abbat, but a Gentleman that held his Abbacy alia mode de 
France, in a lay Capacity: J. Hacket, Abp. Williams, z. 216, p. 210. 1712 

my appearing d la mode de Paris on the next Birth-Night: Spectator, No. 277, 
Jan. 17, p. 397/2 (Morley). bef. 1733 the Faction, a-la-mode the old Palatinate, 
wrought. ..with it to destroy the King: R. North, Examen, iii. vi. 84, p. 485. — 
doing business a-la-mode de Ravilliac: ib., 11. v. 125, p. 392. 

2. adj.: fashionable. 

bef. 1658 Factions A-la-mode in Trea.son's Fashion, | Now we have Heresie 
by Complication; J. Cleveland, Wks., 11. p. 28 (1687). 1664 In man 

or beast, they [tails] are so comely, [ So Gentee, Allamode, and handsoni: 
S. Butler, Hudibras, Pt 11. Cant. 1. p. 54. 1665 feet, which from... infancy 

are straitned; so as to make them a la mode: Sir Th. Herbert, Trav., p. 376 
(1677). 1670 I found narrow britches with long-wasted doublets and hanging 
sleeves to be d. la Tiiodc: R. Lassels, Voy. Ital., Pt. i. p. 96. 1675 give me 
leave here to set you down such A-la-7node instructions as may perfectly inform 
you in [the]. of Cookery: H. Woolley, Geiitleiijoman' s Companion, -a. 113. 
1713 In state opinions ci la mode, \ He hated Wharton like a toad: Swift, 
Poems, Wks., Vol. x. p. 391 (1814). 1747 the toy-woman d. la jnode: HoR. 
Walpole, Letters, Vol. il p. 86 (1837). 

2 a. esp. alamode beef (see 3 a), alamode silk (see 3 b). 

1675 A-la-tnode Beef: H. Woolley, GeittlewoTttaji^ s Companion, p. 121. 
1686 A-la-mode {or Larded) Beef :'] . Collins, .Ja//, p. 132. 1883 the famous 
alamode beef house : Daily News, Sept. 29, p. 3/6. 1686 Very good black 

narrow Lute-Strings, and Alamode-Silks: Lond. Gaz., mmcxxvi/4. [N. E. D.] 

3. sb.: fashion, caprice. 

1654 Her alamodes are suitable shapings of her mind to all changes of oc- 
currences: Whitlock, Mann. Engl., 354. [T.] 1727 The principal branch 
of the alamode is the Purient : Pope, Bathos, HI. 

3 a. alamode beef, beef larded with pork or bacon, stewed 
with condiments and served with the thick soup produced. 

1753 Writers on cookery give the preparation Alamode, or larded beef: 
Chambers, Cycl., Suppl. 1883 There was then and is now the famous 

alamode beef house where the savoury alamode is 4^/. and &d. per plate: Daily 
News, Sept. 29, p. 3/6. 

3 ^. , alamode silk, a light glossy black silk. Mentioned 
as imported and manufactured in Act 4 Will, and Mary, 
ch. V. Fairholt's Philip and Mary seems a wrong reference. 

1698 importing alamodes and lustrings contrary to law: Tindal, Contin. 
Rapin, Vol. I. p. 372/r (1751). 1861 Regular exchange of the fleeces of 

CoLswold for the alamodes of Lyons: Macaulay, Hist. Eng., v. 53. 

Variants, 16 c. all a mode, 17 c. al a mode, alia mode. 

a la modema, alia m., phr.: It.: in the modern (style, 
= mdda). 

1644 On the other side is the. ..Court of Justice well built a la modema, of 
brick: Evelyn, Diary, Vol. I. p. 100(1872). 

klamonde: Fr. See k la 2. 

a la Moresca, alia M., phr.: It: in the Moorish (style, 
= mdda). 

1593 crisps and scarfs, worn i. la Morisco: Greene, Poems, p. 316/1, 1. 19 

k la Moresque, phr. : Fr. : in the Moorish style. See k la 2. 

1684 the Duomo is cover'd with varnish'd Brick-work, and Flowers emboss'd 
A la Moresque: J. P., Tr. Tavemier's Trav., Vol. I. Bk. i. p. 22. 1724 I 

I 2 


supposed their music would not play a la Moresque : De Foe, Roxana, p. 153 

k la mort, Fr., and Eng. fr. Fr. (_i_^): 'to the death'. 

1. adv.: to the death. 

1592 I drooping passe as one stroke alemort: Wyrley, Armorie, 155 . 
[N, E. D.] 1883 The combat k la mort was of their own beginning; Gen. P. 
Thompson, Exerc, 11. 479 (1842). [N. E. D.] 

2. adj.: at death's door, utterly sad, in despair. 

1591 Now Where's the Bastard's braves... What, aIlamort?SHAKS.,/. Hen. VI., 
iii. 2, 124. 1591 And so restinge there a while, a la morte, the marshall came 
upp: CoNlNGSBY, Siege of Rouen, Camd. Miscell., Vol. I. p. 27 (1847). 1594 
Shall he thus all amort live malcontent? Greene, Friar Bacon, p. 153/1, 1. 22 
(t86i). 1596 What, sweeting, all amort?. ..Pluck up thy spirits: Shaks., Tarn. 
Shr., iv. 3, 36. 1624 Jovial ! doctor; | No, I am all amort, as if I had lain 1 Three 
days in my grave already: Massinger, Pari. Love, iv. 5, Wks., p. 137/1 (1839). 
bef. 1666 Whose soft and royal treatment may suffice | To heal the sick, to cheer 
the alamort: Fanshawe, Lusiad, V. 85. 1693 that Bishop's Hopes would 
be all amort: J. Hacket, Abp. Williams, Pt. I. 174, p. 168. bef. 1733 
Buyers, who, as to this Edition are a-la-mort: R. North, Exavzen, II. v. 93, 
p. 373. bef. 1782 'Tis wrong to bring into a mix'd resort, | What makes some 
sick, and others d-la-ntort, \ An argument of cogence : Cowper, Convers. , 
Poems, Vol. I. p. 163 (1808). 

Variants, a la morte, a-la mort, alamort, alemort, all ajnort, 
amort {g. v.). 

a la Mosaica, alia M.,phr.: It.: in Mosaic fashion, with 
inlaid work. 

1617 Vpon the ground neere the great doore, is a stone, painted as if it were 
engrauen: which painting is vulgarly called .^ la Mosaica: F. MoRVSON, Itin., 
Pt. I. p. 78. — the Image of the Virgin Mary, painted a la Mosaica, that is as if it 
were engrauen: ib., p. 79. 

[Composed of a, prep., = ' to, with, according to'; la, fern. 
art., = 'the'; VJ/isijazVa, ='Mosaic', 'inlaid' (fr. Low Lat. wz«jaz- 
cus, adj. fr. Gk. /ioDo-eioi', = ' inlaid work' fr. Movo-a, = 'Muse', a 
goddess of art); OT(^(ffl:, = ' style', or opera, = ''woxV, being sup- 

a la mutesca: It. See alia mutesca. 
k la Palatine, phr. : Fr. : in the fashion of the Palatinate. 
See k la 2, and quotation. 

1754 The thing [women working rather than men] is very common, & la Pala- 
tine, among the middling sort of people. is not in their harvest work alone 
they are something in the Palatine way with respect to women : E. Burt, Lett. 
N. Scotl., Vol. II. p. 45 (1818). 

k la pareille : Fr. See k la 3. 

k la Parisienne, //zr. : Fr.: in Parisian style. See k la 2. 

1845 a pleasant boulevarde affords shade for the varied population to saunter 
under, d. la Parisienne: Warburton, Cresc. and Cross, Vol. II. p. 232 (1848). 

k la picor6e, phr.: Fr.: a ( = on) plundering, a ( = on) 
marauding. See k la 3. But perhaps alia picoree below is 
Sp., = alia pecorea. See picoree. 

1590 and instead of pay [the officers] have suffered them [the soldiers] to goe 
alia picoree, that was to robbe and spoyle the Boores their friends: SiK John 
Smythe, Certaine Discourses, pp. 49 — 56 (1843). 

a la pigeon, phr. : Fr. : in the style of a pigeon. See k la 2. 

1762 he wore upon his head a bag-wig & la pigeon : Smollett, Laun^. 
Greaves, ch. xxv. Wks., Vol. v. p. 240 {1817). 

k la postilion: Fr. See k la 2. 

k la Psyche: Fr. See k la 2. 

k la r^pubUcaine, ■phr. : Fr. : in republican style. See k la 2. 

1844 General Bonaparte and the fair widow. ..had been married in the former 
•W3.y, a la Republicaine: Ceaik and Macfarlane, Pici. Hist. Eng., Vol. iv. 
p. 138/2. 

k la Rochefoucauld: Fr. See k la 2. 

k la Romaine, /^r. : Fr.: in Roman style. See k la 2. 

1745 I am laying in scraps of Cato against it may be necessary to take leave 
of one's correspondents a la Rotnaine: HoR. Walpole, Letters, Vol. I. p. 381 
(1857). . 1862 forget whether it was a cold dagger au naturel or a dish of hot 
coals &■ la Romaine, of which they partook: Thackeray, Philip, Vol. I. p. 290 

*k la Russe,/^r. : Fr. : in Russian fashion. Seek la 2; 
esp. of dinners, of which the courses are served from other 
tables or another room, the dining table being dressed with 
flowers and dessert. Such dinners were considered a novelty 
abt. 1840, and are not noticed in the treatises of Soyer, 
Francatelli, and Acton. 

1857 a table set out a la Russe for a party of eighteen: Walsh, Doin.Econ., 
2662, p. 701/1 (1874). 1860 Certainly the diner a la Russe might be introduced 
with'great advantage: W. H. Russell, Diary, Vol. I. p. 7. 

k la Soubise: Fr. See k la 2. 

a la Tedesca: It. See alia Tedesca. 


klatragique: Fr; See k la 2. 

a la Turchesca, alia T.,phr.: It.: in the Turkish (fashion, 
= mdda). 

1591 But this behaviour altogether was | Alia Turchesca, much the more 
admyr^d: Spens., /'^o.yi?/. , 677. 

*k la Turc[ue,//%r.: Fr.: in Turkish style. See k la 2. 

1837 [See ^ I'AnglElise]. 1845 a pleasant boulevarde affords shade for 
the varied population. sit and smoke under, A. la Turque: Warburton 
Cresc. and Cross, Vol. II. p. 232 (1848).— Here is a lady of some hareem, mounted 
^ la Turque [i.e. astride like a man] on her donkey : id.. Vol. I. p. 57. 

k la Turctuesque, phr.: Fr.: in Turkish style; of art. See 
k la 2. 

1684 the furniture, consisting of embroidery on the saddle, housings, quiver, 
bow, arrows. ..(I la Turcisq: Evelyn, Diary, Vol. 11. p. 212 (1B72). 

Also as sb., = a robe in Turkish style. 

1589 a loose alo Turquesque: Puttenham, Eng. Poes., in. p. 305 (1868). 

a la Ventura, alia v.,phr.: It.: at a {lit. the) venture. 

bef 1682 Some pieces A la Ventura, or Rare Chance Pieces, either drawn at 
random, and happening to be like some person, or drawn for some, and happening 
to be more like another: Sir Th. Brown, Tracts, xiil. p. loi (1686). 

*k la victime, //4r. : Fr.: in the fashion of a victim. See 
k la 2. 

1827 their hair being plaited and turned up a la victime, as prepared for the 
guillotine : W. Scott, Napoleon, Vol. i. ch. xvii. p. 258, 

k la vol^e, phr.: Fr.: 'on the flight', of a ball or missile 
which strikes or is struck before the first bound. Lit. 
probably an old phrase in rackets or tennis. Metaph. of 
lively return, or hasty action. Sometimes partly Anglicised. 

1625 P. 'Tis like a ball at tennis. Aim. It is indeed sir, | When we do speak 
at volley all the ill | We can of one another: B. JoNSON, Stap. 0/ News, iv. i, 
Wks., p. 395(1865). 1630 You must not give credit | To all that ladies publicly 
professj Or talk o' the voMe, unto their servants :—A^.?7f Inn, i. i, p. 411. 
1642 The one [the Frenchman] takes the ball be/ore the bou7td, A la voice, 
the other [the Spaniard] stayeth for the fall: Howell, Instr. For. Trav., 
V. p. 32 (1869). 1642 certain mystical figures in our Hands, which I dare not 
callmeer dashes, strokes, a la volee [S. Wilkin's note (1852) "So all MSS. : but 
edd. 1642 read ^/.zz/t'/i?"] or at random: Sir Th. Brown, Rel. Med., n.ii. Wks., 
Vol. II. p. 418 (1852). 1647 sails were held then as uncouth, as if one should 
attempt to make himself wings to mount up to heaven a la volie: Howell, Epist. 
Ho-El., Vol. ni. ix. p. 410 (1678). 1693 So the Archbishop took the Ball 
fairly, not at the Volly, but at the first rebound: J. Hacket, Abp. Williams, 
Pt. II. 202, p. 217. 1762 I received your letter this morning, and return you 
the ball a la volie: Lord Chesterfield, Letters, Vol. 11. No. 141, p. 466 (1774). 

[Composedof a, prep., = 'to, at, on'; /«, fem. art., = 'the'; vo- 
//^, = 'flight', whence Eng. 'volley' in the sense which survives 
in the terms 'half-volley' in cricket, and 'volley' in tennis.] 

*a latere, ab latere, phr. : Lat. : 'from the side', in in- 
timate association with, confidential: of legates and ministers 
sent {missi) by the Pope ; properly, the higher of the two 
grades of Cardinal ambassadors or legates possessing pleni- 
potentiary powers, the lower being legates de latere. The 
title legatus a latere appears first in 860 (Hefele, Concilien- 
geschichle). Also used metaphorically. 

abt. 1522 We passe hym in degre, | As legatus a latere: J. Skelton, Wks., 
Vol. II. p. 6z (1843). 1621 The third region is the lower belly, in which the 
liver resides as a Legat a latere: R. Burton, Anat. Mel., p. 05 (1867). 
1642 our archbishop, — now cardinal, legate a latere, and Lord Chancellor: 
T. Fuller, Holy and Prof. State, p. 238 (1841). 1647 The pope's nuncios 
legates a latere, stir up the spirits of princes to embroil the world with wars: 
John Trap?, Comm. on New Test., p. 771/1(1868). bef 1733 his Lordship 
went down into the Country as, from the King, Legatus a Latere : R. North, 
Examen, iii. viii. 55, p. 626 (1740). 1793 'The government is under a legate 
a latere, who is always a cardinal: J. Morse, A?n. Univ. Geog., Vol. II. p. 437 
(1796). 1885 accept him as a legate a latere holding office for life: W. Hunt, 
Diet. Nat. Biog., IV. 42/2. 

A. M. : Lat. See anno mundi, ante meridiem. 

a majori, -e \ad mimis\, phr.: Lat.: 'from the greater' (to 
the less), of an argument to the effect that what applies to 
the greater of any persons or things applies with stronger 
reason to the less; opposite to a minori ad majus 'from the 
less to the greater'- 

1580 What shall we say to such a Chrysippus, as alloweth not the argument 
a majoribus [pi.]: Fulke, Answers, p. 204 (1848). 1614 The Apostle proved 
soundly by an argument a majori ad minus that the Church might ordayne & 
dispose of secular judgments: T. Fitzherbert, Rep. to Widdri?tgton, ch. iii. p. 
42. 1618 God doth it for most just ends, and thus a reddition might be framed, 
saith he, a majori adminns : P. B ayne. Com. Ephes. , Nichol's Ed., p. 41/2 (1866). 
1666 The argument by which he confuteth them is drawn a majori ad. minus^ 
from the greater to the less : N. Hardy, ist Ep. John, Nichol's Ed., p. 81/2 (1865): 
1682 yet it is an argument fetched a majori, not a bare opposition only : 'Th. 
Goodwin, Wks., in Nichol's Ser. Stand. Divines, Vol. vil. p. 60(1863). 

a malo in pejus, phr.\ Lat. : *from bad to worse'. 

1617 by conuersing with bad company hee grew a malo in peius\ Greene^ 
Groats-worth of Wit, Wks., p. zo {1861). 1665. poor Man ! he fell a malo in 

pejus'. Sir Th. Herbert, Tra-v,, p. 177 (1677). 

*a mensa et toro, phrr. Lat.: ^from board and bed'. 

1628 — 9 When the husband and wife are divorced d. vinculo matrimofiii, as 
in case of precontract, consanguinity, affinity, Slc. and not ci mensa et tkoro only, 
as for adultery; Coke, Littleton, 32 (1832). 1641 Papists generally think 

there should be a divorce a tkoro, non a vinculo, a divorce unknown to the 
Scriptures: R. Stock, Comm. Malachi, in Puritan Comm., p. 164/1 (1865). 
1721 This divorce *a mensa et thoro' only is no true divorce, but a mere fiction 
of a divorce: J. Owen, IVks., Vol. xxi. p. 539 (Russell, 1826). 1857 Where 
a decree for a divorce &. mensa et thoro might now be pronounced the court may 
pronounce a decree for a judicial separation: Stat. 2.0 and -zi Vic, ch. 85, § 7. 
1860 it is the universal custom amongst the Akkals that whenever the wife has 
had two sons a divorce d thord takes place : Once a Week, July 28, p. 122/1. 

k merveille, phr.\ Fr.: wonderfully, admirably, perfectly. 

1762 French-speaking, in. ..which she does a merveille: Sterne, Letters, 
Wks., p_. 753/2 (1839). 1830 the horses seemed to proceed, d merveille, 

never missing the road: E. Blaqoiere, Tr. Sig. Pananti, p. 302 (2nd Ed.). 
1841 Count de Maussion did the honours of the dinner a merveille, and it 
passed off very gaily: Lady Elessington, Idler in France^ Vol. i. p. 194. 
1853 He prepares thus [as a fillet] a sea-gull d, merveille: E. K. Kane, xsi 
Gri?in. Exped., ch. xxxiv. p. 309. 

a minori, -e \ad majus\ phr.\ Lat: 'from the less to the 
greater'. See quotations and a majori. 

1649 We have a manner of reasoning in the Schools, and it is called a minore 
ad majus, "from the less to the more" : Latimer, Sermons, p. 166 (Parker Soc, 
1844). ?1550 For me thought thou was framyng an argument d. minori ad 
majus, or to be better understoode d. delegato adordinarium : W. P., Tr. Curio's 
Peisg. in a Traunce, p. 3, &". 1672 it may be an argument a paribus, but not 
a jninori; as you seem to make it: Whitgift, Wks., Vol. 11. p. g6 (1852). 
1580 This is a notable and sententious comparison, A mi7iore ad majus' \ 
E. KiRKE, in Spens.Shep. Cal., Nov., Glosse, Wks., p. 483 (1869). 1652 And 
thus the Apostle tacitely insinuates an argument, d 7ninore ad majus : N. Cul- 
VERWEL, Light 0/ Nat., Treat., p. 5. 1696 An argument a minori ad majtis 
is strong with God: D. Clarkson, Pract. Wks., Nichol's Ed., Vol. i. p. 190 
(1864). bef. 1733 the Argument a minori: R. North, Examen, iii. vi. 77, p. 
480. 1882 Here again we find the argumentuvz a minori ad majus: Farrar, 
Early Days Chr., Vol. i. ch. xvi. p. 313 (1882). 

a mort : Eng. fr. Fr. See k. la mort, amort. 

a natura rei, phr, : Lat. : * from the nature of the case 
(matter) '. 

1669 In cases where they are sure it is lawful to follow their Agreements, 
though they be not satisfied of the necessity of it d natura rei, they ought to 
follow them on the account of unity; R. Baxter, Key for Catholicks, Pt. II. 
ch. iv. p. 445- 

a nihilo nil fit: 'nothing is made out of nothing'. See de 
nihilo (nilo). 

1758 I seem to have told you all I know, which you will think very little, but 
a nihilo nil fit [Gray]: Gray and Mason, Corresp., p. 156 (1853). 

a non causa pro causa, />^r.: Lat.: from a cause which is 
not (a non-cause) instead of a cause. 

1565 Still you do reason, A non catisa pro causa; attributing that unto the 
outward sign, which is indeed the virtue* of Christ, and belief in His passion: 
Calfhill, Ans. to Mart., p. 92 (Parker Soc, 1846). 1572 This argument is 

a non causa: Whitgift, Wks.,yQ\. 11. p. 455 (1852). 1646 The third is, A 

non causa pro causa, when that is pretended for a cause which is not, or not in 
that sense which is inferred: Sir Th. Brown, Psetid. Ep., Bk. i. ch. iv, p. 12 

a non esse: Late Lat. See esse. 

*k entrance, phr.: Fr. : to (the) utmost, to the bitter end; 
rendered 'utterance' by accommodation to the totally un- 
connected Eng. *utter' in Caxton (1485), Charles the Grete, 
p. 142 (Ed. 1881), 'pylers of marble & other stones bygonnen 
to brenne & make fyre at vtteraunce'; cf. Holland (1600), 
Tr. Livy, Bk. xxi. p. 417, 'fight at the utterance'; id. (1601), 
Tr. Plin. Nat. Hist.^ Bk. V. ch. 22, Vol. L p. 428, 'they will 
drjnke to the utterance'; and Shaks. (1605), Macb., iii. I. 72, 
'champion me to the utterance'. 

1606 He exhibited one sworde fight performed by fencers to the outrance : 
Holland, Tr. Suet., p. gi. 1804 truly we have no pleasure in seeing his 
contemporaries spur their hobby horses headlong against each other, and fight 
at outrance: Edin. Rev., Vol. 4, p. 161. 1837 there was a famous quarrel, 
& Voutrance, about it: J. F. Cooper, Europe, Vol. i. p. 310. 1860 Francis II. 
will be called upon to make his choice between casting in his lot with the defenders 
d Voutrance of Gaeta, or making his escape by sea: Once a Week, Oct. 20, 
p. 476/2. 1883 Every duellist d outrance binds himself to commit suicide or 
murder: Standard, Oct. 24, p. 5/2. 

Variant, often wrongly written h Pouirance. 

[Composed of d, prep., = 'to'; outrance, Old Fr. oultrance, 
fr. Lat. w/^'r^,^ 'beyond'.] 


a paribus, /^r. : Lat.: from equals; see par. 

1572 it may be an argument a paribus, but not a minori; as you seem to- 
make it: Whitgift, Wks., Vol. n. p. g6 (1852). 1580 as though an argu- 
ment a paribus were not good, except the conclusion were expressed in Scripture, 
Doctor, or Council: Fulke, Answers, p. 193 (1848). 

a parte ante, /^r.: Lat.: lit. 'on the side before', opposed 
to a parte post (Lat.), = 'on the side after'. See quotations. 

1652 And yet it can far better behold the back-jmrts of Eternity, then the 
face of it; Eternity d parte pdst, then Eternity d parte autS : N. Culverwel, 
Light of Nat., Treat., p. 168. 1656 this life \i.e. of Christ] is most properly 
said to be eternal, because it is so both a parte aiite and a parte post, from ever- 
lasting to everlasting: N. Hardy, xst Ep. Joh7t, Nichol's Ed., p. 20/1 (1865). 
1674 Why could not God as well make the "world everlasting a parte ante, on 
the behalf of formemess, as he did the soul of 7nan a parte post, on the behalf of 
lattemess: N. Fairfax, Bulk and Selv., p. 164. 1682 The reasons for this.., 
are drawn a consequenti, or a parte post; that is, from the good consequence or 
fruit of them: Th. Goodwin, Wks., in Nichol's Ser. Sta7td. Divines, Vol. ix. 
p. 400 (1864). 1759 The eternity of the Godhead a parte post is proved thus; 
Goldsmith, Rev. of Hawkins' Misc., Wks., Vol. iv. p. 249 (1854). 

a parte post: Lat. See a parte ante. 

a parte rei, /^r. : Lat.: on the side of reality, as opposed 
to imaginary existence. 

1606 He maketh it Ens Rationis, or a meere Chymera that (as logitians hold) 
hath no essence or being at all d parte rei: R. Parsons, Answer to Coke, ch. 13, 
p. 320. — There is no one substantiall reason a parte rei: ib., ch. 16, p. 379. 

a per se, A per se A, A per C, phr.-. Late Lat: the 
letter A by itself; Metaph., the prime, flowerj that which is 
unique or peerless, 

bef. 1422 London ! thowe arte of townes a per se, I Soveragne of cities: in 
Religuice A7itigucB, Vol, i. p. 205 (1841). 1554 my good lord, you are A per 
se A with us, to our comfort and joy unspeakable: John Bradford, in Letters 
and Treatises, p. 139 (Parker Soc, 1853). 1559 Behold me, Baldwine, A per 

seofmyage: Baldwin and Ferrers, Afzyr(7r_/^rAf«^., 371. [Nares] 1573 — 
80 Every on A per se A; Gab. Harvey, Lett. Bk., p. 98 {1884). — Hese A per 
se A, a ladd for the nonse: ib., p. 120. 

Variants, apersie, apersey, A per C. 

[Perhaps originally for '■&. per se &', = *and per se and', or 
^ampersand\ placed at the end of the alphabet.] 

a piac^re, j!5^r. : It.: Mus.-, 'at pleasure', ad libitum, 

1848 A Piacere. At pleasure: Kimbavlt, Piajtof arte, -p. 90. 

k pieds joints, phr.: Fr. : 'with feet joined'; to jump 
{sauter) d, p. j. means to take a big jump. 

1845 he jumps d pieds joints over the Three Great Days : J. W. Croker, 
Essays Fr. Rev., 1. p. 21 (1857). 

k. plaisir, phr. : Fr. : at pleasure. 

1818 She is to have free ingress and egress, d plaisir, at Dunore Castle: 
Lady Morgan, Fl. Macarthy, Vol. iii. ch. iii. p. 158 (1819). 

a poena et culpa, ^^r. : Lat. : * from punishment and sin'. 

1480 for to bring this thyng to an ende he assoilled hym & his companie a 
pena et culpa: Caxton, Cron. Eng., ch. ccxxi. 1547 the bishop of Rome.,, 
taketh upon him to sanctify all other men of the earth as God's vicar and 
lieutenant, to absolve a poena et culpa: Bp. Hooper, Early Writi7igs, p. 73 
(Parker Soc, 1843). 1560 hys free pardon apenaet culpa : James Pilkington, 
Aggeus, sig. O iiii r°. 1641 Hence he is said to be "Jesus" Mat, i. 21, be- 

cause he saves his from their sins ; not a culpa only, and a pcena, but a contagione : 
R. Stock, Com7n. Malachi, in Puritan Covtm., p. 204/1 (1865). 

k pois d'or: Fr. See au poids de Tor. 

k. port^e, ^^r.: Fr.: within reach, capacity, lit. * range'. 

1748 When you are in company, bring the conversation to some useful subject, 
but d portie of that company: Lord Chesterfield, Letters, Vol. i. No. 125, 
p. 286(1774). 1783 I am in the country, and not d portSe to see the royal 
physicians: HoR. Walpole, Letters, Vol. viii. p. 378 {1858). 

a posteriori, ~e,phr.: Lat.: 'from what is later' in physical 
or logical order, opposed in Logic to a priori ; used of reason- 
ing from consequences or effects to principles or causes; 
equivalent to 'inductive, inductively'. For the facetious use 
see posterior. 

L adv. : 

1768 Is it d posteriori froia. experiments that he deduces this proposition?... 
If he argues d posteriori from experiments, he can pretend only to probability: 
J. Adams, Z'^■rt?>', Wks., Vol. 11. p. 38(1850). 1758 I will allow lord Bolingbroke^ 
that the moral, as well as physical, attributes of God must be known to us only a 
posteriori: Gray, Letters, No. cii. Vol. n. p. 34 (1819). 1830 reasoning d 
posteriori irom. final causes, or the intelligent adaptation of means to ends: Edin. 
Rev., Vol. 52, p. 113. 1843 Such familiar maxims, when collected d posterioT^ 
from observation of life, occupy among the truths of the science the place of what, 
in our analysis of Induction, have so often been spoken of under the Title of 
Empirical Laws: J. S. Mill, System of Logic, Vol. 11. p. 436 (1856). 

IL adj.: 

1588 We confess that the scriptures may be demonstrated by an argument a 
posteriori: Whitaker, Disput., p. 351 {Parker Soc, 1849}. 1630 the cause 
may be proved by the effect, which is a posteriori: J. S. , Triall of the Protestant 



Private Spirit, ii. ch. viii. p. 199. 1666 though science is a priori^ from the 
cause to the effect, yet our knowled|re for the most part.. .is a posteriori from the 
effect to the cause : N.Hardy, rst Ep. John, Nichol's Ed., p. 73/1 (1865). 

a primo ad ultimumj phr.\ Lat.: 'from the first to the 
last\ See quotation. 

1549 the old schole argument A privio ad ultimum : Latimer, 7 Serin, hef. 
K. Ed-vii. VI., II. p. 68 (i86g). 1630 and so d primo ad ultimum, all the 
elect must have true fayth: J. S., Triall of the Protestant Private Spirit ^ n. 
ch. viii. p. 205. 

*a priori, -e, phr.\ Lat: 'from what is earlier, prior' in 
physical or logical order, opposed to a posteriori. 

A. Logic. Of reasoning from principles, definitions, or 
causes to consequences, special cases, or effects ; equivalent 
to 'deductive, deductively'. Also, loosely, of presumptive 

L adv. : 

1618 he that may know he hath true faith, may know, a priori, that he 
hath love also: P. Bavne, Coviment. Epkes., Nichol's Ed., p. 83/2 (1866). 
1790 The science of constructing a commonwealth [is].. .not to be taught a 
priori'. Burke, Rejl. on Rev, in France, p. 90 (3rd Ed.). 1803 Des Cartes 
arrived at a complete system of physics, deduced a priori from the abstract sug- 
gestions of his own reason: Stewart, Life in T. Reid's Wks., p. 20/2 (1840). 
1804 A priori, such a work seemed particularly calculated to engage the public 
attention: Edin. Rev., Vol. 4, p. 214. 1835 — 6 a portion of the nervous system 
...might dpriori be expected to bear a corresponding ratio of developement : Todd, 
Cyc. Anat. and Phys., Vol. i. p. 69/r. 1843 deductively, or d. Priori: 
J. S. Mill, System ^ Logic, Vol. i. p. 399 (1856). 

IL adj.\ 

1652 a demonstration d. priori, is esteemed most certain and scientifical : 
N. CuLVERWEL, Light of Nat., ch. xi. p. 117. — demonstration of him ^ priorei 
ib., ch. xviii.p. 212. 1674 The reason a priori oi my assertion and all hitherto 
said is thus: E. Worslev, Infall. of Cath. Ch., i. p. 73. 1798? I think that 
Butler's Analogy. ..would answer.. .all the objections to Christianity founded on 
« /rztf?V reasonings : S. T. Coleridge, Unpubl. Letters to Rev. J. P. Estlin 
(H. A. Bright, 1884). 1843 an obstinate d. priori prejudice: J. S. Mill, 
Systejn of Logic, Vol. 11. p. 190 (i856).^It is hardly necessary again to repeat, 
that, as in every other deductive science, verification a posteriori must proceed 
pari passu with deduction d. priori: ib., p. 451. *1876 he should not in 
future take the trouble to discuss that doctrine on a priori grounds: Times, 
Dec. 7. [St.] 

B. Metaphysics. Of knowledge, conceptions, and forms 
of thought either acknowledged to be acquired prior to any 
conscious recognition thereof, or assumed to be prior to all 
individual experience; equivalent to 'intuitive, intuitively \ 

I. adv.'. 

1838 You must, therefore... confess, that it [the conception of substance] has 
its seat in your faculty of cognition k priori : Haywood, Tr. Kanfs Critick of 
Pure Reason, p. 7. 

II. adj.: 

1838 a cognition independent of Experience.. .Such cognitions we term 
&. priori, and we distinguish them from the empirical, which have their sources, 
k posteriori, that is to say, in experience : Haywood, Tr. Kant's Critick of 
Pure Reason^ p. 4. 1843 the cases which lay the strongest claims to be 
examples of knowledge a priori: J. S. Mill, System, of Logic, Vol. 11. p. 303 
(1856). 1867 Shall we then take refuge in the Kantian doctrine? shall we say 
that Space and Time are forms of the intellect, — ' ' a priori laws or conditions of 
the conscious mind'*? H. Spencer, First Princ, Vol. i. p. 49 (2nd Ed.). 

k propos, apropos, /^r. : Fr.: 'to the purpose', relating to 
the subject propounded, fit(ly), opportune(ly) ; sometimes 
with /(?, of. 

I. adv.: opportunely, in respect (of), with reference (to); 
also absoL in the nick of time ! to the point ! 

1669 A propos I I have been retrieving an old Song of a Lover that was ever 
quarrelling with his Mistress: Dryden, Mock-AstroL, v. Wks., Vol. i. p. 324 
(1701). 1738 your two last most agreeable letters. They could not have come 
more a-propos : West, in Gray's Letters, No. xviii. Vol. i. p. 33 (1819). 1746 
A propos of negligence; I must say something upon that subject: Lord 
Chesterfield, Z^^^^r^, Vol. i. No. 8r, p. 179 (1774). 1772 And I'm deputed 
from our company [ Ambassador of peace to the old man — | And, apropos ! he's 
here — Health to Theuropides: R. Warner, Tr. Plautus, Vol. iii. p. 274 (1772). 

II. adj.: 

1691 It is certainly. ..<3;/ro/(?.r what he had said before in that Page : T. H[ale}, 
New Invettt., 44. [N. E. D.] 1709 Thought it ^xtvtmGXy d propos, \ To ward 
against the coming blow : M. Prior, Paulo-Purg., Poems, Vol. 1. p. 135 (1870). 
bef. 1733 the Wit of Man could not have found out a Conduct more a propos in 
that Conjuncture, than what the King used: R. North, Examen, 1. iii. 163, 
p. 229. 1750 tell you a story apropos of two noble instances of fidelity and 
generosity: HoR. Walpole, Letters, Vol. 11. p. 189 (1857). 1838 the remark 
was particularly apropos to the large wisdom of the stranger's tone and air: 
Hawthorne, Ajner. Note-Bks., Vol. i. p. 136 (1871). 1847 A something 
smart and apropos, \ For my new Album : Barham, Ingolds. Leg.y p. 506 (1865). 

III. sb.: propriety, seasonableness. 

1668 they often use them with better judgment and more a propos than the 
English do: Dkyden, Ess. on Dra7n. Po., Wks., Vol. i. p. 13 (1701). 1859 
Well. ..he commenced, without any d propos: Once a Week, Dec. 24, p. 538/2. 


1878 He remarked without being careful of the a fropos: G. Eliot, Dan. 
Deronda^ Bk. vi. ch. 48, p. 440. 

Variants, i8 c. 19 c. apropos, apropos. 
k, propos de bottes, phr.: Fr.: 'touching the subject of 
boots', z'.^. irrelevantly. 

1757 [After a sentence abt. note-books] A propos de bottes, for I am told 
he always wears his; was his Royal Highness very gracious to you, or not? 
Lord Chesterfield, Letters, Vol. ir. No. 96, p. 385 (1774). 1845 J. W, 
Croker, Essays Fr. Rev., I. p. 14 (1S57). 

*a quatr' occhi.^i^r.: It.: lit. 'to four eyes', face to face, 
or t6te £ tete, of two people by themselves. 

1816 one word, a quatv'occki, is worth whole reams of correspondence: 
Byron, in T. Moore's iyi, Vol. iii. p. 198 (1832). 

k quatre, phr. : Fr. : of {or between) four. 

1883 He had convoked them [the Assembly] to examine and ratify the Con- 
vention signed by the Conference a guatre: Standard, Sept. 17, p. 5/5. 

k quatre ^pingles, phr.: Fr. : with scrupulous neatness, 
lit. 'with four pins' : also used attrib. in English. 

1870 his. brown throat is bared in a ndglig^, as becoming to most men, as the 
d. quatre ^ptj[£-tes cKSiCtltude of their park get-up is unbecoming; R. Broughton, 
Red as a Rose, Vol. I. p. 235. 

k quatre mains, phr. : Fr. : for four hands. 

1862 The pretty little duet ^ quatre mains: Thackeray, Philip, Vol. l: 
ch. xix. p. 350 (1887). 

k ravir, phr. : Fr. : in ravishing style, most charmingly. 
Sometimes written incorrectly au ravir. 

1820 could not perform the heroine, because she did it a ravir: Mrs. Opie, 
Tales, Vol. III. p. 208. 1858 Charley. ..waltzed au ravir: A. Teollope, 
Three Clerks, u. i. p. 12. 

a re, the name of the lowest note but one of the full 
musical scale of Guido Aretino, and also of the second lowest 
note of his fourth and seventh hexachords ; but the two 
higher A's coinciding also with la of another hexachord and 
ot/ of a third, were named in the collective scale A -la-mi-re. 
See gamut. 

abt. 1450 Every clarkc.seythe that are gothe befor bemy : Burlesque, in Rel. 
Ant., I. 83. [N. E. D.] 1596 [See gamut]. 1597 there be no re in GaiH 
vt, nor miin A re: Th. Morley, Mus., p. 7 (1771}. 

a rived^rci, phr.: It.: a form of farewell, cf. au revoir; 
lit. 'to the seeing (each other) here again'. 

1670 Hence the Romans takeing leave of a stranger departing from Rome — 
say jestingly to him a Rivedirci that is. Farewell till I see you againe: R. Las- 
sels, Voy. Ital., Pt. II. p. 316. 

a sangue freddo, //zr. : It.: 'in cold blood'. 

1594 I do read. ..that, a Sangue /reddo, as the Italian sayth, that is to say in 
time of peace and by execution of justice. ..these noblemen following were put to 
death: [R. Parsons?], Confer, ab. Success., Pt. 11. ch. ix. p. 214. 

[Of this phrase the Fr. de sang froid SinAthe Eng. in cold 
dlood seem to be translations. Ci. frtridus, = 'ia cold blood', 
HOR., A. P., 465.] 

a secretis, //%r. : Lat.: secretary, confidential attendant. 

1573-80 [See a consiliis]. 1621 If he bend his forces to some other 
studies, with an intent to be a secretis to some nobleman, or in such a place with 
an ambassador: R. Burton, Anat. Mel., Pt. 1. Sec. 2, Mem. 3, Subs. 15, p. 203 

k seul jet, phr.: Fr.: at one effort, at one stroke {lit. 
throw) ; more usually d^un seul jet. 

1884 Salisbury is our one mediaeval cathedral built & seul jet: Church Times, 
Feb. I, p. 86/1. ■' 

a simili, phr.: Lat.: 'from the like', similarly, on similar 
grounds. The pi. form a similibus is also found in almost 
the same sense as a paribus, q. v. 

1586 this is ever the argument his Majesty's self uses; but they ground them- 
selves a simili, having Majesty's good favour: Master of Gray, Lett, in 
Lodge, /«Ki^. .Ek^, //ji^., Vol. 11, p. 288 (1838). 

a spe ad speciem,/^^.: Lat.: 'from hope to sight'. 

1647 We no sooner believe, but we would fain see, and be brought a sie ad 
spectem: John Trap?, Comm. on New Test., p. 3S6 hS6S). 

a t&nto, phr.: Lat.: from so much; a tali, from such a 
kind, a toto, from all; cido, 'food', being suppressed in the 

1652 he that cannot be excused a toto, may be excused, a tanto: Marbuey, 

J.^.r.ft^"''' ^^2Y\ ^&' Pj, yt'r',i?,?^5'- 1664-5 I have always 
esteemed abstnience <i tozi^o beyond the fulfillmg of periods and quadragesimas : 

f^^fl'^l' ^T't^s \°- "f P,- '=' ^l^''°A .^?.^8 '''=" ^'^ long time as Christ 
fasted a toto wholly from food we should a tali et a tanto, from some kind of 
food : N. Hardy, rst Ep. John, Nichol's Ed., p. 157/2 (1865). 


a tempo [giusU}, phr. -. It. : Mzis.: in regular time. 
1740 J. Gkassineau, Mas. Did. 

a thoro, a toro: Lat. See a mensa et toro. 

k tort et \ travers, phr. : Fr. : at random, lit. 'at wrong 
and across'. 

■ 1749 pray speak it [Italian] in company, right or wrong, a tort on a travers: 
Lord Chesterfield, Letters, Vol. l. No. 167, p. 447 (1774). 1843 He was 

in truth a nobody, who made himself a busybody— unA by meddling with 
everything, d tort et A travers, was at once mischievous and ridiculous: 
J. W, Croker, Essays Fr. Rev., viii. p. 524 (1857). 

k travers, /Ai^. : Fr.: across, athwart, through. 

1843 The view. ..such a one as should be seen ^ travers a good dinner; 
Thackeray, Irish Sk. Bk., p. 27 (1S87). 

[Composed of d., prep., = 'to, on'; ^rijz'«rj, = ' breadth', 
' transverse way '. Occurs early as adv., — ' cross- wise'. 

1430 And goth to him attrauerse : hYuc, Chron. Troy, III. xxiii. [N.E.D,] 
bef. 1529 theyr eyen beholdinge a trauers; J. Skelton, IVks., Vol. i. p. 203 

A.U.C. : Lat. See ab urbe condita. 

*a verbis ad verbera, phr.: Lat.: from words to blows. 

1885 Daily News, Nov. 16, p. 5/2. 

*a vinculo {matrimonii], phr. : Late Lat. : from the tie 
(chain, bond) of matrimony. 

" 1628—9 [See a mensa et toro]. 1721 For those of the Roman church, 
who assert it, do grant that divorces by the law of nature were 'a vinculo': J. 
Owen, Wks., Vol. xxi. p. 539 (Russell, 1826). 1860 Divorce a vinculo: 
[Heading] Once a Week, Feb. 25, p. 184. 

aam : Du. See ohm. 

Aaron : name of the first high-priest of the Jews. 
. Corrupt spelling of arum or aron. 

Aaron' s-beard, name of several plants, esp. Rose of Sharon 
or Great St John's wort [Hypericum Cafycinum). 

Aaron's Rod, name of several plants with tall flowering 
stems, esp. Great Mullein ( Verbascum Thapsus) and Golden 
Rod {Solidago Virgaured). Also Arch.: an ornament con- 
sisting of a rod entwined by a serpent. 

Aaronic, Aaronical, pontifical. 

1607 Aarons, and such as sit at the Helme of the Church, or are worthily 
advanced for their knowledge in Learning and State, I mean both Bishops and 
Doctors: Tovse.i,\., Four-footed Beasts, Ep. Dedic. [N.E.D. ] 1611 Jarrus; 
Wake-robin. ..Aaron, Calues-foot, Cuckoe-Pint : Cotgr. 1878 rose of Sharon 
or Aaron's beard: R. Thompson, Gardener's Assist., 656/2. [N.E.D.] 1834 
Jacob's Ladder, Aaron's Rod, | And the Peacock Gentianella : Mary Howitt, 
The Garden (Sketches of Nat. Hist,, 1851), 108. [N.E.D.] 1628 Our arch- 
bishops and bishops have wanted some Aaronicall accoutrements, — gloues, rings, 
sandals, miters and pall, and such other trash: Bp. Hall, Maried Clergie, I. 
xviii. 759. [N.E.D.] 

aasvogel, sb. : Gar, : ' carrion-bird'. 

1887 Nobody would be likely to find the bodies of the two men and horses 
under the lonely bank there. Certainly they would not be found till the aasvogels 
had picked them clean: H. R. Haggard, Jess, xxvi. in Comhill Mag., Jan., 
p. no. 

ab, abs, a, prep.: Lat.: 'from, off, of, by, on the part of 
(as prefix 'away from, away, wrongfully'), forming part of 
Lat. phrases and of words of Lat. origin. See quotations and 
phrases beginning with a, ab. 

1660 The second [argument] hath been drawn a congruo, from congruity: 
Newton, on John 17, in Nichol's Corns., p. 109/1 (1867). bef. 1733 reason- 
ing ab i-mprobabili...impossibili ['from the improbable. ..the impossible']; R. 
North, Exavten, i. iii. 129, p. 206. 

ab absurdo, /.^n : Lat.: from absurdity. See absurdum. 

1656 Their folly and madness herein Christ disproves with an argument 
ab absurdo: J. Owen, Vindic. Evang., Wks., Vol. VIII. p. 272 (Russell, 1826). 
1682 as if the apostle meant to argue, ab absurdo, from an apparent absurdity 
that would follow upon the contrary : Th. CJoodwin, Wks,, in Nichol's Ser. Stand. 
Divines, Vol. ix. p. 452 (1864). 1714 most of them [arguments] are rather 
drawn ab absurdo, than from any clear light about the nature of the object 
known: Halybukton, Nat. Relig. Insuf., Wks,, p. 304 (1835). 

ab aeterno, /^;>'. ; Lat.: from eternity, without beginning. 

1662 As for the minde of the Platonists and the Stoicks we have before 
acquainted you with it, one looks so high, as if a Creation would scarce content 
them, unlesse they may have it ab mtenio'. N, Culverwel, Light of Nat., 
cli. xi, p. 109. 1669 they added that the world might be created ab aitemo : 
Annot. -upon R el. Med., p. 212. 1887 Quarterly Rev., Jan., p, 196. 

ab KSA^, phr.: Late Lat. : from before, before. . 

1831 there may have been an infinity of causes ah ante: Edin. Rev., Vol. 54, 
p. 149- 

ab effectu,/^r.: Lat.: from the effect, operation, function. 

1600 the tree of life is called the tree of life ab effectw. R, Cawdray, Treas. 
qf Similies, p. 37. 1682 It is an attribute ab effectu...hoTa what he doth: 
Th. Goodwin, Wks., in Nichol's Ser. Stand. Divines, Vol. ix. p. 251 (1864). 


1693 It is a most strange demonstration, ah effectu ^eciproco [alternating] ; he 
called those he hath elected; he elected those he called: Comm. i E^, Peter,. 
i. 2. 

ab eventu, phr.: Lat.: from the result, event. 

1600 is called The tree of knowledge of good and euill: not because it giueth 
such knowledge of itselfe, but it is called ab evenizi: R. Cawdrav, Treas. of 
Similies, p. 37. 

ab externo, phr.^ ab extrinseco, phr.\ Late Lat.: from 

1610 So that if our nature were of it selfe, wee should know our owne wise-, 
dome, and never go about to know it by learning, ab externo: J. Healey, St 
Augustine, p. 429. — Indede a wise man is to endure death with patience, but that, 
must come ab externo, from another mans hand, and not from his owne : ib,, p. 759. 
1650 Of our bodies infirmities, though our knowledge be partly ab extrinseco^ 
from the opinion of the Physitian: J. Donne, Poems, p. 284 {1669). 1696 what 
virtue they have :s ab extrinseco, from divine assistance and co-operation: 
D. Clarkson, Pract. Wks., Nichol's Ed,, Vol. 11. p. 112 (1865). 

ab extra, phr. : Low Lat. : 
to ad extra, q. v. 


'from outside, outside', opposed 


1660 There are many demonstrations of his will herein that may be taken ab 
extra from his \i.e. God's] oath: Th. Goodwin, Wks., in Nichol's Ser. Sta?id, 
Divines, Vol. iv. p. 210 (1862). 1669 As for the Presbyterians. ..both in France 
and Scotland they [the Papists] have cunningly wrought upon them ab extra; 
R. Baxter, Key for Catholicks, ch. xlv. p. 326. 

2. adj. : 

1652 the divine understanding never receives the least tincture from an object, 
no species ab extra, but views all things in the pure Crystal of his own essence : 
N. Culverwel, Light of Nat., ch, xi. p. 115. 1672 when it [i.e. sin] is 
committed with little opposition ab intra, and in spite of all opposition ab extra, 
I assure you then it hath a great power: T. Jacomb, Romans, Nichol's Ed., 
p. ii8/i {i868). 1696 It is inconsistent with his divine perfections to be 
moved by anything ab extra, without: D. Clarkson, Pract. Wks., Nichol's 
Ed., Vol. II. p. 60 (1865). 

ab extrinseco : Late Lat." See ab externo. 

ab inconvenienti, -e, phr. : Lat. : from inconvenience. 

1606 A third reason is taken ab inconveniente \ R. Parsons, Answer to 
Coke, ch. iv. p. 86. 1803 Macdonnel, Diet. Qtiot. 

*ab initio, /^n: Lat.: *from the beginning', originally. 

1699 If those lawes...had been deliuered vs, ab initio, and in their present 
vertue and perfection: B. Jonson, Ev. Man otct of his Hum.. (Prol.), Wks., 
p. 87 (1616), 1767 it ought to have been declared null ab initio', HoR,' 
Walpole, Letters, Vol. v. p. 50 (1857). 1788 specific sums out of that fund, 
void in event by the subsequent death of the devisees in the testator's life-time, 
but not those which are void ab initio'. J. Powell, Devises, Vol. 11. p. 93 (1827).. 
1828 the Scotch courts... declare null and void ab initio, a marriage contracted 
through fraud: Edin. Rev., Vol. 47, p. loi. 

ab intestate, phr. : Lat. : from one who has not left a wilL 

1785 There is neither a conveyance to him, nor a succession ab intestato 
devolving on him: Th. Jefferson, Explan., Diplom. Corresp., 1783 — 1789, 
Vol. II. p. 473 (1835). — the xi^^ article of the treaty provides that the sub- 
jects or citizens of either party shall succeed ab intestato to the lands of their 
ancestors, within the dominions of the other: ib., p. 472. 1818 the English 
courts receive their regulations for successions ab intestato: Edin. Rev., Vol. 31, 
p. 112. 

ab intra, phr.: Low Lat.: *from within, within'. See ab 

ab irato, phr.\ Lat.: in angry mood, in the first heat of 
anger; lit. 'from an angry (man)*. 

1885 If a violent article appeared against him, T fancy Victor Hugo, who used 
to read everything, used to answer it ab irato for himself: Athen^um, Aug. 8, 
p. 177/2. 

ab ofB-cio et beneficio,^Ar.: Late Lat.: Eccles. from office 
and benefice, of a clergyman suspended from the exercise 
of ministerial functions and from the receipt of the benefits 
of an Ecclesiastical living or dignity. 

1686 the Bishop might have suspended the Doctor ah officio et beneficio : 
Sir J. Bramston, Autobiogr., p. 248 (1845). — Neither did the precept say 
whether the Doctor should be suspended ab officio, or beneficio, or both; ib., 
p. 244. 1686 He was only suspended ab officio, and that was soon after taken 
oif: Evelyn, Diary, Vol. 11. p. 268 (1872). 1693 And that such as transgress 
any one of these Directions, be suspended by the Lord Bishop of the Dioces....^<5 
officio tSr" beneficial for a Year and a Day: J. Hacket, Abp. Williams, PL i. 
loi, p. go. 

ab origine, //^r. : Lat.: 'from the beginning'. 

1537 as I can affirm unto you with certain and sure arguments, as you shall 
hereafter know all together ab origine : Latimer, Reviains, p. 382 (Parker Soc, 
1845). 1654 The chapel is reformed, ab origi}te: Evelyn, Diary, Vol. i. p. 319 
{1872). 1681 he called it so. ..chiefly because it is ab origine in man, from the 
time that the foundation of man's nature is laid : Th. Goodwin, Wks. , in Nichol's 
Ser. Stand. Divines, Vol. ii. p. 121 (1861). bef 1733 a proper Mover or 
Informer of the Matter ab originei R. North, Examen, i. ii. 167, p. T17. 
1347 — 9 chemical differences exist «i5 i'ri^W in blastemata themselves: Todd, 
Cyc. Anat. a7id Phys., Vol. iv. p. 102/1. 



ab OVO, phr.: Lat.: 'from the egg'. Metaph., from the 

1595 if they [dramatic poets] wil represent an history, they must not (as 
Horace saith) beginne A b otto : but they must come to the principall poynt of that 
one action, which they wil represent; Sidney, Apol, Poet., p. 64 (1863). 
1708 — 9 he [Statins] asks his Muse where to begin his Thebaid, and seems to 
doubt whether it should not be ab ovo Ledaeo: Pope, Letters, p. 44 (1737)- 
1804 In this historical review of Ireland, our author has commenced aJi ovo: 
Editt. Rev., Vol. 5, p. 155. 1862 Shall we begin ab ovo, sir? Thackeray, 
Philip, Vol. I. ch. i. p. 113 (1887). 

[The origin of the phrase, at any rate as used by Sidney, 
is Horace, A. P., 147, Nee gemino bellum Troianum orditur 
ab ouo, the twin egg from which Helen of Troy was born; 
but cf next article.] 

*ab ovo usque ad mala, phr.: Lat.: from the beginning 
to the end, i.e. of a Roman banquet, which usually began with 
an antepast or whet of eggs and salt fish called promulsis. 
See HoR., Sat., i. 3. 6. si collihiisset, ab ouo Vsque ad mala 
citaret, lo Bacche! 

1593 Rather than he will lose his wenche | He will fight ab ouo vsque ad 
mala: Peele, Edward /., p. 384/1 note {4to., 1861). 1655 Muffett, 

Health^ s Iinprov., p. 295. 

ab uno disce omnes ; Lat. See ex uno disce omnes. 

ab Tirbe condita, phr.-. Lat: from the building of the 
city (of Rome). The epoch was fixed by most chronologers 
of ancient Rome at B.C. 753, the above phrase or the initials 
A. U. C. being appended to the dates of their era just as the 
initials A.D. are to our dates. 

1761 Sterne, Trist. Shand., iii. 36. 1803 Macdonnel, Did. Quot. 

ab utero ad urnam,/Ar.: Lat. See quotation. 

1647 So have the saints of God here [a terrible tempestuous time of itj for 
most part ah utero ad uruatn, from the womb to the tomb: John Trapp, Conim. 
on Neuo Test., p. 484 (1868). 

abaciscus, .s-t^. : Lat.: Arch. 

1. apparently the only correct use, as shown under 2. 
'A square compartment enclosing a part or the entire 
pattern or design of a Mosaic pavement': R. Stuart (1830). 

1753 ABACUS, [Cycl^ — or Abaciscus, in the antient architecture, is used 
to denote certain compartiments in the incrustation or lining of the walls of state- 
rooms, Mosaic pavements, and the like: Chambers, Cycl., Suppl. 1829 
ABACISCUS, in ancient architecture, the square compartments of Mosaic pave- 
ments: Lond. Encyc. 

2. ' sometimes used as synonymous with abacus ' : R. 
Stuart (whom Gwilt copies). He seems to follow Nicholson 
in misunderstanding Chambers who makes abaciscus syn- 
onymous with abacus in the meaning i only. 

1801 Encyc. Brit. , Suppl. 1819 ABACUS, or Abaciscus : P. Nicholson, 
Archii. Diet. 

[From aPm'ia-Kos, dim. of a|3a|, = 'a slab'. See abacus.] 

aback: Eng. fr. Lat., or Fr. abaque. See abacus 3 a. 

abactor {p.±—), sb.: Eng. fr. Late Lat.: a driver off, a 
cattle-lifter on a large scale, one who steals and drives off 
herds or numbers of cattle. 

1667 The safety of their herds, not only from straying, but in time of warr, 
from invaders and abactors, whose breaking in. attended with the cattels 
passing through or going out : Hammond, 0?l Psalms, cxliv. 14, 696. [N. E. D.] 
1696 Phillips, World of Words. 1738 ABACTOR, in some law-writers of 
the middle age, denotes a thief who drives off cattle by open force ; more usually 
called abigeus: Chambers, Cycl. 1829 The Abactor or Abactor's wife 

(vide Ainsworth) would suppose she had heard something: Lamb, Lett., 11. 66 
(1841). [N.E.D.] 

[Late Lat. noun of agent to abigere, = 'to drive off', fr. ab, 
prep., = 'from, off', and agere, = '' to drive'.] 

abaculus, sb.: Lat. 

1. a frame for calculating, mpl. abaculi. 

1601 counting rundles... which some call Abaculos: Holland, Tr. PUn. 
N. H., Bk. 36, ch. 26, Vol. II. p. 598. 

2. Arch, a tile for paving, &c.: Fairholt, Diet. Art 
Terms (18...). 

3. a small table or desk: J. Britton (1838). 
*abacus, //. abaci, sb.: Lat.: also obs. aback (— -i). 
I. a board for tracing diagrams &c. in sand or dust. 

1387 Abacus is a table wi)? Jje whiche schappes bej? portrayed and ipeynt in 
powdre, and abacus is a craft of geometric: [Not in the original Higden.] Tee- 
VI.SA, Higden's Polychr. , vii. 69 (Rolls Ser.). [N. E. D.] 


2. a calculating board, table, or frame. 

1686 Their Abacus or counting Board, for performing the Operations of 
Arithmetick, which I find pretty near to agree with that of the antient Romans: 
Obs. cone. Chinese Char., in Misc. Cur., in. 216. [N.E.D.] 1886 Thefactis, 
an abacus, which is at bottom merely a form of score, or tally, was absolutely in- 
dispensable for arriving at anything like a high arithmetical result before the in- 
vention of the Arabic numerals: Comhill Mag., Scores and Tallies, Apr., p. 144. 

3. Arch, the flat plate between the capital of a pillar and 
the architrave. 

1598 if vnder the abacus you diminish a fourth part of the thickenesse of 
Voluta: R. Haydocke, Tr. Lomatius, Bk. I. ch. xxvi. p. 93. 1680 the 
Abacus or plinth of the Capital: Evelyn, Tr. Frearts Parall. Archil, p. 16. 
1886 The carving has the Corinthian abacus and volutes clearly indicated; 
Atkenceum, Oct. 23, p. 53B/3. 

3 a. aback (Eng. fr. Lat., or Fr. abaque), only found in 
this sense : a panel, or square tablet. Obs. 

1603 Vnder-neath these, in an Aback thrust out before the rest lay TAMESI S : 
B. JONSON, Ft. of Kings Entertainm., Wks., p. 845 (1616).— In the centre, or 
midst of the Pegme was an Aback or Square, wherein this Elogie was written; 
ib., p. 848. See abaciscus. 

3 (5. a bufet, cupboard, side-board, dresser : Fosbroke, 
Encyc. Ant, p. 219 (1825). 

1797 ABACUS, among the antients, was a kind of cupboard or buffet: 
Encyc. Brit. 

[Masc. sb. fr. a'/3af , gen. a^aKos, of unknown origin.] 

abada, sb.: Port. (cf. Sp. abdda): an old name of the 

1588 there are elephants. ..and abadas, which is a kind of beast so big as two 
great buls, and hath vppon his snowt a little home : R. Parke, Tr. Mendoza's 
Hist. Chin., Vol. 11. p. 312 (1854). 1598 The Abada or Rhinoceros is not in 
India, butonelyin Bengala, And Patane: Tr. j'. VajiL inschoten^s Voyages^ Bk. I. 
ch. 47, p. 88/1. 1599 homes oi Abath...\!ti\?, Abath is a beast which hath one 
home onely in her forehead, and is thought to be the female Unicome : R. Hak- 
LUVT, Voyages, Vol. II. ii. p. 107. 1622 A China brought me a present of a cup 
of cibado (or black unecorns home): R. Cocks, Diary, Vol. II. p. 56 (1883). 
1625 the Abada or Rhinocerote: PuRCHAS, Pilgrims, Vol. T. Bk. i. p. 39. 
1662 The Rhinocerot, by the Indians called Abadu: J. Davies, Tr. Oleariits, 
Bk. ii. p. 118 (1669). 

Variants, 16 c. abath, 17 c. abda, abado, abadu. 

[Port, abada also bada, perhaps fr. Malay, badak (Macassar 
i5ii:^a), = 'rhinoceros': again Arab. abid, = ^SL wild beast' in 
general; afo'rfa:, = ' something monstrous'.] 

Abaddon: Heb.: Apollyon, destroyer, 'the angel of the 
bottomless pit'; lit. destruction, depth of hell (so Milton, 
P. R., IV. 624, Bible (R.V.), Prov., xxvii. 20). 

1382 The aungel of depnesse, to whom the name hi Ebru Labadon [v. I. Ab- 
badon, Laabadon. Abadon], forsothe bi Greke Appolion, and hi Latyn hauynge 
the name Destrier: Wyclif, Rev., ix. u. 1550 The name of this 

their captain in the Hebrew tongue is Abaddon, and in the Greek tongue 
Apollyon: Bp. Bale, Select Wks., p. 357 (1S49). 1611 Bible, Rev., ix. 11. 
1652 But Antichrist hath endeavoured to l)e the Abaddon and the Apollyon 
of all sacred antiquities : N. Culverwel, Light of Hat., ch. xv. p. 161. 

[Gk. 'A^a88(Bj', fr. Heb. dbad, = 't.o go astray, to perish'.] 

*abandon, sb.: Fr.: 'a giving up' of oneself to any feeling 
or impulse ; absence of all self-restraint, natural freedom of 
attitude, movement or expression. 

1834 with her intimate friends there is an abandon and unreserved com- 
munion of thoughts: Greville Memoirs, Vol. III. ch. xxii. p. 52 (1874). 
1839 I lack words to express the full extent, or the earnest abandon of his 
persuasion: E. A. Poe, Wks., Vol. i. p. 128 (1884). 1851 there is.. .in 

Beaumont and Fletcher's style... a certain openness and abajidon, and ever- 
varying elasticity: Geo. Darley, Beaum. and Fletcher, Introd., p. xxxv. 
1860 such abandon of red tape: W. H. Russell, Diary, Vol. i. p. 128. 
1862 The evening's feasting had only imparted animation to Mr. Hunt, and 
occasioned an agreeable abandon in his talk: Thackeray, Philip, Vol. I. ch. 
vii. p. 187 (1887). 1863 "danced it with.. .such a 'go'." "You mean such an 
'abandon':" C. Reade, Hard Cash, Vol. I. p. 178. 1874 sang Leigh, with 
operatic abandon, as she dusted her books; B. W. Howard, One Summer, ch. 
XI. p. 137 (1883). 

[From Old Fr. a bandon,~'m control', i.e. of some one else ; 
hence the above meaning implying 'without self-control'.] 
abandonn^, ppl. : Fr. See quotation. 

1822 We know of no English poet who is so abandonnS, as the French term 
It, who so wholly gives himself up to his present feelings [of Herrick]: Retro- 
spective Rev., Vol. V. p. 158. 

[Past part, of ^ abandonner, = '-to give one's self up', fr. 
abandon, q. v^ 

abarre (— -^), vb.: Eng. fr. Anglo-Fr. 

I. Z.i?f. 'to plead in bar' of a suit or plea. Obs. 

1489 Therfore the kyng...hath ordeyned stabhshed and enacted that if ony 
persone or persones hereafter sue wyth good feyth ony action populer I and the 
deffendaunt or defendauntes in the same action plede ony maner of recovere of 
action populer in barre of the sayd action | or elles that the same defendaunt or 


defendauntes plede that he or they before that tyrae barred ony suche pleyntif or 
pleyntifes in ony such action populer | that thenne the playntyf or pleyntifes in 
the action taken wyth good feyth may abarre that the said recovere in the sayd 
action populer was had by covyn | or elles to abarre that the sayd playntif or 
playntifes was or were barred in the sayd action populer by covyn I that than yf 
afterwarde the sayd collusion or covyn soo abarred be lawfully founden I the 
pleyntif or pleyntifes m that action sued with good feyth shall have recovere ac- 
cordyng to the nature of the action and execucion upon the same: Caxton, 
statutes ^ Henry VII., ch. 20, Slg. e v >^ (1869). 

2. debar, keep from. Obs. 

1492 he is a bowght to remeve the prysoner by a pryvy seall to abarre me 
from myn mony: Paslan Letters, Vol. in. No. 931, p. 379 (1874). 

[From Anglo- Fr. vb. abarrer, fr. Fr. cL, prep., = 'to, at', and 
barre, sb. (Celtic), = 'bar'. Perhaps a^ffr= 'debar' is fr. Old 
Fr. esbarrer.] 

abas,.fi^. : Pers. ; a weight used forpearls.'3-66diamond Grains 
English, or 2-25 Troy Grains': Kelly, Orient. Metr. (1832). 

1684 the Emir of Vodana shew'd me a Pearl. ..that weigh'd seventeen Ahas, 
or fourteen Carats and seven Eights; for in all the Pearl Fisheries of the East 
they use no other weights but Abas, which make seven Eights of a Carat: J. P., 
Tr. Taverniet^s Trav., Vol. I. Bk. ii. p. 95. 

abassi^, abas, sb.: Pers.: a Persian silver coin worth from 
l6d. to igi/. For the later and higher value see L. Langles, 
Fr. Tr. of Sir J. Chardin's Voyages, Vol. iv. pp. 183 — 185 

1625 Their moneyes in Persia of Siluer, are the Abacee, the Mahomedee: 
PuRCHAS, Pilgrims^ Vol. i. Bk. iv. p. 524. 1662 The Abas...%o called from 
Schach-Abas, by whose command they were first made, being in Value about the 
third part of a Rixdollar; so that they are about \%d, sterl. : J. Davies, 
Tr. Olearius, vi. p. 223 (1669). 1665 Coins at this day used, are the 

Abbassee, in our Money sixteen pence: Sir Th. Herbert, Trav.^ p. 314(1677). 
1684 You must pay ten Abassi's for every Camel's Loading: J. P., Tr. 
Tavemier's Trav.^ Vol. i. Bk. i. p. 18. 1744 Abaci. See Abassi: Postle- 
THWAYT, Did. Trade. 

[Pers. ^abbasf^ fr. name of Shah Abbas I. (a.d. 1587 — 1629) 
who first had them struck.] 

Abassi^ a title of the Dalai-Lama of Thibet. 

1699 In the foresayd city their Abassi^ that is to say, their Pope is resident: 
R. Hakluyt, Voyages^ Vol. ii. i. p. 64. 

[The quot. is transl. fr. Odoric whose reading is doubtful 
{v.L Alsabi, or A If abi). Yule (Cathay^ Vol. I. p. 149) suggests 
that Abassi — by confusion with the Abassi Khaliffs, or 
Saracen Popes — is either for Pers. and Arab. bakshi, = di 
member of a Buddhist religious order, or for Mongol ubashi^ 
= a class of Lamas.] 

abasso: It. See abbasso. 

abatement (:ii^— ), sb,\ Eng. fr. Fr. 

I. Leg. act of putting down, removing, cancelling, quash- 
ing ; or state of being put down, removed, cancelled, quashed : 
now esp. of writs, plaints and pleas. 

1621 a plea which goeth meerely in abatement of the writ: Perkins, Prof. 
Booke, ch. V. § 385, p. 167 ^r642). 1660 Nor shall the same be Cause of 
nt, or Discontinuance : 

Error, Abatement, 

Stat. 12 Car. II., ch. 3, § 3, 4 (Ruffhead). 

2. act of lowering, lessening, removal; subsidence; lower- 
ing of value, dignity, or power. 

1485 as well in abatement of their custome which they shold here yf they were 
noo deynizeyns: Caxton, Statutes 1 Henry VII. , ii. sig. a ii z/" (1869). 1601 
Nought enters there... But falls into abatement, and low price: Shaks., Tw.Nt., 
i. I, 13. 1792 to what a state of abatement, of abasement, of annihilation, 

have these entertainers of the public been depressed: H. Brooke, FoolofQuaL^ 
Vol. I. p. 219. 

3. losing, suffering loss or diminution. 

1629 though it were not quencht, yet it had some abatement: Brent, Tr. 
Soave's Hist. Courtc. Trent^ p. xxxiii. (1676). 1646 For possible it is that 
bodies may emit vertue and operation without abatement of weight: Sir Th. 
Brown, Pseud. Ep., Bk. 11. ch. v. p. 64 (1686). 

4. the amount by which anything is lowered, or lessened, 
or depreciated ; decrease, deduction, loss. 

1624 The third abatement of the honor and continuance of this Scenicall 
company is, that they make their spectators pay to deare for their Income : J. Gee, 
in Skaks. Cent. Pr., 160. [N. E.D.] 1665 Notwithstanding these abatements 
[losses] Mustapka continued his march as far as the City : SiR Th. Herbert, 
Trav., p. 280 (1677). 1693 The Lord Treasurer. ..complain'd against him to 
the King, how Delinquents by his Abatements were so slightly punish'd in their 
Purse: J. Hacket, Abp. Williams, Pt. i. 96, p. 83. 

[Caxton, Book of Good Manners^ sig. h v v\ has esbate- 
ment, = 'relaxation'.] 

abath. See abada. 

s. D. 


abatis, abbatis, sb. : Fr. : Mi7. : a defence of felled trees, 
laid with their branches pointed towards the enemy; also- 
[American) a kind of fence or hedge. 

1766 Not far from Pilsnitz...the enemy had a great abatis: Lloyd, War in 
Germany, Vol. i. p. 117. 1780 T. Simes, Diet., after Milit Guide (1781). 
1826 roads. ..covered with abattis and other encumbrances: Subaltern, ch. 21, 
p. 313 (1828). 1844 took the precaution of having this road blocked up by 
an abatis in the wood through which it led: W. Sjborne, Waterloo, Vol. i. 
ch. iv. p. 64. 

1808 there was a kind of abbatis or brush fence, between this land and the- 
land of the Northwest Company: Min. 0/ Detroit La7td Off. Commiss., Amer. 
State Papers, Vol. i. p. 385 (1832). 

[Fr. abatis., (2(5^///>, = ' any thing thrown down', 'garbage'.] 
abat-jour, j^.: Fr.: sky-light, reflector. 

1838 J. Britton, Diet. Archit. and Archae. 1853 one window, closely- 

barred and blinded by an abat-jour, which admitted only a small degree of oblique 
light: J. W. Croker, Essays Fr. Rev., v. p. 276 (1857). 

abattage, JiJ. : Fr. See quotation. 

1833 The abattage...vi2& a tax on the slaughter of cattle : Edin.Rev., Vol, 56, 
p. 418. 

^abattoir, sb.\ Fr.: public slaughter-house. Introduced 
into Paris by Napoleon, i8io. 

1837 These abattoirs are slaughter-houses, that Napoleon caused to be 
built near the walls: J. F. Cooper, Europe, Vol. ii. p. 146. 1842 Sect. 
XIII. abattoirs or public slaughter houses : Gwilt, p. 797. Not in 
Nicholson (1819). 1855 As I passed through the abattoir I met a flock of 
sheep driven out of their pens into the place of execution : Glance behind the 
Grilles, ch, iv. p. 117. 

abattu, fern, abattue, adj. : Fr. : dejected, depressed, 

1745 Is she extremely abbatue with her devotion? Hor. Walpole, Letters, 
Vol. I. p. 403(1857). 1811 ' sameness of days ' ; 'want of stimulus' ; ^tmdiunt 

vitee'; 'being quite let down'; — 'fit for nothing' — 'in want of an object* — 
'abbatu'i L. M. Hawkins, Countess,'Vol. i. p. 338 (2nd Ed.). 

[Past part. pass, of abattre, = ' to knock down'.] 

abature, sb.: Eng. fr. Fr.: traces of 'beating down' of 
underwood by deer. Obs. 

1575 Of the iudgement of the Abatures and beating downe of the lowe twigges 
and the foyles: G. Turbervil,i.e, Booke 0/ Venerie, 6S. [N. E. D.] 1630 what 
Necromanticke spells, are Rut, Vault, Slot, Pores, and Entryes, Abatures, and. 
Foyles, Frayenstockes, Frith and Fell, Layres, Dewclawes, and Dowlcets: 
John Taylor, Wks., sig. I 5 ?-7i. 

[From Fr. abature, abatturel\ 

abat-voix, sb. : Fr. : a board over a pulpit to keep the 
sound of the voice from ascending. J. Britton (1838). 

*Abba (-i-): Gk. fr. Aram.: the father. See Bible^ 
Rom., viii. 15. 

1382 Abba, fadir: Wyclif, I.e. 1611 Abba, father: Bible, I.e. 

[In the Gk. Test. 'A/3/3a, 6 ira-njp is the transliteration and 
translation of the Aram, abba, = ^ father'.'] 

abbai, abba, sb. : Arab. See quotations. 

1830 A coarser and heavier kind [of mantle], striped white and brown, (worn 
over the mesoumy,) is called abba. The Baghdad abbas are most esteemed : 
J. L. Burckhardt, Bedouins, Vol. i. p. 47. 1836 In cold or cool weather a kind 
of black woollen cloak, called 'abba'yeh, is commonly worn: E. W. Lane, Mod. 
Egypt,, Vol. 1. p. 35 note. 1845 The cloak is called an abba. It is made of 
wool and hair, and of various degrees of fineness : J. Kitto, Bibl. CycL, Vol. i. 
p. 703/2 (1862). 1855 His dress externally... consisting of the sXxi^^d aheih and. 
gay kefiyeh bound with its rope of camel's hair: J. L. Porter, Five Years in 
Damasctis, p. 40 (1870). — over this [coat] when seated on the impatient animal, 
I threw the ample folds of an abeih: ib., p, 65. 1884 He wore a large white 
turban and a white cashmere abbai, or long robe, from the throat to the ankles: 
Sir S. W. Baker, Heart of Africa, ch. iii. p. 36. 1886 Europeans of every 
nationality and in every variety of costume, from the Scottish kilt to the flowing 
abbas: Cities of the World, Pt. i. p. 18. 

[Arab, ^aba or ^abayal\ 

* abbasso, abasso, .3:^'z/.: It.: down! 

1549 on eyther side of hym [the Pope] went his garde makinge Rome [room 
and crying abasso abctsso: W. Thomas, Hist, of Italye, p. 38 v° {1561). 

abbate, pi. abbati, sb. : It. : an Italian ecclesiastic : the 
same as a French abb^, q^ v. 

1750 A man's address and manner, weighs much more with them than his 
beauty; and, without them, the Abbati and the Monsignori "fi^ get the better 
of you: Lord Chesterfield, Letters, Vol. i. No. 183, p. 556 (1774)- 1765 
She introduced me to an abbate, a man of letters : Smollett, France &* Italy, 
xxvi. Wks., Vol. V. p. 449 (1817). 

abbatis: Fr. See abatis. 
abbatu(e): Fr. See abattu. 




*abb6, sd.: Fr.: lit. 'abbot'; then the holder of a benefice, 
though only in minor orders, or even a layman (aiid sdculier) ; 
hence in 17 and 18 cc. adopted, with a clerical dress, by 
nominal students of Theology, to give dignity to such 
positions as that of tutor, lecturer, secretary, maitre d'hdtel. 

1711 Our friend the Abbe is not of that sort; Pope, Letters, p. 77 (1737). 
1764 the abb^s are a set of people that bear a strong analogy to the templars in 
London; Smollett, Ferdin. Ct. Fathom, ch. xxii. Wks., Vol. iv. p. 105 (1817). 
bef 1782 Ere long some bowing, smirking, smart abbd | Remarks two loit'rers, 
that have lost their way: Cowper, Progr. Err., Poems, Vol. I. p. 43 (1808). 
1830 the Abb^ who wrote Voltaire: E. Blaquiere, Tr. Sig. Pananti, p. 185 
(2nd Ed.). 1877 That indefinable being who is neither churchman nor layman — 
in one word, an abbi; CoL. Hamley, Voltaire, ch. xi. p. 22. 

[From Old Fr. abe, abet, fr. Lat. abbatem (whence also It. 
abbate),3LCC. oi abbas, fr. Gk. a/3/3ds, fr. Aram. a3^«, = ' father'.] 

abbellimento, sb. : It. : embellishment. 

1670 noble roomes adorned with all the Abellijnenti of Italian Palaces: 
R. Lassels, Voy. Ital., Pt. i. p. 88. 

abbreviator {—il—±=}i, sb.: Eng. fr. Low Lat. 

1. a compiler of abridgments, epitomes, summaries, as 
Justinus who abridged the histories of Trogus Pompeius. 

1615 Oribasius, the great abreuiater of antiquity ; H. Ceooke, Body of Man, 
206. [N.E. D.] 1681 Abbreviator (Latin) one that abridges, or makes a 
brief draught of a thing ; Blount, Glossogr. 1779 The opinion which attributes 
the last-mentioned passage to the abbreviator, rather than to the original his- 
torian; Gibbon, Af/i<r. W^i., iv. 565 (1814). [N. E. D.] 

2. officers of the Vice-Chancellor's Court in the Vatican 
who draw up briefs, writs, bulls, &c. 

1532 The writers, abbreviators, and registers of the letters, minutes, and 
"bulls: Addr.from Convoc, in Strype, Mem. Re/., V. 481. [N. E. D.] 

3. a physician of a school so called. Obs. See quotation. 

1605 Among Physitians there are Empericks, Dogmaticks, Methodici or Ab- 
breviators, and Paracelsians : Timme, Quersitamts, Pref. v. [N. E. D.] 

Variant, 15 c. abreviater, fr. Eng. abbreviate. 

[From Low Lat. abbreviator,^^ ont who abridges'".] 

abcaree: Anglo-Ind. See abkari. 

abda: Port. See abada. 

Abdal(li), sb.: Arab.: religious fanatics of Persia. 

1634 The Abdall a voluntary Monke amongst them, is reputed by the wiser 
sort a Wolfe in a Sheeps skin; Sir Th. Herbert, Trav., p. 156. 1662 These 
are called Abdalla's, and are a kind of Monks or Friers: J. Davies, Tr. Olearius, 
vi. p. 281 (1669). 1665 The Calenderi, Abdalli, and Dervislari be Psederasts, and 
dangerous to meet in solitary places: Sir Th. Herbert, Trav., p. 331 (1677). 

[From Pers. abdal, sing, sb., or abdali, adj., formed from 
Arab, abdal, pi. of badil, one of 70 spiritual beings. See 
J. F. Brown's Dervishes, p. 83; Zenker's Turk. Diet., p. 182; 
D'Ohsson's Tableau de V Emp. Othom., Vol. IV. p. 315 
(Fol. Ed.).] 

abdat, sb.: an Egyptian linear measure, one-fourth of a 
dirah (^.t/.). 

1880 The divided into. ..the abdat: Lib. Univ.'^now., Vol. iv. p. 
7SI (N. York). 

[From abda (construct case abdat), Mod. Egypt, pronunci- 
ation of Arab. fabda, = 'the breadth of the hand across the 
four fingers', now 'the measure of a man's fist with the thumb 
■outstretched', about 6J in. See Lane, Mod. Egypt., Vol. 11. 
Append, ii.] 

Abderite (-i — -^), of Abdera, anciently a town in Thrace, 
celebrated as the home of the Laughing Philosopher Demo- 
critus, and for the general stupidity of the citizens. 

1621 Had those Abderites been conversant with us, and but seen what 
fleering and grinning there is in this age, they would certainly have concluded 
we had been all out of our wits; R. Burton, Aytat. Mel., p. 41 (1867). 

abdest, sb.: Pers.: the minor ablution (Turk, wazu) of 
Mohammedans ; the ceremonial washing of face, hands, &c., 
before prayer or any rehgious exercise. 

1680 he first directs us to the Fountains, there to take Abdes : which being 
done, he brings us to the temple : J. Pitts, quoted in Burton's El Medineh &= 
Meccah, Vol. 11. p. 380 (1855). 1786 a small spring supplies us with Abdest : 
Tr. Seck/ords Vathek, p. 74 (1883). 

[Pers. abdast, fr. ai5, = 'water', and ^aj/, = 'hand'.] 

abdicator {± — SL —), sb. : Eng. : one who abdicates ; spec. 
one who approved of the abdication of James II. 

1691 Monarchy haters, | With Abdicators, I Did swell into a league of 
Dutchmen, Whigs, and traitors : W. W. Wilkins' Polit. Bal, Vol. 11. p. 28 (i860). 

[Coined fr. Eng. abdicate as if noun of agent to Lat. 
<rar^, = 'to abdicate'.] 

*abdoiiien {±il—), sb.: Eng. fr. Lat. 

1. the fleshy parts of the belly or paunch, including the 
teats of lower animals; in man esp. the parts below the navel: 
or in man the front, in mammals the lower wall (or its ex- 
terior surface) of the belly ( = abdomen 2). 

1601 In old time they called this morcell [the paps and teats (sumeti) of a sow 
newly farrowed] in Latine Abdomen: Holland, Tr. Pliu. N. H., Bk. 11, ch. 37, 
Vol. I. p. 344. 

2. the belly, the nether cavity of the body containing all 
the vital organs except the brain, heart and lungs (the pelvic 
cavity also is not always included). 

1615 There bee tenne iMuscles which couer the neather Belly, on either side 
fine called the Muscles of the Abdomen : H. Crooke, Body of Man, p. 796 (1631). 
1771 when you are tapped. ..the water that comes out of your abdomen: 
Smollett, Humph. CL , p. 9/2 (1882). 1835 An incision in the abdomen had 
been evidently made after death ; Sir J. Ross, ■znd Voyage, ch.. xix. p. 290. 
•1878 shots in his right arm and abdomen: Lloyd's Wkly. News, May 19, 
P- 7/3- 

3. Entom. the whole nether division of an insect's body, 
see thorax, or more generally and technically — the third 
nether division of the body in the Articulata {q. v.) family of 

' animals. 

1797 Encyc. Brit., Entomology. 

[Lat. abdomen, neut. sb., = 'lower part of the belly'; etym. 
uncertain, perhaps fr. stem of abdo, = '\ stow away', 'put out 
of sight', or for amb-dosmen, = ' the part girdled round', akin to 
Gk. d/i<^i,=' around'; and Seor;iia, = 'band'.] 

abductor (-^.i^-), sb.: Eng. fr. Late Lat. 

1. Anat. a muscle which abduces, or draws a part of the 
body from its normal position, or from a line regarded as an 
axis, opposed to adductor; also attrib., = abducent. 

1615 For euery Muscle almost hath set vnto him another, whose action is 
CQntr3.ry toh\s, ^n additctor\s set an abductor: H. Crooke, Body of Man, 
p. 743 (1631). 1738 Chambers, Cycl. 1847—9 In the Quadrumana... 
there is a proper abductor of the thumb, adductor as it would be called by the 
Anthropotomist ; Todd, Cye. Anat. and Phys., Vol. IV. p. 731/1. 

2. one who abducts or leads away wrongfully. 

1850 his ponderous-footed elfin abductor, who had leaped down after him; 
Household IVords, Apr. 13, p. 68/1. 

[Noun of agent to Lat. abducere, = 'to lead away, aside'. 
In sense 2 the word ought to be abduct-or, Legal English for 
abduct-er, but has probably been confused with, or taken 
from, abduc-tor.l 

abdula, sb.: Arab.: lit. 'servant of God.'; esp. a monotheist 
who is not a moslem, e.g. a Christian ; ,,used in- place of the 
father's proper name in the style of a proselyte to Moham- 
medanism to distinguish him from a moslem by birth. Thus 
Rejeb if a proselyte is Rejeb ben Abdullah, if his father, 
Omar, were a moslem, he is Rejeb ben Ofnar. Meninski, 
Lex., Vol. III. p. 678. 

1616 No Jew can turn Turk until he first turn Christiaii, they forcing him to 
eat Hogs-flesh, and calling him Abdula, which signifieth ther Sbii'of a Christian : 
G. Sandys, Trav., Bk. I. p. 42 (1673) . 1635 no Jevn is capable to be a Turk 
but lie viust be first an ABDULA, a Christian, he must eat hogs flesh, and do 
other things; Howell, Epist. Ho-El., Vol. 11. x. p. 300 (1678). 

\YoY 'Abdulldhj fr. 'a^rf, = ' servant'; and a://a^, = 'God'.] 
abecedarium, sb. : Low Lat. : an alphabet, a primer. 

1776 A-B-C-dario; HoR. Walpole, Letters Vol. VI. p. 336 (1857). 1883 
Etrurian abecedaria : Sat. Rev., Aug. 18, p. 212/2. 

[Neut. sb. coined from a, b, c, d. Found 1440 Prompt. 
Parv., s. v. "apece"; 1552 [Title] "Abecedarium Anglo-Lati- 
num...Huloeto Exscriptore &c." The English abecedarie is 
found abt. 1450 (N. E. D.).] 

abeih: Arab. See abbai. 

abele (^ n), sb.: Eng. fr. Du.: the white poplar tree, Popu- 
lus alba. 

1697 It is called in low Dutch abeel,...\Ti English, abeell, after the Dutch 
name : Gerard, Herball, in Britten & Holland's Eng. Plant Names. [Davies] 
1664 The best use of the Poplar, and Abele. for IValks, and Avenues 
about Grounds which are situated low, and near the water: Evelyn, Sylva, 
ch. xviii. p. 80 (1679). 1699 a-long one of the Garden Walls were planted 
Abel Trees: M. Lister, Joum. to Paris, p. 193. 1797 ABEL-TREE, or 
Abele-tree: Encyc. Brit. 1857 broad silver Whit. ..slides. ..through bright 
water-meadows, and stately groves of poplar, and abele, and pine : C. Kingsley, 
Two Years Ago, p. v. (1877). 

[From Du. abeel, fr. Old Fr. abel, earlier aubel, fr. Late Lat. 
albellus, = ^'Nh.\.tt poplar'.] 

abeston : Gk. See asbestos. 


abettor {- J. -), sb.: Eng. fr. Anglo-Fr. 

1. one who abets, advises, tempts, persuades, urges to 
any action, esp. an offence. 

1487 sholde inquire of hym or thevm that had doon that deth or murdre of 
their abettours and consentours: CA.-i^T6N,Statutes^Henry K//.,ch. i. sig. bii »" 
(1869).— the slayers, murderers, abettors, maintainers and consorters of the same: 
tb sig. b 111 r°. From DiBDiN, Typ. Ant, 1. p. 355 (i8io). 1594 Thou foul 
abettor! thou notorious bawd! Shaks., Liccrece, 886. 1600 they began also 
to endite all those. ..of a capitall crime, who were his abetters, and the movers and 
.stirrers of a sedition and commotion of the people: Holland, Tr. Livy, Bk. 25, 
p. 548. ..1646 an abettor of the fact prohibited: Sir Th. Brown, Pssud. Ep., 
Bk I. ch. ii. p. 4 (1686). 1886 The vastness of large cities affords concealment, 
and IS often the abettor of vice : J. T. Davidson, cited in Literary World, Jan. 7, 
1887, p. 14/2. 

2. a supporter, backer, advocate of a person, principle, 
opinion, or system. 

1580 foes, which by thy well doing thou mayst cause to be earnest abettors of 
thee: J. Lyly, Euphues &= his Engl., p. 270 (1868). 1629 the General with 
his abettors, who wanted not his seconds, being like quicksilver, and never failing 
to publish all occurrents: Brent, Tr. Soave's Hist. Caunc. Trent, p. xxx. (1676). 
1653 Abettors and Printers of this Petition: Several Proc. of Pari., Aug. 2— 
Aug. 8, No. 3, p. 26. 

Variants, 15 c. abettour, 17 c. — 19 c. abetter, as if fr. abet. 
[From Anglo-Fr. abettour, fr. Old Fr. abetere, abetiere.'\ 

abeyance {—.!L—), sb.: Eng. fr. Anglo-Fr. 

1. Leg. expectation; the condition of a title, dignity, pro- 
perty or emolument which is not for the time being vested in 
any person. 

1621 the freehold is not to be put in abeyance: Perkins, Prof. Booke, ch. xi. 
§ 708, p. 308 (1642), 1628 — 9 If tenant /7^?- terme d'auier vie dieth, the free- 
hold is said to be in abeyance untill the occupant entreth: Coke, Littleton, 
p. 3426 (1832). _ 1765 Sometimes the fee may be in abeyance, that is (as the 
word signihes), in expectation, remembrance and contemplation in law: Black- 
stone, Commentaries, u. 7. [R.] 1839 During the abeyance of a barony 
descendible to heirs of the body, one of the co-heirs was attainted for treason : 
Sir N. C. Tindale, in Bingham^ s New Cases, v. 754. 

2. temporary suspension, inactivity, disuse. 

1660 And this monarchy not a thing in abeiance, an aiery title, but an abso- 
lute free and independent monarchy: R. Coke, Ele-m. Power and Subj., 61. 
[N. E. D.] 

[Anglo-Fr. abeiance, abeyance, abiaunce, fr. * abeier. Old Fr. 
abeer, = 'to gape out, aspire to'; fr. A, prep., = ' to, at', and 
Low Lat. baddre, = ^to gape', perhaps fr. a Teut. noun *bada, 
akin to ha.t. fat-iscere, = ''to gape', 'come open'.] 

abi in malam crucem, phr.: Lat.: Off to an evil cross! 
i.e. go and be hanged ! 

1665 The old Roman execration Abi in malatn Cr^icem and manner of exe- 
cution is here in use: Sir Th. Herbert, Trav., p. 373 {1677). 

Abib : Heb. : name of the first month of the Jewish eccle- 
siastical year, our April, the seventh month of the civil year, 
called Nisan after the Captivity. 

1535 This daye are ye gone out, euen in y» moneth of Abib : CovERDALE, 
Exod., xiii. 4. 1611 in tlie month Abib: Bible, ib. 

[Heb. abib, = ^3X1 ear of corn'. It was the month in which 
harvest began.] 



'-), sb.: Heb.: a waiting gentlewoman, a 

* Abigail (j 
lady's maid. 

1671 every gentleman that keeps a chaplain, has not a cousin Abigal to 
Wait upon his lady: J. Eachard, Wks., Vol. i. p. 13s (1773). 1693 thou 
art some forsaken Abigail, we have dallied with heretofore : Congreve, Old 
Bachelor, 111. vi. Wks., Vol. I. p. 52 (1710). 1711 I myself have seen one of 
these male Abigails [ladies* valets] tripping about the Room with a Looking-glass 
inhis hand: Spectator, No. 45, Apr. 21, p. 75/2 (Morley). 1766 Juno... [Rung 
for her Abigail ; and you know, | 'Iris is chambermaid to Juno : HoR. Walpole, 
Letters, Vol. iv. p. 508 (1857), 1771 serving-men, and abigails, disguised like 
their betters: Smollett, .fl^ww?/^ C/., p. 34/1 (1882). 1815 I have prepared, 
however, another carriage for the abigails, and all the trumpery which our wives 
drag along with them: Byron, in Moore's Life, Vol. iii. p. 155 (1832). 

[See I Sam., XXV. 24 — 31. The representative use comes 
from the name of the waiting gentlewoman in Beaumont and 
Fletcher's Scornful Lady, bef. 1616.] 

abiliment, abillement {—± — =:), sb.: Eng. fr. Anglo-Fr. ; 
Special use in i6c. an ornament of goldsmith's work for the 
head or the front' of the dress. 

abt. 1515 Take now upon you this abylyment; Skelton, Magnif, Wks., 
Vol. II. p. 116 (Boston, 1864). 1541 velvet and satin for billyments: Qu. 
Cath. HoviTARD, in Burnet's Hist. Ref., vi. 250 (Pocock). 1642 — 6 an neyther 
Abillement set w' xxxiij. great perles : Princ. Mary's Pr. Purse Exp., Invent. 
Jew., p. 181 (F. Madden, 1831). — oon upper Abillement set W* xi. great perles... 
oon other Upper Billiment set w',. .perles of a meane sorte: ib. bef 1556 

thene beganne alle the gentylwomen of yngland to were Frenche whoodes with 
bellementtes of golde: Ckron. Grey Friars, 43 (Camd. Soc, 1852). [N. & Q-] 

1580 Billementes: the attire or omamentes of a womans head or necke: as a 
bonet: a frenche hoode : a paste, or such Hke: Baret, Alvearie. 1599 she 
found, far from her expectation, a billiment of peaze [instead of pearls]: Chr. 
Wordsworth, Eccles. Biogr., Vol. 11. Bk. i. p. log (1839), 

Also attrib. in the combination biliment-Xace. 

1573 my sherte gown... laid with Billement's lace: Wardrobe of a Country 
Gentl, in Brayley's Grafh. Illtist., p. 13 (1834). 1588 one velvett jerkin laid 
one w*!* billim* lace : Will and Inventory of William Glaseour, ChethamSoc, 
Vol. Liv. — one paire of round hose panes of blacke rashe laid one w*^ a billym^ 
lace: ib. [N. & Q.] 

Variants, 16 c. biliment, billement, habilement. 

[From Fr. habillement, = ' dress ', ' article of dress '. The fact 
that the lopped form billement is only found in the above 
special sense seems to show that the Fr. habillement in this 
special sense was once more borrowed with an attempt to 
pronounce the new importation differently from the old.] 

abiogenesis, JiJ. : badly coined fr. Gk.: generation of living 
organisms from dead matter. 

1883 Here, in short, is the categorical denial of Abiogenesis and the establish- 
ment in this high field of the classical formula Omne vivum ex vivo: H. Dr0m- 
MOND, Natural Law, 74. 

[Coined by Prof Huxley in 1870 fr. ajSior, = ' without life', 
and •y£'i'C(ris', = ' generation', 'birth'. It ought to be abio- 
genesia. Q.i. parthenogenesis, which was probably Huxley's 

abiston, abistos: Gk. See asbestos. 

abjure (^lil), vb.: Eng. fr. Fr. 

1. trans, and absol. to forswear, recant, retract (an engage- 
ment, principle, article of faith previously held sacred). 

1501 Alle tho wyllys abieured and revokyd byfor thys day mad : Will of John 
Bawde, in Bury Wills, 83 (1850). [N. E. D.] 1530 I abiowre, I forsake myne 
errours as an heretyke dothe, or forswere the kynges landes, ie abiure : Palsgr., 
415. 1662 the solemn League and Covenant to be abjured by all the incum- 
bents of England: Evelyn, Diary, Vol. l. p. 389(1872). 1884 We find that 
some of them abjured, but that others went joyfully to the dungeon and the 
stake: A. R. Pennington, Wiclif, ix. 296. 

1 a. causal, to make to forswear, recant. Obs. 

1480 Reynold Pecoke bysshop of Chestre was founde an herytyke, and the- 
thyrde daye of Decembre was abjured at Lambeth: Caxton, Ckron. Eng., VII. 
i5gb/2 (1520). [N. E. D.] 1528 Considering that they might, as in conclusioa 
they did, abiure him otherwise: More, Dial. Heres.-, iii. Wks., p. 216/2 (1557). 
[N. E.D.] 

2. to swear to renounce, abandon, repudiate, leave for 
ever (esp. the realm, or the commonwealth) ; rarely absol. 

1530 [See i]. 1576 If he take Sanctuarie, and do abiure the Realme: 
Lambarde, Peramb. Kent, 497 (1826) . 1590 Either to die the death or tO' 
abjure i For ever the society of men: Shaks., Mids. Ni. Dr., \. i, 65. 1610 
But this rough magic | I here abjure: — Teinp., v. i, 51. 1671 Say and unsay, 
feign, flatter, and abjure: Milton, P. R., 1. 473. [N.E.D.] 1726 Whoever 
was not capable of this Sanctuary, could not have the Benefit of Abjuration : 
and therefore, he that committed Sacrilege could not abjure : Ayliffe, Parergon, 
14. [N.E.D.] 

2 a. causal, to make to forswear the realm. Obs. 

1603 T' abjure those false Lords from the troubled Land: Drayton, Barons 
Warres.l.^v. [N.E.D.] 

[From Fr. abjurer, = ' to forswear'.] 

abkari, abkaree, sb.: Hind.: the excise on preparing or 
selling intoxicating liquor in India. The Abkari system is 
the farming the sale of spirits to contractors through whom 
the retail shop-keepers are supplied. 

1790 Abkarry or Tax on Spirituous Liquors: Letter from Board of Rev. 
(Bengal) to Govt., July 12. [Yule] 1797 The stamps are to have the words- 
'Abcaree licenses' inscribed in the Persian and Hindee languages and characters: 
Bengal Regulations, ■x..-^'^. [Yule] 

[From Pers. ai5-/^ar^, = ' water-business'.] 

ablaut, sb. : Ger. : Gram. : variation of the vowel sound of 
the principal syllable of a word in inflection or derivation for 
which there is no obvious phonetic cause, so that the varia- 
tion of sound has been supposed to be dynamic, i.e. originally 
used to indicate variation of sense : e.g. sing, sang, sungj 
ride, rode, ridden; choose, chose; band, bond, bind, bound. 
See guna, vriddhi. 

1870 Under 'Ablaut' Teutonic grammarians understand a modification or 
the radical which takes place in the perfect tense and the perfect participle: 
J. Helfenstein, Contp. Gram. Teut. Lang., p. 408. 1871 But it was in the 
verbal conjugation that the Ablaut found its peculiar home, and there it took 
formal and metliodical possession: Earle, Philol. Eng. Tong., § 124 (1880). 
[N. E. D.] 1886 The Gothic word diifers in ablaut-grade from its Teutonic 
cognates: AthencEum, Sept. 4, p. 302/3. 

, [From ab, adv., = 'off, away'; Z(2;2r!/, = * sound'.] . 



abnegator (z ^ ^ —), sb. : Eng. fr. Lat. : one who denies 
or renounces. 

1637 abnegators and dispensers against the Lawes of God : Sir E. Sandys, 
State o/Relig., p. 96. [N. E. D.] 

[From Lat. abnegator, noun of agent to abnegare, = ' to deny'.] 

abnomiis sapiens, /Ar.: Lat.: 'a wise man without rule', 
i.e. a sage independent of any sect or party. 

1803 Macdonnel, Diet. Quot. 1806 Edin. Rev., Vol. 9, p. 18. 

[Horace, Sat., ii. 2. 3.] 

abolla, sb. : Lat. : a coarse woollen cloak worn by soldiers and 
the lower orders of ancient Rome, and so affected by austere 
philosophers. As the mark of such a philosopher it is made 
familiar by Juvenal's phrase. Sat. 3. ii'^, f acinus majoris 
abollae, 'the crime of a deep philosopher'. 

1797 ABOLA : Encyc. Brit. 1820 one of a set in Athens who affect philo- 
sophy and wear the abolla: T. S. Hughes, Trav. in Sicily, Vol. I. ch. x. p. 293. 

abominator {— ±^il:^), sb.-. Eng.: one who abominates 
or detests, an abhorrer. 

1816 the greatest abominator of Episcopacy: Scott, OldMort, i. [N.E.D.] 

[Coined fr. Eng. abominate as if Lat. noun of agent to 
■abominari,—-^ to detest', 'abhor'.] 

abordS sb. : Fr. : approach, manner of advancing to accost. 

1749 whose first ahord and address displease me: Lord Chesterfield, 
Letters, Yo\. i. No. 164, p. 439(1774). 1826 I saw few beggars. ..their a5(7?'(? 
was rather a coax than a craving: Rejl. on a Ratnhle to Germany, p. 6. 

[Fr. cL, prep., = 'to'; 3(jn/, = ' shore', 'border', akin to Eng. 
board, A.-S. and Icelandic bord, which through the sense of 
'side of a ship' comes to mean 'boundary' sometimes.] 

abord^ aboard (— -^), sb.: Eng. fr. Fr. abord' {q. v.). Obs. 

1. act of approaching, advancing towards, manner of 

1611 ArrivSe, an arriuall, accesse, abboord, or comming to: Cotgr. 1752 
that air, that abord, and those graces, which all conspire to make that first ad- 
vantageous impression: Lord Chesterfield, Letters, No. 75, Misc. Wks., 
Vol. II. p. 388 {1777). 

2. way up to. 

1670 I never saw a more stately abord to any Citty then to this [Genoa]: 
Lassels, Voy.Ital., Pt. I. p. 82. [N.E.D.] 

abord {—-L), vb.: Eng. fr. Fr. Obs. or Arck. 

1. to get on board of, to sheer up to, to gain a footing in, 
or upon, to have a common frontier. 

1609 And the royall shyppe, ycUpped Perfitenes, They dyd aborde: Hawes, 
Past. Pleas., xxxvi. 20. [N. E. D.] 1630 I aborde: as one shyppe doth 
another, Jaborde. I aborde a shyppe, Je aborde: Palsgr., 415. 1589 That 
an enemie may bee the more troubled to abourd the Fort : Ive, Fortif., 5, 
— Approched, aborded, and surprised: ib., 38. [N. E. D.3 1696 Was not a 
Spanyard durst abord him: G. Markham, Trag. Sir R. Grenvile, p. 75 (1871). 
1611 Confiner, to abboord, adioyn, lye neerevnto: Cotgr. 1691 The first 
Spaniards, \}ci-a.\. 2kiOxA&A America: Ray, Wisd. God, 306 {tjoi). 

2. to accost. 

1611 Aborder, to approach, accoast, abboord: Cotgr. bef. 1628 To 
abbord, either with question, familiarity, or scorn: F. Greville, Life of Sidney, 
74(1652). [N.E. D.] 1841 He. ..aborded the two ladies with easy elegance 
and irresistible good humour: Thackeray, Prof., ii. Misc. Essays, &c. , p. 298 

[From Fr. ■aborder, = ^to come to the side of. See 
abord ^ j-^.] 

abordage (j^-l^), sb.: Eng. fr. Fr.: the act of boarding a 

abt. 1550 The master farther gettis of the ship takin be him and the companie, 
the best cabill and anchor for his abordage: Sir J. Balfour, Praciicks, 640 
(1754) [N.E.D.] 

*aborigmes {^ — il^±), sb. pi., coined sing, aborigen, 
-gin (- ^ - -), -gine {--±--): Lat. 

I. the original inhabitants of a place, or inetaph. of any 
abode, as opposed to the more modern inhabitants or (esp. 
in modern times) to colonists or foreigners generally; used 
of animals and even plants. 

[1533 King Latine of Laurence assemblit the auld inhabitantis of his realme, 
namit Aborigines, armit in thair maist werelie ordinance: J. Bellendene, Tr. 
Livy, Bk. i. p. 5 (182?). 1647 The old latins... callyng themselfes Aborigines, 
that is to sale: a people from the beginnyng: J. Harrison, Exhort, to Scottes 
(1873), 214 (N. E. D.).] 1593 The first [Britons] as some dreame were Abori- 
gines such people as the earth it selfe, without humaine propagation brought 
foorth: J. North, Spec. Brit., p. 4. 1600 King Z.a/z«w.? with the Aborigines: 
Holland, Tr. Livy, Bk. i, p. 3. 1609 the people first scene in these regions 
were Aborigines, called Celtse: — Tr. Marc., Bk. 15, ch. ix. p. 46. 1642 a 
remnant of the very Aborigines, of her first Inhabitants: Howell, Instr. For. 
Trav., p. 50 (1869). 1646. the Inland inhabitants were Aborigines, that is, 


such as reported that they had their beginning in the Island: Sir Th. Brown, 
Pseud. Ef., Bk. vi. ch. vi. p. 249 (1686). 1655 The Aborigines and the Ad- 
venae: Fuller, Ch. Hist., 11. irg. [N. E. D.] 1666 another sort of people 
that 7lon vescuntur came, who being the aborigines of these parts, swarm through- 
out the Orient: Sir Th. Herbert, Trav.. p. iis (1677)- 1826 Wherever 
foreign troops swarm the aborigines necessarily appear in false colours : Subaltern, 
ch. 17, p. 259 (1828). 1832 He is then abori^in of all spheres of thought, and 
finds himself at home and at ease in every region: I. Taylor, Sat. Even., 349 
(1834) [N.E. D.] 1846 the black aborigines: Darwin, KVt)/. e^iVa^., XIX. 
435(1873)- [N.E.D.] 

2. see quotation. 

1742 in accounting for their descent, we must conclude them to be aborigines, 
without any beginning of their generation, propagating their race from all 
eternity: Hume, Essays, Vol. 11. p. 402 (1825). 

[From Lat. aborigines, pi. fr. ab origine, = Hroxn the begin- 
ning'. In the earUer Lat. writers the term meant the ear- 
liest settlers in Latium, the beginners of the Roman race, 
who drove out the alien Siculi, but Phny regards it 3.%= auto- 
chthones. The form aborigen is perhaps from Fr. aborigine?^ 

* Abracadabra {±},, sb.: a mystic word formerly 
worn as an amulet, being written in a triangle so as to be 
read in different ways, thus: — 





A B R A C A D 

A B R A C A 

A B R A C 

A B R A 

A B R 

A B 


often now meaning a spell, a conjurer's pretended charm, 

mere nonsense. 

1565 some piece of secret operation, (as Serenus Salmonicus doth write,) in 
the word of Abracadabra, to heal one of the fever: Calfhill, Ajts. to Mart., 
p. 285 (Parker Soc, 1846). 1684 This word, Abra cadabra written on a 
paper, with a certeine figure ioined therewith, and hangedabout ones necke, 
helpeth the ague: R. Scott, ZPzjc. Witch., Bk. XII. ch. xviii. p. 272. 1657 

I will teach you for that kind of Feaver a receipt a hundred times easier ; Inscri- 
bas chartce quod dicitur Abracadabra, Stepius ^ subter repetas, mirahile dictul 
Donee in angustum redigaiur litiera conum. That is to say, first A-bracadahra, 
and under that Abracadabr, and in the third line Abracadab, &c. : J. D., Tr. 
Letters of Voiture, No. T94, Vol. II. p. 69. 1684 That insignificant word 

Abrocadara, is by [Quintus Serenus] Sammonicus [bef. A.D. 230] mentioned as 
a magical spell : I. Mather, Remark. Provid., in Lib. of Old Authors, p. 183 
(1856). 1711 x!a.^ ^O'cd. Abracadabra [of Amulets]: Spectator, No. 221, Nov. 
13, p. 317/2 (Morley). 1840 The words of power ! — and what be they | To which 
e'en Broomsticks bow and obey? — | Why, — 'twere uncommonly hard to say, | As 
the prelate I named has recorded none of them, | What they may be. But I know 
they are three, | And ABR.ACADABRA, I take it, is one of them: Barham, 
Ingolds. Leg., p. 147 (1864). 1883 We can no more frame a conception of a 
disembodied intelligence than we can of a disembodied Abracadabra; XIX Cent., 
Aug., p. 275. 

Variant, 17 c. Abrocadara. 

[For first known mention, see quot. fr. Mather. 'Severus' 
in N. E. D. should be 'Serenus'. According to C. W. 
King, Talism. and Atnul., in Early Christ. Nuntism., p. 200, 
corrupted from Heb. ha-Vrakah dabberah, = '-prono\inc& the 
blessing' (i.e. the sacred name).] 

Abraham, Abram : Heb. : name of a Hebrew patriarch. 
Used for auburn and in various combinations and derivatives. 
Abr{ah)am-man, a kind of vagabond of 16 c. who shammed 
to be mad (1575 Awdelay, Frat. Vag.) ; hence the sea phrase 
sham Abr{ak)am, to pretend to be ill. 

Abraham's balm (? bauni), old name of agnus castus. 

Abramide, Abramite, a Jew. 

1603 Alas ! how many a guilt-les Abramide Dies in Three dayes, through 
thy too-curious Pride : J. Sylvester, Tropheis, p. 36 (i6o8). — O Jacob's 
Lanthorn, Load-star pure, which lights On these rough Seas the rest of 
Abramites:—Captaines, p. 523 (1608). 1608 Of all the mad rascalls (that 
are of this wing) the Abraham-man is the most phantastick: Dekker, Belman 
of London, sig. D 2. 1633 Are they padders, or abram-men that are your 

consorts? Massinger, New Way to Pay, ii. i. Wks., p. 296/2 (1839). 

abrasa tabula: Lat. See tabula rasa, 
abrasax. See abraxas, 
abrashos: Port. See abrolhos. 
abrawan, JiJ. : Hind. See quotations. 

1744 ABROHANI, or Mallemole, the name of a certain muslin, or clear, 
white, fine cotton cloth, brought from the East Indies : Postlethwayt, Diet. 
Trade. 1797 ABROKANI, or Mallemolli, a kind of muslin, or clear white 


fine cotton cloth, brought, ..particularly from Bengal : Encyc. Brit. 1886 Among 
piece foods the first place is given to Dacca muslin, abrawan or "running 
water; bafthowa, "woven air;" sTibhanant, "evening dew;" all plain white 
webs: Offic. Catal. of Ijid. Exhib., p. i6. 

abraxas, oftener abrasax, sb.: a mystic word, or a gem so 
inscribed, used as a charm. 

1738 These gems called Abraxas: Warburton, Div. Legat., Vol. ll. p. 153. 
[N. E. D.] 1797 Encyc. Brit. 1828 The word abrasax, sometimes spelled 
abraxas, was the great mystery of the Gnostics: Rev. R. Walsh, Anc. Cains 
and Gejns, p. 39 (2nd Ed.). 

[Said to express 365 in Gk. letters a /3 p a | a s used as 
numerals i + 2+ 100+ 1+60+ 1+200. It is ascribed to the 
Egyptian Gnostic Basilides. According to C. W. King, 
from Heb. ha-b'rakah, = 'th.t blessing', or 'sacred name', used 
as the title of a Gnostic deity representing the 365 emana- 
tions of the Pleroma. 

abr^g^, sb. : Fr. : abridgment, compendium. 
[Past part, (used as sb.) of abrdger, fr. Old Fr. abregierj 
see abrevye.] 

abreuvoir, sb.: Fr.: a watering place for animals. A 
technical term in Masonry, see quotations. 

1696 Abreuvoirs, in Masonry, signifies the spaces between the stones in 
laying 'em, to put the Mortar in : Phillips, World of Words. 1738 Chambers, 
Cycl. 1819 ABREUVOIR or Abrevoie (from the French) in masonry, the 
interstice, or joint, between two stones, to be filled up with mortar or cement: 
P. Nicholson, Archit. Diet. 1829 ABREUVOIR, in military affairs, a 
tank to receive water in the case of encampment: Lond. Encyc. 

abrevye, abbrevye, vb.: Eng. fr. Fr.: abridge, abbreviate. 

1483 which hystorye Saint Justyn abreuyed or shorted: Caxton, G. Leg., 
p. 424/4. [N.E.D.] 

[From Fr. abrdvier {ea.rY\&r abregier -whtTxca 'abridge'), = 'to 

Abrocadara. See Abracadabra. 

abrogator {±—SL^, sb.: Eng.: one who abrogates, cancels 
or abolishes. 

1699 Abrogators and dispensers against the Lawes of God; Sandys, Europts 
Spec, 96 (1632). [N. E. D.] 

[Coined fr. Eng. abrogate, as if noun of agent to Lat. 
abrogare, = 'X.o cancel', 'abolish'.] 

abrolhos, abrollios, J^. //. : Port. See quotations. 

1598 on the south side lieth [great flakes {sic) or] shallowes, which the Por- 
iingaUs call Abrashos {sic) : Tr. y. Van Linschoten^s Voyages, Bk. i. Vol. i. 
p. 15 (1885). — shun the Flats of Bracillia that are called Abrollios: ib., p. 23. 
1593—1622 she had bin upon the great sholes of Abreoios: R. Hawkins, 
Voyages South Sea, § xxvi. p. 171 (187S). 

[Port. Abrolhos, a geographical term connected with abrol- 
lar; Fr. brouiller. It. brogliare.'] 

abscissa,//. abscissae, abscissas, j3.: Late Lat.: Geometry: 
the segment of a right line measured between a given point 
therein and its point of intersection with another right line. 
Of a curve: "The ABSCISS, Abscisse, or Abscissa, is a 
part or segment cut off a line terminated at some certain 
point by an ordinate to a curve. So that the absciss may 
either commence at the vertex of the curve, or at any other 
fixed point. And it may be taken either upon the axis or 
diameter of the curve or upon any other line given in 
position." HuTTON, Math. Diet. Also later in Rectilinear 
Coordinates the portion of a right line intercepted between its 
points of intersection with a given right line and with any 
line parallel to that given line. Anglicised as abscisse, absciss 
in 17 and i8 cc. 

1694 though the Area answering to the Abscissa be that which is commonly 
sought: Phil. Trans., Vol. xviil. No. 209, p. 114. 1738 ABSCISSA: 
Chambers, Cycl. V111 The spaces described with velocities which are as the 
ordinates DB EC in times proportional to the abscissas AD AE : R. Thorpe, 
Tr. Newton's Princ, Lemma x. p. 64 (1802). 1797 ABSCISSE : Encyc. Brit. 
1853 a line PNR perpendicular to this axis major is called an ordinate, and 
the lines AN, NM, abscisses, of the axis: H. Goodwin, Elem. Course Math., 
p. 172 (1853). 

[Lat. abscissa fem. part, (with /z»^fl:, = 'line' understood), fr. 
abscindere, = 'to cut off'.] 

abscissor {—±—), sb.: quasi- Lat.: a cutter off, destroyer. 

1647 We may justly call him Strong, HurtfuU, Destroyer, Abscissor, because 
he onely destroys and perverts the nature of the Question: Lilly, Chr. Astr., 
xxviii. 184. [N. E. D,] 

[Coined as if noun of agent to abscindere. See abscissa, 



absinth {± -L), sb. :.Eng. fr. Fr. : the plant wormwood or 
absinthium, g. v. ; also the essence thereof, and metaph. 
essence of bitterness. 

1612 Absinth and poyson be my sustenaunce; Benvenuto, Passenger's 
Dialogues. [Nares] 1866 What a drop of concentrated absinth follows 
next: Carlyle, Fredk. Gt., iil. ix. iv. 115. [N. E. D.] 

[From Fr. absinthe, q. v.] 

*absinthe, sb. : Fr. : an alcoholic liqueur, flavoured with 
wormwood (Fr. absinthe), or drugs of similar nature. Some- 
times Anglicised as absinth (_i ±). 

1854 He drank great quantities of absinthe of a morning : Thackeray, 
Newcomes, Vol. I. ch. xxxiv. p. 390 (1879). 1864 His insatiable thirst for 
absinthe made him one of those rare monstrosities — a drunken Frenchman : G. A. 
Sala, Quite A lone. Vol. i. ch. xi. p. 182. 

absinthium, sb. : Lat. : the plant wormwood, a species 
oi Artemisia, which has a bitter aromatic principle. 

1738 A conserve of the Roman absynthium: Chambers, Cycl. 
[From Gk. a^ivdiov, = ' wormwood'.] 

absis : Lat. See apsis. 

absit, part of vb., used as sb. : Lat. : lit. ' let him be 
absent ', leave for a person in statu pupillari to pass one 
night away from college or university. 

[Third pers. sing. subj. (for imper.) of abesse, = ' to be 
absent '.] 

absit dicto invidia, abs. inv. verbo, phr.: Lat.: 'to be 
said without boasting ' or offence ; lit. ' may ill-will be- 
away-from the saying'. Livy, 9, 19, 15. 

1611 That booke reporteth not halfe so many remarkable matters as mine 
doth (absit dicto invidia): T. CoRYAT, Crudities, Paneg., sig. b 8 z/* (1776). 
1625 absit inuidia verbo : Purchas, Pilgrims, Vol. I. Bk. i. p. 2. 

*absit omen, phr. : Lat. : may (evil) omen be absent. 

1594 that this letter remaine a pledge of my faith heirin, als well for tymes to 
com as by-past, aye and quhill (as Godd forbidd) I discharge my self honestlie 
unto you, quhich shall neuer be, except ye constraine me unto it, but absit omen: 
Letters of Eliz. and Jos. VI., p. 107 (Camd. Soc. , 1849). 1886 He says 
that if the Queen herself were to shoot Mr. Gladstone through the head {absit 
omen .') no court in England could take cognizance of the act: A thentEutn, Feb. 20, 
p. 260/1. 1886 association with an Erne is rather suggestive of dragging the 
Institution {absit omen!) into hot water: Punch, Dec. 11, p. 288/2. 

absolvi {or liberavl) animam meam, phr. : Lat. : ' I have 
relieved my mind ', I have made my protest and say no more. 

abscLue hoc, phr. : Late Lat. : Leg. See quot. 

1766 Absffue hoc. Are Words made use of in a Traverse: G- Jacobs, Law 
Diet. (7th Ed.). 1835 There is still another species of traverse, which differs 
from the common form, and which will require distinct notice. It is known by 
the denomination ot ^. special traverse. It is also called a formal traverse, or a 
traverse with an absque hoc. The affirmative part of the special traverse is 
called its inducement; the negative part is called the absque hoc; those being 
the Latin words formerly used, and from which the modem expression, with, 
out this, is translated: Sir Thos. E. Tomlins, Law Did., Vol. 11. (4th Ed.). 

abstersion {— J- —), sb. : Eng. fr. Fr. : the property or 
act of cleansing, purging, purifying ; the state of being 
cleansed, purged, purified. 

1543 Incarne [the place] wyth thys incarnative, whych doEhe bothe incarne 
and mundifye with some abstertion: Traheron, Vigo's Chirurg., 11. xvii. 28. 
[N. E. D.] bef. 1626 Abstersion is plainly a scouring off, or incision of the 
more viscous humours: Bacon, Nat. Hist., 42. 1658 And contemplating the 
calicular shafts, and uncous disposure of their extremities, so accommodable unto 
the office of abstersion, not condemn as wholly improbable the conceit of those 
who accept it, for the herb Borith: Sir Th. Brown, Garden ofCyr., ch. iii. 
[R.] 1814 The task of ablution and abstersion being performed.. .by a smoke- 
dried skinny old Highland woman : Scott, Wav., xx. 153 (1829). [N. E. D.] 

[From Fr. abstersion.} 

abstersive (— l —), adj. and sb. : Eng. fr. Fr. 

1. adj.: having the property of cleansing, purging, puri- 
fying ; also detersive. 

1533 White betes are also abstersive, and lowseth the bealye: Elyot, 
CastelofHelth,^7{TS^i). [N. E. D.] 1601 Holland, Tr. />/»;. A^. /^., 
Bk. 30, ch. 4, Vol. II. p. 377. bef. 1682 Sir Th. Brown, Tracts, 1. p. 3 
(1686). 1725 And let th' abstersive sponge the board renew: Pope, Odyss., 
XX. 189, Vol. IV. p. 182 (1806). 

2. sb.: a purifying or purging medicine, or a detersive 

1663 Such medicines as do mundifie, and dense wounds or filthy vlcers, are 
called abstersiues: T. Gale, Antid., I. iii. 3. [N. E. D.] 1702 Abstersives 
are Fuller's earth. Soap, Linseed-oyl, and Oxgall: Petty, in Sprat's Hist.R. 
Soc, 295. 

[From Fr. abstersif, fem. -ive^ 



abstraction (ji s -), sb. : Eng. fr. Fr. 

1. the act of taking away, withdrawal, removal, sepa- 

1553 Of Abstraction from the first, thus. As I romed all alone, I gan to 
thinke of matters great. In which sentence (gan) is vsed, for began : Th. Wilson, 
Art o/Rlietor,, p. i8o (1585). 1646 If each abstraction draws A curse upon 
the abstractor from those laws. How can your Councels scape this judgment then? 
QUARLES, Sheph. Or., ix. [N. E. D.] 

2. the process of considering an object of thought apart 
from its associations, or of considering qualities apart from 
things qualified, attributes apart from things to which they 
are attributed, or even the imaginary process of considering 
substance apart from its properties and qualities. 

bef. 1658 Men love by a strange Abstraction to separate Facts from their 
Crimes: J. Cleveland, Rustick Ramp., Wks., p. 433 (1687). 1797 Ab- 
straction, in metaphysics, the operation of the mind when occupied by abstract 
ideas: Encyc. Brit. 1867 the abstraction of the conditions and Hmits: 
H. Spencer, First Pri7ic.,yo\ . i. p. 91. 

2 a. an abstract idea. 

1823 while the warm fancies of the Southerns have given their idolatry to the 
ideal forms of noble art — let us Northerns beware we give not our idolatry to the 
cold and coarse abstractions of human intellect: E. Irving, Orations, p. 13. 
1834 This remote abstraction, which has been well termed "the something- 
nothing", they regard as the supreme God: H. Caunter, Scenes in hid., 239. 
1867 the negative is only an abstraction of the other : H. Spencer, First Princ., 
Vol. I. p. 89. 

3. a State of separation or seclusion from worldly things 
or objects of sense. 

1649 Lifted up by the abstractions of this first degree of mortification; Jer. 
Taylor, Great Bxeinp., 124 (1653). [N. E. D.I bef 1744 A hermit wishes 
to be praised for his abstraction: Pope, Lett. [J.] 

4. a withdrawal of the attention from present circum- 

1790 he was wrapped up in grave abstraction: Boswell, Johnson, xxiv. 215 
(Rtldg.). [N. E. D.] 

[From Fr. abstraction.^ 

abstractor Lat. See in abstracto. 

abstractor {— ± ^), sb. -. Eng. fr. Lat. : one who removes, 
one who makes abstracts, an abstracter (which is the form 
now in use). 

1646 [See abstraction i]. 

[From Lat. abstractor, noun of agent to abstrahere, = ' to 
.draw away '.] 

abstractum, pi. abstracta, -sb. -. Late Lat. : something 

1869 the infinite etc., may stand for the infinitude, the unconditionedness, the 
absoluteness of some being — i.e. as an abstractum or property of a being; Dr. 
N. Porter, Hum. IntelL, p. 650 {4th Ed., N. York). — If they \i.e. the terms] 
are used only in the sense of abstracta, then the question to be answered is. Can 
they be conceived by the mind? ib., p. 651. 

[Neut. of Lat. abstractus, past part, of abstrahere, = 'to 
draw away'.] 

absurd {=- J.), adj. : Eng. fr. Fr. 

1. unreasonable, improper ; o/persons, senseless, foolish; 
hence ridiculous, silly. 

1567 8—12 [=-4] is an Absurde nomber. For it betokeneth lesse than 
nought by 4: Recorde, fF.4<?&^., sig. Bb iijb. [N. E. D.] 1591 This proffer 
is absurd and reasonless; Shaks., I Hen. VI., V. 4, 137. 1625 Vse also, 

such Persons, as affect the Businesse, wherin they are Employed... Froward and 
Absurd Men for Businesse that doth not well beare out it Selfe : Bacon, Fss., 
Negotiating, p. 89/4 (1871). 1629 esteeming their Opinions not so absurd as 
before they did ; Brent, Tr. Soave's Hist. Counc. Trent, Bk. I. p. 52 (1676). 

I a. used as sb.: an absurdity. Obs. 

1610 Our heavenly poesie. That sacred off-spring from the braine of Jove, 
Thus to be mangled with prophane absurds: Histrio-niastix, II. 264. [N.E. D.] 

2. Mus. inharmonious, jarring. 

1617 A harpe maketh not an absurd sound: Janua Ling,, 773. [N.E. D.] 

[From Fr. absurde, fr. Lat. afoz^rrfKj, = ' off-sounding', 
'dissonant', more commonly metaph. 'irrational', 'silly'. 
N. E. D. is wrong in connecting it immediately with surdus, 
= 'deaf'.] 

absurdity {--L- -), sb. -. Eng. fr. Fr. 

I. the characteristic or condition of being absurd. 

1528 Which argument hath. ..much inconuenience and absurdite folowyng 
therupon: More, Af<?r<;jyM, II. Wks., 184/2 (1557). [N. E. D.] 1584 The 

like absurditie and error is in them that credit those diuinations: R. Scott, 
Disc. Witch., Bk. xi. ch. xx. p. 209. . 1598 he that would transferr the lawes 


of the Lacedemonians to the people of Athens should find a greate absurditye and 
inconvenience : Spens., State Irel., Wks., p. 613/2 (1869). 1629 all absurdity 
of opinions: Brent, Tr. Soave's Hist. Counc. Trent, Bk. I. p. 45(1676). 

2. anything absurd. 

1528 All whiche absurdities and vnreasonable folyes appeareth as well in the 
worshippe of our ymages, as in the Painims ydolles: More, Heresyes, l. Wks., 
138/2(1357). [N. E. D.] 1563 whyche were a greate absurdite to graunt; 
James Pilkington, Conftit., sig. B viii v°. 1579 to proue one absurditie by 
an other; J. Lyly, Euphues, p. 166 (1868). 1589 They shall not easily be 
attached of any absurditie; 'Hi^&n%, Anat. Absurd., j,6. 1598 when they are 
fallen into any absurditye; Spens., State Irel., Wks., p. 609/1 (1869). 1601 
abuses and absurdities: Holland, Tr. Plin. N. H., Bk. 26, ch. 4, Vol. 11. p. 244. 
1671 absurdities so illogical and destructive: Evelyn, Corresp., Vol. III. p. 234 

3. Mus. inharmoniousness, discord, tunelessness. Obs. 

1674 In the last disallowance, which is when the upper part stands, and the 
lower part falls from a lesser third to a fifth, many have been deceived, their ears 
not finding the absurdity of it; Playford, ilfjMtcA, in. 37. [N. E. D.] 

[From Fr. absurditS^ 

absurdum, sb. : Late Lat. : an absurd conclusion, showing 
that the premises are false, a reductio ad absurdum, ^.v. - 

bef. 1834 Setting up an absurdum on purpose to hunt it down: Lamb, Spec, 
fr. Fuller, 537 note. [N.'E. D,] 1877 Reducing the theory of Representative 
Government to the absurdum : Kinglake, Crimea, l. xv, 342 (6th Ed.). 

[Neut. of Lat. absurdus ; see absurd.] 

absurdum, ad: Lat. See reductio ad abs. 

absurdum per absurdius, phr. : Lat. : ' an absurd thing 
(proved or explained) by a more absurd thing' ; cf ignotum 
per ignotius. 

1679 This is in my opinion absurdum per absurdius, to proue one absurditie 
by an other ; J. Lyly, Euphues, p. 166 (1868). 

Abuna, the primate of the Abyssinian church, sometimes 
improperly called patriarch (see Gibbon's note, /. c.) ; also a 
Nestorian priest. 

1600 The Patriarke or arche-prelate of all Abassia is called Abuna, that is to 
say. Father ; neither is there any in all the whole empire which ordaineth ministers, 
but onely hee; John Pory, Tr. Leo's Hist. Afr.,_ Introd., p. 21. 1625 they 

haue a Patriarke of their owne, whom they call in their owne language Abuna, 
(our Father): Purchas, Pilgrims, Vol. I. Bk. i. p. 137. — I went to visit 
the Abuna: ib.. Vol. II. Bk. vii. p. 1086. — the Abuna said a Masse: ib., 
p. 1087. 1778 the episcopal office has been gradually confined to the abuna, 

the head and author of the Abyssinian priesthood ; Gibbon, Deal. ^ Fall, Vol. 
VIII. p. 369(1813). bef. 1862 the Coptic Christians, who had recently lost their 
Aboona, or the archbishop of the nation; Dr. Wolff, Trav., N. &" Q., 7th S. 
III. June 25, 1887. 1870 A hierarchical body of priests, known to the people 

(Nestorians) under the names of Kieshishes and Ahtnas, is at the head of the 
tribes and villages, entrusted with both spiritual and temporal powers : Millingen, 
IVild Life avt07ig th^ Koords, 270. [Yule, s. v. Casis'\ 

abusive {—ILz}j, adj.: Eng. fr. Fr. and Lat. 

1. wrongly-used, improper, catachrestic, = Lat. abusivus. 

1583 You are driven to seek a silly shadow for it [sacrificial power] in the 
abusive acception and sounding of the EngHsh word 'priest'; FuLKE, Def, vi. 
253. [N. E. D.] 1859 The Reproductive Imagination (or Conception, in the 

abusive language of the Scottish philosophers) is not a simple faculty; Sir W. 
Hamilton, Led. Metaph., 11. xxxiii. 262. [N. E. D.] 

2. full of abuses, corrupt. Archaic. 

1589 the abusiue enormities of these our times; Nashe, Anat. Absurd., 
Wks. , i. 12 (Grosart). 1640 By boys oft bearded, which I deem the meed | Of 
my abusive youth; H. More, Phil. Po., ii. 125, p. 46 (1647). 

3. deceptive, illusive. Obs. 

1624 gained by an abusive treaty : Bacon, War •with Spain, Wks., iii. 515 
(1740). [N. E. D.J 1667 He dazles their eyes with the glorious, but abusive 
proposal of becoming like Gods: Decay of Chr. Piety, iv. § 3, 222. [N. E. D.) 
1718 Ed. of Daniel, Civ. Wars, iv. 85 [not in earlier Edd,]. 

4. given to misusing, ill-treating, perversion, violation. 

1652 Most are abu.sive in their desires after, and use of the creature; J. BuR- 
koughes, Exp. Hosea, vii. 276. [N.E.D.] 

4 a. with of. Obs. 

bef. 1733 abusive of Truth and good Manners; R. North, Examen, p. ii. 

5. using or given to bad language, of persons ; conveying 
or containing offensive language, of speech or writings. 

1621 Some years since, there was a very abusive satire in verse brought to 
our Kmg; Howell, Zff«., 1. 62(1650). [N. E. D.] 

[From Fr. abusif, fem. -ive, fr. Lat. abilsivus, = 'm\s^ 

abutilon, sb. : Late Lat. : name of a genus of plants of 
the order Malvaceae, with yellow or white flowers often 
veined with red. Some species are garden or green-house 
plants in Britain. 


1578 The seconds kind [of Mallow! is c2\\i&...Abutilon: H. Lyte, Tr. 
Dodoens Herb,, Bk. v. p. 583. 

[Cf. Arab, awbutililn, Avicenna {arbittildn, 1556; arbii- 
tlnon, 1608), = a plant like a gourd, useful for ulcers.] 
abwab, sb. : Arab. : an illegal cess. 

1801 ABO AB, cesses levied, in India, under different denominations, beyond 
'i^r standard rent : Encyc. Brit., Suppl. 1883 taxes or abwabs (illegal cesses) : 
^/^ C^w/., Sept., p. 426. 

[Pers. fr. Arab, abwab (pi. of bab, = ' &oor\ 'chapter'), 
quasi items in the tax-book.] 

abysmus, sb. : Late Lat. : abysm. Rare. 

1611 Abysme: An Abysmus; a bottomlesse hole or pit : Cotge. 

ac etiam, phr. used as sb. : Lat. : Leg. : name of a King's 
Bench writ, so called from the above words introducing a 
clause containing a plea of debt added to keep jurisdiction 
as to latitats from passing to the Court of Common Pleas. 

1742 the ac etiavts should not take place, but in such cases only where a 
latitat would serve: R. North, Lives of Norths, Vol. I. p. 206 (1826). 1803 
Ac etiam. Law Lat., — "And also". — A clause added by recent custom, to a 
complaint of trespass in the Court of King's Bench, which adds "and also" a plea 
of debt. The plea of trespass, by fiction, gives cognizance to the court, and the 
plea of debt authorizes the arrest : Macdonnel, Did. Quot. 

ac aba: Arab. See ackabah. 
*acacia, sb.: Eng. fr. Lat. 

1. name of a genus of shrubs or trees belonging to the 
Mimosa division of the Leguminous order, found in hot 
countries. Pliny mentions white, black, and green varieties 
of "the Aegyptian thorne Acacia" (Holland, Tr. Bk. 13, 
ch. 9, Vol. I. p. 390). The ornamental acacia of modern 
English literature is the Acacia Arabica, the gum- Arabic 
tree, or else the locust-tree (see 2). 

1578 There be two sortes of Acatia, the one growing in Egypt. ..The first 
kind of Acacia is a little thornie tree orbushe: H. Lyte, It. Dodoen's Herb., 
Bk. I. p. 684. 1601 Holland, Tr. PHn. N. H. (quoted above). 1664 
[Plants] to be. ..set into the Conservatory, or other ways defended. Acacia 
Aegyptictca, Aloe A-merican, Amaranthus tricolor; Evelyn, Kal. Hori. (1729). 
1816 I enclose you a sprig of Gibboji's acacia and some rose-leaves from his 
garden: Byron, in Moore's Li/e, Vol. m. p. 246 (1832). 1817 In her own 
sweet acacia bower: MooEE, Lalla Rookh, Wks., p. 58 (i860). 1883 the 
grove of dark green acacias [in Egypt}: W. Black, Yolande, I. 13, p. 253. 

2. the N. American Locust-tree (Robinia pseudo-Acacia) 
of the order Papilionaceae. 

1664 The Acacia. ..deserves a place among our Avenue Trees : Evelyn, 
Sylva, II. iv. 358 (1776). [N. E. D.] 1755 six acacias, the genteelest tree of 
all: HoR. Walpole, Letters, Vol. II. p. 482 (1837). *1876 Echo, Aug. 30, 
Article on " Fashions "- [St.] 

3. gum- Arabic. Pliny, loc. cit. (i) says that gum is got 
from the "barke of the Aegyptian thorne Acacia", also Hol- 
land's note says that this gum is thought to be Acacia (4). 

[1578 The gumme coming out of this tree [Acacia] is called in Shoppes 
Gummi Arabicntn, and is wel knowen: H. Lyte, Tr. Dodoen's Herb., Bk. vi. 
p. 685.] 

4. juice of the unripe fruit of Egyptian Acacia dried into 
cakes. [German Acacia is evaporated sloe-juice.] 

1382 Byndyng medycynes... as. ..Acacia : Trevisa, Bartk. De P. R., vil. 
bcix. 289 (149s). 1578 the liquor or iuyce ai Acatia, whiche is called Acatia, 
is vnknowen: for in steede oi Acatia, they vse in shoppes the iuyce of Sloos, or 
Snagges, which is the fruite of blacke thornes {called in base Almaigne, Sleen) 
and wrongly Acatia'. H. Lyte, Tr. Dodoen's Herb., Bk. vi. p. 685. 1601 a 
kind of Thorne, whereof commeth Acacia. ..the juice thereof It is found in 
Aegypt [Dried into "trochischs"...trosches]: Holland, Tr. Plin. N.H., Bk. 24, 
ch. 12, Vol. II. p. 194. 

[From Gk. cucaKia perhaps akin to aKai/5os; = ' acanthus' 
(Theophrastus and Virgil use acanthus for acacia), aKavda, 
= 'thorn'.] 

academe (j. — ,ul): Eng. fr. Lat. 

1. = academy, q. v., perhaps by confusion with 2. 

2. Academus, see academy I, 3fl. Milton seems to trans- 
late silvas Academi (Horace, Epp., II. ii. 45). 

1671 See there the olive grove of Academe, Plato's retirement: Milton, 
P. R., IV. 244. 1860 not the least snugly sheltered arbour amongst the groves 
of Academe : Thackeray, Pendennis, Vol. i. ch. xvii. p. 180 (1879). 

*academy (— -^ — — ), sb. : Eng. fr. Fr. or Lat. The accent 
used to be on the e. 

r. the gymnasium, garden, or grove Academia, 'AKaSrlfieia 
(named after the hero Academus, 'A/caSi/fioy) at Athens, 
where Plato taught. 

1474 Plato. ..chose his mansion and dwellyng in achadomye : Caxton, The 
Chesse, p. 86. [N. E. D.] 1487 [Jerome says that] Plato chaas for to dwelle 
in a vylage in the feldes named Achadenne ['nn' prob. was written 'mi'] whych 
was ferre [«c] fro Athenes -.—Book of Good Manners, sig. c i z<°. 1679 the trees 



of the Academia, [it] being better stored and furnished, then any other parke of 
pleasure in all the suburbes of the citie: North, Tr. Plutarch, p. 472 (1612). 
— wher thou [Plato] art among thy friends and companions in the Academie : 
ib., p. 974. 1600 the place of exercise or schoole called Academia: Holland, 
Tr. Livy, Bk. 31, p. 787. 1609 the same Demosthenes followed, leaving 
the Academie together with Plato: — Tr. Marc, Lib. 30, ch. v. p. 384. 1768 

The fine forest of olives.. .in the middle of which was Plato's renowned academy: 
Gent. Mag., p. 155/1. 

2. Plato's school, Plato's system; the schools or systems 
of his successors. 

1B49 And therfore I suppose theyr.<4.ra^^wzV was fyrstordeyned: W. Thomas, 
Hist. 0/ Italy e, p. 139?^ {^561). 1579 neither the Grecians nor the 

RoMAiNES haue cause to complaine of the Academie [since Dion knew Plato well 
and Brutus was] brought up in Platoes doctrine: North, Tr. Plutarch, p. 967 
(1612}. — he loued Platoes sect best, and did not much giue himselfe to the 
newe or meane Academie (as they call it) but altogether to the old Academie: 
ib., p. 992. 1797 cool and deliberate principles recommended by the academy: 
Encyc. Brit., s. v. ACADEMICS. 

3. a place or institution for higher education ; wrongly 
applied to inferior private schools. 

abt. 1570 an Acliadeiny in IiOndon for educaczon of her yi^iesX£s 
IVardes, and others the youth of nobility and gentlemen: Sir H. Gilbert, 
Q. Eliz. Achad., p. i (1869). 1588 Our court shall be a little Academe, [ Still 
and contemplative in living art: Shaks., L. L. L., i. i, 13. 1594 joying that 
our academy yields | A man suppos'd the wonder of the world; Greene, Friar 
Bacon, p. 155/2, I. 17 (1861). 1617 Colosses, triumphall Arkes, Pyramides, 

Academies, Gardens: Fynes Moryson, Itin., Pt. iii. p. 108. 1629 the house 
of Vicemo Pi7telli...wfz.s...2,n Academy of all the vertues in those times; Brent, 
Tr. Soave's Hist. Counc. Trent, p. xxix. (1676). — Bishoprick Schools and 
Academies; ib., Bk. vi. p. 493. 1694 His house is an academy of itself : 
Evelyn, Diary, Vol. 11. p. 341 {1872). 1792 Were tutors half as solicitous, 
throughout their academies, to make men of worth, as to make men of letters, 
there are a hundred pretty artifices, very obvious to be contrived and practised 
for the purpose: H. Brooke, Fool 0/ Qual., Vol. i. p. 215. 1849 I, A. B., 

educated at Dr. Hicks' Academy, St John's Wood, shall find myself the astonished 
centre of a party of public school men: Sketches of Cantabs, p. 170. 1885 Or 
tread instead that "primrose path" to knowledge, | That milder Academe — the ■ 
Girton College : A. Dobson, A t the Sign of The Lyre, p. 144. 

3 a. university. 

1616 Loth am I to rip vp my nurces shame, [ Or to accuse for this those 
schooles of fame, | The Academies: R. C, Times' Whistle, rv.- 1407, p. 47 


3 b. any comprehensive system of learning, or a treatise 
embodying such a system. 

1588 They are the books, the arts, the academes, [ That show, contain, and 
nourish all the world: Shaks., L. L. L., iv. 3, 352. 1636 Whatsoever be- 
longeth to the womens Academie, as paintings, preservings, needle-workes, and 
such-like: Healey, Tr. TheopkrasHis' Char., 10. [N. E. D.] 1754 That 

living academy of love-lore, my Lady Vane: HoR. Walpole, Lett, to H. Mann, 
2S7, I". 74 (1834). [N.E.D.] 

4. a place or institution for some special training. 

1659 the academy of valour, Newly erected for the institution Of elder 
brothers: Massinger, City Madam, i. 2, Wks., p. 317/2 (1839). 1797 

Academy is likewise a name given to a riding-school: Encyc. Brit. 

5. a society for the promotion of literature or arts or 
sciences ; esp. the French Academy of Literature (founded 
by Richelieu, 1635) a-i^d the Royal Academy of Painting, 
Sculpture, and Architecture. 

1673 In most of the Cities and Towns of Italy there are Academies or 
Societies of Virtuosi, who have at set times their meetings and exercises, which 
are for the most part prolusions of wit and Rlietoric: J. Ray, Jourji. Low 
Countr., p. 397. bef. 1849 unfinished designs hy men celebrated in their day, 
whose very names the perspicacity of the academies has left to silence and to me : 
E.A. POE, Wks., Vol. I. p. 260(1884). 

5 a. attrib. in reference to the Royal Academy. 

1738 Academy, or Ackn^Mn-Figure, in painting, is a drawing, or design 
made after a model, with a crayon, or pencil. — Or the copy of such a draught : 
Chambers, Cycl. 

5 b. an Academy-Figure. 

1738 [Sees«]. 

Variants, 15 c. achadomye, 16 c. achademy {-ya), 16 c. 
— ig c. Academe. 

[Fr. academie. 1579 NORTH, Plut., p. 535 (1612), used 
y4(ri3:rf'i?OTZ(r, = 'belonging to Plato's school', and ib., — ^a. phi- 
losopher of the Academy'. Chaucer, Tr. Boethius (a'bt. 
1374), Bk. i. p. 7 (1868), gives "studies or scoles of Eleaticis 
and of achademicis in grece".] 

*acajou, acaiou, sb. -. Fr. (in Fr. = ' cashew', 'mahogany'). 
I. cashew-nut, cashew-nut tree {Anacardium Occiden- 
tale). See cashew. 

1598 There is an other tree in bignesse like a Sorben, the fruit wherof is by 
them called Aca-iou, of forme and greatness like a hennesegge, which being; ripe 
is of a golde yellow colour like a quince very good and savory to eate, having a 
certayne sharpe taste, and in it a juice that cooleth heate; Tr. y. Van Lin- 
schoten's Voyages, Bk. II. p. 251/1. 1668 Whether the Wood of the Acajou 

Tree, being red, light, and well scented, never rots in Water, nor breeds any 
Worms, &c. : Phil. Trails., Vol. m. No. 33, p. 635. 




2. a gummy substance derived from the cashew-nut tree. 

1744 POSTLETHWAYT, Dict. Trade. 

3. a medicinal gum derived from the mahogany tree. 
Acangi, sb. : Turk. See quotations. 

1615 the Grand Signior hath other forces whom they call Achingi: 
G. Sandys, Trai}., p. 50 (1632). 1696 Acanzii, certain Turkish light 
Horse-men, who are as it were the Avant Courtiers \_sic\ of the Grand Signior's 
Army. Phillips, World of Words. 1797 ACANGIS, that is, Ravagers 
or Adventurers; a name which the Turks give their hussars or light-troops, 
who are generally sent out in detachments to procure intelligence, harass the 
enemy, or ravage the country : Ejicyc. Brit. 

[Turk, aganjt, aginjf, = '2. pillaging soldier'.] 

acanthis, sb. : Lat. : name of a species of birds of the 
finch family {Fringilla carduelis) which frequent thorn 

1594 Like two sweet birds, surnam'd th' Ancanthides, Which we call Thistle- 
warps, that near no seas Dare ever come : M.hRi.QVfK, Hero and Leander, -p. -^oi^jli 
(Dyce, 1858). — repeated only with 'Acanthides' 1606 G. Chapman, Cmitin. 
0/ Her. and Leand.^ ib. (note). 

[Lat. acanthis, fr. Gk. dxavdis, 'thorn'.] 
♦acanthus, sb. : Eng. fr. Lat. 

1. Bot name of a genus of herbaceous plants, esp. Acan- 
thus Spinosus or brank-ursine. 

1555 it is noo tree, but an herbe much like unto an artichoke or Acantho: 
R. Eden, Tr. Anglerius' Decades, II. g, p. 82 r°. 1578 The tame Acanthus 

hath great large leaues : H. LvTE, Tr. Dodoen's Herb., Bk. iv. p. 527. ? 1582 
the roabe pretiouse colored lyke saufred Achantus : R. Stanyhurst, Tr. Virgil's 
Aen., Bk. i. p. 38 (1880). — roabs of saffrod Acanthus: ib., p. 40. 1601 

Acanthus or Brankursine: Holland, Tr. Plin. N. H., Bk. 22, ch. 22, Vol. 11. 
p. 129. 1667 on either side | Acanthus and each odorous bushy shrub | Fenc'd 
up the verdant wall: Milton, P. L., iv. 696. 1693 Nor would I pass the 
soft Acanthus o'er, | Ivy nor myrtle-trees that love the shore: Addison, Wks,, 
Vol. I. p. 13 (Bohn, 1854). 1767 Perennial and Biennial Flower Plants 

Acanthus, or bear's breech, soft or smooth leaved. Thorny leaved: J. Aber- 
CROMBIE, Ev, Man own Gardener, p. 691/1 (1803). 

2. the ornamentation of capitals of the Corinthian order 
of Architecture, which is a conventional representation of 
leaves oi Acanthus Spinosus (i). 

[1661 cut into the beautifullest leaf, that Nature doth yield ; which surely, 
next the Aconit-uvi Pardalianches (rejected perchance as an ominous Plant) is 
the Acanthus: Reliq. Wotton., p. 213 (1654).] 1738 Chambers, Cycl. 
1797 Encyc. Brit. 

Variants, 16 c. acantho, achantus. 

[From Gk. anavdos.^ 

Acaron. See Accaron. 

*acarus, sb. -. Low Lat. : a mite, i.e. a minute animal of 
the spider-family {Arachnidae) of which there are many 
species, e.g. red-spider, cheese-mite. 

1668 gnat-worms, Acari, Hair-worms: Sir Th. Brown, Garden of Cyr., 
ch. 4, p. 46 (1686). 1797 The acarus has eight legs. ..and two jointed tenta- 
cula: Encyc. Brit. 

[Zool. Lat. acarus, fr. Gk. aVapi, — 'a wax-mite', cf. aKopj;'?, 
= 'minute', a(r)capis, = ' intestinal worm', 'larva of e/xTri's'.] 

acatalepsia, aKa.Tdkr\-^ia, sb. : Lat. fr. Gk. : technical term 
of the philosophy of the New Academy or sceptical school 
which held that the mind could not comprehend anything, 
so that 'incomprehensibility', or acatalepsia, was a common 
attribute of everything. Also Anglicised. 

1605 Those very schooles of Philosophers, who downe-right maintained 
Acatalepsie or Incomprehensibility : Bacon, Adv. of Learning, Pref. 37 (1640). 
[N. E. D.] 1652 these Academicks by their aKaraATji^ta meant no more then 

tliis; N. CuLVERWEL, Light of Nat., ch. xiv. p._i43. 1884 To the eye of 

Faith ail things are henceforth aKaraAiji/zia, as Cicero calls it : F. Harrison, in 
XIX Century, No. 85, p. 501. 

acatastasis, sb. : quasi-Gk. : an unsettling, a confusing. 

1683 O the Metempsychosis of our Souls ! It is not a mere Acatastasis of our 
minds that marreth all the Beutie and Glorie of our Religion : Dr. E. Hooker, 
Pref. Pordag^s Myst. Div., 89. [N. E. D.] 

[Coined fr. Gk. d-, ='un-', and KaTao-rao-ts, = ' settled state'. 
The compound ought to be acatastasia.} 
accable (— -L — ), "vb. : Eng. fr. Fr. : to crush, overwhelm. 

bef. 1626 thankfulness, which doth rather raise men's spirits, than accable 
them or press them down: Bacon, vi. 272 (Ord. MS.). [L.] 

[From Fr. accabler, = 'X.o crush'.] 
accabl6,/«r/. : Fr. : depressed, overwhelmed. 

1828 he is quite accable with his bonnes fortunes : Ld. Lytton, Pelham, 
ch. xvi. p. 38 (1859). 

[Past part, of accabler, = '\.o crush', whence Eng. cabbling, 
= ' crushing ore'.] 

*Accademia della Crusca: It: an Academy of literature 
and science in Florence, founded 1598, celebrated for its 
comprehensive dictionary of the Italian language. It aimed 
at registering the purest Tuscan; hence della Crusca {lit. 
'of the bran') represents purism in language. 

1755 To furnish the academicians della Crusca with words of this kind, a 
series of comedies called la ./^/^r^... was. ..written by Buonaroti: Johnson, Did., 
Pref. p. 10 (1824). 1818 give us no more of that^f/(2zj^,...that gone-by trash, 
which is worthy of the Delia Cruscan school : Lady Morgan, Fl. Macarthy, 
Vol. II. ch. ii. p. 96 (1819). 

Accadian, belonging to Accad (see Gen., x. lo), a language 
used by inhabitants of Babylonia earlier than the Assyrians, 
and found on early cuneiform inscriptions. 

1874 the Accadian, in which the brick-legends of the earliest kings are in- 
scribed: A. H. Sayce, in Trans. Brit. Archae. i'ocr, Vol. lii. Pt. ii. p. 465. 

Accaron, Acaron, the Ekron of Scripture, hence the god 
of Ekron, Beelzebub, q.v. ; see 2 Kings, i. 2. 

bef 1667 Accaron, the Airy Prince: Cowley, Wks., Vol. i. p. 266 (1707). 

accedas ad curiam, phr. : Law Lat. : 'thou may est go 
into the [King's] court'. 

1607 Accedas ad C, is a Writ that lieth for him, who hath received false 
iudgement in a court Baron, being directed to the Sheriffe : Cowell, Inierpr. 

accedence {— ± —), sb. : Eng. fr. Fr. : the act or process 
of acceding or agreeing to. 

1595 Thus were they entred in the first degree (and accedence) of action : 
Daniel, Civile Wares, iv. 69 (1623). 1859 You areto waive the ac- 

cedence to a junction till you are enabled to satisfy the theories and calculations 
of your imcles : D. of Buckingham, Mem. Crt. George IV., I. iv. 167. 

[From Fr. acc^dence, = ' a.cce.Amg\ sb. The spelling acce- 
dence is used by Milton and others for accidence.\ 
accedit qui credit, phr. : Lat. See quotation. 

1666 Accedit qui credit, he cometh to who believeth on Christ: N. Hardy, Ep. John, Nichol's Ed., p. 135/1 (1865) . 

accelerando, /r^j. /a^A : \X..:Mus.: hastening. 

1848 Accellerando. With gradually increasing velocity of movement: 
Rimbault, Pianoforte, p. 90. 

accelerator {—il — ± —), sb. : Eng. 

1. a hastener, advancer, stimulator. 

1611 Avanceur: a forwarder, aduancer, hastener, accelerater: Cotgr. 1681 
Accelerator (Latin) a hastener. Bac. : Blount, Glossogr. 1841 Steam... 
that stupendous power which has since become the great accelerator of mind and 
matter: ^O'S^.'si^mm, Moneyed Man, ui. tC\. •^'zk,. [N. E.D.] 

2. Spec, a nerve or muscle which hastens the perform- 
ance of the function of an organ ; also a light mail-cart. 

1738 Chambers, Cycl. 1861 Our red-coated postmen drop out of the ac- 
celerators : G. M. Musgrave, By-roads, 124. [N. E. D.] 1876 The accelera- 
tors of the heart. ..are of course paralyzed by spinal section; Wood, Therafi.. ii"; 
(1879). [N.E.D.] 

[From Eng. accelerate for accelerater (Cotgr.), as if Lat. 
noun of agent to accelerare, = 'to hasten'.] 

accent {± .- ), sb. : Eng. fr. Fr. : prominent or expressive 

I. melodic intonation of the syllables of each word 
according to fixed general laws and fixed customs as to 
individual words. 

The old Greek and old Latin had three varieties of accent produced by two 
varieties of pitch, differing in Greek, according to Dionysius Halicarnassiu.s, by 
about a fifth. The laws and habits of melodic intonation differ in different lan- 
guages and even in different dialects. The syllable in old Greek which was 
uttered on the high pitch was said to have the acute accent (ofeta Trpoo-wSta) 
marked by ' above the vowel of the accented syllable. Under certain circum- 
stances the ultimate or penultimate syllable containing a diphthong or long vowel 
received the circumflex accent (Trepto-Trw/xe'iTj TrpocnuSt'a), i.e. the utterance of 
the syllable began on the high pitch and ended on the low pitch, marked by " over 
the vowel of the accented syllable. The syllables of a word which were pro- 
nounced without either of these accents were uttered on the low pitch, the grave 
accent (/Sapeia 7rpoa-w5ia), which was only marked (by ' over the vowel) when the 
acute accent of a final syllable was changed to a grave accent in connected speech. 
The high pitch in Greek and Latin never came earlier than the last syllable but 
two, the antepenultimate, and never occurred more than once in a single word. 
The high pitch may have been accompanied by some stress. About a.d. 300 
melodic accent in Latin and Greek gave place to stress accent, which is heard in 
most modern European languages (exceptions being French, which has lost almost 
all syllabic accent, and some Scandinavian dialects, which still have melodic 

1689 that other which seemed in part to lift vp and in parte to fall downe, 
they called the circumflex, or compast accent: Puttenham, Eng. Poes., 11. vi. 
65 (1811). 

I a. variable modulation of pitch in speaking. 

bef. 1637 All our vowels are sounded doubtfully. In quantity (which is time) 
long or short. Or, in accent (which is tune) sharp orflat: B. Jonson, Eng. Gr. 
(7696). 1840 Accent is a kind of chanting ; all men have accent of their 

own,— though they only notice that of others: Carlyle, Heroes, 247 (1858). 


2. Stress accent, a comparatively forcible utterance of 
one or more syllables in a word, fixed for each word by 
national custom according to sundry laws. 

English exhibits two, if not three, varieties of strength of stress, as in anti- 
chrisiianity {iL — ± .:. ItL z. :l) , the strongest accent in a word being called 
primary, the T&s,t secondary. 

1530 when e is in the last syllable the worde not hauyng his accent vpon 
hym: Palsgk., sig. B i j-°. — the latin long... whiche ...neuer gvue theyr 
accent on the last syllable: ib., sig. B ii i/'. 1577 we have [in common English 
pronunciation] three manor of accents, grattis, lenis, et circumjiexa...\}\& long 
accent, the short accent, and that which is indifferent: G. Gaskoigne, Steel 
Glas, Gfic, p. 33 (i868). 1581 The French... hath not one word that hath 

his accent in the last syllable sauing two, called Antepenultima : Sidney, De/. 
Poesie, S2g (1622). 1589 whether ye suffer your sillable to receive his 

quantitie by his accent or his ortography: Puttenham, Eng. Poes., 11. xiii. 
p. 143 (1869). 

3 a. marks used from about 200 B.C. to indicate the 
three varieties of Greek melodic accent, see i. The acute 
accent (_i) is now used to mark a syllable which has a 
stress accent. 

1609 certaine remaines of the old prickes or accentes over the letters : Hol- 
land, Tr. Marc, Lib. 15, ch. iv. p. 37. 1878 Then there was his Greek com- 
position. Barring the accents he managed that pretty well. The laws of Greek 
accents he found to be extremely arbitrary : An Eton Boy, About some Fellows, 
ch. xii. p. 91. 

3 b. marks used in Semitic writing as vowel points, stops, 
&c. Metaph. a minute point, tittle. 

1684 the prickes ouer the letters, the lines, the points, and the accents doo all 
signifie verie profound things and great secrets : R. Scott, Disc. Witch., Bk. XL 
ch. xi. p. igg. 1598 the which some also say doe much resemble the old 

Phoenician character, being likewise distinguished with pricke and accent, as 
theyrs aunciently : Spens., ^'/rti't^ /w/., Wks., p. 626/2 (1869). 1610 That we, 
who sift every pricke and accent of the law, may see the upright simplicity of that 
age: Holland, Camden!s Brit., i. 443. [N. E. D.] 

3 c. diacritical marks used in modern writing to dis- 
tinguish the qualities of different vowel sounds indicated by 
one letter, as the French i, i, e; or to distinguish meaning, 
when two words are spelt identically, as Fr. a, d. 

1611 Accento: an accent or point ouer anie letter to giue it a due sound: 

4. the stress on certain syllables in verse, the systematic 
recurrence of which produces modern rhythm, often called 
metrical accent. 

1577 Billables of lighter accentes ; G. Gaskoigne, Steel Glas, &^c., p. 34 

5. Metaph. distinctive force, special force, distinguishing 

1639 Now these are the several accents of honour in the German Service ; 
Fuller, Holy War, v. xxi. 278 (1840). [N. E. D.] 

6. pronunciation, utterance, mode of utterance, sound, 
expressive modulation of voice. 

1590 Make periods in the midst of sentences, | Throttle their practised accent 
in their fears I And in conclusion dumbly have broke off: Shaks., Mids.Nt's. Dr., 
V. 1, 97. 1594 midst the sentence so her accent break.s, | That twice she doth 
begin ere once she speaks : — Lucrece, 566. 1596 And with her dolefull accent 
beare with him a part : Spens., F. Q., IV. viii. 3. 1599 caves and womby 
vaultages of France | Shall chide your trespass and return your mock | In second 
accent of his ordnance: Shaks., Hen. V., ii. 4, 126. 

6 a. Poet, a tone, a word. 

1593 The heavy accent of thy moving tongue: Shaks., Rich. II., v. i, 47. 
1594 these accents, weepingly exprest in humble lynes of reverentest zeale : Con- 
stable, Sonnets, 7th Decad., No. 7 (1818). 1601 Read thyself dear Virgil ; 
let not me Profane one accent with an untuned tongue: B. Jonson, Poetast., v. 
I, Wks., p. 127 (1865). 1642 loitg breathed Accents : Howell, Instr. For. Trav., 
p. 33 (1869). 

7. individual or dialectical peculiarity of utterance. 

1591 these new tuners of accents : Shaks., i?fl/K., ii. 4, 30. 1595 He hath 
a trick of Cffiur-de-Iion's face; | The accent of his tongue affecteth him; — 
K. John, i. 86. 1600 Your accent is something finer than you could purchase 
in so removed a dwelling:— /}j Y.L. It, iii. 2, 359. 1601 states unborn and 
accents yet unknown : — Jul. Caes., iii. 1, 113. 1642 the prime Italian dialect, 
take Accent and Elegance together: Howell, Instr. For. Trav., p. 53 (1869). 
1666 The parts affected with it [;.<?. corruption] we find to be the accent ..tropes: 
Evelyn, Corresf., Vol. III. p. 159 (1872). 1856 His accent was foreign: 
Macaulay, Hist. Eng., Vol. lil. p. 51 (1861). 

8. Mus. Stress on a note which generally recurs at 
regular intervals, the first note to the right of a bar carrying 
the accent or the primary accent. 

In ancient Music accents were marks placed over words 
answering the same purpose as modern notes in the vocal 
part of a piece of music. 

1609 Accent (as it belonged to Church-men) is a melody, pronouncing regu- 
larlv the syllables of any words, according as the naturall accent of them requires ; 
J Douland, Tr. Ornithop. Microl., 69. [N. E. D.] 1744 ACCENT in Music... 

S. D. 



Every Bar or Measure is divided into accented and unaccented Parts ; the ac- 
cented are the Principal: Harris, Diet. Art, Suppl. 

[From Fr. accent, fr. Old Fr. acent.'] 
acceptance {± il jl), sb. : Eng. fr. Fr. acceptance. 
I. I. taking what is offered. 

1599 Ely. How did this offer seem received, my lord? | Cant. With good 
acceptance of his majesty: Shaks., Hen. V., i. i, 83. 1659 if yet there re- 
main any thing worthy your acceptance amongst my unpolished collections : 
Evelyn, Corresp., Vol. iii. p. 116 (1872). 1716 she saw the acceptance of 
them was inconsistent with. ..the enjoyment of her religion: Addison, Wks., 
Vol. IV. p. 475 (1856). 

I. I a. accepting or approving anything presented to the 

1598 Then by that acceptaunce of his sovereynty they also accepted of his 
lawes: Spens., State Irel., Wks., p. 6ii/j (1883). 1666 if this paper find ac- 
ceptance, 1 would be bold to add some farther hints : Evelyn, Corresp., Vol. in. 
p. 191 (1872). 

I. 2. favorable reception, receiving into favor. 

1596 Duke. This letter from Bellario doth commend | A young and learned 
doctor to our court. ..C/^r/?. {Reads^.-.X leave him to your gracious acceptance,' 
whose trial shall better publish his commendation: Shaks., Merch. of Ven., iv. 
I, 165. 1667 Thus 1 embolden'd spake, and freedom used Permissive, and 

acceptance found: Milton, P. L., vlli. 435. bef 1782 No works shall find 
acceptance in that day: CowPER, Charity, Poems, Vol. l. p. 151 (1808). 

I. 2 a. used with the words "of persons'' for acception, 

as a verbal sb. to 'accept the persons of {Ps., Ixxxii. 2, 

Prov., xviii. 5). 

1856 A Sovereign who had sworn ..that he. ..would do justice, without accept- 
ance of persons: Macaulay, Hist. Eng., Vol. iv. p. 582. 

I. 3. Leg. the undertaking of obligation or responsibility 

in respect of the act or contract of another. 

1674 A man shal have none advantage by suche release that shalbe againste, 
his owne propre acceptance : Tr. Littletoii s Tenures, 99. [N. E. D.] 1607 
Acceptance, is a receiuing of a rent, whereby the receiuer bindeth himselfe for 
euer to allow a former fact done by another, whether it be in it selfe good or not : 
CowELL, Interpr. 

I. 3 fl. esp. commerc. the agreement (by endorsement) to 
pay a bill of exchange when due, thus incurring an obli- 
gation in respect to the act of the drawer of the bill: also 
the bill itself when accepted by the drawee is the drawee's 

1698 after Presentation and Acceptance of the said Bill or Bills of Exchange 
(which Acceptance shall be by the underwriting the same under the Party's Hand 
so accepting) : Stat. 9 <5^ 10 Will. III., ch. 17, § i (Ruffhead). 1774 Postle- 
thwayt, Diet. Trade. 1882 An acceptance to pay at a particular place is a, 
general acceptance, unless it expressly states that the bill is to be paid there only 
and not elsewhere : Stat. 45 &* 46 Vic. , ch. 61, § 19/2. 

II. I. the state or condition of being accepted. 

1694 The warrant I have of your honourable disposition, not the worth of my. 
untutored lines, makes it [this pamphlet] assured of acceptance : Shaks., Lucrece, 
Ded. 3. 

II. I a. the accepted sense of a word. 

bef. 1716 an assertion most certainly true, though, under the common accept- 
ance of it, not only false but odious: South. 

II. 2. qualification for being accepted. 

1609 Shall will in others seem right gracious, | And in my will no fair accept- 
ance shine? Shaks., Son., 135, 8. 

acceptor (^ ± — ), sb. : Eng. fr. Anglo-Fr. or Lat. 

1. one who accepts, in Mod. Eng. usually accepter. 

1382 For god is not acceptour of persones: Wyclif, Acts, x. 34. 

2. of a bill of exchange, the person who undertakes to 
pay it when due. 

1704 any Remedy, that any Person may have against the Drawer, Acceptor 
or Indorser of such Bill : Stat. 3&^^Ann., ch. 9, § 8 (Ruffhead). 1738 Cham- 
bers, Cyc/. 1774 ACCEPTER: Postlethwayt, Z)iW. 7"r<Kr'f. 1789 The 
bill, as well as the signature of the drawers and acceptor, was the hand-writing 
of the defendant: Term Reports, 111, 174 (1797). 1877 So long as I'm the 

holder, not the drawer nor the acceptor: C. Reade, Woman-Hater, ch. v. p. 51 
(1883). 1882 No person is liable as drawer, indorser, or acceptor of a bill who 
has not signed it as such; Stat. 45 6^ 46 Vic, ch. 61, § 23. 

[From Anglo-Fr. acceptour, fr. Lat. acceptor-em, ace. noun 
of agent to accipere, = ''Vo accept'.] 

accessible {-L si — —), adj. : Eng. fr. Fr. accessible. 

1. affording access or passage. 

1610 Accessible is none but Milford way: Shaks., Cymb., iii. 2, 84. 

2. easy of access, capable of being approached, reached 
or entered ; attainable. 

1645 all places being there accessible and free to enter: Evelyn, Diary, 
Vol. I. p. 223(1872). 1646 to reduce that indigestible substance into such a 
form as may. ..enter the cavities, and less accessible parts of the body, without 
corrosion: Sir Th. Brown, Pseud. Ep., Bk. III. ch. xxii. p. 130(1686). 



2 a. ready to listen, affable. 

1619 He is very accessible to any that hath busines with him : Howbll, Lett., 
I. ix. p. 19 (164s). bef. 1782 May she ! and, if offended Heav'n be still | Access- 
ible, and pray'r prevail, she will: Cowper, Table Talk, Poems, Vol. i. p. iq 

2 b. accessible to, = open to the influence of. 

1818 He had shown himself in a certain degree accessible to touches of hu- 
manity: Scott, Hrt. a/ Midi., 185. [N. E. D.] 

accession {-L ^~), sb.: Eng. fr. Fr. accession. 

I. I. a coming to, approach, admission : technical in 
Astron. arrival, advance. 

1646 not varying at all by the accession of bodies upon, or secession thereof 
from its surface : Sir Th. Brown, Pseud. Ep., Bk. ri. ch. ii. p. 43 (1686). 1648 
AH our talk now is of my Lord of Norwich, his march and accession in Essex: 
Evelyn, Corresp., Vol. in. p. 14 (1872). 1762 A safe accession to that barren 
shore: ^ kx.zoh^'r. Shipwreck. 

I. I a. arrival at a position of dignity, esp. the throne. 

1716 King William's accession to the throne: Addison, Wks., Vol. iv. p. 479 
(1856). 1865 by the death of a careless and goodnatured prince, and by the 
accession of a prince obstinate in all things: Macaulay, Hist. Eiig., Vol. I. 
p. 534 (1861). 

I. 2. a coming to as an addition, adjunct, adherent, 
accessary ; assent. 

1603 — 5 The King repented himself of his Accession to that affair: Sir J. 
Melvil, yif«K., 130 (1735). [N. E. D.] 1625 The gre^t Accessions -and ynions 
of Kingdontes, doe likewise stirre vp Warres: Bacon, Ess., Iviii. p. 574 (1871). 
1679 with the accession of his partner.. .he grew excessively rich: Evelyn, 
Diary, Vol. 11. p. 144 (1872). 1693 Yet a man need not say his Life is under 
great Adversity for want of such Accessions; which are but Notes of good direc- 
tion in the Margent of the Book: J. Racket, Abp. Williams, Pt. 11. 193, p. 207. 
1707 since the accession of the Spanish monarchy: Addison, Wks., Vol. iv. 
p. 344 (1856). 1776 Many prisoners of consequence became a valuable ac- 
cession to the spoil: Gibbon, DecI. and Eall, Vol. i. p. 399 (1813). 

I. 2 a. Leg. an addition to property by natural growth 
or transfer, or by artificial improvements, e.g. planting or 

1768 The doctrine of property arising from accession is also grounded on the 
right of occupancy: Blackstone, Cotnm., 11. 404. [N. E. D.] 1876 By oc- 
cupation, what belongs to nobody is acquired ; by accession what belongs to 
somebody is given to a new owner : W. A. Hunter, Roman Law, Bk. i. iii. 
(«'), A. IL (a. i), p. 128. 

I. 2 b. Med. a coming on of disease, an attack, par- 
oxysm ; also metaph. of mental visitations. 

1655 Pills that change Thy sick Accessions into setled health : H. Vaughan, 
Silex Scint., i. 105. [N. E. D.] 

II. that which comes as an addition, increment, aid. 

1588 The forme of this Commission hath varied with the time, and received 
sundrie accessions : Lambarde, .£'zr.?«ff?r.^a, i. ix. 47. [N. E. D.] 1673 lam 
much better pleased to send him so just a tribute, than I can be to receive any 
additional accessions to my gardens: Evelyn, Corresp., Vol. III. p. 243 (1872). 
1689 Your library being by this accession made suitable to your generous mind : 
ib., p. 304. 1715 A large accession of dominion fell to him, by his succeeding 
to the dukedom of Zell: Addison, Wks., Vol. iv. p. 402 (1856). 

accessor {z.S—), sb. : Eng. fr. Late Lat. : "a comer to": 
Blount, Glossogr. (1681). 
[Noun of agent to Lat. accedere, = 't<3 come to'.] 

accessory {il±— -.), sb. and adj. : Eng. fr. Anglo-Fr. 

I. sb. : I. one who, without actually taking part in the 
committal of an offence, either has a guilty knowledge of 
the matter before the fact, or aids the offender or offenders 
to escape punishment after the fact (1607 Cowell). 

1487 the same slayers and murderers and all other accessories of the same : 
Caxton, Stahttes 3 Henry VII., ch. i. sig. b iii r", — may take and haue 
theyr appele.-.ayenste the sayd persones so arrayned and acquyte, and all other 
their accessories: ib., sig. b iii 2'" (1869). 1598 the tryall of accessoryes to 

fellony : Spens., State Irel., Wks., p. 619/2 (1883). 1628—9 in the lowest and 
highest offences there are no accessaries, but all are principalis : Coke, Littleton, 
57. 1867 The appellants, as accessories to what was done on their premises, 
would have been guilty of the misdemeanour: Sir A. J. E. CoCKBURN, Law 
Reports, 2 Queen's Bench, 133. 

I. 2. a secondary adjunct, anything which comes as an 
aid or addition. 

1603 All plesures else, I Accessories call: Holland, Tr.-Flut. Mor., 70. 
[N. E. D.] 1664 Other Accessories and Ornavients are also used in Buildings: 
J. Evelyn, Tr. Freari''s Parall. Archil., p. 141. 1876 That for whose sake 
another exists, is the principal to which theotheris the accessory : W. A. Hunter, 
Roman Law, 128. 

II. adj. : answering to the sb. The earliest spelling is 
accessary, fr. the Lat., and therefore the adj. does not come 
within the scope of this work. 

Variants, 15 c. accessorie, accersorie, 16 c. — 19 c. accessary. 


[Apparently adopted from Legal Anglo-Fr. accessorie, sb., 
accessori, adj. (found by Skeat in Year-books of Ed. I.'s 
reign, yrs. xx. xxi. Horwood, Record Ser., 1866, p. 161 ; yrs. 
xxxii. xxxiii. ib., 1864, p. 385)- The form accessary, as if 
fr. Lat. with the more usual termination of words of this 
class (namely -arius), seems to be rarer bef. 1600. The 
Anglo-Fr. accessorie, Fr. accessoire, may be due to confusion 
between quasi- Lat. accessarius and Late Lat. accessorius 
as if fr. accessor noun of agent to accedere, = ' to come to'. 
The word was very likely in use in English before Caxton 
used it and accessarye {1480 Ckron. Eng., vii. 157 b/l 
(1520). N. E. D.}. In sense 2 probably direct fr. Lat., cf. 
1614 T. FITZHERBERT, Rep. to Widdrington, ch. 2, p. 33 ; 
that axiome of the law accessorium sequitur principale,=^t\x& 
accessory follows the principal '.] 

acciaccatura, sb.: It.: the striking an auxihary note (or 
two at an interval not greater than a minor third), only just 
before a main note in music, the grace note or the first of 
the two being a semitone below the main note; also the 
note (or the two notes) so struck. The second quot. makes 
the two notes the proper acciaccatura, and goes beyond the 
above definition in calling the ^twitch' a short acciaccatura. 

1819 Rees, Cycl. 1873 Auxiliary notes are notes one degree above of 
below essential or unessential notes, preceding such notes, either with or before 
the accompanying harmony. ..The Appoggiatura, Acciaccatura, &c., are exam- 
ples of such notes; Banister, Music, § 225—6 (1882). 1876 The beat is a 
short acciaccatura, consisting of its first note only, a semitone below any note Xa 
which it gives special force. The twitch is a short acciaccatura consisting of its 
latter note only; Troutb. & Dale, Music Primer, 47. [N. E. D.] 

[From acciaccare, = ^ to crush', 'batter'.] 

accidens, per: Lat. See per accidens. 

accidia: Late Lat. See acedia. 

accismus, sb. : Late Lat. : RAet. : affectation of unwilling- 
ness to accept a tempting offer. 

1753 Cromwell's refusal of the crown...may be brought as an instance of an 
Accismus; Chambers, Cycl., Suppl., s. v. 

[From Gk. dKK4(r^or, = ' affectation', 'pretended indiffer- 

acclamator (l^h - ), sb. : Eng. fr. quasi-Lat. : one who 
acclaims, applauds. 

1651 saluting the ladies and acclamators: Evelyn, Diary, Vol. i. p. 269 

[As if noun of agent to Lat. acclamdre, = 'to shout at'.] 
accoglienza, sb.: It. : a welcome, a kind reception. 

1612 with much courtesie gaue him an Accoglienza speaking only in the 
Latine Tongue: Coryat, in Purchas' Pilgnms, Vol. 11. Bk. x. p. 1827 (1625).' 
1612 — 3 every one having a particular accoglienza from him [the king]: J. 
Chamberlain, Court S^ Times o/Jas. /., Vol. i. p. 229(1848). 

accolade (Fr. -ade jl =. il), sb. : Eng. fr. Fr. accolade (partly 

1. an embrace; hence the ceremonial act (embrace, kissy 
light blow), on making a knight, now dubbing, i.e. giving a 
light blow with the flat of a sword on either shoulder. 

1623 Gluing him also the AccoUade, that is to say. Kissing him: Favine, 
Theai. Honour, I. vi. 51. [N. E. D.] 1681 Accollade (Fr.) a ceremony of 
embracing, or clipping about the neck, used in antient time at the dubbing 
Knights: Blount, Glossogr. 1814 the hardness of his gripe, and the quantity 
of Scotch snuff which his accolade communicated, called corresponding drops of 
moisture to the eyes of the guesti Scott, Waverley, p. 103 (1886). 1839 my 
sword's forgot. However, take my verbal accolade: P. J. Bailey, Fgstus, 
p. 242 (1866). ^ 1884 An esquire praying before his armour, asking that he 
might do nothing in his life to sully his knightly spurs, with prayerful fear 
awaiting his accolade ; Tablet, Vol. 63, No. 2300, p. 804/2. 

2. il/?^j. a thick line joining the Staves of a score. Grove, 
Mus. Diet. 

1829 Lond, Encycl. 

[The rare Mid. Eng. doublet acolee is fr. Old Fr. acoUe, 
= 'embrace', 'hug'.] 

accommodation {il.2. — ± r.), sb. : Eng. fr. Fr. 

1. adaptation, adjustment. 

1629 he alone gave Form to that whole part which treated of Judgements in 
accommodation to the Claustral state: Brent, Tr. Soave's Hist. Counc. Trent, 
p. xvi. (1676). 

2. conciliation, complaisance, act tending to conciliation, 
settlement (of differences). 


1642—3 sendinge an Ambassr. into England to treat of an accommodation: 
Evelyn, Carres/, Vol. iv. p. 338 (1872). 1663 mediation Of Treaty and 

accommodation ; S. Butler, Hudibras, Pt. I. Cant. i. p. 55. 

3. the supplying of requisites ; any requisite or comfort 
supplied ; entertainment, lodgings ; a loan. 

1603 For all the accommodations that thou [life] bear'st | Are nursed hy 
baseness: Shaks., Meas./or Meas., iii. i, 14 (1864). 1604 such accommoda- 
tion and besort | As levels with her breeding; — 0th., i. 3, 239. 1641 an Hospital 
...where the accommodations are very great; Evelyn, Diary, Vol. l p. 25 
(1872). 1644 there is a noble cascade and pretty baths, with all accommoda- 
tions; id,, p. 63. 1646 finding little accommodation in the house: ib., p. 245. 

3 a. often attributive in technical uses, as accommodation- 
bill, -ladder, -land, -note, -road, -works. 

accommodator {-± ^), sb. : Eng. fr. Low Lat. : one 
who adapts, conciliates, supplies needs. 

abt. 1630 At the most he is but the accommodator, (an easy trifle,) not the 
inventor: W. Robinson, in Lett, to Sci. Mm, 1. 11 (1841). [N. E. D.] 1762 
Mahomet wanted the refinement of our modern accommodators : Warburton, 
Doctrine o/" Grace, u. ^31. [T.] 

[Late Lat. accommodator, noun of agent to Lat. accommo- 
dare,= '-\.o accommodate'.] 

accompagnameuto, sb. : It. : a (musical) accompaniment. 

1739 a little sort of musical accompagnamento for your entertainment : HoR. 
Walpole, Letters, Vol. I. p. 22 (1837). 1879 CasseWs Encyc. Diet. 

accomplice: Eng. fr. Fr. See complice, 
accomplissement, sb. : Fr. : completion, finishing touch. 

1828 a straw hat, somewhat similar to the umbrellas worn by the monks at 
Jerusalem, encircled by a green ribbon ; and as the accomplissement, a bat of 
L — manufacture, rechning on the right shoulder: Harrovian, p. 128. 

accorage, vb. : Old Fr. : encourage. 

1646 Aftir two yeres Philometer obtayned helpe of the Romans to reconer his 
lost cities, and thus accouraged of the Romans, he expelled his auuncles syriake 
hoste and armye: Geo. Joye, Exp. Dan., ig8 r°. 1590 But that same 
froward twaine would accorage ; Spens., F. Q., ii. ii. 38. 

[From Old Fr. acorager, = 'X.o encourage'. Spenser sub- 
sequently, F. Q. III. viii. 34, uses the Anglicised form ac- 
courage (=. ± r.). Both forms are poetic for encourage, 

'^accordion {— ± _ ^), sb. : a portable musical instrument 
with keys admitting wind to metal reeds, the middle of the 
instrument being a bellows worked by drawing apart and 
bringing together the ends. Invented in Vienna 1829 

1842 I have bought another accordion; Dickens, in Forster's Life, m. iv. 
105. [N. E. D.] 1857 A young lady, very tempestuous on the piano. ..does me 
no ill almost ; nor does your friend with the accordion ; Cari.yle, in J. A. 
Fronde's Life, Vol. 11. p. 195 (1884). 

[Coined fr. It. accordare, = 'to attune'.] 
accort, adj. : Fr. See quotation. 

1681 Accort (Fr.) discreet, advised, circumspect, foreseeing: also subtile and 
Gunning: Blount, Glossogr. 

[Fr. accort, = ' pliant', 'supple', 'cunning'.] 
accost (-- s), vb. : Eng. fr. Fr. 

1. to coast, border, adjoin; with direct obj. or 'to'. 

1596 all the shores, which to the sea accoste: Spens., F. Q., v. xi. 42. 

2. to keep by the side of, sail along. 

1698 did not the famous Pilots Stephen Burrough, Arthur Pet a7id Charles 
lackman accoflj/ Nona Zembla? R. Hakluyt, Voyages,yo\. l. ^\z. *4^. 

2 a. reflex. Obs. 

bef. 1631 Those that custome and acost themselves with men wise and prudent 
...change from good to better: Donne, Tr. Aristeas, 92 (1633). [N. £. D.] 

3. to go to the side of, approach, with direct obj. and 

1678 the countrey, for the quantitie of ditches and impediment of waters, so 
vnapt to the seruice of horsmen ; that to go seeke them directly, and not to 
accoast them step by step. ..and (as the saying is) to winne vpon them by litle 
and htle, is no other thing then to tempt fortune: Fenton, Tr. Gtiicardinis 
Wars of Italy, Lib. 2, p. 94 (1618). 1704 Accost the hole of another kennel: 
Swift, Tale Tub, Wks.. p. 86/2 (1869). 

3 a. to approach with hostile intent, to assail, to face 

1578 there issued out of the port of Senes a nauy...whD...tooke the borough 
of Kapalie,...^r\6. then accoasting the French nauy.. .after a long fight, they re- 
mained victors: Fenton, Tr. Guicardini's Wars of Italy ^ Lib. 2, p. 83(1618). 
1601 'accost' is front her, board her, woo her, assail her: Shaks., 7w, Nt.., i. 



3 b. to go up to and speak to, to address, salute. 

1601 You should then have accosted her: Shaks., Tw. Nt,, iii. 2, 23. 

Variants, 16 c. 17 c. accoast {acoast). 

[From accoster, = 't.o come to the side of, fr. Old Fr. 

accouche, vb. : Fr. : to act as midwife. 

1867 A Gentleman, aged 26, long accustomed to Visit, Accouche, Dispense,. 
and having good references: Lancet, March 23 (Advt.). [N. E. D.] 

[Fr. accoucher, = ' to lie down', 'to lie in' (for child-birth),. 
' to deliver '.] 

*accouchement, sb.: Fr. : 'bringing to bed' for child- 
birth, delivery of a woman with child. 

1815 my Accouchement: Lady Byron to Mrs. Leigh, Aug., i8is(.Atheriie7im,. 
Aug. 18, 1883, p. 207/1). 1829 the sage and serious business of some nineteen 

or twenty accouchemens : Jeffreys, Essays, Vol. I. p. 467(1844). 1841 They 
are en route from Germany — where they have been sojourning since their mar- 
riage — for England, where her accoitcketnent is to take place: Lady Blessing- 
ton, Idler in France, Vol. I. p. 182. 

*accouclieur, sb. -. Fr. : a man-midwife, a practitioner who 
assists women in child-birth ; also catachrest. used for the 
recently introduced accoucheuse, = ' •smA.viiie.'' ■ 

1759 nothing will serve you but to carry off the man-midwife. ....^ctowc/wMr,— 
if you please, quoth Dr. Slop : Sterne, Trist. Shandy, ii. p. 80 (1839). 1781 
Dr. Hunter was sent to Versailles to make a new treaty of Paris with the Queen's 
accoucheur (who you say, Madam, is made free of the theatre); HoR. Walpole, 
Letters, Vol. vm. p. 131 (1858). 1787 This paper is peculiarly interesting to 

accoucheurs : Gent. Mag., ii. p. 612/2. 1826 that is the political philosopher's 
stone, which is yet in the womb of time, to be brought forth by some modem 
Accoitcheur-reformer : Congress. Debates, Vol. II. Pt. i. p. 393. 

[Fr. noun of agent to accoucher,= 'to accouche' {q. v)i\ 
accoucheuse, sb. : Fr. : a midwife. 

1819 Rees. 1887 The same accoucheuse, Madame Siebold, assisted at 
the birth of Prince Albert: R. F. Gardiner, in N. &fi Q., 7th S. ill. p. 337/2. 

[Fem. of accoucheur, g. v.l 

accouple {— J. —), vb. : Eng. fr. Fr. : to join, couple. 

I486 Ye be acopled as brether and sisters; Plumpton Corr., 50. [N. E. D.] 
1605 That application which he accoupleth it withal : Bacon, Adv. Learn., II. 
14. [N. E. D.] 

Variant, 15 c. acople. 

[From Old Fr. acopler, acoupler, Fr. accoupler, = ^ to join 
in a couple'.] 

1662 all the English men accoupled themselues with the French men louingly 
togather: Grafton, Chron., 11. 296(1809). 

accouplement (^ -i — — ), sb. : Eng. fr. Fr. : the action of 
coupling or process of being coupled, union, marriage. Obs. 
Also in carpentry a tie or brace, or a piece of work tied 
or braced. 

1483 thaccoupleraent of mariage: Caxton, Gold. Leg., -iiiiU. [N. E. D.] 
1576 The lawe of God maketh the accouplement honorable amongst all men: 
Lambarde, Peramb. Kent, 339 (1826). [N. E. D.] 

[From Fr. accouplement; see accouple.] 

accourage: Eng. fr. Fr. See accorage. 

accoutre, accoustre (Fr. ou =,11. —), vb. : Eng. fr. Fr. : 
to dress, equip, attire, generally with the idea of some 
special dress. 

1696 we are both accoutred like young men: Shaks., Merch. ofVefi., iii. 4, 
63. 1600 although hee were acowtred in his gilt leather buskins, and his 

Toledo rapier : R. Hakluyt. Voyages, Vol. III. p. 595. 1619 Noses, which 

they adorne with Rings of let and Amber, that cause them to ouer-hang their 
Mouth. ..and esteeme themselues Gallants, thus accoultred : Purchas, Microcos- 
tnus, ch. XXV. p. 256. 1632 they were both of them meanely accoutred in apparell: 
Forraine Avisoes, No. i^, Apr. 24, p. 3. 1663 Thus was he gifted and accou- 
ter'd |_We mean on th' inside, not the outward; S. Butler, Hudibras, Pt. I. 
Cant. i. p. 18. 1693 he converted a wast Room. ..into a goodly Librarary \sic\ 

...accoutred it with all Utensils, and stored it with a vast Number of Learned 
Volumes; J. Hacket, Abp. Williams, Pt. I. 56, p. 47. 

Variants, 17 c. accoustre, accouter, accoultre. 

[Etymology doubtful. The Prov. acotrar makes it pos- 
sible that the Mid. Fr. accoustrer got its s from a supposed 
connection with costume or cousturier or the Lat. constratum 
(cf. Palsgr., Beddyng — accoustrement delict) and throws doubt 
on the derivation fr. Old Fr. coustre (cotisieur), = ' a. sacris- 
tan ' (fr. *custor Late Lat. fr. custos, = 'a guardian '). Acotrar 
suggests Late Lat. *acguadrare, = ' to fit on to'. The true 
past part, is found about as early as the vb. ; 1595 Right 
richly mounted and appointed all, In shining arms accoutred 
for the war : Peele, Anglorum Ferice, Wks., p. 596/2 (1861).] 




■-), sb, : Fr. (partly natural- 

accoutrement (Fr. ou — ± 

1. outfit, equipment, esp. in plur. trappings, equipments, 
fittings, apparel, 

1691 he was clad in strange accoustrements : Spens., Prosop., 672. 1593 
For, lo, I saw in strange accoutrements, Like to King Edward's: Peele, Ord. of 
Garter, p. 587/1, 1. 12 (1861). 1596 not alone in habit and device, Exterior 

form, outward accoutrement: Shaks., K. John, i. 211. 1616 this within 

doores is their summer accoutrement : G. Sandys, Trav.^-p. 63(1632). 1616 

these were their accoutrements ; B. Jonson, Masques, Wks. , p. 926. 
1621 cloaks, gowns, costly stomachers, guarded and loose garments, and all 
those other cont7-ements\ R. Burton, Anat. Mel., Pt. 3, Sec. 2, Mem. 3, 
Subs. 3, Vol. II. p. c!42 (1827). 1628 He is trickt out in all the accoutrements of 
Learning; J. Earle, Microcosm., p. 52 (1868). 1632 Lay by These accou- 

trements for the chase: Massinger, Emperor East, iv. 5, Wks., p. 257/2 (1839). 
1696 Accoutermeftts, (new word) raiment, habiliments, attire: Phillips, World 
0/ Words. 1714 fifty Chaplins, all in their proper Accoutrements: Spectator, 
No. 6og, Oct. 20, p. 856/1 (Morley). 1762 putting on his squire-like attire and 
accoutrements: Smollett, Laimc. Greaves, ch. xxiv. Wks., Vol. v. p. 228 
(1817). 1820 he was obliged to make use of those poor accoutrements which 

the country afforded: T. S. Hughes, Trav. in Sicily, Vol. i. ch. xi. p. 327. 

I u. Specially, of military dress and personal furniture, 

more often the latter, a soldier's equipment being classified 

as dress, arms, and accoutrements. 

1748 ordered me to be accommodated with clothes, arms, and accoutrements: 
Smollett, Rod. Rand., ch. xliii. Wks., Vol. i. p. 280(1817). 1797 ACCOU- 
TREMENT, an old term, applied to the furniture of a soldier, knight, or gentle- 
man : Encyc. Brit. 1826 we had laid down in our clothes with all our accoutre- 
ments on : Subaltern, ch. g, p. 139 (1828). 

2. the provision of accoutrements as above defined. 

1598 not only,. the simple office of love, but in all the accoutrement \v. I. 
accustrement], complement and ceremony of it : Shaks., Merry Wives, iv. 2, 5. 
bef. 1617 Accoutrement (a word vsed among Poets). ..a dressing, attiring. Also 
habiliment, garments: Minsheu, Guide into Tongues. 

Variants, accoustrament^ accoustre^nent^ accustrement^ 
coutrement, accouterment. 

[From Fr. accoustrement (later accoutrement) noun of 
action to accoutre, = ^\.o accoutre' {q. v.).'\ 

accrescimento, sb.: It.: Mus.\ augmentation, lengthen- 
ing a note by one half, the sign being a dot placed after the 
note. It. punto (T accrescimento. 

1740 ACCRESSIMENTO, signifies augmentation, 3.s punto d' accresimento 
point of augmentation: J. Grassineau, Mus. Diet. 

[Vbl. noun to accrescere, = ' to augment', ' increase ', fr. 
Lat. accrescere, — ^ to grow', 'increase'.] 
accrue, accrewe (— -^), sb. : Eng. fr. Fr. 

1. an addition, accession, reinforcement. 

1568 The forts thereabouts were not supplied by any new accrues of soldiers: 
G. Ferrers, Winning 0/ Calais, in Arber's English Gamer, Vol. iv. p. 174 

2. an additional advantage or growth. 

1625 Witnesse the very phrase, the termes of Art, excluding all hope of 
accrue to Lay-conceited opinions: Sir H. Finch, Law, To Reader (1636). 

3. a stitch added to a range in net-work. 

1725 As you work, cast some Accrues from six Meshes to six Meshes, even 
to the second Range from the Lever, and make the third without Accrues ; then 
cast the Accrues again to the fourth Range, and work the fifth without Accrues, 
and do so by all the rest, until the Net is eight or nine foot Heighth: Bradley, 
Fatn. Did., s.v. Casting-net. [N. E. D.] 

[From Fr. accrue, Old Fr. acrue, acre-we,=^ growth.^ 'in- 
crease'. The Fr. sb. was first used in English as a verb.] 
accueil, sb. : Fr. : reception, welcome. 

1854 Nothing could he more gracious than the accueil of this lady: Thacke- 
ray, Newcomes, Vol. n. ch. xxxv. p. 377 (1879). 

accumulator (^_^^z^), sb. : Eng. fr. Lat. 

1. one who heaps up, collects. 

1667 the great accumulators and multipliers of injuries: Decay 0/ Piety. [J.] 
1748 To go on heaping up, till Death, as greedy an accumulator as themselves, 
gathers them into his garner; R.ichardson, Clarissa, i. 62 (i8n). [N. E. D.] 
bef 1824 A bibliomane is an indiscriminate accumulator: D'Israeli, Cur, Lit,, 
p. 503/1 (1866). 

2. one who takes University degrees by accumulation. 

1691 Batchelors 0/ Divinity.,. x6oZ, July i3...Nich. Simpson of C. C. coll. 
was one, and Rich. Colfe of Ch Ch. another; both accumulators: Wood, Fasti 
Oxon., Vol. II. p. 179 (1721), Wks., Vol. v. p. 326/2 (Bliss, 1815}. 1753 AC- 

CUMULATORS, persons who. ..took degrees by Accumulation at Oxford: 
Chambers, CycL, Suppl. 

3. an apparatus for collecting, esp. for collecting and 
storing electricity first described by Plants, 1859. 

1873 A system consisting of two conductors, whose opposed surfaces are 
separated from each other by a thin stratum of an insulating medium, is called 
an electric accumulator: Maxwell, Rlectr. &= Mag., Vol. i. § 50. 1881 

The Faure, Plants, and Meriten's accumulators.. .are assuredly among the great 


factors of the future: Standard, Dec. 30, P- 5/3-. [N. E. D.] 1886 Within 
the last few years a method of storage of electricity in accumulators has been 
brought before the public: Hazdts Ann. Cycl, s. v. EUctrmty, p. 155/1- 

[Lat. accumulator, noun of agent to «<;«»««/ar«, = 'to heap 

accusant (-^-) : Eng. fr. Fr. accusant: accusing; an ac- 
cuser. Obs. or Archaic. 

1611 Accusant (partic.) accusant, accusing... ^c««a«<, An accusant, or 
accuser: CoTGR. 

accusator: Lat. See accusatrix. 
accusatrix, sb. : Lat. : a female accuser. 

1655 Isabel, the accusatrix, is in full liberty: J. Jennings, Elise, 149. 

[Fern, of accusator, = '2.cax%tx' (Mid. Eng. accusatour, fr. 
Anglo-Fr., = Fr. accusateur).'] 

acedia, sb. : Low Lat. : listlessness, sloth, indifference. 

1623 a dangerous spiritual acedy; Bp. Hall, Serm., v. 140 [Davies] 
1696 Aversation to . . . spiritual and divine things is another capital crime . .. 
which is called acedia: D. Clarkson, Pract. IVks., Nichols Ed., Vol. ill 
p. t88 (i860). 1862 a peculiar form of vice which the writers of this time 

call Acidia or Acedia, and which we may render apathy or melancholy, languor 
indifference: W. Whewell, Addit.Lect. Mor. Pliil., xll. p. 99. 

Variant, 17 c. acedy (Anglicised). 

[From Gk. aKi\Ua, = 'torpor'. A pedantic correction of 
the Late Lat. corrupt form accidia, which with the Anglicised 
accidie was a common Theol. techn. term 13 c. — 16 c. denoting 
one of the mortal sins; see Chaucer, Persones Tale, § De 

acegue : Eth. See Negus. 

Aceldama {—>lz,±), sb. : Gk. fr. Aram. : 'the field of 
blood'; orig. the name given to the potter's field bought 
by Judas Iscariot with the blood-money he received for his 
betrayal of Jesus, Acts, i. 19. 

1382 Thilke feeld was clepid Achildemak [1388 Acheldemak] in the langage 
of hem, that is the feeld of blood : Wvclif, Acts, \. 19. abt. 1400 on that other 
syde of Mount Syon, toward the Southe, bezonde the Vale. Acheldamache ; 
that is to seye, the Feld of Blood: Tr. Maundmiil^s Voyage, ch. viii. p. 93 
(1839). abt. 1606 From thens we came to Acheldemak, otherwyse called Terra 
Sancta, that was bought with ye xxx peces of sylver: Sir R. Guylforde, Pyl- 
grymage, p. 34 {1851). 1649 Anglia hath been made an Akeldama: Appeal 
to Rational Men, p. 5. bef. 1658 I trace thee [content] not in this dark way 

Of Death, this Scarlet-streak'd Aceldama: J. Cleveland, Whs., p. 248 (1687). 
1742 lifts us on the Seraph's flaming Win^, | From Earth's Aceldama, this 
field of blood: Young, Night Thoughts, vi. p. 114(1773). 1844 the ex- 
pulsion of the Girondins left Cambacdres and his party masters of the Aceldama 
— the field of blood : J. W. Croker, Essays Fr. Rev., vil. p. 446 (1857). 1886 
Then the procession hurried on to the Aceldama of Paris. "There the offender 
expiated his crimes: E. B. Hamilton, in Eng. Hist. Rev., Apr., p. 267. 

[From Gk. 'AxcXSafia, = Aram. hdqal-d^ma, = ''iiAA. of 

acetabulum, sb. : Lat. : a vase for holding vinegar 
{ace turn) at table; a measure containing about ^ pint; also 
used technically in physiology. 

1398 The vessel in the whyche was soure wyne and corrupte was called 
Acetabulum: Trevisa, Barth. De P. R., xix. cxxiii. 933 (1495). [N. E. D.] 
1551 An acetable holdeth two vnces and an half: 'Turner, Herbal, 11. 78. 
1601 the measure of one Acetable [of a decoction]: Holland, Tr. Plin. N. H., 
Bk. 20, ch. 17, Vol. It. p. 64. — Acetabulum, or Acetable, a measure among 
the Romans of liquor especially, but yet of drie things also: the same that Oxy- 
baphon in Greeke: ib., Catal., sig. Aiij r". 

acetum, sb. : Lat. : vinegar, acid. 

1656 There is an acetum made of antimony, of an acidity as other acetums 
are: B. Valentine, Rep. Former Writ., p. 11. 

achacLUe, sb. : Port, and Sp. : ailment, habitual disorder. 

1646 I am sorry to hear of your ctchagues, and so often indisposition there ; 
Howell, Epist. Ho-El., Vol. 11. p. 389(1678). 

achar (-l.^), sb. : Anglo-Ind. : pickles, any acid or salt sauce 
or condiment : acMar, an Oriental condiment made of the 
young shoots of the Bambusa arundinacea, the bamboo-cane 
(which are pickled also in the W. Indies), seems to be a 
modern use of the general term in a special sense. 

1698 When they [the fruit ^ A7iacardV\ are greene, they make -4(r/5rtrthereof, 
that is to say, they salt them and lay them in Vineger: Tr. J. Van Linschoten's 
Voyages, Bk. I. ch, 83, p. 129/1. 1622 a small jarr of acliar for a present! 
R. Cocks, Diary, Vol. I. p. 135 (1883). 1634 they vse Sallads Acharrs and 
rested Egges: Sir Th. Herbert, Trav., p. 149. 1669 the Atschia, which is 
a certain Composition made of Ginger, Mangos, Citrons : J. Davies, Tr. Mdji' 
delslo, Bk, i. p. 56. abt. 1705 a little bit of salt Fish or Atchaar, which is 
pickled Fruits or Roots: A. Hamilton, New Account, &=c.. Vol, i. p. 252 (1744). 
1774 ACHIA, achiar, a kind of cane pickled: Postlethwavt, i?«c^. Trade. 

[From Pars. a(r^ar, = 'pickles', adopted in many Indian 

acharnement, sb. : Fr.: * blood-thirsty fury'. 

1756 eight Prussian squadrons sustained the acharnement, which is said to 
have been extreme, of thirty-two squadrons of Austrians: HoR- Walpole, 
Letters, Vol. in. p. 37 (1857). 1779 Acharnement is left only to us: ib.. 

Vol. vii. p. 231 (1858). 1841 the Wilkes war was recommenced with more 

acharnement than ever: Cra:k and Macfarlane, Pict. Hist. Eng., Vol. i. 
p. 66/1. 1851 we think that it shows even more conclusively that the achar?ie- 
ment against the Queen with which the Jacobins originally infected Lord Holland 
had fermented in his head to a virulence which surpassed that of the Jacobins 
themselves: J. W. Croker, Essays Fr. Rev., 11. p. 100 (1857). 1855 On my 
return home I observed my concierge and party playing at cards with the same 
ackar^te^nent as on week days : Glance behind the Grilles, ch. vi. p. 214. 

* Achates: Lat. : the faithful (fidus) friend of Aeneas 
the Trojan hero of Virgil's epic, the Aeneid. See also fidus 

1582 he was a subtil VUsses. \ In learning Socrates, in faythful freendship 
Achates: R. Stanyhurst, Tr. Virgil's Aen., A^c, p. 155 (1880J. 1601 this 
gent'man, and his Achates: B. Jonson, Poetaster, v. 3, Wks., p. 336 (1616). 
1667 Holmes^ the Achates of the Gen'rals fight: IDryden. Ann. Mirab., 173, 
p. 44. 1844 It is said that this Irish Achates intended to hurl the poor peace- 
officer into the area below : Craik and Macfarlane, Pict. Hist. Eng.y Vol. iv, 
p. 4s^f2. 1877 "I have no fears now", said she, to her Achates, firmly: 
C. Reade, Woman-Hater, ch. iii. p. 33 (1883). 

Acheron (-^— -^), sb. : Gk. : a mythical river of the Infernal 
regions; hence death, hell. Hence yic^^;'(9?z/zV,adj., = 'deadly', 

1508 Phylyppes soule to kepe | From the marees deepe | Of Acherontes well, | 
That is a flode of hell : J. Skelton, Pkyl. Sparowe, 70, Wks., Vol. i. p. 53 
{1843). 1588 I'll dive into the burning lake below, | And pull her out of 

Aciieron by the heels : Shaks., Tit. And., iv. 3. 44 (1864). 1590 fog as black 
as Acheron: — Mid. Nt's. Dr., iii. 2,357. 1592 Rowe backe the streame of 
Accheron and come | Againe, and see how furious rage impels | Our brainsick 
Citties frantikely to pull | Thy most victorious flowers from their Towers: E. A., 
Tr. Present Estate of France, p. 35 v°. 1616 But he displeasde w/th such 
ambition, | Struck them with lightning downe to Acheron: R. C, Times' 
Whistle, III. 890, p. 31 (1871). 1621 an old Acheronticke dizard, that hath one 
foote in his grave: R. Burton, Anat. Mel., Pt. 3, Sec. 3, Mem. 4, Subs. 2, 
Vol. II. p. 470 (1827). 1625 Some of them dreame ol Elysian fields, to which 

their soules must passe ouer a Styx or Acherott, and there take new bodies: 
Purchas, Pilgrims, Vol. n. Bk. ix. p 1478. 1649 You shortly unto Acharon 
(drunk with your crimes) shall reel: W. W. Wilkins' Polit. Bal., Vol. i. p. 82 
<i86o). 1812 Peace waits us on the shores of Acheron : Byron, Childe Harold, 
II. vii. Wks., Vol. VIII. p. 6g (1832). 

[From 'Axepcov, through Lat. Acheron^ perhaps akin to 
axKv^, = ' mist', Lat. aquilus., = * dark', akin to aqiia., — 
' water'.] 

Acheronta moveb(o\ pAr. : Lat. : (I) will stir up Hell ; see 
Acheron. From Virg., Aen., vii. 312 (speech of Juno), 
Jiectere si nequeo sttperos^ Acheronta mouebo (q. v.). 

1665 what the Witches (acheronta movebunt) urge them to do: Sir Th. 
Herbert, Trav., p. 9 (1677). 

achiar: Anglo-Ind. See achar, 

Achilles { ~ " ') • Gk. : name of the principal Greek 
hero of the poems on the Trojan war, representative of 
valor and speed and also of resentful retirement ; he was 
invulnerable except in the heel. Hence Achillean, adj\\ 
Achillise, vb., = ^to chase', 'rout'; Achillis tendo{n)^ the 
great tendon connecting the bone of the heel with muscles of 
the calf, commonly called in 17 c. *the great chord'. 

1677 But what auailes Achilles hart to haue. King Cressus welth, the sway of 
all the world: G. Gaskoigne, Life, p. 23 (1868). 1594 hadst thou... Achilles' 
heart.. .1 tell thee, sir, thou liest: Greene, Orlando Fur., p. 109/1, 1. 17 (,1861). 
1596 See...valure in Achilles : Sidney, Apol. Poes., p. 34 (1868). . 1612 they 
would haue drowned all the Hectors, Achilleses and Rollands in obliuion : 
T. Shelton, Tr. Don Quixote, Pt. iv. ch. v. p. 339. 1649 our brave 
Senators have done more with one blow from a Sling then all th' Achillesses, 
Ulysses, Ajaxes, and Hercnlesses did with their weapons, and clubs: Moderate, 
No. 213, p. 1995. 1670 I found him, like Achilles on the Shore : Dryden, 
Cong, of Granada, ii. 2, Wks., Vol. i. p. 435 (1701). 1703 the Tendon of 
Achilles'. Tr. Dionis^ Ajiat., p, 422. 1707 the great Teiidon of the Gas^ 
trocnemii, or Chorda Achillis: J. Drake, Anatomy, Bk. iv. ch. viii. p. 738. 
1738 Tendon ^Achilles, Chorda Achillis: Chambers, Cycl. 1820 his 
Achillean swiftness of foot : T. S. Hughes, Trav. in Sicily, Vol, ii. ch. vi. 
p. 145. — In the eagerness of pursuit this young Achilles far outstripped his 
companions: ib., ch. vii. p. 154. 1829 ACHILLIS tendo: Lond. Encycl. 

1835—6 rupture of the tendo Achillis has occurred even below the upper edge 
of the OS .calcis: Todd, Cyc. Anat. aiid Phys., Vol. i. p. 150/1. 

Achingi: Turk. See Acangi. 

achiote, sb. : Sp. : a drug used for dyeing a bright red 
color, also called annatto or roucou, made from the seeds 
of the Bixa Orellana, a South American tree. 

1673 Acchiote, which they mingle with the other ingredients [of chocolate] to 
give a colour is made of a kind of red earth brought from Ne-w Spain, wrought 
up into cakes it is sold for a Real di plato the ounce : J. Ray, Jour^t. Low 
Countr., p. 485. 1763 ACHIOTL, in hot^ny. .Mraca, or Ametto, caW&A... 
Orellana... ACHIOTTE, a red drug from America, used in dying, and in the 
preparation of chocolate. The word is Brasilian [=the tree]: Chambers, Cycl., 
Suppl. 1774 ACHIOTL, a name given by the Brazilians to a drug used in 
dying, more commonly called Rocou: Postlethwayt, Diet. Trade. 1797 



ACHIOTTE, or Achiotl, a foreign drug, used in dying, and in the preparation 
of chocolate : Encyc. Brit. 

Achitophel (^z^^): Heb. : of Giloh, David's chief coun- 
sellor, the infamous abettor of Absalom's rebellion ; his ad- 
vice being neglected, he hanged himself, and the rebellion 
failed : type of a sagacious but unprincipled counsellor : 
in Dryden's Satire Achitophel represents Lord Shaftesbury. 

1597 A whoreson Achitophel: Shaks., II Hen. IV., i. 2, 41. 1652 this 
consideration would sweep down many cobweb-lawes, that argue only the venome 
and subtilty of them that spin them ; this would sweep down many an Achito- 
phels web and many an Hamans web, many an Herods web : N. Culverwel, 
Light of Nat., ch. iv. p. 26. 1679 More Jew then Rabbi Achitophel: S. 

Butler, Hndibras, Pt. iii. Cant. ii. p. 106. 

Achivi, //. : Lat.: ///. 'Achaeans', meaning 'the com- 
monalty' — in allusion to the verse quicquid delirant reges 
plectuntur Achi7^ij = ^ whatever madness possesses the chiefs 
it is (the common soldiers or people of) the Achaeans who 
suffer': HORACE, Epp.j I. 2, 14. 

1778 We, the Achivi, are to be the sufferers, and particularly we the Achivi 
of these islands : HoR. Walpole, Letters, Vol, vii. p. 84 (1858). 

acies {Jl—±), sb. : Lat. : Roman line of battle ; also keen 
vision, range of vision, attentive look ; trans/, attentive 

1621 Our Christian tactics are all out as necessary as the Roman acies or 
Grecian phalanx: R. Burton, Ajtat. Mel., To Reader, p. 30 (1867). 1646 a 
Frog.. .seems to behold a large part of the Heavens, and the acies of his Eye to 
ascend as high as the Tropick: Sir Th. Brown, Pseud. Ep., Bk. iv. ch. i. p. 151 
(1686). 1658 blue and green, above and below'the Sight, moderately termi- 

nating the Acies of the Eye : — Garden of Cyr., ch. iv. p. 46. 1682 fixing the 
acies of his eye on such a man : Th. Goodwin, Wks., in Nichol's Ser. Stand. 
Divines, Vol. ix. p. 410 (1864). 

[Lat. acies^ = ^ed.%e\ *keen sight', 'line of battle'.] 
ackabah,//. ackab, sb. -. Arab. See quotations. 

1686 all the Acabas ranked in order. Acaba, they call great Barges or 
Barks, in the stern whereof they make a Hall or Divan of Timber: Tr. Theve^ 
nofs Voy. de Levant, Pt i. ch. Ixvi. p. 233. 1836 Among these is a very 

large boat, called the 'Ack'abah; one of the largest of those which navigate the 
Nile, and which are called 'ack'abs: E. W. Lane, Mod. Egypt., Vol. 1. p. 262. 

[Arab, ^aqaba, pi. ''aqab.'] 

*acine, aK/ziJ, sb. : Gk. : edge, highest point. 

1. the extreme point of development, the maximum; less 
frequently, the crisis of a disorder ( Techn,), the extreme of a 
detrimental state or characteristic. 

bef. 1668 the vnspotted proprietie of the Latin tong, euen whan it was, as the 
Grecians say, in a.K\ifQ, that is, at the hiest pitch of all perfitenesse: Ascham, 
Scholemaster, Bk. 11. p. 14^ (1884). 1620 They haue not attained vnto the 
Acme, or full height of their growing: Vennee, Via Recta, viii. 174. bef. 
1637 bee [Sir Francis Bacon] may...standas the wzar^^ and aw^Tj of our language: 
B. Jonson, ZJ/jcoz/., Wks., Vol. ir. p. 102 (1640). 1652 yet he does not reach 
the top & dKju.T) of it neither: N. Culverwel, Light of Nat., ch. iv. p. 22. 
1672 the power and strength of sin in their oikjlltj : T. Jacomb, Romans, Nichol's 
Ed., p. 118/2 (1868). 1699 our aKjuij, our highest pitch, cannot be here \_i-e. in 

this life] : John Howe, Wks., p. 308 (1834). 1762 the inflammation was very 
great, and going on with violence to its actne: Smollett, Lau?ic. Greaves, ch. 
xvii. Wks., Vol. V. p. 160(1817). 1779 Success in such hands as we are in, 

would blow them up to the acmi of insolence : Hor. Walpole, Letters, Vol. vii. 
p. 216 (1858). 1790 the growth of population in France was by no means at its 
acm^ in that year [1780]: Burke, Refl. on Rev. in France, p. igi (3rd Ed.). 
1821 my opium pains might be said to be at their acme : Confess. ofEng. Opiu^n- 
Eater, Pt. 11. p. 148 (1823). 1871 generous and forbearing to the very acme of 
indiscretion: J. C. Young, Mem. C. M. Yo%tng, Vol, i. ch. 9, p. 333, 1886 

One would have thought the Hotel Dieu the acme of human misery: R. Heath, 
in Mag. of Art, Dec, p. 51/2. 

2. the time of full development, the prime. 

1626 He must be one that can instruct your youth, | And keepe your Acme 
in the state of truth : B. Jonson, Stap. of News, Prol., 25 (1631). 

Variants, 16 c. — 18 c. aKftjJ, 17 c. achme, achma, 18 c. acme. 
[Not fully naturalised before the 19 c. The forms with 
ach- are Low Lat., acme is the Fr. form.] 

aconite (-^^-^), aconitunij sb. : Eng. fr. Fr. or Lat. 

1. name of a genus of plants yielding a powerful alkaloid 
poison ; esp. the common WolPs-bane or Blue Monk's-hood 
{Aconitum Napellus)^ the root of which is very poisonous. 

1551 The other kynde of Aconitum: Turner, Herbal, sig. B i 7f. 1578 
Aconit that kiUeth Woolfs: H. Lvte, Tr. Dodoen's Herb., Bk. i. p. 426. 1679 
Aconitum, Libardbaine or Wolfebaine : North, Tr. Plutarch, p. 892 (i6ra). 
1691 The weeping Aconitum, and | The Ixia binding sore; Jas. I., Furies, 300, 
Poet. Exerc. (Edinb., 1818). 1601 the venomous hearb Aconitum, i. Libard 
bane: Holland, Tr. PUil. N. H., Bk. 20, ch. 6, Vol. 11. p. 43. — the juice 
of Aconit, \i: Libard-bane] ; ib., Bk. 23, ch. 7, Vol. ii. p. 17a. 1603 the bane- 
full Aconite: J. Sylvester, Tr. Du Bartas, p. 81 (1608). — these Brooks, 
thus branching round about. Make heer the Pink, there th* Aconite to sprout : 
ib., p. 171. 

2. the poison, also used as a drug, got from this plant, or 
any deadly poison. 



1555 The juice of this root [Jucca] is a poison as strong as Aconitum\ 
R. Eden, Voyages, p. 3?^. 1680 eyther as a Cullise to preserve, eras a sworde 
to destroy, eyther as Afiiidottcm, or as Aucouiti^m: J. Lyly, EiipJmes &^ his 
Engl., p. 356 (1868). 1608 Aconite \To hurle vpon this glaring light: 

B. JoNSON, Masques^ Wks., p. 955 (1616). 1646 Aconites and other poysons: 
Sir Th. Brown, Psetid. Ep., Bk. vii. ch. xvii. p. 309 (1686). bef. 1667 All 

the World's Mortal to 'em then, ) And Wine is Aconite to Men: A. Cowley, 
Wks., Vol. 1. p. 62 (1707). 

3. popular name of the Eranthis hyeinalis or winter- 

[1578 The little yellowe seemeth well to be that Aconitum^ the 
nowe called of some Aconitmn hyeinale: bycause it is preserued in the gardens 
of this Countrie, and in the winter it flowreth: H. Lvte, Tr. Dodoens Herb., 
Bk. HI. p. 429.] 1664 Winter Aconite ^ some Anejnonies, Winter Cyclamen: 
Evelyn, Kal. Hort., p. 192 (1729). 

[Lat. acomtufn, whence Fr. aconit, fr. Gk. olkovItov.^ 
aconitia, aconitina, sb. : Late Lat. : Chem. : a powerful 

alkaloid poison, the essential principle of Acojiituin Napel- 

lus ; see aconite. 

1845 Aconitina: Christison, /*<7iJ£7?«, p. 870. 1882 The stomach and 

viscera also contained aconitia...Dr, Lamson purchased two grains of aconitia; 
Times, Jan, 14, p. ii/i. 

acotyledon, sb. : Late Lat. : Bot, : a plant which has no 
distinct cotyledon, or seed-lobe, or germinal leaf, as fern, 
moss, fungus, seaweed. 

1797 Acotyledones, plants whose seeds have no lateral bodies or lobes; as the 
Musci: Encyc. BHt., Vol. in. p. 448. 1813 Pantologia. 

[The pi. acotyledones is earlier than the sing., coined fr. 
Gk. d-, = * without'; and /coTuXT;5wi/, = 'cup-shaped hollow'.] 

acousmata, sb, pi. : Gk. : Pkilos, : things heard, heads of 
Pythagorean doctrine ; hence acousjnatics, acousmatict (with 
Lat. termination), hearers, students of such dogmas, pro- 
bationers. Rare. 

1655—60 There were many Auditors, called Acoiis-maticks^ whereof he 
gained. ..two thousand by one Oration: T. Stanley, Hist. P/iHos., Pt. ix. 
p. 503/1. — of those who came to him, some were called Mathematici, others 
Acousmatici... The Acousinatici fwerel they, who heard only the chief heads of 
learning, without more exact explication: z^., p. 518/2. — ■ The Philosophy of the 
Acousmatici consists of Doctrines without demonstrations and reasons, but 
that. So it must be done, and the like, which they were to observe as so many 
Divine Doctrines, and they did esteem those amongst them the wisest, who had 
most of these Acotismata. Now all these Acousmata were divided into three 
kinds; some tell, what something is; others tell, what is most such a thiiig: 
the third sort tell, -what is to be done, and "what Jiot: ib., p. Sigji. — a Pytha- 
gorean of the Acousmatick rank : ib. 

[Gk. aKov<T\j.aTa^ pi. of aKov(riiay = * a thing heard '.] 

acousticon, properly sd. : Gk. : (something) having to do 
with hearing. 

1660 Ther's no creture hears more perfectly then a goat, for he hath not onely 
ears, but an acousticon organ also in the throat: Howell, Parly of Beasts, 
p. 123. [Davies] 

[Gk. aKova-TiKov, neut. of aKova-TiKoSi adj., = * having to do 
with hearing', whence acoustic comes without passing 
through Latin, which turns ov into u as in anacrusis^ 
musaeuntj plutocracy. Perhaps Howell was thinking of 

acQLua Tofania, a. Tofana, sb.\ It.: * water of Tofana' ; 
named from a noted poisoner who invented it abt. 1690. Its 
main poison was arsenic. 

1711 Last week.. .three Neapolitan women... [were] hanged for making and 
selling a poisonous water called Aqua Tofania-: Fleetwood, Letter, in Addi- 
son's Wks., Vol. V. p. 472 (1856). 1717 The poison is called Acqiietta di 
Tufania from a Greek woman whose name was Tufania. About thirty years ago 
she came to Sicily and there distributed this poison. ..This secret is since got to 
Naples: Davenant, Letter, in Addison's Wks., Vol. v. p. 472. 1757 the 
politer and genteeler poisons of Acqua Tufana, sugar-plumbs, &>c. : Lord 
Chesterfield, Letters, Vol. i. No. loo, p. 398 (1774). 

acquisitor (r-inji), sb. : Eng. fr. Late Lat. : one who 

[Late Lat. acqmsttor, in Orderic. Viterb., Vol. 11. p. 166 
(Provost), noun of agent to acqmrere^ = ^to gain', 'acquire'.] 

accLUist, vb.: It. or Sp. . acquire. 

1598 He shall acquibt and gaine the name. ..of a..,vertuous and discret 
Captaine: Barret, Theor. Warres, n. i. z8. [N. E. D.] 

^cre, adj. : Fr. : sharp, tart, bitter. 

1886 The hawthorn comes in dcre whiffs to him : R. Broughton, Dr. Cupid, 
Vol. III. ch. i. p. 6. 

acrisia, acrisis {wrong fonr^^ acrisy (-^^^), sb. : Late Lat., 
or Gk. aKpLo-la: lack of judgment, confusion; also Med. un- 
decided character (of a disease). 

1662 being smitten with such a scotoma or acrisis, a giddiness of brain or 
blindness of judgment, that they knew not their friends from their foes: John 
Trapp, Com. I Sam., xiv. 16, Wks., Vol. i. p. 439/2 (1867). 


acroama, acroasis, sb. : Gk. : acroame {-L—-^), Eng. fr. 
Gk. : Anc. Philos. : oral teaching, a lecture on exoteric 
doctrine ; hence loosely, a rhetorical declaration, anything 
pleasant to listen to. 

1679 also he heard of him, other more secret, hard, and graue doctrine, which 
Aristoiles scholers do properly cal Acroamata, or Epoptica, meaning things 
speculative, which requireth the masters teaching to vnderstand them : North, 
Tr. Pint., p. 676 (1631). 1606 he would prouoke them, if they either sat silent 
or spake softly to the fellowshippe of discourse and talke ; yea and interpose either 
Acroames and players or else Triviall fellowes out of the Cirque: Holland, 
Suet., p. 72. — he had brovght into request and vse againe even the olde 
Acroames {(note) Eare delights] as Players, Musicians, &c. : z'^, p. 240. 1655 — ■ 
60 his nocturnal Acroasis, perhaps meaning the Lectures through a Skreen during 
their Probation : T. Stanley, Hist. Philos., Pt. IX. p. 503/1 (1687). 1842 
[He] gave his admiring poems the appropriate and suggestive name of acroases— 
auscultations, things intended to be heard : Mrs. Browning, Gle. Chr. Poets, 64. 
[N. E. D.] 

[Gk. aKpda;Lia, = ' a recitation', 'lecture', dK/)oacr(j, = 'the hear- 
ing', 'a recitation', fr. aKpoaa-6ai, = 'to hear'.] 

acrochordon, sb. : Gk. : a long hard hanging wart. 

1720 O, sir, I should have fought better, but for.. .some Acrochordones upon 
my right shoulder: Shadwell, H-umourists, 11. i. 153. [N. E, D.] 

[Gk. aKpoxop&a>v, = {lit.) 'the end of a string'.] 

*acropoliS {—±——), sb.: Gk. aKponoKis, pi. dxpoiroKeis : a 
citadel, an elevated portion of an ancient city, esp. the temple- 
crowned rock of Athens. 

1662 As if Nature kept garrison in this Acropolis of Man's body, the Head: 
More, Antid. agst. Ath., n. xii. 79 (1712). [N. E. D.] 1682 The Cittadel... 
in times of its greatest Prosperity, it was no more then the Castle, or Acropolis, 
standing in the middle of the City : G. Wheeler, Jourit. Greece, p. 346. 1778 
strangers visit the vestiges of the Acropolis, or may come to dig for capitals among 
the rums of St. Pauls : HoR. Walpole, Letters, Vol. vil p. 64 (1858). 1816 
yon tower-cappM Acropolis, ] Which seems the very clouds to kiss: Byron, Siege 
of Cor., I. Wks., Vol. x. p. 109(1832). 1820 the hero Zacynthus...gave the 

name of his native city to the height upon which he built his Acropolis : T. S. 
Hughes, Traii. in Sicily, Vol. i. ch. v. p. 150. 1886 It is doubtful if these 
historians themselves in any way realized. ..the position of the nest of palaces 
which crowned the acropolis of Constantinople: AtlLencsum, Sept. 25, p. 407/1. 

* acrostic (— .^— ), sb. and adj. : Eng. fr. Fr. or Lat. 

\. sb.: I. a composition of which the initial letters of the 
lines or verses taken in order {single acr.) or the initial 
and end letters {double acr.) or the initial, middle, and end 
letters {triple acr.) can be read as a word or words, or as an 
alphabet. "Besides these there are compound Acrosticks, 
where the principal Letters stand two or three deep" : Addi- 
son, Spectator, No. 5o, 171 1, May 9. 

[1530 Palsgrave has an acrostic in French at the end of his Introduction.] 
1587 Sybil's Acrosticke,...that is to say. ..verses of hers whose first letters made 
the name of the king: Golding, De Momay, xxxii. 508. [N. E. D.] 1646 
Poems, Epigrams, Acrostiques, Anagrams, Sonnets; Howell, Lewis XIII., 
p. 168. bef 1667 In which who finds out Wit, the same may see | In 
An grams and Acrostiques Poetry: A. Cowley, Wks., Vol. L p. 4 (1707). 
1712 in Poetry there are laborious Fools who write Anagrams and Acrosticks: 
Spectator, No. 466, Aug. 25, p. 666/2 (Morley). 1712 St. Austin, De Civitate 
Dei, has the famous Acrostick at large said to be one of the Oracles of the Sybilla 
Erythre^a, the first Letters of the Verses making 'iTjcroi}? Xpitrrbs ®eou vio? 
Smttjp: M. Henry, Expos. Old Test., Vol. iv. p. iii. (1725). 1753 Some 
pretend to find Acrostics in the psalms, particularly those called Abcdarian 
psalms: Chambers, Cycl, Suppl. 1815 I had an acrostic sent to me on my 
own name: J. Austen, Emma, Vol. III. ch. vii. p. 332(1833). 1818 The 
acrostics of the Hebrews present a singular phenomenon in the literature of that 
people : E. Henderson, Iceland, Vol. 11. p. 376. 

I. 2. the beginning or end of a verse. Obs. 

1614 That Acrostick. ..KpiJTes act i/zeuo-rat: Selden, Tit. of Hon., 12. 
[N. E. D.] 1753 an Acrostic properly signifies the beginning of a verse, yet is. 
sometimes used for the end or close of it : Chambers, Cycl., Suppl. 

I. 3. in recent times wrongly applied to a kind of com- 
pound charade, in which the first letters, or the first and 
last letters (double acrostic), or the first, middle, and last 
letters (triple acrostic), of the words to be guessed themselves 
form a word or words. There was quite a craze for this 
amusement in 1862. 

II. adj. : the sb. in senses i, 2 used attributively. 

o •'■®''^,=^!; Acrostick Sonnett: R. N., in J. Sylvester's Tr. Du Bartas, sig. B 
8 lo. 1682 Chuse for thy Command | Some peaceful Province in Acrostick Land : 
Dryden, Max Fleckno, 206, in Spectator, 1711, No. 58, May 7, p. 95/2 (Morley). 

Variants, 17 c. acrostiche, acrostichis. 

[From Fr. acrostiche or directly fr. Late Lat. acrostichia, 
fr. Gk. tiKpoo-rixir, fr. dxpo-, = 'extremity', (rri;(os, = 'row', 
'verse'. The invention is attributed to Epicharmus.] 

acroterion, -um, //. acroteria, sb.: Gk. : lit a prominent 
part, also Anglicised as acroter, acrotere {z.±±). 

I. Classical Antiq. the ornament over the middle or on 
either corner of a pediment (Plato, Critias, p. 116 D). 


1738 ACROTERIA, or Acroters.. .sometimes also signifies figures, whether 
of stone or metal, placed as ornaments, or crownings, on the tops of temples, or 
other buildings: Chambers, CycL 1882 Akroterion.. .composed of akanthos 
and helix. Lower border cut away to fit the ridge of a pediment : C. Fennell, 
Tr. A. Michaelis^ Am. Marb, in Gt. Brit, p. 394, 

2. Arch, the pedestals or level places for statues on 
the angles of a pediment, also the statues themselves. 

1696 Acroteres: Phillips, World 0/ Words. 1753 Acroieria or Acroters: 
Chambers, Cj/cl., Suppl. 

2 a. pi. acroteria^ statues or pinnacles in ranges on a roof 
Found as a collective singular. 

1664 Acroteria..,-we may properly name them Piracies, for so Pinnee and 
Batlements were made sometimes more sharp, Towring or Spiry : Evelyn, Tr. 
Freart's Parall. Archit., p. 140. 1678 Acroieria, in Architecture are those 

sharp and spiry Battlements or Pinnacles, that stand in ranges, with Rails and 
Balasters upon flat Buildings : Phillips, World 0/ Words. 1738 Chambers, 

Variants, Lat. acroterhiin, acroter^ fr. Fr. acrotlre. 
[Gk. aKpoiTijpiov ; fr. aKpos-, = ' extreme', 'highest'.] 
acta, J^. (pi. o{ actum): Lat.: transactions. 

1. Rom. Antiq.'. acta publica^ the register of public acts. 

2. public acts ; register of transactions of a public body 
or meeting when those transactions are completed, in 
opposition to agenda^ a register of business announced for 

Actaeon : Gk. ^KKTaloiv : a mythical hunter who, having 
surprised Artemis (Diana) bathing, was transformed by her 
into a stag and so was killed by his own hounds. As having 
been made to wear horns he became a representative of 
cuckolds and his name was even used as a verb meaning 
*to cuckold'. 

abt. 1386 There saw I Atteon an hart ymaked, | For vengeance that he saw 
Diane all naked : Chaucer, Cant. Tales, 2067 (1856). 1688 Thy temples 
should be planted presently | With horns, as was Actseon's: Shaks., Tit. Afid., 
ii- 3) 63. 1698 I will., .pluck the borrowed veil of modesty from the so seeming 
Mistress Page, divulge Page himself for a secure and wilful Actaeon : — Merry 
Wives, iii. 2, 44. 1621 the emperours themselves did wear Actasons badge: 
R. Burton, Anat. Mel., Pt. 3, Sec. 3, Mem. 4, Subs, i, Vol. 11. p. 457 (1827). 
1647 but doe ye heare my little Acteoitiies; what, suffer your skins to be pull'd 
over your embroydered eares to make Winter Jerkins for the Army? Mercurius 
Melancholicus, No. 11, p. 67, 1748 This young Actason [i.e. hunter], who 
inherited his grandfather's antipathy to every thing in distress: Smollett, Rod. 
Rand., ch. ii. Wks., Vol. i. p. 9 (1817). 

*acte d'accusatioiij phr.: Fr.: bill of indictment, or 

1843 The impeachment, or acte d* accusation... -wzs at last drawn up: Craik 
and Macfarlane, Pict. Hist. Eng., Vol. iii. p. 352/2. 

activity {—±—z})^ sb. : Eng. fr. Fr. activity. 

1. the act or state of exerting natural power or energy. 

1549 the power and actiuitie of al thinges : Coverdale, Erasin. Parapkr., 
T Cor., 33. [N. E. D.] 1599 Doing is activity; and he will .still be doing: 
Shaks,, Hen. V., iii. 7, 107. 1607 That your activity may defeat and quell | 
The source of all erection: — Timon, iv. 3, 163. 

2. quickness of action or movement, ready display of 

abt. 1523 So noble a prince as he | In all actyuite | Of hardy merciall actes : 
J. Skelton, Wks., Vol. IL p. 79 (1843). 1630 Actiuyte quicknesse actiuite-. 
Palsgr. 1666 This nation is ruined for want of actiuity on our parts : Evelyn, 
Corresp., Vol. ill. p. 166 (1872). 1787 His horse was drowned, and he saved 
by the activity of his servants: Gent. Mag., p. 1118/2. 

2 a. physical strength and agility, the exercise of the 
same, gymnastics, athletics, display of skill in action. 

1652 Master whyche teacheth actiuitie, Gymnastes: Huloet, Abeceda- 
rium. 1612 — 3 to see no other activity but shooting and putting of guns : 
J. Chambhklain, in Court ^^ Times of Ja-mes I., Vol. i. p. 225 (1848). 
1626 So we see, in Languages the Tongue is more Pliant to all Expressions and 
sounds, the loints are more Supple to all Feats of Actiuitie, and Motions, in 
Youth then afterwards : Bacon, Ess., xxxi. p. 371 (1871). 1638 of which 
late activity [i.e. vaulting] one Stokes, the master, did afterwards set forth a 
pretty book : Evelyn, Diary, Vol. i. p. 12 (1872). 1657 he stood on his head... 
and finally flew down the perpendicular. ..with divers other actiuities: ib., p. 339. 
1660 I saw. ..monkeys and apes dance, and other feats of activity: ib., p. 359. 

3. active force, operation of the same. 

1696 his ymage dead, | That living him in all activity 1 To thee shall represent : 
Spens., E. Q., in. iii. 29. 1646 Some.. .have recurred unto the influence of 

the starres, making their activities Nationall: Sir Th. Brown, Pseud. Bp., 307. 
[N. E. D.] bef. 1782 Supplies with warm activity and force | A mind well- 
lodg'd, and masculine of course : Cowper, Table Talk, Poems, Vol. i. p. 9 (1808). 

* actor {-L-\ sb. : Eng. fr. Lat. 

I. a manager, steward, overseer (of an estate or a house- 
hold). Obs, 

1382 He is vndir tutouris and actouris: Wyclif, Gal., iv. 2. [N. E. D.] 



2. one who initiates an action at law, a plaintiff. In 
Ancient Roman Law also * an advocate ^ ' prosecutor'. Not 
Obs. among men of Law. 

1413 That the actour be admytted to maken his compleynt: Lydgate, 
Pylgr., I. vi. 6 (1859). [N.E.D.] 1649 The king may not... determine Causes 
wherein himself is actor: Selden, Laws of Eng., i. xx. (1739). [N. E. D.] 
1696 in the Civil Law an Actor signifies an Advocate or Proctor: Phillips, 
World of Words (5th Ed.). 

3. a doer, one who acts or takes part in any action. 
Now gen. with allusion to 4, unless in reference to the 
expressed idea of act or action. 

1683 all these be honorable purposes, imitating the nature of the munificent 
God, wherwith he is well pleased, who will assist such an actour beyond expecta- 
tion of man : R. Hakluyt, Voyages, Vol. iiL p. 144 (1600). 1594 no out- 
rageous thing I From vassal actors can be wiped away: Shaks,, Lucrece, 608. 
1696 And th' actours won the meede meet for their crymes: Spens., F, Q., v. 
ix. 42. 1629 as by every bad action such a disposition is bred in the mind of 
the actor: Brent, Tr. Soave's Hist. Counc. Trent, Bk. n. p. 165 (1676). 1646 
Surely many things fall out by the design of the general Motor, and undreamt of 
contrivance of Nature, which are not imputable unto the intention or knowledge 
of the particular Actor; Sir Th. Brown, Pseud. Ep., Bk. iii. ch. x. p. 102 
(1686). 1669 for the honour of those very many brave men who were actors in 
it: Evelyn, Corresp., Vol. iii. p. 214 (1872). 1754 you yourself have been a 

principal actor in this robbery: Smollett, Ferd. Ct. Fathojn, ch. xxxviii. Wks., 
Vol. IV. p. 212 (1817). 

3 ^. a female doer, which is what actress meant at first 
(16, 17 cc). 

4. a stage-player, one who acts a part (on or off the 


1690 The actors are at hand and by their show 1 You .shall know all that you 
are like to know: Shaks., TIfzrfj-. Nfs. Dr.,v. i, 116. 1693 as if the tragedy | 
Were play'd in jest by counterfeiting actors; — 11/ Hen. VI. ,n. 3,28. 1600 in 
the very midst of their solemne Games and sports, he tooke from them the very 
plaiers and actors: Holland, Tr. Livy, Bk. v. p. 180. 1600 an Actor in a 
Comedie or Tragedy : R. Cawdray, Treas. of Similies, p. 380. 1603 vain 

Actors in this Worlds great Play: J. Sylvester, Tr. Du Bartas, p. 17 (1608). 
1640 that stage [ Of wicked Actours: H. More, Pkil. Po., Oracle, p. 297(1647). 
*1876 that talented and popular actor : Everting Echo, Fch. 15. [St.] 

4. a. a female stage-player, now gen. replaced by actress. 

1666 Knipp [doing] the widow very well and will be an excellent actor : 
Pepys, Diary, Dec. 27. 

[From early Eng. actour (as if from Anglo-Fr. actour^ 
but the Fr. acteur is later in Littr^), fr. Lat. actor (noun 
of agent to agere^ — ^\:o drive', *to manage', 'to do', 'to act') 
to which the spelling is accommodated. In Lat. sense 3 
is earliest, sense i latest.] 

actrice, sb. : Fr. : a female stage-player, actress. Perhaps 
regarded as Eng. in 18 c. 

actu, actum, actus, abl., ace, and nom. of actus, sb. : 
Lat. : * act ', ' deed ', ' actuality ' ; used in various techn. 
phrases. Thus act7/s primus or actus signatus in Scholastic 
Logic is the mere designation of an act (sometimes almost 
— hvva\Li^, 'potential operation'), opposed to actus secundus 
or actus exercitus, the actual practice (sometimes almost 
= iy4py€La, 'actual operation'). 

1616 But these last are rather potentid than actu : J. Chamberlain, in 
Court ^ Times of Jos. /., Vol. i. p. 412 (1848). 1674 Gods bare Essence 
must be forthwith or actu [in actuality] but his everlasting EsseJice... mnst be 
forth-coming or in pote?ttia: N. Fairfax, Bulk and Selv., p. 17. 1671 If 
we consider it in actu signato, or in its abstract idea, this is its temperament : 
John Howe, Wks., p. 263/2 (1834). 1696 Acts are good in themselves in 
actti signato, from the matter: D. Clarkson, Pract. Wks., Nichol's Ed., 
Vol. II. p. 114 (1865). 1684 we are active in actu exercito, but not in actu 
signato: S. Chaenock, Wks., in Nichol's Ser. Stand. Divines, Vol. in. p. 205 
(1865). 1702 we look upon it [i.e. the covenant] as in actu exercito, viz. 

as it is now transacted and entered into by the beloved God: John Howe, 
Wks., p. 107/2 (1834). 1696 but in actu exercito, and as acted by us, they 
[i.e. acts] cannot be good, without a good principle, a due form, a right end : 
D. Clarkson, Pract. Wks., Nichol's Ed., Vol. 11. p. 114(1865). 1681—1703 
foundations firmly laid in the soul do implicitly work when they are not in 
cutu exercito, or explicitly thought upon: Th. Goodwin, Wks., in Nichol's Ser, 
Stand. Divines, Vol. viii. p. 187 (1864). 1674 There is the actits primus, or 
the quickening act of this principle: John Owen, Wks., Vol. 11. p. 329 (1826). 
1681 This power in 'actu primo', or fundamentally, is in the church itself: ib.. 
Vol. XX. p. 378. — • This power., .in 'actu secundo', or its exercise, [is] in them 
that are especially called thereunto: ib. 1681 — 1703 and so to create a work- 
manship to good works, is to endow the heart with such abilities, and actus priini, 
as they are called, as should enliven the heart to good works, as acttts secundi'. 
Th. Goodwin, Wks., in Nichol's Ser. Stand. Divines, Vol. vi. p. 436 (1863). 
1684 The sacrament is a seal in actu privto, in its own nature, but not i7i actu 
secu?ido'. S. Charnock, Wks., in Nichol's Ser. Stajid. Divi?ies, Vol. iv. p. 434 
(1865). 1749 but for the rationale, I can only allow it him in actu primo (to 
talk Logic) and seldom in actu secundo: Lord Chesterfield, Letters, Vol. i. 
No. 173, p. 514 (1774). 1681 There are two acts of faith ; the one is upward to 
God, and the other is downward, Actus elicitus, as we call it, and actus im- 
Peratus: Th. Goodwin, Wks., in Nichol's Ser. Stand. Divines, Vol. 11. p. 335 
(1861). 1681 — 1703 And so justification in God is one uniform act, actTis indi- 
vidutcs as divines speak: ib.. Vol. vi. p. 105 (1863). 1642 passive possibility to 
any thing, which is the fountain of all change, can have no place in him who i* 



actus simplex, and purely free from all composition : John Owen, Displ. of 
Arinin., Wks., Vol. v. p. 63 (Russell, 1826). 1573—80 a certayne solemne 

venerable grace to my most reverend Regenteshipp when it cumes in actum : 
Gab. Harvey, Lett. Bk., p. 74 (1884). 1652 But in respect of him that is 

subject to the Law It does consist in aciu rationis, 'tis required only that he should 
know it, not ifi actu voluntatis, it does not depend upon his obedience : N. Cul- 
VERWEi,, Light of Nat., ch. iv. p. 25. 1699 Though every law proceeds from 
the will of the lawgiver, and doth formally consist in actu voluntatis, yet it pre- 
supposes actum iutellectus : S. Charnock, Wks., in Nichol's Ser, Stand. 
Divines, Vol. v. p. 465 (1866), 

"* actuality, sb.\ Fr. : real existence, reality, opposed to 
potential or to imaginary existence. 

1839 we are not going to praise it : it wants vigour, to our taste, and what you 
call actualiti'. \V. M. Thackeray, Misc. Essays, p. 142 (1885). 1884 French 
dramatists lose little time in the production oi actualites: Athenaeum, Jan. 5, 
p. 30/1. 

actualiter, adv. : Lat. : actually, Kar ipreKexetav. 

1674 God's being as sitch is altogether in a readiness or actualiter; N. Fair- 
fax, Bulk and Selv., p. 175. 

actum agere, phr. : Lat. : to do what is done, to waste 
time and labour in vain repetition. 

1621 you will infer that this is actum, agere, an unnecessary work : R. Burton, 
Anat. Mel., To Reader, Vol. i. p. 8 (1827). 1648 these things. I must 

not prove, lest I should actum agere: John Owen, IVks., App., Vol. v. p. 561 
(Russell, 1826). 1654 to have tied myself unto a contest with him, had been 

merely actum agere, without promoting the cause I had undertaken in the least : 
ib.. Vol. VI. p. xxi. 1662 lest you otherwise seem actum agere, as the word 

is: Evelyn, Corresp., Vol. in. p. 138(1872). 

actum est {^€)^phr. : Lat. : *it is all over (with)'. 

1614 Actum est, of him for a common-wealths-man : if hee goe to't in Rivte, 
once: B. Jonson, Bart. Fair, iii. 5, Wks., Vol. ir. p. 41 (1631 — 40). bef. 

1733 if he can prove his point upon an Authority, so well accepted as this is, 
actum est: R. North, Exame?i, i. i. 8, p. 19(1740). 

[The 3rd pers. neut. sing. perf. ind. pass, of agere, = ^^o 
do', 'act', in phr. with de, prep., = 'of', 'concerning', and abl.] 

*acumen, j^. : Lat.: 'keenness', 'sharpness' {Met. of the 
mind, as often in Lat.), 'shrewdness'. 

1573 — 80 y'^ suttle and intricate acumen of Aristotle : Gab. Harvey, Lett. 
Bk., p. 71 (1884). 1599 nothing... doth sooner abate that which we call, acumen 
ingenij, then yourgrosse fare; B. Jonson, Ev. Man out of his Hum., ii. 3, Wks., 
p. 106 (1616). 1689 one Scholar may be taught otherwise upon the Stock of 

his Acumen, but not a whole School : Selden, Table- Talk, p. 68 (1868). 1818 
Milton's divine poem of the Paradise Lost may have come under your observa- 
tion, and stood the test of your critical acumen : Lady Morgan, Fl. Macarthy, 
Vol. 11. ch. ii. p. TOO (i8ig). 1842 I. ..shall still think them two men | Till some 
Sage proves the fact 'with his usual acumen'' : Barham, Ingolds. Leg., p. 249 

acupictor, sb, : Late Lat. : embroiderer. 

1696 Acupictor, (Jat.) an Embroiderer in needlework, as it were a Painter 
with a Needle : Phillips, World of Words (5th Ed.). 

acushla, sb.: Ir. : darhng; for a cuisle^^^O pulse' (of my 

1883 Come, acushla t henceforth let us be brothers: H. Jay, Connaught 
Cousins, Vol. i. ch. vi. p. 138. 

acyron, sb. : Gk. : use of a word or phrase in an improper 

1584 Curssed or detestable, by the figure Acyron, when a word of an vnproper 
signification is cast in a clause as it were a cloud: R. Scott, L>isc. Witch., xiv. 
ch. vii. p. 371. 1589 Ye haue another vicious speech which the Greekes call 

Acyron, we call him the vncouthe, and is when we vse an obscure and darke 
word, and vtterly repugnant to that we would expresse : Puttenham, Eng. 
Foes., p. 262 (1869). 

[Gk. aKvpou, neut. sing, adj.] 

a.d, prep. \ Lat.: 'to, for, until, near, according to'. See 
phrases with ad. 

ad absurdum. See reductio ad abs. 

ad amussim, pAr. : Lat. : ' according to the (mason's or 
carpenter's) level ', accurately, exactly. 

1640 this agrees ad a/nussijn with Uranore or Psycke...\!ti^ celestiall Venus: 
H. More, Phil. Po., sig. c i (1647). 1663 For though the Thesis which thou 
lay'st I Be true ad amussiin as thou say'st: S. Butler, Hudibras, Pt. i. Cant, 
i. p. 62. 1693 Is there but one Tree of Knowledge in all the Paradice of the 

Church of God? Or must all be despised that are not reformed ad aviussijn? 
J. Hacket, Abp. Williams, Pt. i. 36, p. 34. 

ad arbitrium, ^>^r. : Lat.: ' at will', arbitrarily. 

1774 leave it with the legislature to disfranchise, ad arbitriuTu, every 
borough and county in the kingdom: Junius, Letters, Vol. 11. p. 91 (1887). 

ad articulum mortis: Lat. See in articulo mortis. 

ad avisandum : Lat. See avizandum. 

ad bene esse: Late Lat. See esse. 

ad calendas Graecas : Lat. See ad kal. Grace. 


*ad captandum \_vulgus\ phr. : Lat. : ' to catch (the 
vulgar)', of an argument or statement; also ad captuiii 

1621 As for those places of scripture which oppugn it [the study of mathe- 
matics, &c.] they will have spoken ad captum vulgi, and if rightly understood 
& favourably interpreted not at all against it: R. Burton, Anat. Mel., Pt. 2, 
Sec. z, Mem. 2, p. 327(1867). 1762 These paltry tricks «(/ c-«>M«^fw;K w^/^wi- 
can have no effect but on ideots: Smollett, Launc. Greaves, ch. x. Wks., 
Vol. V. p. 91 (1817). 1780 I said this was a figure of rhetoric, employed by 
his Lordship ad captandnm vulgus. I believe so still, but I believe he meant it 
also ad captandum regem: J. Adams, Lett,, Diplom. Corresp., Vol. IV. p. 408 
(Boston, 1829). 1811 only to write ^ ad captandum vulgus'; Byron, in 
Moore's Life, Vol. n. p. 62 (1832). 1837 such an ad captandum argument, as 
the offer of half a guinea : C. Dickens, Pidiwick, ch. x. p. 95. 1883 showy 

and ad captandtan arguments : Standard, Oct. 12, p. 5/3. 1886 The tale. ..has 
a sort ck ad captandum interest: Athenceum, Feb. 6, p. 198/3. 

ad clerum, //^r. : Low Lat.: 'to the clergy'; a discourse 
to the clergy was called shortly a clerum. 

1673—80 there was a sermon ad clerum first: Gab. Harvey, Lett. Bk., p. 3 
(1884). 1642 by sermons ad clerum ..he caused such a "spring" among 

divines as was not seen in many years before; Th. Fuller, Abel Red., Vol. 11, 
p. 290 (1867). 

ad crumenam, /.^r. : Lat.: 'to the purse', of an argument 
or appeal. 

1769 Then, added my father, making use of the argument ad crjtmenam,— 
I will lay twenty guineas to a single crown-piece; Sterne, THst. Sliandy, 
Vol. [I. ch. xii. Wks., p. 79 (1839). 

a!d esse: Late Lat. See esse. 

ad eundem \^raduni\, phr. : Low Lat. : ' to the same 
(degree) ', of the admission of a graduate of one University 
to the same degree at another without examination ; metaph. 
of admission of a member of any one society into another. 

1711 you are invited to be ^&m\\X^Aad eundetn at CAMBRIDGE : Spectator, 
No. 78, May 30, p. 126/2 (Morley). 1730 Dr. Middleton was presented ad 
eundem by the Margaret professor. Dr. Jenner: Thos. Hf.arne, Remains, in 
Lib. of Old Authors, Vol. III. p. 58 (1869). 1772 I would instantly scratch my 
name out of the buttery-book of Almack's; be admitted, ad eundem, among the 
Muses: HoR. Walpole, Letters, Vol. v. p. 404(1857). 1783 he shall be ad- 

mitted ad Eundem. ..m^o the Church of Rome: Zi5., Vol. viii. p. 440(1858). 1869 
they are admitted ad eundem among the chosen ones of the city of Exeter : A. Trol- 
LOPE, He knew He was Right, Vol, I. ch. vii. p. 49. 1885 Graduates came... 
and supplicated for incorporation ad eundem, as a matter of usage .so unvarying 
as to be almost a right: Athenceum, Aug. 29, p. 26jIt. 

ad extra, phr.: Late Lat.: 'in an outward direction'; 
of what has effect beyond the subject of a verb or verbal 
noun, opposed to a^ z«/ra, = ' within' (the said subject) and 
to ab extra, = ' from without', g. v. 

1 . adv. : 

1660 God does then mosl glorijle and exalt himself in the most triumphant 
way that may be ad extra or out of himself: J. Smith, Sel. Disc. , p. 137 (1673). 
1681 what works all three Persons do towards us ad extra. ..2ir^ attributed more 
especially to one Person than to another; Th. Goodwin, Wks., in Nichol's Ser. 
Stand. Divines, Vol. I. p. 503 (1861). 1696 We have all the confirmations and 
assurances, ad extra, that the most suspicious heart can desire : D. Clarkson, 
Pract. Wks., Nichol's Ed., Vol. I. p. 195 (1864). 

2. adj. : 

1657 all the works of the Trinity ad extra, are indivisible: J. Owen, Wks., 
Vol. X. p. 330 (Russell, 1826). 1671 all God's acts ad extra are free : J. Howe, 
Wks., p. 222/1 (1834). 1681—1703 By God's ways sometimes all his works ad 
extra are meant : Th. Goodwin, Wks., in Nichol's Ser. Stand. Divines, Vol. vi. 
p. 519 (1863). 1684 the acts of those [perfections] ad extra are not necessary 

but upon a condition. ..the acts of those [perfections] ad intra, or within himself 
are necessary: S. Charnock, Wks., in Nichol's Ser. Stand. Divines, Vol. II. 
p. 195 (1864). 

ad extremum vixxum., phr.: Lat.: to the utmost of the 

1652 how do they act ad extremum virium in all expressions of malice and 
wickednesse? N. Culverwel, Light of Nat., Treat., p. 147. 1684 the sun 

%\(\nft.i.... ad extremum virium, unless a cloud interpose : S. Charnock, Wk^., in 
Nichol's Ser. Stand. Divines, Vol. 11. p. 437 (1864). 1691 For he being Infinite 
in ail Perfections, cannot act ad extremwu virimn, unless he could produce an 
Infinite Creature, that is, another God, which is a Contradiction : J. Ray, Creation, 
Pt. II. p 378 (1701). 1696 He [Christ] did not act as natural agents ad extre- 
mum virium: D. Clarkson, Pract. Wks., Nichol's Ed., Vol. lii. p. 28 (1865). 

ad finem, ad fin., phr.: Lat. : 'at the end', 'near the 
end'; used in references. 

1641 So do the Geneva divines in their answer to the eight questions proposed 
to them, which are inserted among Zanchy's epistles lib. i, ad finem Epistolae 
58: S. Torshell, C«K)K. jl/a/., Nichol's Ed., p. 281/2(1865). 1700 Psalm 

xxii. 27, ad finem. ..vf^s sweet and seasonable to my soul: 17. Boston, Mem 
Wks., Vol. XII. p. no (1854). 

*ad hoc, phr. : Lat. : 'for this' (special function or 

1659 So that ad hoc the Magistrate is the only Judge what is sound doctrine r 
R. Baxter, Key for Catholicks, Pt. 11. ch. iv. p. 451. 1809 The conscripts- 

are. ..examined. a special commission, created ad hoc by the prefect: Edin. 


Rev.^^ Vol. 13, p. 433. 1835 Robespierre was for the second time chosen 

President of the Convention ad hoc: J. W. Croker, Essays Fr. Rev., vi. p. 391 
(1857). 1882 A sum not far off two millions per annum will have to be provided 
ad hoc by the Chancellor of the Exchequer : Greg, Misc. Essays, ch. vi. p. 147. 

ad hoc, argumentum: Lat. See arg. ad hoc. 

ad hominem, ^^r. : Lat. : *to the person' ; of an argument 
(often argumentum ad horn., $^. -z/.) or appeal merely based 
on the habits, prejudices, or professions of the person ad- 
dressed, almost equal to the adj. 'personal'. In reference to 
more persons than one, needlessly if riot wrongly, ad homines, 

1698 And this is an argument which logicians call ad homhtem : R. Parsons, 
Ward- Word to Hast, Watch- Word, Pt. vi. p. 79. 1630 we prove to divers 

persons who suppose & believe the one, & so (ad hominem) by that we prove 
the other: J. S., Triall of the Protestant Private Spirit, it, ch. viii. p. 204. 
1680 What I can find in his sermon hath any aspect or design that way, is either 
ad rem, or ad hominem: J. Howe, Wks., p. 173/1 (1834). 1765 There was 

great wit ad hominem in the latter reply: HoR. Walpole, Letters, Vol. iv. 
P- 339 (1857)- 1883 The foregoing remarks. ..are in no sense directed ad 

homines'. XIX Cent., Aug., p. 255. 

ad hunc locum, ^^r. : Lat. : on this passage. 

1641 yet of the enigmatical use of it, see him, ad hunc locum, and in his 
Proem to the Minor Prophets: S. Torshell, Comm. Mai., Nichol's Ed., p. 300/2 

ad idem,/Ar. : Lat.: Ho the same', on the same (point), 
in agreement. 

1572 Hitherto you have proved nothing in question, neither have you rea- 
soned ad idem : Whitgift, Wks., Vol. i. p. 404 (Parker Soc, 1851). 1674 The 
opposition is not a(^Z£fe?«: J. Owen, W^s.,Yol. 11. p. 372 (Russell, 1S26). 1885 
The letters show that the parties were never ad idem : Laiv Times, May 30, Vol. 
LXXIX. p. 80/z. 

ad infinitum, /^r. : Lat.: Ho infinity', without limit. 

1. adv. (often with ellipse) : 

1610 Nay, to a thousand, so ad injznitum: B. Jonson, Alch., ii. i, Wks., 
p. 619 (1616). 1625 successiuely from one to another of the same kinde, ad 

infinitum : Purchas, Pilp^ms, Vol. 11. Bk. ix. p. 1479. bef. 1628 [fear] 

having no object to bound it, it runs on ad infinitum, and cannot be checked by 
any condition of life: Feltham, Resolves, Pt. i. p. 135 (1806). 1665 some 

have turmerack and saffron, other-some none ; some onions and garlick, some 
none; some having alinonds and raisins, some none: and so ad ir^nitum: Sir 
Th. Herbert, Trav., p. 310 (1677). 1733 And these have smaller still to 
bite 'em, [ And so proceed ad infinitum.'. Swift, Wks., -p. 604/2 (1869). 1749 
and so ad infinitum: Lord Chesterfield, Letters, Vol. i. No. 159, p. 412 
(1774). 1804 Lord Lauderdale ridicules the idea of money increasing ad infi- 
nitum, by compound interest: Edin. Rev., Vol. 4, p. 374. 1818 their less 
durable portraits by Lilly and Kneller have been copied ad infinitum in Ireland : 
Lady Morgan, Fl. Macarthy, Vol. i. ch. iv. p. 215 (1819). 1839 apparently 
endless avenues of arches, multiplied ad infinitum, on the right and left : Miss 
Pardoe, Beauties of the Bosph., p. 105. 1866 the rule of art is that a colon- 
nade is more beautiful the longer it is, and that ad infinitum : Emerson, English 
Traits, xvi. Wks., Vol. ii. p. 127 (Bohn, 1866). 

2. adj. : 

1678 Nay then, thought I, if that you breed so fast, | I'll put you by your- 
selves, lest you at last | Should prove cul infinitum, and eat out | The book that 
I already am about: Bunvan, Pilgrim's Progress, Author's Apology, p. 10. 
1878 maps and guides ad infinitu7n : Gerardine Macpherson, Life of Anna 
Jameson, p. 49. 

ad inquirendum, phr, : Late Lat. : Leg. : * for making 
inquiry ' ; name of a writ. 

1607 Ad inquirendum, is a writ iudiciall, commanding inquirie to be made 
of any thing touching a cause depending in the Kings court, for the better execu- 
tion of iustice : CowELi., Interpr. 1762 A judicial -writ ad in^uirendujn being 
executed, the pri.sonsofhis inquisition were laid open: Smollett,«c. Greaves, 
ch. XXV. Wks., Vol. V. p. 234(1817). 

*ad interim, /^r. ; Low Lat.: 'for the mean-time'; see 

1. adv.: provisionally, temporarily. 

1787 He will be succeeded in the place of Governor General of the Low 
C.ou'niri&s ad interiTn by Count Trautmansdorff: Gent. Ma°., p. 1013/1. 1812 
The Earl of Liverpool, while he held the office of his Majesty's Secretary of 
State for Foreign Affairs ad interim, was commanded to make known the case 
of William Bowman.., forcibly detained on board the United States' Ship the 
Hornet: A. J. Foster, Lett, to Sec. of State, in Amer. State Papers, Vol. iii. 
p. 459 (1832). 1871 taking the precaution ad htterim of returning his purse to 
his pocket: J. C. Young, Mem. ofC. M. Young, Vol. 11, ch. xi. p. 13. 

2. adj. : provisional, temporary. 

1818 a fruitless attempt at reconciliation, made by the director ad interijn 
Colonel Alvares: C. A. Rodney, Lett., in Amer. State Papers, Vol. iv. p. 22r 
(1832). 1835 makes it highly probable that they look upon the present settle- 
ment of Europe as one only ad interim'. Greville Memoirs, Vol. in. ch. xxvii. 
p. 212 (1874). 1839 Our minister, who was only ad interim... assisting in pro- 
moting a settlement : Miss Pardoe, Beauties of the Bosph., p. 158. 

ad intra, phrr. Late Lat.: ^in an inward direction', 
•within'. See ad extra. 

1642 Providence, is a word which may seem to comprehend.. .all his works 
that are not ad intra essentially belonging unto the Deity: J. Owen, Wks,, 
Vol. V. p. 77 (Russell, 1826). 1674 these actings [of the persons] are of two 
sorts; I. Ad intra, which are those internal acts in one person whereof another 
person is the object: ib.. Vol. 11. p. 64. 

S. D. 



ad invidiam, phr. : Lat. : to (excite) odium. 

1845 the confidence which the King, and particularly— as it was said ad 
invidiam— the Queen placed in him: J. W. CrOKER, Essays Fr. Rev.j i. p. 60 

ad Kalendas Graecas, //^r. : Lat.: *at, to the Greek 
Kalends'; i.e. at, to a time which will never arrive; as the 
Roman term Kalendae, = ^th.Q first day of the month', was 
not in the Greek Calendar. The Emperor Augustus used 
the phrase, Sueton., Aug., 8y. See Kalends. 

1606 ever and anon, when hee meant some that would never pay their debts, 
He said, They would pay ad Calendas Grcecas: Holland, Tr. Suet., p. 77. 
1622 the keys, which are promised to be deliverd him again, but I think ad 
Gracas Calendas: Howell, Lett., iii. v. p. 55 (1645). 1628 stay the seisure 
for the 60", till there come a charge demonstratinge the particulars, which they 
thinke will be ad Grmcas calendas-. Hutton Corresp., p. 317 (1843). 164J. 

{speaker") a Flie j Who... | Makes bold to borrow, and paies too. {Pro.) But 
when? (speaker) Why ad Kalendas Graecas; neverthen: John Day, Par- 
liament of Bees, i. p. 14 (Bullen). 1888 Their publication has been deferred 

"from political reasons," possibly ad calendas Gnecas: Athenceujn, Feb. ir, 
p. 182/2. 

ad libitum, ad lib., phr. : Low Lat. : to choice, at 
pleasure, as much (many) as may be desired ; in Music 
{1724. Sho7't Explic. of For, Wds. in Mus. Bks.) at the 
performer's pleasure, generally of notes or passages which 
are not essential to the theme. 

1. adv. : 

1621 a great man in office may securely rob whole provinces. ..pill and poll, 
oppress ad libiiuin, flea, grind, tyrranise: R. Burton, Anat. Mel,, To Reader, 
p, 31 (1867). 1621 The to be adjourned ad libitum.: Notes of Debates 
in House of Lords, p. 62 (Camd. Soc, 1870). 1684 Yet it [the Lord's Supper] 
was not left ad libitutn: you may do this, but do it: S. Charnock, Wks., in 
Nichol's Ser. Stand. Divines, Vol. iv. p. 412 (1865). 1818 distributed the 
money ad libitum: Lady Morgan, Fl. Macarthy, Vol. 11. p. 37 (1819). 1821 
you shall send me soda powders, tooth powder, tooth brushes...' ad libitum': 
Byron, in Moore's Life, Vol. v, p. 249 (1832). 1848 Ad Libitum. At the 

performer's pleasure ; abbreviated ad lib. : Rimbault, Pianoforte, p. 90. 1848 
to marry wives ad libitum: Ld. Lytton, Harold, Bk. i. ch. ii. p. 12/1 (3rd Ed.). 

2. adj. : 

1769 many neat buildings of white stone, but a little disorderly, and, "ad 
libitum": Gray, Letters, No. cxliv. Vol. 11. p. 157 (1819). 1806 In fevers 

from bile, cold drinks ad libitum: Edin. Rev., Vol. 7, p. 47. 1821 armed 

with an ad libitum reserve of fool-hardiness: ib.. Vol. 35, p. 343. 

*ad litem, /Ar. : Lat. : Leg. : for a suit, action. 

1765 The court of exchequer can only appoint a guardian ad litem., to manage 
the defence of the infant if a suit be commenced against him: Blackstone, 
Comm., Bk. in. ch.;xxvii. Vol. in. p. 427 (i8og). 1877 It shall be lawful for 

the chairman, appoint a next friend or guardian ad litem to act for or on behalf 
of such infant: Stat. 40 &^ 41 Vic, ch. 56, § 66. 1883 Guardians ad litem 
are relieved from the duty of answering interrogatives: Lord Coleridge, Laiv 
Reports, xi. Q. B. D., 253. 

ad luctam, phr. : Lat. : as far as a struggle. 

1660 but yet ad luctam he may be resisted, though he cannot ad victoriam: 
Newton, on John 17, in Nichol's Coms., p. 191/1 (1867). 

ad majorem Dei gloriam, pkr.: Late Lat.: to the 
greater glory of God. Motto of the Society of Jesus. 

1659 it hath pleased God to restore my health, I hope ad majorem Dei 
gloriavi: Evelyn, Corresp., Vol. in. p. 127 (1872). 

ad manum, phr. : Lat. : ' at hand', ready. 

1547 — 50 the light rash eloquence, which is ever ad manum, to mock and 
improve that which is established: Ridley, Wks., p. 504 (Parker Soc, 1841). 
1681 — 1703 for that is not ad manum at every turn when a man is to act, but 
a practical skill is needful: Th. Goodwin, Wks., in Nichol's Ser. Sta7id. 
Divines, Vol. vii. p. 141 (1863). 

ad melius esse, phr.: Late Lat: 'for better- being', for 
greater well-being ; see melius esse. 

1598 two instruments, the one which will barely serue their turne, and the 
other, that besides the meere sufficiency, hath moreouer the perfection ad melius 
esse ioyned thereunto: R. Haydocke, Tr. Lomatius, Bk. v. p. 180. 1659 
R. Baxter, Key for Catholicks, Pt. n. ch. iii. p. 405. 

*ad misericordiam, phr.\ Lat.: 'to pity', qualifying 
appeal, plea, argument, &c. ; sometimes used as if an adj. 

1824 the fallacy of those arguments ad misericordiam. on which the agricul- 
turists now principally rest their claims to protection: Edin. Rev., Vol. 41, p. 55. 
bef 1863 No day passes but that zxgMYti^wtadmiseHcordiam is used : Thackeray, 
Roundabout Papers, p. 43 (1879). 1885 Not that any plea "ad misericordiam" 
is necessary in his case: Athenceiim, Aug. 22, p. 235/2. 1885 He now made 

an ad misericordiam. appeal for an extension of that time on the ground of his 
ignorance of the practice: Manchester Exam.., Feb. 27, p. 5/2. 

■^ad nauseam, usque ad n., phr.\ Lat.: ///. 'to sea- 
sickness', to a sickening extent, so much as to cause disgust; 
usque flf/, = 'quite up to'. 

1647 Do not iterate or inculcate the same things odiously ^^ ad nauseam: 
John Trapp, Cojnm. on New Test., p. ^/i (1868). bef. 1683 They are not 
filled.. .with novel and uncouth terms foreign to the things of God, as the manner 
of some writers is ad nauseam usque: J. Owen, Wks., Vol. iv. p. 157 (Russell, 
1826). 1814 he had already spoken ad nauseam on this very subject: Edin. 

Rev., Vol. 23, p. 73. 1819 That person has already been exhibited, perhaps 




"usque ad tuiiiseavi" , before the Public: Tom Crih's Memorial, Pref., p. xxxi. 
(3rd -Ed.). 1879 [Doncaster church] has been brought "almost ad nauseam 
before the public : Sir G. Scott, Recoil. , ch. iii. p. 172. 

ad nutum, phr. -. Lat. : at the nod, beck. 

1777 by paying a ground- rent that the Portuguese acquired the temporary use 
and profit of Macao ad nutuvt of the Emperor : in J. F. Davis, Chinese, Vol. I. 
ch. i. p. 27 (1836). 

ad placitum, /^n : Late Lat.; 'at pleasure', quite volun- 

1626 These were things ad placitum, and noe claimes allowed for this time : 
Simon a Ewes, Lett., in Ellis'- Orig. Lett., ist Ser., Vol. in. p. 216 (1824). 

ad pompam, phr. : Lat. : for public show. 

1624 everything must be theatricall ad pompavt, else the gazing vulgar would 
not beso easily caught: J. Gee, Foot out Snare, p. 83. 1652 it must not be 

worn in our colours ad pompam, but in our armour ad pugnam, to the fight : 
Marbury, Com. Hahakhnk, Nichol's Ed., p. 93/2 (1865). 

*ad populum, ;/^r. : Lat.: 'to the people', opposed to 
ad clerum. 

1647 The divine authority of gospel doctrine is here, in the close of this last 
sermon ad populum, most gravely asserted by our Saviour: John Trapp, Comm. 
on New Test., p. 390/2 (1868). 

ad post, phr. : Late Lat. : in the direction of the after, 
consequential, consequentially. 

1831 from a present cause may arise an infinitude of effects ad post: Edin. 
Rev., Vol. 54, p. 149. 

*ad quod damnum, //^r. : Late Lat.: Leg.: 'at what 
hurt' ; see quotation- from Cowell. 

1607 Ad quod damnum, is a writ that lyeth to the escheater to inquire what 
hurt it will be to the King, or other person, to graunt a Faire or market, or a 
mortmaine for any lands : Cowell, Interpr. 1693 For if they be abused in 

any particular, Mr. Attorney-General can find an ordinary Remedy to repair the 
same by a Write of Ad qttod damnum, without troubling the two Houses of 
Parliament: J. Hacket, Abp. Williains, Pt. 11. 164, p. 174. 

ad ravim usque,//%r. : Lat. : even to hoarseness. 

1647 So the Papists cry up, ad ravim usque, their lady of Loretto: John 
Trapp, Comm. on New Test., p. 467/1 (1868). 1662 'The Church, the 

Church', ad ravim usque: ib., p. 420/2. 

*ad referendum, /y^r. : Low Lat.: 'for reference', a term 
of diplomacy qualifying the acceptance of proposals by 
representatives subject to the approval of their principals to 
whom they refer such proposals. 

1781 They have not mentioned a treaty with America, the reason of which 
was, that this subject was already taken ad referendutn, and under the considera- 
tion of the several branches of the sovereignty; John Adams, Lett., Diplom. 
Corresp., Vol. vi. p. 21 (Boston, 1830). 1787 Congress have taken this 
generous offer of his «^ r^7-<?«(/7^7« : Gent, l^ag., p. 1015. 1815 the agree- 

ment was read to the whole and taken ad referenditm by the Russian and 
Prussian Ministers: Wellington, Dispatches, Vol. xii. p. 287 (1838). 1883 
One party making a proposal, the other party accepting it ad referendum, and 
finally rejecting it : Standard, No. 18,464, p. 5/4. 

ad rem, phr. : Lat. : to the purpose, applicable to the 
subject of discussion. See nihil ad rem. 

1621 What more ridiculous, as Lactantius urges, than to hear how Xerxes 
whipped the Hellespont. ..To speak ad rem, who is free from passion? R. Burton, 
Anat. Mel, To Reader, p. 40 (1867). ^ 1680 What I can find in his sermon 
hath any aspect or design that way, is either ad rem, or ad liominem : J. Howe, 
Wks., p. 173/1 (1834)- 

ad solvendum, phr. -. Lat. : to payment. 

1625 come. Ad solvendum, boyes: B. Jonson, Stap. of News, i. 3, p, 12 

ad terrorem: Lat. See in terrorem. 

ad ultimum, ad ultimum sui posse, ad ultimam 
potentiam, phr.: Lat.; to the utmost, to the utmost 
of one's power. 

1674 That he doth not work as a natural agent, ad ultimum virium, to the 
utmost of his power: J. Owen, IVIcs. ,Yol. 11. p. 229(Russell, 1826). 1677 that 
this power be put forth, not like that of a natural agent, ad ultimum, but gra- 
dually: J. Howe, Wis., p. 126/1 (1834). 1681 Now nature, if it work as a 
natural agent, it doth always work ad ultima-m potentiam, to the uttermost of 
his power.. .natural causes work ad ultimam potentiajn, as the sun shines to the 
uttermost: Th. Goodwin, IVks., in Nichol's Ser. Stand. Divines, Vol. 11. p. 139 
(1861). 1696 If he [Christ] should act infinitely, he should act ad ultitmim sui 
posse, as natural agents do: D. Clarkson, Pract. Wlis., Nichol's Ed., Vol. 111. 
p. 40 (1B65). 1705 and which [power] therefore is not exerted ad ultimum, so 
as to do all that almighty power can do: J. Howe, Wks., p. 297/2 (1834). 

ad unguem,//%r. : Lat.: to a nail's breadth, perfectly, to a 

1598 Tut, no more of this surquedry ; I am thine own ad ungiiem, upsie 
freeze pell mell: B. Jonson, Case is Alt., iv. iii. p. 518 (1865). 1662 his di- 
version had been to learn by heart the four first books of Vergil's Rm&s, which 
he had, as they say, ad miguem: J. Davies, Tr. Olearius, i. p. 21 (1669). 
1668 I have it all adunguem: Dryden, Mart. Marr-all, v. Wks., Vol. i. p. 220 
1701) abt. 1738 You are to be perfectly versed (ad unguem) in Weights and 

Measures, viz. twenty hundred weight make a tun. ..sixteen ounces is one pound; 
lower than which you need not go: G. ?,mTH,Compl. Body of Distil., Bk. i. 
p. 88 (3rd Ed.). 1767 Everything they write, in short, is polished ad unguem: 
Junius, Letters, Vol. 11. p. 124 (1887). 

[The phrase is. borrowed from sculpture. See HOR., 
Sat., I. V. 22, ad u. \ /actus homo.'\ 

*ad valorem, //%n : Low Lat.: Finance: 'according to 
value', of an impost which varies directly as the market 
value of the commodity taxed, opposed to specific; also 
an impost of this kind. 

1698 That five pounds per annum, ad valorem, upon all returns from the 
East Indies, be paid by the importer: Tindal, Contin. of Rapin,^o\.l. p. 369/2 
(1751). 1722 the said duties payable ad valorem on all books bound: Stat. 9 
Geo. I., ch. 19, § 6. bef 1754 [the charge] was quid pro quo if no ad valorem : 
Fielding, Wks., Vol. iv. p. 37s (1806). 1820 an ad valorem duty upon all 

the furniture in any man's possession: Edin. Rev., Vol. 33, p. 73. 1883 au 
8 per cent ad valorem duty on exports: W. Black, Yolande, 1. 18,^ p. 351. 
1884 even the very pins in their garments have not escaped your specifics and 
ad valorems: Hon. S. S. Cox, U. S. Congress. Record, Mar. 21, p. 2263/2. 
— have you not taxed them specifically and advaloremly from 50 to loo and 
more per cent? ib. 

ad verbum, phr. : Lat. : to a word, word for word, ver- 
batim, q. V. 

1573—80 translated in a manner ad verbum, thus: Gab. Harvey, Lett. Bk., 
p. 100 (1884). 1621 My translations are sometimes rather paraphrases than 

interpretations, non [not] ad verbum, but as an author I use more liberty, and 
that's only taken which was to my purpose: R. Burton, Anat. Mel., To Reader, 
p. 12 (1867). 

ad Vitam aut (ad) culpam, phr.: Late Lat.: lit. 'to 
lifetime or fault', of a tenure held for life subject to good 

1818 The lowest clansman felt his own individual importance as well as his 
chief whom he considered as such only **ad vitam aut ad culpam": E. Burt, 
Lett. N. Scotl., Vol. I. p. Ivii. 

ad vivum, //%r. : Lat.: 'to the life', hke life, adv., also 
as adj. 

1634 Mirrour of New Reformation, wherein Reformers by their own acknow- 
ledgment are represented ad Vivum: [Title] printed by J. Cousturier. 1811 
will be content with our drawing ad vivum : L. M. Hawkins, Countess, Vol. I. 
p. xxxix. (2nd Ed.). 1845 Such is the real picture of the Revolution ! — the 

portrait ad vivum — not as outlined by Mignet or coloured by Thiers, but the 
living image: J. W. Croker, Essays Fr. Rev., I. p. 69 (1857). 1886 Vertue's 
rendering of Faithorne's ineffably pathetic ad vivujn portrait of Milton was 
"edited" till the heart and fibre. ..were half destroyed: Athemeufn, Oct. 23, 
P- 539/3- 

*adage {-!-—), s6.: Eng. fr. Fr. adage: a saw, an old pithy 
saying, a proverb. 

1548 He forgat the olde adage, saeyng in time of peace, protiide for warre : 
Hall, Chron. Edw. IV., an. 9. [R.] 1584 but euerie Countrey hath his 
fashion according to the olde Adage : T. Coghan, Haven of Health, p. 150. 
1589 one while speaking obscurely and in riddle called Ainigma ; another while 
by common prouerbe or Adage called Paremia: Puttenham, Eng. Poes., 
p. 166 (1869). 1605 Letting 'I dare not' wait upon 'I would', | Like the poor 
cat -i' the adage: Shaks., Macb., i. 7, 45. 1768 It is an ill wind, he, 
catching off the notary's castor, and legitimating the capture with the boatman's 
adage: Sterne, Sentiment. Joum., p. 124 (1779). 1885 " Populus vulf 

decipi : decipiatur". This adage of Thuanus has never been more strikingly 
illustrated: Sir J. A. Picton, in N. &= Q., 6th S. xil. p. 253/1. 

[The forms adag-ie, -y —hef. 1568 Ascham, Scholem., p. 
128 (1884) ; 1621 R. Burton, Anat. Mel., Pt. 3, Sec. i, Mem. 
I, Subs. 2, Vol. II. p. 165 (1-827); 1693 J. HaCKET, Abp. 
Williams, I. 17 — are directly fr. Lat. adagium.l 

*adagio, adv. used as adj. and sb.: It. : Mus. 

I. a^fv. . slowly, in slow time. Originally a direction used 
in music ; said to have been first used by Orlando di Lasso ; 
in 1683 used by Purcell. 

1724 adagio, or by Way of Abbreviation ADAGo, or ADO, by which is 
signified the slowest Movement in Musick, especially if the Word -be repeated 
twice over as ADAGIO, ADAGIO: Short Explic. of For. Wds. in Mus. Bks. 

2. adj. : slow, performed in slow time. 

1773 A musical bar of four crotchets in an adagio movement; Barrington, 
mPhil. Trans., i.yiin. 2^2. [N. E. D.] ^ 

3. J*. : a slow movement in Music, a musical composition 
in adagio time. Also metaph. 

1754 [See allegro 2]. 1784 sells accent, tone, \ And emphasis in score, 
and gives to pray'r | Th' adagio and andante it demands : Cowper, Task, Bk; 11., 
P- 44 (1817)- 18!20 She then played an adagio and a slow waltz: Mr.s. Opie, 
Tales, Vol. I. p. 306. 1855 an event... promised to play an adagio upon Lord 
Ipsden s mind : C. Reade, Clir. Johnstone, ch. i. p. 7 (1868). 1885 Mr. Clinton 
played the adagio from the Clarinet Concerto: Athenteum, Dec. 12, p. 777/3. 
1886 A charming adagio religioso for violin and organ, by Bolt: Leeds' Mercury - 
Dec. 12, p. 8/4. 


*Adain: Heb.: the name given in the Bible to the com- 
mon father of all mankind. Hence, esp. in the phr. the old 
Adam, = m3in's corrupt nature. 

Adam, metonym. for water, also Adam^s ale, wine, beverage. 

Adam's Apple, the. name of varieties of hme, orange, and 
shaddock; also, from a popular idea that the fatal apple 
stuck in Adam's throat, the projection in the throat produced 
bj' the shape of the thyroid cartilage. 

Adamical,Adamitical, suggesting (Adam's) scanty clothing, 
nudity, or unregenerate state. 

Adamtsf, an imitator of Adam as a gardener. 

Adamite, an affecter of Adam's nudity, a name of sundry 
sects of fanatics ; also a descendant of Adam ; hence Adam- 
itic, Adamitical. 

1527 for there abideth and remaineth in us yet of the old Adam, as it were of 
the stoclc of the crab-tree: Tyndal, Doctr. Treat. ^ p. 113 (Parlcer Soc, 1848). 
1699 Consideration, like an angel, came j And whipp'd the offending Adam out 
of him: Shaks., Hen. K', i. r, 29. bef 1704 Your claret's too hot. Sirrah, 

drawer, go bring | A cup of cold Adam from the next purling spring : T. Brown, 
}yks.^ IV. II. [Davies] bef. 1721 A Rechabite poor Will must live, | And 
drink of Adam's ale : M. Pkioi?, Wandering Pilgrim. [Davies] 1699 "There 
came two of their Barkes neere vnto our ship laden with fruite... which wee call 
Adams apples: Hakluyt, Koj/fl^ffj, Vol. n. p. 227. [N. E. D.] 1738 ADAMI 
Pojnuin, Adam's Apple, in anatomy, a little prominence in the cartilago scuti- 
formis : Chambers, Cycl. 1704 Your behaviour del Cabo will not relish in 

Europe, nor your Adamitical garments fence virtue in London : Gentleman In- 
structed, p. 169. [Davies] 1630 Fruit trees, so pleasing and rauishing to the 
sense, that he calls it Paradise, in which he playes the part of a true Adamist, 
continually toylingand tilling: John Taylor, Wks., sig. Ccs»°/i. 1621 one 
Picardus a Frenchman, that invented a new .sect of Adamites, to go naked as 
Adam did: R. Burton, Anat. Mel., Pt. 3, Sec. 3, Mem. 4, Subs. 2, Vol. II. 
p. 465 (1827). 1635 Error therefore entring mto the world with sin among us 

poor Adamites: Howell, Lett., II. ^(1650). [N. E. D.] bef. 1658 What 
though our Fields present a naked Sight, | A Paradise should be an Adamite: 
J. Cleveland, Wks., p. 290 (1687). 1662 I saw him come presently after- 

ward naked as an Adamite: J. Davies, Tr. Olearius, Bk. III. p. 62 (1669). 
1566 So many Adamites, so many Zwenckfeldians, so many hundreds of Ana- 
baptists and libertines: T. Harding, Con/ut. yewell's Apol., Pt. i. ch. iv. 
p. 14 r". 1693 Anabaptists, Fatnilists, Brownisis, Antinomians, Socinians, 
Adajnites, any thing but Orthodox Christians: J. Hacket, Abp. Williams, 
Pt. II. 157, p. 166. 1713 You know, sir, that in the beginning of the last 

century, there was a sect of men among us who called themselves Adamites, and 
appeared in public without clothes: Addison, Guardian, No. 134, Wks., Vol. 
. p. 253 (1856). 

[Heb. flrfa»2, = 'man'.] 

adamas, sb. : Lat. fr. Gk. aSofiar : adamant. 


1398 This stone Adamas is dyuers and other than an Magnas, for yf an adamas 
be sette by yren it suffryth not the yren come to the magnas, but drawyth it by a 
manere of vyolence fro the magnas: Trevisa, Barth. De P. R., xvi. viii. 557 
(1495). [N. E. D.] 1684 There is a certaine stone called pantarbe, which 
draws gold unto it; so does the adamas hairs and twigs: I. Mather, Remark. 
Prov.,v-Ti- [N. E.D.] 1738 Chambers, CyW., s. v. ADAMANT. 

adan, sb. : Egypt, fr. Arab, adhdn. See quotation. 

1836 Having ascended to the gallery of the nia'd'neh, or men a' ret', he chants 
the adan, or call to prayer: E. W. Lane, Mod. Egypt., Vol. I. p. 83. 

Adar: Heb. adar: name of the twelfth month of the ec- 
clesiastical year, the sixth of the civil year, our March. 

1382 The twelfthe moneth went out, that is clepid Adar: Wvclif, Esther, 
iii. 7. 1611 the moneth Adar : Bible, ib. 

adati, addati, sb. : Anglo-Ind. : a kind of piece-goods ex- 
ported from Bengal, muslin or fine cotton cloth. 

1687 The Cargo of the last three Ships arriVd, is as follows, viz, Atlasses 549 
pieces. Addaties 1406, Bettellees 9680: London Gaz., mmcclxxiii. 7. 1774 

ADA'TAIS, or Adatys, a muslin or cotton-cloth, very fine and clear. ..This 
muslin comes from the East Indies: Postlethwayt, Diet. Trade. 1797 

ADATAIS, Adatsi, or Adatys, in commerce, a muslin or cotton-cloth, very 
fine and clear, of which the piece is ten French ells long, and three quarters 
broad. It comes from the East-Indies ; and the finest is made at Bengal : Encyc. 
Brit. 1813 [Among Bengal piece-goods] Addaties, Pieces 700 [to the ton]: 
MiLBURN, Oriental Commerce, Vol. 11. p. 221. [Yule] 

adaulet, adawlut, sb. -. Hind. fr. Arab. : a court 'of justice. 
See sudder. 

1776 Give me back the falsities which I have been obliged to write. ..other- 
wise I will go and lodge a complaint before the Audaulet : Trial of Joseph Fowke, 
p q/r 1787 We are poor Zemindars, and cannot contend with the people of 

the Great A-daulet: Gent. Mag., p. 1182/1. 1789 most of the Adanlets are 

now held by Europeans: Cornwall. Corresp., II. 29. 1826 The adawlut, or 

court-house was Close by: Hockley, Pandurang Hari, ch. xxv. p. 271 (1884). 

[Hind. adalat.'\ 

*addeiidum, pi. addenda, sb. : Lat. : somewhat to be 
added, an addition to be made. 

1684 other Addenda: R. Boyle, Hist. Blood, App., p. 225. 1885 a few 
addenda we should gladly have found in this catalogue; Athxmaum, Aug. 8, 
p 182/1. 1887 The question. ..contained an addendum which I stigmatised in 
terms not too strong: Sir A. Peel, in Manchester Examiner, Apr. 2, p. 6/3. 

[From Lat. addendus, gerund, of addere, = 'to add'.] | 

addio,//%r. : It.: 'farewell', 'adieu'; see a Dio 2. 


bef. 1852 tho'I confess myself somewhat a villain | To 've left zV^/wzi? without 
an addio\ T. Moore, in Locker's Lyra Eleg.^.-g. 281. 

adductor {— s ^), sb. : Late Lat. : Anat. : an adducent 
muscle, a muscle which draws a part of the body to its nor- 
mal position, or to a line regarded as an axis, opposed to 
abductor, also attrib.^— adducent. 

1615 [See abductor]. 1738 Chambers, Cycl. . 1870 The ligament 
divaricates, when not antagonized by the adductor muscles: Rolleston, Anim. 
Life, 56. 

[Noun of agent to Lat. adducere, = ^to lead to\] 

adelantado, sb. : Sp. : a grandee of high rank, a governor 
of a province. 

1597 these and other intelligences... may appear unto your Lordships under 
the Adelantadoe's hand: Ralegh, LeU., No. 80, in E. Edward's Li/e, Vol. ii. 
p. 187 (i868). 1698 Adelantado of this conquest: Tr. y. Van Linschoien' s 
Voyages, Bk. i. Vol. i. p. log (1885). 1599 if the Adalantado of Spaine 
were here, he should not enter: B. Jonson, E-u. Man out 0/ his Hum., v. 6, Wks,, 
p. 167(1616). 1600 the Galiot of the.(4^^/rt«^rti/£j came upon mee: R. Hakluvt, 
Voyages, Vol. iii. p. 439. 1622 invincible adelantado over the armado of 

pimpled... faces: Massinger, V. M., ii. i, Wks., p. 6/1 (1839). 1630 was 
Adrairall or high Adellantado of the whole fieete: John Taylor, Wks., sig. 
H4r"/2. 1654 Adelantado or Govemour oi Florida: Howell, Parthenop.. 

Pt. II. p. 10. 1783 The title of adelantado, or governor. ..with jurisdiction over 
two hundred leagues of country: W. Robertson, Atnerica, Wks., Vol. vii. 
p. 275 (1824), 1829 He immediately issued orders to all the adelantados and 
alcaydes of the frontiers to maintain the utmost vigilEuice: W. Irving, Cong, of 
Granada, ch. v. p. 38 (1850). 

adelphi, sb. : Lat. fr. Gk. : the brothers ; the title of a 
comedy of Terence. The district in London called *the 
Adelphi' was laid out by two brothers named Adam. 

1886 We cannot, with the adelphi of criticism [Messrs. Crowe and Caval- 
caselle], say that the Van Eycks are as landscapists "beyond all praise": 
Atkentsujn, Sept. ig, p. 377/2. 

[From Gk. a5eX0ot, = 'brothers'.] 
adeps, sb.: Lat. : soft fat, animal grease. 

1541 The one [maner of greas] is withoutforth nere to the skynne, and that 
proprely is called adeps or iatness: R. Copland, GuydoiCs Quest, Cyrurg. 
1648 The second [kinde of Fatnesse] is Adeppes, and is of the same kinde as is 
Pinguedo, but it is departed from the flesh besides the skinne, and it is an Oyle 
heating and moysting the skinne: T. VicARV, Engl. Treas., p. 9 (1626). 
1683 If you desire the Adeps rather than the Spirit: Salmon, Doron Med., i. 
271. [N.E. D.] 

[Not connected with Gk. aXeKpa, but probably with Lat. 
epu/u7/t, = ^ choice food', ad being the preposition.] 

adept {— J.), sb. and adj, ; Eng. fr. Low Lat. First used 
in the Lat. form adeptus^ pi. adeptL 

I. sb. (adj. used as masc. sb.) : *one who has attained' (the 
great secret of Alchemy)) hence, one thoroughly versed in 
any pursuit, a proficient. 

1663 In Rosy-Crucian Lore as learned, | As he that Vere adeptus earned: 
S. Butler, Hudibras, Pt. i. Capt. i. p. 41. 1703 Claudius... was his son- 

in-law, a professed adeptus: Evelyn, Corresp., Vol. iii. p. 391 (1872). 1704 
This is what the adepti understand by their anitna lutindi: Swift, Tale Tub, 
VIII. Wks., p. 79/2 {i86g). 1709 These adepts are known among one another 
by the name of wine-brewers: Addison, Tailer, Feb. 9, Wks., Vol. ii. p. 92 
(1854). 1712 he revealed the most important of his Secrets with the Solemnity 
and Language of an Adept: Spectator, No. 426, July 9, p. 613/2 (Morley). 
1714 it was very amusing to hear this religious Adept descanting on his pretended 
Discovery: ib.. No. 574, July 30, p. 815/2. 1784 just th' adept that you de- 
sign 'd your son : CowPER, Tirocin., Poems, Vol. 11. p. 226 (1808). 1872 He... 
was an adept in the tilt-yard: J. L. Sanford, Estimates of Eng. Kings, p. 254." 

II. adj. : thoroughly versed in, proficient. 

bef. 1691 If there be really such adept philosophers as we are told of, I am 
apt to think, that, among their arcana," they are masters of extremely potent men- 
Etruums: Boyle. [J.] bef. 1782 And beaus, adept in ev'ry thing profound, | 
Die of disdain: Cowper, Hope, Poems, Vol. 1. p. 114 (1808). 

[From Low Lat. use as sb. of Lat. adeptus^ past part, of 

adzpiscij = ''to attain'.] 

adeste daemones, phr. : Lat. : Be present, fiends ! 

1595 Peele, Old Wives' Tales, p. 450/2, 1. 33 (1861). 

adhere {— ii\ vb. : Eng. fr. Fr. 

I., to stick fast, of material attachment. 

1651 The stalks do not adhere or cleave to the boughes by axvy Jibree : Raw- 
leigk's Ghost, 96. [N.E.D.] 1725 for the water and the clothes are distinct 
substances, which adhere to the bowl, or to the boy: Watts. [J.] 

I a, Metaph. 

1611 A shepherd's daughter, | And what to her adheres, which follows after, | 
is the argument of Time; Shaks., Wint. Tale,'\v. \,i2>. 




2. to become or be attached (to a person or party) as a 
friend or follower. 

1597 — 8 Meane men must adheare [1612 adhere], but great men that haue 
strength in themselues were better to maintaine themselues indifferent and 
neutrall : Bacon, Ess., ix. p. 76 (1871). 1604 And sure I am two men there 
are not living [ To whom he more adheres: Shaks., //ami., ii. 2, 21. 1646 
and all others who doe adheare to me shall be saved from ruine: Evelyn, Cor- 
resp.. Vol. IV. p. 175 (1872). 1686 all the White Staff Officers... should be dis- 
missed for adhering to their religion : — Diary, Vol. ii. p. 272. 

3. to hold to (a doctrine, opinion, habit, method). 

1652 according to the form and usage of the Church of England, to which I 
always adhered: Evelyn, Diary, Vol. i. p. 299 (1872). 1687 He exhorted his 
audience to adhere to the written Word: ib.. Vol. 11. p. 274. 1787 Lord 
Rodney, in bearing honourable testimony to his services, had not adhered to 
veracity, and imposed upon the publick: Gent, Mag., p. 1136/1. 1887 However 
pronounced the success, Mr. Gilbert adheres to his determination : Pall Mall 
Budget, Jan. 27, p. 10/2. 

4. to be coherent, consistent. Obs. 

1698 they do no more adhere and keep place together than the Hundredth 
Psalm to the tune of * Green Sleeves ' ; Shaks., Merry Wives, ii. i , 62. 1601 
Why, every thing adheres together: — Tw. Nt., iii. 4, 86. 

[From Fr. adherer^ fr. Lat. adhaer ere, = ^ to stick to'; if not 
formed from the Mid. Eng. adherand^ adherent (from Fr.), 
ppl. and noun to sense 2, which seems as early as the less 
literal senses, it is still more likely that adherence comes 
from adherent^ 

"^adhuc sub jndice lis est, phr.\ Lat.: the matter is 
still under (the cognisance of) the judge, not yet decided. 
Horace, A. P.,'j?>. 

1803 Macdonnel, Diet Quot 1888 Some may feel that it would be 
better to reserve our judgment on the matter, considering that " adhuc sub judice 
lis est": Athen<eu7n, Mar. 3, p. 278/3. 

*adiantum, sb. : Lat. 

1. name of a genus of ferns of the order Polypodtaceae, 

1551 may be named in English Venus heyre or 
ladyes heyre: Turner, //erb., sig. B iii v°. 1678 y^ right Adiantum.. True 
Maydenheare: H. Lyte, Tr. Dodoen's //erb., Bk. iil p. 408. 1680 the hearbe 
Adyaton \_sic\ though it be wet, looketh alwayes drye: J. Lylv, Eziphues &^ his 
Engl., p. 425 (1868). 1601 The Maidenhaire called in Greeke Trichomanes is 
like unto Adiantum, only it is more slender and blacker : Holland, Tr. Plin. 
N. //., Bk. 27, ch. 13, Vol. II. p. 290. 1664 [Plants] not perishing but in ex- 
cessive Colds, Abrotonum mas. foem. Winter Aco7iite, Adianthum Verian: 
Evelyn, Kal. //art. (1729). 1767 Perennial and Biennial Flower Plants 

Adianthum pedatu77z or foot-leaved, Canada maiden-hair: J. Abercrombie, Ev. 
Man own Gardener, p. 692/1 (1803), 

2. Black adiantuin, a variety of spleenwort, Asplenium 
A diantuTfi-nigrum. 

[From Gk. ahiavrov^ /?'/., = 'unwetted', so called because 
the surface of the frond throws off water.] 

adiaphoron, //. adiaphora, sb, : Gk. : a thing indifferent, 
a matter on which the Church has given no authoritative 
decision. In the Stoic philosophy, something neither sought 
after nor shunned. 

1663 — 67 The celebration of Easterdaie remained adiaphoron, as a thing in- 
dificrent in the church: FoxE, A, &• M., 51/1 (1596). [N.E. D.] 1837 
refusing to acknowledge that health, safety, plenty, were good things, and 
dubbing them by the name of aSLa^opa.: Macaulav, Essays, p. 404 (1877). 
1871 minor questions, the mere iSid^opa of Theology: F. W. Farrar, //uls. 
Lect., Witness 0/ //ist. to Christ, p. 6. 1882 The idea of adiaphora, things 
indifferent to moral laws, originated with the Stoics: Schaff-Herzog, Encyc, 
Relig. Know., Vol. i. p. 26/2. 

[Neut. of adj. aSm^opoy, = indifferent'.] 

*adieu (Fr. pronunc. or -Lil)\ Fr., or Eng. fr. Fr. 

I. I. originally an elliptical phrase, d Dieu {soyeB)^ — ^}^^. 
in God's keeping' ; commending a person to God at parting; 
Good-bye !, Farewell ! ; also quasi-^^-z/. with verb say, bid, &c. 

1393 He saide: Adewe my swete may: Gower, Con/., 11. 250. [N.E.D.] 
1440 Adewe, or farewelle. Vale: Prompt. Parv. (Way). 1499 Adwe or 
far wel. Vale; ib. (Pynson). 1516 Aden or fare well. Vale: ib. 1528 

Well I will departe / adue: W. Roy & J. Barlowe, Rede me, &^c., p. 123 (1871). 
bef. 1529 More coude I saye, but what this is ynowe : | Adewe tyll soone, we 
shall speke more of this: J. Skelton, Bowge 0/ Court, 492, Wks., Vol. i. p. 48 
(1843). 1588 I'll bid adieu: Shaks., L. L. L., v. 2, 241. 1590 Once more 
adieu! — Two Gent. ofVer., i. i, 53. 1599 Adiew, sweet lady: B. Jonson, 
Ev. Man out of his Hum., ii. 6, Wks., p. 118 (1616). 1600 had bid adieu to 
their friends: Holland, Tr. Livy, Bk. iv. p. 164. 1630 And thou shalt Hue 
when many of the Crue | Shall in a Halter bid the world Adue: John Taylor, 
Wks., sig. Kk 6 z^/i. 1647 Had I thy fresh and blooming cheek, Adieu I'ld 
say to beasts, and nobler game pursue : Fanshawe, Tr. Pastor Fido, i. i. p. S. 
1736 but I hear you cry check; adieu! HoR. Walpole, Letters, Vol. i. p. 3 
(1857). 1787 But it is late and I must go from hence, — Adieu! Gent. Mag., 

p. 1093/2. 1803 Adieu, lady Delacour: M. Edgeworth, Belinda, Vol. i. 
ch. XV. p. 296 (1832). 


I. 2. an expression of regret or resignation at some sepa- 
ration or loss ; also Q^ii%\-adv. with verb say, bid, &c. 

14— Adue my mirth, adue all my solace : Chaucer, L. Marie Mag. [R.] 
1440 Adewe and adewe blis: Test. Love, ii. 292/1 (1560). [N. E. D.] 1584 
Adue vnto the Colledges, and vnto Gunuil Hall: Cl. Robinson, Pleas. Delights, 
p. 10 {1880). 1777 Adieu to all ideas of nobility, gentry, and family: Hume, 

Ess. &= Treat., I. 377. [N. E. D.] 

II. used as sb.: pi. adieus, adieux, a farewell; also sb. 
to I. 2. 

abt. 1374 And said, he wold in trouthe alwey hym holde, And his adew 
made: Chaucer, Troyl.,u. 1084. [N.E. D.] 1573—80 Nowe, gentle fayer 
mistrisse, for a thou-sand A Dieus: Gab. Harvey, Lett. Bk., p. 136 (1884). 
1588 Twenty adieus: Shaks., L. L. L., v. 2, 265. 1606 He fumbles up 
[countles.s farewells] into a loose adieu: — Trail., iv. 4, 48. 1642 And there- 
fore at my death I mean to take a total adieu of the World : Sir Th. Brown, 
Relig. Med., §41, p. 22 (1686). 1658 took a lasting adieu of their interred 

Friends: — Hydrioiaph., Ep. Ded., sig. Lll2. 1784 Where thou art gone | 
Adieus and farewells are a sound unknown: Cowper, Rec. of Mother s Picture, 
33 (i8c8). bef. 1863 The other gentlemen. ..look on and exchange mute 
adieux with the departing friends ; Thackeray, Rowtdahoiit Papers, p. iii 
(1879). 1864 Griffin Blunt. ..wound his way to the door of egress, through a 
silken labyrinth of polite conversations and bowing adieux : G. A. Sala, Quite 
Alone, Vol. I. ch. iii. p. 41. 

Variants, 15 c. — 17 c. adew{e), 15 c. adue, 16 c. adeu, 16 c. 
17 c. adiewie). 

adigar, sb. : Anglo-Ind. for Cingalese adikarox adikarama : 
a chief minister of the Candyan kings in Ceylon. 

1681 There are two who are the greatest and highest officers in the land. They 
are called Adigars, I may term them Chief Judges: R. Knox, //ist. Rel. Ceylon, 
48. [Yule] 1803 The highest officers of State are the Adigars or Prime 

Ministers. They are two in number: R. Percival, Cfy/ow, 256. [Yule] 

[From Skt. adhikarin,='''\iz.'^m% authority'.] 

*adjoint, sb. -. Mod. Fr. : title of a civil officer who assists 
a mayor in France ; also an assistant professor in a French 

1844 his adjoint, with a numerous deputation, presented an address to his 
lordship: Craik and Macfarlane, Pict. Hist. Eng., Vol. iv. p. 6o8/i. 1860 
I have had the proud satisfaction of drinking Lyons beer with the mayor's adjoint: 
Once a Week, May 26, p. 507/2. 

adjournment (^ j..^), sb.: Eng. fr. Fr. 

1. the act of putting off to another day or sine die, q. v. 

1579 he was compelled to revoke againe the adiornment of iustice : North, 
Tr. Plutarch, p. 438 (1612). 

2. the interval between the sittings of an adjourned court 
or assembly. 

1670 During one Day's Adjournment made by the House : in Somers' Tracts, 
I. 28. [N. E. D.] 1709 During the adjournments of that awful court : Tatler, 
No. 142. [R.] 1768 An adjournment is no more than a continuance of the 
session from one day to another, as the word itself signifies: Blackstone, 
Cotn-m., Ek. I. ch. ii. [R.] 

3. a sitting (of a court) consequent upon a prior sitting 
having been adjourned. 

1883 At the time appointed for adjudicating upon the claims of creditors, or 
at any adjournment thereof, the judge may. ..allow any of the claims: Rules of 
Supreme Court, LV. 55. 

Variant, 16 c. adiornment. 

[From Fr. adjornement, adjournement. Old Fr. ajorne- 

adjudicator, sb. : Eng. : one who adjudges or awards, a 
person appointed to decide the result of a competition. 

1860 [N . E. D. ] 1874 The Adjudicators [of the Chancellor's English Medal] 
are the Vice-Chancellor, &c. : Camb. Univ. Cal., p. 303. 1884 The adjudi- 

cators awarded both prizes to our poet: J. H. Ingram, E. A. Poe's ]Vks., Vol. I. 
p. xxi. 

[As if noun of agent to Lat. adjudicare, = 'to adjudge'.] 
adjust {— ±), vb. : Eng. fr. Fr. 

1. trans, to arrange, settle, compose, dispose suitably, 
bring into proper or harmonious relations, regulate. 

1611 Adjuster, To adjust, place justly, set aptly, couch evenly, joyne hand- 
somely, match fitly, dispose orderly, severall things together : Cotgr. 1649 
and now think not to stir from this city till I have adjusted mine affairs : Evelyn, 
Corresp., Vol. in. p. 43 (1872). 1784 T'adjust the fragrant charge of a short 

tube, I That fumes beneath his nose : Cowper, Task, v. Poems, Vol. 11. p. 13s 
(1808). _ 1883 the Court has jurisdiction to adjust the rights iitter se of con- 
tributories qu& contributories : Law Reports, xxiii. Chanc. Div., 297. 

2. intr. by elHpse : to come to an agreement, to come to 

1647 he had a conference with God persuading him to adjust with the holy 
agitators: Evelyn, Corresp., Vol. III. p. 6 (1872). 


adjutator {jlz.±z.), sb.: Eng. fr. quasi-\.zx..: corruption 
of agitator l, by the influence of adjutor and adjutant (cor- 
rupted to agitant) ; a delegate or agent of the common sol- 
diers of the Eng. Parliamentary army, 1647 — 9. 

1647 the Adjuiaters: Mercurius Praginaticus, No. 4, sig. T>zv°. — the 
Adjutata'rs of these Jim Regiments. .AisfMeA the matter plainly in the last 

fenerall-Comicell: ib.. No. 7, p. 54. — If the Captaines Case were mine, 
would gee and procure an Order from their Masters the Adjutators: ib., p. 55. 
1660 the Army. ..set the Adjutators on Work again to make a Remonstrance 
to the House of Commons [1648] : Hobbes, Behemoth, in Select Tracts rel. to 
thefiv. IVars of Eng., Pt. n. p. 601 (1815). 1699 they chose to themselves 

Adjutators in every regiment, and. in every troop of horse, by whom they en- 
gaged themselves to be absolutely included: Mem. of Sir J. Berkley, ib., p. 359. 

[As if noun of agent to Lat. adjutare, = ' to aid'.] 

adjutor {-iLr.), sb. : Eng. fr. Lat. : a helper; also Mit. an 
adjutant. Jiare. 

1697 And the said Spanyards and such others as shall be open adherents, ad- 
jutors and abbettors...with force of overcome, subdue, slaye and kyll: 
Egerton Papers, p. 242 (Camd. Soc, 1840). 

[From Lat. adjutor, noun of agent to, = ' to help'.] 

adjntrice {— it ji), sb. : Eng. fr. Fr. adjutrice : a female 
helper. Rare. 

1609 Fortune {the adiutrice of good purposes) : Holland, Tr. Marc, Lib. 
26, ch. iii. p. 286. 

adjutrix, sb. : Lat. : a female helper. 

1641 she that then gave me to be adjutrix, she is iTisidiatrix : R, Stock, 
Com. Malachi, in Puritan Contm., p. 175/2 (1865). 

[Fern, of Lat. adjvltor.] 

adminiculum, j>l. adminicula, sb. -. Lat. : support, aid, 
adminicle ; lit. 'to-hand', i.e. hand-rest. 

1702 The less sensible adminicula, the gentler aids and insinuations of grace, 
lead to what shall overcome: John Howe, Wks., p. 101/ 1 (1834). 

administer, sb. : Eng. fr. Lat. : one who ministers to 
others. Obs. 

1502 To make admynysters unto the poore : Ordin. Crysten Men, iv. xxi. 248 
(W. de Worde). [N. E. D.] 1607 Administer {administrator) in our common 
law is properly taken for him, that hath the goods of a man dying intestate, com- 
mitted to his charge by the ordinary, & is accountable for the same, whensoeuer 
it shall please the ordinarie to call him thereunto : Cowkll, Interpr. 1645 They 
' [letters] serve the dead and living, they becom \ Attorneys and Administers : 
Howell, Lett., To Reader, sig. A^v". 

[Lat. administer, = ' an attendant'. Its use was probably 
suggested by the earlier vb. administer, for aministre, from 

administrant (jr..:^^), adj. and sb. -. Eng. fr. Fr. 

1. adj. : administering, managing. 

1602 The officers Administrant are to precede ; next to them the Vacants : 
Sir W. Segae, Honor, Mil. &= Civ., iv. xxi. 236. [N. E. D.] 

2. sb. : one who administers, an administrator, a manager. 

1602 To begin with Administrants and their order among themselues: Sir 
W. Segar, Honor, Mil. &" Civ., IV. xxi. 236. [N. E. D.] 

[Fr. administrant, pres. part, of administrer, = ' to ad- 

*administrator {=-± — 1L—), sb.: Eng. fr. Lat.: one who 

1. one who manages or governs an establishment, state, 
or system. 

1629 That the Bishops shall take care of the Hospitals, that they be well 
governed by the administrators, though exempted, observing a certain form : 
Brent, Tr. Soave's Hist. Counc. Trent, Bk. 11. p. 248 (1676). 1632 he re- 

ceiued from the Administrator 2000. land soldiers: Cotitin. of Weekly Newes, 
May II, p. 13. 

I a. absol. one who has the faculty of governing or mana- 
ging affairs. 

2. one who manages or administers the estate of a 
deceased person ; esp. of an intestate or of a living owner 
incapable of acting for him or her self. 

1529 The Ordinary. ..shall cause [the Inventory] to be indented, whereof the 
One Part shall be by the said Executor or Executors, Administrator or Adminis- 
trators, upon. ..Oath [declared] to be good and true; Stat. 21 Hen. VIII., ch. 5, 
I 4 (Ruffhead). 1666 their heires, executors, administrators and assignes: 
R. Hakluyt, Voyages, Vol. I. p. 371 (1598). 1649 their Executors and Ad- 
ministrators [of the Militia Commission]: The Moderate, No. 40, sig. Rr2z;°. 
1742 And therein Mr. Keeble's table to his statute-book is faulty; for if one 
would look for the title Executors, he must go to title Administrators, because the 
author thought fit to make that the general title for all, or most testamentary 
matters: R. North, Lives of Norths, Vol. I. p. 22 (1826). 



3. one who dispenses, applies or gives anything, esp. re- 
ligious privileges, charity, justice. 

1563 We bee not makers of sacramentes, but administrators of them: Man, 
Musculus' Com. Places, 272. [N.E. D.] 1886 The criminal proceeding 

against Punch. ..\% not a piece of business of which the administrators of the law 
should be proud : Lavj Times, Ixxxi. p. 93/2. 

[Lat. administrator, noun of agent to administr are, = ' to 

administratrice (Fr. pronunc. and ± — — n.±), sb. : Fr., or 
Eng. fr. Fr. administratrice : a female administrator {q. v.) 
in sense 3. Obs. as Eng. 

abt. 1620 As a busy administratrice mercyful & pytuous she visited the nedy 
sykemen: Myrroure of Our Ladye, S'i- [N.E. D.] 

21 ±), sb. : Eng. fr. Lat. : a female 

^administratrix ii 

1. a female manager, acting governor. 

1790 The princess Sophia was named. a temporary administratrix : Burke, 
Fr. Revol., Wks., v. 63. [N. E. D. ] 

2. a woman who administers the estate of an intestate 
or of a living person incapable of acting for him or her self. 

1642 Eustochium her daughter had little comfort to be executrix or adminis- 
tratrix unto her, leaving her not a penny of money, great debts, and many 
brothers and sisters to provide for: Th. Fuller, Holy and Prof State, p. 30 
(1S41). abt. 1750 This estate. ..must go to the occupant, which the statute of 

frauds appoints to be the executor or administrator; and, in the present case the 
mother is administratrix (Rep. of case A.D. 1701): Peere Williams, Reports, 
I. 40. *1877 the President of the Paraguayan Republic, whose administratrix 
the defendant is: Times, Jsin. iS. [St.] 1888 The vendor having died.. .the 

suit was revived against his administratrix : Law TiTnes, Mar. 24, p. 370/2. 

3. a female who dispenses, applies, or bestows anything, 
esp. religious privileges, charity, justice. 

1859 Medicine as an administratrix of substances, which in one sense are 
food, &c. : G. Wilson, Life of Forbes, IV. p. 126. [N. E. D.] 

[Fem. of Lat. administrator, q. z/.] 

administress (— ^ — -i), sb. : Eng. fr. Fr. : a female ad- 
ministrator (q. v), in sense 3. Obs. 

1483 Marye moder of Jhesu crist admynystresse and seruaunt: Caxton, 
Gold. Leg., 255/4. [N. E. D.] 

[From Fr. administresse, fr. aministeresse, fem. of aminis- 
trere, fr. Lat. administrator?^ 

admirable (-i - =- —), adj. and sb. : Eng. fr. Fr. admirable : 
worthy to be admired. 

1690 For he that made the same was knowne right well ( To have done much 
more admirable deedes: Spens., F. Q., i. vii. 36. 1698 these slender ones, 
which he represented with an admirable dexteritie: R. Haydocke, Tr. Lotnatius, 
Bk. I. p, 41. 1598 you are a gentleman of excellent breeding, admirable dis- 

course: Shaks., Merry Wives, ii. 2, 234. 1603 what may be more admirable 
found, I Then Faith's Effects? J. Sylvester, Tr. Dit Bartas, Urania, 68 (1608). 
1691 Admirable it is, that the Waters should be gathered together into such 
great Conceptacnla, and the dry Land appear: J. Ray, Creation, Pt. 11. p. 211 

admirance {— il ^), sb. : Eng. fr. Fr. admiratice : admi- 
ration. Obs. 

1596 [she] With great admiraunce inwardly was moved, [ And honourd him: 
Spens., F. Q., v. x. 39. 

admiration (_- l il ^), sb. : Eng. fr. Fr. admiration. 

1. wonder, wondering, astonishment. 

1602 Then these accursyd shall saye by admyracyon : Ordinarye of Christen 
Men, sig. P i r". 1540 I wyll by remembringe your maiesty of &c. resolve the 
importance of your admiration and study : Elyot, Ijn. Govemaunce, p. 92 r^. 
1684 What wondering and admiration was there at Brandon the iuggler: 
R. Scott, Disc. Witch., Bk. xiii. ch. xiii. p. 308. 1699 Working so grossly 
in a natural cause, | That admiration did not whoop at them: Shaks., Hen. V., 
ii. 2, 108. I6II When I saw her, I wondred with great admiration: Bible, 
Rev., xvii. 6. 

2. wonder mingled with pleasure, lively esteem, emotion 
excited by the perception or contemplation of excellence or 

1540 had them in great admiration and reuerence: Elyot, Im. GoverjtauTice, 
sig. N iii v". 1546 King Lewys had already the earle of Warwyke in so great 
admyration for the fame of his noble actes: Tr. Polydore Vergil's Eng. Hist., 
Vol. II. p. 129 (1846). — in the admiration of the common people thej'e seme to 
be in heaven: ib.. Vol. I. p. 33. 1579 a state most blessed, and worthy of ad- 
miration: North, Tr. Plutarch, p. lozg (1612). 1644 I ascended to the very 
top of it [the chapel] with wonderful admiration: Evelyn, Diary, Vol. i. p. 122 
(1872). 1782 Admiration, feeding at the eye, | And still unsated, dwelt upon 

the scene : Cowper, Task, i. Poems, Vol. II. p. 7 (1808). 1854 Olive felt a 
tender admiration for his father's goodness : Thackeray, Ne^vcomes, Vol. i. 
ch. xiv. p. 164 (1879). 1874 His admiration is enhanced by contemplating 
the myriads of organisms in active life : H. Lonsdale, fohn Dalton, ix. 163. 



2 a. the expression of such feelings. 

1696 breake out into admiration thereat : Estate of Engl, Fugitives^ p. 3. 
1611 Let us bury him, | And not protract with admiration what \ Is now due 
debt: Shaks., Cymb., iv. 2, 232. 1856 then came a burst of confused, but 
honest admiration : C. Kingsley, Glaucus, p. 8. 

3. the fact or capability of causing persons to admire. 

1540 long continuance in any thing that is good addeth an admiration, but no 
prayse to the thyng; Elyot, Im. Goverjiauuce, p. y6ro. 1677 it is a thyng 
of admiration: Frampton, Joy/ull Newes, fol. zro. 1610 Admired Miranda! | 
Indeed the top of admiration : Shaks., Temp., iii. i, 38. 1662 the mimic 
Lucy, acted the Irish footman to admiration: Evelyn, Diary, Vol. I. p. 393 

4. concrete, an object of admiration or wonder. 

1490 the harde St sorowfuU admyracions that thenne made palmyerus that 
was maistre of eneas shippe ben declared: Caxton, Ejieydos, xxvii. 97. [N.E.D.] 
1601 Bring in the admiration;: that we with thee | May spend our wonder too: 
Shaks., AlVs Well, ii. i, 91. 1645 and indeed the admiration of the whole 
world, is the Pantheon: Evelyn, Diary, Vol, l p 175 (1B72). 1782 Stand 

there, | And be our admiration and our praise : Cowper, Task, v. Poems, Vol. IL 
p. 142 (1808). 

5. note of admiration., now called note of exclamation, 
marked thus ! in punctuation. 

. 1611 the changes I perceived in the king and Camillo were very notes of ad- 
miration: Shaks., Wint. 7"a&, v. 2, 12. 1611 [See admiratlve]. 

admirative {r^liz. ^), adj. : Eng. fr. Fr. : expressing ad- 
miration, prone to wonder. 

1611 Adniiratif, Th' Admirative point, or point of admiration (and of de- 
testation) marked, or made thus ! ; Cotgr. 

[From Fr. admiratif, fem. -ive^ 
admirator, sb. : Lat. : an admirer. Rare. 

1603 When we have instructed their Admirator in the secret causes. ..we shal 
ease him of his labour and cause his wonderment to cease ; Harsnet, Declar. 
Pop. Impost., no. [N. E.D.] 

[Noun of agent to Lat. admtrari, = ' to admire'.] 

admire {— sl), vb. : Eng. fr. Fr. 

I. to wonder, marvel, be astonished, be surprised. 

I. intr. simply, or with at, of, to (with verb), or subordi- 
nate clause. 

1590 He may it [faery lond] fynd; ne let him then admyre: Spens., F. Q., 
IL Prol. 4. 1590 admiring of his qualities: Shaks., iJ/ziz^. iV^V. Z)?-,, i. i, 231. 
1610 these lords | At this encounter do so much admire: — Temp., v. 154. 
1630 we did admire how it was possible such wise men could so torment them- 
selves: Capt. J. Smith, Wks., p. 928 (1884). 1666 I admire that there is 
not a rationale to regulate such trifling accidents: Evelyn, Diary, Vol. II. p. 21 
(1872). 1827 You make me admire indeed! How can a spirit like yours be 
under obligation to a body of flesh and blood? Blackwood's Mag., Vol. xxil. 
p. 686. 1839 Admiring what could have wound his friend up to such a pitch 
of mystery: Dickens, Nick. Nick., ch. li. p. 511. 

3. trans, to wonder at, marvel at. 

abt. 1590 England and Europe shall admire thy fame : Greene, Fr. Bacon, 
11.40. [N.E.D.] 1693 to admire and celebrate the Wisdom of their Creator: 
J. Ray, Three Discourses, I, p. 36 (1713). 1874 Man looks upon the earth... 
and admires its meres, its meadows, and its mountains: H. Lonsdale, yoJut 
Dalton, ix. 163. 

3. causal, to make to wonder. 

1650 A Tent. ..with so many gallant Devices, that it admired every beholder: 
Don Bellianis, 204. [N. E. D.] 

II. to approve highly, to feel delight {properly mixed 
with wonder) at the perception or contemplation of a person 
or thing. Only to be distinguished from I. when it is obvious 
that the idea of pleasure or agreeable emotion is involved. 

1690 That mortall men her glory should admyre: Spens., F. Q., in. v. 52. 
1596 all men much admyrde her change : ib., IV. ix. 16. 1603 AH would 
admire your Rimes, and doo you honour: J. Sylvester, Tr. Du Bartas, Urania, 
xlvii. p. 158 (1608). 1641 But none did I so much admire, as an Hospital for 

their.. .decrepit soldiers: Evelyn, Z'mrj', Vol. I. p. 25 (1872). bef. 1782 The 
deeds, that men admire as half divine : CowPER, Table Talk, Poems, Vol. i. p. i 

[From Fr. admirer, = ' to be full of pleasurable wonder', 
'to gaze passionately at'.] 

admissible (— -^ — -=-)) adj. : Eng. fr. Fr. admissible : capable 
of being admitted. 

1611 Admissible, admittable, admis.sible, fit to be admitted, received, allowed 
of: Cotgr. 1766 Johnson.- 1777 iu a small place like Turin, where there 
is a very polite court. ..he will insensibly wear off his rust. ..and afterwards, when 
he is more admissible [presentable], Paris. ..will put the finishing hand: Lord 
Chesterfield, Letters (Tr. fr. Fr.), Bk. l. No. xxvi. Misc. Wks., Vol. 11. p. 84. 
1842 all persons admitted or admissible to practise as attornies: Stat. 5 <&^ 6 
Vic, ch. 86, § 7. 


admonitor (.^ -^ — — ), sb-. : Eng. fr. Lat. : an admonisher, 
one who gives advice, a monitor {q. v.). 

1547 He [Judas] departed out of Christ's company, and with all diligence 
sought how to have his admonitor slain : Hooper, Answ. to Bp. of WiTich.,^Vi., 
177(1852). [N.E.D.] 

[Lat. admonitor, noun of agent to admonere, = ' to ad- 

admonitrix, sb. -. Eng. fr. Lat. : a female admonitor. Rare. 

1860 Our admonitrix, who spoke in no measured terms, was her Serene 
Highness herself: L. Hunt, Autobiogr., iv. 105. [N. E. D.] 

[Fem. of Lat. admonitor {q. ■z'.).] 

admonitus locorum, phr. : Lat. : suggestions of places, 
local associations. 

1813 and the ad-monit-us locormn can impart no gladness to the soul, while 
the traveller treads upon classic ground : Edin, Rev.,\o\. 21, p. 131. 

[Cf. ClC, de Fin., v. 2, 4, assentior usu hoc euenire, ut 
acrius aliquanto et attentius de Claris uiris locorum admonitu 

adobe, adobi, sb. : Sp. adobe: sun-dried bricks. In America 
called dobies. 

1844 we gave a shout at the appearance on a little bluff of a neatly built 
adobe house with glass windows : Fremont, Exp. _ to Oregon, p. 245 (1845). 
1847 The slopes are revetted with adobes : Recomiaiss. fr. Fort Leavenworth, 
p. 454 (1848). 1884 Towns. ..built of adobe : F. A. Ober, Trav. in Mexico, 

p. 583. 1886 The ranche itself is built of 'adobe*, after the manner of the 
'Mexicans, the 'adobe' consisting of layers of prairie sod: Comhill Mag., N. S., 
No. 39, p. 300. 

[From Arab, al-tub, = 'th.e brick'.] 

adolescent (—. 

), sb. and adj. : Eng. fr. Fr. adolescent. 

1. sb. : 3. youth passing from childhood to manhood or 

1482 A certen adolescente a yonge man : Monk of Evesham, 103 (i86g). 
[N. E. D.] 1877 Not in children aloiie, but adolescents and elderly persons : 

Tilbury Fox, A tlas of Skin Disease, p. 9. 

2. adj. : growing towards maturity, becoming adult. 

1784 Schools. ..Detain their adolescent charge too long; [ The management 
of tiroes of eighteen | Is difficult : Cowper, Tirocin., Poems, Vol. 11. p. 225 (1808). 

2 a. pertaining to adolescence. 

1834 Even in their adolescent years. ..they have still only the sad prospect of 
wretchedness before them : H. Gaunter, Scenes in India, 197. 

Adon: Eng. fr. Fr. See Adonis. 

*Ad6nai, Adonay : Heb. : The Lord : lit. 'my lords'; name 
given in Old Test, to God, pronounced by the Jews in place 
of the ineffable Tia.m& Jahveh ox Jehovah. 

abt. 1460 Adonay, thou God veray, | Thou here us when we to the calle : 
Towneley Mysteries, p. 35 (Surtees Soc, 1836). bef. 1530 the High Judge 
Adonai: Everyman, in Dodsley-Hazlitt's Old Plays, Vol. I. p. 109 (1874). 
1550 The Jewes read for that worde [Jehovah], Adonai, not that it cannot be 
expressed in their tongue, but for a reuerence to God's name : R. HutchiDson, 
Sermons, p. -jv" (1560). 1684 these holie names of God, Tetragrammaton 
+ Adonay + Algramay + Saday + Sabaoth + Planaboth: R. ScoTT, Disc'. 
Witch.. Bk. XV. ch. viii. p. 402. 1594 The wresting of the holy name of 
God, I As. ..Adonai: Greene, Friar Bacon; p. 176/1, 1. 3 (i86i). 1599 The 
waters shrunk at great Adonai's voice, | And sandy bottom of the sea appear'd: 
Peele, David and Bethsabe, p. 474/1, 1. 18 (1861). 1609 And my name 

Adonai I did not shew them : Doway Bible, Exodus, vi. 3. 1625 they cannot 
passe it, vntill the time appointed by Adonai (God Almightie.): Purchas, 
Pilgrims, Vol. II. Bk. ix. p. 1636. 1633 they sing many Tunes, and Adonai; 
they make the ordinary name of God : Howell, Lett., vi. xiv. p. 27 (1645). 
1884 Hence when they [the Jews] meet with it [Jehovah] in the text they read 
Adonai, or My Lord: Lord Brave, Pr^i. St. of Church, vi. p. 20. 1886 
the Samaritans used the words Hash-Shem ('the name') in reading (just as 
the Jews. ..use the Adotiai, or 'lord') wherever the sacred name of Jehovah 
occurs in their Pentateuch: C. R. Conder, Syrian Stone-Lore, iv. p. 161. 

{^Adonai, pi. with suff. of addn, = 'lord', cf. Adonis. In 
allusion to the mourning for Adonis, Shelley called Keats 
'Adonais' {± — IL ^) by an apparent confusion.] 

adonic {— ± ^), adj. and sb. : Eng. fr. Low Lat. or Fr. 

I. adj. : relating to Adonis, of the metre called versus 
Adonius, a choreic dipody made up of a cyclic dactyl -^ ^ 
and a trochee -- , e.^. the verse which ends a sapphic stanza. 

1678 Adonick Ferse. .. so caMed {rom Adonis, for the bewailing of whose death 
it was first composed: Phillips, World of Wards. 

I I, sb. : the metre described above, I., = Low Lat. adonium, 

1673 — 80 hexameters, adonickes, and lambicks: Gab. Harvey Lett Bk 
p. too (1884). ' " '' 

[From Low Lat. adonicus, adj. fr. Adonis {q. w.).] 


*Ad6ms : Gk. ; Adon (.^ ±, in Chaucer ^ ^) : Eng. fr. Fr. 

ij Gk. Mythol. a beautiful youth loved in vain by Aphro- 
dite (Lat. Venus). 

1386 Thou glader of the mount of Citheroii, | For thilke love thou haddest to 
Adon I Have pitee on my hitter teres smert: Chaucer, Ca>it. T., 2226 (i?56). 
abt. 1509 Adonis of freshe colour, | Of yowthe the godely flour, | Our prince of 
high honour: J. Skelton, Wks., Vol. I. p. x. (1843). 1591 Thy promises are 
like Adonis gardens | That one day bloom'd and fruitful were the next: Shaks., 
i ^"'■^^•'\- ^' ^ (1864). 1699 the fair queen of love, I Paler for sorrow than 
her milk-white dove, | For Adon's sake : — Pass. PH., ix. 120. 1603 Both 
gra9 t a-hke ; so like, that whoso haue | Not neer obseru'd their heads vn-hke- 
nesses, | Think them two Adonsot two Venusses: J. Sylvester, Tr. Du Bnrtas, 
Magnif., p. 64 (1608). — As a rare Painter draws (for pleasure) heer | A sweet 
Adonis, a foul Saiyre there: ib., p. 121. 1655 suppose he were | Coy as 

Adonis, or Hippolytus: Massingee, Guardian, i!. 2, Wks., p. 346/2(1839). 
1667 Spot more delicious than those gardens feign'd | Or of reviv'd Adonis- 
Milton, P. L., ix. 440 (1770). 

2. hence, a beautiful youth, a beau, a dandy ; pi. Adonises. 

1623 an Adonis: Mabbe, Tr. Aleman's Life of Gitzman, n. p. 21 (1630). 
[Oliphant] 1624 A leper, with a clap-dish (to give notice ) He is infectious,) 

in respect of thee, | Appears a young Adonis: .Massinger, Pari. Love, ii. 2, 
Wks., p. 127/1 (1839). 1749 he was as little like an Adonis as could be : Hor. 
Walpole, Letters, Vol. 11. p. 181 (1857). 1864 His eyes, too, were very 
colourless and sunken, and there were brownish rings beneath them. But for 
these the dandy would have been an Adonis: G. A. Sala, Quite Alone, Vol. i. 
ch. ii. p. 30. 1878 that old Adonis in the George the Fourth wig ; G. Eliot, 
Dan. Deronda, Bk. I. ch. i. p. 6. 

3. a kind of fashionable wig of 18 c. 

1760 He had a dark brown adonis, and a cloak of black cloth : HoR. Walpole, 
Letters, Vol. in. p. 362 (1857). 1774 he has given you an Adonis-wig, which 
we should not think adapted to your age : ib.. Vol. vi. p. 102. 

4. Bot. name of a genus, of plants of the natural order 
Rammculaceae, esp. the bright scarlet-flowered Pheasant's- 

? 1594 the cristall of hir morne more clerly spredes then doth the dew upon 
Adonis flower: MS. Alleyn, quoted in Greene's Orla7ido Fur., p. iio/i, I. 17 
note (1861). 1621 that fair flower Adonis, which we call an anemony: 

R. Burton, Anat. Mel., Pt. 3, Sec. 2, Mem. 6, Subs. 3, Vol. II. p. 373 (1827). 
1625 Tulips, and Adonis flower, | Faire Oxe-eye, &c. : B. JoNSON, Masques, 
Wks., Vol. II. p. iig (1640). 1767 Sow the seed of hardy annual flowers [such 
as]. ..lupines, sweet-sultan, and flos-Adonis: J. Abercrombie, Ev. Man own 
Garde7ier, p. 173 (1803). 

\)ja.\.. Adonis, fr. Gk. "Afiaii/ir, "AScav, fr. Phoen. ddd?ii, = ' my 
lord', fr. adon, = '\oxi' ; title of the Phoenician deity Tammuz: 
See Adonai.] 

adonise {± — ±), vb. : Eng. fr. Fr. : to make an Adonis of, 
to beautify. A playful word. 

1611 Adoniser, to adonize it , to resemble Adonis : to imitate, or counterfeit 
the graces, or beautie of Adonis : Cotgr. 1749 I employed three good hours 
at least in adjusting and adonizing myself: Smollett, Gil Bias, v\. [R.] 1818 
I must go and adonise a little myself: Miss Ferrier, Marriage, ch. ix. [Davies] 

[From Fr. s^adoniser, = ' to make oneself an, Adonis'.] 

adopt {— -L), vb. : Eng. fr. Fr. : to choose (anything) for 
oneself, to make one's own, esp. to receive another's child as 
one's own child, to take into or onto one's self, to take up. 
As to foreign words, to 'adopt' means technically to take into 
use as English without avoidable change of form, opposed to 
' adapt ', = to borrow with change in conformity with English 

1548 He did adopt to his heyre of all his realmes and dominions, Lewes the 
XI.: Hall, Hen. VII., an. 7. [R.] 1593 Richard. ..Adopts thee heir: 

Shaks., Rich. II., iv. i, log. 1604 I had rather to adopt a child than get it: 

— Otk., i. 3, 191. 1607 which, for your best ends, | You adopt your policy: 

— Coriol., iii. 2, 48. 1664 — 5 ray gratitude to him. even adopted into my 
religion: Evelvn, Corresp., Vol. in. p. 153(1872). 1695 she never introduces 
foreign or adopted words: Evelyn, Corresp., Vol. IV. p. 6 (1872). bef. 1782 
See the sage hermit, by mankind admir'd, | With all that bigotry adopts inspir'd: 
CowPER, Truth, Poems, Vol. I. p. 55 (1808). 1826 I have long been inclined 
to adopt the former notion, as most consistent with the phenomena : John Dalton, 
in Phil. Trans. , Pt. II. p. 174. 

[From Fr. adopter, fr. Lat. adoptare, = 't.o choose for one's 
self {esp. as a child or heir).] 

ador, sb. : Lat. : a kind of grain, spelt. 

abt. 1420 In mene lande of ador or of whete, An acrejande to strikes nil is 
wilK: Palladius on Husbandry, n.^x. [N. E. D.] 1708 Kersey. 

[Perhaps akin to Gk. a^i7p, = 'ear of corn', a5apij, = ' por- 

adorable {—IL — =^, adj. : Eng. fr. Fr. adorable. 

I. worthy to be adored, worshipped. 

1611 Adorable, adorable, worthy, or fit to be adored : Cotgr. bef. 1742 

On these two, the love of God and our neighbour, hang both the law and the 
prophets, says the adorable author of Christianity: Cheyne. [R.] 1884 
Faithful unto death to their divine and adorable Redeemer : A. R. Pennington, 
Wiclif, IX. 296. 



' 2. hyperbol. worthy of intense love or admiration. 

1710 A way to make very adorable Places of these Silvan Habitations: 
Shaftesbury, Characi., iii. i. (1737) 11. 349. [N. E, D.] 

adoration {± — IL^, sb. : Eng. fr. Fr. adoration. 

1. the act of worshipping, addressing prayer to; intense 
devotional reverence. 

1528 these ydoles faulcely lauded | With sacrifice and adoracion : W. Roy & 
Jer. Barlowe, Rede me, S^c, p. 106 (1871). 1545 And miche more ex- 
cecrable is it to serue or worship them [images] with any reuerent behauiour 
ether by adoracion prostracion knelyng or kissing: Geo. Joye, Exp. Dan., 
ch. iii. [R.] 1600 entred into the church with great adoration and reverence: 
Holland, Tr. Z/zy, Bk. v. p. 195, 1600 spirituall adoration, or worshipping : 
R. Cawdray, Treas. of Similiest p. 167. bef. 1658 Should we love Darkness, 
and abhor the Sun, | 'Cause Persia^is gave it Adoration : J. Cleveland, Wks., 
p. 319 (1687). 1671 whether there be anything in it [i.e. the doctrine of the 
Eucharist] signifying to adoration: Evelyn, Corresp., Vol. iii, p. 231 (1872). 

I a. Special, a mode of electing a pope, in which two-thirds 
of the Cardinals in Conclave make a low reverence to a Car- 
dinal who is thereby created Pope. 

1693 \i Mellino might have been created Pope by Adoration (as formerly the 
Custom would have done it, but was crost by a new Bull): J. Hacket, Abp. 
Williams, Pt. i. no, p. 99. 

2. a manifestation of intense devotion for anything which 
is not an object of religious worship or reverence. 

1600 [to love is to be] All adoration, duty, and observance: Shaks., As Y.L.It^ 
y. 2, 102 (1864). 1634 noble grace that dash'd brute violence \ With sudden 

adoration, and blank awe: Milton, Cotnus, 452. 1709 makes his submission 
to him with an humility next to adoration: Addison, Tatler, Feb. 14, Wks., 
Vol. II. p. 97 (1854). 

adomment {— .l —), sb. : Eng. fr. Fr. 

1. the act of adorning; the process or result of being 

1480 He. ..made to her many fayre aornamentis; Caxton, Oiiid^s MeiuTu., 
X. vi. [N. E.D.] 1611 such | The adornment of her bed: Shaks., Cymb,, ii. 
2, 26. 1669 such as cannot hope to contribute anything of value to the adorn- 
ment of it: Evelyn, Diary, Voh in. p. iii (1872). 

2. that which serves to adorn. 

1485 adournements of precyous clothes: Caxton, Chas. Greie, p. 208 (1881). 
1638 Wants the adornments of the workman's cunning | To set the richness of 
the piece at view: Ford, Fancies Chaste &r> Noble, i. i. [R.] 1645 in a 
grove of trees.. .fountains. ..two Colosses...alI of exquisite marble.. .and other 
suitable adornments: Evelyn, Diary, Vol. i. p. 187 (1872). 

[From Old Fr. aornement^ adournement.'] 

Adrastia : Lat. fr. Gk. 'Afipao-reta : Gk. Mythol. : a name of 
Nemesis {g.v.),the divine punisher of pride and wickedness. 

1609 [of Eusebius] Adrastia, that beholdeth mens doings, plucking him first 
by the eare (as they say) and admonishing him to live more reformed, when he 
strived againe and made resistance, threw headlong down as it were from a 
certaine high and steepe rocke : Holland, Tr. Marc, Lib. 22, ch. ii. p. 191. 
1611 But the Lady A drastia (I meane the just vengeance of God) pursued these 
impious blood-suckers : T. Coryat, Crudities, Vol. 11. p. 249 (1776). 

Adrastus : Lat. fr. Gk. "Afipao-rof : Gk. Mythol. : King of 
Argos, leader of the expedition of the Seven against Thebes. 

abt. 1509 In whome dothe wele acorde | Alexis yonge of age, | Adrastus wise 
and sage: J. Skelton, Wks., Vol. i. p. ix. (1843). 

*adroit (— ^). adj. : Eng. fr. Fr. adroit: dexterous, ready, 
capable of quick and varied movement, clever, crafty, shifty. 

1652 the best esteemed and most adroit cavalry in Europe : Evelyn, 
France. [R.] 1679 He held his Talent tnost Adroit \ For afiy Mystical 
Exploit: S. Butler, Hudibras, Pt. 111. Cant. i. p. 20. 1686 this quondam 

Duke. ..being extremely handsome and adroit: Evelyn, Diary, Vol. 11. p. 238 
(1872). 1761 you will do well. be adroit at it [fencing]: Lord Chester- 
field, Letters, Vol. ii. No. 38, p. 166 (1774). 1872 The adroit firmness of 
Charles rescued his brother from the impending blow of the Exclusion Bill: 
J. L. Sandford, Estimates 0/ Etig. Kings, p. 413. 

adrop {± Ji), sb. : coined by alchemists : a name either of 
the philosopher's stone, or of the matter in which it was 
sought, as lead. 

1610 Your moone, your JirTnatnent, your adrop : B. Jonson, Alch., 11. iii. 
627 (1616). 

*adscriptus {pi. - 1 i) glebae, ascripticius {pi. -t i) g 1 e b a e, 
adstrictus {pi. -ti) glebae, phr. : Late Lat. : assigned, 
bound to the soil, a serf. 

1824 The asiriciio gleba [bondage to the soil] still exists in Hungary: Edin. 
Rev., Vol. 40; p. 307. 1841 Such tenants of the king's demesnes have the 
privilege that they cannot be removed from the land while they do the service 
due ; and these villein-socmen are properly called glebee ascriptitii. They 
perform villein services, but such as are certain and determined: Stephen, Tr. 
Bracton, in Nevj Comm. on Laws of Engl., Bk. II. Pt. i. ch. 2, p. 188 (1874). 
1843 the labouring classes were. ..reduced to the condition of adscripti glebas: 
Craik and Macfarlane, Pict. Hist. Eng., Vol. in. p. 772/2. _ 1850 These 
paupers were, in fact, or claimed to be, the original adscripti glebcp, and to 
have as much claim to parish support as the landed proprietor had to his 
land : Household Words, Aug. 10, p. 468/2, 1876 the colo?ii inqnilini, and 



adscriptiiii or cc7isiti..Mitx^ serfs enjoying a certain amount of personal freedom, 
b\it fixed to the soil, compelled to cultivate it, and inseparable from it: W. A. 
Hunter, Roman Law, p. 17. 

adsunij vb. : Lat. : *I am present', used at many schools as 
the answer when the names are called over. 

1598 [After an invocation] Spirit. Adsum: Shaks., // Hen. VI., i. 4, 26, 
1864 At the usual evening hour the chapel hell began to toll, and Thomas New- 
come's hands outside the bed feebly beat time. And just as the last bell struck, 
a peculiar sweet smile shone over his face, and he lifted up his head a little, and 
quickly said, "Adsum I" and fell back. It was the word we used at school, when 
names were called over; and lo, he, whose heart was as that of a little child, had 
answered to his name, and stood in the presence of The Master: Thackeray, 
Newcomes^ Vol. 11. ch. xlii. p. 445 (1879). 1887 "The graves of the house- 
hold". ..have more than their counterpart in the graves of the school, and at 
Col. Fergusson's muster-roll the voices that should call "Adsum" are often still: 
Atheiimumy Dec. 10, p. jSi/z. 

[First pers. sing. pres. indie, of Lat. a^^j-s-^j = *to be present'.] 

^adulator {±—IL ^), sb. : Eng. fr. Lat. : a flatterer, a 
fawner, one who cringes or offers grovelHng reverence. 

[bef. 1629 maister Adulator, \ And doctour Assentator: J. Skelton, Col. 
Clout, 681, Wks-, Vol. I. p. 337 (1843).] 1696 Adulator, a Flatterer, a fawning 
Fellow, a Claw-back: Phillips, World of Words. bef 1704 An adulator 
pleases and prepossesses them with his daWbing : T. Brown, Wks., iv. 305. 
[Davies] 1794 A Court adulator, when he found his credit on the dechne, 

often displayed an inventive ina;enuity to attract the variable dispositions of his 
idol: Domest. Aiiecd. of French Nat., p. 157. 18... a Grand Monarque 
walking encircled with scarlet women and adulators there : Carlyle, Misc., iv. 
75. [Davies] 1887 The adulators who swarmed round Mr. Balfour at 

Evesham Station corroborated... the truth of this distinction: Manchester Exam. ^ 
Dec. 6, p. 5/3. 

[Lat. adulator^ noun of agent to aduldrtj — ^\.o flatter'.] 

*Adullam: Heb. : name of a place in the land of Judah 
noted for its cave; cf. i Sam., xxii. Hence AduUamite 
(see quotations fr. J. Bright's Speeches and Dixon's Spirit. 
Wives), AduUamy. 

1814 he could not but have an excellent opinion of them, since they resembled 
precisely the followers who attached themselves to the good King David at the 
cave of Adullam; videlicet, every one that was in distress, and every one that 
was in debt, and every one that was discontented: Scott, Wav., ch. Ivii. p. 376 
(188-). 1866 The right hon. gentleman is the first of the new party who has 
expressed his great grief, who has retired into what may be called his political 
Cave of Adullam, and he has called about him 'every one that was in distress and 
every one that was discontented': J. Bright, Speeches, p. 349(1876). 1868 
Prince... hired a place. ..which he called Adullam Chapel, and began to gather... 
a congregation who were quickly known in all the dowager tea-rooms as the 
AduUamites: W. H. Dixon, Spirit Wives, Vol. 1. p. 293. 1872 Whigs may 
again commit Adullamy against Gladstone : J. A. Partridge, Frojn Feudal to 

adulter (— -L — ), masc. sb. : Lat. : an adulterer. 

1587 When he first took shipping to Lacedaemon, That adulter I mean : 
Lyrics, Sr'c, in Fng: Garner, u. 84. [N. E. D.] 1645 It would be strange 
that he. ..should become an adulter by marrying one who is now no other man's 
wife: Milton, Tetrach., 244(1851). [N.E.D.] 

[A refashioning in Lat. form of the early avoutre, avouter 

(Fr. fr. Lat,) through the middle forms advouter, advoulter.l 

adulterator {—± — ± —), sb. : Eng. fr. Late Lat. 

1. an adulterer. 

1632 The adulterator of his Soueraignes bed: Heywood, Iron Age, ii- iv. i. 
411. [N.E.D.] 

2. one who adulterates or falsifies by mixing, adding, or 
substituting any inferior imitation. 

1678 the grand Depravers and Adulterators of the Pagan Theology: Cud- 
worth, Intell. Syst., Bk. i. ch. iv. p. 355. 1887 The recent Adulterators of 
Beer were real specimens of "Publicans and Sinners" : Punch, Feb. 26, p. 108/2. 

[Noun of agent to Lat. adulterdre^^^to adulterate', 'coun- 
terfeit '.] 

adustible {—± — —), adj. : Eng. fr. Fr. adtistible : capable 
of being burnt or dried by fire, liable to be disintegrated or 
desiccated by dry heat. 

1611 Adiistible, adustible, burnable, wasteable, parchable: Cotgr. 

advena, sb.\ Lat.: 'one who comes to', a foreigner, 
stranger, alien. 

1655 The Aborigines and the Advenae, the old Stock of Students, and the 
new Store brought in by St. Grimball: Fuller, Ch. Hist., ir. iig. 

advenement, sb. : Eng. fr. Fr. adveneinent for Fr. avhie- 
ment : a coming, event. 

1490 The aduenementes and aduersitees of warre hen doubtous and vnder 
the honde of fortune: Caxton, Eiteydos, i. 12. [N. E. D.] 

adversaria, sb. pi. : Lat. : in Eng. form adversaries (used 
by Holland) : jottings, miscellaneous notes, contents of a 
common -place book; commentaries. 

1670 T set myself to search my father's Adversaria and papers: Evelyn, 
Corresp., Vol. ni. p. 224 (1850). bef. 1682 The rest may be seen at large in 


the adversaria o! Barthitis: Sir Th. Brown, Tracts, vil. p. 42 (1686). 1797 
ADVERSARIA,. ..particularly used for a kind of common-pf ace-book : Encfc. 
Brit. 1885 His commentary. ..embodies many excellent adversaria which 
should properly pertain to a complete edition of Xenophon's works: Athemeum, 
Aug. 8, p. 175/1. 

[Lat. adversaria (sc. jirri^/a), = matters written on the side 
facing one (see album), 'day-book', 'journal', fr. adversus, 
prep., = ' towards '.] 

adviron, vb. : Eng. fr. Fr. : to environ, surround. 

1475 Jason felte hym self so aduironned on alle sydes by hys enemyes: 
Caxton, Jiuon, 17. [N. E. D.] 

[From Fr. advironner iox Fr. avironner, = ' to environ'.] 
adviso {— iL ^), sb. : Sp. 

1. information, dispatch. 

1591 false and slandrous Pamphlets, aduisoes and Letters; W. Raleigh, 
Last Fight of Revenge, p. 15 (1B71). 1599 for all the rest they take of 
seraphins of silver, per adtiiso : R. H akluVt, Voyages, Vol. 11. i. p. 274. 

2. advice, suggestion. 

1642 the honest Advisees of Faith: Sir Th. Brown, Rel. Med., i. 19, p. 11 
(1686). 1646 Whereof at present we have endeavoured a long and serious 
Adviso: — Pseud. Ep., sig. A 2 z/". 1691 Philosophical Essays, with brief 
Advisos: Wood, Athen. Oxon., iv. 560 (Bliss, 1820). 

3. dispatch-boat, advice-boat. 

1600 The Viceroy sent a carauel of aduiso into the Indies: R. Hakhjyt, 
Voyages, Vol. iii. p. 583. 1624 the aduenterers sent them an aduiso with 
thirtie Passengers and good prouisions: Capt. J. Smith, Wks., p. 645 (1884). 

[From Sp. aviso {g. v.) assimilated to advice.'] 
advocacier, vb. pres. inf. : Fr. : to practise as an advocate. 

1502 Suche people the whiche misbere them for to aduocacyer synneth 
gretly...The luge may not aduocacyer in the cause that he ought to luge: 
Ordin. Crysten Men, IV. xxi. 262 (W. de Worde). [N. E. D.] 

advocation {± — IL^, sb.: Eng. fr. Fr. advocation for Fr. 
avocation : a summoning to a council, a summoning to one's 
assistance. In other senses adapted fr. the Lat. advocatio. 

1474 hyt apperteyneth not to hem to be of counceyllys ne at the aduocacions : 
Caxton, Chesse, iv. i. p. 63. 1598 True Religion doth direct us & our 

prayers and advocations to one God : Barcklev, Felicii. Man, 685 (1631). 
[N.E.D.] 1753 ADVOCATION, in the civil law, the act of calling another 
to our aid, relief, or defence: Chambers, Cycl., Suppl. 

advocator^ (- — - — ), ^b. : Eng. fr. Fr. or Late Lat. : EccL: 
an intercessor, one who calls for (grace or help for another), 
a patron (saint). 

1482 My moste meke and dere aduocatour seynt Nicholas to whome y called : 
Revel. Monk of Evesham, 52 (1869). 

[Late Lat. advocator, noun of agent to Lat. advocdre, = 'X.o 

advocator^ {± — J.—), sb.: Eng.: one who argues for, 
speaks in favor of. 

[As if noun of agent to Lat. advocdre, = ^to summon'. A 
false formation for advocater, or advocate ( = Lat. advocatus).^ 

advocatrix, sb. : quasi-Lat. : a female who pleads for, in- 
tercedes for. 

1631 His successe in bringing me such an Advocatrix: Celestina, i. 11. 

[Coined by analogy of Lat. form as fem. of advocator^ 


*advocatus diaboli, phr.: Lat.: 'devil's advocate'; a 
person appointed to contest before the papal court the claims 
of a candidate for canonisation ; \\e.r\ce^, generally, an adverse 
critic, a fault-finder. 

1883 The mere advocatus diaboli who is content to damage an opponent: 
Guardian, Mar. 21, p. 412. 1887 Possibly the function of advocatus diaboli 

has carried the historian too far in depreciation of the admiral: A. R. Ropes, in 
Lib. Mag., Apr., p. 538/1 (N. York). 

advotrix, sb. : quasi-Lat. : a mistake for advocatrix, q. v. 

1611 Loue is my great Aduotrix, at thy shrine Loue pleads for me : Chester, 
Cantoes, l. ii. 145 (1878). [N. E. D.] 

adytum, fl. adyta, sb. : Lat. : innermost shrine of a temple 
or oracle ; hence, generally, a sanctuary, a sanctum {q. v.). 
Anglicised by Greene (1594), Looking Glass, as adyt. 

1611 A little without their Adytum or secret chappell: T. Cory AT, Crudities, 
Vol. I. p. 293 (1776). 1657 The Holy of holies, the Oracle. ..the Adytum.oT in- 
accessible place, whether none might come but the high priest only: John Trapp, 
Com. Old Test. 1740 a dreadful voice had been heard out of the adytum : 
Gray, Letters, No. xxxix. Vol. I. p. 84 (1819). 1797 The Sanctum Sanctorum 
of the temple of Solomon was of the nature of the pagan adytum : Encyc. Brit. 




1820 the adytum was adorned with a miracle of art: T. S. Hughes Trav. in 
Stctly, &'c.. Vol. I. ch. i. p. 17. 1883 [Odet de Coligny's tomb lies] in the 

i''o1f''"J,°t' "'^y*""* °f England's noblest Cathedral: Sat. Rev., Vol. 56, p. 599/1. 
1883 Ihey remember these awe-inspiring oracles from the very adytum 
of Nature: Macmillan's Mag., Dec, p. 92/2. 1885 As for the temple or 

sacred adytum itself, it may be described as a hall about 55 metres square : 
J. Hirst, m Athenaum, Aug. 22, p. 247/3. 

[From Gk. abvTov, sb., properly neut. of adj. aSt;Tos, = 'not 
to be entered'.] 

*aedile {± J.), sb. : Eng. fr. Lat. : public officers of ancient 
Rome who had the charge of public buildings {aedes), games, 
markets, police, etc. 

1. Rom. Hist. 

1540 He knew euery yere ones by the o(Bcers...whiche were called Ediles, 
howe many householdes there were of euery crafte: Elyot, Im. GoverrmuTice, 
p. 37 ^- 1579 The first office of honor he sued for was the office of Mdilis: 
I^OETH, Tr. Plutarch, p. 246 (i6ia). — chosen jEdiUs...his office of RSie.: ib., 
p. 3°7- 1600 The Mdiles of the Commons went the round, and had the 
charge to see all well & in good order : Holland, Tr. Livy, Bk. in. p. 92. 
1601 M. Pomponius an Aedile of the Commons: — Tr. Plin. N. H., Bk. 7, 
ch. 48, Vol. I. p. 181. 

I a. attrib. 

1658 sella curulis or Aedile chairs: Sir Th. Brown, Garden ofCyr., ch. z, 
p. 29 (1686). 

2. applied jocularly to modern officials, such as the Presi- 
dent of the Board of Works. 

1873 Me. AvRTON..,It is clear that the .ffldile had been thinking over these 
matters; Punch, Apr. ig, p. 158/1. 

[Lat. Aedilis, adj. fr. aedis {aedes), = '3. shrine', 'dwelling'. 
N. E. D. gives adileship, 1541 ; 'cedility, 1540. The Encyc. 
Brit, 1797, gives cedilate!\ 

*aeger, adj. used as sb. : Lat. : 'sick, ailing', = aegrotat, q. v. 

1861 **I can't cut my two lectures.'' "Bother your lectures! Put on an 
seger, then." "No! that doesn't suit my book, youlcnow": T. Hughes, Tom 
Brown at Oxford, Vol. I. ch. vi. p. 91. 

Aegeria: Lat. See Egeria. 

aegide (il ±), sb. : Eng. fr. Fr. cegide : aegis, g. v. 

1591 Then to her selfe she gives her Aegide shield, I And steelhed speare [of 
Pallas]: Spens., Muiopot., 321. 

*aegis {ji-=^, sb. : Lat. 

I. Gk. Mythol. and Art. Lit. 'a goat-skin ', used as a belt 
to support his shield by Zeus, with the Gorgon's head attached 
and a fringe of golden tassels or of snakes ; hence, the shield 
of Zeus. This skin was used by Apollo and Athene (Miner- 
va), the latter being represented with it worn as a garment 
over the breast and shoulders. 

1611 protect them with your favourable and gracious Patronage, as it were 
with the seven-fold shield of Ajax or the cegi.s of Pallas against envious cavilla- 
tions ; T. Coryat, Crudities, Verses on, sig. b 7 r° (1776). 1712 the Descrip- 
tion of Minenids j^gis: Spectator, No. 339, Mar. 20, p. 494/2 (Morley). 
bef. 1771 Oh say, successful dost thou [Ignorance] still oppose 1 Thy leaden 
iEgis 'gainst our ancient foes? Gray, Ignorance, 13. 1812 Where was thine 
.^gis, Pallas! that appall'd | Stem Alaric and Havoc on their way? Byron, 
Childe Harold, II. xiv. Wks., Vol. viii. p. 72 (1832). 

I a. attrib. shield-like, and in compounds. See aegide, 

1793 The broadening sun appears ; A long blue bar its segis orb divides : 
Wordsworth, Even. Walk, 69. [N. E. D.] 

2. metaph. sure defence, sure protection. 

1793 Feeling is the aegis of enthusiasts and fools: Holcroft, Lavater's 
Physiog., xxix. 137. [N. E. D.] 1820 it was at this moment protected, together 
with tlie kingdom of which it forms a part, by the jEgis of Great Britain: T. S. 
Hughes, Trav. in Sicily, Vol. l. ch. in. p. 85. 1883 experienced under the 
agis of this artificial patronage : XIX Cent., Aug., p. 252. 

[From Gk. aXyU, /zV. = 'goat-skin', fr. ai^, ace. mya, = 'goat'; 
perhaps confused with a word meaning 'flashing' akin to kot- 
aiyls, = 'a sudden storm', eVaiyif<o, = 'to rush upon' (of wind).] 

aegri somnia, p^f. ■ Lat. : sick man's dreams. Hor., 
-A. P., 7. 

1860 memory. ..would, when peremptorily called upon, yield up little but dis- 
jointed fragments, recurring again and again like the tegri somnia : Once a Week, 
Nov. 24, p. 589/1. 

*aegr6tat, vb. used as sb. : Lat. : ///. ' he is ill ', a medical 
certificate of inability from illness to attend lectures, &c. at a 
University. Under such a certificate Candidates for Honour 
Examinations at Cambridge are allowed a degree upon 
satisfying the Examiners that they could have passed if well. 
See aeger. 

1794 they [at Cambridge] sported an agrotai, and they sported a new coat ! 
Gent. Mag., p. 1085. 1864 I sent my servant to the apothecary for a thing 

S. D. 

called an csgrotat, which I understood. ..meant a certificate that I was indisposed : 
Babbage, Li/e of Philosoph., 37. [Davies] 

[Third sing. pres. ind. of Lat. aegrdtare, = ' to be ill', fr. 
aegro-, stem oi aeger, adj., = ' sick, ill, weak'.] 

Aeneas, the hero of Virgil's epic, the .Sneid, q. v., repre- 
sentative of filial piety, virtue, and constancy. 

1596 what Philosophers counsell can so redily direct. ..a vertuous man in all 
fortunes, as Aeneas in Virgins Sidney, Apol. Poet., p. 34 (1868), 1663 For 
as iEneas bore his Sire | Upon his shoulders through the fire : S. Butler, Hudi- 
bras, Pt. I. Cant. i. p. 22. 

.Sneid, the national epic of the Romans, by Virgil, which 
relates the wanderings and final settlement in Italy of the 
mythical Trojan ancestors of the Romans. So called from 
the name of the hero Aeneas. 

1386 Pirrus with his streite swerd | Whan he had hent king Priam by the 
herd, | And slain him (as saith us Eneidos): Chaucer, Cant. T., 15363 (1856). 
1490 Caxton, Eneydos. 1548 Phaer, Eneidos. 1601 I doubt not he 

[Virgil] hath finish'd all his .lEneids: B. JONSON, Poetast., v. i, Wks., p. 126/2 
(i860). 1818 And for their jEneids, Iliads, and Odysseys, 1 Were forced to 

make an odd sort of apology: Byron, Eton Juan, I. xli. 

[From the Lat. Aeneis (adj. to Aeneas used as fem. sb.), 
on the analogy of Fr. formation {EnHde). The form Aenei- 
dos {Eneidos) is the genitive transliterated fr. Gk.] 

aenigma : Lat. See enigma. 

.Slolian, Eolian {±ii — z.), adj. : Eng. 

1. adj. to Aeolus {q. V.) : borne by the wind. 

1603 Th' .rEolian Crowd obays his [God's] mighty call: J. Sylvester, 
Tr. Bti Bartas, Arke, p. 323 (1608). 1646 Whether there be j^olian Nutmegs : 
Sir Th. Brown, Pseud. Ep., Bk. 11. ch. iii. p. 58 (1686). 

I a. jEolian harp, a rude stringed instrument intended 
to produce musical sounds when wind blows on the strings ; 
hence .^Eolian sometimes is used as adj. to jEolian harp. 

1764 Some years ago, a twelve-stringed instrument was contrived by a very 
ingenious musician, by whom it was aptly entitled the harp of .iEolus, because 
being properly applied to a stream of air, it produces a wild irregular variety of 
harmonious sounds: Smollett, Ferd. Ct. Fathom., ch. xxxiv. Wks., Vol. iv. 
p. 190 (1817). 1776 Kircher [d. 1680] mentions a contrivance of his own, an 

instrument, which a few years ago was obtruded on the public as a new invention, 
and called the harp of Aeolus: Sir J. Hawkins, Hist. Mus., Vol. iv. Bk. 11. 
ch. vi. p. 21B. 1832 Like an ^Eolian harp that wakes I No certain air: Ten- 
nyson, Two Voices, Wks., Vol. i. p. 136 (1886). 

2. adj. to Aeolis, the North-west coast of Asia Minor and 
the adjacent islands, in which region the early lyric poetry of 
the Greeks flourished ; hence, lyric. 

1671 iEolian charms and Dorian lyric odes: Milton, P. .ff., IV. 257. 1757 
Awake, jEolian lyre, awake, | And give to rapture all thy trembling strings : 
Gray, Progr. of Poesy, i. i. 1776 [ancient modes] The graver Lydian, called 
also the .^olian; SiK J. Hawkins, Hist. Mus., Vol. \. Bk. i. ch, ix. p. 131. 

[From Lat. adj. Aeolius.1 

-ffiolic (j 

1), adj. to Aeolis. See .^olia'n 2. 

1674 The .^olick Mood, was that which was of a more Airy and soft pleasing 
sound: Playford, i',5z//eAAfKi., I. sg. [N. E. D.] 1738 The ^o/:<r Dialect 
generally throws out the aspirate or sharp spirit : Chambers, Cycl. 1885 All 
the work in this cup's filled in with leaves of acanthus ; | *Tis an jEoUc thing — 
and sooth, ofa wonderful fancy: Edwin Arnold, Tr. Theocr,, in Secret of Death 
<5^<r., p. 368(3rdEd.). 

*Aeolus, Eolus : Lat. : the god of the winds in Greek and 
Latin Mythology, in Gk. Al'oXos, whose home was Aeolie, a 
floating island near Sicily (according to the Odyssey), which 
Latin writers identified with Strongyle, one of the Lipari 
Islands. Used as the name of a ventilator ; %^& Encyc. Brit., 
Suppl. (1801). 

1689 Aeolus in poope gaue her wether at will: Puttenham, Eng. Poes., i. 
xxvii. 1590 That nether Phoebus beams could through them throng, | Nor 
Aeolus sharp blast could worke them any wrong: SpENS., F. Q., III. vi. 44. 
1590 Neptune leagu'd with iEol, marr'd the seaman's glee: Greene, Poems, 
p. 300/1, I. 24 (1861). 1594 thou. the mustering breath of iEolus | That 

ouerturns the pines of Lebanon, | Hast scatter'd Jewry: — Looking Glass, 
p. 118/1, 1. 5. 1630 Or bellowes helpefor Eol's breath to blow. John Taylor, 
Wks., sig. Asz/72- 1639 Do, do rage on ! rend open, ./Eolus, ] Thy brazen 

prison, and let loose at once | Thy stormy issue : Massinger, Unnat. Combat, 
V. 2, Wks., p. 47/1 (1839). 1646 Whosoever was the Author, the ^olus that 
blew it about was Fam. Strada: Sir Th. Brown, Pseud. Ep., Bk. 11. ch, iii, 
p. 58 (1686). 1648 They [trees] can abide the blasts of yEolus: W. Lawson, 

Orchard &i^ Garden, ch. ix. p. 24 (1688). 1784 but since Boreas and .zEolus, 
and all the demons of the air, are let loose, I 3hall keep myself as warm as I can : 
Hor. Walpole, Letters, Vol. viii. p. 532 (1858). 1819 And Eld-n beg a 
favouring gale | From Eolus, that older Bags, [ To speed thee on thy destin'd 
way; Tom Crib^s Mem., p. 67 (3rd Ed.). 1888 Instead of offering up_ pro- 
pitiatory sacrifices to the iEolus and Neptune of these stormy waters they ship on 
each big j unk a crew of over one hundred men : A theju^um. Mar. 24, p. 366/2. 

Variants, 16 c. ^ol (fr. Fr. Aeole, Eole),, 17 c. Eol{e),. 
17 c. — 19 c. Eolus. 




aeon, aion, eon (.l r.), sb. : Gk. 

1. an immense period of time, an age, eternity. 

1765 He shall endure, not simply to the aion, that is, 'for ever', but to the 
aion of aions: Tucker, Lt. of Nat, i. 650. [N.E.D.] 1851 birth of a planet 
in the spring of the aeons : Carlyle, in J. A. Fronde's Life, Vol. 11. p, 77 (1884). 
1855 jEons and aeons ago, those marks were there: C. KingSley, GlaucuSy 
p. 14. 1865 For, long aeons the world had been a theatre "of conflict and 
carnage": Yatlrar, Fall of Ma7i,n, ■^. -zj {iZy-j). 1866 Justice, venerable 

with the undethronable majesty of countless aeons : J. R. Lowell, Bigloiv Papers, 
No. 5 (Halifax). 1877 The cleansed soul, | Renewed by the slow wear and 

waste of time, | Soared after aeons of days : L. Morris, Epic of Hades, 5 (1 880). 
1882 This aeon is but an imperfect realisation of the future aeon : Farrar, Early 
Days Chr.^ Vol. i. ch. xvi. p. 316. 

2. a personification of a divine emanatidn among the 
Gnostics and Neo-Platonists. 

1678 The next considerable appearance of a Multitude of Self-existent 
Deities^ seems to be in the Valentinian Thirty Gods and jTlons : Cudworth, 
Intell. Syst, Bk. i. ch. iv. p. 212. 1834 — 47 But I must describe the man, — 

calling him by that name at present, the power, a^on or intelligence which had 
incorporated itself with that ligneous resemblance of humanity not having at 
that time been suspected: R. Southev, Doctor, p. 688/1 (1853). 

[Lat. aeon^ fr. Gk. ata)r, = ^life-time', ^age\ H. More 
(1647) uses Aeon as a personification of Eternity and a name 
of the Supreme Being.] 

aequilibrium: Lat. See ecLuilibrium. 

aecLuitas sequitur legem, phr.\ Lat.: equity follows 

1821 in some things the maxim of aguitas sequitur legem prevails : Edin. 
Rev.f Vol. 35, p. 209. 

*aera: Lat. See era. 

aerarium, sb, : Lat. : the public treasury of Rome in the 
temple of Saturn under the charge of officers called aerarii, 

1600 the ancient writings and records of the old iErarium & of the citie debts : 
Holland, Tr. Livy {Summ. Mar., Bk, iir. ch. xvi.), p- 1368. 1693 took up 
all Moneys by their own power, which the Questors had gathered for the ararium : 
J. Racket, Ahp. Williams, Pt. 11. 191, p. 205. bef 1860 The treasury of 

the senate retained the old republican name of (Erarium. : C. Merivale, Hist. 
Rojna?is, Vol. iii. ch. xxxii. p. 546 (1862). 

aeration {j. — IL—), sb. : Eng. fr. Fr. aeration. 

1. exposure to the open air. Obs. Rare. 

1578 The weariness of a wandering life and irksomeness of continual aeration : 
TvMME, Calvin on Genesis, 313. [N. E. D.] 

2. Mod. science, exposure to the action of air, oxygenation. 
aerator: Mod. Eng. fr. Fr. : false form for aerater. 
aerugo, sb. : Lat. : verdigris, rust of metal ; also mildew. 

1663 Then put to your Erugo, and Squamma eris, let them a lytle boyle : 
T. Gale, Aniidot., Bk. n. fol. 61?^. bef 1626 Copper is turned into green. 
named esT^go, as viride: Bacon, Pkysio I. Rem. [C.E.D.] 1708 Aerugo, (L.) 
the Rust or Canker of Metal, Verdegreese : Also Mildew, or the Blasting of 
Corn, (Sr'c. : Kersey. 1842 The offensive mould which gathers on cheese 
may easily be distinguished from "the blue", — the genuine isrugo, which stamps 
its value : Meg Dods, Cook &^ Housew, Ma?!., iv. iii. 422. 

aes alienum, phr. : Lat. : debt ; lit copper-money belong- 
ing-to-another, regularly used in Lat, to express *debt'. 

1843 I see now in my mind's eye a whole army on the plains of Pennsylvania 
in battle array, immense corps of insolvent light infantry, regiments of heavy 
horse debtors, battalions of repudiators, brigades of bankrupts, with Vivre sans 
payer, ou tnourir, on their banners, and aere alieno [abl.] on their trumpets: 
Sydney Smith, Let. on Amer. debts. 1863 He burrows darkling into ses 
alienum: C Reade, Hard Cask, Vol. i. p. 234. 

aes grave, /Ar.: Lat.: Numismat.'. copper coins of the 
weight of an as^ signatum, 'stamped', opposed to aes rude, 
uncoined copper used as money. 

1819 Rees, Cycl. 1885 We may notice many pieces oiess rude and oi ms 
grave signatum : 'Rodolfo hANCiAt^i, in A tkentsuvz, Oct. 10, p. 47S/1. — The 
chronology of the temple... begins with the age of bronze and with the €ssrude: ib. 

.ffisculapian {± — it il —), adj. : Eng. fr. Lat. : pertaining 
to Aesculapius {q. v.), or to medicine. 

Aesculapius, Esculapius : Lat.: the god of the healing art 
in Lat. and Gk. Mythology, representative of physicians. 

1598 What says my jEsculapius? my Galen? Shaks., Merry Wives, ii. 3, 
29 (1864). 1616 When men a dangerous disease did scape, | Of old, they gaue 
a cock to Aesculape: B. Jonson, Epigr., 12, Wks., p. 772. bef 1628 He 
[Money] is the sick man's .Esculapius: Feltham, Resohies, Pt. i. p. 175 (1806). 
1634 and when I most hoped for recouery, Morod their famous ^sculapitcs, 
seeing no more money, limited my life to fine dayes more existence: Sir Th. 
Herbert, Trav., p. 169. 1819 Having early in life served an Esculapius of 

his own nation, with whom he learnt a few terms of medicine: T. Hopr, A 7iast., 
Vol. I. ch. v. p. 99 (1820). 1605 t/ze Aesculapian arte : B. Jonson, Volp. , ii. 
2, Wks., p. 469 (1616). 

[From Gk. ^Ao-kXtjttlos, Doric and ^olic 'Ao-KXaTrtoy.] 


aesthesis, s6. : Gk. aladrjcns : sensual perception, feeling, 
sensibility, artistic taste. 

1708 Aisthesis, (G.) Sense: Also the Act of Feeling: Keesey. 

aestuarlum, s3. : Lat. : an estuary ; also Med. a vapour- 
bath. Often Anglicised as cestuary, estuary, -ie. 

1577 From hence we double the Boulnesse, and come to an estuarie: 
HoLlNSHED, Descr. Brit., ch. xiv. [R.] 1665 we see also Thornback, 
Gudgeon, and other Sea-fish, which sometime are taken in the _ i^stuarium 
of the fresh water : Sir Th. Herbert, Travels, p. i6 (1677). — eight degrees 
North towards the sestuarium of Ganges : ib., p. 343. 

[Lat. aestuarium, = a. sea-marsh flooded at high tide, a 
channel running inland filled by the sea at high tide, an air- 
hole in a mine.] 

*aestus, sb. : Lat. : efflux, passionate glow, lit ' wavy 
motion' (of fire and water). 

1681 — 1703 when there is an tsstus, a reciprocation of love from him to us, 
and so from us again to him: Th. Goodwin, Wks., in Nichol's Ser. Stand. 
Divines, Vol. vii. p. 201 (1863). 1761 But the true frantic .(Estus resides at 

present with Mr. Hogarth: HoR. Walpole, Letters, Vol, iii. p. 399(1857). 

aetat., aetatis, sb. used as adj.: Lat.: 'of age' (gen. of 
a^/aj, = 'age'), aged. Also with j^a^, ='his' or 'her'. 

1632 Cleanthe, daughter to the king of Epire, jStatis suce the fourteenth: 
Massinger, £'w?/^n'r.Srt,rif, ii. I, Wks., p. 248/1 (1839). 1885 [He was] en- 
tirely engrossed in the happiness of Lewis, his only son, then ietat. twenty-one: 
A theniEuvt, Aug. 22, p. 235/3. 

aether: Lat. See eflier. 

^thiop-. See Ethiop-. 

aetites, sb. : Gk. : any hollow pebble or nodule with a loose 
nucleus. Such stones were believed to possess certain virtues 
and got their name, = 'eagle's stone', because eagles were 
said to carry them to their nests to make them able to hatch 
their young. 

1579 the precious stone Aetites which is founde in the filthy neastes of the 
Eagle: J. Lyly, Euphues, p. 124 (1868), 1584 Aitites, if it be shaken, 

soundeth as if there were a little stone in the bellie thereof; R. Scott, Disc. 
Witch., Bk. XIII. ch. vi. p. 294. 1601 The Aegle stones called Aetites. ..[four 
kinds, three with soft kernel] the male, Arabian, a hard kernel : Holland, Tr. 
Plin. N. H., Bk. 36, ch. 21, Vol. 11. p. 590. 1646 yStites, or the Eagle-stone: 
Sir Th. Brown, Pseud. Ep., Bk. 11. ch. iii. p. 51 (1686). 1654 the stone 
Aitites, by us called the stone Aguilina: S. Lennard, Parthenop., Pt. I. p. 48. 
bef. 1682 A small Viol of Water taken out of the Stones therefore called Enhydri, 
which naturally include a little Water in them, in like manner as the ALtites or 
Aegle Stone doth another Stone: Sir Th. Brown, Tracts, xiii. p. 102 (1686). 

[Gk. masc. adj. aeTWris (Xiflor), = (stone) 'of the eagle', in 
Lat. aetites, fem. sb. fr. a^ros, aieTos', = ' eagle'.] 

Aetna: Lat. See Etna. 

aevum, sb.: Lat.: aeon {g. v.). 

1655—60 his soul ascends to the pure .lEther, and lives in the happy Mvam 
of the blessed: T. Stanley, Hist. Philos., Pt. ix. p. 575/1 (1687). 

Afer: Lat. : the South- West wind, lit. 'the African'. 

_ 1667 With adverse blast upturns them from the south | Notus and Afer black, 
with thund'rous clouds | From Serraliona: Milton, P. L., x. 702. 

aflfability {±^il:l=.), sb.: Eng. fr. Fr. affability : the 
quality of being affable, q. v. 

1483 Drawe and enclyne hym to loue and afiabylite: Cax:ton, Cato, aiiij b. 
[N.E.D.] abt, 1523 Hislyberalite, | His affabilite, | Hishumanyte: J. Skelton, 
Wks., Vol. 11. p. 81 (1S43). 1589 The father Costodio seeing his affabilitie, 

and as it seemed by outwarde showe that he did very much pitie them, he re- 
quested to helpe and fauour him with the viceroy : R. Pakke, Tr. Mendoza's 
Hist. Chin., Vol. n. p. 173 (1854). 1596 Her affability and bashful modesty: 
Shaks., Tarn. Shr., n. i, 49. 1598 a perfect lust man, ought not to make the 
least shewe of affabilitie and remisnesse: R. Haydocke, Tr. Lomatius, Bk. 11." 
p. 30. 1609 presuming confidently upon such Romane courteous affabilitie: 
Holland, Tr. Marc, Lib. 14, ch. v. p. n. 1686 her outward affability much 
changed to statehness: Evelyn, Diary, Vol. 11. p. 267 (1872). 1787 His Ex- 
cellency.. .has conducted affairs with so much judgment and affabihty, as to gain 
the approbation of all ranks : Gent. Mag., p. 1013/1. 

affable {± - -), adj. : Eng. fr. Fr. affable : easy and plea- 
sant m manner, ready to listen or converse, courteous, 

1545 He was prudent, comely, princely, affable, ientle, and amiable, he 
loued lustice and pumsshed the malefactors: Geo. Joye, Exp. Dan., ch. xi. 
[R.] 1546 it beseemed all menu, the greater and mightier thei weare','to be so 
much the mor humble and affable: Tr. Polydore Vergil's Eng. Hist, Vol. I. 
p. 140 (1846). bef 1579 ye shall find me a gracious Princesse and as a&ble, 

as Albernis was vnto you greuous and vneasie : T. Hacket, Tr. Amadis of 
Fratice, Bk. vill. p. 168. 1598 knewe him to he most gentell, affable, loving, 
and temperate: Spens., State Irel, Wks., p. 655/2 (1S83). bef 1603 Miltiades 
was a very gentle person, wcnderfull affable: North {Lives of Eiamin., ific. 
added to) Plut p. 1230 (1612). 1607 Entice the aff-able young wagge : Hey- 

wooD, Fayre Mayde, p. 66, 1. 30. 1607 Most smiling, smooth, detested parasites, I 
Courteous destroyers, affable wolves, meek bears: Shaks., Timon, iii. 6, 105 


Bef. 1616 your affable Virtue will be mov'd to perswade her: Beau, and Fl., 
Scornful Lady, i. I, Wks., Vol. I. p. 240(1711). 1696 for indeed he was affable 
and civd rather to excess: Evelyn, Diary, Vol. in. p. 350 (1872). 1703 He 

is a very handsome person, well-spoken and affable : — Vol. n. p. 382 (1872), 
1784 With a smile | Gentle, and affable, and full of grace : Cowper, Task, 
VI. Poems, Vol. 11. p. 187 (1808). 

*affaire d'honneur, //%n : Fr. : an affair of honor, a duel. 

*affaire de cosur, phr. : Fr. ; an affair of the heart, a love 

1819 The only thing he could have liked— had he not been too busy learning 
the romeika — was an affaire ds cceur with the favourite Sultana: T. Hope, 
Anast., Vol. I. ch. yiii. p. 162 (1820). 1860 the young gentleman, who was 
engaged in an affaire de cmur with a Scotch clergyman's daughter: Thackeray, 
Pendennis, Vol. I. ch. viii. p. 87 (1879). — he had been engaged in what are 
called affaires de c(Kur all his life ; ib., ch. xvi. p. 180. 

affect {— -L), vb. : Eng. fr. Fr. 

1. to aim at, aspire to, lit. 'make for'; with object or inf. 

1483 Roch affectyng no mortal glorye hyd his lignage: Caxton, Gold. Leg., 
26^/1. [N.E.D.] 1546 eche manne [did] moste vehemenflie affect the kingdom : 
Tr. Polydore VergiVs Eng. Hist., Vol. I. p. 37 (1846). .-- it is naturallie grafted 
in the disposition of all men [to] affecte honors and lordeshipp: ib., p. no. 
1666 — 7 you should affect to live a retired life hereafter; Evelyn, Corresp., 
Vol. III. p. 84 (1872). 

2. to feel or show liking for; with object (person or thing) 
or inf. or absolute. 

1688 He surely affected her for her wit : Sh^ks., L. L. L., i. 2, 92. 

2 a. to like to use, practise, frequent, or do. 

1546 the moste parte of the inhabitantes, not so greatlie affecte citties : 
Tr. Polydore Vergil's Eng. Hist., Vol. J. p. 4 (1846), — hie cause that to 
their power they affected the Romaine eloquence hee gave them lawes: ib., p. 77. 
1611 thou a sceptre's heir, I That thus affect'st a sheep-hook! Shaks.. Wint. 
Tale, iv. 4, 4s^. 1640 Affecting still jvilde contrarieties : li. More, Pkil. Po., 
ii. 117, p. 44 (1647). 

2 6. to have or show a natural tendency or bent towards. 

1612 Their tongues did naturallie affect.. .the British Dialect: Drayton, 
Poly-olbion, v. Notes 80. [N. E. D. ] 

3. to take upon one for effect or in pretence, to assume, 
profess, pretend, to be affected. 

1595 the accent of his tongue affecteth him: Shaks., K. John, i. 86. 1598 
I never heard such a drawling affecting rogue: — Merry Wives, ii. i, 145. 
1601 I do affect a sorrow indeed, but I have it too: — AlVs Well, i. i, 62. 1606 
Thy soldier, servant ; tnaking peace or war I As thou affect'st : — Ant. and 
Cleop., \. 3, 71. 1645 They greatly affect the Spanish gravity in their 
habit; Evelyn, Diary, Vol. i. p. 168 (1872). 1665 such as have lived long in 
Universities do greatly affect words and expressions no where in use besides ; 
Evelyn, Corresp., Vol. III. p. 161 (1872). 

[From Fr. qffecter, = ^to strive after, aspire to, feign'. To 
affect, = 'to attack', 'influence' is from the stem of the past 
part, of Lat. afficere.l 

affectator, sb. : Lat. : an affecter, one who affects, or pro- 
fesses a liking for. Obs. Rare. 

1610 Hee was an affectator of glory: Healev, Tr. Vives on St. Aug. City 
of God, 318. [N. E. D.] 

[Perhaps noun of agent to Eng. affectate, assimilated to 
Lat. affectator, noun of agent to affectare, = 'X.o affect'.] 

affectual, adj.: Eng. fr. Fr. qffectuel: passionate, emotional, 
existing only in the mind or in the emotions. Obs. 

1483 God hath beholden your affectuel deuocyon fro heuen ; Caxton, Gold. 
X?^., 389/2. [N.E.D.] 1604 Reasonable persuasions resemble words, affectuall 
passions are compared to deeds: T. Wright, Passions of Mind, v. § 3, 175. 
[N. E. D.] bef. 1665 Lust not only affectual, but actual is dispensed with: 
T. Adams, Whs., i. 205(1862). [Davies] 

Affenthaler, a kind of hock, named from its native district 
in Germany. 

1854 This little Affenthaler wine of this country has a little smack which 
is most agreeable: Thackeray, Newcomes, Vol. I. ch. xxviii. p. 308 (1879). 

affettuoso, adj. : It. : Mus. : affectuous, emotional, affect- 
ing, with feeling. Also as sb. and metaph. 

Words is signified, that the Musick tnust be performed in a very moving, tender, 
or affecting Manner, and therefore not too fast, but rather slow: Short Explic. 
of For. Wds. in Mus. Bks. 1796 The tender, soothing strains, in the affettuoso 
of humanity: Burke, Regie. Peace, i. Wks., viii. 132. [N. E. D.] 1797 AF- 
FETUOSO, or Con Affetto, in the Italian music, intimates that the part to 
which it is added ought to be played in a tender moving way, and consequently 
rather slow than fast: Encyc. Brit. 1848 Affettuoso. In a tender and 
affecting style ; Rimbault, Pianoforte, p. 90. 

*affiche, sb. : Fr. : something fixed on ; esp. notice, placard, 
bill posted up, advertisement. Anglicised in 14, 15 cc. 

1774 Postlethwayt, Vict. Trade, 1818 Then we stare into shops — 
read the evening's affches : T. Moore, Fudge Family, p. 87. 1820 If this 



afficke succeeded, there was a ckmice of Juan's hearing something: Mrs. Opie, 
Tales, Vol. iii. p. 306. 1836 the injurious affiches annually put up by the 
Government, accusing the foreigners of horrible crimes : J. F. Davis, Chinese,, 
Vol. I. ch. ii. p. 58. 1844 the ^affiches' which she was in the habit of issmng 
assumed a tone of moderation which, under this new reign of Liberty, could not 
be tolerated: J. W. Croker, Essays Fr. Rev., vir. p. 464.(1857). 1863 an 

affiche on the walls of Albion Villa announced that..., auctioneer would sell &c. : 
C. Reade, Hard Cask, Vol. 11. p. 249. 1883 Scepticism was with him [Sainte- 
Beuve] an affiche: Sat, Rev., Vol. 55, p. 452. 1884 Suspended over the club 
chimney-piece was the usual notice-board... covered with a trellis-work of crimson 
tape for the purpose of retaining the \3.r\o\is (^ches \ J. Sharman, Cursory Hisi. 
of Swearing, ch. i. p. 6. 1884 pasting affiches to post-cards: Eclw, Mar. 25, 
p. 1/6. 

*afGlcher, vb. : Fr. : to post up, publish ; s*af&clier,='to ex- 
pose one's self; afi&cll^, = 'posted up', 'published', 'ad- 

1841 I doubt whether the general mass of the upper class would afficher their 
piety as much as they now do if their regular attendance at divine worship was less 
likely to be known at the Tuilleries : Lady Blessington, Idler in France, Vol. i. 
p. 319. 1837 I have never, in any other part of the world, seen loose senti- 

ments affickis, with more effrontery: J. F. Cooper, Europe, Vol. ii. p. 210. 
1845 it is certain that he had very early 'affichi' his enmity to the Restoration: 
J. W. Croker, Essays Fr. Rev., i. p. 9 (1857). 

^affidavit {j. — I^—), vb. used as sb.\ Low Lat.: Law. lit. 
'he (she) has affirmed on oath'; a written affirmation which 
the affirmer swears to be true before a judge, magistrate, or 
other person authorised to take such sworn affirmations ; but 
popularly the affirmer is said to take instead of make or swear 
an affidavit. 

1598 S. I protest — W. You are a foole : It needsnort^^/iMz/: B. Jonson, 
Ev. Man ifi his Hunt., iii. 5, Wks., p. 41 (1616). 1609 they haue made their 
affidauit against her: — Sit. IVovi., v. 2, Wks., p. 590. 1648 Consider 

likewise... how they are seconded by your Common- counsell in all their designes, 
particularly in their Refusing to take the affidavits that were offered to be made 
unto them: Mercurius Elencticus, No. 28, p. 210. 1652 his house had been 

burnt, yet not by the people, but by some malevolent and emulous spirits, as 
Seignior Julio Genovi7to could make affidavit-. Howell, Pt. II. Massaniello 
(Hist. Rev. Napl.), p. 60. bef. 1658 I begin with his Head, which is ever in 
Clouts, as if the Night-cap should make Affidavit, that the Brain was pregnant: 
J. Cleveland, IVks., p. Si (1687). 1688 payd to Mary Knight for going to 

Thorley to make affidavy for the souldier that dyed heere...i.r : G\z.sscock.'s Records 
0/ St. Michaels, p. 83 (1882). 1693 But I will make Affidavit, that some 

Parishes among us have been interdicted from the Lord's Supper: J. Racket, 
Abp. Williams, Pt. n. 104, p. 107. — upon Affidavit of Sickness: ib., 143, 
p. 151. bef. 1733 it must be fixed by Oates's Affidavit: R. North, Examen, 
I. iii. 65, p. 172 (1740). 1756 a most virulent pamphlet, but containing affi- 

davits, and. ..strong assertions of facts: HoR. Walpole, Letters, Vol. iii. p- 25 
(1857). 1771 an affidavit of the gentleman who had been robbed, importing, 

that the said Clinker was not the person who stopped him on the highway: 
Smollett, Humph. CI., p. 56/2 (1882). 1837 at another end of the room, 
was a clerk in spectacles, who was "taking the affidavits"; C. Dickens, Pick- 
wick, ch. xxxix. p. 432. 

Attrib. or in combinations. 

1679 Held up his Affidavit hand, \ As if h' had been to be arraigned : 
S. Butler, Hudibras, Pt. in. Cant. i. p. 26. — Where Vouchers, Forgers, 
Contmon-bayl, \ And Affidavit-men, 7ie'r Jail: ib.. Cant. iii. p. 214. — Or 
letting out to hire, their Ears, \ To Affidavit- Custojners: ib., p. 212. — Some 
for the Gospel, and Massacres! Oi Spiritual A ffida:vit-makers\ ib.. Cant. ii. 
p. 99. 

Variants, corrupted in vulgar speech to davy^ David. 
[3rd pers. sing. perf. act. of Low Lat, affiddrej='L2L\.. fzdem 
dare, 'to give faith'.] 

affine (- 

vb. : Eng, fr. Fr. : to refine (metals). Rare. 

1601 Very proper it [quicksilver] is therefore to affine gold: Holland, Tr. 
Plin. N. H., II. 473 (1634). [N. E. D.] 

[From Fr. affiner,=' to refine'.] 

affirmance {~ ± — ), sb. : Eng, fr. Fr. affirmance, 

1. a confirming. 

1631 To the affirmaunce whereof they adde to others: Elyot, Governor, n. 
xiv. 139(1557). [N.E. D.] 

I a. ratification (of laws and judgments). 

bef. 1626 This statute did but restore an ancient statute, which was itself also 
made but in afifirmance of the common law: Bacon. [J.] 

2. a solemn assertion. 

1494 shewed vnto them w' affirmaunce of great othes, that his entent was 
oonly for the wele of the childe; Fabyan, ch. 186. [R.] 1612 Of whom 
Bale dares offer affirmance, that. ..hee first taught the Britons to make Eeere: 
Drayton, Poly-olbio7i, Notes, ii. 34. [N, E. D.] bef. 1782 They swear it, till 
affirmance breeds a doubt: Cowper, Convers., Poems, Vol. 11. p. 155 (1808). 

affirmation {J- — ILz^, sb.: Eng. fr. Fr. affirmation. 
I. the action of making firm or ratifying; the action of 
estabhshing, sanctioning, 

bef. 1533 For a more vehement affyrmacyon he doubleth his owne wordes : 
J. Frith, Answ. Bp. Rochester^ Vi. [R.] 




2, the action of solemnly asserting or of giving force to 
an assertion ; esp. the action of making a positive assertion, 
or laying down a positive proposition as opposed to a nega- 

1630 adding of syllabicall adiections in affirmation and negation: Palsgr.. 
Bk. II. fol. xlvi. 1535 This shameless lye and sclaunderouse affirmacion : 

G. JoYK, Apol. to W. Tindale, p. 24 (1883). 1602 the additions & subtractions, 
affirmations, & negations : W. Watson, Quodlibets of Relig. &* State, p. 168. 
1611 this gentleman at that time vouching — upon warrant of bloody affirma- 
tion — his flady] to be more fair: Shaks., Cymb.^ \. 4, 63. 

2 a. Leg. a solemn declaration made instead of taking an 
oath by persons who decline to swear on conscientious 

1696 The solemn Affirmation and Declaration of the People called Quakers, 
shall be accepted instead of an Oath in the usual Form : Stat. 7 «£r» 8 Wm. 111.^ 
c. 34, Title. 1828 Every Quaker [shall] be permitted to make his or her solemn 
affirmation or declaration: Stat. 9 Geo. TV., c. 29, § 13. 

2 d. concrete, the words used in affirming, a positive pro- 

bef. 1593 Paul's affirmation, who saith, 'Such as the root is, such are the 
branches': H. Smith, Wks., ir. 63 ([iSe?). [N. E. D.] bef. 1765 That he 
shall receive no benefit from Christ, is the affirmation whereon his despair is 
founded: Hammond, Fundamentals, fj.] 

*afflatus, sb.'. Lat.: lit. 'a blowing upon* ; divine or poetic 
inspiration, a sudden rush of prophetic or poetic inspiration. 

1660 yet while they heard others propJtesie there was sometime an afflattis 
upon them also: J. Smith, Select Discourses, p. 245 (1673). 1674 For he 
[Saul] had also an extraordhiary afflatus of the Spirit, expressing itself in a visible 
rapture: John Owen, Wks,, Vol. ri. p. 163 (Russell, 1826). 1820 The adytum 
contained that deep oracular chasm whence the mephitic afflatus issued : T. S. 
Hughes, Trav. in Sicily, Vol. i. ch. xiii. p. 383. 1834 — 47 My Public would 
not have me stifle the afflatus when I am labouring with it : Southey, Doctor^ 
p. 25/1(1849). 1840 all betokened that the divine rt^fl/wj was come: Barham, 
Ingolds. Leg., p. 11 (1879). 1849 'Tis a pity. sully or interrupt that easy 

and lovely cheerfulness of youth, (which may you long preserve) with an afflatus 
from darker and sourer minds: Gambold, p. 229, in Southey's Contnt. pi. Bk., 
2nd Ser., p. 10/2. 1850 spouting his own poems, and filled with quite a Byronic 
afflatus as he thought: Thackeray, Pendennis, Vol. i. ch. iii. p. 28 (1879). 

[From Lat. affldre^ — ^io blow', * breathe upon'. 

1669 The good Spirit doth afflare, breathe grace into us, but it is the evil 
spirit which doth injlare, puff men up with the wind of pride: N. Hardy, \stEp. 
John, Nichol's Ed., p. 374/1 (1865).] 

af9.ictive (^z^), adj,\ Eng. fr. Fr.: causing or involving 
affliction, painful, troublesome, distressing. 

1611 .^^zW/y, Afflictiue. grieuing, molesting, tormenting: Cotgr. 1648 
though his dyet be not ascetick, and afflictive : Jer. Taylor, Gt. Rxemp., Pt. 11. 
§ II. [R.] 1659 I am sorry the evil circumstances of the times make it any 
way afflictive or inconvenient: Evelyn, Corresp., Vol. in. p. 127 (1872). bef. 
1716 They found martyrdom a duty dressed up indeed with all that was terrible 
and afflictive to human nature, yet not at alt the less a duty: South. [J.] 
1720 All this from Jove's afflictive hand we bear: Pope, Tr. Iliad, Bk. xiv. 75 

[From Fr. afflictif^ fern, -ive^ 

afflue, vb.\ Eng. fr. Fr. affluer: to flow towards, flock 
towards. Obs. Rare. 

1483 So grete nombre of freres affluyng or coming to parys oute fro alle 
londes: Caxton, Gold. Leg., 431/2. [N. E. D.] 

afform, vb.: Eng, fr. Fr. aformer, affbrmer: to fashion, 
model according to. 

abt. 1500 To hym that is most honourable, Afforme your maners and your 
entent: Doctr. good Seruaunies, 8 (1842). [N. E. B.] 

affrap {— J-), vb. : Eng. fr. It. : to strike, strike against 
(with a sharp weapon). 

1590 They bene ymett, both ready to affi-ap, | When suddeinly that warriour 
gan abace | His threatned speare: Spens., F. Q., ii. i. 26. — To tossen speare 
and shield, and to affrap | The warlike ryder to his most mishap: ib., in. ii. 6. 

[From It. affrappare^~'X.o cut^, 'sliced] 

affresco: It. See afresco. 

affreuXj/^M. -se, adj.-. Fr. 'frightful', 'ghastly'. 

1854 The affreux catastrophe of July arrived: Thackeray, Newcomes, 
Vol. I. ch. xxxi. p. 355. 

Afreet, Afrit(e): Arab. Hfrit^ vulgarly pronounced ^ afrit \ 
a demon or evil jinnee {q.v.) of Arabian superstition. 

1786 have the relentless Afrits. ..fixed in this place their abode? Hr.Beck/ord's 
Vathek, p. 73 (1883). 1813 Then stalking to thy sullen grave, | Go— and 

with Gouls and Afrits rave: Bvron, Giaour, Wks., Vol. ix. p. 179 (1832). 
1820 bringing the treasures of the abyss to the summit of the earth— giving 
the feeble arm of man the momentum of an Afrite : Scott, Monastery, Wks., 
Vol. II. p- 404/1 (1867). 1836 The evil gin'nees are commonly termed 'EfreHs: 
E. W. Lane, Mod. Egypt., Vol. i. p. 285. 1839 Come down and fear not this 
'Efreet: — Tr. Arab. Nts., Vol. i. Intr., p. 8. 1849 You must have heard us 
raging like a thousand Afrites: Ld. Beaconsfield, Tancred, Bk. iv. ch. viii. 
p. 293 (1881). 


afresco, afresca, affresca, adv.: It.: in fresco, 'on fresh' 
(plaster) ; see al fresco. 

1644 We went through the long gallery. ..richly fretted, and painted i fresco 
[afresca. N. E. D.]: Evelyn, Diary, Vol. l. p. 54 (1872). Cf. pp. 95, 133. 
the suffering of St. Laurence painted afresco on the wall : ih., p. 120. 

Africo, sb. : Sp. : a negro slave. 

1682 Here we met with y» Barbadoes Merchant. .James Cock, Master, laden 
with Salt, Mules, and Africos: W. Hedges, Diary, Feb. 27. [Yule] 

*Afrikander, Africander: Mod. Du. : a Dutch person or 
Boer born in South Africa. 

1887 Here [at Stellenbosch] for some three years he lived the life of an Afri- 
kander: Atheiueum, Aug. 20, p. 240/1. 

*aga, agha (-i-^), sb.: Turk, agha: lit. 'master, lord', a 
title commonly borne by court dignitaries, esp. the commander 
of the Janissaries ; also a courtesy title of civilians, formerly 
of any respectable person. 

1524 Acmek Bassha was in the trenches of Auuergne and Spaine with the 
Aga of the lanizaires and the Beglarby of Romany with him : In R. Hakluyt's 
Voyages, Vol. 11. i. p. 8j (1599). 1599 the;-e is another castle.. .kept by an Ago. 
with fourtie men or thereabout : ib. , p. 200. 1600 neither can they be iudged 
by any but the Agaes; John Pory, Tr. Lecfs Hist. Afr., p. 386. 1615 the 

Aga and his Janizaries: Geo. Sandys, Trav., p. 37 (1632). 1617 It was ilow 
kept by a Turkish Agha and Garrison... this Agha sent a souldier to vs: Fynes 
MoKYSON, Itin., Pt. I. p. 220. 1630 the aga of the janizaries: Massingee,. 
Renegado, 11. i. VS^ks., p. 104/1 (1839). 1632 hanged on the tree before the gate 
of the Palace of the Vizeer where the lanizary Aga was hanged: Contin. of our 
Weekly Nemes, Mar. 28, p. 5. 1648 the Aga (which commands within 
Scutari...); Moderate Intelligeticer, No. 159, p. 1247. 1665 the Cawns, 
Begler-begs, Sultans... Agaes, Soldagars, and Coosel-bashes bear no Coat Armour: 
Sir Th. Herbert, Trav., p. 301 (1677). 1684 the Capi-Aga, or Grand 
Master of the Seraglio : Tr. Tavemier's Grd. Seignor's Seraglio, p. 2. 1704 
There came a vast body of dragoons, of different nations, under the leading of 
Harvey, their great aga: Swift, Bat. of Bks., Wks., p. 104/1 (i86g). 1768 

Meeting with two Agas of the last city [Sparta]. ..he made an acquaintance with 
them : Gejit. Mag., p. 155/2. 1813 the Aga's house [m Athens].. .the governor's 
house : Byron, in Moore's Life, Vol. 11. p. igo (1832). 1820 a Turkish Aga : 
T. S. Hughes, Trav. in Sicily, <&»c.. Vol. i. ch. vi. p. 183. 1836 The 

Zabit, or Agha of the poUce : E. W. Lane, Mod. Egypt., Vol. I. p. 143. 

agagant, ^w. -ante, adj.: Fr.: provoking, alluring, with 
a suggestion of coquetry or archness. 

1818 the girl Adrienne is very pretty and very agafante : Mrs. Opie, New 
Tales, Vol. in. p. 95. 1843 One, a regular rustic beauty, whose face and 
figure would have made the fortune of a frontispiece, seemed particularly amused 
and agafante: Thackeray, Irish Sk. Bk., p. 224 (1887). 

agacer, vb.: Fr. : to provoke, incite, set one's cap at, 
allure. See agagant. 

1783 I only write this to thank you, not to agacer you again : HoR. Walpole, 
Letters, Vol. viii. p. 419 (1858). 1818 Still, however, she coquetted with 
religion, as she had done with the bar, to aga.cer many a sturdy polemic, as she 
had done many a promising lawyer : Lady Morgan, Fl. Macarthy, Vol. II. ch. i. 
p. 67 (iSig). 

agacerie, sb. : Fr. : allurement, attractive air, bewitching 
grace. See agagant. 

1818 till her mother gave her.. .a very significant frown, her agaceries were 
addressed to me: Mrs, Opie, Neiv Tales, Vol. in. p. 95. 

a.g ala. [wood]: Malay. See Si,,-wood. 

agalloch {— l z.), agallochum, sb. : Eng. fr. Lat. and Lat. : 
agal-wood, agila-wood, eagle- wood, aloes -wood, lign(-um) 
aloes; the result of disease in a tree of the Natural order 
Leguminosae, the Aloexylon agallochum, or the aromatic, 
resinous, heart of Aquilaria ovata and Aqu. agallochum, 
used as a medicine and as incense. The best used to come 
from Cochin-China. 

1598 Lignum Aloes, Agallochum, Xylo, alias Paradise-woode by the 
Arabians called Agalugen and Haud, by the inhabitantes of Gnsurate and' 
Decan, Ud in Malacca, Garro, and the best Calamba : Tr. J. Van Linschoten's 
Voyages, Bk. i. ch. 77, p. 122/1. 1625 Galbanutn, Laser, Agolochum, 
Gumme Arabike: Purchas, Pilgrims, Vol. I. Bk. i. p. 43. 

[From Gk. ayoKkoyov, adopted fr. an Eastern name. See 

Agamemnon: Gk. {'Ayafiefivav). 

I. Mythol. in allusion to the Trojan war, the leader of the 
Greeks, king of Mycenae, who sacrificed his daughter Iphi- 
genia before they started for Troy, and was murdered on his 
return by his wife Clytemnestra and her paramour Aegis- 

1590 one sole daughter, whom I hold as dear | As Agamemnon did his 
Iphigen : (Ed. of 1633) Marlowk, Jev) of Malta, i. p. 147/1 (Dyce). 1606 
the magnanimous and most illustrious six-or-seven-times honoured captain- 
general of the Grecian army, Agamemnon, et cetera : Shaks., Troil., iii. 3, 280 

2. representative of kingship, kingliness. 

1778 Agamemnon himself will be no great gainer, nor be gathered to the 
Atridae with quite so many crowns on his head as they bequeathed to him, and 
he will wish he had not worn that of Caledonia : HoR. Walpole, Letters, Vol. vil. 
p. 84 (1858). 

Aganippe: Gk. : a fountain on Mt. Helicon sacred to the 
Muses, supposed to give poetic inspiration; hence, used 
playfully for poetic genius, in imitation of Persius. 

1604 I neuer dranke of Aganippe wel 1 nor euer did in shade of Tempe sit: 
D. DiGGES (quoting Sir Philip Sidney), Foure Parad., m. p. 76. 1630 I that 
ne'r dranke of AgrmippesWeW: John Taylor, IVks., sig. I *i t/'/z. 1647 
Such towring ebullitinos do not exuberate in my aganippe: Life of Ant. & 
Wood, p. xiv. (1813). 

agapanthus, sb,: Lat. : B'ot: name of a genus of Lily- 
worts of the Fam. HemerocalUdeae, blue African Lily. 

1807 T. Martyn, Miller's Boi. Diet. 1886 the agapanthus which is so 
familiar to us in English greenhouses; H. R. Haggard, Jess, ch. i., in Cornhill 
Mag., Vol. VI. No. 35, p. 449. 

[Coined fr. Gk. dyd7n7, = 'love', and d;j'5oj, = 'bloom'.] 

agape, pi. agapae, dyam;, pi. ayanai, sb. : Gk. thro. Lat. : a 
'love feast' adopted by the early Christian Church, and 
frequently held in connection with the Holy Communion. 

1666 In those feastes, which' the fathers called oyaTra? they shewed the fruites 
of unitie: T. Harding, p. 80 z/°. 1611 The ancient Christians had their 
feasts of charity which they called in Greeke a-yairat... These Church ales which 
we use now in England, are very like to those oyaTrat of the ancient Christians: 
T. CoRYAT, Crudities, Vol. in. sig. 8r°; 1630 And lastly they concluded 

all with an Agape or banquet of charity: J. S., Triall of the Protestant Private 
Spirit, II. ch. x. p. 382. 1711 These wakes says he [Dr. Kennet, Parochial 

Antiguities'] were in Imitation of the ancient a.ya.TTa.1 or Love-Feasts ; Spectator, 
No. 161, Sept. 4, p. 236/2 (Morley). 1738 In the primitive days the agapes 

were held without scandal, or offence: Chambers, Cycl. 1882 Where 

St. Jude refers to the profanation of the Agapae St. Peter's allusion is more distant 
and general: Farrar, Early Days Chr., xi. p. iii (1884). 

[From Gk. dyd;n7, = ' affectionate love'.] 

*agapemone, sb.: coined fr. Gk.dydTri;, 'love' ; ^ovi), 'stop- 
ping-place': abode of love; the name given to the settlement 
of professors of free-love founded by H. J. Prince in 1845, ^^ 
Charlinch, near Taunton. 

1868 on his [Prince's] old glebe, outside the Agapemone ; W. H. DixoN, 
Spirit. Wives, Vol. l. p. 235. 1883 convents and agapemones : James Mar- 
TINEAU, in XIX Cent, Feb., p. 209. 

agar-agar, sb. : Malay. : an edible sea-weed found in Cey- 
lon and the Malay islands, used in the East for jelly and 
glue and for dressing silks. 

1813 W. Milburn, Orient. Commerce, &^c., II. 304.; [Yule] 1886 Agar- 
agar; this is also called Japanese isinglass: E. M. Cruikshank, Bacteriology, 
p. 23. — Agar-agar has the advantage of remaining solid up to a temperature 
of about 45 : ib., p. 65. 1886 A description of nutrient gelatine, nutrient 

agar-agar, and other media, both liquid and solid: Brit. Med. Joum., No. 1321, 
Apr. 24, p. 783. 

agate (-i — ), sb. -. Eng. fr. Fr. agathe, agate. 

1. a precious stone, a name given to several variegated 
kinds of chalcedony. Used also attrib. and in combinations. 

1588 His heart, like an agate, with your print impress'd: Shaks., L. L. L., 
ii. 236. 1591 In shape no bigger than an agate-stone J On the fore-finger of 
an alderman : — Rom., i. 4, 55. 1698 White with the rust of iron makes 

the Aggate colour: R. Haydocke, Tr. Lomatius, Bk. III. p. 103. 1644 onyxes, 
agates, and cornelians. ..worth 80 or go,ooo crowns : Evelyn, Diary, Vol. i. 
p. 115(1872). 1658 Wherein...were found an ape of ^^aM,.. .an Elephant of 
Ambre: Sir Th. Brown, Hydriotaph., p. 23. 1665 Agats, Garnats, Crystals, 
and the Like: Sir Th. Herbert, Trav., p. 88 (1677). 1686 curiosities in 
amber, crystal, agate, &c. : Evelyn, Diary; Vol. 11. p. 271 (1872). 1691 the 

Diaphanous Fossils (as Ambers, Crystals, Agates, &^c.) preserv'd in the Cabinets 
of the great Duke of Tuscany. J. Ray, Creation, Pt. 11. p. 105 (1701). 

2. a manikin, from the small figures cut on agate seals 
alluded to in above quot. fr. Shaks., L. L. L. 

1597 I was neuer mann'd with an Agot till now: Shaks., // Hen. IV. i. 
2, 19. 1699 if tall, a launce ill headed : | If low, an agot very vildly cut: — 
Much Ado, iii. i, 65 (1600) . 

3. a burnisher fitted with an agate used to burnish gold 

1738 The gold wire drawers burnish their gold with an Agat; whence the 
instrument, made use of on that occasion, is also called an Agat : Chambers, 

4. used wrongly for gagates, = 'jet '. 

1661 Of Sulphurs, Agath, Gagates. It's.. .of a black, stony earth, full of 
bitumen: Lovell, Hist. Min., 53. [N. E. D.] 

[Superseded the Mid. Eng. achate, fr. Old Fr. acate, achate, 
afterwards corrupted to agathe, agate.'] 



agathodaemon, sb. : Gk. : a good divinity, a good genius 
to whom a cup of pure wine was drunk at the end of an 
Ancient Greek banquet ; also a Gnostic divinity. 

1763 Chambers, Cj-c/., Suppl. 1836 It is believed that each quarter in 
Cairo has its peculiar guardian-genius, or AgathodBcmon, which has the form of a 
serpent; E, W. Lane, Mod. Egypt., Vol. I. p. 289. 1864 The Agathodaemon, 
or good genius, depicted as a huge serpent having the. head of a lion, sur- 
rounded by seven or twelve rays : C. W. King, Gtiostics, p. 73. 

[From Gk. dya5o8ai;uci)»', = ' good-deity' ; see demon.] 

*&gaNQ,sb.: Late Lat. : Bot.: name of a genus of plants of 
the Natural order Amaryllidaceae, of which the chief species 
is the American aloe; see aloe 3, magu6y. It does not pro- 
duce its splendid bloom until maturity, which it reaches in 
from 10 to 70 years. 

1797 Encyc. Brit. 1842 The moonlight touching o'er a terrace | One tall 
Agave above the lake : Tennyson, Daisy, xxi. Wks., Vol. v. p. 71 (1886). 1845 
A few hedges, made of cacti and agave, mark out where some wheat or Indian 
corn has been planted: C. Darwin, Joum. Beagle, ch. iii. p. 40. 1846 
We rode for miles through thickets of the centennial plant, agave Americana: Fort Leavenworth, p. 104 (1848). 

Agemoglans : Turk. See Zamoglans. 

*agenda, sb. pi. : Lat. (also naturalised as agend, pi. 
agends, Obs.). 

1. things to be done, matters of practice (esp. Eccl. morcil 
or ritual), opposed to credenda, matters of belief. 

1629 It is the Agend of the Church, he should have held him to: Bp. An- 
drewes, ^«5W. Cdl. Perron,^. 1. [L.] 1642 For the matter of our worship, 
our credends, our agends, are all according to the rule : WiLCOCKS, Eng. Prot. 
ApoL, p. 34. [T.] 1657 What business soever I may have, I place yoiu-s 

amongst the first of my Agenda: J. D., Tr. Voitur^s Lett., No. in. Vol. I. p. 
186. 1680 is there not the same authority for the agenda, as there is for the 
credenda, of a Christian? John Howe, Wks., p. 638/2 (1834). 1693 Seek no 
other reason why they had so many Enemies, but because Christianity was 
mightily fain among us, both as to the credenda and the agenda : J. Hacket, 
Abp. Williams, Pt. II. 158, p. 168. 1696 we speak not of practice. ..but as it 

takes in the agenda of religion: John Howe, Wks., p. 172/1 (1834), 1763 
Agenda is. ..used among ecclesiastical writers for the service, or office of the 
church. ..also applied to certain church-books, compiled by public authority, pre- 
scribing the manner to be ob.served by the ministers, and people, in the principal 
ceremonies, and devotions of the church: Chambers, Cycl., Suppl. 

2. the items of business to be transacted at a meeting, a 
register of business announced for consideration. 

1883 The damaging effect of this examination is not mended. a study of 
the agenda: Sat. Rev., Vol. 56, p. 485/1. 1887 The next business stated on 
the agenda paper was to sign a petition for powers to take land for the Cockshott 
sewerage scheme : Westmor. Gazette, Dec. 10, p. 2/5. 

3. a memorandum book. 
1763 Chambers, Cycl., Suppl. 

[From Lat. agendum, neut. gerund, of agere, = 'to lead', 
'drive', 'do', 'act'.] 

agerasia, -sy, sb.: Late Gk. dyripaa-la, 'eternal youth': 
absence of (the usual symptoms of) old age, a hale and 
hearty old age. The. stress ought to be on the e, with the^ 
nsgu in 'guess'. 

1706 Phillips, World of Words. 1721 Agerasy : Bailey. 1836—6 
Vain then. ..are the hopes of men who look for an agerasia! ToDD, Cyc. Anat. 
<&^ Phys., Vol, I. p. 83/1. 1863 Agerasia belongs only to the soul : this alone 

lives in perpetuity of youth: Grindon, Life, vi. 82 (1873). [N. E. D.] 

ageratum, -ton, sb.\ Lat. fr. Gk. dyr/'paT-oc, 'not growing 

1. some plant not withering readily, mentioned by Dios- 
corides and Pliny. 

1667 Ageraton, like Origan or Marigolde : Maplet, Greene Forest, 31. 
[N. E. D.] 1601 Ageraton, it is an hearbe of the Ferula kind,. ..the flowers re- 
semble buttons or brooches of gold : Holland, Tr. Plin. N. H. , Bk. 27, ch. 4, 
Vol. II. p. 271. 1708 Kersey. 

2. Ageratum Mexicanum, an annual much used for bor- 
ders, with bluish composite flowers. 

1753 AGERATUM, in botany, the name of a genus of plants. ..the American 
Ageratum: Chambers, Cycl., Suppl. 

ages. See quotation. 

1555 Theyr [the people of Hispaniola's] mete is a certain roote which they 
call Ages; much like a navew [turnip] roote: R. Eden, Voyages, p. 37-". 

*agger, sb.: Lat.: a mound, esp. a rampart formed out of 
the earth dug out in making a ditch. Now used of any 
ancient mound or artificial bank. 

1714 Before the west gate, there is at a considerable distance an Agger,^or 
raised work, that was made for the defence of the city : T. Hearne, Joum. to 
Reading, in Lives of Eminent Men, &'c , Vol. II. p. 188 (1813). 1724 Before 
the Gate is an Agger, said to be the Burying-place of Hengist : De Foe, &c.. 



Tour Gt. Brit, in. 114 (1769). [N. E. D.] 1887 There is another ditch—the 
Agger — having on the south of it two mounds of earth, and on the north a higher 
and broader mound; Trans. Cumb. &r» IVest. ArchcEol. Soc, ix. 131. 1888 the 
builders came upon the most interesting portion of the Agger of Servius TuUius : 
St. James's Gaz., May 10, p. 6/2. 

aggrate, vb. : It. : Poei. Obs. 

1. to please, gratify. 

1690 And every of them strove with most delights | Him to aggrate, and 
greatest pleasures shew: Spens., F. Q,, ii. v. 33. — Pleasure, that doth both 
gods and men aggrate: ib.y in. vi. 50. 

2. to show gratitude towards. 

1633 The Island King...Aggrates the Knights, who thus his right defended : 
P. Fletcher, i'z;?-/&/j/., II. ix, [N. E. D.] 

[From It. aggratare, = 'X.o please', 'gratify'.] 

aggravation {±^il =.), sb. -. Eng. fr. Fr. aggravation : an 
adding to weight. 

1. an imposition of burden, oppression. 

1481 Nature may not suffrc.the sodeyn agrauacions ne griefs, of whiche by 
their folyes they trauaylle nature: Caxton, Myrrour, in. x. 153. [N. E. D.] 

2. Eccl. imposition of a heavy sentence of spiritual punish- 
ment, a formal curse. 

bef 1560 Aggravations, | Presentations, [ Sequestrations: Quoted in J. Skel- 
ton's IVks., Vol. II. p. 427 (1843). 1611 CoTGR. 1738 In the Romish 

canon law, aggravation is particularly used for an ecclesiastical censure, threat- 
ning an excommunication, after three admonitions used in vain: Chambers, 

3. a making heavier, more serious. 

1616 Thus the aggregation of circumstances is the aggravation of offences: 
T. Adams, White DevUl, 4. [N.E.D.] 1680 the axe was turned edgeways... 
in aggravation of his crime: Evelyn, Diary, Vol. 11. p. 162 (1872). 1693 af- 
fecting lofty and tumid Metaphors, and excessive Hyperbola's and Aggravations: 
J. Ray, Three Discourses, in. p. 317 (1713). 1834 The dragging through the 
pond. ..was only matter of aggravation ; the gist of the action being the assault 
and battery : Bingham's New Cases, l. "ji. 

3 a. a making to seem heavy, grave (of a crime or charge), 
a grave accusation ; a malevolent exaggeration. Obs. 

1628 But, I from aggravations will forbeare: Wither, Brit. Rememb., 11. 
2173. [N. E. D.] 1671 [my offence] weigh'd | By itself, with aggravations not 
surcharg'd: Milton, Sams. Ago?i., 769. 

33. a being made heavier, more serious. 

1801 None of these evils have been diminished... their daily increase and ag- 
gravation are notorious: Wellesley, Desp., 203. [N. E. D.] 

3 c. that which makes heavier, more serious ; a cause of 
increased gravity or importance. 

1663 Consider of the several aggravations of the mercy of the Spirit enabling 
thee thereto: Baxter, Sahits' Rest, iv. ix. 745 (1662). [N. E. D.] bef. 1677 
the most powerful argument to all manner of good practice, and the mightiest 
aggravation of sin : Barrow, Vol. in. Ser. 36. [R.] -1712 The Rechabites 
Observance of their Father's charge to them, is made use of as an Aggravation 
of the Disobedience of the yews to God: Matt. Henry, Expos. Old "Test., 
Vol. IV. p. 334/2 (1724). 

4. colloq. an effort to annoy, irritate, provoke. 
Variant, 15 c. agravacion. 

aggravator {-L — ± -_), sb. : Eng. : one who irritates, ex- 
asperates, aggravates. Rare. 

1698 Granatore, an aggrauator, a grieuer, a molester: Florio. 

[As if noun of agent to Lat. aggravare, = ^to make heavier', 
'make worse', 'oppress', 'annoy .] 

aggrave (?), vb.: Eng. fr. Fr. : to aggrieve. Not in Camb. 
Univ. Libr. copy of Palsgrave (1530) fol. cxxxix. 

1630 I agrudge, I am agraved, _/> suis greue: Palsgr., 419/1. [N. E, D.] 
1612 when the heart is so aggraved: T. Taylor, Titus, i. 12, p. 256 (1610). 
[N. E. D.] 

[If not misprinted for aggreve or assimilated to aggravate, 
from Fr. aggraver, = ' to aggrieve', 'aggravate'.] 

aggregator {J.^±—), sb. : Eng. 

1. one who joins in flocking to, an adherent. 

1633 the more part of them which were their aggregatours and folowers: 
Elyot, Castel of Helth, sig. A iiij r** (1541). 

2. a collector, compiler. 

1621 Jacobus de Dondis, the Aggregator, repeats ambergreese, nutmegs, 
and all spice amongst the rest: R. Burton, Anat. Mel., Pt. 2, Sec. 4, Mem. i. 
Subs. 3, Vol. II. p. 96 (1827). 

[As if noun of agent to Lat. aggregare, = 'X.o add to a 


aggress (.=. -l), vb. : Eng. fr. Fr. Rare. 

1. to approach, move forward. 

abt. 1676 Behold, I see him now aggress. And enter into place: Camiyses, 
in Hazl. Dodsl., iv. 172. [N. E. D.] 

2. to set upon, begin a quarrel. With object, on, or 

bef 1714 tell aggressing France, | How Britain's sons and Britain's friends 
can fight: Prior, Ode to Q. Anne. [J.] 1775 Aggress, v. t. to set upon, to 
attack, to begin a quarrel : Ash. 

[From Fr. aggresser, agresser, = 'to assault', 'set upon'.] 
aggression {—±r^, sb.: Eng. fr. Fr. aggression. 

1. an assault, attack, inroad. 

1611 Aggression, An aggression, assault, incounter, or first setting on; 
COTGR. 1656 They are by your own confession but Aggressions; and you doe 
not yourselfe believe them to be exact: Wallis, Corr. o/Hobbes, § 12. [R.] 

2. aggressiveness, the practice of, or disposition for un- 
provoked attack. 

bef. 1704 There is no resisting of a common enemy without an union for a 
mutual defence ; and there may be also, on the other hand, a conspiracy of common 
enmity and aggression: L'Estrange. [J.] 

♦aggressor (^-i—), J^.: Eng. fr. Lat. : one who first makes 
an offensive movement, an attacker, assailant. 

1646 This caus'd him to make his King the first aggressor of the war against 
Spain: HowEhL, Lewis X/I/., p. 150. 1669 Declare your self the Aggressor 
then; and I'll take you into Mercy: Dryden, Mock-Astrol., iv. Wks., Vol. i. 
p. 317 (1701). 1713 They show that it stung them, though, at the same time, 
they had the address to make their aggressors suffer with them: Addison, 
Guardian, No. 13s, Wks., Vol. iv. p. 254(1856). 1764 he, therefore, far from 
being disposed to own himself in the wrong, would not even accept of a public 
acknowledgement from him, the aggressor, whom he looked upon as an infamous 
sharper, and was resolved to chastise accordingly: Smollett, Ferd. Ct. Fathom, 
ch. xxxiii. Wks., Vol. iv. p. 182 (1817). 1820 the terror and despair of the 

vanquished aggressors: T. S. Hughes, Trav. in Sicily, Vol. I. ch. ii. p. 56. 

1887 Lady Lytton...was not the aggressor, but for many years the patient victim 
of undeserved oppression: Truth, Apr. 21, p. 638. 

[Not in Cotgr., s. v. Aggresseurj fr. aggressor, Lat. of Pan- 
dects, noun of agentto Lat. adgredi, = 'to approach', 'assail'.] 

aggry, aggri, aigris, name of colored beads found in the 
ground in Ashantee, and applied to glass beads found 
among Roman remains. 

1705 blew Coral, which we call Agrie, and the Negroes Accorri: Tr. 
Bosman's Guinea, Let. ix. p. 119. 1819 The variegated strata of the aggry 
beads are so firmly united and so imperceptibly blended, that the perfection seems 
superior to art: BovfDlCH, Mission to Ashantee, 267. [N. E. D.] 1884 Aggry 
and Popo beads, jewels on the West Coast, would be despised by English children : 
F. Boyle, Borderland, p. 214 (1884). 1885 Chevron and aggry beads found 
in Roman London: Athent^um, July 11, p. 53/3. 

aggur, agger: Malay. See aguila-zccif?^. 

agha: Turk. See aga. 

*aghanee, aghani, sb.: Hind.: the early rice crop in 

Agiamoglans: Turk. See Zamoglans. 

agila [wood] : Port. See angxaHSi-wood. 

agile (_i _ or _i ±), adj. : Eng. fr. Fr. agile : nimble, active, 
quick in motion. 

1691 His agile arm beats down their fatal points: Shaks., Rom.., ii. i, 171. 

. 1698 his young men agile and slender : R. Haydocke, Tr. Lojnatius, Bk. I. 

p.'4r. 1640 Your agill heels: H. More, Psych., ir. ii. 20, p. 116. 1672 

Stones. fitted to exert their powers by the copious Effluxions of their more 

agile and subtle parts: Hon. R. Boyle, Gems, p. 122. 

*agio, sb.: It. agio, aggio: 'ease', 'convenience'. 

1. the rate of charge made for changing a less valuable 
currency into a more valuable, the value being variably 
settled between the money-changer and his customer. 
Wotton illustrates the origin of the term. 

1592 The old Corn. ..shall. exchang'd for new of this year.. .quantity 
for quantity, but ad agio, because the fresh grain is fallen three yulios in our 
Market: Reliq. Wotton., p. 675 (1685). 1738 AGIO, in commerce, is a term 
used, chiefly in Holland, and Venice, for the difference between the value of bank 
notes, and current money: Chambers, Cycl. 1753 AGIO is also used for the 
profit arising from discounting a note, bill, or the like: — Cycl, Suppl. 1759 

The Specie, Banco, Usances, Agio: Lord Chesterfield, Letters, 350, iv. 158. 

1888 A commission has been sitting. consider the means of preventing, or at 
least minimising as far as possible, the agio between gold and silver: Manchester 
B:jcam., Jan. zj, p. sji, 

2. the business of exchange, money-changing. 

1817 The mysteries of agio, tariffs, tare and tret : Scott, Rob Roy, ii (1855) 
[N. E. D.] 1837 Chabot, disfrocked Capuchin, skilful in agio- Carlyle, 
Fr. Rev., Pt. n. Bk. v, ch. ii. [L.] 1861 What a chaos of cash debtor, 
contra creditor.. .brokerage, agio, tare and tret, dock warrants, and general com- 
mercial be-devilment : G. A. Sala, 7w. round Clock, 87. 

3. See quotation. 

1763 Pi.o\oof assurance. ..J)oHcy of assurance: Chambers, Cyc/., Suppl. 

agiotage, sb. -. Fr. : exchange business ; hence, loosely, 
speculating in shares and stocks, stock-jobbing. Anglicised 
in 19 c. 

1855 adventurers who were bent on making their own fortunes hy every sort 
of infamous agiotage and speculation : Greville, Memoirs, 3rd S. i. x. 311. 

agitable (^ ---), adj. -. Eng. fr. Fr. agitable : liable to be 
easily stirred or excited. 

1548 A rede wyth euery wind is agitable and flexible : Hall, Edw. IV.. an. 
9- [R-] 

agitato, adv.: It.: Mus.: in an agitated manner, with 
display of emotion. 

1819 AGITATO, in Music, a term which implies not only a quick movement, 
but a character of expression arising from passion and perturbation : Rees, Cycl. 
1848 Agitato. In an agitated manner: Rimbault, Pianoforte, p. go. 

agitator {il=.± ^), sb. : Eng. 

1. Hist, a delegate of the private soldiers in the Eng. 
Parliamentary army 1647 — 9, also called in error adjutator. 

1647 the twelve Horse-Agitators of five Regiments : Mercurius Melancholi- 
c-us. No. 9, p. 52. — The King brought forth a Parliament, the Parliament 
brought forth an Army, the Army brought forth Agitators, Agitators brought forth 
Propositions : ib., p. 52. 1647 the agitators are for certain reconciled with the 
army: Evelyn, Corresp., Vol. in. p. 6 (1872). bef. 1658 That if it please thee 
to assist I Our Agitators and their List, | And Hemp them with a gentle twist: 
J. Cleveland, Wks., p. 204 (1687). 1660 My Rum^ of Agitatours : S. Willes, 
King's Return, p. 7. 1693 But his [Cromwell's] way was to govern three 
Kingdoms by his Armies, the Armies by the Agitators, and the Agitators by 
himself: J. Hacket, Abp. Williams, PL 11. 207, p. 223. 

2. one who stirs up feelings of discontent, esp. as to po- 
litical affairs. 

bef. 1733 the visible Agitators of all the Seditions and Troubles of King 
Charles the Second's Reign: R. North, Examen, i. iii. 106, p. 195 (1740). 
1818 Evil. the grand agitator of life, its food and occupation ; Lady Morgan, 
Fl. Macarthy, Vol. III. ch. iii. p. 146 (1819). 1887 He can exhort his sup- 
porters. continue to fight against the agitators; Leeds Mercury, Feb. 3, p. 4/5. 

3. a shaker in a physical sense. 

[As if from Lat. agitator, = ^z. driver' (of animals), noun of 
agent to agitare, = ^ to stir', 'drive'.] 

agitatrix, sb.: Lat.: a female who puts in motion or dis- 
turbs ; questionably used as fem. of the guasi-'Lat. agitator 
{q. v.). Rare. 

1881 So the cat and the agitatrix exchanged courtesies and the agitatrix gave 
food to the hungry cat : Sat. Rev., Mar. 19, p. 361. [N. E. D.] 

agla. [ivood]: Malay. See agmlR-wood. 

*agnate (^-^), sb. and adj.: Eng. fr. Fr. agnat or Lat. 
agnatus, pi. agnati. 

\. I. sb. : properly (after the Roman use), a relation (by 
nature or adoption) the connection with whom is traced 
exclusively by descent through males. 

1534 Thay cannot have ony agnat or kinnisman of the father's side : In 
Balfour's Practicks, 117 (1754). [N. E. D.] 1738 AGNATI, in the Roman 
law, the male descendants from the same'father: Chambers, Cycl. 1797 AG- 
NATE, in law, any male relation by the father's side: Encyc. Brit. -1861 the 
limitation of relationship to the Agnates was a necessary security against a 
conflict of laws in the domestic forum: Maine, Ancient Law, v. p. 150 (1876). 

L 2. sb.: any relation on the father's side. 

1860 Agnates, in the law both of England and Scotland, are persons related 
through the father, as cognates are persons related through the mother. ..The in- 
tervention of females is immaterial, provided the connection be on the male or 
paternal side of the house ; Chambers, EncycL , Vol. I. p. 76. 

IL I. adj.: related on the father's side; also, having a 
common forefather. 

IL 2. adj.: akin to, of similar kind or nature. 

1782 By a fair reciprocal analysis of the agnate words: Pownall, Study 
Antig. [T.J 

'^agnomen, sb.: Late Lat.: a 'to-name', an additional, or 
fourth name, assumed as a distinction by individuals in 
Ancient Rome. It qualified the cognomen or family name ; 
as — Publius Cornelius Scipio Africanus. 

praenonien, nomen, cognomen, agnomen. 

or original or name or name 

name of the denoting denoting 

individual. his clan. his family. 

1665 Amongst these [Persians] the Mythra, (which some make one with 
the Cydaris...) was not least in esteem with Kings, seeing it gave the agnomen 
to the Persian King Chedor-Laomer: Sir Th. Herbert, Trav., p. 145 (1677). 
1753 Chambers, Cycl., Suppl. 



agnus, sb. : Lat. : for agnus Dei, q, v. Also agnus-bell, the 
bell rung in Rom. Cath. churches during the part of the Mass 
called Agnus Dei. 

abt. 1376 he [tho preste] saies agnus thryse or he cese, [ tho last worde he 
s^ekis of pese: Lay-Folks Mass-Book (Brit. Mus. Royal MS. 17 B. ^K//.), 508, 
Simmons Text B. p. 46 (1879). 1487 An Agnus with a baleys iij. saphires, 
iij. perlys with an image of Saint Antony apon it: Pastoti Letters, Vol. ill. No. 
988, p. 464 (1874). 1563 Platina...affirmes, that Pope Sixtus appoynted th& 
Sanctus tobe songe...Sergius theAgnus: James Pilkington, Con/ut,, sig.Cv^. 

agnus castus: Lat.: name of a tree, Chaste-tree or Abra- 
ham's balm, a species of vz/ex, supposed to preserve chastity. 

1398 Agnus castus is an herbe bote & drye, & hath vertue to kepe men 
& wymmen chaste : Trevisa, Barth. De P. i?., xvii. xv. sig. N viij v^l^.. 14... 
A braunch of agnus castus eke bearing | In her hand: Flower &' Leaf, 142, in 
Pickering's Chatteer, Vol. vi. p. 249 (1845). 1547 Ag7nts castus brayed, and 
made in a playster: Boorde, Brev., ch. 282, p. 100 (1870). 1551 Tutsan... 
is ye herbe, which is called,, .of oure Potecaries agnus castus: W. Turner, 
Herb., sig. c v 7^. 1578 Agnus Castus groweth after the maner of a shrubby 
bush or tree : H. Lyte, Tr. Dodoen's Herb., Ek. vi. p. 6go. 1601 Holland, 
Tr. Plin. N. H., Bk. 24, ch. 9, Vol. 11. p. 187. 1700 wreaths of Agnus 

castus: Dryden, Flower &= Leaf, 172. 1701 The sense of His love takes 
up the whole soul, and He lodging in it is that true Agnus castus that makes 
it chaste: Abp. Leighton, Ten Connnandtnents, Prec. vii. Wks., Vol. v. p. 351 
(1870). 1783 Agnus Castus Seeds: Stat. 27 Geo. III., ch. 13, Sched. A, 
s.v. Drugs. 1784 ladies in white velvet and green satin with rubies and 

emeralds, and holding wands of agnus castus : Hon. Walpole, Letters, Vol. vni. 
p. 459 ('858). 1820 in a deep and shaded valley... whose banks are fringed 
with the agnus castus, oleaster and willow, we found the stream of the Ilissus: 
T. S. Hughes, Trav. in Sicily, Vol. i. ch. x. p. 291. 

[Composed of Lat. agnus (fr. Gk. 'Syvos which was confused 
with dyi/off, = Lat. castus, ' chaste ')» and castus. This agnus 
was further confused with Lat. agnus =^^\2iYi\h\^ 

*agnus Dei: Lat.: 'the lamb of God'. 

1. a part of the Mass beginning with the words Agnus 
Dei, during which a bell was rung (see agnus), also the 
music for this part of the Mass (which is the Latin original 
of the sentences beginning ' O Lamb of God * in the Litany). 

bef. 1380 gret criynge & ioly chauntynge that stireth men & wommen to 
daunsynge & lettith men fro the sentence of holy writt, as Magnyficat, sanctus & 
agnus dei, that is so broken bi newe knackynge: Wyclif (?), Ord. Priest., 
ch. vii., in F. D. Matthew's Unprinted Eng. Wks. of Wyclif, p. 169 (1880). 
abt. 1440 And as he was afore the Agnus Dei, the olde frere loked on hym 
how he brake the oste in the iij parties : Knt. of La Tour-Landry, ch. 32, p. 46 
(1868). 1528 Fare wele O holy consecracion | With biyssed sanctus and agnus 
dei : W. Rov & Jer. Barlowe, Rede me., ^'c, p. 36 (1871). 1530 Agnus dei 
agnus dei: Palsgr. 1884 the yearning anguish and clamorous impetration 

of the Agnus Del of Haydn's No. 2: R. Buchanan, Foxglove Manor, Vol. i. 
ch. iv. p. 71. 

2. a figure of a lamb with a cross or flag ; also, a cake of 
wax stamped with a lamb bearing'a cross and consecrated by 
the Pope. 

1570 which said Agnus Dei is used to be specially hallowed and consecrated, 
as it is termed, by the said Bishop: Stat. 13 Eliz., ch. 2, § 7 (RufFhead). 1584 
Popish periapts, amulets and charmes, agnus Dei, a wastcote of proofe : R. Scott, 
Disc. Witch., Bk. xn. ch. ix. p. 231. — Balme, virgine wax, and holie water, 
an Agnus Dei make : ib. 1615 the effigies of Saint Paul on the one side, and 
a viper on the other, Agjnts Dei, & the like : Geo. Sandy^, Trav., p. 230 (1632). 
1683 such [angel-gold] he had once to the value of ;^ 100 stamped with the agnus 
dei: Evelyn, Diary, Vol. ir. p. 195 (1872). 

agon,//, agones, sb. : Gk. : a public celebration of games, in- 
cluding horse-races and athletic contests, in Ancient Greece ; 
also metaph. a contest. 

1600 a long and spatious Cirque, which they call at this day Agon : Holland, 
Tr. LivyiSumin. Mar., Bk. vi. ch. vii.), p. 1394. — such shewes and disports, 
called by the Greekes, Agones, were wont there to be exhibited: ib., p. 1395. 
1797 poets, musicians, painters, &c. had their agones, as well as the athletse : 
Encyc. Brit. 

[Gk. a'yG)i/, = *an assembly V^n assembly for public games', 
'public games', 'a contest'.] 

agonothetes, agonothet (^.a^^), sb.-. Gk. ayxavoBirr)^: 
one who instituted or managed public games (see agon) in 
Ancient Greece. 

1657 they have God to stand by them ; not only as a spectator, or Agonotheta, 
but as a Captain of die Lord's hosts: John Trapp, Com. Old. Test., Vol. iv. 
p. 438/2 (1868). 1691 [God] the great 'A-ywi/ofleTijs, and Bpa^Sevrr;?, the most 

]ust Judge and Rewarder: J. Ray, Creation, Ep. Ded., sig. A 4 r^ (170^). 
1738 AGONOTHETA, a'gonothetes, in antiquity, a magistrate chose among 
the Greeks, to preside, and have the superintendency of their sacred games, 
or combats; to defray the expences thereof, and adjudge the prizes to the 
conquerors: Chambers, Cycl. 1820 those large circular thrones or chairs 

of marble in which. ..the agonotheta or the archons used to recline: T. S. 
Hughes, Trav. in Sicily, Vol. i. ch. ix. p. 271. 



*agora, dyopa, sb. : Gk. : an assembly, a place of assemblyj 
esp. a market-place in Ancient Greece ; also any open space 
surrounded by buildings or habitations. 

1698 the Emperor himselfe, who hath no other seat of Empire but an Agora, 
or towne of wood: R. Hakluyt, Voyages^ Vol. i. p. 489. 1797 The Grecian 
Ayopat exactly correspond with the Roman ^r^, being places where courts and 
markets were held: Encyc. Brit., s.v. Forum. 1860 the moonbeams breaking 
themselves into mimic lightning on the basin of a fountain in the public square — 
the agora of other days: Once a IVee/e, Juiig 30, p. 27/2. 1885 He describes 

the agora and the statue of Elatus : S. P. Lambros, in Aiheiimum, July 4, 
p. 23/1. 

agouti, sb, : S. Amer. : name of a genus of S. American and 
W. Indian rodents, the best known being the Long-nosed 
Cavy {Dctsyprocta Agouti), an animal akin to the guinea-pig 
of the size of a large rabbit. 

1626 the Acutis are like the Conies of Spaine, chiefely in their teeth: the 
colour is dunne: Purchas, Pilgrims, Vol. iv. Bk. vii. p. 1301. 1731 Agouty: 
Bailey. 1755 Johnson. 1790 The Agouti, or Long-nosed Cavy. ..If 

taken when young, the Agouti is easily tamed : Bewick's History of Quadrupeds , 
p. 331. 1822 — 33 the different agoutis and coatis species : Tr. Malte-Brun's 
Geogr., p. 544(Edinb., 1834). 1845 Occasionally a deer, or a Guanaco (wild 
Llama) may be seen; but the Agouti (Cavia Patagonica) is the commonest 
quadruped. This animal here represents our hares: C. Darwin, Joum. Beagle, 
cii. iv. p. 69. — Bad as the country was, ostriches, deers. agoutis, and armadilloes, 
were abundant : z^., p. 77. 18... it has hair like silk, and four large incisor 
teeth in front. I believe it is an animal I've read about in my Natural History 
called an agouti : Mrs. H. B. Paull, Tr. Swiss Fajn. Rob., ch. ii. p. 22. 

agoyat, sb. : Mod. Gk. aycayian^s : a muleteer. 

1882 And the maiden sat close-guardedj riding midmost of the band, i Listless 
on the stumbling mule that strained the agoyat's guiding hand : G. F. Armstrong, 
Garlandfrom Greece, p. 293, 1. i. 

agrafe, agraffe, ^^.: Fr.: a hook forming with a ring a 

1643 Amongst the treasures is., .the agraffe of his [Charlemagne's] royal 
mantle: Evelyn, Diary, Vol. i. p. 47 (1872). 

Agraria, /^;?z. adj.\ Lat.: used with 'law' for agrarian^ 
which it preceded and gave rise to. See quotations. 

1679 the law Agraria passed for the diuision of lands: North, Tr. Plutarch, 
p. 829 (i6r2). 1600 The law Agraria, concerning division of lands among 

the poore cojnmons, was now first put up and proposed : Holland, Tr. Livy, 
Bk. II. p. 43. 

agr^mens, Ji5. //. : Fr.: graceful courtesies, charms, refined 
pleasures, ornaments. 

1711 I had guessed by the little Agrimens upon his sign that he was a 
Frenchman: Spectator, No. 28, Apr. 2, p. 48/2 (Morley). 1752 all acts of 

civility are. ..a conformity to custom, for the quiet and conveniency of society, 
the agrSinens of which are not to be disturbed, by private dislikes and jealousies : 
Lord Chesterfield, Letters, Vol. 11. No. 70, p. 301 (1774). 1765 I intend 

to bring it [my cottage] a haVidful of treillage and agrhneits from Paris: HoR. 
Walpole, Letters, Vol. iv. p. 393 (1857). 1829 the graceful agremens of 
a saloon: Edin. Rev., Vol. 49, p. 514. 1840 being solely occupied with ber 

agremens: Barham, Ingolds. Leg., p. 5 (1865). 

agricultor, sb. : Late Lat. : a tiller of land. Rare, more 
used about 1800. 

1818 Todd. 

[From Lat. agri cultor, = ^ tiller of the field'. In English 
agriadtor, agricole (17 c), and agricolist seem to have 
yielded to agriculturist (18 c.).] 

agrodolce, adj. used as sbr. It.: sour (and) sweet, sharp 
(and) mild. 

1845 In Spain. ..Love is. alternation of the agro-dolce : Ford, Handbk. 
Spain, I. i. 46. [N. E.D.] 

■^f^aguardiente, sb.: Sp. : burning liquor, coarse spirit made 
from grain or potato, usually flavored with aniseed. 

1826 he was dressed in a dirty poncho — was drinking aquadiente [sicl with 
the Gauchos: Capt. Head, Pa7npas, p. 241. 1847 the town, known to 

contain great quantities of wine and aguardiente, was four miles distant: Fort Leavenworth, p, 121 (1848). bef 1881 the bottle did not 
contain agitardiente: Bret Harte, Story of a Miiie^ ch. i. WTcs., Vol. v. p. i 
(1881). 1883 vendors of cheap and vile "aguardiente": Daily Tel., Jan. 22, 
p. 5- 

aguila \_-wood\. Port.: eagle-wood, lign-aloes, agalloch 

1689 they do offer vnto their idolles frankensence, benjamin, wood of aguila, 
and cayolaque: R. Parke, Tr. Mendoza's Hist. Chin.', Vol. \. p. 58 (1853). 
— There is a great stoare of a wood called palo de Aguila: ib.. Vol. ii. p. 303 
(1854). 1634 amongst other Woods both rare and precious, they affect that 
cald Aguila and the older Calamba, trees of admirable height and euennesse: 
Sir Th. Herbert, Trav., p. 182. 1699 Pepper, Lignum Aloes, and Aguala 
Wood: Dampier, Voyages, Vol. 11. Pt. i. p. 8. 1727 It [the Siam Coast] 
produces good store of Sapan and Agala-woods : A. Hamilton, East Indies, 
Vol. II. p. 194- [Yule, S.V. SaPPan-wood'l 1854 the Eagle- wood, a tree 

yielding uggur oil, is also much sought for its fragrant wood: Hooker, Himal. 
Joum., Vol, II. p. 318 (1855). [Yule, s.v. Eagle-wood'] 

Variants, agila, agal{a), agla, uggur. 


[From a Malay, corruption of Skt. aguru, whence also 
gahru in kayu-gakru, = 'garroo-wood, garro'w-'Wood\ The 
Portuguese used their aguila, = 'eagle', to represent the native 
name, hence Bot. Aquilaria and ««^/^-wood.] 

Ahitophel, Ahithophel. See Achitophel. 

*Ahriman {J- — =^, Arimanes, Arimanius, the god or 
principle of evil and darkness in the Old Persian mythology, 
ever struggling against the opposite god or principle of good 
and light called Ormuzd {q. v.) or Oromasdes. 

1646 the speculation of Pythagoras, Empedocles, and many ancient Philo- 
sophers, and was no more than Oromasdes and Arimanius of Zoroaster: Sir 
Th. Brown, Pseud. Ep., Bk. I. ch. xi. p. 34 (1686). 1678 the ancient 
Persians. ..their Titto Gods, the Good and the Evil, or Oromasdes and Ari- 
manius: CuDWORTH, Intell. Syst., Bk. I. ch. iv. p. 213. 1786 I listened to 
the counsels of Aherman and the daughter of Pharaoh, and adored fire and 
the hosts of heaven: Tr. Beckfard's Vathek, p. 144(1883). 1787 Their evil 
principle, the daemon Ahriman, might be represented as the rival or as the 
creature of the God of light : Gibbon, Decl. <V Fall, Vol. ix. ch. Ii. p. 492 (1813). 
1825 he proceeded to chant verses, very ancient in the language and structure, 
which some have thought derive their source from the worshippers of Arim'anes, 
the Evil Principle... 'Dark Ahriman, whom Irak still | Holds origin of woe and 
ill!' ScolT,' Talisman,. ch. iii. pp. 18/2, 19/1 (1868). 1831 Dryden was the 
connecting link between the literature of the age of James the First, and the 
literature of the age of Anne. Oromasdes and Arimanes fought for him. Ari- 
manes carried him off: Macaulay, Essays, p. 155 (1877). 1870 the special 
distinction of the being known to us under the familiar name of Ahriman, was 
the title of AngrS-Mainyus, or spirit of darkness: G. "W. Cox, Aryan Mythol.^ 
Vol. II. ch. X. p. 3SS. 1886 the name 'Stoned One' for Iblis recalls the 
stoning of Ahriman with Honover, the Word: C. R. Conder, Syrian Stone- 
Lore, ix. p. 339. 

[The Angro-mainyus ( = 'spirit of darkness') of the Zend- 
Avesta, Pers. Ahirman, was rendered in Gk. Arimanes 
(^Aptiiav^s), in Lat. Arimanes, Arimanius, in Fr. Ahriman, 
whence Mod. Eng. Ahriman!\ 

ai, sb.: Braz. : Zool.: the three-toed sloth of tropical S. 
American forests, named from its cry ; Bradypus tridactylus^ 
order Edentata. 

1693 The American Creature called Ai or Sloth: Phil. Trans., xvif. 851. 
[N. E. D.] " 1790 The one [a Sloth], called the Ai, is about the size of a Fox : 
Bewick's Hist. 0/ Quadrupeds, p. 437. 1822—33 the idle al : Tr. Malte-Brun's 
Geogr. ,p.544(2ndEd.). 

ai-. Occasional transliteration of Gk. cu.-. See ae-. 

aid, vb.: Eng. fr. Fr.: to help, assist, succor; trans., rarely 
absol. (Shaks., AlVs Well, iv. 4, 12), and with infin. (Shaks., 
Wint. T., V. 2, 77). 

1483 To ayde helpe and Susteyne them in theyr necessytees: Caxton, C^ito, 
aiijb. [N. E. D.] 1646 The Romans. ..earnestlie requiering him that hee 

wolde aide them: Tr. Polydore VergiVs Eng. Hist, Vol. I. p. 45 (1846). — ayd- 
inge oftentimes his cousines and neighbours: ib., p. 284. 1591 no more my 
fortune can, ] But curse the cause I cannot aid the man: Shaks., I Hen.- VI., 
iv. 3, 44. 1594 How can we aid you with our kindred tears? — Rich. III.,\\. 
2, 63. 

[From Yx. aider, = '\.o help'.] 

aidauce (^— ), sb.: Eng. fr. Fr. aidance: help, assistance, 
means of help. Obs. 

. 1593 Who, in the conflict that it holds with death, | Attracts the same for 
aidance 'gainst the enemy; Shaks., // Hen. VI., iii, 2, 165. 

aidant (-^-), adj. and sb.: Eng. fr. Fr. 

1. adj.: helping, helpful, assisting. 

1483 Saynt Thomas whos merytes be unto us aydaunte and helpyng: Caxton, 
Gold. Leg.,iflalT.: [N. E. D.] 1605 be aidant and remediate | In the good 
man's distress': Shaks., K. Lear, iv. 4, 17. 

2. sb.: helper, assistant. 

1475 The ayantes and helpers of the quene : Caxton, Jason, 11. [N.E.D.] 

Variant, 15 c. ay ant. 

[From Fr. aidatit, aiant, pres. part, of aider, aier, = ' to 
aid' {q. 7/.).] 

aide, sb. : Fr. : short for aide de camp, q. v. ; used also 
metaph. for a confidential attendant. 

1837 _ The prefects are no more than so many political aides, whose duty it is 
to carry into effect the orders that emanate from the great head : J. F. Cooper, 
Europe, Vol. I. p. 177. 1859 He [a zebra] had three ropes to his head-stall, 
and three sturdy aides to guide him: Oyice a Week, Vol. i. No. 22, Nov. 26, 
P- 45S/2. ■ 1881 The Bishop and his aides are making strenuous efforts for 
funds to build a permanent stone edifice : Nicholson, From Sword to Share, 
ch. xvii. p. 114. 1882 Angela, her two aides Rebekah and Nelly: W. Besant, 
All Sorts &^ Conditions 0/ Men, ch. ix. p. 76. camp 

*aid(e) de camp, sb. phr. -. Fr. : helper in (of) the field ; an 
officer in attendance on a general ; hence meiafih. a confi- 
dential attendant : correct pi. aides de camp. 

1670 The Duke. ..writ to St. Torse Aide de Camp, who commanded them; 
Cotton, Ai>?TOoM, in. xi. 578. [N.E.D,] 1708 Keksey. 1743— 7 He 
thereupon sent one of his Aid-de-Camps to Marshal de M. : Tindal, Contin. 
Rapin, Vol. l. p. 659/1 (i75i).i' 174B Lord Bury and Mr. Conway are aid-de- 
camps to the Duke: HoR. Walpole, Letters, Vol. l. p. 408 (1857). 1746 two 
of his aides-de-camp: ib., Vol. n. p. 4. 1759 one of your Aids de Camp once 
or twice made me repeat the Orders; Capt. J. Smith, Lord G. Sackmlle's 
Vindication, p. i6. 1787 The remains of the late Duke of Rutland arrived 
at Belvoir castle from Ireland, attended by four of his aids-de-camp: Gent. Mag., 
p. 1123/1. 1808 Captain Campbell, my aide de camp: Wellington, Dis- 
patches, Vol. IV. p. 90 (1838). 1826 one of the aides-de-camps: Subaltern, 
ch. vii. p. 121 (1828). 1853 Flahault was aide-de-camp to Marshal Berthier 
till the middle of the Russian campaign; Greville, Memoirs, 3rd Ser., 1. ii. 31. 
1854 ushered into the studio with his father and Mr, Smee as his aides-de-camp 
on his entry : Thackeray, Newcomes, Vol. i. ch. xvii. p. 196 {1879). *1875 
the Imperial suite, consisting of Aides-de-Camp and Generals: Times, May 
29- [St.] 

aide des, pkr.: Fr.: master or steward of the 
ceremonies ; see aide de camp. 

1651 Then came the Aide des Ceremonies: Evelyn, Diary, Vol. 1. p. 280 

*aide-m6moire, J^. ^Ar. : Fr. : a 'help-memory', an assist- 
ance to the memory. 

1886 Catalogjte Ill-ustri du Salon, more than a very useful aide m^moire 
of the great collection: AtkeTueuTK, Aug. I, p. isiji. 

alSt^s, sd. : Gk. : shame, modesty, feeling of reverence. 

1869 that undefinable feeling of atSws, which restrained a man from commit- 
ting any action disapproved by the generality of mankind; A. S. Wilkins, Light 
of World, p. 25. 1883 A certain aifiw? seizes us for having found fault with 
Mr. Cotton: Sat. Rev., Vol. 56, p. 542/r. 

aigre-douXjy^wz. -douce, adj.: Fr.: sour-sweet, with sweet 
and sour mixed together, sourish, rather bitter. 

1875 the prevailing voice, was soft but strong, with the vigour in it of mature 
life, just roughened here and there by a touch of age, which gave it an aigre-doux 
of distinct character: Mrs. Oliphant, Story 0/ Valentine, Vol. I. ch. i. p. 2. 
1883 '^ La Marichale" has one of M. Alphonse Daudet's curious aigre-doux 
recommendations prefixed to it: Sat. Rev., Vol. 55, p. 580. 1885 The aigre- 
dojtce Miss Bolsover does not play so important a part: AtJienmum, Dec. 26, 
p. 837/3- 1886 The same aigre-doux mentions of B. C. : ib., Aug. 21, 

p. 230/1. 

Variant, 16 c. agerdows, thus Anglicised by Skelton, 
1523, Gard. of Laur., 1250; also Anglicised as eagredulce 
by Udall, 1548, Erasm. Par. Luke, 3 a. [N. E. D.] 

[Composed of Fr. aigre, = ' sour', doux{{trs\. douce), = 'sweet '.] 

aigrette (-i^), aigret, egret, egrette, sb.-. Eng. fr. Fr. 

1. a tuft of feathers like that of the egret (see 2), a spray 
of gems, an ornamental tuft worn on the head. 

1630 head 'tyres of flowers, mix'd with silver, and gold, with some sprigs of 
jEgrets among; B.]oiiSON, Masffues, Vol. ti.-p. 1^6. 1766 Ear-rings, neck- 
laces, aigrets [Fringes, blonds, and mignionets: Anstev, New Bath Guide, Wks., 
p. 17 (1808). 1839 aigrettes for the caps of the nobles ; Miss Pardoe, Beauties 
0/ Bosph., p. 31. 1887 In front a high aigrette of white tulle was perched ag- 
gressively : Daily News, Jan. 6, p. 3/1. 

2. Zool. and Sciettce. a refashioning of CBgret, egret the 
older AngHcised form of Fr. aigrette, = ' the lesser white heron ' 
or its characteristic tuft, applied to sundry tufts or tuft-like 

Variants, 17 c. aegret, cegrette, 18 c. aigret. 
[From Fr. aigrette, dimin. of az^ri?, = 'heron', from Old H. 
Germ, hiegro (Aeigir), = 'heron'.'] 

aigreur, sb. : Fr. : sourness, tartness. 

1824 There is in both [tracts] but especially in the latter, a tone of aigreur, 
intimating deep dissatisfaction with late ecclesiastical preferments: Scott, 
Swift's Wks., Vol. vili. p. 310 (2nd Ed.). 

aigri, ppl. : Fr. : irritated, soured. 

1846 with him [Palmerston] the question had become personal ; how 'aigri' 
he had been by the refusal of the* Northern Powers to take up the affair; In 
H. Greville's Diary, p. 173. 

[Past part, of Fr. aigrtr, = 'to sour', 'irritate'.] 
aigue-marine, J^.: Fr.: beryl or aquamarine. 

1738 AIGUE Marine, in natural history. See Aqua Marina : Chambers, 
Cycl. 1766 'The colour will be blueish, and bordering on the colour of the 
aigue marine: Delaval, in /'Az'/. Trans., I.Y. "zi. [N. E. D.] 

*aiguille, sb.: Fr.: a tapering peak of a mountain: lit. 'a 

1816 the lake calm and clear ; Mont Blanc and the Aiguille of Argentieres 
both very distinct; Byron, in Moore's Li/e, Vol. ni. p. 256 (1832). 1826 One 
peak. ..much resembled the aiguilles of Mont Blanc : Edin. Rev., Vol. 44, p. igo. 

S, D. 



1877 One of the crags of the aiguille-edge, on the Southern slope, is struck 
sharply through, as by an awl, into a little eyelet hole: Ruskin, Ethics o.f the 
Dust, I. p. 13. 

*aiguillette, sb. : Fr. : a tagged braid or cord on a uniform 
hanging from shoulder to .breast. 

1854 Some bright ornament, cla.sp, or aiguillette, on Kate's dress : De 
QuiNCEY, 6>. j»f;/. A^KM, Wks., in. 60. [N. E. D.] 1882 The aiguillette is 

always to be worn with full dress and on State occasions: Adm. Uniform Reg., 
in Navy List, July, p. 495. [N. E. D,] 

[Anglicised in 15 c. as ag{g)let, ag{g)lot, agelette (1480 
Wardrobe Ace. Edward IV., pp. 124, 153 {Pickering, 1830}), 
borrowed again in 16 c. and Anglicised as aiguelet (1530 
Palsgrave), aguelette, agguelet (1555 Fardle of Facions), ay- 
gulet (1590 Spenser, F. Q., 11. iii. 26), in 19 c. egellet, agulette, 
aiglet !\ 

ailanthus, -tus, -to, -te, sb.: Bot.: name of a genus of 
trees native in India. China, and the Malay archipelago, of 
the order Xanthoxylaceae, with large pinnate leaves, grown 
as ornamental trees in Europe. The Chinese variety, 
Ailanthus glandulosa, is grown in Europe as food for a 
good kind of silkworm. 

1807 T. Martyn, Miller's 5»if. ZJk^. 1809 AILANTHUS...There is 
one species, viz. A. glandulosa, or tall ailanthus, which is a tree with a straight 
trunk, 40 or 50 feet high, a native of China. It grows fast in our climate, and 
as it rises to a considerable height it is proper for ornamental plantations: 
Nicholson, Brit. Encycl. 1846 O'er me let a green Ailanthus grow. ..the 
Tree of Heaven : Hirst, Poems, rs8. [N. E. D.] 

[The Bot. Lat. ailantus (often corrupted to ailanthus, as if 
a compound of Gk. avQoi) is fr. Amboynese ailanto, said to 
= 'tree of gods'.] 

aUes de pigeon, phr. : Fr. : pigeon's wings. See quot. 

1854 his French master, livid with rage and quivering under his ailes de 
pigeon'. Thackeray, Newcomes, Vol. I. ch. ii. p. 28 (1879). b^*"- 1863 He 
will recognize the novelist's same characters, though they appear in red-heeled 
pumps and ailes-de- pigeon, or the garb of the nineteenth, century: — Round- 
about Papers, p. 5 (1879). 1884 his hair untortured...into the fashionable 
ailes-de-pigeon: Tr. Galdos' Trafalgar, p. 99. 

*a,im.iB,fem. ppL: Fr. : female friend, mistress. 
[Fem. of Fr. aim^, past part oi aimer, = ' to love'.] 

*ain.i,fem. ain^e, adj. : Fr. : elder, senior, eldest, opposed 
to putni or cadet, = 'younger'. 

1883 MM. Got, Delaunay, Maubant, Coquelin atni, Febvre : Academy, 
Jan. 20, p. 43. 

aiones : quasi-Lat. See negones. 

air noble, phr. : Fr. : a noble air or mien, a natural air of 
refinement and distinction. 

1882 You have the air noble; you are not a prig: W. Besant, All Sorts 
&' Conditions of Men, Prol. ii. p. 13 (1883). 

Ajax : Lat. fr. Gk. Ai'ay : the hero next in fame after Achil- 
les in the Troj'an war, representative of physical strength 
and courage. In a frenzy caused by chagrin at Ulysses 
being deemed more worthy of the arms of Achilles, he 
flogged and killed cattle, and on recovering slew himself. 

[Used, by a pun on a Jakes, for a privy (1596 Shaks.,Z. L. 
L., V. 2, 581; 1611 Cotgrave, Retraict, an Aiax, Priuie; 
1630 John Taylor, Wks., sig. D i r° such a one will put me 
off with a scornefuU tush, a pish, or a mew, and commit my 
Booke to the protection of Ajax).] 

1595 Let but Sophxicles bring you Aiax on a stage, killing and whipping 
Sheepe and Oxen; Sidney, Apol. Poet., p. 34(1868). 1646 He would not 

send an Ajax, where he should employ an Vlysses: Howell, Lewis XIII., 
p. 141. 1649 our brave Senators have done more with one blow from a Sling 
then all th' Achillesses, Ulysses, Ajaxes, 3.ndHeiculesses did with their weapons, 
and clubs : Moderate, No. 213, p. 1995. 1769 He'll teaze you with his 

fooleries, and jabber | Stuff without head or tail. — He only wants | The habit, 
else he is a perfect Ajax: B. Thornton, Tr. Plautus, Vol. i. p. 306. 

ajonjoli, jonjoli, sb.: Sp. : sesame, oily Indian corn. 

1588 Oyle of Zerzelnie, which they make of a Seede, and is very good to eate 
and to frye fishe withall; T. Hickock, Tr. C. Fredericf^s Voyage, fol. 22 r^. 
1589 much oyle of algongoli: R. Parke, Tr. Mendoza's Hist. Chin., Vol. ii. 
p. 265 (1854). — a botiia of oile made of algongoli for three rials; ib., p. 266. 
1727 The Men. ..are continually squirting gingerly Oyl at one another : A. Hamil- 
ton, East Indies, Vol. I. p. 128. [Yule] 1807 The oil chiefly used here, both 
for food and unguent, is that of Sesamujn, by the English called Gingeli, or sweet 
oil: F. Buchanan, Mysore, ific. Vol. i. p. 8. [ib.J 1874 We know not the 
origin of the word Gingeli, which Roxburgh remarks was (as it is now) in common 
use among Europeans: Hanbury & FlOckiger, /'^arw., p. 426. [ib.'i 1876 



Oils, Jinjili or Til: Table of Customs Duties^ imposed on imports htto B. India, 
up to 1875. [ib.'] 

Variants, 16 c. algongoli, zezeline, 18 c. gingerly, 19 c.gin- 
geli, jinjili. 

[The four last variants are fr. Hind, jinjali, or Port, gir- 
gelim, zirzelim. All forms ultimately fr. Arab. {al-)jaljulan.^ 

aKaTa\r]-^ia. See acatalepsia. 

*akhoond, sb. -. Pers. : theologian, doctor. See Langlfes' 
note on Chardin's Voyages, Vol. iv. p. 193 (181 1). 

1738 AKOND, an officer of justice in Persia, who takes cognizance of the 
causes of orphans, and widows; of contracts, and- other civil concerns. — He is the 
head of the school of law, and gives lectures to all the subaltern officers: Chambers, 
Cycl. 1797 Encyc. Brit. 1880 The Akhoond of Swat, a Mohammedan 
saint. ..reigning supreme as the guide and director of the hearts of men all over 
high Asia. ..the Akhoond generally kept on friendly terms with the English : Libr. 
Univ. Kjiowl., Vol. i. p. 192. 

[Pers. akhiitt, = ' a. master', 'a theologian'.] 
akkabaah, j-i^. : ? corrupt Arab. : a large caravan. 

1809 accumulating there in larger bodies called Akkabaahs, they proceed 
across. ..the great desert: Edin, Rev., Vol. 14, p. 318. 

akropolis: Gk. See acropolis. 

&V-, part of j)hr.: It.: 'to the, after the, in the'; used bef. 
masc. sing, noims which begin with a consonant (except z, 
and s followed by another consonant, before which alio is 
found); also i6, 17 cc. for all' (for alia, alio before a vowel). 
See It. phrases beginning with al, all', alia, alio. 

1589 a straight buskin al inglesse [=all^ Inglese, 'in English fashion'] : Put- 
TENHAM, Eng, Poes., III. p. 305 (1868). 1591 His breeches were made after 

the new cut, | A I Portugese, loose like an emptie gut: Spens., Prosop., ^iiz, 
bef. 1682 A fair English Lady drawn A I Negro [='in Negro style']: SIR Th. 
Brown, Tracts, xiii. p. loi (1686). 

2\^, part of phr.: Sp.: 'to the, after the, in the'. Com- 
posed of a, prep., and el, masc. art., = 'the'. 

2\^, part of phr.: Arab.: 'the'; Arabic definite article. 
al conto, phr. : It. : k la carte {q. v.). 

1617 There are in these Italian Innes two ordinarie courses of eating, one al 
conto that is upon reckoning, the other al pasto that is by the meale at a set rate : 
F. MoRYsoN, Itin., Pt. III. Bk. ii. ch. 5, p. 117. 

al coraggio, ^Ar. : It.: (with the) courage ! See aP. 

1598 And how is't, man? What alio coragiol B. Jonson, Case is Alt., i. l, 
p. 506 (i86s). 

al dispetto di V)\o,phr.\ It: 'in contempt (despite) of 

1662 Ahaziah sent a third captain to fetch the prophet al despito di Dio, as 
if he would despitefuUy spit in the face of Heaven : John Trapp, Com. 1 Satn., 
iv. 9, Wks., Vol. I. p. 421/1 (1867). 

■'^al fresco, /;5r. : It.: lit. 'in (on) the fresh'. 

1. adv. and attrib. in the open air. 

1753 It was good for her ladyship's health to be thus alfresco : Mrs. Hey- 
WOOD, J. &= y. Jessamy, I. v. 53. [N. E. D.l 1770 a small Vauxhall was 

acted for us at the grotto in the Elysian fields.. .1 did not quite enjoy such an 
entertainment alfresco so much as I should have done : HoR. Walpole, Letters, 
Vol. V. p. 246 (1857). 1811 a little lad who had reported an alfresco orchestra 
as consisting of two horns and a hautboy: L. M. Hawkins, Countess, Vol. i. 
p. 32 (2nd Ed.). 1815 Mr. Woodhouse was conveyed in his carriage. 

partake of this alfresco party: J. Austen, E?njna, Vol. III. ch. vi. p. 319 (1833). 
1825 eating his maccaroni or his water melon alfresco : English in Italy, Vol. I. 
p. 33. 1845 It was very amusing to watch the town taking its evening meal, 
^'alfresco" : Warburton, Cresc. and Cross, Vol. II. p. 71 (1848). 1860 taking 
their rest alfresco in the Regent's Park: Once a Week, July 14, p. 72/1. 1882 
The hunting gave place, often and in a moment, to al fresco banquets : Short- 
house, y.ohn Inglesant, Vol. II. eh, i. p. 6 (2nd Ed.). 

2. Art. in fresco (see afresco), or as sb.,=fresco; lit. 
'on the fresh' (plaster). 

1764 It is superior to the alfresco, and the Mosaic work: Harmer, Observ., 
VII. § 40, 304. [N. E. D.] 1806 Fine paintings al fresco are still visible: 
Edin. Rev., Vol. 8, p. 268. 1886 The prehistoric artist worked al fresco, 
executing patterns or figures : Athenceum, Mar. 6, p. "iyili. 

al pasto: It. See al conto. 

al segno, phr.: It.: Mtis.: 'to the sign', a direction to the 
performer to go back to, and repeat from the place marked 
thus, — %. 

1779 AL SEGNO, or DA CAPO, These words written at the end of an air, 
denote, that the first part must be re-commenced, not entirely at the beginning, 
but at that place where the return is marked: W. Waring, Tr. Rousseau's Did. 

kla,, pi. alae,. J^. : Lat.: awing. Hence, Physiol, a. wing- 
like process, esp. a lateral cartilage of the nose ; Bot. a side 
petal of a papilionaceous corolla, also (Obs.) an azil, the 
upper angle of the divergence of branch from stem ; J^om. 


Antif. (Rare) a side apartment or recess branching off from 
a central chamber or hall. 

1738 Ala is also used in anatomy, for several parts of the body, which bear 
some resemblance to the figure of a wing.. .The two cartilages of the which 
form the nostrils are also called alie... Ai.a is also used in botany, for the angle 
which the leaves, or the stalks or pedicles of the leaves, form with the stem, or 
branches of a plant from which they arise. ..Ala is sometimes also applied to the 
angle formed by the branches themselves, with the stem: Chambers, Cycl. 
1753 Al/e is also used to signify those petals,, or leaves of the papilionaceous 
flowers, placed between those otliers which are called the vexillum and the 
carina, which make, the top and bottom of the flower : ib. , Suppl. 1797 Encyc. 

alabandine. See almandine. 

♦alabaster {-L-S. -), sb.: Eng. fr. Old Fr. or Lat. 

I. I. name of fine, semi-transparent varieties of sulphate 
of lime or gypsum, used for sculpture, the best known of 
which is a glistening white. 

abt. 1386 Of alabaster whit and reed coralle \v. r. alabastre] : Chaucer, 
Knts. T., 1052. 1398 Alabastre is a whyte stone with strakes of diners 

colours: Trevisa, Barth. De P. R., xvi. iii. sig. Kiii?«/i. 1440 Alabaster, 
astone, Alaiastrum, Parium: Prompt. Pan). 1604 that whiter skin of hers 
than snow, | And smooth as monumental alablaster: Shaks., 0th., v. 2, 5. 
1625 the windowes of Alabaster, white Marble, and much other spotted Marble 
[of the Seraglio oi Hispaan^. PuRCHAS, Pilgrims, Vol. IL Bk. ix. ch. 4, p. 1432. 
1667 it was a rock | Of alabaster, piled up to the clouds, | Conspicuous far; 
Milton, P. L., iv. 544. 

I. 2. attrib. m.a.A.e oi alabaster {I. 1). 

1593 A lily prison'd in a gaol of snow, | Or ivory in an alablaster band: 
Shaks., Ven. and Ad., 363. 1703 part of an alabaster column, found in the 
ruins of Livia's portico. It is of the colour of fire, and may be seen over the high 
altar of St. Maria in Campitello ; for they have cut it into two pieces, and fixed 
it, in the shape of a cross, in a hole of the wall ; so that the light passing through 
it, makes it look, to those in the church, like a huge transparent cross of amber: 
Addison, Italy. [J.] 1815 Sculptured on alabaster obelisk: Shelley, 
A lastor, Poems, p. 53 (1864). 

I. 2 a. like alabaster (I. i), smooth and white. 

1594 those tender babes. ..girdling one another | Within their innocent ala- 
blaster arms : Shaks., Rich. III., iv. 3, u. 1671 I intend to present him to 
her delicate Alablaster hands: Shadwell, Humorists, ii. p. 16. 

II. I. Pliny's alabastrites, a glistening stone, stalagmitic 
carbonate of lime, used by the ancients for alabastra, boxes 
for unguents. It is almost transparent. 

1382 boxe of alabastre: Wyclif, Mark, xiv. 3. 1797 Variegated, yellow, 
and reddish alabaster. This species is the common alabaster of the ancients, 
and is so soft that it may be cut with a knife : Encyc. Brit. 

II. 1 a. attrib. 

1526 there cam a woman with an alablaster boxe of oyntement called narde : 
Tyndale, Mark, xiv. 3 (1836). 1611 an alabaster box : Bible, ib. 

II. 2. Antiq. Lat. alabaster, Mod. Lat. alabastriim, post- 
Classical Gk. alabastron ; pi. alabastra. 

1763 Chambers, Cycl., Suppl. 1887 a beautiful vase of red terra-cotta 
in the shape of an alabastron, about six inches high: Athenieum, July 9, p. 61/1. 

II. 3. According to Epiphanius oka^aaTpov /ivpov, = 'an 
alabaster box of ointment', was a small glass jar holding a 
pound of oil, of the capacity of half the sextarius, called 
dXa/Saorpoj' from its brittleness ; see Chambers, Cycl., Suppl. 
The quotation from Trevisa below is found in a chapter on 
measures of capacity. 

1398 Alabastrum is a vessell for oyntment & hath that name of the kinde of 
the stoon y* it is made of: Trevisa, Barth. De P. R., xix. cxxviii. 

Variants, 14 c. alabastre, 16 c. — 17 c. generally alablaster. 

[Old Fr. alabastre is fr. Lat. alabaster, pi. alabastra, = ?i box 
for unguents made of alabaster (II. i), fr. Gk. akd^aa-Tpos (pi. 
dXaPaa-rpa, whence New Test. sing. aXa^aarpov) late form of 
Gk. dXd^ao-Tos (II. I, II. 2).] 

alabouche, sb. : coined fr. Fr. phr. dire tout ce qui vient i 
la bouche,=' to say all that comes to the mouth' : a gossip, 
chatterbox. Rare. 

1756 The Twickenham Alabouches say the Legge is to marry the eldest 
Pelhamine infanta : HoR. Walpole, Letters, Vol. m. p. 36 (1857). 

alabraundyne. See almaudine. 
aladjak, sb. : Turcoman. See quotation. 

1884 the erection of an aladjak or ev... [described below as a] dome-shaped 
wicker hut, with its covering of reed mats and felt: Edm. O'Donovan, Merv, 
ch. xvii. p. 181 (New York). 

alagarto: Sp. See alligator. 

alahal, misread for al-laH, 'the ruby', Arab. fr. Pers. 

1615 The fifth [spheare], of pearles: The sixth, of Alahal: W. Bedwell, 
Moham. Impost., n. 86. 1665 The sixth [orb of heaven] was of Turquoise j 
The seventh of Alahal; some interpret it Fire; others pure Light or Breath 
congealed'. Sir Th. Herbert, Trati., p. 328 (1677). 




alalagmos, j3. : Gk. d\a\aynos: war-cry, cry oi alala (1675 
HOBBES, Tr. Odyss., 299;— Tr. Iliad, 214). 

1821 the alalagmos of the Roman legions: Confess, of an. Enf. Otium- 
Eater, Pt. 11. p. 164 {1823). 

alamande: Mod. Fr. See allemande. 

alambioLU^, ///.: Fr.: over-refined, over-subtle; lit. 'dis- 
tilled'. The Eng. alembicated '\% used, 1819, by Lady Mor- 
gan, Fl. Macarthy, I. i. 8, 'theories of alembicated refine- 

1795 Lorenzo's [sonnets] are frequently more clear, less alembigues, and not 
inharmonious : Hoe. Walpole, Letters, Vol. iv. p. 549 (1820). 1885 in spite 
of a style that the French call alambig-ui, in spite of tiresome double and treble 
distillations of phraseology, in spite of fatiguing moralities, gravities, and pon- 
derosities, we have still been in communion with a high and commanding intellect : 
J. MoRLEY, in Macmillan's Mag,, p. 243/2. 

[Past part, of Fr. alambiquer, = 'io distill as in an alembic'.] 
alambre, sb.-. Port.: 'amber'. Halliwell's alabre, which 
looks as if it might be for alambre, is a mistake for calabre. 

1625 the Aianthie [sic] in Cajnbaia...ln Camhaia also is found plentie of the 
Stone Alambre : Purchas, Pilgrims, Vol. i. Bk. i, p. 38. 1708 Kersey. 

[Port, alambra, fr. Arab, a/, = 'the', 'anbar, = 'a.mbergris'.'] 
'^alameda, sb. : Sp. See quotations. 

1826 the row of poplars which shade this Almeida, or public walk : Capt. 
Head, Paynpas, p. 131. — As soon as the sun has set, the Almeida is crowded 
with people : ih, , p. 69. 1832 At the foot of the hill was an alameda, or public 
walk: W. Irving, Alksnnbra, p. 117. 1883 The life was mainly divided 

between the balconies and the alameda or promenade : Sat. Rev., Vol. 55, p. 449. 

\Lit. a place planted with the alam.o, = '\)i\& poplar tree'.] 

alamire: It.: Mus.: old name of two notes, namely, A 
next below, and A next above middle C in Guido Aretino's 
great scale. 

bef. 1529 But ire and venire, | And solfa so alamyre: J. Skelton, Col. 
Cloute, 107, Wks., Vol. I. p. 315 (1843). 1597 The second tune is from A la 

mi re to A re: Th. Morley, Mils., p. 251 (1771). 1609 In the first part set 
A Base; in the third Dsolre; in the fift Alamire: Douland, Tr. Omith. 
Microl. , p. '22. 1654 plaid her part so wel, that she run through all the keyes 
from A-la-nti-re to double Gammut; Gayton, Notes on Don Quixote, p. 83. 
1705 An Octave, from Are to Alamire : Pkil. Trajis., xxv. 2080. 

Variants, i6 c. alamyre, 17 c. A lamire. 

[Composed of A used as the name of a note and la, mi, re, 
for which see gamut. The syllables indicated the position 
of the A in the 2nd, 3rd, and 4th hexachords respectively 
(or in the sth, 6th, and 7th) and also later their position in 
the scales of C, F, G, respectively ; see the table of scales, 
Douland, Tr. Ornith. Microl., p. 8.] 

alamort : Eng. fr. Fr. See k la mort. 
alapeen: Eng. fr. Syr. See alepine. 
alaoLUeca, j'<^. : Arab. rt/-'(ij'z^a, = 'the cornelian'. See 

1625 in Zeilan and in Balagate...\!si(ty\vsM& also the A laquera [sic] or Quequi, 
which stayeth the issue of bloud presently : Purchas, Pilgrims, Vol. i. Bk. i. 
p. 38. 1763 ALAQUECA, a medicinal stone brought from the Indies, in 
small glossy fragments; much praised by some for its efficacy in stopping 
haemorrhages, when applied externally: Chambers, Cycl,, Suppl. 

*alastor, sb. : Gk. dXdorojp : an avenger. Rare. 

1603 such Daemons and curst fiends, whom we call Alastoras [Gk. ace. pi.]... 
The revengers of such enormities and crimes could not be forgotten : Holland, 
Tr. Plut. Mor., p. 1330. 

alaternus, alatem {± — IL), sb.: Low Lat.: name of a 
species of buckthorn {Rhamnus). 

1607 a tree called Alaternus, which never beareth fruit but only leaves : 
TopSELL, Four-footed Beasts, 189(1673). [N. E.D/j 1644 I was led to a 
pretty garden, planted with hedges of alaternus: Evelyn, Diary, Vol. l. p. 66 
(1872). 1664 Sow Alaternus Seeds in Cases, or open Beds : — Kal. Hort., 
p. 193 (^729)- 1673 hedges of Cypress, Alater7i-us, Laurel, Bay, Phillyrea: 
j! Ray, Journ. Low Countr., p. 364. 1767 you may transplant phillyreas, 

alaternus, yews, ever-green oaks: J. Abercrombie, Ev. Man own Gardener, 
p. 108 (1803). 

alaventure: ? fr. Fr. d. Paventure: at adventure, earlier 
'at aventure' (printed 'at a venture '/ATzVzg-j, xxii. 34, Shaks., 
II Hen. IV., i. I, 59), at random, at haphazard. Obs., very 
Rare, Doubtful. 

1489 al dedes of bataylle ben doon at alaventure: Caxton, Fayt ofArmes, 
ch. xxiv. sig. E vi r*". 

[Caxton's phrase may be for at al aventure, = ' a.t all ad- 
venture', wrongly put for the simple at aventure.l 

alba (comic for albums), used as pi. of album by the 
pedantic valet in C. Reade's Christie Johnstone. 


albacore, sb.: Eng. fr. Sp. or Port.: name of a large species 
of tunny found in W. Indian seas, and of similar fish. 

1579 the fish which is called Alhocore, as big as a Salmon: R. Hakluyt, 
Voyaxes^ Vol. ir. ii. p. loo (iggg). 1600 ABacoras and Bonitos : ib.. Vol. in. 
p. 446. bef. 1613 The albacore that followeth night and day | The flying fish, 
and takes them for his prey: Dennvs, Ang-Hn^, 1. 166. [Davies] 1634 Ty- 

rannicke Fishes, Dolphines, Bonetaes, and Albycores : Sir Th. Herbert, Trav., 
). 26. 1665 Dolphins, Eonetaes, Albicores, Cavalloes, Porpice, &c. : ib. 

3rd Ed.), p. 384 (1677). 1773 The heaviest and most vigorous fish, such as 

bonettas and albicores: Cook, isi Voyage, i. 98. abt. 1760 The Albacore is 
another fish of much the same kind as the Bonito : Grose, Voyage, Vol._ i. p. 5 
(1772). 1845 the flying-fish,.., with their devourers the bonitos and albicores : 
C. Darwin, Journ. Beagle, ch. viii. p. 162 (and Ed.). 

Variants, 16 c. albocore, 17 c. — 19 c. albecore^ albicore, 
19 c. albercore. 

[Sp. albacora, = * early fig' (fr. Arab, al-bakur, = ' early-ripe '), 
also 'a large tunny' (fr. Arab. al-bakura\ Port, albacor^ Fr. 

albata, sbr. Mod. Lat. : German silver, white metal. 

1848 The argentine and the albata did their best to look silvery: Backel. 
Albany, in. [N.E.D.] 

[Fem. oi albdttis^ past part, of Late Lat. albdrej = ^\.o make 
white'. The Classical adj. albdtus only='dressed in white' 

*albatross {if— s), sb.: Eng. fr. Sp. or Port., or Du. fr. Sp. 
or Port. See alcatras. 

1. a frigate-bird, alcatras (2). 

1732 While the Albitrosse are setting and hatching their Young, their Heads 
change from Brown to Scarlet, and become Brown again afterwards: Mortimer, 
in Phil. Traits.^ xxxvii. 448. [N, E. D.] 1740 their bills are narrow like 
those of an Albitross : Anson, Voyage^ p. 68(1756). 

2. Eng. name of a family of petrels, the largest and best- 
known kind being the Diomedea exulans^ the greatest of 
oceanic birds, of white color except the back of the wing, 
plentiful near the Cape of Good Hope. Grew, 1681, calls 
it the Man-of- War bird. There is also a dark species Dio- 
fnedea fiiliginosa. 

1672 We met with those feathered Harbingers of the Cape... Albetrosses... they 
haue great Bodies: Fryer, E. Ind. &■ Persia, 12 (1698). [Yule] 1697 They 
[sailors] have several other signes, whereby to know when they are near it, by 
the sea-fowl they meet at sea, especially the Algatrosses, a very large long-winged 
Bird: Dampier, Voy., an. 1691, Vol. i. p. 531 (1699). 1726 We had not Had 

the sight of one fish of any kind, since we were come Southward of the Streights 
of Le Mair, nor one sea-bird, except a disconsolate black Albitross, who accom- 
panied us for several days : Shelvocke, Voyage, 72. [Yule] 1754 An 
albatrose, a sea-fowl, was shot off" the Cape of Good Ho^e:, which, measured 
17^ feet from wing to wing: Ives, f^^tyj^^, 5 (1773). [z<5.] 1798 Coleridge, 
Anc. Mar. 

albecore, albercore: Sp. or Port. See albacore. 

albedo, j(^. : Lat.: Astron.: 'whiteness', the relative amount 
of solar light diffused from the surface of a luminous body 
belonging to the solar system. 

1887 a paper on the appearance presented by the satellites of Jupiter during 
transit, with a photometric determination of their relative albedos: Aihenaum, 
Nov. 26, p. 'jiSl'i. 

*albergo, alberge, sb. : It. : inn, auberge, q. v. Sometimes 
Anglicised as albergie). 

1615 We omit to speake of the great mens SerragUos...the Alberges of Jani- 
zaries, the several Seminaries of Spachies: Sandys, Trav., p. 33. [Davies] 
1617 three houses like Colledges, called A Ibergi, for those that make long stay 
in the Citie: F. Moryson, Itin., Pt. i. p. 154. — I being lodged in the Al- 
bergo of the golden keyes.. .these Albergi: tb., p. 155. 1639 They [the Hos- 
pitallers] were conveyed to their severall Alberges in Europe : Fuller, Holy 
War, Bk. v. ch. v. (1811). [Davies] 1673 The Alberghi or Halls of the eight 
several Nations.. .of the Order. ..These Albergs are most of them fair buildings 
like Colleges : J. Ray, Jotirn. Low Countr., p. 303. 1826 I got a room at the 
albergo: Reji. on a Ramble to Germanyy p. 173. 1827 the Italian hotels...a 

few mongrel iz/^^r^fAz" of intermediate rank: English Fashiotiables Abroad,Yo\. i. 
p. 9. 1841 if he has dined at an inn or restaurant, gasthaus, posada, albergo, 

or what not, invariably inserts into his log-book the bill of fare: Thackeray, 
Misc. Essays, S^c, p. 375 (1885). 

albicore : Fr. fr. Sp. or Port. See albacore. 

albiness : Eng. See albino. 

albino, sb. and attrib. : Port. 

I. a human-being born with a deficiency or total lack of 
superficial coloring matter, having dead-white skin, whitish 
hair, and pink, weak eyes. 'Kng.fein. albiness {J- — J~\ 

[1601 (Beton, temp. Alexander the Great,) affirmeth...That in Albanie there 
bee a sort of people borne with eies like owles whereof the sight is fire red ; who 
from their childhood are grey headed, and can see better by night than day : 
Holland, Tr. Plin. N. H., Bk. 7, ch. 2, Vol. i. p. 154.] 1777 Among the 
negroes of Africa, as well as the natives of the Indian islands, nature sometimes 




produces a small number of individuals, with all the characteristic features and 
qualities of the white people of Darien. The former are called Albinos by the 
Portuguese, the latter Kackerlakes by the Dutch: W. Robertson, America, 
Bk. IV. Wks., Vol. VI. p. 303 (1824). 1808 Her mother's first child, a girl, is 
also an albiness...the fifth, a boy, is an albino: T. S. Traill, On Albinoes, in 
Phil. Trafis.y xix. 85. 

2. any abnormally white animal or plant. 

1829 The elegant albino [antelope] now in the Tower was brought from 
Bombay by Capt. Dalrymple: Tower MejiageHe, p. ig6. 1884 the following 
albinos and white varieties of birds and animals. ..a black and white water rat, 
and two white and two steel colour moles. ..a perfectly white leveret: 

Albion, old name of Gt. Britain, perhaps derived from the 
white (Lat. albus) cliffs of Kent and Sussex, 

abt. 1205 Albion hatte that lond: Lavamon, Brut, \. 1243. 1387 Firste 
this ilond highte Albion, as it were the white lond, of white rokkes aboute the 
clyues of the see that were i-seie wide : Trevisa, Tr. Higden^s Polychr,, Vol. 
ir. p. 5. 1399 Albioun: Chaucer, To his Empty Purse, Lenvoy. 1602 
sole Monarch of all the Albions or great Britaines Isles : W. Watson, Quodlibeis 
of Relig. <S^ State, p. 92. 1616 For now the Gospell, like the midday sunne, I 
Displaies his beames over all Albion: R. C, Tivtes* Whistle, i. 350, p. 14 
(1871). bef. 1784 O Queen of Albion, queen of isles! Qq^vkr^ Poems, Nq\. ii. 
p. 294 (1808). 

[Lat. Albion^ Gk. 'AXouiwv. Pliny, N. H.^ Bk. iv. ch. xvi. 
30, says Britain had this distinctive name when the British 
Isles were called collectively Britanniae^ 

albitross, albetross. See albatross. 

albo : Lat. See album. 

albocore: Eng. fr. Sp. or Port. See albacore. 

Alborak: Arab. al~burdq\ name of the animal on which 
Mahomet rode up to heaven. 

1615 Barak, Borak^ Albarak, or as the Greeks do write it EAjnirapaK, EIjiz- 
parac, was the beast which Mohammed rode vpon when he receiued his com- 
mission: W. Bedwell, ^ra^. Trudg. 1763 Chambers, Cyc/., Suppl. 1819 
the Prophet's ascent to the third heaven on the horse Borak, with a peacock's tail 
'and a woman's face (I mean the horse): T. Hope, Anast., Vol. i. p. 197 (1820). 

albricias, sb. pL: Sp.: reward or largesse to the bringer 
of good news. 

1667 Albricias, friend, for the good news I bring you: Elvira, ii. init, in 
Dodsley-Hazlitt's Old Plays, Vol. xv. p. 25 (1876). 1669 Albricias, Madam, 
for my good News: Drvden, Mock-Astrol., iv. Wks., Vol. i. p. 313 (1701), 
1693 he presented it to the Conde, and expected, as the Castilian Phrase is, Las 
Albricias, a reward for bringing of good News: J. Hacket, Abp. Williains, 
Pt. I. 134, p. 147, 1696 Albricias, {Spajiish) a word much used by Spanish 

Merchants, and signifying a reward of good news: Phillips, World 0/ Words, 

[Port, alviqaras connects the word with Arab, al-bishdra^ 
same sense.] 

^albugo, sb.\ Lat.: a disease of the eye in which a white 
speck forms on the cornea; also obs. for albumen meaning 

'white of egg'. 

1633 [Pride] is like the albugo, or white spot in the eye, which dimmeth our 
understanding: T. Adams, Coin. 2 Pet,, iii. 18 (1865). 1738 Chambers, 
CycL 1797 Encyc. Brit. 

*album, albo {±^,pL albums, sb.: Lat. (the form albo is 
abl. o^ album, neut. oi albus, adj., = ' white'). 

1. Rom. Antiq, a white tablet on which iki^ prator' s edicts 
and other public matters were published ; hence, any official 

1753 Chambers, Cycl,, Suppl. 

2. for album, amicorum. ('of friends'), a blank book for the 
collection of autographs, original compositions, &c. ; see 

1612 having at his coming out of Italy written in a German's book or album, 
am-icorum.', J. Chamberlain, in Court &^ Times of Jas. /., Vol. i. p. 201 
(1848). [1642 Some [French people] do use to have a small leger booke fairely 
bound up.,, wherein when they meet with any person of note and eminency, and 
journey or pension with him any time they desire him to write his name, with 
some short sentence, which they call The mot of remembrance: Howell, Instr. 
For, Trav., p. 27 (1869).] 1642 It is but a dull Dutch fashion, their albus 
{^. liber, = 'book*, suppressed] amicorum, to make "a dictionary of their friends 
names": T. Fuller, Holy and Pro/. State, p. 151 (1841). 1647 the best 

satisfaction I can give my self is to expunge hivt quite ex albo amicorum, to raze 
him out of the catalogue ^frends: Howell, Epist. Ho-EL, Vol. 11. Ixxvii. 
p. 389 (1678). 1651 it slept quietly among other sentences in this Albo: 
Reliq. Wotton., sig. c 11 v" (1685). — a merry definition of an Ambassadour... 
set down in his A Ibuni of Friends, after the German custom (« white Paper-book 
used by the TinX-ch. for such kind of Motto's): ib., sig. e8r*. 1707 a man of 

quality showed me, written in his album, that, &c.: Swift, Wks., p. 547/2 (1869). 
1748 you would do well to keep a blank paper book, which the Germans call an 
Album; and there, instead of desiring, as they do, every fool they meet with to 
'scribble something, write down all these things: Lord Chesterfield, Letters, 
Vol. I. No. 109, p. 237 (1774). 1832 stanzas.. .transcribed by Lord Byron. 
an album: Moore, Life of Byron, Vol. nr. p. 245. 1840 his eldest daughter 

with her a/&w7«.. .closed her album: Barham, higolds. Leg., p. 7 (1865). 1850 


painted pictures in her album: Thackeray, Pendennis, Vol. ll. ch. i. p. 13(1879). 
1887 Mr. A. W. Franks. ..exhibited an album amicorum of Andrew Adam 
Hochstetter, 1688—91, containing autographs of Selden, Sir Isaac Newton. ..and 
other persons of note: Atkerueum, Jan. 22, p. 132/:^. 

3. American for visitors^ book. 

4. a scrap book, a book for photographs, or any col- 
lections of card or paper. 

5. an inscription of white letters. 

1820 We observed this ridiculous album upon the ruins of the theatre [of a 
surname inscribed in white paint] : T. S. Hughes, Trav. in Sicily, Vol, i. ch. iii. 
p. 81. 

[In Daheim a German suggests that the album of the 
Middle ages was the white side of the stout Spanish-Italian 
parchment used for adversaria ; but any blank book is a 
' white ' book as contrasted with a printed book.] 

album Graecum : Late Lat. : dried excrement of dogs, 
used as a drug for inflammation of the throat ; lit. ' Greek 

1670 That Album Grctcum was a Salve of my invention : Shadwell, Sull. 
Lovers, ii. p. 16. 1709 that noble remedy' which the apothecaries call album 
Grmcum : Addison, Tatler, Jan. i^, Wks., Vol. 11. p. 82 (1854). 1738 ALBUM 
Greecum, dogs white dung, is a medicinal drug, in the present practice, used with 
honey, to cleanse and deterge, chiefly in inflammations of the throat: and that 
principally outwardly, as a plaister: Chambers, Cycl. 1797 Encyc. Brit. 

albumen, sb.: Lat.: white of egg; also a name of the 
nitrogenous Chemical substances albumins {of which white 
of egg is the purest form known, and serum, another form), 
constituents of animal and vegetable tissues and fluids ; 
Bot. the nutritive substance about the embryo of many 

1599 Take. ..the Albumen of 4 Egges: A. M., Tr. GahelJumet's Bk. Physic, 
^ili. [N. E. r>.] 1667 the Leaves being formed out of the substance of the 
Root, as a Chick out of the Albumen: Phil. Trans., Vol. II. No. 25, p. 457." 
1753 Chambers, Cycl.. Suppl. 1887 He held that. ..nitrogenous bodies, 

like albumen, were true flesh formers: AthcTicEum, Sept. 3, p. 300/1. 

alburnum, sb. : Lat. : sap-wood, the whiter, softer wood of 
exogenous trees, between the inner bark and the heart-wood. 

[1601 In most trees next to the skin lieth the fat; this is nought else but that 
white sap, which of the colour \_allms\ is called in Latin Alburnum: Holland, 
Tr. Plin. N. H., Bk. VI. ch. 38, Vol. i. p. 486.] 1791 Sap-wood or alburnum: 
E. Darwin, Bot. Card., i. 96. [N. E. D.] 1797 Encyc. Brit. bef. 1852 
To. ..strip off its dark bark in two half cylinders. These. ..bound firmly together 
with withes made of the alburnum, formed a rough sort of tubular cofiin : CoL. 
Kane, in The Mormons, 191 (3rd Ed.). 

Alcaaba: Arab. See Caaba. 

alcade: Sp. See alcalde. 

alcaic {— _'_ —), adj. and sb.: Eng. fr. Lat. Alcaicus. 

1. adj.: pertaining to the Greek poet Alcaeus ('AXKaiof) 
or to metres ascribed to or invented by him. 

bef. 1637 take th' Alcaick lute: B. Jonson, To Himself. [J.] 1696 Alcaic 
Verse: Phillips, World 0/ Words. 1738 Nor must I forget thanking you 
for your little Alcaic fragment: West, in Gray's Letters, Vol. I. p. 29 (1819). 
1797 Alcaic Ode: Encyc. Brit. 1886 On the alcaic metre Mr. Roby refers 
to his ScJwol Gr. : Mayor, Eng. Metre, vii. p. 123. 

2. sb. (generally pi.) : a metre, verse, or strophe named 
from Alcaeus, an ode in such a metre. 

1630 if a Poet .should examine thee | Of Numbers, Figures, Trimeters, Al- 
chaicks, | Hexameters. ..Allegories and Allusions: John Taylor, Wks., sig. 
Oo 5 r^ji. 1797 four verses, the two first of which are always Alcaics of the 
first kind :...the fourth verse is an Alcaic of the second kind: Encyc. Brit. 1854 
Jolly verses ! Haven't I translated them into Alcaics? Thackeray, Newcomes, 
Vol. 1. ch. xvii. p. 194 (1879). 1886 This [metre] serves to render alike alcaics, 
Sapphics, asclepiads of several kinds: Athenceum, Apr. 10, p. 487/1. 1886 I 

think I have now noticed all the metres which occur in Tennyson except his 
alcaics: Mayor, Eng. Metre, vii. p. 122. 

alcaiceria, Ji5,: Sp.: market-place for raw silk, bazaar. 

1629 [See alcazar]. 1662 a great square arched Building, called Kaiserie. 
where are sold all the precious Commodities of the Country: J. Davies, Tr. 
Olearius, v. p. 178 (1669). 1829 its alcayceria or bazar, crowded with silks 

and cloth of silver and gold, with jewels and precious stones : W. Irving, Conf. 
0/ Granada, ch. ii. p. 26 (1850). 

Variants, kaiserie, alcayceria, alcazar (by confusion with 
that totally distinct word). 

[From al-qaisariya, = 'a. bazaar', fr. Gk. Ka4o-ap«'a, = ' hall 
of Caesar', i.e. 'privileged'.] 

alcaide; Sp. See alcayde. 

♦alcalde, alcade {— il), sb. : Sp. : chief magistrate of a town. 

abt. 1565 the sixteenth [we had sight] of an Island, called Margarita, where 
we were entertayned by the Alcalde: J. Sparke, J. Hawkins" Sec. Voyage, 


p. 25 (1878). 1600 the lyings A IcaMe maydr or chiefe Justice: R. Hakluvt, 
Voyages, yA. ni. p 390. - the AlcaUe: ib., p. ia^. 1612 There is a 

Kegent, sixe Councellors and foure Alcaldes, or Provosts, they take knowledge of 
suites both civill and criminal ; E. Gkimestone, Tr. Turquefs Hist, of Spaine, 
P: 1339- 1620 The Alcalde or Chief Justice, would have had me along with 
him to the Town- Jayl : W. Lithgow, Racking at Malaga, p. 196 (Repr. in 
™«-/"f. .'732). 1625 In them are the Kings Counsellers, to whom both 
UuiU&Lriminall Causes are committed: but with appellation in Ciuill Cases to 
the Oy<for-i (certame Commissioners) and in Criminall to the Alcalds: Purchas, 
Pilertms,yo\.i. Bk. 11. p. 83. 1673 The chief Officer in each town to de- 
termine all cml and criminal causes is IheAlcalda: J. Ray, youm. Low Cou/itr., 
p. 49°- . 1696 Alcalde, (Span.) the Sheriff or Officer of a town, whose Office 
'Ir'^-irfif /?"*? ^'^ °**' Provisions: Phillips, World of Words. 17B3 
ALCAIL), K.Cxcl^ in matters of policy, an officer of justice among the Moors, 
Spaniards and Portuguese. The word is also written Alcade, Alcalde and 
Alcayd: Chambers, Cycl., Suppl. 1846 Captain Turner was sent to the 

village to inform the alcalde that the colonel wished to see him and the head 
men of the town: Reconnaiss. fr. Fort Leaven-worth, p. 26 (1848). *1875 a 
squadron of Hussars. ..escorted the Alcalde and civil officers to the scene of action 
to open the Fair: TiVKsi, Murcian Fair, Oct. 4, p. 4/5. [St.] 

[From Arab, al-qadi, = ' the judge ' (cadi, q. v.). The form 
alcade is Fr. fr. Sp. alcalde. Chambers, in the above quota- 
tion, and 1738, s. V. alcalde, confuses alcalde with alcayde^ 

alcali. See alkali. 

'"'alcanna, alcana, sb. : Arab, or It. fr. Arab. : an oriental 
shrub, the young shoots and leaves of which are used by 
Eastern nations to dye parts of the body (see henna), the 
Egyptian privet, Lawsonia inermis. Order Lythraceae. 

1615 there is a certaine tree called Alckan, by the Arabs; the leaues thereof 
being dried and reduced into powder, do die reddish yellow. ..The women with 
it doe die their haire and nailes: Geo. Sandys, Trav., p. 137. 1646 that 
Alcanna being green, will suddenly infect the nails and other parts with a durable 
red : Sir Th. Brown, Psend. Ep., Bk, vii. ch. xviii. p. 314 (1686). 1665 They 
paint their nails and hands with Alcanna or Chaa-powder into a red or tawny 
colour: Sir Th. Herbert, Trav., p. 297 (1677). 

[From Arab. al-/iinna, = ' the henna shrub', or fr. It. al- 
canna, not fr. Sp. alheiia.] 

alcarraza, si.: Sp. : a porous earthen vessel for cooling 
water by evaporation. 

1801 There is a kind of earthen vessels, called Alcarrezes, used in Spain for 
cooling the water intended to be drunk: Encyc. Brit., Suppl., s.v. Pottery, 
1818 The Moors introduced into Spain a sort of unglazed earthen jugs named... 
alcarrasas: Encyc. Brit., Suppl., ill. 257. 

[Arab. al-karraz, = 'ihe narrow-mouthed cruise'.] 

alcatifa, sb. -. Port, or Arab. See quotations. Anglicised 
as alcatif, perhaps through Du. alcatief, alcatijven (pi.) or 
Fr. alcatif. 

1698 Out of the countrey named Coracone and Dias, and other places, [come] 
great store of rich Tapestrie & Couerlets which are called Alcatiffas: Tr. J. 
Van Littsckoten's Voyages, Bk. I. ch. 6, p. 15/1. — They make likewise many 
carpets called Alcatiffas: ib., p. ig/i. 1662 cover'd with the richest Tapistry, 
or Alcatifs of Persia : J. Davies, Tr. Majidelslo, Bk. I. p. 28 (i66g). 

[Arab. rt/, = 'the', 5'a/z/a, = ' carpet', or 'coverlet with a 
long pile'.] 

alcatras, -z, -sh, -ce, sb.: Sp. or Port.: a sea-bird. 

1. a large web-footed bird of Order Steganopodes, as a 
pelican, or a cormorant (Fam. Pelecanidae), or a gannet 
(Fam. Sulidae), or even a gull or sea-mew (Fam. Laridae, 
Order Gaviae). 

1555 In these regions there are Hkewise found certeyn foules or byrdes which 
the Indians caule Alcatraz. These are much bygger than geese. The greatest 
parte of theyr fethers are of russet coloure, and in sume partes yelowe. Theyr 
bylles or beakes are of two spannes in length and verye large neare to the heade 
and growynge smaule towarde the poyntc.lyke a foule called by Flemings 
Haina'. R. Eden, Tr. Oviedo's Suinmarie, p. 191?*. abt. 1665 sea birds as we 
call them Ganets, but by the Portingals also called Alcatrarses: J. Sparke, 
y. Hawkins' Sec. Voyage, p. 15 (1878). 1600 certaine .ships. ..carrying on 

their prowes the pictures of certaine birds called Alcatrarzi: R. Hakluyt, 
Voyages, Vol. ill. p. 16. — They sawe shippes on the sea coast, which bare 
Alcatrarzes or Pellicanes of golde and siluer in their prows : ib., p. 381. 1626 
a grey fowle, the Pinions whereof are blacke, which the Portugals call Alca- 
trasses: PuRCHAS, Pilgrims, Vol. I. Bk. iii. p. 276. 

2. name given by English to the frigate-bird or man-of- 
war-bird of the same order as the pelican (Fam. Frigatidae). 

1593 — 1622 The alcatrace is a sea-fowle diflferent to all that I have scene, 
either on the land or in the see. His head liketo the head of a gulL but his bill 
like unto a snytes bill, somewhat shorter and in all places alike. He is almost 
like a heronshaw...He is all blacke of the colour of a crow. ..He soareth.the 
highest of any fowle I have scene : R. Hawkins, Voyage into South Sea, % xix. 
p. rs3 (1878). 1604 Most like to that sharpe-sighted Alcatras, That beates the 
aire above the liquid Glasse: Drayton, Owle, 549. [N. E. D.] 1625 The 
other foule called Alcatrarzi is a kind of Hawlke that liueth by fishing : Purchas, 
Pilgrims, Vol. I. Bk. iii. p. 132. 1665 Pellican, Ostrich, Pintados, Altatraces, 
Vultures, Eagles, Cranes, and Cormorants: Sir Th. Herbert, Trav., p. 16 



3. the albatross {g. v.). 

1598 some birds which they call Alcatraces : Tr. y. Van Linschoten's Voyages, 
Bk. i. Vol. II. p. 248 (1885). 

[Orig. meaning pelican, applied by voyagers to sundry large 
sea-birds of at least three distinct orders. According to Devic 
Port, alcatraz is a variation of Port. alcatruz, = '3. pelican', 
sometimes 'a gannet', orig. 'a bucket' of a noria or water- 
wheel for irrigation, Sp. alcaduz and arcaduz, fr. Arab. al-qadUs, 
which in turn is Gk. raSoj. The Arabs now call the pelican 
ja^^a, = ' water carrier', from the idea that it carries water in 
the pouch of its great beak. Alcatras was changed in Dutch 
or English to albitros{se) (in Eng. 17 c. algatross), albetross, 
albatross, and applied to Diomedeae, very large sea-birds 
allied to petrels (order Tubinares).'] 

alca'7ala, sb.: Sp. : an ad valorem (q. v.) duty often per cent, 
or more formerly charged in Spain and its colonies on all 
transfers of property. 

1594 And yet pay they [Naples, Sicily, Milan] no one penny of that ancient 
great imposition used in Spaine, called the Alcavalla, which is the tenth penny 
of al that is bought and sold: R. Parsons (?), Con/, abt. Success., Pt. II. ch. ix. 
p. 108. 1598 there is in the foresayd kingdomes of Castile an old rent of the 
crowne, instituted by ancient kinges called Alcavalla conteyning a certayne 
tribute upon things that are soldo and bought: — Ward- Word to Hast. Watch' 
Word, Pt. VIII. p. 115. 1598 Of all goods, is the custome in 
Spaine to pay the tenth pennie to the King. ..this tenth pennie is called Alcaval; 
Tr. y. Van Linschoten's Voyages, Bk. iv. p. 452/1. 1612 His intent was to 

demand the subsidie called Alcavala throughout the whole realme; E. Grime- 
Stone, Tr. Turquet's Hist. 0/ Spaine, Bk. xiv. p. 526. 1846 The alcavalas 
of the grandmasterships of the military orders: Prescott, Ferd. &fi Isab., iii. 
xvi. r67. [N.E, D.] 

Variants, 16 c. alcavalla, alcaval. 

[Sp. alcabala, alcavala. Low Lat. same forms (see Du 
Cange, who refers its institution to Alphonso XI., 1342) 
fr. Arab. al-qabdlah, = 'iht impost'. Not connected with 
A. S. ^rt/^/, = ' tribute', but probably, as Dozy argues, with 
Eng. gabel, gavel, = ' toll, custom ', Fr. gabelle, = ' tax, salt- tax ', 
Sp. gabela, = 'excise'.] 

alcayceria: Sp. See alcaiceria. 

■'^alcayde, alcaid, sb. : Sp. : governor of a fortress or prison, 

1599 The alcaide or gouernour: R. Hakluyt, Voyages, Vol. 11. ii. p. 189. 
— an Alcayde: ib., p. 65. 1600 a certaine Alchaide in Tigumedet: John 
Poky, Tr. Leo's Hist. A/r., p. 368. 1612 That within certaine dayes after 
the conclusion of the treaty, King Mahomet the little, or his Alcaydes, should 
deliver up the Fortresse of J^ /4rt?w^r(Z : E. Grimestone, Tr. Turquet's Hist, of 
Spaine, Bk. xxiir. p. 940. 1625 the Alkaide, or gouernour caraeaboord our 
ship: Purchas, Pilgrims, Vol. i. Bk. ii. p. 88. — an Alkeid: ib.. Vol. 11. 
Bk. vi. p. 853. — the Alcayda: ib.. Vol. I. Bk. iii. p. 247. 1672 And 
faithful Selin for Alcade I chuse : Dryden, Conq. of Granada, I. iv. Wks., 
Vol. 1. p. 409 (i7or). 1673 In Castile, Grajiada, &^c. the greater Cities have 
a Corregidore, and the lesser an Alcayde, who administers justice: J. Ray, 
youm. Low Countr., p. 683. 1716 several of his Alcaydes, or governors of 
provinces: Addison, Wks., Vol. IV. p. 436 (1856). 1818 a native Indian rises 
by low arts to petty power, and becomes the alcade, the magistrate, or loyal man 
of the colonial government: Lady Morgan, Fl. Macarthy, Vol. in. ch. iii. 
p. 136 (i8ig). 1832 she was the daughter of the alcayde of a frontier fortress : 
W. Irving, Alhambra, p. 273; 

[Old Sp. alcayde, Sp. alcaide, fr. Arab. al-qa'id, = 't\\e 

■*alcazar, sb. : Sp. : a palace, fortress ; also (rarely) a bourse, 
exchange, bazaar, by confusion with alcaiceria. 

1615 Alcasar, Alkazar, The palace, the kings house: There are diuerse 
places of this name in Africa: W. Bedwell, Arab. Trttdg. 1629 Their 
Alcazar or Burse is walled about: Capt. J. Smith, Wlis., p. 873 (1884). 1830 
A meeting is held at the Alcasar every Saturday: E. Blaquiere, Tr. Sig. 
Pananti, p. 308 (2nd Ed.). 1832 nor is there a ruined alcazar in a city but 
has its golden tradition: W. Irving, Alhambra, p. 163. 

[Arab, al-qaqr, fr. Lat. C(rj/r««, = ' fortified camp'.] 
alcazava, -aba, j-i5. : Arab, al-qagaba: fortress. 

1594 I saw the same come into the Alcasaua with mine owne eies: R. Hak- 
luyt, Voyages, Vol. 11. p. 192 (1599). 1829 near the sea, on a high mound, 
stood the Alcazaba or citadel : W. Irving, Cojtq. of Granada, ch. Iii. p. 303 (1850). 

alee, alces, sb. : Lat. fr. Gk. oXki; : an elk ; also, as in Phil- 
lips, Pliny's achlis of Scandinavia said to have no joints in its 
legs (Holland's 'machlis'), which however may be, as in 
Phillips (1678), the elk, though Pliny makes it distinct. 

1540 he hunted the hart, and the bestes named Alces : Elyot, Im. Govern- 
aunce, p. 49 vi^. 1601 a certaine beaste, called the Alee, very like to an horse, 
but that his eares are longer: Holland, Tr. Plin. iV*. H., Bk. 8, ch. 15, Vol. i. 
p. 200. 1753 Chambers, Cycl., Suppl. 1797 Encyc. Brit. 

alchan : Arab. See alcanna, khan. 



^alchemist (_: — —), sb. : Eng. fr. Fv. : a student of 
alchemy, one who experiments on metals, a professed adept 
at difficult transmutations of substances. See chemist. 

1527 wayes out of nombre wherof the alkemystes aparte can testyfye: 
L. Andrew, Tr. Brunswick's Distill., Bk. i. ch. iii. sig. ai v'^l^* 1563 let it 
remayne in the warme water (the Alchimistes call it Bahieuni Marim) a whole 
daye : T. Gale, Enckirid., fol. 20 »". 1577 it is not in vain that the Alquimistes 
doethsaie.thatthematteroftheGold, is the Quickesiluer, and the Sulphur: that is 
to saie, the Quicksiluer the matter, and the Sulphur the former, and maker: 
Frampton, Joyfull Newes, fol. 307/^. 1580 a greate Alcumiste : — Joyfull 
Newes, dr-c, fol. ii/w". 1695 To solemnize this day the glorious sun | Stays 
in his course and plays the alchemist, | Turning with splendour of his precious 
eye | The meagre cloddy earth to glittering gold: Shaks._, K. John, iii. i, 78. 
1602 all. ..right Alchumists, that is, sance peeres in all things are the fathers 
of the society. W. Watson, Qtwdlibets of Relig. &= State, p. 16, 1667 nor 
wonder, if by fire | Of sooty coal th' empyric alchemist | Can turn, or holds it 
possible to turn, | Metals of drossiest ore to perfect gold, | As from the mine : 
Milton, P. L., v, 440. 

[From Old Fr. alkemtste^ alquemiste (fr. Late Lat. alchy- 
mista\ for alchhnister, the earlier adaptation of the same Fr. 
word. For the etym. of alchemy^ see chemist and elixir.] 

Alchochoden, Alcohoden, sb.\ Arab. fr. Pers.: Astrol. 

1615 [See almuten]. 1652 the i!rM^ Alchochodon, or Giver of Years : 
E. AsHMOLE, Theat. Chem. Brit., sig. B i v°. 1819 ALCOHODEN, an 
Arabic name for the Hyleg: J. Wilson, Diet. Astrol. 

\_Alcocoden (Bonatti, Liber Introduct., Basil., 1550 : see 
Z D M Gj xviil. i94) = Pers. kad~khoda, = ^ \iOVL%Q-\Qr^\ 'lord 
of the mansion^, with Arab. rt:/, = *the', prefixed and quasi- 
Latino-Gk. ace. termination.] 

Alcides: Lat. fr. Gk.: patronymic of Hercules, q.v.^ fr. 
the name of his mother's husband's father, Alcaeus (*A\Katos). 

1589 as if another A hides (the arme-strong darling of the doubled night) by 
wrastling with snakes in his swadling cloutes, should prophecie to the world the 
approaching wonders of his prowesse : R. Greene, Menaphon, p, 56 (i88q). 
1590 Hang up your weapons on Alcides* post(s) [Pillars of Hercules] : Marlowe, 
/ TainburL, v. \\. p. 38/1 (1858). 1830 like another Alcides, one of the party 

throws it [a lion's skin] over his shoulders : E. Blaquiere, Tr. Sig. Pananti, 
p. 133 (2nd Ed.). 

Alcina, a fairy of Italian romance, in Bojardo's and 
Ariosto's poems. 

1814 The scene, though pleasing, was not quite equal to the gardens of 
Alcina: Scott, Waverley,-g. g-j. 

Alcinous : Lat. fr. Gk. ^AXkIvoos : king of the phaeaeians, 
whose gardens are celebrated in Homer's Odyssey. 

1667 Spot more delicious tjjan those gardens feign'd | Or of reviv'd Adonis, 
or renown'd | Alcinous: Milton, P. L., ix. 441 (1770). 

alcion. See halcyon. 

Alcocoden, Alcohoden: Pers. See Alchochoden. 

*alcohol {iiz^s\ sb.\ Eng. fr. Late Lat. 

1. a mineral powder^ used in the East to stain the eyelids, 
consisting of antimony or trisulphide (sulphuret) of antimony 
or of galena. See kohL 

1543 brayed fynely, vnto the lykenes of alchoholl ; Traheron, Tr. Vigds 
Chirurg., fol. liii z/^/i. 1615 they put betweene the eyelids and the eye a 

certaine blacke powder with a fine long pensil, made of a minerall brought from 
the kingdome oi Fez, and called Alcohole: Geo. Sandys, Trav., p. 67 (1632). 
1665 Their Eye-lids are coloured cole-black with. ..that mineral Alcohole which 
...the Medes used to paint their Faces with: SiR Th. Herbert, Trav., p. 300 

2. fine powder produced by trituration or sublimation. 

1605 If this glasse be made most thinne in alchool : Timme, Quersit., i. xvi. 
83. [N. E. D.] 1738 A Icohol is sometimes also used for a very fine impalpable 
powder: Chambers, Cycl. 

3. the result of distillation (as if the sublimation of a 
fluid); esp, of the distillation of wine, i.e. spirits of wine, 
hence the spirit or intoxicating principle contained in wine 
and other fermented liquors. In Organic Chemistry the 
name is extended to compounds of carbon, hydrogen, and 
oxygen, similar to anhydrous spirits of wine, C2HgO, called 
ethyl-alcohol or (absolute) alcohol. 

1672 Assisted by the ^ /coo/ of Wine : Phil. Trans., vir. 5059. [N.E.D.] 
1678 Alcoholization... xa. Liquids, is the depriving of Alcohols or Spirits of their 
flegm or waterish part: Phillips, World of Words. 1738 ALCOHOL, or 
Alkool, in chymistry, an Arabic term, chiefly understood of the purest spirit of 
wine, raised, or rectified by repeated distillations to its utmost subtility, and per- 
fection ; so that if fire be set thereto, it burns wholly away, without leaving the 
least phlegm or faeces behind: Chambers, Cycl. 1753 Alcohol is also used, 
by modem chemists, for any fine highly rectified spirit: ib., Suppl. 1869 hy- 
drocarbons, alcohols, acids, &c. : Watts, Diet. Chem.^ vi. 193. 1873 Alcohol 
can be built up artificially from its elements: Williamson, Chem., § 227. 
1883 Bibulants will even buy alcohol, dilute it and drink it : Boston Herald. 


3 a. Metaph. quintessence, essence, essential spirit. 

1830 Intense selfishness, the alcohol of egotism: Coleridge, Lect, Shots., 
11. 117- [N.E.D.] 

3 b. loosely, strong drink, spirituous liquor. 

1818 He...holted the alcohol, to use the learned phrase, and withdrew: 
Scott, Hrt. Midi., xxviii. 

[Late Lat. alcohol, fr. Arab. al-kokl,='ths stibium'.] 
alconde, sb.: Sp.: for conde, Sp.,='count', 'earl', with al, 
Arab., =nhe', prefixed. Obs., Rare. 

abt. 1486 Prouves of Knighthode done before alcondis in honour of renowne: 
Bk. St. Albans Heraldry (Dallaway, App. 71). [N. E. D.] 

*Alcorani (Z-- -i), sb.: Arab.: 'the reading', the sacred 
book of the Mohammedans, the Koran, g.v.; a copy of the 
said book; also Metaph. Hence, alcoran{n)ish, alcoranist, 

abt. 1386 The mooder of the Sowdan...seyde...The hooly lawes of oure Al- 
karon I Yeuen by goddes message \v.l. messager] Makomete : Chaucer, Man of 
Law's Tale, 332. abt, 1400 Now because that I have spoken of Sarazines and 
of here Contree, now jif 3ee wil knowe a party of here Lawe and of here Beleve, 
I schalle telle 30U, aftre that here Book, that is clept Alkaron, tellethe: Tr. 
Maundevile's Voyage, ch. xii. p. 131 (1839). — the Alkaron seythe also of the day 
of Doom, how God schal come to deme alle maner of folk: ib., p. 133. 1660 
whatever assurance the papists have for their religion, the same has the Turk for 
the maintenance of the Alcarone: Kirk, in Burnet's Hist. Re/., vi. 532 (Pocock). 
1593 The lewes Thalmud, the next neighbour to the TMxktisAlcoran : G. Harvev, 
Pierces Supererog., Wks., II. 148 (Grosart). 1598 the great their 
law of Alkaron: R. Hakluyt, Voyages, Vol. I. p. 348. 1599 the captaine 
taking the Alcaron out of the chest: ib., VoL 11. 1. p. 212. 1615 Alfvrkan, 
Alpkorkan, Furkan, Forchan, the booke of the Law of Mohammed, that is the 
same that Alkoran is: W. Bedwell, Ara:h. Trudg. 1616 soule-profaning 
Turkish Alcheron : R. C, Times' Whistle, i. 188, p. 9 (1871). 1625 the 

Kuratvn, that is, the Alcoran, (as wee call it): Purchas, Pilgrims, Vol. 11. 
Bk. ix. p. 1607. 1630 His Alkaron, his Moskyes are whim- whams, False bug- 
beare babies: John Taylor, JVks., sig. Gg 6 2/^/2. 1644 that policie where- 
with the Turk upholds his Alcoran by the prohibition of Printing: Milton, 
Areop., p. 66 (1868). 1646 Ma/wmet, who us'd to preach this Doctrine That 
there ijuas a Devill in every berry of the grape, and therefore absolutely inter- 
dicted the use of wine in his Alchoran: Howell, Lewis XIII., p. 129. 1672 
Swear on the Alcoran your Cause is right: Dryden, Conq. of Granada, II. v. 
Wks., Vol. I. p. 460 (1701). 1679 As Mahomet {your Chief) began \ To mix 
them in the Alchoran: S. Butler, Hudibras, Pt. in. Cant. ii. p. 141. 1684 
the Al'Couran; J. P., Tr. Tavemier's Trav., Vol. I. Bk. v. p. 235. 1712 the 
Grand Signior, who is obliged, by an express Command in the Alcoran, to learn 
and practise some Handycraft Trade : Spectator, No. 353, Apr. 16, p. Si6/x 
(Morley). 1742 The Alcoran hath few or no express cases, or rules, such as, 
being plain and direct, deserve to be termed laws : R. North, Lives of Norths, 
Vol. II. p. 386 (1826), 1780 ancient Alcorans could not foresee modem con- 

tingencies: HoR. Walpole, Letters, Vol. vii. p. 335 (1858). 1788 the cession 
of the Crimea by the Porte was contrary to the Alcoran, and was therefore ad- 
mitted merely pro forma: Gent. Mag., LVIll. 73/1. 1829 would you call him 
Christian, when you knew that he still made the Alcoran the guide of his conduct': 
Congress. Debates, Vol. v. p. 356/2. 1830 The sole guide of law and in- 
terpretation being the Alcoran: E. Blaquiere, Tr. Sig. Pananti, p. 318 
(and Ed.). 

1550 The Alcaron of the Barefote Friers : E. Alberus, Title, bef 1658 
These Orders were generally enjoyned by our English Mahomet, through all 
the Provinces of his Conquest, and were framed according to the Law of his 
\Aood.y Alchoran: J. Cleveland, 7? zw^zcA i?a?«;*., Wks., p. 457 (1687). — A Text 
on which we find no Gloss at all | But in the Alcoran of Gold-smiths Hall! ih., 
P- 233- 

1665 The Carcasses of some Alchoranish Doctors : Sir Th. Herbert, Trav., 
p. 129 (1677). 1753 The Persians are generally alkoranists, as admitting the 
alcoran only for their rule of faith: Chambers, Cycl., Suppl. 

alcoran^, sb.: Pers. fr. Arab. See quotations. 

1625 These frames doe the Arabians and Persians in their owne language, 
call Chilminara : which is as much as if yott should say in Spanish, Quarenta 
columnas, or Alcoranes : for so they call those high narrow steeples, which the 
Arabians haue in their Mesquiies: Pukchas, Pilgrirtis, Vol. ll. Bk. ix. p. 15^3. 
1665 one [tower] is square above fifty foot high in the body,. ..and above, spinng 
in two slender but aspiring Alcoranes of wood, being round and coupled at the 
top, garnished with great art and cost, very near as high as Pauls in London: 
Sir Th. Herbert, Trav., p. 129 (1677). — the Alcoranes, i.e. high slender 
Turrets which the Mahometans usually erect for use and ornament near their 
Mesguits, they term these Minars, i.e. Towers: ib., p. 142. 1696 Phillips, 
World of Words. 1738 Chambers, Cyc/. 

[Quite distinct from Alcoran^ perhaps al-qorun, =' tht 
horns', or al-giran, ='the vertices'.] 

alcornoco, alcornocLue, j^. : ir.Sp.alcornogtie: 'cork-oak', 
the young bark of which is used in tanning; also, in commerce, 
the name of various S. American trees having similar bark. 
Sometimes used for the bark itself, and once at least (perhaps 
owing to a false connection of alcom- with acorri) for the 
acorn of the cork-oak {Quercus suber). 

1625 certaine knops like vnto Alcomogues or Acornes: Purchas, Pilgrims, 
Vol. II. Bk. X. p. 1695. 1866 Alcortioco or Alcomoque Bark, the bark of 
several species of Byrsonima; the Alcomoque of Spain is the bark of the carV- 
tree: Treas. Bot., 3s. [N.E.D.] 

alcorza, sb. : Sp. (Arab, al-qorqd) : a kind of pastry or 

1616 All the deare secrets, to know how to make I Pastilles of the Dutchesse 
oiBraganza, | Coguetias,Almoiaimna's,Maniecadiis, \ Alcoreas,Mustaccioli; 


or say it were | The Peladore of Isabella, or balls | Against tlie itch, or aqua 
tmnfa: B. Jonson, Dev. is an Ass, iv. 4, Wks.,"VoI. 11. p. 150 (1631—40). 

a 1 c y o n : Gk. See halcyon. 

aldea, aldee, dea, s6.: Port, and Sp. fr. Arab, al-dai'a: 
village, hamlet. 

1625 the Gouernour appointed them a more conueuient place AasaaSi Aldea 
two Course off...Neare this Village.. .lieth a small Aldea on the Riuersbanke very 
pleasant: Puecha.-;, Pilgrims, Vol. I. Bk. iv. p. 423. — Candere, a roguish dirtie 
Aldea: ib.,p. 429. — lodged neere vnto a Dea called Malgec : i6.,p. 522. 1780 
The Coast between these is filled with Aldees, or villages of the Indians: Dunn, 
Mew Directory, no (5th Ed.). [Yule] 1864 towards the aldeia or Indian 
part of the town: H. W. Bates, t>lai. on A-inazons, ch. viii. p. 209. — the town 
and the aldeia or village: ib,, ch. vi. p. 148. 

*Aldus Manutius, a celebrated printer of Venice of the 
16 c. (d. 1515) whose editions {Aldine) are highly prized. 
Hence, owing to Pickering's application of the term Aldine 
to his own imitations of Aldus' small handy volumes, other 
publishers have called neat handy volumes Aldine. 

1819 at a loss for the verse and chapter whence my epigram is taken. I am 
sorry I have not my Aldus with me, tliat I might satisfy your curiosity: Tr, 
West, in Gray's Letters, Vol. I. p. 26. 1850 In this were displayed black- 
letter volumes and books in the clear pale types of Aldus and Elzevir: Thack- 
eray, Pendennis, Vol. I. ch. xxxi. p. 349 (1879). 

alea belli incerta,/Ar.: Lat.: the hazard {lit. 'die') of war 
(is) uncertain. 

1659 N. Hardy, onzst Ep. John, NichoRs Ed., p. 233/1 (1865). 

Alecto, Allecto: Lat. fr. Gk. 'AXt/kto: 'the ceaseless'; 
one of the Furies or Eumenides or Erinyes, the avenging 
powers of Greek Mythology. Cf Virg., Aen., vil. 323 ff. 

1584 Such false dissembling men, stoong with /J /^c^fj.? dart; Cl. Robinson, 
Pleas. Del., p. 50 (1880). abt. 1591 Fiery mind inflam'd with a look, enrag'd 
as Alecto: Greene, Poems, p. 309/2, 1. 18 (1861). 1597 Rouse up revenge 
from ebon den with fell Alecto s snake: Shaks., // Hen. IV., v. 5, 39. 

Alectryon : Gk. dXeKTpvdv : a cock. Gk. Mythol. : a youth 
who was changed into a cock. 

1873 The crowing cock, Thtf Alectryon of the farmyard and the flock: Long- 
fellow, Emma &= Eginh., no. [N. E. D.] 

alegarto, alegator: Sp. See alligator. 

Aleikoum; Arab. See Salaam aleikoum. 

alemort : Eng. fr. Fr. See a la mort. 

aleph, sb. : Heb.. alef: the first letter of Semitic alphabets, 
whence Gk. oK^a, alpha; the word means 'ox'. In Arabic 
the corresponding letter is alif. 

1665 Rabbi Elias...irota the first verse of the first chapter of Genesis where 
the letter Aleph is six times found, cabalistically concludes that the World shall 
endure just six thousand years, Aleph in computation standing for a thousand: 
Sir Th. Herbert, Tra-v., p. 123(1677). 1839 a young lady with. ..a figure 
like the letter Alif: E. W. Lane, Tr. Arab. Nts., Vol. i. ch. iii. p. 138. 

alepiue, alapeen, sb.: Eng. fr. Syr. : a mixed stuff of wool 
and silk or of cotton and mohair, named from Aleppo, whence 
the adj. Alepine, Hakluyt, Voy., Vol. II. i. p. 272. For the 
sb. use cf Ormuzenes, ib., ix. p. 1432. 

1753 To il yds. white Allapeen, 2s. : Mr. Honner's Ledger, in J. Forster's 
Life of Goldsmith, Bk. I. ch. iv. p. 38 (1876). 

alerce, sb. : Sp. : larch, applied to an American species of 
pine akin to the European larch. Properly 'cedar', Arab. 

1845' On the higher parts, brushwood takes the place of larger trees, with here 
and there a red cedar or an alerce pine: C. Darwin, Journ. Beagle, ch. xiii. 
p. 281 (2nd Ed.). — a troop of fine mules bringing alerce-planks and corn from 
the southern plains : ib., ch. xiv. p. 298. 

alert {— J-) : Eng. fr. It. and Fr. 

1. adv. : on the watch. 

1698 Alerta, an Italian word, vsed vnto the souldiers, when there is any 
suspition of the enemy, and signifieth to. be watchfuU, carefuU, and ready: 
R. Barret, Tkeor. of Warres, Table. 1618 The prince finding his rutters 
alert (as the Italians say): R. Williams, Act. Low Countr., p. 27. [T.] 

2. adj. : active, observant, brisk, ready for action. 

1712 I saw an alerte young Fellow: Spectator, No. 403, June 12, p. 584/1' 
(Morley). bef.' 1782 th' alert | And nimble motion of those restless joints : 
CowpER, Task, Bk. III. Poems, Vol. 11. p. gs (1808). 

3. sb.: Mil. a call to look out for an attack, and in ad- 
verbial phr. 'on the alert' ( = on the 'on the erta']. 

1796 Thetroops were. ..kept constantly on the Alerte: Campaigns, 1793—4, 
II. vi. 31. [N. E. D.] 1803 I am glad to find that you have given the Enemy 
an Alert: Wellington, in Gurwood'sZ'«^.,.n. 286. [N. E.D.] 1819 with 
a race like the Mamlukes, whose chiefs, as well as meanest individuals, were 
always required to be on the alert, and ready alike for attack: T. Hope, Anast., 



Vol, II.' ch. i. p. 8 (1820). 1874 A mind ever on the alert for novelty of study 
and treatment: H. Lo.nsdale, John Dalton, iv. 71, 

[From It. aW erta, = 'on the watch' (-tower), whence Fr. 

Alexander 1 {± — IL—): Eng. fr. Lat. (fr. Gk. 'AXi^avSpos, 
= 'defending-men') : Alexander the Great, King of Macedon, 
B.C. 336—323, who utterly overthrew the Persian Empire 
B.C. 333 — 330; representative of conquest and the highest 
sovereignty. He died aged 32. 

abt. 1520 With grace endued in freedom as Alexander: Calisto and Melibaea, 
in Dodsley-Hazlitt's Old Plays, Vol. i. p. 84 (1876). abt. 1582 A great Alex- 
ander: R. Stanyhurst, Tr. Virgil's Aen., <&=<:., p. 154 (1880). 1599 Fathers, 
that, like so many Alexanders, | Have. .. fought : Shaks., Hen. V., iii. 1, 19. 
1621 another Hector, an Alexander, a goodly man, a demi-god: R. Burton, 
Anai. Mel., Pt. 3, Sec. 3, Mem. i, Subs. 2, Vol. 11. p. 441 (1827). 1663 The 
whole world was not half so wide | To Alexander, when he cri'd [because _np 
empires were left for him to conquer] : S. Butler, Hudibras, Pt. i. Cant. iii. 
p. 240. 1714 the poor Ambition of a Casar or an A lexander: Spectator, No. 
609, Oct. 20, p. 856/2 (Morley). 

Alexander^, sb. : Eng. fr. Fr. : short for bord d' Alexandre 
(g.v.), striped silk from Alexandria. 

Alexander(s), alysaunder, sb. : fr. Mediaeval Lat. Petro- 
selinum Alexandrinum (or Macedonicum), name of horse- 
parsley, Smyrnium olusatrum, of the order Apiaceae, formerly 
used instead of celery. Evidently named after Alexander ^ 

abt. 1300 With alisaundre thare-to, ache ant anys : In Wright's Lyric P., v. 
26. [N. E. D.] 1440 Alysaunder, herbe, or stanmarche, ./l/oi-ff^KM : /'«>»i;t<. 
Parv. ?1540 Take Hilworte, Alysaunder, Persly, Louage, red Fenel : Treas. 
ofpoore men, fol. 1 ro. 1578 Hipposelinum agreste, that is wilde Alexander : 
H. LvTE, Tr. Dodoen's Herb., Bk. v. ch. xlix. p. 613. 1664 Sow also... 
Sellery, Smallage, Alisanders, &c. : Evelyn, Kal. Hort., p. 195 (1729). _ 
1767 Alexanders, a sallad and culinary herb of biennial growth, with stalky tri- 
foliate leaves, not now in much request : J. Abercrombie, Ev. Man own Gar- 
dener, p. 649/1 (1803). 

Variants, alexandre, alisaundre, alysaunder, allis-, alys-, 
ales-, alis; ander(s). 

Alexander's foot, old name of Pellitory of Spain. 

1597 In French Pied d Alexandre, that is to sale. Pes Alexandrinus, or 
Alexanders foote: Grj^aut), Herball, 6ig. [N. E. D.] 1678 Alexander's 

Foot, a Plant, whose root resembles a foot : Phillips. 

Alexandrian: Alexandrine (^. ly.) ; sXso 'Bot. Alexandrian 
laurel, unscientific popular naftie oi' RuscuS racemosus, a 
plant of the lily family. 

1664 facoba^a Marine, Alexandrian Laurel, Oleanders: Evelyn, Kal. 
Hort. (lyzg). 1738 Chapman's translation of Homer consists wholly of 

Alexandrians: Chambers, Cycl. 1753 He had been deceived in supposing 
the alexandrian verses to have corresponded to the ancient heroics ; ib., Suppl. 
1797 Alexandrian, or Alexandrine, in poetry, a kind of verse consisting of 
twelve, or of twelve and thirteen syllables alternately : Encyc. Brit. 

Alexandrine {± —1L±), adj. and sb.: Eng. fr. Fr. 

1. adj.: applied to verses of six iambics, such as French 
heroic verses and the last line of the Spenserian stanza. 

1589 verses Alexandrins: Puttenham, Eng. Poes., I. xix. p. 57 (1868). 

2. sb.: an Alexandrine line or verse. 

1667 they write in Ale xaTtdrins or Verses of six feet: T>kyden, Ann. Mirab., 
sig. A 6 r*". 1709 A needless Alexandrine ends the song, | That, like a wounded 
snake, drags its slow length along: Pope, Critic., 356, Wks., Vol. I. p. 129 (1757). 
1738 ALEXANDRIN, or Alexandrian, in poetry, the name of a kind of 
verse, which consists of twelve, and thirteen syllables, alternately; the rest, or 
pause being always on the sixth syllable : Chambers, Cycl. 1825 I like these 
rattling rolling Alexandrines : Scott, Talisman, ch. xxvi. p. 104/2 (1868). 

[Either from Alexander the Great on whom several early 
French poets wrote in this metre, or from one of these poets, 
Alexandre Paris.] 

alexicacon, -kakon, sb.: Gk.: warding off evil, a preser- 
vative against evil, a panacea. 

1657 those wise physicians, who giving aA-efiKouca, do not only expel the 
poison, but strengthen tile stomach: Evelyn, Corresp., Vol. III. p. 98 (1872). 

[Gk. oke^iKaKov, neut. of adj. -xaKof.] 

alexipharmacon, sb.: Gk. aXe^ufxipnaKov : 'keeping off 
poison'; an antidote, a counter-poison. Anglicised as fl/«.rz- 
pharniac, and the corrupted form alexipharinic. 

1563 any medicine or alexipharmacon against venome : T. Gale, Treat. 
Go7tneskot, fol. 42/^. — giue the pacient some antidotum or Alexipharmacum, 
agaynste venome bothe inwardly and outwardly: — Enchirid., fol. 8 zfi. 1639 
let a good Alexipharmacon or Preservative against poyson bee given the sicke: 
J. Woodall, Siirg. Mate, p. 95. 1654 any medicine or Alexipharmacon 
against venom: R, T., Descript. of Little-World, p. 56. 1880 A quack 
doctor Buona fede Vitali, who, after wandering through Asia, had made his 
fortune in Italy by the alexipharmacon which he sold in the streets : Vernon 
Lee, 18M Cent, in Italy, ch. vi. p. 251. 



alexiterium, pi. alexiteria, sb. : Lat. fr. Gk. dXe^rjrripiov : 
a safeguard, protection (against contagion or poison). 

1671 Alexipharmaks, called also Alexiteria, are such as resist poison : Salmon, 
Syn. Med., in. xvi. 366. 1684 No Alexiterium for a pestilential poison : Tr. 
Bonefs Merc, Compit., vi. 211. [N.E.D.] 

*alfalfa, sb.\ Sp.: name of a kind of lucern ; used almost 
exclusively in, or in reference to, the United States. 

1846 all below is of as bright a green as verdigris, from the beds of alfarfa, a 
kind of clover : C. Darwin, youm. Beagle, ch. xvi. p. 3^9 (2nd Ed.), abt. 1850 
Our mules pricked up their ears, and with visions of infinite alfalfa before them, 
broke into a lively trot : Squiee, Trav. in Pent, p. 475. 

[The Sp. variant alfalfez shows that alfalfa is a corruption 
of Arab, al-faqfaq^ = * lucern '.] 

alfandica, alfantica, sb. : Arab. : a custom house, and 
resort for foreign merchants in an oriental port. 

1598 the Alsandega [rf^tf Alfandega], or Custome house: Tr. J. Van Lhi- 
schoien's Voyages^ Bk. i. Vol. 11. p. 273 (1885). 1599 when we came out of 

prison we went to the Alfandica, where we continued eight weekes with the 
English marchants : R. Hakluyt, Voyages, Vol. 11. ii. p. 203. 1625 ^ Neare 
to the Castle is the A iphandica, where there is a paire of staires for lading and 
vnlading of goods: within are roomes for keeping goods till they be cleared: 
PuRCHAS, Pilgrims^ Vol. i. Bk. iv. p. 423. — an Alpandeca for Barbarian 
Merchants: ib.. Vol. 11. Bk. vi. p. 872. 1629 The Alfantica [in Morocco] is 
also a place of note, because it is invironed with a great wall, wherein lye the 
goods of all the Merchants securely guarded: Capt. J. Smith, lVks.,x>. 870(1884). 
1797 ALFANDIGA, the name of the customhouse at Lisbon : Encyc. Brit. 

[Arab, al-fondoq^ = * the inn ', fr. Gk. travbox^lov or irav- 
boKciov, which is often found on inscriptions of Syria, mean- 
ing a hospice to receive pilgrims.] 

alfanecLue, j-^. : Sp.: tent, pavilion. 

1829 In the centre rose a stately alfaneque or pavilion, in oriental taste : 
W. Irving, Cong, of Granada^ ch. xcv. p. 505 (1850). 

[A corruption of the Berber al-fardg or afardgy = 'en- 
closure', the circuit of cloth surrounding the tent of the 
sovereign and forming a sort of court to it. Sp. alfaneque 
= 'falcon' is a distinct word.] 

alfange, sb. : Sp. (Arab, al-hanjar; see handjar) : hanger, 

1635 It is the Alfange that ushers in the faith of Mahomet evry wher, nor 
can it grow in any place, unless it be planted and sown with Gunpowder inter- 
mix!: Howell, Epist. Ho-El., Vol. ir. p. 300 (1678). 

alfacLui, sb.\ Sp. fr. Arab, al-faqih : a lawyer. 

1615 Alfakih, Alfaqui, Fakik, Faqin, or Faquinus^ as the learned Viues 
conceiueth it, is in the Mosquits or temples of the Mohametanes, one, that in the 
manner of a Priest, doth their diuine Seruice, readeth the Law, and doth interpret 
and expound the same: W. Bedwell, Arab. Tntdg. 1616 the Caliph as- 

sembled a generall Councell of "their Alpkacki, or learned men at Damasco: 
Purchas, Pilgrimage, Bk. iii. ch. x. p. 297 (1626). 1621 At Fez in Africk... 
both parties, plaintiff and defendant, come to their Alfakins or chief judge; and 
at once, without aJiy farther appeals ...the cause is heard and ended : R. Burton, 
A fiat. Mel., To Reader, p. 73 (1827). 1753 ALFAQUES, among the Spanish 
Moriscoes, were the clergy, or those who instructed them in the Mahometan faith : 
Chambers, Cycl., Suppl. 1829 He summoned a council.. .and the alfaquis 
or doctors of the faith: W. Irving, Co7iq. of Granada, ch. xcvi. p. 509(1850). 
— these [cattle] he gave in charge to an alfaqui to deliver to Pedro de Varga [with 
a message of apology] : ib., ch. xi. p. 8z. 1830 The men of letters, who are 

called Alfagui and Talbi: E. Blaquiere, Tr. Sig. Pananti, p. 251 (2nd Ed.). 

[From Arab. al'faqth, = ^t]\Q. learned-one'.] 
^Iferes, alferez, sb. : Old Sp. and Port. : ensign, standard- 
bearer, cornet. 

1591 The office of an Alfierus or ensigne bearer: Garrard, Art Warre, 
p. 62. 1598 Alferez, is a Spanish word, and signifieth the Ensigne bearer : R. 
Barret, Theor. of JVar?-es, Table. 1600 a man meanly borne, who bare 
no other office then a sergeant or alferez: R. Hakluyt, Voyages, Vol. ill. 
p. 636. 1630 Jug here, his alfarez: | An able officer: B. Jonson, New l7m, 

iii, I, Wks., p. 419 (1860). 1650 Captaines, Alterezes \sic\ and Sargeants: 
Howell, Tr. Giraffi's Hist. Rev. Napl., p. 48. 1652 all the Officers of war, 
beginning with the Alferez or Lieutenants: — Pt. II. Massaniello (Hist. Rev. 
Napl.), p. 74. 1829 In this desperate struggle, the alferez or standard-bearer 

of the master, with his standard, was lost: W. Irving, Co?ig. of Granada, ch. xii. 
p. 92 (1850). 

Variants, 16 c. alfierus, 17 c. alfeeres, alfara^ alfarez^ alfaro, 
pi. alferes. 

[Old Sp. and Port, alferes (Mod. Sp. alfires)\ fr. Arab. 
al-fdris, = ' the horseman '.] 

alfiere, i-^.: It.: ensign, cornet ; see alferes. 

1645 after them [followed]. ..the two alfieri, or cornets of the Pope's light 
horse: Evelyn, Diary, Vol. i. p. 137 (1872). 

alforge, sb.'. Port.: the same as Sp. alforja {q.v.). 
alforja, sb.-. Sp. fr. Arab. al-horj\ ^the saddle bag'. 
I. a leather bag, a saddle bag. 

1624 we took down our A Iforjas, and som Bottles of Wine : Howell, Letters, 
III. xxxviii. p. 120 (1645). 1832 his alforjas of coarse cloth hold his scanty stock 
of provisions : W. Irving, Alhambra, p. 15. 


I a. Metaph, paunch. 

bef. 1819 They Humbly came their Majesties tp greet, | Begging their 
Majesties to come and treat | On every sort of fruit their grand all-f arches : 
Wolcot, P. Pindar, p. 97 (1830). [Davies] 

2. the cheek-pouch of a baboon. 

1705 In this he hoards his Food, as the Monkies do in their Alfoaches: Tr. 
Bosnian's Guinea, Let. xv. p. 267. 1748 a great bag of loose skin hanging 
down on each side in wrinkles like the alforjas of a baboon: Smollett, Rod. 
Rand., ch. xviii. Wks., Vol. i. p. in (1817J. 

alfresco: It. See al fresco. 

alfridaria, sb.: an obscure astrological term; see quo- 

1615 I'll find the cusp and alfridaria, | And know what planet is in cazini : 
Albumazar, ii. 5, in Dodsley-Hazlitt's Old Plays, Vol. xi. p. 344(1875). 1647 
Lords of the Septenniall yeers, vulgarly called Lords of the Alfridary, are thus: 
If the Native be borne by day, the governes the first seven yeers after the 
Birth, 9 the next seven, 5 the next seven, and so in order : Lilly, Chr. 
Astrol., clxxi. 733. 1708 Alfridary, a temporary Power which the Planets 
have over the Life of a Person: Kersey. 

Alfurcan, sb. : Arab, alfurqan : a title of the Koran as 
that by which the true and the false are distinguished. 

1616 [See Alcoran^], 1634 to crowne all, his Booke, yet no Alfurca7i, 
of deuotion is laid vpon him as too worthy the vse of sinners: Sir Th. Herbert, 
Trav., p. 55. 1657 As Mahomet joined his Alfurta, his service book, a 
horrible heap of all blasphemies, to the three parts of holy Scripture: John 
Trapp, Com. Old Test, Vol. iii. p. 145/1 (1868). 1665 To crown all, a Book 
(no A ifurcan of Devotion) was laid upon his Coffin : ib. (3rd Ed.), p. 125 (1677). 

*alga, pi. algae, sb. : Lat. : sea-weed or kindred fresh-water 
weed, plants of the Cryptogamic division. 

1551 Alga whiche is a common name vnto a great parte of see 
commonly called in englyshe see wrak: Turner, Herbal, no (1568). 1606 
[OcEANVs] was gyrlonded with .(4^(7, or sea-grasse: B. Jonson, ^rtuyw^j, Wks., 
p. 894 (1616). 1660 With alga who the sacred alter strows: Dryden, Astr, 
Red., 119. bef. 1682 Vegetables (as the several varieties of Algds, Sea- 

Lettuce...) are found at the bottom of the Sea: Sir Th. Brown, Tracts, i. p. 11 
(1686). 1763 The Alga's are some marine, or growing in the sea; others flu- 
viatile, or produced in rivers; others fontal, growing in springs: ChamberSj 
Cycl, Suppl. 1771 they feed on the alga marina, and other plants that grow 
on the beach: Smollett, Humph. CI., p. gi/i (1882). 1843 Such a difference 
of degree may be traced between the class of Vascular Plants and that of Cellular, 
which includes lichens, algae, and other substances whose organization is simpler 
and more rudimentary than that of the higher order of vegetables : J. S. Mill, 
System of Logic, Vol. 11. p. 282 (1856). 1855 below again, about the neap-tide 
mark, the region of the corallines and Algts furnishes food for yet other species 
who graze on its watery meadows: C. Kingsley, Glaucus, p. log, 

algal(l)ia, algaly, sb,: Sp. algalia (fr. Arab, al~gkalia): 
civet. Frampton seems to translate Sp. gato de algalia^ 
= 'civet cat'. 

1580 such spottes as the Cattes oi Algallia haue : Frampton, Joyfull Newes, 
&*(:., fol. 1227'"^. 1698 From Bengala commeth much Algallia, or Civet: Tr. 
y. Van Linschoten's Voyages, Bk. i. Vol. i, p. 96 (1885). — Algalia or Civet 
is much found in India: ib.. Vol. 11. p 95. 1662 the Algalia^, which are the 

Creatures from which they get the Musks: J. Davies, Tr. Mandelslo, Bk. 11. 
p. 134 (1669). 1625 they reape great profit, specially by their Agaly or Muske: 
Purchas, Pilgrims, Vol. 11. Bk. vii. p. 955. 

algarde, sb. : Eng. fr. Sp. : a Spanish wine named from the 
place where it was produced. 

bef. 1400 Mount rose, & wyne of Greke, Both algrade, & respice eke: Sqr. 
Low Deg., 756, in Dom. Arch., n. 134. [N. E.D.] abt. 1440 Osay and 

algarde, and other ynewe, Rynisch wyne and Rochelle, richere was never: Morte 
Arth., 202. [N.E.D.] 

*algarroba, sb.\ Sp. fr. Arab. al-har?'dba, al~harruba, 'the 
carob tree': Bot. : the carob tree and bean ; also a S. American 
mimosa with similar pods. 

1577 they are alwaies greene, and in taste of milche sharpenesse, as the 
Berries called Algarrouas be when they are greene. ..he carrieth the leaffe like 
to Algarroua: Frampton, Joyfull Newes, fol. 106 r^. 1826 The trees are 

principally the Algarroba ; they were about the size and shape of apple-trees : 
Capt. Head, Pampas, p. 238. 1845 a little vegetation, and even a few algar- 
roba trees: C. Darwin, Journ. Beagle, ch. xvi. p. 359, 

algatross. See albatross, alcatras. 
algebra (-i --), sb.: It. or Sp. fr. Arab. 

1. surgical treatment of fractures. 

1541 The helpes of Algebra & of dislocations are of .vj. fourmes: R. 
Copland, Tr. Guydds Quest., fine-., sig. X iij r". 

2. the mathematical treatment of general symbols accord- 
ing to fixed conventional laws for the determination of the 
properties and relations of quantities. The science of red- 
integration and equation. 

1551 Also the rule of false position, with dyuers examples not onely vulgar, 
but some appertayning to the rule of Algeber : Recorde, Fathw. Know., ii. 
Pref. [N.E.D.] 1570 T lie Science (^ workyng Algiebar and Almackahel, 
that IS, the Science of findyng an vnk?iowen number^ by Addyng of a NuTnber, 
^^ DiuisioH (&^ (Equation: J. Dee, Pref. Billingsley's Euclid, sig. *ii vo. 1610 
all your alchemy, and your algebra : B. Jonson, Alch., i. i, Wks., p, 607 (1616). 
1629 wits that are apt for any particular Science. ..Many such and very famous 


ones have been in former times. In this of ours Vieta in the Algebra, Gilherto 
in the Speculations of the Magnetick Vertues : Brent, Tr. Soav^s Hist. Counc. 
Tr&nt,^. X. (1676). . 1637 A rare Mathematician, even in the most abstruse 
parts thereof, as m Algebra and the Theoriques: Relig. Wotton., sig. f 3 r" 
(1685). hef. 1668 And as the mystick Hebrew backward lies, | And Algebra's, 
guest by Absurdities, ] So must we spell thee : J.Cleveland, lVks.,v. 298(1687). 
1663 And wisely tell what hour o' the day | The Clock does strike, by Algebra: 
S. Butler, Htuiibras, Pt. i. Cant. i. p. 10. hef. 1782 if it weigh th' import- 
ance of a fly, IThe scales are false, or algebra a lie: Cowper, Convers., Poems, 
Vol. L p. 154 (1808). 1850 That excellent woman knew no more about Homer 
than she did about Algebra: Thackeray, Pettdemiis, Vol. i. ch. xxiii. p. 186 
(1879). 1876 After advancing so far with arithmetic and algebra, Latin authors 
engaged them: H. Lonsdale, Worthies of Cumberland, Vol. vi. p. 167. 

[It and Sp. algebra, shortened from Arab, al-jabr w'al- 
moqabala, the Arab, name of the art, lit. 'restoration and 
equation'. 'Restoration' is explained as meaning either 
getting rid of fractions, or the removal of negative quan- 
tities by adding the same quantity to both sides of the 
equation. The second part of the Arab, name becomes Late 
Lat. almacabala, Eng. almachabel.'\ 

algodon, sb.-. Sp. fr. Arab, al-qoton: cotton. 

1655 This cotton the Spaniards call Algodon and the Italians Bombasino: 
K. Eden, Voyages, p. 5 z/". 

algongoli: Sp. See ajonjoli. 
algor, j3.: Lat.: cold, chilliness. 

abt. 1420 For over colde doo douves dounge at eve Aboute her roote, algour 
away to dryve : Pallad. on Husb., xi. 55. [N. E. D.] 1753 ALGOR is used, 
by some medicinal writers, to denote a preternatural coldness or chilnessin apart. 
Muys speaks, in this sense, of an Algor of the arm, attended with an atrophy. 
Chambers, Cycl, Suppl. 

*alguazil, alguacil, sb.-, Sp.: a serjeant of police, a con- 

hef. 1530 Againe your Grace must have Alguazeles and Aposintadors wiche 
must bee sent [from] this Contra, to meet with your servaunts that goo afor to 
make prouisions, and herbegears at their first entree into Spayne...Alguazeeles: 
Edw. Lee, in Ellis' Orig. Lett., 3rd Ser., Vol. 11. No. clix. p. 105 (1846). 
1563 until the alguazil or sergeant of the said inquisition might come and 
apprehend. ..the said Nicholas Burton: Foxe, A, dr" M., Bk. xii. Vol. viii. p. 513 
(1853). 1600 in the towne of Ihualapa the chiefe Alguazil of the prouince is 
resident: R. Hakluyt, Voyages, Vol. in. p. 496. 1612 the great Provost or 
Constable of Granado whom, they called Alguazil Major. ..The Alguazil seeing 
their disloyalty, &c. : E. Geimestone, Tr. Turquet's Hist, of Spaine, Ek. xiii. 
p. 471. . .1620 nine Alguaziles (Sargeants) who inclosing me on both Sides 
laid violent Hands on .me: W. Lithgow, Racking at Malaga, p. 194 (Repr. in 
Phcen. Brit., 1732), 1623 if an Alguazil {a Sargea^U) shew hitn his Vare, 
that is a little -white sta ffe.., my ViQn.'iuill down presently off his horse, andyeeld 
himself his prisoner: Howell, Lett., ni. xxxi. p. 109(1645). 1669 be gone 
my saucy companion, I'll clap an Alguazile upon thy heels: Dkvden, Mock 
Astral., i. i, Wks., Vol. i. p. 285 (1701). 1673 a Bolser for the treasury ; a 
Medi?io for the prison, Argozils or Serjeants: J. Ray, Jonrri. Low Cou7tir., 
p. 490. 1797 The corregidor...has sent this alguazil to apprehend you: 

Smollett (?), Tr. Gil Bias. [L.] 1832 he summoned to his presence his 
trustiest alguazil: W. Irving, Alhambra, p. 255. 1883"The terrible Algtia- 
zils of the Rue de Jerusalem threatened action: Sat. Rev., Vol. 55, p. 558. 
1885 called up at midnight by the "alguacil" and three doctors, who came to... 
inform me that I was to repair at once to. ..the "lazareto" : Daily News, Aug. 21, 
P- 5/7. 

[From Arab. al-wazir, — ^\h^ minister', see vizier, cf. Port. 
alvasir, alvasiL The meaning has been degraded in the 
Peninsula first to the governor and judge of a town, then to 
lower ministers of justice.] 

algum, almug, pL algummim, sb,\ Heb. (but probably of 
foreign origin): perhaps * sandal wood'. 

1578 Send mee also cedar trees, firre trees, and Algummim trees: Bible 
(Genev.), 2 Chron., ii. 8. 1611 Algume trees: ib. 1619 Golden Targets, 

Almug Trees, precious Stones: Purchas, MicrocosmuSi ch. Ixxiv. p. 735. 1665 
Ebony (which some take for the Algummin wood): Sir Th. Herbert, Trav., 
p. 349 (1677). 

alhaga, sb.: Arab, alhaja {lit. 'the thing 0: a Moorish 

1682 over this [cassock] an alhaga, or white woollen mantle : Evelyn, DiaTy, 
Vol. iL p. i6i (1850). 

*Alhambra : Sp. : the fortress and palace of the Moorish 
kings of Granada. Also {Rare), a place of entertainment 
like the Alhambra Theatre in Leicester Square, London. 

1612 King Mahomet the little, or his Alcaydes, should deliver up the 
Fortresse of Alhambra : E. Grimestone, Tr. Turgitet's Hist, of Spaine, Bk. 
xxiiL p. 940, — He went into the pallace Court of Alhambra: ib., Bk. xiii. 
p. 472. 1673 Here we saw the Castle called La Lhambra, the .seat of the 
Kings oi Granada: J. Ray, Joum, Low Countr., p. 482. 1830 the Alhambra 
and Zehra: E. Blaquieke, Tr. Sig. Pananti, p. 251 (2nd Ed.). 1854 The 
azulejos or coloured tiles, found in the Alhambra: Scoffern, in Orr^s Circ, Sc, 
Chem., 430. 1860 the imagery overwrought, and of a somewhat Eastern and 
voluptuous character. Indeed, there was one contrast between a supposed Al- 
hambra and a foul pothouse: Once a Week, Feb. 25, p. 188/1. 1880 There 
were no Alhambras then. casinos, no music-halls, no aquaria, no promenade 
concerts: Lord Beaconsfield, Endytn., Vol. i. ch. xx. p. 178. 

[From Arab. ai'hamrd, = '-thQ red' (fortress).] 
s. D. 


alhenna: Arab. See alcanna, henna. 

aliafar: Sp, See aljofar. 

*alias {it ~ J.), adv. and sb. (pi. aliases) : Eng, fr. Lat.: at 
another time, otherwise. 

I. I. adv.\ otherwise (known as). 

1553 thos shepe ye wiche wer in Robert Costerds handds alias Yngram of 
hautford: Stanford Churchwardeii's Accounts, 1552 — 1602, in Antiquary, Mar.,. 
1888, p. 117/2. 1581 Stuff" called Logwood, alias Blockwood: Act 23 Eliz.', 
ix. § I. 1586 George Castriot, alias Scanderberg: Spens., Sonn., iii. 1601 
The black prince, sir; alias, the prince of darkness; alias, the devil: Shaks., 
All's Well, iv. 5, 44. 1593 — 1622 the sharke, alias tiberune: R. HawkinS, 
Voyage into South Sea, § 19, p. 148 (1878), 1617 the Lady Pocahontas alias 

Rebecca: Capt. J. Smith, Wks., p. 535. 1622 the Duke oi Br%inswick, 

alias Bishop of Halversiadt: Howell, Lett., 11. p. 34 (1645). 1646 A like 
conceit there passeth of Melisigenes, alias Homer: Sir Th. Brown, Pseud. 
Ep., Bk. viL ch. xiii. p. 300 (1686). *1876 Smith, alias Marshall : Echo, Jan. 
8, p. 1. [St.] 

I. I a. more loosely, *that is to say', *in other words'. 

1629 a Dominican Cardinal of S. Sistus, alias of Capua: Brent, Tr. Soave's 
Hist. Cotcnc. Trent, Bk. l. p. 79 (1676). 1826 I can recommend my host's 

ale as second to none in Leith, alias in the world: *Noct. Amb.', in Blackwood's 
Mag.,Yo\. xxvL p. 122. 1863 smoking Paradise, alias opium: C. Reade, 
Hard Cask, Vol. i. p. 197. 

L 2. sb.: an assumed name, another name or title. 

1605 An Alids or double name cannot preiudice the honest: Camden, Rei7i., 
T^7 (1614). [N.E. D.] 1675 Fools, as well as Knaves, take other Names, 
and pass by an Alias: Drvden, Aurenge-Z., Ep. Ded., "Wks., Vol. n. p. i (1701). 
1831 he has been assuming various aliases: Edin. Rev., Vol. 53, p. 363, 1885 
Esther Langton also known under the alias of Esther Lewis : Athen^um, Oct. 31, 
p. 568/1. 

II. the name given to a second writ issued on the first 
writ, capias, q. v., proving ineffectual, from the phrase therein 
occurring Siatt alias praecepiinus, = '' 2i% we on another 
occasion commanded'. If the person to be sued non est 
inventus {q. v.), a pluries {q. v.) writ followed. 

1465 your councell thynketh it were well don that ye gete an allias and a 
pluries that it myght be sent don to the scheryf: Pasta?!. Letters, Vol. u. No. 
518, p. 217 (1874). 1762 He practised a much more easy, certain, and effectual 
method of revenge, by instituting a process against them, which, after writs of 
capias, alias, et pluries, had been repeated, subjected them to outlawry : 
Smollett, Laiinc. Greaves., ch. xxv. Wks., Vol. v. p. 235 (1817). 

"^alibi {il^l), adv. and sb.\ Eng. fr. Lat.; * elsewhere*. 

1. adv. \ also attrib. Leg. away from the scene of a crime 
or offence. 

1727 The prisoner.. .endeavoured to prove himself Alibi : Arbuthnot, yokit 
Bull, 70. [N.E.D.] 

2. sb.: Leg. the plea of having been away from the scene 
of a crime or offence at the time of its commission. 

1743 He would secure him witnesses of an alibi: Fielding, Jonathan 
Wild,yJVs., Vol. IV. p. 168. 1771 The constable observed, that he would 
have time enough to prepare for his trial, and might prove an alibi: Smollett^ 
Httmph. CI, p. 54/2. 1782 Must you be able to prove an alibi? HoR, Wal- 
pole, Letters, Vol. vni. p. 163 (1858). 1787 By Sir Thomas's not attending 

the whole trial, and by strong alibi's.. .he was acquitted, without even a reference 
to the jury: Gent. Mag., p. 1031/2. 1818 I'll prove an alibi, my lord: Lady 

Morgan, Fl. Macarthy, Vol. in. ch. i. p. 20 (1819). 1828 Mr. R. would not 
go in pursuit of the alibis and aliases of the accused : Congress. Debates, Vol. iv. 
p. 1332. 1837 arguments tending to show that the alibi was inadmissible : 
Dickens, Pickwick, ch. xxxii. p. 345. 1880 It would not have been difficult 

...for him to have established an a/ZiJi : J. Pavn, Canfident. Agent, ch. li. p. 334. 

alica, sb. : Lat. : spelt, spelt grits. 

1563 They call thys with vs in england frumentie potage. And I suppose it 
to be that which diuers cal Alica: T. Gale, Enchirid, fol. 47 ro. 1684 Of 

wheate also is made AUca and Amyhtm mentioned of Galen, things not vsuali 
among vs. Yet Amyluin is taken to be starche, the vse whereof is best knowen 
to launders. And Alica Saccharata is taken for frumentie : T. Coghan, Haven 
of Health, p. 26. — they boyle it [rice] as Alica, yet it is more hardly digested 
and nourisheth lesse : ib,, p. 31. 1753. ALICA, in the antient physic and diet, 
a kind of food.. .some representing it as a sort of grain, and others as an aliment 
made of grain: Chambers, Cycl., Suppl. 

Alicant, sb.\ Eng. fr. Sp.: wine from Alicante in Spain. 

1530 Alegant wyne r(7.r^^^^ : Palsgr. 1542 these bote wynes, as malmesye, 
wyne course, wynegreke... alygaunt... be not good to drynke with meate: Boorde, 
Dyetary, ch. x. p. 255 (1870). 1601 grosse wine like alegant: Holland, Tr. 
Plin. N. H., Bk. 28, ch. 13, Vol. 11. p. 329. 1616 Pure Rhenish, Hippocras, 

white Muskadine, | With the true bloud of Bacchus, Allegant, | That addes new 
vigour which the backe doth want | Are precious wines: R. C, Tiines' Whistle, 
V. 1919, p. 62 (1871). 1634 the best commoditie is the Wine issuing from the 

tree, which is sweet, pleasant and nourishing as Muskadine or AUigant : Sir Th. 
Herbert, Trav., p. 210. 1634 those kinds [of wine] that our Merchants carry 
over are those only that grow upon the Sea-side, as Malagas, Sheries, Tents, 
and Aligants: Howell, Epist. Ho-El., Vol. ii. Iv. p. 350 (1678). 1660 Hol- 
locks, Bastards, Tents and Allicants, brought into the Port of London, the Butt, 
or Pype to pay...ij. 1. v. s.: Stat. 12 Car. II., c. 4. Sched., s. v. Wines. 

Variants, 16 c. 17 c. Aliga{u)nt^ Aligau?te, ale-, alli-j alle- 



alienator {± ir.), sb.: Eng.: one who alienates or 

transfers to the ownership of another. 

1670 With these Immunities and Lands they have entail'd a curse upon the 
Alienators of them: Walton, LiveSy Hooker, ui. igi. [N. E. D.] 17^2 Many 
popish bishops were no less alienators of their episcopal endowments: T. Warton, 
Sir T. Pope, 40. [T.] 

[From Eng. alienate, as if Late Lat. alienator, noun of 
agent to Lat. alienare, = ' to. transfer to the ownership of an- 

aliment {x — —), vb.: Eng. fr. Fr.: to nourish, feed, main- 
tain ; also Metafih. to support, sustain. Obs. 

1490 She hathe alymented and noryshed her from the owre of hyr birthe: 
'Caxton, Eneydos, xxix. 113. [N. E.D.] 

[From Fr. alimenter, = ^to nourish ' The Eng. sb. aliment 
is adapted from Lat. alimentum.^ 

aliofar, alioffar, aliofre: Sp, See aljofar. 

*aliquando bonus dormltat Homerus, j)hr.: Lat.: 
'sometimes worthy Homer is sleepy'; i.e. the brightest ge- 
nius is sometimes dull. From Hor., A. P., 359, quandoque 
b. d. H. 

1602 the common speech being most true aliquanda dormiiat HoTnerus: 
W. Watson, Quodlitets of Relig. &» State, p. 124. 1621 the very best may 
sometimes err; aliquando bonus donnitat Homerus: it is impossible not in so 
much to overshoot :R. Burton, Anat, Mel,, To Reader, Vol. i. p. 114(1827). 
1836 [referred to]: Sir J. Ross, Sec. Voyage, ch. xlix. p. 635. 1886 "Ali- 
■quando bonus dormitat Homerus". And no one expects infallibility in calen- 
darers of State Papers: Atheneeum, May 29, p. 713/3. 

aliciuid, neut. pronom. adj.: Lat.: 'something', 'some- 

1577 aliquid sails [of salt]: G. Gascoigne, p. ^i (1868). 1669 they... 
would hunt to destruction every one in whom there is aliquid Christi, anything 
of Christ: J. Flavel, Wks., Vol. v. p. 105 (1799). 1689. when the best 
knowledge hath gone as far as it can, yet there is still aliquid ultra [beyond] : 
Sir M. Hale, Co?itemplaiio7is, Pt. i. p. 47. 

*aliquidhaeret,/^r.: Lat. : 'something sticks'; a.haerebit, 
■'something will stick'. 

bef. 1733 R. North, Examen, I. ii. 91, p. 79 (1740). 

aliq,UOt(.jC i): Eng. fr. Yr. aliquote, or fr. Late Lat. ali- 

■quota (pars) = ' some part': in pkr. aliquot part, an exact 
measure, a quantity contained in another quantity so many 
times without any remainder ; also used for aliquot part. 

1570 this kynde of part is called commonly par metiens or mensuratis, that 
is, a measuryng part: some call it pars 3nultiplicatiua: and of the barbarous it 
is called^rtrj aliquota, that is an aliquote part: H. Billingsley, Euclid, Bk. v. 
fol. 126 ro. 1696 Aliquot parts, are the even numbers that may be had out of 
any great number, as 6, 4, 3, 2, out of 12 : Phillips, World of Words. 1809 
ALIQUOT ^izr/, is such part of a number as will divide and measure it exactly, 
without any remainder. For instance, 2 is an aliquot part of 4, 3 of 9, and 4 of 16 : 
Nicholson, Brit. Encycl. 

[Not fr. Lat. aliquot, = ''so many', butfr. Late Lat. aliquota 
pars, coined from quota pars, = 'wh.a.t part?' on the analogy 
of aliquanta pars, = ' an inexact measure', 'an aliquant part'.] 

alisa(u)nder, -dre. See Alexander(s). 

alisma, sb. : Lat. fr. Gk. aXi<r/ia : Bot. : water-plantain ; 
esp. Alisma Plantago, or great water-plantain, which is 
found in our ponds, ditches, and marshy places. 

1578 the stalke of A lisina is single and slender, and the rootes shoulde be 
■also slender : H. Lyte, Tr. Dodoen's Herb., Bk. III. p. 335. 1863 Upshoots, 
with graceful pyramid of white thick-clustered flowers, the delicate alisma : 
O. Meredith, King of Ainasis, 1. ii. 2, 112. [N. E. D.] 

aliud — aliud, alius — alius : Lat. See quotations. 

1647 Christ is alius from his Father, not aliud: John Trapp, Cotji. on New 
Test., p. 372/1 (1868). — As in the person of Christ there is aliud et aliud 
■(against Eutyches), not alius et alius (against Nestoriiis): ib. 1656 This, then, 
is the Catholic faith, the Father and the Son are alius and alijts, another and 
another person, but not aliud and aliud, another and another thing: N. Hardy, 
on isi Ep. John, Nichol's Ed., p. 22/2 (1865). 1672 in Christ there is nature 

and nature, but not person and person ; aliud et alijtd, but not alitis et alius, for 
it is but one Christ : T. Jacomb, Romans, Nichol's Ed., p. 247/1 (1868), 

aliunde, adv.: Lat.: from another place, from another 

1659 that it [i.e. Scripture] may reach us,_that we may know, and understand, 
^nd submit to its authority, it must be testified unto aliunde, from some other 
person, or thing appointed thereunto: J. Owen, Wks.; Vol. iv. p. 403 (Russell, 
1826). 1674 they {i.e. moral duties] are in some measure known unto men 
^iliunde' from other principles: ib.. Vol. ll. p. 322. 1861 evidence which 
happens to be afforded aliunde: J. W. Croker, Essays Fr. Rev., 11. p. gi (1857). 
1860 it was proved on his side, aliunde, that he was fanatically convinced of the 
advantages of the Taliacotian operation : Once a Week, Mar. 10, p. 230/1. 1877 


In the cases of Florida and Louisiana this Commission by a vote of 8 to 7 refused 
to receive any evidence aliunde thecertificates of the officials of the state : Proceed, 
of Electoral Commiss., Congress. Record, Pt. iv. Vol. v. p. 218/2. 1884 The 
reference to the purchaser is not conclusive, for it might have been shewn aliunde 
that y. Studds was not the purchaser: Sir Ford North, Law Reports, 28 Chanc. 
Div., 308. 

aljoba, sb.: Arab. See quotations. 

1626 they vsed garments of a middle size for length, like the Punike »«/, 
vsed by the Turkes and Persians at this day, which they call Aljuba» and ihe^ 
Cauaia: Purchas, Pilgritns, Vol. 11. Bk. ix. p. 1533. 1666 the Aljoha or 

garment most of them wear reaches scarce to the knee, and is somewhat strait 
near the waste where 'tis girt about: Sir Th. Herbert, Trav., ^. 139 (1677). 
— The Asiaticks were no bands ; their Aljoba or out-side Vest is usually of 
Callico sticht with silk, or quilted with Gotten: ib., p. 207. _ 1819 swing his 
jubbee, like a pendulum, from side to side, and shuffle along in his papooshes; 
T. Hope, Anast., Vol. I. ch. i. p. i (1820). 1830 their robes, called yK^ar, 
are made like tunics: E. Blaquiere, Tr. Sig. Pananti, p. 201 (2nd Ed.). 1836 
The ordinary outer robe is a long cloth coat of any colour (called by the Turks 
joob'beh but by the Egyptians gtb'beJi), the sleeves of which reach not quite to 
the wrist: E. W. Lane, Mod. Egypt., Vol. I. p. 34. 1839 He was dad in a 
jubbeli: — Tr. Arab. Nts., Vol. I. ch. vi. p. 466. 1846 a crimson robe, (j'aobey) 
reaching also to her feet: Mem. of Lady H. Stanhope, Vol. I. ch. iii. p. gg; 

[Arab, aljubba ; see first quotation fr. Lane.] 

aljofar, sb.: Sp. fr. Arab, al-jauhar, 'the precious stone': 
seed-pearl, a pearl of irregular form. 

1582 Aliofre, or perles of the first sorte or siz : R. Hakluyt, Divers Voyages, 
p. 164(1850). 1589 there is great fishing of pearles and aliafar, and those which 
are there founde do in many killats exceede them that are brought from Baren : 
R. Parke, Tr. Mendoza^s Hist. Chin., Vol. 11. p. 303 (1854). — there are 
many pearls and ahofar, al very good, round, and fine: ib., p. 328. 1598 It 

hath many Pearles and Alioffar: Tr. f. Vatt Linsch)ten's Voyages, Bk, i. Vol. L 
p. 128 (1885). 

alkahest, sb.: coined by Paracelsus the alchemist, in a 
Latin treatise, as the name of his universal solvent. 

1668 [Van Helmont] His great Solvent called the Alkahest [margin]: J. H.; 
Elijc. Prop., p. 4. 1696 Alcahest, the Chyraical Appellation of prepared 

Mercury: Phillips, World of Words. 1748 Paracelsus, a bold Empiric, and 
wild Cabalist, asserted, that he had discovered it [the Universal Medicine], and 
called it his Alkahest: LoRP Chesterfield, Letters, Vol. I. No. 132, p. 317 
(1774). 1762 Now this here elixir, sold for no more than sixpence a-phial, 
contains theessenceofthe alkahest ; the archsus, the catholicon, the menstruum, 
the sun, the moon, and, to sum up all in one word, is the true, genuine, uut 
adulterated, unchangeable, immaculate, and specific chruseon pepuromeTian ek 
puros: Smollett, Launc. Greaves, ch. x. Wks., Vol. v. p. 93 (1817). 

*alkali, alcali {jl - J.), sb. : Eng. fr. Fr. alcali (fr. Arab.). 

1. the saline substance obtained by passing water through 
the ashes of plants (saltworts) which grow in moist, saline 
soil, as Salsola and Salicornia. 

1386 Sal tartre, alcaly, and salt preparat : Chaucer, Chan. Yem. Tale, 
C. T., 126-J&, p. 481 (Tyrwh., 1856). 1584 saltartre, alcalie, sal preparat: 

R. Scott, Disc. Witch., Bk. xiv. ch. i. p. 354. 

2. Bot. saltwort {Salsola Kali or Salsola Soda). 

1578 The herbe named of the -Arabians Kali, or Alkali : H. Lyte, Tr. Do- 
doen's Herb., Bk. i. p. 115. 1696 Alkali, the Herb Kali, at Saltwort: 
Phillips, World of Words. 1738 KALI, a plant growing on the sea coasts... 
The name Kali, or alkali, was given it by the Arabians: Chambers, Cycl. 
1797 Alkali, or Sal Kali, in botany. See Salicornia : Encyc. Brit. 

3. any substance having the characteristics of soda, e.g. 
forming a soapy emulsion with oil, and neutralising acids ; 
also any alkaline products of commerce, as caustic potash. 
Alkalis are mineral as soda, vegetable as potash, animal as 
ammonia. In modern Chemistry the term includes all bases 
analogous to these three substances. 

W96 Alkali K a. Term in Chymistry and Physic, and is a hollow, and porous 
Salt readily dispos d to joyn it self easily with all Acids: Phillips, World of 
Words. 1710 Frogs Spawn. ..abounds with an occult Volatile Alcali: Fuller, 
Pharmacop., p. 105. 1789 The medicinal waters [of Ballstown] contain iron, 
2. mineral alkalt, common salt &n& lime: J. Morse, Amer. Univ. Geogr. Vol. i. 
p. 4q8 (1796). 1863 An Act for the more effectual condensation of iviuriatic 
Acid Gas in Alkali Works : Stat. 26 &= 27 Vic, ch. 124 title. 

alkanet {J--=^, sb.: Eng. fr. Sp. 

1. red dye obtained from a European plant, Anchusa or 
Alkatma tinctoria, Nat. Order Boraginaceae, also called 
orcanet, orchanet, fr. Fr. orcanite. "' 

abt. 1440 Take alkenet ii penyworth, and frie hit in faire grese : In Househ. 
(V<;., 256 (1790) [N. E. D.) 1660 Alkanet roots, the pound j. s.: Stat. 12 
Cffn //., c. 4. Sched., J. z/. Drugs. 

2. Bot. the aforesaid plant, or a kindred plant. 

1499 Alkenet herbe, Alcanea: Prompt. Parv. (Pynson). 

[From Sp. alcaneta, arcaneta, dimin. of alcana, see alcanna.] 

alkanna: Sp. See alcanna. 

alkekengi {J.-11.-), sb.: Eng. fr. Low Lat. fr. Pers. 
through Arab.: red Nightshade, red Winter-cherry (P/ty- 
salis Alkekengi, 'Nat. Oirder Solanaceae). 


1440 Alkenkengy herbe morab, Morella rubea: Prompt. Parv. 1499 
Alkynkynge : ib. (Pynson). 1678 Vesicaria vulgaris. Alcakengie or winter 
Cherie; H. Lyte, Tr. Dodoetis Herb., Bk. ni. p. 445. 1797 Encyc. Brit. 

Variants, alken-, alkyn-, alka-, alca-, alche-. 
' [Low Lat alkefiengi, fr. Arab, alkakeng, fr. Pers. kakunaj. 
The forms enditig in -g, -ge, may be fr. Fr: alk4kenge, the 
forms: in alka-, alca-., alche- fr. It. alchakengi.'\ 

alkermes {--L-), sb.: Eng. fr. Fr.: the scarlet grain 
insect, formerly thought to be a berry, see kermes; also a 
cordial confection of which the kermes was an ingredient. 

1647 the confettion named Alckermes be good to comforte the soule or the 
spirites of man: Booeoe, Brev., ch. 22, p. 103 (1870). 1616 Alkermes, 

Currans, &c. [list of fruits of New England]: Capt. J. Smith, Wks., p, 721 
(1884). __^ 1660 Alchemes; Syrrup, the pound vj. s. yiij. d. ; Confectio, the 
outice iiij. s.: Stat. 12 Car. II., c. 4. Sched., j.z/. Drugg. bef. 1682 make use 
of the fresh Pulp for the confection of ^//&^r»;^j: which still retaineth the Arabick 
name, from the Kermes-berry: Sir Th. Brown, Tracts, I. p. ig (1686). 1699 
The Arabians were wise, and knowing in the Materifi Medica, to have put it in 
ti\ar Alkermes: M. Lister, Joum. to Paris, -p. 244. 1783 Alkermes Con- 

fectio, the ounce 0.0.8 : Alkermes Syrup, the pound o. i .0: Stat. 27 Geo. III., 
c. 13. : Sched. A, s. v. Drugs. 

[From Fr. alkermh, M\X.{\y fr. Arab. '(z/-^zV»2M,=' the 

Alkoran: Arab. See Alcoran. 

all' : It. See al, alia. 

all amort : Eng. fr. Fr. See k la mort. 

alla^, part of phr:; It. See a and la. With adjectives 
(and also substantives with the preceding </z, = ' of, sup- 
pressed) alia stands for alia mSda, = ''va the style (of)', 'in the 
fashion (of)', like the French k la {q. v.). From the 16 c. — 
18 c. English writers often incorrectly put a la for alia: see 
a la Greca, a la grottesca, a la moderna, a la Moresca, a 
Idr Mosaica, a la Turchesca, a la ventura, alia dozzina, 
alia Tedesca. 

aSla,'^, part of phr.: Si'p.'.ior a,\a,. See a and la. With adjec- 
tives (and also substantives with the preceding de, = 'oV, 
suppressed) alia stands for a la mdda, = 'in the style (of)', 
'in the fashion (of)', like the French k la (y. v.). ■ In the 17 c. 
Eng. writers incorrectly put alia for a la. 

alla,^,pciriofphr.: Fr.: for &, la (^. w.). Rare. 

alia breve, /^i''.: It.: Mus. See quotation. 

1740 ALLABREVE, the name of a movement, whose bars consist of two 
semi-breves, or four minims, &=€. : Grassineau, M7is. Diet. 

alia caparisonde: Fr. See k la 2. 
alia dozzina, a la A.., phr.: It.: for a {lit. 'the') dozen. 
See alia'. 

1617 Paduoa where a student may have his table at an Ordinary (vulgarly 
a la dozend) and his chamber for eight crownes the month: F. Moryson, Iti7t., 
Ft. I. Bk. i. ch. 5, p. 69. 

alia Fiorentina, a la 7., phr.: It.: in the Florentine style. 
See alia'. 

1592 The Pope. ..will pave Rome in all haste, alia Fiorentina : Reliq. 
Wotton., p. 680 (1685). 

alia TlSiUCa,, phr : It.: in the French style, fashion. See 
alia'. Hence, as the Turks call any European foreigners 
Feringhi, i.e. 'Franks', alia Franca = ' European fashion'. 

1876 a long table furnished alia franca (the Turkish expression for European 
customs): Comkill Mag., Sept., p. 281. 

alia moderna, /^r. : It.: in modei-n style. See alia' and 
a la moderna. 

1673 The City is indifferently strong, and they have lately been at great 
expences to fortifie it alia modertui with ramparts and bastions of earth : J. Ray, 
Journ. Low Ctnintr., p. 434. 

alia Mosaica: It. See a la Mosaica. 
alia mutesca, phr. : It. : in the style of a dumb [muto, 
fem. muta) person. See alia'. 

1625 the King and others can reason and discourse of any thing as well and 
as distinctly, alia mutesca, by nods and signes, as they can with words : Purchas, 
Pilgrims, Vol. 11. Bk. ix. p. 1595. 

alia picoree, pecorea: Fr. or Sp. See picoree, k la 

alia soldado, phr.: Sp.: in the style of a soldier. See 

1625 but in these parts Alia Soldado presented the Prince a white horse: 
Purchas, Pilgrims, Vol. i. Bk. iv. p. 556. 



alla'Spagnuola (Spaniola), a la ^,,phr, : It. : in.the Spanish, 
fashion. See alla^ ■ ■■ .. ' 

1589 the cape alia Spaniola-. Puttenham, Eng. Poes., ill. p. 305 (1868). 

all'a Tedesca, a la T.,/.^r.: It.: in the Gothic (or German) 
style. Etymologically Tedesco = ^ Butch' (M. H; G. diutisk). 

1670 This Church is built a la Tedesca as they call it: R. Lassbls, Voy. 
Hal., Pt. II. p. 381. . 1693 For, as the Apostle of the GentiUs says, He 
■made all things to all Men, so the Proctor manag'd his part before this Prince 
alia Tudesca.: J. Hacket, Abp. IVilliavis, Pt;. r. 27, p. 20. — the filthy 
Italians^ guilty of their own Filthiness, made Pasquins of the Pope, who meant 
well alia Todesca: ib.^ Pt. 11. 38, p. 36. 

alia Tragique: Fr. See k la 2. 

*Allah: Arab.: God, 'the true', or in pre- Mohammedan 
times, 'the supreme'. 

1584 the Arabians call him [God] Alla^ the Mahometists call him Abdi-. 
R, Scott, Disc. JViirk., ^^c.^ p. 558. 1598 they will sweare by God, Ma- 
kumei, or Mortus- AH, and sometimes by all at ones: as- thus in their owne 
language, saying, Ollah, Makumet, AH: R. Hakluyt^ Voyages, Vol. i. pv399- 
1612 The Christiati died, and J know shee wetit tiot to the fire, but to Ala: 
T. Shelton, Tr. Don Quixote^ Pt. iv. ch. xiii. p. 465. — Al^ preserue 
thee fjiy deere friend: :'^., p. 469. 1616 At euery enforcing of themselues (as 

in all their labours) crying Elottgh: perswaded that God is neere them when they 
name him, the diuel far off, and all impediments lessened : Geo. Sandys* Trav., 
p. 118 (1632). 1634 still crying Allough whoddow, or grete God to heipe him; 
Sir Th. Herbert, Trav., p. 55. 1657 a people that sweares not by any- 
thing but Ala: J. D., Tr. Letters of Voiture, No. 40, Vol. 1. p. 76. 1670 O 
holy Alha, that I should live to see I The Granadines assist their Enemy: 
Dryden, Conq. of Granada, i. Wks., Vol. i. p. 387(1701). 1813 By Alia !' 

I would answer nay : Byron, G/aowr, Wks., Vol. ix. p. 167(1832). 1825 "I 
sell not the wisdom with which Allah has endowed me," answered the Arabian 
physician: Scott, Talisman, ch. xi. p. 51/1 (1868). 1839 I commit my affair 
unto Allah: E. W. Lane, Tr. Arab. Nts., Vol. 11. ch. xii. p. 365. 

Variants, t6 c. Ollah., 17 c. Ala, Elough^ Allough^ Alha. 
[For al-ilah, = 'xhe God', cf. Heb. eloah. Note Dryden's 
corrupt accentuation, now general.] 

Allah il Allah : corrupted fr. Arab. Id ilah ilia alldh, or 
(with case inflexions) Id ildha Hid Uldh, 'there God but 
the God': the Moslem war-cry; .also the first clause of their 
confession of faith (see second quot.). 

1814 Alia il Alia ! Vengeance swells the cry: Byron, Corsair, 11. vi. Wks., 
Vol. IX. p. 295 (1832). 1819 sufficiently reasonable not to stick at the differ- 

ence between Kyrie eleison, and Allah, Illah, Allah: T. Hope, Anast., Vol. i. 
p. 59(1820). 

allapeen: Eng. fr. Syr. See alepine. 

*all6e, sd. : Fr. : a walk between trees or bushes, an avenue, 
a lane; also with 7/^rif^, = ' green'. 

1759 two French allies of old limes : Hoe. Walpole, Letters, Vol. iii. p. 238 
(1857) 1826 the all^e verte, by which you approach it [Brussels], is broad, 

green, and pleasant: Refi. on a Ramble to Germ.any, Introd., p. 18. 1837 The 
great avenue between the garden of the Tuileries and the Bois de Boulogne, with 
the allies of the latter, are the places to meet the fast-goers of the French, 
capital; J. F. Cooper, Europe, Vol. 11. p. 159. 

[From Fr. aller, = ^ Xo go'.] 

allegation {l^lil ji), s^. : Eng. fr. Fr. allegation, 

1. Leg. the making of a charge on oath before a magistrate 
or judge; also the making of a plea in defence; the charge 
or plea made. 

1546 the indignitie and false allegation. ..doloruslie pricked and tormented 
Emma; Tr. Polydore Vergifs Eng. Hist., Vol. 1. p. 288 (1846). 1593 she 
had suborned some to swear | False allegations to o'erthrow his state: Shaks., 

II Hen. VI., iii. i, 181. 1623 On Monday, they were before the king, with 
their accusations and allegations : J. Chamberlain, in Court Ss' Times of Jos. I., 
Vol. II. p. 390(1848). 1688 The Queen Dowager. ..on allegation of a great 
debt owing her by his Majesty... declares her resolution to stay: Evelyn, Diary, 
Vol. II. p. 286(1872). 

2. the making of an assertion not yet proved ; an assertion 
regarded as not formally proved. 

1640 These allegations of the wyse emperour was than confyrmed : Elyot, 
Im. Governaunce, p. 45 z^. . 1662 I cannot but desyre you to examine his 
allegations: Evelyn, Corresp., Vol. iv. p. 245(1872). 

2 a. an assertion without proof, a mere assertion. 

1640 How vntrue their allegations be, & on how feble a foundation they are 
buylded, it shall in this wise appere vnto wise men: Elyot, Ifn. Governaunce, 
Pref., sig. B-'ivro. 1584 whie should anie of their interpretations or allegations 
be trusted: R. Scott, Disc. Witch., Bk. xvi. ch. v. p. 479. 

3. the making of a citation or quotation ; a citation or 

1602 all his allegations and examples out of Saint Paules Epistles, and other 
places falsly applied by him to the secular Priestes : W. Watson, Quodlibets of 
Relig. <5r» State, p. 75. 1629 a long series of Allegations of Doctors of the 
one and the other Law : Brent, Tr. Soave's Hist. Counc. Trent, p. xlv. (1676). 




(2) one who makes an 

allegator, sd,: (i) alligator (g.v.] 
allegation. Rare, 

allegrement, adv.: Fr., or Eng. fr. Fr. all}grement\ with 
alacrity, briskly. Bacon used the adj. allkgre^ Old Fr. allgre^ 
as aleger which Sir Th. Herbert (1665) copied as alegre. 

1604—9 Make therefore to yourself some Mark and go towards it Allegre- 
ment: Donne, Let., in Wks.^ Vol. vi. p. 322 (1839). [N.E. D.] 

allegretto, adj.\ It.: Mus.\ rather lively; not so quick 
and lively as allegro (q, v.), of which allegretto is the dimin.: 
used as adv.^ and as sb. for an allegretto movement or com- 

1740 ALLEGRETTO, a diminutive of Allegro, which therefore means pretty 
quick, but not so quick as Allegro : Grassineau, Mtis. Did. 1886 The 
m\d6X& allegretto m F is one of Schumann's most charming inspirations: Athe- 
nau^i, Apr. lo, p. ^gSfx. 

allegro, adj.: It.: brisk, lively, quick; gay, merry, as in 
Milton^s title DAllegro (1632). 

r. Mms. also used as adv, : of the quickest and liveliest 
grade of movement except presto {q. v.). 

1683 [used by Purcell in music then publ.]. 1721 Bailey. 1797 Eiicyc. 

2. Mus, as sb. : an allegro movement or composition. 

1764 his ADAGIOS, his allegros... and his jiggs: Lord Chesterfield, in 
World, No. 98, Misc. Wks., Vol. i. p. 162 (1777). 1809 Allegros move swifter 
in triple than in common time: Nicholson, Brit. EncycL, s. v. aft. 1864 
This is the reed the dead musician dropped, | With tuneful magic in its sheath 
still hidden ; | The prompt allegro of its music stopped, | Its melodies unbidden : 
Bret Harte, On a Pen of Thomas Starr King. 1883 the final spirited 
allegro forms an effective close to the work : Daily News, Sept. 7, p. 5/4. 1884 
The allegro con brio [with spirit] which ends the act with the departure of the 
pilgrims, forms a spirited conclusion to the work: ib., Apr. 30, p. 6/3. — The 
opera is preceded by an overture, opening with a. ..stately introduction in C minor, 
leading to an allegro molto [very] in the major : ib. 1887 The first allegro 
opens with a vigorous and bold theme : A ihejueum, IMar. 26, p. 425/3. 

alleja, sb.: Turk, aldja, alachah: a striped cloth from 
Turkestan, of silk or cotton. See also elatches. 

1614 Cassedys nill, Alleias, broad Pintados... -with suck spotted, striked and 
chequered Stiiffes'. Purchas, Pilgrittts, Vol. i. Bk. iv. p. 407 (1625). 1622 
I pec. alleias of 15 R. per corg: R. Cocks, Diary, Vol. 1. p. 69 (1883), 1625 
ten fine Bastas, thirtie Topseeles, and thirtie AlUzaes : Purchas, Pilgrims, Vol. i. 
Ek. iv. p. 504. — Cannakens...Aleiaes.. .Quilts, Carpets: ib., p. 530. 1662 
Cotton-cloaths...commonlycalledZ'£7.j^^r?zrt/j,...Z.o«:^/.r, Allegiens,&.c.: J. Davies, 
Tr. Mandelslo, Bk. i. p. 49 (1669). 1673 Silk, Alajah or Cuttanee breeches : 
Fryer, East India, 196 (1698). [Yule] 1690 It [Suratt] is renown'd...for 

rich Silks, such as Atlasses, Cuttanees...Allajars: Ovington, Voyage, 218 (1696). 
iib.l 1712 An Allejah petticoat striped with green and gold and white: Advt. 
in Spectator, in Malcolm's Anecdotes, 420. [ib.l 1797 ALLEGEAS: Encyc. 
Brit. 1813 Allachas (pieces to the ton).. .1200: JMilburn, Orient. Coinmerce, 
Vol. II. p. 221. [Yule] 1872 Alleja...a silk cloth 5 yards long, which has a 
sort of wavy line pattern running in the length on either side : Baden Powell, 
Punjab Handbk., 66. [z5.] 

Alleluia(h), Halleluia(h), q. v. Heb. 

1. an exclamation, * Praise ye God*. 

1381—8 The title of the hundrid and fourthe salm. AUeluya : Wycliffite 
yob, ^c. (1881). 1382 alleluya: Wyclif, Rev., xix. 6. 1536 The cv. 
Psalme, Halleluya...let all people saye: Amen, Amen. Halleluya: Coverdale, 
Ps., cv. 1609 Alleluia signifieth more then Laudate Dominum, Praise ye our 
Lord. For by these two hebrew wordes, Allelu a, the Prophet inuiteth al men 
to praise God, with gladnes, iubulation, with hart, voice, and gesture, with 
instruments, and howsoeuer we are able: Doway Bible, Ps., civ. — and in the 
streates therof Alleluia shal be song: — Tobias, xiii. 22. 1611 Alleluia: 

Bible, Rev., xix. 6 (R. V. Hallelujah). bef. 1617 Alaluiah...AIleluiah... 

Haleluiah : Minsheu, Guide into Tongues. 

2. a song in praise of God. 

1691 methought I heard the angels sing I An alleluia for to welcome him ; 
Greene, Maiden's Dream, p. 282/2, 1. 3 (1861). 1696 Sing, ye sweet Angels, 
Alleluya sing, j That all the woods may answere, and your eccho ring: Spens., 
EpitJial., 240, Wks., p. 589/2 (i86g). 1636 lauding their Creator with Allc 
iujafis without defatigation: S. Ward, Serj7tons, p. 213. 

allemande, sb. : Mod. Fr. fem. of adj, al/emand, =^ Germa.n\ 

1, name of several German dances. 

1728 But when you have made several [springs or hops], as in the Allemande, 
you make your Springs and Hops together without rising on one single Foot : 
J. Essex, Tr. Rameau's Dancifig- Master, Pt. i. p. 104. 1809 ALLE- 
MANDE.. .The dance known by this name is stilt used in Germany and Switzer- 
land : Nicholson, BHt. Encycl. 1814 view with jealousy in the country 
dances, the occasional introduction of an allemande; Edin. Rev., Vol. 22, p. 434. 

2. a kind of musical composition in slow time; a move- 
ment in a suite {q. v.). 

112^ ALLEMANDA,isthe Name of a certain Air or Tune, always in common 
time, and in Two Parts or Strains: Short Explic. of For. IVds. in Mus, Bks. 1738 
Chambers, Cycl. 1740 ALLEMAND, a sort of grave and solemn music, whose 
measure is full and moving: Grassineau, Mus. Diet. — ALMANDA, a certain 
air or tune where the measure is in common time, and movement slow : tb. 1809 


ALLEMANDE, in music, a slow air or melody in common time of four crotchets 
in a bar. ..It is found in Handel's liarpsichord lessons: Nicholson, Brit. Encycl. 

Variants, allmand, alamande, al{le)manda. 
[Mod. Fr. allemande, = ^ German' (iffl«C£ being suppressed) ; 
succeeded Mid. Eng. Almain as a musical term.] 

allevement, sb. : Fr., or Eng. fr. Old Fr. alevement : alle- 

1599 Yet this is some allevement to my sorrow: Soiiman fin Pers.^ ir. in 
Dodsley-Hazlitt's Old Plays. 

♦alleviator {—± — i^ —), sb. : Eng. : lightener, mitigator, 

1811 That kindest alleviator of human miseries: Lamb, On being Hanged^ 
Wks., p. s6o. [N.E.D.] 

[As if Lat. noun of agent to Late Lat. alleviare, = 'to 

allice, allis: Eng. See alose. 

♦alligator {-L-J- _), sb. : Eng. fr. Sp. : a Cayman ; any 
large Saurian of the Western Hemisphere; now also used 
loosely for crocodile. 

1577 Pimple stones. ..whiche are founde in greate the mawes of 
Caimanes, y' are called Lagar'tos: Feampton, yoyfull Newes, fol. nro. 
1597 aligarta: Shaks., Rom., v. i, 43 (ist 4to.). 1600 a monstrous Lagarto 
or Crocodile: R. Hakluyt, Voyages, Vol. III. p. 489- 1614 Alligafta: 

B. JoNSON, Bart. Fair, ii. 6, Wks., Vol. II. p. 28 (1631—40). 1593—1622 In 
this river. ..are great abundance of alagartoes: R. Hawkins, Voyage South 
Sea, § 1. p. 263 (1878). 1625 George Euans...vf3S shrewdly bitten with an 
Alegarta: Purchas, Pilgrims, Vol. I. Bk. iii. p. 191. — suspecting it had beene 
an Aligaia, diued vnder water: ib., p. 244. — fastened with Allegators teeth: 
ib.. Vol. 11. Bk. iv. p. 417. — Alagaters or Crocodiles: ib., p. 436. 1629 
Givanes they have, whiche is a Httle hannlesse beast, like a Crokadell, or AlU 
gator, very fat and good meat : Capt. J. Smith, Wks., p. 904 (1884). 1634 the 
Riuers abounds \sic'\ with Crocodiles (whom Seamen improperly call Alligators)'. 
Sir Th. Herbert, Trav., p. 199. 1655 The discommodities these Streames 
engender, are Allegators: I. S., .^ brief &^ perfect Joum. of ye late Proceed, of 
y^ Eng. Army in y^ W. Indies, p. 19. 1679 rescued all your Outward 

Traitors \ From katiging up like Allegators: S. Butler, Hiidibras, Pt. III. 
Cant. ii. p. 140. 1788 a man who was bitten by an alligator in swimming across 
a river: Gent. Mag., LVIII. i. 33/1. 

Variants, lagarto, alagarto, alligarta, allegator, &c. 
[From Sp. al or el lagarto, = 'th.e lizard', fr. Lat. lacerta, 
= ' lizard'.] 

alliterator (z,± — ± —), sb. : Eng. : one who alliterates 
or practises alliteration ; or one who frequently repeats some 
particular letter. 

1755 The alliterator must be as busily employed to introduce his favourite 
vowel or consonant, as the Greek poet to shut out the letter he had pro.scribed : 
Colman & Thornton, in Connoiss., No. 83. [N. E. D.] 

[Apparently formed in relation to alliteration, as if Lat., 
on the analogy of verbal nouns in -dtor, cf. Lat. litterator, 
= ' teacher of letters', 'grammarian'.] 

♦allium, sb.: Lat.: Bot.: name of a genus of plants (Nat. 

Order Liliaceae), to which belong garlic, leek, onion, and 


1866 In the shade, grey periwinkles wind among the snowy drift of allium ; 
Cornhill Mag., Nov., p. 538. [N. E. D.) 

allmand: Mod. Fr. See allemande. 

alio: It: 'to the', 'after the'; used bef. masc. sing, nouns 
\vhich begin with z ox s followed by another consonant. See 

allobrogic, -ical, adj.: Calvinistic, Presbyterian; in allu- 
sion to Geneva having anciently been Genava, a town of the 
Allobroges, a warlike tribe of Gauls, whence the Fr. allobroge, 
= ' clown', 'lout'. 

1602 to shew it as manifestly as the day light at noonetide, that who and 
whensoeuer any, be he Pope or Prince or other Monarch, doth not fauor their 
lesuiticall allobrogickes, although he do no way stirre against them : W. Watson, 
Quodhbets of Relig. &' State, p. 99.— this AUobrogicall gouemment : ib., p. 20. 

allodium, alodium, sb.: Late Lat. fr. assumed Old Ger. 
al{l)Sd, = ' entire property': estate possessed in absolute 
ownership, as in the Orkneys and Shetland Islands (see 
udaller), opposed to feudum or fief, which is estate held of 
a superior. 

1629 in the law of England we have not, properly, allodium, that is, any 
subjects land that is not as it is holden : Coke, Littleton, Vol. I. Bk i ch i § i 
[i. b.] (1823). 1716 J. Harris, Did. (3rd Ed.). 1768 The writers on this 
subject dehne Allodium to be every man's own land, which he possesseth 
merely m his own right, without owing any rent or service to any superior; 
Blackstone, Commentaries, Bk. 11. ch. 7. [R.] 




alloeostropha, neut. pL adj.,i Gk. c^Xowa-Tpof^a : disposed 
in irregular strophes. 

1671 The measure of verse used in the chorus is of all sorts. ..being divided 
into stanzas or pauses, they may be called Allceostropha : Milton, Sams. 
Agon.^ Pref, 

allogiament, Ji^.: Eng. fr. It. allogiainento \ lodging, sol- 
diers' quarters, allodgement (formed on the model of the It. 


1644 The allogiaments of the garrison are uniforme : Evelyn, Diary^ Mar. 23. 

allonge, sb.\ Fr.: a slip of paper fastened to a bill of 
exchange or promissory note to give space for further en- 
dorsements when the back of the bill or note is full. 

1882 An indorsement written on an allonge, or on a "copy" of a bill: Stat. 
45 &> 46 Vic.j ch. 61, § 32. 

[Fr. fl//^«^i?, = *something added to lengthen', 'a stretching 
out' (used in Eng. in 18 c. in the senses of 'thrust', *lunge', 
and 'long rein').] 

Gallons, \st pers, pL imper. vbr. Fr.: 'let us go'. 

1663 Allons Isabellel Courage! Dryden, Wild Gallant^ v. Wks., Vol. i. 
p. 60 (1701). 1693 Come, Gentlemen, allons^ here is Company coming; 
CoNGREVE, Double Dealer^ i. 5, Wks., Vol. i. p. 171 (1710). 1739 courage, 

allons! Gray, Letters, No. xx. Vol. 1. p. 38 (1819). 1757 Allons, Monsieur! 
*Twere vain, you know, | To strive with a victorious foe : Cowper, IXtk Sat. of 
1st Bk. oy Horace. 1841 so allons for a spectacle militaire, which, I am told, 
is to be very fine : Lady Blessington, Idler in France, Vol. i. p. 73. 1841 

Allons done [therefore] ! enough sermonising: Thackeray, Misc. Essays, <&^c., 
p. 380(1885), bef. 1863 Allons, Mr. Nameless! Put up your notebook: — 
Rou7tdabout Papers, p. 53 (1879). 1877 Poverty ! the poverty of a company 
in the city of London 1 Allons done : C. Reade, Woinan- Hater, ch. xv. p. 147 

[From fl//(?r, = *to go'.] 

allot (-=- ±), vb. : Eng. fr. Fr. : to assign by lot, to apportion 
(also, intr. to be apportioned, Obs. and Rare), to assign, 
appoint ; to destine (with inf. Obs.) \ to ascribe {Obs^. 

1520 Oder ]odgynges..,to be lotted to suche as may be warned to bring almaner 
of suche stuff with theym for fournysshing of the same: Rutland Papers, p. 52 
(1842). 1546 To this laste \i.e. Constantine] was allotted Brittaine, France, 

Spaine: Tr. Polydore Vergil's Eng. Hist., Vol. i. p. 99(1846). 1591 Thou 

art allotted to be ta'en by me: Shaks., / Hen. VI. , v, 3, 55. 1694 unde- 
served reproach to him allotted : — Lucrece, 824. 1696 favourable stars | 
Allot thee for his lovely bed-fellow: — Tarn. Shr., iv. 5, 41. 1605 Five days 
we do allot thee, for provision [ To shield thee, &c. : — Lear, i. i, 176. 1665 
The rest of the parts.. .were allotted to the other Commissioners : Evelyn, Diary, 
Vol. I. p. 411 (1872). 1701 a due proportion being allotted to each of them : 

— Corresp.^ Vol. iir. p. 383 (1872). 

Variant, 16 c. /ic/ted, alott^di. 

[From Old Fr. aloter, fr. d, prep., = 'to', and /(?/, = 'lot'.] 

allowes: Eng. See alose. 

alluijii, sb. pL: Du.: bitter aloes. The Du. alluijn or a 
Japan, or Malayan form thereof was Anglicised by Cocks as 

1598 spices and fruites of India, Alluijn, Cane Sugar, and other merchandises: 
Tr. y. Van Linsckoten's Voyages, Bk. i. Vol. i. p. 61 (1885). 1622 He beged 
a little allowaies of me, which I gave him: R. Cocks, Diary, Vol. i. p. 3 (1883). 

allumette, sb. : Fr. : match (for lighting). 

1848 Twisting an allumette out of one of you. ..and relighting my calumet : 
Lowell, Poet. Wks., 127/2 (1879). [N. E. D.J 

allure, sb,: Fr.: gait, walk, air, mien. 

1864 He hunted in black during the ensuing season ; and, indeed, henceforth 
laid aside his splendid attire and his allures as a young man: Thackeray, New- 
comes, Vol. II. ch. xxxviii. p. 403 (1879). 

alluvion (— ^ — — ), sb. : Eng. fr. Fr. alluvion. 

I. inundation, overflow, flood of water, esp. carrying 
matter in suspension, the wash or flow of water on a bank or 

1550 Of the whyche alluuyons and ouerflowynges the Earthquakes (as I 
thynke) were the cause : Nicolls, Tkucidides, fol. xcii r^. 1644 Or as 

slow Rivers by insensible alluvions take in and let out the Waters that feed them, 
yet are they said to have the same beds: Howell, Eput. Ho-EL, Vol. iv. xix. 
p. 458 (1678). 1681 Alluvion ^Albwio) the still rising and swelling of a River, 
a deluge or inundation : Blount, Glossogr. 

1. matter deposited by flood or inundation. 

1731 Allwviofi, an accession or accretion along the sea-shore, or the banks 
-of large rivers by tempests or inundations : Bailey. 

2 a. Geol. alluvium {q. v.). 

1779 The matters, so carried off, will be thrown against the opposite bank of 
the river. ..and produce a new ground, called an alluvion : Mann, in Pkil. Trajis., 
Jxix. 602. [N.E.D.] 

3. Leg. the formation of fresh land by the gradual wash- 
ing up of sand, earth, &c, 

1768 either by alluvion, by the washing up of sand and earth, so as in time 
to make terrafirma-: Blackstone, Comm., Bk. ir. ch, xvi. p. 261. [C.E.D.] 

*alluviuni, sb. : Lat. : earth, sand, &c. deposited by moving 
water above its present average level under existing local 
conditions, alluvion, alluvial deposit. Occasional pi. alluvia. 
Distinguished: from diluvium {q.v.), from old river terraces, 
and from raised beaches. 

1665 — 6 'Tis true, that if there be Seas in the Moon, it can hardly_ fall out 
otherwise, than it doth upon our Earth, where AlluviunCs are made in some 
places, and the Sea gains upon the Land in others: Phil. Trans., Vol. i. No. 7, 
p. 121. 1738 Chambers, Cyc/. 1835 a deposit of alluvium which is far 
from common on these northern shores: Sir J. Ross, Sec. Voyage, ch. viii. 
p. 114. 1836 The most celebrated place for its production is the neighbour- 

hood of Tien-tsin, where the soil is a loose, sandy alluvium : J. F. Davis, 
Chinese, Vol. i. ch. viii. p. 332. 1845 cliffs composed of matter that may be 
called stratified alluvium : C. Darwin, Journ. Beagle, ch. xi. p. 237 (2nd Ed.). 
1885 He does not appreciate the difference of age between those older alluvial 
deposits of the Thames Valley.. .and the newer alluvium of Tilbury: AthencButn, 
Aug. 22, p. 244/1. 

[Neut, of Lat. alluvius, adj., = ' alluvial'.] 

alma, sb. : It. (poet.) : soul, essence, spirit : personified by 
Prior in his poem entitled 'Alma or the Progress of the 
Mind', whence Scott takes it in the sense animal spirits. 

1717 Alma in ver^e, in prose the mind : Prior, Alma, \. 318. 1814 and 

whom the irresistible influence of Alma would have engaged in field-sports from 
morning till night : Scott, Waver ley, p. 64. 

alma: Arab. See almah. 

*alma mater, phr. : Lat. : ' fostering mother ', a title given 
to educational institutions, esp. Universities. 

1657 The earth is alma mater, a bountiful mother, to man and beast; John 
Trapp, Com. Old Test., Vol. ni. p. 130/1 (1868). 1710 Henceforth alma 

mater must submitt to the city, ] Let her doctors grow dull and the aldermen 
witty: T. Hearne, Remains, Vol. i. p. 190 (i860). 1736 I can never con- 

descend to apply to the grosser studies of Alma Mater: Hor. Walpole, Letters, 
Vol. I. p. 9 (1857), 1742 a judicious eye instantly rejects anything outri, any 
liberty which the painter hath taken with the features of that ahna mater: 
Fielding, Jos. Andrews, Pref, Wks., Vol. v. p. iz (1806). 1754 port is in a 
manner mother's milk to me; for it is what my Ahna Mater suckles all her 
numerous progeny with: Lord Chesterfield, in World, No. 91, Misc. Wks., 
Vol. I. p. 154 (1777). 1771 some good offices, which you know he has done 
me since I left alma JKa^cr [= Oxford] : Smollett, Humph. CI., p. 13/1 (18S2), 
1774 you see I am not a rebel, when ahna mater antiquity stands godmother: 
Hor. Walpole, Letters, Vol. vi. p. 104 (1857). 1778 You might divert 

yourself, too, with Alma Mater, the Church, employing a goujat to defend the 
citadel, while the generals repose in their tents: ib,. Vol. vii. p. 158 (1858). 
1780 to whose care our ahna mater (allow me to evince my affection to the 
University by this expression) can more safely trust her interests and prosperity : 
H. A. ScHULTENS, m Sir W. Jones' Letters, Vol. i. No. Ixiii. p. 149 (1821). 
1808 that veneration usually paid by an English scholar to his Alma Mater : 
Scott, Dryden's Wks., Vol. i. p. 30. 1808 the publication of which must 
have been a proud day for alma mater: Edin. Rev.^ Vol. 12, p, 53. 1840 
which had drawn Frederick so abruptly from his Ahna Mater: Barham, 
Ingolds. Leg., p. 104 (1865). 1860 He never could be got to frequent the 
chapel of the college with that regularity of piety which Alma Mater demands 
from her children : Thackeray, Pendennis, Vol. i. ch, xviii. p. 196 (1879). 
1883 Edinburgh, Mr. Irving said, had been his professional alm.a 77iater: 
Standard, No. 18465, p. 3/3. 

almacenista, sb.\ Sp.: seller of goods in a warehouse. 

1888 Large stocks of.. .wines are held by the principal shippers and alma- 
cenistas in Jerez; Leeds Mercury, June 11, p. 7/5. 

[For derivation, see magazine.] 

almachabel: Eng. fr. Med. Lat. almacabala, fr. Arab. 
al-moqdbala : see algebra. 

almaciga, sb. \ Sp. and Port. fr. Gk. fj.aa-Tlxn, through Arab. 

al-fnastaka : mastich. 

1677 the Ahnaciga: Frampton, Joyfull Newes, fol. i &". — the Incencej 
and Almasiga are gathered: ib,, fol. 3 r". 

almadia, Port, and Sp.; almadie, Fr.: sb.\ an Indian 
river-boat ; an African canoe made out of a tree. 

abt. 1565 In this island of Sambula, we found about 50. boates, called Al- 
madyes, or Canoas, which are made of one peace of wood, digged out like a 
trough, but yet of good proportion, being about 8. yardes long : J. Sparke, 
y. Hawkins^ Sec. Voyage, p. 18 (1878). 1698 there came unto us [at Goa] 

divers boats called Aljnadias, which horded us, bringing with them all maner of 
fresh victuailes from the land : Tr. y. Van Linschoten^s Voyages, i. ch. iv. p. 12/2. 
— they row [up and downe] the Rivers in boates called Almadias, whereof some 
of them are hewen out of a p^ece of wood: ib., Bk. i. Vol. i. p. 262. 1699 The 
6 day came an Almade & Negros aboord me; R. Hakluyt, Voyages, Vol. 11. 
ii. p. 41. 1600 They go to sea in certaine small botes which they call 
Almadies: J. Pory, Tr. Leo's Hist. A/r., Introd., p. 55. 1684 hiring an 
Almadier. which is a Barque with Oars: J. P., Tr. Tavemier's Trav., Vol. i. 
Pt. 2, Bk. i. p. 71. 1797 E7icyc. Brit. 

Variant, 17 c. almade. 

[Ultimately fr. Arab. ^/-;/2a*^z>(7, = ' ferry-boat'.] 



almagra, s6.: Sp. fr. Arab. al-inaghra\ a deep red kind 
of red ochre found in Spain, called Sil Atticum by the 

1598 It hath many hilles of a reddish colour, which shew like a certaine 
Earth in Spaine called Almagro: Tr. J. VanLinschoten's Voyages, Bk. i. Vol. ll. 
p. 260(1885). 1753 ALMAGRA: Chambers, Cyc/., Suppl. XIVlEncyc. 

almah, alme (-i -), sb.: Eng. fr. Arab, 'almah, pi. 
'awalim: an Egyptian dancing girl; or, more correctly, a 
professional singer, not a common dancing girl {ghaziyah). 

1797 ALME, or Alma, singing and dancing girls in Egypt ; E7icyc. Brit. 
1812 Can Egypt's Almas— tantalising group— ...With Waltz compare: Byron, 
Waltz, Wks., Vol. IX. p. 134 (1832). 1819 Here a string of awalis strained 

their wmdpipes in tremulous quavers: T. Hope, Anasi., Vol. i. p. 301 (1820), 
1830 the alme and dancing girls : E. Blaquiere, Tr. Sig. Pananti, p. 224 
(2nd Ed.). 1836 the inferior 'AwSlim sometimes dance in the hhare^m...the 
singing of a very accomplished 'A'l'meh: E. W. Lane, Mod. Egypt. ,'^a\. 11. p. 62. 
1869 The graceful fantastic fancy that had once made her dance like an almjih 
among the scarlet beans of the cottage garden : Ouida, Tricotrin, ch. xlvi. 
p. 467 (1870). 

*almanac {^±-±),sb.: Eng. fr. Med. Lat. alinanac(h): a 
calendar or table of days and months with astronomical data 
in 14 c. 15 c; afterwards combined with the civil and eccle- 
siastical calendar. The astronomical almanac was greatly 
improved both in matter and method by Regiomontanus, 
1474. Sometimes, as in Zadkiel's and in old almanacs from 
i6 c, forecasts of the weather and of coming events are in- 
cluded. Modem almanacs provide all sorts of useful and 
interesting information. 

1508 Almanacke for xii. yere: Printed by Wynkyn de Worde, Title. 
1630 Almynack and pronostication, &c. : Gaspar Laet (the yonger), Title. 
1584 in his Almanacke anno 1580 : T. Coghan, Haven of Health, p. 219. 1594 
she saved me every year a penny in almanacs : Greene, Looking-Glass, p. 121/2, 
1. 49 (1861). 1642 I do not. ..revolve Ephemerides and Almanacks : Sir Th. 

Brown, Relig. Med., Pt. 11. § ix. Wks., Vol. 11. p. 441 (1852). 1664 [Title] 
Kalendarium Hortense: or the Gardener's Almanack directing what he is to do 
monthly throughout the year— by J. Evelyn. 1664 Clialdeans, Learn'd 

Genetliacks, | And some that have writ Almanacks : S. Butler, Hudibras, Pt. 11. 
Cant. iii. p. 181. 1787 Not selling so many almanacks as formerly, because 

of the tax laid on them: Gent. Mag., p. 1076/2. 1874 John Dalton had at the 
age of thirteen con.structed an almanac for himself: H. Lonsdale, John Dalton, 
ii. 39. 

almandine, sh.: Eng. fr. Lat.: the Alabandine garnet of 
Pliny, cut at Alabapda a town of Caria in Asia Minor. 

abt. 1325 Alabaunderrynes, & amaraun3 : E. E. Allit. Poems, B. 1471. 
[N. E. D.] 1398 alabandina is a precious stone clere and somneale red as 
Cardinis. The vertue thereof excyteth & encreacyth blood : Trevisa, Barth. 
De P. R., XVI. xiii. sig. Kmvoj^. abt. 1400 the red ben of Rubies, and of 

Grenaz and of Alabraundynes : Tr. Maundevile's Voyage, ch. xx. p. 219 (1839). 
1830 But I would throw to them back in mine 1 Turkis and agate and almondine : 
Tennyson, Merman, iii. 

Variant, 14 c. — 17 c. Alabandine. 

Almanzor, name of the hero of Dryden's play The Con- 
quest of Granada, A.D. 1670, meaning 'the defended'. 

1711 I could, A Imatizor-Uke, drive the British General from the Field : 
Spectator, No. 167, Sept. 6, p. 244/1 (Morley). 1712 I am told that even 
Alf!mm:or\oo\sd like a Mouse: ii., No. 362, Apr, 23, p. 529/1. 1769 Whether 
he was sent for to guard St. James's gate, or whether he came alone, like Al- 
manzor, to storm it, I cannot tell : Hor. Walpole, Letters, Vol. v. p. 175 (1857). 

[The Sp. Almanzor is fr. Arab. al-mangur, = ' the (heaven-) 
defended', 'the august', 'the invincible'; name of the mayor 
of the palace of CaHph Hisham II. of Cordova (d. 1002 A.D.). 
The title almagzir, aumansour, of old Ff. romances, = 'a 
(Saracen) grandee', is of the same derivation. See almacour 
in N.E.D.] 

alme: Arab. See almah. 

almeida. See alameda. 

almendron, sb. -. Sp. : Brazil-nut tree, augmentative of al- 
7nendra, = ' almond-tree''. 

1852 The almendron, or juvia, one of the most majestic trees of the forests 
of the New World : T. Ross, Tr. Humboldt's Trav., 11. xxiv. 449. [N. E. D.] 

almirah, almyra, sb.: Anglo-Ind. fr. Hind, almari: ward- 
robe, chest of drawers, armoire. 

1878 Sahib, have you looked in Mr. Morrison's almirah? Life in the Mo- 
f^tssil, Vol. I. p. 34. [Yule] 

[The Hind, almart is fr. Port, almario fr. Lat. armarium 
whence Fr. and Eng. armoire, Eng. ambry^ 

almojabana, J'l^.: Sp. fr. Arab, al-mojabbana: cheese-and- 
flour cake. Xeres was famed for this dainty, which is named 
from Arab. y(73«, = ' cheese'. 

1616 [See alcorza]. 


almug: Heb. See algum. 

almuten, sb.: Arab.: the prevailing planet in the horo- 

1598 F. Wither, Tr. Dariot's Astrolog., sig. P 3 »". 1615 Almuten 
Alchochoden of the stars attend you : Albumazar, ii. 5, in Dodsley-Hazlitt's 
Old Plays, Vol. xi. p. 345. 1621 the Almutens, lords and planets there: 
R. Burton, Anai. Mel., Pt. 3, Sec. 2, Mem. 6, Subs. 5, Vol. Ii. p. 407 (1827). 
1625 your AlTtiutens, Alma cantaras: B. Jonson, Stap. of News, ii. 4, p. 28 
(1631). 1659 Venus, in the west angle, the house of marriage the seventh 
house, in trine of Mars, in conjunction of Luna; and Mars Almuthen, or lord of 
the horoscope : Massinger, City Madam, ii. 2, Wks. , p. 322/2 (1839). 1665 a 
Witch that understood the Almuten of his nativity: Sir Th. Herbert, Trav.,. 
p. 178 (1677). 

[Corruption oialmutez. Loth, Morgenldnd. Forsch., p. 290 f., 
also gives the form almobtez which proves the word to be for 
Arab. al-mubtazz, = 'the robber', i.e. the planet strong enough 
to take away the influence of the others in the horoscope. 
The termination is accounted for by the forms Almtites, 
Almutem, Almutam, Almubtem, given by Bonatti (see 
Alchochoden) ; a quasi-Lat. ace. in -em, -en being formed 
from -es treated as an inflexional ending.] 

* Alnaschar : Arab. Al-nashshar, 'the lawyer': a cha- 
racter in one of the Arabian Nights Tales in Galland's 
version, a poor man who, having nothing but a basket 
of glass-ware for sale, dreams that by successful trade he 
rears on this small basis so large a fortune that he marries 
a princess. In his insolence he kicks the princess of his 
dream, and wakes to find that he has kicked over and de- 
stroyed his glass. He represents any victim of baneful illu- 
sions anticipative of unmerited high fortune. 

1712 Alnaschar was entirely .swallowed up in this Chimerical Vision, and 
could not forbear acting with his Foot what he had in his Thoughts ; Spectator, 
No. 535, Nov. 13, p. 762/1 (Morley), 1812 Already with maternal Alnascharism 
she had in her reveries thrown back her head in disdain : M. Edgeworth, 
Vivian, ch. i. p, 12 (1832). 1845 In Alnaschar-like moods a man fancies 
himself a noble patron, and munificent rewarder of artists: Thackeray, Misc. 
Essays, p. 272 (1885). 1850 you won't scorn me as the worthless idler and 
spendthrift, when you see that I — ^when I have achieved a — psha ! what an Al- 
naschar I am because I have made five pounds by my poems : — Pendennis, 
Vol. I. ch. xxxii. p. 365 (1879), 1866 Already had my Alnaschar-fancy... ex- 

pended,, .the funds: J. R. Lowell, Biglo-w Papers, No. viii. (Halifax). 

alo: It. See alio. 

*aloe {-L —), sb. : Eng. fr. Lat. aloe. 

1. lign-aloes, lignum (Lat. = 'wood') aloes, aloes-wood; 
see agalloch(uni). This use is due to a wrong translation 
into Gk. of the Bible Heb. akhalim {^\), = agalloch. 

[abt. 950 alwan ; abt. 1000 alewan ; abt. 1160 aloen ; fr. N. E. D.] 1382 
A medlynge of myrre and aloes: Wyclif, John, xix. 39, abt, 1400 In that 

Ry vere Men fynden many precyouse Stones,, and meche also of -Lignum Aloes : 
Tr, Maundevile's Voyage, ch. v. p. 56 (1839). bef. 1450 That all was brett- 

fuU of bowis ■ & blossoms so swete, | That bawme ne braunche o aloes • bettir was 
neuire: Wars of Alexander, 4869 (1886). 1577 a Pomander of it, mingled 
with Muske, Lignaloe, it doeth comfort the braines: Frampton, Joyfull Nenues, 
fol. 84?-''. 1584 frankincense, mastike, lignum aloes: R. ScOTT, Disc. Witch., 
Bk. XV. ch. xiv. p. 416. 1599 wood ai aloes: R. Hakluyt, Voyages, Vol. 11. 
i, p. 56, _ — The good Lignum Aloes comme from Cauckinchina: ib., p, 242, 
1603 Tipur they take (rich in Rhinocerots) Caichin. in Aloes: J. Sylvester, 
Tr. Du Bartas, Colonies, p. 361 (1608), 1622 a present of halfe a lb, of lignum 
allowas (or caletnback) : R, CoCKS, Diary, Vol. I. p. 286 (1883). 1786 holding 
in their hands censers, which dispensed as they passed the grateful perfujne of the 
wood of aloes : Tr. Seckford's Vathek, p, 98 (1S83). 1817 Sweet wood of 
aloe or of sandal burns: T. Moore, Lalla Rookh, Wks., p. 20 (i860). 1839 
the aloes-wood, where it groweth, is a kind of fire-wood: E. W. Lane, Tr. Arab. 
Nts., Vol. I. ch. iv. p. 261. 

2. [Gk. dXoi)] name of a genus of plants {Aloinae) with 
erect spikes of bloom and bitter juice, Nat. Order Liliaceae. 

1398 the odour is somdeale stynkynge: as it faryth of Aloes: Wormwoud& 
Brymstoon: Trevisa, Barth. De P. R., xix. xxxviii. sig. JJvi r». 1551 the 
nature of the herb Aloe is to hele woundes : W. Turner, Herb., sig. Bvir". 
1578 we may call it in English Aloii, herbe Aloe, or Sea Aygreen'e: H. Lyte, 
Tr. Dodoen's Herb., Bk. iii. p. 353. 1664 Now you may set your Oranges, 

Limons, Myrtles. .. Dates, Aloes...s.nd like tender Trees and Plants in the Portico: 
Evelyn, Kal. Hort., p. 198 (1729). 1673 we saw many rare Plants, among the 
rest we especially took notice of the /J &e. trees (for so I may well call them for the 
Greatness and Highth of their Stalks which shoot up in one year- J Ray Journ 
Low Countr. p. 108. 1691 From the Root.. .arise Leaves on every side, after 
the manner of Leeks or Ananas, whence the name of Wild Pine or Aloes, being 
folded or enclosed one within another : — Creation, Pt. 11. p. 215 (1701) 1830 
the cliffs are embellished by the cactus, aloe, and Atlas pistacchio : E. Blaquiere, 
Tr. Sig. Pananti, p. 150 (2nd Ed.). 

2 a. the inspissated bitter juice of plants of the genus 
Aloe (2), a purgative drug made therefrom. Generally pi. 
alowes, aloes, alloes. Also used metaph. for trials and troubles. 

abt. 1515 And payned you with a purgacyon of odyous pouerte, I Myxed 
with bytter alowes of herde aduersyte : J. Skelton, Magnyf., 2382, Wks., 
Vol. I. p 303 (1843). 1526 Aloe is made of the iuce of an herbe called 
Aloen.. there ben 111 manors of Aloen/Cycotryn/Epatyc/and Cabalyn : Grete 
HerbaU, ch. 1. 1551 the mice which compacted together and dryed into 

great peces is comonlye called aloe: W, Turner, Herb., sig Bvi^. 1589 


iSet] alloes w*h almoundfe milke: PuTTEN-rfAM, Eng. Poes,, i.' xxxiv. 1595 if 
one should beginne to tell them [children], the nature of -Aloes, or RuharbWiQy 
shoulde receiue, [they] woulde sooner take their Phisicke at their eares, then at 
their mouth: Sidney, Apol. Poet., p. 40 (1868). 1600 It is frequented by 
merchants for Cinabre, Sanguis Draconis, and the most excellent Aloes of the 
world : J. Pory, Tr. Leo's Hist. Aft., Introd. , p. 47. 1600 a Nurse that weaneth 
her child.., doth anoynt her Teate with AUoes, mustard, or some other such bitter 
thing : R. Cawdrav, Treas. of Similes, p. 429. 1601 one ounce of Aloe 
brought into the forme of an ointment: Holland, Tr. Pliti, N. H., Bk. 20, 
ch. 13, Vol. II. p. 58. 1602 one drachme of Aloes Epatick: Vaughan, in 
Bahees Book, i. p. 251 (Furnivall, 1868). 1625 they make the most Aloes vpon 
the He, and is onely the iuyce of Semper viuens, put into Goates skins, and so 
dryed: Purchas, Pilgrims, Vol. i. Bk. iii. p. 193. 1634 an He rich in Alices, 
Gummes and Spices: Sir Th. Herbert, Trav., p. 25. 1646 But Juices 
■concrete, or Gums easily dissolving in Water, draw not at all: as Aloe, Oiium, 
Sanguis Draconis: Sir Th. Brown, Pseud. Ep,, Bk. 11. ch. iv. p. 59 (1686). 
1667 the tender father medicines his child for the worms, gives him aloes, or the 
like: John Trapp, Covt. Old Test.^ Append., Vol. 11. p. 708/1 (1868). 1668 
Aloes is a bitter Gum, to be bought at the Apothecaries : G. M[arkham], Way to 
get Wealth, Table of Hard Words. 1787 The Hepatic or Barbadoes Aloes is 
said, by the Author, to be common in all the West-India islands: Gent. Mag., 
p. 996/1. 

2 b. a mineral product like the dry aloes (3). 

1601 In lurie [N. of Jerus.] there is a certaine minerall Aloe to be found, 
growing in manner of a mettall within the ground : Holland, Tr. Plin. N. H., 
Bk. 27, ch. 4, Vol. II. p. 271. 

3. the American aloe, or agave {g-v.). 

1667 Aloe' Americana Serrati-folia...this-<4/i?fSweighed 21 Ounces, 6 Drains, 
2 Grains; Phil. Trans., Vol. 11. No. 25, p. 455. 1765 Sir W.,., whose fame, 
like an aloe, did not blow till near an hundred : HoR. Walpole, Letters, Vol. iv. 
V' 313 (1857)- 1880 No aloes in tubs Insult the scanty shrubs that adorn these 
Paradises: J. Payn, Conjident. Agent, ch. i. p. 2. 

[The Heb. akhdlzm, the Gk. ayaXXoxoi', both come fr. Skt. 

alopecia, sb. : Lat. fr. Gk. aXwTreKta : fox mange ; in human- 
beings, a skin-disease which causes hair to fall away. 

1398 The thyrde manere lepra cometh of Melancolye Infectynge of blood.and 
hyghte AUopicia & Vulpina. foxisshe: Trevisa, Barih. De P. R., Bk. vn. 
ch. Ixiv. — In theym that haue that Lepra that hyghte AUopicia al the heere of 
thye liddes & of the browes fall and the eyen swel gretely and ben full redde : id. 
1.527 it helpeth sore in Alopicia/that is a skaldnes of the hede that the heres 
fall out: L. Andrew, Tr. Brunswick's Distill,, Bk. 11. ch. ccxcvi. sig. U iw^/2. 

alose, sb, : Eng. fr. Fr. alose : corrupted to allowes^ allice^ 
allis\ a kind of shad found in the Severn, and elsewhere. 

1600 great store of Aloses, which is a fish somewhat redde like a Salmon : 
R. Hakluyt, Voyages, Vol. in. p. 241. 1604 shaddes and aloses, which come 
frdm the sea into die rivers: E. Grimston, Tr. D'Acosta's Hist. W. Indies, 
Vol. I. Bk, iii. p. 146 (1880). 1620 The AUowes is taken in the same places 

that Sammon is: Venner, Via Recta, iv. 75. [N. E.D.] 

Alp^ sb.\ Eng. fr. Fr. Alpes'. usually//. Alps. 

1. pi. the name (Lat. Alpes) of the mountains which 
divide Italy from France and Germany and Austria. 

1398 Gallia is a prouynce of Europe bytwene the mountayne Alpes pennine 
and the bryttisshe Occean: Trevisa,. ^arM. De P. R., Bk. xv. ch. Ixvi. 1538 
Alpinus, a, um, of the mountayns Alpes : T. Eliot, Dictionarimn (1559). 1584 
Gregorie NeoccBsariensis in his iornie and waie to passe ouer the Alpes, came to 
the temple of Apollo: R. Scott, Disc. Witch., Bk. vn. ch. v. p. 136. 1601 
great mountaines such as the alps be: Holland, Tr. Plin. N. H., Bk. 25, ch. 7, 
Vol. II. p. 221. — upon the Alpes: ih., ch. 6, p. 220. 

2. any mountain or peak, esp. those which always have 
snow and ice on them ; also metaph. 

abt. 1400 thare men goon by the Alpes of Aryoprynant, and by the Valez of 
Mallebrynez: Tr. Maundevile's Voyage, ch. xi. p. 127 (1839). 1573—80 

•deeper.. .then the height and altitude of the middle region of the verye English 
Alpes amountes unto in your shier: Gab. Harvey, Lett. Bk., p. 63 (1884). 
J,578 the nature of the place is such, that it is subiect diuej-sly to diuers windes, 
according to the sundry situation of the great A Ips and mountaines there, euery 
mountaine causing a seuerall blast, and pirrie, after the maner of a Leuant: 
R. Hakluyt, Voyages, Vol. in. p. 83 (1600). — sundry mountaines and Alpes 
of yce: ib., p. 84. 1634 our frayle vessels.. .Past ore the rugged Alpes of 

th' angry Sea: (163^) W. Habington, Casia7-a, Pt. 11. p. 106(1870). 1646 If 
the body bring but m a complaint of frigidity, by that cold application only, this 
adamantine alp of wedlock has leave to dissolve : Milton, Tetrachordon. [T.] 
1662 but true faith, when it is in heart, will eat its way over all alps of oppo- 
sition: John Trapp, Cojnm., Vol. i. p. 576/1 (1867). 1667 O'er many a frozen, 
tnany a fiery Alp: Milton, P. L., 11. 620. 1818 I would follow her from 
pole to pole, over alps and oceans: Lady Morgan, Fl. Macarthy, Vol. iii. 
ch. ii. p. 92 (1819). 

alp2, sb. : Ger. : a pasturage in the Alps. 

1857 is this Peissenberg what you call an alp or aim. it one of thoSe 
pasture-grounds on the mountains, where you told me the people send their 
cattle in summer? Baroness Tautphceus, Quits, Vol. i. p. 253. 

alp^ sb.: Ger.: night-mare, demon. 

1836 Those alps and goblins, those nixies and wood-nymphs : Blackwood's 
Mag.yXi.. 146. [N.E.D.] 

*alpacaj sb.: Sp.: a kind of llama {g. v.), a native of Peru, 
with long hair like wool; the wool thereof; a fabric made 
from the said wool. The llama proper and alpaca are the 
■domestic, the vicuna and guanaco the wild species of the 
genus Llama. 



[1604 the sheep of Peru, and those which they call Pacos and Huanacus : 
E. Grimston, Tr. D'Acosta'sHist. W. Indies, Vol. i. Bk, iv. p. 277(1880).] 1811 
a beautiful Alpaca or Paco, having been in England for more than two years [and 
called Cainelogua7iaco\: W. Walton, PentviaJi Sheep, Pref. — It is made of 
woven stripes of worsted,, the main stripe being of black Alpaca wool : ih., p. 52. 
1838 the Alpaca figure has become a decided trade : Report, quoted in J. James' 
Worsted Manuf, p. 478 (1857). 1844 this immense and valuable branch of 
national industry, alpaca manufactures: J. James, Alpaca, p. zg6. 1854 An- 
other article was a plain black alpaca lustre dress, the warp of fine cotton twist, 
and weft of alpaca: Eng. Cycl. (Arts & Sci.), Vol. i. p. 229. 1857 The 

pieces chiefly fabricated from Alpaca in the neighbourhood of Bradford were 
figures: J. James, Worsted Manuf, p. 456. — figured Alpacas and Alpaca 
linings: ib., p. 457. 1864 the alpaca umbrella: G. A. Sala, Quite Alone, 
Vol. I. ch. i. p. 3. 1877 bathing in blue alpaca: C. Reade, Woman-Hater, 
ch. vii. p. 68 (1883). 

[Sp, alpaca^ alpaca^ fr. al-^ prefix, and pace {q. v.).'\ 
*alparca, alpargate, sb. : Port. : a kind of hempen shoe or 

sandal. For the probable Basque origin see Dozy-Engel- 

mann, p. S73- 

1598 The Moores.. .leave their Alparcos [which are their] shoes standing at 
the Church dore before they goe in: Tr. y. Van Linschoten's Voyages, Vol. i. 
p. 287 (1885). — their shooes, which they wear like Antiques with cut toes, and 
fastned above, upon their naked fdete, which they call Alparcas [of the Canaras 
and Decaniins]: ib^, p. 257. 1662 their Shooes, which they call Alparcas, are 
of wood, ty'd up over the Instep with straps of Leather [of the inhabitants of 
Cuncam or Decam] : J. Davies, Tr. Mandelslo, Bk. 11. p. 74. 

alpeen, sh.: Ir. See quotation. 

bef. 1863 Here are two choice slips from that noble Irish oak, which has more 
than once supplied alpeens for this meek and unoffending skull: Thackeray, 
Roundabout Papers, p. 44 (1879). 

^alpenstock, sb.\ Ger.: 'stick for the Alps', a long stick 
fitted with an iron point, used in cUmbing mountains and 
going over glaciers. Tr. Z. Simond's Switzerland (1822), 
Vol. I. p. 296, describes it as a stick shod with a point of 
iron, but calls it a 'stick' or bdtonferrS (p. 310), as if Simond 
did not know the name alpenstock. 

1829 Here I made my first experience of the various and important uses of 
the Alpejistock, the long iron-shod pole, for which I had exchanged my ordinary 
lowland companion at the town of Thun : C. J. Latrobe, Alpenstock, p. 17. 
1833 [Latrobe has] thrown more light upon Alpine history.. .by the feats of his 
alpenstock: Eclectic Rev., Aug., p. 149. 1883 It is unstained by moraine, 

and the alpenstock strikes blue ice, on which there is neither sign or sight of living 
thing: Standard, Feb. 27, p. 5. 

*alplia, sb. : name of the first letter of the Greek alphabet, 
A, a. For etym, see next article. 

bef. 1400 He bad him alpha for to say, | lesus ansuerd and said, "parfay, \ 
Bot sai thu me first of betha, | And siden i sal the of alpha": Cursor Mundi, 
12423. 1738 Chambers, Cyc/. 1782 The Alpha, or unit... and the Beta, 
or binary: Burney, Hist. Mus., i. 65. 

*Alpha and Omega., p/ir.: fr. Gk. : the beginning and the 

1382 I am alpha and 00, the bigynnyng and endyng, seith the Lord God : 
Wyclif, Rev., i. 8. 1398 the nombre of ten. worthy to presence our lorde 
Cryste god. that is Alpha &. O. endyng and beginnyng: Trevisa, Barth. De 
P. R., XIX. xxiii. 1584 the excellent name of Jesus Christ, A and Q, the first 
Ekid the last: R. Scott, Disc. Witch., Bk. xv. ch. xviii. p. 426. 1594 The 

wresting of the holy name of God.. .Alpha : Greene, Friar Bacon^ p. i/S/ij'l. 4 
(1861). 1599 But this is most warrantable, the Alpha of all the Yarmouths it 
was, and not the Omega correspondently : T. Nashe, Lenten Stuffe,'^. 13(1871). 
1611 Alpha and Omega: Bible, Rev., i. 8. 1619 God hath no part in their 
honour, nor they in his ; he is neither the Alpha nor Omega of dieir vertue : 
Purchas, Microcosmus, ch. xliii. p. 412. — and therefore the Lists of his race, 
from the Alpha to the Omega, are Vanitie : ib. , p. 627. 1625 A fiselme esteemed 
the Alpha of his times for learning and sanctitie: — Pilgrims, Vol. 11. Bk. viii. 
p. 1252. 1629 it was necessary it should be performed, even from Alp/ta to 

Omega: Brent, Tr. Soave's Hist. Counc. Trent, Bk. vii. p. 646 (1676). 1635 
Hee that should be both A Ipha and Om.ega, it's well if bee be the Omega of their 
thoughts and cares: S. Ward, Sermons, p. 11. 1659 Being thus the Alpha... 
he was before any time assignable: Pearson, Creed, 178 (1839). |L814 that 

Alpha and Omega of beauty: Byron, in Moore's Ltfe, Vol. iii. p. 86 (1832). 
1818 the Lady Lieutenant was the alpha and omega of special reference : Lady 
Morgan, Fl. Macarthy, Vol. 11. ch. i. p. 71 (i8ig). 1821 of which church I 
acknowledge myself to be the only member — the alpha and the omega : Confess, 
of Eng. Opium-Eater, Pt. 11. p. g8 (1823). 1834 the Alpha and Omega of 

our social relations is personal. they will affect the question of our individual 
account with God: Greswell, on Parables, Vol. 11. p. 476. 1885 Our 

Saviour Himself— the embodiment, the Alpha and Omega of all religion — was a 
carpenter: H. Macmillan, Sabbath of Fields, p. 337 (5th Ed.). 

{Alpha is fr. oK^a.^ the first letter of the Gk. alphabet, fr. 
Phcen. aleph {q, v.). Omega is fr. m )Lteya, = *long O', the last 
letter of the Gk. alphabet.] 

alpieu, sb.: Fr.: at basset, a mark made on a card by a 
winner to show that he doubles his stake. 

1704 What Pity 'tis, those Conq'ring Eyes, | Which all the World subdue, | 
Shou'd, while the Lover gazing dies | Be only on Alpuei Sir Geo. Etherege, 
Wks., p. 288. 1709 The Alpieiv is much the same thing as the Paroli, and 
like that Term us'd when a Couch is won by turning up, or crooking the corner 
of the winning Card : Co?npl. Gamester, p. 180. 1753 Chambers, Cycl., Suppl. 

alpine {±±),adj.\ Eng. fr. Lat.: adj. to Alps; also adj. 
to Alp^ (2), any mountain or peak characterised by cold. 

1845 During the day we saw several guanacos, and the track of the closely- 
allied species, the Vicmla : this latter animal is pre-eminently alpine in its habits : 
C. Darwin, Journ. Beagle, ch. xvi.-p. 359. ■ 



*Alsatia: Lat. form of Ger. Elsass ( = 'foreign-settle- 
ment'), Fr. Alsace, formerly debateable territory on the West 
bank of the Middle Rhine ; hence, a name for a sanctuary 
for outlaws, or an asylum for debtors and criminals, esp. 
Whitefriars in the 17th and i8th centuries. Hence, A isatzan, 
sb. and adj. 

1680 Let us go, we'll go to the Temple or Alsacia for refuge till the Business 
be over: Shadwell, Wont. Captain^ v. p. 62. 1688 Some Inhabitants 

of Whiie-Fryars\ some BuHies oi Alsaiiai — Squire of Alsatia^ i. p. 8 (1699). 
— Have a care of a Quarrel, and bringing the Alsatians about your Ears: tb., 
iii. p. 28. — But what shall we do for our Whiie'Fryafs Chaplatit, our 
Alsatian divine: ib., v. p. 52. 1704 He spurr'd to London, and left a 

thousand curses behind him. Here he struck up with sharpers, scourers, and 
Alsatians: Gentletnan Instructed, p. 491. [Davies] 1704 Peter's banter (as he 
fL'Estrange] calls it in his Alsatia phrase) upon transubstantiation : Swift, Tale 
of a Tub, Author's Apol., Wks., p. 45/2(1869). 1822 What! your lordship is 
for a frolic into Alsatia? Scott, Fort. Nig., ch. xvi. p. 82/1 (1867). — I became 
a courtier.. .a gamester. Alsatian: ib., ch. xxi. p. 108/2. 1886 degraded 

and unfortunate persons who resort there as to an Alsatia: Atken^um^ May i, 
p. 578/1. 

Alsirat : Arab. : the bridge leading to the Mohammedan 
paradise over mid-hell, finer than a hair and sharper than a 
sword, whence all except the good must fall. See E. W. 
Lane, Mod. Egypt., Vol. i. p. 82 (187 1). 

1753 Chambers, CycL, Suppl. 1813 Though on Al-Sirat's arch I stood, | 
Which totters o'er the fiery flood: Byron, Giaotir, Wks., Vol. ix. p. 167 (1832). 
1819 a teacher.. .who.. .should put me in the way for passing over the bridge 
Seerath as speedily as possible : T. Hope, Anast., Vol. i. p. 192 (1820). 1867 
if as yet, to the vulgar eye, many a bridge of theirs may seem but as Al Sirat, 
they know better things and glide fearlessly on : Shirley Brooks, Sooner or 
Later, Vol. ii. p. 383. 

[Arab. A l-szyat, = ^ the road', borrowed from Lat. strata.'] 

alt\ alta: Eng. fr. It., or It. See alto^. 

alt^, sd. : Eng. fr. Prov. alt : Mtis. : high tone ; opposed to 
bass, above middle C ; also, the octave above the treble 
stave. Metaph. in alt, in an exalted frame of mind. 

1697 Phi. Be these all the wayes you may haue these notes in the whole 
Gam'i Ma. These and their eights: as what is done in Gam vt may also be 
done in G sol re vt, and likewise in g sol re vt in alt. And what in Cfa vi, may 
be also in C sol fa vt, and in C sol fa. And what in Ffa vt in Base, may also be 
done in ffa vt in alt. But these be the three principall keyes containing the 
three natures or properties of singing: Th. Morley, Mus., p. 4. 1670 

There's a delicate Note in B Fa Bemi in Alt: Shadwell, Sulleji Lovers, i. p. 9. 
1731 For he could reach to B in alt: Swift, Apollo, Wks., iv. i. 161 (1755). 
174:8 The fair fugitive was all in alt: Richardson, CI. Harlowe, v. 145. [Davies] 
bef. 1794 your ladyship's absolutely in alt.. .Give me leave to tell your ladyship 
that you have raised your voice a third octave higher since you came into the 
room: Colman, Music. Lady, i. [z3.] 1796 Come, prithee be a Httle less 
in alt.. .and answer a man when he speaks to you: Mad. D'Arblay, Camilla, 
Bk. II. ch. V. \ib.'\ 1797 The deepest female voice immediately follows the 
counter tenor, and may be called bass in alt: Eticyc. Brit., s. v. Music. 1885 
That wondrous ' B ' was like part of a baritone scale ; begun at G below, and 
carried up without a break to D in alt — two octaves and a half: W. Glover, 
Cambridge Chorister, i. iii. 34. 

altel, sb.\ Fr.: altar. 

bef. 1565 If.. .he come to church, take holy water, hear mass devoutly, and 
take altel holy bread, he is sure enough, say the Papists : Bradford, Wks., 11. 
314 (Parker Soc). [Davies] 

"^alter ego, /-^r. : Lat.: other I, other self, Gk. eVepos avroff. 

expressive of an intimate and thoroughly trusted friend. 

1623 Mabbe, Tr. Aleinans Life ofGuz7nan de A If aracke {162,0). [Oliphant] 
1662 We use to call a friend Alter ego; but here the a\Ao? eyw is the greatest 
enemy: N. CuhVERVfEi., Light of Nat. , Treat., p. 10. 1662 one in whom he 
may see himself, and that may be to him as an alter-ego, a second self: John 
Trapp, Comm., Vol. i. p. 13/2 (1867). — As a pledge. ..that he [Jonathan] would 
have David looked upon as his Alter Ego: ib., p. 450/2. [1672 A friend is but 
er^pos auTos.. .another self: T. Jacomb, Romans, Nichol's Ed., p. 40/2(1868).] 
1844 Bonaparte.. .sent away that marshal from the Grand Army with very extra- 
ordinary powers, with a sort of Alter Ego character: Craik & Macfarlane, 
Pict. Hist. Eng., Vol. iv. p. 574/2. 1860 Berlioz, on whose help he had relied, 
whom he had considered his alter ego, the Wagner of Paris : Once a Week, 
Sept. J, p. 276/2. 1872 These people might not take that high view of you 
which I have always taken, as an alter ego, a right hand : G. Eliot, Middle- 
march, Bk. V. ch. li. p. 377 (1874). 1882 I cannot think of any alter ego 
likely to do it: T. Mozley, Reminisc, Vol. ii. ch. 114, p. 306. 1886 The 
contract. ..shall not be binding on the person whose alter ego or representative he 
is if he has made any misrepresentation : Lord Esher, Law Times Reports, liv. 
p. B56/1. 1886 The man of imagination has to be kept in check by his alter 
ego, the man of business : Athenmum., Aug, 7, p. 177/2. 

alter idenij/^r.: Lat.: meant by Cicero {De Amtc, 21) to 
render the Gk. erepos avros, another self, the more Lat. 
phrase being alter ego. The Lat. idem^ = Gk. avros, 'the 
same '. 

1597 and if a friend be alter idem, a second self, it is as much as in reason he 
can look for: King, on Jonah, Nichol's Ed., p. 84/2 (1864). 1782 that friend 
is indeed an alter idem: J. Newton, Pref. to Cowper's Poems, Vol. i. p. vi. 

alteration {L-^il —), sb,: Eng. fr. Fr. alteration. 


1. the action of producing a change in or of anything; 
the process of being changed. 

bef. 1490 The riches in him thou shalt finde, | After alteration of kinde: 
G. Ripley, Myst. Alck.^ in Ashmole's Tkeat. Chem. Brit., p. 386 (1652). 
1506 Thus can I make, an alterasion | Of worthely honoure, whiche dothe 
depende [ All onely in my dominacion: Hawes, Past. Pleas., sig. O iv ro, 
1540 if he be instructed in. ..the alteration of houres in day and nyght: Elyot, 
Im. Govemaunce, p. 80 r°. 1546 king Richard was thus occupied in so great 
trouble of mynde and alteration of devyses for feare of stirre to coorne : Tr. 
Polydore Vergil's Eng. Hist, Vol. 11, p. 212 (1844). 1563 or elles that 

throughe alteration in tyme of the shotte, it tourneth to venome : T. Gale, 
Treat. Gonneshot, fol. zr<>. 1579 their alterations, and renewing of the state: 
North, Tr. Plutarch, p. 842 (1612). 1603 and mortall things ensuing | (As 

subiect to thee) thy selfs transmutation, | Feel th' vnfelt force of secret alteration : 
J. Sylvester, Tr. Dn Bartas, p. 116 (1608). 1641 This day y* Lo. Mayor 

was att the upper House to get an alteration of that their LoP^ order: Evelyn, 
Corresp., Vol. iv. p. 55 (1872). 1652 letters fro London importe no new notable 
effecte of ther alteracon: ib.. Vol. iv. p. 238. — my brother making this altera- 
tion : — Diary, Vol. i. p. 289. 

2. the state or condition produced by change ; the con- 
crete result of a change. 

1508 the same facyon [ Without alteracyon: J. Skelton, Phyl. Spar., 543, 
Wks., Vol. I. p. 67 (1843). 1546 alteration of my condition and state: Tr. 
Polydore VergiVs Eng. Hist., Vol. 11. p. 165 (1844). — And so even at that 
instant chaunced great alteration of thenglish affaires: ib., p. 58. 1678 lest by 
hurtfuU alteration of mind, he were. ..the cause to bring himselfe & all Italy into 
perpetuall seruitude ; Fenton, Tr. Guicardinis Wars of Italy, Lib, i. p. 31 
(1618). 1579 to know the cause of your alteracion would boote me lyttle : 
J. Lyly, Euphues, p. 95 (1868). 1591 doth this churlish superscription f Pre- 
tend some alteration in good will? Shaks., I He7L. VI., iv. i, 54. 1693 the 
Andes of Peru, have been, for some hundreds of Leagues in Length, violently 
shaken, and many Alterations made therein by an Earthquake : J. Ray, Three 
Discourses, i. ch. iii. p. 13 (1713). 1776 the establishment of uiis Court hath 

made no alteration in respect to the administration of Criminal Justice : Claim of 
Roy Rada Chum, 31/1. abt. 1784 These creatures [hares] have a singular 
sagacity in discovering the minutest alteration, that is made in the place to which 
they are accustomed: Cowper, Wks., Vol. n. p. 316 (1808). 1887 This 

enables the practitioner to see at a glance exactly what alteration has been made 
in the law: Law Times, Jan. 8, p. 173/1. 

2 a. a morbid change, a distemper, 

1541 reformacion of the membre in the same selfe substaunce, forme, qualyte, 
and quantite, and other such accidentes proprely as it was afore the comipdon 
and alteracion: R. Copland, Tr. Guydo's Quest., &'c., sig. B iv v°. 1582 
For the hart, which of long time hath bene rooted in vice, incontinently is subiect 
to some great alteration : T. North, Tr. Guevara's Dial of Princes, p. 96 r". 

3. an old term in Music for increasing the duration of a 
note. Obs. 

1596 The pricke of alteration is that which doubleth the value of the second 
noate following the same prick: Pathway to Mus., sig. E i v^. 1597 if you 

fi7ide a prick so following a Miny7ne in this Moode, it doubleth the value 
therof...3.n6. then is the pricke called apricke of alteration: Th. Morley, M7is., 
p. 22. 1609 The Pricke o^ Alteration, was observed more by the Ancients, 

than the later Musitians. [It] is the repeating of Notes, which doth accidentally 
befall them, not as they are perfect, but as their parts neighbouring the perfect: 
DouLAND, Tr. Ornith. Microl, p. 53. 

[In Revel. Monk of Evesham (Arber, 1869), p. 58, 1482 (if 
not 1 196), 'alteracyons of tymes' seems to be a corruption of 
*alternacyons of tymes'.] 

alternator {-L — IL si), sb. : Eng. : one who causes alterna- 
tion. Rare. 

1836 O Alternator of the day and night : E. W. Lane, Mod. Egypt, Vol. 11. 
p. 256. 

[Coined from Eng. alternate, as if Lat. noun of agent to 
alternare, = ^ to do or take by turns'.] 

alternis vicibus,pAr.: Lat. : "in alternative turns", Hol- 
land, Tr. Plin. N. H., Vol. n. p. 400 (1601); reciprocally, 


1589 the Chauncellor, Maysters, and Schollers, shall make fyrst proclamation 
this present yeare. and the Mayor, BaylifFe and Burgesses of Cambridge the next 
yeare, and so alternis vicibus: Egertojt Papers, p. 128 (Camden Soc, 1840). 
1593 J. NoRDEN, Spec. Brit, Pt. i. p. 48. 1611 everyone in ovder alter7iis 
vicibus: T. CoRYAT, Cr^idities, Vol. n. p. 311 (1776). 1625 So we continued, 
alternis vicibtis, shooting at our Aduersary as at a Butte : Purchas, Pilgrims, 
Vol. II. Bk. ix. p. 1465. 

altesse, sb. : Fr. : highness, a title given to members of a 
royal house; see alteza. Rarely Anglicised as altess (i66a 
Waterhouse, Arms, p. 25 ; in N. E. D.). 

1768 He only takes the title of aliesse, an absurd mezzotermine, but acts 
Kmg exceedingly: Hor. Walpole, Letters, Vol. v. p. iiB (1857). 1783 How 
many fools will think themselves sober enough to advise his altesse on whatever 
he consults them! ib.. Vol. viii. p. 395 (1858). 

alteza, Sp,, altezza. It.: sb.\ 'highness', used as a title. 

1696 Shee and her husband both alreadie take vppon them in their manner, 
stile and vsage, a state and title farre beyond their dignitie, conuenient onely 
vnto Kmgs, Altezza is the meanest phrase that they will bee spoken in vnto, re- 
fusmg anie Letters that are not so entituled : Estate of Engl. Fugitives, p. 129. 
1599 chaunt and carroll forth the alteza and excelsitude of this monarchall fludy 
induperator: Nashe, Lenten Stuffe, Hari. Misc., vi. 157. [Davies] 1622 
Peter Phillips, Organist to their Altezza' s^x Bruxels: Peacham, Comp. Gent, 
ch. XI. p. 102. 1670 the Prince of Piedmont who is also treated with the- 
title oi Altezza Reale [Royal]: R. Lassels, Voy. Ital.^ Pt. i. p. 72. 


althaea, sd. : Lat. : Bot. : mallow, name of a genus of plants 
(Nat. Order Malvaceae), of which Marsh Mallow and Holly- 
hock are species. 

Althaea frutex\% Hibiscus Syriacus, a gay flowering shrub. 

1526 sethe the rote of altea with grece : Greie Herlall, ch. xl. 1543 rootes 
of Altea called Holyhocke or marche mallowcs: Teaheron, Tr. Vigors Chirurg., 
fol. XIV z/o/i. 1563 the rootes of Althea, Waxe, Colophonie, Fengreke, 
Cinamoine: T. Gale, Antid., fol. 3Z/0. 1785 Althsea with the purple eye; 
*e broom, | Yellow and bright: Cowpee, Task, vi. Wks., Vol. n. p. 175(1808). 
1823 in entering the town, I saw a large Althea Frutex in bloom : W. Cobbett, 
Ritrai Rides, Vol. I. p. 329 (1885). 

♦Althing, sb. : Norse : the general assembly and supreme 
court of Iceland, abolished 1800. See thing. 

1780 may appeal to the Al-thing, or common court of justice, which is kept 
every year on the 8th of July at Thingvalla : Tr. Von TroiVs Lett, on Iceland, 
p. 72 (2nd Ed.). 1811 This magistrate chiefly officiated in the great assembly 
or Althing, which he convoked annually: W. J. Hooker, Iceland, Vol. I. p. xxii. 
(1813). 1818 the abolition of the Althing, or National Assembly, in the year 

1800 : E. Henderson, Iceland, Vol. 11. p. 167. 1856 there was only one 

supreme magistrate, who decided all disputes, and presided at the allihing, or 
great general assembly of the nation: Encyc. Brit., s. v. Iceland, Vol. Xll. 
p. 197/2. 

althorn, sb. ': Ger. : Mus. See quotation. 

.1879 ALTHORN, an instrument of the Saxhorn family, usually standing in 
EP or F... also. ..the saxhorn in Bb...or Baritone: Grove, Mus. Diet. 1880 
Webster, Sujipl. 

altine, sb.: Russ.: money of account, the value of three 
copecks (see copeck). 

1698 wee sell 24 . fishes for 4 . altines : R. Hakluyt, Voyages, Vol. i. p. 295. 
^ three pence a poods caryage ; so that from the Citie of Nouogrod vnto 
6*. Nicholas road you may haue wares caried for two altines. The pood commeth 
vnto 23 altines the tunne: ib., p. 369. 1617 in the Muscouites money, it is 
rated at thirtie three altines and two Diagoes. And sixe single or three double 
diagoes make one altine: F. MoRYSON, Itin., Pt. I. p. ago. 1662 in trading, 
the Muscovites use the words, Altin, Grif, and Rouble, whereof the first is worth 
three. ..Co/fcj, yet is there no Coins of that kind: J. Davies, Tr. Olearius, 
Bk. III. p. 72 (1669). 

altissimo, adj. and adv.: It.: Mus.: very high, applied to 
the range of ascending notes beginning with G on the fourth 
ledger-line above the treble stave. 

1797 She has been heard to ascend to Bb in altissima : Encyc. Brit., Vol. 
XII. p. 497/2. 

alto', alta, alt, sb.: Sp. or It: a halt. Obs. 

1691 in marching or making ..4 /^a : Garrard, Art Warre, p. 76. — where 
they make alta and stay: ib., p. 125. 1598 but making a stand or Alto, he is 
bound by dutie to aduance the Ensigns : R. Barret, Tkeor. of Warres, Bk. 11. 
p. 21. — then how to make their Alto or stand, and how to double their rankes: 
ib., Bk. III. p. 34. 

[Sp. and It. alto, fr. Ger. halt whence Eng. halt {Mil^^ 

alto ^, iz^'. used as Ji5.: It.: Mus.: 'high'. 

I. the high adult male voice, counter-tenor, of which the 
compass used to be supposed to extend equally above and 
below the middle C ; also the female voice of similar com- 
pass, contralto. 

1724 ALTO, or ALTUS, the Upper or Counter Tenor, and is commonly 
met with in Musick of several Parts : Short Explic. 0/ For. Wds. ui Mus. Bks. 

I a. music written for an alto voice, an alto part. 

1697 But if your Cadence be in the Alto, then may you choose any of these 
waies following for your end: Th. Morley, Mus., p. 128. 

I b. attrib. pertaining to the alto. 

1724 ALTO VIOLA, a small Tenor Viol. ALTO VIOLINO, a small Tenor 
Violin. ALTO CONCERTANTE, the Tenor of the Little Chorus, or the Tenor 
that sings or plays throughout. ALTO RIPIENO, the Tenor of the Great 
Chorus, or the Tenor that sings or plays now and then in some particular Places : 
Short Explic. of For. Wds. in Mus. Bks. 

2. one who has an alto voice. 

1818 the alto Miss Crawley, who had never before played out of her musical 
stocks, went rambling with her emancipated hand over the instrument : Lady 
Morgan, Fl. Macarthy, Vol. II. ch. iv. p. 224 (1819). 1885 Opposed to this 
forty basso power was an 'excelsior' species of male alto, with a voice of very fine 
and hmited proportions: W. Glover, Cambridge Chorister, l. xxv. 285. 

3. alt {g. v.). 

4. short for alto-viola, Italian name for a small tenor viol. 

*alto rilievo, a. relievo, /.^r.: It.: 'high relief, a style of 
sculpture projecting from a (comparatively) level ground, 
more than half the true proportion of the figures or objects 
represented ; also a piece of sculpture in this style. 

1664 how parts are to be raised, or depress'd by Alto, or Basso Relievo'. 
J. Evelyn, Tr. Freart's Parall, Archil,, p. 152. 1704 it [a figure of Mars] 
hung off the helmet in alto relievo: Addison, Wks., Vol. I. p. 463 (Bohn, 1854). 
1748 over it is an alto-relievo in wood. ..of the battle of Bosworth Field ; Hor. 

S, D. 



Walpole, Letters, Vol. ii. p. iig (1857). 1754 It is a Back in Alto Relievo 
that bears all the Ridicule ; though one would think a prominent Belly a more 
reasonable Object of it; since the last is generally the Eifect of Intemperance : 
W. Hay, Deformity, p. 35 (2nd Ed.). 1763 Over the north gate appear 
two bulls, in alto relievo, extremely well executed: Smollett, France &^ Italy, 
X. Wks., Vol. V. p. 331 (1817). 1772 They are all in altissimo, nay, i7i out- 

issiino relievo, and yet almost invisible but with a glass : HoR. Walpole, 
Letters, Vol. v. p. 377 (1857). 1819 They are lofty and regular, and the 

cornices of a very bold cane work in alto relievo : Bowdich, Mission to Askantee, 
Pt. I. ch. iii. p. 57. 1850 a very fat lady. alto-relievo: Thackeray, 

Pendennis, Vol. i. ch. xv. p. 148 (1879). 

altobasso, sb. : It. See quotation. 

1599 the silks... altobassos, that is, counterfeit cloth of gold: R. Hakluyt, 
Voyages, Vol. 11. ii. p. 198. 

[Perhaps corruption of Arab. al-clzbaj, = ^t\it brocade'.] 

altra volta, un' a. v., phr.: It.: another turn, again, 
encore {g. v.). 

1712 at their crying out Encore or A Itro Volto, the Performer is so obliging 
as to sing it over again : Spectator, No. 314, Feb. 29, p. 453/2 (Morley). 

altum silentiuin,^-^r.: Lat.: deep silence, an Ecclesiasti- 
cal phr., see quot. fr. Biddulph. Also metaph. 

1612 it is their custome to diuide their meales into three parts. The first is 
Altum silentium, that is, Deepe silence; which is not onely whiles they are 
saying grace, but whiles one of them readeth a Chapter out of their Legend'. 
W. Biddulph, in T. Lavender's Travels of Four Englishmen, p. iii. 1617 
there was altum silentinm in that and other things that were expected : J. Cham- 
berlain, in Court &> Times of Jas. I., Vol. i. p. 458 (1848). 1704 upon 
recourse to the will, nothing appeared there but altum silentiuTn: Swift, Tale 
of a Tub, § ii. Wks., p. 63/r (1869). bef. 1733 But, on the contrary, altum 

silentium : R. North, Examen, p. ii. (1740). 

alture, sb.\ Eng. fr. It. altura: height, altitude. 

bef. 1547 From that the sun descends, ( Till he his alture win : Earl Surrey, 
Ps., Iv. 29. [N. E. D.] 1598 Casamats were wont to be made in steede and 

place, where we now plant our Platformes, but so low that they arriued not vnto 
the alture of the ditch: R. Barret, Theor. of Warres, Bk. 11, p. 16. 

altus, adj. used as sb. : Lat. : Mus. : alto. 

1597 now must your Altus or Tenor (because sometime the Tenor is aboue 
the Altus) ascend to the sixth or thirteenth : Th. Morley, Mj/s., p. 128. 1609 
If the discantus be in a fourth aboue the Tenor, the Base requires a fift below, 
& the Altus a third or sixt aboue: Douland, Tr. Omith. Microl., p. 87. 
bef. 1658 Bassus and Altus, a Deep Base that must reach as low as Hell to 
describe the Passion, and thence rebound to a joyful Altus, the high-strain of the 
Resurrection: J. Cleveland, Wks., p. 125(1687). 1887 The work is written 
for cantus, altus, and tenor — a rather unusual combination of voices : W. Barclay 
Squire, in Atheneeum, June 25, p. 842/1. 

aludel {—J.—), sb.: Eng. fr, Fr. aludel\ a pear-shaped 
utensil of earthenware or glass, open at both ends, so con- 
trived that a set fitting one on another closely, formed a 
passage for vapor ; used by chemists in sublimation. 

1610 let your heat, still, lessen by degrees. To the Aludels: B. Jonson, 
AlcK, ii. 3, Wks., p. 625 (1616). 1738 Chambers, Cycl, 

[Arab, al-uthal (pronounced al-uthel)^ 

alum de plume, /^r.: Fr.: feather alum, plume alum, alu- 
7nen plMmeum, a native mineral substance (JFerroso-aluminic 
stilphate\ not a true alum chemically. 

bef. 1534 spake | To a prentice for a penny-worth of euphorbium, | And also for 
a halfpenny- worth of alum plumb: Hickscomer, in Dodsley-Hazlitt's Old Plays ^ 
Vol. I. p. 178 (1874). 1587 The same earth doth also yeeld White coprasse, 
Nitntm, 3.Tvd Alumen plumeum: R. Hakluyt, Voyages, Vol. in. p. 268 (1600). 
1601 Alume de Plume [Note, 'Aiiimine schisto']: Holland, Tr. Plin. N. H., 
Bk. 30, ch. 8, Vol. II. p. 385. 1671 Amianthus, Alumen plumosum, and various 
kinds of Threds, found by me in the fissures of Stones: H. O., Tr. N. Stena's 
Prodrovz. on Solids in Solids, p. 33. 

alumbrado, sb. : Sp. : one of the Spanish sect of lUumi- 
nati, which arose towards the end of the i6 c. ; hence any 
one who affects spiritual perfection or illumination. 

1671 Alumbradoes in religion: Glanville, Further Discovery of M, 
Siubbe, 33. 1681 Alumbrado (Span.) an Enthusiast, or Phanatick, that 

pretends to new light in Religion: Blount, Glossogr. 

[Sp. alumbrado, past part, of alumbrar j = ^ to illuminate'.] 

aluminium, sb.: coined fr. Lat. aiume/tj—'sXuTn^ : a white 
metal of which alums are salts. Discovered early in 19 c, 
and at first called alumz'um, aluminum. Its oxide alu7nina 
is the principal constituent of clays. 

Aluminium-bronze is a compound of aluminium and cop- 
per, almost of the color of gold, not easily tarnished. 

1888 Sir Morell Mackenzie.. .inserted a new tube. Like the last, this is of 
aluminium, the use of which has been found very advantageous: Standard, 
May 10, p. 5/5. 

*alumnus, ^/. alumni, sb.: Lat.: 'a foster-child', esp. a 
child of an alma mater {q. v.), a pupil of an educational in- 



1644 an Italian comedy acted by their alumni before the Cardinals: Evelyn, 
Diary, Vol. i. p. 142 (1872). — thence to Eton College.. .and heard a Latin 
speech of one of the Alumni: id., Vol. 11. p. 150. 1693 Four Scholars he 
added to the 40 Alunuii in the College of WesUninster'. J. Hacket, A5^. 
Williams, Pt. i. 107, p. 96. 18B6 At the present day, too, it [Cambridge] has 
the advantage of Oxford, counting in its alu-mni a greater number of distinguished 
scholars: Emerson, English Traits, xii. Wks., Vol. 11. p. 88 (Bohn, 1866). 
1874 He had no friends in court to secure him a place among the humblest 
alumni of our Universities : H. Lonsdale, John Dalton, i. 20. 1886 The 
school was only opened in 1847, and hardly sufficient time has yet elapsed for 
many of its alumni to have become very famous in Church or State : A themeum, 
Aug. 7, p. 174/2. 

alvara, sb.: Port.: chsLrter, prince's letters patent. 

1556 Anil when it is so entered, let the clerke of the Matricola for the 
certentie therof, wryte on the backe syde of this Aluala or patente, the number 
of the leafe wherein this owre graunt is entered: R. Eden, Decades, Sect. vii. 
p. 378 (1885). 1813 the Alvara of 21st October, 1763, from which it appears 

that, according to the 9th clause, the Portuguese Court Martial is bound to receive 
as evidence the written testimony: Wellington, Disp., Vol. x. p. 192 (1838). 

[Arab. al-dard, = ' receipt, 'contract', 'diploma'; the form 
alvala is Sp. albald.l 

alysson, -um, sb,: Gk. oKva-a-ovy a plant used to check 
hiccough. Bot 

1. name of a genus of Cruciferae. The best-known 
species is the garden-flower Gold-dust. The Eng. name 
used to be Madwort. 

1648 Alysson Plinij. Alyscon PIinij...maye be named in englishe purple 
goosgrafe: W. Turner, Names of Herbs. 1561 Alysson hath the name 

in Greke, because it helpeth the bityng of a wod dogge: — Herb., sig. 
Bviiiz*". — Dioscorides describeth .alysson, thus alyssos is a lytle bushy 
herbe somthyng sharpe wyth rounde leues: ib., sig. C i r^. 1678 The wilde 
[madder]... of some learned men is thought to be Alysson: H. Lyte. Tr- Dodoe?t's 
Herb., p. 538. — Alysson is of a drying nature as Galen writetn : ib., p, 107. 
1603 there is an herbe called Alysson, which whosoever hold in their hands, or 
doe but looke upon it, shall presently be ridde of the yexe or painfull hickot: 
Holland, Tr. Plut Mor., p. 684, 

2. Sweet Alyssum {Alison)^ a white-flowered plant (Nat. 
Order Cruciferae)^ Alyssum maritimum or Kbnzga 7nari- 

[Prob. Italian Gk. for *aXufoi/, fr. a-, negative particle and 
Xvy^, gen. Xti-yyoffj^* hiccough'. Formerly derived fr. Gk. 
Xi;cra-a,=^madness', and supposed to cure madness.] 

amabilis insania, phr. : Lat. : pleasing delusion, delightful 
madness. Hor., Od,, iii. 4, 5. 

1621 R. Burton, Ajtat. Mel., To Reader, p. 59 (1827). 1834 The aina- 
bilis insania... RaXters to the verge of the abyss: Edin. Rev., Vol, 59, p. 439. 

amadavat, avadavat, sb. : Anglo-Ind. : name of an Indian 
singing bird, the Red Wax-Bill of Blyth and Jerdon {Estrelda 
amandava^ one of the Fam. Fringillidae; Willughby- Ray's 
Avicula Amadavadaed). 

[1673 From Amidavad, small Birds, who, besides that they are spotted with 
white and Red no bigger than Measles, the principal Chorister beginning, the 
rest in Consort, Fifty in a Cage, make an admirable Chorus; Fryer, East India, 
Qt'c, 116. (Yule)] 1678 The Anadavad Bird \sic, 'Amadavad Bird' in 
Index], brought from, the East Indies, having a Fiiiches Bill and Larks Claws: 
J. Ray, Tr. Willughb^s OrnithoL, Bk. n. ch. xv. p. 266. [1763 ANADA- 

VAD ^A, in zoology, the name of a small bird of the East Indies: Chambers, 
Cycl., Suppl.] 1777 A few presents now and then...avadavats, and Indian 
crackers: Sheridan, Sch. for Scand., v. i. 1813 amadavats, and other 

songsters are brought thither [Bombay] from Surat and different countries : 
J. Forbes, Or. Mem., Vol. i. p. 47. [Yule] 1863 [Estreldinae] Two forms 
are found in India, one the Munias with a thick, tumid bill, the other the Ama- 
davads (estrelda), with a more slender, conic and waxy red bill : T. C. Jerdon, 
Birds of India, Vol. 11. p. 352. — The Munias or Amadavads closely resemble 
the Weaver-bird in many particulars: ib., p. 351. — "Amaduvade Finch" 
Edwards: ib., p. 359. — Blyth derives amaduvad: ib., p. 361. 1871 The 
Bengali Baboos maJce the pretty little males of the amadavat... fight together; 
C. Darwin, Dese. of Man, 11. xiii. 49. [N. E.D.] 

Variants, 18 c. avadavat^ 19 c. amaduvad ^ amaduvade,^ 

[European corruption of Ahmaddbdd {Ahmedabad)^ a city 
whence numbers of these birds were imported into Europe. 
This city is called Amadavad by Sir Th. Herbert, 1634, 
Trav.^ p. 42; and Ainadabat by E. Everard, 1684, Tr. 
Taverniefs Japan^ dr^c, li. p. 64.] 

Amadis (of Gaul) : the most famous of several heroes of 
the name Amadis which gives the title to a cycle of Anglo- 
Norman romance preserved in a Spanish prose version. See 
Southey's abridged translation, 1803. 

14 c. [romance] of amadase ( Tr/w. Coll. ms. amadas) : Cursor Mundi, Prol., 20 
(Morris, 1874). 1584 she standeth like a fiend or furie at the elbow of her 
Amadis to stirre him forward when occasion should serve : R. Parsons (?), 
Leicester's Commonwealth, p. no. 1610 you are.. .an Amadis de Gaule: 
B. JoNSON, Alch., iv. 7, Wks., p. 663 (1616). bef 1616 He was an Ass, but 


now is grown an Amadis: Beau. & Fl.» Eld. Bro,, v, 2, Wks., Vol. I. p. 462 
(1711). 1667 it will be hard not to conclude you descended from the Race of 

the Amad's: J. D., Tr. Letters of Voit-ure, No. 4, Vol. 1. p. 8. 1824 return, 
my dear Amadis: Scott, Red Gauutkt, Let. vill. sub fin., p. 90 (188-). 

amadot, amadetto, sb. : Eng. fr. Fr. : a kind of pear. 

1664 Vea^s... Sugar-Pear, Lady-Pear, Amadot: Evelyn, Kal. Hurt., 
p. 223 (1729). 1706 Amadetto, a sort of Pear: Phillips, World of Words. 
1755 Amadetto, Amadot: Johnson. 

[Corruption of the name of the French person who first 
grew the variety.] 

^amadou, sb. : Fr. : German tinder, or pyrotechnic sponge, 
made by soaking species of large fungus in strong lye of salt- 
petre and drying it ; used as a match, and to check haemor- 

1797 PMKDOVJ : Encyc. Brit. 1840 The substance sold in the shops 

as Amadou, or German tinder, is jjrepared from both species, by cutting the 
fungus in slices, beating, and soaking it in a solution of nitre : Pereira, Elements 
of Mat. Med,, Vol. 11. p. 574. 

amafrose, sb. -. Eng. fr. Fr. amafrose : amaurosis {q. v.). 

amah, sb.: Anglo-Ind. fr. Port, ama: 'wet nurse'; used 
esp. in Madras and Bombay. 

1839 A sort of good-natured house-keeper-like bodies, who talk only of ayahs 
and amahs, and bad nights, and babies : Letters from Madras, p. 124. [Yule] 

amalgam {— ± —), sb. : Eng. fr. Fr. and Low Lat. 

1. a soft alloy formed by combining mercury with another 
metal; a mercurial alloy whether soft or hard; a native 
amalgam being a natural combination of mercury with an- 
other metal. 

1471 Many Amalgame dyd T make, | Wenyng to fix these to grett avayle : 
G. Ripley, Comp. Alch., in Ashmole's Tlieat. Chem. Brit., p. 156 (1652). 
1477 every Minerall, | In Malgams, in Blanchers, and Citrinacions: T. Norton, 
Ordinall, c\i. m. z^., p. 39. 1558 this is the dowe (of gold and quicksiluer) 

that the Goldsmiths call Ajnalgama, and the learned men Malagyna, which is a 
Greek word, and being corrupted of the Arabians, was changed to Amalga-ma: 
W. Warde, Tr. Alessio's Seer., Pt. I. fol. 97?-''. 1610 We should have a new 
amalgama: B. JoNSON, Alch., ii. i, Wks., p. 247/1 (i860). 1664 ^nAmalgama 
of Gold and Virgin-Mercury: Phil. Trans., Vol. I. No. 2, p. 23. 1788 the 
best inciter of electricity yet discovered, even superior to the amalgamas made 
of tin, or zinck, and quicksilver: Gent. Mag., LVIII. i. ^i^l-z. 1874 His 
pupil. ..Saint Thomas Aquinas, lagged not far behind, and among many dis- 
coveries, saw the nature of an amalgam : H. Lonsdale, John Dalt07i, i. 10. 

2. a mixture in which different elements are in thorough 

1627 Either that the Body of the Wood will be turned into a kinde of Amal- 
agma, (as the Chymists call it): Bacon, Nat. Hist., Cent. i. § 99. 

2 a. metaph. 

1761 eat and drank your intellectuals into a placidulish and a blandulish 
amalgama: Sterne, Letters, Wks., p. 745/2 (1839). 

3. an element of a well-combined mixture, an alloy ; also 

1840 Few men were without quackery; they had got to consider it a neces- 
sary ingredient and amalgam for truth: Carlyle, Heroes, 315 (1858). [N. E. D.] 

Variants, 15 c. malgam, 17 c. amalagma. 

[Low Lat. amalgama, whence Fr. amalgame, is probably 
(like alembrotK) an alchemist's coinage or corruption; per- 
haps, as Bacon thought, suggested by Lat. malagma, fr. Gk. 
/i.dXay/ia, = 'an emollient', fr. /:ia\a(r(r€ii',='to soften'- Per- 
haps fr. Arab. OTfl/^^aOT, = ' emollient'. Otherwise Devic in 
Littrd, Supply 

amalgamator {^j. — ± ^), sb. : Eng. : one who arranges 
an association ; the apparatus used for separating silver 
from its ore by forming a chemical amalgam. 

[As if noun of agent to Late Lat. amalgafnare, — ^to amal- 
gamate', used for the more correct form amalgamafer^ 

Amalthaea's horn : Gk. MythoL: the horn of plenty, or 
cornucoplae {q. v.), one of the horns of Amalthaea, the goat 
which suckled Zeus (Jupiter), given by him to the Nymphs 
to whom it yielded whatever they desired. 

[1603 But he who hath once gotten the goat Amalthea by the head, and that 
plentiful! home of abundance which the Stoicks talke of, he is rich incontinently: 
Holland, Tr. Plut. Mor., p. 1056.] 1626 Amalthean home. Plenty of all 
things: CoCKERAM, Pt. i.(2nd Ed.). 1671 fruits and flow'rs from Amalthea's 
horn: Milton, P. R., ii. 356. 1705 In short, here is the Ixwe^ AmaWiea (X 
Corjiucopia, of which the Antients have said so many fine things : Tr. Bosman's 
Guinea, Let. xx. p. 416. 

amant,/^m. amante, sb.-. Fr.: a lover. 

1828 In Paris, no woman is too old to get an amant, either by love or 
money; Ld. Lytton, Pelham, ch. xxi. p. 54(1859). 


amautium irae amoris integratio est: Lat: a lover's 
quarrel is the renewal of love. Terence, Andria^ iii. 3, 23. 

1621 A. i. a. redintegratio: R. Burton, Anai. Mel., Pt. 3, Sec. 2, Mem. 3, 
Subs. 4, Vol. II. p. 270 (1827). 1681—1703 Th. Goodwin, Wks., in Nichol's 
Ser. Stand. Divines^ Vol. vii. p. igr (1863). I860 Once a Week, Apr. 7, 
p. 318/2. 

*ainanuensis, pi. amanuenses {—±^± ^), sb. : Eng. fr. 
Lat. amanuensis: one who is employed to write from dic- 
tation or to copy. 

1621 such benefactors^ as that noble Ambrosius was to Origen, allowinghim six 
or seven amanuenses to write out his dictates : R. Burton, Anat. Mel., ToReader, 
p. 17(1827). 1666 — 7 your amanuensis has committed some sphalmatas : Evelyn, 
Corresp., Vol. in. p. 90 (1872). 1664 give his full mind in writing. ..even he 

himself would doe it without the help of an Amanuensis: J. Worthington, 
Life, in Jos. Mede's Wks., p. xxviii. 1665 the names of Seria or Siria 
(doubtless mistaken by the Amanuensis or in the transcript): Sir Th. Herbert, 
Trav.,-p. 354 (1677). 1693 But one month in the Autumn began it, and 

ended it, as not only the Author, but the Amanuensis testified : J. Hacket, 
Abp. Williams, Pt. 11. 106, p. 109. 1712 he had recourse to the Invention 

above mentioned, having placed an Amanuensis in a private part of the Room : 
Spectator, No. 371, May 6, p. 545/1 (Morley). bef. 1733 He was his Lord- 

ship's Secretary or Amanuensis sure: R. North, Exam.en, i. i. 12, p. 20 (1740). 
1760 The writer, indeed, seems to think himself obliged to keep even pace 
with Time, whose amanuensis he is: Fielding, Tom Jones, Bk. ii. ch. i. Wks., 
Vol. yi. p. 65 (1806). 1787 Ladies. ..always slept in an adjoining apartment, 

to be in readiness as amanuenses, in case her Muse was taken in labour during 
the still season of the night: GetU. Mag., p. 885/2. 1860 could write perfectly 
well, and had no need of an amanuensis: Thackeray, Pendennis, Vol. i. ch. 
xxiv. p. 255 (1879). *1877 Good reader and amanuensis: Times, Dec. 10. 
[St.] 1881 What was actually written on parchment or papyrus by the author 
of the book or his amanuensis : Westcott & Hort, Gk. Test., Intr., IF 3, p. 3. 

[The Lat. amanuensis is found only in Suetonius, formed 
from a m.anu^ and meaning servus a »z.a:/2z^, = 'servant on-the- 
side-of the hand' (apparently on the analogy of airiensis, 
= 'hall {atriufn) steward', and castrensisj fo7'ensis, adj.), with 
the suffix -ensis generally used to form local and national 
names from names of places and countries.] 

amaracus, sb.: Lat.: marjoram (Anglicised in 15 c. as 
amarac) ; also Mod. Bot.^ Dittany of Crete {Origanum dic- 

1830 And at their feet the crocus brake like fire, | Violet, amaracus, and 
asphodel, | Lotos and lilies : Tennyson, CEnone, 95 (1886). 

amaranthus, amarant(h), sb.: Lat., and Eng. fr. Lat. 
The adj. amarant{h\ — ^ oi a purple color*, named from a 
purple species of the flower, is fr. the Fr. amarante. 

1. name of a genus of plants; see quotations. Love-lies- 
bleeding, and Purple Flower- Gentle or Prince's feather, are 
among the many species. 

1548 There are two kindes of Amarantus, the one kinde is called in greeke 
of Dioscorides Helichryson, and this kynde is found in Italy. The other kynde 
is called here in Englande of some purple Veluet floure, of other flouramore : 
W. Turner, Na7nes of Herbs. 1590 Sad Amaranthus, in whose purple gore | 
Me seemes I see Amintas wretched fate: Spens., F. Q., hi. vi. 45. 1601 Of 
Atnaranius or Passe-velours: Holland, Tr. Plin. N. H., Bk. 21, ch. 8, Vol. 11. 
p. 88. — a purple spike this is [purple floure-gentle]... serves all winter long to 
make chaplets & guirlands.. .Amaranthus, for so it is called in Greeke, because 
it never doth fade or wither: ib., p. 8g. 1627 The Herb Amaranthus, 

(indeed,) is Red all ouer: Bacon, Nat. Hist., Cent. vii. § 641. 1658 Tn 
strewing their Tombs the Romans affected the Rose, the Greeks Ainaranthus 
and myrtle: Sir Th. Brown, Hydriotaph., p. 56. 1664 sow on the Hot-bed... 
some choice Amaranthus, Dactyls, Geranium*s: Evelyn, Kal. Hort., p. 197 
(1729). 1706 Amaranths, and eglantines, | With intermingling sweets, have 
wove I The parti-coloured gay alcove : Addison, Wks., Vol. i. p. 65 (Bohn, 1854), 
1767 A hot-bed may now be made.. .in which to sow the seeds of tender annual 
flowers, such as cockscomb, amaranthus, egg-plant, &c. : J. Abercrombie, Ev. 
Man o^n Gardener, p. 171 (1803). 

2. an imaginary fadeless flower, emblem of immortality. 

1637 Bid amaranthus all his beauty shed, | And daffodillies fill their ciips 
with tears; Milton, Lycidas^ 149. 1667 Immortal amarant, a flow'r which 
once j In Paradise, fast by the tree of Hfe, I Began to bloom: — P. L., iii. 353 

[From Lat. amaraittus (changed to -anthus by wrong 
analogy with. polyanthus, 8lc.) fr. Gk.a/idpai/ros, = ' unfading'.] 

amare simul et sapere ipsi Jovi non datur: Lat.: to 
be in love and be wise at the same time is not granted to 

[1680 to be wize, and Loue, is a worke for a God, or a Goddes peere : Three 
Proper Letters, in Haslewood's Eng. Poets df Poesy, Vol. ii. p. 273 (1815).] 
1621 R. Burton, Anat. Mel., To Reader, p. 104(1827). — Amare, &=€,, as 
Seneca holds; ib., Pt. 3, Sec. 2, Mem. 4, Subs, i, Vol. 11. p. 312. 1883 Amare 
et sapere vix deo conceditur [to be in love and be wise is hardly granted to a 
god]: E. Braddon, Golden Calf, Vol. 11. ch. iv. p. in. 

amari aliauid, phr.: Lat.: 'somewhat of bitter', a slight 
bitter taste^ lit. or metaph. From Lucr., iv. w^i^ medio de 
fonte leporum \ surgit amari aliquid quod in ipsis floribus 



angaty^'- oyx\. of the very well-spring of delights rises up 
something of bitter, to pain amid the very flowers'. 

bef. 1863 Novels having been previously compared to jellies— here are two 
(one perhaps not entirely saccharine, and flavoured with an amari aliquid very- 
distasteful to some palates) : Thackeray, Roundabout Papers, p. 7 (1879). 
1860 surgit [there rises up] amari aliquid: W. H. Russell, Diary, Vol, i. 
p. 102. 1883 this is a novel which will be read with avidity and keen pleasure 
by all epicures in fiction, who know how to enjoy what is good, and to forget the 
amari aliquid which silly souls allow to poison a delicate repast : Standard, 
Sept. 22, p, 2/2. 

l), sb.: Eng. fr. Old Fr. amaritude: 

amaritude {—. 

1490 Thou haste absorbed me and reclosed in the grete see of amarytude : 
Caxton, Eneydos, xxvi. 94. [N. E. D.] 1630 As sweet as galls amaritude, 
it is; I And seeming full of pulchritude, it is: John Taylor, Wks. [Nares] 
1666 What amaritude or acrimony is deprehended in choler, it acquires from a 
commixtiure of melancholy, or external malign bodies: Harvey, Morbies Angl. 

amarodina, sbr. Russ. See quotation. 

1698 The third meade is called Amarodina or Smorodina, short, of a small 
berry much like to the small rezin : R. Hakluyt, Voyages, Vol. i. p. 323. 

Amaryllis : representative name for a pretty country girl, 
found in Lat. form in Virgirs Eclogues, for Theocritus' 
'AjLtapvXXtff ; also Bot.\ name of a large genus of bulbous 
plants of the Nat. Order A?naryllidaceae, with fine bell- 
shaped flowers, 

1637 Were it not better done, as others use, | To sport with Amaryllis in the 
shade, | Or with the tangles of Nesera^s hair? Milton, Lycidas, 68. 1829 
AMARYLLIS, lily-asphodel : a genus of the monogynia order, belonging to the 
hexandria class of plants: Lond. E7tcycl. 1855 on sandy beaches | A milky- 
bell'd amaryllis blew: Tennyson, Daisy, 16 (1886). 

amass^ {— jl), vb.: Eng. fr. Fr. 

1. U'ans. to collect together into a mass, pile up, esp. 
wealth, resources; also men, troops (Obs. or Archaic for 
mass) ; also generally. 

1481 Peple that will suffer payne and trauaylle...for to amasse grete tresours: 
Caxton, Myrr., i. iv. 14. [N. E.D.] 1591 a clustered troupe doth stand [ 

Amast together all: James I., Lepanto, 669 (1818). 1646 Such as amass all 
relations, must err in some, and be unbelieved in many: SirTh. Brown, Pseud. 
Ep- [J-] 1784 For her [the soul] the Mem'ry.. .amasses an unbounded store : 
CowPER, Tirocin., Poems, Vol. 11. p. 217 (1808). 1888 a Liverpool merchant... 
whose father had amassed a considerable fortune in Nova Scotia: Athen<sum, 
Mar. ID, p. 304/1. 

2. intr. of men, troops, to assemble. Archaic. 

1572 The soldiers were amassing from all parts of Spain : O. King, in 
Froude's Hist. Eftg., x. 276 (1881). [N. E. D.] 

[From Fr. amasser, — ^ to heap up', 'collect in a mass'.] 

amass ^, sb. : Eng. fr. Old Fr. amasse: a gathering, collec- 
tion ; esp. a massing of troops. 

1591 for the respect of gathering together and making the Amasse of the 
people : Garrard, Art Warre, p. 339. 

amata bene, /^n : Lat.: well-loved (/^w.). 

1877 What more can any woman ask for than to be amata bene: C. Rjeade, 
Womati'Hater, ch. vii. p. 77(1883). 

^amateur, sb.: Fr. Sometimes Anglicised as \{ amature 

1. a lover, an enthusiastic admirer. 

1784 The President will be left with his train of feeble Amateurs : Europ. 
Mag., 268. [N. E. D.] 1814 Never did music sound sweeter to an amateur, 
than the drowsy tautology, with which old Janet detailed every circumstance, 
thrilled upon the ears of Waverley : Scott, Wav., ch. Ixr. p. 428 (188-). 1822 
another pen, [which] soon found another amateur, who would have it to himself: 
L. SiMOND, Switzerland, Vol. i. p. 3. 

2. one who follows any pursuit unprofessionally as a 
pastime ; hence, a mere trifler with work or study. 

abt. 1790 It must always be, to those who are the greatest amateurs or even 
professors of revolutions, a matter very hard to prove, that the late French 
government was so bad, that nothing worse, in the infinite devices of men, could 
come in its place : Burke. [T.] 1796> those frivolous geniuses usually styled 
amateurs or connoisseurs'. Gent. Mag., Jan., i. p. 24/2. 1806 inany copies of 
it have been in circulation among the poetical amateurs of this literary metro- 
polis: Edin. Rev., Vol. s, p. 439. 1807 it was not likely that an amateitr, 
however distinguished, should convict these astronomers of gross ignorance : ib.. 
Vol. 10, p. 461. 1813 she was sitting with her back to the door, surrounded 
by a crowd of amateurs : M. Edgeworth, Patronage, Vol. i. p. 84 (1833). 1818 
what with mountebanks. Counts and friseurs, ] So9ne mummers by trade, and the 
rest amateurs: T. MIoore, Fudge Family, p. 28. 1819 Amycus, a Royal 
Amateur of the Fancy: Tom Crib's Mem., p. x. (3rd Ed.). 1854 the ad- 
mirable Captain Blackball examined her points with the skill of an amateur : 
Thackeray, Newcomes, Vol. i. ch. xxxiii. p. 379 (1879). *1877 Uie unin- 
structed amateurs of pretty books:, Dec. 10. [St.] i^®® need 
only advise amateurs and artists to visit the gallery : A the?uzitm, Oct. 10, p. 476/3. 
1887 Amongst no class are amateurs in photography so numerous as amongst 
cyclists : Manchester Exam., Jan. 27, p. 5/5. 



2 a, in apposition to the designation derived from a 

1821 the number of amateur opium-eaters (as I may term them) was, at this 
time, immense: Confess, of an E?ig. Opium-Eater^ Pt. i. p. 7 (1823). 1830 
many amateur performers: E. Elaquiere, Tr. Sig. Pana?iti, p. 266 (2nd Ed.). 
1860 an amateur novelist; Thackeray, Pendenuis^ Vol. 11. ch. iii. p. 33 (1879). 
1864 The Colonel began his second verse: and here, as will often happen to 
amateur singers, his falsetto broke down : — Neivcomes^ Vol. i. ch. xiii. p. 158. 
*1875 they made him into a sort of amateur detective, and appointed him to 
watch the thieves: Echo, Jan. 8, p. i. [St.] 

2 b. attrib, pertaining to an unprofessional student or to 
unprofessional work. 

1813 Sir Amyas talked a great deal of amateur-nonsense: M. Edgeworth, 
Patronage, Vol. i. p. in (1833). 

*Amati, a Cremona, or violin, made at Cremona in the 
i6th and 17th centuries by the Amati family, famed for the 
tone of their violins which are now very costly. 

1829 AMATI, a violin maker of Cremona,"who lived about the year 1600, 
and by his own and his family's skill gave name to the Amati violins, which are 
still considered, with the exception perhaps of Stainer's, the first in the world : 
Lo7id, Ettcycl. 1885 There is an Amati, date 1679, formerly the property of 
the old glee writer, Stevens: Daily News, Aug. 17, p. 6/1. 

"^amaurosis, sb.: Late Lat. fr. Gk. afiavpcoa-is : partial or 
total loss of sight usually without disfigurement of the eye, 
owing to a diseased state of the retina; Anglicised through 
Fr. amafrose by Sylvester ; also called gutta serena, q. v. 

1603 then she is backt [ By th' Ajnafrose and clowdy Cataract: \ That, 
gathering vp gross humors inwardly [ In th' Optike sinnew, clean puts out the ey : 
J. Sylvester, Tr. Du Bartas, Furies, p. 276 (1608). 1696 Amaurosis, a 

disease in the Eyes, viz. when the sight is gone, and no fault to be .seen : Phillips, 
World of Words. _ 1834 but never perhaps did these amaurosis suffusions so 
cloud and distort his otherwise most piercing vision, as in this of the Dandiacal 
body! Carlyle, Sartor Resartus, Bk. iii. ch. x. [C.E. D.] 1843 Amaurosis 
is a very obscure disease. It is capable of being caused by various changes, the 
exact seat and nature of which we often have no means of determining during 
life: T. Watson, Principles &* Pract. of Physic, Vol. i. p. 332. 

^Amazon (j. — —): Eng. fr. Lat. 

1. one of a mythical race of female warriors, Gk. 'A/xafovey, 
supposed by Greek poets and early Greek historians to have 
lived in Scythia. near the river Thermodon, and to have de- 
stroyed the right breast ('A^a^Mi/ being supposed to be fr. 
a-, = 'not', and jitafos-, = ' breast'), for convenience in using the 
bow. Hence the adj. A^nazonian^ Aindzonical. Spenser's 
'land of Amazons' is rather romantically than classically 

abt. 1386 And of the grete bataille for the nones | BItwixen Atthenes and 
Amazones: Chaucer, C. J"., Knts. Tale, S80. 1579 Antiopa the Amazone: 
North, Tr. Plutarch, p. 13 (1612). — there were certaine Amazones at this 
battell: ib., p. 649. 1582 Theare wear Amazonical woommen with targat: 

R. Stanyhurst, Tr. Virgil's Aen., Ek. i. 475. [Davies] 1593 To triumph, 
like an Amazonian trull, [Upon their woes: Shaks., /// Hen. VI., i. 4, 114. 
1595 For your own ladies and pale-visaged maids | Like Amazons come tripping 
after drums : — K. John, v. 2, 155. 1696 many a noble Knight, ! Whom that 
proud Amazon subdewed had: Spens., F. Q., v. vii. 41. — the Amazone: ib., 
38. 1607 his Amazonian chin : Shaks., Coriol.,i\. 2, 95. 1663 And laid 
about in fight more busily | Then th' Avtazoninn Dame, Penthesile: S. Butler, 
Hudibras, Pt. i. Cant. ii. p. loi. 1667 Those leaves | They gather'd, broad 

as Amazonian targe: Milton, P. L., ix. mi (1770). 1679 Was Marriage 
ever out of Fashion ? Unless amotig the Amazons : S. Butler, Hudibras, 
Pt. III. Cant. i. p. 43. 

2. a female warrior. 

1593 Belike she minds to play the Amazon: Shaks., /// Hen. VI., iv. i, 
106. 1598 round about the wals are cut and formed, the shapes of Elephants, 
Lions, tigers,... also [some] Amazones and [many] other [deformed] thinges of 
diners sorts: Tr. J. Van Li7ischoterC s Voyages, Bk. i. Vol. i. p. 291 (1885). 
1599 Select the army of Amazones ; | When you have done, march with your 
feniale troop 1 To Naples town : Greene, Alphonsus, iii. p. 238/1 (1861). 1600 
there are Amazones or women- warriers : John Porv, Tr. Leo s Hist. Afr.^ p. ig. 
1609 This Atnazon, the champion of the sexe: B. Jonson, Sil. Worn., v. 4, 
Wks., p- 599 (1616). 1643 their Orleans Amazon with her sword : Evelyn, 

Diary, Vol. l p. 43 (1850). 1679 When both your Sword, and Spurs, were 
won fin combat, by an Am.azon: S. Butler, Hudibras, Pt. iii. p. 235. 1704 
Then Pindar slew...Afra the Amazon": Swift, Wks., p. 107/ 1 (1869). 1711 
The Atnazon immediately singled out this well-dressed Warrior: Spectator, No. 
15, Mar. 17, p. 28/2 (Morley). 1713 His warlike Amazon her host invades, | 

Th' imperial consort of the crown of Spades : Pope, Rape of Lock, iii. 67, Wks., 
Vol. I. p. 188 (1757)- 1716 I do not propose toour British ladies, that they 

should turn Amazons in the service of their sovereign, nor so much as let their 
nails grow for the defence of their country: Addison, Wks,, Vol. iv. p. 427 
(1856). 1812 Yet are Spain's maids no race of Amazons, | But form'd for 

all the witching arts of love: Byron, Childe Harold, i. Ivii. 1820 The most 
celebrated of these amazons was Mosco : T. S. Hughes, Trav. in Sicily, Vol. 11. 
ch. vi. p. 125. 

2 a. in combinations. 

1598 His hair, French-like, stares on his frighted head, | One lock, amazon- 
like, disheveled: Bp. Hall, Sat. 1625 no sooner was the Captaine aboord, 
but the Amazon-hand followed: Purchas, Pilgrims, Vol. i. Bk. iv. p. 357. 

2 b. the Queen at chess. J^are. 

1656 The Queen or Amazon is placed in the fourth house from the corner of 
the field by the side of her King, and alwayes in her owne colour: F. Beale, 
Biochiinds Chesse-play, 2. [N. E. D.] 

3. a masculine or pugnacious woman. 

1664 A Petticoat displaid, and Rampant; 1 Near whom the Amazon tri- 
umphant: S. Butler, Hudibras, Pt. 11. Cant. ii. p. 113. 1762 The amazon 
flew to his assistance, and Tapely shewing no inclination to get up, she smote him 
on the temple till he roared: Smollett, Launc. Greaves, ch. xx. Wks., Vol. v. 
p. 193 (1817). 1777 At home they [Dutchwomen] are mere Amazons, and the 
husbands are the wretched captives, destined to perpetuate the gytiarchy: Lord 
Chesterfield, Letters (Tr. fr. Fr.), Bk. i. No. Ixxxv. Vol. 11. p. 242. 1827 
The Amazons then crowded into the Assembly, mixed themselves with the 
members, occupied the seat of the president... abused some of the members, and 
loaded others with their loathsome caresses: Scott, Napoleon, Vol. i. ch. v. 
p, 80, — Some of these Amazons rode upon the cannon, which made a formidable 
part of the procession: ib., p. 83. 1864 One Amazon in a family is quite 
enough: G. A. Sala, Quite Alone, Vol. 1. ch. xii. p. 198. 

2^ a. a woman wearing a short-skirted riding-habit, Fr. 
vitue en Amazone^ a phrase of the 18 c. ; see amazone. 

1842 Theresa. ..puts many a man to shame: I may say, she is a genuine 
Amazon; while others are but pretty counterfeits, that wander up and down the 
world, in that ambiguous dress: Carlyle, Tr. Goethe's Wilhelm Meister, 
Bk. VII. ch. iv. Vol. II. p. 186. 

amazone, sb.-. Fr. fr. Lat. Amazon: a riding-habit. 

1843 the demoiselle Theroigne, in her amazoytne, or short-skirted riding- 
habit, ran from rank to rank, crying "Vengeance"! Craik & Macfarlane, 
Pict. Hist. Eng., Vol. iii. p. 137/1. ■■ 

ambages, sb. pL\ Lat: also Anglicised in i6 c. (-£.j^^) 
with sing, antbage {-L —) fr. Fr. ambages. 

1. of language, roundabout, obscure or ambiguous speech ; 

abt. 1374 And but if Calcas lede us with ambages, | That is to saine, with 
double words slie | Such as men clepe a word with two visages | Ye shal wel 
knowen that I nat ne lie: Chaucer, Troil, &=• Cr., Bk. v. [R.] bef. 1563 

dark ambages and parables: Bp. Bale, linage, Pref. [R.] 1563 when the 
question was to be discussed.. .they. ..fell into other by-matters and ambages little 
or nothing appertaining to that. ..proposed: FoxE, A. &= M., Bk. vii. Vol. iv. 
p. 275 (1853). 1689 tedious ambage and long periods: Puttenham, Eng. 

Poes. , I, iv. p. 24 (1869). — Periphrasis, or the Figure of ambage : ih. , iii. xviii. 
p. 203. abt. 1594 let go these ambages, | And in plain terms acquaint her with 
your love: Span. Trag., in Dodsley-HazHtt's O. Plays, Vol. v. p. 30 (1874). 
1606 And woo my love with courting ambages: Wily Beguiled, ib., Vol. ix. 
p. 265. 1632 Thus from her cell Cumsean Sibyll sings | Ambiguous ambages, 
the cloyster rings | With the shrill sound thereof, in most dark strains: Vicars, 
Tr. Vi7'gil. [Nares] 1669 answer me without Ambages or Ambiguities: 

Dryden, Mock-Astrol., iv. Wks., Vol. i. p. 311 (1701). 1704 the other cost 

me so many strains and traps and ambages to introduce : Swift, Tale Tub, Wks., 
p. 95/1 (1869). bef 1733 explain himself by more enigmatic A fnbages ; R. North, 
Examen,!. i. i4,p. 22(1740). — factious polemic Tricks, Ambages and treacherous 
Counsels: ib., ii. 26, p. 43. 

2. of paths or routes, circuits, windings. 

1594 To cut off blinde ambages by the high way side, we made a long 
stride, & got to Venice in short time : Nashe, Unfort. Traveller^ Wks., v. 80 

3. of practices or proceedings. 

1605 shall, by ambages of diets, bathings, anointings, medicines, motions, 
and the like, prolong life: Bacon, Adv. of Learning, Bk. ii. p. 62. [C. E. D.] 

ambara, sb.\ Arab, ^anbar: 'cachalot' or sperm whale, 
which yields both spermaceti and ambergris. 

1600 The fish called Ambara, being of a monstruous shape and bignes, is 
neuer seen but when it is cast vp dead vpon the sea-shore : and some of these 
fishes there are which containe twentie fine cubites in length. The head of this 
fish is as hard as a stone. The inhabitants of the Ocean sea coast afBrme that 
this fish casteth forth Amber ; but whether the said Amber be the sperma or the 
excrement thereof, they cannot well determine. Howsoeuer it be, the fish may 
in regard of the hugenes be called a whale; John Pory, Tr. Leo's Hist. Afr., 
P- 344- 

ambaree, ambari, sb.\ Anglo-Ind. fr. Pers. ^entan: a 
canopied howda {q. v.\ or elephant-litter, such as is still 
used in India by native princes. 

1798 The Rajah. ..had twenty elephants, with richly embroidered ambarrehs, 
the whole of them mounted by his sirdars,— he himself riding upon the largest: 
Skinner, Memoirs, Vol. i. p. 157 (1851). [Yule] 1799 Many of the largest 
Ceylon... Elephants bore ambaris on which all the chiefs and nobles rode: Life of 
Colebrooke, p. 164. [ib.] 1805 Amaury, a canopied seat for an elephant: 
Diet, of Wds. used in E. Indies, 21 (2nd Ed.) \ib.\ 

*amber (z^), sb.\ Eng. fr. Late Lat. and Fr. 
L I. ambergris, q. v, (the original meaning). 

1398 if the substaunce is pure & clere the odoure is full good & swete: as it 
fareth in Myrra: in Musca: & in Ambra: Trevisa, Tr. Barth. De P R., xix. 
xxxviii. 1477 Amber, Narde, and Mirrhe: T. Norton, Ordinall, ch. v. in 

Ashmole's Theat. Chem. Brit., p. 70 (1652). 1577 Ambar is the seed of the 
whale: Frampton, Joyfull Newes, p. 83(1596). 1598 Silk, Muske, Amber, 
Calamba, or Lignum Aloes: Tr. f. Van Linsckoten's Voyages, Bk. i. Vol. i. 
p. 150(1885). 1600 all kinde of perfumes, namely ciuet, muske, amber, and 
such like : John Pory, Tr. Leo's Hist. Afr., p. 307. 1676 I have choice 

of good Gloves, Amber, Orangery, Genoa.. .and Marshal: Shadwell, Virtuoso, 
lu. p. 48. 




I. I fl. attrib,, 

1671 An amter scent of odorous perfume : Milton, Sams. Agon., 720. 

I. 2. white amber, = spermaceti, q. v. (confused with the 
aromatic product of the cachalot). 

?1640 take lette and whit Ambre, and make them in pouder very smal: 
Treas.o/^ooreme7t,M.\\iv'. 1611 Ambre blanc.'Whili: Axaher: Cotgk. 

11.^ I. yellow fossil resin, Fr. ambre jaune, Lat. silcinum, 
Gk. jjXfKTpov. Introduced to Ancient Greeks before Homer's 
time by Phoenicians, said by Pliny to be found in India; 
often containing preserved insects. In this sense the forms 
of the word are almost always derived from the French. 

abt. 1400 he hathe abouten his Nekke 300 Perles oryent, gode and grete, and 
knotted, as Pater Nostres here of Amber: T'c.Majittdevile's Voyage, ch.xviii.p. 197 
(1839). 1506 Item, a payre off bedys of ambre: Paston Letters, Vol. ni. 

No. 954, p. 409 (1874). 1680 thinking women are to be drawen by their coyned 
and counterfait conceipts, as the straw is by the Au7nber: J. Lyly, Eupkiies &^ 
his Engl., p. 372 (t868). 1600 Belles, Beades, Bracelets, Chaines, or collers 
of Bewgle, Chrystall, Amber, Jet, or Glasse : R. H akluyt. Voyages, Vol. in. 
p. T69. 1601 Amber.. .I'Ambre: Holland, Tr. Plin. N. H., Bk. 37, ch. 2, 

Vol. II. p. 605. 1603 As th' Adamant, and as the Amber drawes: That, 

hardest steel; this, easie-yeelding straiues: J. Sylvester, Tr. Du Bartas, 
p. 213 (1608). 1621 it [a letter] became. ..of more vertue then Potable Gold, 

or the Elixir of Ambar, for it wrought a sudden cure upon me ; Howell, Lett., 
I. xxxi. p. 6i (1645). 1644 Within it [the Cabinet] was our Saviour's Passion, 
and the twelve Apostles in amber: Evelyn, Diary, Vol. i. p. 98 (1872). 1646 
Nor by Electrick Bodies do I conceive such only as take up shavings, straws, and 
light bodies, in which number the Ancients only placed Jet and Amber'. Sir 
Th. Brown, Pseud. Ep., Bk. 11. ch. iv. p. 59 (1686). 1668 Wherein. ..were 

found an ape q{ Agath.-.-xci Elephant of Ambre: — Hydriotaph., p. 23(1 St Ed.). 
1693 Prussia abounds with amber cast up by the sea : Evelyn, Diary, Vol. II. 
p. 338 (1872). 1885 Among them is to be noticed the abundance of amber in 

Greek...jewellery...Beads of amber, riveted in gold...are mentioned in the Odyssey 
as offered by a Phcenician trader: Athenceum, Sept. 5, p. 309/3. 

II. I fl. an amulet of amber. 

1604 Pearles and Ambers, Shall not draw me to their Chambers; Dekker, 
Honest Wh. , 51. [N. E. D.] 

II. \ b. amber color, substance of the color of amber. 

1637 [See II. i c, where ^w^^rr means water of the river Severn.] 

II. I c. attrib., adj., in combinations. 

1588 DuTn. Her amber hair for foul hath amber quoted. | Biron. An amber- 
colour'd raven was well noted: Shaks., L. L. L., iv. 3, 87. bef. 1626 AH 

your dear amber-drink is flat: Bacon. [J.] 1637 In twisted braids of lilies 

knitting \ The loose train of thy amber-dropping hair : JMilton, Contus, 863. 
1655 the first amber-colour: Massinger, Bas/if. Lover, v. 1, Wks., p. 411/1 
(1839). 1664 a sort of paper. ..of an amber yellow: Kvelvn, Diary, Yol. I. 

p. 402 (1872). 1664 Gooseberries. Crystal, Amber Great, Early Red'. 

— Kal. Hort., p. 234 (1729). 1667 Rolls o'er Elysian flow'rs her amber 

stream: Milton, Z'. Z., in. 359 (1770). 1675 applying. ..spirit of amber to 

his head: Evelyn, Diary, Vol. 11. p. 109 (1872). 1692 Duties charged... 

upon all Amber Beads: Stat. 4 Will. &= Mary, ch. v. § 7 (Ruff head). 1817 

And lighting Kishma's amber vines: T. Moore, Lalla Rookh, Wks., p. 52 

W. I d. applied to other substances than sucinum. 

1626 great Platters. ..which seemed to be of blacke Amber: Purchas, 
Pilgrims, Vol. 11. Bk. vii. p. logo. 

II. 2. liquid amber, a yellow gum, the balsamic juice of 
trees of the genus Liquidambar. 

1677 a Rosine that we do call Liquid Amber, and one like Oyle y* we do call 
Oy\& oi Liquid ATnberi Frampton, Joy/ull NeiveSffoLSz/". 1604 their eyes 
purging thick amber and plum-tree gum: Shaks., Hanil., ii. 2, 201. 

III. electrum, an alloy of gold with 20 per cent, of silver. 
Used in Bible to render Gk. ^Xe/crpoy, tr. of Heb. khashmal. 

1611 Out of the midst thereof as the colour of amber, out of the midst of the 
fire : Bible, Ezek., i. 4._ 1667 Over their heads a crystal firmament, | Whereon 
a sapphire throne, inlaid with pure | Amber, and colours of the show'ry arch : 
Milton, P. L., vi. 759. [Probably suggested by previous quot.] 

*ambergris {si — m), sb. : Eng. fr. Fr. : a waxy substance of 
strong scent found floating on the sea in the tropics and in 
the intestines of the cachalot. The best variety is of marbled 
ash color. The word amber, Fr. ambre, originally and pro- 
perly meant this substance, which was called gray amber, 
am.bre gris, after amber had been applied also to yellow fossil 
resin, ambre jaune, succin. 

1542 gloues made of goote-skynnes, perfumed with amber-degrece : Boorde, 
Dyetary, ch. viii. p. 249 (1870), 1577 gave him a piece of Ambar grise : 

Frampton, JoyfullNewes, p. 82 (1596). 1598 their commodities are spices, 
muske, ambergreese, rubarbe, with other drugs : R. Hakluyt, Voyages, Vol. i. 
p. 315. 1598 Lignum aloes, Muske and A7nber Grys: Tr. y. Van Lin- 
schoten's Voyages, Bk. i. Vol. 11. p. 67 (1885). 1600 here vpon an east winde 
they gather plentie of Ambergrise : John Pory, Tr. Leo's Hist. A/r., p. 49. 
1616 And set his beard, perfumde with greece of amber: R. C, Times' Whistle, 
III. 978, p. 34 (1871). 1626 Ambargrice is said to grow in the bottom of the 

Sea, and with the mouing of the Sea to bee broken and rise to the top. ..They haue 
three sorts of Ambar, one very white, called Ambargris ; the second gray, called 
Mexueyra; the third blacke as pitch: Purchas, Pilgrims,Yo\. 11. Bk. ix. p. 1546. 
1630 a pound of ambergris, and half a peck | Of fishes call'd cantharides: Mas- 
singer, Picture, iv. 2, Wks., p. 231/2 (1839). 1641 a fat nightingale, well 

seasoned with pepper and amber grease: Antiquary, iv. i, in Dodsley-Hazhtt s 
Old Plays, Vol. XIII. p. 490 (1875). 1646 many Simples.. .as Senna, Rhubarb, 
Bezoar, Ambregris: Sir Th. Brown, Pseud. Ep., Bk. i. ch. vii. p. 20 (1686). 
— In vain it was to rake for Ambergriese in the panch of this Leviathan : tb. , 
Bk. IIL ch. xxvi. p. 140. 1662 It is called Ambra-gresia, That is, Gray Amber, 
from the Colour thereof: Fuller, Worthies, i. 194. 1665 it abounds with the 
best of Merchandise, as Gold, Silver, Elephants-teeth and Ambergreece : Sir 
Th. Herbert, Trav., p. 24 (1677). — many other rarities this noble Isle [Ceylon] 
affords, as. ..Rubies, balass Diamonds, Amber-griese : ib., p. 342. 1671 Gris- 
amber-steam'd : Milton, P. R., 11. 344. bef. 1744 In heaps, like Ambergrise, 
a stink it lies: Pope, Moral Essays, III. 235, Wks., Vol. Ill, p. 267 (1757). 1839 
half a mithk41 of ambergris: E. W. Lane, Tr. Arab. Nts., Vol. I. ch. v. p. 412. 

Variants, 16 c. amber-degrece, ambar grise, ambergreese, 
amber grys, 17 c. ambergrise, greece of amber, ambargrice, 
amber grease, ambregris, arnbergriese, ambra-gresia, amber- 
greece, gris-amber. 

[From Fr. ambre gris. The forms amber, ambar, are Low 
Lat.; ambragresia is It. The spellings grease, de greece, 
greece, are due to obvious popular etymologies. See amber.] 

*ambidexter {iL — ± —), adj. and sb. : Eng. fr. Low Lat. 

I. adj.'. I. able to use the left hand and the right hand 
equally well; lit. 'right-handed on both sides'. Southey 
applies the word to pairs of hands, meaning 'right on both 

1761 Being ambi-dexter, he raised.. .a clatter upon the turnkey's blind side: 
Smollett, Per. Pic., iv. xcix. 292 (1779). [N.E.D.] 1829 Yet farther 

mysteries: both hands of these marvellous statues are right hands and both are 
left hands, they are at once ambidexter and ambisinister: R. Southey, Doctor, 
p. 6go/i (1853). 

I. adj.: 2. double dealing (orig. of a juror who took 
bribes, or a lawyer who took fees, from both sides, see II. 2.) 

1593 Hee... alluded to some Ambodexter Lawyer vnder the storie of 5a/^3W : 
Nashe, 4 Letters, Wks., 11. 219 (Grosart). bef. 1617 Ambidexter or Ambo- 
dexter, vsed in the Common law for a lurour or Embraceour that taketh on both 
sides for giving his verdict : Mimshed, Guide into Tongues. 1654 What is 
wanting then to our serenity, and calmnesse of minde, but an ambodexter accep- 
tion of Occurrences: R. Whitlock, Zootomia, p. 25. 

I. adj.: 3. working on both sides, as it were on one's own 
right hand and on one's own left ; in relation to two sides. 

1806 Posted by double entry with the ambidexter formality of an Italian 
ledger: W. Taylor, Ann. Rev., iv. 228. [N. E. D.] 

II. sb.: I. one who uses left and right hand equally well. 

1698 Lame as we are in Platoes censure, if we be not ambidexters, vsing both 
handes alike: Florio, Worlde 0/ Wordes,X>^d. [R.] 1600 as Ambidexters 
with Ehud, they play with both hands : R. Cawdray, Treas, of Siinilies, 
p. 745. 1646 Ambidexters and Left-handed Men. ..Ambidexters. ..use both 

Hands alike, when the heat of the Heart doth plentifully disperse into the left 
side, and that of the Liver into the right, and the spleen be also much dilated : 
Sir Th. Brown, Pseud. Ep., Bk. iv. ch. v. p. 156(1686). 1662 an ambidexter 
is noted for ireful, crafty, injurious: J. Gaule, Mag-astro-7nancer, p. 187. 

II. sb. : 2. Leg. one who takes fees from both sides ; hence, 
a double-dealer. 

1583 you maskyng Players, you painted Sepulchres, you double dealyng 
ambodexters, bee warned betymes: Stubbes, Anat. Ab., fol. 88 ro. 1689 

An other sorte began to hyde their head. And many other did ambodexter 
play: Goldeti Mirrour. [Nares] 1699 Well, such shifting knaves as I 

am, the ambodexter must play: Peele, Sir Clyomo7t, Wks., p. 503/1 (Dyce, 
1861). 1602 he is sure to be hoysted ouer the barre for an ambidexter, by 
comparing his former speech to his present proceedings : W. Watson, Quodlibets 
ofRelig. &^ State, p. 106. 1621 hypocrites, ambodexters, out-sides ; R. Burton, 
Anat. Mel., To Reader, p. 52 (1827). abt. 1660 A knavish ambodexter: 

Bkome, To C. S. Esq. [R.] 

[From Lat. ambi-, = 'oT\ both sides', and dexter, — ^ngW, 
'on the right hand'.] 

*ambigu, adj. used as sb. : Eng. fr. Fr. 

1. sb. : ambiguity, equivoque. Obs. 

1599 What need these ambigues, this schoUerisme, this foolery: Greene, 
Orpharion, xii. 77, Wks. (Huth Libr.). 

I a. adj. : ambiguous. 

bef. 1733 A clear Explication of ^ ru7ining down' , an ambigue Term of the 
Author's: R. North, Exa7ne7i, 11. v. 19, p. 327 (1740). 

2. J^.: 17 c. 18 c. a mixed entertainment where meat, 
sweet dishes, and fruit are all served together. 

1695 This ambigu or banquet cost the univers. 160 /. : Wood, Life (1721), 
Wks., Vol. I. p. cxi. (Bliss, 1813). bef. 1712 When straiten'd in your time 

and servants few, | You'd richly then compose an ambigu: W. King, Art of 
Cookery. [T. ] 

[Fr. ambigu, fr. Lat. ambiguus, = ' Simhiguons', 'doubtful', 
fr. ambigere, see ambages.] 

ambisinister, adj.: coined from Lat. sinister (q.v.): on 
analogy of ambidexter, q. v. for quotation : left on both 
sides. Rare. 



ambitus, sb.: Lat.: lit Agoing about'; of ^ melody, the 
compass and modulation. 

1813 Ambitus, in music, is sometimes, though seldom, used to signify the 
particular extent of each tone, as to gravity or acuteness : Pantologia. 1882 
Tallis also avoided contrapuntal devices. ..and limited within strict bounds the 
ambitus of his melody and the number of his harmonic combinations: John 
Stainer, in Grove's Diet. Music, Vol. iii. p. 472(2. 

amblygon (z^j^), adj\ and sd.: Eng. fr. Fr. amblygone'. 
also, Late Lat. ambligonium. Obs, 

1. adj\\ obtuse-angled. 

1570 An Ambligonium triangle'. Billingsley, Euclid, fol. 47)° marg. 
1603 More-ouer, as the Buildings Amhligon \ May more receiue then Mansions 
Oxigon: J. Sylvester, Tr. Du Bartas, Columnes, p. 381 (1608). 1702 
Triangle Amhligone. Which has an obtuse Angle: Mil. Diet., s,v. Triangle. 

2. sb.\ a figure having an obtuse angle, esp. an obtuse- 
angled triangle. 

1570 An ambligonium. or an obtuse ajigled triangle... th^ triangle E is like- 
wise an Ambligonion : Billingsley. ^2^£://5, fol. 4 z*". 1679 Amblygonium... 
signifies a Triangle, that hath one of its Angles obtuse, that is, greater than a 
Right Angle. Ambligon, A Cone whose Axis is shorter than the Radius of its 
Base : J. Moxon, Math. Diet. 

*ambo, pi. ambones, ambos, sb. : Late Lat. fr. Gk. a^i^avj 
'a raised platform': the reading-place of an early Christian 
Church ; sometimes an oblong enclosure with steps at both 
ends. Also found in the Gk. form ambo7t. 

1641 The admirers of antiquity have been beating their brains about their 
ambones: Milton, Hist. Re/., i. Wks., p. lo/i (1847). [N.E.D.] 1689 The 
principal use of this A mbo was, to Read the Scriptures to the People ... St. Chry- 
sostofn was the first, that Preached to the People from thence: Sir G. Wheler, 
Primitive Churches, p. 78. 1753 In some churches remains of the Ambos are 
still seen: Chambers, CycL, Suppl., s.v. 1887 His present background of a 
gilded semi-dome and lofty ambo, with mosaics in blue and gold, is quite worthy 
of one of the best of the third-rate French painters: Athenaum, May 21, 
p. 678/3. 

ambracan, Ji5.: Eng. fr. It.: gray amber, ambergris. Rare. 

1565 Ambracan or amber greese that is good, is woorthe the metical...Fanan 
ii. to .iii. : R. Eden, Decades, Sect. iii. p. 268 (1885). 1599 amber, corall, 

muske, ambracan, ciuet, and other fine Wares : R. Hakluyt, Voyages, Vol. 11. 
i. p. 274. — Ambrachaw. ib., p. 277. 

[From It. ambracane^ fr. ambra^ — '' 2iXi^^x\ and cano^ 
= 'gray'.] 

ambreada, sb. : Sp. or Port. See quotation. 

1797 AMBREADA, thus they call the false or factitious amber, which the 
Europeans use in their trade with the negroes on the coast of Africa, and particu- 
larly on the river Senegal : Encyc. Brit. 

*ambrosia {±il^^ sb.\ Eng. fr. Lat. 

I. I. the food (sometimes the drink, see nectar) of the 
gods of Gk. Mythology, also used as an unguent. Rarely 
changed to ambrose^ ambrosie. 

1565 fayned it to bee the sweete Ambrosia and Nectar wherwith the goddes 
are fedde: R. Eden, Decades, p. 49 (1885). 1573 — 80 Or else the ambrosia | 
Thats prseserv'd for Minerva: Gab. Harvey, Lett. Bk., p. log (1884). bef. 

1579 whom our Gods do intreate wyth Ambrose and Nectar'. T. Hacket, Tr. 
Amadis of Fr., Bk. vii. p. 146. 1580 There drincks she Nectar with Am- 

brosia mixt; Spens.j^A^/. Cat., Nov., 195. 1615 wines, compared hy A theneifs 
to Ambrosia: Geo. Sandys, Trav., p. 15 (1632). 1667 His dewy locks dis- 

till'd I Ambrosia; Milton, P. L., v. 57. 1709 she bathed herself in ambrosia, 
which gave her person all its beauty: Addison, Tatler, Mar. 18, Wks., Vol. 11. 
p. 103 (1854). 

I. 2. anything divinely sweet to taste or smell; also 

1634 such is the life and pleasure of this Ambrosia: Sir Th. Herbert, 
Trav., p. 210 (ist Ed.). 1665 The Coco.. .yielding a quart of Ambrosie, 

coloured like new white Wine: ib., p. 29 (iS-jy). 

I. 3. a mixed liquor for libation ; also a perfumed beve- 

1630 And I entreate you take these words for no-lyes, | I had good A^ua 
vita, Rosa so-Iies: | With sweet Ambrosia, (the gods owne drinke) | Most ex'Ient 
geere for mortals, as I thinke: John Taylor, Wks.>, sig. M 1 7/^/2. 

II. I. name of various herbs, earlier Anglicised as am- 
brose through Fr. ambroise. 

1567 Houselike, ..iot his endurance is resembled to Ambrosia: J. Maplet, 
Greene For., fol. 46 z^. 1601 Ambrosia is a name that keeps not to any 

one hearbe, but is common to many: Holland, Tr. Pli7i. N. H., Bk. 27, ch. 4, 
Vol. n. p. 273. 

II. 2. Ambrosia Artemisifolia or oak of Cappadocia. 

1601 the true Ambrosia... others giue it the name Artemisia: Holland, Tr. 
Plin. N. H., Bk. 27, ch. 4, Vol. 11. p. 273. 

II. 3. name of a Species of pear. 

1664: V^A.^S.-Jargonel, Si. Andrew, Ambrosia: Evelyn, Kal. Hort. 


Variants, 17 c. ambrosie, ambrose (L) ; 15 s. — 18 c. ambrose 
(II. I). 

[Lat. ambrosia, Gk. d/i^poo-i'a fr. a/i/3/)oros, = 'immortal' (cf. 
Skt. amrita(m), q. t/.] 

*ambulance ( j: — — ), sb. : Eng. fr. Fr. : a moving hospital 
organised to follow an army so as to attend to the wounded 
as soon as possible ; also a covered cart for carrying wound- 
ed off the field, originally attrib. 

1819 These observations boon suggested to the author his system of what he 
denominates ambulances volantes [flying]; Edin. Rev., Vol. 31, p. 310. — We 
are not aware that any arrangements similar to those of the ambulances we have 
just described have yet been adopted in the British Army: ib. 1855 the 

wretched Ambulance Corps: W. H. Russell, War, ch.xlvii. p. 307. — com- 
fortable in so far as the pace of a mule is easier than the jog of an ambulance... 
These mules can travel where ambulance carts cannot stir : ib. 

[Coined fr. hdpital ambulant, = 'wa! hospital'. The 
ambulance system was organised in France and was in 
general use during the Crimean War.] 

ambulative {j.^--), adj.: Eng. fr. Fr.: able to walk, 
constantly walking, constantly moving. 

1543 Of vlceres also some be ambulatyue or walkynge, some corosiue or 
gnawing... this vlcere putrefactiue and ambulatiue, is not without a fieuer: 
Traheeon, Tr. Vigo's Ckirurg., fol. cxviii r^/2. 1578 the true ambulatiue 
motion of the body: J. Banister, Hist. Man, Bk. l fol. 17 ip. 1611 Am- 
bulaiif: Ambulatiue ; ever walking : CoTGK. 

[From Fr. ambulatif, fem. -zw.] 

*ambulator {± Lr.),sb.: Eng. fr. Lat. ambulator: one 

who walks about, a lounger. Also an instrument for mea- 
suring distance, see perambulator. 

1652 such a Peregrinator, such an ambulator: J. Gaule, Mag-astro- 
maticer, p. 237. 

ambulones, J^. //. : quasi- Lat. See quotation. 

1635 The Ignes Fatui that appeare To skip and dance before us ev'ry where 
Some call them Ambulones for they walke Sometimes before us, and then after 
stalke : Heywood, Hierarch., vin. 505. [N. E. D.] 

[Coined fr. Lat. ambulo, = 'I walk', suggested by Lat. 
anteambulo-nes, q. v., or like negones, on analogy of Lat. 
sbs. such as erro, pi. errones, compared with erro,='\ 

ambuscado {mz^ji ^), ambuscade {-L — il), sb. : Eng. fr. 

1. ambush, a hiding of troops to surprise an enemy; also 
metaph. treacherous hiding generally. 

1591 I amongst the rest of his owne squadrons lay in Ambascade: Garrard, 
Art Warre, p. 125. 1591 Of breaches, ambuscadoes, Spanish blades : Shaks., 
Rom. , i. 4, 84. 1592 The Noise discovered the Ambuscado : Relig. Wotton., 
p. 683 (1685). 1600 Emboscadoes: Holland, Tr. Livy, Bk. 22, p. 450. 

1601 lie... in ambuskado behind: — Tr. Plin. N. H., Bk. 9, ch. 29, Vol. L 
p. 250. 1665 the Persian with six thousand Horse. ..disposed part of that 
body into an ambuscade: Sir Th. Herbert, Trav., p. 283 (1677). 1675 im- 
placable enemies lie in Ambuscado for you: H. Woolley, Gentlewomaris 
Companion^ p. 100. 1820 accustomed to ambuscade and treachery: T. S. 
Hughes, Trav. in Sicily, Vol. I. ch. iv. p. 141. 1829 Such was one of the 
many ambuscadoes concerted by Muza: W. Irving, Con.q. of Granada, ch. 
Ixxxiv. p. 455 (1850). 

\ a. a lurking-place. 

1598 being with his Squadron alone in any skance, trench Ambuscado, or 
abroad at the watch : R. Barret, Theor. of Warres, Bk. n. p. 16. 1630 
The wet Fishmongers all this while (like so many Executioners) vnkennell the 
salt Eeles from their brinie Ambuscadoes, and with marshal! Law hang them 
vp: John Taylor, Wks., sig. L4 10/2. 1788 Whilst they engaged a troop 

that was detached from the rest, another party rushed from an ambuscade o,n 
their left wing : Gejit. Mag., LVIII. i. 71/2. 

I b. attrib. 

1646 they are but Parthian flights, Ambuscado retreats, and elusory tergi- 
versations: Sir Th. Brown, Pseud. Ep., Bk. i. ch. x. p. 31 (1686). bef. 1733 
an Ambuscade Witness: R. North, Examen, 11. iv. 116, p. 291 (1740). 

2. a force in ambush. 

1591 in plucking aduertisementes from the enimie, in placing Imbascades, 
in giuing Canuasados: Garrard, Art Warre, p. 77. 1591 there was an am- 
buscado of th' ennemye of horse and foote: Coningsby, Siege of Rouen, Vol. J. 
p. 44 (1847). 1600 they were plunged themselues headlong into an Ambos- 
cado laid for them: Holland, Tr. Livy, Bk. 2, p. 79. 1624 the Salvages 

did their best to draw him to their Ambuscadoes: In Capt. J. Smith's Wks., 
p. 468 (1884). 1662 The place where I will lay an amliuscado, viz. to 

surprise the king of Israel: John Trapp, Comm., Vol. 1. p. 603/2 (1S67). 

[From Sp. emboscada, = ' a.n ambush', after which old word 
the first two vowels were changed. In Scotch perhaps bor- 
rowed through Fr. embuscade.l 


*i,me damn^e, i>hr.\ Fr. : lit * damned soul'; with a 
genitive or possessive pronoun = (a person's) * familiar'; 
sometimes almost = * tool'. Littr^'s definition is 'one blindly 
devoted to the sentiments and wishes of another'. 

1822— 3 he is the ante damnie of every one about my coiirC — the scape-goat, 
who is to carry away all their iniquities: Scott, Pev. Peak, ch. xlviii. p. 534 
(1886). 1830 He is the d.7ne daynnie of Lord Grey, and defends everything of 
course : Greville Memoirs, Vol. 11. ch. xiii. p. 96 (1875). 1845 he was the blood- 
thirsty nifiian who. ..assumed the title oi Procureur-Ghi^ralde la La7iterne, and 
was subsequently the (i?«f(fifl;?«K^^ of Danton: J. W. Croker, Essays Fr. Rev., i. 
p. 56 (1B57). 1875 The Medici in effect bought and sold the honour of the 

public officials, lent money, jobbed posts of profit, and winked at peculation, until 
they had created a sufficient body of dmes davitUes, men who had everything to 
gain by a continuance of their corrupt authority : J. A. Symonds, Renaissafice 
in Italy, Vol. i. ch. iii. p. 165. 

cLme perdue, //ir. : Fr. : /i?'/. 'lost soul', desperate character. 

184:2 Couthon was, indeed, one of the &mes ^erdues...oi the revolution: 
Craik & Macfarlane, Pici, Hist. Eng., Vol. ii. p. 700/2. 1844 this dme 

perdue of Jacobinism : ib.. Vol. iv. p. 528/1 7^1?/^. 

*Aineer, Amir, sb.\ Arab, amtr^ pi. omard-. ruler, com- 

1. an Eastern title, = Emir, g. v. 

1590 Mahomet reigned nine yeeres, the first Amiras of the Saracens : L. 
Lloyd, Consent of Time, p. 300. 1600 the A mir silek had the armour of the 
Soldan committed to his charge : John Pqry, Tr. Leo's Hist. A/r., p. 320. — the 
Amir el of his [the Soldan *s] most sufficient and wealthie Mamaluks: 
vntowhom was committed the conduct of the carouan, which went euery yeere 
from Cairo to Mecca: ib., p. 322. — ■ the Soldans officer called Amir Cabir; ib., 
p. 319- — the sixt [magistrate] called the Amiri Ackor, was master of the horse 
and camels : ib. , p. 320. — Of the A yniralf. The seuenth office was performed by 
certaine principal Mamalukes, being like vnto the Colonels of Europe : ib. — Of 
the Amirvzia. The eight degree of honour was allotted vnto certaine centurions 
ouer the Mamalukes : ib. 1614 Hee stiles himself y} mz'r : Selden, Titles of 
Hon., 98. 1616 Amir, Amira, Amiras, or Admira?is, as some haue it, sig- 
nifieth a commander, lieutenant or president: W. Bedwell, Arab. Trudg. 
1853 — 9 The ruling power at this period were the Ameers, a body of nobles who 
had acquired the sovereignty of the country by conquest : Alison, Hist. Europe, 
ch. 49, § 2, 1883 the office of Amir al-Omari, or Emir of the Emirs, which 
nearly corresponds to that of Mayor of the Palace among the Franks... A new 
Amiral-Omara: Encyc. Brit., Vol. xvi. p. 587/2. — It was almost always the 
Caliph himself or one of his near relatives who assumed the function of Amir 
al-Hajj. The duties of this leader of the pilgrimage were, &c. : ib., p. 592/1. 

2. the title of the Mohammedan sovereign of Afghanistan, 
and of other Asiatic states as Sindh and Bokhara. 

1803 Amir Khan Anjam: Colebrooke, Asiai. Res., vii. 220. [N. E. D.] 
1840 Should any Ameer or chief.. .have evinced hostile designs. is the present 
intention of the Governor-General to inflict upon the treachery of such ally or 
friend so signal a punishment as shall effectually deter others from similar con- 
duct: Annual Register, p. 350. 1869—73 In the spring of 1864, Afzul Khan 
proclaimed himself Ameer of Afghanistan : Engl. Encycl., Vol. x. Suppl., p. 13/:. 
1884 we should say the Ameer was coming to durbar: F. Boyle, Borderland, 
p. 102. 

\Aniir silek, = Amfr sildh^ 'the chief of the armour- 
bearers'; Amir el Cheggi (see Emir),=^?;«fr el-Hdjj, 'chief 
of the (pilgrim) caravan' ; Amir Cabir,=Al-Amir al-kabir^ 
'the great Amir*, i.e. the chief of the Amirs; Amiralf^ 
—Amir alf, 'captain of a thousand' ; Amirmia,=Amir mia, 
'captain of a hundred'; Amiri Achory='?evs, Amtri dkhor, 
'captain of the stable'; Amiral-omard (see Omrali), = 'Amir 
of Amirs'.] 

amelet, amlet : Eng. See omelette, 
amellus, sb.: Lat. : purple Italian Starwort, also the name 
of the genus to which this species of plant belongs. 

1693 Besides, there grows a flower in marshy ground, [ Its name Amellus, 
easy to be found: Addison, Wks., Vol. i. p. 18 (1854). 1753 AMELLUS, 
in botany, a name used, by some authors, to express the caltha palustris, or 
marsh marygold; and by Virgilj for the aster atticiis... Many of the critics on 
Virgil have supposed, that the poet meant no other than the common herb baum 
by this name. He says, the flowers are gold colour, and the leaves purple: 
Chambers, Cycl., Suppl. 1829 AMELLUS, Starwort, a genus of the 

polygamia, superflua order, belonging to the syngenesia class of plants: Lond. 

*amen (-^-^), sb. used as a formula: Eng. fr. Heb. through 
Christian Lat. 

I. a formula expressing the earnestness of a prayer or 
wish or the truth of a solemn affirmation. Very often as a 
concluding sentence by itself; lit. 'certainty', 'truth'. 

971 thsem Drihtne sy lof, & wuldor, & sibb, on ^cnesse in ealra worlda world, 
a buton ende. Amen : Blickling Homilies, p. 53 (Morris, 1874). — Tha onds- 
waredon him ealle tha apostolas & cw^don, 'Amen'r ib„ p. 141. bef. 1380 
Amen, ihu for thin endeles charite: Wvclif (?), F..D. Matthew's UnJ>rinted 
Ettg Wks. of Wyclif p. 253 (1880). aft. 1383 god brynge this ende to his 
peple. amen: Office of Curates, ch. iv. ib., p. 145. abt. 1386 Now, goode God, 
ifthatitbethywille,...bringustothyhigheblisse. Amen: Chaucer, C. T., 15452 
(1856). bef. 1520 Amen...ys a worde of affermynge, and ys as moche as to 

say, as Treuly, or FaythfuUy: Myrroure of Our Ladye, 77. 1611 Else when 
thou shalt bless with the spirit, how shall he that occupieth the room of the un- 



learned say Amen at thy giving of thanks, seeing he understandeth not what thou 
sayest! Bible, i Cor., xiv. i6. 1625 hee which sfreareth, answereth Amen, 
to each of these sentences : Purchas, Pilgrims, Vol. ll. Bk. vii. p. 1117. 

II. I. the word Amen. 

abt. 1230 And efter the amen, * Per Dominum : benedicamus Domino ' : 
An^r. R., 24. [N. E. D.] bef. 1658 he falls to prayer... But no Amen was 
said: J. Cleveland, Wks., p. 60 (1687). 1712 a long Amen uttered with 
decent Gravity ; Spectator, No. 284, Jan. 25, p. 408/1 (Morley). 

II. 2. an expression of assent or belief. 

1598—1600 a generall A tnen as it were giuen : R. H akluvt, in Purchas' 
Pilgrims, Vol. I. Bk. ii. p. 53 (1625). 

II. 3. Lit. a title of Christ meaning Truth. 

1388 Thes thinges seith Amen the feithful witnesse: Wyclif, Rev., iii. 14. 

II. 4. a conclusion, a last word, deed, or event. 

1612 he is likewise condemned to the Gallies for six years, with an Amen of 
two hundred blowes: T. Shelton, Tr. Don Quixote, Pt. III. ch. viii. p. 194. 

[Lat. amen, fr. Gk. a.\i.r]v, fr. Heb. a»Zi?«, = ' certainty', 'cer- 
tainly', 'verity', 'verily'.] 

amenage, vb.: Eng. fr. Fr. ; to domesticate. Rare. Obs. 

1690 With her,' whoso will raging Furor tame, | Must first begin, and well 
her amenage : Spens., F. Q., ii. iv. 11. 

[From Old Fr. amenager, earlier amesnagier, = ^to take 
into a household', fr. A, prep., = 'to', and mestiage, in.i'D&gQ 
{g. ■z/.), = 'a household'.] 

amenance, sb.: Eng. fr. Fr.: mien, bearing. Obs. 

1590 Well kend him...Th' enchaunter by bis armes and amenaunce, [When 
under him he saw his Lybian steed to praunce: Spens., F. Q., ii. viii. 17. 
1633 And with grave speech and grateful amenance | Himself, his state, his 
spouse, to them commended: P. Fletcher, Pur/. Isl., xi. 9. [Nares] 

[Fr. ajnenance, noun of action to amener, = 'ta lead to', 
'bring to', fr. A, prep., = 'to', and mener, = ^to drive', fr. Lat. 
minare, — 'to threaten'.] 

*amende, sb. -. Fr. : reparation. 

1. a payment in satisfaction for an injury. Rare. Sing. 
ai amendes whence Eng. 'amends'. 

1724 I claimed the said bills, which came to not above twelve thousand 
livres for my a7nende\ De Foe, Roxajia, p. 47 (1875). 

2. short for amende honorable. 

1808 I make my amende, said she : H. More, Coelehs ijt search 0/ a Wife, 
Vol. I. ch. xvii. p. 23S (1809). 1832 the Chancellor, in one of his most bungling 
ways, made what he meant to be a sort ai amende to Sugden: Greville Memoirs, 
Vol. II. ch. xviii. p. 316 (1875). 1868 he also made a kind of amende : Mrs. 
Oliphant, Brownlows, Vol. III. p. 151. 1887 He has made his amende, not 
in a contrite spirit; AtketttEum, Apr. 30, p. 570/1. 

[The Anglicised a?nendis occasionally found in sense i.] 

*amende honorable, :phr. -. Fr. : honorable reparation, 
orig. public acknowledgment of crime ; now, a satisfactory 
apology for an insult or offence. , Anglicised in 18 c. as 

1613 was condemned by the Judge of the Chatelet to make an amende 
honorable before the court, and another before the Nuncio : T. LoKKIN, in Court 
&• Times ofjas. I., Vol. I. p. 268 (1S48). 1765 You see how just I am, and 
ready to make atnende honordble to your ladyship; HoR. Walpole, Letters, 
Vol. IV. p. 403 (1857). 1781 As you have made a>nende honorable for your 
indolence, it is but equitable on my side to absolve you: ib,. Vol. vlll. p. 24 
(1858). 1808 In the preface to the Fables, he malces the amende honorable ; 
Scott, Wks. o/Dryden, Vol. I. p. 426. 1829 he...niakes the amende honorable 
to Popery and Popish divines: Edin. Rev., Vol. 50, p. 132. 1831 it is not only 
a duty, but a pleasure, to make the "amende honorable": Congress. Debates, 
Vol. VII. p. 623. 1877 he was not held to have duly made the amende honorable 
to the Church, and the clergy of Paris denied him sepulture: CoL. Hamley, 
Voltaire, ch. xxvi. p. 202. 

America, the great continent of the Western Hemisphere, 
named from Amerigo Vespucci who sailed along part of the 
coast in 1499. The name is now applied more and more, 
like its derivatives, to the United States of North America. 

?1511 but that lande is not nowe knowen for there haue no masters wryten 
therof nor it knowethe and it is named Armenica : Of the newe landes, in Arber's 
First Three Eng. Bks. on Amer., p. xxvii. (1885). 1565 For it was not yet 
knowen, whether that great region of A Tnerica, (whiche they call the fyrme or 
mayne lande) dyd seperate the Weste sea from the East: R. Eden, Newe India, 
p. 32 (Arber, 1885). 

Hence American, adj., pertaining to the continent of 
America, to the original natives of America (also sb.), to 
the British Colonies in America, or to the United States 
(also sb.) ; Americanism, sb., sympathy .with the United 
States, a characteristic (of the habits or speech) of the 
United States; Americomania, sb., craze (see mania) for 
the people, habits, and customs of the United States. 



ameublement, sb. : Fr. : furniture. 

1855 Beside the bed is a square deal box, which forms the whole ameuhle- 
tnent: Glance behind Grilles, ch. i, p. ig. 

Amharic, adj. and sh. : name of a group of popular Ethiopic 
dialects spoken in Abyssinia, south of the River Takkazd : a 
very corrupt member of the Semitic family of languages. 
See Geez. 

[1600 one kinde of language, called by them Aquel Amarig, that is, the 
noble toong: John Pory, Tr. Leo's Hist. Afr., p. 8.] 

ainiant(h)us, sb. : Lat. 

1. a white fibrous variety of asbestos, the fibres of which 
can be woven. Anglicised in modern poetry as amianth. 

1600 As the precious stone called ATnianthon, being cast into the fire, is 
made more clearer and purer: R. Cawdray, Treas. of Sitnilies, p. 7. 1601 
The amiant stone is like unto Alume, and being put into the fire, looseth nothing 
of the substance: Holland, Tr. Plin. N. H.. Bk. 36, ch. 19, Vol. 11. p. 589. 
1607 This kinde of web rather cometh of a kinde of flax that jpliny writeth of, 
or rather of the Amiantus-stone, called the Asbest, which. ..being cast into a fire, 
seems to be forthwith all in a flame, but being taken out again, it .shineth the more 
gloriously: Topsell, Serpents, 749. 1646 he showed us.. .divers things of 
woven amianthus ; Evelyn, Diary, Vol. I. p. 236 (1872). 1671 a great 

quantity of that Lanuginous Stone, called Amianthus, which he knows so to 
prepare, as to render it so tractable and soft, that it resembleth well enough a very 
fine Lamb-skin dressed white: Phil. Trans., Vol. VL No. 72, p. 2167. 1677 
The stone is called Asheston, i.e. Unextinguishable : but the linnen or stuff 
Amianthus: Sir Th. Herbert, Trav., p. 309. 1691 The Aviiaiithrts [is 
remarkable] for its incombustibility: J. Ray, Creation, Pt. L p. 105 (1701). 
1787 Examine the Amiantus, a mineral substance, of woolly texture, endued 
with the wonderful property of resisting fire: from which the ancients made a 
kind of cloth, to preserve the ashes of the bodies that they burnt : P. Eeckford, Ital, Vol. L p. 175 (1805). 

2. a greenish, fibrous kind of chrysolite. 

[From Gk. a/ijaj'Tor,='undefiled', 'amianth-stone' which is 
undefiled by fire. The termination is wrongly accommodated 
to -anthus fr. Gk. 3c5os,=' bloom'. The Fr. amiante was 
early Anglicised as amiantih), adj., see quot. fr. Holland.] 

amicizia, sb.: It.: friendship, love-affair, intrigue. Akin 
to amity {q. v.). 

1820 a relazione or an amicizia seems to be a regular affair of from five to 
fifteen years : Byron, in Moore's Life, Vol. iv. p. 277 (1832). 

amicorum omnia communia : Lat. : all things belonging 
to friends are common (to them). Terence, Adelph., v. 3, 
804, from a Gk. proverb, Koiva to. ^iKav, 'friends' property 
is common', which is attributed to Pythagoras, and is quoted 
by Euripides, Orestes, 735, Plato, Phaedr., ad fin., and else- 
where, Aristot., Nicom. Eth., viii. 11. 

1620 AmicoTVim omnia communia, which is in every mans mouth: Brent, 
Tr. Soave's Hist. Counc. Trent, p. xc. (1676). — that rule oi A. o. c. : ib., 
p. xci. 

amict, sb. : Eng. fr. Fr. amici : a cloth tied round the head ; 
also an amice, a folded square of white linen worn by cele- 
brant priests of the Church of Rome. 

1480 Hys hore heed. ..was envoluted in a whyte amicte : Caxton, Ovid Met., 
XIIL xii. [N. E. D.] 1611 /4?k/c^: An Amict, or Amice: part of a massing 

priests habit : CoTGR. 1753 Chambers, Cycl., Suppl. 

[The Fr. amict is a refashioning after the Lat. of Old Fr. 
amit (fr. Lat. amictus). Anglicised in 14 c. as amite, amise.'\ 

*amicus certus in re incerta cernitur, /.^n: Lat.: a 
true friend is proved in doubtful fortune. Ennius cited by 
Cic, De Amic, 17, 64. 

1688 Never Man embrac'd a better Friend ! Avticus Certus in re incerta 
Cemitur, as the saying is: Shadwell, Squire 0/ Alsatia, i. p. 6 (1699). 

♦amicus curiae, phr. : Lat. : friend of the Court ; of a 
person not engaged in a trial or action who is invited or 
allowed to give information to the Court. 

1612 those that ingage Courts in quarrels of lurisdiction, and are not truly 
Ajnici [pi.] Curice, but Parasiti Curits, in puffing a Court vp beyond her bounds 
for their owne scrappes and aduantage ; Bacon, Ess., xxxviii. p. 456 (1871). 
1823 The pirate stands merely as amicus curice: Edin. Rev., Vol. 38, p. 304. 
1834 He supposes his hero called in on a certain occasion, as amicus curice, to 
assist the decision of a judge in a disputed right : Greswell, On Parables, 
Vol. 11. p. 219. 1837 I shall be happy to receive any private suggestions of 
yours, as amicus curice : Dickens, Pickwick, ch. x. p. 95. 

amicus Plato, amicus Socrates, sed magis amica 
Veritas: Lat.: Plato is our friend, Socrates is our friend, 
but the truth is a greater friend. 

1584 R- Scott, Disc. Witch., Bk. vl ch. ii. p. 115. 

[Based on ajK^oiv yap ovtoiv (plXoiv, Saiov jrpoTijiav rnv 


aXt;5fiaj', = 'for both {Plato and Truth} being our friends it 
is our duty to prefer Truth', Aristot., Nicom. Eth., I. vi. I.] 

*amie, fem. of ami, adj.: Fr.; friend, mistress. 

1778 Here also we were shown the marshal's amie : J. Adams, Diary, Wks., 
Vol. III. p. 146 (1851). 1883 I never knew a woman ^o to the bad so fast as 
Lady Dolly has, since she has become the atnie intime [mtimate] of the Clymer: 
L. Oliphant, Altiora Peto, ch. v. p. 67 (1884). . i 

amil, amildar: Hind. See aumil, aumildar. 

A-mi-la: It: Mus.: the old name of the note A (la) or of 
the key of ^. 

Amir: Arab. See Ameer. 

amity {l. ^ —), sb. : Eng. fr. Fr. : friendship, friendliness ; 
esp. friendly relations between states or exalted personages. 
The pi. is rarely found when the relations between two 
parties only are intended. 

1474 Amytie is founded vpon honeste : Caxton, Chesse, 80. 1477 the 
preservacion off the amyteys taken late, as weell with Fraunce as now with the 
Membrys off Flaundres: Paston Letters, Vol. III. No. 786, p. 173 (1874). abt. 
1522 For all your amyte, | No better they agre : J. Skelton, Wks., Vol. II. 
p. 38 (1843). 1532 and there the iij kyngs departyed lyke lovynge bretherne 
in greate amytee : Chronicle 0/ Calais,^. \i{xZi^€}. 1546 the Britains refusing 
the amitie of England had submitted themselves to the protection of King 
Charles: Tr. Polydore Vergil's Eftg. Hist., Vol. II. p. 17(1844). 1651 Arith- 
metike, Musike, and Astronomie, whiche are so nere knitte in amitee: R. Re- 
cords, Pathw. to Knowl. , sig. n 6 v^. 1578 it was a thing vaine to feare 
that between them should be contracted anie amitie firm and well assured; 
Fenton, Tr. Guicardini's Wars of Italy, Lib. I. p. 2 (1618). bef 1579 the 
propertie of a God is goodnesse, iustice, mansuetude, pitie, liberalitie, and 
amitie: T. Hacket, "Tr. Amadis of Fr., Bk. viii. p. 187. 1579 he had made 
league and amity with them, against the tyrant Dionysius: North, Tr. Plutarch, 
p. 269 (1612). 1590 lovely peace, and gentle amity: SPENS., F. Q., 11. vi, 35. 
1594 How highly I doe prize this amitie : Marlowe & Nash, Dido, iii. 2. 
1604 As peace should still her wheaten garland wear | And stand a comma 
'tween their amities: Shaks., Ham., v. 2, 42. 1605 How, in one house, | 
Should many people, under two commands, | Hold amity? — K. Lear, ii. 4, 245. 
1620 he was then in amity with the Pope ; Brent, Tr. Soave's Hist. Counc. 
Trent, Bk. I. p. 34 (1676). 1651 desiring both to preserve the same amity for 
his master our king: Evelyn, Diary, Vol. i. p. 281 (1872). 1803 He earnestly 
solicited a paun from my hand, as a pledge of amity : J. T. Blunt, in Asiatic 
Res., vil. 69. 

[From Fr. amitid. Old Fr. amistie (the 2nd -i- due to Lat. 
amicitia), a variant of amist^, fr. amis let (11 c.) fr. Low Lat. 


amman, sb. : Eng. fr. Ger., perhaps through Fr. amman, 
or Du. amman : a magistrate, justiciary in the Netherlands 
and Switzerland. See amtman, Landamman. 

1873 Grieb, Diet. Ger. and Eng., s.v. Amman, Vol. I.; Amtmann, 
Vol. 11.^ 1883 aynman, n. 7n., amman, a judge who has cognizance of civil 
causes, in Switzerland : Cassell's Diet. Fr. and Eng. 

*amm6nia, sb.: coined Lat. fr. sal ammoniac {q. v.): the 
pungent alkaline gas obtained originally fr. sal ammoniac, 
compounded of three equivalents of hydrogen and one of 
nitrogen (NH3); also a solution of the same in water, or 
spirits of hartshorn ; see also sal volatile. 

1799 the alexipharmic powers of pure ajnmonia : Med. &' Phys. jfoum., 
Vol. II. p. 182. 1800 Instead of the ammonia, kali may, perhaps, be prefer- 
a,ble: ib Vol. iv. p. 179. 1840 Dr. Black, in 1756, first pointed out the dis- 
tmction between ammonia and its carbonate; and Dr. Prestley (0» ^zV vol ii. 
p. 369, 1790) first procured ammonia in a gaseous form. He called it alkaline 
air: Pereira, Elements of Mat. Med., Vol. i. p. 164. 1881 Works in which 
the manufacture of sulphate of ammonia or of muriate of ammonia is carried on: 
itaf. 44 &» 45 Vzc., ch. 37, Sched. (5). 

amnesia, sb. : Gk. of LXX. ifivrjo-ia : forgetfulness, loss of 
memory ; probably introduced as a Med. term by Gesner in 
1772 {N. 6- Q., 7th S. n. Sept. i8, 1886). 

,,.?-^'^f; ^}^"^ '5 a perfect a^j^o-ia, forgetfulness, and insensibleness: J. Flavel, 
Wks., Vol. v. p. 611 (1799). 1829 AMNESIA, in medicine, loss of memory; 
sometimes the consequence of febrile diseases, when it generally recedes as the 
patient gains strength : Lond Encycl. 1862 Detout, On Cubebs in Vertigo 
&• Amnesia (N. Syd. Soc. Yearbook, p. 79). 

, amnesty {.L jl =.), sb.: Eng. fr. Lat. amnestia (fr. Gk. ap.vT)<T- 
Tia), or sometimes from Fr. amnestie. Found in the Gk. and 
Lat. forms in i6 c. 17 c. 

1. forgetfulness, oblivion, overlooking. 

_ 1592 To treade all underfoote that hath gone heretofore, with a perpetual! 
ani/ijo-Tio, and to begyn a new lyfe : Sir T. Smith, in T. Wrieht's O Eli/ Oris- 
Lett I. 456 (1838).. [N. E. D.] 1647 / did not think Suffolk waters had sj'h 
Hmv,?^" ffj^ i -^J" ^'"Vr'? '" "'""'' ^"^'^ "" ="nnestia in him of his friends : 

flOWELL, Epist. Ho-El., Vol. III. VI. p. 403 (1678). 

2. an act of oblivion, an ignoring of past offences. 

bef. 1603 he made a law that no man should be called in question nor troubled 


for things that were past, and that was called Amnestia, or law of obliuion : North 
{Lives of Epamin., <5^c., added to) Pint., p. 1233(1612). 1611 according to 
the imitation of that memorable ajxinjo-reta of the Athenians, that is, an obliuion 
of wrongs, which was established by their valiant Captaine Thrasibuliis : Coryat, 
Crudities, sig. £42^. 1652 a general Indulgence or Amnestia should be 

publish'd through all the Kingdom: Howell, Pt. II. Massanzel^ (Hist. Rev. 
Napl.), p. 133. 1665 nevertheless he would submit, provided an Amnesty were 
forthwith given him and those that were in this conspiracy : Sir Th. Herbert, 
Trav., p. 71 (1677). 1671 the Council concluded that.. .a letter of amnesty 

should be dispatched: Evelyn, Diary, Vol. n, p. 65(1872). 1689 an Act 
of Amnesty would be more seasonable, to pacify the minds of men; id., p. 305. 

[All forms orig. fr. Gk. a}xv7]<TTia, sb. of a-^y;/o-ro?, = ' not- 
mindful', akin to Mnemosyne.] 

amok(e): Malay. See amuck. 

amomum, sb. : Lat. fr. Gk. afxay^ov : an aromatic plant. 
The name was applied by the ancients to sundry oriental 
spice plants, and so is used vaguely by early writers ; now 
applied to a genus of the Nat. Order Zingiberaceae under 
which are classed the species yielding Cardamums and 
Grains of Paradise. Also the spice yielded by the plant 
Amomum. Anglicised by Wyclif as amome (v. 1. amonie). 

1398 Amomum hath that name for it smellyth as Canell dooth: that hyghte 
Cynamun...all manere ainomum hath vertue to hete and to drye : Trevisa, Tr. 
Earth. De P. R., xvil viii. 1526 Amomum,, .is the seed of an herbe that 

hyght amomum ; Crete Herball, ch. xliv. 1551 Amomum is a small bushe : 
W. TurneRj Herb., sig. C iii ?/<'. 1589 Balsamum, Amomum, with Myrrhe 

and Frankencense : T. Nashe, in R. Greene's Me7iaphon, p. 7 (1880). 1601 the 
hearbe Amomum [Note. Rose of Jericho]: Holland, Tr. Piin. N. H., Bk. 26, 
ch. II, Vol, II. p. 258. . 1611 Amome, A small, and thicke aromaticall shrub, 
whose blossomes resembled white violets, and leaues those of the wild Vine : This 
true Avi07nuf?i of th' Ancients, is not found, or not discerned, at this day. ..some 
[call so]. ..hearbe Robert ; but the most, Vita lo?iga, or Ethyopian pepper, which 
(though it be not the right) is now the most currant, Amonnim ; Cotgr. 1625 
Afnomu7n, Ginger, Malabathrum, Aminoniake: Purchas, Pilgrims, Vol. i. 
Bk. i. p. 43. 1646 A Plant [Rose of yericko] so unlike a Rose, it hath been 

mistaken by some good Sivtplisi for Afnoinum.: Sir Th. Brown, Psetid. Ep., 
Bk. I. ch. vi, p. 76 (1686). 1664 you may set your Oranges, Lhnons... Aloes, 
Am.omunis...m the Portico: Evelyn, Kal. Hort., p. igS (1729). bef. 1719 
"Who not by com or herbs his life sustains, j But the sweet essence of Amomum 
drains: Addison, Wks., Vol. i. p. 285 (Bohn, 1854). 1782 Th' amomum 
there with intermingling flow'rs 1 And cherries hangs her twigs : Covvper, Task, 
iii. Poems, Vol. 11. p. 88 (1808). 

amontillado, sb.: Sp.: dry sherry, having the flavor of 
Montilla, or very dry sherry from the hill districts of Mon- 

1833 The wine called Amontillado is not always the product of design. ..Not 
a drop of brandy can be added to genuine Amontillado without spoiling it : 
C. Redding, Modem IVifies, p. 190. bef. 1849 I have received a pipe of 
what passes for Amontillado, and I have my doubts... I was silly enough to pay 
the full Amontillado price without consulting you in the matter : E. A. Poe, 
IVMs., Vol. I. p. 168 (1884). 1862 "By the housekeeper, do you mean Mrs. 

Baynes!" I ask, in my ajnontillado manner; Thackeray, Philip, Vol. i. ch. 
xvii. p, 318 (1887). 1886 A certain quantity of the drier Amontillado, from 

the hill districts of Montilla : Ruskin, Prizterita, ii. ix. 325. 

*amor, sb.'. Lat.: love. Divines used to distinguish 
a. amicitiae^ love of the nature of friendship, benevole7ittae 
or beneficenttae or beneplaczti, of goodwill towards another, 
compiacentiaej of delight in another. 

1681 there is aw/fjrffw/zW/ztf', a seeking of one out of friendship: Th. Good- 
win, iVks., in Nichol's Ser. Stand. Divines, Vol. i, p. 408 (r86i). 1684 There 
is in God a love of good will and a love of delight, amor bene7iolen.ticE...a-mor 
complacently: S. Charnock, Wks., ib., Vol. in. p. 344 (1865). 1696 One 

out of Christ cannot love Chri-st, neither atnore [abl.] beneficently nor compla- 
centim: D. Clarkson, Pract. Wks., Nichol's Ed., Vol. ii. p. no. 1681 While 
men remain in their natural estate. ..he [God] may bear towards them amor 
benevolentiee — a love of good will; but whilst they remain in their natural con- 
dition, he hath not amor ainicitiee to them — a love of friendship : Th. Goodwin, 
Wks., in Nichol's Ser. Sta7id. Divines, Vol. 11. p. 151 (1861). 1659 we must 
distinguish a double love, to w^t amor beyievolentice, et complacejities, a love of 
benevolence whereby we wish well to, and a love of complacency whereby we 
take delight in, another: N. Hardy, on 1st Ep. John, Nichol's Ed., p. 244/2 
(1865). 1681 There is a two-fold love — am.or beneplaciii and amor compla- 
centia, an old distinction : Th. Goodwin, Wks., in Nichol's Ser. Stand. Divines, 
Vol. I. p. log (1861). 

*amor patriae, phr. : Lat. : love of the fatherland, love of 
one's country. 

1775 The Amor patrim bums in me no fiercer than love for my wife would, 
if I had one and she proved a shrew: Hor. Walpole, Letters, Vol. vi. p, 271 
(1857). 1812 but the man who feels the amor ^a^riip... should brave the 

danger: Edi7i. Rev., Vol. 20, p. 55. 1814 you. ..whom I noted to have so 
much of the amor patriae... zs even to vilipend other countries : iJcoTT, Wav., 
ch. Ixxi. p. 465 (188-). 1815 You were saying something at the very moment 
of this burst of my amor patTdae'. J. Austen, Em7na, Vol. 11. ch. vi. p. 177 

amor sceleratus habendi, /^r.: Lat.: accursed love of 
possessing. Ovid, Met.^ I. 131. Also without sceleratus^ 
= ' accursed'. 

1701 That TlXeoi/e^ia, that same amor sceleratus habendi, the fond desire of 
having much: Abp. Leighton, id Co7mnand}>zents, Wks., p. 638/1. 1828 
LuRD I.VTTON, Pelham, ch. Ixvii. p. 222 (1859). 1831 and in old age, the 

S. D. 



honest amor habendi, when all other loves are frozen in the heart, allures the dini 
eye, and the surd ear to listen to, the glittering beauties and golden melodies of 
avarice: Congress. Debates, Vol. vii. p. 577. 

amor vincit omnia, phr. : Lat, : love conquers all things. 
From omnia vincit Amor, et nos cedamus Ainori^ Virg., 
Eel., X. 69. 

1386 On which ther was first write a crowned .A. | And after Amor vincit 
omjiia: Chaucer,. C T., Prol., 162. 1621 omnia vincit a7nor, d^c: R. 
Burton, Anat. Mel., Pt. 3, Sec. 2, Mem. i, Subs. 2, Vol, 11. p. 207 (1827). 

amorado, Ji^. : for S^^. inamorado \ lover, enamoured. Rare. 

1608 What, hath he chang'd your shepheards hooks to swords ? Of Amo- 
radoes made you armed knights? Day, Hum. out 0/ Breath, 74(1881). [N. E. D.] 
1675 Mark Antony wa.s both a couragious Souldier, and a passionate Amorado : 
J. Smith, Christ. Rel. Appeal, Bk. i. ch. vii. p. 55. 

amoretto,//. amoretti, -ttoes, -tto's, sb.: It. 

T. a lover, a love-poem, an incitement to love. Obs. 

1595 Ajnoretti [title]: Spenser. 1616 The Amoretto, pearc'd with 
Cupides stroke: R, C., Ti7nes' Whistle, vii. 2927, p. 93 (1871). 1654 The 

amoretto was wont to take his stand at one place — where sate his mistress: 
Gavton, Notes on Don Quixote, p. 47. [T.] 1665 I acquainted my 

A7noretta with my intention; R. Head, E7igl. Rogue, sig. E 3 z^. 

2. an amorino, a Cupid. Rare. 

1622 an Orenge tree, within the branches and bowes whereof, fiye little 
Amorettos or Cupids: Peacham, Co77ip. Gent., ch. xii. p. 131. 

amorevolous, adj.\ Eng. fr. It. a^norevole: loving, kind. 

bef. 1670 He would leave it to the princessa to shew her cordial and amore- 
volous affections: J. Hacket, Abp. Williams, Pt. i. p. 161. [Trench] 

^amorino, sb. : It. : a little Love, a Cupid. 

1885 'Love and Maidens' [represents] three damsels in a black boat which 
an amorino had steered to a marble quay before he landed, near two amorini 
who. ..playfully run away: Athe7zesum, Sept. 26, p. 408/2. 1888 an early 

amorino plate with a ruby lustre, from Pesaro or Gubbio: zb., Apr. 21, p. 507/2. 

amorosa,//. amor osi {^. v.), sb.: It./em. of amoroso (^^.•z'.): 
an amorous girl or woman; a mistress. 

1615 Another arrived which set a gallant a-shore with his two Amorosaes, 
attired like Nymphs: G. Sandys, Trav., Bk. iv. p. 177 (1670). 1677 I took 
them for Amorosa's [not in Ed. 1634; Aniarosa^s in Ed. 1665] and violators of 
the bounds of Modesty: Sir Th, Herbert, Trav., p. 191. — the Amorosa's 
\_AmaroscCs in Ed. 16651, or those of the order of Lais...\i& more sociable, have 
most freedome, and in this Region are not worst esteemed of: ib., p. 300. 1817 
the brother of my autorosa : Byron, in Moore's Life, Vol. iii. p. 340 (1832). 

amorosi,//. of amorosa and amoroso, sb. : It. 

1817 I have seen some ancient figures of eighty pointed out as amorosi of 
forty, fifty, and sixty years' standing. I can't say I have ever seen a husband 
and wife so coupled: Byron, in Moore's Life, Vol. iii. p. 363 (1832). 

*amoroso, pi. amorosi {q, v.\ sb. : It. : an amorous man, 
a lover. 

bef. 1670 B.U ATnoroso, that wasts his whole time in Dalliance upon his Mistress: 
J. Racket, Abp. Williams, Pt. i. 138, p. 125 (1693). 1817 There is no con- 
vincing a woman here that she is in the smallest degree deviating from the rule 
of right or the fitness of things in having an atnoroso'. Byron, in Moore's Life, 
Vol. III. p. 333 (1832). 

amoroso, adv. : It. : Mus. : in a soft and amorous style. 

1776 I was playing in a tone somewhat amoroso: J. Collier, Mus. Trav., 
p. 73 (4th Ed.). 1813 AMOROSO, in the Italian music, implies tenderly, 
with affection and supplication; Pantologia. 1848 Viwi^KUun, Pianoforte, 

p. 90. 

amort {— ii), adj. : Eng. fr. Fr. : nearly dead. See k la mort. 

1608 A'nzort Tn^Lnt what can Polymetes daunt? J. Day, Law-Trickes, sig. 
I 2 ?-^. 1619 She counts him but a Nazard, halfe a-mort: H. Hutton, Foil. 
Anat., sig. B 6 ro. 1840 Untasked of any love, His sensitiveness idled, 

now amort, Alive now: Browning, Sordello, vi. Wks., Vol. iii. p. 4^q (iSSA 
(N. E. D.] ^ ^ 

[The Fr. a mort='tQ death', 'mortally', as does Fr. a la 
mort. The Eng. adj. amort and a-la-mort show the same 
change of meaning ; so that amort may be fr. the corruption 
all amort or from Fr. a mort (with a reminiscence of all 

*amortissement, sb. -. Fr. : amortisation, extinction of a 
debt or charge, esp. by means of a sinking-fund. 

1882 The sum yearly set aside for the aviortissetnent of the Debt has been 
already expended in buying up bonds : Standard, Dec. 19, p. 5. 

amotine, vb.: Eng. fr. Sp. amotinar: to raise in mutiny. 

1578 Who had comen to Vera Crux to amotine the Towne : T. N., Tr. Conq. 
W. India, 243. [N. E. D.] 

amouco: Malay. See amuck. 

*ainour, sb. : Fr. 

I. love-making, courtship, tender passages. 

1523 the adventures of amours and of war: Lord Berners, Froissart, Vol. 
I. ch. xiv. p. 202 (1812). 1590 But lovely peace, and gentle amity, [ Ajld in 
Amours the passing howres to spend, | The mightie martiall handes doe 




commend: Spens., F. Q., ii. vi. 35. 1600 fortunate in the amours of three 
hundred fortie and fine ladies: B. Jonson, Cynth. Rev.^ i. 3, Wks., p. 192 (i6i6)- 
1669 Jealousies and disquiets are the dregs of an Amour; Dryden, Mock 
Astral.^ ii. Wks., Vol. i. p. 290 (170J). 1679 'Tis true, no Lover has that 

Pow'r I T' enforce a desperate Amour, | As he that has two Strings to 's Bow, \ 
And burns for Love and Money too : S. Butler, Hudibras, Pt. iii. Cant. i. p. i. 
1714 all my Amours have hitherto been with Ladies: Spectator, No. 5^6, 
Sept. 20, p. 840/z (Morley). 1748 I perceived Mr. Jackson. ..and, inquiring 
into the state of his amour, understood it was still undetermined: Smollett, 
Rod. Rand., ch. xvii. Wks., Vol. i. p. 97 (1817). 

2. more commonly^ an unworthy passion, illicit union, 

1590 I will. ..discourse vnto you the ende of Francescoes amours, of his 
returne home to his wife, and his repentaunce : Greene, Never Too Late, Wks., 
Vol. viii. p. 109 (Grosart). 1665 the Nayro many times makes that his oppor- 
tunity to visit and act his Amours: Sir Th. Herbert, Trav., p. 337 (1677). 
1667 court-amours, | Mix'd dance, or wanton mask, or midnight ball: Milton, 
P. L., IV. 767. 1688 The Duke told us many particulars of Mary Queen of 

Scots, and her amours with the Italian favourite : Evelyn, Diary, Vol. ii. p. 294 
(1872). 1712 engaged in many Criminal Gallantries and Amours : Spectator, 
No. 399, June 7, p. 579/1 (Morley). bef. 1733 There is Curiosity, Diversion, 
fine Sights, Music, and (beyond Sea) notable Amours that invite the gay Folks 
into the Churches : R. North, Examen, i. i. 27, p. 28 (1740). 1742 Oh Love 
of Gold! thou meanest of Amours: E. Young, Night Thoughts, iv. p. 62 (1773). 
1743 — 7 He was still wandering from one amour to another: Tindal, Contin. 
Rapin, Vol. I. p. 491/1 (175 1). 1788 he [the King] always made her [the 
Queen] the confidante of his amours: HoR. Walpole, Letters, Vol. i. p. cxxxiv. 


[Reintroduced in 17 c. when the old AngHcised amour, 
amours (introd. 14 c. or earlier) was obsolete or nearly so, 
after having changed its accent to that found in Eng. enamour, 
and sometimes appearing by accommodation to Lat. as amor. 
The Mid. Eng. amour, = 'lover', is distinct, being fr. Old Fr. 
ameor, ameour, fr. Lat. amatorem^ 

*ainour propre, /.4r. : Fr. : 'self love' in its social aspect, 
self-esteem which desires that the merits of which it is con- 
scious should meet with full recognition from others. 

1808 to be admired by her, gratified his a^nour propre: H. More, Cmlehs in 
search of a Wife^ Vol. I. ch. x. p. 125 (1809). 1811 egotism. rendered by 

^ atnour propre\ rather than by ' egoistne' ; Edin. Rev., Vol. 18, p. 124. 1817 
I used to think that I was a good deal of an author in antour propre : Byron, in 
Moore's Life, Vol. IV. p. 72 (1832). 1851 The King did not wish for M. 

d'Agoult's company, either from a pique of anioitr propre that made him jealous 
of appearing in leading-strings, or from some other such motive : J. W. Croker, 
Essays Fr. Rev., III. p. 119 (1857). 1858 a sin against our own avtour propre: 
A. Trollope, Three Clerks, Vol. in. ch. i. p. 8. 1878 There was nothing... 
which was likely to affect his amour propre: G. Eliot, Dan. Deronda, Bk. III. 
ch. xxvii. p. 223. 

*amourette, sb. -. Fr. : dimin. of amour : intrigue, love- 
affair; also a Cupid. Early Anglicised as «OT(?r^/(/^). 

1825 This comes of meddling with men's amo7irettes : Scott, Betrothed, 
ch. xxxvi. p. 257. 1826 Lord Beaconsfield, Viv. Grey, Bk. i. ch. vii. 

p. 17 (1881). 

ampare, sb. -. Eng. fr. Sp. amparo : defence, protection. 
Rare. Obs. 

1598 I humbly beseech your good Lordship to entertaine this booke vnder 
your Hon. ampare : YoNG, Diana, Ded. [N. E. D.] 

*ampelopsis, sb. -. coined fr. Gk. : name of a genus of 
plants (Nat. Order Ampelideae or Vine-worts), esp. of the 
delicate and beautiful wall-creeper, Ampelopsis Veitchii, a 
native of Japan. 

1835 AMPELOPSIS (Michaux). A genus of North American climbing 
and shrubby plants, consisting of four species. ..The A. quinguefolia is a useful 
plant for hiding naked buildings, or forming shady bowers. ..It grows rapidly and 
needs no nailing up against walls, it being supported by its own tendrils : C. F. 
Partington, Brit. Cycl. (Nat. Hist.). 

[Coined against analogy to mean 'having the appearance 
(oi/'is) of a vine' (a/iTTEXos).] 

ampere, sb. : Fr. : Electr. Sci. : the unit of current, viz. that 
which one volt can send through one ohm. 

1882 The other unit I should suggest. that of power. The power conveyed 
by a current of an ampfere through the difference of potential of a volt is the unit 
consistent with the practical system: Dr. C. W. Siemens, in Nature, Vol. xxvi. 
p. 391. 1883 it works with 400 volts and uses 30 to 40 amperes of current ; 
Daily News, Sept. 23, p. 7/1. 

[Adopted 1 88 1 at the Paris Electric Congress, being the 
name of a Fr. physicist who made important discoveries in 
electrical science.] 

♦amphibia, -ii {pi), amphibium, -on {sing.), sb. -. Lat. 
I. I. a creature that lives partly on land and partly in 
water. Also meiaph. of fishermen, or watermen. 

1607 there are Beares which are called Amphibia, because they Hue both on 
the land and in the sea : Topsell, Four-f. Beasts, p. 36. 1611 For which 
reason the Greekes call him [the crocodile] d^^i^iov: T. Cory at, Crudities, 
Vol. I. p. 182 (1776). 1657 Whales or seals, which, being amphibii, have both 
a willingness and a place convenient to suckle their whelps: John Trapp, Com. 


Old Test., Vol. III. p. 564/2 (1868). — They are a.[Lififiiai., as crocodiles, chame- 
leons: ib.. Vol. IV. p. 463/1. 1665 a strange Diver, by his continual converse 
in Water, so degenerated from himself, That he was grown more like an Am- 
phibium, then a man : Phil. Trans., Vol. i. No. 6, p. ri4. 1665 sixty years 
is usually the age of this detested Amphibium [crocodile]: Sir Th. Herbert, 
Trav p. 364 (1677). — These also are amphibij [amphibious animals (Ed. 1677)], 
equally using land and water: ib., p. 13(1665). — these Amphibu [crocodiles] 
are observed to be one of the greatest wonders we meet with : tb., p. 363 (1677). 
1681 How Tortoise like, but not so slow, | These rational Amphtbu go? 
A Marvell, Misc., p. 103. 1689 Upon the banks and shores, ye see several 
Amphibia, as crabs, seals, beavers: R. L'EsTRANGE.Tr. Erasmus sel. Colloqu., 
p. 75. 

I. 2. metaph. a being whose nature, state, or position, is 

1645 Ask these amphibia what names they would have. What, are you 
papists? John Whaly, Serm. at Paul's Cross, June 18, p. 33. 1681 And 
languished with doubtful Breath, | Th' Amphibium of Life and Death: A. Mar- 
vell, Misc., p. 21. 

I. 3. a being having a twofold existence. Anglicised as 

1642 Thus is man that great and true Amphibium, whose nature is disposed 
to live, not only like other Creatures in divers Elements, but in divided and dis- 
tinguished Worlds: Sir Th. Brown, Relig. Med., § xxxiv. Wks., Vol. 11. p. 373 
(1852). 1667 Amphibians, that will conform to the world, and yet seem to be 
for the Lord: John Trap?, Com. Old Test., Vol. iv. p. 84/2 (1868). 

II. a technical term in zoology, now apphed to the fourth 
great division of Vertebrata, which in their early stage breathe 
by gills, as frogs, newts. Rare in sing. 

1797 AMPHIBIA, in zoology, the name of Linnaeus's third class of animals; 
including all those which live partly in water and partly on land. _ "This class he 
subdivides into four orders, viz. The amphibia reptiles ; the amphibia serpentes ; 
the amphibia nantes : and the amphibia meantes : Encyc. Brit. 

[Late Lat. amphibium, fr. Gk. a/x(^i/3ioy, neut. of d/i0i'^ios, 
= 'double-lived'.] 

amphibole, sb. -. Eng. fr. Fr. amphibole {adj., = ' ambiguous') : 
an ambiguity, amphiboly, amphibology. 

1606 There is not onely an Homonyme in the word [Gallos] signifying the 
French Nation, and the crowing cocks, but an Amphibole also in the sentence : 
Holland, Tr. Suet., Annot. on Nero Claud. CcEsar. 

amphibologia, sb.: Late Lat.: Anglicised as 'amphibo- 
logy'. Chaucer probably took 'amphibologie' from Fr. 

1. Gen. ambiguous speech. 

1552 It is an ajnphibologia, and therefore Erasmus turneth it into Latin with 
such words: Latimer, Serm. Lord's Prayer, vii. 11. 112. [N. E. D.] 1607 
The iirst kind of Equivocation by mental reservation, cannot properly be called 
Equivocation but Amphibologia, ambiguity of speach: R. Parsons, Treat. 
Mitig., ch. viii. p. 317. 

2. Rhet. and Log. the figure of ambiguity arising from the 
equivocal construction of a sentence consisting of unequivo- 
cal words. 

1689 such ambiguous termes they call Amphibologia: Puttenham, Eng. 
Poes., III. xxii. p. 267 (1869). 

[Late Lat. amphibologia, for Lat. amphibolia (see amphi- 
boly), false form for amphibolologia.'\ 

amphiboly {--L=. :z.), sb. -. Eng. fr. Fr. 

1. Gen. ambiguity, equivocation, amphibology. 

1610 What a crafty Amphibolie or ^Equivocation : Holland, Camdeiis 
Brit, I. -1,07. [N.E. D.] 1632 Come, leave your Schemes, And fine ^;k/A!- 
boltes. Parson: B. JoNSON, Magn. Lady, ii. 5, p. 23 (t64o). 1664 he will 

create an Amphiboly, a double meaning where there is none: R. Whitlock, 
Zootomia, p. 254. 

2. Rhet. and Log. the figure of ambiguity arising from the 
equivocal construction of a sentence consisting of unequivo- 
cal words : distinguished from equivocation, or the use of 
equivocal terms. 

1588 Amphiboly, when the sentence may bee turned both the wayes, so that 
a man shall be uncertayne what waye to take: Fraunce, Lawier's Log., I. iv. 
27 b. [N. E. D.] ' * 

^ [Froni Fr. amphibolie, fr. Lat. amphibolia (Cicero), fr. Gk. 
diJ,cj>i^o\ia, sb. to a/i(^i/3oXoy.] 

amphibrachys, -chus, sb.-. Lat. fr. Gk. dix(f>i^paxvs : lit. 
'short on both sides', name of a metrical foot consisting of a 
long syllable with a short syllable before and after it. An- 
glicised as amphibrach, i8 c. 19 c. 

1586 Amphibrachus, of a short, a long, and a short, as — reioyced: W. 
"H KW.^, Discourse of Eng. Poet., in Haslewood's Eng. Poets <V Poesy, Vol. IL 
p. 67 C1815). 1589 make.. .the last word {Sepulcher) the foote (amihibracus): 
Puttenham, Eng. Poes., ii. xiiii [xv.]. p. 139(1869). - the foote ol {AmpM- 
brachus) : ,b., xv [xvi,]. p. 141. 1784 The arrangement of the words as they 

now stand has a very bad effect on the ear, 'endeavour preserving this temper 
among them : from four successive amphibrachs, with the accent four times re- 
peated on the middle sylla'ole of three in each foot, which give the sentence the 


air of a comic cantering verse: Sheridan, Note to Swift's Examiner, No. 24. 
[L.] 1886 Hence the apparent amphibrach must be divided as follows: 

Mayor, Eng, Metre, ch. vi. p. 95. — Whether amphibrachys, i.e. iamb fol- 
lowed by an unaccented syllable, could be allowed in any place : ib , ch v. 
p. 74- 

*Ainphictyons : Gk. -. representatives of confederated 
states of Ancient Greece forming a council. The principal 
Amphictyony was an association of the twelve chief states 
for the protection of the Delphic oracle, the council of which 
met at Delphi and Thermopylae. 

1579 the councell of t\iQ Am^hictio?is (that is, the generall councell of all the 
states of Greece): North, Tr. Plutarch, p. 126 (1612). 1686 the sacred 
councell of the Amphictions: T. B., Tr. La PHynaud. Fr. Acad., p. 677. 
1601 a decree from the Amphyctions (who are the lords of the puhlicke counsell 
of state in Greece): Holland, Tr. Plin. N. H., Bk. 35, ch. g, Vol. n. p. 533. 
bef. 1603 the assembly of the Estates of Greece, which they call the Councell 
of the Amp/iici^yons: North (Lizjes of Epamin., St'c., added to) Phtt, p. 1129 
(1612). 1734 of which games the Amphictyons were judges and agono- 

thetas: Tr. Rollin's Anc Hist.^w. x. p. 405. 1788 the Amphictyons, to reward 
so liberal an artist.. .decreed that he should be entertained at the public charge: 
Ge7i£. Mag-., LViii. i. iig/i. 1820 the total destruction of this city by the 

Amphictyons :_T. S. Hughes, Trav. in Sicily, Vol. i. ch. xii. p. 368. 1885 

like the Amphictyonic Council, he has a voice only, without a force of any kind 
to carry his orders into effect: J. A. Froude, Oceana, ch. iv. p. 59 (1886). 
1885 What has become of the "European Areopagus," or "Amphictyonic 
Council"? Daily News, Nov. 16, p. 5/1. 

[Gk. dfi(j>tKTvov€Sj dialectic for a/i(jSiKTtoi/eff, = *dwellers- 
around', 'neighbours'.] 

amphigouri, sd. : Mod. Fr. : a nonsensical string of incon- 
sequent words or sentences, a rigmarole. 

1809 The work must... be considered as a kind of overgrown aviphigouri, a 
heterogeneous combination of events: Q, Rev.., \. 50. [N. E. D.] 

amphisbaena, sb. : Lat. fr. Gk. : Gk. MythoL : a serpent 
with a head at both ends ; see quotations. 

1572 There are scene also in Armes, the signes of Serpentes, as the Dragon, 
Coluber, Basiliske, of somme called the Cockatrice, Amphibene, Stellion: Bosse- 
WELL, Annorie, fol. 21 r". 1580 you haue thrust into my hands the Serpent 
A-mphisbena, which hauing at ech ende a sting, hurteth both wayes: J. Lyly, 
Enpkues d^ his Engl., p. 287 (1868). 1601 The Amphisbaena hath two 

heads.. .one at the taile: Holland. Tr. Plin. N. H., Bk. 8, ch. 23, Vol. i. p. 208. 
— one kind of serpent or venomous worme, which they call Amphisbaena [for 
that it seemeth to have an head at both ends]; ib., Bk. 20, ch. 21, Vol. n. p. 70. 
1603 Th' Atnpkisbena her double banefuU sting : J. Sylvester, Tr. Dti Bartas, 
p. 157 (1608). 1609 iEgypt breedeth also an infinit number of serpents, to wit... 
the AmphisbaenEe, the Scytalas, &c. : Holland, Tr. Marc, Bk. 22, ch. 15, p. 213. 
1646 the a small kind of Serpent which moveth forward and 
backward, hath two Heads, or one at either extream: Sir Th. Brown, Pseud. 
Ep., Bk. III. ch. XV. p. Ill (1686). 1651 Plato's Ainphisba7ia\ Reliq. 

Woiton., p. 260 (1654). 1662 Snakes and Serpents, which are here very 

dangerous, and among the rest those, which from a Greek word are called 
Amphisbenes'. J. Davies, Tr. Mandelslo, Bk. i. p. 27 (1669). 1667 Scorpion, 
and Asp, and Amphisb^na dire: Milton, P. L., x. 518. bef. 1691 It was 
now with us much like as it is said of the amphisbeiia, that hath an head at 
either end of which neither can nor will move without the consent of both ; 
J. Flavel, Wks.., Vol. VL p. 320(1799). 

[From Gk. dfxfpia-^aiva, fr. dficfiisj — ^hoth ways', and stem of 
paivcivj^ho go'; but it is said to be foreign, the Gk. form 
being due to popular etymology.] 

ampMscii, sd. : Lat. fr. Gk. : inhabitants of the Torrid Zone, 
where shadows incline towards the north at one time of the 
year, the south at another. 

1666 The Inhabitants within this Zone (the torrid we are now in) are called 
Amphiscii, in respect they cast their shadows both ways: Sir Th. Herbert, 
Trav.^ p. 5 (1677). 1738 Chambers, Cycl. 

[From Gk. diKblatciot, fr. d}x<^\ prep., = 'on both sides', and 
(rKia, = ' shadow'.] 

'^amphitheatre, -trum, sb. : Eng. fr. Fr., or Lat. : a double 
theatre, a circular or oval building with tiers of seats round 
a central arena; hence, an arena {metaph.), a surrounding 
scene, a natural scene formed by a level surrounded by rising 
slopes. The pronunciation is unsettled, but to lay stress on 
the second a is vulgar. Perhaps J.—±—— is the most correct 
accentuation, but the vowels of the third and fourth syllables 
often coalesce into the sound of ear with a primary stress. 

1640 straunge and furyous beastes...whiche were kepte onely to thintent that 
at certayne tymes in the Amphiteatre...the people mought take plesure in be- 
holdynge them: Elyot, Im. Goveritaimce, p. 49 v°. 1549 Vespasianus... 

beganne the Amphitheater, now called ColHseo: W. Thomas, Hist, of Italy e, 
lo\.wv<>. ~ the Amphithealmm, now C3.\led Colliseo: ib.,fol.!z6r^. 1590 the 
Amphitheater was set on fire : L. Llovd, Consent of Time, p. 568. 1600 Ves- 
pasian his Amphitheatrum at Rome: John Pory, Tr. Leo's Hist. Afr., p. 68. 
1600 A great part of Statilius his Amphitheatrum, is yet to bee scene neere the 
wals: Holland, Tr. Livy (Summ. Mar., iv. xx.), p. 1380. 1621 amphi- 
theatrums of curious marble: R. Burton, Anat. Mel., To Reader, p. 82 (1827). 
bef. 1719 I saw at Verona the famous Amphitheater: Addison, Wks., Vol. 11. 
p. ig (1730). 1861 Look at the amphitheatre yonder. You do not suppose 

those gladiators who fought and perished, of necessity hated each other: 
Thackeray, Roundabout Papers, p. 124 (1873). 



[From Fr. amphithd^tre^ fr. Lat. amphitheatrum (used in 
16 c. 17 c), fr. Gk. d;x0t^€arpov, = 'on-both-sides a theatre V 
fr. stem of ^eao-^at, = 'to behold'.] 

Amphitrite: Gk. MythoL: the goddess of the Ocean, 

wife of Poseidon (Neptune), daughter of Oceanus ; by metony- 
my, the sea. Sometimes Anglicised so as to rhyme with 

1603 The King of Windes calls home his churlish train, | And Amphitrite 
smooths her front again : J. Sylvester, Tr. Du Bartas, Schism, p. 108 (1608). 
1630 Thive A^nphitritean Muse growes more arridefit, \ And Phoebus tripos, 
stoopes to Neptunes trident: John Taylor, iVks., sig, A 5 voji. 1637 And 
I must haste ere morning hour | To wait in Amphitrite shower: Milton, Comus, 
921. 1662 The British Amphitrite, smooth and clear, | In richer azure never 
did appear: Dryden, Astr. Red., 246. 

^Amphitryon : Gk. MythoL : husband of Alcmena. Zeus 
(Jupiter), in Amphitryon's absence, assumed his form and 
visited Alcmena, so that Herakles (Hercules) was the son of 
Alcmena by Zeus. Yet Herakles was called Amphitryonides 
after his putative father, which patronymic appears as Ain~ 
phitryonide, ]. Sylvester, Tr. Dtt Bartas, Tropheis, p. 25 
(1608). The Amphitryon in Moli^re's comedy of that name 
gives a great feast, and in III. v. occurs "Le veritable Am- 
phitryon est TAmphitryon oia Ton dine"; hence the name 
stands for a host, the giver of a dinner. 

1699 Nor do I come as Jupiter did erst ] Unto the palace of Amphitryon | For 
any fond or foul concupiscence: Gkeene, Alphonsus, iii. 234/2, I. 24 (1861). 
1836 According to the received usages of Chinese fashion, I ought to have fol- 
lowed this example, in testimony of a more than satisfied appetite, but my wish 
to gratify our excellent Amphitryon would not carry me quite so far : J. F. Davis, 
Chinese, Vol. i. ch. viii. p. 329. 1841 provided that the cook is a perfect artist, 
and that the Amphitryon, as was the case in this instance, objects not to expense : 
Lady Blessington, Idler in France, Vol. n, p. 24. 1849 Vavasour liked to be 
the Amphitryon of a cluster of personal enemies : Lord Beaconsfield, Tancred, 
Bk. ri. ch. xiv. p. 142 (1881). 1850 the reckless young Amphitryon delighted 
to show his hospitality and skill m gourjnandise : Thackeray, Pendennis, Vol. i. 
ch. xix. p. 199 (1879). 

*ampliora, sb. : Lat. 

1. a two-handled vessel of Ancient Greece and Italy. 

1601 an earthen amphor [of wine]: Holland, Tr. Plin. N. H., Bk- 35, 
ch. 12, Vol. II. p. 553. 1748 This quadri?}tum was excellent ale of his own 

brewing, of which ihe told us he had always an amphora four years old for the use 
of himself and friends: Smollett, Rod. Rand., ch. x. Wks., Vol. i. p. 51 (1817). 
1836 earthen jars, not unlike the amphorae of the ancients still remaining to us: 
J. F. Davis, Chinese, Vol. i. ch. viii. p. 330. 1878 The young woman's milk 
can, a great amphora of ham.mered brass : R. L. Stevenson, Inland Voyage, 
p. 49. 1886 [The] space is known to have contained. ..a huge wine cellar 
filled with thousands of amphorae: Rodolfo Lanciani, in Athemsufn, Mar. 13, 
P- 365/2- 

2. an ancient liquid (and dry) measure of abt. y\ imperial 
gals, capacity with the Greeks, 5-| with the Romans ; Angli- 
cised as amphore. 

bef 1400 there were spendid in it by alle days twelue riiesuris artabis...and 
fourty sheepj and of wijn sixe amphoris \v. I. clepid amfris}: Wycliffite Bible, 
Dan., xiv. 2. 1600 That no Senator, or father of a Senator, should have a 
ship at sea, bearing above 300 Amphores: Holland, Tr. Livy, Bk. xxi, p. 429. 
1601 hee hath ordained to the roots of the greater trees an Amphore, but of the 
lesse an Vrna onely, of Oile dregs: — Tr. Plin, N. H., Bk, 17, ch. 28, Vol. i. 
p. 547. 1603 the measure, and also the things which be measured, are 

called by one and the same names: as it appeareth by Cotyla, ChtEnix, AfU- 
phora and Medimnus '. — Tr. Plut. Mor., p. 1328. 1696 Auiphora, an 

ancient measure of liquid things, the Italick Amphora contained five Gallons, 
the Attick Amphora seven Gallons and a half: Phillips, World of Words. 
1763 Chambers, Cycl., Suppl. 1797 E7icyc. Brit. 1820 a very fine 

silver vase capable of containing 600 amphorse: T. S. Hughes, Trav. iti Sicily, 
Vol. I. ch. xiii. p. 381. 

[From Gk. d^cj^opevsi f'O^ *aju.0t0opeuy, = 'on-both-sides 
borne', fr. dfj-cjAj prep., and stem of ct>^p€iv, = ^to bear'. The 
forms am/ore, amphore {amfer) used by Wyclif and Holland 
are perhaps from Fr. amphore^ 

ample {l —), adj. : Eng. fr. Fr. ample : wide, capacious, 

1. extensive, of large area, spacious; also of wide range. 

1530 the bounds of your right ample dominions: Palsgr. , sig. A iii r*". 1640 
two other hospitalles ample and necessary for fyue hundred sick persons: Elyot, 
/?«. Gover7iau7ice, p. 44 z/''. 1546 the Romaine province at that time was not 
verie ample: Tr. Polydore Vergil's Eng. Hist., Vol. i. p. 66 (1846). 1690 a 
larger space, | That stretcht itselfe into an ample playne: Spens., F. Q., 11. vii. 
21. 1641 The... Emperor's Graft.. .is an ample and long street: Evelyn, 
Diary, Vol. i. p. 26 (1872). 1664 and you have an ample field to proceed on: 
— Corresp., Vol. iii. p. 145. 1787 Meanwhile, through Nature's ample 

range. ..We see each animated breast j In its appointed portion blest: Gent. 
Mag., p. 1005/1. 

2. capacious, of large volume, of large bulk, copious. 

1485 he was moche ample & boystrous of stature: Caxton, Chas. Crete, 
p. 29 (t88i). 1546 Edmundus... prepared as ample a bande of menne as hee 

cowlde devise: Tr. Polydore Vergil s Eng. Hist., Vol. i. p. 261 (1846). 




3. abundant, copious, full, boundless. Without direct 
reference to space. 

1609 Ualerius wrytyth a story longe and ample : Barclay, Ship of Fools, 
Vol. I. p. 70 (1874). bef. 1526 that your Grace wolde give ordre to your officers 
that as large and ample favor shalbe shewed to my nephieu Archiediacon of 
Canterbery as to other archiediacones : Abp. Waeham, in Ellis' Orig. Lett., 3rd 
Ser., Vol. 11. No. cxxxvii. p. 39 (1846). 1546 afterward in more ample wise it 
[the arm of the sea] runnethe beyonde Sainte Germaines : Tr. Polydore Vergil's 
Hist. Eng., Vol. I. p. 14 (1846). 1563 a more ample discours: T. Gale, 
Enckirid., fol. 51 i/>. 1578 wherein touching this, what opportunitie more 
greater, what more ample occasions, what seate of countrey more proper or 
convenient to manage warre against the enemies of our religion: Fenton, 
Tr. Guiairdijii^s Wars of Italy Lib. L p. 13 (1618). 1590 whom I beseech | 
To give me ample satisfaction [ For these deep shames and great indignities : 
Shaks., Ci7OT. ^/i'rr., V. 252. 1601 The great dignity that his valour hath 

here acquired for him shall at home be encountered with a shame as ample : 
— All's Well, iv. 3, 82. 1601 the argument is such as deserueth a long and 

ample discourse: Holland, Tr. Plin. N. H., Bk. 30, ch. i, Vol. n. p. 371. 
1644 those famed statues of Niobe and her family.. .of which we have ample 
mention in Pliny: Evelyn, Diary, Vol. iv. p. 114 (1872). 

4. quasi-adv. 

1601 for I think I know your hostess I As ample as myself: Shaks., AlVs 
Well, iii. 5, 46. 

ampliation {±-IL ^), sb. : Eng. fr. Fr. ampliation. 

1. the act of enlarging, the state of being enlarged, am- 

1506 With ampliation more cunnyng to get | By the laboure, of inuentife 
busines: Hawes, Past. Pleas., sig. D ii r<>. 1543 And after thys ampliation 
or enlargynge, cauteri3e the place wyth oyle of elders : Traheron, Tr. Vigo's 
Ckirurg., fol. xciv z'''/2. 1620 many restrictions and ampliations were made: 

Brent, Tr. Soave's Hist. Courrc. Trent, Bk. vill. p. 713 (1676). 

2. a result of the process of enlarging, an enlargement. 

1690 Which conclusion is accompanied with no smal traine of ampliations & 
limitations: Swinburn, Testanie7its, 191b. [N, E. D.] 

3. Leg. an extension of time for the examination of a case 
before delivery of judgment. 

1681 Blount, Glossogr. 

amplitude (.i — ±), sb. : Eng. fr. Fr. amplitude : width, 
breadth, wide range. 

I. extension in space, width, breadth, extent, largeness of 
area, largeness of bulk or of volume; extent of motion in 
space, the distance along a horizontal line traversed by a 
moving body. For a more technical use see quot. fr. 
Thomson and Tait. 

1555 the greate ryches and amplytude of the new landes: R. Eden, Decades, 
Sect. L p. 96 (1885). 1578 a kingdome, which albeit can hold no comparison 

with the large realme of France, yet besides his riches, amplitude and fertilitie, 
it will merite account and reckning: Fenton, Tr. Guicardini's Wars of Italy, 
Lib. I. p. 12 (1618). 1645 AH these yet their former amplitude : 
Evelyn, Diary, Vol. l p. 167 (1872). 1665 their annual Revenue being an- 

swerable to the amplitude of their Empire: Sir Th. Herbert, Trav., p. 249 
(1677). 1788 Satisfied as you appear to be with the amplitude of our struc- 
ture, and the convenience of the apartments: J. Lettsom, in Gent. Mag., LVIIL 
i. g8/i. 1867 The Amplitude of a simple harmonic motion is the range on 
one side or the other of the middle point of the course: Thomson and Tait, 
Nat. Philos., p. 36. 1886 The loudness of a sound is due to the amplitude 
of the vibration : A. M acalister, Man Physiologically considered, 38. 

1 a. Astron. the (angular) distance of the point of the 
horizon at which a heavenly body rises or sets from the true 
Eastern or Western point respectively. When E. and W. 
are found by the compass, the Amplitude is magnetic. 

1627 To obserue the... Amplitude : Smith, Seaman's Gram., xv. 83. 

'.!. fulness, copiousness, capacity, comprehensiveness, 
without direct reference to space. 

1545 my bare and sclender commentaris be not able to satisfie the amplitude 
of y<= mater : Geo. Joye, Exp. Dan. , p. 4 ;^. 1688 the amplitude of his 
sermon: Evelyn, Diary, Vol. 11. p. 289(1872). 

2 a. exaltation, elevation, dignity. 

1655 This was conceived to conduce to the state and amplitude of their 
Empire: Fuller, Ch. Hist., i. 10. [N. E. D.] 

*ampoule, ampoulle, sb. : Fr. : a vessel for holding holy 
oil, or for other sacred uses. 

1886 The oil in the ampoule may be rancid, it none the less sanctifies the 
Lord's anointed : Mrs. E. Lynn Linton, Paston Carew, Vol. 11. ch. i. p. 14. 

[From Lat. ampulla {g. v.). It was used in both senses of 
ampulla in Anghcised forms, 13 c — 16 c] 

ampoule, /«;«. ampoulle, adj. : Fr. : tumid, bombastic. 

1853 his style of writing which is so ampouU and rhetorical as sometimes to 
leave us in doubt whether he is speaking literally or metaphorically : J. W. Croker, 
Essays Fr. Rev., V. p. 242 (1857). 


ampulla, sb. : Lat. 

1. Xom. Antiq. a small globular bottle or flask with two 

1797 Encyc. Brit. 

2. Eccles. a vessel for holding holy oil, or for other sacred 


1598 The Ampulla or Eaglet of Gold, contained the holy oil: Stow, Sum., 
I. i. 20, 121/1 (Strype, 1754). [N.E.D.] 1625 they put a blacke Earthen Dish 
in their hands, in stead of the Ampulle, because they haue no Amfullas to serue 
at the Masse: Purchas, Pilgrims, Vol. 11. Bk. vii. p. 1088. 1646 a small 
ampulla, or glass, with our Saviour's blood : Evelyn, Diary, Vol. I. p. 207 (1872), 

3. Physiol, a vessel or part of a vessel shaped like an 
ampulla, or globular flask. 

[Perhaps a dimin. of amphora {q. v.), or of an old lost sb. 
meaning 'big', i.e. 'with a big body', akin to Lat. amplus, 
see ample.] 

amputator {ll — J. ^), sb. : Eng. : one who amputates, lops, 

[As if noun of agent to Lat. amputdre, = ''t.o lop', 'to 

amra, sb. : Skt. : name of the mango tree. 

1791 The afnra is 7nangifera: Sir W. Jones, Letters, Vol. 11. No. clx. 

fi. 157 (1821). — the most lovely epidendrum that ever was seen. ..grew on a 
ofty amra: ib., p. 155. 

amrita(m), sb. : Skt. : immortality, nectar conferring im- 
mortality ; ambrosia, the Soma-juice. Mispronounced and 
misspelt amreeta by Eng. authors and Anglicised as amrit. 
Each syllable should be short and the a's pronounced as the 
u in gamut. The sb. is the neut. of the adj. amriia, = 'iia- 

1810 The Amreeta-cup of immortality : Southey, Kehama^ xxiv. [N.E.D.] 
1815 The divine Amrita tree: Moore, Lt. Harem, 333. [N. E. D.] 1872 
the vessel containing the Amrita: M. Williams, Skt.-Eng. Diet., p. 76/3. 
1881 Lo, Krishna ! lo, the one that thirsts for thee ! | Give him the drink of 
amrit from thy lips ; Edw. Arnold, Indian Song of Songs, in Indian Poetry, 
p. 9S- 

amtman, amptman, sb. : Eng. fr. Ger. or Du. or Scand. : 
lit. 'office-man', a district magistrate, a domain judge, a civil 
officer in charge of a district or amt, a steward, bailiff. See 

1587 Most gratious lord and prince, the markegraue, amptman, borough- 
masters. ..were verie glad when they vnderstood of your highness happie arriuall: 
A. Fleming, Cont. Holinshed's Chron., Vol. in. p. 336/1. 1758 The Icelanders 
have a stifFts-amptmand or governor, and an amptmand or deputy-governor: 
Tr. Horrebow, ch. cxi. p. 140. 1811 The present Amtmen are Mr Stephenson 
of Huaneyre...and Mr Thoranson: Sir G. Mackenzie, Iceland, ch. vi. p. 289 
(1812). 1818 two ^7«/wt?«, or deputy-governors: E. Henderson, /cf/aKi^, 
Vol. l. p. xxvi. — the residence of the Amptman, where I intended stopping all 
night: ib.. Vol. 11. p. 7. 

[Ger. amtmann ; Dan. amtmand, pi. amtmcend; Icel. amt- 
7ndSur, pi. amtmenn; Du. amptman or amman?^ 

*amuck, amok(e) {-±), a muck, amouco, amuco, adj. 
and adv. : in a homicidal frenzy (of a Malay), used orig. in 
Port, forms amouco, amuco; hence adv. in a homicidal 
frenzy, furiously, viciously ; inetaph. headlong. Rare as adv. 
except with 'run'. Sometimes used as if it were the indef. 
art. a with sb. muck. 

1588 This king of Cochinc.^i.a'Cti a great number of Gentlemen which he 
calleth Amochy, and some are called Nayry: these two sorts of men esteeme 
not their hues any thing.. .they will thrust themselues forward in euery danger 
although they knowe they shall dye: T. HiCKOCK, Tr. C. Frederick's Voy., 
fol. 13 r". 1613 There are also certaine people called Amouchi, other- 
wise Chiant, which perceiuing the end of their life approach, lay hold on their 
weapons, which they call Chisse [«V], and going forth, kill euery man they meet 
with, till some body (by killing them) make an end of their killing- Purchas, 
Pilgrimage. V. u. p. 557 (1626). 1625 There are some also which are called 
Amoccht, who are a kinde of people called Chiaui...yn\ia being weary of lining, 
set themselues m the way with a weapon in their hands, which they call a Crise, 
?? , k?'' "'^"5' ^^ '"^y ""^="= "'*' '■" somebody killeth them: — Pilgrims. 
yol.iLBk.x.p.1724. 1665 [in Bantam] agreat crew of Indians and Chineses... 
tell upon them, killing whom they could, not directing their revenge on any 
particular person (which they call a Mucky. R. Head, E7igl. Rogue, sig. 
Hhh 2 »». 1684 which the yava Lords seeing, call'd the English. Traytors, 
and drawing their poyson d Daggers, cry'd a Mocca upon the English, killing a 
great number of them: J. P. Tr. Tavernier's Trav., Vol. I. Pt. 2, Bk. iii. p. 202. 
1687 he scours the streets, | And runs an Indian muck at all he meets : Dryden, 
Hmd &- Pcmih. ,111. 1188. 1754 the Malays never rtm a muck, but in con- 
sequence of misery and despair: Smollett, Ferd. Ct. Fathom ch 1 Wks 
Vol. IV p. 291 (1817). 1821 brought other Malays with him. ..that ran 
i#^'?"?,vr f "'^- .C''«>". of an Eng. Opium-Eater, Pt. 11. p. 135 (1S23). 
1855 A Malay running a muck, a mad dog pursued by a crowd, were the models 
to be imitated by warriors fighting in just self-defence: Macaulay, Hist. Kng., 
VOL I. p. SS5 (i86i). 1866 the late «;«/& which the country has been running: 
J. R. Lowell, Biglo^ Papers, No. viii. (Halifax). nS.. a disease known 


among the Malays and Siamese as gillah, or amocque. It takes the form of 
ringworm, and is attended in every case by madness of more or less severity: 
Echo. [St.J 

[Malay flOT(7j', = ' fighting furiously', 'rushing in homicidal 

*aniulet (-l _ r2), sb. : Eng. fr. Lat. ; anything worn as a 
charm against evil or as a curative influence. Perhaps An- 
glicised from Fr. amulette in 15 c. as amalettys (pL). 

1684 And so long as you haue it, it shall be vnto you (vpon aduenture of my 
life) a certeine amulet, periapt, circle, charm, &c. : Scott, Disc. Witch., sig. 
B i v°. 1601 a countrecharme against all witchcraft. ..called properly Atnuletum : 
Holland, Tr. Pliji. N. H., Bk. 25, ch. g, Vol. 11. p. 229. 1646 Philters, Liga- 
tures, Charms, ungrounded Amulets, Characters. the cure of common diseases : 
SiK Th. Brown, Pseud. Ep., Bk. l ch. xi. p. 33 (1686). 1663 many an 

Amulet and Charm, | That would do neither good nor harm : S. Butler, Hudi- 
bras, Pt. I. Cant. i. p. 41. 1665 Amuletes which are little baggs, full either 

of Mercury, or Arsenick, Antimony, Toades powder, and such other poisonous 
things, to be worn about the heart: T. Garencieres, Mite, xxxvii. p. 12 (1666). 
1678 that Amulet which Isis was fabled to have worn about her, the interpreta- 
tion whereof, was i^ui'T) a\7)9Tjs, Tnfe speech ; Cudworth, Intelt. Syst. , Bk. L 
ch. iv. p. 316. 1790 If the treasury should refuse those paper amulets : Burke, 
Rev. in France, p. 354 (3rd Ed.). 1817 A golden amulet in the Arab tongue ; 
T. Moore, Lalla Rookh, Wks., p. 20 (i860). 1886 These statuettes of 

deities were amulets to secure the favour of the gods for the deceased : C. R. 
CoNDER, Syrian Stone-Lore, ii. 93. 

[From Lat. amuletum (Varro quoted by Charisius, 105, 9, 
Keil's Ed.), origin unknown ; not fr. Arab, himala or hamatl 
(see ZDMG, xxviii. Hoff.).] 

amuse (r. ii), vb. : Eng. fr. Fr. 

1. iiitr. to muse, to gaze in wonder. 

abt. 1532 I amused a long while Upon this wall of berile [early MSS. mused] : 
Chaucer's H. of Fame, v. 1287 (Thynne). [N. E. D.] 

2. trans, to make to muse, to bewilder, to engage the 
attention of. 

1603 Amuse not your head about making lawes : Holland, Tr. Piut. Mor., 
p. 607. 1611 Amjiser. To amuse; to make to muse, or thinke of; wonder, 
or gaze at; to put into a dumpe: Cotgr. 

2 a. to divert the attention of, to beguile, to keep in ex- 

1480 I never amused my husbonde, ne can not doo it : Caxton, Ovid's 
Metam., XII. iii. [N. E. D.] 

3. to entertain, occupy agreeably, cause to be merry. 

bef. 1631 Amusing themselves with no other things but pleasures : Donne, 
Septuag., 96. [T.] 1787 The subjects which have amused their leisure 

hours: Gent. Mag., •^. To-j^l^. 1834 The Rajah was a good deal amused at 

the issue of his servant's obstinacy: H. Gaunter, Scenes in India, 28. 

[From Fr. amuser, vb.] 

amusement {— n ^), sb. : Eng. fr. Fr. amusement : reverie, 
bewilderment, distraction, diversion. 

1603 pleasures, delights, negligences, and amusements upon other matters: 
Holland, Tr. Pint. Mor., p. 248. — I conclude therefore, that the fittest 
season for such amusement and occupying of the eares is, when the feast be- 
ginneth a little to grow turbulent: ih.,-p. 761. 1611 Ajmtsejnent '. m. An 
amusing, or amusement : Cotgr. 1872 a carelessness which expressed 

faithfully his estimate of the importance of human life and actions, but not his 
interest and amusement in them: J. L. Sanford, Estimates of Eng. Kings, 
p. 395. 1888 The central figure of the dramatis personce, Mr. Samuel Potter, 
is alone a fund of amusement: Bookseller, Mar., p. 264/2. 

amygdals (^ J- — ), sb. pi. : Eng. fr. Fr. : the tonsils ; the 
almonds of the ears, i.e. the exterior glands at the sides of 
the throat. 

1541 the amygdales / and faulses: R. Copland, Tr. Cuydo's Quest, Gfc. 
sig. F ii r°. 1543 the Amigdales...helpe the ayre to go into the weasaund by 
the Epiglotte: Traheron, Tr. Vigo's Chirnrg., fol. v z/"/2. 1601 It re- 

straineth the mumps or inflamation of the Amygdales : Holland, Tr. Pli7t. 
N. H., Bk. 20, ch. 14, Vol. II. p. 59. 

[Old Fr. amygdales, Low Lat. amygdalae, — '■'iO'a'sA.%' ; Lat. 
amygdala, = ' &n almond' (Anglicised 10 c. — 13 c. in this 

amyl(um), amylon, sb. : Lat., or Eng. fr. Lat. : fine flour, 
starch. Found earlier in the form amydon, from Fr. 

1558 a title Flower or Meale of Amylum: W. Warde, Tr. Alessio's Seer., 
Pt. I. fol. 30 r*'. — pottage of Amylum: ib., fol. 33 v^. 1601 Starch-flower 
called Amylum.. .called it is in Greeke Amylum, because it never came into the 
mill: Holland, Tr. Plin. N. H., Vol. I. p. 562. — Amyl or Starch ponder: ih.. 
Vol. II. p. 166. — Amylflourc: ib., p. 171. 1607 Topsell, Fourf. Beasts, 

p. 256- 

*aiia^ (-ii— ), Ji5.//. : coined fr. quasi- Lat. : a collection of 
sayings (used as collective sing.) of a person, which are 
designated by adding the Lat. neut. pi. adj. suffix -ana or 
-ia7ia to his name {e.g. 1771 ' I suspect, however, that justice 
has not been done the author by the collectors of those 
Quiniana [from Quin]': Smollett, Humph. CL, p. 21/1 



[1882]); anecdotes of any one; literary scraps and gossip 
relating to a person or place. 

1708 those unequal collections of weeds and flowers, whose titles end in ana : 
Rabelais Lond.^ i. xi. 1738 And%, or books in ana, are collections of the 
memorable sayings of persons of learning, and wit: Chambers, CycL 1739 
They were pleased to publish certain Tunbrigiana this season; but such anall 
believe there were never so many vile little verses put together before : West, in 
Gray's Lei Urs, No. xxv. Vol. i. p. 51 (i8ig). 1752 A collection of .<4«a^ would 
admit of all subjects, and in a volume or two of Swiftiana, you might both give and 
take a sample of yourself, by flipping in some Faulkneriana : Lord Chesterfield, 
Misc. Wks.., Vol. II. App., p. 3 (1777). abt. 1766 Concerning those books, 
called Afta, or lana: Pegge, AiLonymiayia.^ p. 96 (1818). 1777 Excuse a 
little false wit, for I must tell you that the Menagianas, the Scaligerianas, and 
all those kind of Anas, are not to compare to my Ananas: Lord Chesterfield, 
Letters (;Yx. fr. Fr.), Bk. 1. No. Ix. Misc. Wks., Vol. n. p. 178. 1781 Natu- 
rally it [a Walpoliand\ should mean a collection of sayings or anecdotes of my 
father, accordmg to the French Anas, which began, I think, with those of 
Menage: Hor. Walpole, Letters, Vol. viii. p. 17 (1858). 1797 The tech- 
nical term Anas signifies, collectively, the various memorabilia compiled and 
published by the friends of illustrious scholars on the Continent, in tribute to 
their memories : Selections fr. Fr. Anas, Pref. 

[Formed on such titles as Virgiliana [Dicta suppressed), 
= 'sayings of Virgil'. These titles were treated as masc. sing, 
sbs. in France in i6 c, 17 c, and so was ana in 17 c] 

*ana^ {± —), written aa, a, adv. : Low Lat : used in recipes 
to mean throughout, in equal quantity or proportion (of each 
ingredient); hence, occasionally as sb., 'an equal quantity' 
or 'number'. 

14.. Tak yarrow and waybrede ana, and stampe thame : MS. Line. Med., 
fol. 293. CH.] 1471 A nd Sperma Cete a7ta 'with redd Wyne w/ien ye wax 

old: G. Ripley, Comp. Alch., Ep., in Ashmole's Theat. Chem. Brit., p, 113 
(1652). 1563 adde therto of lynesede and Fenegreke ana. two vnces: T. Gale, 
Antid., fol. 49 ro. — put thereto malmsie and whyte wyne ana. a pynte : ib. 
1699 Annis seedes, Fennell, ana 5 s: A. M., Tr. Gaielkouer's Bk. Physicke, 
p. 14/2. bef. 1658 Flea-bitten Synod, an Assembly brew'd | Of Clerks and 
Elders ana, like the rude | Chaos of Presbyt'ry: J. Cleveland, Wks., ii. p. 32 
(1687). 1666 \l^^ oi Aqua foriis anA Aqua Regis, tv^Q OMXic^^ ana\ oi Sal 
Arjnoniack one ounce: Phil. Trans., Vol. i. No. 7, p. 126. bef. 1667 In the 
same weight prudence and innocence take, | Ana of each does the just mixture 
make: Cowley. [T.] bef. 1700 a chargeable long bill of anas : Dryden. [T.] 
1696 Ana, a Greek Adverb, used by the Physicians in their Bills, to signifie the 
like quantity of each : Phillips, World of Words. bef. 1733 The Cabal 

itself was a pretty Mixture, Papist and Presbyterian ana-. R. North, Exa^nen, 
III. vi. 41, p. 453 (1740). 

[Low Lat. ana^ fr. Gk. ava, prep., = *through\] 

ana, sb. : an Indian money of account. See anna. 

* anabasis, sb.\ Gk. ; lit. 'a going up', a march into the 
interior of a country, adopted by Xenophon as the title of 
his account of the expedition of the Younger Cyrus against 
his brother the King of Persia; hence, applied to other 
advances into the heart of an enemy's country. 

anabrosis, sb.-. Gk. aVa/3pa)o-tff, = * eating up': Med.: de- 
struction of soft tissue by ulceration or corrosion. 

1641 solutions of contynuyte happeneth of eroysion in greke called Ana- 
brosis: R. Copland, Tr. Qiiydo^s Quest., is^c, sig. 2nd A ii v^. 1707 Ana- 
brosis, is a Consumption of the Body by sharp Humours: Glossogr. Angl. Nov. 

anacaenosis, anacenosis, sb. : Eccl. Gk. dvaKabmaLs : re- 
newal, renovation. 

1823 Yet from this general conflagration, by a better mundane anacenosis 
than that of the fabulizing Gentiles, shall spring a renovated and purer world : 
Faber, Treat. 07i Patr., Levit., &= Chr. Disp., Vol. i. p. 22. 

anacampseros, Lat. : anacampserote, Eng. fr. Fr. : sb. : 
a herb supposed by the ancients to revive dead love. 

1603 As for those plants which be called Anacampserotes, after they be 
plucked foorth of the ground where they grow, and so hanged up, they doe not 
onely live as long as a man would have them, but...budde and put foorth greene 
leaves: Holland, Tr. Ph^t. Mor., p. 1178. 1626 A7tacramseros, an herbe, 
the touch whereof, causeth love to grow betwixt man and man: Cockeram, 
Pt. III. 

[From Gk. dpaKa^yJA€pa>Sj /zV. = * bending back love'.] 

anacardium, anacard(us), sb. : Low Lat., and Eng. fr. Lat. 
or Fr. : the cashew nut; see acajou, cashew. 

1526 y® iuce of anacardes: Crete Herball, ch. xxiii. 1598 The fruit 

called Anacardi, is in manye places of India, as in Cananor: Tr. J. Va?i Lin- 
schoien's Voyages, Bk. i. Vol. ii. p. 127 (1885). 1611 Aftacarde, Th' East- 

Indian fruit called Anacardium, or Beane of Malaca: Cotgr. bef. 1617 
Anacardium or beane of Malaca: Minsheu, Guide into Tongues. 1662 Ana- 
cardium.. .\s very common here: J. Davies, Tr. Mandelslo, Bk. 11. p, 122 (1669). 

[Coined fr. Gk. dva, prep., = 'according to', and 
= *heart', because of the shape of the fruit.] 

anacephalaeosis, sb. : Gk. dvaKecj^aXalcaa-is : recapitulation, 
summary of principal heads of a subject. 

1650 A through-description. ..being indeed an Anacepheliosis of the whole 
book: BuLWER, Anthropomei., Pref. [N. E. D.] 1666 As hath been said 



and is resumed in the following Anacephalaeosis : J. Smith, Old Age ^ 248. [T.] 
1797 Eiisyc. Brit. 

anacoluthia, anacoluthon, sb.\ Lat. fr. Gk. avaKokovQia^ 
dvaKoXovdov: absence of (grammatical) sequence, mixed or 
incoherent construction of a sentence. Also anacoluthon^ 
pi. anacolfitha^ a sentence of which the construction is mixed 
or incoherent. 

1706 Anacolyihon, a Rhetorical Figure, when a word that is to answer 
another is not express'd: Phillips, World of Words. 1763 ANACOLU- 
THON, kvaxoKovBov, amongst antient grammarians, denotes an incoherence, or 
a construction which does not hang together: Chambers, Cycl., Suppl. 1869 
There are two kinds of Anacoluthon: (a) grammatical, (b) rhetorical. The 
grammatical Anacoluthon... for the most part, caused by attraction: Edwards & 
Taylor, Tr. Kiikners Gravtmar, § 347, 5. 

anaconda {— — ± ^), sb. : a name of the large Python 
(snake) of Ceylon, subsequently assigned to a large boa of 
S. America, and now to any very large snake. 

[1693 Anacandaia: J. Ray, Synops. Meth.^'g. 332.] 1768 The Ceylonese 
seemed to know the creature [a monstrous species of Serpent] well ; they call it 
AnacoMda: Scots Mag, Append., 673. [Yule] 1797 ANACONDO, in 

natural history, is a name given in the isle of Ceylon to a very large and terrible 
rattlesnake, which often devours the unfortunate traveller alive : Encyc. Brit. 
1836 The name of Anaconda, like that of Boa Constrictor, has been popularly 
applied to all the larger and more powerful snakes: Penny Cycl.^ Vol. v. p. 27/1. 
1883 you cannot eat all those doughnuts, unless you have the appetite of an 
anaconda: B. W. Howard, One Summer, ch. x. p. 113. 

Anacreontic, adj. : Eng. fr. Lat. : in the metre or style 
of the Gk. poet Anacreon {' AvaKpiav), who sang of love and 
conviviality in short verses of easy rhythm. Also as sd. for 
an Anacreontic poem. 

1611 Certaine Anacreonticke verses prseambulatory to the most ambulatorie 
Odcombian Traueller: N. T,, in Coryat's Crajnbe, sig. a 4*^. bef 1656 Ana- 
creontiques ; or some copies of verses translated paraphrastically out of Anacreon : 
Cowley, Title. 1706 Anacreontick Verse-. Phillips, World 0/ Words. 

anacrusis, sb. : Late Lat. fr. Gk. avaKpova-is^ = * a striking 
up' (of a tune) : one syllable, or more, at the beginning of a 
verse pronounced before the regular rhythm ; the placing or 
uttering of one extra-rhythmic syllable or more at the begin- 
ning of a verse. An unaccented part of a foot preceding a 
metrical ictus has sometimes been called a7iac7'usis. 

1830 Now the time or times which precede the arsis are evidently parts of a 
series infinite from its beginning. Those times we call anacrusis\ because they 
are, as it were, a kind of introduction or prelude to the numbers which the ictus 
afterwards begins; J. Seager, Tr. Her?nann's Metres, Bk. i. ch. ii. p. 5, — 
iambic verses also for the most part proceed by dipodiae, the anacrusis being every 
where doubtful : ib., ch. xii. p. 30. 1833 The Iambus, which in technical 

language is said to consist of anacrTiszs and arsis: Edi?i. Rev., Vol. 56, p. 372. 
1886 Dr. Abbott gives the historical explanation of anacrusis in English Lesso7is\ 
Mayor, Eiig. Metre, vii. 105, 1887 That an anacrusis may begin only one 

of two corresponding strophic verses is not established by the instances collected: 
Atkeiioiujn, Apr. 30, p. 570/3. 

anaemia, J^. : Late Lat. coined fr. Gk.avai/zojj^' bloodless': 
an unhealthy condition, characterised by pallor and weak- 
ness, arising from deficiency of blood or of the red corpuscles 
in the blood. Described by Lieutand, 1761. 

1807 Concise Observations on Anoemia, a Disease which attacked all the 
Workmen of a Gallery in a Coal Mine: Med. &= Phys. Journ., Vol. xvii. p. 472. 
1822 A disease, under the title of Anaemia, has been described by Becker : 
Med. Ckir. Soc. Edin., p. 202 (1824). 1829 Fall into a state of a:«£s?«/«..,The 
second is denominated anemia, or deficiency of the same fluid : Edin. Med. &^ 
Surg. Jouru.^ Vol. xxxii. p. 196. 

anaereta: Lat. See anareta. 

*anaesthesia, sb. : Gk. : absence of sensation, insensi- 

1721 AntEsihesia^ a Defect of Sensation, as in Paralytic and blasted Persons : 
Bailey. 1753 Chambers, Cycl, Suppl. 1797 ANESTHESIA, signifies 
a privation of the senses: Encyc. Brit. 1814 Dr. Yelioly has annexed a col- 

lection of similar instances of An^thesia \sic'\ found in authors: Med. &= Phys. 
yourii.. Vol. XXX. p. 167. 1847 — 9 the anesthesia may be succeeded by the 
most acute sensibility: Todd, Cyc. Anat. and Phys., Vol. iv. p. 69r/2. 

[Gk. aTOia-^??(7-ia, = 'stupidity', 'stupor', *lack of sensation', 
fr. av-, = 'un-', and ato-^7;o-(s, = * feeling', 'sensation'.] 

anaesthesis, bad form for anaesthesia. 

1848 [N. E. D.] 1885 The anaesthesis continues perfectly regular and 

complete under the most severe operations: Atlienceutn^ July 11, p. 54/1. 

anagnorisis, sb.\ Gk. avayfG)pto-t?, = * recognition': in the 
drama, a denouement brought about by the recognition of 
some person or persons whose true name and character have 
been previously concealed (from other persons of the drama). 

bef. 1800 Webster cites Blair. 1887 The scene that follows between 
Creon, CEdipus, and Jocasta was, on the whole, well rendered. Indeed, this and 
the final examination of the herdsmen, when the ai'ayi'wpio-ts becomes complete, 
were the most effective parts of the play: Athensum, Nov. 26, p. 721/3. 


anagram {± =. ±), sb. : Eng. fr. Fr. 

1. a word, phrase, or name formed by transposing the 
letters of a name, word, or phrase ; also such transposition 
of letters. 

1589 that other which the Greekes call Anngramma, and we the Poesie 
transposed: Puttenham, Eng, Poes., ll. xi. p. 115 (1869). — Of the Anagrame, 
or poesie transposed: ib., p. 121. 1596 Vnder the inuersed denomination or 

anagram of this Word: Nashe, Have with You, Wks., ill. 123 (Grosart). 
1603 honoring StiWihn ssimft In-sotil'd an Impress with her^mTn.: J, Syl- 
vester, Tr. Du Bartas, p. 80 (1608). 1609 who will. ..Make anagrammes of 
ournames? B. JoNSON, Sit. Worn., iv. 3, Wks., p. 572 (1616). 1619 Wher- 

unto I will add this sirname Anagram. Yours wltole J. Howel: Howell, Lett., 
I. xii. p. 24 (1645). 1630 For in an Anagram Iskarrioit is, | By letters trans- 
position tray tor his: John Taylor, IV/is., sig. C 5 Wi- 1659 Laban and 
Nahal are one the anagram of the other; N. Hardy, on Ep. John, Nichol's 
Ed., p. 263/1 (1865). 1684 Thy genius calls thee not to purchase fame | In 
keen Iambics, but mild Anagram : Dryden, Mac Flecknoe, 204. 1712 Ana- 
grams and Acrosticks: Spectator, No. 466, Aug. 25, p. 666/2 (Morley). 

2. nietaph. transposition, re-arrangement. Obs. 

bef 1658 Bandjleers dangling about a fur'd Alderman, have an Anagram 
Resemblance: J. Cleveland, Wks., p. 73 (1687). — Heaven descends into the 
Bowels of the Earth, and, to make up the Anagram, the Graves open and the 
Dust ariseth: ib., p. 128. 1711 The anagram of a man: Spectator, No. 60, 

May 9, Vol. L p. 225 (1826). 

[From Fr. anagramme, fr. Mod. Lat. anagramma, as if fr. 
Gk. avaypd(t>fcv, = 'to rewrite'. In post-Classical Gk. avaypap,- 
/iaWffii/, = 'to transpose the letters (of a word or name)', and 
the verbal sb. dvaypapp.aTia-p6s occur.] 

Auak (Sons of), Anakim (//.) : Heb. : a race distinguished 
for their great stature, whom the Israelites found in Hebron; 
see Numb., xiii. 33; Anakims, Deut., ii. 11, Josh., xiv. 15 ; 
used representatively. 

1620 they affray Gods people. ..with the greatness of those difficulties, as it 
were with so many Gyants and sonnes of Anak, which they haue spyed and 
seene herein : R. Crakanthorp, Predestination, p. 4. 1621 Ajax, Caligula, 
and the rest of those great Zanzummins, or giganticall Anakims, heavie, vast, 
barbarous lubbers: R. Burton, Anat. Mel., Pt. 2, Sec. 3, Mem. 2, Vol. II. p. 10 
(1827). 1647 our State- Anakijns baffl'd and beaten out of breath: Merc. 

Melancholiciis, No. 11, p. 63. bef. 1670 Now, as his Lbrdship conceived, his 
Strength lay among the Anakims: J. Hacket, Abp. WilliAms, Pt. I. 174, p. 168 
(1693). — And all these Pillars, which held up our Subsistence, were battered-by 
the Sons oi Anak, and ready to fall: ib., Pt. II. 193, p. 207. 1687 He seemed 
a son of Anak for his height ; Dnvon^, Hind Sf' Panth., in. it^. 1713Ifyou 
saw us all together, you would take us for the sons of Anak: Addison, Guardian, 
No. 108, Wks., Vol. IV. p. 203 (1856). 1748 bounced against me with such 
force, that I thought he was the supposed son of Anak: Smollett, Rod. Rand., 
ch. xi. Wks., Vol. I. p. 55 (1817). 1781 another of those comely sons of Anak, 
the breed of which your brother and Lady Hertford have piously restored for the 
comfort of the daughters of Sion : HoR. Walpole, Letters, Vol. vill. p. 48 (1858). 
1813 Murray, the^ of publishers, the Anac of stationers, has a design upon 
you in the paper line: Byron, in Moore's Life, p. 312 (1875). 

analecta, analects {s. =. j.), sb. pi. -. Lat., and Eng. fr. Lat. : 
collected extracts frorn literary works. The English analects 
= 'pickings from the table', 'scraps of food', is a little earlier 
(1623 Cockeram). 

1652 those Analecta or learned notes found in scattered papers under the 
Authoursown hand: J. Mede, Wks., Vol. I. sig. A.-^v". 1797 ANALECTA, 
Analects, in a literary sense, is used to denote a collection of small pieces; as 
essays, remarks, &c. : Encyc. Brit. 

[Lat. analecta, neut. pl., = Gk. ai'aX€KTa, = ' choice' (things), 
fr. di'aXe'ycti', = 'to gather up' (dra, prep., = 'up').] 

analepsia, analencia, sb. : Late Lat. coined on analogy of 
Gk. eViXt;-(//-ia, = 'epilepsy', with prep. di/a-, = 'up, back', for 
eVt-, = 'upon' : epilepsy. 

1389 That manere euyl that hyghte Analempsia...comyth of replycyon of the 
stomak and moost of indygestyon and of bolkynge : Trevisa, Tr. Barth. De P. 
R., VII. X. 229 (1495). 1542 immoderate evyll for the palsy.. .for the 
fallynge syckenes called Epilencia, Analencia: Boorde, Dyetary, p. 244 (1870). 

[The form analencia seems due to a Fr. pronunciation of 


analogice, adv. : Late Lat. : analogically, according to 
proportion or likeness of relations. 

1681—1703 take this new creature with this indwelling of the Holy Ghost in 
it.. .and it makes, analogice, a greater change in kind than if a beast were made a 
man: Th. Goodwin, Wks., in Nichol's Ser. Stand. Divines, Vol. vi n. 400 

analogon, sb. : Gk. : analogue, that which corresponds. 

1810 It has neither coordinate nor analogon: Coleridge, Friend, vi. ii. 
340(1867), [N. E. D.] 1869 This was the nearest analogon to such a concep- 
tion as the natives could find: Farrar, Fam. Speech, iv. ii6 (1873). [N. E. D.] 

[Neut. of Gk. adj. (ii'aXoyor, = 'proportionate', 'conformable', 
fr. (11/11, = 'according to', \oyos = 'ratio'.] 


*analysis {--L- -), avaXvais, sb. : Eng. fr. Gk. or Late 
Lat. (fr. Gk.) : resolution into simple elements or into several 
contents; lit. 'unloosing'. 

I. I. the act or process of resolving or separating, opposed 
to synthesis. Applied to complex objects both of intellectual 
and of sensual observation. 

1580 which definition. whit answereth with the ivaKviri^ and interpreta- 
tion of the word: E. Kieke, in Spetts. Shep. Cal, Arg., Wlcs., p. 444/1 (^869). 
1539 the beggerly straites of a hungry Analysis : T. Nashe, in R. Greene's 
Menaphon, p. 12 (i38o). 1627 you cannot make any true Analysis and 

Indication of the Proceedings of Nature : Bacon, Nat. Hist., Cent. i. § 98. 
1867 The analysis of every possible hypothesis proves, not simply that no 
hypothesis is sufficient, but that no hypothesis is even thinkable : H. Spencer, 
First Princ, Vol. i. p. 46 (2nd Ed.). *1877 the complete analysis of cha- 
racter is usually made subordinate to the great central passions of the play: 
Times, June 18, p. 5/6. [St.] 

I. I a. Math, resolution of a proposition into simpler pro- 
positions already known. Modern Math, the treatment of 
geometry and sciences dependent thereon by means of a 
calculus of general symbols of which algebra is the simplest. 

1656 Analysis is continual reasoning from the definitions of the terms of a 
proposition we suppose true. ..and so on, till we come to some things known: 
HOBBES, £•&«. P^/nj., 309 (1839). [N.E.D.] 1753 i'M/fc Analysis i.s 

that employed in solving problems reducible to simple equations: Chambers, 
Cycl., Suppl. , s. V. — The Scholiast on Euclid defines Analysis, the sumption of 
a thing sought by the consequent, as if it were already known, in order to find 
out the truth : ib. 

I. 2. Log. and Philos.tha resolution of knowledge of par- 
ticulars into general principles, the tracing of effects as far 
back as possible through the series of causation, the Induc- 
tive method. 

1664 Logick must lend him Analysis to make usefull division of this divine 
Bread: R. Whitlock, Zootomia, p. 165. 1671 That therefore I might 

comply with the Laws of an A nalysis, as far as I could, I have so often woven 
over and over the Webb of this Inquiry, and searched through every part thereof: 
H. O., Tr, N. Steno's Prodrom. oil Solids in Solids, p. 11, bef. 1680 We 

cannot know any thing of nature, but by an analysis of its true initial causes : 
Glanville. [J.] 1753 ANALYSIS, in logic, is particularly used for the 

reduction of an imperfect syllogism to a perfect one: Chambers, Cycl., Suppl. 

I. 2 a. Chem. the resolution of a chemical compound into 
its constituents or elements. 

1766 the experiments necessary to exhibit a complete analysis: Smollett, 
France &= Italy, xl. Wks., Vol. v. p. 556 (1817). 

I. 2 b. Optics, the resolution of light into the several pris- 
matic colors. 

I. 2 c. Gram, the classification of the several parts of a 
sentence, according to a grammatical scheme. 

I. 2 d. Lit. the exhibition of the component parts of a 
literary work in a simple form. 

II. the result of the discrimination of the elements, con- 
stituents, or heads of anything, a scheme, abridgment, syn- 
opsis, talDular statement of contents or results. 

1668 A Scheme or Analysis of all the Genus's or more common heads of 
things belonging to this design: Wilkins, Real Char., u. i. § i, 22. [N. E. D.] 
1820 Dr. Clarke, to whose kindness I am indebted for the following scientific 
analysis [of a piece of rock], which seems at variance with the opinions of the 
Sicilian philosophers: T. S. Hughes, Trav. in Sicily, Vol. i. ch. iv. p. no. 
1863 my somewhat arbitrary analysis of the honest sailor's letter: C. Reade, 
Hard Cash, Vol. i. p. 15. 

anamnesis, sb. : Gk. dvafivrja-is : remembrance, reminis- 
cence ; Rhet., the figure of reminiscence ; Med., information 
imparted by a patient; Platonic, reminiscence of ideas 
{q. V.) as objects of cognition in a prior state of existence, 
which constitutes the intelligence of the human soul (Plato, 
Phaedo, 72 E — 77 a). 

1667 Anamnesis is a figure whereby the speaker calling to mind matters past, 
whether of sorrow, joy, &c. doth make recital of them; J. Smith, Myst. Rhet., 
249. [N. E.D.] 1696 ^«^?K«<?.r2^, (Gr.) a Rhetorical Figure, whereby we 

call to mind matters past : Phillips, World of Words. 

anamorphosis, fit. anamorphoses, sb. -. Late Gk. duafiSp- 
0(B(ris, = 'a forming anew' : a distorted projection of a figure 
which from a particular point of view appears to be properly 

1738 ANAMORPHOSIS, in perspective and painting, a monstrous pro- 
jection ; or a representation of some image, either on a plane or curve surface, 
deformed ; which at a certain distance shall appear regular, and in proportion : 
Chambers, Cycl. 1797 Encyc. Brit. 

andnas, andna, sb. -. Port. : the pine-apple, Ananassa 
saliva; according to Evelyn's Diary, 1661, July 19, first seen 
in England 1657; first cultivated successfully in England at 



Richmond in Sir M. Decker's garden, 17 12. Common in 
India in 16 c. whither Portuguese brought it from the W. 
Indies. Raleigh calls the fruit pina {q. v.). 

1598 Ananas by the Canarijns called Ananasa, by the Brasiliaiis Nana 
and by others in Hispaniola laiaTna: by the Spaniards in Brasilia Pinas, 
because of a certain resemblance which the fruite hath with the Pine apple [pine- 
cone]: Tr. J. Van Linschoten's Voyages, Bk, I. ch. 49, p. 90/2. — The fruiti, of 
this countrey are many whereof Ananas is the best, the leaves whereof are like 
the leaves of Iris or Aloes. ..the fruit is long like Cucumbers or distaves:_ ib., 
Bk. II. p. 251/2. — ■ The common way to dresse the [common] Ananasses, is to 
cut them in [broad] round [cakes or] slyces: ib.. Vol. 11. p. 20 (1885). 1600 a 
fruite of great excellencie which they call Ananas: R. Hakluvt, Voyages, 
Vol. III. p. 319. 1634 Pome-citrons, Ananas, Plantaines, Cowcumbers: SiR 

Th. Herbert, Trav., p. 24. — ■ The Ananas for goodnesse and shape may craue 
attention, which though it be not inferiour to the Giacke, for bulke and round- 
nesse, yet is the plant she comes of, no way equall, this growes not from Tree nor 
sowing, but of a root agreeable to our Arthi-choake, they appeare aboue ground 
at maturity, and affect not aboue two foot height : z'5. , p. 183. 1662 Anaitas, 
Bannanas, Cocos, Jacques, Mangas, Oranges, Lemmons: J. Davies, Tr. Man' 
delslo, Bk. II. p. 92 (1669). 1691 From the Root. ..arise Leaves on every side, 
after the manner of Leeks or Ananas, whence the name of Wild Pine or Aloes, 
being folded or enclosed one within another: J. Ray, Creation, Pt. 11. p. 215 
(1701). 1752 very ripe muscat grapes raised in my anana house, which is now 
stocked with African ananas: Lord Chesterfield, Lett., Bk. 11. No. Ixxi. Misc. 
Wks., Vol. II. p. 383 (1777). 1883 A few pineapples are found at Bdldbd, be- 

tween the station and the native town, but the fruit appears to be very rare else- 
where in the vicinity, and we are evidently here on the confines of the district over 
which "Ananassa sativa" has spread with such wonderful vigour and rapidity: 
Daily Telegraph, Sept. 11, p. 5/8. 

[From Braz. nana or nanas. The form andna is either 
Sp., or comes from taking the -j to be the pi. sign.] 

Ananizapta, sb. : a mystic word found inscribed on gems 
and amulets, said to be a prophylactic for epilepsy and the 
plague. See quotations. 

1584 Ananizapta smiteth death, whiles harme intendeth he, | This word 
Ananizapta say, and death shall captiue be, \ Ananizapta 6 of God, haue mercie 
now on me: R. Scott, Disc. Witch., Bk. xii, ch. xiv. p. 243. _ 1753 ANA- 
NISABTA, or Ananisapta, a magical word frequently found inscribed on coins 
and other amulets, supposed to have a virtue of preserving the wearer from the 
plague: Chambers, Cycl., Suppl. 1797 Encyc. Brit. 1873 In the Devon- 
shire Cabinet is a cameo converted into an amulet, by the addition of "Anani- 
zapta": C. W. King, Early Christ. Numisni., p. 213. 

[From Heb. Anani (see i Chron., iii. 24), a name of the 
IVIessiah (according to ancient Jewish tradition) ; and Heb. 
Shophtah or Shaphtah, 2nd sing. imper., = ' judge', 'vindi- 
cate', 'help'. The Aramaic .?«/&, = 'matting', 'bed', quasi 
'bed of alleviation', gives a less appropriate meaning. Ano- 
ther view derives the word from Arab. Knan,= 'a charm' (e.g. 
dust from a martyr's tomb), and septha, = 'the stone in a ring'.] 

'^ananke, sb. : Gk. avdyxy) -. necessity. Also personified, 
the ultimate Fate to which even the gods of Greek IVIytho- 
logy were subject. 

1886 The theme is the predestined fate, the ananki of human existence: 
Spectator, May 30, p. 705/2. 

anapaestus, anapaest {± — ±), sb. : Lat., and Eng. fr. Lat.: 
a metrical foot; see first quotation. It is a 'reversed' dactyl. 

1586 The mixt [foot of 3. sillables] is of 6. diuers sortes...2. Anapestus, of two 
shorte, and one long, as ^>-'— tauelers: W. Webbe, Discourse 0/ Eng. Poet., in 
Haslewood's Eng. Poets &' Poesy, Vol. 11. p. 67 (1815). 1589 your anapestus 
of two short and a long.. .as tndnifold: Puttenham, Eng. Foes., II. xiii. p. 133 
(1869). 1609 advanced gently forward, as if they footed the measures of the 
metricall foot Anapsestus : Holland, Tr. Marc, Lib. 24, ch. x. p. 256. 1830 
Dactyls, even following one another, are very frequently substituted for anapaests : 
Tr. Hermann's Metres, Bk. II. ch. xxxi. p. 82. 1886 We give to certain ac- 
centual arrangements the names of dactyl, anapsest, iamb, &c. : A tJienisum, 
Dec. 18, p. 821/1. 

[Lat. anapaestus, fr. Gk. avaTraioT-os, = ' struck back', 're- 
versed', fr. dva, prep., = 'back', and 7rat'eii/, = 'to strike'.] 

anaphora, sb. : Lat. : Rhet. : repetition of a word or words 
in several consecutive clauses. Also rarely, a composition 
in which such repetition occurs. Also a technical term in 
the Liturgy of the Greek Church, viz. for that part of the 
Eucharistic ceremony at which the elements are consecrated, 
and for the book of the Eucharistic Liturgy. 

1589 Anaphora, or the Figure of Report: Puttenham, Eng. Poes., iii. 
xix. p. 208 (1869). 1622 What is a Reuert but her Antistrophe'i her reports, 

but sweete ^Wff/Aor^'j? Peacham, Conip. Gent., ch. xi. p. 103. 1753 Ana- 
phora is also a title given to those little Syriac liturgies, wherein are contained 
the prayers after the Oscuhcni Pacis: Chambers, Cycl., Suppl. 1883 An 
anaphora translated into Latin by Renaudot is ascribed to [Jacob Baradzeus]: 
Schaff Herzog, Encyc. Relig. Knowl., Vol. 11. p. 1135/2. 

[From Gk. dva(f)opa, lit. = 'a. carrying back'.] 

anareta, anaereta, sb.-. Late Lat. fr. Gk. dvaipirris, 'de- 
stroyer' : Astral : the planet which destroys life. 

1603 the Sunne in that natiuitie cannot be Aphieta vita, or disposer of the 
life, neither on the other side could the occurse of Mars be Ancsreta, sith 



Piolentie in this case maketh the degree setting to be the onely Anareta: 
C. Heyuon, Def* yudic. Astral., p. 498. 1647 the Anareta or Interficient 
Planet, is he who is placed in the eighth house: W. Lilly, Chr. Asirol., ch. 
civ. p. 529. 1696 Phillips, World of Words. 1753 ANiERETA, in 

astrology, a place in the heavens, at which the Apheia arriving, an infant born 
at that time, is in danger of death... opposed to Apheta...\}ci^ same, with what the 
Arabs call -4 Artzm: Chambers, CycL, Suppl. 1819 ANARETA, the planet 
that destroys life: J. Wilson, Diet. Astrol. — When there are two Anaretas, 
that will kill of which the position is strongest in the figure: ib., s.v. Afiaretic 

anastomosis^ pi. anastomoses, sh. : Gk. di/ao-ro/zoo-t?, lit, 
= ' opening of an orifice': cross communication of ducts or 
channels, orig. of veins, arteries, and other ducts of animal 
bodies ; hence, of vessels of vegetables, channels of water, 
and even any kind of system of crossing or branching lines. 

164:1 Sometimes solution of continuity commeth by operation of the oryfices 
of the vesselles, in greke named Anostomosis: R. Copland, Tr. Guydds Quest., 
S3=c.y sig. 2nd A ii v°. 1668 Yet could I not... find the Anastomoses of Vena 

Cava and Vena Porta open, but all blind : Culpepper & Cole, Barthol. A 7iat. , 
i. 303. 1696 Phillips, World 0/ Words. 1707 Anastomosis, {Ov.) !^\\ 

Efluxion of the Blood or Chyle, at the meeting of the Vessels that close not 
narrowly: Glossogr. Angl, Nov. 

anastrophe, j(5. :<|)^,=' a turning back': Rhet.\ 
inversion or alteration of the natural order of words in a 

1696 A7iastrophe, gr. a Rhetorical Figure, wherein words are preposterously 
placed: Phillips, World of Words. 1753 Anastrophe, in rhetoric, denotes 
a quaint inversion of the order of the words in a sentence: Chambers, Cycl., 

^anathema, sb.\ Eccl. Lat. fr. Gk. duddeixa: orig. 'some- 
thing consecrated to a god', later 'something devoted to 
divine vengeance', 'something accursed' (Rom., ix. 3). 

1. anything devoted to perdition. 

1526 [See Anatliema 3KEaranatlia]. 1582 For I wished, my self 
to be an anathema from Christ for my brethren, who are my kinsmen according 
to the flesh : New Test. (Rhemes), Rom., ix. 3. 1590 though thou arte ana- 

thema, yet proue not an atheist: Greene, Never too Late, Wks., p. 13 (1861). 

2. a solemn curse or denunciation ; the curse of God, the 
great curse of the Church. Later, any imprecation or de- 

1619 saith the Tridentine Councell, with Anathema to the gaine-sayers : 
PuRCHAS, Microcosjnus, ch. xviii. p. 205. 1620 An Anathema was denounced 
against all Hereticks in general : Brent, Tr. Soave's Hist. Counc. Trent, Bk. 
VIII. p. 758 (1676). 1634 notwithstanding their Prophets Anathema, thousands 
of them will venture to drink wine: Howell, Epist. Ho-El., Vol. 11. Iv. p. 348 
(1678). 1646 So an anathema was pronounc'd, and publiquely fix'd up against 
him : — Lewis XIII., p. 118. 1659 They do not take all the Anathema & 

Rejections in their own Councils, to be Canons or Articles of faith: R. Baxter, 
Key for Catholicks, ch. xxxvi. p. 259. bef. 1670 yet they and theirs cannot es- 
cape the Curse of an hundred Anathema! s darted against them: J. Hacket, 
Abp. Williams, Pt. 11. 193, p. 206. 1781 I doubt that uncharitable anathema 
is more in the spirit of the Old Testament than of the New : Hor. Walpole, 
Letters, Vol. vii. p. 484 (1858). 1820 he betakes himself to build up a curse 

against his adversary in the form of a round barrow or mound of stones., .leaving 
room enough for his relatives or friends.. .who may take an interest in his cause, 
to add a pebble to his anathema: T. S. Hughes, Trav. in Sicily, Vol. i. ch. x. 
p. 292. 1826 the fear of the world's anathema cannot affect me in a dungeon: 
HocKLEV, Pandurang Plari, ch. xxxvi. p. 390 (1884). 1828 It was a pleasure 
to trace the course of the brother poets, and no more than justice to repeat their 
anathema upon Narbonne: Engl, in France, Vol. 11. p. 321. 1854 Should 
eighty-thousand college-councils [ Thunder 'Anathema,' friend, at you: Ten- 
nyson, Poems, Vol. v. p. 73 (1886). *1877 making the season of joy and 
grateful triumph...a time of controversy, anathema, and even sanguinary violence : 
Echo, Mar. 31. [St.] 

anathema, anathema, sh.\ Gk. dvaOrjfjLay dvddefxa: some- 
thing dedicated or consecrated to a god, an offering. 

1696 Anathema, in another sence it is a thing set apart and consecrated to 
God or pious uses: Phillips, World of Words. 1886 These tables are.., 

representations of an anathema or sacred offering to the gods, as is set forth in 
the Greek inscription below: J. Hirst, in Atheticsum, Dec. 25, p. 86g/i. 

■^Anathema Maranathd.: an intensified formula of im- 
precation used in i Cor., xvi. 22, and formed by adding 
yiapav dSd, a transcription in Gk. of the Aramaic Mdranathd, 
= 'our Lord is come', to the Gk. dvdB(\ia\ see anathema. 

[bef 1400 If ony man loue not oure Lord Jhesu Crist, be he cursid, 
Maranatha, that is, in the comynge of the Lord : Wycliffite Bible, i Cor. , xvi. 
22 (1850).] 1526 Yf eny man loue not the LORDE lesus Christ, the same be 
Anathema Maharan Matha : Tvndale, ib. 1611 If any man loue not the 

Lord Jesus Christ, let him bee Anathema Maranatha: Bible, ib. 1649 and 

whosoeuer shall break and violate such a trust and confidence. Anathema 
Marantha. be unto them : Appeal to all Rational Men, p. 24. 

anatomist (— -^ — — )? sb. : Eng. fr. Fr, anatomiste : one 
who inves„tigates the structure of organisms, esp. of animals 
and human bodies by dissection; also inetaph, an analyser. 
Used attributively by J. Sanford, 1569. 

1543 Vuula (as the Anatomystes say) is a spongyous membre, whiche nature 
hath produced for .11. causes: Traheron, Tr. Vigo's Chiritrg., fol. Ix 7^/2. 


1563 thrfe ventricules, and that whych the anotomistes do cal artus, con- 
teyning the armes and legges: T. Gale, Enchirid., fol. i? »"• _^°"3,i5S 
Anotomist Arte: J. Sanfoed, Agrifpa's Van. Artes, 153. [N.E.D.J 1578 
this History of Man, picked from the plenty of the most noble Anathomistes 
aboue named: J. Banister, Hist. Man, sig. B i ■!/>. 1601 right skilful! 
masters in Chirurgerie, and the best learned Anatomists: Holland, Ir. yun. 
N. H., Bk. II, ch. 37, Vol. L p. 335. 1614 the Monastery.. .famous for...the 
renowned... anatomist Fabricius: Evelyn, Diary, Vol. I. p. 104(1872). 

anatomy (i ± — ~), sb. : Eng. fr. Fr. anatomie : dissection. 

I. abstract, the process of dissecting an organism, esp. 
the body of an animal or man ; also metaph. minute examin- 
ation, analysis. 

1525 Also ye shold knowe & vnderstonde parfytly your Anathomia / whirfie 
is the gaderynge and also y* dysmembrynge of the lymmes of y' body: Tr. 
Jerome of Bru7ismicKs Surgery, sig. A ij i/»/2. 1541 Anathomy is called 
ryght dyuysyon of membres done for certayne knowleges: R. Copland,_ Tr. 
Guycio's Quest., e^c, sig. B iii ifi. 1563 the subiecte and matter of Chirur- 
gerye (beynge the bodye of man) cannot be fully knowen, wythout the exercise 
of the Anotomye: T. Gale, Trist. Chirurg., fol. 7 f. 1579 The Surgion 

that maketh the Anatomie: J. LvLV, £2;!>/s«m, p. 203 (1868). 1589 Expect 
not here Anotamies of Lands, Seas, Hell, and Skyes: W. Warner, Albions 
England, Bk. v. ch. xxvii. p. 119. 1595 it shall not bee amisse first to waigh 
this latter sort of Poetrie by his works, and then by his partes ; and if in neyther 
of these Anatomies hee be condemnable, I hope wee shall obtaine a more fauour- 
able sentence : Sidney, Apol. Poet., p. 29 (1868). 1645 [I] went- to Padua, 
to be present at the famous anatomy lecture: Evelyn, Diary, Vol. I. p. 224 
(1872). bef 1658 for every Character is an Anatomy-lecture : J. Cleveland, 
Wks., p. 82 (1687). 1662 Dr. Meret.. .showed me the. for anatomy: 
Evelyn, Diary, Vol. I. p. 391 (1872). 1753 Anatomy, is also used, in an 

improper sense, for the analysis of mixt bodies: Chambers, Cycl., Suppl. 
1832 To appoint. ..three persons to be inspectors of places where anatomy is 
carried on: Stat. 2 dr* 3 Wtn. IV., ch. 75, § 2. 

I a. organic structure discovered by dissection; also 

1579 The anotomy of man [is] set out by experience : GossON, Schoole of 
Ab., 38 (Arb.). 1603 Heer lie I naked: lo th' Anatomy \ Of my foul Heart ; 
J. Sylvester, Tr. Du Bartas, Lavve, p. 488 (1608). 1646 we visibly behold 

therein the Anatomy of every particle: Sir Th. Brown, Pseud. Ep., Bk, 1. 
ch. iii. p. 8 (1686). 

I b. the science of organic structure. 

1525 The Anothomy in generall of y® lymmes / skynne / flesshe / vaynes / 
synewes / and bonys ; Tr. Jerome of Brunswick's Surgery, sig. A ij v°J2. 
1541 a cyrurgyen... ought to knowe. ..chyefly the nathomy: R. Copland, Tr. 
Guydo^s Quest., &'c., sig. B i y^. — Demaundes vpon the Anathomy of the 
skynne or the iether: ib., sig. C ii V^. 1543 Anatomie is a ryghte science, 
by which the membres of mans body are knowen: Traheron, Tr. Vigo's 
Chirurg., fol. i 7^/2. 1598 a painter... should also be indifferently scene in 
the Anatomie : R. Haydocke, Tr. Lomatius, p. 8. 1659 I here send you 

my trifling observations concerning the anatomy of trees : Evelyn, Corresp., 
Vol. III. p. 129(1872). 1671 Being less versed in the ^?zai;£7?KZ>^ of P/rt«/.s: 

H. O., Tr. N. Steno's Prodront. on Solids iti Solids, p. 27. 1697 the more 

curious Anatomy, Dendranatome and Comparative Anatojny: Phil. Trans., 
Vol. XIX. No. 228, p. 554. 1712 But to return to our Speculations on Ana- 
tomy. I shall here consider the Fabrick and Texture of the Bodies of Animals: 
Spectator, No. 543, Nov. 22, p. 772/1 (Morley). 1738 Co7nparative Anatomy, 
is that which considers brutes, and other animals, and even vegetables; chiefly 
with a view to illustrate the human structure ; Chambers, Cycl. 

1 c. a treatise on organic structure ; also wz^^a^^ a treatise 
embodying an analysis. 

1528 there is in man CCClxv. veynes / as appereth in the anothamie: 
Paynell, Tr. Seg. Sal., sig. a iv r". 1548 A Treasure for English men, 
containing the Anatomie of mans bodie: T. VlCARY, Engl. Treas., p. i (1626). 
1583 Greene, Anatomie of Flatterie. 1601 will we write more at large in 
the Anatomie of Man : Holland, Tr. Plin. N. H., Bk. 7, ch. i6. Vol. i. p. 164. 
1621 R. Burton, Aizatomy of Melancholy. 1753 Titian... designed the 

figures for Vesalius's Anatomy: Chambers, Cycl., Suppl., s.v. 

2. -concrete, a dissected body (or part of one), a body for 
dissection ; also metaph. 

1540 the cutting open of Anathomy of a dead woman : T. Raynald, Birth 
of Mankind, Prol., p. 3 (1613). 1596 Letters doo you terme them!.. .no 
lecture at Surgeons Hall vppon an anatomie may compare with them in longi- 
tude: Nashe, Have with You, quoted in Dyce's Greene, p. 72 (i86i). 1598 
they must ha' dissected and made an Anatomie o' me : B. foNSON, Ev. Man in 
his Hum., iv. 6, Wks., p. 52 (i6i5). 1601 For Andrew, if he were opened, 

and you find so much blood in his liver as will clog the foot of a flea, I'll eat the 
rest of the anatomy: Shaks., Tw. Nt., iii. 2, 67. 1602 But of all the rest, 

they vsed a faithfuU seruant of theirs.. .most vnthankfully : which because it is 
the very Anatomy of all the Jesuits base gained time, I will set it out word for 
word: W. Watson, Quodlibeis of Relig. (3= State, p. 148. 1605 I will 

make thee an anatomie I Dissect thee mine owne selfe, and read a lecture | 
Vpon thee: B. JoNSON, Volp., ii. 5, Wks., p. 475 (1616). 1620 he had for- 

merly cut in pieces a number of living Creatures with his own hands to make 
Anatomies: Brent, Tr. Soave's Hist. Counc. Trent, p. xvi. (1676). 1628 

anotomies & other Spectacles of Mortalitie haue hardened him: J. Earle, 
Microcosm., Char. 4. 1728 I could not save him from those fleaing rascals 

the surgeons; and now, poor man, he is among the Otamys at Surgeon's Hall- 
Gay, Beggar's Op., 11. i. [N. & Q.] 

2 a. a drawing or model of a dissected body, or of part 
of one. 

1543 some which paynte Anatomies, wherin we ought not to reste* Tra- 
heron, Tr. Vigo's Chirurg., fol. i v^li. 1753 Who has not seen the wax- 
work Anatomyt Chambers, Cycl., Suppl., s.v. 


lb. a skeleton ; also metdph, 

1590 They brought one Pinch, a hungry lean-faced villain, | A mere anatomy, 
a mountebank: Shaks., Com. of Err., v. 238. 1599 a lank raw-boned ana- 
tomie ; B. Jonson, Ev. Man out his Hum., iv. 4, Wks. , p. 143 (1616). 1603 
Sups-vp their vitall humour, and doth dry | Their whilom-beauties to Anatomy: 
J. Sylvester, Tr. Du Sarias, Lawe, p. 482 (1608). 1630 The rich, the poore, 
the old, the young, all dyes, | AH staru'd, and fleshlesse bare Anatomies : John 
Taylor, Wks. , sig. C i z)"/2. 1654 hath almost made himselfe a Sceleton, 
to preserve others from being an Anatomy: R. Whitlock, Zootomia, p. 134. 

■2. c. a dried corpse, a mummy; also metaph. and applied 
sarcastically to persons and the bodies of living persons. 

1586 carrying vp and downe the hall at feastes, a dryed anatomic of a dead 
mans bodie: Sir Edw. Hoby, Polit. Disc, of Truth, ch. xlvi. p. 225. 1591 

In what vile part of this anatomy | Doth my name lodge : Shaks., Rom., iii. 3, 
106. 1597 You starved blood-hound !... Thou atomy, thou: — II Hen. IV., 

Y. 4, 33. 1698 they looked like anatomyes of death: Spens., State Irel., 

Wks., p. 654/2 (1869). 1603 a Scelet, that is to say, a drie and withered 

anatomic of a dead man: Holland, Tr, Plut. Mor., p. 328. 

Variants, 16 c. anothamie {-y), anathomy {-ie), natkomy, 
atiatomie {-y), anatomy, atomy, 18 c. otamy. 

ava^, sb.: Gk.: 'king'; ava^ dvSpmv, 'king of men', title of 
Agamemnon (^. v.). 

1813 Murray the ava^ of publishers, the Anac of stationers : Byron, in 
Moore's Zi/e, Vol. n. p. 217 (1832). 1842 an araf avSpuiv, like the great 
Agamemnon: Barham, Ingolds. Leg., p. 302 (1865). 

*anchitherium, anchithere {±^il), sb.: Mod. Lat., or 
Anglicised: Geol.: fossil animal of the Eocene and Miocene 
strata, regarded as a link between toe'd and hoofed quadru- 

*1876 a probable hypothesis that the horse was but the last term of a series 
of which the Anchitherium was the first then known and the Hipparion the 
middle term : Times, Dec. 7. [St.] 

[Coined fr. Gk. ayx', = 'near', and 5?;piOT, = 'wild beast'.] 

*anchovy {±il=^, sb.: Eng. fr. Sp. and Port, anchova: a 
small fish of the Herring family {Clupeidae), caught in great 
quantities in the Mediterranean, the best near Gorgona, an 
island near Leghorn. It is pickled and widely used as a 
relish. The Fr. anchois seems to have caused anckoves to be 
occasionally regarded as singular, see quott. dated 1626, 
1689; and is represented by Holland's enchoists. 

1596 Item, Anchovies and sack after supper. ..2s. 6d. : Shaks., I Hen. IV., 
ii. 4, 585. 1600 He doth learne to make strange sauces, to eat cenclwuies, 
maccaroni, bouoli, fugioli, and cauiare : B. Jonson, Cynth. Rev., ii. 3, Wks., 
p. 203 (1616). 1600 a iish like a Smelt... [?«or_^.] Called by the Spaniards 

Anchouas, and by the Portugals Capelinas: R. Hakluyt, Voyages, Vol. in. 
p. 133. 1603 superstitious folke are perswaded, that if any one do eate 

Enchoises or such little fish as Aphya, she will likewise gnaw their legs : Hol- 
land, Tr. Plut, Mor., p. 267. 1611 Anchois; oit Anchoies, The fish 
Anchoveyes : CoTGR. 1616 Hartichoke, marrowbone, potato pies, | An- 
choves: R. C., Times' Whistle, vi. 2769, p. 87 (1B71). 1617 great abundance 
of red herrings and pickled herrings, Sardelle, anchone [sic], and like pickled 
fishes: F. Moryson, Itin., Pt. III. p. 115. 1625 All this Channell is very full 
of fish, especially of Sardi^iaes and of Auchioues: Purchas, Pilgrims, Vol. II. 
Bk. vii. p. 990. 1626 ^«i:AoK«: CoCKERAM, Pt. iiL(2ndEd.). 1654 And eat 
Botargo, Caviar, Anchovees, Oysters, and like fare: Howell, Epist. Ho-EL, 
Vi)l. IV. v. p. 483 (1678). 1655 Anchovaes are but the Sea-minoes oi Provence 
and Sardinia : MuFFETT, Health's Improv., p. 147. 1672 she looks as if 
she would dissolve like an Anchovee in Claret : Shadwell, Miser, i. p. 2. 
1674 the bigger [Leviathan] of Mr. Hobbes would never be big enough to make 
Anchovy-sauce for it [Dr. S. P.'s Leviathan, of an everlasting world] : N. Fairfax, 
Bulk &^ Selv., p. 180. 1689 Anchoves, from the Fr. Anchois. ..7i Loach, or 
small fish: Gazophylac. Angl. 

anc(h)yl6sis, ankylosis, sb.: Gk. a-yKuXojo-ts : stiffening of 
a joint by the growing together of the bones ; the growing 
together of bones which do not form a joint. The h is 
intended to keep the c hard. 

1713 When these cartilages are destroyed... [the bones] very readily unite : 
this distemper is called Ancylosis: Cheselden, Anat., i. i. 8 (1726). [N. E. D.j 
1744 a Stiffness in his Joints, which by Degrees increased till it came to an 
universal Anchylosis: That is, all his Joints were immoveable or ossified ; Phil, 
Trans., Vol. XLI. No. 461, p. 819. 1765 The Abbess. ..being in danger of an 

anchylosis, or stiff joint: Sterne, Trist. Shand., vii. xxi. 304 (1839). 1819 
The true anchylosis may easily be known by the impossibility of moving the 
bones in their joints : Rees, CycL, s.v. 

ancien regime, /^r.: Fr.: 'ancient order of things', pri- 
marily, the state of affairs in France before the Great Revo- 
lution, the old Bourbon monarchy. 

1794 if once that terror were, by superior force, to receive a counter direc- 
tion the ArKien Regime or any other regime, would, I think, be submitted to 
without the slightest struggle: Morris, Letter, in Amer. State Papers, Vol. i. 
p 404 (1832). 1805 Unless the ancienne regime possessed the power of 

making tlie merchants richer: Edin. Rev., Vol. 6, p. 74. 1818 recall the 
good days of the ancien regime: T. Moore, Fudge Family, p. 4. 1828 the 
Duchesse de G— was a fine relic of the ancien r(gime : Lord Lytton, Pelham, 
ch. xvi. p. 38 (1B59). 1842 He hands his Jacobin scoundrels across the 
stage.. .with all the politesse of a... master of the ceremonies of the ancien regime : 
Ceaik and Macfaelane, Pict, Hist. Eng., Vol. 11. p. 601/2. 1885 The 

S. D. 



French Revolution of 1793, breaking down the ancien ripme^ set a fashion of ex- 
perimenting in democracy: Athenepum, Oct. 31, p. 563/2. 

ancienne noblesse, /^r. : Fr. : 'ancient nobility', the no- 
bility of the ajicien regime {g. v.). 

1816 the crouching repentance of the ancienne noblesse : Edin. Rev.j Vol. 26, 
p. 226. 

Ancient, sb.\ Eng. fr. It.: a rendering of It. anziano^^^ -axi 
elder', *a magistrate'. See Anziano. The sb. ancient as a 
corruption oi ensign is not admissible in this Diet. 

1701 nine Ancients who bear the Title Exellentissimo's : New Account of 
Italy y p. 64. 

ancile, pi. ancilia, sb.\ Lat.: Rom. Antiq.\ one of twelve 
sacred shields borne in solemn processions by the Salii^ or 
dancing priests of Mars in Ancient Rome. The original 
ancile^ whence eleven copies were made, was said to have 
fallen from heaven in the reign of Numa Pompilius, and on 
its safety that of Rome was supposed to depend. 

1579 They call these targets [of the Salii] Ancylia: North, Tr. Plut.^ ' 
p. 70 (1612). 1600 your Ancilia and Scutcheans; Holland, Tr. Livy, Bk. v. 
p. 213. — the sacred shields A?tcilia: id., Bk, lxviii. (JBrev. Flor.), p. 1246. 
1674 The Trojans secured their palladium : the Romans their ancile : Brevint, 
Saul at Endor, z^s- [T.] 1738 ANCYLE : Chambers, Cyc/. 

ancilia, Ji^.: Lat.: maidservant, handmaid. 

1871 Mrs. Winchester was attended by the flighty ancilia: London Soc, 
Vol. XX. p. 312/1. 

ancona, j^.: It. See quotations. 

1885 The Van Eyck's 'Adoration of the Lamb' at Ghent and EerHn [is] a 
true representative of the Italian ancona or group of pictures included in a single 
altarpiece: Athenesum, Sept. 19, p. 377/2. 1887 The lively figure of the 
Infant. worthy of the fine master to whom we owe a noble ancona in the 
National Gallery; id., Jan. 22, p. 134/3. 

ancora, adv.: It.: ^ again'; also used as sb. meaning the 
call of ancora by an audience. Formerly used as the French 
encore {q. v.) is used now. 

1712 the Noise o( Ancora^ s was as loud as before, and she was again obliged 
to speak it twice : Spectator^ No. 341, Apr. i, p. 497/2 (Morley). 

ancyle ; Lat. See ancile. 

andante, adj. and adv. : It, : Mus. : moderately slow and 
in exact time, each note being made distinct. Originally a 
direction written on music to this purport. Also used 
metaph.^ and as a sb. meaning an andante movement ; andante 
literally means 'going'. 

1724 ANDANTE, this Word has Respect chiefly to the Thorough Bass, 
and signifies, that in playing, the Time must be kept very just and exact, and 
each Note made very equal and distinct the one from the other: Short Explic. 
of For. Wds. in Mus. Bks. 1758 A man that astonishes at first, soon makes 
people impatient if he does not continue in the same andante key [of the K. of 
Prussia's comparative inaction]: HoR. Walpole, Letters^ Vol. iii. p. 126 (1857). 
1784 [He] sells accent, tone.. .and gives to pray'r | Th' adagio and andante it 
demands : Cowper, Task, Bk. 11. p. 44 (1817). 1885 With the exception of 

the third movement, andante cantabile, it is dry and uninteresting : A thenrntitn, 
Nov. 14, p. 645/2. 

andantino, adj. and adv. : It. : Mus. : rather slower than 
andante, afterwards taken to mean 'rather quicker than 
andante\ Also used as sb. meaning an andantino move- 

1819 Andantino, the diminutive of andante, is applied to movements some- 
what quicker and bordering on allegretto, ox grazioso: Rees. 

*anderun, sb. : Hind. fr. Pers. : interior, inner apartments. 

1875 the Nuwab and the inmates of his aTiderun: Echo, Jan. 8, p. 2. [St.] 

andouille, sb. : Fr. : a kind of large sausage made of pig's 
or calf's entrails. 

1605 Table of necessarie provisions for the whole yearc.Andulees, potatoes, 
kidshead, colflorry, etc.: In Arcltmol., xm. 371. [N. E. D.] 1670 your 
Champinions, Coxcombs and Pallats, your Andoilles, your Lange de porceau... 
and your Olio's: Shadwell, Sull. Lovers, v. p. 71. 

andouillette, ^(5. : Fr.: forced-meat ball, rissole (^.-z/.). 

1611 [The French] Whose Papagauts, AndoMlets, and that traine | Should 
be such matter for a Pope to curse: J. JDones, in Paneg. Verses on Coryat's 
Crudities, sig. f s"^- 

androdamas, sb.: Gk. avhpobdixas : a precious stone. Also 
Anglicised as androdamant 

1601 Androdamas is a stone of a bright colour like silver, and in manner of a 
Diamant, square, and alwaies growing in a table lozenge-wise. The Magicians 
suppose. That it took that name from repressing the anger and furious violence 
of men: Holland, Tr. Plin. N. H., Bk. 37, ch. 10, Vol. 11. p. 624. bef. 1617 
an Androdamant, a precious stone: Minsheo, Gttide into Tongues. 1626 

Myrrkite, Corall, Andromade [sic], Iris: Purchas, Pilgrims, Vol. i. Bk. i. 
p. 38. 1626 Androdoinas, hard and heauie, bright like siluer, and in forme of 
diuers little squares, it putteth away fury, and anger, and rage of lecherie : 
CocKERAM, Pt. III. (2nd Ed.). 




androgyne, s6.: Eng. fr. Fr.: a man- woman, a herma- 
phrodite {g. V.) ; an effeminate man ; Boi. : a plant having 
both male and female organs on the same root or in the 
same flower. Also in Lat. form aiidrogynus, -nos, pi. andro- 
gyni. ' 

1552 Androgine^ whiche bene people of both kyndes, both man and woman; 
HuLOET. ^ 1587 These vile and stinking androgynes, that is to say, these men- 
women, with their curled locks: J. Harmar, Beza's Ser7n. Canticles^ 173. [L.] 

1600 an infant borne of doubtful! sexe, betweene male and female, (which the 
common sort call Androgynos...): Holland, Tr. Livy, Bk. xxvil. p. 635. 

1601 Hermaphrodites, called Androgynit — Tr. Plin. N. H.^ Bk. 7, ch. 2, 
Vol. I. p. 154. bef 1603 calling him Androgyne (as much as to say, as 
womanish man): North, {Lives of Epatmn., df^c, added to) Plut., p. 1139 
(1612). bef 1617 Androgyne, he which is both man and woman : MiNSHEU, 
Guide into Tongues. 1696 Phillips, World of Words, 

androides, sb. : coined Lat. as if for guasi-Gk. dv8poei8fis, 
= 'man-like': an automaton in the form of a human being. 
Also Anglicised as android m 19 c. . 

1736 'BkliMv, Diet. AngH'zai'S.i.). 1738 Albertus Magnus is recorded 
■ as having a famous a«rf?'(7iV?j: Chambers, Cyt:/., s. v. 1819 Rees. 

androsphinx, J'^. : Gk. ai/Spo(r04y|, = 'man-sphinx' : a figure 
of a sphinx {g. v.) with a man's head. Egyptian sphinxes 
are male, Greek sphinxes female. 

1607 A7nasis the king of Egypt, built in the porch of Pallas, an admirable 
worke called Sai: where he placed such great colosses and Andro-sphinges, that 
it was afterward supposed he was buried therein, and was liuely to be seene im- 
putrible : TopsELL, Four-/. Beasts, p. i8. 

anecdota, adj. pi. used as sb.: Gk. dj/e')cSoTa, = ' matters 
(hitherto) unpubKshed': Anglicised as anecdotes, whence 
the sing, anecdote. 

1. anecdota, anecdotes : secret history, revelations of mat- 
ters hitherto unpublished. Derived fr. the Gk. title 'Ave'(c8o7-a 
of Procopius' memoirs of the private life of Justinian and 

1676 A man. ..might make a pleasant story of the anecdota of that meeting : 
Marvell, Mr. Smirke, Wks., iv. 71 (1875). [N. E. D.] 1686 Anecdotes of 
Florence, or the secret History of the House of Medicis : F. Spence, Title, 
1738 ANECDOTES, Anecdota, a term used by some authors, for the titles of 
Secret Histories ; that is, of such as relate the secret affairs and transactions of 
■princes: Chambers, Cycl. 1771 Anecdotes of a Convent : Title. 1820 
some political and domestic anecdotes relating to its celebrated ruler: T. S. 
Hughes, Trav. in Sicily, Vol. 11. ch, v. p, 93, 

2. anecdote: a short account of a biographical incident, 
or any single circumstance of interest. Also used col- 

bef. 1721 Some modern anecdotes aver ] He nodded in his elbow chair : 
Prior. [L.] 1761 Facts and anecdotes relating to persons who have 

rendered their names illustrious: T. Warton, iz/i? ^,53M7^rj^, [L,] 1781 
We were told a curious anecdote of this rocky mount : John Hutton, Tour to 
the Caves, p. 48 (2nd Ed.). 1835 the bursts of laughter which followed these 

anecdotes: Sir J. Ross, Sec. Voyage, ch. xxix. p. 427, 1887 These lives,,, 
abound in incident and anecdote suggestive of broad principles of Hfe : H, Morley, 
Introd. to Plutarch's Lives of Pericles, &'c. (Cassell's Nat. Lib,, Vol, 58), p. 6. 

3. unpublished literature. A modern use of the original 
Gk. sense. 

1887 [He is] an industrious discoverer and publisher of anecdota, he shall 
not miss his due meed of praise for giving in convenient shape certain Lettres 
InMites: AthencEum, Feb. ig, p. 253/3. 

anemone, anemony (— -^ — — ), sb. : Eng. fr. Lat. anemone, 
fr. Gk. avfucovri, probably fr. Semitic Na'aman = ' Adonis,' 
according to Lagarde ; changed to a Gk. form so as to mean 
'daughter of the wind' (Sve/ios). 

I. name of a genus of plants (Nat. Order Ranunculaceae) 
with beautiful flowers, of which one species, the Wind-flower, 
grows wild in England. 

1548 Anemone groweth much about Bon in Germany,,, it may be called in 
english rose perseley: W. Turner, Names of Herbs. 1551 there are ,ij. 
kindes of Anemone : — Herb. , sig. C v i", 1578 Passeflower or the first 
Anemone, hath leaues like Coriander : H, Lyte, Tr, Dodoen's Herb., Bk, in, 
p, 422. 1601 Passe-flower or Anemone : Holland, Tr, Plin. N.H., Bk. 21, 
ch, II, Vol, IL p. 92. 1627 Prime-Roses, Violets, Anemonies, Water- 
Daffodillies, Crocus Vemus: Bacon, Nat. Hist., Cent, vi. § 577. 1644 
tulips and anemonies : Evelyn, Diary, Vol, i, p. 56 (1850). — anemones, ra- 
nunculuses, crocuses, &c. : ib., p, 65. 1664 About the middle of this Month, 
p]a.nt.. .your Anemony Roots: — Kal. Hort., p. igi (1720). 1693 Flowers, 
Tulips. Anemones: J. Ray, Three Discourses, ii, p, 124(1713), 1721 ANE- 
MONY, Emony, or Wind-flower: Bailey. 1764 carnations, ranunculas, 
anemonies, and daffodils: Smollett, France &' Italy, xiii. Wks., Vol, v. p. 360 
(1817). 1817 Anemones and Seas of Gold : T. Moore, Lalla Rookk, Wks,, 
p. 75 (i860), 1819 Over fields enamelled with the crimson anemone fluttered 
millions of azure butterflies; T, Hope, Anast., Vol. I. ch. xi. p, 199 (1820). 
1854 But when the wreath of March has blossora'd, 1 Crocus, anemone, violet : 
Tennyson, Wks., Vol. v, p, 75 (1886), 1858 the leaping stream, which throws | 
Eternal showers of spray on,., fragrant hanging bells | Of hyacinths, and on late 
anemonies: M, Arnold, Dram. &= Later Poems, Merope, p. 133 (1885). 


2. sea-anemone, popular name of several kinds of flower- 
like marine zoophytes of Actinoid genera, an Actinia. 

1767 the Actinia anemone or Sea anemone: Phil. Trans., Vol, LVll. p, 436. 

angarep, angereb, sb. : in the Soudan : stretcher, bedstead. 

1884 angareps (stretchers): Sir S. W. Baker, Heart of Africa, ch, iii. 
p. 36.- — my angarep (bedstead) was quickly inverted [for a raft]: ib., ch. v. 
p. 55, 1885 Angerebs, to use the Soudanese term for bedsteads, constructed 
of wood and hide cut in strips: Daily News, July 3, p. 5/4, — camels,.,heavily 
laden with angerebs traversely placed and resting on the flank upon a huge 
box: ib. 

*angekok, sb. : Esquimaux. See quotations. 

1819 an "angekok", or conjuror: Sir J. Ross, Voyage of Disc, Vol. i. 
ch, vi. p. ISO (2nd Ed,), 1835 as Otookiu was an Angekok, or conjuror, and 

physician in one, they proposed to apply their charms towards the cure of our 
fast- wasting patient: —Sec. Voyage, ch, xvii, p. 264. 1856 The angekok of 
the tribe— the prophet as he is called among our Indians of the West — is the 
general counsellor: E, K. Kane, Arctic Explor., Vol. 11. ch. xi, p, 118. — l:he 
angekoks, who are looked up to as the hierophants or dispensers of good : ib., 
ch. xii. p. 127. 

*angelica, JiJ. : Late Lat.: short for herba angelica, = '?LX\- 
gelic herb'. 

1. Bot. name of a genus of plants (Nat. Order Umbel- 
liferae). Orig, applied to an aromatic cultivated species of 
an allied genus, Archangelica officinalis, the root of which 
was thought to be an antidote to poison and plague. 

1527 Water of Angelica : L. Andrew, Tr. BrunsmicKs Distill , Bk. 11, 
ch. xii, sig, A iv v^ii. — powder of the rote of AngeHca; ib. 1548 Smyrnium 
is neither Angelica nor yet Louage ; W. Turner, Names of Herbs. 1551 the 
roote of angelyca ; — Herb., sig, B v r". 1578 ANGELICA is of two sortes, 
that is the garden and wilde AngeHca: H. Lyte, Tr. Dodoen's Herb., Bk. 11. 
p. 296. 1597 The rootes of garden angelica; Gerard, ,«^er.5,, p. 147. [Nares] 
1668 Garden herbs.,, Fennel, Angelica, Tansie: G. M[arkham], Way to get 
Wealth, Tract vii. Bk. iii. ch, 7, p. 68. 1696 Angelica, an Herb so called, the 
distilled water whereof, but especially the Roots, resist Poyson and all infectious 
vapors; Phillips, World of Words. 1767 Angelica and lovage.., delight in 
moist situations: J. Abercrombie, Ev. Man own Gardener, p, 85 (1803). 

2. in combinations, angelica-root, a drug of carminative 
property ; angelica-water, an aromatic distilled water, of which 
angelica root was the main ingredient. 

1527 of Angelick water : L, Andrew, Tr. Brunswicl^s Distill.,^ Bk. 11. ch. xii. 
sig, A iv »»/2. 1665 Take of Angelica-root two ounces: Advice of the Phy- 
sicians, p, 22. 

2 a. short for angelica-root. 

1584 Take , . .halfe an ounce of ^ ngelica, Nutmigges two drammes : T. Coghan, 
Haven of Health, p. 234, 1593 By requiting good for bad, & conuerting the 
worme-wood of iust offence into the angelica of pure attonement; G. Harvey, 
New Letter, Wks., Vol. i. p, 285 (Grosart), 1602 the lesuits wil haue such 

a figge in store for his Holinesse that shall do so, as no Ruebarbe, Angelica, 
Mithridate, or other medicine or antidote shall expell the venime, poison, and 
infection from his hart : W. Watson, Quodlibets of Relig. Ssr' State, p. 245. 
1627 As if you should set Tatisey by Angelica, it may be, the Angelica would 
be the weaker, and fitter for Mixture in Perfume : Bacon, Nat. Hist., Cent. v. 

2 b. short for angelica-water. 

1653 orange-flower-water and Angelica : Urquhart, Rabelais, I. Iv. 
[N. E. D.] 

2 c. the candied shoots or leaf-ribs of Archangelica offi- 
cinalis, used as a sweetmeat and in cookery. 

angelina: Anglo-Ind. See angely-wo^?^. 

angelot, sb. : Fr. : a French coin struck under Louis XL, 
an English coin worth half an angel, struck at Paris by the 
English under Henry VI. More commonly, a French cheese 
made in Normandy. 

1611 Angelot: m. The cheese called, an Angelot: CoTGR. 1617 [the 
French] haue only one good kinde of Cheeses called Angelots, pleasing more for 
a kind of sharpenesse in taste, then for the goodnesse : F. Moryson, Itin., Pt. in. 
p. 134. 1636 Your angelots of Brie; [ Your Marsolini, and Parmasan of Lodi: 
Davenant, Wits, iv. i, in Dodsley's Old Plays, Vol, viii. p, 408 (1825). 1673 
J. Ray, Journ. Low Counir., p, 51. 1676 To make angellets: True Gentle- 
woman's Delights, p, 21, 1696 Angelot, (French) a kind of small Cheese 
commonly made in France; also a sort of Musical Instrument somewhat like a 
Lute: Phillips, World of Words. 

*angelus, sb. : Lat. : the triple recitation of the 'Hail Mary' 
(see Smith's Diet, of Christ. Antig.) or angelical salutation, 
practised in Roman Catholic countries three times a day at 
the ringing of the Angelus-htW. Also short for Angelus- 

1658 Before dinner I make some prayers for the souls in Purgatory: after 
thati say the^?;^e/jM: 'E..S.,'Ir. St. Jure's Life of De Rentz,'p. ij. 1847 
Anon from the belfry | Softly the Angelus sounded : Longfellow, Evangeline, 
Pt. I. i. 31. 1865 Ah! there's the Angelus. Will you not enter? Bret 

Harte, East &' West Poems, In the Mission Garden, 41. 




angely[-wotfrf], sb, : Anglo- 1 nd. fr. Tamil anjtli- (maram 
= 'wood') : a durable timber of the Western coast of India, 
which also grows in Siam ; Artocarpus hirsitta. 

1598 there are tr^es by Cochiin, that are called Angehna, whereof certaine 
scutes or Skiffts called Tones are made : Tr. y. Van Linschoten's Voyages, Bk. i. 
Vol. 11. p. 56 (1885). 1663 many great Groves of Pine, and Angeline trees : 
H. CoGAN, Tr. Pinto's Voyages, ch. xviii. p. 64. — thick Forests of Angelin 
wood, whereof thousands of ships might be made: ib., ch. Ixx. p. 285. 

angina, sb. : Lat. : quinsy, 
pronounced angina. 

In English use often wrongly 

1678 that sharpe disease called Angina'. J. Banister, Hist. Man, Bk. i. 
fol. 39 vo. 1645 I was so afflicted with an angina. ..that it had almost cost me 
my life: Evelyn, Diary, Vol. I. p. 222 (1872). 

*angina pectoris, angina: Mod. Lat. fr. Lat. angina, 
= 'quinsy'; lit. 'strangling', pecioris='of the breast': a 
painful and dangerous development of heart-disease, charac- 
terised by acute pain near the heart with a feeling of suffo- 
cation. Not angina. 

1860 the angina pectoris, a disease: Ojice a Week, Oct. 27, p. 485/2. 1884 
died. ..from an attack of angina pectoris : H. C. Lodge, Stitdies in History, 
p. 256. 

*Anglais, /^»z. Anglaise, adj.: Fr.: English. See a 1' 

Anglaise, sb.: Fr.: fern, of ..4 «^/azj, = ' English'. See 

1880 Anglaise, ..Pixi English country-dance of lively character. It closely 
resembles the Ecossaise : Webster, Suppl. 

*Anglice, adv.: Late Lat.: in English. 

1666 I met with an old comrade that had lately heaved a Booth, Anglice 
broken open a Shop: R. Head, Engl. Rogue, Pt. i. "ch. xlv. p. 319 (1874). 
1712 we may cry Altro Volto, Anglice, again, again: Spectator, No. 314, 
Feb. 29, p. 454/1 (Morley). 1741 here we lay at the Sign of the Moon and 

seven Stars {anglice in the open Air); J. OZELL, Tr. Toumejbrt's Voy. Levant, 
Vol, I. p. 48. 1760 Aurora now first opened her casement, ^w.^/2(r^ the day 

began to break: Fielding, Tom Jones, Bk. ix. ch. ii. Wks., Vol. vx. p. 520 
(1806). 1814 sent in their adhesion {A?iglic^ adherence) to the new Govern- 
ment : Gent. Mag., 1. p. 531/1. 

♦Anglomania, sb. : Mod. Lat. : Anglomanie, sb. : Mod. 
Fr. : craze for the English people, customs, &c. See mania. 

1764 She was here last year, being extremely infected with the Anglo-manie, 
though I believe pretty well cured by her journey: HoR. Walpole, Letters, 
Vol. IV. p. 304 (1857). 1825 an Anglomania raged throughout the peninsula, 
especially at Milan : English in Italy, Vol. I. p. 257. 1830 we have no word 
in our vocabulary that corresponds with Anglomanie'. Edin. Rev., Vol. 51, 
p. 225. 

♦Anglophobia, sb. : Mod. Lat. as if fr. quasi-GV. 'AyyXo- 
0o^la : dread of England's power, aggression, &c. 

Angola. See Angora. 

angor, sb. : Eng. fr. Old Fr. angor, angour, accommodated 
to Lat. angor : pain, anguish, torment. 

1603 For man is loaden with ten thousand languors : | All other creatures 
onely feele the angors 1 Of few diseases: J. Sylvester, Tr. Du Bartas, Furies, 
607. [Davies] 

[Anglicised as angure in Prompt. Parv., 1440.] 

*Angora, Angola, a town and province of Anatolia or 
Asia Minor, famous for goats with silky hair, and for a fine 
breed of cats ; the name is given to the goats' hair, and to 
fabrics made from it. 

1819 Of the things themselves whose appellations he had learnt, he seemed 
' to have no more idea than the huge Angora cat which sat purring by his side : 
T. Hope, Anast., Vol. 11. ch. i. p. s (1820). 1839 Formerly there was a pro- 
hibition against the export from Turkey of Angora hair, except when wrought or 
in the form of homespun yarn: John Milner, in J. James' Worsted Manuf., 
p. 463 (1857). 1852 the wool of the Angora goat. ..the weft Angora or Syrian 
white wool : Southey, Colonial Sheep Sf Wool, in Beck's Draper's Diet. 

♦Angostura, Angustura, a port of Venezuela, whence a 
kind of bitters comes and is named. It is made from the 
bark of Galipea or Cusparia febrifuga. 

1804 Angustura is a bark imported within these few years from the Spanish 
West Indies: Med. &= Phys. youm., Vol. xl. p. 566. 

anguis in Lat. See latet a. i. h. 

anguria, JiJ. : Mod. Gk.d'yyoi5pioj',='a water melon': 
name of genus of plants of the gourd family (Nat. Order 
Cucurbitaceae), and of their fruit. 

1568 After this maner is made ys water of Anguria of the blossomes of 
beanes, of mallowes: W. Warde, Tr. Alessids Seer., Pt. i. fol. 70 r<>. 1611 
repleni.shed with diversity of deUcate fruites as Oranges Citrons, Lemmons, 
Apricocks, muske melons, anguriaes and what not : T. Cory at, Cnidziies, Vol. i. 
p 233 (1776). 1617 diners kinds of Pumpions, whereof one called Angouria, 

as bigee as our Pumpions, is exceeding full of a very cold iuyce, being most 
pleasant for the coolenesse in any great heat: F. Moryson, Itin., Pt. ill. p. 129. 

anient, annicut, sb.: Anglo-Ind. fr. Tamil anai-kattu, 
= ' dam-building': a dam or weir across a river, the con- 
struction of which is the cardinal work of the great systems 
of irrigation. The use of the word has recently spread from 
the Madras Presidency all over India. [Yule] 

1776 If the Rajah pleases to go to the Anacut, to see the repair of the bank : 
Letter fr. Council at Madras, in E. I. Papers, Vol. I. p. 836 (1777). [Yule] 
1784 depend altogether on a supply of water by the Cauvery, which can only 
be secured by keeping the Anicut and banks in repair ; Desp. of Court of Di' 
rectors, Oct. 27, in Burke, Vol. iv. p. J04. \ib,'\ 1862 The Upper Coleroon 

Anicut or weir is constructed at the west end of the Island of Seringham : Mark- 
ham, Peru <&* India, p. 426. \ib.\ 

♦anil (-i j^), sb. : Eng. ultimately fr. Skt. nila, = 'blue color'. 

1. the Indigo plant of the East, Indigofera tinctoria ; also 
the W. Indian Indigo plant, Indigofera anil. 

1598 Annell or Indigo groweth onely in Cambaia: Tr. f. Van Linschoten's 
Voyages, Bk. i. Vol. i. p. 61 (1885). 

2. the dark blue dye obtained from the Indigo plant, 
indigo dye. 

1658 of Nill a dragme: W, Warde, Tr. Alessio's Seer., Pt. l. fol. 8 r". 
1677 Graine to die colours with all. Hides, Sugars, Copper, Brasill, the woode 
Ebano, Anill: Frampton, Joyf-ull Ne'wes, fol. 1 v°. 1598 cotton, linnen, 

anil. Rice, and other wares : Tr. J. Van Li7lschoten's Voyages, Bk. i. Vol._ I. 
p. 252 (1885). — Annil or Indigo by the Gusurates is called Gali, by others Nil: 
it is a costly colour, and much caryed and trafiqued into Portingall...the hearbe 
is very like Rosemary: ib.. Vol. II. p. 91. 1599 to put on it [the skin] a kinde 
of anile or blacking, which doth continue alwayes : R. Hakluvt, Voyages, 
Vol. II. i. p. 262. 1600 a kinde of merchandise called Annile and Cochinilla: 
ib.. Vol. III. p. 458. 1604 the Anir, although it comes not from a tree, but 
from an hearb, for that it serveth for the dying of cloth, and is a marchandise : 
E. Grimston, Tr. D'Acosta's Hist. W. Indies, Vol. I. Bk. iv. p. 248 (1880). 
1614 great store of Indico and Anneele : R. Coverte, Voyage, p. 54. 1625 
I was sent to buy Nill or Indico at Byana : PuRCHAS, Pilgri-ms, Vol. I, Bk. iv. 
p. 428. 1684 Indigo, which they call Nill in their Language: J. P., Tr, 
TavemieT^s Trav., Vol. I. p. 93. 

Variants, 16 c. anill, anile, anele, nill, annell, 17 c. annile, 
anneele, anneill, nill. 

[From Arab, annil (for al-ml), perhaps through Port,, 
fr. E, Indian nil, cf Skt. «z7a, = 'blue', nili, = 'indigo', 'indigo 
plant'. The forms nil, nill, neel directly from E. Indian 

anima^, sb.: Old It.: a kind of defensive armour, quasi 
difesa dell' anima, = ''\\ie. (preserver)', i.e. protection for the 
vital parts. Hence Fr. anime (Cotgr.). 

1679 armed with an anima of Steele, made with scallop shels : North, Tr. 
Plutarch, -p. sz6 {i^T.'i). [1611 Anime'. f. A fashion of easie (because large- 
plated, and large-iointed) armour; CoTGR.] 

anima\ Ji5. : It. : lit. 'life', 'soul' : Mus. : same as animato 

1724 ANIMA, or ANIMATO, is with Life and Spirit, and is of much the 
same Signification as the Word VIVACE, which is a Degree of Movement be- 
tween Largo and Allegro'. Short Explic. of For. Wds. in Mus. Bks. 1816 
Encyc. Perth. 

anima mundi, phr. : Lat. : 'soul of the world', 'life of the 
world'; a Platonic conception. 

1684 they [the old philosophers] gaue therevnto a due reuerence, in that 
they acknowledged and intituled it Ani-mam inujidi. The soule or life of the 
world; R. Scott. i)/.rc. Witch., Qj^c, p. 557. 1704 This is what the rt^/t'/^z 
understand by their anima mundi'. Swift, Tale Tub, § viii. Wks., p. 79/2 (1869). 
1834 The individual soul is an emanation from the anima tnundi'. Edin. Rev., 
Vol. 59, p. 363. 1871 pray to Him not as to a mere anima mundi or cosmic 
life, not as to a mere transmutation of matter: F. W. Farrar, Huls. Led., 
Witness of Hist, to Christ, p. 23. 

animadversor, sb.: Eng. fr. Lat.: one who criticises or 
finds fault, an animadverter. 

1666 I must take the liberty to doubt, whether ever ray Anitnadversor 5Si-w 
a long Glass, that was otherwise: Phil. Trans., Vol. l. No. 4, p. 65. 

[Lat. animadversor, noun of agent to animadvertere, = ' to 
turn the attention to', 'to censure'.] 

*animal (z .=. ::.), sb. and adj. 

I. sb. : Eng. fr. Lat. : living thing, breathing organism ; 
see quot. fr. Owen. 

I. generally, including Man. 

1606 man. ..the paragon of Animals; Shaks., Ham., ii. 2, 320. 1667 

This Animal, call'd a Lover: Dryden, Maiden Queen, ii. 3, Wks., Vol. i. p. 161 
(1701). 1678 a Fourth Atheistick ^or'cn... -which conchided the whole World, 
not to be an Animal. ..^w^ onely One Huge Plant or Vegetable : Cudworth, 
Intell. Syst., Pref., sig. •* i z/". 1704 all Animals, both Man and Beast: 

J. Ray, Three Discourses, Pref., p. x. (1713). 1712 Every kind of Animal 

is diversified by different Magnitudes, each of which gives rise to a different, 
Species : Spectator, No. 543, Nov. 22, p. 772/1 (Morley). _ 1712 methinks 'tis 
a shame to be concern'd at the removal of such a trivial animal as I am ; Pope, 
Letters, p. 102 (1737). 1759 the whole of that animal, called Woman : Sterne, 



Trisi. Skand,, Vol. ll. ch. vii. p. 74 (1835). 1777 Amongst writing animals, 
as you define authors, the animal that writes well is as scarce, as the animal that 
makes use of his reason is amongst rational animals, as we are called : Lord 
Chesterfield, Lett. (Tr. fr. Fr.), Bk. i. No. xi. Misc. Wks., Vol. 11. p. 34 
(1777). 1826 How convenient does it prove, to be a rational atitmal that 

knows how to find or invent a plausible pretext for whatever it has an inclination 
to do ! Ltye of Dr. Franklui, ch. i. p. ig. 1860 When an organism receives 
nutritive matter through a mouth, inhales oxygen and exhales carbonic acid, and 
developes tissues, the proximate principles of which are quaternary compounds 
of carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, and nitrogen, it is called an animal : R. Owen, 
Pa/aeont., p. 4. [N.E.D.] 

I. 2. specially, excluding Man, except when a human 
being is referred to as an irrational creature. (Applied in 
common use chiefly to quadrupeds, esp. the domestic kinds.) 

1588 he is only an animal, only sensible in the duller parts: Shaks., 
L. L. L.y iv. 2, 28. 1599 there'll be diuers attempts made against the life 
of the poore animal [a dogj: B. JoNSON, Ev. Man out of his Hunt., ii. 3, 
Wks., p. no (i6i6). tb., iii. 4, p. 123. 1603 Thus doo'st thou print (O Parent 
of this All) I In every brest of brutest Animall: J. Sylvester, Tr. Du Bartas, 
p. 142 (1608). 1644 the animals which dance after his [Orpheus'] harp; 

Evelyn, Diary, Vol. i. p. 58 (1872). 1648 Yet forc't ere long for a small 

bait to light, 1 The hunger of his Animall to stay : R. Fanshawe, Progr. of 
Learn., 231, p. 262. 1658 But by the attendance of Aviaries, Fish-Ponds, 

and all variety of Animals, they made their gardens the Epitome of the earth : 
Sir Th. Brown, ./iO'£^rz't'^a//i., Ep. Ded. 1665 Some i?OiJ^z>.f pearcht upon 

the Yard- Arm of our ship, and suffered our men to take them, an Animal so very 
simple as becomes a Proverb: Sir Th. Herbert, Trav., p. 11 (1677). 1675 
Subjects are stiff-neck'd Animals: Dryden, Aurenge-Z., ii. Wks., Vol. 11. 
p. 24 (1701). bef. 1682 we have not the Cicada in England, and indeed no 

proper word for that Animal : Sir Th. Brown, Tracts, IV. p. 35 (1686). 1713 
animals whose circle of living is limited to three or four hours : Pope, Letters, 
p. 112 (1737). bef. 1733 may serve to prevent the like Animal [like Oates] 
biting harmless People again : R. North, Examen, i. iii. 82, p. 181 (1740). 

I. 3. attrib. 'animal food', 'the animal kingdom, world'; 
and now generally confused with the adj., as in 'animal 

bef. 1461 Off whych I radde oonys among othir Stonys, [ There was oon 
calyd Anymal: Lydgate, in Ashmole's Theat. Ckem. Brit., p. 399 (1652). 
1668 Animal-musk seems to excel the Vegetable : Sir Th. Brown, Garden of 
Cyr., ch. iii. p. 37 (1686). 1678 Sensitive Plants and Plant-animals, cannot 
well be supposed to have A nhnal Sense and Fancy, or Express Consciousness 
in them: Cudworth, Intell. Syst., Bk. I. ch. iii. p. 160. _ 1690 the Animal 
and Vegetable Kingdoms are so nearly join'd, that if you will take the lowest of 
one, and the highest of the other, there will scarce be perceived any great differ- 
ence between them : Locke, Ess., Bk. III. ch. vi. § 12, .quoted in Spectator, 
1712, No. 519, Oct. 25, p. 740/1 (Morley). 1750 the several species of animal 

and vegetable food: Fielding, Tom Jones, Bk. I. ch. i. Wks., Vol. vi. p. 18 
(1806). 1771 observed exactly his diet, in eating no animal food: Lord 

Chesterfield, Lett., Bk. in. No. Ixxi. Misc. Wks., Vol. 11. p. 539 (1777). 
1797 M. BufFon... appears to be desirous of confounding the animal and vegetable 
kingdoms: Encyc. Brit., Vol. II. p. 22. 

II. adj.: fr. Fr. or Lat. : relating to soul, life, intellect, 
sensation, or qualities common to man and beast. 

I. Obs. applied to the functions, organs, or faculties of 
intelHgence and sensation. (Opposed to vital and natural 
in the old triple division of the functions of Animals ; whence 
is derived the phrase 'animal spirits', its meaning being 
changed in modern use from that of 'principle of sensation 
and volition' to 'healthy vivacity'.) 

abt. 1386 The vertu expulsif or Animal | ffro thilke vertu cleped natural | Ne 
may the venym voyden ne expelle : Chaucer, Knight's Tale, 2749. 1477 Of 
which three Spirits one is called Vitall, | The second is called the Spirit Naturall. | 
"The third Spirit is Spirit Animall ; T. Norton, Ordinall, ch. v. in Ashmole's Theat. 
Chem. Brit., p. 81 (1652). — The Spirit Animall dwelleth in the Braine : ib., 
p. 82. 1541 Where is the vital spirite made anymall & how: R. Copland, 
■fr. Guyda's Quest. , &'c., sig. E ii r<>. 1542 the naturall and anymall, and 

spyrytuall powers of man : Boorde, Dyetary, ch. viii. p. 245 (1870). 1543 
the membres, animale, that is to say of the heade, and hys partes : Traheron, 
Tr. Vigo's Chirurg., fol. i Vlt. — The parte conteynynge the braync, and the 
interiour partes of the same, and the Animal spirites: ib., fol. iii ro/2. 1547 

the animall sences: Boorde, Brev., p. 93. 1562 obstruccion of the sinewes, 

of the places vitalle, animall, and nutrimentalle : Bullein, Bulwarke, fol. Ixx. 
1563 vertues, animal, vital, & natural : T. Gale, Inst. Chirurg., fol. 16 r". 
1578 the brayne...doth beget the Animall spirite: J. Banister, Hist. Man, 
Bk. VIII. fol. 98 r". 1619 the first, of Naturall; the second of Vitall; the 
third, oi Animall, Spirits: Purchas, Microcosmus, ch. v. p. 35. 1667 flowers 
and their fruit, | Man's nourishment, by gradual scale sublimed, | To vital spirits 
aspire, to animal, I To intellectual: Milton, P. L., v. 484. 1712 the Rays 
that produce in us the Idea of Green, fall upon the Eye in such a due proportion, 
that they give the animal Spirits their proper Play : Spectator, No. 387, May 24, 
p. 563/2 (Morley). *1877 the animal spirits and the circulation of the blood : 
Times, June j8, p. s/6. [St.] 

II. I a. used as sb. in pi. by ellipse. 

1628 Diseases in all the regions of man's body ; in the animalls, vitalls, and 
naturalls : D. Dent, Serm. agst. Drunk. ,16. [N. E. D.] 

II. 2. pertaining to an animal (I. l) as opposed to a 
vegetable or anything lifeless. 

1615 that good thing which is proposed to a man, is something spirituall, not 
corporall nor animall: W. Bedwell, Moham. Impost., i. 8. 1691 Animal 

Parents of the same Species; J. Ray, Creation, Pt. 11 p. 308 (1701). 1797 
All animals. ..are possessed of vegetable life...whether the animal life is perfect or 
imperfect: Encyc. Brit., Vol. 11. p. 22. 


II. 2 (z. used as sb. in pi.; scarcely to be distinguished 
from I. I. 

bef. 1490 In foure Elements is comprehended things Three, | Animalls, 
Vegetabills, Mineralls must be: G. Ripley, in Ashmole's Theat. Chem. Brit., 
p. 380 (1652). 1610 your mineralls, vegetalls, and animalls; B. Jonson, 
yiM., i. I, Wks., p. 607 (1616). 1646 Minerals, Vegetables, and Animals : 

Sir Th. Brown, Pseud. Ep., Bk. 1. ch. viii. p. 25 (1686). 

II. 3. pertaining to lower animals opposed to Man or at 
least to his spiritual and intellectual being (cf I. 2). 

1619 This Animall Soule is the Sensitiue Soule, Daughter of Earth, and 
Mother of Euills; Purchas, iI/Kn>fM»iai. ch. Iviii. p. 568. 1646 Animal 

generation: Sir Th. Brown, Pseud. Ep., Bk. m. ch. xii. p. 106 (16B6). 1678 
We have all Experience, of our doing many Animal Actions Non-attendingly, % 
which we reflect upon afterwards: Cudworth, Intell. Syst., Bk. i. ch. iii. p. 160. 
*1877 poor Caliban is furious, with all the fury of uneducated animal impulse : 
Times, Jan. 18, p. 5/6. [St.] 

[From Lat. animal, sb. fr. animale, neut. of animalls, adj. 
to fl«z»za, = ' breath, life, vital principle'. The early adj. is 
fr. animalls; in some cases its position after the sb. suggests 
the adoption of the Fr. animal^ 

animal bipes, &c., phr. : Lat. : 'a two-footed animal'. 
See quot. fr. Chesterfield, who perhaps cites Martianus 
Capella, 4, § 398. 

1625 confuting that definition of man to be Animal hipes implume, which is 
nearer to a description of this creature : Purchas, Pilgrims, Vol. i. Bk. iv. p. 536. 
1748 every member at the board deigned to smile, except Mr Snarler, who 
seemed to have very little of the animal risible in his constitution: Smollett, 
Rod. Rand., ch. xvii. Wks., Vol. i. p. 99 (1817). 1749 That man is animal 

bipes, implume [featherless], risibile [able to laugh], I agree, but for the rationale^ 
I can only allow it here in aciu prima (to talk Logic) and seldom in actu secundo: 
Lord Chesterfield, Letters, Vol. i. No. 173, p. 514(1774)- 1883 animal 
risibile: Daily News, May 14, p. 4/8. 1888 Burns.. .will stand to all time as 
the best representative of all that is best in the species of the animal bipes im- 
plume called Scot: J. S. Elackie, in Manchester Exam.., Feb. i, p. 2/8, 

[In Plato, Politicus, 266 B and E, man is implicitly defined 
as animal bipes^ implume.'] 

animal rationale, _^^r. : Lat.: rational animal, living being 

endowed with reason. 

Iggl — 1703 The philosophers defined a man to be animal rationale, a 
rational animal: Th. Goodwin, Wks., in Nichol's Ser. Stand. I)ivines,'Vo\.vni. 
p. 488 (1864). ib., Vol. X. p, 44 (1865). 1684 some have rather defined man 

by animal religiosuTn than animal rationale: S. Chaknock, Wks.^ ib.y Vol, i. 
p. 132 (1864). 

animal risibile : Lat. See animal bipes. 

^animalcule {s^j. ^), sb.^ often with Lat. pi. animalcula 
(incorrectly animalculae) : Eng. fr. Lat. 

1. a small animal, an insect. 

1599 Boyle the Liver of any animalcle : A. M., Tr, Gabelhouef's Bk. Physicke, 
p. "i-ytli. 1705 We praise the pencil that well describes the external figure of 
such an animalculu?n, such a little creature: John Howe, Wks., p. 312 (1834). 
1710 insects, reptiles, animalcules; Addison, Taller, Aug. 26, Wks., Vol. 11. 
p. 155 (1854). 1837 Those wretches who, as Coleridge expresses it, are "ani- 
malculae, who live by feeding on the body of genius": J. F. Cooper, Europe, 
Vol. II. p. 120. 1866 That animalcule there, in the pea-jacket, is Louis 

Philippe: J. R. Lowell, Biglow Papers, No. vi. (Halifax). 

2. an animal too small to be seen unmagnified, first dis- 
covered by the Dutch microscopist, A. Leeuwenhoeck, 1675. 

1677 when I was come home and did view the said water, I perceived several 
animalcula, that were very small: Phil. Trans., Vol. xii. p. 825. 1691 the 

Animalcules observ'd in the Seed of Males: j. Ray, Creation, PL 11. p. 305 
(1701). ■ — those Minute Machines endued with life and motion, I mean the 
Bodies of those Animalcula, not long since discovered in Pepper'Water by 
Mr. Lewenhoek: ib., Pt. i. p. 186. 1704 so far impregnated with, as to the • 

naked Eye invisible, animalcula... zs to produce these Marine Bodies : — Three 
Discourses, ii. p. igo (1713). 1845 Some of the water placed in a glass was of 
a pale reddish tint ; and, examined under a microscope, was seen to swarm with 
minute animalcula darting about: C. Darwin, Journ. Beagle, ch. i. p. 15. 
1855 filling up the intervals by a perpetual dessert of microscopic animalcules : 
C. KiNGSLEV, Glaucus, p. 90. 1883 to degrade their organisation or to reduce 
Radicalism from its present place in the scale of organised beings to a great 
number of highly interesting polypi, extremely curious and original- minded ani- 
malcuJEe: J. Morley, in Daily News, Oct. 18, p. s/8. 

2 a. attrib. 

1752 I have added some unknown species to the animalcule kingdom : John 
Hill, Hist, of Anim.als, p. 2. [Jodrell] 

[From Lat. animalculujn, dim. of animal.'] 
animalillio, ^b. : guasi-S^., or g^uasi-lt, : little animal. 

1639 the same proportion which those animalillios bore with me in point of 
bignes, the same I held with those glorious spirits which are near the Throne of 
the Almighty: Howell, Epist. Ho-El., Vol. 11. 1. p. 341 (1678). 1696' .(4«i- 
?«a/z7/:<7, (^S^aMwA) a little Animal : Phillips, World of Words. 

[Coined from animal, -with. Sp. dim. ending -illo {-11-=^ -ly- 
or with It. -iglo (-^/- = -/k-).] 




animato, a^'z/.: It.: Mus.: direction to a performer to sing 
or play with life and spirit. 

1724 [See anima']. 1816 Encyc. Perth. 1848 Animato. Spirited, 
bold, animated; Rimbault, Pianoforte, p. go. 

animator (_'_ _ ± ^), sb. : Eng. fr. Lat. : a giver of life, 
energy, animation. 

1611 being also the principall animator of my whole band of soldiers: 
T. CoRYAT, Crudities, Vol. III. sig. O 6 V (1776). 1646 and if not fettered 

by their gravity, conform themselves to situations, wherein they best unite unto 
their Animator: Sir Th. Brown, Pseud. Ep., Bk. 11. ch. ii. p. 44 (16S6). 1826 
Fame trumpets this resurrection-man of science with as loud a blast of rapture as 
if, instead of being merely the accidental animator of the corpse, he were the 
^ ciftining artist himself who had devised and executed the miraculous machinery 
which the other had only wound up : Lord Beaconsfield, Viv. Grey, Bk. vii. 
• ch. iii. p. 397 (1881). 

[Lat. animator, noun of agent to animare,='to give life 

anim^, anime (Cotgr.), sb.: Fr.: name of a W. Indian 
resin and of some African and E. Indian resins. 

1577 The Anime is a gumme or Rosine of a greate Tree, it is white : Framp- 
TON, joyfull Newes, fol. 2 v". 1604 New Spaine, which hath that advantage 
above other Provinces in goomes, liquorsj and iuyce of trees, whereby they have 
such aboundance of matter, for perfume and phisicke, as is the Anim€, whereof 
there comes great store, copall, or suchicopal : E. Grimston, Tr. D^AcostcCs 
Hist. W. Indies^ Vol. i. Bk. iv. p. 260 (1880). 1646 Resinous or unctuous 
bodies, and such as will flame, attract most vigorously, and most thereof without 
frication ; as Anime, Benjamin: Sir Th. Brown, Pseud. Ep.^ Bk. 11. ch. iv. 
p. 59 (1686). 

animi causa, a. gratia, /^r. : Late Lat. : 'for inclination's 
{lit. mind's) sake', or ^because of animosity', 

1681 I will not do it animi causa, for pleasure's sake, because I delight in 
the thing: Th. Goodwin, Wks., in NichoVs Ser. Stand. Divines, Vol. 11. p. 179 
(r86r). 1803 an evident imposition by some of the ■^\xi\^\\s,...anitni gratia, on 
the General: Edin. Rev., Vol. 2, p. 121. 

animula vagula, &c., phr.: Lat.: 'little soul hastening- 
away', the opening of a poem on the soul ascribed to the 
Emperor Hadrian. 

1619 wel might Adrian...qua\ier himselfe on the trembling Treble, Animula 
Vagula, Blandula, PalUdula, Rigida, Nudula, &c. : Purchas, Microcosmus, 
ch. xxxii. p. 303. 1860 Once a IVeek, Jan. 7, p. 33/1. 

■^animus, sb. : Lat. : mind, impulse ; hence in mod. use, 
disposition of mind, intention, esp. malicious intention, 
animosity. Also used with the Lat. genitive gerund. 

1816 those circumstances are allowed to be proved, as throwing light upon 
the animiis, the malice, what is the main question for the Jury: Edin. Rev., 
Vol. 27, p. 114. 1827 With the animus and no doubt with the fiendish looks 
of a murderer : De Quincev, On Murder, in Blackwood's Mag. , Vol. xxi. p. 213. 
1834 This may be collected both from the animus of St, Peter. ..and from the 
answer of our Lord himself: Greswell, on Parables, Vol. i. p. 223. 1837 the 
leather had broken, and had not been cut, which materially altered the cfnimus 
of the offence: J. F. Cooper, Europe, Vol. ii. p. 166. 1863 his opinions are 

founded on what he hears Cobden has said, and on the anhfius of the peace 
party: Greville, Memoirs, 3rd Ser., i. iii. 71. 1882 The animus of the im- 
putation implies baseless in him who makes it: J. G. Holyoake, in XIX Cen- 
tury, July, p. 90. 

1885 The sacred writers. ..use the form of personated authorship which obtains 
in classical compositions, where there is no animus decipieftdi [' of deceiving '] : 
AthencEuni, Nov. 14, p. 632/1. 1823 if the animus furandi ['of stealing'] 
exists, the propensity will be gratified by poaching: Edin. Rev., Vol. 39, p. 50. 
1816 but it throws light upon the intention, and tends to disprove that animus 
injuriandi [*of injuring'].. .without which the law holds no man guilty: ib.. Vol. 
27, p. 115. abt. 1630 happily he had an animam. revertendi\^ ol T^t\xrcivs\%\ 

and to make a safe retreat: (1653) R. Naunton, Fragm.. Reg,, p. 38 (1870). 
1829 not always stationary on the premises, yet retain \i.e. the animals] the 
anitnum revertendi, or habit of returning home : Edin. Rev., Vol. 49, p. 77. 

*anisette, sb.\ Fr.: short for anisette de Bordeaux, a 
liqueur made with aniseed, 

1837 To drink with them a glass of anisette: For. Q. Rev., xix. 11. 
[N.E.D.] - 

anker, sd.\ Du. and Ger.: a liquid measure equal to 8J 
Imperial gallons, used for wine and spirits ; a cask for wine 
or spirits of the above capacity. 

1673 Reed one halfe Ankor of Drinke: Pennsylv. Arck., i. 32. [N.E.D.] 
1705 An Anchor of five Gallons is commonly sold for about two Shillings and 
three Pence English Money: Tr. Bosman's Guinea, Let. xvi. p. 288. _ 1819 
several were -intoxicated with the rum from some ankers they had designedly 
broken: Bowdich, Mission to Ashaiitee, Pt. i. ch. ii, p. 19. 

*anna, ana, sb.\ Anglo-Ind.: East Indian name of a 
species of money of account, namely, the sum of four pice 
{q. 2/.), which is one sixteenth of a rupee {q. v.\ Half annas, 
and quarter annas or pice, are coined. As applied to a share, 
or to an element of a mixture, anna denotes the fraction one 

1708 a debt due...of 80,407 Rupees and Eight Annas Money of Bengal; 
Eakl of Godolphin, in Charters, &^c., of E. L Company, p. 358, [Yule] 
1727 The current money in Surat: Bitter Almonds go 32 to a Pice, i Annoe 

is...4 Pice. I Rupee„.i6 Annoes: A. Hamilton, N'ew Ace, Vol. 11. App., p. 5. 
[ih.'\ 1776 The sum of rupees two lacks sixteen thousand six hundred and six, 
ten annas, and nine pice rupees; Claim of Roy Rada Chum, p. 9/2. ^^?^ 

Iron abounds in Singroivla, the value being from eight annas to a rupee the 
maund: J. T. Blunt, in Asiatic Res., vil 67, 1804 The price of this labour 
maybe computed.. .at two anas per diem: Colebrooke, //"mj-^. &> Comm. Bengal, 
98 (1806). [N. E. D.] 1854 I will make an inventory of them to-morrow when 
you are gone and give them up, every rupee's worth, sir, every anna, by Jove, to 
the creditors: Thackeray, Newcomes, Vol. n. ch. xxxiii. p. 362 (1879). 

[From Hind, dna^ 

annals {-L —), sb. pi. : Eng. fr. Lat. annates : records of 
events written year by year ; legal Year-books. The sing. 
annal, meaning a record of a single year or an item of a 
chronicle, is a 17 c. adaptation. 

1563 short notes in maner of Annales commonly called Abridgementes : 
Grafton, Epist. to Cecil. [R.] 1595 he likewise would relye vpon the 
annales oi Fabius pictor: W. C, Polima7iteia, sig, D 42'". 1601 we have 

found it recorded in yeerely Chronicles called Annales: Holland, Tr. Plin. 
N. H., Bk. 7, ch. 4, Vol. I. p. 158. 1603 considering that the state oi Rome 

was then ruinate, and all their annales, records, registers and memorials either 
perished or confounded: — Tr. Plut. Mor., p. 639. 1607 If you have writ 

your annals true, *tis there, | That, &c. : Shaks., Coriol., v. 6, 114. 1609 you 
read over all the Annales: Holland, Tr. Marc, Lib, 25, ch. 13, p. 280. 1621 
Read all our histories... — Iliades, ,<Eneides, Annales— and what is the subject? 
R. Burton, Ajtai. Mel., To Reader, p. loi (1827), 1642 I reade it vpon 

record in the Spajtish Annales: Howell, In^tr. For. Trav., p. 36 (i86g). 
bef. 1719 In British Annals can be found : Addison, Wks., Vol. i. p. 122 (1730). 
1787 The reign of Edward IV. is allowed to have been one of the politest and 
most cultivated periods in our annals: Ge}it. Mag., Nov., p. 947/2, 1886 The 
generalEnglishreader..,iseasily satiated with the annals of the East: AtJie?i^um, 
Sept. 18, p. 367/3. 

[First found in Lat. form annales, properly pi. of adj. an- 
ndlis, = ^ yea.rly\ with /z^n, = * books', understood.] 

annates {± It), sb.\ Eng. fr. Late Lat. or Fr.: first-fruits, 
or a year's or half year's revenue paid- to the Pope by an 
ecclesiastic on appointment to a see or benefice. In Eng- 
land the annates were a year's revenue paid to the Pope by 
an archbishop or bishop on installation. They were annexed 
by Henry VIII. to the crown in 1534, but were given up by 
Queen Anne to form a fund for the augmentation of poor 
livings called Queen Anne's Bounty. 

1532 An Acte concernyng restraynt of payment of Annates to the See of 
Rome: Stat. 23 Hejt. VIII., c. 20, Title, 1549 This bishop [Boniface IX. ] 

ordeyned the Annates, that all spirituall promocions shoulde paie to. the churche 
of Rome, halfe a yeres value at euery chaunge : W. Thomas, Hist. Ital., fol. 
63 r°. 1620 For A nnates he said, that it is de jure divino that Ty thes and 

firstfruits should be paid to the Clergy: Brent, Tr, Soave's Hist. Counc. Trent, 
Bk. VIII, p, 674 (1676). — the payment oi Annats: ib., p, 714, 

[The Fr. annate, fem. sing. sb. fr. Late Lat. pi. anndta, 
= ' year's produce', whence the Eng. plural form, if not the 
word -itself. The sing. annat{e), fr. Fr. anytate., is found in 
Scotch, meaning half a year's stipend reckoned from his 
death due to the executors of a deceased minister.] 

*an(n)atto, anatta, an(n)otto, arnotto, sb. : ? S. Amer. 

1. a red or orange colored dye, being the dried pulp 
of the seed-vessels of the annatto-tree, also called roucou 
and achiote {qq. v.). 

1629 Anotto also groweth upon a shrub, with a cod like the other [cotton], 
and nine or ten on a bunch, full of Anotto, very good for Dyers, though wilde : 
Capt, J. Smith, Whs., p. 905 (1884). 1660 Annotto, the pound j. s. : Stat. 

12 Car. II., c. 4, Sched, 1769 They paint immoderately with Amotta, or , 

Roucou: E, Bancroft, Ess. Hat. Hist. Guiana, p. 255. 1787 A little ar- 

notto is added [to the chocolate] by way of giving it an agreeable flavour and taste 
as well as colour: Gent. Mag., p. 998/2, 1789 The conditions.. .under which 

Annotto may be entered without payment of any duty whatever : Stat. 27 
Geo. HI, c. 13, Sched. A. 1819 ANNOTTO, in Commerce, a kind of red 

dye,, .otherwise denominated arnatto, anate, altole, and roucou : Rees. 

2. the AnnattO'tre^, ?'bixwort {q. v.), Bixa Orellana, Nat. 
Order Flacourtiaceae, a native of tropical America. 

anneele, annell: Eng. fr. Arab. See anil. 

*annexe, sb, : Fr. : an addition to a main building. The 
word was made familiar by the machinery annexes of the 
London -Exhibition of 1862. Also Anglicised as annex. 

1855 A Walk through the Universal Exhibition ^1855, p. 194 (Galignani). 
1882 The National Assembly of 1789 sate in what was then a portion or annexe 
of the Tuileries: Standard, Dec. 6, p. 5. 1886 The University Galleries are 
to be enlarged by the addition of an annexe: Atfietuzum, ^vXy ■^, ■^. 17/2. 

annihilator {—iL — ±z),sb.'. Eng.: one who, that which, 
brings to nothing or annihilates. 

1698 Witwood, you are an annihilator of sense: Congreve, Way of Worlds 
iv. p. [Jodrell] 1814 If the Scriptures present difficulties to the advocate of 
limited,. .Punishment, they present them tenfold to the annihilators : S. T. Cole- 



RIDGE, Unpubl. Letters to Rev. J. P. Estlin, p. log (H. A. Bright, 1884). 1850 
The fire annihilator : Household IVords, June 15, p. 277. 

[From Eng. annihilate, for annihilater, as if noun of agent 
to Late Lat. annihilare,='to bring to nothing' {nihil).'\ 

annil(e): Eng. fr. Arab. See anil. 

a,Ta.ii.o,partofphr.: Lat.: 'in the year'; ahl. of Lzt. annus, 
short for anno Domini or a. Christi (grg. v.). 

1538 ye maye see in a plee Anno .31. E .3.": Tr. Littleton's Tenures, Bk. in. 
ch. xiii. fol. ISO v. 1584 in his Almanacke anno 1580: T. Coghan, Haven 

of Health, p. 219. — which was so profitablie inuented by that woorthie Prince 
Gambriuius an7io 1786 yeares before the incarnation of our Lorde Jesus Christ: 
ib., p. 224. 1598 in Anno 1588 : R. Barret, Theor. of Warres, p. i.- 1598 
The 10. of May anno 1563. we departed: R. Hakluyt, Voyages, Vol. i. p. 353. 
1621 At Bologne in Italy, a7ino 1504, there was such a fearful earthquake about 
eleven a clock in the night: R. Burton, Anat. Mel., Pt. 1, Sec. 2, Mem. 4, 
Subs. 3, Vol. I. p. 221 (1827). 1630 Since Anno fifteene hundred fifty fine: 

John Taylor, IVks., sig. Mm i z«'/2. 1729 I received a letter for the burial 
of Mr. Robert Lithgow, minister of Ashkirk, in whose ordination, anno. 1711, 
I had been actor : T. Boston, Memoirs, Wks. , Vol. xil. p. 394 (1854). 

anno Christi, ^i^r.: Late Lat.: 'in the year of Christ', 
another form of anno Domini {q. v.). 

1642 A7ino Christi 1559. ..the nobility of Scotland. ..sente for him [John 
Knox] home: Th. Fuller, Abel Rediv., Vol. 11. p. 2(1867). 1657 so that 

pseudo-Moses. ..made many.. .Jews of Crete believe that he would do for them 
whom he cozened into the midst of the sea to their destruction, Anno Christi 434; 
John Trapp, Com. Old Test., Vol. in. p. 434/2 (1868). 1662 as Bede noteth 

of the Britons, anno Christi 420: — Com. 2 Sam., xxiv. 17, Wks., V0I..1. 
P- 537/1- 

*anno Domini, pkr. : Late Lat. : 'in the year of (our) 
Lord', in the year of the Christian era, reckoned from the 
date assigned to the birth of Christ by Dionysius Exiguus, 
which is now thought to be six years too late (Ideler, 
ChronoL, II. pp. 399 ff.); usually abbreviated to A. D. 

1538 At Whitbye, the viij day of Octobre anno Domini 1538: Suppress, of 
Monasi., p. 249 (Camd. Soc, 1843). 1554 wherein the good man continued 
till his death, A. D. 1382 : Bp. Bale, Sel. IVks., p. 133 (1849). 1610 in the 
first year of William Rufus A. D. 1086: J. Denton, Acc. of Cumberland, 106 
(1887). 1642 Andronicus (anno Domini 1184) having now left him neither 

army to fight, nor legs to fly. ..betook himself to his tongue: Th. Fuller, Holy 
&^ Prof. State, p. 442 (1841). 1662 This [the destruction of the temple of 

Julian] was Anno Dom. 360 : John Trapp, Com. , Vol. I. p. 140/1 (1867). 1665 
whose coronation Anno Domini 1584 was celebrated with wonderful magnifi- 
cence: Sir Th. Herbert, Trav., p. 218(1677). 1682 None of your orna- 
ments are wanting : neither the landscape of the Tower, nor the rising Sun, nor 
the Anno Domini of your new soveraign's coronation: Dryden, Medal, Ep., 
Wks., p. 123 (1870). 1818 some old figure of fun, 1 With a coat you might 

date Anno Domini i: T. Moore, Fudge Family, p. 26. 1830 the 4th day of 
March, Anno Domini 1829: Congress. Debates, Vol. VI. Pt i. p. 157. 1842 
Signed. ..this 20th of May, | Anno Domini, blank (though I've mentioned the 
day,): Barham, Ingolds. Leg., p. 381 (1865). 1864 But in this present Anno 
Domini, we hail Charles Honeyman as a precept and an example : Thackeray, 
Newcomes, Vol. i. ch. xiii. p. 157 (1879). 

anno mundi,//zr. : Late Lat. : 'in the year of the world', 
reckoned from the supposed date of the creation, which 
Ussher gives as 4004 years before the beginning of the 
Christian era. Sometimes abbreviated to A. M. 

1665 Moses. ..\\ve^^ An?io mundi 2430: Sir Th. Herbert, Trav., p. 49 

annotator {2. —. ± — ), sb. : Eng. fr. Lat. : one who makes 
notes or comments on a text. 

* 1646 as a good Annotator of ours delivereth, out of Maimonides : Sir Th. 
Brown, Pseud, Ep., Bk. v. ch. xxi. p. 217 (1686). 18.. "Take at its just 

worth" (Subjoins an annotator) "What I give as hearsay": R. Browning, 
Protus, ad fin. 

[Lat. annotator, noun of agent to annotare, = '-\.o make 
notes on'.] 

annuluS; JiJ. : Lat.: 'a ring', applied technically to various 
ring-like surfaces or solids. 

1660 I dined with that great. ..discoverer of the phenomenon of Saturn's an- 
nulus: Evelyn, Diary, Vol. i. p. 366 (1872). 1752 The body of the am- 

phisbsena has a number of circular annuli surrounding it, from the head to the 
extremity of the tail : John H11.1., Hist, of Animals, p. loi. [Jodrell] 1834 
certain descriptions of fruit are supphed exclusively from a narrow annulus of 
soil: Edin. Kev., Vol. 60, p. loo. 1878 thus making it a portion of an 

annulus instead of a cylinder: G. G. Scott, Roy. Acad. Led., Vol. I. p. 57. 
1879 the main surrounding vault, if uncut by others, would assume the form of 
a portion of an annulus or ring : ib.. Vol. n. p. 166. 1883 The eye [is] 

adorned with a reddish outer annulus: Sat. Rev., Vol. 55, p. 305. 

annunciator {^M-J- -), sb. : Eng. fr. Lat. : one who, or 
that which, announces ; an officer in the Greek Church who 
announces coming festivals ; an American name for the indi- 
cator connected with an electric bell showing from whence 
the summons comes. 


1753 Annuntiaior, in the Greek church, an officer whose is to give 
notice of the feasts and holy days : Chambers, Cycl., Suppl. 1846 appeal to 
Moses and the prophets as annunciators of the death of Jesus : Tr. Strauss* Life 
of yesus,% loy. [C.E.D.] 1878 Relay with annunciator disk : Prescott, 

Speaking Telephone, <Vc. (New York). 

[Lat. anhuntiator, noun of agent to annuntidre, = ' to an- 

annus magnus,/,^^. : Lat.: 'a great year', the period of 
time in which ancient astronomers supposed the constel- 
lations to complete a great cycle and arrive at the same 
place as they occupied at the beginning of the cycle ; accord- 
ing to some ancient writers, 15,000 ordinary years. ' 

1690 That which they [astronomers] call Annus Magnus, or the Great Year: 
T. Burnet, rfeor. e/^.Ear^/i, Bk. iv. p. 27. 1693 all that Space of 

Time is called the Great Year, Annus Magnus: J. Ray, Three Discourses, ii. 
p. 330 (1713). bef. 1719 So that the compUment on this medal to the Emperor 
Adrian, is in all respects the same that Virgil makes to Pollio's son, at whose birth 
he supposes the annus magnus or Platonical year run out and renewed again with 
the opening of the golden age: Addison, IVks., Vol. I. p. 288 (Bohn, 1854). 
1808 the idea of an annus magnus, one of the great astronomical periods by 
which so many days and years are circumscribed: Edin-. Rev., Vol. ir, p. 272. 
1834 the duration assigned to each of them [races] by the Divinity was., .measured 
by the revolution of an annus magnus or great year : Greswell, on Parables, 
Vol. I. p. 347. — It is implied in this tradition that, after eight ai these anni 
magni, or great years, each generation of mankind would have had its appointed 
turn of existence : ib, 

annus mirabilis,/^r.: Lat.: 'a marvellous year'. 

1660 Annus Mirabilis, 1659—60: Evelyn, Diary, Vol. I. p. 334 (1850). 
1667 Dryden, Title. 1689 J. Partridge, Aiinus Mirabilis ; or Strange and 
Wonderful Predictions gathered out of his Almanack, 1688. 1767 This has 

been every where an annis [sic] mirabilis for bad weather : Lord Chesterfield, 
Letters, Vol. 11. No. 188, p. 522 (1774). 1885 the years of evil fame which 

followed the annus mirabilis of 1815 : T. Hughes, in Good Words, p. 63. 

anomal(e), adj., also used as sb.: Eng. fr. Fr. anomal, fem. 
anoinale : irregular, anomalous ; an anomaly, an instance of 

1530 what verbes be with them anomales : Palsgr., sig. A vi r*". 1569 
Whiche thinges because they haue neither measure, nor rule, are called Anomals : 
J. Sanford, Agrippa's Van. Artes, 107. [N. E. D.] 1618 Fortune. ..hath 

likewise her Anomola: Reliq. Wotton., p. 171 (1654). 

[From Late Lat. anomalus, fr. Gk. dj'a)/iaXor, = ' uneven'.] 
dvojjiCa, sb. : Gk. : lawlessness. 

1662 By all this you see that amongst all irrational beings there is no o.vo\, 
and therefore no a/xaprta, and therefore no.Tt^wpt'a: N. Culverwel, Light of 
Nature, ch. vi. p. 42. 1668 that [sin] is generally said to be a.voii.ia., a trans- 

gression of the law: John Howe, Wks., p. 194/2 (1834). 1834 .since it were 
a contradiction in terms to suppose the Pharisees could be inwardly_/}i//of avo/iia, 
as these asserted : Greswell, on Parables, Vol. iv. p. 306. 1884 In the 

household of faith the pestilential influence of that lawlessness — that dvojuia, — 
which is a chief spiritual disease of this era of the world's history, is not altogether 
unfelt:' Tablet, p. 722/ r. 

anona, sb. : Sp. an{n)ona : name of the custard apple of 
tropical America, and in Bot. of plants of the same genus. 

1604 As for the Blanc-mange, it is that Anona or Guanavana which growes 
in Tierra Firme, which is fashioned like vnto a peare... It is no whit meate, 
though they call it Blanc-mange: E. Grimston, Tr. D'Acosta's Hist. W. Indies, 
Vol. I. Bk. iv. p. 251 (1880). 

Anonyma, a false feminine formation fr. Gk. avavvfioi, 
masc. and fem. fl;<^'., = 'nameless', used to designate any 
well-dressed female of bad character who frequents fashion- 
able resorts. 

1864 Is that Anonyma driving twin ponies in a low phaeton, a parasol 
attached to her whip, and a groQm with folded arms behind her? Bah! there 
are so many Anonymas now-a-days: G. A. Sala, Quite Alone, Vol. I. ch. i. 
p. 2. 

anonyme, Fr., anonymus, Lat.: sb.: a nameless person, 
one whose name is suppressed; a designation adopted to 
hide a person's own name, a pseudonym; an anonymous 
work. Anglicised recently as anonym, but no good authority 
is cited for the form in N. E. D. 

1591 Remedies against Discontentment. Anonymus: Title. 1652 This 
Dialogue is there placed among the Anonymi, in regard I then knew not the 
Authxir: E. AsHMOLE, Theat. Chem. Brit., Annot., p. 484. 1654 to read all 
Authors, a.sAnonymo's, looking on the Sence, not Names oi Books: R. Whit- 
lock, Zooiomia, p. 208. 1814 I thought an anonyme within my pact with 
the public : Byron, in Moore's Life, Vol. iii. p. 67 (1832). — There was a mental 
reservation in my pact with the public, in behalf of «M07zywej : ib., p. 65. 

'^anorezia, sb. : Late Lat. fr. Gk. dvope^ia : want of appetite. 
The form anorexic may be through Fr. 

[1603 One while the Boulime, then the Anorexic, I Then the Dog-hunger or 
the Bradypepsie : J. Sylvester, Tr. Du Bartas, Funes, 450.] 1626 Ano- 

rexia, A queasinesse of stomacke : Cockeram, Pt. i. (2nd Ed.), 


ansa, sb.: Lat. : a handle, a hold. In Astroti. ansae are 
the projections of Saturn's ring, which have a handle-like 
appearance ; formerly Anglicised as anses. 

1652 Efiicietus confessing that he had not the right nttsa, the true appre- 
hension of things: N. Culveewel, Light of Nature, ch. xii. p. 129. 1660 any 
one who deals freely. ..with this price of God's truth may from thence find a far 
hetter ansa of answering: J. Smith, Sel. Disc, p. 108 (1673). 1666 the Atisa 
(or Checks of the Ballanoe) : Phil. Trans., Vol. I. No. 14, p. 235. 1696 That 
God is willing and able are two ansas, two handles, on which both the hands of 
faith may take hold: D. Claekson, Pract. TVks., Nichol's Ed., Vol. I. p. 179 

anta. See antae or dante. 

antae, Lat., antes, Eng. fr. Lat. perhaps through Fr. 
antes : sb. pi. : rarely anta, sing, (quasi- Lat.). The square 
pillars which form the front ends of the side walls of a Greek 
temple or similar building ; kence, pilasters at the corners of 
buildings, or pilasters or pillars on opposite sides of a door. 

159S The first (according to Vitru:) they call Anta, as you would say the 
fronte in ih^ pilasters. Where the ^\a^ jiilasters are made in the corners, which 
are also from their owne name called Antte: R. Haydocke, Tr. Lomatius, 
Bk. I. p. io5. 1707 AjUes, in Architecture are square Pilasters which the 
Antients placed at the Comers of their Temples : Glossogr. Angl. Nova, 1721 
Bailey. 1820 its only external ornament being a pediment supported by two 
Doric columns between the Antae, or pilasters, at the angles : T. S. Hughes, 
Trav. in Sicily, Vol. i. ch. i. p. 25. 

Antaeus: Lat. fr. Gk. 'Ai/raZor: Gk. Mythol.: a Libyan 
giant, son of Earth, who gained fresh strength whenever he 
touched his mother, but Hercules (Herakles) held him off 
the ground in a wrestling bout and squeezed him to death. 

1600 much like a second Antesus, gathering greater strength and more forces : 
Holland, Tr. Livy, Pref., sig. A vi v°. 1721 Antasus could, by magic 
charms, | Recover strength whene'er he fell ; | Alcides held him in his arms, I 
And sent him up in air to Hell. 1 Directors, thrown into the sea, | Recover 
strength and vigour there ; | But may be tam'd another way, | Suspended for a 
while in air: Swift, South Sea Project, Wks., p. 593/1 (1869). 

antanaclasis, sb.: Gk. di/7-ai/aKXacrti,='reflection', 'echo': 

1. a figure in which a word is repeated in a different or 
contrary sense from that which it bore before. 

1589 Antanaclasis, or the Rebounde: Puttenham, Eng. Poes., ill. xix. 
p. 216 (i86q). 1646 Nor would his resolutions have ever run into that mortal 
Antanaclasis, and desperate piece of Rhetorick, to be compriz'd in that he 
could not comprehend: Sir Th. Brown, Pseud. Ep., Bk. vii. ch. xiii. p. 298. 
1657 Antanaclasis, A figure when the same word is repeated in a divers if not 
in a contrary signification.. .also a retreat to the matter at the end of a long 
parenthesis: J. ^taita. Myst. Rhet., 107. [N. E. D.] 1681 And, in common 
speech. ..such antanaclases..,3x^ frequent: John Howe, IVks., p. 337/1(1834). 
1696 Antanaclasis, {Greek, a beating back) a Rhetorical figure, wherein the 
same word in likeness is repeated in a various signification : Phillips, World 
of Words. 1711 he told me that he [Mr. Swan, the famous Punnster] gene- 
rally talked in the P aranotnasia, that he sometimes gave into the Plod, but that 
in his humble Opinion he shined most in the Antanaclasis'. Spectator, No. 61, 
May 10, p. loo/i (Morley). 

2. the reiteration of words previously used, after a long 

1657 [See I]. ' 

Antar, the, hero of a celebrated Arabian romance, based 
on the adventures of the warrior and poet more correctly 
named 'Antara ben Shaddad. Hence 'Anteri{T$\. ^Anatird), 
= 'a reciter of romances' (in Egypt), Lane, Mod. Egypt., 
p. 23. 

1819 Thus I amused myself with acting the knight-errant ; and, in my own 
mind, became another Antar: T. Hope, Anast., Vol. 11. ch. iv. p. 71 (1820). 
1849 The brother of the Queen of the English is no less than an Antar : Lord 
Beaconsfield, Tancred, Bk. iv. ch. ii. p. 244 (1881). bef. 1863 Ustening to 
the story-teller reciting his marvels out of "Antar" or the "Arabian Nights": 
Thackeray, Rotmdadout Papers, p. 5 (1879). 

antar: Eng. fr. Fr. See antre. 

ante^/r^/. : Lat.: 'before', 'in front of; generally used 
in composition as in ante-chapel, antedate, ante-room, 

1584 I have added to my rules, ante rules, and post rules. Vale : W. Bathe, 
Introd. to Skill of Song, sig. A iii V. 1888 A comparison of this with the 
other list [ante, p. 62] shows: Westmoreland Note-Bk., p. 132. 

ante'-: Sp. See dante. 

ante Agamemnona: Lat. See vixere fortes a. A. 

ante bellum, phr. : Lat. : 'before the war' : used in the 
United States as adj., in reference to the Great Civil War. 

1883 A return to the ante bellum state of Society was, of course, impossible ; 
Standard, Sept. 17, p. 5/2. 1888 During the ante bellum period the slavery 

interest maintained this rule [two-thirds rule] as an easy device for preventing the 
choice of a candidate objectionable to the South : New York Evening Post. 



ante meridiem, /^^. : Lat: 'before noon'; usually ab- 
breviated to A. M. 

1647 if your hour of the day be in the morning, or as we say Ante Meridiem, 
or before noon: W. Lilly, Chr. Astrol., ch. iv. p. 41. 

anteambulo, pi. -ones, sb. : Lat. : one who walks before, 
an usher. 

1609 [A serving-man] is the anteambulo of a gentlewoman, the consequent of 
a gentleman : Man in Moone, 95 (1857). [N. E. D.] 1612—3 private gentle- 
men that were but ante ambulores [sic], and went only to accompany them : 
J. Chamberlain, in Court <S^ Times of Jas. /., Vol. l. p. 229 (1848). 1641 

An anteambulo to usher in a thousand pains : Maisterton, Serm., 18. [N.E.D.] 

antecedents, sb. : Fr. antMdens : bygone incidents of a 
career or history (of persons or institutions), usually with 
reference to present character or future conduct. In other 
senses antecedents is the plural of the 14 c. antecedent, from 
Fr. anticddent borrowed again in the above special sense 
in the 19 c. 

1841 They will... sift what the French call their antecedents, with the most 
scrupulous nicety: Gen. Thompson, .^jrt^nr., VI. 237. [N. E. D.] 1845 but 
the antlcSdens of that house were not favourable to this speculation : J. W. 
Z^OYi-B,^, Essays Fr. Rev., 1. -9. T-i(TS>ii). 1852 To take office as a Protec- 

tionist, and then spontaneously abandon the_ principle of Protection, would in- 
volve a degree of baseness, from the imputation of which I should have hoped 
that my 'antecedents' (to borrow a French expression) might have relieved me: 
.Lord Derby, in Lord Malmesbury's Me7noirs of an Ex-Minister, Vol. i. p. 299 
(1884). 1854 she had been especially warned against Jack as a wicked young 
rogue, whose antecedents were wofuUy against him: Thackeray, Newcom^s, 
Vol. I. ch. xxviii. p. 321 (1879). 

antecenium, sb. : Late Lat. : a slight repast before supper 

1820 Before dinner a dessert, or anteccenium, was placed upon the table : 
T. S. Hughes, Trav. in Sicily, Vol. II. ch. iii. p. 51. 1820 I will retain 
nothing of the Grecian entertainments but the form of their supper which consisted 
as you know of the n-pdjrojLta or anteccenium : Hans Busk, BaTiqtiet, Pref., 
p. vii. 

antecessor, sb. : Eng. fr. Lat. : one who goes before. 

1. a predecessor in office or work. 

1494 He shulde folowe the stablenes of his antesessours...and ponysshe mys- 
doers: Fabyan, vi. clxi. 154. 

2. an ancestor. 

1474 Of his grauntsir^ fader and of alle his antecessours : Caxton, Chesse, 53. 

3. a predecessor in ownership of property. 

1538 the deth of his antecessour at the common lawe: Tr. Littletoji's Tenures, 
Bk. I. ch. ix. fol. 17 r". 

[From Lat. antecessor (whence ancestor through Fr. 
ancestre), noun of agent to antecedere, = 't.o go before'. The 
word may have come fr. 14, 15 cc. Fr. antecesseur, a re- 
fashioning of ancesseur after Lat. antecessor-em, ace] 

*antennae, sb. pi. : Late Lat. fr. Lat. antenna, = ' sail- 
yard': a pair of sensory organs of insects and Crustacea, 
also called horns ox feelers; hence, metaph. organs of feeling ; 
also, Bot. a pair of sensitive processes in the male flowers of 
certain orchids! The sing, antenna is sometimes used for 
one of the pair. 

1646 Insects that have antenme, or long horns to feel out their way, as 
Butterflyes and Locusts: Sir Th. Brown, Pseud, Ep., Bk. III. ch. xviii. p. i2r 
(1686). 1797 Encyc. Brit, 1811 nothing could overcome those instinctive 
feelings, the antenncz of our duty : L. M. Hawkins, Countess, Vol. I. p. 376 (2nd 
Ed.). 1843 as for the drawing of the beetle, there were no antennts visible : 

E. A. PoE, Wks,, Vol. Lp. 8(1884). 1845 The wasp.. .making short semi- 

circular casts, and all the time rapidly vibrating its wings and antenna : C. Darwin, 
Joum. Beagle, ch. ii. p. 36. 

\Antennae was used in 15 c. to translate Aristotle's Kepalai, 
= 'horns of insects', Lat. cornicula, because xepaiat also 
= 'ends of sail-yards', Lat. cornua antennarum.l 

antep(a)enultima, sb.: Late Lat.: Prosody: the syllable 
before the last but one of a word, the last syllable but two. 
Shortened to antepenult, adj. and sb. See paenultima. 

1581 ' The French, in his whole language, hath not one word, that hath his 
accent in the last silable, sauing two, called Antepenultima : Sidney, Def Poesie, 
p. 71 (1868). 1589 antipenultimaes ', Puttenham, Eng, Poes,, 11. vi. p. 92 

(1869). 1597 Your penult and antepenult notes; Th. Morley, Mus,, p. 76. 

1830 It [metrical accent] makes the penultima long, if the last is long, in thesis,... 
the antepenult, if the following syllable is .short, in arsis: J. Seagee, Tr. Her- 
fnann's Metres, Bk. I. ch. x. p. 20. 

[Properly a fem. adj., = 'antepenultimate', with syllaba, 
= ' syllable', understood.] 

antepast: Eng. fr. It. See antipasto. 



anteport(a), j^.: It: antiporta, 

1. a hanging before a door. 

1625 The A nteportaes were of cloth of Gold "of Bursia : Purchas, Pilgrims, 
Vol. II. Bk, ix. p. 1583. 

2. an outer door or gate. 

1644 Between the five large ante-ports are columns of enormous height : 
Evelyn, Diary, Vol. i. p. 126(1872). 

anterior {±it^^\ adj.\ Eng. fr. Lat. anterior, com- 
parative adj. fr. antej = 'he{ove\ or fr. Fr. antirieur, 

1, before, in front of, in reference to position or motion. 

1641 From the anteryour parte commeth .vii. payre of sinewes sensytyfes : 
R. Copland, Tr. Guydds Quest., &'c., sig. E ii 7^. 1678 the Anterior corner 
admitting ye first Processe of the Cubittei J. Banister, Hist. Man, Bk. i. 
fol. 3?-". — the anteriour part of the inferiour iawe: ib., Bk. iv. fol. 48?^. 
1627 So it is manifest ; That where the Anteriour Body giueth way, as fast as the 
Posteriour commeth on, it maketh no Noise : Bacon, Nat. Hist. , Cent. ii. § 1 15. 

2. before, of time; prior, earlier; sometimes with the 
prep. to. 

1728 And thus it doth appear, that the first Dunciad was the first Epic poem, 
written by Homer himself, and anterior even to the Iliad or Odyssey: M. Scrib- 
LERUS, in Pope's JVks., Vol. v. p. xl. (1757). 1882 Melchizedek, the kingly 

Priest of Peace, anterior and superior to Aaron: Farrar, Early Days Chr., 
Vol. I. ch. xviii. p. 34$. 

Anteros: Gk. 'Avrepas: a deity supposed by ancient 
Greeks to avenge slighted love, or a deity that resisted the 
power of love; see Eros. In Plato, aprepQ)ff, = ' returned 
love', *love for love', 

1600 What ! feather'd Cupid masqued, | And masked like Anteros ? E. Jonson, 
Cynth. Rev., v. 3, Wks., p. 103/2 (i860). 1817 -He [lamblicus] who from out 

their fountain dwellings raised | Eros and Anteros, at Gadara: Byron, Manfred, 
II. ii. Wks., Vol. XI. p. 33 (1832). 

antesignanus, sb. : Lat. : one of a chosen band of Roman 
soldiers who fought before the standard (ante signutn) and 
defended it ; hence in Eng. Lit. metaph. a champion, a pre- 
cursor {q. v.). Anglicised as a7itesignan(e). 

1602 so as what to make of him for my part I know not, vnlesse an Ante- 
signa7ie or immediate forerunner of Ajitichrist: W. Watson, Quodlibets of 
Relig. &> State, p. 325. — being like antesignanes of some horrible monster to 
be brought foorth very shortly after: ib., p. 17. 1611 Nicolaus Serrarius the 
Antesignanus of all the Jesuiticall familie used me more kindly and familiarlie : 
T. Corvat, Crudities, Vol. 11. p. 438 (1776), 1657 the most wise Hermes 

and most pious Phylosopher of reverend antiquity th^ Antesignan of Naturall 
Phylosophers : H. Pinnell, Philos. Ref, p. 214. 

anthelion, sb. : Mod. Gk. dvdijXiov^ fr. Gk. di/r^Xto?, adj.^ 
=^ opposite the sun' : a halo surrounding the shadow of an 
observer cast by the sun on cloud or mist, generally seen in 
alpine or arctic regions. 

1670 The Anthelion, observed by M. Hevelius Sept. 6, 1661, in which there 
were two coloured Arches of a circle : Pkil. Trans. , Vol. v. p. 1072. [N. Ei D.] 
1760 Soon after a very distinguishable Mock-Sun, opposite to the true one, which 
I take to have been an Anthelion, appeared: ib.. Vol. Lii. p. 94. — Instances of 
Anthelia are extremely rare : ib., p. 96. 1797 Eticyc. Brit. 1853 tangent 
circles, parhelia, anthelia, and parasefenae, came to us in rapidly-varying succes- 
sion: E. K. Kane, Tst Griniiell Exped., ch. xxxv. p. 312. 

anthera, sb. : Lat. fr. Gk. dvdrjpa : — a compound medicine 
made from flowers, used for ulcers of the mouth. 

1. the internal organs of sundry flowers, such as roses, 
crocuses, used as drugs. 

1526 Crete Herball. 1543 Anthera is the yelowe in the myddest of a 

rose, and it is colde and drye in the fyrst degree wyth stipticitie : Traheron, Tr. 
Vigors Chirurg., fol. clxxxvi v°lx. 

2. (pi. antherce) an apex of the stamen of a flower, one of 
the vessels containing pollen. Anglicised as a7ither. 

1706 Anthera, the yellow seeds in the middle of a Rose. ..Among Herbalists 
Antkerce are taken for those little knobs that grow on the top of the Stamina of 
Flowers, and are oftner call'd Apices : Phillips, World of Words. 1738 
Anthera in pharmacy, a term used by some authors for the yellow, or ruddy 
globules in the middle of certain flowers, as of lilies, saffron, etc. Some confine 
the Anthera to the yellowish globules in the middle of roses.. .Others apply the 
name Anthers to those little tufts or knobs which grow on the tops of the stamina 
of flowers; more usually called apices: Chambers, Cycl. 1819 I found the 

two anthera fastened to it, without filaments, and between them laid the style, the 
stigma having a small hook at the back to fasten it between the two anthera : 
BOWDICH, Mission to Ashantee, Pt. 11. ch. xiii. p. 444. 1830 The genuine 

anthera, which he [Jacquin] calls antheriferous sacs: Lindley, Nat. Syst. Bot., 
p. 212. 

Anthony. See Saint Anthony. 

anthoSjj-^.: Gk. ai/^os, = ' flower': old name of rosemary. 

1543 of ye iuce of anthos: Traheron, Tr. Vigors Chirurg., fol. cclxyii r<>ii. 
— wormewoode, anthos, mugwoorte, calamynt .ana. m .i.: ib., fol. cclxix r^\x. 
1738 Chambers, Cycl. 


anthrax, sb.: Lat. fr. Gk. ai/5pa|, = 'coal', 'carbuncle': 
carbuncle; also splenic fever in sheep and cattle and the 
carbuncular disease caught by mankind from animals so 

1398 enoynte therwyth the sore place/For yf the Tryacle be pressed, and it 
be a very Antrax. the Tryacle shall draw oute the matere that is drye and 
venemous: Trevisa, Tr. Barth. De P. R., vii. lix. sig. r vii z/o/i. 1527 de- 
fcndeth a body from Antrax /that be the great yll fauoured Waynes of the pesty- 
lence: L. Andrew, Tr. BruTiswicMs Distill., Bk. ii. ch. ccxxvi. sig. P iv ro/i. 
1543 whyche ye shall stampe together and incorporate them and laye them vpon 
the carbuncle or anthrax: Traheron, Tr. Vig<)s Chirurg., fol. xxxii ro/i. 
1663 What is Anthrax 1 ..."^hzt. same which we cal Carbunculus and is an 
vlcerous tumor; T. Gale, Inst. Chirurg., fol. 23 r". 

anthrdpcmorplidsis, sb.: badly coined fr. Late Gk. avdpa- 
770/^0^(^060/, = 'to represent in man's shape': description in 
terms applicable to mankind, personification in human shape 
or character. If such a word were wanted, it should be 
anthropomorphosia, -sy, but the earlier anthropomorphism 

antlir6popath(e)ia, sb.: Late Lat. fr. Gk. avQpamoTtaS^m, 
= ' humanity': ascription (to deity) of the feelings (jra^i;) of 
man (avdpamos). Anglicised in 17 c. as anthropopathie. 

1578 He bringeth in God speaking after the manner of men, by a figure called 
Anthropofathia: T\KU7., Calvin on Gen., x^p. [N.E.D.] 1680 But I rather 
think it is an aiithropopathea, or usual figure in speech by which the Spirit of God 
stoops to the imbeciUty of our understandings: J. Flavel, Wks., Vol. 11. p. 493 
(1799). 1684 A smell is here attributed to God by an Ai/epuiTrojroieeia ; 
S.. Charnock, Wks., in Nichol's Ser. Stand. Divines, Vol. iv. p. 542 (1865). 

♦anthropophagi, sb. pi. [sing, anthropophagus) : Lat. fr. 
Gk. av6pa>7r64>ayoi : man-eaters, cannibals. Anglicised as 
anthropophagy, anthropophague. 

1552 Histories make mention of a people called anthropophagi, men-eaters ; 
B. Gilpin, Serm. be/. Edw. VI. [T.] 1555 In this Hand also are people 

called Anthropophagi, which are wont to eate mens fleshe; R. Eden, Newe 
India, p. 23 (Arber, 1885). 1584 Then are they kin to the Anthropophagi 

and Canibals: R, Scott, Disc. Witch., Bk. II. ch. ix. p. 33. 1600 the in- 

habitants. ..being for the most part Anthropophagi, or men eaters: R. Hakluvt, 
Voyages, Vol. III. p. 19. 1602 was a crueller death then to haue beene torne 

in peeces and eaten vp aliue amongst A nthropophagies : W. Watson, Quodlibets . 
of Relig. ^ State, p. 339. — Tfie very Canibals and Anthropophagies: ib., 
p. 83. 1604 And of the Canibals that each others eate, | The Antropqphague 
[?for.^V], and men whose heads | Grew beneath their shoulders : Shaks., 0th., 
i. 3, 144 (1623). 1621 to devour houses and towns, or as those anthropophagi, 
to eat one another: R. Burton, Anat. Mel., To Reader, p. 53 (1827). 1625 
B. Jonson, Stap. of News, iii. i, p. 42 (1631). 1642 Nay further, we are 

what we all abhor, Anthropophagi and Cannibals : Sir Th. Brown, Relig. Med., 
§ xxxvii. Wks., Vol. 11. p. 379 (1852). 1665 Icthyophagi. ..raoYS properly [called] 
Anthropophagi: Sir Th. Herbert, Trav., p. 17 (1677). 1665 an Anthro- 
pophagus or Indian Man-eater: R. Head, Engl. Rogue, sig. Ee 4 v°. 1673 
Giants s.n6. Anthropophagi: Dryden, ^jjz^., Ded., Wks., Vol. I. p. 515(1701). 
1674 the danger of associating with these Anthropo-phagi or Man-Eaters \Bully- 
Rooks'\ : Compl. Gatnester, p. 9. 1829 Would he not suppose that the General 
Government was some foreign myriad, of the family of the Anthropophagi, with a 
Napoleon at their head : Congress. Debates, Vol. V. p. 289/1. 

Antiano: It. See Anziano. 

antibacchlus, sb.: Late Lat. for Gk. vno^aKx^ios or nciKip.- 
^aKx^ios : a. reversed bacchius {q. v.), a metrical foot consist- 
ing of two long syllables followed or preceded by a short 
syllable, as archdeacon, reform-league. 

1589 the molossus spends all three parts of his race slowly and egally. 
Bacchius his first swiftly, and two last parts slowly. The iribrachus all his three 
parts swiftly: the aittibacchius his two first partes slowly, his last and third 
swiftly: Puttenham, Eng. Foes., 11. iii. p. 83 (1869). 1855 The three Paeonic 
feet are, the Creticus -i^-i, the Bacchius w.i^, and the Antibacchlus J-J..^: 
L. ScHMlTz, Tr. ZuTnpfs Lat. Grammar, p. 552 (4th Ed.). 

[The prefix anti- is for Gk. di/rt-, = 'against', 'counter', 
'opposite to', 'opposed to'. In Eng. compounds, anti- 
means 'opposed to', with the idea of 'opposing personator 
of, as in antichrist {q.v), or 'pretending rival of, as in 
antipope, anti-CcBsar ; 'the opposite to' as in anticlimax, 
anti-wit; 'placed opposite to', as in antichorus; 'in contrast 
with', as in antimasque; more usually, 'opposed to', forming. 
attributive compounds or compounds with various formative 
endings, as anti-slavery, anti-Semitic, anti-tobacconist, anti- 
supernaturalism. All compounds with anti- of English 
origin except antipope are later than 1600. The earlier anti- 
bacchlus, -Christ, -chthonifis), -dote, -metabole, -nomy, -pape, 
-perisiasis, -phon, -phony, -phrasis, -podes, -rrhinum, -spase, 
-strophe, -thesis, -theton, are of Lat., Gk., or Fr. origin. In 
words borrowed fr. It., anti- may be fr. Lat. ante (q. w.).} 


antic (-i— ), adj. and sb.: Eng. fr. It. fl;«/2C(7, = 'antique', 
used in the sense of It. grottesca,=' gxo\.ts,a^^ work'. 

I. adj.: I. (of works of art and architecture), in fantastic 
style, grotesque. 

1648 At the nether ende were two broade arches upon thre antike pillers all 
of gold: Hall, Hen. VIII., an. i8. [Trench] 1579 the anticke and excellent 
workmanship of them [plate] : North, Tr. P/M/aT-cA, p. 924 (1612), 1602 he 
could not then haue any colour to set out bookes, or anticke sliewes...or to blaze 
it abroad in all nations: W. Watson, QuocUibets af Relig. &^ State, p. 151. 
bef. 1668 As Temples use to have their Porches wrought | With Sphynxes, 
Creatures of an Antick draught : J. Cleveland, Wks., ii. p. 48 (1687). 1832 
The antic and spiry pinnacles closed the strait: Blackwood^ s Mag., Vol. xxxii. 
p. 983. 

I. adj.: 2. {generally), fantastic, absurd, grotesque, dis- 

1579 tumblers, anticke dancers, iuglers: North, Tr. Plutarch, p. 920 (1612). 
1691 Thou antic death, which laugh' st us here to scorn: Shaks., I Hen. VI., 
iv. 7, 18. 1610 They fell sodainely into an antique dance, full of gesture : 

B. JONSON, Masque ofOberon, Wks., p. 980 (1616). 1632 Pomp, and Feast, 

and Revelry, | With Mask and antique Pageantry: Milton, L Allegro, 128. 
1678 We make our selves fools to disport our selves, I And vary a thousand 
antick ugly shapes : Shadwell, Timon, ii. p. 27. 1682 our antic sights and 

pageantry | Which English idiots run in crowds to see : Dryden, Medal, i. 

II. sb.: I. fantastic tracery or sculpture, a fantastic figure 
or face. 

1637 An antick deaurate with letters argentine: W. Holme, FallReh., 40. 
1567 Antiques or gargailles are deuised by Painters: T. Wilson, Art of Log., 
fol. 74 ro. 1583 with birds, beastes, and Antiques purtraied all ouer in 

sumptuous sorte : Stubbes, .(4«a^. .f^^., fol. 29 z/^. 1698 deuised to imbosse 

them outwardes with mens heades much greater then the life ; and other strange 
antickes: R. Haydocke, Tr. Lomatius, Bk. I. p. no. 1625 Satyres, 

Baboones, Wilde-Men, Antiques,- Beasts, Sprites: Bacon, Ess., liii. p. 540 

II. sb.: 2. odd, ridiculous postures, gestures, tricks. 

1529 In sothe it maketh me to laugh, to see ye mery Antiques of M. More ; 
FoxE, in i'K^/Sffc, Introd., 9 (1871). [N. E. D.] 1602 so readie a double 

diligent to send abroad his fribooters and flying out censures and inhibitions 
against other words and writings, in discouering these Antikes in their right 
colours : W. Watson, Quodlibets of Relig. <&^ State, p. 100. 

II. sb.: 3. a grotesque pageant, theatrical display, or 

1546 As it were menne that shoulde daunce antiques ; R. Ascham, Toxopk., 
p. 147 (1868). 1689 this Anticke of Groomes : W. Warner, Albion's England, 
p. 163. 1602 then imagine that you see so many puppets dancing the anticke, 
with sundry ptishes, face-makings : W. Watson, Quodlibets of Relig. &^ State, 
p. 16. 1616 — 7 The queen's musicians. ..made her a kind of masque, or antic, 
at Somerset House: J. Chamberlain, in Court <5r> Times of Jos. /., Vol. i. 
p. 460 (1848). 

II. sb. : 4. an actor of a grotesque part, a buffoon, a 

1664 Thou wearest me. ..sometime lyke a Royster, sometime like a Souldiour, 
sometime lyke an Antique: Cap, in Thynne's Ani-madv., App., 130. [N.E.D.] 
1608 Cup. Well done Antiques: B. Jonson, Masques, Wks., Vol. l. p. 938 
(i6r6). 1671 Jugglers and dancers, antics, mummers, mimics : Milton, 

SaTKS. Agon., 1325. 

[Antic became confused with antique, but in the above 
senses is a distinct word. The grotesque style in art was 
ascribed to the remains of antique art in Italy.] 

anti-Cajsar. See Caesar. 

anticaglia, sb.: It.: an antique, an object of antique art. 

anticamera, sb. : It. : ante-chamber. See camera. 

1626 Chambers, Bed-chamber, Anticamera, and Recamera, ioyning to it: 
Bacon, Ess., Iv. p. 552 (1871). bef. 1670 the Great Seal, and the Keeper of 

it waited two Hours in the Anti-Camera, and was sent Home without the Civility 
of Admission: J. Hacket, Abp. Williams, Pt. i. 211, p. 205 (1693). 

Antichrist: Eng. fr. Eccl. Gk. 'A.vtIxpi<^tos: the title of the 
antagonist of Christ expected in the primitive times of the 
Church to appear as an incarnation of evil, and often alluded 
to in all subsequent ages, some having designated the 
Papacy as Antichrist. Also, an opponent of Christ. 

bef. 1300 Nu sal yee her, i wil you rede, Hu \>3.t anticrist {ti. I. antecrist] sal 
brede; Cursor Mundi, 22006. bef 1400 My litle sones, the laste our is; and 
as 3e han herd, that antecrist cometh, now many antecristis ben maad : WycHffite 
Bible I John, ii. 18. — This is antecrist, that denyeth the fadir, and the sone : 

2J 22. For many disseyueris wenten out in to the world, which knoulechen 

not that Jhesu Crist hath come in fleisch ; this is a disseyuere and antecrist : — 
2 John, 7. 1611 yee haue heard that Antichrist shall come, euen now are 
there many Antichrists; Bible, i John, ii. 18. 

Antichthon, sb.: Gk. avrixdav {adj., sc. y^): a counter- 
Earth, supposed by the Pythagoreans to be situated on the 
opposite side of the sun. 

1684 [See anticbtllones, i]. 1763 Chambers, Cycl., Suppl. 1843 
they asserted that there was an aniichthon or counter-earth, on the other side of 
the sun, invisible to us: J. S. Mill, System of Logic, Vol. K. p. 364(1856). 

S. D. 



antichthones, sb. pL : Gk, avTlx^oves. 

1. the supposed inhabitants of the Pythagorean Anti- 

1684 this Opposite Earth being call'd by them Anticktkon, and its Inhabit- 
ants Antichthones'. T. Burnet, Theor. Earth, Bk. ii. p. 255. 

2. inhabitants of an opposite hemisphere; more strictly 
antipodes {q. v.). 

1554 They haue lyke- tymes of the yere, but yet not at one time our 
Antichthones doth dwell in the one, and we in the other: W. 'p-RA.r, Africa, 
sig. D Iv t^. 1575 We are the lesse moued to wounder at the Antipodes or 

Antichthones: J. Turlerus, Traveiler, p. 33. 1665 such as be to us Periceci 
be Antceci to our Antichthones : Sir Th. Herbert, Trav., p. 5 (1677). 1684 
fixt thQiT... Antichthones beyond the Ocean: T. Burnet, Theor. Earth, Bk. 11. 
p. 257. 

anticipator {— ± — S. —), sb. ; Eng. : one who anticipates ; 
also written anticipater. 

1598 Preuentore, a preuentor, an ouertaker, an anticipator: Florio. 1837 
His predecessors had been in his phrase, not interpreters, but anticipators of 
nature: Macaulay, Essays, p. 411 (1877). 

[From Eng. anticipate, as if noun of agent to Lat. antici- 
pare j = ^ to anticipate'.] 

^anticlimax {jl — IL —), sb. : Eng. fr, Gk. dpn- (see anti- 
bacchius), and climax {q. v.) : Rhet. : the reverse of a climax, 
an instance of bathos, a descent from the fine or lofty in 
language to a mean or commonplace ending of a period, as 
in quot. fr. Pope; also metaph., any descent contrasted with 
previous elevation. 

1710 This is called by some an anti-cUmax, an instance of which we have in 
the tenth page: Addison, Whig-Exam., No. 2, Wks., Vol. iv. p. 380 (1856), 
1727 the Anti-Climax, where the second line drops quite short of the first... 
And thotc Dalhoussy the great God of War, I Lieutenant Colonel to the Earl of 
Mar: Pope, Art of Sinking, ch. xi. Wks., Vol. vi. p. 197 (1757)- 

antico-moderno, phr. : It. : modern-antique : signifying 
modern imitation of antique art or architecture. 

1670 It is indeed a cheerful piece of Gothic building, or rather antico 
■moderiw. Evelyn, Diary, Vol. 11. p. 54 (1872). 1748 the works of his [Pope 
Leo XI.] time, both in marble and bronze, are now called Antico-Moderno: 
Lord Chesterfield, Letters, Vol. i. No. 121, p. 272 (1774). 

Anticyra: Gk. 'AvrtKupa : name of two coast towns in 
Ancient Greece, one in Phocis, the other in Thessaly, both 
celebrated for hellebore, which was supposed to benefit the 
insane. Hence Horace's Naviget Anticyram^ Sat., 11. 3, 
166, 'let him take a voyage to Anticyra', i,e. 'he is mad'. 

1621 Can all the hellebore in the Anticyrse cure these men? No, sure, an 
acre of hellebore will not do it: R. Burton, Anat. Mel., To Reader, p. 56 
(1827). 1626 This foole shoulde have been sent to Anticyra \ (The He of 

EUebore): B. Jonson, Masques (Vol. 11.), p. 138 (1640). 1646 if, like Zeno, 

he shall walk about, and yet deny there is any motion in Nature, surely that man 
was constituted for Anticyra: Sir Th. Brown, Pseud. Ep., Bk. i. ch. v. p. 13 
(1686). 1657 for whose rage also and Cyclopean fury there is no other reason 
why it should be sent to the Isle Anticyra, but.. .their ignorance: H. Pinnell, 
Philos, Kef, p. 14. 

^antidote {± — 2.\ sb. : Eng. fr. Fr. antidote, or directly fr. 
Lat, antidotum, pi. antidota. The Lat, forms were frequent 
in 16, 17 cc. Often with against, for, to. 

1. a counter-poison, a medicine given to counteract the 
effect of poison or disease. 

1541 the summe of .xvij. Antydotes : R. Copland, Tr. Guydds Quest., dp»c., 
sig. S i ro. 1563 the pryncipall of all Antidotes or counterpoysons is Mitlu-idate 
and Triacle: W. Warde, Tr. Alessio's Seer., Pt. 11. fol. 27 ?*. 1563 giue the 
pacient some antidotum or Alexipharmacum, agaynste venome bothe inwardly 
and outwardly: T. Gale, Enchirid., fol. 8 z/", 1580 stronge poyson Anti- 

dotum being but chafed in the hand, pearceth at the last the hart, so love: 
J. Lylv, Euphues 6^ his Engl., p. 271 (1868). 1580 It is the true Antidote 

against corsiue venome: Frampton, foyfull Netues, &^c., fol. 131 ro, 1596 

That where they bite it booteth not to weene | With salve, or antidote, or other 
mene : Spens. ,P.Q., vi. vi. 9. 1598 it [tobacco] makes an antidote : B. Jonson, 
Ev. Man in his Hum., iii. 5, Wks., p. 40 (1616). 1601 those Antidots which 

are given against poyson: Holland, Tr. Plin. N. H., Bk. 20, ch. 13, Vol. ii. 
p. 56. 1619 the flesh of the biting Viper.. .can yeeld no Antidote: PuRCHASy 
Microcosmus, ch. xxxiv. p. 320. 1627 But then againe, they may haue some 
Antidotes to saue themselues: Bacon, JSfat. Hist., Cent x. § 916. 1646 the 

Work is to be embraced, as containing the first description of poysons and their 
antidotes : Sir Th. Brown, Pseud. Ep., Bk. i. ch. viii. p. 24 (1686). bef. 1670 
confected an Antidote for every Poyson; J, Hacket, Abp. Williams, Pt. 1. 
205, p. 199(1693). 

2. metaph. a preservative against the influence of anything 
evil, a remedy for evil. 

1515 Some say. ..that to find the antidotum for this disease is impossible: 
In Froude's Hist. Eng., ii. viii. 241. [JST. E.D.] 1580 Expecting my Letter... 
eyther as Antidotum., or as Auconitum.: J. Lyly, Euphues &> his Engl., p. 356 
(1868). 1689 theeschewingofidlenessean^«i?i(fl3^^againstfancie: R. Greene, 
Menaphon, p. 34 (1880). 1605 And with some sweet oblivious antidote I 




Cleanse the stuff d bosom of that perilous stuflF [ Which weighs upon the heart : 
Shaks., Mach., v. 3, 43. 1623 requisite Antidotes against idleness to rouse 
vp industry: Capt. J. Smith, Wks., p. 632 (1884). bef. 1658 I would not 

quote I The Name of Scot without an Antidote : J. Cleveland, JVks., ii. p. 37 
(1687). 1676 There is no Antidote strong enough to repel the thought of 
future Judgment: J. Smith, Christ. Relig, Appeal^ Bk. 11. ch. i. § 2, p. 6. 
1712 an Account of several Elixirs and Antidotes in your third Volume ; Spec- 
tator, No. 548, Nov. 28, p. 779/1 (Morley). 1863 Antidote to the universal 
mania: C. Reade, Hard Cash, Vol. i. p, 229. 

[French antidote^ fr. Lat. aniidotu7n, fr. Gk. airidorov, 
= 'remedy', neut. of adj. dyriSoTOf, = 'given against',] 

antigropelos {±^J,:i.z), sb, pi.: coined by or for a 
tradesman: water-proof leggings. 

1848 The edge of a great fox-cover.. .some forty red coats and some four 
■black. ..the surgeonof the Union in mackintosh and antigropelos: C. Kingsley, 
Yeast, ch. i. [Davies] 1876 Her brother had on his antigropelos, the utmost 
approach he possessed to a hunting equipment: G. Eliot, Dan. Deronda^ ch. 
vii. Mb.'l 

anti-Kesar. See Caesar. 

■^antimacassar, sb.\ coined: a covering laid on chair- 
backs, sofas, &:c. ; named from the protection afforded 
against {anti-) Macassar {q. v.\ a representative kind of 

1854 Ethel makes for her uncle purses, guard-chains, anti-macassars, and the 
like beautiful and useful articles: Thackeray, Newcomes, Vol. i. ch. xx. p. 222 
(1879). 1864 laid her gently- down in the state arm-chair, with its elaborately 
worked anti-macassar: G. A. Sala, Quite Alone, Vol. i. ch. vi. p. 99. 1879 

a young maid is all the better for learning some robuster virtues than maidenli- 
ness and not to move the antimacassars: J. H. Ewing, Jackanaj^es, ch. iii. p. ig 

antimasque {± r- jS), sb. : Eng. fr. anti- (see antibacchius), 
and masque {q. v.) : a foil or false masque directly opposed 
to the principal masque, a grotesque interlude in a masque. 

1612 They meete and contend: then Mercuric, for his part brings forth an 
anti-Jfzasgue all of spirits or divine natures: Masque of the Inner Temple. 
[Nares] 1615 The Antimasque, and their dance, two drummes, trumpets, 

and a confusion of martiall musique: B. Jonson, Masques, Wks., Vol, i. p. 1011 
(1616). 1622 The first Antimasque for the Scene: ib., p. 81, Wks., Vol. 11. 
{1640). ■ — may be admitted, if not for a Masque, for an Antickmask: ib., p. 84. 
1623 The^ all daunce but Fame, and make the first Antimasqice : ib., p. 96. 
1626 Let Aniimasques not be long: Bacon, Ess., liii. p. 540 (1871). 

antimasquerade {j-=^± — il), sb. : Eng. fr, anti- (see anti- 
bacchius), and masquerade {q. v.) : antimasque. 

1679 She order'd tV Aniimasquerade, \ (For his Reception) aforesaid'. 
S. Butler, Hudibras, Pt. iii. Cant. iii. p. 178. 

*antim6nium, sh : Late Lat. (? fr. Arab.): Alch. and Med. : 
gray antimony, trisulphide (sulphuret) of antimony, or black 
antimony (which is gray antimony calcined and powdered), 
the latter being sometimes called burnt antiinonium,, or 
stibium {q. v.\ and is the same as alcohol i. The antimony 
of Mod. Chemistry, at first called regulus of antimony, is an 
elementary metallic substance classed with nitrogen, phos- 
phorus, arsenic, &c. Anglicised in 15 c. bs' antimony. 

1543 of Antymonium burned, of burned leade .ana. : Traheron, Tr. Vigors 
Chirurg., fol. cxxvi r°l-2.. — of antimonium brought to poudre : ib., fol. cvii z/^/i. 
1568 gold foile...well fined with Antimonium; W. Warde, Tr. Alessio's Seer., 
Pt. I. fol. 7 r<'. 1569 of Antiinonie: R. Androse, ib., Pt. iv, Bk. i. p. 24. 

1598 Antimonie a Minerall: R. Hakluyt, Voyages, Vol. i. p. 442. 1601 
Antimonie; Holland, Tr. Plin. N. H., Bk, 33, ch. 6, Vol. 11. p. 473. — anti- 
monium: ib., Bk. 29, ch. 6, Vol. ir. p. 366. 

Antinous, a beautiful Bithynian youth of the Emperor 
Hadrian's court, the subject of many antique Roman portrait 

1816 this Antinous... has been likewise called Hercules imberbis: J. Dalla- 
WAY, Of Stat. &^ Sculpt., p. 213. 1870 Am I an Antinous, to be loved as 
soon as seen? R. Broughton, Red as a Rose, i. 273. 

autipape, sb. : Fr. : one called pope in opposition to the 
true pope, esp. a pope of Avignon during the great schism of 
the West. Anglicised as antipope, see last quot. fr. W. 
Watson, 1602. 

1579 Interruption. meanes of...Schismes and Antipapes: Fulke, Conf. 
Sanders, 570. [N. E. D.] 1602 sometimes with most infest warres, yea cruell 
deathes of the vanquished Antipapes, and perturbers of the Churches peace. ..set 
vp an Antipape, golden calfe, or Archpriest: W. Watson, Quodlibets of Relig. 
<5r» State, p. 200. — noted for an Antipope at least: ib., p. 181. 

antipasto, sb. : It. : a whet to the appetite before a meal, 
the hors-d'oeuvre {q-v.) of modern menus; also metaph. a 
foretaste. Latinised and Anglicised as antepast, antipast. 

1590 The first messe, or antepast as they call it... is some fine meate to urge 
them to have an appetite: En^. Rom. Life^ in Harl. Misc., 11. 182 (Malh.). 
[N. E.D.] 1621 An office is but an Antipast — it gets them an appetite to 
another office: Donne, 6'^rwz., Ixx. 713, _ 1625 He vseth no salt at his Table, 
neither hath he any Antipasto ; but immediately fals aboord the flesh: Purchas, 
Pilgrims, Vol. 11. Bk. ix. p. 1599. 


antiperistasis, sb. : Late Lat. fr. Gk. aj'«7r€pfOTa(rw, = ' op- 
position or reaction of surrounding parts': the influence of 
circumstances in exciting opposition to or reaction against 
their effect, opposition to any surrounding force or influence, 
force of contrast. Sometimes in the phr./^r antiperistasin, 
= 'by an antiperistasis'. 

1597 That which is in the middest being furthest distant in place _from_ these 
two Regions of heate are most distant in nature, that is, coldest, whiche is that 
they tearme colde or hot, per nntiperUiasin, that is inuironing you by contrai^ies : 
Bacon, Coulers of good <V euill, p. 148 (1871). 1598 the antiperistasis or re- 

pugnancie: R. Haydocke, Tr. Lomatiits, Bk. IV. p. 160. 1600 Cynthias 

presence. ..casteth such an antiperistasis about the place, that no heate of thine 
[Citfid's] will tarry with the patient: B. JONSON, Cynth. Rev., v. 10, Wits., 
p. 261 (i6j6). 1601 which for being a persecuted Cleargie should be the more 
unite 3S, per antiperistesin: A. C, Answ. to Let. of a Jesuited Gent., p. i^. 
1602 you shall see... sufficient matter in confutation of things m the Antiperistasis 
to the first part of Parsons Doleman : W. Watson, Quodlibets of Relig. &= State, 
p. 30. 1603 'Tis (doubt-less) this Antiperistasis \ (Bear with the word: I hold 
It not amiss J T' adopt somtimes such strangers for our vse, 1 When Reason and 
necessity induce : I As namely, where our natiue Phrase doth want t A Word so 
force-full and significant) | Which makes the Fire seem to our sense and reason | 
Hotter in Winter than in Sommer season : J. Sylvester, Tr. Du Bartas, p. 38 
(1608). 1603 EuDOXUS saith, that the priests of Aegypt assigne the cause 
hereof to the great raines and the Antiperistasis or contrarie occurse of seasons : 
Holland, Tr. Plut. Mor., p. 833. 1619 like a little water sprinkled on a 
greater Fire, or a violent Winde on a vehement Flame (with I know not what 
Antiperistasis) rather vnite the forces, & make it burne more violently inward: 
PUECHAS, Microcosmus, ch. Ixi. p. 605. 1628 the naturall and genuine heate 
is by an Antiperistesis fortified: T. Vennee, Via. Recta, § i. p. 3. 1640 In 

this chill plight. ..Yet by an Antiperistasis My inward heat more kindled is: 
H. More, PMl. Po., p. 315 (1647). 1642 per antiperistasin: Howell, Instr. 
For. Trav., p. 17 (i86g). 1657 Let your zeal (by a holy antiperistasis) then 

flame out and break out through all impediments: John Teapp, Com. Old Test., 
&^c.. Vol. IV, p. 553/1 (1868). 1673 the reason whereof they assigned to be 

an Aittiperisiasis, satisfying themselves with that, and seeking no further: 
J. Ray, Joum. Low Countr. , p. 367. 1684 water poured on lime sets it on 

fire by an antiperistasis: Th. Goodwin, Wks., in Nichol's Ser. Stand. Divines, 
Vol. I. p. 195 (1864). 1709 perhaps inflam'd by his Coldness, the Antiperi- 

stasis had really warm'd her: Mrs. Manley, New Aial., Vol. I. p. 116 (2nd 
Ed.). 1837 he tells us, that in physics the energy with which a principle acts 
is often increased by the antiperistasis of its opposite ; M acaulay. Essays, p. 414 

antiphonal {z.±=. —), sb. and adj. : Eng. fr. Fr. antiphonal, 

1. sb.: an anthem-book, a book of antiphons. 

■ 1537 Item a wretyn masbooke and iiij antiphenals: Glasscock's Records of 
St. Michaels, p. r27 (1882). 16.. to bring and deliver unto you all anti- 

phonals, missals, grayles, processionals: Burnet, Hist. Reformed Records, 
Pt. II. Bk. i. 47. [C. E. D.] 

2. adj. : like antiphons, characterised by the alternate 
performance of two bodies of singers, responsive in sound; 
also metaph. 

1719 Antiphonal singing was first brought into the Church of Milan, in imi- 
tation of the custom of the Eastern churches: Bingham, Chr. Antiq., Vol. v. 
p. 13(1855). [C.E.D.] 

antiphrasis, sb.-. Late Lat. fr. Gk. aiTi<^pa(rtr, = 'the desig- 
nation of evil things by words of good import', lit. 'expression 
by the contrary': Rhet. : the use of words in the opposite 
sense to that which they properly bear. 

1533 The fygure of ironye or antiphrasis: More, Dehell. Salem, v. Wks., 
939/1(1557)- [N. E. D.] 1567 y" figure ^Kfe>i.4?-asz J, which is when a word 

hath a contrary signification : J. Maplet, Greetie For., fol. gi ro. 1584 the 

figure Antiphrasis, when a word importeth a contrarie meaning to that which it 
commonlie hath :_ R. Scott, ZJwc. f^zVir^., Bk. xiv. ch. vii. p. 371. 1596 For 
howsoeuer in their commonwealth, which they deliniate according to the guiltines 
of their owne feeling & gouernment, or their Philopaier, which name they giue 
themselues by a figure called Antiphrasis: Estate of Engl. Fugitives, p. 80. 
1628 Those little Birds, which by an Antiphrasis, are called Oxen: T. Venner, 
Via Recta, § iv. p. 62. 1662 And, as it proved now to the defeated Israelites, 
by antiphrasis, as Mare Pacificum, which is out of measure troublesome and 
dangerous: John Trapp, Com. 1 Sam,, iv. 1, Vol. i. p. 420/1 (1867). — And 
blessed God, for cursed, by aU' euphemismus or antiphrasis: — Com.. Job, \. 5, 
Vol. II. p. 157/1. 1693 they are that in truth, which the world in Favour and 
Fashion (or rather by an Antiphrasis) is pleased to call them: South, Sermons, 
p. 47. 

*antipodes, sb. pi. : Lat. fr. Gk. avrirroSes, pi. of dvTLirovs, 
adj., = '-with the feet opposite'. The sing: ailtipod.(e) {-L—-L) 
is Eng. fr. Lat. pi ; antipos is fr. avrLwovs and should be 

I. those who are on opposite sides of the earth; also 
with suppression of the reciprocity, those who are on the 
opposite side of the earth to ourselves. The Classical 


1398 And fables telle y' there be yonde ben the Antipodes, men y' haue theyr 
fete ayenst our fete as Ysidre sayth: Trevisa, Tr. Barth. De P. R., XV. Iii. 
1555 Spayne hath deserued greate prayse in these owre daayes, in that it bath 
made knowen unto us soo many thowsandes oi Antipodes, which leye hyd before 
and unknowen to owre forefathers: R. Eden, Tr. A7iglerius' Decades, 1. 10, fol. 
49 r". — the Spanyardes are Antipodes to the Indians, and the Indians in lyke 
maner to the Spanyardes: — Newe India, p. 10 (Arber, 1885). 1594 Yet with' 


his [t.e. the Sun's] light th' Antipodes h&hlest: Constable, Sanneis, andDecad., 
No. 3 (1818). 1596 We should hold day with the Antipodes, j If you would 
walke in absence of the sunne: Shaks., Merck. 0/ Ven,, v. i, 127. 1600 when 
the Sunne setteth to them vnder the Equinoctial!, it goeth very deepe and lowe 
vnder their Horizon, almost euen to their Antipodes^ whereby their twilights are 
very short: R. Hakluyt, Voyages, Vol. in. p. 50. 1601 It hath beene... 

thought. ..that Taprobane was a second world, in such sort as many have taken it 
to be the place of the Antipodes, and called it, The Antichthones world : Holland, 
Tr. Plin. N, H., Bk. 6, ch. 22, Vol. l p. 129. 1602 amongst the Indians, 

Antipodies, and new foitnd world-. W. Watson, Quodlibets of Relig, ^ State, 
Pref:,_ sig. A 4 r^. 1603 affirme not they that there be antipodes dwelling 

oi)posit one unto another, and those sticking as it were to the sides of the earth 
with their heeles upward & their heads downward all arse verse : Holland, Tr. 
Phit. Mor., p. 164. 1621 extend his fame to our Antipodes: R. Burton, 
Anat: Mel.^ Pt. i. Sec. 2, Mem. 3, Subs. 14, Vol. l p. i8t (1827). 1630 When 
Pkmbtts messenger the Cocke did crow, | Each mome when from his Antipods he 
rose: John Taylor, Wks., sig. 2 Ccc 3 z/^/i. bef. 16B8 The Antipodes wear 
their Shoes on their Heads: J. Cleveland, Wks., iii. p. 70 (1687). 1658 To 
keep our eyes open longer, were but to act our Antipodes', Sir Th. Brown, 
Garden of Cyr., ch. 5, p. 52 (1686^. 1665 The Antipodes are such as be feet 

to feet, a precise straight line passing thorow the Center from one side to another : 
Sir Th. Herbert, Trav., p. 5 (1677). 

I a. metaph. opposite in some particular which suggests 
the geographical sense, such as 'treading opposite', 'turning 
night into day'- 

1605 He will neuerbe one of the Antipodes, to tread opposite to the present 
world: Bacon, Adv. Leam.y i. 9. [N.E.D.] 1642 Christians were forced 
to be Antipodes to other men, so that when it was night with others, it was day 
with them: Fuller, Holy &> Prof. State, i. ii. 32. \ib.'\ 

2. parts of the earth diametrically opposite to each other, 
a part of the earth diametrically opposite to another part. 

1611 strike it through the center, to the A7itipodes\ B. Jonson, Cat., v. 6, 
Wks., p. 762 (1616). 1640 That is th' Antipodes of England, i The people 
there are contrary to us: R. Brome, Antip., i. 6, sig. C 4 r^. 1642 from the 
remotest parts of the Earth. ..yea from the very Antipods-. Howell, Instr. For. 
Trav., p. 33 (1869). 1883 We are starting for the Antipodes : M. E. Braddon, 
Golden Calf, Vol. 11. ch. x. p. 249. 

3. [sundry extensions of meaning.] 

bef. 1658 Or had I Cactus trick to make my Rhimes 1 Their own Antipodes, 
and track the times: J. Cleveland, Wks., ii. p. 50 (1687). — There court the 
Bittern and the Pelican, \ Those Airy^ Antipodes to the Tents of Men: ib., 
p. 247. 1676 as soon as it has spi'd its Prey, as suppose upon a Table, it will 

crawl underneath till it arrive to the Antipodes of the Fly, which it discovers by 
sometimes peeping up: Shadweel. Virtuoso, iii. p. 43. 1681 the Sahnon- 
Piskers...\ikQ Antipodes in Shoes, | Have shod their Heads in their Canoos: 
A. Marvell, Misc., p. 103. 

4. metaph. the exact opposite. 

[1593 Thou art as opposite to euery good, | As the Antipodes are vnto vs : 
Shaks., /// Hen. VI., i. 4, 135.] 1621 Antipodes to Christians, that scoffe at 
all religion: R. Burton, Anat. Mel., Pt. 3, Sec. 4, Mem. 2, Subs, i. Vol. 11. 
p. 548 (1827). 1630 But from these Antipodes to goodnesse, by their Antithesis 
to nature, I appeale to my conscience, which is a witnesse to me that can neither 
accuse or condemne me: John Taylor, Wks., sig. 2 Aaa i ro. 1631 A 

Zealous Brother. an antipostoall church government; Brathwait, Whimzies, 
115. [N.E.D.] 1646 more differing in disposition, aifections and interests, 

being herein right Antipodes one to the other; Howell, Lewis XIII., p. 32. 
bef. 1658 How different be I The Pristine and the Modern Policy ? | Have Ages 
their Antipodes ? Yet still | Close in the Propagation of ill : J. Cleveland, Wks. , 
p. 247 (1687). bef. 1768 I am half afraid of trusting my Harriot in the hands 

of a man whose character I too well know to be the antipodes of Harriot's: 
Sterne, Letters, No. cxxix. Wks., p. 788/1 (1839). 1817 as if it were myself 
coming out in a work of humour, which would, you know, be the antipodes of all 
my previous publications: Byron, in Moore's Life, Vol. ni. p. 350 (1832). 1819 
I cannot better describe him than as the antipode to father Ambrogio: T. Hope, 
Anast., Vol. i. ch. x. p. 185 (1820). 1822 In tale or history your Beggar is 
ever the just antipode to your King: C. Lamb, Elia, ist Ser., p. 149 (1873). 
1880 though but few years younger than her husband, she was the antipodes of 
him in this respect, that she was youth personified, the very type of girlhood : 
J. Payn, Confident. Agent, ch, i. p. 4. 

Variants, a7itipods, antipodies. 

anticLuarium, sb. : Lat. : fr. antlquarius, adj., = ' pertaining 
to antiquity'; a collection of antiquities, or a place where 
antiquities are kept. 

1881 It is rather an antiquarium containing chiefly statuettes and coins: 
Athen^um, No. 2B23, 747. [N.E. D.] 

^antique {-L ii), adj. and sb. : Eng. fr. Fr. antique. 

I. adj. : I. ancient, belonging to old times, esp. to the 
Classical ages of Greece and Rome ; dating from old times, 
venerable from age. 

1546 and yet noe antique or grave writer once make rehersall of theim: Tr. 
Polydore Vergil's Eng. Hist, Vol. i. p. 107 (1S46). 1590 The Antique ruins 
of die Romanes fall: Spens., F. Q., i. v. 49. — O ! goodly usage of those antique 
tymes I In which the sword was seruaunt unto right : ib. , in. i. 13. 1600 an 

Antike picture, or some old counterfait: R. Cawdray, Treas. ofSimilies, p. 212. 
bef 1609 I see their antique pen would have expressed | Even such a beauty as 
you master now: Shaks., Son., cvi. 7- 1665 the Antick Romans, who. ..hated 
Digamy: Sir Th. Hekbert, 7>«z/., p. 46 (1677). 

I. adj, : 2. old-fashioned, archaic, antiquated, out of date, 

1549 dooeth it shew such an antike maiestee: W. Thomas, Hist. Ital, fol. 
24 ro. 1600 O good old man, how well in thee appears | The constant service 



of the antique world: Shaks., As V. L. It, ii. 3, 57. bef. 1609 And your 

true rights be term'd a poet's rage | And stretched metre of an antique song: — 
Son,, xvii. 12. 

I. adj. : 3. in the Classical style of Ancient Greece and 
Rome; hence, ihe antique = ^\.\i& Classical style'. 

1644 The design is mixed, partly antique, partly modem: Evelyn, Diary, 
Vol. I. p. 118(1872). 

II. si. : I. a person of ancient times. Obs. 
II. sb. : 2. a work or relic of ancient art. 

1530 If this antique were closed in golde, it were a goodly thynge : Palsgk. , 
fol. cxc r^/2. 1650 He led us into a stately chamber furnished. ..with... 

antiques in brass : Evelyn, Diary, Vol. i. p. 271 (1872). 1829 The common 
antiques represent the most perfect forms and proportions: Edin. Rev., Vol. 50, 
p. 2+5. 

antirrhinum, -on, sb.: Lat. fr. Gk. dyTippZj/oi', = ' snap- 
dragon', lit. 'with a counterfeit snout' {pis, stem piv-): name 
of a genus of plants including the Snap-dragons and Toad- 
flaxes, Nat. Order Scrophulariaceae; the greater a. is popu- 
larly 'snap-dragon', the smaller a. {A. Orontizim) is a wild, 
creeping or trailing plant, popularly called antirrhinum. 

1648 Antirrhinon is of two sortes, the one is described of Plinie with leaues 
lyke flax and the other of Dioscorides with the leaues of pimpernel. Plinies an- 
tirrhinon maye be called in English calfe snouEe. The other maye be called brode 
calfe snoute : W. Turner, Najnes of Herbs. 1551 Antirrhinum is an herbe 
like vnto pympernel: — Herb., sig. Q.\\v°. 1578 The great Antirrhinon 

hath straight round stemmes...the great Antirrhinum. ..The small Antirrhinum: 
H. Lyte, Tr. Dodoeji/s Herb., Bk. 11. p. 179. 1664 Sow Antirrhinum; or 

you may set it : Evelyn, Kal. Hort., p. 205 (1729). 1767 double feverfew, 

antirrhinums, scarlet-lychnis : J. Abercrombie, Ev. Man own Gardener, p. 551 
(1803). 1797 Eiicyc. Brit. 

antiscii, Late Lat. fr. Late Gk. aj/TierKioi, = 'casting 
shadows opposite ways': folk whose respective shadows fall 
at the same time in opposite directions. Such folk must be 
on opposite sides of the ecliptic (Diets, say 'equator'), and on 
a Great Circle passing through the point in which the line 
joining the centres of the earth and the sun cuts the earth's 
surface. At noon the meridian is such a Great Circle, and 
so the term antiscii has been confined to folk who are on 
the same meridian. 

antiscion, pi. antiscia, sb. : Late Gk. avT'i<r<iov, neut. of 
avria-Kios, ad/., = ' castrng shadow the opposite way' : Astrol.: 
title of signs of the Zodiac equidistant on opposite sides 
from Cancer and Capricorn. 

1598 And whether they bee in signes beholding one another, or in signes 
commanding or obeying, or if one be in the Antiscia of the other, or in the 
Nouena or Dodecatevioria of the other: G. C, Math. Phis, (after F. Wither's 
Tr. Dariot's Astro log.), sig. B 2 rf . 1647 the Antiscions of the Planets. 

The Antiscion Signes are those, which are of the same vertue and are equally 
distant from the first degree of the two Tropick Signes: W. Lilly, Phr. Astrol., 
ch. xvi. p. go. 

antistrophe, sb. : Late Lat. fr. Gk. asnurrpo^r}, = 'a counter- 

1. \prig. the return movement of a Classical chorus [q. v.), 
from left to right, exactly answering in dance-rhythm to the 
previous turn (from the front across the orchestra) called 
strophe (q. v.).] A portion of a metrical composition exactly 
corresponding in rhythm to a former portion called the 

1671 strophe, Antistrophe, or^Y& a kind of Stanza's fram*d only for 
the Musick then usd with the Chorus that sung: Milton, Sams. Agon., Introd. 
1757 [Gray, in his Pindarics] had shackled himself with strophe, antistrophe, and 
epode: Ho_R. Walpole, Letters, Vol. III. p. 97 (1857). 1840 The knight 
and the maiden had rung their antiphonic changes on the fine qualities of the de- 
parting Lady, like the Strophe and Antistrophe of a Greek play: Barham, 
Ingolds. Leg., p. 161 (1865). 1887 It is a pity to carry to such extremes a 
protest against the unsound presumption that strophe and antistrophe should cor- 
respond Ijy syllables and quantities: Athenegum, Apr. 30, p. 570/3. 

2. a reversed position or relation. 

1605 The latter branch. ..hath the same relation or antistrophe that the former 
hath: Bacon, ^(fz*. Zfarw., 11. ix. § 3. [N. E. D.] 1611 A7itistrophe, An 

Antistrophe ; or altemall conversion of two things, which bee somewhat alike : 

3. Rhet. the figure of retort, antistrophon. 

1625 The renewing of the Contract is a flat Antistrophe, and may truly be 
retorted upon the French: Tr. CamdeJi's Hist. Eliz., 1. 99 (1688). [N. E. D.] 

4. Rhet. and Gram, inversion of the relations of words. 

1738 Antistrophe is a figure in grammar,^ whereby two terms or things, 
mutually dependent one on the other, are reciprocally converted. As if one 
should say, the master of the servant, and the servants of the master : Chambers, 

II 2 



5. Rhet. the ending of several consecutive clauses with 
the same word. 

1689 Antistrophe, or the Counter tume...two little ditties which our selues 
in our yonger yeares played vpon the Antistrophe, for so is the figures name in 
Greeke: Puttenham, Eng. Poes., ili. xix. p. 208 (1869). 1696 Antistrophe, 
gr. a Rhetorical Figure, namely, when several Members of a Sentence end all 
with the same word: Phillips, World of Words. 

antistrophon, sb. : Gk. neut. of adj. dvTi(7Tpo(^oj, = 'turned 
the opposite way' : Rhet. : a retort, an argument of an oppo- 
nent turned against him. 

1611 But for the point wherein you touch vs. is Antistrophon, and turneth 
agreatdeale hetter vpon you: Speed, Hist. Gt. Brit., ix. xxiv. 55. [N. E.D.] 
1642 I tume his Antistrophon upon his owne head: Milton, Apol. Smect., 
Wks., 267(1851). [ib.] 

♦antithesis,//, antitheses, sb. : Gk. avTie^ns. 

1. abstract, the setting of one idea or expression against 
another so as to exhibit their opposition or dissimilarity. 

1536 those antithesis and puttyng one contrary agenst another : G. Joy, Apol. 
to W. TiiidaU, p. 17 (1883). 1603 the reversing of an objection by way of 

Antithesis may be placed, and carieth with it a good grace : Holland, Tr. Plut. 
Mor., p. 305. 1668 When he Writes the serious way, the highest flight of his 
fancy is some miserable Antithesis, or seeming Contradiction: Dryden, Ess. on 
Dram. Po., Wks., Vol. i. p. 2 (1701). 1765 his speech was set, and full of 

antithesis: Hok. Walpole, Letters, Vol. 11. p. 484 (1857). 

1 a. metaph. an opposition or contrariety, a contradis- 

1603 in pursuing and prosecuting this Antithesis [=a statement of difference] : 
Holland, Tr. Plut. Mor., p. 83. 1603 TH Antithesis of Blest and Cursed 

States, I Subiectto Good and Euill Magistrates: J. Sylvester, Tr. ZJm 5ar/ff^, 
Babylon, p. 331 (1608). 1630 But from these Antipodes to goodnesse, by their 
Antithesis to nature, I appeale to my conscience, which is a witnesse to me that 
can neither accuse or condemne me: John Taylor, Wks., sig. 2 Aaa i r^. 
1664 the greatest Antithesis Nature, or Poetry ever found out: R. Whitlock, 
Zootomia, p. 238. 1680 Here God is called the Father of Spirits, or of souls, 
and that in an emphatical antithesis, or contradistinction to our natural fathers 
who are called the fathers of our flesh, or bodies only : J. Flavel, Soul of Man, 
Wk^., Vol. II. p. 515 (1799). 

2. concrete, a clause or sentence set against another which 

2 a. an instance of antithesis i. 

1635 Whence comes that elegant Antithesis in the Scripture, Bee not drunke, 
&c.: S. Ward, Sermons, p. 239. 1751 Tropes, figures, antitheses, epigrams: 
Lord Chesterfield, Letters, Vol. 11. No. 45, p. 193 (1774). 1755 but those 
antetheses \.sic\ were full of argument: HoR. Walpole, Letters, Vol. 11. p. 484 

2 ^. a counter-thesis (see thesis), a proposition stated in 
opposition to another proposition. 

2 c. metaph. that which is opposite, contrary, contrasted ; 
catachrest. a conjunction of contraries. 

1678 Moreover Xenophanes looking upon the Deity, as the Cause of All 
things and above All things, placed it above Motion and Rest, and all those 
Antitheses of Inferiour Beings: CuDWORTH, Intell. Syst., Bk. I. ch. iv. p. 389. 
1709 the Antitheses of lonely dark and mournful 'Si^\.i\ Mrs. Manley, New 
y4 ;;«/., Vol. II. p. 241 (2nd Ed.). ■ bef. 1739 Now high, now low, now master 
up, now miss, | And he himself one vile Antithesis : Pope, Prol. to Satires, 325, 
Wks., Vol. IV. p. 40 (1757). 1813 She is. ..a vile antithesis of a Methodist and 
a Tory : Byron, in Moore's Life, Vol. II. p. 216 (1832). 1859 He was, as it 

were, the antithesis of my own nature ; H. J. Prince, Journal, p. 273. 1886 
The picture is. ..academical, accomplished, artificial, and ornate. It is the anti- 
thesis of real and spontaneous art: AtheTneum, Apr. 10, p. 494/1. 

antitheton, pi. antitheta, sb. -. Gk. avrideTov, neut. of adj. 
a'«'TMcrot, = 'opposed'. Anglicised as antithet. 

1. antithesis i. 

1579 a figure of Rhetoricke called Antitheton : which is, opposition : North, 
Tr. Plutarch, p. 848 (1612). 1589 Puttenham, Eng. Poes., in. xix. p. 219 

2. an antithetic statement, an instance of antithesis i ; 
less correctly, an instance of antithesis 2 b. 

1603 rhetoricall tropes and figures; to wit, his antitheta, consisting of 
contraries, his parisa, standing upon equall weight and measure of syllables, 
his homooptata, precisely observing the like termination : Holland, Tr. Plut. 
Mor p. 988. 1857 Equally true is the popular antithet, that misfortunes 
never come single : C. Kingsley, Two Years Ago, ch. xxvi. p. 456 (1877). 

antoeci, : Gk. oitoikoi, 'with opposed homes' (o^koi): 
folk who dwell at the same distance from the equator on op- 
posite sides thereof; in Eng. use, limited to folk who dwell on 
the same meridian. 

1646 the conditions of Antrnci, Paraci, and Antipodes: Sir Th. Brown, 
Pseud. Ep., Bk. VI. ch. ii. p. 235 (1686). — therefore the trial hereof at a con- 
siderable interval, is best performed at the distance of the AntiBci: ib., Bk. 11. 
chili p. 57- 1665 The ^»sto« are.. .opposite, but vary neither in Meridian 

nor equidistance from the Horizon, respecting either Hemisphere : Sir Th. 
Herbert, Trav., p. s (1677). 


antonomasia, sb. : Gk. avTovo/iaaia : the use of an epithet, 
appellative, patronymic or descriptive phrase instead of 
(ai/Tt-) a proper name (ovoim); or vice versa the use of a 
representative proper name instead of a title or descriptive 
phrase ; also, loosely, the substitution of another designation 
for one which is more common and obvious. 

1689 Antonomasia, or the Sumamer, he that would say: not king Philip 
of Spaine, but the Westeme king: Puttenham, Eng. Poes., in. xvi[i]. p. 102 
(1869). 1612 were so great friends, as they were named for excellency & by 
Antonomasia, by al those that knew them, the two friends: T. Shelton, Tr. 
Don Quixote, Pt. IV. ch. vi. p. 343. 1672 Smiting hammers are prepared fiir 
the bodies of fools, for so the Scripture by Antonomasia calls the damned: Tr. 
J. E. Nierember^s Temp. &= Etern., Bk. I v. ch. x. p. 432. 1780 I shall 

borrow a few lines of this poem, which are mentioned in the Edda among the 
Hringaheiti, and that prove how far these poets went in their Antonomasies : 
Tr. Von Troll's Lett, on Iceland, p. 201 (2nd Ed.). 

antre, sb. : Eng. fr. Fr. antre, fr. Lat. antrum : a cave. 

1604 Wherein of Antars vast, and Desarts idle, | Rough Quarries, Rocks, 
Hills, whose heads touch heauen, | It was my hint to speake: Shaks., 0th., 
i. 3j 140 (1623). 

anus, sb. : Lat. : the posterior orifice of the alimentary canal 
of animals. 

1543 Traheron, Tr. Vigo's Chirurg., fol. ix voh. 1603 a Fistula in Ano 
[abl.]: Holland, Tr. Plut. Mor., p. 138. 1676 Shadwell, Virtuoso, lu. 

p. 42. 1704 Swift, Tale Tub, Wks., p. 83/1 (1869). 1741 J. Ozell, Tr. 
Tournefort's Voy. Levant, Vol. I. p. 229. 

Anziano, pi. Anziani, sb. : It. : an elder, a magistrate. 
Anglicised as Ancient {fi. v.). 

1549 appointyng .xii. goueme the same [citie of Florence], 
namyng them Antiani: W. Thomas, Hist. Ital., foL 142 r". 1787 The Exe- 
cutive Power is composed of a Gonfaloniere, and nine Anziani, who together 
govern the Republic: P. Beckford, Ital., Vol. I. p. 428 (1805). 

Aonian, belonging to Aonia {aon-) a district of Boeotia 
{q. V.) in which Mt. Helicon {q. v.) sacred to the Muses was 
situated. Hence Aoman = '-pot\.\c', 'of poets', 'of poetry'. 

1626 Aonian band. The Muses: Cockeram, Pt. I. (2nd Ed.). 1667 That 
with no middle flight intends to soar | Above th' Aonian mount: Milton, P. L., 
I. 15. 1742 above 1 Th' Aonian Mount: Young, Night Thoughts, iv. p. 61 

(1773). 1748 And they are sure of bread who swink and moil; | But a fell 
tribe th' Aonian hive despoil : Thomson, Castle of Indolence, 11. ii. 

*aorta, sb. : Late Lat. fr. Gk. aop-n) : since Aristotle's time 
aof>TT) {aorta) has been the name of the Great Artery, i.e. the 
undivided portion of the arterial duct which proceeds from 
the left ventricle of the human heart. 

1578 the great Arterie, named Aorta: J. Banister, Hist. Man, Bk. I. 
fol. 25 r". 1621 that great artery called aorta: R. Burton, Anat. Mel., 

Pt. I, Sec. I, Mem. 2, Subs. 5, Vol. I. p. 26 (1827). 1667 PAil. Trans., Vol. 11. 
No. 25, p. 463. 1691 a large arterial Channel passing from the pulmonary 

Artery immediately into the Aorta, or great Artery : J. Ray, Creation, Pt. 11. 
p. 307 (1701). 1699 it's Diameter well near equalled that of the Aorta: M. 
Lister, Joum. to Paris, p. 65. 1787 A double set of aortis and veme cava 
would be as wonderful a deviation from the common course of nature: Gent. 
Mag., p. 1070/1. 

aoull, sb.: E. Turk, aul: a village, a collection of tents 
or huts. 

1884 We entered each aoull [village] in the same style, sending goats and 
sheep flying: Edm. O'Donovan, Merv, ch. xxi. p. 231 (New York). — a place... 
where there is a very considerable aoull: ib., ch. xxv. p. 282. 1884 one or 

two of the mounted young men are sent from the aul, or collection of tents : 
H. Lansdell, Steppes of Tartary, in Leisure Hour. 

Ap, common prefix forming Welsh surnames, meaning 
'of, 'son of. It often loses its vowel as in Price, Pritchard, 

1664 never troubling themselves to know, whether it were ^younger Brothers, 
or Elders Building, leaving out the many Aps of its Pedigree: R. Whitlock, 
Zootomia, p. 410. bef 1658 It would tire a Welshman to reckon up how many 
Aps 'tis removed from an Annal: J. Cleveland, Wks., p. 83(1687). 1778 
Rowland Lee, Bishop of Lichfield, and President of the Marches of Wales, in 
the reign of Henry VIII. sat at one of the Courts on a Welsh cause, and wearied 
with the quantity of Aps in the jury, directed that the panel should assume their 
last name, or that of their residence: and that Thomas ap Richard ap Howel ap 
Jevan Vychan should for the future be reduced to the poor dissyllable Mostyn, 
no doubt to the great mortification of many an antient hue: Pennant, Tour in 
Wales, Vol. I. p. 17 (80 Ed.). 

apage, inter j. : Lat. fr. Gk. atray^ : away ! begone ! avaunt ! 
Used in reference to the rebuke to Satan, Matt., iv. 10, vnayt 
tarava., Vulg., vade Satana. 

1647 God's blessing be on that blessed heart that.. .can entertain all wicked 
attempts and assaults with this Apage of our Saviour: John Trapp, Com. New 
Test., p. 34/2 (1868). 1866 There is no apage Sathanasl so potent as ridicule; 
J. R. Lowell, Biglow Papers, No. in. (Halifax). 

[Gk. amaye is Strictly 2nd sing, imperat. of d7r-ayeiv, = 'to 
lead away', 'carry off'.] 


apanage (j. — ^), sb.: Eng. fr. Fr. apanage, appanage, 

1. provision for the maintenance of a younger son of a 

1605 Valoys was but the Apponagc.of Charles yonger Sonne to Philip the 
second: Camden, Rem., 91. [N. E. D.] bef. 1626 He became suitor for the 
earldom of Chester, a kind of appanage to Wales, and using to go to the king's 
son: Bacon. [C. E. D.] 1818 The king's brother Charles.. .died suddenly in 
Guienne, which had finally been granted as his apanage : Hallam, Middle Ages, 
Vol. I. p. 88 (1856). 1837 Mole has presented to the Chambers 2.iirajet de lot 
for an apanage for the Due de Nemours, which is to consist of.. .certain forests in 
Normandy: H. Greville, Diary, p. iiz. 

2. a dependency, a territory in a dependent relation to 
a state. 

1807 Ireland. ..the most valuable appanage of our empire: Syd. Smith, 
Plymleys Lett, Wks., u. 166/2(1859). [N.E.D.] 

3. a specially appropriated possession, a natural or usual 
possession, advantage, accessory, attribute. 

1663 One of the necessary Appanages of God's Omnipotency: Sir G. Mac- 
kenzie, Relig. Stoic, V. 36 (1685). [N. E. D.] 1691—2 Public Employment 
and an active Life prefer'd to Solitude with all its Appanage : Wood, A th. Oxoii. , 
Vol. IV. p. 466 (Bliss, 1820). 1731 Had he thought it fit | That wealth should 
be the appanage of wit: Swift. [C. E. D.] 1828 more pleasure and less 
comfort seem the appanage of the French: Engl, in France, Vol, II. p. 282. 
1836 The principal use of these imperial descendants seems to be the formation 
of a courtly apanage, to swell the Emperor's state : J. F. Davis, Chinese, Vol. i. 
ch. vii. p. 274. 1848 the legitimate appanage of novelist or poet: Lord Lytton, 
Harold, Ded., p. iv. (3rd Ed.). 1852 And the famous Count de Lemos, the 

viceroy of Naples. ..kept, as an apanage to his viceroyalty, a poetical court: 
Prescott, Criiic. Misc., p. 666 (1880). 

Variants, 17 c. — 19 c. appanage, 17 c. appannage, appen- 
nage, 19 c. sometimes pronounced as Fr. 

apathy (_£. — —), s6. : Eng. fr. Fr. apathie : insensibility to 
suffering, lack of emotion or passion, lack of interest in cir- 
cumstances. With Stoics, absolute indifference to all vicis- 
situdes of feeling or condition, perfect equanimity. 

1603 the name of Eupatkies, i. good affections and not of Apathies, that is 
to say. Impassibilities: Holland, Tr, Plut. Mor., p. 74. 1709 Whence can 
come such an Apathy, such an Insipidity: Mrs. Manlev, New Atal., Vol. 11. 
p. 138 (2nd Ed.). 

[Ultimately fr. Gk. o7ra5eta,='want of Tra^os', see pathos.J 

aira| Afrt\^\a\,phr. : Gk. Same sense as next phr. 

airoj X€76|i.cvov, pi. -(leva, phr. : Gk. : lit. (anything) ' said 
once' : a word or expression only found once in the extant 
records of a language. 

1657 It is ctira^ \Eyofj.evov, read only here ; and hence this variety of interpreta- 
tions: John Trapp, Com. Old Test., Vol. iv. p. 472/1 (1868). 1801 [the book 
of Job's] very great antiquity, and uncommon sublimity of elevation, occasioning 
a greater number of an-a^ Xeyojutei/a, and expressions difficult to be understood : 
Magee, Atonement &= Sacrifice, p. 154/1 (1845). 1845 In his lists he has 

omitted most of the aira^ Aryojuei/a : Bibl. Sacra, Vol. II. p. 388. 1882 The 

number of the hapax, legOfnen.a is remarkable, and some of them are full of 
picturesqueness: Farrar, Early Days Chr., Vol. i. ch. xi. p. 236. 1887 One 
curious an-a^ Xevd/i.ei'oj' is suwaute (v. r. sitate), which cannot well be, as ex- 
plained in the glossary, the Old French salveteit, safety; Athenceum, Dec. 3, 
p. 740/3. 

Apelles, 'AtteXX^s, a very celebrated Greek painter of the 
time of Alexander the Great ; representative of consummate 
skill in pictorial art. 

1590 In graving with Pygmalion to contend, | Or painting with Apelles, 
doubtless the end | Must be disgrace : Marlowe, yew of Malta, Ep. to the 
Stage, 1633, p. 143 (Dyce). 1599 O j-are and excellent picture, though not 

altogether matching the skill of Apelles : Hakluyt, Voyages, &fc., p. 659 (1809). 
1603 Whom heer to paint doth little me behooue, | After so many rare Apelleses, | 
As in this Age our Albion nourishes : J. Sylvester, Tr. Du Bartas, Furies, 
p. 286 (1608). 1665 the roof imbossed with gold, and so exquisitely painted as 
if Ersenge the Apelles of Persia had pencill'dit: Sir Th. Herbert, Trav., 
p. 132 (1677). 1820 a celebrated painter of saints for Greek churches, the 

Apelles of his day: T. S. Hughes, Trav. in Sicily, Vol. I. ch. x. p. 315. 

*apergu, sb. : Fr. : sketch, rapid survey ; estimate or dis- 
cernment at first sight or on slight acquaintance ; discovery. 

1866 It is one of the most memorable of the striking aperpus which abound 
in Plato; Mill, Dissert., Vol. in. p. 3SS (1867). 1883 Elated with this 

brilliant aperfu, he immediatelv proceeds to argue: XIX Cent., Oct., p. 614. 
1884 Lady Violet Greville again gives us one of her apercus of present-day 
society, set as a novel; Fa// Af a// Gazr., Feb. 6, p. 6/1. 1887 It is simply 

commonplace whist strategy, such as no one having the least aperfu of the game 
could possibly avoid: R. A. Proctor, in Longman's Mag., No. hv. Apr., 
p. 641. 

aperitive (- z_^), apertive (--i-), adj.: Eng. fr. Fr. 
aperitif, Old Fr. apertif, fem. -iye: aperient, tendmg to 
open. AlsoasjiJ.: aperient medicine. 

1540 the Oyle of Scorpions, Petraleuvt, or other appertiffe Oyle : Ravn ald. 
Birth Man., p. 184(1613). 1543 a bayne of thynges aperitiue or openynge 
aydeth them: Traheron, Tr. Vigo's Chirurg., fol. xxxv r'l^. — Some [tentes] 



ben called apertiue, bycause they kepe open the mouthe of the woundes, & sores : 
ih.^ fol. cxiii z^/i. 

apersey, apersie. See a per se, 

aperte, sb. : Eng. fr. Old Fr. apertd\ military skill, Obs. 

1470 Consyderyng well his knightly aperte: Harding, Chron., cxcviii. 

*apex, pL apices, sb. : Lat. 

1. a small rod at the top of a Roman flamen's cap. The 
ong. Lat. sense. 

1603 Upon his head a hat of delicate wool, whose top ended in a cone, and 
was thence called apex : B. Jonson, Entertainvients, Wks., p. 532/1 (i860), 

2. the tipj top, point, peak, projection, sharp comer of 
anything ; the vertex of a triangle, pyramid, or cone. 

1601 They all have illumination from the holy ghost, as from a perpendicular 
Apex or Zenith over their heads: A. C, An^w. to Let. of a Jesuited Gent., 
p. 79/2. 1672 curiously figur'd Planes, that terminated in a solid Angle or 

Apex : R. Boyle, Virtues of Gems, p. 74. 1673 On his head he wears a 

Ducal Cap, called z7 Corno, because it hath an Apex or horn arising above the 
top of it: J. Ray, Jount. Low Countr,, p. 187. 1826 the apex of the pyramid 
of his ambition was at length visible: Lord Beaconsfield, Viv. Grey, Bk. 11. 
ch. i, p, 22 (i88r). 1885 The domical head., .may be seen at the eastern apex 
of the eyot: Athemsum, Sept. 5, p. 310/2. 

2 a. metaph. the acme {q. v.\ culminating point. 

1641 N0W...I am neere the Apex of this question: R. Brooke, Nat. Eng. 
Episc.,21. [N.E.D,] 

3. Bot. an anthera {q. v.) ; any pointed portion of a 

1673 It hath a fine leaf, a small root... reddish stalks, an umbel of white 
flowers, to which succeed small round seeds with purple apices : J. Ray, foum. 
Low Countr., p. 136. 1691 the figure and number of the stamina, and their 

apices, the figure of the Stile and Seed-vessel, and the number of Cells into which 
it is divided: — Creation, Pt. i. p. 113 (1701), 1693 Flowers serve to embrace 
and cherish the Fruit, while it is yet tender... for the Protection and Security of 
the Apices, which are no idle or useless Part : — Three Discourses, u. p. 124 
(1713). 1741 and from their Junctures or Bosoms (Arm-pits, the Author calls 

'em) arise five Stamina.. .a Line high, with Apices: J. Ozell, Tr. Tournefort's 
Voy. Levant, p. 208. 1881 The clusters of roundish spore-cases, when 

ripened, give, by their light-brown hue, to the apex of the frond the appearance 
of a flower: F. G. Heath, Garden Wild, ch. vii. p. 83. — Opposite pairs ot 
oblong blunt-pointed pinnules, and are terminated, at their apices, by single 
pinnules : ib. 

4. Philol. a horn or projection on a Hebrew letter. 

1652 Name but the time if you can, whenever right Reason did oppose one 
jot or apex of the word of God: N. Culverwel, Light of Nat., en. i. p. 6. 
1657 there is not an apex whereon hangs not a mountain of sense, as the Rabbins 
use to say: John Trapp, Com. Old Test., Vol. rv. p. 151/2 (1868). 

4 a. metaph. a tittle, minute point of anything written or 

1635 The words... answer punctually and identically to every apex or tittle 
of St. Matthew's quotation : Jackson, Creed, viii. xxvii. Wks., viii. 113. 
[N. E. r>.] 

^aphaeresis, sb.\ Late Lat. fr. Gk. a(^atpeo-ts, = *a taking 
away': used by Lat, Grammarians for the removal of a 
letter or syllable from the beginning of a word as in Eng. 
fence for defence^ biliment for habiliment, censer for incenser 
or eiicenser, state for estate (see aphesis). 

1611 Aphairese, the figure Aphaeresis : Cotgr. 1721 Bailey. 

aphasia, sb.. Mod. Lat. coinage fr. Gk. <^ao-tff, = 'speech': 
used instead of aphemia or alalia to express 'loss of the 
faculty of speech' by M. Trousseau, 1864; properly, unin- 
telligibility caused by unconscious omission or misuse of 
sounds or words, a state due to defective coordination of the 
nerves connected with the articulatory organs, distinguished 
from aphemia, physical inability to articulate, and aphonia 
{q. v.). 

1868 I had at first adopted the name 'Aphemia* on M. Broca's authority, but 
I have now, on the authority of the savants I have named, substituted for it that 
of |Aphasia': Tr. Trousseau's Clin. Med., Vol. L p. 218. [N. & Q.] 1886 

This is the disease of aphasia, arising from a derangement in the organ of 
language: J. M^COSH, Psych., p. 104. 

aphelion, aphelium, sb. : Late Lat. coinage by Kepler fr. 

Gk. a7ro-, = *away from', i7Xtos', = 'the sun': the point of a 
planet's orbit at which it is farthest from the sun, the oppo- 
site to perihelion {q. v.). Coined on the analogy of apogee 
{q. v.). Also used metaph. 

1656 The apogaeum of the sun or the aphelium of the earth ought to be 
about the 28th degree of Cancer: Tr. Hobbes' Elem. Philos., 443 (1839). 
[N.E.D.] 1659 The Aphelia, and Nodes ought not to stand still (in rigour) 
but to move continually some small quantity: S. Foster, De Instrum.entis 
Plan., p. 43. 1666 not at present in the Perihelium. of its Orbe, but nearer 
its Aphelium-. Phil. Tram., Vol. i. No. 12, p. 240. 1721 Bailey. 1812 
Apogee, if the Sun be supposed to revolve, Aphelion, if the Earth : Woodhouse, 
Astron., xix. 206. 




aphemia. See aphasia. 

aphesis, sb.: Gk. a(f>fcns, — 'a. letting go': recorded in N. 
E. D. as a term to express aphaeresis {g'. v.), when an unac- 
cented short vowel is lost at the beginning of a word. 

1880 Suggested by Dr. J. A. H. Mueeay in Presid. Address Phil. Soc. 

apheta, sb. : Late Lat. fr. post-Classical Gk. dcjifTrjs, ' one who 
lets off' (an engine for throwing missiles), also applied to 
heavenly bodies : Astrol. : the giver of life in a nativity. 

1603 [See anareta]. 1647 You may alwayes import a danger of death, 
when you iind the Apheta come to the hostill Beams of the killing Planet; W. 
Lilly, Chr. Astrol., ch. clvi. p. 650. 1721 Bailey. 1819 When. ..a 

number of planets are so situated that it seems doubtful which is the Apheta : 
J. Wilson, Diet. Astrol. 

*aphis, pi. aphides, sb.: Mod. Lat. : the name given by 
Linnaeus to the various species of plant-lice. They are ex- 
tremely prolific, multiplying in winged and wingless gene- 
rations alternately by metagenesis and parthenogenesis. 
They produce' honey-dew. 

1771 On the peach and nectarine indeed the Aphides are the same, nor do I 
find on these trees more than one sort: Phil. Trans., Vol. LXI. p. 183. 1883 

eyes whose eagle glance not so much as an aphis could escape : M. E. Beaddon, 
Golden Calf, Vol. 11. ch. i. p. 32. 

*aph6nia, sb.-. Late Lat. fr. Gk. d(^£i)j/ia, = 'speechlessness ': 
loss of voice, voicelessness ; i.e. inability to emit vocal sound 
through the larynx, generally due to disease or obstruction of 
the vocal chords ; not to be confused with aphemia or failure 
of the articulatory organs. Sometimes in 19 c. Anglicised as 

1779 A violent convulsive disease, somewhat similar to the above, though, if 
I recollect right, not attended with the aphonia, was successfully treated in the 
same way by Dr. watson; Phil. Trans., Vol. LXix. i. p. 5. 

*aphorism {1. — J-), sb. : Eng. fr. Fr. aphorisme, afforisme. 

1. a concise statement of a scientific principle ; orig. one 
of the medical Aphorisms of Hippocrates. 

1628 as is sayde in the aforesayde aphorisme: Paynell, Tr. Reg. Sal., sig. 
T i 7/». — as Hippocrates saith in y*^ aboue allegate aphorisme : ib., sig. E i ro. 

1641 as Ipocras sayth in his Aphorysmes : R. Copland, Tr. Guydo's Quest. , &^c. , 
sig. A ii v°. — of this vtylyte Arnolde of vylle maketh an afforysme : ib., sig. 
P i ?^. ' 1543 Thys Aphorisme is trewe in holowe vlceres, and in vlcers caused 
of colde exitures: Trahebon, Tr. Vigo's Chirurg., fol. cxxiii 7-''/2. 1548 
Galen, in the amphorisme of Ipocres, saying ; Oportet seipsum non solutn : 
T. Vicaey, Engl. Treas., p. 5 (1626). 1684 But in a sickenesse that will ende 
within thr€e or foure dayes, we should vse a dyet which Galen calleth in his 
commentarie vpon the foresaide Aphorisme, Summe tenuis victus: T. Coghan, 
Haven of Health, p. 173. 1620 On the Medicine of the Mind, wherein ap- 
plying the Aphorisms which are written for the health and cure of the Body : 
Beent, Tr. Soave's Hist. Counc. Trent, p. xl. (1676). 1621 their [astrologers'] 
aphorismes are to be read in Albubator, Pontanus, Skoner, &c. : R. Burton, 
Anat. Mel., Pt. 3, Sec. 3, Mem. i. Subs. 2, Vol. 11. p. 429 (1827). 1628 his 
discourse is all Aphorismes, though his reading be onely Alexis of Piemont : 
J. Earle, Microcosm., p. 25 (1868). 

2. a pithy saying, a sententious utterance, a maxim. 

1689 certaine Aphorismes that Auarreon had pend downe as principles of 
loues follies: R. Greene, Metiaphon, p. 24 (1880). 1601 that notable 

Aphorisme, worthie to bee kept and observed as a divine Oracle : Holland, Tr. 
Plin. N. H., Bk. 18, ch. 24, Vol. I. p. 583. 1609 this Aphorisme was set 

downe. That if such a fire-light uuere seene in the skie, there ought no batiaile 
be fought, 7ior any such matter attempted: — Tr. Marc, Bk. 25, p. 263. 

1642 'tis an olde Aphorisme, Oderunt omnes, quejn jnetuunt: Howell, Instr. 
For. Trav., p. 37 (1869). 1646 though sometimes they are flattered with that 
Aphoris-m, will hardly believe. The voice of the People to be the voice of God : 
Sir Th. Brown, Pseud. Pp., Bk. i. ch. iii. p. 8 (1686). 1870 the law of the 
empire is concluded in the Roman aphorism, quod Principi placuit, legis habet 
vigorem: E. MuLFORD, Nation, ch. xviii. p. 343. 

[From Late Lat. aphorismus, aforismus, fr. Gk. a0o/)io-/ior, 
= 'a definition'.] 

*Aphrodite : Gk. 'K^tpohiT-q : the goddess of beauty of Gk. 
Mythol., the Lat. Venus {g. v.), mother of Love (Eros,*Ep<Br, 
Lat. Cupido), said to have been born from the foam {a<j)pos) 
of the sea. Hence aphrodisiac(af), = ' tending to cause ve- 
nereal excitement'. 

bef. 1658 A Medal where grim Mars turn right, | Proves a smiling Aphtodite 
{sic}: J. Cleveland, Wks., p. 354 (1687). 1819 He followed me to those 

temples where Aphrodite wears no veil, in order to preach to me decency : 
T. Hope, Anast., Vol. 11. ch. viii. p. 148 (1820). 1864 we would acknowledge 
the Sovereign Loveliness, and adjure the Divine Aphrodite : Thackeray, Neiv- 
comes. Vol. i. ch. xxii. p. 240 (1879). 

[Probably corrupted from some form of the Semitic name 
Ishtar or Ashtorethi\ 

apices juris non est jus, phr.: Late Lat: law is not 
minute points of law. 

1641 It is well said in the law that apices juris non est jus: John Trapp, 
Com. Old Test., ific. Vol. iv. p. 723/1 (1868). 

apices rerum, phr. : Lat. : 'tops of things ' ; see apex. 

1693 These are the Apices Rerutn the tops and summs the very spirit and 
life of Things extracted and abridged : South, Sermons, p. 173. 

Apicius, a celebrated Roman gourmand of the time of 
Augustus and Tiberius. Hence Apician, adj., expressing 
the idea of dainty and costly fare. 

1621 what Fagos, Epicures, Apicios, Heliogables our times afford : R. Burton, 
Anat. Mel., Pt. I, Sec. 2, Mem*. 2, Subs. 2, Vol. i. p. 104 (1827). — those Apician 
tricks, and perfumed dishes: ib.. Subs, i, p. 103. 

*aplonib, sb. : Fr. 

1. perpendicularity, equilibrium, steadiness. 

1776 assured me that he equalled Slingsby in his \ plomp, or neatness of 
keeping time: J. Collier, Mus. Trav., p. 73 (4th Ed.). 1847 what an en- 
trechat! Oh, what a bound ! Then with what an a-//(??«i5 he comes down to the 
ground ! Barham, Ingolds. Leg.,_ p. 476 (1865). 1864 His house of cards... 

stood... with an aplottw that promises fairly: London Soc, Vol. vi. p. 50. 

2. assurance, self-possession, undisturbed mien. 

1837 he wanted the ease and aplomb of one accustomed to live with his 
equals; J. F. Cooper, Europe, Vol. IL p. 45. 1854 She carried her little head 
with an aplomb and gravity which amused some of us; Thackeray, NewcoTnes, 
Vol. II. ch. xxvii. p. 300 (1879). 1856 He has that aplomb, which results from 
a good adjustment of the moral and physical nature, and the obedience of all the 
powers to the will ; as if the axes of his eyes were united to his backbone ; Emer- 
son, Engl. Traits, vi. Wks., Vol. 11. p. 46 (1866). — Men of aplomb and re- 
serves: ib., viii. p. 60. 

[From Fr. i//o»zi5, = ' according to the plummet'.] 

apocatastasis, sb.-. Gk. aTroKaTcio-Tao-is, = ' return to the 
same positions', of heavenly bodies; hence, in Late Gk., 
'complete restoration': restitution, renovation, return to a 
prior state. In Theology the 'restoration' of the creature 
through the work of redemption, generally used in connec- 
tion with the Origenistic doctrine of the final salvation and 
restitution of all creatures (apocatastasis panton). 

1678 they supposing this Revolution or Apocatastasis of Souls, to be made in 
no less space than that of Three Thousand years: CuDWORTH, Iniell, Sysi., 
Bk. I. ch. iv. p. 313. 1885 in the glorious apokatastasis, or restitution of all 

things : H. Macmillan, Sabbath in the Fields, p. 216 (5th Ed.). 

apocope, j^. : Gk. an-oKOTri): Gram.: 'a cutting-off' of the 
last syllable or letter of a word ; when it is dropped usually 
or before a consonant, not merely by elision ; as in Eng. eight 
for Mid. Eng. eighte (Old Eng. eahta),game ior gamen. 

1591 Apocope. for vamos nos, they say vamonos: Percivall, SA. Diet 
sig. Bijr". [N.E.D.] 1721 Bailey. 

*apocrypha, adj. and sb. (properly pi. with sing, apocry- 
phon, -um): Late Lat. neut. pi. of apocryphus, fr. Gk. ano- 
Kpv0or, = 'hidden away', 'obscure', in Eccl. Gk. 'spurious', 

1. adj. : of unknown authorship, not genuine,unauthorised, 

abt. 1426 the iij. and iiij*. book of Esdre than ben apocrifa, that is, not of 
autorite of bileue; WyclifHte Prol. to Old Test., p. 2 (1850). 1460 'The 

Penauns of Adam" be cleped Apocriphum, whech is to sey, whanne the mater is 
in dome, or elhs whan men knowe not who mad the book : Capgrave, Chron., 7 
[N. E. D.] _ 1589 many other thinges more, the which I do leaue out for that 
I do take it apocripha: R. Parke, Tr. Mendoza's Hist. Chin., Vol. n. p. 323 
(1854). 1626 Saint Augustine complaines of such Apocrypha Scriptures 
amongst the Mantchoes: Purchas, Pilgrims, Vol. L Bk. i. p. 55. 1662 Time 
was when truth eclipsed in darkness lay, | As if all Scripture were AnocrvDha- 
John Trapp, Com., Vol. 1. p. xi. (1867). v iv ■ 

2. sb. : a writing or book of unknown authorship or 
doubtful genuineness, with pi. apocryphas, apocryphaes, also 
as pi. in the same sense ; rarely, in sing, fomi apocryphon, 
-um. As collective sing., the uncanonical books of the Eng. 
Version of the Old Testament. 

bef. 1400 first among the Apographase, that is among tho thinges whos autor 
IS not knowun of al hoh chirch: WyclifBte Bible, Prol. i Kings (1850). 1584 

!?l<?=^'!i-v'^'*''^ the Apocrypha; R. Scott, Disc Witch., Bk. xi. ch. xi. p. 200. 
loss ihat no Byble should be bounde without the Apocripha: Marprel Epist 
34 (Arber). 1589 that I be excluded from your curtesie, like Apocrytha from 
your Bibles : T. Nashe, in Greene's Menaphon, p. 18 (iBSo). 1645 This is no 
Apocrypha, though the book of Maccabees doe only sample this story Merc 
Acad., p 32. 1646 the Apocrypha oi Esdras: Sir Th. Brown, Pseud. Et. 
Bk VI. ch^ vni. p. 257 (1686). bef 1668 a Nest | Of young Apoeryphas, the' 

?ooi™J.u ^ '"^"' ™«"'^' Reservation: J. Cleveland, Wks., ii. p. 26 (16S7). 
1881 the presence of an apocryphon in a Christian MS.: W. R. Smith Old 
Test, in Jew. Ch., v. 27. [N. E.D.] .Ji'nin, i^ia- 

2 a. sb. used attrib. 

1641 The Apocrypha writers. ..are yet but cold, and even barbarous, in com- 
parison: John Trapp, Com. Old Test, Vol. iv. p. 706/1 (1868). 


2 b. secrets; in original sense of the Gk. adj. 

1839 Every man's life has its apocrypha ; Mine has, at least : Bailey, Festus, 
viii. So (1848). [N.E.D.] 

Variant, 15 c. apographa. 

apodiabolosis, sb. -. quasi-Q,V. : relegation to the rank of 
devil ; the correlative of apotheosis {q. v.). 

1827 The apotheosis of the Middle Ages, and the apodiabolosis of the Re- 
formation and its effects: Hare, Guesses, 162 (1859). [N. E. D.] 

[Coined fr.' Gk. 8idi3o\os, = ' devil'; on the analogy of 

apodixis, sb. : Late Lat. fr. Gk. an-oSet^tr : demonstration, 
clear proof. 

bef. 1623 If he had not afterwards given an apodixis in the battle, upon what 
platform he had projected and raised that hope: Buck, Rich. III., 60. [T.] 

apodosis, sb. : Late Lat. fr. Gk. an-oSoo-ty, lit. 'a giving 
back' : a consequent proposition answering to an antecedent 
proposition called protasis {q. v.) ; esp. the clause of a con- 
ditional sentence which conveys the result of the fulfilment 
of the condition proposed in the other clause, viz. the prota- 
sis. Also, used by divines for the application of a parable. 

1657 Here beginneth the apodosis or application of the parable : John Trapp, 
Coyn. Old Test, Vol. in. p. 597/1 (1868). 1671 and in his apodosis more openly 
intimating, man's sleep should be only till the heavens were no more : John Howe, 
Wks., p. 224 (1834). 1696 This is the sum of the parable; and the aTroSoo-ts, 
the meaning of it, is this : D, Clarkson, Pract. Wks., Nichol's Ed., Vol. 11. 
p. 38s (1865). 1721 Bailey. 1888 In such cases the apodosis expresses 
a result of the fulfilment of the condition, which result is regarded not as certain, 
but as possible or probable : A thencEu^n, Jan. 21, p. 84/1. 

apodyterium, sb. -. Late Lat. fr. Gk. dn-oSun/'p'ov : an un- 
dressing-room in a Greek or Roman bathing-house or place 
of exercise ; a room for unrobing or robing. 

1600 They had other roumes also called Apodyteria, wherein they that were 
to goe into the bath, put off their cloths and laid them by: Holland, Tr, Livy 
i^Sumjn. Mar., Bk. iv. ch. xxv.), p. 1382. 1695 going out of the Convocation 
house into the' Apoditerium : Wood, Life, Vol. i. p. cxii. (Bliss, 1813). 1886 

It represents the interior of a Roman apodyterium or dressing-room attached to 
a great bath: AihemEum, Mar. 6, p. 334/2. 

apogee {± — ±), sb.-. Eng. fr. Fr. apog^e,s\so Lat. apogaeum, 
apogaeon, pL apogaea, fr. Gk. to a^royaioi' {sc. biaa-Trjjia), in 
Ptolemy = 'the greatest distance of a planet from the earth'. 

1. the point of orbit at which there is the greatest dis- 
tance of the moon, a planet, or the sun (when the earth is in 
aphelion, q- v.) from the earth. 

1594 His [the moon's] slow motion is when he is in the point called Auge or 
Apogeon: Blundevil, III. i, viii. 287. 1603 What Epicicle meaneth, and 

Con-centrik, \ With Apog^, Perig^, and Eccentrik : J. Sylvester, Tr. Zfu 
Bartas, Columnes, p. 393 (1608). 1603 Doe not the pianettes retaine their 

owne qualities still in ApogcEO, which they haue in Perigio ? C. Heydon, Z>e/. 
Judic. Astrol., p. 504. — apogaeum: ib., p. 380. 

1 a. metaph. the uttermost point. 

1640 When I was hid in my Apogeon : H, More, Psych., i. ii. 6, p. 81 

2. the greatest apparent altitude of the sun, reached at 
noon on the longest day of the year. 

1646 the Apogeum or highest point (which happeneth in Cancer): Sir Th. 
Brown, Pseud. Ep., Bk. vi. ch. v. p. 242 (1686). 

2 a. metaph. the highest point, summit, climax. 

1640 she doth ascend | Unto her circles ancient Apogie: H. More, Psych., 
III. ii. 12, p. 142 (1647). 1864 Gamridge's, in 1836, was at the apogee of its 
popularity and renown: G. A. Sala, Quiie Alone, Vol. I. ch. xiii. p. 204. 1865 
Started for Paris to see the Great Exhibition. Paris is now at the apogee of its 
magnificence, and is the wonder of the world: Lord Malmesbuey, ^^?;;f7z>.r, 
Vol. II. p. 338 (1884). 

apokatastasis: Gk. See apocatastasis. 

ApoUinaris water : mineral water from the ApoUinaris 
Brunnen near Remagen on the Rhine, advertised in England 
about 1879. 

Apollo, the sun-god of Greek Mythology, hence, by 
metonymy, the sun ; also the god of prophecy, music, and 
poetry. Representative of youthful manly beauty of the 
highest type. 

1590 Apollo, Cynthia, and the ceaseless lamps | That gently look'd upon this 
loathsome earth: Marlowe, // Tamhurl, 11. iv. p. 51/2 (1858). — Nor are 
Apollo's oracles more true | Than thou shalt find my vaunts substantial : ib. i. i. 
p. 12/1. 1612 the ruddy Apollo spread ouer the vast and spacious earth, the 
Folden twists of his beautijull hayres: T. SHELTON.'Tr. Don Quixote, Pt. I. ch. 
li. p. 9. 1664 True as Apollo ever spoke, | Or Oracle from heart of Oak : 
S. Butler, Hudihras, Pt. 11. Cant. i. p. 40. 1679 That Friend should be 
another Apollo, if a Man, and a tenth Muse to me, if a Woman : Shadwell, 
True Widow, v. p. 66. 1728 Where's now this favourite of Apollo ! | Departed : 



and his works must follow: Swift, Wks.-, p. 599/2(1863). 1863 His coun- 
tenance comely and manly, but no more ; too square for Apollo : C. Rjeade, 
Hard Cask, Vol. i. p. 3. 

ApoUyon: Gk. 'ATroXXvwi;, a pres. part., = 'destroying', 
used as the Gk. equivalent of Heb. Abaddon (q.v.). Used 
also as a part, or attributively, * destroying ', 'destructive'- 
Hence Apollyonists applied to the locusts oi Rev. ix. 

1382 The aungel of depnesse, to whom the name bi Ebru Labadon, forsothe 
by Greke Appolion, and bi Latyn hauynge the name Destrier: Wyclif, Rev., 
ix. II. 1485 the fayth that I owe to my god appollyn & to Termagaunt: 
Caxton, Chas. Crete, p. 57 (1881). 1627 The Locusts or Apollyonists: 
P. Fletcher, Poems, 11. 63—107 (Grosart). [C.E.D.] 1678 he went on, 

and AJ>ollyon met him. Now the monster was hideous to behold ; he was clothed 
with scales, like a fish: Bunyan, Pilgriwls Progress, Pt. i. p. 59 (1887). 

apologia, sb.: Lat. fr. Gk. a7ro\oym, = ' defence', 'apology': 
a writing in defence of conduct or opinions ; brought into 
modern use by the title of Cardinal Newman's autobiographic 
work Apologia pro Vita Sua, 1 864. 

1878 If we read the Apologia of Dr. Newman, we perceive the likeness : 
J. C. MoRisoN, Gibbon, ch. i. p. 16. 1883 The Duke [of Argyll] has put his 
own version of the story on record. This apologia is a pamphlet: Sat. R^v., 
>Vol. 56, p. 613/1. 

^apophthegm {± ± ±\ apothegm(e), sb. : Eng. fr. Gk. 
d7r64>^eyfia (perhaps through Fr. apophthegme) : a terse pithy 
saying, a brief and weighty maxim. Plutarch made a col- 
lection of apophthegms, a7ro<l>6eyiiaTa. Perhaps Erasmus 
made the word familiar in England. Often spelt apoth- 
up to the latter half of 18 c. 

1642 Apophthegmes, that is to saie, prompte, quicke, wittie, and sentencious 
saiynges.. .compiled in Latineby the right famous clerke Master Erasmus of Rotero- 
dame, translated into Englyshe by Nicolas Ud all, 1542. [N. &Q.] 1653 — 87 
Another Apothegma of D. Taylor: Foxe, A. ^ M., iil 145 marg. [N.E.D.] 
1684 To these maybe added that worthie apothegme oi Dionysitts % T. Coghan, 
Haven of Health, p. 163. 1591 The learned Plutarch in his Laconicall 

Apophthegmes, tels of a Sophister that, &:c. : Sir John ^^v^xt^gto^^, Apol. Poet., 
in Haslewood's Eng. Poets &= Poesy, Vol. ii. p. 121 (1815). 1600 this.. .was an 
apophthegm.e and common saying of his: Holland, Tr. Livy, Bk. xlv. p. 1223. 
bef 1603 Prouerbes, Epigrams, Epitaphes, Apophthegms, & other ornaments of 
history : North, {Lives of Epamin., S'c, added to) Plut. , p. 1189 (1612). 1603 
that notable Apophthegme of Diogenes, who being asked how a man might be re- 
venged best of his enemie, answered thus, If (quoth he) thou shew thy selfe a good 
and honest man: Holland, Tr. Plut. Mor., p. 28. — the Apothegme ol Xeno- 
crates: ib., p. 141. — those speeches and apophthegmes : ib., p. 1269. 1609 

this was an Apothegme of his: — Tr. Marc, Bk. 25, ch. v. p. 268. 1628 when 

he is in coniunction with his Brethren he may bring foorth a Citie Apothegme : 
J. Earle, Microcosm., Char. 5. bef. 1658 'tis a most acute Apothegm: 
J. Cleveland, Wks.,, p. 105 (1687). bef 1670 a Message, equal to the best 

of the ancient Apophthegms: J. Hacket, Abp. Williams, Pt. i. 153, p. 145 

apophyge {—J. — -l), sb.: Eng. fr. Gk. a7ro(f)vyri, lit. 'es- 
cape'. Also apophysis, pL apophyges (Lat. fr. Gk.) : the 
curving out of the top or bottom of a column with which it 
escapes or bows offxr^X-o the capital or base. 

1563 The second part [of the Capitall] deuide into 3 partes ; 2 of those shalbe 
for Echinus.. .the rest is lefte for the 3 Ringes which be called Apophiges, or 
Anuli: J. Shute, Archit., C iij a. 1598 The astragalus M under the hypo- 
trachelion with the apophigis, is halfe the hypotrachelion and the apophigis is 
halfe the astragalus: R. Haydocke, Tr. Lomatius, Bk. l p. 90. 1719 Apo- 
phyge in architecture is that part of a column where it seems to fly out of its base, 
like the process of a bone in a man's leg, and begins to shoot upwards : Glossogr. 
Angl. Nova. 

apophysis, pi. apophyses, sb. : Gk. d7r6(l)vcn$f lit. 'a grow- 
ing off' ; also in Fr. form apophyse : Hippocrates' term for 
the process of a bone, that part of a bone which stands out 
from the axis or from the main portion of the bone. 

1578 A7rd(^uo-ts which the Latin interpretours call Processus, is thus when a 
bone in any part, stretcheth forth his substance in excreasing maner : J. Banister, 
Hist. Man, Bk. i. fol. 2 r". 1611 Proc^s...the Processe, Apophyse, or out- 

standing part of a bone : Cotgr. 1658 the Apophyses or processes of Animal 
bones: SiK Th. Brown, Garden of Cyr., ch. lii. p. 42 (1686). 1701 This 
second Vertebra has an Apophysis callM the Tooth: Tauvry, Anat., 11. xvi. 268. 
1721 Bailey. 

apoplexia, sb. : Late Lat. fr. Gk. aTroTrXTj^ta, = disablement 
by a stroke', 'stupor', 'apoplexy': a stroke of cerebral 
apoplexy, a sudden attack of unconsciousness caused by 
effusion of blood into the substance of the brain. Anglicised 
in 14 c. (Chaucer) through Fr. apoplexie. 

1542 immoderate evyll for the fallynge syckenes called Epilencia, 
Analencia & Cathalencia, Appoplesia, Soda with all other infyrmytyes in the 
heade: Boorde, Dyetary, p. 244(1870). 1643 Whiche prickyng hath euyl 

accidentes folowynge as apoplexia, vertigo: Traheron, Tr. Vigo's Chirurg., 
fol. Ixxxvii voJTi. 1653—87 the aforenamed Manroy...was struck with a disease 
called apoplexia, and diereupon suddenly died: Foxe, A. &> M., Bk. vii. Vol. iv. 
p. 446(1853). 1562 Bullein, 5«/war^^, fol. Ixx. 



diroirpor] Yiilva, z^opxosgva.&n.a., neut. pi. perf. part. pass. '. 
Gk. : (things) 'rejected', i.e. not as absolutely bad, but as not 
preferred. This term and the correlative 77po7)y;iieva= (things) 
'preferred' (fr. 7rpoayeti', = 'to lead forward') were used by the 
Stoics (who denied the existence of physical evil and good) 
instead of 'bad', 'evil', 'painful', &c. and 'good', 'pleasant', 

1837 He did not understand what wisdom there could be in changing names 
where it was impossible to change things; in denying that blindness, hunger, the 
gout, the rack, were evils, and calling them in-on-po7)y(teVa ; Macaulay, Essays, 
p. 404 (1877). 

aporia, Ji5. : Gk. a7ropi'a, = ' perplexity': Rhet., 
the figure by which the speaker professes to doubt or be at a 
loss what to say or how to decide between alternative pro- 
positions ; a doubt, a difficulty. 

1589 Aporia, or the Doubtfull. [So] called. ..because oftentimes we will seeme 
to cast perils, and make doubt of things when by a plaine manner of speech wee 
might afiirme or deny him: Puttenham, Eng. Foes., m. xix. p. 234 (1869). 
1721 Bailey. 1888 No quibble was too sophistical, no ajropia too trans- 

parent, for him [Aristotle] to think it worth examination: AiheruEum, Aug. 18, 
p. 219/3. 

dir6ppT]Ta, aporrheta, neut. pi. adj.: Gk.: (things) 'not to 
be spoken', secrets, esoteric doctrines. 

1816 but I'm here wandering into the airopprjTa, and so must change the 
subject for a far pleasanter one: Byron, in Moore's Lz/e, Vol. III. p. 203 (1832). 
1823 the hieropnants of the pagan world studiously concealed their Aporrheta 
from the unhallowed gaze of the profane vulgar: Fabee, Treat, on Pair., 
Levit, &* Chr. Disp., Vol. 11. p. 33. 1834 an obvious allusion to the aTroppfiTo, 
or secret truths, taught and inculcated in the various mysteries of paganism : 
Greswell, on Parables, Vol. I. p. 53. 

aposentador, sb. : Sp. : a quarter-master. 

bef. 1530 Againe your Grace must haue Alguazeles and Aposintadors wiche 
must bee sent [from] this Contre, to meet with your servaunts that goo afor to 
make prouisions, and herbegears at their first entree into Spayne : Edw. Lee, in 
Ellis' Orig. Lett., 3rd Ser., Vol. 11. No. clix. p. 105 (1846). 

aposiopesis, sb.: Gk. dTroo-uBn-i/o-ir, = 'a becoming silent': 
Gram, and Rhet. : a breaking-off in the middle of a sentence; 
facetiously used by Pope as if the term included the pro- 
fession of inability to say more. 

1578 A figure called Aposiopesis, after the which something not expressed is 
to be understood : Timme, Calvin on Gen,, 146. [N. E. D.] 1664 we can stay 
no longer from crying out in that most Rhetoricall Aposiopesis: R. Whitlock, 
Zooto-mia, p. 405. 1662 There is here an angry aposiopesis ; for these words, 
"I deliver you" are not in the original: John Trapp, Com.., Vol. I. p. 375/2 
(1867). 1671 there is an elegant aposiopesis in the Hebrew text : John 
Howe, Wks., p. 239/1 (1834). 1709 I have by me an elaborate treatise on the 
aposiopesis called an Et ccztera, it being a figure much used by some learned 
authors: Addison, Taller, Feb. 14, Wks., Vol. II. p. 90 (1854). 1727 The 

Aposiopesis. An ignorant figure for the Ignorant, as. What shall I say?" when 
one has nothing to say; or *'I can no more," when one really can no more: Pope, 
Art 0/ Sinking, ch. x. Wks., Vol. vi. p. 192 (1757). 1759 one of the neatest 
examples of that ornamental figure in oratory which Rhetoricians style the Apo- 
siopesis : Sterne, Trist. Shandy, ii. p. 73 (1839). 

apostata, sb. and adj. : Late Lat. fr. Gk. cmo<TTa.Tr)s, Class. 
= 'runaway-slave', 'deserter', 'rebel', Eccl. = 'apostate', 
'renegade': apostate, one who forsakes his religion; also a 
member of a religious order who forsakes the profession 
thereof. Anglicised as apostate, bef. 1350. 

abt. 1380 that thes newe religious blasphemen not god in holdynge a prest of 
here ordre apostata & cursed ^if he lyue among cristene peple : How Relig. Men 
Should, &^c., in F. D. Matthew's Unprinted Efig. Wks. of IVyclif, p. 225 
(1880). 1477 This Monke had walked about in Fra-UTice, | Raunging Apostata 
in his plesaunce: T. Norton, Ordinall, ch. ii. in Ashmole's Theat. Chem. Brit., 
p. 24 (1652). 1479 but in this case the prest that troubleth my moder is but a 

simple felowe, and he is appostata: Paston Letters, Vol. III. No. S28, p. 243 
(1874). bef. 1529 And to synge from place to place, | Lyke apostataas: 
J. Skelton, Col. Cloute, 388, Wks., Vol. I. p. 325 (1843). bef. 1547 I do 
aske my dewty off them, and they callythe me apostata and all to nowght, and 
sayth they wyll treble me: A. Boorde, in Ellis' Orig. Lett., 3rd Ser., Vol. 11. 
No. ccxxvii. p. 307 (1846). 1563 Cranmer, who forsoke his profession as 

Apostata: J. Pilkington, Paules Church, sig. A iv v^. 1582 he aboue al 

others may be called an Apostata, y* hath his body in the sel, & his hart in the 
market place : T. North, Tr. Guevara's Dial of Princes, Prol., sig. a vi v°. 
1584 lulianus was an Apostata, and a betraier of christian religion : R, Scott, 
Disc. Witch., &^C; p. 536. 1686 So did that Apostata Emperour lulian, Dio~ 
c/^.F/a?z, and other: Sir Edw. Hoby, Polii.Disc. of Truth, ch. xxx. p.. 141. 1593 
An hypocrite, an impostour, an Apostata, an heretique : G. Harvey, Pierces 
Supererog., Wks., 11. 184 (Grosart). 1600 the Apostata will rather bume 
with unquenchable fire then forsake his beloued sinne_: R. Cawdray, Treas. of 
Sifnilies, p. 45. 1600 This castle was' built euen in our time by a certaine 
apostata or renouncer of the Mahumetan religion : John Pory, Tr. Leo's Hist. 
Afr., p. 55. 1622 I have deferr'd it, | In hopes to draw back this apostata : 

Massinger, Virg. Mar., iii. i, Wks., p. ii/i (1839). 1625 Fugitiues, Apo- 

stataes, Theeues, Murtherers; Purchas, Pilgrims, Vol. i. sig. T 6 y". 1632 
that famous Apostata Colonell Sparr: Contin. of our Forraine Avisoes, No. 46, 
Sept. 22, p. 2. 1657 even those who now set up their crests, face the heavens, 
and say unto the king, Apostata, stouting it out with him : John Trapp, Com. 
Old Test., Vol. 11. p. 643/2 (1868). 


apostatrice, sb.\ Eng. fr. Old Fr. apostatricc. a female 
apostate ; used as adj. 

1546 That chapel Apostatrice, as they than called it ful wisely: Bale, Eng. 
Votaries, 11. 113 b (1550). [N. E. D.] 

apostemation, apostumation, sb.: Eng. fr. Old Fr. 

apostemation, apostumation : Med. 

1. the process of forming an abscess or tumor, gathering 
of matter in any part of the body. 

1540 Of Apostumation and running of the eares: Raynald, Birth Man.,, 
p. 171 (1613). 1543 yf ye fynde the Talpe...not vlcered, but bendynge to the 
waye of apostemation: Traheron, Tr. Vig(fs Chimrg.,io\. ■xSmiv'lx. 1563 
the first beginning of the wound vntil such time as there is no feare of aposti- 
mation : T. Gale, Enchirid., fol. 15 ro. 

2. an aposteme, a deep-seated abscess. 

1540 how to. ..dense such Apostumations : Raynald, Birth Man., p. 128 
(1613). 1580 Apostumations in the Lunges: Frampton, yoyfull Newes, 
6r>c., fol. 157 v". 

apostolicon, -um, adj. and sb.. Late Lat. fr. Eccl. Gk. 
(i7ro(rToX«os, = ' pertaining to apostles': as adj., apostles', with 
salve, plaster, &c. ; as sb., apostles' ointment, a famous salve 
for purifying wounds. 

?1530 to make an Apostolicum salue : Antidotharius, sig. A iii V. 1541 
The .X. fourme is apostolicum, comune at the appotycaryes : R. Copland, Tr. 
Guydo's Quest., &'c., sig. V iv V. 1599 the Playster Apostolicon : A. M., Tr, 
GabelhoucT's Bk, Physicke, p. 2^9/2. ?abt. 1600 For to make a white treate 

called apostolicon, Take oyle olive, litarge of lead, &c. : Pathway to Health, \, 

*apostrophe, j3. : Gk. a7roa-Tpo(t>fi, = '3. turning away' (see 
strophe) : Rket. : an exclamatory digression, properly ad- 
dressed to one person, at whom the speaker looks, turning 
away from others. 

1573 — 80 in effecte conteyninge the argumente of his curragious and warly[k]e 
apostrophe to my lorde of Oxenforde: Gab. Harvey, Lett. Bk., p. 99 (1884). 
1580^ Of my Stejnmata Dudleiana, and especially of the .sundry Apostrophes 
therein, addressed you knowe to whome, must more advisement be had: Spens., 
Let., Wks., App. II. p. 709/2(1869). 1589 Puttenham, Eng. Foes., III. xix. 
p._244 (1869). 1602 ail here how can the sorrowfull sequels be remembred 
without Apostrophees of inconsolable griefes: W. Watson, Quodlibets of Relig. 
&' State, p. 25. — to possesse their soules with laments in Apostrophees of com- 
passion : ill., p. 233. bef. 1658 Your Apostrophe to Tressilian is a true Apo- 
strophe, for 'tis from the Cause ; for will ye introduce a Parity in Offences to : 
J. Cleveland, Wks., p. 106 (1687). bef. 1670 How curious were his Apo- 

strophes ! J. Hacket, Ahp. Williams, Pt. I. 24, p. 18 (1693). 1744 It is im- 
possible to describe the confusion into which this apostrophe threw me : HoR. 
Walpole, Letters, Vol. I. p. 332 (1857). 1748 He took no notice of this 
apostrophe, but went on: Smollett, Rod. Rand., ch. xlvii. Wks., Vol. I. p. 327 
(1817). 1759 Mr. Pitt. ..overheard this cruel apostrophe: HoR. Walpole, 

Letters, Vol. ill. p. 242 (1857). 1842 Teucer's apostrophe— iVzV &i/«rvzK(f«OT .' 
Barham, Ingolds. Leg., p. 223 (1865). 

*apostrophe {—±^^, sb.: Eng. fr. Fr. apostrophe or 
Late Lat. apostrophus {-phos), = 'a. mark indicating elision', 
fr. Late Gk. i; dnoa-Tpocpos {7rpo(r(o8ia), = 'the tuming-away' 
(accent) : the pronunciation with four syllables is due to 
confusion with apostrophe. 

1. the omission of a sound in pronunciation or of a letter 
(or letters) in spelling, as of a vowel before the final s in the 
Mod. Eng. genitive singular, or of the e of the ending -ed, as 
in skill' d. In the quot. fr. Shakspeare (2) apostrophe occurs 
twice in "heaven's" which should be pronounced as a mono- 

1530 to auoyde the concurrence of seperat vowelles in distyncte wordes/they 
be more curious in the obseruyng of the fygure called Apostrophe /than the Grekes 
be themselfe: Palsgr., sig. B i »". 1611 apostrophise ; to 

cut off (by an Apostrophe) the last vowell of a word: Cotgr. bef. 1637 

Apostrophus is the rejecting of a vowel from the beginning or ending of a word : 
B. JoNSON, Eng. Gr., Bk. 11. ch. i. Wks., p. 783/1 (i860). 1642 Apostrophes, 
which are the knots of a Language: Howell, Instr. For. Trav., p. 39 (1869). 

2. a mark (') indicating the omission of a letter or of 
letters. Also the sign of Mod. Eng. genitive case even when 
the case is not distinguished in pronunciation. 

[1588 That sings heaven's praise with such an earthly tonge. Hoi. You find 
not the apostraphas {? for apostrophes], and so miss the accent! Shaks., L.L.L., 
iv. 2, 123.] 1721 APOSTROPHE, [in Grammar] is an Accent, or Mark, 

shewing that there is a Vowel cut off: Bailey. 

apotelesm(e), sb.: Eng. fr. Gk. an-oreXfo-^ta : complete 
effect, result ; Astrol. : the figure or casting of a horoscope. 

1670 Not onely (by Apotelesmes) to otI, but by Natural! and Mathematical] 
demonstration to Sioti : J. Dee, Pref. Billingsle/s Euclid, sig. b iij v". 1636 
In this succinct Recollection is contrived... the Apotelesma and effect of infinite 
Volumes: Raleigh's Tubus Hist., Pref. B. [N. E. D.] 




"^apotliedsis, sb.: Eccl. Gk. a7ro^ea)o-tff, = ^deification': a 
raising or being raised to the rank of a divine person, or (by 
extension) of an object of adoration (as a canonised saint, a 
deified ideal) ; also, loosely, an extravagant exaltation. 

1573 — 80 whether any sutch creatures and apotheoses were ever in the world 
or noe: Gab. Harvey, Lett. Bk., p. 71 (1884). 1619 Adde also (the vanitie 

of Men hath added it) an Apotheosis; and that Men, when thou canst not longer 
be a Man, canonize thee for a Saint, adore thee for a God : Purchas, Pilgrims, 
ch. xlix. p. 465. 1623 E. these will deifie him to despite you. F. I envie 

not the "ATToeeuo-ts: B. Jonson, Masques (Vol. 11.), p. 96 (1640). 1664 will 

obey the Powers over Him, but not admire them into an Apotheosis, Deifying of 
them: R. Whitlock, Zootomia, p. 11. 1665 the apotheosis of that excellent 
person : Evelyn, Corresp., Vol. iix. p. 68 (1872). 1699 every Man that goes 

to Bed, when asleep, lies like a dead Roman upon a Funeral Pile, dreading some 
unexpected Apotheosis : M. Lister, Journ. to Paris, p. 137. 1758 this 

clumsy apotheosis of her concubinage: HoR, Walpole, Letters, Vol. iii. p. 133 
(1837). 1821 Your apotheosis is now reduced to a level with his welcome : 

Byron, in Moore*s Life, Vol. v. p. 242 (1832). 1826 a rough admiral, or a 

rich merchant, are the only characters whose apotheosis you would look for in 
such a spot [the great square, or market-place]: Rejl. on a Ramble to Germany, 
Introd., p. Q. *1877 his incredible apotheosis of the Queen of France: Times, 
Dec. 10. [St.] 

appaltato, //. appaltati, past part. pass, of It. appaltare^ 
= *to farm', 'to let': a person who has a right to enter a 
place of entertainment, by virtue of a subscription, for a 
certain time at a cheaper rate, as if a ^^zxt-lessee. 

1787 Moderate as these expences are, those who are appaltati pay consider- 
ably less : P. Beckford, Lett, from Ital., Vol. i. p. 259 (1805). — he had op- 
paltaiiedh.\xasQ\i BX. the theatre for the whole Carnival: ib., p. 260. 

appalto, sb.'. It.: farm, monopoly. 

1820 The revenue which arises from the duties upon commerce, the appalto 
of tobacco, and the direct taxes is estimated at 130,000 dollars ; T. S'. Hughes, 
Trav. inSicily, Vol. i. ch. v. p. 148. 1849 we might establish manufactures,... 
extend commerce, get an appalto of the silk, buy it all up at sixty piastres per 
oke: Lord Beaconsfield, Tancred, Bk. iv. ch. iv. p. 272 (1881). 

appan(n)age: Eng. fr. Fr. See apanage. 
^apparatus, sb. : Lat. 

1, preparation, preliminary work. 

1645 the famous anatomy lecture, celebrated here with extraordinary appa- 
ratus: Evelyn, Diary, Vol. i. p. 224 (1872). 1689 and ^ter all this apparatus 
and grandeur, died an exile: — Corresp., Vol. iii. p. 302. 

2. substantial, material elements of preparation; a col- 
lection of necessaries, implements. 

1712 the Apparatus or equipage of human life, that costs so much the fur- 
nishing: Pope, Letters, p. 260 (1737). 1754 seeing such a martial apparatus 
produced against him, recoiled two or three steps: Smollett, Ferd. Ct. Fathom^, 
ch. xxiv. Wks., Vol. iv. p. 117 (1817). 1787 Count — , just arrived at 
Florence, meeting with an accident at Fiesole, the Misericordia were sent for to 
carry him home ; but when he saw the apparatus, and the dismal appearance it 
made, he fancied they thought him dead, and intended to bury him : P. Beckford, 
Lett. fr. ItaL, Vol. i. p. 195 (1805). 1792 There is something exceedingly 
solemn and affecting. the circumstances and apparatus of our funerals : 
H. Brooke, Fool of Qual., Vol. in. p. 34. 

2 a, esp. a collection of appliances for scientific experi- 

1666 M. Boyle soon gave order for an Apparatus, to put it to Experiment: 
Phil. Trans., Vol. i. No. 7, p. 129, — a fit Apparatus being made for the 
purpose: ib.. No. 17, p. 299. 1769 to provide a proper apparatus for the work 
they take in hand: W. Verral, Cookery, Pref, p. iii. 1789 three professors, 
a philosophical apparatus, a library: J. Morse, Amer. Univ. Geogr., Vol. 1. 
p. 549 (1796). *1877 they together carried out a series of experiments and 
devised a set of apparatus: Times, Dec. 6. [St.] 

2 b, the parts which make up an organ of an animal. 

1691 there being required to the preparation of the Sperm of Animals a great 
apparatus oiy^'s&^\^: J. Rav, Creation^ Pt. 11. p. 316(1701). 

2 c, apparatus {criticus), aids toward the critical study of 
a text, e.g. records of the collation of various MSS. 

1738 Glossaries, comments, ^'c. are also frequently called Apparatus's : 
Chambers, Cycl., s.v. 

apparition {j. — ii—), sb.'. Eng. fr. Fr. apparition ^—^-z.-^- 

I. r. the process of appearing, the state of being visible. 

bef. 1492 Wyth this our lorde cesyd of that aperycion : Caxton^ St. 
Katherifi, sig. f i z^/i. 1591 he putteth on | What shape he list in apparition : 
Spens., Prosop., 1290. 

I. 2. manifestation, Epiphany, demonstration. 

1590 No vaineglorious shewes | Of royall apparition for the eye : Greene, 
Neuer too late, it (1600). [N. E. D.] 1662 Epiphania...the day of Apparition 
or manifestation of Christ from above : S?hnK.-B., Prim. Devot., 142 {1663). \ib.\ 

I. 3. Astron. the return to view of a heavenly body; the 
state of visibility. 

1646 beside the usual or Calendary month, there are but four considerable : 
the month of Peragration, of Apparition, of Consecution, and the Medical or 
Becretorial month: Sir Th. Brown, Pseud. Ep., Bk. iv. ch. xii. p. 175 (1686). 

3, D. 

I. 4. appearance opposed to reality, appearance, aspect. 

1613 [Great] distinction between tbe effects of the world, and the workings of 
God... permanency in the last, and no more but apparition in the other: Sherley, 
Trav. Persia, 27. [N. E. D.] 

II. I. that which appears to sight, a phenomenon, esp. a 
supernatural form, ghost, phantom shape or scene. 

1693 Look, how the world's poor people are amazed ] At apparitions, signs 
and prodigies : Shaks., Ven. and Ad., g^S. 1599 A thousand blushing ap- 

paritions I To start into her face: — Much Ado, iv. r, 161. 1601 many 

fantasticall apparitions: Holland, Tr. Plin. N. H., Bk. 24, ch. 17, Vol. ii. 
p. 204. 1603 Lo, suddainly a sacred Apparition, | Som Daughter (think I) of 
supernall loue: J. Sylvester, Tr. Du Bartas, Urania, viii. p. 153(1608). 1645 
A strange apparition happened in the West about a dying Gentleman : Howell, 
Fam. Letters, p. 6/1. 1665 that great army of Persians... by apparitions were 
put into that pannick of fear that they were shamefully put to flight : Sir Th. 
Herbert, Trav., p. 241 (1677). 

1 1. 2. something illusive, a counterfeit, a deceptive pre- 

1667 But still there's something J That checks my joys, | Nor can I yet dis- 
tinguish 1 Which is an apparition, this, or that: Denham, Sophy, p. 10. [J.] 

^apparitor {—-L — — ), sb. : Eng. fr. Lat. apparitor, = ' a 
public servant of a magistrate'. 

1. an officer of a civil court or magistrate, a sergeant. 

1629 There be limited and appointed so many judges, scribes, apparitors, 
summoners, appraysers: Petition, in Froude's Hist. Eng., Vol. i. p. 194. 1586 
they haue continually a warning-peece ringing in their eare, an Apparitour rapping 
at their doore without ceasing: T. B., Tr. La Pritnaud. Fr. Acad., Vol. ii. p. 575 
(1605). bef 1658 Unrip ^^iT^e^^rrt, and you shall find | C^ the great Commisary, 
and (which his worse) | Th' Apparitor upon his skew bald Horse: J. Cleveland^ 
Wks., ii. p. 27 (1687). 1828 an apparitor or sumner, come to attach him and 
his daughter: Scott, Fair Md. of Perth, ch. xxv. p. 308 (1886). 

la. a public servant of a Roman magistrate. 

1688 Sole imperator and great general] Of trotting 'paritors: Shaks., 
L. L. L., iii. 188. 1600 neither the Dictator his voice, nor any of his ap- 
paritors & halbards about him, could be heard; Holland, Tr. Livy, Bk. viii. 
p. 305. — the Apparitor at the Generall of the horsemens commandement, began 
to force him to go: ib., Bk. iv. p. 149. 1603 a notarie, a sergeant, or apparitor, 
a pencioner, or one of the guard : Holland, Tr. Plut. Mor. , p, 650. 

2. an officer of an ecclesiastical court, a bishop's at- 

bef 1526 I have nowe latelie sett up writings bothe at Knoll, Otford, and 
Shorham againste suche as misintreted a certaine apparitor of your Grace in thies 
parties: Abp. Warham, in Ellis' Orig. Lett., 3rd Ser., Vol. il No. cxxxvii.p. 41 
(1846). 1676 he hears the Apparitors voice, summoning him to appear before 
the divine Tribunal : J. Smith, Christ. Relig. Appeal, Bk. it. ch. i. § 2, p. 6. 

3. an official of an University. 

1620 they made the Apparitors demand, by Proclamations, at the Church 
door, whether any were there for the most Christian King: Brent, Tr. Soave's 
Hist. Counc. Trent, Bk. iv. p. 322(1676). 1626 Apparitors and Harbengers: 
Purchas, Pilgrims, Vol. i. Bk. i. p. 64. 

4. a herald, an usher. 

5. in Scotland, a verger. 

appartement, sb. : Fr. : a set of rooms in a house appro- 
priated to an individual or family. 

' 1837 an seconde, there was nothing but our own appartement: J. F. Cooper, 
Europe, Vol. 11. p. 28. 1860 I might take an apartement, which is a suite of 
rooms with a kitchen, furnished and let by the week or month, or unfurnished and 
let by the term: Once a Week, Jan. 28, p. 92/2. 1885 Persons fluent of speech, 
and generous of subversive ideas, began to haunt her little appartement in 
Florence: L. Malet, Col. Enderb^s Wife, Bk. u. ch. vi. p. 76 (New Ed.). 
1886 I step out of my Liverpool hotel and into my "White Star" appartement 
»Ki?w^// ['furnished']: H. R. Haweis, in Gent. Mag., p. 360. 

*appel au peuple, /Ar. : Fr. : 'appeal to the people'; see 

1843 The Girondists. began to introduce their project of appel au 
peuple: Craik and Macfaelane, Pict. Hist. Eng., Vol. in. p. 236/1. 

appel nominal, /^n : Fr. : lit. 'call of names'; muster- 
roll; in reference to French Parliament, *call of the house'. 

1795 As soon as the report is printed, the denounced will be heard before the 
Convention, who will decide, by what is called the appel nominal for their 
acquittal or trial: J. Monroe, Let., in Amer. State Papers, Vol. i. p. 697 (1832). 
1842 Bailly ordered an appel nominal, or muster-roll, to be made : Craik and 
Macfarlane, Pict. Hist. Eng., Vol. n. p. 372/1. 1843 to-morrow at four 

o'clock, the appel nominal shall be commenced on the question of sursis: ib.. 
Vol. III. p. 245/2. 

appendance (— ± —), sb. : Eng. fr. Fr. appendance : a 
dependency ; an addition, appendage. Obs. 

1523 Townes, castels, landes...or theyr appurtenaunces and appendaunces, 
whatsoeuer they be; Lord Berners, Froiss., 1. ccxii. 258. [N.E.D.] 1561 
The Masse taken in her most picked purenesse... without her appendances; 
T. N[orton], Calvin's Iftst., iv. xviii. 712 (1634). [ib.] 1578 this word 

Appendance, which the Greekes call cTrt'^vtrt;'... those bones that haue no Ap- 
Pendances: J. Banister, Hist. Man, Bk. i. fol. i v°. bef 1656 If, in this 

one point, wherein the distance is so narrow, we could condescend to each other; 
all other circumstances and appendances of varying practices or opinions might 




without any difficulty, be accorded: Hall, Peace-Maker^ ch. i. § 6. [R.] ^ bef. 
1667 although the gospel be built upon better promises than the law yet it hath 
the same too, not as its foundation, but as appendences and adjuncts of grace, and 
supplies of need: Jer. Taylor, Wks.^ Vol. ii. p. 530(1847). 

*appendix {~ -L -), pi appendixes, appendices (Lat.), 
sb.\ Lat. appendix^ — *■ 2x1 addition', 'appendage', 


1. an addition to a document, book, or verbal statement, 
a supplement. 

1649 The commentaries, contaynyng the solemnities of their religion wyth 
manye other appendixes : Latimer, 7 Sernt. bef. Edw. K/., 46 (Arber). 
[N. E. D.] 1599 What'll you say if this be the appendix or labell to both 
yond' indentures : B. Jonson, Ed. Man out of his Hum., iii. 6, Wks., p. 128 
(1616). 1619 Yea, Death hath sent me an Appendix to be added to this 
Historie of Mans Vanitie: Purchas, Microcosvius^ ch. xvii. p. igi. 1620 The 
Ambassadors added the usual Appendix^ not to call it a protestation : Brent, 
Tr. Soave's Hist. Counc. Trent, Bk. vii. p. 607 (1676). 1657 and by an ap- 

pendix to relate the first essay: Evelyn, Corresp., Vol. iii. p. 97 (1872). bef. 
1691 God's intention and design in the promulgation of it [the law].. .was to add 
it as an appendix to the promise: J. Flavel, Wks., Vol. riL p. 503 (1759). 
1704 Both these I had thoughts to publish, by way of appendix to the following 
treatise: Swift, Tale of a Tub, Wks., p. 55/2(1869). 1788 In an Appendix 
Mr. K. takes up some conclusions, "not so fully and positively supported from 
Scripture" as his former : Gent. Mag., lviii. i. 144/2. 1820 they will be found 
in the appendix: T. S. Hughes, Trav. m Sicily, Vol. i. ch. ix. p. 270. *1876 
Besides the appendices of which we have spoken, Mr. Markham prefaces the whole 
by memoirs: yzwifj. May 15. [St.] 

2. a subsidiary addition (to any person, or thing material 
or immaterial); a subordinate personage, a train of persons 
in attendance. 

1596 My master hath appointed me to go to Saint Luke's, to bid the priest be 
ready to come against you come with your appendix: Shaks., Tant. Skr., iv. 4, 
104. 1619 These external things are but the Appendices and Appurtenances 

of Vanitie: Purchas, Microcosvius, ch. 1. p. 472. 1620 he remaining as an 

appendix in the Picture: Brent, Tr. Soave's Hist. Counc. Trent, Bk. iL p. 170 
(1676). 1630 the Players and their Appendixes : John Taylor, Wks., sig. 

Pp 4 7^/1. bef. 1662 may also look for particular deliveries out of particular 

troubles, as appendices of the main benefit of salvation: D. Dickson, quoted in 
Spurgeon's Treas. of David, Vol. iv. p. 10. 1678 he representing the Opinion 
of those as very ridiculous, who would make the Nature of Evil, to be but eTreto-- 
dStoi/ an Accidental Appendix to the World: Cudworth, Intell. Syst., Bk. i. 
ch. iv. p. 214. 1766 I am pretty indifferent when that may be, but not so 

patient under the appendixes of illness: HoR. Walpole, Letters, Vol. v. p. 12 

1 a. a dependency. 

1619 This Province of Norviandy, once an Appendix of the Crown of 
England: Howell, Lett., i. xiv. p. 26. 1665 its [the isle Socotra] position 

seems nearer neighbouring to Afrique than Asia, yet is challenged, and accord- 
ingly reputed an Appendix to Ajaman, or A rabia the happy : Sir Th. Herbert, 
Trav., p. 34 (1677). — inrolls his Countrey as a member or appendix of the 
Moguls great Seigniory: ib., p. 66. 

2 b, a natural growth upon an organ ; Bot. a sucker. 

1615 These bones of the Afterwrest aboue and below, haue Appendices 
crusted ouer with gristles: H. Crooke, Body of Man, Bk. xiii. p. loio (1631). 
1658 the Appendices or Beards in the calicular leaves [of the rose] : Sir Th. 
Brown, Garden ofCyr., ch. iii. p. 37 (1686). 1704 That some should form the 
polite Convex Side of a Siliquasirum, and others its Appendix : J. Ray, Three 
Discourses, ii. p. 189 (1713). 

appetitive {± — — ^)^ adj.: Eng. fr. Fr. appetitif^ fern. 
-ive : causing appetite, characterised by appetite or desire. 

abt. 1533 appetityue: Du Wes, in Introd. Doc. Inid., p. 1053 (Paris, 1852). 
1603 there be in our soule three kindes of motions, Imaginative Appetitive and 
Assenting. ..The Appetitive being stirred up by the imaginative, moveth a man 
effectually to those things which are proper and convenient for him: Holland, 
Tr. Pint. Mor., p. 1124. 

applaudit(e), applaudity, sb.: Eng. fr. Lat, applaudite, 
"•^w^ applause', 2nd pers. pL imperat. of applaudere = ^ to 
applaud' ; see plaudit : expression of applause. 

1608 and in fine receiues a general applauditie of the whole assemblie: Capt. 
J. Smith, Wks., p. 3. 

application {J-^iL—)^ sb,\ Eng. fr. Fr. application: noun 
of action to Eng. vb. apply \ sometimes concrete, that which 
is applied. 

I. the action of placing or holding (one thing) upon, 
against, in contact with (another), applying in a literal 
(material) sense; Geom. the process of making to coincide; 
Med. administration or putting on of anything used medi- 
cinally, anything applied medicinally. 

1543 vndiscrete application of sharpe medicines : Traheron, Tr. Vigo's 
■Chirurg., fol. xxvi r^fz. — And he feared the application of the oyntment, 
bycause of the pajme: ib., fol. xxxviii ?^/2. 1601 The rest haue worne me 

out I With seuerall appHcations: Shaks., All's Well, i. 2, 74. 1645 We tried 
the same [experiment] on another dog without the application of water: Evelyn, 
Diary, Vol. i. p. 162 (1872). 

I a. Astral, a drawing near. 

1594 The quantitie of the Moone's separation and application to and from 
the Sunne: J. Davis, Seamam Seer., 6 (1607). [N. E. D.] 1647 Apphcation 


of Planets is three severall wayes : First, when a Planet of more swift motion 
applies to one more slow and ponderous, they being both direct. ..Secondly, when 
both planets are retrograde. ..this is an ill Application: W. Lilly, Chr. AsiroL, 
ch. XIX. p. 107. 

2. adaptation (to any use or purpose), employment ; Theol. 
a bringing into effective relation (with persons, of the merits 
of Christ's sacrifice) ; an exhibition of the bearing (of a 
general statement on a particular case or of a narrative on 
matters of practice) ; concrete, the practical lesson or 'moral' 
deduced from a general statement, parable, or fable. 

1493 Make of this mater an applicacion ; Petronylla^ 120 (Pynson). [N.E.D.] 
1657 the design. ..useful also to a good life, which is indeed the right application 
of it : Evelyn, Corresp., Vol. in. p. 87 (1872). — Strange was his apt and in- 
genious application of fables and morals: — Diary ^ Vol. I. p. 342. 

3. the applying of one's faculties {^generally intellectual) 
to anything, sedulous attention, attentive study. 

1686 but those wicked creatures took him from off all application becoming 
so great a King: Evelyn, Diary, Vol. 11. p. 217 (1872). 1696 unworthy the 

study and application of the noblest persons : — Corresp. , Vol. in. p. 361. 

4. the applying of one's self (to persons), an approaching 
as a dependant or solicitor of favors. 

1605 Not that I can tax or condemn the. ..application of learned men to men 
in fortune : JBacon, Adv. Learn., i. iii. § 10. 

5. the applying one's self (to persons) as a petitioner, can- 
didate for an office, or merely as one who makes a request 
(even as a matter of course or as a right) ; concrete, the 
appeal or request made. 

1648 As touching applications to his Majesty, be confident none will be: 
Evelyn, Corresp., Vol. in. p. 27 (1872). 1660 Came the most happy tidings 
of his Majesty's. ..applications to the Parliament : — Diary, Vol. I. p. 354, 
1687 he added that this was not the application of one party only: ih., Vol. 11. 
p. 278. 

applicator {-L — ± —), sb. -. Eng. : applier, one who applies; 
Med. anything used for applying a medicament. 

1659 'Tis ridiculous. content themselves either with no idoneous physitians 
and fit medicines, or with such quacking applications and applicators as are no 
way apt for the work : Gauden, Tears of the Church, p. 494. [Davies] 

-[Formed fr. Eng. vb. applicate, or fr. Eng. application, as 
if noun of agent to Lat. applicdre, = 'to apply'.] 

applioLU^, sb. : Fr. : work in embroidery laid on another 
material ; also inlaid metal work. 

1801 What knowledge they [ladies] have gotten, stands out, as it were, above 
the very surface of their minds, like the appliquie of the embroiderer, instead of 
having been interwoven with the growth of the piece, so as to have become a part 
of the stuflF: H. More, Wks., Vol. vlii. p. 61. 

[Past part, of Fr. appliguer, = ' to apply'.] 

appoggiatura, sb.: It.: Mus.: lit. 'prop, stay, support', a 
comparatively short accented grace-note prefixed to a note of 
an air, written as if it were a note over and above the true 
rhythm of the bar, but rendered in a time deducted from the 
time allowed for the note to which it is prefixed. 

1753 -4 ;S/f7^^za^Mra is commonly marked by a smaller kind of note: Chambers, 
CycL, Suppl. 1776 For though 1 was at too great a distance to judge of your 
method of tskmg, Appogiatura: J. Collier, Mus. Trav., p. 70. 1830 A 

famous violin player having executed a concerto, during which, he produced some 
appoggiaturi and shakes, that astonished many of his "hearers: E. Blaquiere, 
Tr. Sig. Pananii, p. 267 (2nd Ed.). 1838 Thelwall discovered in Milton an 
appogiatura or syllable more than is wanted in the bar: Guest, Eng. Rhythms, 
p. 175 (1882). 1848 The Appoggiatura. a small note placed before a large 
one. There are two sorts of Appoggiatura, one called the sh^rt, and one called 
the long: Rimbault, Pianoforte, p. sp. 1886 I should say that one or more 
syllables have suffered eUsion or slurring, the appoggiatura of music ; Mayor, 
Eng. Metre, iv. p. 53. 

appoggio, sb. : It. : prop, stay, support ; see appui. 

1612 because I am destitute of other appoggio [sic], I have resolved to take 
sanctuary in the church : Dudley Carleton, in Court &• Times of Jos. /., 
Vol. I. p. 182 (1848), 1616 I perceive he hath little appogio to the main pillar 
that now stands upright: J. Chamberlain, ib., p. 410. 

apprentissage {— ± — =.), sb.: Eng. fr. Yx. apprentissage: 
apprenticeship. The Eng. apprenticeage may have been 
suggested by apprentissage, but is fr. Eng. apprentice. 

1592 to be utterly without apprentisage of war : Bacon, Observ. Libel. 
[T.] 1603 in some inferiour arts there is required apprentisage; "Holland, 

Tr. Plut. Mor., p. 82. — and nothing at all esteeming that beggerly prudence 
which is gotten from other by way of apprentissage : ib. , p. 569. 

approbative {-!-—± z.), adj. : Eng. fr. Fr. approbatif, fem. 
-ive : involving or comprising in itself approval, expressive 
of approval, approving. 

1611 Approbatif, Approbatiue, approuing: Cotgr. 


approbator (z ^ _iji), s3. : Eng. fr. Lat. approbator, noun 
of agent to approbare, = ' to approve': one who expresses 

1665 And so others may not think it dishonour to. ..accept them for judges 
andapprobators: Evelyn, Corresf., Vol. in. p. 162(1872). 

appropriator {—il:^± r.), sb. -. Eng. : one who takes to 
himself, makes his own ; esp. a corporation which, having, or 
having had, a religious character, enjoys the main emolu- 
ments of a benefice ; also for impropriator {q. v.). 

1766 a vicar has generally an appropriator over him, entided to the best part 
of the profits, to whom he is in fact perpetual curate, with a standing salary ; 
Blackstone, Commentaries, Bk. I. ch. xi. p. 388. 1848 He knew very well 
he was the proprietor or appropriator of the money: Thackeray, Van. Fair, 
Vol. II. ch. ix. p. 94 (1879). 

[For appropriater, fr. Eng. vb. aP)propriate^ as if noun of 
agent to Late Lat. appropriare, = ' to make one's own'.] 

approximator {ilil^ ± ^), sb. : Eng. : one who comes 
near to. 

185S Canonico Baini, the closest approximator, in modern times, to Palestrina: 
Cdl. Wiseman, 4 Last Popes, 346. [N. E. D.] 

[For approximater, fr. Eng. vb. approximate, as if noun of 
agent to Late Lat. approximdre, = 'tQ come into proximity', 
'to come close'.] 

appui, sb. : Fr. : prop, support, 
i. stay, support, prop. 

1601 there would bee stales and appuies set to it, whereupon it may take 
hold: Holland, Tr. Plin. N. H., Bk. 17, ch. 23, Vol. i. p. 538. 1603 giving 
covertly thereby to understand that the Sunne hath need of an appuy or supporter 
to rest uppon and to strengthen him: — Tr. Plut. Mor., p. 1308. 

2. Mil. defensive support ; see point d'appui. 

1816 C. James, Mil. Dpct. 1852 this column was stopped at the village 
of Hohenlinden, which was the appui of Ney's left ; Tr. Bourrienne's Mem. 
N. Botiaparie, ch. xvi. p. 212. 

3. Horsemanship, the feeling of the tension of the reins 
between hand and bit, the stay of the horse upon the hand. 

1738 Appui, in the manage. the reciprocal effort between the horse's 
mouth and the bridle-hand ; or the sense of the action of the bridle on the hand 
of the horseman: Chambers, Cyc/. 1816 C. ]h.MBS, Mil. Diet 

AVXhs, adv. : Fr. : afterwards, after ; apres?, = ' what then?', 
'what next?'. 

1860 *'Aprbs?" asked Pen, in a great state of excitement: Thackeray, 
Pendennis, Vol. 11. ch. xvi. p. 194 (1879). 1854 The accursed aprh has chased 
me like a remorse, and when black has come up I have wished myself converted 
to red: ■ — Nenvcomes, Vol. I. ch. xxviii. p. 307 (1879). 

apr^S coup,/,%r. : Fr. : lit. 'after stroke', 'too late', 'as an 

1887 Those who expect details... of the fashionable cure will be disappointed 
in 'The Massage Case.' The name has probably been affixed to the book aprh 
coup, so to speak, and to allure the unwary reader; Atkenizum, June 18, 
p. 796/3- 

apr^S moi le ddluge, phr.: Fr. . 'after me the deluge'. 
An expression attributed to Madame de Pompadour, mean- 
ing 'so long as my desires are satisfied, I care not if universal 
ruin befall when I am out of the way '. Prince Metternich 
used the phrase with the implication that when he ceased 
to influence affairs, confusion must ensue. The phrase has 
been compared to a fragment of Greek tragedy quoted by 
Suetonius, e/ioO 6av6vros yala ii,ixBr]Ta> irvpl, 'when I am dead, 
let earth be mingled with fire'. 

1851 N. <5r= Q., ist Ser., Vol. in. p. 299, 1887 Each man believes that 

the new house will last his time — Apres moile deluge, with a vengeance ! J. Ball, 
Notes of a Naturalist in S. Anier., ch. iii. p. 122. 

*apricot {il—£), Eng. fr. Fr.; apricock, abrecok, &c., 
Eng. fr. Port, or Sp. : sb. 

I. a kind of plum of an orange color which ripens early, 
Prunum Armeniacum. 

1561 Abrecockes...are less than the other peches: W. Turner, Herb., sig. 
H vi v. ■ 1558 Take Peche or Abricot stones with their kernels : W. Warde, Tr. 
Alessio's Seer., Pt. I. fol. 99 V. 1590 Feed him with apricocks, and dew- 
berries: Shaks., Mids. Nts. Dr., iii. i, 169. 1600 Pomegranates, Apricoks, 
and Peaches : R. Hakluvt, Voyages, Vol. III. p. 476. 1601 the Abricocts are 
ready to be eaten in summer: Holland, Tr. Plin. N. //., Bk. 15, ch. 12, Vol. i. 
p. 436. 1603 The dainty Apricock (of Plums the Prmce): J. Sylvester, Tr. 
Du Bartas, p. 77 (1608). 1606 apricotes: B. JONSON, Volp., ii. i, Wks., 
p. 465 (j6i6). 1634 Almonds, Duroyens, Quinces, Apricocks, Myrobalans, 
lacks: Sir Th. Herbert, Trav., p. 64. 1645 we had melons, cherries, 
apricots, and many other sorts of fruit: Evelyn, Diary, Vol. I. p. 168 (1872). 
1659 Quince, peach, and preserv'd apricock: Lady Alim., iv. 2, in Dodsley- 
Hazlitt's Old Plays, Vol. xiv. p. 344 (1875). 1665 my Master had reserved in 



his Garden some choice Aprecocks : R. Head, Engl. Rogue, sig. C i ?^. 1741 
Peaches, Apricocks, and Plumbs: J. Ozell, Tr. Toumeforfs Voy. Levant, 
Vol. III. p. 265. 1820 grapes, figs, peaches, apricots, plums: T. S. Hughes, 

Trav. in Sicily^ Vol. ir. ch, i. p. 26. "„ 

2. the tree which bears the Prunum A rmeniacumj namely 
the Prunus Armeniaca. 

1548 Apple tree, Abrecok, Alexander, Alkakenge: W, Turner, Names oj 
Herbs, sig. H v v^. 1644 I saw huge citrons hanging on the trees, applied 

like our apricots to the walls : Evelyn, Diary, Vol. i. p. gi {^%^2). 1664 

Abricots and Peaches require rather a natural, rich, and mellow Soil, than much 
Dung: — Kal, Hort. (1729). 

3. attrib. 

1551 Of the Abrecok Tre : W. Turner, Herb., sig. H vi z/^. bef. 1617 An 
Abricot, or Apricot plum : Minsheu, Guide into Tongues, s.v. 1663 with 

the j4/rzcf?^ flavour : Dryden, Wild Gallatit, i. Wks., Vol. i. p. 34(1701). 

Variants, 16 c. — 17 c. abreco{c)k, apreco{c)k^ 16 c. — 18 c. 
aprico{c)k{e\ 17 c. abrtco{c)t{e), 16 c. — 19 c. apricot{e). 

[Fr. abricot^ fr. Port, albricoque., or Sp. albarcoque, fr. Arab. 
alburgug, albirquq, fr. Gk. itpaiKoKiov^ later irpeKoicKta, pi. De- 
rived by Minsheu fr. (m) aprico coctus— 'ripened in sunshine', 
whence perhaps the change from b to /.] 

apropos: Fr. See el propos. 

apsis, pL apsides, absis, pi. absides, sb. : Lat. fr. Gk. 

aT//-i$', = * felloe', /lence, 'arch*, 'vault', 'orbit' (of a heavenly 

1. circumference, curved part, orbit (of a planet). 

1601 eccentrique circles or Epicycles in the stars, which the Greekes call 
Absides: .Holland, Tr. Plin. JV. H., Bk. 2, ch. 15, Vol. i. p. 10. 1603 Now 
the said Sistrum being in the upper part round, the curvature and Absis thereof 
comprehendeth foure things that are stirred and mooved...the Absis or rundle of 
the Sistrum'. — Tr. Phit. Mor., p. 1312. 

2. Astron. an extremity of the major axis of an elliptical 
orbit, as aphelion or perihelion, apogee or perigee {qq. v.). 

1658 Absis, when the Planets moving to their highest or lowest places, are at 
a stay; the high Absis, being call'd the Apogeeum, and the low Absis, the Peri- 
gceum.'. Phillips, World of Words. 1681 When the Auges, (or Absides) of 

the Planets are changed from one Sign to another; Wharton, Mut. Empires, 
Wks., p. 131 (1683). 1738 The apogee is a point in the heavens, at the extreme 
of the line of the apsides: Chambers, Cycl, s.v. Apogee. 1886 We must 

bring in the revolution of the apsides as well as of the nodes of the lunar orbit: 
Atheneeujn, Aug. 15, p. 212/2. 

3. a vaulted or arched roof, an apse. 

aptoton, pi. aptota, sb. -. Gk. airraTov : Gram. : lit. (a 
word) 'without cases' (Trrtao-ets), an indeclinable word. An- 
glicised 16 c. — 19 c. as aptotie), 

1721 Bailey. 

aqua caelestis, phr. : Late Lat. : h'f. 'heavenly water', a 
cordial, formerly supposed to be of sovereign virtue. 

1643 This water is called, aqua celestis, but before ye styll the water, ye must 
quenche in it an hoote plate of golde ; Traheron, Tr. Vigo's Chirurg., foL 
ccxxi roji. — Aqua celestis is of two kyndes: ib., fol. ccxx r^/2. 1594 Thers 
great vertue belongs (I can tell you) in a cup of syder, and verie good men haue 
solde it, and at sea, it is Aqua cmlestts'. Nashe, Unfori. Traveller, Wks., v. 15 
(Grosart). 1603 started out of their trance as though they had drunke oi Aqua 
Co'lestis or Unicornes home: Wonderfiill Years 1603, p. 36. 1614 Malmesey, 
or aqua celestis: B. Jonson, Barth. Fair, i. 2, Wks., Vol, 11. p. 3 (1631 — 40). 
1619 Dyet drinks, hot and cold Waters (one of them stiled Aqua vit(B, another 
Aqua Ceslestis): Purchas, Microcos?nus, ch. xxxv. p. 333. 1619 they were 
washed in Aqua Cislestis, meaning Skie- water: Howell, Lett., i. vi. p. 14(1645). 
1641 Aqua Celestis is made thus: John French, Art Distill., Bk. 11. p. 46(1651). 

aqua composita, /Ar. : Late Lat.: /zV. * compound water', 
one of the cordial distilled waters of the old pharmacopceia. 

1538 Itm geven to one of my lady of Suff' seruante bringing aqua compos, 
and other thinges vij s vjd: Princess Mary's Privy Purse Expenses, p. 68 
(Pickering, 1831). _ 1584 these sundrie others are as it were compounded or 
made for our necessities, but yet rather vsed as medicines than with meates: such 
is Aqua vites. Aqua cojnposita, Rosa Solis: T. Coghan, Haven 0/ Health, 
p. 226. 1604 Good Aqua composita, and vineger tart: Tusser, Husband., 

p. 136. 

aqua fontana, phr. : Late Lat. : spring water. 

1759 'tisby this as 'tis by your Aqua Fontana in an apothecary's shop, 
scarce any thing can be done and finished well without it : W. Verral, Cookery, 
p. 5* 1853 He would never have washed with aquafontana [but sponged tn 

water, mixed with coffee and vinegar]: E. K. Kane, Gritmell Exped., ch. 
xxxvi. p. 326. 

%qua fortis, phr.\ Late Lat.: ///. 'strong water', a 
powerful solvent ; esp. and exclusively in modern use, nitric 
acid, which dissolves many metals ; also metaph. 

1543 ye must haue of aqua fortis, wherwith golde is seperate frome sylyer: 
Traheron, Tr. Vigo's Chirurg., fol. ccvi 2/^/2. 1558 Siluer, calcined or 

burned with Aqua fortis: W. Warde, Tr. Alessio's Seer., Pt. i. fol. 93 «/<'. 
1600 shewing Mahumet his name imprinted in his brest (being done with Aqua 
Fortis, as I suppose, or some such tiling): John Pory, Tr. Leds Hist. A/r., 




p. 382. 1605 which I in capitall letters | Will eate into thy flesh, with a^ua- 

fortis'. B. JoNSON, Volp., iii. 7, Wks., p. 489 (1616). 1627 Weigh Iron, and 
Aqua Fortis, seuerally; Then dissolue the Iron in the Aqua Fortis: Bacon, 
Nai. Hist., Cent. viii. § 789. 1641 [the engravings] were but etched in aqua 
fortis: Evelyn, Diary, Vol. i. p. 17 (1872). 1643 pay is the poore Souldiers 

Aqua vita, but want is such an Aquafortis, as it eates through the Iron doores 
of discipline : Spec. Passages <£r» Certain Informations from Severall Places, 
2 May— 9 May, No. 39, p. 315. 1665 a long narrow Vessel of Glass, such as 

formerly were used for Receivers in distilling of Aqua Fortis: Phil. Trans., 
Vol. I. No. 3, p. 34. 1672 Pardon is that Aquafortis that eats it [the chain 

of guilt] asunder and makes the prisoner a free man: J. Flavel, Wks., Vol. i. 
"'• 375 (1799)- 1682 he alone can write over every man's sins, not with ink, 

lut with wrath, which, like aquafortis, every letter of it shall eat into the soul : 
Th. Goodwin, Wks., in Nichol's Ser. Stand. Divines, Vol. x. p. 520 (1865). 
1693 Ev'n as an Aqua- Fortis... corro6&s. what it seizes upon: C- Mather, 
Wonders of Invis. Wld., p. 52 (1862). 1699 I take this past to be nothing 

else, but what the Etchers m Copper use at this day to cover their Plates with, to 
defend from the Aqua-fortis ; which is a Composition of Bitumen and Bees Wax: 
M. Lister, Jourji, to Paris, p. 119. 1866 I have never thought it good 
husbandry to water the tender plants of reform with aquafortis : J. R. Lowell, 
Biglov) Papers, No. iii. (Halifax). 1882 if he has got it, we can rub it out 

with pumice-stone, and squeeze a little aqua fortis in: R. D. Blackmore, 
CkristovjeU, ch. liii. p. 401. 

aqua mirabilis, /A;'. : Late Lat.: lit. * wonderful water', a 
distilled water of the old pharmacoposiaj made from several 
stomachic drugs. 

1608 Some RosasoUs or Aqua mirahilis ho: J. Day, Law-Trickes, sig. 
F4r^. 1641 John French, Art Distill., Bk. 11. p. 48(1651). 1676 gave 
thee Aqua Mirdbilis, to fetch up the Water off thy Stomach : Shadwell, Epsom 
Wells, ii. p. 26. 

aoLua regia, a. xhgis,phr. : Late Lat. : lit, 'royal water', a 
definite mixture of nitric acid and hydrochloric acid, named 
from its power of dissolving gold and platinum. 

1610 What's cohobation? 'Tis the pouring on Your aqua regis, and then 
drawing him off: B. Jonson, A Ick. , ii. 5. 1641 Aqua Regia, or Stygia, or a 
strong Spirit that will dissolve Gold, is made thus.. .Another Aqua regia is made 
thus: John French, Art Distill.. Ek. iii. p. 6g (1651). 1646 Powder of Gold 
dissolved in Aqua Regis. ..the nitrous spirits of Aqua Regis: Sir Th, Brown, 
Pseud. Ep., Bk. ri. ch. v. p. 68 (1686). 1672 Encourag'd by which, I hop'd, 

that, without their being previously burnt, they would in Aqua Regis afford a 
Tincture, and accordingly I obtain'd from crude Granats...a rich Solution: R. 
Boyle, Virtues of Gems, p. 88. 1787 I made fine red ink, by dropping a 

solution of tin in a^ua regis into an infusion of the coccus, which Dr. Anderson 
was so polite as to send me: Sir W. Jones, Letters, Vol. 11. No. cxxv. p. 99 
(1831). 1843 Zaffre, digested in aqua regia, and diluted: E. A. PoE, Wks., 

p. 34 (1884). 

aqua tinta: quasi-lt. See actuatinta, 
aqua tofana: Low Lat. See acqua Tofania. 
* vitae, /^r. : Late Lat. : lit. * water of life', cf. eau 
de vie. 

1. ardent spirit, alcoholic spirit; spirituous liquor, esp. 

1471 First Calcine, and after that Putrefye, | Dyssolve, Dystill, Sublyme, 
Descende, and Fyxe, 1 With Aquavite oft times, both wash and drie; G. Ripley, 
Comp. Alck., Ep., in Ashmole's Theat. Ckem. Brit., p. 115 (1652). 1477 Ru- 
Piscissa said that cheefe Liquor | y^as Aqua-vtt(z Elixir to succour; T. Norton, 
ch. V. , ib. , p. 77. 1527 fyrste steped in aqua vite a certayn whyle : L. Andrew, 
Tr. Brunswick's Distill., Bk. i. ch. xxi. sig. b vi v^ji. ? 1540 stylle them in 

Aquauitae : Tr. Vigo's Lytell Practyce, sig. A ii ro. 1542 To speake of a ptysan, 
or of oxymel, or of aqua vite, or of Ipocras, I do passe ouer at this tyme : Boorde, 
Dyetary, ch. x. p. 258 (1870). 1668 Take Aqua Vite, not to fine, nor of the 

first stillyng, but stilled twise, or thrise at the most: W. Warde, Tr. Alessio's 
Seer., Pt. I. fol. 2 v". 1591 Let hym accustome to drye hys Pouder if hee 

can in the Sunne, first sprinkled ouer with Aqua vitee, or strong Claret Wine : 
Garrard, Art Warre, p. 6. 1600 which wine was as strong as any ccqua- 

uitae, and as cleare as any rock water: R. Hakluyt, Voyages, Vol. in. p. 821. 
1611 then stand, till he be three-quarters and a dram dead : then recovered 
again with aqua-vitse, or some other hot infusion: Shaks., Wint. Tale, iv. 4, 816. 
1619 Dyet drinks, hot and cold Waters (one of them stiled Aqua vitee, another 
Aqua Ccslestis : Purchas, Microcosmus, ch. xxxv. p. ^33. bef. 1641 To 
make him strong and mighty, | He drank by the tale six pots of ale, | And a 
quart of aqua-vitas: Percy's Reliques, p. 554 (1B57). 1643 pay is the poore 

Souldiers Aqua vita, but want is such an Aquafortis, as it eates through the Iron 
doores of discipline; Spec. Passages &^ Certain Infonnations from Severall 
Places, 2 May — g May, No. 39, p. 315. 1665 Arac and Aqua-vttts they also 

drink; Sir Th. Herbert, Trav., p. 311 (1677). 1679 Restor'd the fainting 

High and Mighty | With Brandy- Wine and Aqua-vitae : S. Butler, Hudibras, 
Pl III. Cant. iii. p, 189. 1679 It [brandy] was in a proper sense, our aqua 

vitae: J. Flavel, Wks., Vol. iv. p. 503 (1799). 

I a, metaph. with reference to the literal meaning. 

abt 1600 Couer this Aqua vitae with your wings From touch of infidels and 
Jewes: J. Davies, in Farr's 6". P., 1. 254. [N.E.D.] bef. 1628 Repentance... 
is indeed the only aqua-vitae, to fetch again to itself the fainting soul : Feltham, 
Resolves, Pt. n. p. 270 (1806). 1657 The gospel is the true aqua vitae, the 

true aurum potahile, the true physic for the soul: John Trapp, Com. Old Test., 
Vol. in. p. 657/2 (1868). 

2. Spirituous liquor other than brandy. 

3^g4»f 8 I [an Iryshe man] can make aqua vite: Boorde, Introduction, ch. 

iii p. 131 (1870). 1617 Aqua vitae (which they call Harach, and drinke as 

largely as Wine) for ten meidines : F. Moryson, Itin,, Pt. i. p. 245. 1634 
This Towne a^ords Dates, Orenges and Aquauita, or Arack : Sir Th. Herbert, 
Trav. p. 53- 1754 when they choose to qualify it [whiskey] for punch, they 
sometimes mix it with water and honey... at other times the mixture is only the 
aqua vites, sugar and butter: E. Burt, Lett. N. ScotL, Vol. 11. p. 163 (1818). 


3. attrib. 

1598 an Irishman with my aqua-vitae bottle: Shaks., Merry Wives, ii, 2, 
318. 1601 a crue of j4^«a«//a-bellyed Fellowes: In Purchas' Pilgrims, 

Vol. II. Bk. ix. p. 1408 (1625). 1610 Sold the dole-beere to aqua-viics-m^Tx : 

B. Jonson, Alch., i. i, Wks., p. 607 (1616). 1622 a Gardiner, Ropemaker, or 
Aquauita 5€AsT\ Peacham, Comp. Gent., ch. i. p. 15. 1633 put himself into 
the habit of a mountebank or travelling cujua vita man : T. Adams, 27id Pet., 
p. 847/1 (1865). 1634 the Prime [drink] is Vsquebagh which cannot be made 
any wher in that perfection, and whereas we drink it here in aqua-vitae measures, 
it goes down there by beer-glassfulls : Howell, Epist. Ho-El., Vol. 11. Iv. p. 347 
(1678). 1672 There is a Bauds Silver Aqua- Vitae Bottle : Shadwell, Miser, 
i. p. 16. 

aOLuaxelle, sb.-. Fr. fr. It. acquerello,= *V! colors': 
painting in water colors ; a water color drawing. In Eng. 
aquarelle means es;p. painting in Chinese ink and thin water 
color; a picture in this style. Hence aquarelliste, Fr., a 
painter in aquarelle or water color. 

1869 Aniline colours are utilised for the colouring of.. .aquarelles, photographs, 
etc. : Eng. Mech., July 2, p. 340/3. [N. E. D.] 1885 Next year there will 

probably be an exhibition of foreign aquarelles: AthemBujn, Aug. i, p. 152/3. 
1887 The artists of the Continent have directed their attention to water colour... 
Already the French, Belgian, and Dutch aquarellistes have invaded our islands : 
ib.. May 14, p. 645/1. 1887 Many of the Dutch aquarellistes appear to like 

that softness. ..which perhaps originally came into landscape painting with Con- 
stable: Daily News, Oct. 22, p. ^l^. 

*aquarium, sb. : Lat. neut. of adj. aquartus, = ''iperta.ming 
to water' : a vessel, or tank, or a collection of tanks, gene- 
rally for the reception of live aquatic animals and plants, 
made entirely or partially of glass to facilitate observation 
of the contents ; also a place of entertainment in which an 
aquarium is a prominent feature. The word replaced marine 
vivarium, aquatic v., see vivarium. 

1865 At home in the aquarium, he will make a very different figure : 

C. KiNGSLEY, Glaucus, p. 69. — One great object of interest in the book is the 
last chapter, which treats fully of the making and stocking of these salt-water 
"Aquaria": z5., p. 142. 1856 Collections of objects that inhabit rivers and 
lakes are of course called Fresh-water aquaria ; those that owe their origin to the 
sea are called Marine aquaria: S. Hibberd, Fresh-Water Aquariutn, ch. i. p. 6. 
bef 1863 People. ..won't have their mouths stopped by cards, or ever so much 
microscopes and aquariums: Thackeray, Roundabout Papers, p. 118 (1879). 
*1878 a live whale for the Westminster aquarium: L,loyiVs Wkly., May ig, p. 5/3, 
[St.] 1881 The fish confined within circumscribed limits of pond or aquarium, 
are neyer *at home': Heath, Garden Wild, 'St&i., p. 9. 

Aquarius: Lat.: lit. 'water-carrier': the eleventh of the 
twelve zodiacal constellations, now the eleventh division of 
the ecliptic, which the Sun enters Jan. 21, and which does 
not now coincide with the constellation Aquarius. Angli- 
cised 15 c. — 17 c. as Aquary. 

1398 The ayery [triplicyte] ben Libra Gemini Aquarius : Trevisa, Tr. Bartk. 
De P. R., VIII. ix. — Aquarius that folowyth the sygne whyche hyghte Capri- 
cornus: ib. 1590 When with Aquarius Phoebe's brother stays, | The blithe 

and wanton winds are whist and still: Greene, Poems, p. 304/1, 1. 25 (1861). 
1594 The eleventh Signe called Aquarius, that is to say, tlie Water-bearer, con- 
tayning two and forty starres, hath his head towards the North: Blundevil, 
Exerc., Treat. 3, Pt. i. ch. xxiv. p. 330 (7th Ed.). bef 1658 Thus fixt, they 
drink until their Noses shine, | A Constellation in this Watry Sign, | Which they 
Aquarius call: J. Cleveland, Wks., p. 292 (1687). 1726 Now when.., 

Aquarius stains the inverted year: Thomson, Seasons, Winter, 43. 

'*aCLuatint(a), sb. -. Eng. fr. It. acqua tinta : a kind of 
engraving or etching on copper which gives the appearance 
of drawing in Indian ink, sepia, or water colors. The design 
is worked on a resinous film, which is then carefully var- 
nished, and the exposed metal is bitten by solutions of nitric 
acid. Also used attrib. 

1782 I do not myself thoroughly understand the process of working in aqua- 
tinta ; but the great inconvenience of it seems to arise from its not being sufficiently 
under the artist's command. ..the aqua-tinta method of multiplying drawings hath 
some inconveniences : W. Gilpin, Observ. Wye, p. viii. (1800). 1797 AQUA- 
TIN'TA, a method of etching on copper, lately invented, by which a soft and 
beautiful effect is produced, resembling a fine drawing in water colours or Indian 
ink: Encyc. Brit, 1807 Such as the prints are, we certainly do not admire 

them the more for their confused aquatinta execution : Edin. Rev., Vol. 10, 
p. III. 1862 Published in aqua-tinta, in imitation of bistre or India-ink 

drawings: Thornbury, Turner, Vol. i. p. 79. 

aquila non capit muscas, /Ar. : Lat.: an eagle does 

not catch flies. 

1573—80 Gab. Harvey, Lett. Bk., p. 50 (1884). 1689 R. Greene, 

Menaphon, p. 38 (1880). 

aquila [wof?^]: Port. See aguila-ww^/. 

Aquilo, Lat., Aquilon, Eng. fr. Fr. fr. Lat. : the north or 
north-north-west wind ; often personified. 

abt. 1325 [See EuruB]. abt. 1374 J)e wynde Jjat hyjt aquilon: Chaucer, 
Tr. Boethius, Bk. i. p. 25 (1868). 1606 Blow, villain, tUl thy sphered bias 
cheek | Outswell the colic of puff'd Aquilon: Shaks., Trail., iv. 5, 9. 


*Arab, a native of Arabia, one of a Semi