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Full text of "German atrocities from German evidence"

CORNELL 

UNIVERSITY 

LIBRARY 




Given in Memory of 
JACOB AND MARY TUVIN 

BY 

JULIUS H. TUVIN, '12 



STUDIES AND DOCUMENTS ON THE WAR 

German Atrocities 

from German evidence 

by 
JOSEPH BEDIER 

Professor at the « College de France » 



Translated 

by 

BERNHARD HARRISON 



Cornell University Library 
D 626.G3B41 1915a 



German atrocities from Gerinan evidence. 




3 1924 027 864 259 



Cette brochure est en vente a la 

LIBRAIRIE ARMAND COLIN 

103, Boalevard Saint-Michel, PARIS, S- 
au prix de fr. SO 



STUDIES AND DOCUMENTS ON THE WAR 

PUBLISHING COMMITTEE 



MM. Ernest LAVISSE, of the « Academie franjaise », President. 

Charles ANDLER, professor of German literature and 
language in the University of Paris. 

Joseph BEDIER, professor at the « College de France ». 

Henri BERGSON, of the « Academie franjaisen. 

Emile BOUTROUX, of the « Academie franjaise ». 

Ernest DENIS, professor of history in the University 
of Paris. 

Emile DURKHEIM, professor in the University of Paris. 

Jacques HADAMARD, of the « Academie des Sciences ». 

GosTAVE liANSON, professor of French literature in the 
University of Paris. 

Charles SEIGNOBOS, professor of history in the Uni- 
versity of Paris. 

Andre WEISS, of the « Academie des Sciences morales 
et politiques ». 



All communications to be addresssed tho the Secretary of the Committee : 
M. Emile DURKHEIM, 4, Avenue d'Orleans, Paris, i4">. 



German Atrocities 

from Qerman evidence 




The original of tliis bool< is in 
tine Cornell University Library. 

There are no known copyright restrictions in 
the United States on the use of the text. 



http://www.archive.org/details/cu31924027864259 



STUDIES AND DOCUMENTS ON THE WAR 



German Atrocities 

from German evidence 

by 
Joseph BifeDIER 

Professor at the "College de France" 



Translated 

by 

BERNHARD HARRISON 




LIBRAIRIE ARMAND COLIN 

103, Boulevard Saint-Michel, PARIS, 5«. 
191 5 



German Atrocities 

from German evidence 



Pudor inde et miseratio. 

Tacitus. 



I intend to prove that the German armies cannot 
wholly escape from the reproach of sometimes violating 
the law of nations, and I mean to prove my case according 
to French custom from absolutely trust worthy sources. 

I shall make use only of documents most rigorously 
examined, and I have taken care to criticize their text as 
minutely as if in times of peace I were questioning the 
authority of some old chronicle or the genuineness of some 
old chart. And I shall do so perhaps from professio- 
nal habit, perhaps impelled by an inward longing to get 
at the truth, in any case for the good of the case I am 
pleading : for these pages are intended for every one for 
the casual reader, for the indifferent, and indeed for llie 
enemy of my country. I wish that the casual reader wlio 
may by chance open this pamphlet in an idle moment 
should be struck by the genuineness of the documents, 
if he has eyes to see, just as their sordid character will 
touch his heart, if he has a heart tliat feels. 
My aim has been that these documents whose authenti- 



city is obvious should carry an equally obvious authority. 
It is easy to make accusations difficult to prove them! No 
belligerent has ever been at a loss to bring against his 
enemy a heap of evidence, true or false. But though the 
evidence may be collected in accordance the most solemn 
forms of justice by the highest magistrates, it will unfor- 
tunately long remain useless, so long as the adversary has 
not had an opportunity of disputing it, everyone is entitled 
to consider statements as lies, or at least as open to refuta- 
tion. That is why, I shall abstain here, from quoting 
French or Belgian testimony true though I know it to be. 
I have preferred that the evidence which I shall call shall 
be of such a nature that no living man, not even in Ger- 
many shall attempt to refute it. German atrocities shall 
be proved by German documents. 

r shall take the evidence chiefly from those war diaries, 
which Article 75 of the Rules for Field service of the 
German Army advises soldiers to keep on the march, 
which we have confiscated from prisonners i, as being 
military papers. It goes without saying that their num- 
ber increases daily. I should like some day the complete 
collection lo be deposited in the collection of German 
manuscripts in the Bibliotheque Nationale for everyone's 
instruction. In the meantime, the Marquis of Dampierre, 
a former student of the Ecole des Chartes, archivist and 
paleographer, is preparing and will shortly bring out a 
book in which the greater part of these roadside journals 
will be minutely described, copied, and brought into the 
full light of day. For my part I have examined but forty. 
They will suffice for my task. I shall make some extracts 
from them, taking care that each quotation bears suffi- 
cient proof of its genuineness. 

In what order shall I arrange them? For many reasons, 
but chiefly because some of these document only ten lines 
long contain proof of crimes of many kinds, I shall not 
attempt to adopt any rigid order of classification. I shall dip 

1. Seizures foreseen and authorised by art. 4 of the Hague Convention 
of 1907. 



— 7 — 

haphazard into the heap; certain associations ot ideas 
or pictures, and a certain similarity in tlie texts will alone 
enable me to 
group them. "' 7 - j^ _ .,^^„ ,, 



/X/ 



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,.,-<.,,?— feBWKe«5«' 




I 

I open hapha- 
zard the Diary 
ot a soldier of 
the Prussian 
Guard, Gefrei- 
ter Paul Spiel- 
mann (I Kompa- 
gnie, Ersatz-Ba- 
taillon, I Garde- 
Infanterie - Bri- 
gade). Here is 
his account of a 
night alarm in a 
village near Bla- 
mont on the 
f' September. At 
the bugle call, 
the Guard wa- 
kes, and the 
massacre begins 
(Plaits 1 and 2.) 

« The , inhabi- 
tants fled through the village. It was horrible. Blood was plas- 
tered on all the houses, and as for the faces of the dead, they 
were hideous. They were all buried at once, to the number of 
sixty. Among them many old men and women, and one woman 
about to be delivered. It was a ghastly sight. There were three 
children who had huddled close to one another and had died 
together. The altar and the ceiling of the church had fallen in. 
They had been telephoning to the enemy. And this morning, 
2 September, all the survivors were driven out and I saw four 
little boys carrying on two poles a cradle in which was a child 
of 5 to 6 months old. All this was horrible to see. A blow for 






f.t^Aa^Wifcai^-*^-^-.^'-*)' 









/' 



^.^y 



Plate i. 




a blow. Thun- 
der for thunder. 
Everything was 
I pillaged. And I 
also saw a mo- 
ther with her 
two little ones : 
and one had a 
large wound in 
the head, and 
had lost an 
eye. » * 



« They had 
been telepho- 
ningto the Ene- 
my)) says this 
soldier, the pu- 
nishment was 
deserved. Let 
us remember 
,^^^, the terms of 

4 i^ /J.^.-,,.f,Ut Art. 50 of the 
^^ .^^,™_ Hague Con- 

vv.,.-- ^..<-, / <:,,.// ;,.^-p-,/. ventionofl907 
fA:.JS^^.^. . .,-^.,-,._;i2a3^1^i , signed in the 

Plate 2. name of the 

GermanEmpe- 
ror by a gentleman, Baron Marschall von Bieberstein. 
« No collective punishment, pecuniary or other, can be 






.*^:A<4^^'^ 







1. « [Die Einwohner sind gefliichtet im Doif. Da sa es] graulich aus. 
Das Blut glebt an alle Baute, und was sa man fiir Gesichter, grasslich 
sa alles aus. Es wurde sofort samtliche Tote, die Zahl 60, stifort beer- 
digt. Fiele alte Fraueri, Vater, und eine Frau, welche in Entbindung 
stand, grauenlaaft alles anzuselieu. 3 Kinder batten sichzusammengefast 
und sind gestorbe. Altar und Decken sind eingcstiirtz. Halte auch 
Telefon-Veibindung mit dem Feind. Und heut morgen, den 2. 9., da 
wurden samtliche Einwohner hinausgetrieben, so sah ich auch 4 Kna- 
ben, die eine Wiege trugen auf 2 Stabe mit einem kleinen Kinde 5-6 
Monat alt. Schrecklich alles mitanzuseben. Schuss auf Schuss ! Donner 
auf Donner 1 Alles wird gepliindert... (on the verso ;) Mutter mit ihren 
beiden Kinder, der eine batte eine grosse Wunde am Kopf und ein 
Auge verloren. » 



inflicted upon a community lor individual acts for which 
they cannot be held responsible as a body. »What tribu-, 
nal, during this night of horrors took the trouble to make 
sure of the guilt of the community at large? 



II 



In an unsigned note-book of a soldier belonging to the 
32"'' Infantry (IV Reserve Corps) we come across the 
following statement. 

« 3'''i September. Creil. The iron bridge has been blown up. 
Consequently we burnt the streets and shot the civilians. » i 

" The regular French troops alone — the Engineers — had 
blown up the iron bridge at Creil ; the civilians had nothing 
to do with it. To excuse these massacres, when they condes- 
cend to make any excuse these note-books usually say : 
" civilians " and " sharpshooters " had fired on our men. 
But the Convention of 1907, that " scrap of paper ", signed 
by Germany, stipulates that by its first Article the laws, 
rights, and duties of war apply, not only to the army, but 
also to the militia and volunteer corps, adding certain con- 
ditions, the chief one of wh ich is the bearing of arms openly 
and in Art. 2. " The population of unoccupied territory, 
who, at the approach of the enemy, spontaneously take up 
arms against the invading forces without having had time 
to organize according to the conditions of Art. I, shall be 
considered as belligerent, if the population bears arms 
openly and respects the laws and customes of war. Read 
in the light of this text the savage stories which follow 
will take their true proportions : 

a) Diary of P^" Hassemer Ylll Corps. 

1 « 3.9. 1914. Creil. Die Briicke (eiserne) gesprengt. Dafur Strassen in 
Brand gesteckt, Civilisten erscliossen. » 

BEDIBR, ANG. - 2 



— 10 — 

3. 9. 1914. Sommepy (Marne). Horrible massacre. The village 
burnt to the ground, the French thrown into houses in names, 
civilians and all burnt together. » ' 

fc) Diary of Lt Kietzmann (2"^ Company, P' Battalion of 
the 49* Reg' of Infantry), dated 18'" August (Plate 3). 
« A little in front of Diest ^ lies the village of Schaffen-. About 



^, ji...-.^/./ jr-/^ ^^^y^Aj /.-.....- 4/C^. 













Plate 3. 
50 civilians had hidden in the church tower and had fired on 



1. « 3.9.1914. Ein schreckliches Blutbad, Dorf abgebrannt, die Fran- 
zosen in die brennenden Hauser geworfen, Zivilpersonen alles mitver- 
brandt. » 

2. « Kurz vor Diest liegt das Dorf Schaffen. Hier batten sich gegen 
50 Civilisten auf dem Kirchturm versteckt and schossen von hier aus 
auf unsere Truppen mit einem Maschinengewehr, Siimtliche Civilisten 
wurden erschossen. » 



— 11 — 

our men with a machine-gun. All the civilians were shot. * 

c) Diary of a Saxon officer {unsigned) (178'" Reg* XII Army 
Corps, I Saxon Corps). 

" 26"' August, The pretty village of Gu6-d'Hossus in the 
Ardennes has been burnt, although innocent of any crime, it 
seemed to me. I was told a cyclist had fallen off his machine, 
and that in doing so his gun had gone off : so they fired in 
his direction. Thereupon, the male inhabitants were simply 
consigned to the flames. It is to be hoped that such atrocities 
will not be repeated. "^ 

The Saxon officer however had already seen such " atro- 
cities " the previous day, 25"' August, at Villers en Fagne 
(Belgian Ardennes). " Where some Grenadiers of the Guard 
had been found dead or wounded ", he had seen the priest 
and other villagers shot; and three days earlier the 23 Au- 
gust, in the village of Bouvignes to the norlh of Dinant, he 
had seen things which he describes as follows : 

" We got into the property of a well-to-do inhabitant, by a 
breach effected in the rear, and we occupied the house. Through 
a maze of rooms we reached the threshold. There was the 
body of the owner on the floor. Inside our men destroyed 
everything, like Vandals. Every corner was searched. Outside 
in the country, the sight of the villagers who had been shot 
defies all description. The volley had almost decapitated some 
of them. 

" Every house had been searched to the smallest corner, and 
the inhabitants dragged from their hiding-places. The men 
were shot ; the women and children shut up in a convent, from 
which some shots were fired. Consequently, the convent is 

IT 1. It may be incidentally mentioned, and merely for greater precision, 
that the i"' Report of the Belgian Commission enumerates some of the 
" civilians " killed at Schaffen on the IS"" of August. Amongst others 
" the wife of Frangois Luyckz, aged 45 wittt tier daugliter aged twelve 
who were found in a ditch and shot " and " the daughter of one Jean 
Oogen, aged nine who was shot " and one Andre Willem, the sacristan 
who was tied to a tree and burnt alive ". 

2. « 26.8. 1914. Das wunderschone Dorf Gued'Hossus soil ganz uns- 
chuldig in Flammen gegangen sein. Bin Radfahrer soil gestiirlz sein 
und dabei sein Gewehr losgegangen, gleich ist auf ihn geschossen wor- 
den. Man hat mannliche Einwohner einfach in die Flammen geworfen. 
Seiche Scheusslichkeiten kommen holTentlich nicht wieder vor. » 



— 12 — 

to be burnt. It can be ransomed however on the surrunder of 
the guilty and on payment of 15.000 francs. " * 

Sometimes, as we shall see, the diaries supplement one 
another. 

d) Diary of Private Philipp. (Kamenz, Saxony. P' Com- 
pany. 1'' Battalion of the 178'" Regt.) The same day 
23'"'* August, a soldier of the same regiment saw a similar 
scene to that described above, probably the same, but the 
point of view is a different one (Plate 4-). 

" In the evening, at 10 o'clock the first battalion of the ITS"" 
regt went down to the village that had been burnt to the north of 
Dinant. A sad and beautiful sight, and one that made you 
shudder. At the entrance of the village there lay about 50 dead 
bodies strewn on the road. They had been shot for having fired 
on our troups from ambush. In the course of the night, many 
others were shot in the same way, so tliat we could count 
more than two hundred. The women and children, lamp in 
hand, were obliged to watch the horrible scene. We then ate 
our rice, in the midst of the corpses, for we had not tasted 
food since morning. " ^ 

A fine military subject indeed, and worthy to compete 
at the Dresden Academy of Fine Arls. One passage in 
the text however is obscure, and might embarass the 

1. (( Wir besetzen nach Durchbrechen einer Mauer das Haus eines 
anscheineiid wohlsitulrten Einwohners vorn an der Maas. Nachdem 
ich durch ein Labyriath... (two words illegible) bis in das vorderste 
gedrungen war, traf ich in (?) an der Schwelle auf die Leiche des 
Besitztrs. In den Raumen batten unsre Leute bereits wie die 
Vandalen gehaust. AUes war durchstobert worden. Der Aublick den 
die uberall umherliegender Leichen der Erschossenen Einwohner 
geben spottet jeder Beschreibung. Die Nachschiisse haben meist den 
Schadel halbweggerissen. Jedes Haus im ganzen Tale ist durchstoberl 
w[orden] uLnd] dabei einige d[er] Einwohner aus den unmoglichsten 
Scbluppwinkeln hervorgezogen. Manner erschossen. Frauen und 
Kinder ins Kloster. Aus diesem wurde heraus geschossen : belnahe 
ware deshalb das Kloster in Brand gesteckt w[orden]. Nur durch 
Auslieferung der Schuldigen und Zahl[unlg von 15.000 francs konnte 
es sich losen. » 

2. « Gleich am Eingange lagen ca. 50 erschossene Burger, die meuch- 
lings auf unsre Truppen gefeuert batten. Im Laufe der Nacht wurden 
nocb viele erschossen, sodass wir iiber 200 zahlen konnten. Frauen 
und Kinder, die Lampe in der Hand, mussten dem entzetzlichen 
Schauspiele zusehen. Wir assen dann immitten der Leichen unsern 
Reis, seit Morgen batten wir nichts gegessen. » 



— 13 



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Plate 4. 



— 14 — 

competitors. " The women and children lamp in hand 
were obliged to watch the horrible scene ". 

What scene ? The shooting, or the counting of the 
corpses ? Painters, who wish to elucidate this point need 
only consult the colonel of the 178"' Regt. What a gallant 
soldier ! 

He did, that night, but carry out the spirit of his supe- 
riors and comrades in arms. He who wishes to be 
convinced need but read in the Sixth Report of the Belgian 
Enquiry Commissionon the violation of the laws of nations 
(Le Havre, 10 Nov. 1914) the base proclamations which 
the Germans placarded in Belgium. Three short excerpts 
will suffice. 

Extract from a Proclamation of_ General von Biilow 
posted up at Liege on the 22""* of August 1914 : 

" The inhabitants of the town of Andenne, after having 
protesled their peaceful intentions, treacherously surprised 
our troups. It is with my full consent that the general 
in command had the whole place burnt, and about a hundred 
people were shot. " * 

Extract from a Proclamation of Major Commander Dieck- 
mann ^ posted up at Grivegnee on the 8"' of September 1914 : 

" Everyone who does not at once obey the word of com- 
mand " Hands up I " is guilty (szc) of the penalty of death. " 

Extract from a Proclamation of Marshall, Baron , von 

1. « Les habitants de la ville d'Andenne, apres avoir proteste de 
leurs intentions pacifiques, ont fait une surprise traitre sur nos 
troupes. G'est avec mon consentement que le General en chef a 
fait briiler toute la localite et que cent personnes environ ont ete 
fusillees. » 

The Belgian Report questions whether the inhabitants of Andennes 
committed any hostile acts against German troops, and adds : « In 
reality, more than 200 persons were shot. Everything almost is 
ravaged. The houses have been burnt over a distance of nine miles. » 

2. « Celui qui n'obtemplire pas de suite au commindement « Levez 
les bras 1 » se rend coupable (sic) de la peine de mort. » 



15 — 






der Gollz posted up in Brussels on the 5"' of October 1914 : 

" In future, all places near the spot where such acts have 
taken place (destruction of railway lines or telegraph wires) — 
no matter whether guilty or not — shall be punished without 
mercy. With, this 
end in view, hos- - 
tages have been 
brought from all 
places near rail- t 
way lines exposed 
to such attacks, 
and at the first 
attempt to des- 
troy railway li- 
nes, telegraph or 
telephone lines, 
they will be im- 
mediately shot. "* 



III 















This (Plate 5) 
is they first page 
of an unsigned A''4i't^^iy 
note-book : 






A' 'P'P/>'->.ii y? '?-' '</ i^y^^l: 



) 1 -.'. 






" Langeviller, 
22 August. Village 
destroyed by the 
ll'h Battalion of 
the Pioneers. 
Three women 
hanged on trees: -^"S^iife 
the first dead 
I have seen. " ^ 







/ 









v*/'":cr- 



I',' H 



Plate 5. 



1. « A I'avenir, les localites les plus rapprochees de I'endroit oil de 
pareils faits (destructions de voies ferrees et de lignes telegraphiques) 
se sent passees, — peu importe qu'elles soient complices ou noii — 
seront punies sans mlserlcorde. A cette fin, des otages ont ete eramenes 
de toutes les localites voisines des voies ferrees menacees par de 
pareilles attaques, et, a la premiere tentative de detruiie les voies de 
chemin de fer, les lignes telegraphiques ou du telephone, ils seronl 
immediatement fusilles. » 

2. « Langewiller, 22. Dorf durch die 11. Pionniere zerstort. 3 Frauen 
an den Baumen erhangt: hier die ersten Tote gesehen. » 



- 16 — 

Who are Ihese^thre e women ?j:rim inals surely, guilty 
lio^ doubl ot having" fired "om the German troops, unless 
Ihey had been telephoning to the enemy; and the 
11'" Pioneers had no doubt punished them justly. But 

they have expia- 
r~7 ^ ted their crime 








.^' 



















"x:^. 



now, and the 
11"' Pioneers ha- 
ve gone by, and 
ot their crime, the 
newly advancing 
troops know no- 
thing. Among 
these new troops 
will there be a 
commander, a 
christian, to or- 
der the cords to 
be cut and to 
release these 
dead women. No, 
the regiment will 
march by under 
the gibbets, and 
the flags will 
brush by these 
corpses; they will 
pass along Colo- 
nel and officers, 
gentlemen and 

Kulturtragtr . 
And they know 
full well what 
they are doing : these dead women must remain these, 
as an example; as an example, not for the other women in 
the village — these had already no doubt understood — , but 
as an example for the regiment, and for other regiments 
who were to come afterwards. These must be made 






f-y^'y^. 







, / f 



/iA^-yy.-r>V 



Plate 6. 



/ 



/7. 



■/ 






— 17 — 

warlike, they must be taught their duty, that is to shoot 
women when the opportunity occurs. The lesson bore 
fruit indeed. Here is sufficient proof: the young soldier 
who had that day seen and told us of " dead for the first 
time " makes the following note on the 10"' and last page 
of his diary {Plate 6) . 

" In this way we destroyed 8 houses with [their inmates. 



^ £ » ' • y J ■ ' '/ '■^ / / y Q^ 



) 



PZafe 7. 

In one of them two men with their wives and a girl of eighteen 
were bayonetted. The little one almost unnerved me so inno- 
cent was her expression. But it was impossible to check the 
crowd, so excited were they, for in such moments you are no 
longer men, but wild beasls. " ' 

And to prove that this murder of women and children 

1. « So haben wir 8 Hauser mit den Einwolinern vernichtet. Aus 
einera Hause wurden allein 2 Manner mit ihren Fraiien und ein 
18 jahriges Madchen er.stochen. Das Madel konnte mirleid tun, den [n] 
sie machte solch unschuldigen Blick, aber man konnte gegen die 
aufgeregte Menge nicht [s] ausrichten, denn dann sind es Iseine 
Menschen, sender [n] Tiere. » 

BEDIGR, ANG. 3 



" ii'-'M' 






* 



/;/ 









— 18 — 

is all in the days work of the German soldier, here is 
further evidence. 

a) The author of an unsigned note-book (Plate 7) relates 
thatatOrchies (Nord)a woman was shot for not having stop- 
ped at the word 

' r ^.J^kwi ^^■^^>^^-' MO' ' °f command 

^' ] Halle! Thereu- 

1^, A ., ,,- I pon, he adds, the 

whole place was 

< burnt. * 

b) The officer 
already mentio- 
ned ol the 178'" 
Saxon Regt re- 
ports that in the 
outskirts of Li- 
sognes (Belgian 
Ardennes) " a 
scout from Mar- 
burg havingpla- 
cedthreewomen 
one behind the 
other brought 
them all down 
with one shot ". 












"'If it/- t-ii 






4/ 



''ii-Y^ ,~'..w'' /si- ^^j,^;^ 









i/vi£. vwv'l ^^^'r" 
P/a/e S. 



c) Let us now 
quoleafewlines 
from the diary 
of a reservist a 
certain Schlau- 

ter(3'-d Battery of the 4"^ Regt, Field Artillery of the Guard 

{Plate 8): 

25"' August (in Belgium): Ttiree Iiundred of the inhabitants 
were sliot and tlie survivors were requisitioned as grave-diggers. 

1. « Samtliche Civilpersonen werden verhaftet. Eine Frau wurde 
verschossen. we,l s,e auf <c Halt >, Rufen nlcht hielt. sondern ausreisseii 
wollte. Hierauf Verbrennen der ganzen Ortschaft. » 



— 19 — 

You should have seen the women at this moment! But j'ou can't 
do otherwise. During our march on W'ilot, things went betti r : 
the inhabitants who wished to leave could do so and go where 
they liked. t But anyone who fired was shot. When we left 
Owele, shots were fired : but there, women and everything 
were fired on^ 



IV 

Often when German troops wish to carry a position, 
they place civilians, men, women and children before 
them, and take shelter behind this shield of living flesh. As 
the stratagem consists essentially in speculating upon 
the noblemindedness of the adversary, ot saying to him : 
" You will not fire upon these unhappy people, 1 know, 
and I hold you at my mercy, disarmed, because I know you 
are less cowardly than 1", as it implies a homage to the 
enemy, and humiliation of oneself, it is almost inconcei- 
vable (hat soldiers can resort to it, and that is why it 
represents a new invention in the long list of human cruel- 
ties, and the most fearful Penitentiels (Summie peccatorum) 
of the middle ages have not recorded it. And it is also 
why, in presence of accounts, French, English or Belgian 
accusing the Germans of such practices I for a long time, 
doubled, I admit if not the truth of the evidence, at least its 
importance: such acts must, it seemed to me, prove only the 
unavowed crimes of officers, individual acts which do not 
dishonour a nation, for a nation on learning tiaem would 
repudiate them. But now can we doubt that the German 
nation accepts such ruffianly exploits as worthy of her, that 
she recognizes and acquiesces in them, wlien the following 
narrative, signed by a Bavarian officer, Lt. A. Eberlein is 

1. « Aus der Stadt wurden 300 erschossen. Die die Salve iiberlebten 
mussten Totengraber sein. Das war eiii Anbli.li derWeiber, aber es gelit 
niclit anders. Auf dem Verfolgungsmarscli nach Wilot giiig es liesser. Die 
Einwohner, die verzielien wollten, lioniiten sicli nadi Wunsch ergeben, 
wo sie wollten. Aber der schoss, der wurde erschossen. Als wir aus 
Owele marschierten, knatterten die Gewehre : aber da gab es Feuer, 
Weiber, und AUes. » 

2. The meaning of this sentence may perhaps be : « but there, fire, 
women and everything. » 



20 — 



laid before us in one of the 
Germany, in the issue of 7 



unit: bTQticr Dffiiier'jiteflactlr-.'tcr 3P. t>at \a nitt 

' uf!i iiitfftvr belJtiiiiflfcri iZnflc cniiadjt; n w\it 
I iooitl niitf) uiiBijfiilii: uuflci^:6cH fnibcn, in u>e[(ftcm 
I &nu& lair utt? ouf^altcn, iJinii Uc&«ri"luB ft'tiden 
I mir Gusfi iiorfi fin utcigc? Seining obtn 311m J^arf't 
^ fcrftcr '^inaus. ■ 

; 5" Mt-fer i?afl<;, DoKftoiibij n&RcItfiii-.iun ooii 
I uii[crcr ^tigabs, nwdjltjii u)ir iDfihl fliuei duiibtii 
j Pu-sfii;^art<n Iin.'i'Mi.'brt jiiirjen pUfjlif^ i?Lirrf) tin 
I gcliffnetes (}fen(tct — bte ffiriifnitig \\t Qon^ niibtx 
. — ntoci clegctiic iungc 3)oincn ^■tin. icciBS *Sctt= 
I tiidKr in fecit Sidnfctn fffttDtngcnb, iinb fi^ mtt j^u 
: (viificrt ircrfcnb. X'ic Situation mat mir. man 
] ncrtctfjc mir bicfrn '3ii5brud. I}Di^iMr.inatifti). Vic 
j ciiic iprtii^t beutl't^. b. if. f"-" i'lJfit rin.ielnc lillfrrtc 
' ^craus, bie id) inii ;u[Qmm':i:rcimr, jftrc WuUcr 
! urb (3(f)iDr]let finb !;-;fangci? pcii ben TcutfifiCii, 
I fie ieit>[t JLiUc;! bpK ;'0f iiirc iipu 3t Sit; Iiolcn. 
! tcinif rocrbtii bi: Scrbcn als Qjcifcfn ciiiiiriftin. CEnic 
.■Jialbt: (=hj!ibc fict ihnen bcu §ctr (general 3''* 
geflcbcn. -Uun futb I'ie cuf bcr Sufi>c tn unfcE 
^ Sitincrte: unb 3MiiU'tcii«f«ueE pcfomtn^n iinb 
; finb tiicK brc 2ciificn bee llnjctigpn IrinttMg in 
[uiUec &aU5 gciprurLpcir. 

! '^ IcSJc ftG in bcit Bombcixitcoercn SJeinlcDft 
' I}inmiIcTfiiijren. Scriii.>rgun(V H^iitbc igiitet nvit 
i bem Stnrt ffieitcinl perRDnUch Ipretfjcn. 9Iu^rbem 

■ niiifitc iift fiifiw langrt, ha^ izt f>nt 9JEaiic mib. 
: ja:iit br;i '3p!l,^:c■b^/•^^Tt pctbuft-t i|i._ct>cnio n'r- 

imier ntriqiV'^iifT-f ^icborpiiii'^, bcr vc iwib^'.^ 
I Ijaitn iylUt . ■ . .^,..^. ^ . ^,. . 

3r6ci Bret oiiMie BiuiUflea ^al^n roit uer«-' 
fioftrt f.irb ba (fl'nmt- mii tin qutet ©cbaitfo- Src 
vii^-tbcn Ruf Stfil;!? .■^■tfetsi; Lr!b iftiTcti bcbcuM. ' 
liMtt Sitipln^ mntetcin b<ri:;trafec .^i, 
i!i;I)mcn. iiaubciiriffcn unb (vtcljcn oui b'T cincn, 
Lirt (icar (^cD.i.:f|T!nIb.:ii auf ircr r.nbfr^n Gcthv 
lyian mtrb nllmiiMifl} fun^Bar ficrt. 3>auu 
jii^en (ie tiiaup:ii ouf bcr 6tt(if|C. SBie ciflc Stcife* 
^jbctc Tic fo^gclaijeii, njei^ id) ntff)t, ci&€c i^rc 
J>riiibf iir.b bic gQn,5e 3<it (rampfffaft gcfi^,Uct. 
3o kio F'*^ mir fun, cih'r bas Wittcf iMlIt fo[int. 
?05 J^!r:titc!iicU':u au? bcu Jinujern liiiit fofort 
tTa(^, roU .'iJmu'iT \\^t auc^ bao gcgcniJ.t>;rUcg^nbc 
6hu9 biicti^n uiib tinb bcnnt lie .fVcti'cn bei 
ijAuptfiniiji'. SfUa-j li<6_Te§t r.fd) auf b«T Sivoh? 
firigt, mitb nti!bcTftcicI)0||eii. 9[iitf) bic Strtitlcn^ 
t>flt imtcrbi'ifcn trdftlg gcat&^ilrt, inib nl5 g-cflvn 
'/ U^c rtl>cucis bic Srigab: ^nm Sturm octrOdt, 
' urn uiiG ,Mi I'cfrcicn, fcnn i^ bic SJfdbung crftcl' 
' tcii : „S t, X i 6 p m tfi c g 11 c i f r e i '" 
I Vine ifi) IpiitcT crjuljr. Ijat bae . . , ^^cFcro^lK^. 

■ iiimeivf, bi)5 nptbiifh non ims in St. 3>i(i ri«- 
fltang, gaii.*) Qt}nli(f)c Grfc^rtingeit ^cmfLtfit ipi'- 
ipiE. 3^tt iiict 3tuili[ten. bic )ic cbcrttatts niiv 
bie Stra'fle k^tcii. rourbcn Jcbodi uon ben o'l^fin 
■ofcn cticjciic-jL ^ft &a6e fie hiiAi am itianfcn 
,>au3 ttiittcit iit be; Slrag; li^Rcn Ul)c\h 

^un ncCT c:nc tuiTobc utin bicrem Tag. bii'/ni 
luciK. njcldici (S^tft unfcts Sclbatcn, aud) in iolo') 
Fttiiftftcr Sityatipn fic^Eiifdit. tfy loav go.t^^c in 
b^ni 3iiig?!iSHrf, in bcm Tcirtcr uort itns fijr jdn. 
"cbftt rin^it ''.iCfif;cr[inB nt-e^r gcgcfccn ijtit-Jf'. bit 
tiitl-nnfcr ^i^^ii'lt -- ec tit bcr Xnpus p.inrs brnii-^ 
rifitcn iHcji'icicmdnncft — auf niidi ^n, in bet 
&Qnb — Gin (Tilns Siei. .,Sicv gcftinig, ^/-xi 
DbEitcutncnt?" — l£r ^t In iiDcr Scclcnrufic 
Hn«T bcin Suffct tin „3qSI" ^'ci cnQc^apft unb 
ieb;m fin (>5Ias ticbcn^t, Qiid) ir.omffcm, bcm hies 
bet le^ic S*Iutr Rwrbcn f^^Ilt^. 

30, jo, ba? ilc&cu fcctacgi: firf) in (5cgcniahii:ii, 
am meiftcn ;m 5ttteR. 

Dbevkutnanl S. ttbwle>u (m.) 

Plate 9. 



best known newspapers in 
'h Oct. 1914 (n° 513 Vora- 
bendblatt p. 2 of the 
Miinchner Neueste Nach- 
richten) ? Lt Eberlein 
describes the occupation 
of St Die at the end ol 
August. After entering the 
town at Ihe head of a 
column, he was obliged 
lo ban-icade himself in- 
side a house until rein- 
forcements came up (Pla- 
te 9): 

We had arrested tliree 
civilians, and suddenly a 
good idea struck me. We 
placed them ort chairs and 
made them understand that 
they must go and sit on them 
in the middle of the street. 
On one side entreaties, on 
the other blows from the 
butt-end of a gun. One gets 
terriblj' hardened after a 
while. At last they were 
sealed outside in the street. 
I do not know how many 
prayers of anguish they 
said; but they kept their 
hands tightly clasped all 
the time. I pitied them ; 
but the devise worked 
immediately. The shoo ling 
at us from the house at the 
side stopped at once ; we 
were able to occupy the 
house in front, and became 
masters of the principal 
street. Every one after that 
who showed himself in the 
street was shot. The artil- 



— 21 — 

lery, too did good work during tliis, and wlien towards seven 
in the evening, tlie brigade advanced to free us, 1 was able to 
report that " St Die is free of tlie enemy ". 

As I learnt later on, the... regiment of reserve which had 
entiered St Die more from the north had had similar expe- 
riences to ours. The four civilians that had been made to sit 
in the street had been killed by French bullets. I saw them 
myself, stretched out in the middle of the street, near the Hos- 
pital. 



Article 28 of the Hague Convention of 1907, signed by 
Germany, runs thus " It is forbidden 1o pillage a town or 
localily even when taken by assault. "Article 47 runs : "(In 
occupied territory), pillage is forbidden ". 

This is how the armies of Germany interpret these 
articles. 

Private Handschuhmacher (of the 11 battalion of Jagers, 
reserve) writes in his diary : 

" 8"^ August 191-1. Gouuy, (Belgium). There as the Belgians had 
fired on German soldiers we at once pillaged the Goods Station. 
Some cases, eggs, shirts and all eatables were seized. The safe 
was gulted and the money divided among the men. All 
securities were torn up. " * 

This took place on the fourth day of the war and 
enables us to understand why in a technical article on the 
Military Treasury (der Zahlmeister im Felde) the Berliner 
Tagtblatt of llie 26"' Nov. 1914 (1 Supplement) notices as a 
mere incident an economic phenomenon which is however 
curious : " As it is a fact that far more money orders are 
sent from the theatre of operations to the interior of the 
country than vice versa... " « Da nun aber Erfahrungsgemdss 

1. Hier hatten Belgier auf deutsclie Soldaten gescliossen, und gingen 
wir sofor daran den Giiterbalinhof zu pliindern. Einige Kisten : Eier, 
Hemden, und alles was zum essen war wurde aus den Kisten lieraus- 
gesclilagen... Der eiserne Geldschrank wurde eingeschlagen und das 
Gold unter die Leute geteilt, Werthpapiere wurden zerrissen. » 



— 22 — 

viel mehr Geld vomKriegsschauplatz nach der Heimat gesandt 
wild... »). 

But as, according to the common practice of the German 
armies, pillage is hut the prelude to incendiarism, non- 
commissioned-officer Hermann Levith (of the leO'" Regt. 
VIII"' Army Corps) writes : 

. " The enemy had occupied the village of Bievre and the skirts 
of the wood. The S'"* Company advanced in first line. "We carried 
the village and pillaged and burnt nearly all the houses. " ' 

And P"= Schiller (133 Inf. XIX"' Corps) writes. 

" It was at Haybes (Ardennes) on the 24"" of August that we 
had our first battle. The 2""* Battalion entered the village* 
searched the houses sacked them and burnt all those from which 
shots had been fired. " ^ 

Private Seb. Reishaupt (3 Bavarian Inf. 1"' Bavarian 
Corps) writes : 

" Parux (Meurthe-et-Moselle) is the first village we burnt; 
then the dance began : villages one after the other ; by field 
and meadow on bicycle to Ihe ditches by the roadside, there 
we ale cherries." ^ 

They vie with one another in stealing, they steal 
everything and anything, and they keep a record of their 
loot : " Schnops, Wein, Marmelade, Zigarren " so writes this 
plain soldier; and the smart officer of Ihe ITS"" Saxon, who 
at first was indignant at the " Vandalismus " of his men, 
confesses in his turn, that the P' of September at Rethel 
he stole " in a house near the Hdtel Moderne, a splendid 

1. « 23.8.1914. Der Feind hat das Dorf Bievre besetz und den Wald- 
rand dahiiiter. Die 3. Kompagni^ ging in 1. Linie vor. Wir stiirmten 
das Dort, plunderten und brannten fast samtliche Hauser nieder. » 

2. « 24.8J914. Haybes. Hier kamen wir in das erste Gefecht (Dorfae- 
fecht). Uas 2. Bataillon liintin in das Dorf, die Hauser unterauclit 
gepliindert, und wo lieraus^eschossen wurde, abgebrannt. » 

3. « 10.8.1914. Parle (sic) das erste Dorf verbrannt, dann gings los : 
1 Dorf nacli dem andern in Flaramen ; uber Feid und Acker mit Rad 
bis wir an Strassengraben kamen, wo wir dann Kirschen assen. » 



— 23 — 

, mackintosh and a camera for Felix". Without distinction ot 
grade, nor ot arms, nor of Corps, tliey steal, and even 
in the ambulances tlie doctors steal. Here is an example 
from the diary of Private Johannes Thode (4. Reserve- 
Ersatz Regiment) : 

" Brussels 5.10.14. A motor arrives at the hospital with booty, 
a piano, two sewing machines, a lot of albums and all sorts of 
other tilings. " ' 

Two sewing machines, ns « booty » (Kriegsheule). Stolen 
from whom? No doubt trom two humble Belgian women. 
And tor whom? 



VI 



I must admit that out of the torty diaries I liave examined, 
there are six or seven that tell of no exactions, either from 
hypocritical reticence or because certain regiments wage 
war less vilely. And I even know of three diaries, whose' 
authors, as they narrate sordid details, are astonished, 
moved to indignation, saddened. I shall withhold their 
names, because they deserve our consideration, and lo 
spare them the risk of being one day blamed or punished. 
The first, P"=X..., who belongs to the 65'" Inf. of the Land- 
wehr, says ot some ot his fellow comrades {Plate 10): 

" They do not behave like soldiers, but like common thieves, 
highwaymen and robbers,and are a disgrace to our regiment and 
our army. ""■' 

The second, Lt Y..., of the 77"' Inf. Reserve, says : 

"No discipline... The Pioneers are not worth mucli ; 



1. « 5.10.1914. Ein Auto kommt ins Lazarett und brlngt Kriegsheule :. 
1. Klavier, 2 Nahraascliinen, viele Alben, und allerlei sonstige Sachen. » 

2. « HitT hatte gestern die 6. Kompagiiie gehaust, nicht als Soldaten 
sondern als gemeine Diebe. Einbrecher und Riiuber, die eine Unehre 
fur unser Regiment und unser Heer sind. Schon voriier batten unsre 
Truppen Champs halb gestort. » 



24 — 



as for the artillerymen they are a gang of robbers. " 



And the third, Private Z..., 12" 



L.. 



Inf. Reserve (1 Corps 
Reserves) writes 
.._._ {Plate 11) : 



I '^"■^-^ z^'^*^'^ ^-^ ^''^//r/i~\ 



^ 






!-?^^ 



«?■ 






\ ^/i?-*#j»<i /,y /^ /5>J--4-«i, (fx-UvTC/r-j 






% 



t^/--^^ 



«-lt-jE.-t --J^! 













P/afe fy. 






.J 



" Unfortunate- 
ly, I am obliged 
to mention some- 
thing which 
ought never to 
have happened ; 
but there are even 
in our army ruf- 
fians who are no 
longer men, swi- 
ne to whom no- 
thing is sacred. 
One of them ente- 
red a sacristy that 
was locked, in 
which was the 
blessed sacra- 
ment. Out of res- 
pect a proteslant 
avoided sleeping 
there; hepolluted 
the place with his 
excrements. How 
can there be such 
beings ! Last 



night, a man of the 
Landwehr.a man of thirty-five, and a married man, tried to rape 
the daughter ef a man in whose house he had been quartered 
she was a child; and as the father tried to interpose he kept 
the point of his bayonet on the man's breast. " -^ 

1. « Schliram sind die Plonniere; die Artillerie, eine Kauberbande. » 

2. « Leider muss ich in Vorkommnis mitteilen, das nicht haH^ 
stattfinden soUen und diirfen. Aber es gibt auch in unserm' Heere ent 
mensch[t]tf Kerle, Schwelnhunde, denen nichts heihg ist Ein soldi 
hat in die mlt dem Schliissel verschlossene Sakristei in der d!^ 
Allerhfeiligste stand und in welcher ein Protestant aus Ehrfurcht vn 
demselben sich nidit sclilafen legte, elnen grossen Kaktus gesetzt Wip 
^^"'1^.1^°}''^'' '^^'"<='^'^n geben? In der vorigen Naclit hat ein mehr 
als 35jahriger Landwelirmann, verheiratet, die noch iunge TorhT. 
seines Quarlierwirtes vergewaltigen wollen ; dem Vater, der dazu U,,^ 
setzte er das Bayonett anf die Brust. » ™ 



— 25 — 

/i <*'- ■'"" 1--' ■ '"^ '"»/■■' ■ . «, 

^'^ -, ,^""' If '^''' ^ 



/ r< 



St*.— ^' / ^ . >\-' /^\m^ / ■*■' '^ 



■t*'^"'*' '/%.-vt''V^ 



^yiVA'' 



'!-'V^_. 



7 



►-i>.<'*«**»'*'****»*»*i^i^jw»f?-? x^ . 



-^ v'^ V;' 



'.-^S^ 



f 



- -/'T^ .'JL-^.'-V^-* ■■•! 



'.,--^ ^s 






BEDIER, ANG. 



— 26 — 

With Ihe exception of these soldiers, who are worthy of 
the name, the thirty other writers are the same, and the same 
soul, if Ihe word be allowed, seems to animate them all, 
uncontrolled and low. They are all alike, yet wilh some 
shades of difference. There are some who make distinclions, 
like subtle lawyers, sometimes blaming, sometimes disap- 
proA'ing: " Dort war ein Exempelam Platze ". And there are 
some who sneer : " Krieg ist Krieg " ; or in French, by prefe- 
rence to add to their scorn " Ja, ja, c'est la guerre" ; and 
there are some who having done their ugly work, open their 
Hymn Book, and sing psalms : for instance the Saxon 
officer Rieslang, who relates how one day he left a teasl to 
go to " Gotlesdienst ", but was obliged to leave hurriedly, 
having eaten and drunk too much; or again Private Moritz 
Grosse of the 177"' Inf. who after describing the sack o 
St Vieth (22"'' August) and that ot Dinant (23'"^ August) 
writes this sentence {Plate /2) : 

Throwing of bombs in the houses. In tlie evening, military 
chorale : Nun danket alle Gott (Now, thank ye all God). ' 

They are all alike. Now, it we consider that I could 
substilute for the preceeding examples others similar and 
no less cynical, taken for instance from the diary of the 
reservist Lautenschlager, of the P' Battalion ot the 66"' 
Inf. Reg' , or from the diary of P'' Eduard Hohl of the 
VIII Corps, or from the diary of non-commissioned officer 
Rheinhold Koehn, of the 2"" Battalion of Pomeranian Pio- 
neers, or from Ihe diary of the non-commissioned officer 
Otto Brandt of the 2"'' section of the ambulance corps 
(reserves) or from the diary of the Reservist Martin Muller, 
of the 100"' Saxon Reserves, or from the diary of Lt Karl 
Zimmer, of the 55"' Inf. or from the diary of P'"= Erich 
Pressler of the 100"' Grenadiers, 1'^ Saxon Corps, etc. ; and 
if we notice, that among the extracts already given, there 
are very few isolated cases of brutality (as can be and are 
found, alas in the most noble minded of armies) and that I 

1. « Einschlagen von Graaaten in die Hauser. Abends Feldgesang : 
Nan danket alle Gott. » 



27 - 



have scarcely noted here any crime that was not done by 
order, any crime that does not implicate and dishonour 
not onlj^ the individual soldier, but the whole regiment^ 
the officer, the 



very nation ; 
and if we con- 
sider that these 
thirty diaries, 
whether they 
be Bavarian or 
Saxon, Baden 
or Rhenish, 
Pomeranian or 
from Branden- 
burg, taken ha- 
phazard must 
represent hun- 
dreds and 
thousands of 
similar ones, 
all of a tearful 
monotony, we 
shall be obli- 
ged to allow, 1 
think, that, 
M. Rene Vivia- 
ni in no way 
overstated the 
casewhenfrom 
the French tri- 
bune he spoke 
of " this sys- 
tem of collec- 






;. <?r 



A* 






%/x>in,'i if iirfJ' 

















() J 



^i.'r-tl 



'..I'^^f 



'/•'On. dH'H^ 



,'f.> r/.n,i- 



f-r.f 



■yciAi. 



FlaU n. 
live murder and pillage which Germany calls war 



VII 

H. M. the German Emperor, in ratifying the Hague Con- 
vention of 1907 agreed (Article 23) "that it is forbidden (c) 



— 28 — 

to kill or wound an enemy, who having laid down his arms 
and having no means of self-defence, gives himself up as a 
prisoner; (d) to declare that no quarter will be given ". 

Has the German Army respected these conventions? In 
the French and Belgian reports, evidence is plentiful resem- 
bling the following which comes from a Frenchman cap- 
tain in the 288'" Infantry: " On the evening of the 22°'^ I 
learnt that in the wood a hundred and fifty metres from the 
cross-roads formed by the intersection of the great 
trench at Calonne, and the road from Vaulx-les-Palameix 
to St Remy there were some dead bodies of French soldiers 
whe had been shot by the Germans. 

I went there, and saw some thirty soldiers in a small space, 
forthe most part lying down^ some however on their knees 
and all having the same kind of wound, a gun-shot in the ear. 
Only one, very severely wounded was able to speak. He 
told me the Germans had, before leaving, ordered them to 
lie down, then had killed them by a shot through the head ; 
that he had been spared on telling them he was the father 
of three small children. Their brainpans had been blown 
some distance away the guns broken at the stock were 
scattered here and there, and the blood had so besiiatte- 
red the bushes that as I came out of the wood the front of 
my cape was all smeared with blood; it was a real charnel- 
house. 

I have quoted this man's testimony, not to rely on it as 
evidence but merely to make clear the nature of my indic- 
tment ; as for justifying it I shall take care not to depart from 
the rule I have laid down to resort to German sources of 
information only. 

Here is an order of the day given on the 26'" August by 
General Stenger commanding the 58"" German Brigade to 
his troops : 

Von heute ab werden keine Gefangene mehr gemacht. Sam- 
tliciie Gefangene werden niedergemacht. Verwundete ob niit 
WafTen oder Wehrlos niedergemacht. Gefangene audi in gros- 
seren 6 gesclilossenen Formatlonen werden niedergemacht. Es 
bleibe kein Feind lebend hinter uns. 



- 29 — 

Oberlieutenant vind Kompagnie-Ghef STOY;'Oberst und Regi- 
ments Kommandeur Neubauer; General-Major und Brigade- 
Kommandeur Stenger. 



Translation. After to-day no more prisoners will betaken. 
All prisoners are to be killed. Wounded, with or without arms, 
are to be killed. Even prisoners already grouped in convoys are 
to be killed. Let not a single living enemy remain behind us. 

Some thirty soldiers of Stenger's Brigade (112 and 142"" Reg' 
of the Baden Infantry), were examined in our prisoners 
camps. I have read Iheir evidence, which Ihey gave upon 
oalh and signed. All confirm the statement that this order 
of the day was given them on the 26"' August, in one unit 
by Major Mosebach, in another by Lt Curtius, etc. ; the 
majority' did not know whether the order was carried out ; 
but three of them say they saw it done in the forest of 
Thiaville, where ten or twelve wounded French soldiers 
who had already been spared by a battalion were despat- 
ched; two others saw the order carried out on the Thiaville 
road, where some wounded found in a ditch by a company 
were finished off. 

No doubt, I cannot produce the autograph of General Sten- 
ger, and it is not for me to communicate the names of the 
German prisoners who gave this evidence. But I have no 
difficulty in producing here German autographs in proof of 
crimes precisely similar. 

For example (Plate 13), here is an extract from ?'"= Al- 
bert Delfosse's diary (III Inf. Reserve, XIV Reserve Corps) : 

" In the forest of St Remy, 4"i or 5*'' September, saw a fine 
cow and calf destroyed and once more corpses of Frenchmen, 
frightfully mutilated. " « 

Are we to understand from Ihislhatthese dead bodies had 
been mutilated in fair fight torn to pirees for example by 



1. « In Wald, eine sehr schone Kuh ne'bst ein Kalb eingeschosseii 
gefunden : und wieder franz. Leichen schrecklich verstummelt. » j 



30 — 



./ 






y .,-<:i 



^-7- /•, 



f / 

























^^7^y:..-^>..z^:.>,.;>^'X /fc^^^ 



A. -, -^_„ 



P/afe i5. 



— 31 — 

shells? It may be; but thiswouldbeakindly interpretation 
which the documents (Plates 1 A and iS) disprove : 
;^ Here is a fac simile on a reduced scale from a newspaper 
picked up in the German trenches, the Jauersches Tage- 
blalt of the 18'" October 1914. Jauer is a town in Silesia, 
about 50 kilometres west of Breslau; two battalions of the 
154"' regiment ot the Saxon Infantry are stationed there. 
One Sunday (Sonntag, den 18 Oklober) no doubt a the 
hour when the inhabitants with their women and children 
were going to church, this local newspaper was distributed 
in the peaceful little town and in the hamlets and villages 
of the district, bearing these headlines. 

EIN TAG DER EHRE FUR UNSER REGIMENT. 
24 SEPTEMBER 1914. 

(A day of honour f'tr our Regiment. 
24-'^ September 19U.) 

It is the title of an article of two hundred lines, sent 
from the front by a soldier of Ihe regiment. Non-com- 
missioned-officer Kiemt. 1. Komp. InfanterieReg' 154. 

Klemt tells how on the 24"' of September his regiment 
which had left Hannonville in the morning and supported 
on the march by Austrian batteries was suddenly received 
by a double fire from artillery and infantry. The losses 
wereenornious. Andyet the enemy was invisible. At last, 
however, it was seen that the firing came from above, 
from trees where French soldiers were posted. From now 
on I shall no longer summarise, but quote. (Plate 16). 

We brought them down like squirrels, and gave them a warm 
reception, with blows of the butt and the bayonet : they no 
longer need doctors ; we are no longer fighting loyal enemies, 
but treacherous brigands. ^ 

1 Is there any need to remark that it no more " treacherous " than 
't is lawful to shoot from the bows of a tree than from a window or 
from the bottom of a trench? On the contrary, the rest of the narra- 
tive will moreover prove it, it is as courageous as it is dangerous. 



— 32 — 

" By leaps and bounds we got across the clearing. They 
were here, there, and everywhere hidden in the thicket. Now it 



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J iur "i tit uiib 




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%kxum m eflfliliriija ireuier um\%\tl 

^io U)i(i'r|ceUoof? e.'tciit (ux bci- airbeit. 

i'ilif)i(iijiiii.l). '^.-rliii, M.Z'U. ;'lii3 t'luinvi^ 'irft nm!!u^ niiia-m )(l. Cn. iimdtif!: %i\\\ V<. Cft., 
mul;ii!rtlii(!->. ^iltr^:.■ rn cnftliiilK SCrcir^cr „ttntU'i" hi &cr niirblMicit Jlorbjcc biirrfj ciucit 
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!il-ir til. Z.^3?. Bun awiUfiitr ZuWt Dilftirlfill luirb, 



t t)f|riitlfliiiifl biuv nrHtfrfKr 2(11' uldjl U 



S^er nciteftc rtmt(, iicutfdic 3d)liiriitcubcriri)t. 

Sllnfftr.Pfiitr In ^Iriidac, CfifnOc iihB fcfl 2ilj|rwi,iBt. ,ln mmalti oOcS riii(ln- Sl'Vl^al[fr !wr flriuiyir id liliiiridion, 
?!■ '?(iimiil). ('-■\riifji"i^ ■*>nitvtn"rtrtlcv, 17. Cd^tier, nuniiiltnii. 3n 'i^riiBRc iniD Cftciibc mixX't 
roir^lirficd Jtittfl^ninJeviuI erbeiitcl. ii. o. em nrofje '}tii,fal)l ^vi'f«"*ft'if WcJiieljre tiub 
iViirntipn, (uluic :iOO yitJditniHtirti, 

^^ni ihuiiDeviTniifiif siitninlfi inTljiflieu firf) Mf ;llnffcii niii iifftriijEri Iihk t'l'ljio* iit^jflli' lici 

liti 5(iiu-tutiitH lU'itiiidilnr (.9cFnti[\ciieR iiciiifrk fid) m\ 4000," fbcufo ipiir&fii iioit) iTiclfrcvc Oc' 
Mltilfc neuoiitriicn. 

Tit ftniiivifc hti iiiib fublicft '.^idvfffirtii bniitni norf) for*, 2B, S i^. 

(<^iu Xag iiev (^^Ijrc fiir uufci* ))Jcfiimciit 



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is down with the enemy ! And we will give them no quarter. 
Every one shoots standing, a few, a very few fire kneeling. No 



- 33 - 

one tries to take shelter. We reach a little depression in the 
ground : here the red trousers dead or wounded lie in; a. heap 



Bb Una Ulniijnjt trt i' 



JouiTloifl IiigoMuli. 



1 Utflln i lAnn fuiijCt (.,: a 



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'^iifcA cjn Tu B nM) iiiD loll ciufltn un l..;iq 



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lidinfciii vsn narnfi. 



Plate 15. 

ground. We knock down or bayonet the wounded, for| we 
know that those scoundrels fire at our backs when we have gone 



BEDIER, ANG. 



— 34 — 

by. There was a Frenchman there stretched out, full length, face 
down, pretending to be dead. A kick frrim a strong fusilier 
soon taught him that we were there. Turning round, he asked 
for quarter, but we answered : " Is that the way your tools work, 
you, — and he was nailed to the ground. Close to me 1 heard 
odd cracking sounds. They were blows from a gun on the bald 
head of a Frenchman which a private of the 154'h was dealing 
out vigorously ; he was wisely using a French gun so as not 
to break his own. Tenderhearted souls are so kind to the 
French wounded that they finish them with a bullet, but others 
give them as many thrusts and blows as they can. 

" Our adversaries had fought bravely, we had to contend 
with picked men ; they let us get within thirty, even ten metres 
of them — too near. Sacks and arms thrown away in quan- 
tities showed that they had try to run, but at the sight of the 
" grey phantoms " fear paralyzed them, and on the narrow 
path they had to take, German bullets brought them the word 
of command. Halt. At the .entry into the screen of branches, 
there they lay groaning and crying for quarter. But whether 
wounded slightly or severely, the brave fusiliers spare their 
country the cost of caring for many enemies. " 

The] narrative goes on, lull ot literary ornaments. The 
writer reports that H. R. H. Prince Oscar of Prussia who 
had been told of these brave deeds (perhaps too of others) 
of the 154"" regiment, and of the regiment of grenadiers 
who were brigaded with the 154"' declared that they were 
both worthy of the name of Konigsbrigade, and ends up 
with this sentence " When evening came, after a prayer of 
thanksgiving we fell asleep in the expectation of the mor- 
row ". Then the autlior having added as a postscript a 
few more touches in verse takes his composition to his 
lieutenant, who affixes his seal thereupon. 



Certified to be exact 
De Niem, Leutnant ^und Kompagnie Fuhrer. 

Then he addresses his article to the town of Jauer, 
where he is sure that an editor will accept it, compo- 
sitors will print it, and an eittire population will delight 
in it. 



-35 - 



fedt olle. ■ 6d)on meiben bie erfien gransmdnnet ent" 
bectt. !Con ben 'Bdumen merben fie fjcrunteigefnallt 
roie (iid)!)ornrt}en, unten niit ^olben iinb SeiteiigetDnl)r 
„cDarm" empfangen, braucftcn fie feinen Slrat mii)t, 
tuir tdmpfen niti)t meljr gcgen ebrlic^e t^Pii^f/ fonbern 
geg?n tiitfifd^c Slduber. Epringenb gent's iiber bie 
Gictitung ^iniiber — bal bort ! in ben i)ecten ftecfen 
fie brin, nun aber brauf, *^arbon oirb nid)t gegeben. 
Stebenb, freiF)dnbig, t)od)ften5 tnieenb totrb gcfdjoffen, 
an Detfung benft niemanb met)r. 2Btr fommen an 
eine DJiuIbe, tote unb oertounbete 5Roil}ofen liegenj 
mcffcnbaft umber, bie SSennunbeten merben erfc^lagcn 
ober erftodien, benn fd)on ojijfen roir, bo^ biefe Cumpen, j 
iDcnn roir oorbei ftnb, un« tm 3iucten befeuern. 
2HH bee groftfcn GtbUferung roirb gefdmpff. ' 
IDort lieyt tin grananionn Iniig luegfflred't, bas 
(Befidjt auf bem SSoben, er ftctit fid} aber nur tot. Dec! 
tJuBttitt eincs ftrammen iUJusfetiers belelirt itjn, bag 
tuir ba finb. 5id) umbretjenb, ruft er ?Parbon, aber 
fcf)on ift er mit ben SBorten : „Siet)ft bu, bu 53 . . ., 
fo ftedien eure Singer" auf ber ©roe feftgenogelt. 
D^eben niir bas unfjeimlidje Srartjen fomint oon ben i 
KoIbenid)Idgen t)er, bie ein 154er rouctjtig auf einen 
fran36fifd)en ^ai)lfop\ nieberfaufen IdBt. 2Bol)ftDeislit^ 
benu^te er 3U ber »2Irbeit ein franjofifdjes Oetcebr^'um 
bas fetnige nid)t 5U 3ertd}Iagen. Ceute mit befonbers 
tDeicfjem ®emiit gcben oerrounbefcn g-an^ofen bie 
(Snabenfugel, bie anberen t)ouen unb ftedjen nod) 2Rog«' 
Ii(i)teit. iapfer fiaben fid) bie ©egner gefdjtogen, es 
rooren Glitefruppen, bie nsir oor uns tjatten, ouf 30— 
10 SKeter liefeen fie uns f)eranfommen, bonn mor'a 
aUetbingg 5U fpdt. TOaffent)aft roeggctoorfene Sornifter 
unb ffioffen aeugen baoon, bo& fie fliel)?n woUien, 
aber bas Gntfefeifn bcim SInblid ber felbgrauen „Un» 
t)o[be" i)at tbnen bie gii&e Qtlaljmt unb miifen im 
fdjmnlen Stege l)at itmen bie i3cuifd)e Xtugel if)r „6topp" 



Plate 16. 



— 36 — 

Now, I ask m)'^ reader, no matter of what nationality : 
can he imagine such an article being printed in his own 
language, in the town in which he lives, and read by his 
wife and children ? In what country, except Germany is 
such a thing conceivable ? Not in France, at least. 

Here is still one further convincing proof of how usual it 
is for the German army to mutilate the wounded. It is 
taken (Plates 17 and 18) from the diary of P'" Paul Glode, 
of the 9'" Battalion of the Pioneers (IX Corps) : 

" 12"' August 1914. In Belgium. — It is easy to imagine the 
state of fury of our soldiers, when you see the villages that 
have been destroyed. There is not one house left undamaged. 
All eatables are requisitioned by the soldiers no longer com- 
manded. We have seen heaps of dead men and women who 
had been executed after trial. But the righteous anger 
of our soldiers goes hand in hand with sheer vandalism. In 
some villages which had 'already been deserted they " set up 
the red cock " on all the houses (burnt them). The inhabitants 
sadden me. If they use disloyal weapons, after all they are but 
defending their country. The atrocities that these civilians 
have been and are guiltj' of are avenged in a savage manner. 
Mutilation of the wounded is the order of the dag. " ' 

This was written on Ihe 12"' of August, only eight daj's 
after innocent Belgium had been invaded, and the wounded 
who were tortured were only defending, against German}^ 
that land, their native land which Germany had sworn to 
respect and if necessary to defend. But in many a coun- 



1. « [Von tier Wut der Soldaten kanu man sich eiii Bild maclien, 
wenii man die zerstorten] Dorfer sielit. Kein Haus ist nielir ganz. Alles 
essbare wird von einzelnen Soldaten requiriert. Mehrere Haufen Mcns- 
clien sail man, die standrechtlicli erschossen wurden. Kleine Schwein- 
chen liefen umher und snchten ihre Mutter. Hunde lagen an der Kette 
und hatleii nichts zu fressen und zu saufen und iiber ihnen brannten 
die Hiiuser. 

« Neben der gerechten Wut der Soldaten schreitet aiser auch purer 
Vandalismus. In ganz leeren Dorfer setzen sie den roten Halin ganz 
willkiirlich auf die Hauser. Mir tun Idle] Leute leit. [Wenn sie auch 
unfaire Waffen gebrauchen, so verteidigen siejdocb nur ihr Vaterland. 
Die Grausamkeiteu die veriibt wurden und nocli werden voh^seiten 
der Burger werden wiist geracht, 

« Verstiimmelungen der Verwun<ieten sind']an Tat/fsordnung.'j) 



— 37^ 



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-38 — 



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try, the Pharisees who having read these lines will calmly 
go to their churches or Chapels, their bank-parlours or 
their chancelleries murmuring : " In what way do these 
things concern me ? Ja, Ja, it is war ". 

Yes, it is war, but a war such as was never waged by the 
soldiers of Marceau, nor ever will be waged by the soldiprs 
of Joffre, such as never has been nor ever will be waged 
by France, " mother ot the arts, of arms and of law ". 
Yes, it is war,but such as even Attila would not have waged, 
had he agreed to certain engagements, for, to agree to them 
would have been to awake to the conception which alone 
dislinguishes the civilized man trom the barbarian — the 
nation from the horde — the respect of the given word. — 
Yes, it is war, but a war whose insolent principles could 
be constructed only by pedantic megalomaniacs the Julius 
von Hartmanns, the Bernhardis, the Treilschkes; prin- 
ciples that presume to authorize the people elect to blot 
out from the laws and customs of war all the humanity 
that centuries of Chi'istianily and chivalvy have with diffi- 
culty introduced ; principles ot systematic ferocity, the 
odious side of which is already obvious enough; but still 
more the senseless and ridiculous side. Is it not indeed 
ridiculous that they should be already obliged to deny it 
at least in words, — they the burners ot Louvain, 
Malines and Reims, they the assassins of women, children, 
and wounded men ! and that they should have imposed 
upoH their slavish ninety-three Kulturtrdger the denials 
which we know so well : "It is not true, say j they, 
that we wage .war contrary to the laws of nations, and 



— 39 — 

our soldiers do not commit acts ofindisciplineoi- cruelty'", 
and again. " We will carry on this war to the bitter end 
as a civilised people, for this we will answer in our name 
and on our honour". Why this pitiful and humble denial? 
Perhaps because their theory ol war presupposes as a pos- 
tulate their invincibility, and asat the first shudder of their 
defeat on the Marne it collapsed, they now repudiate it at 
the first threat of relalialions. 

I shall draw no conclusion : the allied armies who are 
marching on towards victory will do that. 



ADDITIONAL NOTE 

General Stenger's order of the day, mentioned on'page 29 
was communicated orally by various officers in various 
units of the brigade. Consequently the form in which we 
have received it may possibly be incomplete or altered. 
In face of any doubt, the French government has ordered an 
enquiry to be made in the prisoners' Camps. Not one 
of the prisoners to whom our magistrates presented the 
order of the day in the above mentioned form found a 
word to alter. They one and all declared that this was the 
order of the day which had been orally given in the 
ranks, repeated from man to man ; many added the names 
of the officers who had communicated the order to them ; 
some related in what a vile way it had been carried out 

1. The pamphlet entitled « Appel aux nations civilisees » which the 
german government spread abroad, says : « II n'est pas vrai que nous fas- 
sions la guerre au mepris du droit des gens. Nos soldats ne commettent ni 
actes d' indiscipline ni cruautes. » This is the text of our translation. 
The German text published under the title « An die Kulturweli » says : 
« Es ist nicht wa ' r dass unsre Kriegsfiihrung die Gesetze des Volkerrechts 
missachlet . Sie kennt keine zuchtlose Grausamkeit». There is, as will 
be seen, a nuance between these two versions, both equally official. 
The German version seems to admit as legitimate « die zuchimassige 
Grausamkeit y> "cruelty exercised on service ". 



— 40 — 

under their eyes. All the evidence ot these German soldiers 
was collected in a legal manner, under the sanction ot an 
oath, and it is after reading their depositions that I wrote 
the order ot the day. 

The text of all this evidence was transmitted to all 
the French embassies and legations in foreign countries on 
the 24'" of Oct. 1914. Every neutral wishing to clear his 
conscience is at liberty to obtain it from the reprensata- 
tives ot the French Republic who will certainly respond 
willingly. 



Imp. de Vaugirard, H.-L Motti, dir., i3-i3, Impasse Ronsia, Paris. 



I