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DA 522.D51F75 1898 



Two duchesses. Georgiana, Duchess j ol I Oev 




3 1924 028 003 618 




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THE TWO 
DUCHESSES 




(D&tizlefii, ('/ vJr.-i. 



f/ur 






THE TWO 
DUCHESSES 

GEORGIANA DUCHESS OF DEVONSHIRE 
ELIZABETH DUCHESS OF DEVONSHIRE 

FAMILY CORRESPONDENCE 
OF AND RELATING TO 

GEORGIANA DUCHESS OF DEVONSHIRE 

ELIZABETH DUCHESS OF DEVONSHIRE 

EARL OF BRISTOL (Bishop of Derry) 

THE COUNTESS OF BRISTOL 

LORD AND LADY BYRON 

THE EARL OF ABERDEEN 

SIR AUGUSTUS FOSTER Bart 

AND OTHERS 

1777—1859 



EDITED BY 

VERE FOSTER 



LONDON 

BLACKIE & SON Limited 

GLASGOW AND DUBLIN 

1898 



ty^a^s 



PREFACE. 



I have given to this book the title of The Two Duchesses, 
because its contents are mainly composed of poetry and 
correspondence written by, or to, one or other of the two 
last Duchesses of Devonshire, one of whom, Georgiana, was 
daughter of John, Earl Spencer, and the other, Elizabeth, 
was daughter of Frederick Augustus Hervey, fourth Earl of 
Bristol, and Bishop of Derry. 

These two ladies were inseparable companions, and lived 
under the same roof for nearly a quarter of a century. 
They travelled together in Switzerland and Italy; Georgiana, 
usually referred to as the beautiful Duchess, writing an 
account of their travels in verse addressed to her children, 
and pieces of poetry addressed to her friend, while Eliza- 
beth illustrated Georgiana's poetical narrative by numerous 
landscape paintings of her own composition. Georgiana 
died in 1806, and Elizabeth became the second wife of the 
fifth Duke of Devonshire in 1809, and died in 1824. 

In the Dictionary of National Biography, of which valu- 
able work fifty-two volumes are already published, the fol- 
lowing description of Georgiana is attributed to Horace 
Walpole, whom Sir Walter Scott declared to be the best 
letter-writer in the English language: "She effaces all with- 
out being a beauty ; but her youthful figure, flowing good- 
nature, sense and lively modesty, and modest familiarity, 
make her a phenomenon ". And in the same work are the 



vi THE TWO DUCHESSES. 

following statements regarding Elizabeth. In early life 
she married John Thomas Foster, M.P., of Stonehouse, 
County Louth. They (Georgiana and Elizabeth) tra- 
velled together at different times on the Continent. On 
one of these occasions, in 1787, they met Edward Gibbon, 
the historian, at Lausanne. He had then just finished his 
History of the Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire. He 
read to Lady Elizabeth Foster some of the concluding pass- 
ages, "and her admiration was so warmly expressed that 
Gibbon suddenly surprised her by an offer of his hand. 
The offer was declined, but Gibbon took the disappoint- 
ment philosophically, and, while his estimate of her fascina- 
tions remained as high as ever, his friendly feelings towards 
her underwent no change. Comparing her with the first 
Duchess, he writes: 'Bess is much nearer the level of a 
mortal, but a mortal for whom the wisest man, historic or 
medical, would throw away two or three worlds if he had 
them in possession '. He also gave it as his opinion that, 
' if she chose to beckon the Lord Chancellor from his wool- 
sack in full sight of the world, he could not resist obedience'. 
In 1809 sne became the second wife of the fifth Duke of 
Devonshire, and, after the death of her husband, she took 
up her residence in Rome, where she enjoyed the friendship 
of some of the most distinguished Italians and foreign resi- 
dents, and her house became the great resort of the brilliant 
society gathered together in Rome from all countries. 
Ticknor relates that he went to her ' conversaziones as to a 
great exchange to see who is in Rome, and to meet what is 
called the world '. . . . She spent large sums in exca- 
vations at the Forum, and with considerable success, and 
she was one of the most liberal patrons of the fine arts. 



PREFACE. 



vn 



Canova and Thorwaldsen were her personal friends." "The 
portrait of the Duchess when Lady Elizabeth Foster was 
painted by both Sir Joshua Reynolds and Gainsborough. 
A portrait by the latter was stolen in 1876 from the Bond 
Street gallery of Messrs. Agnew, who had purchased it 
shortly before from the Wynn Ellis collection." This is 
probably a mistake, for I believe it was a portrait, not of 
Elizabeth, but of the beautiful Duchess, Georgiana. 

There is also a full-length portrait of Elizabeth by Sir 
Thomas Lawrence in possession of Sir Vere Foster, Bart, 
at Glyde Court, County Louth. 

A representation of the two Duchesses linked together in 
a medallion appears on page xii of this book, and I have 
added a multiple likeness of Georgiana represented in the 
character of Pharaoh's daughter, accompanied by fifteen of 
her attendants, all engaged in the finding and fondling of 
the infant Moses. The picture was painted and engraved 
by J. K. Sherwin in 1789. 

The letters quoted in the correspondence are mainly 
written by the following persons: — 

Frederick Augustus Hervey, Earl of Bristol, Bishop of Derry, to 

his daughter, Lady Elizabeth Foster. 
The Countess of Bristol to her daughter, Lady Elizabeth Foster. 
Lady Elizabeth Foster, afterwards Duchess of Devonshire, to her 

son, Augustus Foster. 
Augustus Foster, afterwards the Right. Hon. Sir Augustus J. 

Foster, Bart., to his mother. 
The Earl of Aberdeen to Augustus Foster. 
Lord Byron to Elizabeth, Duchess of Devonshire. 
Lady Byron to Vere Foster, third son of Sir Augustus Foster, 

and compiler of this correspondence. 



Vlii THE TWO DUCHESSES. 

The Hon. Mrs. George Lamb to Augustus Foster. 

Frederick Thos. Foster to his younger brother, Augustus Foster. 

There are also single letters written by Gibbon ; Sheridan ; 
Fox; the Prince Regent; General Moreau; Alexander, 
Emperor of Russia, to Madame Moreau; Canova; Thor- 
waldsen ; Baron d'Armfelt; and Count Capo d'Istrias, Presi- 
dent of the Greek Republic. 

I give in an Appendix some particulars culled from 
reliable sources about the Earl of Bristol, Bishop of Deny, 
Sir Augustus Foster, and Lord Aberdeen, who, next to 
Lady Elizabeth Foster, afterwards Duchess of Devonshire, 
are the principal parties in the correspondence here pub- 
lished. 

The biography of Lord Byron is so well known that I 
would think it an impertinence to offer any information on 
the subject beyond the three letters addressed by himself 
to my grandmother; and I do not feel at liberty to publish 
anything about Lady Byron, except as regards the episode 
connected with my father's attachment to her prior to the 
advances of Lord Byron, and the few interesting letters 
addressed by her to myself. 

The attachment here referred to, which met with the full 
approval of Sir Ralph and Lady Milbanke, as stated in the 
Duchess Elizabeth's letters to my father, came to my 
knowledge as a surprise, and will probably be new to all 
my readers. 

Gibbon's letter to my grandmother is printed here by 
kind permission of Mr. John Murray, and I am requested 
by the Earl of Lovelace, grandson of Lord Byron, to state 
that the letters of Lord and Lady Byron are here published 
with the full consent of their representatives. 



PREFACE. IX 

In conclusion, I should mention that none of these letters 
have ever been published before, except a very few which 
appeared a few months ago in an Irish provincial news- 
paper, the Belfast Northern Whig, and that the present 
occasion of their publication arises from the fact that I have 
recently had access to a mass of family correspondence of 
which I was previously unaware, dated mostly about the 
end of the last and commencement of the present century. 
As the Duchesses moved, Georgiana for more than twenty, 
and Elizabeth for upwards of forty years, in the highest 
circles of society in London, Paris, and Rome, and were 
intimate with many eminent persons, and a great number 
of these letters relate to memorable contemporary events 
and subjects of public interest, I have copied some entire 
and made extracts from others, and, with the kind per- 
mission of my grandnephew, Sir Vere Foster, and encour- 
aged by the very favourable reception of the letters already 
referred to, I have at the special request of many friends 
put them in print, adding notes of my own as to dates, and 
in explanation, where apparently required, of the text. 

Owing to illegible writing, to fading of ink, to the torn 
and fragmentary state of much of the correspondence, and 
to the absence of dates in hundreds of cases, it has been 
found very difficult to preserve continuity, and I must claim 
the indulgence of my readers for such mistakes as they 

may discover. 

VERE FOSTER. 

Belfast, December, 1897. 



ILLUSTRATIONS. 



Page 

The Two Duchesses, xii 

Elizabeth, Duchess of Devonshire (from a print), - Frontis. 

The Earl of Bristol, Bishop of Derry, and his Daugh- 
ter, Lady Erne, 2 

Mary (Hervey), Lady Erne, 43 

Georgiana, Duchess of Devonshire (after Gainsborough), 84 

Georgiana, Duchess of Devonshire (after Romney), 96 

Georgiana, Duchess of Devonshire, and Child (after 

Reynolds), 105 

Elizabeth, Duchess of Devonshire (from a painting), 132 

Louisa (Hervey), Lady Hawkesbury, 15° 

Sir Augustus Foster, Bart., 154 

The Earl of Aberdeen, 185 

The Finding of Moses — Duchess Georgiana and other 

Ladies, 2 78 

Lord Hawkesbury (second Earl of Liverpool), 317 

Elizabeth, Duchess of Devonshire (after Sir T. Lawrence), 340 

The Hon. Mrs. George Lamb, 373 

Lady Albinia Foster, 4 11 

Vere Foster, - 466 



THE TWO DUCHESSES 



The Hon. Mrs. Hervey 1 

To Mrs. John Thomas Foster? 

Brussels, June 6, 1777. 

Voici deja vendredi et je ne fais que prendre mon 
ecritoire pour la premiere fois depuis que ma chere fille 
m'a quitte. Mais pourquoi enfrancais dit Monsieur 
le sage 3 ? C'est vrai mais il a coule de ma plume toute- 
fois comme je n'ai point besoin de vous dire des chases. 
I may in plain English tell you a plain truth, that I 
love you with all my heart, that I think of you con- 
tinually, and that your whole conduct since your 
marriage has given me the most perfect satisfaction. 
Don't misinterpret this expression: it does not mean 
the most distant censure on your behaviour before it; 
but the 16th of December* is your grand epocha, and 
may you date from it, dear Bess, every possible 
happiness. I shall be impatient to hear you did not 
suffer materially by the heat, fatigue, and distress of 

1 The Hon. Mrs. Hervey — Elizabeth, daughter of Sir Jermyn Davers, Bart., and 
wife of the Hon. Frederick Hervey, Bishop of Derry, d. 1800. 

2 Mrs. J. Th. Foster— Daughter of the Bishop of Derry and Mrs. Hervey, d. 1824. 

3 Monsieur le Sage— An allusion to Mrs. Hervey's son-in-law, J. Th. Foster, 
M.P., d. 1796. 

l i6th of December— -Date of Mrs. Foster's marriage in 1776. 

A 



3 THE TWO DUCHESSES. 

the first day. The rain and change of air we flatter 
ourselves made the second more pleasant, and this 
very night, perhaps, or to-morrow, you will breathe 
the pure air of your own dear country. I have been 
so mauled by the suffocating heat here that I have 
not been able to stir off the couch these two days; 
but I hope to get out this morning, and Monday the 
9th is fixed on for our going to Antwerp. I find your 
sister 1 writes by this post, so I shall not touch upon 
the la rue des etoiles, and I could almost forbear to 
say anything myself (out of economy, that a packet of 
foreign letters may not add to your continental ex- 
penses), but that I have a mind to meet you in London 
and show you that my heart and mind are with you, 
but I expect you to rely upon this and not to expect 
frequent repetitions. You will have a thousand new 
objects, and I the important one of preparing and 
removing ourselves. Whilst Mary is here, too, I 
know she will mention us. When we separate I 
will try to make you amends. Your father continues 
to complain and do nothing, but I think a journey 
will soon set him all right. Assure Mr. Foster of 
my sincere affection. He loves you too well for me 
not to feel a true regard for him, and I flatter myself 
that a well-founded esteem and perfect harmony will 
subsist amongst us all as long as we live. Adieu. 
Je vous sers sur mon cceur, and I repeat to you to 
take care of yourself, and above all to be at home in 
time. Remember what I said of & false calculation, 
and avoid its consequences. Present my compliments 

'your sister— Mary, Countess of Erne, eldest daughter of the Bishop of Derrv 
d. 1842. '' 




/7L/ry. -J ;/>/// C •/>-// 

■ 



FROM THE HON. MRS. HERVEY. 3 

to Doctor Foster, 1 and obey as well as love. Your 
most affectionate mother. 

Louisa 2 sends a thousand loves. 



The Hon. Mrs. Hervey 

To Mrs. J. Th. Foster. 

Liege, June 22, 1777. 

I am afraid my dear Bess will think I have made 
a long interval between my first and second letter. 
I feel it so myself, but as I knew Lady Erne wrote 
as punctually as if she had nothing else to do, I 
contented myself with doing everything else without 
writing, and indeed I found the business and the 
civilities belonging to our departure quite enough 
for me; however, I thank God, here I am tolerably 
well, and the journey thus far delightful, having 
your sister still with me, but we are drawing towards 
the moment of separation, which must be endured. 
Miss Creightons were received into the Convent 
yesterday in form, with all the black things hovering 
about them, but we are all vastly pleased with their 
present situation; they are well lodged as to con- 
veniency, cleanliness and air, have a room and two 
little beds to themselves, a garden, a view to the 
country, and the cheerfulness of a great many 
pensioners, who seem perfectly well attended to. 

^Doctor Foster— Thomas Foster, D.D., Rector of Dunleer, father of J. Th. 
Foster (1709-1784). 

2 Louisa— Louisa Hervey, youngest daughter of the Bishop of Derry, married 
afterwards to the second Earl of Liverpool, d. 1821. 



4 THE TWO DUCHESSES. 

The house is five stories high, and they carried us 
into every part of it, and nothing in Holland was 
ever cleaner. 

Monday, the 23rd. Your sister and I were up 
this morning by six o'clock in order to go and make 
a visit to a Mrs. Bond, a cousin, at about 115 miles 
distance, but as I sent an express yesterday to give 
her notice of it, fearing to appear abruptly before an 
infirm woman of eighty, she just now has sent to 
decline it on account of her health, which mortifies 
me extremely, as I had a high opinion of her sense, 
manners, and excellence of mind. 

Lord Erne was so good as to propose himself that 
Mary might go with me. I hope we shall keep to- 
gether to-day notwithstanding our disappointment, 
but to-morrow, I fear, must be the day of execution, 
and poor Dodd 1 scarce dreads it more, for now I am 
bereaved of my children, and even little Benjamin 
cannot make up the loss — a propos, think of Louisa's 
being ready to stay in the Convent, and being quite 
at her ease amongst the nuns, and singing both 
English and French to them. The Lady Abbess 
is a cousin Of Mr. Dennel's, and very like him, less 
fine, but a more soft, benign angelic countenance. 

And now, my dear love, let me thank you for your 
letter from Bethune, and assure you of the pleasure 
I receive from every mark and expression of your 
affection to me. We all do you the justice to believe 
that you or Mr. F. wrote on your arrival at Dover 



1 Dodd— The Rev. Wm. Dodd, LL.D., author of "Beauties of Shakespeare" 
and "Reflections on Death", found guilty of forgery and executed. His case 
created a great sensation at the time (1729-1777). 



FROM THE HON. MRS. HERVEY. 5 

and London, but your letters did not arrive from 
either place, and the delightful news of your being 
safe and well in London came accidentally from L. 
M. Fitz. Since that your father has received one, 
and you will easily imagine how we have all rejoiced 
in your welfare, amusement, and good luck in finding 
so many of your relations together. I must, before 
I forget it, tell you that your maid's letters to Joseph 
have been constant, so I suppose she has more care 
in putting them into the post-office than your other 
servants. As your stay in London was so pre- 
carious I will direct this to Bury, as my brother 1 
can frank it to you if you should have left. I 
cannot yet give you that to Pyrmont, 2 but when 
I can find it out you shall have it. Pray always 
mention your health and how you go on, describe 
your meeting with Doctor F., tell me where you 
have been and are to go, and in general everything 
which belongs to you down to your watch. I had 
intended the foldings 3 for Mr. F., but since I have 
run into them unawares, I beg you will thank him. in 
my name for his little scribble, which was very wel- 
come to me, but his constant and kind attention to 
you I shall never forget— assure him of it and of 
my sincere affection. Adieu. The Padre's 4 blessing 

1 my brother — Sir Charles Davers, Bart. 

2 Pyrmont — A noted mineral spring in the north-west of Germany, Principality 
of Waldeck- Pyrmont. 

3 the foldings — Portions of the paper folded in so as to serve as an envelope. 
Before the inauguration of national penny postage there was a separate postage for 
every separate piece of paper under a quarter of an ounce weight, and therefore 
both letter and address were usually written on the same piece of paper, which was 
so folded as to leave a blank space for the address, but when weight alone regulated 
the postage, in the year 1840, envelopes came into use. 

4 The Padre — The Bishop of Deny. See Appendix. 



THE TWO DUCHESSES. 



and the love of this party attend ye both. Ever 
your affectionate mother. 

The Ministers did not quit us to the last, and 
a petit soupe, with a Harp and arrSter sous cet 
ombrage was our parting. 



The Hon. Mrs. Hervey 

To Mrs. J. Th. Foster. 

Pyrmont, July 15, 1777- 

My dear Elizabeth, though I have been as good 
as my word in not writing to you, my thoughts have 
accompanied you through your several journeys, 
meetings, &c, and I also guarded as well as I could 
against any anxiety which you might have on my 
account by desiring my sister 1 to inform you of my 
welfare, which, I thank God, has been uninterrupted 
by any material accident. I found your letter here 
on my arrival on the 5 th, which gave me great 
pleasure. Your expedition to London seems to 
have fully answered in point of amusement, and to 
have exceeded our expectation in your reception in 
the family, which is doubly satisfactory. I see, too, 
with content, that you have not forgot my friends, 
and I flatter myself that you have made them yours. 
I entirely approve of your going first to Sh. 2 with 
Dr. F., and wish that he remained in England to 
carry you over with him, for though you seem to 
intend being in time, I know the young jf's 3 are 

1 my sister — Mrs. Greene. 

^Sh. — Sheffield Place or Park in Sussex, country seat of Lord Sheffield. 

3 the young ff' 's— A playful designation of Mr. and Mrs. J. Th. Foster. 



FROM THE HON. MRS. HERVEY. 7 

dreadfully irresolute, and I should depend more 
upon the old one. 

I daresay you have had a little notice before this, 
but if not (for it is very weak in some people), do 
not be tempted to retard your journey. A propos, 
I hope you will remember that you have many 
necessary things to provide, but don't do it without 
a person of prudence to advise you, for finery and 
expense in these matters is very ridiculous for a 
private station. I am glad to find your health is 
at all better, but your account of yourself is not 
altogether satisfactory. I hope you are attentive 
to take your pills, and to prevent your being over- 
heated; that you do not exercise too -much, or sit up 
very late; as to the rest you must arm yourself with 
fortitude against a time which I hope will be of as 
little suffering as possible, and that abundantly made 
amends for by the fruit of it. As to unwieldiness, 
nobody ever heard or talked of such a thing in the 
first instance, not even dear poppy; you cannot be 
pince, to be sure, any longer, but I advise you, when 
you are a mother, to be one in good earnest. 

Your second letter from Sheffield is arrived, for 
which I thank you, and your father commissions 
me to assure you that his silence does not proceed 
from want of affection, which is as cordial as ever to 
you, but from a rambling life first, and then from 
the inability which these waters give to all reason- 
able employment. I am now transgressing positive 
orders, but I hope to come off for a red nose, whereas 
others pay the heavier tax of a headache. He has 
drunk these waters nine days, and I think with 



8 THE TWO DUCHESSES. 

great benefit, which would be still greater if the 
weather was not worse than ever you saw it even 
in Derry; constant rain, and dirt, and puddle, and 
yet in spite of all he is well and cheerful, and the 
gouty pains fly before them. The lounging life 
agrees with him also, and he finds great amuse- 
ment from the company's being quite new to him. 
Our Princess of Brunswick 1 is here, and vastly good 
to us. We dine with her quite en famille. Two of 
the Queen's brothers, too (one with his Princess), 
the Prince Augustus of Saxe Gotha, and many 
people of rank with whom one lives upon the easiest 
terms; the Prince of Waldeck 2 (who is Prince of the 
territory), vastly obliging, too, and all speak a little 
French. We have regulated our hours to theirs, 
and breakfast little, dine at half an hour after 12, 
sup between 8 and 9, and go to bed by ten. I 
have not yet said a word of myself, but 1 think you 
will not be contented without it, and I can with 
truth say that I feel better and stronger than I did 
before I came. I now and then pass an agreeable 
hour with somebody that I discover to my taste, 
and I have no material complaint. The village is 
very pretty. There are lovely walks by the well, 
and the country is very picturesque, but the roads 
by which we came were so dangerous that we do 
not care to return the same way. I believe it will 
be difficult to find any that are good, but many 
schemes are in agitation. The hereditary Princess 
wants us to go by Brunswick. She may possibly 

1 Our Princess of Brunswick — Augusta, sister of G«orge III. 

2 Waldeck — The sovereign principality of Waldeck-Pyrmont. 



FROM THE HON. MRS. HERVEY. 9 

be the reigning Princess by that time, as the Duke 1 
is dangerously ill, but what we shall determine on 
is quite uncertain. 

I thank you, my dear love, most tenderly for 
your dear little present by La. M., and am very 
sorry I did not stay long enough to receive it. I 
am in hopes of a letter soon from Bury with an 
account of your having spent your time very 
happily at Sheffield 2 amongst friends toute faite, 
and some of them at least to your taste. What 
a wilderness the world is without them, and how 
I miss you and your sister every day and every 
hour. We have no news yet from Canada. 3 Louisa 
sends her kindest love to you. I have been unlucky 
about a governess, for that Aigle would not come 
at last. Scott was a little piqued, but behaved 
vastly well in the end, and has come with us, 
making the best of all difficulties, and serving as 
interpreter through Westphalia. Adieu, my dear 
child, my best affection to Mr. F.,* and your father's 
blessing to you both. He says he will write to you, 
but don't be uneasy if he does not. I hope f. 6 con- 
tinues well, happy, and satisfied. I believe Mr. 
Gifford has at last a living; he wrote your father 
a letter of J lines only to notify the vacancy with- 
out asking for it. Dearest Bess, I am your most 
affectionate mother. I know nothing yet of Mary, 
but that she has got a lodging to her mind. 

1 the Duke— Duke of Brunswick. 

2 Sheffield— That is Sheffield Place. See note, p. 6. 

Zfrom Canada— From Capt. Hervey, R.N., eldest son of the Bishop of Derry, 
married to Elizabeth Drummond of Quebec, d. 1796. 
*Mr. F.— Thomas Foster, D.D. (1709-1784). 
•/— ; J. Th. Foster, d. 1796. 



10 THE TWO DUCHESSES. 

The Hon. Mrs. Hervey 

To Mrs. J. Th. Foster. 

Pyrmont, July 30, 1777. 

My dear child, I received your letter of the 13th 
from Sheffield Place yesterday, and am extremely 
concerned to find that you have had so much appre- 
hension on my account. I had warned you against 
expecting frequent letters, and the constant change 
of place on your side as well as ours has been a 
great hindrance to our correspondence. What can 
have interrupted your sister's active mind and pen I 
can't guess, but it ought not to have increased your 
alarm, because as we were not together it could not 
arise from the cause you suspected. I fear, my dear 
Bess, that you have inherited your mother's anxious 
temper about those you love, but conjure you, by 
the well-known suffering of it, to struggle hard 
against it while you have youth and spirits to do so, 
and to incline as much as you are able to the best 
side of every object. You have, I hope, long before 
this received the letter I directed to Bury, either 
there or elsewhere. I meant it to secure the satis- 
faction to you, by which I fear I delayed it, but as 
you will find by it how perfectly free we have been 
from all accidents fdcheux I hope you will be more 
backward for the future to suspect them. The 
posts seem to be very ill regulated, too, and your 
letter from Dover of the 9th of June came only two 
days sooner than that of the 13th of July, but when 
once we are in Italy and you in Ireland we shall 
have a more regular intercourse. 



FROM THE HON. MRS. HERVEY. II 

We are to leave this place about the 8th or ioth, 
and go re Frankfort, and perhaps to Mayence, and 
so embark on the Rhine, and carry Ma lle - to Cologne, 
to put her en pays de Conoissance on her way to 
Brussels. This will give us an opportunity of pull- 
ing down that river for so far, by seeing the finest 
part of its banks. We shall take our carriages and 
come back by land, and so proceed to Frankfort 
again, Darmstadt, Manheim, Spier, Stutgard, Ulm, 
Augsbourg, Munich, Inspruck, Trent, Verona. This 
route through Germany will be new to us, and we 
hope besides to be in time to drink the waters of Val 
d'Agno 1 for three weeks. They are something like 
those which have agreed most wonderfully with 
your father and done some good to me also. His 
gout is drove away, and he is the life of the com- 
pany: he has had but one drawback, by a slight 
fever brought on by cold, but which he has thor- 
oughly recovered. 

We are now reduced to a very small company 
here. Our Princess and her train set out for 
Brunswick to-day, which is a great blow, for there 
was real satisfaction and comfort in her company 
— a thing not very common with Princes or Princ- 
esses. There have been no English except our- 
selves and Col. Faucit, who is the negotiator for the 
foreign troops now in our pay. Hot-hot ' s brother 
is come for a few days, and is grown a quiet, good 
boy. Lord Bessborough 2 is here, too, who can never 

1 Val d'Agno — A mineral spring in the north of Italy, often mentioned sub- 
sequently. 

2 Lord Bessborough— -Wm. Ponsonby. second Earl of Bessborough and Viscount 
Duncannon (1704-1793) 



12 THE TWO DUCHESSES. 

grow better or worse or other than he is. It is in- 
credible what nonsense he talks. People listen and 
laugh; cela lui suffit, he puts it all down to his 
credit, and stands like a mountebank with a circle 
round him, which he entertains with marvellous 
things much in the same style. 

I am glad to find you have passed your time 
so pleasantly, my dear love, and that your health 
is mended, of which I hope you have a proper 
care, and that you do not only intend but deter- 
mine to be in Ireland by the very beginning of 
September. Remember, you have to settle yourself 
and to provide many things. I have not been able 
to learn whether Nurse Wilkinson stays for you 
in Dublin, but I hope so, to prevent the hazard 
of her going back and returning. I hope there 
will be no objection to her manner of nursing, 
as you seem to wish it, and I am certain she 
is too honest a woman not to tell you if by any 
weakness in the child a breast should be necessary, 
which is sometimes the case. N. Byrne, you know, 
is engaged for yourself, and I advise you to use the 
hartshorn and oil with hare-skins, as I did, to backen 
your milk, and remember your promise of guarding 
your breast from cold on your recovery and first 
going out, which will be in cold weather. I don't 
much approve of riding, except you had begun it 
sooner, but that is now over. I am glad the infanta 
is so lively, but I shall chide you if you become a 
mother so tristement. I had reckoned upon your 
feeling the full value of it, and I still think that 
when your fears are over you will think you are 



FROM THE HON. MRS. HERVEY. 13 

well paid for your pains. I have ever thought so, 
and I hope my dear child's children will not de- 
generate. At all events, if you find it too early a 
care I am ready to take it off your hands. When 
I return next year send the dear little creature to 
me with its nurse, and I will make it as hardy and 
active as a Magilligan kid. As to names, il faut 
phis de menagement: one of ours first, if you please, 
but don't put in too much of the same ingredient. 
D. F.'s present was very handsome, and what is 
better, very kind. I think you judge perfectly well 
about the trimming, which is proper, handsome, and 
lasting. 

Your father bids me assure you of his truest, 
warmest affection: he received your long letter, but 
the waters have prevented his writing: he says 
when we are settled that we must take it by turns, 
and that you shall hear from us every fortnight. 
Adieu, my dear child. Louisa sends you a thousand 
loves, and longs for her nephew. My sincere affec- 
tion to Mr. F.; pray mention his health. I will 
direct my next to Dunleer, and will write as we go 
on, but remember to allow for the failure of letters, 
which is very frequent. Adieu once more. I am 
very well, and most truly your affectionate mother. 



14 THE TWO DUCHESSES. 

The Hon. the Bishop of Deny 

To Mrs. J. Th. Foster. 

Pyrmont, July 30, 1777. 

Your mother and I, my dearest Elizabeth, have 
at last agreed to atone for our long silence by- 
writing to you alternately every week, and as she 
is a little occupied at present and I not at all (unless 
drinking waters comme un enrage may be so called), 
I have spontaneously taken upon myself to become 
the periodical tatler for this time, and to tell you 
that we are all well and the better for this Helicon 
of health. Your mother, very fortunately, found 
upon her arrival Dr. Closius — don't imagine this 
singular name either an abridgment or a translation 
of Close: st., whatever affinity there may be between 
his profession and his title. Such a trouvaille 
immediately quieted the lady's nerves, and prepared 
her admirably for the waters, which were deemed 
specifick for her. 

The next question was with regard to company, 
and in that, too, we were fortunate, for there was 
no canaille, little bourgeoisie, and some persons, 
not only of great distinction, but of excellent 
dispositions; and the great parity that is main- 
tained here among all persons gives this little place 
a spirit of elegant but easy republicanism that is 
very pleasing, and I am sure contributes much to 
the salutariness of the waters, and of course to the 
recovery of the patients. At the head of this motlev 
society of princes, peers, and citizens stands the 



FROM THE HON. THE BISHOP OF DERRY. 1 5 

amiable, the generous, the spirited, the learned 
prince of the country, the prince of Waldeck, 
about a stone's throw from the well. He has a 
soi-disant castle, but a very comfortable casino, 
built on a eminence which commands a most 
beautiful country of wood, water, meadow, and 
hill to a great extent, but to a much greater 
variety than ever I saw. Here he entertains dur- 
ing a month or three weeks every person succes- 
sively who either can or cannot entertain him, 
females alone excepted, for as he is not married 
he claims an exemption — I am sorry to call it so — 
from that trouble. This is our commander-in-chief, 
but our principal citizen in this miscellaneous re- 
publick is our Princess Augusta, hereditary princess 
of Brunswick, with whom we have lived more than 
with any other person whatever, and from whom we 
part with a proportionate regret. Her husband 
came for a few days, but he is of a different char- 
acter from his wife, more proud, less liant, ruse, 
some say false, very debauched, but with a kind 
of decency, and gave no tokens of it here. Graces 
aux tempeVamens delabres et epuis^s qui s'y trou- 
vent. Among the crowd are expatriated prime 
ministers, exhausted ministers of the gospel, 
Lutherans, Calvinists, Hernhuters, Jews, Greeks, 
&c, who altogether form a good savoury oglio of 
society, especially as one can pick out of the dish 
such pieces as are too luscious or too hard for one's 
stomach, or even such as do not suit one's palate. 

As to the Place, it is magical. There are two large 
and long avenues, flanked on each side with lesser, 



1 6 THE TWO DUCHESSES. 

which are deemed the shilling gallery of Pyrmont, 
a part for servants. At the end of each of these 
avenues, which cut each other at right angles, is 
a decent octagon building which incloses the most 
salubrious of the most generally efficacious waters 
perhaps in all Europe. At the back of these 
avenues a triple range of buildings as singular in 
their appearance and yet at least as necessary in 
their use as the octagon itself, and which are cal- 
culated to receive these salubrious waters after they 
have filtrated through all the different vessels which 
have received them. The avenues are flanked on 
each side with shops, not very brilliant indeed, but 
by means of bath apartments said to be very con- 
venient, and in the middle is a long salon where are 
public breakfasts, dinners, dancings, cards, concerts, 
and almost all the uses to which the ark of Noe 
could be put. Such is our situation here, where we 
shall remain ten days more. From hence into dear 
Italy once more, to drink the waters of Valdagno 
and winter at Pisa. Adieu. Be sure not to take 
the long voyage if you remain late in England; your 
stomach cannot bear it, and you will fall into the 
equinoxes. My blessings to your husband. 



The Hon. the Bishop of Derry 

To Mrs. J. Th. Foster. 

Pyrmont, August 7, 1777. 

I am just run home from the walks, my dear 
Elizabeth, to tell you that our journey for Italy is 



FROM THE HON. THE BISHOP OF DERRY. 1 7 

decided, and that we have the additional satisfaction 
of carrying with us the Prince of Saxe Gotha, one 
of those few men who unite familiarity with dignity 
and science, knowledge, &c, with politeness. We 
have taken violently to each other; he is to meet us 
at Frankfort, and from thence he says nous irons au 
Paradis sur les ailes de 1'amitie. On Monday we 
begin this violent operation. You may trace us on 
the map to Cassel, Frankfort, Mayence, from thence 
we embark on the Rhine, descend it as far as 
Cologne by water, and return by land to Mayence, 
thence to Manheim, Immortal Stutgard, aussi sur 
que je m'appelle Charles, and so on to Ulm, Augs- 
burg, Munich, Inspruck, Trent, and dear Verona. 
Don't I write like a child upon this subject, yet no 
wonder, when the very prospect of seeing such a 
country revives and rajeunit; your mother, too, is 
greatly reconciled to it, and only dreads the pene- 
trating too deep into it, but it is absolutely necessary 
that she should winter where there is no winter. 
She will, besides, have the advantage of drinking 
the waters of Valdagno both in going and returning, 
and nothing can be more decided than that we shall 
return to these superexcellent waters; none can be 
composed with more suitable materials for relaxed 
constitutions, or for slow circulation of juices. Iron, 
nitre in small quantities, and a large portion of 
vitriol or fixed air constitute this salubrious spring; 
'tis beyond belief efficacious. May you, my dear 
child, never want to try them, or if you should, may 
you never miss to do so. Your mother is marvel- 
lously well, walks for above four hours in the day, 



1 8 THE TWO DUCHESSES. 

is cheerful, sings, and enjoys the place in spite of 
its present solitariness. Adieu, my dear child; my 
head is so dizzy I can write no more; my love to 
your husband. Send for the mare home, as she 
risques being hurt by the others, being the weakest. 



The Hon. Mrs. Hervey 

To Mrs. J. Th. Foster. 

Manheim, August 25, 1777. 

My dear Bess, though I wrote to you only a 
few days ago from Frankfort, yet, as I flatter myself 
that you are at this moment on the march to Dublin 
Je me fais un vrai plaisir ma chere d'aller au devant 
de vous et de nous feliciter de votre arrivde. As it 
cannot be in person we must be contented with its 
being by proxy, and I hope you will not let your 
spirits sink on account of this unavoidable separa- 
tion. All essential points are settled already, you 
know, by me for your safety and comfort, and 
though a mother is not easily replaced, yet I hope 
you will have such an accession of friends as will 
make her care and presence unnecessary. 

We got here last night from Mentz, where I 
staid two or three days to wait for your father, 
who took the opportunity of going down the river 
as far as Coblentz, as the scenery there has been 
so much admired. He had the finest weather 
imaginable for it, and returned satisfied, but not 
enchanted; in fact, I think the banks, wherever I 
have seen them, too low to be very fine. I had 



FROM THE HON. MRS. HERVEY. 19 

intended myself this amusement, but he did not 
think the boats commodious enough for me, nor the 
road back by land sufficiently good, so I was obliged 
to give it up. 

Take care of your health, my dear Bess, in time; 
one becomes a sad burthen to oneself from the want 
of it. The heat, dust, and fatigue of the journey 
has unravelled great part of the web wove at 
Pyrmont, and I have been drooping like a new 
planted cabbage for some days past. However, 
thanks to some rain, a few grains of I powder, and 
change of air, I am refreshed, and begin to hold up 
my head; the weather is fine, the heat moderate, 
the air seems good, and the town appears a perfect 
bijou. I am going out to examine it, and will tell 
you more at my return. Adieu. 

Manheim is a vrai bijou ; its situation, though 
flat, is beautiful, almost an island by means of the 
Rhine and Neckar, over which there are yet but 
convenient bridges, but when the devastations of 
the French in the Palatinate are better recovered, 
and that they are converted into ornaments, it will 
compleat the scene. The ramparts are pleasant 
walks which command these rivers, beyond which 
is a small plain bounded with very picturesque 
mountains. The town is, great part of it, new 
built, the streets are perfectly regular and broad, 
some planted in two rows for a walk in the middle, 
and a place or two very well laid out; the houses 
are tires au cordon, and though the fronts are not 
uniform, this regularity of the line, together with 
a neat plaister they are covered with, some 



20 THE TWO DUCHESSES. 

German ornaments and jalousies, give a general 
elegance in the appearance which is very pleasing. 
The Elector's 1 Palace is an immense building, but 
there is no good architecture or ornament. A 
grandeur and magnificence from the extent, and 
a fine prospect of the river and country from the 
back front; these are its merits. In the precincts 
of the Palace are also an Opera House, Tennis 
Court, Riding House, Library, and various collec- 
tions of antiquities and natural curiosities in different 
cabinets. 

We are waiting for our Prince, whom we expect 
every minute. In the meantime we have a very 
good apartment, with a large room which looks on 
the Place d'Armes, the prettiest spot in the town. 
Besides the cheerfulness of its being the parade, 
you may imagine that your father amuses himself 
very well here in the midst of these collections, and 
in sight at least of the mountains to which we 
are going. The Court are out of town, and we 
have not been in any society. He has seen and 
liked the French Minister (who is an Irishman), 
and last night an Excellence, something hausen, 
who is the Elector's Minister, sat with us for two 
hours. He is monstrously partial to the English, 
laments their present situation, and seems to be a 
sensible, well-minded man. The conversation turned 
chiefly on politics, on which, as you may imagine, 
I took little share; but when he got up to go away, 
the ceremonial was singular enough, with a permettez 

1 The Elector — The Elector of the Rhenish Palatinate in which the town of 
Pyrmont was situated. 



FROM THE HON. MRS. HERVEY. 21 

moi, Madame, de vous baiser la main (he repeated 
the baiser quick, and I believe as frequent as 20), 
saying jusqu'a cent fois. It was quite new to me, 
and I was almost ready to laugh, but I can conceive 
the scene to be sometimes more embarrassing. 
C'etoit un bon Papa avec un presque Grandmama, 
but I am not clear that little slimness 1 would have 
been easy with such a liberty towards his wife, even 
from Nestor. 

We have still very hot weather, but I am much 
reconciled by rest. What I regret most is that I 
cannot hear from my children till I get to Verona. 
I hope to hear there what time you were to be 
at home, and then to believe you arrived. Adieu, 
my dear child; my best affection to f. 1 Let me 
know exactly how you are circumstanced, and tell 
him I don't doubt but he will give me early and 
frequent news of you when you are confined. Re- 
member you must not use your eyes. Tell N. W. 
I love her, and trust in her care, and give, her 
Louisa's love, which she will like better. She is 
perfectly well, and minds neither heat nor fatigue. 
My compliments to Doctor F. Ever, my dear 
child, your most affectionate mother. Your father 
and Louisa send their best affection to you and 
Betsy. 

1 little slimness — Playful reference to Mr. J. Th. Foster. 



22 THE TWO DUCHESSES. 

The Bishop of Derry and Mrs. Hervey 

To Mrs. J. Tli. Foster. 

Augsburg, Sept. 5, 1777. 

Here we are, my dear child, in great spirits, and 
in the company, I will not say of the most agreeable 
Prince, because that is almost a contradiction in 
terms, but of one of the most agreeable men I 
almost ever met — I mean the Prince Augustus of 
Saxe-Gotha, first cousin to His Majesty George 
the Third, K. of Little Britain. He has better 
talents, more knowledge, and less pretensions than 
most people — in short, he is a most excellent com- 
panion and all the appearance of a most affectionate 
friend. Your poor dear Mother is as much pleased 
with him as I am, and as he is perfectly polite and 
constantly cheerful, he is an equally good companion 
for both. 

Would you believe que deja nous avons ete a 
Stutgard, seen its mad Sovereign, 1 and been accueilli 
by him in the civilest manner? He was in the 
country when we reached his capital. It was 
necessary to ask his leave in order to see an 
Academy of his institution, which bears an un- 
common character in the rest of Europe. An old 
Rum professor, to whom I was recommended by 
a little Rum physician, dispatched an express to 
solicit his Princely permission, aussi sur qu'il s'appelle 
Charles. He brought it himself, and sent word that 

1 mad Sovereign — Charles Eugene, an extravagant ruler, but a patron of educa- 
tion. The state at this time ranked only as a duchy, but was raised to a kingdom 
in 1806. 



FROM THE BISHOP OF DERRY AND MRS. HERVEY. 23 

he would have the pleasure of showing it. We met 
him there with his Comtesse under his arm, and 
after saluting us with all proper dignity he began 
exhibiting his lions. A more elegant and orderly- 
Raree-show I never saw. Imagine, my dear, 300 
lads from seven years old up to seven-and-twenty, 
all ranged in different classes, but in the same 
uniform, same manner of dressing the hair, same 
hats, stockings, buckles, &c. &c, marching with as 
regular a step as a regiment of guards, and present- 
ing themselves each before his respective plate, 
standing stock still till the signal is given for grace, 
and then each joining most reverentially in the 
benediction. When that is finished they remain as 
motionless till the word is given for sitting down, 
which alone is done with some eagerness. They 
then eat as methodically as they march, and during 
the meal the Prince and we marched from class to 
class, and he distinguished, as his caprice, his in- 
terest, or perhaps their merits led him, the different 
lads of talents. Their dread of him was shocking, 
though he seemed to do everything to familiarize 
them with him. After dinner they returned in the 
same distribution with which they came, and the 
Prince explained to us the nature of the Society. 
Lads of every nation, every religion, every age, and 
even every rank, are here admitted — from the sons 
of common soldiers up to Barons and Counts. Each 
follows his genius. We saw rooms for painting, 
sculpture, drawing, music, Latin, Greek, Hebrew, 
&c. &c. This is the true secret of education, and 
it succeeds accordingly. Different geniuses have 



24 THE TWO DUCHESSES. 

ripened at different ages, and some premature ones 
have been blighted when least expected. Those 
who, after every trial, have shown no talent at all 
become good dunces; this event never fails. The 
Prince feeds, clothes, and lodges every one. None 
is allowed to receive money even from his parents, 
nor on any pretence to transgress the bounds of 
the College without an Inspector. Each lies in a 
separate bed, and fifty of them sleep so cleanlily in 
one room that the air is as pure within as without. 
I did not think so perfect a system of education 
existed anywhere. 

To-morrow we go to Munich, then to Inspruck, 
then to Verona. Your Mother bears all beyond 
expectation, and Lou 1 in the highest spirits. I have 
my own horses, so need not say how well I am. 
Adieu. My love and blessing to your excellent 
husband; may he always love you as well as he 
does now, that is, as well as you deserve. I leave 
the rest of the paper for your mother; but send us 
all the Irish news you can, and believe me most 
affectionately. 

Added by the Bishop's Wife. 

I will not let this paper be folded without adding 
a few lines to my dearest Bess, to confirm your 
Father's good account of me, and to say that I bear 
the fatigue of travelling very well, now the heat is 
over; and though my fat is in great measure melted 
away, I manage to carry my skeleton through with 
those who are in better case. Your Father's new 

1 Lou— His daughter Louisa, as previously explained. 



FROM THE HON. MRS. HERVEY. 25 

friend is indeed a valuable acquisition, infinitely so 
to him and very agreeable to me. We shall now, I 
hope, be at Verona in a few days, and, I hope, find 
there good account of my dear children. I am 
persuaded that you are at this moment in Dublin, 
and may all possible happiness attend you there. 
Darling Lou is well, and sends her best love to you. 
Pray assure little f. 1 of mine; and great F. 2 of my 
perfect esteem and good wishes. I flatter myself 
that your present to him next month will make him 
very happy. Mention f.'s head, and be assured 
that I am interested for you both in every article to 
ye greatest degree, being ever 

Your most affectionate Mother. 



The Hon. Mrs. Hervey 

To Mrs. J. Th. Foster. 

Valdagno, September 28, 1777 

I think of you so much, my dear Bess, that I 
must absolutely write pour me decharger le cceur, 
especially as I have not had a line from you since 
you left Bury, which I reckon was on the 2nd, and 
of course 26 days ago. It is a proof, at least I hope, 
that you did not return to London, and that you are 
growing every day nearer to your own home though 
farther from me. That is now my first wish, yet 
the fear of any accident which may have befallen 
you on the road in so long a journey is very dis- 
quieting; but you have passed all the dangerous 

' little /—J. Th. Foster. 2 great F— Thomas Foster, D.D. 



26 THE TWO DUCHESSES. 

epochas for premature births; you have good roads, 
a good season, a kind, indulgent husband, and, I 
hope, an attentive servant, all strong guarantees for 
your good behaviour. I will therefore positively 
suppose you in Dawson Street, 1 and this is, I think, 
the fourth letter which I send to you there, and 
happy shall I be if my dear child receives it with 
her usual spirits, and with as much health as her 
situation will allow of. The accounts of you from 
Bury were very flattering, and Je tache de m'en bien 
farcir la tete en attendant your own which I am sure 
you will not neglect to send me. You cannot be at 
a loss for a direction, as Danoot remains receiver- 
general, so that any letters directed to Verona 
would be sent after us. 

I suppose you had des vives entretiens with Mr. 
Foster upon the beauties of Yorkshire comparatively 
with those of Brabant, but I flatter myself that he 
received a total defeat and gave hostages for his 
good behaviour: in short, I think you went trium- 
phantly through all that riding; when you came to 
Westmoreland and Cumberland he took a little sly, 
malicious revenge, and if my poor dear love was not 
very sick in the passage she repaid him with interest 
on the other side of the water. I imagine you slept 
one night at least at Dunleer, 2 where I hope you 
have many comforts in store, and that you got coolly 
and quickly to town afterwards. But why do I talk 
of coolly ? Perhaps you poor creatures are already 
in rain and storm while we are basking in sunshine. 

1 Dawson Street — In Dublin. 

2 Dunleer — A village in Co. Louth, where, as already mentioned, Dr. Foster, her 
father-in-law, was rector. 



FROM THE HON. MRS. HERVEY. 27 

It is a week to-day since we came hither, and 
we have had the finest weather imaginable, with 
only some rainy nights that have made the air 
still more agreeable. Your father continues to 
ride every morning to the spring, which is four 
miles from this village, and s'en trouve bien. For 
my part I readily adopt the Italian manner, and take 
the waters in bed. I begin about seven, remain 
in quiet and darkness till near half an hour after 
nine, and then open my window (behind the 
curtain), take my chocolate and lie till eleven, and 
sometimes twelve. This has rested and restored 
me extremely, and the waters agree perfectly with 
my constitution in every respect. I cannot posi- 
tively recollect whether I wrote to you since I left 
Verona and told you the horrors of our bare walls, 
black meat, hard bread, &c, but we are all so much 
in humour with the waters that we scorn to be out 
of humour with anything else. We have dressed 
up the ugliness of the house as well as we could, 
a good appetite makes our peace with the bad food, 
and health, even in perspective, makes amends for 
many defects. There are two gentlemen and their 
wives here, but one family is too good, being al- 
ways at church, and the other rather too bad: how- 
ever, we have some communication with this last, 
though without any hopes of conversion. The lady 
is handsome, the gentleman very dull indeed, but we 
let him alone, and she is really agreeable, and having 
no object of love makes a very good, cheerful com- 
panion, with a proper retenue, at least when I am 
present. 



28 THE TWO DUCHESSES. 

Bittio 1 arrived two days ago, noir comme un 
maure, and grinning in a most ghastly manner, both 
at the fright he had been in about some robbers, 
and the joy to find himself so near home. He has 
brought a great many fine drawings, and made good 
remarks on them. We hope to see Mr. and Mrs. 
Strange here, and think of going back with them 
to Venice in about a fortnight. We are not quite 
resolved whether to remain the winter at Padua or 
to go to Pisa, but Rome and Naples are exploded, 
and this keeping nearer to you, my love, almost 
makes me feel as if I should see you sooner. 
Louisa sends her love to you ; she is going on very 
well now her hours are regulated in the old way. 
She reads French and gets by heart with the gover- 
ness, then writes and reads English with me. She 
has now begged to resume her drawing with Bittio, 
and she walks every day after dinner attended by 
a little dog I have given her, which makes her 
delight. She is perfectly well, and keeps her plump- 
ness still. I have a bed, even here, in my room for 
her, and Mademoiselle in the next, so that I am 
a spy upon them, and she no fatigue to me, but 
much pleasure, and her mind opens daily. Adieu, 
dear Bess. My love to f. Your father's blessing 
on you and him, and our compliments to the 
Doctor. La Belle is almost suffocated for want of 
somebody to scold, but behaves well, and so do I. 
Remember me most kindly to Mr. Rich and Miss 
Bellew. . . . 

1 Bittio — A teacher of drawing. 



FROM THE HON. MRS. HERVEY. 29 

The Hon. Mrs. Hervey 

To Mrs. J. Th. Foster. 

Valdagno, October 5, 1777. 

S'occuper c'est savoir jouir, 
L'oisivete" pese et tourmente; 
L'ame est un feu qu'il faut nourrir 
Et qui s'eteint s'il ne s'augmente. 

You will wonder, my dear, to see my letter begun 
with poetry, but these four lines of Voltaire were 
just now repeated to me. I do not recollect to have 
ever seen them, and if they are as new to you, I 
think you will not receive less pleasure from them 
than I have done. 

The 6th. — I had got thus far in an idle kind of 
scribble when I was blessed with my dear child's 
letter from Dunleer. The winds favoured me ex- 
tremely and brought me the news of your safe 
arrival in 24 days. I need not, I cannot, say how 
delighted I am with it, nor how thankful I am for 
your preservation from all the accidents which 
threatened you. You was a good dear thing for 
giving me this satisfaction so immediately and by 
your own hand, as no other could have conveyed 
the same degree of content to me. You seem to 
have performed the journey in a very short time, 
but I flatter myself that you wrote truly safe and 
well, and that you have not suffered from it. The 
scheme of ending your journal at home was an 
excellent one, but as I received your letter with too 
great eagerness to see the postmark on the direction, 
I was much disappointed on finding the date from 



30 THE TWO DUCHESSES. 

Bury, and the happiness at the end was such a sur- 
prise to me that I was in transports at it. Don't 
make any apologies to me for the length of your 
letters, but be assured they are by so much the 
more welcome, and that there is no circumstance 
belonging to you so trivial as not to interest me. 

Though I have mentioned L. B.'s conduct towards 
Mr. F. and you in former letters, yet I must repeat 
my satisfaction as well as surprise at it. I think the 
;£ioo was well allotted, but would it not buy 3, 
instead of 2, pins. I have a notion 30 guineas for 
each would do very well, and that would be some- 
thing more, and the number better suited to your 
use for them. I am glad Slimness is a favourite 
and should wish to hear his remarks and opinion, 
but not by letter. 

My dear Bess, you outdo my best hopes in 
matronly care. Comment une petite provision; 
'twas an excellent wench, and when I love her 
not chaos is come again. It had often occurred 
to me to recommend it (so truly have you guessed 
my thoughts), but the fear of alarming you with- 
held me, and I believe I never even hinted it. 
I thank God that this provision was useless, but I 
figure to myself that my dear child may be at the 
time she receives this safely and comfortably in her 
own bed, with the little — removed to other quarters, 
and in high content, the Doctor in possession of a 
little grandson, nurse W. in high fun, little Byrne 
in a notable fidget, and dear Mrs. R., or my friend 
Miss B., in social chat in the great chair by you. 
If all this has not already taken place, I flatter 



FROM THE HON. MRS. HERVEY. 31 

myself it is a comfort in store for you. I expect 
from my dutiful son great discretion, and that he 
talks no more to you than the women allow of (who 
are here, for once, the best judges), besides which, I 
must add that if Poup6e is dismissed one moment 
before her time my heavy hatred shall fall on him ; 
it is a thing of the utmost importance or I would not 
name it, but who else can do it? You have only to 
keep my letter en cas de besoin, and I have too 
good an opinion of the youth to doubt his compliance 
after such a warning. 

We have compleated a fortnight here with satis- 
faction, that is, with success; the waters continue 
their good effect, the weather has favoured us, 
and one week more, before the rains set in, is 
all we ask. We are then to go to Venice for a 
short time, and I believe afterwards to Pisa (in 
Tuscany), but direct always to Danoot for fear of 
a change of plan. 

I have wrote to beg Mrs. Preston's protection 
for you in Dublin, which I think will please her 
and make her partial to you, and that you will like 
her and she you notwithstanding the disparity of 
age. The poor La. M'D. have played a desperate 
game. Be sure to let me know your acquaintance 
and connections; take care of cold on your recovery; 
cover your petto; wear a chdle all winter, and let 
me find you blooming next summer. Adieu. My 
love to f. Your father and Lou's to both; compli- 
ments to Dr. F., M. Rich, M. B. Parnello, et tutti 
quanti, and my blessing on my children and grand- 
children. Louisa says she is monstrously happy 



32 THE TWO DUCHESSES. 

at your safe arrival, and longs to be an aunt. She 
sends her love to Nurse. I hope she is stout and 
well, and little Byrne also. 



The Bishop of Derry 

To Mrs. J. Th. Foster. 

ROME, January 28, 1778. 

I have been writing till my head is almost giddy, 
and yet I cannot let the post go out without saying 
one word to my dear Elizabeth. Your mother and 
Lou are at the opera, from which I exclude myself 
per decorum. I have the more leisure for other 
amusements, among the foremost of which, my dear 
child, is conversing with you. I must, however, 
begin with commissions. I have bespoke a full- 
length statue of my late brother, 1 which I mean to 
have executed by the print we have of him, and beg 
that you and your husband would visit the work as 
often as you can. Vanoost, if he is able, is to 
execute it. The next, my dear, is rather more 
difficult. I wish you to buy me the handsomest 
poplin you can find, and of the richest colour, as 
much as will make the most fashionable gown. 
This I would have sent to your sister at Paris, 
which Lady Buckingham can easily contrive for you 
by one of the many messengers that go to London, 
or even by the common post to the Secretary of 
State's office, from whence it can with equal ease be 

L my late brother— -Probably George William, second Earl of Bristol, d. 1775. 



FROM THE BISHOP OF DERRY. 33 

directed to your sister at Lady Stormont's, 1 and your 
sister will have directions from me to forward it to 
me at the Cardinal de Bernis' at Rome, where I am 
on such a footing that he has done this more than 
once for me. 

'Tis incredible how pleasantly I pass my time 
here, both within the town and without, and 
how agreeably the first nobility receive strangers. 
Your mother begins now to mix a little more, and 
I hope will gain both health and spirits by it, but 
she dares not attack palaces or antiquities, both on 
account of the fatigue and the damp. I am im- 
penetrable to both, and have, besides, painters 
working in my room all the day. 'Tis really a life 
of Paradise. The sett of English, too, are pleasant 
enough, and have their balls, their assemblies, and 
their conversationes, and instead of riots, gallantries, 
and drunkenness, are wrapt up in antiquities, busts, 
and pictures. One day or other, perhaps, we may 
visit it together, but as yet I think the hazard in 
every respect too great. 

" For youth to itself rebels tho' none else near." 

I am impatient to hear that something is to be 
done for the R. Catholics. Pray inform yourself 
well about it, and then me. The young senator's 2 
opinion would weigh much with many people, and 
he could easily discover their bent; there seems to 
be no possibility of escaping a French war. They 
are working with all their might at Toulon, and 

1 Lady Stormont — Wife of the British Ambassador at Paris. 

2 The young senator — John Thomas Foster, M. P. , d. 1796. 

C 



34 THE TWO DUCHESSES. 

only getting ready to attack us the better. My 
intelligence is pretty good, and they are so confident 
of success they can scarcely veil their faces enough 
to conceal it. In this case you would see us sooner 
than we promised, and the Cardinal de Bernis must 
give us his last favor, a passport. Some of the 
French are already hurrying home, and a lady of 
the very first distinction took leave of me to-day, 
hoping there would be no war, but expecting there 
would. She is sister of the French ambassador at 
London. Ireland in this case is undoubtedly their 
first object, and what a desperate condition is ours 
if the R. Catholics are not first won over. I tremble 
to think of it. Why don't you write to us more 
constantly, and be sure that every trifle that belongs 
to you or your husband interests us. Adieu. It is 
an hour later than I thought, but a short letter is 
better than none, and so I send you this. 



The Hon. Mrs. Hervey and the Bishop of Derry 

To Mrs, J. Th. Foster. 

Rome, March 3, 1778. 

I waited for the end of the Carnival, dear Bess, 
in hopes of having something to tell you which was 
extraordinary and amusing that might dissipate your 
natural gravity for a moment, and lighten the effect 
of Irish fogs; but, alas, my dullness and indolence, 
and the most perverse and persevering wet weather 
imaginable has in great measure disappointed my 
project. The Saturnalia is almost over, and nothing 



FROM THE HON. MRS. HERVEY. 31, 

memorable has happened that I know of. The 
public entertainments have been bad operas, masked 
balls at the theatre at so low a price that you might 
be in company with your cook, or even your foot- 
man, and for the last eight days a horse race in the 
principal street, which was likewise crowded with 
coaches and masks. The Roman people are re- 
markable for an immoderate love of pleasure, yet, 
though this amusement was limited to a few hours 
only each day, the part they took in it was so 
moderate that it seemed to consist only in gazing 
at each other, and throwing sugar plumbs. This 
retenue, however, is, I believe, the effect of guards, 
constables, and spies, and la Corda 1 (which you may 
remember described by Bittio) set up in the midst 
ready to punish any offender sur le champ. The 
race itself is indeed as little worth seeing, as can be 
imagined, and as little seen. For imagine to your- 
self five or six horses let loose to run down a street 
quite full of people, without riders, and without a 
place set off for them. The people, who are divided 
among many objects, make no place for them till 
the moment they come up, and then, falling back 
just enough for them to pass, close again the 
moment after; so that as there is only one heat, it 
is really only a momentary amusement. What is a 
greater is the variety of figures that are piled up on 
each side. The windows and balconies tapissis, and 
full of people. Some fine carriages, and a few open 
ones; but I have seen nothing so pretty as the 
procession at Brussels, and there is very little. 

1 la Corda— Probably for the punishment known as the strappado. 



36 THE TWO DUCHESSES. 

humour amongst this great variety of people. The 
most entertaining of them was one who, in the 
character of a petit maitre abbi, went about bowing 
to all the ladies, and looking at them with his 
lorgnette. One of our horses happened to fall, and 
this pretendu abbe ran, amongst others, to our assis- 
tance, and after he was got up, he very pompously 
gave him his benediction to prevent future accidents 
(knowing, as was supposed, your father for a bishop), 
on which there was general acclamation. 

Colonel Dillon (brother to the one who married 
Miss Phipps) is just come here, and has given us 
the satisfaction of seeing somebody who has seen 
your dear sister, which is always more satisfactory 
even than a letter. I had one at the same time, 
and she seems going on very pleasantly. 

Voltaire 1 is really at Paris, as the newspapers 
mentioned, but which I could not believe. He 
lodges upon some quay or open part of the town 
where there is a crowd every day to stare at him; 
but what is more satisfactory, he has had a deputa- 
tion from the Academie des Belles Lettres with some 
of the first people at their head. The first geniuses 
in the suite, and above forty in number to compli- 
ment him on his arrival and acknowledge those 
talents by which he has done so much mischief. 
Imagine his excess of happiness! This man, who 
has certainly more vanity than almost any other 
person, has been also proportionably more flattered. 
His sun sets bright indeed, yet I think that in the 
midst of his glory his heart smites him. He is 

1 Voltaire — Francois Marie Arouet de Voltaire (1694-1778). 



FROM THE HON. MRS. HERVEY. 37 

going to bring a play upon the stage even now, but 
I have not heard whether it is likely to be a proof 
of his strength or of his weakness. I cannot help 
feeling something on this occasion for poor Rousseau, 1 
who, I think, will be ready to dye with envy. He is 
certainly a more amiable man, and I believe more 
mad than wicked. In proof of this I must tell you 
that he has lately made his address to God Almighty, 
which is not to be published till after his death. 
He tried several times to deposit it under a particular 
altar in a church at Paris, but was defeated, and at 
last determined to find out a faithful, generous, 
pitying Englishman, with whom he might entrust 
it with this injunction. He has done so. I saw 
the particular friend of the person to whom it is 
confided, who told me that R. had read it to his 
friend with the tears pouring down his cheeks, 
and that it is a recital of all his hardships and 
misfortunes, and a most sublime and affecting 
composition. 

God bless you, my child; perhaps we may meet 
sooner than was intended, for we are in daily ex- 
pectation of a declaration of war, which must drive 
us home. My love to f., and a kiss to dear Fred 
the third. Your father and Lou join in all kind 
thoughts towards you. Compliments to Doctor F. 
No account yet of Mrs. Oliver. I write to you 
almost every week. I hope you receive my letters. 
I am, dear Bess, your most affectionate mother. 

E. Hervey. 

1 Rousseau— Jean Jacques Rousseau (1712-1778). 



38 THE TWO DUCHESSES. 

Louisa sends her love to Nurse, to which I add 
my blessing. 

The following supplement is added by the Bishop. 

Your mother has left me just room enough to 
give you a commission, dear Bess. Ships are con- 
tinually going from Dublin to Leghorn. Send me 
by the first as much poplin as will make two suits of 
clothes, one of a grey, and the other of a puce colour. 
Direct them " a monseigneur le Cardinal de Bernis 
a Rome ". Put them into oilskin, and inclose them 
"au Consul Francois a Livourne". I wish I knew 
what would best please you and your husband from 
hence. Tell me frankly, but after the second week 
in April direct to us at Paris at Sir John Lambert's. 
If you like to go and stay at Derry this summer, the 
house and garden there belong to you and yours. 



The Hon. Mrs. Hervey 

To Mrs. J. Th. Foster. 

Rome, March 15, 1778. 

From the time of your receiving this letter, 
dearest Bess, your direction must no longer be to 
Rome but to Paris, Sir John Lambert. Our route 
is not absolutely fixed, but the troubles naissant 
in Germany will prevent our returning the way we 
came, and I hope we may go the other in time to 
see your sister before she leaves it. They seem 
quite uncertain about their summer party, indeed 
we must all be so whilst war hangs over our heads. 



FROM THE HON. MRS. HERVEY. 39 

I have just now your letter ended on the third of last 
month, and am sorry to find that you have had any 
apprehensions about me, but I cannot account for an 
interval of six weeks, as I think I have seldom been 
so long as a fortnight without writing to you. I 
have had no confinement all the winter, and though 
it has rained almost as constantly as in Ireland, there 
is generally some part of every day not only practi- 
cable but pleasant, and with a mild, soft air and sun 
unknown to us poor islanders in our own country. 
The spring is now remarkably forward, and the 
scene brightens every day. I hope to see some 
of the environs, and in the meantime our Lent 
promises to be more cheerful than the Carnival, 
from the great number of strangers which are now 
every day returning from Naples. Vesuvius has 
been so quiet that your father has not been tempted 
to go there. I hope it will not take a tantaruni at 
the time we should go northwards for fear we should 
make a short turn towards it. 

Mr. Dillon, brother to our nephew and colonel of 
a regiment in the service of France, is here with 
some other officers who had all received orders for 
their immediate departure to join their corps, but it 
is relaxed a little yet, so that they seem in expecta- 
tion every post of fresh orders. Many jokes pass 
between him and your father about the invasion 
of Ireland. The Colonel promises to be careful 
of the Palace, your father to be indulgent to the 
prisoners. 

What you tell me of f. and yourself opens a pros- 
pect to me much more delightful than the fairest in 



40 THE TWO DUCHESSES. 

Italy. I see very plainly that his conduct towards 
you has been affectionate and confidential. I know 
how well you deserve it, and I long to embrace 
you both ; the rose-lipped cherubim, too, whom I am 
prepared to see with an eclat of beauty and its first 
lovely little endeavours to walk. I regret only that 
it will be old enough to fly from me, but I trust 
I shall soon win him over. I hope you will all 
come to us as soon as we get home and that may 
perhaps be by the middle of summer, but certainly 
cannot be later than the end of it. Remember me 
affectionately to Mrs. Richardson. I am very glad 
she is in town. I have not heard from her, but 
notwithstanding your caution, if she tells me you 
are thin I shall be alarmed. I hope you will take 
the medicine I have recommended to you pour me 
soulager. I am sorry for your disappointment in 
Miss M., but dear Lady Ross makes amends, and 
I had rather your intimacy were with those older 
than yourself. La. B.'s civility to you n'est pas peu 
de chose, for I hear she is haughty. You don't 
mention the Fitz, so I conclude they don't go on to 
their credit, but I wonder you say nothing of the 
youngest brother, married to Miss Butler, Dean 
Bayley's granddaughter. I hope you have visited 
her. Your good nature to poor Miss Blackall pleases 
me, and I believe she is sincerely attached to you 
and to me, besides that she is unhappy, which is 
always a claim on a generous gentle mind, and 
therefore operates, I am sure, upon yours. Your 
e"clat on the birthday, and the popular acclamation 
was charming. I flatter myself that little f. quietly 



FROM THE HON. MRS. HERVEY. 41 

enjoyed both. Adieu, my love. My hours are 
now much crowded, and I have not leisure for lono- 
letters. Your father and Louisa send their love to 
you both. You know how much you possess the 
heart of your affectionate mother. 

Louisa's love and my blessings to Nurse. 



The Hon. Mrs. Hervey 

To Mrs. J. Th. Foster. 

Rome, March 25, 1778. 

I return you my most affectionate thanks, dear 
Bess, for all the kind things which you say to me on 
my birthday. The gift of life to one who feels its 
true value and tries to attain its end is inestimable, 
whatever may be the rubs which, in the course of 
it, are allotted to us. But good children are its 
choicest blessings, and Providence has been bounti- 
ful to me in this article, not only giving to me the 
present enjoyment of them, but the most reasonable 
hope of their being treasures to society, and fur- 
nished with all that can procure their own most ever- 
lasting happiness. I can hardly say how much I 
felt for you on the alarm which your dear little boy 
gave you. They are a tax (amongst some others) 
which nature has laid upon us poor mothers, but 
then the tenderness of our attachment makes us 
great amends, from the first innocent smiles of our 
infants down to their grateful and well-directed 
affections. I hope these pangs, however, have not 



42 THE TWO DUCHESSES. 

been repeated. It is sometimes only the first that 
are so violent, and as he begins early to cut his 
teeth I flatter myself they will come the easier. 
He is, I conclude, before this decorated with a coral. 
The nurse knows that I conformed to this usage, 
which I think both ornamental and diverting. I 
have more reliance on a crust of bread for efficacy. 
I figure to myself poor f. in a deplorable state, 
betwixt his anxiety on your account and the dawn- 
ing of his fatherly tenderness, and am sure it cost 
him many a sigh and stride about the house. 

Sir Robert Smyth (the Welshman) is here and 
his wife, who is a pretty sensible young woman. I 
talked a good deal to him about f., whom he spoke 
of with kindness. He said he was sure he would 
make a good husband, and I don't remember that 
we could find any fault except a little too much 
reserve and gravity for a young man, but he swore 
to me that he had seen him at times lively, even to 
mixing humour very agreeably with his conversation. 
So have at him, dear Bess, and make him laugh 
without mercy in spite of Lord Chesterfield. 1 I am 
very glad to hear so good an account of his health, 
and that he is in better hands than his own. 

I hope you do not forget that I consulted Dr. 
Smyth for you in that only illness you ever had, 
and which overturned your constitution and was the 
foundation of all that is amiss about you to this day. 
I mention this because it will make him a better 
judge than anyone else, having the experience added 
to family attachment, and perhaps you will take his 

1 Lord Chesterfield— Philip Dormer Stanhope, Earl of Chesterfield (1694-1773). 



FROM THE HON. MRS. HERVEY. 43 

opinion about the medicine I sent you, for if I find 
you thin and coughing I shall chide you as usual or 
perhaps more — especially as I find you take fright 
and don't dance. Your letter is a very pleasant 
account of yourself, my dear, and I follow you 
about to all your parties. . . . Had I the face of 
Mrs. Ferguson at full grin I would sit for my picture, 
to indulge your affectionate desire of it. The fact is 
that my face, such as it is, has been very bad, and 
the medicine of no effect. I had intended it for my 
brother, and the first sitting is over, but it promises 
so ill that I believe it will be only fit for my partial 
children, who seem to wish to preserve even the 
idea of what I am. I hope yours will be well done. 
Your father's is admirable, and Louisa's, though 
unfinished, may, I think, be relied on for a pretty 
picture and strong likeness. 

Your sister 1 has fallen not only into the first set of 
company, but has made some of the best acquaint- 
ance, and the most creditable imaginable. She is 
bien repandue dans le monde et parfaitement bien 
recue, yet I don't think her at all happy, and I fear, 
though she does not say it, that Lord Erne keeps 
his usual restlessness and discontent, and though he 
requires society more than anybody, is constantly 
running away from it, and yet is without a fund in 
himself to supply its place. 

We have now determined on making Paris our 
way home, but whether we shall be in time to catch 
them there the war will determine. If it breaks out 
now we must hurry home and go there en droiture, 

1 Your sister — Lady Erne. 



44 THE TWO DUCHESSES. 

but if not we go to Venice. I write to Mrs. Strange 
by this post to say that we intend being there by 
the 1 8th of May. The 27th April is our day fixed 
for leaving Rome, and we shall make short stops 
on our way. I hope you will have calculated for a 
full month's journey for your letter, and not have 
directed it here too late. At all events when this 
reaches you let it warn you to direct only to Paris, 
Sir John Lambert's. All the rest is too uncertain. 
God bless you, my dear child. I must say a word 
or two to Slimness} Louisa sends you her unfaded 
love, her constant kind wishes to her nurse, and a 
kiss to her nephew. 

I thank you sincerely, my dear Sir, for your 
satisfactory account of my daughter, and am not a 
little pleased that you begin already to huff your 
son. I flatter myself that I shall examine the truth 
of these articles before it is very long. We are soon 
to leave the treasures of Rome for the treasures of 
Ireland, which are now far greater to me. I con- 
fess, however, that this is a charming residence, but 
as to weather, the winter has been much more rainy 
than that we passed at Brussels. I thank you for 
your Politicks, though the most interesting of them 
is the completion of the circular road, of which I 
hope you and Bess profit, and perhaps the dad. 2 As 
to f.'s silence in Parliament, it is prudent to begin 
with it: il se recule pour mieux sauter. Voltaire 
has been dying at Paris, and has confessed and asked 
pardon of God and the Church. He is now recover- 

1 Slimness — J. Th. Foster, as already explained. 

2 the dad— The child Fred. Th. Foster. 



FROM THE HON. MRS. HERVEY. 45 

ing, and I should think would be puzzled to know 
whether to act Saint or Devil. 



The Hon. Mrs. Hervey 

To Mrs. J. Th. Foster. 

Rome, April 6, 1778. 

My dear child, your father went out yesterday on 

a little tour, the first that he has made (in the four 

months which we have been here), and has left 

me your letter to answer, that is, acknowledge, 

lest an unusual silence should alarm you. But 

acceptable as the commission is to me, I fear I must 

needs be brief, for our departure draws very near, 

and I have left a mass of things to do in his absence, 

which I thought would have happened sooner, and 

which you know is the time I allot for all the fiddle 

faddle of preparation so inexplicable to our sovereigns. 

I have besides to pay my respects to some of the 

principal rarities here, for I have been obliged to 

decline the detail of them. I shall only eat what 

I can digest and I hope be the better for, but the 

weather has become quite hot, and though I have 

now the absolute command of my time, it harasses 

me a little, but I shall make everything bend to it 

and accept of no engagements: all daylight may be 

put to profit, and in the evenings our friend the 

Prince of G. 1 and the Russian general came and sat 

with me till eleven, which is my hour of repose. 

I have been more vexed than you can imagine at 

1 Prince of G. — Prince of Saxe-Gotha. 



46 THE TWO DUCHESSES. 

losing the advantage I had promised myself of the 
excellent music-master I mentioned to you: great 
defects and great perfections are almost always con- 
trasted in the same person; he is quite a character, 
but it is not Bittids. In short, an enthusiasm about 
a treatise he is writing on music, an attachment to 
his country, and a philosophic contempt of riches 
robs us of this treasure and perhaps a little love, qui 
s'en mele. 

I have this moment a letter from your sister, who 
gives me the triste nouvelle of Lord Stormont's 1 
departure from Paris, Monsr. de Noailles' 2 arrival 
there from England, &c, &c, in short, everything but 
a formal declaration of war, but as that must now 
follow, I think we have nothing further to do or to 
hope for, and I imagine your father, who has had 
this account, will return in a few days, and that we 
shall soon after take the shortest route to our 
unhappy country. 

Adieu! Venice, but would I were already at Paris 
to counsel poor dear Mary. One good, at least 
I trust, is to be drawn from this great evil ; I mean 
our being all once more together. The English 
post is come in, but there is no confirmation of the 
above news, though I know it to be true. I suppose 
it was a day or two before the event. Adieu, 
dearest child: be in no pain for us. There is no 
doubt of a passport and a safe conveyance home, 
and the season is now fit for travelling. I look 
upon America as lost for ever, but I flatter myself 

1 Lord Stormont— British Ambassador at Paris. 

2 Monsr. di Noailles— French Ambassador at London. 



FROM THE BISHOP OF DERRV. 47 

that Lord Chatham 1 will be our minister, and that 
we shall punish the treachery of France effectually. 
Ireland is to be invaded, it is said, but I hope we 
shall give them other employment. The French 
officers are all gone off this morning. I embrace 
the father, mother, and son with true affection. 
Louisa sends her love to all, and to her nurse par 
dessus. She is well and happy. I told you before 
to direct to Paris only — Chevalier Lambert. 



The Bishop of Deny 

To Mrs. J. Th. Foster. 

Rome, May 29, 1778. 

My dear child, in the uncertainty whether this 
will find you in Ireland or not, I shall not write as 
copiously as I would have done last week had I had 
leisure. When your mother wrote to you, my dear, 
the fate of war appeared to be fixed, and in that 
case we were equally fixed to remain at Rome; but 
since all the appearances now incline for peace, our 
project changes with that of higher powers, and if 
the political weather continues fair we shall leave 
this delicious abode at latest in the autumn. Your 
mother has imagined that the waters would be 
almost necessary to you, and if you suspect it, my 

1 Lord Chatham — William Pitt, Earl of Chatham, prime minister from 1757 to 
1761, and from 1766 to 1768. Lord Chatham had been against harsh measures 
towards the American colonies, but he was strongly opposed to the Rockingham 
party, then in power, and the peace proposed by them as betraying an unworthy fear 
of France. His last appearance in the House of Lords was on the 7th April— the 
day after this letter was written — when he protested against the acknowledgment 
of American independence. He died on May nth (1708-1778). 



48 THE TWO DUCHESSES. 

dear girl, don't delay so pleasant a remedy for a 
single week, but take up fifty pounds from my 
banker, Mr. Gleadow, who upon seeing these few 
lines will be contented with your receipt, and it will 
at least pay your postage through England. 

I must confess to you that if a war should take 
place between France and us, I am in no little pain 
about Ireland, as I know to a certainty their great 
stroke will be at us, as the weakest, the most divided, 
and the least defended. The Irish regiments in 
their service are already quartered on the coast and 
ready to be embarked, and the officers belonging to 
those regiments who had made an excursion to 
Rome of a few weeks were returned, recalled in a 
hurry, and had joined their corps. From these I 
collected enough, not only to assure myself of their 
destination, but even of more particulars than they 
would have chosen before dinner to communicate. 
Their object at Rome at this time was easily guessed. 
Considering what a number of Irish friars of every 
denomination abounds here, and how attached our 
cruel and political laws render them to the Stuart 
family, nothing could exceed the attention shown 
by the French Ministers here to these gentlemen. 
They were lodged in one of their houses, and 
received daily at their tables, and distinguished con- 
stantly from all other strangers, and their elation at 
the thought of a war was beyond all description. 
At the close of their visit they scarce made any 
secret of their destination, and would frequently 
rally me on my purchases of statues and busts, which 
they said must one day belong to them. If so 



FROM THE BISHOP OF DERRY. 49 

perilous a state does not waken our Government to 
mitigate the penal laws against the Papists, and to 
win by gentleness whom they cannot subdue by 
severity, if the most uniform acquiescence under the 
most impolitic and undeserved oppression that ever 
disgraced any legislature does not soften our, as yet, 
inflexible Government, I must confess I shall suspect 
some treachery, and that there is a latent scheme for 
driving them out of the island. 

You write to us very irregularly, my dear child; 
I hope your health is not the cause of it. Yet at 
this distance the omission of a post is of some con- 
sequence, and forms a disappointment not easily 
repaired. Have you received your little mare? 
Does she suit you, or are you become too timid? 
Did you ever receive my letter in which I offered 
you my house either at Derry or the Down Hill, 1 if 
you wish to change the air? It long preceded our 
thoughts of staying here, and it is now an age since 
we have heard. Think that it requires almost two 
months to return an answer and you will not be so 
dilatory in sending one. I long to know where you 
pass your summer, in case you remain in Ireland, 
what your occupations and what your intentions are. 

We are fixed in a delightful habitation twelve 
miles from Rome which we see every day, but have 
not yet visited since we left it. The environs of this 
part are the most delightful that can be imagined. 
Wood, water, hills, plains, rivers, and the sea, while 
beautiful buildings decorate all the villages, which 
are chiefly on eminences, and from our house to 

1 the Down Hill — The Bishop's country seat in Co. Derry. 



50 THE TWO DUCHESSES. 

Albano the road leads through a bird-cage walk of 
about a mile, shaded by the largest, the oldest, and 
the most venerable oaks, as well as chestnuts, that 
I ever saw. Under the branches of these patrician 
trees one frequently discovers the principal buildings 
of Rome, and especially the numerous ruins of 
ancient ones that fill the immense plain between this 
hill and the city. In short, a more romantic spot 
cannot be seen. But I am tired of writing my tenth 
letter and must break off, not without assuring your 
husband of my sincerest affection, or without renew- 
ing every protestation of the truest love to you and 
yours. Your mother and Lou are both well, and 
both at supper in the next room. 



The Hon. Mrs. Hervey 

To Mrs. J. Th. Foster. 

Castel Gandolfo, 1 June 28, 1778. 

As I had nattered myself, dear Bess, so it has 
turned out, and the last courier from Paris brought 
me two of your letters, for which I thank you, my 
love, and for all your punctuality and affection. You 
say your health is better. Mrs. Richardson writes 
me word that you seem well, but that your looks 
are not in favor of that opinion. I hope, however, 
that the fatigue of the winter and amusements may 
be the chief cause of the alteration; and I think I 
may rely on you and Mr. Foster for not retarding 
any measure that may be thought necessary to 

1 Castel Gandolfo — A village near Rome. 



FROM THE HON. MRS. HERVEY. 51 

restore you. Don't you deceive him in your com- 
plaints, dearest child, and I think he will not deceive 
me in his attention to them. 

Great events have happened here since the date 
of your letters: Lord Chatham's loss in the political 
world, Voltaire's in the literary, and the great long- 
wished-for toleration passed so nobly in England 
and so well begun in Ireland; you may imagine 
how much your father's mind is occupied with such 
articles. He was very much affected by the death 
of our great minister and deliverer ; but, luckily, the 
warm part he had taken in bringing about this bill, 
and the unexpected and rapid success of it, has 
turned his thoughts into a new channel, and restored 
his spirits: he now talks of nothing but Ireland, and 
I only pray God that we may wait till the heats are 
fairly over before we undertake our journey. The 
Roman Catholics here and everywhere are in high 
spirits, and we have already some instances of the 
good Wish, preparing to spend their fortune and their 
lives in their own country, so that I do not doubt but 
there will be a very great revolution in favor of it 
almost immediately. 

I conclude that your sister will have told you how 
infamously Voltaire closed a life which has been a 
perpetual scandal to mankind; he certainly had very 
great and agreeable talents, but a corrupt mind, and 
a mean, unfeeling heart. F.'s transport of rage 
against him was a feast to me, and conveyed such 
agreeable ideas of his sentiments as I trust he will 
verify in all his words and deeds. Your account of 
your matron manners does not alarm me, for I lost 



52 THE TWO DUCHESSES. 

my wild, youthful spirits as soon as you did ; and I 
know that you may have more satisfaction, and less 
danger from a more even and quiet temperature, 
which I hope, however, will not degenerate into 
grave, which does not belong to you. Mrs. Berkeley 
writes me word that Ranizzini 1 goes over to Dublin, 
on which I congratulate you, as also on all the 
pleasant parties which I flatter myself you have had 
out of town. I can easily conceive you to be a 
favourite with dear La. Arabella and all who think 
well ; and, what is more, I am convinced that you 
will always be such, for your character has taken its 
plie and Dieu soit loue for its being a right one. I 
beg you will reconcile your mind to my passing the 
summer here, where the air agrees uncommonly well 
with me, instead of going to Val Dagno, which, being 
a small town in a small valley, would have suffocated 
me. I am thinner than ever, and wizened like a 
winter apple, but I thank God my health is pretty 
good, my spirits even, and my face better ; and if 
the frequent variation in the father's feelings and 
schemes did not affect my nerves, I believe I should 
even grow fat — he begins now to find this air too 
gross for him, and is going to make a little tour, 
which at this season in this country is difficult, but 
he cannot do without it. Louisa is very well, very 
amiable, very docile, but without application to any- 
thing. She sends her sincere love to you; to f, 
the darling nephew, and his nurse. Adieu! I em- 
brace you both, my dear children, and am youi 
affectionate mother. 

1 Ranizzini — Cardinal Ranizzini. 



FROM THE HON. MRS. HERVEY. 53 

F.'s scrap at the end of your letter was cheering, 
and I thank him for it. Compliments to the Doctor. 



The Hon. Mrs. Hervey 

To Mrs. J. T. Foster. 

Rome., July 15, 1778. 

Though I think I wrote to you last Wednesday, 
dearest Bess, yet, as I find myself at my usual em- 
ployment here, I must try to snatch half an hour to 
thank you for a long letter of the 14th of May, which 
I think came after mine was set out. The time will 
soon come when I shall begin to talk of the arrange- 
ment of our journey, and the time fixed for it: in 
succession our adventures on the road, and finally, I 
hope, a rendezvous given in St. Patrick's blessed 
island. 

The heat is increased since I wrote, but is still 
bearable, and much depends on temperance, patience, 
and good management. The most disagreeable 
circumstance is the disappointment. We have the 
finest sky and sun imaginable, which we dare not 
enjoy; fruits which are delicious and pernicious; and 
refreshing evenings which prudence forbids to taste 
of: my weak frame will not allow me to get up at 
4 o'clock in the morning, which is the time of enjoy- 
ment, and your father's regularity and strictness with 
regard to good hours at night takes off the amuse- 
ment which the freshness of the evening invites to 
after supper (I mean in the house). This leaves a 
short space in each afternoon only for going out, &c, 



54 THE TWO DUCHESSES. 

but the drives are lovely and invaluable even thus. 
I have dined at a neighbouring villa; but though it 
is delightful when once there, it is difficult to get to 
it without suffering. Thus you see new illusions 
start up in every path of life ; virtue is the only good, 
and a good conscience the only real, invariable, per- 
manent satisfaction and enjoyment. 

Your lamentation and panegyrickon Lord Chatham 
are very just, dear Bess, yet I confess that, strongly 
as I feel the publick loss, I think the ruin of his family 
by a shameful profusion or inattention bears hard on 
his private virtues as a man. 1 To make a perfect 
character they must go together, and where they do 
not, I cannot but suspect brilliant qualities to be with- 
out a solid foundation. A man who loves his country 
preferably to his children appears to me a monster; 
but I speak more as a woman than as a patriot, not- 
withstanding I can conceive the virtue of a Brutus 
(hard as it was) ; but there must be delinquency and 
the austere justice of a magistrate ; but why a retired 
statesman should forget he is a father je l'ignore. 
Rest, however, be to his soul, for it was a great one, 
and the greatest have perhaps the most striking 
defects. 

I admire your Irish patriotism very much, and 
hope trade is in a way to have every reasonable 
advantage, but that sudden qualm has checked the 
ardor for the Papists, and in the midst of the indul- 
gence to their interests, has made Mr. Gardiner 
forget their religion. How much more noble is the 

1 Lord Chatham — The House of Commons voted ^"20,000 to pay Chatham's 
debts, and an annuity of ^4000 was settled on his successors. 



FROM THE BISHOP OF DERRY. 55 

unlimited toleration of them in England! What says 
hum-hum (Mr. Fortescue)? I know f. is for him, 
de cceur et d'ame. Pray assure him of my best love 
and thanks for his readiness to take you to England, 
which I flatter myself is not so necessary as I had 
imagined. You have an excellent place for the goats 
when near you, if that should be proper, as it once 
agreed with you, and are in time for the second 
season ; but I hope your house, and the country air 
may suffice. Pray when you write to Mrs. Richard- 
son assure her of my affectionate friendship and 
gratitude for her kind letter, which I entreat her to 
forgive my not answering. The heat takes away all 
strength, and I hope by the end of October to thank 
her in person. A kiss to your boy, my blessing to 
his nurse, compliments to Doctor Foster. Finale- 
ment je vous serre ma tres chere fille sur mon cceur. 
Your father came home yesterday well. Louisa is 
perfectly so. 



The Bishop of Derry 

To Mrs. J. Tli. Foster. 

Rome, August 5, 1778. 

Though I was rejoiced to see your handwriting, 
my dearest Bess, yet when I found the contents of 
your letter I was sorry you had employed it so long 
after any degree of fever: so long an abode in Dublin 
and at such a time of the year could scarcely produce 
anything less. This country, too, has had its fevers, 



56 THE TWO DUCHESSES. 

and we have all suffered more or less : mine, as usual, 
lasted two days — one good struggle and my consti- 
tution, like a giant, subdued its adversary. Your 
mother's, according to her system, lasted longer, but 
I thank God and her physician (this is more modest 
than Cardinal Wolsey, 1 who always wrote "I and my 
king") she is better recovered than ever I saw her, 
and contemplates her journey and her return to you 
with great satisfaction. Louisa is still very weak, 
though in good spirits; she and her mother write 
billets doux to each other every hour, and I believe 
this intercourse does them more service than febri- 
fuge drafts or decoction of bark. 

At the end of our Campaign, or when the hottest 
of our Fire was over, Mr. O'Reilly, a gentleman who 
has passed the summer in the same house, entered 
upon action with a most violent fever, and began to 
batter his enemy in the system of the Episcopal 
Vauban, but, like the Frenchman who attempted to 
cut his throat and stopped in the middle of the 
operation, so poor O'Reilly, who is as fat as Dr. 
Palliser, twice as young, and with a truly Hibernian 
constitution, when he found himself deluging in sweat 
and floating in his own grease, whether he regretted 
losing so much O'Reilly matter, or whether his heart 
failed him, he changed his system abruptly, called in 
another engineer, who began immediately to batter 
in breech, and expended by this means so much of 
the patient's ammunition that he was near falling a 
victim to his own imprudence and the ignorance of 
his engineer; another has since been called in, who 

1 Cardinal Wolsey — Ego et Rex meus is sufficiently well known (1471-1540). 



FROM THE BISHOP OF DERRY. 57 

has wisely turned the siege into a blockade and means 
to starve the enemy into surrender. 

But, to return to business, you will have learned 
before this both from your sister and from me that 
we all hope to winter in Ireland, and, if Shanahan 
will allow us, at the Downhill, but the poverty of the 
country is so extreme, rents have so entirely failed 
that the poor tenants are not able to pay even with 
daily labor, the bankers in Dublin are failing by 
dozens, famine stares the country in the face, provi- 
dence itself seems to fight against us, and the crops 
threaten to be worse than ever. The pitiful con- 
cessions made to us by England will not compensate 
for an hundredth part of the losses which their multi- 
plied blunders have brought upon us. In the mean- 
time I advise your husband to live very frugally, 
since if the American war continues, it is almost im- 
possible that Irish tenants in the north should pay 
above two-thirds of their rent. As to the invasion 
of Ireland, if no relief had been given to the R. 
Catholics, I believe I know much more of the feasi- 
bility of that scheme than either the Viceroy or his 
Secretary, the place where it was to be executed, the 
people with whom it was concerted, others, again, the 
least suspected, by whom it would have been abetted, 
and the arrangement intended to take place in case 
of success. If the Government are blockheads enough 
to imagine that the raw, undisciplined troops trans- 
mitted to them from Great Britain, stationed in a 
part of the country where the French never meant 
to approach and surrounded by internal ennemies, 
would have been able to secure you from a descent 



58 THE TWO DUCHESSES. 

in the most remote parts among crowds of friends 
who daily expect them and look up to them as de- 
liverers from the most cruel and unjust bondage that 
ever oppressed human creatures, it would only con- 
vince me there was as much treachery as folly in 
their counsel. But the countenance of the French 
ministers in this place upon the first intelligence of 
the R. Catholic bill was the clearest proof how salu- 
tary that measure was, and that the medicine would 
go, if the faint-hearted physician permitted it, to the 
root of the evil — but remember, dear child, 

" Truths would you teach and save a sinking land, 
All fear, none aid you, and few understand ". 

The prejudices of some, the interests of others, the 
fears of still more, and the indolence, indifference, 
and supineness of all are barriers which even Lord 
Chatham found insurmountable. What think you of 
a button-making king that in the midst of a general 
conflagration drives about the country drinking tea 
and coffee with Lords and Ladies at their villas and 
country houses ? Does he imagine the K. of Prussia 
resists the H[ouse] of Austria by such amusements, or 
that William Pitt supported his G. father against the 
whole force of Bourbon 1 by tripping about in such 
revels? — fie upon't! Whip me such Roitelets 2 into 
good behaviour, and send 'em to school to learn their 
lesson. Adieu. My love to your husband, who will 
say amen to this Imprecation. 

1 Bourbon— The French Royal Family. 2 Roitelets— Petty kings, kinglets. 



FROM THE HON. MRS. HERVEY. 59 

The Hon. Mrs. Hervey 

To Mrs. J. Th. Foster. 

Castel Gandolfo, August 15, 1778. 

I find two of your letters in my writing-table, dear 
Bess. I do not exactly know how long they have 
been in my possession, but they would not have been 
totally unanswered if I had not known that your 
father had wrote to you, and that I was engaged in a 
little experiment upon fevers in this hot climate and 
season. In short, I have paid my usual tax, and 
experienced the usual goodness of providence in my 
recovery, which is going on very well after a very 
short confinement. The circumstances which at- 
tended this event made it a little distressful at the 
time. Your father had one of his short fevers during 
the worst part of mine, and Louisa was confined to 
her bed likewise with an intermitting fever, which 
is in a very fair way of being subdued; her looks 
improve every day, the fever is quite gone, and she 
gains appetite and strength as I could wish. There 
is only a gallery between my room and hers, and our 
doors were open night and day, which makes me 
able to attend in some degree to her ; and in some of 
my good intervals I wrote her joking billets, which 
kept up her spirits, which the absence of father and 
mother had rendered very necessary. We had a 
physician in the house, who attended us very care- 
fully; but I had no confidence in him, though he 
was from Ireland s own self. At the same time a 
healthy young man in the apartment over ours took 



60 THE TWO DUCHESSES. 

a violent fever and died in a week: it has proved 
since that it was the only circumstance which could 
have saved his wife from ruin, as he was spending 
all he had. So after comforting her for a week she 
has left us, and all melancholy incidents are giving 
way to the pleasure of returning health, and the 
satisfactory preparation for our return home, which 
we mean to do as soon as the heat will let us. 

Your father has taken a little alarm about my ex- 
posing myself to the blasts of the North of Ireland 
after being in a state of perspiration for so many 
months, and has proposed to leave us in England 
for the worst of the winter months, which I believe 
may be necessary. I shall quit him with reluctance, 
and regret much to delay our meeting, dear Bess; 
but I hope you, Mr. Foster, and the little boy, 
perhaps also the Doctor, will go to him, and make 
up for my absence, which I shall make as short as 
I can. I fancy he will be at Deny first, to creep 
into the Downhill as he can, and I hope that may be 
an amusement to you. Mrs. Richardson, too, will be 
in the country, and I trust often with you. I wish 
Lady Moira would trust you with one of the Lady 
Rawdons. 

I hope our affairs are in a much better position 
than when you wrote last. I flatter myself that 
peace is at this moment made with America, and by 
the French fleet going back into port it is plain the 
war is not desired with England; and I hope that if 
Spain can adjust the difference betwixt us that we 
shall not be so absurd as to run into it, but that we 
shall have the pleasure to find general peace at our 



FROM THE HON. MRS. HERVEY. 6 1 

return, and poor Ireland emerging from its diffi- 
culties. 

God bless you, my sweet child. My tender affec- 
tion is with you and yours. I imagine your father 
will be at home the end of October. Lady Bristol, 1 
who still calls herself D. of K., is just come to Rome, 
and they say is busy packing up all her effects. 



The Hon. Mrs. Hervey 

To Mrs. J. Th. Foster. 
CASTEL GANDOLFO, September 14, 1778. 

My dearest Bess, I natter myself that you will 
have imputed my long silence to the accidents at- 
tending our removal from hence, and our journey 
towards home, and by this means may have avoided 
any particular anxiety for us; but here we are still, 
my love, and just emerging from a scene not a little 
perplexing; in short, there has been an influenza in 
the air of this country from the heats of the last two 
months from which scarce any one could secure them- 
selves. Your father and I, Louisa, Finney, Barwick, 
the Bn.'s valet de chambre, the child's governess, all 
have paid the tax; it has been a fever more or less 
to all ; but no one has been so gently treated by it as 
myself, so that I became the nurse and apothecary 
to all. I thank God my labors and prayers have 
been blest with success; all are returning towards 

1 Lady Bristol— -Elizabeth, daughter of Colonel Thomas Chudleigh, and wife 
(married privately) of Augustus John Hervey, Earl of Bristol and brother of the 
Bishop of Deny. She married, secondly, E. Pierrepoint, Duke of Kingston, for 
which offence she was impeached before the House of Lords, and the marriage 
was declared illegal (1740-1788). 



62 THE TWO DUCHESSES. 

health, and for my own part, I am both ready and 
willing to set out towards you, but I much fear that 
your father will be inclined to pass the winter in a 
milder climate than that of Derry, on account of his 
dreaded gout, for indeed he is much reduced, and it 
would take him at a disadvantage; but I do not re- 
linquish the hopes of his getting strong enough to 
wish himself to set out, and to have courage to do 
it. Poor honest Samuel has escaped this scourge, 
and some of our Italian servants, but most of them 
have suffered, and even the assistants to the sick 
have themselves fallen ill of the disorder; it has not 
been mortal in this part of the country, yet pretty 
severe : for the particulars of our woful state I reserve 
them for our meeting, that I may make you cry and 
laugh at pleasure, for which I pledge myself. 

I long to hear something of your state and situa- 
tion, and how little f. settles to a family life in the 
country. I am glad he is so well entertained in town. 
I conceive him to be interested in Parliamentary 
debates, and I was pleased to find him in the chair. 
The notable provision for the country, my dear child, 
delights me; and I think I see you in the midst of 
family occupations, with the little fairy tripping after 
you and bleating (as ye all used to do) that dear word 
Mama. I have as yet no account of Lord Erne and 
your sister having left Paris. I am much distressed 
at her state of health and at his irresolute conduct 
about Spa; but most of all at the apprehension of 
being defeated in my scheme of taking her with me 
to Bath, where I hoped to have recovered her, but 
man proposes and God disposes. I dread her going 



FROM THE BISHOP OF DERRY. 63 

to Ireland with her present complaints; the pleasure 
of seeing you will be a counter-poison, but I am afraid 
it will be the only one. 

We have now very pleasant weather, and, notwith- 
standing my own illness, and that I have suffered on 
account of other people's, this place certainly has 
agreed with me, and, some circumstances changed, 
I should have been very happy in it. It is impossible 
to say even now whether we shall have war or peace. 
Poor Keppel 1 has been severely treated for not doing 
impossibilities. I am furious when I hear a brave 
man condemned hastily for want of success, or an 
honest man for want of good fortune. I think a 
character once established should be proof against 
everything but matters of fact. 

Adieu, dearest child. Why are we to be hundreds 
of miles asunder? My best affection is with you 
and yours. Dutchess of Kingston still at Rome. 



The Bishop of Deny 

To Mrs. J. Th. Foster. 

Rome, September 19, 1778. 

My dear child, — I have but a moment to tell you 
that we are all making great strides towards health, 
and that at this instant the critical rains are falling, 
which usually purge this atmosphere of all its 
impurity; but, alas! a journey to England is im- 

1 Keppel— Admiral Lord Keppel (1725-1786}. He had been in command of an 
ill-equipped fleet of twenty ships while the French Brest fleet, with which he was 
supposed to be able to cope, consisted of thirty-two ships of the line. He accord- 
ingly fell back to Spithead to wait for reinforcements. 



64 THE TWO DUCHESSES. 

possible till next April. In the meantime, comfort 
your poor sister 1 all you can, who is exhausted, worn 
out, and can no more. He tires her to atoms by 
his silly difficulties, and his endless irresolution. 
Great God, how ill she is matched! Tell your hus- 
band, the antipode of t'other, that I should be 
much obliged to him for a list of the speakers in our 
house on the Popish bill, and the sum of the argu- 
ments against us; -that I wish also to know if the 
bill to tolerate their religion is to take place, without 
which I do not know how the multitude are benefited; 
that I beg him to ply his cousin 2 close on this subject. 
He is a man of very superior talents, of great 
weight. I f such a bill should pass, I pledge myself to 
bring sixty thousand pounds sterling within eighteen 
months into the kingdom for the purpose of building 
cathedrals, churches, and chapels. The Pope will 
give us five thousand, and one single convent in 
Bohemia, of Irish friars, subscribes one thousand 
pounds, the seminaries of Valladolid and Salamanca 
as much. There is a Governor MacEgan, is just 
returned from his government in Peru, an old 
bachelor with ,£70,000, who will give us £5000. 
The Empress of Germany, if this war does not con- 
tinue, has promised her confessor, Father Kelly, an 
Irish Recolet, a considerable sum for the benefit of 
her soul in Purgatory — other lesser subscriptions are 
numberless, but such a sum would be deeply felt in 
our exhausted country. Adieu! my dear. You see 
how much I have this matter at heart. Your hus- 

1 your poor sister — Lady Erne. 

* his cousin — John Foster, last Speaker of the Irish House of Commons, created 
In 1821 Lord Oriel (1740-1828). 



66 THE TWO DUCHESSES. 

What this will produce at the end of the winter, God 
alone knows; but I fear they will be ill prepared to 
undertake an early journey, which was my purpose. 
In the meantime they are better lodged than they 
were, in a higher atmosphere, in separate rooms, and 
with the convenience of a third that commands the 
finest prospect in all Rome. To facilitate their 
airings, and to make them really such, I have bought 
four horses for them, which carries them into the 
country and out of the suburbs, their former patrolle. 
At dinner we have usually two or three friends, and 
in the evenings, if Louisa keeps well, we shall have 
small concerts. With these ingredients, I think it 
no difficulty to make a good dish of happiness, 
"animus si nos non deficit aequus": your husband 
will English this Latin for you, but for fear he should 
not, it runs thus, "if your appetite be as good as 
your meat" — for if it be not, 'tis in vain to abuse the 
cook, and would be more to the purpose to call in 
the physician, who, if he knows his trade, will brace 
the body in order to pacify the mind. Fortunately, 
the physicians in this country are entirely for this 
system infinitely more honest than ours, for they 
make no scruple to confess that great towns are the 
churchyards of the human species. 

I must confess myself a little uneasy at your scheme 
of lying in at Dublin, and would much rather be at 
the expense of your coadjutor than have you risk 
yourself in so prejudicial an atmosphere, both to the 
child and its mother. Air, my dear Elizabeth, is 
nothing more than a fluid whose purity and impurity 
depend almost entirely upon the greater or less 



FROM THE BISHOP OF DERRY. 67 

degree of its elasticity: in great cities and marshes 
there can be little elastick air, for reasons too obvious 
to mention to you. Dublin is both a great city and 
a great marsh; judge, therefore, what a stagnant air 
it must always contain. Fear it, my dear Ophelia; 
fear it. A propos to Dublin, send me word what 
were the colors of the two poplins you forwarded 
for Paris, but which never reached it. The lady to 
whom they were destined doubts our taste a little, 
but has given strong proofs of her own in two most 
beautiful gowns she was so good as to procure at 
Paris for your mother, who now deems herself too 
old to wear them ; and if Louisa continues as she 
has begun, your mother, too, will grow younger and 
fitter for her gowns. 

The air grows delightfully mild, but so changeable 
that we have daily three seasons within twenty-four 
hours; and though I am what is called recovered, I 
dare not stay abroad in the evening. Lord and Lady 
Lucan, with a most delightful family, are here, and 
enjoy Rome as much as we enjoy them. To-morrow 
they dine with us though there are six in family, but 
'twill be a family dinner, and probably a cheerful 
one. The other English here are not worth naming 
to you, but Lady Berkeley is expected, and we shall 
have a scene of it. What if the Dutchess Countess 1 
should return? How impatient will you be for our 
letter, and what copious materials we should possess; 
but fate has no such happiness in store. 

Have you seen Lord Erne? Is he on tip-toes? 
Isn't Mary a sweet creature to be at last multiplying 

1 Duchess Countess— 'The so-called Duchess of Kingston. 



68 THE TWO DUCHESSES. 

herself, and providing comforts for her old age and 
mine? I am in raptures with the thought of seeing 
you all at the Downhill, and have some thoughts 
of building barracks for children. Go on, my dear 
Eliza, and never fear hurting your constitution by 
honest child-bearing, since for one mother that grows 
thin with this work, there are five hundred old maids 
that grow more thin for want of it. My love to 
your husband, and a thousand thanks to him for the 
warm part he took in favour of R. Catholicks. Your 
mother and sister are both asleep, and probably 
dreaming of you. Send me word frankly what the 
Primate says of Downhill. 



The Bishop of Derry 

To Mrs. J. Th. Foster. 

Rome, December 8, 1778. 

Though I wrote to you so lately, my dear Eliza, 
yet, as we are making a jaunt to Naples, I just 
apprize you of our motions. Your mother would 
have wrote, but having just finished a letter to Lady 
Erne she is not in a disposition to scribble, and I am 
grown such a secretary that letters are my pastime. 
Our weather is growing delicious; our company of 
English multiplies very much, and some pleasant 
people among them, especially Mr. Thomas Pitt, 
nephew to my hero : he resembles him so much both 
in person and understanding he is quite a treat to 
me, and having been intimate with him in his last 
years, becomes twentyfold more interesting. I am 



FROM THE HON. MRS. HERVEY. 69 

purchasing treasures for the Down Hill, which I 
flatter myself will be a Tusculanum, especially that 
my dear Tullia will render its desert Eden. Bid 
your husband write me constant billets of you whilst 
you lie in, and be sure you grow a prudent, sober 
matron, and play no gambols. Adieu, this is a short 
letter to travel so far, but it is better than none. 
Louisa and your mother are at the table, and send 
their love to you and f. You cannot doubt mine. 



The Hon. Mrs. Hervey 

To Mrs. J. Th. Foster. 

Rome, December 12, 1778. 

My dear Elizabeth, — The last post brought me 
two letters from you. I had already destined you 
one by the courier to-night, but imagine, if I could 
want anything to stimulate me, how much my dear 
child's affectionate anxiety for me must have con- 
firmed my intention, and quickened the pleasure 
arising from this happy invention of communicating 
one's thoughts and affections. I received your 
letters, my love, at the harpsichord, in spite of which 
I read them till the tears poured down my cheeks, 
and I was forced to cry out, "Oh! love, how pain- 
ful thou art!" But I hope the pains you have felt 
from it on our account have been gradually softened 
down by our repeated good news of the sick, until 
your mind is settled into a thankful calm for our 
deliverance. It is true we all suffered much, and 
myself in the extreme, but God's providence was so 



■JO THE TWO DUCHESSES. 

manifested in my favor, that in the midst of my 
calamity I found comfort. 

Since we came here this dear child has had two or 
three very slight relapses, which have determined us 
to go to Naples for a month for change of air, lest she 
should otherwise be subject to them all the winter 
(direct, however, always to Rome). Do not imagine, 
dear Bess, that she has any consumptive complaints 
from this, or, indeed, any that I conceal from you. I 
give you my honor that she has none but this disposi- 
tion to a return of fever, but she is grown strong, has 
got flesh to cover her bones, and eats and sleeps well, 
rides on horseback, walks a little, is in good spirits, 
dies to see you, and desires a thousand loves which 
she had intended to assure you of with her own hand. 
Her little horse and little dog are her delights, and 
she is very happy at the thoughts of going to 
Naples. 

As to myself, I continue very well; my red face, 
indeed, is returned, which I had exchanged for a 
better hue at Castello, but my health is good. The 
account of yours, my love, would distress me ex- 
tremely did I not impute your complaint to your 
situation, and hope they would go off of course. 
Your sister has taught me that comfortable lesson, 
for after thinking her in a very bad state I hear she 
is growing quite well, and likely to produce a fine 
child, which I hope you may do too. You both, I 
find, have an inclination to nurse, but she has taken 
advice and is confirmed in it. You are uncertain. 
The principle in you both gives me the truest pleas- 
ure, but you must follow her steps, and not do it 



FROM THE HON. MRS. HERVEY. 71 

without proper authority on your own account; it 
sometimes weakens and sometimes strengthens the 
constitution. I cannot judge at this distance which 
is likely, but beg you will be cautious; do the best 
for your child, and leave the rest to Providence. 
Perhaps nurse would stay and superintend Henri- 
etta, though she might not be equal to the laborious 
fart, as we shall not be at home till the summer: in 
short, this will depend upon herself, because, though 
she remains in our pay we make no claim upon her; 
should be glad she could be of any service to you, 
and would have her equally depend on us for her 
home. As to reward, my dear, it would be difficult 
for me to name it. Some present, I should think 
right and best, in money; but you are to consider 
yourself as Mr. Foster's wife, and not as my daughter. 
I have set down your commissions in a memorandum 
sheet for Paris — here there is nothing. I will add 
some silk stockings to them, though they are so hard 
to get over that I believe I must put them on. This 
will get to you, I suppose, about the time of your 
confinement, in which I hope you will be very pru- 
dejit. I am heartily glad that you are to be in 
Dominick Street, which I look upon as in good air; 
but if you should not recover well, I hope you will 
meet us next spring in England: your sister stays 
for us there, and I think it very possible that Jack 1 
may be returned home by that time. He writes in 
great spirits, was on a cruise, and delighted with 
his station, and determined that Captain Hervey of 

1 j ac ]t Captain Hervey, the writer's son, Augustus John, who had entered the 

navy. 



72 THE TWO DUCHESSES. 

the present time should not be contented with less 
fame than his uncle 1 had had before him. 

Adieu, dear Bess, I have neither time nor place 
for anything but family matters. Your father wrote 
to you last post, but as perhaps he might not men- 
tion his health, I must tell you that he is well, and 
everlastingly employed in buying ornaments for the 
Down Hill, though we both think the greatest there 
will be our children — God send us to them. My 
love to f. I hope he is very good to the poor dear 
little orphan? and will be able to give her in good 
health to the arms of her affectionate mother. 



The Bishop of Derry 

To Mrs. J. Th. Foster. 

November 6, 1779. 

Here we are, my dear Eliza, within a few miles of 
Preston, in Lancashire, and at every stage more im- 
patient to see you and your husband. Perhaps you 
will be able to meet us at Belfast and settle our 
winter's campaign, that we may not pass more time 
asunder than is necessary. I have wrote to your 
sister for the same purpose, and hope you will be 
able to settle something. In the meantime I dread 
some violent convulsion in this country. Very 
credible reports are circulated that Jamaica is taken. 
The manufactures of Lancashire and Westmoreland 

1 his uncle — John Augustus Hervey, brother of the Bishop of Derry, who had 
greatly distinguished himself in the naval service of Britain. 

"ipoor dear little orphan— A playful designation of her daughter, Mrs. J. Th. 
Foster. 



FROM THE BISHOP OF DERRY. 73 

depend chiefly on the cotton which that island pro- 
duces, and the price of it is already raised 25 per 
cent: judge how the manufacturers are alarmed. 
Sugar, tea, and coffee have risen in proportion, and 
the alarm is universal. I must own that I expect 
little less than a general insurrection, for there seems 
to be a determined resolution in some branches of 
the ministry to reduce us to some fatal extremities, 
with what view I can better tell than write. No one 
in London doubts of an union, nor do I believe there 
will be much difficulty about the terms. The peerage 
to be incorporated into the British house is to be 
hereditary, and the remaining Irish peers are to be 
admissible, as at present, into the lower house. The 
proportion of each will be a little more difficult to 
ascertain, but all agree that we Bishops shall remain 
in our diocese. God grant this may be true. An- 
other scheme has been proposed of leaving the Par- 
liament in Ireland for the internal administration of 
the kingdom, and assessing it once for all in propor- 
tion with England, but I cannot imagine the Irish 
will endure this: it would reduce them to the insig- 
nificance of a mere corporation of aldermen and 
common council, and would multiply the number of 
non-residents beyond endurance, for who would con- 
descend to become a member of such a legislature. 
Write to me, my dear, at Portpatrick, and let me 
know at large how matters go on. Send me no 
foreign politicks, for on your side the water you know 
none. Lord Mountstuart is gone to negotiate a peace 
with France. Think what a system to close igno- 
miniously a popular war at the expense of maintaining 



74 THE TWO DUCHESSES. 

the most unpopular and most unnatural one possible, 
and what terms can be expected from the insolence 
of France, and what will they dare to offer to poor 
America. Cunning, which they call policy, guides 
all their steps, yet some there are among them of 
true parts and real probity, but, alass! how few. 
What is your husband doing? I never hear from 
either of you, yet I wrote on my landing at Dover, 
and once again from London. 

[The rest of this letter is torn off. — V. F.] 



The Bishop of Deny 

To Mrs. J. Th. Foster. 

BELFAST, November 29, 1779. 

I am just arrived here, my dear Elizabeth, and 
was fully determined to set out to-morrow to meet 
you and your dear sister either at Dundalk or Bar- 
meath, but the extreme badness of the weather, 
joined to some alarming symptoms of the gout, which 
you know operate strongly on me, have determined 
our immediate course to Derry. It is a little hard 
to be so near you and not to have the least chance 
of seeing you, but I shall trust to the chapitre des 
accidents and endeavour to make it out in some 
manner. I send you a parcel by a carrier which 
contains two pair of bracelets, one for your sister 
and the other for you. I would not let them be 
sett, that you may do that in Dublin according to 
your own taste, and when you have done so, without 



FROM THE BISHOP OF DERRY. 75 

sparing my purse, if you will let me know the amount 
I will discharge my debt and complete my present. 
There are also two rings: the Apollo I desire dear 
Mary will offer in my name to Lord Erne. The 
Plato I hope our philosopheryc/bz Thomas will accept, 
and I must rely on your interest for making it accept- 
able. All your encomiums on Dublin will hardly 
prevail on me to go there, but I don't know what 
effort I may make for the sake of passing a week or 
ten days with Mary in the S.W. room which she has 
so comfortably offered me, and which is worth a 
whole apartment in a palace from the cordiality of 
the offer. I hear from good authority that Bucking- 
ham leaves you, and that Lord Hillsborough 1 is bold 
enough to visit us. This prognosticates real free 
trade, for it is the object of his ambition. 

You press me strongly, my dear child, to return 
to Dublin, and not deny any longer my assistance to 
this sinking country. I have given pretty strong 
proof to the ministry in England and to many of the 
leading people here that I have been invariably pur- 
suing its interests and investigating the causes of its 
decline for these last three years. Can any country 
flourish where two-thirds of its inhabitants are still 
crouching under the lash of the most severe illiberal 
penalties that one set of citizens ever laid upon the 
other? All the errors in our Popish laws have pro- 
ceeded from one fatal and, as yet, insurmountable 
piece of ignorance. The Protestants here have uni- 
versally concluded that every R. Catholic is a Papist, 

1 Lord Hillsborough— Lord Hillsborough, afterwards Marquis of Downshire, was 
a supporter of Lord North, and held more than one office under him. 



?6 THE TWO DUCHESSES. 

that is, that every man who was fool enough to be- 
lieve in transubstantiation was wicked enough to hold 
no faith with heretics and to deny allegiance to his 
Sovereign the moment that Sovereign was excom- 
municated by the Pope. In order to discriminate 
one of these Catholics from the other, I got an Act 
of Parliament passed in 1774 by which every Catholic 
that had been educated in the French and Flemish 
seminaries (where the dangerous doctrines of Popery 
are exploded) had an opportunity of abjuring them 
and exculpating himself. Immediately about one- 
fourth of the R. clergy availed themselves of the 
occasion, and took the oath which purged them from 
this imputation, but a very great number from whom 
I expected the same conduct, because I knew they 
had received the same education, declined it : nor did 
I guess the cause till we were at Brussels. There I 
learned that the hopes of preferment in their miser- 
able hierarchy deterred them from abjuring the pre- 
rogatives of their sovereign master the Pope. On 
this I resolved to visit the fountain head of such a 
defection and to trace it to its source. I did it so 
effectually, bribed so many clerks and under-clerks 
in the different offices that I obtained the whole 
course of correspondence between Rome and her 
clergy in Ireland on this topick. I did more. I de- 
tected the whole plan of invasion for last year, which 
could not have been attempted without the assistance 
of Irish friars conversant in the English, Irish, and 
French languages, and I have good reason to believe 
that the whole proceedings in England in favor of 
the Catholics were grounded on the information I 



FROM THE BISHOP OF DERRY. yy 

transmitted to Lord North 1 and Lord Hillsborough. 
Had the French ministry imagined that the Irish 
Parliament would have done things by halves and 
omitted the religious indulgence to the people whilst 
it granted the pecuniary one to the gentry, the inva- 
sion would still have taken place last year in Ireland, 
after Mr. Keppel had so scandalously left the French 
masters of the ocean. Don't imagine, therefore, my 
dear girl, that I have been inattentive to the welfare 
of this kingdom. Your mother can tell you how 
many wearisome days and studious evenings it has 
cost me whilst the ignorant and unobserving thought 
me busied in virtu and occupied by the elegant arts. 
The committee at Rome which governs the religious 
affairs of Ireland is composed of seven cardinals, who 
are governed in their consultations as the Commis- 
sioners of the Customs are in Dublin, by a secretary. 
They, too, have their Sackville Hamilton. Every 
member of this committee is as venal as a Board of 
Aldermen, but in order to bribe them you must buy 
a picture of one, give a poplin to the niece or the 
mistress of another, a suit of clothes to the secretary 
of a third, and so on ; so that with a good purse and 
a liberal hand one may know every tittle of what 
these Christian Pharisees have sworn not to reveal. 
It was by means such as these that I discovered the 
sentiments, the views, the interests and connexion of 
almost every Popish bishop in Ireland, and that at 
this instant I know why some have taken the oath 
of allegiance and why others have declined it. By 

Lord North— Frederick North, Lord North, prime minister from 1770 to 1782 
(1732-1792). 



78 THE TWO DUCHESSES. 

these means I discovered that the King of France, 1 
through his ambassador, the Cardinal de Bernis, got 
the nomination of three Irish bishops in the course 
of one year, as the most effectual means of securing 
the assistance of the Popish clergy and the Popish 
populace in case of an invasion; and of all this I 
transmitted immediate information to such as could 
best avail themselves of it. Whenever that great 
topick comes to be discussed, I will endeavour to give 
such council as I am able, but, alass! mankind are 
little guided by reason, and unless interest or danger 
excite their attention they are generally deaf. Adieu, 
my dear girl. I must say a word to your sister, and 
as I conclude she may still be at Dunleer I shall 
direct it there. 



The Earl of Bristol, Bishop of Derry, 

To Lady Elizabeth Foster. 

Downhill, near Coleraine, April 21, 1780. 

By some untoward accident, my dear Eliza, your 
letter of the 14th did not reach me till last night, by 
which means I was deprived of my option of at- 
tending the dissenters' bill; but, indeed, my spirits 
are so depressed by the loss of dearest Lady Mul- 
grave 2 that I am totally unfit for anything but the 
heartless solitude in which " I live and move and 
have my being". Your mother is every day more 
urgent with me to go over in order to join with Jack 

1 Louis XVI. (1754-1793). 

2 Lady Mulgrave — The Bishop's sister, who died in March of this year. 



FROM THE EARL OF BRISTOL, BISHOP OF DERRY. 79 

in liberating the estate 1 from the shackles in which it 
is held, but matters in this country are not sufficiently 
decided to allow me to quit it. The fever is now 
coming to a crisis, and whether it will end in a 
delirium or in the health of the patient and restora- 
tion of his constitution, neither you nor I are prophets 
enough to foretell ; but this I can venture to say, that 
to all appearance the struggle will be great. 

Is it possible that the Ch. Governor 2 or any of his 
friends can think me capable of distressing an admin- 
istration both in England and Ireland to which I 
wish so well, and for the sake of which I have sepa- 
rated from some of the oldest and most intimate 
connexions I have in the world? Believe me, I think 
their cause too good either to desert it or embarrass 
them. When I judged them to be better informed 
than myself, as in all foreign politicks I should with- 
out either scruple or reserve deliver my political 
conscience into their hands; but with regard to their 
interests in Ireland, and the intrinsick unalienable 
rights of Ireland itself (which are the rights of man- 
kind), in which I deem myself much better informed 
than them, having not only taken more pains on the 
subject, but being likewise an ocular observer on the 
spot, if either through inattention or presumption 
they will not take the advice I have given them but 
persist in the same infatuated system of despotism 
towards Ireland which has almost lost America — 
what is then the part of an honest man or a true 
friend? What would a faithful physician do upon a 

1 the estate— The estate of Ickworth Park, near Bury St. Edmunds. The bishop 
had succeeded to the title of Earl of Bristol and to the family estate in December, 
I77 o. 2 Ch. Governor— This appears to mean the Lord-Lieutenant. 



80 THE TWO DUCHESSES. 

similar occasion with a struggling patient? Would 
he, in compliance with the prejudices of the family, 
concur in administering a medicine which he knows 
to be improper and suspects to be fatal, and which, 
if it did not destroy the patient, would at least throw 
him into strong convulsions, or would he honestly 
resist the dictates of that family, prohibit the medicine, 
and encourage the patient to decline it? Would 
your friends have me act the part in the North which 
the poor Duke of Leinster 1 has been persuaded to 
take in the South? The Duke of Leinster may 
perhaps be sincere in his professions of the depen- 
dency of Ireland, but I, who do not deem that depen- 
dency legal, nor even that it is either politick in 
England to assert or useful to exert it, could not 
either as an honest man or as a real friend to ad- 
ministration, remain silent in such a conflict, much 
less espouse the opinion I from my head and heart 
condemn. But suppose for a moment I should — what 
would be the unavoidable consequence? I should 
first find myself bereaved of any little influence I 
have acquired in this part of the country by professing 
my real sentiments, and afterwards, when the flame 
breaks forth — as break forth it will, unless some gold 
dust shall smother it — what would administration 
naturally say to me? Why remain in the North to 
give no information of the storm brewing? or why 
coincide with sentiments which you knew to be pre- 
judicial? Why not at least preserve your own influ- 
ence in the country to prevent violence and guard 

1 Duke of Leinster — William Robert Fitzgerald, second duke of Leinster (1749- 
1804). 



FROM THE COUNTESS OF BRISTOL. 8 1 

against extremities ? I think we are at the eve of a 
civil war, which bids fair for being one of the most 
sanguinary and most general that this country has 
known. Parasites and sycophants may talk another 
language at the Castle, for all governments love to 
be soothed into an opinion of their safety, and for 
real safety heedlessly mistake their own dangerous 
security (but a real friend will apprize the minister 
betimes of his danger, and a warm one will do it 
in warm terms). Their danger at this moment does 
not arise only from their offensive measures and from 
the alarm given to the friends of the Irish Consti- 
tution, but from a more latent and a more cancerous 
evil, from an inherent dislike to the religious estab- 
lishment from the scandalous — 

[The rest of this letter is missing. — V. F.] 



The Countess of Bristol 

To the Earl of Bristol, Bishop of Derry. 

August 13, 1780. 

We drank your health yesterday, but I am much 
concerned to find, upon pressing Elizabeth on that 
subject, that it is not altogether so good as, in your 
ardour for the mountains, you represent it to me; 
and though Mary says that you have no other com- 
plaint than a sore finger, yet she seems to think your 
spirits low, and I much fear that you have taken too 
much fatigue for your strength. 

We are in hourly expectation of f., who has been 
more absurd and inconsistent than it is possible to 



82 THE TWO DUCHESSES. 

express; and, after fearing to trust anything to writ- 
ing, has wrote four or five letters by every post of 
everything; in short, he is a ship totally without 
ballast, blown about by every gust of passion, a very 
tiring companion, and an insufficient and unsatis- 
factory friend. 

There has been some thought of dissolving the 
Parliament, but I flatter myself that it is over for the 
present. My brother 1 was disappointed of his com- 
panion into Devonshire, so turned about from Lewes 
races, went back to London, from whence he writes 
me word that he stays choked with dust, he does not 
know why, but I suppose he will soon be down. 
Colonel H. is on the road at last, and will perhaps 
be here to-day or to-morrow, which I am glad of, for 

I think f. a , and it may keep him in better 

order. How could I be so mistaken in him? Yet 
are not wiser people than myself mistaken every 
day? Adieu. Lady Hervey still up. Poor Eliza- 
beth better notwithstanding, and eats a little. 



The Countess of Bristol 

To Lady Elizabeth Foster. 

Ickworth Park, May 17, 1781. 

My dear child, — I was very sure that my brother 
would not decline his friendly assistance in your 
present distressful situation; and I am sorry to find 
that any delay should have occurred in a thing so 
necessary for your peace and my satisfaction. As 

1 My brother — Sir Charles Davers, Bart. 



FROM THE COUNTESS OF BRISTOL. 83 

to the message which you have delivered to me 
from Mr. Foster, I should be surprized at it from 
anybody else; for he cannot but recollect that I have 
mentioned the very sums for which he engaged to 
me; and I am sure that when he is cool enough to 
have his judgment operate, he cannot term a conduct 
severe which is only the steady performance of a 
very painful duty. He will recollect, perhaps, that I 
once consented to your reconciliation, and tried by 
uniting you under my own eyes to promote your 
happiness: his return to me has been a conduct 
which I confess was the last I should have expected 
from him; but it has opened my eyes. . . . With 
regard to the children, as they are boys, I advise you 
to make no opposition to his desire of having them. 

I hope poor little Frederick goes on well. 

I am, my dear child, your most affectionate mother. 



The Countess of Bristol 

To Lady Elizabeth Foster. 

St. James' Square, June 1782. 

Lady Mary 1 is much better. I am just come from 
her, and have had an opportunity of talking to her 
about the scheme I mentioned to you last night, and 
she, with her usual kindness and good humour, has 
assured me of a welcome, if you can take up with 
such a retirement; and that Mrs. Gordon makes no 
objection, for they are to lodge and board together: 
that is, to have no trouble, and each pay the cook 

1 Lady Mary — Lady Erne. 



84 THE TWO DUCHESSES. 

14s. a week for themselves, and js. a week for ser- 
vants; rooms as at Bath, each person to breakfast 
alone, and at no time to be a clog on each other. 
You will not, I am afraid, look favorably on such a 
party, and I am aware that it will be a dull one, yet 
your affection for Lady Mary, and the real use and 
comfort you may be of to her, will, I know, brighten 
the prospect to you. You would not disturb their 
Methy proceedings, nor would they intrude them 
upon you. Thus stands the compact, provided Mrs. 
Gordon, who is the foundation of the party, is agree- 
able. The advantages to you would be in a kind 
relation, an appearance of protection, retirement, a 
good air, and lovely scenery; and if you adopt my 
scheme of Bath for next winter, you would save two 
expensive journeys. I have this moment received 
the letters you sent by the Duke of Devonshire, 1 
and have caught your father before he could get 
quite into bed to hold a conversation upon them, 
the result of which is that I expect you both to 
leave Bath on Saturday, and to be here on Sunday 
(as I suppose). 

The Duchess of Devonshire's 2 behaviour on this 
occasion is heavenly, and your distress will have been, 
I hope, at this very hour that I am writing, relieved 
by your father's £ 100. I am so hurried and agitated 
that I don't know what I say, but we look upon your 
journey and your summer as most happily allotted. 

1 the Duke of Devonshire — William Cavendish, fifth Duke of Devonshire, who 
succeeded to the title in 1764 (1748-1811). 

2 Duchess of Devonshire — Georgiana, daughter of John Earl Spencer. She was 
married to the fifth Duke of Devonshire in 1774, and was one of the two duchesses 
from whom this volume derives its title; d. 1806. 




Trom. £i& '•.i/st/i'"/ vo ■ //"■"'<;.< . icunJ-oorotufA '77-' 



FROM THE COUNTESS OF BRISTOL. 85 

I shall certainly stay in town a little while to see 
you, though part of the family are gone to Ickworth; 
and I flatter myself that your sister will be better 
here than alone: pray tell her this; I am not able to 
write it. I send two letters which came to-day from 
your brother. S. H. intended to have wrote to you 
had she not seem them, and desires me to say so, 
with her best love. Adieu! my dear children. Is it 
possible that I am so near having you both with me 
again, and may I look forward to a degree of com- 
fort and happiness for you for this summer? My 
blessing on this dear woman! I hope you will 
recollect that you and your sister and lal lal will 
be ill-lodged but affectionately welcomed. 



The Countess of Bristol 

To Lady Elizabeth Foster. 

Ickworth Park, January 5, 1783. 

My dearest Bess, — I would not write to you till I 
got hither, as I had a mind to tell you something at 
least with certainty, and that I thought my letter 
would certainly travel faster than you. I received 
your dear little note from Dover, but have not yet 
the comfort of knowing you got safe to Calais, though 
it is ten whole days since you left me; however, the 
weather has been so good that though I am impatient 
I am not uneasy. I saw your Duchess several times 
before I left Town. She behaved like an angel in 
everything, supported her loss with fortitude and felt 



86 THE TWO DUCHESSES. 

it with the utmost tenderness, was warm and inter- 
ested about you to the smallest trifle, and infinitely- 
kind to me on your account. I rely on her for the 
first possible tidings of you, but I am quite vexed 
that she should have found a way of writing to you 
which I did not, and reproach myself for your being 
solitarily at Dover with a comfort less than I could 
have given you. 

Whilst I was at Devonshire House one morning 
there came a letter for you directed there. I saw it 
was from Mr. F. and told her I would open it to 
save the postage. I did so. There was a repetition 
of the remittance sent, settlement, your receipt to be 
given, &c, and at the end what I will now transcribe: 
" I would ask you, if it should not appear to you as 
a question of idle and impertinent curiosity, whether 
since I saw you you have ever received any pecuniary 
assistance from either of your parents : if it appears 
to you in the light I have stated you have only to be 
silent; if otherwise, you will give me an answer. — 
J. T. F." This is so extraordinary that I should 
advise you to answer him by asking leave to answer 
his question, by a question, how he thought you had 
been maintained for the eight months he had left 
you without a shilling. I pity you for the meeting 
at Dover, and long to know the result. 

The ex is postponed, and will probably never 
take place. There have been two notes to you from 
Lord Shuldam, which, as they were about La. H.'s 
business, I opened and gave to her, and wrote to 
him that you was gone. I believe the parcel is safe, 
only they did not know to whom it belonged. I 



FROM THE COUNTESS OF BRISTOL. 8? 

am rejoiced that Mr. Hunter answers so well. I 
have wrote your father word how I had engaged for 
him. I have no letter yet. Poor Mrs. Greene is 
highly satisfied at having been of use to you and 
with your letter. She has had a great escape. The 
step of her carriage broke with her, and her leg is 
slightly hurt and in a very good way, but if the 
horses had stirred it was over with her. She bears 
it vastly well, and is all kindness. My sister is very 
well, sends her love to you, and says as a proof of 
her forgiveness she has recommended you to the 
good offices of a friend of hers at Nice, a Mr. Morice, 
who was long her tenant, at last bought her house, 
and has always behaved in a very gentlemanlike 
manner. I expect Fred to-morrow, have asked the 
poor Plumpa for a week. Augustus Phipps is now 
playing at backgammon with Louisa, and desires his 
love and good wishes to you. I shall have the 
pleasure, I hope, of seeing all these young people 
happy. You see I write very close to make as much 
as I can of a letter. I saw Captain Finch just before 
I left town, who had left your brother in good health 
and spirits at Madeira. La. H. and your sister are 
at Bath; saw the poor little Dillons in their way, and 
were delighted with them. I shall be happy to hear 
that Louchee improves upon you, for a disagreeable 
object so repeatedly present is horrid, but I know 
you will turn to the best side of her. Lady Emily 
Ker is going to be married. Lady Ma, the Duchess 
of Devonshire, and I are in agony of expectation 
for a return of favor, but La. Ma, who knows her 
best, says we must let it work alone. God bless you, 



THE TWO DUCHESSES. 



my dearest. Thank you for your promise. Louisa 
asks for the foldings. 



The Countess of Bristol 

. To Lady Elizabeth Foster. 

Ickworth Park, Feb. 7, 1783. 

I thank you, my dearest Elizabeth, for your two 
letters from Lyons, for which I had been long im- 
patient, as the winter was so far advanced. Your 
stay there for some time seems absolutely necessary 
after so much fatigue, at which I am the more dis- 
appointed as I had flattered myself the roads were 
good, and that, being totally your own mistress, to 
stop when you would, that you would have escaped 
it: however, bless Ma lle - Bertin's five wits who has 
preserved you from cold a la Chinoise, and as to the 
pole, springs, &c, though they are teasing accidents, 
and, what is worse, expensive ones, I dare say you 
bore them very coolly, but I confess that your ex- 
pedition on the water alarms me, nor shall I be easy 
till I hear of you on dry ground again. 

I am sorry Mr. Hunter does not turn out the 
economist I expected, and if he continues his princely 
ideas, which are just opposite to what I expected 
from him, it may become necessary for you to send 
him back and to take a servant more suitable to your 
situation; but I am still more vexed about Mrs. Ash- 
burner, who, I see, can never be more than tolerated 
by you, and yet I do think it necessary that you 
should have a person of character and conduct about 



FROM THE COUNTESS OF BRISTOL. 89 

you, and not a pert, gallant, corrupt femme de chambre, 
who may overturn your best plans of prudence. 

I am sorry I did not write to Lyons, but you will 
have found my letters, I hope, at Nice. I cannot 
think of troubling the Duchess of Devonshire with 
them except on any particular occasion, so direct 
them en droiture. I am surprised at your recollection 
of that town, though it is very striking. I trust that 
you have found no difficulties on the road, and this 
peace will now have put all sides in good humor. I 
hope, too, that it will have relieved your mind of part 
of its burthen. 

I am sorry that my situation has sat so heavy on 
it, for I can give you no comfort on that subject ex- 
cept by assuring you that my mind is quite above 
and out of the reach of the oppression I receive and 
the insults which accompany it, and that I have pride 
enough to bear being told that my advice is pre- 
sumption, and that I am a being so made up of 
vanity and ostentation as not to be capable of co- 
operating in so laudable a plan without feeling the 
least humbled by it; and even my resentment is 
softened down into compassion for the frailties of 
human nature, and for the wreck which warring 
passions bring upon it: my own happiness has long 
been an empty sound, and I now am only intent on 
drawing all the good possible out of this evil in 
favor of Louisa . . . and to acquire in solid advan- 
tages to her mind and character what she loses in 
accomplishments, which are more easily taken up at 
any time and of infinitely less consequence. 

In the meanwhile we pass our time cheerfully, each 



90 THE TWO DUCHESSES. 

considering the other: she is become a dear, amiable 
companion : we read and work together in the even- 
ings, and they do not appear long; and now the 
general 1 is come, I make him take his turn; we chuse 
pleasant books, and we are all in good humour with 
one another. She is at present very busy in cloth- 
ing a girl that she is to put to school, and is to be 
the beginning of one kept by your music master, 
who is come to settle at Horringer. Dearest Lou 
loves you with the sincerest affection, and begs I will 
say so. The house in town is let for three years to 
Lord Paget for ^600 a year. I have sent servants 
up to-day to prepare for his coming in. God knows 
what is your father's plan. Your brother, I fear, will 
be much mortified; but perhaps it may help to settle 
his affairs, and all may yet turn out well for those I 
am most anxious about. I suppose he will come 
home now to settle. I must write a line or two to 
your dear Duchess. Adieu, my dear Bess. 



The Countess of Bristol 

To Lady Elizabeth Foster. 

Ickworth Park, February 26, 1783. 

My dearest Bess, — I have to thank you for your 
great attention in writing to me so frequently on your 
journey. I received your letter from Calais (though 
late), two from Paris, two from Lyons, one from Aix, 
(none from Avignon, as you mentioned), but one 
welcome one indeed from Nice. Welcome, my 

1 the general — General William Hervey, a brother of the Bishop of Deny. 



FROM THE COUNTESS OF BRISTOL. 91 

love, indeed, not only from your having passed all 
dangers and fatigues, from your being pleased with 
the place, well accommodated, well received, &c. &c, 
but infinitely dear to me from the change brought 
about in your sentiments. Do not lament any longer 
my situation or late disappointment, but be assured 
that there is none whatever which could have given 
me half the satisfaction which I feel on this occasion; 
and appease the reproaches of your own mind on 
the uneasiness you have given me (which I confess 
has been great) by reflecting that you have it still 
in your power to make me amends for it. For thou 
art the sheep that was lost and is found again, and I 
will rejoice over thee. This calm of mind, my dear 
child, will wonderfully assist the climate and the 
sweet retirement you describe, and bring you back 
happy yourself and capable of making your friends so. 

Your heavenly friend is every day more and more 
the object of my admiration and love. What a note! 
from a person apparently absorbed by every worldly 
pursuit and gratification. It is so sweet that the 
sense akes at it. I saw her often before I left town, 
and always with fresh pleasure; and on my coming 
hither she had the goodness to take up my prote'ge', 
Mr. Parkison, in order to serve him by means of the 
Duke of Portland, 1 but her humanity to him, con- 
descension, and real attention to his affairs have been 
beyond any possible description, as I learn from 
himself, and I am in hopes he will succeed at last. 

As you had received but one of my letters when 

''■Duke of Portland— William Henry Cavendish Bentinck, prime minister in 1787 
for a few months; home secretary under Pitt from 1794 to 1801; and again prime 
minister from 1807 to 1809 (1738-1809). 



92 THE TWO DUCHESSES. 

you wrote, I hope you have had since in their order 
those of the 23rd of January and 7th of February. I 
did not write to you on the road, as I always fear 
the loss of my letter. 

I suppose I have repeatedly told you my situation, 
&c, but I believe it is since my last that Lord Paget 
has actually hired the house in St. James' Square for 
three years, and is now in possession of it. I have 
had many reproaches for the vanity and levity of my 
character that made me unwilling to adopt so fine a 
scheme, but not one word of excuse or concern at 
the supposed necessity for it. I own I have never 
condescended to answer these accusations. I leave 
my whole life to do so. In the meantime I have 
accounts from time to time of his great spirits and 
happiness in everything that is going on in Ireland, 
and he seems quite unconcerned at having placed 
me here without a plan, view, object, or improvement 
of any sort to occupy a mind so much harassed; but 
I thank God I have objects that are out of his reach, 
and from which my mind receives such daily comfort 
that I hope you will not be uneasy for me. I have 
converted this disappointment, I trust, entirely to the 
advantage of Louisa. I have called forth all the 
best feelings of her excellent heart, and to turn her 
from a selfish and pining discontent, I endeavoured 
to make myself her object whilst she is mine. It has 
answered my wish — her case is to lighten my soli- 
tude, et vous pensez bien ma chere qu'elle n'y perd 
rien. I have convinced her that she is at an age 
not only to bear but to profit by it, and that it is 
only severe in the decline of life when prospects are 



FROM THE COUNTESS OF BRISTOL. 93 

no more. She has adopted the idea, redoubled her 
attention to me, endeavoured to improve herself, is 
in good spirits, reads, writes, plays, works, rides, and 
joins very intelligently in all I read to her. I had the 
precaution before I left town to make her dancing- 
master promise to come down for a month in the 
summer if I did not return; and I hope poor Salva- 
tore will come likewise ; but of all this I say not a 
word to Ireland. It might be thought too expensive, 
and as I am determined to lay out nothing on myself, 
I think I have a right to it. 

Fred 1 has been here to keep her birthday; he 
must be removed from Mr. F., who has not behaved 
well, and I am trying with your F- to get him to 
school, and am uneasy whilst he balances between 
that and a private tutor. I have reconciled Fred's 
mind more to a school than ever I had been able to 
do before; he is a dear boy, and I hope I shall save 
him. Mr. F.'s letter is very ex: I think as you do, 
and approve so highly of your answer that I could 
not help telling the purport of it to Fred and Lou : a 
disposition of that sort in him is favorable to yr cha, 
though you do not avail yourself of it: he certainly 
means me, mais n'importe. I have lately had a letter 
from your brother; vastly well; likes the warm sun 
as well as you do; is in spirits, and will be more so 
when he knows that a peace brings him home. I 
should think that S. E. and S. H. would wait for 
him at B. ; and I should imagine that if things are 
not properly settled for him that they will go abroad, 

1 Fred— The writer's son Frederick Hervey, afterwards successively Earl and 
Marquis of Bristol. At this time he was only fourteen years of age 



94 THE TWO DUCHESSES. 

and probably you will all meet. Pray remind Lady 
Rivers of me, and assure her that I have not forgot 
a beautiful, amiable woman, whom I knew first in 
this house. Remember me, too, to Miss Danby, Mr. 
Morice, and the B.'s. My Aunt Greene is quite 
recovered, and sends her love to you. My sister 
well. General H. here for this month past. I make 
him hear me read the first part of the evening, and 
read to me the latter part. I am quite troubled 
about Louchee, and angry with Mr. P., but you must 
dispose of her, and if she would draw a veil over her 
ugliness, it would do very well. I fear Mr. H., 
too, has not economized sufficiently, and that your 
journey has cost you more than we allotted for it; 
however, I hope all these matters may be arranged. 
Louisa desires me to add her tenderest love. You 
have that of your most affectionate mother. 

I send this to the dear Duchess. Thank you for 
your orange flowers; they gave me agreeable ideas 
of your villa. 



The Countess of Bristol 

To Lady Elizabeth Foster. 

Ickworth Park, March 13, 1783. 

I was just going to write to you, dearest Bess, 
when your two letters of the 16th and 22nd arrived 
by the means of your invaluable friend. It would 
be impossible for me to describe the tender emotions 
they have raised in me, but of this be assured that 
I have no sufferings but what are infinitely over- 



FROM THE COUNTESS OF BRISTOL. 95 

balanced by the sentiments you express, provided 
that you pursue them steadily. You take my 
admonitions so well that I have nothing to add 
upon that subject, and I am extremely pleased with 
the arrangements of your retirement and the limited 
acquaintance you receive at your house; something 
decisive in your conduct was necessary to make an 
impression and to put you upon a new footing, and 
I expect the best consequences from it; yet I should 
be glad to know how you pass your evenings, and 
whether they do not hang heavy on you who have 
been used to constant society. I perceive that your 
spirits are very low, and I am disappointed at your 
not feeling more relieved by so great a change of 
climate in three weeks. You say your stomach is a 
little better, but you do not mention your breast, 
side, or cough, and you complain of fever. How do 
you like Mr. Farquhar's friend, and what has he 
directed besides orange juice? What is your diet? 
Do you keep good hours? and don't you write too 
much? I am glad you ride, but how do you manage 
it, and what does it cost you, and your house and 
servants, &c. ? Pray send me a little plan of all your 
doings, that I may attend you in them. 

Your father in his last letter to me says he intends 
to add ^50 a year to your income, and perhaps 
^"ioo if you conduct yourself prudently. I beg you 
will be very cautious, in speaking of him to others, 
how you throw any blame on him on my account. 
I leave him to Heaven and to those thorns that in 
his bosom lodge to prick and sting him. I give you 
my honor that my situation here is a less painful 



g6 THE TWO DUCHESSES. 

one than you imagine it. I own I had promised 
myself great comfort in being in town, but I have 
bent my mind to my circumstances. I have laid 
out my disappointment to Louisa's advantage, and 
though I should be very happy indeed (believe it, 
my dear Bess) with you amidst your orange trees, 
yet there are several things of consequence transact- 
ing here in which I think I may be able to serve 
your brother and poor Fred materially, and I find 
great satisfaction in the idea of it — il y a une facheuse 
pilleule que je n'ose pas nommer, une insensibilite 
dans certains moments critiques et une philosophie si 
baroque qu'il y a de quoi se ddsesperer, mais il n'y a 
point de remede, et on s'etablit en maltre sans se 
faire prier; il faut done tirer parti comme on peut et 
vivre au jour la journ^e. I shall long for you to 
obtain the request you made to Mr. F. My poor 
child, I have always said that you was made for 
domestic happiness and domestic duties. 

What you tell me of the Duchess goes to my 
heart, and will, I hope, be a real comfort to yours. 
You have done well, most certainly, to leave your 
interest in her hands; for where could it be so well? 
But I am pleased at your growing indifference to 
those matters, and do not doubt but that your affairs 
will be made easy in some way or other. The 
Duchess and I do not correspond, but we write 
sometimes occasionally. She is vastly obliging to 
me, and treats me like your mother, and I love her 
as your friend, and, besides that, am charmed with 
her disposition and character. She has promised 
me a print of herself, and I gave her my sweet 



FROM THE COUNTESS OF BRISTOL. 97 

miniature of Susanna, which she liked. I hear she 
advances happily, which I hope you know long 
before this. 

The Polignacs are certainly a great acquisition for 
you, and I think your stay at Paris and renewal with 
them on your return will depend upon circumstances, 
of which now I dare say you will judge properly. I 
am glad to find Lady Rivers so comfortable to you, 
notwithstanding her deafness. One of her daughters, 
I believe, is preferable to the other. How do you 
like Mrs. Stuart? and have you no acquaintance with 
Lady Eliott? Pray write the dangerous Italian's 
name a little plainer for I can't make it out; but 
avoid him by all means — their whole composition is 
intrigue. Poor Miss Danby! I am sorry she has 
exchanged one bad complaint for another. You 
don't mention Lady Craven, so I hope she is gone 
some other way. You must have no intercourse at 
all there. She is quite undone, and has not an atom 
of character left. 

I hope Miss W. will answer to all your care and 
their hopes, and then it will be a pleasant circum- 
stance between you; but I am sorry she requires 
strictness: that is against the bent of her indulgent 
governess, but perhaps even that may have a good 
effect, and give to a soft heart a firmer texture. 

I have heard nothing about H., but I hope that 
all is en train to open the eyes on both sides. You 
have now no further solicitude about his destination, 
and seem to have fixed your conduct upon very 
proper principles. 

Poor Fred told me he had made you his confidant. 



98 THE TWO DUCHESSES. 

I cannot get any decisive direction about him, and 
he is not well placed where he is. Mr. F. has 
behaved ill, and has been led into it, I believe, by 
distressed circumstances. Mark that, and fear it, 
my dear Ophelia, as much as anything. 

I mention no politics, because you have them 
fresher from Devonshire House, but never was poor 
nation in so distressed and contemptible a situation. 

My Aunt Greene is very well, and your warm 
friend always. My sister, too, was softened to tears 
at the perspective I showed her from your present 
plan; continue it, my love, and return to the arms 
and grow for ever to the hearts of your family. My 
brother is still in town acting like an honest man in 
the midst of all this faction. I have not the least 
hope of going up; now the house is gone I could not. 
Mr. D.' A. — comes Ambassador. Your sister and I 
agree that we feel ashamed that he should find us 
without an hotel. She has got little benefit from 
Bath, poor thing! Always something to fret upon 
wears out the machine. Louisa is well, and loves 
you tenderly; goes on well, and keeps up her spirits. 
Your uncle W. still here, having, I believe, fixed it 
as a part of his grand plan not to be in the hay 
market till such a day of such a month of the year 
1783. Is Mr. Wollaston at Nice? and how is he? 
My compliments to La. Rivers, Mr. Morice, Miss D., 
and the Birbecks. I am glad my letters come easy, 
and will write oftener, being, my dear child, your 
most affectionate mother. 



FROM THE COUNTESS OF BRISTOL. 99 

The Countess of Bristol 

To Lady Elizabeth Foster. 

Ickworth Park, April 12, 1783. 

I have two of your letters, my dear Elizabeth, and 
one, so late as the 19th of March, I should have hoped 
might have brought me the comfortable news of your 
amendment, but I search for it in vain, as I do also 
for the real cause of your complaint. Is it that we 
have been so unlucky as to choose a wrong climate? 
You seem to think so, and if it is confirmed to you, 
for God's sake change it; or is it still the effects of 
your long journey, and the scene you went through; 
or a wound that is still festering, though you think 
it healed; or the absence from your friends; or the 
severe judgment you are passing on yourself? 

For your bodily complaints, my dearest Bess, you 
must be governed by others, and if you must remove, 
I suppose La R. has decided you in favor of Lyons. 
It is a long journey, but if Nice is thought improper 
for next winter you may as well be there as anywhere 
else, except you could find a cool place nearer to 
where you are to pass the next winter. I should 
hope you would not be determined by the motive 
you mention of hearing sooner of your friend, dear 
as she is, and natural as it is for you to make it an 
object, but I beg your health may be the first, and 
the more as you are doing everything which can 
make it valuable to yourself and your friends. Lyons, 
too, is a little Paris, and I don't know how you could 
live there en retraite. 



100 THE TWO DUCHESSES. 

As to Italy, though at this time one cannot think 
of it without horror, yet I am very sensible that after 
un tal sfuogo it may be next year safer than ever: 
but it is a terrible journey; you are alone, and I do 
not see how in your unfortunate circumstances you 
can either profit of the advantages, or bear the ex- 
pence of it, and though you say that Miss W. would 
go with you, and lessen the expence of it, yet I con- 
fess I think it is one thing to carry her with you for 
health to a place of retirement, and another to act as 
a mother to her all over the world; neither do I 
think it would put you in a proper light in Italy, but 
I am too far off to wish you to rely absolutely upon 
me. I would have you do what is best, but circum- 
stances and good opinions must decide you — only 
remember L. A. P., and how often people advise and 
persuade what in their serious judgment they dis- 
approve. I could not help making many reflections 
on that approbation which you forced from him for 
having refused what he had solicited. I hope you 
made some too, but I am sure you did, for all you 
say gives me hope and comfort. 

I am sorry that my banishment should sit so heavy 
upon you, my dear Bess; the manner of it was, to be 
sure, cruel, but I hope I shall turn it all to good 
account; and as to the mere solitude, you know 
nobody minds it less than I do. I assure you upon 
my honor, that my health and spirits are good, and 
that if I have now more time for reflection, I have 
also subjects of more content for it. You, my dearest 
child, make a great part of this, for I cannot but 
flatter myself that you are getting into port again, 



102 THE TWO DUCHESSES. 

well drawn up, and shews that he has been cruelly 
and unjustly treated. Louisa is very happy at this 
arrangement, and has been very eager with some new 
music which he brought down. She goes on in every 
respect as I could wish, health, spirits, sentiments, 
application, &c, loves proper reading, shews taste in 
it, and never finds her time upon her hands, &c. 

I am sorry to say that I have not the same satis- 
faction with poor Fred, though he has no fault in it; 
but your father has determined on sending for him 
to Ireland, and having a private tutor. I have said 
everything that was possible to dissuade him from it, 
even to pointing out his improper treatment of him, 
for this was my duty, coute que coute; he has taken 
it very well, ne s'est point offense, calls it good sense 
but reasoned on false principles; and, in short, de- 
sires me finally to leave him to him, so there is an 
end of it, and I can do nothing but wish and pray 
that he may do well. 

I know the Sir Rob. S. you mention a little, and 
think him very sensible, but odd tempered. La. M. 
Fitz talks of going to Ireland next month. Mr. Fitz 
is out of confinement. I suppose you hear often 
from Bath. Lord Rodney 1 is now there, and they 
are both inamorato morto di lui; he says your B. 2 
may be at home next month. Pray remember me to 
my old admirer, &c. Pray say something pretty to 
Madame Birbeck: I thought she had been dead, but 
tell her I am very glad to hear she is so much 

1 Lord Rodney — The famous British admiral, who had defeated the French fleet 
in the West Indies (1718-1792). 

''•your B — The writer's son, already referred to as "Jack " in letter of December 
12, 1778. 



FROM THE COUNTESS OF BRISTOL. 103 

better than when I had the pleasure of knowing her 
at Marseilles, &c. Poor soul, I believe she was un- 
happy there, and that he was a Birbo, 1 so pray soothe 
her a little. Adieu. I send this by the dear Duchess. 
What heavenly good nature and attention she shewed 
to you in that .£20! Do you know whether she ever 
sees Mrs. Cosway? I think I could one day prove 
to her that she is unworthy of her notice, and I wish 
you would mention it. God bless you! . . . 



The Countess of Bristol 

To Lady Elizabeth Foster. 

Ickworth Park, April 16, 1783. 

The inclosed letter from your brother, my dear 
Bess, arrived last night, and I hasten to send it to 
your charming friend to forward to you. I have 
one by the same pacquet, and as mine is wrote in 
very low spirits, I must caution you against any 
infection from yours, and desire you to recollect how 
the news of the peace (which he had not then heard) 
will have rejoiced him, together with some other 
circumstances which are in his favor more than he 
expected. 

I thank you, my dear, for your frequent letters, 
and for your pretty account of the dedication of the 
fountain, which was a rural compliment very well 
turned, and what, I think, may, without any self- 
reproach, give you half-an-hour's pleasure; but if the 
attentions you mention are really in so respectful a 

* Birio — Italian birtone, a worthless fellow. 



104 THE TWO DUCHESSES. 

style — I mean generally so, and not from a designing 
individual like Eh (who sacrificed the very character 
he pretended to revere) — I think you have the 
greatest reason to be pleased and the strongest 
inducement to go on in your new system. 

I am sorry you think of leaving Nice so soon, but, 
as I said before, it is impossible to give advice at 
this distance. I have only to hope that you do not 
sacrifice great points to lesser ones. I have just 
heard from Barmeath 1 your dear little boys are vastly 
well. Dr. Foster has been given over, but is better 
again. I long to hear whether that letter of Mr. F- 
to you is to produce anything. 

Adieu ! my love. I cannot write to-day, having a 
thousand embarras, servants inoculating, others ill, 
contrivances, orders, &c. I expect my brother from 
London, too, to-day, and we will talk of you. I do 
not ride, for, if I had a mind to do it, your father 
has taken my horse without saying a word to me. 
Salvatore is not yet here. I expect him next month; 
he is to be at Bury, and come up every morning. 
Louisa desires her love. I will take care to make 
all your excuses about writing. I wish you was 
not so punctual in that article with H., for by that 
means you make absence no advantage, and you are 
still the dupe of his expressions. The Duchess of 
Devonshire assures me that she is vastly well, and, 
as she has been all the time so prudent and manage- 
able, I think there is nothing to fear. 

I long for your Italian letters, the verses, and Mr. 
Robertson's answer, as also for further particulars of 

1 Barmeath — A mansion near Dunleer, Co. Louth. 



FROM THE COUNTESS OF BRISTOL. 105 

your travelling scheme, which I do not comprehend. 
You will not forget that Switzerland and Geneva are 
dear places for strangers. Adieu! Ever affection- 
ately yours. 

The Countess of Bristol 

To Lady Elizabeth Foster. 

Ickworth Park, Dec. 26, 1783. 

I received your letter from Rome of the 27th 
November, my dear Bess, a little before that of the 
10th from Florence; I don't know by what accident, 
but the dear Duchess who sent it to me said she 
supposed the French Ambassador had had it some 
time in his hands; and, as she did not mention 
having received one of an earlier date, I wrote to 
her to say what I knew of you, and I knew she 
would be glad to hear. She is comforting her poor 
mother 1 at St. Albans, and I am happy to find is so 
well recovered herself as to be able to go on with 
her nursing, and to succeed extremely in it. 

This overturn of the ministry will, I am afraid, 
vex her, but in the present moment of confusion it 
is hard to say what may be the consequence of it, or 
whether they may not come in again stronger than 
before. On an expectation of the Parliament being 
dissolved, your brother came down to me to try 
again at Bury; but as that is not to be, he is spared 
some trouble, and myself much disquiet, from the 
difficulty of acting in all matters so as to content 
your father. We are going to set out together for 

1 her poor mother— -Margaret Georgiana Poyntz, Countess Spencer, d. 1814. The 
death of her husband, Earl Spencer, had recently taken place. 



106 THE TWO DUCHESSES. 

Valentine, and by being so near London I shall hear 
more frequently how the arrangements and negotia- 
tions go on, and whether Mr. Pitt can form an 
administration to go on with him : Lord Mul 1 is one 
of his adherents. 

I am very sorry, my dear Bess, if anything I have 
wrote to you has given you the smallest idea of my 
being refroidi towards you. No, my poor suffering 
child, my tenderness is always the same; nay, more, 
my reliance on your good intentions, and on the 
desire you have to throw a drop of comfort into my 
bitter cup, which, I repeat to you, is always in your 
power; but when I see you borne away by the 
defects in your character, or blinded by your own 
approbation acting so as I think will provoke the 
censure of the world, I must tell you of it. I hope 
it is not with aigreur, but I own it is with strong 
feelings, because I see you in a situation in which 
you have everything against you. I am grieved to 
say that your father's very extraordinary conduct 
has given rise to many ill-natured reflections on 
the whole family. 

I have lost poor Mrs. Ashburner's letter and direc- 
tion, but if you wish me so much to write to her, 
and will send it to me, I will certainly do it. I 
do not understand Lady Cow's 2 situation by your 
account of her. Pray explain it, and how you found 
poor, dear Emily, and if she mentioned having heard 
from me. I am glad you saw things so agreeably 
there, but I was impatient to have you out of that 
climate, which I know is a bad place for you late in 

1 Lord Mul— Lord Mulgrave. ''■Lady Com— Probably for Lady Cowper. 



FROM THE COUNTESS OF BRISTOL. 107 

the year. You will soon have the Emperor, I find, 
in Italy, so you will have an opportunity of seeing 
many crowned heads and extraordinary characters. 

I am not surprised at the avidity with which you 
have gone to the great objects of curiosity and 
admiration at Rome; and to tell you the truth, am 
glad Mr. Byres was absent, because I think Mr. 
Jenkins will be a pleasanter cicerone, as he knows as 
much, and will communicate his instruction less en 
routine. You will find him in all things, I hope, an 
intelligent, useful, and friendly man ; and, indeed, he 
has already given a proof of it in the circumstance 
you mention. Pray remember me very particularly 
to him. I shall never forget his attention to me in 
my distresses at Castello. I will not write to him 
till I return. 

I find your father has not paid him the last year's 
pensions he is so good as to distribute for him. I 
wish it may be only forgetfulness, but for some time 
past everything has been neglected on this side of 
St. George's Channel. He took some of them begun 
by me out of my hands (I believe) for fear I should 
have the merit of it. 

I don't know how I expressed myself about Salva- 
tore, for he is in London, and of course cannot be 
employed by you, but may be served by your good 
report. I am glad you find people at Rome that 
speak favorably of him. I was afraid that that 
scandalous imprisonment had hurt him there. I 
wonder Cardinal Bernis should speak of me whom 
he never saw, and not of your father, whom I sup- 
posed he had admired and saw often. . . . 



108 THE TWO DUCHESSES. 

The Countess of Bristol 

To Lady Elizabeth Foster. 

Ickworth F 'ark, January 26, 1784. 

My dear Elizabeth, — I have two of your letters 
from Rome, one of which I received at your brother's, 
and one since my return home. I thank you for 
the account of what you see. The principal things I 
remember; but I had not the advantages you have, 
nor any guide given me, much less so good a one 
as Mr. Jenkins. Indeed, he does not act in that 
capacity, and it is a particular attention to you. I 
am glad you made my message more acceptable to 
him by making it public. I would give him every 
testimony of my regard, for I was in misery, and he 
helped me. As to Cardinal Bernis, I don't wonder 
at your surprise that I should not even know one 
with whom your father was so much acquainted, but 
I soon found that we could not go together. I 
wished much to have seen him, am sure I should 
have liked him, and have my disappointment un- 
expectedly made up to me by his kindness to you. 

The footing you have put yourself upon, my dear 
Bess, gives me great pleasure, and Mr. I. confirms it 
to me, but do not rely upon the praises of one who 
has acted so different a part. They are false : pursue 
your own plan, and give her no opportunity of 
intimacy to overturn it. I dare not name names, 
but I dare say you will understand me; if not, your 
cicerone can explain the living as well as the dead; 
but since all is quiet at Naples, and since you must 



FROM THE COUNTESS OF BRISTOL. 109 

go there, I rejoice much at your Danish friend, who 
is probably of a different character from any other 
woman you see; but I almost envy you the oppor- 
tunity of knowing the Emperor 1 and King of Sweden, 2 
two characters which have excited my curiosity 
extremely, and which you seem to have sifted so 
well. All is safe, too, at Venice. Well, I am rejoiced 
at it; and if you have tolerable weather, you have 
escaped from the most severe winter I ever saw, 
and must be a gainer, I hope a great one, in many 
points; but you still complain of your chest. Etes 
vous sage, ma chere fille? Do you avoid cold? do 
you keep to regimen? do you follow Pipot? Above 
all, don't let even S. tempt you to sing. 

I sent you word of Sir R. Smyth's death; his son 
was with him to the last, but he made no alteration 
in his favor: he has left him nothing; but what falls 
to him, and what he had before, gives him an income 
of about ^1400 a year. Mrs. Brand has behaved 
very handsomely to him, and he very unkindly to 
her. 

I have to inform you of the death of one which 
will affect you more — poor Dr. Foster — which account 
came very kindly to me from Miss Bellew in order 
to transmit to you. I know you will be very uneasy 
about the poor boys, but I think Mr. Foster will be 
inclined to leave them there, and that if you request 
it of the Marshalls that they will keep them; as to 
what you ask me about your father and Mr. Foster, 
I suppose they have quarrelled, for I wrote to him 

1 the Emperor— Alexander I., Emperor of Russia (1777-1825). 
* King of Sweden— Gustavus III. (1746-1792). 



IIO THE TWO DUCHESSES. 

when he was in Dublin to beg he would get your 
settlement registered, and his answer was that he 
would have nothing more to do with Mr. F. I will 
let you know whatever I hear from Dunleer. In the 
meantime do not let your imagination be too busy, 
for our real evils are enough and more than we can 
well cope with. 

I must not finish this letter without saying some- 
thing of Valentine: it is really a pretty place and 
very comfortable house, but there are some incon- 
veniences belonging to it, and I wish your brother, if 
possible, to get rid of it. Lady Hervey 1 is not very 
well, and they talk of going to Spa early in the 
season; and your sister, who is not at all so, has 
promised me to go whether they go or no. Your 
brother is grown fat and looks vastly well, and the 
two little cousins are au mieux. 

I will say nothing of Irish politics, and English 
ones are in such a state of confusion at this moment 
that nothing can be said of them. 

I will remember you to your Aunts when I see 
them, and to my brother, who is in the country; but 
we are all shut up by the snow. Your uncle William 
is with me, and has just done a very friendly thing 
by your brother. He and Louisa send their love to 
you. Remember me to Mr. Jenkins. Have you 
never been at Batoni's? 2 I am well and calm though 
I live in a storm, and evermore your affectionate 
mother. 

1 Lady Hervey — Elizabeth, daughter of Colin Campbell of Quebec, and wife of 
John Augustus Lord Hervey, eldest son of the Bishop of Deny, d. 1818. 
^Batoni — Pompeo Batoni, Italian painter (1708-1787). 



FROM RICHARD BRINSLEY SHERIDAN. m 

Richard Brinsley Sheridan} 

To Georgiana, Duchess of Devonshire. 

Crewe, October 29, 1786. 

My dear Duchess, — I have waited with the 
greatest impatience for the hour of liberty to remind 
you and Lady Elizabeth of one who never thinks of 
either of you without a mixture of pleasure and pain. 
I hope it is not necessary for me to entreat you both 
not to forget me. I am more interested in your 
happiness than half those who, with fine speeches 
and cold hearts, impose on your natural openness 
and sincerity; and, though it is impossible for those 
who know you at all not to love you, yet I will be 
confident in saying they cannot feel towards you as 
I do and must, after all that passed at C. 

I passed two days at Capethon, with its inhabi- 
tants, and Sir George and Lady Warren. I wandered 
about all day alone, and by recalling the past made 
the present less disagreeable. It is not often I 
indulge myself in these solitary rambles; though it is 
most pleasing to me in general, it unfits me for the 
part I am too often obliged to act; but I could not 
find words to answer all the fine speeches and 
pressing invitations of Lady Warren. My eyes were 
so dazzled by the glitter of her diamonds and 
trinkets, and the sound of her voice almost con- 
vinced me I was at a crowded assembly in town. I 
fled from the idea and from her, and, if wishes had 
wings, you would have seen me again at C. 

1 Richard Brinsley Sheridan~(i7$i-i.&i6). — See Appendix 



112 THE TWO DUCHESSES. 

We came here Friday morning; there are many 
people in the house, but, as I am quite sure they are 
quite as uninteresting to you as to myself, I will not 
mention them. I must except Mr. Hare, 1 who must be 
pleasant anywhere; his business is put off, I find, for 
he does not talk of going away. Charles Greville 
likewise is here, but I do not find he has been 
talking, consequently he has no suspicion of what 
you imagined, otherwise you may be assured Mrs. 
C. would have been acquainted with them. She has 
asked me a thousand questions of various kinds, to 
all which I have answered as I would to the town 
Cryer if I was questioned by him. I believe she 
feels that my heart is shut against her, and behaves 
accordingly; but I dare not complain, nor would it 
be of any service to me if I did; she is of an 
unhappy disposition, and there are moments when, 
in spight of her behaviour, I feel inclined to pity 
her: for my own part all situations are pretty much 
the same to me when there are cribbage or whist 
parties ; there at least I escape observation ; a grave 
look may denote a bad hand, and an accidental sigh 
may be that of regret for getting out a wrong card; 
here I find it doubly necessary to be so occupied, for 
the attention of Friendship does not suffer a word 
or look to escape, and by officious enquiries of my 
health or spirits point out an occasion for reproach 
to him whom I wish always to see happy by appear- 
ing perfectly so myself. 

When shall I hear from you? I am very anxious 

1 Mr. Hare — James Hare, wit and politician. See the lines on him on a sub- 
sequent page. 



FROM THE COUNTESS OF BRISTOL. 113 

to know how you are, and how things are going on. 
I see by the papers the Duke is gone. I hope you 
have influence enough over him to persuade him to 
resign. I am sure he ought. Pray when you write 
assure him of my regard and Friendship, indeed no 
more. Tell him the only thing in the world that 
would give me the greatest satisfaction is to think 
him perfectly happy, and in that wish I know I shall 
be joined by you. God bless you, my dear Duchess; 
pray believe that my heart is anxiously interested in 
all that concerns you, and that my warmest prayers 
are offered up for your happiness, let it depend on 
what it will. Pray believe this, and that I am, with 
the greatest affection and sincerity, ever yours, 

Sheridan. 

My best love to Lady Elizabeth; tell her Mrs. 
C.'s greatest insight to me is the having expressed 
myself as I feel about her. 



The Countess of Bristol 

To Lady Elizabeth Foster. 

Bruton St., Jan. 22, 1792. 
My dear Elizabeth, — I found a letter from Mrs. 
Bellew when I arrived here two days ago which I 
eagerly opened, as it was to answer my inquiries 
after your poor boys. The account is so pleasing a 
one that I will give you her own words, her letter is 
of the 8th of this month : "I had the pleasure of 
seeing the dear little Fosters here yesterday. They 
spent the day with us, and are perfectly well now, 



I 14 THE TWO DUCHESSES. 

and both very fine boys. Frederick is very senti- 
mental, sedate, and sensible; he had for a time 
severe chillblains, but is now well of them; the 
youngest seems arch, lively, and sensible, and I 
think has much of Lord Bristol in him, and they are 
very good-natured boys, and always seem happy to 
see us; indeed, the father seems very fond of both, 
and takes great care of them." I was in a hurry to 
write this, my dear Bess, though it could not reach 
you the sooner, and trusted to having time to finish 
my letter to-day, but the great racket and perplexity 
of arranging things and people, Louisa's being ill of 
a cold and cough, and a number of little plagues 
leave me but little time for it; however, I will just 
add that I think everything is settled for the mutual 
advantage of all parties. I was going to have ex- 
plained to you, but Louisa tells me she has done so, 
and I will therefore only say that I have got a very 
good bed-chamber myself, and that hers is next to it, 
at which I know you will rejoice for me. We have 
not stirred from the house on account of her cold 
and my business, and, on account of both, have made 
our arrival so little known that we have seen but 
few people. I have just sent to Devonshire House. 
How vexatious that your poor little muso 1 is not 
there, and where is it? for that I cannot figure to 
myself. I do wish it out of France — for though I 
think war further off than ever, I do not like to 
have you exposed to the accidents belonging to the 
present anxiety of it, but I must have patience per 
force. . . . 

1 muso — Italian for muzzle, face. 



FROM EDWARD GIBBON. 115 

Edward Gibbon 1 

To Lady Elizabeth Foster. 

I know not whether you are already informed of 
the sudden death of poor Lady Sheffield 2 after four 
days' illness, but I am sure that your feeling, affec- 
tionate mind will not be surprized to hear that I set 
out for England next week, and that a journey 
undertaken at the call of friendship. All the dragons 
of the way have already vanished. I go by Basle, 
Frankfort, Cologne, Brussels, and Ostend, and I 
flatter myself that the success of our allied arms will 
contribute every week to open my passage; it is even 
possible, though scarcely probable, that I may embark 
from the English town of Calais. Your answer 
to my last letter is doubtless on the road and will 
follow me, but you must write immediately to Shef- 
field Place, and I promise you a speedy and sincere 
account of our afflicted friend. I wish to hear of 
your motions and projects. I now sigh for your 
return to England, and shall be most bitterly disap- 
pointed if I have not the pleasure of seeing you in 
that happy island — yourself and the most amiable of 
Dutchesses before the end of the autumn. I cannot 
look with confidence beyond that period. My 
friend and your Chevalier will guard me as far as 
Cologne or Frankfort; his tender attachment to his 
mother, who is still very melancholy, will recall him 
from thence to Lausanne, but in the course of next 

1 Gibbon — The historian (1737-1704)- 

2 Lady Sheffield— Abigail Way, wife of the first Earl of Sheffield, Gibbon's most 
intimate friend, and editor of his posthumous works. 



Il6 THE TWO DUCHESSES. 

winter he has thoughts of visiting England. The 
circumstances of the times, which impoverish every- 
one, have persuaded him to listen to my advice of 
conducting on his travels some English pupill of 
fashion and fortune. Such a pupill will be fortunate 
in finding a real gentleman, and I trust that the 
Dutchess and yourself will exert your omnipotence in 
providing some connection equally honourable and 
advantageous for my friend and your sincere Votary. 
Adieu. Excuse brevity, and address a Classic 
prayer in my behalf before some statue of Mercury, 
the god of travellers. 

Lausanne, May the $th, 1793. 



The Earl of Bristol, Bishop of Derry 

To Lady Elisabeth Foster. 

Naples, March 6, 1796. 

Dearest Elizabeth, — I did not expect a second 
letter of yours from Goodwood 1 without a plan and 
elevation of that model of a house you admire so 
much and prefer to mine. A few guineas, my child, 
would have procured it, and you know I am not 
niggard of them, especially where architecture is 
concerned. I am certain, on your speaking to the 
Duke of Richmond, he will order it immediately; 
you may fold it up in a large letter, and I receive it 
time enough to adopt any improvements it contains. 

You beg me on your knees that Ickworth house 
may be built of white stone brick. You know, my 

1 Goodwood— -The country seat of the Duke of Richmond in Sussex. 



FROM THE EARL OF BRISTOL. 1 17 

dear, what Ranger says to his cousin, and upon my 
knees I beg you too. What, child, build my house of 
a brick that looks like sick, pale, jaundiced red brick 
that would be red brick if it could, and to which I 
am certain our posterity will give a little rouge as 
essential to its health and beauty? White brick 
always looks as if the bricklayers had not burnt it 
sufficiently, had been niggardly of the fuel; it looks 
all dough and no crust. I am ever looking out for 
its crust, so, my dear, I shall follow dear impeccable 
Palladio's rule, and as nothing ought to be without 
a covering in our raw damp climate, I shall cover 
house, pillars, and pilasters with Palladio's stucco, 
which has now lasted 270 years. It has succeeded 
perfectly well with me at Downhill on that temple of 
the winds, and as well at my Casino of Derry — that 
temple of Cloacina. It has resisted the frosts and 
the rains of Vicenza c'est tout dire, and deceives the 
most acute eye till within a foot. 

We have Lord Macartney 1 here these eight days. 
They had him at Court twice, and have squeezed 
this China orange so close they left him nothing 
but the pulp. What restless perturbed spirits he 
has, that in the course of his short life he has visited 
Petersburgh and Grenada, Madras and Pekin, and 
is now reduced to a mock embassy to a mock king. 
A propos I passed two hours and a half with this 
King of Candides; he is no Carnival King, how- 
ever, that is certain, but un vrai Roi de Cardme. I 

''■Lord Macartney— Lord Macartney was at the head of the first British mission 
ever sent to China, in 1792. The " mock king " here referred to was Louis XVIII., 
at this time an exile, to whom Lord Macartney was sent on a confidential mission 
(1737-1806). 



Il8 THE TWO DUCHESSES. 

never conversed with a more pleasing, cheerfuller, 
easier, better-informed man in any country. Adver- 
sity has not soured but sweetened him, and turned 
all his vinegar to oil. 

I am truly delighted you are so much so with the 
picture I sent Louisa. 'Tis a real bijoux, and just fit 
for her breakfast-room, but you say nothing of the 
Berlin dejennS which I reckon a great cadeau, and 
when it stands on a tripod of Siberian ?nalachite will 
be impayable. 

What say you to my idea of a gallery of German 
painters contrasted with a gallery of Italian painters, 
from Albert Durer 1 to Angelica Kauffman, 2 and 
from Cimabue 3 to Pompeio Battoni, 4 each divided by 
pilasters into their respective school — Venetian for 
colouring, Bologna for composition, Florence for 
designs, Rome for sentiment, and Naples for nothing 
at all? But the Homer of Painting is in my mind in 
Germany, Rembrandt? and the author of the Descent 
from the Cross 6 at Antwerp. Raphael 7 and all Italian 
painters are the Minor Poets of Painting, the Garths, 8 
the Gays, 9 the Priors, 10 but there is not a Shakespeare^ 
among them. Michael Angelo 12 is mad, not sublime; 
ludicrous, not dignified. He is the Dante 15 of painters 
as Dante is the Michael Angelo of poets. The 

I Albert Durer— (1471-1528). ''■Angelica Kauffman — (1742-1807). 
3 Cimabue — Giovanni C. — (1240-1300). 

* Pompeio Battoni — Pompeo Batoni (1708-1787). 

Rembrandt — Rembrandt van Ryn (1606-1669). 

6 the author of the Descent from the Cross — Peter Paul Rubens (1577-1640). 

''Raphael — Raffaelle Sanzio (1483-1520). 

8 Garth — Sir Samuel Garth (1661-1719). 

9 Gay— John Gay (1685-1732). 10 Prior— Matthew Prior (1664-1721). 

II Shakespeare — (1564- 1616). 

18 Michael Angelo — Michael Angelo Buonarotti (1475-1564). 
13 Dante — Dante Alighieri (1265-1321). 



FROM THE EARL OF BRISTOL. 119 

picture of the last Judgment is so tragi-comical 'tis 
difficult to say what passion it excites most; and St. 
Barthleme, all flayed, who holds up his skin as his 
ticket of admittance into Heaven, is worthy only of 
Bartholomew fair. Adieu. This is the fortieth day 
I am in bed unremittingly, reduced to a shadow, yet 
devouring like a shark. My pulse is a pulse of 
threads scarce to be felt. The King and Queen supply 
me with game, and I make game of everybody. 
The House — -The House — The House. 



The Earl of Bristol, Bishop of Derry 

To Lady Elizabeth Foster. 

Pyrmont, August 1, 1796. 

Dearest Elizabeth, — Though I would not for the 
world itself disappoint your poor brother's 1 hopes if 
his noble and generous heart be really engaged, nor 
even diminish of one obole the allowance I should 
be able to make him, which is exactly the same I 
gave your poor dear eldest brother, yet I must con- 
fess it would half break my heart to see his fixed on 
any other than the beautiful, elegant, important, and 
interesting object I have proposed to him. At least, 
dearest Eliza, if you have any interest with him, in- 
duce him, beg him, my dear, not to decide before he 
is able to chuse. She would bring into our family 
,£5000 a year, besides a Principality in Germany, an 

J your poor brother— Frederick, who by the death of his elder brother, also here 
referred to, had become Lord Hervey. He was afterwards Earl and Marquis of 
Bristol (1769-1859). 



120 THE TWO DUCHESSES. 

English Dukedom for Frederick or me, which the 
King of Prussia 1 is determined to obtain in case the 
marriage takes place, a perpetual relationship with 
both the Princess of Wales 2 and her children, as also 
with the Duchess of York 3 and her progeny, the 
Embassy to Berlin, with such an influence and pre- 
ponderance in favor of dear England as no other 
could withstand. Add to all this, the King is so 
tent upon it, from his great partiality to me, that I 
doubt not his doubling the dot in case F. desired it, 
which indeed I should not. We are, besides, all 
determined to go and meet him the moment we hear 
of his debarking, which he may notify by estafette. 
In short, nothing would be more brilliant, or flatter- 
ing, or more cordial than his reception in case he can 
think with us; and indeed, dearest Elizabeth, the 
examples he has before his eyes in and within his 
own family ought fully to determine him against a 
love match; 'tis so ominous a lottery, so pregnant 
with blanks, so improbable a success. In short, 
dearest Elizabeth, write to me soon; above all, See 
him. All I desire of him is not to resolve against 
us; not to throw away a Pearl richer than all his 
tribe; let him but see before he decides, let him 
weigh all we offer to his ambition, his ease, his com- 
fort, his taste, and his pocket. 

1 the King of Prussia — Frederick William II. (1744.-1797). 

2 Princess of Wales — Princess Caroline, daughter of Charles, Duke of Brunswick 
(1768-1821). 

3 Duchess of York — Daughter of Frederick William II., King of Prussia, and wife 
of the Duke of York, son of George III. , d. 1820. 



FROM THE EARL OF BRISTOL. 121 

The Earl of Bristol, Bishop of Derry 

To Lady Elizabeth Foster. 

Pyrmont, August 4, 1796. 

Dearest Elizabeth, — I have wrote warmly and 
fully to your dear brother on my project of marrying 
him to one of the prettiest, sweetest, most delicate, 
and innocent, as well as accomplished little women I 
ever saw, endowed with ,£100,000 down, besides the 
reversion of a landed property in Germany, with the 
promise of a Dukedom to him or me, as the King of 
Prussia can obtain it from our King. On the con- 
trary, though, God forbid I should negative his 
inclinations, poor fellow, at his time of life, and in his 
state of health, [I wish] to dissuade him all I can (and 
I entreat your assistance, sweet Elizabeth) from his 
present pursuit. She has little or no fortune. Your 
brother by the last act of settlement can make no 
provision for either her or her children, and if he 
should die within five or six years — which the per- 
turbed state of his mind might easily produce— what 
must be the consequence to his widow and her 
orphans? Once married and the first heat of passion 
allayed, what must be the state of an anxious debili- 
tated mind ? 

Dearest Elizabeth, — Farquhar 1 himself could not 
ensure his poor life for a year more after black and 
melancholy ideas should begin to possess his mind. 
Relief would neither be in his power nor in mine, 
and medicine would be the more ineffectual as the 
malady would be in the mind. 

1 Farquhar— -Sir Walter Farquhar, Bart. , a celebrated physician. 



122 TKF. TWO DUCHESSES. 

If you care, my dear child, to accompany your 
brother to Pyrmont, and from thence to pass the 
winter at Naples, I will gladly pay your expenses, 
and be glad of your company for the winter. The 
King of Prussia has been good enough to write by 
Express to the Directory at Paris requesting a pass- 
port for Lord Hervey and his suite to land at 
Ostend and pass through the Low Countries to Pyr- 
mont. . . . [Torn.] At anyrate, my dear Elizabeth, 
try to dissuade him from a passion and a pursuit so 
pregnant with evil consequences to the quiet of his 
mind and the health of his body, whilst on the other 
hand I offer a real Cornucopia. 



The Earl of Bristol, Bishop of Derry 

To Lady Elizabeth Foster. 

Pyrmont, August 16, '96. 

You nasty little Imp of Silence! What are you 
doing that one can hear no more about you than if 
one did not care for you, and yet who do I care for 
more? 

I wrote your brother that he might bring your 
ugly face with him, and we would all go to Naples, 
where I have, without exception, the handsomest and 
best situated house there; fourteen rooms on each 
floor all hung with Rafaels, Titians, 1 and what not. 
Then how happy the queen to see you, and the 
delicious evenings we should pass with her. Your 
brother is to receive by estafette a passport from the 

1 Titian — Tiziano Vecellio {1477-1576). 



FROM THE EARL OF BRISTOL. 1 23 

Directory to land at Ostend and come to me through 
Brabant. That would be the road for you, eight 
hours' sail and no more. Then, what a journey to- 
gether, and a month's residence at Sans Souci, which 
the king has just lent me with his cooks, his manors, 
library, gallery, &c. Oh! if I can accomplish my 
heart and soul's desire to join your dear brother's 
hand with La Comtesse de la Marche 1 — ^5000 a 
year down, ^5000 more in reversion, an English 
Dukedom, probably the embassy to Berlin — por Dio 
che piacere. The King gave me his honor to pass 
next summer at Ickworth if there be a peace. 



The Earl of Bristol, Bishop of Derry 

To Lady Elizabeth Foster. 

Pyrmont, August 27, '96. 

Dearest Elizabeth, — Are you alive or dead, or are 
you on a journey? Or perchance she sleepeth? If 
so, at least dream a little, or walk in your sleep, or 
talk in your sleep, for I have no patience with your 
long, very long, silence. I proposed to your dear 
brother to bring you with him first to Pyrmont, then 
to Naples, where you know what pleasures, intel- 
lectual and sensual, await you, and neither your 
journey nor your abode shall cost you one farthing; 
and I think the climate, to say nothing of other 
circumstances, would do ye both service. What I 
have most at heart in this moment is your brother's 
marriage with The Comtesse de la Marche, the King 

1 La Comtesse de la Marche— -See Appendix. 



124 THE TW0 DUCHESSES. 

of Prussia's daughter, of which I have wrote to you 
so fully; but I would not on any account have you 
teaze him about it how ardently soever I may wish 
it, especially as he seems inclined to another project. 
But see the difference: 

On my side. On his side. 

,£5000 a year down. No fortune. 

^5000 a year in reversion. Wife and children beggars for 
An English Dukedom, which the want of settlement. 

King pledges to obtain. No connexion. 

Royal connexion — Princess of A love match, like all others for 

Wales, and Duchess of York. four generations before him. 

Sweet Elizabeth, when occasion serves, help me to 
accomplish my project. I cannot, if I would, afford 
him more than ^"2000 a year whilst my house is 
building and furnishing. What is that in London ? 

But on my plan. On his plan. 

^2000 from me. ^2000. 

^5000 Dowry. Wife and children, and no settle- 

,£3000 Embassy to Berlin or ment. 

Munich. 
,£10,000 



The Earl of Bristol, Bishop of Derry 

To Lady Elizabeth Foster. 

Pyrmont, September n, 1796. 

Dearest Elizabeth, — Your are a dear, amiable 
little girl not to have called on me for your sugar 
plums in this year of distress and confusion, for by 
the last balance of my accounts with Messrs. Gosling 1 
there remained but one hundred pounds in their 

1 Messrs. Gosling— Bankers in London. 



FROM THE EARL OF BRISTOL. 1 25 

hands, and several of my own drafts from Italy have 
been protested, which is both expensive and dis- 
graceful, so that you see, my dear child, I had little 
left to be generous with, having scarce withal to fill 
the duties of Justice. 

Lord Hervey. 

And now, my dear child, for poor, dear Frederick's 
affair; and it amazes myself when I recollect the 
object the nearest to my heart for these last twelve 
or fourteen years. I thought I could be content to 
vegetate for the remainder of my green old age 
among painters and sculptors, masons and brick- 
layers, and was not aware of the very deep interest 
this warm, sensible heart of mine was likely to take 
in any project whatever; but I own to you the idea 
of fixing a son of your brother's superior and pre- 
eminent qualities, both moral and intellectual, in a 
station worthy of him and of us all has kindled anew 
the almost extinguished sparks, the very embers of 
my expiring and effete ambition. To see him in 
possession of a station where his interest can be as 
independent as his spirit, and take a bond of Fate; 
to see him fixed where he can essentially and proudly 
serve the greatest country that ever reared citizens, 
and the ablest minister 1 that ever served a country, 
was a prospect to which my dim eyes did not yet 
reach : then to see that project tumbled down to a 
Chateau d'Espagne in the regions of love and fancy; 
to see him a bankrupt in the most problematical 
and disadvantageously fascinating Lottery with 500 

1 the ablest minister— William Pitt (1759-1806). 



126 THE TWO DUCHESSES. 

blanks to one prize, would put even my philosophy, 
triumphant as it yet is, to the proof. Aid me, there- 
fore, my dearest child, to eradicate, if possible, his 
own project from his mind, and then to establish 
mine. The first object is to get him abroad, where, 
if you can, I dare say you will, accompany him; then 
to secure his health of body and tranquillity of mind: 
a winter passed in England at this period of his 
malady, both of mind and body, cannot but be fatal; 
whereas a warm air bath at Naples, in that most 
balmy of all atmospheres, amidst music, friends, and 
dissipation, will be as soothing to his mind as the 
climate to his body; and as I, on account of my own 
horses, never travel above 25 or 30 miles a day, and 
have always saddle-horses at hand, he can not fear 
fatigue. As to his love project, thus stands our 
account: 

On my project. 

1. A lady without fortune, with- 1. A lady with ^10,000 a year 

out connexions. instead of ^5000, and five 

2. No possible settlement on more in reversion, 
my part nor on Lord Her- 2. An English Dukedom, 
vey's. 3. The highest and most desir- 

3. All my Irish leasehold estates able of all connexions. 

entailed long ago on H. 4. Peace of Mind for me and 

Bruce 1 and his children; on himself. 

Theo. Bruce and his chil- This is your brief, and I expect 

dren; on your two sons; you to plead with eloquence 

on Caroline; and finally on the cause of us all. 

Frederick, with a clause in 

favor of myself. 

4. Therefore poverty, famine, 
and omnipotent love for her 
and her children. 

1 H. Bruce— Rev. Sir Henry Hervey Aston Bruce, Bart., d. 1822. 



FROM THE EARL OF BRISTOL. 1 27 

He says his honor is engaged; so it is — not to 
entail poverty and famine on her and her younger 
children. Your late brother has left me a debt of 
,£15,000 to pay — £10,000 to his daughter and 
£5000 to his creditors: judge of my means, and 
believe me, as ever, yours. 



The Earl of Bristol, Bishop of Derry 

To Lady Elizabeth Foster. 

Pyrmont (or Berlin), Sept. 14, 1796. 

If I have anything to ask of you, my dearest 
Elizabeth, it is that in case your brother gets a 
cough in the course of the winter, you beg of Lord 
Spencer 1 a frigate, and send him off directly to me at 
Naples, ever yours, B. 

P.S. — Nothing can equal the Deroute of the 
damned Blackguard, pilfering, plundering, pillaging 
Republicans. Neither Minden 2 nor Rosbach 3 can 
compare with it: all their artillery, all their baggage, 
all their waggons loaded with contributions, all taken : 
we have here two officers and the son of our apothe- 
cary just arrived from Frankfort, who not only con- 
firm all this, who were ocular witnesses to these 
ourang outangs running like themselves without 
shoes, stockings, or breeches, and the exasperated 
peasants knocking them down, like real monkeys, 

1 Lord Spencer — The second Earl Spencer (brother of Georgiana, Duchess of 
Devonshire), First Lord of the Admiralty in Pitt's government (1758-1831). 

'Minden— -The French were defeated by an army of Anglo-Hanoverians near 
Minden, in Westphalia, in 1759. 

^ Rosbach— Rossbach, in Prussian Saxony. Here Frederick the Great defeated 
the allied Austrian and French armies in 1757. 



128 THE TWO DUCHESSES. 

their prototypes, with bludgeons, pitchforks, staves, 
all that came to hand, "furor arma ministrat" 12,000 
dead on the road or the field, 900 waggons loaded 
with wounded, that is 9000 wounded, and the Aus- 
trians in Frankfort before the rear guard left it. 



The Earl of Bristol, Bishop of Derry 

To Lady Elizabeth Foster. 

Frankfort, Sept. 26, 1796. 

Dearest Elizabeth, — Here is the most consolatory 
Gazette I have read of a long time, and I inclose it 
as a receipt to cure you of a migraine. Nothing 
can be more brilliant than the successes of our 
two heroes, the Archduke Charles, 1 and the Prince 
Frederick of Orange, except their own exertion to 
obtain them. They are idolized by their armies, 
and amply supported by their courage. The last 
accounts I have seen of Moreau's 2 defeat near Munich 
carry the number of dead up to 15,000, the wounded 
9000, and the prisoners 7000. If the Austrians can 
carry the fort of Kehl, Strasburg, entirely com- 
manded by it, must fall, and then France will begin 
to feel the iron hand of Austria. 

I leave this at 4 o'clock to-day, and shall reach 
Pyrmont in three days, which I left only to get a 
sight of the armies. From Pyrmont straight to 

1 Archduke Charles — Third son of Leopold II. , Emperor of Austria. He defeated 
Marshal Jourdan in several battles in 1796. He also defeated Moreau at Rastadt 
in 1797, Mass^na in 1805, and the main French army, commanded by Napoleon in 
person, at Aspern, May 21st and 22nd, 1809 (1771-1807). 

2 Moreau — The greatest general of the French Republic, except Napoleon (1763- 
1813). 



FROM THE EARL OF BRISTOL. 1 29 

Sans Souci, where I pass a month with my dear 
Countess and her beautiful, elegant, decent, mild, 
gentle Daughter. Would to God she were also 
mine. I have so set my very heart and soul on this 
union that no event whatever could give me equal 
satisfaction, and when poor dear Frederick perceives 
the absolute impracticability of his own project, [I 
have no doubt] but he will, according to the tenor of 
his last letter, readily adopt mine. Ce qui me mettra 
a la joie de mon cceur, for a young woman more 
calculated by nature, as well as education, to make a 
virtuous man happy, I never yet saw, and I am certain 
you would doat on her. 



The Earl of Bristol, Bishop of Derry 

To Lady Elizabeth Foster. 

CASSEL, Sept. 30, 1796. 

Dearest Elizabeth, — I am now returning to Pyr- 
mont from my military expedition, for you know, 
child, we have Church militant as well as Church 
visible — Low Church and High Church. The affaire 
at Alten Kircken 1 near Dillembourg, which is near 
Marpurg, was bien sanglante. The Ourang Outangs 
or Tyger monkeys lost the few shirts and breeches 
they had. That modern hero, Prince Frederick of 
Orange (observe, my dear, all the great men of this 
century are Fredericks 2 ); this hero, who united the 

1 Alten Kirchen In Prussia. The French who had defeated the Austrians here 

in 1796 were themselves defeated, and their general Marceau killed on Sept. igth 

following. 

3 Fredericks The writer's own name, it should be remembered, was Frederick. 

I 



130 THE TWO DUCHESSES. 

phlegm of Hannibal with the activity of Scipio, cut 
them to pieces like a sailor's biscuit. They have 
recrossed the Rhine, and evacuated Dusseldorf. On 
the Upper Rhine the bravery of the Austrian soldiers 
had taken Fort Kehl, which commands Strasburg; 
and the stupidity, indiscipline, and rapacity of the 
officers lost it. They were plundering the stores 
when they ought to have been raising the Draw- 
bridge — quelles betes — Landau is known to have only 
600 men or boys in it. The Archduke marched 
with 13,000 men to take it, and here ends my 
Budget and letter, and so adieu, dearest Eliza. 

To-morrow for Sans Souci and my dearest 
Countess, de qui je soucie beaucoup in spite of my 
Goliah = Rival, whom little David no longer fears. 



From Georgiana, Duchess of Devonshire, 

To Frederick Foster. 

Devonshire House, \ith Nov., 1796. 

I have hitherto refrained from claiming the privi- 
lege of an old acquaintance, and writing to you, not 
only from the dreadful complaint I have had on one 
eye, which has occasioned my being forbid writing, 
but also, Dear Frederick, from thinking that your 
time must be very much taken up. I can, however, 
refrain no longer, and I write now to assure you of 
the warm interest I take in everything that concerns 
you, and my impatience to see you. Your apparte- 
ments, and your brother's, are quite ready at Devon- 
shire House. I hear you are to set out 20th. I do 



FROM GEORGIAN A, DUCHESS OF DEVONSHIRE. 131 

most earnestly entreat you to let your journey suffer 
no further delay. Your Dear Mother's heart is so 
full of anxiety and expectation that any disappoint- 
ment or delay in the expected moment would be 
fatal to her health. You will find many friends 
impatient to see you, and none more so than your 
new Uncle, Lord Hawkesbury. 1 

I do not know if you remember me, but I assure 
you that I never have forgot you since Bath. You 
must excuse this bad writing, as I am still half blind, 
but, truly and affectionately, yours, 

G. Devonshire. 



To Lady Elizabeth Foster ; from Georgiana, Duchess of 

Devonshire, when she was apprehensive of 

losing her eyesight — 1796. 

The Life of the Roebuck was mine, 
As I bounded o'er Valley and Lawn ; 

I watched the gay Twilight decline, 

And worshipped the day-breaking Dawn. 

I regret not the freedom of will, 

Or sigh, as uncertain I tread; 
I am freer and happier still, 

When by thee I am carefully led. 

Ere my Sight I was doomed to resign, 

My heart I surrendered to thee ; 
Not a Thought or an Action was mine, 

But I saw as thou badst me to see. 

Thy watchful affection I wait, 

And hang with Delight on Thy voice; 

And Dependance is softened by fate, 

Since Dependance on Thee is my Choice. 

1 See note, p. 150. 



132 THE TWO DUCHESSES. 

Lines by Georgiana, Duchess of Devonshire, on 
Lady Elizabeth Foster. 

Untutored in the Pencil's Art, 
My Tints I gather from my Heart, 
Where Truth and Love together trace 
The various Beauties of thy face; 
Thy Form acknowledged fair and fine, 
Thy Smile, the antidote to Pain, 
Thy Voice that never spoke in vain; 
As diamonds on the Crystals trace 
In Lines no Efforts can efface: 
To please for ever is thy Lot — 
Once seen, once loved, and ne'er forgot. 



On Lady Elizabeth Foster, by Georgiana, Duchess of 
Devonshire. 

Portrait d' Elizabeth. 

A la beaute enchanteresse, 

Elle unit l'attrait de l'esprit ; 
Par un regard elle interesse, 

Par un sourire elle seduit. 
A la finesse du langage, 

Du gout parfait le rare don; 
Elle reunit l'avantage 

De la bonte et de la raison. 
Mortels, craintifs fuyez ses charmes, 

Fuyez son pouvoir enchanteur; 
La cruelle impose les peines, 

Au lieu de donner le bonheur. 

G. Devonshire. 



PASSAGE OF THE ST. GOTHARD. 1 33 

To my Children, 

By Georgiana, Duchess of Devonshire. 

THE PASSAGE OF THE MOUNTAIN OF SAINT 
GOTHARD. 

Ye plains where three-fold harvests press the ground, 
Ye climes where genial gales incessant swell, 

Where art and nature shed profusely round 
Their rival wonders — Italy farewell! 

Still may thy year in fullest splendor shine! 

Its icy darts in vain may winter throw! 
To thee, a parent, sister, I consign, 

And wing'd with health, I woo thy gales to blow. 

Yet, pleas'd Helvetia's rugged brows I see, 
And thro' their craggy steeps delighted roam, 

Pleas'd with a people, honest, brave and free, 
Whilst every step conducts me nearer home. 

I wander where Tesino madly flows, 

From cliff to cliff in foaming eddies tost; 

On the rude mountain's barren breast he rose, 
In Po's broad wave now hurries to be lost. 

His shores, neat huts and verdant pastures fill, 
And hills where woods of pine the storm defy; 

While, scorning vegetation, higher still, 
Rise the bare rocks coeval with the sky. 

Upon his banks a favor'd spot I found, 
Where shade and beauty tempted to repose; 

Within a grove, by mountains circled round, 
By rocks o'erhung, my rustic seat I chose. 

Advancing thence, by gentle pace and slow, 
Unconscious of the way my footsteps prest; 



134 THE TW0 DUCHESSES. 

Sudden, supported by the hills below, 

St. Gothard's summits rose above the rest. 

Midst tow'ring cliffs and tracts of endless cold 
Th' industrious path pervades the rugged stone, 

And seems — Helvetia let thy toils be told — 
A granite girdle o'er the mountain thrown. 

No haunt of man the weary traveller greets, 

No vegetation smiles upon the moor, 
Save where the flow'ret breathes uncultur'd sweets, 

Save where the patient monk receives the poor. 

Yet let not those rude paths be coldly trac'd, 
Let not these wilds with listless steps be trod, 

Here fragrance scorns not to perfume the waste, 
Here charity uplifts the mind to God. 

His humble board the holy man prepares, 
And simple food and wholesome lore bestows, 

Extols the treasures that his mountain bears, 
And paints the perils of impending snows. 

For whilst bleak Winter numbs with chilling hand — 
Where frequent crosses mark the travellers' fate — 

In slow procession moves the merchant band, 
And silent bends where tottering ruins wait. 

Yet 'midst those ridges, 'midst that drifted snow, 
Can nature deign her wonders to display; 

Here Adularia shines with vivid glow, 
And gems of chrystal sparkle to the day. 

Here, too, the hoary mountain's brow to grace, 
Five silver lakes, in tranquil state are seen; 

While from their waters many a stream we trace, 
That,, scap'd from bondage, rolls the rocks between. 

Hence flows the Reuss to seek her wedded love, 
And with the Rhine, Germanic climes explore; 



PASSAGE OF THE ST. GOTHARD. 1 35 

Her stream I mark'd, and saw her wildly move 
Down the bleak mountain, thro' her craggy shore. 

My weary footsteps hop'd for rest in vain, 
For steep on steep in rude confusion rose; 

At length I paus'd above a fertile plain 
That promised shelter and foretold repose. 

Fair runs the streamlet o'er the pasture green, 
Its margin gay, with flocks and cattle spread; 

Embowering trees the peaceful village screen, 

And guard from snow each dwelling's jutting shed. 

Sweet vale! whose bosom wastes and cliff surround, 
Let me awhile thy friendly shelter share! 

Emblem of life ! where some bright hours are found 
Amidst the darkest, dreariest years of care. 

Delv'd thro' the rock, the secret passage bends, 
And beauteous horror strikes the dazzled sight; 

Beneath the pendent bridge the stream descends 
Calm — till it tumbles o'er the frowning height. 

We view the fearful pass — we wend along 

The path that marks the terrors of our way — 

Midst beetling rocks, and hanging woods among 
The torrent pours and breathes its glittering spray. 

Weary at length, serener scenes we hail — 

More cultur'd groves o'ershade the grassy meads, 

The neat, tho' wooden hamlets deck the vale, 
And Altorf's spires recall heroic deeds. 

But tho' no more amidst those scenes I roam, 
My fancy long each image shall retain — 

The flock returning to its welcome home — 
And the wild carol of the cowherd's strain. 

Lucernia's lake its glassy surface shews, 

Whilst nature's varied beauties deck its side ; 



136 THE TWO DUCHESSES. 

Here rocks and woods its narrow waves enclose, 
And there its spreading bosom opens wide. 

And hail the chapel! hail the platform wild! 

Where Tell directed the avenging dart 
With well strung arm, that first preserv'd his child, 

Then wing'd the arrow to the tyrant's heart. 

Across the lake and deep embow'd in wood 

Behold another hallow' d chapel stand, 
Where three Swiss heroes lawless force withstood, 

And stamp'd the freedom of their native land. 

Their liberty requir'd no rites uncouth, 

No blood demanded and no slaves enchain'd; 

Her rule was gentle and her voice was truth, 
By social order form'd, by laws restrain'd. 

We quit the lake — and cultivation's toil, 

With nature's charms combined, adorns the way, 

And well earn'd wealth improves the ready soil, 
And simple manners still maintain their sway. 

Farewell, Helvetia! from whose lofty breast 
Proud Alps arise, and copious rivers flow; 

Where, source of streams, eternal glaciers rest, 
And peaceful science gilds the plain below. 

Oft on thy rocks the wondering eye shall gaze, 
Thy vallies oft the raptur'd bosom seek — 

There nature's hand her boldest work displays, 
Here bliss domestic beams on every cheek. 

Hope of my life! dear Children of my heart! 

That anxious heart to each fond feeling true, 
To you still pants each pleasure to fmpart, 

And more — oh transport! — reach its Home and You. 



FROM THE EARL OF BRISTOL. 1 37 

The Earl of Bristol, Bishop of Derry 

To Lady Elizabeth Foster. 

Dresden, December 6, 1796. 

Did I not tell you, my dearest Elizabeth, that 
they would bungle the affair with the King of 
Prussia, and so it has happened? Mr. Elliot 1 here 
assured me he had seen all Mr. Hammond's papers, 
and to himself it was clear as daylight that the King 
and his ministers had acceded to all the preliminaries, 
whilst Mr. Hammond, who has a much greater hesi- 
tation in his brain than in his speech, was persuaded 
the preliminaries have not been acceded. 

The King himself, Bishopswerder, 2 and Moellendorf 3 
were all of Mr. Elliot's opinion, and the King him- 
self told me in presence of my friend that he never 
was so surprised as when he heard that Mr. Ham- 
mond was decamped. I repeat it to you, let them 
send Frederick to Frederick William. I will give 
him la grace prevenante with my Countess, and I will 
pledge myself he, with his talents, his manners, and 
his activity, will render it la grace efficace. 'Tis a 
shame, dearest Elizabeth, that Frederick, with such 
endowments as his, both natural and acquired, should 
sacrifice so all to indolence, prepossession, and mere 
Egoism, whilst by entering into a career equally 
suited to his birth, to his talents, and to his education, 
he can render himself so extensively useful to the 

''■Mr. Elliot— Hugh Elliot, a son of Sir Gilbert Elliot, and brother of the first 
Earl of Minto. 

2 Bishopswerder — Hans Rodolph B., a Prussian statesman, d. 1803. 

3 Maellemiotf—'Riehaxii Joachim Henry, Count de M. , a Prussian general (1724- 
1816). 



138 THE TWO DUCHESSES. 

noblest country that ever did or ever can exist, re- 
spectable to his friends, and highly, permanently, and 
solidly serviceable to himself. Add to all that it is 
inconsistent with that noble character of indepen- 
dence which I suppose him to possess, to throw 
himself on the shoulders of a father already sinking 
under the weight, whilst by a manly and vigorous 
exertion of talents, for which he is responsible, he 
might prove an honor to his country, a comfort to 
his family, and a solace to himself. 

Lord Elgin 1 is tired to death of Berlin, and would 
be so of any other station where he could not exer- 
cise his fox-hunting spirit, but Ratisbon was the 
station I wished your brother to accept, at this 
hour the very best diplomatick school in Europe, 
where the interests of all the empire are daily dis- 
cussed, where he might learn his lesson in the best 
company. Mr. Elliot, who began with those rudi- 
ments, assured me yesterday it was to that school he 
owed all the diplomatick knowledge he possessed, 
and regretted infinitely with me that Frederick had 
Declined what he should have Conjugated. He 
empowered me at the same time to say that if 
Frederick could procure him any desirable exchange, 
he would resign Dresden to him. At all events, be 
sure your brother is not aware of the false step he is 
taking by declining the diplomatick line; according 
to all experience he cannot miss with his Birth, his 
Talents, his Connexions, and his assiduity becoming 
Secretary of State in ten or twelve years. Either he 

'■Lord Elgin— -The seventh Earl of Elgin, who collected the splendid Grecian 
sculptures known as the "Elgin marbles" in the British Museum (1766-1841). 



FROM THE EARL OF BRISTOL. 1 39 

is, or he is not, calculated for public speaking; if he 
is, ministry will be as glad as him to give him a 
Semestre for the Parliament month (?) to avail them- 
selves of him; if he is not, he cannot be better em- 
employed than at the Desk, where he has already 
given proofs of his prowess and powers in handling 
Mr. Thomas Paine 1 — and so adieu, sweet Elizabeth. 
I have done my duty; let Frederick now do his. 
Pour moi j'irai mon train, and if I cannot be the 
Caesar nor the Cicero, 2 I will be a less splendid but 
a more usefull Cityzen, the Lucullus 3 of my time, 
the Midwife of Talents, Industry, and hidden virtues. 
Sweet Elizabeth, adieu. 

A luminous idea has just struck my mind which I 
only propose to you, and of which you may dispose 
as you please; if your eldest son 4 was sent abroad 
whilst I remain so he might live with me, and Mr. 
Lovel for one or two hundred a year might be his 
mentor — no one better for it, either for the morals 
or intellect of your son. I do but propose; do you 
dispose. 

The Earl of Bristol, Bishop of Derry 

To Lady Elisabeth Foster. 

Dresden, December 28, 1796. 

I do not expect peace to be signed by that blun- 
dering attorney, Lord Malmesbury, 5 too cunning to 

1 Thomas Paine — The well-known anti-Christian writer, author of The Rights of 
Man, The Age of Reason, &c. (1737-1809). 2 Cicero— (106 B.C.-43 B.C.). 

3 Lucullus— A wealthy Roman general, a patron of literature and art, and friend 
of Cicero (115 B.C.-49 B.C.). 

*your eldest son— Frederick Th . Foster, now about nineteen years old (1777-1853). 

5 Lord Malmesbury— James Harris, the first Earl of Malmesbury, diplomatist 
(1746-1820). 



140 THE TWO DUCHESSES. 

deceive and too crafty to be trusted, but in case I 
should be disappointed and the French tygers sub- 
mit to our terms, I think it is worth Frederick's 
while in time to speak for the embassy to the Hague, 
which is so near England, he is almost at home, and 
may ever be so in 24 hours; but here are my 
politicks, and if ever you canvass with the Duke and 
Duchess or other Plenipo, pray start the question 
and let me know the result. My idea is to annihi- 
late Holland as a blackguard, mean, low, shabby, 
rival power, and sink her, as she was formerly, into 
the 17 provinces of Brabant, &c, &c, then give 
them altogether to Bavaria, and the Palatinate to 
the old Elector, an ignorant enthusiast, and a Papist 
whose nonsense, as Bishop Burnet 1 says, suits their 
nonsense. Brabant will at length have a Resident 
Sovereign. The Palatinate east of the Rhine I 
would give to a young branch of our Royal family 
as being Protestant; but west of the Rhine, and 
including all the iniquitous, profligate, debauched 
bishopricks and their infamous chapters, I would cede 
to the Republick on condition, and for this condition 
I would spend the last drop of blood and money, 
that they cede all the Provinces south of the Loire 
to Louis 18. Here is France as a maritime and 
commercial nation sunk for ever; the two govern- 
ments eternally at war together, and doing the busi- 
ness for England; but if France Is to remain entire — 
oh! judge of her future energy by her past, and 
dread the fatal moment when that restless people, 

1 Biskap Burnet— Gilbert B. , author of History of the Reformation and History 
of His Own Times (1643-1715). 



FROM THE EARL OF BRISTOL. 141 

having recruited her strength, pour all upon Eng- 
land: at all events, dear Elizabeth, I hope your 
torpid friends, for such I must call them, will not 
forget to secularize the two very lucrative but tyran- 
nical bishopricks of Paderborn and Hildesheim in 
favour of two younger sons of our Royal family. 
The Bishops expect it, the people pray for it, and all 
Westphalia applaud it. Perhaps that Log, Lord 
Grenville, 1 does not know that they exist nor has 
ever heard of the secularization of the opulent 
bishoprick of Magdeburg in favour of the house of 
Brandenburg 2 after the 30 years [war], for, by all 
accounts from my diplomatick friends, a more ignorant 
blockhead does not exist; but, dearest Elizabeth, in 
case these torpid gentlemen assume the courage to 
secularize Hildesheim and Paderborn, let them not 
over look the small, low-lived, ignorant convent of 
English Benedictines at Lambsheim(?) worth ^3000 a 
year in the heart of that bishoprick, and now possessed 
by a whole sty of groveling, grunting, Epicurean 
hogs drawn out of the counties of Lancashire, West- 
moreland, and West Riding of York. If your 
friends have the courage to look at such an enter- 
prize you may give them a memorandum for their 
consideration. In the bishoprick of Paderborn there 
is another convent of Dominicans which I have also 
visited, and may be worth ,£2500 a year, and is in 
the centre of the bishoprick. The act of seculariza- 
tion depends entirely on the Emperor, who can 
refuse England nothing. The Chancellor of Hanover 

1 Lord Grenville — William Wyndham G. , created Baron G. in 1790, afterwards 
Foreign Secretary and Prime Minister in 1806 in succession to Pitt (1759-1834). 
ihouse of Brandenburg — The royal family of Prussia. 



142 THE TWO DUCHESSES. 

assured me that, to his knowledge, that corrupt, 
abandoned scoundrel, Lord Bute, 1 had absolutely the 
offer of a secularization in 1 762, but refused it. Tis 
supposed he pocketed ,£20,000 for this infamous 
refusal, and the younger sons in consequence remain 
a burthen on England. Oh! if your brother were 
now Minister at Berlin what a blow he might strike! 
since I know for certain and past a doubt that my 
landlord of Sans Souci wishes nothing so much as to 
join in crushing the tigres-singes. What a blunder 
the sending of Hammond, whom nobody could 
understand, and who did not understand neither 
himself or others, and as to the present 
[Rest of this letter missing.] 



The Countess of Bristol 

To Lady Elizabeth Foster. 
On both my children's arrival in England, to Lady E. Foster. 

Wimbledon, Monday, 1796. 

How can I express to you, my dear Elizabeth, 
the feeling I have for you at this moment and the 
share I take in your happiness. In every respect 
your letter gives me great satisfaction. You happy 
will be a novelty indeed, but you have been patient 
under your sufferings as, a wife, you have done your 
utmost to perform your duty as a mother, and I 
doubt not but that Providence has in store a reward 
for you, more especially as you think yourself unde- 

1 Lord Bute — John Stuart, third Earl of Bute, best known as being a most un- 
popular prime minister in the beginning of the reign of George III. (1713-1792). 



FROM THE EARL OF BRISTOL. 143 

serving of it, for an humble confidence in God is 
acceptable to Him. 

God reads the language of a silent tear 
And sighs are incense from a heart sincere. 

I had just written you a note to beg you would 
moderate your agitation, and I still hope you will 
try to do it, but to-morrow is so near, it will be 
difficult. We had been a little distressed lest you 
should see that an Irish packet had been lost, and 
not observe that it was going from England; how- 
ever, I thought it best not to mention it, and here 
they are safe. I thank you, my dear Elizabeth, for 
sending the earliest notice, and congratulate you 
most warmly on it. Pray assure them of my best 
affection, and believe that I shall be most sincerely 
glad to receive you and them together on Thursday 
if that suits, but if the House of Commons and 
Louisa's health should be likely to disturb your 
Wednesday's party, let me know it, and bring them 
here, if you like it better, on that day. Adieu, most 
affect. 



The Earl of Bristol, Bishop of Derry 

To Lady Elizabeth Foster. 

PLOUEN ce 12 Jan. 1797. 

I send you, my dearest Elizabeth, as to one of 
the few persons capable of relishing a great idea 
worthy of either Cromwell 1 or Chatham, but perhaps 
unintelligible to your dull, formal, pedantick, un- 

1 Cromwell— Olivet C. (1599-1658). 



144 THE TWO DUCHESSES. 

comprehending, and incomprehensible Minister of 
Foreign affairs, to which department he is as inade- 
quate as to the Home, witness the insults offered to 
the British Lion by the Cubs of Genoa, or the 
Foxes of Tuscany. I send you, I say, a copy of 
my letter to Frederick William, which has been 
infinitely better understood and far more relished by 
him than by that impenetrable and unpenetrating 
blockhead Lord Grenville. 

Chere amie, je te confie par une main tres sure 
un projet qui m'est d'autant plus cher que je me 
flatte qu'il s'agit des veritables inter^ts d'un des plus 
vertueux Souverains de' Europe entiere, et sans 
contredit des inter£ts de celui a qui par gout, comme 
par reconnaissance je suis le plus attache. 

C'est beaucoup dire pour un Anglais et, pour un 
Anglais aussi fier que moi. 

II s'agit done chere amie de mettre la France hors 
de combat: cette Nation inquiete et inquietante sera 
tranquille pour au moins un siecle. 

II s'agit de la partager en deux — France Repub- 
licaine et France Monarchique, l'une au nord de la 
Loire, l'autre au midi. 

La Nature s'y pr£te et la Politique s'y prete, car au 
sud de La Loire il n'y a pas Fortresse quelconque 
si vous en exceptez La Rochelle — et Antibes et 
Toulon, toutes les deux degarnies de leur artillerie 
pour subvenir au siege de Mantoue. 

Ajoutez que la proportion des Aristocrats a toujours 
ete et subsiste toujours d'un superiority enorme a la 
proportion Democratique. 



FROM THE EARL OF BRISTOL. I45 

La France dans ce moment est terrassee; elle est 
aux abois et a peine peut-elle se soutenir. 

Pour effectuer ce projet de partition il y'a deux 
partis a prendre. 

Ou de s'allier avec le nouvel Empereur de Russie 
et de concert avec lui, et avec lui seul sur un 
principe purement Monarchique, conduire le Roi 
Louis 18, avec la petite, mais brave et loyale 
armee de Conde travers la Suisse et le Piemont 
sans facon quelconque et le proclamer Roy de la 
France meridionale tout en entrant dans la Pro- 
vence. 

Ou bien de s'allier avec l'Angleterre qui fera la 
moitie des frais, et aideroit avec sa flotte pour seconder 
le m£me systeme. 

Mais je crains un Cabinet aussi liche, aussi equi- 
voque, aussi indecis que celui de Londres, et je pre- 
fererois toujours un Cabinet dont l'alliance seroit 
sympatetique et oil les inter£ts de la Monarchic serait 
commun aux deux Monarques. 

Alors je pretens que d'apres les connaissances 
que 25 ans de voyages m'ont donne, les frais de la 
guerre doivent etre annuellement aux depens de la 
France Meridionale. 

Dans les annees 1766 et 1767 j'assistais a la tenue 
des Etats de Languedoc. 

Cette Province accorda au Roi chaque annee la 
somme de .£300,000 livres Sterlines. 

Les Provinces de Guienne et de Gascogne avec 
la ville de Bordeaux payerent en impots la valeur de 
.£600,000 livres sterlines. 

Les Etats de Dauphine et de Provence avec la 



146 THE TWO DUCHESSES. 

ville de Marseilles accordaient au Roi la somme de 
,£500,000 livres sterlines — disons done. 

Languedock, .... ^500,000 
Guienne, &c, .... ^600,000 
Dauphind, &c, . . . ^500,000 



^1,600,000 



Doublons cette somme par le droit de guerre nous 
aurons la somme complette £3,200,000 sterlines. Je 
me flatte qu'avec les contributions ordinaires cela 
suffirait pour entretenir les deux armees. 

II s'agit a present du Bien qui resulterait a votre 
ami de ce projet et du Mai qui doit resulter de sa 
negligence. 

Par la division de la France en Republicaine et en 
Monarchique elle devient Puissance tres secondaire, 
par consequent hors de combat — encore plus si le 
caractere inquiet de la Nation faisait remuer la 
Republique. Voila. le Monarque tout de suite a son 
dos pour revendiquer ses anciens droits, et lui arracher 
quelque province — en tout cas son aide comme Puis- 
sance secondaire serait tres mince, tres Equivoque et 
peu a craindre. 

Mais — laisser echapper ce moment et que la Re- 
publique reste — une et indivisible — quel en est le 
triste et fatal resultat? 

La France Republique devient mille fois plus 
energique, plus terrible, plus dangereuse et plus 
seduisante durant la paix que durant la guerre. 

Lescommis voyageurs, les negotians, les emissaires, 
les apdtres de la liberte repandront a. droit et a 
gauche ces principes de la liberte qui etouffent toute 



FROM THE EARL OF BRISTOL. 147 

liberie et tres-surement bouleverseront les Mon- 
archies actuelles et les Gouvernmens Monarchiques. 

Et dites moi quel sera 1'antidote a ce poison. 

Les Pays-Bas seront-ils cedes a la Republique ou 
non? S'ils sont cedes quel colosse de Puissance et 
ou est done Wesel? Juliers? Cleves? 

En cas qu'ils ne sont pas cedes trois ans apres la 
paix voila le duplicat du traite de ce Fanfaron 
Kaunitz. 

Cedez-moi les Pays-Bas dira la Republique qui 
vous chicanent tant, vous insultent tant, et fonciere- 
ment vous rendent si peu, et je verse tous mes forces 
pour vous donner un equivalent dans la Silesie, la 
Pologne, &c. 

Mais on me repliquera — La Russie ne le permette 
pas — La Russie l'a deja permis une fois; done la 
Russie le peut encore permettre. II ne lui faut qu'un 
Ministre corrompu — dans une Nation la plus cor- 
rompue de toute 1' Europe — ou bien accorder a la 
Russie pour sa neutrality Dantzig, &c, et qui me 
repondra de son amitie fidele? 

Vaut il la peine de risquer les evenements de la 
guerre de sept ans ? Ne vaut-il pas mieux secouer ses 
plumes, aiguiser son bee, et deployer ses griffes, et 
fondre une fois pour tout sur cet ennemi abattu — 
terrasse mais toujours inquiet perfide et ruse, et lui 
oter tout pouvoir de se relever — Divide et impera. 

Dearest Elizabeth, — My friend writes me it has 
made the deepest impression, and raised the most 
vigorous resolutions, but alas I know him. One 
hour in the Lap of his Danseuse, and he lies there the 



I4 8 THE TWO DUCHESSES. 

shadow of a king — yet at such a moment if your 
brother, with all his energy and all his insinuation, 
was on the spot to keep this momentary energy alive 
to secure to his interests she who now opposes hers, 
to back all my friend's exertions, — to warm this 
lump of inert matter and breathe into it a per- 
manent fire with 233,000 men at his back — at this 
critical decisive moment what might not this Colossus 
effect, and what honor to himself, and what permanent, 
extensive, substantial benefit to his country might 
not Frederick achieve : but I am talking to the Deaf. 
Dearest Elizabeth, make your friends speak out, if 
possible, to the purport of this memorial — read well 
yourself, read with Frederick — state the objections — 
at Dresden at Berlin the idea has more than pleased: 
perhaps the magnitude of the object deters. It would 
not have deterred Lord Chatham, but alas he did 
bestride this narrow world like a stage Colossus, 
and these petty men do but Peep between his legs. 



Tlie Countess of Bristol 

To Frederick Foster. 

Wimbledon, Oct. 19, 1797. 

My dear Frederick, — I imagine this will find you 
at Oxford; and though I am not a very good corre- 
spondent when you are in the midst of your friends, I 
hasten to you in your Solitude that you may see that 
you and your Interests are ever present to my mind. 
I beg, therefore, that you will tell me how you like 
your new situation, as soon as you can form any 



FROM THE COUNTESS OF BRISTOL. 149 

judgement of it, and whether you have any acquaint- 
ance there. I wish I could have given you an intro- 
duction to anybody likely to prove a Companion and 
friend to you, for that is what you want, and, indeed, 
what is necessary to everybody for their comfort and 
happiness. You will remember one Person whom I 
cautioned you not to receive upon a footing of 
Intimacy, or easily to believe what He may tell you 
either of himself or other People. At the same time 
I hope you will keep upon civil terms with him, for I 
dare say he will be full of profession; but you must 
learn early to keep certain Characters at a distance, 
whilst I hope you will take Polonius's advice and 
grapple those friends thou hast to thy Soul with hooks 
of Steel. Tell me how you like your rooms, and 
your reception. I shall really feel very anxious till 
you have got over the first fortnight, and then I 
hope you will begin to distinguish some of your 
Companions, and to enjoy some Society. 

I rejoice with you, my dear Frederick, on our late 
glorious Victory over the Dutch 1 Fleet, which has 
been very compleat, and conducted with as much 
skill and gallantry as possible. The English have 
now defeated the three Fleets of the Allies separately, 
and, I believe, indisposed them very much to engage 
further with us: this is supposed to be the most 
material defeat of the three, and it will, I hope, be 
the preservation of your Country. 

I conclude you passed your time very pleasantly at 
Chatsworth, and that you was struck with the Place, 
as it was probably the finest you had ever seen. I 

1 glorious Victory over the Dutch— PA. Camperdown, Oct. 11, 1797. 




, ,"'-/■'-' //'/, -f,//r t',s/,'/ A't/ ■ .■ fitfr/J/iT Pfs/rfi'-t . ■/,*/•'/ ' //, S/f .•.■■.,(;-. •/ / 



150 THE TWO DUCHESSES. 

don't know whether you love Country Sports, but I 
suppose you had them in perfection. Lady Hervey, 
Lady Erne, and their Daughters are still at Tun- 
bridge. Your Uncle is, I believe, at Weymouth, but 
he has gone by the Coast, and stopped at different 
places for bathing. I am afraid he will return to 
Town with great regret for the meeting of Parlia- 
ment. Lord and Lady Hawkesbury 1 mean to be 
there about the 28, and are to leave Dunleer on Mon- 
day. Adieu ! dear Frederick : as I have been very 
ill, writing fatigues me, so I will only add that I am 
ever your affectionate G. Mother. 

I am so glad that your mother appears to be well, 
and Augustus quite happy with his Colours. I hear 
he has at last the approbation of his guardians. 



The Earl of Bristol, Bishop of Derry 

To Lady Elizabeth Foster. 

1797. 

Sans Souci and Sans Souci for ever, my dearest 
Elizabeth! At last, on the 30th of October — Sunday, 
noon — here I am truely worthy of this Philosophic 
Mansion, without care, and almost without thought, 
so consummately am I Germanized. 

Nothing, no, nothing, not even the plains of Thet- 

1 Lord Hawkesbury — Robert Banks Jenkinson, son of the first Earl of Liverpool, 
whom he succeeded as second Earl. He was Prime Minister from 1812 to 1827. 
He had become (in 1795) the husband of Lady Louisa Hervey, youngest daughter 
of the Bishop of Derry, and aunt of the young man to whom this letter was written 
(1770-1828). 



FROM THE EARL OF BRISTOL. 151 

ford or of Brandon can equal the aridness of this 
situation, nor even the Terrace of Weybridge surpass 
the beauty and luxuriancy of the prospect. Hesperian 
gardens surround the house: grapes worthy our best 
hothouses, pine apples as plenty as crabs in Devon- 
shire or apples in Herefordshire; we can eat 1200 in 
a year, and every week at Pyrmont we received a 
dozen or more. Then for game, the Basse-cour at 
Chatsworth does not supply more fowl, ducks, geese, 
and capon than we have — partridges, grouse, wood- 
cock, &c; but, alas! to-morrow we enter the eve of 
November, and I have those accumulated Purgatories 
of the Alps to pass before I can enter that earthly 
paradise, Naples. So to-morrow we decamp, bag 
and baggage, and no bad baggage is mine : geese, 
turkies, ducks, shoulders and legs of mutton alter- 
nately, preceded by two graduate cooks, masters of 
arts, who arrive just one hour before us — quanto 
basta, to find our dinner as ready as our appetites. 
Lo, here is our diary: At seven help Hyperion to his 
horse, and then mount our own; trot away 15 or 18 
miles sans y penser; find excellent coffee, and better 
cream, and two eggs ready for a rapacious stomach, 
with all its "sue gastric" afloat, ready to consume 
whatever it receives. . . . After two hours' rest, 
but not of our tongues, for we babble like parrots or 
starlings, though our converse be not quite sterling; 
on horseback anew, and even so we dispatch 15 or 
18 miles more through this ocean of sand, with now 
and then a village to make the remaining solitude 
more sensible; at close of day we close our labors, 
and then here is our recompense: 



152 THE TWO DUCHESSES. 

Soupe. 

Bouilli of duck or goose. 

Mutton shoulder or leg. 

and a large bowl of punch, in which we bury all 
fatigue, and at length all thought, and then, as the 
clock strikes eight, enter the warming pan, et tout 
est dit, and all night sleep in Elysium without one 
single ghost in our dreams. And so, sweet Eliza- 
beth, not to put you to sleep, I close my narrative: 
to-morrow for Berlin, next day for Werlitz, next 
Dessau, Leipzig, and Dresden, &c, &c. Yours affec- 
tionately, du fond de mon profond cceur. g 



The Earl of Bristol, Bishop of Derry 

To Lady Elizabeth Foster. 

March 20, 1798. 

Dearest Elizabeth, — Now or never perhaps may 
you most essentially serve me. All my effects at 
Rome are under sequestration to the amount of 
,£20,000 at the very least. Could Mr. Pitt be 
induced to send a Minister to congratulate the 
Roman people on their emancipation, and appoint 
me to the Embassy, he would do himself and me 
a most essential service: me, because I should save 
all that immense, valuable, and beautiful property of 
large mosaick pavement, sumptuous chimney pieces 
for my new house, and pictures, statues, busts, and 
marbles without end, first-rate Titians and Raphaels, 
dear Guidos, 1 and three old Carraccis 2 — gran Dio! che 

1 Guido — (1575-1642). 3 Carracci — (1555-1619). 



FROM LADY ELIZABETH FOSTER. 1 53 

tesoro; and himself, because such an embassy would 
wrench the Republick off the hands of their tyrant's 
dispoiler and merciless taskmaster, restore us the 
ports of Ancona and Civita Vecchia for our manu- 
factures and codfish, and lay the foundation of a 
treaty of commerce, the most beneficial perhaps of 
any in Europe. 

Now, if either your friend, Lord Spencer, or, above 
all, your greater friend, the Duke of Devonshire, or 
the Duchess, would effectually join in this lottery, 
you see, dearest Elizabeth, I should literally get the 
^"20,000 prize. 

Dear girl, do what you can for me. As to the 
Duke of Richmond, I do not suppose he has now 
any interest, else he could refuse you nothing. 

I am on thorns till I hear from you. A ransom 
was offered by General Berthier, 1 but that is now 
suspended. 



Lady Elizabeth Foster 

To Augustus Foster? 

December 4, 1798. 

You are eighteen this day, my own dear Augustus 
— many many happy years may you see, and may 
those encreasing years ripen every virtue in your 
breast and bring them to their full maturity. Let 

1 General Berthier— One. of Napoleon's marshals. He held the first place in the 
confidence of Napoleon (1753-1815). 

2 Augustus Foster— Second son of John Thomas Foster, M.P., was Charge' 
d'affaires at Stockholm, 1S08-1811; British Minister at Washington, 1811-1812; at 
Copenhagen, 1814-1824; and at Turin, 1824-1840 (1780-1848). 




. i- ■ . ,- - ,■ ■ 



1 54 THE TWO DUCHESSES. 

not this anniversary of your birth, my dearest boy, 
pass without forming new resolutions for the year to 
come. Examine your own character; see what you 
think you find there to alter or amend. You are 
young enough to counteract any wrong tendency, 
yet old enough to be soon in danger from the influ- 
ence of habits and custom; indulge in a fault to-day 
it will be harder to resist it to-morrow; the fault 
which you acknowledged to me, that of too easily 
giving way, would insensibly make you act not only 
according to the errors of your own judgment but 
those of others; be on your guard against this, 
dearest Augustus, yet the contrary extreme, an un- 
yielding disposition, is still less amiable. Be firm, 
therefore, only when the pure dictates of your heart 
tell you that you are wrong, and if ever wrong, fear 
not to acknowledge it; above all, fear it not to me; 
some means of reparation a friend may generally 
point out, but where can you find a friend so true 
and so affectionate as your mother. All the great 
fundamental qualities of your character I trust are 
right. I have never known you fail in them; strict 
inviolable truth, a religious observance of one's pro- 
mise, a sacred observance of another's secret, and 
prudence for one's own; as your situation and con- 
nections in life enlarge duties increase also, and 
amongst the foremost I hope you will ever feel the 
purest [torn out] women, and never risk their happi- 
ness to gratify your vanity or even passions. I was 
pleased to hear W. Lamb 1 say with earnestness that 

1 W. Lamb — William Lamb, afterwards Viscount Melbourne, and Prime Minister, 
with exception of a short interval, from 1834-1841 (1779-1848). 



LINES ON THE BATTLE OF ABOUKIR. 155 

if he felt a growing passion for his friend's wife he 
would fly to the further end of the earth to resist the 
danger. Dear, dear Augustus, I fear I have bored 
you, but my heart is anxiously watchful over you, 
and this day encreased the feeling. May Heaven 
ever guide, bless, and direct you. 



LINES ON THE BATTLE OF ABOUKIR. 

By GEORGIANA, DUCHESS OF DEVONSHIRE (1799). 

" Hush! forbear to tell the Story 
Full of Horror, Full of Fear. 
Talk not to a wretch of Glory, 
Or of Hated Aboukir. 

Whilst I shrink from every morrow, 
Whilst kind death alone I claim, 

Conquest cannot cure my sorrow, 
Nor Despair be soothed by Fame. 

I am wretched, past retrieving; 

He is lost and I'm undone; 
All my life will pass in grieving 

For the battle we have won. 

Cease those cruel exultations, 
Cease this mockery and boast; 

What's to me the fate of nations, 
When to me my Love is lost." 

Whilst poor Laura's frenzied ditty 
Mingled with the sounds of glee, 

Many a heart, subdued to Pity, 
Altered said, I pity thee. 



156 THE TWO DUCHESSES. 

Gallant was thy Lover's story, 
Bravely did he Life resign. 

Cheer thee, maid, he died for glory, 
But his latest sigh was thine. 



Lady Elisabeth Foster 

To Augustus Foster. 

Devonshire House, February 2, 1799. 

. . . Mr. Pitt's admirable speech, though firm, 
is not so strong an appeal to the good sense of the 
Irish, and so far from any violence that no violent 
measures need be apprehended; and it makes me 
regret the more that a question of such importance 
to the welfare of a whole country should have been, 
by the efforts of party, refused a fair hearing. I 
think your reasoning upon it very just. I do not 
find that Lord Hawkesbury acknowledges Lord 
Castlereagh 1 to be in any scrape, so I hope the fears 
I heard expressed were exaggerated; the violence 
in the House was very great. . . . 



Augustus Foster 

To Lady Elizabeth Foster. 

Weimar, March 19, 1799. 

. . . I introduced myself to Kotzebue 2 at our 

ball, for he was invited with his wife there. I talked 

a good deal to him since about his plays; he says he 

likes always the last written of them the best. He 

1 Lord Castlereagh — (1769-1822). 

5 Kotzebue— August K., well known as a prolific German dramatist (1761-1819). 



FROM LADY ELIZABETH FOSTER. 1 57 

has entered into an engagement with Harris of 
Covent Garden. Harrison had been desired by 
Sheridan to treat with him, but Kotzebue told me 
that he had heard that Sheridan was not remarkably 
strict in paying his debts, and he thought it better 
receiving half sure from Harris than double from 
Sheridan. I promised to send him Pizarro in a day 
or two, for he has not seen it yet. It is droll that 
Rolla has had very bad success in Germany. 

. . . Kotzebue, when he heard that Miss E. 
Gore was going to get the portrait of him copied in 
order to give me for you, proposed sitting himself 
again for another portrait, as he was discontented 
with the first. 



Lady Elizabeth Foster 

To Augustus Foster. 

Colchester, August 7, 1799. 

We left Ickworth yesterday a little after twelve 
and arrived about six; we travelled rather with heavy 
hearts, for there had been unpleasant letters from my 
father, and my dear mother was low and unwell. 
I cannot tell you at present what they were, but 
most certainly he is a cruel man. . . . General 
Hervey and Lady Erne are there, and I hope the 
Hawkesburys are going next week. My mother 
has need of all the comfort which her children can 
give her, and it is the most sacred duty we can 
fulfill. . . • Dear Lord Howe 1 is dead. There 

1 Lord Howe— (1725-1799). 



158 THE TWO DUCHESSES. 

is a brave man lost to his country: it is at a mo- 
mentous time too. The combined fleets are out 40 
strong and sailing from Cadiz north-west; supposed, 
' therefore, for Ireland. What our Channel fleet is I 
don't know, but Lord Keith, it is said, was not far 
behind; the extraordinary thing is how they can 
have missed them. The secret expedition is near 
its embarkation. A camp of 18,000 men is now on 
Barham downs. 

Thursday, %th. 

Lord Hawkesbury, whom we met going to town 
the day we came here, is now returned. He brings 
us very particular news. It was supposed that the 
French meant to get into Brest harbour with the 
Spanish fleet, to be prepared for an attack on Ire- 
land, but we shall soon have a fleet of full thirty sail 
of the line in the channel. Lord Keith 1 is trying to 
get up to him. Lord Chatham is going with this 
expedition, some are already embarked, and the 
others are to go as soon as possible, but Lord H. 
swears that nobody knows where it is going except 
the directors of it; you will soon know of its disem- 
barkation. . . Sheridan's Pizarro I think you 
must like; 17,000 copies have been sold. Sheridan 
is now adapting the Virgin of the Sun for the stage. 
It seems again doubtful whether the Duke of York 
goes with this secret expedition. Lady Anne Fitz- 
roy is to be married this day to Cullen Smith, so 
they are both of them consoled for their faithless 
former loves. 

1 Lord Keith — (1746-1823). 



FROM AUGUSTUS FOSTER. 159 

Augustus Foster 

To Lady Elizabeth Foster. 

Weimar, Nov. 22, 1799. 

. . . I don't know if I may risk telling you as 
news that Buonaparte 1 has overthrown the whole of 
the French Constitution. His life was attempted in 
the Council of 500 at St. Cloud, where he and the 
Antients have assembled them, by the deputy Arena, 2 
who threw himself upon Buonaparte with a dagger 
in his hand, and, if it was not for a grenadier officer, 
who received the blows in his coat, would have killed 
him. He, Sieyes, and Roger Ducos 3 form the new 
triumvirate — but it is foolish telling you all this, for 
you must have it already in your papers. B. is an 
extraordinary man indeed; he will fill up many pages 
in history. What if he should act the part of Crom- 
well or Julius Caesar? 4 but I'm afraid he wants the 
talents. Mounier don't know what to think of it. 
He supposes that there may be perhaps a Constitu- 
tion like that of America. . . . 

1 Buonaparte — (1769-1821). 

lArina — Barthelemi A., a native of Corsica, was accused with his brother Joseph 
of conspiracy, and of attempting to stab Napoleon on the 18th Brumaire while 
dissolving the council of 500 of which B. A. was a member ; but he always denied 
the charge and died in obscurity, though his brother Joseph was executed. 

3 He, Sieyes, and Roger Ducos — Members of the consulate, Napoleon being First 
Consul. 4 Julius Caesar — (100 B.C.-44 B.C.). 



l6o THE TWO DUCHESSES. 

Lady Elizabeth Foster 

To Augustus Foster. 

Dec. 6, 1799. 

. . . I envy you having got acquainted with 
Kotzebue. I should have liked to have told him 
that if fame came into his calculation that he had 
better have received half from Sheridan than any 
sum from Covent Garden. Pray tell me what he 
says to Sheridan's Pizarro. I suppose you have 
frequently met at Weimar. I do wonder that Rolla 
should not have succeeded in Germany. Don't fail 
to bring his picture. . . . 



Augustus Foster 

To Lady Elizabeth Foster. 

Weimar, Dec. 14, 1799. 

I wonder you have not in any of your letters 
mentioned anything about Bonaparte's return, and 
the changes in France. I should have thought you 
would all have been enthusiastic about him in 
England, Lady Anne Hatton particularly, who was 
so dazzled with him. Notwithstanding what you 
say about the Expedition, 1 and the courage of the 
troops, I can't help thinking that from what we hear 
on this side, the Expedition was but badly conducted, 
and that they might have made a better and more 

1 the Expedition — The expedition to Holland under the Duke of York, which 
was a complete failure. 



FROM LADY ELIZABETH FOSTER. l6l 

creditable retreat. You ask me Mounier's opinion 
about the late Revolution. He liked it at first, 
because it was at least a change, and that Sieves 
and Bonaparte seemed more moderate and cleverer 
men than the others; but, since the violent trans- 
portation of so many Jacobins, without form or 
process, into Guiana, he thinks there's as little liberty 
as ever. ... I sent Pizarro the other day to 
Kotzebue, for he had not yet read it. It was an 
odd idea of Sheridan's, but I am told that he got 
Pizarro translated into German, and sent it as a 
present to Kotzebue. 

There are three new tragedies coming out here 
this winter: Mary Queen of Scots by Kotzebue, 
Gustavus Vasa by Schiller, 1 and a translation of 
Mahomet by Goethe. 2 . . . 



Lady Elizabeth Foster 

To Augustus Foster. 

Dec. 27, 1799. 

I suppose, dearest Augustus, that you are now at 
Minden. I do not wonder that you went, for the 
review of such an army must be a fine sight. The 
eagerness for news increases in proportion to the 
importance of the crisis, and, particularly, every 
body here is anxious for news of the fleets. Lord 
St. Vincent 3 has with him probably at this moment 

1 Schiller— (tjSg-iSos). ' £<««*-( 1749-1832). 

3 Lord Si. Vincent— {1732-1823). 



1 62 THE TWO DUCHESSES. 

50 sail of the line. How mean and pitiful of the 
French the sending the unfortunate Pope 1 to an 
hospital in France at 80, not to allow him to end 
his days in a convent in his own country; but 
the French do not know the greatness of treating 
humanely a fallen foe. Mr. Henry Foster and his 
adopted daughter went with me to the opera. 
Pizarro the 21st night has been as full nearly as the 
first. Pray send me any anecdotes you can pick up 
about Kotzebue. There is no other subject scarcely 
of conversation, by which you will understand that 
there are various opinions on the subject. The 
violent Ministerialists are angry that Sheridan should 
have such applause; the violent oppositionists are as 
angry at the loyalty of the Play; and the rigid and 
censorious are suspicious of such pure morality and 
mild religion from the pen of a person esteemed 
profligate. To bring up the rear, authors are jealous 
of his success, and cry out it is Kotzebue and not 
Sheridan's merit: so Sheridan says — I am but a 
translator: but then, such a translation! As soon as 
it comes out I will send it to you. William Lamb 
foolishly distrusts it — foolishly, because it is attributed 
to pique at the failure of the Epilogue; the poetry of 
this was pretty, but it wanted strength. I dined 
yesterday at Richmond House with the Melbournes, 2 
and there it had a grand discussion. 

. . . A very odd story has just come out. 

1 the unfortunate Pope — Pope Pius VI. , who was taken prisoner by the French 
general Berthier, and carried away from Rome to Valence, in France, where he died 
(1717-1799). 

2 the Melbournes— -Viscount and Lady Melbourne, parents of William Lamb, 
who became afterwards prime minister. 



FROM LADY ELIZABETH FOSTER. 163 

Lady Holland 1 yesterday restored to Sir G. Webster 
a child whom she had always told him was dead: it 
is a little girl, whom she lay in of in Italy, and when 
she was coming home, conscious that she was to be 
parted from Sir Godfrey, and being doatingly fond 
of this child, she contrived to have it pass for dead, 
and had it brought to England under a feigned 
name, and has constantly seen it; but at last, con- 
vinced she was acting in a most unjustifiable manner 
both to Sir Godfrey and the child, she owned the 
whole thing, and the child, now six years old, is 
restored to its father, who received it with transport; 
but did you ever hear of so odd a thing? . . . 

21st. 

You will be surprized to hear that I, who never go 
to balls or assemblies, went to the masquerade. Lady 
Bessborough 2 said she would not unless I did, and 
Lady Anne would not go with her. We let every- 
body go, and then disguised ourselves very well 
indeed, and went half an hour after them. I was not 
found out the whole night. When Lady B. was 
discovered, they took me for Lady Anne, and it was 
good fun to hear Lord Morpeth 3 say low to Lady 
Bessborough, "She can't disguise herself; her way of 
fanning herself betrays her". I assure you I did not 
know I was so good a mimick, and Cullen Smith 
said, "There is Lady Anne taking off Lady Elizabeth". 

1 Lady Holland— Elizabeth Vassall, daughter of Richard Vassall of Jamaica, and 
wife of Sir Godfrey Webster, after her divorce from whom she married secondly 
Henry Richard Fox, Baron Holland. Holland House was for a very lengthened 
period a hospitable resort for the distinguished in literature and politics (1770-1845). 

2 Lady Bessborough— -Henrietta Frances, daughter of John, first Earl Spencer, 
d !82i. 3 Lord Morpeth— Afterwards Earl of Carlisle (1802-1864). 



1 64 THE TWO DUCHESSES. 

We attacked the Duchess, 1 and she did not know us 
for a long time. The masquerade was a good one, 
but the house was not quite lighted enough. , . . 



Augustus Foster 

To Lady Elizabeth Foster. 

[Fragment of a letter.] 

. . . He 2 was dressed in a blue coat faced with 
white, two gold epaulets, white waistcoat, &c, and 
English riding boots, no ornament in his hat; he is 
a very dirty [illegible] and his hair looks as if it never 
was combed. When the officers had withdrawn, 
Buonaparte retired to put on his Consular dress, 
scarlet with rich gold embroidery, and soon after 
we were all of us, with the different Ambassadors, 
ushered into the Salle des Ambassadeurs, where we 
found Buonaparte and his two inferior Consuls. 3 I 
was presented one of the first after Lord Cowper, 
but it was done in such a hurried manner by Mr. 
Jackson, who generally answered the questions made 
by Buonaparte himself, that we had none of us, 
except Mr. Blayden, an author, the honor of a con- 

1 the Duchess — Of Devonshire. 2 He — Bonaparte. 

3 his two inferior Consuls — When the consulate of three members was first con- 
stituted as the supreme power in France, on the i8th Brumaire (November 9th), 
1799, it consisted of the Abbe 1 Sieves, Bonaparte, and Roger Ducos, with equal 
authority. Sieves resigned within a month, and on Dec. 13th, 1799, Bonaparte, 
Cambaceres, and Lebrun were elected first, second, and third consuls respectively, 
each being elected for ten years, and being re-eligible. In May, 1802, Bonaparte 
was re-elected for ten additional years, and in August of the same year he was made 
consul for life by 3,568,885 out of a possible total of 3,577,259 votes. Finally, on 
May i8tb, 1804, he was made Emperor. 



FROM AUGUSTUS FOSTER. 165 

versation. To him he spoke a good deal about Sir 
Joseph Banks, 1 who, he said, was much esteemed in 
this country. I ought to give you a description of 
his person, but I don't know anybody he resembles 
unless it is to my uncle a little, I think. He is under 
the middle size, has light gray eyes, brown hair 
and light-coloured eyebrows, sallow complexion and 
nearly a straight nose. I think he would be good- 
looking if he had complexion. He has, in my opinion, 
the air of a gentleman, and certainly the manners of 
one. When he came near the American minister, 
who is deaf and don't speak French, he asked him 
how he did in French. The American, straining 
every sinew in his ear in vain, turned for explanation 
to his interpreter, who shouted out amazing loud, 
"The First Consul, Sir, asks you how you are". The 
gravity of the man's manner in delivering this made 
everybody laugh. The Prince of Orange was there, 
and seemed considerably chagrined. The Consul 
spoke more with him than anybody else. None of 
the Eno-lish dined with him but such as had been 
already presented the last time. Yesterday the 
Bishops were restored, or at least the treaty with 
the Pope to that effect published. 

1 Sir Joseph Banks— -The distinguished naturalist, who had sailed with Captain 
Cook round the world (1743-1820). 



l66 THE TWO DUCHESSES. 

Countess of Erne 

To Frederick Foster. 

Ickworth Park, Oct. 20th, 1800. 

I send you a line, my dear Frederick, to acquaint 
you with the grievous loss we have all sustained in 
the death of the best beloved Mother. It happened 
suddenly early yesterday morning from a spasm in 
her stomack. What my grief and suffering is, no 
words can say, as no mother could be a greater loss 
to a daughter than she is to me. I am sure you will 
share in it, my dear lad, and lament her who was 
every way so deserving of affection and veneration 
from every part of her family. — Yours sincerely and 
affectionately, Mary C. Erne. 



Lady Elizabeth Foster 

To Frederick Th. Foster. 
Devonshire House, Saturday, 1801. 
I wrote to you yesterday, dearest Frederick, in 
the greatest hurry and vexation. Your uncle had 
been with me a great while, and though I admire, 
as I always have done, his motives, yet I regret to 
the greatest degree his decision. However, it is 
done now, and I shall close my lips and comfort 
myself with the conviction that in any and every 
situation he will do himself credit. The danger has 
been owing to Pitt's high sense of honor. He had 
pledged himself, I hear, to the Catholic emancipa- 
tion. He could not carry his point in the Cabinet; 



FROM LADY ELIZABETH FOSTER. 1 67 

the King had been firm, and Pitt sent in his resigna- 
tion. His first idea and wish was to go out alone in 
order to preserve to the country the measures and 
system he thought essential to it, but a large pro- 
portion of the Cabinet Ministers resigned with him, 
and several of his friends; he has, however, urged 
many to remain, and this occasions much conversa- 
tion, and has created a kind of third party, as Lord 
Hawkesbury, Addington, 1 &c, say they are Pitt's 
real friends, and the others are Canning's party. 
This is hard on those who, as Canning 2 says, sacrifice 
their interest to their principles. Canning says 
Addington ought to fall at the King's knees and ask 
pardon for his annoyance. It is, indeed, most extra- 
ordinary. You have no idea of the state of party, 
and all the variety of conjectures formed. I think 
Pitt has acted nobly, but almost too much so. He 
is advising and helping his successor, and opens the 
budget himself, so that he only goes out Thursday. 
Lord St. Vincent is first Lord of the Admiralty, 
Lord Hawkesbury, Secretary of State for the 
Foreign Department. . . . 



Lady Elizabeth Foster 

To Augustus Foster. 

Feb. 19, 1801. 

My dear Child, ... I think it a shame that 
Addington has accepted the situation that William 
Pitt held, because his merits are confined to those 

^ Addington— Henry A., Viscount Sidmouth, prime minister from 1801 to 1803 
(1757-1843). » Canning— George C, prime minister in 1827 (1770-1827). 



168 THE TWO DUCHESSES. 

which were necessary and sufficient as a Speaker, 
and yet which are very inadequate to being Prime 
Minister; a mild, well-tempered, candid, upright man 
forms a good Speaker, but where are the talents, the 
abilities, the wonderful resources with the genius of 
Mr. Pitt to be found? Who is there can say that 
they look up with confidence to Mr. Addington, or 
indeed to any one of the new administration, except 
Lord St. Vincent and the law department; besides 
was not Addington Pitt's creature? and though Pitt, 
with a romantick disinterestedness, has urged all 
these people to stay in, does not one's heart prefer 
those who have gone out? Mr. Elliott, Lord Heath- 
field's son, alas, is desired by his father to stay in. 
I don't think that all who have remained in have 
done so from interested motives, but yet I think that 
had not their hearts leaned that way they would 
have felt at once that if Pitt resigned because he 
could not carry this measure which he thought so 
essential, that they who would certainly have sup- 
ported him in it should have gone out too, and then 
perhaps the King would have yielded. The bishops 
and archbishops got hold of him, and persuaded him 
that Catholic emancipation would endanger the Pro- 
testant religion. Pitt felt himself pledged to Ireland, 
and nobly went out upon it. It is supposed that, 
sanguine as he is, he did not fully take the king's 
opinions till it was too late. Some people think the 
new administration will try for peace; they expect 
some good news from the Mediterranean and of the 
French squadron. I have given you a full dose 
now. . . . 



FROM FREDERICK FOSTER. 1 69 

Frederick Foster 

To Augustus Foster. 

St. PETERSBURGH, January 10, 1802. 

My dear Augustus, . . . The weather has 
been at times extremely cold, 20 and 23 degrees, 
and several people have been frozen, and it is not an 
uncommon thing to have one's cheek or ear or tip of 
the nose frozen; the remedy is to rub it instantly 
with snow, for, if neglected, it may mortify. , . t 
The other day I went to see the Palace of St. 
Michael, which the Emperor Paul 1 built. It is an 
immense pile, something like the Queen's House in 
London, but twice as large. The inside is very fine, 
several of the rooms inlaid with Porphyry, Marble, 
Lapis Lazuli, and Malakite. It was in this Palace that 
he was murdered, and by the greatest chance in the 
World, for his favorite had received a letter with an 
account of the whole Conspiracy, and the names of 
all the Conspirators, which he neglected to open; 
and even when they did come, Paul had concealed 
himself behind a screen, and the Conspirators were 
going away in despair when one of them perceived 
his legs; nay, further, though discovered, yet so 
accustomed had they been to fear him that he had 
completely awed them, and was going away, when a 
Georgian chief flung a club at his head and knocked 
him down, upon which the others ran in and com- 
pleted their work. An Hanoverian, of the name 

1 the Emperor Paul— The murder of the Emperor Paul I. took place on March 24, 
1801. His tyrannical rule had caused much discontent (1754-1801). 



170 THE TWO DUCHESSES. 

Benixin, 1 was the man who conducted the whole, and 
most probably if he had not been in the room Paul 
would have escaped. The present Emperor was 
immediately proclaimed. 



John Leslie Foster, afterwards Baron F. 

To his sister Harriet, afterwards Countess de Salis. 

Paris, April 6, 1802. 

My dear Harriet, ... I hope the last long 
letter I wrote to you found you perfectly recovered, 
and there is at least one letter from you on its road 
to me. I send you an account of pomps and vanities, 
and what you will think my great good fortune. I 
was yesterday presented to Buonaparte, but, before 
I give an account of your Protege, you shall endure 
a chronological history of the means that brought 
me there. The 1 5th of every month the first Consul 
receives in the Court of the Tuilleries the Consular 
guard, that is a selection of 5000 or 6,000 men from 
all the armies of France accoutred at an expense and 
with a magnificence that I suppose was never before 
lavished on an equal number of soldiers. After that 
he holds a Levee of the French Generals, the 
Foreign Ambassadors, and such strangers as they 
present to him. The Etiquette of a Court and 
Court dress are strictly observed, and every one 
agrees that the splendour of the Court of the Tuilleries 
is much greater than ever was the old Court of 

1 Benixin — More correctly Bennigsen. 



FROM JOHN LESLIE FOSTER. 171 

France. Having an introduction to our Minister, I 
was, of course, among the Anglais to be presented. 
At a previous ceremony we were all introduced to 
Talleyrand-Perigord, Minister for Foreign Affairs, 
the day before. I shall not delay you with an account 
of the Renegade Bishop of Autun. He is not worth 
it; it is enough to say of him that he was pompous, 
awkward, and uncivil. The scarlet and silver in 
which he was dressed only made him appear to 
greater disadvantage. His person is as crooked as 
his principles, and his face, unhappily for his beauty, 
a faithful Picture of his Heart. The next Day, 
Monday the 5th, Augustus and I went to the Tuilleries 
at eleven o'clock, and were, luckily for us, by mistake 
admitted into the Salle des Generaux instead of the 
Salle des Ambassadeurs, which gave us an additional 
two hours' contemplation of Buonaparte. At twelve 
we passed through the Room to the Parade. It 
lasted but an Hour. Buonaparte, mounted on a 
noble white Horse, and surrounded by his Aides de 
Camp and Generals, formed the first Part of it. At 
one o'clock he returned to the Salle des Generaux. 
He spoke to almost every one in it, and with a Grace 
for an account of which you must wait a little longer. 
I followed him everywhere in the Crowd, and hardly 
lost an expression of his countenance. At two he 
retired to change his dress previous to receiving the 
strangers, who were supposed to be all the time in 
the Salle des Ambassadeurs. I went down to them 
to fall into the Ranks, found about 20 Anglais, 
among them Lord Blayney, Lord Cowper, Lord 
Arch. Hamilton, Mr. Cust, a Cambridge friend, 



172 THE TWO DUCHESSES. 

Luttrell, &c. The Ambassadors were all there. 
Among them were three celebrated characters; 
D'Armfeldt the Swede, Markoff the Russian, and 
Lucchesini the Prussian. The Prince of Orange 
was also there. The most brilliant of the company 
was Demidoff, a Russian nobleman. He had on his 
breast a single Diamond valued at ,£30,000. In 
half an hour we were shown upstairs, found a large 
Circle, and were taken by the first Consul in the 
order that we stood. The Ambassador of each 
Nation presented his own countrymen; the first 
Consul said something to almost every one, and not 
much to any one. Now for his Person, what is he 
like? I will first tell you what he is unlike. In the 
first place he is unlike every other Person in the 
World, and in the second place he is perfectly unlike 
every Painting, Print, and Bust that has been taken 
of him. I cannot say why so many artists have so 
entirely failed, but if we may judge from the past, 
Posterity will have no idea of the countenance of 
Buonaparte; if Painting has failed, no words can 
succeed. However, I am bound to tell you what I 
think of him. He is about 5 feet 7 inches high, 
delicately and gracefully made; his hair a dark brown 
crop, thin and lank; his complexion smooth, pale, 
and sallow; his eyes grey, but very animated; his 
Eye Brows light brown, thin and projecting. All his 
Features, particularly his Mouth and Nose, fine, sharp 
defined and expressive beyond description; expressive 
of what? Not of anything perce as the Prints ex- 
pressed him, still less of anything mediant; nor has 
he anything of that Eye whose bend doth awe the 



FROM AUGUSTUS FOSTER. 173 

World. The true expression of his countenance is 
a pleasing melancholy, which, whenever he speaks, 
relaxes into the most agreeable and gracious smile 
you can conceive. To this you must add the appear- 
ance of deep and intense thought, but above all the 
predominating expression a look of calm and tran- 
quil Resolution and Intrepidity which nothing human 
could discompose. His address is the finest I have 
ever seen, and said by those who have travelled to 
exceed not only every Prince and Potentate now 
being, but even all those whose memory has come 
down to us. He has more unaffected dignity than 
I could conceive in man. His address is the gentlest 
and most prepossessing you can conceive, which is 
seconded by the greatest fund of levee conversation 
that I suppose any Person ever possessed. He 
speaks deliberately, but very fluently, with particular 
emphasis, and in a rather low tone of voice. While 
he speaks his features are still more expressive than 
his words. . . . 



Augustus Foster 

To Lady Elizabeth Foster. 

Paris, April 13, 1802. 

I thank you a thousand times for your kind letter, 
and many, many thanks for letting her 1 send a few 
lines enclosed in it. If you knew how happy it 
made me when I saw her handwriting; but, however, 
as you think there may be an impropriety in their 

1 her— Corisande de Gramont, daughter of the Duke de Gramont. She became 
the wife of the Earl of Tankerville. 



174 THE TW0 DUCHESSES. 

being frequent, I yield, only I hope it would not 
appear wrong my writing a little message now and 
then just to say that I am alive. I long very much 
to hear about her mother's answer, which will decide 
in a great measure whether I am to be happy or 
not. . . . Lord Cowper I dined with to-day. 
He is not very well, and talks of not going to Italy 
till next year. He has quite had his dose of Paris, 
and now says that he shall probably go back to 
London in May. How very little one's happiness 
depends on the quantity of gold or silver dross one 
has in one's pocket: he, with all his riches, rank, and 
titles, seems to ennuy in every place he happens to 
be in. At London he wished to go to Paris and 
Italy, and at Paris he wants to go back again to 
London. I am sure any situation is better than that 
of a discontented rich man, because with all the idea 
that he ought to be happy he never is so. ... I 
have not seen Bonaparte since the presentation, but 
there is to be a grand ceremony next Sunday that I 
shall move Heaven and Earth to get at — the cele- 
bration of the Peace, and of the re-establishment of 
Religion, together, in the Cathedral of Notre Dame. 
The Consuls are to attend, the Legates, Cardinals, 
&c, and the Archbishop of Aix is to preach the 
sermon. , . The people here seem to think of 

nothing but how they may amuse themselves most. 
I wonder if any Englishman ever yet preferred 
France or any other country for living in to Eng- 
land? As for me, I only feel the superiority of 
England everywhere I go, and if I had a large 
fortune I think I should never stir out of it. 



FROM AUGUSTUS FOSTER. 1 75 

Madame de Stael 1 said t'other day that there were 
only two countries free in the World, l'Angleterre et 
l'Amerique. Menou is expected daily at this Hotel 
with his Egyptian spouse. ... I dined at Madame 
de Stael's yesterday. I was the only Englishman. 
We had a bad dinner at a little, narrow table, many 
of the men in boots. I don't admire Madame de 
Stael much; she may have a vast deal of esprit, but 
shews a vast deal too much of it, I think; or, in other 
words, is a great bavard, and in my humble opinion 
is a very disgusting woman. ... I have taken 
great pains to find out whether the people here, in 
passing the Place de la Concorde, where Louis was 
guillotined, took off their hats, and I can assure you 
that I never saw any one do so, and have, on inquiry, 
never heard that any one did. It is surprizing why 
people will circulate such lies in London. It would, 
at any rate, be a very equivocal proof of their loyalty, 
as the Jacobin would equally have reason to doff his 
hat to the place which gave him liberty. . . . 
Remember me to all my friends at Devonshire 
House, and tell Corise that I have read her little 
note over at least 20 times. 

1 Madame de Stael — The celebrated French authoress, daughter of Necker, the 
famous financier and minister of France, and wife of Baron de Stael - Holstein, 
Swedish minister at Paris (1766-1817). 



176 THE TWO DUCHESSES. 

Augustus Foster 

To Lady Elizabeth Foster. 

April, ? 1802? 
[A Fragment.] 

Paris must be much changed since you have been 
here, for several buildings have been pulled down, 
particularly about the Tuileries, and in many parts 
new streets and fine hotels have been erected. 
Shocking marks of devastation among the chateaux 
and churches all along the road from Calais. At St. 
Denis the Cathedral has been pillaged and every 
statue or ornamental monument demolished; the 
sepulchres torn open, and the bodies of the Kings 
of France taken and burnt with lime and buried in 
the churchyard. I saw the ruins of Chantilly, where 
I stopped one night. That magnificent building, 
which cost near 4 millions with the gardens, sold to 
a carpenter and ironmonger for 1 30,000 livres! They 
employed 2000 men to destroy it in order that they 
might sell the materials before they were deprived 
of them by a new revolution. The gardens were 
ruined by the inhabitants of a village opposite the 
chateau, and who lived by the Prince's bounty. It 
is astonishing how the French bear their misfortunes; 
some of them live in miserable little holes, perhaps 
near their former magnificent hotels, and yet they 
are as lively and gay as ever, and even laugh at 

their . . . 

Monday, April 5, 1802. 

I have delayed sending this in order that I might 
acquaint you of my presentation, which took place 



FROM AUGUSTUS FOSTER. 177 

to-day. Yesterday there were about sixteen English 
in all presented to Talleyrand 1 Perigord: he is a 
shocking ugly fellow, with both his feet turned in- 
wards. This morning I repaired in full dress at 
half past n to the Tuileries with J. Leslie Foster. 2 
The troops were fast assembling; we, contrary to 
custom for foreigners, but much to our own advan- 
tage, and indeed from ignorance, went up the grand 
staircase into the Salle des Officiers Generaux instead 
of going below into a little room, where we should 
have seen nothing. There were assembled all the 
great generals and whole Etat major. Moreau was 
not there, but I saw Massena, 3 and many others of 
note whose names I could not find out. Their 
uniforms surpassed my ideas far — all in blue, richly 
embroidered with gold. I did not see the parade 
very well, but, however, the passing of the regiments 
before the ist Consul I saw pretty well from the 
windows. Previous to his mounting he passed 
through the Salle, where we were, with a quick step, 
and a little after we saw him on his beautiful dun 
horse riding among the ranks attended by eight or 
ten officers and one Mameluc richly dressed; it 
rained hard, unfortunately, but, however, it was a 
magnificent sight. As for me, it appeared to me 
like a dream to find myself in the midst of the 
conquerors of Italy and Germany, with Buonaparte 
at their head. The famous regiment which stood 

1 Talleyrand— One of the greatest diplomatists of the period, at one time a warm 
supporter of Bonaparte (1754-1838). 

"J. Leslie Foster — Baron first of the Court of Exchequer in Ireland, and after- 
wards of the Court of Common Pleas. 

3 Mussina. — One of the most celebrated of Bonaparte's generals, called by him 
"Enfant de la Victoire" (1758-1817). 

M 



178 THE TWO DUCHESSES. 

the brunt at the battle of Marengo was among them. 
There were about 4000 men, Cavalry and Infantry, 
all very simply but very well dressed. This lasted 
for an hour, when Buonaparte returned to receive 
petitions and talk to the generals, and I am sure no 
King or Emperor ever went through a levee better: 
he seemed to speak to every one, and not a repetition 
of the same fulsome stuff to each, but something 
which appeared adapted to each person, and 
evidently sent them away pleased with him and 
themselves. He is like the picture that was in 
Piccadilly, but that gives him a severer countenance 
than he has, for I think his face, which don't give 
me the idea of heroic courage so much as of cool 
intrepidity and collectiveness, is very expressive of 
good nature. He has a very unaffected dignity in 
my opinion, and appears perfectly at his ease, and 
never at a loss for anything to say. He had several 
petitions given him, which he read all on the spot. 
I shall write to you to-morrow about my presentation. 
At the time of his receiving the petitions he put me 
in mind of Julius Caesar the day he was assassinated, 
I am quite enthusiastic about him. 



Augustus Foster 

To Lady Elizabeth Foster. 

Paris, April 18, 1802. 

Vive 1'effronterie; sans elle je n'aurais rien vu de 

la fete. On m'a repousse de porte en porte me 

disant que mon billet d'entree ne valoit rien a. chaque 

endroit au quel je me presentois, et enfin j'ai mis 



FROM AUGUSTUS FOSTER. 179 

1'important et je leur criois, Messieurs je ne puis 
pas passer si vous de me faites pas de place, je suis 
de l'Ambassade Angloise, laissez moi passer s'il vous 
plait. Alors me voyant aussi dans un riche uniforme 
les soldats se sont empresses de me faire de la place. 
John Leslie 1 que j'avois ammene avec moi me suivois 
en me tenant, et nous sommes arrives heureusement 
a l'endroit ou se placaient les Ambassadeurs dans le 
fond de Notre Dame vis a vis de la Chaire. Now, 
in plain English, I can only write a few lines to tell 
you that it was a very magnificent and unique sight; 
but to me it appeared that the idea of Religion was 
not in the least connected with it. There was a 
great crowd in the body and galleries of the Church 
— on both sides of the altar were the Canopies; one 
on the right, crimson and gold for the legate Caprera ; 
on the left gold and crimson canopy supported by 
five pillars, and underneath three chairs, the middle 
for the First Consul, the other two for the secondary 
Consuls. It is now midnight and a half. P. goes at 
three. Therefore I shall send you a longer account 
to-morrow. The Archbishop of Aix, now of Tours, 
preached an excellent sermon, in the opinion of 
several not enough thankful to the Government, but 
attributing all to the powerful effect of Religion and 
the natural consequence of things. Bonaparte and 
the other two walked under a crimson canopy sup- 
ported by four priests — the Archbishop of Paris, 
Dubelloy, holding the Cross before him — all yielded 
hommage. 

1 /ohn Leslie— John Leslie Foster, cousin of Augustus Foster, and Baron suc- 
cessively of the Courts of Exchequer and Common Pleas in Ireland. 



180 THE TWO DUCHESSES. 

Augustus Foster 

To Lady Elizabeth Foster. 

Paris, April 19, 1802. 

. . Yesterday, as I wrote you word, was the 

great ceremony of celebrating the peace and the 
establishmentof Religion. Mounier, Camille Jourdan, 1 
and most of that set consider it as a deathblow to 
the hopes of Louis 18, 2 who is now called le Pre- 
tendant, as he went till now hand in hand with 
religion, and as religion was the principal link which 
connected his interests with those of the Honnetes 
Gens of France, because Atheism was encouraged 
and Piety laughed at. Now that the Government 
proclaims Liberty of Conscience, that the bishops 
have taken the oath of preserving the Constitution 
and religion, and that they see that they may pray 
without the aid of Louis, it will weaken his interest 
very much in the country. The ceremony was very 
magnificent and well ordered, but it struck me as 
resembling anything rather than a religious cere- 
mony, and the strange medley of military, armed cap 
a pied, and of priests in petticoats was very ridiculous. 
Buonaparte ordered beforehand that no Minister or 
Ambassador should go to Notre Dame without four 
horses to his carriage — he himself had eight — and 
besides, six saddle horses, led each by a Mameluc 
before the carriage, there were only the other two 
Consuls with him. The people, who would cry Vive 

1 Camille Jourdan — a French writer (1771-1821). 
8 Louis JrF///.-(i7S5-i82 4 ). 



FROM AUGUSTUS FOSTER. l8l 

to a Dog if a Dog were an amusement to them, 
shouted Vive Buonaparte! Vive laRepublique! When 
he got to the door of Notre Dame four priests met 
him, supporting a sort of Canopy under which he 
went, and behind him Cambaceres 1 and Le Brun, 2 
and thus he marched, preceded by Dubelloy, Arch- 
bishop of Paris, who held the Cross, through the 
aisle to the throne, drums beating, arms presented, 
and organs playing; it was altogether very fine. 
The Bishops all took the oaths before him, and 
bowed to him and the Cross; he himself took the 
oath and kissed the book to preserve the religion. 
The Archbishop of Aix read the sermon extempore; 
it was very good, but the noise so great scarce half 
of it could be heard. Many reckoned it too little 
complimentary to Buonaparte; he seemed to con- 
sider it as a matter of right and necessity the return 
of religion into the country. I spoke to him after it 
was over. Poor old man, he thought nobody heard 
him. I pleased him by telling him that I heard 
tolerably well. I saw Massena and M' Donald. 3 The 
last resembles Lord Morpeth, I think; he is fair 
faced and gentlemanlike-looking. Massena is black- 
faced and seems a scoundrel. Buonaparte I still 
admire. His face was perfectly grave during the 
whole ceremony. After it was over he pleased every- 
body by his condescension in speaking to them. 
What was rather mockery, I think — I did not see it 
myself — but Camille Jourdan told me that he crossed 
himself several times as well as Cambaceres. That 

1 Camhacirh — Second consul (1753-1824). 

5 Le Brun — Third consul (1739-1824). 

8 M'Donald— Marshal M'Donald (1765-1810). 



1 82 THE TWO DUCHESSES. 

was trop fort for one once a professed Turc. Madame 
Buonaparte 1 dresses very lightly; seems to have been 
pretty; she, with Madame Joseph, 2 1 think her daugh- 
ter, and Madame Murat, 3 her sister-in-law, and Louis 
Buonaparte 4 with several ladies, was placed in a 
gallery a little above the altar on the left; she only 
came with two horses to her carriage. The Duchess 
of Cumberland 5 is here; the princes of Orange and 
Weimar. . . . Don't let Corise forget me, and tell 
her that she is never absent from my thoughts in 
the middle of all this bustle. . . . 



Augustus Foster 

To Lady Elizabeth Foster. 

. . . What say you to the Catholic Question? 
In my opinion no one solid argument has been 
brought forward against the Emancipation. Grattan 6 
was a flower of eloquence, but I fear sadly they will 
lose Ireland by the refusal, if so 'che sfortunato Re'. 
Nelson has been displaying his great name in the 
Western World. He has appeared and gone again 
like a comet without doing mischief, but I sadly fear 
they will get to Ireland before him. . . . The 
Americans are sending across the continent to find 
the source of the great river Missouri, the elder 
branch of the Mississippi, and their people have 
written from 1600 miles up its banks. 

1 Madame Bonaparte — Josephine (1763-1814). 

2 Madame Joseph — Wife of Joseph Bonaparte. 

3 Madame Murat — (1782-1839). 4 Louis Bonaparte — (1778-1806). 
6 Duchess of Cumberland — Frederica of Mecklenburg Strelitz. 

6 Grattan — (1750-1820). 



FROM AUGUSTUS FOSTER. 1 83 

Augicstus Foster 

To Lady Elizabeth Foster. 

Boyukdere, June 10, 1803. 

. . . I should not forget to tell you that I saw 
the slave market about three days ago : an officer of 
the Reis Effendi 1 took us in there. There were 
great numbers of blacks enforced to sale in the halls 
and whites within the rooms; there was no one very 
handsome, they all, I thought, looked excessively 
melancholy. I got our Dragoman to question a 
white lady, not ugly, that was sitting cross-legged in 
one of the rooms. She told us that she was a Cir- 
cassian. He said that we came with a commission to 
see and buy slaves, and she begged that we might 
take her; however, it is not permitted to a Christian 
to buy, he may commission his Janizary to purchase 
for him; it would be rather a bore, however, to 
depend upon his taste, and beauties are bought up 
before they land for the pashas and Grand Signors; 
it is very seldom that any very handsome are to be 
found in the market. Our Turk had promised that 
we should see one more lovely than a Sultana, or in 
other terms, as he expressed himself, one so fair that, 
as she drank water, one might see it gurgle down 
her pearly throat; the price of such a one may be 
about ,£1000; the common run of pretty ones is 
from ^300 to ,£600, and a black may be had for 
^50. As we were returning we saw a man who, dis- 
contented with his slave, was refusing her upon the 

1 Reis Effendi — The title of the Turkish minister of foreign affairs. 



184 THE TWO DUCHESSES. 

plea that she was sickly, desiring the merchant to 
feel her pulse and examine her hand; the other 
vociferated that he ought to stick to his bargain. 
The girl, by her motions, was explaining what she 
was fit for — sewing, working, washing, &c. She was 
a very pretty slender Circassian. I could have beat 
the man for his bad taste in giving her back; it is 
quite like a sale of horses, or any other cattle. The 
Blacks are innumerable, according to the different 
nations, more in features distinguished from one 
another than I thought such complexions would 
admit of. The market place has four sides, and a 
sort of booth or collection of coffee-houses in the 
middle. We examined and even entered into the 
halls and rooms on three sides, but on the fourth 
some Turks rather roughly objected to our going 
into the rooms as the Firman did not mention that; 
however, we saw all that was worth seeing. This 
and the printing office at Scutari are among the 
most curious things that I have seen. The Turks 
have learned from us to make Geographical Charts; 
the first they ever did. 



Charles James Fox' 1 

To Georgiana, Duchess of Devonshire. 

1803. St. Anne's Hill, August 12. 
My dear Duchess, — I have no intention to abuse 
you for a neglect which was in itself so unimportant, 

1 Charles James Fox — Burke called him the greatest debater the world ever 
saw ; and Sir James Mackintosh said he was the most Demosthenic speaker since 
Demosthenes (1749-1806). 



FROM THE EARL OF ABERDEEN. 185 

but am very sorry you have such an excuse to make 
as Lady Georgiana's illness. I should have had no 
curiosity, much less anxiety, upon the matter if it had 
not been that I wished to know whether the lan- 
guage, which I knew Sheridan would hold to him, 
had any effect and what. I think I can see by the 
newspaper accounts of the debate that Sheridan dis- 
liked Francis 1 pressing him on the subject of the 
Prince very much, and that if there was any difficulty 
he got very well out of it. 

I am very sorry the Duke has so bad a fit of the 
gout. I do not believe the French will come: if 
they do, by what I see they will find us as unpre- 
pared as ever owing to the last foolish manoeuvres 
of the Doctor. 2 

Yours ever, 

C. J. Fox. 

P.S. — I hear an admirable quotation of yours 
upon S. and his prepared Uniform. Motley your 
only wear should be his motto. 



The Earl of Aberdeen* 

To Augustus Foster. 

Edinburgh, August 14, 1804. 

Dear Augustus, — You will participate in my grief 
when I tell you that I arrived last night at Edin- 

1 Francis — Sir Philip F., supposed author of the celebrated Letters of Junius 
(1740-1818). 

*the Doctor— Henry Addington, prime minister from 1801 to 1803 (1757-1844). 

3 The Earl of Aberdeen — George Hamilton Gordon, Earl of Aberdeen, prime 
minister from 1852 to 1855. He was a man of culture, a student of Greek architec- 



1 86 THE TWO DUCHESSES. 

burgh, which is of all places the most horrible. 
There is a most plentiful crop of grass in the streets, 
which the painter of the panorama has omitted, much 
to the injury of the Rurality of the scene. 

I am going to-morrow into Aberdeenshire. Do 
not imagine I shall really die, for I shall contrive to 
vegetate and give you accordingly some signes de 
Vie. 

Pray remember me to Lady Elizabeth and to the 
Duchess when you see them next, and tell them that 
if any wayward friend is obstinately bent upon visit- 
ing our northern wilds to send him to me, and I will 
do my best to entertain him, that is to say, give him 
good shooting. Bid them think what a state the 
Belle Nature of that country must be in, when 
murder is the only amusement. 

Were I not in possession of a calendar, but was to 
judge from my sore lips and red nose, I should be 
tempted to set out instantly for London, thinking 
Christmas past; reflection, however, informs me that 
five or six gloomy months must pass. Although I 
cannot in strict justice say 

Ye gods, annihilate both time and Space 
And make two lovers happy, 

yet I am persuaded that no Lover ever preferred the 
request with more fervency. Having now poured 
forth my sorrows, I beg you will write to me, and 
about your own plans, when you go to your Exile 
and how. My direction is Haddo House, Aberdeen- 

ture and antiquities, and had visited Athens by this time ; hence Byron designated 
him as "the travelled thane, Athenian Aberdeen " (1784-1860). 



FROM THE EARL OF ABERDEEN. 1 87 

shire. I shall also expect to hear from you as soon 
as you have touched Philadelphia ground. 
Believe me, ever most truly yours, 

Aberdeen. 

PS. — If I am not lost and benighted in my own 
deserts, I will write shortly after my arrival, in hopes 
of its finding you still in England. Adieu. 



The Earl of A berdeen 

To Augustus Foster. 
Cromarre, 1 August 20, 1804. 

Dear Augustus, — I wrote you from Edinburgh a 
letter which might be called the Lamentations of 
Jeremiah, so dismal were the contents; however, I 
am now rejoiced at the intelligence that you are not 
to Columbize, for I this evening received your letter 
after a mountain massacre. 2 I do not find this 
country so horrible as I imagined, or as you seem to 
think, and there is a sensible pleasure at standing to 
look around one and being able to see nothing but 
one's own. 

What can you be about at Gell's? 3 I hope and 
trust you will come down here: throw yourself into 
the Mail and you will arrive at Aberdeen in three 
days and a half. Nothing would give me half so 
much pleasure as to see you. My Constantinopoli- 
tan plan is in statu quo, that is to say, nothing 

1 Cromarre — A district of Aberdeenshire, on the Dee. 

a vtountain massacre — Of grouse. 

3 Gelt — Sir William Gell, a learned classical antiquary (1777-1836). 



1 88 THE TWO DUCHESSES. 

certain, at all events it probably is stopped until next 
Spring. London must be wretched at present, 
which makes me hope you will not be so averse to 
quit it, therefore (Si quis adhuc precibus locus) come. 
Congratulate Lady Elizabeth from me at your escape 
from eating entrails, like the Esquimaux, or bedaub- 
ing your face with Tallow, like the Iroquois. I 
should think there could not be much difficulty in 
despatching you eis ten poling and that you will 
soon be restored to the beauties of the Bosphorus. 

I am now midst " Mountains vast and Bogs Ser- 
bonian ", but am going into the low country in a few 
days. In the meantime, pray write, and tell me all 
the news. Farewell, and believe me, with the greatest 

sincerity, 

Aberdeen. 



The Earl of Aberdeen 

To Augustus Foster 

KlNRARA, 2 Sept. 22, 1804. 

Dear Augustus, — I have for the last month been 
speculating as to your fate, which, when you wrote 
last, appeared to be as uncertain as one could well 
desire. I send you this epistle in order to be in- 
formed both of it and a variety of events. I am 
here at the Duchess of Gordon's cottage in the 
Highlands for two or three days: she means to 

L eis tin folin — The Greek words for "to the city" This expression being 
constantly in people's mouths in ancient times gave origin to the names Istamlol, 
Stamloul, for Constantinople ; hence the use of these words in the letter. 

^Kinrara — In Inverness-shire, near the Spey, now the property of the Duke of 
Richmond and Gordon, one of whose titles is Earl of Kinrara. 



FROM THE EARL OF ABERDEEN. 1 89 

reappear in London next winter if she can procure a 
house large enough for the magnificent fetes which 
she proposes to give. From this I go to Blair (the 
Duke of Athol's) in order to massacre a few red deer, 
but shall quickly proceed to my own retreat of Vail 
Ombrosa, near Dunira, than which nothing can be 
more beautiful. With regard to any external mo- 
tions, I am very uncertain if I shall again walk the 
olive groves of Academia, 1 or freeze midst hyper- 
borean snows, or inhale the smoke of London — per- 
haps the last. Is Gell gone to Zante, as the time 
which he proposed for departing is arrived? Tell 
me what is doing in Babylon, 2 though I suppose you 
will say nothing, but that is not sufficient. Your 
ancient flame is at last gone, and I can only hope 
that you have none of the veteris vestigia flammae 
remaining. Are the French come? for it would 
appear as if you expected them every day. 

But perhaps you are already gone, and this mis- 
sive may find you after an interview with his most 
Catholic Majesty at the Buen Retiros or L'Escurial. 
God knows, however, if you may not have crossed 
the Atlantic and heard the muddy notions of the 
Americans about Liberty, how unlike our Athens; 
but wherever you may be, believe me to be, with 
great friendship, 

Aberdeen. 

Should you perchance be still in London, I beg to 
be remembered to Lady Elizabeth and the Duchess. 

1 olive groves of Academia — That is whether he shall again go to Athens. 
1 Balylon — London. 



I90 THE TWO DUCHESSES. 

The Earl of A berdeen 

To Augustus Foster. 

Haddo, 1 Nov. 20, 1804. 

Dear Augustus, — I long very much to know how 
you are satisfied with the Terra Australis, and how 
you like your situation; if you are content I shall 
feel real pleasure. Tell me something about your 
Society: in what does the haut ton Americain con- 
sist? You see that I am still buried in these 
Northern Wilds, but am now meditating a flight to 
London, where I shall stay five or six months, at the 
end of which I should hope to be able to undertake 
the Grecian expedition. Gell is gone with Mercer 
and Baker. 

I have always been of opinion that Russia will do 
nothing, and, though I hope not, yet fear that idea 
will be confirmed. I understand that the King has 
not been quite so well of late, but at all events the 
reconciliation between him and the Prince has done 
much good. I cannot speak with certainty as to the 
appointment of Lord Moira and Tierney 2 in Ireland: 
if Lord Moira wishes it he will get it certainly: but 
I do not apprehend that he is anxious about it. 

I belong this winter to the Duchess's boxes at the 
Play, where, however, I shall but too often miss you; 
it is really lamentable the great distance at which 
you are, which so entirely precludes all my exertions 
to see you. . . . 

1 Haddo — The family residence of the Earls of Aberdeen in Aberdeenshire, near 
the river Ythan. 
* Tierney — George T., statesman and political critic (1761-1830). 



FROM LADY ELIZABETH FOSTER. 191 

If there is anything you wish done with dispatch, 
accuracy, and good -will, pray write to me, and you 
may depend upon my doing everything to shew you 
with what sincerity of friendship I am, and shall be, 

ever y° urs ' Aberdeen. 



Lady Elizabeth Foster 

To Augustus Foster. 

December 5, 1804. 

We have been in town now but a few days, and 
we removed from Chiswick sooner than we expected, 
in consequence of the melancholy event that hap- 
pened there. Poor John Brown, the Duke's faithful 
servant, fell from his horse in an apoplectic fit, and 
died the fourth day. It was very shocking, and he 
is sincerely regretted by all the servants. I have 
been nervous and hurried for some time past owing 
to an arrangement that is about to be made for the 
payment of the Duchess's debts. There never was 
anything so angelic as the Duke of Devonshire's 
conduct, and the many conversations I had with him 
on the subject, though it made me so nervous at the 
time, have made me happier now, and, if possible, 
increased my admiration and attachment to him. I 
feel secure now that she will avoid things of this 
kind for the future, and though the sum is great, yet 
it will end well I am convinced. I know so well 
your feelings about them that I have a pleasure in 
telling you what has passed. 

As for politicks, though every day an account of 



192 THE TWO DUCHESSES. 

Bonaparte's coronation and Russia's decision is ex- 
pected, nothing hardly is seen or talked of but this 
young Roscius. 1 I saw him his first night as Achmet 
or Selim in Barbarossa; I saw him last night as 
Norval in Douglas. He is but thirteen, and yet I 
never saw anything to compare to him; his is the 
inspiration of genius, with the correctness of taste 
belonging generally to experience and study alone, 
feeling far beyond his years, and a knowledge of the 
stage equal to any performer, and far more graceful : 
in short, he has changed the life of London; people 
dine at four, and go to the Play, and think of nothing 
but the play. How I wish you were here! Frederick 
is just returned from Ickworth, but I have not seen 
him. I have sent to ask him to the Play. The 
Hawkesburys stay in town for this boy's acting all 
next week. Sheridan took him to Carleton House, 
and the Prince told me that his manner was perfect; 
it was simple, graceful, and unaffected. As to the 
applause, the Pit, which is filled with men, not con- 
tent with applauding, over and over again cry out 
Bravo ! Bravo ! I don't suppose such applause could 
ever be exceeded. , . . 



Lady Elizabeth Foster 

To Augustus Foster. 

Devonshire House, Dec. 18, 1804. 

... I suppose before the day that the Mails 
are closed for America that the Spanish War will be 

•■young Roscius— William Betty, the boy actor. See Appendix. 



FROM LADY ELIZABETH FOSTER. 193 

officially declared. . . . Parliament meets the 
15th, and the Session is expected to be stormy; 
some rumours, however, are still afloat of peace, 
general peace, and that France will make the over- 
tures. Pitt will have to contend with a strong 
opposition probably, though probably also he will 
have enticed over some of those who never could 
resist the attraction of power, place, or Court favor. 
I should not be surprised if an Earl nearly connected 
with Devonshire House should be one. He is under 
the influence of the love of those three things just 
named, and also that of a fair lady, whose yearly 
visits at his Country House have often directed his 
Politicks, and a little Scotch blood in her veins 
makes her sensible to the good things of this world. 
I beg dear Lord Aberdeen's pardon for this reflec- 
tion : he has only the good, and none of the bad, of 
Scotch inheritances. 

December 19. 

. . . All politicks have given way to ad- 
miration and interest and curiosity about young 
Roscius. The most unbelieving, like General Fitz- 
patrick, 1 have, on seeing him, confessed that he is 
admirable as an actor, and cease talking of him as 
a boy. General Fitzpatrick wrote to Charles Fox 
that he had been astonished and delighted. Mr. 
Fox came to town to see him, but the dear boy was 
ill and confined to his bed. Every precaution was 
taken to prevent any tumult from disappointment, 
and Wroughton read the physician's letter, in which 

1 General Fitzpatrick— -Wit and politician, the most intimate friend of Charles 
James Fox. 

N 



194 THE TWO DUCHESSES. 

he said the boy could not act without great risk, and 
Mr. Jordan acted in both play and farce. How I 
wish you could see him! It is the inspiration of 
genius with perfect nature and a grace of action 
unequalled, never forced in any character. 



Lady Elizabeth Foster 

To Augustus Foster. 

December 25, 1804. 

I must begin by hoping that this may have been 
a happy Christmas to you, and many may you see. 
There have been so many rumours of changes here 
that I waited a little to know what was truth before 
I wrote again. Two days ago the Prince of Wales 
sat some time with me in my room, and told me that 
Addington and Pitt shook hands, and had dined at 
Lord Hawkesbury's. This seemed so strange that 
I thought it one of those rumours with which people 
about him amuse his idle hours, but yesterday it was 
declared, and the papers at least attribute the recon- 
ciliation to the King. That men who have opposed 
each other violently should become friends is not a 
matter of surprise or novelty, but to forgive cold, 
unpitying scorn and contempt has been hitherto 
unheard of, and the Morning Chronicle will not let 
it be forgot that Pitt applied the most contemptuous 
terms to Addington and his administration. If the 
Doctor 1 comes into office he will have a majority of 
the Cabinet, and I should not be surprised if he in 

* the Doctor — A nickname of Addington. 



FROM LADY ELIZABETH FOSTER. 195 

a few months turned out Pitt. The report is also 
that Lord Hawkesbury returns to the foreign depart- 
ment. All I feel to care for in this is whether it is 
a favorable change to you. Kind as Lord Harrowby 
was, I should hope relationship might do still more 
— at least it is a fair claim for promotion. Poor 
Lord Harrowby fell down stairs as I told you, but 
he was sufficiently recovered to be removed yester- 
day. The Princess Charlotte 1 of Wales is at Carleton 
House, and played, poor little thing, on the Piano- 
forte to the Prince to-day. She is pretty, I hear, and 
clever. The King wanted to have her given up to 
him. The Prince does not consent to that, but 
appoints as nearly as he can all the persons whom 
the King would have named about the little Princess. 
I believe that Miss Trimmer will be sub-preceptress. 
The Duke of Portland has been in a very bad state 
of health and retires. What the King's real state is 
I don't know, but he went to the Play in an admiral's 
uniform, which he never did before. Sometimes he 
wears the uniform of the Oxford Blues, and the 
other day received Sir Charles Poole on some naval 
business in an old naval uniform of Lord Howe's 
time, These are facts which tell, yet what is to be 
done whilst he can talk collectedly on business? 
Young Roscius is still ill ; that is the worst news, and 

very ill. . . . 

26th. 

The Morpeths, Lady Bessborough, Lord Cowper, 
and Mr. Ward supped here. Mr. Ward told 

1 The Princess Charlotte— The only child of the Prince Regent, afterwards George 
IV. She was married to Leopold, king of the Belgians, but died at the age of 
twenty-one (1796-1817). 



196 THE TWO DUCHESSES. 

Henry Dillon he was afraid the fame of his pam- 
phlet would outlive the stability of his principles, 
and Lord St. Vincent wrote to a friend three days 
ago, " Addington in opposition is a very different 
man from what he was in power; he will be firm and 
steady," e ben trovato. Canning and Lord Granville 1 
will be miserable at this; it lowers so Pitt's fine, lofty 
mind. 

Corisande is still unmarried. Ossulston 2 is gone 
to Cambridge for a week or ten days. I daresay he 
won't marry till March, because he then expects a 
little money, but it is sad dawdling. 



Augustus Foster 

To Lady Elizabeth Foster. 

Washington, Dec. 30, 1804. 

. . . I have at last reached this soi-disant city, 
as you perceive, and am settled with Toujours Gai, s 
but such a place; you can have no imagination of it, 
it is so unlike every other sort or description of a 
heap of human abodes calling itself a city. I made 
a visit yesterday to the only pleasant family in the 
place, who live five miles off — a Mrs. Barry, an Irish 
woman, who has got a pretty daughter (that I mean 
to carry with me as cara sposa all' Inghilterra); the 
badness of the weather and the roads, and the 
wretchedness of the carriages, will be the most power- 

1 Lord Granville — Granville Leveson Gower, Earl Granville, diplomatist (1773- 
1846). 

2 Ossulston — Lord Ossulston, son of the Earl of Tankerville, to which title he 
succeeded (1776-1859). 3 Toujours Gai — A punning designation. 



FROM AUGUSTUS FOSTER. 197 

ful obstacles to this intention of mine. I wrote to 
you from Norfolk last. At Baltimore I got into a 
round of assemblies for five or six days that I stayed 
there, and among the rest beheld Madame Jerome 1 
Buonaparte, who has not a good figure, but a very 
delicate skin, and, I think, very pretty little features. 
Jerome 2 was confined. They have both been sadly 
tantalized about getting away. They were ship- 
wrecked once, and are afraid to go out in a frigate 
that lies in the Chesapeake. The French Minister 
did not return his visit, so I suppose that he is in 
high disgrace with the Emperor. This is a sad 
distance to be at from all the civilized world, and 
whenever I think of Europe, I always think I see 
an immense swell of sea between me and it. This 
place looks like — what, in fact, it is — an infant colony. 
Every man has built his house of wood or brick just 
where his fancy chose, so that there are hardly six 
buildings together in the whole of this immense 
space. I was presented to the President, 3 who 
behaved to me very civilly in general. Merry says 
he has not spoken to others he introduced to him. 
He is dressed and looks extremely like a very plain 
farmer, and wears his slippers down at his heels: 
only think what must have been poor Toujours Gai's 
embarras when at his first audience he went all 
bespeckled with the spangles of our gaudish Court 

* Madame Jerome— Daughter of Mr. Patterson, a rich Baltimore merchant. 

i Jerome— Youngest brother of Napoleon. He was king of Westphalia from 
1807 to 1813. He married a princess of Wurtemburg while his first wife was still 
alive, the marriage with Miss Patterson being declared null and void by Napoleon 
after he had become emperor (1784-1860). 

3 the President— Thomas Jefferson, president of the United States from 1801 
to 1809 (1743-1826). 



198 THE TWO DUCHESSES. 

dress: the door opened suddenly too. He thrust 
out his hand to me as he does to everybody, and 
desired me to sit down. Luckily for me I have 
been in Turkey, and am quite at home in this 
primeval simplicity of manners. However, they 
ought to establish some rule for foreign ministers if 
they will copy at all the customs of civilized Courts. 
As to this variegated nation — composed of British 
of all descriptions, of French, Dutch, Swiss, Africans, 
&c, I can form not the least idea as yet: all I know 
is that I have been disappointed in some things, 
particularly in their want of land eternally, and their 
thieving, which is carried to such an extent that there 
is no keeping even standing corn at a distance from 
your house here. Poor Mr. Merry is in perpetual 
alarm lest his disorder should return, and Mrs. 
Merry has had a very violent fever with which she 
still is confined to her bed. He really is a very good 
man, though [not?] the most methodical in the world. 
We live pretty well, but I have only got one room, 
and unluckily I sent my books and most of my things 
from Norfolk up the Potomac, so that they are not 
yet arrived. . . . 



Lady Elizabeth Foster 

To Augustus Foster. 

1804. 

. . . The cultivation of the muses would most 
agreeably occupy your leisure moments, and lead 
you to a study of all that can form and refine your 



FROM LADY ELIZABETH FOSTER. 1 99 

taste; it would encourage also the enthusiasm which 
I think so necessary to your happiness in every 
situation ... a really true enthusiastic mind will 
never want an object for its enthusiasm: you may 
be an enthusiast in friendship, an enthusiast in love, 
in the forming of one's own character to the practice 
of every virtue and the fulfilling of every duty; and 
enthusiasm is, in fact, what, well directed, leads to the 
attainment of every virtue, and enables the possessor 
of it to walk out of the common track of common 
characters who rest satisfied with doing what is 
required of them, but never are equal to that most 
generous, most rare of all qualities l'oubli de soi 
meme (unselfishness) : it also leads to a great indul- 
gence for others, and a great severity to one's self. 
In short, enthusiasm appears to me (perhaps you 
will say I am pleading my own cause) the vivifying 
heat that must bring forth the seed of all that is 
good in our natures, and lead to the imitation of all 
we see good in others. The enthusiasm which in- 
spired you with some of those very beautiful lines 
on the deserted plains of Thebes would, if cherished, 
equally fill your mind at home with admiration of 
the Duke of Devonshire's admirable taste and under- 
standing, and constant friendship of Mr. Hare, and 
the various excellencies of Mr. Fox's patriotism and 
transcendent abilities, Mr. Pitt's wonderful talents, 
&c, &c, and would also make you determine to 
distinguish yourself. ... I shall perhaps write again 
and again on this subject, for pray remember, when 
you say that my enthusiasm has had a fair and well- 
shaped channel, that I was younger than you when 



200 THE TWO DUCHESSES. 

I was without a guide; a wife and no husband; a 
mother and no children; travelling for my health, 
which was impaired by sorrow, and by myself alone 
to steer through every peril that surrounds a young 
woman so situated: — books, the arts, and a wish to 
be loved and approved; an enthusiastic friendship 
for these my friends; a proud determination to be 
my own letter of recommendation; these, with per- 
haps manners that pleased, realized my projects, and 
gained me friends wherever I have been — but adieu, 
I must go. Read Candide as an amusement, but 
Voltaire will only amuse but never improve except 
in tragedies — a firm and manly trust in the provi- 
dence of God will give you happier hours than ever 
Candide's philosophy can. Heaven bless and direct 
you. 

ON THE DEATH OF JAMES HARE. 

BY GEORGIANA, DUCHESS OF DEVONSHIRE, AND LADY 
ELIZABETH FOSTER. 

Hark! 'twas the Knell of Death! What spirit fled 
And burst those shackles man is doomed to bear? 
Can it be true, and midst the senseless Dead 
Must sorrowing Thousands count the Loss of Hare? 

Shall not his Genius Life's short Date prolong — 
Pure as the aether of its kindred Sky? 
Shall Wit enchant no longer from his Tongue 
Or beam in vivid Flashes from his Eye? 

Oh, no, that mind for every Purpose fit 
Has met, alas, the universal Doom. 
Unrivalled Fancy, Judgment, Sense, and Wit 
Were his, and only left him at the Tomb. 



FROM LADY ELIZABETH FOSTER. 201 

Rest, Spirit, rest, for gentle was thy Course ; 
Thy Rays, like temper'd Suns, no Venom knew; 
For still Benevolence alloy'd the Force 
Of the keen Darts thy matchless Satire threw. 

Yet not alone thy Genius I deplore; 
Nor o'er thy various Talents drop the Tear; 
But weep to think I shall behold no more 
A lov'd Companion and a Friend sincere. 

[James Hare, 1749-1804, was a friend of the Two Duchesses, of Charles James 
Fox, and of many others of his eminent contemporaries.] 

ON THE PEERAGE. 

EPIGRAM BY GEORGIANA, DUCHESS OF DEVONSHIRE. 

When a Peerage they give to some son of the earth, 

Yet he still is the same as before; 
'Tis an honour if gained as the premium of worth, 

But exposes a blockhead the more. 



Lady Elizabeth Foster 

To Augustus Foster. 

February 4, 1805. 

The ferment continues about Young 
Roscius, and to-morrow he acts Octavian again. It 
is the only character I have seen him in in which 
the beauties of his acting could not surmount the 
disadvantages of his extreme youth. He spoke, and 
the tones of his voice went to the heart as a man 
reduced to madness from unhappy love; but he 
looked a boy, and they had made Mrs. St. Leger, 
who acts in Valentine and Orson, do the part of 
Floranthe with him — she is six feet high. 



202 THE TWO DUCHESSES. 

$th. 

I ought to talk of politicks to you, but all con- 
versation begins and ends with Roscius. There 
never was anything like the beauty of his acting last 
night, yet it is a wretched play. Mr. Fitzpatrick 
went to the boy's room to be acquainted with him. 
His manners are those of a young man of the first 
fashion and good breeding. He is an astonishing 
creature, and you would admire him, I am sure. 
Think of his feeling, too. When he first rehearsed 
Hamlet, he had so worked himself up that when, in 
the closet scene, he says, "On him! on him! look 
how pale he glares!" he fainted in the arms of his 
friend. Mr. Hough, the prompter, caressed and 
soothed him, and said he should rehearse no more 
that night; and next day he said, "What, my dear 
boy, moved and affected you so last night?" "Why," 
he said, "I thought I did see my father's ghost." 
Caroline Wortley tells me that his acting Hamlet is 
the finest piece of acting she ever saw or can con- 
ceive. 

Well, now, as to other things. Pitt is said to have 
written two letters to the King urging the making 
Prettyman Archbishop of Canterbury, which he 
refused doing, and Sutton is appointed. Lord Mel- 
ville is said to have recommended Admiral Cochrane 
to go out to the West India Fleet, and this is not 
done. The rumour for some days was that Pitt 
must go out, but I do not think it. You will see a 
contradiction of the statement in Cobbett's 1 paper 
about Canning. I have avoided asking about it out 

1 William Coibett — Political and miscellaneous writer (1762-1835). 



FROM AUGUSTUS FOSTER. 203 

of delicacy to the Hawkesburys, but I believe there 
were friends of Canning's that would not let it rest 
so. I believe Wallace has been indiscreet, else I 
know not how Cobbett could have had possession of 
the transaction, or, at least, of what was said of it. 
Next Friday Mr. Grey's 1 motion on the Spanish 
papers comes on. They are rejoicing it is not 
Thursday, as Roscius acts Romeo! Opposition will 
divide strong, I should think. . . . All here is as 
you left it. Corisande still unmarried, and Ossulston 
without money to marry: how long he thinks he can 
go on so I know not: it makes her, poor little thing, 
feel very uncomfortable. Dune, seems a little smitten 
with your friend Mrs. Payne; but her manner is 
quite proper. B. North looks in despair; I believe 
she has cut him quite; and Lord and Lady Villiers 
look happiness itself. Lady Boringdon very hand- 
some and happy, and he seems proud and fond of 
her. H. Dillon has hid himself. 



Augustus Foster 

To Lady 'Elizabeth Foster. 

Washington, February 8, 1805. 

. . . Though I have not as yet seen much of 
this country, I have seen enough to be convinced 
that it will not do to stay a great while in it. This, 
undoubtedly, is a miserable place, but the elect of all 

1 Mr. Grey— Afterwards Earl Grey, prime minister when the great Reform Bill 
of 1832 was passed (1764-1845). 



204 THE TW0 DUCHESSES. 

the States are assembled in it; and really such a 
gang to have the affairs of an Empire wanting little 
of the size of Russia entrusted to them makes one 
shudder. Imagination is dead in this country; wit 
is neither to be found nor is it understood among 
them; all the arts seem to shrink from it, and you 
hear of nothing but calculation and speculation in 
money or in Politics. When I am introduced to a 
person here, I am quite at a loss what to converse 
with him upon. Their depth of reading generally 
goes no further than Tom Paine's muddy pamphlets, 
or more generally their own still more muddy 
political newspapers. If they go as far as books of 
travels and magazines it is a very great deal. I 
have frequently attended their Congress. There are 
about five persons who look like gentlemen; all the 
rest come in the filthiest dresses, and are well indeed 
if they look like farmers, but most seem apothecaries 
and attorneys. There is only one man who can 
speak well; he is the leader of the Republicans, or, 
as the Federalists call them, Democrats — Randolph. 1 
He is, I believe, going to England and to France 
with a little nephew who is deaf and dumb, but 
extremely intelligent, to take him to Lizard. I shall 
give him a letter for you, for, though the strangest- 
looking Demagogue you ever set eyes on, he is very 
gentlemanlike, and, for this country, a prodigy. He 
has a little of the affectation of a self-taught and late- 
taught politician, but he is certainly clever, and, as a 

^Randolph — John Randolph, an American statesman distinguished for his elo- 
quence, wit, sarcasm, and eccentricity, and for thirty years more talked and written 
of than any other American politician. He boasted that the Indian Princess 
Pocahontas was one of his ancestors (1773-1833). (From Chambers' Cyclopaedia^. 



FROM AUGUSTUS FOSTER. 2 Q$ 

descendant of the Indian Queen Pocahontas, 1 you will 
be interested about him. . . . I do not think that 
this ever will become a great city. The Demon of 
speculation has already fixed himself here; and, 
instead of giving premiums for building, the land is 
very dear. There is no commerce whatever, and all 
the increase arises from the demand for houses for 
the members of Congress, and those whom they 
bring here; but I heard so bad an account of this 
wretched settlement, that the only thing I was dis- 
appointed in was the hope of finding great forests of 
fine trees, instead of which the land is mere waste in 
the city, and all the trees have been cut for fire. In 
short, if I don't fall in love very soon the dullness 
that stares you in the face in this letter will irrevoc- 
ably get hold of me. I do nothing but read the 
Tempest and Midsummer Night's Dream and Virgil 
to try and keep alive the embers of imagination; but 
really there is in this demi-city demi-wilderness so 
lovely a damsel of parti-coloured extraction — Irish 
and Portuguese — that I won't quite be sure of not 
melting a little; if so, I shall be destined to be always 
falling in love with Roman Catholics. She is the 
most determined devotee in existence, almost starves 
herself on fast days, but certainly is beautiful; how- 
ever son ancora intatto per sicuro. 

''■Pocahontas— Daughter of Powhatan, an Indian chief of Virginia, married to 
John Rolfe in 1613, and baptized by the name of Rebecca (1595-1617). 



206 THE TWO DUCHESSES. 

Augustus Foster 

To Lady Elizabeth Foster, 

Washington, Feb. 15, 1805. 

I saw Jerome Bonaparte last night. You seem 
to be interested about him in England. Those 
letters are undoubtedly authentic, though he tries 
to persuade Madame and his friends that they 
are forgeries. He has made several attempts to 
go away, and now says he will go with her in 
three months. He is in size rather smaller than 
Napoleon, and very like Lord Bristol 1 in figure. 
He is only like Bonaparte in the lip. The French 
Minister and his affect to call his wife Miss 

Patterson in speaking to others of her. They are 
both, I think, very much to be pitied; and though 
he has been extravagant here, yet he has in general 
conducted himself in company modestly and unas- 
suming; but that and his youth cannot save him 
from the ill-nature of these most ill-natured rene- 
gades from all countries under the sun, the American 
inhabitants of towns. His daughter is wife of an 
Irish refugee, who came over here in a very low 
situation, indeed, as some say, hostler; but at present 
against his character thers is not the least imputation: 
however, truth is hard to be got at here. . . . 

1 Lord Bristol — The Bishop of Derry had died in Italy in 1803, and his son 
Frederick was now Earl (and afterwards marquis) of Bristol (1769-1859). 



FROM THE EARL OF ABERDEEN. 207 

Lady Elisabeth Foster 

To Augustus Foster. 

March 3, 1805. 

. . . Miss Drummond is in love, they say, 
with Young Roscius, so that all her lovers must 
despair. He is truly, as Mr. Pitt says, a prodigy, 
and I do grieve that you are not here to see and 
admire him. It has made a change in London life, 
and the theatre is now the great topic of conversa- 
tion and the favorite amusement. Even Grassini 1 
complains that he has spoiled the Opera, and is the 
great attraction to all people. I assure you that the 
great politicians consult what day he acts that they 
may not give their dinners on those days. We saw 
him the other day at Lady Abercorn's. Lady 
Hamilton did her attitudes, and the Boy was asked 
to recite. He refused a great while. At last his 
father asked him. He said, " I must do whatever 
my father desires me," and came, not over-pleased, to 
the room where people were waiting to see him, and 
then he recited a speech of Hassan's. 



The Earl of A berdeen 

To Augustus Foster. 

March 4, 1805. 

My dear Augustus, — It is but two days since I 
emerged from obscurity and resumed my place 

1 Grassini — Josephina Grassini, the finest Italian singer of her time (1775-1850). 



208 THE TWO DUCHESSES. 

amongst the constellations which adorn Babylon. 
That you wallow in space is most true, but that you 
embrace the Heavenly Goddess of Liberty I beg 
leave to doubt; it must be a painted representation, 
no more like her than a Volunteer is to a Soldier. 
Your Republic is certainly in her childhood, but she 
has nothing of infancy but its frowardness, and in- 
stead of the strength and vigour of youth she has 
nothing but its insolence and ignorance. The re- 
semblance of Washington to Rome is a good bur- 
lesque. As for my Plans they are far from being 
decided, whether I go to Happy climes or remain 
here, whether I roam in Liberty amongst the 
Beauties of the Day or content myself with the 
possession of one object. The thermometer of my 
affections is not very far from the freezing point, and, 
what is worse, I fear the mercury is still sinking. I 
saw your former flame at Devonshire House looking 
very well, but no Ossulston. ... It is a great con- 
solation that your women are pretty. As for their 
expecting you to be enamoured at the first glance it 
is no objection, provided they comply equally soon; 
Whittington desires to be remembered. The tooth 
of a Mammoth would highly gratify him. If you 
meet with the seeds of plants which are very rare in 
this country send me a few for a beautiful Dame 
who has nothing but vulgar roses and lilies in her 
cheeks. Write me, and believe me your most sin- 
cere and faithful friend, 

Aberdeen. 



FROM LADY ELIZABETH FOSTER. 20 g 



Lady Elizabeth Foster 

To Augustus Foster. 

Devonshire House, March 25, 1805. 
. . . Dear Lord Aberdeen really seems quite 
anxious (about the illness of Georgiana, Duchess of 
Devonshire). He had been one of the few infidels 
about the young Roscius, but he is, I hear, won over, 
and acknowledges his merit. Mr. Crawford saw 
him for the first time, and in Hamlet, the other night. 
He said that he expected to be disappointed, having 
heard so much and remembering Garrick so per- 
fectly, but that he was astonished and delighted, and 
that in many parts he thought him not even inferior 
to Garrick. 1 There never certainly was so extraor- 
dinary a being, and the more one thinks of it the 
more extraordinary it appears. Sir Walter 2 and Dr. 
Blane 3 have just been here. The Duchess is really 
better, but yet they think there must be more pain, 
but not so bad as before — at least I am willing to 
think not. They had a budget of news. Lord 
Chatham has the government of Plymouth vacant 
by the death of Lord Lennox; that the Russians 
will certainly co-operate with us and send 100,000 
men into the field, and that Sir S. Craig is to com- 
mand the expedition: he is first to take Minorca, 
and then proceed to Malta to combine where to 
meet the Russians and their future operations. Of 

1 Garrick— David Garrick; Pope said of him after seeing him act in Richard II., 
"That young man never had his equal as an actor, and will never have a rival" 
(1716-1779). 

2 Sir Walter— Six Walter Farquhar, the physician mentioned previously. 
3 Dr. Blane— Afterwards Sir Gilbert Blane, a celebrated physician (1749-1834). 





2IO THE TWO DUCHESSES. 

all the Convoy, it is now known that the French 
took three ships, and allowing to the bravery of the 
Arrow sloop and Acheron brig. . . . 

March 28. 

The publick go on being delighted with young 
Roscius, Parliament discussing the Militia, the papers 
are dwelling on the tenth report, and Buonaparte is 
adding more crowns to his Imperial Diadem. It is 
a fortnight, I believe, since I have stirred from 
home, so I can only give you outlines of news. A 
poem 1 has just appeared of Walter Scott's, which is 
said to be good, but till I hear a little more of it I 
shall not send it as it is very long. 



Lady Elizabeth Foster 

To A ugustus Foster. 

April 5, 1805. 

The fifth representation of Hamlet has filled the 
house more than I have yet seen it. I never saw 
him act so well as to-night, and Lord Aberdeen was 
quite delighted with him, of course, you know that 
I mean Roscius. ... I am afraid Lord Aberdeen 
is vexed about Lord Melville. 2 I send you the 
paper with his letter. The tenth report 2 is as yet 
too large, but when the extract or abridgement comes 
out I will send it you. Lord Suffolk chose to move 

'poem — The Lay of the Last Minstrel. 

* Melville~-Ylenry Dundas, Viscount Melville, long prominent in the political 
world. He was impeached for crimes and misdemeanours committed while acting 
as treasurer of the navy, but was acquitted. The ' ' tenth report " refers to the pro- 
ceedings in regard to this trial (1740-1811). 



FROM LADY ELIZABETH FOSTER. 211 

in the House to-night for the authentic letter, the 
one which has been published in the papers being, 
he said, a forgery, as it criminated Lord M. more 
than he was before it. Some think it clears him at 
least from having speculated for himself. 

News is come of the French attack on Dominica. 
The Toulon fleet was said to have passed the straits 
of Gibraltar in order to join the Rochefort squadron 
in the West Indies, but some reports say that it is 
gone back. The present moment is not a bright one 
for Ministers. They are in need of some coup d'etat 
to help them on. One of the rumours of the day is 
that Lord Wellesley 1 has declared himself Sovereign 
of India; then he and Holkar 2 may fight it out. 
Your friend Lord A. 3 braves the Duchess of Gordon, 4 
and flirts with Harriet 5 more than ever. I admire 
his spirit, but I am sorry the papers have got hold 
of it, and amiable and delightful as he is, he would 
not be a good match for her. Lord Tankerville 6 has 
not relented, and I have no guess how that will end. 
. . . Speaking of Jerome "yet he has in general 
conducted himself in company modestly and unas- 
suming", it should be either modestly and unassum- 

1 Lord Wellesley — The Marquis Wellesley, the famous governor-general of India, 
and eldest brother of the Duke of Wellington. He returned from India in 1805, 
having been about eight years there (1760-1842). 

2 Holkar — Jeswunt Rao Holkar, Maratta ruler of Indore, who gave much trouble 
to the British, and gained a. rather important victory over the Colonel Monson 
mentioned here. 

^your friend Lord A. — Lord Aberdeen. 

* The Duchess of Gordon — She probably wished him to marry a daughter of her 
own. The Duchess— Jane Maxwell — was famous as a successful match-maker, and 
was in several ways somewhat notorious. 

5 Harriet — Lady Harriet Cavendish, daughter of the fifth Duke of Devonshire. 

6 Lord Tankerville — He appears to have been against the marriage of his son 
Lord Ossulston with the Corisande several times referred to in the correspondence, 
but the marrriage took place. 



212 THE TWO DUCHESSES. 

ingly, or in company he is modest and unassumi 
These are only little inaccuracies and inelegan 
which you require to avoid, by having the habit 
writing correctly at all times, and this would prev 
your having even any trouble in avoiding them, i 
as you seem to have acquired a love and habit 
study and application, do, my dearest child, put t 
time to profit in every way, and the very dulln 
you naturally complain of will then turn to yi 
advantage — set doggedly to, as Johnson called 
not only to translate Cicero, but to transcribe Li 
Chesterfield. Transcribing forms the style as tra 
lating does the judgment and taste. If you acqu 
a habit of correct and elegant writing now it is dc 
for life; your style is natural and agreeable; i 
construction of your phrases is all that requi 
attending to; whatever is simplest is best, but tr 
the grammatical part should be pure and correct 
the utmost. You must forgive these criticisms, 1 
consequence of materno affetto which is watchi 
over you most anxiously. Let me know where y 
are likely to go in the spring that I may follow y 
on the map. You will hear of the reverses in Inc 
and the shocking fate of Colonel Monson's detai 
ment. Lord Cornwallis 1 is going to give peace, a 
hope, to that desolated country; would the oli 
branch could be extended over Europe. . . . 

1 Lord Cornwallis — He was appointed, in 1804, governor-general of Indi; 
succession to the Marquis Wellesley, but died in 1805. 



FROM THE EARL OF ABERDEEN. 213 

The Earl of Aberdeen 

To Augustus Foster. 

Watier's Club, April 6, 1805. 

My dear Augustus, — I heard of you lately from 
Lady Elizabeth, and am sorry that you continue to 
dislike the Metropolitan residence of Washington, 
although in one respect it should give me pleasure, 
as it will lessen the impediments to your return. 
There is nothing of great consequence. I am not 
sanguine about Russia, but combined expeditions 
are talked of, and we have already despatched some 
thousand men. The most atrocious virulence which 
ever disgraced a party has been exerted against 
Lord Melville, but he will ultimately triumph — 
Magna est Veritas et praevalebit. The Duchess, you 
will have heard, has been very ill, but is now much 
recovered. Your old flame 1 is still in statu quo, 
although Lord Tankerville, I understand, now con- 
sents. I think Grantham is very far gone with Miss 
Pole, who is certainly the prettiest girl in London. 
Au reste there have been produced but few beauties 
this spring. Lady Charlotte Gower will be pretty; 
there are two Lady Fitzgeralds greatly celebrated, 
but without much reason. . . . Aberdeen. 

1 Corisande de Gramont. 



214 THE TWO DUCHESSES. 

Lady Elizabeth Foster 

To Augustus Foster. 

Devonshire House, April 10, 1805 

. . . I finished the last letter on Monday tl 
8th. That eventful day! 1 we received in the cour 
of the evening several notes from the House 
Commons saying that the opinion of the Hou 
seemed to go very much with them (opposition) ai 
that Pitt had spoke without one solitary cheer, 
thing, I suppose, unknown to him before. Lo 
Henry Petty spoke admirably, and Lord John wrc 
us word that he thought that they would divide 17 
a strong division for opposition. Mr. Pitt w 
keeping his friends together saying that the ne 
question he should have to carry was so and s 
whatever it was I forget it now. The question w 
called for before five; a great and awful silen 
ensued. The Speaker rose and said that the motii 
for a secret committee had appeared to him to be 
fair and equitable measure, but that the charge whi 
had been brought before him was so strong he mu 
according to his conscience, give his vote for t 
question. The ayes have it. They had divid 
equally, and he gave the casting vote. He was p; 
as ashes, and you might have heard a pin drop; it 
an event that occupies every creature. The Hou 

1 That eventful day — Eventful in the proceedings against Lord Melville. 
Whitbread moved certain resolutions censuring the conduct of Lord M.; 
moved the previous question ; and the votes being equal the Speaker (Mr. Abl 
afterwards Lord Colchester) gave his casting vote in favour of Mr. Whitbre; 
motion. Lord M. at once resigned the post of First Lord of the Admiralty, 
his name was erased from the list of members of the Privy Council, but L 
Aberdeen's confidence in his ultimate triumph was not misplaced. 



FROM LADY ELIZABETH FOSTER. 

sat again to-day. I saw my sister in the 
she was extremely low. I told her what' 
feel, that I was nervous and agitated, and that I 
believed whoever knew Lord Melville felt concern 
and regard, and I for my own part feel a disbelief 
that he would have profited by the peculation, how- 
ever wrong it was to pass it over in another so 
lightly. She said certainly it was very wrong, but 
that she hoped nothing more would be done, as the 
national justice might now be satisfied. I saw her 
and Mr. Grey to-day, but I don't know what they 
mean to do. Only think of Lord Melville being 
obliged to have a great dinner on the next day. 
How I do feel for them. Lady Hawkesbury said 
they got through it pretty well. 

Night. 

Mr. Whitbread's motion, you will see, he consented 
to withdraw, and only moved that the resolutions 
should be carried up to the King to-morrow. This 
Pitt agreed to. The debate was animated. Mr. 
Grey, Duncannon, and Lord Ossulston supped with 
us afterwards. Mr. Grey said that Canning's had 
been the most intemperate attack upon him and 
very unexpected, as lately there had been much 
intercourse between them of a very friendly kind, 
and certainly what he advanced had nothing to do 
with the present case. The temper of the House 
was milder. Wilberforce said that as the national 
justice was satisfied he wished the question not to be 
pressed further. Fox's was very brilliant and very 
severe. How sorry I am for Lord Aberdeen; he 



2l6 THE TWO DUCHESSES. 

will feel this, I am sure, deeply. Lord Melville wa 
so kind to him, and he has so much heart. Th 
impression is beyond the giving you an idea of. 

Chiswick, April. 

Lord Aberdeen called on me to-day. On takini 
my hand, I felt his as cold as marble; he thre^ 
himself on a chair and said what miserable sa' 
things have passed since I saw you. It made me s 
nervous I could hardly speak, but I told him that 
could not express to him how much I felt for Lon 
Melville; that those who, like me, had seen hir 
in his private life must feel a regard and affectioi 
for him that nothing could alter; and I owned als< 
that I felt a disbelief that he ever enriched himsell 
though I own I thought opposition right in doini 
what they had done. Oh! good God, yes, he said 
he was condemned on his own confession of breac 
of an Act of Parliament and allowing Trotter 1 t 
speculate with the publick money; it was right, i 
was necessary he should go out and that there shoul 
be this censure. I should not have mentioned thi; 
but I cannot, cannot bear that a suspicion shoul 
rest on anybody's mind that he could enrich himsel 
Those who knew him will not believe he did. 
said I hoped it might be proved, but thought Pitt' 
speech had been a weak one. He said he wa 
frightened for the first time in his life; dismay an 
horror were in his looks, he never raised his eye 
from the ground, and next day when he called o 
Lord Melville he was some time without uttering 

1 Trotter — Paymaster of the navy under Lord Melville. 



FROM LADY ELIZABETH FOSTER. 217 

I asked him how Lord Melville bore it; he said 
well; that he reproached them for their melancholy 
countenances, and said it looked as if they thought 
him guilty; indiscreet he had been, but he had 
not been more. I do assure you, dear Augustus, 
I was nervous and agitated to a great degree. I 
felt for him as his and as your friend, and I am 
sorry for Lord Melville; it is the deathblow to his 
greatness. He falls, as Wolsey did, never to rise 
again, and like him with too much of former power 
and with some great and good qualities. The im- 
pression on the public mind is beyond all belief; it 
occupies everybody and all day long; it is a fearful 
example of the vicissitude of human prosperity. He 
was a man who had a real pleasure in obliging and 
in doing a kind thing. I hear that he will be re- 
gretted in the navy, where every thing went on well 
and with kindness to the officers and men. Adieu, 
my dearest Augustus. As this is a chance letter, I 
will say no more now. I asked Lord Aberdeen to 
find out for me if they would like to receive me as 
they are going to Wimbledon, and I would drive 
there from here, though it would be a nervous visit. 
Adieu, adieu. I never remember a question in 
which I thought opposition right would give me so 
much pain. 

Lady Elizabeth Foster 

To Augustus Foster. 

Chiswick, April 22, 1805. 
Lord Aberdeen dined here yesterday, and was 
introduced to the Duke, who I heard liked him very 



2l8 THE TWO DUCHESSES. 

much. I had a wretched sick headache from cryir 
at the play of Zara, in which Roscius in the last A 
outdid himself, and I was so undone by it I cou 
not leave my room, but Caro told me it all went c 
very well : he was shy, to be sure, and during dinn 
did not, I am told, talk much, but that is no fau 
young as he is, and after dinner he was at his eas 
and Caro, Harriet, Georgiana, and he had a gre 
deal of conversation, and you know how good h 
conversation is. Mr. Bennet dined here, and tl 
Duchess wanted Lord A. to sleep here, but he w; 
going on to Wimbledon: his feeling, yet candou 
about all that business of Lord Melville, is mo 
amiable. He told me that it was going on rath 
better, and that Trotter now was willing to make i 
affidavit that Lord Melville had no share. 

The Duke has been to the Installation. It was 
very magnificent sight, and it all went off very we 
Nothing extraordinary in the King's behaviour e: 
cept wearing the most wonderful wig ever seen, ar 
which attracted every body's notice as soon as 1 
appeared. . . . Next day the Prince and Dul 
of Clarence 1 dined at Chiswick. Pitt is to anticipa 
the motions which opposition meant to bring forwar 
and moves for continuing the naval commission ar 
instituting inquiries into the war department. S 
Charles Middleton is to be First Lord of the A' 
miralty, but he is supposed to be a creature of L01 
Melville. 

^■Duke of Clarence — Afterwards King William IV. (1765-1837). 



FROM LADY ELIZABETH FOSTER. 219 

27th. 

Lord Aberdeen, Ossulston, Lord H. Petty, W. 
Lamb, and Lord Brook supped here after the Opera. 
The news of the day, and this Lord R. Spencer had 
told me before dinner, is that Addington and Lord 
Buckinghamshire have resigned. I asked Lord 
Henry P., and he said he believed it was certain, 
and on the grounds that Pitt required a support of 
Lord Melville which Addington could not conscien- 
tiously give. Lord Aberdeen told me that some con- 
dition for favouring Lord St. Vincent had not been 
complied with, and that he imagined that they cer- 
tainly would go out, for their conversation, he says, 
does not agree with the votes they give, nor were 
those votes of all their friends. It excites some 
curiosity, as you may believe. 

2%th. 

All this morning the resignation appeared certain, 
but Pitt was known to have gone to Richmond 
(where Addington lives), and conferences of various 
kinds were held. Four of the Cabinet Ministers 
were sent for from the Academy dinner yesterday to 
attend a Cabinet Council, and about six to-day it was 
known that a reconciliation had been effected. Has 
Pitt or Addington yielded? Will Sir C. Middleton 
remain First Lord of the Admiralty? Voila ce qu'il 
faut resoudre et qui sera probablement connu demain. 
Meanwhile more letters are come from America and 
none from you, but Lady Hawkesbury tells me such 
a panegyric of you as gave her the greatest satis- 
faction. I long to read the letter. 



220 THE TWO DUCHESSES. 

May 2nd. 

You will see by the papers all the rumours of th 
French fleet and of ours. Dieu sait ce qui sera d 
nous, but if the French can get out when they choos 
why should our blockading system continue whic 
so fatigues ships and men. . . . The Duke and a 
of us are going to see young Roscius to-night in th 
character of Richard the Third. It is a bold undei 
taking, but his Genius justifies his daring. God bles 
you, my dear child, and may you soon quit those in 
hospitable climes you are in, though I hear that evei 
the Americans are delighted with you, and wonde 
we don't always send our young men of fashion ther 
rather than to France or Italy. 



Lady Elizabeth Foster 

To Augustus Foster. 

Devonshire House, May 21, 1805. 

. . . Since my last letter there was anothe 
question lost by Ministers, and the motion for taking 
Lord Melville's name out of the list of Privy Coun 
cillors was carried. Indeed Pitt announced that h< 
gave way, and had advised the King to do so. 
hope there will be no need of any thing further. H< 
is obliged to sell his house in town, to let Wimbledon 
and is going somewhere to the sea side with her 
It is a most melancholy vicissitude, and I do fee 
for him to my heart. Lord Aberdeen comes hen 
to-night. There is a little dance after the Opera. ] 
know not why, but we have not seen so much o 



FROM LADY ELIZABETH FOSTER. 221 

him lately, which I regret very much, and am afraid 
there are plots to keep him away. The day before 
yesterday Madame Jerome Bonaparte landed at 
Dover. She had been to Lisbon, and not allowed 
to land there. I hear she then went to Holland, and 
orders were sent there not to receive her, and at last 
the ship put into the Downs, and orders were sent 
for her landing and every attention to be paid her, 
though I heard Lord Hawkesbury say he should not 
allow any of the men to land, but I hope that this is 
not so, as I see by the papers that her brother and a 
physician are on board with her. What a strange 
fate hers seems to be. I should like to see her, but 
I am afraid they won't let her come to London, 
which seems to me very extraordinary. I should 
like to talk to her of you, and I feel inclined to like 
her from what you said of her and from her unhappy 
situation. He is supposed to be gone on to Madrid. 
As to publick affairs, the combined fleets 1 are said 
certainly to be out of Cadiz, and Lord Nelson cer- 
tainly to have passed the straits and to be coming 
homewards. Whether this means that the enemy 
intend a great junction of all their fleets to make an 
attack on Ireland, or that some are gone to make a 
great attack on Jamaica, nobody seems able to guess, 
but there is a look of anxiety amongst Ministers 
which gives an idea of alarm, and the total want of 
information of where the combined fleets are gone 
adds to that apprehension. However, with Lord 
Nelson near us, I think we need not fear our own 
shores, but think what a blow Jamaica would be to 

1 The combined fleets — French and Spanish. 



222 THE TWO DUCHESSES. 

Charles Ellis, and indeed to hundreds of others — m; 
speriamo. ... Of private news already I havi 
told you that Caroline Ponsonby 1 is to be married t< 
William Lamb, now an elder brother. It is to b< 
next week, and Lord Cowper's marriage is declarec 
with Emily Lamb, and they are all to be here to 
night. These are certainly two as pretty marriage 
as possible. The Melbournes, as the Queen good 
naturedly said, wanted this consolation after thei: 
trying misfortunes, and they are very happy with it. 

l%th. 

Madame Jerome is come to London. I wish \ 
knew how to get acquainted with her. We are al 
very much occupied at present with the story of ar 
American lady, a Mrs. Randolph, who is daughter tc 
English parents, their birth and fortune considerable 
They changed their name on going from Englanc 
to America. She was daughter to a Duchess anc 
married an Earl's second son, and this third daughtei 
married a Mr. Randolph. The estate in Virginia, 1 
think, was disputed ; they lost it, and the lawsuit cos 
a great sum, and they were ruined. The yellow 
fever carried all off but this young woman, to whorc 
on dying her mother revealed her family name, bu 
made her promise never to reveal it. She came tc 
England, as she supposed, to a friend of her mother 
and on her landing read her death in the papers 
She wandered about till, fainting through want, sh( 
knocked at the door of Mr. Mansbridge to ask hin 
a permission for the parish infirmary. Her appear 

1 Caroline Ponsonby — See Appendix (d. 1828). 



FROM LADY ELIZABETH FOSTER. 223 

ance and story strongly interested him, and Mr. 
Trumbull of America was with him. He promised 
to inquire about her, and has written from America 
that all she has told is true. I wish you, too, would 
inquire about her family. They lived chiefly, I think, 
in Virginia and Philadelphia, and were well known 
and in great consideration. I never heard a more 
melancholy story, and Mrs. Randolph is a widow of 
one and twenty. 

June 2. 

I have seen Mr. Trumbull's letters, which mention 
Mrs. Randolph as being known to several persons 
and very much respected by them, but the mystery 
is not yet cleared, though, by circulating the paper 
which gives an account of her, they hope some of 
her father or mother's family may claim her. 

Caroline Ponsonby is to be married to-morrow; 
she looks prettier than ever I saw her. Sometimes 
she is very nervous, but in general she appears to be 
very happy. W. Lamb seems quite devoted to her. 
They supped here last night, and she received her 
presents and gave some. Lord Morpeth gave her 
a beautiful acqua marina clasp. I gave her a little 
pearl cross with a small diamond in the middle. 
Caroline gives a hair bracelet with amethyst clasp. 
Lord Melbourne gave her a beautiful set of ame- 
thysts, and Lady M. a diamond wreath. The Duke 
of Devonshire gives her her wedding gown, and the 
Duchess a beautiful veil. Harriet gives a beautifull 
burnt topaz cross, and then, &c. &c. What a com- 
fort to have her so near, and yet what a trial to poor 
Lady Bessborough. 



224 THE TWO DUCHESSES. 

June z,tk 

The marriage was on the 3d at half after seven 
8 in the evening. We went to Cavendish Squa: 
and besides the Devonshire House party were or 
the Melbournes, Morpeths, Fitzwilliams, Lord Spe 
cer, Lady Sara and Lord Althorpe, Lord Cowper 
trustee, and your brother by Caroline's own invitatic 
They set out about nine; she was dreadfully nervoi 
but his manner to her was beautifull, so tender ai 
considerate. There was a great crowd assemble 
and the favours looked very gay and pretty. Th 
went to Brocket Hall, 1 and will stay there, I belie\ 
about a fortnight. The Melbournes fit up the midc 
apartment at Whitehall for them. As to poor Cori 
all goes on the same. She looks thin and ill, I thin 
He has no money to marry, and his father is obstina 
The family praise her very much. . . . 

The only news here is that Lord Melville is 
appear at the bar of the House of Commons ai 
make a speech in his own defence. Probably tl 
will save him from being impeached. Yesterd 
dispatches were received from Nelson, and he w 
pursuing the combined fleet, yet very unlikely is 
that he should meet with it; great movements a 
seen in all the fleets nearer home, but invasion 
scarcely now believed in. . . . 

Lord Aberdeen is, I am afraid, in a grand flirtati* 
with Lady Catherine Hamilton. They make hi 
great advances, and a person here whom I h 
hoped he liked or seemed inclined to like is fr 
proud to seem to care if not certain of being pi 

^Brocket Hall— The country seat of Lord Melbourne in Hertfordshire. 



FROM AUGUSTUS FOSTER. 225 

ferred, so the others have champ libre, and as it is a 
connection as to Politicks that his friends would like 
I dare say it will do, but he is too good for them; I 
don't say for her, for she is pretty and, I believe, 
amiable, but I am very sorry for her. I think him 
delightful, and I am sure he likes the society here. 



Augustus Foster 

To Lady Elizabeth Foster. 

Washington, June 2, 1805. 

Aberdeen's plan of going abroad I was 
always afraid would be only a bubble, though I think 
the Russian scheme would have suited him very well. 
I am sorry for this affair of Lord Melville's. He 
would have held out a very good ladder for Aber- 
deen in politics. Now he has only got Mr. Pitt, but 
he, you will say, is everything. So Roscius, a boy 
of 13, has changed your hours and manner of living 
in London, brought you down to plain country five 
o'clock. Can any of the bishops say as much, I 
pray? but this is the age of wonders. Lord Hawkes- 
bury, Lord of the Admiralty, or what you please, sir. 
Is it strange or not that he should thus be hopping 
about all the stepping-stones of the Administration? 
The Secretaries here are astonished that he should 
have such variegated talents, but I tell them that 
with us every Minister of State must be thoroughly 
acquainted with our whole system, and it is very 
true. Here none of the men in office at all are 
allowed a seat, and therefore are not obliged to know 



226 THE TWO DUCHESSES. 

everything. . . . It is an absolute sepulchre th 
hole. I am going next week to the Falls of Potom; 
at Harper's Ferry, and to Philadelphia the wee 
after. The season has been delightful here, an 
when these degenerate sons of our ancestors arriv 
at a little taste this situation will be one of the fine; 
in America. Mrs. Merry is now recovering fast: sr 
suffers more than I can describe from this countr 
The women here are in general a spying, inquisitivi 
vulgar, and most ignorant race, and yet as cen 
monious as ambassadresses. Even you with a 
your resources and powers of self-amusement woul 
absolutely be puzzled here. You can bear man 
things, but you cannot bear vulgarity. . . . 



Augustus Foster 

To Lady Elizabeth Foster. 

Washington, June 30, 1805. 
I made a little excursion to Harper' 
Ferry where the Shenandoagh and Potomack joi 
and rush through the mountains, if mountains the 
can be called. The country is very woody, but ha 
more cultivated spots than I expected to find. Popu 
lation does not increase, however, very rapidly i: 
this part of the United States. The acquisition 
which these absorbers of land are perpetually making 
have thrown open such an extensive field for specu 
lation that the farmers absolutely wanton in th 
excess of it. An Irishman, when he first lands 
without speaking a word of English, which few wh 



FROM AUGUSTUS FOSTER. 227 

come here can, makes signs with his spade in his 
hand that he wants work, and obtains a dollar a day, 
or 45. 6d. With such high wages he soon is enabled 
to buy a little land, and when he has got rich upon 
that he tires of it and removes some miles farther to 
a better soil, and so goes on gradually to the Missis- 
sippi. This is the process that the settlers of every 
nation go through except the Germans, who plant 
themselves at once, and there they stick, good or 
bad. They tug away jog trot at the soil till they die, 
when their sons march off to the towns or to the 
back country. With such a rambling disposition you 
will easily conceive that they can't have much attach- 
ment to home. In fact, you nowhere find the rustic 
simplicity which pleases so much and is everywhere 
else found in the world. There are no natural 
manners, no peculiarities that mark the country. 
You are always among the inhabitants of towns, 
though you strike upon a Log House in the most 
distant woods, and as the houses are of such perish- 
able materials there is nowhere any building to mark 
long residence. Anywhere but in America I could 
bear, I think, seclusion, but I cannot bear to be 
eternally among knowing people, and what is worse, 
too, there is no spot so retired among these "regener- 
ated races ", as they are called, where you don't find 
drunkenness. I always have Mr. Fox in my mind 
when I think of the United States. I know that he 
has a strong prejudice in favor of this country, but I 
should like to know whether it is not confined merely 
to the theory of the Constitution which they possess. 
That I think excellent, but they surely have become 



228 THE TWO DUCHESSES. 

independent too soon for their own happiness. The 
strongest Party in this country is now making violent 
efforts to change that Constitution, as I believe I 
told you, by limiting the influence of the Senate and 
making the judges more dependent. The possibility 
of a division is even openly talked of in the public 
papers, and recriminations are exchanged between 
the Eastern and the Southern States; in short, they 
seem ripe for dissension. Of all the members, about 
130 Representatives and 34 Senators assembled 
here last winter, there really was not a single one 
that we should look up to as a man of great talent 
in England, nor is it to be expected that there 
should, as they most of them exercise two or three 
professions besides, and are almost all speculators; 
however, there were some very worthy men, and no 
doubt of great integrity. It is really too great a 
sacrifice of the best years of life to remain long here. 
If the Congress met at Philadelphia one might em- 
ploy one's time, but here there is absolutely nothing, 
not even books, to be had. I shall forget almost 
how to be cheerful in this sink of imagination; how- 
ever, it will certainly be an interesting country to us 
at no very distant period, and, therefore, well worth 
the visit. In a week we go to Philadelphia. The 
French Minister and his wife have been exposing 
themselves shamefully here by their domestic quarrels. 
He, it seems, is of the true Jacobin, Godless and 
licentious cast, and she, it is said, forced herself into 
where he was assisting at dancing in his own house 
of not the most reputable ladies, when he beat her 
most unmercifully and forced her to fly the house. 



FROM AUGUSTUS FOSTER. 229 

tie has been abusing him from house to house 
;re, even his valet told her that she was a Canaille; 
short, they are in complete disgrace with the 
mericans, and she is to be shipped off for France, 
believe. I don't know whether I have asked of 
)u already to send me over the newest Country 
'ances and Cotillon music, which is what they 
mce most here. . . 



Augustus Foster 

To Frederick Foster. 

Washington, July 1, 1805. 

I don't know whether I have yet 
ansmitted to you an account of the installation of 
le successor of Montezuma 1 in last March. On the 
:h he proceeded on horseback from the Palace, 
hich is of white stone, and the largest building here, 
id, attended by his secretary and groom, rode up 
ie long Avenue of Pennsylvania to the Capitol, 
hich is an unfinished rival in stone of the Roman 
jilding of that name, and dressed in black and silk 
ockings, delivered a speech of some length, which 
xi have, to a mixed assemblage of Senators, Popu- 
ce, Representatives, and ladies. It was too low 
>oken to be heard well; he then kissed the book 
id swore before the Chief Justice to be faithful to 
e Constitution, then bowed and retired as before, 
hen he received levee at which all who chose 
tended, and even towards the close blacks and 

The successor of Montezuma — Meaning Thomas Jefferson, President of the 
dted States, who had now entered on his second term of office (1743-1826). 



230 THE TWO DUCHESSES. 

dirty boys, who drank his wines and lolled upon his 
couches before us all; the jingling of a few pipes and 
drums finished the day. There was nothing digni- 
fied in the whole affair. He is about 65 years old, 
and affects great plainness of dress and manners. 
Au reste he is a philosopher of the politico specula- 
tive kind. Unbounded freedom reigns in this un- 
bounded land, and the shameless abuse and [torn.V.F.] 
in their papers is not at all creditable to the country. 
I thank you and Duncannon for your exertions 
about a curricle. I shall wait its arrival with im- 
patience, though the roads are so execrable and the 
streets worse that I dare say I shall not be able to 
use it much, particularly as I have not served an 
apprenticeship of driving in England. 



Lady Elizabeth Foster 

To Augustus Foster. 

Devonshire House, July 13, 1805. 

. . . I have this moment received your letter, 
my dear, dear Augustus, of June 2nd, just two days 
before our hero of the Nile arrived at Barbadoes to 
liberate the West Indies. . . . Lord Aberdeen 
was wretched during all the business about Lord Mel- 
ville. He is in Scotland preparing for his marriage 
with Lady Catherine Hamilton. 1 Never were father 
and son-in-law so different surely as these two are. 
Mr. Bennet is miserable at the marriage, and thinks 
he will be lost to all his friends by it. Lord Ennis- 

1 Lady Catherine Hamilton— -Daughter of the first Marquis of Abercorn (d. 1812). 



FROM LADY ELIZABETH FOSTER. 23 1 

killen marries Lady Charlotte Paget, and Lord 
Grantham Lady Harriet Cole. I suppose letters 
and papers enough will reach you to tell you that 
the impeachment was carried, and that Lord Melville 
will be impeached the opening of next Sessions. 
Lord Sidmouth 1 resigned a week ago. Pitt has 
patched up his present administration amongst his 
own people; no new person is added. The rumour 
of the day is that he had again spoke to the King 
about Fox; that the King's objections were done 
away; that this was to lead to a grand union as 
proposed last year, and that either active war would 
be carried on, with Russia to help us, or a grand 
Congress at which Fox would be Ambassador in his 
character of Secretary of State. 

Georgiana is recovered from her fourth 
lying in, and is well except a cold. Harriet and 
Caro have their flirtations, and are in extreme good 
looks. Corise, to whom I shall tell the interest you 
take in her happiness, is quite satisfied with his 
conduct; he seems more attached to her than ever, 
and only wants to borrow a small sum of money to 
marry her directly. He says Lord Tankerville 
continues inflexible, but Lady T. expressed great 
interest about her. 

Emily Lamb is to be married next Satur- 
day to Lord Cowper, Caroline and Corise brides- 
maids. 

I don't wonder the Americans were surprised at 

1 Lord Sidmouth — Formerly known as Henry Addington, Prime Minister from 
1801 to 1803 (1757-1844). 



232 THE TWO DUCHESSES. 

the projected changes; however, Lord Hawkesbury 
has remained as he was, and Sir C. Middleton was 
made Lord Barham. He is eighty, so he brings the 
weight of experience. We were in great joy at 
hearing of Nelson's arrival in the West Indies, and 
now all is despondency again because he has not 
overtaken and beat the French and Spaniards, but 
he drove them away. . . . 



Augustus Foster 

To Lady Elizabeth Foster. 

Washington, Julv 30, 1805. 

I cannot fancy Lady Caroline married. I cannot 
be glad of it. How changed she must be — the 
delicate Ariel, the little Fairy Queen become a wife 
and soon perhaps a mother. I had just finished 
a letter to her as Lady Caroline Ponsonby yester- 
day in answer to her pretty one of March. I 
cannot tear it, and so pray do not betray my 
secret, and let it pass as if I knew nothing in this 
remote country of her marriage; as it is not a love 
letter it may go, and if I don't answer so I never 
can to her now she is under the laws of a Man. 
It is the first death of a woman. They must die 
twice, for I am sure all their friends, their male ones 
at least, receive a pang when they change character 
so completely. I inclose it under cover to you, as 
well as one to Caroline, and what you tell me about 
Aberdeen distresses me. Surely they can't have 
worked on his feelings about Lord Melville to keep 



FROM AUGUSTUS FOSTER. 233 

him from Devonshire House. I am grieved at his 
only having received one letter from me. I have 
written to him so often. He is very young, but he has 
shewn some character with regard to the Duchess of 
Gordon. I only hope in you. Keep him to Devon- 
shire House, where I pride myself on having intro- 
duced him, and he will do. It is dreadful to be so 
distant. Aberdeen appears to me to be of that class 
of persons that are made to be an honor to their 
country. Who can you mean at Devonshire House 
that you thought he loved? Was it Caro or was 
it Lady Harriet? Only get him to be in love with 
one of them. I shall write to him by this post, but 
God knows whether the letter will ever arrive. I 
am sick of the distance. 

I shall inquire about Mrs. Randolph, though I am 
sure from what I have read that she is an impostor. 
Believe me, there are not more consummate rascals 
anywhere than in the United States. I see it more 
and more, and novel species of villanies in this 
country. The scum of every nation on earth is the 
active population here. 

August 4th. 

I have inquired of Colonel Washington, nephew 
of the General, of one of the oldest families in Vir- 
ginia, and he knows nothing of such a lady — but 
however I will inquire further. The hand of God 
being introduced by Mr. Mansbridge looks rather 
canting. Now that I have thought upon the matter, 
perhaps it might be wrong to send the letter to 
Lady Car, but I send it under flying seal, so that 



234 THE TWO DUCHESSES. 

you may or not, only if you do I am supposed to 
know nothing of the marriage. She is so amiable 
that I should like to answer her letter to keep up the 
acquaintance which would otherwise be quite dead 
through the distance. Would you choose for me a 
fur Pelisse to be made up at Schweitzer's? The 
winters here are much colder than those in England, 
and I want to teach these creatures to wear some- 
thing like dress of human beings. Is it possible 
that Aberdeen should be in love at Lady Abercorn's ? 
but you did not, as well as I recollect, think him a 
good match for Lady Harriet. Who is Caroline 
inclined to favor? As for me, a young girl, a 
phenomenon for this country, has just died of a 
consumption whom I certainly should have admired 
prodigiously. She said on her death bed that she 
thought the lower part of my face extremely amiable, 
but in the forehead something rather too stern. I tell 
you all the nonsense in the world, because I always 
have and shall always consider you as my sister. She 
could not bear the society of this place though she 
had never been to Europe. . . . Madame Jerome 
was supposed to be likely to add to the race of 
the Gallic Caesars when she left America, so that I 
suppose you will not see her soon. Her father came 
over here from Ireland, as Mr. Pichon, the former 
French Charge d'Affaires declared, as a Redemp- 
tioner, that is a person who sells his services for a 
certain period to pay for his passage from Europe, 
and he became an hostler. He is now, however, 
universally respected as a merchant, and is one of 
their most honoured dealers in Baltimore. She 



FROM LADY ELIZABETH FOSTER. 235 

declared three days before Jerome was won that she 
would have him. It was veni, vidi, vici. These 
words resemble our dear Italian so much that I 
won't insult you with a translation. . . . 



Lady Elizabeth Foster 

To Augustus Foster. 

Chiswick, August 5, 1805. 

. We are at present all impatience and 
expectation and some anxiety about the fleet. 
Nelson, by the terror of his name, seems to have 
driven the enemy from the West Indies, and to be 
pursuing them home. Clifford 1 wrote to me the 12th 
of May from St. Vincent; the 4th of June from 
Barbadoes; on the 12th, after having visited six 
islands, they weighed anchor again, and on the 19th 
he ended his letter saying they were in full pursuit 
and hope to be at Cape St. Vincent before them, 
and perhaps even to come up to the enemy before 
that. What a wonderful man Nelson is! How 
rapid and well combined are his operations. On 
the 2 1 st the combined fleet was seen off Ferrol, and 
Sir R. Calder 2 attacked them and captured two of 
the Spanish ships; he kept in sight of them four 
days and then they disappeared, and he on the 31st 
resumed his station off Ferrol, so that they are not 
got into port, and perhaps that Nelson may yet meet 
with them. Every day, every hour, they expect to 

1 CHJbrd — Augustus C, created a baronet in 1838 (1788-1877). 

8 Calder— Admiral Sir Robert C, created a baronet in 1798 (1745-1818). 



236 THE TWO DUCHESSES. 

hear from him, and the impatience and anxiety is 
beyond all expression. On the other hand, the 
public are dissatisfied with Calder for not doing 
more; yet with 15 ships he attacked the combined 
fleet of twenty and defeated them. Fog and night 
came on which prevented his continuing the battle 
then, and they contrived to escape two days after. 
It is these two days that the public are dissatisfied 
with the loss of, and say that a Nelson would not 
have rested so. They also blame Admiral Corn- 
wallis for not doing something on his part; yet all 
this may be accounted for satisfactorily, and it is 
hard to blame an officer who has defeated the enemy 
and to condemn him unheard, As to home politicks, 
the impeachment, 1 as I told you, is decided on, and 
will come on early in the present Sessions. Lord 
Melville is gone or going to Scotland, and Lord and 
Lady Aberdeen are now at Wimbledon, which he 
has, I believe, hired of Lord Melville to put a few 
hundred pounds into his pocket. Lady Melville is 
going to the seaside and to Bath. What a melan- 
choly ending to such a career. The rumours are 
stronger than ever of a grand junction, and the King 
has spoke in the handsomest manner of ( ? ), and 
is said to have taken a dislike to Addington. Mr. 
Pitt is reported to be again very eager for a union 
with Fox and the principal people of his party. 
The Duke of Devonshire said here the other day 
that he thought it would be the best thing for this 
country that could happen, and we could not help 
remarking what a glorious triumph it is to Fox's 

1 The impeachment — of Lord Melville. 



FROM LADY ELIZABETH FOSTER. 237 

talents and character after all the odium so long 
endeavoured to be thrown upon him to have his 
opponent express himself twice in so decided a 
manner upon the necessity for the publick advantage 
to have the aid of his councils and that he should be 
of the Administration. It does Pitt honor also so 
completely to forget all resentments and to acknow- 
ledge this, and I think that if they ever joined it 
would last. Two such minds once brought to act 
together would not be in danger of quarrelling from 
any petty jealousies and selfish views. They would 
act for the good of the country on great and enlarged 
views, and perhaps bestow on the age the greatest 
of all blessings, that of a solid and lasting peace. . . . 



Lady Elizabeth Foster 

To Augustus Foster. 

August 30, 1805. 

• . . Several rumours have been and are abroad 
about a junction of parties, and Pitt has, I believe, 
certainly again told the King that he thought the ad- 
mitting of Fox to the Cabinet essential to the welfare 
of the Country. The King, it is said, spoke highly 
in praise of Fox, and said the principal objections in 
his mind were done away. There would be a great 
difficulty now with several of our friends, for they 
were so irritated by Pitt's conduct last time that 
many are totally averse to Fox agreeing to any 
junction. The King's eyes are rather better, but 
some say that his health is not so good. The Duke 



238 THE TWO DUCHESSES. 

of Gloucester's death 1 will affect him very much, as 
the illness did. . . . 

Nelson is, I hear, to have a great command: he 
is delighted with his reception here, but says with 
great modesty, " They have received me as if I had 
done some great feat". And so God knows he 
has. . . . The Brest fleet came out, but on 
Cornwallis forming his line of battle and attacking 
his foremost ships they retreated into their harbour 
again. Calder is again pursuing the combined 
squadrons. . . . 



Augustus Foster 

To Lady Elizabeth Foster. 

Philadelphia, September 2, 1805. 

. . . General Moreau arrived last week with 
his family, and they are gone about 30 miles off to 
Morrisville near Trenton, where he has hired a 
country seat. I shall not see him probably unless 
by accident, for in my public situation it would be 
improper for me to call on him even with your letter. 

. . Mr. and Mrs. Merry are bored to death 
with these United States, but Merry is a man so 
strictly en regie that I know he conceives it to be 
his duty to stay here in time of war upon his post 
at least longer than he should do in peace. You 
have no idea of how miserable the state of society is 
throughout and radically so, but yet you are to hear 

1 Duke of Gloucester — brother of George III. (1743-1805). 



FROM AUGUSTUS FOSTER. 239 

their pretensions to manners and to national honor 
and dignity and at the same time of their mean- 
nesses, perpetual breach of faith, and perpetual lying. 
Talleyrand, who travelled here, said of the country 
that he did not like it because there was not a man 
in it but would sell his favourite dog. ... I 
am vexed at Aberdeen's marriage. It never will do. 
He has a fine imagination, and she told me once 
that she could not conceive how any body could find 
a pleasure in reading poetry; besides, she does not 
look wholesome, and is, I fancy, older than he is. 
How odd of him to marry so young, and the con- 
nection is not the most agreeable. . . . 



Augustus Foster 

To Lady Elizabeth Foster. 

Elizabeth Town, New Jersey, Sept. 22, 1805. 

Long Island is the part of all America 
that I have seen which would make the most agree- 
able residence in my opinion, and it is the only part 
in which the people bow to you and seem to possess 
simplicity. You see some of the old Dutch dresses 
there still, and even some of the descendants of the 
Tuscarora nation of Indians. I dined there with 
Mr. King, whom I saw for the first time, and who 
was Minister to England. On my return here, Lord 
Bolingbroke, 1 who lives a mile off under the name of 
Mr. Bellasyse with the German lady his wife, 2 now 
declared so, and married over again to him since the 

1 Lord Bolingbroke (1761-1824). 2 German lady— Baroness Hompesch. 



240 THE TWO DUCHESSES. 

death of Lady B., sent his carriage for me to a ball 
which he gave on his departure for Niagara. He 
has been here near ten years now, and as they say 
means to return to England this year. She is any- 
thing but handsome; a little square German with 
broken teeth, but they say very amiable. Their 
children are remarkably fine. He flatters himself 
that he is not known here to be Lord Bolingbroke. 
As he did not inquire after his friends in England I 
did not say any thing about them to him, but I dine 
with him to-day. He is disgusted, I believe, as 
every man of education must be, with the manners 
in general of the people of this country, which is so 
made up of the ragamuffins and adventurers that 
flock here from all parts of Europe, and particularly 
the Irish. As no man is thrown out of society here 
from the badness of his character, you sometimes 
meet with the meanest and most worthless fellows in 
free conversation and intimacy with perhaps very 
respectable men, and I must say this that people 
sometimes perhaps judge too harshly of the natives 
from the foreign adventurers that they meet with. 
. . . I would not come here as Minister to live 
at Washington with ,£10,000 per annum, and if I 
did I would not take — I was going to say my wife — 
I would not take my sister for ,£20,000. A woman 
of education and feeling suffers dreadfully. It is a 
land for poor men, single men, I mean, and when 
they get rich they should go to Europe to enjoy 
it. . . . 



FROM THE EARL OF ABERDEEN. 24I 

The Earl of Aberdeen 

To Augustus Foster. 

Priory, Sept. 24, 1805. 

My dear Augustus, . . . You must without 
doubt have heard before this that I am married and 
to Lady C. H. 1 Repress your astonishment for 
the present, and it may perhaps cease when we meet. 
You may depend on the papers for the 
truth of the coalition, which is now certain. I am 
glad that Nelson had it in his power to shew your 
peevish children in America that England, old as she 
may be, is still pretty active; the spirits of your 
friends in opposition cannot be very high. Mr. 
Pitt is as firm as ever, and as the troubles on the 
continent increase will be more so every day. Lord 
Melville's impeachment will come on the beginning 
of next Session, the result after all that we have 
seen it would be vain to predict. ... By the 
way, we are to be bored this year by that wretch 
called the Young Roscius, 2 who is the greatest im- 
postor since the days of Mohammed. — Yours ever, 
most affectionately, Aberdeen. 

I say, Mr. Foster will say, that Aberdeen has not 
slipped on the noose already, Yours, C. Aberdeen, 
otherwise the amiable Lady C. H. 

1 Lady C. H. — Lady Catherine Hamilton (d. 1812). 

a Young Roscius — William Betty (1791-1874). See Appendix. 



242 THE TWO DUCHESSES. 

Lady Elizabeth Foster 

To Augustus Foster. 

Chiswick, Sept. 30, 1805. 

. . . I think from your letter you will regret 
Lord Aberdeen's fate being so early decided; how- 
ever, she is very pretty and amiable, and seemed to 
be very much in love with him, and I hope he will 
be very happy. He deserves it. I never meant to 
say that he would not be (taking him such as he is) 
a good match for Harriet, but perhaps rather said so 
the more from nervousness because I wished it, but 
should have hated her marrying except from affec- 
tion, or he either. The Abercorns never lost sight 
of him. At first he certainly seemed to like Harriet, 
but she will never show or feel a preference for any 
body who is not decided in their liking for her; and 
she did not indeed give herself time to know if she 
would have liked him, for, the odious papers having 
taken it up, she would scarcely speak to him. We 
continued, however, seeing a good deal of him, and 
we all liked him. You may retract all your sorrow 
about Caro Ponsonby's marriage, for she is the 
same wild, delicate, odd delightful person, unlike 
every thing, witness her dating to Lady Maria Lane 
her first letter of congratulation on her marriage 
with her brother Duncannon from " Brocket Hall, 
heaven knows what day ". Lady Maria is very 
amiable, and Duncannon seems very happy. . . . 
Pray don't marry an American, or, if you must, let 
her be rich — for really the more I see of poverty the 
more detestable it appears to me. . . . As to 



FROM LADY ELIZABETH FOSTER. 243 

politicks, I believe that Pitt is very happy at having 
roused the continent, but it seems to me the deepest 
game that ever people played. What Bonaparte 
can mean by risking everything only to gain more 
than he can want is inconceivable, and we too play 
very deep. It is an awful moment, yet certainly the 
war seems to begin with better prospect of success 
than usual. Nelson is gone with a great command, 
and is, I believe, by this time off Cadiz. Clifford 
says he is happy enough to be with the in-shore 
squadron, and that they see the enemy's fleet clearer 
than their own. The combined fleet are 36 strong 
and we 26, with which he says we are fully equal to 
them, and with Nelson to the whole navy of France. 
I wrote you an account of the disappointment occa- 
sioned by Sir R. Calder. Every thing seems now 
drawing to a crisis on the continent, and it makes 
one tremble to think what events may happen before 
this time twelvemonth. It is supposed Lord Hard- 
wick will resign and Mr. Foster be reinstated. . . . 



Lady Elizabeth Foster 

To Augustus Foster. 

October, 1805. 

. . Every thing is, if possible, worse than 
was reported. Bonaparte crossed the Rhine on the 
1 st of October, and on the 17th was master of Ulm, 
and of above thirty thousand men, besides baggage, 
&c. The Austrian army is destroyed. For Heaven's 
sake see Moreau. I can't conceive any thing so in- 



244 THE TWO DUCHESSES. 

teresting as his conversation would be at this moment. 
Do not deny yourself the satisfaction of visiting a 
great man in disgrace. . . . Lord Nelson is off 
Cadiz with a great command. Could any thing be 
done against the combined fleet, it would rouse the 
spirits of the country, which are quite depressed. I 
have seen nothing like the present moment. You 
hear nothing else from the drawing-room to the 
steward's room, in every street, and road, and lane; 
as you walk you hear Bonaparte's name in every 
mouth. Mr. James said he believed it was an event 
unparalleled in history, and that it roused even him 
who did not care for politicks. It is shocking, and 
in the midst of it they intend sending the Duke of 
York to command the expedition to Hanover. I 
fear that Mr. Fox's words will prove too true, that 
a tardy confederacy will enable Bonaparte to beat 
his enemies one by one. I hope your new world is 
more progressive than our old one. L' Europe est 
bien vieille, Giambone used to say. We should 
except the vigorous limb, France. . . . 



Lady Elizabeth Foster 

To Augustus Foster. 

Chiswick, October 2<}th, 1805. 

There is a great consternation to-day amongst all 
people, I hear, in London. A fishing-boat put off 
and when Sir Sydney took it it contained news that 
Ulm 1 was taken and the Austrian army annihilated, 

1 Ulm. — In the Duchy of Wirtemberg. After a battle between the French and 
Austrians, in which the latter under General Mack were defeated with dreadful 
loss by Marshal Ney, Ulm surrendered with 28,000 men on October 20, 1805. 



FROM LADY ELIZABETH FOSTER. 245 

General Mack 1 and his staff made prisoners. It is 
also said that Bonaparte will not even have the 
King of Prussia as an enemy, that he will not join 
the Confederacy. Our expedition is stopped by 
contrary winds, and all is tardy on the part of the 
Allies; all rapid like lightning on Bonaparte's. 

My dearest, my opinion is that a man in disgrace 
and in adversity is of no country, but entitled to 
every attention that one can pay them, whether one 
happens to be in a publick or a private character. 
Therefore I wish you by all means to call on 
Moreau. If, however, Mr. Merry has begged of 
you not, then only send my letter with a civil note of 
your own expressing your regret at being prevented 
from profiting of the introduction it would have been 
to you. Were we at peace with France it might be 
wrong to visit an exiled general of hers, but how 
can it be so being at war, and the exiled a man of 
spotless character and oppressed? My opinion, I 
own, is entirely for your visiting him unless, as I 
said before, Mr. Merry wishes you not, and then 
certainly you owe it to him, and particularly as he 
has been very civil to you, to avoid any thing that 
would distress him: but Ministers made no scruple 
of visiting Pichegru 2 here, and any objection there 
could only arise on the part of Moreau, who might 
scruple the more from his disgrace the receiving any 
civility from the enemies of his country, but that 
surely should be left to him. The subject came 

1 General Mack— (1752-1829). 

2 Pichegru — General P., gained great glory as one of the generals of the French 
Republic, but afterwards sided with the Bourbons. He was transported to Cayenne, 
but escaped and lived for some time in England (1761-1804). 



246 THE TWO DUCHESSES. 

naturally into my mind, because I remember when 
Moreau talked to us of Bonaparte's talents as a 
general, he said, " C'est la foudre; il frappe avant 
qu'on puisse voir d'ou part le coup". 

Nov. yd. 

I have been interrupted — no news since the taking 
of Ulm, and even of that no official accounts have 
arrived; already do some doubt the fact; all believe 
in some exaggeration; and it is now asserted that 
the King of Prussia has sent six regiments into 
Hanover to join the Russians. Lord Harrowby has 
sailed on his embassy to Berlin ; how I should have 
liked had you been with him. It is supposed that 
the two Emperors and the Kings of Norway and 
Sweden will all meet. 



Augustus Foster 

To Lady Elizabeth Foster. 

Nov., 1805. 

You must all of you in England be almost mad 
with joy at the glorious victory of poor Lord Nelson. 
What a drawback, however, is the loss of such a 
man to us, who with his bare name could chase away 
our enemies from one hemisphere to another! We 
can hardly say in the words of Chevy Chase that we 
have five hundred good as he, but I hope, however, 
that we shall find several such still if occasions offer 
for trying them. 

In this country I think the majority are glad ot 
the victory, but there are great many of those en- 



FROM AUGUSTUS FOSTER. 247 

gaged (?) in public situations who exaggerate upon 
our loss, and consider it too dear a purchase. Peace 
to all such! Those who know them care little for 
their praise or blame. If you knew the meannesses, 
the littlenesses of the nation which we are in Europe 
pleased to call great and virtuous! My dearest Ma, 
I do believe from my soul that from the Province of 
Maine to the borders of Florida you would not find 
30 men of Truth, Honour, or Integrity. Corruption, 
Immorality, Irreligion, and, above all, self-interest, 
have corroded the very pillars on which their Liberty 
rests. Nothing is wanting but numbers and a Caesar 
to change this boasting Republick into a despotism 
of the worst description. They have inherited all 
our faults without one of our virtues that I know of. 
They are free more from the nature of their land 
than from their laws which are not enforced. Were 
the aristocracy of Venice to be placed in command 
of America they could not rule otherwise than mildly, 
for, should they exercise severities, the innumerable 
rivers which offer navigation for thousands of miles 
would open easy channels of escape, and of escape 
to richer countries than they would leave. The 
plains of Louisiana and of the Ohio will in a few 
years exceed in population the States on the Atlantic. 
Believe me, it is better to admire the theory at a 
distance than to come and see the practice. It never 
yet was said that the freer a people are the happier 
they are. It is agreed on all sides that for the good 
of society it is necessary that bounds should be set 
to the liberty of individuals. Les Bornes que les 
Americains y ont mises sont souvent franchies au lieu 



248 THE TWO DUCHESSES. 

que les notres, prises de plus haut, ne le sont im- 
pun^ment jamais. Les assassins se promenent souvent 
en plein jour faute de force dans les lois, but I am 
quite tired with writing about them. I beg you will 
let me know if there is any chance of escaping from 
them in any reasonable time, and if you mean to 
make peace in your hemisphere soon. 

I have had a letter from Aberdeen announcing his 
marriage. I hope sincerely he may never repent. 
Ma temo temo ... As for me, were I in 
London or any town but this, you would run great 
risque of becoming belle mere. I am a little hard to 
please, but should I find une personne a mon gout je 
ne reponds plus de moi m£me je vous l'avoue. Je 
me rappellerais toujours de la promesse sacree que 
je vous ai donnee en partant de Londres, mais le 
peril n'est pas grand ici ; hors l'attrait de la jeunesse 
et quelque fraicheur: il n'y a guere d'autres dans les 
filles de cette partie de lAmerique. . . . 



The Earl of Aberdeen 

To Augustus Foster. 

Wimbledon, November 20, 1805. 
My dear Augustus, — I have received yours of the 
end of September from Philadelphia, inclosing a 
specimen of the Jacobin print, which has amused 
me much, but what vulgar ignorance the fellow 
betrays; however, when such extreme license pre- 
vails, you cannot fail occasionally to have many 
speculations at least entertaining. I have written 



FROM THE EARL OF ABERDEEN. 249 

you before to say that I am married, and am now 
the veriest Benedick of the age. I do not think I 
shall ever have cause to repent this step. . . . 

You have no idea of the effect which Nelson's 
death has produced, so great indeed as almost 
to counteract His Victory, certainly the most 
glorious ever atchieved. Many people wear silver 
favours with black in the centre as mourning, and 
we shall probably have a public mark of this sort 
when his body arrives, of which, however, there is 
some danger, for it is strongly believed the Euryalus 
is lost or taken with it and the French and Spanish 
Admirals on board. I believe Prussia is really 
disposed to co-operate, but I doubt much if she will 
go so far as active war. 

I am going to commence actor this Christmas at 
the Priory, where we have got a very good theatre. 
I am to perform Oroonoko, Falkland in the Rivals, 
&c, &c. William Lamb also acts. 

Have you no conception of the period to your 
exile, or must it still be much prolonged? I trust 
not. There will be active work on the continent, 
which perhaps may procure you employment. Lord 
Granville is certainly coming home, tho' Lord 
Cathcart, who was to succeed him, is ill of the gout. 
I have heard it said, but mind this is sous la Rose, 
that Jackson is to be recalled owing to some dis- 
agreement with the court of Berlin. Stratton is still 
at Constantinople, although dieing to get away. 
There will be some sharp debates in Parliament at 
the opening of the Session, but these continental 
alliances and naval victories have come very oppor- 



2SO THE TWO DUCHESSES. 

tunely to Mr. Pitt's assistance. Lord Melville's 
business will perhaps be prolonged through the 
Session. How this persecution will end, God 
knows. 

I hear nothing of Ossulston interesting. Au 
reste il y a un bruit sourd which says that he is 
actually married. The Theatre is in great glory. 
Kemble 1 and Mrs. Siddons 2 every night — fancy after 
being made sick with an automate of a boy all last 
year, a girl of 7 or 8 years old is coming out this 
week at Covent Garden. Ohe jam satis! — Yours 
most affectionately, Aberdeen. 

Tell me something about Moreau 3 and Dessalines. 4 
What sort of a fellow is Christophe? 5 Adieu. If 
you see Moreau put him in mind that Jackson intro- 
duced me to him at Paris, and that I told him 
(Jackson) that he was the man I most admired and 
wished to see in France. 



Lady Elizabeth Foster 

To Augustus Foster. 

November 29, 1805. 

It was in vain, my dearest Augustus, to have 
written to you the first days of the news of the 

1 Kemble — John K. was at this time carrying on Covent Garden theatre (1757- 
1823). 
' Mrs. Siddons— Sister of John and Charles Kemble (1755-1831). 

3 Moreau — The greatest general of the French Republic except Napoleon (1763- 
1813). 

4 Dessalines — Jacques D. , first Emperor of Hayti. He was an imported negro 
from the Gold Coast of Africa, and was totally uneducated (1760-1806), 

Christophe — Henri C, negro King of Hayti. He began life as cook in a tavern 
(1767-1820). 



FROM LADY ELIZABETH FOSTER. 251 

victory of Trafalgar, 1 for nothing that I could have 
said would have conveyed to you any idea of the 
impression on the public made by the loss of their 
favourite hero. Great and wonderful as the victory 
was, the prevailing sentiment in each mind was 
sorrow, was grief, for Nelson. If it was the most 
flattering homage that could be paid to worth, to 
heroism like his, it was also an honour to the nation 
to feel it as they did. When we arrived at the 
Admiralty it was crowded, but every countenance 
was dejected — nor could one have guessed that it 
was a victory of twenty ships of the line taken from 
the enemy, only that defeat would have caused 
tumult, and this was the silence of sorrow and 
respect. We were shown into Mr. Marsden's 2 room. 
He was oppressed with the contradictory feelings of 
triumph for the country, and sorrow for the loss of 
the greatest hero we ever had, and his friend. As 
we came away there was a vast rush of people, but 
all silent, or a murmur of respect and sorrow, some 
of the common people saying, " It is bad news if 
Nelson is killed ", yet they knew that twenty ships 
were taken. A man at the turnpike gate said to 
Charles Ellis, who was going through, " Sir, have 
you heard the bad news? We have taken twenty 
ships from the enemy, but Lord Nelson is killed." 
Illuminations followed, but the first night, as if unable 
to rejoice, there were none seen but on the public 
buildings. The two next nights they were general, 
but chiefly transparencies or mottos relating to the 

1 Victory of Trafalgar — On October 21, 1805. 

2 Mr. Marsden — Chief Secretary of the Admiralty. 



252 THE TWO DUCHESSES. 

"dear departed hero". Nelson was the only person 
I ever saw who excited real enthusiasm in the 
English. Every day makes his victory more precious. 



ON THE VICTORY OF TRAFALGAR AND 
DEATH OF NELSON. 

By GEORGIANA, DUCHESS OF DEVONSHIRE. 

Nelson, by Valour led to deathless fame, 

All toils surmounted and all Foes o'ercame, 

Met every danger calm and undismay'd, 

Whilst some new conquest mark'd each step he made. 

Superior Force his ardent soul defied, 

He conquer'd, knew it, " blessed his God ", and died. 

Britannia glorying in her Hero's fame, 
On her Victorious shield inscribes his name, 
Gratefull proclaims the safety which he gave 
Yet midst her Triumphs weeps upon his Grave. 



Lady Elizabeth Foster 

To Augustus Foster. 

November, 1805. 

. . . How do you like these lines? written by 
the Duke of Devonshire on the death of Nelson. 

Oft had Britannia sought midst dire alarms 
Divine protection for her sons in arms. 
Britons received from Heaven a mixed decree 
To crown their virtues, but to check their pride 
God gave them victory, but Nelson died. 



FROM AUGUSTUS FOSTER. 253 

. . . Villeneuve 1 and two other admirals are 
landed prisoners in England. 



Augustus Foster 

To Lady Elizabeth Foster. 

Washington, Dec. 1, 1805. 
On this day the Congress opens. We 
expect a boisterous session, for they are angry with 
us about our regulations in regard to their commerce. 
They and we are now the two rivals in what has 
always given power wherever it has extended, Com- 
merce, but I trust that still and for a long time we 
shall maintain the immense superiority that we do 
now. They are next us in the race, but in nothing 
else are they near us. We drove them into being a 
Nation when they were no more fit for it than the 
convicts of Botany Bay, though I must say that their 
leader Washington 2 was a great character, and one or 
two others whom the tumult of the day drove from 
their counters, but since that interest and speculation 
seem to have taken fast hold of the whole country 
to the exclusion of every generous feeling. Their 
boasted Constitution is as much a piece of theory as 
that framed by the French National Assembly, the 
difference being that here it has had as yet no day 
of trial; it hangs loosely upon the shoulders of the 
inhabitants, but we must see it when the reins are 
drawn close to be sure that nothing is brittle. I 

1 Villeneuve — Admiral V, French commander at Trafalgar. He was released 
in 1805, and returned to France, but, learning that his reception by Napoleon 
•would be unfavourable, he committed suicide (1763-1805). 

2 Washington— George W. (1732-1799). 



254 THE TWO DUCHESSES. 

think people mistake where the real advantage of 
this Nation lies. I believe that under a Monarch 
they have the means of being free and independent 
from the nature of the land, the scattered manner in 
which it is peopled, and the immense difficulty that 
there would be in enforcing harsh mandates, from 
the want of easy communication through the marshes 
and forests. Almost all the sensible Americans 
whom I have conversed with that were not warped 
by prejudice have allowed that as Colonies, before 
our oppressive exactions took place, the Country 
was much happier, and the Government as mild and 
less burdensome. Their manners, too, were then 
much simpler, and the laws were enforced. What 
do you think of a society of Atheists having been 
formed not very long ago at Philadelphia for the 
purpose of enlightening the Country? They had 
undertaken to publish an Atheistical Paper. They 
were cried down, it is true, but still remember how 
the simplicity of these good people is cried up and 
the pure city of Philadelphia. A Mr. Clay, 1 a Mem- 
ber of Congress, lately having occasion to draw on 
the Bank there, wrote a Draft payable to J — s 
Ch — t or order. I had myself, as you know, a high 
opinion of the Constitution and manners of this 
country before I left England, but I do assure you 
that disgust, not to use a worse word, is all the feel- 
ing I have in respect to them now. The character 
of a gentleman is very rare to be found, but what 
has surprized me, the character of an honest man of 

' Mr. CVay— Henry C. , Speaker of the American House of Representatives, and 
afterwards United States Senator. He contested the Presidency three times 
without success (1771-1852). 



FROM LADY ELIZABETH FOSTER. 255 

principle is to the very full as rare. . . . There 
is an ambassador from Tunis arrived here with the 
most splendid dress I ever saw, and the President 
receives him in yarn stockings and torn slippers, as 
he does us all. 



Lady Elizabeth Foster 

To A ugustus Foster. 

Chiswick, December 1, 1805. 

Archduke Charles the same accounts state to be 
dead " de fatigue et de chagrin ". I was in London 
for an hour or two, and Farquhar told me this news, 
with which I went to Crauford's. At first M. D. had 
brought contrary intelligence, and that Woronzow, 
who was at Lord Macartney's, whence he came, said 
that there was an army of 15,000 Russians ready 
and united to act, and that with this help it seemed 
impossible that the Emperor of Germany should 
make peace. A few minutes after the Duke of 
Queensborough sent Crauford a written paper with 
the intelligence as I have given it you, so that I am 
afraid it is true, and the evening papers seem to 
confirm it. It is a campaign which one can compare 
to nothing. They have fallen before Bonaparte like 
card soldiers, and he does not seem to have lost an 
officer of note. My brother still says that the game 
is not up; but what can they look to? What has 
war done but make Bonaparte greater and more 
powerfull each campaign. 

Dec. 2. 

The Duchess was in town to-day. She was told 
that they were betting ten to one in the City that 



256 THE TWO DUCHESSES. 

the news was not true, for some papers were re- 
ceived of the same date as the Dutch Admiral's 
note, and they mentioned neither circumstance; it 
would be a great relief to know that it was not true, 
yet Heaven knows if they can make any resistance; 
but any thing is better than making peace with the 
enemy at the gates. I hope some certain account 
will come before I seal my letter. 

The Victory is arrived with the remains of our 
beloved Nelson. Alas, the awful vicissitudes of 
human life! When I dined with him in London he 
said to us, "in about two months I hope to have 
done my duty and to return to England ". He is 
returned in little more than two months, but the 
Victor is laid low. Four of the prizes were saved; 
three are arrived; four others were taken by Sir R. 
Strahan, and the two in the summer makes ten ships 
of the line taken and sixteen destroyed on the 21st. 
Of that mighty combined fleet three only are now 
able to put to sea. Dear Clifford has written the 
most affecting and interesting letter possible, and is 
miserable at having been sent with five others on a 
particular service a fortnight before, but when I look 
on the number of midshipmen killed and wounded I 
can but rejoice he was not there. 

Now as to the state of your friends here at Chis- 
wick, the Duke has the gout, but is, I hope, getting 
better; the Duchess is pretty well, so am I. Dun- 
cannon and his bride dined here yesterday; we like 
her very much; some think her pretty, others not. 
I think her pretty though, with a nose almost as 
long as Prince D., but she has a fair and soft skin, 



FROM AUGUSTUS FOSTER. 257 

pretty teeth, good hair, pretty figure, and very pleas- 
ing voice and manners. He seems very happy, and 
they are to come back and stay a few days. Lord 
Aberdeen is making pendant at the Priory to Caro 
and W. Lamb, who flirt all day long e felice adesso. 



Augustus Foster 

To Lady Elizabeth Foster. 

Washington, Dec. 27, 1805. 

. . . I am here in the midst of Africans and 
Savages. We have an Ambassador from Tunis and 
his suite in the City, and deputies from eight nations 
beyond the Mississippi are arrived. They passed 
on horseback by my windows a few days ago in 
arriving, and made such a Hue and Cry that I 
thought all Washington was in convulsion. Two of 
them were naked to the waist, their heads shaved to 
the Crown, faces red, ears green, and feathers and 
bills of birds stuck all over them. Others had their 
faces shaded with black, and streaks of black painted 
from the crown to the chin, with sack loads of feathers 
and quills tied to their hair behind. They are 2 1 in 
all, generally tall, stout men, but not so much so as 
I expected to find them. 

I have formed an acquaintance with a young man 
of the Sac nation who is very good looking, about 
1 7, and who is son to a very principal chief of that 
country. I got him to come to me for three hours 
to have his portrait taken, and I had an opportunity 
of studying a little his character, which is very re- 



258 THE TWO DUCHESSES. 

served and timid. However, he becomes by degrees 
at his ease more and more, and I amused him ex- 
tremely by shewing him caricatures. The figure of 
Lord Salisbury in the King and Gulliver made him 
laugh excessively, and he observed that John Bull 
had very short legs. His name is Wa-Pawni-ha or 
White Hare. We are great friends, and he shakes 
my hand with a smile of content when he sees me. 
He has four men to attend on him, and is now occu- 
pied in learning to write English. The first lesson 
I saw him taking to-day, and he really seems very 
intelligent. None of them have that ferocious coun- 
tenance which I had been led to expect, and they 
behave very decently and with perfect propriety. 
Another man, an Osage, I was introduced to to-day. 
His name, for you must have him introduced to you 
in form, is Pa hu la or beaux cheveux. He told me 
that when he was young he had fine hair, but on 
becoming warriors they tear out the hair, a most 
painful operation in appearance, but which they don't 
seem to mind. There are no squaws come with 
them, to my great disappointment. 

From this side of the Mississippi there are arrived 
several Cherokees, who are the most advanced in 
civilization. They dress like us, and have features 
like inhabitants of the South of France. They and 
the Creeks are the only two Nations which are sup- 
posed now to increase their number. Division of 
property has taken place among them within these 
few years, and, which is a great point, the women 
are treated with respect. Colonel Hawkins, a very 
amiable man, who is superintendent of the Southern 



FROM AUGUSTUS FOSTER. 259 

Indians, told me that ten years ago, when he first 
settled among the Creeks, the women would leave 
the pathway for the men to pass, but now, by his 
example, the men universally give place to the 
women. He says that the fair sex has been of the 
greatest assistance to him in civilizing that nation, 
and that now a woman will not dismount from her 
horse unless helped off by a man, and that they are 
fully sensible of the benefit he has been to them. 
They still, however, throw away their children if de- 
formed, and they show very little outward and visible 
signs of attachment of any sort. . . . 

Our Corps Diplomatique has really been enriched 
very much from a quarter which one should little 
expect any thing from — Tunis. Sidi men ne melli, 
the Ambassador from the Bey of Tunis turns out 
to be a very intelligent, amiable, and conversible 
man. He is an old acquaintance of Prince Augustus, 
to whom he sends a letter by this packet, and of 
Lady Hamilton, and was of her parties at Naples. 
He has taken a great fancy to me, and we are the 
best friends in the world, as I speak Italian, which 
he also, though imperfectly, understands. As we 
are at war with Spain and France he is almost the 
only one of the Corps with whom we communicate. 
A nephew of Mr. J. Randolph (a Member of Con- 
gress of Virginia, and a young man of considerable 
merit), a boy about 12 years old, who is deaf and 
dumb, has just been sent by his uncle to England 
to try the effects of medical aid. He goes to Mr. 
Munroe's first, and then to a school at Bermondsey, 
and if you can be of any service to him in case he 



260 THE TWO DUCHESSES. 

should ultimately go to Paris, to Sicard, 1 it would be 
doing a kind thing, and I should be glad of it, for, 
though Randolph is an enemy to England, yet he is 
almost the only gentlemanly man that belongs to the 
Congress. 

You may rest assured that no Randolph such as is 
described in the paper you sent has ever possessed 
a town house in Philadelphia, nor has there been 
one within these 20 years whose estate was disposed 
of in the manner described. As the lady is so young 
and the name so aristocratic a one in this country 
the story of Mrs. Randolph would have been fresh 
in the memory of every one, and particularly of the 
Virginians; and the whole family and its branches 
have been all conned over repeatedly before me, and 
no individual found to apply the account to. 



Lady Elizabeth Foster 

To A ugustus Foster. 

December 16 thQ), 1805. 
[Fragment.] 

to-day to see the preparations, and in returning your 
brother stopped me ; he had overheard in the streets 
saying the Mails are come in and the news is not so 
bad, but when we got to St. James' Square, where 
we dined, we found how bad the news was thought. 
It is indeed over with the Continent 2 . The Em- 
peror of Russia is not concerned in the armistice and 

1 Sicard — The Abbe 1 S., instructor of the deaf and dumb (1742-1822). 

z It is indeed over with the Continent — This evidently refers to the battle of 
Austerlitz on Dec. 2, 1805, which was followed by an armistice a few days after. 
This victory of Napoleon is said to have given Pitt his death-blow. 



FROM LADY ELIZABETH FOSTER. 26 1 

was ready to go on, but nothing can be more ruined 
than the Emperor of Austria and Germany. The 
gloom over Pitt's friends is extreme, and he is him- 
self very ill at Bath. 



Lady Elizabeth Foster 



To Augustus Foster. 



"t> 



Devonshire House, Dece7nber 31, 1805. 
. You can't conceive anything like the 
publick anxiety about the event of the battle of the 
2nd, and those said to be given subsequent to it. 
We have been left without certain intelligence for a 
length of time, and the reports have been strong of 
a decisive advantage to the Allies, but a boat has 
come out with the Argus paper, printed at Paris, 
saying that the Emperors of Austria and France 
had concluded an armistice. I do not, cannot believe 
the Emperor Alexander has to do with it. W. 
Ponsonby speaks of him with enthusiasm, and his 
bravery has been conspicuous; but war is Bonaparte's 
element, and we play his cards for him when we give 
him an opportunity of making it. Where it will end, 
God knows. 

Meanwhile magnificent preparations are making at 
home for our loved Hero's funeral. It is to be a 
national tribute to the favourite of this great nation 
which has been blessed with many heroes, but surely 
none so great, so brilliant as Nelson. They have 
tried to throw difficulties in the way of the Prince of 
Wales attending, but he is determined. He admired 
him, he says, as the greatest character England could 



262 THE TWO DUCHESSES. 

ever boast of, and he loved him as a friend to whom 
he was bound by every tie that could bind him to 
another. He was proud that England had produced 
such a hero. If there is a good life of him I will 
send it to you. The Bishop of Exeter is to write 
one, I know, and with original letters. . . . 



Lady Elizabeth Foster 

To Augustus Foster. 

1805. 
. . . Lord Aberdeen looks dreadfully; he has 
been at Bath, and he frets so about Lord Melville 
that I really think he will make himself ill ; yet the 
trial must come on, and I fear new things are come 
out. Both Lord and Lady Melville are at Bath; 
she is ill, and the complaint at his heart seems to 
increase. I pity them from my heart. Poor Lord 
Aberdeen, he is a delightful person. She is very 
pretty and likes Petrarch; that is something to 
redeem her with you. He and I have sparring 
about Roscius, for since Kemble was at the Priory 
instructing Lord Aberdeen in acting he has won him 
from the Boy and made him insist that all merit 
depends on right emphasis, and think that all acting 
different from Kemble's is wrong, — but the Boy has 
had a complete triumph: two nights ago acting 
Rolla, which he did' with great success, Charles 
Kemble 1 , out of low envy, tried to cast a ridicule on 
him, and in the prison scene where Rolla gives his 

1 Charles Kemble — Brother of the more famous John Philip K. and of Mrs. 
Siddons (1775-1854). 



INSCRIPTION FOR A BUST OF CHARLES JAMES FOX. 263 

disguise to Alonso, Charles Kemble, to mark the 
difference of their size, threw it round him like a 
sack, on which the whole House hissed him, crying 
"off," and hissed him every time he appeared, 
whilst the applause to the Boy was greater than 
ever, with shouts of " bravo, excellent ". It is a 
wonderful piece of acting, and his carrying off the 
child perfect nature and grace. Grassini sang in 
Cleopatra Tuesday, and excellently, I hear, but alas 
we lose her this summer. . . . There is a wax 
figure of Lord Nelson put up in Westminster Abbey, 
which is as if he was standing there. Vivra il suo 
nome mille secoli e mille. 



Note from Charles J. Fox 

To Georgiana, Duchess of Devonshire. 

1805. 
Pray speak to everybody you can to come down 
or we shall be lost on the Slave Trade. Morpeth, 
Ossulston, Ld. A. H., Ld. H. Petty all away. Pray, 

pray send any body you see. Yours, 

C. J. F. 

X-past seven, H. of C. 



INSCRIPTION FOR A BUST OF CHARLES 
JAMES FOX, 

BY THE HONBLE. WILLIAM LAMB, AFTERWARD 
VISCOUNT MELBOURNE, PRIME MINISTER. 

Live, Marble, Live, for thine a sacred Trust, 
The patriot's face that speaks his noble mind ; 



264 THE TWO DUCHESSES. 

Live that our sons may kneel before this Bust, 
And hail the Benefactor of Mankind. 

This was the man who midst the Tempest's rage 
A rock of safety to the nations stood, 

Warn'd with prophetic voice a servile age, 

And strove to quench the ruthless thirst for blood. 

This was the man whose ever deathless name, 
Recalls his generous life's illustrious scenes; 

To Bless his fellow Creatures was his aim, 
And universal Liberty his means. 



EPITAPH BY THE DUKE OF DEVONSHIRE 
ON THE LATE LORD SPENCER. D. 1805. 

If e'er sincerity inscribed the stone, 
Giving the dead no merits but their own, 
Behold it here. This verse with Sculpture's aid, 
Records the debt by Love and Duty paid, 
That Strangers and Posterity may know 
How pure a Spirit warmed the Dust below. 
But they who felt the Virtues of his Life, 
Whether the Orphan, Friend, or Child or Wife, 
Need not Poets or the Sculptor's Art 
To wake the Feelings of a Grateful Heart. 
Their Love, their grief, his honour best proclaim, 
The Living monuments of Spencer's Fame. 



Lady Elizabeth Foster 

To Augustus Foster. 

January 17, 1806. 

The American dispatches have been retarded, and 
I have delayed also sending or writing even, for 
really there is such a gloom over every thing. I 



FROM LADY ELIZABETH FOSTER. 265 

wanted to have something better to say. Then the 
procession and the funeral pomp(?) at Greenwich and 
to town and from the Admiralty to St. Paul's was 
affecting beyond measure. In short, what with that 
and seeing people connected with Lord Nelson and 
collecting a variety of anecdotes about him you can- 
not conceive how knocked up I feel. We are going 
— Fred F., Caro, and I — to Brocket 1 to-morrow for 
a couple of days. I think it will do us good. 
Nothing has done more honor to the country than 
the manner in which they have felt the loss of Nel- 
son. In the thousands that were collected on that 
day it was a stillness which nothing broke through 
but a sort of murmur of "Hats off!" as the Car 
passed, and ejaculations of " God bless his soul who 
died for us to protect us; never shall we see his like 
again ". This show altogether was magnificent, but 
the common people, when the Crew of the Victory 
passed, said: "We had rather see them than all the 
show". The Prince has shown a feeling that did 
him honor. 

Now a new interest arises. Parliament meets on 
the 21st, and Pitt is so ill that he can't attend, nor 
will he, I believe, be able for a long time. The 
King is so blind he can't open the Session, so you 
see we are in a happy state. Lord Ossulston has 
just told me that Lord Henry moves the amend- 
ment. It is also thought that the Addingtons will 
vote with opposition. Lord Wellesley 2 is just arrived 
from India, and is undecided which way to act. They 

1 Brocket— Brocket Hall, country seat of Lord Melbourne in Hertfordshire. 
^Lord Wellesley — Marquis Wellesley, Governor-general of India (1760-1842). 



266 THE TWO DUCHESSES. 

say that he owes everything to Lord Grenville, but 
I suppose he dreads the Lion 1 recovering, and that 
he should have turned too soon against him. What 
a miserable being is a Politician without a heart! 

\%th. 

. . . I think your letter a very clever one, 
and I have thoughts of shewing it to Mr. Fox. It 
is the best picture of America I have had. I hope 
there will be no war with us. . . . Lady Holland 
inquired a good deal about you last night, and Lord 
Holland owned he believed your account was a true 
one. . . . 

Lady Elizabeth Foster 

To Augustus Foster. 

Thursday ; January 23, 1806. 

The papers will tell you of Mr. Pitt's death, 2 but 
none of them can do justice to the generous regret 
that is felt by opposition. On the Tuesday we were 
stopped at Devonshire House and told that at the 
moment the amendment was to be made Pitt's death 
would probably be announced. This, however, was 
not so, but now it is over; it is past; that name that 
filled so vast a space in the world is gone! He was 
calm and resigned, and his fortitude unshaken! It 
is an awful moment, and I will write more another 
time. 

Saturday. 

Nothing can paint better the feelings of a 
generous mind than the conversation which passed 

1 The Lion— William Pitt (1759-1806). 

2 Mr. Pitt's death — He died on Jan. 23, the day on which this letter was written. 



FROM LADY ELIZABETH FOSTER. 267 

between Fox and the Duke. The Duke was saying 
that he thought it impossible not to be shocked at 
the death of a man of such superior abilities, even 
though one differed from him in political opinion. 
"Shocked," answered Mr. Fox; "yes, certainly it 
feels as if something was missing in the world!" I 
can't tell you the effect these few words had upon 
me — so simple, so sublime in their simplicity. It is 
reported that the King has sent to Lord Grenville; 
if so, I am sure he will not come in without Fox. 

Monday, 27I/1. 

Lord Grenville has been with the King. The 
King said to him, " I wish you, my Lord, to help me 
to make a new administration ". " I must first, Sire, 
consult with Mr. Fox." " Yes, certainly," said the 
King, " I supposed so." So the conference ended, 
and now is indeed an anxious moment. I was sure, 
from a conversation I had with Lady Hawkesbury, 
that this was likely. The whole tenor of her con- 
versation went to extol the King's purity of intention 
and devotion to whatever he thought the good of 
the country. We shall see. The King only added, 
" Let me have it by Wednesday or Thursday". To- 
day was Mr. Lascelles' motion 1 of publick honor to 
Pitt. The motion is to be framed, they say, on the 
one made for Lord Chatham. Fox wished it might 
have been so worded as that he may agree, and 
even said before in the House that if it was not so 

1 Mr. Lascelles' motion — The motion was for a public funeral and monument to 
the memory of Pitt. Fox declined to assent to the motion, and Wyndham spoke 
against it. Among those who supported it were Wilberforce and Lord Castle- 
reagh. On a division the motion was carried by 258 to 89. Pitt's debts, amounting 
to ,£40,000, were paid by the nation. He was buried in Westminster Abbey on 
Feb. 22. 



268 THE TWO DUCHESSES. 

worded as to be a gross violation of all his principles 
to support it that it would meet with no opposition 
from that side of the House, but I hear Mr. Las- 
celles was obstinate. It, however, gave rise to the 
most beautiful speech Fox ever made. The Morning 
Chronicle gave it very ill; instead of his saying 
" perhaps it was an honor," Fox said, " people had 
done him the honor to call him that Right Honour- 
able Gentleman's Rival " (and a great honor it was), 
but you will have seen it in the papers. Mr. Wynd- 
ham's no body liked; however, all Pitt's relations 
and friends were pleased with Mr. Fox's. How 
happy shall I be if I can promote your advantage 

and happiness. 

loth. 

Lord Grenville has asked for another day. The 
King came to town and has seen Lord Hawkesbury, 
but I don't suspect any trick. Fox won't tell us any 
arrangements, and says they ought not to be known 
till the King has seen them. General Fitzpatrick 
was resisting our invitations to Devonshire House, 
saying we should be trying to get secrets from him. 
" That's a good one," said Fox laughing, " he has 
none to tell." You may conceive the busy look of 
St. James's Street. Mr. Fox asked me in the 
kindest manner about you, and whether you liked 
America. La risposta era facile. I long for to- 
morrow. 

Friday. 

The King said he should make no observations, 
but should send to Lord Grenville when he wanted 
him: different comments are made on this. 



FROM LADY ELIZABETH FOSTER. 269 

Saturday. 

The King saw Lord Grenville this evening; he 
seemed surprized at the article about the Duke of 
York. "Is it", he said, "meant as a slur on the 
Duke of York?" " Nothing, Sire, further from our 
intentions." The King then said he must reconsider 
of it. He asked if it had not always been as now 
since the Duke of Cumberland. Lord Grenville 
assured His Majesty that if he inquired he would 
find it had not, and the article at bottom of the list 
was in the most respectful terms, saying that, as 
the revision of the measures for the defence of the 
Country must be the first that would come into con- 
sideration, it was humbly hoped that the Commander 
in Chief would submit to concert his measures with 
the Council at a time when the state of the Country 
required so much that they should act in concert. 
As nearly as I can ascertain, it was expressed these 
people had been prepared to think it had been 
intended to remove the Duke of York, or that some- 
thing harsh had been said, but it was not so; and 
when this was understood there seemed to be but 
one voice that the King ought to be advised to 
consent to it. 

Monday, Feb. 3. 

It is said that the King wrote to Lord Grenville 
yesterday, and that he is to see him to-day. Before 
the ship goes I hope I shall have some decided 
intelligence to send you. Yesterday London was in 
a fever, for it was soon circulated at the Opera that 
it was off. Fox was there in his usual good spirits, 
at which, I suppose, people were surprised, but he is 



270 THE TWO DUCHESSES. 

unlike any thing and superior to every body. I 
have heard that some people were for letting the 
subject of the Army rest for the present, but he, 
with his noble sincerity and integrity, said that it 
was more fair and much handsomer to state all their 
intentions now; to take no advantage. It has risked 
the whole thing being off, but it is with honor if it is 
so, and if the King has a heart to appreciate Fox, 
what honor this must do him with the King. I 
sha'n't dare send this letter by the merchant ship, but 
I will write a line by it to tell you of this. 

Wednesday, $ik. 

. . . To-day they were to kiss hands. I left 
off Monday. That was a day of fever. About one 
we knew Lord Grenville was with the King; about 
three or four that all was doing well ; and about six 
a note from Arlington Street told us that all was 
settled. Lord Grenville was to see the King again 
in the evening for the final arrangements, and that 
the new Ministers were to kiss hands, and to-day I 
believe there is some delay about Lord Grenville on 
account of some plan he has which may delay it 
till to-morrow, but on Friday this packet goes, and 
with it I will send you the correct list. What a 
change! You will hear, I suppose, and so do we 
here, some abuse of letting in some of the Adding- 
tons. Yesterday all was discontent amongst some 
of our minor friends on this account, but it is very 
different from the manner in which Mr. Pitt came in, 
leaving all the Addingtonians whom he had abused 
and tacking himself on to them, or coming in a great 



FROM AUGUSTUS FOSTER. 27 1 

body, as Fox and Lord Grenville do, and then ad- 
mitting Lord Sidmouth and one other to the Cabinet, 
and a few to other places — to form, in short, a broad 
bottomed administration, placing people there where 
their talents can be of use — thus Lord Auckland is 
at the Board of Trade — he, and almost he only, 
understands trade. 

Wednesday night. 

Fox says the order of the day is content, and the 
Duchess incloses you a list of the new administration 
as far as it goes, I mean as is finally settled. Several 
kissed hands to-day, and the King was very gracious, 
but so blind, poor man, that it was painfull to see 
him. The report is Sir R. Strachan is in sight of a 
squadron of the Brest fleet, and pray God we may 
have a victory, though that of Trafalgar might 
suffice for a century. . . . 



Augustus Foster 

To Lady Elizabeth Foster. 

Washington, Feb. 1, 1806. 

Our disputes and concerns with this country are 
becoming greater and greater every day, and our 
business becomes consequently greater likewise. 
The two greatest commercial nations on the globe 
cannot move in the same sphere without jostling 
one another a little while we are aiming blows at the 
French Marine. We want elbow room and these 
good neutrals won't give it to us, and therefore they 
get a few side pushes which makes them grumble. 



272 THE TWO DUCHESSES. 

However, I hope they will see their interests better 
than to seriously quarrel with us for the benefit of 
the foreign adventurers who carry on an unlawful 
trade from their ports with the West Indies. . . . 



Lady Elizabeth Foster 

To Augustus Foster. 

Devonshire House, Feb. 3, 1806. 
. . . I send you this merely to say that all our 
friends are coming in, and I believe are to kiss 
hands the day after to-morrow. You will see by 
the papers the loss the Country has again sustained 
in the death of Mr. Pitt! that name, so great, so 
known, which occupied so vast a space, is gone! 
. . . On Thursday Mr. Pitt died; on Saturday 
the King sent for Lord Grenville and told him he 
wished his assistance to form a new Administration. 
Lord Grenville said the first thing he must do must 
be to consult Mr. Fox. " I supposed so," answered 
the King, " let me have the list by Wednesday or 
Thursday." " By Thursday, Sir," — so it ended. 
They asked a day more, and gave it on Friday. An 
article at the end about the Commander in Chief made 
a difficulty, and the king said he must reconsider of it. 
I mistake — the King took it Friday and said he 
should send for Lord G., and on Saturday evening 
it was that the article about the Army made a hitch: 
it was reported at the opera to be off: most of 
Sunday passed without any thing; Sunday evening 
another message to Lord Grenville, and on Monday 



FROM GEORGIANA, DUCHESS OF DEVONSHIRE. 273 

(yesterday) the King saw and settled every thing 
with Lord G., and we were told about five that 
Wednesday (to-morrow) they were to kiss hands. 
What a change! and what hopes, my Augustus, does 
it give me for you ! but of this another time. Lord 
Hawkesbury has the Cinque Ports. Some blame 
him, and certainly Mr. Fox had wished it for Lord 
Chatham, to whom he would have given it. Fox 
made a beautiful speech yesterday on the motion to 
pay Mr. Pitt's debts. I send you a paper. The 
most beautiful was that on the motion for public 
honors. Mrs. Fox is happy, but has the most per- 
fect good sense as well as good nature in her new 
situation. One of her first ideas was to ask me 
about you. I sha'n't forget that. The Duchess' 
friendship you know too well to doubt it — so a little 
patience, dearest child, go on improving yourself in 
French and Italian. I have seen no faults lately in 
French, and Italian I am afraid you now know 
better than me. . . . 



Georgiana, Duchess of Devonshire 

To Augustus Foster. 

March, (?) 1806. 

Dear Augustus, — Mr. Pitt's death was felt by his 
opponents in a manner that did equal honor to him 
and them. They regretted his loss and his talents, 
and I may venture to say Mr. Fox would be well 
pleased indeed could he recall him to life and place 
him in his Cabinet. At any other time I should 



274 THE TW0 DUCHESSES. 

rejoice and exult in the assemblage of talent and 
integrity which we now can boast of, but alas, in 
these times what is to be done; it is uphill labour, 
and it must be the regret of every one that the pro- 
posed junction was not suffered to take place when 
it might have saved Europe. ... I have sent 
you a remembrance — a memorial of Lord Nelson, 
but I trust, as you do, that he will have left us some 
of his eleves and comrades who will emulate his 
glory. . . . 

Augustus Foster 

To Lady Elizabeth Foster. 

Washington, March 10, 1806. 
. . . Our news is not later than the 19th of 
December from London, and we only know up to 
the reports of the battle of the 5th, and the heroism 
of the Emperor Alexander. You may have had 
peace long ago for ought we know here. I wish 
sincerely you may if it be a good one, for I long 
very much to return. Nevertheless, I must own 
that this Mission is very interesting during war time. 
Our disputes about Neutral rights have been under 
discussion in the Congress, and I have heard their 
best speakers. One of them, Mr. J. Randolph, the 
uncle of the deaf and dumb boy whom I recommended 
to you, who is with Mr. Munroe, took up the argu- 
ment favorable to England, and managed it with a 
great deal of brilliancy and success, though hitherto 
considered as the leader of the Democratic party in 
opposition to the Federalists. He has now taken 



FROM AUGUSTUS FOSTER. 275 

his stand as head of the landed interest as opposed 
to the carrying part of the Commercial interest. He 
is a very singular character, and has the extraordinary 
merit of having taught himself. He lost his father 
when a boy, and was indulged in idleness by his 
mother till he was 16 or 17, when he was sent to a 
college, where he learned very little. He is now 33, 
has the voice of a boy, and the appearance. He is 
extremely thin, and from bodily infirmities scarce 
can know an hour's ease. He is a good deal at 
times at Mr. Merry's, and as he is very gentleman- 
like and full of imagination I like him very much. 
As he is certainly the first in point of brilliancy in 
either house, I have given you this account of him. 
He has, besides, as who has not who has heard of 
her, a most sincere veneration for your Duchess and 
for your mutual friendship. Being a direct descend- 
ant from Pocahontas, he values nobility of birth very 
highly, and is intimately acquainted with all our 
great families, even to their estates, and their dis- 
tances from London and each other: he has taken 
me en amitie\ and we often ride together. 

For about a fortnight during the winter Washing- 
ton was as gay as it can be, that is, we met parties 
crowded in little rooms in the different houses here, 
by going 3 or 4 miles, sometimes 6 miles, every 
evening. There were several strangers, and some 
very pretty girls. There was one with as handsome 
a face as any I have ever seen. Mrs. Merry gave 
a little dance, which was pronounced feiner and more 
charmin than any thing of the sort ever seen. I 
wore the Prince's uniform, which is very popular 



276 THE TWO DUCHESSES. 

here, though I was obliged to shew a little resent- 
ment at a reason which was insinuated for its being 
so. ... I congratulate you on the defeat of 
the French fleet in the West Indies. We seem to 
sweep the Ocean. General Moreau 1 I have not seen. 
I must obey Mr. Merry about him, unless I should 
meet him in private society. He is very communi- 
cative, I understand, at Philadelphia, where he now 
is. He gives as his opinion that Bonaparte has 
got into a Cul de sac, and must be destroyed if 
the Austrian generals manage the matter skilfully. 
Madame Moreau is enchanting the Americans. Her 
dancing is said to be superior to any thing ever seen 
of the sort in the United States. Moreau wears 
plain clothes and a round hat: he won't come down 
here, as he says, for fear of embarrassing the Ad- 
ministration. General Miranda 2 has gone on an ex- 
pedition to South America, as is supposed, and has 
carried ammunition and men in four ships to revolu- 
tionize the Caraccas. He has provided printers and 
printing presses among other things. General 
Turreau burst into tears, as is said, on hearing of 
the battle of Trafalgar. . . . 



Augustus Foster 

To Lady Elizabeth Foster. 

Washington, March 25, 1806. 
Still no packet arrives, and five months are fast 
going by since the date of your last letter to me. 1 

1 General Moreau — See p. 25a 

- General Miranda — Founder of the Independence of Spanish America (175°- 
1816). 



FROM AUGUSTUS FOSTER. 277 

almost dread its arrival now, and wait for the Post 
every evening with nearly more fear than hope. 
Our public news has been so bad that I scarce dare 
to think what our letters may bring. When such a 
man as Pitt dies in the full vigour of life, and such 
campaigns are fought as the one of last winter, one 
cannot guess what may next happen. However, if 
I only had letters from you of February in my pocket, 
I should not grieve much about our National Affairs. 
We are pretty safe, I think, from French fleets and 
French invasion. Such men as Lord Grenville and 
Mr. Fox, I dare say, will not sacrifice our rights, and 
Alexander may yet find the Usurper a good deal to 
do in the Levant. Pitt has haunted me ever since 
his death. I think I see his figure every hour 
thundering over poor little Addington. At such a 
distance as this, when one hears of the death of so 
great a man as he, one really cannot conceive it; it 
only serves to call him more forcibly to one's mind, 
and to place him in the strongest point of view in 
which one has ever seen him. He and Nelson have 
been indeed great losses to us, and Lord Cornwallis, 
as Viceroy of India, was surely a loss to us, but to 
compare small things with great, they say that no 
man should long be under the same valet de chambre, 
and perhaps it was necessary we should know by 
proof that our whole dependence was not upon one 
person, however pre-eminent. . . . If they make 
peace, we shall, we must be ruined. Give him a 
year, 'tis all he wants to fill his dockyards with 
materials, and our only safeguard will be in jeopardy. 
We have only now to look to our wooden walls, and 



278 THE TWO DUCHESSES. 

I trust they won't be sacrificed. The moment our 
right arm is bent we are gone. 



LINES WRITTEN BY THE EARL OF CARLISLE 

ON THE DEATH OF GEORGIANA, DUCHESS OF 
DEVONSHIRE, MARCH 30, 1806. 

Bright eminence and worth have seemed of late, 
For cold extinction to be marked by fate: 
Soaring with higher flight, Death wings his way, 
And, like the eagle, strikes the noblest prey. 
Valour's first-born, lamented Nelson, dies: 
Next o'er Pitt's corse we hang with weeping eyes. 

Now, at the insatiate Tyrant's savage call, 
The most attractive of her Sex must fall. 
O! tenderest Parent! O! sincerest Friend! 
Can it be Thee, o'er whose pale form we bend ; 
Thee, whom so late on Health's elastic bound, 
VVe saw diffusing pleasure all around. 

Is that the forehead, where each Grace and Muse 
Twined their joint garland of a thousand hues? 
Are those the eyes which beam'd with vivid sense, 
And spoke the soul of pure benevolence? 
That the warm breast, where mild Affection chose 
To graft on Meekness stern Compassion's rose? 

Peace to thy fleeting soul! Tho' here below 

Malice at all direct the assassin's blow. 

Nor even Thee the accursed fiend should spare, 

Yet where All's justice thou hast least to fear, 

For leagued with mercy at the Almighty's throne, 

Shall Charity unbend the accusing frown, 

Sustain thy trembling head, and claim thee for her own. 



FROM THE HON. MRS. LAMB. 279 

George Prince of Wales 1 (afterwards King George the Fourth) 
To Lady Elizabeth Foster. 

Dear Lady Elizabeth, — I am really quite asham'd 
of intruding upon you and upon the Duke under any 
circumstances at the present moment, but particularly 
so when it is respecting a trifle. To take up as 
little as possible of your time, I will immediately 
come to the point, and will beg of you to borrow 
from the Duke for a few days his Collar of the 
Order of the Garter. By some misfortune my 
Brother Augustus cannot find his, and if you will 
have the goodness to send it to me to Carlton House 
this evening, I will take care of it and return it when 
the Trial 2 is over. Forgive me all the trouble I am 
giving you, and believe me ever, Dearest Lady 
Elizabeth, most affectionately yours, George. 

Carlton House, April i%th, 1806. 



The Hon. Mrs. Lamb 

To A ugustus Foster. 

1806. 
You must feel so very anxious to know how your 
dear Mother's health and spirits have borne the 
dreadful misfortune we all deplore, that I will write 
to you a line to tell you that she is better than I 
could have expected, and than her misery seemed to 
give any hope for, but as to spirits, what, my dear 

1 George, Prince of Wales, afterwards King George IV. (1762-1830). 

2 The trial — Probably in view of his being present as a peer at the trial of Lord 
Melville, which began in Westminster Hall on April 26. 



280 THE TWO DUCHESSES. 

Augustus, can ever restore them., since time that 
soothes and heals common afflictions seems but to 
add to this? Each new day brings some new proofs 
of its extent, and how very very irreparable it is. 
All who knew her loved her, but it was adoration 
that she inspired to her nearest friends, and thus to 
have her torn from them, to watch her through a 
suffering illness and in the awful moments of death, 
is a lesson so striking, yet so heartbreaking, that we 
must have sunk under it had not God Almighty 
supported us through it, and in the height of misery 
given us strength and resignation to bear it; but I 
need not and cannot describe to you all that we have 
gone through, scenes of misery and horror rendered 
more dreadful by the contrast to a life of happiness, 
to the thoughtless security of a few weeks past. . . . 



Lady Elizabeth Foster 

To Augustus Foster. 

Devonshire House, May 18, 1806. 

One of the cruel circumstances attending on dis- 
tance is the unconsciousness of our nearest friends to 
what is most nearly influencing the happiness or 
misery of those they love. Thus, my dearest Augus- 
tus, I read your three letters, which otherwise would 
have been delightful to me, with agony of heart. Alas, 
that friendship which could excite enthusiasm even 
in an American is lost to me for ever. The recollec- 
tion alone remains, and regrets, never ceasing regrets, 
regrets only to be equalled by the angelick, the un- 



FROM AUGUSTUS FOSTER. 28 1 

equalled qualities of the friend of my heart, my dear, 
my loved, my adored friend. Frederick wrote to you 
what I could not. Since then I have lived in a kind 
of stupor; all seems like a dream; we have never left 
the house; we live amongst ourselves, so that as yet 
I am not awake to the certainty of the horrid event. 
Oh, my dear Augustus, what a blank in my future 
life! I am and ought to be grateful for the friend 
that is preserved to me, and for such affectionate 
sons, but she was the only female friend I ever had. 
Our hearts were united in the closest bonds of confi- 
dence and love, and the charm of her society, which 
you so well know how to appreciate, could only be 
equalled by the divine, the truly angelick qualities 
of her heart and soul. Oh, could you see how sad 
poor Devonshire House looks. All are well in 
health. 

. . . I wrote you a journal of all, and my loved 
friend wrote you a list of the new Administra- 
tion. . . . 



Augustus Foster 

To Lady Elizabeth Foster. 

Washington, May 28, 1806. 
I thank God that you are well, my ever dearest 
mother, and I am very much obliged to Frederick 
for his kind consideration for writing so in the first 
line of his melancholy letter. Oh, my poor Ma, 
what a loss, what a dreadful loss! How keenly, how 
bitterly must you feel, to be severed from such a tie. 
The sad news reached me almost all at once. I had 



282 THE TWO DUCHESSES. 

scarcely read in a paper the day before of her illness, 
when in another the next day I saw we had lost her 
for ever. I still had some hopes till Frederick's 
letter proved it but too true. What a cruel addition 
to the losses of the last winter! It seems as if we 
were to be deprived of all that is good and great in 
our country to prepare us for some heavy calamity. 
There is no part of this world, I believe, where the 
angelic Duchess will not be deeply regretted; her 
kindness and beneficence were wound up with the 
happiness of so many. Such a high and exalted 
character, such unbounded nobleness of soul, such 
excellence of heart, so totally free from all selfishness, 
and so absorbed in thinking only for the good of 
others, with every charm and every means to throw 
lustre on her excellent qualities, will, I fear, never 
again be met with in the same woman. How kindly 
she ever treated me, who had no other recommenda- 
tion to her than that of being son to her dearest 
friend. She is an angel, my dear mother; you must 
think of her now as in the enjoyment of the greatest 
bliss which the most virtuous mortal can be rewarded 
with in the uncontaminated abode, where your own 
dear soul will meet with her again. You have seen 
her suffer under long and dreadful pains before her 
death. It must surely be a consolation to you that 
you were with her, and that all the offices of the 
purest and most unsullied friendship were performed 
by you from the first to the very last. It must have 
been a great relief to her to be eased of her cruel 
sufferings. These considerations will, I trust, enable 
you to bear up with a fortitude that becomes you. 



FROM LADY ELIZABETH FOSTER. 283 

You are too necessary to the happiness of your own 
and your adopted children, and from such a loss 
doubly so to the happiness of us all, not to make it 
our common cause to solicit you to bear up. I hope 
and trust Frederic will write to me by Merchant 
Vessels frequently to say how you are. How sadly 
I regret the distance I am from you at such a 
moment, when I might be of some little comfort to 
you. My only consolation is that you have Caroline, 
who understands you, with you, and Frederick, who 
is ever affectionate. Poor Lady Harriet! she has 
strong claims on you for your taking care of yourself. 
. . . Confide in me, my dearest Ma. The 
affliction you must be suffering is my greatest 
anxiety. 

Lady Elizabeth Foster 

To Augustus Foster. 

Devonshire House, June 6, 1806. 

. . . We try to be grateful for the blessings 
left, but yet 

My heart so late of many joys possessed 
Laments for many lost and trembles for the rest 

Take care of yourself therefore, my dearest Augus- 
tus, for my sake. I really have suffered so much 
lately that I feel as if I had scarcely strength for 
anxiety. I look to your return with great delight, 
and hope the period is not very distant. I have 
already told you that I had written to you constantly, 
and from December that we came to town had 



284 THE TWO DUCHESSES. 

taken pleasure in writing you journals that you might 
know exactly how things went on and the opinions 
and expectations of the day — all during Pitt's illness 
and the forming of the new Administration, and my 
beloved friend had written to you the list of the new 
Ministers and Mr. Fox's message about you. . . . 
As to the present moment I can say but little, for I 
have had no heart to attend to politicks, or to see 
those could tell them to me. . . . Russia seems 
more inclined to peace, and has given up the 
Cattaro 1 to Austria to be yielded to France. Sweden 
is chevaleresque, and is worthy of admiration. Eng- 
land still triumphant at sea, and the publick just now 
very curious about Miranda, so pray write to me all 
about him. Lord Elgin, Lord Yarmouth, and Col. 
Abercromie are come home. My brother supports 
Government, which is delightful to me; he approves 
Mr. Wyndham's plan, and meant to speak in support 
of it. . . . I do not wonder at all you felt about 
Pitt's death. I had written to you Mr. Fox's ex- 
pression about that event. He said, " It feels as if 
something was missing in the world ". Oh Heavens! 
how truly may that be said of my dear, dear 
Georgiana, who ever filled such a space as she did 
in society? To whom was she as she was to me? 
. . . I have not seen Lord Aberdeen since my 
misfortune, but I hear that it is thought that the 
trial of Lord Melville will end well. The day is not 
known, but I suppose that it will be in about ten 
days. He bears up amazingly well. . . . 

1 The Cattaro — An Austrian town and district in Dalmatia which belonged for a 
few years to the French. 



FROM LADY ELIZABETH FOSTER. 285 

Lady Elizabeth Foster 

To Augustus Foster. 

Devonshire House, July 2, 1806. 
. . . It is believed that there is a negotiation 
going on between this country and France, but all is 
kept a profound secret. Meanwhile several of the 
persons that were detained have returned to Eng- 
land. The next thing that occupies the publick 
mind is the affairs of the Princess of Wales, and Sir 
I. or Lady Douglas has deposed on oath assertions of 
her ill conduct. The Prince told the King, and the 
King ordered a committee of the Privy Council to 
examine the evidence. Lord Grenville, Spencer, 
the Chancellor, and Lord Ellenborough are the per- 
sons so empowered. The report is to be given in 
to-day. . . . The Session is now nearly over. 
Scotland is, I believe, henceforth to have her juries 
and decide her own causes. Irish Elections are to 
be put on the same footing as the English ones, and 
other regulations of that kind, which tend to civilize 
the country and give it a little more political morality. 
To-day, also, we are to know who goes to India. 
The day before yesterday the Duke dined with 
Charles Fox, who was very cheerful, and Lady 
Bessborough and I have generally gone in the even- 
ing. Never was any thing more perfect than all 
Lord Grenville's conduct towards Fox, and as to the 
question which in one of your letters you say is put 
of who is first: Is Fox under Lord Grenville or 
Lord Grenville under Fox? I really believe their 
great and good minds despise the form. They have 



286 THE TWO DUCHESSES. 

united for the publick service and act cordially to- 
gether. . . . 



Lady Elizabeth Foster 

To Augustus Foster. 
Devonshire House, July 3, 1806. 

. . . Mr. Fox continues mending. The Duke 
of Devonshire dined with him the other day, and 
Fox sent to him again for to-day. The rumour of 
the day is peace, and Lord Holland to go to Paris. 
The truer are Lord Minto to India and Mr. T. 
Grenville to the Board of Controul. Mr. Erskine 
does at last go to America, so the speculating Lord 
Selkirk 1 you are rid of. . . . Lord Ossulston I 
really believe very soon will marry Corise. As to 
poor Devonshire House, we have as yet gone no 
where, seen no body but the nearest friends. I have 
had no heart, no courage, to do any thing, nor will 
you be surprised at it. The constant charm of my 
life is gone. She doubled every joy, lessened every 
grief. Her society had an attraction I never met 
with in any other being. Her love for me was 
really " passing the love of woman " — povero cor 
mio quanto hai sofferto. . . . As to the affair 
of the Princess of Wales which the papers are full 
of, the report of the Committee was given in to the 
Council yesterday, but it is said will not be made 
publick. It is a strange business altogether, but I 

1 Lord Selkirk — Thomas Douglas, fifth Earl of S. He assisted in settling emi- 
grants in some parts of Canada, and in particular was the founder of what is now 
the province of Manitoba. The title is now among those borne by the Duke of 
Hamilton (1771-1820). 



FROM LADY ELIZABETH FOSTER. 287 

can't believe her really guilty. You tell me nothing 
about Miranda, yet he excites publick curiosity to 
the greatest degree. Lord St. Vincent called on me 
yesterday, and went to Portsmouth to-day. He 
said he would not come on shore again till there was 
a peace or change of Ministers, and then he would 
cut them. . . . 



Lady Elizabeth Foster 

To A ugustus Foster. 

Devonshire House, July 9, 1806. 
Thank you, my dearest child, for your anxiety 
about me. No wonder that you thought I could not 
support myself under such a blow, but God is merci- 
ful and gives a strength we know not we possess. 
How I went through it, as my angel friend herself 
said, or how I am alive to tell it, I know not — such 
a loss! Oh, Dearest Augustus, She was the charm 
of my existence, my constant support in all my 
sorrows, the doubler and sharer of every joy. There 
is no giving you any idea of the three weeks we 
passed, or rather the fortnight, for the first week she 
recovered so much I thought not of danger, though 
Farquhar from the first was uneasy. I scarcely left 
her room or her bed, yet she was almost in a con- 
tinual lethargy; still almost to the last she knew her 
sister and me, and her last words were to tell me she 
did not mind it. Oh, heavens! my dear Augustus, 
how is it that one goes through certain trials that 
but to think of at a distance seems impossible to 



288 THE TWO DUCHESSES. 

bear. We felt stunned and unable to conceive what 
had passed. I am told it is the case always in great 
and deep afflictions. The Duke and I were saying 
one day it appeared to us like a dream. On saying 
this to Farquhar he told us it was always so. We 
have as yet seen scarcely any body; we have lived 
with each other; travelling was impossible on the 
Duke's account, who was not quite well, and wished 
to remain in London; it was equally so to me to 
whom she had left all her papers and affairs, and this 
trust, so sad and sacred, still occupies almost all my 
mornings. It is, I feel it, a comfort as you say, to 
have been with her, to have watched her looks, her 
words, to have been there, as I was, hanging over 
her in breathless anxiety, for in each interval of 
stupor there she saw me; but it was heart-rending, 
it was agony, and it seems to have shut my heart to 
all joy. Yet the interest of my dear children, their 
happiness and welfare, must still give me pleasure 
and all the happiness I can know. 

I feel by your letter all that you are to me. 
Dearest Caro has been to me what you wished her. 
Fred really overcame himself with sorrow. Dear 
Clifford has come to support and cheer us all a little; 
poor Hartington 1 said it could alone give him a feel- 
ing of pleasure at being again in Devonshire House, 
and he has been much better since; poor Lady Bess- 
borough is, as you may suppose, wretched; Georgiana 
and Harriet are indeed deserving of all one's com- 
passion. Georgiana is just recovered from her lying 

1 Hartington — Marquis of H., afterwards sixth Duke of Devonshire. He was 
at this time sixteen years old. He died unmarried, and was succeeded by his 
cousin, the father of the present duke (1790-1853). 



FROM LADY ELIZABETH FOSTER. 289 

in, and looks well. The kindness and feeling of 
Lord Morpeth I can never forget. You never saw 
such a scene as Devonshire House. The anxiety of 
people was extreme; the crowds that inquired im- 
mense, and the silence and solitude of the succeeding 
one horrid. Hartington I had sent for; he shewed 
a manliness beyond his age, and saw his adored 
mother every day, even afterwards; so did I! and I 
am alive to tell it you. 

I do indeed trust that I shall meet her again in 
" another and a better world " as the Stranger says. 
Never, I believe, were two hearts and minds so 
united; never did two people think and feel so alike. 
She is so present to me, and I am so constantly 
occupied for her that I feel as if she was absent on a 
journey, and I catch myself saying "I'll tell her this", 
nor feel all my loss till some person speaking or some 
circumstance makes the whole rush upon me with 
fatal conviction of the truth. . . . 

We are all in sad anxiety about Mr. Fox. He 
has a tendency to dropsy, which is alarming at his 
age and with his size; he has been better, but was 
worse yesterday. The Duke dines often with him, 
and is very uneasy, I think, about him. It would be 
too shocking to have him wrested from us just as his 
wonderful abilities were best calculated to do good. 
He has been too ill for me to speak to him latterly 
about you, and indeed I had so firm a reliance on 
what he said to me that I have felt convinced he 
only waited for an opportunity of doing what was for 
your advantage. If we lose him we have nothing 
left but secondary characters. Except D. D. I know 



290 THE TWO DUCHESSES. 

not one very pre-eminent one. However, there is 
no cause for despair, and I will try to hope for the 
best. ... I am not ill, I do assure you. I go 
on occupying myself with her affairs, and in all I can 
doing what I hope would please her dear Spirit if it 
can look down upon us, and may we meet never to 
part. . . . 

Atigustus Foster 

To Lady Elizabeth Foster. 

Washington, July 20, 1806. 

Your affecting letter I have just received, and shall 
ever preserve it as a last memento of the truest 
friendship that ever existed. . . . Who has a 
claim to the attention of every body if you have not, 
who are so considerate about every body? She was 
indeed to you what she was to nobody else she has 
left behind her, and by none is the cruel loss so fully 
estimated as by you; of this I am sure. Thank 
Heaven you had so many about you who could feel 
with you, and that you were able to support one 
another. . . . 



Frederick Foster 

To A ugustus Foster. 

London, July 30, 1806. 

. . . I am sorry to tell you that Fox is still 

very ill, and I fear that his recovery is very doubtful. 

It is dropsy, and I am afraid not alone, but he has 

great strength of constitution and his lungs appear 



FROM AUGUSTUS FOSTER. 29 1 

to be sound, so that we can't help entertaining hopes 
of his recovery. I must think that it would be a 
most amazing loss, and it's really frightful to see 
almost all the talent, genius, and worth of the country 
dying before one's eyes — Nelson, Pitt, Cornwallis, and 
our beloved, amiable Duchess. Heavens! what a 
change since this time last year; you will scarcely 
know the country at your return. . . . 

August 1st. 

Fox still continues very ill, but Lady Holland told 
me to-day that he was better, and that the doctors 
had entered upon a new system. In short, they 
have hopes and no more. Fox is really better. . . . 



Augustus Foster 

To Lady Elizabeth Foster. 
Lancaster, Pennsylvania,/*/^/ (?), 1806. 

. . . I thank you sincerely for your details 
about that Heavenly Woman, and the more so as I 
know what it must have cost you to write them. I 
should be sorry indeed if Mr. Fox was to be 
wrested from us, and particularly now that he is 
engaged in negotiations for Peace. His great and 
enlarged mind is necessary to enable us to find out 
our real interests at this gloomy period. I don't, 
however, quite agree in our having none but second- 
ary characters to take his place. Lord Grenville, 
our English Cato, and Lord Howick, I think we 
might with confidence rely on. . . . 



292 THE TWO DUCHESSES. 

LINES BY GEORGIANA, DUCHESS OF DEVONSHIRE 
ON THE BUST OF CHARLES FOX, AT WOOBURN. 1 

Here 'midst the friends he loves the Man behold 
In Truth unshaken and in Virtue bold, 
Whose ardent Zeal and uncorrupted mind, 
Dares to assert the Freedom of Mankind. 
For whilst contending factions raged afar, 
And fell Ambition spread the flames of War, 
Fearless of blame and eloquent to save, 
'Twas He, 'twas Fox, the warning council gave, 
Oppos'd, but ah, how Vain! the Tide of blood, 
And to the Nations as a Sea Mark stood! 
Yet still propitious might his voice avail, 
And happy Realms returning freedom hail. 
His Wisdom still might bid fierce discord cease, 
And give the world humanity and Peace. 
But should he fail, our gratefull sons will here 
Their tribute pay, regret, admire, revere, 
Uphold his worth, bear witness to his fame, 
And in their annals proudly boast his name. 



Lady Elizabeth Foster 

To Augustus Foster. 

Devonshire House, September, 1806. 

I have scarcely courage to write to you, and to 
announce the great, the irreparable loss which the 
World has sustained — the sad, sad loss to friends 
more attached than almost ever man was blessed 
with. Good God! what a change in England since 
you left it. It is frightful to think of, and makes me 

1 G. died March 30, 1806; Fox, Sept. 13, 1806. 



FROM LADY ELIZABETH FOSTER. 293 

tremble for those precious lives which still must 
attach me to life. The probability, however, is that 
I shall not have that misfortune added to the rest; 
the uncertainty of my own health may secure me 
from that. Do not, however, take any alarm, my 
dear child, from this expression, for I really am pretty 
well, but these events make one low. Nothing can 
give an idea of the anxiety about Mr. Fox, for though 
his health was seriously affected, he had recovered so 
much strength at Chiswick, and was so happy here, 
that it was impossible not to flatter oneself that he 
might yet recover a considerable degree of health. 
The change was sudden and dreadfull; he had slept 
pretty well, was cheerfull, went to look at his favourite 
pictures in the drawing-room, and returned to his 
room to dress and go out; his secretary was reading 
to him; he suddenly fell back; an extreme weakness 
came on which, with the interval of one day, when 
hopes were revived, continued from Monday till 
Saturday, when he died. 1 He had his senses to the 
last, knew his situation. Mrs. Fox asked him if he 
would have prayers read, and he said, " Yes, my 
love". Whilst they were reading he joined his 
hands. He gave ample directions to poor Lord 
Holland; to Mrs. Fox he turned with unceasing 
tenderness in his countenance, and an hour before 
his death said to her, " I die happy, but I pity you". 
Most of his intimate friends were at Chiswick. It 
was a touching scene to see all those men unable to 
suppress their grief, and careless to conceal their 

1 When he died— Fox died on Sept. 13. He was buried on October 10 in West- 
minster Abbey beside Pitt. 



294 THE TWO DUCHESSES. 

tears. How they can attend the funeral I know not; 
it is to be the tenth of October, and I own I dread 
it for the Duke. 

October 1st. 

. . . The Paris papers say that Jerome is made 
a Prince, and divorced that he may marry a Princess 
of Wirtemberg. Poor Madame Jerome! Can it be 
true also that Moreau is returned to Lisbon; it would 
seem very imprudent. The capture of Buenos Ayres 
has made a great sensation here, and the treasure has 
been lodged at the Bank with great show and pomp. 
I hope we shall not lightly give up that settlement or 
Miranda. . . . Town will be full for a few days 
on account of the funeral of our loved Patriot. 
Heavens, that the same year should have witnessed 
four of such persons! all, all pre-eminent, for my 
loved friend was pre-eminent in beauty, goodness, 
and all that can attach or attract. May God pre- 
serve those we love, and are still so necessary to our 
happiness. 



Lady Elizabeth Foster 

To Augustus Foster. 

Devonshire House, October 28, 1806. 

I have much such accounts to give you as I sent 
last year. Scarcely had Lord Morpeth reached 
Erfurt when he found that the Queen and the 
Ministers were obliged to fly for safety; of course 
he did the same, and with great difficulty got back 



FROM LADY ELIZABETH FOSTER. 295 

to Weimar and Brunswick. The beaten army 1 were 
flying in all directions, and he was obliged to walk 
14 miles, and then to get a sort of cart for the rest 
of the journey. At Brunswick they confirmed the 
terrible tidings, and the Dutch papers are since come 
with horrid details, such as 200 pieces of cannon, 
five or six of their best generals wounded and made 
prisoners, and, in short, unless it is true that Hohenlohe 2 
defeated the right wing of the French, I don't see 
what is to enable them to make a stand; it is too 
shocking, really. 

2()tk. 

There was an account that the Prussians fought 
from three in the morning till five in the evening, 
and yet retreated in good order; now the loss of the 
French must have been very great also, and if the 
Duke of Brunswick 3 is not too much wounded to 
direct the retreat, perhaps they may still make some 
resistance. Lord Morpeth is, I believe, to proceed 
to head quarters, wherever they are. This is not 
pleasant to dear Georgiana, who is, of course, very 
anxious. At home the elections are going on all 
over the country. Sir Francis Burdett 4 has put in an 
advertisement that has offended all parties but a few 
Home Tookists, and I believe he will lose his election. 

1 The beaten army — The Prussian army utterly routed by Napoleon in the battle 
of Jena, October 14, 1806. On the same day another Prussian army was defeated 
at Auerstadt (about 14 miles distant) by the French under Davoust, and on the 
27th Napoleon entered Berlin. 

2 Hohenlohe — Prince Hohenlohe, the Prussian commander in the battle of Jena, 
October 14, 1806 (1746-1818). 

3 Duke of Brunswick — The Prussian commander at Auerstadt. 

4 Sir Francis Burdett — Prominent as a politician of advanced views, and for 
thirty years (from 1807) Member of Parliament for Westminster. The election 
here referred to was for Middlesex, and Sir Francis was defeated (1770-1844). 



296 THE TWO DUCHESSES. 

T. Sheridan 1 will lose his at Stafford. Sheridan 2 is 
opposed by Paul, but I do not suppose he can succeed. 
Fred Ponsonby stands for Kilkenny. Duncannon 
refused, and the Duke brings in Lord Ossulston for 
Knaresborough. There is a Mr. Faukes who stands 
for Yorkshire, who Lord Fitzwilliam is anxious should 
succeed. He is a man of large property, and of un- 
common eloquence. 

Nov. 3. 

Lord Morpeth is returned, and I am afraid Bona- 
parte is master of Berlin and Potsdam, and of Sans 
Souci. What times! Lord Morpeth went to Erfurt 
and Weimar, but was forced to return after the battle 
of the 14th had proved so disastrous. He over took 
Haugnitz and Luchesini, who were flying also. The 
King is gone to Custrin, and the Queen has joined 
him there. Where will all this end? 



Augustus Foster 

To Lady Elizabeth Foster. 

Washington, Nov. 27, 1806. 
Madame J. Bonaparte is in great distress 
at Jerome's divorce. She goes no longer out, though 
just before he had sent her a great many presents 
and desired her to go to all amusements. She 
lives at Baltimore, 45 miles from here. The ill- 
natured Americans don't pity her. They say she 
deserved it for her vanity, and yet not one but had 

1 T. Sheridan — Son of R. B. Sheridan. Stafford had been at one time represented 
by his father. 

2 Sheridan — Richard Brinsley S. The election here referred to was for West 
minster, and Sheridan was successful. 



FROM AUGUSTUS FOSTER. 297 

done the same. The French Minister speaks of her 
as Mile. Patterson. When Jerome first landed she 
declared she would have him, and that she had 
rather be Madame Jer. B. one year, though she was 
to be nothing afterwards, than marry anyone else. 
She did not know she was so near the real event. 
Moreau is in New York, and is said to be about 
going westward. Miranda is an old woman. A 
new character is busy in the Western World — Mr. 
Burr, 1 the late Vice President of the United States, 
of whom you probably will hear more. The public 
papers are full of him. No less than a separation of 
the Union is said to be his object. Thus for the 
last thirty years Revolution will seem to have been 
brought on by Revolution, till there remains nothing 
to revolutionize. The hope of Peace, I suppose, is 
buried with Mr. Fox. To have been present at his 
last hours, to have almost caught the last breath of 
so great a man expiring in the very house where 
you were, must have been very affecting to you. 
It is melancholy to see our greatest men cut off in 
such numbers just when we have most occasion for 
them. However, the spirit of the nation is still 
high, and I am convinced that we have more men 
of integrity and talent in prominent situations to 
boast of than there are in all the world besides. 
Here we are feared and respected more than the 
rabble Republicans choose to believe or allow of; 
but in fact a mere face of anger is all we need shew 
to these Democrats, for a long time to come. 

1 Mr. Burr— Aaron Burr, of whom more will be heard in subsequent letters 
(1756-1838). 



298 THE TWO DUCHESSES. 

Lady Elizabeth Foster 

To Augustus Foster. 

Devonshire House, December 2, 1806. 

Frederick tells me that he has written all the 
great events to you, and I have been doubly glad oi 
it, as, from an unavoidable association of ideas, I 
have felt lower than usual; the beginning of winter, 
so different to every other; the thousand, thousand 
circumstances that recall the daily occurrences of so 
many years past; the blank, the sad blank, now left 
to me; all this presses upon me, and has made me 
unfit for writing my dispatch to you. But you, of 
all people, almost understand me, and know how to 
feel for me. 

This year's events have surpassed the last. No 
person even knows where the poor King of Prussia 
and his beautiful Queen now are. If you had been 
told when you was there that Bonaparte would have 
been in the Palace at Berlin, possessed of that and 
all that country, how little you would have believed 
it. He is said to be beyond the Vistula, I mean the 
King of Prussia, and that an army of Russians is 
hastily approaching; but meanwhile Bonaparte will 
give a King to Poland, and perhaps march on to 
Petersburgh. He is said to have asked for ships of 
the line of the Danes, and that the Sound should be 
shut against us. This, I believe, our Lord Nelson has 
proved they can't do ; but indeed the state of things 
is terrible. However, I hope that we shall extend 
our conquests in the new world, and so keep a 
balance. 



FROM LADY ELIZABETH FOSTER. 299 

Parliament meets the 15th, and they are to have 
no holidays at Christmas. Lord Morpeth is come 
in for Cumberland and W. Howard for Morpeth. 
William Lamb moves the address. I should think 
that he would do it well, but Caroline will be very 
nervous. Fred Ponsonby is come in for Kilkenny. 
Duncannon idly refused. . . . The clamour of the 
hustings is all against Sheridan, and for Paull; he 
came here to-day, and was very low. I have the 
promise of several votes for him. The Duke makes 
his steward exert himself. Even Sir S. Hood is 
unpopular. Duncannon was to have been proposed 
for Middlesex, but it was thought of too late, and 
Mr. Mellish stands. 

qth, Midnight. 

Sheridan gives up, and Tierney. Sheridan was 
struck at and wounded yesterday evening. Mr. 
Rhodes' son defended him, and knocked the man 
down. He can't stand this unpopularity, and means 
to give up. They wanted Duncannon in for it, but 
it is too expensive. 

A messenger and a Dr. Brown are come from the 
King of Prussia, and they report that the King is in 
a strong position behind the Oder. The King sent 
word he was as well as under his misfortunes he 
could be. The army, about 20,000 strong, are there 
also. It is said Luchesini went to solicit peace, and 
that Bonaparte would not hear of it; that the Duke 
of Brunswick sent to ask the neutrality of his 
country, and that Bonaparte answered that he did 
not recognize such a person as the Duke of Bruns- 
wick, and had ordered him to be seized wherever he 



300 THE TWO DUCHESSES. 

was found. This ferocious answer has obliged th 
poor Duke of Brunswick to fly, and he was goin 
from Hamburgh to Denmark. I wish he wa 
coming to England, that every attention and respec 
might be shown him. Lord Morpeth offered to g 
again, and was the person they would have ser 
again, but they think it best to send a militar 
person, and Lord Hutchinson goes. It is trul 
anxious and interesting. . . . 



Lady Elizabeth Foster 

To Augustus Foster. 

December, 1806. 

. . . One line only. They talked here yester 
day, some company who dined at Devonshire House 
of a plan of sequestration of foreign property ii 
retaliation for the British seized at Hamburgh, 
hope it won't be. I would not have a stain on th 
public faith for worlds of gold. Let us conque 
Spanish America with all my heart, but all goo< 
faith in publick as in private actions. Say nothing 
of it unless you hear it elsewhere, and I hope i 
won't be so. The Duchess of Brunswick is, it i 
said, out of her senses. No wonder; his death, poo 
man, was fortunate for himself, for his life must havi 
been misery. The Duke goes with me to Chiswicl 
to-day which hurries me so. Poor Chiswick, Chis 
wick, where my angel friend delighted to live, anc 
where that great man Charles Fox breathed his last 
How has this world been impoverished! 



FROM AUGUSTUS FOSTER. 301 

Augustus Foster 

To Lady Elizabeth Foster. 

Washington, Dec. 29, 1806. 

. . . Buenos Ayres 1 I fear, is retaken. What 
will Sir H. Popham be thought of now that the 
Spaniards have felt their strength. What 5000 men 
might have done a few months back with ease will, 
I am afraid, be very problematical. He had good 
information as to the state of the place, as his suc- 
cess proved, but to retain a town of 70,000 inhabi- 
tants required more than 1500 men. Miranda, 
whom you seem to be anxious about, is and was to 
all appearance when here a mere old woman of a 
man, as I believe I wrote long ago to you. 

A man of superior abilities is plotting Revolution 
in the western part of these States, and occupies 
very much the public mind here. Colonel Burr is 
a notoriously profligate man, but of very great 
address. He has chosen a singularly situated coun- 
try as the scene of his ambitious projects, and I 
suppose we shall soon see their development or 
confusion. The public rumours are that he is en- 
gaged in a plot to sever the whole country west of 
the Alleghany mountains, in extent near 3000 miles, 
from Lake Michigan to New Orleans, from the rest 
of the Union, and to form an expedition for the 
plunder of Mexico, which is a City of 130,000 in- 
habitants, defenceless, and in one of the finest coun- 
tries in the world. The Western Country contains 

1 Buenos Ayres — It was retaken by the Spaniards in August. The news was 
long in travelling. 



302 THE TWO DUCHESSES. 

not above a few hundred thousand inhabitants, am 
those scattered in swamps and villages. New Or 
leans, the largest town, has about 8000 inhabitants 
but it has the singular advantage of being, as it were 
the key to all the countries connected with th< 
Mississippi, Ohio, Missouri, &c, the only outlet fo: 
the commerce of those immense territories, and bid; 
fair to be one of the very finest Capitals in the Uni 
verse. Immense emigration annually takes place 
to those Countries from the Atlantic States. A 
Senator of the United States, who travelled lasi 
year in Ohio, told me that in two days he hac 
counted 105 waggons, each containing a family, or 
their way to settle in the woods of the State o: 
Ohio. They were chiefly families from beyond the 
Hudson river. The Americans give me the idee 
of Locusts. They ruin the land as they pass on 
and are eternally changing their soil. The mode 
of cultivation among them exhausts the earth, anc 
they must shift their crops every now and then intc 
timber land in order to have them good. Mr, 
Burr was Vice-President of the United States 01 
President of the Senate when I arrived. It was he 
who killed Mr. Hamilton in a duel which was 
detailed in all the English papers a little time before 
I left England. It will be a sad thing if he succeeds 
for the whole Country will then fall in pieces. 1 
have written thus much, as you will very likely be 
interested about him from the accounts you wil! 
probably see in the papers. The Government are 
taking measures, and will probably prevent his con- 
spiracy from going on, and save these States frorr 



FROM LADY ELIZABETH FOSTER. 303 

the horrors of a revolution. Nothing has yet been 
done openly by Mr. Burr. 



Lady Elizabtth Foster 

To Augustus F. 

Devonshire House, Jan. 6, 1807. 

. . . We had yesterday our great debate on 
the negotiation. 1 It was a curious one, from two 
circumstances. Lord Yarmouth and Lord Howick 
spoke in direct contradiction to one another, and Mr. 
Whitbread thought fit to express his opinion that 
peace might have been made. Lord Howick opened 
his speech admirably, and his reply, I hear, was 
excellent. It was to a malicious, odious speech of 
Mr. Perceval, 2 and I dare say his Hotspur blood was 
boiling in his veins. I long to have you acquainted 
with Lord Howick, and to be employed by him; he 
is a true Foxite. The debate lasted till near five in 
the morning. We supped at Caroline Lamb's at 
Whitehall, and about half after one Lord Morpeth, 
Lord Granville, Lord Ossulston, and William Lamb 
came from the House, the debate then going on. 
Fred Ponsonby took the oaths, and when the Speaker 
asked him the name of the estate which was to qualify 
him 3 he could not tell it, which occasioned a laugh. 
. . . I have been twice to the Opera. Catalani 4 

1 The negotiation — Regarding peace with France. 

'Mr. Perceval— Spencer P., afterwards Prime Minister from 1809 to 1812 (1762- 
1812). 

3 To qualify him— At this time the qualification for a county member was an 
estate of ^600 a year, and for a borough member one of ^300. 

4 Catalani — (1780-1849). 



304 THE TWO DUCHESSES. 

is as near perfection as any thing can be, not quil 
so touching or so handsome as Grassini, 1 but sufif 
ciently so to please, and she is as wonderful an 
more so than Mrs. Billington. 2 ... I know ho' 
you will feel it, coming to this dear house, where sk 
my angel friend, used ever to receive you as if yo 
were her son. I believe sometimes the greatness < 
the blow prevents our having the power of dwellin 
upon it. 

I send you the French publication of the Stat 
papers. It differs from ours in several things. The 
omit the extract from the Emperor's speech, and the 
put in a great deal of Talleyrand's answer to M 
Fox. I suppose you have the negotiation as pul 
lished here. A rumour prevails that Buenos Ayre 
is retaken, and though an expedition is gone whic 
may take it again, yet it would cause dreadful loss t 
the merchants here; it would be bad, too, for poc 
Sir Home Popham. 

Night. 

Fred Ponsonby has given us a very good accour 
of the debate; he is in raptures with Lord Howicl 
and I never heard anything so liberal as his conduci 
Perceval in the last debate had remarked upon som 
private letter of Fox's which could not, Minister 
said, be shewn; well, Lord Howick, as soon as h 
went home, sent Perceval that letter, which he owne 
could not be shewn to the House. Could anythini 
be more liberal? Yet Perceval last night bega 
again as though he had not seen that letter, an 

1 Grassini— (1773-1850). 2 Mrs. Billington— {1789-1818). 



FROM THE EARL OF ABERDEEN. 305 

with base insinuations. Lord Howick, almost 
trembling with rage, vindicated his lost friend, and 
reminded Perceval that he had sent him the papers, 
which he had refused the House. The House quite 
murmured at Perceval's conduct, and Canning was 
most liberal in his praise of Lord Howick's conduct 
and nobleness of mind. The papers have given the 
debate wretchedly. . . . 



The Earl of Aberdeen 

To Augustus Foster. 

The PRiORY,/ia:«. 13, 1807. 

Dear Augustus, — Although I am quite persuaded 
that there is no chance of my silence, however long, 
being interpreted by you to signify in the slightest de- 
gree intentional neglect, yet I will honestly mention a 
few facts, although they tend very little to a justifica- 
tion. Mr. Pitt's death quite rendered me incapable at 
the usual time; the poor Duchess soon followed, and 
then came the anxieties of Lord Melville's trial. On 
his acquittal I should indeed have written. The 
summer passed I do not know how in Scotland, and 
the dissolution of Parliament gave me full employ- 
ment. You may have heard of my success, 1 which 
was somewhat remarkable, being the only candidate 
who came in against the exertions of Government. 

Very little has as yet been done in Parliament, 
but we shall shortly be very active; there will be 

1 My success — Lord Aberdeen was elected a Scotch representative peer on Dec. 
4, 1806. 

U 



306 THE TWO DUCHESSES. 

motions of Inquiry on several subjects, and from i 
we hear it is very probable the late treaty betwee 
this country and America will furnish matter, fc 
although the particulars are still unknown, it is t 
no means popular, the general opinion being that v 
shall be found to have made too great concession 
indeed, what has transpired tends to confirm this. 

The final discussions respecting the slave trac 
will come on in about a fortnight; no doubt is ente 
tained of the abolition being carried, which, I shou 
think, would materially affect the Americans or 
way or other. 

I give you joy of a new Emperor in your neig] 
bourhood; do on your return take a view of Chri 
tophe and his capital. Your old friend Jerome 
acting a considerable part in Poland, where matte, 
are very near a crisis. Bonaparte is in a mo 
perilous situation. If the Russians continue wis 
he cannot hold out till spring, and there is a fa 
chance of his destruction. Reports of sickness i 
his army, though probably much exaggerated, ai 
believed. Some faint hopes are entertained < 
Austria. No one apprehends much from the d< 
claration of a blockade. You cannot easily imagir 
how great my pleasure was on your brother's tellin 
me the other day that you were coming home. M 
desire of seeing you again has been now so muc 
increased by the time of your absence, in addition I 
the great distance which separated you from u 
When you return I will not say that you are to fin 
me with a son and heir, but in two or three wee! 
something will certainly be produced, but of wh; 



FROM LADY ELIZABETH FOSTER. 307 

gender it would not be so easy to determine. Pray 
let me hear from you about the reality of your 
motions, and believe me, most affectionately, 

Aberdeen. 



Lady Elizabeth Foster 

To Augustus Foster. 

Devonshire House, Jan. 21, 1807. 

. . . The papers are filled merely with rumours, 
first of a Russian victory, and then of Buenos Ayres 
being taken and not being taken, so that bets are 
nearly even on the subject. Ministers have been 
abused for sending the telegraphic account of its 
recapture, but how could they do otherwise. How- 
ever, it has caused great alarm in the city and pro- 
vincial towns. The reports are various, too, about 
the disposition of America towards England. . . . 
Caroline Lamb is with child, but her uncertain health 
prevents one's knowing what is her state, or almost 
what to hope. 



Lady Elizabeth Foster 

To Augustus Foster. 

Devonshire House, March 3, 1807. 

Corisande is already very big — come ti sta il 
cuore? placido e sicuro io spero. We have nearly 
finished the grand work of abolition of the Slave 
Trade; it was carried 283 to 16. The remaining 
discussions are merely for compensation and such 
things. Yesterday an uncommon degree of anxiety 



308 THE TWO DUCHESSES. 

and curiosity was excited by Paull's Petition against 
Sheridan, 1 which went to accusing him of tampering 
with the witness, but such a set as Paull brought in, 
so low, so vulgar, so contradictory in their accounts, 
that it turned the whole thing in Sheridan's favor, 
and if nothing unforeseen happens, two days hence 
he will be triumphant. There is a report of the 
French having beat the Russians. This is a sad 
disappointment, but it is also said that the Turks 
have made peace again with the Russians, so there 
is bad and good. We have a squadron opposite the 
Seraglio. . . . 



Augustus Foster 

To Lady Elizabeth Foster. 

Washington, March 31, 1807. 

. . . The President means to retire after the 
next year. He is wonderfully popular at present, 
and may do nearly what he likes. Burr, the con- 
spirator, is arrested, and to be tried at Richmond, in 
Virginia. His grand plot ended in the seizure of his 
nine boats and fifty men and boys. He was betrayed, 
as is said, by some of his accomplices, and as he had 
assembled them from amongst the ruined and the 
unprincipled, it was what he might expect. The 
opposition in England seem miserably weak in their 
attacks. Lord Castlereagh's argument that if France 
included America in her Decree, England should 

1 Paull's Petition against Sheridan— In connection with the result of the recent 
Westminster election, at which Sheridan was returned. 



FROM LADY ELIZABETH FOSTER. 309 

punish her, and if America was not included in the 
Decree, that she should be equally punished for 
connivance, was not lost here. To advance such 
nonsense can proceed from nothing but impatience 
at being out of office; it cannot be surely from any 
sound principles of opposition. Were I an opposi- 
tionist before, the shallowness visible in such paltry 
attacks would induce me to cling to the Government. 
Lord Hawkesbury seems more manly. Canning is 
all froth and smoke and noise. I cannot see the 
statesman in his speeches. His wit and stories and 
pleasantry seem to me misplaced in debating gravely 
upon great National questions. Lord Howick's 
speech is indeed very manly and dignified, just what 
the organ of a great Nation, such as, I trust, we still 
consider ourselves to be, should be. . . . 



Lady Elizabeth Foster 

To Augustus Foster. 

Devonshire House, May 6, 1807. 

. . . We are in the midst of elections again, 
and London scarcely possesses a Beau worth speak- 
ing to. What is worse, the Ministers have raised a 
cry about Popery, which has taken possession of the 
lower class, and blinded them to their best interests. 
I think it an unworthy measure of the Ministers, and 
one they will some day repent of. In Derbyshire 
they told Lord George C. they would vote for him, 
but they would worship no golden images; in Liver- 
pool Roscoe has given up the contest. A friend of 



310 THE TWO DUCHESSES. 

his was on horseback, and a man from the opposite 
crowd rushed out and stabbed the horse of the other 
to the heart : the man was hurt, and another wounded. 
At St. Albans, where Duncannon is candidate, they 
say it is a pity so good a lady as Lady Spencer should 
wish to bring the Pope to England; it is really shock- 
ing to see Religion made such a tool of, and the 
King's speech an electioneering cry. Your brother 
is at St. Albans canvassing for Duncannon; so is 
George Lamb. . . . You will see by the papers 
Sir F. Burdett's duel with Mr. Paull. It has hurt 
Paull's interest, and I believe he has no chance of 
succeeding for Westminster, but that Sir F- Burdett 
will come in with acclamation. Sheridan has played 
his cards ill. He can't attempt Westminster, 1 and 
having forsaken Stafford before, he now only comes 
in for a borough in the Prince's interest. His over- 
weening vanity has been his ruin. Pray read Lord 
Grenville's letter to the Society for propagating the 
Christian Religion; it is reckoned a very fair one. 
. . . We have failed at Constantinople, and the 
negotiation seems to have been sadly mismanaged. 
There should be no threatening or bullying, but 
when anchored, like Nelson, close to the walls of the 
Enemy's Capital, you can destroy it, but to menace 
and not do it is sad business. 

Lady Aberdeen is recovered in great beauty from 
her lying in. Lord Grenville goes to Russia as soon 
as his election is over. I am afraid Duncannon will 
lose his. 

1 He can't attempt Westminster — Sheridan was a candidate at this new election, 
but failed, being behind Sir F. Burdett and Lord Cochrane (afterwards Earl of 
Dundonald). 



FROM LADY ELIZABETH FOSTER. 311 

Lady Elizabeth Foster 

To Augustus Foster. 

Devonshire House, Oct. 18, 1807. 
. . . Your friend Merry is gone, as I told you, 
to Copenhagen, but I believe we must make up our 
minds to have the Danes our enemies, nor should I 
much regret it. The quantity of stores seem to 
indicate most forcibly for what reason they were 
collected, and their own conduct to Hamburgh in 1801 
takes from them the title of an innocent and unoffend- 
ing people, since with far less pretext they did by 
H amburgh what we have done by them. I hope Russia 
is favourable to us. The Country certainly is, but 
Alexander has been duped by Bonaparte, and given 
up his conquests just as he had nearly destroyed the 
Turks. The fate of Portugal is at present the pro- 
minent interest. Suza told Mr. Motteux that he 
believed that his Government meant to go to South 
America, and that six sail of the line were to sail 
from Plymouth to escort them ; but people still think 
that they will make their peace. How extraordinary 
it would be if they should migrate to the Brazils! 
At home party is likely to be violent and Ministers 
secure, since the success of the Baltic expedition. 
The Prince has given up politicks, is good friends 
with the King, and lives but for Lady Hertford. 
C'est vrai je t' assure; a 50 ans pres elle a captive' le 
Prince. II ne vit, ne respire que pour elle et par 
elle; la ci-devant amie est inquiete et triste. Je la 
plains, car c'est une bonne personne qui n'a jamais 
abuse de son pouvoir; as to the Duchess of Bruns- 



312 THE TWO DUCHESSES. 

wick, you hear no more of her than if she was in 
Holstein. 



Lady Elizabeth Foster 

To Augustus Foster. 

Chiswick,/<w2. i, 1808. 

. . . Nothing but Spain hardly is talked or 
thought of. The moment is to us interesting beyond 
all former periods, as besides the great interest which 
every body feels about the Spaniards, the having an 
English Army now actually joined, and with, and 
ready to co-operate with them, brings the war home 
to every body's feelings. I had letters from Penn 
to-night, which state that Opadaca had accounts of 
Madrid having resisted for three days. The French 
were repulsed over and over, and lost a great many 
men. Ch. and Morla retreated with the regulars, 
who with Castanos, 1 it is hoped, will make a strong 
army. From Galicia you will see accounts are every 
day expected of an action. In the English army, of 
persons whom we all know, are two Cavendishes, 
three Bentincks, Fred Howard, and though last not 
least in interest, Corise's brother. The Duke of 
Rutland's two brothers also are there, and, in short, 
many of our English nobility. Lord Morpeth is in 
a state of great nervousness about his brother, and, 
indeed, the moment is a most anxious one. 

1 CastaHos — The most distinguished of the Spanish generals in the Peninsular 
War (1756-1852). 



FROM LADY ELIZABETH FOSTER. 313 

Lady Elizabeth Foster 

To Augustus Foster. 

Chiswick, Nov. 9, 1S08. 

We are all struck with the style of Bona- 
parte's speech to the Legislative Body and of their 
reply. They express a kind of foreboding of ill 
which, if not dictated by himself as a loophole to him, 
would have made him angry. 

10th. 
I have just seen two very interesting letters of 
Mr. Gell's, and he confirms all my hopes. The report 
of to-night is that Austria has declared war, and that 
Bonaparte is returned to Paris, but this I can scarcely 
believe. Blake is said to have had a sharp engage- 
ment with Ney, 1 and that the latter retreated eight 
leagues. How I long to hear of Vittoria or Pam- 
pluna being taken or some of the strong passes of 
the Pyrenees. 



Lady Elizabeth Foster 

To A ugustus Foster. 

Chiswick, Nov. 28, 1808. 

I have had little heart or pleasure in 
writing latterly, as our dear Spaniards have met with 
sad reverses. I hope, however, that all may be 
retrieved, and since our troops are gone, that we may 
turn aeain the tide of affairs. We have now been 

o 

a terrible length of time without hearing, and that is 

1 Ney— Marshal N. (1769-1815). 



3 14 THE TWO DUCHESSES. 

always, I think, a bad sign. Oh, dear, it is too hard 
really, and when one sees the nook into which they 
were driven, I could sit down and cry to see the 
strides that they have made towards Madrid again. 
Still, however, if the Spaniards bear being beat they 
will ultimately conquer. I think they must. You 
have, I hope, arrived to hear of some advantages 
gained by the Swedes, who certainly are the next 
most interesting people. 



Lady Elizabeth Foster 

To Augustus Foster. 

Chiswick, December 7, 1808. 

I had hoped to have something favourable to send 
you, my dearest Augustus, regarding Spain, but all 
is anxiety, and to a great degree doubt in that 
quarter; yet I hope still, so does Lady Melbourne, 
so does, which is better worth attending to, General 
Ferguson. Blake, it is certain, has shewed great 
skill, and his army great courage and steadiness, and 
if this spirit continues I have no doubt of the result. 
Bonaparte has made some of his rapid movements, 
but I do not think that he has gone on with a pas de 
geant as he used to do. Never, however, was there 
greater anxiety felt than now, for it is supposed that 
he means to push forward in order to prevent the 
junction of our armies, and this may expose both to 
be attacked by a very superior force. Lord Morpeth 
is very anxious about his brother, who is with Baird. 



FROM LADY ELIZABETH FOSTER. 315 

tth. 

I had better send this off, for bad news comes so 
quick now that the sooner it goes the better. Our 
dear Spaniards fight bravely, but I fear that skill 
and numbers are on the side of the French. The 
detested Bonaparte has advanced, and meanwhile 
has directed a blow against Castanos, which, I fear, has 
been successful. They still hold firm at Madrid, and 
it is said that General Hope's Brigade has reached 
the Escurial, and has joined the army of defence for 
Madrid, but will they be able to stop Bonaparte's 
career? Oh, dear Augustus, what a sad reverse, 
and what reason one had to dread the arrival in 
Spain of that Tyrant. . . . 



Lady Elizabeth Foster 

To Augustus Foster. 

Chiswick, Dec. io, 1808. 
. . . I trust that there are good hopes about 
Finland; that the brave Swedes may resist the bar- 
barous Russians. If Turkey makes peace with us 
perhaps they may make a powerful diversion and 
occupy the Russian troops. How you will grieve 
over the dear Spaniards. God knows what will be 
done if yet they can make a stand, but next to the 
misery which they are exposed to, one feels for the 
National disgrace to us of boasting for three months 
of the great armed force we send to their assistance, 
and then these armies retreating without firing a gun 
in their defence. I can't bear to think of it. The only 



FROM LADY ELIZABETH FOSTER. 317 

is concentrating his forces. God only knows what 
will be the result; we must hope for the best; and I 
suppose that Bonaparte does not think himself quite 
secure by his ordering so many more troops. 

2yd. 
. . More troops are going, and if we send at 
all we should certainly send largely. We fight and 
dispute: I mean Lady Bessborough and me. Some 
accuse generals, others ministers. Some say Spanish 
enthusiasm is less, but if it is it is our fault, who 
have not yet fired one gun in their defence except 
at Rosas, and even that we have allowed to be taken. 
However, I am not so much in suspicion of ministers' 
want of activity as Moore. He seems to be over 
cautious, a bad quality with Bonaparte for an enemy. 
I hope there is no danger for Sweden itself. They 
are a fine race of people, and their King deserves 
to have his fortunes favored with success. . . . 
Lord Liverpool is dead, and, I suppose, died very 
rich. ... I hear that he has left this Lord L. 1 
at least ;£ 10,000 a year. 



Lady Elizabeth Foster 

To Augustus Foster. 

CHISWICK, January 29, 1809. 

. . . Great and brilliant as was the victory which 
we gained at Corunna, yet the having been obliged 
to retreat, and the North of Spain being in this 
manner almost entirely conquered by the French, we 

1 This Lord L. — The second Earl of Liverpool, husband of the writer's sister. 



3l8 THE TWO DUCHESSES. 

must consider the Campaign as a most unfortunate 
one. To you, who will know the result of the 
different operations, and have not passed the interval 
of dreadfull anxiety which we all did during the 
retreat of our army, every thing will, I suppose, seem 
as bad as possible, except that there is this fact, put 
out of all doubt, that when we do meet the French 
we always beat them, even with an inferior force, 
and even Bonaparte can't deny our having obtained 
the victory; and all military men say no retreating 
army can embark if it is not victorious at the point 
of embarkation. Sir John Moore is a great loss, and 
is sincerely and generally regretted; but, unwilling 
as one feels to say any thing against an officer who 
died so bravely, yet people seem to think that his 
plan was a bad one, and that to the decision of 
marching 400 miles to the army he was to co-operate 
with instead of landing close to them has been the 
cause of all the reverses. The troops have returned 
exhausted with fatigue, but their spirit and bravery 
at the battle of Corunna exceeds all belief. The 
Cavalry distinguished themselves in the retreat, 
always attacking and defeating the enemy. The 
infantry hung their heads and murmured whilst 
retreating and not allowed to fight. At Corunna 
they had their revenge, and literally drove the 
French before them, who for 14 hours never ap- 
peared, and they embarked without leaving a man 
or a piece of artillery behind them. I am told that 
troops are to go to Cadiz and Minorca and Gibraltar 
to assist the South. When Moore in his dying 
moments asked who the command fell on, he was 



FROM LADY ELIZABETH FOSTER. 319 

told General Hope. He said, " I am satisfied; there 
does not exist an abler officer ". I am afraid, poor 
man, that he knew that the people of England had 
been dissatisfied at the army not having ever joined 
the Spaniards or encountered the French, but he 
shewed, as all say, the utmost skill in his retreat and 
in the order of battle. Lord Paget . . . 



Lady Elizabeth Foster 

To Atigustus Foster. 

Chiswick, Feb. 5, 1809. 

. . . All goes on ill, and the new year 
ushers itself in with a bad grace. Barcelona is 
relieved, and I am afraid Zaragossa is reduced to 
the last extremity, though all that can be done will 
be accomplished by Palafox. 1 I think that even those 
who regret General Moore the most, and all do regret 
him, are sorry that he adopted so inactive a line of 
conduct. The great subject of dispute now is his 
last dispatch; opposition have asked for it, and Mr. 
Whitbread told me to-day that Ministers said, that 
is, Canning told him, that they would publish all or 
nothing, and that he advised him, Mr. Whitbread, 
to consult with his friends and be fully aware of the 
consequence, for that one half of the letter was abuse 
of the Spaniards, and the other half of his own army; 
that at the end he says that when there was fighting 
he ever found them at their post, and with a deter- 

1 Palafox — Spanish general, celebrated for his heroic defence of Saragossa against 
the French (1780-1847). 



320 THE TWO DUCHESSES. 

mined bravery. Whitbread still seemed inclined to 
have the letter published, and General Stewart seems 
to have answered without consulting with his brother, 
and to have encouraged the giving of the letter. I 
do like General Stewart; he seems to be such a 
spirited creature, so brave and yet so mild and 
affectionate. 

6th. 

The Morpeths dined with us to-day. There was 
no news. The expedition had been dispersed, and 
we have no accounts from Spain. I always dread a 
bulletin after a pause. . . . The Duke of York's 
business you will see enough of in the papers. I do 
not believe that any body thinks that he shared in 
her profit, but one regrets seeing him in such bad 
company, and not being so generous as he ought to 
be to a woman who had lived with him. It seems 
strange that there should be no account of the French 
entering Portugal yet, and in Spain their tyranny is 
intolerable. Would that we had sent succour sooner 
to Catalonia and every-where. I hear that Ministers 
answer to this that they could not send our army 
before their Government was formed, and that they 
quarrelled among themselves. 

i$th. 

I have waited in hopes of hearing from you, and 
of something being decided about the Duke of York. 
Neither of these things have happened. I suppose 
the ice still incloses you, and the examinations still 
go on about Mrs. Clark. I can't help hoping that 
something favourable may come out for the Duke of 



FROM LADY ELIZABETH FOSTER. 32 1 

York, at least that her character is so bad that her 
accusations may be doubted, and if not proved I 
shall doubt. Cavallos is arrived, and Opadaca's wife. 
I hope that the Spaniards have had some success in 
Catalonia, and that Romana is safe in Portugal. 
Does not his retreat show that we could have re- 
treated had General Moore adopted that plan ? 



Lady Elizabeth Foster 

To Augustus Foster. 

Chiswick, Feb. 25, 1809. 

. . . We have had an eventfull time. You 
were not advised, I think, in your news beyond the 
retreat of our army, and bad as the retreat was, yet 
you will be pleased with the battle of Corunna and 
proud of the valour displayed by our army. Since 
that the French have done little. Saragossa, it is 
said, still holds out, and not only that, but that the 
immortal Palafox, the noble Palafox, has again re- 
pulsed the French. I trust, therefore, that all is not 
desperate, and that a nation of brave peasants may 
yet check and withstand the disciplined barbarians 
of France. The preparations of Austria have 
occupied the attention of Bonaparte, and may, I 
hope, lessen his armies in Spain. I hope, too, that 
we are sending more troops there, and with a more 
active commander, though perhaps not a better 
officer, and there could not be a braver. Sweden, 
Austria, and Spain have, however, all been forgot in 
the inquiry that has taken place in consequence of 



322 THE TWO DUCHESSES. 

Mr. Wardle's and Mrs. Clarke's accusation of the 
Duke of York. Nothing I ever remember made 
the sensation which this has done ; opinions are very 
different, and, what is more extraordinary, parties are 
violent in favor of Mrs. Clarke, and yet, as Lord 
Grey justly says, however people may differ about 
the Duke of York, who can doubt of her being a 
most malignant and profligate woman ? Yet subscrip- 
tions are open for her in the city and amongst 
gentlemen. It is really disgusting. 

March i si. 

The Brest fleet was out, and the croakers had 
already talked of it as on its way to Ireland, but to- 
day accounts are received of its having slunk into 
Basque roads on seeing our squadron at Rochefort. 
Poor Lord Falkland is killed in a duel with a Mr. 
Powel, a man whom every body was in the habit of 
scoffing at, and who at last revenged all his quarrels 
on Lord Falkland. 



Lady Elisabeth Foster 

To Augustus Foster. 

Devonshire House, March, 1809. 

. The examination of Mrs. Clarke has 
proved a more serious thing than you seem to think 
it, for it is now said, even by those who wish best to 
the Duke of York, and who acquit him of all corrup- 
tion, that his remaining Commander in Chief is 
impossible from the weakness with which he was 
governed and influenced by so base a woman. Your 



FROM LADY ELIZABETH FOSTER. 323 

brother and some others rejoice in this proof of the 
strength of the democracy in England, others regret 
all that has passed, and most think it a hard fate for 
a little blindness pour les beaux yeux. 
They expect to take the King's opinion Wednesday, 
if they can carry the acquittal of corruption. They 
then, I hear, want the Duke to resign. 1 This I should 
think best. Saragossa's fate is still, I believe, un- 
decided. . . . 

Devonshire House, April 17, 1809. 
The papers mention Armfeldt 2 being Commander 
in Chief, and that he had sent word to Sir T. Hood 
that they wished to remain at peace with us. Is 
this so? His poor friend Ruggerdorff has been 
sent away, to his great inconvenience and sorrow. I 
wish I knew the truth about him. I can't help pity- 
ing the poor King, but I really Relieve that he was 
a little mad. We are going on here in a very odd 
manner. The spirit of reform is abroad and strikes 
to the right and left. . . . The Peninsula, I 
fear, goes ill. In some respects, better so far that 
Gallicia seems roused, and Romana is again in some 
force, but to the South the enemy advance, and 
unless we can defeat them in Portugal I shall also 
begin to despair of success. I have seen Lord St. 
Vincent, 3 and he says that Admiral Harvey has de- 
manded a Court Martial on Lord Gambier. Gam- 

1 Want the Duke to resign — The Duke of York had to resign his post of Com- 
mander-in-Chief, though a select committee of the House of Commons acquitted 
him of any corrupt practices. His services to the army had been very valuable, 
and he was reinstated in 1811. 

2 Armfelt — Gustav Mauritz A., a celebrated Swede (1757-1814). 

3 Lord St. Vincent — John Jervis, Earl of St. Vincent, the celebrated admiral 
(1734-1823). 



324 THE TWO DUCHESSES. 

bier had sent him home to be tried, and he makes 
this return, and on serious accusations. Gambier is 
a brave man, but too much of a psalm-singing man, 
says Lord St. Vincent, though psalm-singing is a 
good thing, he says; but, as we both agreed, keep 
to the beautiful doctrine of the Bible, and you 
will . 



Lady Elizabeth Foster 

To Augustus Foster. 

Devonshire House, April 23, 1809. 
We go on from one reform to another, till I 
suppose that we shall be the purest of governments 
and Parliaments. To-day Lord Archibald 1 makes 
his motion about Lord Castlereagh, 2 and it is sup- 
posed, poor man, that he must resign; had he quitted 
his situation before, it would have been a good thing, 
as his dilatoriness caused sad delay in the expedi- 
tions. He is a good-natured man, and I wish he 
had been removed for any other reason than that he 
goes out upon. . . . 



Lady Elizabeth Foster 

To Augustus Foster. 

Devonshire House, May 1, 1809. 
In these eventful times I write oftener to you, as 
you must wish to know all that is passing. The 

1 Lord Archibald— -Lord A. Hamilton brought forward unsuccessfully a motion 
of censure upon Lord Castlereagh for his abuse of Indian patronage. 
5 Lord Castlereagh — See Appendix. 



FROM LADY ELIZABETH FOSTER. 325 

surprise caused by the appointment of Lord Wellesley 1 
was very great. I had known it, but dared not say 
any thing; but from the Opera every body came so 
full of it, and all expressing great surprise. Last 
night Lord Ossulston said it was the deepest intrigue 
possible; never was there such a thing; and as to 
Lord Grey having been sent for, what could that be 
for? what good could he do? he had better stay in 
Northumberland. Mr. Tierney and Lord Robert 
were with me in the morning. Mr. Tierney thinks 
that Lord Castlereagh will go out Wednesday. 
Lord Morpeth saw him in the House to-day, and 
looking, as he thought, very dismayed. I am sorry 
for him; he is a good-natured man, and will feel the 
want of place more than most people; but yet I am 
afraid he was a corrupt politician, and in this reform- 
ing age corruption can't escape. Lord Auckland 
brings on his famous motion, or rather infamous, not 
to receive any bill of divorce unless it is clogged with 
a clause that the parties can't marry. What can this 
do but encourage men to seduce a woman, and was 
ever any woman debarred from sacrificing herself 
from motives of self-interest? They say that the 
Commons are (in case it is passed) determined to 
bring in a Bill not to pass any Bill where such a 
clause is introduced, so that there can be no divorce. 
That something should be done all agree, but not 
what that should be. As to news there was a firing 
heard, which it is feared was for a victory over the 
Austrians. This would be sad indeed. In Spain 

1 The appointment of Lord Wellesley — As ambassador to Spain. 



326 THE TWO DUCHESSES. 

things go better, and some people are sanguine 
enough to look to Soult's 1 being taken. 

2nd. 

Here is Daniel come with an account from Brooks 
that the division was 78 to 98, but he don't know 
which way; how provoking, and the papers are not 
out. If Lord Castlereagh should go out, I dare say 
there will be some further changes still to surprise 
Lord Ossulston, and it is acknowledged that the 
Administration was too weak for it to go on. 

After all, the debate on Lord Auckland's motion, 
or rather Lord A.'s motion, was not that day. It 
was carried by twelve only, I think. Lord Castle- 
reagh is not out yet, but as Lord Temple's motion 
about Spain was put off, it is supposed to be owing 
to that. Lady Castlereagh gives a party to-morrow, 
and invites all her foes. Nothing further from Ger- 
many. In Sweden we hear that you mean to try the 
King. 

Lady Elizabeth Foster 

To Augustus Foster. 

Brocket Hall, May 22, 1809. 
. . . To-day the Tower guns fired for the 
taking of Oporto and defeating Soult. Lord Arthur 2 
is said to be pursuing him. The passage of the 
river was, I hear, one of the most brilliant things 
ever done; as usual, however, opposition, I am sorry 

1 Soult — Marshal (1769-1851). The occupation of Oporto, the passage of the 
Douro, and the retreat of Soult, were the first incidents of Wellington's brilliant 
career in the Peninsula. 

2 Lord Arthur — Lord Arthur Wellesley, afterwards Duke of Wellington (1769- 
1852). 



FROM LADY ELIZABETH FOSTER. 327 

to say, are depreciating it. What a pity it is always 
to do this! Ministers have been in a minority two 
nights running, one on Lord Burgersh's promotion, 1 
the other on a further grant to Palmer. I am quite 
a Wellesleyite. I must say that I am grieving for 
the poor King of Sweden, whom, if he must be 
confined, why disinherit his poor children? What 
times we live in! 



Lady Elizabeth Foster 



To Augustus Foster. 



May 31, 1809. 

Still no accounts; the anxiety is very great; should 
Soult attack Beresford 2 again before Lord Wellesley's 
reinforcements reach him, the worst may be appre- 
hended. How shocking it is that we are always 
obliged to fight with inferiority of numbers. 



Lady Elizabeth Foster 

To Augustus Foster. 

Devonshire House, June 1, 1809. 

. . . Bonaparte is again at Vienna. However, 
I do not think this time that the Emperor will make 
peace without the Archduke's leave, and the last 
French bulletin holds out no certainty of being able 
to destroy the Archduke. In Spain there has been 

* Lord Burgersh— Afterwards eleventh Earl of Westmoreland (1784-1859). 
2 Beresford — Viscount B. His chief service in the Peninsular War was the re- 
organization of the Portuguese army (1768-1854). 



328 THE TWO DUCHESSES. 

some disaster in the Asturias. I hope our friend 
Materosa has behaved well, but the Junta, they say, 
have not. We are very anxious to hear more of Sir 
A. Wellesley. At home you will see that they have 
been obliged to rescind Burghersh's promotion, and 
Col. Shipley in consequence gave up his resolutions. 
He paid some compliments to Lord Burghersh. 
Corruptions have been proved that perfectly disgust 
one, and I hope they will steadily, but with modera- 
tion, persevere. 

Baron d' Arm felt 

To Augustus Foster. 

ST. PETERSBOURG, ce l^juin, 1 809. 

On m'a dit ici, mon aimable ami, que vous etes 
parti de Stockholm le 7 — j'en suis au desespoir, car 
dans 8 jours je suis stir d' avoir eu des choses impor- 
tantes a vous communiquer. 

Mais je n'ai que le terns de vous dire, que nous 
sommes dans une crise violente ici. L'Empereur est 
a Tver, chez sa soeur la Duchesse d'Oldenbourg, 
cette Soeur revient ici aussi que l'Empereur dans la 
semaine prochaine. . . . La Duchesse est charmante, 
une bonne tete, detestee de Bonaparte et le detestant 
de meme, elle a tout L'esprit de la grande Catharine 
mais helas! pas son experience — On est diablement 
mal ici pour les finances, mais cette operation-ci rame- 
neroit le Credit public, et ceux qui cachent aujourd'hui 
leurs Roubles, les sortiroient alors de leurs coffres 
forts. Dans 2 ou 10 jours ceci sera decide ou manque. 
Mon affair d'argent Test, on me recevoit (?) a Berlin, 



FROM LADY ELIZABETH FOSTER. 329 

et si je n'etois pas victime de — tous les Diables, 
j'irois la et je verrois L'Allemagne — partout je suis 
mieux qu'en Suede jusqu'a ce que les choses ont pris 
la forme qu'il faut. Gisman est parti sans que j'ai 
pu l'atteindre, la ville est deserte et j'ecris des me- 
moires — il n'y a que l'ennui qui en profite — Mettez 
moi aux pieds de Madame votre mere et ne m'oubliez 
pas. Vava. 

Lady Elizabeth Foster 

To Angus ~tus Foster. 

Devonshire House,/z*/j/ 3, 1809. 

. . . I hope the Russians are not advancing 
upon you. Fortune seems to coquet it a little just 
now with our allies, and one more good, decided 
victory of the Archduke Charles, and much may in- 
deed be hoped for. All in the North of Germany 
are rising, and the Tyrolese have emulated the 
Spaniards. The accounts from Spain to-day are 
good. The French are driven out of Ferrol and 
Corunna. Sir Arthur keeps Victor 1 at Bay, and he 
will soon, I dare say, proceed to Spain, and I hope 
they will finally be driven out: now is the time, 
whilst Bonaparte is in Germany and sending for all 
the troops that he can from France. 

July ^th. 

To-day the account is confirmed about Ferrol and 
Corunna, and the defeat of the French under Ney 
by the Spaniards under General Curera. Two of 
our officers were in the action, and speak highly of 

' Victor— Marshal V. (1766-1841). 



330 THE TWO DUCHESSES. 

the Spanish bravery and zeal. Souk's army seems 
to have been nearly destroyed by Sir Arthur 
Wellesley. The Duke of Brunswick has an increas- 
ing army, and the Duke of Dantzig was defeated by 
the Tyrolese. At home Col. Wardle has been ac- 
cused by Mrs. Clarke of bribing her by a promise of 
fine furniture to accuse the Duke of York and then 
to have left it unpaid. He lost his suit, and there- 
fore declares that she is perjured and ought not to 
be believed. This is curious enough. 

6th. 
Mrs. Clarke is indicted for perjury, but the jury 
have not decided upon it. If she is perjured it 
weakens her evidence against the Duke of York; if 
she is not it more totally is the ruin of Col. Wardle's 
character and popularity; it is a strange business 
altogether. 

ytk. 

One more day, but not much of news. All that 
there is seems good, and the French are, I believe, 
returning to their former position on the Ebro, but I 
trust that they will not be allowed to stay there. 



Lady Elizabeth Foster 

To A ugustus Foster. 

Devonshire House, July 14, 1809. 

. . . We are in anxious expectation of more 
news from the Continent, and conjecture is at work 
about our own expedition. 1 Heaven knows where it 

1 Our own expedition— -The unfortunate Walcheren expedition. 



FROM LADY ELIZABETH FOSTER. 33 1 

is going. It takes away all the remaining society of 
London, and is an immense armament. Lord Paget 1 
goes with it, which is the best thing that could happen 
for him after all that has passed. I am in hopes that 
all goes well for our dear Spaniards, and if the pre- 
sent moment can be profited of, they will, I hope, be 
free. I have the greatest faith in Sir Arthur Wellesley. 
At home the only changes perceptible to the vulgar 
eye are Lord Granville Leveson in the Cabinet and 
Secretary at War, Lord Harrowby (your friend) an 
Earl and of the Cabinet, and of the Board of Con- 
troul. Lord Wellesley goes to Spain as soon as he 
is well enough, and at his return is, as is rumoured, 
to be Minister of War. . . . 



Lady Elizabeth Foster 

To Augustus Foster. 

Devonshire House, July 20, 1809. 

We are waiting with the greatest anxiety for more 
news from the Danube, and the report to-night of a 
firing on the Dutch and French coast adds very 
much to our anxiety and apprehensions. It would 
be too shocking now for the Archduke Charles to be 
defeated, and yet it is more probable that he should 
than that Bonaparte should. Our expedition is ex- 
pected to sail to-morrow or next day, but where is 
the question. 

1 Lord Paget — Afterwards first Marquis of Anglesey and Field Marshal. He 
commanded an infantry division in the expedition (1768-1854). 



332 THE TWO DUCHESSES. 

2 1 St. 

Still the report of a firing continues, and I am 
terrified. I wish that we could have sent a powerful 
diversion sooner, and why now to stop to take Capri 
and Ischia instead of sending succour to Catalonia; 
however, I hope and suppose that they know better 
than I do. Mr. Wardle is a wreck of popularity; 
his is all gone, and I rejoice at it. I always thought 
that his conduct was odious, and it has now been 
proved so. 



Lady Elizabeth Foster 

To Augustus Foster. 

Devonshire House, July 29. 

You augured too well, dearest Augustus, from the 
silence and absence of couriers from the Danube. 
We may consider every thing now as over, 1 I am 
afraid, and it is difficult to understand even by the 
French accounts how it could be necessary for the 
Archduke to solicit an Armistice. You cannot con- 
ceive any thing like the gloom which it spread here, 
and even the success which is expected from our 
expedition don't seem to afford ground of hope for 
any good to the Continent. Bonaparte's army did 
not fight better than the Archduke Charles', but he 
outwitted him. Your letter was a delightful one, 
and every expression of your affection to me is a 
source of comfort and happiness to me. I have 
great pride in your present situation, as I am sure 

1 This evidently refers to the battle of Wagram. 



FROM LADY ELIZABETH FOSTER. 333 

you are doing yourself credit; it is a difficult one, 
too, and therefore the more is it to your credit. 
Much as I admire the Swedes, I can't reconcile 
myself to their excluding the young Prince, so fine a 
boy too! Is it true that the King has asked permis- 
sion to go to Switzerland ? 

Monday, 31J/. 

I am assured to-night that accounts are come of 
Flushing having surrendered and all the Island of 
Walcheren, and some say that they willingly sur- 
rendered, but that the French fleet were gone up 
the Scheldt. I suppose we shall follow, and Fort (?) 
Lillo and Antwerp will, I fear, be tougher work. 
However, our force is a strong one; would that it 
had gone a month, or even a fortnight sooner. 



Lady Elizabeth Foster 



To Augustus Foster. 



. . . I have opened my letter to say that I am 
frightened about Flushing. The French have 
thrown in reinforcements who made a sortie. We 
drove them back, but with a loss of 200 men; Major 
Thornton wounded. Lord Huntly, (and Hope, I 
think) have taken all South Beveland, but my fear 
is that by Flushing 1 holding out that Antwerp and 
Fort (?) Lillo may be reinforced also. Lord W. 
Bentinck and H. Cavendish are going to Spain. 

1 Flushing — Taken August i6, 1809. 



334 THE TWO DUCHESSES. 

Lady Elizabeth Foster 

To Augustus Foster. 

Chiswick, August 14, 1809. 

Now, my dear Augustus, walk about the streets 
of Stockholm with looks of pride and exultation, bear 
high your head, and glory in being a Briton. The 
Tower guns have announced to-day the glorious vic- 
tory gained by our favourite, Sir Arthur Wellesley. 
It was, as he says himself, a fearful odds, but followed 
by complete success. Twenty pieces of cannon, 
four eagles, and 10,000 slain of the French bear 
testimony to this. Sebastiani 1 wounded, two generals 
killed, and two others wounded; Joseph 2 a witness to 
his defeat. The dear English alone were engaged, 
but it is said that the Spaniards are pursuing the 
defeated French army. Pray God that they may 
profit of the confusion and dismay the French seem 
to have experienced, and if they imitate their 
countrymen at Zaragossa and Gerona they will do 
so. F. Ponsonby, who is in the 23rd Dragoons, was 
in the thickest of the fight, and is safe, Thank 
Heaven! Lady Bessborough heard the report of 
the battle before she left Chiswick this morning, and 
set off, as you will believe, in great anxiety. Only 
yesterday she and I and Lady Granville had been 
fighting with Mr. Vernon, and he was saying that he 
wished Sir Arthur back again, that he believed 
indeed that he could not advance from want of shoes 
and money, and that his situation was a most perilous 

* Sebastiani — Marshal S. , born in Corsica (1776-1851). 

2 Joseph — Jos. Bonaparte, eldest brother of Napoleon (1768-1844). 



FROM LADY ELIZABETH FOSTER. 335 

one. To Lady Melbourne he said he hoped she was 
not John Bull enough to believe that we could fight 
the French with such inferiority of numbers. She 
said she longed to see him again to triumph over 
him. Here were we with about 20,000 against fully 
forty thousand French. Perhaps you will hear fuller 
and better accounts, but good news bears a repeti- 
tion. How it makes one regret that Sir John Moore 
did not trust more to English valour and hazard a 
battle sooner. The battle was, you see, at Talavera 1 
la Regina. Cuesta was said to be following them 
and Varegas to have advanced to Toledo and Aran- 
juez. Is it true your Prince Augustenbourg has 
refused the sovereignty of Sweden, that the 
Russians have had a check, and that our squadron 
has done good service ? The weather has been sad 
for the expedition, and they anxiously wait for news 
from thence. 



Lady Elizabeth Foster 

To Augustus Foster. 

Chiswick, August 2i, 1809. 

. . . I should like your plan of marrying one 
of our Princesses in Sweden much better if it did not 
confirm the setting aside the poor young Prince, 
which I do think a great act of injustice. However, 
I will say that I should think that the Princess Mary 2 
would suit your Prince Regent perfectly, and I 

1 Talavera — The battle was fought on July 27 and 28, 1809. 

2 Princess Mary — Daughter of George III., afterwards married to her cousin the 
Duke of Gloucester (1776-1857). 



336 THE TWO DUCHESSES. 

should think that she would be a happier person 
than living to be an old maid. ... I hope you 
have heard by this time of the surrender of Flushing, 
and got my letter about the battle of Talavera. The 
French have ventured to talk of it as a victory, and 
to date from Talavera on the 29th, though Sir 
Arthur Wellesley, who writes his last dispatch on 
the first of August, states that the French had re- 
treated beyond St. Olalla. This is the most extra- 
ordinary lie they have yet ventured on. The report 
of to-day is that the Armistice is broke, that the 
Archduke Charles has resigned, and that Prince 
John of Lichtenstein is to command the army. I 
think that Russia ought to be jealous of French 
colours in Galicia. 



Lady Elizabeth Foster 

To Augustus Foster. 

Chiswick, August 28, 1809. 

. . . As to news I am almost in despair. It 
seems to me that by thus dividing our forces we do 
nothing well or effectually, and the only large one 
which we have sent was commanded by so dull and 
slow a man that it must fail, while dear Sir Arthur, 
who should command hundreds of thousands, has a 
small army of 20,000 to meet 70,000 French, for I 
much fear that as yet we can only reckon on the 
Spaniards when behind walls or for cutting off small 
parties. Sir Arthur, it is said, went to meet Soult, 
relying on Cuesta's promise to guard Talavera, but 



FROM LADY ELIZABETH FOSTER. 337 

that very evening Cuesta arrived, leaving our sick 
and wounded behind. If this is really so Cuesta 
ought to be displaced. Lord Robert Spencer, Mr. 
Vaughan, and the Baron de Rolla are here. They 
say that the opinion is that nothing can be done 
against Antwerp. In short, this expedition, which 
was to have been a coup de main, has already lasted 
a month, and only Flushing, Walcheren, and South 
Beveland taken. 



Lady Elizabeth Foster 

To Augustus Foster. 

Chiswick, September 5, 1809. 

Every thing every where goes so ill that I have 
had no courage to write to you. Lord Chatham 1 
deserves signal punishment, I think, first for the 
presumption of asking for such a command, and then 
for the failure of the measures he pretended to be 
equal to command. It really was too bad to give 
such a man such an army whilst the heroic Lord 
Arthur had three French armies to encounter with 
20,000 English, the Spanish commander thwarting 
him in every plan and attempt. I don't know what 
we are to look to or hope for. Mr. Tierney 2 is just 
come, but being one who will triumph in the justness 
of his prophecy I have not courage to see. . . . 

1 Lord Chatham — Eldest son of the great Lord Chatham. 
i Mr. Tierney — George T., statesman (1761-1830). 



338 THE TWO DUCHESSES. 

Lady Elisabeth Foster 

To Augustus Foster. 

Devonshire House, Sept. 8, 1809. 

. . . You will grieve to hear of Lord Welling- 
ton's retreat. Lord Chatham you prophecied too 
right about. I feel very anxious about the Swedish 
expedition, so pray let me hear about it. 



Lady Elizabeth Foster 

To Augustus Foster. 

Chiswick, Sept. 11, 1809. 

. . . I feel so interested about the Swedish 
expedition, and do so rejoice that though they could 
not beat the Russians, yet that from losses the latter 
were forced to abandon Umea. I beg you will go 
on telling me about them. You will hear of the 
discontent here on account of Flushing being the 
only object obtained by the expedition, and that 
with great loss by sickness. Lord Wellington, too, 
has retreated to Elvas, but it seems to have been a 
dignified retreat, and then taking up a strong posi- 
tion and waiting till the Junta are turned, as I hope 
they will be, into a Regency, and are a little more 
active and energetic. America, you see, is again 
discontented with us. . . . 



FROM LADY ELIZABETH FOSTER. 339 

Lady Elizabeth Foster 

To Augustus Foster. 

Sept. 21, 1809. 

What strange events happen. These two months 
I have heard it said that Canning would not stay in 
if Lord Castlereagh was not turned out. 1 Lord 
Castlereagh is out, yet Canning's resignation is ac- 
cepted, and this morning these two fight a duel, in 
which our dear Canning is wounded, but, though a 
narrow escape, Vaughan says that it will be of no 
consequence. . . . What I can't understand is 
why Lord Castlereagh is out, why Canning resigns. 
It is supposed that the King supports Lord Chatham : 
if so, they will patch up an administration perhaps 
again with the Doctor: 2 it is too bad. The rumours 
of the Grenvilles and Lord Grey having been sent 
for have subsided. I believe the King hates the 
thought of the Grenvilles. ... I have written 
to Charles Bagot to inquire how Canning does. 
Fred could not tell me where Charles Ellis lives. 
Good God! what he must have felt when he saw 
that Canning was wounded. They say it was some 
sarcasm of Canning which galled the Viscount, and 

so he challenged him. 

22nd. 

Huskisson, Mr. L., and Sturges Bourne have re- 
signed with Canning and Rose — of the Cabinet none 
certain yet but Lord Granville L. Canning suffered 
in the night, but is going on well. 

1 Jf Lord Ctistlereagh was not turih'd out — On account of a difference of policy, 
followed by misunderstanding on the subject of the Walcheren expedition, of which 
Canning disapproved, wishing that reinforcements should rather be sent to Lord 
Arthur Wellesley in Portugal. 

'' The Doctor— Uvm-y Addington, Lord Sidmouth. 




, 



■ 



' 



34° THE TWO DUCHESSES. 

Lady Elizabeth Foster 

To Augustus Foster. 

Chiswick, Sept. 25, 1809. 

The strangeness of the times continues. Canning, 
however, is doing well, but you will be grieved at 
his resignation, and so am I. Lord Grenville and 
Lord Grey have been sent to, but whether in such a 
manner as to make it possible for them to accept I 
don't know. Report says that the message is from 
the King and to join the six remaining Ministers, 
Liverpool, Harrowby, Eldon, Chatham, &c. I wish 
that our friends originally had joined with Canning 
and not with Sidmouth. . . . Canning, I am 
told, after the duel, said to Lord Castlereagh, " Now, 
pray tell me what we have been fighting about". 
When Home the surgeon came to his house he 
shook hands with him and joked him about having 
set C. Ellis' leg crooked. Home said to himself, 
"It can't be him who is to fight". Charles Ellis 
shook hands with him, and his hand was cold as 
marble, on which Home said, "If this is the man 
who is to fight, what an unfeeling second he has''. 
Poor Charles Ellis! I can't conceive such a situation. 



Elizabeth, Duchess of Devonshire, 

To Augustus Foster. 

Chiswick, Sept. 28, 1809. 
Since I wrote to you nothing more has occurred, 
because they wait for Lord Grey and Lord Gren- 



FROM ELIZABETH, DUCHESS OF DEVONSHIRE. 341 

ville's answers. If, as I heard yesterday, Perceval 
has written to offer to share the Cabinet between 
them, I don't think they can possibly accept of it, 
because they think so point blank differently on such 
principal topics. However, there is so marvellous a 
facility in men to reconcile things that will secure 
power, that there is no saying what may happen. 
If, as I think, opposition don't agree to this, then 
probably the Doctor will come in for a short reign, 
and the best result would be the union of opposition 
and Canning. . . . The Norwegians seem in- 
clined to be friendly to us, and the Swedes are heroes. 
Their march to Umea does them honor, and I wish 
that they could drive every Russian away. Spain is 
reviving a little, and Lord Wellington is secure in 
his position, and meditates, I hope, offensive measures. 
He will do all that can be done. William Ponsonby 
has been with his brother at head quarters. When 
he arrived, Col. Seymour, S. T. Colonel, called out 
to his servant, Look out for two spare trees for Mr. 
Ponsonby to lodge in. They say Lord Grenville 
don't accept, and that Lord Grey won't come to 
town. This is very odd indeed. 



Elisabeth, Duchess of Devonshire, 

To Augustus Foster. 

Chiswick, October 5, 1809. 

I think Canning has been ill used by Lord Camden 
and the Duke of Portland. He entrusted to them 
the telling Lord Castlereagh, which they never did, 



342 THE TWO DUCHESSES. 

and now Canning appears as a false person to many, 
because he continued transacting business with him 
while he declared him incompetent to that place: 
perhaps it would have been still better had he told 
him himself, but still he must have thought himself 
certain of the communication being made through 
Lord Castlereagh's uncle and the first Lord of the 
Treasury. 

Lady Elizabeth Foster 

To Augustus Foster. 

Chiswick, Nov. 9, 1809. 

. . . As to Politicks, they sicken me, for though 
Bonaparte has failed, for he announced the total de- 
struction of Austria, yet how is a country fallen that 
can give up such a people as the Tyrolese. 



Elizabeth, Duchess of Devonshire, 

To Augustus Foster. 

Chiswick, Nov. 13, 1809. 

. . . As to politicks, Canning's statement, which 
is in the form of a letter to Lord Camden, is to be 
out very soon. He has shewn it to Lord Tichfield 
and Lord W. Bentinck. The first made scarcely 
any alteration. The second begged Canning to 
efface what was really a beautiful character of his 
father, attributing his conduct to the mildness of his 
nature and his unwillingness to give pain, and to 
substitute what he said he knew to be his father's 



FROM FREDERICK FOSTER. 343 

real motive, the wish to keep the Administration 
together. Strange that Lord W. should prefer his 
father's conduct being attributed to real downright 
deception than to the weakness of good nature, in- 
creased by illness and age; but this between our- 
selves alone; but it is certain that they worked upon 
Canning's good nature, who perhaps has not yet taken 
the tone his talents entitle him to do. If Lord 
Wellesley accept under the present Ministers, I 
think it will lower him much. . . . 



Elizabeth, Duchess of Devonshire, 

To Augustus Foster. 

Chiswick, Dec. 5, 1809. 

. . . Canning said to me that he had left a 
written memento in the office to mark his approbation 
of your conduct, and that you had every thing that 
would be most likely to make you rise in that line, 
good sense, good temper, conciliatory manners, 
&c. . . . 



Frederick Foster 

To Augustus Foster. 

London, Feb. 29, 18 10. 
My dear Augustus, — What do you think of our 
Conspiracy ? Were you not very much surprized ? 
Palle came running in to tell me of the horrid 
massacre that was to have taken place, and I went 
immediately to Miss H., where I found her and 



344 THE TWO DUCHESSES. 

Lady Erne still very nervous. Ministers had in- 
formation all along. It was to have taken place at 
Lord Westmoreland's dinner some weeks ago, but 
was deferred; several of them, however, were seen 
watching about the door. At last they fixed on Lord 
Harrowby's Cabinet Dinner for the massacre. They 
were to have broken into the house, first giving a 
knock, and on the Porter's opening it to have rushed 
in, killed every thing that opposed them, flung hand 
grenades into the Rooms, and, in short, to have 
murdered them all; then to have endeavoured to 
raise the lowest mob, and so made a Jacobin Revolu- 
tion of it. A man, one of the Party who repented, 
stopped Lord Harrowby in the Park and gave him 
full information of their designs. He agreed with 
his brother ministers to say nothing to the servants 
about putting off the Dinner, so it was ordered as 
usual. He himself slipped out and dined with Lord 
Liverpool and Lady Erne. He got Lady Harrowby 
and the children out of the house, telling her the 
reason — that she was to be quite secret — the con- 
stables and soldiers, as you will see, surrounded the 
house, and after a desperate resistance took nine of 
them. Owing to some blunder the soldiers did not 
arrive quite in time, and several of them escaped. 
It has caused a great sensation in London. Thistle- 
wood is a Lincolnshire man, half gentleman and half 
yeoman, had about ^800 a year, which, I hear, he • 
lost at the gaming table. Poor Lady Liverpool was 
very much affected, fainted, and was very ill, and so 
was Lady Erne. The mob, I am told, hissed them 
as they were taken along the streets. I have not 



FROM ELIZABETH, DUCHESS OF DEVONSHIRE. 345 

heard when they are to be tried. We are all in a 
bustle also about the Election. G. Lamb has a 
good chance for Westminster, and, as a whole, 
Government will gain, I hear. F. Th. F. 



Elizabeth, Duchess of Devonshire, 

To Augustus Foster. 

March 1, 1810. 

Mr. Cavendish, the philosopher, has died worth 
,£1,075,000, and though it is a week ago we are still 
ignorant how he has left his property. The Duke 
and I, however, are quite convinced that he has left 
him nothing, so the question is how much he has 
left to Lord George, and what to men of science, 
and for Charities. 

You will see strange things — Lord Chat- 
ham's narrative, Joseph Napoleon's advance to 
Seville and Cadiz; and Lord Wellington's prepara- 
tions for quitting Portugal; it is melancholy to see 
the end of this contest for liberty and independence. 



Elizabeth, Duchess of Devonshire, 

To Augustus Foster. 

Chiswick, March 26, 1810. 

To-day is the great discussion of the Scheldt 

expedition. Lord Wellesley is clear of it certainly, 

and so is Canning and Lord Castlereagh of the 

delay in recalling the troops, but no country can see 



346 THE TWO DUCHESSES. 

the failure of such an armament, and mourn the 
loss of so many thousands by sickness and disease 
and not insist on knowing the cause of such a mis- 
fortune. It is supposed that the discussion will 
last two or three days, but nobody knows how it 
will end — probably only a near run thing. . . . 
What a stroke of policy Bonaparte's marriage 1 seems 
to be. We hear of nothing but his magnificent pre- 
parations for it. He seems to be quarrelling in 
earnest with America, but they bear with any insult 
from him. . . . 



Baron d ' Engelstrbm* 

To Augustus Foster. 

May 31, 1810. 

Monsieur, — Vous avez voulu une lettre de moi 
pour justifier votre depart. La voici. Vous connaissez 
votre position. Je me trouve dans le cas de vous 
prier de partir jeudi au soir. J'espere l'avantage de 
vous voir avant que vous quittez Stockholm pour 
vous renouveller les assurances de la consideration 
distinguee et de l'attachement sincere aux lesquels 
j'ai 1'honneur d'etre. — Monsieur, votre tres humble et 
tres obeissant serviteur, d'Engelstrom. 

A M. Foster. 

Note of Mr. Foster on the above — Ordered out of 
Sweden by Napoleon's directions. 

1 Bonaparte's marriage — With Marie Louise, daughter of Francis I., Emperor 
of Austria (1791-1847). 

2 Baron d ' Engelstrdm — Swedish Minister of Foreign Affairs. 



FROM THE PRINCE REGENT. 347 

Elizabeth, Duchess of Devonshire, 

To Augustus Foster. 

Devonshire House, Jan. 10, 1811. 
I came to town a few days ago, as the Duke of 
D. was obliged to attend Parliament on the question 
of restrictions. ... I afterwards found that we 
had beat the ministers on most of the questions, but, 
lo and behold, the vicissitude of things : the King is 
now said to be recovering, and that there is an end 
of the Regency. So be it. I am sure nothing would 
be so bad for my friends as a three months' adminis- 
tration. I am told that the ist of Feb. is the time 
fixed for the Regency if it does take place. The 
King, however, is so emaciated and reduced that I 
should not suppose he ever can be equal to business 
again; and after what has come out of Lord Sid- 
mouth having been appointed with two mad doctors 
in the room, it will make people slow to believe 
in H.M.'s perfect recovery. . . . 



The Prince Regent 

To Elizabeth, Duchess of Devonshire. 

February 14, 181 1. 

I have the pleasure to announce to you, my dearest 
Duchess, that I have this day assented to the nomi- 
nation of Mr. Augustus Foster as Minister to the 
United States of America. I hope this will meet 
with your approbation, as nothing can ever afford 
me more pleasure than whatever I know can convey 



348 THE TWO DUCHESSES. 

satisfaction both to yourself as well as the dear Duke. 
—I remain, ever most truly and sincerely, your af- 
fectionate Friend and humble Servant, 

George, P.R. 

Carlton House, February 14, 181 1. 



Elizabeth, Duchess of Devonshire, 

To A ugustus Foster. 

Devonshire House, Feb. 15, 181 1. 
I inclose you the Prince Regent's letter, which I 
received at the Play last night. You will believe 
that I never said one word about you to him or any 
body else. I was obliged to answer the Prince, but 
this I did merely by expressing my thanks to him 
for his unvarying kindness to me, and by saying that 
you was in Ireland. The Prince announcing this 
nomination to me himself makes me suppose that in 
the present situation in which we stand with America 
it is considered as an important and advantageous 
mission, and it is one in which you are first, and 
therefore all the credit will be yours, and distinc- 
tions would probably follow. I know, however, your 
dislike to that country so well that I shall not say 
any thing to influence you more than it is abso- 
lutely my duty to do, and this, that if your dislike 
to accept of this mission arises from any hope of 

succeeding with 1 , you ought, I think, to bring 

that to a point by making your situation known. If 
she has any liking for you, the idea of your going 

1 Succeeding with — Miss Milbanke. 



FROM ELIZABETH, DUCHESS OF DEVONSHIRE. 349 

would make her decide in your favor, and you would 
either then not want to go anywhere or might per- 
haps get it exchanged for some other Country she 
would like. If you only relinquish this line for 
Parliament, pray pause and consider how few people 
rise to any eminence in it; how very few obtain 
from Parliamentary merit alone either fame or 
emolument. You are appointed now Minister to 
the United States at a period of great consequence 
to this country. If it all terminates well, considering 
our connections and friendships, you are likely to 
receive flattering marks of approbation, and every 
thing that is pleasantest hereafter in the profession 
is open to you. Having said what I felt it my duty 
to do, I can only leave the ultimate decision to you. 
Your happiness and advantage is all I wish for, but 
I should be sorry to see you throw away the means 
of doing yourself credit from an unfounded pursuit 
of other objects. At all events, I think you ought 
to return directly. . . . 



Elizabeth, Duchess of Devonshire, 

To Augustus Foster. 

August 3, 181 1. 

This is black Monday, so that I have no letters, 
and rumours prevail. Lord Burgersh told me that 
it was strongly reported that M'Donald 1 had been 
defeated at Riga, and my brother read a sixth Bulletin 
dated still from Wilna, in which Bonaparte complains 

1 M'Donald — Marshal Macdonald (1765-1840). 



350 THE TWO DUCHESSES. 

so much of bad roads that it is suspected he has no 
victories to boast of. What a blessing a real check 
to his arms would be! General Graham is come 
home in good health, but in danger of losing his 
eyes; he has had Weare's advice, however, who has 
given him much comfort about them. He has 
given his horses and wine to Lord Wellington, of 
whom he is an enthusiastic admirer, I am told — well 
he may. Several negotiations have been going on 
for Lord Wellesley and Canning to come in, but it 
has gone off, and, I believe, because they could not 
settle about the lead in the House of Commons, and 
something, it is said, in a letter of Lord Castlereagh's 
to Lord Liverpool 1 about Canning which Canning 
could not put up with. It is a pity it is gone off; 
their names would have done good just now. 



Elizabeth, Duchess of Devonshire, 

To Augustus Foster. 

Chiswick, August 30, 181 1. 

Knowing your anxiety for me, I have written two 
or three times since my dreadful misfortune. 2 I hope 
others have too, for at first I could write but a line 
or two; calmer now, but as wretched; less stunned, 
and therefore more competent to feel the full extent 
of my loss. I can only wonder that my life and 
intellect have lasted. What is it that enables one to 
survive such a shock, so sudden, so unexpected, so 

1 Lord Liverpool — Prime Minister from 1812 to 1827 (1770-1828). 
3 My dreadful misfortune — The death of her husband. 



FROM ELIZABETH, DUCHESS OF DEVONSHIRE. 351 

overwhelming? God has supported me, and given 
me dear children and kind friends, and I ought to 
be, and am, grateful for these blessings, but indeed, 
my dearest Augustus, the husband whom I have lost 
was the creature of my adoration, and long had been 
so. He was so eminent in all that is good, amiable, 
noble, and praiseworthy. I almost wondered at my 
own happiness in being united to him, and when you 
was with us here, scarce more than three short 
months ago, there was not a day, scarcely an hour, I 
did not thank Heaven for the happiness of belonging 
to such a man. Oh God, it is too, too much. This 
place, too, so full of him; his dear, his gracious form 
in every part of these gardens so present, so fully 
impressed on my mind, that all appears at times a 
fearful dream. I will not distress you further, I 
know how you will feel for me, how you will regret 
him. Thankful I am, though that moment of misery 
never can be effaced from my heart, that I had 
strength to be with him to the last, and that it was 
in my arms that he expired; yes, expired, and I live 
to write it. 



Elizabeth, Duchess of Devonshire, 

To Augustus Foster. 

Chiswick, Nov. 3, 181 1. 

. . . You must be content for a while to get 
shabby letters from me, for though I do all I can to 
bear up in return for all the kindness shewn me, yet 
it is a hard task, and I feel that no time can give me 



3S 2 THE TWO DUCHESSES. 

a happy feel again. I shall be happy at moments 
when I see you, and the moment of return of those 
who are dear to me must be one of enjoyment to 
me, but life has lost that which gave it its great 
value, that which made me for a short time the 
happiest of human beings, for such a being as him 
surely never existed. What a wreck in these last 
few years! All that is pre-eminent is gone. To me 
it is as a desert, and but for my children what an 
exile should I feel in this world. . . . The King 
is worse and worse. The Duke of Clarence 1 has 
proposed to Miss Long, and has been rejected, but 
they say that he don't despair. 



Elizabeth, Duchess of Devonshire, 

To Frederick Foster. 

November &„ 1811. 

Every thing is now so melancholy that nothing 
that can be said upon it can be too much, or even 
increase my misery, but I am happy in you, Augus- 
tus, Caro, and Clifford; but life has lost its charm, 
and the world the noblest creature that ever adorned 
it. To have been his; to bear his name is still my 
pride and comfort. . . . Lord Byron 2 is come 
back, Mr. Rogers told me, and very much improved, 
and regretting his satirical poem, which he wrote, he 
says, writhing with anger at the Edinburgh Re- 
view. . . . 

1 The Duke of Clarence — Afterwards King William IV (1765-1837). 
5 Lord Byron— (1788-1824). 



FROM THE HONBLE. MRS. GEORGE LAMB. 353 

The Honble. Mrs. George Lamb 

To Augustus Foster. 

London, November 6, 181 1. 

My dear Augustus, — I have delayed answering 
your letter till half an hour before the time, and in- 
excusable as it is, with a month between each post 
day, to plead the want of time, I must make use of 
it to-day. I am now writing at a very melancholy 
moment. The Duchess is come to town to pack up 
all her things and to leave this house for ever. It 
is a moment I have always dreaded for her. I 
think a widow's situation at all times a most dread- 
ful one; at the time that she wants most comfort and 
care she is obliged to leave her home and the com- 
forts she has been used to all her life. There are a 
thousand little things, too, which have annoyed and 
worried her. It grieves me to the heart to see her 
unhappy. We are going to the seaside for a little 
while. The Liverpools have, I believe, lent her 
Walmer, and we shall go there till she has got a 
house in town, and she will then settle in London. 
I think it is the best place for her, for she is not very- 
fond of the country, and, so used to Society as she 
has been all her life, I am sure that great retirement 
would be the worst thing for her. I have seen 
nothing of your friends in the north, 1 but I have 
heard nothing that need alarm you; great coldness 
to all the admirers. 

I hope you received a letter I sent you from Lady 
Milbanke. She has persuaded, or rather forced, 

1 Your friends in the north — The Milbankes. 



354 THE TW0 DUCHESSES. 

poor Sir Ralph to stand again for Durham, and I am 
afraid it will be absolute ruin, besides which, I hear 
he has no chance of carrying it. His opponents are 
Lord Barnard and Sir Harry Vane. I am just come 
from Brocket Hall. They are all going on very 
jollily there, and Caro 2 is a little less mad than 
usual. 

C. J. Lamb. 

Elizabeth, Duchess of Devonshire, 

To Augustus Foster. 

January, 1812. 

The restrictions end the 17th, and the King is 
worse than ever. You will see that the Catholick 
question has been brought on; dear Hartington 
seconded. Lord Fitzwilliam was very much fright- 
ened, but did it well, and ended with a true Cavendish 
sentiment, that, thinking this measure right, he sup- 
ported it, and always would. Lord Morpeth spoke 
uncommonly well yesterday, but the question will go 
on for three days together. In Spain, Valencia has 
fallen, but so, I believe, has Ciudad Rodrigo to Lord 
Wellington. There never was surely so unfortunate 
a general as Blake. Lord Wellington has raised 
our military fame high, yet, I fear, if opposition 
came in they would cramp his means. God bless 
you, my dearest Augustus. I as yet see no body 
but the friends, the immediate friends, of him I know 
not how to live without, nor do I feel as if I ever 
could. Dear Georgiana is lying in. Harriet is ab- 

2 Caro — Caroline, wife of the Hon. William Lamb. 



FROM THE EARL OF LIVERPOOL. 355 

sorbed in Lord G. L. Hartington is affectionate and 
kind, but very young and surrounded. Your brother 
and Caroline seldom leave me, but to-day I made 
them dine at Lord Cowper's. How shocked you 
will be to hear of poor William Cavendish's death. 
I never heard of so dreadfull and awfull an accident, 
three minutes before they were all together the 
happiest family possible — poor wretched Mrs. Caven- 
dish adored him; she is with child, which, I believe, 
alone supports her. Your correspondence is moved 
for, and, when produced, ministers say will do you the 
greatest credit. Oh! the comfort of that. I thank 
God for the children he has given me. 



The Earl of Liverpool 

To 

January, 1812. 

Thursday, January. — My dear Lord, — I send you 
the correspondence with Sir James Craig on the 
subject of the Indians. The inclosures which con- 
tain the reasons and inducements to the Indians not 
to engage in hostilities with the United States it 
would not be desirable should be published, and 
need not perhaps be forwarded to Mr. Foster. The 
following facts appear clear, however, from Sir J. 
Craig's letter, that as soon as he knew of any inten- 
tions on the part of the Indians to commence hostilities 
he informed Mr. Morier of the circumstance in order 
that he might make a communication thereupon to 
the American Government, that he at the same time 



356 THE TWO DUCHESSES. 

and subsequently used every endeavour to dissuade 

the Indians from their projects of hostilities, and 

that his conduct was approved from home in the 

month of July last, and Sir George Prevost directed 

to pursue the same course of procedure, — Ever yours 

sincerely, 

Liverpool. 



The Earl of A berdeen 

To Augustus Foster. 

Argyll House, Feb. 5, 1812. 

My dear Augustus, — I wish it was in my power 
to give you some positive information concerning 
that which must interest you very much, as well as 
it does us. I mean the formation of the Ministry 
after the expiration of the restrictions. Until very 
lately no one doubted that every thing would remain 
as it is. It is certain, however, that Lord Wellesley 
has given in his resignation, and only holds the seals 
pro tempore. The cause is assigned to some radical 
difference of opinion between him and Perceval on 
several subjects, but principally on the conduct of the 
war. It is thought that this step will shake the 
foundations of the present Government, and indeed 
destroy its existence altogether. This is also my 
belief. We have a report of a Government being 
formed, of which Wellesley and Canning are to be 
the principal members, but this is highly improbable. 
If any change takes place it will be for the purpose 
of bringing in the opposition. 

I read with great satisfaction your correspondence 



FROM ELIZABETH, DUCHESS OF DEVONSHIRE. 357 

with Mr. Monroe, and, although it is possible that I 
might view it with partial eyes, I find the general 
impression is just that which I could desire. We 
are at least come to believe in the possibility of a 
war; perhaps even now it is not intended, but the 
language recently adopted certainly threatens it. 

I received your barrels of apples, which are said to 
be excellent. Thinking that all apples are turnips 
growing on trees, I am not an apple-eater. 

You will probably hear many reports about the 
Prince's health: in order that you may not be de- 
ceived, I can tell you that he is in reality well. There 
is a strange numbness in his hands, but even if it gets 
worse there is no sort of danger, for I understand it 
is a very common thing. Believe me, very affectly. 
yours, Aberdeen. 



Elisabeth, Duchess of Devonshire, 

To Augustus Foster. 

Piccadilly Terrace, Feb. 29, 1812. 
I begin before the regular day, my dearest Augustus, 
because I want to tell you without delay how much I 
feel the kindness of your letters, and of how great a 
comfort they are to me. They are the greatest 
possible comfort, first, because they prove you feel 
my misfortune, as it soothes me that it should be 
felt, great and terrible even to think of; then that 
you shew me how you know how he deserved, and 
saw how I adored him I have lost, my dear, dear 
husband, and yet that you try to turn my thoughts 



358 THE TWO DUCHESSES. 

to that which I should be and am gratefull for, the 
affection of you all, my dear children, and of his 
children, and that, since grief did not kill me at first, 
that I must try to live in health for them to whom I 
am yet a source of comfort. To your affection, to 
your conduct, publick and private, dearest Augustus, 
I look for much of what I can yet experience of 
pleasure and comfort. . . . Caro means to see 
la bella Anabella before she writes to you. I don't 
like the last letter which you received, and I shall 
almost hate her if she is blind to the merits of one 
who would make her so happy. ... As to 
politicks, they are in a state as novel as distressing. 
Dear Lord Wellesley has resigned. Lord Castle- 
reagh succeeds. The Prince Regent quarrels with 
his old friends, and abuses his new ones. Sheridan 
and Lord Lauderdale declare in his name to G. 
Ponsonby that the Catholick question shall not be 
made a Cabinet one, and Perceval contradicts this 
in his speech in Parliament the next day. It is all 
inconceivable. 

March yd. 

To-night on Orders in Council it is expected to 
divide so strong as to leave Ministers a majority 
only of 40. This in common times would have been 
reckoned a defeat, and Lord North would have 
resigned on it, but Perceval, I believe, would stay in 
at all risks. I shall add a few lines to-morrow. It is 
since I began this letter, I believe, that the Ministers 
were beat on Banks' motion for not granting Col. 
M'Mahon the place which the Prince Regent had 



FROM LORD PALMERSTON. 359 

given him. People say it is the first instance of 
Parliament refusing to confirm the first act of favour 
of a new reign. To me, who really love the Prince, 
this is melancholy; but he sits all evening in Man- 
chester Square, and loses sight of all but the politicks 
of that little circle. Now, though I do believe that 
there is no cry for the opposition in the country, yet 
the people dislike his having forsaken his friends of 
25 years in that way, and I could have wished that he 
had sent to them, and fairly said that, being deter- 
mined to go on with the war in Spain, that he would 
not now call them to his Councils, but having the 
same friendship and esteem for them, that he should 
still look to them when circumstances allowed him to 
do so. No half measure or trickery ever did credit 
to the person or service to their cause. . . . 



Lord Palmerston 

To Sir Augustus Foster. 

War Office, March 25, 1812. 

Dear Foster, — Mr. Lawrence, the bearer of this, 
is connected with my brother in law, Mr. Sulivan, 
and, being bound to America, is desirous of having 
the advantage of being made known to you. I know 
too well the extent of business which you must have 
upon your hands at the present moment to do more 
than write two lines to say that if you should have it 
in your power officially to be of any use to him with- 
out much inconvenience to yourself, I should be very 



360 THE TWO DUCHESSES. 

much obliged to you for any attention which you 
may shew him. 

I hope Buonaparte's last communications with his 
Conservative Senate may be of use to you as to the 
question of the existence of the French Decrees. If 
you make musick of the Americans you will accom- 
plish what appears next to impossible, and yet you 
seem to be making progress. I suppose the Suaviter 
in Modo fortiter in Re tells with them as it does 
with others. — Yours very truly, Palmerston. 



Augustus Foster 

To Elizabeth, Duchess of Devonshire. 

Washington, April 18, 1812. 

. . . I am afraid my chance is small with Miss 
Milbanke. Indeed, staying as long as I do here, it is 
scarce just to think I can keep an interest with her 
sufficient to balance in any degree against the daily 
assiduities she must listen to. I wish, however, very 
much that I could go home, for I cannot consent to 
add to the number of diplomatic old bachelors. . . . 
Here they talk more loudly than before of war. The 
French Minister, on being told that France was 
threatened as well as England, said he must in that 
case solicit an interview with the British Minister, in 
order for us to concert together measures of defence 
against so alarming a power. A great many people 
are afraid of being laughed at if they don't fight. It 
is really a curious state of things. They even refer 
to me occasionally to ask what we should think of 



FROM ELIZABETH, DUCHESS OF DEVONSHIRE. 36 1 

them. I am on good terms with almost all. Good 
living, you are very right in saying, has its effect 
here. 



Elizabeth, Duchess of Devonshire, 

To Augustus Foster. 

London, May 4, 1812. 

. . . I have sent you a very beautiful poem 
by Lord Byron, who continues to be made the 
greatest fuss with. The Edinburgh Review is just 
come out with their critique on it. They praise it 
because they cannot help doing so; but whilst they 
accuse him of bitterness in resenting their former 
illiberal review of his " Minor Poems", they, I think, 
betray how much they smarted, and still smart, under 
the keenness of his lash in the " English Bards 
and Scotch Reviewers": Your brother read it to me, 
which is a favor most rare, I assure you; but it was 
very pleasant, and I wish he did it oftener. The 
Character is really all written by Adair, but I own 
to you I thought with you that it was superior to his 
usual powers; but it is his and his alone; he did it 
at my request, and in two days' time. I will send 
you two or three that if there is anybody you think 
worthy to possess one that you may give it to them 
— to Randolph, for instance. . . . As to that 
particular object, you will have had letters from Caro- 
line and me, which will have, to our great regret, 
put an end to all our hopes on that subject. The 
only comfort is that it was, on her part, though not 



362 THE TWO DUCHESSES. 

on her mother's, over before you went. She persists 
in saying that she never suspected your attachment 
to her, but she is so odd a girl that though she has 
for some time rather liked another, she has decidedly 
refused them, because she thinks she ought to marry 
a person with a good fortune, and this is partly, I 
believe from generosity to her parents, and partly 
owning that fortune is an object to herself for happi- 
ness. In short, she is good, amiable, and sensible, 
but cold, prudent, and reflecting. What I have told 
you is a great secret; you must not breathe it, and I 
will let you know if there is any change. She is at 
present with Lady Gosford, but expects her parents 
this week: we must look out for something better. 
Lord Byron makes up to her a little, but she don't 
seem to admire him except as a poet, nor he her, 
except for a wife. Your little friend, Caro William, 1 
as usual, is doing all sorts of imprudent things for 
him and with him; he admires her very much, but is 
supposed by some to admire our Caroline more; he 
says she is like Thyrsa, and her singing is enchant- 
ment to him. Dearest life! don't fret about Anna- 
bella. I don't think you will, as Lady Selina made a 
little episode — only guard against American beauties, 
and we must seek for something more glowing than 
Annabella; and when you return, who knows what 
we may meet with. You will have heard of the fall 
of Badajoz, and the hope of liberating the South 
West of Spain from Ballesteros being, as it is said, 
at Seville. Lord Wellington is indeed an eminent 
Man, and all parties agree in their praise of him. 

1 Caro William — Caroline, wife of the Hon. William Lamb. 



FROM ELIZABETH, DUCHESS OF DEVONSHIRE. 363 

Marmont 1 is said to have invested Ciudad Rodrigo, 
which must cripple Lord Wellington's movements to 
the South, but it must be hoped not more than this; 
and he is said to have taken Badajoz four days 
sooner than he said, and to have sent divisions oft 
to Ciudad Rodrigo two days after its fall. I hope 
there may be some news to send you before the 
letter goes. 

Stk. 

Ministers were beat last night on Mr. Banks' 
motion on sinecure places. To-night is Lord Hol- 
land's motion about America, Mr. Henry's business, 
and I understand that Lord Liverpool will deny it, 
though they won't give up the correspondence. 
Pray Heaven that they may be able to do so, and 
that dear England may remain with unblemished 
honor. The accounts from Spain seem good (the 
French retired from Almeida and C. Rodrigo), and 
doubly good, in that the Portuguese troops have 
learnt to fight well, even when not in the presence 
of the hero Wellington. The accounts of riots in 
France are confirmed, I am told, and " Bread, 
Peace, or the head of the Tyrant" was stuck upon 
the Tuilleries. . . . Things are in an uncom- 
fortable state, for though the riots are amongst the 
manufacturers, there is no doubt but that there are 
ill-intentioned people stirring them up, and that there 
is a good deal of alarm, all which would be increased 
by the sort of unpopularity attending the Royal 
family from the want of state and show which all 

1 Marmont — Napoleon's marshal (1774-1852). 



364 THE TWO DUCHESSES. 

communities like, and which the people think their 
due. I trust, however, that the good sense of the 
English, and the example of the French will keep all 
things quiet. ... I told Adair how much you 
liked his character, and how much Randolph liked it, 
and he came to me this morning to thank me, and 
he expressed how flattered he was. 



Elizabeth, Duchess of Devonshire, 

To Augustus Foster. 

London, May 10, 1812. 
. . . You will see with pleasure that F. Pon- 
sonby has distinguished himself, and I think you 
must be proud of your Country's Victories, and 
heroick valour. What say the Americans to it. . . . 
With all this I fear we have a weak administration 
at home, and a systematized spirit of riot difficult to 
subdue. Every body regrets Lord Wellesley. I 
sent you by the last messenger Lord Byron's beauti- 
full poem. The parts about Greece will be doubly 
interesting to you: he continues to be the great 
attraction at all parties and suppers. The ladies, I 
hear, spoil him, and the gentlemen are jealous of 
him. He is going back to Naxos, and then the 
husbands may sleep in peace. I should not be sur- 
prized if Caro William were to go with him, she is so 
wild and imprudent. • 

May II. 

I am sorry to have to add to my parcel the horrid 
news that Perceval 1 was just now shot dead in the 

1 Perceval— The Prime Minister. 



FROM AUGUSTUS FOSTER. 365 

lobby of the House of Commons. I never felt more 
horror at any thing. A murder of that kind has not 
happened in England since Queen Anne's time, and 
in the midst of the horror and concern for the par- 
ticular event, one can't help dreading its opening a 
new epoch in the English character. I trust not, 
and it really is most horrid. Think of his poor wife 
and children. If I hear more I will add it to this. 
Your brother told me when I came home from 
a quiet, melancholy walk. He had been walking 
with Colonel Foster. They saw several people 
riding full speed towards the House, and soon after, 
this, which they thought idle rumour, was confirmed. 



Augustus Foster 

To Elizabeth, Duchess of Devonshire. 

Washington, May 26, 18 12. 

I see you don't like Annabella 1 much. She is cer- 
tainly rather too cold in her manners, and gives to 
reason too much empire over her mind, but she has 
good eyes, is fair, has right ideas, and sense, and 
mildness. I don't think she will ever be able to love 
very warmly; but yet I believe she thinks she ought 
to wait till the spirit moves her, and the spirit per- 
haps may never come, as I fancy happens to many 
of her temperament. I long most anxiously to get 
back to settle that point, good or bad. No Minister 
ever had such temptations to break up a negotiation. 
I would give the world to go back for six months, 

1 Annabella — Miss Milbanke. 



366 THE TWO DUCHESSES. 

and am miserable that I can't do so, but I can't 
leave these members to themselves two days to- 
gether. 



From General Moreau 

To Augustus Foster, Esq., then at Mentone. 

New York, zUh Mai, 1812. 

Monsieur, — J'ai recu la lettre que vous m'avez 
fait l'honneur de m'ecrire & les passeports que vous 
avez eu la Complaisance de m'envoyer. Mad e - 
Moreau vous prie de vouloir bien agreer tous ses 
Remercimens. Messres le Roy & Rayard Croyent 
que le navire le powhatan allant sur son Lest & 
muni de votre recommendation n'est pas susceptible 
d'etre pris: si cependant ces Mess se ravisent & 
desirent que le navire y soit mentionne J'aurai 
l'honneur de vous en faire part. 

Je suis tres reconnoisant des Reproches que vous 
me faites d'avoir Reste si peu de terns a Washington, 
mais que pouvait y faire un ministere entre les decres 
de Milan & de Berlin, les ordres en Conseil, L'acte 
de non importation, L'ambargo & productions 
bizarres, dont tout le monde parle, que peu de 
personne comprennent & sur lesquelles on ne 
s'entendra jamais, & puis j'etais presse de jouir de 
l'importance que donne le Retour de la Capitale, 
Aurons nous la guerre me demandoit on de toute 
part? Je repondois que n'ayant vu que des gens 
tres tranquilles, tres pacifiques, & tres dloignes les 
uns des autres (vous savez que les maisons ne se 
touchent pas) on devoit presumer qu'on ne se 



FROM ELIZABETH, DUCHESS OF DEVONSHIRE. 367 

battroit pas: que Cependant, ayant entendu tout le 
monde Se plaindre de l'ennui, ce qui a la longue 
donne de l'humeur, it etoit possible qu'on fink par se 
facher tout de bon. 

Avec cette maniere de repondre on se trompe 
rarement, on n'ote L'esperance a personne, & on 
acquiere des droits a devenir prophete. 

Je prie v. ex. d'agreer l'assurance des sentimens 
de la consideration la plus distingues avec lesquels 
je suis. Monsieur, Votre tres humble and tres 
obeissant serviteur, V. Moreau. 



Elizabeth, Duchess of Devonshire, 

To Augustus Foster. 

May 28, 181 2. 

. . . The Prince Regent was there, and in 
pretty good spirits, the crowd and heat enormous; — 
but now your eyes have wandered over this for a 
name more interesting. Well, Annabella was there ; 
Annabella looked well; Annabella and I got more 
acquainted than I have done yet. Caroline called 
her to sit by her. I made room, and we all three 
sat on a couch. I liked her countenance and man- 
ners. Old twaddle Ralph 1 and I are all cordiality, 
and Lady Milbanke called her daughter to speak to 
me, who said, " I had the honor of talking to the 
Duchess " — which we had in the further room. She 
did not ask me about you, which I was glad of; in- 
difference would have made her inquire out of civility; 
the father did. 

1 Ralph— Sir Ralph Milbanke, Bart., d. 1825, 



368 THE TWO DUCHESSES. 

June i. 

The accounts have confirmed the Jersey telegraph 
account. Soult 1 is defeated with immense loss. . . . 
Lady Milbanke came up to me last night at Mrs. 
Siddons', and inquired most kindly about you — said 
she should hear from you as soon as you arrived, 
and said that if you could adjust things in America 
you would come home to honor and distinction, and 
how delightful that would be. The girl still never 
names you to me — tant mieux. 



Elizabeth, Duchess of Devonshire, 

To Augustus Foster. 

June 2, 1812. 

I wrote to you about a fortnight ago, just after 
poor Mr. Perceval's horrid assassination, and we 
have continued since that without an administration. 
Lord Liverpool was named first Lord of the Treasury, 
but not kissed hands, and Mr. Wortley's motion 
obliged them to resign. The Regent then sent to 
Lord Wellesley to form or propose a plan for a new 
administration, and Lord Wellesley brought about a 
reconciliation between the Regent and Lord Moira. 
Both these Peers have tried to make arrangements 
for opposition to come in, but the Prince could not 
be prevailed on to admit them. Down to the 30th 
nothing was done. The Prince saw all parties, ex- 
cept Grey and Grenville, but nothing could be fixed 
on. The ex-Ministers, except Lord Melville, de- 

1 Soult— (1765-1851). 



FROM ELIZABETH, DUCHESS OF DEVONSHIRE. 369 

clare that they won't serve with Lord Wellesley. 
At last, yesterday, Canning announced in the House 
that Lord Wellesley had the Prince's authority to 
proceed to the forming of a new administration, and 
he did submit a paper to them. The Prince ex- 
pressed a wish to have Moira, Erskine, and Ellen- 
borough in the Cabinet; they were (Grey and Gren- 
ville) to name the others of their party, making five 
opposition Cabinet Ministers if the number was 1 2, 
and six if it was 13 — Lord Wellesley, of course, to 
name the others. Well, all appeared smooth and 
promising when, behold! opposition find out that it 
is unconstitutional for the Sovereign to name any of 
the Ministers except the first Lord who is to form it; 
and so they refuse. My brother says that the talk 
of the streets was to blame the opposition; to say 
that the Sovereign has a right to name his Ministers, 
and that the opposition have refused on grounds of 
personal ambition. This is a most provoking de- 
nouement. I will hope that something may yet be 
done, but it is a faint hope; however, I will add 
to-morrow what I hear; it must, I think, be decided 
one way or another. The Liverpools have been 
very much hurt with Wortley, but he went to him 
first, and did it in a feeling and gentlemanlike manner. 
The truth is, the administration have been weak to a 
criminal degree. 

Lady Erne was so fretted and vexed that she went 
back to Hampton Court. Lady Hervey is with me, 
cheerful and good-humoured as she always is. Caro- 
line W. Lamb is quietly, thank heaven! at Brocket 
with William and all of them. My Caroline is more 

2A 



370 THE TWO DUCHESSES. 

than ever liked and admired — pur non e felice. Your 
Annabella is a mystery; liking, not liking; generous 
minded, yet afraid of poverty; there is no making 
her out. I hope you don't make yourself unhappy 
about her; she is really an icicle. Lady Milbanke 
will make Sir Ralph stand the next election, which, 
as it will be a contested one, will ruin him, and he is 
with one foot in the grave; so it is doubly ill-judged. 
The rest of your friends are well, and I am better, 
and only wondering that I live. 



General Moreau 

To Augustus Foster. 

New York, le 7 juin, 1812. 

Monsieur, — J'ai recu la lettre que vous m'avez fait 
l'honneur de m'ecrire le 2 de ce mois celle du 3 
m'avoit soulage d'un fardeau. Bien pesant puisque 
comme vous l'observez vous m£me ma femme se 
trouvoit hors de grans ambaras et eviter un detour 
et des retards d'au moins 40 jours. 

Votre derniere m'a replonge dans des inquietudes 
d'autant plus grandes que la sante de Madame Moreau 
epuisee par une fatigue consecutive de six jours — 
Employes a faire en hatte paquets la met presque 
dans l'impossibilite de profiter du paquebot qui sure- 
ment fera voile cette semaine — au moins ses medecins 
le pensent ainsi, Jugez comme elle se trouvoit soulagee 
par l'espoir d'aller sur le powhatan. 

J'ai vu Messres le Roy and Rayard; ils n'ont 
jamais pense a. porter une Cargaison sous la pro- 



FROM GENERAL MOREAU. 37 1 

tection de votre recommendation, et m'ont assure 
que quelque soit la Speculation du retour du navire 
ils n'avoient jamais pense a en profiter — il me semble 
au reste que pour L'empecher vous pouvez specifier 
que le navire doit etre sur son Lest et n'avoir que 
des passagers, marchandise dont la Capture ne l'em- 
barassent guerres. 

Au reste si le vaisseau etoit conduit en Angleterre 
elle n'auroit pour se rendre en france que la meme 
peine qu'elle auroit en y allant par le paquebot. Une 
circonstance dont je n'ai pu vous faire part dans ma 
lettre de Samedi, C'est que quelque personnes de 
New York avoient Recu des lettres de Washington 
ou on leur Mentionnoit Le depart du powhatan avec 
des depeches du gouvernement americain, un passe- 
port de vous et que vous m'en aviez donne avis. 

Je desirerois Bien que Mr. Monroe persistat dans 
cette opinion, mais s'il y a guerre tous les Beaux 
Reves peuvent etre detruites, hier on n'y Croyoit 
pas, aujourd'hui on la craint; C'est comme la fievre 
intermittente, au reste on pourrait dire a ces Mess, il 
y a justement 20 ans que quelques Scerveles de 
L'assemblee de france (1792) declarerent la guerre a 
l'autriche et a la prusse, elle dure encore! 

J'attens avec Bien de l'impatience une reponse a 
la lettre que j'eus l'honneur de vous ecrire le 6, elle 
decidera de nos esperances, Je presume que Mr. 
Monroe me repondra aussi. 

Dans le cas ou ma fern me ne pourroit partir ni par 
le powhatan ni par le paquebot, croyez vous qu'il en 
viendra un autre, ou Supposez vous qu'il y aura 
quelqu'autre occasion pour l'Angleterre au com- 



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372 THE TWO DUCHESSES. 

mencement du mois prochain; la guerre pourroit elle 
y apporter quelqu' obstacle. — Monsieur, votre tres 
humble and tres obeissant Serviteur, 

V. Moreau. 



Elizabeth, Duchess of Devonshire, 

To Augustus Foster. 

July 4, 1812. 

On the 8th I go to Portland Place. We are very- 
good friends, and la madre 1 is anxious about you. 
Annabella is silent still. I hear of no one likely to 
be favoured by her, so I shall still live in hope for 
you. 



Augustus Foster 

To Elisabeth, Duchess of Devonshire. 

Copenhagen, August 10, 1812. 
. . . Never was Minister's arrival so grateful 
to a people as mine here. The Queen said such 
things to me as proved how delighted they are. For- 
tunately I had to use my own discretion in a great 
measure, and had to use all the grace of conferring 
the greatest obligation on a Country that it can 
receive. I was first in recognizing the state of peace 
here, and the Queen said to-day my coming was the 
first moment of happiness they have known for a 
long time. . . . 

1 La madre — Lady Milbanke, d. 1822. 



FROM THE HON. MRS. GEORGE LAMB. 373 

The Honble. Mrs. George Lamb 

To Augustus Foster. 

Chiswick, August 31. 

My dear Augustus, — I wrote to you last at a most 
melancholy moment, and you will feel anxious, I am 
sure, to hear from us again, and particularly to know 
how your dear mother is. We have now been at 
Chiswick near a month, and I think the fresh air and 
quiet of this place has done her good, and though, 
of course, after all she has gone through, her re- 
covery must be slow, yet it is a great deal to have 
been free from fever and regaining strength. Her 
spirits are very bad, and. here there are a thousand 
recollections which, though they endear the place to 
us all, yet keep up the dreadful recollection that 
what made us once so happy is gone for ever. It 
gave us the greatest pleasure to hear that ministers 
are very much pleased with your dispatches: the 
only comfort she can now receive is from the affec- 
tion of those that are left to her, and we must exert 
ourselves to the utmost for her. 

I am glad to hear that you have written to Lady 
Milbanke. I think it ought to keep up the interest 
which she certainly feels for you. I saw a good deal 
of Annabella this year, and liked her very much 
indeed. At first she constantly enquired after you, 
but one day I talked of you as knowing of your 
attachment to her, and she was much embarrassed, 
and has never mentioned you since. Another thing 
which speaks very well for you is that Sir Ralph, 



374 TH E TWO DUCHESSES. 

whose judgment is, I believe, entirely formed upon 
that of the female part of his family, praises you, I 
hear, beyond any thing. I should think it wrong, 
my dear Augustus, to make you too sanguine by 
telling you these things, but that I think that at such 
distance and parted for such a length of time it 
would be cruel not to give you all the comfort I 
can. Besides, I feel great horror at the possibility 
of an American Mrs. Foster. God bless you, dear 
Augustus. I hope we shall soon have you amongst 
us again. Yours very aff., C. J. Lamb. 



VERSES ADDRESSED BY LORD BYRON 

IN THE YEAR 1812 TO THE HONBLE. MRS. GEORGE 
LAMB. 

The sacred song that on my ear 

Yet vibrates from that voice of thine, 
I heard before from one so dear, 

Tis strange it still appears divine. 
But oh! so sweet that look and tone 

To her and thee alike is given ; 
It seemed as if for me alone 

That both had been recalled from Heaven. 
And though I never can redeem 

The vision thus endeared to me, 
I scarcely can regret my dream 

When realized again by thee. 



FROM ELIZABETH, DUCHESS OF DEVONSHIRE. 375 

Elizabeth, Duchess of Devonshire, 

To Augustus Foster. 

1812. (?) 
. . . I always say that you don't tell me what 
is going on, but I make it a rule not to ask you. I 
am most anxious for it if it is possible without a 
sacrifice of national honor. It does seem as if it 
were more for the interest of America to be friends 
with us, who are masters of the sea, than with 
France, who has no fleet. Sweden seems deter- 
mined to be independent. It is said Russia is going 
to war, and Armfeldt to have a command, but Bona- 
parte means, they say, to command in person, and if 
so, the odds are in his favor. Meanwhile dear Spain 
maintains the conflict, and perhaps may profit of the 
war between Russia and France. 

The subject of conversation, of curiosity, of en- 
thusiasm almost, one might say, of the moment is 
not Spain or Portugal, Warriors or Patriots, but Lord 
Byron! You probably read the Edinburgh Review's 
criticism of his "Minor Poems", published in 1808, 
not merely severe, but flippant. They prophesied 
and entreated never to hear more as a Poet of this 
young Lord. On this, stung to the quick, he 
published, without a name, his " English Bards and 
Scotch Reviewers ". The prodigious success of this 
made him publish a second edition with his name 
and additional lines and notes, and, going abroad, 
said that on his return he would answer to any who 
called on him. He returned sorry for the severity 
of some of his lines, and with a new poem, " Childe 



376 THE TWO DUCHESSES. 

Harold", which he published. This poem is on 
every table, and himself courted, visited, flattered, 
and praised whenever he appears. He has a pale, 
sickly, but handsome countenance, a bad figure, 
animated and amusing conversation, and, in short, 
he is really the only topic almost of every conversa- 
tion — the men jealous of him, the women of each 
other. I have my accounts from Caroline, Caro 
William, and Lady Bessborough — all agree in their 
accounts. The misery is that his severest lines were 
on Lord Carlisle, and therefore Lord Morpeth has 
not yet and can't bear to meet him. But Lord 
Byron has bought up all the third edition, which is a 
great sacrifice to have made, and ought to conciliate 
everybody. . . . 



General Moreait 

To his Wife. 

Laun, 30 aout, 1813. 

Ma chere amie, — A la bataille de Dresde il y a 
trois jours j'ai eu les deux jambes emportes d'un 
boulet de canon. 

Ce coquin de Bonaparte est toujours heureux. 
On m'a fait l'emputation aussi bien que possible 
quoique l'armde ait foit un mouvement retrograde 
ce n'est nullement par revers mais par decousu, et 
pour se rapprocher du Gal Blucher excuse mon 
griffonage je t'aime et t'embrasse de tout mon coeur 
je charge Rapatel de finir. V. M. 



FROM ALEXANDER I., EMPEROR OF RUSSIA. 377 

This copy of Gen. Moreau's letter to his wife was 
given to me by her. 

E. Devonshire. Richmond, 1813. 

Madam Moreau gave me this copy of General 
Moreau's letter to his wife. I saw the original at 
her house. E. D. 



Alexander I., Emperor of Russia, 

To Madame Moreatt. 

Madame, — Lorsque l'affreux malheur qui atteignit 
a mes cotes le general Moreau me priva des lu- 
mieres et de l'experience de ce grand homme je 
nourissois l'espoir qu'a force de soins on parviendroit 
a le conserver a sa famille et a mon amitie — la provi- 
dence en a dispose autrement — il est mort comme il 
a vecu dans la pleine energie d'un ame fort et 
constant — il n'est qu'un remede aux grandes peines 
de la vie celui de les voir partager — en Russie 
Madame vous trouverez partout ce sentiment et 
s'il vous convient je rechercherai tous les moyens 
d'embellir l'existence d'une personne dont je me fais 
un devoir sacre d'etre le consolateur et l'appui. Je 
vous prie d'y compter irrevocablement de ne me 
laisser ignorer aucune circonstance ou je pourrai 
vous etre de quelqu' utilite et de m'ecrire toujours 
directement — prevenir vos desirs sera une jouis- 
sance pour moi — l'amitie que j'avois voue a votre 
epoux va au dela du tombeau et je n'ai pas d'autre 
moyen de m'acquitter du moins en partie envers lui 
que parceque je serai en meme de faire pour assurer 



378 THE TWO DUCHESSES. 

le bien 6tre de sa famille — recevez Madame dans ces 
tristes et cruelles circonstances les t^moignages et 
l'assurance de mes sentiments, 

Alexandre. 

toplitz C C, ybre, 1813. 

Copy of the Emperor of Russia's letter to Mad. 
Moreau. She gave it to me. E. D. 



Augustus Foster 

To Elizabeth, Duchess of Devonshire. 

December 13, 18 13. 

. . . I dined at the Hollands' yesterday, where 
were the Cowpers, Ossulstons, Abercrombies, Courte- 
nays, &c. Lord Byron came in the evening. Madame 
de Stael was attacked at dinner for taking up so 
much of Sir James M'Intosh's time, and impeding 
the progress of the history. Allen, in the evening, 
maintained that she did not understand many of the 
systems of the Germans she undertook to explain, 
that she was very confused, and he could get no 
further than Fichte. ... I went from there 
rather late to Madame de Stael's, where a few 
remained till past 12 discussing Pitt and Fox's 
comparative merits with Tacitus and Demosthenes. 
Madame de Stael strenuously argued Tacitus to be 
superior to all the rest, and Ward as strenuously 
put Pitt and Fox above Tacitus and Demosthenes. 
Madame de Stael said Burke shot above the heads 
of his auditors, which was agreed to, while Pitt was 



FROM AUGUSTUS FOSTER. 379 

said to have fired point blank. Madame de Stael 
was indignant at an orator being put above the 
historian, and it must be owned to have been dis- 
interestedness in Sir James not to have agreed with 
her. 



Augustus Foster 

To Elizabeth, Duchess of Devonshire. 

March 31, 18 14. 

Mr. Dicot is come from Paris. . . He has 

much to relate of the public spirit in Paris. He 
came away on the 14th; he says the National Guard 
of Paris refused, both collectively and individually, to 
join Bonaparte's army; that it was proposed to eight 
hundred of the officers in a body one by one. He 
says they are resolved to capitulate if any corps of 
the Allies approach the gates. He laughs at the 
attempt to fortify the town. It seems part of the 
Bois de Vincennes and Boulogne was cut for chevaux 
de frise to protect the town against the Cossacks. 
Bonaparte has been tres grossier in his language: he 
told the Council of State that Robespierre was the 
only great man produced by the Revolution; that he 
knows not why himself is detested so much, as he 
has not been as yet assez malheureux pour etre cruel, 
and abuses them for their cry of Peace, Peace. 



380 THE TWO DUCHESSES. 

Augustus Foster 

To Elizabeth, Duchess of Devonshire. 

March 31, 1814. 

. . . I hear there is a Royalist Committee at 
Paris, and that Talleyrand communicates with them 
through a relation. D'Ellioto sounds Augereau, who 
professed to hate Bonaparte, but to be for a Regency. 
Monni goes to Nanci, and Louis 18 waits the certain 
account of the rupture of negotiations to set off for 
Bordeaux. At Paris they shot people in the Bois de 
Vincennes and filled the prisons, but now the police 
dare not act, for the agents are known and would be 
put to death immediately. This is very like insur- 
rection. 

Letter from the Countess of Liverpool. 

Friday, April 18, 1 814. 

Moniteurs are just arrived with most excellent 
news. A provisional Government has been formed 
at Paris, and their first act has been to set aside 
Bonaparte and his family. Les Dames de la Halle 
had waited on the Emperor Alexander, and had 
called out, "Vive les Bourbons". God bless you. — 
Yrs., Louisa Liverpool. 



Frederick Foster 

To Augustus Foster. 

Paris, May 1, 1814. 
My dearest Augustus, — I miss you sadly. The 
noise drove me away from the Hotel de Bruxelles, 



FROM AUGUSTUS FOSTER. 381 

and I am now at the Hotel des Ministres de l'Uni- 
versite, still more noisy, but in a different way. 
Madame de Stael is arrived. I called on her yester- 
day, and found her in high spirits, surrounded by a 
crowd of admirers, and all talking, of course, of 
Bonaparte. They say he took opium, but, the dose 
having failed, he considers himself as preserved by 
Destiny for great things yet; says he was formed to 
rule the World, and as that failed, it little signifies 
between France and Elba; that France with the old 
limits could never have done, the army would not 
have borne it. On the 24th March the inhabitants 
of St. Dizier, I think, came to some of the Marshals 
to know if they were to obey Bonaparte's order of 
rising en masse. They replied, Oh, non; cette farce 
est finie. F. Th. F. 



Augustus Foster 

To Elizabeth, Duchess of Devonshire. 

Paris, May 3, 18 14. 

. . . To-day there was a great review of all the 
foreign troops, from 25,000 to 30,000, composing the 
garrison.- The Russian Guards are really magnificent. 
Louis XVIII. was at a window to see them pass. 
The Emperor of Austria in the centre, with Alex- 
ander on his left and Frederick on his right, passed 
by me and joined the King to-night to go to Sir 
Charles Stuart's 1 ball given to Alexander. . . . 
The old Guards certainly looked very brisk, and it 
is not to be disguised that Bonaparte is much re- 

1 Sir Charles Stuart— British Ambassador at Paris. 



382 THE TWO DUCHESSES. 

gretted by the troops of the line. Count Meister, 
who used to be so sanguine, now occupies himself 
with the King, is in transports of joy, and thinks the 
Bourbons not so extremely severe; nevertheless so 
many general officers are committed, and so strong 
is the feeling against Napoleon in the middle orders, 
that I cannot think there is cause for apprehension. 
What has surprised everybody is the conduct of the 
Milanese, for Eugene (Beauharnais) 1 was really be- 
lieved to have been a favourite with them. 

The ball was highly interesting. . . . The 
Emperor Alexander was there in an English 
uniform for compliment; he was in stockings and 
shoes, a thing rare for him, and yet he did not wear 
the Garter, which we were surprised at; he puts 
the Garter round his own Star zigzag, which makes 
us English a little angry with him, as considering it is 
too great a liberty thus to alter an order: he was 
observed to pay great Court to La Marechale Ney; 
he danced with her and spoke a great deal to Ney; 
it is surmized that he wants to get as many Marshals 
as he can into his Service; there is not half so much 
fuss made with him at an assembly as with our 
Prince (the Prince Regent); he had scarcely room 
to pass, and backs were very often seen by him. 
The Emperor of Austria and King of Prussia have 
no fancy for balls it seems, but we had the two sons 
of the King and hosts of German Princes, besides 
Schwartzenberg, un gros de tres bonne physionomie; 

8 Eugene (Beauharnais)— Son of the Empress Josephine by her first husband. 



FROM AUGUSTUS FOSTER. 383 

he has great frankness of countenance: there was 
also old Blucher, 1 with eight orders, looking like an 
old Satyr: he frequents a gambling-house every 
night and wins money : he is by no means so much 
esteemed for his military talents here as he is in 
London — indeed none of them are. An English 
officer who was with the army of Blucher says if he 
was to write his memoirs they would contain a 
succession of their blunders. I saw my old Weimar 
schoolfellow, Mounier's son, yesterday. He was 
made private secretary to Napoleon, and was em- 
ployed by him to translate the English and German 
papers, of which the Courier, Times, and Morning 
Chronicle were constantly received. He said the 
Emperor treated him " quelquefois de Philosophe, 
d' Anglomane ", and was proceeding to give Sir 
Charles Stuart, with whom I went to see him, some 
interesting details when Berthier 2 entered en frac. 
. . . Augereau 3 himself gives the account I wrote 
to you in my last: it was at Porte l'lsere he met 
Napoleon, and M. De Fitzjames tells me an officer 
who was with Augereau saw Bonaparte take out of 
his pocket a copy of Augereau's proclamation to his 
soldiers, and heard him ask, " Ah comment avez 
vous pu dire ceci de moi ", but he heard nothing 
more. Augereau took Bonaparte apart; they walked 
together some time, and on parting embraced. The 
soldiers of the Old Guard are very loud in their 
discontent, and make no secret of their reproaches 

1 Blucher— Field Marshal B. (1742-1819). 

2 Berthier — Marshal B. He occupied the first place in the confidence of 
Napoleon, and was with him in all his expeditions (1753-1815). 

3 Augereau — Marshal A. (1757-1816). 



384 THE TWO DUCHESSES. 

of the generals for having betrayed them. Their 
joy was very considerable, and no doubt they feel 
the conquest at Paris, and there have been several 
duels between them and the foreign troops. How- 
ever, they are too few, and it would be too desperate 
for them to attempt anything. General Drouet, 1 
who, like Bertrand, 2 was brought up by Bonaparte 
and pushed into a high situation, has accompanied 
him, but everybody says it is " par point d'honneur 
et par principe ", and not from attachment, that they 
accompany him. He bought the Bible at Lyons, and 
told the bookseller to address it to him as Empereur 
Napoleon. . . . Think of Lord Wellington ar- 
riving yesterday all at once like a great bomb just 
before the review; he was then on a grey horse, en 
chapeau rond, and people as soon as they knew it were 
almost estropies in hurrying to see him. The Em- 
peror Alexander had called on him immediately. 
He looks worn and older than Mr. Pole. . . . 
To-day we made a party to St. Cloud. Its having 
been the favourite residence of Bonaparte was to me 
its greatest attraction, though the view is delightful 
and the rooms pretty magnificent. The concierge 
said he kicked his servants, and the gardener thought 
him amiable, and regretted him. They have taken 
away Bonaparte's family pictures which were there, 
and which Gerard supposes are to be sent to him in 
lieu of the originals, as he cannot have them. 

1 Drouet— Marshal D. (1765-1844). 2 Bertrand— General B. (1773-1844). 



FROM AUGUSTUS FOSTER. 385 

Augustus Foster 

To Elizabeth, Duchess of Devonshire. 

Paris, May 5, 18 14. 
Napoleon is off: he embarked at Frejus: he has 
Elba in soverainete: he was obliged to put on a 
white cockade near Avignon; to ride and to pass as 
Lord Burghersh or Colonel Cambell, and even to cry 
Louis 18. Lord Wellington came yesterday before 
the review, where he was in plain clothes; crowds 
pressed to see him. . . . All the world was at 
Stewart's ball last night, and Alexander danced with 
Madame Ney. People think he wants to get as 
many Marshals as he can into his service. 



Augustus Foster 

To Elizabeth, Duchess of Devonshire. 

Paris, May 7, 1814. 

Paris, May 7, 18 14. . . . We are just come 
from being presented to the King of Prussia. The 
Duke of Wellington was there in the Blue Ribbon. 
Yesterday the messenger arrived with the Gazette, 
and in time for him to be presented as Duke to the 
Emperor of Austria, who invested him with the 
Grand Order of Maria Theresa, which he wore at 
the opera. He was loudly applauded; hats taken 
off; all stood up and hurrahed. The applause was 
even greater than that given to the Duke of Berri, 
who had come into the Royal box, and who was 
repeatedly obliged to bow during the evening, the 



386 THE TWO DUCHESSES. 

piece given — " Colenetti " — having many allusions to 
the Bourbons. . . . Yesterday we went to St. 
Cloud. The Concierge says there is no servant with 
Bonaparte but Ali, a Mamelouk, who had been sent 
away through the jealousy of Rustan, and whom 
Napoleon is too happy now to have. He can shave 
himself, fortunately. I suppose the account of his 
journey will be in all the papers. He cried a good 
deal, I hear; but how flattering to us his confidence 
in us. He was so taken up with saving himself and 
baggage he did not seem to pay attention to the 
circumstance of embarking at Frejus, which took 
place there as more convenient than St. Trogues. 
At St. Cloud the gardener seemed to regret him, 
and described him as walking very amicably with the 
Empress in an avenue every morning, when they 
would embrace and separate. An Austrian who was 
on guard there expressed surprise at the Empress 
loving him as she did. He said all the Austrian and 
Russian armies were firmly convinced the child was 
not his son. We see very few of the French, and 
at the opera there were not ten ladies to a hundred 
men. 



Elizabeth^ Duchess of Devonshire, 

To Augustus Foster. 

May 8, 1814. 

. . I did not suspect Bonaparte to have been 
reduced to ride for his life, and to pass for an Eng- 
lishman to save himself, and cry vive Louis 18! 



FROM AUGUSTUS FOSTER. 387 

What a lesson for ill weaned ambition! I am de- 
lighted that the ceremony of the 3rd was so fine, and 
the feeling so general for the King. We must ex- 
pect some sadness amongst the troops, who, accus- 
tomed for so long to war and plunder, almost dread 
a state of quiet. . . . 



Augustus Foster 

To Elizabeth, Duchess of Devonshire. 

Paris, May 8, 1814. 

May 8. — We went to Gerard's to-day. He is the 
last who made a picture of Napoleon, and it bears 
the mark of the Russian and Spanish campaigns. 
There is a savage ferocity in the countenance that is 
quite disgusting. I was much pleased at Gerard's 
account of Drouet, who was a man hardly ever seen 
at Court, but, having been advanced by Napoleon, 
has thought it dishonourable to quit him. He even 
told him that, having a few thousand livres of his 
own, he should not be a burden upon him, but pay 
his own expenses. What a contrast to his own 
family! Pauline 1 having refused to follow him, and 
even his mother not coming forward to comfort him. 
She was a most avaricious old jade, Gerard says, 
that was always putting by, as she thought things 
would not last. Gerard says the Queen of Naples is 
the best of the sisters, and Eliza the most like him. 
His face was covered with tears on his journey at 
one place, and the next day he talked of the Powers 

1 Pauline — Sister of Napoleon, married first to General Leclerc, and secondly to 
Prince C. Borghese (1780-1825). 



388 THE TWO DUCHESSES. 

of Europe as if he was at the Tuileries. ... I 
find Bernadotte 1 had a great party here, as had Maria 
Louisa, 2 and as the former missed stays (excuse a sea 
term) the latter would have had his men had she 
stayed here. I saw Madame De Coigny to-day, 
who thought so too. ... I saw Weissenberg 
at Castlereagh's last night. He says Bonaparte did 
tell him he should have fared better had he married 
a Russian, and thinks had Maria Louisa stayed at 
Paris she would have much embarrassed him. Bona- 
parte had commissioned Weissenberg to abdicate for 
him in favour of his son. Madame De Coigny and 
another lady I saw at her house think there is no 
doubt she would be Regent had she stayed. Through- 
out the Austrian and Russian army it is believed the 
King of Rome is not his son, but Weissenberg de- 
clares he is very like him, and it is "malheureusement 
trop vrai ". 



Augustus Foster 

To Elizabeth, Duchess of Devonshire. 

June, 1 8 14. 

. . . I am sure you must have been sorry for 
poor Josephine's death. 3 It seems to have been 
very sudden, and I dare say will afflict Napoleon if 
he ever had any feeling. They say he is very busy 
arranging his Court. I suppose he will actually leave 
no stone unturned in his whole island. . . . 

1 Bernadotte— Marshal B., afterwards King of Sweden (1764-1844). 

2 Marie Louise— Second wife of Napoleon (1791-1847). 
'Josephine's death— She died 29th May, 1814. 



FROM AUGUSTUS FOSTER. 389 

Augustus Foster 

To Elizabeth, Duchess of Devonshire. 

[Fragment of a letter written from Paris in 1814.] 

Mr. saw Napoleon often after the retreat 

from Leipzig, and says he was not changed in 
manner, as could be perceived, except that he took 
larger doses of snuff than was usual, and in a more 
hurried manner; and when the Legislative Body- 
met he hurried across the hall to his throne and 
back again in rather a precipitate manner. You 
know Captain Usher kept a regular journal while on 
board; it must be very curious: a general Montoro 
and family have been to see Elba : they saw Napoleon, 
who invited them to return in a few hours, and they 
would find him surrounded by his Court. In effect, 
he had a little theatre fitted up for the mock assem- 
blage of his Elba courtiers. Lord Liverpool says 
nothing surprizes him but this mania of being sover- 
eign in little; to me, however, it appears reconcilable 
to the general feature of his character, namely, con- 
tempt of the whole human race, whom he uses as 
the servile instruments of his power, or of his 
amusements. I wish you could see my schoolfellow, 
Le Mounier, who was his private secretary for six 
years. 

Augustus Foster 

To Elizabeth, Duchess of Devonshire. 

1814. 
Bernadotte is quite fallen with every body. One 
half Paris seems to blame his conduct to Bonaparte, 



390 THE TWO DUCHESSES. 

and the other his slowness. He had it in his power 
to act a magnificent part, and he has ruined himself 
by too nice calculations: however, Alexander will 
still help him in Norway. He stands as high as it 
is possible for man; every body praises him. The 
Parisians, however, are not yet quite rid of their 
fears for the Museum; he was observed to be noting 
several articles a few days ago which has excited 
alarm. Madame de Stael called here yesterday, 
and was full of contempt for the French character 
and of blame of Bernadotte. There is a great sore- 
ness at the having a foreign garrison in Paris. One 
meets with all colours of foreign uniforms galloping 
in every direction, and Germans and Russians stand- 
ing sentinels in almost every street. The generals 
and Ministers are quartered upon French houses. 
Castlereagh was put into that of the Ministre du 
tresor publique, Cathcart 1 into Berthier's at first, 
afterwards into Junot's, 2 Lord Aberdeen intoArrighi's. 3 
The latter's Aide de Camp swore at first he should 
not come in, but Aberdeen very spiritedly threatened 
to send a party of Cossacks to bivouack in his yard; 
then they surrendered, though he carried away every 
article of furniture till he found Aberdeen was a 
quiet gentlemanlike man, and then he sent a few 
articles of furniture, and came back to lodge in the 
second story himself. The foreign troops are going 
soon, and the King of Prussia is to set off in a week 
for England. Last night at the Theatre des Varietes 
they acted Le Souper de Henry IV., in which there 

1 Cathcart— -Lord C, British general, d. 1814. 

^Junot— Marshal J. (1771-1813). 3 Arrighi — General A. (1778-1853). 



FROM FREDERICK FOSTER. 39 1 

is a great deal inserted for the occasion and with 
great judgment, full of moderation and of menage - 
ment for the military glory of the Nation, and it was 
received with great applause. It is impossible to 
stand higher than the English do here; people of all 
sorts are striving which shall best express the feeling 
to us. The French, too, open themselves to us 
without scruple upon their affairs. One man at 
Amiens absolutely shed tears at the degradation of 
his country when he found himself alone with 
Frederick. The Prussians behave well in the great 
towns, but commit a great deal of injustice in the 
villages; one told me they had Champagne enough 
to bathe in in Champagne. ... I should add 
here that Bernadotte is well satisfied with his allies, 
but when a levde he was to have had was put off, 
ill natured persons endeavoured to make out it was 
because few persons were likely to attend. 



Frederick Foster 

To Augustus Foster. 

Marseilles, Dec. 27, 1814. 
My dearest Augustus. . . . We have seen 
Massena. He is, I believe, stingy, but very civil, 
and very interesting to see. Bonaparte on embark- 
ing for Elba sent him his amitids, c'est un brave 
homme je l'aime fort — but Massena says he, Bona- 
parte, loves nobody; that once when he was ill, 
Bonaparte never took the least notice of him, never 
even sent to enquire, and that at another time, when 



392 THE TWO DUCHESSES. 

he was also unwell, and that Bonaparte had need of 
his services, he used to come and see him three or 
four times a day. He thinks he was a man de grandes 
conceptions, particularly when things went on well, 
but that in adverse fortune he failed. Believes that 
Austria wishes to have it in her power to "lacker un 
tel dogue" against Russia and France; yet Massena 
seemed to have a kind of liking for him ; said that it 
was him who had named him l' enfant de la Victoire, 
and pointing to his great coat said he was happier 
when he bought that, it was at Vienna. He wishes 
for war, if it was only to push forward his son. 
Massena is much broken and altered from what I 
remember him at the peace of Amiens. He and 
Wellington met at Paris, and after a stare' Massena 
said, "Milord, vous m avez fait bien penser". "Et vous 
Monsieur le Marichal vous m'avez souvent empichS, de 
dormir." We have heard here the same account of 
Bonaparte's southern journey as we did at Paris in 

May. At Dijon they gave L B the same 

Bidet that poor Napoleon rode when disguised as a 

courier. M told that at Orgon he got out of the 

carriage pour , and trembled excessively: had 

he passed through here they tell us he could not have 
escaped — and indeed this is far the most Bourbon 
town we have seen. F. T. F. 



FROM ELIZABETH, DUCHESS OF DEVONSHIRE. 393 

Elizabeth, Duchess of Devonshire, 

To Augustus Foster. 

Marseilles, December 30, 1814. 

Massena 1 lives in the same street with us; he is 
full of attention to us, and, though broken in health 
and spirits, animates on topicks which interest him. 
I heard that he would not talk about Bonaparte, 
and I was fearful, though very anxious, to name 
the subject. Last night we went to the prefect's, 
who has a fine house, and gave a very pretty ball. 
Massena sat between Lady Bessborough and me; 
he said something about Grassini. "Oh," I said, 
too happy to find an occasion, " Etoit ce quand 
Bonaparte fut si amoureux d'elle?" " Bonaparte," 
his eye assuming a stern expression, " Bonaparte n'a 
jamais aime personne, personne." I then went on 
from one thing to another, I found I could do so, 
and it was very interesting. " Quelle impression, 
Monsieur le Marechale, vous fit il, quand vous 
le connutes premierement?" " Un grand orgueil, 
Madame la Duchesse. Je l'ai connu qu'il n'etoit 
que Lieutenant colonel — des moyens, et pour cela 
de grand moyens, surtout dans la prosperity; dans 
l'adversite il manquoit de t6te, il n'avoit rien de grand." 
Of himself he said, "il m'aimoit ou en faisoit semblant, 
car jamais il n'a rien aim6 que son ambition; il me 
tutoya c'etoit a Milan quand il commandoit en chef 
qu'il me dit, ' Massena ne voudroit tu etre un des 
directeurs?' ' Non,' je lui repondit, ' je ne me con- 
nais pas en politique, je ne sais faire que la guerre — 

1 Massena — Marshal M. (1758-1817). 



394 THE TWO DUCHESSES. 

mais toi ne voudrais tu pas en etre?' II me repondit 
' avec quatre imbiciles, non, moi seul out'." He 
continued, " C'est lui qui m'a baptise enfant de la 
victoire — et bien, avec cela je fis une chute qui 
m'empechoit d'etre avec l'armee; il vint quatre fois 
la nuit me voir." "Mais cela," I said, " marquoit 
quelque sensibilite." " II avoit besoin de moi. Je fis 
une maladie apres, non seulement il ne vint pas; il 
n'envoya pas meme savoir de mes nouvelles." Many 
other things he told us, and we talked about, and it 
was very interesting. I'm afraid he don't live as he 
ought to do, but to us, &c, &c. 



Augustus Foster 

To Elizabeth, Duchess of Devonshire. 

Date? 1814. 
... I hope to get a letter from you at Gothen- 
burg, and long to know if you think that Audrey 
Townsend will be prevailed upon to change her 
mind, or if you advise me to renounce all hope. If 
she will but authorize me I would write for leave on 
my return from Norway and go and meet her where- 
ever she is. I am sure we should be very happy, 
though she would only laugh at me if I was to say I 
was in love with her, yet I think of her every day 
and in every arrangement I make, and have her 
beautiful clean hair and light little figure continually 
before my eyes. If you think a line from me would 
have any effect pray send the inclosed. She must 
have now settled her mind about it, and I should 
not wish to be kept merely in hope. . . . 



FROM AUGUSTUS FOSTER. 395 

Augustus Foster 

To Elizabeth, Duchess of Devonshire. 

January 10, 181 5. 

. . . Mr. Bourke tells me that Massena three 
years ago was very ill, but would not be persuaded 
by his wife to consult a physician, on which she 
went to Bourgon, a physician, and told him the 
reason was Massena's unwillingness to pay the neces- 
sary fee, begging the physician to come and see him 
as a friend, which he did, and recommended him to 
change his climate: then he went to Nice. This 
he told me a propos to your observation about his 
cuisine. Madame Massena described him to Bour- 
gon as having des millions, but being more chary of 
an ecu now than he was when he had scarcely one. 



Frederick Foster 

To Augustus Foster. 

Marseilles, March 4, 1815. 
My dearest Augustus, — Here's pretty news in- 
deed. I was woke this morning out of a sweet 
sleep with "You had better get up, Sir, there are 
crowds of soldiers and people in the streets. Bona- 
parte is landed at Cannes." I got up in a hurry 
and rushed to the Prefect's, and, in short, the history 
is that the Emperor Napoleon has, in four or five 
transports, and a zebeck carrying himself and his 
staff, landed at Cannes on the first or early the 
second March with about 1200 or 2000 men. He 



396 THE TWO DUCHESSES. 

attempted to surprize Antibes, but the Governor 
was firm, and at Cannes the mayor behaved very- 
well. Bonaparte asked him why he wore a white 
cockade; he replied he had taken an oath to be 
faithful to Louis 18, and would remain so, and that 
he might do with him as he pleased. He is gone in 
the direction of Dauphiny. Troops are gone from 
Toulon in pursuit, and from this place they have 
been marching all night. The Prefect's Proclama- 
tion don't name him, but says that quelques salari6s 
de l'lsle d'Elba have landed, and that they ought 
to be glad of this mad attempt of the Exile" de l'lsle 
d'Elba, as he will now receive the punishment due 
to his forfaits. Bonaparte has distributed Procla- 
mations. I have not as yet seen any of them, but I 
am told they contain great abuse of Marmont 1 and 
Augereau. They are in General Bertrand's name. 
The whole of Marseilles is, of course, in great 
anxiety; it is a very Bourbon place, and the white 
flag waves almost from every window; the National 
Guards are all out, and we are in a great bustle. 
The conduct of the French Government seems 
inconceivable. Colonel Campbell, on leaving the 
island, warned them to be on their guard, and they 
had only two frigates to cruise. At Grasse he 
stopped and bought stores and paid for them; his 
six pieces of cannon he has been forced to leave 
behind him from the badness of the roads. What 
a noise this will make in England! What second 
editions of the Courier! O you wise Ministers, to 
send him to such a place as Elba; several soldiers 

1 Marmont — Marshal M. (1774-1852). 



FROM ELIZABETH, DUCHESS OF DEVONSHIRE. 397 

landed from there lately and were from suspicious 
conduct arrested, and a great deal of money found 
on them, with which they had been endeavouring to 
bribe their former comrades. I forgot to tell you 
that the Prince de Monaco was met plump by Bona- 
parte, who stopped him for a couple of hours and 
then let him go. Estafettes are gone off in all 
directions; it's inconceivable, I think, his hazarding 
this without being pretty sure of a strong party to 
support him. Flahault, a son of the famous Madame 
de Souza, was suspected of intriguing for him. Did 
you hear of a sarcasm of Talleyrand to him ? F. was 
talking of the difficulties of his position; that, in his 
position, favoured as he had been by the Emperor, 
he did not know what to do, and that in short his 
position embarrassed him very much. Talleyrand 
with his cold sneer said, vous avez done une position, 
Monsieur de Flahault. I wonder what will be 
Talleyrand's position now at the Congress, and when 
will that eternal Congress end? . . . 



Elizabeth, Duchess of Devonshire, 

To Augustus Foster. 

Marseilles, March 7, 18 15. 

Caro will tell you about Bonaparte. Was there 
ever any thing so extraordinary! The spirit here is 
excellent, and late last night a traveller who saw him 
at Sisteron says his force was reduced to 400. People 
generally seem to think it a desperate effort made on 
the idea that he was to be removed from Elba — that 



398 THE TWO DUCHESSES. 

the great mass of the Nation is against him — a part 
of the army for him, and even they would hesitate at 
fighting against friends and relations. Eight hundred 
marched from here yesterday — Guards, volunteers, 
troops of the line ; the concourse which accompanied 
them was immense and touching to see. Monsieur 
de Riviera dined with us on Saturday, and at the 
Prefect's Sunday: he saw Massena late Sunday, and 
was quite satisfied with him. My love to Albinia, 
who, I hope, will be my daughter by the time you 
receive my letter. 



Frederick Foster 

To Augustus Foster. 

Marseilles, March 8, 1815. 
I wrote to you a day or two ago with the first 
account of Bonaparte's landing, and I now will add 
the few details I have heard since. He was so sure 
of having possession of Antibes that his manuscript 
proclamations are dated thence. He has had the 
wicked cunning of dressing two or three of his 
officers in English uniforms, and as he has gone on 
he has given out that the English are for him, that 
he landed from an English frigate, and that all 
France recalls him to the throne. He appears to be 
almost sunburnt black, and to be excessively fat ; his 
men are said to be in a wretched state, and some 
have deserted. Nothing can be more active and 
fine than the conduct of the Prefect Marquis 
d'Allecetas or of Comte de Panisse, Commander of 
the National Guards. The spirit of the people is 



FROM FREDERICK FOSTER. 399 

quite perfect. Many of the principal young men of 
the place have marched as common soldiers. Some 
merchants here have dismissed all their workmen to 
enable them to march, and still continue their pay or 
wages; yet the confusion this fellow has created is 
very great. They had just received their franchise, 
and every thing was reviving, and now every thing 
is at a stand. Bonaparte seems to proceed with the 
greatest coolness; at least, he affects it. He has 
brought his cook with him, and left his carriage at 
Grasse, to wait, as he said, for his mother and sister 
Pauline. At any town he comes to he orders rations 
for six or seven thousand men, so that the inhabitants 
are terrified and stupefied; however, his freaks that 
way will be soon found out; the whole country is in 
arms, high and low, rich and poor, and, excepting a 
few stupid or treacherous public functionaries, every 
body behaves perfectly. We expect one of the 
Princes here to take the command in the South. 
Precy has marched from Lyons, and Lecourbe, they 
say, from Briancjon, and the King of Sardinia has 
granted the passes of his mountains. If the worst 
comes to the worst, and he gets the upper hand, they 
are determined to make a Spanish war of it, and 
never to submit. However, I think it will be soon 
over with him. I am sorry to interrupt your Hy- 
meneal Pleasures with wars and rumours of wars, 
and hope Albinia will forgive me. 



400 THE TWO DUCHESSES. 

Frederick Foster, 

To Augustus Foster. 

Marseilles, March 9, 1815. 
You will be too much engrossed with one another 
to care about news; yet the extraordinary event of 
Bonaparte's being in France will rouse your atten- 
tion. Three times to-day have we been told that 
Bonaparte has been taken, and the whole town has 
poured out with acclamations of joy; but, alas, it is 
not so ; the news, however, is satisfactory as far as it 
goes. . . . The only thing for us to mention is 
the excellent spirit of the people, the noble conduct 
of the gentlemen and noblesse, and the rapid marches 
which the National Guard have made with the troops. 
They are now within two leagues of Bonaparte. 
Monsieur 1 arrived at Lyons yesterday with Marshal 
Ney and Comte de Dumas. Bonaparte speaks with 
astonishing assurance of the numbers that will join 
him, but none of whom have done so. He enters 
a village and orders rations for six thousand men, 
having only eight hundred. He tells the people that 
Massena is manoeuvring with twenty-five thousand 
men near Paris, and that the King has fled to Lisle. 
It looks well his telling such falsehoods. The people 
here were growing dissatisfied with Massena: he has 
at last published a proclamation, in which he ends by 
saying that he shall spill the last drop of his blood to 
defend the lawful King. It had an immediate effect 
on the funds, which rose. Bonaparte left his horse 

1 Monsieur — Louis, brother of Louis XVI. , whom he afterwards succeeded as 
Louis XVIII. (1755-1824). 



FROM AUGUSTUS FOSTER. 40I 

lamed at Sisteron, and forgot a fine spying glass 
there. He wears a cuirass over his coat. 



Augustus Foster 

To Elizabeth, Duchess of Devonshire. 

Whitehall, March 10, 181 5. 

We have just heard of Bonaparte's having landed 
between Antibes and Nice with a thousand, and of 
the King of France's proclamation. Lord Fitzroy 
Somerset sent it. I own I am confounded with this 
news. The worst is the uncertainty of knowing who 
is and who is not a friend. I trust Marshal Massena 
will take care of you, and let you set off for Paris 
and the north; and I trust in your admirable good 
sense and decision, or I should be greatly alarmed. 
. . . People look thunderstruck at this news. . . . 
Your house will be let on Monday for a year — viz., 
to March 12, 18 16. I cannot alter it now, for Lord 
Byron is in the country. 



W. H. Hill (H. M. Minister at Turin) 

To Elizabeth, Duchess of Devonshire. 

Turin, April 12, 1815. 

Dear Duchess, — I have just received your letter 
of the 9th, and, having discharged my conscience as 
to the little danger of being shut up in Genoa (and 
I think it is but little), I will tell you all I know 
of Murat. By our last accounts he was still at 

2C 



402 THE TWO DUCHESSES. 

Guastalla, but we expect every hour to hear of his 
moving. You are very right, I hope, in your 
calculation of one great defeat destroying him, and 
not the Austrians. The latter will not have less 
than 175 thousand troops in Italy when all their 
reinforcements arrive, but they have scarcely a third 
of that number at present. Murat has beat the 
Austrians once in a pretty smart though not general 
affair (Don't quote me for this bad news), but if he 
does not beat them most decisively in a pitched 
battle within three weeks, I trust he has no chance, 
for by that time a great body of Austrian reinforce- 
ments will arrive. So prevalent is the idea of 
Murat's reaching Milan that the Marquis D'O. has 
just been telling me it is universally reported here 
that he is already there. This is ridiculous. There 
is the Po between him and the Austrians, i.e., the 
great force of the latter is on the other side. If you 
are determined to go to Genoa you had better make 
haste, and you will be at the head-quarters of all 
news. It was full of English, but they are beginning 
to move. The Col di Tenda is very passable. 
Mr. Burrell came over it and went to Genoa this 
morning, but if you have set your heart upon going 
there now I can only hope there is no danger. 
Murat's army is increasing; he has been joined by 
many old soldiers. Italy discontented, and his pro- 
clamations revolutionary. The news from Vienna is 
good — eight hundred thousand troops to be ready 
next month. Many European Powers appear to 
have signed against Bonaparte. The Emperor 
Alexander at Prague hurrying his troops through 



FROM AUGUSTUS FOSTER. 403 

Bohemia. The Sovereigns have not yet met at 
Frankfort, but are still, it is said, to meet there. 

It is reported the King of France, after arriving at 
Ostend, was invited to join them at Frankfort. In 
the meanwhile, what is to become of the South of 
France? We are in the greatest distress upon that 
subject. Yours ever, W. H. 



Augustus Foster 

To Elizabeth, Duchess of Devonshire. 

Whitehall, April 22, 1815. 

. . . Caro has got yours of the 6th. What an 
interesting diary! and how Massena deceived you! 
How covered with crimes and disgraceful perjuries 
are almost all Bonaparte's generals and followers, 
and how they render the race of Frenchmen de- 
testable and disgusting! I have seen D'Aumont, 
who was cheated and thwarted by Augereau at Caen. 
D'Aumont had his volunteers in the Castle, but 
Augereau was his superior, and sent an order for the 
admission of some artillery, and D'Aumont could not 
refuse. When matters were becoming desperate, 
D'Aumont wanted to carry off the caisses for the 
King, but Augereau sent an order that not a sous 
should be touched without his signature. He found 
gens d'armes following him and preceding him wher- 
ever he went, and two at his door. At length 
Augereau, who had been in the habit of dining with 
him, advised him to be off, and when he said, But 
you run as much risk as me, oh! non, the scoundrel 



404 THE TWO DUCHESSES. 

answered, C'est different pour moi, mais peut £tre 
que demain je recevrais l'ordre de vous arreter. So 
he embarked in a boat in the river, and came in a 
storm to England. . . . 



Elizabeth, Duchess of Devonshire, 

To Augustus Foster. 

Milan, June 21, 1815. 

Madame de Stael has shown a great deal 
of character. Bonaparte sent to tell her he would 
pay her the debt which Louis 18 had acknowledged, 
but on condition that she would return to Paris. 
She has resisted, which is the more remarkable, as 
B. Constant 1 and Sismondi 2 are both won over. 
What a crisis we are at! It is fearful to think of. 
Your King, the papers say, is going to join the 
other Sovereigns. Murat dethroned makes Italy 
quiet, I think, for some time at least. . . . 



The Honble. Mrs. George Lamb 

To Augustus Foster. 

Richmond, June 30, 1815. 
What wonderful events, 3 my dear Augustus, since 
I last wrote to you; how glorious to England, but 
how dearly bought. Poor Frederick Howard! his 
death, as you may imagine, has affected his family 
very much. Mrs. Howard is miserable, and has 

1 Constant — Benjamin C. (1767-1830). 

2 Sismondi — John S., historian (1773-1842). 

1 Wonderful events — The battle of Waterloo, &c. 



FROM THE HONBLE. MRS. GEORGE LAMB. 405 

scarcely spoken since. Frederick Ponsonby happily 
is doing well, and is out of danger, but his wounds 
very bad ones : both arms were shot, and three stabs 
in the body. In this dreadful state he lay all night, 
and was, besides, rode over by the Prussian Cavalry, 
and, of course, is bruised all over; it is wonderful, I 
think, that he survived it; but he is, thank God, 
recovering rapidly. The consequences, too, of the 
victory are so great that it heightens the glory of it. 
Bonaparte's abdication, it must be hoped, will stop 
all further bloodshed. What is to be done with him 
is the puzzling question now, and who is to succeed? 
The forcing the Bourbons back upon them seems a 
violent measure, and one they are strongly against, 
but yet one dreads their electing young Napoleon 
unless Bonaparte was out of the way. All sorts of 
reports are afloat to-day. It was said he had put 
himself under Lord Wellington's protection. He 
had better. I dare say he would have more honour 
towards him than those treacherous Frenchmen, who 
make it a system to give up one Sovereign after the 
other the moment they are in adversity. As to pri- 
vate affairs, I suppose you have heard of your friend 
Lord Aberdeen's marriage to Lady Hamilton 1 — two 
miserable creatures. He says, What else have we to 
do? The truth is, she is beautiful and he is very 
much in love with her. 

1 Lady Hamilton — Widow of Viscount Hamilton. Lord Aberdeen's first wife 
had been dead more than three years. 



406 THE TWO DUCHESSES. 

Augustus Foster 

To Elizabeth, Duchess of Devonshire. 

Copenhagen, July u, 1815. 

. . , Gordon is said to have lost his life in 
screening Lord Wellington. Having in vain urged 
the Duke to quit the place where he was, he rode up 
to put himself before him, and so received the ball. 
Other letters say he was pulling the bridle of the 
horse to get him out of the way. What a tremen- 
dous contest, but what a decisive overthrow! Boney's 
own account does us justice as much almost as one 
could wish. How curious if he really has gone from 
Havre to England. I hope we shall give refuge to 
none of his dastardly generals who have so often 
perjured themselves. 

. . . The King of Denmark sends the Elephant 1 
to Wellington and Blucher and to our Prince Regent. 
It is a right thing to do, and it is, I suppose, the 
order Hamlet wore. A propos to the latter, there is 
an old chronicle about him by the Danish historian, 
Saxo Grammaticus, who nourished in the thirteenth 
century, and it is probably from this that Shakespeare 
took his story; but I am sorry to say the Danish 
Ophelia was an improper lady employed to betray 
Hamlet, though she deserves to be called proper, for 
notwithstanding she consented to his wishes she 
kept his secret. The Danish Hamlet feigns madness, 
and manages the death of Rosencranz and Guilder- 
stern, as Shakespeare says, but he marries both an 

1 Elephant — The Danish order of the ' ' Elephant "- 



FROM AUGUSTUS FOSTER. 407 

English and a Scotch Princess, and, returning to 
Denmark, feigns madness again, then sets fire to the 
palace, stabs the King, and gets possession of the 
throne, when he reigns gloriously for several years, 
and at last is killed in a duel with the King of Jut- 
land. The Danish historian makes him out a fine 
character, and, particularly, says he never told an 
untruth during his madness. His speech to his 
mother is real, and so is the killing of Polonius, 
though the latter is killed under a heap of straw 
instead of behind tapestry. The story of the Ghost 
seems to be Shakespeare's, as also the manner of 
the murder. The whole is a long story, and there 
are several eloquent speeches of Hamlet to the 
Troops. 

Augustus Foster 

To Elizabeth, Duchess of Devonshire. 

Copenhagen,/^ 23, 181 5. 

I hope you received my account of Ham- 
let. I have to add that the story of Hamlet belongs 
to about the year 550, and I was mistaken about the 
history, which was written in the beginning of the 
thirteenth century, but only printed in the sixteenth. 
I must add the remark of Saxo-Grammaticus, the 
historian, on Amleth's death, which was caused by 
his fighting with inferior forces against Vigletus, 
chief of the Scandians and Zeelanders. He says 
such was the end of Amleth, who, if he had experi- 
enced an equal kindness from fortune as from nature, 
would have equalled the Gods in brilliancy of deeds, 



408 THE TWO DUCHESSES. 

and surpassed Hercules in the acts of virtue. He 
adds that his burial was magnificent, and that there 
exists a field in Jutland called after him. 



The Hon. Mrs Lamb 

To Augustus Foster. 

Holland House, Sept., 1815. 

. . . One day Captain Maitland of the Bellero- 
phon dined here, and you may believe we questioned 
him very much about Napoleon. He has been very 
much hurt at being accused of being too civil to him, 
as he merely treated him with the usual forms of 
civility, which surely it would have been very wrong 
to refuse to any great man in adversity. He was 
delighted at the crowds who came to see him, and 
always shewed himself whenever he might be about. 
Madame Bertrand attempted to drown herself upon 
finding they were to go to St. Helena, saying she 
was the cause of his coming on board that ship. 
Frederick Ponsonby has been here too, who is quite 
well again, and grown very fat. He has not re- 
covered the use of his arms, but is in hopes that he 
shall in time. His quiet and simple account of all he 
suffered is very interesting. He never lost his recol- 
lection, and says it was not pleasant to see the 
Prussian cavalry advancing, and that it hurt a good 
deal. Lord and Lady Byron have also been here. 
She is to lie in in November. He appears very 
happy, and is very much improved by his marriage. 



FROM ELIZABETH, DUCHESS OF DEVONSHIRE. 409 

George 1 and he are two of the new managers of 
Drury Lane, very eager about it, and, as it has 
hitherto gone on very well, it is only a great amuse- 
ment to them. 



Elizabeth, Duchess of Devonshire, 

To Augustus Foster. 

Florence, October 21, 181 5. 
Some 01 my letters, I think, must have missed, 
or you would have seen my indignation at Massena's 
conduct before I left Marseilles, and I told dear 
Riviera so at Toulon. You will soon hear of Murat's 2 
fate. Mr. Sneyd brought the news from Rome to- 
day that he had been shot. It was so reported last 
night at Mme. Apponis', and people thought it was 
very unfeeling of Lady Oxford to be there, and as 
merry as if he was still on the throne of Naples. She 
asked me if I was going to Naples, adding that she 
thought it quite a paradise, and that she lived in 
friendship with the former Government. I said that 
I should not go to Naples, but that my friendship 
was with the present King, to whom my brother had 
been much attached and most kindly treated. She is 
a strange woman. I suppose it will make some sen- 
sation. He must have been mad. He sailed from 
Corsica, telling them to steer for Tunis : arrived at 
a certain point he told them to steer for Calabria: a 
storm dispersed two of his feluccas; with the third 
he arrived on the coast of Calabria: he called to the 

1 George — The Hon. George Lamb, brother of William Lamb who succeeded to 
the title of Viscount Melbourne. 

^Murat — Marshal M., King of Naples (1767-1815). 



4IO THE TWO DUCHESSES. 

people to shout Viva Giacchino, that he was come 
to re-enter his kingdom. The peasants fought him; 
he defended himself stoutly, but was overpowered, 
bound, and carried to a Sicilian general, who had him 
shot; and so, I think, that dynasty is at an end. He 
was such a false, shabby fellow, except in personal 
courage, that I can hardly pity him. . . . 



Augustus Foster 

To Elizabeth, Duchess of Devonshire. 

Dublin, December 31, 1815. 

. . . I hope Massena will get well that you 
may see him. I hear the Duke de Richlieu is likely 
all in favor at the Tuilleries, and that the Duke de 
Choiseul Gouffier is also in great favor. You don't 
mention to whom Napoleon spoke about the Sim- 
plon, &c. Caro says it only prejudices her in favor 
of Napoleon to hear of the calm with which he bears 
his misfortunes. One cannot certainly help pitying 
a fallen man, but he seems to have more of apathy 
than calm, and he surely ought to be repentant or 
shew some remorse for the evils he has done. I 
fear he despises men too much to think them worth 
caring about. He told Vernon the opposition was 
very low, and Vernon answered it was because 
they had predicted the conquest of Spain by him. 
You don't say any thing of Mme. de Stael's reported 
? with Rocca, 1 so I conclude it is a report you 
despise, though some will have it your silence argues 

1 Rocca — She had been secretly married to this young man for several years. 



FROM ELIZABETH, DUCHESS OF DEVONSHIRE. 41 1 

that there is something in it. She told a friend of 
mine in speaking of Ward " quel dommage qu'avec 
un si beau talent il soit si egoiste et si incapable 
d'une veritable amitie ". 



Augustus Foster 

To Elizabeth, Duchess of Devonshire. 

Copenhagen, Jan 6, 18 16. 

Albinia has made me a Papa. The event hap- 
pened at 1 p.m. on the 3rd. . . . 



Elizabeth, Duchess of Devonshire, 

To Augustus Foster. 

RoME,/a«. 26, 1 8 16. 

I see Canova 1 often. He is delightful, 
and gives the idea of what the great artists were in 
1500. He says he believes his statue of Bonaparte 
which is at Paris is to be ceded to the Prince 
Regent, and that he means to place it in the house 
to be built for Wellington. His own favourite 
statue, a nymph which is here, he wants to give to 
the Prince, for Canova is the most liberal person 
ever known. ... I hope the powers mean in 
earnest to do something to protect their coasts from 
the Barbaresques. It is dreadfull to have whole 
families carried off and sold in Africa; besides, as 
we have taken Malta, we are called upon to supply 

1 Canova — (1757-1822). 



412 THE TWO DUCHESSES. 

the place of the Knights who used to protect them. 
How happy Sir Sidney must have been — knighted 
by the Duke of Wellington. . . . 



Elizabeth, Duchess of Devonshire, 

To Augustus Foster. 

ROME, February 9, 1 8 16. 

Rome is too, too beautiful. Gonsalvi 1 and I are 
such friends that when we are at the same place the 
crowd gives way for him to come up to me. He 
is doing much here, and it is delightfull to see the 
encouragement given to improvements of all kinds, 
and the publick walks are finishing. An interesting 
scavato is to take place next month at Preneste. . . . 
Bonaparte used to say of his sisters 2 that Madame 
Murat was l'ambitieuse; Madame Bajocchi, la 
spirituelle; and the Princess Borghese, la jolie; but 
they said, " apres son mariage avec l'Autrichienne il 
paroissoit avoir honte de nous ". 



Augustus Foster 

To Elizabeth, Duchess of Devonshire. 

Copenhagen, Feb. 27, 1816. 
... I hear a report that Lord and Lady Byron 
have separated from incompatibility. I should not 
be surprised, but hope it is not so. . . . 

1 Gonsalvi — Cardinal G., Roman Prime Minister. 

2 His sisters — Carlotta (afterwards named Marie Pauline), married to Prince C. 
Borghese; Maria Anna (afterwards named Elise), married to Felix Baciocchi, a 
Corsican soldier; she was created by her brother Princess of Piombino, and is 
said to have been more respected perhaps than any other member of the Bonaparte 
family ; and Annunziata (afterwards named Caroline), wife of Joachim Murat, 
whom Napoleon created King of Naples. 



FROM ELIZABETH, DUCHESS OF DEVONSHIRE. 413 

Elizabeth, Duchess of Devonshire, 

To Mrs. Foster. 

Rome, March 8, 18 16. 

. . We have a squadron, I hear, arrived at 
Leghorn, which, I hope, is to protect these coasts 
against the barbaresques. It is very shocking that 
there should be a vessel left them to carry off whole 
families from these countries, and whilst we are forc- 
ing all countries to abolish the slave trade, we allow, 
for the sake of gain, of this worst of all slavery of 
Christians to the Algerines. If Augustus was in 
Parliament, and in England, I should like him to 
take up this cause. What a fair one for a young 
and ardent mind ! We are all astonished here at the 
separation of Lord and Lady Byron. You will have 
heard of it from England. Nobody knew the cause 
when my last letters were written, but every body 
seemed to pity her. So do I too; but yet I think 
that, had I married a profligate man, knowing that 
he was so, and that I had a child, and was not ill 
used by him, I would not part from him. . . . 



Elizabeth, Duchess of Devonshire, 

To Augustus Foster. 

March 22, 1816. 

Lady Byron's fate is the most melancholy I ever 
heard, and he must be mad or a Caligula. Caro will 
have told you some of the stories. It is too shocking, 
and her life seems to have been endangered whilst 



414 THE TWO DUCHESSES. 

with him from his cruelty, and now by her sufferings. 
I pity her from my heart: she might have been a 
happy person. ... I am sure I have mentioned 
Thorwaldsen, 1 whom I admire very much, but when 
they attempt to place him above, or equal to, Canova, 
I think it is like comparing cinque cento to the 
antique ; but he is very good, and full of genius, but 
idle. . . England seems in an odd state : opposi- 
tion strong, and making shabby obstacles to publick 
monuments; foolish remonstrances against guards at 
the Prince Regent's levee; and an odd marriage 
decided on for the future Queen of England; yet 
every body speaks well of Prince Leopold of Saxe 
Cobourg, and he is very handsome. Some say that 
Lord Liverpool is out of favor. 



Augustus Foster 

To Elizabeth, Duchess of Devonshire. 

March 23, 18 16. 

. . . Caroline seems quite shocked at Lord 
Byron's conduct to poor Annabel, but don't give me 
the particulars. They were certainly two very 
opposite people to come together, but she would 
marry a poet and reform a rake. As to him, he has 
at length proved himself the true Childe Harold. 

1 Thorwaldsen (1770-1844). 



FROM THE COUNTESS OF LIVERPOOL. 415 

Elizabeth, Duchess of Devonshire, 

To Augustus Foster. 

April 6, 1 8 16. 

Thorwaldsen is very clever, but terribly lazy. . . . 

Poor Lady Byron's fate is enough to alarm all 

parents. She is wretched, ill, and persecuted by 

him, who now refuses to sign the deeds of separation. 



Elizabeth, Duchess of Devonshire, 

To Augustus Foster. 

Rome, April 6, 1816. 

Canova is delightful, and has the en- 
thusiasm so necessary to make a good artist. . . . 



The Countess of Liverpool 

To Elizabeth, Duchess of Devonshire. 

Fife House, May ^d, 18 16. 

I must write one line to you, dearest sister, to tell 
you that I was at the Royal marriage 1 yesterday, and 
not the worse for the exertion, though I had a return 
of ? , and had been bled two days before. 

Lord Liverpool did not venture, though nearly well. 
Dr. Pemberton was afraid the heat and the standing 
might have brought on a relapse of his complaint. 
Nothing could go off better than the whole ceremony 

1 Royal Marriage — Marriage of the Princess Charlotte, daughter of the Prince 
of Wales, to Prince Leopold of Saxe-Coburg (afterwards King of the Belgians). 



41 6 THE TWO DUCHESSES. 

did in all its parts. The Bride and Bridegroom 
looked very handsome, and every body was very 
struck and pleased with the very uncommon manner 
in which they both followed through the service in 
their prayer books and distinctly and earnestly pro- 
nounced their mutual vows. May they be happy! 
I wish it from my very heart! They are gone to 
Oatlands for about a week. When the ceremony 
was over the Princess knelt to her father for his 
blessing, which he gave her, and then raised and 
gave her a good hearty, paternal hug that delighted 
me, and took her up to the Queen, who kissed her, as 
did her Aunts. The Prince Regent then embraced 
his son-in-law, and afterwards took him up to the 
Queen, who embraced him, as did the Princesses. 
They all like him extremely, and, indeed, it is im- 
possible not to like him. His manners are perfect, 
particularly quiet, and mildly dignified without any 
affectation, but great self-possession. They say he 
is as truly amiable as he is pleasing, and very re- 
ligious, which gives the greatest satisfaction here. . . . 



Augustus Foster 

To Elizabeth, Duchess of Devonshire. 

Copenhagen, May 18, 1816. 

Caroline relieved me much about poor 
Lady Caroline Lamb. I was afraid it had been 
madness, but, though bad enough, it seems to have 
been a passionate fit against her page, and will prob- 
ably be a good lesson to her. It is impossible not 



FROM THE COUNTESS OF LIVERPOOL. 417 

to feel some regard for her from old times, and it is 
really painful to see so delightful a person as she 
once was in absolute danger of committing so horrid 
a crime, and so entirely unmanageable. I must say 
I think her husband is a great deal to blame, for, 
had he studied a little more Shakespeare's taming of 
the shrew, he might have checked her, at least so as 
to prevent such dreadful and shameful excesses in a 
disposition not naturally wicked. I cannot conceive 
what it was Lord Byron did to his wife. You 
thought her wrong at first, but now you find her 
grossly injured. . . . 



Countess of Liverpool 

To Elizabeth, Dtichess of Devonshire. 

Coombe Wood, July 17, 1816. 

. , . I saw the Bishop of London two days 
ago, and he gave me some comfort about poor 
Sheridan. 1 The Bishop assured me that during his 
last visit Mr. Sheridan, though too weak to speak, 
most decidedly joined in prayer, and by very ex- 
pressive gestures applied to himself every word 
which particularly mentioned the mercy of God, 
the mediation of our Saviour, the great sinfulness of 
his own life, and the blessed hope of pardon founded 
on repentance through the merits of our Redeemer. 
Poor man! his terror of death had been dreadful, 
but that his last feelings were those of humble hope. 
The good dear Bishop has taken Mrs. Sheridan 

1 Poor Sheridan — Richard Brinsley S. (1751-1816). 

2D 



418 THE TWO DUCHESSES. 

home to his own house. She has scarce left her 
bed since her husband's death. She has some hope- 
less inward complaint — it was her who first sent for 
the Bishop. 



Augustus Foster 

To Elizabeth, Duchess of Devonshire. 

Copenhagen, August 13, 1816. 

. . . I have read Glenarvon, 1 and only just 
read it. . . . As for the story, I had not patience 
to get through it, it is so disordered and confused, 
but the traits of character, the sentiments, and the 
uncommon impudence that runs through it is to me 
astonishing; yet, if Lord Avondale reads it, he must 
be a little conscience struck at his character of a free 
thinker, for I am convinced that, with all his good 
and noble qualities, he was used to scout at all fixed 
principles, and taught her, or helped her, to do the 
same. Glenarvon seems almost too bad for nature, 
yet agrees very much with the being it is meant for, 2 
and squares in with his own portrait in the Corsair, 
Childe Harold, &c. She don't give me the idea of 
being at all cured, notwithstanding her confessions. 
I had a letter from Adair the other day, who says he 
has made it a matter of conscience not to read the 
book, and talks of her as going on the same as ever. 
I sadly fear some bad end for her; she certainly is 
past all advice. . . . 

1 Glenarvon — A novel written by Lady Caroline Lamb. 

2 The being it is meant for — Lord Byron. 



FROM ANTONIO CANOVA. 419 

Antonio Canova 

To Elizabeth, Duchess of Devonshire. 

ROMA, 23 Settembre, 1816. 

Excellenza, — Dall Emi. Card. Gonsalvi ho ri- 
cevuto la gentilissima Letterina di S. E. per la quale 
vengo nuovamente confermato nella speranza, anzi 
nella certezza, di ritenere qualche parte nella sua 
memoria, cosa che sommamente desidero e che 
riconosco quale prezioso ornamento del viver mio. 
Ho seguito il di lei aviso di scrivere al Principe 
Reggente sul proposito dei Gessi dei marmi Elgini- 
ani e ne ho consegnata la lettera alia lodata Eminenza 
sua. Spero che avremo il bene di rivederla fra noi 
nel prossimo inverno come odo che da molti viene 
asseverato. Se altri cio desidera di cuore io sono 
uno di questi, e credo che non mi bisognino gran 
parole a rendernela persuaso. Ella conosce abba- 
stanza la sincerita e il carattere candido di miei senti- 
menti onde far justizia alle mie asserzioni, ma non 
potrebbe mai formarsi idea adequata del sentimento 
di stima e di affezionata considerazione ed ossequio 
con cui mi onero essere. — di V. E., 

Antonio Canova. 

Translation of the above. 

Rome, September 23, 1816. 

Your Excellency, — I have received from his 
Eminence, Cardinal Gonsalvi, your Excellency's 
most esteemed note, which confirms anew the hope, 
and indeed the certainty, of my retaining some place 



420 THE TWO DUCHESSES. 

in your memory, which I greatly desire and prize as 
a precious ornament of my existence. I have fol- 
lowed your advice by writing to the Prince Regent 
on the subject of the plaster casts of the Elgin 
marbles, and have consigned my letter to the care 
of his Eminence. I hope we shall have the happi- 
ness of seeing you again among us next winter, a 
wish which I hear uttered by many. If any persons 
heartily desire your return I am of the number, 
and I think I do not need to use many words to 
persuade you of this. You are sufficiently aware 
of the sincerity and candid character of my senti- 
ments to do justice to my assertions, but you could 
never form an adequate idea of the sentiments of 
esteem and affectionate consideration with which I 
have the honor to be your Excellency's, &c, &c. 

Antonio Canova. 



Antonio Canova 

To Elizabeth, Duchess of Devonshire. 

Roma, 12 Ottobre, 18 16. 
Preclarissima Signora Duchessa, — Le sono infinita- 
mento obbligato della graziosa lettera di cui le piacque 
onorarmi. L'espressioni di amorevolezza che fa uso 
a mio riguardo mi adornano 6 lusingano troppo perche 
io non abbia a sentirne tutto il valore e la riconos- 
senza che meritano. Duolmi che la sua brama di 
far collocare nel Panteon il ritratto del Cavaliere di 
Reynolds non possa adempirsi; io pure dentro di 
me stesso sentiva il dubbio 6 il peso di quella con- 
siderazione ch'ella mi dichiaro. Sono lietissimo della 



FROM ANTONIO CANOVA. 42 1 

dolce novella da lei datami del suo vicino ritorno a 
Roma. Ne aspetto il momento colla piu viva im- 
pazienza conforme ed equale al sentimento dell' alta 
forma che le professo. 

Io non ho mai fatto nulla che abbia rapporto al 
poeta Virgilio, ne statua ne ritratto. 

Mi conservi la preziosa sua benevolenza e credami 
cogli offizii del fratello pieno di venerazione e di 
osservanza. — Di Lei aff. Antonio Canova. 

Translation of the above. 

Rome, October 12, 18 16. 

Most Illustrious Lady Duchess, — I am infinitely- 
obliged to you for the gracious letter with which you 
have been pleased to honor me. The kind expres- 
sions which you make use of towards me are too 
complimentary and flattering for me not to feel the 
full force of the acknowledgment which is their due. 
I am sorry that it is not in my power to carry out 
your wish that the portrait of the cavaliere Reynolds 
should be placed in the collection of the Pantheon. 
I had indeed my own doubts on the subject, and felt 
the weight of the considerations which you laid 
before me. 

I am very glad of the good news which you an- 
nounce to me of your proposed early return to Rome. 
I look forward to that moment with the most lively 
impatience proportioned to the high regard which I 
entertain for you. 

I have never done any thing having any reference 
to the poet Virgil — neither statue nor portrait. 



422 THE TWO DUCHESSES. 

Pray continue your precious friendship to me, and 
believe my brother and myself to be full of veneration 
and respect. — Yours, &c, Antonio Canova. 



G. Thorwaldsen 

To Frederick Foster. 

Copenhagen, October^, 1816. 

My dear Sir, — Yesterday at length the proprietor 
of the Rosenborgen Pluto appointed the hour to- 
morrow 1 afternoon. At the same time I was un- 
fortunately decoyed into company of Highnesses, 
Excellencies, Ribbands, stars and keys. I thought 
myself in holy place; but alas! two villains, infamous 
by their very names, Cold and fever — these wretches 
seized me and carried me off, though I made strong 
protestations. They told me that precedents pub- 
lished by one of the greatest nations upon earth 
warranted this proceeding. Not entirely free from 
violence, yet impelled by knavery, my enemies have 
stretched me on my bed, where I am alternately tor- 
tured by heat and cold. My state is that of a vol- 
cano. However, I hope soon to outwit my enemies, 
to throw them out of doors, and banish them for ever. 
To-morrow my son Frederick will pay mine and his 
owne homage to you, and request the honour to be 
in your guide to Pluto's metropolis, one of the great 
Inigo Jones' works. Pray give my best respects to 
your brother, the ambassador, whom I will ever love 
and admire. Conceal my sufferings from the ladies; 
their generous feelings can not bear incident mis- 



FROM ELIZABETH, DUCHESS OF DEVONSHIRE. 423 

fortunes to their fellow creatures. Above all, bid 
God to have mercy on me; so doing I shall be 
benefited without your loss. I am for ever, my 
dear Sir, your faithfull and very humble servant, 

G. Thorwaldsen. 

Monsieur Frederick de Foster, 
Senateur de l'Angleterre. 



Elizabeth, Duchess of Devonshire, 

To Mrs. Foster. 

Rome, Nov. 16, 18 16. 
. . . Before I forget it, I must tell Augustus 
that the Danish sculptor Thorwaldsen is grown 
excellent. Some of his works are really admirable, 
and he is so modest and so excellent a man that he 
is liked and esteemed by all. He hopes to go to 
Denmark this next year, and they have good reason 
to be proud of him. 



Elizabeth, Duchess of Devonshire, 

To Augustus Foster. 

Rome, Dec. 10, 18 16. 
... Mr. Playfair, Mr. Elmsley, Mr. Sotheby 
are among the clever men of science and literature 
at Rome, and Mr. Brougham 1 and Vernon— Lord 
Henry, the clever men of the set now here, and all 
almost alike flock to the Princess Borghese, and the 
grave Lord Lansdowne, the silent Lord Jersey, the 

'Ifr. Brougham — Henry B. r afterwards Lord B. (1778-1868). 



424 THE TWO DUCHESSES. 

politician Mr. Brougham, all go and play aux petits 
jeux with Pauline. Forfeits condemned Lord Jersey 
to recite; he got off by promising to waltz. Lord 
Cowper was to soupirer pour une dame and so on. 
She shows her fine plate with the eagle, &c, and gets 
dozens of fine dresses from Paris. I admire the 
Pope's firmness in letting them all of that family 
remain at Rome, but I think that the English should 
put a little reason in their eagerness to go to her. 
Were it Josephine, who did thousands of benevolent 
generous acts; Maria Louisa, who was twice a sacrifice 
to politicks; Madame Lucien, 1 who is an excellent 
mother and wife, I think the attentions would be 
natural and commendable, but this person has only 
been cited for extreme arrogance in prosperity, ex- 
treme gallantry, and a good deal of beauty. Louis 
Buonaparte 2 inspires great esteem, I think, but he is 
sickly and, I believe, scarcely goes to his sisters. . . . 



Elizabeth, Duchess of Devonshire, 

To Augustus Foster. 

Rome, Dec. 16, 1816. 
. . . I hear from England that Lord Byron's 
third canto of Childe Harold is beautiful, but Lord 

^■Madame Lucien — She was widow of Monsieur Jouberthon, a stockbroker, and 
was second wife of Lucien Bonaparte, to whom she bore nine children, the eldest 
of whom, Letitia, married Thomas Wyse, Esq., an Irish gentleman, one of whose 
descendants, Bonaparte Wyse, is a Government Inspector of Irish National Schools. 

2 Louis Bonaparte — Third brother of Napoleon, who made him King of Holland. 
He married in 1802 Hortense Eugenie Beauharnais, daughter of Viscount B. and 
of Josephine, who was daughter of Count Tascher de la Pagerie, and was the first 
wife of Napoleon. His son, Charles Louis Napoleon Bonaparte, was elected in 
1848 President of the French Republic by 5,562,834 votes out of a total of 7,500,000, 
and again by more than 7,000,000 votes in 1851, and in the following year he 
assumed the title of Emperor. 



FROM ELIZABETH, DUCHESS OF DEVONSHIRE. 425 

Cowper don't like it so much, and Lady Bessborough 
is sending it to me, and I long for it, as, however 
odious his character, he is a great Poet. M. Lewis 1 
told me that he believed he was gone to Venice in 
order to embark for Dalmatia. M. Lewis till last 
night has never appeared. Here, as at Florence, 
he shuts himself up to hold converse only with the 
departed. I have begun a little excavation in the 
Foro Romano, and they found a little cup or calice. 
In digging close to the single Pillar, they found it 
to be a column to Phocas. 2 I am having the Cup 
cleaned a little and put together. At the great 
excavation they found a part of the Plan of Rome, 
which joins on to that which is preserved in the 
Capitol Museum. Nothing can be greater than the 
interest which this excites. I have employed poor 
labourers instead of forcats, which is a charity. I 
saw it particularly pleased my friend Cardinal Gon- 
salvi, and therefore I was doubly pleased to do it. . . . 



Elizabeth, Duchess of Devonshire, 

To Augustus Foster. 

Rome, December 29, 18 16. 

. . I have told you, I think, what a pro- 
digious improvement Thorwaldsen has made in his 
works. He really is excellent, and a very interest- 
ing person in himself. He has had a great deal to 
do, and Mr. Hope, his great patron, has desired that 

1 M. Lewis— M. G. L., novelist, author of The Monk (1775-1818). 
5 Phocas — Emperor of Constantinople, d. 610. 



426 THE TWO DUCHESSES. 

he will finish his Jason for him; but Canova's group 
for the Prince, Mars and Venus, is the most beautiful 
thing I ever saw, and the best of his works, I do 
think. This is done by order, and he is finishing 
for the Prince his Nymph and Amorino, which he 
means as an offering. He has works ordered that 
will take up twelve years. I would give any thing 
for a small work of his, but it is hopeless, and a 
group or figure I can't afford. 



Lord Byron 

To Elizabeth, Duchess of Devonshire. 

Venice, November 3, 1817. 

I was yesterday honoured by your Grace's letter 
of the 19th ult. The newspapers have, I fear, de- 
ceived your Grace, in common with many others, for, 
up to my last letters from England, Newstead Abbey 
has not been sold, and, should it be so at this 
moment, I shall be agreeably surprized. 

Amongst the many unpleasant consequences of 
my residence in Piccadilly, or rather the cause of that 
residence, I can assure your Grace that I by no 
means look upon it as the least painful that my 
inconvenience should have contributed to yours. 
Whatever measures Mr. Denen might find it proper 
to take were probably what he deemed his duty, and, 
though I regret that they were necessary, ... I 
am still more sorry to find that they seem to have 
been inefficacious. Indeed, till very lately, I was 
not aware that your Grace was so unlucky as to have 



FROM AUGUSTUS FOSTER. 427 

me still among the number of your debtors. I shall 
write to the person who has the management of my 
affairs in England, and although I have but little 
controul over either at present, I will do the best I 
can to have the remaining balance liquidated. — I 
have the honour to be, with great respect, Your 
Grace's most obedient, Very humble servant, 

Byron. 

Augustus Foster 

To Elizabeth, Duchess of Devonshire. 

Copenhagen, August 25, 1818. 
. . I find M. la ferronays a great resource 
here. I do not know if you are acquainted with him. 
He has been nearly caught and hung by Bonaparte's 
creatures; often on the coast of France disguised as 
a smuggler, and for six years a common soldier in 
the Austrian army, frequently without enough to 
eat. His brother was killed as a common soldier at 
the battle of Lutzen, being then in the French ser- 
vice as a conscript. He was with Korsakow at the 
tremendous battle of Zurich, and saw the ditches of 
Waterloo strewed with French and English soldiers. 
Freddy and Cavendish are nourishing, the latter as 
fat as ever. 

Augustus Foster 

To Elizabeth, Duchess of Devonshire. 

Copenhagen, Sept. 1, 18 18. 
. . . Albinia has something more than a sus- 
picion that a third little being is on its way up to the 



428 THE TWO DUCHESSES. 

regions of light. This, I know, will be looked on as 
a misfortune by you, and I think so too, unless it 
should be of the female sex this time, which would 
be some consolation. We shall not know this, how- 
ever, till about April, so there may be time to make 
an Italian of the little creature. . . . 



Augustus Foster 

To Elizabeth, Duchess of Devonshire. 

Copenhagen, Jan. 9, 18 19. 
. . . Cavendish is all fat as yet, but speaks at 
an earlier age than his brother did. 



Augustus Foster 

To Elizabeth, Duchess of Devonshire. 

Copenhagen, April 27, 1819. 
I am happy to tell you that Albinia has at last 
been safely delivered, but it is of a son instead of the 
wished for daughter; however, as I assisted this time 
and witnessed her sufferings, the little delivered was 
made welcome. The event happened yesterday, 
early in the morning. . . . You never mentioned 
the affair of poor Mr. Colycar: he was a descendant 
of the Dukes of Ancaster, and, as such, one out of 
the way of Freddy's succession to the situation of 
Great Chamberlain (?) of England, formerly belonging 
to the Veres. As younger sons should have good 
names, we mean to give the newcomer that of Vere 
to shew that he is a link in that chain of descent. 



FROM AUGUSTUS FOSTER. 429 

Augustus Foster 

To Elizabeth, Duchess oj Devonshire. 

Krokkedahl, June 7, 1819. 

. . . What you say of A' Court I think very just. 
Why, with a good estate and right if necessary to 
a pension, dawdle out his days in foreign missions. 
It is well enough for us younger brothers who have 
nor house nor home, but the Lords of the Soil might 
stay in their castles, particularly when, like him, 
they have boroughs at their disposition. Peel 1 has 
certainly now come very forward on the Bullion 
question, and will no doubt soon verify his father's 
prediction of him. It is really interesting to see the 
success that has attended old Sir Robert Peel's plan 
of education. He was himself a common mill boy, 
made a fortune by some invention in the manufactory, 
I believe, of cotton, and determined to bring up his 
son to the imitation of Pitt, and behold that very 
son now at 3 or 4 and 20, putting his foot into the 
stirrup, and this in his father's lifetime, and in spite 
of his father's opposition on the Bullion question. 
Methinks I see Freddy at a distance on the selfsame 
road, and Cavendish, and Vere Henry Louis follow- 
ing at full gallop: what a prospective for John Bull. 
. Matters go on better at Paris, thanks to De 
Serre. It was necessary to stop somewhere, and 
shew that Louis 18 was not as weak as poor Louis 
16, and the Ministers may now have a little more 
confidence since they have learned that Benjamin 

1 Peel— Sir Robert Peel, second baronet (1788-1850). The statement that the 
first baronet was once " a common mill boy" is not quite correct. 



430 THE TWO DUCHESSES. 

Constant, Lafayette, 1 & Co., are really only Jaseurs, 
and that their friends the Regicides are not popular. 
I like your saying that the difficulties were not so 
great at Naples when poor Lady Shaftesbury, with 
all her money, could not get lodged there, but was 
obliged to invade the Duke's apartments. . . . Lady 
Liverpool seems better; she has consented to be 
Godmother to the child, so, besides the names of 
Vere Henry, we have called him, from her, Louis. 



The Hon. Mrs. Lamb 

To Augustus Foster. 

Tunbridge Wells, July 31, 1819. 

. . . I like this place very much. The walks 
and drives are beautiful, and I drive in the little gigs 
of the place with quiet, steady ponies who know 
every turn. The Noels 2 and Lady Byron are my 
only acquaintances here, but as I am very fond of 
the latter, it satisfies me. She has been very much 
abused in Lord Byron's new poem of Don Juan 
under the name of Donna Inez. It is very bad in 
him, and the whole poem is in a very bad style, 
improper, and flippant, and very odious, but it is 
reckoned clever. 

. . . I never saw so clever and entertaining a 
child as little Ada, 3 Lord Byron's child. She is full 
of fun, but very good-tempered and good, and I 

1 Lafayette — Marquis de la Fayette (1757-1834). 

2 The Noels — The Milbankes had assumed the surname of Noel. 

3 Little Ada — Only child of Lord Byron, afterwards married to the Earl of Love- 
lace (1816-1852). 



FROM AUGUSTUS FOSTER. 43 1 

hope she will inherit none of his faults. Poor little 
thing! she is early celebrated in verse, and I have 
no doubt he will be always trying to work on her 
mind by his writings. . . . 



Augustus Foster 

To Elisabeth, Duchess of Devonshire. 

Copenhagen, August 14, 18 19. 

. . . Vere is like Freddy, and is a very fine 
child. Cavy shews much character, but is too fat 
still. 



Augustus Foster 

To Elizabeth, Duchess of Devonshire. 

Copenhagen, October 12, 18 19. 
Thorwaldsen at last arrived here ten days ago, but 
only called here yesterday. He has been so dis- 
coursed to and drank to, praised and panegyrized, 
that the poor man seems quite bothered; but he was 
at Albinia's conversazione last night and appeared 
delighted to find an old Roman acquaintance to talk 
to in Italian. . . . Thorwaldsen says he must 
have occupation and means to model through the 
winter; he left them a model in Alto Rilievo for the 
public walk at Lucerne to be cut out of the rock. I 
dare say it will be very fine, but he leaves it to the 
Swiss to execute his design; so the Mercury which 
you admire so much is not yet in marble. He 
talks of the work in marble as mere mechanical. It 



432 THE TWO DUCHESSES. 

certainly is the chief thing, however, else we might 
be satisfied with what the ancients have left us. 



Augustus Foster 

To Elizabeth, Duchess of Devonshire. 

Copenhagen, Nov. 6, 1819. 

Lord Strangford 1 was necessarily em- 
ployed to treat with Sweden because it was only at 
Stockholm that the Convention could be negotiated. 
To answer your question as to what share I had in 
it, I have only to send you the extract from Lord 
Castlereagh's Despatch, which follows: — "There 
remains for me only the gratifying task of signifying 
to you His Royal Highness' full approbation of your 
conduct in the share which you have taken in the 
discussions which have produced the settlement". 
This I look upon as a proof of bienveillance in Lord 
Castlereagh, for the business was, of course, mainly 
carried on at Stockholm. Let me add from Planta's 
private letter of October 7, in stating that Lord 
Castlereagh acquiesced in my request to remain 
here, he says, " and that he is very well pleased that 
you should, for the present, remain where you have 
done so very well and are so deservedly esteemed. 
In conveying to you this intelligence I use Lord 
Castlereagh's own words." . . . Freddy is much 
admired here, Cavy less so, though he improves. 
Vere is like Freddy, but has not cut teeth yet. 

1 Lord Strangford— A distinguished diplomatist (1780-1855). 



FROM BARON D'ENGESTRbM. 433 

Augustus Foster 

To Elizabeth, Duchess of Devonshire. 

Copenhagen, January 29, 1820. 
Cavendish is very well on his legs, fat and stout, 
but no beauty — he has, however, got a dimple or 
two and a pleasing smile. The little Vere is a 
beautiful child. 



Baron d 'Engestrbm 

To Augustus Foster. 

le %juin, 1820. 

Monsieur, — Vous savds Monsieur que le refus 
constant de Sa Majeste" Britannique de reconnaitre 
le Roi Charles XIII a depuis longtems fait prevoir 
la necessity de faire cesser les relations Diplomatiques 
entre les deux Monarques, sans faire naltre un etat 
de guerre entre les deux Nations. 

Le Roi a par consequent, sans manquer au Roi 
d'Angleterre, pu promettre a la France, la cessation 
de relations qui deja touchaient a leur fin. 

Le Traite" de paix conclu a Paris le 6 Janvier 
dernier, a etd dans le terns communique" au Ministere 
de Sa Majestd, et la Mission de Suede a quittd 
Londres. 

Votre presence quelqu' agr^able quelle nous soit, 
pourrait donner lieu a des doutes sur l'intention du 
Roi, de remplir ses engagemens. Vous sav^s com- 
bien II y est fidele, et vous ne serds pas ^tonnd que 
le ze"le dont Je suis animd pour Son auguste personne, 
m'impose le devoir de vous prier de ne pas accrediter 



2E 



434 THE TW0 DUCHESSES. 

en restant plus longtems ici, des souptjons que le 
caractere loyal de Sa Majeste - ne merite nullement. 

Je crois etre ass^s connu de Vous Monsieur, pour 
que Vous soyez persuade^ de la parfaite consideration 
et de l'attachement sincere avec lesquels j'ai l'honneur 
d'etre, Monsieur, Votre tres humble et tres obeissant 
Serviteur, Le Baron d'Engestrom. 



The Hon. Mrs. Lamb 

To Augustus Foster. 

Whitehall, November 16, 1820. 

. . . Isn't it extraordinary that the Queen has 
suddenly dismissed Bergamo and all the family upon 
finding, she says, in the Evidence that they had 
cheated her in some old money matters. Now that 
the trial is over, people are wondering what is to be 
done with her next. I suppose there will be some 
battling about it in the House of Commons now it is 
over. It would be handsomer to treat her at once as 
Queen, and the moment she is no longer persecuted 
her popularity will cease. Every body here seems 
to rejoice that the business is at an end without 
coming to the other house, as it would have been a 
horrid scene. She burst into tears, I hear, when the 
news was brought her. It is true that in signing her 
last protest she said, " Regina still in spite of them". 
Many of her bon mots are told. I suppose you have 
heard of her saying she never committed adultery 
but once, and that was with Mrs. Fitzherbert's hus- 
band, and she has repented of it ever since. 



FROM AUGUSTUS FOSTER. 435 

Angus his Foster 

To Elisabeth, Duchess of Devonshire. 

Copenhagen, Nov. 25, 1820. 

. . . We are in the greatest anxiety about poor 
little Vere, whose teething has, I fear, brought on 
water on the brain. The little fellow is very strong, 
and struggles hard with his malady, or rather maladies, 
for he has several on him, which come on in suc- 
cession. His nurse has now been up with him for 
six successive nights. Last night I watched till 7 
this morning, and could with difficulty force his 
Mamma away to take an hour's rest. . . . 



Augustus Foster 

To Elizabeth, Duchess of Devonshire. 

Copenhagen, Nov. 28, 1820. 

I must write a line to say that your little grandson 
Vere has overcome his malady. When we had 
given him over, I warmed his feet with my hands 
until the perspiration came, and his nurse put him in 
a hot bath, which slowly brought back the life into 
his body. Albinia has had nothing but fatigue and 
watching, and yet bore it with more strength than I 
thought she possessed. I believe I wrote by last 
mail to say the child could not recover, as all the 
doctors thought. . . 



436 THE TWO DUCHESSES. 

Lord Byron 

To Elizabeth, Duchess of Devonshire. 

Ravenna, July 15, 1821. 

Madame, — I am about to request a favor of Your 
Grace without the smallest personal pretensions to 
obtain it. It is not, however, for myself, and yet I 
err, for surely what we solicit for our friends is, or 
ought to be, nearest to ourselves. If I fail in this 
application, my intrusion will be its own reward — if 
I succeed, Your Grace's reward will consist in having 
done a good action, and mine in your pardon for my 
presumption. My reason for applying to you is this: 
Your Grace has been long at Rome, and could not 
be long any where without the influence and the 
inclination to do good. 

Amongst the list of exiles on account of the late 
suspicions, and the intrigues of the Austrian Govern- 
ment (the most infamous in history), there are many 
of my acquaintances in Romagna, and some of my 
friends : of these more particularly are the two Counts 
Gamba, 1 of a noble and respected family in this city. 
In common with thirty or more of all ranks they have 
been hurried from their home without process, without 
hearing, without accusation: the father is universally 
respected and liked; his family is numerous and 
mostly young, and these are now left without pro- 
tection; the son is a very fine young man, with very 
little of the vices of his age or climate; he has, I 
believe, the honor of an acquaintance with Your 

1 Counts Gamba — Father and brother of the Countess Guiccioli, whose connection 
with Byron is sufficiently well known. 



FROM LORD BYRON. 437 

Grace, having been presented by Madame Martinetti. 
He is but one and twenty, and lately returned from 
his studies at Rome. Could Your Grace, or would 
you, ask the repeal of both, or at least of one of these 
from those in power in the holy city. They are not 
aware of my solicitation in their behalfs, but I will 
take it upon me to say that they shall neither dis- 
honour your goodness nor my request. If only one 
can be obtained, let it be the father, on account of 
his family. I can assure Your Grace and the very 
pious Government in question that there can be no 
danger in this act of — clemency, shall I call it? It 
would be but justice with us — but here\ Let them 
call it what they will. ... I cannot express the 
obligation which I should/^/. I say feel only because 
I do not see how I could repay it to Your Grace. I 
have not the slightest claim upon you, unless, perhaps, 
through the memory of our late friend, Lady Mel- 
bourne. 1 I say friend only, for my relationship with 
her family has not been fortunate for them, nor for 
me. If, therefore, you should be disposed to grant 
my request, I shall set it down to your tenderness 
for her who is gone, and who was to me the best and 
kindest of friends. The persons for whom I solicit 
will (in case of success) neither be in ignorance of 
their protectress nor indisposed to acknowledge their 
sense of her kindness by a strict observance of such 
conduct as may justify her interference. If my ac- 
quaintance with Your Grace's character was even 
slighter than it is through the medium of some of our 

1 Lady Melbourne — Sister of Sir Ralph Milbanke, and aunt of Lady Byron 
(1785-1828). 



438 THE TWO DUCHESSES. 

English friends, I had only to turn to the letters of 
Gibbon (now on my table) for a full testimony to its 
high and amiable qualities. I have the honor to be, 
with great respect, Your Grace's most obedient, very 
humble servant, Byron. 

P.S. — Pray excuse my scrawl, which perhaps you 
may be enabled to decypher from a long acquaintance 
with the handwriting of Lady Bessborough. I 
omitted to mention that the measures taken here 
have been as blind as impolitic — this I happen to 
know. Out of the list in Ravenna there are at least 
ten not only innocent but even opposite in principle 
to the liberals. It has been the work of some 
blundering Austrian spy, or angry priest, to gratify 
his private hatred. Once more your pardon. 



Augustus Foster 

To Elizabeth, Duchess of Devonshire. 

Copenhagen, July 20, 1821. 

I hear Lord Byron is at Ravenna, deeply in love 
with the fairest and wealthiest sposa 1 in the place. 
Is it so? An Italian here tells me he was making 
love to a Venetian lady when the other came into 
the room, and instantly he asked to be introduced, 
followed her to Ravenna, and there fixed himself. 

Of all the cities in Romanian lands, 

The chief and most renowned Ravenna stands 

may therefore again be trumpeted forth by another 
Dryden. 

1 Sposa — The Countess Guiccioli. 



FROM ELIZABETH, DUCHESS OF DEVONSHIRE. 439 

Lord Byron 

To Elizabeth, Duchess of Devonshire. 

Ravenna, July 30, 1821. 

Madam, — The inclosed letter, which I had the 
honor of addressing to Your Grace, unfortunately for 
the subject of it, and for the writer, arrived after 
Your Grace's departure. I venture to forward it to 
Spa, in the hope that you may be perhaps tempted 
to interest yourself in favour of the persons to whom 
it refers, by writing a few lines to any of your Roman 
acquaintances in power. Two words from Your 
Grace, I cannot help thinking, would be sufficient, 
even if the request were still more presumptuous. 
I have the honor to be, with the greatest respect, 
your most obedient very humble servant, Byron. 

To Her Grace The Duchess of Devonshire, &c. &c. &c. 
Spa. In Allemagne presso Liege, Ibi vel ubi. 



Elizabeth, Duchess of Devonshire, 

To Lord Byron. 

Spa, August 17, 1821. 

I regret very much that the letter which your 
Lordship directed to Rome did not arrive before I 
left, for it is always easier to explain the subject 
which one is anxious about in conversation than by 
writing, unless indeed the pen is held by the author 
of Childe Harold. I will, however, certainly write 
to Rome about the persons who interest you so 
much, and shall be happy if I can be of any use to 



440 THE TWO DUCHESSES. 

them. I recollect Madame Martinetti's introducing 
to me a gentleman of the name of Gamba, but it is 
the warm interest which you express, my Lord, that 
will make me particularly anxious to succeed for 
them. Lady Melbourne had, I know, the greatest 
regard and friendship for you, and I had ever the 
sincerest affection for her. Whatever regrets subse- 
quent occurrences might have occasioned her, I 
believe her friendship for you was unvaried. I have 
found no difficulty in decyphering your letter without 
ever being indebted to Lady Bessborough for that 
advantage, and I have only to wish that I may be 
successful in my application, and may be able to 
realize the hopes you have formed from any influence 
I may possess at Rome. I always wish to do any 
good I can, and in that poor Gibbon and my other 
friends have but done me justice, but believe me 
also that there is a character of justice, goodness, and 
benevolence in the present Government of Rome 
which, if they are convinced of the just claim of the 
Comtes de Gamba, will make them grant their 
request. Of Cardinal Gonsalvi it is truly said, " II 
a etabli une nouvelle politique formee sur la verite 
et la franchise. L'estime de toute 1' Europe le paye 
de ses fatigues." Pray do not judge of the holy City 
from the reports of others, and, as no one has ever 
described its monuments with such beauty of poetry 
as yourself, so no one, I am sure, would do more 
justice to the merits of its inhabitants if you staid 
long enough to know them. I beg of you, my Lord, 
once more to be assured of the pleasure with which 
I shall undertake, and the satisfaction which I shall 



FROM ELIZABETH, DUCHESS OF DEVONSHIRE. 44I 

feel, if I obtain the recall of your friends to their 
mother country. E. Devonshire. 

I give up the Austrian Government to all you 
choose to say of them. 



The Duke of Wellington 

To Elizabeth, Duchess of Devonshire. 

London, Nov. 25, 1821. 

My dear Duchess, — I received your note in 
Staffordshire, and on my arrival in London your 
beautiful present. Be assured that I prize the latter 
much, and that I will have the addition made to it 
of your own Picture, and keep it in my own Library 
as a memorial of your kindness to me. I hear that 
you go on Tuesday, and I call with this note in 
hopes of seeing you once more before you go, as I 
am going out of town to stay this evening. Ever 
yours most sincerely, Wellington. 



Elizabeth, Duchess of Devonshire, 

To Augustus Foster. 

Paris, December*), 1821. 

. . . Our affairs seem settled at home, except 
as to Canning. Never surely did so clever a man 
so mar his own fortunes; he now declines India. It 
is only strange that they should ever think of send- 
ing him. It is his eloquence which they want and 
not his government of India. . . 



442 THE TWO DUCHESSES. 

Augustus Foster 

To Elizabeth, Duchess of Devonshire. 

Richmond, December 16, 1821. 
. . . I am sorry for Canning, but I certainly 
think he was right to refuse India; had he accepted 
it would have been put to the score of necessity. 
As it is, I think even the Mogul himself must think 
better of him, and things may turn up better for him 
hereafter; besides, what would have become of his 
daughter and other children. . . . 



Elisabeth, Duchess of Devonshire, 

To Augustus Foster. 

Mav 27, 1823. 

There is illness and influenza 1 all over London. 

August 20, 1823. 

Lord Byron has put into Naples; he is carrying 
out arms, provisions, and medicines. 

February 24, 1824. 

. . . . Grecian affairs also promise well, and 
Byron has given them ;£ 10,000, besides arms, medi- 
cine, and surgeons. 

The Earl of Aberdeen 

To Augustus Foster. 

Nice, January 19, 1826. 

It is a great disappointment to me to be so near 
without being able to see you. This indeed at 

1 Influema — This remark shows that the term influenza is not of recent origin. 



FROM THE EARL OF ABERDEEN. 443 

present would not be easy from the state of the 
roads and the quantity of snow, but I fear I shall be 
obliged to leave Nice in a short time, and before the 
communication is opened for carriages with Turin. 
Lady Aberdeen was unwell when I left England, 
and has been worse since, so that the physicians 
have forbidden her to think of coming to join me 
here, and although she is now rather better, she is 
impatient for my return. I have not quite deter- 
mined whether to leave my daughter here or take 
her back with me to England. For myself, I like 
this place extremely, the climate delightful, and the 
country very beautiful. I could pass three or four 
months here every winter with great pleasure. I 
am very glad that you like your residence; indeed 
you must be difficult, with two such towns as Turin 
and Genoa, not to be well pleased. I had never 
seen Turin until last year, and was quite surprised 
to find so beautiful a town. It has the reputation of 
being rather dull, but, compared with this place it 
must be all liveliness and gaiety, for, notwithstand- 
ing the natural charms of Nice, I never knew a 
place with fewer intellectual resources. It is very 
full at present; many English, but not such as I know. 
There are some very good French families and other 
foreigners. Madame Narischkin arrived here on 
the very day on which we received the news of the 
death of the Emperor Alexander. This death has 
thrown his country into great confusion, for, although 
matters may be settled for the present, it is to be 
presumed that at some future period a catastrophe 
is by no means improbable. Whatever happens, I 



444 THE TW0 DUCHESSES. 

have only one wish, which is that we may preserve 
peace; if we succeed in this, it ought to be a matter 
of indifference to us who is Emperor. . . . 



Miss Vere Hobart 1 

To Mrs Foster. 

Whitehall, April 27, 1827. 

Since I wrote to you last Tuesday, I believe what 
I then told you as positive news has been undone, 
and (?) twenty times. Lord James Stuart has 
just been here in great joy saying that Lord Lans- 
down has agreed with Mr. Canning, but what his 
place will be is not yet declared. It is a grand 
jumble altogether. We were last night at the 
Robinsons. After Sarah 2 desiring to see us she was 
too unwell to do so when we arrived; she is to be kept 
so exceedingly quiet, but I believe her matters are 
going on perfectly well. Mr. R. s gave us all the 
history of his Peerage and his Majesty's gracious- 
ness, and shewed us the arms and supporters of his 
new dignity. He is to be gazetted to-night, conse- 
quently from this day we must call him Viscount 
Goderich. Lady de Grey 4 declared she will spell 
him Goodrich, because elle s'est mise en tete that it 
should be so, but he says not. . . . 

1 Miss Vere Hobart — Half-sister of Mrs. Foster, and afterwards married to 
Donald Cameron of LochieL 2 Sarah — Lady Sarah Robinson. 

8 Mr. R. — Frederick Robinson, created in 1827 Viscount Goderich. He was 
Prime Minister for a few months in 1827-8 in succession to Canning, and was 
created Earl of Ripon in 1833(1782-1859). 

4 Lady De Grey— Countess De Grey, sister-in-law of Lord Goderich (1782-1859). 



COUNT JOHN ANTHONY CAPO D'lSTRIAS. 445 

Count John Anthony Capo d'fstrias, 1 President of the Greek 
Republic, on his embarkation for Greece, to Augustus 
Foster. 

ANCONA, 20 ^^, 1827. 
3 December 

Je ne saurais assez exprimer a Votre- Excellence 
combien je suis toucb.6 de l'interet quelle se plait de 
me temoigner, et dont sa lettre du 26 Novembre 
m'apporte une nouvelle preuve. 

Monsieur le Vice-Consul d'Angleterre, en se con- 
formant a ses ordres, me fit trouver a Bologne une 
lettre de sa part dans laquelle il me donnait tous les 
renseignments qui etoit a sa connaissance. La saison 
orageuse dans ces mers cette annde plus que de 
coutume ne laisse cependant aborder dans le port 
d'Ancona depuis le 20 novembre aucun batiment 
ni grand ni petit, et ce fait explique assez le retard 
qu'eprouve celui que j'attends. Je prends patience, 
et je tache de me consoler en m'occupant d'avance 
des affaires tres difficiles, et assur&nent peu agreables, 
qui me sont reserves; celle de la piraterie, dont 
Votre Excellence me parle, en^st une, et elle reclame 
sans doute de promptes et fortes mesures ; — mais 
comment s'y atteindre tant que la misere la plus 
effrayante maitrisera absolument en Grece tous les 
hommes et toutes leurs situations. Lorsqu'il en sera 
autrement, et je l'espere de la justice et de la 
munificence des cinq cours alliees, je vais repondre 
qu'une simple proclamation donnee avec pleine con- 
naissance de cause, et soutenue par des forces mari- 
times soldts fera disparaitre le desordre et devoilera 

1 Count Capo dlstrias— See Appendix. 



446 THE TWO DUCHESSES. 

a l'Europe les veritable pirates. Jusque la je ne puis 
que faire des veux, et V.E. ne doute pas de ceux que 
je forme pour etre une heure plutot sur les lieux. 
Quelle veuille me continuer son amitie\ et croire 
aux sentimens avec les quelles j'ai l'honneur d'etre 
de Votre Excellence le tres humble et tres obeissant 
serviteur. J. Capo d'Istrias. 

A Son Excellence, Mons. de Foster, a Turin. 

Translation. 

Copy of a letter from Count John Anthony Capo d'Istrias, 
President of the Greek Republic, to Augustus Foster on 
his embarkation for Greece. 

. 20 November a 

Ancona, ' — ^-, 1827. 
3 December 

I know not how sufficiently to express to your 
Excellency how much I am affected by the interest 
which you are pleased to testify towards me, and of 
which your letter of November 26 brings me fresh 
proof. 

The English Vice-Consul, in accordance with the 
instructions received from your Excellency, addressed 
to me at Bologna a letter, in which he gave me all 
the information in his possession. The more than 
usually stormy season, however, of this year in these 
seas has, ever since November 20, rendered it im- 
possible for any vessel whatever, large or small, to 
enter the port of Ancona, and this fact sufficiently 
explains the delay in arrival of the one which I am 
expecting. I try to be as patient as possible, and 
endeavour to console myself by occupation in ad- 
vance with the many difficult and by no means 



FROM CHRISTIAN VIII., KING OF DENMARK. 447 

agreeable affairs which await my attention. One of 
these is the question of piracy, which is referred to 
in your Excellency's letter, and it no doubt requires 
prompt and strong measures. But how deal with it 
so long as the most frightful misery shall continue to 
dominate absolutely in Greece all the people and all 
their belongings. Whenever different circumstances 
shall arise, as I hope will be the case through the 
justice and munificence of the five allied Courts, I 
will reply that a simple proclamation, couched in 
plain language, and backed by a display of armed 
maritime forces, will cause the disappearance of dis- 
order, and will unveil to Europe the real pirates. 
Until then I can only form resolutions, and your 
Excellency cannot doubt my desire to be as early as 
possible on the ground. 

I beg you will continue your friendship and rest 
assured of the sentiments with which I have the 
honor to be your Excellency's very humble and very 
obedient servant, J. Capo d'Istrias. 

To His Excellency, Mr. de Foster, &c, Turin. 



Christian 8, King of Denmark, 

To Augustus Foster. 

Copenhagen, le 10 Avril, 1840. 

Monsieur, vous m'avez sensiblement rejoui en 
m'adressant vos vceux a l'occasion de mon avene- 
ment au trone de mes ancetres. 

Des antdcedants qui sont graves dans ma memoire 



448 THE TWO DUCHESSES. 

et qui vous reservent une place bien honorable dans 
mon souvenir ne me laissaient aucune doute sur la 
part sincere que vous voudriez bien prendre a un 
evenement aussi important pour moi et pour le 
Dannemarc, que vous avez appris a cherir durant un 
long sejour pres de nous. Mais il ne m'a pas ete 
moins agrdable d'en recevoir l'assurance par la lettre 
que vous m'avez adressee. 

J'aurai d'abord voulu vous repondre, arm de vous 
porter mes sinceres remercimens, mais des occupa- 
tions assidues m'ont empeche de m'acquitter d'un 
devoir cher a mon cceur, aussi savais-je que vous 
etiez occupe a quitter Turin a cet epoque. 

Je saisis avec empressement la perspective que 
vous me donnez d'une visite en Dannemarc; je n'ai 
pas besoin de vous assurer que vous serez toujours 
le bienvenu pres de moi et que nommement durant 
cet ete la fete du sacre (?) au Chateaux de Frederiks- 
borg, fixe au 28 Juin, presenterait peutetre un double 
inter£t pour vous. Celui que vous voudrez bien me 
porter en qualite d'ancien ami, me sera toujours le 
plus cher, et c'est en vous assurant de l'inviolabilite 
de mes sentimens pour vous que j'ai le plaisir de 

[A line torn out]. 
— Votre, tout affectionne, Christian R. 

Madame Foster trouve ici mes complimens et 
ceux de la Reine, mon epouse. 



FROM THE HON. MRS. LAMB. 449 

The Hon. Mrs. Lamb 

To Augustus Foster. 

D. House, Wednesday, 1845. 

You will have heard of poor Lady Holland's 1 
death. She will be a great loss to society, and one 
thinks now only of her kind feelings and steady 
friendship, and forgets her little whims and failings, 
and all one disliked before. Her will is much talked 
of; it is said she has left Lord John Russell ^1500 
a year, the Kensington estate for his life, and to 
go at his death to Lady Lilford; to Charles Fox 
^2000. He was provided for before when Ampt- 
hill was sold, and is well off; innumerable little 
legacies to friends; to Lady Palmerston ^300, a 
picture of Lord Melbourne by Landseer, and all her 
fans; to Charles Howard her dictionaries and ^200; 
to her doctor ^1500 and ^50 a year; to Harold, 
her page, ^150 a year; to all her servants some- 
thing; a picture to the Queen if she would con- 
descend to accept it; her Napoleon box to the 
National Museum; ^300 for a neat monument of 
herself. How much she seems to have thought of 
what every body supposed she dreaded the idea, but 
she met death calmly and with fortitude. Lady 
Lilford and her younger sons were with her. 

1 Lady Holland — See Appendix. 



450 THE TWO DUCHESSES. 

The Hon. Mrs. Lamb 

To Augustus Foster. 

Devonshire House, Monday, July 20, 1846. 

My dear Augustus, — Here I am indeed in the 

tourbillon, such as I never thought to have mixed 

in again; a great ball to-night — a dinner first to 

Royalties — this, however, I am not to be at, the 

tables were full. I don't go to any parties out of 

the house, and the heat is so overcoming that I shall 

be happy to find myself at Melbourne again, where 

I return with Lord Melbourne : he is, of course, not 

able to come to these parties, though pretty well. 

Lord Beauvale has suffered much from gout, and 

wants to go to Buxton. Lady Carlisle goes back 

Tuesday, and all the world seems on the wing. I 

am very glad Frederick enjoys himself, and can be 

driven about. Lady Palmerston says they have 

nothing to give, and are tormented with applications. 

It is reported Lord Minto is to go to Vienna; he 

did not wish it originally. 

Tuesday. 

I hear things are not quite settled. Ministers 
were beat on the question of the Bishopricks of 
Bangor and St. Asaph in the Lords, and will be, 
very likely, on the sugar duties in the Commons; if 
so, they mean to dissolve, so, what will come of it 
all? Nothing, it seems, is ever to be fixed again. 

The fete last night was most brilliant. The new 
fashion of dinners is to have several little round 
tables instead of one large one, and it seems to 
answer and to be thought pleasant. Every body's 



FROM LADY BYRON. 45 I 

place was settled beforehand, and the lady's name on 
her plate. Lady Pollington rebelled and tried not 
to sit in her allotted place; she ran away, but was 
brought back. Lord Salisbury 1 has been a second 
time refused by Lady Mary West; there are many 
jokes about it; he was overheard telling her he 
should not live above five years, and then she would 
be a rich widow; she asked him for 24 hours to 
consider, and was heard to say, "I'll tell you at 
Lady Shelley's ", but, however, it ended in a refusal, 
and he looks very sheepish. She said there were 
some things she liked in him, his caring for the 
poor, and living in the country, and that she could 
like him better than the idle dandies about town. 



Lady Byron 

To Vere Foster. 

Brighton, February 14, 1854. 
Wishing to contribute anonymously I will trouble 
you with the inclosed 480 quarts of soup and the 
use of the tickets. The entrance of a third person 
prevented me from expressing all the sympathy I 
felt in your earnest desire for Truth, and my wish 
that your Life may be the means of promoting it — 
for " the Life is the Light " in no mystical sense, but 
as matter of fact open to the observation of every 
one, — Believe me, with sincere esteem, yours, 

A. J. Noel Byron. 

1 Lord Salislury — James B. W. G. Cecil, eighth Earl and second Marquis of S. 
(1791-1868), father of the present Prime Minister. He married first in 1821 Frances 
Gascoyne, by whom he had seven children, including the present Marquis, and 
secondly, in 1847 Lady Mary West (whose second refusal was not final), daughter 
of the Earl of Delawarr, by whom he had five children. 



452 THE TWO DUCHESSES. 

Lady Byron 

To Vere Foster. 

October 6, 1855. 

I have not as much time to write to you by this 
post as I could wish. But as your stay at Kirkby, 1 
for which I heartily thank you, will be drawing to 
a close, I will touch on one or two points. Your 
observations are all of a very useful character. 

As to the difference, I believe that which is gener- 
ally recognized as to man and wife is true of most 
intimate associations — that if the parties cannot 
settle their own quarrel, nobody can do it for them. 
Regulations made by authority, even if it were 
possible to secure their justice, are likely to irritate 
one side at least. However, I will consider the 
matter. Congeniality seems to me essential between 
the two heads of the school. Have you heard Miss 
F.? I quite agree about the Crochet, and have 
more than once urged the bread-making occupations 
in preference to the Lady-like. Brick floor shall be 
attended to. . . . 



Lady Byron 

To Vere Foster. 

Brighton, October 7, 1855. 

On reading your letter again I saw that you had 
heard both plaintiffs. If the wife of the future In- 
cumbent should prove, as I hope, a kind and sensible 

1 Kirkiy — Kirkby-Mallory in Leicestershire, where Lady Byron owned an estate. 



FROM LADY BYRON. 453 

person, she may have a good influence on such 
matters, and present legislation is so much better 
than absent — or Colonial — that I should willingly 
waive my rights. 

Mr. Noel does much more than could be expected 
from any regular Land Agent with respect to Schools 
and plans for the Poor, but it is not the province in 
which he is specially qualified to judge, and his 
opinions are not always coincident with my own, 
though his aims are. The Pastoral Institution, were 
it properly carried out, would complete the economy 
of a rural district better than any other means. 

What is your opinion of the course which might 
be most effectual in lessening the temptation to 
drunkenness in such a Village? Games? Good 
Readers reading amusing stories to small groups? 
Little Exhibitions? I dare not propose what I should 
think best — Dramatic Representations. . . . 



Lady Byron 

To Vere Foster. 

February 5, 1856. 

Much might be said in answer to Mr. Barnard's 1 
enquiry about Preventive Institutions. I wish I 
know who could say it. Ill as I have been and still 
am, I can neither attempt to give detailed accounts 
nor to methodize facts. I will merely express such 
views as arise without effort in my mind, and you or 
Mr. Barnard may pick out something from them. 

1 Mr. Barnard— The Hon. Henry Barnard, a. distinguished American educa- 
tionist. 



454 THE TWO DUCHESSES. 

Thirty years ago all the Educational Institutions in 
England might be called " Preventive " in the sense 
of obstructing Nature. 

i stly. The physical demands in the first instance — 
Fresh Air, Exercise, Relief of Muscles, &c. 

2ly. The mental demands — Instruction appro- 
priate to the age, to the powers and aptitude of the 
Subject. 

3ly. The moral demands — Means of exercising 
the best dispositions and acquiring the best habits, and 
of putting precepts into practice in mutual relations. 

Education was then really, as it is in a great 
measure still, a plan for preventing health of body 
and mind. Good Education might perhaps be more 
justly called Promotive than Preventive according to 
these views. 

But, accepting the word " Preventive" in its now 
popular signification as opposed to the development 
of Evil, I will put down what I have had reason 
from an experience with several hundreds of boys 
since 1834 to believe the great, and if administered 
before bad habits have become inveterate, the un- 
failing Prevention of Moral Evil and of Intellectual 
Perversion. 

1 st. At least as many hours of the day spent in 
the open air and in active pursuits as indoors and in 
sedentary tasks. 

2ly. A practical object intelligible and attractive 
to the young mind connected with the active em- 
ployment. (This is especially the case when Garden 
Allotments are rented by boys, and more or less in 
trade work.) 



FROM LADY BYRON. 45 S 

3ly. Order, for the exercise of Obedience and Self 
Controul, never passing into severe discipline — viola- 
tion of Order being a cause of the loss of social or 
other privilege of the Offender. 

4ly. Liberty. Herein De Fellenberg 1 said that the 
Schoolmaster should imitate Providence, not with- 
drawing Temptations entirely (were it possible), but 
ever watching over those exposed to them, often 
unconsciously to the objects of his care. They will 
thus learn to know themselves, and be stronger for 
having failed. The man who acts this Guardian part 
in the spirit of cheerfulness and hope always attaches 
boys. 

5ly. Variety of Stimuli applied occasionally to 
discover and test various kinds of ability latent in 
different Individuals — for Music, Drawing, Building, 
Moulding, &c, with promise of cultivation to this 
special talent, directly or indirectly. Every faculty 
rightly trained is preventive of its misuse, and I 
might have added under each of the former heads 
how they prevented some form of practical or ima- 
ginative error. 

6ly. Affectionate reference to Parents (where of a 
character to meet it) by little acts of kindness. Family 
feelings in some way to be brought out. Their pre- 
ventive power was well known to Shakespeare when 
he made Lady Macbeth say, "Had he not resembled 
my Father as he slept / had done it ". Among the 
lower humanizing influences Kindness to Animals is 
to be made part of the Education. The care of them 
contributes to this. 

1 De Fellenberg— -See Appendix. 



456 THE TWO DUCHESSES. 

7. As Nature is presented to the young Gardener, 
who has to make a profit of his little Allotment 
(generally one sixteenth of an Acre) in the Utilitarian 
point of view only, it should be an object to awaken 
his sense of Natural Beauty by Holiday excursions 
to scenes which are likely to make such impressions 
through contrast with the monotony of his common 
Locale. Coleridge speaks of the ministering influ- 
ence of Nature even on hardened Criminals, and 
their Preventive influences on the unhardened are 
too little appreciated. Ruskin says, " The whole 
force of Education until very lately has been directed 
in every possible way to the destruction of the love 
of Nature ", and afterwards, " The next character we 
have to note in the Landscape Instinct (and on this 
much stress is to be laid) is its total inconsistency 
with evil passion; its absolute contrariety — whether 
in the contest it were crushed or not — to all care, 
hatred, envy, anxiety, and moroseness". He does 
not say that in certain characters the love of Nature 
may not alternate with evil passion, but they cannot 
co-exist. To refer, however, from theory to fact, 
De Fellenberg told me that the Mountain excursions 
of his boys in Switzerland were as conducive to their 
moral as to their physical improvement. To some 
of those English boys, now men engaged in active 
life, the remembrance of those rambles always brings 
back a purifying and elevating influence. In my 
own village schools I have traced similar effects, 
though my means of affording such enjoyments were 
comparatively very limited. Ought not the Sabbath 
to be devoted at least occasionally to the opening of 



FROM LADY BYRON. 457 

the blind eye to "all the glories of the Light". How- 
many of those who sing the Evening Hymn have 
ever raised their eyes to a Sunset with grateful ad- 
miration? Might not such associations be formed 
with the silvery moon and countless stars as could 
not " co-exist " with the purposes of the nocturnal 
plunderer? 

If I have dwelt long on this Preventive Culture it 
is because it is usually thought one of the weakest, 
and is in my opinion one of the most effectual means. 
But there must be an ^Esthetic touch in the School- 
master to elicit any thing beyond Self-interest in 
connexion with "this goodly Universe" from the 
minds of his pupils. 

81y. As preventive of extravagance Savings Banks 
for the boys' pence — -habits of care and forethought 
also called forth with respect to the Garden Produce, 
either for its preservation from weather and other 
injury or from decay after being gathered in. 

I have said enough to show my principle, which 
has been most successfully tested in practice, of 
leaving no neglected soil for weeds to occupy. There 
is a fault which may be called an exaggeration of 
this principle — the over cultivation of the human 
mind, and of which there have been sad examples 
both in private and public Education. But then 
Nature was utterly disregarded in the kind of culture, 
and in nothing more palpably and mischievously, as 
is now recognized, than in the substitution of words 
for things. 

You will learn something of what has been the 
result of my, or rather De Fellenberg's principles 



458 THE TWO DUCHESSES. 

during an eighteen years' trial, if you will make 
searching inquiries of Mr. Atlee, to whom the in- 
closed is addressed. If there had ever been a' 
"Village Historian" the plan would doubtless have 
been more generally tried. I was obliged to be 
content with doing, in trust that all is not lost which 
is not published. — Yours very truly, 

A. J. Noel Byron. 



Lady Byron 

To Vere Foster. 

Brighton, February 18, 1856. 

Dear Mr. Foster, — I expressed in my letter on 
education the use which I wished to have made of 
it, merely to afford suggestions or fragments from 
which a more complete system might be formed. I 
did not revise it with a view to its publication in any 
other way. Never having aimed at Authorship, I 
got out my ideas just sufficiently for them to be 
taken up if worth any thing by those better able to 
give them a popular form. . . . You will be 
glad to hear that I am promoted to the Drawing 
room for a few hours daily. On Sunday last — I 
don't know whether it was so throughout England — 
all the preachers in Brighton took the Sabbath for 
their subject, and abridgments of their discourses are 
in the Brighton Examiner. Such a heap of Rubbish; 
but it is, I hope, in the act of being " shot " to form 
a foundation for something better — not that I am 
for obliterating Sunday, but I would no longer have 



FROM LADY BYRON. 459 

it, as Ross called it, the " vicarioits day", atoning for 
all the sins of the Week! Griffiths, though very- 
liberal in most things, could not assent to the Re- 
creative or renewing principle of a seventh day, 
both to health of mind and body. 

You will see how little disposed the County of 
Leicester is, compared with the other Counties of 
England, to give pecuniary support to a Reforma- 
tory. They ought to be stirred up by some eloquent 
Appeal from a Lawyer, Clergyman, or Layman. 
^200 per annum more is wanted. Mr. Young 
undertakes the responsibility of superintending 25 
boys — not more, on account of other duties, and, I 
am sorry to say, delicate health. But with a power- 
ful Master, an Ex-Director would be less needed. 
Yours very truly, A. J. Noel Byron. 

Mrs. Follen declares that the Southern States are 
not serious in the threat of War, because they know 
it would raise the Slave population. 



Lady Byron 

To Vere Foster. 

February 28, 1856. 

I see that the next Reformatory meeting is to be 
on the 1 st. Shall you attend? I want to find out 
what course the R. Catholics are taking. Patrick 
Murray, Catholic Publisher, has just- published a 
pamphlet, which I like, in their favour. As regards 
Ireland, if there should be a R. Catholic Association 
in Leicester, I should be inclined to subscribe a 



460 THE TWO DUCHESSES. 

trifle to it as a Testimony. I did not consider it a 
Theological question. 



Lady Byron 

To Vere Foster. 

March 18, 1856. 

Your letter received to-day contains much which 
is not only very interesting to me, but which can be 
turned to good account. ... Mr Young is to 
preach the Visitation Sermon at Leicester, and he 
means to include the subject of Reformatories. The 
Rev. Charles Rattcliffe of that County has sent me 
a pamphlet advocating that object, and addressed to 
Lord Calthorpe — not very clever. I have no confi- 
dence in Reformatories for Adults in the heart of a 
Town. 

Have you heard of the attempt made by Mr. C. 
Buxton in Spitalfields to withdraw the people from 
the Public House on Sunday evenings by opening a 
room where they will find amusing occupation? I 
have been talking to some of those best acquainted 
with the condition of the working class only just 
above pauperism about the means of affording them 
some relief on Sunday without leaving them more 
money to spend at the Public House after receiving 
their wages on Saturday. This is what I would do, 
if it could be made practicable. 

On condition of their paying into a deposit Fund, 
the accumulation of which should belong to them at 
a certain period — so many pence or farthings, on 



FROM LADY BYRON. \6l 

Saturday they should find ready-dressed for them 
a Sunday's dinner, to be taken from the Kitchen 
(wherever appointed) to their homes by Family Men 
or Women, and perhaps eaten on the spot by the 
aged or infirm Single. I see these advantages in 
the plan : 

i. Relieving the Poor from preparations for the 
meal and by the service of the Rich — a bond of 
Union. 

2. Obviating the Sunday's dealings with Bakers, 
&c, which many, and I also, think better avoided. 

3. Giving to the day an association with Charity, 
which it has not either in the R. Catholic Church or 
ours. Perhaps you would accept an invitation from 
me, as I should have a room to spare next week, 
before you go to Ireland. 

I am much gratified by Mr. Ross's engagement 
to a daughter of the well known Sterling, whose 
life was written by Carlisle — a very superior young 
woman, and calculated to be a real Help-mate. I 
have borne the severe weather tolerably. 

P.S. — I must communicate to you an idea sug- 
gested to me by Mr. Ross, that in order to obviate 
the reasonable objection to having places of amuse- 
ment and instruction open on the Sabbath, namely, 
the hardship upon the door-keepers, &c, there 
should be Sunday Volunteers for that office. . . . 



462 THE TWO DUCHESSES. 

Lady Byron 

To Vere Foster. 

March 28, 1856. 

The " Five Points" which I send is chiefly an 
Appeal for pecuniary aid, and ought to be met. I 
should like to entrust to you when you go to New 
York any larger contribution in order to be sure of 
its proper application, but I will remit a Subscription 
through Mrs. Follen now. I must also trouble you 
with money for the postage and purchase in the 
United States of any printed reports, &c, which 
might serve my objects here. 

I shall have copied for you a sad report of the 
Peckleton Reformatory, adding another proof of the 
folly of attempting reformation by the stern retribu- 
tive course such as the Leicester Magistrates require 
of the Schoolmaster. Amongst the indirect mischief 
of Executions is to be reckoned their charm for 
Law-breakers, to whom what " some deem danger is 
delight ". I doubt whether the Reformatory can 
succeed under the direction of such Magistrates. 
Mr. Young himself is too timid and despondent. . . . 



Lady Byron 

To Vere Foster. 

Ham, May 5, 1856. 
I sent to ask you to stay to see Lady Annabella, 
who was expected. 

Ockham can't go to the United States, but I have 



FROM LADY BYRON. 463 

an idea that I can get him, though only on condition 
of working, on board the Atlantic Cable vessel. 
Ask him if he would like it. 

You want a Tour without an object, if possible; 
but I suppose it must be to the Moon. Lord P. 1 
won't be allowed to resign by the People. 



Lady Byron 

To Vere Foster. 

Brighton, May 13, 1856. 

. . . I shall be glad to hear what success you 
have met with in the Girls' Emigration scheme. 
The value of that article will, I hope, rise in the 
market in consequence. Believe me, always truly 
yours. 



Lady Byron 

To Vere Foster. 

Brighton, June 14, 1856. 

Dear Mr. Foster, — I am just going to London, 
No. 4 Cavendish Square, till the 25th inst, and then 
No. 1 Cambridge Terrace, Regent's Park, a house 
which I have taken for the summer, thinking it a 
happy medium between town and country; and when 
I am tired of my fellow creatures I can find society 
almost as rational in the Zoological Gardens. I may 
well say this after reading what you have to endure 
from the folly of those who prove their knowledge 

1 Lord P. — Viscount Palmerston, Prime Minister from 1855 to 1858, and again 
from 1859 till his death in 1865 (1784-1865). 



464 THE TWO DUCHESSES. 

of God by their ignorance of Man! At the same 
time I am hearing how Mr. Young is reviled in 
Leicestershire, and excluded from the Reformatory 
as a Papist in disguise. A man's religion seems every- 
where to be his neighbour's business, not his own. 

Do not for want of ,£5, which I shall be happy to 
give for such a purpose, allow any Emigrant in real 
need to lose the passage. "The Philanthropist" 
paper must be given up for want of funds. Believe 
me, yours very truly, A. J. Noel Byron. 



Lady Byron 

To Vere Foster. 

Ham Common, March 18, 1857. 

The wish expressed by Mr. West that I should 
see the printed paper containing his views makes it 
less presumptuous than it would otherwise be on my 
part to offer some remarks. I do not know whether 
you are aware that, notwithstanding my personal 
intimacy with some of the Abolitionists, I have 
scrupulously avoided any appearance of concurring 
in their -mode of action. It has appeared to me too 
vehemently antagonistic; but I own that since I have 
known the cruel course pursued by Slave Owners 
towards Opponents who had not provoked them 
by any kind of hostility beyond the simple expression 
of Dissent, I have doubted whether that opinion of 
mine were not a mistake. It is of little moment 
whether it be so or not. 

As to Mr. West's plan, the chief feature of which, 
the Emancipation of the Unborn, presumes their 



FROM LADY BYRON. 465 

Parents to remain in Slavery. We, in England, 
should think it rather strange if the Owners of Cotton 
Mills or Collieries, so ill-managed as to shorten the 
lives or injure the powers of the men employed in 
them, were merely to give security to those workmen 
that such evils should not descend to their Children. 
I sympathize with the living more than with the 
future generation. The social condition under which 
the Children of the next twenty years may be born 
will in all probability be so changed as to frustrate 
our plans for them, but our Cotemporaries belong to 
us, as part of the World's Common Weal. Ameliora- 
tions long talked of are less likely than ever to be 
carried into effect under the mutual exasperation of 
Masters and Slaves, and also with the new views 
promulgated as to the Servile position. 

What is to be hoped for? What can be done for 
the redress or mitigation of actual wrongs? Provi- 
dence must show the way, either through the agency 
of some unforeseen political convulsion, or through 
the influence of some Master-mind. In the mean 
time let Right Thought spread as widely as possible, 
supported by Right Action only when a conflict with 
Wrong Action is inevitable. Oppression has, I fear, 
never yet been remedied peacefully. The Host must 
perish in the Red Sea. It was their own doing, 
however, rather than that of Moses. I quite enter 
into the horror of civil discord felt by Mr. West. 
Some American Authorities have contended that 
more decision on the part of the North would pre- 
vent it. Believe me, yours very truly, 

A. J. Noel Byron. 



466 THE TWO DUCHESSES. 

Lady Byron 

To Vere Foster. 

March 25, 1857. 

Next month I hope to say something better of 
myself than I can at present. Happily I can enter 
into distant interests as well when I am bed-ridden 
as at any other time, and feel great pleasure in the 
continued success of your endeavours 1 for the good 
of those who would otherwise, it appears, have no 
helper. 

I will send you some American papers. Is not 
Buchanan's 2 " Laissez aller" about the Slave Ques- 
tion very favourable to the free cause. 



Lady Byron 

To Vere Foster. 

Full text of a letter from Lady Byron, inclosing the gift of 
two £20 shares in the Original Atlantic Telegraph. 

February 1, 1859. 

A bit of Waste paper. I hope Lady Albinia is 
well; I am not. 

1 Your endeavours — This refers to two special schemes carried out by Mr. Foster 
from 1849 to 1897, in aiding the building, flooring with boards in lieu of damp 
clay, or equipment of upwards of 2000 National Schoolhouses situated in every 
County in Ireland ; and in assisting the emigration of honest poor girls between 
18 and 30 years of age from the congested districts of the West of Ireland, with 
the hearty co-operation of all the R. Catholic parish priests and curates without 
a single exception, in addition to nearly all the Protestant clergy. More than 
twelve hundred clergymen co-operated with Mr. F., and upwards of 25,000 girls 
were so assisted, about one-tenth of the expense being met by subscriptions, and 
the rest supplied by Mr. F. Owing to want of funds both these schemes are now 
in abeyance. 

* Buchanan— James Buchanan, President of the United States from 1857 to 
1861 (1791-1868). 



FROM LADY BYRON. 467 

Lady Byron 

To Vere Foster. 

February 28, 1859. 

I wish for your opinion on a question concerning 
my eldest Grandson, and if you should agree with 
me, I may ask some assistance from your kindness 
in promoting the object by kindly communicating it 
to him, as your representations would be likely to 
have influence. 

It is to bring him into Parliament for some Con- 
stituency to which an Advocate of the Working 
Classes would be welcome. On consulting with 
some of Ockham's best friends, I find that this is 
thought the only chance for changing his present 
habits of inertness and self-neglect, not, however, 
connected, as far as known, with any bad propensities, 
and he has ceased to be intemperate. If, therefore, 
at such a moment, a mental stimulus could be given 
him, it might work probably; and should he not 
have power to speak in Public, his lineage and pro- 
spects would give a certain weight to his Vote 

You will see in to-day's Times, what I had known 
from a private source, that there will be an Election 
for Greenwich in April. The proximity to Millwall 
might be something in his sight, and the Voters are 
very radical. Admiral Dundas, who was once the 
Member, is said to have most interest there, and I 
could obtain help from other (Metropolitan) Mem- 
bers, but the difficulty will be to make Ockham enter 
into the scheme. 



468 THE TWO DUCHESSES. 

Trusting to your kindness, I send this long story, 
which could not be shortened. 

The Father will take no part. I would supply a 
few hundreds. 



The following copy of a letter, which purports to have been 
written by Napoleon Bonaparte, has been found among 
the papers of my father, the late Sir Augustus J. Foster, 
Bart. It appears to have been addressed in the year 1 797 
to Citizen Barras, 1 a member of the French Republican 
Directorate. I have not been able to authenticate it, 
and insert it here merely in the hope that it may fall 
under the notice of some one who may inform me of 
its being a true copy of an original really written by 
Napoleon. There are evidently some faults of tran- 
scription, and one word in the copy I have is un- 
decipherable. Vere Foster. 
Belfast, January 1, 1897. 

4 Vendemiaire. 
Citoyen, — Je suis malade, et j'ai besoin de repos. 
Je demande ma demission. Donnez la si tu es mon 
ami. 2 ans dans une campagne pres de Paris re- 
tablira ma sante, et redonnera a mon caractere la 
popularite que la continuity du pouvoir . Je 

suis esclusif dans ma maniere de sentir et d'agir, et 
j'estime le coeur bien plus que la tete. 

Bonaparte. 

Je suis au desespoir. Ma femme ne vint pas; elle 
a quelques amans que la retienne a Paris. Je maudis 
toutes les femmes mais J'embrase de coeur mes bons 
amis. Bonaparte. 

L Barras — See Appendix. 



APPENDIX. 



(P. 5.) The Earl of Bristol, Bishop of Derry. — The 
following obituary of Lord Bristol is taken from the Gentleman's 
Magazine for 1803, p. 769: — 

August 8. At Albano, near Rome, of a severe attack of the 
gout, Frederick Hervey, Earl of Bristol, grandson of the first earl, 
in which title he succeeded his brother, Augustus John, 1779, and 
Bishop of Cloyne 1767, of Derry 1768, and a privy-councillor of 
Ireland. He was born in 1730; educated at Mr. Newcome's 
school at Hackney; admitted of Corpus Christi College, Cam- 
bridge, 1747, where he took no degree; but the honorary one of 
D.D. was conferred on him by mandamus. He was appointed 
chaplain -in -ordinary to the king, and a principal clerk of the 
privy-seal, both which he resigned when appointed a bishop. He 
married Elizabeth, daughter of Sir Germayn Davers, who died at 
Ickworth, Suffolk, Dec. 19, 1800, by whom he had two sons, 
George, late captain of the Zealous man-of-war, and Augustus John, 
and two [three, V.F.] daughters, Mary, married to John, Lord 
Erne, of Ireland, and Elizabeth, married to John Thomas Foster 
[and Louisa, married to Lord Hawkesbury, afterwards Earl of 
Liverpool, prime minister from 1812 to 1827, V.F.]. He was 
among the leaders of the Irish patriots during the American war, 
and a member of the famous Convention of Volunteer Delegates 
held in Dublin in 1782 [1783, V.F.], on which occasion he was 
escorted from Derry to Dublin by a regiment of volunteer cavalry, 
and received military honours in every town through which he 
passed on that long journey. His lordship was building at his 
family seat at Ickworth a villa on the Italian model by Italian 
architects and artists of every class, to which he had appropriated 
^12,000 annually, and the ornaments of which are so tender 
and sharp as to require covering to preserve them from injury by 
the external air. As an amateur, connoisseur, and indefatigable 
protector of the fine arts he died at his post surrounded by artists, 
whose talents his judgment had directed and whose wants his 



470 THE TWO DUCHESSES. 

liberality had relieved. His love of the sciences was only sur- 
passed by his love of his country and his generosity to the unfor- 
tunate of every country; neither rank nor power escaped his 
resentment when any illiberal opinion was thrown out against 
England. In 1798 he was arrested by the French in Italy, and 
confined in the castle of Milan; was plundered by the republicans 
of a valuable and well-chosen collection of antiquities, which he 
had purchased with a view of transmitting to his native country, 
and was betrayed and cheated by many Italians whose benefactor 
he had been. But neither the injustice nor the ingratitude of 
mankind changed his liberal disposition; he no sooner recovered 
his liberty than new benefactions forced even the ungrateful to 
repent, and the unjust to acknowledge his elevated mind. 

The Earl of Bristol was one of the greatest English travellers (a 
capacity in which his merits have been duly appreciated by the 
celebrated Martin Sherlock), and there is not a country in Europe 
where the distressed have not obtained his succour and the 
oppressed his protection. He may truly be said to have clothed 
the naked and fed the hungry, and, as ostentation never constituted 
real charity, his left hand did not know what his right hand distri- 
buted. The tears and lamentations of widows and orphans have 
discovered his philanthropy when he is no more ; and letters from 
Swiss patriots and French emigrants, from Italian Catholics and 
German Protestants, prove the noble use his lordship made of his 
fortune indiscriminately to the poor, destitute, and unprotected of 
all countries, of all parties, and of all religions. But, as no man is 
without his enemies, and envy is most busy about the most deserv- 
ing, some of his lordship's singularities have been the object of 
calumny, and his pecularities ridiculed as affected; when the former 
were only the effect of pure conduct, unrestrained by ceremony, 
because it meant no harm, and the latter the consequence of an 
entire independence, long enjoyed, serviceable to many, baneful 
to none. 

Do., p. 836. The late Earl of Bristol, when in Italy, distinguished 
himself by a peculiarity of dress. He wore a white hat edged with 
purple, a coat of crimson silk or velvet (according to the season), 
a black sash spangled with silver, and purple stockings. It need 
hardly be added, what was the fact, that the good inhabitants of 
Naples and other places looked upon this fanciful suit as the cos- 
tume of an Irish bishop. 



APPENDIX. 471 

The following is copied from Memoirs of James Caulfield, Earl 
of Charlemont, by Francis Hardy, 1810: — 

" If this work should chance to survive the present day, those 
who come after may not be incurious to learn something, however 
slight, of that singular man. He was the son of Lord Hervey, so 
generally but so imperfectly known by the malign antithesis and 
epigrammatic lines of Pope. His mother, Lady Hervey, was also 
the subject of that poet's muse, but his muse when playful and in 
good humour. Two noblemen of very distinguished talents, the 
Earls of Chesterfield and Bath, have also celebrated her in a most 
witty and popular ballad (see verses on Molly Lepel — Lady Hervey 
was the daughter of General Lepel). Lord Bristol was a man of 
considerable parts, but far more brilliant than solid. His family 
was indeed famous for talents; equally so for eccentricity, and the 
eccentricity of the whole race shone out and seemed to be concen- 
trated in him. In one respect he was not unlike Villiers, Duke of 
Buckingham. 'Everything by starts and nothing long'; generous 
but uncertain; splendid but fantastical; an admirer of the fine arts, 
without any just selection; engaging, often licentious in conversa- 
tion ; extremely polite, extremely violent ; — it is incontestably true 
that amidst all his erratic course his bounty was not seldom directed 
to the most proper and deserving objects. His distribution of 
church livings, as I have been informed, among the older and 
respectable clergy in his own diocese, must always be mentioned 
with that warm approbation which it is justly entitled to. It is 
said (how truly, I know not) that he had applied for the bishopric 
of Dublin, afterwards for the lieutenancy of Ireland; was refused 
both, and hinc illae lacrymae, hence his opposition. But the 
inequality, the irregular flow of his mind at every period of his life, 
sufficiently illustrate his conduct at this peculiar and momentous 
period. Such, however, was this illustrious prelate, who, notwith- 
standing he scarcely ever attended Parliament, and spent most of 
his time in Italy, was now called upon to correct the abuses of 
Parliament, and direct the vessel of state in that course where 
statesmen of the most experience and persons of the calmest judg- 
ment have had the misfortune totally to fail. His progress from 
his diocese to the metropolis, and his entrance into it, were perfectly 
correspondent to the rest of his conduct. Through every town on 
the road he seemed to court, and was received with, all warlike 
honours, and I remember seeing him pass by the Parliament House 



472 THE TWO DUCHESSES. 

in Dublin (Lords and Commons were then both sitting) escorted 
by a body of dragoons, full of spirits and talk, apparently enjoying 
the eager gaze of the surrounding multitude, and displaying alto- 
gether the self-complacency of a favourite marshal of France on 
his way to Versailles, rather than the grave deportment of a prelate 
of the Church of England." 

(P. in.) Richard Brinsley Sheridan, the eminent Irish 
dramatist, was educated first in Dublin and afterwards at Harrow. 
He gave no promise as a boy of the brilliancy which he after- 
wards displayed as a man, being pronounced a hopeless dunce by 
all his teachers. He does not seem to have been brought up to 
any regular employment, and after his elopement and marriage 
in 1773 with a Miss Linley, a public singer of great beauty and 
accomplishments, his prospects did not seem bright, more espe- 
cially as he insisted on a point of pride that his wife should give 
up her profession. As the readiest resource he betook himself to 
literature, and in January, 1775, his first comedy, The Rivals, was 
produced. Damned on its first appearance through certain de- 
ficiencies in the acting, this piece on its repetition found gradually 
the favour with the public which its wit and vivacity deserved, 
and made the reputation of the writer. In the course of the 
year following Sheridan followed up his success by a farce of no 
very great merit, and a second comedy, The Duenna, among 
the sparkling dialogue of which are interspersed some songs of 
exquisite merit. 

He now became partner of the Drury Lane Theatre, and in 
1777 The School for Scandal was produced there. This, which is 
by much his greatest effort, instantly leaped into the popularity it 
has ever since continued to retain. His other works for the stage 
were the inimitably clever farce, The Critic, in 1779, and, after a 
long interval, The Stranger and Pizarro, in 1798, both adapted 
from the German of Kotzebue. Leigh Hunt observes of The 
School for Scandal that, with the exception of too great a length 
of dialogue without action in its earlier scenes, it is a very con- 
centration and crystallization of all that is sparkling, clear, and 
compact in the materials of pure comedy. Through the influence 
of Fox he was enabled to enter the House of Commons in 1780. 
He gave a warm and consistent support to the Whig party, and 
during the Marquis of Rockingham's administration held the office 



APPENDIX. 473 

of Under Secretary of State, but he possessed none of the high 
qualities of a statesman, and as a debater he gradually degenerated 
into a useless, though amusing speaker, familiarly joked at by the 
public, admired but disesteemed by his friends. He never failed 
to amuse the House, and when stirred by the trumpet-call of a great 
occasion he was capable of rising to heights of noble eloquence. 
In particular, his famous speech urging the impeachment of 
Warren Hastings is still traditionally remembered as perhaps 
the very grandest triumph of oratory in a time prolific of such 
triumphs. (From Chambers 's Encyclopmdia and Beetoris Dictionary 
of Universal Biography.) 

(P. 123.) La Comtesse de la Marche was daughter of 
Frederick William II., King of Prussia, and Wilhelmina, Countess 
of Lichtenau, of whom the following account appears in Meyer's 
Encyclopcedia, Berlin, 1896: — 

"Lichtenau (Wilhelmina, Countess of), mistress of Frederick 
William II. of Prussia, was born December 29, 1752, in Potsdam. 
She died June 9, 1820, in Berlin. She was the daughter of the 
musician Enke of Hildburghausen. 

" The then Prince of Prussia, afterwards King Frederick William 
II., made her acquaintance when she was 13 years old at her 
sister's house, who was a dancer at the Italian Opera in Berlin. 
The Prince had her educated in Paris and in Potsdam, where 
intimate intercourse followed. Five children were born, who 
received the title of Counts and Countesses of the Mark. 

"In 1782 she was married to Rietz (Ritz), Groom of the 
Chamber. When Frederick was crowned King of Prussia Rietz 
was made Groom of the Privy Chamber. Although Rietz's wife 
was superseded in the King's favour by the Countess of Voss and 
the Donhoff, she succeeded in retaining his friendship till 1796, 
when she received the title of Countess of Lichtenau, which 
admitted her to Court. The King gave her also the sum of 
500,000 thalers, several estates, and a dowry of 200,000 thalers 
to her daughter, Countess Marianne of the Mark (a son, Count 
of the Mark, died when nine years old) on the occasion of her 
marriage with Count Stolberg. She retained the King's affection 
and confidence, which she never misused, till his death in 1797. 

" King Frederick William III. then arrested and opened pro- 
ceedings against her, but nothing could be laid to her charge. 



474 THE TWO DUCHESSES. 

Nevertheless she was kept prisoner at Glogau, only regaining her 
liberty by surrendering all her property, in return for which she 
received a pension of 4000 thalers a year. A marriage which she 
contracted with the dramatic poet Holbein in 1802 was dissolved 
in 1806. In 181 1 a portion of her estates were returned to her. 

" See the Apologie of Countess L., edited by Schummel, Breslau, 
1808, two volumes; the Memoirs put out under her name (1808) 
are not genuine." 

(P. 153.) Sir Augustus Foster. — Sir Augustus John Foster, 
Bart., P.C., and G.C.H., of Stonehouse, County Louth, was born 
in 1780. He was the second son of John Thomas Foster, M.P., 
and Elizabeth, second daughter of Frederick Hervey, third Earl 
of Bristol and Bishop of Derry. He was educated at Drogheda 
and Christ College, Oxford. He entered the army as cornet in 
the Royal Horse Guards (blue) in 1799, and studied at Weimar 
under Mons. Mounier, who afterwards became private secretary 
to Napoleon. In 1803 he visited Greece in company with his 
cousin John Leslie Foster and the Earl of Aberdeen. He entered 
the Diplomatic Service in 1804, being appointed Secretary of 
Legation at Washington. On his return to Europe in 1808 he 
was appointed Charge' d'Affaires at Stockholm, whence he was 
expelled by order of Napoleon in 1810. In February, i8ir, he 
was appointed Minister to the United States, and on the breaking 
out of war between England and the United States in 18 12 he 
returned to England, and in 18 14 received the appointment of 
Minister to Denmark. He remained at Copenhagen ten years, 
and in 1824 was appointed in the same capacity at the court of 
the King of Sardinia. He was created a baronet in 1831, and 
after a residence of sixteen years at Turin retired from the public 
service in 1840. 

Sir A. married in 1815 Albinia Jane Hobart, daughter of the 
Hon. George Vere Hobart, second son of George, third Earl of 
Buckinghamshire, and by her had issue three sons, namely, 
Frederick John, the Rev. Cavendish Hervey, and Vere Henry 
Louis. 

Sir Augustus died in 1848, and his wife Lady Albinia Foster in 
1867. 

(P. 156.) Lord Castlereagh (Robert Stewart, Viscount 



APPENDIX. 475 

Castlereagh, a celebrated diplomatist and minister), eldest son 
of the first Marquis of Londonderry. He entered the Irish Parlia- 
ment in 1789, although then under age. He was made Chief 
Secretary for Ireland in 1798. It was the year of the Insurrection 
and of the French Invasion, and therefore some allowance must 
be made for the terrible severities employed by the Irish Govern- 
ment; yet the cruel part he acted or tolerated in Ireland in 
suppressing the rebellion and effecting the union always weighed 
upon his reputation. He afterwards held the positions of Presi- 
dent of the Board of Control in the Addington administration, and 
secretary successively of the War and Colonial Departments under 
Mr. Pitt, until the death of the latter in 1806, when he resigned. 
He resumed the office of Minister of War in the following year, 
and in 1812, after the assassination of Mr. Perceval, the Prime 
Minister, he became Secretary for Foreign Affairs in the ministry 
of Lord Liverpool, which post he held during the period illustrated 
by the military achievements of the Duke of Wellington. "By 
this time the general direction of British policy had become 
unalterably fixed by circumstances, and Lord Castlereagh has at 
least the merit of having pursued this fixed course with a steadi- 
ness, and even obstinacy, which nothing could abate. He was the 
soul of the coalition against Bonaparte, and it was only by his 
untiring exertions and through his personal influence that it was 
kept together." He represented England at the Congress of 
Vienna in 1814, and at the Treaty of Paris in 1815. By the 
death of his father in 182 1, he became Marquis of Londonderry, 
but his mind became deranged, and he died by his own hand in 
1822. 

"This statesman, looked upon by one party as a paragon of 
perfection, has been characterised by the other party 'as the most 
intolerable mischief that ever was cast by an angry Providence on 
a helpless people'." — Chambers's Encyclopaedia. 1769-1822. 

(P. 185.) The Earl of Aberdeen. — The following particulars 
are taken from Blackie & Son's Popular Encyclopedia :— 

George Hamilton Gordon, Earl of Aberdeen, was born at 
Edinburgh, 28th January, 1784. He was educated at Harrow, 
and afterwards at St. John's College, Cambridge, where he 
graduated in 1804. He had previously, in 1801, accompanied as 
attache Lord Cornwall's embassy to France, which resulted in 



476 THE TWO DUCHESSES. 

the signing of the treaty of Amiens in the following year. Before 
returning home he proceeded south to Greece ; and, after travers- 
ing that ancient land with all the enthusiasm of an ardent classical 
scholar, retraced his steps to England through Turkey and Russia. 
Shortly after his return he established the Athenian Society, one 
indispensable qualification for being a member of which was to 
have visited Greece, and from this circumstance the epithet of 
"Athenian Aberdeen" was affixed to Lord Aberdeen by Lord 
Byron. As the result of his classical studies and investigations he 
contributed an article to the Edinburgh Review on the topography 
of Troy, in which he somewhat severely handled Sir William Gell, 
and also wrote an introduction to Wilkins's translation of Vitru- 
vius, giving an account of the progress of architecture in Greece, 
an essay subsequently published in a separate form in 1822. 
In 1806 Lord Aberdeen entered Parliament as a Scottish repre- 
sentative peer, and in 18 13 was intrusted by the British govern- 
ment with a mission to Austria, for the purpose of inducing the 
emperor to withdraw from the alliance of his son-in-law, and join 
the coalition of sovereigns against Bonaparte. In this responsible 
duty, which was mainly effected through negotiation with Prince 
Metternich, the young diplomatist acquitted himself with great 
judgment, and entirely to the satisfaction of the government. At 
most of the bloody engagements in Northern Germany he was 
present; and from the experience thus acquired of the horrors of 
war he appears to have imbibed that aversion to it which at a 
later period exposed him, in his political administration, to the 
charges of pusillanimity and want of spirit. On the termination 
of the war he returned to England, and from this period till 1828 
lived in strict retirement. In 18 14 he had been created a British 
peer, in recognition of the services rendered by him in his 
diplomatic negotiations with Austria. In 1828 he became Foreign 
Secretary under the Duke of Wellington. He was a warm sup- 
porter of the bill repealing the Test and Corporation Acts, a 
measure effected by the ministry under which he served, and he 
also advocated the bill for the emancipation of the Roman 
Catholics. During the short premiership of Sir Robert Peel 
in 1834-35 he acted as Colonial Secretary, and on the subsequent 
accession of Sir Robert to the premiership in 1841, again took 
office as Secretary for Foreign Affairs. Quitting office with his 
chief in 1846, with whose views on the question of free-trade he 



m*y 



APPENDIX. 477 

thoroughly coincided, he came, on the death of Sir Robert Peel 
in 1850, to be regarded as the leader of the Conservative free- 
trade party. On the inability of the Derby ministry to maintain 
its place, Lord Aberdeen was instructed to form a cabinet, and 
accordingly returned to office in 1853 as head of a coalition 
ministry. The principal event which marks his administration 
is the Russian war; but the tardiness which he displayed, and 
unwillingness to enter into hostilities, the result of his constitu- 
tional aversion to warlike measures, irritated the country. . In 
1855, a majority of the House of Commons having decided for 
the appointment of a committee of inquiry into the conduct of 
the war, a motion which the Aberdeen ministry had uniformly 
resisted, the resignation of the cabinet ensued, and Lord Palmer- 
ston took the post of premier. This event marks the close of 
Lord Aberdeen's public career; he died on the 14th December, 
i860. 

(P. 192.) Young Roscius (William Henry West Betty). His 
grandfather and father were bleachers of linen at Lisburn, in 
County Antrim. His mother was the only child of James Stanton, 
Esq., of Hopton Court, Shropshire. She was a lady of good 
education and high accomplishments. In the year 1802 the 
celebrated actress, Mrs. Siddons, visited Belfast. Betty had never 
before been to a theatre. He was so inspired with enthusiasm by 
her acting that, on his return home from the theatre, he told his 
father that he should certainly die if he was not to be a player. 
He was then eleven years old. All his ordinary amusements 
became wearisome and trivial, and henceforth the theatre became 
the subject of his morning thoughts and midnight dreams. Mr. 
Aikin, manager of the Belfast theatre, now engaged the boy 
through his father for a nightly performance commencing August 
19, 1803. During the next year, 1804, he acted in the theatres 
of nearly all the provincial towns of the United Kindgom, cul- 
minating in December, 1804, in simultaneous engagements at the 
two great theatres of Covent Garden and Drury Lane, the receipts 
of these two houses during the first four months of his performance 
amounting to nearly ^40,000. On one occasion, on the motion 
of William Pitt, the House of Commons adjourned to witness 
his performance of Hamlet. He was usually called Roscius in 
memory of a celebrated ancient Roman actor of that name. 



478 THE TWO DUCHESSES. 

During 1806 and 1807 Master Betty revisited all the chief 
towns of the kingdom. At last, after three or four years of hard 
work, during which the public interest was gradually languishing, 
and it was recognized that a youth of sixteen or seventeen could 
no longer be considered a juvenile phenomenon, it was announced 
at Bath in March, 1808, that he was about to retire from the 
stage, and in July of that year he withdrew altogether, and entered 
Cambridge University. It is noteworthy that Mrs. Siddons never 
condescended to act with him, saying that he was a very clever, 
pretty boy, but nothing more. 

On his father's death in 181 1, young Betty, then nearly twenty 
years of age, returned to the stage, and was able to retain his 
position as a clever and interesting actor for some years longer, 
but in August, 1824, he made his positively last appearance. 
(The above information is chiefly derived from a lecture delivered 
at Holywood, County Down, by my friend, Mr. W. H. Malcolm, 
of that town, in the year 1882. — V. F.) 1 791-1874. 

(P. 222.) Caroline Ponsonby, daughter of Frederick Pon- 
sonby, Earl of Bessborough, was married June 3, 1805, to the 
Honourable William Lamb, afterwards Viscount Melbourne, Her 
Majesty Queen Victoria's first Prime Minister. She became in 
March, 181 2, passionately infatuated with Lord Byron, of whom 
she wrote in her diary immediately on her return home after her 
introduction to him that he was mad, bad, and dangerous to know. 
He subsequently wrote of her that she was the kindest and ablest 
female he ever met. 

After Byron's rupture with her in 181 3 her temper became so 
ungovernable that her husband reluctantly determined upon a 
separation. While the legal instruments were being prepared, she 
wrote and sent her first novel, Glenarvon, to the press. However, 
on the day fixed for the execution of the deed of separation a 
sudden reconciliation took place, and Lady Caroline was found 
seated beside her husband feeding him with tiny scraps of trans- 
parent bread and butter, while the solicitor was waiting below to 
attest the signatures (see Torrens' Memoirs of Viscount Melbourne, 
vol. i. p. 112). "In July, 1824, she accidentally met Byron's 
funeral procession on its way to Newstead. Though she partially 
recovered from this sudden shock, her mind became more 
affected, and in the following year she was separated from her 



APPENDIX. 479 

husband." She died at Melbourne House, Whitehall, on January 
26, 1828, aged 42, in the presence of her husband, who had 
hastened over from Ireland. {Diet, of National Biography.) 

Mr. Jeaffreson, in his Real Lord Byron, says of Lady Caroline 
Lamb that " it is perhaps no extenuation of her most considerable 
faults and follies that, in her fantastic and flighty way, she really 
loved the poet whom she injured so greatly, possibly loved him 
even when in her jealous wrath she was striking at him with the 
vicious energy of an enraged tigress". 1786-1828. 

(P. 292.) Lines on Charles James Fox. — On inquiry of His 
Grace, the Duke of Bedford, I find that the lines written by 
Georgiana, Duchess of Devonshire, for inscription on the bust 
of C. J. Fox, now in the Sculpture Gallery of Woburn Abbey, 
were ultimately slightly altered, and therefore, by His Grace's 
kind permission, I append the more correct version — 

Here midst the Friends he loved the man behold 
In truth unshaken and in virtue bold. 
Whose Patriot zeal and uncorrupted mind 
Dared to assert the freedom of mankind : 
And whilst, extending desolation far, 
Ambition spread the baneful flames of war, 
Fearless of blame, and eloquent to save, 
'Twas he — 'twas Fox the warning counsel gave: 
Midst jarring conflicts stemmed the tide of blood, 
And to the menaced world a sea-mark stood. 
Oh ! had his voice in mercy's cause prevailed, 
What grateful millions had the Statesman hailed ! 
Whose wisdom bade the broils of nations cease, 
And taught the world humanity and peace ! 
But though he failed successive ages here, 
The vain, yet pious, effort shall revere, 
Boast in their annals his illustrious name, 
Uphold his greatness, and confirm his fame ! 

— Georgiana Duchess of Devonshire. 

(P. 445.) Count Capo d'Istrias. — Count John Anthony Capo 
d'Istrias— a patriot, philanthropist, and able diplomatist— was born 
at Corfu, Feb. 11, 1776. His family originally came from the 



480 THE TWO DUCHESSES. 

Illyrian town of Capo d'Istria, near Trieste, but had been settled 
in Corfu for upwards of four hundred years. He began life as a 
medical student, devoted himself to political life, and after having 
held a high position in the Ionian Islands, entered the diplomatic 
service of Russia. In 18 13 he became the minister-plenipotentiary 
of Russia to Switzerland, and gained the favour of the Swiss by 
advocating the restoration of all the territory which the French 
had taken from them, and the re-establishment of Helvetian 
independence. In 1814 he attended the Congress of Vienna, 
and in the following year was the plenipotentiary of Russia in the 
arrangement of the final treaty of peace with France. In 1822 he 
retired from the public service of Russia and retired to Geneva, 
whence he plotted the undermining of Turkey; and on the 
separation of Greece from that power, after the battle of Navarino, 
in which the Turkish and Egyptian fleets were annihilated by the 
combined British, French, and Russian fleets, under the command 
of Sir Edward Codrington, on October 20, 1827, he was elected, 
in January, 1828, President of the Greek Republic for seven years, 
but was by no means equal to the task which he had undertaken. 
Everything was in disorder; the people had been long enslaved 
and knew not how to use their freedom, and the President had 
been so much imbued with the centralizing principles prevalent at 
the Courts which he had frequented that some of his measures, 
especially that restricting the liberty of the press, gave offence to 
even the most temperate of the enlightened lovers of civil liberty, 
and his career was cut short by assassination in a church at 
Nauplia on October 9, 1831, the assassins being George, the son, 
and Constantine, the brother, of Peter Mauromichali, against whom 
he was urging on a prosecution for alleged offences against the 
state. (The above information is culled from the following sources: 
Encyclopedia Britannica, Chambers's Encyclopedia, Blackie's 
Popular Encyclopedia, and Beeton's Dictionary of Universal Bio- 
graphy!) 

(P. 449.) Elizabeth Vassall Fox, Lady Holland, daughter 
and heir of Richard Vassall of Jamaica, was first married in 1786 
to Sir Godfrey Webster. The marriage was dissolved in June, 
1797, by Act of Parliament, on the ground of adultery committed 
by her with Henry Richard, Lord Holland, whom she married on 
the 9th of the following month. 



APPENDIX. 481 

The following notice of Lady Holland is copied from the 
Annual Register of 1845, Appendix to Chronicle, page 314: — 

" The deceased lady played a very conspicuous part in society, 
political and literary. Her great attainments, lively wit, her grace 
and dignity, decidedly placed her at the head of Whig fashion. The 
charms of the celebrated hospitalities of Holland House in the 
time of its late revered owners have been made known wherever 
liberal thought, literary merit, or eminence in the arts are to be 
found. For the remarkable position occupied by her ladyship 
during many years of those daily festivals in which genius, wit, 
and patriotic hope were triumphant, she was eminently gifted. 
While her own remarks were full of fire, practical sense, and nice 
observations, her influence was chiefly felt in the discourse of 
those whom she directed and inspired, and which, as she impelled 
it, startled by the most animated contrast, or blended in the most 
graceful harmonies. Beyond any other hostess, and very far 
beyond any host, she possessed the tact of perceiving, and the 
power of evoking the various capacities which lurked in every part 
of the brilliant circles she drew around her. To enkindle the 
enthusiasm of an artist on the theme over which he had achieved 
the most facile mastery; to set loose the heart of the rustic poet, 
and imbue his speech with the freedom of his native hills; to 
draw from the adventurous traveller a breathing picture of his 
most imminent danger; or to embolden the bashful soldier to 
disclose his own share in the perils and glories of some famous 
battlefield; to encourage the generous praise of friendship when 
the speaker and the subject reflected interest on each other, or 
win the secret history of some effort which had astonished the 
world, or shed new lights on science; to conduct those brilliant 
developments to the height of satisfaction, and then to shift the 
scene by the magic of a word, were among her daily successes. 
Habituated to a generous partisanship by strong sympathy with a 
great political cause, she carried the fidelity of her devotion to 
that cause into her social relations, and was ever the truest and 
fastest of friends. The tendency, often more idle than malicious, 
to soften down the intellectual claims of the absent, which so 
insidiously besets literary conversation, and teaches a superficial 
insincerity even to substantial esteem and regard, found no favour 
in her presence. Under her auspices not only all critical, but all 
personal talk was tinged with kindness; the strong interest which 



482 THE TWO DUCHESSES. 

she took in the happiness of her friends shed a peculiar sunniness 
over the aspects of life presented by the common topics of alli- 
ances, and marriages, and promotions; and not a promising 
engagement, or a wedding, or a promotion of a friend's son, or a 
new intellectual triumph of any youth with whose name and 
history she was familiar, but became an event on which she 
expected and required congratulation, as on a part of her own 
fortune. If to hail and welcome genius, or even talent, which 
revered and imitated genius, was one of the greatest pleasures of 
Lord Holland's life, to search it out, and bring it within the sphere 
of his noble sympathy, was the delightful study of hers. How 
often, during the last half century, has the steep ascent of fame 
been brightened by the genial appreciation she bestowed, and the 
festal light she cast on its solitude. How often has the assurance 
of success received its crowning delight amid the genial luxury of 
her circle, where renown itself has been realized for the first time 
in all its sweetness." 

The remains of Lady Holland were interred at Ampthill, 
Bedfordshire. 

(P. 455.) De Fellenberg. Emanuel de F., a philanthropic 
Swiss nobleman, who, after taking part in the public affairs of his 
country during the occupation of the French, whom he did all in 
his power to resist, retired entirely from politics, and devoted his 
whole life to the cause of literary and agricultural education. In 
1799 he purchased an estate near Berne, where he organized a 
system of tuition, which was designed to show what education 
could do for humanity. His life from this time is a continual 
record of benevolent enterprises, labours for the diffusion of know- 
ledge and improvement of the people. He possessed singular tact 
in disarming the opposition of interested or jealous opponents, 
and ultimately accomplished a large measure of success for his 
favourite projects. (Beeton's Dictionary of Universal Biography) 

1771-1844. 

(P. 468.) Paul Count de Barras was a most prominent 
member of the French Revolutionary Convention, in which he 
voted for the execution of the King, Louis XVI., without delay or 
appeal. He was appointed by the Convention Commander-in- 
Chief in 1794, and was mainly instrumental in overthrowing 



APPENDIX. 483 

Robespierre and the rest of the terrorists. Being again appointed 
Commander-in-Chief in the following year, he commissioned his 
young friend, Napoleon Bonaparte, whose military talents he had 
learned to admire at Toulon, to crush the Paris sections with 
merciless discharges of artillery. He next became a member of 
the Directory, consisting of five members, and appointed Napoleon 
Commander-in-Chief of the army in Italy, and a few days after- 
wards arranged the marriage of Napoleon with the widow Beau- 
harnais. 

On the overthrow of the Directory by Napoleon, on the 18th 
Brumaire (Nov. 9), 1799, Barras retired into private life. . . . 

175S-1829. 



INDEX. 



Abbot, Mr., Speaker of the House of 
Commons, 214. 

Abercorn, Lady, 207, 234. 

Abercromie, Colonel, 284. 

Aberdeen, Earl of, 193, 209, 210, 211, 
215, 216, 217, 219, 220, 224, 225, 
230, 232, 236, 248, 257, 262, 284, 
390, 405 ; Appendix, 475 ; letter to 
Augustus Foster, 185, 187, 188, 
190, 207, 213, 241, 248, 305, 356, 
442. 

— Lady, 236, 310, 443. 

A'Court, 429. 

Ada, Lord Byron's daughter (after- 
wards Lady Lovelace), 430. 

Adair, 418. 

Addington, Henry A., 167, 194 ("the 
Doctor"), 196, 219, 341. 

Aix, Archbishop of, 179, 181. 

Alexander, Emperor of Russia, 109, 
261, 274, 311, 328, 382, 384, 390, 
402, 443. 

Allecetas, Marquis d', 398. 

Alten Kirchen, 129. 

Americans and American affairs, let- 
ters from Augustus Foster, 203, 206, 
226, 229, 239, 246, &c. 

Arena, attempts life of Bonaparte, 

159- 
Armfelt, Baron d', 172, 323, 375; 

letter to Augustus Foster, 328. 
Ashburner, Mrs., 88, 106. 
Atholl, Duke of, 189. 
Atlee, Mr., 458. 
Auckland, Lord, 271, 325, 326. 
Augereau, Field-Marshal, 380, 383, 

4°3- 
Augusta, sister of George III., 8. 



Augustenbourg, Prince of, 335. 
Augustus, Prince, of Saxe-Coburg, 

8, 22. 
Austria, Emperor of, 261, 381, 382. 
Avondale, Lord, 418. 

Bagot, Charles, 339. 
Baird, General, 314, 316. 
Bajocchi, Madame, 412. 
Banks, Mr., 358, 363. 
Banks, Sir Joseph, 165. 
Barham, Lord, 232. 
Barmeath, 104. 
Barnard, Hon. Henry, 453. 

— Lord, 354. 

Barras, letter from Napoleon Bona- 
parte, 468. 

— Paul Count de, Appendix, 482. 
Barry, Mrs., 196. 

Batoni, Pompeo, no, 118. 

Bayley, Dean, 40. 

Beauharnais, Eugene, 382. 

Beauvale, Lord, 450. 

Bellasyse, Mr. (Lord Bolingbroke), 

239- 
Bellew, Miss, 28, 109. 

— Mrs., 113. 

Benixin (Bennigsen), 170. 
Bennet, Mr., 218, 230. 
Bentinck, Lord W., 333, 342. 
Beresford, Viscount, 327. 
Bergamo, 434. 
Berkeley, Lady, 67. 
Bernadotte, 388, 389, 390, 391. 
Bernis, Cardinal de, 33, 34, 38, 78, 

107, 108. 
Berri, Duke of, 385. 
Berthier, General (Marshal), 153, 383. 



486 



INDEX. 



Bertin, Mademoiselle, 88. 
Bertrand, General, 384, 396. 

— Madame, 408. 
Bessborough, Earl of, II. 

— Lady, 163, 195, 223, 285, 288, 317, 

334. 376, 393. 438. 44°- 

Betty, William Henry West (Young 
Roscius), Appendix, 477. See 
Roscius. 

Billington, Mrs., 304. 

Birbeck, Madame, 102. 

Bishop of Derry. See BRISTOL, 
Earl of. 

Bishopswerder, Hans Rodolph, 137. 

Bittio, 28, 35, 46. 

Blackall, Miss, 40. 

Blake, General, 313, 314, 354. 

Blane, Sir Gilbert, 209. 

Blayden, Mr., 164. 

Blayney, Lord, 171. 

Blucher, Marshal, 383, 406. 

Bolingbroke, Lord, 239, 240. 

Bonaparte (Napoleon I.), 159, 160, 
164, 171, 172, 173, 179, 180, 192, 
210, 243, 244, 255, 298, 306, 313, 
315, 316, 318, 321, 327, 329, 331, 
342, 346, 349, 360, 37S, 376, 379, 
381, 383, 386, 391, 392, 393, 395, 
396, 398, 400, 401, 402, 404, 405, 
408, 410, 411, 412. 

— Jerome, 206, 211. 

— Joseph, 334, 345. 

— Louis, 182, 424. 

— Madame, 182. 

— Madame Jerome (Miss Patterson), 
197, 221, 222, 234, 294, 296, 297. 

— Madame Lucien, 424. 
Bond, Mrs., 4. 

Borghese, Princess, 412, 423. 

Boringdon, Lady, 203. 

Bourke, Mr., 395. 

Bourne, Sturges, 339. 

Brand, Mrs., 109. 

Brandenburg, House of, 141. 

Bristol, Countess of, letter to the 
Bishop, 81; letter to Lady Eliza- 
beth Foster, 82, 83, 85, 88, 90, 94, 
99, 103, 105, 108, 113, 142; letter 



to Frederick Foster, 148; death of, 
166. 
Bristol, Earl of, Bishop of Derry, 2, 5, 
7, 11, 18, 20, 24, 38, 43, 95, 106; 
Appendix, 469 ; letter from the 
Countess of Bristol, 81 ; letter to 
Lady Elizabeth Foster, 78, 116, 
119, 121, 122, 123, 124, 127, 128, 
129, 137, 139. 143, 15°, 1S2; letter 
to Mrs. J. Th. Foster, 14, 16, 22, 
3 2 > 34. 47. 55. 63, 65, 68, 72, 74. 

— George William, Earl of, 32. 

— Lady, Duchess of Kingston, 61. 

— Lord, 206. 
Brook, Lord, 219. 
Brougham, Henry, 423, 424. 
Brown, Dr., 299. 

— John, 191. 

Bruce, Rev. Sir Henry Hervey Aston, 
126. 

— Theo., 126. 

Brunswick, Duchess of, 300, 311. 

— Duke of, 9, 295, 299, 300, 330. 

— Prince of, 9, 15, 20. 

— Princess of, 8. 
Buchanan, President, 466. 
Buckingham, Lady, 32. 

— Lord, 75. 

Buckinghamshire, Lord, 219. 
Buenos Ayres, 294, 301, 304. 
Buonaparte. See Bonaparte. 
Burdett, Sir Francis, 295, 310. 
Burgersh, Lord, 327, 349, 385. 
Burke, Edmund, 378. 
Burnet, Bishop, 140. 

Burr, Aaron, 297, 301, 302, 308. 
Bute, Lord, 142. 
Butler, Miss, 40. 
Buxton, Mr. C, 460. 
Byres, Mr., 107. 
Byrne, N., 12, 30. 

Byron, Lady, 412, 413, 415, 430; let- 
ter to Vere Foster, 451, 452, 453, 

458. 459. 460, 462, 463. 464. 4°6. 
467. 

— Lord, 352, 361, 362, 364, 375, 
376, 378, 401, 412, 424, 438, 442; 
verses addressed to Hon. Mrs. G. 



INDEX. 



487 



Lamb, 374; letter to Elizabeth, 
Duchess of Devonshire, 426, 436, 
439; letter from Elizabeth, Duchess 
of Devonshire, 439. 
Byron, Lord and Lady, 408, 413, 414, 
417. 

Calder, Sir Robert, 235, 236, 238, 

243- 
Calthorpe, Lord, 460. 
Cambaceres, 181. 
Camden, Lord, 341, 342. 
Campbell, Colonel, 385, 396. 
Canning, George, 167, 196, 202, 203, 

305. 3°9. 3 IQ > 34i. 342, 343. 345. 

35°. 356, 369. 44i, 444- 
Canning and Castlereagh, 339, 340. 
Canova, Antonio, 411, 415; letter to 

Elizabeth, Duchess of Devonshire, 

419, 420. 
Carlisle, Earl of, his lines on the 

death of the Duchess of Devonshire 

(Georgiana), 278. 

— Lady, 450. 

— Lord, 376. 

Carnival, description of the, 34, 35. 
Caro, 218. 

Castanos, General, 312. 
Castlereagh, Lady, 326. 

— Lord, 156, 308, 324, 325, 326, 
345. 35°. 3S8, 388, 39°, 432; Ap- 
pendix, 474. 

Castlereagh and Canning, 339, 340. 

Catalani, 303. 

Cathcart, Lord, 249, 390. 

Catholic question brought on, 354. 

Catholic Relief Bill, 58. 

Cattaro, the, to be yielded to France, 

284. 
Cavendish, Lord George, 309. 

— H., 333, 345. 

— Lady Harriet, 211. 

— Mrs., 355. 

— William, 355. 

Charles, Archduke, 128, 255, 329, 

33i. 332, 33 6 - 
Charles XIII., 433. 
Chatham, Lord (First Earl), 47, 54, 



58, 143, 148; (Second Earl), 158, 

209, 337. 338, 339. 345- 
Cherokees and Creeks, 258. 
Chesterfield, Lord, 42, 212. 
Chief Governor of Ireland, 79- 
Choiseul Gouffier, Duke de, 410. 
Christian, King of Denmark, letter to 

Augustus Foster, 447. 
Christophe, Henri, 250. 
Cimabue, Giovanni, 118. 
Ciudad Rodrigo taken, 354. 
Civil war imminent in Ireland, 80. 
Clarence, Duke of, 218, 352. 
Clarke, Mrs., 320, 322, 330. 
Clay, Mr., 254. 

Clifford, Augustus C, 235, 256. 
Closius, Dr., 14. 
Cobbett, William, 202. 
Cochrane, Admiral (Lord), 202, 

310. 
Coigny, Madame de, 388. 
Cole, Lady Harriet, 231. 
Congress, opening of, 253. 
Constant, B., 404, 430. 
Corda, la, 35. 
Corisande ("Corise"), 173, 175, 182, 

196, 203, 208, 213, 224, 231, 286, 

3°7- 
Cornwallis, Admiral, 236, 238. 

— Lord, 212, 277, 291. 
Corunna, victory of, 317. 
Cosway, Mrs., 103. 

Countess de Salis, Harriet, letter from 

John Leslie Foster, 170. 
Cowper, Lady, 106. 

— Lord, 164, 171, 174, 195, 222, 
224, 231, 3SS, 424. 

Craig, Sir James, 355. 

— Sir S., 209. 
Craven, Lady, 97. 

Crawford, Mr., his opinion of Roscius, 

209. 
Creeks, 258. 
Creightons, Miss, 3. 
Cromwell, Oliver, 143. 
Cuesta, 335, 336, 337. 
Cumberland, Duchess of, 182. 

— Duke of, 269. 



488 



INDEX. 



Curera, General, 329. 
Cust, Mr., 171. 

Danby, Miss, 94, 97. 

Danoot, 31. 

Dante, 118. 

Dantzig, Duke of, 330. 

D'Aumont, 403. 

Davers, Sir Charles, Bart., 5, 82, 98. 

D'Ellioto, 380. 

Demidoff, 172. 

Denen, Mr., 426. 

Denmark, King of, 404, 406. 

— Queen of, 372. 
Dennel, Mr., 4. 

Derry, Bishop of. See Bristol, 
Earl of. 

Dessalines, Jacques, 250. 

Devonshire, Elizabeth, Duchess of 
(previously Lady Elizabeth Foster — 
see Foster), letter from Lord By- 
ron, 426, 436, 439; letter from 
Antonio Canova, 419, 420; letter 
from Augustus Foster, 360, 365, 372, 
378, 379, 380, 381, 38S- 387, 388, 
389. 394. 395. 401, 4°3, 406, 407, 
410, 411, 412, 414, 416, 418, 427, 
42S, 429, 431, 432, 433, 435, 438, 
442 ; letter from W. H. Hill, 401 ; 
letter from the Prince Regent, 347; 
letter from the Countess of Liver- 
pool, 415, 417 ; letter from the Duke 
of Wellington, 441 ; letter to Lord 
Byron, 439; letter to Augustus Fos 
ter, 341, 342, 343, 34s, 347, ,348 

349, 35°, 35i, 354, 357, 361, 364 
367, 368, 372, 375, 386, 393, 397 
404, 409, 411, 412, 413, 415, 423. 
424, 425, 441, 442; letter to Frede 
rick Foster, 352; letter to Mrs, 
Foster, 423; memorandum inclosing 
copy of letter of General Moreau to 
his wife, 377 ; memorandum inclos- 
ing copy of the Emperor Alexander's 
letter, 378. 

— Georgians, Duchess of, 84, 85, 94, 
96, 101, 103, 115, 191, 223, 256, 
291; letter to Frederick Foster, 130; 



poetry addressed to Lady Elizabeth 
Foster, 131, 132; poetry on Lady 
Elizabeth Foster (in French), 132; 
poetry addressed to her children — 
The Passage of the Mountain of 
Saint Gothard, 133; poetry on the 
Battle of Aboukir, 155; letter from 
Charles James Fox, 184; poetry on 
the death of James Hare, 200; Epi- 
gram on the peerage, 201 ; lines on 
the Victory of Trafalgar and the 
death of Nelson, 252; letter to 
Augustus Foster, 273 ; lines on the 
death of, by the Earl of Carlisle, 
278; lines on the bust of Fox, 292 ; 
letter from R. B. Sheridan, m. 

Devonshire, Duke of, 84, 101, 191, 
199, 218, 223, 236, 256, 285, 286, 
288; lines on death of Nelson, 252; 
epitaph on Lord Spencer, 264. 

Dicot, Mr., 379. 

Dillon, Colonel, 36, 39. 

— Henry, 196, 203. 

Dillons — poor little Dillons, 87. 

Dissenters' Bill, 78. 

Dodd, Rev. Wm., LL.D., 4. 

Douglas, Sir I. and Lady, 285. 

Dresden, battle of, 376. 

Drouet, General, 384, 387. 

Drummond, Miss, in love with Young 
Roscius, 207. 

Dubelloy, Archbishop of Paris, 179, 
181. 

Duchess Countess, Lady Bristol, 67. 

Duchess of York, 120. 

Ducos, Roger, 159. 

Dumas, Comte de, 400. 

Duncannon, Lord, 203, 215, 230, 256, 
296, 299, 310. 

Dundas, Henry, Viscount Melville. 
See Melville (Lord). 

Durer, Albert, 118. 

Elector of the Rhenish Palatinate, 20; 
Elector's minister, singular ceremo- 
nials, 20, 21. 

Elgin, Lord, 138, 284. 

Eliott, Lady, 97. 



INDEX. 



489 



Ellenborough, Lord, 285. 

Elliot, Mr., 137, 138, 168. 

Ellis, Charles, 222, 251. 

Elmsley, Mr., 423. 

Engelstr6m, Baron d', letter to Au- 
gustas Foster — order to quit Swe- 
den, 346, 433. 

Ermiskillen, Lord, 230. 

Erne, Countess of, 2, 3, 4, 43, 68, 83, 
15°. 157. 344. 369; letter to Frede- 
rick Foster, 166. 

— Earl of, 4, 43. 

— Lord and Lady, 62, 64, 67. 
Erskine, Mr., 286. 

Eugene, Charles, 22. 
Excavations at Rome, 425. 
Exeter, Bishop of, 262. 

Falkland, Lord, killed in a duel, 322. 
Farquhar, Sir Walter, 121, 209. 
Faucit, Col., 11. 
Faukes, Mr., 296. 

Fellenberg, Emanuel de, 455; Appen- 
dix, 482. 
Ferguson, General, 314. 

— Mrs., 43. 

Ferronayes, M. La, 427. 
Finch, Captain, 87. 
Fitz, L. M., 5. 

— The, 40. 

Fitzgeralds, Ladies, 213. 
Fitzjames, M. de, 383. 
Fitzpatrick, General, 193, 268. 

— Mr., 202. 

Fitzroy, Lady Anne, 158. 

Fitzwilliam, Lord, 296. 

Flahault, Monsieur de, 397. 

Flushing, 333. 

Follen, Mrs., 459, 462. 

Foster, Augustus, 150, 171, 348; Sir 
Augustus, Appendix, 474; Augus- 
tus (afterwards Sir Augustus F., 
Bart. ), letter from the Earl of Aber- 
deen, 185, 187, 188, 190, 207, 213, 
241, 248, 305, 356, 442; letter from 
Christian VIII., king of Denmark, 
447; letter from Baron d'Armfelt, 
328; letter from Baron d'Engel- 



I str6m, 346, 433; letter from Count 
John Anthony Capo d'Istrias, 445'; 
letter from Lady Elizabeth Foster 
(afterwards Duchess of Devonshire), 

153. 156, iS7> 160, 161, 167, 191. 
192, 194, 198, 201, 207, 209, 210, 
214, 217, 220, 230, 235, 237, 242, 
243. 244, 250, 252, 255, 260, 261, 
262, 264, 266, 272, 280, 283, 285, 
286, 287, 292, 294, 298, 300, 303, 

307, 3°9. 3». 312. 313. 3H. 3*5, 
316, 317, 319, 321, 322, 324, 326, 

3 2 7, 329, 33o. 33i» 332, 333. 334, 
335, 336, 337, 338, 339, 340; letter 
from Elizabeth, Duchess of Devon- 
shire, 341, 342, 343, 345, 347, 348, 
349, 350, 35i, 354, 357, 361, 364, 
367, 368, 372, 375, 3 8 °, 393, 397, 
404, 409, 411, 412, 413, 415, 423, 
424, 425, 441, 442; letter from Frede- 
rick Foster, 169, 290, 343, 380, 391, 
395, 398, 400; letter from Georgiana, 
Duchess of Devonshire, 273; letter 
from the Hon. Mrs. Lamb, 279, 
353, 373, 404, 4°8, 430, 434, 449, 
450; letter to Lady Elizabeth Fos- 
ter, 156, 159, 160, 164, 173, 176, 
178, 180, 182, 183, 196, 203, 206, 
225, 226, 232, 238, 239, 246, 253, 
257, 271, 274, 276, 281, 290, 291, 
296, 301, 308; letter to Elizabeth, 
Duchess of Devonshire, 360, 365, 
372, 378, 379, 380, 381, 385, 387, 
388, 389, 394, 395, 4°i, 403, 406, 
407, 410, 411, 412, 414, 416, 418, 
427, 428, 429, 431, 432, 433, 435, 
438, 442; letter to Frederick Fos- 
ter, 229. 
Foster, Colonel, 365. 

— Doctor Thomas, 3, 13, 25, 104, 
109. 

— Lady Elizabeth (afterwards Duchess 
of Devonshire), III; poetry ad- 
dressed by Georgiana, Duchess of 
Devonshire, to, 131; poetry by 
Georgiana, Duchess of Devonshire, 
on, 132; letter from Augustus Fos- 
ter, 156, 159, 160, 164, 173, 176, 



49o 



INDEX. 



178, 180, 182, 183, 196, 203, 206, 
225, 226, 232, 238, 239, 246, 253, 
257, 271, 274, 276, 281, 290, 291, 
296, 301, 308; letter from the 
Bishop of Derry, 78, 116; letter 
from the Countess of Bristol, 82, 83, 
85, 88, 90, 94, 99, 103, 105, 108, 
113; letter from the Earl of Bristol 
(Bishop of Derry), 116, 119, 121, 
122, 123, 124, 127, 128, 129, 137, 
139, 143, 150, 152; letter from 
Edward Gibbon, 115; letter from 
George, Prince of Wales, 279; letter 
to Augustus Foster, 153, 156, 157, 
160, 161, 167, 191, 192, 194, 198, 
201, 207, 209, 210, 214, 217, 220, 
230, 235, 237, 242, 243, 244, 250, 
252, 255, 260, 261, 262, 264, 266, 
272, 280, 283, 285, 286, 287, 292, 
294, 298, 300, 303, 307, 309, 311, 
312, 313, 314, 315, 316, 317, 319, 
321, 322, 324, 326, 327, 329, 330, 

33i. 33 2 . 333. 334, 335. 33 6 . 337. 
338, 339, 340; letter to Frederick 
Th. Foster, 166. 
Foster, Frederick, letter from Lady 
Elizabeth Foster, 166; letter from 
Elizabeth, Duchess of Devonshire, 
352; letter from G. Thorwaldsen, 
422; letter to Augustus Foster, 169, 
290, 343. 380, 391, 398, 395. 400. 

— Fred. Th., 44. 

— Henry, 162. 

— John, Speaker of Irish House of 
Commons, 64. 

— John Leslie, 177; letter to Harriet, 
Countess de Salis, 170. 

— J. Th., S, 24, 26, 31, 33, 39, 62, 
75. 83, 86, 93, 109. 

— Mr., 243. 

— Mrs. J. Th. (afterwards Lady Eliza- 
beth Foster — see above), letter from 
Bishop of Derry and the Hon. Mrs. 
Hervey, 22; letter from the Bishop 
of Derry, 14, 16, 32, 47, 55, 63, 
65, 68, 72, 74; letter from the Hon. 
Mrs. Hervey (afterwards Countess 
of Bristol), I, 3, 6, 10, 18, 25, 29, 



38, 41, 45, 50, S3. 59, 61, 69; letter 
from the Hon. Mrs. Hervey and 
the Bishop of Derry, 34. 

Foster, Vere, birth of, 428, 432; letter 
from Lady Byron, 451, 452, 453, 
458. 459. 460, 4 62 . 463. 464. 466, 
467. 

Fox, Charles James, 199, 215, 227, 
231, 236, 237, 266, 267, 268, 271, 
273, 285, 286, 289, 293, 297, 300, 
304, 449 ; Appendix, 479 ; letter to 
Duchess of Devonshire (Georgiana), 
184, 263 ; inscription for a bust of, 
263; lines by Duchess of Devon- 
shire on bust, 292. 

— Elizabeth Vassall, Lady Holland, 
Appendix, 480. 

— Mrs., 273. 

France, King of, Louis XVI., 78. 

Francis, Sir Philip, 185. 

Freddy, 432. 

Fred the third, 37. 

Frederick, Prince of Orange, 128, 129. 

French Minister at Washington, 228. 

Gamba, two Counts, 436, 440. 

Gambier, Lord, 323. 

Gardiner, Mr., 54. 

Garrick, 209. 

Garth, Sir Samuel, 118. 

Gay, John, 118. 

Gell, Mr., 313. 

— Sir William, 187, 189, 190. 
George III., 167, 168, 195, 218,267, 

269, 347, 352, 354- 
Gerard, 384, 387. 
Germany, Emperor of, 64, 261. 

— Empress of, 64. 

Gibbon, Edward, letter to Lady Eliza- 
beth Foster, 115. 

Gifford, Mr., 9. 

Gleadow, Mr., 48. 

"Glenarvon", 418. 

Gloucester, Duke of, 237-238. 

Goderich, Viscount, 444. 

Goethe, 161. 

Gonsalvi, Cardinal, 412, 419, 425, 
440. 



INDEX. 



491 



Goodwood, 116. 

Gordon, 406. 

Gordon, Duchess of, 188, 211, 233. 

— Mrs., 83. 
Gore, Miss E., 157. 
Gosford, Lady, 362. 
Gosling, Messrs., 124. 
Gotha, Prince of, 45. 
Gower, Lady Charlotte, 213. 
Graham, General, 350. 
Grantham, Lord, 231. 

— Lord, and Miss Pole, 213. 
Granville, Lady, 334. 

— Lord, 196, 249, 303. 

Grassini, Josephina, 207, 263, 304, 

393- 
Grattan, 182. 

Greene, Mrs., 6, 87, 94, 98. 
Grenville, Lord, 141, 266, 267, 268, 

269, 270, 272, 285, 291, 310, 340, 

341- 
Grenville and Fox, 267. 

— Mr. T., 286. 

Grenvilles, the king hates the thought 

of them, 339. 
Greville, Charles, 112. 

— Mrs. C, 112. 
Grey, Lady de, 444. 

— Lord, 203, 215, 322, 325, 340, 341. 

Hamilton, Lady Catherine, 224, 230, 
241. 

— Lord Archibald, 171, 324. 

— Viscountess, 207. 
Hamlet, 406, 407. 
Hammond, Mr., 137. 
Hanover, Chancellor of, 141. 
Hardwick, Lord, 243. 
Hare, James, 112, 199, 200. 
Harrowby, Lady, 344. 

— Lord, 195, 246, 331, 344. 
Hartington, Marquis of, 288, 289, 

354, 355- 
Harvey, Admiral, 323. 
Hatton, Lady An»e, 160, 163. 
Haugnitz, 296. 
Hawkesbury, Lady (formerly Lady 

Louisa Hervey and afterwards Coun- 



tess of Liverpool — which see), 150, 

215, 219. 
Hawkesbury, Lord (afterwards Earl 

of Liverpool — which see), 131, 150, 

156, 158, 167, 194, 195, 221, 225, 

232, 268, 273, 309. 
Hawkesburys, 157, 192. 
Hawkins, Colonel, 258. 
Henrietta, 71. 
Henry, Mr., 363. 
Hertford, Lady, 311. 
Hervey, Fred., 93. See Hervey 

(Lord). 

— Captain Jack, 71, 78, 102. 

— General, 90, 94, 157. 

— John Augustus, 72. 

— Lady, no, 150, 369. 

— Lady Louisa (afterwards Lady 
Hawkesbury and Countess of Liver- 
pool — which see), 3, 13, 24, 25, 28, 
43. 5°, 65, 69, 87, 92. 

— Lord, 119, 122, 123, 125, 126, 166. 

— Hon. Miss, letter to Mrs. J. Th. 
Foster, 41. 

— Hon. Mrs. (afterwards Countess of 
Bristol), letter to Mrs. Foster, I, 3, 
6, 10, 18, 22, 25, 29, 34, 38, 41, 

45, 50, 53, 59, 61, 69. 

— William, no. 

Hill, W. H., letter to Elizabeth, 
Duchess of Devonshire, 401. 

Hillsborough, Lord, free trader, 75. 

Hobart, Miss Vere, letter to Mrs. 
Foster, 444. 

Holland, 140. 

Holland, Lady, 163, 266, 291, 449; 
Appendix, 480. 

— Lord, 266, 286, 363. 
Hood, Sir S., 299. 

— Sir T., 323. 

Hope, General, 315, 316, 319. 

— Mr., 425. 
Hough, Mr., 202. 
Howard, Charles, 449 

— Fred., 312, 404. 

— W., 299. 
Howe, Lord, 157. 

Howick, Lord, 291, 303, 304, 305, 309. 



492 



INDEX. 



Hunter, Mr., 87, 88, 94. 
Huntly, Lord, 333. 
Huskisson, 339. 
Hutchinson, Lord, 300. 

Ick worth House, 116. 
Indian Nations, 257. 
Influenza, 61. 

Invasion of Ireland intended, 57, 76. 
Irish regiment in the French service, 48. 
Istrias, Count Capo d', Appendix, 479; 
letter to Augustus Foster, 445. 

Jackson, Mr., 164. 

Jefferson, Thomas, President, 197, 

229, 308. 
Jenkins, Mr., 107. 
Jerome, Madame, 294. 
Jersey, Lord, 423, 424. 
Jordan, Mr., 194. 
Joseph Napoleon, 345. 
Josephine, 424; death of, 388. 
Jourdan, Canaille, 180. 

Kaufiman, Angelica, 218. 
Keith, Lord, 158. 
Kelly, Father, 64. 
Kemble, Charles, 262, 263. 

— John, 250. 

Kemble and Mrs. Siddons, 250. 

Keppel, Admiral Lord, 63, 77. 

Ker, Lady Emily, 87. 

King, Mr., 239. 

Kingston, Duchess of, 63. 

Korsakow, 427. 

Kotzebue, 156, 160, 161, 162. 

Lafayette, 430. 

Lamb, Lady Caroline (Ponsonby), 222, 
223, 232, 233, 242, 257, 303, 307, 
354. 362, 364. 369. 376, 416, 418; 
Appendix, 478. 

— Emily, 222, 231. 

— George, 310, 316, 345, 409. 

— Hon. Mrs. George, letter to Augus- 
tus Foster, 279, 373, 404, 408, 430, 
434, 449, 450; verses addressed by 
Lord Byron to, 374. 



Lamb, William (afterwards Lord Mel- 
bourne), 154, 162, 219, 222, 223, 
249, 257, 299, 303 ; inscription for 
a bust of C. J. Fox, 263. 

Lambert, Chevalier, 47. 

— Lady Maria, 242. 

— Sir John, 38. 
Lansdowne, Lord, 423, 444. 
Lascelles' motion of public honour to 

Pitt, 267, 268. 
Lauderdale, Lord, 358. 
Lawrence, Mr., 359. 
Le Brun, 181. 
Lecourbe, 399. 
Leinster, Duke of, 80. 
Lennox, Lord, 209. 
Le Sage, Monsr., J. Th. Foster, 1. 
Leveson, Lord Granville, 331. 
Lewis, "Monk", 425. 
Lichtenstein, Prince John of, 336. 
Lilford, Lady, 449. 
Liverpool, Countess of (formerly Lady 

Hawkesbury — which see), 344, 380; 

letter to Elizabeth, Duchess of 

Devonshire, 415, 417. 

— Earl of (previously Lord Hawkes- 
bury— which see), 3, 317, 344, 350, 
355. 363. 368, 389. 

London, Bishop of, 417. 
Louchee, 87, 94. 
Louis XVI., 78. 

— XVIII., 140, 380, 381, 400, 403, 
429; deathblow to his hopes, 180. 

Lovel, Mr., 139. 

Lucan, Lord and Lady, 67. 

Lucchesini, Prussian Ambassador, 172, 

296, 299. 
Lucien, Madame, 424. 
Lucullus, 139. 
Luttrell, 172. 

Macartney, Lord, 117. 

M 'Donald, Marshal, like Lord Mor- 
peth, 181; report of his defeat, 349. 

MacEgan, Governor, 64. 

M'Intosh, Sir James, 378. 

Mack, General, 244; taken prisoner, 
245- 



INDEX. 



493 



M'Mahon, Colonel, 358. 
Maitland, Captain, 408. 
Malmesbury, Lordj 139. 
Mannheim, description of, 19, 20. 
Mansbridge, Mr., 222, 233. 
Marche, Comtesse de la, 123, 129; 

Appendix, 473. 
Maria Louisa, 388, 424. 
Markoff, Russian ambassador, 172. 
Marmont, Marshal, 363, 396. 
Marsden, Mr., 251. 
Marshalls, 109. 

Martinetti, Madame, 437, 440. 
Mary, Lady, 83. 
Massena, Marshal, 181, 391, 392, 393, 

395, 400, 401, 409. 
Materosa, 328. 
Meister, Count, 382. 
Melbourne, Lady, 223, 224, 314, 335, 

437. 44°- 

— Lord, 223, 450 (2nd Viscount). 
Melboumes, The, 162, 222. 
Mellisb, Mr., 299. 

Melville, Lady, 236, 262. 

— Lord, 202, 210, 211, 214, 215, 216, 
217, 218, 224, 225, 230, 232, 236, 
241,262, 305, 368; party virulence 
against him, 213; expelled from the 
Privy Council, 220; to appear at 
the bar of the House of Commons, 
224; to be impeached, 231; pro- 
longation of impeachment, 250; his 
trial about soon to end, 284. 

— Lord and Lady, 262. 
Menou, 175. 

Mercer, 190. 

Merry, Mr., 196, 245, 275, 311. 

— Mrs., 226, 238, 275. 
Michael Angelo, 118. 
Middleton, Sir Charles, 218, 219, 232. 
Milbanke, Lady, 353, 368, 372, 373. 

— Miss (afterwards Lady Byron), 348, 
358, 360, 361, 365, 367, 370, 372, 

373- 

— Sir Ralph, 354, 373- 

— Sir Ralph and Lady, 367, 370, 430. 
Minden, 127. 

Ministry, change of, 270. 



Minto, Lord, 286, 450. 

Miranda, General, 276, 284, 294, 297, 

301. 
Moellendorf, Count de, 137. 
Moira, Lady, 60, 190, 368. 
Monaco, Prince of, 397. 
Monni, 380. 
Monroe, Mr., 357. 
Monson, Colonel, 212. 
Montoro, General, 389. 
Moore, Sir John, 316, 317, 318, 319, 

321. 335- 
Moreau, General, 128, 238, 243, 245, 
246, 250, 276, 294, 297; letter to 
Augustus Foster, 366; letter to his 
wife, 376. 

— Madame, 276; letter from Emperor 
Alexander I., 377. 

Morice, Mr., 87, 94. 

Morier, Mr., 355. 

Morpeth, Lord (afterwards Earl of 
Carlisle), 163, 223, 289, 294, 295, 
296, 299, 300, 303, 312, 325, 354, 
376. 

Morpeths, 195. 

Motteux, Mr., 311. 

Mounier, le, 159, 161, 389. 

Mounier's son, 383. 

Mountstuart, Lord, 73. 

Mulgrave, Lady, 78. 

— Lord, 106. 
Munroe, Mr., 259, 274. 
Murat, Madame, 182, 412. 

— Marshal, 401, 404, 409. 

Napoleon, 243, 385; description of, 
164; letter to Barras (?), 468. See 
Bonaparte. 

— Joseph, 345. 
Narischkin, Madame, 443. 
Nelson, Lord, 182, 221, 224, 232, 

235, 238, 241, 243, 244, 246, 249, 
251, 256, 261, 265, 274, 277, 291, 
298; death of, lines by Georgiana, 
Duchess of Devonshire, on, 252. 

Ney, Marshal, 244, 313, 329, 382, 
400. 

Noailles, M. de, 46. 



494 



INDEX. 



Noel, Mr., 453. 
Noels, the, 430. 
North, B., 203. 

— Lord, 77, 358. 
Norway, King of, 246. 

Ockham, Viscount, 462, 467. 
Oldenbourg, Duchesse d', 328. 
Orange, Prince of, 165. 

— Prince Frederick of, 128, 129. 
O'Reilly, Mr., 56. 

Oriel, Lord, 64. 

Ossulston, Lord (afterwards Earl of 
Tankerville), 196, 203, 208, 215, 
219, 250, 265, 286, 296, 303, 325, 
326. 

Oxford, Lady, 409. 

Padre, the (Bishop of Derry), 5. 
Paget, Lady Charlotte, 23 1. 

— Lord, 90, 92, 331. 
Pa-hu-la, 258. 

Paine, Thomas, 139, 204. 
Painters, 118. 

Palafox, General, 319, 321. 
Palladio's stucco, 117. 
Palliser, Dr., 56. 
Palmerston, Lady, 449, 450. 

— Lord, 463 ; letter to Sir Augustus 
Foster, 359. 

Panisse, Comte de, 398. 

Paris, Archbishop of, 1 79, 181. 

Parkison, Mr., 91. 

Parnello, M. B., 31. 

Patterson, Miss, wife of Jerome Bona- 
parte, 206, 297. 

Paul, Emperor, 1 69. 

Pauline, 387, 399. 

Paull, Mr., 296, 299, 308, 310. 

Payne, Mrs., 203. 

Peel, Sir Robert, 429. 

Pemberton, Dr., 415. 

Perceval, Mrs., 365. 

Percival, Mr., 303, 304, 305, 356, 
358, 364- 

Petty, Lord Henry, 214, 219. 

Phipps, Augustus, 87. 

— Miss, 36. 



Pichegru, General, 245. 

Pichon, Mr., 234. 

Pitt, William, 106, 125, 152, 156, 166, 
167, 193. IQ 4. 195. 199. 202, 214, 
216, 219, 220, 225, 241, 250, 261, 
272, 273, 277, 291, 305; reflections 
by Lady Elizabeth Foster on death 
of, 266; the Duchess of Devonshire 
(Georgiana), remarks about Pitt and 
Fox, 273, 274. 

Pitt and Addington, their reconcilia- 
tion, 219. 

Pitt and Fox, 231, 236, 237. 

Pitt, Nelson, and Lord Cornwallis, 
277. 

Pitt, Thomas, 68. 

Planta, 432. 

Playfair, Mr., 423. 

Pocahontas, the Indian Queen, 205, 

275- 
Pole, Miss, 213. 
Polignacs, 97. 
Pollington, Lady, 451. 
Ponsonby, Lady Caroline. See 

Lamb, Lady Caroline. 

— Fred., 296, 299, 303, 304, 334, 
364, 405, 408. 

— G., 358- 

— William, 341. 
Poole, Sir Charles, 195. 

Pope, The, sent to a hospital in France, 

162. 
Popery, cry about Popery raised by 

the ministers, 309. 
Popham, Sir H., 301, 304. 
Portland, Duke of, 91, 101, 195, 341. 
Portugal, the government about to 

emigrate to the Brazils, 311. 
Powel, Mr., 322. 
Precy, 399. 
Preston, Mrs., 31. 
Prettyman, 202. 
Prevost, Sir George, 356. 
Prime Serjeant, 65. 
Prince Augustenbourg, 335. 

— Augustus of Saxe-Coburg, 8, 22. 

— Frederick of Orange, 128, 129. 

— John of Lichtenstein, 336. 



INDEX. 



495 



Prince Leopold of Saxe-Coburg, 414, 
415- 

— of Brunswick, 9, 15, 20. 

— of Gotha, 45. 

— of Monaco, 397. 

— of Orange, 165. 

— of Saxe-Gotha, 17. 

— ofWaldeck, 8, 15. 

— of Wales, 192, 194, 261, 311 ; 
letter to Lady Elizabeth Foster, 
279; (Regent), 358, 368, 406. 

— Regent, letter to Elizabeth, Duchess 
of Devonshire, Mr. Foster nomi- 
nated Minister to the United States, 
347. 348- 

Princess, our, 11. 

Princess Augusta, hereditary Princess 
of Brunswick, 15. 

— Charlotte, 415. 
-of Wales, 195. 

— Mary, 335. 

— of Brunswick, 8. 

— of Wales, 120, 285, 286. 
Prussia, King of, 58, 120, 122, 137, 

246, 298, 299, 381, 382, 385. 

— Queen of, 298. 

Pyrmont, 5, description of, and of a 
good savoury oglio of society at, 
15, 16. 

Queen Caroline, 434. 
Queen of Denmark, 372. 

Randolph, John, 204, 259, 260, 274, 
275. 

— Mrs., 222, 223, 233, 260. 
Raphael, 118, 122. 
Rattcliffe, Rev. Charles, 460. 
Reis Effendi, 183. 
Rembrandt, 118. 

Review of troops by Bonaparte, 176. 
Reynolds, Sir Joshua, 420. 
Rhodes, Mr., 299. 
Rich, Mr., 28, 31. 
Richardson, Mrs., 40, 55, 60. 
Richelieu, Duke de, 410. 
Richmond, Duke of, 116, 153. 
Rivers, Lady, 94, 97. 



Riviera, 398. 
Robertson, Mr., 104. 
Robespierre, the only great man pro- 
duced by the Revolution, 379. 
Robinson, Lady Sarah, 444. 

— Mr. (Viscount Goderich), 444. 
Rodney, Lord, 102. 

Rogers, S., 352. 

Rolfe, John, 205. 

Rolla, Baron de, 337. 

Romana, General, 316, 321, 323. 

Roman Catholic Emancipation, 168. 

question, 182, 358. 

relief, 57. 

Roman Catholics, 33, 34, 68, 75, 

76. 
Rome, King of, 388. 
Rosbach, 127. 
Roscius, Young (William Henry 

West Betty), 192, 195, 201, 202, 

207, 210, 218, 220, 225, 241, 250; 

Appendix, 477. 
Roscius and Charles Kemble, 262. 
Roscoe, 309. 
Ross, Lady, 40. 

— Mr., 461. 

Rousseau, Jean Jacques, 37. 
Royal marriage, account of, 415. 
Rubens, Peter Paul, 118. 
Ruggerdorff, 323. 
Russell, Lord John, 449. 
Russia, Emperor of, 260; letter to 
Madame Moreau, 377. 

— Paul, Emperor of, story of his 
murder, 169. 

Rutland, Duke of, 312. 

St. Leger, Mrs., 201. 

St. Vincent, Lord, 161, 167, 168, 196, 

219, 287, 323, 324. 
Salis, Countess de, letter from John 

Leslie Foster, 170. 
Salisbury, Lord, 451. 
Salvatore, 93, 101, 104, 107. 
Sans Souci, 123, 129, 150. 
Sardinia, King of, 399. 
Saxe-Coburg, Prince Leopold of, 414, 

415. 



496 



INDEX. 



Saxe-Gotha, Prince Augustus of, 8, 

17, 22. 

Saxo-Grammaticus, 406, 407. 

Scheldt expedition, 345. 

Schiller, 161. 

Scott, Sir Walter, The Lay of the 

Last Minstrel, 210. 
Sebastiani, Marshal, 334. 
Selkirk, Lord, 286. 
Seymour, Colonel, 341. 
Shaftesbury, Lady, 430. 
Shakespeare, 118. 
Shanahan, 57. 
Sheffield, Lady, 115. 
Sheffield Park, 6. 
Sheridan, Richard, 157, 158, 162, 185, 

192, 296, 299, 308, 310, 358, 417; 

Appendix, 472; letter to Georgiana, 

Duchess of Devonshire, III. 

— Mrs. R. B., 417. 

— T., 296. 
Shipley, Colonel, 328. 
Shuldam, Lord, 86. 
Sicard, Abbe, 260. 
Siddons, Mrs., 250. 

Sidi men ne melli, Ambassador from 

Tunis to United States, 259. 
Sidmouth, Lord, 231, 271, 347. 
Sieyes, 159. 

Sismondi, John S., 404. 
Slave Market, Constantinople, 183. 

— Trade, 263, 306, 307. 
Slimness (J. Th. Foster), 30, 44. 
Smith, Cullen, 158, 163. 
Smyth, Dr., 42. 

Smyth, Sir Robert, 42, 109. 

Sneyd, Mr., 409. 

Somerset, Lord Fitzroy, 401. 

Sotheby, Mr., 423. 

Soult, Marshal, 326, 330, 336, 

368. 
Souza, Madame de, 397. 
Speaker, The, gave the casting vote, 

214. 
Spencer, Countess, 105, 310. 

— Lord, 127, 153, 285; epitaph by 
Duke of Devonshire on, 264. 

— Lord Robert, 219, 337. 



Stael, Madame de, 175, 378, 381, 390, 

404, 410. 
Stewart, General, 320. 
Stormont, Lady, 33. 

— Lord, 46. 

Strahan, Sir R., 256, 271. 
Strange, Mr. and Mrs., 28. 

— Mrs., 44. 
Strangford, Lord, 432. 
Stratton, 249. 

Stuart, Sir Charles, 381. 

— Lord James, 444. 

— Mrs., 97. 

Sutton, Archbishop of Canterbury, 

302. 
Suza, 311. 
Sweden, King of, 109, 246, 327. 

Talavera, victory of, 334, 335. 
Talleyrand-Perigord, 171, 177, 239 

304, 380, 397. 
Tankerville, Lady, 231. 

— Lord, 211, 213, 231. 
Temple, Lord, 326. 
Thistlewood's conspiracy, 344. 
Thornton, Major, 333. 
Thorwaldsen, G., 414, 415, 423, 425, 

431; letter to Frederick Foster, 422. 
Tichfield, Lord, 342. 
Tierney and Sheridan, 299. 
Tierney, George T.; 190, 325, 337. 
Titian, 122. 
Toleration Bill, 64. 
Toujour s Gai, 196. 
Townsend, Audrey, 394. 
Trimmer, Miss, 195. 
Trotter, Mr., 216, 218. 
Trumbull, Mr., 223. 
Tunis, ambassador from, 255. 
Turreau, General, in tears about battle 

of Trafalgar, 276. 

Ulm taken and Austrian army anni- 
hilated, 244. 

United States Constitution, remarks 
on, 227, 228. 

Usher, Captain, 389. 



INDEX. 



497 



Valdagno, II, 16, 17, 25, 29. 
Valencia, has fallen, 354. 
Valentine, no. 
Vane, Sir Harry, 354. 
Vanoost, 32. 
Varegas, 335. 
Vaughan, Mr., 337. 
Vemon, Lord Henry, 423. 

— Mr., 334. 
Victor, Marshal, 329. 

Villeneuve, Admiral, and two other 
French admirals landed prisoners in 
England, 253. 

Villiers, Lord and Lady, 203. 

Voltaire, 36, 44, 200; four lines of 
poetry, 29. 

Walcheren expedition, 158, 160, 330, 

33i» 333- 

Waldeck, Prince of, 8, 15. 

Wales, Prince of (afterwards George 
IV.), 192, 194, 261, 311, 358, 368, 
406 ; letter to Lady Elizabeth Fos- 
ter, 279. 

— Princess of, 120, 285, 286. 
Wallace, 203. 
Wa-Pawni-ha, 258. 

Ward, Mr., 195. 
Wardle, Colonel, 330. 

— Mr., 322, 332. 

Warren, Sir George and Lady, III. 
Washington, Colonel, 233. 

— George, 253. 



Way, Abigail, Countess of Sheffield, 

115. 
Webster, Sir Godfrey, 163. 
Weissenberg, 388. 
Wellesley, Marquis of, 211, 265, 325, 

331, 35°> 354, 358. 364. 368, 369- 
Wellington, Duke of, 326, 328, 329, 

33i. 336, 337, 338, 34i, 345, 354, 
362, 363, 384, 385, 392, 405, 406, 
411; letter to Elizabeth, Duchess 
of Devonshire, 441. 
West, Lady Mary, 451. 

— Mr., 464. 

Whitbread, Mr., 214, 215, 303, 319. 

Whittington, 208. 

Wilberforce, Mr., said the national 

justice was satisfied, 215. 
Wilkinson, Nurse, 12, 21, 30. 
Wirtemberg, Duke of, 23. 
Wollaston, Mr., 98. 
Wolsey, Cardinal, 56. 
Wortley, Caroline, 202. 

— Mr., 368. 
Wroughton, 193. 
Wyndham, Mr., 284. 

Yarmouth, Lord, 284, 303. 
York, Duchess of, 120. 

— Duke of, 158, 244, 269, 320, 322, 

33°- 
Young, Rev. Mr., 459, 460, 462, 464. 

Zaragossa, 319. 



21 



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