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Full text of "The place-names of Herefordshire"

QJorttpU mtiincraity ffiihrarg 



BOUGHT WITH THE INCOME OF THE 

SAGE ENDOWMENT FUND 

THE GIFT OF 

HENRY W. SAGE 

1891 



Cornell University Library 
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Place-names of Herefordshire 




3 1924 028 035 693 




Cornell University 
Library 



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the Cornell University Library. 

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THE PLACE-NAMES 

OF 

HEREFORDSHIRE 



THE PLACE-NAMES 

OF 

HEREFORDSHIRE 

Their Origin and Development 

by 
The Rev. A. T. BANNISTER, M.A. 



All the profits of this publication will 
be given to the Hereford Branch of the 
Red Cross Society. 



I916 
Printed for the Author 



THE PLACE-NAMES 

OF 

HEREFORDSHIRE 

Their Origin and Development 



by 
The Rev. A. T. BANNISTER, M.A. 

Canon Residentiary of Hereford Cathedral 

Author of ' Herefordshire and its Place in English History ' 

Editor (for the Cantilupe Society) of ' The Register of Adam de Orleton ' 



I916 

Printed for the Author 



eambriBge : 

PRINTED BY JOHN CLAY, M.A. 
AT THE UNIVERSITY PRESS 



PREFACE 

' I "HE ideal book on Herefordshire place-names has yet to 
-*- be written. It would need, in its author, the knowledge 
of phonological laws possessed by Professor Wyld, the Celtid 
scholarship of the late Sir John Rhys, and Dr Horace Round's 
familiarity with the nth and 12th centuries. The present 
writer, having no claim to rival any of these, has tried, never- 
theless, to build upon their foundations. 

The place-names of our county, where English, Welsh, and 
Norman-French influences acted and re-acted upon one another 
for centuries, ought to throw some valuable side-lights on our 
history. I have, therefore, in the scanty leisure hours of the 
last few years, put together the following list of practically all 
the early forms of Herefordshire names. The work has been 
laborious, but to me most interesting; and I trust it may be 
of interest and assistance to other students. 

I have to acknowledge the kind and ready help of several 
scholars whom I have consulted on difficult points. In par- 
ticular I am bound to mention Dr Horace Round, Mr Egerton 
Phillimore, and the Rev. J. B. Johnston. I have felt much 
diffidence in regard to the considerable number of Celtic names ; 
but the Rev. T. Gray Jones, of Ebbw Vale, most kindly placed 
his intimate knowledge of Welsh at my service, and I ■ have 



VI PREFACE 

dealt with them as best I could, with a fearful remembrance of 
Dr Bradley's scathing remark that ' it would be just as reasonable 
to try to read Virgil by means of a French dictionary and no 
grammar, as to try to translate ancient British names by means 
of a Welsh dictionary.' Fortunately for me, no great number 
of Herefordshire place-names are really 'ancient British,' and 
for most of these I have been able to find expert knowledge 
in the valuable notes of Dr Henry Owen and Mr Egerton 
Phillimore to ' Owen's Pembrokeshire.' The larger number of 
Welsh place-names in Herefordshire are comparatively modern, 
as I have shown in the Introduction. As regards either Welsh 
or English names I shall gratefully welcome suggestions and 
corrections. 

A. T. B. 
January 1916. 



INTRODUCTION 

' Much of our history that is still dark,' says Dr Round, ' is 
written in the names that our remote forefathers gave to their 
English homes.' These names in the i8th century, and indeed 
through most even of the 19th, were looked upon as a fit subject 
for the wild and ignorant guess-work which has filled our books 
of antiquities and our county histories with many misleading 
theories. It is scarcely too much to say that no work on 
English place-names has any scientific value before 1901, when 
Professor Skeat introduced modern methods of investigation by 
his Place-names of Cambridgeshire. 

The new scientific treatment of place-names is a simple 
application of common-sense to the subject : — to ask, first, what 
are the earliest forms of the name? next, can any meaning be 
attached to the earliest form ? and, lastly, how has this early 
form developed into the present-day name? Even when we 
have laboriously tried to answer these questions, it is not always 
possible to arrive at the true meaning of the name. Yet in- 
ability to find a satisfactory meaning is no reason for acquiescing 
in a guess which we know to be wrong. A collection of early 
forms enables us at least to reject those popular meanings which 
have often been handed on through centuries of false etymology. 
For ' folk-etymology is always with us, and the too ingenious 
antiquary is no modern phenomenon.' Even Leland was not 
the first to corrupt place-names by elaborately imaginative 
explanations. Giraldus Cambrensis and Robert of Gloucester 
had done it before him ; and, before them, Henry of Huntingdon 
can hardly mention a place without proceeding to explain the 
meaning of its name. 



viii INTRODUCTION 

If we can find our earliest form in an Old English Charter, 
it is usually possible to get at the true meaning with certainty. 
But, more commonly, the first occurrence of the name is in 
Domesday, or in the Testa de Nevill, that is, in records compiled 
by foreign scribes, who wrote down, as nearly as they could, the 
sound of the name, as they heard it from the natives. Imper- 
fectly acquainted with English, they rarely heard correctly, and 
so the forms they write usually suggest rather than express the 
true Old English word. Thus in Herefordshire one of the Old 
English Hundreds was Wimundestreu, i.e. 'Wigmund's tree.' 
But the Norman-French scribe in Domesday writes it, in different 
entries, Wimundstruil, Wimstruil, and Wim Strut. Occasionally 
he seems to have copied his form from an earlier document, and 
then he is fairly correct. But more usually it is plain that he is 
trying to spell phonetically names from a language he does not 
know and cannot pronounce, and for which his alphabet had 
not always proper symbols. He almost always puts ck for k ; 
initial tk is usually t, and medial th is always d. He hates all 
gutturals, k, ch, or gh, and often boldly changes them into st — 
a practice which gives us the clue to many puzzling forms. He 
usually writes plain s for sh, or else prefixes e. In spite of these 
drawbacks, Domesday remains our chief storehouse of early 
place-names ; and, as Dr H. Bradley says, ' if we understand 
the principles of its orthography we can often discover with 
certainty what the names really were.' 

In the Testa de Nevill the case is far otherwise. ' It has 
long,' says Dr Round, 'been at once the hunting-ground and 
the despair of the topographer.' The spelling throughout is 
hopelessly wild — though, finding many such entries as Solbedune 
for Shobdon, one wonders how much of this is due to the tran- 
scribers and editors of the badly-edited text of 1807, which is 
the only one in print as yet. But many of the mistakes must 
be attributed to sheer stupidity or carelessness on the part of the 
original scribe. As an example of what he usually does with 
English names we may take this (Kingstone) entry ' Welketon, 
Cobbewell, La Marc,' by which he means ' Webbeton, Caldewell, 
la Mare,' i.e. the present Webton, Coldwell, and Meer Court. 
Naturally when he gets to the Welsh names in Archenfield, his 



INTRODUCTION ix 

mistakes are even worse. We can scarcely hazard a guess as 
to what places he means by Trayhac, Laund', or Attelgunt, all in 
Archenfield\ 

The English settlers in Herefordshire spoke the Western 
variety of the Mercian dialect, which differed in many particulars 
even from the Eastern Mercian, and still more from the North- 
umbrian and Wessex dialects (though it has some few features 
which seem Wessex-born, or, as Mr A. J. Ellis thinks, are due 
to Welsh influences). Most of what we call ' Anglo-Saxon 
literature ' is in the Wessex dialect, which is full of diphthongs. 
But the Mercian dispensed with these diphthongs of which the 
West Saxon was so fond. He said all for eall, seep for sceap 
(= sheep), liht for leoht (= light), and wall for weall^. He 
softened g into y, saying (as we see in our Herefordshire place- 
names) yard for geard, and yatt for geat. He said hill when the 
southern dialects said hull, and the Kentish hell. And he 
shortened the ponderous Wessex personal names into almost 
their modern forms. 

It is probable that soon after 'the victory of Chester, in or 
about the year 615, the earliest bands of Mercians pushed to 
the westward of the Severn, and settled in our county. But it 
was during the seventeen years of Wulfhere's vigorous reign 
(659-675) that the English rule was firmly established in 
Herefordshire, and Wulfhere's brother Merewald appointed sub- 
regulus of the Magesaetas^ as the new settlers to the west of 
the Malvern Hills now began to be called. It seems fairly 
certain that before the end of the century Mercia had already 
reached more or less its westernmost limit, and that the great 
work of Offa, in the next century, was one of definition and 
development rather than of conquest. 

But this 7th century settlement of Herefordshire was, of 
necessity, sporadic and incomplete. Throughout the county, 
and beyond it to the west, the woods were particularly dense. 
The ley of the Mercian settler was simply a clearing in the forest, 

1 Even these examples are sufficient to show that modem English has developed 
out of the Mercian dialect, which, being intermediate between the other two, helped 
to interpret between North and South. 

2 For the etymology of this word see under Mannd in the Alphabetical List. 



X INTRODUCTION 

where he built for himself and his sons a tun, that is, an isolated 
homestead, consisting of a rude wooden or wattled house, with, 
around it, a few enclosures for rearing calves, and a patch of 
arable land. This reclaimed patch^ he usually called by his 
own name — the tun of Bacca, of Tidbriht, or of Wilmar^. Or, it 
may be, he gave to his clearing a name descriptive of the site 
or its surroundings — some conspicuous tree, Ethelmund's or 
Berthold's^ ; a clay slope*, a blind valley^ or a hill showing the 
red Herefordshire earth*. When he found a spot suitable for 
dairy farming, he called it Butterley, or (in the wild scrob to the 
north of our county) Cheswardine. As his settlement grew, he 
established, in some outlying clearing, a Barton, or enclosure for 
the barley crop he grew there ; and he built, in another part, a 
dwelling for his herdsman', or even for a friendly Welsh tenant^ 
And everywhere he had to construct, for refuge or defence, a 
fortified place {burh), of which there are at least thirty in the 
county. North, south, east, and west of such a -bury he dwelt, 
with comparative security, in Norton, Sutton^, Easton, or Weston. 
So, in four centuries from the first invasion, we get the more 
or less settled Herefordshire of Domesday, which, in its main 
features, is the Herefordshire of to-day. 

For the history of the county during these long centuries the 
place-names are perhaps our chiefest guides. We may take it 
as a general rule that the -hams and -tons are older settlements 
than the places ending in -wood, -ley, -field, -wardine, and the 
like. Dr Round has shown that in Sussex and Essex — perhaps 
everywhere in the south — the -hams are older than the -tuns. 
This rule does not seem to apply in Herefordshire, where, indeed, 
the -hams are rare compared with the -tons, the Mercian -halh 
(' riverside pasture ') often taking the place of -ham. 

Even before the end of the 9th century the village geography 
of the county had taken on more or less its present form. In 

' The word ' assart ' is mentioned in Domesday under Herefordshire alone. 

^ Bacton, Tyherton, Wilmaston. 

* Aymestrey, Bartestree. '' Clehonger. 

' Hope (there are ten in Domesday). « Radlow. 

' Hardwick. s WeUkeston. 

' There are in England, it is said, 72 Suiions, and 52 fVesionf, 



INTRODUCTION xi 

the rest of England, by this time, the O.E. tun had lost its 
earlier meaning of ' an isolated homestead,' and normally implied 
an ancient settlement on the lines of a village community. But 
in Herefordshire the word retained and still has its earlier 
meaning'. Yet as the tun prospered and grew, here also it 
developed by degrees into something like the manor of later 
days. As we have seen, -tun is usually compovnded with a 
personal name. This personal element in our place-names 
necessarily implies some sort of seignorial right or control. The 
man who gives his name to the settlement is not some temporary 
official, like the head of the imaginary mark-moot. He is owner, 
rather than primus inter pares. He may be little more than a 
farmer in a remote clearing, with cottagers who work for him on 
his land ; or they may be free men, rendering dues and services. 
In either case, the lord is there, and with him the starting-point 
of the coming manorial system. Even in the earliest days, the 
type of agrarian community is such that from it the manor of 
the 1 1 th century may, without any breach of continuity, have 
evolved. 

The complete nature of the English conquest, too, is proved 
by these place-names. The later conquest by the Normans, 
complete as it also was (and Herefordshire was the most 
thoroughly Normanized of all the English counties), left our 
place-names almost untouched. The new Norman owners 
settled as lords in the villages they found existing, taking over, 
very much as they were, them, and their inhabitants, and the 
names by which these inhabitants called them. Even when they 
pushed beyond the established boundary of English Hereford- 
shire^ and built a castle on the fringe of Ewyas, they took over 

1 See Town in the Alphabetical List, and -ton in the Appendix. 

2 This boundary in the 9th and loth centuries, and perhaps even in the nth, 
was the valley of the Dore (' Straddele'). The 'Dor' is mentioned in the Anglo- 
Saxon Chronicle under the year 941 as one of the boundaries of Mercia ; and in the 
Lib. Land, as forming, with the Worm, the boundary, in 1129, between the dioceses 
of Hereford and Llandaff. (Ecclesiastical boundaries long mark the civil or political 
divisions with which they originally coincided.) So sharply drawn was the distinction 
that, in Domesday Bacton (in the diocese of Hereford) is assessed in hides, while, only 
three miles distant, Ewyas Harold (in the Welsh diocese) is reckoned in ' caracutes,' 
like the most recent conc^uests from the Welsh t 



XU INTRODUCTION 

both its name and the nine Welsh ' squatters,' whom they found 
there. In short, the Norman rule in the county had little or no 
influence on the place-names, beyond some occasional alteration 
in their spelling and pronunciation, and the turning, here and 
there, of a name common to several places in the county into 
what Dr Bradley calls a ' double-barrelled ' name\ When, there- 
fore, we find the village names in the conquered districts so 
overwhelmingly English, we are driven to the conclusion that 
the settlements of the invading Mercians were quite different in 
character from the later annexations of the Normans. These 
latter conquerors took over already existing settlements (we may 
not perhaps call them ' manors,' though virtually they were so). 
But the English, four centuries earlier, had formed new settle- 
ments upon lines and sites entirely independent of anything 
they found existing in the conquered lands, whether it was some 
relic of Roman Coloniae, or some native Celtic village that they 
came upon. There must have been Welsh trefs between Wye 
and Severn, as in Archenfield and Ewyas, in the sth and 6th 
centuries ; but no traces of them remained in the middle of the 
Sth century. And though Mercian new-comers settled in or 
near the ruins of Magna, Bravonium, and Ariconium, they 
settled entirely on their own lines, and gave new names of their 
own to their new settlements. 

These Mercian settlements at first — and perhaps for a couple 
of centuries — were bounded by the Wye. On the left bank of 
the river, however, they soon pushed far to the west, Radnor, 
Knighton, and Norton being English soil some considerable time, 
it would seem, before the raising of Offa's dyke. To the south 

' It is strange and noteworthy that the place-names introduced by the Normans 
are everywhere so few. ' The stolid English peasant fairly extinguished the proud 
Norman peer.' The two chief surviving traces of Norman influence on Herefordshire 
names are the habit — all but universal in the county — of prefixing the definite article 
to the name of a place, and the eqiially common use of ' Court ' for ' Manor-house. ' 
Of new names given by the Normans we have very few, and this is true also of 
England generally. ' On the whole,' says Freeman, ' really new names were confined 
to really new foundations.' The two Caples, The Barr, Belmont (which may be 
modern), the various ' Castles,' The Elms, Foy, Hay, Petty France, The Golden 
Valley, Rowlestone, St Devermx, and the seven Valletts, with ten other -ett endings, 
are all that we can pronounce to be new Norman names. Norman family names have 
been added to Acton, Edvin, Holme, Hope, Stoke, Mansell, and Stretton, 



INTRODUCTION xiii 

of the river, in Archenfield, the place-names, for the most part, 
date from the 5th and 6th centuries — the age of the Welsh saints, 
after whom so many of the villages in Archenfield are called. 
When the bargain was struck which gave to the Welsh of 
Archenfield the local autonomy, of which the details are given 
in Domesday, we have no means of knowing. But the place- 
names afford remarkable evidence as to the totally different 
nature of the settlements on the opposite sides of the river, where 
it bounds Archenfield. On the eastern bank are such names as 
Brockhampton, Fawley, Brampton Abbotts, Waif or d, and English 
Bicknor^ ; on the western bank, Kilforge, Treyseck, Llanfrother, 
Craddock, Daffaluke, Ganarew, and similar Celtic forms. The 
only unmistakable Welsh name on the left bank below Hereford 
is Penalt in King's Caple. 

Before the time of the Survey, but how long before we cannot 
say (though it must have been a fairly considerable time, since 
the English names had become established), English settlers had 
crossed the Wye, and established themselves among the Welsh. 
For we find a few definitely English place-names in the very 
heart of Archenfield in 1086. Wilton, Wormelow, Goodrich, 
Westwood, Ash, and Baysham, are clearly English settlements^. 
And in the 12th century two Welsh names in Archenfield became 
curiously 'Englished,' as Ballingham and Moraston. In the 
13th century we have an apparently English settlement at 
Humfreyston ; but this name, later on, was translated into 
Welsh and became the present Trebum.frey. So, too, the 
English Baysham had reverted, by Leland's day, to its earlier 
Welsh name of Sellack. As a whole, Archenfield remained 
Welsh for centuries after Domesday; and in its place-names is 
largely Welsh stilP. 

^ A few Welshmen are mentioned in Domesday as holding land on the left bank 
of the Wye. Griffin had half-a-hide in Pyon ; Saissil holds Staunton-on- Wye, the 
English name of which implies its previous possession by an English owner ; and a 
Welshman is undertenant of land once held by Edward, an Englishman. The fact, 
too, that Brismer holds Brismerfrum, to which he had given his own name, suggests 
a quite recent English settlement of the estate. 

^ About 160 years later Testa de Nevill speaks of the 'French and Welsh' of 
Archenfield. 

' It is roughly true that somewhat more than half the field- and farm-names in 



XIV INTRODUCTION 

To the west of Archenfield, however, and actually between 
it and Wales, the district of Straddel became almost entirely 
English. It was the natural gateway for Welsh raiders into 
England, and, perhaps a century or more before the Survey, was 
effectively occupied by the English. From end to end it is full 
of English names in 1086. On its upper boundary was Cusop, 
and thence, down to Bacton, was a chain of English settlements. 
First the stronghold of Clifford (which under Earl William Fitz- 
Osbern was not merely a castle with a garrison, but a chartered 
borough, with special privileges granted to the burgesses). Then 
More (The Moor), Harewde, Becce {Backe), Midewde {Middle- 
wood), Torchestone (Dorstone), Elnodestune, Edwardstone, 
Poscetenetune {Poston), Manetune {Monnington-in-Straddel), 
Brocheurdie, Beltrou, Wilvetone, Wilmestune {Wilmaston), 
Almundestune, Alcamestune. Nothing shows so clearly the 
insecure condition of this frontier district as a comparison of 
these names with the later place-names in the valley. Of the 
fifteen settlements mentioned in Domesday more than half have 
completely vanished, and their position cannot even be guessed 
at. The very name of the valley (Straddele) has all but dis- 
appeared. We have still in the valley a certain number of 
English names, Peterchurch, Vowchurch, and the like. But 
these only appeared in the 1 2th or early 1 3th century ; and by 
far the greater number of place-names in the valley are now 
Welsh, dating from the i6th and 17th centuries, or even, in some 
cases, later\ 

This action and reaction of Welsh and English influences, 
extending over centuries of border history, produced similar 

Archenfield are Welsh ; and in some districts even more. In Llangarren quite two- 
thirds are Welsh. 

^ This is well brought out in a comparison of the farm- and field-names in Dorstone, 
of which we happen to have a good number in an undated document of which Bishop 
Peter de Aquablanca (1240-1269) is a witness. We have, then, in Dorstone, about 
the middle of the 13th century, such names as these: — SelehuUe, Huntehulle, 
Stathorne Watte, Benfelde, Huntewalle, Gulegrove, Spojine, Dudintone, Humemedue, 
Redewaldebrok, Stevenehus, Weleye, Timbesbroc, Marleput, Lordesleye. (One Welsh 
name only is included — Sakenant.) In the Dorstone of to-day most of the names 
are Welsh : — Cwm mills, Llanavon, Brynspard, Mynydd brith, Pwll Cam, Bedw, 
Llanach, Peny-y-lan, and the like. 



INTRODUCTION xv 

results in other districts also. We have seen that English place- 
names had reached as far west as Radnor even in Offa's day : 
Kington, Norton, Knighton, Cascob, and other like names giving 
evidence of vigorous English life far beyond the Dyke. But all 
these gains had been lost long years before the date of the 
Survey. Successive entries 'Wasta fuit [i.e. T.R.E.] et est in 
Marcha de Walls ' show the devastating results of Welsh raids 
on these manors, which once had paid geld but now are waste 
and pay nothing^ The English manorial names, however, are 
entered in Domesday, and still survive ; but to-day they are 
surrounded by a host of Welsh farm- and hamlet-names. In 
Kington itself there appear to be no Welsh names, but in the 
neighbouring Huntington quite half are Welsh, and in Brilley 
considerably more than half. Some at least of these Welsh 
names were introduced as late as the i6th century, when 
the break-up of the Marcher lordships, and the comparative 
tranquillity of the border under ' Bishop Rowland's justice,' was 
followed by a very considerable immigration of Welshmen into 
Herefordshire. 

Much the same thing is to be seen in the Monnow valley. 
The English name Crasswall, of 13th century origin, survives, 
but more than half the farm- and field-names in the parish are 
Welsh. The 13th century Michaelchurch becomes throughout 
the 1 6th and 17th centuries Llanfihangel-eskley, heing re-translated 
into English only by i8th century antiquaries. Lower down 
the valley English influences were felt earlier ; for Silas Taylor, 
in the middle of the 17th century, says that the Welsh Clodock 
' hath lately taken the name of Longtown.' Yet some English 
names would seem, even after this time, to have been crowded 
out by Welsh ; for ' Foscombe ' and ' Burybourne,' which existed 
in Clodock in 1 540, are not there now ; and to-day considerably 
more than half the farm-names in Longtown are Welsh. A few 
miles lower down the river, it was only at the end of the 



1 An entry in the Domesday of Shropshire says that in the time of King Ethelred, 
i.e. about the year 1000, the three royal manors of Whittington, Maesbury, and 
Chirbury together rendered half a night's feorm, or about ;^so. At the death of the 
Confessor they were waste and yielded nothing. 



XVI INTRODUCTION 

17th century that the Welsh 'Pontrilas' completely supplanted 
the English ' HeHston\' 

Of the two classes into which most place-names fall, viz. 
those which are simply descriptive and those compounded with 
a personal name denoting the original owner, the English 
settler, as we have seen, usually preferred the latter class. 
The Celt, on the other hand, rarely commemorates himself — 
which, it may be, is an indication that there are no germs of 
the manorial system, no implication of seignorial right or control 
in his tref or commote. But the descriptive names he gives to 
his settlement show strangely little of Celtic originality or poetic 
feeling^. And when he does, at times, attach a personal name 
to, a village, it is not that of the owner, but of the saint whose 
residence hallowed the place. Since the Celtic saints were 
legion, it was easy to find one in most localities. Before the 
Normanizing of the border there were many more place-names 
involving the personal names of local saints than those we have 
now. For the French bishops and priests, who came in the 
wake of the Norman lord, insisted that churches bearing the 
names of these Welsh saints, unknown to the church at large, 
should be re-dedicated. This was passionately resented by the 
patriotic sentiment of the Welsh, and, in their turn, they refused 
to accept the saints of the Roman calendar. A compromise was 
often made by re-dedicating the church (which usually involved 
re-naming the village) to the Virgin or to St Michael and All 
Angels. Hence we have, on the Herefordshire and Monmouth- 



' A good instance of this gradual re-conquest of territory by the Welsh language 
is to be found in Flintshire, where such typically EngHsh Domesday names as Preston, 
Westbury, Merton, and Bishofstree, have become the modern Prestatyn, Gwespyr, 
Mertyn, and Bistre. Yet not far away a group of English names was able 
to hold its own. For part of the lordship of Bromfield and Yale lay within 
the borders of the Cheshire of 1086, and English place-names were given to its 
townships and hamlets. Soon after the date of the Survey all this area became 
Welsh (the ' commote ' of Merford) and remained so for centuries. Yet the 
English names in -ham, -tun, -ley, and the like remained almost unaltered, and still 
survive. 

^ Only the Norman seems to have been impressed by the sheer beauty of a site ; 
for he only has such place-names as Belmont, Belgrade, Belvoir, Beauchamp, 
Beaumont, Bewdley (i.e. Beaulieu). 



INTRODUCTION XVll 

shire border, about thirty Llanfihangels and Michaelchurches, 
and a dozen or more Llanfairs^. 

It only remains briefly to mention some of the changes in 
our place-names which have come about in the course of 
centuries. We cannot explain why one name-form persists 
rather than another, nor why one survives, perhaps, for centuries, 
and is then lost. But we do know that place-names, in earlier 
days, were in a somewhat unstable condition ; and that, even in 
the last hundred years they had not been unchangeably fixed. 
We have see how ' Heliston ' yielded to ' Pontrilas ' after nearly 
two centuries of struggle, how Clodock, about 1670, 'hath lately 
taken the name of Longtown,' and how such names as Michael- 
church and Humfreyston have appeared alternately in Welsh and 
English dress. In the Alphabetical List has been included a 
'considerable number of names which have now entirely dis- 
appeared^ since these vanished names are, for historical purposes, 
as valuable as those which have lived on into our day. 

But often, when the name persists, other influences which 
make for change in its form are at work, above and beyond the 
normal development of the Old English language according to 
philological laws. The chiefest of these external influences is 
folk-etymology. If a place-name has no meaning that is 
apparent on the surface, an ingenious amateur antiquary will 
always set about to find one. The process is continually going 
on before our eyes, in spite of the steadying influence of the 
printed page. In Ewyas Harold the ' Martin Well ' of the 1831 
Ordnance Map is full 'St Martin's Well' before the mid-ipth 
century, and is so still (being recently credited also with quasi- 
miraculous healing power). A spring in Peterchurch was already 
named, after the church and village, ' St Peter's Well,' and fitted 
with its legend, in the i8th century. The Dr Harford, who 



1 Altogether in Wales and the border counties there are at least 150 Llanfairs — 
a proof, not of the ' Mariolatry ' of the Welsh, but of their ecclesiastical patriotism. 

2 There are other names, of manors or chapelries, which were once important, but 
have dwindled to almost insignificant holdings. Webton, e.g. (in Madley) and 
Llanwonog (in Clodock), now only farms, were once chapelries with a priest of their 
own. A similar chapel at Urishay, used for centuries as a barn, has recently been 
restored to the service of the Church. 



xviii INTRODUCTION 

bought some land in Tupsley in 1684, would scarcely recognize 
himself in ' Hafod Road.' Britton's naively modest suggestion 
that ' Moneyfarthing Hill ' was so called ' probably from coins 
found there' is scoffed at by the same well-informed persons 
who gravely repeat the i8th century legend of Turn-a-stone, 
or connect Dorstone with a Teutonic god. These well-meaning 
theorists have been at work upon our place-names for a thousand 
years ; and that is why Dr Round is so fully justified in disputing 
the claim of the philologist to explain place-names solely by 
phonological laws. 

Mere carelessness, again, is often an important agent, in 
changing the form' of a name. Longworth (in Lugwardine) 
was Longford from the 12th to the iSth century, and Strong- 
wood, which started life in Domesday as a -wardine name, became 
Strongford, Strongworth, and Strongward, before it grew into 
a -wood. The ' Lingham ' of Domesday soon became, and 
remained for centuries, Lingeyne, and now is the meaningless 
Lingen. The endings -den, -don, and -ton are often confused^ 
as we see in Grendon and Bicton (both originally -dene). The 
forms -ig and -ea were inextricably mixed up even by the 
'Anglo-Saxons' themselves. Some of our -/^j were originally 
-lows ; and Colwall, Crasswall, and Eccleswall were all at first 
named from springs of water. 

How such changes came about will easily be understood 
by a cursory examination of any document written before the 
end of the i8th century. An instance — not quite typical, but 
neither is it very extreme — is to be found in a Goodrich Terrier 
of 1722, where the same field is called in the same document, 
' Hollen Duff Close,' ' Holland Tuff Field,' and ' Holland Dover 
Field.' In another document of the same date, dealing with 
lands at Credenhill, the same place is called on the same page 
' Sheep's Court,' and 'Sheep's Coat '; and another place is referred 
to as ' Brincourt ' and ' Bringate.' 

^ -ton is further confused with -stone, of which latter ending we have only two 
genuine instances in Herefordshire — Aylstone Hill and Langstone. (In ' Tedstone ' 
the -stone is actually a corruption of -thorn. ) 



LIST OF BOOKS 



most commonly quoted or referred to in the following pages. 

This list is not an exhaustive bibhography of the subject, but contains 
merely the titles of the works which I have consulted most frequently 
in compiling the Alphabetical List of Herefordshire Place-names, and 
my abbreviations of them. For the forms of words later than 1538 
(Val. Eccles.) I have only consulted, as a rule, Saxton's (1577), Speed's 
(161 1), and Taylor's (1789) Maps of the County. 

A. Texts, Record Publications, etc. 

Abbrev. Plac. Placitorum Abbreviatio. 

A.C. Ancient Charters prior to 1200 : ed. J. H. Round. 

Aug. Of Various documents (usually i6th century) in the Aug- 

mentation Office. 
Birch. Cartularium Saxonicum. 

Brec. Cart. Cartularium Prioratus S. Johannis Evang. de Brecon, 

(printed in Arch. Camb., 4th Series, Vols. 13 and 14). 
Capes. Charters and Records of Hereford Cathedral, transc. and 

edit, by W. W. Capes. 
Chart. R. Calendar of Charter Rolls. 

Close R. Calendar of Close Rolls. 

Dom. Photo-zinco'^ Facsimile of the Herefordshire portion. 

Translation (with Introduction, and identifications) by 
Dr J. H. Round in Vic. Count. Hist. 
Ep. Reg. The Registers of the Bishops of Hereford (beginning 

1275) pub. by the Cantilupe Society. 
E. H. Cart. The Cartulary of Ewyas Harold Priory, of which a 

careful abstract is printed in my History of Ewias 
Harold. 
Inquisitions and assessments relating to Feudal Aids. 
Calendar of the Fine Rolls. 
Hist, et cartularium monast. S. Petri Glouc. 
Report of Historical Manuscripts Commission 13 R.A. iv. 
Calendar of Inquisitions post mortem and other documents 

in the Public Record Office. 
Codex Diplomaticus Aevi Saxonici. 
Itinerary : ed. L. Toulmin Smith. 
Indexed in Dugdale's Monasticon Anglicanum. 
The text of the Book of Llan Div, by J. Gwenogvryn 
Evans, with co-operation of John Rhys. 



F.A. 
Fine R. 
Glos. Cart. 
Heref Corp. MS. 
Inq. p.m. 

Kemble. 
Leland. 
Leom. Cart. 
Lib. Land. 



XX 



LIST OF BOOKS 



Non. Inq. Nonarum Inquisitiones in Curia Scaccarii. 

Pat. R. Calendar of the Patent Rolls. 

Quo War. Placita de Quo Warranto. 

Sub. R. (Various) Subsidy Rolls. 

Tax. Eccles. Taxatio Ecclesiastica Angliae et Walliae. 

T. DE Nevill. Testa de Nevill sive Liber Feodorum. 

Val. Eccles. Valor Ecclesiasticus. 

Webb. Roll of the household expenses of Richard de Swinfield, 
ed. J. Webb. 

B. General Works of Reference on English Place-names. 

The Place-names of Oxfordshire, by Henry Alexander. 
Gloucestershire Place-names, by W. St Clair Baddeley. 
English Place-names, by Henry Bradley (in Essays and 

Studies by Members of The English Association). 
Continuator of Duncumb's Herefordshire. 
Notes on Staffordshire Place-names. 
Worcestershire Place-names, by W. H. Duignan. 
Coll. towards the hist, and antiq. of the co. of Hereford, 

by John Duncumb. 
Various notes to Owen's Pembrokeshire, and certain 

identifications in Lib. Land. (J. G. Evans' edition), by 

Egerton Phillimore. 
Place-names of England and Wales, by J. B. Johnston. 
History of Wales, by J. E. Lloyd. 



Alexander. 

Baddeley. 

Bradley. 

Cooke. 
Duignan. 

Duncumb. 

Eg. Phil. 



Johnston. 
Lloyd. 



J. Hobson Matthews. Continuator of Duncumb's Herefordshire. 



N. E. D. 

Onom. 
H. O. 



Roberts. 
J. H. R. 



Skeat. 

Wyld. 
Zachrisson. 



The New English Dictionary by James Murray and 
others. 

Onomasticon Anglosaxonicum, by W. G. Searle. 

The Description of Pembrokeshire, by George Owen of 
Henleys : edited (with many valuable notes on place- 
names) by Henry Owen. 

The Place-names of Sussex, by R. G. Roberts. 

Various works of J. Horace Round, and more particularly 
the Introduction and Notes to the Domesday Survey 
of Herefordshire in Vict. County Hist. 

Place-names of Cambridgeshire ; Place-names of Bedford- 
shire ; Place-names of Berkshire ; by W. W. Skeat. 

Place-names of Lancashire, by H. C. Wyld and T. O. Hirst. 

A contribution to the Study of Anglo-Norman Influence 
on EngUsh Place-names, by R. E. Zachrisson. 



ALPHABETICAL LIST OF 
HEREFORDSHIRE PLACE-NAMES 

Names starred (*) cannot now be identified. All Domesday identifications 
are taken from Dr Round's Translation in the Victoria County History. 

*Abbedeleye [in or near Westhide]. 

1428 Abudley, F.A. 
143 1 Abbedley, F.A. 

Dour, Dor, Dowr, Lib. Land. 

Dore, Charter. 

Dore, Tax. Eccl. 

' the towne of Doore,' Aug. Of. 

Dour, Dowr, Dowre, Leland. 

Door, Hist, by its rector. 

Abbey Dore, Ord. Map. 
A house on the bank of the river is (19th century) called 
Doyer Villa, a local Anglicized form, quite modern. Welsh 
dw/r, or dwr, 'river, water.' 

But H. O. (III. 268) says Bour cannot phonetically represent 
dw/r. 

Aberhall or Abbershall (Hentland). 

1569 Abrehale, Courtfield MS. 
1722 Aberhall, Wormelow Terrier. 

*Acoll [Goodrich]. . 

1722 Acoll, Terrier. 

B. H. I 



Abbey dore. 


circ. 


1130 




1 147 




1291 




1541 


circ. 


1550 




1727 




1831 



2 ACONBURY 

Aconbury. 

circ. 1 1 30 Acorneburye, Lib. Land. 
1313 Akornebiri, CI. R. 
1218 Acornebury, Pat. R. 
circ. 1270 Acorneburia, Gl. Cart. 
1276 Acornebyry, Ep. Reg. 
' Burh of? perhaps 'Acorn' used as a proper name: but 
there is no person named 'Acorn' in Onom., nor have any 
examples of the form ' acorn ' been found in use before 1440. 
The O.E. form is aecern, ' fruit of the acre,' i.e. unenclosed land. 
Possibly Acorn is a corruption oi Ecebearn or Ecgbeorn, a witness 
to a Worcester charter, circ. 1055. 

Cf Alconbiiry (Hunt.) which is ante 1300 Alcmundebir' 
'burgh of Alchmund.' 

In the earlier entries in Lib. Land. Aconbury hill is Cair 
rein, 'camp of the lance.' 

The Acre (Ewyas Harold ; and in Upton Bishop). 
There are also Forty Acre Farm {Abbeydore), Forty Acres 
Farm {Kingsland), and Starve Acre {Kilpeck). 

Acton Beauchamp^ 

O.E. dc-tun, ' enclosure with the oaks.' The name of its 
territorial lord added to distinguish it from the ten or more 
other Actons. 

Adam's Hill (Hereford). 

ante 1172 Adamishille, Heref Ch. 

Adforton (Leintwardine). 
1086 Alfertintune, Dom. 
1 32 1 Atfertone, Ep. Reg. 
1370 Hattefordone, Ep. Reg. 
1377 Atfortone, Ep. Reg. 
1393 Attefortone, Ep. Reg. 
circ. 164s Adforton, 'so called because on south side of an 
ancient fort' Silas Taylor. 

1 In the Pipe Roll 11 60 there is a puzzling entry relating to ' Hereford Belcamp.' 



ALCAMESTUNE 3 

From some unrecorded name, possibly an unusual form of 
Eadweard. The Dom. form must be corrupt. 

*Adhekerdeston [' nigh unto Lutley ']. 

circ. 1 28 1 Adhekerdeston, 'Customs of Hereford.' 
Prob. from Eadgeard, a name found in Onom. 

Adley (Brampton Brian). 

1086 Edelactune, Adelestune^ Dom. 
1479 Adelahton alias Adlaton^ Ind. Ct Rolls. 
1524 Adlaghton, Cott. Chart. 
'Tun of ^thelac' We have no traces of the process by 
which -tun was dropped, and the last syllable of the pers. name 
turned into -ley. 

Cf EUastone (Derbs.) which is ante 1700 ' Adelakestone.' 

Adzor (Wellington). 

1345 Adesore, Ep. Reg. 

1346 Addeshore, Addesore, Ep. Reg. 

The second element is evidently -ofer, 'border, margin.' The 
first element probably is a personal name Ada or Adda. 
Cf Hadsor (Worcs.) which is Dom. Hadesore. 

Alley (Kinnersley). 

1086 Walelege, Dom. (J. H. R. thinks possibly). 
1575 Adeley, Heref. Cath. MS. 

*Akes [in Hund. ' Brocsash,' somewhere near Maund]. 
1243 Akes, T. de N. 
1272 Akes, Crasswall Chart, 
no date Akes, Leom. Chart. 
1286 Le Aka, Ch. Rolls. 

*Alac [in ' Lene,' i.e. Kingsland]. 

1086 Alac, Dom. 

*Alcamestune [' in valle Stradelei ']. 

1086 Alcamestune, Dom. 

1 So identified by J. H. R. 



4 ALCOX 

Alcox (brook, Wigmore). 

*Aldyazdestres [in Tillington or Burghill]. 

1395 communis via apud Aldyazdestres, Ep. Reg. 

Later on in same document it is ' dicta via de Saldyaz de 
Strewe.' 

Both forms are evidently very corrupt. 

AUensmore. 

1265 Alainesmor, Ch. Rolls. 

1 29 1 Moralayn, Tax. Eccl. 

1 341 More Alani cum capella de Clehungr', Non. Inq. 

1428 Aleynesmore, F.A. 

Alan de Plokenet, lord of Kilpeck in 1272 (and evidently for 
some time earlier), reclaimed this portion of Haywood. There is 
an Allenshill in Kilpeck, which in 1367 was Aleynshulle (Ep. 
Reg.). 

Almeley. 

1086 Elmelie, Dom. 

circ. 1200 Almelege, Gerv. Cant. 

1285 Almaly, Ch. Rolls. 

1289 Almalye, Ep. Reg. 

1 29 1 Almaly, Tax. Ecc. 

1303 Almalie, F.A. 

1 341 Almali, Non. Inq. 

O.E. Elm-ledh, ' Elm-meadow.' 

Almshall (Farm, Holmer ; Land, Clehonger). 

Property which for many centuries has belonged to the poor 
inmates of St Ethelbert's Hospital, Hereford. The second 
element is probably O.E. kea//i, ' a meadow.' See Append, 
under -/lall. 

*Almundestune [' in valle Stradelie ']. 

1086 Almundestune, Dom. 
' Tun of Aylmund or Aethelmund.' 



AMBERLEY S 

Alt Bough (Little Dewchurch). 

167 1 Although, H'shire Hearth Taxation List. 
1722 Altobough, Wormelow Terrier. 
The first element is W. allt, ' a cliff,' the second probably an 
adj. akin to bwa, ' an arch ' : — ' arched cliff.' 

Alt Wint (Little Dewchurch). 
W. allt gwynt, ' windy cliff.' 

There is a Winthill in Cradley, but that is probably of Eng. 
origin. 

Alton (Ross and Dilwyn). 

Ross Dilwyn 

1086 Alwintune, Dom. circ. 1215 Aletone, Her. Cath. Ch. 

1243 Alincton, T. de Nevill. 1303 Alleton, F.A. 

'Ealdwine'sl ^ , 'Ala's tun.' 

,,.,,., \ tun. 
or Aldwin s J 

Altyrynys (Walterstone). 

The first element may be W. allt, ' a cliff,' as in the word 
above. The second element is ynys, ' an island.' But ynys is 
often used (like the English -ey) of a meadow along a river. It 
is certainly very loosely used in Welsh place-names, in many of 
which it cannot mean ' an island.' 

Amberley (Harden). 

1086 Amburlege, Dom. 

1243 Aumbresle, Chart. R. 

1 29 1 Ambresleye, Tax. Eccl. 

1327 Aumburleye, Plac. de Banco. 

1 341 Amberley, Non. Inq. 

Johnston says from O.E. amber, omber, 'a pitcher' — 'meadow 
of the pitcher.' Others would make the first element a man's 
name — Skeat thinks Aembriht, an occasional form of Eanbeorht. 
Or he may be Amber {noX. in Onom.), or Amalbeorht, or Ambrose. 
Alexander thinks Amber may be a Celtic word of unknown 
meaning. 



6 AMBERLEY 

Cf. Amberley (Glos.). 
Aniberley (Sussex). 
Ombersley (Worcs.). 
Amber Hill (Lines.). 

Ankerdine Hill (Bromyard). 

1275 Oncredham, Sub. R. 
1327 Ancredam, Sub. R. 
From O.E. ancra, ' an anchorite, anchoress, nun ' — ' the ham 
of an anchorite.' Later there seems to have been confusion with 
the common Herefordshire ending -wardine (or perhaps with 
-dene). 

Cf. Anker (Warw. river, with two hermitages and a nunnery), 
Ankerwyke (Middlesex) 'anchorite's village.' 

Aramstone (King's Caple). 

1352 Aramstone, Ep. Reg. 

Archenfield. 

circ. 380 Ariconium, Iter Anton. .■■ 

915 Ircingafeldes, Yrcingafeld, lercingafeld, A.S. Chron. 
1086 Arcenfelde, Arcenefelde, Dom. 
circ. 1 1 20 Jerchynfeld, Glos. Cart. 

circ. 1 1 30 Ergyng, Ercincg, Ergin, Erchyng, Erchynfeld, Ur- 
cenevelde, etc.. Lib. Land. 
1 138 Erchenefelde, Glos. Cart, 
circ. 1 147 Erging, Geof. Mon. 
circ. 1 1 50 Herchenefeld, Brec. Cart. 

1243 Urchenefeld in Wallia, T. de Nev. 
1 291 Irchenefeld, Yrcheneshome, Tax. Eccl. 
circ. 1550 Herchinfield, Leland. 
no date lerchenfeld, Herchenefeld, Glos. Cart. 
Prof Napier says the A.S. Chron. forms can be phonetically 
connected with Ariconium, though he considers the element -inga 
as possibly indicative rather of a Saxon derivation. The word 
appears in more than a dozen different forms in Lib. Land. Of 
these forms the earliest seems to be Ercincg or Ergyng. The 
correct Welsh modification of Aricotiium would be Ergun. But 



ASH 7 

it is curious that the Deanery of Archenfield does not include 
Ross or Weston (where Ariconium stood). And why is there 
still an Urchingfield in Hardwicke, near Hay, thirty-five miles 
west oi Ariconium ? 

*Argoedlank [Liberty of Wormelow, 1722]. 

The W. prefix ar- simply intensifies the meaning; the middle 
element is coed, ' a wood.' W. llange is ' a young man ' ; but lank 
may be corrupted from llanerch, ' a glade.' See *Coyed Llanke. 

Arkstone (Kingstone). 

ante 1173 Archelestune, Chart. Her. Cath. 

1243 Arclestun, T. de Nev. 

1303 Arcleston, F.A. 

1 3 16 Arkeston, F.A. 

1334 Arclestone, Ep. Reg. 

1346 Arcleston, F.A. 

143 1 Arkeston, F.A. 
The tun of Earkyll (= Earcytet). 
Cf. (a few miles away) Thruxton (Thurkeleston in 1291). 

Arrow (river). 

958 Ergei, Birch Ch. 

Ante 1272, ' molendinum quod situm est super Hareye in 
Lenhales,' Wormesley Chart. 

In mediaeval Welsh MSS. the word occurs as Arw, and in 
an older form Arwy or Arrwy. 

Johnston thinks it may be from the same root as Welsh 
aru, 'to plough.' It has been connected with O.K. arewe, 'an 
arrow.' 

The Somerset Oare is in 1264 Ar. 

Ash (Bridstow) sometimes called Ashe Ingen. 
1086 Ascis, Dom. 
1 123 Ach, Leom. Cart, 
circ. 1250 Esse, Glos. Cart. 
1300 Assche, Ep. Reg. 
1300 Asche, Ewias Harold Cart. 

1 Strangely enough Birch gives in a charter of 825 the form Hearge for the 
Middlesex Harrow. 



8 ASH 

Evidently O.E. aesc, ' an ash tree.' 

The word is found as an element in many H'shire place- 
names :— e.g. The Ash (Muc/i Birch), Tump Ash {Dilwyn\ 
Ashwood {Eye), Hope's Ash {Hope Mansell), The Ashley 
{Wellington), Ashminton {Bromyard), Snogg's Ash {Foy), 
Crocker's Ash {Ganarew). 

For ' Ingen ' see Aston Ingham. 

Ashminton (Bromyard). 

No old forms. Prob. ' tun of Aescmann or Asman.' 

Ashperton. 

1086 Spertune, Dom. 
1 102 Aspertone, Glos. Cart. 
1 138 Aspretuna, Glos. Cart. 
1 29 1 'Stretton & Asp'ton,' Tax. Eccl. 
1341 Asperton, Non. Inq. 
Possibly 'tun of Asbeorht' or 'Asbret.' In Dom. 5 often 
represents a full syllable ; e.g. Shrops. Easthope is Dom. Slope. 

Ashton (Eye). 

1303 Aleston, F.A. 

1 3 16 Ayston, F.A. 

1346 Aleston, F.A. 

1428 Alleston, F.A. 

143 1 Asheton, F.A. 

1478 Ashtone juxta Leom., Inq. p.m. 
'Tun of Ala,' a recorded man. Liquids like / disappear 
easily. Then the name becomes assimilated to some well-known 
word. 

Aston. 

1086 Hesintune, Dom. 
1479 Assiston, Ind. Ct Rolls. 
Prob. 'tun of Aese ' (gen. Aesan). By the 15th century the 
gen. in -es {-is) has become the usual form. 

Aston (Kingsland). 

1123 Esscetuna, Leom. Cart. 
143 1 Assheton, F.A. 

The first element is O.E. aesc, ' an ash tree.' 



AVENBURY 9 

Aston Ingham. 

1086 Estune, Dom. 

1243 Estun Ingan, T. de Nev. 

temp. Hen. Ill Estona, Delimitation. 

1 29 1 Aston, Tax. Eccl. 

1 3 17 Astone Ingayn, Ep. Reg. 

1 341 Aston, Non. Inq. 

O.E. east tun, ' east town,' in relation to Ross, or possibly to 
A riconium. 

The Ingayn family held Aston in the 13th century. Aston 
Cruse is one mile west, but I have not found any explanation of 
its name, unless Cruze is cor. from Lat. crux. 

Athelstan's W^ood (Aconbury). 

1227 Aysteneswude, Close Rolls. 

1228 Eystaneswod, Chart. Rolls. 
1258 Alstanewod, Chart. Her. Corp. 
1265 Adhelstaneswude, Aeon. Chart. 
1302 Athelstanwode, Quo War. 

1 348 Elystaneswode, Court Roll. 
1592 Aylston's Wood, Title Deeds. 

Attwood (Holmer). 

Thomas atte Wode was ordained by Bishop of Hereford in 
133s ; and John atte Wode in 1345. (The ordination lists 
contain almost exclusively local names.) The personal names 
sufficiently explain the pl.-name. Cf Nash, Norke. 

Aubro (Wellington). 
Aulden (Ivington). 

Avenbury. 

1086 Aweneburi, Dom. 

1252 Avenebury, Glos. Cart. 

1275 Avenbyry, Ep. Reg. 

1 291 Avenebur', Tax. Eccl. 

1320 Avenebury, Will of John de Aquablanca^ 

1 He leaves half a mark ' monialibus de Avenebury ' — a nunnery of which no other 
record exists. 



lO AVENBURY 

1327 Avebury, Plac. de Banco. 
1 34 1 Avenbury, Non. Inq. 

The -ene seems to represent a gen. plur. The word might 
therefore be Aeffena-byrig, ' burh of the Aeffes.' But this would 
be most unusual. It is more likely that -ene represents the gen. 
sing, in -an, making the word ' burh of Aeffe.' 

Awnells (Much Marcle). 

Aycrop's Moor (Allensmore). 

circ. 1220 quarrera de Acrop, Chart. Her. Cath. 

There is mentioned in a Cath. Chart, circ. 1215 ' Heicropi 
Gardinum' (in Allensmore). A little later we have 'Aycropes- 
more,' and in 1291 we find 'apud Aycrop.' 

Aylstone Hill (Hereford). 

ante 1038 Aegelnothes stan, Kemble. 
1266 Ailestone, Glos. Cart. 
1 34 1 Ayleston, Non. Inq. 

Aegilnoth or Aegil is the sun-archer of Teutonic mythology. 
But the person who gave his name to Aylstone Hill is more 
probably a prosaic English settler. The second element is one 
of the few -stoties which genuinely mean ' a stone.' 
Cf Ailscroft {Bosbury). 
Elsdon {Lyonshall). 
Heliston (see Pontrilas). 

Aylton. 

1 1 38 Ailenetona, Anc. Chart. (J. H. R.). 

1278 Alhamstone, Ep. Reg. 

1 29 1 Aylmeton, Tax. Eccl. 

1303 Aylmeton, F.A. 

1 34 1 Alyston, Non. Inq. 

The earhest form suggests O.E. 'tun of Aethelwine.' But 
the scribe of Tax. Eccles. confuses the first element with 
Aetltelmaer, Normanized into Aylmer. 



BACHO 1 1 

Aymestrey. 

1086 Elmodestreu, Dom. 

127s Aylmondestre, Ep. Reg. 

1 291 Ailmondestre, Tax. Eccl. 

1302 Aylmundestre, Quo War. 

1 341 Aylmondestre, Non. Inq. 

1538 Aylemestre, Val. Eccl. 

Zachrisson says the Aylmond- here represents the Normanizing 
of the O.E. Aethelmund, the contraction being due to the inability 
of the Normans to pronounce th. 

-treu is the regular Dom. form for O.E. treow, ' a tree.' Cf. 
Greitreu, now Greytree Hundred. 

Babylon (Aston Ingham). 

Bache. 

Straddel, 1086 Becce, Dom. 

Cowarne, 1138 'una hyda que vocatur Beche,' Glos. Cart. 
Straddel, 1424 ' Clifford with Bache,' Ind. Ct Rolls. 
Straddel, 1537 'Le Bach et Bodest,' Aug. Of 
Straddel, 1548 'Bach with Hardwicke,' Ind. Ct Rolls. 
Straddel, 1539 'Overbache,' Aug. Of 
Prof Skeat says that Bache is the palatalized form of O.E. 
baec, 'a valley or a river bank,' Somewhere near Ross in 1300 
(Ep. Reg.) is ' quedam vallis que vocatur Alvinebache.' 

The word, alone and in composition, is very common in 
Herefordshire : — we have Bach {Golden Valley), Bach {Cowarne), 
Tump Bage and Common Bach {Dorstone), Bage Farm {Madley), 
Bache Farm {Kimbolton), Bach brook {Aymestrey), Batch {Al- 
meley), The Baches ( Upton Bishop), South Batch ( Upper Sapey), 
Evesbatch, Stansbatch, Stagbatch {Leominster), Batchcomb 
(Cradley), Batchiields {Bishop's Frome), Batchley {Grendon 
Bishop), and (if it be connected) Embages {Bromyard). 
Cf Batchcott (Salop). 
Badge Court (Worcs.). 

Bacho, or Batcho (Monnington Straddel). 
1 376 ' terra de Estradel que vocatur Becchen,' Cart. Gt Malvern. 



12 BACHO 

This is possibly only a local variant of Bache. There is, 
however, in Montgomeryshire a brook called Bacho Brook which 
in the Brut (under year 1 1 1 1) is Bachwy, and in Gir. Cambrensis 
Pennant Bacho. In Crasswall, in Ord. Map, 1831, is a place 
called Bachau, the product of perverse ingenuity. 

Back Brook. • 

A trib. of the Arrow, which flows through Kington. 

Backbury Hill (Mordiford). 

1086 Bageberge, Dom. 

'Burh in the valley.' The first element is O.E. baec, 'a valley,' 
for which see under Bache above. 

Bacton. 

1086 Bachetune, Dom. 

1232 Bakyntune, Chart. 

1243 Bakinton, T. de Nev. 

1 29 1 Baketon, Tax. Eccl. 

1327 Bakynton, Chart. Rolls. 

1 34 1 Baketon, Non. Inq. 

'Tun of Bacca or Becca.' 
Cf Bacton (Norf ). 

Badley 'Wood (Whitbourne). 

' Badda's lea.' 

In 13 16 there is a Baddesleagh (belonging to Alan de 
Plokenet) close to Great Brampton. But I take this to be a 
scribe's mistake for Baddeshawe {Badsay, q.v.). 

Badnage (Burghill). 

*Badsay [in or near Madley]. 
circ. 1 2 17 Baddeshage, Chart. 

1267 Baddesawe, Inq. p.m. 

1 3 17 Badesawe, Min. Ace. 

1327 Badeshawe, Baddeshawe, Plac. de Banco. 
' Badda's enclosure.' 



BANSTONE I 3 

Badsay is still a surname in the county. For the second 
element see Appendix -hay. 

Cf. Badsey (Wore), ' Badda's island.' 
See also under Wormbridge. 

Bagga-lydiate (Orcop). 

1 83 1 Bagwy Llydiart, Ord. Map. 

Bagwy seems to be akin to Bacho (q.v.). For the second 
element see ' Lydiates.' Some have conjectured that it is W. 
Bagwn-llidiard, 'gate of strength.' 

Bailey Merdy (Brilley). 

The first word is W. belli, a loan-word from the N.-Fr. ' the 
bailey-court of a castle,' then a court-yard generally, sometimes 
a cattleyard. Beili is often found as a pl.-n. in Wales, sometimes 
attached to a tumulus, as Pen y Beili Bedw, a tumulus in Cards. ; 
Beili glas, another in Glams. The second word is W. Maerdy, 
'the house of a steward,' then 'a dairy house.' 

Balance Farm (Titley). 

Ballhurst (Bromyard). 

Ballingham. 

circ. 1 1 30 LannbudguaP, Lib. Land. 

121 5 Badelingeham, Close Rolls. 

125 1 Baldingham, Chart. Roll. 

1252 Baldingham, Chart. Roll. 
1275 Balingham, Ep. Reg. 

1 29 1 Balingesham, Tax. Eccles. 
1297 Baldyngham, Ep. Reg. 
1538 Balincham, Val. Eccles. 
1542 Balingcham, Orig. Roll. 
1545 Balyngeham, Inq. p.m. 
' The ham of St Budgualan.' 

Ballsgate (Aymestrey). 

Banstone (Pencombe). 

1 ' Rex Gurcant.-.dedit deo et SS. Dubricio et Teliano podum sancti Budgualan.' 



14 BAREGAINS 

Baregains (Ledbury). 
Bargates (Leominster). 

Barlands (Bosbury). 

Said to derive its name from having been held by the 
service of 'bearing' the provisions of the lord or steward in their 
removes from one manor to another. Such tenants were called 
Berinanni. 

The Barr (Eardisland). 

1278 La Barre, Ep. Reg. 
1 3 1 1 La Barre, Ep. Reg. 
1335 Le Barre, Ep. Reg. 
1 341 La Barre, Non. Inq. 

Fr. barre, ' a bar,' ' barrier.' 

In a Brecon Charter circ. 1150, Earl Roger of Hereford gives 
to the Priory ' burgagium in Brechonia et acram extra Barram.' 

Barrelhill (Yatton). 

Barrell (Upper, Lower, and Little, Aston Ingham). 

Barrow (Cradley). 

1327 la Barewe, Plac. de Banco. 

O.E. deork, ' a hill,' ' citadel,' then, as prob. here, ' a barrow,' 
'place of burial.' There is also a farm called Barrow in 
Pembridge. 

Barr's Court (Hereford). 

1282 (translation, i486) ' at the bridge of the Barre,' Custom 
Book, Hereford. 

In 1339 Walter de la Barre was chief Bailiff of Hereford, 
and John de la Barre in 1334. In 1346 Roger atte Barre de 
Herefordie has a suit in court. The de Barre or de la Barre 
family, however, seem to have held lands in Holmer and Burcot 
at least as early as 1259. The last member of the family died 
early in the 17th century. 



BAYNHAM I 5 

Bartestree. 

1086 Bertoldestreu, Dom. 

1 29 1 Bertwaldestre, Bertwaldstret, Tax. Eccles. 

1 341 Bertwaldestr', Non. Inq. 

1348 Bertwastree, Ep. Reg. 
' Beorhtweald's tree.' 
Cf. Oswestry (Salop). 

Barton or Canons' Barton (Hereford). 
1086 Bertune, Dom. 
circ. 1150 Berthona, Chart. 

1 241 Bert one, Charter Roll. 
O.E. Bere-tun, ' enclosure for barley.' 

Cf. Berwick (on-Tweed), Barwick (Yorks.), etc., all being 
' Barley-farm.' 

In 1553 a Barton is mentioned with Rushock and Bradnor, 
i.e. near Kington. 

Barton Court (Colwall). 

Barton Hill (Kentchurch). 

Bartonsham (Hereford). 

circ. 1 1 50 Berstaneshame, Glos. Cart. 
1 2 19 Bertanesham, Ep. Reg. 

*Batley [somewhere near Kilpeck]. 

1227 Bathlegh, Chart. Roll. 

Bayford. 

I can find no old forms; but on the analogy of Bayton 
{Cleobury Mortimer) and Bay worth {Abingdoii) it should be 
' Beaga's, or Bacga's, ford.' 

Baylibrooke (BuUingham). 
1282 (translation i486) Bayle Brook, Hereford Custom Book. 

Baynham (Ledbury). 

Found as a surname also in Herefordshire. Prob. 'home- 
stead of Baina or Bana.' 



I 6 BAYNTON 

Baynton (Upton Bishop). 
Prob. ' Baina's or Sana's tun.' 
Baysham (Sellack). 

1086 Baissan, Dom. 
1240 Beysham, Ep. Reg. 
1251 Baissan, Ep. Reg. 
1 29 1 Baisham, Baysham, Tax. Eccles. 
1 341 Baysham, Non. Inq. 
circ. 1550 Beysham, Leland. 
There is also a farm called ' Baysham ' in Goodrich, which in 
1693 was ' Baysham's Cott.' 
Beansty (Kington). 
The Bear Farm (Weobley). 
Bearwood (Pembridge). 

O.E. bearo, ' a wood.' If this be the derivation Bearwood is 
tautological. There is a ' Barrow ' within half a mile ; but, 
without old forms, we should not be justified in suggesting 
' Barrow- wood.' 

Cf. Conybeare, Bere Regis. 

*Becce [' in valle Stradelei ']. 

1086 Becce, Dom. 
See Bache. 

Bedw (Dorstone). 

W. bedw, ' the birches,' plur. of bedwen, ' a birch tree.' 

Belle Orchard (a street in Ledbury). 

Bellimore (Preston-on-Wye). 

circ. 1 1 30 Bolgros, Lib. Land. 
1 3 16 Bellimare, F. A. 
1330 Bellymare, Ep. Reg. 
1 83 1 Bellimoor, Ord. Map. 
It would seem that Belly-moor is simply a translation into 
English of Bolg-ros, which is compounded from Welsh bolg-, the 
root of several words meaning 'a paunch,' and ros, 'a moor, 
heath.' 



BERRINGTON 1 7 

Belmont (Clehonger). 

No old forms, so it may be comparatively a modern name. 
Cf. (lo miles to the south, in Monmouthshire) Grosmont, 
which is certainly as old as the 13th century. 

*Beltrou [' in valle Stratelie ']. 

1086 Beltrou, Dom. 

Benarth (Kilpeck). 

Evidently the Welsh Penarth. The first element, pen, is a 
common prefix meaning 'the highest part' or 'the extreme end.' 
Its Scotch form is Ben. 

Benfield (Bredwardine). 

1 2 17 Benefeldum, Dore Chart. 

1 29 1 Benefeld, Tax. Eccles. 
circ. 1369 Benefelde, Ep. Reg. 

1 541 Benfylde, Aug. Of. 
Is it ' Bean-field,' or ' Field of prayer ' ? 

Berkley (Lingen). 

*Bernoldune. 

1086 Bernoldune, Dom. 
1303 Bernaldeston', F. A. 
1428 Bernaldeston, F. A. 
So identified by J. H. R.; but otherwise not to be traced. 
' Beornweald's tun.' 

Berrington. 

1223 Beriton, Berintune, Brec. Cart. 

1236 Beriton, Brec. Cart. 

1396 Pyryton, Ep. Reg. 

1577 Birriton, Saxton's map. 

1610 Birriton, Speed's map. 
circ. 1750 Berrington, Bowen's map. 

1776 Biriton, Stukeley, ' Itin. Cur.' 
O.E. pyrige, a loan-word from Lat. pirum. Perton in Stoke 
Edith {tYiOW^ we have no old forms) is probably also Pyryton. 

1 ' Est in Marchia Wallie.' 
B. H. 2 



1 8 BETTWS 

Bettws (Much Dewchurch). 

Much has been written, to Httle purpose, as to the origin of 
Bettws. The opinion still holds that it is a Welsh form of the 
English ' bead-house ' ; though no one has ever explained why 
'bead-houses' should be scattered all over Wales and the Border, 
with none in England, from whence the word came ! 

Bewail Street (Hereford). 

1 3 14 ' vicus qui vocatur Byhinde the Walle,' Hereford Corp. 

Chart. 
1383 Bewalstrete, Hereford Corp. Chart. 

*The Biblings [Goodrich]. 

1722 The Biblings, Biblin's End, Terrier. 

Bickerton (Much Marcle). 

1086 Bicretune, Dom. 
1303 Bykerton, F.A. 

Bicknor. 

1086 Bicanofre, Dom. 

1266 Bykenovere, Glos. Cart. 

1275 Bykenore Walensis, Ep. Reg. 

1 29 1 Bykenore' Walensium,) „ ^ , 

. ,. , \ lax. Eccles. 
„ Anglican, j 

1 341 Bykenore, Non. Inq. 
Clearly ' Bica's bank.' Lower down the Wye is Bigsweir, 
which in 1322 is Bikiswere, ' Bica's weir.' 

See under Doward for Bicknor entry in Lib. Lan. 

Bicton Pool (Yarpole). 

no date Bikeden, Leom. Cart. 
' Bica's vale.' 

Biddleston (Llangarren). 

So in 1676. For etymology see Pudleston. 

Bidney (Dilwyn). 

1346 Bydenweye, Ep. Reg. 



BIRLEY 19 

Bigglestone (Much Birch). 

1722 Bigleston, Wormelow Terrier. 

Possibly from O.E. pucel, ' gobHn,' ' sprite,' for which see sub 
Pudleston. Or, if we had old forms, we might find it to be 
' Bigweald's tun.' 

Bilbo (Rowlestone). 

circ. 1 140 Belboga, E. H. Cart. 

Bilfield (Hatfield). 

Billingsley (Holme Lacy). 

'Billing' is one of the commonest of the so-called patronymics. 
We find Billingford (Norfolk), Billingham (Durham), Billingley 
(Yorks.), Billinghurst (Sussex) and five other places in various 
counties. Yet it is by no means clear that there ever was a clan 
' Billing.' It is quite possibly no more than ' Billa's meadow.' 

Birch (Much and Little). 

1243 Communitas de Birches, T. de Nev. 

1277 Birche sancte Marie, Ep. Reg. 

I2QI Birch' beate Marie, ) „ „ , 
^ ^ lax. Eccles. 



Briches beate Marie,] 
1306 Ecclesia sancte Marie de Birches, Ep. Reg. 
1334 Maurice atte Birches ordained, Ep. Reg. 

1340 Muchelbirches, Min. Ace. Aconbury. 

1 341 Byrches sancte Marie, Non. Inq. 

1538 Birche, Val. Eccles. 

1539 Lytle Byrche, Aug. Of 
O.E. byre, ' a birch tree.' 

Bircher (Yarpole). 

circ. 1240 Birchovr, Leom. Cart. 
1539 Byrchore, Aug. Of. 
' Birch-bank.' 
Birchy field (Avenbury). 

Birley. 

1086 Burlei, Dom. 

circ. 1300 Boerleye, Chart. 

1 138 Buterlega\ A.C. 

' Meadow with the burh.' 

1 So identified by J. H. R. See Butterley. 



20 BIRTLEY 

Birtley (Lingen). 

circ. 1 183 Britleia, Birdleia, Chart. 
' Meadow of Brid\' 

Bishopstone. 

113s Bicopeston, Lib. Nig. 

1 29 1 Bissopeston, Tax. Eccles. 

1303 Bysshoppeston, F.A. 

1327 Bisshopeston, Plac. de Banco. 

1 341 Bysshopeston, Non. Inq. 

1 341 Bysshopesdon, Assize Roll. 
' The Bishop's tun.' 
The Warwickshire Bishopstone is 1016 Biscopesdun. 

Bishopswood. 

Evidently part of the Bishop's manor of Ross, though no old 
references are to be found. In 1355 there is a ' Bisshopusbrok 
qui cadit in ripam de Weye'; and in 1292 a ' Bissopeswere super 
Weye,' both near Ross. 

Bitterley hyde (Pencombe). 

The Shrops. Bitterley is Dom. Buterlie. See under Butterley. 

*Bitton [between Wigmore and New Radnor in the entry]. 

1 341 Bitton, Non. Inq. 

Prob. like Glos. Bitton (which is Dom. Bettme, and 1234 
Betton) ' tun of Betti ' or ' of Beta ' (both in Onom.). 

Blackmarston (Hereford). 

1294 Blakemonstone, Ep. Reg. 
1400 Blakemanston, Aeon. Cart. 
1490 Blakemonston, Court Roll. 
1509 Blackmonston, Rent, and Surveys. 
1538 Blakmoston, Val. Eccles. 
The Kentish Blackmanstone is held in Dom. by a person 
named Blacman. This also was ' Blacman's tun,' until popular 
etymology took the matter in hand. 

1 Birfs Morton (Glos.) is circ. 1350 Morton Brut, from Walter le Bret who held 
it in 1275. 



BLYTHE FIELDS 21 

Blacknorle (Marstow). 
1490 Blake Norle, 1 Courtfield 

1569 'an acre of land called Black Norles Sute,'} MSS. 
Blackwardine (Stoke Prior). 

no date Blakwrthin, Leom. Cart. 
Legend says Black Caer-dun, supposed to have been a 
British or Roman fortified town, twelve coins and some fragments 
of pottery having been discovered there, but no foundations of 
buildings! But the word obviously means 'Blaeca's weorth' 
or farm. 

Blaenans (Cusop). 

Blaenau (Michaelchurch Eskley). 
See The Blane. 

Blaethwood (Little Hereford). 
Possibly O.E. blithe, ' merry, pleasant.' 

Blakemere (Preston-on-Wye). 

1273 Blakemare, Comp. Roll. 
1 29 1 Blakemar, Tax. Eccles. 
1 341 Blakemere, Non. Inq. 
' Blaeca's mere.' 

There is a Blackmore in Abbey dor e (which may be the 
'Blakapola' of the Dore Cart, in 1232), and a Blakemore in 
Aston Ingham; also a Blakemor (unidentified) in Leom. Cart. 
Cf Blakeney (Glos.), Blakenham (Suff.), Bletchley (Bucks.). 

The Blane (Llanveynoe). 

Welsh blaen (plur. blaenau) means the top, beginning, or 
source of anything. Usually a prefix to the name of a place 
situated at the end of a valley, or at the source of a river, as 
Blaen-Rhondda, Blaenau Festiniog. The Blane is an Anglicized 
corruption of Blaen ; and Blaenans must be the same, though 
the form is difficult to explain. 

Blestacre (Ullingswick). 
Blythe Fields (The Lea). 
O.E. blithe, ' merry, pleasant.' 



22 BODCOT 

Bodcot (Dorstone). 
Apparently W., ' kite's tail.' 

Bodenham. 

1086 Bodeham, Dom. 
circ. 1150 Bodeham, Brec. Cart. 
1 243 Bodeham, T. de Nev. 
1 29 1 Bodenham, Tax. Eccles. 
1302 Bodeham, Quo War. 
1 341 Bodenham, Non. Inq. 
' Boda's home.' 

The Furches family obtained land here by marriage \vith the 
Lacies in the 12th century. Hence it is sometimes found as 
Bodenham Furches. 

Boiling (Coughton). 

1831 Bollin, Ord. Map. 

Bollingham (Eardisley). 

Old forms being absent, we cannot tell whether the g is in 
the O.E. form, or has got itself inserted later. According as we 
decide this it will be 'Bolla's homestead,' or 'homestead of Bolla's 
sons.' See under Billingsley. 

Bollitree (Weston-under-Penyard). 

Since this is the reputed site of Ariconium, Judge Cooke says 
it is Welsh Bol-yr-tre, ' the bowel or centre of a town,' though on 
the English side of the Wye, where there is only one pl.-name 
certainly Welsh, and that within a stone's throw of Archenfield. 
Others say bole is ' a place where miners melted their lead.' It 
is perhaps more likely to be ' the tree of Bolla ' or some similar 
name. But we have no old forms to help us. 

*Bolton [somewhere in or near Wigmore]. 

1302 La Haye Hyde de Boleton, Quo War. 

Bonnyventure (Leominster). 

So in Ord. Map, 183 1. It seems to be a name of only 
1 8th cent, origin. 

Boresford (Brampton Bryan). 



BOULTIBROOKE 23 

Borough or Bury. 

Very common throughout the country, not merely in com- 
position, as in Overbury ( Woolhope), Buryhill ( Weston-under- 
Penyard) and Monksbury ( Yarkhill), but also independently, as 
The Bury (in Aconhury), Bury Farm {Stoke Prior), Bury House 
( Wigmore), Little Bury (Eye), Bury of Hope (in Hope-under- 
Dinmore), Bury {Luston). In Ledbury the parish is still divided 
into Ledbury Borough and Ledbury Foreign. And some quite 
small villages or even hamlets retain the name for a few houses 
as distinct from the rest, e.g. Ivington has Ivington Bury ; and 
Grafton, a tiny hamlet near Hereford, has a house called 
Graftonbury. A farm in Kingsland is called Lawton Bury. 

Bosbury. 

1056 Bosanbyrig, Flor. Wore. 

1 086 Boseberge, Dom. 

1233 Boseburia, Glos. Cart. 

1 29 1 Bosebur' Episcopi, Tax. Eccles. 

' Burgh of Bosa,' perhaps the 'scriba regis' (i.e. of Witlaf, king 
of Mercia) mentioned in a charter of 833. 

Boulstone^ or Bolstone. 

1286 Balchampton, Ep. Reg. 
1443 Buggleston, Inq. p.m. 
1538 Bowlston, Aug. Of 
The entry from the Swinfield Register suggests a connec- 
tion with the Beauchamp family. 

The Glamorganshire ' Bolstonne,' in Margam Cart. 15 17, both 
before and after that date and still, is Bonvilston. 

Boultibrooke (Willey). 

1330 Bultibrok, Ep. Reg. 
1347 Boltebroke, Ep. Reg. 
The first element is prob. O.E. iJoif/ (sometimes found as bolt), 
' a house.' ' House on the brook.' The W. Trenant (twice found 
in the county) has much the same meaning. 

1 There is a Bowlston Court in Kentchurch also. 



24 BOWELLFIELD 

Bowellfield (Allensmore). 

Bowley (Bodenham). 

1086 Bolelei, Dom. 
' Bola's meadow.' 

•Bradford [a manor of Leominster]. 
1086 Bradeford, Dom. 
1 1 23 Bradeforda, Leom. Cart, (et passim). 
1257 Bradeford, Chart. Roll. 
'The broad ford.' I have entered this as an unidentified 
name ; but it is almost certainly Broadward in Stoke Prior. 
See under Broadfield. 

Bradley (farm, Kentchurch). 

circ. 1280 Bradelee, E. H. Cart. 
' Broadmeadow.' 

Bradlow Hill (Ledbury). 

Tautology; since .fira^/titw = ' Broad Hill.' Locally it is still 
always Bradlow, never Bradlow Hill. 

Bradnor (Kington). 

1337 Bradnore, Inq. p. m. 

1553 Bradnor, Court Roll. 
' Brada's bank.' For second element see Appendix. 

Brainstree Cross (Stretford). 

Brakes (Leintwardine). 

(i) Brampton (Great, Madley). 

(2) Brampton (Little, a township on Radnor border). 

(3) Brampton Abbotts. 

(4) Brampton Brian. 

(5) Brampton (Dorstone). 

1086 Bruntune, Dom. (i, 2, 3, and 4). 

1 132 Bramtona, Chart, (i). 

, Bromptona,) „, ^ 
circ. 1160 I ' ^ Glos. Cart. (3). 

Bromtunne, ^■^' 



BREDWARDINE 2$ 

1302 Brumptone, Quo War. (3). 

1303 Bromptone Brian, Ep. Reg. (4). 
1327 Michelebrompton, Plac. de Banco (i). 
1333 Bryancsbromptone, Ep. Reg. (4). 

' Brand'.s tun.' 

Brampton Abbots is held in Dom. by the Abbot of St Peter's, 
Gloucester. 

Brampton Bryan was held from the Mortimers by a long 
succession of Brians of Brampton (i 179-1398). 

Brandon Camp (Leintwardine). 

It may be, as popular etymology says, a corruption of 
Bravinium or Branogenium, the station on the Roman road, 
usually located in Leintwardine. But the other Brandons 
(Durham, WarMvickshire, Salop) are Dom. Brandune, 'hill of 
Brand.' We have no old forms to help us. 

Breadward (Kington). 

1086 Brudeford, Dom. 
Originally, it would seem, ' spreading ford.' Then the ending 
got confused with -wardine (for which see Appendix). 

Bredenbury. 

1086 Brideneberie, Dom. 

1276 Bridenebury, Ep. Reg. 

1278 Brudenebury, Ep. Reg. 

1 29 1 Brydenebur'i, Tax. Eccles. 

1304 Bridenbyr', Ep. Reg. 

1 341 Bridenbury\ Non. Inq. 

1 81 2 Bridenbury, Dune. 

1 83 1 Bredenbury, Ord. Map. 
' Beorhtwine's or Bridwine's burgh.' 

Bredwardine. 

circ. 1200 Bredewerthin, Brec. Cart. 
1 2 17 Bredworthin, Dore Cart. 
1243 Bradewardin, T. de Nevill. 

' In Tax. it is ' Ecclesia de B.,' in Non. Inq. 'Capella de B.' (entered under 
Avenbury) . 



26 BREDWARDINE 

1255 Bradwerthin, MS. in West. Archives. 

1277 Bredworthin, Ep. Reg. 

1 291 Bredewardin, Tax. Eccles. 

1302 Bredewardyn, Quo War. 

1 34 1 Bredwardyn, Non. Inq. 

1440 Bradwardyn, Inq. p. m. 

' Brid's weorth ' or farm. 

For the second element see Appendix, -wardine. 

Breinton. 

circ. 1200 Bruntune, Breuntuna, Chart. 
1252 Brahintone, Capes. 
1 291 Breynton, Brenton, Tax. Eccles. 
1 341 Breynton, Non. Inq. 
Judge Cooke says Bruntune is ' a vill near a flowing stream '! 
But it is better to say with Prof. Wyld ' We expect a personal 
name with -tun! Brun and Bruna are common O.E. names. 

*Brenchesowre [in Brinsop]. 

circ. 1200 Brenchesowre, Brec. Cart. 

The second element is an unusual form of the -ofr or -or 
ending. The first element may be the pers. n. Brengyth ; or it 
may be a variant of the Brin- or Brun- in Brinsop. 

Bridge Sellers. 

1086 Bricge, Dom. 

1255 Bruges, MS. in West. Archives. 

1277 Bruges super Wayam, Chart. 

1 29 1 Bruges Solers, Tax. Eccles. 

1302 Brugges sup. Wayam, Quo War. 

1303 Brug Solers, F.A. 

1 341 Bruggsolers, Non. Inq. 

1433 Brugge, Pat. Roll. 
Why Sollers} The family of Solers or de Solariis held 
Sollershope and other Herefordshire lands early in the 14th 
century. But the Manor of Bridge is held by Roger de Clifford 
in 1277, and seems to have been held for centuries thereafter by 
Cliffords or by the Bishop. 



BRILLEY 27 

Bridstow. 

circ.1130 ^""" ^^" ^"-^f-l Lib. Land. 
Lann San Freit, j 

1 1 38 Ecclesia Sancte Brigide virginis, Glos. Cart. 

1277 Bridestowe, Ep. Reg. 

1 29 1 Bridestowe, Tax. Eccles. 

1 341 Bridestowe, Non. Inq. 
' The stow of St Bridget, Brigida, or Bride.' An Inq. p. m. 
of 1422 mentions a ' lordship called Bridwarne ' near Eton Tregoz, 
which would seem to be Bridstow. 

Cf Bridestowe (Devon) and Bridgeride (Devon, old ' Lan 
Bridget'), and the nine Llansantf raids (or -/reads, i.e. Bridgets) in 
Wales. 

Brierley (Leominster). 

1086 Bretlege [? J. H. R.], Dom. 
1539 Brereley, Aug. Of. 
Brier-meadow.' The first element is O.E. braer, brer, ' the 
brier tree.' 

Brighton Camp (Michaelchurch Eskley). 

Called Whitehouse Camp in Vic. Count. Hist., and Whitehouse 
only in 1831 Ord. Map. Kelly's Directory now calls it Brighton 
Camp. It is almost the only English name amid the Welsh in 
which the parish and district abounds. Possibly both Brighton 
and Whitehouse date from the i8th cent. 

Brilley. 

ante 1240 Briel, Leom. Cart. 

1259 Brynlegh', Cwmhir Cart. 
1267 Brunley, Inq. p. m. 
1290 Brimleye, Fine Roll. 
1333 Bruylle, Ep. Reg. 
1337 Brunleie, Inq. p.m. 
1403 Brynley, Inq. p. m. 
1450 Broonle, Llantony Cart. 
1532 Brilleis, Aug. Of 
1538 Brilley, Val. Eccles. 
1 541 Breleu^ Aug. Of. 

' ' In dominio de Huntingdon.' 



28 BRILLEY 

A difficult word, in which English and Welsh forms have got 
inextricably mixed in the course of centuries. Quite half the 
pl.-ns. in the parish are still Welsh. 

Cf. Brt/l (Bucks.), which in 1109 is Bruhella. In 1722 there 
is a Brillstone in Goodrich. 

Brimfield. 

1086 Bromefelde, Dom. 
1 123 Bremelfelda, Leom. Cart. 
1 1 38 Branfeld, A.C. 
no date Brumfeld, E. H. Cart. 
The Dom. form of the first element is O.E. brom, ' broom.' 
The Bremel of Leom. Cart, is O.E. bremel, brembel, or brembel- 
braer, ' a bramblebush.' 

Bringewood (Burrington). 
M.E. Brink, as below. 

Bringsty (Whitbourne). 

1275 Brinkestye, Ep. Reg. 

1307 Brenkesty, Ep. Reg. 
M.E. Brink (not known in O.E.), ' the descent of a hill,' ' the 
edge, margin, or border of a steep place.' It is not infrequent 
as a first element in place-names, e.g. Brinklow (Warwicks.), 
Brinkley (Cambs.), Brinkworth (Wilts.). The second element, -sty, 
is O.E. stiga, 'a path.' The Trilleck Register in 1355 mentions 
(in the forest of Dean) ' semita que vocatur le Ynsty.' Also, in 
the same neighbourhood, Meresty (= boundary-path), Bicknorsty, 
and Cnappesty {'h\\\-^a.th'). In 143 1 there is a Hamsty in March 
(PilleyMS.), which is 'the path to [what is still called] Homme 
house.' In 1395 in Tillington is Wyndemullestye. And in 1722 
there is a Stye Field in Credenhill. ' Holesti ' is in Mansell 
Lacy in 1222. 

Brinsop. 

1086 Hope, Dom. 

circ. 1 1 30 Bruneshopa, Orderic Vitalis. 

circ. 1200 Brunehop, Brec. Cart. 

1284 Bruneshope, Chart. 

1 29 1 Bruneshop, Tax. Eccles. 



BROBURY 29 

1303 Brunshope, F.A. 

1327 Brunsop, Ep. Reg. 

1327 Bruneshop^ Plac. de Banco. 

1 341 Brunsop, Non. Inq. 

143 1 Brunshope, F.A. 

no date -/^^ runssope, l ■yy^^.j^g q^^^ 
JN etherbrunssope, j 
1538 Brynsope, Val. Eccles. 
1 577 Brinsop, Saxton's Map. 
' The enclosed valley of Bruna or Brun.' There is a Brinshope 
farm in Wigmore, which in 1831 Ord. Map is Brinsop. 

Brinstone (St Weonards). No old forms. 

One would say ' Beorn's tun,' were it not that nearly all the 
names in St Weonards are Welsh, which suggests that dangerous 
conjecture, a hybrid. 

Broadfield (Bodenham). 

1086 Bradefelde, Dom. 

1 123 Bradeffeld, Leom. Cart, 
circ. 1 1 50 Bradefeld, Brec. Cart. 

1243 Bradfeud, T. de Nev. 

1 29 1 Bradefelde, Tax. Eccles. 

1428 Bradefeld, F.A. 
' Broad ' is a common element in Herefordshire place-names, 
as everywhere : — e.g. Broadmoor ( Woolhope) ; The Broad {^Eye) ; 
Broad Meadow (hamlet in Hardwicke) ; Broad Oak {Garway), 
which is in 1548 ' Brode Oke parcel of Dore'; Broad Oaks 
{Bosbury); Broadstones {Stoke Prior); and Broadward {Stoke 
Prior), which is in 1280 Bradford, and in 1638 Bradward. There 
is a Brademedue, not identified, in Leom. Cart.; and Leland 
mentions a Brode Medow, near Wide Marsh, in Hereford. 

Brobury. 

1086 Brocheberie, Dom. 
1243 Brocbir, T. de Nev. 

1 Curiously enough (probably by a scribe's mistake) the Lanes. Boysnape is, in 
1235, Bruneshop—the only -hope found in that county. 



30 BROBURY 

1 29 1 Brocbury, Tax. Eccles. 
1 34 1 Brokbury, Non. Inq. 
' The burh on the brook.' Or is it from O.E. broc, ' a badger ' ? 

*Brocheurdie [' in valle Stradelei ']. 

1086 Brocheurdie, Dom. 
' Farm on the brook.' See Appendix, -wardine. 

Brockaly (Dilwyn). 

-ly is a somewhat rare form of -ley (for which see Appendix). 

Brockbury (Col wall). 

Akin in origin to Brobury (q. v.). 

Brockhampton. 

1 142 Brocwardin, Lant. Cart. 

1283 Brockhampton, Ep. Reg. 

1287 Brochamptone, Glos. Cart. 

1334 Brokamtone, Ep. Reg. 

143 1 Brokehampton, F.A. 

1545 Brokanton, Inq. p.m. 
It may be from O.E. broc, 'a badger,' but more probably from 
brSc, ' a brook,' or sometimes ' a swamp,' ' a water-meadow.' 
' The tun in the ham (i.e. meadow) by the brook.' 
There is another Brockhampton near Bromyard which is also 
called Brockington, and is Brockyntone in 1457 (Glos. Cart.). 

Brock Hill (Colwall). 

Brockmanton (Pudleston). 

1086 Brochemton, Dom. 
1123 Brocmanetune, Leom. Cart. 
1303 Brokmanton, F.A. 
circ. 1390 Brokmanton, Leom. Cart. 

I S47 Brockmanton, Ind. Court Rolls. 

*Brocote [somewhere near Goodrich?]. 
1086 Brocote, Dom. 



BROOM-Y-CLOS 3 1 

*Brom's Ash [Domesday Hundred]. 
1086 Bremesese, Bremesse, Bromesais, Bromesesce, Dom. 
1228 Bromes heff^ Close Roll. 

Bromtrees Hall (Bishop's Frome). 
Built and so-called in 1722. 

Bromyard. 

circ. 840 Bromgeard, Birch. 
1086 Bromgerbe, Dom. 
1 1 60 Bromiard, Glos. Cart. 
1 29 1 Bromyard, Tax. Eccles. 
1 3 16 Bromyard forincecum, 



Bromyerd intrincecum,[ 
1 341 Bromyerd, Non. Inq. 
1 363 Bromyarde fforeyn, Ep. Reg. 
O.K. brom, 'broom,' a.ndfeld, 'field covered with broom.' In 
Shrops. Broom Farm is Dom. Bruma, and Broome is Dom. Brame. 

Bronsil (Eastnor). 

Also called Brantsill, and Bromeshill. Saxton's map (1577) 
and the 183 1 Ord. Map spell it Bransill. 

Said to be Welsh ; and plausibly connected with bron, ' the 
breast of a hill,' or brun, ' a hill,' which in Lib. Land, is bran. In 
the absence of old forms, however, it is impossible to decide 
whether it might not equally be English ' Brand's Hill,' more 
especially as it is in a definitely English district. 

Bronllys in Breconshire is Brwyn-llys, from the personal 
name Brwyn (H.O.). 

Brooks (Clodock). 

One of the few English farm-names in the whole valley of the 
Monnow above Pontrilas. 

Broom-y-clos or Brom-y-clos (Llanwarne). 
1650 Broomy Close, Survey. 
1665 Broomy Close, Will of Rob. Pye. 
1 79 1 Broomey Close, Llandinabo Par. Reg. 
1 83 1 Broomy Close, Ord. Map. 

• heffox heaf= ' accustomed pasture ground for sheep.' 



32 BROOM-Y-CLOS 

Evidently a 19th century Wallicizing of a 17th century 
English name. 

Cf. (all in our county) Broomy Hill' {Hereford and Kings- 
land) ; The Broome {Cradley, Eardisland and Peterstow) \ and 
Broome Hill Farm {Tillington), which in 1395 is Bromhulle (Ep. 
Reg.). In 1722 there is a Broomy Hill in Goodrich. 

Broxash (Ullingswick). 

1 1 86 Brockeshes, Glos. Cart. 

Broxwood (Pembridge). 

1539 Broxwood Byrches, Aug. Of. 

The Bruch (Eardisland). 

1304 Villa de Bruges, Ep. Reg. 
1 83 1 Brutch, Ord. Map. 

Evidently ' Bridge.' Cf the old form oi Bridge Sellers. 

There is in 1272, in or near Lyonshall, a Bruschfurlonge, 
the first element in which is M.E. brusche (O.Fr. brosse), 
' brushwood.' 

Bryants (Goodrich). 

1722 Bryons (Bryan Parrock), Terrier. 
Called a 'township.' 

Bryhampton (Little Hereford). 

Bryncurl (Lyonshall). 

W. ' hill near the Curl brook.' The name is possibly modern. 

Bryngarth (Much Dewchurch). 

A quite modern name, though in a typically Welsh district. 

Bryngwyn (Dewchurch). 

1650 Bringwine, Survey. 
W. bryn gwyn, ' fair hill.' 
Cf. Bryngwyn (Mons.) which in Lib. Land, is Brangwayn. 

1 Broomhill (Sussex) was, in early days, Bromy Knoll. 



BULLINGHOPE 33 

Brynifryd (Stoke Prior). 

I suspect this name to be an early 19th century importation. 
It is the only Welsh name in the Parish, and indeed in the whole 
district. It is a very common cottage-name in Wales. 

Brynspard (Dorstone). 

W., possibly bryn-y spar dun, ' hill of a spur.' 

Buckenhill (Bromyard). 

1335 Bokinhulle, Ep. Reg. 
1377 Bokenhulle, Ep. Reg. 
The development of the word is very similar to that of 
Bucknell (Oxfs.) which is in 1149 Buckenhull, and in 13 16 
Bokkenhidl. The first element may be either O.E. buccan 
(gen. sing.), 'he-goat,' or a pers. n. Bucca. 
There is a Buckenhill also in Sollershope. 

Buck House (Edwin Ralph). 

Buckland (Docklow). 

1288 Bokelaunde, Ep. Reg. 

1290 Boklande, Leom. Cart. 

1 291 Boclond', Tax. Eccles. 

O.E. bocland, ' an estate held with certain privileges in virtue 
of a royal charter or " book." ' The Docklow Buckland belonged 
in 1 290 to Leominster Priory, as did Fencote near by. In Talgarth 
in the 12th century there was a Cumbebuckeland. 

Bucknall (Fownhope). 

Buckton. 

1086 Buctone, Dom. 
1479 Buckton, Ind. Ct Rolls. 
The first element may be O.E. bucca, ' a he-goat ' ; but far 
more probably it is the personal name Bucca. 

Bullinghope (Upper and Lower) or Bullingham. 
1086 Boninhope, Dom. 
1275 Bulengehope, Ep. Reg. 
1302 Bulneshope, Quo War. 

B. H. 3 



34 BULLINGHOPE 

1303 Bullinghop,F.A. 

1 341 BuUyngeshop sup. et inf., Non. Inq. 

1396 Bolynghope, Ep. Reg. 

183 1 Bullingham, Ord. Map. 
' The enclosed valley of Bula.' The Dom. form is so identified 
by J. H. R., but is puzzling. The Quo War. form is a scribe's 
mistake. 

Bunshill (Bishopstone). 

1086 Bunesulle, Dom. 

1 142 Boneshull, Lant. Cart. 

1340 Boneshull, Ind. Ct Rolls. 

1394 Bunshill, Ind Ct Rolls. 

1523 Boneshill, Hereford Will. 

1538 Boneshill, Val. Eccles. 

It might be ' hill of the cup ' ; but is more probably ' Buna's 
hill.' 

Burcher (Titley). 

ante 1272 Byrchoure, Byrchover^, Worms. Cart. 
1335 Birchovere, Ep. Reg. 
This is, of course, ' Birch bank.' See Appendix, -over, and 
cf Birchover {Matlock). 

Burcot (Hereford), or The Burcotts. 
ante 1172 Burcota, Chart, 
circ. 1180 Burcote, Chart. 

1278 La Burkote, Ep. Reg. 
1552 Kentish Burcott, Heref Corp. MS. 
It seems to have had two portions, Burcott Row and Kentish 
Burcott; but I can find no explanation of these names. (For 
Row see Rough, and Munderfield Row.) 

The Worcs. Burcote is Dom. Bericote, ' barley-cot' An Oxfs. 
Burcot is 1290 Borewardescote : and another Oxf Burcot is 1198 
Bridicote. 

Burford (Mathon). 

1 In same charter, evidently in same neighbourhood, is Byrchfurlonge, or 
Briischfurlonge. 



BURNETT 35 

Burgage (Wigmore). 

Burghill. 

1086 Burgelle, Dom. 

circ. 1 1 50 BurchuU, Brec. Cart. 

1 199 Burchull, Lant. Cart. 

1283 Burhulle, Ep. Reg. 

1283 Borughull, Chart. Roll. 

1 291 Burchull, Tax. Eccles. 

1303 Burghulle, F.A. 

1333 BourghuUe, Ep.-Reg. 

1 341 Burghull, Non. Inq. 

1377 Bourgchulle, Ep. Reg. 

1538 Boroughhill, Val. Eccles. 

' Hill-town.' For the first element see Appendix, -burg. 
The Glos. Burghill is in Glos. Cart, (undated) Burehul. 

Burghope or Burhope (Wellington). 

1303 Burghope, F.A. 

' Enclosed valley containing a burh.' The Burthrope of the 
T. de Nev. is almost certainly meant for this place. Silas Taylor 
says the name means ' Burrowhope from some ancient fortifica- 
tions ' ! 

Burley (Bromyard). 

1243 Burleg, T. de Nev. 

1 291 Burleye, Tax. Eccles. 

1 341 Burley, Non. Inq. 
' Meadow of the burh.' 

There is another Burley in Colwall, a Burley Gate in Ode 
Pychard, a Burling and a Burlingate in Harden. 

Burlton (Burghill). 

1243 Burghelton, T. de Nev. 
1303 Burwelton, F.A. 

The Burnett (Orcop). 



36 BURRINGTON 

Burrington. 

1086 Boritune\ Dom. 
1362 Buritone, Ep. Reg. 
1427 Boriton, Ep. Reg. 
1479 Boryton, Ind. Court Rolls. 
Probably = Burton, q.v. 

Berrington (q.v.) is Dom. Boritune ; but Bdrrington (Glos.) is 
Dom. Bernintone, i.e. ' Beornwine's tun.' 

*Burthop [near Bodenham]. 

1243 Burthop, T. de Nevill. 

Burton (Holme Lacy, Linton). 

Holme Lacy 1086 Bertune, Dom. 

Linton Burton is almost certainly the Biriton of a delimitation 
circ. 1300. 

O.E. burh + tun, ' fortified dwelling-place.' Some, however, 
think the first element should be from the name of a man, 
though there is nothing in Onom. that would fit. 

There are more than thirty Bicrtons in Dom., most in the 
form Bertun or Bertune ; but several are Borton or Bortune. 

Burton (near Radnor). 

1086 Burardestune, Beuretune, Dom. 

1 29 1 Burton, Tax. Eccles. 

1303 Bourton, F.A. 
' Burhweard's tun.' 
Cf Burwardsley (Ches.). 
Burwarton (Salop). 

Buryhill (Weston-under-Penyard), see Borough. 

*Burzchwyte (Whitbourne). 

Forty days indulgence was granted in 1390 to all who 
contributed to the repair of the bridge at 'Burzchwyte in 
Whytbourne.' 

The Bush (Brilley). 

Bushbank (King's Pyon). 

^ J. H. R. thinks the Dora. Burcstanestune may also be Burrington. 



BYFORD 37 

Bush Lwyn (Bacton). 

There is probably some corruption in this pl.-n. W. llwyn is 
' a bush.' 

Butford (Bodenham). 

1 220 Boteford, Brec. Cart. 

Butterley (Edwin Ralph). 

1086 Buterlei, Butrelie, Dom, 
1 123 Butterlega, Leom. Cart. 
1 1 38 ButerlegaS A.C. 
1303 Buterleye, F.A. 
1327 Boturleye, Plac. de Banco. 
' Meadow where they make butter.' Or, possibly, from a 
personal name Butter or Buthar. (Onom. gives only one 
Buterus^ 

Cf. Butterleigh (Devon) ; Butterley (Derby) ; Buttery (Salop), 
Dom. Buterel; Butterworth (Lines.), with this cf. also Cheswardine; 
Butterwick (Lines.), with this cf Chiswick ; Bitterley (Salop), 
which is Dom. Buterlie, and Buterleye in 1286 and later. 

Butter's Court (Much Dewchurch). 

No early forms. Hence one hesitates to entertain the 
opinion of Mr J. Hobson Matthews that it is a corruption of 
Bettws-y-coed, though Welsh names are all round it. 

The Butts (Allensmore). 

Byfield (Clifford). 

1377 Boyfeld, Ep. Reg. 

1408 'Byfeld alias By weld,' Ind. Court Rolls. 
There is in 1725 a piece of land in Goodrich called 'The 
Byfields'; and there is still a 'Byfields' in Cradley. 

Byford. 

1086 Buiford, Dom. 

circ. 1220 Buford, Brec. Cart. 

127 s Buford, Ep. Reg. 

1 J. H. Round thinks this is Birley (q.v.). 



38 BYFORD 

1 29 1 Buford, Tax. Eccles. 
1303 Byford, F.A. 
1326 Byforde, Ep. Reg. 
1 341 Byford, Non. Inq. 
'By the ford.' Cf. Attwood; Byfleet (Surrey), 'by the 
river'; Bytham (Lines.), 'by the home.' 

*Byland [somewhere near Leominster i*]. 
1243 Bylun, Glos. Cart. 
1280 Boylonde, Glos. Cart. 
1355 Boylaunde, Ep. Reg. 

The Byletts (Pembridge). 

In 1557 there is a Byrelets at Eggleshall in Staffs. 

*Byllack Yatt [Goodrich]. 
165 5 Byllack Yatt, Survey of the ' Meares & Bound ' of Goodrich. 

Byster's Gate (Hereford). 
1270 Porta Episcopi, Hereford Corp. MS. 
i486 ' Byster's Gate otherwise called Bishop's Gate,' Customs 

of Hereford. 
1557 Bystrersgate, Hereford Corp. MS. 

The gate existed (and was the city prison) until the early 
19th century. The street leading to it was called Bye-street 
(a name still found in Ledbury). Hence ' Byster's Gate ' would 
seem to be a corruption of Bye-street-gate. 

Byton. 

1086 Boitune, Dom. 

1 29 1 Buton, Tax. Eccles. 

1550 Beyton, Ind. Ct Rolls. 
' The tun of Boi, or Boia, or Boiga ' (all in Onom.). 

Cabbage-lane (Hereford). 

circ. 1290 Caboche Lane, Herf Chart. 

1328 Cabache-lone, Ep. Reg. 

1397 Cabage-lone, Ep. Reg. 

1457 le Brode Cabage lane, Hereford Corp. MS. 



CALDICOTT 39 

The popular explanation ' Capuchin-lane ' is wrong by more 
than two centuries. The order of ' Hermit Friars Minor ' was 
not founded until 1525, and it was some years later that the 
Italian populace gave them the half-affectionate half-con- 
temptuous nickname of Capuchins. 

*Cae-beddow [St Margarets]. 

1638 Cae-beddow, Pilley MS. 
W. cae, ' a field,' and dedw, ' birch trees.' 

Caedraen Wood (Galway). 

So in 1 83 1 Ord. Map. 

W. cae draen, ' field of thorns.' 

Cae-flwyn (Ewyas Harold). 

The second element is prob. llwyn, 'a bush.' 

Cae-wendy (St Weonards). 

Second element is possibly gwyn-ty, ' white-house.' 

Cagedale and Cagebrook (Clehonger). 

Cairon (Michaelchurch Eskley). 

Prob. corruption of W. cair, pi. ceirion, ' berries.' 

*Calcheberge [?]. 

1086 Calcheberge, Dom. 

Calderwell (Bodenham). 

Perhaps the Caldewell of the Charter Roll, 1283, and Inq. p.m. 
1300. 

Caldicott (Aconbury), 

1227 Coldecote, Ch. Roll. 

1243 Kaudicot, Test, de Nevill. 

1294 Caldecote, Ep. Reg. 

1302 Caldecote, Quo War. 

1304 Caldecote, Court Roll. 

1364 Castrum de Caldecot, Chart. 
Skeat says the meaning of this word is that 'the original 
settler's cot was in a bleak situation.' 
Cf Caldecote (Herts.), Coldcoats (Lanes.). 



40 CALDRIDGE 

Caldridge (Aston Ingham). 

Cf. Mintridge. There is a Half-ridge in Acton Beauchamp 
(Worcs.). 

Callow. 

1300 Callowe, E. H. Cart. 
1302 Calowe, Quo War. 
1 3 16 Calew, F.A. 
1327 La Calewe, Plac. de Banco. 
1 341 Calowe, Non. Inq. 
O.E. calu^ calwe (Lat. calvus), ' bare, bald.' 
There is also a Callow Marsh in Cowarne, a Callow in 
Walford-on- Wye, Callow Hills in Munsley, and The Callow 
in Welsh Newton. There are several Callows in Worcs. 

Calver Hill (Norton Canon). 

Early 14th century Calurehulle, D. & Ch. Chart. 

1374 Calverhulle, Ep. Reg. 
Akin to Callow above. 
Camdore (Orcop). 
Welsh cam dwr, ' crooked stream.' 

Camp Farm (Bullingham). 

Caplar Camp (Fownhope). 

183 1 Capler Camp, Farm, and Wood, Ord. Map. 

Popular etymology sees in ' Capler ' (as in ' Oyster Hill ') a 
survival of the name of Ostorius Scapula, who fought with 
Caratacus among the Herefordshire hills. Judge Cooke thinks 
' Capler ' is a corruption of ' Capitularius,' because the Dean and 
Chapter have been owners for many centuries. 

How Caple. 

1086 Capel, Dom.i 

1 291 Ecclesia de Caple, Tax. Eccles. 

1327 Huwe Capel, Plac. de B. 

1 341 Hugtaple^ Non. Inq. 

1 The next entiy is Caplefore, which J. H. Round conjectures to be Foraway Farm 
in How Caple. This is probably the same as the Capulfford ni the (Foy) Inq. p.m. 
of 1420. 

" Obviously a scribe's mistake. 



CARTHAGE 



41 



Old Nor.-French caj>ele = chsipel There are two Ca/>els in 
Kent, one in Surrey, one in Suffolk, one in Lanes., and ten or 
more in Wales. 

King's Caple. 

1086 Cape, Dom. 

1300 Capele, E. H. Cart. 

1307 Cape, Inq. p.m. 

1334 Kingescaple, Ep. Reg. 

Caradoc Court (Sellack). 

1243 Craddok, T. de Nevill. 

1 29 1 Cair cradoke, Inq. p.m. 

1 3 18 ' Kaercraddok & Treezveryn,' Chart. R. 

1334 Caircradok, Ep. Reg. 

1343 Cradoke, Ep. Reg. 

1443 Carry cradok, Inq. p.m. 

1594 Cary Craddock, Court Roll. 

1722 Craddocks, Worm. Terrier. 

1831 Craddock, Ord. Map. 
Evidently ' The camp of Caradoc ' (Caratacus). 

Carey (Ballingham). 

circ. 1509 'Cary's Mill in Ballynham,' Aug. Of. 
1722 Carey, Wormelow Terrier. 

The name is scattered over quite a wide district on both 
sides of the Wye, in Ballingham on the right bank, and in 
Fawley and Brockhampton on the left. We have Carey Hamlet, 
Carey Court (a mile away), and Carey Field in Bollingham, and, 
across the Wye, Carey Wood, Carey Mill, Carey Bower, and 
Carey Boat (a ferry on the river). It is'possibly a corruption of 
W. caer (pi. caerau), ' a fortified camp.' There is a Caerswall 
Farm in Upton Bishop, of which I find no early mention, though 
it is part of the glebe. 

Carthage (Foy). 

The 1 8th century rage for classical names led to this new 
title being given to what had been ' The Homme ' since at least 
1420 (Inq. p.m.). 



42 CARTHAGE 

It was certainly 'Homme House' in 1753, and in print as 
'Carthage' in 1767. 

Carwardine (Madley). 

Carwardine Green (Preston-on-Wye). 

1722 Carwardine, Credenhill Terrier. 
For -wardine see Appendix. I cannot interpret the first 
element Car-. 

Castle Farm (Yarkhill). 

There is no evidence, either historical or topographical, that 
there ever was a Castle in Yarkhill. Yet we find in 1535 
' Thomas Etkyns of Castell, in Yarkhill, yeoman.' And the farm 
still bears the name. Of the origin of 'Castle Nibole' {Little 
Birch) and ' Castle Vach ' {Clodock) I can find no evidence. 
'Castle Street' {Hereford') is mentioned in a charter of 1375 'in 
vico vocato Castelstrete.' 

Castleton, Upper and Lower (Hardwick). 

1539 Castleton, Aug. Of. 
There is a Castleton also in Ode Pychard. 

Catley (Bosbury). 

1251 Cattlegh, Chart. Rolls. 

' The lea of Catta ' (in Onom.) or ' of the cat ' (i.e. frequented 
by wild cats). As in Catlow (Lanes.), Catterall (Lanes.), Catshill 
(Worcs. and Wilts.), and Catmore (Berks.), it is difficult to say 
whether the reference is to a personal name or to the animal ; 
the latter is certainly to be traced in ' Wilde Katte heges ' 
(Cambs. Ped. Fin.). In Kenfig (Glam.) is a Pwll-Cath, which in 
1633 was Catteputte. In Mordiford is a place called on the 
Ord. Map (1831) ' Catstails.' 

Cayo (Llanveyno). 

183 1 Caeau, Ord. Map. 

Plur. of Welsh cae, ' a field,' if Ord. Map is to be trusted. 
But there is an old Celtic word kaio, kaion, ' house, dwelling, 
settlement' See also Keyo. 



CHEYNEY 43 

Cefn-coed (Kilpeck). 

1227 Kevenesquoyt, Chart. Rolls. 
Welsh, ' ridge-wood.' 

Cefn Farm (Dulas). 

1537 ' Kevenbaugh in Dora,' Aug. Of. 
Welsh cefn, ' a ridge.' 

Chadnor (Dilwyn). 

1086 Chabenore, Dom. 
1243 Chabbenore, T. de Nevill. 
13 16 Chabbenor, F.A. 
' Ceabba's bank.' There is nothing to show how Ceabba 
got confused with Ceadda (i.e. Chad). A Roger de Kadenore is 
a witness to a charter in 1220. For the second element see 
Appendix, -over. 

Chanston (Vowchurch). 

1243 Chenestun, T. de Nevill. 

1303 Cheyneston, F.A. 

1 3 16 Cheyneston, F.A. 

1346 Cheyneston, F.A. 

1428 Cheineston, F.A. 

143 1 Cheyneston, F.A. 
J. H. Round thinks this is possibly the Dom. Alcamestune^ 
' Ealhhelm's tun ' (the first k = c). The first element in the T. de 
Nevill form seems to be a Norman scribe's method of writing 
the English pers. name Cyne. 

Checkley (Mordiford). 

1252 Chackileg, Charter. 
' Meadow of Caec, Caecca, Cec, or Cecce ' (all in Onom.). 
Cf Checkendon (Oxon.) and Kekewich (Ches.). 

Cheyney (Bishop's Frome). 
1426 Sir John Cheyne holds lands in Frome jure uxoris^ 

Close R. 
1739 Cheynies Court, MS. Will. 



44 CHICKWARD 

Chickward (Kington). 

1086 Cicwrdine, Cicuurdine, Dom. 
1267 Chicwardin, Inq. p.m. 
1553 Chyeckwardyn, Ind. Ct R. 

For the second element see Appendix, -wardine. The pers. 
name involved may be Caec or Cec. 

Chilstone (Madley). 

circ. 1200 Childestune, Charter. 

1287 Childestone, Ep. Reg. 

1303 Childeston, F.A. 

1304 Childestone, Ep. Reg. 
1327 Childeston, Plac. de Banco. 
1 521 Chilleston, Ind. Ct R. 

' The tun of Cild.' Cild may be a personal name, or it may 
be 'a royal prince.' Vinogradoff thinks it was an epithet 
denoting a person comparable in status to the 'sergeant' of 
Norman times. There is a Childes Malmeshull in Aconbury 
Accounts, 1400, and there is a ' Chilson Oris ' near to Madley. 
The 'Childestone' in Tax. Eccles. (Oxfordshire) has also become 
to-day Chilson, losing the t as well as the d. 

Cholstrey (Leominster). 

1086 Cerlestrew, Dom. 

1539 Chorlystrey, Aug. Of 
O.E. ceorl and treu, ' the churl's tree.' 
In the Leom. Cart, there is a ' Cherlesgrave.' 

The Churn (a landslip, in Orleton parish). 

Cinders and Cinderswood (Laysters). 

Claston (Dormington). 

Clater Park (Bromyard). 

*Clatretune [near Kington]. 

1086 Clatretune, Dom. 

Clearbrook (Pembridge). 



CLEVE 45 

Clee Head (Byford). 

O.E. cleof, 'cliff; which later lost its / and became cleo. 
Clee Hill (Salop) is in Dom. Cleie; Cleobury {Mortimer) is in 
Dom. Cleberie. 

Cf. Cleethorpes (Lines.) which is not in Dom. 

Clehonger. 

1015 Claeighangra, O.E. Chron. 
1086 Cleunge, Dom. 
circ. 1086 Clehangra, Glos. Cart. 
1 102 Cleyngre, Glos. Cart. 
1 138 Cleangra, Glos. Cart, 
ante 1173 Cleyhongre, Chart. 

1243 Clehangre, T. de Nevill. 
1270 Cleyhangre^ Glos. Chart. 
1 29 1 Clehangre, Tax. Eccles. 
1320 Clehungre, Here. Chart. 
1 341 Clehungre, Non. Inq. 
1346 Clehongre, F.A. 
O.E. daeg, 'clay,' and hangra, once said to be 'a meadow,' 
but Duignan says ' a wood on a hill-side,' and M<=Clure, ' the 
slope of a hill.' 'Clay-bank.' 

Cf. Birchanger (Herts.), Alderhanger (Worcs.), Timberhanger 
(Worcs.), Rishangles (Suff), Clayhanger (Devon), and several 
Oakhangers. 

There is a dinger (Glos.), which was in 11 38 Cleangra, and 
in 1263 Clehungra. See Hungerhill. 

Clencher's Mill (Eastnor). 

1394 ' Molendinum vocatum Clenchmille,' Ep. Reg. 
See Glynch Brook. 

Cleve (Ross). 

1086 Clive, Dom. 

circ. 1 1 "JO Clyffe, Chart. 

1289 Clyve, Ep. Reg. 

1307 Cleive, Inq. p.m. 

Cleve is in M.E. a variant for clif, from O.E. cleof, ' a cliff' 

Cf Cleveland {Y ox\iS.). Dom. has 12 Clives in Yorks. alone. 

1 There was in the ' villa ' of Cleyhongre ' una acra quEe vocatur Cleyaker.' 



46 CLIFFORD 

ClifFord. 

966 Clifforda, Kemble. 
1086 Cliford, Dom. 

^^94 Clifford, C^^-f^l^^- 
1341J [Non. Inq. 

1505 Clifford Forinsec,] t j p- tj 

Clifford Burgus, j 

' Steep ford.' There are in England some half-dozen Cliffords, 
and about 15 Cliftons. 

Clifford's Mesne (Linton). 

Mesne is a law term, the Anglo-French spelling of the O.F. 
ineien, meen, mean, Mod. F. inoyen. A mesne lord is one who 
holds from a superior lord ; and mesne land is the estate of 
a mesne lord. 

Clodock. 

circ. 1 1 30 Ecclesia Sancti Clitauci, Lib. Lan. 
1266 Cladoc, E. H. Cart. 

Clydog, son of Clydwyn, was king in Ewias, and was • 
murdered on the bank of the Monnow. 
There is a river Clywedog in Radnorshire. 

Clouds (Mordiford). 

No old forms. J. S. Wood thinks it is the W. clawdd, 
' a dyke, ditch, fence.' 

Cobhall (Allensmore). 

1086 Cobewelle, Dom. 
1 3 16 Cobewall, F.A. 
1534 Cobbe Hall, Aug. Of 
An interesting example of progressive corruption. Starting 
as ' Cobba's well,' it becomes first his ' wall,' and then his ' hall.' 

Cobnash (Kingsland). 
Possibly ' Cobba's Ash-tree.' 
Cockshot. 

A cockshot is said to be 'a broad way or glade through 
which game (cocks) might dart or shoot, so as to be caught in 



CODDINGTON 47 

nets.' One in Lanes, is so named as early as 1377, and in a 
Brecon Charter ante 1232 is mentioned a 'Cocsute.' The first 
element, however, may well be cocc with the meaning of ' ravine, 
narrow valley' (see under Cockyard). The name is found in 
several counties, notably perhaps in Worcs. and Herefordshire. 
In the latter county we have (spellings taken from Ord. Map, 
183 1 ) Cockshoot Farm {Little Dewchurch and in Brimfield), 
Cockshoot {Putley\ Cockshut {Stoke Edith), and Cockshed 
Wood {Orcop). This last is, in a Will of 1603, 'Teer Cockshut,' 
and in a Courtfield MS. of 1653, 'The Cockshott.' In Orcop 
also is Cocksbrook Wood, and near by, in Kentckurck, Wernycoc. 
In 1722 there is a Cock Shot Close in Goodrich, and a Cock 
Shot Field in Credenhill. In Mordiford (1831) is Woodshuts. 
For second element see Scutt, and cf. Aldershot (Hants), Bagshot 
(Surrey), Shotover (Oxon.). But Bagshot (Berks.) is O.K. to baggan 
gete, ' Bagga's Gate.' 

Cockyard (Abbeydore). 
1327 'The acre of Cochard belonging to the said monks' 
(i.e. of Dore Abbey), Ind. Chart. R. 

There is a Cockcroft (farm) near Leominster, a Cockpits in 
Bredwardine, and a Cocksheath in Garway. There was a Cocks 
Land in Bridstow in 1630. The prefix Cock- is not uncommon 
in place-names, but its meaning is doubtful. It is generally 
found on or near hills, say Napier and Stevenson. It may be 
a personal name, Cocca ; it may be the name of the bird ; or it 
may (as in Old Norse) mean ' throat,' which would geographically 
be ' a narrow gorge, valley, or pass.' 

Coda (Walterstone). 

Prob. some corruption of W. coed, though the final a is 
difficult to explain, since coed does not make its plural in -au. 

Coddington. 

1086 Cotingtune, Dom. 

1276 Kotintone, Ep. Reg. 

1284 Kotyntone, Ep. Reg. 

1 29 1 Cotinton, Tax. Eccles. 

1302 Codynton, Quo War. 

1 341 Cotyngton, Non. Inq. 



48 CODDINGTON 

Isaac Taylor says O.E. coton, plur. of cote, ' a mud cottage ' ; 
but the first element is rather O.E. Coddan, gen. of Cod, Codda, 
or Coda, a local form of Goda, a very common O.E. name. 

The Coed (Crasswall). 
Welsh coed, ' a wood.' 

Coedmoor Common (Much Dewchurch). 

1257 Coytmor, Chart. R. 

1383 Coydemore, Inq. p.m. 
The second element is Welsh inawr, 'great,' which popular 
etymology has turned into the English ' moor.' 

Coed-path (St Margaret's). 

1667 Codepoth, Survey of a manor. 
Welsh path, ' what bulges, a boss,' hence a hillock. 

Coed- Robin (Michaelchurch Eskley). 

Coed-y-gravel (Walterstone). 

W. grafel is (i) 'gravel,' 'coarse sand'; (2) 'a ruffian.' So 
this is either ' Gravel-wood,' or ' The villain's wood.' 

Coldborough (Upton Bishop). 

1303 Calbarwe, F.A. 
1346 Calbarewe, F.A. 
1428 Caldebarewe, F.A. 
143 1 Caldebarowe, F.A. 

The early form seems to mean ' hill on which the cole-wort 
grows.' 

Cold Green (Bosbury). 

1086 Colgre, Dom. 

Cold Harbour (Kentchurch). 
See Harboiir. 

Cold Nose (Haywood). 

Coldwell (Kingstone). 

See under Meer Court. There is a Caldewelle in or near 
Pencombe in 1300. 



COMBERTON 49 

*Colebroc [stream somewhere near Bacton]. 

1327 Colebroc, Chart. R. 
CoUington. 

1086 Collintune, Colintone, Dom. 

1 291 Collinton major, Tax. Eccles. 

1303 Colinton, F.A. 

1352 Colyntone, Ep. Reg. 
' Tun of Coll or Colla.' 
Cf. Collingbourne (Wilts.), Collingham (Notts, and Yorks.). 

Colwall. 

1086 Colewelle, Dom. 

1276 Colewelle, Ep. Reg. 

1 29 1 Colewall, Tax. Eccles. 

1302 Colewelle, Quo War. 

1320 Colewalle, Ep. Reg. 
' Cold well.' As often, -well has become -wall. 

Combe and Cwm. 

These words are found everywhere in the county. Combe 
is a township of Presteign (in which also is Combe Tump) ; 
Combe Hill is in Coddington. There are also Coomb's Farm 
{Cradley), Coombe's Moor {Byton), Combeswood {CoUington), 
Calcomb {Hampton Bishop), Raycombe ( Wellington Heath), 
The Cwm {Dorstone, Llanrothal and Peterckurch), Cwm, Upper, 
Middle, Lower, Little, Great, etc. {Little Dewchurch, Walterstone, 
Dulas, and Llanveyno), Kerrysgate Cwm {Abbeydore), The Com 
{Dilwyn), Cwm-Dulas {Dulas), Cwm Steps {Crasswall), Cwm 
Craig {Little Dewchurch), Cwm Crave {Lingen), 'Cwm Coched 
{Clodock), Cwm Bullog {Clodock), Cwm Brian {Rowlestone), 
Cwmadoc {Garway), Cwmma mound {Brilley), Cydcwm {Hard- 
wick), Glascwm {Welsh Newton). Lib. Lan. mentions also a 
*Cwm Barrok yn istrad Dour (i.e. in the Golden Valley). For 
the connection between E. combe and W. cwm see Appendix. 

Comberton (Orleton). 

1529 Comertown, Ind. Ct R. 
' Tun of Cumbra ' (a pers. name) or ' of the Welshman.' 
B. H. 4 



so COMBROKE 

*Combroke [apparently near Kington]. 

1547 Combroke, Ind. Ct R. 

Conigree (Ledbury). 

' Rabbit-warren.' The Coney Garth was a common appendage 
to a country house. H.O. cites twelve Cunnigers in Pembroke- 
shire. Baddeley mentions several in Glos. (with forms coneygar, 
conygre, coneygre, conyger, congre, cunger). There is a Conygar 
Hill in Som., and a Conegore in the same county, and a Coney 
Garth in Wilts. Monastic cartularies often refer to the cuningeria 
or rabbit-warren : and the word has been naturalized in Wales, 
e.g. Gwningar, in Anglesey. O. French has a word con^iini^re. 
_ There is a field in Ballingham which is still called cunygare. 

Cookhorn (Stoke Lacy). 

Coppet (Wood, Goodrich). 

1372 Coppyngwode, Inq. p.m. 

141 3 Coppodewode, Inq. p.m. 

1693 ' Waste land called Copped Wood,' Courtfield MS. 

1722 Copped Wood, Terrier. 
Cf Coppice and Copse, both akin to F. confer, to cut. 

Copthorne (Woolhope). 

Corin (brook). 

Trib. of the Leadon, rises in Pulley, falls into the Leadon 
south of March. 

Cornage (The Lea). 

Corras (Gt and Lit, farms, Kentchurch). 

no date Capella de Caneros, Glos. Cart. 
1205 Capella de Canelros, E. H. Cart. 
The word is apparently W. and the second element is 
W. rhos, ' a moor, heath.' The first element may be W. canol, 
' middle.' 

Cott (Dulas). 

Also The Cott (Eardisland), Cotmore {Lyonshall), and Cot- 
hill iTurnastone). 



COURTY GROVE 5 I 

Coughton (Walford). 

1286 Cokton, Ep. Reg. 
1328 Cottona, Chart. R. 
1365 Cokton, Pat. R. 
1 542 Coughton, Aug. Of. 
The first element is probably the pers. name Cocca, but it 
may be O.E. coc, ' a cock.' See under Cockshot and Cockyard. 
Near by is Cokebury, Coughbury, or Cobrey Park. 

Hall Court (Bishop's Frome). 

' Court ' is here used in its true and literal meaning, not as a 
synonym for ' hall,' but ' an enclosed space.' ' The enclosed 
space attached to (or belonging to) the Hall.' The word ' Court ' 
is everywhere a sign of Norman influence : and Herefordshire 
being the most thoroughly Normanized county in England, it is 
not surprising that the word should be used in the county, as it 
still is, for ' House ' or ' Hall.' ' Every manor hereabouts,' writes 
Richard Symonds of Herefordshire in 1645, 'is called a court.' 
The word is the O. Fr. cort, Lat. cohors, ' a clear space enclosed 
by a wall,' then ' a large building,' ' a castle.' It had reached 
England before Dom. in which we find Dovercourt, though no 
other instance is found for the next two hundred years. 

Monk's Court (Eardisland). 

Evidently used in the true sense of Court, since it is a 
meadow only. 

Court-a-Pilla (Newton-in-Clodock). 

Courtfield (Welsh Bicknor). 

Court Llacca (Clodock). 

Court-o'-Park (Pixley). 

1243 ' In villa de Parco,' T. de Nevill. 
See Parkhold. 

Court Flocks (Allensmore). 
See Pleck. 

Courty Grove (Kentchurch). 

4—2 



52 COVENHOPE 

Covenhope (Aymestrey). 

1086 Camehop, Dom. 

1243 Kovenhop, T. de Nevill. 

1302 Comenhop, Quo War. 

1 3 16 Comenhop, F.A. 

1 341 Comenhope, Non. Inq. 

1 83 1 Conhope, Ord. Map. 
It is difficult to say why the present name goes back to the 
T. de. Nevill form in v. A somewhat similar difficulty exists 
with regard to Evesbatch (q.v.), where the v first appears in 
the middle of the i8th century. For the second element see 
App. III. 

Cowarne. 

1086 Cuure, Dom. 

1 138 Coure, Coura, A.C. 

1243 Coerna, T. de Nevill. 

1281 Couerne, Cuern, Chart. R. 

1 29 1 Covre, Coure, Tax. Eccles. 

1303 Cowerne, F.A. 

1 341 Cowerne, Magna, Parva, Non. Inq. 

The ending -arne probably represents the O.E. aern, 'house,' 
'place,' found in 'barn' (compound of here and aern, 'barley- 
house'). The first element would then be O.E. cu, 'a cow.' 

Cowl Barn (Colwall). 

Cowley Gate (Cradley). 

Coxall (Egton). 

There is also a Coxall Knoll {Brampton Briatt) and a Cox- 
hall {Buckton). They may all mean ' cock's meadow ' or ' the 
meadow of Coc' In Garway is a Coxheath. 

*Coyed Llanke [Garway]. 

1585 Coyed-Llanke, Survey of Manor. 
W. coed-llangc, ' the young man's wood.' Or possibly l/anke 
is corrupted from llanerch, 'a glade.' 



CREDENHILL 53 

Crack-o'-hill (Much Dewchurch). 

Cradley. 

Before 1038 Cyrdes leah, Kemble. 

1086 Credelaie, Dom. 

circ. 1 190 Credelei, Capes. 

1 24 1 Cradel', Chart. R. 

1284 Credeleye, Chart. R. 

1 29 1 Credeleye, Tax. Eccles. 

1302 Creddel', Quo War. 

1 32 1 Credelowe, Ep. Reg. 

1 341 Credeley, Non. Inq. 

1577 Cradley, Saxton's Map. 

1786 Cradley, Taylor's Map. 
* Meadow of Creda or Creoda.' 
Cf Credenhill. 

Crasswall. 

1228 Cressewell, Chart. R. 

1255 Craswelle, Pap. Let. 

1256 Crasswelle, Ep. Reg. 
1289 Crisswelle, Ep. Reg. 

1 29 1 Cressewall, Tax. Eccles. 
1329 Crassewall, Ep. Reg. 
O.E. cerse, 'water-cress,' and wella (often in M.E. wale), ' a well.' 
There are in England three or four Cresswells, two Carswells, 
a Kar swell, a Kersewell, and a Keresley. 

A farm in Much Marcle is called Caerswall ; but in the 
absence of early forms, we cannot say whether this has the same 
derivation or not. 

Credenhill. 

825 Creodan Hylle, Kemble. 

1086 Cradenhille, Credenelle, Dom. 

1 29 1 CredenhuU, Tax. Eccles. 

1 301 Cradenhulle, Ep. Reg. 

1303 Credenhulle, F.A. 

1 34 1 CredenhuU, Non. Inq. 



54 CREDENHILL 

' Hill of Creda or Creoda.' " One Creda died in A.D. 593 
(A.S. Chron.) and has been assumed to be the first king of 
Mercia" (Haverfield). 

Cf Cradley. 

Crega (Cusop). 

May be a corruption of creigiau, pi. of craig, ' a rock ' ; or of 
crugau, pi. of crug, ' a mound.' 

Crick's Green (Stoke Lacy). 

Perhaps W. crug, ' a mound,' as in Creech Hill (Som.), Crick- 
howell (Brecon), Cricklade (Wilts.). But there are no definitely 
Welsh place-names in this part of the county. It may be quite 
a modern name, arising accidentally. 

Criftins (Upper Sapey). 

*The Criggalls [Goodrich]. 

1722 The Criggalls, Terrier. 

Criseley (Treville). 

Crocker's Ash (Ganarew). 

Croft. 

1086 Crofta, Dom. 
1243 Crofta, T. de Nevill. 
1 29 1 Capella de Crofte, Tax. Eccles. 
1303 Crofte, F.A. 
O.E. croft, ' a small enclosed field.' 

Croft Ambury. 

A camp with ditch and ramparts in the park of Croft Castle. 
The 183 1 Ord. Map gives the second word as Ambrey. Local 
tradition, of course, tells us that it was the camp of the British 
King Ambrosius (481-508). There is a Croft Ffloyd in 
Wormelow in 1722. 

Crofty-Candy (farm, Kenderchurch). 

(Not in Ord. Map, 1831.) 

*Croose (Hentland). 

1722 Croose, Terrier. 



cusop 55 

Crosens (Bodenham). 

Cross CoUoe (Llandinabo). 

171 1 Cross Colloe, Par. Reg. 
W. croes collwydd, ' hazelwood cross.' 

Crossington (Upton Bishop). 

Crowhill (Upton Bishop). 

' Hill frequented by crows.' 

Cf. Crowthorn (Berks.), Crowmarsh (Oxon.), and The Crowe 
(Pembs.) which is in William of Worcester 'rupes vocata le 
Crowe.' 

Cruix Hill (Acton Beauchamp). 
Cruxwell (Bromyard). 

Cublington (Madley). 

A Prebend of the Cathedral. 

The Cummings (Colwall). 

Curl Brook. 

A trib. of the Arrow, near Lyonshall. 

Cursneh Hill (Leominster). 

no date Cussenovr, Leom. Cart. 

Cusop. 

1086 Cheweshope, Dom. 
temp. Rich. I Kiweshope, Court R. 

1 199 Chiweshope, Llanthony Cart. 

1277 Kinkeshope, Ep. Reg. 

1 291 Kynehope, Tax. Eccles. 

1302 Cusop, Quo War. 

1 34 1 Kynshop, Non. Inq. 

1346 Kysope, Ep. Reg. 

1537 Cusopp, Aug. Of 
Possibly ' Ceawa's enclosed valley.' H. O. suggests that the 
first element in Cheweshope (Cewe) is Cewydd, the Cambro- 
British ' St Swithin ' or weather Saint, to whom several churches 



S6 cusop 

are dedicated. His name would become Cewi, just as St David's 
name Dewidd became Dewi (cf. DewchurcK). But Cusop is 
almost certainly the westernmost English settlement ; and the 
second element -hope points to an English origin of the word. 
There is a Cusop (farm) in Avenbury. 

*Cutestorn [Domesday Hundred]. 

1086 Cutestorn, Cutestornes, Chistestornes, Dom. 

The second element is, as so often in the names of places 
where these ancient assemblies met, the land-mark tree, O.E. 
thorn. The first element may be the same as Cutt in Cutt Mill 
below ; but that also is of unknown origin. 

Cutnell (Tedstone Wafer). 

*Cutt Mill [Goodrich]. 

1722 Cutt mill. Terrier. 

There is a Cuttimede (in same document ' Chutmede ') in 
Hyde, temp. Hen. HI. 

Cydcwm (Hardwick). 

W. cyd, ' a junction ' and cwm, ' a valley.' 

Cymma (Brilley). 

Corruption of W. cymoedd or cymydd, pi. of cwm, ' a valley.' 

Dadnor (Bridstow). 

' The bank of. . . ? ' ; perhaps of Daddo. For second element 
see Appendix, -over. 

Daffaluke (Marstow). 

1478 Diffrinluke, Courtfield MS. 

1490 Deffrenluke „ „ 

1505 Differenlugfifyld „ „ 

1531 Differen Luke „ „ 

. Evidently a corruption of W. dyffryn-llwg, ' valley of the 
marsh.' The stream that ilows through it is still called ' Luke 
Brook.' 



DEWCHURCH 57 

Da£f-y-nant (Whitchurch). 

1610 Differnant, Courtfield MS. 
W. dyffryn-y-nant, ' valley of the brook.' Or possibly it may 
be a corruption of W. dyfrhynt (dwfr hynt), ' water-course.' 

Darren Wood and The Darren (Garway). 

1 60s Darren, Courtfield MS. 

1 83 1 Darran, Ord. Map. 
W. derwen, ' an oak tree.' 

Deabley (Bromyard). 

Dean Hill (Ross). 

O.E. denu, ace. dene, ' a valley ' : Sir James Murray says 
this is ' perhaps ' the etymology of the ' Forest of Dean.' We 
may venture the same conjecture here, in spite of the contra- 
diction implied in 'valley-hill' Gir. Camb. calls the Forest of 
Dean ' Danubia.' 

Deerfold Forest (Wigmore). 
1532 Darweld, Aug. Of 

1539 Darwalde, Capella S. Leonardi, Aug. Of. 
1603 Darvoll, Harl. MS. 
The second element is O.E. weald, ' forest ' ; the first may be 
akin to daru, ' hurt' ' The wood dangerous.' 

Demesne (Garway). 

1 83 1 Demain, Ord. Map. 

' Demesne ' was the portion of a manor which the holder 
(whether tenant-in-chief or only an under-tenant) worked as a 
home-farm, by the labour due from the peasants who held 
under him. 

Cf. Clifford's Mesne in Linton. 

*Denard [Goodrich]. 

1302 ' in bosco de Denard in Castro Godrici.' 

Dewchurch (Much and Little). 

circ. 1 1 30 Lann Deui Ros Cerion, Lib. Land, 
circ. 1225 Deuweschirche, Glos. Cart. 

1234 Deweschirch, Close R. 

1243 Dewschirch, Chart. R. 



5 8 DEWCHURCH 

1 29 1 Deweschyrche, Tax. Eccles. 
1341 Deweschirche, Non. Inq. 
' Church of Dewi,' i.e. St David. 
Cf. Llandewi (four or more in Wales and Mon.). 
Dewiston (Pembs.). 
Dewisland (Pembs. Hundred). 

Dewell (Dilwyn). 

Dewsall. 

1243 Dewyeswelle, T. de Nevill. 

1269 ' Ecclesia de fonte David,' Ep. Reg. 

1291 Deweswall, Tax. Eccles. 

1302 Dewys Wall', Quo War. 

1 341 Deweswall, Dyswall, Non. Inq. 

1557 Davyswalle, Hereford Will. 
' St David's Well' But, as often, the ending -welle tends to 
become -walk. 

Deykins Green (Bromyard). 

In 1322 'David filius Daykyns' held lands in Glasbury. 
Possibly his father may have lived in Bromyard. 

Dickendale (Wigmore). 

Dicks (Llanveyno). 

1 83 1 Ty die, Ord. Map. 
W. ty dych, ' house of sighs.' 

Didley (St Devereux). 

1086 Dodelegie, Dom. 

1303 Duddeleye, F.A. 

1304 Dudel', Ep. Reg. 

' Meadow of Dudda or Dodda ' (both forms very common). 
Cf Dudley (Worcs.), Didcot (Berks.). 

*Diffringarran. 

A 'Liberty' of Wormelow in 1722. W. dyffryn-garran, 'the 
valley of the Garran river.' 

Dilwyn. 
1086 Diluen, Dilge, Dom. 
1 123 Diliga, Leom. Cart. 
1 1 38 Dilun, A.C. 



DINMORE 59 

1277 Dilewe, Ep. Reg. 

1 28 1 Dilun, Dilowe, Chart. R. 

1283 Dylun, Ep. Reg. 

1 29 1 Dylewe, Tax. Eccles. 

1297 Dileue, Ep. Reg. 

1 302 Dylowe, Dylue, Quo War. • 

1303 Chirchedylue, F.A. 
1322 Chirchedilewe, R. & S. 
1334 Solers Dylewe, Chart. R. 
1 341 Dylewe, Non. Inq. 

1372 Littledelow, Micherdelow, MS. Chart. 

1 39 1 Dylewe maner', Solersdilew, Littledylewe, Dilliw, 

Inq. p.m. 
1428 Delewyn, F.A. 
circ. 1550 Dillewyn, Harl. MS. 

I cannot explain this word ; and the multitude of its forms 
only increases one's perplexity. 

Dinchill (Donnington). 

See Dingwood and Donnington. 

Dineterwood (Ewyas Harold). 

Evidently akin, in origin, to Dyndor. The 1 831 Ord. Map 
spells it Dinedor Wood. 

Dingwood Park (Ledbury). 
1278 ' Parcus de Ledebury qui vocatur Dulingwode,' Ep. Reg. 
12.89 Dunningewode, MS. Chart. 
The 1278 form is probably a scribe's mistake; the 1289 form 
suggests the kinship to Donnington (q.v.) little more than a 
mile away. 

Dinmore. 

circ. 1 1 89 Dunemore, MS. Chart. 

1243 Dunemore, T. de Nevill. 

1243 Dunnesmore, Chart. R. 

1 29 1 Dinnemor, Tax. Eccles. 

1302 Donmore, Quo War. 

1368 Denemour, Ep. Reg. 

circ. 1550 Dynemore, Dinmore, Leland. 



6o DINMORE 

Welsh din mawr, ' big hill.' The various spellings show the 
difficulties which English and Norman scribes found in pro- 
nouncing even the simplest Welsh words. 

Cf. Dunmore (Berks.). 

Dipper-moor (Kilpeck). 

So in the 17th century when the Gomond family held it. 

Docklow. 

1 29 1 Capella de Dockelawe, Tax. Eccles. 

1 3 16 Doclue, F.A. 

1341 Capella de Dokkelowe, Non. Inq. 
For the second element see Append. Ill, -low. The first 
element may be O.K. docce, ' dock.' ' Hill on which dock grows 
plentifully.' 

Dodmarsh (Westhide). 

Dolvaugh (Bredwardine). 

(Not in Ord. Map, 1831.) 
Probably corrupted from W. dol fach, ' little meadow.' 
Cf Pont-nedd-vaugh (Glam.). 

Dolward (Turnastone). 

It may be, like Chickward and Breadward, one of the Here- 
fordshire -wardines. But, in a Welsh district, it is more probably 
W. dol, ' a meadow,' with some suffix which English lips have 
assimilated to the -wardine ending. 

Dolyhir (Kington). 

W. dol-y-hir, ' long meadow.' 

Donathan (Llanwarne). 

Donnington. 

1086 Dunninctune, Dom. 
circ. 1 1 20 ' Donyntone in Jerchynfeld',' Glos. Cart. 
1 2 19 Dunnitune, Capes. 
1291 Donninton, Tax. Eccles. 
1 341 Donyngton, Non. Inq. 

' Donnington is not in Archenfield. 



DORSTONE 6l 

' Tun of the Dunnings,' i.e. sons of Dunn or Dunna. Dingwood 
Park and Dinchill (both close by) are evidently akin to 
Donnington in origin. There are eight or nine Donningtons, 
Doningtons, or Dunningtons in England. 

Dore (river, trib. of Monnow). 

941 Dor, A.-S. Chron. 

circ. 1 1 30 Dour, Dowr, Lib. Land. 

Welsh dwfr, or dwr, 'river,' 'water.' See also Abbey dore. 

*Dorfeld [in or near Bacton]. 

1327 Dorfeld, Chart. R. 
' Field on the banks of the Dore.' 

Dormington^ 

1284 Dormintone, Dormyntone, Glos. Cart. 

1 29 1 ' Capella de Dormiton in Berwaldstret,' Tax. Eccles. 

1 33 1 Dormyntone, Ep. Reg. 

1 341 ' Dormyton et Bertwaldestr',' Non. Inq. 

Dorstone. 
1086 Torchestone, Dom. 
1243 Dorsinton, T. de Nevill. 
1278 Dorsintone, Ep. Reg. 
1 29 1 Dorssinton, Dorsutton, Tax. Eccles. 

1302 Dorsynton', Quo War. 

1303 Dorsynton, F.A. 
1316 Dorsinton, F.A. 
1322 Dorstone, Ep. Reg. 

1 33 1 Dorsetune in Straddel, Ep. Reg. 
1 341 Dorston, Non. Inq. 
1346 Dorsynton, F.A. 
1428 Dorston, Ep. Reg. 

1520 Dorstone Forinsec', Dorstone Burgus, Ind. Ct R. 
164S Durston, Symond's Diary. 
It is uncertain what is the pers. name involved in the first 
element. The Dom. form seems to point to some such name as 

1 Duncumb gives a Dom. form Dermentune, which I cannot find in the Hereford- 
shire Dom. 



62 DORSTONE 

Thorkell, but see the old forms of Thruxton, and cf Torkesey 
(Lines.), which is O.E. Torkesei (i.e. troges ig, ' island of the tub ' 
or ' of the small boat '). The 1 3th century forms would seem to 
give something like 'tun of Deorsige' (a known name). In any 
case it cannot be ' tun of the god Thor,' which would be 
Thores-tun. There is a Dorstone in Birley ; it has no old forms, 
and may be of a different origin. 

Doward Hill (Welsh Bicknor). 

Welsh Bicknor in the Lib. Land, is Garth Benni (plur. of 
ban, ' a peak '). There are two ridges jutting out into the two 
loops of the river in the parish. Hence it has been suggested 
that Doward is a corruption of Dew-arth, itself a corruption of 
Dougarth, ' the two garths.' As there are no old forms, and the 
study of Welsh place-names has not yet been seriously taken in 
hand by any competent scholar, we can only refrain from comment. 

Downton. 

1086 Duntune^ Dom. 
temp. Hen. HI Dunton, Delim. 

1302 ' Dun tone in valle de Wigmore,' Quo War. 
133s Dountone, Ep. Reg. 
1479 Dunton, Ind. Ct R. 
O.E. dun, 'a hill' The Ord. Map 1831 says pleonastically 
' Downton-on-the-rock.' The hills above Bromyard are called 
Downs. There is a Downshill in Bishopstone, a farm called 
Downways in Eardisland, and a Downwood in Shobdon. 

Drabbington (Thornbury). 

*Draycote [mentioned with Dilwyn and Pembridge]. 

1334 Dray cote. Chart. R. 
O.E. draeg-cott,'^xc^2Lo\Y (says Alex.) 'an isolated homestead.' 
Skeat says draeg means ' a retreat, a place of shelter.' 

Drayton (Brimfield). 

1 1 23 Dreituna, Leom. Cart. 
O.E. draeg-tun, ' an isolated tun.' See Draycote. 

^ J. H. R. thinks the Dom. Dodintune may also be Downton. 



DYNDOR 63 

Drumleigh (Stoke Prior). 

Drythistle Hill (Bromyard). 

There is also a Dryebrokeswalle in Hope Mansell in 1338. 

Dudshill (Upper Sapey). 

Duffryn (Abbeydore). 

1831 Dyffryn, Ord. Map. 
Welsh dyffryn, ' a valley.' 

Dulas (river and parish). 

temp. Hen. Ill Denelays, Delimitation. 

circ. 1250 'aqua que vocatur Duneleis,' E. H. Cart. 
1327 Dyueleis, Chart. R. 
1523 ' The ermitage of DewlasV Glos. Cart. 
Welsh du glais, ' dark stream.' The same word as Douglas 
(I. of Man) and Dowlais (Glam.), and the Welsh river Dewlas. 

Dunbridge (Ledbury). 

Also Dunfield {Harpton), *Dunleye [in Fay in 1247], Duns- 
water (Kingstone), and Dunwood {Dilwyn). The first element 
in all these may be Dumi, Dun, or Dunna (a common pers. name 
in Onom.), or it may be O.E. dtm, ' a down,' ' a hill.' 

Dundercamp (UUingswick). 

Probably, like Dineterwood, akin in origin to Dyndor. 

*Dunre [Domesday Hundred]. 

1086 Dunre, Dom. 
See Dyndor. 

Dyndor. 

1086 Dunre, Dom. 

1243 Dunre, T. de Nevill. 

1 291 Dunre, Tax. Eccles. 

1 341 Dunre, Non. Inq. 

1350 Duynre, Duyndre, Ep. Reg. 

1 Walter ap Robert was the Ermyte. (Probert is still one of the commonest 
names in Ewyas.) 



64 DYNDOR 

1432 Dyndre, Ep. Reg. 
1538 Dyndor, Val. Eccles. 
1 83 1 Dindor, Ord. Map. 
What the Dom. form means I cannot say. But it evidently 
survived unchanged into the 14th century. Then the intrusive^ 
begins to appear. And ingenious Tudor antiquaries evidently 
concluded that it was Welsh din dwr, 'hill by the river'; and 
the spelling was changed accordingly. 
Cf. Dinder (Somers.). 

Dyon's Court (Leinthall Earles). 
Eardisland. 

958 Lionhena, Birch. 
1086 Lene^ Dom. 
1243 Urselane, T. de Nevill. 
1278 Erleslone, Ep. Reg. 
1291 Erleslene, Tax. Eccles. 

1302 Erleslone, Quo War. 

1303 Erslon, F.A. 

1 32 1 Erleslonde, Ep. Reg. 

1326 Erleslonde, Ep. Reg. 

1332 Erselane, Ep. Reg. 

1 341 Erslone, Non. Inq. 

1529 Ereslond, Ind. Ct R. 

1538 Erislonde, Val. Eccles. 

1577 Aresland, Saxton's Map. 

1610 Areland, Speed's Map. 
circ. 1660 Aresland, Silas Taylor. 

1786 Eardsland, Taylor's Map. 

1786 'Erislonde, alias Eardisland, alias Areland,' John 

Bacon, ' Liber Regis.' 

There seems no reason to doubt that this is, as tradition says, 

Earl's Lene from O.E. Eorl. The i6th and 17th century forms in 

Are- are due to assimilation with Arrow, the river on the banks 

of which Eardisland is situated. For the second element see Lene. 

1 Of the three portions of Lene., in the i^th and 13th centuries, Kingeslene was a 
Rectory, Monkeslene belonging to the Abbey of Conches, and Erleslene to that of 
Lyre, had Vicars only. 



EATON BISHOP 65 

Eardisley. 

circ. 1030 Cyrdeslea, A.C, 

1086 Herdeslege, Dom. 

1 199 Herdesleya, Llant Chart. 

1233 Erdelegh, Writ. 

1252 Eiardeleye, Chart. R. 

1277 Erdeslege, Ep. Reg. 

1 291 Erdesleye, Tax. Eccles. 

1322 Ardesleye, Ep. Reg. 

1 341 Erdesley, Non. Inq. 
' Meadow of Eard-red or -wulf ' (both very common). 
Cf. Eardiston (Worcs.) which is Dom. Ardolvestone, ' tun of 
Eardwulf.' 

Easthampton (Shobdon). 

*Eastley [Bodenham]. 

1220 'locus qui vocatur Estlege,' Brec. Cart. 

Eastnor. 

1086 Astenofre, Dom. 

1 140 Estenovere, MS. Chart. 

1 24 1 Estenoure, Chart. R. 

1 24 1 Estenoure, Ep. Reg. 

1277 Estenore, Ep. Reg. 

1287 Estenovere, Ep. Reg. 

12^1 Estenor, Tax. Eccles. 

1 341 Estenore, Non. Inq. 

1538 Estnor, Val. Eccles. 
The first element may be the pers. name Ast (an Ast was 
' Regulus Wore' in 956), or it may be O.E. ast, ' oast ' or ' kiln.' 
For the second element see App. -over. 

Easton Court (Little Hereford). 

Eastwood (Tarrington). 

Eaton Bishop. 

1086 Etune, Dom. 

1 29 1 Eton, Tax. Eccles. 

1 341 Eton Episcopi, Non. Inq. 
O.E. ea-tun, ' tun on the river.' 

B. H. 5 



66 EATON HENNOR 

Eaton Hennor (Leominster). 
See Hennor. 

Eaton Hill (Leominster). 

1086 EstoneS Dom. 

1 123 Eatuna, Leom. Cart. 

Hill of Eaton (Foy). 

1420 ' HuUe of Eton,' Inq. p.m. 

Eccles Green (Norton Canon). 

Eccleswall. 

circ. 1300 Ekelswelle, Delimitation. 

1302 Eccleswalle, Quo War. 

1303 Ekleswall, F.A. 

1646 Egglesole, Sequest. Order. 
Some have connected the first element with the Welsh 
eglwys, ' church.' The second element shows (as in Crasswall and 
often) the change from -welle, through M.E. -wale, into -wall. 

Edvin Loach and Edvin Ralph. 

1086 Gedeven, Dom. 

1 123 Gedesfenna, Leom. Cart. 

1243 Yedefen, T. de Nevill. 

1267 Yedefen Loges, Ep. Reg. 

1278 Yadefen, Ep. Reg. 

1 29 1 Yeddefenne Radh', Zedefenne Loges, Tax. Eccles. 

1303 Yedefen, F.A. 

1304 Yadefen, Ep. Reg. 
1324 Yedevenne, Abb. Plac. 
1328 Zeddefen, Ep. Reg. 

1 341 Edefen Rad'i, Non. Inq. 

1 349 ' Ecclesia de Yddefen haut,' Ep. Reg. 

135s ' Alta Yeddefen,' Ep. Reg. 

1392 ' Hye Zedefen,' Ep. Reg. 

1 This Estone is evidently in or near Leominster, and J. H. R. thinks it is 
probably Eaton Hill. 



EIGN Q-j 

1431 Yedfen, F.A. 

1529 Edewyn, Ind. Ct R. 

1538 Edvyne Radulphi, Val. Eccles. 

1577 Edwinrafe, Saxton's Map. 
No one has attempted a suggestion as to the meaning of the 
word Edvin. Nor do we know who was the Ralph, after whom 
one parish is called. The other was held by the De Loges 
family in the 13th century. 

*Edwardestune [' in valle Stradelei ']. 

1086 Edwardestune, Dom. 

Egdon (Pencombe). 

Eggleton (Stretton Grandison). 

12 19 Eglintune, Capes, 
circ. 1230 Eglintune, Capes. 

1252 Eglington, Chart. R. 

1302 Eglynton', Quo War. 

1304 Eglintone, Ep. Reg. 

1538 Egilton, Eiglynton, Val. Eccles. 

1 83 1 Eagleton, Ord. Map. 
' Tun of Aegel.' 

Eign (Hereford). 

1219 Highen, Capes, 
circ. 1 2 19 Yghene, MS. Chart. 
1252 Hyane, Ep. Reg. 

1 264 ' Zizene alias Ighene,' Heref Corp. MS. 
1 27 1 Ighene, Chart. R. 
'1293 Zeyne, Heref Corp. MS. 
1294 Yegne, Ep. Reg. 
1 3 16 'Yeyene Mulle,' Ep. Reg. 
1368 Yeyne, Ep. Reg. 
1538 Yne, Val. Eccles. 
circ. 1550 Ine, Leland. 
No one has ventured to guess at the meaning or origin of 
this name, which still persists as Eign Street, Eign Road, Eign 
Brook, Eign Mill, etc. 

S— 2 



68 ELBURLEY 

*Elburley [?]. 

1086 Elburgelega, Dom. 

' Aethelbeorht's meadow.' 

Ellmorsend (Whitbourne). 

No old forms. Probably ' Aylmer's End.' There is in 1355 
an Aylmoresbrok near the Wye. 

Elm Bridge (Ewyas Harold). 

On the road leading to the next-mentioned farm (q.v.), 
and therefore evidently of the same derivation. 

The Glos. Elmbridge is circ. 1200 Telbrugge, or Thelbrugge, 
' bridge made of deal ' (later TAel- was read as Tk'El). 

The Surrey Elmsbridge is Dom. Amelebrige, 'bridge of 
Aemele' (a personal name). 

The Worcs. Elmbridge is in 1 3th century Elmrugge, ' ridge 
with the elm-trees on it.' 

The Elms (Ewyas Harold). 

circ. 1 2 16 Heaume, Dore Chart. 

1642 The Helm, MS. deed. 

1 83 1 Elm House, Ord. Map. 
O. Fr. heaume, ' helmet ' ; gradually corrupted into the tree. 

*Elnodestune ['in valle Stradelie']. 

1086 Elnodestune, Dom. 

' Aelnoth's tun.' There is an unidentified Alnodestreu in the 
Shropshire Dom., and Elnod (i.e. Aelnoth) is a holder of lands 
under Earl Roger. 

Cf (in Warwcs.) 'terra quae dicitur Alnodestona,' Glos. Cart. 

*Elsedune [Domesday Hundred]. 

1086 Elsedune, Dom. 
Probably ' hill of Ealhsige.' For second element see App. 
'don. 

Elton. ' 

1086 Elintune, Dom. 
1356 Elton, Ep. Reg. 
1577 Ladyhaulton, Saxton's Map. 



END 69 

It is possibly the Elvitheduna of the Leom. Cart, which is 
not identifiable with certainty. . Elton is a wide-spread place- 
name, found in Derbs., Notts., Durham, Hunts., Lanes., and 
other counties. Some of these are ' Ella's tun ' ; Hunts. Elton 
(Dom. Adelintune) is from O.E. Aethelinga, ' Prince-town.' 
The form on Saxton's Map, which is undoubtedly Elton, is 
inexplicable. There is an Elton's Marsh in Burghill. 

Elverstone or Elvastone (Harewood). 
1443 Evaston, Iverston, Inq. p.m. 
circ. 1650 ' Elverston or Everstone,' Harl. MS. 
1722 ' Evaston near Harwood,' Terrier. 
183 1 Everston, Ord. Map. 
According to local legend 'Elfrida's town.' It might be 
' Eof's tun,' or from O.E. efes, ' the border or edge or end of 
anything,' in which case it would be ' tun on the edge ' (i.e. of 
the wood). Walter de Lacy gave to Gloucester Abbey the 
Church of Alwestone (unidentified). 

Embages (Bromyard). 

End. 

A frequent element in Herefordshire place-names. 

We have the hamlets of Harewood End, Sinton End (Acton 
Beauchamf), Ellmorsend {Whitbourne), Redding End, Hall End, 
and in 1547 Witocksj/ende {Muck Marcle). In Acton Beauchamp 
is Tythingsend Farm ; and in Cradley is Vinesend Farm. For 
the eight places or farms called Townend or Townsend see 
Town. Wallend is in Monkland, and in Stoke Prior. In Ledbury, 
of the long central street, about a mile and a half long, only 
some two hundred yards are High Street, the rest being ' The 
Homend ' and ' The Southend.' Close by is Hope End. In 
Weston-Beggard are Hill End and Moor End, and in Yatton 
Westnor's End. Nash End is in Bosbury, Nupend in Munsley, 
Moorend, Millend, and Birchend in Castle Frome, New End in 
Canon Pyon, and Biblin's End in Goodrich. In Cowarne in 1538 
(Val. Eccles.) are More Yende, Hyll Yende, Bridge Yende, and 
Wych Yende : this last is still called Red Witch End (a good 
instance of the results of popular etymology). 



70 ENDALE 

Endale (Kimbolton). 

Enemore Fields (Yarpole). 

Enna and Eni are pers. names in Onom. But without old 
forms it is unwise to guess. 

England's Bridge (on river Leadon, near Bosbury). 

I cannot trace it beyond the 1 83 1 Ord. Map. 

Not far away is a hamlet and inn called England's Gate. 
One is tempted to see in these names an old frontier, as in 
Pensax further north, which is plausibly interpreted by Welsh 
scholars as Pen Sais, or Saeson, ' the Englishmen's end,' or ' limit.' 

*Erdishope [in or near Weobley]. 

1243 Erdishop, T. de Nevill. 
The first element (as in Eardisley) is Eard-red or -wulf. 
For the second element see App. -hope. 

Eskley (river, trib. of Monnow). 

1232 Eskelyn, Dore Chart. 

Wise students refuse to discuss river-names ; but one is 
tempted to connect this word with the Celtic root from which 
come Exe, Usk, Ock, and Ax-ona (now the Aisne). 

Etnam Street (Leominster). 

Leading to the hamlet of Eaton, it is said locally to be 
Eaton-ham Street. 

Eton Tregoz (Foy). 

1086 Edtune, Dom. 

1 100 Etuna, Glos. Cart. 

1 196 Ethone, Glos. Cart. 

1222 Ettone, Glos. Cart. 

1283 Etone, Ep. Reg. 

1 3 16 Eton Tregos, F.A 

143 1 Eton et Tregoys, F.A. 
The Tregoz family held Ewyas (with which went Eton and 
Foy) for about a century, from before 1194 to 1300, when the 
male line died out. 

Evendine (Colwall). 



EWYAS HAROLD 7 1 

Evesbatch. 

1086 Sbech, Dom. 

1243 Esebach, T. de Nevill. 

1 29 1 Esebach, Tax. Eccles. 

1308 Esebache, Ep. Reg. 

13 16 Essbache, F.A. 

1 341 Esbache, Non. Inq. 

1495 Esbache, Plac. de Banco. 

1577 Easbache, Saxton's Map. 

1652 Eastbach, Survey. 

1757 Evesbatch, Tombstone in Bromsberrow Church. 

1787 Eavesbach, Taylor's Map. 
Esbatch is still the local pronunciation and on the pewter 
alms-dish in the church it is spelt Esbedg. Esa and Ese are 
pers. names in Onom. Or the first element may be Ash. 
(Ask Ingen is Esse is 1250. Shrop. Ashford is Dom. Esseford. 
See also various forms of Ash under Brom's Ash.) It cannot 
be efes, ' edge,' since the v only appears in the middle of the 
1 8th century. There is an Eastbatch Court in English Bicknor. 
In the Shropshire Dom. we find Stope for Easthope. For second 
element see Bache. 

Ewyas Harold. 

1086 Ewias, Dom. 

circ. 1 1 30 Euwias, Euias, Ewias, Eugias, Lib. Land. 
1 167 Euwias, Pipe R. 

circ. 1200 Ewias, Ewyas, Girald. Camb. 

circ. 1300 Euas, Black Bk of Carmarthen. 

circ. 1550 Ewis, Leland. 
All authorities, English and Welsh, without hesitation pro- 
nounce the word Ewyas to be not of English origin, and the 
Welsh authorities believe it to be pre-Celtic. No serious student 
would even hazard a conjecture as to its derivation or meaning. 
The oldest form seems to be Euwias. Practically the only form 
in purely Welsh writings is Euas. In the year-books of Ed. I 
and Ed. Ill we find usually Ewyas (evidently due to Norman 
influence), and since that time the two spellings Ewias and 
Ewyas have existed side by side, the latter being the more 



72 EWYAS HAROLD 

commonly used. The modern pronunciation is something be- 
tween the Welsh form Euas and Leland's Ewis. 

The Harold, after whom the village is called since at least 
1303 (F.A. Euiwias Harraud), is not, as popular tradition insists, 
Harold the King, son of Godwine, but Harold of Ewias, son of 
that Earl Ralph, the Confessor's nephew, who fled before the 
Welsh, in the battle outside Hereford in 1055. 

Eye. 

1 29 1 ' Eya cum capellis suis,' Tax. Eccles. 

1 341 'Eya cum capellis suis,' Non. Inq. 
O.E. ig, 'island.' The name was applied to any piece of 
land near water, or to a marsh : it does not, of necessity, signify 
' island ' in the modern sense. In compounds it is often confused 
with ea, ' river,' and it is practically impossible to distinguish 
whether -ey in any given name represents ea or ig. . Wyld 
thinks they were confused, certainly in form, and possibly in 
meaning, even in the O.E. period. There is vd Eye parish an 
Eyecote, and an Eyewood in Titley. 

Eyton. 

1086 Ettone, Dom. 

J. H. R. gives this identification as probable, but not certain. 
Eyton (Salop) is Dom. Etune : and the Yorks. Aytons are Dom. 
Aton or Atune. It is doubtful whether to read Eyton as O.E. 
ea-tun, ' river town,' or O.E. ig (later ey), ' islet-town ' (ait-town). 
See Eye above. It is difficult to explain the difference in form 
of Eyton (Dom. Ettone), Eaton (Dom. Etune), and Eton (Dom. 
Edtune). In Shrops. Dom. Etone is now Hatton, while Etune 
has become Eyton. 

Falcon Farm (Sollershope). 

*Falle [a ' member ' of Weobley]. 

1303 Falle, F.A. 

1346 Falle, F.A. 

143 1 Falley, F.A. 

In 1346 and in 143 1 it is entered with Alleton (i.e. Alton in 

Dilwyn). Possibly connected with O.E. fealo, falu, fealewe. 



FENCOTE 73 

originally ' a reddish yellow colour,' and applied to land unsown 
or left bare of a crop, from its reddish colour. 

Fawley. 

1 142 Filileia, Llant. Chart. 

1291 Falyleye, Tax. Eccles. 

1302 Fal.eley, Quo War. 

1 3 16 Fallaye, F.A. 
The first element is possibly O.K. fealo (for which see *Falle 
above). Fawley (Leics.) is before 1038 Faelig-leah, which seems 
to be ' meadow of Feliga ' (pers. name in Onom.). Fawley 
(Berks.) is circ. 1300 Falelegh,-^\\\<:!ty Skeat connects with O.E. 
fealo. There are seven or eight Farleys or Farleighs in England, 
some of which are Dom. Fernlege, ' fern meadow.' 

Felhampton (Upton Bishop). 
For the first element see Felton. 

Felindre (St Weonards). 

A name of frequent occurrence in Wales. It is W. felin-dre, 
' mill-village,' felm being mutated form of inelin, and -dre, as 
often, representing tref, the / being constantly dropped in com- 
pound words, e.g. Hendre (q.v.). 

Felton. 

1086 Feltone, Dom. 

1 29 1 Villata de Felton, Tax. Eccles. 

1 341 Villata de Felton, Non. Inq. 
It may be 'tun of some man, though there is no likely 
name in Onom. Or possibly, as in Cleyfelton (Salop), it is ' tun 
on the fell ' or hill, though thisy^// is Norse or Icel. and there are 
few traces, or none, of Norse influence on Herefordshire place- 
names. Felstead (Essex) is said to be ' hide-place,' ' tannery,' and 
Bad. suggests that Felton is ' tun in the field ' (the d of feld 
dropping out before the t of tun). 

Fencote. 

1086 Fencote, Dom. 
circ. 1240 Fancote, Leom. Cart. 



74 FENCOTE 

O.E. fenn cott, ' cottage or homestead in the fen.' 
There is a Fencott in Hatfield (which may be the place 
referred to in the Leom. Cart), and an Oxfordshire Fencott. 

Fenhampton (Weobley). 

1 302 Kyngesfenne, Quo War. 

Fermbreede (St Margaret's). 

Prob. W.fferm, 'a farm,' sxiA ffridd, 'a forest.' 

*Ferne [near Maund]. 

1086 Feme, Dom. 
circ. 1150 Ferna, Brec. Cart. 
1257 Lafferne, Chart. R. 
1 29 1 La Feme, Tax. Eccles. 
1302 Feme, Quo War. 

Prob. O.^. fearn, 'fern': though usually it is compounded, 
as in fearn-dun {Farndon), fearnham {Farnham). 

*Fernhale [in Staunton-on-Wye]. 

1086 Fernehalle, Dom. 
1402 Fernhale, Feet of F. 

'Fern meadow.' The second element is O.E. healh, for 
which see App. -hall. 

*Fernlega [' old name of Hereford ']. 

Girald. Camb. (circ. 1200) writes (Vit. S. Ethel.) 'Asser 

historicus dicit quod Femlegam, quze nunc Herefordia 

dicitur....' 

For this ' old name of Hereford,' see Lloyd, p. 282. But one 
doubts if the name ever really was applied to the town. In 1227 
(Chart. R.) there is a Fernelegh near Kilpeck, about 5 miles S.E. 
of Hereford. Eg. Phil, thinks Fernlega was ' originally the name 
of a large tract of forest country, in a portion of which the town 
of Hereford wa.s founded in the 7th century.' This seems the 
most probable explanation of the apparent change of name. 

Fernshill (Cradley). 



FORD 75 

The Field (Hampton Bishop). 

1270 terra de la Felde, Ep. Reg. 
1 301 la fifelde, Inq. p.m. 

Flanesford (Goodrich). 

1346 Flanesford, Ep. Reg. 
The first stone of the Priory was laid, in this year, in loco 
Flanesford vulgariter nuncupato. 

For the first element see next entry. 

The Flann (Peterstow). 
Possibly O.'E.Jlan, 'an arrow.' 

FHntsham (Court, and Square, Titley). 

Floodgates (Bromyard). 

There is a Flitgate in Leom. Cart., which cannot be identified. 

*Folkeia[.?]. 

Occurs often in Leom. Cart, earliest about 1240. 

The Folly. 

A common place-name in Herefordshire, as in many counties. 
Eardisland (where there is also a ' Little Folly '), Eye, Garway, 
Little Hereford, Holme Lacy, Marden, Orleton, and Preston-on 
Wye have Follies. There is one in Tupsley on Price's Map 1802, 
and a Probert's Folly occurs in a Credenhill Terrier of 1722. 
Bishop Cantilupe's Register in 1278 mentions a Robertus de la 
Folye. 

Forbury (Kimbolton). 

Ford. 

1 123 Forda, Leom. Cart, 

circ. 1230 Capella de Forda, Leom. Cart. 

1243 Forda, T. de Nevill. 

1303 Forde, F.A. 

O.E. aet thaem forde. 

J. H. R. identifies with Ford the Dom. Fame, because Forne 
and Sarnesfield are held together in Dom., and Ford and 
Sarnesfield in 1243. This Dom. Forne would seem to be, like 



•]6 FORD 

Goodrich, that rare type of place-name which adopts a pers. 
name without any suffix. Form is a man's name in Onom. ; 
and Fornhani (Sufif.) is ' the home of Forne.' 

Formine Hill (Dorstone). 
Prob. W. ffor-maen, ' road-stone.' 

Forty Steps (Little Dewchurch). 

*Foukesyate [in Monnington-in-Straddel]. 
Held in 1300 by one Richard Foukes. 

Fowden (Kingsland). 

Fowlett (Eastnor). 

Fownhope. 

1086 Hope, Dom. 
1243 Fanne Hope, T. de Nevill. 
1269 Fawehope, Capes. 
1278 Fonhope, Ep. Reg. 
1 29 1 Fowehope, Fonhop, Tax. Eccles. 
1303 Fowehope, F.A. 
1330 Fownhope, Ep. Reg. 
1 341 Fowehope, Non. Inq. 
1428 Founhope, F.A. 
1433 Fanhope, Pat. R. 
circ. 1550 Fowelppe, Leland. 
As to the first element, two independent words seem to have 
struggled for centuries, and at last were combined. 

O.E. /ana, 'flag,' would give 'enclosed valley of the flag.' 
But the forms in Fowe suggest the same derivation as Foj, 
Vowchurch, and Fowmynd (see Mynnedd brith), which come, 
through the Norm.-Fr. foi, from Lat. fides. 

Foxley (Yazor). 

1 199 Foxleia, Llanth. Chart. 

The first element is the animal. It is found also in Foxalls 
(farm, Sollershope, which the Ord. Map in 183 1 gives as Foxholes), 
Foxall ( Whitbourne, and Upton Bishop), and Foxholes {Lyon- 
shall). Such forms as Foxbaec, Foxhyl, are found in Kemble. 



FROG-LANE JJ 

Foy. 

circ. 1130 Lantiuoi, Lib. Land. 

circ. 1 140 'Ecclesia sancte fidis de Etone,' E. H. Cart. 

circ. 1150 Ecclesia de Foy, Glos. Cart. 

1 196 Ecclesia sancte Foe de Ethone, Glos. Cart, 

circ. 1210 Ecclesia de Sancta Foa, Her. Cath. MS. 

circ. 1250 Ecclesia de Foy, Glos. Cart. 

1 29 1 Ecclesia de Foye, Tax. Eccles. 

1 341 Foye, Non. Inq. 

The form in Lib. Land. Lantiuoi (in Mod. Welsh Llandyffwy) 
is ' Church of St Tyfai.' This was evidently confused with the 
Nor.-Fr. /£iz, and before the middle of the 12th century it had 
become ' ecclesia sancte fidis.' There is an exactly similar con- 
fusion in the case of Lamphey (Pembs.) which also is in Lib. 
Land. Lann Tivoi. But hybrid forms are found, such as 
Llanfaith, ' Church of St Faith.' Near Abergavenny Llanfoist 
(dedicated to St Faith) is said to be a similar hybrid form. 

Frankland (Marden). 

No old forms. Is it ' free-land,' or (as the Worcs. Frankley) 
' Franca's land ' ? 

Freen's Court (Sutton). 
See Sutton Frene. 

Freeth (Thornbury). 

O.E. frith, 'forest,' 'woodland.' There is a Frith farm in 
Ledbury, and one in Stanford Bishop. 

Freetown (Ashperton). 

1638 Freetown, Survey. 

*Fridmore [Ullingswick]. 

1 1 86 Fridmora, Glos. Cart. 

1 192 Fridmore, Frythmore, Glos. Cart. 
' Forest-moor.' See Freeth above. 

Frog-lane. 

In 1322 there is a 'Froggelone...in suburbio Herefordie' 
(Ep. Reg.). In 1280 there is in Ewyas Harold a ' Vriogis-strete,' 



78 FROG-LANE 

which in 1300 is ' frocgelone ' (E. H. Cart). A ' Froglone ' was in 
or near Eastnor'm 1277 (Ep. Reg.) and in 1577. A 'Froggeswell ' 
is mentioned in Leom. Cart. There is a ' Frog-end ' in Frame in 
1650, and a ' Frogg Lane' in Goodrich in 1722. 

Frome. 

840 'flumen qui {sic) dicitur From,' Capes. 

1086 Frome, Brismerfrum, Nerefrum, Dom. 

temp. Wil. I. Brichmerfrome, Bricmarifrome^, Glos. Cart, 

iioi Bricmarifrom', Glos. Cart. 

1 138 Froma, A.C. 

12 1 5 Frome Herbert, Rymer. 

1243 Froma Canonicorum, Frome Henry, T. de Nevill. 

125 1 Froma Haymund, Chart. R. 

1289 ffroma episcopi, Ep. Reg. 

1 29 1 From' Castelli Regis, Tax. Eccles. 

1303 Frome Haymund, F.A. 

1 341 Froma Episcopi, Froma Castri, Non. Inq. 

1386 Chastelfrome, MS. Chart. 

1428 Castyl Frome, F.A. 

1542 Priors Fromeledon, Orig. R. 

circ. 1550 Castell From, Leland. 

It seemed best, in giving the above forms, not to attempt 
separate Hsts for Bisfwp's Frome, Castle Frome, and Canon Frome 
(the only names now current). Frome is originally a Celtic river- 
name, after which the district is called. In Dom. we have 
Frome, belonging to the Bishop ; Nerefrum, which J. H. R. 
thinks is Castle Frome; and Brismerfrum., held T. R. E. by 
Brismer from Earl Harold. This apparently became in the 
13th century Frome Haymund (O.E. Ealmund); and some at 
least of it is comprised in the hamlet still called Halmond Frome. 
Canon Frome was held in 1243, and perhaps for a century earlier, 
by the Canons of Llanthony in Wales. Of Frome Castelli Regis 
little or nothing is known. Frome Henry was held in 1243 by 
Henry of Monmouth. In Mordiford, near where the river Frome 
falls into the Lugg, is Priors Frome (now always spelt Froome, 

^ Undated but evidently referring to the Conqueror's reign. 



GAMBERHEAD 79 

though Frame in 1831), once held by St Guthlac's. The 'Priors 
Fromeledon ' of 1 542 should refer to this ; but, if so, the -ledon 
is inexplicable. In Castle Frame the two rivers, Frome and 
Leadon, run almost parallel to one another, and little over two 
miles apart. 

There are four Frames in Dorset, and one in Somerset, all 
on the two rivers called Frome. 

Fudwell (Clehonger). 

Fulmores (Woolhope). 

' Foul moor,' O.E.>/, ' filthy.' 

Cf Fulford i^t'aS.s?), Fulbaurn (Cambs.). 

Furlongs (farm, Little Hereford). 

In Lyde circ. 1175 is a field called Mugefurlong. In Littleton 
(Hants.) in 1265 were Middelforlong, orcherdforlong, Medfor- 
longe, and fernfurlonge. In Bredwardine circ. 1200 is Were- 
furlanc (i.e. Weirfurlong). 

Gaines (Whitbourne). 

1 29 1 Gynes, Ep. Reg. 

1326 Gynes, Inq. ad quod dam. 

1346 Gynes, Ep. Reg. 

1689 Gains, Tomb in Whitbourne Church. 

There is a 'Gains Fleck' in Gaodrich in 1722, and to-day a 
Baregains farm in Ledbury. 

Gamage (Much Marcle). 

Probably an outlying portion of the lands of the Gamage 
family, settled in Mansell in 12th and 13th centuries. 

Gamber (brook). 

circ. 1 1 30 Amyr, Amir, Humer, Lib. Land. 
Runs through Llanwarne. 

Gamberhead (Llanwarne). 



8o GANAREW 

Ganarew. 

circ. 1 1 50 Genoreu, Geof. of Monmouth. 

1 186 Gueneriu, Chart. St Florent and Monmouth. 

1 29 1 Generu, Gonore, Tax. Eccles. 

1293 Genre, Ep. Reg. 

1340 Genreu, Ep. Reg. 

1 341 Genorew, Non. Inq. 

1345 Generiew, Ep. Reg. 

1346 Genrew, Ep. Reg. 

circ. 1670 ' Gunarew rectius Canon Row'! T. Blount. 

1 83 1 Gannerew, Ord. Map. 

H. O. thinks that a Saint's name is involved. 

J. Hobson Matthews says Welsh genau'r-rkiw, 'the mouth 
(of the valley) on the slope ' ; on which Celtic scholars must 
pronounce. 

Ganderland (Bromyard). 

Gannah (Holme Lacy). 

There is a Gannow (Worcs.) which cannot be explained. 

The Garn (Clodock). 
Welsh cam, ' a heap,' ' a hillock.' 

It is, in Ord. Map 1831, Garn caled, 'hard heap.' The last 
Welsh-speaking native of Clodock died there in 1 880. 

Garnons (Mansell Gamage). 

1303 'terrarum que fuerunt Johannis Gernoun in Malmes- 
hulle Gamage,' F.A. 

Garnstone (Weobley). 

1282 Gernestone, Harl. MS. 
1334 Gernestone, Ep. Reg. 
1542 Garneston, Orig. R. 

Robinson says (but does not give the reference, nor can 
I find it) 'Gerner's town from John Gerner, a benefactor to 
Wormesley Priory.' 



GATER TOP 8 I 

Garran (river,' trib, of Wye). 

Gar-an : both elements have been plausibly taken as Celtic 
river-roots — Gar akin to Yare (Norf., Yarmouth) and Yar (I. of 
Wight, Yarmouth) : and -an = Onny, which see. But wise 
philologists like Wyld leave river-names severely alone. 

Garraway (How Caple). 

Garraway or Garway was a well-known Herefordshire family 
in 15th and i6th centuries ; one of the name is buried in Weobley 
Church. They took their name from the next-mentioned parish; 
but may have given the name to this farm in How Caple. 

Garway. 

circ. 1 1 30 Lann Mihacgel super Mingui, Lib. Land. 

1 138 Garou, A.C. 

1 1 99 Langarewi, Chart. R. 

1227 'Garewi in Wales,' Chart. R. 

1289 Garewy, Inq. p.m. 

1 3 12 Garwy, Orig. R. 

1 3 16 Garewy (cum membris), F.A. 

1428 Gareway, F.A. 
The Lib. Land, name is ' Church of St Michael above the 
Wye.' Eg. Phil, identifies it in the oldest portion of Lib. Land, 
as Lan Guorboe or Lan Gurvoe, which would give Gwrabwy or 
something like it in Mod. W. But he is afterwards doubtful of 
this identification. The 1199 form suggests a saint's name. 

Gater Top (Hope-under-Dinmore). 

1086 Gadredehope, Dom. 

1 123 Gatredehopa, Leom. Cart. 

1243 Gaderedehope, T. de Nevill. 

1303 Gaderildehope, F.A. 

1322 Gaterildehope, R. and S. 

1346 Gaderesdhope, F.A. 

1428 Gaterildishope, F.A. 

143 1 Gatereldeshope, F.A. 

1538 Gathertopte, Val. Eccles. 
Evidently ' Godred's or Gadrid's enclosed valley.' 
B. H. 6 



82 GATLEY 

Gatley (Aymestrey). 

1275 Gatleye, Ep. Reg. 
1280 Gattelee, Inq. p.m. 

T. de Nevill gives a Catesby held by Isabella de Pembridge. 
Since the Dan. ending -by is not found in Herefordshire, and 
T. de Nevill is notoriously wild in its spelling, I expect this is 
Catesleye. The first element may be O.E. geat, 'a gate,' or it 
may be a personal name, Geat or Geot. (There is under 
Wigmore in 1302 (Quo War.) an unidentified entry Gatterlyth.) 
Cf Gateley (Norf and Ches.). 

Gatsford (Brampton Abbotts). 
For first element see Gatley. 

Gay ton. 

1086 Getune, Dom. 
1348 Gaytone, Ep. Reg. 
' Tun of Gaega or Gega.' In a Hampshire charter of 940 is 
Gaecges stapole, ' Gaega's market.' 

Gazerdine (Munsley). 

No old forms : but perhaps it is ' Gad's wardine.' 

Gethenfield (Allensmore). 

Gethen is a pers. name in Hereford at the present day. 

*Giddis [in or near Goodrich]. 

1722 Giddis, Terrier. 

Gilbertstone (Longtown). 

There is also in Ewyas Harold a Gilbert's Hill. Gilbert is 
one of the five knights who hold land in Ewyas in Dom. And 
a later Gilbert, circ. 1 200, gives lands to the Abbey of Dore. 

Gillow (Tretire). 

circ. 1 1 30 Cil Luck, Gillwc, Lib. Land. 

1280 Kilho, Inq. p.m. 

1350 Gilhou, Ep. Reg. 

1370 Gyllogh, Ep. Reg. 



GOLDEN VALLEY 83 

1396 Gilloghz, Ep. Reg. 
1459 Gyllough, Exchequer MSS. 
circ. 1480 Cillwch, Welsh Pedigree. 
W. cil-llwch, ' a retreat by a lake,' or ' a cell in a marsh.' 

Gilva (St Margaret's). 

1 83 1 Gilfach, Ord. Map. 
W. cilfach, ' little retreat.' 

Glan-monnow (Garway). 

So called in mid. 19th century by its new owner. It was 
previously Pen-y-fedw, 'hill-top with the birch-trees.' 

Glewstone (Marstow). 

1568 Glewston, Courtfield MS. 
1722 Glewstone, Terrier. 

Glybes (Michaelchurch Eskley). 

Glynch (brook, Eastnor). 

temp. Hen. Ill Glench, Inq. p.m. 

It runs through Clencher's wood, past Clencher's Mill 
{Clenckmille in 1394); and the names are obviously connected. 
But, like all river-names, the origin is uncertain. 

Gobbets. 

There are four instances of this name, in places far apart : 
Peterchurch, Pudlestone, Stretton Sugwas, and Ullingswick. The 
Ullingswick Gobbets is quite close to Corbet's Bridge ; the Corbet 
family held lands in Herefordshire in 13th, 14th, and 15th 
centuries. We may have in this a suggestion as to the origin 
of the name, or it may not be so. In any case, I can find no 
early forms. There is a Gabbets in Lanes, which in T. de Nevill 
is Gerbot. 

The Godway (Blakemere). 

1232 Godweye, Dore Chart. 

Golden Valley. 

In Domesday it is always vallis stradelie. Dore Abbey 
was founded in 1 147 ; and popular etymology says the Norman 

6—2 



84 GOLDEN VALLEY 

monks introduced by Robert Fitz-harold of Ewyas confused the 
name of the river (Dore, dwr) with the French d'or. But circ. 
1 1 30 we find Richard de aurea valle ; so the confusion, if such it 
was, was earHer. In any case the name seems to have persisted 
from the 12th century until to-day. 

Goldhill (Eastnor). 

127s Goldhulle, Ep. Reg. 

In monastic documents ' gold ' often appears as the name of 
a plant, and is usually taken as marigold. Hence ' hill on which 
marigold is found.' 

Goodrich. 

1 144 Ecclesia sancti Egidii de Castello Godrici, MS. Chart. 

1 29 1 Ecclesia de Castro Godrici, Tax. Eccles. 

1341 Ecclesia de Castro Godrici, Non. Inq. 

1372 Goderychescastell, Inq. p.m. 

1420 Goderichecastell, Inq. p.m. 

1538 Goderich, Val. Eccles. 

1671 Gotheridge, H'shire Hearth List. 

O.E. Godric, a man's name without suffix. This is a rare 
type of place-name. We should have expected Castle Goodrich, 
or Godric' s Castle (evidently the 14th and 1 5th century name) to 
have survived, on the analogy of Gothersley (Worcs.), which circ. 
1400 is Godriches-ley. 

Goosepool (Allensmore). 

The first element may be a pers. name Gosa, but more 
probably it is the bird, as in Gosbrook (Staffs.). There is a 
Goose Lezowe in Aconbury in 1538 (Aeon. Accts), and a 
Gosebach or Gosebroc in Lyde circ. 1215 (Her. Cath. MS.). 

Old Gore (Foy, and Upton Bishop). 

circ. 1670 The old gore, Sil. Taylor. 

A charter in Birch has ' on the olde gore,' but not referring 
to Herefordshire. The O.E. gara (apparently related to gar, 
'a spear') is used of any wedge-shaped strip of land, 'a small 
strip lying between larger divisions.' 

There is a Gore Farm in Woolhope. 



GRENDON 85 

Gorsley (Linton). 

1 291 Gorstleye, Tax. Eccles. 

1 83 1 Gorstley Common, Ord. Map. 
O.E. gors, ' furze.' 

There is a Gorsley Close (Si Weonards), a Gorsebrook 
{Bridstow) and a Gosford {Brimfield). 

Gorsty Common (Clehonger). 

Perhaps the Gosty Lesue of Aconbury Accts in 1538. 

There are also Gorsty Hill {Almeley and Kimbolton), and 
Gorsty Lane {Bodenham). There was a Gorsty Close in Goodrich 
in 1719. ^ 

Gouldevain (Crasswall). 

Goytre (Walterstone). 

Prob. corrupted from some word with the W. -tref ending. 

Grafton. 

1303 Crafton, F.A. 

1 341 -Grafton, Non. Inq. 
O.E. graf tun, ' grove-town.' 
The chief house in the parish is Graftonbury. 

Greegs (Kilpeck, and Newton-in-Clodock). 
W. craig, 'a rock.' A few miles away, above Grosmont 
(Mon.), is The Graig Hill. 

Greencrize (BuUingham). 

183 1 Greencrise, Ord. Map. 

Grendon. 

1086 Grenedene, Dom. 

1 270 ' Ego Warinus de Grendene,' Glos. Cart. 
1 29 1 Grendene Waryn, Tax. Eccles. 
1 341 Grandnewaryn, Non. Inq. 
O.E. gren dene, ' green valley.' 

There are three Grendons in different parts of the county. 
Grendon Bishop, a parish near Bromyard (which is Grendone in 
Ep. Reg. 1 241), Grendon Warren {Pencombe), and Grendon 



86 GRENDON 

Court in Upton Bishop. The Warwcs. Grendon is Dom. Grendon 
i.e. ' green hill ' ; and Grendon Bishop may be the same. 

The family of Waryn de Grendon held Grendon in Pencombe 
from early in the 13th to the end of the 14th century. 

Greytree (Hundred). 

1086 Greitreu, Greitrewes, Gretrewes, Dom. 

' The upland down, the landmark tree, the " low " or burial 
mound, the familiar ford — these, and not the towns or villages 
were the scenes of these ancient assemblies.' J. H. R. 

Gridall (Clodock). 

The Grove (Sellack). 

1 29 1 La Grave, Chart. R. 

1334 Grava, Ep. Reg. 
O.E. graf, ' a grove.' 

There is a small holding in Ewyas Harold which has been 
Golden Grove since mid. i8th century. 

Gwenherion (Welsh Newton). 

W. gwern-hirion, ' tall alder-trees.' 

hirion is pi. of Mr ' long,' with an ' aggregate ' subst. 

Gwerndu (Garway). 

W. gwern ddu, ' black swamp.' 

Gwern-genny (Kilpeck). 

Perhaps V^ . gwern-genau, 'jaws of the swamp.' 

Gwern-Gounsell (Kentchurch). 

Possibly W. gwern-gwaun-syll, 'a meadow of alder-trees 
good to look upon.' 

Gwern-y-buch (Huntington-by- Kington). 
W. ' cattle-swamp.' 

Gwrlodith (Newton-in-Clodock). 



HAMPTON BISHOP 87 

*Hache [in the Golden Valley]. 

1 27 1 ' decimas de la Hache in Straddele,' Ep. Reg. 

This name is entirely unknown, save for this entry, which 
may be a scribe's mistake for Bache, a known place in the 
Golden Valley. 

Hackley (Avenbury). 
So in 1535. 

Haffield (Donnington). 

temp. Hen. Ill Hatfield, Delimitation. 
See Hatfield. 

Hagley (Lugwardine). 

O.E. haga, 'an enclosed field' (akin to O.K. hege, 'a hedge'). 

There is a Worcs. Hagley. 

Hallaston (Almeley). 

Old forms wanted. Close by is Logaston ; and there is, in 
Bridstow, a Moraston. 

Hamish Park (Whitbourne). 

Hamnish (Kimbolton). 

1086 Hamenes, Dom. 
H23 Hamenessce, Leom. Cart. 
1243 Hamenes, T. de Nevill. 
1303 Hamenasse, F.A. 
1346 Hamenash, F.A. 
1428 Hamonasch, F.A. 
143 1 Hamonasshe, F.A. 
1539 Hampnache, Aug. Of. 

Hampton Bishop. 

781 Homtune, Kemble. 

1086 Hantune, Dom. 

1270 Homptone, Ep. Reg. 

1 291 Hompton Episcopi, Tax. Eccles. 

1 3 16 Hampton Thopesley Villa, F.A. 

1 341 Hampton, Non. Inq. 



88 HAMPTON WAFER 

Hampton Wafer (Docklow). 
1086 Hantone, Dom. 
1243 Honiton, Hompton, T. de Nevill. 
1286 Hampton Waffre, Chart. R. 
1 341 Hampton Wafr', Non. Inq. 
Held by the Wafre family in 1 2th century ; passed with the 
daughter of Sir Robert Wafre to the Mortimers. 

The many Hamptons in England fall into two classes : 

(i) O.E. ham tun, 'home- town,' i.e. an enclosed settlement 

or village. 
(2) O.E. hean tun, ' high-town.' 

Dom. distinguishes these as Hamtune and Hantune. Both 
the above are, in Dom., ' high-town ' ; though the Kemble form 
seems to be ' home-town.' It is probable that they were often 
confused, even in the earliest days. 

There is an Uphampton in Docklow, Hampton Court in 
Hope-under-Dinmore, Hampton Charles in Bockleton, and New 
Hampton in Hatfield. This last must have been so-called in 
the I2th century, since the Leom. Cart, (in 1123) refers to it and 
Hampton Wafer in the words ' de utraque Hamtona.' 

*Hamsty [Little Marcle]. 

143 1 Hamsty, Pilley MS. 
' Path leading to the ham.' See Appendix, -sty. 

Hanley's End (Bishop's Frome). 
1086 Hanlei, Dom. 
1243 Hanleye, T. de Nevill. 
O.E. aet hean leage, ' high-lea.' 

There is a Hanley Court in Kingstone. Cf Handley (Derbs.) 
and Heeley (Yorks.), which, though only a few miles apart, have by 
different dialectical development, descended from aet hean leage. 

Coldharbour (Kentchurch). 

Harbour is O.E. here, 'an army' and beorg, 'protection.' 
Cold harbour is a place of shelter from the weather for way- 
farers, constructed by the wayside. Hence it is a frequent name 
in many localities. Skeat says, ' a wayside refuge without afire! 
Some have thought it is ironic, ' cold shelter.' 



HATFIELD 89 

There is a Harbour Farm in Goodrich, and Harbour House 
Farm in Kingsland. Also Arbour Hill Farm, Ross. 

Hardwick (Bromyard, Clifford, Dilwyn, Eardisland). 
1327 (Clifford) Herdewyk, Plac. de Banco. 
1537 (Clifford) Hardwyke-cum-Hey, Aug. Of. 
In 1300 there is a Herdwika-juxta-Ewias in the 'parish of 
the priest of St Kenedrus,' i.e. Kenderchurch. 

O.E. heord^xi^L wic, 'herd's, shepherd's dwelling.' 
There are at least 26 Hardwicks in England, many of which 
are in Dom. though none under Herefordshire. 

Harewood. 

1086 Harewde', Dom. 

1 138 Harewuda, A.C. 

1302 Harewod', Quo War. 
O.E. Iiara-wudu, 'hare's wood.' 

The Glos. Haresfield is Dom. Hersefeld, ' field of Hersa.' 
There is a Harewood in Dilwyn also. 

Harness. 

See Lugharness. 

Harpton (Kington). 

Hartleton (Linton). 
See Yarkhill. 

Hatfield. 

1086 Hetfelde, Dom. 
circ. 1 1 50 Hethfeld, Leom. Cart. 
1243 Hethfeud, T. de Nevill. 
1 291 'Hatfeld magna cum capella de Hatfeld parva,' 

Tax. Eccles. 
1 341 Hattefeld magna,... parva, Non. Inq. 
O.E. haeth, ' heath.' 

So four other Hatfields (Worcs., Herts., Essex), but Hatfield 
(Yorks.) is Dom. Haifeld, 'hay-field.' In Sussex the form 
Heathfield is found. 

1 J. H. R. queries this identification ; and with justice, since the Dom. Harewood 
is ' in valle Stradelei.' 



go HATHINEHALLE 

*Hathinehalle [in or near Holme Lacy]. 

Given by Walter de Lacy to Crasswall Priory circ. 1080. 

Haugh Wood (Woolhope). 

1329 Heggeschawe, Ep. Reg. 

1330 Hoggeshawe, Ep. Reg. 
There is a Haughway in Goodrich in 1722. 

Haven (Upper and Lower, Dilwyn). 

No early forms of the place-name. But a family named 
Hevyn held lands in Dilwyn in the 14th century, and retained 
them till the 17th century. See Henwood &\so. 

There is a Haven farm in Aymestrey, and one in Burghill; 
also Up. and Low. Weaven in Little Dewchurch. 

The Havod (Credenhill). 

Welsh hafod, ' a dairy, a summer house.' 

But (a good instance of corruption) Hafod Road in Hereford 
was in 1778 Harford Shutt, and belonged in 1684 to Dr Bridstock 
Harford. 

Hawker's Land Cross (Marden). 
Walker's Green is close by. 

Hay. 

1 121 ' Castellum de haia taillata,' A.C. 
1 1 23 haia, A.C. 

1223 Heya, Le Hey, Leom. Cart. 
1265 La Haye, Royal Letters (R.S.). 
circ. 1550 The Hay, Leland. 

O.E. hege, ' a hedge,' then ' an enclosure.' In M.E. it becomes 
kei, and (under Norman influence) kaie, haye. The little town 
is still commonly called ' The Hay.' Walter Map calls it Sepes 
Incissa. Haia taillata is Fr. haie taillee, ' cut hedge.' (The 
Leom. entry evidently refers to a local holding of the Priory, 
not to the town of Hay ; as also in a Chart, of Richard I (i 198), 
' juxta haiam meam Herefordie.') There was a La Haye Hyde 
in Bolton in 1 302. 



HELLENS 91 

Haybrook (Ullingswick). 

1 1 86 Haibroc, Glos. Cart. 
Haywood. 

1278 Heywode, Ep. Reg. 
1282 Heywode, MS. Charter. 
There is a ' Silva que vocatur Haya ' in E. H. Cart. circ. 1 280. 
But it is evidently near the village. 

Cf. Heythrop (Ox.), ' the fenced-in village.' 
Hailey (Ox.), ' the fenced-in meadow.' 

The Hazle (Ledbury). 

1086 Hasles, Dom. 

1 109 Hugo de Hasela holds i Knight's fee from the Bishop, 

circ. 1 1 80 la Hesele, Capes. 

1303 Hasele, F.A. 

1304 Hasel', Ep. Reg. 
1346 Hasele, F.A. 
1428 Haselor, F.A. 
1593 Hazell, Inq. p.m. 

O.E. haesl, ' hazel,' with leak, ' the meadow of the hazel-tree.' 
Cf. Haseley (Oxf.), which is Dom. Haselie. 
Heswall (Ches.), earlier Haselwelle. 

Heath (Laysters). 

1086 Hed, Dom. 

1243 Hethe, T. de Nevill. 

1327 La Hethe, Plac. de Banco. 

*Hech [near Kington]. 

1086 Hech, Dom. 
*Heliston. 
See Pontrilas. 

Hellens (Much Marcle). 

1287 Heliun, Heref Corp. MS. 
1394 Helyon, Ep. Reg. 
The family of Helling or Helyon held land in Marcle 
certainly in 1 348, but they prob. took their name from the place, 
rather than gave it to the place. i8th century antiquarians call 
Hellens, ' Ellingham Castle.' 



92 HEMNESFELD 

*Hemnesfeld [in Dilwyn]. 

1 28 1 Hemnesfeld, Chart. R. 

Hendra (Orcop). 
See Hendre. 

Hendre (Peterstow). 

1569 Hendre Cocke, Courtfield MS. 
Welsh hen-dref, 'the old tref,' i.e. the permanent dwelling 
as distinguished from the hafod, or summer house. 

Hengoed (Huntington-by-Kington). 

W. hen, ' old,' and coed, ' a wood.' ' The old wood.' 

Henhope (Dormington). 

Prob. O.E. kean hop, ' high enclosed valley.' 

Hennerwood (Pencombe). 

Hennor (Leominster). 

1 123 Heanoura, Leom. Cart, 
circ. 1240 Henovere, Leom. Cart. 

1334 Henore, Ep. Reg. 
O.E. hean, 'high,' and o/er, 'a bank, shore, margin.' 

Hentland. 

circ. 1 1 30 Hennlann Dibric, Lib. Land. 

1 29 1 Hentlan, Tax. Eccles. 

1 33 1 Henthlan, Ep. Reg. 

1 341 Henthlan, Non. Inq. 

1538 Henthelan, Val. Eccles. 

1545 Hentlane, Inq. p.m. 
Welsh hen llan, ' old church.' 

In Cornwall, near Bodmin, Hen llan has become Helland, but 
in Pembs. there is a Hentland. 

Henwood (Dilwyn). 

Old forms needed. 

Possibly ' Hevyn's wood,' from the family who held lands in 
Dilwyn for some centuries. See Haven. Or from O.E. hean, 
'high.' 



HILLSTREET 93 

*Hercope [near Kington]. 

1086 Hercope, Dom. 

Hereford. 

1048 Herefordseir, O.E. Chron. 

1086 Hereford port, Dom. 

1161-2 'Herefort in Waliis,' Pipe. 

1 29 1 Hereford, Tax. Eccles. 
O.E. here-ford, ' ford of the army.' 

Hergest (Kington). 

1086 Hergesth, Dom. 

1278 Hergast, Ep. Reg. 

1302 Hergast, Quo War. 

1 341 Hergast, Non. Inq. 
In 1395 there is a Hergestecrofte in Tillington. 

*Herntun [a manor of Leom. Priory]. 

1 123 Herntun, Leom. Cart. 

Prob. ' Herewine's tun ' ; though the first element might 
possibly (but not probably) be O.E. hyrne, ' a horn.' 

*Hezetre [Domesday Hundred]. 

1086 Hezetre, Dom. 

Higford (Yotton). 

Highnam (Tarrington). 

Hillhampton (Ocle Pychard). 

1278 Hulhamptone, Ep. Reg. 

1 29 1 Hullhampton, Tax. Eccles. 

1480 Hillhamptone, Pilley MS. 
' Tun in the meadow on the hill.' 

*Hillstreet [in or near Orleton]. 

1529 Hillstreet, Ind. Ct R. 



94 HINTON 

Hinton (Hereford and Peterchurch). 
Hereford Hinton. 

1290 Hinetone, Hinintone, Ep. Reg. 

1 29 1 Hyniton, Tax. Eccles. 
1300 Hinitone, Ep. Reg. 
1346 Heneton, F.A. 

Peterchurch Hinton. 

1086 Hinetune, Dom. 

1243 Hunteston, T. de Neyill. 

1294 Hyntone, Ep. Reg. 

1 3 16 Hyneton, F.A. 

1465 Hinton-in-Straddell, Ind. Ct Rolls. 
Of the many Hintons in England some are O.E. hean tun, 
' high-town ' : others, as both the above, are from O.E. hina, the 
gen. plur. of hiwan, 'domestic servants, hinds.' There is a 
Hinton in Eardisland (which in Leom. Cart. 1190 is Hentun), 
one in Felton, and one in Norton Canon. 

The Hoar (Colwall). 

1 83 1 Hoe farm, Ord. Map. 

Hoarwithy. 

1005 To tham haran withie, Chart. 

1348 Horewythy, Aconb. MS. 
O.E. har, 'gray,' then 'old.' But some say hoar- in place- 
names implies a boundary, quoting the (fairly common) hoar-stone 
as an example. ' At the old withy-tree,' or ' at the withy-tree on 
the boundary.' There is a Hoar-stone Farm near Presteign, and 
a Hoarstone in Tedstone Delamere. 

*Hodenac [somewhere on a river]. 

1 291 Hodenac, Tax. Eccles. 

' Piscar' ' in one entry and ' de quodam gurgite ' in the other 
point to a river. But there is no hint either as to the locality 
or the meaning of the word. 

Holborn (Brilley). 

Not in 1 83 1 Ord. Map. The London Holborn is in 15 13 
Holburne, ' stream in the hollow.' 



HOLME LACY 95 

Hole-in-the-wall (Foy). 

No forms older than 1831. Perhaps a corruption of Holloway 
or Holeway. There is a Hole Farm in Shobdon. 

HoUingwood (Abbeydore). 

1 541 Hollyn, Aug. Of. 

O.E. holen, 'holly.' 'Wood of the holly trees.' There is a 
Hollinghill in Woolhope, and Rollings Hill (1831 Ord. Map 
Hallinghill) in Mathon ; Hollins in Edvin Ralph ; HoUanton in 
Holme Lacy ; and Hollybrook in Kimbolton. 

*Holmedewe [in Brinsop]. 

circ. 1200 Holmedewe, Brec. Cart. 

circ. 1220 Holemedewe, Brec. Cart. 
' Meadow in the hollow.' 

Holme Lacy. 

1086 Hamme, Dom. 

1243 Hamme Lacy, T. de Nevill. 

1256 Hamme Lacy, Ep. Reg. 

1 29 1 Hum' Lacy, Tax. Eccles. 

1303 Hamelacy, F.A. 

1 3 16 Hamelacy, F.A. 

1 341 Homlacy, Non. Inq. 

1346 Home Lacy, F.A. 

1428 Homme Lacy, F.A. 

1538 Homlacy, Val. Eccles. 

1577 Hamlaceye, Saxton's Map. 

1610 Hamlacye, Speed's Map. 

1786 Holm Lacy, Taylor's Map, 
Most Holmes and -holmes are in Dom. holme or holne, i.e. O.E. 
holm, ' a river meadow,' ' low flat land by a river.' But this is 
Hamme, O.E. ham or horn, originally ' the human ham,' then ' a 
meadow at the bend of a river,' then 'any enclosed ground, 
generally pasture.' This place-name, uncompounded, is very 
common in Herefordshire, especially round Ledbury, where there 
are several Hommes (the main street is called The Homend, i.e. 
the end towards Homme House). In the modern form Holme 



96 HOLME LACY 

Lacy, the corruption is due to assimilation with the Holmes that are 
really O.E. holm. There is another instance of this at Lyonshall, 
where we find The Holme, Upper Holme, and Lower Holme, 
but in 1553 ' Hom alias Leonhales' (Ind. Ct R.). There is a 
Homme in Dilwyn, which in 1243 (T. de N.) is Hamme, in 1251 
(Chart. R.) is Hamme, and in 1402 (Inq. p.m.) is ' Holme juxta 
Dylawe,' and thereafter reverts to Homme, as it is to-day. 
There is a Hambrook near Ledbury, which I cannot trace 
beyond 1831 ; and a Homme Close in Goodrich in 1722 ; where 
also in 1725 is a 'Whitchurch Hom'; and in Goodrich also, in 
141 3 (Inq. p.m.) is 'the pasture of Over-wyesham, and Nether- 
wyesham.' Hyde had a Homgate temp. Hen. HI. 

Holmer. 

1086 Holemere, Dom. 

1273 Holemore, Capes. 

1 29 1 Holemer, Holemare, Tax. Eccles. 

1309 Holemare, Capes. 

1 3 16 Holmare, F.A. 

1 34 1 Holemare, Non. Inq. 

1428 Holmer, F.A. 
O.E. hoi, ' hollow,' and mere, ' a lake.' 

Holstrey (Madley). 

Holsty (Vowchurch). 

Prob. O.E. hoi, 'hollow,' and sti£-a, 'a path.' See Appendix, -siy. 
In 1222 there is a Holesti in Mansell Lacy. 

Honey Moor Common (Eaton Bishop). 

Honey is a not uncommon prefix in English place-names. 
One would expect, perhaps, that it occurred more frequently in 
Herefordshire, where, in Ewyas and Archenfield more especially, 
the villan's dues were often rendered in honey. Beyond this 
instance in Eaton Bishop we only have one other instance — 
Huniesmedewe (Leom. Cart, no date) which may have been in or 
near Ivington, since, in 1539, that manor pays two shillings and 
sixpence as ' consuetud' voc' Honysilver.' 



hopley's green 97 

Hope. 

(For meaning see Appendix.) This word is common in all 
parts of the county. We find it in three parish-names, Hope-under- 
Dinmore, Hope Mansel, and WooUiope ; in two ' Hope Farms ' 
{Edvin Loach, Presteigri) ; in Dudale's Hope {Bodenham ; 
Duddedale in 1 264 and Hope Duddall in Val. Eccles.) ; in 
Hope's Rough (Cowarne: Prior's Hope in 1542); in Hope-End 
(^Ledbury), and in several other instances. ' Hopeswde and 
Hopemyle occur in Leom. Cart, passim. The latter name is 
once (circ. 1400) Myleshope, and once Hope Million ; and in 
1539 (Aug. Of.) it appears as Myllyshope. Neither place can 
be now identified. 

Hope Mansel. 

1246 Hope Maloisel, Glos. Cart. 

1263 Hope Maloysel, Ep. Reg. 

1 291 Hope Meleysel, Tax. Eccles. 

1 341 Hope Maloysel, Non. Inq. 

1367 Hope Meleishulle, Inq. p.m. 

1538 Hope Maynesell, Val. Eccles. 

Of the Maloisel family, who held this Hope in the 13th century, 
little seems to be known, and by the i6th century the very form 
of the name was all but forgotten, and becomes Maynesell, from 
which the transition to the modern form is easy. 

Hopesfield (Brimfield). 

Hope-under-Dinmore . 

1 29 1 Hope sub Dinnemor, Tax. Eccles. 
circ. 1390 Hope sub Dunemore, Leom. Cart. 

Hopley's Green (Almeley). 

No old forms. There is in 1227 (Chart. R.) a Hoppilegh 
somewhere between Kilpeck and Treville. It must have been a 
hamlet or district, since it apparently contains ' La Sallonere ' and 
Fernilegh. (But see, sub *Fernlega, Eg. Phillimore's suggestion 
that Fernilegh was itself the district.) 

B. H. 7 



98 HOPTON 

Hopton (Stoke Lacy). 

1086 Hopetune, Dom. 

1 241 Opton, Chart. R. 

1243 Hoptun, T. de Nevill. 

1346 Hopton, F.A. 

1358 Hopton Hagurner, Feet of Fines. 

1567 Hopton, Hagerley, Fine R. 

1 83 1 Hopton Solers, Ord. Map. 

It is probably ' tun in the enclosed valley ' (see App. Hope). 

It is just possible that it may be, as some suggest, from an O.E. 

hop, ' privet,' as Hopwood (Worcs.). It cannot be ' tun where 

hops are grown,' since this word is not found in English till 1440. 

Horseway Head (Staunton-on-Arrow). 

Etymology obvious. Cf. Horsepath (Oxf.) which is as early 
as Dom. 

Horsnetts (Grendon Bishop). 

Howie Hill (Walford). 

1086 Hulla, Dom. 
1286 Hule Cnolle, Ep. Reg. 
1305 Hule, Ep. Reg. 
Possibly, as some think, W. hywel, ' conspicuous ' (cf. Crick- 
howell), but more probably the Mercian form of O.E. hyll, 'a 
hill.' The Shrops. Howie is Dom. Hugle. {Hull (Yorks.) is a 
modern name for the town. From 1299 to 1552 or later it is 
always Kingston-on- Hull, the latter evidently a river-name.) 

Howndys Farm (Orcop). 

183 1 Hondys Gate, Ord. Map. 

Evidently Welsh, and suggestive of the Llanthony river, 
Honddhu ; but that falls into the Monnow eight or nine miles 
from Orcop. 

Howton (Kenderchurch). 

1243 Huton, T. de Nevill. 
1303 Huton, F.A. 
1327 Houton, Plac. de Banco. 
1540 Houghton, Aug. Of 



HUNGERHILL 99 

There is a Howton in Bodenkam, which in 1303 is Huton, 
and in 1537 (Aug. Of.) Hoton. The Lanes. Hutton is con- 
tinuously from 1180 to 1292 Hoton, prob. from O.E. hoh, 'hill- 
town.' This may be taken as the probable meaning of both our 
Howtons, though neither is conspicuously on a hill. 

Hubbage (Up. and Low., Thornbury). 

For the second element see Append, sub -bach. 

Huddle Mill (Stoke Lacy). 

Humber. 

1086 Humbre, Dom. 
1 1 23 Humbra, Leom. Cart, 
circ. 1220 Humbre, Leom. Cart. 

127s Capella de Humbre, Ep. Reg. 
1 29 1 Humbre, Tax. Eccles. 
1 341 Humbre, Non. Inq. 
1428 Homber, F.A. 
The parish takes its name from the Humber Brook, as to 
which, like most river-names, it is best to say nothing, except 
that it may be Celtic. 

Hunbridge (Bromyard). 

Hunderton (Hereford). 

1 1 50 Hundretone, Ep. Reg. 

1252 Hunditone, Capes. 

1300 Hundirtone, Ep. Reg. 

1376 Hundertone, Capes. 
' Hunthryth's or Wendretha's tun.' 

Hundred (Middleton-on-the-Hill). 

Hungerhill (St Weonards). 

So in 1722. The O.E. hangra, angra, is an element in many 
Herefordshire place-names. Besides Clehonger (q.v.) we have 
Hungerstone {Allensmore : 1243 Hungarestun, 13 16 Hongaston, 
1 341 Hungarstone), Hungerbury Wood {English Bicknor), 
Honger Grove iPudlestone), Hunger Hill {Goodrich in 1722, not 

7—2 



lOO HUNGERHILL 

apparently now), and Hunger Hole {Acton Beauchamp). There 
is a ' Hungerstrete ' in Hereford in 1375, and Speed's Map (1610) 
calls St Owen Street ' Hongery Strete.' A D. & Ch. Chart, circ. 
1 230 makes a grant of land ' in Hungreya ' (evidently in or near 
Mordiford). There are several Hungry Hills in Worcs. The 
word kangra evidently means something like 'a bank,' 'a hill- 
side,' 'the slope of a hill.' 

Huntington (Hereford). 

circ. 760 Huntenatun, Kemble. 

1086 Huntenetune, Dom. 
circ. 12 1 5 Huntidune, Capes. 
The first element is gen. plur. of O.E. hunta, ' a hunter,' ' tun 
of the hunters.' 

Huntington (Kington). 

1086 Hantinetune, Dom. 
1267 Huntinton, Inq. p.m. 
1302 Huntyndon, Quo War. 
1333 Hontyngdone, Capes. 
Prob. the same as the preceding ; the Dom. form being a 
scribe's mistake. 

Huntlands (Whitbourne). 

1282 Hunteland, Ep. Reg. 
1304 Huntelond, Ep. Reg. 

Huntleys (Much Marcle). 

1340 Hunteleybroke, Aeon. Accts. 

1352 Huntelowe, Ep. Reg. 
'The meadow of Hunta,' or (in the other form) his 'hill.' 

Hunton (Lyonshall). 

Huntsham (Goodrich). 

1 186 Honson, Chart. St Florent & Monmouth. 

1396 Honsom, Inq. p.m. 

1655 Hunsome Mynde, Courtfield MS. 

1 67 1 Hansome, Herefordshire Hearth Tax List. 

17 14 Hunsome, Terrier. 



HYDE ASH lOI 

1 71 8 Huntsham, Goodrich marriage settlement. 
1722 Hunsome, Terrier. 
I cannot explain the old form, of which Huntsham is an 
1 8th century corruption. 

The Hurst (Dilwyn). 

O.E. hyrst, ' a woody eminence,' then ' a thicket of brushwood.' 

Hurstans (Sollershope). 

183 1 Hursten, Ord. Map. 

Hurstley (Letton). 

1298 Hertesleye, Ep. Reg. 
1333 Hurtesleye, Ep. Reg. 
no date Horteslee, Hurthesleg, Leom. Cart. 
1547 Hurstesley, Ind. Ct R. 
O.E. heortes-leah, 'hart's meadow.' In the i6th century it 
was confused with M.E. hurst, ' a wood.' 

Hurstway Common (Eardisley). 
' Road through the wood.' 

Hyde Ash (Leominster). 

1086 Hide, Dom. 

temp. Hen. HI la Hide, Her. Cath. MS. 

1275 Hyda, Ep. Reg. 

In Leom. Cart, passim Hida and La Hyde. 

O.E. hide, hyde, a measure of land, varying in different 
localities, originally as much as would support one family and 
their dependents. It seems, on an average, to have been about 
120 acres. It is not uncommon as a place-name, some instances, 
as this, and the London Hyde (Park), going back to Dom. 

There is a Hyde (Farm) \ry Stanford Bishop, which is in 1243 
Hida monachorum, ' una hida de elemos'.' We have also Hyde 
Farm (Woolhope), Half-hide {Castle Frome), Westhide {Stoke 
Edith), Monkhide {Yarkhill), Bitterley Hyde {Pencombe), and 
Steward's Hide {Winslow) which is in 1250 Stiwardes Hide. 

In Leom. Cart, often occurs Wdehyd. 



I02 INGESTONE 

Ingestone (Foy). 

1283 Enchetone, Ep. Reg. 

1420 Yngeston, Inq. p.m. 

1443 Ineston, Inq. p.m. 

circ. 1670 Inkston, Silas Taylor. 

1678 Ingestone, Tombstone. 

Instone (Bishop's Frome). 

1551 Inkeston, Inq. p.m. 



1 83 1 Inson, Ord. Map. 



Ivington. 



1086 Ivintune, Dom. 

1 291 Inynton\ Tax. Eccles. 

1303 Ivynton, F.A. 

1433 Yventon, Pat. R. 
In Leom. Cart, passim, Yventon, Yvinton, Ivynton. Etymology 
uncertain. Both the Sussex and the Glos. Evington are in Dom. 
Givingtune, 'tun of Gefwine.' One can suppose that this is 
the same. 

Jury (Upper, Lower, and Jury Bridge, Abbeydore). 

The Kellyn (Clodock). 

Possibly connected with W. celH, ' a grove,' or with W. cefyn, 
'holly-trees.' In a Crasswall Chart, of 1272 is mentioned (with 
Dulas) a Blameskeli. There is a Cellan in Cardiganshire. 

Kenchester. 

1086 Chenecestre, Dom. 

1 142 Chenecestre, Llant. Chart. 

1 1 54 Kenecestria, Capes. 

1 29 1 Kenestre, Tax. Eccles. 

1 341 Kenchestr', Non. Inq, 
O.E. cyne ceaster, ' royal camp.' 
Dom. often turns c into the softer ch. 

In the neighbouring parish of Credenhill there was in 1722 a 
field called Chester Meadow. 

^ Wrongly transcribed, it is likely. 



KESTI 103 

Kenderchurch. 
circ. 1 1 30 Lann Cinitir, Lib. Land. 

1 29 1 Ecclesia Sancti Kenedri, Tax. Eccles. 
1 341 Ecclesia Sancti Keindri, Non. Inq. 
1428 Kendurchirche, F.A. 
1538 Kenderchurch, Val. Eccles. 
The Lib. Land, form gives in Mod. W. Llangynidr, ' Church 
of St Gynidr.' Glasbury church is dedicated to this Saint, there 
spelt Cynidr. And in a Brecon charter (undated, but apparently 
of 1 2th century) Glasbury is called Kenedereschirch, and mention 
is made of seven acres of land 'in Kenedereshull.' In 1304 
there was also a ' capella Sancti Kenedri que est in insula de 
Wynfretone, que insula ab incolis nuncupatur Hermitorium.' 

Kentchurch. 

1 1 30 Lann Cein, Lib. Land. 

1205 Ecclesia Sancte Keyne, E. H. Cart. 

1277 Ecclesia de Sancta Kayna, Ep. Reg. 

1 29 1 Ecclesia de Sancta Keyne, Tax. Eccles. 

1300 Kenschirch, Inq. p.m. 

1 341 Keynchirche, Non. Inq. 
no date Capella Sancte Kaene, Glos. Cart. 
Traces of this Celtic saint are found also in Keynsham (Som.) 
and Chapel of St Keyne (Corn.), and prob. in Kinky (q.v.). 

Ken Water (trib. of Lugg, Leominster), 
circ. 1550 Ken water, Lei. 

1 83 1 Ken water, Ord. Map. 

Kerne Bridge (Bishopswood). 

I cannot find any form older than the 1831 Ord. Map. Near 
by is Springherne, with which it may be connected. 

Kerry Hall (Abbeydore). 

Kerrysgate Cwm (Abbeydore). 

*Kesti [near Maescoed and the Eskley brook]. 
1327 Kesti, Chart. R. 



I04 KEVENWHERVEN 

Kevenwherven (Much Dewchurch). 

Welsh. J. Hobson Matthews says cefn-y-ferfain, 'the ridge 
of the vervain.' 

Keyo (Wormbridge). 

1 83 1 Caeau, Ord. Map. 
See Cayo. 

Kidleys (Acton Beauchamp). 

Kilbury Camp (Colwall). 

I always suspect the explanation that a place-name is 
'a hybrid,' and, if we had old forms, this would probably 
turn out to have been originally Welsh in both elements. Yet 
its present form seems to combine the Welsh cil with the English 



Kilforge (Boulstone). 

I believe this to be the Kilfodes of the Holme Lacy Court 
Roll 1 598 : it may be W. cil (see App.) and ffordd, ' a road.' 

Killbreece (Tretire). 

1576 Killbrese, Courtfield MS. 

1 83 1 Kilbreast, Ord. Map. 
W. d/ (see App.) and probably the adj. dres, used of anything 
'having a bunchy top.' 

Kill-bullock meadow (Ewyas Harold). 

1780 Kill-bullock meadow, Terrier. 

Evidently a corruption of W. cil (see App.) and dwlc/z, ' a gap,' 
' a defile,' akin to the Scotch Balloch. There is a Bullock's Mill 
in Lyonskall, and a Bullock Wood in Thruxton. 

Kill-dane-field (Weston-under-Penyard). 

Said by popular etymology to be the site of the great slaughter 
of the Danes in 918. But the Danes, in the raid on Archenfield 
(really in 91 S), so far from being slaughtered, captured the Bishop 
of Liandaff, and departed rejoicing to their ships, with much booty. 
Old forms are needed, to give certainty, but very probably we 
have here a corruption of Welsh cil (as above), and the adj. dain, 
' fine, delicate.' 



KING'S ACRE 105 

*Killyards [Goodrich]. 

1722 Killyards, Terrier. 
Probably ' Kail-yards,' assimilated to the Kz/-prefix in several 
place-names near by. 

Kilpeck. 

1086 Chipeete, Dom. 
circ. 1 1 30 Lann Degui' Cil Pedec, Lib. Land, 
circ. 1 140 Kilpeec, Glos. Cart, 
circ. 1 1 50 Kilpeke, Glos. Cart, 
circ. 1 170 Kylpeke, Glos. Cart. 
1 29 1 Kylpec, Tax. Eccles. 
Prof. Lloyd explains the Dom. form as a scribe's mistake 
for Chilpeece'^. Eg. Phil, thinks it is a mistake for Chilpetec, 
which is phonetically equivalent to the Cil Pedec of the Lib. 
Land. The word involved in pedec is obscure ; its plural is 
found in Lib. Land, as Pedecou. 

Kilreague (Llangarren). 

1 67 1 Killrege, Herefordshire Hearth Tax List. 

1722 Killreege, Wormelow Terrier. 

183 1 Kilrhyg, Ord. Map. 
If the Ord. Map correctly interprets the word, it would be 
Welsh for ' rye-nook,' ' retreat where the rye grows.' 

Kimbolton. 

In Leom. Cart, passim : in earlier entries Kynebalton, later 
Kymbalton. The Hunts. Kimbolton is Dom. Chenebaltone, 
phonetically all but equivalent to the earlier Leom. form, 
' Cynebald's tun.' 

Kinford (Canon Pyon). 

This may be the Kingisford of Leom. Cart. 

King's Acre (Hereford). 

So called circ. 1281 ('Customs of Hereford'). 

' i.e. Dewi. 

2 As illustrating the difficulties of the Norman scribe in dealing with Welsh words, 
we may note that the holder oi Kilpeck T. R. E. is given in Dom. as Cadiand, whom 
Lib. Land, gives more correctly as Catgen du. 



I06 KINGSFIELD 

*Kingsfield [in Kentchurch]. 

circ. 1 200 Chingesfelt, E. H. Cart. 

Kingsland, 

1086 Lene, Dom. 

1289 Kyngeslone, Ep. Reg. 

1 29 1 Kingeslene, Tax. Eccles. 

1302 Kyngeslone, Quo War. 

1303 Kyngeslone, F.A. 

1 341 Kyngeslene, Non. Inq. 
143 1 Kyngeslane, F.A. 
1539 Kyngeland, Aug. Of. 
See Eardisland. For second element see Lene. 

*Kingsley [near Shelwick]. 

127s Kyngesleya, Ep. Reg. 

Kingsthorne (Much Birch). 

There is in Much Birch also, in 1538, a King's Close of 
twenty acres. 

Kingstone. 

1086 Chingestune, Dom. 
1249 Kingeston, Chart. R. 
1 29 1 Kyngeston, Tax. Eccles. 
1 34 1 Kyngeston, Non. Inq. 
'King's tun.' There is a Kingstone also in Weston-under- 
Penyard; and a Kingstone Grange in Abbey dore. 

King Street Farm (Ewyas Harold). 

circ. 1250 Kyngestrete, E. H. Cart. 

Kingswood (Kington). 

1337 Kingwode, Inq. p.m. 



Kington. 



1086 Chingtune, Dom. 
1277 Kyngtone, Ep. Reg. 
1289 Kinton, Ep. Reg. 
1 291 Kyngton, Tax. Eccles. 



KINTON 107 

1333 Kyngtone, Chart. 

1 341 Kynton, Non. Inq. 

1548 Kington Burgus, Ind. Ct R. 
O.E. cyne tun, ' royal town.' The Warwcs. Kington is often 
even now Kineton ; and near Leintwardine a Dom. Chingtune 
has become Kinton (q.v.). 

Kinley (Letton). 

1 29 1 Keynlec', Tax. Eccles. 
Prob. ' the meadow of Keyne ' (see Kentchurch). 
Four miles away, in Brilley, is Kintley (the t prob. intrusive) ; 
and there is another Kinley in Moccas. 

Kinnersley. 

1 123 Chinardeslega, Leom. Cart. 

1227 Kinardesle, Chart. R. 

1243 Kinardesleg, T. de Nevill. 

1252 Kynardeleye, Chart. R. 

1 29 1 Kynardesl', Tax. Eccles. 

1303 Kynardesleye, F.A. 

1 341 Kaynardesleye, Non. Inq. 

1404 Kenersle, Ep. Reg. 

1539 Kynersley, Aug. Of 

154s Kynardsley, Ind. Ct R. 

IS7S Kynnardsley, Hereford Corp. MS. 
' The lea of Cyneheard ' (the mod. Kennard, a common 
surname in Herefordshire). J. H. R. thinks Kinnersley may 
possibly be the Dom. Curdeslege; which would give a different 
personal name. 

Kinsham. 

No old forms. Possibly the first element is as in Kinley (q.v.). 
It is scarcely probable that it is O.E. cyne as in Kinton. 

Kinton (Leintwardine). 

1086 Chingtune, Dom. 
1267 Kinton, Inq. p.m. 

O.E. cyne tun, ' royal town,' as Kington (q.v.). 



I08 KIVERKNOLL 

Kiverknoll (Much Dewchurch). 

1300 Kyvernou, Inq. p.m. 

1300 Kivernowesbrugge, Ep. Reg. 

1322 Kyvernou, Ep. Reg. 

1327 Kyvernowe, Plac. de Banco. 

1346 Kivernowe, Heref. Ct R. 

A difficult word. In a district of prevailing Welsh pl.-ns. 
I suspect it is originally Welsh, corrupted by English lips, until 
it has a definitely English form. 

The Knapp. 

(At least ten in the county : at Bridge Sellers, Brimfield, 
Bromyard, Kingsland, Ledbury, Peter church, Pixley, Whitney- 
on- Wye ; with Knapp Green at Little Dewchurch, and Barley 
Knapp in Peterchurch.) 

O.E. cnaep, M.E. knap, 'a small hill.' In Sussex the 14th 
century form Knappe is now Knepp. 

Knapton (Birley). 

See above : ' tun on the small hill.' 

Knell (Colwall). 

Prob. variant of Knill (q.v.). 

Knill. 

1086 Chenille, Dom. 

1 29 1 Knulle, Tax. Eccles. 

1300 Knulle, Ep. Reg. 

1332 Knill, Ep. Reg. 
O.E. cnol, ' a hill.' 

Knocker Hill (Haywood). 

Knolton (Kilpeck). 

O.E. cnol, ' a hill,' ' hill-town.' 

Kyming Common (Almeley). 

Kymin Wharf (Ocle Pychard). 



LADY ARBOUR 109 

Kynaston (Hentland, and Much Marcle). 
Hentland Kynaston. 
1308 Kynyatestoune, Inq. p.m. 
1334 Kynastone, Ep. Reg. 
1336 Kyneuarstone, Inq. p.m. 
1350 Cheyneston, Assize R. 
1722 Kinaston, Terrier. 

Much Marcle Kynaston. 
1327 Kynewardeston, Deed at Hellens. 
circ. 1560 Kinnaston, Aug. Of. 
The two names derive from pers. names which are somewhat 
different, though akin. Hentland Kynaston is ' Cyneheard's tun'; 
that in Much Marcle is ' Cyneweard's tun.' Both are common 
names in O.E. 

Kyrebatch (Thornbury). 

1086 Cuer, Dom. 

1 108 Cyr, MS. Chart. 

1300 Cure, Assize R. 

' Valley of the Kyrebrook.' 

For second element see App., -bach. 

*Lacre [?]. 

1086 Lacre, Dom. 

Laddin (Little Marcle). 

Lady Arbour (Hereford Cathedral). 
1 503 ' My body to be buried in our Lady Herbary before the 

Cross there,' Hereford Will in Corp. MSS. 
1523 'My body to be buried in the Lady Arbour within the 
Cloisters of the Cathedral Church,' Hereford Will in 
Corp. MSS. 
Arbour originally was O. Fr. herbier (Lat. herbarium). As 
the word changed its form it lost its connection with ' herb,' and 
popular etymology connected it with Ital. arborata, ' a bovver or 
shady retreat.' 

There is a Lady Harbour in Eardisley, Lady Court in 
Shobdon, Lady Grove in Birley, Lady Ridge in Brockhampton, 



no LADY ARBOUR 

and Lady Wood in Tedstone Delamere. In 1650 Ledbury had 
a Lady Wood, and a Lady Oak Common ; Val. Eccles. mentions 
' Oure Ladyes Farme ' in Weston- Beggar d ; and there is a Lady 
Meadow in Goodrich in 1722. 

Lady Lift (a lofty hill in Yazor). , 

1 83 1 Ladylift Clump, Ord. Map. 

In the Ord. Map (1831) part of the ridge is given as Larkhill 
Wood, and part as Burton Hill, with Ladylift Clump and Yazor 
Wood between. N. E. D. gives several quotations for 'lift' as 
' rising ground,' but the earliest of these is from Sir W. Scott in 
1825 ; so the name is probably modern. 

*Lagademar [' pertinebat ad Archenefelde T. R. E.']. 
1086 Lagademar, Dom. 

Tradition says it is the ' Li cat Amir' {Lfygad Amir) of 
Nennius, where Arthur slew his son Amyr, at the source of 
the river Gamber (which is Amir in Lib. Land.). 

The Lakes Farm (Stretton Sugwas). 

O.E. lac, ' lake.' In O.E. place-names it had not the meaning 
of the modern word. It may refer to a running stream as well 
as to a standing pool ; as in Bab-lock-hitke (Oxf.), which is in 
1 29 1 Babbelake. A small trib. of the Wye is still called Letton 
Lake; a stream in Wigmore is 'Wigmore Lake' in 1831 Ord. 
Map, and another in Sutton is 'Sutton Lake.' And in 1349 in 
Marden was ' quoddam fossatum vocatum Walneyslake ' (Ep. 
Reg.). 

Lancaegy (Welsh Newton). 
So in 1 83 1 Ord. Map. 

For the first element see App., llan-. W. cae-gwy would 
mean ' meadow by the river.' 

*Landmore [Garway]. 

1585 Landmore, Survey of Manor. 
Possibly Llan-mawr, ' great enclosure.' 

Lanerch (brook, trib. of the Garren). 
W. llanerch, ' a glade,' ' a clear patch.' 



Manerium de Lorteport, F.A. 



LAYSTERS I I I 

*The Langet [Abbeydore]. 

1 541 ' A pasture called the Langet,' Aug. Of. 
E. H. Cart. (circ. 1280) has languen; but this is almost 
certainly Llangua. 

Langstone (Llangarren). 

circ. 1 1 30 Lapis longus, Lib. Land. 

Larport Court (Mordiford). 
1303" 
1346 
1428 

143 W 

The Laskett (Llandinabo). 

*Lavilede [in Bredwardine or Letton]. 

circ. 1200. Ralph de Baskerville gives to Brecon Priory 
three acres ' in Lavilede juxta terram Dogge pistoris super 
lacam.' He gives them also free passage over the Wye from 
Bredwardine to Letton in his boat ('in navi mea')\ 

Lawton (Kingsland). 

1086 Lautune, Dom. 

1243 Lautune, T. de Nevill. 

1 28 1 Laghton, Chart. R, 

1 3 16 Lauton, F.A. 

1355 Lautoneshope, Ep. Reg. 

143 1 Overlauton, Nethirlauton, F.A. 
The first element must be O.E. laf, laue, 'what is left,' 
' a widow.' ' Tun of the widow.' 

Laysters. 

1086 Last, Dom. 

1257 Lastres, Chart. R. 
1303 Lastres, F.A. 
1 341 Ecclesia de Lastres, Non. Inq. 
143 1 Lastres, F.A. 
Near by is Laysters Pole. 

1 There was a Lord's ferry at Hay also; for in 1373, in the bailiff's accounts, a 
charge is made for an iron chain and lock, to secure the lord's boat over the Wye. 
(This boat, or rather one of its successors, was sunk and lost in a flood, 26 Hen. vi.) 



112 THE LEA 

The Lea. 

1086 LecceS Dom. 

119s La Lega, Chart. 

1278 La Le, Ep. Reg. 

1338 La Lee, Glos. Cart, 

no date La Lee, Leom. Cart, 

circ. 1550 Lee, Leland. 

O.E. leak, dat. leage, ' a meadow.' A farm called The Ley 
{Weobley) is in 1348 (Ep. Reg.) La Leghe. There are also The 
Lea (farm. Upper Sapey), The Leys {Grafton, Aylton, Yarpole, 
and Stanford Bishop), and The Lays (farm, Tarrington). 

Leadon (river, trib. of Severn). 

978 Ledene, Chart. 
1337 'lewe [i.e. I'eau] qe est appele Ledene,' Glos. Cart. 

There is also a brook called Leadon or Loden, which flows 
through Stretton Grandison into the river Frome. 

Leadon (Court, Bishop's Frome). 

1086 Ledene, Lede, Dom. 

1 29 1 Leden, Tax. Eccles. 

1542 Ledon, Aug. Of. 

1547 Leodon, Fine R. 

1551 Ledon, Inq. p.m. 

183 1 Leddon, Ord. Map. 

It is difficult to say whether this place takes its name from 
the river, or gives its name to it. See under Ledbury. 

The Leathers (Yatton, Aymestrey). 

Ledbury. 

1086 Liedeberge, Dom. 

1 1 35 Ledburia, Capes. 

1150 Ledebury, Capes. 

1 162 Lideberia, Capes. 

^ Lagh in Dom. of Worcs. and Salop is Lege. 



LEINTHALL 1 1 3 

1 291 Ledebury, Tax. Eccles. 

1 3 16 Ledebury Denseyn, — Foreyn, F.A. 

1 341 Ledebury, Non. Inq. 

1 364 Ledebury denezeyn, — foreyn, Ep. Reg. 

1 568 Ledbury Forinsec', — Danizen', Ind. Ct R. 
It is impossible to say whether this is ' Leoda's burh,' or 
whether it is ' the burh on the river Leadon.' Leadenham (Lines.) 
is ' Leoda's settlement' Letcombe (Berks. : Dom. Ledecumbe) is 
' Leoda's valley.' But Lydney (on Severn) is ' Isle on the 
R. Leden'; and Baddeley quotes a lost Ledencome (1121), 
' combe or vale of the Leden,' which appears to have once 
been the name of the Wick-water, near Painswick. A few 
miles below Ledbury on the river Leadon, and just in Glos. is 
Leadington (1384 Ledyngtone, Ep. Reg.). 

Leddicott (Shobdon). 

1086 Leidecote, Lidecote, Dom. 
1243 Ledcote, T. de Nevill. 
1 43 1 Ledycote, F.A. 
1550 Ledicote, Ind. Ct R. 
18^1 Ledi cot, Ord. Map. 

Possibly ' Lida's cottage.' Cf Lydbury North (Dom. Lideberie). 
Lydbrook-on-Wye is ante 1300 Luddebrok. 

The Lean (Pembridge). 

1529 Leone, Ind. Ct R. 
Akin to Lene (q.v.), in which district it lies. 

Legion's Cross (Eardisland). 

Leinthall. 

1086 Lenhale, Lintehale, Letehale, Dom. 

1275 Leintall Comites, Ep. Reg. 

1302 Leynthale, Quo War. 

1334 Leynthale, Ep. Reg. 

1342 Lentehale, Ep. Reg. 
'Lenta's nook or flat meadow.' For second element see 
Appendix, -hale. On the 1275 Entry in the Cantilupe Reg. 

' The Bishop's Park in Ledbury was once called Denzein Park. 
B. H. 8 



114 LEINTHALL 

Capes writes ' Leinthall Earles, which belonged to the Mortimers, 
is said to have taken its name from the Earls of March. But 
this entry in the Register is earlier than the title. The name 
was given probably in Saxon times. The Comites of the text 
seems the Latinizing of a familiar name, in which the possessive 
case was mistaken for a plural.' The parish of Leinthall Starkes 
takes its name, says Blount, ' from one of its mesne lords in an- 
cient times.' But we have no record of anyone bearing the name. 

Leintwardine. 

1086 Lenteurde, Dom. 

1289 Leintwordyn, Ep. Reg. 

1 29 1 Leynch^ Wardyn, Tax. Eccles. 

1479 Leyntward', MS. Ct R. 
' Lenta's worth ' or farm. For the second element see 
Appendix, -wardine. 

*Lembegge [a little stream flowing through Bredwardine 
into the Wye]. 

circ. 1200 'rivulus qui dicitur Lembegge,' Brec. Cart. 

Lenaston (Llanwarne). 

circ. 1 1 30 'Henlennic super ripam amyr [i.e. Gamber river] 
id est Languern,' Lib. Land. 

*Lene [Domesday Hundred]. 

1086 Lene, Dom. 

This name is applied in Dom. and later to a whole district, 
which is roughly the valley of the Arrow between Kington and 
Leominster. Low-lying land, it possibly took its name from 
W. llion, 'floods,' 'streams.' It is the second element in the 
names of Kingsland, Eardisland, and Monkland ; and it may be 
the first element in Lyonshall, and even of Leominster. 

Leominster. 

1046 Leomynstre, O.E. Chron. 

1086 Leofminstre, Dom. 

1227 Leministria, Chart. R. 

1250 Leominstrie, Capes. 

' Evidently a scribe's mistake. 



LIDGMOOR 1 1 5 

1275 Lemenestre, Ep. Reg. 
1 29 1 Leomen', Tax. Eccles. 
1 341 Leoministr', Non. Inq. 
1428 Lemestre, F.A. 
circ. 1550 ' Leonminstar (alias Lemster) supposed of clerkis 
that the old name of this toune took beginninge 
of the nunes, and was caullyd in Walche Llan- 
llieny, idem locus vel fanum monialium, and not 
of a lyon that is written to have apperyd to Kynge 
Merwalde,' Leland. 
1567 Lem'ster Burgus, — Forinsec', Ind. Ct R. 
The quotation from Leland gives two theories of the origin 
of the name. The f in the Dom. form points to ' Leofric's 
minster,' the Mercian Earl having founded a monastery of nun's 
there ; Freeman cannot find the exact date, but says it must 
have been soon after 1032. Or the first element may be 
W. llion, ' floods,' ' streams ' (see under Lene). 

The 14th century forms of Lyminster (Sussex) are in Leone- 
or Lene- (though it is Limestre in 13th century). Roberts thinks 
this is ' Leo's minster.' 

Letton. 

1086 Lectune, Letune, Dom. 

1 29 1 Lecton, Tax. Eccles. 

1303 Letton, F.A. 

1 341 Letton, Non. Inq. 

1383 Netherletton, Ep. Reg. 

143 1 Netherletton, F.A. 

Johnston thinks ' tun on the leat ' ; O.E. gelaet, M.E. let, ' an 

open conduit,' ' water channel' And the village is on a stream 

called Letton Lake (see Lake). Or the Lee- may be (as often in 

Dom.) O.E. legh, leak, ' a meadow.' But this should give Leyton. 

Lewiswyche (Lyonshall). 

Lewson (Whitchurch). 

No old forms to be found. Possibly it would turn out to be 
' Leof's ham.' 

Lidgmoor (King's Pyon). 



ii6 lilland's farm 

Lilland's Farm (Little Marcle). 

Lilly Brook Field (Lyde). 
In it is ' Our Lady's Lights.' 

Lilwall (Kington). 

Lily Hall Farm (Old and New, Ledbury). 

Lily Pool (Moccas). 

Limebrook (Lingen). 

1278 Lyngebroke, Ep. Reg. 
1 29 1 Lyngebrok, Tax. Eccles. 

1383 Lyndebroke, Ep. Reg. 

1384 Limebrok, Ep. Reg. 
1539 Lymbroke, Aug. Of. 

The first element is evidently the same as in Lingen (q.v.). 

Linceter (Whitbourne). 

*Lincot Wood [near Pontrilas]. 

1232 Linchoit, Dore Chart, 
circ. 1550 Lincot wood, Leland. 
Welsh llincoed, ' flax-wood ' ; or llyncoed, ' wood of the lake.' 

*Lincumbe [.'']. 

1086 Lincumbe, Dom. 

Lingen. 

1086 Lingham, Dom. 

1277 Lingayne, Ep. Reg. 

1324 Lingeyne, Abbrev. Plac. 

1334 Lyngeyn, Ep. Reg. 

1 341 Lyngane, Ep. Reg. 

1539 Leyngyn, Aug. Of 
The obvious suggestion for the first element is ling, ' heather.' 
But the word is Norse, and not found in England until 1357- 
Probably a pers. name is involved, though there is none in 
Onom. that seems likely. 



THE LLAN 11/ 

Linley Green (Stanford Bishop). 

No old forms. ' Flax-meadow.' It is in the township of 
Linton. 

The Linnett (Ullingswick). 

Linton. 

1086 Lintune, Dom. 
1226 Lyntone, Capes. 
1291 Lynton, Tax. Eccles. 
1 341 Lynton, Non. Inq. 
' Flax-enclosure.' There is also a township called Linton in 
Stanford Bishop. 

Cf. Lyncroft (Staffs.), Linacre (Lanes.), and four Lintons in 
Yorks. 

Lionshall (Peterchurch). 

1 3 16 Lynhales, F.A. 
See Lyonshall. 

Litley (Hereford). 

1086 Lutelei, Dom. 
1 140 Luttleya, Capes, 
circ. 1 29 1 Luttelege, Capes. 
' Luda's or Leoda's meadow.' The Worcs. Lutley is Dom. 
Ludeleia, ' Luda's meadow ' also. There is, too, a Staffs. Lutley. 

Little Hereford. 

1086 Lutelonhereford, Dom. 

1 123 Parva hereford, A.C. 

1303 Parva Hereford, F.A. 

1 341 Ecclesia de Parva Hereford, Non. Inq. 

1428 Luttelhereford, Lytelhereford, F.A. 

See Hereford. 

Littlehope (Mordiford). 

So in 1831. 

See Appendix, -hope. 

The Llan (Dorstone). 
See Appendix, llan-. 



Il8 LLANACH 

Llanach (Dorstone). 

The second element is prob. the Celtic suffix (which Pughe 
says means ' water ') found in Clydach, Mawddach, etc. 

Llanarrow (Bacton). 

1 83 1 Lanarw, Ord. Map. 
Possibly W. llan garw (g is often mutated or altogether 
dropped), ' a rough enclosure.' For llan see Appendix. 

Llanavon (Dorstone). 

1 83 1 Lanafon, Ord. Map. 

For first element see Appendix, llan-. The second element 
is Welsh afon, ' a river,' for which see Onny. {Llanavon is 
situated on the river Dore.) 

Llanbodon (Michaelchurch Eskley). 

It might be W. glan-baddon, ' bathing-bank ' ; or W. llan 
bodion, 'enclosure of the mountain kites.' 

Llancillo. 

circ. 1 1 30 Lann Sulbiu, Lib. Land, 
no date Llansillo, Heref Corp. MS. 

1733 Llansilo, Browne Willis, Paroch. Angl. 
Evidently a Saint's name is involved. 

Llancloudy (Llangarren). 

circ. 1 1 30 Lann Loudeu, Lib. Land. 
1313 Lancleudy, Manor Accts. 
1722 Lanloudy, Terrier. 
183 1 Lanlody, Ord. Map. 
The Lib. Land, form would give in mod. Welsh Llanllowdy. 
The difficulty of pronouncing Welsh // accounts for the intro- 
duction of c. Nothing is known of the Saint referred to. 

Llandee (Newton-in-Clodock). 

183 1 Lan-du, Ord. Map. 

Ord. Map is prob. wrong in making second element ddu^ 
'black.' It is most likely corrupted from -dewi. Cf. Llanddew 
(Brecs.) and the fourteen Welsh Llanddewis. 



LLANGARREN II9 

Llanderwyn (Abbeydore). 

1 83 1 Landerwen, Ord. Map. 
W. llan-derwen, ' oak-tree enclosure.' 

Llandinabo. 

circ. 1 1 30 Lann lunapui, Lib. Land. 
1279 Landinabon, Ep. Reg. 
Junapeius was an early Bishop of Llandaff. In Welsh he is 
Inabwy. (The d is intrusive.) The Church is still dedicated 
to him. 

Llandore (Llanveyno). 

183 1 Lan dwr, Ord. Map. 

W. ' enclosure on the river.' 

Situated on the Olchon brook. Some miles further up the 
river is Llandraw, prob. a variant of the same word. Cf. Landore 
(Glam.). 

Llanedry (Brilley). 

1 83 1 Lanbedry, Ord. Map. 

There are seven Welsh parishes called Llanbedr. The name 
may be W. Llan-bedwerw, 'church in the birch grove'; or W. 
Llan-beder, ' St Peter's Church.' 

Llanfair (Clifford). 

1537 Capella' de Llanvayre, Aug. Of 

Like the score or more of Welsh Llanfairs, 'church of the 
Virgin.' 

Llanfrother (Hentland). 

Said to be the site of Dubricius' monastery ; and hence 
interpreted as Welsh Llanfrawdwyr or Llanfrawtwr, ' church of 
the Friars.' 

Llangarren. 

circ. 1 1 30 Lann Garan, Lib. Land. 

1277 Langaran, Ep. Reg. 

1 29 1 Langaran, Tax. Eccles. 

1330 Langaren, Ep. Reg. 

1 341 Langaren, Non. Inq. 

^ This entry is the only indication, beyond the name itself, that there ever was a 
chapel here. 



I20 LLANGARREN 

W. ' church on the river Garran.' The last syllable is always 
-an down to 1831. It is now -en (Kelly) or -on {Crockford) about 
equally often. There is a Glangarren (farm) in St Weonards ; 
and in Goodrich in 1674 was 'a piece of land called Garrons.' 

Llangunbille (Llanrothal). 

circ. 1 1 30 Lann Cinuii, Lib. Land. 
1 83 1 Langynfil, Ord. Map. 

In Welsh v or /" is used as a mutation of b ; hence the 
modern form. The name of the Saint involved is not known. 

Llangunnock (St Weonards). 

circ. 1 1 30 Lann Cinauc, Lib. Land. 
1722 Llangunnock, Terrier. 
The second element is the name of another Celtic Saint. 

Llanhaithog (Kentchurch). 

1637 Lanhithock, Inq. p.m. 

It has been thought that here llan- is for glan, ' a bank ' ; 
£^lan haiddog would be ' bank of oats.' 

Llanrosser (Michaelchurch Eskley). 

(Not in 1 83 1 Ord. Map.) 
Prob. W. Llan-rhosydd, ' church on the moors.' 

Llanrothal. 

circ. 1 1 30 Lann Ridol, Lib. Land. 

1275 Lanrethal, Ep. Reg. 

1278 Lanrothal, Ep. Reg. 

1 29 1 Lanrothal, T. de Nevill. 

1 341 Lanthrothel, Non. Inq. 
Another obscure Welsh Saint-name is involved. 

Llanveyno. 

A chapelry of Clodock. But it is not mentioned in Tax. 
Eccles. nor in Non. Inq., nor yet in Val. Eccles. 

' Church of St Beuno,' to whom eleven churches are dedicated. 



LONGLAND BARS 121 

Llanwarne. 

1086 Ladguern, Dom. 

fLannpuernTeliau ri.e.Teilol haDibric,") ,- -1 t j 
circ. 1130-^^ °, „ , 1 Lib. Land. 

(Lann (juenn Aperhumur, j 

circ. 1250 Lanwarein, Glos. Cart 

1275 Landwaran, Ep. Reg. 

1 291 Lanwaran, Tax. Eccles. 

1302 Lanneran, Quo War. 

1 341 Lanwaran, Non. Inq. 

1535 Llanwarne, Val. Eccles. . 

Welsh Llan-gwernau, 'church among the alders.' In the 
Lib. Land, entry Aperhumur is mod. Welsh aber-amyr, ' at the 
confluence of the Gamber.' In Ballingham is a Warn Acre. 

Llanwonog (Clodock). 

1 83 1 Lan-wnog, Ord. Map. 
Prob. (like the Cardigs. Llanwenog) 'St Gwenog's Church.' 
It was a chapelry as late as 1733, though now only a farm. 

Llydyadyway (Cusop). 

183 1 Lidiart-y-wain, Ord. Map. 

The Ord. Map gives the true form (for which see Lydiates) ; 
it has been wondrously Welshed. Cf Broom-y-clos. 

Lockleys (Hatfield). 

Loden (brook). 
See Leadon. 

Logaston (Almeley). 

1328 Lugastone, Ep. Reg. 
It is not on the Lugg, so that river is not the first element. 

Longford (Kingsland). 

1243 Langeford, T. de Nevill. 

Longland Bars (Yarkhill). 



122 LONGROVE 

Longrove. 

1372 Longe grove, Inq. p.m. 

141 3 Longe grove, Inq. p.m. 

1 83 1 Langrove, Ord. Map. 
The Ord. Map led ignorant 19th century etymologists 
(and also the Post Office) to corrupt the old name of Long 
Grove into Llangrove. It is now usually written as above. 

Longtown. 

1540 Longa villa in Ewias Lacy, Aug. Of. 
circ. 1670 [Of Clodock] ' It hath lately taken the name of 
Longtown,' Silas Taylor. 

Longwood (Abbeydore). 

Longworth (Lugwardine). 

1 28 1 Langeford, Chart. R. 
1330 Langeford, Capes. 
1399 Longefforde, Inq. p.m. 
no date Langfordia, MS. Chart. 
141 8 Longford, MS. Chart. 
1781 Longford, Terrier. 
1831 Longworth, Ord. Map. 
There is no possible doubt as to the change of name towards 
the end of the i8th century, but no explanation can be given as 
to the cause. An exactly contrary change is seen in the Cambs. 
Duxford, which is Dokesworth as late as 1662. 

Lowdy Hall (Ullingswick). 

The Lowe (Much Dewchurch). 

The Luce (Stoke Prior). 

Lucton. 

1278 Loctone, Ep. Reg. 

It may be, as Blount suggests, ' town on the Lugg.' 

Ludford. 

1086 Ludeforde, Dom. 
ante 1229 Ludeforde, Glos. Cart. 

1327 Lodeford, Plac. de Banco. 



LUGHARNESS 1 23 

The Brut says that Lud was a British king, brother of 
Cassivelaunus. London was called from him Caerlud, and he 
was buried near the gate named from him Ludgate. Good 
authorities hold that Lud was a Celtic deity. Cf. Ludlow, 'Lud's 
Hill,' and Luddington (War.), O.E. Ludantun, 'Lud's town.' 
There is a Ludstock in Ledbury, and Val. Eccles. mentions two 
mills on ' Ludbroke in the lordship of Goodrich.' 

Lugg (river). 

circ. 1097 Lucge, Flor. Wore. 
1290 Lugge, Ep. Reg. 

The name is certainly Celtic, in Mod. Welsh Llugwy. The 
1 83 1 Ord. Map so marks it for a few miles of its upper course 
in Radnorshire above Llangynllo. Between that place and 
the Herefordshire border it is marked as Llugw ; thereafter it 
becomes 'The Lug.' Gir. Cambrensis calls it Luggo, which 
evidently equals Llugw. There seems to have been a Celtic god 
Lug, which may point to river-worship. But it is possibly no 
more than the W. llwg, ' a marsh,' ' a stream,' as in Luke Brook 
(trib. of the Garran). The name is found in Carlisle (It. Anton. 
Luguvallum ; Bede, Lugubalia ; in Welsh Caer Ligualia ; O.E. 
Chron. Carleol), and in Lugdunum {Lyons). Llewellyn is said 
(whether correctly or not, I cannot say) to be a Mod. Welsh 
form of Lugobelinos. 

Lugg Bridge (near Hereford). 

1275 Luggebruge, Ep. Reg. 
1349 Loggebrugge, Ep. Reg. 

Lugg Meadow (near Hereford). 

1534 Prata in Luggemedowe, Aug. Of 
1538 Lugmede, Val. Eccles. 

Lugharness. 

One of the small Marcher Lordships annexed to Hereford- 
shire by 27 Hen. VHI, cap. 26 (1536). It includes the district 
on the Lugg and S. and S.E. of Presteign. The meaning of 
-harness is not clear. Baddeley thinks it is hernesse, i.e. hurnes, 
a variant of M.E. hurne, ' a district' In Glos. Cart, is mentioned 



124 LUGHARNESS 

a Bromfelde-hernesse, evidently the district round our Hereford- 
shire Bromfield. In 1722 New Harness is one of the four 
' Liberties ' of Wormelow : the others being Diffrin-garran, 
Argoed-lank, and Showle. 

Lugwardine. 

1233 Lugwurthin, Pat. R. 

1279 Lugwarthyn, Ep. Reg. 

1 291 Logwardin, Tax. Eccles. 

1327 Lugwardyn, Capes. 
' Farm on the river Lugg.' For the second element see 
Appendix, -wardine. 

Luke Brook (trib. of Garran). 
See Daffaluke, and Lugg. 

Lulham (Eaton Bishop). 

1086 Lulleham, Dom. 
circ. 1250 Lullehalm, Ep. Reg. 
13 18 Lulham, Capes. 
1327 Lulham, Plac. de Banco. 

'The ham of Lull or Lulla.' For second element see 
Appendix, -ham. 

Lunnon (Vowchurch). 

Evidently a corruption of W. Llanon, ' church of the ash tree.' 
Cf Llannon (Carmarths.). 

Luntley (Dilwyn). 

1086 Lutelei, Dom. [J. H. R. says possibly]. 

1 1 23 Lunthelega, Leom. Cart. 

1243 Luntel, T. de Nevill. 

1251 Luntlegh, Chart. R. 

1303 Lunteleya, F.A. 

143 1 Lunteley, F.A. 

Luston (Eye)'. 

1086 Lustone, Dom. 

1 123 Lustuna, Leom. Cart. 

1 29 1 Luston, Tax. Eccles. 



LYE 125 

' Tun of Lusa.' Part of the township is still called Luston 
Bury ; and the Leom. Cart, (no date) mentions ' Aston in 
Luston,' a name which has not survived. 

Lyde. 

1086 Lude, Leode, Dom. 

1 173 Luda, Ludebroc, Capes, 
circ. 1250 Luda Monachorum, Luda Muchegros, Capes. 

1304 Lude Godefreye, Ep. Reg. 

1 3 16 Lude Godfray, Lude Sauseye, F.A. 

1327 Lude, Plac. de Banco. 

1542 Luyd Prior [of St Guthlac's.], Orig. R. 
Origin uncertain. Lyde Godfrey is also called Lyde Arundel. 
Lyde Saucy was leased by Ralph de Saucy from the Lacies in 
the 1 2th century. The Muchegros family holds Herefordshire 
lands in Dom. A farm in Upper Lyde is still known as Much 
Cross Farm. 

Lydiates (Brimfield). 

Called Lydiard in Ord. Map. There is, on same map, a 
Lydiatts in Eyton, Lidiard-y-wain in Ctisop, a West Lidiart in 
Withington, and Bagwy Llydiart in Orcop. Leom. Cart. circ. 
1 2 19 has Lhidiate [somewhere near Maund']; a Wormesley 
Charter ante 1272 has Bodieslidiet [apparently near Lyonshall'\; 
and in a Crasswall Chart, of late i ith century is ' Lidhate versus 
Boleston.' A Brecon Charter has a curious entry (circ. 1200), 
'juxta viam regalem apud la lidesate versus austrum.' The s 
may be a scribe's mistake, but the word is repeated several 
times. 

Cf Lypiatt (Glos.), ' gate into an enclosure.' 

Lye (Aymestreyj. 

1086 Lecwe, Lege, Dom. 

1243 Lege, T. de Nevill. 

1 3 16 Overleye, Netherleye, F.A. 

1 341 Leye, Non. Inq. 

1346 Overleye, Netherleye, F.A. 

1560 Nether Lighe, Lid. Ct Rolls. 
In Salop and Worcs. Dom. Lege has become Lea. 



126 LYNCH 

Lynch (Little Hereford). 
So in 1 83 1 Ord. Map. 

Lynhales (Lyonshall). 

A 19th century name for a house previously called 'The 
Moor.' 

Lyonshall. 

1086 Lenehalle, Dom. 

circ. 1 100 Linehalla, Brec. Cart. 

1209 Lenhaul, Pat. R. 

1227 Lenhal, Chart. R. 

1243 Lenhales, T. de Nevill. 

1251 Lenhales, Chart. R. 

1263 Le Hales, Letter in Rymer's Foedera. 

1287 Leonhale, Ep. Reg. 

1 29 1 Lenhales, Tax. Eccles. 

1303 Leonales, F.A. 

1 341 Leonhales, Non. Inq. 

1385 Lennolx, Rot. Turr. 

1538 Leonhales, Val. Eccles. 

circ. 1550 ' Linshaull, of some written Leonshaul,' Leland. 

1 83 1 Lynhales or Lionshall, Ord. Map. 

There is a Lionshall (q.v.) in Peterchurch, which in 13 16 was 
Lynhales. The confusion of Len- with Leon- seems to date 
from the second half of the 1 3th century. It is possible that the 
first element is akin to Lene (q.v.), from which it is distant about 
six miles. But this would not explain the occurrence of the 
name in Peterchurch. For the second element see App. -hall. 

Lyston (Llanwarne). 

'1505 Lyiston, Courtfield MS. 
1576 Lyeston, Courtfield MS. 

Madley. 

1086 Medelagie, Dom. 

circ. 1130 Matle, Lib. Land, 

circ. 1200 Madele, Capes. 

1221 Maddeleye, Capes. 



MAINOAKS 127 

1280 Maudel, Chart. R. 

1 29 1 Madele, Tax. Eccles. 

1300 Madeleye, Inq. p.m. 

1 341 Maddeley, Non. Inq. 
Lib. Land, says matle (Mod. Welsh Mad lie) is ' good place,' 
because Dubricius was born there. But the English settlers 
evidently understood it as ' Meadow of Mada,' and the name 
took this English form. Cf. Madeley (Salop) which is Dom. 
Madelie, Madingley (Cambs.), and Madehurst (Sussex) which is 
Dom. Madelie. 'Madanleah' occurs in Birch. 

Maen twlch (St Margaret's). 

1 83 1 Maen twlch, Ord. Map. 
W. ' stone tump.' 

Maerdy. 

This Welsh name, originally ' the house of a steward,' then 
commonly ' a dairy-house,' is found some half-dozen times 
attached to little hill-farms in the district of Ewyas and the 
Golden Valley. In Kentchurch and Hardwick it is still correctly 
spelt. In Clodock it has become ' The Moody,' in St Margaret's, 
' The Murdie,' and in Newton-in-Clodock, ' Murdy.' 

Maescoed (Clodock). 

1 1 39 Maischoit, E. H. Cart. 
1232 Mascott, Dore Chart. 
1324 Mascoit, Chart. R. 
1327 Mascoyht, Chart. R. 
18 1 2 ' The Mescotts,' Duncumb. 
Duncumb gives what is still the local pronunciation. The 
mod. form in print is evidently due to philological purists, whose 
interpretation this time is correct. 

W. maes-y-coed, ' meadow in the wood.' 

Mahollam (Kington). 

Mainoaks (Goodrich). 

1086 Mainaure [J. H. R. thinks possibly]. 
Possibly O.E. Maegan ofer, ' Maega's bank.' 



128 MAINSTONE COURT 

Mainstone Court (Ashperton). 

1305 Maynestone, Ep. Reg. 

1 3 16 Mayneston, F.A. 

1333 Maynestone, Ep. Reg. 
Apparently ' tun of Maena.' 

Mairescess (St Margaret's). 
Not in 1 83 1 Ord. Map. 

*Malfeld [in Peterchurch]. 

No date Malfeld, Dore Chart. 
See Mawfield. 

Malvern (West, Colwall). 

1086 Malferne, Dom. 
1275 Malvernia, Ep. Reg. 
It is impossible to conjecture the meaning of this name. 
One hesitates to speculate even whether it be English or Celtic 
in origin. In a MS. in the library of Pemb. Coll. Camb., undated 
but said to be of the nth century, the form Maelfern is found. 

*Mamilet Forest [in Archenfield, near the Gamber brook], 
circ. 1 130 Mamheiliad, Lib. Land. 

Mangerdine (Mordiford). 

No forms older than 1831. But it is evidently a corruption 
of a -wardine ending, for which see Appendix. Quite close, in 
same parish, is Scutterdine. 

Mansell Gamage. 

ante 1056 Malveshylle, Kemble. 
1086 Malueselle, Dom. 
1 29 1 Malmeshull Gamag', Tax. Eccles. 
1303 Malmeshulle Gamage, F.A. 
1 341 Malmeshull Gamag, Non. Inq. 
The first element is O.E. malu, malwe, ' mallow.' ' Hill on 
which the mallow grows.' The change to Malm- seems to be 
merely a phonetic corruption, since Malm- has no meaning. 



HARDEN 129 

The Gamage family held lands in Mansell in the I2th century 
to mid. 13th century. 

In Tillington in 1395 is Manselleslond {E,-^. Reg.). 

Mansell Lacy. 

1086 Malveshille, Dom. 

1291 MalmeshuU Lacy, Tax. Eccles. 

1303 Malmeshulle Lacy, F.A. 

1328 Malmeshulle, Feet of Fines. 

1 341 MalmeshuU Lacy, Non. Inq. 

1400 Mansellacy, Aconbury Accts. 
The 1400 entry in Aeon. Accts mentions, with Mansellacy, 
a Childesmalmeshull. 

Marcle. 

1086 Merchelai, Dom. 

1 143 Markeley, Glos. Cart. 

1 163 Marcleie, Capes. 

1 29 1 Marcle, Tax. Eccles. 

1302 Markelee, Quo War. 

1 341 Markeley, Magna & Parva, Non. Inq. 

1652 Markehill, Survey. 
J. S. Wood and Judge Cooke say mearc-leah, 'meadow on 
the boundary.' But Dom. -lai, though usually it represents 
-leak, is sometimes O.K. Maw, 'a hill'; and the parish is set on 
a hill, which is still a landmark for the neighbourhood. It was 
possibly therefore, in the nth century, 'Boundary Hill.' But, 
in 1 2th and following centuries, what should have been -low is 
confused with -ley, which gives ' Boundary meadow.' A farm in 
the parish is now called 'The Bounds.' In Garway (now and 
in 1607) is March Hill. 

Marden. 

1086 Maurdine, Dom. 

1 138 Mauordine, Maurdina, A.C. 

1 2 19 Mawrdin, Capes. 

1227 Maworthin, Chart. R. 

1232 Mawworthin, Mauworthin, Close R. 

1259 Mawordin, Chart. R. 

B. H. 9 



I30 HARDEN 

1270 Mauardyn, Chart. R. 

1 29 1 Mawardyn, Maurden, Marthin, Tax. Eccles. 

1302 Mawrthyn', Mawardyn, Quo War. 

1 34 1 Maurdyn, Non. Inq. 

154s Mawreden, Ind. Ct R. 
' Farm of a man, possibly Maw (in Onom.). There is a 
Harden in Sussex, with quite a different history, which gives 
' boundary hill ' as its meaning. 

Marks (Longrove). 

Marias Mill (Kilpeck). 

This may be a corruption of or akin in origin to the W. pl.-n. 
Marloes, found in Pembs. Gwfin, son of Llywarch Hen, the 
6th century Welsh poet, is said to have been slain in a battle at 
' the ford of Morlas.' 

Marlbrook Hall (Elton). 

Marlow (Leintwardine). 

Old forms needed, to show whether it is ' Boundary hill ' or 
'Greater hill' 

Marston (Pembridge). 

1086 Mereston, Dom. 
1243 Merstun, Leom. Cart. 
1302 Merscheton', Quo War. 
' Tun by the mere or marsh.' Leom. Cart, has a Mersmedewe, 
which cannot be identified. There are at least a dozen Marstons 
in England, and a Merston in I. of Wight. 

Marston Stannett (Pencombe). 

1086 Merestune, Dom. 
temp. Hen. HI Merscheton, MS. Chart. 

Marstow. 

circ. 1 1 30 Lann Martin, Lib. Land. 

So identified by Eg. Phil. I can find no other early form. 
If the identification is correct, Marstow would be ' the dwelling- 
place hard by St Martin's church.' (The present church is 
dedicated to St Matthew.) 



WHITCHURCH MAUND 131 

Massington (Ledbury). 

1304 Masintone, Ep. Reg. 
' Tun of Maesa.' A charter in Kemble relates to Maessan- 
wyrth, ' Maesa's farm.' 

*Mateurdin [somewhere near Eardisley]. 
1086 Mateurdin, Dom. 

Mathon. 

1086 Matma, Dom. 

1275 Mathine, Madine, Ep. Reg. 

139s Mathone, Ep. Reg. 
Origin uncertain. There is in 1302 (Quo War.) a Mathunleye 
in Archenfield. 

Maund Bryan 1 

Rose Maund | (Bodenham). 

"Whitchurch Maundj 

1086 Mage, Magge, Magene, Magga, Dom. 
circ. 1 150 Machna, Brec. Cart, 
ante 1176 Mahena, Brec. Cart. 
1 1 87 Magene', Capes. 
1 2 19 Brian de Maghene, Capes, 
temp. Hen. Ill Magene Album, MS. Chart. 
1240 Mawene Aubin, Fine Roll. 
1243 Magene Albini, Magene Brian, Magene Mauricii, 
T. de Nevill. 

1302 Brianes Maune, Quo War. 

1303 Mawene Nichol, F.A. 
1337 Maune, Chart. R. 
143 1 Mawne Nicholl, F.A. 
1433 Rons Maune, Court R. 

1559 Mawne Albyn, Mawne Bryan, Harl. MS. 
circ. 1 650 ' Ronse Maun is from the ancient family of 
Ronse, hitherto owners of it,' Blount MS. 
Magene, or Mage, was a district of some considerable size. 
One is tempted to say that the Mercian folk, who on settling in 

' The details identify it as Rose Maund. 



132 WHITCHURCH MAUND 

Herefordshire were called Mage-saetas, took their name from 
this district, rather than, as pop. etymology has it, from Magna, 
the Roman city near the Wye. The oldest recorded form of 
the name of these settlers is Magonsetun (A.D. 8 1 1 ), which looks 
more like ' settlers in Magene,' than ' settlers in Magna.' More- 
over, Magna had almost certainly become Kenchester in Ofifa 's 
time (757-796). What Magene means it is impossible to tell. 
The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle (1016) says, ' Magesaetae alias 
Masegetae ' (i.e. inhabitants of ' Maiseveth '). 

*Mawdelens ■Wood [Garway]. 

1585 Mawdelens Wood, Survey of Manor. 

Mawfield (Allensmore). 

1086 Malfelle, Dom. 

1243 Malcfeld, T. de Nevill. 

1 3 16 Malfeld, F.A. 
The whole district, roughly bounded by the Wye, the Dore 
and the Worm, is called in Lib. Land. Mais Mail Lochou, also 
Campus Malochu. The Dom. and T. de Nevill forms are a half 
translation of Campus Malochu, T. de Nevill retaining the 
guttural. The name only now survives in the farm in Allens- 
more. A Dore Charter mentions also a Malfeld, which must 
be in Peterchurch. 

May Hill (Aston Ingham). 
Really Yartledon Hill, q.v. 

Maylord Street (Hereford). 

1416 Malyerestrete, Heref Corp. MS. 
1478 Malierstrete, Heref. Corp. MS. 

*Meadmore [Madley]. 

circ. 1200 Medemore, Capes, 
circ. 1220 Medimor, Capes. 
13 18 Medemore, Capes. 
Meadmore is still a surname fairly common in the county, 
though as a place-name it is lost. 

Meer Common (Almeley). 



MERRYFIELD 1 33 

Meer Court (Allensmore). 

T. de Nevill (which J. H. R. calls ' the despair of the topo- 
grapher ') is usually wild in its spelling. In Herefordshire it is 
sometimes at its wildest. In Kingstone it gives us 'Welketon, 
Cobbewell, La Marc,' which must be (since they are exactly in 
the right position) Webbeton, Caldewell, la Mare, the last of 
these being the present farm of Meer Court. In 1553 (Inq. p.m.) 
it is Merecourte. 

Mennalls (Kimbolton). 

Merbach (Dorstone). 

1302 Merebathe, Quo War. 

One is tempted to say this is M.E. mere, ' a boundary,' and 
becAe or bache, ' a valley ' ; but it is quite certainly the name of 
the kz7/ which dominates the upper portion of the Golden Valley. 
More than half the place-names in the immediate neighbourhood 
are W. 

*Merestun [the district round Wigmore]. 

Dom. (speaking of the Castle of Wigmore) says : ' Willelmus 
comes fecit illud in Wasta terra que vocatur Merestun, quam 
tenebat Gunuert T. R. E.' Evidently, in the Confessor's day, 
the 'tun by the mere' was a settled holding. It had been 
devastated by Gruffydd and Aelfgar some thirty years before 
the Survey, or by Edric the Savage some twelve years after 
them. The holder, perhaps builder, of Merestun T. R. E. is 
that Gunward whose name, corrupted, is preserved in Clungun- 
ford (' Gunward's Clun'). 

*Meresty [Hope Mansel]. 

1338 'quaedam semita vocata Meresty,' Glos. Cart. 

'Boundary-path.' As late as 1722 the word ' meer ' is used 
in Herefordshire leases for ' boundary.' 

Merrings (Bosbury). 

Merryfield (Stoke Lacy). 



134 MERRYFOLD 

Merryfold (Kilpeck). 
Merry Hill (Clehonger). 

Merryshire 'Wood (Callow). 

Perhaps all these are from M.E. mire, myre, ' boggy, swampy 
ground ' (cf. Mirfield, Yorks.). Duignan thinks the first element 
in Meriden (Warwcs.) is myrig, ' pleasant.' 

Merryvale (Aconbury). 

1 27 1 Myryvale, Ep. Reg. 

1400 Muryvalefeld, Aeon. Accts. 

141 5 Merivalefeld, Ct Roll. 

1538 Meryvalle, Aug. Of. 
There seems no doubt that the first element here is M.E. 
mzre, myre, ' boggy, swampy ground.' But Merevale (Warwcs.) 
is one of the few genuine Latin place-names. It was called 
mira villa by the Cistercian monks who settled there. (Cf. also 
Merville in Normandy.) 

Michaelchurch (Tretire). 

circ. 1 1 30 Lann mihacgel cil luch, Lib. Land. 
I cannot discover when the English form came into use. 
For cil luck see Gillow. 

Michaelchurch (Brilley). 

1 29 1 Ecclesia Sancti Michaelis, Tax. Eccles. 
1302 Mighelschirche by Huntyndon, Quo War. 
1333 Mygholescherche, Capes. 
1 341 Ecclesia Sancti Michaelis, Non. Inq. 
1577 Michaelchurch, Saxton's Map. 

In Welsh MSS. it is often Llanfihangel Dyfiryn Arw, or 
Llanfihangel y Dyfiryn. 

Michaelchurch Eskley. 

1280 Michaeleschirche, E. H. Cart. 
1577 Llanyhangleskle, Saxton's Map. 
161 1 Llanihangleskle, Speed's Map. 
1786 Michaelchurch, Taylor's Map. 



MINSTER 135 

Middlecourt (Bromyard). 
1366 ' Porcio de middulcourt in ecclesia de Bromyard,' Ep. Reg. 

Middleton (Kimbolton). 

1086 Miceltune, Dom. 

1 123 Miclatuna, Leom. Cart. 

1243 Mittleton, T. de Nevill. 

183 1 Middleton-on-the-Hill, Ord. Map. 
The first element is O.E. micel, ' great ' (Scotch, muckle). 
Cf. in the Glos. Cart, a watercourse called ' Muchelpol.' 
Most English Middletons (of which there are more than 
twenty) are Dom. Mideltone, or other like forms. One only 
is Mildentone, 'tun of Milda.' 

Middlewood (Hardwick). 

1086 Midewde, Mideurde, Dom. 

1290 Mydwode, Ep. Reg. 

1348 Middelwode, Ep. Reg. 

1537 Myddellwod, Medelwood, Aug. Of. 

Mileshiggins (farm near the Mynde, Much Dewchurch). 

In 1459, i" ^" Excheq. MS., complaint is made to the 
Lord of Kilpeck that one of his tenants has ' come to the Munde 
...and y stele an hors...of the godes of oon Milys Hugyn yo^ 
ten'nt.' A few miles away is Higgins Well ; and in the Leom. 
Cart, is Hugynsmedue. Leom. Cart, has also a Myleshope ; and 
there is a Miles londe in E. H. Cart. 1352. 

Milton (Pembridge). 

1086 Mildetune, Dom. 
1393 Mydelton, Mylton, Ep. Reg. 
There are more than twenty Miltons in England ; some, the 
later ones, are probably Mill-town. Most are Dom. Middeltone. 
This is probably ' Milda's tun,' as Milton Street (Sussex) ; though 
in this latter case Roberts thinks Mildetune may possibly repre- 
sent Middeltune by metathesis. 

Minster (Much Birch). 



136 MINTRIDGE 

Mintridge (Stoke Lacy). 

circ. 1230 Muntryche, Harl. MS. 
1558 Muntridge, Harl. MS. 
1650 Mintridge, Heref. Corpl MS. 
The first element may be the plant (O.E. minta, Dutch, 
munt) as in Minsted (Sussex) ; or possibly it is O.E. munt, 
'a mount.' 

Mitchell (Ledbury). 

No old forms. Possibly O.E. muche-ale, ' great hall ' or ' big 
nook.' (For second element see Appendix, -hall^ There is 
a Michelet in Leom. Cart, unidentified. 

Moccas. 

1086 Moches, Dom. 

circ. 1 1 30 Mochros, Lib. Land. 

1243 Mocres, T. de Nevill. 

1283 Mockres, Fine Roll. 

1 29 1 Mockers, Tax. Eccles. 

1303 Mockes, F.A. 

1 32 1 Molkas, Ep. Reg. 

1322 Mockas, Ep. Reg. 

'Swine-moor.' Welsh moch is plur. of mochyn, 'a pig.' It 
forms an element in many Welsh place-names. There are at 
least two places called Mochras, and a Mochdre, and a Mochnant. 
A little lower down the river Wye, near Madley, is Swinmoor{q.\.), 
a name thought to be a translation of Mochros. Eg. Phil, thinks 
Mochros was the name of a district, which extended down the 
Wye and included Swinmoor. In 1722 there is a Piggmoor in 
Credenhill. 

Moctree (Forest of, Aston near Ludlow). 
W. moch as in previous word, and tref, ' a house,' ' hamlet,' 
' village.' 

Moiles Cot (Sutton St Nicholas). 

Money-farthing Hill (Clodock). 

circ. 1 1 30 Minid ferdun, Lib. Land. 



MONNINGTON-IN-STRADDEL 137 

1818 ' Money- Farthing Hill, probably from coins found 

there,' Britton's ' Herefordshire.' 
183 1 Mynydd Ferddyn, Ord. Map. 

Welsh mynydd Ferddyn, ' Ferddyn's hill' Close by (in the 
same delimitation, Lib. Land.) was luch Ferdun, ' Ferddyn's Loch.' 
The name is now spelt in many different ways. Kelly's igcxa 
Directory makes it Money-ferdin. Locally it is still Money- 
farthing. 

Monk-hide (Yarkhill). 

1356 Hyde Monachorum, Ep. Reg. 
Belonged to St Peter's, Gloucester. There is a Monk's 
Court in Eardisland, and a Monkhall in Much Dewchurch. 

Monkland. 

1086 Leine, Dom. 

1 123 Leena, Leom. Cart. 

1 137 Monkeslene, Munkeslene, Leom. Cart. 

1 29 1 Monklene, Tax. Eccles. 

1327 Monklene, Plac. de Banco. 

1336 Monkelone, Ep. Reg. 

1538 Monkelane, Val. Eccles. 

Belonged to the Abbey of Conches in Normandy. For 
second element see Lena. 

*Monkmill [' in suburbio Herefordie ']. 
1 3 16 Monkenemulle, Ep. Reg. 
1802 Monkmoor Mill, Price's Map. 
In Price's Map the mill is on Eigne-brook (see Eign). It is 
possible that the 13 16 form is Monk-eigne-mill. 

Monnington-in-Straddel. 

1086 Manitune, Manetune, Dom. 

1300 Monynton in Straddel, Inq. p.m. 

1303 Monyton, F.A. 

1 3 16 Monyton Straddel, F.A. 

1 83 1 Monnington Stradel, Ord. Map. 



138 MONNINGTON-ON-WYE 

Monnington-on-Wye. 

1086 Manitune, Dom. 

circ. 1 1 50 Monitona, MS. Chart. 

1278 Monitone, Ep. Reg. 

1286 Munetone, Ep. Reg. 

1 29 1 Moniton, Tax. Eccles. 

1302 Mointon super Weyam, Quo War. 

1 341 Monyton, Non. Inq. 

1 391 Monyton super Weyam, Inq. p.m. 

' Tun of Mann, Manna, or Manni ' (all common in Onom.). 

Monnow (river, trib. of Wye). 

circ. 1 1 30 Mingui, Mynwy, Monnwy, Lib. Land. 
In Mod. Welsh the river is Mynwy. Monnow is the English 
spelling of the colloquial Welsh Mynw. 

Monsty (Burrington). 

No old forms. First element uncertain. For second element 
see Appendix, -sty. 

The Moor (Clifford). 

1086 More, Dom. 

The Dom. entry says More is in Stradel Hundred, not, as 
usual, ' in valle Stradelei.' This probably means that the Stradel 
Hundred stretched beyond the actual valley of the Dora, and 
over the watershed into the valley of the Wye. 

Canon Moor (Hereford). 

1086 More, Dom. 

1291 Mora Canonicorum, Tax. Eccles. 
1 341 Mora Canonicorum, Non. Inq. 
' The Moor ' is to be found as the name of a house in Boden- 
ham (La More 1303), Clifford, and Eardisley. In this last parish 
is a Quistmore also. Leom. Cart, has very often ' Manerium de 
la More in Leon,' and, several times, a More Aubyn. 

Moor Abbey (Middleton). 

1241 La More, Cott. MS. 
No abbey is known to have been in Middleton. 



MOUSE CASTLE 139 

Moorhampton (Yazor). 

1 341 Moramptone, Ep. Reg. 
There is a Moorhampton (farm) also in Abbey dore. 

Moraston (Bridstow). 
circ. 1 1 30 Cum Mouruc (Mod. Welsh, Cwm Meurig), Lib. Land. 

So identified by Eg. Phil. ' Meurig's tun ' ; soon corrupted 
into Moraston on English lips. 

Cf. (in Almeley) Hallaston and Logaston (q.v.). 

Mordiford. 

circ. 1230 Mordiforde, Capes. 

1 29 1 Mordeford, Tax. Eccles. 
1295 Mordiford, Ep. Reg. 
1 341 Mordiford, Non. Inq. 
Judge Cooke says it is Welsh, Mord-gwy-fford, ' the passage 
or way through the constantly overflowing or muddy water.' 
On this, not being a Celtic scholar, I make no comment. But 
it is not in a Welsh district. 

Moreton Jeffreys. 

1086 Mortune, Dom. 
1273 Morton Jeffrey, Comp. R. 
1 341 Capella de Morton Geffray, Non. Inq. 
The 'Jeffrey' cannot be traced. From before Dom. to the 
present day the living has been in the hands of the Dean and 
Chapter of Hereford. 

Moreton-on-Lugg. 

1086 Mortune, Dom. 
circ. 1250 Morthone, MS. deed. 

1 29 1 Morton juxta Logge, Tax. Eccles. 

1 341 Morton juxta Lugge, Non. Inq. 
O.E. mor tun, ' the tun by the moor or swamp.' 
Mosewick (Cradley). 
For second element see Appendix, -wick. 
Mount Boon (Little Dewchurch). 
Mouse Castle (Cusop). 



I40 MOWBAGE 

Mowbage (Peterchurch). 

1232 Maubache, Dore Chart. 

1 83 1 Mowbage, Ord. Map. 
A few miles further up the Golden Valley is Merbach hill{i:{.v.). 

Mowley (Upper and Lower, Staunton-on- Arrow). 

Munderfield Harold (Bromyard). 

Munderfield Row (Avenbury). 

1385 Munderfield, Ep. Reg. 

I cannot fix, even approximately, the date when the Avenbury 
portion of Munderfield became Munderfield Row. This new 
element is, I conceive, a corruption of Rough (q.v.) so commonly 
found in Herefordshire. 

Munkleys (Crasswall). 

Munkley is a surname in the county. 

Munsley. 

1086 Muneslai, Moneslai, Muleslage, Dom. 

1 173 Muneslega, Capes. 

1243 Munesleg, T. de Nevill. 

1 28 1 Monesle, Chart. R. 

1 291 Monesleye, Tax. Eccles. 

1303 Moneslye, F.A. 

1305 Monesle, Ep. Reg. 

1 341 Monesleye, Non. Inq. 

Munstone (Holmer). 

*Myleshope [.']. 

In Leom. Cart, undated. See Hope. 

The Mynde (Much Dewchurch). 

1300 Munede, Inq. p.m. 
1340 Meenede, Minister's Accts. 
1459 Munde, Excheq. MS. 
Welsh mynydd, 'a mountain,' and also 'a heath or uncultivated 
tract.' There is a Meend's Wood in Gajtarew, and a Menith 



NASH 141 

Wood in Lindridge (Worcs.). For the form meand, common in 
Forest of Dean, see Baddeley, p. xix. The actual mansion house 
(Mynde Park) was apparently once called Tregroes. 

Mynydd Brith (Dorstone). 

1327 Fowemenede, Plac. de Banco. 

1577 Fowmynd Chapel, Saxton's Map. 

161 1 Fowmynd Chapel, Speed's Map. 

1786 Vowmynd, Taylor's Map. 

1 83 1 Mynydd brith, Ord. Map. 
Welsh mynydd, ' a mountain,' and frith, ' a wood.' I cannot 
explain the change of name between 1786 and 1831. At the 
present day the 183 1 form is the official name; but old people 
in Dorstone still call it Vowmynd. For the first element in the 
older name see Fownhope. 

*Nantrorgwy [Goodrich]. 

1722 Nantrorgwy, Terrier. 
W., perhaps nant-yr-or-gwy , 'valley on the margin of the 
Wye.' 

Nant-y-bar (Dorstone). 

W. meaning something like 'valley-top,' or 'head of the 
brook.' 

Nant-y-glas-dwyr (Cusop). 

Welsh, ' valley of the gray-blue river.' 

Nant-yr-Esk (Newton-in-Clodock). 
Welsh, ' valley of the Eskley brook.' 

Nant-y-Waun (trib. of Garran). 

W. nant-y-gwaun, ' brook in the meadow.' 

Nash. 

1 291 Nasse, Tax. Eccles. 

1338 Nasse, Glos. Cart. 

M.E. atten ashe, 'at the ash-tree.' 

There is a Nash also in Fownhope and a Nashend in Bosbury. 
As a place-name Nash is found in several other counties also, 



142 NASH 

Mons., Pembs., Bucks., Salop, and Soms. The Mons. Nash is 
in Lib. Land. 'Ecclesia de Fraxino.' In the Heref. Ep. Regs, 
between 1331 and 1346 Walter, John, Richard, Nicholaus, and 
Roger atte Nasshe, or Nessche, were ordained. For the transfer 
of n cf Noke (Oxfs.) which is atten oke, 'at the oak-tree'; and 
Nechells (Warwcs.) v/hich in 1 300 is Les Echelis, and, circ. 1 500, 
'Echells otherwise Nechells.' The same thing has occurred in 
the word Newt which is 'an eft' 

Nelmes (Bosbury). 

No old forms. Possibly on the analogy of Nash (a place- 
name found in the same parish), ' at the elm-tree.' 

Netherley (Mathon). 

Netherton (Brampton Abbotts, Ledbury, Pencoyd). 
Ledbury, 1304 Northyntone, Ep. Reg. 
Ledbury, 1338 Netherton, Val. Eccles. 
Pencoyd, 1551 Nethertoune, Inq. p.m. 

Netherwood (Thornbury). 

So in 1 83 1 Ord. Map; but it seems in the i8th century to 
have been called Northwood. 

New Barns (Abbeydore). 

First so called in 11 20 when they were built by Robert of 
Ewias (who gave to E. H. Priory the land on which the old 
barns had stood). 

Newchurch (Kinnersley). 

1334 Newechurche, Assize R. 
1343 Newchirche, Ep. Reg. 

Newton-in-Clodock. 
Welsh Newton. 

Clod. 1086 Newentone, Niwetone, Neutone, Dom. 
1243 Newtone, T. de Nevill. 
Welsh N. 1 341 Neuton, Non. Inq. 

O.E. Niwe tun, 'new-town.' There is a Newton also in 
Kinnersley, and one in Croft which is Neuton in 1346 (F.A.). 
New Street in Ledbury has been so called since 1461. 



NUNNINGTON 143 

Newtown (Leominster). 

1 123 Niwetuna, Leom. Cart. 
No date, but later Newenton, Leom. Cart. 
There is a Newton also in Little Birch, and in 1537 a 
Newborugh in Abbey dore. 

New 'Wear (Huntsham). 

1086 Niware, Dom. 

The Noakes (Bredenbury). 

Old forms wanted, probably of same origin as Norke (q.v.). 

Nordan (Eye). 

Norke (Court, Pembridge). 

1334 La Noke, Chart. R. 
1366 The Noke, Ep. Reg. 
1529 Noke, Ind. Ct R. 
1 83 1 Noke, Ord. Map. 
Probably (like the Oxfs. Noke) O.E. atten oke, ' at the oak- 
tree.' (Near by is Nokelane Head.) 

The Normans (Stoke Prior). 
Northgate Park (St Weonards). 

Norton Canon. 

1086 Nortune, Dom. 

1 29 1 Nortune, Tax. Eccles. 

1 34 1 Nortune, Non. Inq. 
' North-town ' : belonging to Dean and Chapter of Hereford. 
There is a Norton also in Bromyard. 

Noverings (Little, Bosbury). 

Nunnington (Withington). 

circ. 1 166 Dunitune', Capes. 
1 2 19 Dunnitune^ Capes. 
1327 Nonynton, Plac. de Banco. 
It is not clear how Dunitune (which should have become 
Donnington or the like) changed into Nonynton, and so to 
Nunnington. 

' Identified as Nunnington by Canon Capes, from details as to land still held by 
the Chapter of Hereford. 



144 NUNSLAND 

Nunsland (Eardisland). 
Nunupton (Brimfield). 
Nupton (Canon Pyon). 
Nurdens (Woolhope). 
Nurton (Court, Middleton). 
Oaker Farm (Eyton). 

Oatley (Peterchurch). 

A street in Ledbury is called Oatleys. 

Ockridge (Ledbury). 

1304 Alkerugge, Ep. Reg. 
There is an Ockridge also in Pencombe. 

Lyre Ocle. 

1215 Acleya, Brec. Cart. 

1243 Acle Lyre, T. de Nevill. 

1286 Lyra Acle, Capes. 

1 341 Oclelere, Non. Inq. 

circ. 1550 Acle Lyra, Leland. 
O.E. ac leak, ' oak meadow.' See Ocle Pychard. Belonged 

to the Abbey of Lyra in Normandy. 

Ocle Pychard. 

1086 Acle, Dom. 
1247 Acle Pichard, Capes, 
circ. 1250 Acle Pycharde, Glos. Cart. 
1 29 1 Acle Pychard, Tax. Eccles. 
1302 Oclepichard, Quo War. 
1 341 Okelpichard, Non. Inq. 
1 35 1 Oclepichard, Plac. de Banco. 
O.E. ac leak, 'oak meadow.' Dom. Acle, Ocle, or Aclea 
usually becomes Oakley, -ley is rarely slurred into -le. 

Cf. Acle (Norf.), Acle (Thanet). Baddeley thinks Oakle 
(Street, Glos.) is ' Occa's lea.' 

Roger Pychard of Stradewi (Brec.) held Ocle in 1243: and 
the family would seem to have retained it for at least two 
centuries. 



ORCOP 145 

The Okes (Bromyard). 

1 3 10 le Okes juxta Bromyard, Harl. MS. 
Leom. Cart, (undated) has a ' Feodum de la Oke.' 

Olchon (brook, trib. of Monnow above Clodock). 
circ. 1 1 30 Elchon, Lib. Land. 

Old Forge (Kentchurch). 

Perhaps an ancient 'bloomery' or smelting-place. Many such 
are found near Jioss, and there are traces of one in Peterchurch. 

Old Hill (Walford-on-Wye). 
So in 1640, as now. 

Old Tays (Peterchurch). 

Onny. 

The original name of the Pinsley brook {Oney in Saxton's 
Map 1577)- There is also an Onny or Ouny in Shropshire, on 
which is Onibury parish. It is unwise to speculate on river- 
names ; but some have made this river Onnan, Mod. Welsh 
onen, 'an ash tree,' while others make it a corruption of Avon. 
In any case, -on seems to be a Celtic root found in many river- 
names, e.g. the French Garonne, Rhone, and Saone, the Scotch 
Carron, and our Herefordshire Garron. 

Orcop. 

1 1 38 Orcop, A.C. 

1253 Horcop, Chart. R. 

1 29 1 Orcoppe, Tax. Eccles. 

1 3 18 Orecop, Ep. Reg. 

1 341 Orcoppe, Non. Inq. 

1538 Arcoppe, Val. Eccles. 

Origin uncertain. We cannot even be sure whether it is 
English or Welsh. Some say O.E. ' the hope of Oric ' (name in 
Onom.), others Welsh ar-y-cop, ' on the summit' Possibly both 
are wrong. ' There is an unidentified Dom. Hercop somewhere in 
the Kington district. 

B. H. 10 



146 ORLETON 

Orleton. 

1086 Alretune, Auretone, Ortune [? J. H. R.], Dom. 

1243 Alreton, T. de Nevill. 

1291 Olreton, Tax. Eccles. 

1302 Orletone, Quo War. 
From O.E. alor, 'the alder tree,' alra-tun, 'tun among the 
alders.' Orleton (Worcs.) is also Dom. Alretune; Ollerton (Lanes.) 
is in 1282 Alreton. The Dom. Auretone {Avreton) should give 
Overton, and there is in Orleton an Overton, which is in 1529 
Overtown. 

Orlham (Ledbury). 

Oris Wood (Rowlestone). 

There is also an Orl Wood in Kingstone, and, near by, in 
Madley, Chilson Oris. In Mathon is a farm called The Oris ; 
and in 1577 in Eastnor was 'Dead Orle.' Without old forms 
we cannot arrive at the meaning of the word. It cannot be 
O.E. orl, 'the border of a garment' It probably has a local 
reference, since three of the four instances in the county are 
within a few miles of one another. Possibly it is akin to 
Orleton (q.v.). 

Over. 

The use of 'over' for' upper' is still common in Hereford- 
shire. In addition to several Overtons and Nethertons, we have 
Over Ross and Over Letton, Overcourt {Sutton), and Overbury 
■( Woolkope). Near Leominster is Overbache, and the Upper Hall 
at Ledbury was until a comparatively recent date Overhall. 

Pandy (Dorstone). 

W. pandy, ' a fulling mill' 

Panks Bridge (Cowarne). 

Pant (Clodock). 
W. pant, ' a hollow.' 

Paradise (Ewyas Harold). 

The name is found attached to small farms in other counties 
also. Baddeley thinks it originated in the 1 5th century, when 



PAYTOE 147 

crops were grown from ' Paradise-seed ' imported from Morocco 
or Tripoli. 

Parc-y-meirch (Crasswall). 

W. ' Park of the horses.' Meirch is pi. of march, ' a horse.' 

Parkhold (Pixley). 

This would seem to have been an independent parish or 
chapelry ; it is entered both in Tax. Eccles. and in Non. Inq. 
as ' Ecclesia de Park.' See also Court-o'-Park. 

Parkway (Ledbury). 

A hamlet at the entrance to what was once the Bishop of 
Hereford's park. In M'adley also there is a Parkway, which 
on the 1 83 1 Ord. Map is curiously spelt Paraguay. There is 
a Parkgate in Titley, and a farm called Twoparks in Linton. 

Parlbrook (Weston-Beggard). 

Parsonscroft (Lyonshall). 

1 3 14 ' pastura que vocatur Personescroft,' Ep. Reg. 

Parton (Eardisley). 

Patsall (Upper and Lower, Kimbolton). 

circ. 1270 PateshuUe, Glos. Cart. 

Prob. ' Patta's hill.' The O.E. gen. ending -an (found in 
Kemble ; Pattanden, ' Patta's vale ') has become, in 1 3th century, 
-es, as often. 

Pateshall is a well-known surname in the county, 

Paunton (Bishop's Frome). 

1547 Paunton, Excheq. R. 
1551 Paunton, Inq. p.m. 

Payshure 'Wood (Wigmore). 

1 302 ' Peysure in valle de Wigmore,' Quo War. 

Paytoe (Leintwardine). 



148 PEDWARDINE 

Pedwardine (Brampton Brian). 

1086 Pedewrde, Dom. 

1278 Pedwardin, Ep. Reg. 
' Peada's or Peda's farm.' For -wardine see Appendix. 
Cf. Padworth (Berks.). 

Pember's Oak (Kington). 

1343 Penborresoke, Ep. Reg. 

Pembridge. 

1086 Penebruge, Dom. 

1 100 Penebrugge, Glos. Cart. 

1239 Penebrug', Chart. R. 

1 29 1 Penebrigge, Tax. Eccles. 

1303 Penebrugge', F.A. 

1529 Pembrugge Burgus, Pembrugge Forinsec', Ind. Ct R. 
Johnston thinks a hybrid, Welsh pen, ' head, height ' + bridge, 
and compares Penbury (Glos.) which Baddeley takes as a hybrid, 
Welsh pen + O.E. byrig. One is, however, always inclined to 
disbelieve in hybrids, especially in place-names which date back 
to Dom. There is a Pembridge also in Welsh Newton. And in 
1395, 'terra vocata Penbruggeslonde' is in Tillington (Ep. Reg.). 

Penalt (King's Caple). 
Welsh pen-allt, ' cliff-head.' 

This is noteworthy as almost the only purely Welsh place- 
name on the English side of the Wye, below Hereford. 

Penblaith (Long Grove). 
W. pen-blaidd, ' wolf-point.' 

Blaidd is an element in several Welsh place-names, e.g. Cil- 
flaidd, ' wolf's lair.' 

Pencombe. 

1 1 00 Pencumbe, Glos. Cart, 

circ. 1 140 Penicumbe, E. H. Cart. 

1243 Pencumbe, T. de Nevill. 

1270 Pencumba, Penecumbe, Glos. Cart. 

' 'Quod est membrum de Radenore.' 



PENGETHLY 149 

1283 Penecumbe, Chart. R. 
1 29 1 Pencombe, Tax. Eccles. 
1 34 1 Pencoumbe, Non. Inq. 
W. ' head of the hollow.' For second element see Appendix, 
-combe. 

Pencoyd. 

1 29 1 Pencoyt, Tax. Eccles. 
1330 Pencoyt, Ep. Reg. 
Welsh pen-coed, ' head of the wood.' In Lib. Land, it is Cil 
Hal, 'salt-nook.' 

Pencraig (Goodrich). 

circ. 1 1 30 Penn creic, Lib. Land. 
1347 Pencrek, Ep. Reg. 
1 67 1 Pencreek, H'dshire Hearth Tax List. 
W. ' head of the rock.' 

There is a Penereck in Goodrich in 1722, probably the same 
place. 

*Penebecdoc ['in fine Arcenefelde ']. 

1086 Penebecdoc, Dom. 
J. H. R. cannot identify it. Eg. Phil, thinks it is either 
Pendigot {St Weonards) or Pennoxtone {King's Caple). 

Penerwy (Llanveyno). 

It may be Pen-erw, ' top of the acre,' ' limit of the plough- 
land.' It lies at the base of the Black Mountain, which rises 
bare above. 

*Penfilly [Leominster]. 

Given by Leland as the name of a stream which goes under 
a bridge at the west end of Leominster, and ' thrwghe the very 
howse of the priorye' into the Lugg. 

Pengethly (Hentland). 

1333 Penketly, Ep. Reg. 

1334 Penkelle, Ep. Reg. 

1 545 Pengetheley, Inq. p.m. 
Welsh pen celli, ' head of the grove.' As usual the Welsh 
-//- occasions difficulties in English spelling. 



I50 PENNANT 

Pennant (Orcop). 

Welsh ' head of the valley.' 

Pennoxtone (King's Caple). 

circ. 1800 Pennockston, Local Guide. 
1 83 1 Pennoxstone, Ord. Map. 
O.E. 'tun of...?' 

Penny-pit (Llandinabo). 

1789 Pennypitt, Par. Reg. 

1790 Pennipitt, Tombstone in Birch churchyard. 
Evidently the corruption of some Welsh name, Pen-y- ? 

Penrose (St Weonards). 

circ. 1 1 30 Penn ros, Lib. Land. 
W. pen-rhos, ' head of the moor.' There is a Penrhos Court 
in Lyonshall. 

Pentelow (brook). 

Rises in Stoke Edith, and falls into the Wye at Moj-diford. 

Pentre. 

W. pen-tref, 'a village.' There is a Pentre in Bredwardine 
and one in Brilley. The latter has near it Pentre-coed, and 
Pentre-grove, and not far away Pentre-miley ; still further, Pentre- 
Jack (possibly the adjective iach, ' healthy '). 

Pentwyn. 

W. pen-twyn, ' head of the hill.' Found in Bacton, Brilley, 
Dorstone, and Walterstone. 

Penyard. 

1227 Penyerd regis, Chart. R. 

1302 Peniord in foresta de Dene, Quo War. 

1346 Penyord, Ep. Reg. 
W. pen-gardd, ' head of the enclosure.' 
Cf P ennard {Zoms.) which in 681 (Birch) is Pengerd. 
In Wales the word is found in the forms of Penardd, Penarth, 
and Peniarth. 



PERTH-Y-PERTON I 5 I 

Penydree (Clodock). 

W. pen-y-dref, ' head of the village ' — the Welsh equivalent 
of the Townsend so often found in Herefordshire. 

Pen-y-Lan, 

Probably ' height with the enclosure ' rather than ' with the 
church.' But the second element may very possibly represent 
glan, which would give ' top of the bank ' or ' pitch,' as they 
always call it in Herefordshire. The name is given to at least 
six places in and near the Golden Valley, in Clodock, Kentchurch, 
Rowlstone, Peterchurch, and Dor stone. In this last parish there 
are two Pen-y-Lans within a mile and a half of one another. In 
Huntington-by-Kington is Pen-Ian. 

Pen-y-moor (Dorstone). 

Probably a corruption of Pen-mawr, ' big summit.' 

Pen-y-Park. 

1540 Penparke-Snothill, Aug. Of. 
W. ' Top of the Park.' 

The name is found both in Clifford and in Michaelchurch 
Eskley ; Snodhill is about half-way between these places. 

Pen-yr-hen-Uan (Cusop). 

Welsh, ' head of the old church.' The ' Bennithan manor,' 
somewhere in the neighbourhood in 1722, may be a corruption 
of this. 

Pen-y-wrlod (Rowlstone). 
So spelt now and in 1831. 

Perry ditch (King's Pyon). 

Near by in 1630 is 'Adam's Pyrry.' 

Perrystone (Yatton). 

The name seems to have come into use in the i8th century 
for the house and lands which were previously part of Snogsash. 

Perth-y-Perton (Clodock). 

Apparently W. perth-y-perten, ' the thorn-bush of the smart 
little girl,' a strange place-name. Perhaps perton is akin to 
parth, 'division,' which would give the more plausible 'boundary 
thorn.' 



1 52 PERTON 

Perton (Stoke Edith). 
See Berrington. 

Pervin (Hope-under-Dinmore). 

1 5 59 Pyrbyn, Aug. Of. 

1 83 1 Pervin, Ord. Map. 
It is in an English district, with no Welsh names. Yet the 
interchange of b and v seems to point to Welsh mutation. 

Petchfield (Elton). 

1479 Pechefeld, Ind. Ct R. 

Peterchurch. 
1 29 1 ' Ecclesia Sancti Petri in Straddel,' Tax. Eccles. 
1 341 ' Petreschirch in Straddel,' Non. Inq. 
1428 Petruschirche, F.A. 

Peterstow. 

circ. 1 1 30 Lann petyr, Lib. Land. 

1278 Petrestowe, Ep. Reg. 

1 29 1 Ecclesia de Petr'stowe, Tax. Eccles. 

1307 Peterustoye, Inq. p.m. 

1 34 1 Petrestowe, Non. Inq. 

For second element see Appendix, -stow. 

Petty France (Ledbury, Clodock). 

Probably the same in origin as Franche (Worcs.) which is 
Dom. Frenesse, i.e. O.Vr.fresne, 'ash-tree.' 

Petty Holt (Harewood). 

A mound : probably O.Fr. petite haute. 

Pict's Cross (Sellack). 

Obviously a corruption, since no Picts were ever in or near 
Herefordshire. But, in the absence of old forms, it is impossible 
to guess at the original meaning. It may be akin in origin to 
Pixley (q. v.). 

Pikestye (Harden). 

No old forms. The first element might possibly be O.E. 
piga, ' a little maid,' which would give ' the maid's path ' as the 
meaning. Or it may be the pers. name Pic or Pice. Cf. Pixley. 



PLATCH 153 

Pinsley (brook, trib. of Lugg, near Leominster). 
Once called Onny (q.v.). 

Pipe (part of the parish of Pipe-and-Lyde). 
1086 Pipe, Dom. 
1 29 1 Pypa, Tax. Eccles. 
1 341 Pypa, Non. Inq. 
It seems as if it must be O.E. pipe, ' a pipe.' A place called 
TAe Pipe, near Lichfield, is so called because the city water has 
for long been conveyed by pipe from there. But an explanation 
such as this could not apply to a Dom. name. Judge Cooke 
says the name Pipe is properly applied only to 'an elongated 
strip of land consisting of about 120 acres, through which quasi 
per pipam a stream known as the Pipe brook flows eastward to 
the Lugg.' The remainder of the parish is Lyde. 

Pistelbrook Farm (Kentchurch). 
circ. 113s Pistel, E. H. Cart. 

1327 Pistelbroch, Chart. R. (in a Dore Charter). 
1 83 1 Pistell Brook Farm, Ord. Map. 
The strange form Masepightle (land belonging to Dore) is, in 
view of the 1327 Charter, almost certainly Maes-y-Pistel. 

Pixley. 

1086 Picheslei, Dom. 
1243 Pikesley Clinton', T. de NeVill. 
1 29 1 Pikesleye, Tax. Eccles. 
1 34 1 Pykesleye, Non. Inq. 
'The meadow of Pic or Pice' A holding in the parish is 
called The Piks. Cf. Pikestye, and perhaps Pict's Cross. 

Plaistow (Ledbury). > 

Platch (Dulas). 

circ. 1200 'Plessy in Ewias,' Aeon. Chart. 
1667 Plash, Survey of Manor. 
In Shrops. Dom. Plesham is now Plaish. 

' Held by Simon de Clinton from the honour of Tewkesbury. 



154 THE PLECK 

The Pleck (Monkland). 

M.E. plecke, plek, ' a piece of ground.' The name was once 
common in some parts of the county. In Goodrich, e.g. in 1693, 
were ' The Whitchurch Flecks, the Boate Flecks, and The Long 
Fleck ; in 1722 there is also Cutt Mill Fleck, and Gains Fleck ; 
and in 1725 The Barge Fleck.' In Credenhill in 1722 was The 
Pleck. Flock is prob. a variant of Pleck. It is still found in 
Court Flocks {AUensmore) and Green Flock {Canon Pyon). 

*Plegeliet [Dom. Hundred]. 

1086 Flegeliet, Flegelget, Dom. 

*Pletune [?]. 

1086 Fletune, Dom. 

Ploughfield (Feterchurch, Freston-on-Wye). 
Preston-on-Wye 1273 Burgus de Floufeld, Capes. 
Feterchurch 1335 Flofelde, Ep. Reg. 

1346 Plowfeld, Ep. Reg. 
Cf Plowland (Yorks.), Plowden (Salop). 

Pontenyws (Clodock). 

1 83 1 Font-r-ynys, Ord. Map. 
W. ' Bridge of the island.' 

Pont Hendre (Clodock). 

1 83 1 Font Henry, Ord. Map. 
W. ' Bridge of the permanent dwelling.' 
See Hendre. 

Pontrilas. 

1086 Elwistone^, Dom. 

1 194 Helyston, E. H. Cart. 

1206 Heliston, E. H. Cart. 

1300 Elston, Ing. p.m. 

circ. 1550 Ailstone Bridge, Leland. 

1577 Elstones Bridge, Saxton's Map. 

' This is the only Dom. identification, with regard to which I have ventured to 
differ from Dr J. Horace Round, confessedly the supreme authority on nth and 12th 
century subjects. He kindly writes me ' It is quite possible you are right, for you 
have local knowledge which I have not.' 



POPLANDS 155 

161 1 Elston Bridge, Speed's Map. 

1670 Elston Bridge, Blome's Map. 

1750 Pontrilas, Bowen's Map. 

1786 Pontrilas, Taylor's Map. 
Although not appearing in any record until the i8th century, 
the name Pontrilas seems to have been given (first to the house, 
' Pontrilas Court ') by the Baskervilles, who settled there circ. 
1550. It took nearly two centuries for 'Pontrilas' entirely to 
supersede ' Heliston ' or its corruptions. The pers. name involved 
in Elwis- or Helys- is possibly Elwyn, the Mercian form of 
Aelfwine. 

Pontshill (Weston-under-Penyard). 

1086 Panchille, Dom. 

Pont Vaen (Clifford). 

W. 'stone bridge.' 

Pont-y-Mwdy (Llanveyno). 

W. ' bridge of arches.' 

Pont-y-Pina (Vowchurch). 

W. pont-y-pinau, ' bridge by the pine-trees.' 

Pontys (Clodock). 

W. pont-is, ' lower bridge.' 

Poole Helleck or HoUock (Farm, Llanwarne). 

The first word is W. pwll, ' a pool ' ; the second is W. helig, 
' the willow.' Close to the house is still the spring on the hill- 
side, overshadowed by willows and alders. 

Pool Springe (Much Birch). 

So in 1671. 

There is a Pool Farm in Evesbatch, Blackpole in Eye, Pool 
Wharfe in Much Dewchurch, and Polemore in Withington. In 
1275 (Ep. Reg.) La Pulle was somewhere in Lugg Meadow 
near Shelwick, and in 1722 Pool Dye Meadow is in Goodrich 
(apparently this last is Pwlldhu). In Withington is Poll Noddy. 

Poplands (Whitbourne). 

There is a Poplane in Goodrich in 1722, and a Crooked 
Popland's Sute in Hentland'm 1638. 



IS6 POPPINGER 

Poppinger (Ashperton). 

No old forms. Possibly -hanger (for which see Clelwnger and 
Hungerhill). • 

Portfield (Hereford). 

circ. 1 1 50 ' Portfelde, juxta portam cimiterii Sancti Guthlaci,' 
Glos. Cart. 
1272 Portfeld, Capes. 

1534 'Communis campus vocatus Portesfeld,' Aug. Of. 
circ. 1550 'Portfild is in the Ine Gate suburbe of Hereford,' 

Leland. 
In spite of plausible deductions from the entry in Glos. Cart, 
and Leland's reference to Gate, Port here is used in the sense in 
which it is found in Dom. ' In Hereford Port Walterus Epis- 
copus habet, etc' Cf Portmeadow (Oxford), ' the common field 
of the citizens.' 

Portway. 

Ancient tracts are so named in many counties, as leading to 
the chief town or port; it does not imply a Roman road. There 
is a Portway in Burghill (so in 139S), in Staunton, in Callow, and 
in Orleton. The earliest mention is in 1220 when land in Madley 
is said to stretch ' iisque viain regiam que vocatur portwey! (This 
Portway is not now so called.) 

Poston. 

1086 Poscetenetune, Dom. 
1 100 Postone, Glos. Cart. 
1300 Puston in Straddel, Inq. p.m. 
1324 Postone, Abbrev. Plac. 
A Dore Charter (undated) mentions a Puscyton, which is 
probably Poston. 

'Tun of — ?' Eg. Phil, conjectures a Welsh pers. name 
Pasgweithen or Pascent, which often occurs in Lib. Land. 

Poswick (Whitbourne). 

Pound. 

There are Pound Farms in Brilley, Coddington, Holme Lacy, 
Laysters, Pound House in Yarpole, and the Pounds in Sollershope. 
O.E. pund, ' a fold,' ' an enclosure.' 



PUDLESTON 157 

Powiswick (Wolferlow). 

Presteign. 

1291 Presthemed', Tax. Eccles. 

1 3 16 Prestemede, F.A. 

1 341 Presthemed', Non. Inq. 

1457 Presthemde, Heref. Corp. MS. 
O.E. preost-maed, 'priest's meadow.' In Burghill in 1395 is 
a Prestesmedewe. Cf. Parsonscroft. 

Preston-on-W^ye. 

1086 Prestetune, Dom. 
circ. 1150 Prestone, Capes. 

1253 Canons Preston, Chart. R. 
1 291 Preston, Tax. Eccles. 
O.E. preost-tun, ' priest's town.' Cf. Presteign. 
From before Dom. it has belonged to the Canons of Hereford. 
They are patrons also of Preston Wynne, held temp. Ed. I and 
Ed. Ill by the family of le Wyne. 

Priddleton (Humber). 

Various entries in Leom. Cart, almost certainly refer to 
Priddleton : — Purlinton, Purtliton, Purtlint, Purtlynton West. 

Pride wood (Ashperton). 

The Prill (Ewyas Harold). 

A phonetic variation of O.E. pirle, purl, found only in Worcs., 
Salop, Herefs., Radnors., and Glos., 'a small stream of running 
water.' 

Prothithor or Prethegar (Little Dewchurch). 
1684 Potheither, List of Recusants. 
1722 Potheder, Terrier. 
1 83 1 Prothether, Ord. Map. 

Pudding Street (Rowlestone). 

Pudleston. 

1086 Pillesdune, Dom. 

1243 Puclesdun, T. de Nevilj. 



IS8 PUDLESTON 

circ. 1253 Pudlesdone, Cart. Brec. 
1283 Pydlesden, Capes. 
1 291 Pudlesdon, Putlesdon, Tax. Eccles. 
1303 Pudlesdon, F.A. 
1 341 Pudlesdon, Non. Inq. 
1364 Puttelestone, Ep. Reg. 
1 5771 rSaxton's Map. 

161 1 I Piddlestone I Speed's Map. 
1786 J [ Taylor's Map. 

1 83 1 Pudleston, Ord. Map. 
The Dom. form has for its first element, apparently, O.K. />t/, 
' a pile,' ' stake,' unless it be W. pi//, which is unlikely. 

The 1243 form undoubtedly is O.K. />uce/-dun, ' goblin's-hilL' 
Cf. Pukedick (Leom. Cart.) ; ' via vocata Pouklone ' in Ti//ington 
(Ep. Reg. 1395); and Puck Holes Close in Creden/ti// m 1722. 

The other forms all have for first element Pud/e or Piddle, 
which is M.E. pode/, apparently a dim. of O.E. pudd, ' a ditch,' 
' furrow ' (' puddas ' is in Prud. Glossary, ' sulcos '). 

The suggestion that we might assume a personal name 
Pydela, dim. of the common Pida or Pyda is unlikely ; a pers. 
name is not expected with -dun, as we do usually expect it with 
-tun. In the second element, there was in course of time the 
not infrequent confusion between -dun, -den, and -tun, but -dun, 
' a hill ' is the oldest, and most persistent form. 
There is a Puddle Hill in Pencombe. 

Pullaston (Aconbury). 

Putley. 

1086 Poteslepe, Dom. 

circ. 1 1 80 Pu telega, Capes. 

1 2 19 Putelehe, Capes. 

1 29 1 Potteleye, Puttele, Tax. Eccles. 

1303 Putteleye, F.A. 

1327 Putteleye, Plac. de Banco. 

1 341 Porteley, Non. Inq. 

1538 Putley, Val. Eccles. 

' Putta's meadow.' But the second element in the Dom. form 



quarrel's green 159 

suggests O.E. hlype, 'leap.' W. H. Stevenson says hlyp must 
sometimes mean 'enclosure/ and illustrates Lypiatt (Glos.) or 
Lypgate, ' gate into the enclosure.' 

Putson (Hereford). 

1243 Puteston, T. de Nevill. 
1300 Potestone, Ep. Reg. 
1355 Putestone, Ep. Reg. 
1538 Putteston, Val. Eccles. 
183 1 Putston, Ord. Map. 

'Tun of Putta.' A Putta was the first known Bishop of 
Hereford, A.D. 676-688. 

PwU Cam (Dorstone). 
W. ' crooked pool.' 

Pyon (King's, and Canon). 

1086 Pionie (King's), Peune (Canon), Dom. 

1 29 1 Pyonia regis, Pyonia canonicorum, Tax. Eccles. 

13 1 2 Peon, Pat. R. 

1 3 16 Kingespeone, F.A. 

1 341 Pionia regis, Pionia canonicorum, Non. Inq. 

1372 Kinges Peon, Capes. 

1377 Pyioun, Ep. Reg. 

1415 Kyngespeawyn, Herefordshire Will. 

1538 Kyngespewne, Val. Eccles. 
Judge Cooke says the Dom. form Peune is Welsh Pen, with 
reference to 'the isolated conical-shaped formation of con- 
glomerate cornstone within its parochial limits.' This may 
be correct, since the Anglo-Saxon Chron. mentions Peonna 
juxta Gillingaham, which has been identified as Pen (Soms.). 
The local pronunciation was (and with old people still some- 
times is) Pyoun. 

The Quabbs (Bishopswood). 

Quarelly (Newton-in-Clodock). 

Quarrel's Green (Farm, Abbeydore). 

In 1538 there is a Quarrel Field in Aconbury, which, in 1637 



i6o quarrel's green 

is 'The Olde Land formerly Quarrell's Meadowe.' In 1553 
there is, in or near Lingen, ' campus vocatus Quarrell Field.' In 
1605 Thomas Quarrell was of Trevill in Wormbridge, Gent. 

Quassy (Clodock). 

The Queach (Bishopswood). 

Quebb (Eardisley). 

*Querentune [near Kington ?]. 

1086 Querentune, Dom. 

Quest Moor (Eardisley). 

1 83 1 Queest moor, Ord. Map. 

The Quinta (Brobury). 

Radlow (Tarrington). 

1086 Radelau, Dom. 
(The Dom. entry is a Hundred, not the place in Tarrington^ 
O.K. ' red hill.' 

Ravensiege (St Devereux). 

No old forms. Probably O.E. hraefnes-iga, ' raven-island ' : 
equivalent to Ramsey {hramm being a late form of hraefn). 

The Rea (Bishop's Frome and Bromyard). 

Rea Farm (Ledbury). 

Isle of Rhea (Bodenham). 

Bromyard Rea is in 15 12 (Fine R.) Ree. Leland mentions 
' a broket called Rhe,' trib. of Teme, flowing from Clee Hill. 
Duignan thinks the name is ea, ' water,' the r being transferred 
from the preceding word in some such phrase as on thaere ea, 
just as n is transferred in Nash and Norke (q.v.). 

Redley (Cusop). 

Almost the only English place-name in the parish. 

Redmarley (Acton Beauchamp). 

1290 Rudmarle, Ep. Reg. 



THE RHYSE l6l 

1 29 1 Ridmarleo, Webb. 
1332 Rudmerle, Ep. Reg. 
' Raedmaer's meadow.' 

Red Rail (Hoarwithy). 

Said to be a corruption of Welsh rhyd-yr-heol, ' ford on the 
street,' since a supposed Roman road here crosses the Wye. 

The Reeds (Crasswall). 

Probably Welsh rhyd, 'a ford.' In Much Dewchurch the 
Read farm of 1831, Ord. Map, has become, under the later 
influence of purists, Rhydd; but it would seem that they have 
put in a (3? too many, since, meaning ' ford ' (on the Worm brook), 
they have said ' liberty.' 

*Reshale [in Lugg Meadow, near Shelwick]. 
127 s Reshale, Ep. Reg. 

Rhiwlas (Titley). 

W. rhiw glas, ' green slope.' 

Rhwynford (Crasswall). 

Seems to be W. rhwyn-ffordd, ' a winding road.' 

Rhyd-dwr (Staunton-on-Wye). 
W. ' ford on the river.' 

Rhydspence (Brilley). 

Rhyd-y-back (Michaelchurch Eskley). 
W. • ford of the hook.' 

Rhyd-y-car (St Weonards). 

1313 Rydekyr, Mon. Accts. 
W. ' ford for carts.' 

Rhydynog (Michaelchurch Eskley). 

Said to be W. rhyd-y-nog, 'ford at which animals will get 
restive.' 

The Rhyse (Lyonshall). 
W. rhys is ' a rushing.' 

B. H. I' 



l62 RICHARD'S CASTLE 

Richard's Castle. 

1 29 1 Ecclesia de Castro Ricardi, Tax. Eccles. 

1 341 Ecclesia de Castro Ricardi, Non. Inq. 

1428 Ricardes Castel, F.A. 
For this place-name see J. H. R., ' Feudal England.' 

Ridby Court (Much Dewchurch). 

No forms earlier than 1831. The second element is not 
likely to be the Danish ending -by so common in the north, since 
we have no traces of any Danish influence on Herefordshire 
place-names. I suspect the word (in the heart of Archenfield) 
is W. rhyd-bych, 'little ford'; as Tenby (Pembs.) is an Anglicised 
form of din-bych, ' little hill.' 

The Riddox (Weobley). 

*Ridgemore [in Bredwardine]. 

circ. 1200 'boscum quod dicitur Rughemore,' Brec. Cart. 

Hard by is Fildeniore. 

Ridgway Cross (Cradley). 

In 1227 in Ludford is 'via que vocatur Rugwey' (Glos. Cart.); 
and, a little earlier, Rugweyesende. There is in Dorstone a rugge- 
weye in 1369 (Ep. Reg.). Ridge Hill in A conbury is circ. 1086 
Rugeweye. 

Ridway (Kilpeck). 

*La Rinega [in or near Cradley]. 

circ. 1 1 90 La Rinega, Capes. 

Risbury (Humber). 

1086 Riseberie, Dom. 
1 123 Risebiria, Leom. Cart, 
circ. 1 1 50 Risebir, Risebur', Leom. Cart. 
1 2 16 Riseberi, Brec. Chart. 
1303 Risebury, F.A. 
1337 Rusbury, Chart. R. 
143 1 Rysbury, F.A. 
' Burh of Risa.' Though it is just possible that the first 
element might be O.E. rise, ' a rush,' or hris, ' brushwood,' which 
Skeat says is the first element in Riseley (Beds.). 



ROSS 163 

*Rock [Mordiford]. 

13 18 ' Rock in Mordiford,' Chart. R. 
In 1334 (Chart. R.) we find la Roke; but apparently it is 
near Dilwyn and Pembridge. Rock (Worcs.) is always Aka in 
13th and 14th centuries. 

Rockspole (Thornbury). 

The Redds (Kington). 

Rodd (township, five miles N. of Kington, on border of 
Radnorshire). 

Rodhurst (in Rodd). 
Redds (Stoke Lacy). 

1 138 Rudelai, Glos. Cart, 
circ. 1170 Rudeleya, Glos. Cart. 
1275 Rodele, Ep. Reg. 
1 291 Rodele, Tax. Eccles. 
1304 Rudele, Ep. Reg. 
It is evident that the Stoke Lacy Rodds was once Rudley or 
some such form : — ' red meadow ' from O.E. read, reod, rude, 
' red.' Of The Rodds near Kington we seem to have no early 
forms. But it is on the borders of Radnor, which is in 880 
(Kemble) Readenora, 'red-bank.' Hence we may presume a 
history somewhat similar to that of the Stoke Lacy Rodds. 

*Rody-pot [a street in old Hereford]. 
1 503 ' via vocata Rody-pot, quae ducit versus le Watryng-place,' 
Heref. Corp. MS. 

Rompeney (Bromyard). 

1289 Rompe'n', Ep. Reg. 
1541 Rumpney, Local Will. 



Ross. 



1086 Rosse, Dom. 

1 148 Ros, Capes. 

1243 Ros, T. de Nevill. 

1291 Ros, Tax.' Eccles. 



164 ROSS 

1 3 16 Ros Forincecum, P".A. 
1346 Roos, Ep. Reg. 
circ. 1670 Rosse Foreine, Silas Taylor. 

Welsh rhos, 'a moor, heath.' (H.O. says that in many 
Welsh, Cornish and Irish place-names, rhos bore the sense of 
' peninsula.' The bend of the river at Ross makes quite a definite 
peninsula, but it is on the side of the river opposite to the town ; 
so the meaning is probably ' moor.') A variant of rhos is rhosan, 
which may be the original form of Rosen Green in Boulstone. 
In modern Welsh Ross is ' Rhossan ar Wy.' 

Without old forms one cannot pronounce on Rosemore in 
Whitbourne, which looks like Rhos-mawr, but is very far east 
for Welsh. It might be Rons, from a family name (see under 
Maund). 

Rotherwas. 

1086 Retrowas, Dom. 

1243 Rudrewas, T. de Nevill. 

1 27 1 Rotherwas, Ep. Reg. 

1 3 16 Rotherwas, F.A. 

1327 Rutherwas, Plac. de Banco. 

1645 Retherose, Civil War Pamphlet. 

The second element is O.E. wase, ' ooze, soft mud,' found in 
Alrewas (Staffs.), Broadwas (Worcs.), Hopwas (Staffs.), Strange- 
ways (Lanes.), which is Strang wase, ' stiff" ooze,' and our Hereford- 
shire Sugwas (q.v.). H. O. quotes a form in 1603, Marlesand 
woase. 

The first element is O.E. hryther, ' an ox, horned animal.' 
The forms in e and u are normal descendants from the O.E. 
word. The -0- forms are due to the writing of -0- for -u- before 
-th-. Or possibly, in 13th century popular etymology, the forms 
in -0- may have been influenced by confusion with the pers. 
name Hrothere. In Sussex popular etymology has changed 
Rother-bridge into Robertsbridge. 

Rough. 

O.E. ruh, M.E. rough. A fairly common element in Here- 
fordshire place-names. As a substantive we have Park Rough 



ROWLESTONE l6S 

( Westkide), Hope Rough {Cowarne), Hampton's Rough {Dew- 
sail), Horse Rough {Harewood), and Shepherd's Rough {Bolston). 
As an adjective it is found in Rough Acre {Staunton-on- Arrow), 
Rough Mintridge {Avenbury), and Rough Moor (Dilwyn). 
Rugden {Sollershofe) is probably ' rough valley,' but we have 
no old forms. 

Rowberry (Bodenham ; the adjoining farm is Beeberry). 

circ. 1 1 50 Ruberh, Ruebergh, Cart. Brec. 
Probably O.E. rug, ruh, ruw, ' rough,' and berga, beria, ' a 
berry.' 

Rowberry is a common surname in Herefordshire. 

Rowberry Street (Bromyard). 

Rowden (Edvin Ralph). 

1086 Ruedene, Dom. 
1243 Rugedun, T. de Nevill. 
1286 Roudon, Assize R. 
1303 Roudon, F.A. 
143 1 Rowdon, F.A. 
The first element is O.E. rug, ruh, ruw, 'rough.' In the 
second element there is the not uncommon interchange between 
O.E. denu, ' a valley,' and dun (don), ' a hill' 

Row-ditch (Pembridge). 

temp. Hen. HI Rogedich, Rugedich, Inq. p.m. 

i486 Rough ditch. Customs of Hereford. 
O.E. rug, ruh, ruw, ' rough.' 
Circ. 1 220 ' le Ruediche ' is mentioned near Brecon. 

Rowlestone. 

1278 Roulestone, Ep. Reg. 
1 29 1 Villa Radulphi, Tax. Eccles. 
1294 Rovelestone, Ep. Reg. 
1300 Rolueston, Inq. p.m. 
1367 Roulestone, Ep. Reg. 
' Tun of Hrolf, Ralph, or Raoul,' cf Rowlston (Yorks.) which 
is Dom. Rolvestun. 



1 66 ROWLESTONE 

I have always thought that Rowlestone and the neighbouring 
Gilbertstone are the settlements of the Ralph and Gilbert who 
are mentioned in Dom. as knights holding land in the castelry 
of Ewias. 

There is another Rowlestone or Rowston in Little Birch 
which is in 1304 Rolvestone, and in Moccas is Rowlsford. 

Rowley (Kimbolton). 
' Rough meadow.' 
Roxpole (Stoke Lacy). 

Possibly O.E. hroc, ' a rook,' and />o/, ' a lake, a pool.' The 
word would then equal the Oxfs. Rokemarsh. Cf. Crowmarsh. 

Ruckhall (Eaton Bishop). 

*Ruddok' [in or near Ledbury]. 

1304 Ruddok', Ep. Reg. 

Rudhall (Brampton Abbotts). 

circ. 1260 Reodhale, Glos. Cart. 
The first element is O.E. hreod, ' a reed-bed ' ; the second 
hale, 'a meadow,' for which see Appendix. 

Rushock (Kington). 

1086 Ruiscope, Dom. 
1335 Ruyssoke, Ep. Reg. 
1553 Rushok, Ind. Ct R. 
O.E. krise (later risA, rusk), ' a rush,' and -cop, ' a top.' We 
have no forms by which to trace the change in the second element 
between 1086 and 1335. The name is said once to have been 
Riscol. 

Ruthlin (Clodock). 

*Ruuenore [?]. 

1086 Ruuenore, Dom. 

The second element is O.E. ofer, so common in our county 
(for which see Appendix). 

Ruxton (Longrove). 

1722 Ruxton, Terrier. 



SALBERGA 167 

Ruxtone (King's Caple). 

The Ryelands (Hereford). 

1399 le Rye, tres Ryes, Ep. Reg. 
The name is found also in Brimfield and in Ivington. 

Saddle Bow (Orcop). 

1603 Saddlebowe, Local Will. 
The hill is evidently so called from its shape. 

St Devereux. 

1 29 1 Ecclesia Sancti Dubricii, Tax. Eccles. 

1 341 Ecclesia Sancti Tybricii, Non. Inq. 

1428 Ecclesia Sancti Dubricii, F.A. 
In Woolhope as late as 15 14 there is a Sacella Sancti Dubritii, 
which explains the still existing Devereux Park and Devereux 
Pool. The present form of the name is one of the few traces 
we have of N.-Fr. influence on the pl.-ns. of the county. That 
these influences are so few is the more strange, seeing that 
Herefordshire was the most thoroughly Normanized of all the 
English counties. 

St Margarets. 

St 'Weonards. 

circ. 1 1 30 Lann Sant Guainerth, Lib. Land, 
circ. 1 1 50 Ecclesia Sancti Wenarch, Brec. Cart. 
1 29 1 Ecclesia Sancti Waynard, Tax. Eccles. 
1330 Ecclesia Sancti Warnardi, Capes. 
1 341 Seint Waynard, Non. Inq. 
From the 1330 entry we learn that St Weonards, with Llan- 
garren and Hentland, were chapelries dependent on Lugwardine. 
Nothing much is known of St Gwennarth. 

*Salberga [?]. 

1086 Salberga, Dom. 

J. H. R. cannot identify ; so I hesitate to suggest Saw- 
bery (q.v.). 



1 68 SALLYS 

Sallys (Kinnersley). 

Without old forms it is hard to say even whether this word 
is Welsh or English. Kinnersley, though not far from a district 
in which names are mainly Welsh, has English names, for the 
most part, all round it. The connection, therefore, which sug- 
gests itself is with O.E. seal, salh, or salig, ' a willow,' which is 
the first element in Salford, Salwick, etc. 

Saltmarshe (Bromyard). 

circ. 1 200 Joh. de Salso Marisco, Glos. Cart. 
1347 Cecilia de Salso Marisco, Ep. Reg. 
' Salt marsh.' 

Sapey. 

1 138 Sapy, Glos. Cart. 
1 29 1 Sapy, Tax. Eccles. 
1 29 1 Sape, Chart. R. 
1304 Villata de Sapy et Pirie, Ep. Reg. 
1 341 Sapy, Non. Inq. 
O.E. saepige, ' spruce-fir.' 

Sapness in Woolhope (of which we have no old forms) is 
possibly akin in origin, though the 1831 Ord. Map unaccount- 
ably calls it Skarpnage. 

Sarnesfield. 

1086 Sarnesfelde, Dom. 

1 123 'de utraque Sernesfelda,' Leom. Cart. 

1 291 Sarnefeld, Tax. Eccles. 

1 3 16 Sarnesfeud, Sarnesford, F.A. 

1341 Sarnesfeld, Non. Inq. 

1346 Sarnesfeld Roger, F.A. 

1428 Sarnesfeld, F.A. 

The first element seems to be O.E. sarnes, ' sorrow,' which 
would give ' field of sorrow ' as the meaning. It might be ' field 
on the ridgeway,' but this is unlikely, being a hybrid. 

Sawbery Hill (Bredenbury). 

1086 Sargeberie, Dom. 
1286 Saresbury, Ep. Reg. 



THE SHAWLS 1 69 

In 1243 there is a Salebir somewhere in this neighbourhood, 
which, in view of the wild spelling of T. de Nevill, we are justi- 
fied in taking as referring to Sawbery. 

Scutterdine (Mordiford). 

' Farm on the shoot or watercourse.' See Scutt below, and 
-wardine in Appendix. 

Scutt Mill (Hereford). 

So in Price's Map 1802. Probably akin to O.E. jc^(7^««, ' to 
shoot.' See also Cockshoot and Havod. Middendorf says it is 
O.E. scytte, ' a dam, weir.' The Shuts is a place in Aymestrey. 

Seabournes (Sutton). 

The family of Seabourne held lands in Sutton for about a 
century circ. 1 540-1640. It is always hard to say whether the 
place takes its name from the family, or the family from the 
place. Usually, of course, it is the latter, probably here the 
former. Seabourne is still a surname in the county. 

Sellack. 

circ. 1 1 30 Lann Sulac, Lib. Land. 
1 30 1 Selak, Inq. p.m. 
1 39 1 Sellac, Ep. Reg. 
circ. 1550 'Beysham alias Cellach,' Leland. 
'Church of St Teseliachus' (Welsh Sulac) to whom the 
church is still dedicated. The village was once Baysham (q.v.), 
and Sellack the name only of the church. The quotation from 
Leland shows the change of name at work. Now Sellack is the 
village, and Baysham (Court) a farm therein. 

Sellarsbrook (Whitchurch). 

1635 Sellars Broke, Courtfield MS. 

*Serland's Lane [off Castle Street, Hereford]. 

1410 'venella vocata Serlondslone,' Capes. 
There is an unidentified Sirland in Leom. Cart. 

Shark House (Clehonger). 

The Shawls (Crasswall). 



I70 SHELWICK 

Shelwick (Holmer). 

1086 Scelwiche, Dom. 

1275 Selwyke, Ep. Reg. 

1302 Shewyk, Quo War. 

1316 'Holmare Shelwyk Villa,' F.A. 

1348 Schelwyk, Ep. Reg. 

1538 Shelwike, Val. Eccles. 
' The wick of Scula ' or ' of Scealc ' (both names in Onom.). 

Shenmore (Madley). 

The first element may be O.E. scearn, ' dung.' But it is more 
probably a variant of Swinmoor, which is hard by. 

*Shernhurst [?]. 

ante 1272 Shirnhurste, Shernhurste, Wormesley Charter. 

For second element see Appendix. 

Shireglatt (Canon Pyon). 

Shirley (Aymestrey). 

1086 Sirelei, Dom. 
1529 Shurley, Aug. Of. 
Probably O.E. scir leak, ' shire meadow,' i.e. meadow on the 
boundary. Shirley (Derbs.) is also Dom. Sirelei. Shirburn 
(Oxfs.) and Shearwater (Wilts.) are from O.E. adj. scir, ' bright, 
clear.' 

Shirl Heath (Kingsland). 

Shirl Wood (Kingsland). 

Shobdon. 

1086 Scepedune, Dom. 
1243 Solbedune, T. de Nevill. 
1 29 1 Sobbedon, Scobedon, Tax. Eccles. 
1334 Schobbedone, Ep. Reg. 
1 341 Shobbedon, Non. Inq. 
1346 Shobbeden, Ep. Reg. 
' Hill of Sceoba.' 

Shop-vach (Newton-in-Clodock). 



SKINCHILL 171 

Showle Court (Yarkhill). 

In 1722 Showle is one of the ' Liberties ' of Wormelow. See 
for the others, under Lugharness. 

Shucknall Hill (Weston Beggard). 

1377 Shokenhulle, Ep. Reg. 
O.E. scuccan-hyll, ' devil's hill.' 

Shutton (Mansell Gamage). 

1279 Schittinton, Fine R. 

1 29 1 Schytrincton, Tax. Eccles. 

133 1 Shutynton, Feet of Fines. 

1542 Shutton, Orig. R. 
' Tun of Scytta.' Kemble has Scyttandun and Scyttanmere. 

Siddington (Ledbury). 

' Tun of Sida,' or ' of the sons of Sida.' Cf. Sidanham (in 
Kemble). 

Sidnal (Pencombe). 

1270 'in hamleto de Suthenhale,' Glos. Cart. 

A later entry, undated, spells it Sudenhale, and j^et another 
Suthale ; and a Heref Cath. MS. temp. Hen. I Sudenhale. 

'South-meadow.' The first element is O.E. suthern. For 
second element see Appendix, -hall. 

Sillcroft (SoUershope). 

Sink Green (Dyndor). 

1 83 1 Sin Green, Ord. Map. 

Sizecroft (Kilpeck). 

Possibly (though we have no old forms) it is equivalent to 
Croft-y-Saes, ' the Englishman's croft.' 

The Skerrid (Kentchurch). 

circ. 1 1 30 Iscirit, Lib. Land. 
The W. adjec. ys-gyryd is ' rough,' ' rugged.' 

Skinchill (Llanrothal). 



172 MOUNT SKIPPITT 

Mount Skippitf (Aconbury). 

The Slade (Peterchurch ; Ballingham). 
There is in Goodrich in 1674 'a coppice-grove called Disp 
Slade.' 

O.E. slaed, ' a valley.' 

The Slaughter (Whitchurch). 

Folk-lore, of course, says it is the site of a great battle be- 
tween Britons and Romans. Possibly, like the village of Slaughter 
(Glos.), it is O.E. slag-treo, ' sloe-tree.' 

Smallings (Donnington). 

There is circ. 1270 a Smalemede in Brampton Abbotts. 

Snodhill (Peterchurch). 

1 29 1 'Capella in Castro de Snodhull,' Tax. Eccles. 
1327 Snodhull, Plac. de Banco. 
1341 Capella de Snodhull, Non. Inq. 
1540 Snothill, Aug. Of 
circ. 1550 Snothil, Leland. 
' Hill of Snot, Snodd, or Snodda.' 

Snodland (Kent) is in 838 (Birch) Snoddingland^ 'land of 
Snodda's sons.' Nottingham is Dom. Snotingeham, ' ham of 
Snodda's sons.' 

Snogsash (Foy). 

1410 Sneogeasshe, Inq. p.m. 

Sodgeley (Kingsland). 

SoUershope. 

1086 Hope, Dom. 

1243 Hope Solers, T. de Nevill. 

1291 Hopesolers, Tax. Eccles. 

1303 Hope Solers, F.A. 

1 3 19 Solershope, Ep. Reg. 
The family of Solers or de Solariis held lands in Herefs., 
Glos., and Salop early in 14th century. In Herefordshire we 
have Bridge Sollers (q.v.), Hopton Solers, Solers Dilwyn ; and, 
in Salop, Neen Sollars. 



STANHOPE 173 

Sough (Upper and Lower, Stoke Lacy). 

M.E. sough, ' a drain ' ; now pronounced suf, but formerly the 
guttural was sounded, hence Sugwas. But the suf- form is also 
early, as in Suf ton, and perhaps Suffield. 

*Southbridge [Hereford]. 

1300 'ad pontem de Suthbrugge in suburbio Herefordie,' 
Ep. Reg. 

Southington (Bromyard). 
Spend (Upper and Lower, Eardisley). 
Spout (St Devereux). 

There is also Little Spout House in Orleton: and in 1832 a 
marriage settlement mentions ' Spout piece in Ganerew.' 

Stagbatch (Leominster). 

1539 Stagbeache, Aug. Of. 
Stanage (Brampton Brian). 

1086 Stanege, Dom. 
1252 Stanegge, Chart. R. 
1 27 1 Stanegge, Ep. Reg. 
1577 Standish, Saxton's Map. 
The second element is O.E. ecg, ' an edge.' ' Stone edge.' 
Cf. Cressage (Shrops.), There is in 1223 a ' terra de hadenegge' 
in Brinsop. 

*Stane [lies next to (juxta jacet) Didley]. 
1086 Stane, Dom. 

Stanford Bishop. 

Stanford Regis (Bishop's Frome). 

1243 Kingestanford, T. de Nevill. 

1 3 16 Stanford Episcopi, F.A. 

1512 Kyngestonford, Fine R. 
'Stone-ford'; i.e. paved; or perhaps provided with stepping- 
stones for foot-passengers. 

Stanhope (Eardisland). 

' Valley of stones,' For second element see Appendix. 



174 STANIHURSTA 

*Stanihursta [Ewyas Harold]. 

So in 1206, in Cart. 

' Stony wood.' For second element see Appendix. 

The Stank (Hampton Bishop). 

1400 Stanke, Aeon. Accts. 
Cf. (in E. H. Cart.) ' amunder le estanke del molyn.' 
Hampton Bishop Stank was the subject of a lawsuit by 

the Bishop against the tenant in 1637 for repairs to the Dam. 

Circ. 1250 a Reginald de Stanklak is mentioned in an Ep. Reg. 

Stansbatch (Staunton-on-Arrow). 

'Valley of stones.' For second element see Appendix, -bache. 

Stanway (Leintwardine). 

1086 Stanewei, Dom. 
' Stone-way,' ' road paved with stones.' (Leintwardine is on 
the Roman road from Wroxeter to Caerleon.) 

*Stapel [Dom. Hundred]. 

1086 Stapel, Stapleset, Dom. 

Stapleton (Presteign). 

1328 Stepilton, Ep. Reg. 
1335 Stepultone, Ep. Reg. 
The old forms suggest O.E. stypel, stepel, or stipel, ' a steeple, 
tower.' It may, however, be O.E. stapol, ' a pole, post.' 

Stapleton (Lanes.) is Dom. Stopel-, and no forms in Stepel- 
are found. Shrops. Stepple is Dom. Steple. 

Staunton-on-Arrow. 
Staunton-on-W^ye. 

Staunton-on-A rrow. 

958 'Stantun in pago Magesaetna,' Birch. 
1086 Stantune, Dom. 
1280 Over Staunton, ] 

Nethere Staunton,} ' ' 

1291 Stanton, Tax. Eecles. 
1 341 Staunton 1, Non. Inq. 
1 There is also in 1341 a Staunton in the Deanery of Archenfield. 



THE STOBELL 175 

Staunton-on- Wye. 

1086 Standune, Dom. 

1243 Standun, T. de Nevill. 

1255 Stonden, Coram Rege R. 

1283 Staundon, Plac. de Banco. 

1 29 1 Standon, Tax. Eccles. 

1 29 1 Staundon, Chart. R. 

1303 Staunton, F.A. 

1 341 Staundon, Non. Inq. 

The strange persistence of the -don forms in Staunton-on- Wye 
suggests a difference of origin. But there is no hill, stone- or 
otherwise, in the parish. Both names are probably O.E. stan 
tun, ' stone-built tun.' There are more than twenty Stantons in 
England, and seven Stauntons. In these the u shows Norman 
influence. 

Steens Bridge (on Humber Brook). 

Steens Brook (trib. of Leadon in Castle Frome). 

Stensley (Peterchurch). 
'The Stensley' in 18 10. 

There is an O.E. word stenys, ' stone-quarries,' which may be 
the first element. 

The Steps (Little Cowarne). 

Cwm Steps (Crasswall). 

Steps House (Ullingswick). 

Stiches (Eardisland). 

StifFord's Bridge (Cradley). 

*Stintmill [Hereford]. 
1 3 16 'Molendinum de Stintemulle in suburbio Herefordie,' 
Ep. Reg. 

*The Stobell [Little Dewchurch]. 

1657 The Stobell, Llandinabo Par. Reg. 



1/6 COLLEY STOCKEN 

Colley Stocken (Orleton). 

Stocken Farm (Lucton). 

Stocking (Much Marcle : Willey). 

1 335 Stokkynge, Ep. Reg. 
No date Le Stockynge, Leom. Cart. 
There is nothing to show to which place these entries refer. 
' Stoking ' seems to have been a generic term for any land 
stocked or ridded. In a I2th century Brecon Charter an agree- 
ment is made 'de duabus acris...et de bissupestoking...et de 
stoking juxta finchesleye' (in Talgarth). 

Stockley (Staunton-on- Arrow). 

Stockley Hill (Tyberton). 

Stocks (Almeley); 

1 123 Stokes, Leom. Cart. 
There is another Stocks in Avenbury, and a Stocks Lane. 
Stockmoor is in Dilwyn. 

Stockton (Kimbolton). 

1086 Stoctune, Dom. 

1123 Stochtuna, Leom. Cart. 

1 29 1 Stockton, Tax. Eccles. 
O.K. stoc, ' a stake.' 
' Tun with stocks or stakes around it' 

Stockwell (Allensmore). 

1300 Stokwelle, Ep. Reg. 

Stoke Bliss. 

1 29 1 Stokeblez, Tax. Eccles. 

1302 Stoke Bleys, Ep. Reg. 

1303 Stok Bleez, F.A. 

1 3 16 Stok de Bley, F.A. 

1 34 1 Stokebles, Non. Inq. 

143 1 Stoke blees, F.A. 

1529 Stocke Blys, Ind. Ct R. 
There is a Bliss Hall in Staunton-on- Wye, which in Leom. 
Cart, is Villa de Bleez. A family of Bliss or Blez held this Stok 
in the 13th century. 



STOWE 177 

Stoke Edith. 

1086 Stoches, Dom. 

1278 Stoke Edith, Ep. Reg. 

1 29 1 Stok Edith, Tax. Eccles. 

1302 Edithestok, Quo War. 

1 341 Stok Edith, Non. Inq. 

O.E. stoc, 'a stake'; then, says Bosworth, 'a staked-in, fenced 
place.' But Skeat thinks perhaps a log-hut. There are 63 Stokes 
in Dom., 31 written Stoche, and 32 Stoches. 

Tradition says this Stoke takes its name from- ' Saint Edith,' 
but, as there are several Saints of that name, tradition cannot 
choose between them. Dom. says it belonged to Queen Edith, 
the widow of the Confessor. 

Stoke Lacy. 

1288 Stoke Lacy, Ep. Reg. 

1 291 Stoke Lacy, Tax. Eccles. 

1 341 Stoklacy, Non. Inq. 
The Lacies were the chief holders of Herefordshire lands in 
the nth century, their possessions filling more than five columns 
in Dom. Apparently they had not obtained Stoke in 1086. 

Stoke Prior. 

ante 1038 Stoce, Kemble. 

1086 Stoches, Stoca, Dom. 
The Prior is of Leominster Priory. 

Stormer Hall (Leintwardine). 

Stormy Castle (Small Holding in Crasswall). 
So in 183 1 Ord. Map. But the 'Castle' seems to have been 
invented by i8th century antiquarians. 

Storridge. 

temp. Hen. HI Storugge, Harl. MS. 



Stowe (Whitney-on-Wye). 
See Appendix, -stow. 



178 STRADEL 



Stradel or Straddle. 



l\ 



Dom. 



1086 Stradel [Hundred],' 

Vallis Stradelie, 

Vallis Stradelei, 

Vallis Stratelie, 
circ. 1 100 Straddele, Flor. Wore. 

1338 Stradhull, Stradylvale, Ind. Ct R. 
1465 Straddull, Ind. Ct R. 

The whole of what is now the Golden Valley was once 
called Straddle. But now the name only survives in the farm of 
Monnington Stradel, and Stradel Bridge, both in Vowchurch. 
Prof Lloyd thinks Stradel may be a corruption of some form of 
Ystrad-Dour, 'valley of the (river) Dore.' But Eg. Phil, says 
the Dom. forms ' seem to make this nearly impossible.' 

There is an inexplicable entry in Bishop Swinfield's Register 
1294, 'apud Straddele in Blakemonstone.' For Blakemonstone 
(now Blackmarston, q.v.) is a suburb of Hereford. 

Stradway (Orcop). 

But for a well-founded distrust of hybrids, one would be 
tempted to say Welsh ystrad (Lat. strata) and O.E. weg. The 
first element is perhaps O.E. straede, ' a stride.' 

Strangford (Sellack). 

Street (hamlet, Kingsland). 

1086 Lestret, Dom. 
1243 Strete, T. de Nevill. 
no date Capella de Strete, Leom. Cart. 
1 29 1 Capella de Streta, Tax. Eccles. 
1 341 Capella de Streta, Non. Inq. 

King Street Farm in Ewyas Harold was so called before 
1300. A farm in Allensmore is called Woodstreet, and another 
in Withington is called Duck Street. 

Stretford (Hundred). 

1086 Stratford, Stradford, Dom. 



STRICKSTENNING 1 79 

Stretford. 

1086 Stratford, Dom. 

1 29 1 St'ford, Tax. Eccles. 

1327 Stretford-by-Monklene, Plac. de Banco. 

1 34 1 Stratford, Non. Inq. 

O.E. straet-ford, 'ford where the Roman road crosses a 
stream.' 

Stretton Grandison. 

1275 Ecclesia de Strattone at Capella de Aspertone, 

Ep. Reg. 
1283 Strattone in Strattonesdale, Ep. Reg. 
1 29 1 Stretton et Asperton, Tax. Eccles. 
1335 Stretton in Strettonesdale, Ep. Reg. 
1 341 Stretton & Asp'ton, Non. Inq. 
1350 Stretton Graundison, Ep. Reg. 
'Tun on the Roman road.' The village lies at the point 
where the Roman road which runs eastward from Kenchester 
(passing through Stretton Sugwas) comes to an apparent end. 
Many Roman remains have been found from time to time in 
the village. 

William de Grandison, a Burgundian from Neuchitel, 
obtained a grant of land in Herefordshire from Edward I. 

Stretton 1 Sugwas. 

1086 Stratone, Dom. 

1 29 1 Stretton, Tax. Eccles. 

1294 Strettone juxta Credenhulle, Ep. Reg. 

1303 Stratton, F.A. 

1334 Strattone by Sugwas, Ep. Reg. 

1 341 Stretton, Non. Inq. 
In 1 395 the road from Burghill to Stretton was called 
Stretoneswey. 

Strickstenning (Much Birch). 

So circa 1650. There is a Strekynge in or near Birch in 1538. 

1 Circ. 1200 we find a 'Decanus de Strettina' (Brec. Cart.) mentioned with 
Burghill and Brinsop. 

13 — 2 



l8o STRONGWOOD 

Strongwood (Knill). 
1086 Stiuingeurdin, Dom. 

1242 Strongford, and Strongeworthe (in the same docu- 
ment), Glos. Cart. 
1577 Strangward, Saxton's Map. 
161 1 Strangward, Speed's Map. 
A -wardine ending, which, after changing to -ford, has now 
become -wood. The Dom. form of the first element seems to be 
a mistake of the scribe. 

Studley (Linton). 

No old forms. Prob. (like Studley (Oxfs.), of which all the 
old forms are Stodleye) O.E. stod-leah, ' the meadow of the stud 
(of horses).' 

Suffield (Canon Frome). 

The first element is prob. as in Sufton. 

Sufton (Mordiford). 

1200 Sulftona\ Glos. Cart. 

1 39 1 Sufton, Harl. MS. 
O.E. sough, ' a drain.' 
Cf Sough (q.v.) and Soughton (Flints.). 

Sugwas. 

1086 Sucwessen, Dom. 

1276 Sugwas, Ep. Reg., 
and very frequently thereafter. 

For first element see Sough, and for second element see 
Rotherwas. 

* Suite. 

We find references to 'a parcel of land called Crooked 
Poplands Sute' in Hentland in 1638; 'the Suite lands in 
Chappell Field' in Goodrich in 1693 ; and ' Blacknorles Sute' in 
Peter stow in 1693. 

*Sulcet [Dom. Hundred]. 

1086 Sulcet, Dom. 

^ This identification is not quite certain. 



SWANSTON l8l 

*Sumniergild [near Leominster]. 

no date Sumergeilde, Leom. Cart. 

1 539 Somergyldes, Somergilds, Aug. Of. 

The first element is O.'K.sumer, 'summer': the second seems 
to be O.E. gild, ' a payment ' or ' a guild.' What the two com- 
bined in a place-name mean is uncertain. Prof. Skeat on 
Guilden Morden (Cambs.) says : ' As to what it means I can 
only give a guess. The form would accurately represent the 
O.E. gyltena, gen. plur. of gylda, " a guild brother." So Guilden 
Morden would be " the Morden of the guild-brothers." But this 
requires confirmation by the help of historical research.' 

Sutton. 

1086 Sudtune, Sutune, Dom. 

1 29 1 Ecclesia Sancti Michaelis de Sotton, Tax. Eccles. 

1 3 16 Sutton Frene, F.A. 

no date Suthtuna, Glos. Cart. 

1^41 Sutton Sancti Michaelis,] ^^ ,. 

r, o • TVT- , „, \ Non. Inq. 

Sutton Sancti NichT, J ^ 

1545 Sutton Frene, Ind. Ct R. 

circ. 1550 'Kinggett Southton non longe distat a Maurdine... 

Extant... vestigia... quae nunc appellantur South- 

toun Waulls,' Leland. 

The Frene family acquired Sutton in 1290, and held it for 

about a century. 

Swainshill (Stretton Sugwas). 

No old forms. But first element is prob. as in Swanston (q.v.). 

Swanston (Dilwyn). 

1086 Suenestun, Dom. 

1243 Swenestane, T. de Nevill. 

1278 Sweynestone, Ep. Reg. 

1 3 16 Sweyneston, F.A. 

1 345 Sweynestone, Ep. Reg. 
' Tun of the swain.' The first element is O.E. swan, ' a swain, 
herdsman.' 

Cf Swainsthorpe (Norf ), Swainset (Lanes.). 



l82 bWINMOOR 

Swinmoor (Madley). 

1348 Swynemor, Ep. Reg. 
There is a Swinmore also in Bosbury. 
See Moccas ; and cf. Swinbrook (Oxfs.), Swindon (Wilts.). 

*Sybcombe [in or near Clifford]. 

1537 Sybcombe, Aug. Of. 

*Syfervast [Cowarne]. 

Said to be the old name of Cowarne Court, but there is 
no documentary evidence of this beyond the statements of 
1 8th century antiquarians. 

Symond's Yat. 

1665 Symons Yate, Courtfield MS. 

1 83 1 Simmonds Gate, Ord. Map. 
' Opening, pass, gate of Sigemund or Simund.' Cf. Yatton, 
Gate Farm, Lydiates. \ti St Briavels (Glos.) is Wye-gate, which 
in Dom. is Wigheiete, and in 1337 Wyett. 

Tabeel (Holmer). 

Tack Farm (Moreton Jeffreys). 

*Taratyr. 

circ. 1 1 30 ' Taratyr super ripam Gui,' Lib. Land. 

Seems to have been the name of the stream which flows 
from Aconbury into the Wye below Dyndor. In the Black Book 
of Carmarthen ' Aber Taradr ' is said to be a few miles below 
Hereford, marking the extreme N.E. limit of Erging {Archen- 
Jield). The name is still preserved in Tars Mill, a mile below 
Aconbury village. 

Old Tarn (St Margaret's). 

Tarrington. 

1086 Tatintune, Dom. 

1243 Tatinton, Tatinton parva, T. de Nevill. 

1 29 1 Tattindon, Tax. Eccles. 

1303 Tatynton, F.A. 



TEDSTONE WAFER 1 83 

1 341 Tatynton, Non. Inq. 

1346 Tadynton, F.A. 

1428 Tadinton, F.A. 

1448 Tatynton, Ind. Ct R. 

1538 Tadyngton, Val. Eccles. 

1577 Taddington alias Tarrington, Saxton's Map. 

1650 Taddington, Hereford Corp. MS. 

1652 Much Taddington, Little Taddington, Survey. 

1716 Taddington, Llandinabo Par. Reg. 

1786 Tarrington, Taylor's Map. 
'Tun of Taeta or Tata.' The modern form never appears 
before 1577, and it was two centuries longer before the old form 
disappeared. 

Taddington (Derbs.) is also 'Tun of Tata'; also Deddington 
(Oxfs.), which is Tadynton in 1289. Tetbury (Glos.), which is 
circ. 1000 Tettanbyrig, is ' Taeta's burh.' 

Teddeswood (Ross). 

1 5 19 Teddeswode, Ep. Reg. 
' The wood of Tette.' 
See under Tedstone. 

Tedney (Whitbourne). 

No old forms, but prob. O.K. Tettan-ig, ' Tetta's island.' See 
Appendix, -ey. 

Tedstone Delamere. 
Tedstone W^afer. 

1086 Tedesthorne, Tetistorp, Dom. 
1286 Todesterne, Chart. R. 
1 29 1 Tedesterne la Mare, "1 

Thedesterne de la Mare,> Tax. Eccles. 

Todethorne Wafr, J 

1294 Capella de Tedesterne, Ep. Reg. 
1303 Teddesthorn Wafre, F.A. 
1 341 Tudesterne la Mare, Non. Inq. 
1 346 Tedestron de la Mare, Ep. Reg. 
1428 Teddynstorne Delamere, F.A. 
1538 Tedinston, Tedston, Val. Eccles. 



1 84 TEDSTONE WAFER 

'The thorn, or (in the other Dom. form) the thorp of Teda'; 
or of Tidda or Tuda ; or of Teotta or Tette. All these are 
common, and kindred, personal names. 

Tame (river). 

One hesitates to discuss a river-name. This is said to be 
from a Celtic root found in varying forms, Tame, Tamer, Thame, 
Thames; and (since in Welsh /"=?' = aspirated m) Taff, Tavy, 
and Taw. In 1223 Tenbury Is Tametebyri i^rec. Cart.). 

Thinghill. 

1086 Tingehalle, Tingehele, Dom. 
1283 Thynchull, Chart. R. 
1 29 1 Thyngel, Tax. Eccles. 
1303 Thynghull, F.A. 
1327 Thynghull, Plac. de Banco. 
1577 Dynchille, Saxton's Map. 
161 1 Dynchill, Speed's Map. 
1786 Thinghill, Taylor's Map. 
' Hill of meeting.' 

O.E. faran to thinge is ' to go to a meeting.' The Dom. entry 
confuses '-hill' with 'hall', as often. 

Thornbury. 

1086 Torneberie, Dom. 
circ. 1240 Thornbir', Leom. Cart. 
1 29 1 Tharbur', Tax. Eccles. 
1 34 1 Thornbury, Non. Inq. 
O.E. thorn-byrig, ' burh with the thorn trees.' Or it may 
be from a pers. name Thorn, very common in the N. of England. 
Thornton occurs 34 times in Dom. of Yorks. alone. These 
could scarcely be all named after a tree ! 

*Thornlau [Dom. Hundred]. 

1086 Thornlau, Tornelaus, Tornelawes, Dom. 
' Thorn-tree-hill.' 

Thruxton. 

1226 Thurkelleston, Fine R. 
1243 Thurlestun, T. de Nevill. 



TITLEY 185 

1 29 1 Thurkeleston, Tax. Eccles. 

1 3 16 Therleceston, F.A. 

1332 Throkelistone, Ep. Reg. 

1 341 Thurcleston, Non. Inq. 

1428 Thorcleston, F.A. 

1538 Thruckeston, Val. Eccles. 
' Tun of Thorkell or Thurkill,' a shortened form of Thurcytel. 
In 1243 there is a Thurlokeshop, which in 1403 (Feet of 
Fines) is Thorllokeshope. In both entries it is held with 
Wilmaston in Peterchurch. 

Tidnor (Lugwardine). 
no date ' inter Tudinoverem et Langfordiam,' MS. Chart. 

1327 Tudenore, Capes. 

1330 Tudenore, Capes. 

1358 Tudenore, Ep. Reg. 
' Tida's or Tyda's bank.' See Appendix, -over. 
Cf Dadnor, Totnor Farm. 

Tillington (Burghill). 

1303 Tulynton, F.A. 
1327 Tullynton, Plac. de Banco. 
1395 Tulyntone, Ep. Reg. 
143 1 Tulynton, F.A. 
Roberts thinks Tillington (Sussex), which also is spelt with 
-u- in loth and I2th centuries, may be from O.E. Tila, a 
shortened form of some name beginning with Til-, such as 
Tilbeorkt, Tilbrand, Tilhere, etc. 

Tippings (Upper Sapey). 

Tipsgrove (Pixley). 

Tipton (Willey). 

Tipton Hall (Tedstone Delamere). 

Almost certainly the Turpleton of 1479 (Ind. Ct R.). 

Titley. 

1086 Titlege, Titellege, Dom. 

1 1 23 Titellega, Leom. Cart. 



1 86 TITLEY 

1 29 1 Tytteleye, Tax. Eccles. 

1327 Tiddesleye, Plac. de Banco. 

1 341 Titteleye, Non. Inq. 
' Tita's meadow.' 
There is a Titley Hill in Abbey dore. 

Totnor (Brockhampton). 

' Totta's or Tota's bank.' See Appendix, -over. 

Cf. Tottanstoc (Kemble). 

Town. 

As in Scotland, Somerset, and Cornwall, 'town' was, until 
quite recently, used in Herefordshire in the true sense of the 
O.E. tun, ' an enclosure, homestead, farm,' being applied to the 
smallest hamlet, or even to a farmyard. This use is reflected 
very widely in the place-names of the county. We have The 
Town in Crasswall (of all places!). Town Farm {Castle Frome 
and Ullingswick), Ton Farm {Clifford), Townhouse (farms, 
Llanveyno, Mathon and Madley), Lower Town (farm, Preston 
Wynne), Townend (Upper and Lower, farms, Bosbury), Townend 
( Westhide), Townsend {Dilwyn, Edvin Ralph, Kington, Mansell 
Lacy, Stretton Grandison). In 1342 Robert atte the Tonishende 
was ordained at Hereford. In Foy in 1420 is Townmediew; 
and Silas Taylor mentions ' those excellent grounds called 
Letton's townesend.' 

*Tragetreu [Dom. Hundred]. 

1086 Tragetreu, Dom. 

Tram Inn (Railway Station in Much Dewchurch parish). 

Before the railway was made a tram-line ran from Aber- 
gavenny to Hereford for conveying coal. On this was a public- 
house called Tram Inn. The Great Western Railway inexplicably 
called what should have been Dewchurch or Kilpeck Station 
Tram Inn. 

Trap-house (Ewyas Harold ; Allensmore). 

Trawley Brook (St Weonards). 

Surrounded on all sides by Welsh names, mostly beginning 
with Tre-, one suspects that this name is corrupted from some 
Tre- name. But we have no old forms. 



TRECILLA 187 

Treaddow' (Hentland). 

circ. 1 1 30 Villa ludbiu, Lib. Land. 
1222 Traradu, Coram Rege R. 
1 545 Trerado, Inq. p.m. 
1553 Trehaddou, Chanc. MS. 
1576 Treradow, Courtfield MS. 
1722 Treradow, Terrier. 

The first element is W. tref- (for which see Appendix) ; the 
second element is the name of an obscure Saint. 

Treago (St Weonards). 

1607 Treiago, Ct R. 

1608 Treyago, Ct R. 

A pars, name seems involved in the second element, perhaps 
lago, ' James.' 

Trebandy (Marston). 

The second element is W. pandy, 'a fulling mill,' a very 
common element in Welsh pl.-ns. 

Treberran (Pencoyd). 

circ. 1 1 30 Villa Cair Birran, Lib. Land. 
1722 Treberran, Terrier. 

Trebumfrey (Llangarren). 

1292 Humfreyeston, Inq. p.m. 
■ 1722 Trebumfrey, Terrier. 

The English form in 1292 sufficiently explains the meaning 
of the Welsh. There is a hamlet called Humphreston in 
Donington (Shrops.). 

Trecilla (Llangarren). 

1671 Trecelley, H'shire Hearth Tax List. 

1722 Trecellys, Terrier. 
Prob. W. tre-celli, ' grove-town.' 

^ This and all the following names in Tre-, unless otherwise defined, are houses 
or small farms. 



1 88 TREDOUGHAN 

Tredoughan or Treduckan (Longrove). 

1488 Tradraghan, Inq. p.m. 

1671 Tredroughan, H'shire Hearth Tax List. 

1722 Tredraughan, Terrier. 

1 83 1 Tred-uchain {sic), Ord. Map. 
Prob. tre-dragwn, ' settlement of the leader or chief.' 

Tredunnock (Llangarren). 

Tre-evan (Llangarren). 

1551 Treyaben, Inq. p.m. 

1722 Trevan, Terrier. 
W. ' Evanston.' Cf Evancoyd (Radnor). 
Trefassy (Welsh Newton). 

183 1 Trefassi, Ord. Map. 
Possibly tre-fosydd, 'house or village in the trenches or 
ditches.' 

Tregate (Llanrothal). 

1243 Treget, T. de Nevill. 
1 3 16 Treget, F.A. 
The only W. word resembling the second element is gid, 
' a goat.' It may, however, be a corruption of some other word, 
perhaps of coed. Or, since the 1243 entry says it was held by 
knight-service, i.e. probably by Norman knights, the second 
element may be a corruption due to Norm.-Fr. influences. 

Trelandon (Clodock). 

1540 'Trelandon in Ewias Lacy,' Aug. Of 
Trelesdee (St Weonards). 

Evidently a corrupt form : possibly of tre-lluesdau, ' encamp- 
ment-village,' ' campton.' 

Trelough (St Devereux). 

133s 'Treyloghe de Wormbrugge,' Ep. Reg. 
W. tre-llwch, 'house in the marsh.' 
Tremahaid (Llanrothal). 
Prob. W. tre-maidd, ' whey-farm.' 



TRETHAL 1 89 

Tremorithig (Bacton). 

1 83 1 Tremoreiddig, Ord. Map. 

1838 Tremerithig, Tombstone. 
Apparently W. tre-meryddig, ' marsh-farm.' 

Trenant (Peterchurch). 
Turnant (Llanveyno). 

Llanveyno circ. 1 1 30 Trineint, Lib. Land. 
W. tre-nant, ' village in the valley,' or ' brook -village.' 
John Trefnant was Bishop of Hereford, A.D. 1389 — 1404. 

Trepencennant (St Weonards). 

1722 Trepenkennett, Terrier. 
W. tre-pen-cen-nant, ' house at the head of the valley.' Others 
interpret tre-pen-cenad, ' house of the chief messenger.' 

Trereece (Llangarren). 

183 1 Trerees, Ord. Map. 
W. tre-rhys, 'settlement of Rice' (a common Welsh pers. 
name). 

Cf Trerke (Cornwall). 

Treribble (Llangarren). 

1722 Trerible, Terrier. 

*Trescoyte [belongs to Dore Abbey]. 

circ. 1200 Treschoit, Gir. Cambs. 

1 24 1 Troscoit, Chart. R. 

1 541 Trescoyte, Aug. Of 
W. tre-is-y-coed, ' house below the wood.' 
Cf Bangor Is-y-coed (Flints.). 

*Tretawbot [in or near Bridstow]. 

1630 Tretawbot, Courtfield MS. 

' Talbot's town.' 

Trethal (Llanrothal). 

W. tal is in pl.-names -end, e.g. Tal-y-bont, ' Bridgend ' ; Tal- 
y-llyn, ' End of the lake.' But this might be ire-tail, ' dung-town,' 
or tre-dol, ' meadow-town ' ; or it may be a corruption of Tre- 



190 TRETHAL 

rothal{sQt Llanrothat), ' House of St Ridol.' Without old forms, 
we can decide nothing. 

Tretire. 

1277 Retir, Ep. Reg. 

1 29 1 Rittyr, Tax. Eccles. 

1 302 ' Retbyr in Irchinfeld,' Quo War. 

1308 Rettyre, Inq. p.m. 

1 3 14 Retir, Ep. Reg. 

1 34 1 Rityr, Non. Inq. 

1369 Rythyre, Ep. Reg. 

1538 Tretire, Val. Eccles. 
circ. 1550 Tirtre, Leland. 
It is clear that the first element only became ire-, on the 
pattern of the places round, in the i6th century. It may have 
been rhyd-tir, ' ford-land,' or rhudd-tir, ' red-land.' 

Trevace (Tretire). 

1722 Trevace, Terrier. 
W. tre-faes (mut. of maes), ' house in the field.' 

Trevaddock (Cusop). 

Trewadock (Garway). 

W. ' Madoc's town.' 

In Welsh/ (i.e. v) is the mutation oim. 

Trevaker (St Margaret's). 

The second element does not seem to be pure Welsh. It 
may represent a (i6th century?) settler named Baker, whose 
name by mutation would become -vaker. 

Trevanning (St Weonards). 

V being the mutation of b or of m, the second element may 
be W. ban, ' lofty, conspicuous ' ; or it may be maen, ' stone.' The 
-ing ending is not Welsh ; it is prob. a corruption due to English 
influences. 

Treveranon (St Weonards). 

Trevervan (Llangarren). 

1699 Trevervin, Tombstone. 
W. tre-ferfain (mut. of berfairi) ' Verbena house.' 



TREYGREYS 19I 

Treville. 

1086 Triueline, Dom. 
1 1 60 Trivel, Pipe R. 
1 2 16 Trivelbroc, Dore Chart. 
1 32 1 Try vile, Ep. Reg. 
1327 Tryvel, Plac. de Banco. 
The Dom. form suggests the true W. tre-wilain (mut. of 
bilairi), ' house of the villan-tenant.' 

Trewaugh (Llangarren). 

Prob. W. tre-gwach, ' house in a hole.' 

Trewen (Whitchurch). 

1243 Trewen, T. de Nevill. 

1722 Trewen, Terrier. 
W. tre-gwyn, ' white house.' 

Trewern (Clodock). 
Trewern du (Garway). 
Trewarne (Longrove). 

Clodock 1540 ' Trewern in Ewias Lacy,' Aug. Of 
W. tre-gwemau, ' house among the alders.' 

Treworgan (Longrove). 

1722 Treworgan, Terrier. 
The second element is a man's name, Gwrgaint (the Geraint 
of Arthurian legend). 

Trewyn (Walterstone). 

1540 Trewyn Capella S. Martini, Aug. Of 
W. tre-gwyn, ' white house.' The more correct form would 
be Trezven-(q.v.). 

*Treygreys [in or near Kilpeck]. 

1367 ' campus de Treygreys,' Ep. Reg. 
Possibly the second element is W. gwres, ' heat,' ' warmth.' 
Trey- is, like tre-, W. tre/. 



192 TREYSECK 

Treyseck (Hentland). 

155 1 Tresoke, Inq. p.m. 
' Village built on drained land,' from W. soch, ' a drain.' 

Tricordivor (St Margaret's). 

Seems to be compounded of ire- with coed, ' wood,' and Ivor, 
a pers. name. 

Trilloes (Boulston). 

Possibly W. ire/ and llwj/s, ' clean, pure, holy.' 

Triloode (Llanveyno). 

Trippleton (Leintwardine). 

This may be the Turpleton of 1479 (Ind. Ct R.) (but more 
probably Tipton is the place referred to). 

Trothland (St Weonard's). 

In the heart of a Welsh district, it is probably an English 
corruption of some Welsh pl.-n., which, without old forms, we 
cannot know. 

Tuck Mill (Clehonger). 

'A fulling or cloth mill.' O.E. tucian, 'to full cloth.' A 
Tucker is a cloth-worker. 

Cf Walk Mill (q.v.) which has almost the same meaning. 

Tupsley. 

1086 Topeslage, Dom. 

1 241 Topesle, MS. Chart. 

1302 Toppesley, Quo War. 

1 3 16 Hampton Thopesley Villa, F.A. 
' The meadow of Toppa or Topa.' 
Cf. Toppesfield (Essex), Topsham (Devon). 

Turnastone. 

1243 Thurneiston, T. de Nevill. 

1 29 1 Thurneston, Tax. Eccles. 

1299 Thornestone, Ep. Reg. 

1 341 Turneston, Non. Inq. 



TY BACH 193 

1428 Tornaston, F.A. 
1538 Turnaston, Val. Eccles. 
1610 Torneston, Rowland Vaughan. 
' Tun with the thorn tree/ or, more probably, from a pers. 
name Thorn. See under Thornbury. 

Turnastone is merely a form of Thornton, retaining the -es of 
the genitive. Why this is sometimes retained in later forms of 
place-names, and sometimes lost, no investigator has yet satis- 
factorily explained. 

Tuston (Ashperton). 

Tustin is a surname in the county. 

Tuthill (Stoke Lacy). 

Oldcastle Twt (Almeley). 

Hergest Castle Twts (Kington). 

This is an English, not a Welsh word, and should be written 
Tut- as in the Stoke Lacy form. J. G. Wood derives it from 
O.K. totian, ' to peep out,' and translates it as ' a watch place.' 
He compares Tutshill, near Chepstow ; Tothill Lane on Plymouth 
Sound ; Tothill Fields ( Westminster), and Totmanslow. 

The Twern (Putley). 

*Twinordesfelde [on one of the Bishop of Hereford's 
Manors]. 

1250 Twinordesfelde, Auc. Pet. 

'The twiner's field,' i.e. belonging to the man who twined 
ropes from the hemp grown on the Manor. 

Twyford (Callow and Eardisland). 

Callow 1243 Thwyford, T. de Nevill. 
„ 1316 Twyford, F.A. 
„ 1340 Twyford, Aconbury Accts. 
Eardisland 1547 Twyford, Ind. Ct R. 
The first element is O.E. twy or twa, ' two.' 

Ty bach (Clodock). 

W. ty-bach, ' small house,' ' cottage.' 

B. H. 13 



194 TYBERTON 

Tyberton, 

1086 Tibrintintune, Dom. 

1 2 18 Tybyrtone, Capes. 

1243 Tyberton, T. de Nevill. 

1267 Tibriton, Inq. p.m. 

1 29 1 Tybreton, Tibriton, Tax. Eccles. 

1 341 Tyberton, Non. Inq. 

1831 Tibberton, Ord. Map. 
Prob. ' Tun of Tidbeorht.' Tibberton (Glos.) is Dom. Tibriston, 
which also seems to point to Tidbeorht. Tibberton (Worcs.) is 
Dom. Tidbrihtingctun, which is unmistakably Tidbeorht. 

Tyboobach (Crasswall). 

W. ty-bwbach, ' goblin's house.' 

Ty bordy (Cusop). 

' House of boards,' ' wooden house.' The second element is 
evidently a corrupt plural of W. bwrdd, ' a board.' 

Ty Craddock (Michaelchurch Eskley). 
W. ' Caradoc's house.' 

Ty Glen (Cusop). 

W. ' House in the glen.' 

Tyllyshope (Cusop). 

Ty mawr (Clodock). 

W. ty-mawr, ' great house.' 

Ty-nag-Quint (Michaelchurch Eskley). 

Tynyrheol (Whitchurch). 

W. tyn-yr-heol, ' roadside house.' 

Tythingsend (Acton Beauchamp). 

Ty-ucha (Michaelchurch Eskley). 
W. ty-ucha/, ' upper house.' 

Ullingswick. 

1086 Ullingwic, Dom. 

1 1 27 Olingewiche, A.C. 

1 1 86 UUyngwyk, Glos. Cart. 



UPTON BISHOP 195 

1 192 Ullingewike, Glos. Cart, 
no date Wylyngwyche, Willingswyke, Glos. Cart. 
1276 Ullingwike, Ep. Reg. 
1 29 1 Ullingwyke, Tax. Eccles. 
1 34 1 Ullongewyk, Non. Inq. 
' Wic of the sons of Willa.' 

Duncumb has an ingenious theory that it is Helens Wick ; 
because the convent of St Helena at Enston claimed the advowson 
in the 14th century. But the deed of the convent, abandoning 
this unfounded claim (dated 1 349), gives the name as Ullingwik. 

Underdown (Ledbury). 

1304 Underdoune, Ep. Reg. 

Underly (Wolferlow). 

1 3 16 Undelich, F.A. 
There is, strangely enough, an Upper Underly, close by. 

Upcott Cross (Almeley). 

1332 Uppecote, Assize R. 
The Upcot Brook runs from here through Letton into the Wye. 

Uphampton (Shobdon). 

1550 Uphampton, Ind. Ct R. 

Upleadon (Bosbury). 

1289 Preceptori de Upledene, Chart. 
1 29 1 Upleden, Tax. Eccles. 
1304 Uppledone, Ep. Reg. 
1 3 16 Upledene, F.A. 
circ. 1550 Upledon, Leland. 

1596 Upleadon alias Temple Court, Ind. Ct R. 
There is an Upleadon in Glos. near Newent, which, like this 
Templar's estate in Bosbury, almost certainly means ' upon the 
river Leadon.' 

Cf. Upavon (Wilts.). 

Upton Bishop. 

1086 Uptune, Upetone, Dom. 

1 29 1 Upton, Tax. Eccles. 

1 341 Upton Episcopi, Non. Inq. 

13—2 



196 UPTON BISHOP 

Near the village is Upton Crews or Cruze (i.e. crucis). There 
is an Upton in Little Hereford {'Leom. Cart. 1123 Uptuna). 

O.E. up tun, ' upper, high-up tun.' In Yazor it appears as 
Upperton, and in Ullingswick as Upper Town (farm). 

Urchingfield (Hardwicke). 
See Archenfield. 

Urdimarsh (Bodenham). 

Urishay (Peterchurch). 

1243 Haya Hurri, Haya Wiri, T. de Nevill. 
1300 Hayeurri, MS. Chart. 
1398 Urreyeshay,-Inq. p.m. 
' The enclosure of — ? ' There is a Wira or Uira in Onom. 
For the second element see Appendix, -hay. 

The Valletts (Treville, Eaton Bishop, Elton, Titley). 

In Aeon. Accts 1340 is 'le Wallett' It has been conjectured 
that Titley Valletts is the (unidentified) Walelege of Dom. But 
J. H. R. thinks more probably Ailey in Eardisley. 

-ett is N.-Fr. dim. ending (mod. Fr. -ette). Littlehampton 
(Sussex) is, in the 13th century, Haniptonett. Whether the root 
of the word Valletts is Vallis or Vallum we have not sufficient 
evidence to determine. 

There are also ' Thruxton Valletts,' ' Canon Valletts Wood ' 
(still belonging to the Cathedral), and Lye Vallets in Hope- 
under-Dinmore. 

The Vauld (Harden). 
1465 The Falde, Ind. Ct R. 
1545 'Mawreden with Valde,' Ind. Ct R. 
circ. 1583 'Valde alias Fenne,' Aug. Of. 

1586 ' Overfenn & Netherfenn,' Aug. Of (holden oi Harden 

by fealty). 

O.'E. f aid, 'a sheep-fold.' The i6th century confusion with 

Fenne does not re-appear. The matter, however, is not quite 

clear, since in 1465 (Ind. Ct R.) 'Feme alias Verne' is a ' member ' 

of Harden. 



VOWCHURCH 197 

Velvetstone (Thornbury). 

Venn (Avenbury). 

1086 Fenne, Dom. 
1303 La Fenne, F.A. 
1327 Fenne-by-Avebury, Plac. de Banco. 
1 545 Venn, Ind. Ct R. 
15 5 1 Benne, Inq. p.m. 
1567 le Venne, Fine R. 
O.K./enn, 'a marsh.' 

The name is found elsewhere in the county. For the (lost) 
Venn near Harden, see Vauld. We have The Venn {Bodenham), 
The Verne {Bosbury), Black Venn {Edvin Ralph), Venwood 
(Bodenham), and Venmore {Dilwyn; so in 1525). 

Vilendra (St Weonards). 
See Felindre. 

Vineyard. 

It is clear that throughout Herefordshire, as in other parts of 
England, vines were grown, and wine made in places even till 
late in the 17th century. We still have 'The Vineyard' in 
Hereford, Donnington, Weston Beggard, and Walterstone : and 
' Vine ' in some form or other survives also as an element in place- 
names in Bishop's Frame, Clehonger, Cradley, and Tarrington. 

In 1 138 Harden had a vinea ; and Bredwardine one circ. 1200. 
In 1 276 Bishop Cantilupe writes of vinea nostra de Ledebury, and 
in 1289 this same vineyard yielded seven casks of white wine. 
Both red and white wine were made, by the Skipp family, on 
this vineyard until the end of the 17th century. In 141 3 (Inq. 
p.m.) we find gardinum. vocatum Wynyard in Goodrich ; and 
Winiarde occurs (unlocated) in Leom. Cart. 

Vowchurch. 

1 29 1 Fowchirche, Tax. Eccles. 
1.294 Fowechirche, Ep. Reg. 
1 3 16 Fowechirch, F.A. 
1 341 Fouechirch, Non. Inq. 



198 VOWCHURCH 

1358 Foy (must be Vowchurch, since in same entry 
with Hinton and Stradhull), Ind. Ct R. 

1432 Fouchurche, Ep. Reg. 

1538 Vouchurch, Val. Eccles. 

1577 Fowmynd, Saxton's Map. 

161 1 Fowchurch, Speed's Map. 

1786 Vowchurch, Taylor's Map. 
Possibly the 1358 scribe was right in his interpretation, and 
the first element is Nor.-Fr. foi (Lat. fides). The name would 
then be, like Foy (q.v.), ' Church of St Faith.' It may be, how- 
ever, that, after all, the root is Nor.-French vou (Lat. votuni). 
Eg. Phil, thinks that the Mafurn of Lib. Land, (which is 
certainly on the Dore) is Vowchurch. 

The Vroe (Rowlestone). 

Possibly W.ffrwd, 'a stream,' 'torrent' 

Wacton (Bredenbury). 

1243 Wakinton, T. de Nevill. 

1286 Waketon, Assize R. 

1303 Waketon, F.A. 

1650 Wakinton, Blount. 
' Wacca's tun.' Cf Waccanham (Kemble). 

Wadel (brook). 

Trib. of Lugg, into which it flows near Stapleton. 

*Wadetune [' in valle Stradelei ']. 

1 086 Wadetune, Dom. 

Wain Herbert (Newton-in-Clodock). 
1636 Wainherbert, Deed endowing Price's Hospital, Hereford. 
In Longtown is Wayne. 

More than half the names in the district are W. Therefore 
Wain may be W.guaun {gwaen), 'a meadow.' ' Herbert's meadow.' 

Wain-street (Eastnor). 
M.E. wain, ' a wagon.' 



WALSCHEBROK 199 

Walbrook (Allensmore). 

1520 Walbroke, Aug. Of. 

Walford. 

1086 Walecford, Waliforde, Dom. 

circ. 1226 Waleford, Capes. 

1 291 ' Ecclesia de Walford cum capellis,' Tax. Eccles. 

1304 Walford, Ep. Reg. 

1341 'Walford cum capella de Ruardyn/ Non. Inq. 

The first element is almost certainly O.E. wealh (Mercian, 
wale), 'a stranger,' 'a foreigner,' 'a Welshman.' 'The Welshman's 
ford.' 

It is just possible, however, that it may be ' Ford at the wall,' 
or even ' at the well.' 

Sir R. C. Hoare makes Walford the Ridhelic (mod. Welsh, 
rhyd helig), 'Willow-ford,' of Gir. Cambr., which is more probably 
' The Helyg Ford ' at Llanigon. 

A hamlet of Leintwardine is also called Walford. 

Walk Mill (Ewyas Harold). 

' Mill for fulling cloth.' O.E. wealcan (M.E. walke), ' to full 
cloth.' Hence the name Walker, which we find in Marden — 
Walker's Green. 

Wall. 

An' element in several names in the county — The Walls 
{Kimbolton), Wall Hills {Ledbury and Thornbury), Wallhead 
{St Weonards), Wall End {Monkland and Stoke Prior), Wall 
Pool {Little Birch), and a curious Wallstych {Kington). 

W^allow (Weston-under-Penyard). ' 

*Walney [near Shelwick]. 

1275 Walneye, Ep. Reg. 

*Walschebrok [.?]. 
ante 1272 'rivulus qui vocatur Walschebrok, qui currit sub 
Akhull,' Wormesley Chart. 
Cf. Welch Wood {BnWcy). 



200 WALTERSTONE 

W^alterstone. 

1 316 Waltereston, F.A. 
One of the group of three adjoining places (the others being 
Rowlestone and Gilbertstone) called after Norman knights, 
probably attached to the two castles of Ewyas Harold and 
Ewyas Lacy. Ralph and Gilbert are mentioned in Dom., but 
no Walter is mentioned in connection with the neighbourhood. 

Walton (Bishop's Frome). 
So in Leom. Cart, passim. 

*Wapleford [added by the sheriff to the manor of Cusop in 
the time of Earl William]. 

1086 Wapleford, Dom. 

*'Wapleton [' jacebat ad Leofministre T. R. E.']. 
1086 Wapletone, Dom. 

Wapley Hill (Staunton-on- Arrow). 

Warham. 

1086 Werham, Dom. 

1324 'Werham juxta Herefordiam,' Ep. Reg. 

1538 Warram, Val. Eccles. 

' Ham at the wear.' O.E. waer, ' a wear, an enclosure for 
fish." 

Cf. Wharram (Yorks.) which in 1199 is Warham. 

*Waribroc [in Moreton-on-Lugg]. 

1 175 Waribroc, Leom. Cart. 

■Warloe (Eaton Bishop). 

' Hill above the wear.' (It is exactly opposite Warham. (q.v.) 
on the other side of the Wye.) 

■Wassal (Vowchurch). 

^Vassington (Ashperton). 
See Wolsopthorne. 



WEOBLEY 20 I 

Webton (Madley). 

1086 Webetone, Dom. 

circ. 1200 Webbetune, Capes. 

1243 WelketonS T. de Nevill. 

1 29 1 Welbedon, Webbeton, Tax. Eccles. 

1303 Webbeton, F.A. 

1 341 Webbeton, Non. Inq. 

"Webtree (Clehonger). 

1300 Webbetre, Ep. Reg. 

Wegnal (Rodd). 

■Welcheston (Woolhope). 

O.K. waelsces-tun, ' tun of the Welshman.' 

Welland (Peterstow). 

Wellbrook (Peterchurch). 

The brook that runs down from ' St Peter's Well.' I think 
it is the Wyrkebroc of T. de Nevill, being exactly in the right 
place. 

Wellington. 

circ. 1030 Weolintun, Kemble. 
1086 Walintone, Dom. 
1 131 Walintona, Capes. 
1227 Wylinton, Chart. R. 
1 29 1 Welynton, Tax. Eccles. 
1303 Welinton, Walynton, F.A. 
1 341 Welyngton, Non. Inq. 
Silas Taylor enigmatically says that Wellington is 'falsely 
written Wellowin for Weoling.' 

Probably ' tun of the foreigners ' ; or perhaps ' of the sons of 
the foreigner ' ; less probably ' tun of the Wealings.' 

Weobley. 

1086 Wibelai, Wylbeleg, Dom. 

1243 Webbeleg, T. de Nevill. 

1 291 Webbele, Tax. Eccles. 

' For this form see under Meer Court. 



202 WEOBLEY 

1302 Wolbeleygh, Quo War. 
1 3 16 Webbeley Burgus, F.A. 
1 341 Webbeley, Non. Inq. 
1383 Whebbeleye, Ep. Reg. 
circ. 1550 Webbeley, Leland. 
' Meadow of Wibba or Wybba.' One Wybba (died ante 628) 
was son of Creda (for whom see under Credenhill), and father of 
iPenda, the great Mercian king. 

There is a Webley Castle in Gower. There is possibly some 
connection, but what it is is uncertain. 

The Wergins (Sutton). 

Common meadows of the parish (' Ibi pratum bobus,' Dom.). 
The word is also spelled Worgins or Wurgins. The origin and 
meaning of the word are unknown. 

The Wern (Llanrothal ; Michaelchurch Eskley). 
Welsh gwern, ' a swamp, low-lying meadow.' 

Wern-dee (Clodock). 

Corrupted from Welsh Gwerndu (q.v.). 

Wern-hyr (Peterchurch). 
W. ' Long swamp.' 

Wern-y-coc Wood (Kentchurch). 
' Alder trees which the cuckoo haunts.' 
W. cog is ' the cuckoo.' 

West-brook (Hardwick). 

*Westelet [?]. 

1086 Westelet, Dom. 

Westfield (Cradley). 

Westhide (chapelry. Stoke Edith). 

1243 Westhide, T. de Nevill. 

1303 Westhyde, F.A. 

143 1 Westhuyt, F.A. 
For second element see Hyde Ash. 



WESTWOOD 203 

Westhide (Stoke Edith). 

ante 1 163 Hyda, Glos. Cart. 

1 29 1 Capella de Hyda, Tax. Eccles. 
1 341 Capella de Hide, Non. Inq. 

Westhope (Canon Pyon). 

Westmoor (Mansell Lacy). 

Westnor's End (Yatton). 

Weston Beggard. 

1 086 Westune, Dom. 

1291 Weston, Tax. Eccles. 

1 341 Weston, Non. Inq. 

1558 Weston super Fromey, Val. Eccles. 
Beggard, earlier Bagard, does not seem to appear before the 
end of the 15th century. It may be a corruption of Bigod or 
Bagot. Hope Bagot (Salop) is in 1355 (Ep. Reg.) Hope Bagard. 
But the earliest known holder of Weston is Nicholas de St Maur, 
temp. Ed. I. 

Weston-under-Penyard. 

1243 Weston BretS T. de Nevill. 
See Penyard. 

Westwood (Llanwarne). 
1086 Westuode, Westeude, Dom. 
1 29 1 Westwode, Tax. Eccles. 
no date ' Westwode in Jerchenffeld in Lawaran,' Glos. Cart. 

As we might expect, there seem to have been several West- 
woods. The Glos. Cart, entry refers to Llanwarne. But the 
Westwode of Tax. Eccles. seems to be near Leominster; and 
in Leom. Cart, the Priory has an assart ' apud Westwod.' Of 
the Dom. entries Westeude seems rather to be in Dewsall, since 
' St Mary of Lyre holds the church of this manor ' ; and we know 
from ' Feud. Aids ' that Dewsall Church belonged to Lyre. 

1 Held by Matthew le Bret. 



204 WETELECHA 

*Wetelecha [?]. 

Belonged to Bishop Rob. de Bethune in 1 140. But in the 
Confirmation by Dean and Chapter (same date) it is Wetebach. 
The Bishop's form seems Welsh, 'Eight stones'; cf. Trilleck 
(Mons.), ' Three stones.' But the Chapter's form is English 'wet 
valley.' 

Wetmore (Leintwardine). 

O.E. waet-mor, 'wet-moor.' 

There is a Wetecroft in Bodenham in 1220. 

Weythell (brook). 

Trib. of Arrow, in Huntington-by-Kington. 

Wharton (Leominster). 

1086 Wavertune, Dom. 

1123 Wavertona, Leom. Cart. 

1243 Waverton, T. de Nevill. 

1 291 Wavertone, Tax. Eccles. 

1303 Wafreton, F.A. 

143 1 Wafurton, F.A. 
The first element is said to be O.E. waefre, ' wandering,' 
' restless.' But this seems to give little or no sense. If the 
later forms did not so exactly follow Dom., I should have been 
tempted " to say that the Norman scribe had tried to write 
Waerburhtune. 

Whitbourne. 

1 29 1 Whyteburne, Tax. Eccles. 

1292 Wytebourne, Ep. Reg. 
1302 Wynterburn', Quo War. 
1333 Wytebourne, Ep. Reg. 

1 341 Wytbourne, Non. Inq. 
' White stream.' 

■Whitchurch. 

1 291 Ecclesia de Albo Monasterio, Tax. Eccles. 
1 341 Ecclesia de Albo Monasterio, Non. Inq. 
1353 Whytechirche, Ep. Reg. 



THE WHYLE 205 

Whiterdine (Fownhope). 

1559 Whitwarden, Orig. R. 
' White farm.' For second element see Appendix, -wardine. 

Whitewell (Llandinabo). 

1534 'Pratum vocatum Whitehull/ Aug. Of. 
A Whitewell is mentioned in A.-S. Chron. under the year 941 
in the valley of the Dore. 

Whitfield (Treville). 

In Glos. Cart., 11 82, is mentioned Rob. de Wythefelde; but 
he may not have been from this Whitfield. 

■Whitney-on-Wye. 

1086 Witenie, Dom. 

1270 Wytteneye, Glos. Cart. 

1 29 1 Wytteneye, Tax. Eccles. 

1322 Wytheney, Ep. Reg. 

1326 Whyteneye, Ep. Reg. 

1 341 Whyteneye, Non. Inq. 

' White island.' For second element see Appendix, -ey. 

The Whittern (Lyonshall). 

Whittle Brook (Credenhill). 
So in 1722. 

■Whitton (Leintwardine). 

There is in 1341 a Wyttenham somewhere in this neighbour- 
hood. 

W^hitwick (Stretton Grandison). 

1086 Witewiche, Dom. 

1243 Wytewicke, T. de Nevill. 

1303 Witewyk, F.A. 
' The white wick.' For second element see Appendix, -wick. 

The Whyle (Pudleston). 

1086 Huilech, Dom. 
1 123 Whiale, Leom. Cart, 
circ. 1 1 50 Whilai, Capes. 



206 THE WHYLE 

1243 Wyle, T. de Nevill. 

1 29 1 Wyhle, Tax. Eccles. 

1303 Wyle, F.A. 

1 341 While, Non. Inq. 

143 1 Le While, F.A. 
There seems to have been confusion and misunderstanding 
of the word from early days. The Dom. form suggests Welsh 
llech, 'stone.' And the 11 50 form equally plainly suggests O.E. 
leak, which is often found as lai. 

Widbridge (Woolhope). 

Old forms wanted. It may be ' the wide bridge,' or Widy- 
bridge, ' the bridge where the willows grow.' Cf. Widford (Oxfs.) 
which is Withiford. 

W^idemarsh (Hereford). 

1278 Wydemerch, Ep. Reg. 

1 29 1 ' Apud moram de Wydemar,' Tax. Eccles. 

1316 'Molendinum de Widemersmulle,' Ep. Reg. 

1322 'in vico Wydemarschstrete,' Capes. 

1535 Wydemershmore, Val. Eccles. 

circ. 1550 Wydemerestreet, Leland. 

1563 Widemarshmore, Ind. Ct R. 

^A/'igan (Clodock). 

Wiggall (Bredenbury). 

Wigmore. 

1086 Wighemore, Dom. 

1 138 'Ecclesia Sancti Michaelisi de Huggemora, et Sancte 
Brigide virginis,' Glos. Cart, 
circ. 1 140 Uggemore, Glos. Cart. 
1265 Wygemor, Chart. R. 
1283 Wygemor, Ep. Reg. 
1 29 1 Wyggemor, Tax. Eccles. 
1 341 Wygmore cum capell', Non. Inq. 
1565 Wigmore Burgus, Wigmore Forinsec', Ind. Ct R. 
' Moor of Wiga, Wicga, or Wigga.' 
Cf. Wigwold (Glos.), ' Wicga's wold.' 

' The dedication is now St James. 



WILVETONE 207 

Wigton (Stoke Prior). 

1086 Wigetune, Dom. 
no date Wigeton, Leom. Cart. 
' Tun of Wiga, Wicga, or Wigga.' 
In 1 341 there is a Wyghfeld somev^heve in the county. 

V/illersley. 

1086 Willaneslege, Dom. 
1 291 Wylardesl', Tax. Eccles. 
1 34 1 Wylerdesleye, Non. Inq. 
' Meadow of Wilgeard or Wilgart.' 

Willey (Presteign). 

1278 Wylileye, Ep. Reg. 

133s Wylleleye, Ep. Reg. 

1348 Willeley, Ep. Reg. 

1368 Wylleye, Ep. Reg. 
' Meadow of Willa ' (common in Onom.). 

Wilmaston (Peterchurch). 

1086 Wilmestune, Dom. 

1243 Wulmestun, T. de Nevill. 
' Tun of Wilmaer.' 

Wilton (Ross). 

1086 Wiltone, Dom. 
circ. 1200 Wiltona, Gir. Cambs. 
1243 Wylton, T. de Nevill. 
1270 Wiltone, Glos. Cart. 
1278 'passagium de Wyltone,' Ep. Reg. 
1302 Wilton, Quo War. 
'Tun of Willa.' The Salisbury Wilton is 'Tun of the 
Wilsaetas.' 

*Wilvetone [' in valle Stradelei ']. 

1086 Wilvetone, Dom. 

Prob. ' Willaf 's tun.' A Kemble charter has Willavesham. 
Why the -es of the gen. of personal names is sometimes retained 
in the place-name, and sometimes lost, no investigator has yet 
satisfactorily explained. 



208 WIMUNDESTREU 

*Wimundestreu [Dom. Hundred]. 
1086 Wimundestreu, Wimundstruil, Wimestruil, Wim strui, Dom. 
' Wigmund's tree.' 

Winforton. 

1086 Widferdestune, Dom. 

1277 Wymfretone, Ep. Reg. 

1 29 1 Wynfreton, Tax. Eccles. 

1304 Insula de Winfretone, Wormesley Chart. 

1330 Wymfortone, Ep. Reg. 

1 341 Wynferton, Non. Inq. 
circ. 1670 ' Winfreton, fluxus Vagae,' Blount. 
It is difficult to connect the Dom. entry with the later forms. 
Widferdestune would give something like 'Widferth's or Wid- 
frith's tun ' (but the name is not in Onom.). The later forms 
would be 'Winfrid's tun.' 

Winnall (Allensmore). 

1086 Wilehalle, Dom. 
1637 Wynnall, Inq. p.m. 

O.E. Willanhale, ' Willa's meadow.' The Worcs. Winnall 
supplies in 1327 the intermediate form Wylenhale. For second 
element see Appendix, -hale. 

■Winnington. 

1086 Winetune, Dom. 
no date Weneton, Leom. Cart. 

'Tun of Wine' (a common pers. name in Onom.). 

Cf Winslow (Bucks.), Winsley (Wilts.). There is a township 
of Winslow near Bromyard, which Blount (circ. 1670) gives as 
Windesley. 

Winsley (Hope-under-Dinmore). 
circ. 1 1 89 Elfwineslege, Capes, 
no date Wineslee, Winesleg, Leom. Cart. 

The 1 1 89 form is '^Ifwine's meadow.' The later forms are 
shortened from it. 



WITHERSTONE 209 

*Winstone [a manor in suburbs of Hereford], 
circ. 1225 Villa de Wynestune, Capes. 

1243 Wyneston, T. de Nevill. 

I S09 Winston, R. & S. 
' Tun of Wine.' See Winnington. 

Wintercott (Leominster). 

no date Wintercote, Leom. Cart. 
1539 Wyntercote, Aug. Of. 

Winthill (Cradley). 

*Winton [a manor of Leom. Priory]. 

1 123 Winnetone, Leom. Cart. 
' Tun of Wine.' See Winnington and Winstone. All three 
are the same word developing each in a different way : — 
Winnington from a gen. in n, Winstone from a gen. in s, and 
Winton, as often, retaining no sign of the gen. 

Wire's or Wyre's Croft (Bishop's Frome). 

Old forms needed. Cf Wyre forest (Worcs.) and Wyre river 
(Lanes.), both of uncertain etymology. 

Wisteston (Harden). 

1 24 1 Wistanestun, Chart. R. 
1465 Wisterstone, Ind. Ct R. 
1 545 Wysteston, Ind. Ct R. 
circ. 1550 Wisteston, Leland. 
' Tun of Wistan or Wigstan.' There is a Wistaston (farm) 
in King's Pyon. An unidentified Wyseton belonged to Leo- 
minster Priory in I539- Wiston (Sussex) is in the 12th century 
Wistanestu7i. 

W^itherstone (Little Dewchurch). 

1 67 1 Witherston, H'shire Hearth Tax List. 

' Tun of Wither or Withere.' Witherstone is a surname in 
the county. In Kimbolton is Lower Withers ; and in Wellington 
Heath Withers. These are most probably corrupted from Withy 
(q.v.). 

B. H. 14 



2IO WITHINGTON 

Withington. 

1086 Widingtune, Dom. 

1278 Wydintone, Ep. Reg. 

1291 Wythinton, Tax. Eccles. 

1 3 16 Chirche Wythynton, F.A. 

1335 Ewythynton, Ep. Reg. 

1 341 Wythinton, Non. Inq. 

1383 Church Wytyntone, Ep. Reg. 
'Tun of the sons of Wida.' The forms of 1086 and 1278 
make this practically certain. Withington (Lanes.) is in 1249 
Wytintun, i.e. Withen tun, ' withy-town.' Whittington, on the 
Wye near Ganarew, is Dom. Wiboldingtune, ' tun of the sons 
of Wigbeald or Wicbold.' 

The E of the 1335 entry is still preserved in the name of one 
of the three Withington Prebends of the Cathedral, and is the 
name of a farm some distance from the village. It is supposed, 
on no very good authority, to represent Fr. eau. 

Withy Brook. 

Trib. of Wye at Ballingham. 

The O.E. withig, ' a withy, willow,' enters into several place- 
names in the county. Withybed is in Boulstone ; Witheymoor 
in Aston Ingham ; and The Withies in Withington (q.v.), which 
itself is, with no great probability, interpreted by some as 
' withy-town.' 

*Witocksyende [Much Marcle]. 

So in 1547. The name is now lost, but Hall-end and 
Redding-end still survive in the parish. 

The Witsets (Stoke Prior). 

It is unfortunate that we have no old forms ; since one would 
like to connect this word with some original in -saetas. 

*Wluetone [' in valle Stratelie ']. 

1086 Wluetone, Dom. 

Wobage (Upton Bishop). 
O.E. wo baec, ' crooked valley.' 
So prob. Woefields (Coddington). 



WOOD 211 

W^olferlow. 

1086 Ulferlau, Dom. 

1276 Weferlowe, Ep. Reg. 

1 29 1 Wolfrelawe, Tax. Eccles. 

1340 Wolverslowe, Capes. 

1 341 Wolferlowe, Non. Inq. 

' Hill of Wulfhere,' possibly the Mercian King. 

Wolphy (Hundred). 

1086 Ulfei, Ulfagie, Dom. 

Wolsopthorne, also called Wassington (Ashperton). 

1086 Walesapeldor, Dom. 

1 29 1 Walshipton, Chart. R. 

1303 Walsopethorne, F.A. 

1 3 16 Waylstapethorn, F.A. 

1346 Walshopesthorne, F.A. 

1428 Walsthopesthorne, F.A. 

143 1 Walsopesthorne, F.A. 
The first element has survived with little change from Dom. 
But the second element changed, in two and a half centuries, first 
to -ion,th.en to -thorne: and some suggestion of the common Here- 
fordshire element -hope seems also to have made its appearance. 
The second element in the Dom. entry suggests the various 
Appledores (three in Devon, one in Kent). One of these is Dom. 
Appledore, but in 739 is Apuldre, and again in 1200 is Apeldre. 
This would be simply ' apple-tree,' as also is Sussex Apuldram. 
Dr Beddoe, however, followed by Johnston, regards Appledore 
and Appuldram as of Celtic origin. Wolsopthorne, its history, 
and its alias {Wassington) form a strange and complicated 
enigma. 

Wood. 

As might be expected in a county whose early records are 
full of the granting of tracts of forest-land ' assartandam,' i.e. 
to be turned into an assart or clearing, -wood- is often found 
as an element in place-names. We have Woodlow {Bosbury); 
Woodhampton {Little Hereford); Woodseaves {Eardisley) ; 
Wooding {Stoke Lacy), which is possibly wudu-enge, ' a wooded 

14 — 2 



212 WOOD 

narrow place ' ; Woodredding ( Yatton), and two Woodmantons 
' {Hope-under-Dinmore and Yarkhill), one of which is in 1343 
(Ep. Reg.) Wodemantone, ' the woodman's hut,' or possibly from 
a pers. name, ' Woodman's hut.' In Leom. Cart. Wdehyd occurs 
frequently. Gt. and Little Woodend farm {Linton) are in 1532 
Woddeyndes. In Chart. R. 1291 is (unidentified) ' Wodebury co. 
Hereford.' See also Wootton. 

■Woolhope. 

1086 Hope, Dom. 

1 2 19 Oppa, Capes. 

1 22 1 Hope Wolnith, Capes. 

1243 Wuilvene Hope, T. de Nevill. 

1246 Wlwyneope, Capes. 

1252 Wolvinehope, Capes. 

1278 Wilhenehope, Ep. Reg. 

1290 Wolvinhope, Ep. Reg. 

1 291 Hope Wolume, Hope Wilhelmi, Hope Wlniche, 

Tax. Eccles. 
1 3 16 Hope Wolvune, F.A. 
1334 Wolnithehope, Ep. Reg. 
1 341 Hope Wolnith, Non. Inq. 
1428 Wolchope, F.A. 
In the Calendar of Hereford Missal, under xviii Calend. Feb. 
is 'obitus Wulvive et Godive que dederunt Hopam...ecclesie.' 
It must, then, at first have been Wulviva's hope ; then it was 
corrupted into Wulvene, and, unaccountably, into Wolnith. 

■Woolpits (Eastnor). 

Leom. Cart, has (undated) Wlfputte, but this prob. refers to 
a nearer Wolf-pit. The Wiltshire Woolpit is in Kemble circ. 
1060 Wlpit, and earlier Wulfpyt. There is in Aconbury in 1340 
a Wolflieles (' wolf-cover,' from O.E. helan, ' to conceal '). 

St Woolstone Farm (Welsh Newton). 

We have no old forms ; but it seems to be the name of the 
great Bishop of Worcester, Wulstan ; though one wonders why 
it is found in a district so thoroughly Welsh. Woolstone (Berks.) 
is ' Wulfric's tun.' 



WORMBRIDGE 213 

Woonton (Laysters). 

1086 Wennetune, Dom. 
1222 WunetunS Brec. Cart. 
1 3 16 Woneton, F.A. 

Wenna, Wenni, Wunna, and Wynna are all found in Onom. 
There is a Woonton also in Alm.eley. 

Wootton. 

There are five Woottons in the county {Almelej/, Dormington, 
King's Pyon, Pencombe, Wellington). Like the Oxfs. Wootton 
(871 Wudetun) they are all 'wood-town,' 'tun in or near the 
wood.' T. de Nevill calls one (apparently that in Almeley) 
Wudeton: but the Wellington Wootton is in 1547 Wytton. 

Worm (river). 

circ. 1 1 30 Guormui, Lib. Land. 

This form is the mod. Welsh gwyrgam wy, 'crooked river.' 
If we accept this Welsh derivation, we need not consider the 
attempts to connect the word with the pers. name Orm found 
in Orme's Head, Ormskirk, Urmston, and the like; nor the 
plausible derivation from O.E. wyrm, ' a worm ' ; nor from a 
pers. name Wyrma, as Warminghurst (Sussex), and the Here- 
fordshire Wormesley (q.v.). 

In early days the district seems to have contained many 
names in which the river Worm was an element. Besides 
Wormbridge (q.v.), Wormelow (q.v.), and Wormhill {Eaton 
Bishop), which still survive, there was in 1333 a Womburne 
in Didley. There was also Wormeton (q.v.), and circ. 13 16 in 
the forest of Treville is an 'essart Horm.' 

Wormbridge. 

1284 Wormbrugge, Glos. Cart. 

1300 Wormbrugge, Glos. Cart. 

1302 Wormebrugge, Quo War. 

1 341 Wormbrigg, Non. Inq. 

1 Mentioned with it is ' Hepe ' which I cannot identify. 



214 WORMELOW 

Wormelow. 

1086 Wermelau, Urmelauia, Dom. 

1227 Wurmelawe, Close R. 

1228 Wirmelauwe, Close R. 

' The low or hill near the Worm.' ' Wormelow tump,' as it 
is always called, is an obvious pleonasm. 

W^ormesley. 

1086 Wermeslai, Wrmesleu, Dom. 

1243 Wurmeleys, T. de Nevill. 

1 29 1 Wormesl', Tax. Eccles. 

1303 Wermesleye, F.A. 

1 341 Wormeslaye, Non. Inq. 

' The meadow of Wyrma.' 

*Wormeton [in the Manor of Kilpeck]. 
circ. 1230 Wirmetone, Glos. Cart. 
1243 Wurmetun, T. de Nevill. 
1367 villa de Wormyntone, Ep. Reg. 
1400 Wormeton Baddeschawe, Aeon. Accts. 
1459 Wormeton, Exch. MSS. 
' Tun on the Worm.' Wormington (Glos.) is Dom. Wermetun, 
' Wyrma's tun.' 

Wyatt (Sutton St Nicholas). 

The Wych (Colwall). 

I can find no old forms of this. Johnston thinks it is simply 
O.E. wic, a village ; and this would suit well with Wyche Yende, 
'end of the village,' in Cowarne in 1538, but scarcely with the 
pass through the Malvern Hills. Wychwood (Oxf) is in 681 
Hwicca wuda. The Wych may have been the furthest limit of 
the Provincia Huicciorum (Bede's name for Worcestershire). 

In 1270 Chart. R. is an entry 'Eton & Wygewod, Co. 
Hereford,' which I cannot locate. 

Wyddyatt's Cross (Madley). 

Woodyate is a surname in the county ; and (though we have 
no old forms) I suspect this to be the same word. 



VARKHILL 215 

Wye. 

1086 Waia, Dom. 
1097 Weage, Flor. Wore, 
circ. 1130 Gwy, Lib. Land, 
circ. 1200 Guai, Waia, Girald. Cambs. 
circ. 1250 'Aqua quae vocatur Waya,' Glos. Cart. 
1302 Weya, Quo War. 
1 391 Weya, Inq. p.m. 
The form Vaga, like the Oxford Isis, is the invention of 
i6th century scholars. Gwy is a Celtic river-form found also in 
Mingui (the Monnow, q.v.), Med-way (Kent), Gowey (Chesh.), 
and Con-way. 

Yarcledon Hill (Aston Ingham). 

1243 Jarcleston, T. de Nevill. 
1345 Yarkeltone, Ep. Reg. 
no date Yurclestone, Glos. Cart. 
A farm near by is called Yarlton, and this prob. is the place 
referred to in these entries. Baddeley thinks Yarcledon is ' hill 
on which the common ragwort grows.' See Yarkhill. 

Yare Farm (Woolhope). 

1 83 1 Yayer, Ord. Map. 

No old forms. It may be a Celtic river-root found in Garran 
(q.v.), or it may be O.E. gar, 'a javelin,' or gara, 'a point of 
land,' also 'a whirlpool.' (The farm is on a stream with a 
rugged hill above it.) 

Yarkhill. 

811 Geard cylle, Kemble. 

1086 Archel, Dom. 

1 163 Jarehulle, Capes. 

1232 Hyerkell, Capes. 

1243 Jarcul, T. de Nevill. 

temp. Hen. Ill Archill, Yarculle, Her. Cath. MS. 

1275 Yarkhulle, Ep. Reg. 

1 29 1 Yarchull, Tax. Eccles. 

1330 Herchulle, Ep. Reg. 

1 341 Yarhull, Non. Inq. 

1428 Yarkhul, F.A. 



2l6 YARKHILL 

The word in the Kemble Chart, means 'Yard vessel,' a 
stfange place-name! It is easy to understand that, from 1163 
till to-day, the second element has been confused with -hill. 
Baddeley thinks the first element, which should have developed 
into Garth, has been confused with a dialect-word yark, 'the 
plant ragwort' 

Yarpole. 

1086 larpol, Dom. 

1278 Yarepol, Ep. Reg. 

1 3 16 Yarpol, F.A. 

1327 Yarpol, Plac. de Banco, 
no date Yarpolle, Yarepoll, Leom. Cart. 

1577 YarpulJ, Saxton's Map. 
A difficult word. The first element might be O.E. geard, 
as in Yarkhill, or it might be the Celtic river-root found in 
Garran (q.v.). The second element, in either case, would be the 
same : O.E. pol, or Welsh pwll, ' a pool.' But if it were an 
originally Celtic name, pwll would come first as in Pool Dye 
{pwll-ddhu) in Goodrich. In the Shrops. Dom. is Pole, now 
Polemere, apparently a tautology. 

Yarsop. 

1086 Edreshope, Erdeshop, Ardeshope, Dom. 
1 199 H ardeshope. Capes. 
1243 Erdeshop, T. de Nevill. 
' Eadred's hope.' For second element see Appendix, -hope. 

Yatton (Much Marcle; Aymestrey). 

M. Marcle 1243 Jatton, T. de Nevill. 
1479 Yatton, Ind. Ct R. 
'Gate-town.' See Symond's Yat. There is a Yatt (small 
holding) in Newton-in-Clodock. 

Yazor. 

1086 lavesoure, Dom. 

ante 1173 Jagosoure, Capes. 

1 199 Yavesore, Llant. Chart. 

1243 Jagesoure, T. de Nevill. 



YELDO 217 

1275 Javesauere, Ep. Reg. 

1 277 Yawesore, Ep. Reg. 

1 29 1 Yanesore, Tax. Eccles. 

1302 Yasore, Quo War. 

1303 Yavesore, F.A. 
1330 Gavesore, Ep. Reg. 
1346 Yavesore, F.A. 
1553 Yazor, Aug. Of. 

The second element is -ofr, so frequent in our county, for 
which see Appendix. The first element seems to have been in 
doubt even in the earliest days. Yav-, Yag-, Yan-, and Gav- 
are all found. J. G. Wood thinks the word is O.E. iwes-ora, 
' yew-bank.' 

Yearsett (Court, Bromyard). 

Yearston (farm, Upper Sapey). 

The Yeld (Marston). 

Yeldo (Withington). 

Yeld is a surname in the county. 



APPENDIX 

THE PRINCIPAL SEPARATE ELEMENTS (OTHER THAN 
PERSONAL NAMES) IN HEREFORDSHIRE PLACE-NAMES, 
WITH LISTS OF HEREFORDSHIRE INSTANCES. 

A. English. 

-age. 

A rare and always puzzling ending ; often not a true ending 
at all, but a corruption. Sometimes it is O.E. bage as in 
Hubbage, Wobage, and perhaps Mowbage. In Stanage, again, 
it seems to represent aege (= ig), ' an island.' In Burgage it is a 
common suffix of Med. Lat. Badnage and Carnage have no old 
forms : and, since all -age endings are late, and need old forms 
to interpret them, it is wiser not to attempt a guess at their 
meaning: — Badnage, Burgage, Carnage, Embages, Gamage, Hub- 
bage, Mawbage, Stanage, Wabage. 

-arne. 

O.E. aern, ' house,' ' dwelling ' : — Cawarne. 

-bache, -batch. 

For this ending see under Bache in the Alphabetical List. It 
is as common in Cheshire as in our county. 

-borne, -bourne. 

O.E. burna, ' a spring,' ' fountain,' ' brook ' (Mod. Scotch, 
burn) : — Holbarn, Whitbaurne. 

-bridge. 

O.E. brycg: — Bridge Sailers, Dunbridge, Hunbridge, P em- 
bridge, Southbridge, Widbridge, Wormbridge. (It is significant 
that -bridge occurs in the county 7 times, and -ford 2 1 times.) 



APPENDIX 219 

-bury, -borough. 

O.E. burh, dat. byrig, 'a fortified place,' 'fastness,' then 
' a castle,' ' town.' In the early forms of pl.-ns. burh is often 
confused with O.E. beorh, 'a hill' (which is usually found as 
-barrow). In the Mod. English forms of pl.-ns. O.E. burh 
appears usually as Bur- when it is a first element, -borough when 
a second : -bury is from the dat. byrig: — Aconbury, Avenbury, 
Bosbury, Bredenbury, Brobury, Brockbury, Bury (8), Coldborough, 
Forbury, Graftonbury, Kilbury, Ledbury, *Newborugh, Risbury, 
*Salberga, Sawbury, Thornbury, Burton, Burghill, Burley, 
Burford, Burgage, Burglwpe. 

-by. 

The Danish ending for 'dwelling,' 'village'; most common 
in Yorks.; runs south as far as Rugby; eight -bys in Ches., but 
none in the western counties south of Ches., except the Hereford- 
shire Ridby (q.v.). 

-chaster. 

O.E. cester, a loan-word from Lat. castra : Kenchester, Chester 
Meadow. In the neighbouring counties of Worcester and Glou- 
cester, the O.E. form survives unchanged ; in the N. it usually is 
-caster, e.g. Doncaster. 

-combe. 

See cwm in list of Welsh elements. 

-cott, -cote, -cot. 

O.E. cot, 'a cottage,' 'house' ; then ' a collection of cottages,' 
' a settlement' Popular etymology sometimes confuses -cot with 
-court: — Bodcot, *Brocote, Burcot, Caldicott, *Draycote, Fencote, 
Leddicott, *Lincot, Upcott, Wintercott. 

-court. 

N.-Fr. curt, Lat. cohors, ' a clear space enclosed by a wall,' then 
' a large building,' 'a castle'; we have no instance of -court as an 
actual suffix. But we have Court everywhere in the county. See 
under Hall Court in Alphabetical List. 



220 APPENDIX 

-den, -dean. 

O.E. denu, ' a valley,' usually deep, narrow, and wooded. In 
M.E. forms of pl.-ns. -den is constantly confused with -don, or 
-dune: — Aulden, Bicton, Grendon. 

-don. 

O.E. dun, ' a down,' ' hill ' ; often confused in early forms with 
denu, ' a valley.' Indeed most pl.-ns. in -den and -dean have a 
-don among their early forms, and vice versa : — Brandon, Egdon, 
*Elsedune, Shobdon. 

-ett. 

N.-Fr. dim. suffix. Usually in form -et or -ot with pers. 
names ; e.g. Emma and Emmot, William and Wilmot. As one 
would expect in a county so thoroughly Normanized as Here- 
fordshire, we have many examples of this ending : — Burnett, 
The Byletts, Fowlett, Horsnetts, The Laskett, The Linnett, *Tke 
Langet, The Valletts (4), * Westelet, The Witsets, Yearsett. 

-ey. 

This ending is O.E. -ig (Wessex), -eg (Mercia), ' island,' ' ele- 
vated piece of land wholly or partially surrounded by water.' 
But it is inextricably mixed up with O.E. ea, ' stream,' then 
' watery land,' ' water-meadow.' (Skeat thinks tg is a derivative 
of ea.) The M.E. -ei, or -ej/ (from whichever of the two elements 
it comes) is loosely used of any place surrounded with brooks or 
streams, or of a marshy piece of ground : — Sidney, Cheyney, Eye, 
Eyton, Rompeney, Tedney, Walney, Whitney. 

-field. 

O.E. feld, ' field,' often written by Norman scribes -feud, the 
/ being vocalized ; and sometimes again confused with O.^.fald, 
' fold ' -.—A rchenfield, Benfield, Bitfield, Bowellfield, Brimfield, 
Broadfield, Byfield, Courtfield, *Dorfield, Gethenfield, Haffield, 
Hatfield, * Hennersfeld, Hopesfield, Kingsfield, Mawfield, *Mal- 
field, Merryfield, Munderfield, Petchfield, Portfield, Sarnesfield, 
Suffield, *Twinordesfelde, Urchingfield, Westfield, Whitfield. 



APPENDIX 221 

-ford. 

O.E. ford, 'a ford,' a common and very early element in 
pl.-ns., as is likely when bridges were scarce, and fords of im- 
portance. In Herefordshire -ford is found three times as often 
as -bridge, but in England as a whole the proportion is probably 
six to one : — Boresford, * Bradford, Burford, Butford, Byford, 
Clifford, Flanesford, Gatsford, Higford, Kinford, Longford (2), 
Ludford, Mordiford, Rhwynford, Stanford, Stretford (2), Twy- 
ford, Walford, * Wapleford. 

-gate. 

O.E. geat ; but g in O.E. is often interchanged with y : — 
Ballsgate, Bargates, *Byllack Yatt, Flitgate, Flood-gates, *Foukes- 
yate, Hondys Gate, Northgate, Symon's Vat, Yatton. 

-hall. 

A much-debated suffix, in which two O.E. words are con- 
fused. There is a genuine O.E. heall, ' a palace,' ' mansion,' 
'hall'; but few, if any, of the hundreds of pl.-ns. in -hall are 
derived from it. Most or all of them come from O.E. healh, 
'a nook,' 'corner,' then 'a flat meadow by a river.' In Dom. 
this ending is usually -hale; more rarely -heale. It is the com- 
monest of all Mercian endings, occurring over 250 times in 
Ches. alone. In a Dore charter of 1327 a meadow called La 
Hale is referred to ; and ' Richard in the Hale ' is ordained at 
Hereford in 1335. The ending is often confused with O.E. 
hyll, 'a. hill.' In our county Patsall and Shucknall should 
really be -hill: — Aberhall, Almshall, Bucknall, Coxall, Crig- 
gallsQ), *Fernhale, Gridall {}), *Hathinchalle, Leinthall, Lions- 
hall, Lyonshall, Lynhales, Mennalls, Mitchell, Reshale, Ruckhall, 
Rudhall, Sidnal, Wassal, Wegnai, Wiggall, Winnall. 

-ham. 

This common suffix represents two distinct words, and we 
cannot be sure which it is, unless we have O.E. charter evidence, 
for the distinction is never marked in Dom. One is O.E. ham, 
'a homestead,' very common everywhere. The other is O.E. 
hamm, homm, ' a pasture,' ' a meadow enclosed by water, usually 



222 APPENDIX 

at the bend of a river.' This latter word is found in Hereford- 
shire and Glos. uncompounded. There are whole groups of 
Hommes round Ledbury and Marcle. (For this use of the word 
see under Holme Lacy in the Alphabetical List.) In Goodrich 
in 1413 (Inq. p.m.) is 'the pasture of Over-wyes-ham, and 
Nether- wyes-ham ' : — Ankerdine, Bartonsham, Baynham, Bays- 
ham, Bodenham, Flintsham, Huntsham, Kinsham, Ltdham, 
Orlham, Warham. 

-Hampton. 

A very common suffix, apparently meaning 'home-town.' 
But the distinction between -ham and -ton is so slight that 
-hampton seems almost to be tautological : — Brockhampton, Bry- 
hampton, Easthampton, Felhampton, Fenhampton, Hillham.pton, 
Moorhampton, Uphampton. 

-hay. 

There are two O.K. words, akin but distinct, and with jntiuch 
the same meaning — hege, 'a hedge,' and haga, 'a hedge' and 
also 'an enclosure,' and sometimes 'a dwelling-house': — Badsay, 
Hay, Hay brook, Haywood, Urishay, *La Haye, Hyde. 

-honger, hunger. 

O.E. hangra, ' a bank.' For this ending, and its occurrence 
in Herefordshire, see Clehonger and Hungerhill in Alphabetical 
List. 

-hope. 

O.E. hop, 'a small enclosed valley, especially a smaller 
opening branching out from the main dale, and running up to 
the mountain range,' 'a blind valley.' Morte D'Arthur (ante 
1400) has ' Thorowe hopes and hymlande hillys.' The suffix 
may be traced across England in an irregular line, beginning in 
Lines., continuing across Notts, and Derbs., increasing steadily 
in frequency through Staffs, and Salop into Herefordshire; it 
rarely appears elsewhere : — Brinsop, Bullinghope, Burghope, 
*Burthop, Covenhope, Ctisop, * Eardishope, Fownhope, Henhope, 
Hercope, Woolhope, Hope (\6), Hopes field, Hopton, * Lautoneshope, 
Littlehope, Myleshope, Sollershope, Stanhope, *Thurlokeshop, Tyllys- 
hope, Westhope, Woolhope, Yarsop. 



APPENDIX 223 

-hurst. 

O.E. hyrst, ' a wood.' In some counties it appears as -h'rst, 
occasionally as -kerst It is almost completely wanting through- 
out the N.E. of England, and also in Worcs., Warwcs., Derbs., and 
Staffs. : — Ballhurst, The Hurst, Hurstans, Hurstley, Hurstway, 
Shemhurst, * Stanihursta. 

-ing-. 

This medial element may be : 

(i) A patronymic, O.E. -inga (gen. plur.), but this use 
is rare. 

(2) O.E. -an, a gen. sing, ending, usually of a personal 
name. This is by far the most common origin of -ing-, the in- 
trusive ^ being a purely careless corruption, and often quite late. 

(3) O.E. adjectival suffix -en-, -egn-. 

(4) O.E. ending of a personal name in -wine, -wen, 
or -win. 

(5) It is occasionally part of a word which ends in -ing 
as in our Herefordshire pl.-n. Hollingwood (q.v.). 

(6) Dr H. Bradley {Eng. Hist. Rev., Oct. 191 1) makes out 
a strong case for -ing or -inge being an ending to denote a place 
on a river or stream. 

Unless the -ing- is actually found in an O.E. form, it is wise 
to assume that it is not a patronymic. Kemble's theory, which 
was first stated in 1848, and has held the field until quite 
recently, being accepted even by such writers as Stubbs and 
Green, was that the existence of an original -ing- in any place- 
name points to a settlement of the district covered by the name 
by a group of kinsmen, -ingas, clansmen. 'The villages' (i.e. those 
in ingham, or ington), says Prof York Powell, ' bear clan-names, 
not personal names' On this theory it becomes as easy as it is 
inaccurate to say, with a recent writer, ' Among the English clans 
which are recognized by the patronymic suffix " ing " as having 
taken part in the settlement of Herefordshire are the Willings, 
Billings,Huntings,Hollings,Bullings,BaUings,Donnings,Burrings, 
Collings, Brockings, Tibbings, Nuppings, Sparrings, Monnings, 



224 APPENDIX 

Munnings, Coddings, and Wassings'.' But Dr Horace Round 
demolished this theory in his ' pioneer ' paper ; and now all 
competent students agree with Professor Wyld, who says ' I do 
not believe in these bogus " families " which are produced so 
often by writers on nomenclature. We have no evidence of their 
existence.' Moreover, when we get a really early form, it usually 
has no g^. Unless we have definite evidence to the contrary, it 
is safest to give the medial -ing- a simple possessive value. 
(In Berks, we find a few names, like Reading and Sonning, in 
which the -ing is final. Possibly here it may denote something 
like ' the possessions of Read and Sunna.) The following 
Herefordshire pl.-ns. contain the medial -ing-, and each should 
be studied for itself in the Alphabetical List : — Ballingham, 
Bollingham, Bullinghope, Billingsley, Berrington, Burrington, 
Coddington, Collington, Crossington, Cublington, Donnington, 
Dormington, Drabbington, Huntington (2), Ivington, Massington, 
Monnington (2), Nunnington, Siddington, Suthington, Tarrington, 
Tillington, Wellington, Winnington, Withington. {Dorstone and 
Shutton really belong to the same class of words.) 

-ley. 

O.K. leak, dat. leage (in Dom. often -lai) ' a bit of cultivated 
land,' ' a meadow,' ' lea.' It is sometimes confused with O.E. hlaw, 
' a hill ' (see under March). After -ton it is the commonest of 
endings in Herefordshire pl.-ns.: — *Abbedeleye, Adley^, Ailey, 
Almeley, Amberley, Badley, B alley, Berkley, Birley, Birtley, 
Burley, Bitterley, Bowley, Bradley, Brierley, Brilley, Brockaly, 
Butterley, Catley, Checkley, Cowley, Cradley, Criseley, Deabley, 
Didley, Drumleigh, Eardisley, *Eastley, Elburley, Fawley, Foxley, 
Gatley, Gorsley, Hackley, Hagley, Hazle, Huntleys, Hurstley, 

1 This list, strangely enough, does not include the Tarrings, from Tarrington, 
though Kemble gives them as a clan settled there, in spite of the fact that Tarrington 
was Tatintune in Dom. , and Taddington down to the mid-eighteenth century. 

' J. H. R. gives a good instance of the development of -ing- in a Worcestershire 
'Hereford,' which by the addition of -tun became Herefordtun, and appears in Dom. 
as Herferthun ; but it is now Harvington, ' a settlement of the Harvings'! In a very 
few cases, on the other hand, the objection of the Dom. scribe to writing ng has 
reduced a true patronymic ing to in or _y«. 

8 Adiey was Adlaton as late as the i6th century. 



APPENDIX 225 

Ridley s, *Kingsley, Kinley, Kinnersley, The Lea, Linley, Litley, 
Luntley, Madley, Marcle, Mowley, Munkleys, Munsley, Netherley, 
Oatley, Ode (2), Pinsley, Pixley, Putley, Redley, Redmarley, 
Rowley, Shirley, Sodgeley, Stensley, Stockley, Studley, Titley, 
Tupsley, Wapley, Weobley, Willersley, Willey, Wormesley. 

-low. 

O.E. hlaw, ' a hill,' then ' a burial ground,' ' barrow,' ' tumulus.' 
Lew (Oxfs. and Devon) is a form of low. Sometimes an old 
form in -low is replaced in later forms by -ley : — Bradlow, 
Docklow, Marlow, Radlow, *Thornlau, Warloe, Wolferlow, 
Wormelow, 

-mere. 

O.E. mere, 'a pool,' 'a lake' : — Blakemere, Holmer. (In other 
counties it is sometimes found representing O.E. ge-maere, ' a 
boundary.') 

-more, -moor. 

O.E. mor, 'waste land': — Allensmore, Bellimore, Blackmore, 
Dippermoor, Enemore, Fridmore, Lidgmoor, Meadmore, Spenmore, 
Swinmoor, Westmoor, Wetmore. 

-over, -or (sometimes -er). 

O.E. ofr, ' border,' ' margin,' ' river-bank.' It is sometimes 
confused with O.E. ora, which, having practically the same 
meaning, causes no misunderstanding : — Adzor, Bicknor, Bircher, 
Burcher, Bradnor, Chadnor, Dadnor, Eastnor, Hennor, * Ruuenore, 
Tidnor, Totnor, Westnor, Yazor. (The adjoining Radnor is in 
1257 Radenovere, 'red-bank.') 

-stoke. 

O.E. stoc, stocc, ' a stock,' ' post,' then ' a stockade,' ' fenced-in 
place,' ' village ' : — Sfoke Bliss, Stoke Edith, Stoke Lacy, Stoke 
Prior, Stocks, Stockton, Stockwell, Stockley (2), Stocken (2), 
Stocking (2). 

-stone. 

O.E. Stan, 'a stone.' This ending is constantly confused 
with -ton. Many spurious -stones will be found under -ton. In 

B. H. IS 



226 APPENDIX 

some cases (e.g'. Dorstone, Turnasione) the false etymology has 
generated interesting local legends ! Two Herefordshire place- 
names only are genuine -stones : — Aylstone Hill, Langstone. 

-stow. 

O.E. stow, 'a dwelling-place,' 'mansion,' 'habitation':— 
Bridstow, Marstow, Peterstow, Plaistow, Stowe. 

-sty. 

O.E. stiga, ' a path ' (for which see under Bringsty in Alpha- 
betical List): — Beansty, Bringsty, *Ynsty, *Meresty, *Bick- 
norsty, *Cnappesty, *Hamsty, Holsty, Monsty, Pikestye. 

-ton^ 

O.E. tun, ' enclosure,' ' homestead,' ' farm.' The commonest, 
by far, of Herefordshire place-name suffixes, and perhaps the 
most commonly found throughout England, unless -ley is more 
common. In Herefordshire, also, as frequently in Scotland, and 
occasionally in Somerset, Cornwall and elsewhere, town is still 
used for a single farm, e.g. 'The Town,' a small holding in 
Crasswall. (For a complete list of many such instances in the 
county see Town in the Alphabetical List.) This is the true 
O.E. and even M.E. meaning of the word; as late as 1389 
Wyclif's Bible, in Matt. xxii. 5, reads ' oon to his toun, anothir 
to his marchaundise.' Only gradually the word came to be 
applied to a hamlet or village, and still later to what we call 
a town. 

The forms -don and -ton often run into one another, and need 
to be carefully distinguished in the old forms. There is too a 
common confusion with -stone ; but in Herefordshire all the 
-stones except two (see under -stone above) are really -ton, 
the s being the gen. ending of a personal name. The develop- 
ment of the name Tedstone (q.v.) shows that -ton sometimes is 
a corruption of an original -thorn or -thorp : — Acton, *Adheker- 
deston, Adforton, Alton, Aramstone, Arkstone, Ashton, Ashperton, 
Aston (2), Aylton, Bacton, Banstone, Barton (i^, Baynton, *Bern- 
aldeston, Bickerton, Biddleston, Biggleston, Bishopstone, *Bitton, 

^ Place-names in -hamptm and -ington are tabulated separately under those endings. 



APPENDIX 227 

Blackmarston, * Bolton, Boulstone, Brampton (5), Breinton, Brock- 
manton, Brinstone, Buckton, Burlton, Burton (2), Byton, Castleton, 
Chanston, Chilstone, Claston, * Clatretune, Comberton, Coughton, 
Downton, Drayton, Easton, Eaton (4), * Edwardestune, *Elnodes- 
tune, Eggleton, Elverstone, Elton, Eton, Eyton, Felton, Freetown, 
Garnstone, Gayton, Gilbertstone, Glewstone, Grafton, Hallaston, 
Hampton (2), Harpton, Hartleton, *Heliston, *Herntun, Hinton, 
Hopton, Howton, Hunderton, Hunton, Instone, Ingestone, Kim- 
bolton, Kingstone, Kington, Kinton, Knapton, Knolton, Kynaston, 
Lawton, Lenaston, Letton, Linton, Longtown, Lucton, Luston, 
Lyston, Mainstone, Marston (2), Middleton, Milton, Moraston, 
Moreton{2), Munstone, Netherton, Newton {"i,), Newtown, Norton, 
Nunupton, Nurton, Orleton, Parton, Paunton, Perton, *Pletune, 
Poston, Preston (2), Priddleton, Pudleston, Pullaston, *Querentune, 
Rowlestone, Ruxton (2), Stapleton, Staunton (2), Stretton (2), 
Sufton, Sutton, Swans ton, Thruxton, Tipton (2), Trippleton, 
Turnastone, Tuston, Tyberton, Upton, Velvetstone, Wacton, 
*Wadetune, Walterstone, Walton, Wassington, Webton, Wel- 
cheston, Weston (2), Wharton, Whitton, Wigton, Wilmaston, 
Wilton, Winforton, Wisteston, Witherstone, * Wluetone, Woonton, 
Wootton (i,), * Wormeton, Yarcledon, Yatton, Yearston. 

-tree, -trey. 

O.E. treu, ' a tree ' : — Aymestrey, Bartestree, Bollitree, Brains- 
tree, Bromtrees, Cholstrey, Goytre, *Hezetre, Holstrey, *Tragetreu, 
Webtree, * Wimundestreu. 

-wardine. 

The O.E. weorth, worth, ' open space,' ' piece of land,' ' farm,' 
' estate,' perhaps originally ' place of worth,' is found in several 
forms in many parts of England. As -worth (Dom. usually 
-orde, -urde, or -worde) it is frequent everywhere, except in 
Northumberland and Cumberland, where it is never found. 
In all there are about 300 -worths in England (31 in Yorks. 
alone). Even in London we have three {Walworth, Wands- 
worth, Isleworth). There is an uncompounded Worth in Sussex, 
which extends into Worthing (practically synonymous with it) 
on the coast of the same county. 



228 APPENDIX 

Passing into the West Country it becomes -worthy (O.E. 
worthig, an extended form of worth, with the same meaning). 
In Devon there are nearly 500 pl.-ns. ending in -worthy, more 
especially the thick cluster of hamlets and farms round Hols- 
worthy and Hatherleigh. A few instances of -worthy are to be 
found in Cornwall, Somerset, and Dorset, but none elsewhere 
in England. 

The West Mercian form of worth is worthign (Dom. -urdine), 
which is found commonly in Shropshire and Herefordshire, with 
a few instances in adjoining counties, but is unknown elsewhere. 
In Chesh. is Garden (cf Carwardine, found both in Shropshire 
and in Herefordshire) ; in Flint are Hawarden (Dom. Haordine) 
and Worthenbury ; in Staffs. Harden ; in Worcs. Bedwardine 
and Tollerdine ; in Glos. Ruardean, Shepherdine, and * Wolfede- 
worthin. In Shropshire we have the uncompounded Worthen 
(Dom. Wrdine), and 9 -wardines^, with Llanfair Waterdine (Dom. 
Watredene) in Radnorshire. Possibly the -wardine ending was 
more widely spread in early days, since Brockworth (Glos.) is 
Brokwordyn in 1 199, but has become Brockeworth in Val. 
Eccles. (1538). 

In Herefordshire we have a * Wortheyn uncompounded in 
1390 (Leom. Cart.); and an * Oldewortheynesasshe in Hope Mansel 
in 1338. Round Kington the -wardine ending tends to contract 
into -ward, as in Chickward, which is Dom. Cicwrdine. The 
Herefordshire -wardines are : — Blackwardine, Breadward, Bred- 
wardine, *Brocheurdie, Carwardine (2), Chickward, Dolward, 
Gazerdine, Leintwardine, Lugwardine, Mangerdine, Harden, 
* Mateurdin, Pedwardine, Scutterdine, Strongwood, Whiterdine. 

-well. 

O.E. well, ' a well,' ' fountain.' It is often confused with -wall ; 
and sometimes in M.E. with hull (O.E. hyll, ' a hill '), as in 
Whitewell (q.v.). Professor Earle thinks that -well is often ' the 
naturalized form of the Latin villa! But both Dr J. H. Round 

" Behwardine, Cheswardine, Ellerdine, Fulwardine, Ingardine, Pollardine 
Shrawardine, Stanwardine, Wrockwardine. All these are in Dom. except Pollardine. 
We might raise the number to twelve, if we (doubtfully) included Larden, Broadward, 
and Treverward. 



APPENDIX 229 

and Mr W. H. Stevenson conclusively demolish this view: — 
Calderwell, Cobhall, Coldwell, Colwall, Crasswall, Cruxwell, 
Dewell, Dewsall, Eccleswall, Fudwell, Stockwell, Whitewell. 

-wick. 

O.E. wic, ' a dwelling,' ' habitation,' then ' a village ' : a word 
borrowed from Lat. vicus. It is sometimes softened into -wick, 
especially in Ches. and Worcs., where -wic/i is popularly inter- 
preted as indicating a salt or brine spring, for which there is no 
O.E. authority: — Hardwick, Mosewick, Poswick, Powiswick, 
Skelwick, Ullingswick, Whitwick. 

-wood. 

O.E. wudu, ' a wood,' ' forest' In the following list the many 
pl.-ns. are omitted in which Wood is a separate word : — Attwood, 
Bishopswood, Blaethwood, Bringewood, Broxwood, Dineterwood, 
Dingwood, Eastwood, Harewood, Haywood, Hennerwood, Hen- 
wood, Hollingwood, Kingswood, Middlewood, Netherwood, Pride- 
wood, Teddeswood, Westwood. 

-yard. 

O.E. geard, 'a yard,' 'enclosure's — Bromyard, Cockyard, 
* Killyards. 

B. Welsh. 
cae. 

' A meadow ' (pi. caeau) -.—Cae-beddow , Cae-draen, Cae-flwyn, 
Cae-wendy, Lancaegy. (Cayo and Keyo may be forms of the 
plural.) 

coed. 

• A wood ' : — Cefn-coed, The Coed, Coed-moor, Coed-path, Coed- 
Robin, Coed-y-gravel, Coda, *Coyed Llanke, Maes-coed, *Trescoyte, 
Tricordivar. 

cwm. 

Said by Welsh scholars to be a valley between two hills 
whose sides come together in a concave form, whereas the sides 
of a glyn come together in convex form. It is very difificult, in 



230 APPENDIX 

Herefordshire, to say whether any word in which -comb is an 
element is Welsh or English. For O.E. cumb is ' a bowl ' ; and 
when the English settlers found the natives calling a hollow 
valley ' cwm,' the likeness to their own word for a bowl struck 
them, and they adopted it. Outside Herefordshire the word is 
chiefly found in Somerset, Dorset, and Devon. For a complete 
account of the combes and cwms in the county see under Combe 
in the Alphabetical List. 

Kil. 

The Welsh cil is ' a corner,' ' a retreat.' The Irish Kil- seems 
to have acquired the meaning of ' a graveyard,' or even ' a church,' 
almost equivalent to the Welsh Llan- : — Killbreece, Kilbury Camp, 
Kill-bullock meadow, Kill-dane Field, Kilforge, Kilpeck, Kilreagne 
Killyards (.-'). 

Llan. 

Originally ' a level spot,' then ' an enclosure,' later ' a sacred 
enclosure,' ' a churchyard,' and at length simply ' a church.' (In 
1 541 the Abbey of Dore possessed property in 'Llan egloys,' 
where llan is used in its earlier meaning of ' enclosure.') It is 
sometimes confused with glan (see Llanhaithog), and Nant- often 
becomes, in course of time, Llan- (e.g. Nant Honddu became 
Llanthonji). There are 465 Llans- in ' Crockford ' : — Lancaegy, 
Lanerch, Llanarrow, Llanavon, The Llan, Llanach, Llanbodon, 
Llancillo, Llancloudy, Llandee, Llanderwyn, Llandore, Landm.ore, 
Llandinabo, Llanedry, Llanfair, Llanfrother, * The Langet, Llan- 
garren, Llangunbille, Llangunnock, Llanhaithog, Lunnon, Llan- 
rosser, Llanrothal, Llanveyno, Llanwarne, Llanwonog. 

Nant. 

Properly 'a brook,' then 'the valley through which it flows': — 
Nant-y-bar, Nant-y-glas-dwyr, Nant-yr-Esk, Nantrorgwy, Nant- 
y- Waun, Pennant, Trenant, Turnant, Trepencemzant. 

Pen. 

'A head,' 'a chief,' then 'a top,' 'a \A\-to^' -.—Penalt, Pen- 
hlaith, Pencombe, Pencoyd, Pencraig, *Penebecdoc, Penerwy, * Pen- 
filly, Pengethly, Pennant, Pennypit, Penrose, Pentre, Pentwyn, 
Penyard, Pen-y-Park, Pen-y-dree, Pen-yr-hen-Uan, Pen-y-lan (6), 
Pen-y-moor, Pen-y-wrlod. 



APPENDIX 231 

Pont. 

' A bridge,' a loan-word from Lat. pons : — Pontenyws, Pont 
Hendre, Pontrilas, Pont-y-Mwdy, Pont-y-Pina, Pontys, Pont 
Vaen. 

Tre {tref). 

'Homestead; 'hamlet,' 'village': — Treaddow, Treago, Tre- 
bandy, Treberran, Trebumfrey, Trecilla, Tredoughan, Tredunnock, 
Tre-evan, Trefassy, Tregate, Trelandon, Trelesdee, Trelough, 
Tremahaid, Tremorithig, Trenant, Turnant, Trepencennant, 
Trereece, Treribble, *Trescoyte, Tre-tawbot, Trethal, Tretire, 
Trevadock, Trewadock, Trevaker, Trewaugh, Trewyn, Trevervan, 
Trevace, Treveranon, Treville, Trewen, Trewern, Trewern du, 
Trewarne, Treworgan, Trevanning, *Treygreys, Trey seek, Tri- 
cordivor, Trilloes, Triloode, Hendre, Pentre (6), Penydree, Goytre, 

Ty. 

'A house': — Ty bach, Ty boobach, Ty bordy, Ty Craddock, Ty 
Glen, Ty mawr, Ty -nag-Quint, Ty-ucha, Tynyrheol. 



CAMBRIDGE : PRINTED BY JOHN CLAY, M.A. AT THE UNIVERSITY PRESS