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Full text of "A handbook of Lancashire place-names"

CORNELL UNIVERSITY LIBRARY 

ENGUSH COLLECTION 




THE GIFT OF 

JAMES MORGAN HART 

PROFESSOR OF ENGUSH 



Cornell University Library 
DA 670.L2S47 




3 1924 028 040 230 




Cornell University 
Library 



The original of tliis book is in 
tine Cornell University Library. 

There are no known copyright restrictions in 
the United States on the use of the text. 



http://www.archive.org/details/cu31924028040230 



A HANDBOOK OF LANCASHIRE 
PLACE-NAMES 



A HANDBOOK 

OF 

LANCASHIRE 
PLACE-NAMES 



BY 



JOHN SEPHTON 

LATE READER IN ICELANDIC AT THE LIVERPOOL UNIVERSITY 

FORMERLY FELLOW OF ST. JOHN'S COLLEGE, CAMBRIDGE 

AND HEAD MASTER AT THE LIVERPOOL INSTITUTE 



" Nescio quid meditans nugarum." — Horace 



LIVERPOOL 
HENRY YOUNG fcf SONS 



Printed by Ballantvne, Hanson &• Co. 
At the Ballantyne Press, Edinburgh 



TO 
MY PUPIL, FRIEND, AND FELLOW-STUDENT 

H. F. 

THIS VOLUME IS DEDICATED 
IN MUCH AFFECTION 



PREFACE 

Eight or nine years since, I wrote for the fourth volume of 
the University Magazine, the Otia Merseiana, a little 
paper on the place-names of South Lancashire appearing 
in Domesday Book. The subject so attracted me, that 
after the publication of the essay I began to enlarge its 
scope by including all the words I could find of which old 
forms existed, of not later date than the fifteenth century. 
For this purpose I made use of the work on Lancashire 
Pipe Rolls and Charters brought out by Mr. Farrer two 
years before, and also the volumes published by the Record 
Society of Lancashire and Cheshire. Among this series 
are several volumes, edited by Mr. Farrer, which were of 
exceptional value to me, on account of the care and 
accuracy which characterised them. Another work of 
untold value in place-name inquiries is the Onomasticon 
Anglo-Saxonicum of Mr. W. G. Searle. This is an almost 
complete list of English personal names. Second to it in 
importance is the Liber Vitse, an old catalogue of the 
benefactors of Durham Church, specially rich in North- 
country names. It was edited by Mr. Sweet for the Early 
English Text Society. Recourse to these two books has 
rarely failed in finding any old name which forms a personal 
theme in place-names, and to them is due much of the 
information embodied in this handbook. I was thus 
enabled to make the original collection into one of about 
five hundred words, and the book was ready for publication 
at the end of 1907. Meanwhile, however, the interest in 



viii PREFACE 

place-names had induced Professor Wyld to prepare a 
local work on the subject, in collaboration with his friend 
and pupil, Dr. Hirst, and this caused me to delay printing 
until the appearance of their promised volume, which came 
out at the beginning of 191 1. Too high an opinion can 
scarcely be formed of its scholarship, of the labour bestowed 
on it, of its lucid arrangement, or of the light it throws on 
the puzzling darkness of many of our place-names. I often 
consult it, as well as a useful little book on the names of 
the Liverpool District, published fifteen years ago by Mr. 
Henry Harrison. 

Perhaps with the publication of Professor Wyld's book 
I ought to have been satisfied and committed my imperfect 
labours to the waste-paper basket. But I have been other- 
wise persuaded. The subject is a growing one, and finality 
will only be reached after the clash of varied opinions. I 
revised my manuscript and introduced a selection of 
names, of which I had not found mention in early docu- 
ments. These names can only be explained by conjecture, 
analogy, and the application of guesswork. I hope the 
student will find their inclusion an aid to the knowledge 
of what remains to be done, and an encouragement to 
attempt it. 

The following is the arrangement of the work: — The 
place-names are divided into two classes : those which 
have a simple evident second part or theme, and those whose 
second theme, even if it still exists, does not easily lend 
itself to discovery. After the introductory chapters come 
the first class, arranged under their second themes in order : 
then the second class in alphabetical order. An Index 
follows, which I hope the student will find fairly complete. 

The following is a word of warning from the late Pro- 
fessor Skeat's work on Cambridgeshire place-names : 
" The result of a study of English place-names can hardly 
prove to be other than extremely disappointing, especially 



PREFACE ix 

to the sanguine and the imaginative. Speaking generally, 
we can only satisfy our curiosity to a very limited extent ; 
and we have borne in upon us the fact, which any reflect- 
ing mind might have anticipated, that names were con- 
ferred upon places quite casually, for the sake of con- 
venience, and for very trivial reasons, precisely as they 
are conferred now." " Our older names are on the whole 
a trifle more dignified " than the modern, " as being more 
descriptive. Yet the truth is, they are usually more prosaic 
than poetical." 

The books consulted in the compilation of this book, 
and the letters by which reference is made to them, are 
the following : — 

L.P.C., Lancashire Pipe Rolls and Charters, by W. 
Farrer. 
R., The volumes of the Record Society — 
vol. X., Wills proved at Richmond, 
vol. xii.. List of Freeholders in i6oo. 
vol. xxxi.. Exchequer Lay Subsidies, 
vol. xxxiii., Clergy List at the Reformation, 
vols, xxxix., xlvi., 1., Final Concords, 
vols, xlvii., xlix.. Assize Rolls, 
vols, xlviii., liv., Inquests, 
vols, xli., xlii., Court Rolls and Manchester 
Sessions. 
O., Onomasticon Anglo-Saxonicum, by W. G. Searle. 
F., Altdeutsches Namenbuch. E. Forstemann. First 

volume, second edition. 
W., Friesche Naamlijst. J.Winkler. Fourth volume 

of the Leeuwarden Lexicon Frisicum. 
K., Die Keltische Urbevolkerung Deutschlands, W. 

Krausse. 
S., Vol. Ixxxiii. of Original Series of E.E.T.S. Old 
English Texts by Sweet. Contains the Liber 
Vitae. 



PREFACE 

E., Handbook to Land Charters. Professor Earle. 
Baines's History of Lancashire, 1836. 
V.C.H., The Victoria County History of Lancashire. 

Kemble, The Saxons in England, 1876 edition. 
Landnama, The Book of the Icelandic Settle- 
ment, Origines Islandicae, Oxford. 
M., Sjcelandske Stednavne. Annaler for Nord. 
Oldk., 1863. 
Mu., Miiller iiber die Namen das Liber Vitae. 
M.S., Ortsnamen in Domesday Book. Max Stolze. 
F.O., Forstemann, Die Deutsche Ortsnamen. Nord- 
hausen, 1863. 
R., Rygh, Gamle Personnavne i Norske Steds- 

navne. 
J., Jellinghaus on English Place-names. Anglia, 

vol. XX. 

N.E.D., The Oxford New English Dictionary. Dr. 
Murray. 
C.V., The Cleasby-Vigfusson Icelandic Dictionary. 
B.-T., The Bosworth-Toller Anglo-Saxon Dictionary. 
Sweet, Anglo-Saxon Dictionary. 
Fritzner-Ordbog, Old Norse Dictionary. 
Aasen, Norsk Ordbpg. 



CONTENTS 

CHAP. PAGE 

I. On the Noun-Themes in Place-names . i 
II. On the Adjectival or First Themes in 

Place-names 4 

III. Place-names arranged under their re- 

spective Second Themes .... 8 

IV. Place-names of One Theme chiefly, or of 

WHICH the Second Themes are not easy 

of explanation 215 

V. General Remarks 235 

Indices — 
i. Index to Primary Words and Ele- 
ments ....... 239 

ii. Index to Place-names and Second 

Themes 246 

Addenda et Corrigenda . . .256 



A HANDBOOK OF 
LANCASHIRE PLACE-NAMES 

CHAPTER I 

ON THE NOUN-THEMES IN PLACE-NAMES 

I. A CURSORY glance at the place-names of Lancashire, as 
of other counties, will show that those of two or more 
syllables can usually be divided into two portions, of 
which the latter is the more familiar because it is the more 
commonly observed in place-names ; as examples of such 
words we may take Cantsfield, Rochdale, and Salford. This 
latter portion, or second theme of the words is usually a 
noun, either a natural object, or some work of man, to 
which the first portion or first theme of the place-name is a 
qualifying word, and is either an adjective or supplies the 
place of an adjective. 

2. Place-names of one theme may be regarded as having 
never possessed the adjectival theme, or as having lost it in 
process of time. Croft, Ford, Hurst, are examples. There 
are also place-names in which one of the two themes is of 
a composite character, being itself a complete place-name ; 
in Down Holland, for instance, the second theme is a 
place-name of the ordinary form, in Roeburndale, and 
Windleshaw the first theme. In the following work place- 
names are arranged and discussed in groups under their 
several second or noun-themes, in alphabetical order. 
Monothematic names, not used in local compound forms, 



2 HANDBOOK OF LANCASHIRE PLACE-NAMES 

and others which present special difficulties, are arranged 
in a separate and following chapter. 

3. These second or noun-themes may be thus classi- 
fied :— 

i. Those in which the idea expressed in the word is that 
of enclosure, implying protection or defence, and growing 
into that of simple habitation. They are Ton, Worth, 
Bury, Garth, Fold, Chester, Hey, and Ham in part. 

ii. Those in which the idea of habitation or dwelling- 
place is primarily found. Such are Ham, By, House, 
Hall, Bold, Cot, Stead, Stall, Thorp, Wick, Booth, Scales, 
Seat. 

iii. Works of man for use, memorial, or boundary are 
Cross, Kirk, Bridge, Gate, Sty, Grave, Ditch, Wall. 

iv. Pieces of land, separated from the adjoining land, 
and applied to particular purposes, or marked by particular 
boundaries. Such are Ley, Field, Acre, Furlong, Land, 
Thwaite, Gore, Croft, Mead, Wall, Ergh, Rod, Snape, 
Snead, Garth ; also Green, Shire, Common. 

V. Natural objects of various kinds : — Shaw, Scough, 
Wood, With, Hurst, Grove, Greave, Stock, Thorn, Tree ; 
Ford, Mere, Brook, Burn, Beck, Wath, Well, Pool, Sike, 
Sand ; Hill, Cliff, Breck, Mel, Barrow, Fell, Down, Edge, 
Low, Ness, Scout, Pike, Ridge, Head, Horn, Crag, Howe ; 
Dale, Den, Hole, Slack, Clough, Gill, Side, End, Bottom, 
Nook, Wray, Halgh, Hope, Tang, Twistle, Holme, Eye, 
Heath, Moss, Moor, Carr, Bent. 

vi. A terminal theme of doubtful meaning and origin is 
eth. It may arise from syllables in unstressed positions 
such as heath, wath, with, hlith, worth ; perhaps even from 
the last syllable of a personal name, as frith. 

4. Of these terminal themes fon occurs in about 150 
place-names or more, which is three times as often as the 
theme iey in its various forms. After these two, the most 
common terminations are Worth, Ford, Shaw, Ham, Dale 



ON THE NOUN-THEMES IN PLACE-NAMES 3 

Wood, Den, Wick or Wich, Hill, Bury or Borough, Field, 
Land, Holme, Thwaite, By. Words like Green and Moss 
are frequently attached to place-names, as in Lamber- 
head Green, Prescot Moss : these are known as subsidiary 
themes. They are modern second themes which have not 
become permanently attached to their first themes, as the 
ancient second themes have, so as to form one word with 
them. 



CHAPTER II 

ON THE ADJECTIVAL OR FIRST THEMES IN 
PLACE-NAMES 

I. The adjectival themes used as the first portion of place- 
names may consist : — 

i. Of an adjective simply, as in Blackburn, Stonyhurst. 

ii. Of a common noun used as an adjective to mark 
some distinctive quality, as in Birkdale ; or a geographical 
position, as in Waterhead. Occasionally the noun thus 
used retains the mark of the genitive, as in Scarisbrick. 

iii. Of a personal name, probably distinctive of the 
original settler, possessor, or other favoured person, as in 
Ormskirk, Oswaldtwistle, Ramsbottom. Generally, these 
personal names have lost their genitival form, or have in 
other ways suffered abrasion and contraction. 

iv. Of other words used as adjectives ; for example, the 
adverb up, as in Upton. 

2. Old personal names are most commonly found in use 
for the adjectival themes. As example of a name which 
was often used, possibly on account of its being a favourite 
with Germanic races in early times, Bil may be taken. 
The word originally meant a sword or other weapon, and 
when given as a personal name by itself or in combination 
with other themes as in Bilfrith, or Bilhelm, it was possibly 
imagined that it might predict eminence in the use of the 
weapon. It does not seem, therefore, an extravagant idea 
to assume that in such place-names as Bilton, Bilston, 
Billesley, Bilsborough, Bilham, Bilthorpe, Bilby, and others, 
Bil has been a part of the personal name, if not the whole 



ADJECTIVAL THEMES IN PLACE-NAMES 5 

name, of the original giver of the place-name, or of some 
person in whom he delighted. From Billing, again, a 
patronymic of Bil, we have Billingham, Billingford, Billing- 
ley, Billingsley, Billington, and others, in gazetteers of these 
islands. Possibly, too, the popularity of Bil as a personal 
name may have been increased by its mythological associa- 
tions, for it is the name of one of the two children taken 
from the earth to the moon, as we are told in the Edda. 

3. In Germanic personal names, from the oldest times 
of which we have records, bithematic forms seem to have 
existed contemporaneously with monothematic forms. It 
is certainly difficult to point to a time when the name 
Steinn existed before Thor-steinn, though we can scarcely 
avoid believing there was such -a time. The bithematic 
form of a personal name tends, doubtless in the ordinary 
familiarities of life, to be replaced by a monothematic form, 
or one otherwise shortened for the sake of convenience. 
With reference, therefore, to the early Germanic settlers in 
Lancashire, we must assume that the name-themes which 
they employed in place-names are quite as likely to be 
familiar shortened forms in actual use, as to be originally 
the real full names shortened by wear and tear in the 
course of time. Nicknames also, had a tendency to take 
the place of real names, and no doubt nicknames may be 
found as the first themes in some of the following place- 
names. As an example how nicknames easily grow into 
personal ones, we may quote the following from early 
Norse history. A certain chief named Thorolf having a 
bad squint, the nickname Skialg (Squinter) became attached 
to him, and his son was known as Erling Skialgson. 
Another named Asgeir became known as Asgeir Raudfeldr, 
from the red cloak he wore ; his son, the poet, is known in 
literature to our own times as Thorleif Raudfeldarson 
(Red-cloak-son). 

4. Familiar names and pet names, having naturally 



6 HANDBOOK OF LANCASHIRE PLACE-NAMES 

become monosyllabic by the process of shcwtening, may 
again become dissyllabic by adding a pet ending. A 
familiar modern example is Frances, which having become 
Fan by shortening is affectionately lengthened into Fanny. 

In the Introduction to the Onomasticon, p. xxiii., Mr. 
Searle shows how the extensions -/, -k or -c, were applied 
to monothematic names, and the Low German name-lists 
are rich in such extensions, as may be seen from the Intro- 
duction to Winkler's Friesche Naamlijst. Other extensions 
were -s, -n, -nc, the two former being genitival, the latter 
patronymic, joining the genitival to the diminutive exten- 
sion. Winkler's Introduction gives examples of other 
extensions, notably -t, -tje, -tsje, denoting familiarity and 
affection, which do not seem to have come with the 
colonists of the sixth and seventh centuries, and to have 
become embodied in their place-names. 

There is one extension, or " erweiterung " which does 
not always admit of explanation. It is the middle syllable 
of such place-names as Catterall, Cliverton, Bickerton, 
Shakerley, Chequerbent, and the termination of such 
words as Docker. In Amoundemess and Osmotherley it 
is the genitival ending ar of the Norse word which forms 
the first theme. In others it is an analogical imitation 
of this genitive ; or it is merely intrusive, a matter of local 
pronunciation. But often it is the result of abrasion. 
The second syllable of the originally bithematic personal 
name disappears, partly or wholly, and its place is supplied 
by intrusive syllables, containing often / or r, as is shown 
by Forstemann on p. i6i of his work. Die Deutschen 
Ortsnamen. In the English place-names, if the abraded 
second theme contains an / or r, the / or r at least will 
often be found persistent. Examples are seen in Eadburg- 
ham, Abram ; Gerolfworthe, Ireleth ; Andelevesarewe, 
Anglezark. 

5. Old personal names arose from various sources, among 



ADJECTIVAL THEMES IN PLACE-NAMES 7 

which may be mentioned bodily and mental qualities, 
names of animals, words relating to war and weapons. 
From the last source, such a word as Ask, being synony- 
mous with lance, early became a personal name. This 
occasions a difficulty in the explanation of a certain class 
of place-names. In Ashton, for instance, must we regard 
Ash as the personal name of the original possessor or 
founder of the place, or did he call it such on account of 
some Ash or Ash trees which were a feature of the spot ? 
Similarly with Birkdale and many other words. Each 
word will require its own investigation ; one solution may 
commend itself in one case, and another in another. 
Possibly in many no solution is probable with our present 
knowledge. 

6. To form a reasonable opinion of the origin of a place- 
name, an acquaintance with its early forms is most desirable. 
Even then, the solution may be nothing but a mere guess, 
liable to be succeeded by another similar guess, as further 
and older documentary evidence of its form is found. 
Few of the Lancashire place-names can be traced as far 
back as the Norman Conquest, and of these, some which 
appear in Domesday Book are undoubtedly presented to 
us by the Norman scribes of the work in a corrupt form. 
With respect to those names in the present volume, of 
which documentary forms are not known earlier than the 
fifteenth century, as well as those of later post-Reformation 
times, the interpretation must in most cases be regarded as 
a conjectural opinion, for the expression of which the 
compiler asks his readers' indulgence. 



CHAPTER III 

CATALOGUE OF PLACE-NAMES, MOSTLY BI- 
THEMATIC, ARRANGED UNDER THEIR RE- 
SPECTIVE SECOND THEMES. . 

ACBE 

Tilled or sown land generally ; then a definite measure 
of land. 

Barnacre. — Parish N.E. of Garstang, associated with 
Bonds. First theme probably the Old English personal 
name Beorn, Low German Bern, of which the original 
meaning was a bear. See Onomasticon, p. 98. First 
theme may be shortened from a name such as Barnulf. 
O., p. 80. Or it may be the Old English word Bern, 
a barn. 

Egacres, from the charter of Burscough Priory, was 
near Ormskirk. First theme the personal name Ecg, 
Ecga, sword. See O., p. 217. 

Gateacre. — Village 4 miles S. of Liverpool. No early 
records. First theme probably the Old Norse gata, a 
road, way, thoroughfare. Or the personal name Geat may 
perhaps be found in the word. See O., 255. 

Greenacres. — A village and moor 2 miles E. of Old- 
ham. First theme is probably descriptive. 

Linacre. — A village 3 miles N. of Liverpool, now 
included in Bootle. The word occurs in the Great Inquest, 
12 1 2 (R., vol. xlviii.). The first theme is lin, meaning flax. 

Roseacre. — A village 4 miles N. of Kirkham. This 
form of the word dates from the seventeenth century. 



CATALOGUE OF PLACE-NAMES g 

Early forms dating from the thirteenth are Easaker, Jiays- 
akur, Raysacre, Reysacre. The first theme is the Old 
Norse kreysi, a heap of stones. The word probably meant 
" a stony field." 

The hypothesis that the first theme is a personal name 
is not impossible. The name Hreidarr or Reidarr appears 
in Norwegian place-names as Rei-. 

Stirzaker. — A manor in the township of Catterall, 2 
miles S.W. of Garstang. Stirsacre occurs in 1323 (R., 
vol. xlvi.), and styresacre in 1443 (R-) v'- !•)• First theme 
is the personal name Sfyr, for which see examples in O., 
p. 432, and means stir, battle. 

Tamicar or Tamacre. — A hamlet 4 miles S.W. of 
Garstang. In a Final Concord of 1323, the form of the 
word is Tranacre, and Tranaker in the Assize Rolls (R., 
vol. xlvii.). In later times the first part of the word is Tarn 
(R., vols. X., xii.). If the earlier form of the first theme is 
to weigh most, it is Trani, a snout ; a Norse nickname. (See 
Fritzner's Diet.) If the later, it is the Norse word tjiirn, 
a tarn. 

The later spelling of the word has replaced acre by carr, 
the Norse kjarr, which probably appears in Altcar, and 
means boggy ground, with copsewood. 

WhitaJcer. — A village 4 miles N.E. of Rochdale. Quit- 
acre occurs in the Assize Rolls (R., vol. xlvii.), and Whitacre 
in an entry of 141 1 (R., vol. 1.). 

The first theme, the Old English hwit — white, clear, fair 
— is doubtless the origin of the first theme of many place- 
names, but very possibly the personal name hwita (see O., 
p. 310) is responsible for a share. 

ABBOUB 

This word occurs in the combination Windy Arbour, 
but I know not if the words bear any special meaning, 



10 HANDBOOK OF LANCASHIRE PLACE-NAMES 

other than the natural one. There are places of this name 
in Standish, Winstanley, Garstang, Kirkham, Nether 
Kellet, and perhaps elsewhere. Windy Bank in Rochdale, 
Bury, Blackburn, Ashton-under-Lyne ; Windy Hills in 
Chipping. The Windy Bank in Rochdale is a Hunders- 
field estate. 

AY 

This termination is the old Norse d, a river; Old 
English ea. 

Brathay, name of a river which flows into Windermere 
on the north. And also the name of an ecclesiastical 
district in Hawkshead parish. The word appears as 
Braitha in a Final Concord of 1196 (R., vol. xxxix., p. 5). 

The first theme is the Old Norse breithr, broad, which 
influenced the Old English brad. 

BANK 

The Middle English word banke, a raised shelf or ridge 
of ground, is of Scandinavian origin : the same word as the 
Danish banke, a raised ridge of ground, a sandbank. 

Banks is (i) the name of a village N.E. of Southport; 
and (2) of one N. of Rochdale. 

Halebank, a hamlet 6 miles S. of Prescot, in the town- 
ship of Halewood, is found as Halebonk, 1426 (R., vol. 1.). 
Halewood occurs in 1384 as Halewod, and the two together 
in 1509 (R., vol. 1.). For first theme, see Hale, under 
halgh. 

Moss Bank. — A village N. of St. Helens. Both parts 
of the name are or have been descriptive of local con- 
ditions. 

Swartebonke. — A part of North Meols. The name is 
found in a charter of the twelfth century (L.P.C., p. 377). 



CATALOGUE OF PLACE-NAMES n 

The word swarte means swart or black, in Old Norse 
svartr. 

Tyldesley Banks. — An old estate in Tyldesley, now a 
part of the town 5 miles S. of Bolton-le-Moors. 

For first theme, Tyldesley, consult the words under the 
termination ley. 

Yate Bank and Pickup Bank. — A parish 4 miles S.E. 
of Blackburn. 

Yate is a pathway or road. The Old Norse meaning of 
gata, road, being applied to the Old English geai, a gate. 

For Pickup, see the words under the termination hope. 

Bank is used as a subsidiary theme in Hesketh Bank, 
Calder Bank, and others. 

BARN 

Is used as a subsidiary theme in Croston Barn, New 
House Barn, Daisy Barn, and in other cases. 

BABBOW 

This word is the Old English word beorg, hill, mountain, 
mound. The eminences denoted by the word are long 
hills, generally low, and when not low, have vegetation 
to the summit, as in the Yorkshire Ingleborough. The 
word barrow is in common use as a burial mound. 

Barrow-in-Furness, a county borough at the extremity 
of the Furness peninsula, in the north-west of the county. 
For Furness consult the group of words of the second 
theme ness. 

Backbarrow, village and works on the Leven, 3 
miles from the river's exit from Windermere. First theme 
denotes position. 

Ctoadsbarrow, near Morecambe Bay, in Aldingham 
Parish. First theme, a personal name of which an early 



12 HANDBOOK OF LANCASHIRE PLACE-NAMES 

form is desirable ; may hegud, battle, guda, or the nickname 
geifr (a goat) of someone buried there. 

Hartbarrow, on the river Winster, S.E. of Windermere. 
First theme, the personal name Hardr (O., p. 285), or the 
Old Norse name hiortr, a hart. 

Hardbarrow, in Urswick, S.E. of Dalton-in-Furness. 
First theme the personal name Hardr. 

Scarbarrow, a hill E. of Barrow-in-Furness. First theme 
the Old Norse skarth, a mountain pass. See Scar as 
a second theme below. 

Barrow occurs as a subsidiary theme in Birkland 
Barrow, Raven's Barrow, Alder Barrow, Bracken Barrow, 
and other names. 

BECK. BURN, BKOOK 

Words to denote a rivulet or small stream. Brook is 
the commonest word, burn is rare, and beck is mostly to 
be found in the north of the county. In Yorkshire, on the 
other hand, burn is the commonest word, brook being 
rarely found. All three are used in continental place- 
names. In England they are to be found in all parts, and 
the frequency of their use in one part or other depends, 
we can only suppose, on the tribe which brought them. 
Brook is dominant in the south and centre of England ; 
burn in the north-east of England and Scotland. As the 
Old English burne is a well or spring, like the Old Norse 
brunnr, the burns may have been more rapid streams than 
the brooks. Beck occurs in the Danish parts of England, 
and bcek is the usual Danish word for a small stream. 

Calderbrook. — A village 5 miles N.E. of Rochdale. 
The first theme, the name of the stream, is probably of 
Celtic origin. See K., p. 60. 

Ellenbrook. — Village 8 miles N.W. of Manchester, in the 



CATALOGUE OF PLACE-NAMES 13 

township of Worsley. First theme is a dialect word for 
the elder tree. The brook divides the parishes of Leigh 
and Eccles. 

Escowbrook, Escowbeck, between Quernmore and Caton. 
In the perambulation given on p. 420 of Farrer's Lanca- 
shire Pipe Rolls, it is Heskehoubroc. The first theme may 
be the name of an old manor in the valley of the Lune, 
near Caton, and Htske have the same origin as Hesketh 
below. If there is no old manor the first theme will be 
the Old Norse skbgr, a wood. 

Evesbroke. — " The brook between Fulwood and Preston 
which forms the Parliamentary boundary." Farrer's L.P.C., 
p. 425. First theme will be the Old English efes, eaves or 
border of the forest. 

Frithbrook occurs in the perambulation mentioned with 
Escowbrook above, L.P.C., p. 420, under the form Frit- 
broe. The first theme may be the Oldi English fyrhthe of 
the charters (see index to Earle's Land Charters), signifying 
an enclosed plantation or wooded country. See also 
Murray's N.E.D., vol. iv., p. 554. 

Glazebrook. — A joint parish with Rixton, 6 miles N.E. of 
Warrington. We find Glasbroc'm 1227 (R., vol. xxxix.), and 
Glasebroke in 1332 (R., vol. xlvi.). The brook which gave 
name to the manor flows south into the Mersey, along the 
west side of Chatmoss, and has preserved its Celtic name. 
Compare the Irish glaise, a rivulet ; Welsh dais. 

Qorbrook is the brook which flows through Gorton, near 
Manchester, and then south through Chorlton into the 
Mersey. The name is probably Celtic. See K., p. 58, 
under Caor. 

The Combrook is another South Manchester stream 
with a similar origin. 

Heybrook. — Village in Wardleworth i mile N.E. of 



14 HANDBOOK OP LANCASHIRE PLACE-NAMES 

Rochdale. First theme the Old English hege, a hedge, a 
fence. 

Smithy Brook. — A village in Pemberton, 2 miles S.W. 
of Wigan, where the workshop has given name to both 
brook and village. 

Bourne Hall is the Brune of Domesday Book, and is in 
the parish of Thornton, west of the estuary of the Wyre. 
It appears as Brunne in an early Pipe Roll of King John 
(L.P.C, p. 181), and as Brone at a later date, 1262 (R., 
vol. xlviii.). 

Blackburn. — A large town in East Lancashire, 8 miles 
E. of Preston. It is the Domesday Blacheburne. The 
first theme is the Old English blxc, black. 

Chatbum. — A parish in the valley of the Ribble, 2 miles 
E. of Clitheroe. Old form of the word is Chatteburn 
in the thirteenth century (R., vols, xxxi., xlviii.). The 
word begins to lose one t in the fourteenth century. First 
theme is the personal name Ceatia (O., p. 126). Low 
German forms are Tjette^ Tjet (W., p. 408). 

Golbounie. — Urban district 7 miles N. of Warrington. 
Early forms are Goldeburn, 1186, Goldeburne, 1328 (R., 
vol. xlvi.), and Golborne, 1468 (R., vol. 1.). K. explains 
first theme golde as a compound Celtic word meaning 
little stream (K., p. 60). 

The words Beck, Brook, and Bum are used as sub- 
sidiary themes, as, e.g. — 

Coulton Beck, Brismet Beck, Cockley Beck, Leek Beck, 
Heskin Beck, Grizedale Beck, Keasden Beck, Hasgill 
Beck, Croasdale Beck; Roughton Brook, Foster Brook, 
Bradshaw Brook, Freckleton Brook, Fluckens Brook, 
Norden Brook, Ellen Brook, Rainford Brook, Ditton 
Brook, Gilda Brook, Cringle Brook, Deys Brook j Lother 
Burn ; and others. 



CATALOGUE OF PLACE-NAMES 15 



BENT 

For the origin of this word, see Murray's N.E.D. It 
denotes various kinds of coarse grass, including rushes, 
and has come to be applied to hills, knolls, and fields 
covered with such. 

Chequerbent.— A hamlet 4 miles S.W. of Bolton-le- 
Moors. In default of early forms of the word, I can only 
suppose the first theme to be the personal name Cec, Cecce, 
given in O., p. 127. The r is probably intrusive, or what 
is left of an abraded second theme, such as here. 

Chowbent. — A village 2 miles N. of Leigh. In the 
V.C.H., iii., p. 437, we find the early forms Cholkbynt, 
ShoUebent, c. 1350 j and ChoUe, 1385. Chowbantun is 
a Latin entry of 1586 (R., vol. xxxiii.). 

The first theme is personal ; namely, the person^ name 
and common theme Ceol ; see O., p. 129, where are 
several examples. Ceol in Old English means keel. 

BOLD 

This Old English word denotes a dwelling-house or 
hall. The cognate Old English word botl has the same 
meaning, and is found in Fordebotle in an old charter 
of Henry II. (L.P.C., p. 317). 

Bold. — ^A joint parish with Farnworth, 5 miles S.E. of 
Prescot, of which early forms are, Bolde in 1286, Boulde 
in 1332, Bold in 1380 (R., vols, xxxi., xxxix., 1.). The 
township seems to have taken its name from the main 
dwelling in it (Bold Hall). 

Newbold. — Ecclesiastical district, on the south side 
of Rochdale. First theme descriptive. 

Farbold. — A parish 6 miles N.E. of Ormskirk. Early 
forms, iferbolt in an early Final Concord of the twelfth 



i6 HANDBOOK OF LANCASHIRE PLACE-NAMES 

century (R., vol. 1.); afterwards Perebold, 1202, Perbald, 
1282 (R., vols, xxxix., xlviii.). The first theme may be 
variously regarded as the Old English pert, a pear, or as 
an abbreviated form of the Biblical name Petrus. See W., 
pp. 286, 288. 

BOOTH 

This is the Old Norse word buth, a dwelling, a booth, 
the origin of the Old Swedish both, Danish bod. The 
several booths in the mountainous parts of East Lancashire 
appear to have been outlying parts of estates or farms, 
where cattle were bred and pastured in large numbers : 
the vauarice or vaccaries of the Lancashire Court Rolls. 
See R., vol. xli., p. 72, and vol. liv. 

Booths, Higher and Lower. — These populous townships, 
lying between Burnley and Haslingden, originated in the 
vaccarix of the Forest of Rossendale. The Booths were 
the cow-shelters and herdsmen's dwellings. 

Booth. HolUns, a part of Butterworth, 3 miles E. of 
Rochdale. Hollin is a dialect word for the holly-tree. 

Boothstown. — A hamlet 7 miles S.W. of Manchester. 
Booths formed a part of the ancient township of Worsley. 

Booth is used as a subsidiary theme, as in Goldshaw 
Booth, Wheatiey Booth, Old Laund Booth, and others. 

BOTTOM 

From the Old English botm, denoting low-lying ground, 
a valley. The Old Norse word botn specially denotes the 
closed head of a valley or fiord, to distinguish it from the 
open end. 

Oakenbottom in Breightmet, N.E. of Bolton. First 
theme, descriptive of the timber thereabouts. 

Ramsbottom.— Urban district, 4 miles N. of Bury. First 



CATALOGUE OF PLACE-NAMES 17 

theme personal. The Old Norse Ara/n, a raven, was a 
common name, of which the Old English form, hraban, 
was degraded into Ram. See O., pp. 301, 395. 

Steinor Bottom, now Bottoms, a village 3 miles S. of 
Todmorden. First theme is the personal name Stanhere 
(see O., p. 429) ; the Old Norse Steinarr. Baines, in his 
History of Lancashire, vol. ii., p. 646, interprets it Stoney. 

BBECE 

This is the Old Norse brekka, the slope of a hill ; ety- 
mologically one with the English and Danish brink. As 
the kk for nk differentiates the Norse from the Danish 
form, it would appear that where breck is found in Lanca- 
shire, Norse colonisation from the Isle of Man and the 
Western Islands is to be suspected rather than Danish 
colonisation from the East or South-East. 

Esprick, a hamlet 3 miles NW. of Kirkham. Early 
form Estebrec (R., vol. xlviii.), 1249. The first theme is 
thus descriptive of position. East. The N.E.D. gives Est 
as a form of E^st used from the twelfth century onwards. 

Larbrick, a hamlet 6 miles N. of Kirkham. Early 
forms are Zairbrec{R., vol. xlviii.), 1213, Leyrebreck. Lar- 
brecke is of 1600 (R., vol. xii.). The first theme is the Old 
Norse leir, loam or clay, and is used in place-names in 
Iceland and Norway. 

Mowbiick, a manor, i mile N. of Kirkham. In an 
Inquest of 1249 (R., vol. xlviii.) the word appears as 
Moulebrec and Mukbrec. The form Mowbricke appears in 
1631 (R., vol. xii.). The first theme is the Old Norse mM, 
used of a projection, as of a crag, and is common in Ice- 
landic place-names. 

Norbreck, a joint township with Bispham, 3 miles N. of 
Blackpool. The first theme is of geographical position, 



1 8 HANDBOOK OF LANCASHIRE PLACE-NAMES 

The word appears as Northbrek in 1267 (R., vol. xlix.), 
Northbrek in 1332 (R., vol. xxxi.), and Norbrek in 1490 
(R., vol. 1.). What is apparently a corrupt spelling is found 
of the early date of 1241 (R., vol. xxxix.), Norhicbiec, which 
Mr. Farrer identifies as Norbreck. 

Scarisbrick, a parish 3 miles NW. of Ormskirk. Early 
forms of the word are Scaresbrec'va. 12 12 (R., vol. xlviii.), 
Scharisbrec in 1251. The first theme appears to be the 
Old Norse word skarth, a low-lying part in a hilly district ; 
also a nickname, harelip. There is a Scarth Hill on the 
south side of Ormskirk. The th disappears also in 
Danish place-names, as in Searsholm (M., p. 240). 

Warbreck, a joint township with Layton, N. of Black- 
pool. In early charters (L.P.C.) the forms are Warde- 
brec, Wardebrecca, Wardebrech. In an Inquest of 1249, 
Warthebrec, and in the Lay Subsidies, 1332, Warthebrek. 
The first theme is the Old Norse vartha a beacon. 

BRIDGE 

Names ending in bridge are numerous in the county, 
and are generally formed by adding the word as a sub- 
sidiary theme to a place-name already existing. Only a 
few compound words have given rise to villages and towns 
which carry the word bridge in the name. 

Appley Bridge, on a road over the river Douglas, in the 
parish of Eccleston, 4 miles NW. of Wigan. The first 
theme of Appley is a personal name of which O. has the 
forms Apa, Ape, Appa, Appe, p. 72. F., in col. 11, con- 
siders Aba, man, the root. The Low German forms may 
be seen in W., p. 18. 

Bamber Bridge, on a road over the Lostock, is a large 
village 3 miles SE. of Preston, in the township of Walton- 
le-Dale. I have no old forms of Bamber to refer to, and 
conjecture the first theme to be the name ban {nb becom- 



CATALOGUE OF PLACE-NAMES 19 

ing md), the primitive personal name from which the name 
Bdnning is derived and Kemble's inferred mark Baningas. 
The second theme is probably a slurred form of burh or 
berht, as in Pemberton. 

Cowen Bridge, where the road from Kirkby Lonsdale to 
Settle crosses the Leek Beck. If the first theme is an 
actual place-name, and not a personal name of someone 
connected with the Bridge, I am inclined to think it 
represents the word Colne, the name of several rivers in 
England; perhaps of Celtic origin. See K., p. 71. 

Eagley Bridge, village at a bridge over the river Tonge, 
3 miles N. of Bolton-le-Moors. I have no clue to the first 
theme of Eagley, and can only guess the old name Ecg or 
Ecga, sword (O., p. 217); or the Old Norse eik, an oak, of 
which Danish place-names make Eghe or Eg (M., p. 277). 

Qerard's Bridge, a part of St. Helens, where the road to 
Wigan crosses the Rainford Brook. Called after the 
Gerard family. See O., p. 252, for Gaerheard, and F., 578, 
under the root gairu (spear). 

Stayleybridge, town on the SE. border of the county, 
the bridge being over the River Tame, into Cheshire, and 
Staveleigh, the name of the landowner who built it. The 
town is now included in Cheshire. For the place-name 
Staveley, see words grouped under theme Ley. 

Tootle Bridge, a hamlet in the township of Tonge, distant 
i^ mile E. of Bolton. Tootle is a personal name, diminu- 
tive of Tot. Tota and Totta are given in O., pp. 458, 459. 
Totta is given in the Liber Vitse, and Miiller suggests it 
is a familiar pronunciation of some word beginning with 
Torht, bright — for words in which, see O., pp. 457, 459. 
Not impossibly the final le may be ley or hill, but in the 
absence of old forms this is doubtful. 

Other names in which Bridge forms a subsidiary 



20 HANDBOOK OF LANCASHIRE PLACE-NAMES 

theme, are How B., Piatt B,, Lodge B., Skelwith B., 
Newby B., Pool B., Penny B., Spark B., Lowick B., 
Duddon B., Heap B., Swinebrigg. 



BROW 

This termination is the projecting edge of a cliff or hill; 
then a slope, or ascent. It is the Old English irti, Old 
Norse dnin, and its primary signification is eyebrow. 

It is used as a subsidiary theme: e.g. Skelwith Brow, 
Dilworth Brow, Knowls Brow, Birks Brow, Dob Brow, 
Mere Brow, Red Brow, Glovers Brow, Cobbs Brow, 
Bescar Brow, Sunderland Brow, and many others. 



BURGH, BOROUGH, BURROW, BURY 

The Old English word durk, burg, denotes primarily a 
fortress or castle, then a city, town, or borough. The 
dative case of the word, byrig, is the form which has given 
rise to many present-day place-names ending in bury, 
being grammatically necessary after such prepositions as to 
or at, as in Bury, Samlesbiri. The nominative case is 
preserved in such words as Newburgh. 

Bury. — A town 9 miles N. of Manchester. The second 
theme here does not seem to have ever been qualified by 
a first theme. The town has variously appeared in the 
course of its history as Biri, Bury, Byri, Burgh. 

Aigburth. — A village 3 miles S. of Liverpool, and now 
a part of it, on the Mersey. The old forms of the word 
are Aykeberh, Aikebergh, and the Tudor speUing Aghberghe. 
These suggest for the first theme the Old English cbc oak : 
cf. the Danish place-name Egebjerg, from older Eghebyergh ; 
see M., p. 277. The personal name Aeg (see O., p. 5) 
is not an impossible origin. 



CATALOGUE OF PLACE-NAMES 21 

Arbnry.— A township in the parish of Winwick, 3 miles 
N. of Warrington. Early forms of the word are Herbury, 
1243 (R-j vol. xlviii.), Erthbury of 1246 (R., vol. xxxix.), 
and Erbury of 1332. The first theme appears to be eard, 
native country, which is found in many personal names. 
See O., p. 212. 

Bilsborough, Billisborrow.^A township 4 miles NE. 
of Garstang. Early forms of the word are Billeshurg 
(1227), Billesburgh (1332), Bihborough (1508) (R., vols. 
xxxix., xxxi., 1.). The first theme is the personal name Bil, 
a weapon. See O., p. 107 ; W., p. 35 ; F., coL 303. 

Burrow, now Burrow-with-Burrow, a parish adjoining 
Westmoreland, comprising Overburrow and Netkerburrow, 
in the old parish of Tunstall. It appears as Borch in 
Domesday Book, and as Burgh in King John's reign 
(R., vol. xxxix.). Overburgh and Nethirburgh are found 
in an entry of 1370 (R., vol. xlvi.). The modern forms 
come later : Overburrowe (1556), Burrow (1585), Neyther- 
burrow (1596), with a variant barrow, as in Overbarrow 
(1634) (R., vol. X., p. 25, and elsewhere). 

Didsbury. — ^A chapelry 5 miles S. of Manchester. 
Earliest form seems to be Dedesbiry (1247), which soon 
gave place to Diddesbyry (1276), Diddesbury (1341); see 
R., vols, xlvi., xlvii. Deda appears as a proper name, 
but doubtfully personal, in Bede; see S., p. 136. Low 
German names dede, didde, are in W., pp. 59, 62. Dedi, 
Dedis (genitive), and Deda in F., cols. 386, 387. The root 
is that of Old English dxd, action. See O., p. 161. 

Duzbury. — ^A parish 6 miles N. of Wigan. JDokesbire 
appears in a Pipe Roll of 1203 (L.P.C.), Dokesbiri in 
an Assize Roll of 1247 (R., vol. xlvii.), Dukesbiri in a 
Final Concord of 1227 (R., vol. xxxix.), and Duxbury in 
one of 1506. The personal name Docca, which is given 
in O., p. 167, is the first theme. F. connects it (col. 431) 



22 HANDBOOK OF LANCASHIRE PLACE-NAMES 

with the Old English verb dugan, to be strong, and the 
root dug. 

Flookburgh. — A village in Holker, 3 miles SW. of 
Cartmel. First theme is personal, being the Scandinavian 
name Flbki, a name occurring in the Landnama of one 
of the Viking discoverers of Iceland, in which country 
it remains a place-name, Flokavarthi. 

Musbury. — A parish 2 miles SW. of Haslingden. The 
first theme seems to be a personal name Mod, of which 
O. contains several examples where it is used as first 
theme, p. 352. Root moda means mind. See F., coL 
1126. 

Mossborough. — A manor farm in the old township of 
Rainford, on the Knowsley side. First theme is the 
Middle English mos from the Old Norse most. 

Newburgh. — A village 5 miles NE. of Ormskirk. First 
theme is descriptive. 

Fendlebury. — Parish 4 miles NW. of Manchester. 
Early Pipe Rolls (L.P.C.) write Fenelbiri, Pinnelberia, 
Fenkbire, Pennebire. In other documents (R., vols, xlix., 
xlvii., xlvi.) we have the variants Pennesbyry, Pennylksbyry, 
Penhulbury ; and the Subsidy Roll of 1541 Ptndulburye 
(R., vol. xii.). From the late appearance of the d, it should 
probably be regarded as epenthetic; on the other hand, 
it may have dropped out in certain forms of an original 
Pend, found in personal names ; see O., pp. 386, 387. 

Pen is a personal name; for Pen as name-theme, see 
0-1 P- 387, and p. xxiii. for the / diminutive Penel ; also 
for the root ben, F., cols. 256, 257. 

Salesbury. — Parish 5 miles N. of Blackburn. Early 
forms are Saleburi, Salesbury, Salebury, Sai/burg (R.,\ols. 
xlvii., xlviii., xxxi., 1.). Sale, Salle, are Low German per- 
sonal names, familiar forms of Salomon; see W., p. 327. 



CATALOGUE OF PLACE-NAMES 23 

Another origin of the personal name Sa/o, Sek, is pro- 
bably the root salo, black. See F., col. 1290. B.-T. salu, 
dusky, dark. 

Samlesbury. — A parish 4 miles E. of Preston. Early 
forms are Samerisberta, Samelesbure (L.P.C., pp. 40, 69). 
First theme is the scriptural name Samuel. Ancient 
Teutonic names are also found from the root sama. See 
F., 1294, with one or other of which the Biblical name 
may have been confused. See W., p. 328, who gives a 
diminutive, with extension k, Samcke. 

BY 

From Old Norse byr, a farm or village. This termination 
occurs chiefly in Yorkshire, Lincolnshire, and Leicester- 
shire. The Lancashire place-names of this ending, about 
a dozen or more, occur chiefly near the Western Coast, 
and are strange to the mountainous parts of the south- 
east. In Yorkshire, on the other hand, it is comparatively 
rare in the mountainous districts of the west (Sowerby is a 
notable exception), and is found chiefly in the low-lying 
grounds of the centre and east. It probably marks Danish 
settlements, as it is a common Danish ending, and is in 
Denmark not generally compounded with personal names. 

Crosby, Great and Little. — Urban districts 7 miles 
N. of Liverpool on the coast. Crosebi is mentioned in 
Domesday Book. The Scandinavian conquerors and 
settlers in Ireland obtained the word Cros from the Irish ; 
and the place doubtless marks the site of a Holy Rood, 
set up as a place of prayer. 

Derby. — The village of West Derby lies E. of Liverpool 
and gives name to the Hundred. It is spelt Derbei in 
Domesday Book. The first theme is a personal name, 
Diori, which is found in the Liber Vitae; see S., p. 163, 
also O., p. 166. F., col. 408, prefers to connect the word 



24 HANDBOOK OF LANCASHIRE PLACE-NAMES 

with the Old English deore, beloved, dear, rather than with 
the word deor, a wild beast. 

Formby. — A town 1 2 miles N. of Liverpool, the Fornebei 
of Domesday Book. Forneby is the spelling in 1332 
(R., vol. xxxi.), and the spelling with n existed into the seven- 
teenth century (R., xii., p. 65). Formby, the spelling with 
m, is found in 1509 (R., vol. 1.) and onwards. The first 
theme may be an Old Norse personal name ; see O., p. 244, 
for English specimens. The word Forni means " old 
man," and was used in Iceland as a nickname of one 
versed in old learning, witchcraft, and the like. But here, 
the word is perhaps merely descriptive, so that the place- 
name means " old farm." 

Grittebi is found in the charter of Burscough Priory, 
referring to some place near Ormskirk, probably now lost. 
First theme is the Old Norse and Old English ^rw^, sand or 
sandstone. Greet is the corresponding Lancashire dialect 
word. 

Hornby. — The Hornebi of Domesday Book is a joint 
parish with Farleton, 9 miles NE. of Lancaster. The 
first theme may be a personal name. See O., p. 301 ; W., 
p. 174; F., col. 867. But if originally the place was a 
Danish settlement, the first theme may describe some 
peculiarity of the land near the place, as a projection or 
corner. See the words by and Roby. 

Ireby. — A parish on the Yorkshire border, 4 miles SE. 
of the Westmoreland town of Kirhby Lonsdale. It is the 
Domesday Irebi, and Yrebi of the Pipe Roll of 12 13 
(see Farrer's L.P.C., p. 249). In 1226 we have the 
form Irreby (R., vol. xlviii.). The first theme is the personal 
name Ira, Irra (see O., p. 320), probably the same as the 
Scandinavian Yr., a yew tree, the name of a woman in 
the Landnama. F. regards the root as obscure. See col. 
967. 



CATALOGUE OF PLACE-NAMES 25 

Kirkby.— A parish 8 miles NE. of Liverpool. The 
Domesday Book spelling is Cherchebi. The first theme is 
the Old Norse kirkja, a church. 

Nateby. — A parish 2 miles W. of Garstang. It appears 
in Final Concords as Natebi, Nateby (R., vol. xxxix.). The 
first theme is a personal name, of which W:, p. 267, gives 
the form Nate, and F. Nat, Nato, col. 11 54, under Nath, 
favour. Not impossibly it is a short form of the Scripture 
name Nathanael, which is found in O., p. 357. 

Bibby. — A joint parish with Wrea, 2 miles W. of Kirkham, 
is the Rigbi of Domesday Book. Riggeby is the form in 
the Subsidies Roll and later Concords (R., vols, xxxi., 1.). 
Ribi is found in an early charter (L.P.C., p. 290). Rigby 
occurs to the middle of the seventeenth century when 
Ribby becomes the usual form. The first theme is the 
Old Norse hryggr, back, ridge. 

Eoby. — A parish 6 miles E. of Liverpool. In Domesday 
Book it appears as Rabil. Later forms^vary between Raby 
and Roby. The first theme is the Old Norse Vra, a corner, 
which word occurs as a place-name uncompounded, and 
as a second theme, Wray. There is no further trace of the 
/ of Domesday. 

Sowerby. — A hamlet 4 miles SW. of Garstang. The 
form in Domesday Book is Sorbi. Saureby occurs in 
1246 (R., vol. xlviii.), Sowreby in the Assize Rolls (R., vol. 
xlvii., p. 45). Saurboer is the name of several farms in 
Iceland where the soil is swampy or unfriendly, the first 
theme being the Old Norse saurr, mud. 

Westby. — ^Joint parish with Plumpton, 3 miles W. of 
Kirkham. In Domesday Book it is written Westbi ; 
Westeby in the Subsidy Rolls (R., vol. xxxi.). The first 
theme is a mark of position, though it may be a personal 
name. See O., p. 484. 



26 HANDBOOK OP LANCASHIRE PLACE-NAMES 

CABB 

This is the Old Norse word Kjarr, copsewoodj brush- 
wood ; Kjerr in Norwegian dialects. It is applied to boggy 
ground overgrown with low bushes. 

Altcar. — A parish 7 miles W. of Ormskirk. In Domes- 
day Book it is spelt Acrer. If this spelling really represents 
what the Norman scribes heard from the country people, 
it suggests the Old Norse Akrar, arable land, a not un- 
common name of farms in Iceland and Norway. It would 
be an appropriate name to the low-lying fields of Great 
Altcar, and intelligible to the people of the adjacent 
Scandinavian Formby. It appears as Altekar in 1251 
(R., vol. xxxix.). 

The first theme is the river Alt, from the Celtic. Allt 
is the Gaelic word for a mountain stream, a rill or brook. 

Harumcar. — Occurs in the perambulation of the forest 
of West Derby. See Farrer's L.P.C., p. 422. First theme 
uncertain. 

Hall Carr. — In Coupe Lench, SE. of Haslingden. The 
first theme is Hall or Halgh, both used as place-name 
terminations. See below for these words. 

Holker. — Name o5 two parishes. Lower and Upper, near 
Cartmel. The word is spelt Holkerre in an Assize Roll of 
4 Edward I. (R.,vol. xlvii., p. 132), and later, 132 1, Holker. 
The first theme seems to be the Old English Hoi, meaning 
hollow, and thence low-lying. 

Tamicar. See this word under Tarnacre above. 

CASTER, CHESTER 

These terminations are both from the Latin castra, a 
camp. The form Chester or cester occurs generally 
in Northumberland, Durham, the centre and south of 
England. Caster is the form found in Cumberland, 



CATALOGUE OF PLACE-NAMES 27 

Westmoreland, Yorkshire, and as far south as Northamp- 
ton, which county, like Lancashire, contains both forms. 

Lancaster. — The county town, in the north of the 
county. The spelling in Domesday Book is Zoncasfre ; 
and Loncastra in the charter of the foundation of Furness 
Abbey (L.P.C., p. 302). Lancastre and Lancastra occur 
shortly afterwards (L.P.C., pp. 49, 392). The first theme 
is the river name Lune, of which early forms are Loin, Lonn, 
Lon (L.P.C, pp. 298, 393, 420), and is of Celtic origin. 
See K., p. 60. 

Manchester — The word occurs in the Anglo-Saxon 
Chronicle under the year 923, and the two MSS. in which 
it is found spell the word differently, Mameceaster, 
Manigeceaster ; Domesday Book has it Mamecestre. The 
first syllable throughout the Middle Ages is generally 
Mam, but in the Assize Rolls there is probably one 
instance olMann (R., vol. xlvii., p. 143), and in a subsidy roll 
of Henry III. one of Maine (R., vol. xxvii., p. 50). Man is 
the spelling from the sixteenth century (R., vol. xxxiii., 
p. 27). All the forms of the first theme seem to be Celtic 
and to mean rock or stone. (See K., pp. 48, 87.) 

Bibchester. — A parish 6 miles N. of Blackburn, on the 
Ribble. iThe spelling in Domesday Book is Ribekastre. 
Eibbecestre (1187) and Ribbekestre (1227) are forms in 
early concords (R., vol. xxxix.). Ribbkchastre is the spelling 
in a Final Concord of 1326 (R., vol. xlvi.), and there are 
other endings in Chastre in the same century. Ribchester 
occurs in 1497 (R., vol. 1.). The first theme is the river- 
name. Domesday Book designates South Lancashire by 
Inter Ripam et Mersham. 

CLIFF 

This is the Old English ckof, clif, and means a rock, steep 
descent, promontory. 



28 HANDBOOK OP LANCASHIRE PLACE-NAMES 

Aldcliffe. — A'parish i J mile SW. of Lancaster. The first 
theme is the Old English word for o/d. The designation 
"Old Cliff" may possibly have grown into use through 
changes in the river-bed, or encroachments of the sea. In 
modern times it has been judged expedient to build a 
large embankment. 

Baycliff. — A village 4 miles S. of Ulverston, on More- 
cambe Bay. The first theme is descriptive, and perhaps 
the word is modern. 

Briercliffe. — A parish 3 miles NE. of Burnley. Early 
forms of the word are Breredive, in an Assize Roll of 
Edward I. (R., vol. xlix.) ; Brerdif, in a Subsidy Roll of 
1332 (R., vol. xxxi.). The first theme may possibly be the 
Old English word brer, a briar. But it may also be the 
contracted form of brether used as a personal name, as in 
Bretherton, Brereion. See F., col. 337; W., p. 52; O., 
p. 116; also Bretherton below. 

Cimliffe. — A hamlet 3 miles NE. of Blackburn. Accord- 
ing to Mr. Farrer's identification, Gundedyf, in a Final 
Concord of 1278 (R., vol. xxxix.), represents Cunliffe. If 
so, the first theme is personal, Gund, Gun, being the first 
syllable of many names in O., p. 271 . Gund is an old poetic 
word for battle and war. 

OzclifE'e. — A joint parish with Heaton, 2 miles W. of 
Lancaster. It is Oxenedif in Domesday Book ; Oxedive, 
Oxidiva, Oysedivt, in early Pipe Rolls (L.P.C.); Oxdif 
in the Subsidy Rolls (R., vol. xxxi.). The first theme is the 
animal, and is found in many place-names, not only in 
this country, but in Scandinavian countries, particularly 
Iceland, though in the North there are also instances of 
the use of the word in nicknames, whence it may have 
come into occasional use in place-names. 

Eadcliffe. — Urban district, 3 miles SW. of Bury. In 
Domesday Book it is Radedive ; Radediva, Radedive in 



CATALOGUE OF PLACE-NAMES 29 

the Pipe Rolls, and Redeclif in early charters (L.P.C.)- 
The first theme is Red, Old English Read. For the par- 
ticular " Red Cliff" supposed to be the origin of the name, 
see Baines's History of Lancashire, vol. iii., p. 7, 1835. 

Bawcliffe. — Two old townships. Out R. and Upper R., 6 
miles SW. of Garstang. The form of the word is RodecUf 
in Domesday Book. Early forms are Routhedif, Routhe- 
clive, in the Inquests (R., vol. xlviii.) ; Rauchedive, Uprouche- 
clive, in the Assize Rolls (R., vols, xlvii., xlix.) ; Uprothedife, 
Ouirotkedife, in the Subsidy Rolls (R., vol. xxxi.) ; and 
Upraudif, Outraudif, in Final Concords of 1369 and 1443 
(R., vols, xlvi., 1.). The word may mean Red Cliff, as in 
Radcliffe, the first theme having been subject to Norse in- 
fluence, the Danish Rode representing the Old Norse rauthr, 
red. But the first theme may equally be the personal name 
Rauthr, a fairly common one in Scandinavian countries. 
(See Index to Landnama.) Or Hroth (see O., p. 303), 
which in many names takes the form Rod (see O., p. 402). 
Hrothi is a most fruitful component in personal names (see 
F., col. 886 et seq^, and the root means glory. 

CHUBCH. See EIBK 

CLOUGH 

A wooded dell with steep banks along a stream. The 
■word is of Mercian origin in Lancashire and Cheshire, 
derived from a supposed Old English doh. See Murray's 
N.E.D., under Clough. Compare <?/'// below. 

BoggaiTt Hole Clotigli. — Five miles NE. of Manchester, 
and now included within the city limits. Boggart is a north 
country word for a ghost or hobgoblin. 

Blacstane clohhum and Lann clohlmin. — Two places 
occurring in a Final Concord of 1202 (R., vol. xxxix.). The 



30 HANDBOOK OF LANCASHIRE PLACE-NAMES 

last theme of both words is the dat. plu. of the supposed 
Old English doA. The doughs probably lay on or near the 
Black Brook which separates Rainford from Billinge. 
£iac appears to be a descriptive mark; and Zann 
( = Lonn ; see Lancaster above) a river name ; or it may 
be /ang, long. 

Hough End Clough. — Four miles S. of Manchester. First 
theme pronounced Huz, and the word is spelt Houghsend 
in an entry of 1 617 (R., vol. xlii.). Probably an old manor- 
house, on the edge of a brook which flows south into the 
Mersey. The present manor-house was built at the close 
of the sixteenth century at the end of the Hough ; which 
is a designation of the ravine or clough. Hough being the 
Old English Ad A ; Sc. heuc/i. 

Love Clough. — A hamlet in Rossendale, 4 miles SW. of 
Burnley. Explains itself as a lovers' walk. 

Mere Clough in Cliviger, 2 miles SE. of Burnley. The 
mere is possibly some pool or standing water near the 
clough, which is formed by the banks of an upper reach of 
the Burnley river. 

Eammescloucke, in a Final Concord of 1262 (R., vol. 
xxxix.), is situate to the north of Longridge Fell. The first 
theme is the personal name, the Old Norse hrafn, as in 
Ramsbottom above. 

Shaw Clough. — A village i mile N. of Rochdale. Shaw 
(see later on) is the Old English Sceaga, a copse or 
thicket. Other combinations occur with Shaw, as Shaw 
Chapel, Shaw edge. 

Clough is a frequent subsidiary theme : e.g. Hodge 
Clough, Blains Clough, How Clough, Oaken Clough, 
Swine Clough, Deer Clough, Spread Clough, Whitemoor 
Clough, Trough Clough, Deep Clough, Salter Clough, and 
others. 



CATALOGUE OF PLACE-NAMES 31 

COMBE 

A hollow among hills, a narrow valley ; the Old English 
Cumi, and the Welsh Cwm. In the Cumberland mountain 
Black Combe, the word seems to be the Norse kambr, 
commonly used for crags rising like a crest, and meaning 
comb or crest. 

Duncombe, in Myerscough, 4 miles S. of Garstang, 
appears to be an imported name from Yorkshire. The 
first theme is personal (see O., p. 172), and is a name 
originally perhaps marking colour or complexion. See, 
however, F., col. 432. 

Holcombe, Holcome. — Holcombe Brook and Little 
Holcombe lie 4 miles NW. of Bury. First theme is 
descriptive, the Old English word hoi, hollow, low-lying. 

COMMON 

Land belonging to the members of a local community 
as a whole. Patch of unenclosed or " waste " land which 
remains to represent it. 

It is commonly used as a subsidiary theme : e.g. 
Amberswood Common, Carr Common, Hart Common, 
Lowton Common, Mosley Common, Jackson's Commons, 
Newton Common, Aspull Common, Wardle Common, 
Birk Rigg Common. 

COT, COAT, COATS 

These arise from the Old English cot, cote, cottage, house, 
or dwelling. The words seem always to have carried the 
idea of humility or meanness; and Piers Plowman (a.d. 
1377) speaks of "pore mennes cotes" in the same line as 
"prynces paleyses." Yet in Domesday Book we find 
Hunnicot a royal manor with attached arable land. 

Ancoats. — A suburb of Manchester. Early forms of the 
word are Ancoates, in a charter of Henry III. (L.P.C, 



32 HANDBOOK OF. LANCASHIRE PLACE-NAMES 

P- 333)) Einecoie, and Hanckotes. The first theme is a 
personal name. For Aena, Eni, Hana, see O., pp. 31, 
279. For An, as basis of many proper names, see F., col. 
99. Ane, An, are given by W., pp. 16, 17, and Hane, Han, 
pp. 143, 144. Anna, Ona, occur in the Liber Vitse. A 
probable root is an to favour. 

Coldcoats. — Hamlet 3 miles S. of Clitheroe. The first 
theme is the Old English Ceald, and Dr. Isaac Taylor in 
his " Words and Places " explains the many spots bearing 
this and similar names as forming shelter for travellers. 

Hawcoat. — A village 2 miles SW. of Dalton-in-Furness. 
The first theme appears to be the personal name which 
appears in Hawkshead. Haukr was not an uncommon 
Norse name. 

Huncoat. — A parish 2 miles NE. of Accrington, the 
Hunnicot of Domesday Book. Early forms are Huntcot, 
Hunecotes, Hunnecotes, Huncote (R., vols, xlix., xxxix., xxxi.). 
The first theme is a personal name to which different origins 
have been given. See F., col. 929, who appears to prefer 
the race-name Huna. The t ox d sound which occurs 
occasionally in mediasval spellings is probably Epenthetic, 
otherwise the Old Norse personal name Hundr or Hundi 
might be the origin. See O., p. 306. 

Prescot. — A town 8 miles E. of Liverpool, is found as 
Prestecoia in a Pipe Roll of Henry II., and Prestecote 
in the Charter of Burscough Priory (see L.P.C., pp. 38, 
350). The first theme is the Old English Preost, a priest. 

CBAa 

A steep or precipitous rugged rock, is of Celtic origin. 
See Creag, in K., p. 50. 

Warton Crag, in Warton Parish, 7 miles N. of Lancaster. 
See Warton below, under the theme Ton, where War- is 
regarded as a personal name. 



CATALOGUE OF PLACE-NAMES 33 

CROFT 

A small field enclosed from a surrounding unappro- 
priated waste. Old English cro/f. 

Croft, with Southworth, a parish 4 miles NE. of 
Warrington. 

Cetellescroft, Ketlescroft, occurs in an early charter of 
King John (L.P.C-, p. 329)- The land was in Auden- 
shaw in the parish of Ashton-under-Lyne. The first theme 
is the Old Norse name Keii/. See O., p. 160. 

Grasscroft. — A village 4 miles E. of Oldham. First 
theme descriptive. 

Holecroft occurs in a Final Concord of 1208, relating 
to a part of Rainford, and in one of 1230 relating to a 
part of Culeheth (R., vols, xxxix., xlvi.). First theme is 
probably descriptive ; Old English ho/, meaning low-lying. 
But see HoUingworth below, under Worth. 

Martinscroft. — Joint township with Woolston, 3 miles 
NE. of Warrington. First theme is the early Christian 
name Martin. 

Patricroft. — A populous district 5 miles W. of Man- 
chester, in the parish of Eccles. First theme the early 
Christian name Patrick. 

CROSS 

Adopted by the Norsemen from Old Irish, into which it 
came from the Latin. Used in place-names in Iceland 
and Norway. Crosses were set up of old in many places 
in Lancashire, but only a few of them became centres of 
villages or towns. 

Askelscross. — The site of the Abbey of Cockersand 
(L.P.C., p. 39S)- First theme the Old Norse personal 
name Askell, formed of As and Ketill. 

c 



34 HANDBOOK OP LANCASHIRE PLACE-NAMES 

Dobcross is in Saddleworth'and reckoned in Yorkshire. 
Dobbe, a personal name, short for Robert, occurs in the 
Assize Rolls (R., vol. xlvii.) several times. 

Howarth Cross. — A village 2 miles NE. of Rochdale. 
Without earlier forms of Howarth, the first theme presents 
difficulty ; but it is probably from the Old English hbh or 
the personal name Hoc (O., 300), and the development has 
been the same as in Howick. See this word under the 
theme Wick. The second theme of Howarth is worth. 

Marshall's Cross.— A hamlet 2 miles SE. of St. Helens. 
Marshall, a word of German-French origin denoting 
" Master of the Horse," came to denote the village Farrier. 
Possibly the Cross marked the position of his shoeing 
forge. 

Peasley Cross.— Now part of St. Helens, on the SE. 
The first theme of Peasley is the Old English /e«).f«. Middle 
English pese, pease, as in Peasfurlong. The word marks 
the position of the Cross. 

Stubshaw Cross. — A hamlet 4 miles S. of Wigan. The 
word Stubshaw marks the position, and the first theme 
is the word stub, Old Norse stubbi, a tree-stump. For 
second theme see Shaw. 

Cross. — A frequent subsidiary theme: e.g. Hendrik's 
Cross, Tib's Cross, Mab's Cross, Hunt's Cross, Thompson 
Cross, Chadderton Cross, Norcross, Stamps Cross, Barton 
Cross, Cow Cross, Long Cross, Headless Cross, High Cross, 
and others, in some of which the Crosses have been 
destroyed. 

DALE 

This termination occurs more frequently in place-names 
in the North of England than in the South. It is common 
also in Norway and Iceland, and comparatively rare in 



CATALOGUE OP PLACE-NAMES 35 

Denmark and in the Danish parts of England. It is the 
Old Norse word dalr, and interchanges occasionally with 
the Old English den in terminations. 

Ainsdale. — A parish 3 miles S. of Southport. In 
Domesday Book it is spelt Einulvesdel. In charters of 
Richard I. (see L.P.C.) it appears as Ainulvesdale, 
Aynuldak. The fourteenth century form, Aynesdale, is 
in R., vol. xxxi. The first theme is a personal name (see 
O., p. 5), where are the forms Aegenwulf, Agenulf, Einulf. 
F., col. 41, gives Aginulf, Eginolf. 

Birkdale. — An urban district joining Southport on the 
south. The first theme is the Old English beorc, birch- 
tree ; the form birk being due to Scandinavian influence. 
The Norse birki is a collective noun. 

Bleasdale. — A parish 4 miles E. of Garstang. Blesedale 
is the spelling in the perambulation on p. 421 of the 
L.P.C, but the occurrence of both forms, Bkesedak, 
Bkadale, in the district, the latter in Yorkshire, makes it 
possible that the Old Norse bldr, dark blue, is the first 
theme, as in Bldwith. If Bkesedak be preferred, we must 
regard the first theme as personal, the Low German name 
Blaes, Bkes, which W. regards as originating in Blasius, 
the name of an early Saint. See W., p. 38 ; see also 
Pleasington below. 

Cuerdale'. — A parish 3 miles E. of Preston. Early forms 
zxQ Kiuerdak (1194) (L.P.C), Kyuerdal (1247), Keuerdak 
(1293), Kyverdak (1353), Kyuerdak (1356); see R., 
vols, xlvii., xlviii., xlvi. Cuerdall (1582) (R., vol. ix.), 
Curedak (1631) (R., vol. xii.). 

The first theme is very doubtful, but it seems to me 
to be the word war, wcer, wer, a very common element 
in Old Germanic names. For English examples, see O., 

PP- 473-475. 478- 

The k sound at the beginning of place-names in Lanca- 



36 HANDBOOK OP LANCASHIRE PLACE-NAMES 

shire interchanges sometimes with w, as Queryngton for 
Warrington, Quyston for WMston. Wcer in Old English 
means faith, fidelity. 

Dunnerdale. — A joint parish with Seathwaite, on the 
Duddon 6 miles N. of Broughton-in-Furness. In early 
notices it is spelt JDonerdale, 1300 (R., vol. xxxix.). 
Dunnere is a personal name. See O., p. 172. 

The word has also been interpreted as a Celtic word, 
JDun-er, great rocks. See K., p. 47. 

Orassendale. — An ecclesiastical district 4 miles S. of 
Liverpool. No early records. In the V.C.H., vol. iii., 
p. 125, the Tudor form Gresselond Dak occurs, making 
the first theme grass. The underlying personal name 
seems to be GcBr, Gar, Ger. See O., pp. 252, 253. A 
genitival or pet form, gars, gers in s, has suffered meta- 
thesis, gras, gres. The patronymic Goersingas is given by 
Kembie, vol. i., p. 464, as an inferred ancient mark; and 
W. gives (pp. 124, 125) the mediaeval Low German 
names, Gere, Gerse, and the patronymic Geersinga. The 
root is gairu, a spear. See R, col. 571. 

Eirkdale. — A suburb of Liverpool on the NE. It is 
the Chirchedele of Domesday Book, Kirkedale of the Pipe 
Roll of 1 184 (L.P.C., p. 54). The first theme is the Old 
Norse kirkja, a church. 

Lindal. — A hamlet 3 miles SW. of Ulverston. First 
theme may be the personal name Lin or Lind. See O., 
p. 338 ; F., col. 1058. But either Lin, Flax, or Lind, the 
Linden tree, may be the origin as well as the personal names 
derived from them. 

Lindale. — A hamlet 3 miles NE. of Cartmel. First 
theme, as in Lindal. 

Littledale. — A valley 3 miles SE. of Caton and 8 
miles E. of Lancaster. First theme descriptive. 



CATALOGUE OF PLACE-NAMES 37 

Lonsdale.^The northernmost Hundred of the county. 
First theme the river Lune, which flows through it. See 
Lancaster above. 

Bibblesdale. — The valley through which the river Ribble 
flows, giving its name to it. See Ribchester above. 

Rochdale. — A town 11 miles NE. of Manchester. It 
appears as Recedham in Domesday Book. Early forms 
are Rachedale (1241), Rochedak (1247), Rachdall in a 
clerical subsidy of 1538, Rochdale in the Commonwealth 
Church Survey, 1650. The first theme is the river, a name 
of Celtic origin. See K., p. 62, under Ret, Retsch. 

The second part of the Domesday form of the word 
suggests the word den, which is found in other words, e.g. 
in Skelmersdak as a variant of dale, viz. Skelmaresden. 

Boebnmdale, a parish 10 miles NE. of Lancaster. 
Early forms of the word are Reburndale, 1285 (R., vol. 
xlviii.), and Rebournedale, 1363 (R., vol. xlvi.). In the six- 
teenth century and afterwards, the first syllable as Ro- (R., 
vol. X., p. 35). The first theme is the name of the river 
which flows through the dak ; of its two parts the first is 
apparently Celtic ; see the form Ret, K., p. 62 ; Ree is the 
name of a lough and Roe of a river in Ireland, Roer of a 
river in Rhenish Prussia. Burn is a generic word, added 
to describe the first part by the Teutonic tribe which 
colonised Yorkshire and the Lowlands. 

Bosaendale. — Mountain district, lying between Burnley 
and Bacup. The earliest form is Rocendal, 1241 (R., vol. 
xlviii.). In a Final Concord of 1310 (R., vol. xlvi.) it is 
Roscyndak. Next we find Rossyndak, Rossindak, and 
fms^^ Rossendak, 1325 (R., vol. xli.). Assuming Roscyn as 
the parent form, it seems to be a diminutive of Ros, a 
personal name ; see O-, p. 404, and for the root hros, a 
horse, F., col. 1282. 

Scakeresdalehefd occurs in the Foundation Charter of 



38 HANDBOOK OF LANCASHIRE PLACE-NAMES 

Burscough Priory (L.P.C., p. 350). The first theme is an 
extended form of Skakkr, Skakki, claudus, which probably 
started its personal career as a Norse nickname, English 
Scacca (see O., p. 409, and C.V., p. 536). The third theme 
is the Old Norse hofud, head. 

Silverdale, a parish 5 miles NW. of Carnforth. This 
very interesting word shows three diverging forms from its 
earliest appearance. We have Siverdelege, 1241 (R., vol. 
xxxix.), Sivredeleg, 1246 (R., vol. xlvii.), Selredal, 1246 (R., 
vol. xxxix.), Siuerdelegg, 1272 (R., vol. xlix), Syuerdel, Seller- 
dal, 1250 (R., vol. xlvii.), Siuerdel, 1250 (R., vol. xlix.), and 
finally Silverdale, 1382, 1508. There seem to be three 
different forms : — 

(i) Those beginning with si and ending with leg. 

(2) Those beginning with si and ending with dale. 

(3) Those beginning with sel. 

The. first and second sets maybe put together. When 
the ending de-lege lost the g, it would naturally lead to 
dale. The third set of forms have, I suppose, always had 
dale. It seems to me impossible to regard all these forms 
as referring to the same place. Those beginning with Si 
have sprung from Sigeweardley, and those beginning with 
Sel from Selefrithdale. Both the personal names are Old 
English, as may be seen in O., pp. 414, 423. 

Skelmersdale, Urban district 4 miles SE. of Ormskirk. 
The Domesday Book form is Schelmeresdele. In a Final 
Concord of 1202 (R., vol. xxxix.) Skelmersdale and Skel- 
maresden are found. In the Assize Rolls are forms without 
the genitival s, Scalmardal, Skelmardal, Skermerdale (R., 
vols, xlvii., xlix.). Skelmir is an Old Norse word meaning 
rogue, devil, and is also used in descriptive nicknames, as, 
for example, in pp. 219, 223 of vol. i. of the Oxford Origines 
Islandicae, where such epithets are translated feller and 
smiter. It is to be noted that where this and similar place- 



CATALOGUE OF PLACE-NAMES 39 

names occur in Iceland, there is no genitival s, and the 
word cannot be interpreted as above, and as containing 
a personal name. Skdlmar-dalr, in Iceland, is a dale 
formed by the union of two dales. 

Wyresdale. — The parish of Nether Wyresdale lies 4 
miles to the NE. of Garstang, and the parish of Over- 
Wyresdale still further to the NE. The word occurs 
in early charters as Wiresdale, Wirisdal (L.P.C.). The 
first theme is the river Wyre, a word probably of Celtic 
origin ; see K., p. 57, for the root biorfeor, meaning flowing 
water. Mention is made of the church of S. Michael- 
super- Wyre, 1247, in R., vol. xlvii., p. 97. 

Wuerdale. — This seems to be the same as Wardle. See 
second theme, Hill. 

Yewdale. — Mountain valley, North Lancashire, near 
Coniston. 

DEN, DEAN 

These terminations arise from the Old English denu, a 
valley, and denn, a den. They are more prevalent in the 
South of England than in the North, where dale takes 
their place; and sometimes supplants them. Langeden 
in Westmoreland has been superseded by Langdale. 
Skelmaresden is a variant of Skelmersdale. Both termina- 
tions are found in the Cheshire Longdendale. 

Baxenden. — A village 2 miles SE. of Accrington. 
First theme is a personal name of which O. gives Bac, 
Bag, Baca, p. 78. The Bax seems to be a genitival form, 
and en an abraded syllable, as of ton or stone. For the 
root baga, strife, see F., col. 231. 

Cuerden. — A hamlet 4 miles S. of Preston. Early forms 
are Kerdel, 1203 (L.P.C); Kerden, 1242 (R., vol. xlviii.); 
Kerdyn, 1285, 1319 (R., vols, xlix., xlvi.); Cuerden, 1582 



40 HANDBOOK OP LANCASHIRE PLACE-NAMES 

(R., voL ix.) ; Cureden, 1600 (R., vol. xii.). The first theme 
seems to be the word war, war, wer, as in Cuerdale 
above. 

Dean, Deane. — A parish 2 miles SW. of Bolton-le- 
Moors. The termination itself, used independently and 
unqualified. The ancient mother church of the district 
was called S. Mariden. See Baines's Lancashire, vol. iii., 
p. 23. For Danes' Dike, see p. 48. 

Droylsden. — Urban district 4 miles E. of Manchester. 
In a charter of the reign of Henry III. (see L.P.C., p. 333) 
the form Drilisden appears. Drilsden, 1502, is in R., 
vol. 1. Seventeenth-century forms are Droylsden, Droilsden, 
Drylesden. The first theme is a personal name, originating 
probably in a nickname of Scandinavian use. See the Old 
Norse dryllr in Fritzner's Diet., or the C.V. Icelandic 
Diet. 

Haslingden. — A borough 9 miles N. of Bury. Early 
forms are Heselingedon, Hasselinden, Haseknden, Haseling- 
den, Haselinden (R., vols, xlviii., xlvii., xxxi.). The first 
theme is a patronymic of an / diminutive of the personal 
theme has, or of the Low German personal name Hase, 
Hese. See O., pp. xxiii., 280; also W., pp. 147, 160. F., 
col. 787, connects the root hasva with the Old English 
hasu, grey, and suggests that it was a predecessor of blond 
in marking light complexions. 

Hoddlesden. — A hamlet in Darwen 4 miles SE. of 
Blackburn. The first theme is a diminutive of Hod, one 
of the familiar abbreviations which Roger has undergone. 
A Low German name Hodde occurs; and O. gives 
examples of the Anglo-Saxon names Oda, Odda, on p. 362. 

Burnden. — A village 1 mile SE. of Bolton-le Moors. 
Explains itself. 



CATALOGUE OF PLACE-NAMES 41 

Maxsden, Great and Little. — Ecclesiastical parishes, 2 
and 3 miles NE. of Burnley. In Pipe Rolls of Richard 
the First (L.P.C., p. 90) the word appears as Merkesden, 
a form which is supported by the Marchdene and Mar- 
chesden of the Assize Rolls (R., vol. xlvii., pp. 88, 91). A 
common spelling of the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries 
is Merclesdeti, Merkelesden (R., vols, xxxi., xlvii., xlviii.), 
Mersden occurs in the fifteenth and Marsden in the six- 
teenth century (R., vols. 1., xii.). The personal name in 
this word was originally bithematic, and of the form 
Mearcwulf, Marculf, given in O., p. 350. When the word 
den was added to the name, the second theme lost stress, 
and suffered abrasion. Thus the form Merkelesden came 
into existence, and further abrasion resulted in Merkesden 
and Mersden. What is interesting and peculiar is that the 
more abraded form, Merkesden, appears at an earlier point 
of time than Merkelesden, the less abraded one. In W., 
p. 251, we have all three forms, but no clue as to their 
respective dates, Marckelff, Marckel, Marck. Ernst 
Forstemarm, in his work Die Deutschen Ortsnamen, 
1863, has a noticeable chapter on such changes in 
words, p. 161. 

Moulden Water. — The river Roddlesworth, a brook 3 
miles SW. of Blackburn in the township of Livesey. First 
theme, the Old English personal name Mul. See O., p. 
355 J Mu., p. 42. Etymology doubtful; see Mowbrick 
above. 

Ogden. — ^A village 4 miles E. of Rochdale. It appears to 
be the Akeden, Aggeden of the Assize Rolls (R., vol. xlvii.). 
The personal name Thomas Okeden is found in a Final 
Concord of 1444 (R., vol. 1.). The first theme is the Old 
English ac, oak. 

Booden Lane. — A village i mile E. of Prestwich. First 
theme roda, a rood. The n may represent the Norse 



42 HANDBOOK OF LANCASHIRE PLACE-NAMES 

suffixed article, making rodan, the rood, and not the 
termination den. 

Sabden. — A village 4 miles NW. of Burnley. First theme 
may be a familiar contraction of the Old English name 
Smbeorht ; see this word in O., p. 406; or a Celtic river 
name, Sab ; see K., p. 62. The word appears in early 
charters as Sapeden (L.P.C., pp. 386, 388) and Sapedene 
in a Court Roll of 1324 (R., vol. xli.). 

Todmorden. — A town 9 miles NE. of Rochdale. The 
word occurs in the Assize Rolls under the forms Totmar- 
dene, Tottemerden (R., vol. xlvii.). First theme, probably 
the Old English name Theodmxr (see O., p. 444). The 
two themes of the name are from iheuda, people, maru, 
famous. See F., cols. 1410, 1099. 

Trawden. — An urban district 2 miles SE. of Colne. 
Early forms are Trochdene, Troudene, Troweden. The first 
theme is the Old English trog, a trough, used probably in 
the sense of a river bed. 

Walsden. — An ecclesiastical district 2 miles S. of Tod- 
morden. The Wood of Walseden occurs in the account of 
a Final Concord in R., vol. xxxix. The first theme is a 
personal name, Wale, Wea/A, Wal, which occurs in the 
formation of many compound names (see O., pp. 476, 477) ; 
and Walse is a Low German diminutive of it (see W., 
p. 424). For root valha, a stranger, see F., col. 1513. 

Wolfenden. — A district in Rossendale Forest 2 miles 
NW. of Bacup. First theme, a patronymic of the Old 
English personal name Wulf (see O., p. 512.). Con- 
sidering, however, its wild position, it seems quite possible 
the place took its name as a haunt of wolves. 

DITCH, DYKE 

This is the Old English die, ditch, embankment. 
Beddish. — An urban district 5 miles SE. of Manchester. 



CATALOGUE OF PLACE-NAMES 43 

Early forms are Radich, Raddic, 1226 (R., vol. xlviii.), 
Rediche, 1262 (R., vol. xxxix.). The first theme is ap- 
parently the Old English word read, red. The boundary 
of the township on the north side is the " Micle Ditch." 
The Mykeldiche is mentioned in a charter of Richard I. 
(L.P.C., p. 329). 

DOWN 

This word is the Old English dun, a hill, a mountain. 
Smithdown was the name of a manor south of Liver- 
pool: Esmedune in Domesday Book. Early forms are 
Smethesdune, 1228 (L.P.C., p. 421); Smeddon, 12 12; 
Smetheden, 1297 (R., vol. xlviiL). The first theme appears 
to be the Old English smethe, smooth. 

ERG, ARGH, ARROW 

The Old Norse colonists in the North of Scotland ac- 
cepted the native word erg, and the writer of the Orkney- 
inga saga, explaining it, says "We call erg, setr," that is, 
mountain pasture. Dr. Vigfusson, in the Rolls Edition 
of the Orkneyinga, connects the word with the Gaelic 
airidh, which Dr. Norman Macleod, in his Gaelic Dic- 
tionary, explains as "hill pasture or summer residence for 
herdsmen and cattle." 

The Norsemen carried with them in their wanderings 
the word horgr, a place of heathen worship, an altar of 
stone. It was erected on " high places," and so fwrgr 
gradually came to mean simply a hill. This word has 
in some place-names become confused with erg. 

Anglezark. — A parish 3 miles E. of Chorley. Early 
forms of the word are Andelevesarewe, 1202, and Anlave- 
sargh 1224 (both in R., vol. xxxix.), Anlasargh occurs in 
1376 (R., vol. xlvi.). The first theme is personal, the 
Old Scandinavian Anlafox Olaf. 



44 HANDBOOK OF LANCASHIRE PLACE-NAMES 

Goosnargh, a parish 6 miles NE. of Preston, is the 
Gusansarghe of Domesday Book. In early documents 
the first theme is almost always gosen, and occasionally 
gosn (R., vols, xxxi., xxxix., &c.). The form goosn begins 
to appear about 1600, with the variant gousn (R., vol. xii). 
It is a personal name of which examples may be seen in 
O., p. 267, Goswine; in W., p. 133, Gosewin, Goswin, 
Gosen. It means Godsfriend, and the pronunciation of 
the first vowel has probably been influenced by the Old 
Norse Guthsvin. 

Grimsargh. — A joint parish with Brockholes, 4 miles 
NE. of Preston. Grimesarge is the Domesday Book 
form. Grimesherham, accusative case, appears in a 
charter of Richard I. (see L.P.C., p. 437); Grimesargh, 
Grymeshargh are later forms (R., vol. xlviii.). The first 
theme is the personal name grim, as in O., p. 268, a 
common name in Scandinavia. It is connected with the 
Old English grima, a mask, helmet. See F., col. 669. 

Kellamergh. — A hamlet 2 miles SW. of Kirkham. The 
early forms of this word are Kelfgrimesheregh, 1200 (L.P.C., 
p. 132), and Kelgrimesherege, 1201 (R., vol. xlviii.). Later 
the variations Ker (R., vol. xlvii.), and Kelgh (R., vol. xUx.), 
occur in the first syllable. Kelgrymesargh 1336, is in a 
Final Concord (R., vol. xlvi.). Kellamore, Kellamire, 
Kellamer, Kellamergh, are found of the seventeenth century 
(R., vols, ix., X.). 

In the early forms the termination has been Mrgr, 
apparently, not erg. 

The personal name which has formed the basis of the 
first theme, has been Kellgrim or Kalfgrim, both of Norse 
aspect and not impossible names, but of neither can I give 
an example. With respect to the first, the usual form of 
the compound of Ketil and grim is Grimkell, a common 
name, which appears in O., p. 269, as Grimketel, Grimkill. 



CATALOGUE OF PLACE-NAMES 45 

In p. 346 of Farrer's L.P.C. appears the charter of the 
grant of land and church of Lytham to a religious house, 
in the reign of Richard the First. The delimitation of the 
boundaries starts from the cemetery of Kilgrimol, which 
Mr. Farrer identifies as part of St. Anne's-on-the-Sea. 
Kilgrimol seems formed after the manner of so many 
names in Scotland and Ireland, as the sacred home or 
Cell of Grim-ulf, who was probably a local Saint. I take 
the name of the Chapel, Kelgrim, as given to the owner of 
the hdrgr or erg of Kelgrimesherege. 

Medlar forms with Wesham a joint parish 2 miles N. of 
Kirkham. It is written Middelharg in a charter of Henry 
III. (L.P.C., p. 441), and somewhat later Middelerwe (R., 
vol. xlviii.). Medlar, Medler are early seventeenth-century 
forms (R., vol. x. pp. 56, 157). The first theme is a mark 
of position: Middel, middle. 

Torver. — A parish on the west side of Coniston Water, 
I r miles N. of Ulverston. In a charter of Richard I. the 
spelling is Thoruergh (L.P.C. , p. 402). In Final Concords 
of 1202, 1246, it is Thorwerghe, Thorfergh (R., vol. xxxix.). 
Tqrvergh is a form in the Assize Rolls (R., vol. xlvii.), 
torver is found in the sixteenth century (R., vol. x., p. 10). 
The first theme is the genitive case of the Old Norse 
personal name Thora (gen. Thoru). See O., p. 445. 

EDGE 

This is the Old Norse egg, the Old English ecg, edge. 
In old charters (see the Glossary to Earle's Handbook) 
this termination seems to mean boundary. It is used also 
to denote a mountain or hilly ridge. 

Blackstone Edge. — Mountain ridge N£. of Rochdale. 
The first theme refers to the boundary stone between 
Yorkshire and Lancashire, which, according to Baines, in 



46 HANDBOOK OF LANCASHIRE PLACE-NAMES 

vol. ii. of Gazetteer of Lancashire, p. 689, stands near 
Whiteholm Reservoir. 

Burn Edge. — A hamlet 2 miles SE. of Rochdale. First 
theme descriptive. 

Bumage. — A district 4 miles S. of Manchester. Spelt 
Burnidge, 161 7 (R., vol. xlii.). First theme descriptive. 

END 

Used in place-names in its ordinary sense as a termina- 
tion or boundary. A dale-end is the part of a valley 
adjoining the open country. 

Hough End. — A manor-house and district near Chorlton, 
4 miles S. of Manchester. The first theme is Old English 
hbh, which generally denotes in place-names an elevation ; 
but it has, like the Scottish form of the word, heuch., a 
secondary meaning of ravine. It seems to have that 
meaning here, where the manor-house is built at the end 
of the ravine or clough. 

Knob End. — A hamlet 3 miles SE. of Bolton-le-Moors. 
The first theme is the Old English Cncsp. The village is 
on the fringe of the mountainous district of East Lanca- 
shire, and the name probably refers to some local elevation 
overlooking the valley of the Irwell. 

Lane Ends or Four Lane Ends, in the urban district of 
Atherton, 3 miles N. of Leigh. Name descriptive. 

ETH or ET 

This termination has been discussed in the first chap- 
ter. It is usually, if not always, the abridged form of 
some word which has lost its stress. It affords equal 
difficulty in Continental place-names. A discussion of the 
termination ithi will be found in Forstemann's Die 
Deutschen Ortsnamen, Nordhausen, 1863, p. 227. 



CATALOGUE OF PLACE-NAMES 47 

Culcheth. — A township 6 miles NE. of Warrington. 
The mediaeval forms of the word are various, Cu/eket, 1200 
(L.P.C.); Kulchit, 1242 (R., vol. xlviii.) ; Kekhit, 1269 
(R., vol. xlix.) ; Kylchid, 1276 (R., vol. xlvii.); Kyllechyrth, 
1285 (R., vol. xlix.) • Culchik, 1278 (R., vol. xlvii.); Kilchif, 
1303 (R., vol. xxxix.); Culchith, 1332 (R., vol. xxxi.); 
Culcheth, 1500 (R., vol. 1.). The interesting thing about 
these names is the remarkable likeness between the oldest 
and youngest, which likeness becomes greater when it is 
remembered that the Lancashire pronunciation of the 
ending eth is very commonly et or it ; see the word Penketh, 
below. 

The place-name, however, is one of exceptional diflfi- 
culty, and the suggestion of a Low German origin for the 
first theme is a not improbable solution. Koelke, Kooltjes 
are familiar diminutives of the personal name Cole, Cul, 
which is found in an early charter in the form of a 
patronymic Culingas, the name of a place in Kent (see 
S., p. 455, and W., pp. 218, 219). The termination eth in 
this case may be a contracted form of with, wood. In a 
modern form of Culcheth, found in personal names, Kil- 
shaw, the more usual form of shaw for a wood, has grown 
out of the old termination. 

Hesketh. — Parish on the coast 12 miles SW. of Preston. 
The form Hescatk occurs in an Inquest of the year 1288 
(see R., vol. xlviii.), and of slightly later date are Heskeyth, 
Heskayth (R., vol. xxxix.). In the Subsidy Rolls of the 
fourteenth century we find Heskaith, Heskeith (R., vol. 
xxxi.), and early in the fifteenth century, Hesketh (R., 
vol, 1.). The first theme is a /4-extension, pet-name or 
diminutive of the personal name Has (see O., p. xxiii., 
280). For the Low German forms Hose, Hese, see W., 
pp. 147, 148, 160. F., col. 787, connects the root hasva 
with Old English hasu, grey. See Haslingden above. 



48 HANDBOOK OF LANCASHIRE PLACE-NAMES 

The termination etA in this word is probably wa/A, a ford 
in Old Norse. 

Holleth. — Parish 5 miles N. of Garstang. There is a 
speWing Ifo//witA in R., vol. x., of the date 1664. If we 
accept its indication, the first theme will probably be the 
Old English Ao/, hollow or low-lying, and the second 
theme wt'ik a wood. 

Ireleth. — In Kirkby Ireleth, a pari sh 9 miles N. of Barrow- 
in-Furness. It appears in Domesday Book as Gerkuuorde, 
and Kirkebi Irlidm a late twelfth-century charter (L.P.C., 
p. 361). The first theme of Ireleth is probably the personal 
name Gerolf{sQ& O., p. 257). The second is worth, as we 
see from the Domesday form. 

Kellet, Over and Nether. — Parishes 5 miles N. of Lan- 
caster. In Domesday Book the word is spelt Chellet, and 
a later form is Kellet of the Pipe Roll of 1198 (L.P.C., 
p. ro6). Nether Kellet and Ovre Kellet are from 1299 and 
1307 (R., vol. xxxix.). The first theme appears to be 
the Old Norse held, a spring, fountain, marshy place; it 
is common in the dialects of the North of England as 
held, kell- See Prof. Wright's Dialect Dictionary. The 
eth termination of the place-name is probably in this word 
the Old English hlith, meaning a slope. 

Lindeth. — A joint parish with Warton, 7 miles N. of 
Lancaster. First theme seems to be the Old English lind, 
a lime tree; but this is doubtful, as there is a personal 
name Lind, which also means a shield, of which examples 
may be seen in O., p. 338. The eth termination is prob- 
ably with, a wood. 

Oglet. — A hamlet on the Mersey SE. of Speke Hall. 
First theme is the Old English ac, an oak. The eth in 
this word I take to be hlith, a slope. 

Penketh. — A parish 3 miles W. of Warrington. Early 



CATALOGUE OF PLACE-NAMES 49 

forms of the word are Penket, 1242 (R., vol. xlviii.), Penktih, 
1290 (R., vol. xxxix.), Penkith, 1293 (R., vol. xlviii.). The 
first theme is the personal name Pen, with k diminutive. 
See the name and theme in O., p. 387, and p. xxiii. for the 
extension k. W., p. 287, gives the Low German names, 
Pent, Penne, and F., col. 256, the supposed root ben. 
The termination eth is probably with, wood. 

Tulketh. — An ancient manor in the district of Ashton- 
on-Ribble. Early forms are Tulket and Tulkith (R., 
vol. xlviii.). The first theme is the Old English personal 
name Tulla (see S., p. 156, O., p. 460), with k extension. 
W., p. 401, gives the Low German form Tolle, and also 
the familiar Tolke. The root according to Mu., p. 60, 
is the Old English til, good. The termination may be 
with, wood. 

Wemeth. — A suburb of Oldham on the SW. The early 
forms are Vernet, 1222 (R., vol. xlviii.), Wernyth, 1352 
(R., vol. xlvi.). Wern, the first theme is a common form 
in Old English personal names ; see O., p. 483. For the 
root, Warin, consult F., col. 1540. The termination is 
probably from with, wood. 

EYE 

This termination (ey, ed) is the Old English word \eg, 
meaning an island, and its use in place-names is very 
similar to that of Holme. In some words there has prob- 
ably been confusion with hey. Meadows on the banks 
of the Mersey, half surrounded by the windings of the 
river, are locally known as ees or eyes, especially on the 
Cheshire side. 

Baxdsea. — An ecclesiastical district 3 miles S. of 
Ulverston. In Domesday Book, the word is Berretseige. 
In charters of Henry II. (L.P.C.) it is Berdeseia, pp. 307, 

D 



50 HANDBOOK OF LANCASHIRE PLACE-NAMES 

310, and Berdeseye, p. 357. Bardeseia is found in 1202 
(R., vol. xxxix.), and Bardsey in 1614 (R., vol. xi.). The 
first theme is a personal name, Bared, O., p. 80, or Berred, 
O., p. 105. The original form was probably the bithematic 
Beornhard, which suffered abrasion to Beorard. 

Comey. — Identified by Mr. Farrer with Corner Row, a 
village 2 miles N. of Kirkham. The form Cornege appears 
(L.P.C., p. 437) in a charter of Richard I. The first 
theme may be the word corn. Rygh gives instances 
of Komi as a personal name used in place-names in 
Norway. Coorn is also a Low German mediaeval name 
perhaps from the Biblical name Cornelius. W., p. 220. 
Cornoe Row was developed apparently in the seventeenth 
century; for we find Cornoe in 1587, Cornorow in 1638, 
Cornoe Raw in 1665, and Corner Row in 1680. (See R., 
vol. X. pp. 64, 100, 277, 14.) 

Livesey. — A parish 3 miles SW. of Blackburn. Early 
forms of the word are Liveseye, Liveshey, Lyvesaye, Levesay 
(R., vols, xxxix., xlviii., xxxi.). The first theme is Leof, 
beloved, which forms a part of a large number of old 
bithematic personal names; see O., pp. 326 ff. It is not 
easy to choose between eye and hey for the second theme. 

Walney. — An island opposite Barrow-in-Furness. In the 
charters relating to the foundation of Furness Abbey, the 
word appears as Wagneia and Wageneia (L.P.C., pp. 302, 
315). Wannegia is found in the Assize Rolls (R., vol. 
xlvii., p. 57). In the seventeenth century we find Waney, 
Walney, which probably show that the / was silent. The 
first theme is the Old English personal name Wagan ; see 
0., p. 476, Old Norse, vagn, a wain. The root vegan, to 
move, is discussed in F., col. 1487. 

Heapey. — A parish 2 miles N. of Chorley. The word is 
spelt in the Assize Rolls, Hepe, Hepay, Hepei (R., vol. 
xlvii., pp. 67, 167). Also Heppay, Hepeie, Hephay (R., 



CATALOGUE OF PLACE-NAMES 51 



L 



vol. xlix., pp. 203, 258, 280), and in a Final Concord of 
1300, Hepay (R., vol. xxxix.). 

The first theme is personal. O., p. 291, gives the name 
Heppo, and Low German mediaeval names are Hepe, Heppe, 
as in W., 158. The root form appears in the Old Norse 
word heppinn, lucky. See F., col. 748, under hap. 

Weakey. — A village i mile E. of Dobcross. No early 
records. The word appears to be a dative case singular of 
the Old English wlc^ and to mean simply " at the wick " 
or "village." 

FELL 

A word introduced by the Northmen, being the Old 
Norse fjall. It is given to single mountains as well as 
mountain masses, and is found north of the Ribble. 

The word is used as a subsidiary theme. Longridge 
Fell, Wolfhouse Fell, Burnstack Fell, Baton Fell, Calder 
Fell, Bleasdale Fell, Grizedale Fell, Lea Fell, Tarnbrook 
Fell, Abbeystead Fell, Marshaw Fell, Graygarth Fell, 
Ireby Fell, Greenbank Fell, Bolton Head Fell, Lithe Fell, 
Oxen Fell, Blawith Fell, Cartmel Fell, Dunnerdale Fell, 
Woodland Fell, Furness Fells. 

FIELD 

This is the Old English ^/<f, plain open country; at first 
applied to unploughed pasture land, and then to arable 
land. The field belonging to a village community con- 
sisted of the lands parcelled out to the members of the 
community, and the greens and commons which were 
possessed and used in common. 

Anfield. — District and suburb of NE. Liverpool. In 
the V.C.H., iii., p. 21, under date 1642, it appears as 
Hongfield, which gave rise to Hangfield, and then to 
Anfield. Picton, in Memorials of Liverpool, speaks of the 



52 HANDBOOK OF LANCASHIRE PLACE-NAMES 

"long narrow strips into which the land was divided." 
There is no trace, however, in the local dialect of the Old 
English enge, Old Norse ongu, narrow. 

Cantsfield. — A parish in the old parish of Tunstall in the 
extreme NE. of the county. It is Cantesfelt\r\. Domesday 
Book. In 1202 and 1208 we have the spellings Canceveld, 
Cancefdd, in Final Concords (R., vol. xxxix.). In 1332 
the form is Caunsfdd (R., vol. xxxi.), but the / of the 
Domesday form does not appear again till the seventeenth 
century (R., vol. x., p. 56). The first theme is a personal 
name. Kaenta appears in the Liber Vitae j see S., p. 158. 
Mu. regards it as a race-name; see p. 102. 

Dukinfield. — A borough in the Cheshire part of Stayhy- 
bridge. The first theme is a genitival form of Dacca, a 
personal name in O., p. 167. Early forms not known. 

Edenfield. — A village 6 miles N. of Bury. The first 
theme is a river-name in England, Scotland, and Ireland. 
Dr. Isaac Taylor (Names and their Histories) suggests the 
Gaelic Eadanan, meaning face, and applies it to the brow 
of a hill. This would suit the position of Edenfield. 

Enfield. — A hamlet i mile NW. of Accrington. Early 
forms unknown. The first theme may be the personal 
Man or Hean. (See O., p. 209, 285.) Ran is a frequently 
used theme, meaning riches. 

Fairfield. — Moravian village 4 miles E. of Manchester. 
First theme descriptive and modern. A suburb of Liver- 
pool on the east is also named Fairfield. 

Fylde. — A rich district of Amounderness, lying west of 
a line drawn from Freckleton on the Ribble to Cockerham 
at the Mouth of the Lune. Dike del Filde is mentioned in 
an Assize Roll of 1246 (R., vol. xlvii., p. 115), and William 
del Fylde in an Inquest of 1293 (R., vol. xlviii., p. 277). 
The word is field in an old spelling. 



CATALOGUE OF PLACE-NAMES 53 

Hundersfield. — A large district NE. of Rochdale, now 
subdivided into parishes. In early documents it appears 
as Hunnordesfeld (R., vol. xxxix.), Hunewrthefeld (vol. 
xxxix.), and Hunnesworthefeld (R., vol. xlvii., p. 30). Later, 
it is spelt Honeresfeld, 1361 (R., vol. xlvi.), and Hundersfeld, 
1509 (R., vol. 1.). For the second part of the first theme, 
see worth below. The first part is a personal name, Hun, 
Hunni, for which see O., pp. 305, 307. F., col. 929, 
regards the race-name Hunn as a probable origin. The 
d is epenthetic. 

Leesfield. — Ecclesiastical district 2 miles SE. of Oldham, 
containing the town of Lees, from which it took its name. 
First theme is a modern plural of the Old English leah, 
pasture, of which the singular is lee or lea. Or it may be 
the same word as lease, the descendant of the Old 
English lots. 

Makerfield. — Makrefeld appears to date from about the 
beginning of the fourteenth century. (See R., vol. xlvi., 
date 1338.) It is the district stretching from Winwick to 
Wigan. Some antiquaries think it to be the word Maserfeld 
of Bede and the Saxon Chronicle, where King Oswald of 
Northumbria was slain fighting against King Penda of 
Mercia. First theme of Makerfield is the Gaelic word 
machair ; of Maserfeld the Welsh maes. Both words 
mean a plain or field. 

Threlfall. — A hamlet 8 miles NE. of Preston, in the 
township of Goosnargh, Trelefelt in Domesday Book. In 
R., vols, xlviii., xlix., it is spelt Threlefel, Threlefal, 
Treuelfal. The first theme is personal, Turolf or Thur- 
wulf. See O., p. 462. Felt repKs&nts feld or field. 

Salmonfields. — A hamlet N. of Oldham. Early forms 
wanting. First theme may be the Scriptural name Solomon. 

Schofield Hall. — A village in the township of Butterworth, 
3 miles E. of Rochdale. First theme descriptive, and 



54 HANDBOOK OF LANCASHIRE PLACE-NAMES 

referring to huts, sheds or booths. See the termination 
scales, scales below. 

Whitefleld.— A village 4 miles SE. of Rochdale. First 
theme may be descriptive. Early personal names, however, 
Wita, Hwita occur in O., 310, 503. 

Wbitefield. — A modern place; urban district, 3 miles 
S. of Bury. 

FOLD 

This is the Old English fald, a sheep-fold, an ox-stall. 
In place-names the word came to mean enclosure, or 
cluster of buildings forming an enclosure. 

Booth Fold. — A hamlet 4 miles ESE. of Haslingden. 
First theme marks the place of the fold. 

Clongh Fold. — A hamlet 2\ miles ESE. of Haslingden. 
First theme marks the place of the fold. 

Dixon Fold. — Railway station, 6 miles NW. of Man- 
chester, on the way to Bolton-le-Moors. No early form 
known. First theme may be original owner's name. 

Hamer Fold. — Ecclesiastical district i mile NE. of 
Rochdale. Early forms not known. First theme probably 
personal. Hama, Haimo and Hamo are given in O., pp. 
278, 279, as Old English names. 

Higher Fold. — Five miles NE. of Bolton-le-Moors. 
First theme descriptive of position. 

Wolstenholme Fold. — A village 3 miles NW. of Roch- 
dale. For many examples of the Old English name 
Wulfstan, see O., p. 519. Holme will be found below as a 
second theme. 

Woolfold, — A village i mile NW. of Bury. Early forms 
not known. First theme perhaps personal. 



CATALOGUE OF PLACE-NAMES S5 

Fold, or Fowt as it is generally pronounced locally, is 
a CQmmon designation in many parts, and whatever it may 
have represented when it was first used, now practically 
is identical with farmhouse or hamlet. The word in place- 
names is used as a subsidiary theme. 

There are five or six such places in West Derby Hun- 
dred, mostly in the old parish of Leigh ; about a dozen in 
Leyland Hundred ; rather more than fifty in the Hundred 
of Salford, of which the majority are in the Old parishes 
of Bolton-le-Moors and Dean ; about forty in the Hundred 
of Blackburn, and a stray one or two in the North of 
Lancashire. 

FOED, FORTH 

The Old English ford denotes a way or passage through 
or over water. As a place-name termination the word is 
very common in England ; also in Germany and the Nether- 
lands in various forms. 

Bamford. — A joint parish with Birtle, 3 miles W. of 
Rochdale. Appears as Baunford, 1282 (R., vol. xxxix.). 
First theme the Old English beam tree. 

BajTOWford. — An urban district 2 miles west of Colne. 
The first theme may be a river name as in Ireland ; but 
also it may refer to a hill or mound which will mark the 
position of the ford (see barrow among the second themes 
above). Near Barrowford are Higher Ford and Lower 
Ford, on the same stream. 

Bedford. — A village adjoining Leigh, on the East. It is 
Bedefordm 1296 (R., vol. xxxix.). The first theme is a 
personal name, as in O., p. 85, Beda, and may mean a 
commander. See F., col. 321, for root bod. 

Blackford Bridge. — A hamlet in Pilkington 2 miles S. of 
Bury. Early forms not known. The bridge is over the 
river Roch. The name may not be originally a Lancashire 



56 HANDBOOK OF LANCASHIRE PLACE-NAMES 

one, but imported as a personal name from another 
county. 

Bradford. — A district on the east side of Manchester. 
The word is bradeford in 1196 (R., vol. xxxix.). The first 
theme is the Old English brad, broad. 

Camforth. — An urban district 7 miles N. of Lancaster. 
In Domesday Book it is spelt Chreneforde. In 1301 we 
find Kerneford (R., vol. xxxix.), the ordinary form during 
the Middle Ages. Carneforth (R., vol. x., p. 12) appears in 
the sixteenth century. The first theme is a river name. 
Cerne is an affluent of the Frome in Dorset; there are 
rivers Crane in Kent and Middlesex, Crana in Donegal. 
Carnforth lies in the west part of the valley of the Keer, 
which suggests the Celtic Caor. See K., p. 58. 

Ford. — Forming a joint township with Orrell, 6 miles N. 
of Liverpool. The theme unqualified. 

Catforth, a hamlet 6 miles NW. of Preston. The first 
theme is a personal name. See Catto, Ceatta, O., p. 126. 
The cat, like the wolf and the bear, though much more 
rarely, gave rise to personal names in the North. See the 
word Kottr in the Landnama, and various place-names in 
Scandinavia given by Rygh. For two such names in 
Zealand, see Madsen, p. 265. 

Middleford Green. — A hamlet i mile SW. of Preston, 
in Penwortham. First theme of Middleford denotes 
position. 

Orford. — A village 2 miles N. of Warrington. Early forms 
not known. There is a river Ore in Suffolk and another in 
Fife. Possibly the root may be the Celtic Caor ; see K., 
p. 58, who gives examples in which the c is lost or changed 
to h. See also Or, K., p. 62. 

Eainford. — An urban district 4 miles N. of St. Helens. 
In early Final Concords we have the forms Reineford, 



CATALOGUE OF PLACE-NAMES 57 

1202, Rayneford, 1256, Raynesford, 1262 (R., vol. xxxix.) ; 
in later ones Raynford, 1446, Raynsford, 1503 (R., vol. 
1.). The first theme is a personal name. See O., pp. 
396-8, for bithematic names, of which Regin, Rein, form 
a theme. The root is Ragan, counsel, which is a com- 
ponent part of many Germanic names. See F., col. 1221, 
W., p. 303. The first theme may also be a river name, 
as Ranee, Rhine, Regen; see K., p. 109. An affluent of 
the stream is Randle Brook. 

Rufford. — ^A parish 5 miles NE. of Ormskirk. In the 
Great Inquest, 12 12, the word is Ruchford (R., vol. 
xlviii.); Rufford in a Final Concord of 1293 (R., vol. 
xxxix.), and Rughford (R., vol. xxxi.) in the Subsidy Rolls 
of 1332. The first theme is the Old English word ruh, 
rough. 

Salford. — A borough on the Irwell, opposite Manchester. 
The place occurs in Domesday Book with no variation in 
the spelling, and the variations which occur in mediaeval 
works are unimportant, as, e.g., Sauford. 

The first theme is of doubtful origin ; for — 

ist. It is a river name, to which Forstemann, in the river 
Saale, attributes a probable Celtic origin. See K., p. 60. 

2nd. It may be a component of personal names ; see 
Salesbury above. 

3rd. It may be descriptive, from the Old English salo, 
dark-coloured, and referred to the colour of the water at 
the ford [as in Blackford]. 

4th. It may be derived, as Dr. Skeat supposes, from the 
Old English sealh, a willow, and mark the position of the 
ford. 

Of these explanations I prefer the first. 

Scotforth. — A parish 2 miles S. of Lancaster. It appears 
as Scozforde in Domesday Book, Scotford in the Great 
Inquest, 1212, and afterwards (R., vol. xlviii.). The first 



58 HANDBOOK OF LANCASHIRE PLACE-NAMES 

theme is a personal name (see O., p. 411), which F., col. 
1309, considers to be tribal. 

Seaforth. — A chapelry 5 miles N. of Liverpool. Early 
forms not known, and the name is probably modern, 
derived from its position on the sea coast. 

Shawforth. — A village 4 miles N. of Rochdale. Early 
forms wanting. For the first theme see S^w below. 

Stockport. — A town 6 miles S. of Manchester, nominally 
a Cheshire town, on the Mersey. The earliest form of the 
word (1187) is Sfokepor i (L.F.C, p. 69), which is the form 
in R., vol. xlviii. Mediaeval: corruptions are Stopport, 
Stopford, Stopforih (see R., vols, xlvi., i., xii., p. 93), so 
that the second theme is probably not /ord at all hut port, 
meaning a harbour, a town. The first theme means iog, 
and perhaps implies a stockaded town. 

Stretford. — A Parliamentary Division of Lancashire, 4 
miles SW. of Manchester, on the river Mersey. It occurs 
in the Great Inquest of 12 12 (R., vol. xlviii.), and is spelt 
Stratford in 1265 (R., vol. xlix.). The first theme is the 
Old English sirast and refers to the Roman road to 
Chester, which here crosses the Mersey. 

Trafford, called Old Trafford, is a suburb of Man- 
chester on the SW., in a bend of the river Irwell. It 
occurs in the Pipe Rolls and early Charters (L.P.C., 
p. 355), in the Great Inquest of 1212 (R., vol. xlviii.), and 
in a Final Concord of 1325 (R., vol. xlvi.). In the 
Doniesday Book for Cheshire, Trafford occurs as name 
of three places, spelt respectively Trosford, Traford, 
Troford. If we take the first of these as a clue, it suggests 
the Old Frisian tros, a slender trunk or bough of a tree. 
The same word tros is used in Old Norse for broken 
branches. In either acceptation it may denote a mark 
showing the position of the ford. 



CATALOGUE OF PLACE-NAMES 59 

Professor Wyld understands it to be the Old English 
fro A, a trough. 

FURLONG 

This is the Old English y/oiA fitrlang, the length of 
the furrow made by a ploughman before turning round. 
A definite measure of length in the old village communi- 
ties, it became used also as a measure of area, possibly 
a square furlong. See the N.E.D. 

Bamfurlong. — A railway station 3 miles SE. of Wigan. 
The first theme in this word suggests the vegetable bean, 
as pease is the first theme of the next word. The Old 
English word is bean. The influence of the Old Norse 
form, baun, may have prevented the normal growth of the 
English pronunciation of the first theme in the place- 
name. 

Fesfurlong. — A manor 4 miles NE. of Warrington, in 
the township of Culcheth. Pesefurlaing occurs in an 
Assize Roll of 1247 (R., vol. xlvii., p. 117), Peysporlonge 
in a Final Concord of 1500 (R., vol. 1.), Pesseforlong in 
a Roll of the close of the fifteenth century (R., vol. xii.). 
The first theme is the Old English /«<?«, pease. 

GARTH 

This is the Old Norse word garthr, meaning a court- 
yard and its premises, then a house in a town or village. 
It occurs occasionally in early documents, and is often 
used in modern place-names. 

Eggergarth. — The name, now lost, of a manor which 
Mr. Farrer places in the parish of Lydiate (R., vol. xlviii.). 
It appears as Egergard 1277 (R., vol. xlvii.), and Ekirgarth 
in an Entry of 1380 (R., vol. 1.). The first theme is a 
personal name, doubtless a familiar contraction of a 



6o HANDBOOK OF LANCASHIRE PLACE-NAMES 

longer one. In a charter (E., p. 416), the Bishop Aethel- 
gar calls himself Egger. Egera is a personal name in 
O., p. 224. 

GATE, YATE 

The Old English geat denotes an opening in a wall 
or fence. This sense of the word may be accepted in 
most modern words such as Stanleygate. In most of 
the older compounds the sense road, street, way, seems 
more fitting. This sense corresponds with the Old Norse 
gata, which under the Danish form gade is used in the 
naming of streets. The word, however, does not seem 
to be in use to form place-names in Scandinavia. The 
termination yate occurs in Lydiate and the Four Yates. 
The Yorkshire termination seems to be uniformly gate. 
The dialect pronunciation ol gate in Lancashire '\% yate. 

Outgate. — A village i mile W. of Rochdale. Early 
forms not known. First theme may be personal; a 
shortened form of Cutbert or Cuthbert, or other compound 
name of which there are several in O., p. 147. 

Four Yates. — A hamlet 6 miles WSW. of Bolton-le- 
Moors in the urban district of Westhoughton. First 
theme the numeral doubtless. The place appears as 
Four Gates in the maps of the Ordnance Survey. 

Gallgate. — A village 4 miles S. of Lancaster. No early 
forms known. The first theme seems to be the personal 
name Gal, which occurs as a first theme in O., p. 253. 

Lydgate. — An ecclesiastical division 2 miles W. of 
Dobcross, in Saddleworth. This is the same word as the 
next, the g in gate being preserved by Scandinavian 
influence. 

Lydiate. — A parish 4 miles SW. of Ormskirk. The 
Domesday Book form is Leiate. In the Great Inquest of 



CATALOGUE OF PLACE-NAMES 61 

12 1 2, Lidiate (R., vol. xlviii.), Liddigaie and Lidgyate in 
later documents occur, and Lydyaie in the Subsidy of 
1332 (R-i vol. xxxi.). There seems no reason for rejecting 
. the ordinary opinion that this word is the Old English 
hlid-geat, a swing-gate. 

Moses Gate. — A hamlet 2 miles SE. of Bolton-le-Moors. 
No early form known. The word is probably modern. 

Padgate. — Ecclesiastical district 2 miles NE. of War- 
rington. The Padgate was the name of the Bolton road 
from Warrington, and at " Padgate Stocks " a church was 
built in 1838, when the district was formed and the name 
of the road given to the district. Pad is a north country 
word for path, and s. padgate is a well-trodden road. 

Stanley Gate. — A hamlet 3 miles SE. of Ormskirk. 
Named after the Earls of Derby, who owned the neigh- 
bouring Lathom estate until the beginning of the eighteenth 
century. 

Wingate. — A hamlet in the urban district of West- 
houghton, 5 miles WSW. of Bolton-le-Moors. Now the 
ecclesiastical district IVingates. The place is Wingates in 
the Ordnance Survey, and, as well as Four Yates, is on the 
old Roman road from Manchester to Blackrod. No 
early form known. The name suggests wind for the first 
theme, as in the similar word The Winnats, in the Peak 
district. 

GILL 

A deep, narrow glen with a stream flowing through 
it. The word is Scandinavian ; Old Norse gil. What 
would be a dough in East Lancashire, would in the Lake 
district and North-east Lancashire be known as a gill. 

Low Gill. — A hamlet lying under the Tatham Fells, 
E. of the river Hindburn. There is a Low Gill in West- 



62 HANDBOOK OF LANCASHIRE PLACE-NAMES 

morland, on the borders of Yorkshire, a station on the 
L. and NW. railway. In both places the first theme is the 
Old English Masw, a mound or hill. 

Damas Gill. — Lies s miles SE. of Lancaster. The 
Gill stream flows into the river Wyre. It is Dameresgil in 
a charter given by Farrer (L.P.C., p. 421). In O., p. 162, 
there are many personal names beginning with Dag, and 
among them Dxgmar, the probable origin of Darner. 

Gill is a subsidiary -theme in Sparrow Gill, Scaleber Gill, 
and others. 

GOBE, GEB 

This termination is from the Old English gara, a trian- 
gular or irregular piece of land, a projection. A piece of 
land which in the early village communities did not lend 
itself to be divided into regular strips. 

Cliviger. — A parish and deep valley lying SE. of Burn- 
ley. The word appears as Clivercher, 1195 (R., vol. 
xxxix.), Cfyuaker and Clyuacher, 1246 (R., vol. xlvii.), 
Clyvechir, 1258 (R., vol. xlviii.), Cliuacher and Clyuacher, 
1332 (R., vol. xxxi.). The seventeenth-century forms are 
Cliviger, 1650 (R., vol. i.), and Clivicher, 1656 (R., vol. xL). 

Some of these forms, especially those of 1246, seem to 
show an early confusion between the two Old English 
words acer and gara. The first theme is the Old English 
clif, cliff. 

GRAVE, GREAVE, GROVE 

Under these terminations there lie, somewhat confused, 
two Old English words — grmf, in the sense of trench, which 
in place-names would probably be a boundary ; and grafy 
grove, with the by-form grcefa (see Sweet's Anglo-Saxon 
Diet.), grove, thicket, brushwood. 

Bowgrave. — A hamlet 1 mile SE. of Garstang. No 



CATALOGUE OF PLACE-NAMES 63 

early form known. The first theme suggests 6u, the Old 
English word for dwelling. The final theme may denote 
a boundary. 

Bamsgrave, Bamsgreave. — A parish 3 miles N. of Black- 
burn. The first theme is the personal name Ram (see O., 
p. 395), the Old Norse, hrafn, a raven; Old English form 
of the name, hraban. The final theme probably denotes 
boundary trench. 

Firgrove. — A village i mile E. of Rochdale. First 
theme the tree. 

Hollingrove.— A village in Saddleworth i mile SE. of 
Dobcross. First theme the tree. 

Orgreave. — A manor about 2 miles N. of Dalton-in- 
Furness. It appears in Domesday Book as Ouregrive. 
Twelfth and early thirteenth century forms are Oregrava 
(L.P.C., p. 311), Oresgrave, Oregrave, Houegrave, 1235 (R., 
vols, xlix., xxxix.). The place-name seems now to be lost, 
but a map of Lancashire (1828) has the name Hargreave 
Mill near the supposed site. The first theme seems to 
be a Celtic river-name ; see K., p. 58, under the word Caor. 

Wargrave. — A hamlet 4 miles SE. of St. Helens. Early 
forms not known. First theme suggests the element woer, 
common in personal names. See O., p. 473. The second 
theme possibly denotes a boundary trench. 

OBEEN 

A place of public or common grassy land situated in or 
near a village. The word is generally a subsidiary theme 
to the name of the village. 

The importance which the village greens possessed in 
mediaeval times and the days of " Merry England " dis- 
appeared for the most part as the Enclosure Acts gradually 
swallowed them up. The names, however, still remain. 



64 HANDBOOK OF LANCASHIRE PLACE-NAMES 

In West Derby Hundred there are at least 50 place- 
names which still carry the theme green ; in Salford 
Hundred, 20; in Leyland Hundred, 17 ; in Blackburn 
Hundred, about 7 ; in Amounderness and Lonsdale, more 
than 35, and 7 in Lonsdale over the Sands. 

GBOUND 

This word is used as a subsidiary theme, equivalent 
apparently to /old or /arm, in two parishes chiefly of 
Lonsdale North of the Sands — e.g: Sawley Ground, 
Rodger Ground in Hawkshead parish, Dixon Ground in 
Ulverston, Stevenson Ground, Carter Ground in Kirby 
Ireleth, and others. 

HALGH, ALL, HALL 

The two first of these terminations are the nominative 
and dative cases of the Old English word healgh, of which 
the dative is heale. Of this word we read in B.-T. : " A 
word of doubtful meaning. Kemble translates it hall, 
probably originally a stone building. Leo takes it to be 
the same word as ealh" a residence, a temple. Dr. Sweet 
translates it corner, hiding-place, bay, gul/. The Stratmann- 
Bradley by haugh, meadow. The following quotation from 
a charter in the Old English texts of Dr. Sweet, p. 427, 
is interesting : — " In quoddam petrosum clivum et ex eo 
Baldwines healh, appellatur," and it seems to show that 
Kemble's stone hall is a residence in a secure situation 
on a rocky rising ground. 

The third of the above terminations is derived from the 
Old English heall, a hall, and is mostly used as a sub- 
sidiary theme, as in Ordsall Hall, Ardwick Hall, and 
the like. 

Hale. — A township 6 miles S. of Prescot. Early forms 
ax&Haks, 1094, 1176; Hale, 1201 (L.P.C.). The latter is 



CATALOGUE OF PLACE-NAMES 65 

the form in the following centuries. The plural form, 
Baies, is from Aalas, the plural of the word Aea/gA. 

Haugh. — A village in the township of Butterworth, 
4 miles ESE. of Rochdale. This is the termination 
theme unqualified. 

Haulgh.— A village i mile SE. of Bolton-le-Moors. 
The termination theme unqualified. 

Broadhalgh. — A village ij mile SW. of Rochdale. 
The first theme is descriptive probably. There are no 
early forms. 

Catterall. — A parish 2 miles S. of Garstang. The 
Domesday form is Catrehala. In Final Concords : Caiur- 
hale, 1293; Caterhale, 1301 (R., vol. xxxix.). Catteral 
(R., vol. 1.) is an entry of 1497, and the modern form with 
two /"s is the usual one in the seventeenth century. The 
first theme is a personal name, an extended form of Cat, 
which appears in Kettering. Low German mediaeval forms 
are Catte, Cath, Kette. See W., p. 210. 

CrmnpsaU. — An ecclesiastical district 3 miles NE. of 
Manchester. The word is Curmisale, 1282 (R., vol. xlviii.), 
Curmeshale, 1444 (R., vol. 1.), Cormesall, 1500 (R., 
vol. 1.), Cromsall, 1620 (R., vol. xlii.), and Crompsail, 
1600 (R., vol. xii.). The first theme is a personal name, 
Krumr, which is a nickname in the Landnama (II., 4, 6). 
Low German mediaeval names are Crum, Crom (W., p. 223). 
Krummi is a pet name of the Raven in Iceland and the 
North, apparently on account of his crooked beak. Cf. 
Crotnpton, Crimbks, below. 

Dunkenhalgh. — Four miles NE. of Blackburn, in 
Clayton-le-Moors. First theme probably the dialect word 
Dunkin, meaning wet and dreary^descriptive of the 
ground. See Skeat's Etymological Dictionary, under the 
word Dank, and Professor Wright's Dialect Dictionary. 



66 HANDBOOK OF LANCASHIRE PLACE-NAMES 

EUel, Ellale. — A parish 4 miles S. of Lancaster. In 
Domesday it is spelt Ellhak, and Elhale in a charter of 
1156 (L.P.C, p. 392). A century later (1254) it is EUak 
(R., vol. xxxix.), then Ellal, Ellyl, Ellell (R., vols. 1., xii., 
i.). The first theme is personal (see O., p. 226). Ella 
is a Northumbrian king in the mythical saga of Ragnar 
Lodbrok. Aella is a name in the Liber Vitse, S., p. 157. 
The root of the name is doubtful. See Mu., p. 45 ; F., 
col. 79. 

Femyhalgh. — Name of house or houses in Broughton, 
4 miles N. of Preston. First theme descriptive. Name 
probably modern. 

Greenhalgh, a joint parish with Thistleton, 3 miles 
NW. of Kirkham, is the Greneholf of Domesday. The 
various forms taken by this word are Grenhole, Grenol, 
Grenhull, Grenoll, Grenolf (1332). Greenhalghe (1600), 
Greenall (1602), Greenow (1650), are later ones. The 
first theme descriptive. 

Halsall. — A parish 3 miles W. of Ormskirk. In Domes- 
day it is Heleshale, and perhaps Herleshala. Halsale and 
Hakshale are the usual forms in the following centuries 
(R., vols, xxxviii., xxxix., xlix.). The first theme is a 
personal name, Hak, as in Halmund, O., 278. The root, 
according to F., col. 738, is connected with the Old English 
h«k, a hero. 

Hothersall. — A parish 7 miles NE. of Preston, in the 
valley of the Ribble. In a Pipe Roll of King John it 
appears as Hudereshal {L.V.C, p. 127), Udereshak in an 
entry of 1247 (R., vol. xlvii.), Hodersak at the end of the 
century (R., vol. xlviii.). Hothersall is found in 1460 (R., 
vol. 1.). The first theme is a personal one, Ohthere (see 
0-, p- 365), found in King Alfred's Orosius, p. 19. The 
common Norse form is Ottarr, the roots of which are 
uht, dawn, and here, a host. But see also F., col. 195. 



CATALOGUE OF PLACE-NAMES 67 

Kersal. — An ecclesiastical district 3 miles NW. of 
Manchester. Kereshala is mentioned in a charter of King 
Stephen, and Kershal in a Pipe Roll of King John (L.P.C., 
pp. 326, 115). The first theme, being compounded in 
place-names with ley, shaw, hall, suggests a personal name, 
and points to the Low German, Keer and Kier. Searle, in 
O., p. 134, gives an English name, Ceorra. The Irish Ciar 
means dark brown, and the Gaelic Ciarach, "a swarthy 
person of either sex." 

Nuttall. — A hamlet 3 miles N. of Bury, on the Irwell. 
Early forms given in V.C.H., vol. v., p. 146, are Noteho, 
1256, Notehogh, 1332, Nuttall, 1408. The first theme is 
the Old English hnutu, a nut. The second theme is 
doubtfully halgh. It may be hbh, a heel or hough. 

Ordsall. — An area now included in Manchester, on the 
SW. Ordeshala is in a Pipe Roll of Henry II. (L.P.C, 
p. 36). Variants are Wurdeshal, 1226 (R., vol. xlviii.), 
Hordesak, 1302 (R., vol. xlvi., p. 163), Ordsall, 1600 (R., 
vol. xii.). The first theme is personal. Ord is a very 
common theme in English names (see O., pp. 367-70). 
The Scandinavian equivalent name is Oddr and Oddi. 
The word means a sword point. F., col. 1179, for root 
«rta. 

Redvales. — An old manor in the south of the parish of 
Bury. Earliest form is Rediveshale, 1185 (L.P.C, p. 55), 
and a century later, in a Final Concord, Redyval (R., vol. 
xxxix.). The middle syllable of the earliest form suggests 
the Old English efes, the border of a forest, or brow of a 
ihill, and the first syllable, read, red, as in the adjacent 
JRadcliffe. 

Ridehalgh. — A lost place-name from near Preston. 
Early forms wanting. First theme the Old English wrid, 
a. clump of hazels or similar plants growing out of one root. 



68 HANDBOOK OF LANCASHIRE PLACE-NAMES 

Sossall. — A manor near the estuary of the river Wyre, 
SW. of the modern town of Fleetwood. It is called Rushr- 
ale in Domesday. Thirteenth-century forms are Roshale, 
Roshal {^., vols, xxxix., xlvii.). Rossall appears in 1600 
(R., vol. xii.). The first theme, Ros, is a personal name. 
See O., p. 404, also F., col. 1282, for the root, which is 
perhaps hros, horse. 

(For the words Becconsall, Hackensall, Preesall, which 
end in all, see the termination howe below.) 

Steinall. — A village on the eastern bank of the estuary 
of the Wyre, 4 miles N. of Poulton-le-Fylde. In an early 
Pipe Roll (11 76) it is given as Steinola, and soon after, 
1200, Stanhol (L.P.C.). In the volume of Inquests (R., 
vol. xlviii.) we find Stanhull, Stainhol, Steynholf, 1249; 
Staynolf in the Subsidy Roll, 1327 (R, vol. xxxi.), and 
Staynoll in a Final Concord of 1443 (R., vol. 1.). In the 
seventeenth century we find Stanoe, Stanall, Staynoll. The 
first theme is the common Old English theme Stan (see 
O., p. 429), influenced by the Old Norse form Steinn. 

HAM 

This termination may arise from more than one Old 
English word. Most frequently it is from the word haniy 
house, dwelling. B.-T. quotes from Kemble : — " The Latin 
word which appears most nearly to translate it is vicus, and 
it seems to be identical in form with the Greek kome. In 
this sense it is the general assemblage of the dwellings in 
each particular district, to which the arable land and 
pasture of the community were appurtenant." Whenever 
we can assure ourselves that the word is long, we may 
be certain that the name implies such a village or com- 
munity. 

The same termination arises also from hamm, an en- 
closure, and from hamm, the inner part of the knee. 



CATALOGUE OP PLACE-NAMES 69 

" Frequently coupled with words implying the presence of 
water." See B.-T., under word Aam, horn, hamm. 

Abram, Aburgham. — ^An urban district 4 miles S. of 
Wigan. Early form is Adburgham, 1246 (R., vol. xxxix.), 
in which the first theme is personal (see O., p. 178). The 
place-name in its development from Eadburgham passed 
through the form Abraham to Abram. 

Aldingham. — A parish 6 miles S. of Ulverston, which 
appears under this form in Domesday Book. The first 
theme is a patronymic from Ealda, Alda. Eald is the 
first component of a large number of bithematic names in 
O., pp. 195-202. In Old Norse Gamli (the old one) is 
similarly used as a proper name. 

Altham. — A parish 4 miles W. of Burnley. Early 
speUing is Alvetham, 1308 (R., vol. xlvi.), Altham occurs 
in a Final Concord of 1383 (R., vol. I.). The first theme 
is the bithematic personal name Aelfweard (5&& O., p. 25)^ 
where degraded forms of the word, Alwold, Eluolt, are 
given. 

Bispham. — Joint parish with Norbreck in the Fylde, 
4 miles N. of Blackpool. Domesday Book writes it 
Biscopham. The "Capella de Biscopham" is mentioned 
in a charter of 1147, and the "Ecclesia de Biscopham" in 
one of 1155 (L.P.C., pp. 283, 284). Bispham is the form 
in 1332 (R., vol. xxxi.). The first theme is the Old English 
biscop, a bishop. 

Bispham. — A parish in the old parish of Croston, 5 
miles NE. of Ormskirk. First theme as in the preceding. 
Biscop is also a personal name. See O., p. 108. 

Cbeetham. — A district forming part of Manchester on 
the north. Early form, Chetham (R., vol. xxxix.). In a 
clergy list of 1541, the spelling is Chetam (R., vol. xxxiii.). 
This is followed by Cheetam (R., vol. xlii.), and Cheetham 



70 HANDBOOK OF LANCASHIRE PLACE-NAMES 

appears about the middle of the seventeenth century (R., 
vol. i.). The first theme is the personal name Ceaifa 
(O., p. 126). The Low German mediaeval forms given by 
W., pp. 212, 408, are kete, tjet, kette. 

Cockerhain. — A parish 7 miles S. of Lancaster. The 
spelling in Domesday Book is Cocreham, and later forms 
are Kokerheim, 1206, and Cokerheim, 1207 (R., vol. 
xxxix.), Cokerham, 1332 (R., vol. xxxi.). The first theme 
is the name of the river which flows through the parish. 
There is a Cocker in Cumberland, a river Cock in York- 
shire, and a Kocher tributary to the Neckar in SW. 
Germany; and the river name is probably Celtic. See 
Caoch, in K., p. 58. 

It is interesting to notice the Scandinavian influence in 
the spellings of ham in 1206 and 1207. 

Cottam.— A hamlet 3 miles NW. of Preston. The 
spelling Cotham is unsound, as the word is probably a 
dative plural of the Old English cot. No early forms 
known. 

Downham. — A township 3 miles NE. of Clitheroe. 
Forms of the word dating from the thirteenth century are 
Dunhum (1242) (R., vol. xlviii.), Dunham (1247), Dunum 
(1247), Dunnum (1262), Donum (1276), Dounom (1285) 
(R., vols, xlvii., xlix.). In the fourteenth century we have 
Dounom, Dounum (1332) (R., vol. xxxi.). In the fifteenth 
Dounum (1422) (R., vol. 1.); in the sixteenth Dounehame 
(1600) (R., vol. xii.), and in the seventeenth Dounham 
(1650) (R., vol. i.). As in the last word, the spelling with 
ham has been a development in the wrong direction, as 
the word is a dative plural of dun, a hill, dunum meaning 
" at the hills." 

Qressingham. — A parish 8 miles NE. of Lancaster. In 
the Dornesday Book it is Ghersinctune. Gersingham in 
a Pipe Roll of K. John (L.P.C, p. 178), Gersingham 



CATALOGUE OF PLACE-NAMES 71 

(R., vols, xxxi., xxxix.), Gressynham (1413) (R. vol. 1.), 
Gressinghame (1600) (R., vol. xii.). The D.B. ending, tune, 
is early replaced by ham, and does not reappear. 

Searle, in O., p. 256, gives several bithematic names of 
which ger is the first theme. A shortened familiar form of 
some one of these has been gers, of which Gersing is a 
patronymic. See Kemble's " Anglo Saxons," De Gray 
Birch's edition, vol. i., Appendix on The Mark, p. 464. 
The form Gerse is given in the Low German mediseval 
names; W., p. 125, also the patronymic Geersinga. See 
Grassendale above. 

Habergham Eaves. — A parish adjoining Burnley on the 
West. Habringham occurs in a document of the year 
1241, and Habrigham, Habercham are later forms (R., 
vol. xlviii.). Habryngham is in an entry of 1406 (R., 
vol. 1.). The combination Habergham Eaves is found 
near the close of the sixteenth century (R., vol. ii., p. loi). 
The first theme is a personal name ; hathuburg is a name 
in the Liber Vitae (see S., p. 154, and also O., p. 287). 
Eaves is from the Old English word efes, meaning probably 
the border of the forest. 

Heysham. — An urban district 5 miles W. of Lancaster, 
on Morecambe Bay. In Domesday Book the word is 
Hessam. In a charter of the eleventh century it is Heseym 
(L.P.C., p. 290). Other forms from the same volume are 
Hessem, Hessein, Hesham, Hesheim. These forms, especi- 
ally the Norse heim, eym, seem to show that a letter h has 
disappeared from the Domesday Book spelling. The 
forms next in chronological order are Uesaim, Hescam 
(R., vol. xlviii.), Hesham (R., vol. xxxi.). In the seven- 
teenth century Hesham, Heisham, and Heysham are all 
found. The first theme, Hesse, is personal, a German 
name which the Low Germans brought in, and it appears 
in W., p. 160. See also F., col. 786. If the forms with 



72 HANDBOOK OF LANCASHIRE PLACE-NAMES 

one s be considered to preponderate over those with two, 
as in Domesday Book, the personal origin of the word will 
be Aese or Mse, as in Haslingden. 

Higham Booth. — A village 2 miles NE. of Padiham. 
Early forms not known. First theme probably the personal 
name Higham, which, according to Bardsley (Dictionary of 
Surnames), originated from Hegham. 

Irlam. — An urban district on the Irwell, 8 miles SW. of 
Manchester. In an entry of 1448 (R., vol. 1.) the word is 
spelt Irwilham. In 1600 (R., vol. xii.) we find Irlome. 
Erlatn and Irlam are the usual forms at the beginning of 
the seventeenth century (R., vol. xlii.). The first theme is 
the river name. 

Irlams 0' th' Height. — A village 3 miles NW. of 
Manchester. See preceding word. 

Eirkham. — A market town 9 miles NW. of Preston. 
Spelt Chicheham in Domesday Book. Chercheham, Eccle- 
siam de Kyrkham, Kircheham, appear in charters of King 
William II. (L.P.C., pp. 270, 290). The first theme is the 
Old Norse Kirkja, a church. 

Newsham. See under termination House. 

Oldham. — A borough 6 miles NE. of Manchester. 
Early forms of the word are Aldholm, Aldhulm (R., vols, 
xlviii., xlix.). In the fourteenth century we find Oldum, 
Oldom (R., vols, xxxi., xxxix.), which were the usual forms 
until after the Reformation. Oldham and Ouldham appear 
at the beginning of the seventeenth century. The first 
theme is the personal name Alda, which occurs in the Liber 
Vitas, S., p. 156. In O., p. 195, we have the form ealda. 
The second theme is evidently holm^, not ham. 

Padiham. — An urban district 3 miles W. of Burnley. 
It occurs in an Inquest of 1258, and in the Subsidy Rolls 
(R., vols, xlviii,, xxxi.). Padeham is found in an entry of 



CATALOGUE OP PLACE-NAMES 73 

1407. The first theme appears to be an Old English 
personal name. See pada, in O., p. 385. Peada and 
Padda both occur in Bede's History. See S., pp. 140, 143. 
For the root badu, fight, see F., col. 224. 

Penwortham. — A parish 2 miles SW. of Preston. The 
Domesday form of the word is Peneverdant. The forms 
succeeding are various (see L.P.C.), among which are 
Penuertkam, Penuerdham. Penwrtham, 1204, is in a Final 
Concord, and Penwortham a form in the Subsidy Rolls 
(R., vols, xxxix., xxxi.). 

Penworth is a complete place-name, and ham seems to 
have been added to mark the semi-enclosure of the Hall 
by the river Ribble. 

Pen is the first theme and familiar form of some bithe- 
matic personal name as Penwald, of which O. gives at least 
three, on p. 387. It came, no doubt, in the Low German 
invasions. W., pp. 287, 290, gives Pene, Penne, Pinne, 
Pyn. For discussion on the root, consult F., col. 257. 

Tatham. — A parish in the valley of the Wenning, a 
contributory of the Lune, 10 miles NE. of Lancaster. It 
is the Tathaim of Domesday Book and of the Pipe Rolls 
(L.P.C), the Tatham of a charter of Richard I. (L.P.C.) 
1 199. Early variants are Taitham, Tateham (R., vol. 
xlix.). Tatham occurs in a Final Concord of 1241 (R., 
vol. xxxix.). The first theme is personal. See Tata, Tate, 
in O., pp. 440, 441. Teitr is a man's name in the Land- 
nama and list of Icelandic Bishops. 

Thomhaju. — A parish 3 miles NE. of Middleton. It 
occurs in the Assize Rolls under the forms Thornam, 
Tornham, Thornham (R., vol. xlvii.). The first theme is 
probably personal, the Old Norse woman's name, Thorunn 
(see C.V., p. 743). It appears in Norwegian place-names, 
and so may be suspected in the northern parts of England, 
along with other Old Norse names. 



74 HANDBOOK OF LANCASHIRE PLACE-NAMES 

Thurnham. — A parish 5 miles S. of Lancaster. It is 
Tiernum in Domesday Book. In the Pipe Rolls is the 
form Turneham, -p. 253; also in an early charter of 1190 
(L.P.C.). The later forms from the Great Inquest to the 
middle of the fifteenth century end in urn chiefly, and om : 
Thurnum, Thirnum, Thirnom (R., vols, xlviii., xxxi., 1.). 
In the seventeenth-century forms ham dominates : Thurn- 
ham, Thirnham, Thernham (R., vol, x.). The word 
appears to be a dative plural, thyrnum, of the Old English 
thyrne, a thorn bush, or of the Old Norse thyrnir, de- 
scribing the place as " at the thorn bushes." 

WMttingham. — A parish 5 miles NE. of Preston. The 
Domesday Book form is Witingheham. In a Pipe Roll 
of K. John it is Whitingham (L.P.C, p. 115). Later 
thirteenth century forms are Quitinghaym, Hwytingham, 
Wytingham, Whityngham (R., vol. xlviii.). Whittingham 
occurs in a Final Concord of 1508 (R., vol. 1.). The 
first theme is a patronymic of the Old English personal 
name Hwita, white (O., p. 310). See F., col. 939. 

HEAD 

The Old EngUsh heafod. Old Norse hqfud, head; is 
used to denote a promontory, the source of a stream, or 
the upper part of a field. 

Cadishead. — A village 7 miles NE. of Warrington, on 
the Manchester road. Early thirteenth-century forms of 
the word are Cadewalisset (R., vol. xxxix.), Cadwalesate 
(R., vol. xlviii.), Cadetuallissete, Cadewallessiete, and at the 
end of the century Cadeuelheved (R., vol. xlviii., p. 301). 
In 161 9 we find Cadowshed {^., vol. xlii.), in 1652 Caddis- 
wallhead, otherwise Cadeshead (R., vol. xi.). The first 
theme is apparently a Celtic personal name, for Bede 
speaks of a "Coedualla rex brettonum'' (see S., p. 137). 
The second theme is not head, but the Old English {ge)set. 



CATALOGUE OP PLACE-NAMES 75 

Old Norse scetr, setr, a seat, a dwelling. The early 
appearance (1297) of the termination head is remarkable. 
It originated perhaps in the position of Cadishead at the 
SW. corner of Chatmoss, in the angle formed by the meeting 
of the Glazebrook with the Mersey. 

Conishead. — The old priory stood near the sea, about 3 
miles to the SE. of Ulverston. The twelfth century forms 
of the word (L.P.C.) are Cuningesheved, Conyngeshevede, 
Cuningeshof, Cuninggesh, Cotiegesh (L.P.C, pp. 356 and ff.). 
Later forms are Conyshead, 1600, Connishead, 1652 (R., 
vols, xii., ix.). The earliest forms show the first theme to 
be the genitive case of a patronymic. The base is Cuna, 
a personal name in the Liber Vitae (S.j p. 163, and O., 
p. 146). For the root cum, race, see F., col. 378 ; and for 
the Low German form cone, W., p. 220. 

Feamhead. — A hamlet 2 miles NE. of Warrington. 

Fernyhed is of the date 1467 (R., vol. 1.), Fearnehead of 

1600 (R., vol. xii.). The variant Fearneshead is of 1650 

(R., vol. i.). The first theme is the adjective formed from 

fern. 

Hartshead. — A parish 3 miles NE. of Ashton-under- 
Lyne. No early records known. The first theme may 
either be the known animal or a personal name. See 
Hartbarrow above. 

Hawkshead. — A market town in the Hundred of Lons- 
dale North of the Sands, 29 miles NW. of Lancaster. It 
appears as Houkesete in a charter of about 1200 (L.P.C., 
p. 362). The termination head is found as early as the 
fourteenth century, and in a document of the Furness 
Coucher, p. 659, of the Chetham Society's edition, the 
forms Haukesset and Haukesheved occur together. The 
first theme is the personal name Hauk, a common Scandi- 
navian name meaning hawk. O. gives no examples of the 
use of Hafoc, either as full name or first theme ; there is 



76 HANDBOOK OP LANCASHIRE PLACE-NAMES 

an example of it as second theme on p. 266. The second 
theme of Hawkshead was originally the Old English {ge)set, 
a seat or dwelling ; Old Norse scetr, setr. The change into 
head may have originated in the position of the town at 
the head of Esthwaite Water. 

Henheads. — A village 2 miles N. of Haslingden. No 
early records known. The first theme is a personal name, 
which probably, like the German Hans, originated in the 
Biblical Johannes. See W., p. 158, under the word Henne. 

Lamberhead Green. — A village 2 miles WSW. of Wigan. 
No early records known. The first theme of Lamberhead 
may be doubtfully referred to Lambert. See O., p. 323. 

Bavenhead. — Ecclesiastical district and a part of St. 
Helens, on the south-west. No early records known. 
First theme probably a personal name. 

Shireshead. — A village 4 miles N. of Garstang. No 
early forms known. First theme, the Old English scir, in 
the sense of division or boundary. This point may have 
represented the northern boundary of the ancient constable- 
wick of Garstang. 

Swainshead. — A manor 7 miles NE. of Garstang. It is 
the Suenesat of Domesday Book. In modern maps both 
forms, Swainshead and Swanseff, are given. The first 
theme is the old personal name Swain, Old Norse sveinn. 
Old English swegen, swain (see O., p. 436). The second 
theme the Old Norse scetr or setr. 

Waterhead. — At the N. end of Coniston Water. The 
first theme descriptive of position. 

Westhead. — A hamlet 2 miles E. of Ormskirk. In the 
Foundation Charter of Burscough Priory (L.P.C., p. 349), 
the word is Westhefd, and in a Final Concord of 1436 
IVesthed (R., vol. 1.). Westhead occurs in 1600 (R., vol. 
xii.). The first theme probably indicates position. From 



CATALOGUE OF PLACE-NAMES 77 

Lathom House, the chief residence in the neighbourhood, 
Westhead and Scarth Hill would mark the rise towards the 
west, as Ashurst's Beacon the elevation towards the east. 

Thwaithead. — A hamlet in the parish of Coulton, 4 miles 
NW. of Lake Side. Possibly refers to the adjacent Gray- 
thwaite, and denotes the limiting point of the thwaite. 

HEATH 

The Old English heeth. An open tract of waste or 
uncultivated land, usually covered with low herbage or 
dwarf shrubs. Synonymous nearly with common. 

Heath Cliamock, and Chamock Bichard. Two parishes 
on the south side of Chorley. The earliest forms of the 
word Chamock are Chernoch, Chernoc, 1193 (L.P.C., 
PP- 78) 378); Schernoc, 1242, Hetchernoke and Chernok 
Ricard, 1288 (R., vol. xlviii., pp. 150, 270). Heath 
Charfiock is called Estcherinok (R., vol. xlvii., p. 160), and 
Chemock Gogard (R., vol. xlix., p. 187) in the Lancashire 
Assize Rolls. 

The word Chamock is a ^ diminutive (O., p. xxiii.) of a 
personal name, of which, however, O. gives no examples. 
Forstemann gives Kerne as a Germanic personal name, 
though in doubt as to the etymological origin of it. See 
cols. 365, 574, 630: also the name Cherno. The Berk- 
shire Charney, the Wiltshire Charnham, and the Leicester- 
shire Charnwood, contain probably the same personal 
name as Chamock (Kerne), but there is no conclusive 
evidence of the existence of the name in this country. 

Thatto Heath. — Two miles NE. of Prescot. No early 
records of the name. From a note, however, in V.C.H., 
vol. iii., p. 358, we learn that in a mediaeval boundary list 
it was called Thetwall. Baines in his History of Lanca- 
shire, vol. iii., p. 709, describes the place as a "wild 
common, on which the poor have free pasture for their 



78 HANDBOOK OF LANCASHIRE PLACE-NAMES 

cattle." This suggests that the two parts of the name 
Thetwall may be the Old Norse theod, people, and vollr, 
wall, field: "the people's field," a sufficiently accurate 
designation, according to Baines, even if the etymology 
be faulty. 

The word Heath is used as a subsidiary theme : e.g., 
Sutton Heath, Bold Heath, Broad Heath, Graystone 
Heath. 

HEY, HAY 

These terminations appear to be somewhat confused 
with one another : the first had its origin in the Old 
English hege, a hedge, the last in Old English haga, an 
enclosure, which corresponds to the Old Norse hagi, a 
pasture. 

Haigh.. — A parish 2 miles N. of Wigan. The spelling 
in an early Pipe Roll (1193) is Hage (L.P.C, p. 78). In 
an Assize Roll of 1278 (R., vol. xlvii.) Haugh; in a Final 
Concord of 1298 (R., vol. xxxix.) Hugh, and in the 
Subsidy Roll, 1332 (R., vol. xxxi.) Haghe. Haigh appears 
in 1600 (R., vol. xii.). The word is the Old English 
haga, an enclosed field, a pasture, then a homestead. 

Hay Chapel. — A village 2 miles E. of Oldham. Early 
forms not known. 

Harpurhey. — A district 2 miles NE. of Manchester, 
now included in the city. Early forms not known. First 
theme evidently a mediaeval personal name arising from a 
profession. 

Stodday. — A hamlet 2 miles SW. of Lancaster. In 
the Lancashire Inquests (R., vol. xlviii.) are the forms 
Stodaye, Stodehahe (1252), Stodath (1260), Stodagh, Stode- 
hagh (1307). In a Final Concord of 1301, Stodhagh (R., 
vol. xxxix.), and in one of 1427 Stoday (R., vol. 1.). The 
first theme is the Old English stod, a stud. 



CATALOGUE OF PLACE-NAMES 79 

Hey is often used as a subsidiary theme, especially in 
naming fields ; as Hackins Hey, Hollow Ditch Hey. 

HILL, ELL, HULL, LE 

This is the Old English hyll, a. hill. Not infrequently 
it appears in place-names in the abraded and modified 
form -/e; on the other hand, the / or «/ diminutive is 
occasionally changed into Aull or At//. 

Aspull. — An urban district 3 miles NE. of Wigan. 
Old forms of the word are Aspu/ (R., vol. xlviii.), Asphull, 
Aspull. The first theme is the asj>en tree. Old English 
mspe. A similar combination occurs in the name of an 
Icelandic farm, Espiholl. 

Baxtle. — A village in the parish of Wood-Plumpton. 
Occurs as Bartayl in an entry of 1256 (R., vol. xxxix.). 
The first theme is the female name Berchta. See O., 
p. 104. 

Buersill.— A village in Castleton 2 miles S. of Rochdale. 
No early forms known, though there must be some, as the 
place was Church property before the Reformation. The 
first theme may be Bugered or Buered, which names are 
found in O., p. 119. 

Birtle. — A joint township with Bamford, 3 miles NE. 
of Bury. Mr. Farrer (see R., vol. xlviii., p. 61) regards 
the word as a modern form of Birkhill. The first theme 
is the Old English beorc, a birch tree ; or its Old Norse 
equivalent, birki, a collective noun. 

Brindle. — ^A parish 6 miles SE. of Preston. The 
thirteenth-century forms of the word are Burnul (R., vol. 
xlviii.), Brimhill (R., vol. xxxix.), Burnhull (R., vol. xlvii.). 
In the next two centuries Burnehull, and, rarely, Burnehill 
(R., vol. xxxi.). In the sixteenth, Brinhill, Brynhull (R., 
vol. xxxiii.), and finally Bryndle in 1600, and Brindle in 



8o HANDBOOK OF LANCASHIRE PLACE-NAMES 

1628 (R., vol. xii.). The first theme seems to be the Old 
English word durn. The brook which gives rise to the 
name takes its origin near the village and flowing SE. 
becomes the Lostock. The d in Brindle is epenthetic. 

Coppull. — A parish 5 miles NW. of Wigan. Cophill 
occurs in a Pipe Roll of K. John (L.P.C). CophuU, 
Copul, Copphul (R., vol. xlviii.), are thirteenth-century 
forms. Cophull is the general form for the next century, 
and Coppull appears towards the end of it (R., vol. 1., 
p. 28). The first theme is the Old English Copp, the top 
or summit of a hill, but is perhaps used here in the dialect 
meaning of a ridge, which is applicable to the " lie " of the 
country. 

Cowhill Fold. — A hamlet in the township of Rishton 
3 miles ENE. of Blackburn. In an Inquest of 1256 it is 
spelt Kuhul (R., vol. xlviii.). The first theme thus appears 
to be the Old English cu. 

Cowhill. — A village in Chadderton 2 miles NW. of 
Oldham. No early records, and the name may be assumed 
to be the same as in the preceding. 

Cowley Hill. — A suburb of St. Helens. Cowley was the 
name of the family to which the place belonged. Their 
earlier spelling was Colley (V.C.H., iii., 372). This personal 
name, if not a nickname from Nicholas, probably springs 
from another nickname, the Norse kollr, a summit, a head. 

Daisy Hill. — A village 5 miles SW. of Bolton-le-Moors. 
No records known earlier than the time of the Civil War, 
so that the name probably explains itself. 

Eccleshill. — A parish 3 miles S. of Blackburn. Forms 
of the word from the thirteenth century are Ecdeshull, 
Eclishull, Eckdeshulle (R., vol. xlvii.). It is natural to 
suppose that words beginning with Eccles, in places where 
Celtic church influence was strong in Old English times. 



CATALOGUE OF PLACE-NAMES 8i 

come from ecclesia. But it is difficult to accept this origin 
in places where there is no record of an early Church, and 
there is none such in the above, where probably an old 
personal name lurks, such as Ecgweald. Ecd and Ecca, 
found in the Liber Vitae, if used with the diminutive /, 
would suggest the origin. See W. for eke, ekele, ecka, 
ecke, p. 86. 

Edge Hill. — A low ridge on the SE. side of Liverpool. 
First theme, the Old English ecg, edge, either referring to 
the ridge, or perhaps with the meaning of boundary. 

Oreen Hill. — A hamlet 3 miles SE. of Rochdale. No 
early records ; perhaps the first theme is descriptive. 

Hooley Hill. — A village in the division of Audenshaw, 
2 miles SSW. of Ashton-under-Lyne. No early forms. 
The first theme of Hooley is the Old English h6h, heel, 
which in place-names Kemble describes as a point of land 
formed like a heel or boot, stretching into the plain, 
perhaps even into the sea. 

Ighten-hill. — A parish 3 miles NW. of Burnley on the 
river Calder. Early forms given in the V.C.H. are 
Hightenhull (1238), Ightenhill (1242), HucnhuU (1258), 
Ichten kill {i2^6). The first theme is personal, but there 
is doubt whether it is Wiht, Uht, or Hue. The n will 
arise from the genitive of a supposed weak form. 

Knotshill. — Three miles NE. of Ashton-under-Lyne. 
The first theme may be personal. The name Cnut is 
given several times in O., p. 138. But the s may be a 
later growth, and the Knot be the dialect word knott 
used in the North of England, explained by Professor 
Wright as a rocky, peaked eminence, a projection in a 
mountainside. Knottr is a ball in Old Norse. 

Orrell. — An urban district 3 miles W. of Wigan. Early 
Pipe Rolls of K. John (L.P.C) spell the word Horhill, 



82 HANDBOOK OF LANCASHIRE PLACE-NAMES 

HorhuU, Orhille, and in the Great Inquest (R., vol. xlviii.) 
it is Horul. A Final Concord in 1292 has Orhul (R., 
vol. xxxix.), after which the forms contain no h. Orel 
is the common spelling in the fourteenth century, and 
Orrdl is given of the date 1600 (R., vol. xii.). Hor is 
probably a personal name; Horling and Horulf zxe. given 
in O., p. 301. Kemble gives Horingas as an inferred 
mark, and W., p. 173, Hore, Hora, Horinga. F., col. 865, 
connects Hore, Horing, with the root hor, in the sense 
of obey. There is an Orrell 4 miles N. of Liverpool. 

Pendle Hill. — A mountain ridge 3 miles E. of Clitheroe. 
The three syllables of this combination all separately mean 
hill. Pen is the Welsh for hill-summit ; le represents Old 
English hyll or hull ; as also does Hill. The d is 
epenthetic. 

Fezhill. — In the township of Crouton 3 miles N. of 
Widnes. First theme a personal name. Possibly Pega, 
a name in the Liber Vitae (S., p. 163). Or pecht, the first 
part of several bithpmatic names (O., p. 387), the race 
name Pid. 

Eainhill. — A parish 9 miles E. of Liverpool. Early 
forms are Reynhull (R., vol. xxxix.), Raynhill (R., 
vol. xlvi.), Raynhill (R., vol. 1.). The first theme is a 
personal name; Reyn, Rein, Regen, are components of 
several bithematic names in O., pp. 396-398. The root 
is Ragan counsel for which see F., col. 122 1. 

Scarth Hill.— A low hill SE. of Ormskirk. The word 
scarth is used generally as descriptive of a low-lying 
ground, or a pass in a hilly district. Scarf Gap is the 
pass from Ennerdale to Buttermere in Cumberland. 
Scarthi is a not infrequent Old Danish name, being origin- 
ally a nickname. See Scarisbrick above. 

Smithills. — A village 2 miles NW. of Bolton-le-Moors, 



CATALOGUE OP PLACE-NAMES 83 

Smythehill (R., vol. 1.). The first theme is probably the 
Old English smethe, smooth, as in Smithdown. 

Wardle. — An urban district 3 miles N. of Rochdale. 

Wardhill occurs in a Pipe Roll of Henry III. (R., 
vol. xlix., p. 255), and later spellings of the century are 

Warthull, Wordhull, Wordehull (R., vols, xxxix., xlvii., 
xlix.). The first theme is the Old English weard, 
watchman. 

Whittle-le-Woods. — A parish in Leyland 2 miles N. 
of Chorley. In early charters we find WhithhuU, Witul, 
Whytehyll (L.P.C.), and in the Assize Rolls (R., vol. xlvii.), 
Whithull, Wythull. Whithull in bosco occurs in the 
Subsidy Roll of 1332, and Whithull in the Wodes (R., 
vol. 1.) in a Final Concord of 1381. Whitle appears 
in 1468 (R., vol. 1.). The first theme is the Old English 
hwit, white. 

WMttle — that is, Welsh Whittle — ^is a parish 3 miles S. 
of Chorley. A form Quitul occurs in the Assize Rolls 
(R., vol. xlix., p. 201), and Quitehalhe, 1292 (R., vol. xlviii.), 
in an Inquest. In the Subsidy Roll we find Whithull 
Waleys (R., vol. xxxi.), and in a writ of 1418 (R., vol. 1.), 
Whalswhetyll. The word Welsh may represent the 
personal name of some former resident or owner. Ualch, 
the root being Wealh, a foreigner, occurs in the Liber 
Vitae (S., p. 158). For Whittle, see the preceding word. 
There is also a hamlet Whittle, 2 miles NW. of 
Middleton. 

Windle. — A parish 3 miles NE. ofPrescot, and adjoin- 
ing St. Helens. In early Pipe Rolls the word is Wind- 
hull, Windhill (L.P.C), and Assize Rolls variants are 
Windul, Wayndel (R., vols, xlvii., xlix.). Wyndehull is 
found in 1516 (R., vol. xii., p. 34), Windill in 1538 
{R., vol. xxxiii.), and Windle in 1650 (R., vol. i.). 

If the d is epenthetic, as in Brindle, the first theme 



84 HANDBOOK OP LANCASHIRE PLACE-NAMES 

is the personal name Wine, a common name, uncom- 
pounded and in compounds (see O., pp. 499, 500). But 
if the d is an integral part of the word, which seems 
probable, as the earliest forms contain it, the first theme 
is the Old English wind, which is geographically suited 
to the lie of the place. Wind also occurs in Germanic 
personal names from other sources (see F., col. 1617 ; 
W., p. 443). 

Witlinell. — An urban district 5 miles SW. of Blackburn. 
In an early charter the word is Withinhull (L.P.C., 
p. 374), and in the Assize Rolls the forms are WhithenhuU, 
WytenhuUe, WytAenu/{K., vol. xlvii.). In the seventeenth 
century (1628) the form is Withnell (R., vol. xii.). 

The first theme appears to be the local word withen, 
which is applied to many species of willow. Possibly 
this local word is the Old Norse vith, which corresponds 
to the Old English withig. 

Hill is a very common subsidiary theme. Besides several 
of the above in which it is so used there are : — Woolfall 
Hill, Tandle Hill, Cowling Hillock, Erinscale Hill, Harrock 
Hill, Norman Hill, Knowl Hill, Jackson Hill, Clifton Hill, 
Bunkers Hill, Tenter Hill, Daisy Hill, Bouldens Hill, 
Stoney Hill, Beacon Hill, Cocker Hill, Sinibarrow Hill, 
and many others. 

HOLE, HOLES 

This is the Old English or Old Norse word hoi, a cave, 
a hole, and may denote a hollow or low-lying spot. As 
an adjective, meaning low, it occurs in the first theme of 
place-names, as in Holland. 

Brockholes. — A village 2 miles E. of Preston. It occurs 
as Brochole, 1212 (R., vol. xlviii.), £rochol{K., vol. xxxix.), 
and Brochoks, 1252 (R., vol. xlviii.). 

The first theme is doubtful. It has been usual to regard 



CATALOGUE OF PLACE-NAMES 85 

it as the Old English droc, a badger ; but in view of such 
compounds as Brocton, Brockworth, it is not improbably 
personal J see O., p. 115, where Brocheard occurs. The 
origin of the word as a personal name is not clear 
either. W., p. 52, would regard it as a diminutive of 
brodar, brother, k being the adjunct marking diminution 
or pet form, d and r falling out successively. F., on the 
other hand, col. 337, seems to look on the Old English 
broc, trousers, as giving rise to the personal names Broca 
and others, whose first theme is broc. 

Crookells. — In Mawdesley, 9 miles NW. of Wigan. 
It appears as Crokholes in the Great Inquest of 121 2 
(R., vol. xlviii.). 

The first theme is the personal name Croc, of which 
examples may be seen in O., p. 144. 

Tockholes. — A parish 3 miles SW. of Blackburn. 
Thirteenth century forms are Tocholes, Tkocol, Thochol, 
Tokhol {^., vols, xlvii., xlix.) and Thocholes (R., vol. xlviii.). 

The first theme is a personal name, occurring in the 
forms Toka, Toki, Tochi, Tokig, Thochi, all of which are 
given in O., pp. 455, 456, 445. It is probably of Norse 
origin. The organiser of the band of Wickings of Jom 
was Palnatoki. 

HOLM, HOLME, HULME 

This is a Scandinavian suffix, brought into this country 
by the Danes ; old Norse holmr. It seems very doubtful 
whether the Old English holm was used to form place- 
names. It denotes an islet in a bay, creek, lake, or river. 
But the presence of water is not necessary as a sine-qua- 
non, for in Iceland meadows on the shore, with ditches 
behind them are called holms ; and in Denmark the word 
may denote a "piece of arable land surrounded by 



86 HANDBOOK OP LANCASHIRE PLACE-NAMES 

meadow or moss," or even " a wood surrounded by arable 
land." See Madsen, p. 210. 

Holme in Cliviger. — Ecclesiastical district 4 miles SE. 
of Burnley. Early forms not known ; probably the same 
as the modern. 

Hulme. — A populous suburb of Manchester, on the 
SSW. It occurs in the Assize Rolls (R., vols, xlvii., 1.), 
and other documents. 

Arkholme. — A parish in the valley of the Lune, 10 
miles NE. of Lancaster. The place appears as Ergune 
in Domesday book, and Argun in R., vol. xxxix., of the 
date 1229. In the fourteenth century and until the 
Reformation period the spelling is Erghum. Holm and . 
Holme then become the forms of the last syllable, the 
former only occasionally. The first syllable varies then 
gradually from Erg through Ar, Arg, Arc, to Ark, which 
was finally reached in the latter half of the eighteenth 
century. 

The word is probably the dative plural of Erg, meaning 
"at the pasture fields." See Erg among the series of 
terminations. 

Ballam. — Higher and lower, two hamlets 3 miles to 
the N. of Lytham. The word is spelt balhalm in L.P.C., 
p. 346. The first theme is personal. Beal occurs in 
Bealric (O., p. 79); and Bald is the first element in 
several names in the Liber Vita. S., p. 158 et seq. 

Bircheholm. — NE. of Lytham, but the name does not 
seem to have been preserved. It occurs in the same 
charter of Richard I. as the preceding word (L.P.C., p. 
346). 

Brandlesholme. — A hamlet 2 miles N. of Bury. Early 
forms not known. In modern maps it is spelt Brandle- 
some. First theme personal ; may be a form of Brandulf, 
inO., p. 113. 



CATALOGUE OF PLACE-NAMES 87 

Davyhulme. — A parish in Barton-on-Irwell, 7 miles 
WSW. of Manchester. In V.C.H., vol. iv., are given the 
forms Dewhulm (1313), Defehulme (1434), Deafhulme 
(1559); and in R., vol. xlii., the form Diavie Hulme. 
The first theme is personal ; probably an old name such 
as Dcegfinn, O., p. i6i ; or Dehfin, O., p. 163. The two 
elements oi dagfinn are common (see O., pp. 162, 241). 

Dolphinholme. — A hamlet 6 miles SE. of Lancaster, 
near the river Wyre. No early forms known. First 
theme probably personal. Dolfinus and Dolfyn are found 
as personal names, in the fourteenth century, and Dolfin 
occurs several times as an Old English name. See O., 
p. 168. 

Dunnerholm. — An island in the river Duddon, 5 miles 
NNW. of Dalton-in-Furness. First theme probably the 
personal name Dunnere, in O., p. 172. 

Eastham. — A hamlet 2 miles NE. of Lytham. Identified 
by Mr. Farrer with the Estholm of a charter of Richard I. 
(L.P.C., p. 346). First theme, of position. 

Gauzholme. — A village i.\ mile SE. of Todmorden. 
Early forms not known. First theme probably personal. 
The Old Norse word Gaukr, Scotch, and N. of England 
dialect for cuckoo and simpleton, has been occasionally 
used for a personal name, both in Norway and England. 

Kirkmanshulme. — A village 3 miles SE. of Manchester. 
In a document of 1322 (R., vol. liv.), Mr. Farrer identifies 
the forms Curmesholme, Kirmonsholme, with Kirkmans- 
hulme, the former of which calls to mind Curmeshak, an 
old form of Crumpsall. Thus the first theme of the word 
is doubtful ; in documents of the seventeenth century the 
word is spelt Kerdmanskolme (R., vol. xlii., p. 3). 

Kirkman is a mediaeval proper name from the thirteenth 
century, which explains itself. 



88 HANDBOOK OF LANCASHIRE PLACE-NAMES 

Levenshulme. — A populous village 4 miles SE. of 
Manchester. In 16 16 it appears as Leavesholme, and in 
1 6 1 8 as Levensholme. The first theme is doubtless personal : 
the Old English name Leojwine, O., p. 335. 

Eusholme. — A district 2 miles S. of Manchester and in 
the parliamentary borough. It occurs in a Final Concord 
in the form Russum, 1235 (R., vol. xxxix.). Risholme, 
Rusholme, and Russholme are forms of the beginning of 
the seventeenth century (R., vol. xlii.). 

Both themes may, I think, be taken in their obvious 
meanings, though judging from the 1235 form they are 
both doubtful. 

Torrisholme, a hamlet 2 miles NW. of Lancaster, is 
the Toredholme of Domesday Book. The two earliest 
forms which occur in the Pipe Rolls (L.P.C.) are Toroldes- 
ham, 1200, and Thaurrandeshal, 1201, after which 
Turoldesholm, 1203, occurs several times. In the Great 
Inquest we find Thoroudesholm, 12 12 (R., vol. xlviii.). 
Thorisholm and Torisholm (R., vol. xxxi.) occur at the 
beginning of the fourteenth century. 

The first theme is the Old English Thurweald, Thorold, 
Turold. See O., p. 446. The Old Norse Thorvaldr. 

Woolstenholme Fold. — ^A village 3 miles W. of Rochdale. 
In a Final Concord of 1278, it is spelt Wlstanesholme 
(R., vol. xxxix.), Wohtcnholme, 1600 (R., vol. xii.). 

The first theme is doubtless Wulfstan, an Old English 
name, of which many examples are given in O., p. 519. 

HOPE 

A termination found chiefly in the northern counties, 
denoting a more or less circular open ground, usually 
among hills. From the late Old English hop, a hoop. 

Bacup.— A municipal borough 22 miles N. of Man- 



CATALOGUE OP PLACE-NAMES 89 

Chester. Baines, in his History of Lancashire, vol. iii., 
p. 278, mentions a Royal Grant by K. Henry V., in 141 7- 
14 1 8, of his "vaccary of Bacope." In the absence of 
further old forms of the word, we may suppose the first 
theme to be the Old English dcBC, back. But see also the 
word ieacA in Skeat's Concise Etymological Diet., 1901. 
Bacup is in a district lower than the surrounding heights, 
lying back in the heart of Rossendale Forest. 

Mythorpe. — A hamlet 6 miles NW. of Kirkham. The 
word occurs in the thirteenth century under the various 
forms Mithop, Midhopp, Methop, Mithope (R., vol. xlviii.), 
and is the Midehope of Domesday Book. Mide is probably 
the Old Norse mith, the Old English mid, meaning middle 
There is a farm Midhop in the North of Iceland. 

The second theme is hope not thorpe. 

Coupe Lencb. — A village 6 miles NW. of Rochdale. 
First word appears in R., vol. liv., under the form Couhop, 
of date 1324; thus suggesting the first theme of the word 
to be the Old English cu, cow. The second word is the 
Old English Mine, a rising ground. Coupe Moss and Coupe 
Law occur in the neighbourhood. 

Pickup Bank. — A joint parish with Yate, 4 miles SE. of 
Blackburn. No early forms known. First theme may be 
descriptive, the Old English ptc, a mountain summit, used 
here as a general term for summits, as apparently the 
" Peak " in Derbyshire. 

HORN 

The Old English horn is used to denote a corner 
or horn-shaped district. It is not uncommon in place- 
names in North-west Germany. In South-east and North- 
west Iceland, Horn is the name of promontories. 

Hardlioni. — A township 3 miles E. of Blackpool. In 
the Exchequer Lay Subsidy (R., vol. xxxi.) the word is 



go HANDBOOK OF LANCASHIRE PLACE-NAMES 

Hordorn and Hordern. Hardhorne appears at least as 
early as the beginning of the seventeenth century, 1603 
(R., vol. X., p. 252 ; vol. xi., p. 18). 

The first theme, the word Hard, is a race name. The 
Hords lived in the south-west of Norway, and have left 
their name in Hardanger. The root is that of the word 
hard. The personal name Hordr appears in Landnama. 
The second theme is the Old Norse word rann, a house, 
in the metathesised Old English form mm, given in Sweet's 
Anglo-Saxon Dictionary. 

Professor Wyld suggests that the word is the Old 
English har thorn or har thyme, " ancient or boundary 
thorn," a suggestion of much shrewdness and probability. 

HOUSE 

This word, from the Old English and Old Norse 
hus, occurs in a few place-names, generally in the plural. 

Heyhouses. — A parish 4 miles SE. of Clitheroe. Early 
forms not known. The first theme suggests the Old 
English hege, hedge, and probably signifies here an en- 
closure or park. 

Ladyhouses. — A village in the township of Butterworth, 
3 miles ESE. of Rochdale. No early forms. Name as 
belonging to Ladyhouse, a local residence, or suggests a 
dedication to " Our Lady." 

Moorhouse. — A village in the township of Butterworth, 
7 miles E. of Rochdale. Early forms not known. Name 
explains itself perhaps. 

Newsham. — A hamlet 5 miles N. of Preston, the Neuhuse 
of Domesday Book. In the Lay Subsidies (R., vol. xxxi.) 
it appears as Neusom, Neusum ; and Newsame in 1600 
(R., vol. xii.). Newssam, Newsham are found at the 
beginning of the seventeenth century (R., vol. x., p. 196). 

The first theme is the Old English neowe, new. The 



CATALOGUE OF PLACE-NAMES 91 

second is husum, dative plural of the Old English word 
hus. 

There is another Newsham, a suburb of Liverpool on 
the east. Early forms are Neusun (L.P.C., p. 94), Neusum, 
1292 (R., vol. xxxix.). Probably the second theme is a 
dative plural, as in the preceding. 

Parkhouses. — A hamlet in Crompton, 5 miles SE. of 
Rochdale. No early records. Name explains itself. 

Wesham. — A joint township with Medlar, 1 mile N. of 
Kirkham. In charters of K. Richard I. (L.P.C), the 
form of the word is Wesikusum, Westusum. Westhus is 
in a Final Concord of 1235 (R., vol. xxxix.). In the Sub- 
sidy Rolls there is a contracted second syllable Westsum 
(R., vol. xxxi.). Wessam, Wesham (R., vol. x., p. 50) 
occur in the seventeenth century. 

First theme denotes position; second is the dative 
plural of the Old English hus. 

Waterhouses, Woodhouses. — Villages 2 and 3 miles 
WNW. of Ashton-under-Lyne, in the division of Knott 
Lanes, near the river Medlock. First themes descriptive, 
one of position, the other of material. 

HOW, HOWE, HAUGH, HOUGH 

These terminations, denoting generally a mound or 
barrow, arise from the Old Norse haugr, a mound, a cairn ; 
and Old English hoh, a heel or hough. 

Words which finally have one or other of these termina- 
tions show sometimes in the growth from their original to 
their modern form, a termination hou, as Cliderhou, Preshou. 
This form gives rise to the following observation. In 
some Friesland place-names this termination hou, which is 
modern, arises from hof, a temple or court, and the same 
word hof is a frequent termination, with the meaning of 
court, courtyard in Germanic place-names, as in the 



92 HANDBOOK OF LANCASHIRE PLACE-NAMES 

Westphalian -hofen. It is difficult to see how in the Low 
German migrations to this country the word hof failed to 
give rise here also to place-names which came to end in 
houe. Is it possible that some of the English endings in 
hou in Domesday Book and later documents arose from an 
original hof, which was superseded by Mh or haugr ? 

Hough Green. — A hamlet and railway station, 7 miles 
W. of Warrington. First word, the theme unqualified. 

Hough End. See under theme £nd. 

Becconsall. — A hamlet in the parish of Hesketh, 10 
miles S. of Preston. It first appears in 1208 (R., vol. 
xxxix.) as Bekaneshou, a spelling fairly constant for nearly 
300 years, with only slight variations in the ending, which 
appears as hou, Howe, ho, hawe, awe, &c. 

The first theme is a personal name of Celtic origin, 
beag, beagan, little. As a personal name it occurs in the 
Landnama, where a western man named Bekan is stated to 
have settled in Iceland at the end of the ninth century, at 
Bekanstathir. The modern spelling of the word dates 
from about 1600. The second theme here may denote 
the original settler's cairn or burial-place. 

Brummesho. — A word which occurs in the perambula- 
tion of Toxteth Park, given in L.P.C., p. 421. No other 
early mention. First theme personal, the shortened form 
of some bithematic word as brumhere. O. gives Brum, 
Bruma, p. 117, and W., Brummer, p. 53. The name is 
now lost. 

Clitheroe. — A borough in the valley of the Ribble, near 
the Yorkshire border. The regular twelfth century form 
of the word is Cliderhou (L.P.C.), and the first theme 
remains without change (except an occasional jc for «) for 
nearly three centuries. In an entry of 1441 (R., vol. 1., 
p. 108) we have Clytherawe, but the d may be found in 



CATALOGUE OF PLACE-NAMES 93 

the word until the middle of the seventeenth century (R., 
vol. xii.). The second theme' has the forms Aou, ho, howe, 
ow, owe, awe, oe. 

The first theme of this doubtful word may be personal. 
O. gives Clidebald and Clydwine, which last is a personal 
name in the Liber Vitse. S., p. 160. But the second 
themes do not account for the er. The middle syllable of 
Cliderhou suggests an abraded second theme in the full 
bithematic name, such as here. 

The word, however, may be Celtic, and arise from the 
Welsh clydwr, a shelter. See Coldcoats above. 

Clougha Pike. — A mountain summit 6 miles ESE. of 
Lancaster. In a perambulation of Henry III. given in 
L.P.C., p. 421, the name is Clochehoc. 

The first theme is the supposed Old English clbh, 
clough. See the N.E.D., under the word Clough. The 
second theme is hbh. Pike appears below among the 
second themes. 

Gtmnershow. — A hill on the east side of Windermere, 
near the southern end of the lake. No early records 
known. The first theme is the personal name Gunner, 
of which O. gives several examples on p. 271. The 
Scandinavian form is Gunnarr, a name familiar to saga- 
readers. 

Hackensall. — A township 8 miles NW. of Garstang. In 
a charter of Richard I. we find Hacunesho, and in early 
Pipe Rolls Haccumeho, Hacumeho, Akenesho (L.P.C., 
p. 431, &c.). Later spellings are Hacounshou, 1332 (R., 
vol. xxxi.), Hacunsowe, 1335 (R., vol. xlvi.), Hakensall, 
1600 (R., vol. xii.), and Hackensall, 1632. 

The first theme points to the Scandinavian personal 
name Hdkon. O., p. 275, gives several examples of the 
English form, Hacun. 

Langho. — An ecclesiastical district 5 miles NE. of 



94 HANDBOOK OF LANCASHIRE PLACE-NAMES 

Blackburn. No early records known. First theme de- 
scriptive. 

Preesall. — A township 7 miles NE. of Poulton-le-Fylde, 
near the mouth 6f the Wyre. In Domesday Book it 
appears as Pressovede. The earliest forms subsequent to 
Domesday are Pressoure, Presoura, Pressora, Preshouere 
(L.P.C.). In the thirteenth century and afterwards the 
endings ho, howe, hou, predominate, especially the latter 
(R., vols, xlviii., xxxi.). In the seventeenth century the 
form has become Preesall with the variant Prisall (R., 
vol. X., pp. 171, 217). 

The first theme is Celtic ; cf. the Welsh prys brushwood 
covert, Gaelic preas bush, thicket, grove. Watson (Place- 
names in Ross, p. liii.) says that /^-eaj was "borrowed from 
Pictish into Gaelic." From his examples, p. Ixii., a grove 
may have a sacred character, like the Norse lundr, which 
we know from the Landnama was connected with sacred 
worship. 

The second theme had three forms : head, the Domesday 
form ; shore, from the Old English ora, bank, or Old Norse 
eyrr, in the twelfth century, and howe of the thirteenth 
century. These appear in succession, but there is no 
reason why they should not have been contemporary : 
head referring to the promontory at the mouth of the Wyre 
estuary, ore to the gravelly banks, and howe to the hill 
on which the owner's residence was built. 

Snellshowe. — The ancient name of Clerk Bill, near 
Whalley. It is spelt Snelleshou, 1237, in V.C.H., vol. vi. 
The first theme is a personal name, used by itself and 
as first theme in composite names. See O., p. 427. 

HURST 

The Old English hyrst, a hurst, copse, wood. A 
common termination on the Continent in Old Saxon 



CATALOGUE OF PLACE-NAMES 95 

Netherlandish and Westphahan place-names. In England, 
a characteristically Saxon termination, as distinguished 
from Danish on the one hand and Anglian on the other. 
In Lancashire there are a score or so of places with this 
termination. In Cheshire and Yorkshire two or three 
each at most. In the South of England, especially the 
Home Counties, the termination is a common one. 

Hurst, Higher Hurst, Green Hurst, and Hazelhurst. 
— Four villages within 4 miles of Ashton-under-Lyne, to 
the north-east. First themes descriptive. 

Ackhurst, of which the first element is apparently the 
Old English ac, oak ; but early forms are wanting, so the 
word may be .a modern compound, or the first theme a 
personal name. See O., p. 2. 

Ashhurst Beacon. — A hill in Dalton 4 miles NW. of 
Wigan. Ashhurst Hall is on the western slope. First 
theme of Ashhurst descriptive. An early form has the 
adjective " ashen," in the spelling assen. 

Boarshurst. — Two miles SE. of Dobcross. Early forms 
not known. First theme descriptive, referring to an 
early period when the wild boar lived in the hurst. Wild 
boars were not extinct in England until near 1 700. 

Broadhurst. — Brodehurst occurs as a personal name 
(W. de B.) in R., vol. xxxi., of date 1332, in the township 
of Rivington. First theme means broad. 

Collylurst. — A suburb of Manchester and now forming 
part of the city. No early forms known. In R., vol. xlii., 
of the date 16 16, occurs once the spelUng Colihurst : 
otherwise the general form is Collihursi. 

First theme is from col, and probably refers here to 
the burning of charcoal. Or it may be Celtic. Cf. Welsh 
colkn, hazel. 

Copthurst. — ^A village 4 miles N. of Chorley, on the 



96 HANDBOOK OF LANCASHIRE PLACE-NAMES 

Blackburn road. In L.P.C., p. 375, Mr. Farrer mentions 
Coppildhurst as on the ancient boundary of Gunnolfs- 
moors. 

The first theme is thus probably descriptive, the word 
coppild or coppled having the meaning of "rising to a 
summit or point" (N.E.D.). Professor Wright, in his 
Dialect Dictionary, gives a similar explanation of copt. 

Crochurst. — Mentioned in a Final Concord of 1256 
(R., vol. xxxix.) as a "piece of land in Bulling." The 
name still exists as name of a farm, Crookhurst, about a 
mile and a half south of Billinge Beacon. The first theme 
is a personal name (O., p. 144). It is used in the Land- 
nama, krbkr, as a nickname. As the word means " any- 
thing crooked," so in place-names it may be explained as 
a nook, or a winding, where its character as a personal 
name is out of place. 

Fozholhirst. — Mentioned in a Final Concord of 1241 
(R., vol. xxxix.) as near Goosenargh. First theme descrip- 
tive and explains itself. 

Gathurst. — A village 3 miles NW. of Wigan. First 
theme seems to be the Old English geat, a gate. High 
Gathurst is on the north side of the river Douglas, 
Gathurst on the south side, and near it. 

Hasellenhirste. — Mentioned in a perambulation of the 
forests of South-west Lancashire (L.P.C., p. 422). Situate 
somewhere near Kirkby, but the name is now 'lost. 
First theme Old English adjective form of hazel. 

Icornhurst. — Estate near Accrington. The earliest 
mention of it in the V.C.H. dates from 1464. The first 
theme is the Norwegian dialect word for a squirrel, ikorn, 
Old Norse ikorni. 

Limehurst. — A hamlet 2 miles N. of Ashton-under-Lyne. 
First theme descriptive : the lime or linden tree. 



CATALOGUE OP PLACE-NAMES 97 

Stonyhiirst. — Roman Catholic College, 2 miles NW. 
of the junction of the Ribble and Hodder, almost equally 
distant from Clitheroe, Whalley, and Ribchester. First 
theme descriptive. 

Hurst is sometimes used as a subsidiary theme. 



ING 

For this patronymic suffix, meaning son, sons, followers, 
or descendants of a person, see the Bosworth-ToUer Anglo- 
Saxon Dictionary. Kemble, in an instructive note on 
p. 60 of vol. i. of The Saxons in England, regards it as 
being often a mere substitute for the genitive singular. 

There is a termination tng meaning a meadow in swampy 
situations. Old Norse eng, engi ; Old English ing. It 
is used in place-names, but is not a common second theme 
or termination. As an Old Scandinavian royal name, Ingi, 
it may be found as a frequent personal name in first 
themes; see O., p. 316. 

Billinge. — An urban district and hill with beacon, 4 
miles NE. of St. Helens. Early forms are Bulling, 1212 
(R., vol. xlviii.). Billing, 1246 (R., vol. xlvii.). Bulling, 1256 
(R., vol. xxxix.), and Bullinge, 1332 (R., vol. xxxi.). Billynge 
appears 1366 (R., vol. xlvi.). The word is a patronymic 
derived from a name, of which a form bola is found in O., 
p. 1 10, and S., p. 459. Bolle and Bulla are mediaeval 
Low German names. See W., pp. 44, 54. 

The stem from which it is derived is Bol, meaning matCy 
for which see F., col. 326. Billinge is divided into parts -. 
Higher End and Chapel End. 

Billinge End. — A village i mile W. of Blackburn ; and 
Billinge Scar, a hill 2 miles NW. of Blackburn. The 
name may be the same as the foregoing word, but may 
also be a patronymic of Bil, as in O., p. 107, and in 



98 HANDBOOK OF LANCASHIRE PLACE-NAMES 

Billington, a village NE. of Blackburn. For this word 
see below, under ton. 

Bryning. — ^A parish 3 miles SW. of Kirkham. In the 
first half of the thirteenth century the place seems to have 
been called Birstad Bruning, or Burstad. Brining (R., 
vol. xlviii.). 

Bryning and Bruning are personal names in Old 
English as well as patronymics; see O., pp. 118, 123. 
The name seems to have had two sources (see F., 
col. 338) : one connected with brynja, the Old Norse for 
a breastplate ; the other connected with the Old English 
brun, brown, dark. 

The roots of Burstad are burh (see Bury above) and 
stede (see Stead below). The Old English stede has been 
influenced in Central and South Lancashire by the Old 
Norse stathr, a stead, and has given rise to stad. 

Chipping. — A parish on the borders of Yorkshire, 
12 miles NE. of Preston. In Domesday Book it is spelt 
Chipinden. As the Norman scribe uses ch for the k sound, 
we must suppose that the k sound has not yet quite 
yielded to the present ch sound. From the thirteenth to 
the seventeenth century we meet with Chepin (1246), 
Chipin (1274), Chipindale (1258), Chepyn (1332), Chypyne 
(1342), Chypindale(T.y)i), and similar forms (R., vols, xlviii., 
xxxi., xlvi.). The modern Chipping does not become 
common until the last half of the seventeenth century 
(R., vol. X.), although it occasionally appears as in 1241 
(R., vol. xlviii.), and 1375 (R., vol. xlvi.). 

Chipping occurs several times in the South of England, 
where it comes probably from Cyping, the Old English 
word for a market-place. Possibly the Lancashire Chip- 
ping may have the same origin ; but it may also have a 
personal one, for there is an Old English name Cheping, 
Chipinc, given in O., p. 135. 



CATALOGUE OF PLACE-NAMES 99 

Falinge. — A village i mile W. of Rochdale. This 
word appears to be the Old English /ce/ging, which, accord- 
ing to the Corpus Glossary (see N.E.D., under Fallow), 
means fallows. 

Hacking Hall. — An old house at the junction of the 
Calder and the Ribble. A W. da la Hackyng is mentioned 
in a Final Concord, 1278 (R., vol. xxxix.). 

The word is a patronymic of Haki, a later Danish form 
of the Norwegian Hacun, which appears among English 
names (O., p. 275). 

Over Hacking. — A hamlet in the township of Aighton, 
N. of the Ribble, in the parish of Mitton. Personal name, 
as in the preceding, Hacking in both cases being practi- 
cally a genitive case. 

Mailing. — A parish in the valley of the Lune, 1 1 miles 
NE. of Lancaster. The Domesday Book form is Mellinge, 
and Mellynges occurs in a charter of William Rufus (L.P.C., 
p. 290). In early Pipe Rolls we have Mellinges (L.P.C.), 
Mailing (R., vol. xxxix., p. 56), and Melling (R., 
vol. xxxix.), 1246. 

The word is a patronymic. No basic theme ntel, 
however, occurs in the O. Mel has probably arisen by 
phonetic change from mil, or the action of the Domesday 
Book scribes, who used e for i in the representation of 
many words. Mil is a first theme in several personal 
names in O., p. 352, generally in the form mild; the 
name Mildred, occurs three times in the Liber Vitae as 
Milred. The root mil means merciful, benign ; see F., 
col. 1 123. In the Frisian Onomasticon the names Mele, 
Mella are found, and instances are given of the occurrence 
of the patronymic Mellingha in place-names. See W., 
p. 256. 

Melling is also the name of a parish 7 miles NE. of 
Liverpool. Melinge in Domesday Book. 



loo HANDBOOK OF LANCASHIRE PLACE-NAMES 

Pilling. — A parish 7 miles NW. of Garstang. The 
early form is Fy/m, 1269 (R., vol. xlix.). It appears to be 
a patronymic of the Old English jPi/u, or the first theme 
jPi/ of several names in O., p. 388. It seems to be the 
same word as £t7. See F., col. 304, in which the name 
Pt//in is given. 

Staining. — A village 3 miles S. of Poulton-le-Fylde/ 
The word is a patronymic of the Old English personal 
name Stegen, Old Norse steinn, a stone. The usual Old 
English spelling of the personal name in composite names 
is Stan. Professor Wyld makes ing a field, here and in 
Billinge. 

Ings. — This word is used as a subsidiary theme in 
Clitheroe Ings, Colne Ings, and probably in other cases. 

KIEK, CHURCH 

The Old English word cirice, whatever may be its origin, 
is the foundation word of these terminations. The form 
Church seems to be the younger of the two in the county, 
for the mention of Church and Newchurch as place-names 
does not occur so early as that of Ormskirk and Bradkirk. 

Bradkirk. — A hamlet ia the parish of Medlar-with' 
Wesham, 2 miles NW. of Kirkham. It appears in a 
charter of King Richard I. of the date 1189 (L.P.C.,p. 437). 
Afterwards the spelling varies between Bradekirke (1286), 
Bredekirk (1235), and Bretekirke (1242). The first theme 
appears to be the Old English brad, broad, influenced in 
the later forms by the Old Norse breithr. 

Ohurcli. — An urban district 4 miles E. of Blackburn, 
The forms Chiereche and Chierche occur in Pipe Rolls of 
King John (L.P.C.), and there is little variation later. 
Chirch occurs in 1332 (R., vol. xxxi.). The combination 
Church Kirk is found in the Commonwealth Church 



CATALOGUE OF PLACE-NAMES loi 

Survey (R., vol. i., p. 167), and the kirk at the time of the 
fsurvey served " Church Oswaldtwistle, Huncoate, and 
parte of Claiston." 

Newchurch. — There are places of this name in — Rossen- 
dale, 6 miles S. of Burnley ; Forest of Fendle, 4 miles 
N. of Burnley ; Culcheth, 4 miles S. of Leigh. 

Onuskirk. — A market-town 13 miles NE. of Liverpool. 
Ormeschirche occurs in the Foundation Charter of the 
Priory of Burscough, and Ormeskierk in an early Pipe Roll 
of King John (L.P.C.). The first theme is the Scandinavian 
name Ormr, of which the corresponding English form is 
Wurm. See O., pp. 370, 522. The place is probably 
named after some local hermit or saint, like many place- 
names in Ireland beginning with Kil. 

St. Helens. — A county borough 1 2 miles E. of Liverpool, 
grew up round a Chapel-of-ease to Prescot, built in the 
township of Windle by Sir Thos. Gerard of Ince, about 
the year 1540. St. Ellen was the patron Saint (R., vol. i., 
p. 78). See Paterson's Hist, of Prescot, p. 48; V.C.H., 
vol. iii., pp. 374, 375- 

St. Michael-on-Wyre. — A parish 10 miles NE. of 
Preston — the Michelescherche of Domesday Book. The 
church is mentioned in charters of King Richard I. (L.P.C, 
PP- 336, 337)- 

ENOLL 

This is the Old English cnoll, hill-top, hill. It is used 
rarely as a theme in composite names, though found in 
compound place-names as a subsidiary theme. 

Gilnow. — A hamlet i mile W. of Bolton-le-Moors. In 
the absence of early forms the first theme seems to be the 
north country ^7/, a ravine. In the V.C.H., vol. v., under 
the date 1773, is given a form of the word, Gilnough, 



102 HANDBOOK OF LANCASHIRE PLACE-NAMES 

which cannot be reconciled with the ending Ano/l Has the 
original author of this form confused kfioli with the Celtic 
cnoc, of the Isle of Man ? 

Ferny Knoll. — Name of two farms on the Moss between 
Rainford and Skelmersdale. 

High Knowl.— Place 4 miles NE. of Ashton-under- 
Lyne, on the Yorkshire border. 

Knoll or the variant form Knowl is often used as a 
subsidiary theme : e.g. East Knowl, Wolt Knowl, Dineley 
Knowl. 

LACHE, LATCH, LEACH, LETCH 

A stream flowing through boggy land ; a muddy ditch ; 
a bog. A termination, of frequent occurrence in old 
charters, which Murray (N.E.D.) derives doubtfully from 
Old English /eccan, to wet, to water, to irrigate; a word 
connected with /acu, a stream. 

Garthscohlac. — This word occurs in a charter of the 
thirteenth century (L.P.C., p. 360). The component 
parts of the first theme are the two Old Norse words 
garthr, skbgr, the combination here having the meaning of 
" farm-wood." 

Blacklaclie. — Occurs in a Final Concord of 1256 (R., 
vol. xxxix.) as near Salwick Moss. Sal wick is 5 miles 
NW. of Preston. First theme descriptive. 

ThatcMeach. — Near Whitefield, a town 6 miles N. of 
Manchester. Early records not known. Did the name 
originate in the soaking of straw for thatch ? 

Osueluslaclie. — The word occurs in a charter of 
Richard I. (L.P.C., p. 329). The place was in Audenshaw, 
Ashton-under-Lyne. First theme is the common name 
Oswulf, in O., p. 381. 



CATALOGUE OF PLACE-NAMES 103 

LAND 

In place-names, used to designate generally a large 
district, even an estate or kingdom. Usually subjoined to 
a descriptive word as High, Low, or to a race name as 
England, rarely to a personal name. 

Austerlands. — A village 2 miles E. of Oldham. No 
early forms. The first theme appears to be the Old Norse 
ausfr, the east. 

Bigland Hall. — Situate 3J miles NW. of Cartmel. No 
early forms. The first theme of Bigland seems to be iigg, 
a kind of barley. 

Bowland (Little). — Parish on the river Hodder, 9 miles 
NW. of Clitheroe. It formed part of the Forest of Bow- 
land. It appears to be included in the Boelandam of an 
early charter of K. Henry I. (L.P.C., p. 382) and in the 
Bouland of one of K. Stephen (p. 388). 

The first theme ds bu, which in Old English means a 
dwelling, but in Old Norse one of its meanings is farm- 
stock, cattle. This makes of Bowland, pasture lands for 
cattle. See the vaccaricR, under the terminal theme Booth. 

Bradelond. — This word occurs in a charter of the twelfth 
century (L.P.C., p. 377)- Mr. Farrer places it in North 
Meols or near. The first theme is broad. 

Hollajid. — This name in early charters refers sometimes 
to Upholland, a town and urban district 4 miles SW. of 
Wigan ; and sometimes to Down Holland, a parish 3 miles 
SW. of Ormskirk. Both are mentioned in Domesday 
Book, the former apparently under the form Holland and 
the second under the form Holand, according to Mr. 
Farrer in vol. i. of the V.C.H. In the various notices of 
the two places and their owners in the records of the 
twelfth and thirteenth centuries (R., vols, xlviii., xlvii.. 



104 HANDBOOK OF LANCASHIRE PLACE-NAMES 

xxxix.), the difference in the Domesday spelling does not 
seem to be preserved. I imagine Hoiland was a form 
introduced by Danish settlers, who brought with them a 
word often used in Danish place-names, hoi, hill or high, 
and being applied to Upholland superseded the Old 
English hoh. Holand, referring to Down Holland, is low 
land, from Old English hoi, hollow. 

Eirkland. — A parish on the Wyre, i mile SW. of 
Garstang. No early forms. First theme descriptive. 

Leyland. — An urban district 6 miles S. of Preston. It 
gives name to the Hundred, and both are spelt Lailand in 
Domesday Book. In other early documents the spelling 
of the first syllable varies apparently without reason (L.P.C., 
R., vols, xlvii., xlviii.) between lai and lei. Leyland 
occurs in 1242 (R., vol. xlviii., p. 150)- Variants in the 
spelling of the last syllable are found (R., vol. xlvii., pp. 
37, 63) in Leyland, Leylaundesyre. 

The first theme is the common termination ley, the Old 
English leah, meadow land. The variation in [.spelling 
suggests that there may have been confusion between 
meadow land and land lying fallow. Consult N.E.D., vi., 
136, 150, under the words lea and lea-land. 

Litherland. — An urban district 5 miles N. of Liverpool j 
it is spelt Liderlant and Literland in Domesday Book, but 
according to Mr. Farrer (V.C.H., i., p. 284) the words 
refer to different manors, the first afterwards known as 
Down Litherland, and the second as Up Litherland. In 
an early Pipe Roll and charter (L.P.C., pp. 36, 427) we 
have the forms Liderlanda, Liderlant ; afterwards the first 
syllable is usually Lither or Lyther. 

The first theme seems to be the personal name 
Leodhard, on p. 325 of O. 

The present form, Lither, is due, I believe, to Scandi- 
navian settlers on the West Coast, not improbably from 



CATALOGUE OF PLACE-NAMES 105 

the Isle of Man, who by the change, caused the word to 
have an appropriate meaning in their own language. 
Liderlant by this corruption was made to mean "land 
of the slope," the word hlithar being the genitive case 
of hlith (Old Norse), a slope. 

A similar influence seems to have affected other words. 
See Chapter V. below. 

Marland. — A village 2 miles SW. of Rochdale. The 
name seems to have undergone no change since 12 12 (see 
V.C.H., vol. v., p. 202). The first theme is descriptive, 
the Old English mere, lake. Teesdale's map (1830) shows 
a Marland Mere. 

Longlands. — Farm 2 miles N. of Cartmel. First theme 
descriptive. 

Newlajid. — A village i mile NE. of Ulverston. First 
theme descriptive. 

New Laund Booth. — The N.E.D. defines Laund as 
" an open space among woods, a glade ; untilled ground, 
pasture," and derives the word from Old French launde. 
The adjective new applies to Laund Booth as a single 
word, as there is an Old Laund Booth i mile further 
distant from Burnley on the north. 

Rnsland. — ^An ecclesiastical district and hamlet 6 miles 
S. of Hawkshead, in the parish of Coulton. In ignorance 
of early forms, I presume the first theme to be Rush. 

Spotland. — A township i mile NW. of Rochdale, 
now a suburb of the town. It occurs in a Final Concord 
of 1299 (R., vol. xxxix.), and is spelt Spotlmd in Final 
Concords of 1369 (R., vol. xlvi.) and afterwards. The 
first part is a Scandinavian word meaning "portion" or 
"fragment," and the whole word is about equivalent to 
the Old English land-sploti. 

Sunderland. — A tongue of land and hamlet at the 



io6 HANDBOOK OF LANCASHIRE PLACE-NAMES 

mouth of the river Lune. Dr. Sweet (Ang.-Sax. Diet.) 
explains Sundorland as " land set apart," " private land." 

Yelland. — Two parishes 8 miles NE. of Lancaster. 
In Domesday Book the word is/alani ; Yelafid in an early 
charter (L.P.C.) and early inquests (R., vol. xlviii.). The 
Assize Rolls (R., vols, xlvii., xlix.) contain the variants 
Yholand, Jeland, Yaland. Ydond occurs in a Final Con- 
cord of 1246 (R., vol. xxxix.) and Subsidy Roll of 
1332. Yeland Redman is found in a Final Concord of 
1395 (R., vol. 1.), Yelattd Conyers in one of 1353 (R., 
vol. xlvi.). 

The first theme is the Old English htald, sloped, inclined ; 
and thus impUes that the land is on a sloping hillside. 
The Scandinavian terms are similar. In Icelandic place- 
names, hjalli is a shelf in a mountain-slope ; in Norwegian, 
hjellendt, terrace-formed land. 

LEA, LEE, LEIGH, LEY, LAI, LE, LES, LEES 

The Old English word leak, meadow, lea, pasture, appears 
in B.-T. under two forms of different gender and inflection : 
the one a general term for pasture land, the other as the 
origin of place-names, in ley, high. It seems likely that 
two originally different words have been confused together. 
Dr. Murray (in the N.E.D.), under the word /ea, also 
assumes two forms — one adjectival, connected with the 
verb lay, and meaning fallow land ; the other form, lea, 
cognate with the Latin word lucus, a wood, or perhaps a 
clearing in a wood. It is the second form, which as loh, 
lohe, loo occurs in continental names, and answers to 
the ley or leigh in English place-names. The frequent 
appearance of this termination in connection with trees or 
shrubs, as in Oakley, Ashley, Bromley, Bentley, seems to 
indicate a clearing or levelled place in the midst of plant 
growth . 



CATALOGUE OF PLACE-NAMES 107 

Lea. — A township 4 miles NW. of Preston ; it is /ea in 
Domesday Book and later documents (L.P.C., p. 375). 
It consisted apparently of two manors : English Lea and 
French Lea. The former is mentioned in an early Pipe 
Roll of King John (L.P.C., p. 130), Engleskel . . , and 
the latter in a charter of King Richard I. (L.P.C., p. 432), 
Le Franceis. From a Final Concord of 1 256 (R., vol. xxxix. ) 
EngUsshe-k appears to have been on the north towards 
Plumpton, and from one of 1446 (R., vol. 1.) Frensshelee on 
the south towards Ashton. 

The word is the dative case of kah. 

Leece. — A village 3 miles E. of Barrow-in-Furness ; it is 
the Lks of Domesday Book. In a Patent Roll of King 
Henry III. (R., vol. xlix., p. 243), it is spelt Les, and in the 
Subsidy Rolls (R., vol. xxxi.) Lees. In the sixteenth 
century and afterwards it is generally spelt Leece (R., vol. x., 
p. 4). It appears to be the plural kas of kah. 

Lees. — An urban district i mile SE. of Oldham. 
The spelling does not seem altered since the beginning of 
the sixteenth century (V.C.H., vol. v., p. 98). Lee is a 
spelling of the fifteenth century, of which Lees is the plural. 

Leigh. — A borough and market-town 7 miles SE. of 
Wigan. In the Assize Rolls kgh and Leghes seem to be 
two forms of this word, and also Lee (R., vol. xlvii., pp. 19, 
31 ; vol. xlix., p. 296). Legh (R., vol. xxxiii., p. 14) is the 
spelling in the Clergy List of 154 1, and Leigh in the Clergy 
Loan of 1620 (R., vol. xii., p. 53). Leages is a genitive, 
and kage a dative case of kah. 

Adgarley. — A village 4 miles SW. of Ulverston. The 
spelling is Adgareslith in the Great Inquest of 12 12 
(R., vol. xlviii.). The first theme is probably the Old 
English personal name Eadgar (see O., p- 180). The 
second theme is not ky, but Old English hlith, a slope. 
The spelling with ky began in the fourteenth century. 



io8 HANDBOOK OF LANCASHIRE PLACE-NAMES 

Arley Hall. — One mile W. of Blackrod. The word 
occurs as Erekigh in 1283 (V.C.H., vol. v., p. 302), then 
Arley in the next century and onwards. The first theme is 
the personal Ere, which is used by itself, and also in com- 
bination (see O., p. 233). The word seems to be the 
same as the common here, of which the base, harja, means 
army (see F., col. 760). 

Astley. — A parish 3 miles E. of Leigh. Early forms 
of the word are Astelegh, of the date 1309, and Asteley of 
1344 (R., vol. xlvi.). Considered in connection with the 
parish West Leigh, on the west of Leigh, the present word 
seems to be East Leigh. It is possible, however, that the 
first theme may be a personal name, either east or cesc, 
which word occasionally developed into ast, as in astwulf, 
in O., p. 32. 

Audley. — An estate E. of Blackburn. Early documents 
are wanting to show changes in spelling. Haldky is the 
form in R., vol. xxxv., p. 164. A Henry de Audley is 
mentioned in L.P.C., p. 112. First theme, probably 
personal. See O., p. 195, Eald, meaning old. 

Bailey. — A hamlet in the valley of the Ribble 7 miles 
to the north of Blackburn. The form Bayley occurs in 
R., vol. xxxix., of the date 1284, and later the form Bayleye. 

The first theme is personal. Baga occurs in the Liber 
Vitae, S., p. 160, and is reproduced in O. Root, according 
F., col. 231, is baga, a contest. 

Bardsley. — A parish 2 miles N. of Ashton-under-Lyne. 
First theme is personal. See O., p. 105, for Berred, 
Berrardus, and p. 80 for Bared. As early forms are want- 
ing, material is lacking to decide between these. 

Barley Booth. — A parish 5 miles W. of Colne. First 
theme is probably the grain, as there is a Wheatley Booth 
adjacent, the two forming one parish. Barelegh is 
mentioned in 1324 (see V.C.H.). 



CATALOGUE OP PLACE-NAMES 109 

Beutley. — On p. 329 of the L.P.C. is the word Bentelee, 
the "coarse grass meadow." The place-name seems to 
have disappeared. It was between Manchester and 
Ashton-under-Lyne. 

Blackley. — A chapelry 3 miles N. of Manchester. It 
appears as Blakeky in 1282 (R., vol. xlviii.). First theme 
descriptive ; the Old English adjective blcec. 

Birchley. — An estate and hall in Billinge, on the 
Rainford side. It appears to be the Biricherelee of the 
year 1202 in (R., vol. xxxix., p. 15). The first theme 
suggests the Old Norse bjarkar, genitive of bjork, a birch- 
tree. " The meadow of the birch." 

Bootle. — ^A borough contiguous to Liverpool, on the 
north. Domesday Book writes it Boltelai, and the forms 
Botle (R., vol. xlviii.) and Bothull (R., vol. xxxi.) appear in 
1257 and 1332. The first theme (taking the Domesday 
spelling) is the Old English bold or boil, a dwelling-house 
or building. 

Bradley Hall. — This place, in the parish of Chipping, 
12 miles NE. of Preston, is mentioned as Bradeley in an 
entry of the year 1246 (R., vol. xxxix.). The first theme 
is the adjective broad. Old English brad. 

Broadley. — A village in Spotland, 2 miles NW. of 
Rochdale. First theme descriptive, as in preceding word. 

Buckley Hill. — A village in Seftoii, 5 miles N. of Liver- 
pool. No early forms known. First theme of Buckley 
personal. O. gives (p. 119) both buca and bucca. Old 
English bucca means a he-goat, and the Old Norse bokki 
is a familiar mode of address (see C.V., under the word). 

Burnley. — A borough 25 miles N. of Manchester. In 
entries of the reign of Henry III. the word appears as 
Bronley, Bromlay (R., vol. xlviii.), and in 1332 the forms 
Brunlay, Brunley occur (R., vol. xxxi.). An instance of 



no HANDBOOK OF LANCASHIRE PLACE-NAMES 

the modern spelling Burnley is found of the date 1434 
(R., vol. 1.). In B.-T., under the word Burn, we read: 
"As a prefix or termination to the names of places, burn 
or burne denotes that they were near a stream." The 
Brun, flowing north from CUviger, passes through Burnley 
and joins the Calder about 2 miles from the town. 

Cadeley Moor and Farm. — Three miles NW. of Preston, 
in Fulwood. In a perambulation given on p. 425 of the 
L.P.C., it is spelt Cadilegh. The first theme is personal, 
Cada, which occurs in Liber Vitse, S., p. 161. 

Catley Lane. — A village in Spotland, 2 miles NW. of 
Rochdale. Early forms unknown. It should perhaps 
be Cattelowe (R., vol. xlvi., p. 25). First theme probably 
personal. Cat occurs in the formation of proper names 
(O., p. 126). 

Cowley Hill. (See theme Hill above.) 

Chaigley. — A hamlet in the valley of the Hodder, 5 
miles W. of Clitheroe. The early spellings of the Assize 
Rolls of Henry III. (R., vols, xlvii., xlix.), are Cheydesleg, 
Chaddesl, Chadelegh. 

These forms suggest Chad as the first theme, and there 
is a Chadswell in the centre of the township. But the 
forms of the fifteenth century and later are so confused 
that it is not easy to form a conclusion about them. 

Chawgeley (1437) is given by Professor Wyld from the 
Calendar of Inquisitions; Chagley (1600) is the reading 
in R., vol. xii. ; and Chardgley, Chaidgley, Chadgley, 
Cheaghley, are seventeenth-century forms taken from the 
parish registers. 

Chorley. — A borough and market-town 9 miles SSE. 
of Preston. Early thirteenth century forms are Cherlegh, 
1251, Cherle, 1252 (R., vol. xxxix.). The spelling with 
appears before the end of the century — Chorleye, 1295. 



CATALOGUE OF PLACE-NAMES in 

The first theme is the Old English ceor/, genitive plural 
ceor/a, or it may be a personal name (O., p. 133). The 
name of the river on which the town is situated is Chor, 
but evidence of the early existence of the name is wanting. 

Cleveley. — A parish on the Wyre, 4 miles N. of 
Garstang. First theme apparently descriptive; the Old 
English clt/, genitive plural c/ifa, cliff, rock. 

Cuerdley.— A parish 4 miles W. of Warrington. The 
spelling is Kiuerddey, 141 1, in (R., vol. 1.). The first 
theme is the word wer, wcBr, war, a common element 
in Germanic personal names (see O., pp. 473-75, 478). 
The k sound at the beginning of the word is found in 
several place-names, as Queryngton for Warrington, Qualley 
for Whalley. The d is for Norman de, a development 
n a few names of which mention will be made, Chap- 
ter V. below. 

Deamley. — A village in Wuerdale with Wardle, 2 J miles 
NE. of Rochdale. The first theme is the personal name 
deora (see O., p. 164), of which deoran is the genitive. 

Dinkley. — A township in the valley of the Ribble, 
5 miles N. of Blackburn. Forms of the word dating from 
the thirteenth century are Dunkythele (R., vol. xlvii.), 
Dunkedeley (R., vol. xlviii.), Dinkedelegh. Dynkedelay is 
found in the fourteenth (R., vol. xlvi.), Dynkley (R., vol. 1.) 
at the beginning of the sixteenth. 

The first theme is the personal name Dynne (see O., 
p. 173), of which the root is probably the Old English 
dunn, dark brown (see F., col. 432). The k makes it 
a diminutive familiar name, and the de is Norman (see 
Chapter V. below). 

Fazaikerley. — A township 4 miles N. of Liverpool. 
Henry de Fasakerlegh is mentioned in an Assize Roll 
of 1276 (R., vol. xlvii., p. 136). Similarly, Fasacrelegh in 



112 HANDBOOK OF LANCASHIRE PLACE-NAMES 

the names of persons in 1376 (R., vol. xlvi.). Fasacre 
and Fasarlegh occur in 1323 (R., vol. xli.). 

The first theme is a personal name which has not found 
its way into O. Winkler, however, gives the Low German 
Foes and the patronymic. See W., p. 94, where he regards 
the name as a familiar shortening of Bonifacius, the name 
of a saint and several popes. For the other parts of 
Fazakerley, see the themes Acre and Ley. The occurrence 
of the two in one word is remarkable, as their primitive 
meanings are somewhat opposed. 

Healey. — An ecclesiastical district 2 miles NW. of 
Rochdale. It is mentioned in a Final Concord of 1260, 
as Hayleg (R., vol. xxxix.). First theme may be M.E. kei, 
a hedge. See, however, the next word. 

Healey. — A district containing Healy Nab, lying to the 
East of Chorley. Early spellings of the word are Helei, 
1213, Heley-Cliffe, 1160, Heyky-Park, 1160 (L.P.C.). 
There is also a sixteenth-century form Heghlegh, in the 
Chorley Survey (R., vol. xxxiii., p. 4). 

The Assize Rolls of the thirteenth century contain 
various forms, but it is uncertain to which Healey they 
belong : — Helleg, Hellei, Hely, Heleye. 

I suggest for the first theme, from the Glossary to E., 
the word gehcBg, derived from hege, a hedge, and meaning 
an enclosure. The local pronunciation of the Rochdale 
Healey, given in Bamford's Glossary to Tim Bobbin, 
Yelley, apparently gives support to this derivation. 

Hindley. — An urban district 3 miles SE. of Wigan. 
In the Great Inquest of 12 12 we find Hindele, and 
somewhat later, Hindelegh, 1293, and Hindeley, 1297 
(R., vol. xlviii.). 

The first theme is the personal name hyni of the Liber 
Vitae, S., p. 156. The ^is epenthetic. The common form 



CATALOGUE OF PLACE-NAMES 113 

of the name is the un-umlauted one, hun. The dialect 
pronunciation of the place-name is ind/i. 

Keajsley. — An urban district 5 miles SE. of Bolton-le- 
Moors. It appears to be the Cherselawe of early Pipe 
Rolls (L.P.C., pp. 64, 68). In an entry of 1501 it is spelt 
Keresley. The first theme is a personal name, and from 
its being compounded in place-names with such termina- 
tions as ley, shaw, and hall, it appears to be of Old 
English origin. O., p. 134, contains a personal name 
Ceorra, which seems a not unlikely source. A Frisian 
personal name is Keer (W., p. 210). See Kersal 2iOoy&. 

Enowsley. — A parish 7 miles NE. of Liverpool. In 
Domesday Book it is Chenulueslei, and Cnusleu in the 
Foundation Charter of Burscough Priory (L.P.C., p. 350). 
Other forms are Knuvesle (R., vol. xxxix.) in a Final 
Concord of 1199, and Knousdegh in one of 1376 (R., vol. 
xlvi.). The first theme is an Old English personal name, 
Cyneivulf, for which see O., p. 159, where will be found a 
shortened form,- Cenulf. 

Lussley. — A hamlet 3 miles NE. of Ashton-under-Lyne. 
It is also spelt Luzly. Early forms not known. The 
first theme is personal, a genitive of Lud, one of the forms 
taken by the prolific liudi, leudi in the formation of names. 
See F., col. 1030 ; O., p. 340- 

Maghull. — A parish 5 miles SW. of Ormskirk. The 
form in Domesday Book is Magele. The thirteenth 
century forms are Mughal, Maghale, Magehal (R., vol. 
xlvii.), Mahal, Mahale, Mahhale (R., vol. xlviii.). In the 
fourteenth century we have Made (R., vol. xlvi.), which 
leads up to the Male of the fifteenth and sixteenth 
centuries (R., vol. xii.). Maghull occurs with Male in the 
middle of the seventeenth century. The first theme is 
personal, the name McBg. See O., p. 344- 

For the form le as occurring in Domesday Book for lea, 



114 HANDBOOK OF LANCASHIRE PLACE-NAMES 

see M.S., p. 27. In view, however, of the thirteenth 
century forms of Magele, doubt must be felt whether the 
termination was originally leak or healh. 

Mawdesley. — A parish 7 miles NE. of Ormskirk. An 
early spelling in a Pipe Roll of Henry III. is Madesle 
(R., vol. xlix., p. 257). After this the first syllable of the 
word is usually diphthongal Moudesley (R., vol. xlviii.), 
Moudeslegh, 1333, Maudesiegh, 1372 (R., vols, xxxi., xlvi.). 
Mawdsley and Mawdisley occur in 1600 (R., vol. xii.). 

The first theme is the personal name McRgweald, 
Magoald, O., p. 345, Meiuald in the Liber Vitae, p. 159. 
It still exists in the modem Manx Maughold. 

Mearley. — A parish 2 miles E. of Clitheroe. Magna 
Merlay occurs in early charters (L.P.C., pp. 385, 387), 
Little Merley in an Inquest of 1242 (R., vol. xlviii.). 
Mearley occurs in the list of freeholders in 1600 (R., 
vol. xii.), and Mierley, Myerley in 1631. 

McBr and Mere are elements in the formation of personal 
names (see O., pp. 345, 351), either of which may be 
the first theme of Mearley. The root of the name is 
maru, famous. See F., col. 1099. 

Mossley. — A municipal borough 3 miles NE. of 
Ashton-under-Lyne. The first theme is descriptive j the 
Old English mos, a marshy place ; Old Norse mosi. 

Osmotherley. — A parish 2 miles NW. of Ulverston. 
In the Assize Rolls it is spelt Asemunderlawe (R., 
vol. xlvii.). Late forms are Osmuderley, 1597 (R., vol. x., 
p. 8), Osmonderley (R., vol. i.), Osmotherlow, 1670 (R., 
vol. x., p. 247), and Osmotherley, 1709 (R., vol. xiii., p. 7). 

The first theme is the personal name Osmund, a 
frequent Old English name in O., p. 376; also in the 
Liber Vitas, S., p. 156. The Old Norse form is As-mundr, 
genitive -mundar. There has been confusion in this word 
between the terminations leak, ley, and hlcew, low. 



CATALOGUE OF PLACE-NAMES 115 

Pickley Green.— Two miles N. of Leigh. Early forms 
not known. The first theme appears to be personal : 
the name ^u, picco, as in O., p. 388, a name which origi- 
nated in a weapon. See F., col. 300. 

Eiley Green. — In Leyland, half a mile S. of Hoghton 
Tower. No early records known. The first theme of 
Riley suggests the grain as in Barley, Wheatley. 

There is a Rylegh (R., vol. xxxi., p. 32) in Ashton-under- 
Lyne. 

Bisley. — A hamlet 7 miles NE. of Warrington. The 
word is spelt in the Assize Rolls (R., vol. xlix.) Rysekgh, 
Risselley. The first theme seems to be the dialect word 
rise, brushwood, Old Norse hris ; but further forms are 
desirable. 

Ringley. — A village on the Irwell, 8 miles NW. of 
Manchester. Early forms not known. First theme 
personal. The Old Norse and Old English Hring was 
not an uncommon name ; used by itself and in bithematic 
names, O., p. 302. 

Rough Lee Booth. — A parish 4 miles W. of Colne. 
First theme doubtless descriptive of the nature of the 
ground. 

Seedley. — A railway station in Pendleton NW. of Man- 
chester. Early records not known. First theme, the 
word side, used in personal names (O., p. 416). Root, 
sidu (F., col. 1315), custom. 

Smedley. — An estate in Cheetham N. of Manchester. 
First theme probably as in Smithdown, near Liverpool, the 
Old English adjective smethe, smooth. 

Shakerley. — A hamlet 4 miles NE. of Leigh. The 
word takes the forms Schakeslegh, 1246, and Schakerky, 
1284, in the Assize Rolls (R., vol. xlvii., xlix.). Shakerley 
is in the list of freeholders, 1600 (R., vol. xii.). 



ii6 HANDBOOK OF LANCASHIRE PLACE-NAMES 

The first theme is a personal name, O. gives SccBcca, 
F., col. 1303, mentions the Old English Sccecca, under 
Scakka, which recalls the Old Norse nickname Skakkif 
meaning the lame one. 

Staveley. — A parish 6 miles N. of Cartmel. Siavele, 
Stavelay occur in the Assize Rolls (R., vol. xlvii.), and 
Stavelay in a Final Concord of 1301 (R., vol. xxxix.), 
and they possibly relate to the place under consideration. 

If we could accept the phonetic change or corruption of 
th to V (we have th to / in Bickerstaffe), and so accept 
stath, the Old English word for bank, shore, land bordering 
on water, as the first theme, the word would have a suitable 
meaning : the meadow by the shore of Windermere, and 
the river Leven. I can suggest nothing better. 

The word is the first part of Stayley-Bridge. 

Thornley. — This place forms a parish with Wheatky, 
TO miles NE. of Preston, under the north side of Long- 
ridge Fell. It occurs in a Final Concord of 1202 as 
Thorenteleg, and in one of 1262 as Thornedelegh (R., 
vol. xxxix.). Forms in the volume of Inquests (R., 
vol. xlviii.) are Thorndeley, 1258, and Thomdekghe, 1302, 
Those of the Assize Rolls (R., vol. xlvii.) are Tornelay, 
Thornythek, Thornideky, Thorndek, Thornnedel. In the 
Subsidies volume (R., vol. xxxi.) are the forms Thorndekgh 
and Thornky. After which the normal form is only 
subject to such variations as Thornky, Thornelay. The 
first theme is the Old English thorn, thorn ; the middle 
theme is the French de, or the English to, at, or i'th. 

Towneley. — An estate in the parish of Whalley. This is 
the Tunky and Thunkye of the Inquests (R., vol. xlviii.). 
The word explains itself. 

• Tyldesley. — An urban district 3 miles NE. of Leigh, 
Tildesk is found in the Great Inquest of 12 12 (R., 
vol. xlviii.); later spellings are Tyldesky and Tildisky. 



CATALOGUE OF PLACE-NAMES 117 

Tildesleye occurs in a Final Concord of 1301 (R., vol. 
xxxix.). 

The first theme is the personal name Tilli, which is 
found in the Liber Vitse (see S., p. 158). The root of the 
name is the Old English til, good. The d of the word is 
intrusive. A common dialect pronunciation is Tinsley. 

Walmersley. — A joint parish with Shuttleworth, 3 miles 
N. of Bury. The word Walmeresley occurs in a Patent 
Roll of 1262 (R., vol xlix.), and again as Walmersley in an 
Inquest of 1300 (R., vol. xlviii.). The first theme is the 
personal name Wealdmcer, O., p. 480. For the roots 
vald, rule, maru, famous, see F., cols. 1496, 1099. 

Walmesley. — An ecclesiastical district 4 miles N. of 
Bolton-le-Moors. The name Walmesley occurs in a list of 
fines paid of the year 1406 (R., vol. 1.). Both forms — 
Walmisley, Walmesley — are found in the seventeenth century 
(R., vol. xii.). The first theme appears to be a somewhat 
more abraded form than the preceding of the same Old 
English personal name. 

Whalley. — Formerly an extensive parish, now a village 
and small parish 4 miles S. of Clitheroe. It is the 
HwcBlleage, HweallcBge of the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, and 
the Wallet of Domesday Book. In early Pipe Rolls the 
forms found are Wallebi, Walkga, Walelega (L.P.C.). 
Thirteenth century forms from the Assize Rolls are 
Whalegh, Walleye, Wallay, Quallay, Whalley (R., vols, 
xlvii., xlix.). 

If it were not for the spellings of the Chronicle — that is, 
if we had only to deal with the Domesday and later forms, 
we should have to choose between the personal name 
Wealh (O., p. 480), and the English form of the Latin 
vallum, a rampart. Of these the personal form for the 
first theme would be preferred, as we have no historical 
record, or remains of a supposed rampart. But having to 



Ii8 HANDBOOK OF LANCASHIRE PLACE-NAMES 

deal with the first syllable of hwcelleage, or say, rather, the 
first letter, I am inclined to think that it represents a foreign 
dialect word, brought by the Vikings, and now lost in this 
country, but remaining as Kval in Scandinavia. " Kval is 
found in place-names, and seems to signify an elongated 
height " (Aasen's Norsk Ordbog). 

West Leigh. — A township adjoining Leigh on the NW- 
The earliest form is Westle, in a Pipe Roll of 1218 (R., vol, 
xlix., p. 257). Other forms of the same century are 
Westelegh, Westkgh, Westleye Westel (R., vols, xlviii., xlix.), 
Westley occurs in a Final Concord of 1509 (R., vol. 1.)) 
and Westkigh in 1600 (R., vol. xii.). The first theme 
seems to be a note of position (see Astley), though it may 
be a theme of personal names, as in F., col. 1560. 

Wheatley. — A joint parish with Thornley, 8 miles NE, 
of Preston, under the north side of Longridge Fell. It 
appears as Waielei in Domesday Book. The forms 
Whettkgh, Wetelay, Wetek, Queteky (R., vol. xlvii.) occuf 
in the thirteenth century; Wheteky (R., vol. 1.) in a Final 
Concord of 1425 ; Wheatky in the seventeenth century. 
The first theme is the Old English hwmte, wheat. 

Wheatley Booth. — Four miles and a half W. of Colne : 
see Barley Booth; together they form one parish and 
village. 

Wibaldeslei. — A manor mentioned in Domesday Book ; 
it is identified by Mr. Farrer with Much Woolton, in vol. i. 
of the V.C.H. See O., p. 487, for name Wibald of 
Wigbeald. 

Winkedley. — A place mentioned in the Plac. Q. Warr., 
375(5 (see Wyld and Hirst). For the personal name 
Win, Wine, see O., pp. 499, 500. For the diminutive 
Winke, see W., 444. The d is the Norman de, see 
Chapter V. 



CATALOGUE OF PLACE-NAMES 119 

Winioarleigh. — ^A parish 2 miles NW. of Garstang. 
Forms from the Great Inquest, 1212 (R., vol. xlviii.), are 
Wynomerislega, Wynermerisle, and later in the century 
Wynmerley, Wynmerlee. In the Assize Rolls there occurs 
Wymmerk (R., vol. xlvii.). The first theme is the Old 
English personal name Witiemmr, O., p. 500. For the 
roots of the name vini, friend, maru, famous; see F., 
cols. 1608, 1099. 

Winstanley. — A parish 3 miles SW. of Wigan. The 
forms in the Pipe Rolls are Unstanesle, XJnstaneslega 
(L.P.C.); in the Great Inquest, 12 12 (R., vol. xlviii.), 
Winstaneslege, Winstanislegh. Wynstanley occurs in a 
Final Concord of 141 1 (R., vol. 1.). The first theme is 
the personal name, Wynstan (O., p. 524; F., cols. 1608, 
1359). Roots are vtni, friend, staina, stone. 

Worsley. — An urban district 7 miles NW. of Man- 
chester. In an early Pipe Roll the form is Werkes- 
leia, 1 195 (L.P.C.), and in the Great Inquest, 12 12 
(R., vol. xlviii.), Wyrkedek. ■ Among the various forms 
in the Assize Rolls are Wirkithileg, Workedeley (R., 
vol. xlvii., xlix.). In a Final Concord of 1300 there 
occurs Workesleye (R., vol. xxxix.), in one of 1408 
Worseley, and in one of 1501 Workeslegh (R., vol. 1.). 
At the beginning of the seventeenth century occurs 
Worsky (R., vol. xlii.). 

The personal form at the foundation of this name 
is wer ; see O., pp. 483, 474, 475. For the k diminu- 
tive, Werke, see W., p. 432. The de is Norman of 
(see Chapter V.). The root is the Old English war, 
fidelity. 

Wrigley.— There is a Wrigky Brook, a hamlet in 
Heywood, 3 miles E. of Bury, and a Wrigley Head, a 
hamlet in Failsworth, 4 miles NE. of Manchester. Early 
forms not known of either. 



120 HANDBOOK OF LANCASHIRE PLACE-NAMES 

LITH 

The Old English Mt/t, Old Norse MtiA, with different 
vowel quantity; both mean slope, mountainside. Both 
forms, indifferently, appear to have given rise to the 
place-termination liiA or letA. It was not a common 
theme, and some of the words in which it appeared lost 
it, and had it replaced by others. 

See Adgarley, Oglet, under their respective second 
themes. 

Kyerkelith occurs in L.P.C., p- 131. On p. 140 Mr. 
Farrer interprets it to mean Kirkby Ireleth. 

Stajmerlith. — This word occurs in R., vol. xlvii., p. 48, 
and apparently belongs to the north of the county. 
The first theme is the personal name Stanhere or Starter, 
with Old Norse influence in the spelling of Stan (O., 
p. 429). 

LOW, LAW 

This word represents the Old English hloew, hlaw, a rising 
ground, a funeral mound. Mediaeval lawe appears as 
ancestor both of low and ley. See Barlow, Kearsley. 

Barlow Moor. — A manor on the Mersey 4 miles S. of 
Manchester. In the Assize Rolls (R., vol. xlix., p. 297), 
the name appears as Berlawe, and in a Final Record of 
1336 (R., vol. xlvi.) Barlowe. 

The first theme is perhaps here barley, though both ber 
and bar are themes used in the formation of personal 
names. See F., cols. 246, 266. 

Brownlow Hill. — ^A part of Liverpool. First theme 
seems to be the Old Norse briin, an eyebrow, the edge of 
a fell or moor. Low Hill adjoins Brownlow Hill on the 
east. 



CATALOGUE OF PLACE-NAMES 121 

Coupe Law. — A mountain 7 miles N. of Bury. For 
Coupe, see under theme Hope. 

Pike Law.— The NE. corner of Pendk Hill. The 
first theme is the Old English pic, point, pike. 

Spellow. — Formerly a manor N. of Liverpool, in Walton. 
It appears as Spellowe in a Final Concord of 1306 
(R., vol. xxxix.), and Spellawe in one of 1321 (R., 
vol. xlvi.), the same person, a William de S. being meant 
in both. 

The first theme seems to be personal. O., p. 576, gives 
both the names Spila and Spileman. 

Tetlow. — A manor to the north of Manchester in 
Broughton and Cheetham. Early spellings (from the 
V.C.H., vol. iv.) are Tottelawe, Tettelagh, 1302, Tetlawe, 
1368. In R., vol. xlii., of the dates 1616-1617, we find 
Tettlow, Tetlowe, Tetlow. 

The first theme is personal. Tela, Tetta, Tola, Totta, are 
all to be found in O., pp. 442, 458. 

Wharles. — A joint parish 3 miles NE. of Kirkham. 
The forms Quarlous, Warlawes, Werlows are from the 
thirteenth century (R., vol. xlviii.). Other earlier appear- 
ances are rare. Wharles, Wharlowes occur in the seven- 
teenth century — 1629, 1617 (R., vol. x., pp. 64, 30). 

The first theme, by its variations of spelling, suggests 
the word Wer, or Wcer, the common theme of many 
personal names in O., p. 473. Those of the latter theme 
suggest at one period the plural of ley, at another the 
plural of low. As stated already, there is a confusion 
between these place-name terminations. An example of 
this confusion will be found by comparing the plural of 
lawe in Dr. Stratmann's Middle English Diet., with the 
plural of leak as given in Dr. MiddendorfFs Alteng. 
Flurnam. 



122 HANDBOOK OF LANCASHIRE PLACE-NAMES 

MEAD 

This termination is the Old English meed, pi. mcedwa, 
meadow. Land on which hay is grown ; pastures on the 
sides of rivers. 

Brightmet. — A township 2 miles E. of Bolton-le-Moors. 
Appears as Brihtmede in an entry of the year 1257 (R., 
vol. xxxix.), and Brightmete in one of 1322 (R., vol. xlvi.). 
In 1542 we find Breghtmete (R., vol. xxxv.), and lastly, 
in 1600, Brightmet (R., vol. xii.). 

The first theme, through its various forms, points to the 
Old English adjective beorht, bright, used here descriptively. 
But it is also a common personal name (see O., p. 87), 
and is found several times uncompounded in the Liber 
Vitae. 

MEL 

The origin of this termination appears to be the Old 
Norse melr, a bank of sand or gravel ; a sandhill ; either 
overgrown with the grass called melr (Elymus arenarius) 
or bare. Sandbanks in the north of Norfolk are called 
meals, and mel, melar, is not uncommon in place-names in 
Iceland. 

Meols. — Now North Meols, a village and parish N. of 
Southport, a large portion of which town hes in the 
parish of North Meols. In Domesday Book the forms 
Otegrimele and Otringemele represent the modern North 
Meols, according to Mr. Farrer in the V.C.H. 

The first theme is a patronymic of Ohthere (see O., 
P- 365)1 which name is found in King Alfred's Orosius. 
The compound word Normalas occurs in a charter of 
King Richard I. (L.P.C., p. 378). Uht is the dawn. 

Argaxmeols. — Occurs in Domesday Book as Erenger- 
meles, and is identified by Mr. Farrer as part of the modern 



CATALOGUE OF PLACE-NAMES 123 

Birkdale. The spelling is Argarmelis in 1243 (R., vol. 
xlviii.). First theme is personal, the E^rngmr of O., 
p. 213, the Norse Arngeirr. 

Cartmel. — A parish and market-town in Lonsdale 
North of the Sands, 15 miles NW. of Lancaster. The 
predominant form in the middle ages is Cartme/ {1..P.C; 
pp. 36, 67), varied occasionally by Kerfmel and Kertemel 
(R., vol. xlviii.). Two very early variants are Curtmel, 
1 168, and Carmel, 1187 (L.P.C-, pp. 12, 66). 

The first theme is a river name, Celtic or pre-Celtic, 
Cart. See Watson's Place-names in Ross and Cromarty, 
pp. 102, 239. 

Bavensmeols. — An ancient manor 1 2 miles N. of Liver- 
pool, now almost if not entirely destroyed by sandhills. 
According to Mr. Farrer (V.C.H., vol. i.), it is the Mele of 
Domesday Book. Ravenesmeks (L.P.C., p. 432) is men- 
tioned in a charter of Richard I., in a Final Concord of 
1246 (R., vol. xxxix.), and Ravenmeks in one of 1468 
(R., vol. 1.). 

The first theme is personal; the Old Norse hrafn, a 
raven, is a common personal name. For Old English 
form hraban, see O., p. 301. 

MEBE 

Comes into the series of terminations from two 
sources : — 

(1) The Old English gemmre, a boundary; and Old 
Norse mxrr, borderland. 

(2) The Old English Mere, a pool, lake, or standing 
water. 

Marland Mere. — ^A lake 2 miles SW. of Rochdale. 

Martin Mere. — A lake, now drained, that formerly lay 
7 miles N. of Ormskirk. The Domesday Book Merretun, 



124 HANDBOOK OF LANCASHIRE PLACE-NAMES 

afterwards Marion (R., vol. xxxix.), lay near it, and, accord- 
ing to Mr. Farrer (R., vol. xlviii., p. i6), became absorbed 
in Burscough. 

Marton Mere. — A lake in Marion, near Blackpool. 
The first theme in these compound place-names appears 
formed from the lake, mere. 

Ellesmere Park. — Surrounding Worsley Hall, 6 miles 
W. of Manchester. The noble title of Ellesmere appears 
to have been originally a Cheshire one. 

The first theme of Ellesmere is a personal name. See 
O., pp. 33-61, for /Eihel, used by itself and in very many 
compound names. Mere is perhaps boundary here. 

Mere occurs in the names of the four parts into 
which Saddleworth is divided; Friarmere, Quickmere, 
Shawmere, Lordsmere. Mere is here borderland or district. 

Windermere. — A lake in the NW. of the county, partly 
in Westmorland. The name occurs in a charter of 
Henry II., and is spelt Winendem^re, Wynandrem^r (L.P.C., 
pp. 310, 312). The first part seems composed of the 
Celtic elements signifying rock, beann, aindi. See K., 
pp. 40, 43. In the latter reference are given instances of 
the mutation into /and w of the b in beann. 

MOOR 

From the Old English mor, moor, denoting waste, un- 
cultivated ground, generally high and mountainous, often 
swampy. 

The word is usually employed as a subsidiary theme, 
its qualifying word being a full place-name. 

Oonnolfsmoors. — Old name of the high moorland district 
lying between Chorley and Blackburn, spelt Gunnolves- 
mores in the Great Inquest of 12 12 (R., vol. xlviii.). 

First theme is personal. Gunnolfr is a common Old 



CATALOGUE OF PLACE-NAMES 125 

Norse man's name, of which the component parts are 
iatf/e and wo//. The Old English form of it in O., p. 274, 
is Guthwulf. 

Quemmore. — ^A parish 3 miles SE. of Lancaster. 
Formerly the name of a great forest, in the perambulation 
of which the word appears as Quernemore (L.P.C., p. 420). 

The first theme is the Old English cweorn, a handmill. 
The moor possibly furnished mill-stones. In a Final 
Concord of 1227 (R., vol. xxxix.) mention is made of a 
place Querneberg, which Mr. Farrer places in Urswick. 
Kvernberg is Old Norse for a mill-stone quarry. For 
Querne as a river name, see K., pp. 58, 94. 

Wolvemor. — An estate in or near Rainford, the name 
of which appears to be lost. Occurs in a Final Concord of 
1202 (R., vol. xxxix.). 

The first theme may be a personal name, or a relic of 
the time when wolves existed there. 

Moor, as subsidiary theme, occurs in Newton Moor, 
Sholver Moor, Crompton Moor, Siddall Moor, Orrell Moor, 
Turton Moor, Anlezark Moor, Smithells Moor, Rivington 
Moor, Haslingden Moor, Halshaw Moor, AspuU Moor, 
Cockey Moor, Calder Moor, Lobden Moor, Holcome 
Moor, Fulwood Moor, Bleasdale Moor, Preston Moor, 
Graygarth Moor, Tatham Moor, Hawkshead Moor, Satter- 
thwaite Moor, Swallow Myre, and in many others. 

MOSS 

This termination seems to have arisen from the Danish 
mos, Old Norse mosi, rather than to the natural develop- 
ment of the Old English mos. In Lancashire it is specially 
applied to the numerous swampy peaty grounds, the re- 
mains of old forests. In Denmark and Scandinavia mos, 
mose are common in place-names. 

Blomos. — Occurs in a perambulation of 1228 (L.P.C., 



126 HANDBOOK OF LANCASHIRE PLACE-NAMES 

p. 421). Probably the later Blazemoss or Bleadale Moss 
on the moorlands NE. of Garstang. See Ordnance Maps. 
The first theme is the Old Norse Mdr, dark blue, used 
as in the Icelandic bla-skoga-heithi, dark-wood-heath, 
north of Thingvellir. 

Chatmoss. — An extensive moss, 7 miles W. of Man- 
chester, in the parish of Eccles. In an entry of the date 
1277 (R., vol. xlvii., p. 144) it is spelt Catemosse. 

The first theme is personal, being the name Catta (see 
O., p. 126), or a weak form Caii of Cat. 

Wirplesmos. — Occurs in the Charter of Foundation of 
Burscough Priory (L.P.C., p. 349). First theme seems 
to be the Old Norse verpill, a barrel or cask, which is 
used in the Sturlunga Saga as a nickname. See vol. ii., 
p. 468, of the Oxford edition. 

Moss is in common use as a subsidiary theme, as in 
the following and many others : — Simonswood Moss, Ren- 
acres Moss, Bickerstaffe Moss, Horscar Moss, Kirkby 
Moss, Narrow Moss, White Moss, King's Moss, Blandfoot 
Moss, Page Moss, Rainford Moss, Reeds Moss, Big Moss, 
Raw Moss, Bryn Moss, White Moss, Wardley Moss, Risley 
Moss, Glazebrook Moss, Ashton Moss, Hesketh Moss, 
Farington Moss, Leyland Moss, Charters Moss, Hoop 
Moss, Black Moss, Winmarleigh Moss, Pilling Moss, 
Rawcliffe Moss, Stalmine Moss, North Moss, Cockerham 
Moss, Blaze Moss, Thurnham Moss, Wait Moss, Hoddles- 
den Moss, Edgerton Moss, Accrington Moss, Duckworth 
Moss. 

NAB 

The projecting part of a hill or rock, a peak, or pro- 
montory. Old Norse nahbi, a knob; Norwegian dialect 
nalb. Used as a subsidiary theme : e.g. Healy Nab, Gully 



CATALOGUE OF PLACE-NAMES 127 

Nab, Whalley Nab. For Whalley Nab, see V.C.H., vol. vi., 
p. 326. 

NESS 

Under the word ncess, in B.-T., we read : " The word ness, 
found in English local names, is mostly of Scandinavian 
origin"; but instances are also given of its use in 
charters older than the Danish incursions. The Old Norse 
nes, means a promontory or headland jutting into the sea 
or a lake. 

Naze. — A promontory jutting into the Ribble from the 
north side, at Freckleton. The word is the Norwegian 
ncBs., the Old English nces, the Old Norse nes. 

Amounderness. — A central hundred of the county, 
lying N. of the Ribble. Agemundrenesse is the Domes- 
day Book spelling, Agmundernesse that of an early charter 
of Richard I. (L.P.C., p. 435). Augm . . . is a spelling 
of the thirteenth century (R., vol. xlviii.), Am ... of 
the fourteenth and afterwards (R., vol. xxxi.). The spelling 
in O., p. 63, is Agmund. 

The first theme is the Old Norse personal name Ogmund, 
old form Agemund or Agmund, and the word is in the 
genitive case. 

CSrossens. — Ecclesiastical district 3 miles N. of South- 
port. In an early reference to the place, 1327 (R., 
vol. xxxi., p. 104), the word appears as Crosnes. 

The first theme is Irish-Scandinavian, and marks the 
position of an early rood, as a landmark perhaps, or for 
worship. 

Furness. — A peninsula to the W. of Morecambe Bay. 
The Charter of the Foundation of Furness Abbey speaks 
of Forestam de Fudernesio, 1127 (L.P.C., pp. 302, 307, 
312), and in charters of thirty years later are the words 
Abbas Fomesii and Furnesiam. In the second half of 



128 HANDBOOK OF LANCASHIRE PLACE-NAMES 

the twelfth century and afterwards we meet with such 
forms as Abbas de Furnellis (L.P.C., p. 204), and the 
frequent mention of a family " de Furnellis." 

The first theme is personal: Fulder. See O., p. 251, 
in which place Searle considers the word as an abbreviated 
form of Folth-here. The roots of this word ax&fulca, and 
here, folk and host; see F., col. 552. The same first theme 
explains the Pile of Foudrey, the island being adjacent to 
Furness. 

Widnes. — A borough 12 miles SE. of Liverpool, on 
the Mersey. Wydenes and Widnes occur in the thirteenth 
century (R., vol. xlviii.), and later forms are Widnesse, 
JVitnes, Wednes (R., vols, xlvii., xlix.). The first theme 
is the personal name Wid, Wido (see O., pp. 485, 486). 
Wid is found as a component of several personal names, 
the root being the Old English wid, wide, ample. F., 
col. 1562, also gives other explanations of the root. 

NOOK 

A corner, a bend. In place-names the word denotes an 
out-of-the-way spot, somewhat inaccessible. Often applied 
to places on the borders of mosses. Apparently a Mercian 
word of Scandinavian origin. For the angularity denoted 
by the word, compare the Old Norse knukr, a knoll or 
peak. 

Barrow Nook. — A hamlet in Bickerstaffe, SE. of 
Ormskirk. Barrow is the north country word, meaning 
a mound or elevation. 

Black Hey Nook, or Bleak Hey Nook, 2 miles N. of 
Dobcross. 

Moss Nook. — A hamlet in Rainford. 

Nimble Nook. — A hamlet 2 miles W. of Oldham. 

Nook, as the above cases show, is a subsidiary theme. 



CATALOGUE OF PLACE-NAMES 129 

So also in the following: — Maggot Nook, Twitch Hill 
Nook, Close Nook, Moor Nook, Green Nook, Cabus 
Nook, Crabtree Nook, Hale Nook, Higham Nook, Holme 
Nook, and others. 

PIKE 

A pointed eminence, from the Old English pu, point, 
pike. 

Used as a subsidiary theme in Parlick Pike, Brown 
Pike, White Pike, Rivington Pike, Thieveley Pike, Clougha 
Pike. 

POOL 

From the Old EngUsh poi, a pool ; used also to denote 
the estuary of a small stream as it widens into the sea. 
The pool in Liverpool is not the estuary of the Mersey, but 
of a small stream which falls into it near the present 
Custom House. This pool formed the oldest harbour of 
Liverpool, and was the site of the first dock. 

Blackpool, a town on the seacoast, WNW. of Preston, 
came into existence as a sea-bathing place in the 
eighteenth century. The pool was inland; see Baines's 
History of Lancashire, 1836, vol. iv., p. 424. Blackpool 
occurs many times in the Bispham Registers from 1602 
onwards, generally with the article " the." 

In R., vol. X., pp. 14, 16, Blacke Pull is found in 1661, 
the Blacke poole in 1626. First theme descriptive. 

Crokispool occurs in a charter of Henry IL (L.P.C., 
p. 393). Crook is on the coast, at the mouth of the Lune, 
and has its origin in the personal name Croc. See 0., 
p. 144. 

Liverpool is spelt Liuerpul in the document known 
as the Charter of King John, 1207; also in an earlier 
charter, 1190-1194, and Pipe Roll of 1207 (L.P.C., pp. 



130 HANDBOOK OF LANCASHIRE PLACE-NAMES 

432, 220). Two variants are Litherpol, 1222 (R., vol. 
xlviii., p. 128), and Livrepol, 1259 (R., vol. xlix.), and a 
sixteenth-century form in Leland's Itinerary is Lyrpook. 

The first theme is the personal name Leqfhere (see O., 
p. 328), of which Searle there gives an abbreviated form, 
Lifere. 

The form Litherpole, much in use in the Middle Ages, 
is due to the same influence which produced Litherland 
out of Liderlant (see the word Litherland). 

The history of the place-name Liverpool' was first very 
fully given by Professor Wyld in an article published in 
the Liverpool Courier in the spring of 1 910, and afterwards 
reproduced in his and Dr. Hirst's Lancashire Place-names. 

Otterspool. — On the Mersey, 3 miles S. of Liverpool. 
The first theme is probably personal ; Ohthere in O., p. 

365- 

There is another similar name in North Meols : Otrepol, 
1 31 1 (R., vol. liv.). 

Styrespol occurs in a Final Concord of 1235 (R., 
vol. xxxix.) ; situated apparently near Broughton-in-Furness. 
The first theme is the personal name Styr. See O., 
p. 432. 

BIDGE, BIGG 

A range of hills. From the Old English hrycg, back, 
ridge. The Old Norse form is hryggr, and thus to Scandi- 
navian influence is probably due the form Rigg found in 
the north of the county. 

Eskrigg or Eskrick. — In Gressingham, 8 miles NE. of 
Lancaster, near the Lune. First theme the Old English 
cBsc, the ash-tree. 

Foulridge. — A parish on the Yorkshire border, 2 miles 
N. of Colne. Spelt Folrigge, 1246 (R., vol. xlvii., p. 87); 
Folrig, 1261 (R., vol. xlix., p. 235); Folrige, 1332 (R., vol. 



CATALOGUE OF PLACE-NAMES 131 

xxxi.); Fowkrigge, 1600 (R., vol. xii.); Foulrigg, 1650 (R., 
vol. i.). 

The first theme is the Old English y«/, foul, ugly, diffi- 
cult. The spelling Fowlerigge seems to imply that in 1600 
the theme was supposed to hefugel, a bird. 

Longridge Fell. — NE. of Preston. The urban district 
of Longridge is at the western extremity of the ridge. 
Langrig is mentioned in a Final Concord of 1246 (R., 
vol. xxxix.). The first theme is descriptive. 

Bidge is frequently used as a subsidiary theme, as in 
Great Close Ridge, Pilling Ridge, Preesall Ridge, Hazle 
Rigg, Bailrig, Blake Rigg, Eccles Riggs, Mans Riggs, Birk 
Riggs, Hazel Ridge. 

EIVEES 

The names of the most important rivers are the follow- 
ing : — Duddon, Crake, Leven, Winster, Brathay, Russ- 
land Pool, Steers Pool, Lickle, Eea, Keer, Greta, Leek, 
Hindburn, Roeburn, Lune, Conder, Cocker, Wenning, Wyre, 
Calder, Grizedale Beck, Loud, Brock, Hodder, Calder, 
Ribble, Yarrow, Lostock, Darwen, Douglas, Goyt, Hen- 
burn, Croal, Roch, Irwell, Irk, Medlock, Tame, Glaze- 
brook, Cornbrook. Gorbrook, Mersey, Sankey Brook, 
Tarbock Brook, Alt. 

Very few of these words have a meaning in the English 
or Scandinavian tongues. I must leave those that are 
supposed to have a meaning in the more ancient tongues 
of these islands to Celtic scholars. In a few cases where 
a name is preserved in that of a village or town situated 
near it, I have illustrated the word by quoting other river 
names, either in these islands or on the Continent, which 
contain the same element, and also by such information 
as Krausse's little book furnished. Two facts are in- 
teresting about these names. Many of them contain an 



132 HANDBOOK OF LANCASHIRE PLACE-NAMES 

element which means wafer in some form : stream, rivulet, 
rain, torrent, flow, and the like. And the other is that they 
should be Celtic at all, and have survived linguistic changes 
around them, living through the German and Scandinavian 
colonisations. I am induced to assign this vitality to 
religious or superstitious causes. 

ROD, ROYD 

This is the Old Norse ruiA, rjothr, a clearing, open 
space in a wood, not uncommon in Germany under the 
form Rode, and in Denmark and Norway under the forms 
Ryd, Rod, Rud. In England it is mostly found in the 
mountainous districts of the West Riding and East 
Lancashire. 

Blackrod. — An urban district 6 miles W. of Bolton-le- 
Moors. Blakerode, 1201 (L.P.C., p. 127), is the usual 
spelling, until there occurs Blakerod, 1337 (R., vol. xlvi.), 
and Blakrode, 1414 (R., vol. 1.). First theme is descriptive 
— black, obscure. 

Dobroyd. — Part of the town of Todmorden. First theme 
personal, familiar for Robert. The name Dobbe occurs 
several times in the Assize Rolls of the thirteenth century 
(R., vol. xlvii.). 

Heyrod. — A village 3 miles NE. of Ashton-under-Lyne. 
Early forms not known. First theme may be personal, 
there are many instances of the name in mediaeval times j 
or it may be descriptive, meaning fenced in or enclosed, 
from Middle English hei, a hedge. 

Heyroyd. — A village i mile E. of Colne. See preceding 
word. 

Huntroyde. — ^Village and hall in the township of Simon- 
stone NW. of Padiham. The hall dates from the six- 
teenth century originally (see V.C.H., vol. vi., p. 501). 



CATALOGUE OF PLACE-NAMES 133 

The first theme I take to be descriptive of the early use of 
the wood-clearing. 

Langroyd. — An estate i mile N. of Colne. First theme 
descriptive. 

Monkroyd. — An estate in Foulridge beyond Colne. 
Monkerode, 1332 (R., vol. xxxi., p. 83). First theme prob- 
ably due to the original clearing, attributed to the monks 
of Pontefract. 

Oakenrod. — A village in the township of Spotland, half 
a mile from Rochdale. First theme descriptive. Cf. the 
Yorkshire Ecroyd. 

Ormerod in Cliviger. Ormerode, 13 11, is found in 
R., vol. liv. The first theme is the well-known personal 
Norse name Orntr. For the English form, Orm, see O., 
p. 370, and Wurm, O., p. 522. 

SAND 

Old English Sand. This termination occurs in Cocker- 
sand. 

Blimdell Sands. — A coast-town of suburban residences, 
inhabited chiefly by Liverpool merchants and tradesmen. 
The principal church was built in 1874. Blundell Sands 
forms with Great Crosby an urban district. The town 
was named after the chief owner of the land on which it 
was built. Blundell is a Norman-French name and denotes 
in its origin the complexion, the French blond. 

Cockersand. — The abbey at the mouth of the Cocker ; 
it had its origin in the reign of Henry II. and remained 
till the dissolution of the monasteries. 

The first theme is in all probability the river name. 
Cf. the Gaelic Caochan, a rivulet, and the river Kochtr, 
a tributary of the Neckar. See also K., p. 58. 



134 HANDBOOK OF LANCASHIRE PLACE-NAMES 

SCALES, SCOWLBS, SOOLES 

North country words, denoting temporary huts put up 
for the protection of the watchers of cattle, or for the care 
of peat. Two Old Norse words seem to meet in these 
place-terminations: the Old Norse sAd/i, of which the 
primary meaning is kui or sked ; and the Old Norse skjol, 
a shelter or cover, a word which is still used in the sense 
of a shed or pent-house in the South of Norway (Aasen's 
Norsk Ordbog, under skj'ol). 

Scales. — A hamlet 4 miles S. of Ulverston. It occurs in 
Patent Rolls of Henry III. (R., vol. xlix.). Later forms are 
Scalles (R., vol. x., p. 78) and Scalk (R., vol. i.). 

There is a Scales i mile SE. of Kirkham. 

Scholes. — A suburb of Wigan, on the NE. 

EUiscales. — By Dalton-in-Furness, to the north. It 
appears as Alynscales, 1382 (R., vol. 1.). 

The first theme is a doubtful personal name ; it may be 
Ella or Aelle. 

Feniscowles. — Ecclesiastical district in Pleasington, to 
the SW. of Blackburn. In 1235 (R., vol. xlvii., p. 146) 
there occurs Adam de Feinycholes ; in 1309 (V.C.H., vol. 
vi., p. 288) Fenniscoles ; in 1600 (R., vol. xii.) Feniscoll. 

The first theme is the Old English adjective fennig, 
fenny, muddy. 

North Scale. — A village in the island of Walney^ 
opposite Barrow-in-Furness. 

SCAR 

A cliff, a rock. The Old Norse sker denotes an isolated 
rock in the sea, a skerry. The Old Norse skarth, a notch, 
is used to denote a mountain pass (as in Scarf Gap, 
Cumberland). The two words appear to have become 



CATALOGUE OF PLACE-NAMES 135 

confused in the word scar, which is used with the general 
meaning of c/if without any limitation, such as that of 
being isolated by the sea. 

The word is found in Bigland Scar, a hill 2 miles W. of 
Cartmel. 

Also in Billinge Scar, 2 miles NW. of Blackburn. 

Scarth Hill is an isolated elevation 1 mile SE. of 
Ormskirk. Cf. Scarisbrick, under the theme Breck. 

Scar is used as a subsidiary theme in Bigland Scar, 
Barker Scar, Walney Scar, and others. 

SCOUGH, SCOW 

This is the Old Norse skogr, a shaw, a wood. A not 
unusual termination of place-names in Denmark, under the 
form skov. Thus the English word points to Danish 
occupation. 

Burscough. — A parish 2 miles NE. of Ormskirk. It 
is spelt Burscogh in the charter of the foundation of the 
priory, in the reign of Richard I. (L.P.C., p. 349). In an 
entry of the year 1241 (R., vol. xxxix.), it appears as 
Burschehou. The usual mediaeval spelling is Burscogh, 
and Bruscogh is found in a clerical subsidy of about 1538 
(R., vol. xxxiii., p. 32). The modern spelling appears in 
1600 (R., vol. xii.). 

The first theme is the personal name burra, which may be 
found in the Liber Vitae, S., p. 160, and which Mu., p. 49, 
connects with the Old Norse burr, a son. Searle gives it 
in O., p. 122. 

Cunscough. — A chapelry 3 miles S. of Ormskirk. In 
the Assize Rolls (R., vol. xlvii.), the form is Cunnescok, 
1246. And in 1322 (R., vol. liv.) Cunscogh and Konscogh. 
The first theme is the personal name Cuna, which occurs 
in the Liber Vitas, S., p. 163. F., col. 378, connects it with 
the Anglo-Saxon cyn, under the root cunt, race. 



136 HANDBOOK OF LANCASHIRE PLACE-NAMES 

Myerscough. — A parish 5 miles S. of Garstang. The 
word appears as Mirscho, 1262, and Miresco, 1265, in R., 
vol. xlviii., and later Mirescowe, 1297. In R., vol. x., 
Myerscow in 1615, Mirescogh 1637, Myerscough 1574. 

The first theme is the Old Norse myrr, a moor, bog, 
swamp ; the origin of the English mire. 

Tarlscough. — A hamlet \\ mile NW. of Burscough 
Bridge. Tharleseogh appears in the Foundation Charter 
of Burscough Priory (L.P.C., p. 350). 

The first theme is an abraded form of a common 
Norse name, Thorvald, Thorald, of which English forms in 
O., p. 451, are Thurweald, Turold. 

SCOUT 

High rock, projecting ridge, a precipice. A Scandinavian 
word; the Old Norse skut is given in Aasen's Norsk 
Ordbog as "an overhanging rock." Compare the Old 
Norse word sMta, to jut out so as to form a hollow 
or cave. 

Dean Scout. — A mountain half-way between Todmorden 
and Burnley, in the Forest of Rossendale, overlooking the 
Vale of Cliviger. First theme denu, a valley. 

SEAT 

The Old Norse setr ; sate, sceter in Aasen's Ordbog ; Old 
English {ge)sete ; — meaning a seat, farm, or residence. 
This termination, which originally appeared in Cadishead, 
Hawkeshead, Swainshead, has given place, in the growth 
of time, to the termination head. See these words above. 



SHAW 

This is the Old English sceaga, any small group of 
rees, copse, thicket. In some place-names it appears to 



CATALOGUE OF PLACE-NAMES 137 

haye arisen from the termination Aaui (from kaga enclosure), 
by attaching the genitival s of the first theme to the second 
theme of the place-name. 

Shaw, or Shaw Chapel. — A village 3 miles N. of Oldham. 
Other combinations with Shaw, as Shaw Edge, Shaw 
Clough, occur in SE. Lancashire. 

Audenshaw. — Urban district and parish 3 miles SW. 
of Ashton-under-Lyne. The word occurs in charters of 
Kings John and Henry III. (L.P.C.). It is spelt Alden- 
shade (? Aldenshahe), Aldeneshawe, Aldeneshagh. Two 
other forms, of somewhat later but uncertain date, are 
given in L.P.C., Aldwynshay, Aldwynshawe. Apparently 
the s belongs to the first theme, which is the proper 
name Ealduini, and occurs in S., p. 154, O., p. 201. 

Balshaw Laoie. — Seven miles S. of Preston. The first 
theme of Balshaw is personal, as in Ballatn. (See this word 
under the termination Sblm.) 

Bickershaw. — A village near Abram, 3 miles SE. of 
Wigan. In a Final Concord of 1395 (R., vol. 1.) it occurs 
as Bykersha . . . 

The first theme is the personal name Bica, Bicca, 
which appears in a charter of Cynewulf, 778 (see S., p. 
427 ; also O., p. 106). Bike is a Low German name 
(see W., pp. 34, 35). For the stem of the word bic, see 
F., col. 300, who seems disposed to see in it a reference 
to some weapon. The final r of the word Bicker is either 
intrusive or the remains of a syllabic ending of the word, 
as here, or merely an extension or " erweiterung." See F., 
col. 1199. 

Bradshaw. — A village 3 miles NE. of Bolton-le-moors. 
The word is spelt Bradeshagh in an entry of 131 2 (R., 
vol. xlvi.), and Bradshagh in 1505 (R., vol. 1.). 

The first theme is the Old English brad, broad. The 



138 HANDBOOK OF LANCASHIRE PLACE-NAMES 

personal name brada, however, occurs in the Liber Vitse, 
S., p. i66. 

Cowlisliaw. — A village 2 miles N. of Oldham. Spelt 
Cowlyshawe in 1600 (R., vol. xii.). No earlier records. 
The word Cowly, for Cowley, is probably a personal name 
of which the first theme is cu, cow. But the word may- 
have had more than one origin. See Cowley Hill, under 
the theme Hill ; and Collyhurst, under the theme Hurst. 

Crankeyshaw. — A village i mile N. of Rochdale. 
No early records of the word. First theme probably 
descriptive, the word cranky, meaning twisted or crooked. 
Cronk, however, is frequent in Manx place-names in the 
sense of hiU. 

Crawshaw Booth. — Of the Higher Booths, in Rossen- 
dale, 2 miles NE. of Haslingden. In 1323 it appears as 
Croweshagh (V.C.H., vol. vi., p. 433). The first theme is 
probably descriptive, from the birds ; though Crawe is an 
old personal name. See O., p. 144. 

Douueshagh, Doveshaw is mentioned in an early 
forest perambulation (see L.P.C., p. 425) as near 
Chipping. 

The first theme is probably descriptive, being taken 
from the birds; though duuua is a personal name. See 
0.,p. 173. 

Dunnockshaw. — A parish in Rossendale 4 miles NE. 
of Hashngden. It is spelt Dunnockschae in I2g6, Dun- 
nockschaghe in 1305, and Dunnokschaw, 1323 (V.C.H., 
vol. vi., p. 514). The first theme may be descriptive, from 
the birds ; though Dunnoc may be a personal name, a 
diminutive oi Dunn. See O., pp. xxiii., 172. 

Goldshaw Booth. — A parish 4 miles NW. of Burnley, 
under Pendle Hill. The earlier forms of the word are 
given in the V.C.H. (vol, vi., p. 514) as Goldiaue, 1323- 
1324; Goldea, 1422; Goldeshagh, 1459. 



CATALOGUE OF PLACE-NAMES 139 

The first theme may be descriptive, referring to natural 
appearance or colour; but it may also be a personal 
name (see O., p. 266). The original second theme appears 
to have been eige, a Domesday suflSx, found in Berredseige 
( == Bardsea) which developed into eye and ea. This suffix 
meaning an island meadow, is the equivalent of the Norse 
holm. The change to shaiv has been assisted by the 
insertion of the genitival x. 

Goodshaw Booth and Goodshaw Fold, in Rossendale, 
3 miles NE. of Haslingden. The spelling in V.C.H., 
vol. vi., p. 433, 1323, is Godeshagh, and in O., p. 260, we 
find God a personal name. 

Grimshaw. — A hamlet and estate 5 miles SE. of 
Blackburn. The word appears as Grymeschawe, 1284 
(R., vol. xUx.), and Grymeshagh, 1441 (R., vol. 1.). 

The first theme is the personal name Grim, of which 
there are many examples in O., p. 268. 

Grimshaw is found in other parts of Lancashire : Grim- 
shav) in Cliviger ; Grimshaw Green in Croston ; Grimshaw 
Delph in Skelmersdale. 

Hawkshaw. — A hamlet in Tottington Lower End, Bury. 
No early record. First theme probably from the bird. 

Halshaw Moor by Famworth, 3 miles SE. of Bolton- 
le-Moors. No early records of the name, so that it is 
doubtful whether the first theme of Halshaw should be 
regarded as the personal name Hal, Hale (see O., p. 278) 
or be referred to the Old English healh. See Halgh among 
the list of terminations. 

Hardshaw. — A hamlet now forming a part of St. Helens. 
It is spelt Hardshaye in 1600 (R., vol. xii.). 

First theme probably the personal name heard (see 
O., p. 285). Perhaps the word should be divided Hards- 
haw, suggested by the 1600 form. Haw, from Old English 
haga, would mean enclosure. 



140 HANDBOOK OF LANCASHIRE PLACE-NAMES 

Higginshaw in Royton, 2 miles N. of Oldham. First 
theme, a mediaeval name, diminutive of Higg, a supposed 
familiar shortening of Richard. 

Marshaw. — A hamlet near the sources of the river 
Wyre. Marschashheued occurs in a perambulation given 
in L.P.C., p. 427. 

The first theme is probably the Old English mare, 
boundary. The heued is head, an adjacent height. 

Openshaw. — A district on the SE. side of Manchester, 
along the Ashton road, was Openshawe in 1296 (V.C.H., 
vol. iv., p. 287). First theme descriptive, meaning free? 

Smallshaw, in the district of Knott Lanes, Ashton- 
under-Lyne. First theme descriptive. 

Studshaw or Stoodshaw. — A village i^ mile NE. of 
Rochdale. Early forms not known. First theme may 
be the Old English stod, a stud of horses. 

Walshaw. — A hamlet in Tottington Lower End, Bury. 
No early records known. First theme may be the personal 
name Wala (see O., p. 476) or the Old English weall, 
a wall. 

Wetshaw. — This word appears in personal names in 
the Assize Rolls and in Final Concords (R., vols, xlvii., 
xlix., 1.). Richard-of-the-Wetschawe, Richard de Wetes- 
hagh, William de Wetteshagh. 

First theme the Old English adjective wat, wet, moist. 

Windleshaw. — An old ruin, 1 mile N. of St. Helens, 
formerly an Abbey. For Windle, see under the termina- 
tion Hill. 

SHIRE 

The origin is the Old English word scir, a district, shire, 
diocese, or parish. 

Hoskinshire. — Apparently the name of a farm or estate 



CATALOGUE OF PLACE-NAMES 141 

lying to the north of the river Wyre, half a mile E. of 
Rawcliffe Hall. No records known. First theme seems 
to be the name of some early owner. 

Wilpshire. — A parish 3 miles N. of Blackburn. The 
thirteenth century forms are Wlipschire, Wlypsire, Wlyppe- 
schyre (R., vols, xlvii., xlviii.). In Final Concords of the 
fourteenth and sixteenth centuries we find Wylpshire, 1396, 
Willipshire, 1508 (R., vol. 1.). The first theme is a personal 
name, a famiHar contracted form of the scriptural Philip. 
See W., p. 236. It is now pronounced Lip locally; see 
Baines's History of Lancashire, vol. iii., p. 360. 

SIDE 

The use of this word in place-names to denote a 
border district seems to be Scandinavian. It occurs in 
Norway, Sweden, Denmark, and Iceland, generally marking 
proximity to water, but also a sloping district near a moun- 
tain range. It is the Old Norse sitha. Middle English side. 

There are cases, doubtless, in which side has developed 
out of another place-theme, as in the Westmorland 
Arnside, where the termination was originally head. 

Affeside or AflEetside. — Hamlet in the district of 
Bradshaw, on the mountain road (Watling Street) which 
forms the NE. boundary of the district. No early records, 
and the first theme is doubtful. 

Ayside. — A village 4 miles N. of Cartmel, situated 
in the valley of the river Eea. Early records uncertain. 
Later records point to first theme being the river. 

Bampside. — Ecclesiastical district 6 miles S. of Dalton- 
in-Furness, on the coast. First theme, the personal name 
Ram, shortened form of the Norse name Hrafn, as in 
Ramsbottom. The/ is intrusive. 

Tarlside. — Village 5 miles S. of Dalton-in-Furness. 



142 HANDBOOK OF LANCASHIRE PLACE-NAMES 

First theme the Old English personal name Gerolf (see 
O., p. 257) as in Ireleth. 

Yarlside.— Village 2 miles W. of Tunstall. First theme 
as in preceding. 

The names Beckside, Carrside, Heyside, Landside, Moor- 
side, Moss-side explain themselves. There are at least 8 
places of the last named in Lancashire. 

Crakeside, Keerside, refer to the respective rivers Crake 
and Keer. 

Side is used as a subsidiary theme in many cases besides 
the above : — Saddleside, Higham Side, Harrow Side, Brac- 
kenside. Lakeside, Ridding Side, and others. 

SIKE, SYKE 

An old word for a water-course found in records and 
charters, compounded with place-names that have mostly 
gone out of use. It is the Old English sic, meaning ditch ; 
Old Norse, slk, siki, ditch, trench. 

Syke. — A village i| mile N. of Rochdale. 

Brumlansic. — Mentioned in the boundaries of Toxteth 
Forest (L.P.C., p. 421). Now altogether lost. First theme 
perhaps the personal name brum, for which see O., p. 117. 
The d of the unstressed land has disappeared. 

Bradelaysyke occurs in a Final Concord of 1262 
(R., vol. xxxix.). For Bradley, see under the theme Ley. 

Harlesike. — A village 3 miles NE. of Burnley. Early 
records unknown. The first theme appears to be the 
personal name Herle, which is a component part of several 
names (see O., p. 295) and is found in Harleton or 
Hurleton, near Ormskirk, and in Hurlingham. 

Stocsiche is found in a Final Concord of 1256 (R., 
vol. xxxix.). The first theme is the Old Enghsh stocc, 
trunk, log of wood. 



CATALOGUE OF PLACE-NAMES 143 

SLACK 

A north country dialect word denoting a fall in the 
surface of the ground, a low-lying hollow; doubtless of 
Scandinavian origin. The word is still used in a similar 
sense in parts of the South of Norway. The corresponding 
Danish siank is used as first theme, Slangerup, Slangethorp. 
See Madsen, p. 241. Also Aasen's Ordbog. 

Slack. — E. of Cartmel, near the sea. 

The Slack in Monton, Eccles. 

The Slack in Balderstone, Rochdale. 

It is used chiefly, however, as a subsidiary second theme, 
as in Billinge Slack, Burn Slack, Cross Slack, Lane End 
Slack, Water Slack, Ash Slack, and others. 

SLADE 

This word, used occasionally in place-names, is the Old 
English sl(zd, flat marshy ground, a breadth of green sward 
between two woods. 

Bagslate. — A village and moor in Spotland, west of 
Rochdale. No early records known. First theme is the 
personal name Bacga, O., p. 78. SpeUing of second 
theme, influenced perhaps, by the Old Norse s/effa, a. pla.\n, 
a level field. 

SNAPE 

A puzzling word. Murray, in N.E.p., considers the 
meaning doubtful, but adds that in south-western dialects 
it denotes a spring or boggy place in a field. Stratmann- 
Bradley, in M.E.D., interprets it by winter pasture, attaching 
a mark of interrogation. In Iceland snop denotes scanty 
growth of grass for sheep, a " nip." We get no assistance 
from foreign place-names, where the word does not seem 
to occur, except that Murray has found snad in Old 



144 HANDBOOK OF LANCASHIRE PLACE-NAMES 

Flemish to mean a point of land, thus connecting it with 
the German schnabel, a bird's beak. 

It seems to me probable that the Danes in their 
settlements brought with them the dialect word snab 
(older form, snabe ; see Falk and Torp's Ordbog), of which 
the meaning in Aasen, as employed in the South of 
Norway, is a small piece, a bit, a stump. Thus the word 
in place-names is a congener of thwaite, snead, and croft. 
In several of the words which follow, snape appears almost 
synonymous with croft. 

Snape and Snaps Green. — A hamlet in the township of 
Scarisbrick, to the N. of Ormskirk. 

Snape. — The name of a close in Habergham Eaves 
(V.C.H., vol. vi., 456). 

Snab Green. — In the north of the parish of Mailing, 
NE. of Lancaster. 

Snab House and Higher Snab. — In the valley of the 
Lune, opposite Hornby. 

Boysnape or Boysnope. — In a Final Concord of 1235 
(R., vol. xxxix.) appears the mill of Bruneshop, which Mr. 
Farrer identifies with Boysnope, a place in the parish of 
Eccles, \\ mile NE. of Irlam. The first theme of the 
word is the personal name Brun, for which see O., p. 117. 
The second theme is hope. 

In R., vol. xlvii., p. 144, there occurs the word Boyhnape, 
referring to the place mentioned in the preceding para- 
graph. See Bulsnape. 

Bulsnape. — A manor in Goosnargh to the NE. of 
Preston. First theme the animal — bull. 

Dewysnape occurs in a Final Concord, in the personal 
name of Benedict de D. (R., vol. xxxix.). First theme 
probably descriptive. Does it refer to the dew-rounds or 
early walks of hunters ? See Ring-walk, in the N.E.D. 



CATALOGUE OF PLAC^-NAMBS 145 

Fairsnape. — Higher Fairsnape and Lower Fairsnape are 
places about 7 miles to the E. of Garstang. The first 
theme refers probably to roebucks in their fifth year. See 
N.E.D., vol. iv., p. 26. 

Kidsnape. — ^A manor in Goosnargh, to the NE. of 
Preston. First theme the animal. 

Beedysnape. — In Button, in the parish of Ribchester, 
S. of Longridge Fell. First theme descriptive. 

Blacksnape. — A hamlet in Over Darwen, 5 miles SE. of 
Blackburn. No early records. First theme descriptive. 

SNBAD 

This is the Old English smed, which B.-T. (after Leo) 
defines as a "piece of land within defined limits, but 
without enclosures." Connected with the Old English 
smdan, to cut — ^possibly implying the cutting of marks on 
trees and stones to testify to boundaries. Possibly may 
mean a farm cut off a large estate. 

Halsnead. — A hamlet 2 miles S. of Prescot. Halsnade 
and Hohnade (R., vol. xlvii., pp. 15, 29) are forms of the 
word in the Assize Rolls of 1247 ; Halsnad and Uallesnad 
(R., vol. xlix.) somewhat later. The first theme is the 
personal name Hale (see O., p. 278), as in Halsall. 

STALL 

The Old English steall denotes place or stead generally, 
then a stall or place for cattle ; also a fishing-ground or 
place for catching fish. 

Featherstall. — A village in Blatchingworth, NE. of 
Rochdale. First theme the personal name Feader, of 
which an example is given in O., p. 240. See Featherston 
below. 



146 HANDBOOK OF LANCASHIRE PLACE-NAMES 

Rawtenstall. — A borough in Rossendale, 4 miles W. of 
Bacup. In an Inquest of 1323 (R., vol. liv.) the original 
vaccary is spelt Routonstall. In Charles II.'s grant to 
General Monck (V.C.H., vi., p. 233) it is called Rottanstall, 
alias Rounstallhey. Other forms led to Rawtenstall. In 
the difficulty of choice we take Rou to be the Middle 
English rug, ridge, and tonstall to be the same word as 
the next. 

Tunstall. — A township in the extreme NE. point of the 
county : the Tunestalle of Domesday Book. It appears 
in a Final Concord of 1202 (R., vol. xxxix.). 

This place-name, which occurs in several parts of 
England, seems to have originated in the compound word 
iun-steall, meaning a farmstead or farmyard. See the 
Anglo-Saxon Dictionaries, B.-T. and Dr. Sweet's. 

STEAD 

The Old English stede, place or occupied spot, is found 
as a termination in place-names, through a very extended 
region from Hanover in the south to Iceland in the north. 
The Old Norse form of the word is stathr. 

Bickerstaffe. — A parish 3 miles S. of Ormskirk. The 
spelling Btkerstatk, with such variations as Bykerstath, 
Bykarstath, beginning with an entry of 1226, in R., vol. 
xlviii., lasts apparently to the beginning of the eighteenth 
century. In R., vol. xi., we read Bickersteth alias Bicker- 
staffe. The ^spelling in personal names is as early as the 
reign of James the First (R., vol. xii.). The occurrence in 
R., vol. xlix., p. 242, of the year 1267, can only be a 
scribe's error. 

The first theme of the name is the personal Bica, Bicca 
(see O., p. 106). The second syllable of the first theme, er, 
is either a remnant of a second theme, like here, in what 
may have been a bitheraatic name, or a simple intensive 



CATALOGUE OF PLACE-NAMES 147 

extension. See F., col. 1199 ; also paragraph 4, Chapter II. 
above. 

Bowstead Gates. — A village 2 miles N. of Ulverston. 
Bolstathr is the Old Norse for a farmstead, bbl being cognate 
to the English bold. 

Croxteth. — A park and mansion 4 miles NE.' of Liver- 
pool. Spelt Crocstad and Croxstath in the thirteenth 
century (R., vol. xlviii.). The first theme is the personal 
name Croc (see O., p. 144). The Old Norse krokr, a crook 
or anything bent, was used as a nickname (see the Land- 
nama. III., 14, 10). 

Toxteth. — An ancient park or forest, now a suburb of 
Liverpool, on the south. In Domesday Book it appears as 
Stochestede. In a Pipe Roll of King John it is Tokestat 
(L.P.C., p. 217), in a perambulation of Henry III. Toxstake 
(L.P.C.), and in the Great Inquest Tokestath (R., vol. 
xlviii.). 

The first theme in the Domesday form is the Old 
English stocc, meaning log, trunk ; in the later forms the 
first theme is personal ; Toki is a frequent Norse name, of 
which English forms are found in O., p. 455. 

I have on various occasions pointed out how the Norse 
settlers in Lancashire sometimes modified the Anglo- 
Saxon names of places, changing them into forms which 
had an evident meaning in their own language. The 
change from Stochestede to Tokestath is a case in point ; 
both themes in the former are Anglo-Saxon, in the latter 
Norse. Stokkr is not used either in Norway or Denmark 
as a first theme ; Toki is common in the place-names of 
both. See Altcar, Lathom, and other words. 

Tunstead. — There are several places of this name in 
Lancashire, as in other counties. The one mentioned in 
a Final Concord of 1202 (R., vol. xxxix., p. 38) and spelt 



148 HANDBOOK OF LANCASHIRE PLACE-NAMES S 

TunsUde is in Skelmersdale. The Anglo-Saxon Diction^ 
aries, B.-T. and Dr. Sweet's, interpret the word as village j 
and so Tunstead, like Tunstall, became a place-name. 

STOCK 

This is the Old English word stocc, stock, log of wood, 
trunk, tree-stump. A common place-name theme in the 
south, but rare in the north, and very rare in the districts 
of the Danish settlements. Stock probably denotes a 
stockaded place, originally. 

Lostock. — A village 4 miles E. of Bolton-le-Moors. It 
appears in the Great Inquest of 1212 as Lostoc (R., voL 
xlviii.), afterwards as Lostok, 1204 (R., vol. xxxix.), and 
Lostocke, Lostock, 1622 (R., vol. xii.). 

The first theme is probably Celtic or pre-Celtic, and the 
old river name of the stream which is now the Lostock. 
Various streams in the north have the same theme : Lodore, 
the Lune, and the Loud. See K., p. 60. 

STY 

This is the Old English stig, a path, and many of the 
words in which it appeared in early times have gone out of 
use. In the Index to Mr. Farrer's L.P.C. are such words i 
Hulvesty, Coumstiis, Hardesty, of which the first themes 
are Ulf, Cumb, Heard, apparently. 

ThorpMnsty. — Hall and hamlets 7 miles NE. of 
Cartmel, near the Winster. Spelt in Teesdale's map 
Thorpingsty. First theme the Norse name Thorfinn (see 
0., p. 446). 

TANG, TONG 

In Old Norse there are two words : one, tangi, a spit of 
land projecting into the sea or a river, also applied to a 



CATALOGUE OP PLACE-NAMES 149 

piece of high land projecting into a moss, or even into 
other land; the other, tunga, a tongue, applied to land 
included in the angle between two rivers which meet. The 
corresponding words in Old English — tatige, tongs, and 
tunge, tongue — do not seem to be so clearly separate in 
their application as the Old Norse. 

Tonse. — A township i mile NE. of Bolton-le-Moors. 
The forms in the early Lancashire Inquests are Tonge 
Tong (R., vol. xlviii.), and there is a form Toung in the 
Assize Rolls (R., vol. xlviii.). Tonge is the district between 
two brooks, the Tonge Brook and Bradshaw Brook, which 
meet and form a tributary of the Irwell. 

Tonge. — A township i mile SE. of Middleton. It is spelt 
Tange in the Great Inquest, 1212 (R., vol. xlviii., p. 71), 
and soon afterwards Tonge. The district lies between the 
river Irk, and one of its tributaries, the Wince Brook. 

Gaxstang. — A market-town 11 miles N. of Preston, 
appears as Cherestanc in Domesday Book. In early 
charters we find Gairstang, Gerstang i^.Y XI., pp. 361, 442), 
and in the Pipe Rolls Gerstan, Geirstan (L.P.C., pp. 178, 
192). Variants occur : Geersteng, 1208; Gayerstang, 1246; 
Geyrsfang, 1256 (R., vol. xxxix.). GarrAiw^ appears early 
in the seventeenth century (R., vol. xii.). 

The first theme is the personal name Gar (Old Norse 
geirr, a spear), of which examples may be seen in O., p. 252, 
compounded with other themes. The Old Norse is fre- 
quently an uncompounded name. For root gairu, see F., 
col. 571. 

THOEN 

This Old English word is found in place-names in all 
parts of England The umlauted form, thyrne, a thorn- 
bush, is sometimes used. The Old Norse corresponding 
words are Thorn and Thyrnir. 



ISO HANDBOOK OF LANCASHIRE PLACE-NAMES 

Arkillesthom. — This place-name occurs in a Final 
Concord of 1228 (R., vol. xxxix., p. 54). 

The first theme is personal, of which O. gives the forms 
Arcytel, Arkil, Earncytd. The Old Norse form is Arnkell. 
The Norse names having Ketill for second theme shorten 
that theme in the nominative to Kelt (see C.V., p. 337)- 

In the same Final Concord occurs another Norse word, 
Saudhusthom. The first part of this is sauthhus, meaning 
sheep-pens. 

Henthom. — A hamlet 2 miles SW. of Clitheroe, in the 
valley of the Ribble. In the Assize Rolls (R., vol. xlvii.) 
it appears as Hennethyrne, and in the Lay Subsidies 
Henthern, 1332, and Henthorn (R., vol. xxxi.). The first 
theme is a personal name, of which Low German furnishes 
the forms Hen, Han, Henne, Hane. See W., pp. 143, 158, 
Winkler regards them and other similar forms as abridged 
forms of the Biblical Johannes. Forstemann, col. 746, 
suggests that the root han is related to the Old English 
hana, a cock. On the other hand, he refers hen in Henricus 
(col. 734) to the root haimi, home. O. gives several 
names beginning with hean and ean (pp. 285, 211) of which 
roots nothing certain can be said. 

Worsthorn. — A parish 2 miles E. of Burnley. In Final 
Concords of 1202, the forms of the word are Worthesthorn, 
Wrdestorn (R., vol. xxxix., pp. 22, 18). In the Lanca- 
shire Inquests Wrdeston, 1242, Wrthisthorn, 1258 (R.< 
vol. xlviii.). The Assize Rolls have Wurthesthorn (R., 
vol. xlvii.), and in a Final Concord of 1397 is the form 
Worsthorn (R., vol. 1.). 

The first theme is a personal name: the name given 
in O., p. 522, Wurta. It is a personal name from worth, 
a homestead, which in Old English (see B.-T.) takes the 
forms weorth, worth, wurth, wyrth. The personal name 
has given rise to a patronymic, as shown below. 



CATALOGUE OP PLACE-NAMES 151 



THORP 

A common termination of German and Danish place- 
names under the forms -dorp -trup. The Old English 
tkorp or throp means farm, estate, village^ In the Danish 
parts of England, especially Yorkshire and Lincolnshire, 
it is usually thorp or thorpe. In the northern counties 
the word is rare, and from Lancashire has almost dis- 
appeared. 

Thorp. — An old manor in the township of Bretherton, 
9 miles SW. of Preston. In early Pipe Rolls (L.P.C.) 
it is Torp ; in the Great Inquest (R., vol. xlviii.) and 
Final Concords (R., vol. xxxix.) Thorp. 

Thorpe and Lower Thorpe, hamlets 2 miles NW. of 
Oldham. 

Thorpe Green. — One mile SW. of Brindle. 

Gawthorpe Hall. — In Habergham Eaves, near Burnley. 
There seem to be no records of the name older than 
the sixteenth century, so possibly it may have come from 
Yorkshire, where there is a Gawthorpe near Huddersfield, 
and another near Dewsbury. 

Trub Smithy, formerly Smithy Ford (V.C.H.). A 
hamlet 3 miles NE. of Middleton. Trub seems to be a 
form of Thorp as the Danish trup ; but in view of the 
late origin of the word in this place-name, it may be a 
personal name, to which conjecture the words Trubley, 
Trubshaw lend support. Though in these words also 
Trub may mean village apparently. 

THWAITE 

From the Old Norse thveit, a parcel of land, a paddock. 
Connected with the Old English word thwitan, to cut, 
to shave off, so that it may primarily mean a small part 



!52 HANDBOOK OF LANCASHIRE PLACE-NAMES 

of an estate cut off from a larger. It is found in the 
northern counties, Cumberland, Westmorland, North 
Lancashire, and North-west Yorkshire. It is frequent 
in Norway and Denmark, but its meaning is held to be 
doubtful. Madsen considers its primitive meaning to be 
watershed; Jellinghaus that it may be a clearing. 

Allithwaite. — A parish 2 miles S. of Cartmel. The 
oldest forms of the word are Alithweit, 1247, and Alythwayt, 
1277, in the Assize Rolls (R., vol. xlvii.)- In the Subsidies, 
1332 (R., vol. xxxi.), they are Alyvtwait and Alithwait. 
The first theme is personal : the v in the 1332 form 
seems to show it to be the Norse name Olaf ; the others 
suggest the common diminutive form Oli, of the same 
name. 

Bigthwaite. — This word is found in the Assize Rolls 
(R., vol. xlvii.) as Bigetwayt, 1247, ^"d in a Final Concord 
of 1323 (R., vol. xlvi.), Biggethwayt. The place appears 
to have been near Lancaster, but the name is now lost. 
The first theme may be the Old Norse word for barley, 
bygg. There is, however, a personal name biga in O., 
p. 106. 

Beanthwaite. — A hamlet 3 miles SE. of Broughton-in- 
Furness. No early records. First theme probably the 
vegetable ; there is a Beancroft half-a-mile from Broughton. 

Boothwaite Nook. — A hamletnear Broughton-in-Furness, 
on the SE. Teesdale's map has Booth Nook. No early 
forms known. The first theme is probably personal ; the 
English name Booth is found in the fourteenth century. 
See Bardsley's Diet, of Surnames. 

Brackenthwaite. — A hamlet 5 miles N. of Carnforth, on 
the border of Westmorland. First theme descriptive. 

Brakenesthweit is found in the Charter of the 
Foundation of Burscough Priory (see L.P.C., p. 349). It 



CATALOGUE OF PLACE-NAMES 153 

was near Ormskirk, but the name is now lost. First theme 
descriptive and plural. Mr. Farrer gives to the Burscough 
charter the date 1 189-1 196; in the N.E.D. the earhest 
example of the use of Bracken is dated 1325. 

Burblethwaite. — Hamlet, Hall, and Green, near the 
Winster, 2 miles NE. of Newby Bridge. No early records. 
First theme descriptive. The burbkk is a local, West- 
morland dialect, name for the butter-bur, Petasites 
vulgaris. The second syllable is leek. 

Esthwaite Water and Hall.— The water is a small lake 
lying to the SE. of Hawkshead, and the Hall is on its west 
side. First theme of the word descriptive of position. 

Finsthwaate. — A hamlet 2 miles W. of the foot of 
Windermere. The first theme is personal. Finn is a 
fairly common Scandinavian name of race origin. For 
Old English examples, see O., p. 241. 

Grawthwaite. — Village and moor 4 miles N. of 
Ulverston. No early records available. First theme 
probably personal. Gouk appears amongst the earliest 
of Lincolnshire surnames. Geac is Old English for cuckoo, 
gaukr Old Norse; the name may have originated in a 
nickname. 

Graythwaite. — Hall 3 miles N. of Newby Bridge. 
First theme probably personal. Gray occurs as a personal 
name in the thirteentR century. See Bardsley's Dictionary. 

Gnnnerthwaite. — Village in Melling, near the river Keer. 
The first theme is personal, the Old Norse name Gunnarr. 
English examples of the name may be found in O., p. 271. 

Havertbwaite. — Ecclesiastical district near the river 
Leven, NE. of Ulverston, in the Parish of Coulton. The 
first appearance of the name is in the fourteenth century, 
(Furness Coucher Book), and it does not seem to have 
undergone any change. The first theme is the north 



154 HANDBOOK OF LANCASHIRE PLACE-NAMES 

country dialect word kaver {havre in Aasen's Norsk 
Ordbog), wild oats, the Avenafatua. A form Haversthwate 
occurs in R., vol. x., p. 131, with genitival s, as if the first 
theme were a personal name. 

Hawthwaite (Lower). — A hamlet 2 miles N. of 
Broughton-in-Furness. No early records. First theme 
descriptive, probably from Old English haga, enclosure. 

Hawthomthwaite. — A hamlet in Wyresdale, under the 
north side of Catshaw Fell. It is described as a vaccary 
and is spelt Haghthornthayt m. R., vol. liv., p. 127. First 
theme is thus descriptive. 

Heathwaite. — A hamlet 3 miles E. of Broughton-in- 
Furness. First theme may be heath, but very possibly it 
may be the first theme of Hawthwaite above, as in Tees- 
dale's map it is marked Higher Hathwaite. 

There is another Heathwaite between Torver and 
Church Coniston, under the Old Man, which seems to be 
the Howthait of R., vol. x., p. 2, and the Hmtthwaite of 
p. 147. 

Ickenthwaite. — North of Ulverston, and 3 miles E. of 
the foot of Coniston Water. Seventeenth-century records 
spell the word Icornethwait, Icornthwait. See R., vol. x., 
pp. 52, 264. No early records. For the first theme I can 
suggest only ikorni, the Norwegian dialect word for a 
squirrel from the Old Norse. See Icornhurst above. 

luglewMte. — A hamlet 6 miles SE. of Garstang. No 
early records. First theme personal, an abraded form of 
such a word as Ingjald or Ingolf. O., pp. 316, 3 18, contains 
among others Ingeld and Ingolf. Ingeld is a name in the 
Liber Vitae (S., p. 157). 

White is one of the several corruptions of thwaite, found 
in R., vol. X., and elsewhere. 

Kirktbwaite. — A hamlet in the parish of Coulton, 7 



CATALOGUE OF PLACE-NAMES 155 

miles NE. of Ulverstorv. First theme descriptive, probably 
of ownership. 

Langthwaite, Longthwaite. — A hamlet 2 miles SE. of 
Lancaster. First theme descriptive. 

Launthwaite. — A hamlet i mile NE. of Hawkshead. 
The forms Louthwait and Launthwaite occur (seventeenth 
century) in R., vol. x. The first theme may be the Early 
English word launde, meaning an open space among 
woods, a glade, a pasture. 

Nibthwaite, High and Low. — Villages south of Coniston 
Water, in the valley of the Crake. The word is a shortened 
form of one which has lost its first part, Thornebuthwait, 
which Mr. Farrer considers to be the early form (see R., 
vol. xxxix., p. 13). The " thwaite of the farm Thornebu." 
The first theme of this word may be either the bush, as in 
the Danish Thornby (Madsen), or a personal name as 
Thorny or Thorbjorn, from one of which comes the Norse 
Tomby, Thornebye (Rygh, pp. 255, 263). 

It is possible that neb or nib, by its appropriateness 
(meaning a nose, point, or peak), may have facilitated the 
curtailment of the original word. Nebthwayt is found in 
R., vol. X., p. 96. 

Outhwaite. — A village in Roeburndale, 12 miles NE. of 
Lancaster. Wluetheit and Wluesihet occur in a charter of 
King John (R., vol. xlviii., p. 92), and Wlfthwayt in a 
Final Concord of 1312 (R., vol. xlvi.). Owthwait and Out- 
whett (R., vol. X., p. loi) are found at the beginning of the 
seventeenth century, and Outhwaite at the beginning of the 
eighteenth (R., vol. xiii., p. 93). 

First theme is the personal name JVu^{see O., p. 506). 

There is another Outhwaite in Torver, W. of Coniston 
Water. 

Raisthwaite. — A hamlet 3 miles NE. of Broughton-in- 



156 HANDBOOK OP LANCASHIRE PLACE-NAMES 

Fumess. Old records not known. First theme is the 
Old Norse Areysi, a cairn, a heap of stones. See Professor 
Wright's English Dialect Diet., under the word Haise. 

Rosthwaite. — A hamlet 2 miles SW. of Cartmel. No 
early records. First theme is personal. For the names of 
which it forms a part, see O., p. 404. The root of Hos is 
probably hros, a horse; see F., col. 1282. The corre- 
sponding Low German name is Jios or Hose (see W., pp. 
318,323). 

Satterthwaite. — A parish 4 miles SW. of Hawkshead. 
No early notice found. Sixteenth-century forms are 
Satterthwhat, Saterthait, Saterwhate (R., vol. x., pp. 230, 
289). In the Commonwealth Church Survey (R., vol. i.) 
it is Saturthwaite. The first theme may be the Norse 
sater, mountain pastures. See Aasen. 

Scarthwaite, High and Low. — Hamlets 4 miles N. of 
Ulverston. No early records. First theme may be the 
Old Norse scar or skarth (see Scar above). In the 
Ordnance Survey maps the word appears as Scarthwaite, 
and the form Scowthwaite occurs in R., vol. x., p. 184, as 
if from scough. 

Seathwaite. — A parish 6 miles N, of Broughton-in- 
Furness, in the valley of the Duddon. Early forms de- 
sirable. Post-Reformation spellings are Seathwhate, Seath- 
what, Seatwhat (R., vol. x., p. 88). Seathet is the form 
in the Lancashire Church Survey. The first theme may 
be the Old Norse sitha, a side or slope, but earlier forms 
might point to a personal name such as See (O., p. 406) or 
the Old Norse Sig, Siggi. 

Subberthwaite. — A parish 6 miles N. of Ulverston. 
First theme descriptive, the Old Norse dialect word 
subba, which has the meaning of mud, mire. For er, see 
Chapter II. 



CATALOGUE OF PLACE-NAMES 157 

Thomthwaite.— A hamlet 3 miles NE. of Broughton- 
in-Fumess. First theme descriptive. 

Tilberthwaite.— A hamlet 3 miles N. of Coniston. It 
appears in a Final Concord of 11 96 (R., vol. xxxix., p. 4) 
as Tildesburgthwait, and as Tillesburc, L.P.C., p. 311. 
First theme personal. The woman's name, Tilburh, is 
given in O., p. 454; also other names in which Til forms 
a part. 

Walthwaite. — A hamlet 2 miles W. of Ulverston. No 
early records. First theme probably the personal name, 
for which see O., p. 476. 

Winstirthwaytes. — Occurs of the date 1283, in R., 
vol. xlviii., p. 256, without statement as to whether it is in 
Lancashire or Westmorland. The river Winster separates 
the two counties, and flows into Morecambe Bay. 

TON 

The Old English tun, an enclosure ; a word common to 
the Germanic races. It was applied originally to the 
hedge or fence (compare the Modern German zaun) with 
which a settler surrounded his habitation; afterwards to 
the enclosed land and buildings. For the further develop- 
ment of the word, consult the Bosworth- Toller Diet. The 
termination ton points to a colonisation by the Saxons, 
who at the time of the Teutonic settlements in England 
occupied North-west Germany, east and west of the river 
Weser, to the mouth of the Elbe and the German Ocean. 

Accrington. — A town 4 miles E. of Blackburn. Old forms 
are Akerynton, 1258 (R., vol. xlvii., p. 121). Aerinton, 
1277 (R., vol. xxxix.). First theme is a patronymic from 
a personal name which appears as Aero in W., p. ro. The 
full forms which F. gives, col. 22, are Eckiheri, Akihari. 
The corresponding word, Ecghere, does not appear in O., 



158 HANDBOOK OF LANCASHIRE PLACE-NAMES 

though there are many similarly compounded forms on 
pp. 218-21, among which are EcgJieard, Ecceard. The 
roots of the name are ecg, an edge ; here, an army. 

Adlington. — A parish 3 miles S. of Chorley. Early 
forms of the word are Adelvenion, 1202 (R., vol. xxxix.), 
and Adelyngton in a Final Concord of 1322 (R., vol. xlvi.). 
Adelinton and Athelington occur in the Assize Rolls. The 
first theme is the common Old English personal name 
Mthelwine (see O., p. 59). The roots of the name are 
ceihele, noble, and wine, friend. 

Aightou. — A joint parish with Chaigley and Bailey 
5 miles W. of Clitheroe. The form of the word in 
Domesday Book is Actun (V.C.H., i., 288). A common 
spelling from the twelfth century to the time of Queen 
Elizabeth in Aghton. Aighton making its appearance at 
the end of her reign (R., vol. xii.). Other forms are Aiton 
(L.P.C., p. 385), Hacton (R., vol. xxxix.), Achinton (L.P.C., 
p. 382). 

First theme is the Old English word ac, oak; but the 
last of the above forms seems to me to refer to Over 
Hacking in Aighton ; see this word under termination Ing 
above. 

AUerton. — An urban district 4 miles S. of Liverpool. 
It occurs in Domesday Book, and is there spelt Alretune. 
Alreton is the form in R., vol. xxxix., in an entry of the 
date 1 24 1, and AUerton in R., vol. xxxi., in a document 
of the year 1332. In first theme aire is an oblique case 
of the Old English alor, air, the alder-tree. 

Alkrington.— A village i mile S. of Middleton. In 
a Final Concord of R., vol. xlvi., of the date 1313, the 
word appears as Alkeryngton. The first theme is a 
patronymic, of which the origin is the personal name 
Ealh-fiere. In the Liber Vitse, S., p. 164, the form is Alcheri. 



CATALOGUE OP PLACE-NAMES 159 

Alston. — A parish in the valley of the Ribble, 6 miles 
NE. of Preston. It appears as Alleston in the Assize 
Rolls (R., vol. xlvii., p. 95), and as Alston in a Final 
Concord of 1313 (R., vol. 46). The form Halston is also 
found (R., vol. xlviii., p. 289). 

The first theme is a personal name ^lle, of which 
examples may be seen in O., p. 30. It is probably a pet 
form oi Aelfivine (see O., p. 28). 

Anderton. — A parish 4 miles SE. of Chorley. The 
early forms ax& Anderton, 1212; Andirton, 1282 (R., vol. 
xlviii.) ; Andreton, 1332 (R., vol. xxxi.). The first theme 
is probably the scriptural name Andreas. See O., p. 70 ; 
W., p. 16; and F., col. 106. 

Angerton. — A parish 3 miles S. of Broughton-in-Furness, 
on the Duddon estuary. The "Marsh of Angerton" is 
mentioned in an inquisition of 1299 (R., vol. xlviii.). 

The first theme is the personal name Eangeard (see 
O., p. 209). For investigation into the meaning of the 
element ean in Saxon personal names, consult F., col. 207, 
and Miiller, p. 104. Miiller suggests that it means wealth. 

Appleton. — A village near the Mersey 6 miles SE. of 
Prescot. The Pipe Rolls of Henry II. (L.P.C., pp. 47, 
49) show the forms Apelton, Appelton. First theme doubt- 
less the fruit, used maybe for the tree. 

Ashton. — A township in Lonsdale, 3 miles S. of Lan- 
caster. The earliest forms of this name are Estun in 
Domesday Book ; Eston, 12 12 (R., vol. xlviii., p. 5) ; Esseton, 
1289 (R., vol. xxxix.); Esshton and Asshton, 1332 (R., 
vol. xxxi.). 

The first theme of the word is ash, the tree — Old English 
cBsc. It was used as a personal name, both by itself and 
as first theme in compound names. See O., pp. 31, 32, 
and F., col. 147, where it may be seen that the ash was 



i6o HANDBOOK OP LANCASHIRE PLACE-NAMES 

frequently so employed ; perhaps it was used to designate 
spear and ship, both being made of Ashwood. 

Ashton-under-Lyne. — A borough in the extreme SE. of 
the county. Old forms are Eston, 12 12 (R., vol. xlviii., 
p. 34); Haistune, 1162 (L.P.C.); Asshton, 1332 (R., vol. 
xxxi.). The qualifications " under-Lyne," " under- Lyme," 
both of which are found in the fourteenth century, refer to 
the position of Ashton as within the boundary line of the 
county. For lime, a limit, see the N.E.D. The estates of 
the Duchy of Lancaster in other counties are described as 
"without the Lime" (R., vol. xlviii., p. 99). See the 
preceding entry for first theme, ash, in this and following 
words. 

Ashton-in-Makerfieid. — A town 4 miles S. of Wigan. 
Old forms are Eston, 1212 (R., vol. xlviii., p. 75); Aystone, 
1246 (R., vol. xxxix.), and Asshton, 1332 (R., vol. xxxi.). 
For Makerfield, see the word under the theme Field. 

Ashton-on-Ribble. — An ecclesiastical district 2 miles 
W. of Preston. The Domesday form of the word is Estun. 
Eston, Aston, Alston are found in the thirteenth century 
(R., vol. xlviii.), and Asshton, 1332 (R., vol. xxxi.). 

Atherton. — An urban district 2 miles N. of Leigh. 
Early forms of this word are Aderton (R., vol. xlviii., 
p. 147) and Aserton, 1265 (p. 232), Athirton, 1293 (p. 276). 
Atherton occurs in (R., vol. xlvi.) in an entry of the year 
1332. First theme personal. Examples of the name Ead- 
here are found in O., p. 182. It is also given in S., p. 615. 
The name element ead in Germanic names means wealth. 

Aughton. — A parish 2 miles S. of Ormskirk. In 
Domesday Book it appears as Achetun. Later forms of 
the word are Hacton, 1246 (R., vol. xlvii.); Acton, 1282 
(R., vol. xxxix.) ; Aghton of the same and subsequent dates ; 
and Aughton, 1499 (^-i vl- I-)- The first theme is the 



CATALOGUE OF PLACE-NAMES i6i 

Old English ac, oak. The common local pronunciation of 
the word is qfion, for which see Professor Wyld's Place- 
names of Lancashire. 

Balderston. — A parish in the valley of the Ribble, 4 
miles N. of Blackburn. It appears as Baldreston, 1256 
(R., vol. xxxix.). 

The first theme is personal, the fairly common name 
baldhere (see O., p. 83, and the Liber Vitae, S., p. 155). 
The roots of the name are beald, bold ; here, a host. 

There are two other places named Balderstone in South 
Lancashire, one near Bury, the other near Rochdale. 

Barton. — Three Bartons are mentioned in Lancashire. 
Barton, a village in West Derby, 4 miles W. of Ormskirk, 
which appears in Domesday Book as Bartune. Barton, 
a township in Amounderness, 6 miles N. of Preston, is in 
Domesday Book spelt Bartun ; and Barton-on-Irwell, a 
village 6 miles W. of Manchester, of which early mention 
is made in R., vol. xxxix., of the date 1235. With very 
rare and occasional variations to Berton, Burton, these 
three places have preserved to the present their original 
form Barton. The Barton, according to Prof. Skeat is a 
demesne farm, or a farmyard. 

The parent of most of the English Bartons is the Old 
English Beretun or Bertun, but as the change of pronuncia- 
tion implied in passing from Bertun to Barton must be 
several centuries after the Norman Invasion, the Domesday 
spelling comes from another form. That form is Boertun. 
See Barley in the N.E.D., where Dr. Murray suggests that 
barr- is an early syncopated form of the pre-umlauted root 
bariz. The Domesday form of the word must date, there- 
fore, not later than the seventh century a.d. 

Bevington. — A part of Liverpool which includes Beving- 
ton Bush and Bevington Hill. The name is probably old 
and a corruption of Bebbington, a village on the other side 



i62 HANDBOOK OF LANCASHIRE PLACE-NAMES 

of the Mersey. Bebbington is a patronymic genitive of 
the personal name Bebba in O., p. 85. 

Billington. — A parish 5 miles NE. of Blackburn. Early 
forms are Btllinion, 1208 (R., vol. xxxix.) ; Bilinton, 1241 ; 
Bylyngton, 1332 (R., vol. xxxi.). 

The first theme, Billing, is a patronymic, occurring as 
a proper name (see O., p. 107, and S., p. 156). Bile, 
Bille, are Low German mediaeval names (W., p. 35); the 
stem is Ml, bili in F., col. 303, and in Old English bill 
means a sword. 

Bolton, known as Bolton-le-Sands, is a parish 4 miles 
N. of Lancaster. In Domesday Book it is spelt Bodeltone, 
in a charter of Richard I. Bothelton (L.P.C., p. 298), in 
an entry of the date 1310 Boultone (R., vol. xlvi.), and 
Bolton in 1332 (R., vol. xxxi.). The first theme is the 
Old English botl, a dwelling, house, building. 

Bolton. — A village in the parish of Urswick, 4 miles 
SW. of Ulverston. Domesday Book spells the name 
Bodeltun. It is Bowolfon in an entry of the year 1235 
(R., vol. xxxix.), Boulton in one of 1299 (R., vol. xlviii.), 
and Bolton in one of 1432 (R., vol. 1.). First theme as in 
preceding. 

Bolton, known as Bolton-le-Moors, and containing the 
two townships Great Bolton and Little Bolton, is a town 
10 miles NW. of Manchester. In a Pipe Roll of 
Henry II., and contemporary charter it appears as Boelton, 
Boeltune (L.P.C., pp. 55, 407). In 1332, in R., vol. xlvi., 
we find Great Boulton on the Moors; in 141 7, R., vol. 1., 
Bolton on the Moors. First theme as in preceding. 

Botton. — Joint parish with Wray, in the parish of 
Mailing, 10 miles NE. of Lancaster. In an entry of the 
year 1235 (R., vol. xxxix.) there appears Botnebek. Botton 
and Batten are both found before 1600 (R., vol. x., 



CATALOGUE OP PLACE-NAMES 163 

PP- 3i7> 323), and Boitne as late as 1600 (R., vol. x., 
p. 23). The word is the Old English dotm, bottom, Old 
Norse botn, used to denote the head of a dale, firth, or 
the like. See Bottom among the terminations. 

Bretherton. — A parish 9 miles SW. of Preston. In 
an early Pipe Roll of K. John (L.P.C., p. 131) the word 
is Brotheton, but in 1246 (R., vol. xxxix.) we find 
Bretherton, the usual form to modern times, with an 
occasional variation Brethirton (R., vol. xlvi., p. 33). 

The first theme is the Old Enghsh brothar, brother, 
used as a personal name (see O., p. 116; F., col. 337; 
and W., p. 52). 

The form Bretherton is from the Northern English 
plural of brothar, namely brether, for which consult the 
N.E.D., under the word Brother. 

Broughton. — There are four Broughtons in the county 
of Lancaster, two of which seem to have developed from 
a first theme broc, a brook, and the other two from burh, 
borg, a fortified place. From the theme broc, a brook, 
most of the English Broughtons come, and their form in 
Domesday is Broctun. 

Broughton. — A parish 4 miles N. of Preston. This 
word has the form Broctun in Domesday Book and in 
the Pipe Roll of 1206 (L.P.C). In 1262 (R., vol. xxxix.) 
the form is Broucton ; in 1332 (R., vol. xxxi.) it is Broghton ; 
in 1490 (R., vol. 1.) Broughton. The first theme in this 
word is broc, a brook. 

Broughton, called also East Broughton and Field 
Broughton, is a parish 2 miles N. of Cartmel. The form 
Brocton is found in an Assize Roll of 1276 (R., vol. xlvii., 
p. 132). Broghton is the usual form afterwards (R., 
vols, xlvi., xxxi., 1.). First theme is brdc, a brook. 

Broughton-in-Fumess, called also West Broughton, is 



1 64 HANDBOOK OP LANCASHIRE PLACE-NAMES 

a market-town 9 miles NW. of Ulverston. Appears as 
Borch in Domesday Book ; Brocton, 1235 (R., vol. xxxix.); 
Broghion and Browhton, 1286 (R., vol. xlviii.). First 
theme is apparently the Old English burk. Old Irish 
(see Falk and Torp), borg, brog under the word borg. 

Broughton. — A suburb of Manchester. Early Pipe 
Rolls have it Burton (L.P.C., pp. 36, 131). Other forms 
are Borton, 1257 (R., vol. xlviii.); Broghton, 1322 (R., 
vol. xlvi.), Burghton, 1352. First theme as in preceding. 

Carleton. — A parish 3 miles NE. of Blackpool. In 
Domesday Book it is Carlentun. Karleton, 1256 in R., 
vol. xxxix., and Carleton, 1332 in R., vol. xxxi. 

The first theme is the personal name Carl, meaning man 
(O., p. 125). In Liber Vitse, S., p. 154, there is the form 
Karlus. 

The Domesday Book has the name in its weak form, 
genitive case. 

Castleton. — A township forming part of the town of 
Rochdale. First theme descriptive, the Old English 
Castel. 

Caton. — A parish 5 miles NE. of Lancaster, in the 
valley of the Lune. Early forms Caton and Catton (L.P.C., 
pp. 56, 60); the latter, however, gradually gives place to 
the former (R., vols, xxxix., xlvi., 1.). 

First theme personal, the word cat. In O., p. 126, there 
are examples of its use as a theme in compound names, 
and also of the weak form Catta. It is a personal name 
taken from the animal, just as the wolf and the bear have 
given rise to personal names. See W., pp. 210, 212, where 
the forms Katte, Catte, Kette occur. Kottr (cat) is a by- 
name in the Landnama, II., ix., 3. 

Chadderton.— An urban district 3 miles NW. of Old- 
ham. Chaderton (R., vol. xlviii.) and Chadreton (R., vol. 



CATALOGUE OF PLACE-NAMES 165 

xxxix.) are thirteenth century forms, of which the first is 
the usual one for three centuries; Chathirton (R., vol. 
xlviii.), Chatherton (R., vol. xlvi.), Chaterfon, Chatterton 
{R., vol. 1.) being variations. 

The first theme is the personal name Cead, Cad, used in 
composite bithematic names, a lengthened form being 
Cadda, Ceadda (see O., p. 126). The ;^ is apparently an 
intrusion, unless it represents an abraded syllable here, as 
in Atherton. 

Chorlton. — This word occurs in Chorlton-upon-Medlock, 
a part of Manchester, and in Chorlton-cum-Hardy, a 
parish 4 miles SW. of Manchester. Early forms are 
Cherleton, 1177 (L.P.C.), and 1202 (R., vol. xxxix.); 
Cherlton, 1278 (R., vol. xxxix.) ; Chorleton, 1332 (R., 
vol. xxxi.). A spelling Chollerton, interesting on account 
of the r-metathesis, is found in 1336 (R., vol. xlvi., p. 99). 
First theme descriptive, genitive plural ceorla of ceorl, a 
husbandman, which word, however, is also a personal 
name (see O., p. 133). 

Claughton. — A parish in the valley of the Lune, 7 miles 
NE. of Lancaster. It appears in Domesday Book as 
Cladun, and later forms are Clahton, 1208 (R., vol. xxxix.) ; 
Clauton, 1241; Clagton, 1255 (R., vol. xlviii.) ; Claghton, 
1332 (R., vol. xxxi.). The modern form Claughton is a 
sixteenth century form (R., vol. x., p. 80). 

The first theme is the personal name Clac (see O., 
p. 137). It is of Scandinavian origin; a C/a/ra family is 
mentioned in Landnama (IV., x. 2). Possibly first used 
as a nickname, for the word means "to twitter," "to 
chatter." 

Claughton. — A parish 3 miles SE. of Garstang ; it is 
Clactune in Domesday Book. Variations as above. See 
the preceding word. 

Clayton. — Places of this name, all in S. Lancashire, are 



1 66 HANDBOOK OF LANCASHIRE PLACE-NAMES 

Clay ton-le- Woods, 4 miles N. of Chorley ; C lay ton-le- Moors, 
S miles NE. of Blackburn; Clayton-le-dale, in the valley 
of the Ribble, NW. of Blackburn ; and Clayton, E. of 
Manchester. From 12 12 (R., vol. xlviii., p. 33) onwards 
the first theme is variously spelt Clai, Cley, Clei, Clay. It 
is the Old English dag, clay. 

Clifton. — A village 5 miles W. of Preston. The reading 
in Domesday Book is generally supposed to be Clistun 
(see V.C.H., vol. i.). Subsequent forms are uniformly 
Clifton, occasionally Clyfton. The first theme is the Old 
English clif, rock. 

Coniston. — A parish at the head of Coniston Water, 
Furness; and Monk Coniston, a part of the parish of 
Hawkeshead. Coningeston appears in an early charter of 
King Henry II. (L.P.C.) and in an Assize Roll of 1257 
(R., vol. xlix., p. 224). Coniston is a sixteenth century 
form varied by Cuniston (R., vol. x., pp. 112, 17), which 
occurs also occasionally in the seventeenth century. 

The first theme is a patronymic of the name Cuna, 
examples of which are given in O., p. 146 ; found also in 
the Liber Vitae, S., p. 163. See also Coniskead sho\e. 

The " Old Man," as a Welsh philologist has suggested, 
is probably the Celtic alt maen, high rock. 

Coultou or Colton. — A parish 6 miles NE. of Ulverston, 
The early forms of the word are Coleton (R., vol. xxxix.), 
Colton (R., vol. xxxi.). Coulton is found before the close 
of the sixteenth century (R., vol. x., pp. 52, 96). Coll is 
used as a personal name independently, and also in com- 
posite names (see O., p. 142). Kollr is used in Scandinavia 
as a pet name; it has the meaning of Aead, summit. H^ol 
is also in common use (see the C.V. under these words). 
The word is the same as the Old English col, coal, and 
implied doubtless a dark complexion. Kole is the mediaeval 
Low German form (see W., p. 219). 



CATALOGUE OF PLACE-NAMES 167 

Crivelton. — This word appears in early charters con- 
cerning Furness Abbey, in conjunction with I?os. Mr. 
Farrer (L.P.C., p. 308) says it is now Newton in Yarlside, 
SE. of Barrow-in-Furness. In Domesday Book it takes 
the form Clivertun. If this is the true form, the first theme 
may be connected with klif, and the Old Norse word klifra, 
to climb. With the other form, the word recalls criffel, 
a granitic ridge, overhanging the Nith at Kirkcudbright. 
Bartholomew's Gazetteer, 1904. 

Crompton. — An urban district 3 miles N. of Oldham. 
Early forms are Crumpton, Crompton, 1247 (R., vol. xlvii., 
pp. 6, 53), Cromton, 1278 (R., vol. xxxix.). The first 
theme is the Old English crump, bent, stooping, and is 
probably a personal name of nickname character. The 
Old Norse krumma is used of a crooked band, a paw ; 
and the nickname Krumr is found in the Landnama 
(II., 4, 6), and gave rise to a patronymic, the family 
Krymlingar, as an ordinary name (IV., 10, 5). 

Cronton. — A parish 3 miles SE. of Prescot. The 
thirteenth century forms are Crohinton, Growynton (R., 
vol. xlviii.), Crouington (R., vol. xlvii.). In the fourteenth 
century we find Croynton (R., vol. xxxi.), Crouwenton 
(R., vol. xlvi.), and in the fifteenth Cronton (R., vol. 1.). 

First theme the personal name crawe, a crow, originally 
doubtless of nickname character (see O., p. 144). The n 
is the mark of the genitive case Crawan, as in the Somer- 
setshire old place-name Crawancumb in Kemble's Codex 
Diplomaticus. The Scandinavian word for a crow is krdka, 
which also was used as a nickname (see the C.V.). 

Croston. — A parish 9 miles SW. of Preston. 
The first theme is the Irish-Scandinavian eras, for 
which see Cross, the termination-theme above. 

Dalton. — This name occurs three times in Lancashire. 



1 68 HANDBOOK OF LANCASHIRE PLACE-NAMES 

Dalton-in-Fumess. — An urban district. A market- 
town 6 miles NE. of the modern town of Barrow. In 
Domesday Book it is Daltune. 

First theme is personal, the Old English name Dealla. 
See O., p. 163, for this name, and also the patronymic 
Dealing. 

It is hardly possible to suppose the many English 
Daltons to have arisen from the personal name. They 
must many of them have a descriptive first theme, the 
Old English dcBl, a dale, or Old Norse dalr. 

Dalton. — A parish 5 miles NW. of Wigan. The 
Domesday form is Daltone. For first theme, see above. 

Dalton. — A township 7 miles NE. of Carnforth. For 
first theme, see above. 

Denton. — An urban district 6 miles SE. of Manchester, 
near the river Tame. It is found in early records (R., 
vol. xxxix., and vol. xlvi.). The personal name Dene is 
found in Liber Vitae (see S., p. 161). Also the word is 
found both independently and in composite names in 
O., p. 164. The word is originally a race-name (see F., 
col. 400). But as dcBl, dalr, a dale, may be the origin of the 
first theme of some Daltons, so may denu, a valley, be that 
of some Dentons. 

There is also a Denton's Green, near St. Helens. 

Ditton. — A parish 9 miles SE. of Liverpool, in the 
Parish of Prescot. In the Assize Rolls (R. vol. xlvii.), 
it is spelt Dithon, Ditgthon, Dillon, Dillon. Somewhat 
later Ditton occurs 1332 (R., vol. xxxi.). 

The first theme is probably the Old English die, dike or 
ditch for marsh-draining. There is a Ditchfield adjacent, 
the old Dychefeld, 1332 (R., vol. xxxi.). 

Dumplington. — A hamlet in the t<)wnship of Barton, 
5 miles WSW. of Manchester. Dumplinton occurs in 
1229, and again in 1253 (R., vol. xxxix.). 



CATALOGUE OP PLACE-NAMES 169 

I have no satisfying opinion concerning the first theme. 
In one of the Yorkshire dialects, it means a short, fat 
person, and the N.E.D. gives an extract of the date 1617, 
in which dumpling is synonymous with dwarf, and is a 
diminutive of the word dump in such compounds as 
willow-dump, a pollard willow. It may thus have had 
a use as a nickname, but authentic instances are wanting. 

Button. — A township in the parish of Ribchester, 7 
miles NW. of Blackburn. The word appears in charters 
of K. John (L.P.C., pp. 380, 381). Bud, Duda, Dudd are 
Old English names (see O., p. 170, and S., p. 168). For 
the root, which is of doubtful origin, consult F., col. 412. 

Eccleston. — There are several place-names in Lancashire, 
with the first theme Ecdes. The Celtic church was strong 
in Lancashire in early times, and where early records 
point to the existence of churches in such places, then 
doubtless the first theme is from ecclesia, the Greek-Latin 
word for church, which early found a home in Celtic lands. 
In other words, where the theme has no apparent connec- 
tion with an existing church, the theme may be personal, 
an abraded form of Ecghild ox Ecgweald {O., p. 220, 221) 
or a diminutive of Ecca (p. 217). The personal name 
Ekele is found in W., p. 86. 

Eccleston. — Great Eccleston and Little Eccleston are 
parishes on the river Wyre, 6 miles N. of Kirkham. 
The Domesday Book form is Eglestun. Great Ecleston 
is found in 1285, Great Eccleston in 1296 (R., vol. xxxix.)* 
It is in the parish of St. Michael's-on-Wyre, and Little 
Eccleston in Kirkham. The first theme is probably 
ecclesia, church. 

Eccleston. — A parish and township 9 miles S. of Preston. 
Early forms of the word are Aycleton in a charter of 
William II. (L.P.C., p. 290), and Etcheleston in one of 
Richard I. (p. 298). Ekeleston is found in an entry of 1203 



I70 HANDBOOK OF LANCASHIRE PLACE-NAMES 

(R., vol. xxxix.), Eccleston in 131 1 (R., vol. xlvi.). The 
Charter of William II. shows it to have then been the site 
of a church. 

Eccleston. — A parish lying between Prescot and St. 
Helens. Eckston appears in 1248 (R., vol. xlix., p. 229), 
and Eccleston in 1332 (R., vol. xlvi.). The first theme is 
perhaps personal (see above). I have not found any trace 
of a connection with Prescot, though it is in the parish. 

Egton. — A joint parish with Newland, 3 miles N. of 
Ulverston. In an entry of the Assize Rolls, the place 
appears as Eggetane (R., vol. xlvii., p. 147). The first 
theme is the Old English personal name Ecga (see O., 
217, and the Liber Vitse, S., p. 156). The root is ecg, 
a sword. 

Elston. — A parish in the valley of the Ribble, 4 miles 
NE. of Preston. The early forms of the word are Ethiliston, 
12 12 (L.P.C.); Etheleston, 1301 (R., vol. xxxix.); and 
Etheliston, 1332 (R., vol. xxxi.). Contracted forms are 
Elkston, 1446, and Elston, 1505 (R., vol. 1.). The first 
theme is the personal name CRthel, noble, a part of many 
composite names (O., p. 33). ^thel is an independent 
man's name in O., and Ethilu a woman's name in the Liber 
Vitae, S., p. 155. 

Elton. — A township adjoining Bury on the W. and 
included in the borough. The first theme is the personal 
name, Ella, Aelle (see O., p. 226). 

Euxton. — A township 7 miles S. of Preston. Early 
forms are Eueceston, 1187 (L.P.C.); Eukeston, 1292, 1497 
(R., vols, xxxix., 1.); Euxton, 1555 (R., vol. xxxiii.). 

The first theme is a ^ diminutive of the personal name 
Eowa (see O., p. 233), of which a patropymic Eowing is 
in S., p. 170. See the Low German forms in W., p. 78; 
and for the root aiva, consult F., col. 49. 



CATALOGUE OF PLACE-NAMES 171 

Everton. — A suburb of Liverpool. In an early Pipe 
Roll (R., vol. xlviii.), 1226, the word is spelt Overton. 
Euerton appears shortly after, 1257, and undergoes no sub- 
sequent change. The first theme is the Old English ofer, 
above, over, and denotes position, the iicn being situated 
on a ridge. The second form of the word, containing the 
Old Norse efri, upper, is probably a Norse settler's modi- 
fication of the earlier name. 

Farington. — A parish 3 miles S. of Preston. Early 
form is Farinton in a charter of King Stephen (L.P.C., 
p. 320), and 12 12 (R., vol. xlviii.). The same form is 
found in a Final Concord of 1242 (R., vol. xxxix.). 
Farington is the spelling in 1246 (R., vol. xxxix.), and in 
1288 (R., vol. xlviii.). Farrington appears about the 
middle of the sixteenth century (R., vol. ix.). 

The personal Old English name Fara (O., p. 240) is the 
first theme, Faran being a genitive form. F., col. 496, 
gives the root fara as in the Old English faru, com- 
panions. The Low German form of the name is Fare 
(W., p. 95)- 

Farleton. — A parish in the valley of the Lune, 8 miles 
NE. of Lancaster. The spelling in Domesday Book is 
Fareltun. Other early forms are Farletone (L.P.C., 
p. 400); in a charter of Richard I. Farelton, 121 2 (R., 
vol. xlviii.); and Farlton, 1242 (R., vol. xlviii.). The first 
theme is the Old English name Fara, as in the preceding 
(O., p. 240). Faranton is an ^-extension (genitival) ; 
Farelton is an /-extension (diminutive). The el in the 
latter, though, may be an abraded form of the second 
theme in a bithemathic name, such as Fat^lf{0., p. 239). 

Flixton. — ^A parish 7 miles SW. of Manchester. A Pipe 
Roll spelling of 1176 (L.P.C., p. 36) gives Flixton, and 
variants are Flyxton, 1262 (R., vol. xlix.), and Flixston, 
1308 (R., vol. xlvi.). 



172 HANDBOOK OF LANCASHIRE PLACE-NAMES 

The first theme is a component part of personal names 
in O., p. 553, Fili, of which Filica, given also in O., is a 
k diminutive. The root \%filu, many. See F., col. 504. 

Featherston. — A village in Blatchingworth 3 miles 
NE. of Rochdale. Is it not the same place as Feather- 
stall? and the second theme is in all probability stone. 
See R., vol. xlvii., p. 135, where the word appears to be 
Fayrstan. 

Forton. — A parish 4 miles N. of Garstang. It is a 
Domesday Book word, Fortune. First theme doubtful; 
it may be the word forth, a common personal name 
element (see O., p. 244), or it may be descriptive, an 
abraded form oiford. 

Freckleton. — A parish on the Northern bank of the 
Kibble, 8 miles W. of Preston. Frecheltun is the Domes- 
day form ; Frekelton, that of a charter of K. John ; 
Freketon and Frekenton of the same date, from a Pipe 
Roll (L.P.C., pp. 436, 132, 134). 

First theme is personal — the form Frekulfus in O., 
p. 246. Old English Free, greedy, bold, gives rise to the 
poetic worA freca, a warrior; and Old 'iHotse frekr, greedy, 
gives rise to the poetic viordfreki, a wolf. 

Garston. — An urban district 6 miles SE. of Liverpool, 
on the Mersey. The early form of the word in the 
charters of the eleventh and twelfth centuries is Gerstan 
(L.P.C., pp. 270, 272, 286), variants being Gerhstan and 
Grestan. The form lasts fairly continuous into the 
sixteenth century (R., vols, xlvi., xxxi., 1.). The modern 
Garston being found in the Commonwealth Church Survey, 
1650 (R.^ vol. i.). The first theme is the personal name 
Geirr, found uncompounded in Scandinavian forms. The 
Old English form is gar, spear, which is found in com- 
posite names, O., p. 254. 

Composite names, compounded with gar are confused 



CATALOGUE OF PLACE-NAMES 173 

at times with those derived from the root garva, cognate 
with the Old English gearo, ready. See F., col. 601. 
The second part of the word is not ton but stone. 

Gleaston. — A village 3 miles SE. of Dalton-in-Furness. 
The V.C.H., vol. i., identifies with this place the Domesday 
Glasserton. Apart from this the early forms s.re Cleyston, 
Clesdon, Cleston (R., vol. xlvii., p. 100), Gkston, Gkseton 
(R., vol. xlix., p. 243, 247). Gleaston is found in 1627 (R., 
vol. X., p. 7). The first theme appears to be a personal 
name, of which a patronymic is seen in Glastonbury, 
Glestingabyrig (see B.-T.), but in O. I find no trace. W. 
connects the Low German name Glase with the ecclesiastical 
name Gelasius. 

Gorton. — An urban district 3 miles SE. of Manchester. 
It is mentioned in an inquisition, 1282 (R., vol. xlviii.), 
and Gorbroke, Gordbroke occurs as a boundary in a 
charter of K. Henry III. (L.P.C., p. 332). The first theme 
is a river name of Celtic origin (see K., p. 58). 

Hambleton. — A parish 3 miles NE. of Poulton-le-Fylde, 
on the other side of the estuary of the Wyre. It appears 
in Domesday Book as Hameltune. In early records the 
form is Hamelton (L.P.C.). Hambleton appears in the 
second half of the sixteenth century, 1577 (R., vol. x., 
p. 121). 

First theme is the personal name Hama (see O., p. 279), 
with el diminutive, as in O., p. xxiii. The usual form of the 
word is as in p. 290, Hetnele (see also W., p. 143). The root 
is hama ; Old Norse hamr, a dress or covering. See ham, 
F., col. 743. 

Hapton. — A parish 4 miles W. of Burnley. It occurs in 
the Assize Rolls, 1 247 (R., vol. xlvii., p. 24), and in the Lay 
Subsidy of 1332 (R., vol. xxxi.). Variants, Apton and 
perhaps Upton, occur in the inquests (R., vol. xlviii.). 
Ape and Appe are both Old English personal names, either 



174 HANDBOOK OF LANCASHIRE PLACE-NAMES 

of which might be accepted as first theme (O., p. 72). See, 
for root a6a man, F., col. 11. 

If the initial A be accepted, the personal name which 
the first theme involves is Happe. It does not occur in 
O., but in W., p. 144. For the root, see F., col. 748. It 
appears in the English happy, and the Old Norse happ, 
good luck. 

There is placed here a group of words which came into 
existence having the same form apparently, whose develop- 
ments were similar ; but which did not all end alike. 

Halton, in the Wapentake of Lonsdale. A parish 3 
miles NE. of Lancaster. The form in Domesday is 
Halton. In R., vol. xlviii., is found Halgton, 1245 (P- 164) ; 
Halheton, 1249 (p. 176) ; Halghton, 1251 (p. 179) ; Halehton, 
1251 (p. 185); Halton, 1252 (p. 188), and afterwards. 

First theme halgh. See the word in the list of 
terminations. 

Haighton. — A parish 4 miles NE. of Preston. In 
Domesday Book it is Halctun, and later forms are 
Aulton (L.P.C., p. 130). Halicton, Halgton, Halehton (R., 
vol. xlviii., pp. 51, 183). The spelling in the Subsidy Roll, 
1332, is Halghton (R., vol. xxxi.). Haughton, 1563, and 
Haighton, 1614 (R., vol. x., pp. 268, 250). A frequent 
spelling of the seventeenth century is Heighten (R., vol. x., 
pp.63 et seq^. First theme as in preceding. 

Haughton. — An ecclesiastical district 3 miles S. of 
Ashton-under-Lyne, in the parish of Manchester, by the 
river Tame. In a Final Concord of 1307 (R., vol. xxxix.) 
the spelling is Halghton, and again in a Subsidy Roll of 
1541 (R., vol. xii.). In the early part of the seventeenth 
century, the form is Haughton (R., vol. xlii.). First theme 
as in preceding. 

Houghton. — Known as Little Houghton, a hamlet in 



CATALOGUE OF PLACE-NAMES 175 

the parish of Worsley, 6 miles NW. of Manchester. It is 
Halghton in 1276 and afterwards (V.C.H., iv., 390). For 
first theme, see preceding entries. 

Westhoughton. — A town 5 miles SW. of Bolton-le- 
Moors. In the Assize Rolls are the various forms Halgton, 
Halcghton, Halghton, Halcton,Halicton (R.,vols. xlvii., xlix.). 
Westhalton occurs in 1302 (R., vol. xlviii.). In the free- 
holders' list of 1600 (R., vol. xii.) the form is West- 
haughton. Westhoughton is found in 1635 (R., vol. xii.). 
West is a note of position. For first theme, see preceding 
entries. 

The following have a different origin : — 

Hoghton. — A parish 6 miles SE. of Preston. In early 
charters the forms are Hbctoun, Hodona (L.P.C.) ; Houton, 
1249; Hochton, 1257; Hoghton, 1296 (R., vol. xlviii.). 

The first theme is the Old English word hbh, a heel, of 
which Kemble says : — " Originally a point of land formed 
like a heel or boot, and stretching into the plain, perhaps 
even into the sea." B.-T., under hbh. 

Houghton. — Part of a joint township with Middleton 
and Arburg, N. of Warrington, in the parish of Winwick. 
The word appears as Hoghton (R., vol. xlviii.), and again 
1420 (V.C.H.). Afterwards Houghton. First theme as in 
preceding. 

Heaton. — There are several places in Lancashire of this 
name. They appear all to have the same first theme — 
namely, the Old English gehaeg; see the Glossary to E., 
where it is translated enclosure. The dialect pronunciation 
of Heaton is Yetton. 

Heaton. — A joint parish 3 miles SW. of Lancaster, the 
Hietune of Domesday Book, and called Heton in Lons- 
dale in an entry of 1283 (R., vol. xxxix.). 

Heaton-in-Fumess, in the parish of Dalton, is Hietun in 



176 HANDBOOK OF LANCASHIRE PLACE-NAMES 

Domesday Book, and is mentioned in (R., vol. xlviii., 
p. 84). 

Heaton. — An ecclesiastical district in the parish of 
Deane, 3 miles W. of Bolton-le-Moors, and known as 
Heaton-under-Horwich. It appears as Heton in an entry 
of the year 1332 (R., vol. xlvi.), and the forms given in 
V.C.H. are Heton, 1302 ; Heyton, sixteenth century. 

Heaton, Great and Little.— Townships in the parish of 
Prestwich with Oldham, 4 miles NW. of Manchester. 
Theformsin V.C.H. are .ffeApw, 1212; Heiton, 1226; Hetun, 
Heethon, 1250; Heetun, 1319; Holton, Hoton, 1331 ; Heyton, 
1447 ; Heaton, sixteenth century. Little Heton is men- 
tioned in an entry of 1235 (R., vol. xxxix.). 

Heaton Norris. — Part of the borough of Stockport on 
the north, and an urban district in the parish of Man- 
chester, containing the hamlet of Heaton Mersey in the 
south-west, and the district of Heaton Chapel and Heaton 
Moor in the centre. The forms of the word in V.C.H. 
are Hetton, 1196; Heton, 1212; Heaton Norreys, 1364. 
Heyton and Heaton Norres, sixteenth century. 

Hulton. — Name belonging to three or four hamlets 
4 miles SW. of Bolton-le-Moors. Hulton is mentioned in 
the Great Inquest of 1212 (R., vol. xlviii.); it is spelt 
Hilton in the Assize Roll of 1247 (R., vol. xlvii., p. 68); 
it is Hylton and Hilton in a Final Concord of 1256 (R., 
vol. xxxix.), and Hulton in the Subsidy Rolls of 1332 
(R., vol. xxxi.). 

The first theme, suggested by these forms, is Old 
English hyll, hill. 

Hurleton. — An ancient manor 3 miles NW. of Orms- 
kirk, now included in Scarisbrick. In Domesday Book it 
is Hirleton, and in the Foundation Charter of Burscough 
Priory Urltona (L.P.C., p. 350). In the Assize Rolls the 



CATALOGUE OP PLACE-NAMES 177 

form is Hurleton (R., vol. xlvii.), which is also that of the 
Subsidy Rolls and throughout the fourteenth century (R., 
vols, xxxi., xlvi.). The modern spelling varies : in the 
earlier Ordnance Survey, 1842, it is Horulton, in the latter 
Harkton. 

The first theme is the name element Herle, which 
appears in names in O., p. 295. The element is an l- 
extension (O., p. xxiii.) of the Low German name hire (W., 
p. 167), the root of which F., col. 845, connects with Old 
English heoru, a sword. Hurling in Hurlingham is appar- 
ently a patronymic. 

Hutton. — A parish 3 miles SW. of Preston. In a 
charter of King Henry II. it is spelt Hotun (L.P.C., 
p. 409), and then at various times Hoton. Hutton is the 
form in the freeholders' list of 1600 (R., vol. xii.). 

The Huttons, like the Hoghtons and Howick, appear to 
be founded on hbh, heel. 

Hutton. — Known as Priest Hutton. A parish 4 miles 
NE. of Carnforth. It is the Hotune of Domesday Book, 
and Hoton (R., vol. xxxi.) of the Subsidy Rolls, 1332. 

Hutton. — A former hamlet near the town of Lancaster, 
situated in Bulk. Name is now apparently lost. It was 
Hotun in Domesday Book. See R., vol. xlviii., p. 94. 

Huyton. — An urbarj district 6 miles E. of Liverpool. 
In Domesday Book the word is Hitune. In the Foundation 
Charter of Burscough it is Hutona (L.P.C., 350). In the 
next century Huton, Hyton, Huyton occur, and Hitton 
once (R., vols, xlvii., xlviii., xlix., p. 289). In the four- 
teenth century the usual spelling is Huyton (R., vols, xxxi., 
xlvi.). After the Reformation, though Huyton is general, 
there are variants — Hyton, Heyton, Helton (R., vol. xii.). 

The first theme is the personal name Hyge, an element 
of many compound names (see O., p. 310). The root is 

M 



178 HANDBOOK OF LANCASHIRE PLACE-NAMES 

hugu, mind (F., col. 932). The personal name Hugh is 
from the same root. 

Lathom. — A parish 3 miles NE. of Ormskirk. In 
Domesday Book it is Latune. From the time of the 
foundation of Burscough Priory to the middle of the 
fifteenth century, the usual spelling of the word is Lafhum 
(L.P.C., p. 350), (R-, vol. 1., p. 114), with variations such 
as Ladhum, Ladun (R., vol. xlviii., pp. 131, 136); Latham 
(R., vol. xlvii., p. 141); Lathom (R., vol. xii., p. 14) only 
begins to appear at the end of the fifteenth century. The 
Domesday Book seems to represent the original place- 
name, of which the first theme is the personal element, 
lad, kod{0., p. 323). 

The corruption to Lathum I imagine to be due to Norse 
settlers in Western Lancashire, to whom the word Lathum, 
"at the barns," appealed as the name of an old earl's 
residence near Trondhjem, and would be more readily 
significant than the name they heard around them. 

Layton. — Forms with Warbreck a joint township near 
Blackpool on the E. It is the Latun of Domesday 
Book. The usual early form is Laton (L.P.C., p. 276), 
with variants, Lattune (L.P.C., 283), Latton (R., vol. xlvii., 
p. 41). Parva Latun is found in 1284 (R., vol. xlix.), 
Little Laton and Great Laton (R., vol. xlvi.) in 1354. 
Layton at the beginning of the sixteenth century (R., 
vol. xii., p. 23). 

The first theme is the personal element lad, lead, in 0., 
P- 323- 

Longton. — A parish 5 miles SW. of Preston. It appears 
as Langeton in an early Pipe Roll of 11 77, and still earlier 
as Longetuna and Langetuna (L.P.C., pp. 38, 323). 
Langeton occurs in a Final Concord of 1303 (R., vol. 
xxxix.), and Longeton in the Lay Subsidies (R., vol. xxxi.). 
The first theme of the word may be a personal name (O., 



CATALOGUE OP PLACE-NAMES 179 

p. 324), but the term long is fairly descriptive of the 
straggling village of the present day, whether or not it may 
have equally described it in the twelfth century. 

Lowton. — A parish 7 miles N. of Warrington. The 
early forms from 1201 (L.P.C., 152), are usually Za«fo«, 
variants being Zaiiton (L.P.C., p. 133), and Zation (R.,vol. 
xlix.), Zaweton and Zawton occur at the beginning of the 
sixteenth century and Zowton in the middle of the 
seventeenth. The first theme is apparently personal, the 
element lag (O., p. 323, 564) being found. The probable 
root is lagu, law (F., col. 995). But the Low German 
names Zau, Zaw also occur, and W., p. 227, ascribes their 
origin to familiar forms of iMurentius. 

Marton. — Two townships, Great and Zittle Morton, 
near Blackpool. They are the Meretun of Domesday 
Book. In Pipe Rolls of Henry II. the word is Mertona, 
Mereton, Mareton (L.P.C., pp. 31, 34, 46). The usual 
spelling in the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries is 
Merton (R., vols, xlvii., xxxi.). Marton is general from 
the latter half of the sixteenth (R., vol. x., p. 212).. An 
adjacent lake, Marton Mere, suggests that the first theme 
may be the Old English mere, lake. 

Martin Mere. — A lake, now drained, formerly 7 miles 
N. of Ormskirk. Merretun, a manor mentioned in 
Domesday Book, afterwards Marton (R., vol. :!txxix.), lay 
near it, and, Mr. Farrer tells us, became absorbed in 
Burscough (R., vol. xlviii., p. 16). 

The first theme of the manor doubtless is the Old 
English mere, lake. 

Marton. — A hamlet 2 miles N. of Dalton-in-Furness. 

Middleton. — A town and parish 6 miles N. of Man- 
chester. The word occurs as Midelt ... in early charters 
(L.P.C., pp. 354, 355). and later, 1332 (R., vol. xxxi.), 
Middelton, Middilton. 



i8o HANDBOOK OP LANCASHIRE PLACE-NAMES 

The first theme is probably a mark of position; the 
town lies midway between Rochdale and Manchester. 

There is a Middkton 4 miles SW. of Lancaster, the 
Middeltun of Domesday Book, and one near Warrington. 

Mitton.— Z«V//if Mitton is a parish 3 miles SW. of 
Clitheroe ; Great Mitton is on the other side of the Ribble 
in Yorkshire. Little Mitton occurs in a Lancashire Inquest 
of 1242 (R., vol. xlviii.), and in a Final Concord of 1259 
(R., vol. xxxix.). The variant Little Mutton occurs in a 
Final Concord of 1283 (R., vol. xxxix.). The first theme 
is the Old English mid, middle. 

The situation of Great Mitton^ in the " tong " between 
Ribble and Hodder, gives a plausible meaning to the first 
theme of Mitton. On the other hand, Forstemann, col. 
1 1 22, gives personal names in which mid is the first 
theme. 

Monton. — A hamlet in Barton-on-Irwell, 5 miles W. of 
Manchester. The early forms Mawynton, Mawenton, 1261, 
occur in R., vol. xlix., pp. 233, 236. The later Mannton, 
Maunton, 1618, in R., vol. xlii. 

The first theme is probably personal; the woman's 
name Mawa is found in O., p. 350. 

Mostoa. — An ecclesiastical district 4 miles NE. of 
Manchester. The word occurs in an early Plantagenet 
Roll (L.P.C., p. 329), and again in a Patent Roll of 1235 
(R., vol. xlix.). 

The first theme is the word mos, moor, moss; which 
see in its place among the terminations. 

Netherton. — A village in the parish of Sefton, 7 miles 
N. of Liverpool. 

First theme descriptive of position; the Old Norse 
nethri, the Middle English nithere. 

Newton-in-Makerfield. — A borough 5 miles N. of War- 
rington ; it is Ntweton in Domesday Book. First theme 



CATALOGUE OF PLACE-NAMES i8l 

descriptive j the Old English niwe, new. For Makerfield, 
see under the termination theme J^te/d above. 

There are several places named Newton or Newtown in 
Lancashire. 

Ollerton. — A hamlet 5 miles SW. of Blackburn, on the 
river Lostock. It appears to be the Alreton in a Final 
Concord of 1282 (R., vol. xxxix.). 

The first theme is the Old English alor, air, alder-tree, 
in an oblique case. 

Osbaldeston. — A parish 4 miles NW. of Blackburn, in 
the valley of the Ribble. Osbaldiston occurs in an inquest 
of 1258 (R., voL xlviii.), and Osbaldeston in an Assize 
Roll of 1247 (R., vol. xlvii.). The first theme is the Old 
English personal name Osbald, which occurs in the Liber 
Vitse. See S., p. 156; O., p. 371. 

The Old English words which form the name are Os, 
divinity; beald, confident. For the roots ansi, balda, 
consult F., cols. 120, 233. 

Overton. — A parish 5 miles SW. of Lancaster. In 
Domesday Book it appears as Ouretun. Overton occurs 
frequently in the Pipe Rolls (L.P.C.) and other old 
documents. The first theme is the Old English word ofer, 
over. 

Paddington. — An ecclesiastical district in the township 
of Pendleton, part of the borough of Salford. The name 
suggests importation, possibly from London. Padda is 
an Old English name (see O., p. 385), and appears in 
Bede's History (S., p. 143). 

Femberton. — A township 2 miles SW. of Wigan. In 
the Pipe Roll of 3 K. John it is Penberton, and Penbreton 
in a Final Concord of the same date 1202 (R., vol. xxxix.). 
Pemberton is. the form in a Final Concord of 1241 (R., 
vol. xxxix.). 

The first theme is the personal name Pen, which may 



i82 HANDBOOK OF LANCASHIRE PLACE-NAMES 

be seen as an element in O., p. 387. The Low German 
forms Pene, Penne gave rise to the patronymic Feninga, 
W., p. 287. The remaining portion of the word is Berton ; 
see Barton above. 

Pendleton. — A parish 3 miles NW. of Manchester. It 
is Fenilton in the Assize Roll of 1246 (R., vol. xlvii.). 
Penhulton in a Final Concord of 1357, Penulton in one 
of 1423, and Pendulton in the Subsidy Roll of 1541 (R., 
vol. xii.). 

The first theme is personal, Penel being an / diminutive 
of Pen (see last entry and O., p. xxiii.). The d which 
appears in later forms is epenthetic. For the root ben, 
consult F., cols. 256, 257. 

Pendleton. — An ecclesiastical district 2 miles S. of 
Clitheroe. It is the Peniltune of Domesday Book, and the 
Penelton of early Ripe Rolls (L.P.C.). Pennulton and Pen- 
hulton occur in the Patent Rolls, 1262, 1272 (R., vol. xlix.), 
and the latter form is frequent in the following centuries. 
Pendleton (R., vol. i.) is the spelling in the Church Survey 
of 1650. For first theme, See preceding entries. 

Pennington. — A parish 2 miles W. of Ulverston ; in 
Domesday Book it is Pennegetun. The spelling of an early 
Pipe Roll is Peninton (L.P.C., pp. 63, 68), and of an 
early charter Penigtun, Penitun (L.P.C., p. 362). Penyng- 
ton (R., vol. xxxi.) is the spelling in the Subsidy Rolls. 
The first theme is a patronymic of the name element 
Pen. See Pemberton above. 

Pennington. — A township i mile S. of Leigh. In the 
Assize Rolls the word is Pyninton, Pynington (R., 
vol. xlvii., pp. 27, 36); Pinington and Pininton in early 
Final Concords (R., vol. xxxix.). The variant Penyngton 
occurs in a Final Concord of 1372 (R., vol. xlvi., p. 183). 
The name element Pin of personal names is found in O., 



CATALOGUE OF PLACE-NAMES 183 

p. 388. I'en and jPin are possibly different forms of the 
same original. See I'en, under Pemberton above. 

Filkington. — Formerly a large township, now subdivided, 
5 miles SE. of Bolton-le-Moors. Early Pipe Rolls have 
the word Pulkinton, Pilkenton, Pilketon (L.P.C.). Pilkyng- 
ton (R., vol. xlvi.) occurs in a Final Concord of 1320. 
The first theme is personal. Pil is a name element 
of several proper names in O., p. 388 ; and is also given 
in several forms Pil, Pyl, Pile, Pyle, &c., in W., p. 290. 
From Pil'xs formed the k diminutive /'///^ (see O., p. xxiii.), 
and W. gives the diminutives Pylk, Pylke. From the k 
diminutive the patronymic follows regularly. The name 
Pil is probably the same as Bil, for which root see F., 
col. 303. 

Pleasington. — A parish 3 miles SW. of Blackburn. In 
the Lancashire Inquests (R., vol. xlviii.), we find Plesington, 
Plesinton, and Plessington in a Final Concord of 1296 
(R., vol. xxxix.), Plesington, is then the ordinary form, to 
the middle of the seventeenth century. 

The first theme is personal, being a genitival or perhaps 
patronymic formation from the Old English //«« (see O., 
p. 390). It is possibly another form of the first theme of 
Bleasedale. See this word above. 

Plumpton. — Two hamlets forming a joint parish with 
Westby, 4 miles W. of Kirkham. The word is Pluntun in 
Domesday Book. Plumton, 1226, and Plumpton, 1297, 
are in the Lancashire Inquests (R., vol. xlviii.), Wode- 
plumpton occurs in a Lay Subsidy of 1327 (R., vol. xxxi.), 
Filde-plumpton in a Final Concord of 1359 (R., vol. xlvi.). 

First theme descriptive, apparently from Old English 
plume, a plum-tree. 

Poulton-le-Fylde. — A parish and market-town 15 miles 
NW. of Preston. It is Poltun of Domesday Book. In a 
charter of K. William II., the word is Pultonam (L.P.C., 



i84 HANDBOOK OF LANCASHIRE PLACE-NAMES 

p. 240). After the Reformation Foulton becomes general 
(R., vol. xii.) ; a variant Polton is occasionally found. 

The first theme is the Old English pol, a pool; the 
situation of the place, near the estuary of the Wyre, favours 
this origin. 

Poulton-le-Sands. — An ecclesiastical district 3 miles N. 
of Lancaster. It is the Poltune of Domesday Book. In 
early charters (L.P.C.) we find Pulton, Puiton. Pulton 
is the general form to Reformation times, when Poulton 
takes its place (R., vol. xii.). The situation of the place 
on the coast of Morecambe Bay has probably been 
favourable to the origin of the name. First theme Old 
English pol, a pool. 

Foulton. — Joint parish with Fearnhead 2 miles NE. of 
Warrington. In early charters the word is Pultonam and 
Poltonam (L.P.C). Afterwards Pulton, with an occasional 
Polton (R., vol. xxxix.), until the form, as in the preceding 
cases, yields to Poulton. 

Here also the situation may have suggested the first 
theme. The boundary of the parish on the south is the 
river Mersey, and the river forms a large horse-shoe, en- 
closing marshy pastures. Called Ees in Cheshire. On the 
other hand, Pol may be a personal name. In O., p. 390, 
Pol is a suggested synonym of Balder, the identification 
being due to Jacob Grimm. See Kemble's Saxons, i., 364. 

Preston. — A town in the centre of the county, on the 
Ribble, the Prestune of Domesday Book. It is Prtstona, 
Preston in Pipe Rolls (L.P.C, pp. 12, 31), Presteton and 
Prestun being rare variants. The first theme is the Old 
English preost, a priest. 

Quarlton. — A township 5 miles NNE. of Bolton-le- 
Moors. In a Final Concord of 1309 (R., vol. xlvi.) the 
word Quordone occurs, and Mr. Farrer identifies it with 
Quarlton. It occurs twice in the Lay Subsidy of 1332 



CATALOGUE OF PLACE-NAMES 185 

(R., vol. xxxi.), used as personal name de Quernedon and 
de Querndoun. The word Quarlton occurs in the seven- 
teenth century if not earlier — 1614 (R., vol. ii., p. 116). 
The place is now absorbed in Edgeworth. 

First theme of Querndon is the Old English cweorn, a 
handmill, and the place-name suggests a hill producing 
mill-stones ; for second theme, see Down. 

The name Quarlton is probably old. See Baines's 
History of Lancashire, iii., p. 92, where the word Quelton 
occurs. I can only suggest that the first theme is the 
name element war (see O., pp. xviii., 473), with /diminutive 
(O., p. xxiii.). 

Eibbleton. — A parish i mile NE. of Preston. Early 
forms are Ribelton, Ribbelton, Ribleton. 

The first theme is the river which in Domesday Book is 
Ripa, and in early Pipe Rolls and Charters (L.P.C.) Riba, 
Ribla, Rtbba, Ribbik, Ribbill. 

Bishton. — An urban district 3 miles NE. of Blackburn. 
In the Assize Rolls (R., vols, xlvii., xlix.) we find Russeton, 
Ruyston, Ryston. Early Final Concords (R., vols, xxxix., 
xlvi.) have Ryston, Riston, Risshton, 1320; the Subsidy 
Rolls, 1332, Russhton, Rysshton (R., vol. xxxi.). The first 
theme is descriptive ; the Old English rysc, a rush. 

Bivington. — A parish 4 miles SE. of Chorley. Two 
forms of this word, Rowinton and Revington, occur in 
Final Concords of the same year, 1202 (R., vol. xxxix.). 
Ruhwinton, 1212, Riviton, 1226, and Rovinton, 1297, are 
found in R., vol. xlviii. Rovyngton (R., vols, xlvi., 1.) is 
the spelling in Final Concords of 1344, 1448. Rqynton, 
Rouynton (R., vol. xxxi.) are the forms in the Subsidy Rolls, 
1332, and Rivington in the Freeholders' List of 1600 (R., 
vol. xii.). 

In the index to the Assize Rolls (R., vol. xlix.) there 
are sixteen forms of the word. 



i86 HANDBOOK OF LANCASHIRE PLACE-NAMES 

Through this multiplicity of forms it is difficult to follow 
the traces of any one personal name in particular. The 
Old English name Hroethwine, which occurs in O., p. 302, 
and Liber Vitse, S„ p. 158, seems to be possibly the 
original form. See the root forms hrothi, vini, in F. 

Rixton. — Joint parish with Glazebrook, 6 miles NE. of 
Warrington. The word occurs in an early Pipe Roll of 
K. John (L.P.C.) ; in the Assize Rolls the forms Eicheston, 
Riston, Ryckeston are found (R., vol. xlix.), in the Subsidy 
Rolls Rixton, Ryxton (R., vol. xxxi.). 

The first theme is the personal name Ric, a component 
of many names. See O., pp. 399, 400. Old English rice, 
powerful. 

Royton. — An urban district 2 miles N. of Oldham. 
An early form of the word is Ritton, in a document of 1226 
(R., vol. xlviii.), afterwards Ryton (R., vol. xxxix.) is the 
usual form, varied occasionally by Riton (R., vol. xlix.). 
Ruyion occurs in the Subsidy Rolls (R., vol. xxxi.), and 
Royton (R., vol. i.) in the Commonwealth Church Survey, 
1650. 

The first theme is personal ; Ryht, commonly Riht, is the 
first element in several names. See O., p. 405, 401, and 
F., col. 1250, under root rehta, right. 

Scorton. — An ecclesiastical district 3 miles N. of 
Garstang. 

First theme may be scar (see this word as a second 
theme), but early forms are desirable, to decide between 
scar and scorra, or the personal name Scrot of O., p. 411. 

Sefton. — A parish 6 miles N. of Liverpool. It is the 
Sextone of Domesday book. Early forms are Ceffton, Cefton, 
Sefton (R., vols, xlviii., xxxix.), with variants in the Assize and 
Patent Rolls Schefton, Shafton, Safton (R., vols, xlvii., xlix.). 
Sefton is the usual form in the following centuries (R., vol. 
xxxi.), but Sephton, which began in the latter half of the 



CATALOGUE OP PLACE-NAMES 187 

sixteenth century through the influence of the clergy was 
a common spelling in the seventeenth century and after- 
wards (R., vols, xii., i.). 

The first theme is a personal name of tribal origin, and, 
as Seax, used to form compound names. See O., p. 41 2, 
and S., p. 495. For the root saAs, a knife, see F., col. 
i288. 

In Old English the word set:g is both a sword and a 
sedge. The Norse settlers, taking the theme in the place- 
name to be the latter, changed it into the Old Norse form, 
more comprehensible to them, sef. 

Shevington. — A parish 4 miles NW. of Wigan. Early 
forms are Sewinton, 1242 (R., vol. xlviii.); Seveton (R., 
vol. xxxix.) ; Sckevinion (R., vol. xlviii.), in the thirteenth 
century. In the fourteenth century are found Shevynton, 
Shevinton (R., vols, xlvi., xxxi.). The Assize Rolls have 
Schurvyngton, Schureneton, and Schovington (R., vol. xlix.). 

The first theme is personal, namely the name Scewine, 
of which there are several examples in O., p. 408, the n 
and ing marking the genitive case. 

Simonstone. — A parish 4 miles N. of Burnley. Simon- 
diston occurs in an inquest of 1258, Simundistan in one 
of 1293 (R., vol. xlviii.). Simoundeston, Symoundeston, 
are the forms in the Subsidy Rolls (R., vol. xxxi.), and 
Simonston in the freeholders' list of 1600 (R., vol. xii.). 

The first theme is the Old English personal name 
Sigemund, Stmund (O., p. 421, and S., p. 158), which name 
doubtless became afterwards confused with the Biblical 
name Simon. See W., p. 343. 

Singleton. — Great and Little Singleton, a parish 13 
miles NW. of Preston. The form in Domesday Book is 
Singktun. Shyngdton, Singelton, Sengelton, Schyngelton, 
are found with others in the Assize Rolls (R., vols, xlvii., 
xlix.). 



i88 HANDBOOK OF LANCASHIRE PLACE-NAMES 

The first theme seems to be a personal name. The 
Germanic Singulfus occurs in F., col. 1338, but not in O. 
Sindulfus, however, is given on p. 425. Singel is found not 
rarely as the name of a road in Friesland ; see W., p. 344. 

Skerton. — ^A suburb forming a district separated from 
the county town Lancaster by the river Lune. It is 
Schertune in the Domesday Book, and Skerton in early 
Pipe Rolls (L.P.C.). 

The first theme appears to describe the position of the 
tun, and may thus be the Old English sceard, a shard, 
piece broken oif from the main part. 

Sutton. — A parish 3 miles NE. of Prescot, and com- 
prised within the borough of St. Helens, on the south. 
Sutton occurs in an inquest of 1252 (R., vol. xlviii.), and 
Sotton in one of 1265, Sutton in a Final Concord of 1422 
(R., vol. 1.). 

The first theme is descriptive; being the Old English 
suth, south. And this is apparently the origin of the many 
places of the same name in England. Quite possibly 
in some of them, however, Sude is a personal name. See 
the genitive Sudan, in O., p. 433 ; Sude and the patronymic 
Sudinga, in W., p. 372. 

Swinton. — A parish 5 miles NW. of Manchester, formerly 
in the township of Worsley. 

First theme personal. The usual form is Swith, of which 
element there are many examples in the personal names 
of O., p. 437. Swind, Swin is a variant (see O., p. 436). 
The root is svintha, meaning swift, strong, clever (see F., 
col. 1381). The Old Norse adjective has the two forms 
svinnr and svithr. 

Tarleton. — A parish 9 miles SW. of Preston. The 
word occurs in the Assize Rolls, 1246 (R., vol. xlvii.), and 
other early documents, without important change. 

The first theme is the Old Norse name Thorvaldr, of 



CATALOGUE OF PLACE-NAMES 189 

which O., gives the English form Thurweald, and the 
shortened Turold, Turald, p. 462. In Norse place-names 
this personal name takes the form Tarald, and in one 
instance, quoted from Rygh by Professor Wyld, the form 
Tattle. 

Taunton. — ^Village i mile NW. of Ashton-under-Lyne. 
There are spellings Tongton and Tounton (R., vol. xlvii., 
pp. 37, 129), which may belong to this place, and in that 
case the first theme is as in Tonge above. See Tang in 
second themes. Or the first theme may be the Celtic tonn, 
water (see K., p. 100), as in the Somersetshire Taunton. 

Thistleton. — A hamlet 4 miles N. of Kirkham. Thistilton 
occurs in the Great Inquest of 12 12 (R., vol. xlviii.), and 
Thistelton in a Final Concord of 12 19 (R., vol. xxxix.). 
The latter is the usual form, but Thystylton occurs in 
the reign of Edward IV. (R., vol. 1.). Thistleton is found 
in 1602 (R., vol. ix., p. 59), and Thisleton in the Common- 
wealth Church Survey, 1650 (R., vol. i.). 

The first theme is the Old Norse thistil. Old English 
thistel, which may be descriptive, but which is used as a 
personal nickname or surname in the Landnama, II., 6, i. 

Thornton. — ^An urban district N. of Poulton-le-Fylde, 
between the estuary of the Wyre and the Irish Channel. 
It is Torentun in Domesday Book, Thorenton in an entry 
of 1222 (R., vol. xlviii.) and a Final Concord of 1245 
(R., vol. xxxix.). In the Subsidy Rolls the form is 
Thorneton (R., vol. xxxi.), and Thornton in a Final Concord 
of 1316 (R., vol. xlvi.). The first theme is the Old 
English thorn. 

Thornton. — A parish 6 miles N. of Liverpool ; it also is 
Torentun in Domesday Book. Other forms are Tkorinton, 
1212 (R., vol. xlviii.), Thorneton (R., vol. xxxix.), and 
Thornton (R., vol. xlvii.). The first theme as in the 
preceding. 



igo HANDBOOK OF LANCASHIRE PLACE-NAMES 

Tottington. — An urban district 3 miles NW. of Bury. 
Thirteenth century forms of the word are Totinton, 12 12, 
Toiingion, Todington, 1241 (R., vol. xlviii.), Totyngton 
(R., vol. xxxix.). Tottington is late, 1600 (R., vol. xii.). 

The first theme is a patronymic of the Old English 
personal name Tota, Totta (see O., p. 458). In the opinion 
of Miiller, this name is a familiar abridgement of some one 
of the Old English names beginning with torht, bright, of 
which several are given in O., p. 457. See Miiller, under 
Totta, p. 60. 

Turton. — An urban district 4 miles N. of Bolton-le- 
Moors. It is found in the Great Inquest of 12 12 (R., 
vol. xlviii.). Terton, Torton, Thurton occur later on in 
the century. In a Final Concord of 1303 (R., vol. xxxix.) 
the spelling is again Turton. The Assize Rolls have a 
form Shurton (R., vol. xlvii., p. 149). On account of the 
variants the first theme appears to be the personal element 
TTior, Thtir ; see O., 445, 447, for the names in which it 
occurs. It is apparently the Old Norse deity Thor. 

Twiston. — A parish 5 miles NE. of Clitheroe. In a 
charter of Henry I. the word appears as Tuisleton (L.P.C.). 
Later forms are Twysilton, Tuysilton, Twesilton (R., vol. 
xlviii.), and Twysdton (R., vol. xxxix.). Twiston occurs in 
a Final Concord of 1504 (R., vol. 1.). The first theme is 
the Old English twisla, fork of a river. 

TJlverston. — A market-town in Low Furness, 22 miles 
NW. of Lancaster. The Domesday form is Ulurestun, and 
that of the early charters of Furness Abbey, Olveston 
(L.P.C., p. 305). Spellings with and without r are equally 
common till the middle of the thirteenth century (R., 
vols, xlvii., xlix.). In the Subsidy Rolls are found Uluere- 
ston and Ullerston (R., vol. xxxi.). Wulf and Wulfhtre 
were common Old English names (see O., pp. 506, 511). 
The Old Norse forms of the same were Ulfr, Ulfarr. 



CATALOGUE OF PLACE-NAMES 191 

Upton. — A hamlet 4 miles SE. of Prescot. Both Upfon 
and Hupton are found in the middle of the thirteenth 
century (R., vols, xlvii., xlix.). 

The first theme is descriptive of position — the Old 
English up. 

Unuston. — An urban district 6 miles SW. of Manchester. 
In a Pipe Roll of King Richard I. the form is Wermeston 
(L.P.C.); Urmeston that of 1212 (R., vol. xlviii.). The 
variants Wurmesion (R., vol. xlix.) and Hurmiston (R., 
vol. xlvii.) occur. 

First theme is personal. Ormr is a common Old Norse 
name, of which several examples are given in O., p. 370. 
The word means serpent, and the corresponding Old English 
word, wurm, wyrm, is a theme in several names. See O., 
p. 522- 

Walton-on-the-Hill. — A suburb of Liverpool on the NE. 
It is Waleione in Domesday Book. Walton occurs in a 
Final Concord of 1246 (R., vol. xxxix.). 

The first theme in some English Waltons is doubtless 
the personal name Wala (see O., p. 476 ; and for the root 
valha, a stranger, consult F., col. 1513). But in most of 
them the first theme is the Old English weall, a wall, 
a rampart. 

The first theme wal- might also arise from other words, 
such as weald, forest. 

Walton-le-dale. — An urban district i mile SE. of Preston, 
on the southern side of the Ribble. It is the Waletune 
of Domesday Book, and Walton in La Dale of a Final 
Concord of 1304 (R., vol. xxxix.). For first theme, see the 
preceding. 

Ulnes Walton. — A parish 5 miles NW. of Chorley. This 
form remains unchanged generally, from an entry in the 
Assize Rolls (R., vol. xlix.), 1285, to the. present^ except 
that in a Final Concord of 1320 (R., vol. xlvi.) Vlfnes 



192 HANDBOOK OP LANCASHIRE PLACE-NAMES 

Walton is found. Thus, if Ulnes is correct, the com- 
ponent themes are Ulfr and ness. But it has been sug- 
gested that Ulnes is a miswriting for Ulues, the genitive of 
Ulfr, a personal name, so that the place would be U7fs 
Walton. For Walton, see preceding. 

Warrington. — A town on the Mersey, 17 miles from 
Liverpool. The Domesday Book form is Walintune. In 
a charter of King Henry II. Wlinton (L.P.C., p. 287), 
and in a perambulation of King Henry III., Werineton 
(L.P.C., p. 422). Later forms are Werington, 1246 (R., 
vol. xxxix.), Werinton, 1293 (R., vol. xlviii.), with the 
variant Queryngton, 1256 (R., vol. xlix., p. 226). Wering- 
ton (R., vol. xxxiii.) is the form in the Clergy List, 1541, 
and Warrington in the Freeholders' List, 1600 (R., vol. xii.). 

Assuming that the / in the earliest forms is a variant of 
Norman scribes for r, the first theme is a patronymic 
quasi-genitival of the element war, wer, w^r. See the 
root var, F., col. 1531, also O., pp. 473-5, 478, for the 
personal names of which the theme forms a part. 

Forms of the word, such as Werineton, suggest a first theme 
Warin, a not infrequent personal name (see O., p. 478), 
especially in the contracted form Wern. F., col. 1539, 
regards it mainly as an extended war (" Erweiterung "). 

Warton. — A parish 7 miles N. of Lancaster. Wartun 
in Domesday Book and Warton in a Final Concord of 
1289 (R., vol. xxxix.). A variant Qwerton occurs of the 
Westmorland Wharton (R., vol. xlviii., p. 279). For first 
theme, see the preceding. 

Weeton. — A parish 3 miles NW. of Kirkham. It is the 
Widetun of Domesday Book. In a Pipe Roll of King 
John it appears as Whiteton (L.P.C.), and in the Inquests 
(R., vol. xlviii.) we meet with the forms Withetun, Wytheton, 
Wythinton, Wythington, Wyhton. In the Subsidy Rolls, 
1332, Wetheton (R., vol. xxxi.). Weeton (R., vol. x.) is the 



CATALOGUE OF PLACE-NAMES 193 

common seventeenth century form. The personal name 
which has given rise to the first theme is Wtd, Wido of 
O., p. 486, Wide of W., p. 435. For discussion as to root 
md, see F., col. 1562. Norse influence is perhaps respon- 
sible for making the word more intelligible to new settlers 
by turning the first theme into vith, a withy. 

Wennington — A parish in the valley of the Wenning, 
10 miles NE. of Lancaster. The name is Wininctune in 
Domesday Book, and Wenigton in a Final Concord of 
1202 (R., vol. xxxi.). The forms in the Inquests are 
Wenigton, Wenington, Weninton, Wennington (R., 
vol. xlviii.). 

The first theme is a patronymic of the personal name 
Wen, Wine, a friend ; used as a full name, and also as 
helping to form many compound names (see O., p. 484, 
499, 500). The Old Norse and Danish forms are Vinr, 
Ven. 

Wheelton. — A parish 3 miles N. of Chorley. In a 
charter of K. Henry II. the word is Weltona (L.P.C.), in 
a Final Concord of 1313 Quilton (R., vol. xlvi.), in one 
of 1493 Whelton (R., vol. 1.), and in a Subsidy Roll of 
the seventeenth century Wheelefon (R., vol. xii.). 

The first theme appears to be a personal name Wei, as 
in the Master Smith Weland {cf. O., p. 481). Wel'is the 
first element in several names; the root is vela, craft, 
according to F., col. 1552. 

WMston. — A parish i mile S. of Prescot. The thirteenth 
century forms of the word are Quicstan, Quystan, Whystan, 
Wystam (R., vols, xlvii., xlix.), and the variant Quystan 
(R., vols, xlix.j p. 203). Quistan is the form in the 
Subsidy Rolls (R., vol. xxxi.), Whistan in a Final Concord 
of 1376 and Whiston in one of 1422 (R., vol. 1.). 

The word is a personal name, Wigstan, Wistan (see 
O., p. 492)5 and is thus not a ton word, but ends in stan. 



194 HANDBOOK OF LANCASHIRE PLACE-NAMES 

Whittington.— An urban district in the valley of the 
Lune, bordering on Westmorland. In Domesday Book 
it appears as Wiietune. Witington (R., vol. xlviii.) is a 
spelling of 1212. Forms of the word in the middle of 
the thirteenth century are Whitington, Quytinton, Wytinton 
(R., vol. xlvii.), and Quitanton is found in a Final Concord 
of 1259 (R., vol. xxxix.). In the next century we find 
Whytington, 1301 (R., vol. xxxix.), Whitynton, 1332 (R., 
vol. xxxi.). In a Final Concord of 1508 Whityngion 
(R., vol. 1.) is the form. 

The first theme is probably a personal name, the name 
Wita (see O., p. 503, for the word and examples of its 
use independently and in compounds), its root being the 
Old English wilt, understanding. But the Old English 
personal name Hwiia, for which see O., p. 310, would 
develop, possibly, into the same forms. 

Withington. — An urban district 4 miles S. of Man- 
chester. In the Great Inquest, 1212, the word is Wythinton, 
and later on in the century Wythington, Wiiyngton, Why tin- 
ton (R., vol. xlviii.). In the Assize Rolls, we find Wytheton, 
Wydinton (R., vol. xlvii.). Wythynton is in a Final 
Concord of 1384 (R., vol. 1.), Withington (R., vol. xlii.) 
is the ordinary form at the beginning of the seventeenth 
century. 

The first theme is a patronymic quasi-genitival case of 
the personal name Wiht, which also takes the form Whit. 
See O., pp. 492-5, for the many names of which it 
forms an element. In Old English wiht means a creature. 
See F., col. 1590. 

Witton. — A parish adjoining Blackburn on the west. 
A form Wytton occurs in R., vol. xlviii. 

The first theme is a personal name Wita; see O., 
p. 503, for the name itself, and as an element in composite 
names. From the Old English root witt, understanding. 



CATALOGUE OF PLACE-NAMES 195 

Woolston. — ^A joint parish with Martinscroft, 3 miles E. 
of Warrington. In early charters the word is XJlfitona 
(L.P.C.). In the Assize Rolls occur the forms Wlston, 
Wolveston, Wulveston (R., vol. xlvii.). Wolston is the 
common form later (R., vols, xxxi., 1.). 

The first theme is the personal name Wulf; also a very 
common element in forming compound names (see O., 
pp. 506-22). The Scandinavian form is Ulfr. 

Woolton. — Great and Little Woolton are two urban 
districts 6 miles SE. of Liverpool. They appear in 
Domesday Book as Uveione, Vlventune. Little Wolveton 
(R., vol. 1.) is found in a Final Concord of 1398. Great 
Woolton, Little Woolton in one of 1509. 

The first is the personal name Wulf, as in the pre- 
ceding. 

Worston. — A parish 2 miles NE. of Clitheroe. Wrthis- 
ton occurs in an Inquest of the year 1258 (R., vol. xlviii.), 
Wurtheston in the Assize Rolls (R., vol. xlix.), and Worston 
in a Final Concord of 1502 (R., vol. 1.). 

The first theme is personal, perhaps; Wurta of O., 
p. 522. The patronymic from this word, Wyriingas, is 
found in a charter of King Eadgar, 960 (see E., pp. 196, 
509). This patronymic is now Worthing in Sussex, and 
suggests that the word weorth, worth, wurth, wyrth, a 
homestead, was used as a personal name. 

Worthington. — A parish 4 miles N. of Wigan. The 
forms in the Inquests (R., vol. xlviii.) are Worthinton, 
1242, Worthington, 12^2. In the Assize 'R.oWs, Wurtheton, 
Wurthington (R., vol. xlvii.) ; in a Final Concord of 1227, 
Wurthington (R., vol. xxxix.), and in one of 1391 (R., 
vol. 1.), Worthyngton. The first theme is the patronymic 
quasi-genitive of the personal name Wurta, as in the 
preceding. 

Wrayton. — A joint township with Melling, 1 2 miles NE- 



196 HANDBOOK OF LANCASHIRE PLACE-NAMES 

of Lancaster. The earliest form is Wraiton, in a Final 
Concord of 1229 (R., vol. xxxix.). In the Assize Rolls 
and Subsidy Roll the form is Wraton (R., vols, xlvii., 
xxxi.). Wrayton occurs in the sixteenth century (R., 
vol. X., p. 189). 

The first theme is usually considered to be the word 
Wray ; see this word below as a termination theme. In 
English place-names the Danish word Vra appears and 
is not found developed into Wray until the fifteenth or 
sixteenth century. The form Wraiton seems, therefore, 
to find a place too early in 1229. I suspect therefore that 
the first theme is the personal name Wraca, given in O., 
p. 505. For the root, see Vrac, to pursue, F., col. 1638. 

Wrightington. — A parish 5 miles NW. of Wigan. 
Wrstincton, 1195, is found in a Final Concord (R., vol. 1.). 
In the Great Inquest, 12 12, the word is Wrictington (R., 
vol. xlviii.). In the same volume follow the forms Wroc- 
iinton, Writinton, Wrictington, Wrightinton, Writington. 
Wrightyngton is the spelling of Final Concords in 1385, 
1506 (R., vol. 1.). 

The first part of the word is a patronymic quasi-genitive, 
but examples of the personal name Wrict are wanting. 
Sweet, in his Students' Dictionary of Anglo-Saxon, gives 
Wryhta, as well as the usual form Wyrhta, a worker ; and 
this is probably the word from which the above was 
formed. For the root verca, origin of the Old English 
weorc, and several personal names, consult F., col. 1557. 

TREE 

As used in place-names, this is the Old English treow, 
treo, often with the idea of boundary. 

Aintree. — A suburb of Liverpool on the north. An 
early spelling of this word, Ayntre, of the date 1296, 
appears in R., vol. xxxix. The first theme is the personal 



CATALOGUE OF PLACE-NAMES 197 

name element Aegen. See O., p. 5, for several examples of 
its use. For root, Agin, see F., col. 36. 

Hare-Appletree. — Hamlet at the head of Damas Gill, 
4 miles SE. of Lancaster. For Hare, see the N.E.D., 
under Hoar. 

Langtree. — Joined with Standish to form an urban 
district 4 miles NW. of Wigan. It occurs as Langetre in 
a Final Concord of 1206 (R., vol. xxxix.), and as Longetre 
in the Subsidy Roll of 1332 (R., vol. xxxi.). A variant, 
Lanketr, is found in the Assize Roll of 1247 (R., vol. xlvii., 
p. 41). In most of the place-names in which lang occurs, 
it is doubtless in its primitive meaning, long, tall. Possibly 
in particular instances it may be a personal name. See G., 
p. 324. 

Wavertree. — An urban district now forming a part of 
Liverpool on the SE. It is the Wauretreu of Domesday 
Book. In early charters we have forms W auertrea, Waver- 
tre (L.P.C.), and in early Pipe Rolls Wavertrie, Wavertree, 
1200 (L.P.C., p. 126). Wartre is modern. An obscure 
word. I imagine the first theme to be a river name (there 
is a Cheshire stream called the Weaver') and to refer to the 
stream now known as the Jordan, which flows south-west 
into the Mersey. 

TWISTLE 

This termination arises from the Old English twisla, a 
fork of a river. The corresponding Old Norse word is 
Kvisl, a branch, a fork, which is also used in place-names. 

Birtwistle. — A manor in Hapton, a township 4 miles 
W. of Burnley. Early forms of the word are Briddesiwysil, 
1258 (R., vol. xlviii.), and Brydestwysel, 1311 (R., vol', liv.). 
Breretwysel seems to be another form (R., vol. liv., p. 7). 
First theme is personal. Brid is given in O., p. 114, and 
is a form of beorht, bright, on p. 88. 



198 HANDBOOK OF LANCASHIRE PLACE-NAMES 

Entwistle. — A village 6 miles N. of Bolton-le-Moors. 
Early forms are Hennetwisd, 1212 (R., vol. xlviii.); Enne- 
twysel, 1276 (R., vol xlvii., p. 138); Entletwisil, 1297 
(R., vol. xlviii.) ; and Entwisell, 1332 (R., vol. xxxi.). 

The first theme is a personal name Enna (see O., p. 
228). For the root an, to favour, see F., col. 99. 

Extwistle. — A hamlet 3 miles NE. of Burnley. Early 
forms axQ Extwisil, 1242 (R., vol. xlviii.); Extwilk, 1260 
(R., vol. xlix.); and Extwisdl, 1332 (R., vol. xxxi.). 

The first theme is the personal name Eche. See O., 
p. 222, and Ecgi in the Liber Vitse, S., p. 158, the root of 
which name may be the word ecg, a sword. See under ag, 
in F., col. 14, and W., p. 86, for the mediaeval name Ecke. 

Oswaldtwistle. — An urban district, i mile SW. of Ac- 
crington. Oswaldestwisel and Oswaldetwisel with variants 
are in the Assize Rolls (R., vols, xlvii., xlix.) ; Oswaldtwisil 
occurs in an Inquest of 1258 (R., vol. xlviii.). 

The first theme is a personal name (see O., p. 378), 
and is spelt Osuald in the Liber Vitse, S., p. 154. The 
Old English components are os, a divinity, and ge{weald), 
power. For the roots ansi, vald, see F., cols. 120, 1496. 

WALL, WELL 

Wall arises from the Old English weall, a wall, a rampart, 
and means, as well as the enclosure, the land enclosed. 
But it may also arise from the Old Norse vdllr, a field, 
valla, genitive plural, as in Thingwall and in Tinwald of 
the Isle of Man. Well is the Old English wiell, a fountain, 
a spring. Common in place-names in the South of England, 
not infrequent in Yorkshire, but rare in Lancashire. 

The two spellings wall and well are often confused. 

Childwall. — A parish 5 miles SE. of Liverpool. The 
word appears in Domesday Book as Cildeuuelle. In a 
charter of 1094 (L.P.C., p. 290) it is Kydewelle. Later 



CATALOGUE OP PLACE-NAMES 199 

forms are Chilkwelk, iiTj, and Childewtll, 1191 (L.P.C.). 
After this date wdk becomes walk, wall, as in an entry 
Childewalk, 1212 (R., vol. xlviii.). A variant Chaldewall 
occurs in 1238 (R., vol. xxxix.). 

The Domesday form of the word is " the spring of Cild ; " 
did, as also Cille, being a personal name in O., p. 135. 
The form Kydewelk is, I think, due to the influence of 
Scandinavian settlers who, have attempted to read Kilde, 
a spring, into the word, thereby making it more intelligible, 
and to agree with the Danish Kildevceld, a fountain head. 
The later forms of the twelfth century are a return to the 
Domesday form; and the change of well to wall, field, 
mere confusion in the thirteenth century. 

HalliweU. — A village 2 miles NW. of Bolton-le-Moors. 
In early documents the forms Haliwell, 1288 (R., vol. 
xlviii.), and Halywell, 1285 (R., vol. xlix.), occur with the 
variants Alywell and Halkwdl. HalliweU occurs in 1600 
(R., vol. xii.). As a variant, Haliwall is seen in 1332 (R., 
vol. xxxi., p. 105). The first theme is the Old English 
halig, holy. 

Thingwall. — A hamlet 5 miles E. of Liverpool. Ting- 
wella in a Pipe Roll of King Henry II. (L.P.C.), Thyng- 
wall, Tingwall (R., vol. xlix.), in the middle of the 
thirteenth century. 

The word is the Old Norse Thingvollr, "field of 
meeting." In the Tinwald of the Isle of Man the name 
has come to signify the Parliament itself. 

Wiswall. — A parish 3 miles S. of Clitheroe. In a 
document of 1242 (R., vol. xlviii.) the word is Wisewalk, 
and in the Assize Rolls the termination varies between 
wall and well. 

The first theme seems to be a river name ; see K., p. 59, 
where uisce, assimilated to uiss, is shown to be the origin 
of the Weser. 



200 HANDBOOK OF LANCASHIRE PLACE-NAMES 

A personal name might give rise to the first theme — 
the name Wise, which is a name element in several Old 
English names, O., p. 502. 

WATER 

This word is used as a subsidiary theme synonymous 
with lake, tarn, or even river. It occurs in Esthwaite W., 
Thurstan W. (another name for Coniston Lake), Low W., 
Elter W., Tarn W., Moulding W., and others. 

WATH, WITH 

Wath is the Old English wcBtA, the Scandinavian vaiA, 
meaning a ford, or wading place. It occurs rarely. 

With is the Old Norse vifAr, a wood or forest, and 
suggests Danish occupation. It is commoner in Yorkshire 
than Lancashire. WatA and wifA are often confused. 

Prestwath. — A word occurring in early charters. See 
the L.P.C., pp. 291, 298. The wafh is apparently a ford 
over the Lune, at or near Lancaster. The first theme is 
the Old English /r^c?j/, priest. 

Skelwith.— Village, Bridge, Fold, and Brow, 3 miles N. 
of Hawkshead. The word is Skelwath, 1332, in the Subsidy 
Rolls (R., vol. xxxi., p. 93). 

The first theme is the Old Norse skjalg, which takes 
the form skjel in Norwegian place-names, meaning wry, 
oblique. It is the Old English sceolh. See Sholver 
below. 

Blawith. — A parish near the south end of Lake Coniston, 
described in 1590 (R., vol. xi.) as "Blawith at Appletree- 
holme." 

The first theme is the Old Norse bl&r, dark-blue, as in 
blomos, and the Icelandic bldskbgar. 



CATALOGUE OF PLACE-NAMES 201 

WICH, WICK 

This termination comes into English place-names from 
two sources at least : the Old English wic, a dwelling, and 
the Old Norse vik, a creek. The former is probably the 
origin of the Lancashire wicks, though there is a creek 
named Pull Wyke on the west side of Windermere, near 
the north end. Of the seventeen or more places in 
Lancashire, with one or other of these terminations, two 
in the SE. of the county end in wick ; of seven in Cheshire 
five end in wick ; of the thirty-three in Yorkshire, all end 
in wick. 

Ardwick. — A suburb of Manchester. Atheriswyke, 1282, 
(R., vol. xlviii.), is supposed to be Ardwick. Ardewyk, 
Ardwik, Ardewik, 1323 (R., vol. xli.). 

The first theme is personal; Eard, native soil, is a 
common element in the first themes of names (see O., 
p. 212). 

Eard-wic in Old English means a dwelling-place. 

For the first theme of Atheriswyke, see the first theme 
in Afherion above. 

Beswick. — A district adjoining Manchester on the E. 
The earliest form of this word appears to be Bexwick (see 
R., vol. xxxi., p. 35). 

First theme is personal; see name Beage in O., p. 82. 
Beag, a bracelet, is a frequent first element in personal 
names. 

Blowick. — A hamlet 2 miles E. of Southport. First 
theme the Old Norse bldr, as in blomos, and the word the 
same as the Bkawick or Blowick near the south end of 
Ulleswater. 

Berwick. — ^A parish 2 miles NE. of Carnforth. In 
Domesday Book it is Berewic. Nicholas de Borwyc, 1255, 
and Nicholas de Berwyc, 1259 (R., vol. xlviii.), seem to 



202 HANDBOOK OF LANCASHIRE PLACE-NAMES 

be the same person. In 1332 the spelling is Berwik, and 
Berwyk in 1446 (R., vol. 1.). Barwycke and Borwicke are 
both found after 1600 (R., vol. x., pp. 177, 179). 
The word is the Old English berewic, a hamlet. 

Chadwick. — A hamlet of Spotland W. of Rochdale. 
Spelt Chadewyk in Final Concords of 1369 (R., vol. xlvi.). 

The first theme is Ceaden, apparently a weak genitive 
of Ceada (O., p. 126). Cada, Cadda, and Ceadda are 
other personal forms. 

There is a Chadwick Green near the southern end of the 
township of Billinge, in Wigan Parish. 

Elswick. — A parish in the Fylde 6 miles N. of Kirkham. 
In Domesday Book it is Edekswic ; Hedthehiwic, 11 64, 
in L.P.C. ; Etheliswike, 1332 (R., vol. xxxi.); Elleswik, 
1489; and Elswick, 1508 (R., vol. 1.). 

The first theme is the personal name athel, noble, as in 
Elston : see that word. 

Fishwick. — A suburb of Preston on the E. It is 
Fiscuic in Domesday Book. Later forms are Fischwic, 
1225 (R., vol. xxxix.), Fyssh&wyke, 1311 (R., vol. xlvi.). 
Fisshewyk, 1326 (R., vol. xlvi.), Fisshewik, 1506 (R., 
vol. 1.). 

First theme at its origin was probably descriptive of 
the village. Though the other interpretation — that it is 
a personal name — is not impossible. See O., p. 241, for 
Fisc and Fisculf. 

Glodwick. — An ecclesiastical district 1 mile SE. of 
Oldham. Early forms are Glothic (R., vol. xlviii.) and 
Glothiche (R., vol. xlvii.), with the variant Clopwayt (R., 
vol. xlviii.) ; a later spelling is Glotheyk (R., vols, xlvi., 
xxxix.), and Glodyght, 1474 (V.C.H.). 

First theme is the personal name Hloth ; see O., p. 299, 
for its use in composite names. It means famous, and 
was a favourite name-forming element (F., col. 848). 



CATALOGUE OP PLACE-NAMES 203 

It seems not unlikely that the whole place-name has 
been a composite personal name — the name Hlothwig, 
whose modern forms have been Louis and Ludwig, and the 
Latinised form Ludovicus. In that case wig is from the 
root vig, signifying fight. 

Horwich. — An urban district 5 miles NW. of Bolton-le- 
Moors. Harwich is found in an entry of 1332 (R., vol. 
xxxi.), Horwyche, 1541 (R., vol. xii.), Harwich, 1650 
(R., vol. i.). 

The first theme is personal. Har occurs as an element 
in two or three composite names in O., p. 301, and Hare, 
Horre as men's names in W., pp. 173, 174. 

Howick. — A parish 3 miles SW. of Preston. In early 
charters we have the forms Hokewike, Hacwica (L.P.C.), 
and in an early Final Concord Hacwic, 12 10 (R., vol. 
xxxix.). These are followed by Hauwyk and Hoghwyk 
(R., vol. xlvii., pp. 15, 137), and at the beginning of the 
sixteenth century by Haughwik and Hogwik (R., vol. 1.). 
Howicke is of the seventeenth century (R., vol. xii., p. 214). 

First theme is the Old English hbh, a heel. See this 
word among the terminations, and also the word Houghton. 

There are personal names Hoce, Hocca, in O., p. 300, 
but the Houghtons and Huttons are too numerous through- 
out the country to owe their origin to a name so rare, 
except in odd cases. 

Lowick. — A parish 6 miles N. of Ulverston. In an 
early Final Concord it appears as Lafwic, 1202, and Lowyk, 
1256 (R., vol. xxxix.). Luffewyk, 1343 (R., vol. xlvi.), 
seems to be the same word. 

First theme is doubtless personal. Lofe occurs in O., 
p. 339, and other similar names from the same root, Leof, 
Lufa. The root is kuba, dear. See F., col. 1018. 

Prestwich. — An old parish joined with Oldham, 4 miles 
NW. of Manchester. Frestwich, Prestwic, Prestewic occur 



304 HANDBOOK OP LANCASHIRE PLACE-NAMES 

in the Pipe Rolls (L.P.C.). The first theme is the word 
preost, priest. 

Salwick. — A hamlet 4 miles NW. of Preston. The 
Domesday Book form is Saleuuic. Sallewyke, 1256 (R., 
vol. xxxix.), and Sakwyk, 1327 (R., vol. xxxi.), are later 
forms; Sowicke and Salwick (R., vol. ix.) are of the 
seventeenth century. 

The first theme seems to be personal — Salo, in O., p. 
408. Sak, Salle are Low German names, supposed by 
W., p. 327, to be famiUar forms of Salomon. F., col. 1290, 
considers these personal names to come from the root 
salva, sala, dark, black, which appears in Old English salo, 
dark coloured. The personal names which F. derives from 
this root appear in O., under the theme Sele, such as 
Sekbeorht, Selefrith, Sekburh. This theme seems to be 
applicable when compounded with wic, tun, or burh. When 
compounded with ford, Professor Skeat derives the theme 
from sealh, a willow. See Salford above. 

TIrswick. — A township 4 miles SW. of Ulverston. In 
early charters (L.P.C.) occur Ursewyk and Parva Vrswic. 
The Subsidy Roll of 1332 (R., vol. xxxi.) spells Ursewik ; 
in a Final Concord of 1332 Great Ursewik (R., vol. xlvi.) 
appears, and Little Urswyk (R., vol. 1.) in one of 1378. 

The first theme is personal, Ursa (see O., p. 470; 
and for the root Ursa, meaning bear, consult F., col. 
1483)- 

Winwick. — A parish Winwick with Hulme 3 miles N. of 
Warrington. In early Pipe Rolls we read Winequic, Winewick 
(L.P.C); in the Great Inquest, 1212, Wynewyc (R., vol. 
xlviii.), and the variant Wennewyk (R., vol. xlvii.) in the 
Assize Rolls. Whynwhik, 1427 (R., vol. 1.), Wynweke, 
1541 (R., vol. xxxiii.), and Winwick in a document of 
1635 (R., vol. xii.). 

The first theme is a personal name, Wine (O., p. 499), 



CATALOGUE OF PLACE-NAMES 205 

which in Old English mea.ns /Hend. For root vtni, consult 
F., col. 1608. 

WOOD 

The Old English wudu, widu, wood, forest. Besides 
being fairly common as a termination, it is used as a first or 
adjectival theme in some place-names. 

Amberswood Common. — In the township of Ince, 2 
miles SE. of Wigan. Early records not known. In the 
V.C.H. it is called Ambers or Ambrose Wood. In the 
absence of evidence it is impossible to decide whether the 
personal name is the Old English Anberht (see O., p. 69) 
or the name borne by the Saint. 

Bnrtonwood. — A parish 4 miles NW. of Warrington. 
Burtoneswod occuTS in a perambulation of 1228 (L.P.C., 
p. 422). Burtunwode (R., vol. xlvi.) and Burtonwode (R., 
vol. xxxi.) occur in documents of 1332. 

The first theme is a composite word of burh and tun. 
See these words Burh and Ton in the list of terminations. 

Cawood. — A hamlet 10 miles NE. of Lancaster, joined 
with Arkholme to form a parish. First theme personal. 
See the name Caua, Cawe in O., p. 126. It occurs in 
Liber Vitae, see S., p. 159. Miiller, p. 50, thinks the 
word may be Celtic. F., col. 621, connects it with the 
Germanic root Gavja, related to the Old English gd of 
Kemble's Saxons, i., p. 72. 

Fleetwood. — A seaport at the mouth of the Wyre, 20 
miles NW. of Preston. Named after its founder. Sir 
P. H. Fleetwood (1836). 

Fulwood. — Urban district in the parliamentary borough 
of Preston. Spelt Fulewode in the Assize Rolls, 1285, 
(R., vol. xlix.). 

First theme the Old English /«/, dirty, impure. 



2o6 HANDBOOK OF LANCASHIRE PLACE-NAMES 

Oarswood. — Village and seat of Lord Gerard, 4 miles 
NE. of St. Helpns. In a Final Concord, 1479 (R., vol. 1.), 
it appears as Gartiswode. 

First theme personal. In Old English composite names, 
it appears as geard, gard (O., p. 255). Garthr and its 
compound Gartharr were Scandinavian names, Garthr 
meaning also a strong, enclosed place. 

Harwood. — Great Harwood is an urban district 4 miles 
NE. of Blackburn, Little Harwood a suburb of Black- 
burn. In Pipe Rolls of the twelfth century (L.P.C.) 
Harewuda, Herwudesholm occur ; Great Harewoode is found 
in a Final Concord of 1298 (R., vol. xxxix.); Parva Har- 
wode in a Subsidy of 1332 (R., vol. xxxi.) ; Little Harwood 
in 1503 (R., vol. 1.). 

The first theme is the Old English har, hoar, old. See 
the N.E.D. It probably denotes that the wood was a 
boundary wood. 

Heywood. — A borough 3 miles E. of Bury. In the 
Assize Rolls (thirteenth century, R., vols, xlvii., xlix.) we 
have Hewud, Hewode, Heghwude, Heywode, and Hawod. 
Hewode is in an entry of 1330 (R., vol. xlvi.), &nd. Heywood, 
1600 (R., vol. xii.). 

The first theme is the Old English hege, hedge, or its 
derivative gehag, enclosure. See Glossary to E. The 
local pronunciation, as heard by Dr. Hirst, is jaiad. 

Hopwood. — A township i mile N. of Middleton. Hop- 
wode, 1332, occurs in R., vol. xxxi., Hoppewode in an entry 
of the year 1292 (R., vol. xxxix.), and Hopwood in a 
Subsidy Roll of 1541 (R., vol. xii.). 

First theme is the word hop, late Old English and Old 
Norse. See Hope in the series of terminations; also 
the N.E.D., vol. v., p. 380. 

Hurstwood. — A hamlet 2 miles SE. of Burnley. Early 
forms are Hirstwode, 1370 (R., vol. xlvi.), Hirstewod, 1397 



CATALOGUE OP PLACE-NAMES 207 

(R., vol. 1.), Hirstwode, 1496. Hurstwood occurs in R., 
vol. xii., in the Freeholders' List of 1600. 

The first theme is Old English hyrst, copse, a frequent 
termination. 

Enowlwood. — A village 2 miles S. of Todmorden. First 
theme the Old English cnoll, a hill. 

Lowwood. — A village 5 miles NW. of Cartmel, on the 
Leven. No early records. First theme apparently de- 
scriptive. 

Outwood. — A district, now a parish, in Pilkington, 4 
miles SE. of Bolton-le-Moors. First theme descriptive. 

Simonswood. — A parish 8 miles NE. of Liverpool. In 
a Pipe Roll of King John (L.P.C.) Simundeswude occurs. 

The first theme is personal, the Sigemutid or Simund of 
O., p. 421, the Sigmund of the Liber Vitse, p. 158. 
Doubtless the name became confused afterwards with the 
Biblical name Simon. 

Wood is used with other descriptive adjectives and also 
as a subsidiary second theme in a few cases : — Cockshotts 
W., Fir W., Brand W., Hale W., HoUin W., West W., 
Holmes W., Hoscar Moss W., Snape W. 

WORTH 

This termination is the O.E. weorth, wurthe, wyrth, 
an enclosed homestead. The original signification has 
been enlarged so as to include lands outside the original 
enclosure. The derivation of the word, according to 
Forstemann in Die Deutschen Ortsnamen, p. 40, is from 
the Old High German warid, an island. The Lancashire 
place-names in Worth are mainly in the SE. of the 
county, and the proportion of worths to tons is smaller 
than in the centre and south of England. 

Ainsworth. — A parish 3 miles W. of Bury, half-way to 



2o8 HANDBOOK OF LANCASHIRE PLACE-NAMES 

Bolton. Aynesworth is found used as a personal name in 
1310 (R., vol. xlvi.). 

First theme is ^gen, a not infrequent element in com- 
posite names. See O., p. 5, and F., col. 36, for root Agin. 

Ashworth. — An ecclesiastical district 3 miles W. of 
Rochdale, of which a thirteenth century spelling is Asse- 
wrthe (R., vol. xxxix.), and a later one Asheworth, 1347 
(R., vol. xlvi.). 

The first theme is personal, the word cbsc, ash, of 
which word, used independently and in composite names, 
many examples are given in O., pp. 31, 32. 

Blatchinworth. — A joint township with Calderbrook, 
4 miles NE. of Rochdale. The form Blackenworthe, 1276, 
is found in R., vol. xlvii., p. 129. 

The first theme is the personal name BlcBcca, given in O., 
p. 108, the name of the reeve of London, Bede tells us, 
who was converted by Paulinus. The root of the name 
is the Old English BlcBc. BlcRccan is a weak genitive. 

Butterworth. — A township 3 miles E. of Rochdale. 
Early forms of the word are Buterwrth, 1235, Butterworthe, 
1262, Botreworth, 1278 (R., vol. xxxix.), and Butterworth, 
1332 (R., vol. xxxi.). The spelling with a single t pre- 
dominates in mediaeval times. 

The first theme is personal ; the word Bu/erus, probably 
a Latinised form, is given in O., p. 122. 

It is the Low German name Bufe, with «>'-extension 
(see p. 6 above), which in a similar way has given rise to 
place-names in Friesland (see W., p. 57). The root is 
that of the Old English 6o( in the sense of help ; dofa is 
a name in the Liber Vitae, S., p. 158; and O., p. 112, 
contains many names in which 6o( is an element. 

Chadeswrthe. — A former manor in Pendlebury. It is 
mentioned in the Great Inquest (R., vol. xlviii., p. 68). 
The first theme is the personal name Cead, which occurs 



CATALOGUE OF PLACE-NAMES 209 

as an element in composite names as Ceadwalla (see O., 
p. 126), and in Ceadda, lengthened form of Cad. 

Dilworth. — A parish 7 miles NE. of Preston, on the 
SW. edge of Longridge Fell. Supposed to be the Bile- 
uurde of Domesday Book. Early forms are Dileworth, 
1227 (R., vol. xxxix.), Dillesworth, 1247 (R., vol. xlvii., 
p. 20), Dilkworth, 1303 (R-> vol. xxxix.). 

First theme is a personal name, of which as first element 
in personal names one or two examples are given in O., 
p. 166, and more in F., col. 410. It is given by W. as a 
Low German name Dile, Dille, of which the /^-diminutive 
is Dylke, Dilke. The root dil means to destroy. 

The Domesday form, Bil, is a far commoner personal 
name element (see O., p. 107). 

Duckworth Hall. — In Oswaldtwistle, between Blackburn 
and Accrington. It is mentioned as Ducworth in 1241 
(R., vol. xxxix.). 

The first theme seems to be personal, a shortened form 
of Dacca, and the parent of dycga (see O., pp. 167, 173)- 
Duke is given by W. as a Low German name on W., 
p. 73, but the shortened form of Dacca does not appear 
in O. F., col. 431, connects the root ^«^with dugan, to be 
of use. 

Edgeworth. — A parish 5 miles N. of Bolton-le-Moors. 

Appears in the Great Inquest, 12 12, as Eggewrthe (R., 

vol. xlviii.), and in an entry of 1292 (R., vol. xxxix.) as 

Egeward, Eggeword. In the Assize Rolls one of its 

forms is Eggeswarth, 1277 (R., vol. xlvii., p. 146). 

Egwarth, 1505, is found in R., vol. 1., Eggewarthe, 1541, 

in R., vol. xii., and Edgwarth, 1616, in R., vol. xlii. 

The word edge here seems to mean a boundary. But 

it may possibly be a personal name, Ecg, used as theme 

in many composite names (see O., p. 217), and also 

independently in the form Ecga. 

o 



310 HANDBOOK OP LANCASHIRE PLACE-NAMES 

Failsworth. — An urban district 4 miles NE. of Man- 
chester. In the Great Inquest of 12 12 (R., vol. xlviii.) it 
appears as Faileswrthe ; later, 1226, as FeUsworde. In 
1502, in a Final Concord, Fayhworth (R., vol. 1.), and 
Failsworth, 161 8 (R., vol. xlii.). The first theme is 
personal, but the two thirteenth century forms of the word 
suggest quite different origins. The one is the Old English 
feli, feolu, the Old Norse fjol, meaning many ; used as 
a first theme in a few personal names in O., p. 241. 
The other is from the xooi fag, denoting joy; F., col. 493, 
gives Faga as an Anglo-Saxon name ; and also the Z-diminu- 
tive extension, Fachil. 

Famworth. — An urban district 3 miles SE. of Bolton- 
le-Moors. Early forms are Farnewurd, 1184 (L.P.C.), 
Farenwurth, 1246 (R.,,vol. xlvii.), Farinworth, 1253 (R., 
vol. xxxix.), Farneworth, 1300 (R., vol. xlviii.). First 
theme is the Old English fearn, fern ; but the thirteenth 
century spellings suggest that this first theme has been 
confused with farin, the first theme of Farington. See 
that word above. 

Famworth. — An ecclesiastical district, 4 miles SE. of 
Prescot. Fernworth (R., vol. xxxiii.) is found in 1541, 
Famworth (R., vol. xii.) in 1622. For first theme, see the 
preceding word. 

Hollingworth. — A hamlet 4 miles NE. of Rochdale. It 
is spelt Holyenworth, 1278, in a Final Concord (R., vol. 
xxxix.). 

The first theme is the holly. Old English holen, and a 
dialect form, hollen. There is a personal name Holen given 
in O., p. 300. 

Longworth. — A township 5 miles NW. of Bolton-le- 
Moors. It is Lungewrthe in the Assize Roll of 1276 (R., 
vol. xlvii., p. 142), and Longeworth in a Final Concord of 
1309 (R., vol. xlvi.). 



CATALOGUE OF PLACE-NAMES 211 

First theme descriptive, as in Langtree, though it may 
be a personal name as in O., p. 324. 

Pilsworth. — ^A township 2 miles SE. of Bury. The 
name does not appear to have suffered change (R., vol. xlii.). 

The first theme is personal — Pil — a name element which 
occurs in several composites in O., p. 388. Possibly 
another form of Bil. See F., col. 304 ; W., p. 290. 

Boddlesworth. — An old manor in the township of With- 
nell, 6 miles SW. of Blackburn. In the Assize Rolls it ap- 
pears as Roteleswurt and Rotholveswurth (R., vol. xlvii., pp. 
20, 89), in the Subsidy Rolls Rotheksworth (R., vol. xxxi.). 

The first theme is personal, the name Hrotkuulf, which 
occurs in the Liber Vitse, S., p. 166; O., p. 303, 404. 
Root of first theme is hrothi, fame ; see F., col. 885. 

Bumwortb. — A township 2 miles SW. of Bolton-le- 
Moors. Early forms of the word are Rumhworth, 1242 
(R., vol. xlviii.), Rumewurth, 1246 (R., vol. xlvii.), Rum- 
worth, 1278 (R., vol. xlvii.). 

The first theme is personal ; Rum and Rom are name- 
elements of frequent occurrence. See O., pp. 403-5. 
The root is hroma, glory, for which see F., col. 883. 

Saddleworth. — The district formerly under this name 
lies in three counties — Lancashire, Yorkshire, Cheshire — 
the village and township being in Yorkshire, 12 miles NE. 
of Manchester. Name belongs now to an urban district. 
The early form of the word (see Baines's Hist, of Lanca- 
shire, ii., 657) was Sadelworthe. 

The first theme is personal, an ^diminutive of scBde 
(see O., pp. xxiii., 406). F. gives the name Sadi, and 
several composite names with first theme Sadal, under the 
root santha, true, col. 1297, 1298. 

Shuttleworth. — A parish 4 miles N. of Bury. In a 
Final Concord of 1227 (R., vol. xxxix.), there is the form 



212 HANDBOOK OF LANCASIflRB PLACE-NAMES 

SuUelesworth, and in one of 1241, Shyotlesworth. Variants 
from the Assize Rolls (R., vols, xlvii., xlix.) are Chuttes- 
worthe, Shotelisworth. Shotilworth is in a Final Concord of 
1482 (R., vol. 1.), and Shutleworth in the Freeholders' List 
of 1600 (R., vol. xii.). 

The first theme is a personal name, being the Sceotweald 
of O., p. 410, the Sceutuald of the Liber Vitse, p. 158, and 
is a composite of a root cognate with the Old English 
Sceotan, to shoot. 

Snoddesworth. — An old manor in Billington, north of 
Blackburn. It appears in a personal name in 1332 (R., 
vol. xxxi.). The first theme is the name Snodd, given in 
O., p. 427- 

Shoresworth. — An old manor in the township of 
Pendlebury, NW. of Manchester. In early final Concords 
it appears as Schoresworth, Shoreswrth, 1241 (R., vol. xxxix.). 
In the Assize Rolls (R., vols, xlvii., xUx.) Schereswurth, 
Sheresworth, and other forms are found. Soriswrth is in 
an Inquest of 1242 (R., vol. xlviii.). 

First theme, which also appears in the Yorkshire Scoreby, 
is found in the weak genitive Scorran, in O., p. 410. Skorri 
is a name found in the Landnama, perhaps as a nickname, 
being the name of a bird. 

Southworth. — A joint parish with Croft 4 miles NE. of 
Warrington. Suthewrthe is from the Inquest of 12 12 
(R., vol. xlviii.), and other thirteenth century forms are 
Sotheworth, Suthworth, Sothwrth. 

The first theme is the Old English word suth, south, 
and may here denote position. But the word may also 
be personal, like the other points of the compass. O., 
p. 358, gives examples of North, used in composite personal 
names, though not Suth. Probably names in Suth have 
become merged with names in Swith (O., p. 437). The 
name Sudan, p. 433, may be from Suth. 



CATALOGUE OF PLACE-NAMES 213 

Tottleworth.— A hamlet 5 miles NE. of Blackburn. 
Totlewrth, 1258, is in an Inquest (R., vol. xlviii.). 

The first theme is an /-diminutive extension of tola, 
tottel, given in O., p. 459 ; tota is used not only as an in- 
dependent personal name, but as forming a theme in com- 
posite names (O., p. 458). For the root, see Mii., p. 60. 

Unsworth. — A parish 3 miles SE. of Bury. The first 
theme is a personal name, being the familiar contraction 
of some probably bithematic name. O., p. 469, gives 
one such, where Un is for Hunfrith. Also Una is a 
name in the Liber Vitae, S., p. 159; root cognate with 
unnan, to grant, F., col. 1477. 

Wardleworth. — A township i mile N. of Rochdale. 
In the Assize Rolls the word occurs as Werleworth 
(R., vol. xlvii., p. 92). The present name has thus 
probably grown to its form through the influence of the 
neighbouring War^e. See this word above. Under the 
termination Hill. 

Werle appears to be a personal name j the word WcBr, 
Wer, with the ^diminutive. For the many names in which 
this is a name element, see O., p. 473, and for Z-diminutive 
O., p. xxiii. 

Whitworth. — A parish 4 miles N. of Rochdale. In 
the Assize Rolls we find the forms Wyteleurthe, Wytewurth, 
Wytewrthe, 1246 (R., vol. xlvii.). Later forms are 
Whytworfhe, 1541, Whitworth, 1622 (R., vol. xii.). 

The first theme is possibly the personal name Hwita 
(O., p. 310), but it may also be the Old English hwit, white. 

WBAY 

A corner, or out-of-the-way place. From the Old Norse, 
vrd, rd, a corner or nook, which appears as first element 
in the word Roby. 



214 HANDBOOK OF LANCASHIRE PLACE-NAMES 

Wray. — A joint parish with Botton, lo miles NE. of 
Lancaster. In a Final Concord of 1229 (R., vol. xxxix.) 
it is spelt Wra; and Wray, 1558 (R., vol. x., p. 52). 

There is another Wrea 2 miles W. of Kirkham. It is 
Wrd, 1246 (R., vols, xlvii., xlix.), Wraa in a Final Concord 
of 1380 (R., vol. 1.), and Wray, 1577 (R., vol. xviii., p. 26). 

Also Low Wray and High Wray, in the NW. of Lake 
Windermere. 

Caponwray, Capemwray. — A hamlet 8 miles NE. of 
Lancaster in the parish of Over Kellet. Early forms of 
the word are Koupemoneswra, 12 12 (R., vol. xlviii.) ; 
Coupmunwra, 1319 (R., vol. xlvi.). In the sixteenth 
century we find Capenwrae, Caponwray, and in the early 
seventeenth Capernwraye and Caponra (R., vol. x., 
pp. 234, 23s). 

The first theme is a personal name derived from trade, 
Kaupmanns in Old Norse being the genitive case of 
Kaupmathr, a travelling merchant. The word may origin- 
ally have been the Old English Ceapmannes, modified by 
Scandinavian influence. 



CHAPTER IV 

PLACE-NAMES OF ONE THEME CHIEFLY, OR 
WHOSE SECOND THEMES DO NOT ADMIT 
OF EASY EXPLANATION. 

Arrad Foot. — A village 3 miles NE. of Ulverston. No 
early records. Probably the Celtic ard, a height. 

Bare. — A village 3 miles NW. of Lancaster, on More- 
cambe Bay. It is mentioned in Domesday Book, and 
has not altered its form, though occasionally it is spelt 
Bar (R., vol. xxxix., p. 25). 

It is a personal name given in O., p. 80. The Low 
German forms are Bare, Barre, from which spring the 
patronymics Baring, Barrington. For the root bar, a man, 
see F., col. 246. The Scandinavian old adjective harr 
means vigorous. 

Besses o' th' Bam. — A village in Pilkington, S. of Bury. 
"The name is said to have originated from the inn- 
keeper about 1750" (V.C.H., vol. v., p. 88). 

Bircli-in-Bush.ol]ne. — An ecclesiastical district 3 miles 
S. of Manchester. Birch is the name of a village 2 miles 
NW. of Middleton; Hanging Birch in Rainhill 4 miles 
SE. of Prescot. There seems to be no mention of these 
places in early records, but Del Birches, De Birches, De 
Birkes appear frequently as surnames. The origin of the 
word is the Old English beorc, a birch-tree. The form 
Birk is perhaps due to Scandinavian influences. 

Burch. — A manor, heath, and green 4 miles NE. of 
Warrington. In a Final Concord of 12 19 (R., vol. xxxix.) 



2i6 HANDBOOK OF LANCASHIRE PLACE-NAMES 

it is Bruches, afterwards Bruche (V.C.H., vol. iii.), and 
Bruch in i66o (R., vol. xii.). Bruch, by metathesis of r, 
is formed from burch, which occurs in composite personal 
names as a variant of burg (see O., pp. 120, 121). Also, 
Brtiche represents in Domesday Book the Old English 
brycg (M.S., p. 47). 

Bonds. — A joint parish with Barnacre, lies on the left 
bank of the Wyre, opposite Garstang. No records of 
earlier forms. Name perhaps shows that the land was 
held on particular conditions. See the word Bondeland 
in B.-T. Sonde is also a personal name of Norse origin 
(see O., p. Ill), signifying originally a yeoman-house- 
holder. 

Bulk. — A township adjoining Lancaster on the NE. 
The word occurs in the Exchequer Lay Subsidy, 1332 
(R., vol. xxxi., p. 96), but otherwise is rare in the early 
records. 

Bulk is a ft-diminutive (O., p. xxiii.) of the personal 
name Bui, which occurs in O., p. 120, as name element 
in a few names. The root is bol implying mate or com- 
panion (see F., col. 325). 

Cabus. — A parish on the right bank of the Wyre 2 miles 
N. of Garstang. Two early forms of this word are given 
with dates in the V.C.H. , vii., p. 305: Cayballes, 1^28 ; 
Caboos, 1550. The following seventeenth-century forms 
are taken from R., vol. x. The Cabus, 161 2, p. 102 j 
Caybus, 1602, p. 41; Cabus, i6io, p. 125; Cabess, 1674, 
p. 74. 

The following is an interesting passage from the 
abridged edition of Du Cange, where he explains a Latin 
word formed from the Old French cabas, a wicker pannier : 
"Cabasius. — Locus, ut videtur, in fluvio cabassiis seu 
nassis coarctatus piscium capiendorum gratia." 

"Cabasius. — A place where the course of a river, as 



PLACE-NAMES OF ONE THEME CHIEFLY 217 

it seems, is restrained by weels or wicker baskets in order 
to catch iish." 

Does this extract throw light on the origin of the place- 
name? 

Cark. — ^Village 3 miles SW. of Cartmel. High Cark, 
Low Cark, hamlets 4 miles N. of Cartmel. No early 
records. 

The first theme appears to be the Celtic Creag, Carraig, 
rock. 

Claife. — A parish 2 miles SE. of Hawkshead. I suggest 
cleeve, the steep side of a hill. See Prof. Wright's Dial. 
Diet., i., 63s : — " Due to cleofu, plural of clif." 

Olegg. — Little Clegg. A village 2 miles NE. of Roch- 
dale. "Clegger, a rock, boulder" (Dial. Diet., i., 635). 
Perhaps from the Welsh clegr, a rock. On the other 
hand, it may be a nickname from Old Norse gloggr, 
clear-sighted. 

Clocki Face. — A village and station on the St. Helens 
and Runcorn Gap Railway. Originally a public-house, 
which became the centre of a small village. 

Cockey, also Cockey Moor. — A village and moor 3 miles 
W. of Bury. No early records. The moor may have 
been marked by heaps or mounds ; hence its name. The 
word cock, signifying a mound, a clod, is probably of 
Scandinavian dialect origin. See Xok in Aasen's Ordbog. 

Colne. — A borough and market-town 18 miles NE. of 
Blackburn, on the borders of Yorkshire. What appears to 
be a phonetic spelling, Kaun, is found in an entry of 124 1 
(R., vol. xlviii.). The mediaeval spelling is Colne. 

The place-name takes its origin apparently from the 
river on which the town is situated. Rivers of the same 
name are found in Essex, Hertfordshire, and Gloucester- 
shire. See K., p. 71, under Colne. 



218 HANDBOOK OF LANCASHIRE PLACE-NAMES 

Copp. — An ecclesiastical district in the parish of St. 
Michael-le-Wyre, 3 miles SE. of Garstang. No records 
known. Name probably derived from Old English copp, 
a summit. 

Crimbles. — Great Crimbles and Little Crimbles are 
hamlets in the valley of the Cocker, 6 miles NW. of 
Garstang. The Domesday Book form of the word is 
Crimeles. In a charter of the middle of the twelfth century 
(L.P.C., p. 392), the form is Crimblis, and in the next 
century we meet with Crimbles, Crttmles, Crumeles, 
Crumbles (R., vols, xxxix., xlviii.). 

The-word is a genitive case of an ^diminutive, such as 
O. gives on p. xxiii., of the Low German Crum, Crom 
(W., p. 223). The b being an intrusive growth."* The 
root of the name is the same as of the Old English crumb, 
crooked; of which the Old Norse equivalent, krumr, is 
used as a nickname in the Landnama (II., 4, 6). 

There is a Sussex place-name, found in an early docu- 
ment of 680 (E., p. 281), which shows the name in its 
umlauted form, Crymesham. 

In V.C.H., vol. iv., p. 399 n., mention is made of 
Crimbles as a demesne, or may be a field or fields. This 
seems to me a corruption of the Anglo-Saxon word crundel, 
which often occurs in charters, and is a puzzle to the 
readers. Kemble thus explains it : "A meadow through 
which a stream flows." See E., p. 471. 

Crook. — A village near the river Douglas, 3 miles NW. 
of Wigan. 

First theme the Old Norse krokr, a hook, a winding, 
In this case a winding in the road to Shevington, or perhaps 
one in the river. See Croxteth above. 

Darwen. — Over Darwen a municipal borough, and Lower 
Darwen a village, lying to the S. of Blackburn. The 
water of Derewente is in a Final Concord of 1227 (R., vol. 



PLACE-NAMES OF ONE THEME CHIEFLY 219 

xxxix.), Derewmt, Derwend, Derwent are forms belonging 
to the fourteenth century (R., vols, xxxi., xlvi.). Derwynd 
is of the fifteenth (R., vol. 1.). Darwin, Darwen appear 
early in the seventeenth (R., vol. xii.). The word is a 
river name, probably of Celtic origin. See Dr. Isaac 
Taylor's Words and Places, 4th edition, p. 133; K., 
p. 59 ; and F.O., p. 248. 

Delph. — A village i mile NW. of Dobcross in Saddle- 
worth. This is the Old English word {ge)del/, a digging. 

Dendron. — An ecclesiastical district in the parish of 
Aldingham, 3 miles S. of Dalton-in-Furness, usually sup- 
posed to be the Dene of Domesday Book. See V.C.H., 
vol. i. In the Patent Rolls, 1270 (R., vol. xlix., pp. 243, 
247), the word appears as Deurim, Deurum, in which the 
first syllable seems a misreading for Den, making the d an 
intrusion. 

I suggest that the second syllable is the Old Norse rann, 
a house. Old English cern (as in Hardhorn above), and 
that the word originally meant Vale House. 

Diggle. — A village NE. of Dobcross in Saddleworth. 
No early records. The first theme seems an Z-diminutive 
of Old English diga, dycga (see O., pp. xxiii., 166, 173). 
Diggle Edge is a neighbouring eminence. 

Dem, Dum. — A hamlet close by Littleborough. No 
early records. 

The word is a dialect word, meaning dismal, lonely ; 
perhaps from the Old English derne, hidden, secret, and 
so wild, solitary; see N.E.D., iii., 231, col. 3. 

Doffcocker. — ^A hamlet 2 miles NW. of Bolton-le-Moors, 
in Halliwell. The V.C.H. does not seem to contain the 
word. Is it possible that the name has been superseded 
by a more euphonious one ? It took its rise round a public- 
house with a sign of that name. Cockers are short 
stockings, and the sign represented a girl taking them off. 



220 HANDBOOK OF LANCASHIRE PLACE-NAMES 

Docker. — A hamlet in the parish of Whittington, ir 
miles NE. of Lancaster. Spelt Dokker in two entries 
belonging to the years 1505 and 1508 (R., vol. 1.). 

The base is the same personal name that appears in 
Duxbury and Duckworth; namely Doc, Due, of which 
lengthened forms are Docca, Dycga ; connected with the 
Old English verb dugan, to be strong. The y-extension 
may arise from the second theme (which has perished) of a 
bithematic name, such as here. 

Eaves. — A hamlet 7 miles NW. of Preston in the town- 
ship of Wood-Plumpton. 

The place-name is descriptive, being the Old English 
efes, border (of a forest). 

Eccles. — A parish 4 miles W. of Manchester. A 
William de Eccles appears in an Inquest of 1242 (R., 
, vol. xlviii.), and a Roger de Ecclis, Chaplain, in an 
Assize Roll of 1277 (R., vol. xlvii., p. 151). 

The name may well take its rise from the ancient church, 
ecclesia, which lies in the township of Barton-on-Irwell, 
dedicated of old to St. Mary. 

Facit. — An ecclesiastical district 6 miles N. of Rochdale, 
in Spotland. I have found no early forms, and can only 
suggest that if the name is old the first theme is that of 
Fazakerley (see that word), and the second theme some 
one of the terminations grouped under Eth. 

Fence. — Ecclesiastical district and village 3 miles N. of 
Burnley. Spelt Fens, 1402. Originally denoted the en- 
closure or barrier which separated that portion of the 
Forest of Pendle which was reserved. See V.C.H., vol. 
vi., p. 522. 

Grlasson. — Village and dock near the mouth of the Lune, 
the Port of Lancaster. The old village lies a little way 
inland from the river. No early records and no satis- 
factory explanation of the name. 



PLACE-NAMES OP ONE THEME CHIEPLY 221 

Glest. — An old manor of Eccleston, near Prescot. It is 
mentioned in the Assize Rolls (R., vol. xlvii., p. 130) and 
in a Final Concord of 1339 (R., vol. xlvi.). No satisfactory 
explanation has been given of the word. The patronymic 
form of the name of Glastonbury in Somerset, Glestinga- 
byrig, given in a will of the tenth century printed in E., 
implies that Glesi may have been used as a personal name. 
But Professor Rhys and other Celtic scholars rather con- 
nect Glastonbury with a Cornish word for oak (glastenm). 
There is no certainty at present available about the group 
Glasson, Glasserton, Gleaston, Glest. 

Grange-over-Sands. — ^A village and modern seaside 
resort on Morecambe Bay, 2 miles SE. of Cartmel. 

The word is Old French graunge, grange, a granary or 
■ barn, or storehouse ; then a farm-house or country-house. 

Haydock. — An urban district 5 miles E. of St. Helens. 
In Pipe Rolls, 1169 (L.P.C.), the forms are found Hedoc 
and Heddoch. In the early part of the thirteenth century, 
12 12 (R., vol. xlviii.) Haidoc, and in a Final Concord of 
1286 Haydok (R., vol. xxxix.). The variant Chaydok is 
found in the Assize Rolls of 1247 (R., vol. xlvii., p. 37). 

The word is a ^-diminutive of the personal name Hedde. 
This and other familiar forms of personal names com- 
pounded with heathu are given in O., pp. 281-8. See 
F., col. 788, for the root hathu, fight. 

Heald. — A hamlet 2 miles NE. of Bacup. From the 
Old English heald, bent, inclined. Helde, a slope; see 
Glossary to E. Consult the word hield in N.E.D. 

There is a heald in the parish of Garstang also. 

Hert. — Manor mentioned in Domesday Book, identified 
by Mr. Farrer with Hart Carrs in Leece, SE. of Dalton-in- 
Furness. The word is from heorol, a stag. The Old 
Norse form, Hjortr, was a personal name in the old times, 
as e.g. in the Landnama. 



222 HANDBOOK OF LANCASHIRE PLACE-NAMES 

Heap. — A township 2 miles E. of Bury. Probably a 
personal name as in Heapey. There is a form Heppo in 
O., p. 291. See Heapey above. 

Heskin. — A parish 4 miles SW. of Chorley. Heskyn, in 
an Inquest of 1301 (R., vol. xlviii.), is the spelling for 
more than two centuries. Heskin is found in an entry of 
1497 (R., vol. 1.). The word is a diminutive of the per- 
sonal name Has, Haso (see O., p. 280). The Low German 
names are Hase, Hese (see W., pp. 147, 160). The root is 
hasva, for which see F., col. 787, with which the Old 
Enghsh hasu, grey, is cognate. 

Haskayne. — A hamlet 4 miles SW. of Ormskirk, appears 
to be another form of the preceding word. 

Hest. — A hamlet near Morecambe Bay, 4 miles N. of 
Lancaster. The word occars in a Pipe Roll of 1184 
(L.P.C), and suffers no modification except a rare change 
to Heste or Heest (R., vol. xlviii.). 

Probably a Domesday Book corruption of Hyrst. Com- 
pare M.S., p. 38, where several examples of such corruption 
will be seen. 

Hoole. — The two parishes Much Hoole and Little Hoole 
he about 7 miles SW. of Preston. Hoole appears as Hole 
in the Great Inquest of 12 12 (R., vol. xlviii.), Holes in an 
entry of 1223 (R., vol. xxxix.), and Hulle in one of 1241. 
Much Hole is mentioned 1260, Little Hoi in 1256 (R., 
vol. xxxix.), and Parva Hole in 1270 (R., vol. xlix.). 
The spelling Hoole is found in 1320 (R., vol. xlvi.). 

The word is the Old Norse holl, plural holar, a frequent 
place-name in Iceland, an occasional one in Norway. It 
denotes a rising ground, bank, or height, and is applied to 
farms on such situations. Much Hoole is situated above 
the river Douglas and a tributary brook; but "rising 
ground" is not very evident about the place, unless 



PLACE-NAMES OF ONE THEME CHIEFLY 223 

perhaps to Wickings and other mariners sailing into the 
river and up into the country. 

Ince. — Known as Ince-in-Makerfield ; it adjoins Wigan 
on the east. Early forms are Ines, 12 12 (R., vol. xlviii.); 
Ynes, 1293 (R., vol. xlviii.); Ins, 1332 (R., vol. xxxi.). 

The name appears to be Celtic. C/. the Irish inis, an 
island ; the Gaelic innis, a sheltered valley, a pasture field. 

Ince, known as Ince Blundell, is a parish 9 miles N. of 
Liverpool, near the coast. It appears in Domesday Book 
as Hinne. Hynis occurs in 1242 (R., vol. xlviii., p. 147), 
Ines in 1295 (R., vol. xxxix.). Ins in 1332 (R., vol. xxxi.), 
Ince in 1497 (R., vol. 1.). The origin is the same as that 
of the previous word. 

Ingol. — A hamlet 3 miles NW. of Preston, in Ashton-on 
Ribble. Early forms are Yngoil, Ingool (L.P.C.). In 
the Assize Rolls Ingel, Ingoles, Thyncoleheued (R., vol. 
xlvii.), and Ingoldheved, 1323 (R., vol. liv., p. 182). 

The word is a personal name, Ingold, a shortened form 
oi Ingweald (see O., p. 317). 

Inskip. — A joint parish with Sowerby, 7 miles NW. of 
Preston ; it is the Domesday Book Inscip, and the variations 
are unimportant. It is spelt with initial h, Hinskipe, 1247, 
in R., vol. xlvii., p. 13, and an initial w in an entry of 
1678 in R., vol. X., p. 231. 

The word is obscure, and when no light is to be got 
from Old English or Norse the tendency is to suspect Celtic 
words. May not the words inis-cip mean island (meadow) 
of the long grass ? See Dr. Joyce's Irish Names of Places, 
vol. ii., p. 340. The united township of Sowerby and 
Inskip lies low. The "poor soil" estate lies at the north- 
east end, the rising ground of Inskip towards the south- 
west. See the description in V.C.H., vol. vii., p. 279. 

Eenyon. — A parish 9 miles N. of Warrington. It is 



224 HANDBOOK OF LANCASHIRE PLACE-NAMES 

i^em'e« in the Great Inquest of 12 12 (R.,voI. x\vni.),Kynian 
in an Assize Roll of 1276 (R., vol. xlvii., p. 131), Keynyan 
in a Final Concord of 13 10 (R., vol. xlvi.), and Kenyan in 
the List of Freeholders, 1600 (R., vol. xii.). 

The word is personal, cynian, genitive of cynia, a weak 
familiar form of kene or cyne. See O., p. 128, and Liber 
Vitse, S., p. 159. The root is the Old English cyn, family. 

Leagram. — A parish 7 miles WNW. of Clitheroe- The 
V.C.H., vol. vi., p. 379, gives the old forms Laihegrim, 
1282, and Lythegreyns, 1297. The word is somewhat 
obscure ; it suggests, though, the Old English name Leod- 
grim, given in O., p. 325. The roots are leitdi, people, a 
very favourite theme ; grima, a mask, a helmet. F. gives 
several continental examples of the name. 

Leek. — A parish on the Westmorland border, 3 miles 
SE. of Kirkby Lonsdale. It is the Lech of Domesday 
Book, and is spelt Lecke (R., vol. xlviii.), Lee (R., vol. 
xxxix.). Leek (R., vol. xxxi., p. 107). 

The word arises probably from the adjacent stream, 
which seems to have had the name; for which consult 
F.O., p. 34, and K.,p. in. 

Lever. — The name of three places : Great Lever, an 
ecclesiastical district ; Little Lever, an urban district ; and 
Darcy Lever, a village to the S. and SE. of Bolton-le- 
Moors. Litile Lefie occurs in the Great Inquest, 12 12 
(R., vol. xlviii., p. 57) ; Magna Leure in the Assize Rolls of 
1285 (R., vol. xlix.) ; Leoure in a Final Concord of 1227 
(R., vol. xxxix.) ; Litile Levere in 1331 (R., vol. xlvi.) ; and 
Lever (R., vol. 1.) in entries of the fifteenth century. 

The first theme is Leqf, a common component in 
personal names (see O., pp. 326-36). The second theme 
of the name has preserved only the abraded form er. 
Leo/here, Li/ere are in O., p. 328. 

Lomaz. — A village 2 miles E. of Bury, in Heywood. 



PLACE-NAMES OP ONE THEME CHIEPLY 225 

The two old forms Lummehalenges, Lomhalle are given in 
the V.C.H., vol. v.* p. 138, which work also suggests that 
the implied form Lumhalghes gave rise to Lomax (index). 
Lum is a dialect word. The two meanings which may 
give rise to place-names are : (i) That of deep hole, in 
which sense the word is of obscure origin (see N.E.D.) ; 
and (2) A small wood or grove, in which sense it is probably 
a corruption of the Scandinavian lundr. 

The latter meaning may possibly be the origin of Lom, 
in Lomax. For the second syllable, see the termination 
Halgh. 

Lumb. — An ecclesiastical district in the Forest of Rossen- 
dale, 2 miles NW. of Bacup. The name proceeds from 
one of the dialect meanings mentioned in the preceding — 
probably the one marked (2), a grove, in which case it is 
a corruption of the word Lund. The Old Norse lundr has 
given rise to several place-names. See the next word. 

Lunt. — A parish 7 miles N. of Liverpool. A Henry du 
Lund is mentioned in a Final Concord of 1292 (R., 
vol. xxxix.), a William de Ltmt in one of 1402 (R., vol. 1.). 
Lonnt and Lunt are found, one at the beginning, the other 
at the end of the sixteenth century (R., vol. xii.). 

The origin is the Old Norse Lundr, a grove, and is 
probably of a sacred character. 

The place-name occurs in a forest perambulation, near 
Preston, on the north side (L.P.C., p. 421). There is a 
Thomas del Lond of Lonesdale mentioned in 1357 (R., 
vol. xlvi.). There is a chapelry Lund 3 miles SE. of 
Kirkham. 

Confusion has perhaps occurred as in the word laund, 
from the Old English Land, 3 miles N. of Burnley. 

Lytham. — A town on the estuary of the Ribble, 13 miles 
W. of Preston. It is spelt Lidun in Domesday Book 
and appears as Zithttm in L.P.C., and Lithun in the Great 

p 



226 HANDBOOK OF LANCASHIRE PLACE-NAMES 

Inquest (R., vol. xlviii.). The seventeenth century forms 
are Lithom, Lythom, Zitham, Lytham indiscrimiiiately. 
The word means " at the slopes," being the dative plural 
of the Old English and Old Norse hlith, a slope. 

Morecambe. — Borough and watering-place 4 miles NW. 
of Lancaster. It took its name from the Bay, which was 
so called by modern writers, who believed it to be the 
Moricamhe of Ptolemy. 

Mellor. — A parish 3 miles NW. of Blackburn. Meluer 
(R., vol. xlviii.) and Meluir (R., vol. xlvii., p. 136) are thir- 
teenth century forms, Melure (R., vols, xxxi., xlviii.) of 
the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries. Mellour (R., 
vol. 1.) is of the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries, and 
Mellore (R., vol. xii.) of the close of the sixteenth. There 
is a variant Melwrith (R., vol. xlvii., p. 20) in the thir- 
teenth century. 

Mel is an obscure first theme, and probably arises from 
more sources than one. In the Leicestershire Melton, as 
Domesday Book shows, it arises from contraction of medal, 
an Old Norse word corresponding to the Old English 
middel. In other words, from the peculiarities of scribes, 
it has superseded Mil, a shortened form of mild, from root 
milde, which appears in many Old Enghsh names (see O., 
p. 352). Lastly, it may arise, as here perhaps, from the 
old personal name Melda (O., p. 351), of which the root 
is also milde, gentle. 

The variant form seems to show that for the second 
theme we have writh, a wattle, suggesting an enclosure for 
cattle, as the Scotch wreath. See Prof. Wright's Dialect 
Dictionary. 

Mumps. — A part of Oldham. No early records of name 
which is probably personal, in the genitive case, the p being 
intrusive. The Low German name Mume, Mumme, Mum 
(W., 264) is in full use. 



PLACE-NAMES OF ONE THEME CHIEFLY 227 

In the Lincolnshire Mumby Domesday Book reads 
Mundeby, and O. gives as an Old English name Mund. 
The root is the Old Norse mundr, dowry. 

Nelson. — A large borough 3 miles NE. of Burnley, in- 
corporated 1890. The place took its name from the "Lord 
Nelson," an inn which existed there nearly one hundred 
years ago. 

Newbiggin. — A hamlet 6 miles SE. of Dalton-in-Furpess. 
In a Patent Roll of 1269 (R., vol. xlix.) it is Neiibygging. 
Bygging is a dialect word (from the Old Norse bygging) 
meaning a dwelling. 

Old Swan. — ^A suburb of Liverpool, which took its name 
from the public-house round which it grew. 

Farlick and Farlick Pike in Chipping, 6 miles E. of 
Garstang. In a perambulation of the Lancashire forest 
(L.P.C., p. 421) this is spelt Pirloc. 

The first theme is the Old English pirige, a pear tree, 
and the second the word loca, an enclosure. 

Parr. — An ecclesiastical parish now forming a part of 
St. Helens. The earliest form is Par, 1246, V.C.H. 
Pane and Par appear in Inquests of 1298, 1307 (R., 
vol. xlviii.), Paar and Parre in the Subsidy Rolls (R., 
vol. xxxi.). Later spellings vary between Par and Parre 
(R., vol. 1.). Parr occurs at the close of the sixteenth 
century (R. vol. xii.). 

No satisfactory origin for this place-name has been 
found. It is probably a personal name of Germanic 
origin. Par, Parre, are two mediaeval forms in W., p. 285. 
Conjectures are not wanting. One is, that Par has been 
produced from Per by the same change in pronunciation 
and spelling that has produced Darby from Derby, and 
that per is a pet form of Peter, appearing in the Manx 
Perswick ; and Peer in the Norwegian form of the name 



228 HANDBOOK OF LANCASHIRE PLACE-NAMES 

Peter. A second conjecture is that Par is another form of 
Bar, just as Pil is another form of Bit. 

Peel Chapel. — A hamlet in Little Hulton, 4 miles S. of 
Bolton-le-Moors. 

The word Peel denotes a fortified house or small castle. 
Skeat gives "Peel, M.E. pel, a small castle originally a 
stockade or wooden fortress." The word seems to have 
been introduced by the Normans ; Old French pel. 

Piel. — Island and Castle at the south end of the island of 
Walney : — The Pile of Fouldrey. See the word Furness 
above. 

Piatt Bridge. — A village 2 miles S. of Wigan. The 
word appears to be the Old English Ploti, a plot of ground ; 
spelling possibly influenced by French plat. 

There is an estate near Manchester, on the south, called 
Piatt. 

Portico. — A hamlet i mile E. of Prescot, so-called 
from the colonnade of a church built at the end of the 
eighteenth century. 

Preese. — A hamlet 4 miles NW. of Kirkham; the 
Pres of Domesday Book. Pres, Prees, 1249 (R., vol. 
xlviii.), occur in the Inquests, and Preez somewhat later. 
The variant Preses is found in an Assize Roll of 1247 
(R., vol. xlvii., p. 61). Prees is the form in the list of 
Freeholders, 1600 (R., vol. xii.). 

The word is a Celtic or pre-Celtic word for a grove. 
See Preesall above. 

Quick. — A village 2 miles SW. of Dobcross. No early 
forms; it may arise from Old English wic, a dwelling, a 
village. 

Raikes. — Hamlet at Tonge, near Bolton. Rake is a 
dialect word, meaning a track or path, a rough steep 
road on a hillside, a sheep walk. Of Norse origin. Raak, 



PLACE-NAMES OF ONE THEME CHIEFLY 229 

a cattle path; see Aasen's Ordbog. The word is used 
not infrequently as a place-name. 

Ravenswinder, Winder Hall, Winder Moor, 4 miles 
SW. of Cartmel (R., vol. x., p. 22). The first theme is a 
personal name. A winder is a winnowing fan, in local 
dialect. There is a Winder in Roeburndale, in the Parish 
of Melling, on the high ground of the left bank, and 
places of the same name appear in Cumberland and 
Westmorland. 

Bead. — A parish 4 miles NW. of Burnley. Thirteenth 
century forms of the word are Revef, Revid, Reved (L.P.C. 
and R., vols, xlviii., xlix.). In the later Final Concords we 
find Rede, Reved (R., vol. 1.). Reade in the List of Free- 
holders, 1600 (R., vol. xii.). 

The first theme is a personal name : the Rewe of O., 
399. There is nothing to show the origin of a second 
theme of which the t ox d is the remnant. See the 
termination eth above. 

Rhodes. — An ecclesiastical district, i mile SW. of 
Middleton. There are other places of this name in the 
hundred of SaJford. 

The • word seems to be a personal name, the theme 
hroth, of which, there are several examples in O., p. 302 ; 
the root hrothi, F., col. 885, means /awe. 

Boose. — A village 2 miles to the east of Barrow-in- 
Furness. The word is mentioned in Domesday Book, 
where it is spelt iJosse. In early charters the form is Ros 
(L.P.C), which is also found in 1247 (R., vol. xlvii., p. 57). 

Ros appears as a personal name theme in O., p. 404. 
Hross, a horse, was used as such a theme in personal 
names in the Landnama (see C.V., under Hross). 

Sankey. — ^A parish 3 miles W. of Warrington. Earliest 
form Sonchi, 1182 (L.P.C, p. 287). Thirteenth century 



230 HANDBOOK OF LANCASHIRE PLACE-NAMES 

ones are Sanki, 1202 (R., vol. xxxix.), Sanky (L.P.C., p. 
422), Sonky, Shonkey, Saunky (R., vols, xlvii., xlix.); 
Great Sonky occurs in Final Concords of the fourteenth 
century (R., vols, xlvi., 1.). 

No trace of the personal name in O. Among the Low 
German names are Sanke, Sancke, W., p. 329. These 
are ^-diminutives of Sanne, which F. assigns to a root 
Sanja, involving the conception of beauty. See col. 1295. 

Sharpies. — A township 3 miles N. of Bolton-le-Moors. 
Early forms of the word are Charples, 12 12, Scarries, 
Scharples (R., vol. xlviii.) in later Inquests. In the 
Assize Rolls are the forms Scharples and Sharpies (R., 
vols, xlvii., xlix.). 

The first theme is the personal name which is found in 
the Low German Searp (see W., p. 331). For the root, 
see F., col. 1305, the word Scarpa, which appears in the 
Old Enghsh Scearp, sharp. 

Sharpies presents an /-extension of this name (see O., 
p. xxiii.), and the es is a genitival termination. 

Sholver. — A hamlet 3 miles NE. of Oldham. In the 
Assize Rolls (R., vols, xlvii., xlix.) several words occur, 
supposed to represent old forms of Sholver ; Shalgarih, 
ShoUerg, Shollere, Sholuer, Choller, Shalwer, Shollers, 
Sholwer, Scholgh, Schelwath, all belonging to the thirteenth 
century. An earlier form is found in a Final Concord of 
1202 (R., vol. xxxix., pp. 21, 154), Solhher, and the modern 
form is one of 1278. 

The first theme is the Old English sceolh, wry, oblique ; 
Old Norse skfalg ; in place-names Skjel. Rygh suggests 
that in some names it refers to a neighbouring river (see 
p. 222). I am inclined to regard it as a river name, 
and to leave the puzzle of the second theme untouched. 

Slyne. — A parish 3 miles N. of Lancaster, is the Sline 
of Domesday Book. In early Pipe Rolls the forms Sline, 



PLACE-NAMES OF ONE THEME CHIEFLY 231 

Slina, Slin (L.P.C.) occur, and Asselinas in a charter of 
King William II. An early spelling, 1222 (R., vol. xlviii.), 
of the thirteenth century is Scline, and Schelen is found 
among other variants in the Assize Rolls (R., vol. xlvii., 
p. 94). The word is obscure. A guess may be hazarded 
that it is an Old Norse nickname Slinni. Fritzner, in his 
Dictionary of Old Norse, calls the word an unprepossessing 
epithet of a man, and Vigfusson translates it a clownish 
fellow. 

Perhaps the word is descriptive rather than personal in 
its origin. The Scandinavian slind, slinn, a flat side as of 
hewed timber (Aasen), then a flat stretch (Reitz, Swedish 
Dialect Dictionary). Cf. the sense in which coal-miners 
use the word, for which see Prof. Wright's Dialect 
Dictionary. 

Speke. — A parish 6 miles SE. of Liverpool ; the Spec 
of Domesday Book, and the Great Inquest (R., vol. xlviii.). 
Speck is ai form in the Assize Rolls (R., vol. xlvii.), and 
Speek of the Subsidy Rolls (R., vol. xxxi.). Speke occurs 
in a Final Concord of 1313 (R., vol. xlvi.). 

The word is supposed to be the Old English spic, 
bacon, lard. In the B.-T. Dictionary we read as from 
Kemble: "Spic occurs in names of places where swine 
were fed." 

Stalmine. — A township 5 miles NE. of Poulton-le-Fylde. 
Stalmine is the Domesday Book form, Stalmin of an early 
Pipe Roll, 1205 (L.P.C.), Staleminne of a Final Concord 
of 1235 (R., vol. xxxix.). 

The first theme is a river name. See K., p. 64, and 
compare the Irish tuik, a torrent, and Welsh dylad, flowing. 
The second theme is the Old Norse minni, a river 
mouth, a word found in the form minde in Danish place- 
names, and in German ones as miinde. 

Stand or WHtefield, 4 miles S. of Bury, on the Man- 



232 HANDBOOK OF LANCASHIRE PLACE-NAMES 

Chester road. A Middle English word meaning place, 
position, from the Old English standan, to stand. The 
" Stand " is the highest point within Knowsley Park, and 
Stand House is a farmhouse on the highest ground within 
Croxteth Park. Has the "Stand" near Bury got its 
name from a similar situation within the grounds of Stand 
Hall? 

Standish. — A parish and township 3 miles N. of Wigan. 
Stanesdis, 11 77 (L.P.C., p. 38), and Stanedis, 1206, are 
forms in the Pipe Rolls; as also Stanedich, 12 11 (L.P.C.), 
Stanhedis, izo8, Stanidis (L.P.C.) of early charters. 
Stanediss, Stanedisch, 1253, are found in the Assize Rolls 
(R., vol. xlvii.). , 

The first theme in the earliest of these forms seems to 
be a personal name in the genitive case, Stan. There are 
several examples of this first theme in O., p. 429. The 
second theme may be either dis, die, or disc, of which the 
first seems to be the primitive form. It is the Old Norse 
dys, cairn; Danish dysse, a grave mound; Stan's grave 
mound. 

Stidd. — A parochial chapelry near Ribchester, on the 
NE. Stid is a dialect form of Stead, and one of its mean- 
ings is a farm-house. See Professor Wright's Dialect 
Dictionary. 

Strangeways. — An estate near the centre of Manchester, 
north of the cathedral. It lay in the tongue between the 
rivers Irk and Irwell, and was bounded on two sides by 
these rivers. The early forms of the word (V.C.H., iv., 
p. 260) were Strongways, 1306; Strangewayes, 1349; 
Strangwishe, 1473. 

The first theme is the Old English Strang, strong ; the 
second the word {ge)wcesc, flood, overflow. The name 
refers to the two rivers, but especially perhaps to the 
Irk. 



PLACE-NAMES OF ONE THEME CHIEFLY 233 

Taxbock, Torboc— A township 8 miles SE. of Liverpool. 
Domesday Book has the form Torboc. Thirteenth century 
forms are Thorboc, Turbok, Thorbok, Torboc (R., vols, 
xlvii., xlvi.). In the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries 
Torbok predominates (R., vol. xxxi., xlvi.), in the sixteenth 
Torboke (R., vol. xxxiii.), and in 1600 (R., vol. xii.) 
Tarbocke. Among the variants are Trebuch, 1246 (R., 
vol. xlvii., p. 18), Thurbeke, 1302 (R., vol. xlviii.), Terbok, 
1324 (R., vols, xli., xlvi.). 

The Domesday form, which persists fairly through 
several centuries, seems the most trustworthy. 

Both parts are Celtic. The word Tor denotes water 
(see K., pp. 59, 102). The second theme is the old bocc. 
modern bog, meaning sofi (see Dr. Skeat's Dictionary, 
under Bog), and may refer to the moss which in old times 
must have stretched alongside the brook as far as the 
Mersey. Norse settlers' influence is visible in the 1302 
form. 

Treales. — A joint parish i mile NE. of Kirkham. The 
word appears as Treueles in Domesday Book and other 
early notices (R., vol. xlviii.), Treveles and Treules in the 
Subsidy Rolls (R., vol. xxxi.), Treales in the sixteenth 
century (R., vol. xii., p. 186). 

The V.C.H., vol. vi., p. 178, gives an early form Turuel 
under 1242. This suggests for the first theme the personal 
name Turolf, as in Threl/all above. Others of the above 
forms suggest the Old English word treow, tree. The 
second theme is the Old Enghsh lass, a pasture. It is 
remarkable that three of the Lancashire place-names ending 
in les, Crimbles, Wharles, and Treales present difficulties. 
Danish writers find a similar difficulty in interpreting the 
Danish place-names ending in lose. 

Wigan. — A town 18 miles NW. of Manchester. Wigan, 
Wygan (L.P.C.) are the usual forms throughout, a 



234 HANDBOOK OF LANCASHIRE PLACE-NAMES 

single variant Wygain being once found (R., vol. xlvii., 
p. 119). 

The word is the genitive case of the Old English per- 
sonal name Wicga, Wiga, for which see O., pp. 485, 487. 
The word means champion, the root being the Old 
English wig, war. See F., col. 1577. 



CHAPTER V 

GENERAL REMARKS 

A CURSORY glance at the place-names examined in the 
preceding pages will show a marked prevalence of Low 
German speech-forms among them, not only in the second, 
but also in the first themes. Other linguistic elements are 
present, a Scandinavian of considerable amount, and a 
small Celtic or pre-Celtic one. This may be expressed 
numerically by saying that of the 500 names referred to in 
the preface, which appear before the end of the fifteenth 
century, about 80 per cent, are Low German, i8 Scandi- 
navian, 2 Celtic. This predominance suggests that the 
invading German tribes in the centuries succeeding the 
departure of the Romans were sufficient to occupy and 
colonise the whole county. The Romano-Celtic villages 
and homesteads, which must have existed at the time of 
the Germanic invasion, appear to have lost their names, 
or maybe the names have become so modified as to 
assume a Germanic form. The towns marking Roman 
encampments (Lancaster, Ribchester, Manchester) are left, 
and a few modified forms, as Clitheroe, and perhaps a 
Walton. Words such as Golbome and Glazebury, in 
which the first theme is a Celtic river name, are probably 
of later origin, being named after the rivers, the old names 
of which were preserved in all parts of the county. 

The Germanic predominance is quite as marked in the 
first themes of the place-names as in the second, though 
not always so perceptibly. Many are difficult to explain. 



236 HANDBOOK OF LANCASHIRE PLACE-NAMES 

and opinions may well differ about them ; but the bulk of 
the first themes, which, as has been shown individually, are 
mainly personal nameSj can be found in Searle's Onomas- 
ticon, and their etymology seen in Forstemann's Namen- 
buch. Where no traces can be found in Searle, reference 
to Winkler's Naamlijst will almost always confirm their 
Low German origin. One of the most surprising results 
of the investigation into these place-names is the conviction 
of the completeness with which the county was Germanised 
after the Romans left. 

The Scandinavian linguistic element is to be seen in all 
divisions of the county, though perhaps it is somewhat 
more pronounced in Amounderness and the coast of West 
Derby than elsewhere. Some second themes as By, Beck, 
Carr, Holme, Howe, Thwaite, and others are obviously 
Scandinavian ; also first themes such as Anlaf, Hacon, 
Grim, Gunnolf, Orm, Thora, Thorweald. The stories of 
Scandinavian rule at York in the eighth century, over 
Northumbria, connected with the names of Sigurd, Ragnar 
Lodbrok, and Lodbrok's descendants, are perhaps largely 
mythical; but invasions, leaving behind large numbers of 
settlers occurred in the ninth century, and in the tenth 
there seems to be good historical evidence that Eric 
Bloodaxe ruled at York. If the invading hordes of the 
east coast did not penetrate in great force into Lancashire, 
the valleys of the Lune and the Ribble gave opportunity 
for peaceful and quiet penetration. These newcomers 
into Lancashire from the east were doubtless mostly 
Danish and Swedish, but at the time of their incoming, 
Norwegians held rule over parts of Irelandj the Orkneys, 
the Hebrides, and the Isle of Man. As might be expected, 
the coast parts of Lancashire show in their place-names 
considerable traces of Norwegian settlers (see the termina- 
tion Breck), and Norwegian influence may be seen in 
Cumberland in some of the later Runic inscriptions, 



GENERAL REMARKS 237 

perhaps as late as the eleventh or twelfth century. In the 
thirteenth century the Isle of Man came first under Scottish, 
and then under English rule. 

Certain peculiarities may here be noticed : — 

(i) Some names of Low German origin have apparently 
been modified by later settlers of Scandinavian origin. 
Such are Altcar, Lathom, Litherland, Sefton, Everton, 
Childwall, Stainall, Toxteth. 

(ii) Five names appear to have undergone a curious 
development in mediaeval times. This consisted in the 
intrusion of de, or an equivalent, between the two themes 
of the place-name, the second theme being ley. This de 
did not remain as a rule, and did not always leave traces. 
The five names are Cuerdley, Dinkley, Silverdale, Thornley, 
Worsley. The de left its trace in the d of Cuerdley, 
perhaps also in Silverdale. 

(iii) Some Lancashire place-names are found repeated in 
Wirral, on the other side of the Mersey. Such are Breck, 
Thingwall, Roby (Raby), Ince, Meols, Thornton, Windle, 
Poulton. This may be due to emigration or sentiment, or 
both. In most cases the etymological meaning: of each of 
these place-names, whatever it may be, may be descriptive 
of its history or position in one place, and not in the 
other. 

(iv) It will in most cases be found that the first and 
second themes of a place-name come from the same 
linguistic stock. Several exceptions are seen in such 
names as Glazebury and Gorton, where the first theme is 
a river name. Others are found in which the word as left 
by an early settler was modified in spelling or otherwise by 
a later one. The histories of Childwall, Skelmersdale, and 
Cockerham record such modification. There are others, 
again, where a first theme is found with two diflferent 
second themes of different linguistic stock; but such 
doubles are not usually found in the same county. 



238 HANDBOOK OF LANCASHIRE PLACE-NAMES 

Examples are Croston and Crosby, Allerton and AUerby, 
Dalton and Dalby, Ashton and Ashby, Appleton and 
Appleby. Perhaps these pairs come from comparatively 
modern times, when the original definite signification of 
the second themes had become somewhat obscured. 



I. INDEX TO PRIMARY WORDS 
AND ELEMENTS 



A, river, lo 

Aba, man, vir, i8, 174 

Ac, oak, 20, 41, 48, 95, 158, 161 

Mcer, acre, 8, 62 

^g, ecg, 20 

^gen, agin, 35, 197, 208 

^If. eU, 69 

^lla, aelle, 66, 134, 159, 170 

^rn, house, 90, 219 

^sc, ash, 7, 130, 159, 208 

/Espe, aspen, 79 

^thele, noble, 158, 170 

^thelgar, egger, 60 

Ag, 198 

Aindi, rock, 124 

Airidh, erg, 43 

Alva, time, 170 

Akrar, arable land, 26 

Alda, ealda, old, 69, 72 

AUt, a brook, 26 

Air, alder-tree, 158, 181 

Ambrose, 205 

An, 32, 198 

An, ane, 32 

Andreas, 159 

Anlaf, Olaf , 43 

Anna, Ona, 32 

Ansi, a divinity, 198 

Ape, appe, apa, man, 18 

Ard, a height, 215 

Arngeirr, I2j 

As, OS, divinity, 33, 181 

Austr, east, 103 

Baca, bag, 39 

Bacga, 143 

Badu, fight, 73 

Base, back, 89 

Bsek, beck, 12 

Basrr, barley, 161 

Baga, strife, 39, 108 

Bald, beald, bold, 86, 161, 181 

Balder, 184 



Ban, command, 18 

Banke, bank, 10 

Bar, man, 215 

Bared, berred, 50, 108 

Baun, bean, 59 

Beach, 89 

Beag, bracelet, 201 

Beagan, beag, 92 

Beal, 86 

Beam, a tree, 55 

Bean, 59 

Beann, 124 

Bebba, 162 

Beda, 55 

Ben, wound, 22, 182 

Beorard, 50, 108 

Beorc, birch, 35, 79, 215 

Beorht, bright, 122, 197 

Beorn, bern, 8 

Berchta, 79 

Bere, barley, 118 

Berewic, hamlet, 202 

Berht, beorht, bright, 205 

Bernhard, 50 

Berton, Barton, 182 

Bic, bicca, 137, 146 

Bigg, bygg, 103, 152 

Bil, sword, 4, 21, 97, 162 

Bill, gentleness, 162 

Bior, fior, water, 39 

Biork, bjarkar, birk, birki, birch, 

35, 79, log 
Biscop, bishop, 6g 
Btec, black, 14, 109, 132 
Blaes, blees, 35, 183 
Blar, dark blue, 35, 126, 200, 

201 
Blasius, 35 
Blsecca, 208 
Blond, 40, 133 
Bod, both, booth, 16 
Bod, command, 55 
Bog, soft, 233 



240 



INDEX TO PRIMARY WORDS 



Bokki, 109 

Bol, mate, 97, 216 

BoUe, bulla, 97 

Bolstathr, 147 

Bonifacius, 112 

Bot, help, 208 

Botl, bold, dwelling, 15, log, 

162 
Botm, botn, valley, 16, 163 
Brad, broad, 10, 56, 100, 137 
Brandulf, 86 
Breithr, broad, 10, ico 
Brekka, brink, 17 
Brer, briar, 28 
Brereton, 28 
Brether, 28, 163 
Brid, bright, 197 
Broc, 85, 163 
Broca, trousers, 85 
Brothar, 85 

Bm, brun, eyebrow, 20, 120 
Brum, 92 

Brun, brynja, breastplate, 98 
Brun, brown, 98 
Brunnr, well, 12 
Bu, dwelling, 63, 103 
Buca, bucca, log 
Bugered, buered, 79 
Burh, burg, byrig, 20, g8, 163, 204, 

216 
Burn, 80, 110 
Burne, well, 12 
Burr, a son, 13s 
Bute, 208 
Butb, booth, 16 
Byr, 23 

C-DIMINUTIVE, 6 

Cabasius, 216 

Cad, Cadda, no 

Csedwalla, 74 

Calder, 12 

Caocb, 70 

Caochan, a rivulet , 133 

Caor, a stream, 13, 56, 63 

Carl, man, 164 

Castra, 26 

Cat, Catta, no, 126, 164 

Catte, Cath, Kette, 65, 164 

Catto, £6 

Cead, Ceadda, 165, 202, 208 

Ceald, cold, 32 

Ceap, kaupa, buy, 214 

Ceatta, 14, 56, 70 

Cec, cecce, 15 

Ceol, keel, 15 

Ceorl, Ceorla, in, 165 



Ceorra, 67 

Chad, no 

Cherno, 77 

Ciar, dark brown, 67 

Ciarach, swarthy, 67 

Cild Cille, igg 

Cip, Cibe, 223 

Cirice, 100 

Clac, Claca, 165 

Clag, clay, 165 

Clais, a rivulet, 13 

Claudus, lame, 38, 116 

Clegr, a rock, 217 

Cleof, clif, cliff, 27, 62, in, 166, 

217 
Cloh, Clough, 29 
Clydvfr, shelter, 93 
Cnaep, 46 
Cnoc, hill, 102 
CnoU, hill, loi, 207 
Cnut, 81 
Col, coal, 95 
Col, Kole, 47, 166 
CoUen, hazel, 95 
Cone, 75 
Coorn, so 

Copp, a summit, 80, 218 
Coppild, Copt, pointed, 96 
Cornelius, 50 
Cot, Cote, house, 31, 70 
Crawe, crow, 138, 167 
Creag, rock, 32, 217 
Criffel, 167 
Croc, Crook, 85, 129 
Crom, Crum, 65, 218 
Cronk, hill, 138 
Cros, cross, 23 
Crump, bent, 167 
Crundel, 218 
Cu, cow, 80, 89, 138 
Cul, Culingas, 47 
Cumb, valley, 31 
Cuna, 75, 135, i65 
Cuni, 75, 13s 
Cuthbert, Cutbert, 60 
Cweorn, handmill, 125, 185 
Cwm, valley, 31 
Cyne, cyn family, 113, 135, 224 
Cyping, market, g8 

D^D, action, 21 

Daeg, day, 62 

Dseg, Daegmar, 62 

Dasgfinn, 87 

Dasl, Dak, 35, 168 

Dank, Dunkin, 65 

De, of, 38, III, 116, iiS, iig, 237 



AND ELEMENTS 



241 



Dealla, 168 

Deda, dedi, dedis, 21 

Dede, Didde, ai 

Dene, 168 

Denu, 39, 136, 168, 219 

Deor, wild beast, 24 

Deore, beloved, 24 

Die, 42, 168 

Diora, iii 

Dil, destroy, 209 

Dob, Dobbe, 34, 132 

Docoa, Duke, 21, 52, 209 

Dolfinus, 87 

Dryllr, 40 

Dud, Dude, 169 

Dug, dugan, to be strong, 22, 

2og 
Dump, 169 
Dun, Down, 43, 185 
Dun-er, 36 

Dunn, brown, in, 138 
Dunnere, 36, 87 
Dunum, 70 
Duuua, 138 

Dycga, worthy, 219, 220 
Dynne, in 
Dys, cairn, 232 

Ea, river, 10 

Ead, riches, 6g, 160 

Kadanan, 52 

Eald, old, 28, 69, 108 

Ealh, temple, 64, 158 

Ean, as ead, riches, 52, 159 

Eard, native country, 21, 201 

Earn, eagle, 123 

East, 108 

Ecca, Ecci, 81 

Ecclesia, church, 81, 169, 220 

Ecg, sword, 8, 19, 158, 170, 198, 209 

Ecgweald, 81 

Efes, border, 13, 67, 71 

Efri, upper, 171 

Egg, edge, 45, 81 

Egger, Egera, 60 

Eghe, Eik, oak, 19, 20 

Eige, 49, 139 

Einulf, Eginolf, 35 

Eke, Ekele, 81, 169 

Ella, 66, 134, 170 

Ellen, elder, 13 

Enge, ongu, narrow, 52 

Engl, Eng, meadow, 97 

Er, 6, 93, 137, 146, 156 

Ergum, 86 

Erweiterungen, 6 

Est, East, 17 



Faes, 112, 220 

Fselging, fallows, 99 

Fag, faga, 210 

Fald, 54 

Fara, farel, companion, 171 

Feld, 51 

Fern, fearn, 210 

Fili, Slica, 172 

Finn, Finn, 87 

Fjall, 51 

Fjol, fell, filu, many, 172, 210 

Floki, 22 

Folth-here, 128 

Forn, old, 24 

Forni, old man, 24 

Forth, 172 

Free, Frekr, 172 

Fugel, bird, 131 

Ful, foul, 131, 205 

Fulca, folk, 128 

Fyrhthe, plantation, 13 

Gade, 60 

Gser, ger, spear, 36 

Gaerheard, 19 

Gaersingas, 36 

Gairu, gar, spear, 19, 36, 172 

Gamli, old, 69 

Gara, 62 

Gars, gers, 36 

Garthr, 102, 206 

Gata, road, 8, n 

Gaukr, geac, cuckoo, 87 

Gayja, gA, 205 

Geard, 206 

Gearo, ready, 173 

Geat.gate, 11, 96 

Geat, Goth, 8 

Gedelf, digging, 219 

Geersinga, 36, 71 

Gehseg, 112, 175, 206 

Geitr, a goat, 12 

Gelasius, 173 

Gemoere, boundary, 123 

Gere, gers, gerse, 36, 71 

Geset, gesete, 136 

Gewassc, overflow, 232 

Geweald, power, ig8 

Gil, 61, loi 

Glaise, rivulet, 13 

Glastenen, 221 

God, 139 

Godsfriend, 44 

Golde, little stream, 14 

Goswine, 44 

Graef, trench, 62 

Graf, graefa, grove, 62 

Q 



242 



INDEX TO PRIMARY WORDS 



Gras, gres, 36 
Graunge, 221 
Greot, sandstone, 24 
Grim, grima, 44, 139, 224 
Grimm, Jacob, 184 
Gud, guda, battle, 12 
Gund, gun, battle, 28, 125 
Guthsvin, Godsfriend, 44 

Hafoc, hawk, 75 

Haga, enclosiire, 78, 154 

Hagi, pasture, 78 

Haki, 99 

Hakon, hacun, 93, 99 

Hale, haele, hero, 66, 145 

Halig, holy, 199 

Ham, hamm, 68 

Hama, hamr, 173 

Han, hane, 32 

Hana, han, hen, banne, henne, 

150 
Hap, luck, 51, 174 
Har, hare, hoar, 197, 206 
Hard, heard, 139 
Hardr, hord, hard, 12, 90, 104 
Harja, army, 108 
Has, hese, hase, hasu, hasva, 40, 

47, 222 
Hatha, fight, 221 
Haugr, cairn, gi 
Haukr, 32 
Haver, 154 
Hazel, 96 
Heafod, bofud, 74 
Heald, sloping, 106, 221 
Healh, halas, heale, 64, 225 
Heall, hall, 64 
Hean, 52 

Hege, hedge, 14, 78, 90, 206 
Heim, 71 
Hen, henne, 130 
Heoru, a sword, 177 
Hepe, heppe, heppo, 50, 222 
Heppin, lucky, 51 
Here, 66, 93, 108, 128, 158 
Hesse, 71 
Heuch, 30, 46 
Hjalli, shelf, 106 
Hjellendt, terrace, 106 
Hjortr, hart, 12, 221 
Hlaew, a mound, 62, 120 
Hlath, a bam, 178 
Hlathum, at the barns, 178 
Hlid-geat, 61 
Hlinc, a slope, 89 
Hlith, 48, 107, 120 
Hlith, slope, 105 



Hlithar, 105 

Hlithum, at the slopes, 226 

Hloth, famous, 202 

Hnukr, knoll, 128 

Hnutu, nut, 67 

Hoc, Hocca, 34, 203 

Hod, hodde, 40 

Hof, hofen, 91 

Hofud, head, 38 

Hob, 30, 46, 81, 17s, 177. 203 

Hoi, a height, 104 

Hoi, hollow, 31, 33, 48, 84, 104 

Holl, holar, 222 

HoUen, holly, 210 

HoUin, holly, 16 

Holmr, holm, 85 

Hop, hoop, 88, 206 

Hor, obey, 82, 203 

Hordr, 90 

Hore, horling, horulf, 82 

Horgr, 43 

Horn, 24, 89 

Hou, hofen, 91, 92 

Hraban, raven, 17, 63, 123 

Hrafn, raven, 17, 63, r23 

Hreysi, a stone heap, 9, 156 

Hring, ring, 115 

Hris, brushwood, 115 

Hroma, glory, 211 

Hros, horse, 37, 68, 156, 229 

Hroth, hrothi, fame, 29, 186, 211, 

229 
Hryggr, ridge, 25, 130 
Hue, 81 

Hugu, mind, Hugh, 178 
Hun, hunni, 53. 113 
Huna, 32 
Hundi, hundr, 32 
Husum, 91 
Hwsete, wheat, 118 
Hwit, white, 9, 83 
Hwita, 9, S4. 74. I94. 213 
Hyll, 79 
Hyrst, hurst, 94, 222 

Ieg, island, 49 

Ikorn, Ikorni, squirrel, 96, 154 

Ingi, 97 

Inis, island, 223 

Ira, Irra, 24 

Ithi, 46 

Johannes, 76, rso 

K-DIMINUTIVE, 6, 47, 49, 170, 183 
Kaenta, 52 
Kambr, crest, 31 



AND ELEMENTS 



243 



Karlus, 164 

Keer, kier, 67, 113 

Keld, kell, spring, 48 

Kerne, 77 

Kete, kette, 70 

Ketill, Kell, cauldron, 33 

Kilde, spring, 199 

Kilshaw, 47 

Kirkja, church, 25, 36, 72 

Kjarr, Kjerr, 9, 26 

Klifra, climb, 167 

Knott, a rocky peak, 81 

Knottr, a ball, 81 

Koelke, 47 

Kok, 217 

Kollr, head, 80, 166 

Kooltjes, 47 

Korni, 50/ 

Kottr, s6 

Kraka, crow, 167 

Krokr, croc, crook, 96, 147, 218 

Krumr, krummi, krumma, 65, 167, 

218 
Kval, ridge, 118 

L-DIMINUTIVE, 6, 40, 177, 185, 213 

Lacu, stream, 102 

Lad, leod, people, 178 

Lass, 53, 233 

Laga, lau, 179 

Lambert, 76 

Land-splott, 105 

Lann, 29 

Launde, 105, 155, 225 

Laurentius, 179 

Lea, Leas, Leah, Leages, Leage, 

104, 106, 107 
Lease, 53 
Leccan, wet, 102 
Leir, loam, 17 
Lek, leek, 153 
Leof, beloved, 50, 224 
Leuba, 203 

Leudi, people, 104, 113, 224 
Lin, flax, 8, 36 
Lind, lime tree, 36, 48, 96 
Lither, 104, 130 
Loca, 227 

Lob, Lohe, loo, 106 
Lon, loin, lonne, 27 
Lucus, xois 
Lud, 113 
Lum, 225 
Lundr, grove, 94, 225 

Machair, field, 53 
Maeg, boy, 113 



Msere, 123, 140 

Mserr, 123 

Mass, field, S3 

Mam, man, rock, 27 

Marckelif, Marchel, 41 

Martin, 33 

Mam, 42, 114, 117, 119 

Mawa, 180 

Mearculf, 41 

Mel, mil, mild, 99, 226 

Melr, sandgrass, 122 

Mere, 105, 123, 179 

Mersham, 27 

Minde, miinde, 231 

Mith, mid, middel, 45, 89, 180 

Mod, 22 

Moda, mind, 22 

Mos, mosi, 114, 125 

Mul, 41 

Muli, a jutting crag, 17 

Mundr, dowry, 187, 227 

Myrr, swampy moor, 136 

Nabei, nabb, knob, 126 

Nsess, 127 

Nat, Nato, 25 

Nath, favour, 25 

Natbanael, 25 

Neb, nib, peak, 155 

Netbri, nithere, 180 

Nicholas, 80 

Niwe, neowe, new, go, i8i 

Nor, north, 17 

Oddi, oddr, 67 

Ofer, i8i 

Ohthere, Ottarr, 66, 130 

Olaf, Oli, 152 

Or, s6 

Ora, bank, 94 

Ord, Orta, sword point, 67 

Orm, Wurm, loi 

Pad, padgate, 61 

Pada, 73 

Palnatoki, 85 

Patrick, 33 

Peadda, padda, 73, 181 

Pease, pese, peose, 34, 59 

Pecht, Pict, 82 

Pega, 82 

Pel, castle, 228 

Pen, pend, penel, 22, 49, 73, 181 

Pene, penne, 49, 73 

Pere, pear, 16, 227 

Petrus, Peter, 16, 227 

Philip, 141 



244 



INDEX TO PRIMARY WORDS 



Pic, peak, 89, 115. 121, 129 
Pil, oil, sword, loo, 183, 211 
Pinne, Pyn, 182 
Plat, plot, 228 
Plesa, 183 

Plume, plum tree, 183 
Pol, pool, 129, 184 
Preas, prys, grove, 94, 228 
Preost, priest, 32, 184, 204 

QUERNE, 125 

Raak, sheep walk, 228 
Ragan, 57, 82 
Ram, 17, 63, 141 
Rann, house, 90, 219 
Rauthr, red, 29 
Read, red, 29, 43, 67 
Regen, 57 
Rei, Hreithar, 9 
Ret, Retsch, 37 
Reyn, Rein, Regin, 82 
Ribble, 185 
Ric, Rice, 186 
Riht, Ryht, right, 186 
Riotbr, a clearing, 132 
Ripam, Ripa, 27, 185 
Rise, brushwood, 115 
Rod, 29 

Roda, rodan, 41, 42 
Rode, red, 29 
Rode, Rod, Rud, 132 
Ros, 37, 68 
Roscyn, 37 
Rug, ridge, 146 
Ruh, rough, 57 
Ruth, a clearing, 132 
Rysc, rush, 105, 185 

Sab, 42 

Sade, sadal, 211 

Sje, sea, 187 

Saetr, ssete, 75, 76, 136 

Sahs, 187 

Sal, Sale, 22 

Salu, salo, 23, S7. 204 

Sama, same, 23 

Samcke, 23 

Samuel, 23 

Sanja, beauty, 230 

Santha, true, 211 

Saurbaer, 25 

Saurr, mud, 25 

Sauthr, sheep, 150 

Scsecca, 38, 116 

Scarpa, sharp, 230 

Sceaga, shaw, 30, 136 



Sceard, sherd, 188 

Sceolh, wry, 230 

Sceotan, to shoot, 212 

Scir, a division, 76, 140 

Scrot, Scorra, 186 

Sealh, 57 

Seax, knife, 187 

Sef, secg, sedge, 187 

Setr, 43, 7S, 76 

Sic, a ditch, 142 

Sidu, custom, 115 

Sig, victory, 187 

Simon, 187, 207 

Singel, 188 

Sitha, side, 141 

Skakkr, skakki, claudus, 38, 116 

Skali , shed, 134 

Skarthr, scarth, 12, 18, 82 

Skelmir, 38 

Skjel, Skjalg, wry, s. 200 

Skjol, 134 

Skogr, wood, 102, 13s 

Skorri, 212 

Skov, wood, 135 

Skut, overhanging rock, 136 

Slaed, 143 

Slank, 143 

Sletta, 143 

Slind, flat side, 231 

Smethe, 43, 83, 115 

Snsed, 145 

Snape, snop, snab, 143 

Solomon, Salomon, 22, 53, 204 

Spotti, small piece, 105 

Stastb, 116 

Staina, stone, 119 

Stan, 68, 120 

Stanhere, 17, 120 

Stathr, 98, 146 

Steall, 14s 

Stede, 146 

Steinarr, 17 

Steinn, 68 

Stig, path, 148 

Stocc, log, 58, 147, 148 

Stod, stud, 78 

Strset, 58 

Stubbi, stub, 34 

Styr, stir, 9, 130 

Subba, mud, 156 

Suth, south, 188, 212 

Svartr, black, 11 

Svintha, swift, 188 

Taita, Tata, joyous, 73 
Tange, tangi, 148 
Teitr, 73 



AND ELEMENTS 



245 



Theod, people, 78 

Theodmaer, 42 

Tbeuda, 42 

Thing, a meeting, 199 

Thistel, Thistil, 189 

Thor, 190 

Thora, 45 

Thorn, 74, 116, 149, 189 

Thorunn, 73 

Thorvaldr, Turold, 88, 136 

Thurwulf, Turolf, S3, 233 

Thyrnir, Thyme, 74, 90, 149 

Til, Tim, 49, 117, IS7 

Tjette, tjet, 14, 70 

Tjom, tarn, 9 

Toki, 8s 

Tolle, tolke, 49 

Tonn, water, 189 

Torht, bright, 19, 190 

Tot, tota, totta, 19, I2i, 190, 

213 
Trani, snout, 9 
Trog, troh, 42, S9 
Tros, boughs, 58 
Tnip, village, isi 
Tun, 146, 147, IS7 
Tunga, tiinge, 149 
Twisla, river fork, 190, 197 

Ualch, 83 

Uht, dawn, 66, 81 

Uisce, 199 

Ulfr, Ulfarr, 190, 2H 

Una, Unnan, 213 

Ursa, a bear, 204 

Vaccarw;, 16, 103 
Vald, rule, 114, 117, 198 
Valha, foreigner, 191 
Vallum, rampart, 117 
Vartha, beacon, 18, 22 
Vegan, so 
Vela, craft, 193 
Verca, 196 
Verpill, cask, 126 
Vicus, 68 
Vik, a creek, 201 



Vini, 119 

Vith, Withig, 84, 193 
Vollr, field, 78, 198 
Vra, comer, 25, 196, 213 
Vrac, pursue, 196 

Wagan, Wagn, so 

Wal, wealh, wale, foreigner, 42, 

83, 140, IS7, 191 
Walse, 42 
War, Wser, Wer, trast, 35, 40, iii, 

119, 121, i8s, 192, 213 
Warid, island, 207 
Wath, ford, 48, 200 
Weald, forest, 191 
Wealh, foreigner, 117 
Weall, a wall, 140, 198 
Weard, watchman, 83 
Weland, the master-smith, 193 
Wen, win, wine, friend, 84, 118, 

119, 193, 204 
Wern, Warin, 49, 192 
West, 25 

White, thwaite, 154 
Wic, a dwelling, si, 201, 228 
Wid, wide, 128, 193 
Wiell, well, 198 
Wig, fight, 193, 203, 234 
Wiht, wight, 81, 194 
Wind, 61, 84 

Winder, winnowing fan, 229 
Winke, 118 
Wise, 200 
Wita, S4, 194 
With, vithr, 48, 200 
Withen, 84 
Witt, wit, 194 
Worth, 150, 19s, 207 
Wrid, hazel-clump, 67 
Writh, wattle, 226 
Wryhta, 196 
Wudu, wood, 205 
Wulfstan, S4 
Wurm, Orm, loi, 191 
Wurta, ISO, 195 

Ye, yewtree, 24 



II. INDEX TO PLACE-NAMES 
AND SECOND THEMES 



Abram, 6g 
Accrington, 157 
Ackhurst, 95 
Acre, 8 
Adgarley, 107 
Adlington, 158 
Affeside, 141 
Aigburtli, 20 
Aighton, 158 
Ainsdale, 35 
Ainsworth, 207 
Aintree, 196 
Aldcliffe, 28 
Aldingham, 69 
Allcrington, 158 
AUerton, 158 
AUithwaite, 152 
Alston, 159 
Alt, 26 
Altcar, 26 
Altbam, 69 
Amberswood, 205 
Amounderness, 127 
Ancoats, 31 
Anderton, 159 
Anfield, 51 
Angerton, 159 
Anglezark, 43 
Appleton, 159 
Appley Bridge, 18 
Arbour, 9 
Arbury, 21 
Ardwick, 201 
Argarmeols, 122 
Arkholme, 86 
Arkillesthorn, 150 
Arley Hall, 108 
Arnside, 141 
Arrad Foot, 215 
Ashton-in-Lonsdale, 159 
Ashton-in-Makerfield, 160 
Ashton-on-Ribble, 160 
Ashton-under-Lyne, 160 
Ashurst, 95 



Ashworth, 208 
Askelscross, 33 
AspuU, 79 
Astley, 108 
Atherton, 160 
Audenshaw, 137 
Audley, 108 
Aughton, 160 
Austerlands, 103 
Ay, 10 
Ayside, 141 

Backbarrow, II 
Bacup, 88 
Bagslate, 143 
Bailey, 108 
Balderston, 161 
Baldwines healh, 64 
Ballam, 86 
Balsbaw Lane, 137 
Bamber Bridge, 18 
Bamford, 55 
Bamfurlong, 59 
Bank, 10 
Banks, 10 
Bardsea, 49 
Bardsley, 108 
Bare, 215 
Barley Booth, 108 
Barlow Moor, 120 
Barn, 11 
Barnacre, 8 
Barrow, 11 
Barrowford, 55 
Barrow-in-Furness, 11 
Barrow Nook, 128 
Bartle, 79 
Barton, 161 
Baycliff, 28 
Baxenden, 39 
Beanthwaite, 152 
Becconsall, 92 
Beck, 12 
Bedford, 55 



246 



INDEX TO PLACE-NAMES 



247 



Bent, 15 

Bentley, log 

Besses o' th' barn, 215 

Beswick, 201 

Bevington, 161 

Biokershaw, 137 

Bickerstaffe, 146 

Bigland, 103, 135 

Bigthwaite, 152 

Billinge, 97, 135 

Billington, 162 

Bilsborough, 21 

Bircheholm, 86 

Birch-in-Rusholipe, 215 

Birchley, 109 

Birdtwistle, 197 

Birkdale, 35 

Birtle, 79 

Bispham, 6g 

Blackburn, 14 

Black Combe, 31 

Blackford Bridge, 55 

Black Hey Nook, 128 

Blacklache, 102 

Blackley, 109 

Blackpool, 129 

Blackrod, 132 

Blacksnape, 145 

Blackstane Clohbum , 29 

Blackstone Edge, 45 

Blaskogaheithi, 126 

Blatchinworth, 208 

Blawith, 200 

Bleasdale, 35 

Blomos, 125 

Blowick, 201 

Blundell Sands, 133 

Boarshurst, 95 

Boggarthole Clough, 29 

Bold, IS 

Bolton 162 

Bolton-le-Moors, 162 

Bolton-le-Sands, 162 

Bonds, 3, 216 

Booth, 16 

Booth Fold, 54 

Booth Hollins, 16 

Booths, Upper and Lower, 16 

Boothstown, 16 

Boothwaite Nook, 152 

Bootle, 109 

Borough, Burgh, Borrow, Bury, 20 

Borwick, 201 

Bottom, 16 

Bottoms, 17 

Botton, 162 

Bourne Hall, 14 



Bowgrave, 62 

BowUnd, 103 

Bowstead, 147 

Boysnape, 144 

Brackenthwaite, 152 

Bradelay Syke, 142 

Bradelond, 103 

Bradford, 56 

Bradkirk, 100 

Bradley Hall, 109 

Bradshaw 137 

Brakenesthweit, 152 

Brandlesholme, 86 

Brathay, 10 

Breck, 17 

Breigbtmet, Brightmet, 122 

Bretherton, 163 

Bridge, 18 

Briercliffe, 28 

Brindle, 79 

Broadhalgh, 65 

Broadhurst, 95 

Broadley, 109 

Brockholes, 84 

Brook, 12 

Broughton, 163, 164 

Broughton, East, 163 

Brougbton-in-Furness, 163 

Brow, 20 

Brownlow Hill, 120 

Brumlansic, 142 

Brummesho, 92 

Brun, no 

Bruning, Bryning, 98 

Buckley Hill, 109 

Buersill, 79 

Bulk, 216 

Bulsnape, 144 

Burblethwaite, 152 

Burch, 215 

Burn, 12 

Bumage, 46 

Burnden, 40 

Burn Edge, 46 

Burnley, 109 

Burrow with Burrow, 21 

Burscough, 135 

Burtonwood, 205 

Bury, 20 

Butterwortb, 208 

By, 23 

C'ABUS, 216 
Cadeley Moor, no 
Cadishead, 74 
Calder, 12 
Calderbrook, 12 



248 



INDEX TO PLACE-NAMES 



Cantsfield, 52 
Caponwray, 214 
Cark, 217 
Carleton, 164 
Caraforth, 56 
Carr, 26 
Cart, 123 
Cartmel, 123 
Caster, Chester, 26 
Castleton, 164 
Catforth, 56 
Catley Lane, no 
Caton, 164 
Catterall, 65 
Cawood, 205 
Cerne, 56 
Cbadderton, 164 
Cbadeswrtbe, 2o3 
Chadwick, 202 
Chaigley, no 
Chamock Richard, 77 
Chatburn, 14 
Chatmoss, 126 
Cbeetham, 69 
Chequerbent, 15 
Childwall, 198 
Chipping, 98 
Cher, III 
Choriey, no 
Cborlton, 165 
Chowbent, 15 
Church, 29, 100 
Claife, 217 
Claughton, 165 
Clayton, 165 
Clegg, 217 
Clerk Hill, 94 
Cleveley, in 
Cliff, 27 
Clifton, 166 
Clitheroe, 92 
Cliverton, 167 
Cliviger, 62 
Clock Face, 217 
Clough, 29 
Clougha Pike, 93 
Clough Fold, 54 
Cock, 70 
Cocker, 70, 133 
Cockerham, 70 
Cockersand, 133 
Cockey Moor, 217 
Coldcoats, 32 
Collyhurst, 95 
Colne, 217 
Combe, 31 
Common, 31 
Conishead, 75 



Coniston, 166 
Coniston (Monk), 166 
Coniston Water, i65 
Copp, 21S 
CoppuU, 80 
Copthurst, 95 
Cornbrook, 13 
Corney, Corner Row, 50 
Cot, 31 
Cottam, 70 
Coulton, Colton, 166 
Coupe Law, 8g, 121 
Coupe Lench, 89 
Cowen Bridge, 19 
Cowhill, So 
Cowhill Fold, 80 
Cowley Hill, 80 
Cowlishaw, 138 
Crag, 32 
Crakeside, 142 
Crana, 56 
Crane, $6 
Crankeyshaw, 138 
Crawshaw Booth, 138 
Crimbles, 218 
Crivelton, 167 
Crochurst, 96 
Croft, 33 
Crokispool, 139 
Crompton, 167 
Cronton, 167 
Crook, 218 
Crookells, 85 
Crosby, 23 
Cross, 33 
Crossens, 127 
Croston, 167 
Croxteth, 147 
Crumpsall, 65 
Cuerdale, 35 
Cuerden, 39 
Cuerdley, in 
Culcheth, 47 
Cunliffe, 28 
Cunscough, 13s 
Cutgate, 60 

Daisy Hill, 80 
Dale, 34 
Dalton, 168 
Dalton-in-Furness, 168 
Damas Gill, 62 
Darwen, 218 
Davyhulme, 87 
Dean, den, 33, 37, 39, 40 
Dean Scout, 136 
Dearnley, in 
Delpb, 219 



AND SECOND THEMES 



249 



Dendron, 219 

Denton, 168 

Derby, West, 23 

Dern, 219 

Dewysnape, 144 

Didsbury, 21 

Diggle, 219 

Dilworth, 209 

Dinkley, m 

Ditch, Dyke, 42 

Ditton, 168 

Dixon Fold, 54 

Dobcross, 34 

Dobroyd, 132 

Docker, 220 ' 

Doffcocker, 219 

Dolphinholme, 87 

Douueshaw, 138 

Down, 43 

Downham, 70 

Down Holland, 103 

Droyesden, 40 

Duckworth Hall, 209 

Dukinfield, 52 

Dumplington, 168 

Duncombe, 31 

Dunkenhalgh, 65 

Dunnerdale, 36 

Dunnerhohn, 87 

Dunnockshaw, 138 

Dutton, 169 

Duxbury, zi 

Eea, 141 

Eagley Bridge, 19 

Eastham, 87 

Eaves, 220 

Eccles, 220 

Eccleshill, 80 

Eccleston, 169 

Eccleston, Great and Little, 169 

Edenfield, 52 

Edge, 4S 

Edge Hill, 81 

Edgeworth, 209 

Egacres, 8 

Eggergarth, 59 

Egton, 170 

EUel, 66 

EUenbrook, 12 

EUesmere Park, 124 

Elliscales, 134 

Elston, 170 

Elswick, 202 

Elton, 170 

End, 46 

Enfield, 52 

Eng, 97 



Entwistle, 19S 
Erg, Arg, Arrow, 43 
Escowbrook, 13 
Eskrick, 130 
Espiholl, 79 
Esprick, 17 
Esthwaite Water, 153 
Eth, et, 2, 46 
Euxton, 170 
Everton, 171 1 
Evesbroke, 12 
Extwistle, 198 
Eye, 49 
Eyes, ees, 49 

Facit, 220 
Failsworth, 210 
Fairfield, 52 
Fairsnape, 145 
Falinge, 99 
Farington, 171 
Farleton, 171 
Famworth, 210 
Fazakerley, in 
Feamhead, 75 
Featherstall, 145 
Featherston, 172 
Fell. 51 
Fence, 220 
Feniscowles, 134 
Fernyhalgh, 66 
Ferny Knoll, 102 
Field, 51 
Finsthwaite, 153 
Firgrove, 63 
Fishwick, 202 
Fleetwood, 205 
Flbtton, 171 
Flookburgb, 22 
Fold, Fowl, 54, 55 
Ford, forth, 55 
Ford, 56 
Formby, 24 
Forton, 172 
Fouldrey, 128 
Foulridge, 130 
Four Yates, 60 
Freckleton, 172 
Friarmere, 124 
Frithbrook, 13 
Fulwood, 205 
Furlong, 59 
Fumess, 127 
Fylde, 52 

GALLGATE, 6o 

Garstang, 149 
Garston, 172 



250 



INDEX TO PLACE-NAMES 



Garswood, 206 
Garth, 59 
Garthscohlac, 102 
Gateacre, 8 
Gate, Yate, 60 
Gathurst, 96 
Gauxholme, 87 
Gawthorpe Hall, 151 
Gawthwaite, 153 
Gerard's Bridge, 19 
Gill, 61 
Gilnow, loi 
Glasserton, 173 
Glasson, 220 
Glazebroolc, 13 
Gleaston, 173 
Glest, 221 
Glodwick, 202 
Goadsbarrow, 11 
Golboume, 14 
Goldshaw Booth, 138 
Goodshaw Booth, 139 
Goosnargh, 44 
Gorbrook, 13 
Gore, ger, 62 
Gorton, 173 
Grange-over-Sands, 221 
Grasscroft, 33 
Grassendale, 36 
Grave, greave, grove, 62 
Graythwaite, 153 
Green, 63 
Greenacres, 8 
Greenhalgh, 66 
Green Hill, 81 
Gressingham, 70 
Grimsargh, 44 
Grimshaw, 139 
Grittebi, 24 
Ground, 64 
Gunnershow, 93 
Gunnerthwaite, 153 
Gunnolfsmoors, 124 

Habergham Eaves, 71 
Hackensall, 93 
Hacking Hall, 99 
Haigh, 78 
Haighton, 174 
Hale, 64 
Halebank, 10 
Halewood, 10 
Halgh, All, Hall, 64 
Hall Carr, 26 
Halliwell, 199 
Halsall, 66 
Halshaw Moor, 139 
Halsnead, 145 



Halton, 174 

Ham, 68 

Hambleton, 173 

Hamer Fold, 54 

Hapton, 173 

Hardbarrow, 12 

Hardhom, 89 

Hardshaw, 139 

Hare-Appletree, 197 

Hargreave Mill, 63 

Harlesike, 142 

Harpurhey, 78 

Hartbarrow, 12 

Hartshead, 75 

Harumcar, 26 

Harwood, 206 

Hasellenhirste, 96 

Haskayne, 222 

Haslingden, 40 

Haugh, 6s 

Haughton, 174 

Haulgh, 65 

Haverthwaite, 153 

Haw, 137, 139 

Hawcoat, 32 

Hawkshaw, 139 

Hawkshead, 75 

Havfthornthwaite, 154 

Hawthwaite, 154 

Hay Chapel, 78 

Hay, Hey, 78 

Haydock, 221 

Head, 74 

Heald, 221 

Healey, 112 

Heap, 222 

Heapey, 50 

Heath, 77 

Heath Charnock, 77 

Heathwaite, 154 

Heaton, 175 

Heaton Chapel, 176 

Heaton-in-Deane, 176 

Heaton-in-Fumess, 175 

Heaton, Great and Little, 176 

Heaton Mersey, 176 

Heaton Norris, 176 

Henheads, 76 

Henthom, 150 

Hert, 221 

Hesketh, 47 

Heskin, 222 

Hest, 222 

Heybrook, 13 

Heyhouses, go 

Heyrod, 132 

Heyroyd, 132 

Heyshara, 71 



AND SECOND THEMES 



251 



Heywood, 206 

Higginshaw, 140 

High Knowl, 102 

Higham Booth, 72 

HiU, HuU, ell, le, 79 

Higher Fold, 54 

Hindley, 112 

Hodder, 180 

Hoddlesden, 40 

Hoghton, 175 

Holcombe, 31 

Hole, Holes, 84 

Holecroft, 33 

Holker, 26 

Holland, 103 

HoUeth, 48 

Hollingrove, 63 

HoUingworth, 210 

Holm, Holme, Hulme, 85 

Holme in Cliviger, 86 

Hoole, 222 

Hooley HiU, 81 

Hope, 88 

Hopwood, 206 

Horn, 89 

Hornby, 24 

Horwich, 203 

Hoskinshire, 140 

Hothersall, 66 

Hough End Clough, 30, 46 

Hough Green, 92 

Houghton (Little^, 174 

Houghton (Wamngton), 175 

House, 90 

How, Howe, Haugh, Hough, 91 

Howarth Cross, 34 

Howick, 203 

Hulme, 86 

Hulton, 176 

Huncoat, 32 

Hundersfield, S3 

Huntroyde, 132 

Hurleton, 176 

Hurlingham, 177 

Hurst, 94, 95 

Hurstwood, 206 

Hutton (in Bulk), 177 

Hutton (Preston), 177 

Hutton (Priest), 177 

Huyton, 177 

ICKENTHWAITE, 154 
Icornhurst, 96 
Ighten Hill, 81 
Ince Blundell, 223 
Ince-in-Makerfield, 223 
Ing, 97 
Ingleborough, ii 



Inglewhite, 154 

Ingol, ;223 

Inskip, 223 

Ireby, 24 

Ireleth, 48 

Irk, 232 

Irlam, 72 

Irlams o' th' Height, 72 

Irwell, 161, 232 

Jordan, 197 

Kearslky, 113 
Keer, 56 
Keerside, 142 
Kellamergh, 44 ^ 

Kellet, 48 
Kenyon, 223 
Kersal, 67 
Ketlescaroft, 33 
Kidsnape, 145 
Kilgrimol, 45 
Kirk, 100 
Kirkby, 25 
Kirkby Ireleth, 48 
Kirkdale, 36 
Kirkham, 72 
Kirkland, 104 
Kirkmanshuhne, 87 
Kirkthwaite, 154 
Knob End, 46 
Knoll, loi 
Knotshill, 81 
Knowlwood, 207 
Knowsley, 113 
Kocher, 70, 133 
Kvernberg, 125 
Kyerkelith, 120 

Lacke, leach, letch, 102 
Ladyhouses, 90 
Lake Side, 77 
Lamberhead Green, 76 
Lancaster, 27 
Land, 103 
Lane Ends, 46 
Langho, 93 
Langroyd, 133 
Langtree, 197 
Langthwaite, 155 
Lann Clohhum, 29 
Larbrick, 17 
Lathom, 178 
Laimthwaite, 155 
Layton, 178 

Lea English, French, 107 
Lea, leigh, ley, 106 
Leagram, 224 



252 



INDEX TO PLACE-NAMES 



Leek, 224 
Lee, 107 
Leece, 107 
Lees, 107 
Leesfield, 53 
Leigh, 107 
Leven, 116 
Levenshulme, 88 
Lever, 224 
Ley, 2, 106 
Leyland, 104 
Limehurst, 96 
Linacre, 8 
Lindale, Lindal, 36 
Lindeth, 48 
Lith, 120 
Litherland, 104 
Littledale, 36 
Liverpool, 129 
Livesey, 50 
Lomax, 224 
Longdendale, 39 
Longlands, 105 
Longridge Fell, 131 
Longton, 17S 
Longworth, 210 
Lonsdale, 37 
Lordsmere, 124 
Lostock, 148 
Love Clough, 30 
Low Gill, 61 
Low, Law, 120 
Lowick, 203 
Lowton, 179 
Lowwood, 207 
Lumb, 225 
Lune, 27, 37 
Lunt, 225 
Lussley, 113 
Lydgate, 60 
Lydiate, 60 
Lytham, 225 

Maghull, 113 
Makerfield, 53 
Manchester, 27 
Marland Mere, 105, 123 
Marsden, 41 
Marshall's Cross, 34 
Marsbaw, 140 
Martin Mere, 123, 179 
Martinscroft, 33 
Marton, 179 
Marton Mere, 124 
Mawdesley, 114 
Mead, 122 
Mearley, 114 
Medlar, 45 



Mel, 122 
Melling, 99 
Mellor, 226 
Meols, 122 
Mere, 123 
Mere Clough, 30 
Mersey, 27 
Middleford Green, 56 
Middleton, 179 
Midhop, 89 
Mitton, 180 
Monkroyd, 133 
Monton, 180 
Moor, 124 
Moorhouse, 90 
Morecambe, 226 
Moses Gate, 61 
Moss, 125 
Moss Bank, 10 
Moss Nook, 128 
Mossborough, 22 
Mossley, 114 
Moston, 180 
Moulden Water, 41 
Mowbrick, 17 
Mumps, 226 
Musbury, 22 
Myerscough, 136 
Mykeldiche, 43 
Mythorpe, 89 

Nab, 126 
Nateby, 25 
Naze, 127 
Nelson, 227 
Ness, 127 
Netherburrow, 21 
Netherton, 180 
Newbiggin, 227 
Newbold, 15 
Newburgh, 22 
Newchurch, loi 
Newland, loj 
New Laund Booth, 105 
Newsham, 90 
Newton-in-Makerfield, 180 
Newton, 181 
Nibthwaite, 155 
Nimble Nook, 128 
Nook, 128 
Norbreck, 17 
North Meols, 122 
North Scale, 134 
Nuttall, 67 

Oakbnbottom, 16 
Oakenrod, 133 
Ogden, 41 



AND SECOND THEMES 



253 



Oglet, 48 
Oldham, 72 
Old Man, 166 
Old Swan, 227 
OUerton, 181 
Openshaw, 140 
Ordsall, 67 
Ore, 56 
Orford, 56 
Orgreave, 63 
Ormerod, 133 
Ormskirk, loi 
Orrell, 81 
Osbaldeston, 181 
Osmotherley, 114 
Oswaldtwistle, 198 
Osueluslache, 102 
Otterspool, 130 
Outhwaite, 155 
Outwood, 207 
Overburrow, 21 
Over Hacking, gg 
Overton, 181 
Oxcliffe, 28 

Paddington, i8i 

Padgate, 61 

Padibam, 72 

Parbold, 15 

Parkbouses, 91 

Parlick Pike, 227 

Parr 227 

Patricroft, 33 

Peak, 89 

Peasfurlong, 34, 59 

Peasley Cross, 34 

Peel Chapel, 228 

Pemberton, 18 1 

Pendlebury, 22 

Pendle Hill, 82 

Pendleton (Clitheroe), 182 

Pendleton(Manchester), 182 

Penketh, 48 

Pennington (Leigh), 182 

Pennington (Lonsdale), 182 

Penvrortham, 73 

Pex Hill, 82 

Pickley Green, 115 

Pickup Bank, 11, 8g 

Piel, 228 

Pike, 129 

Pike Low, 121 

Pilkington, 183 

Pilling, 100 

Pilsworth, 211 

Piatt Bridge, 228 

Pleasington, 183 

Plumpton, 183 



Pool, 129 
Portico, 228 
Poulton, 184 
Poulton-le-Fylde, 183 
Poulton-le-Sands, 184 
Preesall, 94 
Preese, 228 
Prescot, 32 
Preston, 184 
Prestwath, 200 
Prestwich, 203 

QUARLTON, 184 
Quemdon, 185 
Quernmore, 125 
Quick, 228 
Quickmere, 124 

Radclifpe, 28 
Raikes, 228 
Rainford, 56 
Rainhill, 82 
Raisthwaite, 155 
Rammescloucke, 30 
Rampside, 141 
Ramsbottom, 16 
Ramsgrave, 63 
Ranee, 57 
Randle, 57 
Ravenhead, 76 
Ravensmeols, 123 
Ravenswinder, 229 
Rawcliffe, 29 
Rawtenstall, 146 
Read, 229 
Reddish, 42 
Redvales, 67 
Ree, 37 

Reedysnape, 145 
Rhine, 57 
Rhodes, 229 
Ribble, 27 
Ribblesdale, 37 
Ribbleton, 185 
Ribby, 25 
Ribchester, 27 
Ridge, Rigg, 130 
Ridehalgh, 67 
Riley Green, 115 
Ringley, 115 
Rishton, 185 
Risley, 115 
Rivers, 311 
Rivington, 185 
Rixton, i85 
Roby, 25 
Roch, 37, SS 
Rochdale, 37 



254 



INDEX TO PLACE-NAMES 



Rod, Royd, 132 
Roddlesworth, 211 
Roe, 37 

Roeburndale, 37 
Roer, 37 
Rooden Lane, 41 
Roose, 229 
Roseacre, 8 
Rossall, 68 
Rossendale, 37 
Rosthwaite, 156 
Roughlee Booth, 115 
Rojrton, 186 
Rufford, S7 
Rumwortt, 211 
Rusholme, 88 
Rusland, 105 

Saale, 57 

Sabden, 42 

Saddleworth, 211 

St. Helens, loi 

St. Mariden, 40 

St. Michael-on-Wyre, 39, loi 

Salesbury, 22 

Salford, 57 

Salmonfields, 53 

Salwick, 204 

Samlesbury, 23 

Sand, 133 

Sankey, 229 

Satterthwaite, 156 

Saudhusthorn, 150 

Scakeresdalehefd, 37 

Scales, 134 

Scales, Scowles, 134 

Scarbarrow, 12 

Scar, Scartb, 134 

Scarf Gap, 82 

Scarisbrick, 18 

Scartb Hill, 18, 82, 135 

Scarthwaite, 156 

Schofield Hall, 53 

Scholes, 134 

Scorton, 186 

Scotforth, 57 

Scough, Scow, 13s 

Scout, 136 

Seaforth, 58 

Seat, 136 

Seathwaite, 156 

Seedley, 115 

Sefton, 186 

Shakerley, 115 

Sharpies, 230 

Shaiiir, 136, 137 

Shaw Clough, 30 



Shawforth, 58 
Shawmere, 124 
Shevington, 187 
Shire, 140 
Shireshead, 76 
Sholver, 230 
Shoresworth, 212 
Shuttleworth, 211 
Side, 141 
Sike, Syke, 142 
Silverdale, 38 
Simonstone, 187 
Simonswood, 207 
Singleton, 187 
Skalmardalr, 39 
Skelmersdale, 38 
Skelwith, 200 
Skerton, 188 
Slack, 143 
Slade, 143 
Slyne, 230 
Smallshaw, 140 
Smedley, 115 
Smithdown, 43 
Smithills, 82 
Sraithybrook, 14 
Snab Green, 144 
Snape, 143, 144 
Snape Green, 144 
Snead, 145 
Snellshowe, 94 
Snoddesworth, 212 
Southworth, 212 
Sowerby, 25 
Speke, 231 
Spellow, 121 
Spotland, 105 
Stainall, 68 
Staining, 100 
Stall, 14s 
Stalmine, 231 
Standj 231 
Standish, 232 
Stanleygate, 61 
Staveley, ig, 116 
Stayley Bridge, ig 
Staynerlith, 120 
Stead, 146 
Steinor Bottom, 17 
Stidd, 232 
Stirzaker, 9 
Stock, 148 
Stockport, 58 
Stocsiche, 142 
Stodday, 78 
Stonyhurst, 97 
Strangeways, 232 



AND SECOND THEMES 



255 



Stretford, 58 
Studshaw, 140 
Stubshaw Cross, 34 
Sty, 148 
Styrespol, 130 
Subberthwaite, 156 
Sunderland, 105 
Sutton, 188 

Swainshead, Swansett, 76 
Swartebonke, 10 
Swinton, 188 

Tang Tong, 14S 
Tarbock, 233 
Tarleton, i88 
Tarlscough, 136 
Tarnacre, Tamicar, 9, 26 
Tatham, 73 
Taunton, i8g 
Tetlow, 121 
Thatchleach, 102 
Thatto Heath 77 
Thetwall, 77 
Thingvellir, 126, igg 
Thingwall, 199 
ThisUeton, 189 
Thorn, 149 
Thomham, 73 
Thornley, 116 
Thornthwaite, 157 
Thornton, 189 
Thorp, 151 
Thorphinsty, 148 
Threl&Jl, 53 
Thurnham, 74 
Thwaite, 151 
Thwaithead, 77 
Tilberthwaite, 157 
Tinwald, 198, 199 
Tockholes, 85 
Todmorden, 42 
Ton, town, 2, 157 
Tonge, 149 
Tootle Bridge, 19 
Torrisholme, 88 
Torver, 45 
Tottington, igo 
Tottleworth, 213 
Townley, n6 
Toxteth, 147 
Trafford, 58 
Trawden, 42 
Treales, 233 
Tree, 196 
Trosford, 58 
Trub Smithy, 151 
Tulketh, 49 



Tunstall, 146 
Tunstead, 147 
Turton, 190 
Twistle, 197 
Twiston, igo 
Tyldesley, 11, 116 

Ulnes Walton, igi 
Ulveiston, 190 
Unsworth, 213 
UphoUand, 103 
Upton, igi 
Urmston, igi 
Urswiok, 204 

Wall, Well, igS 
Wahnersley, 117 
Walmesley, 117 
Walney, 50 
Walsden, 42 
Walshaw, 140 
Walthwaite, 157 
Walton-on-the-Hill, 191 
Walton-le-dale, igi 
Warbreck, 18 
Wardle, 3g, 83 
Wardleworth, 213 
Wargrave, 63 
Warrington, 192 
Warton, 192 
Warton Crag, 32 
Water, 200 
Waterhead, 76 
Waterhouses, 91 
Wath, 200 
Wavertree, 197 
Weakey, 51 
Weaver, 197 
Weeton, 192 
Wennington, 193 
Wemeth, 49 
Weser, 199 
Wesham, 91 
Westby, 25 
Westhead, 76 
Westhoughton, 175 
West Leigh, n8 
Wetshaw, 140 
Whalley, 117 
Wharles, 121 
Wharton, 192 
Wheatley, 118 
Wheatley Booth, 118 
Wheelton, 193 
Whiston, 193 
Whitaker, 9 
Whitefield, 54 



256 



INDEX TO PLACE-NAMES 



Whittingham, 74 
Whittington, 194 
Whittle, 83 
Whittle-le-woods, 
Whitworth, Z13 
Wibaldeslei, 118 
Wick, Wich, 201 
Widnes, 128 
Wigan, 233 
Wilpshire, 141 
Winder, 229 
Windermere, 124 
Windle, 83 
Windleshaw, 140 
Windy Arbour, g 
Wingate, 61 
Winkedly, 118 
Winmarleigh, 119 
Winnats, 61 
Winstanley, 119 
Winster, 157 
Winstirthwaytes , 
Winwick, 204 
Wirplesmos, 126 
Wiswall, 199 
With, 200 
Withington, 194 



83 



IS7 



Withnell, 84 
Witton, 194 
Wolfenden, 42 
Wolstenholrae Fold, 54, 88 
Wolvemor, 125 
Wood, 205 
Woodhouses, 91 
Woolston, 195 
Woolton, igs 
Worsley, 119 
Worsthorn, 150 
Worston, 195 
Worth, 207 
Worthington, 19s 
Wray, 196, 213, 214 
Wrayton, 195 
Wrightington, 196 
Wrigley, 119 
Wuerdale, 39 
Wyre, 39 
Wyresdale, 39 

Yarlside, 141, 142 
Yate, 60 
Yate Bank, II 
Yelland, 106 
Yewdale, 39 



ADDENDA ET CORRIGENDA 

P. 19, line 4, delete the words as in Pemberton. 

P. 40, for/. 48, read/. 48 in Baines. 

P. S9i fo' Pesfurlong, read Peasfurlong. 

P. 68, for Steinall, read Stainall. 

P. 69, for Aelfweard, read Aelfweald. 

P. 77 1 for Ashurst's Beacon, read Ashurst Beacon. 

P. 88, Woolstenholme Fold. This notice has been inserted by an 

oversight. A previous one will be found on p. 54. 
P. 135, Scarth Hill. A previous notice has appeared on p. 82. 
P. 198, for ge(weald) read (ge)weald. 

It has occasionally happened when words of similar origin in 
different parts of the text have been under discussion, that repetition 
of opinions has seemed necessary. An instance may be seen under 
the words Eccleshill, Eccleston. This might have been avoided by a 
larger use of cross-references, at the cost, perhaps, of more labour to 
the reader. 



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Edinburgh &fi London