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Cornell University Library 
DA 670.Y6G64 1914 

Place-names of south-west Yorkshire, 

1924 028 042 988 

Cornell University 

The original of tiiis book is in 
tine Cornell University Library. 

There are no known copyright restrictions in 
the United States on the use of the text. 

Camftntise ^rrftaeoloffital anU (©tljiwlogical Series 




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Ethnology, William Ridgeway, Sc.D., F.B.A., Disney 
Professor of Archaeology, E.J. Rapson, M.A., Professor 
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' I "HE material for this work has gradually accumulated 
^ during the last seven or eight years, and the work 
itself owes its existence to the interest aroused during journey- 
ings — almost daily — in and about the northern part of the 
district dealt with. Names Hke Thornhill and Langfield made 
no secret of their origin, but such as Barugh and Chevet, Halifax 
and Hipperholme, Gildersome and Golcar, raised their voices in 
continual challenge. The minor names of the district — names 
of hamlets and farms, and woods and lanes — proved equally pro- 
vocative. The meaning of Kirkgate and Westgate was obvious, 
but what were Skeldergate and Cluntergate ? There were strange 
names like Drub and Hades, Backhold and Featherbed ; there 
were others of imposing appearance like Paris and London ; 
there were names obviously Celtic, and others obviously Scandi- 
navian ; and behind them all were interesting points in history, 
both general and ecclesiastical. And so one gradually moved 
forward, and at last what began in mere curiosity ended in 
definite purpose. 

In regard to the scope of the work the door has been thrown 
wide open ; even rivers have been included, and the result — in 
an area covering less than half the Riding — is a list of about 
1,500 names. In order to secure the advantage arising from 
comparative methods, names have frequently been considered in 
groups ; and in order to make the work as valuable as possible 
from the historical point of view an attempt has been made to 
put on record every existing name where such elements as by, 
thwaite, thorpe, and scholes are involved. 

The publications of the Yorkshire Archaeological Society, 
its Journal and its Record Series, have provided the greater 
part of the material necessary ; but a particular debt must be 
acknowledged in regard to the two volumes of the Wakefield 


Court Rolls. It is to the details given in these Court Rolls 
that one owes the possibility of dealing with large numbers of 
minor names — some particularly interesting. 

As far as our own country is concerned, the scientific study 
of place-names is quite modern ; almost all the really helpful 
works on the subject have been published during the present 
century. Among these may be named monographs by the 
late Professor Skeat on the place-names of Berkshire, Bedford, 
Cambridge, Hertford, and Huntingdon ; Dr Moorman's book on 
West Riding place-names ; Dr Wyld's on the place-names of 
Lancashire ; and the two books by Mr Duignan on those of 
Staffordshire and Worcestershire. I have made considerable 
use of all these works, and wish to acknowledge my great 
indebtedness to them. 

Among those to whom I owe gratitude for personal assist- 
ance, chief of all is the late Professor Skeat, whose unrivalled 
stores of knowledge and experience were willingly placed at my 
disposal on several occasions. My heartiest acknowledgements 
are also due to Mr E. C. Quiggin, Fellow of Gonville and Caius 
College, Cambridge, for invaluable help in connection with 
names of Celtic origin ; and in addition I am greatly indebted 
to Mr C. M. Drennan of Christ's College, Cambridge, and to 
the Rev. H. Dewhurst of St Andrew's, Leytonstone, for many 
helpful suggestions and criticisms. Lastly, I must express my 
appreciation of the great care with which the task of printing 
has been carried out, and my indebtedness to the Staff of 
the University Press for many evidences of kindness and 

A. G. 
May 1913 

A number of corrections and improvements have been made 
in the body of the work, and others are given at the end of the 

A. G. 

June 1914 



I. Introduction . 


II. The Anglian Element 7 

1. Historical and General. 

2. Personal Names. 

III. The Scandinavian Element . . . . 17 

1. Historical Summary. 

2. General Character of Scandinavian Place- 


3. Norse or Danish. 

IV. The Celtic Element 38 

V. The Roman, Norman, and Modern Elements 42 

VI. List of Abbreviations 46 

VII. List of Additional Works quoted or used . 50 

VIII. Alphabetical List of Names .... 52 

(With early forms and explanations.) 

IX. Supplementary List of Names, &c. . . 309 

Apperley, Bridge, Brigg, Fulneck, Heeley, Mag- 
dale, Norwood, Nostell, Potter, Priestley, 
Quarmby, Skeldergate, Skellow, Skyre, 
Snapethorpe, Soothill, Sprotborough, Top- 
cliffe, Trippey. 

The Common Field System. 

The Genitive Inflection. 

The Suffixed Article. 

The Field of Brunanburh. 



Chief Sources of our Place-names— Need of Early Forms— The Story of York- 
Continuity yet change— The Story of Whitby— Births and Deaths— The Rivalries of 
Place-names— Their Mimicries— Their Deceptions— Their Limitations— A Difference 
between Ancient and Modern — Customary Forms — Secondary Forms — Importance of 
Minor Place-names — Limits of the Enquiry. 

The place-names of South-west Yorkshire are largely of Chief 
Anglian origin, but there is a considerable section which is ourPkce-^ 
Scandinavian and due to the Vikings. Among sources less names. 
important — indeed, far less important — four may be named: 
Celtic, Roman, Norman, and Modern English. There are thus 
six sources, of which two require sub-division, for the Celtic 
names have come to us at different periods, and the Scandinavian 
by different avenues. 

Our enquiry must, of course, be based on historical methods, Need of 
and its first step must be to- discover as far as possible early ^Ims 
records of the names to be considered. Two Berkshire place- 
names. Courage and Seacourt, show this need conspicuously. 
In pre-Conquest times the former appears as Cusan-ricge, that 
is, 'Cusa's ridge,' while the latter appears as Seofecan-wyrthe, 
' Seofeca's worth,' that is ' Seofeca's farm.' What the explana- 
tions might have been if history had been ignored can be readily 
imagined. In our own district, there are many examples which 
show just as clearly the need of early spellings, but perhaps 
most striking of all is the name Golcar, which in former days 
rejoiced in such forms as Gouthelaghcharthes, Gouthlacharwes, 
and Goullakarres. 

The story of gradual development disclosed by early forms The Story 
is by no means the least attractive source of interest opened out ° ^"^^ 

G. I 


by the enquiry. Take York as an example. In the Historia 
Britonum the Celtic name is given as Ebrauc, which corresponds 
to an earlier form like the stem in Eburacum', the name given 
by the Antonine Itinerary. But to the Anglian settlers in the 
6th century such a name was meaningless, and later on — 
in the A.-S. Chronicle for 867 for example— we find it in a 
new guise, Eoforwic, ' boar place,' a name which in course of 
years became Everwic. Meanwhile the Danes came upon the 
scene and impressed upon the w^ord a new pronunciation, of 
which the written form was Jorvik ; and it is from this we get 
the modern name, for Jorvik was pronounced Yorwick, which 
later became Yorick, and finally York. Thus the original 
Celtic name has been handled by Roman, Anglian, and Dane ; 
it has been changed, but never discarded. The Roman did no 
more than change the ending ; the Anglian and Dane while 
refraining from the creation of a new name, twisted that which 
came down to them into a form they could understand. 
Centuries passed by, and the word suffered further transforma- 
tion ; yet it is still the true descendant of the Celtic form, a 
remarkable example of unbroken continuity, bearing witness to 
corresponding continuity in the history of the city itself ^ 
Continuity This continuity is one of the chief characteristics of place- 
Change, names. It is well to remember, however, that there is another 
side to the picture, for we are dealing not so much with counters 
as with living things. Our place-names, like the men who use 
them, change ; they have their evolutions and their revolutions. 
Yet, in the midst of all, they possess a persistence quite remark- 
able, and often fulfil their duty as proper names long after they 
have lost the meaning they were originally intended to convey. 
The Story In direct contrast with the story of York is that of another 
° "■ ^' historic town, namely, Whitby. In the 7th century Bede 
records its name as Streanseshalch. But in the opening words 
of a 1 2th century document dealing with the foundation of the 
Abbey we find its situation described as 

'in loco qui olim Streoneshalc vocabatur, deinde 
Prestebi appellabatur, nunc vero Witebi vocatur.' 

' The b probably represents v. 

' Freeman, English Towns and Districts, pp. 275-6. 


Thus the Angles described the site of the Abbey as Streoneshalc, 
while under the Danes it was called Prestebi, the opposite bank 
of the Esk being Witebi. At a later date Prestebi became 
subordinate to Witebi, and finally was altogether superseded 
by it; and so to-day Whitby reigns supreme. 

Thus, while York provides an example of continuity, Whitby Births and 
gives one of entire change — the death of one and the birth of ^^^*^- 
another. Doubtless every century has seen examples of this 
character, for our place-names are in no small degree a record 
of the activities of the ages. The 19th century, which saw 
the upspringing of many centres of population, gave us such 
names as Savile Town and Ripleyville. The 1 8th century gave 
us Fulneck; and perhaps it was the 17th which provided such 
Bible names as Egypt and Machpelah and Padan-aram. Much 
earlier came Roche and Grange and Abdy, the product of 
religious movements in the 12th and 13th centuries. On the 
other hand Hethewalley in Flockton and Rameldhagh in 
Huddersfield, with many others known only to ancient charters 
and deeds, are entirely lost. Every century has seen the 
departure of some, and the arrival of others. There has been, 
in fact, living development. A living people has impressed its 
needs upon its local names, and they perforce have assumed the 
character of living things. 

Of this there is further evidence in the rivalry sometimes The 
shown. Pontefract and Pomfret, after the overthrow of Tate- ff'™Jac^^. 
shale and Kirkebi, have maintained for centuries a struggle for names. 
the mastery, which is not yet fully decided. Further south the 
rivalry between Greseburg and Gresebroke has been decided 
in favour of the former, now Greasborough ; and in the same 
way the rivalry between Wridelesford and Wodelesford has 
resulted in victory for the latter, now Woodlesford. Occasionally 
the usurper fails, as in the case of Emley, where for a time 
Elmley won much favour ; but sometimes it succeeds, as at 
Queensbury and Norristhorpe. 

There are instances not a few where names show mimicry. Their 
changing their form in sympathy with their neighbours. Many """="^s- 
names in which the original ending was -urn have now the 
ending -holme, as in Hipperholme and the various Mytholms. 

I — 2 



Their De- 


A Di6fer- 







The present form of Almondbury is due to similar influence, 
and so are those of Falhouse and Endcliffe, as well as Ashday, 
Bailiffe Bridge, Skelmanthorpe, and Thornhills. 

Not only do place-names show something of mimicry, they 
may be very deceptive in other ways. Very frequently, in spite 
of appearances, such names as Newsholme and Newton have 
long histories ; excellent examples are Newhall near Wath and 
Newsholme near Keighley which appear as early as the Domes- 
day record, and Newton near Wakefield which was in existence 
in 1 190. In many cases the Marshes are no longer swampy, the 
Lunds no longer groves, and the Tons no longer farmsteads. 
In a word, place-names have their limitations. Among our 
Yorkshire hills and dales — to mention limitations of another 
character — we must not expect such examples of poetic appro- 
priateness as are occasionally found among the Celtic peoples. 
We shall not find, as in Ireland, a brook called ' little silver.' 
We shall discover little of the heroic, the romantic, or the 
legendary. Indeed, there will be much that is frankly 'pedestrian,' 
for the chief characteristic of our English place-names is to 
describe the simplest facts in the simplest way. 

There is yet another characteristic to be noted, namely, 
the profound difference between names of modern creation and 
those which come down from ancient times. The latter were 
never merely conventional, like our modern Bellevues and 
Claremonts ; they were the offspring of the automatic operation 
of the human mind, and possessed in every case a meaning at 
once simple, appropriate, and well-defined. Allerton was the 
farm beside the alders ; Thurgoland was the land of Thorgeir ; 
Micklebring the great slope ; Bradfield the broad field ; and 
Wooldale the valley of the wolf 

The question may fairly be asked : What are the customary 
forms taken by ancient place-names .■' And the answer is the 
more important because of its bearing on some of our investi- 

A reference to early charters shows that our ancient place- 
names almost invariably consisted either of one element or two. 
We find such single-element names as Bury, Cliffe, Dean, Elm, 
Chart, and Thorn, each the designation of some simple feature 


in the landscape. But along with these there is a large body 
of names which add to the substantival element a word of 
adjectival force describing in the simplest way the general 
appearance or situation of the place, — names like Ashwood, 
Easton, Highfield, and Lowmoor. Then, further, there are 
those compound names which show ownership. The Teutonic 
settlers ' called the lands after their own names.' In this way 
our modern village names form the memorials — often, indeed, 
the sole existing memorials — of many an unknown adventurer 
who settled upon some waste, or occupied the lands of some 
predecessor whom he had dislodged'. Instances where the 
person can be historically identified must of necessity be rare, 
but with the aid of ancient records we are able in many cases 
to recognize the name itself, however disguised in the modern 
spelling. The part taken by personal names in the building-up 
of place-names is so important that a subsequent note is given 
up entirely to their history and formation. 

In the names of fields, woods, and streams, and among other Secondarj 
minor place-names, it is not uncommon, however, to find in- °'™^" 
stances where there are three or even four elements. Among 
such instances — early spellings being given in each case — are 
Presterodestihel, Priestroyd stile, Asschewellerode, Ashwell royd, 
WlveleyJieud, Woolley head. A glance is sufficient to show 
that all these are secondary formations, the earlier forms being 
Presterode, the priest's clearing, Asschewelle, the well beside the 
ash-tree, and Wlveley, wolf-lea. Indeed, we may take it as 
a fixed law that names consisting of three elements are never 
primary. It is on this ground that the series of names in -stall 
found west of Halifax — Cruttonstall, Heptonstall, Nettleton- 
stall, Rawtonstall, Saltonstall, Shackletonstall, Wittonstall — may 
be declared derivatives from earlier forms like Crumton and 
Hepton. The latter is actually found in another secondary 
form, viz., Hepton Brige, that is, Hebden Bridge. For the same 
reason the names Earlsheaton, Cleckheaton and Kirkburton, 
may without hesitation be claimed as secondary forms, and 
historical records fully bear out the claim. 

' Taylor, Names and their Histories, p. 350. 


Import- The reference to minor place-names must not be supposed 

Mh^(,° to be merely casual. When comparative methods are to be 
Place- applied the help of minor names becomes very valuable. With 
their assistance many puzzles will find solution, while without 
it the examples necessary for analysis and comparison will 
often fail. In other words, the method of comparison is of great 
value, and in its application minor names play an important part. 
Limits The present enquiry is limited to that part of Yorkshire 

Enquiry, which lies south of the Aire, keeping as the northern boundary — 
where the Aire fails — a line drawn east and west a little north 
of Keighley. But the enquiry is limited in other ways. It is 
quite impossible to deal with more than a small proportion of 
the minor names of the area; indeed a single parish like 
Bradfield or Ecclesfield or Saddleworth would itself provide 
materials for a considerable work. And there are still further 
limits, for the results of the enquiry must of necessity be limited 
in their success. In many cases it is quite impossible to speak 
with assurance, the facts are so meagre and inconclusive. Such 
success as is finally possible can only come after continued 
effort ; and many of the chief puzzles will remain unsolved until 
other districts bring their own contribution to our assistance. 
All that can be hoped for in the present attempt is that it may 
prove sound in its general principles, and that, in spite of short- 
comings, it may show elements of solid value. 



I. Historical and General. 

The Coming of the Angles — Lands named after Settlers — Britons not exter- 
minated — Importance of Minor Names — Common Anglian Terminations — Woods 
and Forests — Wild Animals — Domestic Animals — Cultivation of the Land — Other 
Occupations — Religious Beliefs. 

It is impossible to date the settlement of Yorkshire by the The 
Anglians ; their coming is shrouded in mist'. Of Bernicia we Jjig"""^ 
know that in 547 Ida the Flamebearer succeeded to the king- Angles. 
dom — ' Her Ida feng to rice ' is the expression of the Chronicle ; 
but there is no account of his coming, and no description of the 
resistance offered by the Brigantes. Indeed, it seems certain 
that the Romano-British kingdoms on the eastern side of Britain 
had come to an end about the middle of the 5th century, and 
that the first Anglian settlements in the north must have taken 
place quite early in the story of the Saxon invasion. 

We learn from the Chronicle that in 560 .(Ella became King 
of Deira, and we know that on the death of JEWa. Deira was 
attached to Bernicia by .^Ethelfrith the Destroyer. Of this 
warlike king it is said that he conquered more lands from \ 

the Britons than any other king ; yet, notwithstanding this, the j 

kingdom of Elmete still survived, and it was not until the days of 
Edwin early in the 7th century that it was finally absorbed into 
the Anglian dominions. 

Until the coming of the Danes 250 years later the Angles Lands 
held the upper hand. They settled as lords of the soil, and "fj^/^ 
gave their names to their possessions. South of the Aire we Settlers. 

' Freeman, English Towns and Districts, p. ■276. 




not exter- 

ance of 





find 1 50 places which bear the name of an Anglian settler. In 
two instances, Bowling and Cridling, the name is a simple 
patronymic. In twenty-four instances it is a patronymic joined 
to some common termination like -ham or -worth or -ton. 

Yet, deep in the Pennines on the western border, there were 
doubtless many hills and valleys left in the hands of the con- 
quered Celts. Anglian place-names witness to this with striking 
emphasis. There is, for example, Wales, which means foreigners, 
that is Welshmen, and represents a community of Britons 
living side by side with Anglian settlers. There are also Walsh, 
Walshaw, and Walton, all pointing in the same direction. The 
two Brettons each appear to represent the farm of a man called 
Bret, that is, Briton. Kimberworth and Cumberworth have a 
similar significance — the farm of a man called Cymbra or 
Cumbra, the Welshman, one of the Cymri. Further, there is 
Hewenden, the valley of the servants. And beyond all these 
there are the Celtic place-names which still survive. 

As we shall see later, the Scandinavian contribution to our 
place-names is very considerable, yet, as we should expect, the 
Angles have provided the greater number, more especially of 
our township-names. Indeed, no point stands out more clearly 
than that township-names are much more Anglian than the 
ancient minor names ; it is almost wholly in the latter that 
Celtic survivals are to be found, and among them the proportion 
of Scandinavian names is undoubtedly greater than among 
township-names. In regard to the name-list given later it 
should be remembered, however, that many Anglian minor 
names are omitted as requiring no explanation, where corre- 
sponding names from other sources are inserted. 

Quite the most common termination is ton, an enclosure ; 
but this, like many others, such as cliffe and moor and land, may 
be either Anglian or Scandinavian. Of the distinctively Anglian 
terminations the most common is ley, a lea or meadow ; and 
others which occur with frequency are bridge, croft, den,. field, 
ford, ham, hill, wood, and worth. 

Apart from the triangle between Goole and Ferrybridge and 
Doncaster, the country seems to have been fairly rich in copse 
and woodland. Among the names which refer to thickets, 


woods, or copses, there are a large number ending with the 
word ' shaw,' which means a small wood ; buch are Bradshaw 
and Crawshaw, Kershaw and Birkenshaw. A smaller number 
end with 'hurst,' such as Ashhurst, Elmhirst, and Hazlehurst. 
In addition there are a few names in -greave, like Hesslegreave 
and Hollingreave, and one in -holt, namely, Gledholt. Last of 
all there are names ending with -wood, like Blackwood and 
Whitwood, Sowood and Eastwood and Outwood. 

But there is further evidence which because of the number 
of names involved is even more striking. I refer to the various 
words which denote a clearing. The most common of these, 
'royd,' occurs in field-names many hundreds of times. Less 
common is the word 'riding' or 'ridding,' which comes from OE 
hryding, a patch of cleared land. Still less common, but far 
more interesting, is the Norse word 'thwaite' of which the 
surviving examples number twenty-five. 

Among the trees mentioned we find most frequently the oak, 
the thorn, the holly, and the hazel, while under the form ' aller,' 
which is Anglian, and ' owler,' which is Scandinavian, the alder 
also is very common. Other trees which occur occasionally are 
the elm, y&yn, birch, willow, maple, poplar, and aspen. 

It is interesting to note that quite a number of places are 
designated by a simple tree-name. In south-west Yorkshire the 
examples include Crabtree, Ewes (yews), Hessle, Lighthazels, 
Oakes, Popples (poplars), Thickhollins, Thorne, and Thornes. 

Chief among the wild animals was the wolf, referred to in at Wild 
least eight names, such as Woolley, Wooldale, Woolrow, and 
Woolgreaves. The hart also has given rise to several names, 
among them Hartcliff, Hartley, and Harthill ; but in the case of 
the various villages called Hartshead, the first element is doubt- 
less a personal name. The two places called Earnshaw bear 
witness to the former existence of eagles, and the two called 
Brockholes to the presence of the badger, which formerly was 
called the brock. 

The rearing of cattle had a very important place in the Domestic 
rural economy. Shepley, Shipley, and Shibden are so called '"'"*^' 
from the rearing of sheep; Swinden, Swinton, and Swinnow, 
from the keeping of swine ; Horsfall and Horsehold from the 


keeping of horses. We are reminded by Hardwick and Hard- 
castle of the herds once sheltered there, and by Stotfold and 
Stoodley of important stud-farms. Near Halifax there is evi- 
dence of the cattle-rearing energies of our forefathers in the 
place-names Cruttonstall, Heptonstall, Rawtonstall, Saltonstall 
and Wittonstall, while such a name as Bellhouse may perhaps 
point to the means by which a great army of farm servants 
was controlled. 
Cuitiva- Scattered about the riding there are many names like Shutts, 

Land.^*^ Doles and Fordoles, Eastfield and Westfield, which recall the 
system of cultivation formerly in existence. 

Each township had its ' Common fields,' and, as the rotation 
of crops was triennial, the fields were three in number. Each of 
these fields was divided into smaller portions called shotts or 
shutts, and these in their turn were cut up into acre or half-acre 
strips separated by green banks of unploughed turf The shape 
of these strips was governed by the needs of the ploughman and 
his team of oxen : the length was that of a normal furrow, a 
furlong ; the breadth was two or four rods, eleven or twenty-two 
yards. In each of the great open fields there were hundreds of 
these strips or selions or doles, and the most striking mark of 
the system was the way in which one individual held isolated 
strips scattered throughout the whole area. The 'bundle' of 
strips held by one person was called a virgate or yardland, and 
the number might reach fifty or sixty. 

The method of cultivation was co-operative. Instead of each 
man ploughing his own strips — widely separated as they were 
from each other — one man provided the plough, another the 
harness, and another the labour, while several lent each an ox 
to make up the full team of eight. The ploughman passed 
from strip to strip until he had ploughed one for every owner ; 
passing on, he continued to plough until he had again done service 
for every man ; and so he went forward until his task was done. 

This system, which broke down as feudalism passed away, 
carries us back to the earliest days of our national history, yet 
its remnants are still to be found, sometimes in the balks or 
linches by which the strips were separated, and sometimes in the 
local place-names. 


But there were other occupations. Orgreave near Rotherham, Other Oc- 
a name found in Domesday, and Orpyttes near Sheffield — now ="P*''°"s- 
Pitsmoor — point to iron-mining ; and such names as Kilnshaw, 
Kilnhurst, and Cowley bear witness to the important industry of 

Then, further, there are several names which give hints 
about the dwelling-houses of our forefathers. Lofthouse — a 
Scandinavian name — which occurs in Domesday Book as Loftose 
and Locthuse, bears witness to the existence of the two-storied 
house in pre-Conquest days. Such houses could not have been 
common seeing they were sufficiently noteworthy to become the 
distinguishing feature of a district. 

Hints are not wanting even in such matters as the build- 
ing of bridges. In the Domesday Survey only one bridge is 
mentioned, and that of the most modest dimensions, namely, 
Agbrigg. Further, we find in Domesday only one ferry, that 
over the river Aire at Fereia ; and it is not until 1199 that the 
name Ferribrig appears to prove the ferry superseded. Later, 
in 1275, we have evidence that the Calder was spanned by a 
bridge at Brighouse, clear sign that there was a considerable 
body of traffic along the important road which here crossed 
the river. 

There are several names which within the compass of three or 
four syllables present a brief synopsis of history : Ferrybridge — 
ferry first, and later bridge ; Dunford Bridge and Cooper Bridge 
— now a bridge, but once a ford. A name like Stainforth may 
perhaps show that in olden days fords were sometimes paved ; 
and not unfrequently the name of the ford contained a warning 
as in the case of Rufford, where the river bed was uneven, and 
Strangford, where the current was strong. 

Some of the place-names carry us back to the religious Religious 
beliefs of remote ages. Ramsden, for example, the valley of 
Ram or Hramn, that is, of Raven, has its link with totemism, 
the primitive animal worship which looked upon each tribe as 
descended from some animal, bird, or tree. On the other hand, 
the ancient British Christians have not handed down to us so 
much as a single place-name derived from the Church; there are 
no such names as the Cornish St Germans or St Keyne, and 




none like the Welsh Llanberis or Eglwysfair'. Indeed, traces 
of the Christianity of the early Anglians are not easy to find. It 
is true that Bede speaks of a church built in Campodunum by 
Paulinus, but he also speaks of its destruction, burnt by the 
Pagans who had slain the King. It is true that Domesday 
Book records a ' priest town,' namely, Preston or Purston near 
Pontefract, but that may be either Anglian or Scandinavian. 
Indeed, it is not until the appearance of the Vikings that we 
find definite signs of Christian influence. 

2. Personal Names. 

Names of 

Those of 



Ancient Names of Two Kinds — Those of One Element — Those of Two Elements 
— Effects of the Norman Conquest — Tribal Names in Place-names — Action and 
Reaction — Light on Meaning of Surnames. 

The personal names in use among our Anglian forefathers 
were of two kinds, those of one stem, and those of two. It will 
be helpful to consider the former in three classes: (i) original 
names, (2) names varied by means of diminutive or other termi- 
nations, (3) names obtained by the shortening of double-stem 

The names of the first class, that is, original names of 
one stem, are of peculiar interest. They are of the earliest 
period. Some are names of animals and natural objects ; 
others are untranslateable, bearing no obvious meaning in 
the language as we know it. Among them are such names 
as Aba, Aca, Cuda, Dud, Dun, names which may appear in 
various guises, as for example, Abba, Acca, Cudda, Dudde, 
and Dunne. 

The names of the second class, single-stem names varied 
by the addition of diminutive or other terminations, form a 
very large group. The terminations most largely used are the 
patronymic suffix -ing ; the endings -ac -ec -ic -oc -uc, -er and 
-re, -et and -ot ; and the diminutive -el. 

' Llanberis means 'the church dedicated to St Peris,' and Eglwysfair 'the church 
dedicated to St Mary.' 


A long list of patronymics ending in -ing might be made. 
It will be sufficient to give a few examples : Ading, Bridling, 
Busling, Colling, Cnotting, Cridling, Golding, Loding, Manning, 
Tipping, Willing. With the help of these it was possible to 
have a twofold system of personal names not wholly unlike our 
modern plan of Christian name and surname ; indeed, such a 
method was in existence in the earliest days, when a man might 
be described as Gamel Golding, the patronymic being added to 
the personal name. 

Single-stem names formed by the addition of the terminations 
-ac -ec -ic -oc -uc are probably diminutives, and account for 
many ancient names. From Dudd is obtained Duddac, from 
Puda Pudec, from Willo Willoc ; and such modern names as 
Coppock, Silcock, Pinnock and Puttock, have doubtless arisen in 
the same way. The terminations -er and -re, -et and -ot, are 
also of considerable importance. From Azo we get Azer, from 
Ota Oter, from Bar Baret, from Lufa Lufet. It is from single- 
stem names such as those already enumerated that a very large 
number of the monosyllabic or dissyllabic surnames at present 
in use owe their origin — Black, Dodd, Dunn, Tate, Hick and 
Sadd ; Blacker, Berner, Abbott, Barrett, and others in great 
number, as well as diminutives like Abel, Brunei, Cuttell, Lovell, 
and Riddell. 

The third class consists of short forms of double-stem names. Those 
These were used as pet-names, as names of friendship and gign^^tg 
endearment. They were formed from the first element of the 
original name, the final consonant if single being in most cases 
doubled, and the vowel -a or -e added. In this way Eadbald 
was shortened to Eadda, jfElfwine to .^lla, Cuthwulf to Cutha^ 
Hygebald to Hygga. 

When we come to the historical period the use of a patro- 
nymic as an additional name was passing away, and each 
person bore, as a rule, but one name. These names, at any rate 
so far as historical personages are concerned, were almost 
invariably formed of two elements joined together according 
to the rules of composition ; we might have, for example, adjec- 
tive and noun, or noun in apposition with noun, or, occasionally, 
adjective in apposition with adjective. The elements employed 




were comparatively few in number, but the changes rung upon 
them were very numerous. Taking the following nine roots, 
cethel noble, ead rich, sige victory, ceol ship, wil desirable, wulf 
wolf, beorht bright, mund protector, bald bold, we can build up 
at once twenty well-known names : — 









Sige wulf 












of the 

It is not a little astonishing to find that examples of this 
class provide so few of our modern names. Such as remain 
to-day are chiefly in use as Christian names, and owe their 
vitality in the first instance to the fame of some great king like 
Alfred or Edward or Edmund, or to some other adventitious 
circumstance. A complete transformation in the names of the 
people was in fact one of the results of the Conquest. With the 
Conquest. Anglians and Saxons almost infinite variety had been possible, 
but as the native names yielded to the Norman this variety 
passed away. The husbandman doubtless held fast to his Hie 
and Dodd and Dunn, and so provided us with a considerable 
number of our modern surnames, but for the knight or squire no 
name would serve but one of Norman ancestry. The result was 
extreme impoverishment — half the men called John or William, 
a quarter called Richard, Robert, or Thomas — and so the need 
of surnames. 

But there is a further question, namely. How far do tribal 
names enter into the formation of place-names } It has already 
been pointed out that Cumberworth, Kimberworth, and the 
Brettons, appear to have as their first element names which 
refer to the nationality of the persons named. And it seems 
clear as a result of our enquiry that the name of a tribe may 
become the name of an individual belonging to the tribe, and 
the personal name thus obtained may then become the first 
element of a place-name. Hunshelf is ' Hun's ledge of land,' 
and Hunster is ' Hun's place,' the individual in each case 
being so named because he was one of the tribe of the Huns. 

in Place 


Friezland was in the possession of Frese, a Frisian, and so also 
was Fryston ; Wales was a settlement of Welshmen ; Denby of 
a Dane ; and in the name Normanton we have permanent record 
that the place was settled by a Northman. 

In the course of centuries the names of persons and places Action and 
have acted and reacted upon each other. During the time of 
the Anglian settlement places received their names from their 
owners ; later, when surnames became a necessity, we find them 
borrowed from place-names. But in more recent times place- 
names have once more been formed from personal names — from 
the names of sailors, soldiers, statesmen, explorers, and pioneers. 
There is perhaps no more striking example than that of Wel- 
lington. First there was the Saxon patronymic Welling ; from 
that was derived the ancient place-name Wellington ; from this 
came the modern title and the modern surname ; and finally 
from the soldier who bore the title, the place-name Wellington 
in every British colony. 

One of the most interesting of the secondary results which Light on 
spring from our enquiry is the light thrown on the origin of surnames. 
surnames. Take three examples, Armitage, Hallows, and 

The first is exceedingly common in the neighbourhood of 
Huddersfield, and it is not unusual to find the theory put 
forward that Armitage Bridge received its name from some 
person called Armitage. It is quite certain, however, that the 
name of the place is derived from an ancient hermitage which 
existed there as early as the 13th century ; and it follows that 
the surname springs from the place-name, not the place-name 
from the surname. 

The surname Hallows is duly recorded by Bardsley, but 
without explanation ; on the other hand, Hallas, though very 
common in the West Riding, is left unrecorded. It will be seen, 
however, from the note on Hale, that Hallas and Hallows are 
the same word, and that the locality from which they originate 
may be either Hallas near Bingley, or Hallas in Kirkburton, the 
source of the name being OE healh, a corner or meadow. 

Wormald is no less interesting. Its chief habitat, according 
to Bardsley, is the West Riding, while its meaning is ' son of 


Wormbald.' But, further, Bardsley gives the name Wormall, 
linking it with a place-name recorded in 1 379 as Wormwall ; 
and under the same head he gives the alternative form Wormell. 
A reference to the place-name Wormald, explained near the 
end of this work, will show that the origin of all these names 
is a place formerly called Wlfrunwell and Wulfrunwall, a 
name which passed through variations like Wollerenwalle, and 
Wolronwall, to Wornewall, Wormewall, Wormall, and finally 



I. Historical Summary. 

The Coming of the Vikings — Period of Plunder — Period of Colonization — The 
Kingdom of York — Danish and Norse ICings — Supremacy of Wessex — Period of 
Political Conquest — Norway and Harold Fairhair — The Kingdom of Dublin — 
Settlement of Iceland — Character of the Norsemen. 

It was in the year 787, according to the Saxon Chronicle, The 
that the first of the Vikings reached the shores of England ; and ^ °™°^ 
it was in January 793 that the monastic house of Lindisfarne Vikings, 
was ' laid waste with dreadful havoc,' its treasures carried away, 
its altars desecrated, its monks slaughtered, scattered, or enslaved. 
In after years the Vikings preferred the summer for their excur- 
sions, but their methods were none the less barbarous, and the 
terror they inspired may be gathered from the prayer of the 
Litany, 'A furore Normannorum, libera nos, Domine.' 

For many years the strangers made their raids in small Period of 
parties, disappearing as soon as they had gained their object ; ^'""'^^'^- 
but gradually the petty squadrons which harassed the coast 
made way for larger hosts. In 867 York fell before them, and 
their armies ' rode over Deira.' In 869, after seizing Nottingham, 
they returned to York and stayed there a year. In 876 they 
invaded Yorkshire once more, but with a new purpose. Hitherto 
their object had been plunder — gold and slaves ; but now they 
came to colonize. 'After the sons of Lodbrok^ had conquered the Period of 
country,' says the Saga of Olaf Tryggvason^, ' Northumberland fi°^°"^^' 

* Ragnar Lodbrok, two of whose sons were Halfdan and Ivar ' the Boneless.' 

* See p. 16 of the translation by Sephton. 

G. 2 




of York. 

and Norse 

was largely colonized by Northmen ' ; and a notable passage 
in the Chronicle tells us that ' Halfdan divided out the lands 
of Northumbria, and henceforth they continued ploughing and 
tilling them.' 

It is to this period — the time of Alfred the Great — that our 
country owes its first great instalment of Viking blood. How 
important was this instalment and what was its character may 
be gathered in some degree from such statements as that in 
Egil's Saga, where we are told that in the reign of Athelstan, 
two generations later, ' almost every family of note in Northern 
England was Danish by the father's or the mother's side.' 
Anglian and Viking were of nearly related blood; their customs 
and speech were largely the same ; they could well understand 
each other ; and it is not surprising that fusion between the two 
races readily took place. 

From the time of Halfdan there existed in the north some- 
thing like a regular monarchy, York being for several genera- 
tions the centre of the Scandinavian interest in England^, and 
Yorkshire ' as much a Scandinavian province as Scania or 
Zealand.' In 876, as we have seen, chief power was in the hands 
of Halfdan; from 880 to 894 Cuthred ruled; and in 911 a 
second Halfdan together with Eowils''. 

Up to this point we are concerned entirely with incursions 
from the east — with Danish settlers and Danish kings. But, 
after this time, the kings came from the west — Norsemen from 
the kingdom of Dublin — and among them we find Ragnald in 
919, Sihtric from 921 to 927, Olaf in 940, Olaf Cuaran and a 
second Ragnald from 941 to 944, Olaf Cuaran again in 949, and 
Yric from 952 to 954^. Two of these, Olaf Cuaran and the first 
Ragnald, are figures of great interest. Both had romantic 
careers, and both were known as kings of ' the Dubhgaill and 
the Fingaill,' of the dark foreigners and the fair, that is, of 
Danes and Norsemen. In fame, however, Olaf Cuaran has far 
outstripped his predecessor, for he is the Havelock Cuheran 

' See p. 16 of the Saga of Olaf Tryggvason, Sephton's translation, where we are 
told that ' Eric fixed his residence at York, where the sons of Lodbrok are said to 
have dwelt aforetime.' 

^ CoUingwood, Scandinavian Britain, pp. 1 19-144. 


whose story has given to the world no less a personage than 
Hamlet, prince of Denmark. 

In former years the city of York had twice been supreme. 
Under the Romans it was the dwelling-place of Caesars and 
the seat of empire ; under Edwin and Oswald it was once again 
the centre of power; and now under its Viking rulers supremacy 
seemed a third time within its reach. From the throne of Edwip, 
says Freeman, 'a new Penda threatened England \' But in 937 
the outlook was altogether changed, and, though seventeen years Supremacy 
elapsed before the final submission, Athelstan's great victory at ° ^^^'^' 
Brunanburh sealed the fate of the Viking sovereignty in the 

And so for a generation there was peace. The period of 
plunder had passed away, and the period of colonization was 
bearing its fruit. The descendants of the Vikings came more 
and more under the influence of Christianity ; as early as the 
middle of the loth century, indeed, we find ecclesiastics whose 
names are Scandinavian. Year by year fresh links were forged 
to bind the races more closely together. 

But in the last decade of the loth century the predatory 
attacks were renewed. After the battle of Maldon the Vikings 
were bought off. Then Northumbria was attacked and the 
shores of the H umber were ravaged. And at last, elated by 
success, and touched to the quick by the massacre of 1002, the Period of 
Danes decided to attempt the conquest of the whole country, conquest, 
the result being that from 1013 to 1042 the realm was governed 
by Danish kings, Cnut and Harold and Harthacnut. Doubtless 
the Scandinavian settlements increased — though in a peaceful 
way. We know, for instance, that a large Danish colony settled 
in London, and the memory of its burial-place still lingers on in 
the name of the Church of Saint Clement Danes^. We shall 
scarcely be at fault if we assume that the Viking population of 
the north received at this time many similar additions. 

If we turn back for two centuries we shall find the country Norway 
from whence many of the Vikings came — mountainous Norway Harold 
— full to overflowing with a vigorous and high-spirited people. Fairhair. 

^ English Towns and Districts, p. 289, 

2 Freeman, Norman Conquest, I, pp. 538 and 572. 


A continual stream of adventurers poured forth from its shores. 
At that time the country jyas divided and sub-divided among 
petty kings or chieftains. There were tribes, indeed, but no 
nation ; and it required the strong hand of Harold Fairhair and 
the stern struggle of a lifetime to weld the people together into 
one united state. In the process the stream of adventurers 
increased. ' Because of the unpeace,' says the story of the 
settlement of Thorsness, 'many well-born men fled from their 
heritage out of Norway, some eastward over Keel, some west- 
ward over the sea\' And the account goes on to say that there 
were some that used to keep themselves ' of a winter in the 
Southreys or Orkneys,' while 'of a summer they would harry in 
Norway and do much harm in Harold's kingdom'.' In conse- 
quence, Harold fitted out an expedition and reduced to sub- 
jection all the islands north and west of Scotland and even as 
far south as the Isle of Man. Many of his opponents were 
slain ; many fled to Ireland .or to Iceland ; and from that time 
forward the Orkneys and Shetlands, the Hebrides and Man, 
continued under the power of Norway for many centuries. 

In this story of the stubborn clash of will with will there are 
two points of contact with the present subject — Ireland and 
The King- Ireland had long been the prey of the Viking hosts, the 
Dublin. earliest forays taking place near the close of the 8th century, 
and the earliest comers being Danes. But in 852 a Norse king- 
dom of Dublin was founded by Olaf the White, and this kingdom 
was maintained with varying fortunes until the middle of the 
lOth century. In the meantime, as we have seen, the Danish 
kingdom of York had been founded, and soon there sprang up 
the closest relationship between the two kingdoms. Members 
of the same house were kings in Dublin and in York. There 
was constant intercourse between them. The Irish Sea was 
their common highway. And so, as the east had given us 
Danes, the west now gave us Norsemen. 
Settlement But there is a connection also with Iceland. The settlement 
o ce an . ^|- ^j^^^. (.Qy^jj-^y. ^j^g largely due to the despotism of Harold 

' Origines IslandiccB, I, p. 253. 


Fairhair. Of many of its settlers we are told that they ' fled 
before King Harold,' or ' were at odds ' with him. The period 
of settlement extended from 874 to 934 ; it took place in fact 
at the very time when Yorkshire was under the power of the 
Vikings. Partly because of the isolation of the people, and 
partly by reason of their literary power, the language spoken by 
the settlers has continued almost unchanged down to modern 
times, and modern Icelandic differs but little from the language 
of the Viking hosts who invaded England. Still more interesting 
is the fact that the literature which sprang up has preserved to 
us the elements of the ancient tongue, and has provided us with 
a mine of information in all matters connected with the Northmen. 
Thus, the enquirer who desires to understand the place-names 
of modern Yorkshire must needs have recourse to Icelandic 
chronicles and sagas, and that not only for sidelights, but also 
for information of the most direct importance. 

What manner of man the Norseman of early days proved character 
himself to be has been vividly pourtrayed by Professor York 2f '^^ 

■' ^ -' ■' Norsemen. 

Powell. 'The character of the people of the west coast of 
Norway about the end of the eighth century,' he says, ' is illus- 
trated in some measure by certain poems in the Eddie collection, 
which we take to be of earlier date than the rest, and which, 
unlike the rest, bear pretty plain marks of Norwegian origin. 
From these it is possible to get a picture of the population 
whence the Wicking emigrant came ; it is of a type which we 
pride ourselves upon as essentially British — a sturdy, thrifty, 
hardworking, law-loving people, fond of good cheer and strong 
drink, of shrewd, blunt speech, and a stubborn reticence when 
speech would be useless or foolish; a people clean-living, faithful 
to friend and kinsman, truthful, hospitable, liking to make a 
fair show, but not vain or boastful ; a people with perhaps little 
play of fancy or great range of thought, but cool-thinking, 
resolute, determined, able to realise the plainer facts of life 
clearly and even deeply. Of course some of these characteristics 
are common to other nations in their rank or development, but 
taken together they show a character such as no other race of 
that day could probably claim, and enable us to understand how 
that quiet storage of force had gone on which, when released, was 




capable of such results as the succeeding three centuries wit- 
nessed with amazements' 


2. General Character of Scandinavian Place-names. 

Icelandic Place-names — Viking Names in Yorkshire — Maritime Terms brought 
Inland — Divisions: Wapentakes and Ridings — Tingley and Husting — Religious 
Beliefs — Burial Customs. 

An examination of the place-names which occur in the 
various sagas and other Icelandic literature enables us to obtain 
a very clear insight into the methods adopted by the settlers. 
The names may first be divided into two classes, (i) Simple, 
(2) Compound. 

The former class consists of those place-names which consist 
of but one element, that element being as we should expect 
descriptive of some simple topographical feature, e.g. Berg 
a rock, Borg a castle, Hvanimr a grassy slope, Lundr a grove, 
Tunga a tongue — common nouns elevated to the dignity of 
proper names. 

Far more numerous is the class of compound names, a class 
which may be sub-divided into three groups. There are first 
those names which add to some word of topographical meaning 
the name of the owner. Such names as these form a very large 
proportion of the whole. We find, for example, Grintsdalr, 
Grims-ey, Grims-nes, that is, Grim's dale, Grim's island, Grim's 
ness ; Steins -holt, Stein's wood; Hana-tun, Hane's enclosure; 
Tkororms- tunga, Thororm's tongue of land. 

Secondly, there are those compound names where the purpose 
is not to show ownership but to give a simple natural descrip- 
tion — names where the substantive is qualified by an adjective, 
or by a noun used adjectivally. This group also contains a 
very large number of names. The descriptive word is usually 
of the simplest character, specifying the points of the compass, 
the colour, the dimensions, the soil, the position. We find Vest- 
fold, Westfold ; Rau^a-sandr, Redsand ; Bref&avik, Broadwick; 
Lang-dalr, Longdale. Occasionally the names of trees and 

' Scandinavian Britain, p. 21. 


animals are utilised, as in the case of Espe-holl, Aspenhill; 
Svina-vatn, Swinemere ; Sau^a-nes, Sheepness. 

The third group consists of those compound names which 
refer to some historic event, social custom, or religious rite. 
This is a comparatively small division, but one of great interest. 
Several such names bear witness to the tragedies then almost a 
commonplace of daily life. Thore and Ref had a quarrel about 
forty cattle which were claimed by both ; and when they fought 
Thore fell and with him eight men, and the hillocks near which 
they fought were afterwards called Thores ■ kolar, Thore's hillocks ^ 
Some Irish thralls belonging to the early settlers, after a treach- 
erous murder were captured and slain, and the islands on which 
they were put to death were afterwards called Vestmanna-eyjar, 
that is, islands of the Westmen^- 

There are several places named from crosses set up for 
Christian worship. Of Jarl Torf Einarr and his companions we 
are told that having previously set up an axe in one place, and 
an eagle in another, ' in the third place they set up a cross and 
called it Kross-dssl Crossridge^. In addition to such names as 
these, there are others connected with the government of the 
country, Thing -vollr, parliament-field, and Log -berg, the rock of 
laws ; names of peculiar interest because of their connection 
with the development of national life. 

Place-names derived from the Vikings, like those of Anglian 
origin, will usually, therefore, be of one or two elements ; and if 
of two elements the former will be of an adjectival character 
and the latter substantival. In native Celtic place-names the 
order is usually reversed, the substantival being first, the adjec- 
tival last. Instances where names possess three elements are, 
of course, to be found, but they may in every case be declared 
secondary formations. 

The broad principles governing the question being thus laid viking 
down, it will be interesting to see what is the actual contribution Yorkshire 
made by the Vikings, whether Danes or Norsemen. 

It must first be noted that, just as in the case of Anglian and 
Scandinavian, so in that of Dane and Norseman, many words 

' Origines Islandica, I, p. 30. ^ Ibid. I, p. 23. 

^ Ibid. I, p. 170. 





Divisions : 
takes and 

were possessed in common. In regard to the greater number of 
Scandinavian words we are unable to distinguish whether their 
origin is Norse or Danish. Among words of this character the 
following are of frequent occurrence : — beck, biggin, by, carr, 
crook, garth, gate, holme, howe, lathe, lund, mire, nab, rake, raw 
or row, scar, scoe or skew, scout, storth, wath, with, and such 
tree-names as ask, birk, busk, hessle, and owler. 

It is not surprising to find that the Vikings, having given 
up their seafaring life and settled down to a career of peaceful 
industry, still retained some of their old habits of thought. In 
describing the features of the country in which they had settled 
they not unfrequently made use of terms connected with their 
former occupations. Something of the same kind had already 
taken place in the mother-country. One of the great mountain 
ranges of Norway was called Kjolen from its resemblance to a 
ship's keel, and a deep cleft between two Norwegian mountains 
is to-day called Kjepen because of its likeness to a gigantic 

Kjolr, a ship's keel, appears to have given us the four names 
Keelam or Keelham which doubtless mean ' the ridges.' 

Vik, a bay, seems to have given the Cumbrian word ' wike,' 
which denotes ' a narrow opening between rising grounds.' From 
this word we probably get the name Wyke, which occurs near 
Bradford and Horbury. 

The part played by the Vikings in the government of the 
country is indicated in a striking way by the names of its chief 
divisions. Though the formation of townships was in the main 
due to the Anglians, the grouping of townships into Wapen- 
takes, and of Wapentakes into Ridings appears to have been 
the work of the Vikings. 

The word Wapentake, from ON vapna-tak, means literally 
' weapon-touching.' In its original sense it appears to have 
been derived from an ancient method of expressing approval 
adopted by the Northmen in their assemblies. Later, the word 
took up new senses. It meant a vote or resolution ; it also 
meant the breaking-up of parliament when the men resumed 
the weapons they had laid aside during the session. But in that 
part of England which formed the Danelagh the word came to 


mean a portion of a county corresponding to the ' hundred ' of 
purely English shires. The wapentakes were often named from 
some conspicuous object near the place of meeting — a cross as 
at Staincross and Osgoldcross, a ford as at Strafford, a hill 
as at Tickhill, a bridge as at Agbrigg; and the place of 
meeting was usually in the open country, at some distance from 
the chief town, lest its inhabitants should unduly influence the 

The word Riding comes from an earlier form thriding, which 
is to' be connected with the ON word tkri'S-jungr, a third part. 
In DB we find such spellings as Nort Treding, Est Treding, 
West Treding, forms which at an early date settled down into 
the more smooth and euphonious North Riding, East Riding, 
and West Riding. 

No less interesting are the names Tingley and Husting Tingley 
Knowl, as well as the name Bierlow, for they carry us back to ^^^^^ 
the very centre of the public life of the Scandinavian settlers. 

In Tingley, formerly Thing- lawe, we have the survival of the 
ON word thing, an assembly, meeting. This word is found in 
the Icelandic Thing -vollr, the field where the parliament of the 
island held its annual assemblies. Six places in Great Britain 
show the exact equivalent of the Icelandic name — -Thingwall in 
Cheshire, Thingwall in South-west Lancashire, Tynwald in the 
Isle of Man, Tinwald in Dumfries, Dingwall in Caithness, and 
Tingwall in the Shetlands. 

At one time Norway had three assemblies of this kind, one 
for each of its three great districts, Frosta, Gula, and Eidsifia. 
The annual meetings of the 'things' were held at midsummer, 
and lasted for two weeks, those present being accommodated in 
booths set up near the place of meeting. 

It seems clear that Tingley, Thing- lawe, assembly-hill, was 
just such a place of meeting. Here the Viking settlers met 
together annually to transact public business, to decide cases of 
dispute, and to promulgate their decrees. The ' lowe ' is still to 
be seen, and near at hand a well-known horse-fair is held which 
probably owes its origin to the meetings of the ' thing ' and the 
buying and selling which accompanied them. 

An interesting question arises at this point, namely, whether 


Tingley was the meeting-place for one wapentake only — that of 
Morley — or for several wapentakes combined ? In other words, 
Did the ' thing ' consist of a federation of smaller districts as in 
Norway, and were these smaller districts our present wapen- 
takes ? 

There is a striking piece of evidence in favour of the sugges- 
tion that Tingley was the united meeting-place for several 
wapentakes. It is this. All the wapentakes in the neighbour- 
hood receive their names from the place of meeting — Agbrigg, 
Osgoldcross, Skyrack, Staincross— and if the wapentake of 
Morley had its meeting at Tingley, we should expect it to be 
called the wapentake of Tingley. If, however, the wapentake 
of Morley met at a definite spot then called Morley, while the 
annual united meeting was held at Tingley, any incongruity in 
the system of names would be removed. 

Still another word connected with the Viking methods of 
government is Knowler Hill, Liversedge, \%6o.Hustin Knowll. 
Here the prefix is from the ON hus -thing, a word denoting a 
smaller assembly than either of those just discussed. To such 
a meeting a king, earl, or captain would summon the people 
connected with his hus, his guardsmen or the men of his estate. 
Religious Passing on to the religion of the Vikings, we must remember 

that during their sojourn in Ireland the Norsemen had been 
brought into contact with Celtic Christianity. There were 
many, doubtless, who held the old beliefs, and there were others 
who, side by side with something of Christianity, retained much 
that was distinctly heathen. Among the records of the con- 
temporary settlements in Iceland there are indications of just 
such a state of things. The Landnama Book, speaking of Aud, 
widow of Olaf the White, tells us that she spent her later years 
in Iceland, and had her prayer-place at Kross-holar, that is, 
Cross-hillocks ; ' there she caused crosses to be set up, for she 
was baptized and of the true faith.' But the account goes on to 
say that 'her kinsmen afterwards used to hold these hillocks 
holy, and a high-place was made there, and sacrifices offered'.' 
We are also told of a certain Helge that he put his trust in 
Christ and after Him named his homestead Krist-nes, 'but yet 

' Origines Islandica, I, p. 79. 



he would pray to Thor when at sea, and in hard stresses, and in 
all things that he thought of most accountV 

Among evidences of the old heathenism are the names Lund 
and London, from ON lund, a grove. Vigfusson tells us that 
in Iceland places called Lund were connected with the worship 
of groves, and the Landnama Book relates of a man called Geat 
that he dwelt at Lund and sacrificed to the grove — ' ok bio at 
Lunde ; hann blotaSe lundenn".' 

But if there are relics of Scandinavian heathenism there 
are also evidences of Scandinavian Christianity, and, strangely 
enough, these evidences are more distinct than those of either 
Anglian or Celtic Christianity. 

The chief signs are the words cross and kirk. The DB 
references do not, however, include more examples than Cros- 
land, Staincross, Osgoldcross, and South Kirkby. But Dobcross 
in Saddleworth and Kirkby in Pontefract seem clearly of early 
date, while some of the Crossleys may also be early. On the 
other hand the prefix in Kirkburton, Kirkheaton, and Kirk 
Bramwith does not appear until late; Kershaw {Kirkeschawe) 
cannot be traced beyond the 14th century, and Woodkirk does 
not appear before the 12th century. 

The ON haugr, a word used to describe the artificial burial- Burial 
mounds of the Vikings, may fitly be mentioned at this point. It *-'"''°'"^- 
has given us the word ' how ' or ' howe,' and appears under 
various guises, as in Carlinghow, Flanshaw, Clitheroe, and 
Wincobank. Though frequently joined to a personal name — 
doubtless that of the person there interred — the word is to be 
found under other circumstances, as in the case of Howley, 
Slitheroe, Grenoside, and Stenocliffe. 

In Icelandic literature there are many references to these 
burial-mounds. We read of a chapman that as he voyaged 
along the coast of Norway he related the story of Vatnarr, 
and described him as a noble man. And ' when they lay off 
Vatnarr's howe he dreamed that King Vatnarr came to him and 
spoke to him : " Thou hast told my story, therefore I will reward 
thee ; seek thou treasure in my howe and thou shalt find." He 
sought, and found there much treasured' 

1 Origines IslandiccB, I, p. 149. ^ Ibid. I, p. 162. ' Ibid. I, p. 272. 


In the Laxdala Saga is the following account : ' Hoskuld 
died, and his death was much grieved for, first by his sons, and 
next by all his relations and friends. His sons had a worthy 
howe made for him, but with him, in the howe, was put little 
money. And, when this was over, the brothers began to talk 
over the matter of preparing a burial-feast after their father, for 
at that time such was the custom'.' 

Another passage from the Laxdala Saga reads as follows : 
' So now they drank together Olaf's bridal feast and the funeral 
honours of Unn. And on the last day of the feast Unn was 
carried to the howe that was prepared for her. She was laid in 
a ship in the howe, and in the howe much treasure was laid with 

3. Norse or Danish. 

Norse Test-words : schole, gill, thwaiie — Celtic Loan-words : cross, ergh — Distinctive 
Vowels and Consonants — Danish Test-word : thorpe — Importance of Minor Names — 
Distribution of by and thorpe — Distribution of Norse Test-words — The Domesday 
Survey — The Settlement largely Peaceful — The Conqueror's Vengeance — The Re- 
peopling — Strong Norse Settlements — Strong Danish Settlements. 

When we come to the task of distinguishing between the 

Norse and Danish elements we must place in the front rank 

two words found in Norse but not in Danish — in West Scandi- 

Norse navian but not in East Scandinavian — namely, 'schole' and 

words- 'g'll-' The first represents ON skdli, a shieling, log-hut, shed', 

schole, gill, and occurs in the form Schole or Scholes eighteen times. The 

second comes from ON gil, a valley or ravine^ and is found 

fourteen times. 

In the second rank comes 'thwaite,' from ON thveit, a 
clearing, a word which may be claimed as Norse for geographical 
reasons. The West Riding examples of this name number 
seventy-two, of which twenty-six are found south of the Aire ; 
but the East Riding provides no more than a single example. 
It appears therefore that though the word is found in Denmark 
in the form tved, the Danish settlers in Yorkshire made little use 
of it. 

1 Origines Islandica, II, p. 179. ^ Ibid. 11, p. 150. 

' Bjorkman, Scandinavian Loan- Words in Middle English, p. 183. 



In the third rank we must place two words neither Danish Celtic 
nor Norse, the words ' cross ' and ' ergh.' These are Celtic loan- ^^l . 
words which have come to us from the other side of the Irish ':ross, ergh. 
Sea'- The list of early place-names where ' cross ' is the first 
element is particularly instructive. In Ireland and the South of 
Scotland there are many such names, and in England there are 
more than thirty. An analysis of the English examples brings 
out two points with great clearness. 

In the first place English examples occur almost wholly in 
the north-west— in Cumberland, Westmorland, Lancashire, and 
the West Riding. Here we find Crosby nine times, while Crosby- 
thwaite occurs once, and Crosthwaite thrice. Other examples 
of similar character— Crosscanonby, Crossrigg, Crossens, the 
Crosdales, Croslands, and Crostons — occur only in the same 
area. Against these, however, we must set Crosby in Lincoln- 
shire and the two Norfolk names Crostwick and Crost- 

In the second place the yoke-fellow of ' cross ' is invariably a 
word of Scandinavian origin. This yoke-fellow, though frequently 
a word which cannot be Danish, is never one which cannot be 
Norse. Among Scotch examples we find Crosaig (= Crosvik), 
Crosbost (= CrosbolstaSr^), Crosby, Crosgills, Croskirk, Crosspol, 
and Crosston ; and among English examples — not to repeat the 
list already given — it is interesting to find the Norfolk examples, 
Crostwick and Crostwight, recorded in the Domesday Survey as 
Crostueit and Crostwit, where the terminal corresponds to the 
name ' thwaite.' 

Seeing that the word is associated with Norse terminations 
and with districts settled by Norsemen, we may fairly claim it 
as a Norse test-word, provided always that the names dealt with 
are of early date. 

Passing now to 'ergh,' which represents ON erg, a shieling 
or summer farm, and is derived through erg from Olr. airge, we 
find the conditions just described almost exactly repeated. In 
a district of North-west England stretching in a crescent from 
the Solway to the Mersey there are (or were) twenty-six names 

1 For ' cross ' see the New English Dictionary. 

* Compare the Norw. place-names Myklebost, Helgebost (Aasen). 




with this terminal. Below is the full list, names without modem 
equivalents being starred : 

Cumberland : 


St Bees, 











Westmorland : 







1 301 












1 301 







Kirkby Lonsd. 



Lancashire : 









































Yorkshire : 

























In thirteen of these the first element is undoubtedly a Scandi- 
navian personal name : Skelm, Man, Kabbi, Snel, BotSvar, 
Kolgrim, Grim, SigriS, Anlaf, Odd, Bret, Gamel, Gu?5laug. And 
in four others it is a Scandinavian common noun : klettr a rock, 
salt salt, vind wind, and dokk a swampy place. The word is, 
therefore, curiously similar to ' cross ' ; but perhaps most note- 
worthy is the correspondence existing between the habitat of 
the two words. 


At this point an appeal must be made to two well-known Distinctive 
distinctions between Norse and Danish. amTcon- 

In the West Scandinavian dialects (Icelandic and Norse), at sonants. 
a period probably before looo, a noteworthy assimilation of 
consonants was developed by which nk became kk, nt became tt, 
and rs became ss^. That this assimilation took effect before the 
end of the Viking settlements in Yorkshire seems clear from the 
word 'drucken,' a common dialect-form equivalent to 'drunken.' 
In consequence of this change we find such pairs of words as 
the following: 

Dan. klint, Norw. klett, a rock 
„ brink, „ brekka, a slope 
„ slank, „ slakke, a hollow. 

In South-west Yorkshire, however, the Domesday record pre- 
sents no assured example of any of these words, and I have 
found no modern representative of either ' klint ' or ' klett.' On 
the other hand ' brink ' and ' breck ' occur with some frequency, 
but the latter may be simply English, and, further, a Swedish 
dialect-word brakka quite prevents us from claiming it as 
distinctly Norse. Lastly ' slack ' is frequently found, especially 
on the western border, but there is no companion-word ' slank,' 
and a Swedish dialect-word slakk raises the same doubts as in 
the case of ' breck.' 

The second distinction relates to a vowel change by which 
Icelandic ei is represented in East Scandinavian (Danish and 
Swedish) by e, the diphthong remaining uncontracted in West 
Scandinavian. This change began to show itself soon after 800, 
and was completed in Denmark before 1050^. As a result we 
get the following forms : 

Icel. steinn, Dan. sien, a stone 
„ thveit, „ tved, a clearing 
„ grein, „ gren, a branch 
„ beit, „ bed, pasturage. 

^ Bjorkman, Scandinavian Loan-words in Middle English, pp. 168-176. Flora, 
Scandinavian Influence on Southern Lowland Scotch, p. 7. 

' Bjorkman, Scandinavian Loan-words in Middle English, p. 36. Flom, Scan- 
dinavian Influence on Southern Lowland Scotch, p. 6. 


An examination of the Domesday Survey shows five names 
in South-west Yorkshire where the first element is connected 
with ON steinn or Dan. sten : 

Stainforth, Doncaster, DB Steinford, Stenforde, CR 1232 Steinford 
Stainton, „ DB Staintone, Stantone, PF 1166 Steinlon 

Stainborough, Barnsley, DB Stainburg, CR 1252 Steinborg 
Staincross, „ DB Staincros, PF 1 1 66 Steincros 

Stainland, Halifax, DB Stanland, PT 1379 Stayneland. 

Further, there are three examples where the Scandinavian 
ei or e is involved in the personal names Steinn, Thorgeir, and 
Thorsteinn : 

Stancil, near Doncaster, DB Steineshale, RC 1232 Stansah 

Thurgoland, near Barnsley, DB Turgesland, PF 1202 Turgarland 
Thurstonland, Huddersfield, DB Tostenland, PF 1202 Thurstanland. 

Lastly, there is a single name where thveit or thvet is involved : 

Langthwaite, Doncaster, DB Langetouet, PF 1167 Langethwaite. 

Although sten in Stenforde and touet (= thwet) in Langetouet 
seem clearly Danish, it would scarcely be wise, in view of the 
alternative and later forms, to predicate more than Danish 
influence on words originally Anglian or Norse. In regard to 
Tostenland and Turgesland (= Turgerland) it will be observed 
that the change from Thorsteinn and Thorgeir to Thorsten and 
Thorger is due to the weak stress on the second syllable ; 
and in regard to Stainton and Stainland it seems clear that 
Anglian influence has been at work. 

To sum up, we may take it as certain that the Viking 
settlers, whether Danes or Norsemen, usually brought with them 
the uncontracted ei. 

Passing now to Danish test-words we are immediately met 
by a difficulty, for the only word of serious importance, ' thorpe,' 
may be either English or Scandinavian ; compare OE thorp, 
and ON thorp. An examination of the Domesday record 
shows that seven of our South-west Yorkshire ' thorpes ' are to 
be found there, viz.: 

Armthorpe, DB Ernulvestorp, Einulvestorp 
Gold thorpe, DB Guldetorp, Goldetorp, Godetorp 
Hexthorpe, DB Hestorp, Estorp 


Rogerthorpe, DB Rogartorp 
Skelmanthorpe, DB Scelmertorp, Scemeltorp 
Thorpe (Leeds), DB Torp 
Throapham, DB Trapun 

And, if we enquire what is the origin of the yoke-fellow in each 
case, we find that Ernulf, Einulf, Guide, Hegg, Rogar, Skelmer, 
may all be Scandinavian, while Ernulf and Einulf may possibly 
be English, and Golde also, though the last is probably nothing 
more than a variant of Guide. It appears, therefore, that our 
Domesday ' thorpes ' are most probably Scandinavian, a con- 
clusion greatly strengthened by what is known of the East 
Riding examples. Doubtless many of our South-west Yorkshire 
' thorpes ' are of late origin and possess yoke-fellows which are 
not Scandinavian ; yet even these may be claimed as lineal 
descendants of Scandinavian names and rightly described by 
the same term. 

But, though they are Scandinavian, can our ' thorpes ' be 
definitely ascribed to the Danes .-' To find an answer we must 
look at the geographical distribution of the word. Counties 
like Berkshire, Bedford, Cambridge, Hertford, and Huntingdon, 
almost purely English in their place-names, do not count a 
dozen thorpes among them. Lancashire, which though pre- 
dominantly Anglian is partly Norse, has only three. But the 
counties of York, Lincoln, and Norfolk, well-known for their 
Danish connections, possess at least three hundred. Yorkshire 
alone has a hundred and eighty, of which fifty-five are in the 
East Riding and sixty-three in the southern part of the West 
Riding. It appears, therefore, that those parts of Yorkshire 
known to be more Norse than Danish contain but a small 
proportion of 'thorpes,' while the remaining districts, those in 
the south-east and south-west, have a far greater proportion. 

To sum up, it seems clear that while 'thorpe' may be 
accepted as distinctively Danish, we may claim ' cross,' ' ergh,' 
'gill,' 'schole,' and 'thwaite' as distinctively Norse. 

About one-fourth of the names entered in the Domesday Import- 
record are of Scandinavian origin. When minor names are ^J^^j^^^f 
examined, however, there are districts where the proportion is Names. 
considerably higher. The neighbourhood of Wakefield provides 

G. 3 




tion of by 
and thorpe. 

tion of 

a striking illustration, for while the township names are largely- 
Anglian — Wakefield, Stanley, Warmfield, Horbury, Criggle- 
stone — the number of ' thorpes ' is quite remarkable. 

Perhaps it will be most helpful if we take the names 'by,' 
' thorpe,' ' thwaite,' ' schole,' ' gill,' ' cross,' and ' ergh,' and see in 
what localities each occurs ; and for this purpose the whole 
area may be divided into three parts, {a) Western, (b) Central, 
if) Eastern, taking as the lines of demarcation first a line 
running north and south through Bradford, Huddersfield, and 
Holmfirth, and next a similar line running through Pontefract 
and east of Rotherham. Of the three divisions the Western is 
smallest, the others being approximately equal. 

Taking first the word ' by,' the best of all tests for Scandi- 
navian settlements, we find the thirty examples divided between 
the three districts as follows : 

Western Central Eastern 
By 9 12 9 

The ending occurs, indeed, from Keighley in the north to Maltby 
in the south, and from Sowerby in the west to Fockerby in the 
east ; thus the influence of the Vikings has been felt throughout 
the whole area. 

Taking next the Danish test-word 'thorpe,' which occurs 
sixty-three times, we find its distribution is as follows : 

Western Central Eastern 
Thorpe 4 41 18 

Hence, it would seem that the Danes settled more frequently in 
the east than the west, though to some extent they appear to 
have penetrated the whole area. 

Passing on to the tests for Norse settlements — ' schole,' ' gill,' 
' thwaite,' ' cross,' and ' ergh ' — we get the following results : 

Western Central Eastern 
















It is doubtless true that ' gill ' could only occur along the western 
border, and it is equally true that 'thwaite' could only occur 
where woodland formerly existed, yet, taken together, these tests 


prove conclusively that there was an immigration of Norsemen 
from the west. 

Hitherto we have taken every instance of the seven tests, 
even though some are of modern origin. It must of course be 
remembered that while some of these words may have produced 
no names beyond those given by the Viking settlers, as in the 
case of 'ergh' and 'by,' others have become living elements 
in the language, ' cross ' and ' thorpe ' and ' gill ' for example. 
Under these circumstances it will be interesting to take for The 
examination only those words which occur in the Domesday surv'ey'^*^ 
record : 



















Thus DB gives 1 1 out of 29 ' bys,' but only 9 out of 64 'thorpes,' 
and only 5 out of 75 Norse test-words. This is very different 
from the state of things found among the ' thorpes ' and ' bys ' of 
the East Riding, where almost all the names now existing are 
to be found in DB. Possibly the difference between the two 
Ridings is due to the fact that a great part of the settlement in The 
the West Riding was later than that in the East and conse- fg^"gl™™' 
quently of a peaceful character. That it was indeed largely Peaceful, 
of a peaceful character is shown by the fact that not a few 
townships with Anglian names possess important members 
where the name is Scandinavian ; among the rest there are 
Gawthorpe in Ossett, Rawthorpe in Dalton, Scholes in Cleck- 
heaton, Barnby in Cawthorne, Staincross in Darton, Wilby in 
Cantley, and Dirtcar in Crigglestone. 

At this point another side of the picture must be noted, The Con- 
namely, the effect of the devastation wrought in 1069 by William ^""""^^^ 
the Norman. In 1086, when the Domesday Survey was made, ance. 
the results of the Conqueror's campaign of fire and sword were 
still to be seen. Township after township was unable to raise 
even a single shilling for the king's tax-gatherers, and time after 
time the pitiful entry appears, ' It is waste.' From Penistone 



to Bradford, and from Meltham to Beeston — with here and 
there an oasis, as at Denby and High Hoyland, or at Thornhill, 
Miriield, Hartshead and Liversedge — the country was devastated 
and in a great measure depopulated. But this is not all. Not 
only were many townships thus recorded as waste ; others were 
entirely omitted. On the western borders no mention is made 
of the townships of Oxenhope, Heptonstall, Erringden, Soyland, 
Norland, Barkisland, Skircoat, Halifax, Ovenden, Rishworth, 
Scammonden, Marsden, Slaithwaite, Linthwaite, Lingards, and 
— after an interval filled in by Meltham, Holme, Penistone and 
Thurlstone — Langsett and Bradfield. Whatever may be said in 
explanation of some of these omissions, it seems clear that in 
1086 much of the borderland was almost devoid of inhabitants. 
The Re- Thus a problem of great interest arises, namely. How was 

peop ng. ^j^jg tract of country afterwards peopled or repeopled ? An 
answer has already been given by Professor Collingwood who 
suggests that to a great extent it must have been repeopled by 
immigrants from Cumberland and Westmorland^. If this be 
the correct answer, it will do much to account for the fewness of 
the Scandinavian names in Domesday Book as compared with 
those now existing. 

An interesting piece of evidence is provided by the names 
Erringden and Cruttonstall near Hebden Bridge. 

Cruttonstall is the name of a farm situate in Erringden, 
formerly Ayrykedene, which is now a township. This farm 
appears in WCR 1308 as Crmntonstall, and there can be little 
hesitation in associating it with the DB Criimbetonestun. But 
while Crumbetonestun is never found in any record later than 
DB, no record of Ayrykedene is found earlier than the 13th 
century. It does not seem unreasonable to suppose that the 
area called Crumbetonestun in DB was afterwards called 
Ayrykedene, Eric's Valley. This is a point of considerable 
importance, giving as it does some cause for believing there was 
— at any rate in this district — a Scandinavian immigration after 
the date of the Domesday Survey. 

A remarkable series of 'thwaites,' all of them wanting in DB, 
is to be found in the district around Barnsley and Penistone. 

^ Scandinavian Britain, p, 178. 


Among existing names there are Alderthwaite, Birthwaite, Strong 
Butterthwaite, Falthwaite, Gilthwaite, Gunthwaite, Hornthwaite, ge°[i|. 
Huthwaite, Linthwaite, and Ouselthwaite ; but there are also ments. 
several obsolete examples, for instance, Micklethwaite, Ogge- 
thwaite, and Thunnethwaite. This district has, indeed, quite the 
strongest body of thwaites in South-west Yorkshire, and at the 
same time it was one of those which suffered most severely under 
the Conqueror. It seems not at all improbable that the repeopling 
was of the kind suggested by Professor Collingwood; and yet near 
at hand is Staincross, a Norse name found in the Domesday record. 

There is evidence of another Norse settlement near Hudders- 
field'. But in this case it is certain that, at least in part, the 
date was pre-Conquest, for DB has two decisive names, Cros- 
land and Golcar. Thus, although Linthwaite and Lingards and 
Slaithwaite do not occur until later, it is extremely probable 
that the whole series is of pre-Conquest origin. 

A similar, though much smaller, group of Norse names occurs 
near Keighley, and in this case the DB name Micklethwaite — 
situate quite near though outside our area — seems once more to 
point to a pre-Conquest settlement. 

Passing next to the ' thorpes,' we are at once met by the fact strong 
that there is a cluster of twelve in the immediate neighbour- ^^^^ 
hood of Wakefield 2. The names are Alverthorpe, Chapelthorpe, ments. 
Gawthorpe, Hollingthorpe, Kettlethorpe, Kirkthorpe, Milnthorpe, 
Ouchthorpe, Painthorpe, Snapethorpe, Woodthorpe, Wrenthorpe. 
This is a very remarkable series, and though none of the names 
appear in DB and some may be comparatively modern, the 
inference that Wakefield was a strong Danish centre is irre- 
sistible. Indeed, the valley of the Calder from Castleford to 
Sowerby shows twenty-three out of the sixty-three thorpes in 
South-west Yorkshire, more than a third of the whole number. 

Other districts where the thorpes are numerous are the valley 
of the Don from Hatfield to Sheffield, and the district which 
lies between Doncaster and Wakefield. But in the neighbour- 
hood of Sheffield there is at the same time evidence of Norse 
settlements, just as there is in the district around Halifax. 

1 See the note on Huddersfield. ^ See the note on Wakefield. 



The Celts and their Tongue — Goidelic and Brythonic — Documentary Evidence — 
Names of Rivers — Names of Hills and Valleys — Anglian Borrowings — Norse Bor- 

The Celts Before the landing of Julius Caesar on the coast of Kent 

Toneue"^ the British Islands were for centuries occupied by various tribes 

of people who reached our shores from the countries now known 

as France and the Netherlands. These tribes, though by no 

means homogeneous in race, are usually described as Celts, 

their language being, indeed, substantially the same. 

Goidelic In Ireland, as years passed by, the particular form of the 

Brvthonic Celtic tongue now known as Goidelic was evolved, and this was 

in all probability carried overseas by Irish colonists to Scotland 

and the Isle of Man during the early centuries of the Christian 

era. There are thus three modern dialects representing ancient 

Goidelic, namely, Irish, the Gaelic of Scotland, and the Manx of 

the Isle of Man. 

In Great Britain, on the other hand, the form of speech 
prevalent when the Romans first reached our shores was that 
known as the Brythonic branch of the Celtic family. This is 
represented to-day by modern Welsh and Breton ; but a Bry- 
thonic dialect survived in Strathclyde up to the 12th century, 
and Cornish was a living tongue up to the i8th. We may 
conclude, therefore, that until South-west Yorkshire was con- 
quered by the Angles the language spoken there was a dialect 
of Brythonic — in other words, a speech resembling early Welsh. 
Beginning in the mists of pre-historic days the Celtic period 
extended right through the Roman occupation to the early 


years of the 6th century — possibly even for a century beyond, 
when, as we learn from Nennius, Edwin of Northumbria ' seized 
Elmet and expelled Cerdic its king.' But doubtless the speech 
lingered, especially in remote districts, for centuries — occasion- 
ally, in a word here and there, even down to the present time. 
It is true that to-day few townships possess a name even in part 
Celtic, yet among minor place-names — among the names of hills 
and valleys, woods and lanes, rivers and hamlets — there are 
Celtic survivals in considerable numbers. 

Concerning some of the early Celtic names we possess docu- Documen- 
mentary evidence. The Antonine Itinerary contains three that Evidence. 
are assured in this way, two definitely identified with particular 
places, the third less certain. These three are : 

Danum, Doncaster. 
Lageciuni or Legeolium, Castleford. 

Cambodunum or Camulodunum, probably Slack, near 

We have also two names given in early chronicles : the 
Celtic name of the battle fought in 633 between Edwin of 
Northumbria and Penda as given by Nennius and the Welsh 
Chronicle, and the name of Conisborough recorded in Geoffrey 
of Monmouth and Pierre de Langtoft : 

Meicen, Meiceren, Meigen, Hatfield. 
Kaerconan, Conane, Conisborough. 

In addition Haigh has suggested (YAS Journal, iv, 61-65), 
the identification of four places mentioned by the Ravenna 
Geographer with sites in our district : 

Alumia with Castleshaw in Saddleworth. 

Caluuium, with a place near the confluence of the Colne 

and Calder. 
Medibogdum with Methley. 
Rerigonium with a place near Ripponden. 

These identifications, however, are unsupported. Lastly, 
Bede has the name Campodonum which has sometimes been 
thought to be Doncaster, Alfred's version giving Donafeld in 
its stead ; but here again the matter must be left unsettled. 




Names of 

Names of 
Hills and 


In only one instance, that of Doncaster, can we be sure that 
the modern name is a lineal descendant of the recorded Celtic 
name, though it is possible that in the case of Conisborough we 
have a second example. 

Passing from the names guaranteed by documentary evidence 
we find ourselves treading on very treacherous ground. Among 
river-names we may enumerate as survivals from pre-Anglian 
days the Ouse, Aire, Calder, and Don, with their tributaries the 
Colne and Dove, as well as the Tame and Chew on the Lanca- 
shire side and the Derwent on the Derbyshire border. Possibly 
in addition to these we may count Lud- in Ludwell, Ludden- in 
Luddenden and Rib- in Ribble and Ribbleden. 

Among the names of valleys and hollows we find four 
examples of Combes or Cowmes ; and among names of hills 
and rocks we may count as Celtic the Tors on the Derbyshire 
border, the first element in Chevinedge, and perhaps, in addition, 
the Rose Hills of which there are three. 

At this point it will be helpful to consider the conditions 
under which the Angles made use of names borrowed from their 
Celtic predecessors. There were three possible methods. 

1. The Celtic name might be taken over unchanged, with 
or without a knowledge of its meaning, and without the addition 
of any Anglian term. This appears to have taken place in such 
instances as Balne, Cowmes, Howcans, and Krumlin. 

2. The Celtic name might be taken over with a full know- 
ledge of its meaning and joined to some Anglian term. The 
word would thus become a true loan-word and enter fully into 
the language of its adoption. 

3. The Celtic name might be taken over as a true proper 
noun, and joined, irrespective of its meaning, to an Anglian 
word. In that case it would assume the position and function 
of an adjective, being placed before, not after, the Anglian term 
to which it was attached. 

Experience shows that it is chiefly in the third of these 
divisions that Celtic survivals are to be found. Place-names 
made from river-names assume this form quite regularly, as in 


the case of Airmyn, Colnebridge, DovecHfife, and Ousefleet. 
There is quite a series of names in -den which may have arisen 
in this way, including Alcomden, Luddenden, Ribbleden, the 
two Bogdens and the two Sugdens. Other examples possibly 
of a similar character are Cartworth, Catbeeston, Conisborough, 
Crigglestone, Crimsworth, Featherbed, Featherstone, Mountain, 
and Sugworth. 

The list is, however, not yet complete, for there are quite a 
number of places where the two elements are less closely linked 
together, as in the case of Sude Hill. Words probably Celtic 
and used in this way include Allen or Allan (6), Anna (3), 
Crumack (3), Mankin, Sude, and Pennant. 

A second group of Celtic names consists of loan-words Norse Bor- 
introduced by the Norse immigrants in the loth century, '■"^'"S^- 
namely, the words ' cross ' and ' ergh ' ; but the reader must be 
referred for these to the chapter on the Scandinavian element. 



I. Roman. 

Erming Street, the great Roman road to the north, passed 
from Doncaster to Castleford and so by way of Tadcaster to 
Aldborough or York. Another great Roman road, Riknild 
Street, came from Derby ; entering the county near Beighton it 
proceeded northward by Swinton and Thurnscoe, and assuming 
a course almost parallel to Erming Street crossed the Calder at 
Normanton and came to Aldborough by way of Woodlesford. 
To the east of these roads lay a wilderness of swamp and 
morass ; to the west forbidding hills. But, just as South-west 
Yorkshire was crossed by two almost parallel roads from the 
south making for Aldborough, two similar roads came from the 
north-west and with Manchester as their objective traversed 
some of the wildest of the hills on the Lancashire border. All the 
survivals from the Roman occupation are connected, directly or 
indirectly, with these roads. They consist of two Anglian 
words : Caster, borrowed from Lat. castra, a camp, and Street 
borrowed from Lat. strata. These are found in Castleford, 
Doncaster, and perhaps Castleshaw ; in Adwick-le-Street, 
Strafford, Streethouse, Ossett Streetside, and Tong Street. 

2. Norman. 

In the Norman period there is greater variety, though even 
here the number of names is small. Pontefract, with its doublet 
Pomfret, is quite the most interesting example. The former is 
Latin, and due to the lawyers and chroniclers of the nth and 


1 2th centuries ; the latter is French, and doubtless conies to 
us from the lips of Norman knights and squires. Strangely 
enough, the Latin and Norman names have lived side by side 
for eight centuries, and have driven the native names out of the 
field. The loss of these native names is very significant ; it 
shows how under the influence of the de Lacy family Pontefract 
became the rendezvous for crowds of Norman retainers and 

In some parts of England it is quite common to find the 
name of a Norman family attached to a Saxon place-name. 
Well-known instances like Stoke Mandeville and Berry Pom- 
meroy will be at once recalled. In South-west Yorkshire the 
only examples are Burghwallis, Farnley Tyas, Newton Wallis, 
Stubbs Lacy, and Whitley Beaumont. Early members of the 
two families connected with Whitley and Farnley were called 
William de Bellomonte, and Baldwin le Teys or Baldwinus 
Teutonicus. Another Norman family name occurs in Lascelles 

A little group of names, including Grange, Roche, Spital, 
Friarmere, and Abdy, serves as a memorial of the ancient 
religious houses and of their work during many centuries. Other 
words connected with the religious life of the past are Armitage, 
found in the parish of South Crosland, and Chapel, found in 
Chapelthorpe and Chapeltown. 

Two other survivals come to us from the Law, the French 
particles enclosed in the words Laughton-en-le-Morthen and 
Adwick-le-Street, and the name Purprise given to a farm in the 
neighbourhood of Heptonstall. Encroachments upon the pro- 
perty of the community or of the crown were described by the 
French term ' purpresture ' and the word ' purprise ' came to mean 
enclosed land. 

Only three other examples remain. One is the curious name 
Hitchells which is found near Doncaster and appears to be 
derived from OFr escheles, ladders. The second is the word 
Grice, which meant a flight of steps, an ascent or slope, and 
comes from OFr greis, a derivative of Lat gradus. And the 
third is the name Richmond which occurs near Sheffield, 

But there is a second way in which the coming of the 


Norman has exercised an influence on our Yorkshire place- 
names, for the spellings in DB and other ancient documents 
show peculiarities obviously due to Norman scribes. These pecu- 
liarities arose from the fact that the Normans were foreigners, 
accustomed, on the one hand, to the orthographical methods of 
the French, and unaccustomed, on the other hand, to many of 
the sounds used by the English. A few of the more noteworthy 
points may now be enumerated. 

1. Unfamiliar to the Norman were the two sounds of th. 
In the initial position he usually wrote t instead, as in Torp for 
Thorp and Torn for Thorn ; in the medial position he often 
wrote d, as in Medeltone now Melton ; and occasionally he left the 
consonant altogether unrepresented, as in Ferestane for Feather- 
stone. When at last he began to use the sign th, it was frequently 
misplaced, as in Thofthagh for Toftshaw. 

2. Such initial consonant-groups as sn and st were often 
changed to esn and est, as in Esneid for Snaith ; and, occa- 
sionally, initial j was written where it had no rightful place, as 
in Scroftune and Scusceuurde for Crofton and Cusworth. 

3. Other consonant-groups which gave him difficulty were 
hn for which he sometimes wrote n, and ks for which he gave 
X ox s\ compare Notingeleia for Knottingley and Chizeburg for 

4. The guttural in Drighlington and Laughton he repre- 
sented by an J ; compare DB Dreslintone and Lastone. And 
quite frequently, especially before n and m, he wrote o instead 
of u. An interesting illustration of this is provided by the name 
Dudmanstone — or, rather, by the personal name which provides 
the first element. This name appears in an ancient document 
of the year 824 as Dudeman (Searle), but in the 13th cen- 
tury, in WCR 1296, we find it in the form Dodeman, while 
in the 17th century, in RE 1634 Dudmanston, the form is 
Dudman. There can be little doubt that during this long 
period the pronunciation of the first syllable had always been 
the same. 

v] the roman, norman, and modern elements 45 

3. Modern Names. 

A few words must be said about the names which have 
arisen during recent centuries. 

Perhaps the most interesting are those derived from Biblical 
sources. As our Parish Registers show, there was a considerable 
period during which Christian names drawn from Holy Writ 
were held in great favour. During that period such names a's 
Faith and Mercy, Abel and Seth, Rachel and Jemima, were 
very common. And, apparently during the same period, place- 
names from the same source were held in equal esteem. Examples 
are to be found like Padan-aram and Machpelah, Egypt and 
Mount Tabor, Bethany and Jericho and Paradise, while in the 
neighbourhood of Halifax we find farms called Noah's Ark and 
Solomon's Temple. 

Another series of modern names has arisen from the desire 
to substitute for the ancient name some more high-sounding 
designation. During the 19th century Queensbury took the 
place of Queenshead, a name which had itself previously sup- 
planted the earlier name Causewayend. In the same period 
Norristhorpe was substituted for Doghouse as the name of a 
hamlet in Liversedge. 

Still another series of names is connected with great captains 
of industry ; such are Akroydon, Ripleyville, and Saltaire. 
Others due to the industrial expansion of the 19th century, 
often strikingly inappropriate, include New Brighton and High 
Scarborough, Mount Pleasant and Bellevue and Claremont. 

The great events of modern history have also had their 
influence. To this we owe Waterloo and Odessa, Portobello 
and Alma, as well as, perhaps, the Dunkirks and Quebecs. 

It may seem at first sight that Paris and London should be 
explained by similar methods, but a closer examination reveals 
the probability, strange as it may appear, that they are indi- 
genous to the soil, the former of Anglian origin and the latter 



I. Lang Q AGES or Dialects 

AFr = Anglo-French 

ME = Middle English 

AS = Anglo-Saxon 

MHG = Middle High German 

Bret = Breton 

Norw = Norwegian 

Dan = Danish 

0Dan = 01d Danish 

Du = Dutch 

OE =01d English 

Fr = French 

OFr = Old French 

Fris = Frisian 

OHG =01d High German 

Gael = Gaelic 

Olr =01d Irish 

Germ = German 

ON = Old Norse 

Icel = Icelandic 

OS = Old Saxon 

Ir = Irish 

OW = Old Welsh 

Lat = Latin 

Sw = Swedish 

LL =Late Latin 

W = Welsh 

2. Early Records of Place-names 

AR = Yorkshire Assize Rolls ; YAS Record Series 

BCS = Birch's Cartularium Saxonicum 

BD =Bosville Deeds; YAJ, Vol. Xlll 

BM = Burton's Monasticon Eboracense 

BPR =Bingley Parish Register 

CC = Calverley Charters ; Thoresby Society, Vol. VI 

CH = Charter — unspecified 

CR = Calendar of Charter Rolls; Rolls Series 

DB = Domesday Book for Yorkshire ; Skaife 

DC =Dewsbury Church and Manor; YAJ, Vols, xx-xxi 

DN =Dodsworth's Notes; YAJ, Vols, vi, vii, vill, x, XI, xil 

FC = Memorials of Fountains Abbey ; Surtees, Vols. XLil and LXVll 

GC =Cartae et Munimenta de Glamorgan; Cardiff, igio 

HH = Hunter's Hallamshire (Gatty), 1869 

HPR = Halifax Parish Register 

HR = Hundreds Rolls 

HS = Harrison's Survey of Sheffield 


HW = Halifax Wills ; Messrs Clay and Crossley 

IL = Index Locorum to Charters and Wills in the British Museum 

IN = Inquisition 

KC = Kirkstall Coucher Book ; Thoresby Society, Vol. vill 

KCD =Kemble's Codex Diplomaticus 

KCR = Knaresborough Court Rolls 

KF = Knights' Fees ; Surtees, Vol. XLIX 

KI =Kirkby's Inquest; Surtees, Vol. xux 

KP =Kirklees Priory; YAJ, Vol. xvi 

LAR = Lancashire Assize Rolls; Lane, and Ches. Hist. Soc. 

LC = Lacy Compoti ; YAJ, Vol. vili 

LF = Lancashire Fines ; Lane, and Ches. Hist. Soc. 

LI = Lancashire Inquisitions; Lane, and Ches. Hist. Soc. 

LN = Landnama Book, included in Origines Islandicas ; Vigfusson 

and Powell, 1905 
MPR =Methley Parish Register 
N V = Nomina Villarum ; Surtees, Vol. XLix 
PC = Pontefract Chartulary ; YAS Record Series 
PF = Pedes Finium 

PM =Calendarium Inquisitionum Post Mortem 
PR =Pipe Rolls 

PT =Poll Tax Return; YAJ, Vols, v and vi 
RC =Rievaulx Chartulary; Surtees, Vol. LXXXm 
RE =Ramsden Estate Maps 
RPR =Rothwell Parish Register 
SC =Selby Coucher Book; YAS Record Series 
SE =Savile Estate Maps 
SM = Speed's Map of the West Riding 
TPR =Thornhill Parish Register 
VE =Valor Ecclesiasticus ; temp. Henry VIII 
WC =Whalley Coucher Book; Lane, and Ches. Hist. Soc. 
WCR =Wakefield Court Rolls; YAS Record Series 
WH =Watson's History of Halifax 
WHS = Stevenson's notes on Yorkshire Surveys; English Historical 

Review, Jan. 19 12 
WPR =Wath on Dearne Parish Register 
WRM= Wakefield Rectory Manor; Taylor 
YAJ = Yorkshire Archieological Journal 
YAS = Yorkshire Archseological Society 
YD = Yorkshire Deeds, YAS Record Series ; and YAJ, Vols, xil, 


YF = Yorkshire Fines; YAS Record Series 

YR =Registers of Archbishops Gray 1225-1255, Giffard 1266-1279, 
and Wickwane 1 279-1 285 ; Surtees, Vol. LVI, Cix, cxiv 
YS = Yorkshire Lay Subsidies ; YAS Record Series 




3. Other Abbreviations — Dictionaries, etc. 

EDD = English Dialect Dictionary; Wright, Oxford, 1898-1905. 

NED =New English Dictionary; Murray, Oxford, 1888 etc. 

NGN =Noniina Geographica Neerlandica ; Leyden, 1892-1901. 

Aasen = Norsk Ordbog ; Aasen, Christiania, 1900. 

Bjorkman = Nordische Personennamen in England ; Bjorkman, Halle, 1910. 
Brons =Friesische Namen ; Brons, Emden, 1878. 

Clarke = Clarke's Yorkshire Gazetteer; London, 1828. 

Dineen =Dineen's Irish Dictionary; Dublin, 1904. 

F6rstemann=Altdeutsches Namenbuch ; Forstemann, Nordhausen, 1859. 
Falk = Norwegisch-Danisches Etymologisches Worterbuch ; Falk 

und Torp, Heidelberg, 191 1. 
Falkman =Ortnamnen i Skane ; Falkman, Lund, 1877. 
Gazetteer = Bartholomew's Gazetteer of the British Isles. 
Gonidec =Dictionnaire de la Langue Celto-Bretonne ; Le Gonidec, 

Angoultoe, 1821. 
Hatzfeld =Hatzfeld's French Dictionary; Paris, 187 1 etc. 
Hogan =Hogan's Onomasticon Goedelicum ; Dublin, 1910. 

Holder =Alt-Celtischer Sprachschatz ; Holder, Leipzic. 

Jamieson = Jamieson's Scottish Dictionary ; Paisley, 1879. 
Jellinghaus =Westfalischen Ortsnamen ; Jellinghaus, Kiel und Leipzig, 

Kelly = Kelly's West Riding Directory; 1912. 

Larsen =Larsen's Dano-Norwegian Dictionary; Copenhagen, 1910. 

Leithaeuser =Bergische Ortsnamen; Leithaeuser, Elberfeld, 1901. 
Littrd =Dictionnaire de la Langue Frangaise ; Littr^, Paris, 1883. 

Macbain =Macbain's Gaelic Etymological Dictionary; Stirling, 1911. 
Madsen =SJ£elandske Stednavne ; Madsen, Copenhagen, 1863. 
MiddendorfF=Altenglisches Flurnamenbuch ; Middendorff, Halle, 1902. 
Naumann =Altnordische Namenstudien ; Naumann, Berlin, 1912. 
Nielsen =01ddanske Personnavne ; Nielsen, Copenhagen, 1883. 
Oman = Oman's Swedish Dictionary. 

O'Reilly = O'Reilly's Irish Dictionary; DubHn, 1864. 
Peiffer =Noms de Lieux (France, Corse, et Algdrie); Peiffer, Nice, 

Pughe =Pughe's Welsh Dictionary; Denbigh, 1891. 

Richthofen =Altfriesisches Worterbuch ; Richthofen, Gottingen, 1840. 
Rietstap =Aardrijkskundig Woordenboek van Nederland ; Rietstap, 

Groningen, 1892. 
Robinson = Gazetteer of France ; Robinson, London, 1793. 
Rygh =Gamle Personnavne i Norske Stedsnavne, and Norske Gaard- 

navne ; Rygh, Christiania, 1898 etc. 
Searle =Searle's Onomasticon Anglo-Saxonicum ; Cambridge, 1897. 




Scheler = Dictionnaire d'Etymologie FraiKjaise ; Scheler, Bruxelles, 

Schonfeld =W6rterbuch der altgermanischen Personen- und Volkernamen ; 
Schonfeld, Heidelberg, 191 1. 

Skeat = Skeat's Etymological Dictionary ; Oxford, 1910. 

Spurrell = Spurrell's Welsh Dictionary ; Carmarthen, 1905. 

Stokes = Urkeltischer Sprachschatz ; Stokes, Gottingen, 1894. 

Stratmann =Stratmann's Middle-Enghsh Dictionary; Oxford, 1891. 

Torp =Wortschatz der Germanischen Spracheinheit ; Torp, Gottin- 

gen, 1909. 

Vigfiisson =Cleasby and Vigfusson's Icelandic Dictionary : Oxford, 1874. 

Williams = Williams' Cornish Dictionary; Llandovery and London, 1865. 

Zoega =Zoega's Old Icelandic Dictionary; Oxford, 1910. 

For minor names reference has been made to the six-inch maps of the 
Ordnance Survey. 




Anglo-Norman Influence on English Place-names ; Zachrisson, Lund, 1909. 

Anglo-Saxon Britain ; Grant Allen, 1904. 

Blandinger til Oplysning om Dansk Sprog i aeldre og nyere Tid ; Copenhagen. 

British Family Names ; Barber, 1903. 

British Place-names in their Historical Setting ; McClure, 1910. 

Celtic Britain; Rhys, 1884. 

Celtic Researches ; Nicholson, 1904. 

Cornish Language, Handbook of the ; Jenner, 1904. 

Crawford Charters ; Napier and Stevenson, Oxford, 1895. 

Deutscher Flussnamen ; Lohmeyer, Gottingen, 188 1. 

Domesday Inquest, The ; Ballard, igo6. 

England before the Norman Conquest ; Oman, 1910. 

Englische Ortsnamen im Altfranzosischen ; Westphal, Strasburg, 1891. 

Englische und Niederdeutsche Ortsnamen ; Anglia, Vol. xx, 257-334, 

Bjorkman, Halle, 1898. 
English Dialect Grammar ; Wright, Oxford, 1905. 
English Towns and Districts ; Freeman, 1883. 
English Village Community, The ; Seebohm, 1884. 
litudes :^tymologiques sur les noms des villes (etc.) de la Province du 

Brabant ; Chotin, Paris, 1859. 
Franzosischen Ortsnamen, Keltischer Abkunft ; Williams, Strasburg, 1891. 
Irish Names of Places ; Joyce, 1901-2, two series. 
Lincolnshire and the Danes ; Streatfeild, 1884. 
Manx Names ; Moore, 1903. 
Names and their Histories; Taylor, 1898. 
Place-names of Argyll ; Gillies, 1906. 

„ „ Bedfordshire ; Skeat, 1906. 

„ „ Berkshire; Skeat, 191 1. 

„ „ Cambridgeshire; Skeat, 1901. 

„ „ Decies ; Power, 1907. 

„ „ Derbyshire; Davis, 1880. 




Place-names of Hertfordshire ; Skeat, 1904. 

Huntingdonshire ; Skeat, 1904. 

Lancashire; Wyld and Hirst, 191 1. 

Liverpool and District ; Harrison, 1898. 

Norfolk ; Munford, 1870. 

Nottinghamshire ; Mutschmann, 1913. 

Ross and Cromarty ; Watson, 1904. 

Scotland ; Johnston, 1903. 

Shetland ; Jakobsen, 1897. 

Staffordshire ; Duignan, 1902. 

Suffolk; Skeat, 191 3. 

Warwickshire ; Duignan, 1912. 

West Aberdeenshire; Macdonald, 1899. 

Worcestershire ; Duignan, 1905. 
Roman Roads in Britain ; Codrington, 1905. 
Saga Book of the Viking Club. 
Saxon Chronicles, Two ; Earle and Plummer, 1892. 
Scandinavian Britain; CoUingwood, 1908. 
Scandinavian Element in the Enghsh Dialects; Wall, 1897. 
Scandinavian Influence in Lowland Scotch ; Flom, 1900. 
Scandinavian Loan-words in Middle English ; Bjorkman, 1900-2. 
Scottish Land-names ; Maxwell, 1894. 
Sprache der Urkunden aus Yorkshire im 15 Jahrhundert, Die ; Baumann, 

West Riding Place-names; Moorman, 1911. 
Words and Places ; Taylor, 1902. 

Yorkshire Archaeological Society's Journal and Record Series. 
Zur Lautlehre der altenglischen Ortsnamen im Domesday Book ; Stolze, 
BerUn, 1902. 



With early forms and explanations 

ABDY, Rotherham, is recorded by Burton in his notes on 
the possessions of Roche Abbey under the form Abedi, while 
other early spellings are PT i^jgAbdy, CH 1389^^?, VE 1535 
Abdy, WPR 1598 Abdye, WPR 1646 Abdie. The source of the 
name is the French abadie, a word applied to property in the 
possession of an abbey (Peififer), and derived from LL abbatia ; 
compare Du. abdij, an abbey. 

ACKROYD, ACKTON, ACKWORTH.— The first syllable 
in Ackroyd and Ackton has two pronunciations, one rhyming 
with 'lack' and the other with 'lake.' These answer respectively 
to OE dc and ON eik, an oak. We have early forms as follows: 

DB 1086 Attone, Aitone DB 1086 Aceuurde, Acuurde 

YI 1276 Ayketon DN 1209 Akeworth 

DN 1291 Aykton CR 1226 Ackewrthe 

YS 1297 Ayketona YI 1250 Ackewrde 

KF 1303 Ayketon, Aketon PT 1397 Ackeworth 

Ackroyd means 'oak-tree clearing' ; see Royd. 

Ackton, Pontefract, in spite of inaccurate Domesday forms, 
is plainly ' oak-tree farmstead,' and is derived from ON eik, an 
oak, and tun, an enclosure or farmstead. 

AcKWORTH, Pontefract, is ' Aca's holding,' from OE weorth, 
a holding, farmstead. It corresponds to OE Acanweorth, which 
later would become first Ackeworth and then Ackworth. The 
second Domesday form, Acuurde, signifies ' oak-tree holding ' ; 
compare Oakworth. 


ADDINGFORD, Horbury, is the name of a ford across the 
Calder, now almost or entirely disused. The name should be 
compared with Addingham, f 1 13° Addingeham, where the first 
element is the gen. pi. of the patronymic Adding recorded in 

ADLINGFLEET, EDLINGTON.— Under the date 763 
a new translation of the AS Chronicle has the following state- 
ment : ' Then was Petwin consecrated Bishop of Whitern at 
Adlingfleet.' A reference to the original, however, shows that 
the name is ^Ifet-ee, which presents no points of contact with 
the name Adlingfleet, though it may be connected with Durham, 
for the name Elvet occurs in that city. Early spellings of 
Adlingfleet and Edlington are as follows : 


1086 Adelingesfluet 


1086 Ellintone, Eilintone 


1220 Adlingflet 


1285 Edelington 


1245 Adelingflet 


1297 Edelington 


1292 Athelingflete 


1 3 16 Edelyngton 


1379 Adlyngflete 


1379 Edlynglon 

Personal names derived from OE c^el, noble, illustrious, often 
appear in the Domesday record under the form Adel- or Edel- ; 
hence ce^eling, a prince, and the personal name derived therefrom, 
might appear as Adeling or Edeling. Occasionally c^el is 
reduced to Al- or E1-, and, apparently under Norman influence, 
to Ail- or Eil- (Zachrisson). 

Adlingfleet, Goole, is plainly either ' Atheling's channel,' 
or 'the prince's channel,' from OE Jleot, a running stream, 
channel, estuary. 

Edlington, Conisborough, shows no sign of the geni- 
tive, and must be compared with such names as Darrington, 
Drighlington, and Alverthorpe. The termination is from OE 
tun, an enclosure, farmstead. 

AD WALTON, Bradford, was the scene of an engagement 
between the Roundheads and Cavaliers in 1643. The earliest 
record is Athelwaldon in PF 1202, and later we get YF 1504 
Adzvalton, SM 1610 Adwalton. The meaning is probably 
' Athelwald's farmstead,' from OE tun, and the personal name 
found in DB as Athelwold and in Searle as ^thel weald. 



The ancient spellings warrant the explanation 'Ada's habitation,' 
from the recorded personal name Ada and OE wlc, an enclosure, 
habitation, village. 

Adwick-LE-Street, Doncaster. Adwick-on-Dearne, Wath. 

DB 1086 Adewic DB 1086 Hadeuuic 

YI 1304 Adewike, Athewyke CH 1330 Addewyk 

KC 1325 Adewyk PT 1379 Addewyk 

The full title Adwick-le-Street shows a curiously mixed origin, 
' Adwick ' being Anglian, ' le ' French, and ' Street ' Latin ; and 
it owes its distinctive affix to the fact that a Roman road passed 
through the village. Where these roads have been obliterated 
we may often trace their direction by means of such names as 
this. The great road which passed through Adwick — Erming 
Street as it is called — is, however, by no means obliterated. 
In its course from London to Carlisle it entered Yorkshire at 
Bawtry, crossed the Don at Doncaster, and so by Adwick and 
Castleford came to Tadcaster, its course being often along the 
present highway and for many miles along parish boundaries. 

AGBRIGG, AGDEN.— The former is the name of the 
wapentake in which Wakefield and Huddersfield are situate ; it 
is also the name of a hamlet in Sandal, Wakefield. The latter 
occurs in Bradfield and near Keighley. 

The first syllable in the two names has quite the appearance 
of being derived from OE dc, an oak, for, when followed by b 
and d, 'ac' would according to rule become 'ag.' Early spellings 
of Agbrigg and Agden (Bradfield) show how mistaken any such 
surmise would be : 

DB 1086 Agebruge, Hagebrige HH 1329 Aykeden 

PF 1 166 Aggebrigge CH 1337 Aykeden 

WCR 1277 Aggebrigg 
KF 1303 Aggebrigg 

Obviously Agden is from ON eik, an oak, and OE denu, a valley ; 
compare Ackton. But Agbrigg comes from quite a different 
source, its first element being either (i) a personal name Aggi 
recorded by Nielsen, or (2) a stream-name Agge which appears 
in the early Norwegian place-name Aggedal recorded by Rygh. 


In agreement with these we may explain the terminal as from 
ON bryggja, a bridge. 

This bridge stood at the point where the Roman road from 
Pontefract to Wakefield crossed a small side-stream of the 
Calder. Here, long before the Conquest, and for many genera- 
tions after, the franklins of the wapentake met together to 
transact the business of the district and to settle disputes. The 
main road by which they travelled was doubtless that which 
came from the neighbourhood of Huddersfield by way of Leptoh, 
Flockton, Overton, and Horbury. 

AINLEY, EUand, BM 1 199 Aghenlay, WCR 1297 Aveneley 
{v = u), WCR 1314 Anneley, WCR 1389 Anelay, has developed 
on similar lines to Hainworth which in 1230 was Hagenwrthe. 
The meaning is ' the lea of Agena,' where *Agena is a short form 
of some such personal name as Agenulf; compare the ON 
personal name Agni (Rygh). 

AIRE, AIRMYN. — The village of Airmyn or Armin stands 
near the confluence of the Aire and Ouse. Early records of the 
name include the following : 

DB 1086 Ermenie, Ermenia YI 1295 Ayremyn 

CR +1108 Eyrejuinne SC 1319 Ayremine 

YI +1272 Eyretninne PT 1379 Harmyn 

Aire appears in PC 12 18 as Air, but in two records of 
Airmyn the river-name appears as Er- and in others as Ar- or 
Har-. The name is related to the Swiss Aar and German Ahr, 
formerly Ara. Lohmeyer describes the word as Teutonic and 
connects it with OE earu, ON orr, swift; but Holder claims it 
as Celtic. Possibly the change from Er- to Ayre- or Air- is due 
to the influence of the ON eyrr, a sandbank ; but see Bairstow. 

Airmyn means simply ' Aire-mouth,' from ON minne, the 
confluence of two streams ; compare the early Icelandic name 
Dalsminne (LN), and note also the ancient Yorkshire names 
Nidderminne (CR), at the confluence of the Ouse and Nidd, and 
Burmyne (PT), mentioned under Hoghton (Glass Houghton). 

AKROYDON is the name of a portion of Halifax built by 
Colonel Akroyd, a great benefactor to the town. 


ALCOMDEN, Wadsworth, is recorded by Clarke in 1828 
as Alecomden. See Allan and Combe. 


It would be difficult to find a better object-lesson than is 
presented by the early records of these names, which occur 
respectively in or near Hoyland Nether, Doncaster, and Wake- 
field. Early forms are : 

PC i2y) Alwardethuait PR iiqo A Iwardeslea \fCK i2j/^ Alvirthorpe 

PC \2'y) Alverdethuait CYi \\2^i, Alwardley "WCK \2%^ Alverthorp 

YS 1297 Allurthauyt BM 1277 Alvarlay WCR 1291 Alim-thorp 

CH iyi2 AUertwayte PM \2,y] Alverley VJCR iyx> Alverthorp 

In each case the first element is a personal name. In Alderth- 
waite it appears to be a weak form, probably ON AlfvarSi ; in 
Alverley it is a strong form, probably OE ^Elfweard ; and in 
Alverthorpe it may be ON Alfarr, but in that case we must 
assume that the -j- of the genitive has been lost, as in the 
later form of Alverley. The terminals come from ON thveit, 
a clearing, OE leak, a lea, and ON thorp, a village. 

ALDW^ARK, Rotherham, is the site of an ancient fortified 
post intended to control the passage of the Don. It was here 
in all probability that the Roman road from Derby to 
Aldborough, Riknild Street as it is called, crossed the river. In 
YS 1297 the spelling was Aldewerke, and in YF 1532 Aldwark; 
and the meaning is ' the old work,' that is, ' the old fortification,' 
from OE eald, old, and weorc, a work or fortification, or more 
accurately from Anglian aid and were. In the North Riding 
there is another Aldwark, spelt Aldewerc in DB ; compare also 
Newark, ' new work' ; Southwark, ' south work ' ; and bulwark, 
' a fortification constructed of tree-trunks,' Dan. bulv(Brk. 

ALLAN, ALLEN.— In Pudsey there is Allan Brigg ; in 
Warley, Allan Gate ; in Saddleworth, Allen Bank ; in Wilsden, 
Allen Moor ; in Norland and Shelley, Allen Wood. 

Passing to other parts of England we find places called 
Allenford in Wiltshire and Hants ; others called Alford in 
Lincoln and Somerset ; and streams called Allen in North- 
umberland, Dorset, and Cornwall. In Scotland the name Allan 


is applied to three rivers, tributaries of the Forth, Teviot and 
Tweed ; there is a stream called AUander in Berwick ; and 
there are others called Ale Water in Roxburgh and Berwick. 
Still further, there are Welsh streams called Allen, Aled, and 
Alwen. Among early spellings we find the following : 

Ptol Alauna, a stream called Allan in Stirling. 

Ptol Alaunos, a river called Alne in Northumberland. 

BCS AUeburne, Albourne, a village in Sussex. 

BCS Alneceastre, Alcester, on the Warwick Alne. 

DB Eleburne, 1285 Alburne, Auburn, East Riding. 

CR Alebrok 1267, a Devonshire stream. 

CR Alan 1285, 'the water of Alan,' in Cornwall. 

Compare these with such German river-names as Ahlbeck and 
Elbach, Alpe and Elpe, Alster and Elster, and note that among 
Celtic river-names Holder records Alana, Alara, Alantia, and 
Alanion. The latter forms are possibly extensions of the stem 
*pal- found in Lat. palus, a marsh, the initial p being according 
to rule dropped in Celtic. 

ALLERTON, Bradford, DB Alretone, PC f 1246 Alretotia 
KI 1285 Allerton, NV 1316 Allerton, is derived from OE air, 
aler, alor, an alder, and tun, an enclosure or farmstead. The 
meaning is ' alder-farm ' ; compare BCS Alar-sceat, now Alder- 

ALMA occurs as the name of a farm in Meltham, and 
obviously gets its name from the battle fought in 1854. 

ALMHOLME, Doncaster. — See Holme. 

ALMONDBURY, Huddersfield, occupies a site of very 
great interest, and the name has given rise to the most varied 
interpretations. There are two local pronunciations of the name 
to be recorded, Aimbry (eimbri) and Awmbry (ombri). 


1086 Almaneberie 


1 31 6 Almanbury 


1230 Almannebire 


1379 Almanbery 


1250 Alemanbir 


1545 Ambry 


1 25 1 Alemanebiri 


1549 Abnonbury 


L 1274 Almanbiry 


1634 Almanburie 

The ending is from OE byrig, the dative singular of burh, a 
town or fortified place. Dr Moorman thinks the first element 


refers to the Alemanni, a South German tribe, and he indicates 
two historic statements in support of the possibility of an 
Alemannic settlement during the Roman period. 

(0 In his Historic Nova the Greek historian Zosimus 
speaks of a great victory over the Alemanni gained by the 
Emperor Probus, after which many of the conquered were 
deported to Britain ; these, he says, ' when settled in that island 
were serviceable to the Emperor as often as anyone thence- 
forward revolted.' 

(2) Another historian, Aurelius Victor, says that among 
those present at York who in 310 used their influence to 
persuade Constantine to assume the imperial power there was 
a certain Erocus who is described as a King of the Alemanni. 

It is plainly not impossible that Almondbury should be the 
centre of such a settlement. The value of a strong outpost 
at such a point to keep in order the tribes in the western hill- 
country cannot be denied ; neither can we challenge the fitness 
of Almondbury for such a duty. On the other hand the analogy 
of such names as Dewsbury and Barnborough would lead us to 
look for a personal name as the first element ; and Bardsley 
records the name Aleman as occurring in 1216 and Alman in 
1379, while the Wakefield Court Rolls mention Richard Alman 
in 1308 and Richard Aleman in 1309. Further, Searle records 
the names ^Imanus and ^llmann, and a corresponding weak 
form would fully explain such early forms as Almaneberie and 

' British coins of the Brigantine type have been found in 
hoards, in association with Roman imperial and other coins,' 
both at Almondbury, where sixteen Brigantian coins were 
found, and at Lightcliffe where the number was four (VCH). 

ALTOFTS, Wakefield, PCf 1090 Altoftes, PCf 1 140 Altofts, 
PF 1207 'in bosco de Altoftes' KC 1332 Altoftes, YF 1509 
Altoftys. The second element is from ON topt, a green knoll ; 
and the first comes most probably from a Scandinavian word 
meaning alder. Falk, in addition to ON elri and elrir, alder, 
gives ON air, and Falkman has the form al in Alio with the same 


ALVERLEY, Doncaster.— See Alderthwaite. 

ALVERTHORPE, Wakefield.— See Alderthwaite. 

AMBLERTHORNE, Northowram, is mentioned in WCR 
1546 in the phrase ' William Awmbler of Awmbler Thorn.' 

ANGRAM. — In the northern half of the West Riding this 
name occurs several times, early spellings being HR 1276 
Angrum for a hamlet in Nidderdale, and BM 1325 Angrum for 
another in Wharfedale. In our own area it occurs in Ecclesfield, 
HS 1637 Angerum, and as a field-name in Mirfield, SE 1708 
Angram. The name is a dat. plur., and it goes back to the 
Germanic *angra, which has given on the one hand Germ. 
anger, Du. anger, a meadow or pasture-land, and on the other 
hand ON angr, a bay or firth ; compare the Dutch place-name 
Angeren, and the Norwegian Hardanger and Stavanger. No 
'example is given by Middendorff; it appears, indeed, to be a 
Northern word, and, if Scandinavian, it will be applied to a bay- 
like valley. 


situated respectively in Thurlstone, Wyke, and Wortley. — If 
these names are Celtic in origin they may perhaps be related to 
Irish an, water. This word represents an older stem *(/) ana, 
a swamp, bog, and is connected with our own word ' fen.' 
In Hampshire we find the name Anna, KCD 903 Anna,^.-nA the 
name Andover, PR 1170 Andeura, while in Ayrshire there is 
a stream called the Ann. 

ANSTON, NORTH and SOUTH, near Sheffield, DB 
Anstan, Anestan, Litelanstan, CR 1200 Anestane, PT 1379 
Anstane, is probably ' the solitary stone,' from OE an, one, and 
Stan, a stone — not from tun, a farmstead. 

APPERLEY BRIDGE, Eccleshill, YR 1279 Apperley, CC 
135 1 Apperlaybrig, must be compared with the Dutch place- 
name Aperlo which according to NGN, III, 322 derives its first 
element from apa, a word meaning water, and the common 
terminal -lo which corresponds to our English -ley, a lea or 


APPLEHAIGH, APPLEYARD, Royston and Thurl- 
stone. — Early records of the latter are YS 1297 Apefyard, 1372 
Apilyerd; of the former, YF \i,6o Appledayj^h^ ^ being intrusive 
as in Backhold and Wormald. Both names are from OE csppel, 
apple, and, as the terminations, OE haga and geat-d, both signify 
an enclosure, we may give the meaning in each case as ' the 
apple orchard.' 

ARBOUR, ARBOURTHORNE.— The former occurs as 
a field-name in Elland, SE Arbour Closes, and the latter is 
found near Sheffield, HS 1637 Arbor Thome. 

Amblerthorne seems to be derived from the personal name 
Ambler, and Arbourthorne may have a similar origin ; compare 
the surnames Arber and Harbour, But a more likely interpreta- 
tion of Arbour is ' earth cottage,' from OE eof&e, earth, and OE 
bur, ME bour, a cottage, chamber, bower. 

ARDRON, HORDRON.— A dialect-word ran or rone, used 
in the North of England and also in Scotland and Ireland, is 
explained in EDD as a thick growth of weeds, a tangle of thorns 
and brushwood. A similar word occurs in the place-names of 
Shetland — for example, in Longaroni, Queedaronis, and Hoorun 
— and Jakobsen explains it as a wilderness, a rough hill, from 
ON hraun, a rough place, a wilderness. On the other hand, 
Aasen has a Norw. word ron meaning a corner. 

ArdroN occurs in Kirkheaton. 

HORDRON, Penistone, spelt Horderon in a Chapel-en-le-Frith 
charter of 1323, appears in PT 1379 in the personal name 
Johannes Horderon. The first element probably comes from the 
ON personal name *Haur3i ; compare the strong form HaurtS 
found in LN. 

ARDSLEY. — South-west Yorkshire has two places of this 
name, but early records show they are derived in part from 
different sources : 

Ardsley, Wakefield. Ardslev, Barnsley. 
DB 1086 Erdeslawe, Erdeslatiue PF 1202 Erdeslegh 

PF 1208 Erdeslawe IN 1320 Erdesley 

YI 1249 Erdeslawe CR 1371 Erdesley 

KI 1285 Ardeslawe PT 1379 Erdeslay 


The former is 'Eard's burial-mound ' from OE hldw,hlaw,-&. mound 
or hill, and the latter is ' Eard's lea,' from OE leak, the personal 
name being equivalent to the first element in such names as 
Eardhelm and Eardwulf 

Duignan tells us that a forge is known to have existed at 
Aston near Birmingham as early as 1329, but according to WCR 
the present ironworks at Ardsley, Wakefield, may claim as their 
predecessor a ' forg apud Erdeslawe ' which existed even earlier, 
namely, in 1326. 

ARKSEY, Doncaster, DB Archeseia, YR 1250 Arkesay, 
HR 1276 Arkeseye, YS 1297 Arkessey, is formed from OE eg, 
an island, watery land, and a personal name. We may explain 
DB Archeseia, that is Arkesei, which represents the latter forms 
quite fairly, as ' Ark's water-meadow.' 

ARMITAGE BRIDGE, Huddersfield, is one of the few 
West Riding names of French origin. PC + 1212 has the phrase 
' Heremitagie que jacet juxta Caldwenedenebroc,' the hermitage 
which lies beside the Caldwenedene brook; YD 1352 gives 
Ermitage; PT 1379 speaks of William del Ermytache; and in 
YF 1 5 14 we find the form Annitage. The derivation is from 
the OF hermitage ; and the surname Armitage, so common in 
the neighbourhood of Huddersfield, owes its origin to this 
ancient cell. Staffordshire has a parish of the same name, and 
South-west Yorkshire has two other references to hermits in the 
names Armit Hole, Bingley Register 1653, and Armetroyde, 
Bradfield Register 1708. 

ARMLEY, ARMTHORPE. — These names show very 
plainly the importance of early spellings : 

DB 1086 Ermelai DB 1086 Ernulfestorp, Einulvestorp 

PC 1 1 55 ArmesUe RC 1231 Arnelthorpe 

PM 1287 Armeley YR 1237 Armethorp 

KC 1300 Castel Armelay YI 1256 Arnethorpe 

Armley, Leeds, is ' the lea of Erm,' from OE leah, and a 
personal name ; note that Forstemann records the name Ermo, 
and Brons the Frisian name Erme. 

Armthorpe, Doncaster, is ' the village of Arnulf,' from ON 
thorp, and the ON personal name Arnulfr (Rygh). 


ARRUNDEN, Holmfirth.— In WCR 1308 we find Aundene 
which is probably a scribal error for Arundene. The meaning is 
' Arun's valley,' from OE denii, a valley, and the personal name 
Arun recorded by Barber ; compare Alverley and Alverthorpe. 

ASHDAY, Southowram, was thought by Watson to be 
corrupted from Ashdale ; but such a derivation is entirely 
negatived by the early forms of the word: 1275 Astey, 1277 
Astaye, 1284 Astey, 1308 Astay, 1370 Astay, all from WCR. 
The meaning is either ' Asti's island,' or ' east island,' from ON 
ey, or OE eg, ME ey, an island or water-meadow. Compare 
Aston, Pudsey, Wibsey, and see the note on the termination -ey. 

ASHURST, Ecclesall, recorded as Hassherst m \i\%, Asse- 
hirst in 1347, and Asshehirst in 1374, is the 'ash-wood' from 
OE (Bsc, ash-tree, and hyrst, a copse or wood. 

ASKERN, Doncaster, is recorded as Askerne in PC f 1170, 
KC 12 1 8, and DN 1318, and as Askarne in PT 1379. The 
meaning is either ' Aski's house,' or ' ash-tree house,' from ON 
askr, and OE am, a habitation, house. 

ASPLEY, Huddersfield, is 'the poplar lea,' from OE czspe, 
the aspen or white poplar, and leak, a lea or meadow ; compare 
Icel. osp, Dan. and Sw. asp. 

ASTON IN MORTHEN, Rotherham, DB Estone, KI 
1285 Aston, CR 133 s Aston in M or thing, comes from OE east, 
east, and tun, an enclosure, homestead. There are in the British 
Isles as many as sixty Astons, and thirty Eastons, all from 
OE Easttun. See Morthen. 

ATTERCLIFFE, Sheffield, which provides a difficult 
problem, is represented in the following early records : 

DB 1086 Ateclive HH 1382 Attercliff 

YI 1296 Atterclive HS 1637 Attercliffe 

HH 1366 Atterclifi HH 1647 Attercliffe 

Before double consonants the Domesday scribes often dropped r ; 
OE hyrst, for example, was written hest, and probably the 
Domesday record of Attercliffe is imperfect for the same reason. 
Assuming that Aterclive is the correct Domesday form, we may 


put forward the explanation ' Attar's cliff', for Nielsen gives an 
ODan. name Attaer, and in CR 1308 we find the name William 
After. If this be the correct explanation we have to assume 
that the -s- of the genitive was lost in very early days, as in the 
case of Alverthorpe, Skelmanthorpe, and Thurstonland. The 
name should be compared with the Scandinavian Attermire near 
Skipton and Atterby in North Lincolnshire. 

AUCKLEY, Doncaster, DB Alcheslei, Alchelei, PM 1294 
Alkelay, NV 1316 Alkeley, IN 1327 Alkesleye, PT 1379 Alkelay, 
YF 1 567 Awkley, shows the loss of the sign of the genitive. We 
may fairly explain DB Alcheslei, that is Alkeslei, as ' Alk's lea,' 
noting that Searle gives the weak form Alca, Brons a Frisian 
name Alke, and Nielsen the ODan. Alkse ; compare ON dlka, 
a sea-bird, the auk, which may be the source of the personal 

AUGHTON, Sheffield, DB Actone, PF 1202 Acton, 1324 
Aghton, YF 1532 Awghton, is 'the farmstead beside the oak- 
tree', from OE ac, oak, and tu7i, a farmstead. Compare 
Deighton, formerly Dlcton, and Broughton, formerly Brdctun. 

Bawtry, is doubtless the Ouestraefelda or Estrefeld, where a 
Council of the English Church met in 702 (Eddi). Post- 
Conquest records of Austerfield include the following : 

DB 1086 Oustrefeld YI 1293 Oyster/eld 

PM 1237 Oystrefeud CR 1333 Austerfeld 

YF 1247 Westerfeud PT 1379 Austerfeld 

HR 1276 Ousterjfeld YD 1465 Austrefeld 

In the post-Conquest forms there are obviously three types : 
(i) Westerfeud, the field more to the west, from ON vestri ; 

(2) Oystetfeld, the field more to the east, from ON fiystri; 

(3) Austerfeld, east field, from ON austr. The terminal comes 
from OE feld, a field or plain. For the initial diphthong in 
Oysterfeld compare the early spellings of Hoyland, DB 1086 
Holland, PR 1176 Holland. 

AUSTERLANDS, Saddleworth, appears in the Saddleworth 
Parish Registers during the i8th century as Osterlands. 


AUSTONLEY, Holmfirth, DB Alstaneslei, WCR 1274 
Alstanley, WCR 1286 Alstanley, may be explained as ' the lea 
of Alstan.' The personal name appears in DB as Alstan, and in 
OE as Ealhstan. 

BACKHOLD, Southowram, like Wormald, shows an intru- 
sive d, early forms being YD 1277 Bachale, WCR 1369 Bakhale, 
PT 1379 Backhall. The meaning appears to be either 'ridge 
tongue,' from ON bak, a ridge, back, and ON kali, a tail, Dan. 
hale, a tongue of land, or 'the corner of land on the ridge,' from 
OE bcec and healh ; see Hale. 

BADS^A^ORTH, Pontefract, DB Badesuuorde, Badesuurde, 
YS 1297 Baddeswurd, PT 1379 Badesworth,YT> 1548 Baddes- 
wortk, has for its first element a personal name Bad or Badd, 
while the ending is the OE weorth, a holding, farm. 


are at least forty names in the British Isles which show the 
prefix Bag ; but, while some have Scandinavian terminations 
like Bagby and Bagthorpe, in others the ending is English as in 
the names now under discussion. Early records are as follows : 

Bagden, Denby, YF 1552 Bagden, YF 1560 Bagden. 
Baghill, Pontefract, KC 122,4. Bagktll, PC 1222 Baggehil. 
Bagley, Calverley, CC 1344 Bagley, CC 1346 Bagley. 
Bagley, Tickhill, YF ie,:^g Bagley. 
Bagshaw, Sheffield, PT 12,79 BagsckagAe. 

For the last-named the ON bcekiskogr, beech- wood, has been 
suggested ; but skdgr would give -scoe, -skow, or -skew. On the 
other hand we find in KCD Bacganleah for Bagley and Bacgan- 
^wc for Bagbrook, both in Berkshire. These suggest the personal 
name Bacga as the prefix ; compare the Norwegian place-names 
Baggetorp and Baggerud which come from the ON personal 
name Baggi (Rygh). But there is another possibility, for 
Dr Skeat shows that Bagshot in Berkshire is derived from OE 
bcBC, the back, and sceat, an angle, nook, corner. Thus Bagshaw 
may mean ' back wood,' from OE sceaga, a copse or wood, while 
Bagden may be explained as 'back valley', from OE denu, a 


BAILDON DIKE, Skelmanthorpe.— See Beldon. 

Sheffield, have the following early records : 

WCR 1374 Bailibrigge CH 1277 Balifeld 

WCR 1427 Balybrigg YS 1297 Balifeld 

WH 1775 Bailey Brigg YD 1618 Ballifield 

In addition, the Hartshead Parish Register has 1698 Belly- 
bridge and 1779 Belleybridge. The first element in these names 
may perhaps come from OFr. baili, ME baili, a steward or 
bailiff; compare ME bali-schepe, the office of bailiff, and bally- 
wycke, now 'bailiwick', the jurisdiction of a bailiff. Less probable 
is a connection with OFr. bailie, a barrier, ME baile, baili, bali; 
compare balle, a barrier, used in the place-names of Northern 
France (Peiffer). 

BAIRSTOW, Warley, WCR 1277 Bayrestowe, WCR 1285 
Bayrstowe, WCR 1 308 Bairstowe, gives some difficulty. OE here, 
barley, and stow, a place, should have given Barstow ; compare 
Barton, barley-enclosure. Apparently dialectal influence has 
been at work, and, just as ' rode ' became ' royd,' so ' bere ' 
became ' beyre ' or ' bayre.' 

BAITINGS is close to the county boundary on the road 
between Halifax and Littleborough. The name is given by 
WCR as Bay tinges in 1285, and Baitings in 141 3. It is derived 
from ON beit, pasturage, and eng, a meadow. 

BALBY, Doncaster, DB Ballebi, CR 1269 Balleby, HR 1276 
Balleby, YI 1279 Balleby, is 'the farm of Baili,' from ON byr, 
a farm, and the ODan. personal name Baili. Brons gives a 
Frisian name Balle. 

BALLIFIELD, Sheffield.— See Bailiffe Bridge. 

BALNE, BALME, BAW^N. — Balme occurs in Kirkheaton 
as Little Balm and Great Balm, in Liversedge as Balme Ing, 
and in Cleckheaton as Balme Mill. Bawn is found in Farnley 
near Leeds. In Wakefield there is Balne Lane, pron. Bawn (ben), 
and in Manningham Balne Closes. The only township-name, 

G. 5 


however, is Balne near Snaith, of which we have the following 
early spellings : 

PF 1 167 Baune LC 1296 Balne 

SC 1 197 Balnehale DN 1317 Balne 

AR ti2i6 Belri DN 1336 Balnehecke 

HR 1276 Balnehal PT 1379 Balne 

In the 14th century the forms Baulne and Bawne appear 
occasionally; and in the i6th century we find YD 1530 and 
YF 1565 Balme. It seems clear, therefore, that Balme and 
Bawn may be simply variations of Balne. 

No Anglian or Scandinavian explanation presents itself, and 
we must perforce ask whether any Celtic explanation is possible. 

In Irish we find bail, a place, and baile, a homestead, words 
which represent Prim. Celt. *balis and *baljos respectively. 
From baile, which appears in modern names as Bally, about 
six thousand Irish place-names spring — one-tenth of the entire 
list. Perhaps Balne comes from this Celtic source, the termina- 
tion being one of the Celtic diminutive endings containing n. 
In that case the meaning would be ' little farm.' It should be 
noted that Hogan records several early names of the form 
Balna, and that among our Yorkshire river-names a similar 
ending is shown by Colne, Dearne, and Torne, words probably 
themselves of Celtic origin. 


word ' bank,' a mound or ridge of earth, comes from ON *banke, 
from which come also Icel. bakki, Dan. bakke, Sw. backe. It 
occurs in Bankfoot, Bradford ; Bankside, Thome ; and Banktop, 
Southowram and Worsborough. These names may, of course, 
be of comparatively recent origin. 

BANNER CROSS, SheflSeld.— HH 1494 has Bannerfield, 
but Bannercross does not appear until the 17th century. Yet 
the name may be early, and Addy suggests a Scandinavian 
etymology, bcsna-cross, prayer-cross, formed after the pattern of 
bcenahus, house of prayer. It will be seen from the notes on 
Gildersome and Kinsley that the development of -er- in the 
second syllable would not be without precedent. Compare the 
Cumbrian name Bannerdale. 


BANNISTER.— A deed of the time of Henry VI mentions 
Bannesterdike in connection with Erringden ; a map of Wake- 
field dated 1728 shows a field called Bannister Ing; and in the 
14th century the surname Banastre was quite common in the 
neighbourhood of Wakefield. Of Bannister Edge, Meltham, 
there are no early spellings. The meaning is probably ' Bani's 
abode,' from the personal name Bani given by Nielsen and ON 
stair, a stead, place, abode. 

BARCROFT, Bingley, HR 1276 Bercroft, PT 1379 Bercroft, 
means ' barley croft,' from OE here, barley, and croft, a small field. 
See Barwick, Hertfordshire (Skeat). 

corded forms include WCR 1275 Barkesland,'PT 1379 Barkesland, 
WCR \i%g Barslmid, HW 1515 Barslande, HPR 1586 Barsland, 
SM 1610 Barseland. In the natural order of things the township 
should now be called Barsland ; but someone has thought it 
better to put back the clock, and in doing so has given us the 
name in its least suitable form. The first element is a personal 
name, connected doubtless with DB Barch, which in its turn is 
connected with ODan. Barki. Among other significations, the 
OE and ON land means an estate or country. 

Barsey Green, a hamlet of Barkisland, is recorded in 
WCR 1277 as Barkeshey, 1286 Barkeshay, 1297 Barkeseye. Its 
prefix is the same as that of Barkisland, and its terminal is from 
OE hege, ME heye, a hedge, enclosed place. 

BARNBOROUGH.— See Barnsley. 

BARNBY, BARNBY DUN.— These are of Scandinavian 
origin, and the first element is a personal name ; compare ODan. 
*Barni, a name recorded by Nielsen. 

Barney, Cawthome, PC f 1090 Bameby, PT 1379 Barmebe, 
is ' the farm of Barni,' from ON byr ; compare the Norwegian 
place-name Bjorneby, formerly Biarnaby (Rygh). 

Barney Dun, Doncaster, DB Barnebi, PF 1202 Bameby, 
CR 1232 Barneby, has a similar origin and meaning. This 
name is particularly interesting because with others it appears 
in the list of festermen who stood sponsor to Archbishop M\{x\c 



early in X023 ; the spelling at that date was Barnabi and 

BARNES, Ecclesfield, YD 1279 Bernis,YT> 1290 Bernes, 
YS 1297 Bernis, YD 1302 Bernis, is simply 'the barns,' from 
OE bere-arn, barley-house, which first became berern, afterwards 
bern, and lastly barn. 

BARN SIDE, Penistone. — See Chevet. 


We may fairly classify these as Anglian, the first element being 
the name Beorn or Beorna recorded by Searle ; compare DB 
Bern, Berne. Early forms are as follows : 

DB 1086 Berneslai DB 1086 Bernebiirg, Barneburg 

PC tiogo Bernesleia CR 1215 Barneburge 

HR 1276 Berneshy HR 1276 Barneburg 

NV 1316 Berneslai KI 1285 Barneburg 

PT 1379 Berneslay PT 1379 Barniburgh 

Barnsley may therefore be interpreted ' Beorn's lea,' from 
OE leak, a lea or meadow. 

Barnsdale, Doncaster, appears to be ' the dale of Beorn,' 
from OE dml, a valley. 

BARNBOROUGH, Doncaster, is ' Beorna's fortified post,' from 
OE burg, burh, ME burgh. 


— The common word 'barrow' comes from ME berw, barw, which 
goes back to OE beorg, beorh, a hill, burial-mound. 

Barrow, Wentworth, YI 1284 Barwe, YI 15 15 Barrowe, 
YI 1566 Barowe, means simply 'grave-mound.' 

BARROWCLOUGH, Northowram, means ' grave-mound valley,' 
from OE cloh, a valley. 

BARROWSTEAD, Skelmanthorpe, means ' grave-mound place,' 
from OE stede, a place. 

BARUGH, Darton, pronounced 'bark,' DB 1086 Berg, 
PC 1 122 Berx, YI 1304 Bergh, PT 1379 Bargh, YI 1523 
Bargh, like Barrow means 'grave-mound,' from OE beorg. 

BARSEY.— See Barkisland. 


BASSINGTHORPE, Rotherham, must be compared with 
Bassingthorpe in Lincolnshire and with Bessingby near Brid- 
lington, DB Basingebi. The first element is a patronymic 
formed from ODan. Bassi, Bessi, a name recorded by Nielsen. 

BATLEY has the following early forms: DB Bateleia, 
Bathelie, PC 1195 Batelaia, PF 1202 Batteleg, YI 1249 Batelay. 
The meaning is ' Bata's lea,' from OE leak, a lea or meadow. 

BATTYEFORD, Mirfield, SE 1708 Batty Ford, is pro- 
nounced locally with a strong stress on ' ford,' sufficient proof 
that the name is not ancient. 

BAWN.— See Balne. 

BA"WTRY stands on the Idle at the point where the Great 
North Road enters the county. The name Baltrytheleage, which 
occurs in the will of Wulfric Spot, dated 1 004, is the modern 
Balterley in Staffordshire (Duignan), and we must therefore 
make the best of the following early forms : 

CR 1232 Baltry PM 1279 Bautre CR 1293 Baltrie 

PM 1247 Bautre YR 1281 Bautre PT 1379 Bautre 

YR 1268 Bautre BD 1293 Baltrey YD 1408 Bautre 

YR 1273 Bautre BD 1293 Bawtrey YD 1567 Bawtrye 

I take Baltrey to be the most primitive of these spellings, 
and, if so, the interpretation would seem to be ' Balthere's 
island,' from OE eg, an island or water-meadow. I assume the 
loss of the sign of the genitive, and I accept the name Balthere 
(for Baldhere) on the authority of LV. Under these circum- 
stances Bautre must be ascribed to popular etymology. 

BEAL, Pontefract, DB Begale, Beghale, PC 1 159 Bekhala, 
CR 121S Becchehale, CR 1230 Begehal, PM 1311 Beghale, 
PT 1379 Beghall, means 'the corner of Bega,' from OE healh, 
a corner. The name St Bees is derived from an Irish saint 
called Bega. 

BECK, BECKFOOT. — The common Northern word ' beck ' 
is of Scandinavian origin ; it is derived from ON bekkr, Dan. 
bcek, a stream or brook. As a termination it is found in Firbeck 
and Sandbeck. BECKFOOT, BPR 1634 Beckfoote, is a hamlet in 
the township of Binglej^. 


BEESTON, BEESTONLEY.— The former, in the city 
of Leeds, was spelt Bestone in DB, while PF 1202 gives Beston, 
KI 1285 Bestone, and PT 1379 Beeston. In explaining Beeston, 
Bedfordshire, which has similar early spellings, Professor Skeat 
says 'The corresponding AS form would be Beos-tun where Beos 
is the genitive of Beo, used as a personal name. Thus the sense 
is " Bee's farm.'' The name of John Bee occurs in 1428.' 

Beeston LEY lies in the valley which divides Stainland from 
Barkisland ; the name is a secondary formation, and means 
' Beeston lea.' 

BEGGARINGTON is the name of a hamlet in Hartshead, 
1 804 Begerington, and another in Queensbury. 

HOUSE, BELL SCOUT, BAILDON.— In Kirkburton we 
find Beldon Brook ; in Wibsey Beldon Hill ; in Fulstone Bell 
Greave ; in Erringden Bellhouse Moor and Bell Scout ; in 
Hallam Bell Hagg ; and in Skelmanthorpe Baildon Dike. 

Bellhouse, Erringden, WCR 1307 Bellehus, WCR 1308 
Bellehouse, comes from OE belle, a bell, and tiTis, a house. The 
name could be applied to other structures as well as to the 
belfries of churches. 

Beldon is to be found at least three times in Yorkshire. 
The terminal represents OE dun, a hill, and it is noteworthy 
that quite a considerable number of Yorkshire hill-names have 
as their first element the word Bel-, as for examples Bella, 
Beldi, Beldoo, Beldow, Bellow, Bell Hill, and Bell Howe, all in 
the North Riding. Two of these, Beldoo and Beldow, appear to 
have a Celtic terminal representing Welsh du, black, dark, and 
it seems very probable the first element also is Celtic. Note in 
this connection 111 Bell, a hill in Westmorland. 

BELLE VUE, a district in the city of Wakefield, appears 
to have received its name from a residence called Belle Vue 
which was in existence in 1828 (Clarke). 

BENT, BENTLEY.— The OE for 'bent' was beonet, coarse 
grass of a reedy character, and the ME was bent, which in ad- 
dition to the original sense signified an open grassy place or 


moor. Thus the name Bentley means 'the lea covered with 
coarse grass,' from OE leak, a lea or meadow. 

Bentley, Doncaster, in addition to DB Benedleia, KI 1285 
Benteley, YS 1297 Bentelay, which agree with the above inter- 
pretation, has the following DB forms : Beneslai, Beneslei, where 
the sense is 'the lea of *Benn,' and Benelei, where the genitival j 
has been lost. 

Bentley, Emley, DN 1365 Bentley grange. 

Bentley Royd, Sowerby, WCR lyxi Benteleyrode, Bentelay- 
rode, WCR 1326 Benteleyroide. 

Good Bent occurs as the name of a small district on the 
borders of Meltham. 

-BER, -BERGH. — These terminations occur in Gawber, 
Hoober, and Thrybergh. They represent OE beorg, beorh, a 
hill, grave-mound, barrow. 

BESSACAR, Doncaster, was formerly in the possession of 
Kirkstall Abbey and early records are therefore not to seek ; 
but difficulties arise from the fact that in ancient times the 
name had two different forms. 

PF 1202 Besacre KC 1187 Besacle 

KC 1209 Besacre KC 11 99 Besacle 

YS 1279 Besaker KC 1202 Besacle 

PM 1 28 1 Besakre PT 1379 Besakell, Besakill 

Bessi was an ON personal name representing an earlier form 
Bersi, and Bessacar may be explained as ' the field of Bessi,' from 
ON akr, a field ; compare the Norwegian place-names Besserud 
and Besseby, the clearing and the farmstead of Bessi, that is, 
Bersi. For the ending -acle see Eccles. 

BIERLEY, IDLE, NOSTELL.— A trio of interesting and 
difficult names of which we have early records as follows : 


1086 Birle 


+ 1190 Idla 


1086 Osele 


ti25o Birle 


12 1 2 Hidel 


I2\i> Nostell 


1275 Byrle 


ti23o Ydele 


1228 No s tie 


1303 By rill 


1246 Ydel 


1 25 1 Nostel 


1 316 By r ell 


1285 Idell 


1280 Nostell 


1344 Birille 


1 316 Idele 


1282 Nostel 


1424 Estbirle 


1379 Idyll 


1313 Nostella 


1573 Bierle 


1572 Idle 


1380 Nostell 


All these early forms present an -/ termination which is quite 
common in the Netherlands and the adjacent parts of Germany. 
Among the examples provided by Forstemann and Jellinghaus 
we find Hedel which comes from Hedilla, Biirgel which comes 
from Burgila, the Briels and Breuls from OHG brogil, marshy 
land, the Bohls and Biihls from OHG bithil. Prim. Germ. *buhila, 
a hill. Among Yorkshire names which show the same termina- 
tion there are the North Riding Burrell, DB Borel, and the East 
Riding Nuttle, DB Notele ; and among South-west Yorkshire 
names there are Diggle and Ickles. 

BiERLEY, Bradford, should rather be Byrell, the ending -ley 
being obviously a modern addition due to the influence of such 
near neighbours as Calverley, Rodley, Thackley, and Stanning- 
ley. It goes back, I imagine, to an early form *burila derived 
from the Germanic *bura, a storehouse. Compare OE bur, a 
storehouse, dwelling, OE byre, a. shed, hut ; and note that 
Forstemann gives an early German place-name of corre- 
sponding form, viz. Burela. 

Idle, Bradford, lies within a bend of the Aire. The name 
must be compared with that of the Nottinghamshire river : 
Bede Idla, YD 1567 Idyll, YD 1575 Idell, YD 1576 Idle, now 
Idle. I suggest that the Yorkshire Idle was originally a stream- 
name, perhaps cognate in origin with OE J^, flowing water. 

NOSTELL, Pontefract, has a picturesque sheet of water, and 
the name is doubtless connected with OFris. nost, MLG noste, 
a watering-place for cattle, a horse-pond ; compare the North 
Riding name Nosterfield, KI 1 285 Nosterfeld, NV 1 3 1 6 Nosterfeld. 
In view of the unbroken series of forms equivalent to Nostell the 
Domesday spelling Osele must be rejected. 

BIERLCW. — This name appears in Brampton Bierlow, 
Brightside Bierlow, and Ecclesall Bierlow, all near Sheffield. 
Early spellings are IN 1307 Brantonbirlagh, 1412 Brampton 
Birlagh, 1483 Brampton Birlagh, YE 1535 Brampton Byerlawe. 
The word signifies a district having its own byrlaw court ; it 
signifies also, as explained by NED, ' the local custom or law 
of a township, manor, or rural district, whereby disputes as to 
boundaries, trespass of cattle, etc., were settled without going 


into the law courts.' It is derived from ON byjar-log, the law 
of the byr, that is, of the village or community. In addition to 
the matters already mentioned NED tells us that the byrlaw 
court regulated such points as the date of ploughing, the number 
of cattle to be turned out upon the common land, the fines for 
trespass and for damage to fences. 

Interesting references to these local customs occur in the 
Wakefield Court Rolls (II, xxiv). At Alverthorpe in 1298 a 
man was charged with making an unlawful distress, and in reply 
he pleaded that the debt for which he was distraining had been 
declared his due by the judgement of the whole ' Byrrelaghe ' ; 
and at Brighouse in 1330 the local court found that Thomas son 
of Julian had allowed his cattle to graze in the herbage of the 
Birefield ' contrary to the custom of the Bireleghe.' 


From the OE personal name Bill or Billa came the patronymic 
Billing, and from this the names of many English villages like 
Billingford and Billington. In France the patronymic appears 
in the place-name Billanges, and BCS has such early names as 
Billingabyrig and Billanoran. Early records of Bilham and 
Billingley are as follows : 

DB 1086 Bileham, BilhcC DB 1086 Bilingelei, Bilingelie 

DB io?,6 Bilam,Bilan PF iibj Billinglea 

PC tll8o Bilham, Bilam PR 1 190 Billingeleya 

KI 1285 BiUeha7n, Bylleham KI 1285 Bilingley 

YS 1297 Billeham PT 1379 Billy ngley 

BiLHAM, Doncaster, is either ' the home of Billa,' from OE 
ham, or ' the enclosure of Billa,' from OE hamiii. 

BiLHAM occurs also in Clayton West. 

Billingley, Doncaster, is 'the lea of the Billings,' from 
OE leak, a lea or meadow. 

BiLCLlFFE, Penistone, CH 1329 BylcHffe, YD 1358 BilcHf, 
PT 1379 Bilclyf, is 'the cliff of Billa,' from OE clif. 

BiLLEY, Ecclesfield, HH 1366 Bilhagh, is 'the enclosure of 
Billa,' from OE haga, an enclosure or small farm. 

BINGLEY, Bradford, DB Bingelei, BingheUia, PF 1209 
Bmgeleia, KI 1285 Byngeley, KF 1303 Byngeley, is 'the lea of 


Binga,' from OE leak, a lea or meadow. Support for an OE 
personal name * Binga is to be found in the Frisian name Binge 
recorded by Brons. Compare Bingley with Bingham, Notts, 
DB Bingeham. 

BIRCHENCLIFFE, Huddersfield, is 'the birch-tree de- 
clivity,' from the OE adjectival form beorcen, birchen, and 
clif, a cliff, steep hill. 

BIRDW^ELL occurs in Worsborough and Swinton ; the 
name should be compared with Spinkwell and Ouzelwell. 

BIRKBY, BIRKEN SHAW.— Though NED describes 
' birk ' simply as a northern form, there is no doubt that as 
a rule it is Scandinavian ; compare such examples as Birkby, 
Birkwith, Birkholme, and Briscoe, where the whole name is 
undoubtedly Scandinavian, with such as Birkenshaw and 
Birket which have Anglian terminations. 

Birkby occurs near Brighouse, in Huddersfield, and in 
Morley, and probably means 'the birch-tree farm.,' from Dan. 
birk, the birch-tree. Birkby near Leeds and Birkby near 
Northallerton are, however, both 'the farm of the Britons,' 
being recorded in DB as Bretebi, and having similar forms 
of later date. 

Birkenshaw, Bradford, WCR 1274 Birkensdiawe, WCR 
1307 Birkynschawe, PT 1379 Kirkyngschawe (the k a scribal 
error), is ' the birch copse,' from OE sceaga, a copse. 

BIRLEY, BIRSTALL, Ecclesfield and Leeds.— Early 
spellings of these names are as follows : 

DN 1 161 Burleya PF 1202 Burstall 

YS 1297 Byrley BM 1273 Burstall 

YI 1298 Birley YR 1281 Byrstalle 

YD 1323 Birley WCR 1286 Byrstall 

PT 1379 Byrlay WCR 1296 Birstall 

Birstall corresponds to the German place-name Borstel which 
is found in Holstein, Hanover, and Westphalia. Jellinghaus 
records an early form Burstalle, and this goes back to an earlier 


Burgstall, which is quoted by Forstemann and reproduced in 
many German place-names. We may without hesitation, derive 
Birstall from OE burgsteall, ' the place of the burh, or fortified 
homestead,' and we may explain Birley as 'the lea of the 
burh.' See Borough. 

It should be noted that although Birstall gives its name to 
an ancient parish, it is not an ancient manor, being a member 
of that of Gomersal, a fact which agrees with the interpretation 
now put forward. The ' burh ' of the manor of Gomersal was 
doubtless at Birstall, and the church which rose up in connec- 
tion with the ' burh ' was close at hand ; hence the ancient church 
is at Birstall, not at Gomersal. Compare Kirkheaton and Kirk- 
burton ; and note that an early sculptured stone, probably of the 
9th century, is preserved in the church at Birstall. 

BIRTHW^AITE, Barnsley. — Early records of the name are 
YR 1234 Birketweyt, WCR 1297 Birchtwayt, and in undated 
charters of Pontefract and Rievaulx Birketwait and Birkewait. 
The meaning is the 'birch-tree paddock,' from ON birki-, the 
birch-tree, and thveit, a paddock. 

BLAXTON. — Woods and clearings darker or duller than 
the rest, and streams brown from the mosses and moors, were 
often described by the OE word blac, blcec, which meant dark 
as well as black. Another word almost the same in form but 
very different in meaning was OE bide, bright, shining. The cor- 
responding ON words blakkr and bleikkr are easy to distinguish, 
but the OE words are often indistinguishable. 

Blackburn, 1321 Blakebum, 1326 Blakeborne, a side stream 
joining the Calder near Elland, is simply ' dark brook,' from 
OE burna, a brook, and the weak form of OE blac. 

Blackburn, DN 1161 Blacabuma, a small stream near 
Ecclesfield, has the same origin and meaning. 

BLACKSHAW, Heptonstall, HW 1539 Blakschey, HW 1540 
Blakeshaye, is the 'dark wood,' from OE sceaga, a copse or wood. 

Blackwood, Sowerby, is recorded in WCR 1308 as Blac- 
wode ; from OE wudu, a wood. 


Blaxton, Bawtry, PM 1294 Blacstan, PT 1379 Bakestan, is 
' the dark stone,' from OE stdn. 


The first element in Blacker and Blackley is sometimes pro- 
nounced 'black' and sometimes 'blake'; compare Ackroyd and 
Ackton. In Blacup the first element is always pronounced 
' blake.' 

Blacker occurs in Darton, Hoyland Nether, Skelman- 
thorpe, and Crigglestone, DN Blaker, and is either 'the pale 
carr,' from ON bleikkr, pale, and kjarr, copsewood, brushwood, 
or 'the dark carr,' from ON blakkr. 

Blackley, Elland, BM Blacklau, SE Blakeley, has rejected 
its original termination — which came from hldw, hlaw, a mound, 
cairn, hill, — in favour of the more common -ley ; compare 

Blacup, Liversedge, 1783 Blacup, although it shows no sign 
of the original diphthong, is derived from ON bleikkr, pale, and 
hop, a secluded valley. 

Blake Low, Kirklees, formerly Blachelana (that is Blacke- 
laud), appears to be the same word as Blackley. 

BLAMIRES, Northowram, is an almost exact counterpart 
of the ON Blamyrr which occurs in Havards Saga, and means 
' the dark swampy place,' from ON blar, dark, and myrr, a moor 
or bog. 

BOB. — Three places rejoice in the name Lingbob, one in 
Wadsworth, another in Wilsden, and the third near Mount 
Pellon. In addition Sowerby has the name Collon Bob, and 
Midgley the name Bob Hill. EDD explains the word as a 
knob, a lump. 


doubtless to be connected with the Gael, and Ir. bog, a marsh, 
a soft wet place. 

BOGDEN, Lepton and Rishworth, means 'marsh-valley,' from 
OE denu, a valley. BOG GREEN occurs in Kirkburton, and 
Bog Hall in Kirkheaton. 


BOLE EDGE, BOLE HILL.— The former occurs in 
Bradfield, the latter in Treton and Ecclesal). The first element 
is most probably the ON bol, a farm. 

explanations of these names which call to mind the story of the 
patriarch at Bethel. The true explanation is, however, much 
more prosaic. 

Of Bolster Moor, Golcar, there are no early records, but 
of BOLSTERSTONE, Bradfield, we find YD 1375 Bolstyrtone, 
YD 1398 Bolstyrston, YD 1402 Bolsierston, YD 1425 BDlstirstoti. 
The first element comes from ON bolstd6r, a farm-house, a name 
which occurs frequently in the Landnama Book, and the terminal 
is -ton, not -stone. There are several places in Norway called 
Bolstad, and in the West Riding, in addition to Bolsterstone, we 
have two other names from the same source, namely, Bolster 
Moor, ' farmhouse moor,' and Bowstagill, near Settle, ' farmhouse 

BOLTON. — This is a distinctively Northern name ; Kim- 
bolton in Hunts and Chilbolton in Hants are not true Boltons, 
the former being Cynebald's ton and the latter Ceolbald's. Of 
true Boltons I count eighteen examples, one in Scotland and 
seventeen in the six northern counties, three being in Lancashire 
and ten in Yorkshire. The West Riding has almost half of the 
whole number, namely, seven, and of these South-west Yorkshire 
had four, namely, Bolton by Bradford, Bolton on Dearne, Bolton 
Brow in Warley, and Bolton in Calverley. Early spellings are 
as follows : 

Bolton by Bradford BoLTON on Dearne 

DB 1086 Bodeltom DB 1086 Bodeltone^ Bodetone 

KF 1303 Bolton PR 11 90 Boulton 

NV 1316 Boulton KI 1285 Bolton 

CC 1328 Boulton KF 1303 Boulton 

It has been customary to refer the first element to OE botl 
or bold, a building, a dwelling-place, but this does not seem satis- 
factory, and an examination of collateral facts must be made. 

I. Among modern place-names there are several with 
the termination ' bottle ' or ' battle ' : {a) Harbottle, Lorbottle, 


Shilbottle, Walbottle, in Northumberland; Newbottle in Durham 
{BCS 963 Niiibotle) ; Dunbottle in Yorkshire ; Newbottle in 
Northants ; {b) Newbattle in Edinburgh ; Battleburn in York- 
shire. These may fairly be linked to the OE botl. 

2. There are, further, several modern place-names involving 
the form ' bold ' or ' bald ' : (a) Bold in Peebles, Lancashire, and 
Salop ; Newbold in Lancashire, Cheshire, Derbyshire, Staffs, 
Notts, Leicester, Northampton, and Warwick (DB 1086 Newe- 
bold); Parbold in Lancashire (LF 1202 Perebold); Wichbold in 
Worcester (BCS 692 Unicbold) ; (b) Newbald in Yorkshire (DB 
Niwebold, Niwebolt). Obviously these go back to OE bold. 

3. The DB spellings of the various Boltons assume quite 
regularly the form Bodeltone; compare DB Bodelforde, now 
Bolford. But the prefix ' Bodel ' represents ' Bothel ' which 
would naturally become ' Bol ' ; compare DB 1086 Medeltone, 
PF 1208 Methelton, KI 1285 Melton, now Melton. 

It appears, indeed, that we must credit OE with three forms, 
botl, bold, bothel ; and a reference to Torp shows that the three 
may all be referred to the Germanic form *bdthla, *bodla, a 
dwelling-place, while among cognate forms there are OFris. bold 
and bodel, and Du. boedel, boel. 

In regard to the geographical distribution of the three forms 
we find Bottle almost wholly in Northumbria, chiefly in the 
northern part; Bothel almost wholly in Northumbria, but chiefly 
in the southern part ; while Bold occurs chiefly in Mercia. It 
seems very probable, therefore, that the distinction between the 
three forms is tribal and of early origin. 


to-day the word ' booth ' has but one form, our South-west 
Yorkshire names formerly presented two, viz. boude, that is, 
boiithe, from ON bu6, and bothe from ODan. ba&. This difference 
gradually disappeared and only the Danish form is now to be 

The Icelandic Sagas have many references to booths and 
their uses. We find, for example, that at the meetings of the 
Icelandic Parliament, which lasted for two weeks, temporary dwell- 
ings were used — booths which remained empty the rest of the 


year. A passage in the Laxdala Saga tells us that when the 
sons of a certain Hoskuld got to the Thing 'they set up booths, 
and made themselves comfortable in a handsome manner.' And 
another passage in the same Saga gives an account of Hoskuld's 
landing in Iceland. Having unloaded his ship, he laid her up 
and built a shed over her ; then ' he pitched his booths there, 
and the place is still called Boothsdale ' {BW&ar-dalr). 

Booth occurs in Rishworth, PT 1379 Bothe ; in Austonley, 
WCR 1307 Bothe; and in Midgley, Birkenshaw, and Thurlstone. 

BOOTHROYD occurs in Dewsbury, WCR 1275 and 1286 
Bouderode ; in Rastrick, WCR 1274 Botherode, WCR 1298 
Bouderode ; and in Thurstonland. The meaning is 'the clearing 
beside the booth ' ; see Royd. 

BOOTHTOWN, Halifax, is referred to as Bathes in WCR 1274, 
Bothes in YF 1548, and Bouthtowne in HPR 1579. The termi- 
nation is a recent addition, and therefore takes the form ' town ' 
not ' ton.' 

BORD HILL, Saddleworth and Thurlstone.— OE bord 
meant a board, plank, shield ; and ON bord had similar mean- 
ings ; but a later signiiication was food, maintenance, ' board,' 
and Johnston explains the name Bordlands, South Scotland, as 
'board or mensal land,' land held on the rental of a food-supply. 
On the other hand Middendorff has OE bord, a boundary, which 
appears to give the sense we now require. 

-BOROUGH, -BURY. — These words come from the nomi- 
native and dative of the same OE word. The nominative 
burh or burg gave the ME burgh, borw, and the modern form 
'borough.' The dative, by rig, gave such ME forms as byrie, byry, 
biry, and, under the influence of Norman scribes, DB berie ; 
compare Almondbury, DB Almaneberie, Dewsbury, DB Deus- 
berie, Horbury, DB Horberie. The original meaning appears to 
have been a fortress or a fortified place, a homestead enclosed 
by a wall or mound : but later the word came to mean a walled 
town, a city. Signifying in the earliest days nothing more than 
a rampart of earth provided as the defence of some isolated 
farmstead, the word touched every stage of meaning until it 
attained the idea of a fortified town. 


Along the valley of the Don there is a series of seven 
' boroughs ' which is thought to represent a line of early 
fortifications ; the names are Templeborough, Masborough, 
Greasborough, Mexborough, Barnborough, Conisborough, and 

Barnsley is the centre of another series : Kexborough, Har- 
borough, Measborough, Worsborough, and Stainborough. 

Further north there is a cluster of three which lie on or near 
the Calder, namely, Horbury, Dewsbury, and Almondbury. 

Still further north there are near Bradford two other 
examples, namely, Stanbury and Thornbury. 

BOTANY BAY occurs as a local name in Lepton. 

BOTTOMBOAT, BOTTOMLEY.— The first element is 
from OE botm, ME botym, botum, botheni, a foundation, bottom. 
Early spellings include the following : 

PF I202 Sianliebothem WCR 1275 Bothemlei 

WCR 1286 Bothem WCR 1277 Bothemhy 

BOTTOMBOAT, Stanley, is unique in its terminal, which 
undoubtedly refers to a ferry-boat. Johnston has placed on 
record several Scotch names which involve the word, among 
them ' Boat of Forbes ' and ' Boat of Inch ' ; and he explains 
them as referring to ancient ferries. Bottomboat is simply ' the 
boat at Bottom.' A ferry over the Calder is still in existence. 

BOTTOMLEY, Barkisland, means ' the lea in the lowlying 
ground,' from OE leah, a lea. 

BOWER. — This name is found in Goody Bower, Wakefield, 
in Hall Bower, Almondbury, in Harry Bower, Kirkburton, and 
Bower Hill, Oxspring. It is derived from OE bur, ME bour, 
a dwelling, a store-room, a chamber. 

BOWLING, Bradford.— See Ing. 


ordinary course of development OE brad became broad; but 
before double consonants a shortening took place giving us 
instead the form brad. For the same reason OE dc-tun has 


given us Ackton, whereas the two elements standing alone would 
have become oak and town. Hence we can tell at a glance that 
names like Bradfield and Morton are early, while Broadfield and 
Moortown are of later formation. 

Bradfield, Sheffield, Bradefeld in KI 1215, YS 1297, NV 
1 3 16 and PT 1379, is the 'broad field,' from the weak form of 
OE brad and OE feld. 

Bradley, Huddersfield, DB Bradelei, PF 1202 Bradelai, is 
the ' broad lea,' from OE leak, a lea or meadow. 

Bradley occurs also in Stainland. 

Bradshaw, which occurs near Slaithwaite, Halifax, and 
Holmfirth, is the 'broad copse,' from OE sceaga, ME schagh, 
a copse or wood. 

BRADFORD, DB Bradeford, PC ti250 Bradeford, KI 
1285 Bradford, PT 1379 Bradforth, is the 'broad ford,' from 
the weak form of OE brad and OE ford. 

The place-names in the immediate neighbourhood of Brad- 
ford are to a large extent Anglian. No other part of Yorkshire 
has so many names like Bowling, Cowling, Cottingley, Cul- 
lingworth, Drighlington, Frizinghall, Girlington, Manningham, 
and Stanningley, names which contain a patronymic. Other 
Anglian examples are Allerton, Bolton, Clayton, Heaton, 
Horton, Thornton ; Bierley, Calverley, Dudley Hill, Farsley, 
Rodley, Shipley ; Pudsey, Wibsey ; Birkenshaw, Buttershaw, 
Oakenshaw ; Huns worth, Shuttleworth ; and, in addition, there 
are such names as Chellow, Denholme, Eccleshill, Lidget Green, 
Norwood Green, Owlcotes, Ryecroft, and Strangford. 

As evidence of Scandinavian influence the following names 
may be mentioned : Leventhorpe, Priestthorpe, the two Gaisbys, 
Scholemoor, Slack and Toftshaw. 

BRAITHWAITE, BRAITHWELL.— The first element 
in these names goes back to ON breiSr, broad ; compare OE 
brad, broad. 

Braithwaite, Doncaster, HR 1276 Braytweyt, PM 1328 
Braithwaite, is ' the broad clearing,' from ON thveit, a clearing. 

Braithwaite, Keighley, has doubtless the same origin and 

G. 6 


Braithwell, Doncaster, DB Bradeuuelle, CR 1232 Braith- 
well, HR 1376 Braytewell, YS 1297 Braythewell, NV 13 16 
Braytkewell, SM 16 10 Brawell, shows conflict between the first 
and all the remaining forms. DB Bradeuuelle is Anglian ; it 
goes back to OE brad, broad, and well, a spring, and the 
modern name derived from it would have been Bradwell. The 
remaining forms are all Scandinavian, and I take it their 
xneaning is the same. 

BRAMLEY, BRAMPTON.— South-west Yorkshire has 
three Bramleys and three Bramptons : 

Bramley, Leeds, DB Branielei, KC 1198 Bramleia, PC 
•fi220 Bramleia, KI 1285 Brameley, NV 1316 Bramlay. 

Bramley, Rotherham, DB Bramelei, CR 1232 Bramley, 
NY 1 3 16 Bramlay, IN 1324 Bramley. 

Bramley Hall, Handsworth. 

Brampton, Doncaster, DB Bratttone, HR 1276 Brampton, 
YI 1280 Brampton, KC 11325 Brampton. 

Brampton, Morthen, DB Brantone, KI 1285 Brampton, 
NV 1316 Brampton in Morthyng. 

Brampton, Wath, DB Brantone, KI 1285 Brampton juxta 
Wath, IN 1307 Brantonbirlagh, CH 1483 Brampton Birlagh. 

The Bramleys are probably derived from an early word 
brame which means a briar or bramble ; compare OE brcemel, 
a bramble, and the dialect-word brame recorded in EDD. But 
it is possible they spring from a personal name Brami recorded 
by Nielson, whence the Scandinavian place-name Bramthorp. 

The Bramptons, on the other hand, are perhaps derived from 
OE or ON brant, steep, high. This, however, could not apply 
to Brampton near Doncaster, and it should be noted that the 
Norman scribes often wrote n for m ; hence Brantone may repre- 
sent Bramtone ; in which case the meaning would be ' bramble 
enclosure,' from OE tun, an enclosure or farm. 

BREARLEY, Sowerby Bridge. — See Brierley. 

BRECK, BRINK.— The ON *brenka, gave the Dan. 
brink and by consonantal assimilation the Icel. brekka, a slope, 
a hill. From the Danish word came our English word brink, a 


Instances of Brink as a place-name are quite numerous to the 
west of Halifax ; it occurs, for example, in Cragg Vale, Langfield, 
Mytholmroyd, Midgley, and Sowerby. Further south it appears 
in a slightly altered form in Micklebring and perhaps Oxspring. 

There are also several examples of the word Breck, but it is 
doubtful whether they represent I eel. brekka, a slope, or a dialect- 
word breck recorded in EDD and explained as a piece of un- 
enclosed arable land. The name New Break, Marsden, appears 
to represent the latter, and with this must be compared the phrase 
' an essart called Newebrekk,' YD 1 348, connected with Dalton, 
Rotherham, where we find to-day Brecks Hill. 

BRETTON.— South-west Yorkshire has two places of this 
name, Monk Bretton near Barnsley and West Bretton near 
Wakefield. Early records are as follows: 

West Bretton. Monk Bretton. 

DB 1086 Bretone, Bret lone DB 1086 Bret tone, Bretone 

PF 1202 Bretton YR 1233 Britton 

YS 1297 Bretton NV 1316 Bretton 

WCR 1308 Westbretton PT 1379 Monckebretton 

In OE there was a personal name Brytt, a Briton, of which the 
gen. sing, was Bryttes and the gen. pi. Brytta. Though Brettone 
could not come from the former, it might be derived from the 
latter ; that is, from Bryttatun. More probably, however, it is 
formed on the pattern of Bretland, the land of the Britons. This 
would give the meaning ' the farm of the Britons,' from tun, an 
enclosure or farm. Monk Bretton received its distinctive affix 
because of the monastic establishment — sometimes called Lund 
Priory — which formerly existed there. 


— For Brianscholes, Northowram, WCR has 1337 Brynscoles, 
1 338 Brynscoles, and 1403 Bryneschoks, Here the ending is from 
ON skali, a hut, while the first element is probably from ON brun, 
the brow or projecting edge of a cliff or hill ; compare Dan. bryn, 
the brow of a hill. Bryan in Bryan Lane, Fixby, and Bryan 
Close, Marsden, has probably the same origin. 




The first element in these words is from brara, the gen. pi. of 
OE brmr, brer, a briar, bramble, witness the following early forms : 
DB 1086 Breselai, Breselie CH 1259 Breretwisell 

YI 1255 Brereley YD 1292 Breretusil 

NV 1316 Brerelay DN tl3i2 Brertwisell 

PT 1379 Brerelay KC 1348 Breretwisell 

Brierley, Barnsley, where the Domesday forms appear to 
be inaccurate, is ' briar lea,' from OE leak, a lea or meadow. 

BRIESTWISTLE, Thornhill, derives its termination from OE 
twisla, a fork, confluence, land between two uniting streams. 
The change in the prefix — compare YD 1418 Brestewesyll — is 
perhaps due to assimilation. 

BRIESTFIELD, Thornhill, though less ancient than Briest- 
wistle, is gradually taking its place. It seems to have been 
formed under the impression that the proper division of its 
predecessor was Briest-wistle, doubtless through the influence 
of two well-known words. 

Near Wath-on-Dearne there was formerly a place called 
Breretwisel in YD 1253, and Breretwysel in YI 1323. 

BRIGHOUSE, which lies between Huddersfield and 
Halifax, is placed at the exact point where an ancient road — 
possibly a Roman road — crossed the river Calder. Early 
references are WCR 1275 Brighuses and Briggekuses, WCR 
1307 Briggehouses, WCR 1308 Brigkouses, WCR 1334 Brighus, 
WCR 1392 Brighous. The name is doubtless derived from 
ON bryggja, a bridge, and hus, a house. 

In South-west Yorkshire the only bridge recorded by DB is 
that near Wakefield called Hagebrigge, Agbrigg. It is clear that 
at such a point the bridge could have had only the most modest 
dimensions. But, as the early place-names show, a bridge 
existed at Brighouse as early as the year 1275, and we may 
fairly assume that so great an engineering effort was caused by 
traffic of considerable amount. Still earlier, in 11 99, apparently 
in connection with Elland and its bridge, we find the name 
Brigrode in a charter of Fountains Abbey, and in the same 
document the name Ferybrigge occurs, witnessing to bridges 
over the Aire and Calder at the end of the 12th century. 


BRIGHTHOLMLEE, Sheffield, DN 1337 Brightomlegh, 
1 342 Brightonlegh, may be ' Brihthelm's lea,' or to give the OE 
form of the name ' Beorhthelm's lea.' If so, the sign of the geni- 
tive has been lost as in such cases as Alverley and Alverthorpe. 

BRIGHTSIDE, *BRIKSARD, Sheffield.— The former is 
found after the 15 th century, the latter chiefly before that date ; 
but it is certain that Brightside is not derived from Briksard, 
witness YF 1573 ' Brekesherth, Sheffield, and Brygktsyde.' Among 
other records we find the following : 

YD — Brykesherith YF 1573 Brygktsyde 

YS 1297 Brikeserd YF 1577 Brightside 

HH 1383 Brikserth YF 1595 Brightsyde 

YF 1520 Briksard CH 1638 Brightside 

The termination in the earlier name is curiously fickle, and 
takes the forms erth, arth, erd, ard, herth, and herith. Cornard 
in Suffolk has forms in -erth followed by others in 'erd and 
-ard, and Dr Skeat says ' the forms with th must be the more 
original.' If we regard Brikeserth as the correct ME form 
afterwards represented by Briksard, we shall be able to 
explain the name as 'Brik's plough-land' or Brik's land,' from 
OE eat'i, ploughland, or OE eor^e, ground, land. The forms 
in -herth, -herith, appear to show the influence of OE heor^, 
hearth, home. 

Brightside probably bears the obvious meaning, from OE 
beorht, bright, and OE side, a side. 

BRINCLIFFE, Sheffield.— CR 125 1 has Brenteclive, HR 
1276 Branteclive, YF 1574 Brynclyff, and a Will dated 1653 
Brendcliffe. The first element has oscillated between brente and 
brynk, but the present day name is undoubtedly derived from 
the latter, and the meaning is 'slope cliff' from ON *brenka; 
compare Dan. brink, Icel. brekka, a slope. 

BRINK.— See Breck. 

BRINSWORTH, Sheffield, must be compared with Brins- 
ford, Staffordshire, which is situated four miles north of 


Wolverhampton. Early spellings — those of the Yorkshire 
name first — are as follows : 

DB 1086 Brinesford 994 Brunsford 

PF 1202 Brinesford 994 Brenesford 

KI 1285 Brinford 1227 Bruneford 

YS 1297 Brinisford 13CXD Brunesford 

NV 1316 Brineford 138 1 Bruynesford 

Both names show a mutated form of the OE personal name 
Brun, which corresponds to the modern surname Brown, and 
both show oscillation between the strong and weak declension. 
These names have a special interest in that they must be con- 
sidered whenever the site of the battle of Brunanburh, 937, is 
being discussed. It will be remembered that one of the names 
given to the battle is that of Bruneford. 

BRISCOE LANE, Greetland. — The terminal in Briscoe is 
doubtless from ON skogr, a wood, and the prefix is probably 
from Dan. birk, ON birki-, the birch-tree. In 1277 Briscoe near 
Guisbro' was Birkescov, the birch wood. 

BROADSTONE HILL, Saddleworth, is mentioned in the 
13th century deeds as Brodeston and Bradeston, spellings which 
fully justify the present name. 

BROCKHOLES, Honley and Mixenden. — The former is 
recorded in WCR as Brocheles in 1275, and Brokholes in 1277 
and 1284. The first element comes from broc, a badger, a word 
found in OE as broc, in Danish as brok, in Welsh and Cornish 
as broch, and in Irish and Gaelic as broc. The termination is 
from OE holh, a hole or hollow. 

BRODSWORTH, Doncaster, DB Brodesuurde, Brodes- 
uuorde, PC 1240 Broddeswrd, KI 1285 and PT 1379 Brodesworth, 
is plainly ' the farmstead of Brod,' from OE weot^, a farmstead 
or holding ; compare the DB personal name Erode. 


OE brom, ME brom, broom, means broom, brushwood ; and 
Bromley, which occurs in Cumberworth and Wortley (Sheffield), 
means ' broom lea,' from OE leak, a lea ; compare BCS Brom- 


Broomfield, Stocksbridge, and Broomhead, near Bolster- 
stone, require no explanation. 

BROOKFOOT, BROOKHOUSES, Brighouse and Laugh- 
ton, have their prefix from OE broc, a small stream. The latter 
is recorded in YS 1297 as Brokhouses. 

BROTHERTON, Wadsworth, is 'the farmstead of Brother, 
from OE or ON tun, a farmstead, and the personal name Brother 
recorded by Searle ; compare ODan. Brothaer, and note also 
WHS tiojo Brddertun, for Brotherton near Pontefract. 

BROW. — This word occurs in such examples as Birkby 
Brow, Hopton Brow, and Berry Brow, and is derived from 
OE bru, a brow, the edge of a hill. 

BRUNTCLIFFE, Morley, \6l<^ Bruntcliffe, may perhaps be 
derived from ON brunnr, a spring or well, and klif, a cliff. 

TREES, occur respectively near Roche Abbey, in Thrybergh, 
and in Liversedge. EDD says Bully is a West Riding form 
of the word 'bullace,' and the association of the word with 
Tree and Bush gives support to such an explanation. The 
Hartshead Parish Registers have Bulitrees in 1783 for the 
Liversedge name. 

BURFITTS LANE, Quarmby.— The termination -fitts is 
doubtless from ON thveit, a paddock, and the first element is 
probably ON bur, a storehouse or chamber. See Thwaite and 

BURGHWALLIS, Doncaster, DB Burg, NV 1316 Burgh, 
is frequently recorded in the 13th and 14th centuries as Burgh- 
walais and Burghwaleis. 'Stephen le Waleys' — that is, Stephen 
the foreigner — of Burghwaleis was living in 1294. See Borough. 

-BURY.— See Borough. 

BUSK, BUSKER. — These names call attention to an 
interesting difference between words of Scandinavian origin 


and words purely English, for ' busk ' is the Scandinavian 
equivalent of our common word 'bush'; compare Dan. busk, 
Sw. buske, a bush, with OE *bysc, ME bush. 

From a common ancestor, Teutonic sk, ON got sk and OE 
got sc ; but at a time prior to the Viking settlements in England 
the OE sc was softened to sh, while the Scandinavian sk retained 
its original pronunciation. In consequence our language has 
several interesting doublets ; among ordinary names, for ex- 
ample, we find 'scrub' and 'shrub,' and among place-name 
elements 'ask' and 'ash,' 'busk' and 'bush,' 'marsk' and 'marsh,' 
'skelf'and 'shelf.' 

It follows from this that we may with confidence claim 
those Yorkshire place-names which contain the sound sk as 
Scandinavian : the Scars and Scouts, the many examples of 
Scheie or Scholes, all names ending in -scoe, and such further 
examples as Skeldergate, Skircoat, Skelmanthorpe and Skinner- 
thorpe. It would not, however, be equally safe to claim all 
place-names in sh as English, for there are occasional examples 
where a word of undoubted Scandinavian origin has not retained 
the sound sk. 

Busk occurs in Kirkburton and Hunshelf, in the latter case 
in the form Briery Busk. 

Busker, Skelmanthorpe, is most probably the Scandinavian 
plural, and thus means simply ' bushes.' 

^VORTH. — Names commencing with Butter- occur as far 
north as Perth and as far south as Devon, while a few are 
found in Ireland. The well-known Buttermere occurs in 
Wiltshire as well as in Cumberland ; there are Butterwicks 
in Westmorland, Durham, Yorkshire, and Lincoln ; and there 
are strange-looking examples like Buttergask (Perth), Butter- 
crambe (York), and Butterbump (Lincoln). 

It is clear that the words come from various sources, some 
being English, others perhaps Celtic, and others certainly 
Scandinavian. There can be no doubt, for example, that 
Butterby (Durham) is Scandinavian, and so also are Butterbusk, 


Buttemab, Buttercrambe (DB Bute' cranie), Butterthwaite, and 
Butterwick (DB Butniid), where the terminals are connected 
M'ith Dan. husk, a bush, ON nabbi, a knoll, Norw. krampe, a 
thicket (Aasen), ON thveit, a clearing, and ON vi^r, a wood. 
Buttergask, f 1200 Buthyrgasc, is said to be derived from Gael. 
bothar, a road, and gasc, a hollow (Johnston). But the Butter- 
leys (Derby, Hereford, York, and Devon) and the Buttertons 
{Stafford and Devon) seem clearly English. 

In the case of the names with English terminations it will 
probably be right to derive Butter- from OE butere, butter; while 
in those with Scandinavian terminations there are two alterna- 
tives, (i) the Scandinavian personal name Buthar, DB Buter, 
and (2) the plural of the ON butr, a log, tree-trunk, stump of a 
tree, Norw. butt. In each case the present form would be due 
to the influence of the common word ' butter ' ; derivations from 
butr are, however, much more likely. 

BUTTERBUSK, Warmsworth, PT 1379 Buttirbuske, derives 
its termination from the Norw. and Dan. busk, a bush, 

BUTTERLEY, Fulstone, WCR 1274 Buttreley and 1307 
Butterley, is probably ' butter lea,' from OE butere, and leak ; 
but compare Buttershaw. 

BUTTERNAB, Lepton and Crossland, probably means 'the 
knoll covered with tree-stumps,' from ON butr and nabbr. 

Buttershaw, Liversedge and Bradford, has an English 
termination, from OE sceaga, a copse, while its first element 
is most probably Scandinavian, from ON butr. 

Butterthw^aite, Ecclesfield, YS 1297 Butterwayt, YD 
1302 Buttertwayt, is often pronounced Butterfitt. It is either 
' Buter's clearing ' or ' the clearing among the tree-stumps.' 

ButterworTH, Norland, WCR 1297 Buttrewrth, is probably 
from OE butere, butter, and weorth, a holding or farmstead. 

BY. — This is the best of all tests for Viking settlements. 
It is connected with both Norsemen and Danes, though of more 
frequent occurrence in districts settled by the latter. According 
to Flom it is to be found 600 or 7CX5 times in Skane and 
Denmark, and 450 times in Norway, while according to 


Jellinghaus Schleswig has about 80 examples. Among the 
Norwegian names given by Rygh we find Kirkeby, Lundby, 
Vestby, Dalby, Sorby, names which correspond exactly to 
well-known Yorkshire examples. 

In South-west Yorkshire the earliest form of the word is 
-bi, which occurs quite regularly in DB ; compare also Barnabi, 
which occurs in 1023 in the list of Archbishop ^Ifric's fester- 
men. In East Anglia the name assumes other early forms. 
Alongside forms in -by like Kerkeby, Malteby, Ormesby, Scrouteby 
in Norfolk, and Barneby in Suffolk, the Domesday record gives 
forms in -bei and -bey, like Clepesbei, Colebei, Essebei, Haringebei, 
Kerkebei, Ormesbei, Otkebei, Stokesbei, Wilebei, Filebey, Maltebey, 
Ortnesbey, Stokesbey; and one example in -be, namely, Clepesbe. 
These words, -bi, -be, -bei, go back to a Teutonic stem *buvi, 
*bovi, whence ON byr, bczr, Norw. by, bo, Dan. by, Sw. by 

The modern examples in South-west Yorkshire number 
thirty. Denby occurs four times ; Kirkby and Birkby thrice ; 
Fixby, Gaisby, and Scawsby, twice ; and the list is completed 
by the names Balby, Cadeby, Denaby, Firsby, Fockerby, Foulby, 
Haldenby, Hellaby, Maltby, Quarmby, Ringby, Rusby, Sowerby, 
Wragby. It is noteworthy that more than half are names of 
farms or hamlets, not of townships. It is also noteworthy 
that the word did not become a living element in the language ; 
there was apparently no creation of names in -by after the 
Norman Conquest. 

CADEBY, Doncaster, DB Catebi, PF 1202 Cathebi, YI 1277 
Cateby, NV 13 16 Cateby, PT 1379 Cateby, has for its first element 
the ODan. personal name Kati, while the ending is from ON 
byr, a farm or village ; compare Dan. Kattorp formerly Kata- 
thorp, and see Shibden. 

CALDER, COLNE. — The former rises on the Lancashire 
border, passes Todmorden and Wakefield, and joins the Aire at 
Castleford ; the latter, after passing Huddersfield, joins the Calder 
at Colnebridge. It should be noted that in Scotland there are 
six Calders, and in the North of England four. 

Early spellings of our Yorkshire Calder include PF 1202 


Kelder, LC 1296 Keldre, WCR 1308 Calder; and early spellings 
of the Colne include BM Kalne and Kalnebotmes. It seems 
probable that the two rivers contain the same element, Kal or 
Cal, and not improbable that early records of the Calder have 
been influenced by ON keld, a spring. 

1. What is this element Kal ? 

Among German rivers Lohmeyer records the Kalle, Kahl 
Kallbach, Kellwasser, Kallenbach, Kallenborn, and Kalbe. He 
goes further and connects the root with ON kalla, OE ceallian, 
to call, and OHG cfiallon, MHG kallen, to babble. 

Turning to Holder we find enumerated as Celtic river-names 
the Callus, now la Chee, and two streams named Calla, now the 
Call and Callbach. 

In connection with the Scottish Calders McClure quotes an 
early form Caledofre, and Johnston has Caldovere. It has been 
usual to refer the prefix to the Ir. caill, Gael, colli, a wood, which 
represent an older stem *kaldet-, a wood. Note, however, that 
according to Hogan there are several Irish rivers which were 
formerly called Callann. 

2. What are the endings -der and -ne? 

Although the Yorkshire Calder appears in its early forms 
much crushed up, it is probably the same word as the Scottish 
Calders. In that case the terminal comes from the Celtic stem 
dubro- water, a root which has given Welsh dwfr and dwr. Corn. 
dofer, Ir. and Gael, dobhar. Corroboration is provided by records 
of the Lancashire Conder given in the Cockersand Chartulary: 
f 1220 Kondover, i"i250 Kondoure. 

For the ending in Kalne compare the termination -mia -ona 
recorded by Holder in such names as Isana, Lohana, Axona, 
Matrona, early spellings of the Isen, Lahn, Aisne, and Marne. 

CALLIS occurs in Callis Wood, Hebden Bridge, and Callis 
Lane, Penistone. A reference to the former appears in \VCR 
1375 where a certain 'Adam de Calys' is mentioned, and HW 
1 55 1 speaks of 'my playces called Calys.' 

CALVE RLE Y, Leeds, DB Caverleia, Cauerlei, PF 1203 
Couerlee, PC fi220 Calverleia, KI 1285 Calverlay, KC 1332 
Caluerlay, PT 1379 Caluerlay, may have a personal name for 


the first element, though no suitable form is on record. More 
probably the meaning is 'the lea of the calves,' from OE calf, 
gen. pi. calfra ; compare the examples Cealfra-mere and Calfre- 
croft recorded in BCS. 

CAMPSALL, Doncaster, DB Cansale, PF 1208 Camsal, PC 
\\210 Cameshale, KC 12 18 Camsale, NV 13 16 Camesall, PT 1379 
Campsale. The / is intrusive, as in the Bramptons, and the n in 
the DB spelling is probably an error of the Norman scribe. The 
first element is doubtless a personal name, but, though there is 
a modern surname Camm, I can find no- such OE name. The 
second element comes from OE healh, a corner. 

CANKLOW, Rotherham, PF 1202 Kankelawe, must be 
compared with the Frisian place-name Kankeber (Sundermann), 
and the Frisian personal name Kanke (Brons). Hence we may 
interpret Canklow as ' the burial-place of Canka or Kanki,' from 
OE hldw, hlww, or from Prim. Norse hlaiv, a burial-mound, 
cairn, influenced by the OE word. Note, however, that a 
hamlet in Worcestershire is called Cank, which can scarcely be 
a personal name. Further search discovers a Nonvegian word 
kank, a knot, clump (Aasen); compare ON kokkr, a clump. 

CANTLEY, Doncaster, DB Canteleia, Cantelie, KC 1209 
Canteleia, PF 12 10 Kantelai, YR 1272 Canteley, is 'the lea of 
Canta,' a name given by Searle ; compare BCS Cantanleah. 

CARLECOTES, CARLETON.— From the OE ceorl, a 
peasant, we get the various Charltons found in the southern 
counties, as well as the common surname Charlesworth, which 
was originally a place-name. But Carlecotes and Carletons 
involve the corresponding Northern form, and are derived 
either from ON karla, gen. pi. of ON karl, a man, freeman, 
or from ON Karla, gen. sing, of the ON personal name Karli 

Carlecotes, Penistone, WCR 1277 and 1286 Carlecotes, sig- 
nifies ' the cottages of the freemen,' from ON kot, a cottage. 

Carlton, Rothwell, DB Carlentone, CR 125 1 Carleton, YI 
1258 Carleton, is 'the homestead of the freemen,' from ON tfm, 
an enclosure or homestead. 



Carlton, Barnsley, DB Carlentone, YR 1233 Carlton, NV 
1 3 16 Carleton, PT 1379 Carleton, and 

Carleton, Pontefract, YI 1256 Carleton, have the same 
origin and meaning. 

CARLINGHOW, Batley, is recorded in KF 1303 as 
Kerlynghowe, and in PT 1379 as Kerlynghawe. There is here 
no sign of the genitive ; compare kerlingar, gen. sing., and 
kerlinga, gen. pL, of ON kerling, a woman, old woman. The 
meaning may possibly be ' the burial-mound of the women ' ; 
but more probably it is ' the burial-mound of Kerling,' from ON 
haugr, a howe or cairn. Compare Kellington and Thurstanland. 


The word Carr is in frequent use as a field-name, especially to 
designate lowlying land beside a stream. It is derived from 
ON kjarr, copsewood, brushwood ; compare Dan. kar, a bog, 
fen. There is a considerable number of compounds in which 
the word appears as a suffix, the form being either -kar or -ker ; 
among them are Blacker, Bullcar, Cobcar, Deepcar, Durker, 
Elsecar, and Moscar. Other examples of the use of the word 
are Batley Carr, Birley Carr, and Carr in Saddleworth. 

Carr House, Maltby, appears in a Fine of 1435 as Carhouses. 

Carbrook, Sheffield, HH 1383 Kerbroke,Y¥ 1520 Carbroke, 
combines OE broc, a brook, with ON kjarr. 

Carcroft, Doncaster, PC f 11 70 Kerecroft, PF 1204 Kerecroft, 
DN 1342 Kercroft, YD 1348 Kercroft, may have a personal name 
for its first element. 

CARTWORTH, CORTWORTH.— The former is a town- 
ship running into the heart of Holmfirth, and the latter a hamlet 
in Brampton Bierlow. Omitting the DB forms of Cartworth, we 
find such spellings of the two names as 

WCR 1274 Cartewrth YD i486 Corteworth 

WCR 1307 Cartewrth YF 1515 Cortworth 

PT 1379 Cartworth 

Seeing that the personal name Kort exists in Frisian (Brons) 
and in Norwegian (Rygh), Cortworth may possibly be 'the 


holding of Korti,' from OE worth, weorth, a homestead, farm, 
holding. Perhaps Cartworth has a similar explanation, though 
no suitable name is recorded by Searle, Rygh, Naumann, or 

But the DB forms of Cartworth, Cheteruuorde and Cheteruurde, 
give pause ; they remind us of early forms of Catterick, which 
appears in the Antonine Itinerary as Cataractone, in Bede as 
Cetrekt, Cetreht-tune, Cetreht-weorthige (Miller), and in CR 1241 
as Cheteriz. It seems possible, then, that the first element in 
Cartworth may be equivalent to Catar- in Cataractone, which 
according to Williams is an extension of the Prim. Celt. *cat-, 
a battle. On the other hand the DB forms may be faulty, 
and represent Cherteuuorde and Cherteuurde, in which case the 
interpretation suggested above would hold good. But see 

CASTLE. — South-west Yorkshire has five names containing 
this word : Castleford, Castleshaw, Hardcastle, Horncastle, and 
Ladcastle. Borrowed from Lat. castellum, it took the form castel 
in both OE and ME, and signified a village or hamlet as well as 
a fortress. In the Third Gospel the different versions present at 
one point a very interesting comparison. Speaking of the two 
disciples going to Emmaus (xxiv. 13), the Authorized Version 
(1611) says they went 'to a village'; but Tyndale's Bible (1526) 
says 'to a toune'; Wycliffe's translation (1389) gives 'to a 
castel'; and the Anglo-Saxon Version (995) gives 'on thaet 
castel.' Possibly in some instances the name Castle Hill com- 
memorates an ancient village rather than a castle. 

CASTLEFORD stands at the point where the great Roman 
road called Erming Street crossed the Aire. It is the Legeolium 
or Lagecium of the Romans, and has therefore been a post of 
importance for well-nigh twenty centuries. 

A place called Ceasterforda is mentioned in the AS Chron. 
under the date 948. The full passage, which relates to the 
struggle for supremacy between the Vikings of Northumbria 
and the EngUsh Kings, reads as follows : ' In this year Eadred 
king harried all the land of the Northumbrians because they 



had taken Yric^ as their king. And then, during the pillage, 
was the great minster which Saint Wilferth built at Rypon 
consumed by fire. And when the king was on his way home- 
ward, the army of the Danes from within York attacked the 
king's army from behind at Ceasterforda, and made great 
slaughter. Then was the king so enraged that he would have 
marched his forces in again and the land with all destroyed. 
When the Witan of the Northumbrians understood this, then 
forsook they Hyryc, and made with king Eadred reparation 
for the deed.' 

The name Ceasterforda has sometimes been explained as 
referring to Chesterfield ; but Oman and McClure agree in 
identifying it with Castleford, and early records of the name 
leave no room for doubt, witness the following : 

PC ti220 Castelforda WCR 1274 Castelford 

CR 1230 Castreford WCR 1285 Castilforth 

PC 1235 Castleforda WCR 1297 Castelford 

PM 1258 Kasterforde WCR 1307 Castilford 

Thus, the element ' caster,' which comes from Lat. castrum, has 
been displaced by ' castle,' which is derived from Lat. castellum 
through OFr. caste/''; and Castleford may therefore be explained 
as 'fortress-ford.' 

Legeolium appears to have for its first element a Celtic 
river-name of the form Leg'e. The Flemish river Lys, a tribu- 
tary of the Scheldt, is recorded by Holder under such early 
forms as Leg^e, Legia, and Leie, Leia ; and among possible ex- 
amples in our own country we may mention the Hertfordshire 
Lea, formerly Lyge (Skeat), and the Argyllshire stream-names 
Dubh-lighe and Fionn-lighe, the black and white rivers (Gillies). 
According to Holder the Celtic word is probably cognate with 
OHG lahhan, a cloth or sheet. 

But there is a further point of much interest. Just as the 
Roman name Isurium was lost, and displaced by the Anglian 
name Aldborough, so the Roman name Legeolium disappeared, 

' Eric Blood-Axe, an elder son of Harold Fatrhair. 

' The word castel reached us from the North of France, the corresponding form 
in use in the more central parts of France being OFr. chastel, from which comes the 
Fr. chdteau. 


and its place was taken first by Casterford and afterwards by 
Castleford. In each case the Roman fortress still remained, a 
mysterious relic of the past, and the new names, ' Old fortress ' 
and ' Fortress-ford,' bore witness to the fact. But in neither 
case does the Anglian name contain any hint of its prede- 
cessor, Isurium or Legeoliuni, and we are left to infer that 
for a season each place lay desolate. 

In the case of Doncaster, as at Aldborough and Castleford, 
the fortress remained down to Anglian times, witness the second 
element in the name ; but the story of Doncaster is in another 
respect quite different from those of Aldborough and Castleford, 
for a remnant of the old population seems to have lived on, and 
so the Romano-British name Danum was preserved as the first 
element in the Anglian Danecastre, and is still maintained in the 
modern Doncaster. 

CASTLESHAW, Saddleworth, stands on the Roman road 
which led from Mancunium (Manchester) to Cambodunum (Slack), 
and it possesses the remains of a Roman camp. The present 
name, spelt Castylshaw in 1544, means 'the copse beside the 
fortress,' from OE castel, a fortress or village, and OE sceaga, 
a copse or wood, ME schagk, schawe. 

HILL, CHATTS WOOD.— We find Cat Clough in Hepworth 
and Stocksbridge ; Cat Hill in Hoylandswaine ; Cat Moss in 
Rishworth ; Catshaw in Liversedge and Thurlstone ; Cat Stones 
near Bingley; Chat Hill in Thornton; and Chatts Wood in 
Hunsworth. The available spellings are not very early, and 
prove of little assistance ; they include 

Catcliffe, Rotherham, PM 1255 Cattedif, HH 1366 Catdiff; 

Catbeeston, Beeston, Cattebeston, Catebeston, Cadebeston ; 

Catshaw, Liversedge, Catcheye. 
Further, WRM 1391 gives the name Catekeldre, where Keldre is 
plainly the river Calder, and PF 1209 has Cadtheweit for some 
place in the vicinity of Morley and Beeston. 

Catcliffe is perhaps ' the hill of Kati,' from ON klif, and the 


ON personal name Kati ; but this and other names may perhaps 
be connected with the wild-cat, OE cat, catt, ME cat. Neither 
of these explanations would prove satisfactory, however, in 
the case of the first element in WRM 1391 Catekeldre, where 
Keldre is obviously the river Calder. Is any other explanation 
possible ? 

There is an important Brythonic word cognate with Engl. 
' heath ' which occurs in certain Gaulish and British place-names 
in the form ceto- ; compare Cetobriga, Letocetum, and Utocetum. 
In Welsh this word appears as coed, a wood, which corresponds 
to Corn, cuit, Bret, coit, coat; and Stokes gives the primitive 
form *keiton, a wood, forest, heath. Connected with these there 
appears to be quite a considerable body of English and Scotch 
place-names. Thus, in Scotland, it seems probable that the 
following names involve the word : 
Keith 1 1 69 Keth 

Kincaid 1238 Kincaith, 1250 Kyncathe 

Pencaitland 1145 Pencet-, 1150 Pencat- 

Dalkeith 1140 Dalkted, 1145 Dalketh 

And in England the following : 

ChatcuU, Staffs. ti2oo Chatkull 

Culcheth, Lanes. 1201 Culchet, 1311 Culcheth 

Penketh, Lanes. 1292 Penketh, 1296 Penket 

Penge, Kent 1067 Penceat 

Lichfield, Staffs. t2oo Letocetum, later Liccedfeld 

Kesteven, Lines. 1086 Chetsteven, 11 70 Chetsteuene 

Particularly interesting are the early records of Chatteris in the 

county of Cambridge : 

Ramsey Chartulary Ceatrice, Chateric, Chaterik 
Domesday Book Cetriz, Cietriz 

Inquisitions Cetriz, Chetriz, Catertz 

And equally interesting are references in the Charter Rolls ; 
1248 Forest of Chett, 1270 In bosco de Cett, 1290 Chetwod, where 
we find the duplication of meaning so common when a name 
from one tongue is adopted by another. 

If we seek to interpret the names given above as Celtic words 
we find that Penketh and Penge may be explained as ' head of 
the wood,' from Welsh penn, head ; that Kincaid has the same 
meaning, from Gael, ceann, head ; that Chatkull and Culcheth 

G. 7 


appear to mean ' back of the wood,' compare Welsh oil, Ir. and 
Gael, cul ; while Dalkeith may be explained as ' wood-place,' 
from Gael. dal. 

It seems clear that the great variety of forms — cat, cet, chat, 
chet, caith, keith — with which we have just been met may fairly 
be linked with Prim. Celt. *keiton, Gaul, and Brit ceto-, and not 
improbable that some of the names enumerated at the head of 
this note may also be derived therefrom. 

It remains only to add that the material used above is drawn 
chiefly from McClure's British Names in their Historical Setting, 
and the books by Skeat, Duignan, Wyld, and Johnston on the 
place-names of Cambridge, Stafford, Lancashire, and Scotland. 

CATHERINE. — This name is found in Catherine Slack 
which occurs thrice near Halifax, viz. in Cragg Vale, near 
Queensbury, and near Brighouse ; it also occurs in Catherine 
House, Midgley (Halifax). Similar names are found elsewhere, 
and among Yorkshire examples we find Catherine House in 
Bransdale and Catherine Closes in Gowthorpe. I am unable to 
give early forms, and can only suggest comparison with such 
Scottish names as Loch Katrine, the town Catrine in Ayr, a 
mansion called Catter in Dumbarton, Catterline in Kincardine, 
Catterlen and Blencathara in Cumberland, and Catterick in 
North Yorkshire, the ancient Cataractonium. See Catcliffe. 

in these words is probably the Danish personal name *Kataer 
recorded by Nielsen. 

Catterston, Almondbury, RE 1634 Catterston, is ' Kataer's 
farm,' from ON tun, an enclosure, farm. 

CATTERSTORTH, Stannington, HS 1637 Catterstorth, is 
' Kataer's wood,' from ON storth, a young plantation or wood. 

CAWTHORNE, Barnsley. — Early forms, followed by those 
of Cawthorne near Pickering and Cawton in Ryedale, are as 
follows : 

DB 1086 Caltorne DB 1086 Caltorne DB 1086 Calvetone 

PC tii6o Calthorna PF 1202 Kaldtkom KI 1285 Calveton 

CR 1230 Calthorn KI 1285 Calthorne NV 1316 Calveton 

PT 1379 Calthorne KF 1303 Calthorn RC 1332 Calvetona 



Cawton is plainly • calf enclosure,' and the North Riding Caw- 
thorne appears to be 'cold thorn.' Our own Cawthorne is 
obviously not derived from OE cecdf, a calf Neither can it be 
connected with OE calu, callow, bare, for its early forms show 
no sign of the second syllable in calu\ compare Callow Hill, 
Staffordshire, formerly Caluhull and Kalewhull. Far more 
likely is a derivation like that of the northern Cawthorne from 
OE ceald, ME cald, cold, the final consonant having disappeared 
at an early date before the succeeding dental ; compare Owston, 
Ulley, and Methley. 

CHAPEL. — The word chapel has a curious origin. It comes 
from OFr. chapele, LL capella, a little cloak or cope {capa or 
cappa). NED tells us that the word is derived from the capella 
or cloak of St Martin which was preserved as a sacred relic by 
the Prankish Kings. This capella was borne before the kings in 
battle and was used to give sanctity to oaths. Later the name 
was transferred to the sanctuary in which the cloak was kept ; 
afterwards to any sanctuary containing holy relics ; and last of 
all to any oratory or lesser church. 

CHAPELTHORPE, Wakefield, 1285 Schapeltkorpe, DN 1447 
Chapelthorp, the ' chapel village,' from ON thorp, received its 
name from a chapel-of-ease to the parish church of Sandal. 

CHAPELTOWN, DN ti277 Capella, HH 1366 Capell, YF 1554 
Chappell, is so-called from a chapel-of-ease to the parish church 
of Ecclesfield. 

Whitechapel, Cleckheaton, was called Heton Chapel in 
Saxton's Survey 1575. It was a chapel-of-ease in the ancient 
parish of Birstall. 

CHARLESTOWN is the name given to a portion of the 
borough of Halifax high above North Bridge, and also to a 
district lying near the Calder west of Hebden Bridge. The 
ending -town suggests that the name is of late origin ; see 

CHAT HILL, CHATTS WOOD.— See Catbeeston. 



CHEERBARROWS, Cleckheaton.— An early form which 
seems to correspond to this name is HR 1276 Chirebarwe; 
this relates, however, to a place near Barnsley. Other records 
involving an early form of Cheer or Chare are Penchare (1381) 
for Pencher in Durham, Smallchare {1600) in the Wath-on-Dearne 
Register, and Offechere in the Baslow Court Rolls. In EDD 
'Chare' is explained as (i) a narrow lane or alley, (2) marshy 
land ; compare Norw. kjerr, a fen (Aasen). 

CHELLOW, Bradford, DB Celeslau, SC 1252 CJielleslawe, 
YI 1288 Cheleslawe, PT 1379 Chellowe and Chellow. The first 
element comes from a well-known OE personal name Ceol, and 
the ending from OE hlaw, hlaw, ME lawe or lowe, which means 
a mound, cairn, hill. In their edition of the Crawford Charters 
Professor Napier and Mr Stevenson tell us that hlaw is almost 
invariably joined to a personal name, ' no doubt recording the 
person buried there.' We may fairly explain Chellow as ' the 
burial-mound of Ceol.' 

CHEVET, WENT. — These words, in common with other 
Yorkshire names like Dent and Elmet, possess a termination of 
much interest. Among early records of Chevet, Went, and 
Dent, we find the following : 

DB 1086 Cevet, Ceuet DN — Wenei CR 1251 Deneth 

YI 1243 Chevet DN — Wenetes hill YD — Denet 

WCR 1275 Chy-jet KC — Wenet YS 1297 Dent 

NV 1316 Chevet WCR 1307 Wentebrigge PT 1379 Dent 

Elmet appears as Elmet in Bede, Elmed in BCS, Elmete in 
PF 1212 ; and Barnside near Penistone is recorded in WCR 1274 
as Barnedeside. Further, there are several Lancashire names 
presenting a similar appearance, namely : 

Thomley 1262 Thornedelegh, 1289 Thornedeley 
Cuerdley 1331 Keuerdelegh, 141 1 Kiuerdeley 
Dinckley 1247 Dunkythele, 1369 Dynkedelay 

It seems probable that an earlier form for Barnedeside was 
Barnede, for Thornedelegh Thornede, and that Keuerdelegh and 
Dunkythele sprang from earlier forms like Keuerde and Dunkythe. 
Thus we appear to be in the presence of a termination which 
takes the form -ythe, -ethe, -ede, -et, -t. 


Gall^e^ and Jellinghaus^have long lists of names with a similar 
termination ; and a few typical examples may well be given. 


890 Ulithi 

l1^^ Olede 


850 Thrumiti 

1200 Drumthe 


1046 Ascete 

12 1 2 Eschethe 


1 241 Brameth 

1250 Bremet 


1307 Ekit 

1320 Eket 

In the last three examples the stem is obviously a common 
tree-name : Eschede is from esch, an ash ; Braamt from brame, 
a briar or bramble ; Eekt from eke, an oak. The termination, 
according to Gall^e, comes from thja (Indo-Germ. tid), which 
apparently had a collective meaning. 

But there is a similar termination of Celtic origin, witness 
the ancient names Reged and Guened. Among early river- 
names there are many instances : 

Churnet, Staffs. Chirnete in 1284 

Teme, Worcs. Temede, Tamede, in early charters 

Kennet, Berks. *Cunetio, Cyneta 

And still more interesting are certain place-names where an 
English termination has been added to the river-name : 

Tenbury, Worcs. Tamedeberie, Tametdeberie, in 1086 

Kintbury, Berks. Cheneteberie in 1086 

Ribbesford, Worcs. Ribbedford in 1023 

Probably all these river-names are Celtic ; but in any case the 
Berkshire Kennet is of that origin. 

Chevet, Wakefield, is probably Celtic ; compare Chevin, 
which must, I think, be connected with Welsh cefn, Gaulish 
kebenna, a ridge. 

Went, a stream which passes Wentbridge, has been linked 
with the site of the battle where Oswy defeated Penda in 655. 
In Bede the stream connected with this battle is recorded as the 
Winwed, and in the AS Chronicle the place is called Winwidfelda. 
As to the forms Winwed, Winwid, Mr Quiggin says they are 
undoubtedly Brythonic, and the second syllable must be compared 
with the last element in the stream-names cinguid, annouid, found 

' NGN III, 362. ^ Westfdlischen Ortsnamen, pp. 26-29. 


in the Book of Llandaff, and also with the modern Welsh stream- 
name Ebwydd (generally written Ebbw). But in Geoffrey of 
Monmouth the river Winwed appears as Winned, a form closely 
approximating to Wenet, yet possibly not the same. I am 
disposed to look upon Elmet as equivalent to Elmt in North 
Brabant, 1 1 79 Elmeth, from the Teut. stem elma, an elm 
(Forstemann), and to explain Went similarly from the Teut. 
stem *venjo, pasture-land, OE wyn{n) pasture-land ; compare 
Wendhagen, 1234 Wenethage, 1259 Winet/iage (]e\\' 

CHEVIN, CHE^V,— These words are probably connected 
with Welsh ce/n, Gaulish kebenna, a ridge. 

Chevinedge, Southowram, is a ridge of land stretching 
towards the Calder, and the name is obviously related to the 
Celtic words given above. 

Chew Head, i486 Blackchew Head, is a summit on the 
borders of Saddleworth ; compare the Somerset names Chewton, 
IL 1241 Cheuton, Chew Stoke, IL 1350 Cheuestoke, Chew, IL 
1350 Chyw. 

CHICKENLEY, Dewsbury, WCR 1277 and 1298 Chykenley, 
DN 1461 Chekingley, is ' Chicken's meadow.' The name John 
Chickin occurs in WCR 1 309 in connection with Horbury. 

CHIDSWELL, Batley.— This was originally ' Chid's hill," 
as is shown by spellings given in WCR : Chydeshyll 1275 and 
Chideshill 1298. At a later date the name ceased to give any 
sign of its connection with a hill; in YF 1550 it was spelt 
Chydsell, and in 1577 Chitsele. The popular imagination forth- 
with interpreted the word as ' Chid's well,' and the spelling 
assumed its present form. The personal name comes from an 
OE name Cidd recorded by Searle. 

CHISLEY, Hebden Bridge. — WCR records the name in 
1296 as Chesewaldeley, 1307 Chesewelley, 1308 Cheswalleye, 1309 
Chesewalleye. The first element is probably from Norw. kjesa, 
the dwarf-birch (Aasen) ; compare Cheer, as in Cheerbarrows, 
from Norw. kjerr, a fen (Aasen). For the termination in 
Chesewell, Chesewall, see Wall, Well, and note that d is intrusive 
in Chesewaldeley. 



CHOPPARDS, Holmfirth, appears to be derived simply 
from a personal name. There is a French surname Chopard, 
and WCR 1274 has Robert Chobard. 

CHURWELL, Morley, DN 1226 Cherlewall, WCR 1296 
Chorelwell, CC 1499 Chorlwell, CH 1616 Churwell, is 'the 
peasants' well,' from ceorla, gen. pi. of OE ceorl,2. peasant, and 
well, a well. See Carleton. 

CINDERHILLS, Sheiifield, YS 1297 Scynderhill, YD 1306 
Sinderhilles, derives its prefix from OE sinder, ME sinder. 


first occurs in Sowerby and Rothwell, the second in Midgley 
(Halifax), the third in Thurgoland. Madsen gives Dan. kl'dpp, 
and explains it as a low, flat rock; compare ON klopp, pi. klappir, 
which meant a pier-like rock projecting into the sea, or stepping- 
stones over a stream. Near Windermere there is a place called 

CLAYTON occurs thrice in South-west Yorkshire and is 
derived from OE clceg, clay, and tun, an enclosure or homestead. 
In DB Clayton near Bradford was Claitone, and CLAYTON 
West near Wakefield was Claitone and Clactone. CLAYTON 
near Hooton Pagnell was Clayton in an inquisition of 1264. 

CLECKHEATON, Bradford. — In the earliest records we 
find the first syllable omitted ; compare 

DB 1086 Hetun, Hetone YI 1254 Hetun 

At a later period we find the name oscillating between two forms, 
the affix Clack sometimes preceding, sometimes succeeding, the 
original name : 

KI 1285 Claketon KF 1303 Heton Clak 

KC 1348 Clakheton NV 1316 Heton Cleck 

YF 1514 Clakheton YD 1355 Hetonclak 

Heaton is derived from OE Iteah, heh, high, and tun, a farmstead ; 
but Cleck- can scarcely be derived from OE dag, clay, as is 
sometimes suggested. There are, however, two other alternatives. 


First, Cleck- may come from a personal name, and Neilsen 
records the ODan. name Klakki, while Searle has the name 
Clac. Heton Clak would then correspond to such a name as 
Chipping Ongar, where the affix comes from the OE personal 
name Ongser ; but no connection between Cleckheaton and any 
person of this name has been discovered. The second and more 
probable alternative is that the affix is connected with the Danish 
word klak, a marshy place (Blandinger iv, 243). 

and Dewsbury. — The former, spelt Clegclyve in WCR 1275 and 
Clegcliff in 1345, is mentioned in a deed of 1553 quoted by 
Watson in the phrase ' le Bekyn super altitudine montis de 
Gletclif ' The first element in both names is probably derived 
from Dan. kleg, clay. 

CLEWS MOOR, Queensbury. 

-CLIFFE, CLIFTON.— The word 'cliff' comes from OE 
clif or ON klif, and often means a steep hill. It occurs as a 
termination in the following names: Attercliffe, Bilcliffe, Birchen- 
cliffe, Brincliffe, Bruntcliffe, Catcliffe, Cleggcliffe, Cowcliffe, 
Doveclifife, Eddercliffe, Endcliffe, Hartcliffe, Hinchcliffe, Light- 
cliffe, Raincliffe, Rawclifife, Shirecliffe, Stenoclifife, Sutcliffe, 
Thorncliffe, Topcliffe, Whitcliffe, Yarncliffe. 

Clifton, Brighouse, DB Clif tone, PM 1307 Clyfton, is 'the 
cliff farmstead,' from OE or ON tun, an enclosure, homestead. 

Clifton, Conisborough, DB Clif tune, Clifton, NV 13 16 
Clyfton, has the same origin and meaning. 

CLOUGH. — This characteristic word comes from OE cloh, 
a ravine with steep sides, usually forming the bed of a stream 
or river. In Kirkheaton BM records such names as Gate-brigge 
Cloh and West-hau-cloh, and near Rochdale the Whalley Coucher 
Book records Blakeclogh and Midilclogh. The word is of frequent 
occurrence in South-west Yorkshire, examples being Cat Clough, 
Thurlstone ; Magdalen Clough, Meltham ; Pennant Clough, 
Stansfield ; Stainery Clough, on Broomhead Moors ; Strines 
Clough, near Holmfirth. 


word climter is explained as a big lump. This word is connected 
with MDu. klonter, EFris. klunter = klunt, a lump; and Halli- 
well gives a verb clunter which means to turn lumpy. But in 
Cluntergate, Horbury, the termination — from ON gata, a path 
or road — suggests the possibility of a Scandinavian origin, and 
Larsen gives us the Danish and Norwegian klunt, pi. klunter, 
a log or block ; thus Cluntergate probably means ' the road 
paved with logs.' The name Clunters is found in Sowerby 
and Stansfield. 

COATES, COTE, COTTONSTONES.— There is a village 
in Derbyshire called Cotton which is recorded in DB as Cotun, 
and in the North Riding one called Coatham formerly spelt 
Cotum and Cottum. Both may be interpreted 'the cottages,' 
from the dative plural of OE cot, cott, a dwelling, house, cot, or 
from ON kot, a cot, hut. The short vowel was lengthened in an 
open syllable and so the forms Cote, Cotes, Coates were obtained. 
The word occurs as a terminal in Carlecotes, Kebcote, Owlcotes, 
Silcoates, and Skircoat. 

CoATES occurs in Oxspring, COTE HiLL in Warley, and 


All, save the last, occur in the neighbourhood of Halifax. In 
Sowerby there is Collon Bob ; in Wadsworth Collon Flat and 
Collon Hall; in Soyland Collin Hill; in Greetland Collin Lane; 
near Hebden Bridge the Colden Valley. 

Collon or Collin is explained by EDD as ' stalks of furze- 
bushes which remain after burning,' but no etymology is given. 
Apparently the word comes from ON kol, charcoal, with the 
addition of the suffixed article. 

COLDEN, HW 1521 Colden, HW 1539 Coldon, HW 1514 
Coldenstokkbridge, is most probably ' charcoal valley,' from OE 
col, charcoal, and denu, a valley. 

COLEY, Northowram, which is frequently recorded in the 
13th and X4th centuries as Coldeley and Coldelay, is derived from 
OE cecUd, cold, and leak, a lea or meadow. 


Cowley, Ecclesfield, YF 1554 Colley, YF 1572 Colley, appears 
to be ' coal lea,' that is ' charcoal lea.' 

COLNE, COLNEBRIDGE, Huddersfield.— See Calder. 

COMBES, COWMES.— South of the Aire we find four 
examples of this name, together with a possible fifth example 
embedded in the name Alcomden. The words are derived from 
the Prim. Celt. *kumb-, a valley or dingle; compare W cwm, 
Bret, cum, cwm, Corn, cum, Ir. cum. 

Caulms occurs in Dewsbury. 

Combs, TPR 1682 Cowmhill, 1694 Cowms hill, is the name 
of a hollow near Thornhill Church. 

CowMES, Bradfield, is recorded in YS 1297 as Cumbes, in 
PT 1379 as Caume, and in HS 1637 as Cowmes. 

CowMES, Kirkheaton, may perhaps be indicated by Burton 
(in his notes on Fountains) as Newcombgill. 

CONISBOROUGH, Doncaster, with its well-known castle 
towering above the valley, stands immediately opposite the 
confluence of the Dearne and the Don. 

It is referred to by Geoffrey of Monmouth, who has the 
description ' oppidum Kaerconan quod nunc Cunungeburg 
appellatur.' It is also referred to by Pierre de Langtoft, who 
tells us that King Ambrosius ' took the city of Conaun with all 
the treasure that belonged to Sir Hengist,' and that at the 
beginning of a certain summer King Egbert with all his house- 
hold went 'to the burgh Conane': 

"Egbrith aprfes le yver, en entraunt le sde, 
Est al burge Conane alez of sa meyne.'' 

This may perhaps refer to the year 829, for in 827 Egbert had 
led his army as far north as Dore, while in 828 he had subdued 
the Britons of North Wales. 

Further references to Conisborough show that, though in 
1066 it was part of the 'terra' of King Harold (DB), but a short 
time before, in 1004, it was in the hands of a subject, namely, 
Wulfric Spot (KCD 1298). 


In the British name Kaerconan the second element, conan, is 
possibly to be connected with the river. Among the stream- 
names of Britain there is a very large number where the first 
element is con or can. Scotland has the Conon in Ross, the 
Cannich in Inverness, the Conglass in Banff, the Conrie and the 
Cannie in Aberdeen, the Cona and Cannel in Argyll, the Connat 
and Conait in Perth, the Gander in Lanark, and the Connal in 
Ayr. In Wales there is the Conway ; and England has the 
Can in Essex, and the Conder in Lancashire. 

Fortunately, a certain number of early spellings are forth- 
coming, thus in 1220 the last-named was written Kondover; the 
Conon in Ross occurs in the i6th century name Strachonane, 
that is, Strathconon ; and a stream-name in Glamorgan appears 
in GC 1253 and 1256 in the phrase 'per rivulum Canan' while 
GC 1203 has the name Polcanan. 

It seems clear that these names are connected with Welsh 
cawn, reeds, from Prim. Celt. *kdno- ; compare Olr. connall 
(Stokes). For the termination in Conan see Allan. 

Having referred hitherto only to stream-names it will be 
helpful to go a step further. Among other names involving the 
stem can, con, the most interesting are Candover in Hants., KCD 
903 Candefer, and Condover in Shropshire, where the meaning 
is simply ' reed-water.' Canford and Conford in Hants., and 
Canford in Dorset, tell their own tale. Perthshire has a loch 
called Con of which the greatest depth is only nine feet ; Wigtown 
has a loch called Connell, and Hereford has a place called 
Cananbridge. There are, indeed, scores of names which appear 
to be derived from this source. 

Early forms of Conisborough may well be compared with 
those of Coniston in North Lancashire : 

DB 1086 Coningesborc, Cuningesburg tii63 Coningeston 

AR +12 16 Cunesburc 1196 Koningeston 

CR 1232 Cuningesburgo ^iiTi Conyngeston 

KI 1285 Cunynggesburgh 1337 Kunyngeston 

NV 1 3 16 Conyngesburgh 1401 Cunigestun 

PT 1379 Conesburgh 1404 Cuningeston 

Obviously the first element in both names is. from ON konungr, 
a king, rather than OE cyning; obviously also the terminal in 


Coningesborc is from ON borg, a fortified place, rather than OE 
burh — though the latter has given all the remaining forms. We 
may therefore put forward the interpretation 'king's fortress' 
without hesitation, Coniston being 'king's farmstead or enclosure.' 
On the other hand it seems not improbable that the full history 
of the name has three stages, (i) the Celtic Conan or Conaun, 
(2) the Anglian * Conanburh, catching up the Celtic name as in 
the case of Doncaster, (3) the wholly Scandinavian * Konungsborg 
and the partly Scandinavian Coningesburg. 

COOPER BRIDGE, Huddersfield.— A bridge 'over Keldre 
between le Couford and the grange of Bradeley' is mentioned in 
WCR 1336. Again, in HW 1483 we find a sum of 6s. 8d. is left 
for the repair of ' Cowford brigge! It is plain that where Cooper 
Bridge now stands there was in earlier days a way across the 
Calder called ' the cow-ford.' 

COPLEY, Halifax, is spelt Coppeley'm WCR 1275 and 1297, 
and Coplay, Copelay in PT 1379. As the place lies in a valley 
it seems impossible to connect it with OE coppa, a summit, 
peak. On the other hand the interpretation ' Coppa' s lea ' may 
well be correct ; compare KCD Coppanleah. 

COPTHIRST, Holmfirth, WCR 1307 and 1308 Coppedhirst, 
is ' the pollard wood,' from OE copped, polled, lopped, and hyrst, 
a copse, wood. 

CORN HOLME, Todmorden.— See Holme. 

CORTWORTH.— See Cartworth. 

COTTINGLEY, Bingley, DB Cotingelai, Cotingelei, CR 
1283 Cotingeleye, PT 1379 Cottynglay, is 'the lea of the family 
of Cota ' ; compare DB Cotingeham, now Cottingham. 

COTTONSTONES, Sowerby.— See Coates. 

COWCLIFFE, Huddersfield, WH Cawcliffe, RE 1716 
Cawcliff, is probably to be explained as ' the bare cliff,' from 
OE calu, callow, bare. 


CO WICK, Snaith, SC Cuwic, Cowyk and Cowyck, DN 1250 
Cowicke, YI 125 1 Kuwyke, YI 1280 Couwicke, is 'the cow 
enclosure,' from OE cu, cow, and wlc, an enclosure, house, 

COWLERSLEY, Linthwaite, appears in WCR 1277 as 
Colleresley and WCR 1308 as Collereslay, while certain 15th 
century deeds give Collerslay and Collersley. DB has the 
personal names Colle and Collo; from these we may assume the 
form Coller, and explain the place-name as ' Coller's meadow,' 
OE leak, a meadow. With OE *Coller compare the present- 
day surnames Coller and Collar. 

COWLEY.— See Colden. 

COW^MES.— See Combes. 

COXLEY, Horbury. — The Rievaulx Chartulary gives the 
name Cockesdo, which appears to be ' Cock's clough.' Perhaps 
Coxley, ' Cock's meadow,' existed concurrently. The personal 
name Coc is recorded in DB. 

CRABTREE occurs as a place-name near Sheffield. 

CRACKENEDGE, Dewsbury, DC 1579 Crackenedge, DC 
1588 Crakenedge, must be compared with Crackenthorpe, 
Westmorland, which is plainly Scandinavian. Perhaps Cracken 
comes from the Norw. kr<j)kjen, crooked, bent (Aasen) ; but, 
whether English or Scandinavian, it undoubtedly goes back to 
the Germanic *kraken, something crooked (Torp). 

CRAGG is of Celtic origin, being connected with Welsh 
craig, Irish and Gaelic creag. It occurs in Hardcastle Crags and 
Cragg Vale near Hebden Bridge ; in Cragg Lane, Thornton ; in 
Wharncliffe Craggs ; as well as in Harden, Shipley, and elsewhere. 
The word may, of course, be simply a modern borrowing. 

CRAWSHAW^, is derived from OE crdwe, a crow, and 
sceaga, a copse or wood. There are three places of the name, 
one near Sheffield, PT 1 379 Crauschagh ; a second in Saddle- 
worth, DN 1388 Crawshagh; and a third in Emley, PF 1208 
Croweshagk, SE 1715 Craws haw. 


CRESWICK, Ecclesfield, YD 1322 Creswyk, IN 1342 
Cresewyk, H H 1 349 Creswick, is plainly ' cress village,' from OE 
ccerse, cresse, cress, and wlc, an enclosure, habitation, village ; 
compare Cressbrook, Creskeld, Creswell. 

CRIDLING, Pontefract.— See Ing. 

CRIGGLESTONE, Wakefield, is very probably a name of 
similar type to Doncaster. Early spellings are as follows : 

DB 1 086 Crigeston, Crigestone WCR 1275 Grigehton 

PF 1 199 Crigleston HR 1276 Crickeliston 

PF 1202 Crikeleston NV 1316 Crighelesion 

WCR 1274 Crigeliston PT 1379 Grigehton 

I can find no OE personal name corresponding to Crigle-, and 
there can be little doubt that the word is of Celtic origin; 
compare Crugyll in Anglesey, Cruggleton in Wigton, and 
Crugleton in Shropshire (recorded in DM). All these names 
are doubtless connected with the Welsh word crug, a heap, 
barrow, stack ; compare Corn, cruc, Bret, crug, krugell (Stokes). 
Thus the -s- in Crigglestone would be intrusive, and Crigle- 
would represent an earlier Crugel- of which the sense would be 
very appropriate, namely 'little hill.' See the note on Crimes, 

CRUTTONSTALL, KRUMLIN.— Crimes occurs in Hep- 
worth and Slaithwaite ; Crimble in Thornhill ; Crimbles in or 
near Pudsey, Lofthouse, Kirkheaton, Slaithwaite, Upperthong^ 
Norton and Stocksbridge ; Crimicar in Hallam ; Crimshaw in 
Bolton (Bradford) ; Crimsworth near Heptonstall ; Cromwell 
Bottom near Elland ; Crumack Lane in Haworth ; Cruttonstall 
near Hebden Bridge; and Krumlin in Barkisland. 

Of the four first-named no early records have come to hand ; 
but Crimbles near Cockerham in Lancashire was Crimeles in 
DB, Crumles in LF 1206, Crumeles in LF 1209, and Crimbles 
in LF 1241. 

Cruttonstall is probably to be connected with DB Crubeto- 
nestun; it is spelt Crumtonstall in WCR 1308 and Cruntonstall 


in WCR 1342. Of Crimsworth and Cromwell Bottom we have 
the following early spellings : 

WCR 127s Crumliswrthe YD 1277 Crumbewellebotham 

HW 1551 Crymmysworthe WCR 1326 Crumivelbothume 

WH 1775 Crimlishworth WCR 1332 Cromwelbotham 

Apart from Krumlin, which seems definitely Celtic, and 
Crumack, which is probably. Celtic, there is nothing to show 
whether we have to do with derivatives of OE crumb, crooked, 
or of Prim. Celt. *krumbo-s, bent, crooked. It should be noted, 
however, that according to Spurrell there is a Welsh word crim, 
a ridge, and another Welsh word crimell, a sharp ridge. In the 
forms Crimes and Crimbles the earlier u has given place to a 
later y by mutation, and the same process accounts for the vowel 
in the first element of Crimicar and Crimshaw. 

Crimicar, formerly Crimeker, has for termination the ON 
kjarr, brushwood, copsewood. 

Crimsworth is 'the farmstead at Crimbles,' from OE weorth, 
a holding, farmstead. 

Cromwell Bottom is probably of similar origin, Cromwell 
being 'the well at Crum'; compare Crumton. 

Crumack may perhaps be ' the curved or sloping place,' the 
termination being, it would seem, the common Celtic collective 
suffix -ach ; compare the Welsh word crwmach, which according 
to Evans means convexity, or a convex. 

Crumton in Cruttonstall is most probably 'the farmstead 
at Crum.' 

Krumlin, Barkisland, appears to be the 'crooked pool,' or 
' winding stream ' ; compare Ir. linn, Gael, linne, W llyn, Bret. 
lenn, a pool. To-day the name is given to a hillside district, but 
formerly it was doubtless applied to the stream below. The 
name Crumlin occurs both in Wales and Ireland ; compare CR 
Cremlin, Cremlyn, now Crymlyn, Anglesea. 

CRODINGLEY, Netherthong. — Searle has on record the 
personal names Croda and Crodo, from which a patronymic 
eroding could be formed, and hence the place-name Crodingley, 
that is, ' the lea of the Crodings,' OE leak, a lea. 


CROFT, CROFTON, CUS WORTH. —Early records of 
Crofton and Cusworth include the following : 

DB 1086 Scroftune^ Scrotone DB 1086 Cuzeuuorde, Scuseuurde 

CR 1215 Crofton PF 1208 Cucewordh 

YS 1297 Crofton YS 1297 Cuscewrth 

PT 1379 Crofton PT 1379 Cusseworth 

In both names the Domesday record shows an intrusive s, due 
to the Norman scribe. Other examples of the same kind are 
DB Sclive for Cliff, DB Stablei for Tabley, DB Stimblebi for 
Thimbleby (Zachrisson). 

Croft occurs as a terminal in Barcroft, Carcroft, Havercroft, 
Ryecroft, Scholecroft, Thurcroft. It comes from OE croft, a 
small enclosed field. 

Crofton, Wakefield, is simply 'croft farm,' from OE tun, an 
enclosure or farm. 

Cusworth, Doncaster, shows early forms which must be 
compared with those of Kexborough. It means ' Cuthsa's 
holding,' from OE weorth, and a personal name *Cuthsa. See 

CROMWELL.— See Crimes. 

CROOKES, CROOKHILL. — ON krokr, a corner, nook, 
has given us many northern place-names, including Crooke and 
Crooklands, as well as our South-west Yorkshire examples. 

Crookes, Sheffield, YS 1297 Crokis, PT 1379 Crokes, Crekes, 
YF 1532 Crokys, requires no elucidation. 

Crookhill, Edlington, AR Crocwell, PT 1379 Crokewell, 
YF 1575 Crokwell, should be compared with Chidswell, where 
popular etymology has produced a result diametrically opposite. 
For the termination see Wall, Well. 

OSGOLDCROSS, STAINCROSS.— The word "cross' is one 
of the most interesting of our place-name elements. The native 
word was rod, found to-day in Holyrood and roodscreen; 
but the Normans brought into England a derivative of Lat. 
crucem, namely croiz or crois, while before the Norman Conquest 
another derivative of crucem had been made use of, the word 
cruche. Examples of the latter still exist in the name Cruche 


Stoke, Norfolk, and in the description Crutched Friars. At an 
earlier date than either crois or cruche a third derivative of 
crucem had come into use, namely, cros, derived from the Old 
Irish word of the same form, and brought to England by 
Norsemen, who settled in considerable numbers in Cumberland, 
Westmorland, Lancashire, and the West Riding. See p. 29. 

Early records of the three names in 'cros' which occur in 
the Domesday Survey are as follows : 

DB 1086 Crosland, Croisland DB 1086 Osgotcros DB 1086 Staincros 

PC 12.12 Croslanda PF 1167 Osgodescros PF iidb Steincros 

WCR 1286 Croslande DN 1251 Osgodcrosse PF 1170 Steincros 

NV 1316 Crosseland HR 1276 Osgotecrosse LC 1296 Staincross 

Crosland, Huddersfield, is 'the land or estate where there 
is a cross,' from ON land, land, estate. 

OSGOLDCROSS, the name of the wapentake in which Castle- 
ford and Pontefract are situate, is 'Osgod's cross,' Osgod or 
Osgot being the DB form of the ON personal name Asgautr. 

Staincross, the name of the wapentake in which are 
Barnsley and Penistone, is simply ' stone cross ' from ON steinn, 
a stone. 

Crossley occurs four times in South-west Yorkshire — in 
Hipperholme, WCR 1326 Crosslegh; near Bradford, PC fi246 
Crosley; in Ecclesfield, YD 1290 Crosselay, YI 1298 Crosseley; 
and in Mirfield. The meaning is 'cross lea,' from OE leak, a 
lea or meadow. 

Cross Stone, Todmorden, can scarcely be connected with 
DB Cru'betonestun, which should rather be linked with Crutton- 
stall. WH 1682 has Crostone, and HW 1537 speaks of 'the 
chapel builded at the Crosse Stone in the parish of Heptonstall.' 
Both the Crossleys and Cross Stone must be claimed as English. 


Minor names involving the word Crow are very common. We 
find Crow Brook and Crow Edge in Thurlstone ; Crow Hill in 
Sowerby, Fulstone, and Hepworth ; Crow Point in Queensbury ; 
Crow Royd in Thornhill ; Crow Wood in Stainton ; and 
G. 8 


Crow Nest in Erringden, Lightcliffe, Dewsbury, Beeston, and 

Crow Nest appears in YD 1307 as Crovnest, where the 
interpretation is the obvious one from OE crdwe, a crow, and 
nest, a nest. 

Crow Hill, Sowerby, like Crookhill, Edlington, shows a 
change from ' well ' to ' hill,' witness the following early forms : 
HPR 1562 Crowelschais, WH Crowell shaws. A similar early 
form occurs in connection with Fixby, namely, WH Crowallsike. 
Doubtless Crowell and Crowall axe to be interpreted as ' crow 
well ' ; compare Ouzelwell and Spinkwell. 


comes from OE worth, weorth, wyrth, which may be explained as 
a property or holding, and was applied to a homestead or farm. 
Early spellings of the two names are 

YR 1233 Cudewrth DB 1086 Colingauuorde 

NV 1316 Cutheworth PF 1235 Cullingwiirth 

YD 1 3 18 Cuttheworth CH 1236 CuUingwurthe 

PT 1379 Cotheworth PT 1379 Collyngworth 

CUDWORTH, Barnsley, is ' the homestead of Cutha,' from the 
recorded personal name Cutha which appears also in Cutsyke. 

Cullingworth, Bingley, is ' the homestead of the Cullings,' 
that is, of the sons of Culla ; Searle gives the name Culling. In 
Colingauuorde the Norman scribes wrote for u, and d for th ; 
compare Cudworth, Cumberworth, and Kimberworth. 

of these names, which occur respectively near Huddersfield and 
Rotherham, are as follows : 

DB 1086 Cu^breuuorde, Cu'breuurde DB 1086 Chibereworde 

CR 1226 Cumberwrthe KI 1285 Kimberworth 

YS 1297 Cumberworth NV 1316 Kimberworth 

NV 1316 Cumbreworde PT 1379 Kymbirword 

Dr Skeat explains the Hertfordshire name Cumberlow as 
the ' barrow of Cumbra,' and he says the original sense of the 
personal name, like that of the Welsh Cymro, was ' Welshman.' 


CUMBERWORTH may therefore be explained as ' the holding 
of Cumbra,' the Welshman, from OE worth, a holding or 

KiMBERWORTH has a similar meaning, but is derived from 
Cymbra, a secondary form of the name Cumbra. 

The story suggested by these names is obvious. In the 
early days of the Anglian settlement the two places were each 
in the possession of a Briton. Two other places near at hand. 
West Bretton and Monk Bretton, have a similar signification. 

CUSWORTH.— See Crofton. 

CUTSYKE, Whitwood, CH 11235 Cutthesik, appears to be 
' Cutha's stream,' from OE sic, a runnel ; see Cudworth. 


first occurs in Linthwaite ; the second in Heaton, Dewsbury, 
and Morley ; the third near Langsett, Lindley, and Holmfirth. 
It is possible that the names mean just what they appear to 
mean, but it is not in every case probable ; Daisy Lee, Langsett, 
for example, is very exposed and stands 900 feet above the level 
of the sea. 

DALE, DALTON. — The word 'dale' may be derived 
either from OE dcBl or ON dalr, a valley. Professor Skeat says 
it is ' as much Scandinavian as Anglo-Saxon ' ; but it is certain 
that many of the north country -dales are due to Viking settlers. 
In South-west Yorkshire the word is not common ; it occurs 
in the two Daltons, in Barnsdale, Brocadale, Cockersdale, Mag- 
dale, and Wooldale. 

Dalton, Kirkheaton, DB Dalton, Daltone, NV 13 16 Dalton, 
is ' the farm in the dale,' from OE or ON tun, an enclosure, farm. 

Dalton, Rotherham, DB Dalton, Daltone, KI 1285 Dalton, 
has the same meaning. 

DAMFLASK, Sheffield.— See Flash. 

DARFIELD, DARLEY, DARTON.— Of Darley in Wors- 
borough there are no early records, but of Darfield and Darton, 
which are near Barnsley, we find the following : 


DB 1086 Dereuuelle, Dereuueld DB 1086 Dertone, Dertune 

PC 115s Derfeld YR 1234 Derton 

YR 1228 Derfeud NV 1316 Derton 

YS 1297 Derfeld PT 1379 Derton 

It is quite impossible that either Darfield or Darton should 
obtain its first syllable from the river on which they stand, the 
Dearne. The most likely etymology, indeed, would derive it 
from OE deor, ME der, dere, an animal, a wild beast. But it is 
important to notice that while Der- is the first element in the 
Domesday name for Darton, in Darfield it is Dere-. Hence, 
though we may explain Darton as Deortun, ' deer enclosure,' we 
must explain Darfield as Deorafeld, ' deer field,' or Deoranfeld, 
' the field of Deora ' ; compare BCS Deoran-treow. Darley is 
probably from Deorleah, ' deer lea.' 

The DB record of Darfield shows a form Dereuuelle which 
would mean ' deer well ' or ' Deora's well,' from OE wella, a 

DARNALL, Sheffield, YS 1297 Darnale,Y\ fisoi Dernhale, 
HH 1366 Darnale, YF 1560 Dernall, comes from OE derne, 
ME dern, secret, and OE halk or kealk, a corner or meadow. 
According to Professor Skeat a Cambridgeshire Dernford, 1372 
Dernford, derives its prefix from the same source ; compare 
BCS Derneforde. 

DARRINGTON, Pontefract, DB Darnmtone, Darnitone, PC 
■j-iopo Dardintona, PC 1159 Dardingtona, PF 1205 Darthingtone, 
CR 1210 Dardinton,l^C 1296 Dartkingtone,^Y 12,16 Darthyngton. 
The first element of the word is in the form of a patronymic. 
Searle gives the name Deoring, which however would not 
account for the DB and other early spellings. But the name 
Deornoth, with the termination -ing added, would fully satisfy 
all conditions ; so we may explain Darrington as ' the homestead 
of the sons of Deornoth.' See Dirtcar. 

SHAW. — When alone OE denu, a valley, became first dene or 
deyne and afterwards dean ; but in compounds it became den, as 
in Denshaw and Hebden. In South-west Yorkshire the names 


ending in -den include Agden (2), Alcomden, Arunden, Bagden, 
Bogden (2), Colden, Dwariden, Erringden, Ewden, Harden, 
Hebden, Hewenden, Howden, Lewden, Marsden, Mixenden, 
Moselden, Ogden, Ovenden, Prickleden, Ramsden, Ribbleden, 
Ripponden, Scammonden, Shibden, Skirden, Snailsden, Stiper- 
den, Stubden, Sugden (2), Todmorden, Twizleden, Wessenden, 
Wilsden, Wickleden. 

Denholme, Bradford, KC Denum, Dennum, YF 1564 
Denkolme, comes from the dative plural of OE denu, a valley, or 
denn, a den, cave, swine-pasture. 

Denroyd, Denby, is probably ' the clearing in the valley.' 
Dens HAW, Saddleworth, referred to in 1544 as Denshaw, and 
in 1727 as Deanshaw, is 'valley-copse,' from OE sceaga. 

DEARNE. — This stream rises near Cumberworth, and after 
passing Barnsley joins the Don at Conisborough. Early records 
of the name are PC 1x55 Dirna, CR 1230 Dirna, 13 16 Dime, 
141 3 Dyrne, YF 1495 Dern. A Wiltshire stream-name is given 
in BCS as Dyre-broc; in Oxfordshire there is the Dorn, and in 
Banff the Durn. Probably all these names come from a Celtic 
stem dur recorded by Holder and Forstemann. Among river- 
names derived therefrom Holder gives an early Irish example 
Dur, and the German Thur, formerly Dura. 

DEEPCAR occurs in Woodsetts, Wilsden, and Stocksbridge. 
Early records give Depeker for the second and Depecarr for the 
third. The word is derived from ON djupr, deep, and kjarr, 
copsewood, brushwood. 

STONES. — The obvious explanation may perhaps be the true 
one, but it is not altogether convincing. The Gazetteer shows 
in Scotland two villages with the simple name Deer, while in 
Devon and Aberdeen the same word is applied to streams. 

Deer Hill is in Marsden, and Deerstones in Sowerby. 

DEERPLAY, Sowerby, HW 1560 Dereplay, WH Derpley, is 
paralleled by Dirplay, near Bacup, recorded in the De Lacy 
Compoti as Derplaghe in 1 294. I suggest that the termination 


in Derpley is not -pley but -ley, the stem Derp- being a stream- 
name corresponding to such LG examples as Alpe, Marpe, 
Wilpe (Jellinghaus). Thus the -p- in Deerplay would represent 
apa, water, while Deer would represent the stem dur mentioned 
in the note on Dearne. 

Deershaw, Fulstone, corresponds to BCS Deor-hyrst, deer- 
coppice, for OE sceaga, like OE hyrst, signifies a copse. 

DEFFER, DEFFERS.— In WRM mention is made of ' a 
piece of ground, lying near Kirkthorpe on the other side of the 
river, called Deffers ' ; and the same authority gives the name 
in 1342 and 1391 as Defford. Defford in Warwickshire was 
Depeford in DB and Deopford in a pre-Conquest charter ; hence 
we may explain Deffers as ' the deep ford.' 

Perhaps the early name Cuindever connected with Hoyland- 
swaine should be linked with Deffer Wood, Cawthorne. These 
recall the Hampshire names Candover and Mitcheldever, spelt 
Candefer and Myceldefer in early charters. The termination 
-defer appears to be connected with the W dyfyr, a form of dwfr. 

DEIGHTON, DEIGHTONBY. Huddersfield and Barns- 
ley, present the following early forms : 

WCR 1284 Dychton DB 1086 Dictenebi 

YS 1297 Dicton CH i486 Dicthenbi 

PT 1379 Dyghton 

The first name means ' dike farmstead or enclosure,' from OE 
die or ON dlk, a dike, and OE or ON tun, an enclosure or farm ; 
compare Beighton and Boughton, formerly Bectun and Boctun, 
In the second name the first element is a weak personal name 
formed from ON teinn, a twig or stake ; compare Benteinn 

DELPH, Saddleworth. — In the district around Halifax 
' delf ' is the usual name for a quarry. The word is derived from 
late OE dcelf, ME delf, a trench, ditch, quarry. 

DENARY, DENBY. — South-west Yorkshire has four 
examples of the name Denby, but of two near Keighley there 
are no early records. Of the rest, with Denaby, we find the 
following ancient spellings : 


Denaby, Conisborough Denby, Penistone Denby, Whitley 

DB 1086 Denegebi, Degenebi DB 1086 Denebi DB 1086 Denebi 

CR 1277 Dennyngeby YS 1397 Deneby KF 1303 Deneby 

KI 1285 Denigby NV 1316 Deneby NV 1316 Deneby 

NV 1316 Denyngby PT 1379 Denby CH 1323 Deneby 

OE Dene, the Danes, had two genitives plural, a shorter form 
Dena, and a longer Deniga. Denby may well, therefore, be 
' village of the Danes,' and Denaby may have the same meaning, 
though ' village of the sons of Dene, the Dane,' is perhaps more 
probable. Falkman gives the personal name Dening. 


DERWENT. — Rising in Featherbed Moss, this stream is 
for some miles the county boundary ; afterwards it flows past 
Chatsworth and Matlock to Derby, arid joins the Trent near the 
borders of Leicestershire. There are four English streams of the 
name, and of two we have, directly or indirectly, early records. 

The Antonine Itinerary names a Roman station Derventione 
which is usually connected with the Derwent of the East Riding, 
a river mentioned by Simeon of Durham as the Dirwenta and 

Ptolemy speaks of a Derventione which has been in the same 
way connected with the Cumbrian Derwent ; and Bede mentions 
the place under the form Derventio. 

Both these names are connected by Stokes and Holder with 
a primitive Celtic *derv, meaning an oak-tree, a word which 
appears in Welsh as derw. The ending is well-known as the 
river-name suffix -entia or -antia. Examples in which this 
suffix appears are the Argenza, Paginza, and Elsenz in Germany ; 
the Durance and Charente in France ; the Trent and Carant in 
England. Early spellings of the last are BCS 778 Carent, BCS 
780 Ccerent ; compare the Gaulish Caranto -magus (Stokes). 

DEWSBURY. — The Domesday forms, Deusberia and 
Deusberie, have given rise to derivations from Lat. deus, while 
later forms, YR 1230 Dewesbire, DC 1246 Dewesbury, YR 1252 
Dewebyre, WCR 1277 Dewysbiry, NV 13 16 Deuuesbury, DC 
1349 Dewesbury, PT 1379 Dewsbyry, lead quite naturally to the 
interpretation ' Dewe's stronghold.' 


Let us first be clear about the termination -berie or -bury, 
forms which occur also for Almondbury and Horbury, DB 
Almaneberie and Horberie. Professor Skeat has shown that 
Norman scribes frequently put e for OE y ; hence -berie should 
be read -byrie. This brings all the terminals into harmony, and 
links them directly with OE byrig, the dative of burh, a fortified 
post, a stronghold. 

The first element can scarcely be the Lat. deus, though the 
Domesday scribe may have imagined that it was ; indeed it is 
almost certainly a personal name, and though Searle and 
Naumann give no such form, Brons comes to the rescue and 
announces a Frisian name Dewe. It is noteworthy that the 
surname Dews is quite common in the neighbourhood. 

Ancient sculptured stones in the parish church take us back 
to the 9th century, and tradition asserts that Paulinus baptized 
on this spot. 

A sentence in the description of Dewsbury given in 1828 by 
Clarke in his Gazetteer shows what the attractions of its site 
were a century ago. ' The appearance of the town from the 
Wakefield Road,' he says, ' bursting at once unexpectedly upon 
the sight, is as beautiful as interesting.' 

DIGGLE, Saddleworth. — 13th century charters give Dighull 
and Diggell, and a deed of 1468 has Dighil. The termination, 
like that in Adel, Idle, Nostell, appears to be -el, but I am unable 
to explain further. 

DINNINGTON, Rotherham, DB Dunnintone, Dimnitone, 
Domnitone, CR 1200 Dunyngton, YR 1271 Dynington, NV 13 16 
Dovyngton, PT 1379 Dynnyngton, oscillates in its first element 
between Dunning and Dynning. Both forms are represented in 
English place-names ; there are Dinningtons in Northumberland 
and Somerset, and Dunningtons in Warwick and the East 
Riding ; and, further, Holland has the place-name Dunninge. 
The sense is probably ' the farmstead of the sons of Dunne or 
Dynne,' for Searle gives both names ; but see Ing. 

DIRTCAR, DURKER.— The village Dirtcar or Dirker 
near Wakefield is mentioned in WCR 1284 as Drytkar, WCR 


1285 as Drytker, and WCR 1297 ^s Dritker, while in a Fine of 
1 5 14 it is Dirtcarre. The word is Scandinavian, from ON drit, 
dirt, and kjarr, copsewood, brushwood. There are many other 
names apparently of the same origin, including Durker Wood, 
Meltham ; Dirker Bank, Marsden ; and Dirk Carr, Northowram. 
It should be noted that when three or more consonants come 
together the one enclosed generally disappears. In this way 
Northland has become Norland, and Northmanton Normanton ; 
and in the same way Dirtcar or Dirtker would quite naturally 
become Dircar or Dirker. 

ROYD. — We find Dob or Dobb in Sowerby, Cartworth, and 
Keighley ; Dobroyd in Calverley, Hepworth, Denby Dale, and 
Todmorden ; Dob Carr in Bradfield ; Dobbing in Ecclesall. 
The only early records are HS 1637 Dobinge for the last-named, 
WCR 1308 Dobberode for Dobroyd, Hepworth, and CC 1482 
Dobrode for Dobroyd, Calverley. 

According to NED the word ' dob ' is an obsolete form of 
' dub,' which means a muddy or stagnant pool, a deep pool in a 
river. The origin of the two words is uncertain. 

It should be noted that in every case the yokefellow of Dob 
is possibly Scandinavian : Carr from ON kjarr, copsewood ; 
Cross from Olr. cros ; Ing from ON eng, a meadow ; Royd from 
ON ri^, a clearing. 

DODWORTH, Barnsley, DB Dodeswrde, Dodesuuorde, PC 
fiogo Dodewrd, PC 1122 Dodewrdam, NV 1316 Dodeworth, PT 
1379 Dodworth. The present name is the descendant of the 
early Dodewrd which means ' the homestead of Doda,' from 
OE weorth, a holding, farmstead ; but the DB names are derived 
from a strong form of the personal name and may be interpreted 
as 'the homestead of Dod,' 1»he genitive of Dod being Dodes, 
while the genitive of Doda is Dodan, later Dode. Compare the 
Dutch place-name Dodewaard recorded in NGN ill, TJ under 
the date 11 07 as Dodewerda. 

DOGLEY, DOGLOITCH WOOD, Kirkburton and Soot- 
hill. — Skeat quotes two OE place-names involving the name of 


the animal, Doggi- thorn and BCS 941 Doggeneford, ford of the 
dogs ; and probably the two names above are derived from the 
same source, OE docga, ME dogge. The termination -loitch is 
a dialectal form of ME lache, a pond, pool, swamp ; compare 
BlakelacJie, Grenelaclie, Wyggelache, all found in the Whalley 
Coucher Book. 

DOLE, DOLES. — In Woolley we find the name Common 
Doles ; in Dalton (Huddersfield) Red Doles ; in Clifton (Brig- 
house) Doles Lane ; in Saddleworth Dolefield ; in Snydale 
Doles Close ; in Throapham Doles Wood ; and in Braithwell 
Fordoles. Watson speaks of a fordoll in Fixby ; a Cresswell 
deed of 1318 has fordoles ; a Pickburn deed of 1208 has haluedol; 
Aughton deeds speak of mapeldoles and moredoles ; and in other 
cases we find the names bierdoll, shrovedole, and waterdole. 
From EDD we learn that a dole, OE dal, is a portion of a 
common or undivided field. A deed dated 1238 in the Pontefract 
Chartulary speaks of ' duas seliones que vocantur fordolis.' The 
word doles is in fact an interesting survival bearing witness to 
the ancient method of land tenure and cultivation called the 
' common field ' system. 

DON, DONCASTER.— In the Antonine Itinerary the 
Roman station was called Danum ; KCD 1004 has Donecestre; 
DB \o2>6 Donecastre, PF 1202 Danecastre, WCR 1298 Danecastre, 
KF 1303 Donecastre. The ending -caster comes from Lat. 
castra, a camp, a word which appears in different parts of 
England under the forms Chester, cester, caster ; and the first 
element is the river-name. Thus the meaning of Doncaster is 
' the camp beside the Don.' 

The river-name is undoubtedly Celtic, but its origin is not 
certain. Perhaps it represents the Prim. Celt. *danos, a beater, 
fighter, which Stokes suggests as the origin of dan in Rodanos, 
the Rhone ; compare the Ir. dana, bold, strong. Among names 
recorded in the Gazetteer there are the river Dane in Cheshire, 
Lough Dan in Wicklow, Dean Burn in Linlithgow, and Dean 
Water in Forfar. 

Pierre de Langtoft has an interesting early reference to 
Doncaster. King Egbert of Wessex, he tells us, came to 


Conisborough — probably in the year 829 — and from Conis- 
borough he advanced to the Tweed where he gave battle to the 
Danes, but with unsatisfactory results. Later, the Northmen 
appeared at Adlingfleet with thirty-five ships ; and Egbert, 
assisted among others by Haldan de Danekastre, once more 
gave battle and gained a great victory. After the battle Egbert 
entered Doncaster in triumph. 

Near Doncaster the river is bordered by a series of villages, 
hamlets or farms whose names are plainly of Scandinavian 
origin. Among them are the following : Almholme, Armthorpe, 
Balby, Barnby, Bessacarr, Braithwaite, Braithwell, Bramwith, 
Cadeby, Denaby, Edenthorpe, Eskholme, Goldthorpe, Hexthorpe, 
Kilholme, Langthwaite, Micklebring, Scawsby, Scawthorpe, 
Shaftholme, Thornholme, and Wilby. 

DOVE, DOVECLIFFE.— Dove, RC Duva, Duve, is the 
name of a stream which flows through Worsborough Dale. 
There is another stream of the same name in the Cleveland 
Hills, and a third which separates the counties of Stafford and 
Derby. The origin of these names may perhaps be the Celtic 
stem dubos, very dark, black ; compare OW dub, W du, Ir. and 
Gael, dubh, Gaulish Dubis, the last of which has given the French 
river-name Doubs. Hogan places on record several rivers in 
Ireland formerly called Dub or Dubk ; one of these is now called 
the Duff 

DOVER. — At Holmfirth, beside a stream now called the 
Ribble, we find Dover Wood and Dover Mills. Perhaps these 
names are modern borrowings ; in any case the ultimate origin 
is the Prim. Celt, dubron, water, whence Ir. and Gael, dobhar. 
Corn, dofer, Bret, dour, OW dubr, W dwfr, dwr. In the 
Antonine Itinerary we find Dover (Kent) described as Dubris, 
'at the waters.' 

DRANSFIELD HILL, Hopton, WCR 1275 Dranefeld, 
WCR 1307 Dronesfeld, and Dranefeld and Dransfeld in early 
deeds, gets its prefix from OE drdn, a drone, used perhaps as a 
personal name. 


DRIGHLINGTON, Bradford, provided a puzzle for the 
Domesday scribes, and they wrote -j- for the guttural, just as 
they did in the case of Lastone, now Laughton, Lestone, now 
Leighton, and Distone, now Deighton. They also wrote e for y. 
Early forms are as follows : 

DB 1086 Dreslintone NV 1316 Brightelington {br=dr) 

DB 1 086 Dreslingtone PT 1379 Drithlyngton 

PF 1202 Drichtlington CC 1444 Dryghtlyngton 

Kl 1285 Drithlingtoii CH 1478 Drightlyngton 

KF 1303 Drighlington IN 1551 Drighlington 

The first element in the modern name, and in the forms given 
by DB, KI, KF, PT, IN, represents a patronymic Drygeling 
formed from the recorded personal name Dryga by the addition 
of -el and -ing ; compare Cridling. This patronymic actually 
occurs in the Domesday name of Little Driffield, Drigelinghe, 
and Dr Wyld, dealing with the name Droylsden, postulates a 
personal name Drygel. The first element in the forms given by 
PF, NV, CC, CH, shows the influence of OE dryht, a host, troop, 
company ; this seems, however, to be unoriginal. It should be 
noted that to-day 'drigh' rhymes with 'rigg'; compare Hagg> 
Haigh, and Magdale. 

DRUB, Gomersal. — No early forms of this name are forth- 
coming and the meaning is not clear. 

LANE, occur respectively in Horbury, Bradford, and Halifax. 
For the first of these WRM has 1653 Dudfleete, 1728 Dudfleet. 
The terminations come from OE fleot, a stream, leak, a lea, and 
wella, a spring ; but no definite explanation of the first element 
can yet be given. We find, however, in EDD a noun 'dud' 
explained as a teat, and a verb 'duddle' which means to boil, 
bubble up, simmer. It is possible, therefore, that ' dud ' is an 
ancient word meaning a bubbling spring. 

Compare Dudbridge, a hamlet in Gloucestershire, and the 
Dudleys and Dudwells which occur in various parts of Great 
Britain. Note also the river-name Duddon which according to 
Wyld has such early forms as Duden, Doden, Dodyne, Dodine — 


forms which appear to involve the Celtic suffix -ina found in 
mciny ancient river-names, among them Sabrina, the Severn. 

DUDMANSTONE, Almondbury, RE 1634 Dudmanston, 
RE 1 7 16 Dudmanstone, is ' Dudeman's farm,' from OE tun, an 
enclosure or farm, and the personal name recorded by Searle. 
Popular etymology has been busy with this name, and is 
responsible for RE 1780 Deadman Stone, which is doubly 

DUNBOTTLE, Mirfield.— See Bolton. 

DUNFORD BRIDGE, Penistone, is recorded in DN 1282 
simply as Dunneford, and the bridge is probably therefore of 
later date. We may interpret Dunford as ' the ford of Dunna,' 
the personal name being well known. 

DUNGW^ORTH, Bradfield, written Dongworth in 1311 
and Dungwith in an undated deed, is from the OE dung, and 
weorth, a farmstead. 

DUNKIRK, Denby, Golcar, Northowram, Sowerby, and 
Whitley Lower. — There is no evidence to connect the name 
with the French port, but I think that must be its source. 
Dunkirk was besieged in 1793 by the Duke of York, who, 
however, was defeated at Hondschoote, and compelled to 
withdraw. Is it possible that this can be the event which gave 
rise to our Yorkshire names ? 

DUNNINGLEY, DUNSLEY.— The modern terminations 
are from OE leak, a lea, a meadow. 

But DUNNINGLEY, Morley, is recorded in WCR as 1285 
Donynglowe, 1297 Donigelawe, 1298 Doniglawe, where the 
termination comes from OE Maw, a mound, cairn, hill. The 
prefix corresponds to the name Dunning, recorded by Searle. 

DuNSLEY, Holmfirth, WCR 1308 Dunesleye, is 'Dun's lea.' 

DUTCH RIVER. — This is the name of a portion of the 
river Don near Goole. It is so-called because it was made 
navigable in the time of Charles I by Cornelius Vermuyden and 
his Dutch settlers (Clarke). 


DWARIDEN, Bradfield. — This name is found in a charter 
of 1 3 II as Dwarriden, in 1 3 3 5 as Dweryden, in 1 398 as Dwaryden. 
Doubtless OE dweorga-denu, valley of dwarfs, gives the true 
derivation, as suggested by Mr Henry Bradley. 

EARLSHEATON, Dewsbury, like Kirkheaton and Cleck- 
heaton, takes the accent on the second syllable. This is due to 
the fact that the first syllable is a comparatively late addition. 
Early spellings are 

DB 1086 Etone, Ettone NV 1316 Heton 

WCR 1286 Heton Comitis WCR 1483 Erlesheton 

WCR 1308 Erlesheeton 

Obviously the Domesday forms are at fault in omitting the 
aspirate. They should be read as Hetone and Hettone, and their 
meaning would then be ' high farm,' from OE heah, heh, high, or 
'heath farm,' from OE hath, a heath, and tun, an enclosure, or 
farm. See Heaton. 

At the Ossett Court in 1297 (WCR) it was reported that 
' Richard del Dene of Heton dug stone to burn, and sold it, to 
the detriment of the Earl.' The ' stone to burn ' was of course 
coal ; Heton appears to have been Earlsheaton ; and the Earl 
was the lord of the manor, the then Earl of Warren and Surrey. 
It was from this family that the name Earlsheaton received its 
distinctive affix. 

EARNSHAW, Bradfield and Stansfield, seems to mean 
' eagle copse,' from OE ear7i, an eagle, and sceaga, a copse ; 
compare BCS Earnaleah, Earnley, Sussex. 


reminded by these words of a well-marked difference between 
English and Scandinavian. From a common ancestor, Teutonic 
au, ON got au and OE got ea ; and, in consequence, while the 
ON word for east is austr, the OE is east. Because of this 
variation our modern place-names possess such doublets as 
Austhorpe and Eastthorpe, Austwick and Eastwick. See 
Austerfield and Austerlands. 

Eastfield, Thurgoland, is mentioned in PC as Estfeld, and 
in PT 1379 under the strange form Hestofeld. 


Eastthorpe, Mirfield, may perhaps be connected with the 
Esthaghe referred to in DN 1346 where we find Mirfield, Hopton, 
and Esthaghe named together. The meaning of this word is 
'the east enclosure or homestead,' OE east-haga. 

Eastwood, Todmorden, YD \ii6 Estwode,YV) 12,64 Esiewod, 
PT 1379 Estwode, and EASTWOOD, Rotherham, YS 1297 Estwod, 
PT 1379 Estwode, come from OE wudu, a wood. 

EASTOFT, near the Lincolnshire border, CR 1251 Estofte 
HR 1276 Eshetoft, DN 1304 Esketoft, WCR 1308 Essetoft 
DN 1338 Esketoft, shows extraordinary variations. The termina- 
tion is evidently Scandinavian, from ON toft, a green knoll, a 
grassy mound, a homesteeid ; and the modern prefix seems to 
come from the ODan. personal name Esi, but early forms of the 
name were probably influenced by OE cbsc and Dan. aske, an 

EAU. — Near Doncaster there is a stream called the Old 
Eau River. NED gives a dialect-word ea, which means a river 
or running water. This word is applied in the fen country to 
canals for drainage, in which sense, says NED, it is usually spelt 
eau as if from French eau, water. 

HILL, EXLEY. — In these names we are brought face to face 
with a familiar crux. The name Eccles, whether in composition 
with other place-name elements or in its simple form, is to be 
found over a wide area. It occurs as far north as the Firth of 
Forth, and as far south as the borders of the English Channel ; 
and there are even instances across the North Sea. The simple 
name is found in Kent, Norfolk (2), Lancashire, Yorkshire 
(Eccles Parlour, Sowerby), the Lowlands of Scotland (2), and in 
North-east France; and in composition there are the following 
English examples : 

Ecclesborough in Berkshire 

Ecclesbourne in Sussex, Hampshire, and Derby 

Ecclesbrook in Worcester 

Eccleston in Cheshire (2) and Lancashire (2) 

Eccleswall in Hereford 


Beyond the Cheviots there are Ecclescraig in Kincardine and 
Ecclesmachan in Linlithgow ; and, lastly, there are three names 
where the form Eccle occurs, Eccle Field in Yorkshire (Woolley), 
Ecclerigg in Westmorland, and Ecclefechan in Dumfries. Among 
the early forms recorded in BCS and KCD we find the following : 

^celes-beorh Ecles-broc Eccles-ford 

^cles-mor Ecles-burne Ecdes-hale 

while others of post-Conquest date include 

Eccles, N.E. France, 1339 Eccles 

Eccles, Norfolk, io86 Eccles^ Heccles 

Eccles, Berwick, 1297 Hecles 

Eccles, Lancashire, 1235 Ecclesie de Eccles 

Exley, Halifax, 1274 Ecclesley, 1286 Ekelesley 

Ecclesall, Sheffield, 1267 Ecclissale, 1297 Ekilsale 

Eccleshill, Bradford, io86 Egleshil, 12 16 Ekelishill 

1 316 Eccleshill, 1379 Eccleshill 
Ecclesfield, Sheffield, 1086 Eclesfeld, 1161 Eglesfeld 

1 1 90 Ecclesfeld, 1287 Ekelesfeld 

It has been customary to derive the name, whether standing 
alone or in composition, from Lat. ecclesia, a church. Dr Moorman 
is disposed to accept this explanation in the names with which 
he deals, Eccleshill and Ecclesfield ; but Dr Wyld refrains from 
expressing any opinion in regard to the Lancashire Eccleston, 
and unfortunately Dr Skeat does not deal with the Berkshire 
name Ecclesborough. It is certain, however, that the Celtic 
races made considerable use of Ecclesia in their early place- 
names. In Cornwall the word became Eglos, as in Egloshayle 
and Egloskerry ; in Ireland it is represented by aglish, as in 
Aglishcormick and Aglishdrinagh ; in Wales it became eglwys, 
as in Eglwysbach and Eglwysfair ; in Scotland it is represented 
by eaglais, reduced to les in Lesmahagow ; in Brittany by His, as 
in Bodilis and Lannilis. Moreover, Hogan gives several examples 
of the early form eclas, as in Eclas Peatair for S. Peter's, Rome. 

The frequent occurrence of the simple name provides perhaps 
the best argument for accepting ecclesia as the source, for a com- 
parison of such compound names as Ecclesborough, Ecclesfield, 
Eccleston, with similar compounds in -borough, -field and -ton 
would lead at once to the conclusion that the first element in 


each case is a personal name in the genitive case; and although no 
such name is on record there are many ancient names which lack 
only the -/ ending, ^Ecce, ^cci, Ecca, Ecci, Ecco, for example. 

It is of course, not impossible that the simple name Eccles 
should be merely a genitive. But it is most improbable that so 
exceptional a use should occur so frequently, and therefore when 
the name is used alone some other sense must be found- 
probably indeed also when it is used in composition. Why 
not ecclesia, after all } Is there, indeed, any alternative ? The 
answer to this question is not yet clear, but there are hints which 
may lead to a solution. Note, therefore, the following names 
involving the element ec- or eck- : 

Eck, a loch in Argyll, 1595 //eJie 
Eckfoid, in Roxburgh, 1200 Eckeford 
Eccup, near Leeds, 1086 Echope 

and note also the following examples where the element ac- or 
ack- is involved : 

Hackforth, near Bedale, 1086 Acheford, Acheforde 

Acle, in Norfolk, io86 Acle 

Acklam, near Malton, 1086 Aclum, Achelu' 

Acklam, near Middlesborough, 1086 Aclum, Aclun 

Here then we have seven names, one denoting a lake, two 
denoting fords, and the remaining four attached in each case to 
places where there are streams. It seems not improbable, indeed, 
that the element ac- ec- is a term applied to water, and Forste- 
mann actually records a stem AK as occurring in German river- 
names, giving as an example the Agger, formerly Ackara. 

A glance at the compounds in Eccles- shows that the terminal 
in four cases is -bourne or -brook, and in one it is -ford. One 
more point. In his notes on the possessions of Fountains Abbey 
in Kirkheaton {Hetori), Burton speaks of ' a sichet called Eccelds ' 
— a little stream called Eccelds — and I take Eccelds to be Eccels 
with an intrusive d, due perhaps to the influence of ON keld, 
a. fountain. 

Darfield. — The latter is spelt Edricthorp in YD 1253 and 
YS 1297, and Edirthorp in DN 1377. We may explain it as 

G. 9 


Edric's village,' an Anglian personal name — from OE Eadric — 
being joined to the Scandinavian thorp. Possibly the first 
element in Eddercliffe is the same, but it may be OE eodor, a 
hedge, fold, enclosure. 

EDENTHORPE, Doncaster. — I have not found any early 
record of this name, which may perhaps be interpreted 'the 
village of Eden.' A charter dated 1240 has a witness named 
Thomas Hedne, and Brons gives the Frisian name Eden, while 
LN has the ON name Edna. 

-EDGE. — NED explains the word 'edge' as 'the crest of a 
sharply-pointed ridge, the brink or verge of a bank or precipice,' 
the meaning in Scotland being given as " a ridge or watershed.' 
It comes from OE ecg; compare ON egg, MHG egge, ecke, 
MLG egge, OS eggia. As to the significance of OE ecg Wyld 
says that in place-names it appears to mean 'edge, point, cliff, 
declivity,' also probably 'ridge.' 

The examples in South-west Yorkshire include Crackenedge, 
Hullenedge, Netheredge, Liversedge, Stanedge, as well as Bole 
Edge, Chevin Edge, Crow Edge, Elland Edge, Hove Edge, 
Quick Edge, Thornhill Edge, Winter Edge. 

EDDISH.— HS 1637 h&s Eadiskfeild in Ecclesfield, SE 1715 
has Edish Close in Emley, while a field called Eddish Hawkswell 
appears in the Kirkheaton Tithe Award dated 1845. The OE 
word from which these are derived is edisc, a pasture or park. 

EDLINGTON, Conisborough.— See Adlingfleet. 

EGBOROUGH, a thinly-populated parish near Snaith, 
appears in early records under the following forms: 

DB 1086 Egeburg, Acheburg, Eburg PF 1202 Egburgh 
KC 1 1 94 Eggeburg CR 1249 Eggeburg 

KC 1 199 Eggeburg NV 1316 Eggeburgh 

The termination comes from OE burh, a fortified place, a fortress, 
and the first element is doubtless a personal name, probably ON 
Eggi. The Domesday forms Acheburg and Eburg appear to be 


EGERTON, Huddersfield, IN 1311 Eggerton, PT 1379 
Hegerton, DN 1461 Egerton, is pronounced Edgerton, and 
probably means 'Ecgheard's farmstead,' from OE tun, an en- 
closure, farmstead. The sign of the genitive has been lost as in 
Alverley and Alverthorpe. 

EGYPT. — This name, whether due to ancient or modern 
events, occurs in Gomersal and Thornton. 

ELLAND, Halifax, is not to be connected with OE elland, 
a foreign country, seeing that early records of the name show 
quite regularly only one /: 

DB 1086 Elant, Elont KI 1285 Eland 

PR 1 167 Elland NV 1316 Eland 

FC 1 199 Eland WCR 1422 Eland 

PF 1202 Elande WCR 1613 Ealand 

The first element is the same as that found in the Lancashire 
Emmott, 1295 Emot, and in one of the Bedfordshire Eatons, 
DB Etone, HR Etone ; it represents OE ea, ME ee, e, a stream, 
river. The second element is from OE land, which meant an 
estate or territory as well as land. It will be noticed that in 
both Elland and Emmott the initial vowel is now short. The 
spelling Eiland in PR 1167 corresponds with that in a second 
Bedfordshire Eaton, DB Eitone, HR Eyton. Its origin is OE eg, 
ME ey, an island. Obviously Elland means 'the estate beside 
the water' rather than 'island estate.' 

ELMHIRST, Worsborough, PT 1379 Elmerst, YD 1415 
Elmehyrst, comes from OE elm-hyrst, a small wood of elms. 

ELMSALL, South Kirkby, DB Ermeshale, YI 1264 Elmesale, 
YR 1268 Suth Elmeshale, NV it,i6 Elmesall, PT \-},j(j Elmeshale. 
The Domesday scribes sometimes wrote r for /; hence we may 
re-write the DB form as Elmeshale, and so obtain a consistent 
series of forms meaning ' Elm's corner,' from OE healh, a nook, 
corner, meadow. Seeing that Naumann records the Danish 
name Almi, from ON dlmr, an elm, we have support in postu- 
lating an OE name Elm ; compare also the East Riding name 
Emswell, DB Elmesuuelle. 



ELSECAR, Barnsley, has a Scandinavian terminal, from 
ON kjarr, copsewood, brushwood, and its prefix may well be a 
Scandinavian personal name ; Falkman gives Elsa and Nielsen 
has Elso. 

EMLEY, Wakefield, has usually been explained as derived 
from the elm, and attempts have been made to change the name 
to Elmley. Early spellings, however, show there is no warrant 
for such a course, witness DB Ameleie, Amelai, YR 1238 Emmele, 
YI 1266 Emmelay, HR 1276 Emmele, NV 1^16 Emeley, PT 1379 
Emlay. The explanation is 'JEmma's lea,' from OE leah, a 
lea or meadow, and the ancient personal name ^mma. See 

EMMET BRIDGE, Bradfield.— A very common Norwegian 
place-name is Aamot, which means a confluence, a meeting of 
the waters ; and Emmet is the corresponding English word. 
This is sometimes spelt Emmot or Emmott, as in Emmott near 
Nelson, LC 1295 Emot (Wyld), and in the East Riding name 
Emmotland. The etymology is from OE ea, ME e, ee, water, a 
stream, river, and OE gemet, or OE mot, a meeting. The two 
vowels, though formerly long, are now short ; see Elland. 

ENDCLIFFE, Sheffield, provides a curious instance of 
popular etymology, for the name was Elcliffe in 1333 and Elclyff 
in 1577 (Gatty). The word probably comes from Dan. el, elk, an 
alder (Falkman), and ON klif. 

-ER. — Along the western border no termination shows itself 
more frequently than this. From the names of woods and hills, 
and doughs and lanes, we might gather a hundred examples. 
Unfortunately, owing to the absence of early records, attempted 
explanations cannot claim to be more than suggestions ; yet it 
is clear that the words are derived from more than one source. 

I. Some of the words appear to be Scandinavian plurals, 
among them the following : 

Asker Wood, Birstall, ON askr, an ash-tree 

Busker Lane, Skelmanthorpe, ON buskr, a bush 

Clapper Hill, Midgley, ON klijpfr, a rock 

Stocker Gate, Shipley, ON stokkr, a trunk 




2. Others may well come from ON erg, a shieling, summer 
pasture, among them a certain number where the termination 
is -ar. Compare the list of names given on page 30, which 
includes Salter, Winder, Potter, Docker, Torver, Cleator, Feizor, 
Medlar, Golcar. 

3. A certain number of names show palatalization in the 
final consonant of the first element. Among such names we 
find the following : 

Badger Hill, Rastrick Rotcher, Marsden 

Gaukrodger, Sowerby Rotcher, Holmfirth 

Ledger Lane, Lofthouse Rodger Leys, Mixenden 

Ratcher, Stansfield Scatcher, Liversedge 

4. Still a fourth group is doubtless connected with the 
Teutonic termination -er dealt with by Jellinghaus ; among the 
examples which he gives we find Atter, Diever, Erder, Eller, 
Kilver, Schieder, Wewer. 

Further examples are the following, no attempt being made 
to classify them : 

Bagger Wood, Stainborough 
Bloomer Gate, Midgley 
Capper Clough, Saddleworth 
Cocker Edge, Thurlstone 
Cooper Lane, Shelf 
Corker Lane, Bradfield 
Currer Laithe, Keighley 
Defifer Hill, Denby 
Draper Lane, Wadsworth 
Drummer Lane, Golcar 
Farrar Height, Soyland 
Fryer Park, Whitley 
Hamper Lane, Hoylandswaine 
Haychatter, Bradfield 
Heater, Cumberworth 
Hepper Wood, Whitley 
Hunter Hill, Ovenden 
Ibber Flat, Keighley 
Knowler Hill, Liversedge 
Liner Wood, Whiston 
Nicker Wood, Todwick 
Nopper Head, South Crosland 
Oliver Wood, Hopton 

Pepper Lane, Bramley (Leeds) 
Pepper Hill, Shelf 
Pinnar Lane, Southowram 
Ramper Road, Laughton 
Roker Lane, Pudsey 
Roper Farm, Queensbury 
Sagar Lane, Stansfield 
Screamer Wood, Bradley 
Seckar Wood, WooUey 
Soaper Lane, Shelf 
Silver Wood, Ravenfield 
Slipper Lane, Mirfield 
Stotter Cliff, Penistone 
Swiner Clough, Holme 
Tinker Hill, Bradfield 
Toller Lane, Wilsden 
Trimmer Lane, Stansfield 
Trister Hill, Cawthome 
Waller Clough, Slaithwaite 
Weather Hill, Lindley 
Wicker, Sheffield 
Wither Wood, Cumberworth 


ERRINGDEN, Hebden Bridge, shows changes of an 
unusual character. WCR 1277 has Ayrykedene, and WCR 1308 
Ayrikedene; in 1336 we find Heyrikdene, 1348 Hairweden, 1447 
Ayringden, and 1560 Airingden. The first three of these appear 
to involve the ON personal name Eirlkr, that is, Eric ; the fourth 
reminds one of certain forms of the Gael, airigh, a shieling, 
found in such names as Golcar ; the fifth and sixth show the 
influence of such names as Manningham and Trimingham. The 
meaning is ' Eric's valley,' from OE denu. 

EWDEN, EWES, EWOOD.— Many other place-names 
have the same prefix, Ewhurst and Ewshott for example. They 
go back to OE eow, ME ew, a yew-tree. 

EWDEN, Bradfield, CR 1290 Udene, YD 1307 Udene, may 
perhaps be 'yew-tree valley,' from OE denu, a valley. 

Ewes, Firbeck and Worrall, the former Ewes in 1543, means 
simply ' the yew-trees.' 

EwoOD, Hebden Bridge, WH 1536 Ewwod, HW 1548 
Ewewood, signifies 'yew-tree wood.' 

EXLEY.— See Eccles. 

-EY. — This termination comes from two different sources : 
(i) OE ea, water, a stream or river, (2) OE «^, leg, an island. 

Discussing the Hertfordshire name Ayot Dr Skeat says, ' It 
is an interesting fact in philology, that this AS leg arose from a 
fem. Teutonic type *ahwia, the exact equivalent of the Lat. 
aquea, a fem. adjectival form ; just as the AS ea, a stream, arose 
from a Teutonic type ahwa (Goth, ahwd), the exact equivalent 
of the Lat. aqua. Thus the original sense of leg was merely 
" watery," which perhaps helps to explain why it seems to have 
been applied to a peninsula, or a place with watery surroundings, 
just as freely as to a piece of land completely isolated.' Further, 
in his explanation of Colney and Odsey in the same county, 
Dr Skeat says AS eg, leg, 'meant not only an island in the 
modern sense, but any elevated piece of land wholly or partially 
surrounded by marshy country or flooded depressions.' 

It is probably from the second of these sources, of which 
the Anglian form was eg, that we obtain the terminal in such 


South-west Yorkshire names as Arksey, Fenay, Pudsey, Wibsey, 
and Pugneys. 

FALHOUSE, Whitley Lower, has records as follows : YS 
1297 Falles, KF 1303 Falles, DN 1335 Falehes, YF i^ii^Fallowes, 
TPR 1582 Fallowes, TPR 1671 Falhouse. There is great 
variation between the different forms of the word, but the 
interpretation is almost certainly ' the fallows,' from ME falwes ; 
compare OE fealh, ploughed land. See Faugh, and compare 
the name with Barrow and Hallows. 

FALLINGWORTH, a farmstead in Norland, is given in 
PT 1379 a.s ffaldingwortk, and in a deed ti399 as Faldyngworth. 
The meaning is ' the farm of Falding, or the Faldings,' from OE 
weorth ; compare the name Westfaldingi which was used of the 
men of Vestfold in South Norway. 

FALTHWAITE.Stainborough. — Locally pronounced Faul- 
fitt. Early forms of the word are PF 1235 Falgthwayt, CH 
1333 Falghthweit, DN 1386 Falthwayt, PT 1379 ffaltwaith. 
The name combines the OE fealh, ME falghe, ploughed land, 
and ON thveit, a paddock or clearing. 

FARNLEY, FARNLEY TYAS.— Here are some of the 
early spellings of these words, spellings which show how essential 
it is to obtain records as early as possible. 

FARNLEY, Leeds FARNLEY Tyas, Huddersfield 

DB 1086 Femelei DB 1086 Ferlei, Fereleia 

PC ti220 Farnelei PF 1236 Farlegh 

KI 1285 Farneley NV 1316 Farneley 

NV 1316 Farneley DN 1361 Ferneley Tyes 

In the former case the explanation is ' lea of the ferns,' from OE 
fearn, a fern, and leak, a lea or meadow ; but in the case of 
Farnley Tyas the recorded spellings are in obvious conflict, and 
two other meanings are possible: (i) 'the far lea,' from OE 
feorr ; (2) ' the lea of the boars,' from OE fearr. 

PF 1236 connects 'Farlegh' with 'Baldwin le Teys,' whence 
the name Tyas, and a charter about the same date shows that 


Roger de Notton granted all his lands at Farnley and Notton to 
' Baldwinus Teutonicus.' 

PARSLEY, Bradford, DB Fersellei, PF 1203 Ferselee, PC 
■[■1220 Ferseleia, KI 1285 Ferselay, NV 1316 Ferslai, is probably 
'the gorsey meadow,' ixovc\. fyrsa, gen. pi. of OY^fyrs, furze, gorse, 
and leak, a meadow. Note that the Norman scribes wrote e for 
OE^, and that BCS 938 has Fyrsleage. 

FARTO'WN, Huddersfield, is a name of comparatively late 
formation, witness the termination -town. The meaning ' distant 
farm,' from OE feorr, far, is probable ; but the meaning ' sheep 
farm,' from ON far, a sheep, is also possible. Note that far, 
sheep, and far-pastures, sheep-pastures, are found in the dialect 
of the county. 

FAUGH. — In EDD the word 'faugh' is explained as fallow 
ground, and is derived from OE fealh. See Hale, and compare 
' faugh ' and ' fallow ' from OE fealh with ' haugh ' and ' hallow ' 
from OE healh. The name occurs in Huddersfield, at Midgley 
(Halifax), and elsewhere ; and Falhouse is a corruption of 
another form of the word. 

THER TEAM. — There are no early records of the second 
and third, which are situate in Saddleworth and Rishworth ; but 
of Featherstone, Pontefract, we find DB Ferestane, PC 11 55 
Federstana, PF 1166 Fetherstan, PC 1192 Fethirstana, CR 12 15 
Fetherstan, YI 1299 Fethirstan, NV 13 16 Fetherstan. These 
prove that the termination is from OE stdn, a stone, not OE tun, 
a farmstead. 

Three other points are cle£ir. In the first place the first 
element in Featherbed and Feather Team can scarcely be a 
personal name. In the second place the first element in Feather- 
stone — Feather, not Feathers — need not be a personal name, 
though OE has the name Faeder, and ODan. Fathir. And 
thirdly, it is most unlikely that OE f^er, a feather, should be 


On the other hand there are many Scottish place-names 
where the early forms have some such prefix as 'fethir' or 
'fother' — compare Fetternear, 1157 Fethirneir; Fetteresso, 1251 
Fethiresach ; Forteviot, 970 Fothuirtabaicht ; Fordoun, 1 100 
Fothardun; Fettercairn, 970 Fotherkern (Johnston). McClure 
suggests that this Fother or Fethar means ' woodland,' and that 
Furness, formerly Futher-ness, preserves the same word in a 
contracted form. As to our West Riding names it is not easy 
to speak with assurance. 

FELKIRK, FOULBY, both near Wakefield, are particularly 
interesting names presenting as they do the same variation of 
vowel in their early forms : 

CR 1215 Felkirke YD 1318 Folby 

CR 1226 Folkirke PT 12,7^ ffelby 

YR 1252 Felechirche WRM 1391 iv/iJj' (surname) 

YD 1318 Folkirk YD 1398 Folby 

DN 1555 Felkirke YF 1553 Folbye 

Comparing these with WC Felebrige and WH Felinge, it 
seems certain that all the four terminations are Scandinavian, 
and that we must therefore look for a Scandinavian source for 
the first element. There seems no other possible word than 
ON fjol (stem fjal-) which is explained as a thin board or deal, 
and from which comes ON fjala-bru, a bridge of planks. Thus 
we may interpret Felkirk as ' the plank church,' Foulby as ' the 
farmhouse of planks,' Felebrige as ' the bridge of planks,' and 
Felinge as 'the field where planks are stored.' 

In regard to the variation of vowel shown in the early forms 
it should be noted that Prim. Norse e was under certain circum- 
stances ' broken ' into ia, to, and that in East Scandinavian these 
diphthongs were liable to the so-called ' progressive i- mutation,' 
through which ia became ice, and io became i<^^. According 
to Torp ON fi'ol goes back to a Prim. Germ. *felo, and we may 
therefore take the early forms Folkirk and Folbj as evidence 
that the ' breaking ' had sometimes taken place at the time when 
the Danes made their settlements in the West Riding. 

' Bjorkman, Scandinavian Loan-words, II, p. 292. 


FENAY, FENWICK, which may well be considered 
together, show the following early form : 

WCR 1274 Fyney PF 1206 Fenwich 

WCR 1295 Feney PF 1208 Fenwic 

WCR 1308 Fynee CR 1251 Fenwyke 

DN 1347 Finey IN 1296 Fenwyk 

DN 1393 Fenay YF 1496 Fenwyk 

Fenwick, Snaith, is obviously ' fen village,' from OE fenn, a 
fen, marsh, moor, and wlc, an enclosure, habitation, village. 

Fenay, Almondbury, stands on a ridge almost surrounded 
by deep valleys. Its terminal comes from OE eg, ME ey, an 
island. But it is not easy to decide what is the origin of its first 
element. Possibly it comes from OKJina, a woodpecker, or OE 
fin, a plant-name. 

FERRYBRIDGE, Pontefract, is a place of historic interest. 
In 1 46 1 it was the scene of an important skirmish which pre- 
ceded the battle of Towton. The name is recorded as follows : 
DB Fereia, Ferie, PC 1192 Feri, FC 1199 Ferybrigge, HR 1276 
Ferye, WCR 12,26 ffery, DN 1343 Ferribrig, and it is derived 
from ON ferja, a ferry. Under the date 13 16 the Pontefract 
Chartulary has a reference to this place which speaks of a 
portion of ground as 'abuttant super Limpit,' an interesting 
reference to what has long been a well-established industry. 

-FIELD. — This termination comes from OE feld, ME feld, 
feud. In its original sense it denoted a plain, land naturally 
open, unenclosed country, as opposed to woodland or land 
cleared of forest ; to-day, however, it is used to signify an 
enclosure. In OE the word was sometimes used as a prefix : 
feldcirice was a country church, feldbeo a locust, feldhus a tent, 
and feldminte wild mint. 

Examples : Austerfield, Bradfield, Briestfield, Broomfield, 
Darfield, Dransfield, Eastfield, Ecclesfield, Hemingfield, Hudders- 
field, Langfield, Mirfield, Oldfield, Ravenfield, Schol afield, 
Sheffield, Stansfield, Wakefield, Warmfield, Westfield. 


Fink Hill occurs in Barkisland, and Finkle Edge on the 


moors between Holmfirth and Penistone ; but Finkle Street 
is to be found in or near Brighouse, Sowerby, Pontefract, and 
the southern Wortley. 

NED gives a word 'finkle' meaning fennel, which comes to 
us from Lat. fceniculum through ME fenecel. It is possible that 
this word accounts for some of the names under discussion ; but 
it is certain that the Dan. word vinkel, an angle or corner, is 
beside the mark, for the corresponding English form would be 
' winkle.' 

FINTHORPE is in Almondbury. 

FIRBECK, Tickhill, HR 1276 Fritkebek, PT i^^g ffirtkbek, 
YD 1403 Frythbeke, comes from ON bekkr, a brook, and OE 
frith, fyrhthe, a wood, wooded country ; see Holmfirth. 

FIRSBY.— See Friezland. 

FISHLAKE, Thorne, is usually presented to us in an 
Anglian form, e.g. DB 1086 Fiscelac, HR 1276 Fiskelak, CH 
1 398 Fyshelake, where the meaning is simply ' fish stream,' from 
fisca, gen. pi. of O'Efisc, a fish, and OE lacu, a stream, a channel. 
In YR 1269 we find, however, a Scandinavian form, Fiskelake, 
doubtless of the same meaning ; and DB 1086 has a form Fisccale 
which seems corrupt, but may involve ON skdli, a shieling, shed. 

FITZWILLIAM, Hemsworth, is 'a village about half-a- 
mile from Kinsley, formed for the accommodation of the miners 
working at Hemsworth colliery ' (Kelly). 

FIXBY, Huddersfield, DB Fechesbi, WCR 1274 Fekesby, 
DN 1293 Fekisby, NV 13 16 Fekesby, YF 1570 Fekesbye, is 'the 
homestead of Fek ' ; compare the name Fech recorded in DB, 
and the Frisian name Feke recorded by Brons. There is on 
record, however, no Scandinavian name of the form. . A second 
FiXBY occurs in Whitley Lower. 

FLAN SHAW, Wakefield, WCR 1274 Flanshowe, WCR 
1277 Flansowe, 1369 Flansowe, 1391 Flanshagh, shows a change 
in its ending. In the early forms the terminal comes from ON 


haugr, a burial-mound, cairn ; but in the later it is from OE 
sceaga, a copse, a wood. The prefix is plainly a personal name, 
and ON has Fleinn while ODan. has Flen, but neither of these 
would give Flan. On the other hand the name Flann is of 
frequent occurrence in ancient Irish history, borne among others 
by kings and abbots. Perhaps some Irish prince came over 
from Dublin with the Norsemen, and meeting his end was 
buried at the spot ever after called by his name — Flann's how, 
the cairn of Flann. 

FLASH LANE, FLASK, DAMFLASK, occur respectively 
in or near Mirfield, Widdop, and Sheffield. In NED ' flash ' and 
' flask ' are explained as ' a pool, a marshy place.' While ' flash ' 
is said to be of onomatopoeic origin, influenced by Fr. flcwhe, 
which is of the same meaning, the sk in ' flask ' seems to indicate 
a Scandinavian origin. Madsen records Y)^x\. flaske as occurring 
in place-names, with the meaning ' meadows ' or ' small bays 
encompassed with meadows.' The prefix in Damflask means 
a bank for restraining water, and comes from ON dammr, a 
dam, Dan. dam, Sw. damm ; compare the Swedish place-names 
Damhus and Pildammen. 

FLATT, FLATTS.— There are many place-names of which 
this is the second element — Crown Flatts, Dewsbury ; High 
Flatts, Denby ; Collon Flatt, Wadsworth ; Cross Flatts, Bingley 
and Southowram. According to NED the word comes from 
ON flatr; compare Sw. flat, Dan. flad. It means a piece of 
level ground, a stretch of country without hill. 

FLEET. — The name Fleet occurs in Skelmanthorpe near 
the river Dearne ; and elsewhere the word is used as a termina- 
tion as in the case of Adlingfleet, Ousefleet, and Trumfleet. It 
is from O'E.fleot or ON fliof, a channel, running stream, river. 

FLOCKTON, Wakefield, DB Flochetone, PF 1201 Floketoti, 
YI 1287 Flocton, NV 13 16 Floketon, may be ' Floki's farm,' from 
ON tun, an enclosure, farmstead, and the ON personal name 
Floki ; or it may be ' the farm of the flocks,' from OE flocc, a 
flock, and tun, an enclosure, farmstead. 


respectively in Heckmondwike, Ossett, and Austonley. In his 
Scottish Dictionary Jamieson explains the word 'flush' as a 
morass, a piece of moist ground, a place where water frequently 
lies, and EDD gives a similar explanation. 

FLY FLATT, near Midgley (Halifax), must be connected 
with ON fldi, a marshy moor, Norw. fly, a moor, a marshy 
tableland, Sw. fly, a marsh, moss. According to Madsen the 
name Flye occurs also in Denmark with the meaning ' marsh ' 
or • morass.' The word goes back to the Teutonic stem *fluhjd, 
a marshy tableland (Torp). 

FOCKERBY, on the Lincolnshire border, YI 1256 Folke- 
huardeby, 1304 Folquardby, 1358 Folkquardby, PT 1379 Fowe- 
wardby, is 'Folkward's homestead.' The first element is a 
personal name, and ON has FolkvarSr (Naumann), while 
ODan. has Folkwarth (Nielsen); in addition Naumann records 
the weak form VartSi. The second element is from ON byr, a 
farmstead, and the first probably represents the genitive of 
* FolkvarSi. 

-FORD is from OK /ord, a road or passage through a stream. 
The word occasionally becomes -forth or -worth as in Stainforth 
and Brinsworth. Among the Domesday place-names in South- 
west Yorkshire while there is only one bridge and one ferry, 
there are many fords. To the wayfarer the ford was a matter 
of the deepest concern, and the all-important questions must 
continually have been asked : ' How deep is it .' ' ' What sort of 
bottom has it got ? ' ' Who lives beside it .' ' ' How is it marked 
out ? ' Accordingly we find such names as Defford and Shalford, 
the deep ford and the shallow ford ; Cuford, not too deep for 
a cow ; Horseford, which may be crossed on horseback ; and 
Wainford where a waggon could be got from bank to bank. 
Further, we find names like Rufford, where the river bed was 
rough and uneven ; Sandford with its sandy bottom ; and 
Stainforth where perhaps it was paved with stones. Other 
typical names are Wudel's ford, Werm's ford, and Creve's ford, 
Salford near the willows, Milford near the mill, Stapleford 
marked by a post, and Castleford defended by a castle. 


Examples in South-west Yorkshire include Addingford, 
Battyeford, Bradford, Brinsworth, Castleford, Cleggford, Cooper, 
Deffer, Dunford, Keresforth, Salford, Stainforth, Strangford, and 

FORDOLES is the name of a farm near Rotherham ; see 
the note on Dole. 

FOULBY.— See Felkirk. 

FOULSNAPE.— See Snape. 

FRIARMERE is one of the four 'meres' into which 
the township of Saddleworth is divided. Prior to 1468, the 
earliest date at which the name Friarmere occurs, we find 
Hildebrighthope 1293, Ildbrictop 1297, and in the 14th century 
Hildebrighthope, Hilbdebrighthope, and Hillbrighthorpe. This 
means ' Hildebeorht's secluded valley,' from OE hop ; but 
Friarmere, which tells plainly of the connection with Roche 
Abbey, is from OF frere, Lat. fratrem, and OE ni^re, a 
boundary, border. 

FRICKLEY, Doncaster, DB Friceleia, Frichehale, YI 1246 
Frikeley, KI 1285 Frikelay, Frykelay, NV 13 16 Frikley, appears 
to have as its first element either the OE fricca, a herald, or OE 
freca, a warrior — more probably, indeed, the former — used, as 
Moorman suggests, as a personal name. No name of the form 
required is recorded either by LV, Searle, or Naumann, but 
Brons has the Frisian names Frike and Frikke. 


— In describing the conquest of Britain in the 5th and 6th 
centuries, Bede says 'those who came over were of the three 
most powerful nations of Germany — Saxons, Angles, and Jutes' 
(i, 15), and the AS Chronicle mentions only the same tribes. 
There can be no doubt, however, that among the early invaders 
there were Frisians. A passage in Procopius, which dates from 
a time nearly two centuries earlier than Bede's work, reads as 
follows : ' The island of Brittia contains three very populous 
nations, each of which has a king over it. The names borne 
by these nations are Angiloi and Phrissones and Brittones, the 



last having the same name as the islands' At a later period 
we find Frisians assisting the Danish invaders ; Henry of 
Huntingdon, after speaking of the impiety of the Anglo- 
Saxons, declares that ' The Almighty therefore let loose upon 
them the most barbarous of nations, the Danes and Goths, 
Norwegians and Swedes, Vandals and Frisians.' Under these 
circumstances we may expect to find traces of the Frisians in 
our place-names, and the Frystons of Yorkshire and Lincoln, 
the Frisbys of Leicester, and Friseham in Devon have been 
quoted as examples. 

The OE name for the Frisians was Frisan or Fresan, and 
the personal name Frisa or Fresa originally denoted a member 
of that nation. Other forms of the name given by Schonfeld 
are Frisii and Frisiones as well as OFris. Frisa and Fresa. 
Dumfries, which appears in Nennius as Caer Pheris, is explained 
by Skene as ' fort of the Frisians.' 

On the Aire near Ferrybridge there are three Frystons, 
Monk Fryston on the northern bank. Water Fryston and Ferry 
Fryston on the southern. Among early records we find the 
following : 

BCS 963 Fryssetune'^ PM 1247 Fristone 

WHS ti030 Fristun CR 1255 Frisian 

DB 1086 Frystone, Fristone NV 1316 Frystone 

PC 1 155 Fristona PT Y^-jf) ffryston 

Fryston appears therefore to be ' the homestead of Frisa, 
the Frisian,' from OE tun, an enclosure or farmstead, an expla- 
nation accepted by Middendorff. 

Friezland, spelt Frezeland in the Parish Registers of 
Saddleworth, may well be the ' land of Fresa, the Frisian.' 

Frizinghall, Bradford, YI 1287 Fresinghale, DN ti287 
Fresinghal, DN 1424 Frisinghall, YF 1567 Frysynghall, is 'the 
corner of the sons of Fresa,' from OE healh, a corner or meadow. 
Compare BCS 951 Frisingm^de, referred by Middendorff to 
Fresa, Frisa ; and note also Fressain, Pas de Calais, formerly 
according to Mannier written Fresingahem. 

1 Quoted from Chadwick, The Origin of the English Nation, p. 55. 

2 BCS HI, 3^5; the spelling Frythetune in BCS ni, 695 has no support. 


FiRSBY, Doncaster, WCR 1275 Friseby, YF 1504 Frysby, is 
'the homestead of Frisi,' ON byr. Nielsen gives the ODan. 
personal name Frisi and quotes two place-names derived there- 
from, namely, Frislev and Fristrup. 

FULSTONE, Holmfirth, occasionally spelt Foulston, ap- 
pears in DB as Fugelestun, and later as follows : 

WCR 1274 Fugeliston WCR 1307 Fouleston 

WCR 1298 Fugeleston WCR 1309 Fouleston 

WCR 1306 Fugheleston WRM 1577 Foulston 

As in Silkstone and Penistone the terminal comes from OE tun, 
an enclosure or farmstead — not from OE stdn, a stone. The 
meaning is ' Fugel's farm,' and the personal name comes from 
OE fugol, a fowl. 


-GATE. — This suffix may be derived from OE geat, a gate, 
door, or from ON gata, a road, way, path. Thus whenever 
the word has the latter meaning it may safely be declared of 
Scandinavian origin, as in the case of Clapgate, Cluntergate, 
Howgate, Kirkgate, Skeldergate, and Slantgate. The Lidgates 
on the other hand are of Anglian origin. 

GAWBER, Barnsley, PM 1304 Galghbergh, PT 1379 
Galbergh, YF 1526 Galbarre, is 'gallows hill,' from OE gealga 
or ON galgi, gallows, and OE beorg, a hill, mound, or ON berg, 
a rock. In the olden days every ' Thing ' had its gallows-hill, 
and perhaps Gawber was the place of execution for the wapen- 
take of Staincross. 

GAWTHORPE. — South-west Yorkshire has two places of 
this name, the prefix being the ON personal name *Gauki. 

Gawthorpe, Ossett, HR 1276 Goucthorpe, WCR 1298 Gouke- 
thorpe, means simply ' Gauki's hamlet,' from ON thorp. 

Gawthorpe, Lepton, YS 1297 Goutthorp, DN 1324 Gawke- 
thorp, PT 1379 Gaukethorp, shows a variation in the prefix which 
represents a change from the personal name Gauti to Gauki. 

GIB, GIBB. — This word occurs in Gibb Hill, Ovenden, 
Gib Slack, Wadsworth, Gibriding, Austonley, and stands alone 


as Gibb in Honley. NED records a word gib which means a 
male cat or a male ferret, and another word of the same form 
which signifies a hump. 

WAITE, UGHILL.— The ON gil, a valley or ravine, occurs 
in all these words, as well as in Gill Hey and Gill Lane near 
Holmfirth, and Gill Sike near Wakefield. These names are 
interesting because Gill comes to us from the Norsemen, rather 
than from the Danes. 

GiLCAR occurs in Emley, SE 17 15 Gilcar, in Elland, and in 
Sheffield, and means ' the carr in the valley,' from ON kjarr, 
copsewood, brushwood. 

GiLDERSOME has been explained as 'the home of the Gelders,' 
and the explanation has been supported by the statement that 
'Dutch settlers introduced the manufacture of cloth in 1571.' 
The story revealed by the name itself is, however, of quite a 
different character. The early spellings include 

YI 1249 Gilhusum DN 1461 Gildosome 

WCR 1294 Gildiisme YF 1504 Gyldersom 

DN 1435 Guildesham YF 1563 Gyldersum 

It is plain that so far as the place-name is concerned the legend 
of the Gelders must be abandoned, the sense being simply ' the 
houses in the gill, or valley,' from ON hus, a house. The history 
of the word shows two other interesting points, the intrusion of d 
as a supporting consonant, and the development of -er from the 
indefinite vowel of the second syllable. 

GiLROYD occurs in Barkisland, Linthwaite, Morley, Dodworth, 
and Bradfield, and its meaning is ' the clearing in the valley ' ; 
see Royd. 

GILTHWAITE occurs in Skelmanthorpe and near Rotherham, 
early records of the latter being YD 1342 Gilthwayt, YD 1409 
Gylthewaite. The sense is ' the clearing in the valley,' from ON 
thveit, a clearing. 

UGHILL, Bradfield, DB Ugkil,YS 1297 Wggil, 1337 Ughill, 
YF 1536 Ughill, is, I imagine, another place-name involving the 
ON gil; compare Raygill near Skipton, DB Raghil. 

G. 'o 


GIRLINTON, Bradford, PT 1379 Gryllyngton, is 'the 
farmstead of Gyrling or the Gyrlings.' In DB we find the 
personal name Gerling where e represents OE y, and Skeat 
gives the ME forms of girl' as gyrle, girle, gerle, all referred to 
OE gyr-el. 

to the meaning joyous or glad, OE glced, ME glad, gled, had the 
signification bright or shining ; that, indeed, was the original 
sense ; compare ON gldSr, bright. In The Flower and the 
Leaf, a poem of the isth century, we find the leaves of trees 
referred to as ' Som very rede, and some a glad light grene.' 
A Bedfordshire place-name, Nares Gladly, spelt Gledelai in DB, 
is derived from this source by Professor Skeat. 

Gleadless, Sheffield, HH ti277 Gladeleys, HH fijoo 
Gledeleys, YF 1549 Gledeles, YF 1561 Gledles, SM 16 10 Gledles, 
means 'the bright leas,' OE leah, a lea or meadow. The modern 
ending is quite extraordinary, yet a similar case occurs near 
Scarborough, where the ancient Kirkelac, church lea, is repre- 
sented by the modern Kirkless. 

Gledhill, Halifax, WCR 1275 Gledehull, WCR 1277 
Gledehyll, is ' the bright hill." The name Gledhill occurs also in 
Almondbury, Hartshead, and Warmfield. 

Gledholt, Huddersfield, LC 1296 Gledeholt, WCR 1298 
Gledeholt, WCR 1308 Gledeholte, is 'the bright wood,' OE holt, 
a grove or wood. 

GODLEY, Greetland, Rish worth, and Northowram. — In 1307 
and 1308 WCR gives the second as Godelay, and in PT 1379 
Godlay occurs. The meaning is ' the lea of Goda.' 

GOLCAR, Huddersfield.- — ' Letters, like soldiers, are very 
apt to desert and drop off in a long march,' said Home Tooke ; 
and it would be very difficult to find a better illustration of the 
fact than that presented by Golcar. Here are some of the early 
spellings : 

DB 1086 Gudlagesarc, Gudlagesargo WCR 1308 Goiithelaghcharthes 

WCR 1272 Gouthelaghcharthes WCR 1309 Goulaghcarlhes 

YI 1286 Gouilackarres DC 1349 Gouldelakekerres 

WCR 1306 Goiithlacharwes, Guthlacharwes DC 1351 Gouldelakkerres 


DC 1356 Goullakarres HW 1481 Goulkery 

DN 1398 Guldecar, Guldeker YF 1535 Golcar 

YD 1438 Gowlkar SE 1715 Gowker 

This is perhaps the most interesting of all our South-west 
Yorkshire place-names. Since the 14th century the terminal 
has taken the form 'ker' or 'car' as though from ON kjarr, 
copsewood, Dan. kcsr, a bog, fen; but obviously the original 
name was neither 'Guthlac's carr' nor 'Guthlac's scar.' The 
Domesday forms appear to represent a Nom. Gutklages ■ arg a.nd 
a Dat. Guthlages-arge, in which the first element is the ON 
personal name Guthlaug, while the second represents ON erg, a 
shieling. A passage in the Orkney Saga, describing an event in 
the year 11 5 8, makes use of this word and equates it with the 
ON setr ; and a second passage speaks of ' some deserted huts 
which are called Asgrim's erg! The word is derived from Olr. 
airge, a place where cows are kept, with which is connected 
the Gaelic word airigh or airidk, a shieling or hill pasture 

Golcar is by no means an isolated example of the use of this 
word. In a great crescent stretching from Whitehaven in the 
north to Liverpool in the south, ancient names in which it occurs 
as the second element number quite a score^. All these names 
have a most interesting story. During the 9th century bands of 
Vikings rounded the north of Scotland and took possession of 
parts of the Western Islands and Ireland, as well as Argyll, 
Galloway, and the Isle of Man. They made the conquered 
Celts their thralls ; and when their descendants crossed the 
Irish Sea and landed on the shores of Morecambe Bay, or at the 
mouth of the Ribble, they brought with them not only their 
thralls, but also words of Celtic origin such as erg and cros. 
While some of these Vikings were content to settle in 
Cumberland or Westmorland or Lancashire, others made their 
way eastward into Yorkshire ; and to-day the story of their 
wanderings is written in indelible characters on the map of our 
country. Such place-names as Golcar and Crosland, Staincross 
and Osgoldcross, bear witness to the fact that among our 
ancestors some were Norsemen who sailed down the west coast 

^ See pp. 2() — 30. 

IC3 — 2 


of Scotland, settled most probably for a time in Ireland, and 
thus before they crossed to the north-western shores of England 
were ' in familiar contact with the Celtic race'.' 

GOLDTHORPE, GOWDALL.— Goldthorpe is mentioned 
in DB as Goldetorp, Guldetorp, Godetorp, and later spellings of 
the two names are as follows : 

KI 1285 Goldthorpe PC 1220 Goldale 

CH 1307 Goldethorpe YI 1280 Goldale 

YF 1528 Goldethorpe DN 1353 Goldhale 

Goldthorpe may fairly be explained as ' Golda's village,' 
from ON thorp. Golda and *Guldi appear to be respectively 
the OE and ON forms of the personal name (Naumann). 

Gowdall is ' Golda's corner,' from OE heath, a meadow or 
corner, and the personal name Golda recorded by Searle. 

GOMERSAL, Bradford, DB Goniershale, Gomeshale, DC 
1246 Gumereshale, HR 1276 Gmnereshale, KI 1285 Gomersalle, 
NV 1 3 16 Gomersall, is ' Gummaer's corner,' from the recorded 
personal name Gummaer and OE healh, a corner or meadow. 

GOOLE is situated on a bend of the Ouse near its confluence 
with the Don. Early records are YF 1553 Gowle, YF 1558 
Goole, YF 1564 Gowle. It is impossible to say definitely what 
is the origin of the word. Perhaps it may be the AF gole, which 
from the i6th to the 19th centuries took the forms goule, goal, 
goole, and which among other significations meant a small 
stream, a ditch, or sluice. 

GRAIN. — In moorland districts this word occurs with some 
frequency as the designation of small streams. It is found in its 
simple form in Wadsworth, Mixenden, and Holme, while Widdop 
has Grainings, and Rishworth Oxygrains. The word comes from 
ON grein, a branch or arm. 

GRANGE. — Instances of this name occur at Denby Grange 
near Wakefield, and Grange Hey in Saddleworth. The word is 

' West Riding Place-names, pp. 216 — 8. 



derived from AF graunge, which meant not only a building in 
which grain was stored or cattle housed, but also a farm with its 
outbuildings. It was applied more particularly to the outlying 
farms of religious houses ; and it is interesting, therefore, to find 
a historic connection between the two granges just mentioned 
and a great abbey, lands in Saddleworth being formerly held by 
Roche, while lands in Denby belonged to Byland. 

In his Dictionnaire d' Architecture VioUet-le-Duc gives many 
interesting details relating to the French Abbey granges. 
He tells us that the great abbeys took care to surround their 
granges with walls fortified by watch-towers and pierced by 
strong gateways. The granges were occupied by monks who 
were ' sent down ' as a penance for some fault, as well as by lay 
brothers and peasants. Near the gateways were outbuildings in 
which when night came on the wayfaring man was able to find 
shelter. Little by little groups of cottages gathered round, and 
thus the nucleus of a village was formed. In time of war the 
villagers would shut themselves up, he says, within the encircling 
walls of the grange and there defend themselves ; but occasion- 
ally, when incited by some lord at feud with the monks, the 
peasants would turn round and give it up to pillage, or even — 
what was little to their profit — deliver it to the flames. Not a 
few places in France which bear the name La Grange have had 
an origin and history just such as this. 

GREASBOROUGH, Rotherham. — An examination of the 
early forms reveals two types, Greseburg and Gresebroc : 

DB 1086 Greseburg HR 1276 Gresebroc YD 1482 Gresbroke 

DB 1086 Gressebtirg KI 1285 Grissebroc VE 1535 Gressebroke 
DB 1086 Gersebroc YD 1390 Gresbroc WTR 1678 Greasebrough 

The common word ' grass ' appears in OE as gcers, grces, and in 
ME as gras, gres, gresse. If this word were the first element we 
should expect such forms as Gresburg and Gresbroc. Hence 
I sugo'est instead a weak personal name formed from the common 
noun ; compare Graso given by Forstemann, and the English 
place-names Grassington, 1259 Gersington, and Gressingham^ 
1202 Gersingeham. The terminals come from OE biiig, burh, a 
fortified place, and OE broc, a brook. 


GREENSIDE, GREENWOOD.— The first is situate in 
Saddleworth ; the second in Huddersfield ; the third in Queens- 
bury, Cowick, and Atterchffe ; the fourth in Pudsey, Kirkheaton, 
Thurstonland, and Ecclesfield ; the fifth in Heptonstall, WCR 
1275 Grenwode, WCR 1297 Grenewode. Compare OE grene, 
ME grene, green. 

GREETLAND, Halifax, DB Greland, YS 1297 Gretland, 
WCR 1 308 Gretelande, comes from OE great or ON griot, gravel, 
stone, and OE or ON land, land, estate; compare the Norwegian 
place-name Grjotlid, ' the gravel slope.' The word Greetland is 
found somewhat frequently as a field-name. 

GRENOSIDE, Ecclesfield, is spelt Granhowside in a 
document quoted by Dodsworth, while HH -f-i26o has Gravenhou, 
and HS 1637 has Grenowside. These are sufficient to prove that 
the second element is from ON haugr, a burial-mound. The first 
element is probably connected with ON grof, a pit ; compare the 
names Graven and Gravensfiord which occur in Norway. 

GREYSTONES, Ecclesall, YF 1564 Greyestones, is derived 
from OE grag, gray, and stdn, a stone. 

GRICE, Shelley. — Early 14th century charters connected 
with Shelley speak of Richard de Gris. The name is derived 
from OF greys, greis, which meant a flight of steps, and came 
from Lat. gradus. In Yorkshire, according to EDD, this word 
assumed such forms as grise and grice, and a secondary meaning 
of the word was an ascent or slight slope. 

GRIFF.— Near Keighley is Griff Wood ; in Birstall Griff 
Well; in Ardsley (Wakefield) Griff House. YD 1348 gives le 
Gryff as the name of a field in the last-named township. The 
word comes from ON gryfja, a hole or pit. Compare Mulgrave 
and Stonegrave, DB (9r?/"and Steinegrif. 

Brierley. — In DB we find near Shefifield Grimeshou, ' the burial- 
mound of Grim,' from ON haugr, a cairn or mound. At a later 


date the name Grimesthorpe comes into view, YS 1297 Grimes torp, 
DN 1369 Grimesthorp. These warrant the interpretation ' Grim's 
village,' from ON Grimr, while Grimethorpe is from the personal 
name Grima ; compare the Danish place-names Grimstrup and 
Grimetune. Grlmr was a common Norse personal name ; it 
was also a name of Odin, who was so-called because he went 
about in disguise, ON grima being a hood. 

GUNTHWAITE, Penistone.— This word has cast off first 
one burden and then another, until at last only two syllables 
remain of the four or five with which the journey began. Early 
forms are WCR 1284 Gunyldthwayt, PT 1379 Gunhullewayth, 
1389 Giinletwayt, 1490 Gunthwait, YF 1585 Gimthwaite als. 
Gumblethwaite. The meaning is ' Gunnhilda's clearing,' from 
the ON personal name Gunnhilda and ON thveit, a clearing or 
paddock ; compare the Norwegian place-names Gunnildrud and 

HADDINGLEY. — This name occurs in Sandal and 
Shelley. Nielsen gives the ON name Haddingr and ODan. 
Hadding, and we may therefore assume a corresponding OE 
name. But, further, Searle has the name Haedde ; hence 
Haddingley may be explained as 'the lea of the sons of Haedde.' 
Compare Haddington in Lincolnshire and East Lothian. 

HADES, Marsden and Holmfirth.— Things are not always 
what they seem. A dialect-word hades which means ' a place 
between or behind hills and out of sight ' is recorded by EDD ; 
and the same authority gives another word hade as meaning 
■ a headland or strip of land at the side of an arable field upon 
which the plough turns.' The latter word is also recorded in 
NED and is explained as *a strip of land left unploughed 
between two ploughed portions of a field.' But NED has also a 
verb hade which means to incline, to slope, and this seems to be 
connected with the Norw. dialect-word hadd, pi. haddir, explained 
by Aasen as a slope or incline. In 1534 Fitzherbert has the 
following expression : ' Horses may be teddered vpon leys, 
balkes, and hades.' 




HAGG occurs as the name of a hamlet in Honley and else- 
where. In EDD a dialect- w^ord Hag explained as a cutting in 
a wood is derived from ON hoggva, Sw. hagga, to hew ; and a 
word Hagg meaning a copse or wooded enclosure is said to be 
a form of OE Iiaga, an enclosure. 

HAIGH — unlike Haigh in Lancashire which rhymes with 
' play ' — is pronounced so as to rhyme with ' plague.' It occurs 
(i) in Elland FC 1199 Hagh, WCR 13 14 Hugh; (2) near 
Barnsley, PT 1379 Hagh, YF 1569 Haghe; (3) in South Elmsall, 
i8'28 Hague. For the form of the word compare legh, leigh, a 
meadow, and hegh, heigh, high, and for the meaning compare OE 
haga, an enclosure or small farm, ON hagi, a hedged field or 
pasture. See EDD under Hag, sb. 2. 

HAINWORTH.— See Haworth. 

HALDENBY, Goole, CR fnoS Haldaneby, PF 1198 
Haldanebi, CR 1257 Haldaneby, HR 1276 Haldaneby, NV 13 16 
Haldanby, is a Scandinavian name meaning 'the farm of Halfdane 
or Halfdene,' from ON byr. Possibly the reference is to one of 
the two Danish Kings of York called Halfdene in various early 


At first sight words like Snydale and Wheldale seem to come 
from ON dalr, a dale, while Ecclesall and Hensall appear to be 
connected with OE heall, a hall. In both cases appearances are 
deceptive. Many places interpreted as the ' hall ' of this or that 
person have a meaning quite different. If we gather together 
all possible examples in South-west Yorkshire we shall find that 
the majority show early forms in -hale or -ale, e.g. 


1277 Bachale 

Sandall Par. 

1285 Sandhale 


1086 Beghale 


1 200 Scalehale 


ti3oi Dernhale 


1202 Snitkale 


1267 Ecclissale 


1086 Steinshale 


1086 Gomershale 


1333 Thornyhales 


1353 Goldhale 


1203 Tireshale 


1086 Ede shale 


1252 Wei dale 

Sandall Mag. 

1202 Sandale 


Compare with these the following examples where -11 appears : 

Skellow 1086 Scanhalla 

Newhall, Wath 1086 Niwehalla 

Woodhall, Darfield 1297 Wiidehall 

It will doubtless be right to explain the last two forms as 
derived from OE heall, a hall, Skellow being plainly exceptional ; 
but in the first set of examples the terminal appears to come 
from OE halh or healh. The dative singular of this word, hale, 
would account for all the terminations in this list. It should be 
noted, however, that in Skellow, Snydale and Wheldale, the 
prefixes are probably Scandinavian, and the words are either 
hybrids or -hale represents the ON hali, a tail, Dan. hale, a 
tongue of land ; compare the Norw. place-name Refsal, that is, 
Refshali (Rygh), and the Danish place-names Ulvshale and 
Revshale (Madsen). We must examine other early forms : 

1. Whitehaughs, in Fixby, was formerly Wytehalge (WH). 

2. Westnal, Bradfield, was Westmtmdhalgh in 1329. 

3. A hill in Erringden is called Greenhalgh by Watson. 

4. Upper and Nether Haugh appear to be indicated by BM '■ haleges de 


5. Hallas, Bingley, is recorded in BPR 1625 as Hallowes. 

6. A i6th century field-name in Liversedge was spelt Linhallowes. 

7. Thornhill had many field-names of the form ; compare SE 1634 

Hallowe and Hallowes. 

Altogether there are four clearly defined forms, 'hale,' 'halgh,' 
'haugh,' 'hallowes.' NED deals with 'hale' and 'haugh,' describing 
the former as derived from OE halh, liealk, a corner, nook, secret 
place, and the latter as connected with the same word, and as 
denoting a piece of flat alluvial land beside a river forming part 
of the floor of a river valley. EDD explains ' hale ' as flat 
alluvial land beside a river, or a triangular corner of land ; 
Stratmann gives the interpretation meadow or pasture land ; 
and Skeat says that one of the special applications of ' hale ' was 
a nook of land at the bend of a river, or a piece of flat alluvial 
land. But none of these authorities recognise the form ' hallow ' 
which stands to halh as ' hollow ' to holh, and ' barrow ' to beorh. 

The name Hales occurs in the township of Rawcliffe, 
and Hallas in Bingley, Kirkburton, and Hoylandswaine. 


HALIFAX. — This is a difficult name, and unfortunately 
it does not appear in the Domesday record, the earliest mention 
being found in a Charter of William de Warrene granting the 
church at Halifax to the Priory of Lewes. Later we find the 
form Halifax with great frequency, in YR 1268, for example, in 
WCR 1274, HR 1276, NV 1316, and PT 1379. Occasionally 
there are other forms, such as DC 1586 Hallyfaxe. 

In his history of Halifax Watson gives two interpretations 
current in his day. (i) The first goes back to Camden. A 
maiden, we are told, was slain by the monkish lover she had 
repulsed, and her head was hung upon a yew-tree. Afterwards, 
' the little veins, which, like hairs, were spread between the bark 
and the tree ' were believed to be the very hairs of the maiden. 
The place became a great resort of pilgrims ; and, though 
formerly called Horton, was now called Haligfax, that is, holy 
hair. (2) The second appears to be due to the author of a book 
published in 1708. It begins by saying that Halifax was in 
early days 'an hermitage of very great antiquity' and it goes 
on to explain the name as Holy-face, the church being dedicated 
to St John Baptist, and his face being ' as they pretend ' kept 

No early record of either story is known, and Camden's is 
discredited by the fact that nowhere can any trace be found of 
a change from the name Horton to that of Halifax. Moreover, 
it is very improbable that a town should be called either Holy- 
hair or Holy-face ; yet on the other hand an early spelling given 
by Watson, Halifaxleie, tends to remove this improbability ; see 

But the further suggestion has been made that the terminal 
has the same meaning as in Carfax. This, however, is quite 
impossible, early forms showing no points of contact with 
the ending in Fr. carrefour, OFr. carrefors, Lat. quadrifurcus, 

It will be well to compare the name with parallel forms, and 
we may fitly begin with the curious North Riding name Belly- 
faxe. This occurs in RC 1538 in the Ministers' Accounts, where 
the full expression is 'cum certis pastiiris vocatis Bellyfaxe' Apart 
from Carfax, already discussed, no other place-name with the 


ending -fax or -faxe has come within my knowledge. What is 
the meaning of this ending ? 

According to Aasen there is a Norwegian word faks, which 
is connected with ON fax, a mane, and has the meaning ' heire- 
graes,' that is, ' brome-grass ' ; and, according to Rygh, dialectal 
Swedish has the same word in the form faxe, while in South 
Germany the corresponding word is written fachs and means 
'poor mountain grass.' Among place-names involving the word 
there are the Danish name Faxe, 1370 Faxes (Madsen) and the 
Norwegian Faxfalle (Rygh). But, further, there is a similar use 
of OE feax, hair. Middendorff quotes from an OE charter the 
expression ' on west healfe ealdan hege to feaxum,' where feaxum 
is the dat. pi. o{ feax and means tufts of grass and shrubs. It 
appears therefore, that, whether Anglian or Scandinavian, there 
was an early Yorkshire word fax which might mean 'a place 
covered with rough grass.' This, I take it, is the meaning in the 
name Halifax. 

Parallels to the first element, Hali-, are more numerous, and 
attention must be called to HalHkeld in Yorkshire and Halliwell 
in Lancashire, of which the following are early forms : 

DB 1086 Halichelde \iii,(i Haliwell 

YI 1286 Halikeld 1292 Haliwall 

YI 1290 Halykeld 1332 Haliwalle 

Both these names have duplicates. The Whitby Chartulary 
records a Halikeld in Liverton near Guisborough ; the Guis- 
borough Chartulary records a Haliwelle in the county of Durham ; 
and Middendorff quoting from OE charters gives kdlgan-welle, 
as well as hdlgan-forde and halgan-mc. Halikeld and Halliwell 
appear to have the same meaning, namely, ' holy well,' from OE 
hdlig, ME hali, holy, sacred, and ON keld, OE well, a well, 
spring, fountain. The first element in Halifax agrees entirely 
with a similar origin, and a careful examination of other sugges- 
tions leads to their rejection. Perhaps further light may be 
thrown on the name by historical research. 

The neighbourhood of Halifax shows a greater proportion 
of names probably Celtic than any other part of South-west 
Yorkshire. Among them we may put the simple names Calder, 
Hebble, Krumlin, and Spink. In most cases, however, the Celtic 


word now precedes one of Anglian or Scandinavian origin, as for 
example in Allan Gate, Allan Wood, Chevin Edge, Cragg Vale, 
Hanna Wood, Howcans Wood, Mankin Holes, and Pennant 

Of Scandinavian names there is a far greater proportion. 
Four names end in -by, Birkby, Ringby, Scawsby, Sowerby ; 
there are three thorpes, namely, Gannerthorpe Wood in Wyke 
and two Thorpes in Sowerby; there are many Booths, Flatts, 
Holmes, Lumbs, Nabs, Rakes, Scars, Scouts, Slacks, Storrs, and 
Whams ; and in addition to all these there is still the following 
long list: Baitings, Blamires, Boothroyd, Brianscholes, Brighouse, 
Briscoe Lane, Clapgate, Clapper Hill, Clipster, Erringden, Fly 
Flatt, Gaukrodger, Helivvell, Howgate, Keelam, London, Rotten 
Row, Scaitcliffe, Scholes, Skeldergate, Skircoat, Slithero, Staups, 
Strines, Swithens, and Woolrow. 

HALLAM, Sheffield, DB Halltin, DN 1161 Halumsira, PF 
1202 Halluin, HR 1276 Haliimshire, IN 1342 Hallom, YD 1359 
Halhtm, PT 1379 Halloinshire, YF 1564 Hallomshyrc. These 
early forms are in conflict with the present termination ; they 
have no connection with OE ham or hainm, being in fact repre- 
sentations of an early dative plural in -iim. Names of this character 
occur quite frequently in the Icelandic sagas and in Anglo-Saxon 
charters. There are several examples in the West Riding ; 
Hillam was former!}' Hilluin, the hills ; Byram \\-as Biritvi, the 
cowhouses ; Malham was Malguii ; Owram was Ufntn ; Throa- 
pham was Trapun ; and Denholme Denum. Hallam is either 
the dative plural of ON hallr, a slope or hill, or of OE heall, a 
hall, mansion. 

Three districts within the West Riding were formerly dignified 
with the title shire : Sourbyshire, the district around Sowerby; 
Borgscire, around Aldborough; and Hallomshire, around Hallam. 
It will be observed that in each case the first element may be of 
Scandinavian origin. 


HALSTEAD, Thurgoland, Thurstonland, and Woolley.— 
WCR 1308 refers to a place called Hallestede; this is the ME 


form of the modern Halstead, which means 'hall place,' from OE 
keall, hall, mansion, and stede, place, site, position. 

been made famous by its connection with Richard Rolle, the 
' Hermit of Hampole,' who wrote The Pricke of Conscience. 
The name is given in DB as Hanepol, and the same spelling 
occurs in YR 1230, YR 1253, and HR 1276, as well as many 
other early documents. As soon as the n came into contact 
with the / it became the labial m to agree with the labial p. 
Hampole may be either Anglian or Scandinavian ; its meaning 
is ' Hana's pool ' or ' Hani's pool,' from OE pal or ON pollr, and 
the OE personal name Hana or the ON Hani. 

HANDSW^ORTH, Sheffield, DB Handesunrde, Handesunord, 
Handeswrde, HR 1 276 Le Boure de Handesworth, KI 1 285 Handes- 
ivorth, YD 1 3 16 Handisworth Wodehoiisis, 1389 Handesworth 
Wodhons. Though Searle has no such name as Hand, there is 
a modern surname of the form, and we may therefore explain 
Handsworth as ' Hand's holding,' from OE weorth. 

HANGING HEATON, Dewsbury, DB Etnn, IN 1266 
Hingande Heton, HR 1276 Hengende Heton, DN 1293 Hangand 
Heton. The distinctive prefix Hingande or Hengende reminds 
us of the extraordinary change which has taken place in the 
termination of the present participle— to-day -ing, but formerly 
-ende or -ande. There is a field in Batley called Hanging Field, 
and fields called Hanging Royd occur in Heptonstall and 
Carlton. The prefix evidently refers to a steep hill-side 'hanging' 
above the lower ground. Heaton is the ' high farm,' from OE 
heah, high, and tun, an enclosure, farmstead. 



The first element, Har-, might spring from OE hara, a hare, OE 
hdr a boundary, OE here, an army, or the personal name Haera. 
As the recorded spellings of the names give little assistance it is 
quite impossible to interpret them with confidence. 


Harborough Hill, Barnsley, probably derives its first 
element from OE here, a predatory band, troop, army. In the 
Saxon Chronicle this word was commonly used of the Danish 
army ; hence Harborough Hill may have been one of the 
encampments of the Viking invaders. The terminal comes from 
OE burg, burh, a fortified place. 

Harden occurs near Bingley, Meltham, and Penistone, and 
early spellings of the first are RC 1234 Hardene, 1236 Heredene, 
RC 1332 Hardene, RC 1538 Harden. The termination is from 
OE deitu, a valley. 

Harley, Wentworth and Todmorden, YS 1297 Harlay, YI 
1303 Hareley, for the former, and PT 1379 Harley for the latter, 
may perhaps be 'hare lea,' from OE leak, a lea. 

Harrop, which occurs in Wilsden and Saddleworth, is 
recorded by WCR in the latter case as Harrop in 1274, Haroppe 
in 1308, Harehoppe in 1309. Its termination is OE hop, a 
hollow between hills, a secluded valley. 

HARDCASTLE, HARDWICK.— Connected with the 
ancient manorial system we find two companion terms, Berwick 
and Herdwick, that is, ' barley place ' and ' herd place,' the latter 
from OE heard, a herd or flock. 

Hardcastle, Hebden Bridge, obtains its terminal from OE 
castel, a village, and its first element is probably from OE hierde, 
ME herde, a shepherd, cowherd. 

Hardwick, Pontefract, DB Harduic, Arduuic, CR 1226 
Herdwick, YI 1258 Herdwyke, and 

Hardwick, Morthen, 1305 Herdwyck, PT 1379 Hardewyk, 
both mean 'herd enclosure,' from OE wlc, an enclosure, dwelling. 

HARLINGTON, Mexborough, CR 1280 Herlington, YF 
1345 Herlyngton, PT 1379 Herlington,Y¥ 1495 Harlyngton, must 
be compared with the Frisian name Harlingen, 1228 Herlinge, 
1323 Harlinge, 1355 Herlinghe (NGN), and with the three 
Harlings in Norfolk. In DB the latter appear as Herlinga, the 
genitive of Herlingas, which is itself a plural form meaning the 
'sons of Herl.' We may explain Harlington as 'the farm of 
the Harlings,' from OE tun, an enclosure or farm. There are 
other examples of the name in Bedford and Middlesex. 



HEAD. — The name Hartshead occurs near Dewsbury, Horbury, 
and Sheffield, but in early records we find mention only of the 
first, DB Hortesheiie, Horteseue, PF 1206 Hertesheved, YI 1258 
Herteshevede, WCR 1286 Hertesheved. Unlike the names Hart- 
clifife, Harthill, and Hartley, which refer to the animal, OE heorot, 
ME hert, Hartshead should be explained as ' Heort's headland.' 

HARTCLIFFE, Penistone, CH ti28o Hertclyve, PT 1378 Hert- 
clif, is ' the hart's cliff.' 

HARTHILL, Worksop, DB Herthil, PF 1191 Herthille, NV 
1 3 16 Herthill, is 'the hart's hill.' 

Hartley, Ecclesfield, is given as Hertelay in YS 1297, 
while Hartley, Todmorden, is written Herteley in VVCR 1297 
and Hertlay in WCR 1308. The meaning is 'the lea of the 
harts,' from the gen. pi. of OE heorot and OE leah. 

HASSOCKS, Honley and Marsden, is derived from OE 
hassuc, which means sedge, coarse grass. 

HATFIELD, Doncaster, is the site of the great battle in 
which Edwin, the Christian King of Northumbria, was over- 
thrown by the heathen Penda, King of Mercia. The AS Chron. 
says of the year 633 'In this year was Eadwine King slain by 
Cadwalla and Penda at Hethfeld,' while Bede says the battle 
was fought 'in the plain that is called Hcethfeld! Continuing, 
Bede tells us that Cadwalla, though he bore the name and 
professed himself a Christian, spared neither women nor children, 
but ravaged the country for a long time, ' resolving to cut off all 
the race of the English within the borders of Britain.' Later 
forms of the name include the following : 

DB 1086 Hedfeld YS 1297 Haytefeuld 

YR 1227 Hetfeld DC 1314 Haytefelde 

HR 1276 Heitfeld NV 1316 Haytefeld 

KI 1285 Haitfeld DC 1326 Haytefelde 

The Domesday form shows d for th, and the forms in ei, at, 
ay, show the influence of ON hei^r, a heath ; but the name may 
fairly be explained as ' heath field,' from OE h^th and feld. In 
Nennius the name is Meicen, and in the Welsh Chronicle Meigen 
and Meiceren. 


HATHERSHELF, Mytholmroyd, occupies the steep 
hillside by which the uplands of Sowerby descend to the 
Calder. WCR has Haderschelf in 1274, Hadirchelf in 1275, 
Haderschelf in 1307, and Hadreshelf m 1326, while HW 1554 
gives Hathershelf. The termination is from OE scylf, a shelf 
or ledge of land, and the prefix may be a personal name as in 
the case of Hunshelf, Tanshelf, and Waldershelf More probably, 
however, it is ME /ladder, haddyr, heath or ling ; compare the 
dialect-word Jtadder, hedder, explained in EDD as applied to 
various kinds of heather or ling. 

HAUGH. — This name, which occurs in Sowerby and Raw- 
marsh, is derived from OE halh ; see Hale. 

HA WORTH, HAINWORTH, Keighley.— The DB name 
Hageneuuorde has usually been assigned to Haworth ; it seems 
very improbable, however, that this form could have become 
Hauewrth as early as 1209 ; and, further, in a deed prior to 1230 
both Hawrth and Hagetiwrthe occur, referring apparently to 
different places. Early spellings are as follows : 

DN I3IO Haneworth PF 1209 Hauewrth 

YD ti230 Hagetvwrthe YD ti230 Hawrth 

CR 1252 Hagitewurthe YI 1246 Howrde 

YI 1273 Hannewrthe WCR 1275 Houwrth 

DN 1294 Hagenworth KF 1303 Haworth 

BPR 1598 Haynworth PT 1379 Haworth 

Here are two series of forms, one with n, the other without ; 
these appear to have existed side by side since the 12th century, 
and there can be little hesitation in assigning the former to 
Hainworth and the latter to Haworth. 

One would have expected in the case of Haworth a DB 
form Hageuuorde, from OE haga, an enclosure, and weorth, a 
holding or farmstead. According to rule this would have 
become Hauewrth and later Haworth, just as hagathorn became 
first hawethorn and later hawthorn. The interpretation of 
Haworth, therefore, appears to be "enclosure, farmstead,' while 
that of Hainworth is ' Hagena's farmstead,' from the recorded 
personal name. 


HAVWOOD, Campsall. — Like Heywood in Lancashire, 
which appears in the Whalley Chartulary in 13 ii as Heywood, 
this name is doubtless either ' the wood by the enclosure,' or ' the 
enclosed wood,' from OE hege, a fence or enclosed space, and 
wudu, a wood. 

HESSLE, HESSLEGREAVE.— The number of place-names 
derived from the hazel is not great, but in addition to the above 
we must note the name High Hazels near Darnall, and Light- 
hazels in Sowerby. The OE form of the word was hcesel, while 
the ON was hasl or hesli; and according to NED the early 
northern forms hesel and hesyl are probably derived from the 
last of these. 

Hazlehead, Penistone, 1256 Heselheved, YD 1326 Hesil- 
heved, YD 1372 Hesilheved, is 'the hazel-tree upland.' 

HAZLEHURST, which occurs near Sheffield and Halifax, is 
' the hazel-tree copse,' from OE kyrst, a copse or wood. 

HAZLESHAW, Ecclesfield, is 'the hazel copse,' from OE 
sceaga, a copse. 

Hessle, Wragby, DB Hasele and Asele, CR 1226 Hese/; DN 
1369 Hesil, may be compared with Oaks and Thornes. 

HESSLEGREAVE, Saddleworth, YS 1297 Hasilgref, is 'the 
hazel-tree thicket,' from OE gr^fa, a thicket, grove. 

as a terminal in Hazlehead, Lupset, and the three Hartsheads. 
In OE the form is heafod, and in ME heved, while the usual 
meaning is the highest point of a field, stream, valley, or hill. 

Headfield is a rounded eminence in the middle of the 
valley of the Calder near Thornhill Station. 

Headland is a somewhat common field-name, and is doubt- 
less the source of the Liversedge name Headlands. 

HEALD, HEALDS.— Heald Head occurs in Cawthorne, 
Heald Wall in Barkisland, Healds in Ecclesall, Heald in Elland, 
and Healds Hall in Liversedge. Referring to the last named, 
Healdhousecroft occurs in 1560 and Healds in 1803. EDD gives 
two meanings of the word Heald, (i) a shelter for cattle on the 

G. II 


moors, (2) a slope, declivity, hill. And, further, EDD suggests 
that in the former sense the word is connected with ON hceli, a 
shelter, refuge ; for the latter sense I would suggest ON hjalli, 
a shelf or ledge on a mountain side — compare Dan. and Norw. 
h(zld, an inclination, slope. In either case the iinal d in Heald 
would be a supporting consonant, as in the case of Backhold and 
Wormald. West of Windermere there is a steep tree-covered 
slope called Heald Wood, and the name Heald occurs also near 

HEALEY, HEATON, HEELEY.— In discussing these 
names it will be helpful to examine first early forms of Heaton 
(Bradford) and of four names where Heaton is to-day preceded 
by a distinctive affix. 

Cleckheaton 1086 Hetone, Hetun 1254 Hetun 1316 Heton 

Kirkheaton 1086 Heptane 1199 Heton 1297 Heton 

Earlsheaton 1086 Etone,Ettone 1286 Heton 1316 Heton 

Hanging Heaton 1086 Eticn 1266 Heton 1276 Heton 

Heaton 1086 — 1276 Heton 1303 Heton 

In view of the unanimity of the later forms we may take it 
as certain that DB Heptone stands for Hetone, and that DB Etun, 
Etone, Ettone, have lost the aspirate through the fault of the 
Norman scribe. In the case of Heptone the scribe was doubtless 
influenced by the name he had just written, Leptone. 

The first element in Heaton represents OE heah, heh, high, 
concerning which Dr Skeat tells us that ' in ME the final 
guttural was sometimes kept and sometimes lostV In our 
Yorkshire Heatons we have obvious examples of its loss. 

But further, Dr Skeat shows that when this guttural was 
kept it often had an effect on the preceding voweP, and so OE 
heh gave not only ME hegh, heigh, hey, but also ME hygh, whence 
our modern word ' high.' Thus Heaton means ' the high 
farmstead,' from OE tun, an enclosure or farmstead, and the 
names Heaton and Hightown are doublets. But these names, 
though they possess the same meaning, are different in origin, 
for Heaton is early and Hightown is late, and the prefix in 
Heaton is local while that in Hightown is borrowed from the 
common tongue. 

1 Skeat, Principles of English Etymology, r, 58. ^ Ibid, i, 400. 


Of Healev or Heeley there are five examples, Healey 
in Ossett, and the four following : 

Healey, Batley YD 1330 Helay PT 1379 Helay 

Healey, Rastrick WCR 1306 Heyley WCR 1601 Healey 

Healey, Shelley DN 1359 Helay DN 1381 Helay 

Heeley, Sheffield HH 1366 Heghlegh PT 1379 Helay 

In every case the meaning is ' high lea,' the terminal being 
derived from OE leak, a lea or meadow. This word is represented 
in ME by such forms as legk, high, ley, and has given us also the 
word ' lea ' where the final guttural has disappeared. In all this 
OE leak corresponds exactly to OE heah. 

HEATH, Halifax and Wakefield.— In a Nostell charter of 
1 1 20 the latter is recorded as Hetk, and the same form occurs 
in YS 1297 and PT 1379. In other documents, YR 1252 for 
example, the name Bruera occurs. 

HEPWORTH. — Small streams called Hebble are found in 
Huddersfield and near Holmfirth ; but better known is the side- 
stream of the Calder which flows through Halifax. Hebden 
Bridge gets its name from a valley and stream called the Hebden, 
and a parish near Skipton bears the same name. Further north, 
between Tees and Tweed, we find the name Hepple once and 
Hebburn or Hepburn three times. Early records of Hepton- 
stall and Hebden Bridge are as follows : 

WCR 1274 Heptonstall HW 1508 Hepden Bridge 

HR 1276 Heptonestal HW 1510 The bridge of Hepden 

NV 1316 Heptonstall HW 1609 Heptonbrigg 

Hebden on the Wharfe is written Hebedene in DB and Hebbeden 
in YI 1305, and BCS has the name Eblesburnon. 

Hebble is a very difficult word for which no suitable root 
presents itself. I imagine, however, that it is of Celtic origin. 

Hebden, Halifax, is probably 'the valley of the wild-rose,' 
from OE heope, ME hepe, the wild-rose, the briar, and OE denu, 
a valley ; see Shibden. 

Hepshaw, Thurlstone, may with confidence be explained as 
'wild-rose copse,' from OE sceaga, a small wood. 


Hepton, in the name Heptonstall, Halifax, is probably 
'wild-rose farmstead.' 

Hepworth, Holmfirth, DB Heppeuuorde, WCR 1274 Heppe- 
wrth, PT 1379 Hepworth, can scarcely come from OE heope. It 
is almost certainly 'the farmstead of Heppa.' Searle gives 
Heppo ; hence we may postulate the form Heppa. 

HECK, Snaith, DN 1225 Hecke, DN 1248 Hec, YI 1280 
Hecke, NV 13 16 Hek, comes directly from OE hec, hcec, a fence, 
rail, gate. This word in the South and Midland districts became 
' hatch,' but there was a Northern form ' heck,' and one of the 
meanings of the latter, according to NED, is a shuttle or sluice 
in a drain ; compare Dan. and Norw. hmk, a hedge. 

HECKMONDWIKE, YI 1261 Hecmundeswyk,WC^ 1275 
Hectnundewyk, HR 1276 Kecmendewyc, KI 1285 Hecmundwyk, 
NV 1 3 16 Hekmondewyk, PT 1379 Hepmunwyk. The form of 
the word suggests a personal name as the first element. There 
is a well-known OE name Heahbeorht which appears later as 
Hechbert, and the OE Heahmund appears in an early Hunting- 
donshire place-name quoted by Skeat as Hecmundegrave ; see 
Barugh. We may therefore explain Heckmondwike as ' the 
habitation of Hecmund,' that is, ' of Heahmund,' which means 
' high protector.' The termination is from OE wlc, an enclosure, 
habitation, village. 

HELIWELL, Lightcliffe, WCR 1297 Heliwall, 1373 
Heliwelle, appears to be of Scandinavian origin. The meaning 
is doubtless ' holy well,' for there is an important well near at 
hand ; and we may, therefore, connect the word with Dan. 
hellig, holy, and vceld (for vcbU), a well. See Holywell. 

HELLABY, Rotherham, DB Helgebi, KF 1303 Helghby, 
YD 1 3 18 Helghby, PT 1379 Helughby, is 'the farm of Helga or 
Helgi.' These personal names are well known, and appear in 
scores of Norwegian place-names, among them Helgerud, 
Helgestad, Helgenes (Rygh). 

HELM, HELME. — This word occurs in the counties of 
Westmorland, Lincoln, and Durham, as well as in various parts 


of Yorkshire. A possible meaning is the crown or summit of a 
hill, from OE helm or ON kjdlmr, which meant first a helmet, 
and later the crown or top of anything. But another meaning 
is a shed or outhouse ; compare the Norse and Swedish dialect- 
word hjelm, a screen or shelter of boards, from ON hjdlmr (Aasen) 

Helme, Meltham, was spelt Helme in a deed of 1421. 

Helm, Kirkheaton, is given in BM 11 99 as Helm. 

Helm, Helm Lane, Sowerby, is recorded in WCR 1275 as 
Helm, while in WCR 1307 we find the expression ' in Sowerby at 
le Helmebothes! 

Helm Close is a field in Rothwell. 

It is unlikely that in any of these the meaning is crown 
or summit ; the second signification appears the more probable. 

Pontefract. — In both cases early spellings are of great value : 

HR 1276 Himlingfeld DB 1086 Hatnelesuurde 

YI 1303 Hymelingfeld PC ti220 Hymeliswrd 

CH 1362 Hymlyngfeld YI 1245 Hirnleswrde 

CH 1386 Hymlingffeld WCR 1296 Hymeleswrth 

Among later spellings we get for Hemsworth NV 13 16 
Himmelsworth, PT 1379 Himmesworth. The first element 
carries us back to the simple personal name Hama (Searle), 
from which a diminutive Hamele, recorded in Searle as Hemele, 
appears to have been formed. From this was built the 
patronymic Hameling or Hemeling ; compare the surname 
Hamlinge found in RPR 1592. Hence we may explain 
Hemsworth as ' the holding of Hamele,' and Hemingfield as ' the 
field of Hameling.' For the change from Hymeleswrth and 
Hymelingfeld to Hemsworth and Hemingfield compare Went- 

HENSALL near Snaith, like Melton near Rotherham, 
shows how intervocalic th may disappear. Early records are 

DB 1086 Edeshale SC 131 5 Hethensal 

YI 1279 Hethensale NV 1316 Hethensalle 

The strange form given by DB presents three defects due to the 
idiosyncrasies of its Norman scribes: (i) the omission of the 
aspirate, as in Odersfelt for Huddersfield ; (2) the substitution 


of d for th, as in Medelai for Methley ; (3) the omission of «, as 
in Witreburne for Winterburn. Yet, on the other hand, the DB 
record alone preserves the correct terminal, hale, the dative of 
OE healh, a corner or meadow, unless indeed it comes from 
Dan. hale, a tongue of land. The first element is the ON 
personal name Hethinn which occurs in many Norwegian 
place-names, for example, Hedenstad and Hedensrud. 


names are discussed under Hebble. 

HERRINGTHORPE, Rotherham, CH 1386 Herryng- 
thorppe, YF 1553 Heryngthorpe, means ' Hering's village,' from 
ON thorp, a village, and the ON personal name Haeringr 
(Naumann). For the absence of the sign of the genitive see 
Alverley and Alverthorpe. 

HESKETH, West Ardsley.— Hesketh in the North Riding, 
near Rievaulx, appears in RC as Hesteskeid and Hesteskeith, 
forms which agree with ON kesta-skei&, a racecourse, from 
ON hestr, a horse, and skei(S, a racecourse or links. 

Year by year in West Ardsley a great horse-fair is held 
known far and wide as Lee Fair, and it is the custom to test the 
paces of the horses along Hesketh Lane. Thus the name 
Hesketh, being Scandirtavian, bears witness to the existence 
of these fairs from the days of the Vikings and supports the 
suggestions made in the note on Tingley. 


HEWENDEN, Bingley, is probably from OE hiwan, ME 
hewen, servants, and denu, a valley, the first element being the 
gen. pi. hiwena. May not this refer to a valley where the 
inhabitants were Celts, ' hewers of wood and drawers of water ' to 
the conquering Anglians .' 

HEXTHORPE, Doncaster, DB Hestorp, Estorp, CR 1269 
Hexthorp, PT 1379 Hexthorp, is probably ' Hegg's village,' from 
the ON personal name Heggr, and thorp, a village. 


HEY. — This word is derived from OE hege which means 
a hedge, a fence, an enclosed place, or a definite district not 
enclosed. Duignan tells us that forests were usually divided 
into 'hays' for administrative purposes. The OE hege, ME heye, 
kaye, is allied to the OE kaga, ME haghe, but it must not be 
confounded with OE hecg, which gives ME hegge and the modern 
word ' hedge.' 

HICKLETON, Doncaster, DB Chicheltone, Icheltone, PF 
1201 Hykelton, PC 1240 Hikilton, KI 1285 Hikylton. BCS has 
the place-name Hiceleswyrth which may be explained as 'the 
farm of Hicel.' It will be noted, however, that the early forms 
of Hickleton have neither -s nor -e to represent the genitive. 
Probably the name must therefore be explained as ' woodpecker 
farm,' from OE hicol ; see Middendorfif. 

Hindeleia and Hindelei in DB, and Hyndelay in DN 1293, but 
YI 1297 has Caldhindeley and YD 1318 has Coldehindelay. The 
meaning is ' hind meadow,' from OE hind, a female deer. 

ROAD WELL, HIGHTOWN.— In these words the prefix is 
from OE heah, heh, ME hegh, hey, hye, high ; see Healey. 

HiGHAM, Barnsley, 1297 Hegham, 1375 Heghome, PT 1379 
Hegham, is ' the high home,' from OE ham, a home, not from 
OE hamm, an enclosure, dwelling. 

HiGHAM occurs also in Erringden and Sowerby. 

High Ellers, Doncaster, formerly in the possession of 
Kirkstall Abbey, KC 1209 Hechelres, YI 1280 Heyhelleres, 
PT 1379 Heghellers, means 'high alders' from ON elrir, the 

HiGHFlELD occurs in Ecclesall, Thurgoland, and Womersley. 

Highroad Well, Halifax, is perhaps the place referred to 
in WCR 1277 as Heygrode, and, if so, the meaning is 'the high 
royd or clearing ' ; see Royd. 

HiGHTOWN, Liversedge ; see Liversedge. 

HILL. — OE hyll has given the modern name ' hill,' which 
may be used of any land elevated above the surrounding 


country; to earn the name, as Wyld says, a hill need not 
be high. Examples in South-west Yorkshire include the 
following compounds : Baghill, Chidswell, Ryhill, Soothill, 
Tickhill, ToothiU. 

HILLTHORPE is in Thorpe Audlin. 

HINCHCLIFFE, Holmfirth, WCR 1307 Heynchecfyf, PT 
1379 Hyncheclyff, is a difficult word. The Gazetteer gives only 
two names with a similar prefix, Hinchin Brooke in Huntingdon, 
and Hinchwick in Gloucester, and for the former Professor 
Skeat gives no definite etymology. 

HIPPERHOLME, Halifax.— Up to the end of the 14th 
century the recorded spellings are very consistent ; afterwards 
the termination undergoes serious change. 

DB 1086 Hyperum, Huperun PT 1379 Hyprum 

PF 1202 Yperum YF 1537 Hyprom 

YI 1266 Hiperum YF 1555 Hyperome 

WCR 1286 Hyperum YF 1568 Hipperholme 

Obviously the termination is not derived from ON kolmr, an 
island, its appearance being rather that of a dative plural in -um. 
But what is the stem of the word? Note first that there is 
a stream in Derbyshire called the Hipper, and another near 
Goathland in the North Riding called Hipper Beck, while in 
addition there is a second Hipperholme between Hebden Bridge 
and Todmorden as well as a place in the North Riding called 
Hippersleight. Note further that EDD has a dialect-word 
'hipper' meaning osier, while in Lancashire, according to the 
same authority, a field in which osiers are grown is called 
' hipperholm.' 

On the other hand there is in Angeln a tree-name ippern, 
while Doornkaat places on record EFris. iper which corresponds 
to Germ, iper, the common elm ; compare Du. ijp, found in the 
place-name IJpelo, 1475 Ypeloe, elm lea. It seems just possible 
that the best early form of Hipperholme is PF 1202 Yperum, 
and that this is the dat pi. in -um of an early form iper. Thus 
Hipperholme would be interpreted ' elms,' and would be an 
almost exact counterpart of the Flemish place-name Ypern 
(French Ypres). 


HIRST, HURST.— The OE hyrst meant scrub, brushwood, 
a copse, a wood. It is found as the terminal in Ashurst, 
Copthirst, Elmhirst, Hazlehurst, Hollinhurst, and Kilnhurst. 

HITCHELLS WOOD, Doncaster.— Early charters in KC 
dealing with the neighbourhood of Bessacar, make frequent 
mention of Echeles, Escheles, or Hecheles. Mitchells is doubtless 
the modern form of this word ; but what is its meaning ? 

Duignan tells us that in the 13th century a hamlet near 
Wolverhampton was called Echeles and Escheles, though at a 
later date the name became Necheles or Nechells. He goes on 
to point out that all the records are Middle English, and that 
there is no trace of the word in Old English ; and he suggests 
that the origin is the OFr. escheles, ladders, steps, stairs, explain- 
ing Nechells as derived from atten Escheles, later atte Necheles, 
' at the two-storied house.' A note in Peiffer's Noms de Lieux 
appears to hint, however, that these escheles, though ladders, had 
no connection with two-storied houses. Dealing with the word 
echalet Peiffer says it is ' a fence used in the Socage Vendeen to 
enclose the meadows ' ; these fences, he goes on to say, are made 
with branches of trees ' which serve as a ladder (Jchelle) by which 
to pass from one meadow to another ; hence the name echalet.' 
Adopting this suggestion, Echeles may be explained as ' fences 
or stiles made with branches of trees.' 

In Bardsey we find the name Hetchell Wood ; and in 
Picardy there are two places called I'Echelle (Robinson). 

HOLBECK, Leeds, YI 1258 Holebeke, YF 1542 Holbekk, 
RPR 1688 Holbecke, means ' the beck in the hollow,' from 
ON hoi, a hollow, and bekkr, a stream. The name occurs in 
Scarborough and Lincolnshire, while Normandy has a Holbec, 
and Denmark two Holbeks. 

HOLDSWORTH, HOLDWORTH.— As is shown by the 
early forms given below, these names have exactly the same 
origin : 


HR 1276 Haldeivrth DB 1086 Haldeuurde, Aldeuuorde 

WCR 1297 Haldewrth HR 1276 Haldeivrth 

YD 1383 Haldeworth YS 1297 Haldewrth 


Obviously both names should now be written Holdworth, ' the 
farmstead of Halda,' from OE weorth, a holding or farm, and the 
personal name recorded by Searle. 



— Such early records as are available suggest a derivation from 
OE holen, kolegn, ME holyn, holly. The spelling ' holling' occurs 
quite naturally for the earlier ' holegn,' ng replacing gn very 
much as wk replaces kw in many words ; compare OE 'Segn, ^eng, 
^en, three forms of the OE word which has given our modern 
word ' thane.' 

HoLLlNBUSK, near Bolsterstone, is ' holly-bush ' ; compare 
Dan. dusk, Sw. buske, a bush. 

HOLLINGBANK, Heckmondwike, and HOLLINGWELL, South 
Kirkby, may be explained as ' holly-tree bank,' from ON banke, 
a ridge, and ' holly-tree well,' from OE wella, a well. 

HOLLINGREAVE, Saddleworth, CH 11272 Holyngreue, YS 
1297 Holingref, is 'holly thicket,' from O'E, gr^fa, a thicket, 

HOLLINGTHORPE, Crigglestone, WCR 1297 Holynthorp, 
WCR 1307 Holinthorp, is 'holly -tree hamlet,' from ON tkorp. 

HOLLINHURST, Shitlington, TPR 1602 Hollinhurste, TPR 
1607 Hollinghirst, is ' holly-tree copse,' from OE hyrst. 

HULLENEDGE, EUand, WH 1316 Holyngegge, WCR 1478 
Holynegge, YF 1494 Holynege, is ' holly-tree ridge,' from OE ecg, 
edge, a declivity, a ridge. 

THICKHOLLINS, Meltham, WCR 1274 Tkyckekolyns,Y¥ 1537 
Thyhholyiis, may be compared with Thickbroom in Staffordshire, 
both from OE thicce, thick, close. 

Holme occurs as a field-name with considerable frequency. 
Although finally of the same origin as OE holm, it is not derived 
therefrom, its source being ON holmr, holmi, an islet ; ' even 
meadows on the shore with ditches behind them are in Icelandic 
called holms,' says Vigfusson, and Dan. holm means a quay as 
well as a small island. In England the word is used to designate 


low-lying land beside a river, land subject to inundation or 
almost surrounded by streams or marshes, while the OE holm 
meant ' wave, ocean, water, sea.' 

Holme, near Holmfirth, in spite of its apparent simplicity, 
provides a difficult problem. In the Domesday record for 
Yorkshire there are at least six different places described 
regularly as Holm or Holme ; but Holme near Holmfirth, and 
its neighbour Yateholme, though mentioned twice each, are 
never described as Holme but always as Holne. Early forms 
of this Holme together with Holmfirth and Holme near Skipton 
are particularly striking : 

Holme, Holmfirth Holmfirth Holme, Skipton 

DB 1086 Holm WCR 1274 Holnefrith DB 1086 Holme 

WCR 1274 Holne WCR 1275 Holnefrith HR 1276 Holm 

WCR 1297 Holne WCR 1307 Holnefrith IN 1309 Holme 

WCR 1309 Holne WCR 1309 Holne Frith BM 1325 Holme 

NV \z\.b Holm PT ly]^ Holmfirth BM. 12,26 Holme 

Further, the local pronunciation of Holme (Holmfirth) is to-day 
quite frequently ' Hown ' ; hence it becomes almost certain that 
Holme is a usurper and that Holne or Hown is the rightful 
name. One additional fact must be stated, naniely, that there 
is a place called Holne in South Devon. 

Holme, a hamlet in Owston, is recorded as Holme in 12741 
and doubtless comes from ON holmr, kolmi. 

Holmes is a hamlet in Kimberworth. 

HOLMFIELD occurs in Halifax. 

Holmfirth derives its terminal from OE frith, fyrhthe, a 
wood, coppice, forest, forest-land. The graveship of Holme 
included the townships of Holme, Austonley, Cartworth, Wool- 
dale, Scholes, Fulstone, Hepworth, Thong, and was itself a part 
of the lordship of Wakefield. 

Almholme, Doncaster, SC 1237 Almholme, YF 1535 
Almholme, YF 1579 Almeholme, is 'elm holme,' from ON almr, 
Sw. and Dan. aim, an elm. 

CORNHOLME, Todmorden, is either ' Komi's holme,' or ' corn 
holme,' from ON korn, grain, or the ON personal name Komi. 

ESKHOLME, Thome, KC Escholm and Eschholm, is ' ash-tree 
holme ' ; compare Dan. asketra and (Esketrcs, ash-wood. 


Lawkholme, Keighley, may be compared with Lawkland, 
YI 1 25 1 Loukelandes, PT 1379 Laukeland, Lawkeland, 'land 
of leeks.' The prefix is doubtless from ON laukr, leek, garlic ; 
compare OE leac, leek. 

LiNEHOLME, Todmorden, is probably 'the flax holme,' from 
ON Itn, flax ; see Lindley. 

Shaftholme, Doncaster, YF 1535 Shaftholme, YF 1579 
Shaftholme, derives its prefix from the ON skaptr, Norw. skaft, a 
shaft, pole ; and its meaning is ' the holme marked by a pole.' 
Aasen records the dialect-form skjefta. See Shackleton. 

Wrostholme occurs in Bentley near Doncaster. 

Yateholme, Holmfirth, has for its prefix a common form of 
the OE geat, a gate. 

HOLYWELL, Stainland, WCR 1285 Heliwelle, WCR 1336 
Helliwell, WCR 1368 Halywell. We know what our forefathers 
believed to be the meaning, for a deed given by Watson dating 
from the end of the 1 3th century speaks of ' Henry de Sacro 
Fonte de Staynland.' See Heliwell. 

HONLEY, Huddersfield, DB Hanelei, WCR 1274 Honeley, 
KI 1285 Honlay, WCR 1286 Honneley, YS 1297 Honelay, PT 
1379 Haunelay, is ' Hana's lea,' from the known OE name Hana 
and OE leak, a lea or meadow. 

HOOBER is the name of a hamlet near Wentworth 
Woodhouse which derives its name from the conspicuous hill 
beneath which it lies. Early forms are YF 1569 Hober, and 
from the Wath Parish Registers, 1600 Houber, 1608 Howber. 
The sources of the name are OE hoh, ho, a heel, point of land, 
projecting ridge, and OE beorg, beorh, a hill. Compare Hooton. 

HOOK.— Between Airmyn and Swinefleet the course of the 
Ouse makes a double bend in the form of an S reversed, and the 
village of Hook stands within the more northern of its loops. 
Early records of the name are 

VC \i\%o Huck CR \^\i^ Huk, Huck 

PF i2oi> Hue NVisi6I/ouk 

SC 1230 Huci DN lyy; Houke 


Note the sequence OE gos, ME gos, Engl, goose, and the 
corresponding sequence OE hoc, ME hok, Engl, hook; and 
contrast with it the sequence OE suth, ME south, and OE muth, 
ME mouth. Obviously the early forms of Hook do not agree 
with the present form ; they come, indeed, from a word where 
the vowel was u, and MLG huk, a hook, corner, point of land, 
provides such a word ; compare Fris. huk and Westphalian huck. 
According to Falk and Torp Dan. huk and Sw. huk are borrowed 
from MLG, and are cognate with the OE hoc, which meant a 
hook, bend, curve, corner. It is clear that the Yorkshire name 
has been influenced by the common word ' hook.' 

HOOTON. — This name occurs four times in the portion of 
South Yorkshire lying between Doncaster and Sheffield. The 
meaning is ' the homestead on the projecting ridge of land,' from 
OE hoh or ho, a heel, point of land, a projecting ridge, and tun, a 

HooTON Pagnel was called Hotun and Hotone in DB ; 
later KC 1204 gives Hotun, PC 1240 Hoton Painel, and HR 
1276 Hoton Paynell. The place was owned in 1240 by William 
Paynel, hence the distinctive affix. 

HoOTON Robert is recorded in DB as Hotun, by KI 1285 
as Hoton Robert, and by NV 13 16 as Hoton sub Haia. 

HoOTON Levitt vj&s Hotone in DB, Hotonleuet in HR 1276, 
HotonlivetYl 1279, Hoton Lyveth KI 1285. 

Slade HooTON is mentioned by Burton as Sled-hoton, and 
in a Fine 1565 as Slathe Howton ; the prefix is from OE sl<Bd,a, 


OE has the word hop, a small enclosed valley, and ON has hop, 
which meant a bay or inlet, but assumed also an inland significa- 
tion, and meant a hollow in the hills, a secluded spot or sheltered 
valley. A termination from one of these words is frequently 
met with, sometimes reduced to -op or -up ; compare Midhope, 
Oxenhope, Widdop, Blacup. 

Hope occurs in Beeston, Halifax, and Honley. 

HOPETOWN, Normanton, is plainly of late formation, and 


may perhaps have no connection with the OE and ON words 
quoted above. 

HOPSTRINES, Shelley, is Scandinavian, and has for its 
termination the ON strind, a border, side ; see Strines. 

HOPTON, Mirfield, DB Hoptom, DN 1218 Hopton, WCR 
1274 Hopton, is ' the farmstead in the sheltered valley,' from OE 
or ON tun, a farmstead. 

appears in the Domesday record which gives Horberie and 
Orberie, but later spellings are as follows : 

PC 1156 Horbiri WCR 1374 Horlawegrene IN 1246 Horton 
PF 1202 Orbir' WCR 1434 Horlawegrene KF 1303 Horton 

WCR 1286 Horbiry 1577 Horley Green NV 1316 Horton 

For Horton in Worcestershire Duignan gives earlier records, 
BCS 972 Horton, DB 1086 Hortune, and explains the name as 
' muddy town,' from OE horh, mud, dirt. In the same way 
Professor Skeat interprets Hormead in Herts as ' muddy mead,' 
and according to Wyld a similar interpretation must be placed 
on Horwich in Lancashire. The first element in Horbury, 
Horley, and Horton is derived from the same source ; we may 
be sure that in olden days there was at each place a tract of 
swampy ground. 

Horbury, Wakefield, has for its termination byrig, the dat. 
sing, of OE burh, a fortified homestead, stronghold, town ; see 

Horley Green, Halifax, shows a somewhat common 
phenomenon, the sliding of the terminal from -lawe to -ley. 
The former ending comes from OE hlmjo, a mound, cairn, hill. 

Horton, Bradford, has the same origin and meaning as the 
Horton mentioned above. 

HORDRON.— See Ardron. 

which is situate in Hemsworth, Dodsworth gives Hornecastell 
in 1303 and 13 16; and for the latter, in Thurlstone, YF has 
Hornetweyt in 1549 and Hornethwaite in 1559. The prefix may 
perhaps be the personal name Horn ; more probably it is the 


OE or ON horn, a corner, nook. Horncastle is probably ' the 
stronghold in the corner ' from OE castel or ON kastali, a 
fortress ; while Hornthwaite is ' the paddock or clearing in the 
corner,' from ON thveit. See Castleford. 

HORSFALL, HORSEHOLD.— WCR 1352 speaks of 
'the Horsfall,' and HW 1523 has the expression ' My fermehold 
called Horshald' NED glosses 'fall' as a slope or declivity, 
and ' hold ' as a place of refuge or shelter. Horsfall, Horsehold, 
and Stoodley, all in the valley of the upper Calder, bear witness 
to the use once made of the neighbourhood by the Lords of the 
manor ; see Sowerby. 

HORTON, Bradford.— See Horbury. 

HOSTINGLEY, Thornhill, SE 1634 Hostingley, appears to 
have a patronymic as its first element, but Searle has no such 

HOUGHTON. — Altogether there are in England about 
thirty examples of this name, three of them in South-west 
Yorkshire ; yet, as we shall see, not all derived from the same 
source. Early spellings are as follows : 

Great Houghton Little Houghton Glass Houghton 

DB io85 Haltune DB 1086 Haltone DB 1086 Hoctun 

KI \i%i Magna Haulgton KI \2%^ Holgton Minor CK i2c^o Hogkton 
YiF ly^i Magna Halghton KF lyiS Parva Halgkton ^V 1:^16 Hogkton 
NV 1316 Halglon NV 13 16 Parva Halton PT 1379 Hoghton 

Great and Little Houghton, near Barnsley, are from OE healh, 
a corner or a meadow, and may be rendered ' homestead in the 
meadow ' ; but they would be more correctly written Haughton. 
Glass Houghton, near Castleford, is from OE hoc, a corner, angle, 
nook of land, and the sense is ' the farmstead in the corner 
of land.' 

HOW. — This is derived from ON haugr, a mound or cairn, 
a word used to denote the artificial burial-mounds of the 
Vikings. In Icelandic literature there are many references to 
these burial-mounds. A passage in the Laxdala Saga reads as 
follows : ' So now they drank together Olaf s bridal feast and 


the funeral honours of Unn. And on the last day of the feast 
Unn was carried to the howe that was prepared for her. She 
was laid in a ship in the howe ; and in the howe much treasure 
was laid with her'.' 

In South-west Yorkshire haugr has given us the termination 
in Carlinghow, Flanshaw, and Slithero ; and from the same 
source we probably get the prefix in Howley and the medial 
in Grenoside, Stenocliffe, and Wincobank. 


name Longcans occurs in the Ovenden list of Overseers for 1762, 
and we have the following early records of Howcans, a wood in 
Northowram, and of Mankin Holes, a hamlet in Langfield : 

WCR 1307 Holcan WCR 1275 Mankanholes 

WCR 1329 Holcans WCR 1277 Manekaneholes 

WCR 1360 Holkans WCR 1308 Mancankoles 

HW 1556 Holcanse CH 1336 Mankanholes 

These must be compared with the early forms of Alkincoats 
near Colne (Lancashire), where we find 1294 Alcancotes, 1296 
Alcancotes, 1325 Alcencotes, 1343 Alcancotes, as well as such forms 
as Altancotes and Altenecotes. And we cannot but note at the 
same time Olicana, the name given by Ptolemy to the Roman 
station at Ilkley. It seems probable that the words are Celtic. 

Howcans, like the first element in Alkincoats, may perhaps 
be a corruption of *alican, a possible extension of Prim. Celt. 
*(j>)alek, a stone ; compare Ir. ail, a rock (Stokes). 

Mankin is possibly, as regards its first element, a derivative 
of Prim. Celt. *maini, a stone ; compare W maen. Corn, men, 
a stone. 

HOWROYD, HOW^STORTH.— The first element in these 
names is either OE hoi, hollow, OE hoi, a hole, den, cavern, ON 
hoi, a hollow, or ON haugr, a cairn, mound, hill. 

HOWDEN Clough, Birstall, PF 1202 Holeden, YF 1546 
Holden Cloughe, is probably ' hollow valley clough,' OE denu, a 
valley, cloh, a clough. 

' Origines Islandicte, II, 150-1. 


Howell House, Clayton, appears to be the place referred 
to as Holwell in PT 1379 (under South Kirkby) ; in a i6th 
century deed it is called Holewell. The meaning is 'the well 
in the hollow,' OE well, a spring or well. 

Howley, Batley, is mentioned by Burton in connection with 
Nostell Priory under the form Hoveleo {v = «), and Dodsworth 
gives Howley in 1425 and 1461. The word may be rendered 
'burial-mound lea' from ON haugr, and OE leak. Perhaps 
there was here, as at Carlinghow, the sepulchral mound of a 
Viking leader. 

HOWGATE, Southowram, WCR 1274 Holgate, 1308 Hollegate, 
is 'the road in the hollow,' from ON hoi, a hollow, and gata, 
a way or road. 

HOWROYD, Barkisland, PT 1379 Holrode, is 'the clearing in 
the hollow ' ; see Royd. 

HOWSTORTH, Ecclesfield, derives its second element from 
ON storf), a young wood. 

HOYLAND, HOYLANDSWAINE.— Within a radius of 
six miles from Barnsley, in a district which has several ' thwaites,' 
the name Hoyland occurs three times. In each case the town- 
ship rises well above the surrounding country, the highest point 
being a conspicuous object for many miles. Early records are : 

High Hoyland. Hoyland Nether. Hoylandswaine. 

DB 1086 Holand DB 1086 Holand DB 1086 Holande 

DB 1086 Holant DB 1086 Hoiland DB 1086 Holland 

YF \jii() Heghholonde PR i it 6 Holland YI 1266 Holandeswaytie 

PT iT,yg Hegh Holand Kl 12?>S Holand Austin W^ \y.(> Holanswayne 

CH 1412 Hyholand CH 1412 Nethyrholand PT 1379 Holand Swayne 

I think the name is to be connected with ON hdr, hor, high, 
rather than with OE hoh, ho, a projecting ridge ; compare Hoober 
and Hooton. At the same time the form Hoiland found in DB 
and PR must, I think, be derived from ON ^, hay ; compare 
such early forms of Austerfield, as 1237 Oystrefeud, 1293 Oyster- 
feld, from ON ^ystri. Under dialectal influence the early form 
Holand Hoyland, just as Soland became Soyland. The 
distinctive affix in Hoylandswaine is derived from the Scan- 
dinavian personal name Sveinn or Sveini. 

G. 12 


HOYLE. — Near Barnsley there is Hoyle Mill, and in 
Linthwaite Hoyle House. The word is a dialectal variation of 
' hole,' from OE hoi, a hollow ; compare Royd, formerly Rode, 
and Hoyland, formerly Holand. 

HUBBERTON, Cartworth and Sowerby, may perhaps be 
derived from a personal name Hubber formed from the recorded 
name Hubba (Searle). I assume the loss of the sign of the 
genitive, as in Alverthorpe, Attercliffe, Rodley, Skelmanthorpe, 
and Thurstanland. The terminal is from OE or ON tun, an 
enclosure, farmstead. 

HUDDERSFIELD.— In DB we find Oderesfelt, Odersfelt, 
Odresfeld, but later spellings are of a different character and 
should be compared with those of Hothersall near Preston and 
Huddleston near Selby. 

DN ^w>,\ Huderesfeld KC li'jC) Hudereshale PF i2o?> Hudeston 

CR 121 5 Hudresfeld PR 1201 Hudereshal PC 1214 Hudlestona 

V>ICK 127 ^Hodresfeld 'P'R i2o(> Huddeshal YI \2(i% Hodehtone 

YS 1297 Huderesfeld LI 1257 Hudereshale KF 1303 Hudleston 

WCR 1413 Hodresfeld LF 1313 Hodirsale NV 1316 Hodleston 

The DB forms of Huddersfield are obviously at fault ; they 
omit the aspirate as in Arduuic for Hardwick, and they give 
for u as in Podechesaie for Pudsey, defects both due to Norman 
scribes. The best of the early forms are doubtless Huderesfeld, 
Hudereshale, and Hudleston, and their meaning seems to be ' the 
field of Huder,' from OE feld, ' the corner of Huder,' from OE 
healh, and ' the farmstead of Hudel,' from OE tun. Though no 
such names as Huder and Hudel are recorded, Searle has Hud 
and Huda, which with the common endings -er and -el would 
give the required forms. 

But there is a complication of some importance to be dealt 
with, for Hudereshale has become Hothersall, and on the lips of 
the man in the street Huddersfield is sometimes ' Uthersfield ' ; 
compare SM 1610 Hutherfeild, RE 1634 Hothersfield. When 
we recall the fact that the DB scribes and their successors often 
wrote d for th, we are compelled to ask whether Huderesfeld 
and Hudereshale may not, after all, represent HutJuresfeld and 


Htithereshale. True, it is not uncommon for an earlier th to 
become d, as in the case of Lingards and Cudworth, and such 
words as ' rudder ' and ' burden ' ; but if such a change had 
taken place in Huddersfield we should expect to find here and 
there early spellings involving th. On the other hand we find 
occasional words where an earlier d has been displaced by th, 
as in ' father ' and ' mother ' ; and it seems not unlikely that 
under the influence of such common words as 'other' and 
' another ' a similar change has taken effect in Hothersall, and 
occasionally shows itself in the dialectal pronunciation of 
Huddersfield. On the whole, therefore, it seems probable that 
the first element in Huddersfield was originally Huder, rather 
than Huthhere, a name recorded by Searle. 

The neighbourhood of Huddersfield appears to have been 
the meeting-place of several ethnic currents. Bradley, Farnley, 
Honley, Lindley, Huddersfield, Almondbury, Dalton, Kirkburton, 
Kirkheaton, seem to mark the most westerly settlements of 
the Anglians, whose appearance may perhaps be placed in 
the 7th century. Later, probably in the 9th century, came the 
Danes from the East. They approached by way of the valleys 
of the Calder and Colne, and their advance-posts are marked by 
several thorpes — Rawthorpe in Dalton, Finthorpe and Nether- 
thorpe in Almondbury, Gawthorpe in Lepton. Later still, during 
the loth century, came Norsemen from the West. At this early 
period they settled in Golcar and Crosland ; but, either at the 
same time or after the Norman Conquest, they settled also at 
Linthwaite, Slaithwaite, and Lingards, as well as in Quarmby 
(witness the name Burfitts Lane), in Kirkburton (witness 
Linfitts), and in Kirkheaton (witness the gills enumerated by 
Burton). The district west of Huddersfield provides, indeed, 
one of the strongest of Norse settlements. 

■*t— JxL-addi^nto the Scandinavian names already quoted, there 
are Ardron, Bannister, Birkby, Blacker, Booth, Bolster Moor, 
Cupwith, Dirker, Fixby, Garslde; Little London, Lumbank, 
Magdale, Newbiggin, Owlers, Quarmby, Reaps, 3<.k.:.lecr.ofL 
Scholes, Stopes, Thurstonland, Wooldale and Woolrow. And~~ 
beyond all these there are streams called Grain, districts called 
Lumb, woods called Storth, moorland paths called Rake, roads 


or lanes called Gate, grassy slopes called Slack and Wham, fields 
called Carr and Holme, and prominent features in the hills called 
Nab, Scout, and Scar. 

But, further, there are several names which appear to involve 
a Celtic root, namely, Allen Wood, Bogden, Colne, Cowmes, 
Ribble, and Sude Hill. 

HUGSET WOOD, Silkstone, PC fiogo and 1122 Hugge- 
side, appears to have for its first element a Scandinavian personal 
name connected with ON hugga, to console. 

HULLENEDGE.— See Hollinbusk. 

HUMBLE JUMBLE. — This strange name occurs in 
connection with a beck and bridge at Alverthorpe. It is 
referred to in WRM 1391 as Humble Jomble; Denmark has a 
Hunilebek ; and in Lincolnshire, according to Streatfeild, the 
corresponding name Humbelbec is recorded in HR. In the 
Gazetteer we find three places called Humble, two in Scotland 
and one in Surrey ; Northumberland has a Humble Hill ; and 
between Humber and Tweed there are three Humbletons. 

The possible sources are three. First there is the ON humli, 
Dan. and Norw. humle, the hop-plant, which has given such 
compounds as humlegard and humleJiage, a hop-garden ; secondly 
there is the Norse dialect-word hummel, barley, found in hum- 
melsaaker, barley-field ; thirdly there is the Norse dialect-word 
humul, a stone or boulder. A derivation from the last seems 
the most probable. 

HUNGERHILL. — In South-west Yorkshire instances of 
this name occur in Haworth, Queensbury, Halifax, Ardsley, 
Morley, Fulstone, Hoylandswaine, and Dinnington. Similar 
German place-names — Hungerberg and Hungerrot, for example 
— are referred by Forstemann to OHG /mug^i^f^ftd^e may retef^ 
our own names to OE kunjm^,' ME hunger, explaining them 
as applied to I»>^^~'JriVu is almost or altogether unproductive. 

STER, HUNSWORTH.— It has been made abundantly clear 
that, both directly and indirectly, tribal names often enter into 


the formation of place-names. France and Franconia were 
named from the Franks, Friesland from the Frisians, and 
Jutland from the Jutes. The names Norfolk and Suffolk 
designated first the inhabitants and afterwards the localities ; 
and so also did Essex, Middlesex, Sussex, and Wessex. Large 
numbers of villages draw their modern names simply from the 
name of a family, for example. Tooting from the Totingas, 
Wittering from the Wihtringas ; others add to the family name 
some such terminal as -ton or -ham, as in the case of Billingham 
and Billington. But, beyond this, there appear to be cases 
where the settler from whom a village took its name was himself 
known by the name of the tribe from which he sprang. We 
find in DB the personal name Norman, that is Northman, 
whence Normanton, formerly Northmanton ; and other pairs of 
words linked in the same way are to be found, Frisa and Fryston, 
for example. The Celts made use of similar methods, witness 
Dumbarton, the fort of the Britons, and Dumfries, the fort of 
the Frisians. It is not altogether impossible, therefore, that a 
connection may exist between the names below and the tribe of 
the Huni — an indirect connection through an individual called 
by the name of his tribe. 

HUNNINGLEY, Barnsley, is 'the lea of the sons of Hun'; 
compare the Dutch place-name Huninge (NGN). 

HUNSHELF, Penistone, DB Hunescelf, DN 1307 Htinshelfe, 
NV 1 3 16 Hunclyf, PT 1379 Hundeschelf, IN 1558 Himschelfe, is 
' Hun's shelf or ledge of land,' from OE scylf. 

HUNSLET, Leeds, shows forms of a twofold character. DB 
has Hunslet, KI 1285 Hunslett, KF 1303 Hunslett, and PT 1379 
Hunslet; but PF 1202 gives Hunesflet and Hunesflet Ker, NV 
1316 Hunseflet and KC 1336 Hunseflet. The latter form means 
' Hun's stream ' from OE fleot, a stream, river. The former is 
probably ' Hun's weir,' from OE lete, a boundary, fence, weir ; 
compare MHG lette. 

HUNSTER, Bawtry, is probably from ON std6r, a place, and 
the personal name Hun ; compare Ulster, Leinster, and Munster, 
where the terminations are from the same source. 

HUNSWORTH, Bradford, was spelt Hundesworth in KI 1285, 
CR 1 3 17, and PT 1379, but the d may be intrusive as in one of 


the early spellings of Hunshelf ; thus the meaning may be either 
the ' farmstead of Hund,' or the ' farmstead of Hun ' — most prob- 
ably the former. 

HUNTWICK, Wakefield, PF 1202 Huntewich, DN 1329 
Huntwicke, Huntewicke, YF 1555 Huntwick, is 'Hunta's dwelling,' 
from the OE personal name Hunta, and OE wic, a dwelling- 
place, hamlet. 

HURST.— See Hirst. 

HUTHWAITE, Thurgoland, mentioned in a charter of 
1366 as Hutkwayt, may perhaps be ' Hugi's clearing,' from ON 
thveit and the personal name recorded by Falkman. 

ICKLES occurs in Whitley Lower and Rotherham, and the 
latter is recorded as Ikkels in VE 153S, and Ikkyls in 1560. 
The word is probably of the same type as Eccles. In the 
Gazetteer we find such names as Ickford, Ickleford, Ickilford, as 
well as Ickburgh, Ickham, Ickwell, and Ickworth. It seems 
possible that Ick was an early stream-name ; compare the 
Gaulish river-name Icauna, now the Yonne, and the OE Iccen, 
now the Itchen. 

IDLE. — See Bierley, and note that in Linthwaite there is an 
eminence called Idle Hill, while in Notts there is a tributary of 
the Trent called the Idle. 

ILLING\VORTH, Halifax.— Watson believed this place so 
called 'from the badness or roughness of the ground.' There 
can be little doubt, however, that the first element of the word is 
the patronymic Illing, which is found again in Illington, Norfolk, 
and in Ilingswarf, East Friesland. Early forms of the word 
are WCR 1297 Hillingwrth, WCR 1330 Illingworth, FT 1379 
Illyngworth, and the meaning is 'the farm of the Illings,' OE 
worth, a farm. 

ING. — There are two quite distinct words of this form, 
(l) the OE patronymic suffix meaning 'son of,' and (2) the 
field-name signifying ' meadow.' 


I. The primary use of the patronymic is well seen in early 
genealogies. Under the date 626 the AS Chron. says ' Penda 
was Pybbing, Pybba Creoding, Creoda Cynewalding,' that is, 
Penda was the son of Pybba, Pybba the son of Creoda, Creoda 
the son of Cynewald. When we come to the use of the suffix 
in connection with place-names we find considerable variety of 

{a) The most striking use of the suffix is where the name 
of a family is used as the name of a place. This idiom occurs 
elsewhere ; Essex and Norfolk, for example, are literally ' East 
Saxons ' and ' North Folk,' and Wales means ' the Foreigners.' 
In OE place-names the suffix was used both in the plural — 
Nom. -ingas, Gen. -inga, Dat. -ingum — and, as we should scarcely 
expect, in the singular — Nom. -ing. We find such early forms 
as Hallingas, Paeccingas, Chenottinga, Basyngum, Mallingum, 
Cilling, and Ferring. At a later period -ingas became -inges, 
and -inga became -inge; while, still later, all were levelled 
under the form -ing. The only representatives of the simple 
patronymic in South-west Yorkshire are Bowling and Cridling, 
of which early records are as follows : 

DB 1086 Bollinc PF 1202 Crideling 

YI 1246 Bollinge PC ti220 Crideling 

CC 1265 Bollyng LC 1296 Cridelinge 

KI 1285 Boiling NV 1316 Credeling 

KF 1303 Bollyng PM 1327 Credelinge 

These point to OE genitives plural of the form *Bollinga and 
*Crydelinga, and the meaning is '(the place) of the sons of 
Bolla,' and '(the place) of the sons of Crydel.' For the name 
Bowling compare the Dutch place-name Bolinge, the Italian 
Bolengo, the French Bollinghem, and the English Bolingbroke 
and Bollington ; and for the name Crydel note that Searle 
gives Cryda which with the common suffix -el would give the 
form required. 

(J)) But a far more widespread use of the patronymic is 
in such compound words as OE Oddingalea, 'the lea of the 
family of Odda,' and Wealingaford, 'the ford of the sons of 
Wealh.' These forms are duly succeeded by such as Oddingeleye 
and Walingeford, and finally by Oddingley and Wallingford. 


South-west Yorkshire provides only four assured examples of 
this class : 

Cottingley DB 1086 Coiingelei CR 1283 Cotingeleye 

Cullingworth DB 1086 Colingauuorde PF 1235 Cullingwttrth 

Knottingley DB 1086 Notingeleia PF 1202 Cnottinglai 

Manningham CR 1250 Manitigeham KF 1303 Maynyngliam 

At this point we ought perhaps to note an alternative use where 
the patronymic is not declined ; compare Eccyncgtune and 
Teottingtuit, Eckington and Teddington in Worcs., both early 
forms. Sundermann gives first place to such a use, and provides 
a long list of examples, including Bedinghem, Bollinghusen, and 

Beyond these there were two other uses of a secondary and 
derivative character. 

{c) The suffix might be used with names of places instead 
of persons. In this way we get such examples as Catmeringas, 
'the dwellers at Catmere,' Woburninga formed from Woburn, 
Wceneting from Wcenet, and Hertfordinge from Hertford. 

id) In compound names the suffix might be used with the 
force of a genitive ; thus the Wiegkelmestun of BCS (97) was 
written Wigelmincgtun in the endorsement of the charter. 

But the list is not yet complete, for, in addition to all these 
uses, there are numerous instances where -ing usurps the place 
of other forms, more especially genitives in -an. Abingdon, 
for example, stands for j^bbandun ; Whittington, Staffs., for 
Hwitantone ; and Shellington, Beds., for Ckelwintone, the 
enclosure of Ceolwynne. 

When we examine the names in South-west Yorkshire, in 
addition to ia) Bowling and Cridling, and {b^ Cottingley, Culling- 
worth, Knottingley, and Manningham, we find a long list where 
it is impossible to be clear what is the original form. This list 
includes Addingford, Crodingley, Darrington, Drighlington, 
Dunningley, Dinnington, Fallingworth, Frizinghall, Girlington, 
Haddingley (2), Harlington, Hostingley, Hunningley, Illing- 
worth, Kellingley, Kellington, Pollington, Rossington, Santingley, 
Stanningley (3), Stannington, Trimingham. 

Among names where -ing has no rightful place there are 
Erringden, Hollingbank, and Hollingthorpe. 


2. The second word ' ing ' is used to designate meadowland, 
* especially low-lying land beside a stream,' and is derived from 
ON eng, Dan. eng — unless, indeed, there is a direct connection 
with the Frisian inge. The occurrences of the word are 
innumerable. We find such examples as Birk Ing, Carr Ing, 
Hessle Ing, Owler Ing, Sour Ing, and Toft Ing, as well as such 
compounds as Baitings, Cocking, Gadding, Hacking, Leeming, 
Ozzing, Scamming, Stocking, and Stubbing ; and in addition 
there is a small group of names where ' ing ' is used attributively, 
namely, Ingberchworth, Ingrow, and Ingwell, explained below. 

Ingbirchworth, Penistone, DB Bercewrde, Berceworde, 
YD 1326 Hingbirdieworth, PT 1379 Bircheworth, BD 1456 
Yngbircheworth, is derived from OE beorce or birce, the 
birch-tree, and weorth, an enclosure or farmstead ; and the 
original name meant ' the birch-tree farmstead.' The prefix Ing, 
added later, is evidently intended as a contrast with that in 
Roughbirchworth, an adjacent village. This lends support to 
the theory that it is the word eng or ing, a meadow, Roughbirch- 
worth being the farmstead in the midst of uncultivated land, and 
Ingbirchworth that in the midst of meadows. 

Ingrow, Keighley, comes doubtless from ON vrd, or rather 
rd, a corner, and the first element is either ON eng, a meadow, or 
the ON personal name Ingi. 

Ingwell, Wakefield, WRM 1698 Ingwell, appears to be 
simply 'the well in the meadow,' from OE zvell. 

INTAK, INTAKE, occurs very frequently. It signifies an 
enclosed piece of land, and is of Scandinavian origin ; compare 
Sw. intaka, an enclosed common, and the Norwegian dialect- 
word inntak, taking in. 

JAGGAR, JAGGER.— We find Jaggar Lane in Honley, 
Jagger Green in Stainland, Jagger Hill in Kirkheaton, and 
Jagger Wood in Northowram and Thurgoland. 

In EDD the word 'jagger' is explained as 'a travelling 
pedlar, a hawker, carrier, carter, packhorse driver' ; in Jamieson's 
Scottish Dictionary a 'jagger' is described as a pedlar, and 'jags' 
as saddlebags or leathern bags of any kind. 


JERICHO. — This Scriptural name is to be found in the 
township of Stainland. 

JORDAN, JORDON.— There is a place called Jordon near 
Rotherham ; in Hopton there is Jordan Wood ; in Denby 
Jordan Beck. Outside the county we find such examples as 
Jordan Bank off the Lancashire coast, Jordan Hill in Weymouth 
and Glasgow, and Jordan Gate in Macclesfield. 

EDD explains the dialect-word 'Jordan' as a piece of watery 
ground. It is possible, however, in such names as Jordan Wood, 
that the word has another origin. Owing to the Crusades the 
personal name Jordan became extremely popular throughout 
Western Europe. In the Guisborough Chartulary the name 
'Johanne filio Jordani' occurs early in the 13th century. 

JUBB. — The name Jubb Hill occurs in Thurgoland. 

JUG, JUGS. — Among the field-names of Lofthouse we 
meet the curious form Midlam Jugs. EDD explains Jug as ' a 
common pasture or meadow,' but does not state the source of 
the word. Can the word be connected with a 'yoke' of land, 
that is, with Fr. joug, Lat. juguni ? 

JUM, JUMBLE, JUMP. — Near Barnsley there is a village 
called Jump ; near Todmorden a valley called Jump Clough ; in 
Sowerby Jumm Wood ; in Langfield Jumb Hill ; in Erringden 
Great Jumps ; in Illingworth Jumples Mill ; in Northowram 
Jum Hole ; in Ardsley Jump Hill ; and in Ecclesfield Jumble 
Hole. In addition there are fields called Jumble or Jumbles in 
various places, including Kirkheaton, Ecclesall and Lofthouse ; 
and a stream near Wakefield called Humble Jumble Beck is 
referred to in WRM 1391 in the phrase 'Humble Jomble in 
Rustanes.' From EDD we learn that Jumble means ' a rough, 
bushy, uncultivated hollow ' ; but no derivation is given. 

JUNCTION, evidently a modern name, occurs in the 
township of Quick, Saddleworth, at a point where five roads 

KAYE. — Kaye Lane in Almondbury and Kaye Wood in 
Fulstone may have received their prefixes from a personal name ; 


but it seems probable in any case that Kaye should be connected 
with the OW cai, W cae, a hedge, fence, enclosure; compare 
Prim. Celt. *kagi- which is cognate with ON hagi and OE haga. 
If this be an accurate guess the surnames Kaye and Haigh will 
have the same ultimate origin, the former having come down to 
us by the Celtic branch of the Indo-European family, the latter 
by the Teutonic. 

KEBCOTE, KEBROYD, Stansfield and Sowerby.— In 
EDD we find the following explanations : Keb house, ' the 
shelter erected for young lambs in the lamb season ' ; keb ewe, 
' an ewe that has lost her lambs ' ; keb, ' any creature small of 
its kind ' ; and on the other hand keb, ' an old sheep.' 

KEELAM, KEELHAM. — This name occurs on the moors 
near Todmorden, Heptonstall, Midgley, and Denholme. Its 
source is most probably ON kjolr, which originally meant the 
keel of a ship, but signified later a keel-shaped range of 
mountains, a mountain ridge. The form Keelam would be 
derived from the dative plural, and would mean 'the ridges.' 
Keele in Staffordshire, 1 2th century Kiel, and Keelby in Lincoln- 
shire very probably spring from the same root. 

KEIGHLEY stands on the Aire, about nine miles north- 
west of Bradford. The pronunciation, which varies between 
' Keethly ' and ' Keely,' is paralleled by that of Leigh near 
Wigan, which, though usually called ' Lee,' is occasionally 
pronounced ' Leyth.' Early records give the following forms : 

DB 1086 Chichelai KI 1285 Kighley 

KC 1234 Kyhhelay CC 131 1 Kythelay 

YR 1244 Kikhele NV 1316 Kygheley 

YI 1273 Kihele PT 1379 Kyghlay 

The symbol ch was used by the Domesday scribes for more than 
one sound. Thus (i) ch = k in Monechetone and Barchestone, 
now Monkton and Barkston ; (2) ch = tch in Lachenduna and 
Blachingelei, now Latchingdon and Bletchingley ; (3) ch = dg in 
Sechebroc, which represents Sedgebrook; (4) f>4 = 0E ^ or ^ in 
Borch, which represents OE burh or burg. I take the second ch 
in Chichelai to have the last of these values, and rewrite the 


name as *Cyhelai or *Cygelai. As Searle gives a personal name 
of the form Cyga, the interpretation may well be 'the lea of 
Cyga,' and the name would come from OE *Cyganleah, which 
would give ME Kyglteley quite regularly. For the strange 
spelling 'Kikliele compare Bekhala, now Beal, p. 69. 

In the neighbourhood of Keighley there are many names of 
Scandinavian origin. In addition to various Carrs and Holmes 
we find Thwaites and Braithwaite, Denby Ing and Denby Hill, 
Lumb Head and Lumb Foot, as well as Flask, Lawkholme, 
Scholes, Slack, and Ingrow. As there are no 'thorpes' and as 
Scholes and the Thwaites are undoubtedly Norse, we shall 
probably be right in assuming a Norse origin for the whole 
group ; indeed, seeing that the neighbourhood of Bradford is 
so predominantly Anglian, we may take it as certain that the 
Scandinavian element around Keighley came from the north- 
west — down the valley of the Aire. 

Among possible Celtic names in the neighbourhood there 
are Dob, Crumack, and the first element in Sugden. 

Domesday records of the latter, Chelinctone and Cliellinctone, give 
nc for ng, as in the case of Bowling, DB Bollinc, and Tong, DB 
Tuinc. Other early spellings are 

PC 1159 Kelinglaiam SC 1202 Kelington 

PC tii6o Kelingley NV 1316 Kelington 

PC tiiQo Kellinglaiam PT 1379 Kelyngton 

Among our early place-names a few, clearly of Scandinavian 
origin, have as their first element the personal name Kel : 

1086 Chelestuif, ' Kel's thwaite,' found in DB. 

1 182 Kelesterne, 'Kel's tarn,' Guisborough Chartulary. 

But there is another name, clearly Scandinavian, where the first 
element is a patronymic formed from Kel : 

1 200 Kelingthorpe, ' Keling's thorpe,' Guisborough Chartulary 

As Kellington may be of similar origin, we may explain it as 
' Keling's farmstead,' from ON tfm. Yet the name may be 
Anglian, ' Ceoling's farmstead ' — compare DB Cellinc — but in 
that case the initial k is due to Scandinavian influence. 


KERISFORTH, Barnsley.— Early forms are DB Creuesford, 
PC i-i240 Keverford, BD 1344 Kenerosford (for Keueresfordl), 
YD 1349 Keuerisforth, YI 1588 Keresforth. The Domesday 
spelling is faulty, the r being misplaced, and we may fairly 
assume an early form *Keveresford which would warrant the 
explanation ' Kever's ford.' A personal name of corresponding 
form occurs in DB, namely, Cheure, where ck = k and u = v, and 
probably this goes back to a Scandinavian name cognate with 
OE ceafor, a beetle, chafer ; compare Germanic *kafru, *kefra, a 
chafer (Torp). 

KERSHAW, Luddenden, is frequently mentioned in the 
Wakefield Court Rolls ; in 1 307 we find Kirkeschawe, in 1 308 
Kirkes/tagh, in 1326 Kerkeshagh, in 1343 Kerkeschagh. The 
meaning of the word is ' church copse,' from OE sceaga, a copse 
or wood ; but what is the church referred to ? See Kirk. 

KETTLETHORPE, Wakefield, DN 1242 Ketelesthorp, 
WCR 1275 Ketelesthorp, YS 1297 Ketilthorp, WCR 1307 
Ketelisthorpe, means 'the thorpe of Ketel.' There are places 
called Kettlethorpe in both the North and East Ridings, the 
DB record in each case being Chetelestorp. The personal name, 
which is recorded in DB as Chetel and in LN as Ketill, was 
extremely common among the Vikings. 

KEXBOROUGH, Barnsley. — The Domesday spellings are 
Cezeburg and Chizeburg, where s probably represents ts ; compare 
DB Asgozbi for *Asgotsbi, now Osgodby, and DB Feizbi for 
*Feitsbi, now Faceby. Other early spellings are 

YI 1284 Kexeburg CH 1337 Kescebu^jL- 

YS 1297 Kesseburg __- S^tl^\~Kesseburgh 

NV \J-^i^ JTi.'ittkirgn DN 1432 Kexburgh 

DN 1324 Keskeburgh (surn.) YF 1545 Kesburghe 

Compare with these the following early forms of Flasby near 
Skipton (i), and Flaxby near Knares borough (2): 

(i) DB 1086 Flatebi (for Flatesbt) (2) DB 1086 Flatesbi 

HR 1276 Flasceby KF 1303 Flasceby 

KF 1303 Flasceby NV 1316 Flasseby 

NV 1316 Flasceby PT 1379 Fflasceby 

Here obviously ts has become ss, sc, and similar forms in the 


case of Kexborough point to a DB form with ts, namely, 
* Ketsebtirg. But Flaxby shows an x, due apparently to the 
substitution of ks for ts, as in Kexmoor (Moorman) ; probably, 
indeed, forms from ks and ts existed side by side, the one 
surviving in Flaxby and the other in Flasby. Similar considera- 
tions apply to Kexborough — DN 1324 Keskeburgh being due 
to metathesis — and therefore the name may be explained as 
' Ketsi's fortified post.' The form *Ketsi is built up from ODan. 
Keti (Nielsen) on the pattern of Grimsi, Hugsi, Elfsi (Naumann, 
p. 1 50) ; compare Wilsden and Wilsick. 

KILHOLME, KILPIN. — Several Yorkshire place-names 
have Kil- as the first element, among them the following : 

KiLBURN (NR) DB 10S6 Chileburn CH ti250 Killeburne 

KiLDALE (NR) DB 1086 Childale CH ti23o Kildale 

KiLTON (NR) DB 1086 Chiltun CH ti25o Kylton 

KiLPiN (ER) DB 1086 Chelpin NV 1316 Kilpyng 

The Teutonic stem *ktla, a wedge, has given us Norw. dial, kile, 
a wedge, a narrow triangular piece ; and of cognate origin are 
Dan. kil, a narrow strip of land, and ON kill, a narrow bay. 
There is also according to MiddendorfT an OE word «// meaning 
a stream flowing in a deep bed, but this could not give Kil-, and 
we have to assume either Scandinavian origin or Scandinavian 

KiLHOLME, Cantley, SM 1610 Kilholme, has for its second 
element the ON holmr, an island, low-lying land beside a river, 
and its iirst element is doubtless Scandinavian also. 

KiLPiN, Heckmondwike, may mean ' the point (or summit) 
^t^the Ariangularpiece of land,' from ON pinne, a point ; compare 
OE /«'««, a point. 

KILN HURST, KILN SHAW.— In the case of Kihih^IFitr 
Rotherham, YS 1297 has Kilhenhirst, and PT 1379 Kilnehirst; 
in the case of Kilnhurst, Langfield, HW 1521 has Kilnehirst. 
The first element is derived from OE cylen, a furnace, and the 
terminations come from hyrst and sceaga, each of which signifies 
a copse or wood. The ancient kilns were chiefly for making 
charcoal, burning lime, or baking bricks ; and Kilnhurst and 
Kilnshaw refer doubtless to kilns for the first of these objects. 


KIMBERWORTH.— See Cumberworth. 

KINSLEY, Hemsworth, DB Chineslai, Chineslei, DN 1244 
Kynnsley, YD 1328 Kynnesley, IN 1348 Kynnesley, is 'the lea of 
Cyne,' from OE leak and the recorded personal name Cyne. In 
1 302 the spelling Kinnersley occurs ; this proves the contem- 
poraneous Kynnesley to have been trisyllabic, and provides 
another example of the intrusion of the consonant r ; compare 

KIRK. — In NED this word is described as the Northern 
and Scotch form of 'church,' and OE circe is compared with 
ON kirkja. Skeat believes the Scandinavian forms to have been 
borrowed from the Old English ; but in any case the ultimate 
source of the word is the Greek neuter plural KvpiaKa, from 
KvpiuKo';, belonging to the Lord. 

In DB only one place-name in South-west Yorkshire 
possessed this word as prefix, viz. South Kirkby, DB Cherchebi; 
three other names which now possess it, had no such prefix 

in DB: 

Kirk Bramwith DB Branuuithe, Branuuat 

Kirkburton DB Bertone 

Kirkheaton DB Etone 

The earliest mention of Kirkheaton appears to be YD 1369 
Kirkeheton, and for Kirkburton I have no earlier record than 
DN iXyxS^K^rkebyrton. But there were churches at both places 
long before these'3ates.-_What seems to have happened at both 
Kirkburton and KirkheatorrirtKisr-¥bs4Qams hips r eceived their 
Anglian names Bertone and Etone at an early date-^probabij^ 
in the 7th or the 8th century. The ancient centre of population 
was on the hill, that is, at the places now called Highburton 
and Upper Heaton ; the church came later, and for the greater 
convenience of the parish, which included other townships, it 
was built in each case some distance away from the centre of 
the township ; as years passed by, hamlets sprang up near the 
church, and these were naturally described as Kirkburton and 
Kirkheaton, the townships meanwhile continuing to bear the 
old names Burton and Heaton ; later still, when the new 
hamlet became the predominant partner, the whole township 
received the name Kirkburton or Kirkheaton. Compare Birstall. 



These are all of Scandinavian descent. Early records of Kirk 
Bramwith, Doncaster, and South Kirkby, Pontefract, are as 
follows : 

DB 1086 Branuuitke, Branuuat DB 1086 Ckerchebi, Chirchebi 

PF 1 201 Bramwith YR 1267 Suth Kyrkeby 

YR 1252 Bramwit CR 1280 Suth Kirkeby 

NV 1316 Brampwyth KI 1285 South Kyrkeby 

Kirk Bramwith in its DB forms designates different 
features of the landscape — Branuuitke is ' bramble wood ' and 
Branuuat is 'bramble ford,' from ON vi^r, a wood, and va^, a 
ford. Possibly the two names existed side by side for a time, 
Bramwith finally gaining the upper hand. See Bramley. 

Kirkby is ' church village,' from ON byr, a village or hamlet. 
In addition to South Kirkby there is a farmhouse in Emley 
called Kirkby, PT 1379 Kirkeby; and formerly Pontefract or a 
part of it was also called Kirkby. See Pontefract. 

KiRKTHORPE, Warmfield, is mentioned in a Fine of 1 547 as 
Kyrkethorp, and means ' church village.' There is an interesting 
reference to Warmfield, Kirkthorpe, and Heath, in YR 1252 
where the names as recorded are Warnefeld, Gukethorp, and 

KIRKBURTON, Huddersfield, is recorded in DB as 
Bertone, PF 1208 Birton, YR 1229 Birton. YS 1297 Byrton, 
NV 1316 Birton, VI 1^:7^ By r ton, "D^ 1516 Kirkebyrton. It 
-must be nbfe'd that the DB scribes often wrote e for ^ ; if we 
rewrite the DB form Byrtone, we shall have a quite consistent 
series of forms, derived probably from OE byre, a cowhouse. 
Compare the early spellings of Burcote, Worcestershire, DB 
Bericote, 1275 Byrcote. 

KIRKHAMGATE, Wakefield, gives an example of the 
OE hamm, an enclosure, for Kirkham is ' church enclosure,' 
the suffix 'gate' being a later addition signifying 'road,' from 
ON gata, a path or road. 

KIRKHEATON, Huddersfield, is recorded in DB as Etone, 
FC 1199 Heton, KI 1285 Heton,Y'D 1369 Kirkeheton, PT 1379 


Heton. The original name, Heton, meant ' high farm,' from OE 
heah, hek, high, and tun, an enclosure or farm. The prefix was 
a later addition ; see Kirk. 

KIRKLEES, Brighouse. — In the park there are the remains 
of ' a small house for Cistercian nuns ' and ' a small rectangular 
Roman camp ' (Morris). There is also a tomb said to be that 
of Robin Hood, who, according to tradition, died here through 
the treachery of the prioress. The Wakefield Court Rolls con- 
tain the following records of the name: 1275 Kyrkeleys, 1314 
Kirkeley, 1326 Kirkeleghes, 1423 Kyrkeleis, 1573 Kirkelees, and 
CR 1236 has Kyrkelay. The meaning is obviously 'church leas,' 
from ON kirkja, a church, and OE leak, a lea or meadow. 

KIVETON, Sheffield, DB Ciuetone, YS 1297 Keueton, YI 
1304 Kyueton, YD 1326 Keueton, probably derives its first 
element from OE cyfe. This word is explained as a vessel, 
tub, vat, and may perhaps denote a hollow. The terminal 
comes from OE tun, an enclosure, farmstead. 

KNOT or KNOTT, comes from ON knutr, a knot, pro- 
tuberance, a word used in Norway in the names of mountains, 
as in Jordalsnuten and Thorsnuten. This Norse word will ac- 
count for the first element in Knott Wood, Stansfield, and Knot 
Hill, Saddleworth, the latter recorded as Cnouthull and Cnothill 
in 13th century charters, and Quotil{u='n) in YS 1297. 

Occasionally we find the word used as a termination, thus, in 
the Cockersand Chartulary at the beginning of the 13th century 
we meet with such names as Haluecnot and Gripcnottes. The 
termination in Pyenot, Liversedge and Marsden, is probably to 
be accounted for in this way. 

KNOTTINGLEY, DB Notingeleia, Notingelai, PF 1202 
Cnottinglai, PC 1219 Knottinglay, IN 1258 Cnottingley, PT 1379 
Knottynglay. The Norman scribe found the combination en as 
difficult as the modern Anglian finds it, and, like the modern 
Anglian, he gave one consonant instead of two. In Bedford- 
shire he overcame the difficulty in another way, transcribing 
the name of the village now called Knotting as Chenotinga. The 

G. '3 


meaning of Knottingley is 'the lea of the sons of Cnot,' from 
OE leah, a lea or meadow ; compare the modern surname Knott. 
Nottingham has an origin quite different ; in the AS Chronicle 
it is spelt Snotingahani, and in DB it is Snotingeham ; BCS, on 
the other hand, has the name Cnottingahamm, connected with 
Barkham in Berkshire. 

these words is either the OE cnoll, or ON knollr, a gently- 
rounded hill, the summit, the top or crown of a hill. 

Knowle occurs in Sheffield, Emley, Mirfield, and Austonley, 
and Knowles in Fixby and Dewsbury. 

Knowler Hill, Liversedge, was called Hustin Knowll in 
1560; but Knowler may have been used concurrently. Hustin 
is from ON hus- thing, a council or meeting to which a king, 
earl, or captain, summoned his people or guardsmen. It is clear 
that Knowler Hill was a place of meeting for the franklins of 
the district. See p. 26. 

KRUMLIN.— See Crimes. 

in Emley, SE 17 15 Ladcar, the second in Saddleworth, while 
the third is a prominent mass of rock on Norland Moor. In 
each case the first element is from OE Meed, a rock, pile, heap. 
There are other West Riding names of similar character ; for 
example, on the hills south of Todmorden we find Two Lads, 
and near Ilkley an ancient boundary stone called Lanshaw Lad. 
The termination in Ladcastle comes from OE castel. 

LADYTHORPE is in the township of Fenwick. 

LAITHE or LAITHES.— This name, derived from ON 
hla5a, a storehouse or barn, occurs frequently throughout the 
district. In Widdop there is New Laithe Hey ; in Alverthorpe, 
Low Laithes ; in Ardsley, Wood Laithes ; in Rishworth, 
Cheetham Laithe; in Woodlesford, Dub Laithe; in Carlton, 
Laithe Close; in Holme, Wood Hey Laithe; in Austonley, 
New Laithe ; in Thurlstone, Low Laithe. 


LAND. — This termination may be either Scandinavian or 
Anglian ; compare OE land, ON land, land, district, territory, 
also land in Danish, Swedish, and Norwegian. South-west 
Yorkshire has the following instances : Austerlands, Barkisland, 
Crosland, EUand, Friezland, Greetland, Hoyland (3), Newland (3), 
Norland, Soyland, Stainland, Sunderland, Thurgoland, and 
Thurstonland. Ten of these appear to be Scandinavian, namely, 
Austerlands, Barkisland, Crosland, Hoyland (3), Soyland, Stain- 
land, Thurgoland, and Thurstonland ; two others, Greetland 
and Norland, may come either from Anglian or Scandinavian ; 
the remnant which may be described as certainly Anglian is, 
therefore, quite a minority. It should be noted that six of 
these places, near Halifax, — Barkisland, Elland, Greetland, 
Norland, Soyland, Stainland — are adjacent to each other, but 
Elland alone appears in the Domesday record. 

WOOD. — The word for 'long' was lang in OE and langr 
in ON. 

Langfield, Todmorden, DB Langfelt, HR 1276 Lang f eld, 
WCR 1297 Langfeud, is 'long field,' from O^feld. 

Langham, Rawcliffe, is probably from OE hamm, an en- 
closure or dwelling, rather than OE ham, home. 

Langholm, Thome, 1342 Langholm, is 'long holme,' from 
ON holmr, an island, lowlying land subject to inundation. 

LanGLEY is found in Emley and Bradfield, and means 'long 
lea,' from OE leah, a lea or meadow. 

Langold, Letwell, 1402 Langhald, YF 1540 Langold, YF 
1 571 Langald, appears to be 'the long shed or shelter.' 

Langsett, Penistone, CR 1290 Langside, NV 13 16 Lanside, 
PT 1379 Langside, is 'the long side or slope,' OE side. 

LANGTHWAITE, Doncaster, DB Langetouet, PF 1167 Lange- 
thwaite, YI 1279 Langethauit, NV 1316 Langethwayt, is 'the 
long clearing or paddock,' ON thveit. 

LONGBOTTOM, Warley, WCR 1308 Longbothem, is from OE 
botm, which refers to lowlying land. 



LONGLEY occurs in Almondbury, PT 1 379 Longlegh ; in 
Ecclesfield, CH 1366 Longeley; in Holmfirtii, WCR 1307 
Longleye ; and in Norland, WCR 1285 Langgeley. The meaning 
is ' the long lea,' OE leak. 

LONGROYD Bridge, Huddersfield, 17th century Langrodbrig, 
is ' the bridge beside the long clearing ' ; see Royd. 

LONGWOOD, Huddersfield, PF 1202 Langwode, DN 1383 
Langwode, has a meaning quite obvious, from OE wudu. 

LASCELLES HALL, Huddersfield, YD 1462 Lascelhal, 
has for its first element a place-name of French origin which 
became the name of a great Yorkshire family. In Brittany 
there is a village called Laselle; in Touraine one called Lasselle; 
and Lecelles, Nord, is still another form of the word. The last, 
written Cella in 1107 and 11 19, is explained by Mannier as a 
hermitage, from Lat. cella, a cell, small room, hut. 

LAUGHTON-EN-LE-MORTHEN, near Rotherham, is 
a name curiously compounded of English, French, and Scandi- 
navian. Early records give the following forms : 

DB 1086 Lastone CR 1257 Lacton in Morthing 

YR 1224 Lactone Kl 1285 Laython in Morthing 

CR 1227 Lacton PT 1379 Leghton 

CR 1256 Lacton Imorthing VE 1535 Laghton 

SM 1610 Leighton in the Mornyng (!) 

These must be compared with early forms of Leighton Buzzard, 
Beds., among which we get the following : 

DB io86 Lestone 1291 Leython 

PM 1272 Leghton 13 16 Leythone 

The Domesday forms, which show the same scribal error as 
Drighlington, are quite alike except for the principal vowel ; 
and later forms approximate in the same way. It seems clear 
that, apart from a dialectal difference of vowel which goes back 
to the earliest times, the names entirely agree. As to the in- 
terpretation of Leighton, Dr Skeat says there is no difficulty. 
" There are plenty of Leightons," he says, " because the word 
simply meant 'garden.' It is from the AS leak- tun, lit. 'leek- 
town,' i.e. place for cultivating leeks, which was once a general 
word for vegetables. The AS for leek is leac ; but this became 


leak on account of the phonetic law whereby almost every 
AS ct passed into ht" The variation in vowel would be fully 
accounted for by the Mercian form lektun, as contrasted with 
the OE form Idhtun, given by Wright in his Vocabularies and 
quoted by Moorman. 

Apart from Laughton-en-le-Morthen and Brampton-en-le- 
Morthen no instance of the French particles 'en le' is to be 
found in South-west Yorkshire ; just over the border there is, 
however, the well-known Derbyshire example Chapel-en-le-Frith. 
These particles were doubtless as a rule not taken into popular 
speech, but were reserved for deeds and other legal documents. 

There is a farm called Laughton in Soyland. 

Laverock Hall occurs in Keighley, Haworth, Idle, Ovenden, 
and Marsden, while Laverack Lane is found in Brighouse 
and Laverack in Kirkheaton. 

The only early records are BM Laver Bridge, Kirkheaton, 
which appears to be connected with Laverack, and YD 1474 
Leuerichbroke, which is doubtless connected with Laverack Lane, 
Brighouse. The word Laver or Lever comes from OE l{Bfer, 
a rush, reed, bulrush, and it seems probable that many of the 
names given above are derived from this source. At the same 
time some may come from OE laferce, ME laverock, the lark, and 
perhaps all have been influenced by this word. 

LA\V, LCW. — The simple name occurs as Law Hill in 
Hepworth, Southowram, and Wakefield. As a termination we 
find the word to-day in Canklow, Chellow, Ringinglow, Walders- 
low, and Whirlow; but formerly it was to be found also in 
Ardsley, Blackley, Dunningley, Tingley, and Tinsley. At least 
one of these names is Scandinavian, viz. Tingley ; and we shall 
probably be right if in that case we refer the terminal ultimately 
to Prim. Norse hlaiv, a grave-mound, a word which according to 
Torp occurs only in runic inscriptions. Where the first element 
is Anglian we may refer -low to OE hldw, M'^w, ME lawe, lowe, 
a mound — natural or artificial — a cairn, tumulus, hill. 

LAWKHOLME, Keighley.— See Holme. 


LAYCOCK occurs four times, viz. in Wortley (Sheffield), in 
Wintersett, in Tliurstanland, and near Keighley. Early spellings 
of the last-named are given in the first column below, and along 
with them for the sake of comparison are given those of Lacock 
or Laycock in Wiltshire. 

DB 1086 Lacoc CH 854 Lacoc 

KI 1285 Lackac CH 854 Lacok 

PT 1379 Lacokke DB 1086 Lacoc 

YF 1 58 1 Lacocke DB 1086 Lacock 

SM 1610 Lacock NV 1316 Lacock 

The modern spelling is obviously misleading. Perhaps the name 
involves the suffix found in 'hillock' and 'parrock,' the stem 
being derived from OE lacu, running water, a stream, a pond. 
Support for this suggestion appears in the Cheshire stream-name 
Wheelock, of which the source is probably OE wal, a whirlpool, 
eddy, pool. 

LEPPING, LEPTON. — Of the former, which occurs in 
Wadsley, there are no early spellings, but of the latter, a town- 
ship near Huddersfield, we find DB Leptone, DN 1^225 Lepton, 
YS 1297 Lepton, NV 13 16 Lepton. It is scarcely possible- that 
the meaning should be ' Leppa's farm,' for that would require 
such early forms as Leppeton ; more probably the word is from 
Norw. lepp, a patch, a strip, as in the Norwegian lake-name 
Lepvandet (Rygh). In that case the terminations would come 
from ON eng, meadowland, and tun, an enclosure or farm. 

LETWELL, Tickhill, YD 1326 Lettewelle, PT 1379 Lette- 
well, CH 1386 Lettewelle, YF 1579 Letwell. Among the names 
in -well examples where the first element is a personal name 
are to be found only occasionally ; but I think Letwell must be 
explained in that way, namely as 'the well of *Letta.' Although 
this personal name is not recorded, the corresponding strong 
form. Let, occurs in the Domesday record. 

LEVENTHORPE, Bradford, NV 1316 Leuwyngthorp, PT 
1379 Leuenthorp, is 'the village of Liufvin,' from ON thorp. 
Nielsen gives the ODan. name in the forms Liofvin and Lefvin 
among others, the fem. form being Liufvina. 


-LEY. — This is an exceedingly common termination. It is 
of Anglian origin, from OE leak, which means 'a lea or field, a 
tract of open ground whether meadow, pasture, or arable land. 
Wyld says " The original and fundamental idea seems to be 
' clearance,' land from which forest has been cleared away, as 
distinct from feld, which appears to be land which has always 
been clear and open." The dative of leah was leage or lege 
(yg—y), and these gave the ME forms laye and leye. 

LIDGATE, LIDGET. — Three forms of the name are 
known, Lidgate, Lidyate, Lidget, all from OE hlid-geat. This 
word meant a swing-gate, a gate placed across a highway to 
prevent cattle from straying, a gate dividing common from 
private land or between ploughed land and meadow. Lidyate 
comes directly from OE hlid-geat, and Lidget is a further 
development of the word due to palatalization ; but Lidgate 
shows the influence of the Scandinavian word 'gate,' a road, 
unless, indeed, it comes from a plural form gatu. We find the 
form Lydiate in Lancashire. 

Lidgate occurs near Holmfirth, 1514 Lidyate; near Saddle- 
worth, YS 1297 La Lyed; and also in Crookes, Hipperholme, 
and Lepton. 

Lidget is found near Doncaster, PT 1379 Lydeyate, as 
well as in Bradford, Keighley, Pudsey, Lepton, Tankersley, and 

LIGHTCLIFFE, Halifax. — From 1275 onwards the name 
is frequently recorded in WCR as Lithclif. The present form 
of the prefix is quite misleading, the name being derived from 
OE or ON hm, a slope, hillside, and OE clif or ON klif, a 

LIGHTHAZELS, Sowerby, appears frequently in WCR 
where we get 1274 Lytheseles, 1275 Litheseles, 1296 Lictkeseles, 
1309 Ligheseles. The modern name gives the meaning ac- 
curately, the word being derived from OE leoht, bright, light, 
and hcssel, a hazel. 

LILLANDS.— See Lindley. 


LINDHOLME, LINDRICK.— The first element appears 
to be derived from ON lind, lime-tree ; but, as in the case of 
Lindley, the d may be intrusive, and the derivation may "be 
from ON lln, flax. 

LiNDHOLME, Hatfield. — See Holme. 

LiNDRiCK, Woodsetts, is perhaps ' lime-tree enclosure,' from 
OE ric, a fence, railing, enclosure ; compare Rastrick. 

LILLANDS. — The prefix in these words is from OE lln or 
ON lln, flax, and the names point to the neighbourhood of 
Huddersfield as formerly a centre for the cultivation of flax. 
Linfitts, Lingards, and Linthwaite are certainly due to the 
Northmen, and Lillands may possibly have the same origin, 
but Lindley is Anglian. 

Lillands, Rastrick, WCR 1620 Linlands, WH 1775 Lin- 
landes, means 'flax lands.' 

Lindley, Huddersfield, DB Linlei, Lillai, WCR 1275 
Lynley, YS 1297 Linley, FT 1379 Lyndelay, is 'flax lea,' from 
OE leak. The early spellings in Lillands and Lindley are 
particularly interesting, the former proving that an assimilation 
of consonants has taken place, and the latter proving the in- 
trusion of <a? as a supporting consonant. 

Lingards, Slaithwaite, WCR 1298 Lyngarthes, NV 1316 
Lingarthys, is ' flax enclosure,' from ON gar^r, a yard, garden, 
enclosure. The name Lingard occurs also in Bradfield. 

Linthwaite or Linfitts occurs four times. There is a 
hamlet in Kirkburton called Linfitts, PF 1208 Linthwait, and 
there is a second Linfitts in Saddleworth. A farm in Brampton 
Bierlow now called Linthwaite was Lintweit in PC iiS5, 
Linttveit in CR I160, and Lintewait in YS 1297. Further, 
there are Linthwaite and Linfitt Hall in the Colne Valley, 
WCR 1284 Lynthayt, WCR 1307 Lintweyt. The meaning 
of all these names is 'flax paddock,' from ON thveit. 

LINEHOLME, Todmorden.— See Holme. 

LING WELL GATE, Lofthouse, appears to have obtained 
its name from a field called Lingwell, ' heather field,' ON lyng. 


ling, heather, and vbllr, a field. This derivation seems much 
more acceptable than one from OE ling and wella, a well, more 
especially seeing that the district has a considerable proportion 
of Scandinavian names. 

WOOD.— The OE form of the word little is lytel, and the ON 
is litill, while the ME is lytel, litel. 

Little London. — See Lund. 

LITTLETHORPE or LiTHROP is to be found at Hartshead 
and Clayton West; it is ON litill- thorp, little hamlet. 

LiTTLEWOOD is Anglian, and there are several examples 
of the name, but only in the case near Holmfirth are early 
spellings found, namely, WCR 1274 Lyttlewode, Litilwode, 

LIVERSEDGE, six miles south-east of Bradford, is 
' remarkable as being the place where the first effectual op- 
position was made to the torrent of Luddism in 1812 ' (Clarke). 
For some time the Bronte family dwelt within its borders, and 
its first vicar, the Rev. Hammond Roberson, was the prototype 
of Parson Helstone in Shirley, Early records give the following 
forms : 

DB 1086 Livresec, Liuresech WCR 1297 Lyvereshegge 

FC 1 199 Liversegge CR 1319 Leversegg 

WCR 1284 Lyversege PT 1379 Liversig 

KI 1285 Leversege YD 1530 Liversegge 

The earliest mention of members of the township appears in a 
License in Mortmain dated 1375, where Great Lyversegge, Robert 
Lyversegge, Little Lyversegge, stand for Hightown, Roberttown, 
and Littletown ; later, in YF 1564, there is mention of Great 
Lyversege and Little Lyversage. 

Passing to other names, we find first a certain number of 
stream-names such as Liver in Argyll, Levern Water in 
Renfrew, and Levers Water in Lancashire. It is possible 
that these are connected with Prim. Celt. *levo, to wash, lavo-, 
water, the termination being the common suffix found in such 
early river-names as Isara, Tamara, Samara (Kurth) ; but 


Middendorff compares the OE stream-name Lcsfer (BCS 949) 
with the Bavarian stream -name Laber and connects it with 
OHG labon, to wash. See Laverock. 

There are next (l) a number of place-names involving Liver, 
like Liverton in the North Riding and Devonshire, Livermere 
in Suffolk, and Liverpool in Lancashire, and also (2) a certain 
number involving Lever, like Leverton in Lincolnshire and 
Notts., and Lever in Lancashire. We find such early forms 
for Lever, Liverpool, and Liverton (NR) as 

12 12 Lefre 1229 Leverepul 1086 Livreion 

1282 Leuir 1254 Liverpol 1086 Liuretun 

where obviously the stream-name may again be present. Apart 
from Liversedge, however, no name shows the -s- of the genitive, 
and in our search for similar names we are thrown back upon 
Leoferes-haga, which is recorded in KCD and is explained by 
Dr Skeat as ' Lever's haw,' from the OE personal name Leofhere, 
later Leofere. A reference to Searle will show that the OE 
personal name Leofing could take the forms Leving and Living, 
and we may fairly assume therefore the OE Leofhere could 
become Levere and Livere. 

Names with the same termination as Liversedge are 
(i) Wlvesege, found in the Cockersand Chartulary in 1250, 
and (2) Hathersage in Derbyshire, IN 1243 Haversege. These 
may be interpreted as ' Wulf's edge' and ' Havard's edge'; and 
in the same way we may explain Liversedge as ' Leofhere's 
edge,' or ' Leofhere's ridge,' from OE ecg, ME egge, which 
meant among other things a cliff and a ridge. See Edge. 

LOCKWOOD, Huddersfield, WCR 1286 Lokwode, WCR 
1307 Locwode, PT 1379 Lokewod, is perhaps 'the wood beside 
the fold,' from OE loc, an enclosure, fold, pen, and wudu, a wood. 
Compare the names Lockton, Wenlock, and Porlock, as well as 
the O^ gdta-loc, a pen for goats. 

LOFTHOUSE, Wakefield.— Elsewhere in the county we 
find Lofthouse near Sedbergh, Middlesmoor, and Harewood ; 
and Loftus, another form of the name, occurs near Saltburn 


and Knaresborough. Early spellings of Lofthouse near Wake- 
field and Loftsome near Howden are as follows : 

DB 1086 Loftose, Locthuse KI 1285 Lofthusum 

DN 1250 Lofthus KF 1303 Lofthousum 

WCR 1285 Lofthus NV 1316 Lofthousum 
KF 1303 Lofthouse 

Thus Lofthouse and Loftsome are the singular and plural of 
the same Scandinavian word, huse being dat. sing, and kusum 
dat. plur., and the first element being from ODan. loft or ON 
lopt, an upper chamber, an upper floor. The name Lofthus 
occurs in Norway on the shores of the Hardanger. 

In comment on the Domesday form Locthuse it should be 
noted that other Yorkshire names show such Domesday spellings 
as Locthusun and Loctehusum, and that Middle Low German 
possesses the alternative forms luft and lucht ; and in comment 
on the Icelandic form lopt it should be noted that one of the 
peculiarities of Icelandic spelling was the use of pt for ft, lopt 
being pronounced loft. 

LONDON.— See Lund. 

WOOD.— See Langfield. 

LOSCOE. — This name occurs twice: (i) near Pontefract, 
KC Loft Scoh, Loftscohg, Loschough, (2) near Mexborough, 
HR 1276 'in bosco de Lostescoth in Barneburg.' We may 
compare with these the early names Loftlandes (Guisborough 
Chartulary) and Loftmarais (Rievaulx Chartulary). In the two 
last-named and in LosCOE near Pontefract the first element is 
the same as that in Lofthouse, and comes from ON lopt, ODan. 
loft, an upper floor, Loscoe being 'the wood beside the two-storied 
house,' from ON skdgr, a wood. LoscOE near Mexborough on 
the other hand is ' Losti's wood'; compare the personal name 
Lost which appears in the Chartulary of Rievaulx. 

LOXLEY, Bradfield, IN 1329 Lokkeslay, IN 1337 Lokkesley, 
PT 1379 Lokeslay. Here is an interesting illustration of the 
way in which a name may obtain a wider application. The 


word, which originally meant ' Loc's lea,' from the personal 
name Loc recorded by Searle, became in the course of years 
the name of the village and also of the stream which flowed 
past the village. In the same way the names Agden and 
Ewden designated in the first instance valleys only, but were 
later applied to streams as well. 

LUDDENDEN, Halifax, is frequently mentioned in WCR, 
where we find \2%\ Luddingden, 1285 Loddingdene, 1296 Luding- 
dene, 1 307 Luddingden, 1309 Luddingdene ; in addition HPR 
1568 has Lodendyn and Lodynden. Though Searle records no 
patronymic of the form Luding or Loding, he gives Luda and 
Loda, and there is ample authority for such a patronymic in 
the Luddingtons of Lincoln, Warwick, Kent, and Surrey, and 
in the Dutch place-name Ludingehus (NGN). We may fairly 
explain the name as ' the valley of the Ludings,' from OE denu, 
a valley. The change to Luddenden is paralleled in the case of 
Morthen. But see Ludwell. 

LUDWELL, Thornhill, SE 1634 Ludwell, contains an 
element which occurs very frequently in English place-names. 
In the Domesday Survey we find such names as Lude, Ludes- 
forde, Ludebroc, and Ludwelle, as well as Ludeburg, Ludecote, 
and Ludewic. Among modern place-names Ludford occurs in 
Shropshire and Lincoln, Ludbrook in Devon and Lincoln, and 
Ludwell in Wiltshire and Yorkshire. In addition, there are 
streams called Lud near Bolton Abbey and in Lincolnshire. 
Perhaps the word is of Celtic origin, and connected with Prim. 
Celt. *lutd, mud ; compare Welsh llaid, mire, mud, Gael, lod, 
lodan, a puddle, and note that Hogan has an early place-name 
lodan represented by the modern name Ludden. 

LUMB, LUMBANK, LUMBUTTS.— Instances of the 
name Lumb are quite numerous. It occurs in Haworth, Oak- 
worth, Keighley, Wadsworth, Erringden, Sowerby, Hipperholme, 
Liversedge, Drighlington, Almondbury, Farnley Tyas, Holme, 
Penistone, Bradfield and Ecclesfield. Early records, WCR 1307 
Lorn, WCR 1308 Lorn, WCR 1370 Lum, show that the b is 
intrusive ; and hence the derivation is either from Norw. lorn, 


a tree-stem, a tree-trunk, a tree lopped of its branches (Aasen), 
or from Norw. lorn, the dative plural of a word lo which corre- 
sponds to Germ, loh and OE leak and means a grassy flat or 
lowlying meadowland by the waterside. 

LUMBANK, Austonley, may come either from ON lundr, 
a grove, or from Norw. lorn ; compare Lumby, near Sherburn, 
recorded in BCS 972 as Lundby but in KI 1285 and NV 13 16 
as Lumby. The termination is derived from an early Scandi- 
navian *banke, the original from which Icel. bakki is derived. 

LUMBUTTS, Langfield, derives its terminal from ON butr, 
a log, tree-stump ; compare Norw. butt, a stump, stub, log. As 
to its first element Lumbutts is like Lumbank. 

LUND, LONDON.— Lund occurs in Keighley and Womb- 
well ; London Spring in Soyland ; and Little London in 
Rishworth, Linthwaite, Mirfield, Bentley, Ecclesall, and Healey. 
The source is the ON lundr, a grove, a small wood. In the 
Landnama Book (ill, 6. i) we are told of a man called Thore 
that he dwelt at Lund, and that he sacrificed to the grove — 
'hann blotaSe lundenn'; compare the Swedish name Lund, 
formerly Lunden. This leads directly to the chief interest of 
the names now under consideration, namely, their possible 
connection with heathen worship. 

But the name London has a second interest, its termination 
being probably the Scandinavian suffixed article. This article 
is found in thousands of Norwegian place-names. In a single 
county, the Amt of Hedemarken, Rygh places on record six 
examples of Lund and seven of Lunden, as well as numerous 
examples of Dalen, Haugen, Sveen, and Viken. 

LUPSET, Wakefield, has the following early records: 
WCR 1277 Lupesheved, WCR 1286 Loppesheved, WCR 1297 
Lupesheved, YS 1297 Lupesheved, WCR 1361 Luppesheved, DN 
1363 Lupshead, PT 1379 Lupishede. Hunter expressed the 
opinion that the meaning is ' the high headland ' ; but, while 
the termination is certainly an early form of the word ' head,' 
OE heafod, ME heved, the prefix appears to be a personal 
name. It will be helpful to examine a number of parallel 






Early deed 




IN 1273 




IN 1323 




LF 1208 




LF 1235 








OE charter 




OE charter 




PF 1206 




Early deed 




Early deed 


Including Lupset we have altogether twelve examples. One 
of them, Hazlehead, is from a tree, OE hcesel; and four may 
perhaps involve the name of an animal : Swineshead, Farcet, 
Hartshead, Thicket, from OE swin, a pig, fearr, a bull, heart, 
a hart, ticcen, a kid. But the prefix in ten of the twelve — 
including Swineshead, Farcet, and Hartshead — is most probably 
a personal name. Consett is plainly Conec's head; Ormside is 
Orm's head ; Gamelside Gamel's head ; and Arnside Arnulf's 
head. I can find no personal name of the form Luppo, but 
Searle has Loppo and Nielsen has Loppi. We may fairly 
assume the existence of Luppo and explain Lupset as ' Luppo's 
headland,' from OE heafod which often meant the highest point 
of a stream, field, or hill. 

MACHPELAH occurs as the name of a farm in Wads- 

in Rishworth, Mag Field in Ecclesall, Mag Wood in Thurston- 
land, Magdale in South Crosland, and Magdalen Clough in 
Meltham. The most probable source of Mag is an ON word 
magi, which according to Rygh occurs in the Norwegian 
place-name Mageli. This word, which literally signifies stomach 
or belly, appears to be used to denote a narrow river gorge ; 
compare Wombwell. 

MALKROYD, MAUKROYD, Dewsbury and Langsett.— 
From such names as KCD Mealcing and HR 1279 Malketon — 
Malton in Cambridgeshire — we may postulate an OE personal 


name Mealc, and hence explain Malkroyd as 'the clearing of 

MALTBY, Rotherham, DB Maltebi, BM 11 47 Malteby, YR 
1229 Mauteby, NV 13 16 Malteby, is 'Haiti's farmstead,' from 
ON byr, and the Scandinavian personal name Malti recorded 
by Nielsen. In the North Riding there is a second Maltby, 
DB Maltebi, and there are others in Lincolnshire. 

MANKIN HOLES, Todmorden.— See Howcans. 

MANNINGHAM, Bradford, CR 1251 Maningeham, WCR 
1 298 Maynigham, KF 1 303 Maynyngham, NV i ^\6 Maynyngliam, 
KC 1342 Manynghain, FT 1379 Manyngham, is 'the home of 
the Mannings,' from OE ham, a home or house. There are 
in England three Manningfords, two Manningtons, and one 
Manningtree, all taking their origin from the same patronymic, 
while Sundermann records the name Manningaland. For the 
dialectal variation in the first vowel see Santingley. 

MANSHEAD. — In Soyland there is a hill called Great 
Manshead — pronounced Mawnshead (monzed) — and a little 
below the summit is a farmstead mentioned in WCR 1275 
and 1277 as Mallesheved. The name appears to be of the same 
kind as Lupset ; and DB has the name Mai, while Searle has 
such names as Malgrim and Malet. 

MAPPLEWELL, Barnsley. — Burton gives Napplewel, 
where the initial consonant appears to be a scribal error, and 
YF 1544 has Mapellwell. The meaning is 'the well beside the 
maple-tree,' from OE mapul and wella. 

HOLME, are found respectively in Bradfield, Cawthorne, and 
Ecclesall. I cannot do more than quote an interesting note by 
Peiffer on the French place-name Margheria : " Margheria est 
le nom des Stables (cattle-sheds) situ&s en montagne dans les 
Alpes-Maritimes. Ce nom ne se trouve ni dans le Dictionnaire 
Provencal ni dans le Dictionnaire Italien." 


MARK BROOK, MARK BOTTOMS, Ecclesfield and. 
Upperthong. — The first element in the latter is represented by 
that in WCR 1307 Merkehirst, and its origin is OE mearc, a limit 
or boundary. We find such OE compounds as mearc-beorh, 
boundary-hill, mearc- broc, boundary-brook, mearc- denu, boundary 
valley ; but the most interesting example is the name of the 
ancient kingdom of Mercia. The corresponding ON word mork, 
a forest, marshland, borderland, has also produced many place- 
names, including 'Denma.rk, Dan -mork, 3ind Finmark, FinK- mork. 

MARLEY, near Bingley, DB Mardelei, Merdelai, PF 1209 
Merdele, BM Matherley, BPR 1591 Merley, has for its first 
element the genitive Marthar of the ON personal name MorSr. 
In the Domesday forms the second r is dropped, probably 
through dissimilation, and in BM the first r appears to be 
dropped for the same reason. We may explain the name as 
' the lea of Marth.' 

MARR, Doncaster, DB Marra, YI 1248 Mar, KI 1285 
Mare, NV 13 16 Marre, PT 1379 Merre. These agree in form 
with ON marr, which however meant the sea ; but the cognate 
OE mere meant a lake or pond as well as the sea, and possibly 
ON fnarr was used in the same way. 

MARSDEN, Huddersfield. — It will be interesting to com- 
pare the early spellings with those of Marsden in Lancashire, 
the latter being placed in the second column : 

WCR 1274 Marchesden 1195 Merkesden 

WCR 1275 Marcheden 12 16 Merkesdene 

WCR 1277 Marchesdene 1292 Merchesdene 

WRM 1342 Marchedene 1305 Merkelesdene 

PT 1379 Mersseden 131 1 Merclesdene 

DN 1627 Mershden 1332 Merlesden 

The two names have the same terminal — from OE denu, ME 
dene, a valley — but that is all. Between the various forms of 
our own Marsden there is serious conflict. The second form, 
Marcheden, appears to be 'the borderland valley' from AFr. 
marche, ME marche, the border of a province or district. The 


two last, Mersseden and Mershden, are plainly 'marsh valley,' from 
OE mersc, ME merscke, merstie, a marsh. The remaining forms, 
Marchesden and Marchesdene, appear to have an intrusive s. It 
seems, therefore, that under the influence of popular etymology 
the earlier Marcheden passed into the later Mershden, which 
in its turn became Marsden just as the Oxfordshire Mershton 
became Marston. 

MARSHAW. — In WH 141 3 Cragg Vale or some portion 
of it is called Marishai- dough; and the spot where now the 
village and church are placed is called Mareshae in WH 1408, 
Marschagh in WCR 1308, and Mareschawe in WCR 1275. The 
bridge is still called Marshaw Bridge, and the bank close by is 
Marshaw Bank. The word is derived from OE mere, a lake, and 
sceaga, a copse or wood. 

early records of these places can only be distinguished by taking 
the presence of an r in the first syllable as showing connection 
with the former. Early forms are as follows : 

PF 1206 Merkesburch DB 1086 Mechesburg 

CH 1307 Merkesburg PF 1206 Mekesburg 

CH 1320 Merksburg CR 1226 Mekesburg 

YF 1555 Marseborowe YR 1247 Mekesburgh 

YF 1572 Markesbroughe NV 1316 Mekesburg 

YF 1572 Marshebroughe PT 1379 Mekesburgh 

SCR 1606 Marshburgh CH 1483 Mexburghe 

MASBOROUGH has undergone an unusual series of changes, 
and for a time threatened to become Marshborough. Originally 
it was 'Merc's fortified place,' from OE burg and the personal 
name Merc. Then the k between consonants was lost, rksb 
becoming rsb ; later rsb was simplified to sb, and so the modern 
form was reached. 

MEXBOROUGH, on the contrary, has held an even course, and 
means 'the fortified place belonging to Mek.' As to the origin 
of the personal name note (i) that Brons gives a Frisian name 
Meke, and (2) that Nielsen gives the ODan. name Miuk, which 
is derived from ON mjukr, agile, easy, meek. From this ON 
word is derived the common English word 'meek,' ME meke 

G. 14 


MAZEBROOK, Gomersal and Ingbirchworth. — There can 
be no doubt about the existence of an ancient stream-name of 
some such form as Maze. On the borders of Westmorland 
there is a stream called the Maize ; in Leicestershire there is the 
Mease ; in Staffordshire the Mees and Meese ; and in Ross and 
Cromarty the Falls of the Measach. 

MEAL HILL occurs four times in the neighbourhood of 
Huddersfield, viz. in or near Slaithwaite, Meltham, Holme, and 
Hepworth. The source of the word Meal is ON melr, a sand- 
bank, sand hill ; compare the dialect-word ' meal,' a sandbank, 
recorded in EDD. 

MEASBOROUGH, Ardsley near Barnsley, must be re- 
corded as one of the derivatives of OE burg, burh, a fortified 

MELLOR HILL, MELLOR LANE, Whitley Lower and 
Austonley. — In South-west Yorkshire Mellor is very common 
as a surname, derived, doubtless, from some place-name. PT 
1379 has the word Meller, of which the origin is doubtless the 
ON melr, a sandbank, the termination being due to the plural, 
ON melar, sandbanks. 

MELTHAM, Huddersfield, a very difficult name, has the 
following early spellings : 

DB 1086 Melthd 


1 36 1 Meltham 

YS 1279 Meltham 


1379 Meltham 

NV 1 3 16 Muletham 


1388 Melteham 

Perhaps the strange spelling given in NV gives the necessary 
clue. In Danish there is a word multebar and in Norwegian a 
word mutter used to designate the cloudberry (Larsen), and in 
Swedish there is a corresponding dialect-word mylte (Falk). 
Further, the Dan. word muttemyr signifies a bog covered with 
cloudberry bushes (Larsen), and hence I suggest that Meltham 
may mean 'the home or enclosure amidst the cloudberry bushes.' 
In that case the e and u in the early forms represent an early 
y as was often the case. The terminal is from OE ham, home 
or OE hamm, an enclosure. 


MELTON.— See Middleton. 

METHLEY is an ancient parish almost surrounded by the 
Aire and Calder which unite at its eastern extremity. The 
church is dedicated to Saint Oswald and a mutilated carving 
now built into the wall near the chancel is supposed to have 
represented that Saint (Morris). Records of the name since the 
Conquest include the following : 

DB 1086 Medelai NV 1316 Metheley 

PC ti220 Medelay PT 1379 Meydlay 

PC ti23o Medeley DN 1487 Metheley 

PC 1251 Methelay VE 1535 Methlay, Medley 

YS 1297 Metheley DN 1632 Medley als. Metheley 

As the Norman scribes frequently wrote d for th, it is 
possible that the three earliest forms represent Methelai, 
Methelay, Metheley. And, as an earlier th may give place to a 
later d, Meydlay and Medley may well be true descendants of a 
Domesday form Methelai ; compare Cudworth, Lingards, and 
Rodley. In a word, it seems probable that the early forms are 
in agreement with one another and are fitly represented by DB 

Assuming that this is the correct form, the most probable 
explanation of Methley is ' council lea,' from OE mce'^el, m^el, a 
council or meeting, and OE leah, a lea or meadow; Methwold in 
Norfolk, DB Methelwalde, Matelwald, appears to come from this 
source. That OE me6el-leah should be written Methelai in DB, 
one / being lost, is paralleled in the case of Ulley ; compare 
also Owston and Shafton. 

Another interpretation, agreeing with the geographical con- 
ditions, is ' middle lea,' from ON mef&al, middle ; compare 
Melton, where Metheltone has probably superseded Mideltone. 

MEXBOROUGH.— See Masborough. 

TOWN. — The first element in these words is derived from 
OE micel or ON mikill, great. 

MICKLEBRING, Conisborough, YR 1254 Mykelbring, HR 
1276 Mikelbring, IN 1335 Mikelbrink, IN 1375 Mykelbrynk, YF 
1536 Mykelbrynk, is 'the great slope,' from ON hrinka, Dan. 



brink, a slope. The hamlet is built at the point where a 
tableland passes into a long and gradual descent towards the 
river Don. 

MiCKLETHWAlTE, Cawthorne, is mentioned in PT 1379 
under Cawthorne as Mickilwayte ; this means ' the great clear- 
ing,' from ON thveit. 

MiCKLETOWN, Methley, MPR 1561 Mickletowne, means 'the 
great farmstead or village.' The name can scarcely be of early 
origin ; see Ton. 

MELTON. — It will be particularly interesting to compare the 
early spellings of Middleton, Leeds, with those of High Melton, 

DB 1086 Mildetone, Mildentone DB 1086 Medeltone, Mideltone 

YI 1258 Midelton PF 1208 Methelton 

KI 1285 Midylton YI 1252 Methylton 

KF 1303 Middelton Kl 1285 Melton-le-Heyg 

PT \i-]<^ Midelton PT \y]() Hegh Melton 

The strange DB spellings of Middleton are due to scribal 
error, and we may fairly rewrite Mildetone as Mideltone. This 
gives us a definite link with the second DB form of Melton, but 
apart from the terminal the two names are in reality quite 
different, the first element in Melton coming from ON mei^al, 
middle, while in Middleton it comes from OE middel. Thus, 
each name means ' middle enclosure or farm,' Melton being 
Scandinavian, and Middleton Anglian ; compare the Norwegian 
place-name Melby from MeSal- byr (Rygh), and Melton Mowbray 
which in DB was written Medeltone. The variation between 
Anglian and Scandinavian in the DB forms of our own Melton 
is worthy of note, and so also is the fact that in the Domesday 
record d is often written for th. 

MiDDLESTOWN, Wakefield, is the same word, but it shows 
(i) an instrusive j, and (2) the late form -town instead of the earlier 
-ton. The place is referred to in DN 1325 as Midle Shitlington, 
while in YF 1523 we find Overton, Middleton, Netherton, the 
upper, middle, and lower farms. 

MiDDLEWOOD, Darfield, YS 1297 Middelwude, tells its story 
with entire frankness and simplicity. 


MIDGLEY, Halifax and Wakefield.— The first appears in 
DB as Micleie, where the medial consonant fails just as the final 
consonant does in DB Livresec, now Liversedge. Later records 
of the two Midgleys show forms which agree quite closely with 
one another, e.g. 

MiDGLEY, Halifax MiDGLEY, Wakefield 
WCR 1274 Miggeley YR 1234 Miggeley 

WCR 1297 Miggeley DN 1241 Migeley 

WCR 1308 Miglay YI 1287 Miggeley 

It is impossible that the two Midgleys should be derived from 
OE micel or ON mikill, great, the early spellings being in 
violent conflict with such a derivation. But there is another 
and more obvious source, namely, OE mycge, ME migge, a gnat 
or midge. Iceland had formerly such names as My-vatn, midge- 
lake, and My -dale, midge- valley, while in the 13th century the 
Cockersand Chartulary gives the place-name Migedale in the 
parish of Bland. Thus, the two Midgleys may fairly be 
interpreted ' midge lea,' from OE leah. 

MIDHOPE, near Penistone, PC ti220 Midehope, YR 1252 
Midhop, BD 1290 Midhope, YS 1297 Midop, Middop, YD 1307 
Midehope, is 'middle valley,' from OE mid, middle, and hop, 
a secluded valley or retreat. Near Barnoldswick is another 
instance of the name, now spelt Middop. 

MILNTHORPE, Sandal, 1279 Milnethorp,YS 12^7 Milne- 
thorp, is ' mill village,' from ON mylna, a mill, and thorp, a village. 

MINSTHORPE is in North Elmsall. 

-MIRE occurs in Blamires and Spinksmire ; see Mirfield. 

MIRFIELD, on the Calder between Dewsbury and Brig- 
house, has early records as follows : DB Mirefeld, Mirefelt, 
PC tii70 Mirefeld, YI 1249 Mirefeld, KI 1285 Myrfeld. The 
meaning is 'the swampy field,' from ON myrr, ME mire, a bog 
or marsh, and OE feld, a field. In the will of Henry Sayvell, 
HW 1483, we find a sum of 6s. %d. bequeathed for the repair of 
Mirfield brige. 


MIXENDEN, Halifax, WCR 1274 Mixenden, WCR 1284 
Mixhynden, YI 1304 Mixendene, is derived from OE mixen, a 
dunghill, and denu, a valley. Staffordshire has a village called 
Mixen which Duignan derives from the same source ; see also 


first is in Huddersfield, the second in Lofthouse, and the third, 
CC 1475 Moldrode, in Pudsey. The word Mold goes back to 
OE molde or ON mold, mould, earth. The latter appears in the 
Landnama Book where we read of Hrolf the Hewer that ' his 
homestead was at Molda-tun,' compare the Norwegian place- 
names Molde and Molden. 

MORTOMLEY, MORWOOD.— These words are all from OE 
mor, a moor or morass, or ON mor, a moor, heath. Like the 
series of names derived from OE mos or ON mosi, a bog or marsh, 
they serve as witnesses to the ancient conditions. As a termina- 
tion -moor or -more occurs in Pogmoor, Ranmoor, Scholemoor, 
Stocksmoor, and Tranmore. 

MoORHOUSE, Elmsall, YR 1230 Morhuse, KI 1285 Morhus, 
PT 1379 Morehouse, may be either Anglian or Scandinavian. 

MOORTHORPE, Elmsall, YD 1322 Morthorp, is 'the village 
on the moor,' from ON mor and thorp. 

MORLEY, DB Morelei, Moreleia, PF 1202 Morlay, DN 1226 
Morle, KI 1285 Morlay, NV 1316 Morley, is • moor lea,' from OE 
leah, a lea. 

MORTOMLEY, Sheffield, would provide a pretty puzzle if PR 
1 190 had not given the spelling Mortunelea. This is plainly ' the 
lea at Morton,' that is, ' the lea of the moor-farm,' from OE tun, 
an enclosure or farm, leah, a lea. 

MORWOOD, Sheffield, HH 1^66 Morwood, PT 1379 Morewod, 
is ' the wood on the moor,' OE mor and wudu. 

MORTHEN is the name of a hamlet about five miles south- 
east of Rotherham ; it is also the name of an undefined dis- 
trict in which are situated Aston-in-Morthen, Laughton-en-le- 


Morthen, and Brampton-en-le-Morthen. The following are 
early spellings : 

YD 1253 Morhtheng^ YS 1297 Morthing . 

WCR 1274 Morthyng YD 1345 Morthing 

KI 1285 Morthyng YF 1558 Morthinge 

These show that the true ending is -eng or -ing, not -thing ; and 
seeing that the immediate neighbourhood has a large proportion 
of Scandinavian place-names — Micklebring, Braithwell, Stainton, 
Woolthwaite, Sandbeck, Firbeck, Thwaite, Maltby, Hellaby, 
Carr, Thurcroft, Throapham — we shall probably be right in de- 
riving the name from ON moV^, slaughter, and eng, a meadow. 

If this be the correct etymology it should be found that some 
great struggle between the Vikings and the English took place 
on the site ; and in this connection it should be remembered 
that the direct route from Mercia to Northumbria was along the 
old Roman road called Riknild Street. Leaving Derby and 
taking the valley of the Amber, this road passed through 
Wingfield and Clay Cross, and then by the valley of the Rother 
reached Chesterfield and Beighton. At this point the course is 
doubtful, but the probabilities favour the crossing of the Don at 
Aldwark, the further course being by way of Swinton, Nostell, 
Normanton, and Woodlesford, to the great Roman city of 
Isurium. In any case the road left ' the Morthen ' but a few 
miles to the east. 

series of names is derived from OE mos, or ON mosi, a bog or 

MosCAR, west of Sheffield, Mosker and Moskarr in 1574, 
means ' the carr on the moss,' from ON kjarr, copsewood, 

MoSELDEN, near Rishworth, WCR 1285 Moseleyden, PT 
1379 Moslenden, SE 171 5 Mosslenden, is probably ' the valley of 
the lea in the marsh,' OE denu, a valley, leak, a lea. The name 
appears to have been influenced by Scammonden and Ripponden. 

MoSELEY Grange and Moss, near Doncaster, like the 
adjacent Fenwick and the various Holmes and Carrs, tell their 

' YAS Journal, XIII, p. 72. 


story in no half-hearted way. All these places are situated in 
the triangle between the Aire, the Don, and the ancient highway 
from Doncaster to Castleford. In bygone days this area was 
largely impassable, a swamp or moss extending over many 
square miles. To avoid this the Roman road deviated from its 
direct course and swerved to the west. Early records of the 
names Moss and Moseley are HR 1276 Moselay, IN 1331 
Moseleye, YF 1476 Mosse, YF 1573 Mosseleye in the Mosse, YF 
1580 Mosse. 

MOUNTAIN, Thornhill and Queensbury.— It is doubtful 
whether either of these names should be written in this way. 
SE 1634 records the Thornhill Mountain as Mounton, a form 
exactly paralleled by Mounton in Pembroke and Monmouth. 
It seems very probable that the first element in all these names 
should be linked with W mawn, peat, turf, Ir. moin, a marsh, 
moor, common, words which go back to Prim. Celt. *makni-, 
*mokni-, a marsh. The common word ' mountain ' comes to us 
from French, and it is found in our literature as early as the 
beginning of the 1 3th century. 

MYTHOLM, MYTHOLMROYD.— The former occurs in 
or near Haworth, Hebden Bridge, Hipperholme, Holmfirth, and 
Midgley (Halifax) ; the latter is at the junction of the Calder 
and a tributary from Cragg Vale. 

Mytholm near Holmfirth is recorded by WCR 1307 in the 
name Mithomwode, and there is a i6th century form Mitham. 

Mytholm, Midgley, appears as Mythome in YF 1545. 

MYTHOLMROYD was Mitkomrode in WCR 1307 and 1308, 
and Mitham Royd in WH 1775 ; see Royd. 

The origin is OE my^um, dat. pi. oi ge-my5e, a river-mouth, 
the point where two rivers meet. Under Norman influence 
-um was written -om ; then in imitation of the Anglian -ham it 
became -am ; and lastly, copying a well-known Scandinavian 
word it became -holm. Thus Mytholm means simply ' waters- 
meet ' or ' confluence.' 

NAB. — This word, derived from ON nabbr or nabbi, a knoll, 
is applied to prominent hills. It occurs with considerable 


frequency along the western border. There are, for example, 
Nab Hill in Kirkheaton, Butter Nab in Lepton and Crosland, 
€allis Nab in Erringden, West Nab in Meltham, Hunter's Nab 
in Farnley Tyas, and Nabscliffe in Shepley. The name is also 
to be found in Bradfield, Langsett, Holmfirth, Saddleworth, 
Silkstone, Mirfield, Oxenhope, Shipley, Slaithwaite, Stainland, 
Rishworth, and Sowerby. 

NAZE. — In the hill-country near Halifax and Huddersfield 
this word is frequently met with. There are Naze and Naze- 
bottom near Heptonstall, Stannally Naze in Stansfeld, Naze 
Hill in Wadsworth, Booth Naze in Slaithwaite, Naze Woods in 
Marsden, and Hard Nese in Oxenhope. It appears to be the 
OE n(zs, a cape, headland, projecting cliff. 

of the first, which is near Sheffield, are YS 1297 Nipisend, YD 
1 361 Nepeshende, HH 1366 Nepesend. The OE ende meant not 
only a border or limit, but also a district or quarter, and the 
most probable explanation of Neepsend is ' Neep's quarter ' ; 
compare the modern surnames Neep and Neeper. 

In the Kirkstall Coucher Book a field in Morley is designated 
Nepesatherode, Neep-shaw-royd, and the former part of the word 
is reproduced to-day in Nepshaw Lane. Nipshaw Lane in 
Gomersal is probably of similar origin, but in view of the forms in 
Nip- it seems not altogether impossible that ON gntpa, a peak, 
headland, may be involved. 

NETHERTON. — The prefix in these names is either from OE 
neo^era, ME netkere, or from ON neSri, nether, lower. 

Netherfield, Kirkburton, is ' the lower field,' O'E.feld. 

Netherley, Holme, is ' the lower lea,' from OE leak. 

Netherthorpe, Almondbury and Thorpe Salvin, is ' the 
lower hamlet,' from ON tkorp. 

Netherton, Shitlington and South Crosland, is ' the lower 
farm,' from OE or ON tun, an enclosure, farmstead. In the 
township of Shitlington we find the three names Overton, 
Middlestown, Netherton, and early records give the following 


names : YR 1234 Schelinton Inferior, DN 1312 Over Shitlington, 
DN 1 3 19 Nether Shitlington, YF 1523 Overton, Middelton, 
Netherton. The three names last mentioned signify the upper, 
the middle, and the lower farms. 

a certain Peter de Nettelton is mentioned, and in 1 307 and 1308 
the name Nettelton. These may perhaps refer to Nettleton Hill 
in the parish of Longwood. But we also find in WCR 1308 the 
name Netteltonstall of which the identification is unknown. The 
prefix is the OE netele, a nettle. See Heptonstall. 

these words comes from OE niwe, neowe, ME newe, new ; 
compare ON nyr, Dan. ny, Sw. ny. 

Newbigging, Sandal and Thurstonland, means ' new build- 
ing,' from ON bygging; compare WCR 1275 Neubigging vfhich 
refers to the former. 

New Brighton is found in Cottingley ; it is, of course, a 
borrowed name. 

Newhall occurs in Darfield, DB Niwehalla, PC 1155 
Neuhala, KI 1285 Newhall, and also in Pontefract and Shitlington. 
The ending is from OE heall, ME halle. 

Newland occurs in or near Netherthong, Normanton, and 
Rastrick. The word ' newland ' was used of enclosures from 
waste land, and is to be contrasted with ' rodeland ' which was 
used of enclosures from wood. 

New Scarborough, Wakefield, is of the same type as New 

Newsholme, Keighley, DB Neuhuse, YI 1255 Neusum, PT 
1 379 Neusom, means ' new houses.' The words huse and husum 
are the datives, singular and plural, of OE hus, a house, and 
despite their dissimilarity Newsholme and Newsome have the 
same meaning. Compare Gildersome and Woodsome. 

Newsome, Huddersfield, WCR 1275 Neusom, PT 1379 
Neusom, DN 1386 Newsom, like Newsholme, means ' new houses.' 


Newstead, Hemsworth, DN 1427 Newstede, YF 1504 
Newstede, means ' new place,' from OE stede, a site, place, station. 

Newton, Wakefield, PR 1190 Niweton, WCR 1275 Neuton, 
signifies ' new farmstead or enclosure,' from OE tun. 

Newton, Doncaster, PT 1379 Neweton, YF 1525 Newton, 
has the same origin and meaning. 

Newton Wallis, DB Niumton, KI 1285 Neuton Waleys, 
NV 1316 Neuton Waleys, was held in 1285 by Stephenus de 
Waleys. See Burghwallis. 

NOBLETHORPE is a residence in Silkstone. 


The first element in these names may be either Anglian or 
Scandinavian, from OE nor^, or the ON word of similar form. 
Between two consonants the th has been lost, exactly as in 
Norfolk, Norwich, and Normanton. 

Norland, Halifax, occurs in WCR 1274 and YD 1322 as 
Northland, the termination being from OE or ON land, an estate ; 
see Dirtcar. 

Northorpe occurs in Wortley (Sheffield) and Mirfield ; the 
latter is spelt Norththorpe in WCR 1297, and Northorp in 
YD 1 33 1, and the meaning is ' north village,' from ON thorp. 

Norton, Frickley and Askern, is recorded in each case by 
DB as Nortone; HR 1276 has Norton for one of these places. 
The ending is from OE or ON tiin, an enclosure, farmstead. 

Norwood, Hipperholme, is spelt Northwode in WCR 1276, 
and the termination is OE wudu, a wood. 

NORMANDALE, NORMANTON, Bradfield and Wake- 
field. — The latter is recorded in DB as Normatune, in WCR 
1275 and 1286 as Northmanton, and YS 1297 as Normanton. 
Each name is derived from a Viking settler called Northman, 
a personal name which is recorded in DB as Norman. See 

NORRISTHORPE, Liversedge, is a name of modern 
creation, the hamlet being formerly called Doghouse. Speaking 
of London in the olden days Canon Taylor says ' the hounds of 
the Lord Mayor's pack kennelled at Doghouse Bar in the City 


names have early records as follows : 

DB 1086 Ufrun DB 1086 Overe, Oure 

WCR 1274 Northuuerum WCR 1286 Southorum 

PT 1379 Northourom PT 1379 Southourom 

YF 155s Northourome YF 1546 Southourome 

The OE ofer, an edge, brink, bank, border — cognate with Germ. 
ufer — has given many place-names : Over in Cambridge, DB 
Ovre, Oure ; Ashover in Derby, DB Essovre ; Edensor in Derby, 
DB Ednesovre; Okeover in Stafford, 1004 Acofre. It should be 
noted, however, that while DB Overe represented the dat. sing, 
in e, DB Ufrun represents the dat. pi. in um. For other 
examples of this inflection see Hallam, Hipperholme, Mytholm, 
Newsome, and Woodsome. Note also the Dutch place-name 
Oever, recorded in NGN III 205 as Uvere in 1269 and Oeuerxxi 

NORTON.— See Norland. 

NOTTON, Wakefield, Yi'^ Notone,Norto7ie, PC \2i% Nottona, 
YR 1234 Notion, NV 13 16 Notion, goes back to ON knot, a nut, 
and tun, an enclosure or farmstead. 

OGDEN. — As a prefix the OE dc has assumed the forms ack, 
ag, augh, oak, og, and in this way has given more than a dozen 
ancient place-names in South-west Yorkshire ; compare Ackton, 
Agden, Aughton. The ME form of the simple word is oke. 

Oakes, Huddersfield, WCR 1285 Okes, WCR 1297 Okes, 
should be compared with Ewes, Hessle, Popples, Thornes, and 

OAKENSHAW, Cleckheaton, YI 1255 Akanescale, YD 1355 
Okeneschagh, shows a change of terminal, the earlier forms being 
from ON skdli, a hut, shed, shieling, while the later come from 
OE sceaga, a copse or wood. The meaning of the modern name 
is ' oak copse ' ; compare Birchencliffe and Birkenshaw. 

OAKENSHAW, Crofton,BM Akeneschaghe, QKi2?)0 Akenshawe, 
YF 1555 Okenshaw, YF 1565 Okenshawe, has the same meaning. 

Oakwell, Birstall, PM 1333 Okewell, DN 1381 Okewell,Y¥ 


1565 Okewell, is 'the well or spring beside the oak-tree,' from 
OE wella. The same name occurs in Barnsley. 

Oakworth, Keighley, DB Acurde, YI 1246 Acwurde, CR 
1252 Acwurthe, KF 1303 Ackeworth, derives its ending from 
OE weorth, and means ' the homestead beside the oak-tree.' 

Ogden, Ovenden, WCR 1309 Okedene, comes from OE dc 
and denu, and means ' oak-tree valley.' For the change from 
oke- to og- compare Shibden. 

Ogden, Rastrick and Sowerby, comes doubtless from the 
same source, and has the same meaning. 

ODD HILL, Dalton near Rotherham, is most probably 
derived from ON oddi, a point of land, a word which has given 
many Norwegian place-names such as Odde, Langodden, and 

ODESSA, a farm near Holmfirth, probably got its name 
from the famous Russian port on the Black Sea. This port 
was bombarded by the British fleet in April, 1854. 

ODSAL, Bradford. — There is a village in Hertfordshire 
called Odsey, DB Odesei, and according to Dr Skeat this is 
equivalent to Oddeseg, Odd's island. The name Odd is 
properly a Scandinavian form, the OE being Ord. Odsal may 
be explained as 'Odd's corner or tongue of land ' ; see Hale. 

OGDEN.— See Oakes. 

OLDFIELD occurs in Honley, WCR 1296 Oldefeld, and 
near Oakworth, KC 1226 Haldefeld. The first comes from OE 
eald, old, and feld, a field ; but there is doubt about the second 
which must be compared with Holdworth. 

ONESACRE, Bradfield, DB Anesacre, YD 1432 Onesaker, 
is ' the field of An,' An being a well-known ON personal name, 
and akr, the ON for arable land. 

ORGREAVE, Rotherham, DB Nortgrave, YD 1357 
Orgrave, HH 1366 Orgrave, YD 1398 Orgrave, signifies 'ore 
pit,' from OE dr, ore, and graf, grczf, a trench or pit. The DB 
form must be considered faulty. 


OSGATHORPE, OSGOLDCROSS.— The first is near 
Sheffield, and the second is the wapentake in which Pontefract 
and Castleford are situated. Early records are as follows : 

CH 1267 Hosgerthorp DB 1086 Osgotcros 

YS 1297 Osgettorp PF 11 67 Osgodescros 

YI 1298 Osegerthorp HR 1276 Osgotecrosse 

YD — Osegottorp NV 13 16 Osgotcrosse 

YF 1574 Osgarthorp FT 1379 Osgodcrosse 

The personal names involved appear in DB as Osgar, Osgot, 
and Osgod ; these represent the ON names Asgeirr and 
Asgautr where the 'first vowel is long. Obviously Osgathorpe 
has oscillated between ' Osgar's thorp ' and ' Osgot's thorp,' while 
Osgoldcross, ' Osgot's cross,' has suffered through popular mis- 
apprehension. For the loss of the sign of the genitive compare 
Alverley and Alverthorpe. 

OSSETT, Wakefield, DB Osleset, WCR 1275 Oselset, Ossete, 
NV 1 3 16 Osset, DN Oslesete, Oseleseie, Osseleset. We have on 
record the personal name Osla, and OE set means a seat, 
entrenchment, camp, so we may construe Ossett as ' Osla's seat.' 
The same termination is shown in the West Riding names 
Scissett and Wintersett and in other English names such as 
Elmsett, Orsett, Tattersett and Wissett. 

OUCHTHORPE LANE, Wakefield, WCR 1274 Uchetkorp, 
WCR 1297 Uchethorpe, WCR 1307 Onchethorpe, but PR 1190 
Austorp. Austorp would mean 'east hamlet,' from ON austr, 
east, and thorp, a hamlet or village ; but Ouchthorpe means 'the 
thorpe of Uche,' Uche being a personal name found in CR. 

OUGHTIBRIDGE, Sheffield.— The earliest form is DN 1 161 
Uhtinabrigga (for Uhtingabriggd), other early records being 

YS 1297 Wittibrig YD 1358 Ughtybrygg 

YD 1323 Uttibrig PT 1379 Vghtibrig 

I'N 1342 Ughtibrigg YF 1488 Ughtebryge 

The form Uhtingabj'igga may be explained as ' the bridge of the 
Uhtings,' the name Uhting being recorded by Searle ; and we 
must look upon the later forms as developed from *Uhtigabrig, 
the change from -ing to -ig being not uncommon ; see Dun- 
ningley and Manningham. 


OULTON, Woodlesford, CR 1251 0/ton, VJCR 1297 0/dton, 
YF 1498 Olton, is the 'old farm,' from OE tun, an enclosure, 
farm ; compare Oulton, Staffordshire, formerly Oldeton. 

OUSE, OUSEFLEET.— We find Usa and Use in various 
early records, as well as Useflete in CR f I108, Vseflet in PF 1198, 
Vsflete in 1278, Usfletm 1325, and Ossefleth in PT 1379. Holder 
identifies the Abos of Ptolemy with the Ouse ; but, although the 
river may have been known by both names, they are not directly 
connected one with the other. The origin of the word Ouse 
appears to be Prim. Celt. *utso-, water, from which the In usee, 
water, and the river-name Usk, are probably derivatives. The 
termination in Ousefleet comes from OY. fleot, a channel. 

OUSELTHW^AITE, OUZELWELL.— The first element 
comes either from the personal name Osulf, of which the ON 
was Asulfr, or from OE osle, the ousel or blackbird. 

OUSELTHWAITE, Barnsley, 1715 Ouslethwaite, may be 
' Osulf's paddock or clearing,' from ON tliveit ; compare Alver- 
thorpe and Skelmanthorpe. 

OUZELWELL, Lofthouse, RPR 1589 Ouslewell, seems to be 
' ousel well ' ; compare Birdwell and Spinkwell. 

OuzELWELL, Thornhill, has doubtless the same meaning. 

OUTWOOD was called 'The Outwood ' up to the i8th 
century. It was part of the great demesne wood of Wakefield. 
This was on the north side of the town, and at the time of 
the Enclosure Acts amounted to some 2300 acres. In the 
Domesday Survey woodland to the extent of six leagues by 
four is said to have appertained to Wakefield. 

OVENDEN, Halifax, is not mentioned in DB, but later we 
find YI 1266 Ovendene, HR 1276 Ovenden, WCR 1277 Ovendene, 
PT 1379 Ouenden. The meaning is 'upper valley,' from OE 
ufan, above ; compare the Swedish place-name Ofvantorp, which 
Falkman derives from the corresponding ON ofan, OSw. ovan. 

OVERTHORPE, OVERTON, the 'upper hamlet' and 
' upper farm,' are situate respectively in Thornhill and Shitlington. 


For the latter see Netherton ; for Overthorpe note YF 1 564 

OWLS HEAD. — The OE name for the owl was ille, which 
became oule in ME. 

OwLCOTES, Pudsey, CC Ulecotes, Ulekotis, Oulecotes, is 
obviously from OE ule and cot, a cot or cottage. 

Owlet Hill occurs in Warley (Halifax), as well as near 
Bolton by Bradford. 

Owlet Hurst, Liversedge, was written Hullet Hirste early 
in the 17th century; its meaning is 'Owlet copse.' 

Owls Head, a hill in Saddleworth, was called Hawels hede 
in 1468, and has therefore no connection with the owl. 

OWLER, OWLERS, OWLERTON.— Only in the case 
of Owlerton near Sheffield are there early records, namely, CR 
13 II Olerton, YD 1375 Ollerton,SC^ 1380 Ollerton, YD 1398 
Ollyrthon. The signification is ' alder farmstead,' from ON olr 
the alder, and tun, a farmstead. From the same source comes 
the name Owlers which occurs in Birstall, Chevet, Marsden, and 
Morley, as well as in Owler Carr, Bradfield, and Owler Carr 
Wood, near Sheffield. The common surname Lightowler is 
doubtless from the same source. 

OWSTON, Doncaster, DB Austun, DN 1284 Owston, CR 
1294 Ouston, NV 1316 Ouston, PT 1379 Auston, is 'east farm,' 
from ON austr, east, and tun, an enclosure, farmstead. For the 
early coalescing of the final t in aust- and the initial t in -tun 
compare Shafton and Methley. 

OXENHOPE, Keighley, has passed through many phases, 
for example, PC fi246 Oxenope, PC -j-1250 Oxneap, WCR 
1285 Oxhynhope, YD 1325 Oxsnop, PT 1379 Oxenhop; but the 
meaning seems clearly ' the sheltered valley of the oxen,' from 
the genitive plural oxna of the OE oxa, an ox, and the OE hop, 
a sheltered valley. 

OX LEE, Hepworth, PT 1379 Oxlegh, comes from OE oxa, 
an ox, and leak, a lea or meadow. A more satisfactory spelling 
would be Oxley. 


OXSPRING, Penistone.— Early records of the name, side 
by side with those of Oxton and Saxton, are as follows : 

DB 1086 Oj/r/«^-z„f T)B io%6 Oxetone, Osse- DB 1086 Saxiun 

YI 1305 Osj!>rmg--en^ KI 12S5 Oxion PF 1207 Saxion 

NV 1316 Os^ring- KF 1303 Oxton NV 1316 Saxion 

PT 1379 Ox^ryng- PT 1379 Oxion PT i3sg Saxion 

The termination in Oxspring appears to come from OE sprin£; a 
fountain, though YF 1559 gives the name as Oxbrynge als. 
Osbrynge; compare Micklebring. But the first element is 
difficult to define ; yet it can scarcely be OE oxa, an ox, witness 
the earliest forms as well as YF 1559 Osbrynge; possibly it is 
the personal name Osa. 

OZZING, Shelley, DN 1381 Osanz, is a patronymic like 
Bowling and Cridling ; compare the Frisian Osenga (Brons), and 
the German Osanga and Osinga (Forstemann). 

PADAN ARAM.— Farms with this Biblical name are to be 
found in Kirkheaton and Old Lindley. 

PADDOCK.— See Paris. 

PAINTHORPE, Crigglestone, DN 1203 Paynesthorp, 1342 
Paynthorp, is ' Pagen's village ' ; compare Ainley and Hainworth. 
The personal name appears in DB as Pagen and in BCS as 
Pagan, and an extended form appears in DB as Pagenel ; 
compare Hooton Pagnell, formerly Hoton Paynell. 

'park' is a contraction of MK parrok, which comes from OE 
pearroc ; it is therefore of English origin, though its present form 
shows the influence of OFr. pare. Further, OE pearroc is derived 
from an older form *parr, an enclosure ; compare the dialect-word 
par, an enclosed place for domestic animals, and the verb parren, 
to enclose or bar in (Skeat). Strangely enough, as NED points 
out, the word ' paddock ' is merely a phonetic alteration of 
' parrock.' 

Paris occurs near Warley in the name Paris Gates ; it occurs 
also, in the simple form Paris, as the name of a hamlet near 

G. IS 


Holmfirth. Early documents show the word used as a surname 
in the phrase de Paris or de Parys ; it is found thus in PT 1379 
in connection with Ovenden, Bingley, Hatfield, and Carlton 
(Barnsley). It is also recorded by YD in the form Parysrod 
in connection with Rawtonstall and Neepsend ; and it appears in 
YD 1502 in the phrase 'a walk milne at Perys! The word 
seems to be the plural of par, an enclosure, influenced by the 
name of the French metropolis. 

Park, 1560 Perocke, is the name of a portion of Liversedge 
adjacent to Mirfield. 

Parrock is to be found in Rishworth and Sowerby as well 
as elsewhere. 

Paddock, Huddersfield, is recorded in RE 1760 as P arrack, 
and in RE 1780 as Paddock. 

PENDLE, PENHILL, PENNANT.— The last of these 
is probably referred to in WCR 1274 and 1275 as Pendant, but 
otherwise I can give no early spellings. It will be interesting, 
therefore, to see early forms of the Lancashire names Pendlebury, 
Pendleton, and Pendle Hill. 

ti2o6 Penlebire tii4i Penelton 1294 Pennehille 

ti2i2 Penulbery 1246 Penelton 1305 Penhul 

1300 Penilburi 1305 Penhiltone 1305 Penhil 

1337 Penhulbury 1321 Penhulton 

Speaking of the last Dr Wyld says ' Pen looks like the Celtic 
word for "hill," etc., so that the name is pleonastic — not an 
uncommon thing in names which preserve a Celtic element.' 

Pendle Hill occurs in Longwood and Whitley Lower, and 
probably owes its first element to Welsh /^«, the head or summit, 
the highest part of a field or mountain. As Pendle appears to 
represent Pen-hill, the whole name may mean ' hill-hill-hill ' ! 

Penhill, Warmfield, may be either ' fold-hill,' from OE 
penn, a pen or fold, ' hill-hill,' from Welsh pen. 

Pennant, in Pennant Clough, Todmorden — formerly 
Pendant, where there is an intrusive d — seems quite definitely 
Celtic. The terminal corresponds to Welsh nant, a dingle or 
valley, and the added word ' clough ' comes from OE cloh, a 
ravine. There are several Pennants in Wales. 


PENISTONE, on the western border, may be compared 
with Penisale, an obsolete name connected with the adjacent 
township of Langsett. Early records of Penistone include DB 
1086 Pengestone, Pengeston, Pangeston, and YR 1228 Penegelston, 
Penegeston. These forms are not in agreement with the follow- 
ing later forms, side by side with which those of Penisale are 
recorded : 

YI 1227 Penigheston CR 1290 Peningeshale 

YR 1232 Peningeston CR 1307 Peningesale 

YI 1258 Peningstone CR 1308 Penyngesale 

WCR 1284 Penyngston CH 1358 Penesale 

The closeness of the parallel between the forms of Penistone 
and those of Penisale is obvious, and we are fully warranted 
in explaining Penistone as ' Pening's farm ' ; compare CR 
1252 Peningeshalge, Lincolnshire, and the Frisian patronymic 
Penninga (Brons). It is not easy to account for the earliest of 
the forms of Penistone. Possibly Pengestone stands for Penige- 
stone, where Penig is an alternative to Pening ; but Penegelston 
on the other hand finds no support and must be rejected. 

PHIPPIN PARK lies south of Snaith, and is mentioned as 
early as SC \\'2.},'j in the phrase ' bosco de Fippin.' 


— The first occurs near Doncaster, and early records give DB 
Picheburne, PF 1202 Pikeburn, YI 1248 Pikebourne, KI 1285 
Pikeburne, KF 1303 Pykeburn, NV 13 16 Pickburn. Pickness 
Hill is in Hoylandswaine, and Pickwood Scar in Norland. The 
same prefix occurs in Pickford, Warwick ; Pickhill, North Riding ; 
Pickmere, Cheshire ; Pickton, North Riding ; Pickwell, Sussex 
and Leicester ; Pickwick, Wilts.; Pickworth, Lincoln and Rutland; 
Picton, Chester and Pembroke. 

Jellinghaus records a name Pixel which in 1088 was written 
Picsedila and Picsidila ; but although he explains the second 
element as ' sedel,' a seat, he gives no explanation of the first 

PICKLE, PIGHELL, PIGHILL.— Of the word Pickle 
or Pickles there are several examples. In Erringden there is 



Sandy Pickle ; in Denby Romb Pickle ; in Oxenhope Pickles 
Rough ; in Keighley and North Bierley Pickles Hill. But 
Pighell or Pighill is still more frequent ; it occurs, for example, 
in Elland, Fixby, Skircoat, Southowram, Liversedge, Lofthouse, 
and Longwood ; indeed, if field-names are examined, a very 
large number of townships will be found in which this name 
occurs. Passing to the history of the word, let us see what 
early spellings are available. 

1. Connected with Elland Burton gives Pihel. 

2. In KC there is an early form Pictel. 

3. About 1220 the Selby Coucher Book speaks of ' Unum 

essartum . . . quod vocatur Ptchel.' 

4. About 1250 the Furness Coucher Book speaks of ' Totam 

terram ... in loco qui vocatur Pichtil! 
The word has, in fact, two typical forms, represented by ' pighel ' 
and ' pightel,' the former often hardened into ' pickel,' the latter 
frequently softened to ' pytle.' 

When we ask what is the meaning of the word we find 
practical agreement between NED and EDD, for while the 
former explains the word as ' a small field or enclosure, a close 
or croft,' the latter explains it as ' a small field or enclosure, 
especially one near a house ' ; and DCR gives interesting 
corroboration in the phrase ' unum croftum sive toftum vocatum 
a pighell.' Neither NED nor EDD ventures upon a derivation. 

PIKE, PIKE LAW.— The word Pike may perhaps come 
from OE pic, a point or pike ; or it may be of Norse origin and 
connected with the Norwegian dialect word plk, a pointed 
mountain, plktind, a peaked summit. It occurs in Pike Law, 
Rishworth and Golcar ; Pike Low, Bradfield ; and in Warlow 
Pike and Alphin Pike, Saddleworth. 

PILDACRE, Ossett. — The termination is properly -car not 
-acre, witness the early spelling Pildeker, and its origin is the 
ON kjarr, copsewood, brushwood. 

PILLEY, Barnsley, DB Pillei, PT 1379 Pilley, Pillay, may 
be ' pool meadow,' from OE pyll, a pool, and leak, a lea. Compare 
DB Pileford, now Pilwood, near Hull. 


PILLING, Skelmanthorpe, is ' willow meadow,' from ON 
pill or ///, a willow, and eng, a meadow. 

PINGLE, PINGOT.— Pingle Lane occurs in Ravenfield ; 
but the two words are usually met with as field-names. The 
former is explained in NED as a small enclosed piece of land, a 
paddock or close ; the latter is explained in EDD as a small 
croft or enclosure. 

PLEDWICK, Wakefield.— WCR contains many refer- 
ences, including 1275 Plegwyke, 1284 Pleggewyk, 1296 Plegewyk, 
1307 Plegwik. In 1379 PT has Pleghwyk, and it is not until 
the 15 th century that forms corresponding to that of to-day 
appear, namely YF 1 5 34 Pledewyk, YF 1 5 42 Pledwyk. Probably 
the meaning is ' Plecga's habitation,' Plecga being a known OE 
personal name. 

POG, POGMOOR.— We find the spelling Poggemore in PT 
1379, and Poggemorm a 13th century document in the Pontefract 
Chartulary, the expression being ' In territorio de Bernesleya in 
loco qui vocatur Poggemor.' In Wooldale there is Pog Ing ; in 
Liversedge Pogg Myres, 1799 Pogmires ; and the word Pog 
occurs also in Stanningley, Bradfield, and Denby. Jellinghaus 
records a place-name Poggenpoel in 1540; compare EFris. 
pogge, a frog (Koolman). On the other hand EDD explains pog 
as a bog, but gives no derivation. 

PONTEFRACT is quite unique among the names in South- 
west Yorkshire, being the favoured survivor from among five 
rivals. A marginal note in the MS of Symeon of Durham reads 
as follows : ' Taddenesscylf erat tunc villa regia quae nunc 
vocatur Puntfraite Romane, Anglice vero Kirkebi,' thus bearing 
witness to the three forms Taddenesscylf, Puntfraite, and Kirkebi. 

The earliest name, given in the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle 
under the date 947, was Taddenesscylfe, ' Tadden's shelf of land ' ; 
but the DB name was Tateshale or Tateshalla, ' Tate's corner ' 
from OE healh, or ' Tate's hall ' from OE heall. Concurrent 
with these there was a Danish name Kirkebi, ' church village,' 
and in consequence of this the distinctive prefix in South Kirkby 


became necessary. But in 1069, when the Conqueror was 
hastening to York to take vengeance on the Northumbrians, he 
was delayed, we are told, three weeks ' ad Fractipontis aquam,' 
at the water of the broken bridge ; and after 1090 the Latin 
name Pontefracto is to be found quite regularly in ancient 
charters. Subsequently the name is found in an Anglo-French 
guise as Pontefreit, a form we may fairly attribute to the Norman 
retainers of the Lords of Pontefract. 

It seems clear that at a very early date the name Tateshale 
disappeared, while Kirkebi was also lost before many generations 
had passed, and Taddenesscylf became Tanshelf, a subordinate 
member of the borough. Thus two names remained, Pontefract 
and Pomfret, of which the early records are as follows : 

PC tiigo Pontefracto DN 1226 Pontefret 

PC 1 135 Pontefracto YI 1287 Pomfreit 

CR 1230 Pontefracto DN 1372 Pontfret 

HR 1276 Pontisfracti DN 1385 Pomfrett 

PT 1379 Pontiffract DN 1424 Pountfreit 

The meaning of both is ' broken bridge,' Pontefract being directly 
from Latin, and Pomfret from Norman-French. The Anglian 
and Danish names have long since disappeared, but Pontefract 
and Pomfret have continued side by side up to the present time, 
the former chiefly perhaps as the legal name, the latter as the 
folk-name. Doubtless the day is not far distant when Pomfret 
also will be gone and Pontefract left the sole survivor. 

Curiously enough, there is on record another Pontefract or 
Pountfreit. A writ dated 1321 speaks of ' Pontefractum super 
Thamis,' and a document dated 1432 shows that this broken 
bridge was in Stepney, ' Pountfreit in Stepheneth Marsh.' 

In olden days bridges were maintained in a variety of ways. 
Sometimes the funds were provided by guilds ; sometimes by 
endowments ; sometimes by charges on the adjoining estates. 
Often they came from purely voluntary sources encouraged by 
the promise of indulgences. We read for instance in YR 1233 
that an indulgence of ten days was to be granted to all who 
contributed ' to the construction of the bridge at Werreby 
(Wetherby),' and a 14th century document quoted by Jusserand 
offered the remission of forty days of penance to those who 


assisted ' in the building or in tlie maintenance of tlie causeway 
between Brotherton and Ferrybridge where a great many people 
pass by.' Nevertheless the history of ancient bridges is little 
more than a record of gradual decadence and final catastrophe, 
followed, after a longer or shorter interval, by restoration. Piers 
Plowman refers to this state of things when he speaks of ' brygges 
to broke by the heye weyes.' Such broken bridges — they were 
mostly wooden — would divert all traffic for years, and neglect 
attained dimensions which are now altogether inconceivable. 

PONTY. — This name occurs in Honley and Kirkburton. 

POPELEY, Birstall, YD 1288 Popelay,YT) 1375 Popelay, is 
' the lea of Pope,' from OE leak, a lea or meadow. The personal 
name Pope would arise naturally from an earlier form Papa, 
a form which may be postulated seeing that Searle gives the 
name Papo ; compare OE papa, pope. 

respectively in Ovenden, Cleckheaton, and Warley. Early 
records of the second are WCR 1338 Popilwell, YF 1561 
Popyllwell. Skeat gives a dialect-word /0///12 signifying poplar, 
and Stratmann has ME popul with the same meaning ; hence 
Popplewell means ' poplar-tree well.' 

PORTOBELLO, Sandal, Wakefield, is mentioned neither 
by Banks nor by Taylor (WRM). It probably owes its name to 
the events of the year 1739 when Puerto Bello, on the northern 
shore of the isthmus of Panama, was stormed by Admiral Vernon. 
The Scotch watering-place of the same name, three miles from 
Edinburgh, obtained its name because its first house was built 
by one of the seamen who served in Admiral Vernon's expedition. 
(Chambers' Encyclopedia^ 

POTOVENS, a hamlet in Wrenthorpe, is recorded in the 
Horbury Registers in 1734 as Potovens. ' Thoresby in his diary, 
1702, says he walked from Flanshill, Alverthorp, and Silkhouse, 
to the Pott-ovens (Little London in the dialect of the poor 
people), where he stayed a little to observe the manner of 
forming the earthenware and the manner of building the furnaces.' 


Thus Banks in his Walks about Wakefield, where he states 
further that ' the village is legally and politely called Wrenthorpe ; 
but whether so-named from the de Warrens, or the rabbit warren, 
has been doubted.' See Little London and Wrenthorpe. 

POTT, POTTER.— In Ecclesfield we find Potter Hill, HS 
1637 Potter hill; near Goole Potter Grange; in Wadsworth 
Potter Cliff, YF 1557 Potter Cliff; near Doncaster Potteric Carr, 
YF 1550 Potrecare ; and in addition to these there are Potwells, 
East Hardwick, and Potts Moor. Connected with other places 
we find such early spellings as Potertun, the DB record of 
Potterton near Leeds ; Pottergh in 1301 for Potter near Kendal ; 
and Potterlagh and Potterridding in the Selby Coucher Book. 

Taking all the circumstances into account it seems doubtful 
whether these names have any connection with earthenware or 
its manufacture. On the other hand NED records a word, spelt 
pot, which signifies a natural hole or pit in the ground, a hole 
from which peat has been dug. This word is described as used 
only in the North, and especially in districts where Scandinavian 
influence prevails, and it is compared with the Swedish dialect- 
word putt, pott, pit, a water-hole or abyss. I imagine we have 
here the correct source of the word, and I look upon Potter as 
the Scandinavian plural signifying ' holes, peat-holes, or water- 
holes.' This interpretation will satisfy every instance of the 
name quoted at the beginning of this note ; and, moreover, it is 
in agreement with the fact that the termination in Pottergh and 
Potrecare are distinctively Scandinavian. 

PRESTON JAGLIN, Pontefract— See Purston Jaglin. 


Calverley. — The former, WCR 1275 Presteley and Prestlay, 1286 

Prestelay, 1 296 Presteley, is ' the priest's meadow,' from OE 

preost, priest, and leah, a meadow. The latter is 'the priest's 

hamlet,' from ON prestr, and thorp, a hamlet or village. 

PRIMROSE HILL.— See Rose Hill. 

PUDDLEDOCK, Heckmondwike, probably derives its 
termination from ON ddkk, a pool. Compare with this the 


Norse dok, a valley, the Scottish donk, a moist place, and the Sw. 
dialect-word dank, a moist marshy place or small valley. The 
first element is a word found alike in England, Scotland, and 
Ireland ; but EDD gives no derivation. 

PUDSEY, Leeds. — We cannot do better than compare 
early forms with those of Bottisham near Cambridge. 

DB 1086 Podechesaie 1086 Bodichesham 

KC 1198 Pudekesseya 1210 Bodekesham 

CC tl246 Pudekesay 1372 Bodkesham 

KC 1250 Pudkesay 1400 Botkesham 

HR 1276 Pudesay 1428 Botteshavi 

Prof Skeat explains Bottisham as ' Bodec's enclosure,' and we 
may follow him by interpreting Pudsey as ' Pudec's island or 
water-meadow,' from O'^ eg, which had both meanings. It is 
true that the name Pudec is not recorded by Searle ; but he 
gives Puda and Podda, and we may fairly assume the existence 
of corresponding forms with the suffix -ec, namely, Pudec 
and Podec. Compare Tewkesbury, formerly Teodeces ■ byrig ; 
Teddesley, formerly Teodeces-leage ; and Consett, formerly 

PUGNEYS. — This is the name of an alluvial tract of land 
lying between the Calder and Sandal Castle. In consequence 
of its nearness to the site of the battle of Wakefield, the word 
has sometimes been claimed as a derivative of Lat. pugna, a. 
fight. We find, however, in WRM such forms as 1342 Pokenhale, 
1577 Pugnal, 1 71 3 Pugnal, forms which may fairly be explained 
as ' goblin's corner,' from O^ puca, a goblin, and healh, a corner 
or meadow. The transition from Pugnal to Pugney is quite 
irregular ; but possibly the truth is that we are in the presence 
of two forms, (i) Pokenhale, 'goblin's corner,' and (2) Pokeney, 
' goblin's water-meadow,' from OE eg, an island or water-meadow. 

The Hertfordshire name Puckeridge is explained in a similar 
way by Dr Skeat, who gives the OE form as Piican-hrycg, and 
points out that the vowel in puca has been shortened just as in 
OE duca, which instead of producing ' douk ' has given ' duck ' 
as though from an early form diica. 


PURL WELL, Batley, is to be connected with the Norw. 
purla, to gush, bubble, well up, and the Dan. vald (for vcelt) a 

PURPRISE, a farm near Hebden Bridge, is mentioned in 
HW 1553 as Purprice and Purprise Beiit. The word is one of 
the few we owe to the Normans, being derived from OFr. 
pourpris, which is itself from pourprendre, to take away entirely ; 
its signification is ' a close or enclosure.' The legal term 
purpresture was used in the case of encroachments upon the 
property of the community or the crown. 

Prestone, YI 1244 Preston, 1339 Preston Jakelin, PT 1379 
Preston Jakelyn. The modern name would be more accurately 
Preston, ' the priest's farmstead,' 0¥. preost, a priest, and tun, an 
enclosure, homestead. 

PYE. — In South-west Yorkshire we find Pye Bank and Pye 
Greave near Sheffield, Pye Field near Golcar, Pye Nest near 
Halifax, Pyenot near Cleckheaton, and Pye Wood near Darton. 
Duignan records a Pye Clough in Staffordshire and a Pyehill 
Farm in Worcestershire, and north of Brighton the name 
Pyecombe occurs. 

QUARMBY, Huddersfield, DB Cornebi, Cornesbi, Cornelbi, 
WCR 1274 Querneby, YS 1297 Querneby, DN 1306 Quarnby, 
later frequently Wherneby and Wharneby, is the ' mill village,' 
from ON kvern, Dan. and Norw. kvcern, a mill, and the ON byr, 
a village. In Norway such compounds occur as kvcern-fos, a 
mill-race, and kvcern-sten, a mill-stone. 

QUEBEC, Rishworth and Slaithwaite. — It is of course not 
improbable that these names owe their origin either to the 
capture of Quebec in 1757, or to some other connection with 
the Canadian city ; but as the district is strongly Scandinavian 
it is possible they are due to the Vikings, derived from ON kvi, 
a pen or fold, and bekkr, a stream. The Landnama Book has 
the name Kvla- bekkr ; near Whitby we find Quebec ; and in 
the north of Scotland the name occurs again, explained by 


Watson, however, as arising 'from the fact that a gentleman 
who had made money in Quebec settled near.' 

QUEENSBURY, Halifax.— The name of this village was 
changed from Queenshead to Queensbury by general consent at 
a public meeting held May 8th, 1863 (Kelly) ; but formerly the 
name was Causewayend (Cudworth). 

QUICK, Saddleworth, is spelt Whyk in DN 1313, but early 
forms usually show initial qu or qw, witness the following : 

DB 1086 Tokac, Thoac NV 1316 Quik 

CR 1232 Quike PT 1379 Qwyk 

YS 1297 Quyk DN 1629 0,uicke 

Forstemann places the word Quik on record as an element 
in German place-names, and connects it with ON qvikr and 
OHG quek, living ; compare OE cwic, ME qtuk, living, moving. 
Among the examples quoted we find the stream-names Quekaha 
and Quecbrunn, quick water and lively spring. That rapid 
streams should be called 'quick water' is in accordance with the 
fitness of things, and difficulty only arises when Quick is used 
alone as in our Yorkshire name and in the corresponding Dutch 
example Kuik. Yet the origin seems clearly the same, and the 
meaning may well be a boggy place, a place where the ground is 
' quick.' 


Rainborough, Barnsley, PC 11 55 Reinesberga, YI 1298 Reyne- 
bergh, PT 1379 Raynebergh, CH 141 1 Raynbargk, is the only one 
of the three names of which there are early records. Its prefix 
appears to be a personal name, perhaps a short form of Regen- 
weald, while the ending is from OE beorh, a hill, mound. In 
Rainclifife and Rainstorth, Ecclesfield, the prefix is probably 
the ON rein, a balk in a field or a steep hillside, while the 
terminations are from ON klif, a cliff, and ON stoi-^, a wood. 

RAISEN HALL, Brightside. — The word Raisen is doubt- 
less to be referred to OE rcesn, a ceiling, a house ; compare 
Germanic *razna, house. 


RAKE, RAKES, RAIKES.— This word is of frequent 
occurrence. We find Rake Dyke and Rake Mill in Holme, Foul 
Rakes in Saddleworth, Cowrakes in Lindley, Rake Head in 
Erringden, and Raikes Lane in Birstall and Tong. The word is 
connected with ON rak, a stripe or streak, and reik, a strolling, 
wandering ; and its later significations include (i) a rough path 
over a hill, (2) pasture-ground. The ME form was rake, reike, 
or raike. In the Wars of Alexander the path of righteousness is 
rendered 'the rake of rightwysnes,' and in Gawayne and the 
Grene Knight we find the sentence ' Ryde me doun this ilk 
rake,' where the word clearly means a track or road. 

ENSTHORPE. — These are all derived from a personal name 
meaning ' raven,' the OE Hrajfn, later Hra;mn, or the ON form 
Hrafn. Doubtless there is here a remnant of the primitive 
animal worship common to all branches of the Aryan race. 
The raven, like the wolf, was sacred, and its name was frequently 
taken as their own both by Saxons and Vikings. 

Ramsden, Holmfirth, is mentioned in PT 1379 as Romsdeyn, 
that is ' Ram's valley,' from OE denu, a valley. Compare 
Ramsey, Hunts., formerly Hrames-ege, explained by Professor 
Skeat as ' Raven's isle.' 

Ramsholme, Snaith, DN 1208 and 1230 Ramesholme, is 
'the island of Raven,' from ON holmr, an island. 

RAVENFIELD, Rotherham, DB Rauenesfeld, WCR 1274 
Ravenesfeud, KI 1285 Rafnefeld, NV 1316 Ravenfield, is 'the 
field of Raven.' 

Ravensthorpe, Dewsbury, is, I believe, a modern name ; 
but in a 13th century account of the origin of the parish church 
of Mirfield the stream which joins the Calder at Ravensthorpe is 
called Rafenysbroke. 

RANMOOR, Sheffield, HS 1637 Rann Moore, is probably 
from ON rann, a house, and mor, a moor. The former word has 
given us ' ransack,' which originally meant a house-search ; and 
t was frequently used in compounds such as dverg ■ rann, dwarfs 
house, i.e. the rocks. 


RASTRICK, Halifax, has the following records : DB Rasiric, 
WCR 1274 Rastrik, HR 1276 Rastrik, PM 1327 Raskryke, PT 
1379 Rasterik. Other Yorkshire names with the same terminal 

Escrick, DB Ascri KI 1285 Eskeryk YR 1284 Eskericke 

Wheldrake, DB Coldrid KI 1285 Queldryk DM 1386 Queldrik 

Middendorff records an OE ric meaning a fence or railing, an 
enclosure of laths or stakes ; compare MLG ricke, recke, a fence, 
a place fenced in, a thicket, with which many Dutch and Flemish 
place-names are connected, e.g. Maurik 997 Maldericke, Varik 
997 Veldericke, Herike 1456 Hederick. On the other hand there 
are OE rice and ON rlki, a kingdom, and in Norway we find 
such place-names as Ringerike and Raumarike. Possibly all 
the Yorkshire names above mentioned are Scandinavian : 
Escrick from Dan. cEsk, the ash ; Wheldrake from the ON 
personal name Kveld recorded in LN ; Rastrick from Dan. rast, 
rest— compare Dan. raststed, a halting-place. The terminal in 
PM 1327 Raskryke, which is probably from ON krikr, a nook or 
corner, adds weight to the theory of a Scandinavian origin ; yet 
the name may be Anglian, from OE rcest, rest. 

RATTEN ROW^, ROTTEN ROW.— It would be difficult 
to find a more widespread name. It occurs in London and 
Glasgow, Aberdeen and Shrewsbury, Newcastle and Norwich, 
Spalding and Paisley, Derby and Ipswich, York and Kendal 
and Durham. In the West Riding there are instances in Halifax, 
Sowerby, Lepton, Dodworth, Denby, Sedbergh, Morley, and the 
Forest of Knaresborough. The Sowerby example is mentioned 
in HW 1 545 as Ration Rawe; the Knaresborough example in 
KCR 1621 as Ratanraw; in the Norwich case the spelling in 
the 13th century was Ratune Rowe ; and in the Kendal example 
an early form was Rattonrawe. 

Two explanations of Ratten present themselves. There is 
first the word raton, a rat, derived from OFr. raton, a rat, a word 
which according to EDD occurs as ratten, ratton, rattan. On 
the other hand EDD gives a word rotten, also spelt ratten, which 
means damp, boggy, saturated with rain. This gives an ex- 
planation of the prefix at once simple and acceptable. The 


whole word may therefore be interpreted ' the swampy corner,' 
from ON vrd or rd. In Langsett there is Ratten Gutter, and in 
Oulton there is a field-name Ratten Royd. 


RAW, ROW. — The ON vrd, a nook or corner, lost the 
initial consonant in Icelandic and became rd, the corresponding 
Danish and Swedish forms being vraa and vra. In northern 
place-names the word appears chiefly under the forms Wray, 
Wrea, Ray, Raw, Row, witness the following: 

Wray or Wrea, Lanes., LF 1229 Wra, 1513 Wrae 
Wydra, Fewston, Yorks., KW 1571 Widerawe, 1577 Witheray 
Woolrow, Brighouse, Yorks., WCR 1308 Wollewro, Wolwro 
Woolrow, Shelley, Yorks., YI 1266 IVolewra, WCR 1275 Wlvewro 

Probably this word occurs in South-west Yorkshire in a large 
number of minor names : Rawfolds, Gomersal ; Raw Gate, 
Farnley Tyas ; Raw Green, Cawthorne ; Raw Lane, Stainton ; 
Raw Nook, Lowmoor ; Rawroyd, Birstall ; Rawholme, Hebden 
Bridge ; Rawroyd, Elland ; Rawthorpe, Dalton near Hudders- 
field ; as well as in Ingrow, Woolrow, and Ratten Row. 

Seebohm tells us that corners of fields which from their 
shape could not be cut up into the usual acre or half-acre strips 
were sometimes divided into tapering strips, pointed at each 
end, called by various names. There was the OE name gdra, 
which has given the second element in Kensington Gore ; in 
ME the phrase was in le hirne; in later English in the corner, or 
in Latin in angulo ; but in early documents in Yorkshire it is 
common to find del wro or en le wra or en le wro, derived from 
the ON vra. It is to this ancient practice that many of our 
surnames to-day owe their origin, for example, Gore, Heme, 
Corner, Rowe, Wray, and Wroe. 

be helpful to examine first some of the early forms of Rathmell, 
a name of undoubted Scandinavian origin equivalent to ON 
rauSa-melr, red sandhill. 

DB 1086 Rodenule NV 1316 Rout heme II 

YI 1307 Routhmel PT 1379 Rauchemell (ch = th) 


Here, according to custom, DB gives d for th ; but we have also 
for au, as in the case of Sowerby, from ON satirr, where DB 
has Sorebi. Later spellings of Rathmell give ou and an for 
the vowel, and represent the consonant quite accurately by th. 
Passing to the names now to be dealt with, we get the following 
early forms : 

■SC 1 1 54 Rodeclif 


1086 Rodemesc 


1086 Rodewelle 

SC 1229 Rouclif 


1 1 90 Roumareis 


123s Routhewele 

YI 1 291 Routheclive 


1206 Rumareis 


1242 Rowell 

CH 1 33 1 Rauclyue 


1285 Romareis 


1258 Rowell 

NV 1316 Rouclyff 


1379 Raumersche 


1379 Rothewell 

The first element in these names is either Rautha, the genitive 
of an ON personal name *Rauthi derived from ON rau&r, red, or 
it is the adjective itself in its weak form ; local considerations 
must be left to decide between the two. 

Rawcliffe, Goole, has early forms like those of Rawcliffe 
near Blackpool and RoecHfFe near Boroughbridge. The ter- 
minal comes from ON klif, a cliff. 

RawmarsH, Rotherham, is interesting because its terminal 
varies between OE mersc, ME merscke, a marsh, and OFr. mareis, 
a marsh. For DB mesc = mersc see Attercliffe. 

ROTHWELL, Leeds, derives its ending either from OE well, 
wella, a well or spring, or from the corresponding Scandinavian 
word ; compare Dan. vcsld (for vcell). 

RA^A^THORPE, Huddersfield.— YAS viil 14 gives the 
alternative name Raisethorpe, where the prefix is from ON 
hreysi, a heap of stones, as in Dunmail Raise. But the name 
Rawthorpe Hall occurs as early as 1537, and the prefix is from 
ON vra, a nook or corner. 


little doubt that the first element in these names comes from OE 
ruh, ME ruh, row, rogh, rough, uncultivated. Early spellings 
are as follows : 

WCR 1274 Routonstall DB 1086 Ruhale DN 11225 Ruley 

HR 1276 Rutonestal PC 1159 Rughala LC 1296 Rogheley 

WCR 1298 Routunstall PC 1200 Rughale YS 1297 Roulay 

YD 1336 Routonstall PT 1379 Rouhall PT 1379 Rouley 


Rawtonstall, Hebden Bridge, doubtless possessed at first 
a name of two elements meaning ' rough enclosure,' the termina- 
tion ' stall ' being added later ; see Stall. 

ROALL, Knottingley, is the ' rough corner ' from OE kealk, 
of which the dative is kale. 

Rowley, Kirkburton, is the 'rough lea,' from OE leak, a lea 
or meadow. 

REAP, REAPS. — This word, which occurs in such names 
as Reap Hill and Reap Moor, is found in Wadsworth, Stansfield, 
Slaithwaite, Fixby, Holme, Crookes, and Hallam. It seems 
scarcely possible that the word should be connected with the 
ON hreppa, a share, which has given the Norfolk place-name 
Repps, written Repes, Hrepes in DB. More probably it should 
be connected with the Norw. dialect-word rapa, explained by 
Aasen as a heap, a dunghill ; compare Heald. 

REEDNESS, on the Ouse near Goole, PF iigg Rednesse, 
DN 1209 Rednesse, DN 1304 Rednesse, NV 1316 Rednesse, 
SC 1324 Redenesse, is probably ' reedy headland,' from OE hreod, 
a reed, and ness, a cape or headland. 

REIN. — Names of this form, or of the form Rain or Rayne, 
occur occasionally ; for example there is the Rein in Calverley, 
Stanhope Rein in Eccleshill, and Reins in Honley. They are 
derived from ON rein, a strip of land, a balk. 

RENATHORPE HALL, Shire Green, Sheffield, now 
Hatfield House, is recorded in YD 1279 as Raynaldtorp, YD 
1303 Rayttaldethorpe. The meaning is ' Raynald's village,' from 
ON tkorp and the personal name given in ON as Ragnvaldr, 
and in DB as Raynald and Ragnald. 

RIBBLE.— A small stream joining the Holme at Holmfirth 
bears this name, as well as its greater namesake further north. 
In Herts, there is a river Rib ; Worcester has the name 
Ribbesford, formerly Ribbedford and Ribetforde (Duignan). 
Possibly we have here a primitive river-name in the three forms 
rib, ribel, ribet. Gonidec has ribl, a riverbank, riverside, and 
in Welsh there is a word rhib signifying a streak or driblet. 


RICHMOND, Sheffield, HH 1366 Richmond, YD 1398 
Rickemoimd, is ' the strong hill,' from AFr. riche which meant 
strong as well as rich, and x'\Fr. mund, a variant of munt, a hill 
(Skeat). The name Richemont occurs in Normandy and other 
parts of France, and we find also such names as Richebourg, 
Richecourt, Richelieu, Richeville (Robinson). 

RIDDING, RIDING.— Both forms of the name are found, 
but in South-west Yorkshire the latter is the more frequent. It 
is derived from OE hryding, and means a patch of cleared land, 
a clearing. In Austonley we find the name Gibriding, and in 
Linthwaite Smithriding. For the latter note the spelling Smeth- 
rydding in 1 305 connected with Colthorpe, and compare also the 
name Smithley. 

RINGBY, RINGINGLOW. — Naumann provides such 
pairs of Scandinavian personal names as Hildr and Hildingr, 
Sveini and Sveiningr, Gauti and Gautingr. At the same time 
he gives the name Hringr, and from this we may postulate such 
forms as Hringi and Hringingr. 

RlNGBY, Northowram, is doubtless ' Hringi's farm,' ON 
Hringa-byr. There are several places in Norway called Ringstad 
and others called Ringsby, Ringstveit, Ringsrud, while Denmark 
has Ringsted and Sweden Ringhult and Ringstorp. 

RiNGINGLOW, Sheffield, 1574 Ringinglawe, is 'the cairn of 
Hringing,' from OE hlaw,hl^w, ME laive, lowe, a tumulus, hill ; 
compare Dunningley. See Law, Low. 

RIPLEYVILLE, Bradford. — This place is the result of the 
industrial expansion of the 19th century, and owes its name to 
its founder, Mr H. W. Ripley. 

RIPPONDEN, RYBURN. — After passing through Rip- 
ponden the Ryburn joins the Calder at Sowerby Bridge. 

RiPPONDEN, WCR 1307 Ryburnedene, WCR 1308 Ryburne- 
dene, WCR 1326 Rieuburnden, WCR 1489 Rybornedeyne chapel, 
WCR 1599 Ribonden, SM 1610 Ripondon, is obviously 'the 
valley of the Ryburn,' from OE denu, a dean or valley. 

Ryburn, the name of the stream, is mentioned in WCR 
1 308 in the phrase ' between Riburn and Calder^ 

G. 16 


The terminal is clearly from OE burna, a brook ; but the 
first element can scarcely be derived from OE rith, rlthe, a rill 
or stream, for ' burn ' could then only have been added after 
■ nth ' had lost its meaning. More probably Ry- is of Celtic 
origin. In Ayrshire there is a stream called Rye Water ; in the 
North Riding a tributary of the Derwent is called the Rye ; and 
in Ireland several streams to-day called Rye which according to 
Hogan were formerly called Rige. 

RISE HILL, Hampole, derives its name from OE hrts, 
shrubs, brushwood. The ON word was also hris ; hence the 
modern Danish from riis, and the Swedish ris. 

RISHWORTH, Ripponden, HR 1276 Risewrd, Rissewrtk, 
WCR 1297 Rissewrtk, PT 1379 Rysseworth, is derived from OE 
risce a rush, and weorth, a farmstead or holding. 

RIVELIN. — This stream is a tributary of the Don, and 
is represented in the following early names : CH 1300 Riveling- 
dene, HH 1329 Ryvelyndene, HH 1383 Ryvelingdene, HS 1637 
Riveling Water. We need not hesitate to refer the river-name 
to the Norwegian Riflingr which comes from ON refill, a long 
strip of stuff, and has given the Norwegian place-names Revling 
and Revlingsvolden (Rygh). A stream near Pickering is re- 
corded in CR 1252 as Tacriveling. 

ROALL. — See Rawtonstall. 

ROCHE ABBEY, Maltby, is situated in a narrow wooded 
dell, ' bordered on the north by a low rocky scar, and watered 
by a musical rivulet' (Morris). It was founded in 1147, and its 
Abbot is commonly described in Latin charters as Abbas de 
Rupe ; but we find the form La Roche as early as CR 1251. 
The source of the latter is obviously OFr. rocke, a rock. ' The 
name of the house,' says Morris, 'was probably derived from 
the crags already mentioned ; but possibly it was borrowed 
more immediately from a particular rock which bore a rude 
resemblance to the Saviour on the Cross, and became in after- 
time an object of devotion.' 


ROCKLEY, Barnsley, YR 1250 Rockelay, WCR 1308 
Rockelay, is ' Rocca's lea.' The personal name Roc, from which 
we may form Rocca, is recorded by Searle. 

RODLEY, Calverley, is recorded in CC ■[■1260 as Rotholflay 
and Rozolflay, and later as Rothelay, while YF 1568 has Rodley. 
The meaning is ' Hrothwulf's lea,' from OE Hrothwulf and leak, 
a lea or meadow. 

ROGERTHORPE, Badsworth. — The Domesday form, 
Rugartorp, presents the genitive rugar of ON rugr, rye ; but 
later forms like YD 1329 Rogerthorp and YF 1570 Rogerthorpe 
show the influence of the Norman name Roger. 

-RON.— See Ardron. 

ROOMS LANE. — In connection with Morley PF 1202 
gives the name Le Ruhm, referring, doubtless, to the district to 
which Rooms Lane gives access. Probably the origin is the 
OE rum, an empty space. 

ROSE HILL, PRIMROSE HILL.— The word 'primrose,' 
which in the North often takes the form ' primrose,' came to us 
from the 0¥ primerose, lit. first rose. It is not known in English 
literature earlier than the 15th century, and is used by neither 
Chaucer nor Gower. Primrose Hill occurs in Huddersfield and 
Wakefield, and Primrose Farm in Liversedge. Rose Hill occurs 
near Doncaster, Rawmarsh, and Penistone, and if ancient the 
word ' rose ' is probably Celtic ; compare Welsh rkos, a moor or 
heath, Bret, ros, Irish ros. 

ROSSINGTON, Doncaster, has early forms as follows: 
PF 1207 Rosenton, YR 1249 Rosingtun, CR 1269 Rosington, YI 
1279 Rosington, PT 1379 Rosyngton, SM 1610 Rosintojt. I take 
Rosinton to be an abraded form representing Rosington. But 
Rosenton looks like the genitive of a weak personal name, while 
Rosington is a patronymic derived from the same source. Seeing 
that no assured weak genitive in -en occurs in SW Yorkshire, we 
shall be justified in explaining the name as ' the homestead of 
the Rossings.' 

16 — 2 


ROTHER, ROTHERHAM.— Among early records of the 
river-name we find HR 1276 Reder and CH 1329 Roder, and 
among those of the place-name there are the following : 
DB 1086 Rodreham, Rodreha' YS 1297 Roderham 

PF 1202 Rodenham KF 1303 Roderham 

PF 1204 Rodenham NV 13 16 Roderham 

HR 1276 Roderham PT 1379 Rodirham 

YR 1286 Roderham VE 1535 Rotheram 

Although the early forms are somewhat difficult, Rotherham 
must be interpreted as 'the enclosure of the oxen,' from OE 
hamm, an enclosure, and OE hryther, ME rother, rether, an ox. 
Place-names showing the same first element are somewhat 
common. In Oxfordshire there is Rotherfield, DB Redrefeld, 
which represents OE hrythera-feld, and means 'the field of the 
oxen' (Alexander), and there are other Rotherfields in Sussex 
and Hants. In Yorkshire the name Rotherford, ' ford of the 
oxen,' occurs near Bowes (NR) and Leathley (WR); in Hereford- 
shire there is Rotherwas ; in Hampshire Rotherwick ; and in 
Surrey Rotherhithe. The persistent d in the early forms of 
Rotherham is due to Norman influence, an influence finally 
overcome by the Anglian pronunciation with th ; and the early 
spellings in Roden- represent weak genitives in -ena formed from 
a stem without r such as is recorded by Sievers. The river- 
name must be explained as formed from the place-name. 

ROTHWELL.— See Rawchfife. 

ROTTEN ROW.— See Ratten Row. 

ROYD. — This word occurs as the termination in hundreds 
of field-names. It is also found as the name of a hamlet here 
and there, as in the case of Royd in Soyland, Royds in Beeston 
and Bradfield, Royds Green in Rothwell, and Royd Moor in 
Hemsworth. Occasionally it takes the form Rhodes, particularly 
when used as a surname. Early records of Royd and Boothroyd 
show the development of the word : 

WCR 1297 Rode WCR 1274 Botherode 

WCR 1308 Rode WCR 1307 Botherode 

WCR 1360 Rode WCR 1334 Botheroide 

WCR 1377 Roide WCR 1364 Botheroid 

WCR 1497 Roide WCR 1435 Botheroide 


and its early meaning is made clear by an interesting passage in 
WCR 1 307, where a certain piece of land is said to be ' called 
rodeland because it was cleared {assartata) of growing wood.' 
The word goes back, indeed, to the Germanic *ruda, which 
means land newly cleared. For the succeeding history of the 
word we must examine three derivatives of this Germanic stem, 
namely, ON ruS, ON rjo'^r, and MLG rode. 

1. ON ntS, a clearing, has given the modern rud which 
appears in hundreds of Norwegian place-names, among them 
Ketilsrud, Grimsrud, and Steinsrud. If from ON vd6, a ford, 
and vi^r, a wood, we obtain ' wath ' and ' with,' we may fairly 
expect from ON ru^S to obtain a ME form ' ruth.' It is probable, 
indeed, that, after a lengthening of the vowel, the word has 
given us quite regularly the East Riding place-name Routh 
which in DB was written Rutha. 

2. ON rjo^x, an open space in a forest, a clearing, should 
follow in the steps of ON skjol, a pail, which has produced the 
northern dialect-word ' skeel,' a milking-pail (Wall). The North 
Riding place-name Reeth may perhaps have come to us in this 
way, though the DB form Rie is not quite easy. Compare 
Greetland, DB Greland, which may possibly come from ON 

3. MLG rode, a clearing, has given rise to a remarkable 
number of derivatives. Gall^e, in a very full note on the subject, 
shows that the word could give such forms as ' roder,' ' roden,' 
' rothe ' and ' rothen,' as well as forms with oi like ' roide ' and 
' roiden ' and others like ' rodel,' ' rodeland,' and ' roding ' (NGN. 

n, 33-73)- 

Coming now to the later history of ' royd,' we see that the 
original short vowel, being in an open syllable was lengthened. 
Afterwards, under dialect influence, it became oi, the history 
being the same as that of OE hole, which first became ME hole, 
and later gave the modern place-name Hoyle. 

The outcome of all this is obvious ; ' royd ' is to be linked 
with LG rode rather than with ON ru6 or rjo'^r. Yet it should be 
noted that not a few of our local examples possess as their 
first element a word undoubtedly Scandinavian ; among other 
instances we find Boothroyd from ODan. both; Gilroyd from 


ON gil, a valley ; Mithroyd and Rawroyd from ON mi^r, 
middle, and ra, a corner ; Gambleroyd and Swainroyd from the 
ON personal names Gamall and Sveinn. Perhaps, indeed, we 
had early derivatives from both ON ru'6 and LG rode; but, if so, 
all were finally levelled out under the ME form rode. 

Examples : Ackroyd, Anroyd, Arkinroyd, Armroyd, Blaith- 
royd, Brackenroyd, Brookroyd, Burkroyd, Charlroyd, Coteroyd, 
Crossroyd, Crowroyd, Dalroyd, Denroyd, Ellenroyd, Emroyd, 
Foxroyd, Greenroyd, Hanging Royd, Hillroyd, Hollinroyd, 
Holmroyd, Howroyd, Hudroyd, Ibbotroyd, Joanroyd, Longroyd, 
Lumbroyd, Malkroyd, Maukroyd, Murgatroyd, Mytholmroyd, 
Netherroyd, Nunroyd, Oakroyd, Oldroyd, Rattenroyd, Rawroyd, 
Sillroyd, Studroyd, Westroyd, Wheatroyd. 

ROWLEY.— See Rawtonstall. 

ROYSTON, Barnsley, DB Rorestun, Rorestone, YR 1233 
Roreston, NV 13 16 Rostoil, PT 1379 Roston, YF 1587 Royston, 
is ' Rore's farmstead,' from the ON personal name Hroarr, and 
ON tun^ an enclosure, farmstead. For the development of the 
first vowel compare Hoyle, Royd, Hoyland and Soyland. 

According to Dr Skeat Royston in Cambridgeshire had an 
origin altogether different, the first element being Norman, 
derived from a certain Lady Roese who set up a wayside cross 
called after her name Cruceroys. 

RUSBY, Denby, may perhaps be ' Hrut's farmstead,' from 
the ON personal name Hrut, and ON byr, a farmstead, village. 

RYBURN.— See Ripponden. 

RYCROFT, RYHILL, RYLEY, all derive their first 
element from OE ryge, ME rye, rye. 

Rycroft, Pudsey, YR 1228 Ricrof, is 'the rye croft,' from 
OE croft, a small field. 

Ryhill, Wakefield, recorded in DB as Rihella and Riltelle, 
in DN 1234 as Rihill, in NV 13 16 and PT 1379 as Ryhill, is 
simply, ' the rye hill.' 

Ryley, Kirkburton, spelt Ryeley in WCR 1286, and Rylay in 
YS 1297, is 'the rye lea,' from OE leak, a lea or meadow. 


SADDLE WORTH, WC fiaso Sadelword, Sadelworth, WC 
ti28o Sadelword, NV 13 16 Sadelworth, LI 1388 Sadilworth, 
PT I'^yg Sadelworth. No personal name of suitable form is re- 
corded by Searle, but Forstemann gives Sadelbert and Sadalfrid, 
and KCD has Scedeles • sceat. It is not impossible, therefore, that 
the interpretation may be ' Ssedela's holding,' from OE weorth. 
On the other hand there is an important series of names worthy 
of consideration in this connection, namely. Saddle Forest and 
Saddleback in the Lake District ; Saddell, a parish in Argyll ; 
Saddle, a mountain in Inverness ; Saddle Yoke, a mountain in 
Dumfries ; and Saddle Hill, an eminence in Leitrim. It seems 
possible, indeed, that in the case of Saddleworth the original 
place-name was Saddell, a word of similar form to Idle and 

It will be of interest to give a brief survey of the place-names 
of the whole township. From Celtic sources, carrying us back 
to the days of the Brigantes, there are probably the river-names 
Chew and Tame, the valley-name Combe, and the hill-name 
Featherbed. The termination of the name of the township 
is Anglian, and so also are Delph and Quick, Lydgate and 
Tunstead, Boarshurst and Micklehurst, Crawshaw and Denshaw 
and Castleshaw. The Scandinavian period has provided the 
names Austerlands, Dobcross, Foul Rakes, Knot, Slack, Slack- 
cote, Thurston, and Woolroad. Among these Dobcross is 
particularly noteworthy, bearing, as it does, definite signs of the 
Norse immigration from across the Irish Sea. After the Norman 
Conquest the de Lacy ownership led to the name Lord's Mere, 
while the interests of Roche Abbey provided the names Friar- 
mere and Grange Hey, where Friar and Grange are of French 

SALFORD, SALTONSTALL, Huddersfield and Halifax.— 
For the latter WCR has Saltonestall 'm 1274, Saltunstal m 1275, 
and Saltonstall in 1308. Doubtless the original name was 
Salton, which like Salford derives its prefix from OE salh or 
sealh, a willow tree. Thus Salton is ' the willow enclosure,' and 
Salford 'the willow ford.' Compare the field-name Salacre 
found in a Survey of Almondbury dated 1548. 


SALTAIRE, situate on the Aire near Bradford, was created 
by the enterprise of Sir Titus Salt, who established here his 
great worsted and alpaca factory in 1813. The sources of the 
name are obvious. 


— The first occurs in Halifax and Saddleworth ; the second in 
Halifax ; the third near Penistone. 

In HW 1553 we find that 'John Watterhouse of Skyrcotte' 
left four shillings 'towards the battillyng of Sowreby brig' and 
a similar amount ' to the amendyng of Salterfuble' This 
apparently strange expression is quite accurate. An entry in 
the Almondbury Registers for 1559 tells how a certain William 
Brigge was drowned — a sudden tempest came upon him as he 
came over ' a heble or narrow bridge,' and he was blown into the 
water ; and EDD explains the word ' hebble ' as the wooden 
rail of a plank bridge, or as the narrow plank bridge itself 

The first element in the three names, Salter- or Salters-, is 
derived from OE sealtere, a Salter, dealer in salt, carrier of salt, 
gen. sing, sealteres, gen. pi. sealtera. There are many other 
names of similar form, including Salterford near Barnoldswick 
and Saltergate near Harrogate ; compare also the early name 
Sealter -ford given in BCS. 

SALTONSTALL.— See Salford, 

SANDAL, SANDBECK.— The first element is either OE 
sand, or ON sandr, Dan. sand, sand, gravel. 

Sandal Magna, Wakefield, DB Sandala, PF 1175 Sandale, 
PF 1202 Sandale, KI 1285 Sandale, is 'the sandy corner,' from 
OE healk, a corner or meadow, or ' the sandy tongue of land,' 
from Dan. hale. According to Kelly, the soil is loamy, while 
the subsoil is 'sand on sandstone rock.' It was in this parish 
that the battle of Wakefield was fought on Dec. 31st, 1460. 

Sandal Parva, Doncaster, DB Sandala, KI 1285 Sandhale 
parva, YS 1297 Sandale, has the same origin and meaning. 

SandbeCK, near Tickhill, CH 1241 Sandbec, HR 1276 
Sandebek, YS 1297 Sandebeck, is Scandinavian, from ON bekkr. 


SANTINGLEY, Wintersett, DN Saj/ntingley, appears to 
have for its first element a patronymic. For the first vowel 
compare Manningham. 

SAVILE TOWN, Dewsbury. — The name has come into 
use since the bridge over the Calder was opened in 1863. The 
district is owned by Lord Savile. 

SCAMMONDEN is the name of a deep secluded valley 
which lies west of Huddersfield and is separated from the 
valley of the Colne by a ridge of considerable height. Along 
a shoulder of this ridge ran the Roman road from Manchester 
(Mancunium) which passed by Castleshaw and afterwards Slack 
(Cambodunum). Early spellings are WCR 1275 Scambanden, 
WCR 1286 Schambandene, DC 1349 Scamendene, DC 1352 
Scammendene, DN 1383 Scammonden. The first element ap- 
pears to be a Scandinavian personal name *Skambani, formed 
from ON skamtnr, short, brief, and ON bani, death, a slayer ; 
compare such names as Skamkell and Swartbani (Nielsen). 
The terminal comes from OE denu, a valley. 

SCAR. — This word enters into many local names in the 
more hilly districts. It is found at Scarr Hill, Bradford ; in 
Sowerby, Norland, Skircoat, Elland, Golcar, Scammonden, and 
Fulstone ; in Grimescar, Birkby ; in Nanscar, Oxenhope ; and 
in Winscar, Wooldale. The root is ON sker, a rock, a pre- 
cipitous cliff. 

SCAUSBY, SCAWSBY, Ovenden and Doncaster.— For 
the latter we find early forms as follows : 

DB 1086 Scalchebi PF 1208 Scauceby YI 1247 Scauceby 

CH 1 186 Scalcebye CH 1231 Scalceby NV 1316 Scauseby 

PF 1205 Scauceby CR 1232 Scalceby PT 1379 Scauseby 

The Domesday form warrants the interpretation ' Skalki's farm,' 
from ON byr and the personal name Skalki (Nielsen) ; but the 
later forms do not spring naturally from this source. 

SCAW^THORPE, Adwick-le-Street, may perhaps be 'the 
thorpe of Skagi,' the name Skagi being recorded by Nielsen. 


SCHOLEMOOR, SCHOLEY.— Though somewhat common 
in South-west Yorkshire, the name Schole or Scholes is never 
used as the designation of a township, and finds no place in 
the Domesday record. Its origin is the ON skdli, a shieling, 
log hut, shed, a word found in such early Icelandic place-names 
as Skala-nes, Skala-vik, and Skala-holt. 

In Yorkshire the word assumes the forms Scale and Schole, 
the latter only being found south of the Aire. North of that 
river Schole occurs but once — in Barwick in Elmete ; but Scale 
or Scales is found quite frequently, the simple name occurring 
at least eight times, while compounds number at least ten, 
among them Scaleber, Scalehaw, Scalemire, Southerscales, 
Summerscales, Winterscale and Winterscales. 

But there is a further point of great interest and importance. 
According to Bjorkman the word skdli is West Scandinavian ; 
it is therefore not Danish, but Norse. Thus the place-name 
Scale or Schole becomes a test by means of which we may 
discover the locality of Norse settlements. Early spellings of 
names in South-west Yorkshire include the following : 

SCHOLES, Cleckheaton, YR 1228 Scales, PT 1379 Scholes. 
Scholes, Stainland, WCR 1308 Skoles. 
Scholes, Holmfirth, WCR 1274 and 1297 Scales. 
Scholes, Keighley, PT 1379 Sckoll, YF 1567 Scales. 
Scholes, Rotherham, YI 1284 Scales, YF 1544 Scales. 
SCHOLEBROOK, mentioned in connection with Alverthorpe, 

WCR 1284 Scholbrak. 
Schole Carr, Rishworth, 1593 Scolecar. 
SCHOLECROFT, Morley, YR 1252 Scalecroft, YI 1264 Schole- 

Scholey, Hemsworth, 1230 Scolay, 1379 Scolay. 

In addition to the above we find eight other examples, namely, 
Scholecroft in Austonley, Scholefield in Dewsbury, Schole Hill 
in Penistone, Scholemoor in Bradford, West Scholes in Clayton 
(Bradford), West Scholes in Hoylandswaine, Scholey in Methley, 
and Brianscholes in Northowram. 


SCISSETT, Skelmanthorpe. — No early spellings have 
shown themselves, but if we accept OE ge-set, a dwelling, or 
OE set, a seat, encampment, as the terminal, the first element 
will probably be a personal name as in Ossett and Winterset. 
A suitable name, Sisse, occurs in YS 1297, pointing to an 
OE form *Sissa. 

-SCOE, SKEW, are derived from ON skogr, a wood; 
compare Sw. skog, Dan. skov, and note that the word corresponds 
to OE sceaga, ME schagh, a copse or wood. We find the form 
'scoe' in Thurnscoe, NV 13 16 Thimescogh, in Briscoe, and in 
the two Loscoes, while the form ' skew ' occurs in Skew Hill, 
Ecclesfield ; compare Askew, from ON askr, ash, and skogr. 

SCORAH ^VOOD, Barnsley, is tautological, the first element 
in Scorah being from ON skogr, a wood, whilst the termination 
is from vrd or rd, a corner. Compare Haverah near Harrogate, 
spelt Haywra in 131 1 and 1334. 

SCOUT. — In EDD this word is explained as 'a high rock 
or hill ; a projecting ridge, a precipice,' and is derived from ON 
skuti, a cave formed by jutting rocks. Among the occurrences 
of the word may be named East Scout, West Scout, Bald Scout 
in Langfield ; Great Scout, Little Scout, Hathershelf Scout in 
Sowerby ; Brown Scout in Widdop ; Dill Scout in Heptonstall ; 
Black Scout in Wadsworth ; Scout Wood in Northowram ; 
Ashday Scout in Southowram ; Scout Wood and Scout Top 
near Marsden ; Scout Hill, Ravensthorpe ; Scout Bridge, 
Hoylandswaine ; and Scout Dyke, Ingbirchworth. 

SCRAITH, a hamlet in Brightside, HS 1637 Skreth, must 
be connected with ON skrfSa, a landslip on a hillside ; compare 
ON skreitir, sliding, Dan. skred, slip, slide, and the modern 
English word 'scree' which has the same origin. 

SCRAT LANE, Gomersal. — In this name we are carried 
back to the superstitions of the Vikings. The Norse word 
skratti meant a wizard, a warlock, a goblin. It appears in the 
Heimskringla Saga in the place-name Skratta- sker, Skratti's 
rock, and it has given to the folk-speech of the West Riding 


the name Old Scrat, used as a synonym for ' t' owd Lad ' — the 

SCROGG, SHROGG. — Both forms are to be met with. 
Scrog, for example, occurs in Kirkheaton, while Shrogg is found 
in the adjacent township of Whitley Upper. The meaning is 
brushwood, shrubs, a little wood, ' scrub ' ; but the origin is 
unknown, though it appears to be Scandinavian. 

SCROOBY LANE occurs in Greasborough. 

SHACKLETON, SHAFTHOLME.— These are possibly 
examples where ON sk has become sh ; compare the dialect- 
words • shackle,' ' shawm ' (Wall) and ' shacklet ' (Flom). 

SHACKLETON, Heptonstall, WCR 1274 Schakeltonstal, HR 
1276 Scakeltonestal, WCR 1297 Schakelton, appears to come 
from ON skokul, Sw. skakel, a horseyard, and tun, an enclosure. 

Shaftholme, Doncaster, YF 1535 Shafthoime, may perhaps 
come from ON skaptr, Norw. skaft, a shaft, pole; see Shafton. 

SHAFTON, Royston, is interesting on account of its early 
forms, among which are the following : 

DB 1086 Sceptun, Sceptone YF 1345 Shafton 

YR 1246 Shefton PT 1379 Schafton 

YI 1261 Schafton YF 1531 Shafton 

Just as ON topt stood for 'toff and ON gipt for 'gift,' so here 
the Domesday record gives Sceptun for See/ton. Another 
example of the same kind, quoted by Dr Moorman, is DB 
Sceptesberie for Shaftesbury. The first element in Shafton is 
probably either OE sceaft, scceft, sceft, ME shaft, schaft, a shaft, 
pole, or a personal name derived therefrom, viz. Sceafta, which 
occurs in the Hertfordshire place-name Shaftenhoe (Skeat). In 
either case the final t in the first element coalesced with the 
initial t of the second element at an early date ; compare 
Owston and Methley. 

SHALEY.— See Shaw. 

SHARLSTON, Wakefield, DN 1254 Sharneston, HR 1276 
Scarneston, WCR 1296 Scharneston, PT 1379 Sharston, YF 1532 
Sharleston. Obviously the first element is properly Sharn ; yet, 


although the possessive s is present in every case, no personal 
name of the particular form is recorded. The word seems to be 
derived from OE scearn, dung. Professor Skeat derives Sharn- 
brook in Northamptonshire from the same root, and tells us that 
in Hampshire a dung-beetle is still called a sharn-beetle. See 

SHAW and SHAY are both derived from OE sceaga, a 
copse, thicket, small wood. Early ME forms were schagh and 
sckawe, but later the spelling s/iay frequently occurs. There is 
no village of the name, though as a terminal the word is quite 
common, witness the names Bagshaw, Birkenshaw, Blackshaw, 
Boshaw, Bradshaw, Castleshaw, Crawshaw, Crimshaw, Earnshaw, 
Fullshaw, Hepshaw, Kilnshaw, Marshaw, Murgatshaw, Nepshaw, 
Reddishaw, Smallshaw, Toftshaw, Walshaw, and Wilshaw. 

Shay occurs in Denholme and Austonley. 

Shaley occurs in Holmfirth, and its meaning is most 
probably Shay Ley, that is, 'coppice lea,' from OE leak. 

Shaw Cross, Soothill, is sometimes called Shay Cross. 

Shaw House, Elland, or rather the site, is recorded as 
Schagh in 11 99 in Burton's account of the possessions of 

SHEAF, SHEFFIELD.— In the 1 2th and 13th centuries 
the river-name was recorded in the Beauchief Obituarium as 
Scheth (Addy); HS 1637 has Sheath quite frequently; and 
Hunter gives the form SJwe. Early forms of Sheffield are: 

DB 1086 Scafeld, Escafeld KI 1285 Sheffeld 

PF 1202 Shefeld NV 1316 Sheffeld 

PF 1208 Sefeld PT 1379 Scheffeld 

YD 1279 Schefeud VE 1535 Sheffeld 

The river-name has the same origin as the ordinary word 
'sheath.' It comes from OE smth, sceath, sceth, ME schethe, 
scheth, and its original meaning was 'that which separates,' 
hence a boundary or limit. In Western Germany there are 
many place-names derived from the same Teutonic stem, 
*skaith-, their usual form being scheid. 

Sheffield is obviously formed from the river-name. The 
initial e in Escafeld is due to the Norman scribe ; compare Snaith 


and Stubbs. For the variation of vowel in the first element 
compare Emley, and note the early loss of th before f. 

It is interesting to note that the river which in the early 
days of the Anglian settlement received its name because it 
was the boundary between two dominions still continues to be 
a boundary ; it runs for several miles between the counties of 
York and Derby. 

The place-names of the neighbourhood show that Sheffield 
was a centre of settlements by both Danes and Norsemen, 
the former largely predominating. There are nine thorpes, 
namely, Bassingthorpe, Herringthorpe, Grimesthorpe, Osga- 
thorpe, Netherthorpe, Renathorpe, Silverthorpe, Skinnerthorpe, 
and Thorpe Hesley. There are several names containing the 
remnants of the ON haugr, namely, Sharow, Grenoside, Steno- 
cliffe and Wincobank. But a certain number of names are dis- 
tinctively Norse, for example, Gilthwaites, Gilcar, and Scholes. 
In addition there are such Scandinavian names as Brincliffe, 
Catterstorth, Crimicar, Crookes, Damflask, Little London, 
Moscar, Owlerton, Ranmoor, Rivelin, Storrs, and Wicker. 

SHELF, SHELLEY.— OE scylf, ME schelfe, shelfe, which 
means a ledge or shelf of land, has given us several place-names) 
including Hathershelf, Hunshelf, Tanshelf, Waldershelf, and the 
two now in question. 

Shelf, Bradford, DB Scelf, WCR 1275 Schelf, NV 13 16 
Schelf, YI 1488 SItelf, requires no explanation. 

Shelley, Kirkburton, DB Scelneleie (n for v), Scivelei 
(/ omitted), WCR 1275 Schelfley, YS 1297 Schelflay, FT 1379 
Schellay, is ' the lea on the shelving land.' The position of 
the village is in striking agreement with the name. Shelley 
in Suffolk appears in KCD as Scelfleah. 

SHEPLEY, SHIBDEN, SHIPLEY.— Early records of 
these names, which occur respectively near Kirkburton, Halifax, 
and Bradford, are as follows : 

DB 1086 Seppeleie WCR 1276 Schipeden DB 1086 Scipeleia 

YS 1297 Schepelay WCR 1277 Schypeden IN 1287 Schippeley 

PT 1379 Scheplay YI 1523 Shipden CC 1328 Schepelay 

YI 1523 Shepley YI 1546 Shybden YI 1554 Shipley 


Shepley and Shipley have the meaning 'sheep lea,' the 
difference in form being due to a similar early difference ; com- 
pare OE seep and OE sclp, a sheep, gen. pi. scepa, scipa. 

Shepley, Mirfield, is recorded in PF 1202 under the form 
Seppelae, and has the same meaning. 

Shibden, which means ' sheep valley,' gives an excellent 
illustration of one of the commonest laws of language. A voiced 
consonant {b, d, g, v, z) and a voiceless consonant (J>, t, k, f, s) 
cannot well exist side by side; both must be voiced or both 
voiceless. This is the reason why the J in ' caps ' is pronounced 
quite differently from the s in 'cabs.' It is, however, usually the 
latter of two consonants which influences the former, thus Shipden 
has become Shibden, Hepden Hebden, and Catebi Cadeby. 

SHERWOOD HALL, Knottingley, PF 1202 Sirwud, 
Sirewud, PT 1379 Shyrwode is 'the bright wood'; from OE 
sclr, bright, shining, and wudu, a wood. 

SHIBDEN, SHIPLEY.— See Shepley. 

former is recorded as Shirclif, Skirecliff, Shirclif, in inquisi- 
tions of 1366, 1383, 1385. The latter, mentioned in a charter 
about 1220 as Sschires, and in a fine of 1520 as Shier Grene, 
is derived from OE sclr, a boundary, district, shire. But the 
former, though possibly from the same word, may also come 
from OE sclr, bright, shining. 

SHITLINGTON, Horbury, DB Scellintone, Schelintone, PC 
II 55 Schetlintona, PF 1208 Sytlington, LC 1296 Schitlingtone, 
PT 1379 Shytlyngton. In his book on the place-names of Bed- 
fordshire, Professor Skeat shows that Shillingdon was formerly 
Scytlingedune, and interprets the word as 'the down of the 
Scytlings,' that is, of the sons of Scytel or Scytela. He goes 
on to explain Scytel as a diminutive connected with Scytta, an 
archer. We may interpret Shitlington therefore as ' the home- 
stead of the Scytlings,' from OE tun, an enclosure, homestead. 


larger sub-divisions of the three great fields in the common field 
system were called Shutts or Shots. The word is of frequent 


occurrence as a field-name. In Ossett we find Shutts House ; 
in Batley Blew Shutt ; in Wooldale and Fulstone Downshutts ; 
while the simple name Shutts occurs in Cawthorne. HS 1637 
speaks of ' the lands called Shuttles^ where Shuttles may be 
a diminutive of Shutts. 

*Shuttleworth, Bawtry, KC 1209 Schutleswrtha, Sutles- 
wrtha, is obviously parallel to Shuttleworth, Lanes., LF 1227 
Suttelesworth, WC 1333 Skutelisword, and the explanation 
' Scytel's holding ' may be advanced without hesitation. Com- 
pare Shitlington and Stubbs. 

SIDDAL, HaUfax, HW 1497 le Sidall, 1532 Sidall, 1538 
Sedall, 1547 Sydalbroke, is probably from OE sid, wide, and 
healh, a corner, meadow. 

SILCOATES, Wakefield, WRM 1789 Silcotes. The ter- 
mination comes from OE cot, cote, or ON kot, a cottage; and 
the first element probably refers to the particular way in which 
the cottages were erected. Our modern word ' sill ' is derived 
through ME sille, sylle, from OE syll, which according to 
Professor Skeat meant a base or support; ON has syll, a sill, 
and Dan. syld, the base of a framework building. 

SILKSTONE, Barnsley, is peculiarly misleading; it refers, 
in fact, neither to ' silk ' nor ' stone.' Early records give DB 
Silchestone, PC fiogo Sylkestona, PF 1167 Silcheston, PF 1197 
Silkestun, NV 1 3 16 Silkeston, and the explanation is 'Sylc's 
farmstead,' from OE tun, a farmstead, and the personal name 
Sylc recorded by Searle. 

SILVERTHORPE, Braithwell. — The meaning is most 
probably ' the thorpe of Silfri,' an ON personal name of that 
form being on record. 

SKELBROOK, SKELLO^V, Doncaster.— Early records 

show extraordinary variations in both cases : 

DB 1086 Scalebro, Scalebre DB 1086 Scanhalle, Scanhalla 

PC 1 1 70 Scalebroc DN 1200 Scalehale 

DN 1252 Skelbroke PF 1204 Skelehall 

YR 1253 Skelebrok YI 1264 Skelhale 

DN 1336 Skelbroke PT 1379 Skellawe 


The Domesday forms Scanhalle and Scanhalla appear to be 
corrupt, but otherwise we find early forms in scale- followed by 
later forms in skele- and skel-. Such names as come from ON 
skdli, a shed or hut — Scholecroft, for example — show early forms 
in scale-, and later in scole-, forms not in harmony with those 
shown above. Under these circumstances the records of some 
of the Yorkshire Skeltons may well be examined, and we 
take (i) Skelton near Guisborough, (2) Skelton near Ripon, 
(3) Skelton near Howden. 

(i) DB 1086 Sceltun (2) DB 1086 Scheltone (3) DB 1086 Scilton 

DB 1086 Scheltun DB 1086 Scheldone DB 1086 Schilton 

CH 1180 Scelton CH 1228 Skelton PF 1199 Skeltun 

CH 1239 Skelton NV 1316 Skelton PT 1379 Skelton 

As the first element in these names is undoubtedly Scandi- 
navian it will be useful to see what parallels there are in the 
place-names of Denmark, Norway, and Sweden. 

In the first place we find a series of names connected with 
ON skilja, to divide, separate, and derived ultimately from Ger- 
manic *skeldn. Among Norwegian examples from this source 
Rygh gives the river-names Skilja, Skelja, and Skillebsek; 
among Danish place-names Madsen gives Skjelby, Skjelbsek, 
and Skjelmose ; and among Swedish place-names Falkman gives 
Skalhuset and Skalaholm. In these names Skjel- and Skal- 
are interpreted as meaning a boundary. 

In the second place, connected with ON skellr, a clash, 
splash, crack, and ON skalla, to clash, clatter, rattle, there is the 
stem Skjell- found in the Norwegian Skjellaaen, and in the 
plant-name Skjella. 

In the third place there are the Norwegian place-names 
Skallerud and Skallestad, which according to Rygh are connected 
with ON skalli, a skull, a bald head, Norw. skalle, a word 
sometimes applied to a barren or stony eminence (Aasen). 

SkelbrOOK obtains its terminal from OE broc, a brook ; but 
the Domesday form Scalebro goes back to Dan. bro, Sw. bro, 
a bridge. It seems extremely probable, therefore, that the 
first element in Skelbrook is a stream-name. Note that a 
stream — now called the Great Ings or Old Eau beck — runs 
through both Skelbrook and Skellow which are adjacent to 

G. 17 


one another ; and note further that a tributary of the Ure is 
called the Skell. 

In Skellow the terminal comes from OE hlaw, ME lawe, 
a cairn or burial-mound ; but the earlier forms show extra- 
ordinary divergence from the present name, and are derived 
from ON hallr, a slope, Dan. hale, a tongue of land, OE heall, a 
hall, or OE healh, a corner of land. 

SKELDERGATE, Halifax. — York has a street of the same 
name recorded in the Whitby Chartulary as Sceldergate (i2th 
century). The terminal comes from ON gata, a path or road ; 
and the first element is connected with ON skjold, gen. skjaldar, 
a shield, which goes back to Germanic *skeldu, a board, plank, 
shield (Torp). Probably Skeldergate means ' the road paved 
with planks,' just as Cluntergate means ' the road paved with 

SKELMANTHORPE, Huddersfield, like Skelmersdale in 
Lancashire, is of Scandinavian origin, and the two names may 
fitly be brought together : 

DB 1086 Scelmertorp 1086 Schehneresdele 

YD 1283 Scelmarthor-pe 1202 Skelmersdale 

WCR 1296 Skelmarthorpe 1202 Skelmaresden 

NV 1316 Skelnianthorp 1321 Skelmardisdale 

It seems clear that the first element is a personal name, and 
Nielsen presents an old Danish name Skialmar, which with a 
Latin ending appears also as Skielmerus and Skelmerus. Thus 
Skelmanthorpe is 'the village of Skelmer,' from ON thorp, and 
Skelmersdale is 'the dale of Skelmer,' from ON dalr. The 
change from Skelmarthorpe to Skelmanthorpe is probably due 
to the influence of such names as Normanton, Dudmanston, 
Copmanthorpe, and Hunmanby. A parallel case is the change 
from Rikmeresworth to Rickmansworth (Skeat). For the 
absence of the sign of the genitive compare Rogerthorpe, Rena- 
thorpe, and Herringthorpe. 

SKEW.— See Scoe. 

SKIERS, SKYRE W^OOD.— We find PT 1379 Skyres, DN 
Skyres, Skives, for the former which is in Wentworth, and SE 


171 S Skyre Wood for the latter which is in Golcar. Another 
name of similar character is Skyreholme near Burnsall, BM 1325 
Skyrom. These words are doubtless connected with Icel. skurr, 
Sw. dial, skur, a shed, Skyre being a dat. sing, and Skyrom 
a dat. pi. 

SKINNERTHORPE, Sheffield, YS 1297 Schinartorp, 1366 
Skynnerthorp, is 'the hamlet of the tanner'; compare Sw. 
skinnare, a tanner, and ON tkorp. 

SKIRCOAT, Halifax, HR 1276 Skirkotes, WCR 1297 
Skyrecotes, PT 1379 Skyrcotes, may be translated 'the bright 
cottages,' from ON skirr, clear, bright, and kot, a cottage. 

SKITTERICK. — Small streams of this name are to be 
found in Wakefield, near Wath-on-Dearne, and in Emley. 
YR 1230 speaks of a 'duct called Skiterik' apparently near 
Otley ; and the Wath Parish Registers have the name Skyterick 
in 1640. There is a Norwegian river called Skytteren, from 
ON *skytra, and an early place-name derived therefrom is 
Skyttersett (Rygh). 

SLACK, SLACKCOTE.— The word ' slack ' is derived from 
the ON slakke, which means a slope on a mountain edge. 
Places of the name occur in Barkisland, Heptonstall, Oakworth, 
and Quarmby. Near Bradford there is Wibsey Slack, and at 
Meltham Legards Slack. Ripponden and Chapelthorpe have 
each a Slack Lane, Lofthouse a Slack Hill, Marsden a Slack 
End, and Saddleworth a Slackcote and Slack Head, while the 
name Catherine Slack occurs in Cragg Vale, near Queensbury, 
and near Brighouse. But most interesting of all is the Slack in 
Quarmby, referred to in WCR 1275 in the description ' Thomas 
de Slac de Querneby,' and in PT 1379 as Slak. The breezy 
road along the ridge between the Colne Valley and that of 
Scammonden follows the line of an ancient Roman road which 
according to the Antonine Itinerary linked together Mamucio 
(Manchester), Camboduno (Slack), and Calcaria (Tadcaster) ; 
but the Ravenna geographer, dealing with the road from Mantio 
(Manchester) to Medibogdo (Methley), speaks of the station at 
Slack as Camuloduno. 



Slackcote, Saddleworth, is ' the cottage on the slope,' ON 
hot being a cottage or small farm. 

Cambodunum is derived from two ancient Celtic words, 
namely, cambos, crooked, bent, and dunon, a fortified place or 
stronghold ; hence the meaning given by Holder, ' arx curva.' 

Camulodunum on the other hand signifies 'the fortress of 
Camulos,' that is, of the god of war. Mars. 

SLAITHWAITE, Huddersfield, CR 1235 Slatkweyt,^NC'K 
1286 Slaghthayth, DN 1306 Slaghethwayte, NV 13 16 Slaghewhait, 
is a particularly interesting name. It is probably derived from 
the ON slag, slaughter, skirmish, Norw. slag, a blow, an action, 
battle, engagement, and ON thveit, a paddock or clearing. The 
Norwegian word slagsted is used to denote the scene of a battle 
or conflict, and on the same lines Slaithwaite may be interpreted 
' battle clearing.' 

There is a second SLAITHWAITE, situate in Thornhill Lees, 
Dewsbury, and pronounced like the first Slouit (slauit). 

SLANTGATE occurs as the name of a road or lane in 
Linthwaite, Thurlstone, and Marsden. The ending is from ON 
gata, a path, and the prefix from Norw. slenta, to fall slanting, 
Sw. slenta, slanta, to cause to slide. 

SLITHERO, Rishworth. — Watson calls the place Slitherow, 
a form which corresponds to the name Slidrihou found in the 
Cockersand Chartulary about 1213 as the name of a portion 
of Ainsdale, near Southport. The meaning is ' scabbard-howe,' 
from ON sliZr, a scabbard, and haugr, a burial-mound, or howe. 

RIDING. — OE smi6 is a smith, and OE smiSSe, ME smythy, is 
a smithy or forge ; but there is also an OE adjective smeSe, 
smooth, flat, level. 

Smeaton, Pontefract, BCS t992 Smithatun, DB Smedetone, 
Smetheton, PC filSo Smithetona, NV 1316 Magna Smytheton, 
Parva Smytheton, PT 1379 Kirkesmethton, is 'the smiths' 
enclosure,' from OE smi& and tun, an enclosure or farmstead. 


Smithies occurs in Thornhill, TPR 1614 Smythyes, Barnsley, 
Birstall, HeckmOndwike, and elsewhere ; it is doubtless from 
OE smi^e, a forge. 

Smithley, Wombwell, recorded as Smethelay in IN 1307, 
Smythelay in PT 1379, and Smythelay in 1386, is probably 
' smiths' meadow,' from OE leak, a lea or meadow. 

Smithriding, Linthwaite, may perhaps be ' smith's clearing' ; 
see Ridding and Smithley. 

SNAILSDEN, Penistone, is most probably ' Snjall's valley,' 
from the ON personal name Snjall, and OE denu. 

SNAITH, which stands on the south bank of the Aire a few 
miles from its junction with the Ouse, is represented in early 
records as follows : 

DB 1086 Esneid BM 1206 Sneyd 

DB 1086 Esnoid, Esnoit CH 1223 Snaith 

PR 1 154 Sneid YI 1250 Snayth 

CR 1205 Sneyth NV 1316 Snayth 

The name has considerable interest because it illustrates two 
of the peculiarities of the Domesday scribes, and two of the 
points where Old Nor^e differed from Old English. 

The Domesday scribes wrote esn for sn ; and in the same 
way they wrote Escafeld for Sheffield, Eslingesbi for Slingsby, 
and Estretone for Stretton. Further, the Domesday scribes 
wrote d and t instead of 5 ; see Bolton and Melton. In the case 
of Snaith d occurs in records later than DB, but subsequently 
th appears quite regularly. 

In ON we find the consonant S where OE had d ; hence the 
doublets ' garth ' and ' yard ' from ON garSr and OE geard, 
an enclosure, and ' with ' and ' wood ' from ON vi6r and OE wudu, 
a wood. Further, we find in ON the vowel ei where OE has d; 
hence our place-names have ' stain ' and ' stan ' from ON steinn 
and OE stan, a stone, as well as ' braith ' and ' brad ' from ON 
brei^'Sr and OE brad, broad. 

Thus the earliest forms of Snaith may be read as Smith, and 
it is plain that we owe the name to ON snei'^, rather than 
OE sndd or snad. Each of these words means ' a piece cut off,' 
but a secondary meaning appears to have been 'a boundary.' 


Middendorff quotes such OE place-names as Snddhyrst and 
Tattingsndd, as well as Snadhege and SnSdfeld; and Skeat 
gives the Bedfordshire name Whipsnade, formerly Wibesnade. 


Darfield we find Snape Hill ; in Upperthong Snape Reservoir ; 
in Austonley Snape Clough. But early records are available 
only in the case of Snapethorpe, Wakefield, and Foulsnape, 
Pontefract : 

WCR 1275 Snaypthorp CH 1220 Fulsnap 

WCR 1277 Snaypethorpe CH 1246 Fulsnap 

WCR 1295 Snaypethorpe DN 1464 Foulesnape 

The simple name Snape occurs near Bedale in the North Riding, 
and near Saxmundham in Suffolk. There is Snape Hill in 
Lincolnshire, and in Lancashire such names as Bullsnape, 
Haresnape and Kidsnape occur. 

It is not easy to find the origin of the word ; possibly, 
indeed, we have to do with different words. 

1. Most likely, perhaps, is the root which has given Danish 
snabe, a word explained in Blandinger p. 244 as having the 
general meaning ' odde,' a point of land, special meanings 
being a cape, and a strip of wood or forest. Danish place- 
names derived from the word are Agersnap, Gudsnap, Kolsnap, 
Krogsnap, and Vandsnap. 

2. Stratmann-Bradley gives ME snape, a winter-pasture, 
and a connection with ON snap is suggested. 

In any case Snape, Snapethorpe, and Foulsnape, are Scandi- 
navian in origin, and the prefix in the latter is from ON fiil, 
foul, mean. 

YD 1333 Snoden Hille, is near Penistone; and the latter, RE 
1716 Snoddle Hill, is in Huddersfield. Both are doubtless 
connected with ON snodinn, Norw. snodden, bare, bald ; compare 
the dialect-word snod, smooth. 

SNYDALE, Pontefract, DB Snitehala, PF 1202 Snithale, 
KF 1303 Snytall, NV 1316 Snytall, PT 1379 Snydale, is like 
Wheldale in its suggestion that the ending is -dale ; more 


probably, however, the terminal is OE healli, ME hale, a corner 
or meadow, or possibly Dan. hale, a tongue of land. The prefix 
appears to be ON sni'^, a slice ; compare Dan. snitte, to cut, chip. 

SOOTHILL, Dewsbury, DC 1225 Sotehill, Sothill, YI 1251 
Sothull, HR 1276 Sothill, DC 1349 Sotehull, PT 1379 Sutill, 
YF 1504 Sotehill, has probably the meaning it seems to bear, 
the OE word for soot being sot, and the ME sot. 

SOUTHEY, Ecclesfield, HH 1366 Southagh, PT 1379 
Sowthagh, YF 1588 Sowthay, is simply 'south enclosure,' from 
OE j«^, south, and haga, an enclosure. 

SOUTHOWRAM.— See Northowram. 

SOWERBY, Halifax, DB Sorebi, WCR 1275 Sourby, HR 
1276 Sourebi, WCR 1297 Soureby, NV 1316 Soureby, means 
' swampy farm,' from ON saurr, foul, swampy, sour, and byr, 
a farmstead or village. 

The name is of frequent occurrence in those parts of England 
where the Vikings settled, and in the Icelandic Book of Settle- 
ments we possess an account of the way in which more than 
a thousand years ago a spot in Iceland received the self-same 
name. Steinolf, the son of Hrolf, dwelt, we are told, in Fairdale ; 
one day he walked inland from Fairdale, climbed a mountain, 
and from thence saw a valley, great and overgrown with wood ; 
' within the valley he saw a clearing, and there he raised his 
dwelling and called it Saurbae, for it was very swampy ; and he 
called the whole dale by the same name.' In addition to Saurbcz 
we find in ON the name Saurlith, the swampy slope ; in the 
Chartulary of Cockersand Abbey names such as Soureby, 
Sourelonde, Sourer, and Saurschales are to be found ; and near 
Windermere there are two villages called Sawrey, swampy island. 

In former days Sowerby gave its name to a district called 
Sowerbyshire. An old manuscript, probably of the time of 
James I, says ' Sowerbyshier was a several Jurisdiction or 
Libertie within the Mannor of Wakefielde, beinge in tymes paste 
accounted as a Forreste or Freechase, and replenished with 
deere. This Sowerbyshier was parcell of the possessions of the 


Earles of Warrene and Surreye, and there were diverse vaccaries 
therein, and namely these, Cromptonstall, Ferneside, Oversalton- 
stall, Nethersaltonstall, Hadershelfe, Baitings, and Mancanholes, 
all knowne by meates and boundes, at the which Cattel were 
norished and bredd ' (WCR il, xxix). According to Ducange a 
Vaccaria was a cowshed or cowhouse usually constructed to hold 
forty cows, and situated in a pasture or woodland cleared or set 
apart for this head of cattle. 

SOWOOD, Ossett and Stainland. — Records of the first are 
WCR 1277 Soutwode, WCR 1309 Southwode, DC 1573 Sowewood, 
while of the second we have the i6th century spelling Sowewode. 
The meaning is ' south wood,' from OE jwS and wudu. 

SOYLAND, Sowerby, WCR 1274 Soland, WCR 1286 
Solande, WCR 1297 Solande, YF 1553 Soland, YF 1572 Soyland, 
HPR Soweland, Sowland, Soyland, appears to mean ' sow land,' 
from Dan. so, a sow ; compare ON syr, dat. su, a sow. Through 
dialectal influence so- became soy- as rode became royd. 

SPA, SPAW, occurs with some frequency ; examples are 
Gunthwaite Spa, Ossett Spa, Tanhouse Spa in Ackworth, Spa 
Wood in Erringden, Spa Bottom in Lepton, and Spaw House in 

The water of a mineral spring is often called ' spaw water,' 
and the spring itself a ' spaw well' EDD explains the word in 
this sense, but gives no hint as to its origin, though it has been 
customary — at any rate in such cases as the Spa at Scarborough — 
to derive the name from Spa in Belgium. I venture to suggest, 
however, that the source of our South-west Yorkshire names is 
ON spa, prophecy; compare ON spa-kerling, a prophetess, 
spa-leikr, divination, Dan. spaa-mand, a soothsayer, spaa-kvinde, 
a fortune-teller, spaa-kvist, a divining rod. That the discoloured 
waters of a mineral spring should in the past have been used for 
divination and then called ' spaw water ' seems quite within the 
bounds of probability, and that the name ' spaw water ' should 
later have lost all connection with divination is only what we 
should expect ; thus, there is no difficulty in regard to the sense 
of the word. But neither is there difficulty in regard to the 


phonology, for if ON rd could give ' raw,' as in Rawthorpe, ON 
spa could give ' spaw,' a form with which the local pronunciation 
fully agrees. See Raw and Ratton Row. 

SPEN, Gomersal, YD 1329 Spen, PT 1379 Spen, YF 1565 
Spen. The name is found elsewhere. Near Rochdale there is 
a stream called the Spenn, and York has a Spen Lane. In 
connection with Stalmine near Blackpool the Cockersand 
Chartulary has Spen in 1268 ; and BM records such names as 
Spenneker and Spengate. Further, Leithaeuser records a German 
place-name Spenrath, that is, Spen Royd, and Rietstap gives 
a Dutch place-name Spanbroek, which in form corresponds to 
Span Brook but means Span Marsh ; in neither case, however, is 
an etymology given. I suggest that the word is to be connected 
with the Germanic *spenan, spanan, nipple ; compare ON speni, 
Dan. spene, Sw. spene, Fris. spene, spdne. Thus the meaning is 
probably a projecting point or elevation. 

involve either the dialect-word spink, a finch, or the Celtic word 
of the same form — compare Ir. and Gael, spine, a point of rock, 
an overhanging cliff. 

Spink, Heptonstall, standing as it does alone, can scarcely 
have its origin in the bird-name. 

Spinksmire, Meltham, derives its terminal from ON myrr, 
a moor, bog, swamp. 

Spinkwell, which occurs in Dewsbury, West Ardsley, and 
Linthwaite, is doubtless from spink, a finch, and OE wella, a well 
or spring. Among early spellings we find KC fiiSg Spinkes- 
welle (Aldfield), WCR 1308 Spinkeswelle (Holme), YF 1550 
Spynkpyghell (Southowram). 

SPITAL occurs near Pontefract, DN 1294 Spitle Hardwicke, 
as well as in Ecclesfield, Tickhill, and Wentworth. It is of 
French origin, from OFr. hospital. In Middle English the word 
suffered aphaeresis, and became ' spital ' or ' spitle.' 

SPRING is found very frequently in Ordnance maps as 
a synonym for 'wood'; compare DC 1593 'a wood called 
Crakenedge Springe.' 


SPROTBOROUGH, Doncaster, is the most eastern of a 
line of early forts or fortified places in the valley of the Don. 
Early spellings, DB Sproteburg, YR 1250 Sprotteburg, KI 1285 
Sprotteburg, NV 13 16 Sprotburgh, warrant the interpretation 
' Sprot's fortified post,' from OE burh, and the personal name 
Sprot or Sprott recorded by Searle. 

Yorkshire presents six names in stain- and six in stan-, a fact 
which calls attention to a well-marked difference between 
English and Scandinavian. From a common ancestor, Teutonic 
ai. Old Scandinavian got ei and Old English a. ; and in 
consequence the words for ' bone,' ' stone ' and ' home ' take the 
following early forms : 


Old Norse 

Old English 










In Danish, as has already been shown (p. 31), the diphthong ei 
was at an early date contracted to e, and it thus became possible 
for our early place-names to present three forms : 
(i) stain-, which is either Norse or Danish ; 

(2) Stan-, found in English names of early origin ; 

(3) sten-, which is distinctively Danish. 
But still another form is possible, viz. 

(4) stone-, found in English names of later origin. 

In the course of centuries the vowel in OE stdn changed its 
pronunciation, and just as OE ham gave the modern word 
' home,' so OE stdn gave the modern word ' stone,' while ME 
has the forms stane and stone ; see Stone. 

Names in sten- include Stenforde, one of the Domesday 
forms of Stainforth, and also Stennard and Stenocliffe. 

It should be noted that some of our names show early forms 
of varying origin, as in the case of Stainborough, Stainforth, 
Stainland, Stainton. 

Stainborough, Barnsley, gets its terminal from OE burg, 


burh, a fortified place, or ON borg, a stronghold or castle, early 
forms being 

DB 1086 Stainburg, Stanburg CR 1252 Steinberg 

PC tiogo Stainburch NV 1316 Staynneburgh 

PC tn6o Steinburch PT 1379 Staynburgh 

The form Stanburg is entirely Anglian, while Steinberg is entirely 
Scandinavian, but the signification in both cases is the same, ' the 
stone fort or castle.' As there are in the neighbourhood many 
'thwaites' we may conclude that the Scandinavian influence 
was that of Viking settlers from the west. 

Staincliffe, Dewsbury, is obviously ' stone cliff,' and comes 
from ON steinn and klif. 

StaincrosS is the name of a hamlet near Barnsley, and 
also of a wapentake. We owe the name to Norsemen ; see 
the note on Cross. 

Stainforth, Hatfield, is partly Anglian and partly Scandi- 
navian ; it has the following early forms : 

DB 1086 Steinford, Stenforde KI 1285 Stainford 

HR 1276 Steynford NV 1316 Staynford 

The terminal comes from Oxford, while the prefix is from ON 
steinn. But the Domesday form Stenforde shows the Danish 
spelling ; compare Dan. sten, a stone. 

Stainland and Stainton, Halifax and Doncaster, both 
show interesting variations, witness the following : 

DB 1086 Stanland DB 1086 Stainione, Stantone 

PT 1379 Stayneland PF 1166 Steinton 

CH 1276 Staynlond PF 1202 Steinton 

CH 1342 Steynland NV 13 16 Staynton 

The former signifies ' the stony land,' from OE or ON land ; 
and the latter is ' the stony enclosure,' from OE or ON tun, 
an enclosure or farmstead. 

STAIR. — This is the ordinary word 'stair,' and means an 
uphill path, an ascent ; compare OE stlgan, to climb, and OE 
stager, ME steyer, a stair, step. Among examples of the use of 
the word as a place-name we find Stairfoot, Barnsley ; Stairs 
Bottom, Haworth ; and Stairs Hill, Oxenhope. 


-STALL. — This termination conies from OE steall, a place, 
stall, stable ; a place for cattle. Among dialect-meanings EDD 
gives cattle-shed, sheepfold, temporary shelter. 

West of Halifax there are six place-names with this 
termination : Cruttonstall, Heptonstall, Rawtonstall, Saltonstall, 
Shackletonstall, and Wittonstall. It will be noticed that each 
name has three elements, and it will not be unreasonable to 
suggest that the original names were of two elements, Crumton, 
Hepton, Rawton, etc. Probably the ending -stall was added 
when the farmsteads became vaccaries of the Earls of Warrene. 

Another name exhibiting the termination is Birstall. 

HOPE, STANLEY, STANNARD.— All these names are of 
Anglian origin, and the first element is derived from OE stdn, a 
stone. In early years — prior to the ' rounding ' of the OE a — 
the vowel in such compounds as Stanbury and Stanhope was 
shortened, and so the form stan- was obtained. See the note on 
Stainborough, Stainclifife, etc. 

Stanbury, Keighley, DN 1250 Stanbir, YF 1536 Stanbury, 
is ' the stone fortress,' from OE byrig, dat. of burh, a fortified 
place ; compare Stainborough. 

Standbridge, Sandal Magna, WRM 1639 Stan Brig, is 
simply ' stone bridge,' from OE brycg, a bridge. Compare 
Standground, Hunts., which is recorded in DB as Stangrun and 
in the Ramsey Chartulary as Stangrunde, ' stony ground.' It is 
obvious that ' stand ' was introduced by ' popular etymology ' 
after the true meaning of ' stan ' had been lost. 

StanedgE — sometimes written Standedge — a lofty moorland 
ridge between Marsden and Saddleworth, 1272 Stanegge, is 
obviously ' stony ridge,' from OE ecg, ME egge. 

Stanhope, Sowerby, may be explained as ' the stony valley,' 
from OE hop, a secluded valley. 

Stanley, Wakefield, DB Stanleie, PF 1202 Stanleiebothum, 
is ' the stony lea,' from OE leak, a lea or meadow. 

Stannard, Horbury, derives its termination from OE eard, 
ME erd, a dwelling-place. 


STANSFIELD. — From the Germanic stem *staina we get 
not only OE stan and ON steinn, but also a large number of 
personal names. Thus ON has the simple names Steinn and 
Steini, as well as compounds like Steinarr, Steinulfr, Steinunnr, 
Arnsteinn, Ormsteinn, while ODan. has Sten and Stenkil. 
Searle gives many OE compounds, for example, Stanburh, 
Stanheard, Stanwine, Stanmser, but not a single example of the 
simple form Stan. That such a name existed together with 
a patronymic formed therefrom is made certain by the existence 
of the modern surname Stanning. 

Stancil, Doncaster, DB Steinskale, RC 1232 Stansale, KF 
1303 Stansall, is 'Stan's corner,' from OE healh, a corner or 

Stanningley, Bradford, Heckmondwike, and Ovenden, is 
doubtless ' the lea of the Stannings,' from OE leak, a lea or 

Stannington, Ecclesfield, HH 1329 Stanyngton, is 'the 
farmstead of the Stannings,' from OE tun, an enclosure, farmstead. 

Stansfield, Todmorden, DB Stanesfelt, HR 1276 Stanes- 
feld, PT 1379 Stanesfeld, is ' the field of Stan.' 

STAPLETON, Pontefract, DB Stapeltone, PC 1159 Stapil- 
tona, NV 13 16 Stapelton, is derived from OE stapel, a post or 
pillar of wood or stone, and tun, an enclosure or farmstead. 
We may explain the name as 'the farmstead marked by a 

The word ' staple ' is found in place-names under a variety of 
circumstances. In Devon, for example, the name Stallbridge, 
DB Staplebrige, bears witness to the use of staples or posts in 
the construction of bridges. The long list of Staplefords given 
in the Gazetteer shows how common it was in the olden days to 
use posts in order to mark out the point at which a stream 
should be crossed. Places where goods might be exposed for 
sale or markets held were frequently distinguished in the same 
way ; and, occasionally, the meeting-place of a Hundredmoot 
was marked by a staple, witness the names Barstable and 
Thurstable, two of the hundreds in the county of Essex. 


STATHAM, Holme, appears to come directly from the 
dat. pi. of ON sta^r, a ' stead,' place, spot ; compare Latham. 

STAUPS, STOPES, STOUPS.— Near Hebden Bridge 
there is Staups Moor ; in Scammonden Staups Lane ; and in 
Northowram Staups Common, 1607 Staupes. The form Stopes 
occurs in Marsden, Bradfield and Holmfirth; and outside the 
West Riding the word occurs near Robin Hood's Bay in the 
form Stoups Brow. The source is ON staup, which according 
to Vigfusson means a knobby lump ; but there is also a Norw. 
dialect-word staup which means a little deep depression or 

-STEAD. — The West Riding examples of this termination 
are comparatively few. The name Halstead occurs in Thurgo- 
land, Thurstonland, and WooUey; the name Newstead near 
Hemsworth ; Barrowstead in Skelmanthorpe ; and Tunstead in 
Saddleworth and Cleckheaton. The OE and ME is stede, a 
place, site, station, and the word corresponds to the ON sta^r. 

STENNARD, STENOCLIFFE.— The first element in 
these names comes from Dan. sten, a stone — or rather from an 
ODan. word of that form. See the note on Stainborough, etc. 

Stennard, Wakefield, obtains its terminal from OE card, 
ME erd, a dwelling-place. 

STENOCLIFFE, Ecclesfield, is recorded by Guest as Stenodiff 
in 1540 and Stenoclyff in 1541. Judging by such names as 
Grenoside and Wincobank, the second element appears to be 
' how,' from ON liaugr, a mound or cairn ; thus Steno- would 
mean ' stone cairn.' 

-STER. — This termination is usually referred to the ON 
sta^r, a farm, homestead ; compare Bolster Moor and Bolster- 
stone where the first element is obviously from ON bolsta^r, 
a farm-house. Duxter Wood in Ecclesfield, however, is written 
Dukestorth in HH 1425, and we must therefore recognise ON 
storS:, as a possible source. Examples of the termination 
are Bannister, Meltham ; Bolster Moor, Golcar ; Clipster, 
Southowram ; Copster, Thurgoland ; Topster, Rishworth ; 


Trister, Cawthorne. In Norway the ON sta^r has given 
the termination -stad, to be found in such names as Bolstad, 
Harstad, Listad, and Mustad, 

STOCKWITH, are all derived from OE stocc or ON stokkr, 
a stock, trunk, log. 

STOCKBRIDGE, Bentley, YF 1528 Stokbrygge, YF 1570 
Stockbridge, tells its story sufficiently clearly. 

STOCKSBRIDGE, Sheffield, YI 1247 Stocbrig, PT 1379 Stok- 
brig, shows an intrusive s ; compare Bolsterstone. 

Stocksmoor, Thurstonland, is recorded as le Stokes in DN 
1 3 16, and Stokes in PT 1379. 

Stockwith Lane, Hoyland Nether, is Scandinavian, its 
termination being derived from ON vtSr, a wood, forest, or 
felled timber. 


ban gave the modern word ' bone,' so OE stdn gave ' stone.' 
But compounds formed at an early date show stan-, and place- 
names like Stoneroyd and Stoneshaw must have been formed at 
a time when OE stdn had already become stone. 

Stone, a hamlet in Maltby, 1324 Stane, 1354 Stone, may 
perhaps be so-called from a prominent rock. 

Stoneroyd, Kirkheaton, derives its terminal from ME rode, 
a clearing ; see Royd. 

Stoneshaw, Heptonstall, derives its terminal from OE 
sceaga, ME schagh, a small wood or copse. 

STONE CHAIR, Shelf — According to an account in 
Yorkshire Notes and Queries (i, 1 54), this hamlet owes its name 
to a relic of the old coaching days. At an important junction 
of roads a curious double milestone existed which had a stone 
seat fixed between the two uprights ; these uprights were placed 
at an angle and were held together by the flat stone which 
formed the seat. The inscription on the modern stone which 
has taken its place reads as follows : ' Stone Chair. Erected 
173 1. Re-erected 1891. Halifax — Bradford.' 


first element the OE stod, a stud of horses. 

Stoodley Pike, with its obehsk erected as a peace memorial 
after the Napoleonic wars, is well known to railway travellers 
between Todmorden and Hebden Bridge. The name is recorded 
in WCR 1275 as Stodlay, WCR 1296 Stodeley, PT 1379 Stodlay, 
and its meaning is ' stud lea,' from OE leak. 

Studfold, Ovenden, is doubtless derived from OE stod-fald, 
a stud-fold or paddock. 

Studroyd, Hoylandswaine, is ' stud clearing ' ; see Royd. 

STORRS, STORTH, STORTHES.— These come from 
ON storS, a young plantation or wood. The word is of very 
frequent occurrence throughout the western hill-country. It is 
found in one or other of its forms in Elland, Birkby, H udders- 
field, Linthwaite, Thurstonland, Ossett, Oxspring, Darfield, 
Heeley, Ecclesfield, and Bradfield. Storthes in Thurstonland 
is referred to in WCR 1275 as Stordes and 1286 as Storthes. 

Howstorth, in Ecclesfield, HS 1637 How Storth, may be 
either ' the wood marked by a cairn,' from ON haugr, a how or 
cairn, or ' the wood in the hollow,' from ON hoi. 

Rainstorth, in Ecclesfield, is probably 'the wood on the 
balk or rein,' from ON rein, a balk or steep hillside. 

STOTFOLD, STOTLEY.— Here the first element would 
seem to be the ME stot, a horse or bullock. 

Stotfold, Hickleton, DB Stotfald, Stotfalde, KI 1285 
Stodfold, PT 1379 Stodefold, has been influenced by OE 
stod-fald, a stud-fold or paddock. 

Stotley, Saddleworth, is ' the lea of the horse or bullock,' 
from OE leah, a lea. 

STOUPS.— See Staups. 

STRAFFORD, the wapentake in which are Sheffield and 

Rotherham, derives its name from an ancient ford across the 

Don not far from Conisborough, where to-day we find the name 

Strafford Sands. Among early records are the following : 

DB 1086 Straforde, Strafford HR 1276 Strafford 

DB 1086 Strafforth KI 1285 Strafford 

PF 1 1 66 Straford PT 1379 Strafford 


Although there is no sign of a second t, the meaning is probably 
' street ford/ from OE strat, a street or highway, and ford, a 
ford. The Berkshire name Straffield, DB Stradfeld, is explained 
as ' street field ' by Skeat, who says the word Street in such 
cases 'commonly refers to a Roman Road.' 

STRAND. — On the opposite bank of the Calder from 
Horbury, is a stretch of land called the Strands, derived either 
from OE strand, a strand, shore, or from ON strond, a border, 
coast, shore. This word is in frequent use in ON place-names, 
witness the names Strond aiud Skarth- strond; it is also found in 
Shetland as Strand, and in Cumberland as Strands. 

STRANGSTRY WOOD, Elland.— WCR 1394 has Strang- 
stigh Wood and WCR 1437 has Strangstyes, so we may without 
hesitation explain the name as 'the arduous path,' from OE 
Strang or ON strangr, strong, hard, arduous, and OE stig or 
ON stigr, a path. The modern spelling shows the assimilation 
of the initial consonants of the second syllable to those of the 

STREETHOUSE, Normanton, is on the line of the Roman 
road which passed from Pontefract through Featherstone and 
Agbrigg to Wakefield, and it is believed to owe its name to that 
fact, OE str^t, a street, highway, from Lat. strata, being regu- 
larly applied to Roman roads. The first element in Street Side, 
Ossett, is held to have the same origin, as well as the termination 
in Tong Street and Adwick-le-Street. 

STREETTHORPE, Hatfield, DB Stirestorp, HR 1276 
Stirtorp. PT 1379 Stirestrop, means 'Styr's village,' Styr being 
a well-known personal name. 

STRINES. — Though not so' common as Slack or Storth, 
this Scandinavian word is found in several parts of South-west 
Yorkshire. It occurs in Scammonden, Denby, Hepworth, Saddle- 
worth, and near Sheffield. In addition, a farm in Shelley is called 
Hopstrines ; a brook in Erringden is recorded by Watson in 
1336 as Southstrindbroc; a farm near Heptonstall is mentioned 

G. i« 


in HW 1521 as Stryndes; and there was also, it would seem, a 
part of Northowram called by this name, for an entry in WCR 
1352 speaks of Le Stryndes. One of the eight petty kingdoms 
in the basin of Trondhjem Fiord was called Strind, and in the 
Landnama Book it is recorded of Eyvindr Vapna and Refr the 
Red that they came to Iceland ' from Strind in Throndheime.' 
The word comes from ON strind, a border, side, and is found 
as a termination in the name Hopstrines. 

STUBB, STUBBING, STUBLEY.— These are derived 
from OE stybb, or ON stubbi, a stub or stump. The word 
indicates, therefore, the former existence of woodland, just as 
do the words ' riding ' and ' royd.' 

Stubbing, which is very common, means ' stump meadow,' 
from ON eng, a meadow ; HS 1637 has Stubbing in Bradfield. 

Stubley, Heckmondwike, YD 1373 Stublay, 1375 Stubelay, 
means ' stump lea,' from OE leak, a lea or meadow. 

Stubbs, near Hampole, DB Eistop, KI 1285 Stubbes Lacy, 
shows Norman influence in the initial vowel of the DB spelling. 

Stubbs Walden, near Pontefract, DB Eistop, YI 1244 
Stubbes, NV 13 16 Stubbes, shows the same influence. 


SUDE HILL, Fulstone. — Although there are no early 
records of the name it seems extremely probable that it is of 
Celtic origin, cognate with Gael, suidhe, Olr. suide, a resting-place, 
a seat. There are places in Ross and Cromarty called Suidh 
Ma-Ruibh, Malruba's seat, places where Malruba was accustomed 
to rest on his journeys ; and Watson also records the name 
Suddy, 1227 Stidy, 1476 Suthy, explaining it as seat. Hogan 
places on record about thirty examples of the name ; compare 
suidhe finn, now Seefin, and suidhe gabha, now Seagoe. 

SUGDEN, SUGWORTH.— In EDD the word sog, sug, 
sugg, is explained as a morass, or soft boggy ground. It appears 
to be of Celtic origin ; compare Welsh sug, Irish sugh, Gaelic 
sugh, which mean sap, moisture, and note the name Sug Marsh, 


SUGDEN, Haworth, PT 1379 Sugden, Sugdeyn, WCR 1379 
Sugden, may be interpreted 'the swampy valley,' from OE denu, 
a valley. 

Sugden, Bradfield, has doubtless the same meaning. 

SUGWORTH, Sheffield, YF 1540 Sugworth, is 'the swampy 
farm,' from OE weorth, a holding, a farmstead. 

SUNDERLAND, Northowram and Hebden Bridge. — 
Probably connected with the former, WCR 1274 has Sondre- 
land and Sundreland, and WCR 1286 Sonderlande. The origin 
is plainly the OE sonderland, sundered land, private property. 

SUTCLIFFE, Hipperholme, WCR 1274 Suthclif, WCR 
1297 Sutheclyf, is the 'south cliff,' from OE su^, south, and clif, 
a cliff. 

SUTTON, Campsall, DB Sutone, means 'the south farm 
or enclosure,' from OE sv!^ and tun; compare WHS ti030 

SWAITHE, Worsborough, 1284 Swathe, 1313 Swath, is 
derived either from ON svc^i, an open space, or from ON sva'6, 
a slippery place, a slide ; compare Norw. svad, a mountain slope, 
bare rock. 

NOW, SWINSEY, SWINTON.— Perhaps the first element 
is the personal name Suin recorded in DB, but more probably 
it is the OE swln, ON svln, a pig. Reference is made in LN to 
the way in which an Icelandic valley became known as Swine- 
dale: 'Steinolf,' we are told, 'lost three swine, and they were 
found two winters later in Svina-dale.' 

SwiNDEN, Penistone, in early deeds Swyndone and Swyndene, 
is ' swine valley,' from OE denu, a valley, though one of its early 
forms is from OE diin, a hill. 

SWINEFLEET, on the Ouse, 1304 Swynflet, 1344 Swynflete, 
YF 1541 Swynflete, is perhaps 'swine channel,' from O'E fleot 
or ON fliot, a river or channel. 

SwiNLEY, Cleckheaton, appears to be ' swine lea.' 



SwiNNOW, Pudsey, CC Swynhagh, Swynehagh, is exactly 
paralleled by the OE swin-kaga and the ON Svln-hage, a 
' swine-enclosure.' 

SwiNSEY, Meltham, WCR 1307 Swynstye, is obviously 
' swine sty,' from OE stlgo, a sty. 

SwiNTON, Rotherham, DB Suintone and Swintone, CR 1227 
Swinton, KI 1285 Swinton, is 'swine enclosure,' from OE or 
ON tun, an enclosure. 

SWITHEN, SWITHENS, Darton and Sowerby, come 
from ON svi^inn, which is applied to places where the copse 
or heather has been burnt. At Bramley (Rotherham) a place 
of the same name is recorded in 1 3 1 8 as /e Swythen, and in the 
Lake District there is Sweden How. 

Scores of names are to be found in Norway where the 
ON svidinn is represented by sveen, among them Bergsveen, 
Kvernsveen, Langsveen, Nordsveen, and Sandsveen. Rygh 
explains svi'^, svi'Sa, as a place which has been cleared by 

SYKE, SYKES, SYKEHOUSE.— The local name Sykes 
is to be found in Saddleworth, PT 1379 Sykes, and near 
Keighley; Sykehouse, YF 1555 Sykhowse, is near Thorne ; 
Syke Fold is in Cleckheaton and Syke Lane in Sowerby. 
The etymology is from OE sic, a runnel, or ON slk, a ditch 
or trench. 

TAME. — This stream rises in Saddleworth, and after flowing 
past Staleybridge, joins the Mersey at Stockport. Records of 
the 13th and 14th centuries have the spelling Thame, but an 
early deed given by Dodsworth has Tome. Other river-names 
apparently from the same root are the Cornish Tamar, the 
Staffordshire Tame, the Worcester Teme, the stream flowing 
through Tempsford in Bedfordshire, and the Thames. We find 
for the Thames Tcemese-muth in the AS. Chron. 892, Tmmese- 
forda in the AS. Chron. 921 for Tempsford, DB Tam,edeberie for 
Tenbury, and DB Tameworde for Tamworth. Hogan records 
no Goidelic river-name of similar form. 


TANKERSLEY, Barnsley, DB Tancreslei, PC fissS Tan- 
creslay,YK 1252 Tankerlay, NV 1316 Tankeresley, is 'Tanchere's 
lea,' from OE leak, and the personal name recorded by Searle. 

TANSHELF, Pontefract, is connected with an interesting 
chapter in our early history. During the first half of the loth 
century there were in Northumbria Viking rulers who threatened 
to make York once more the head of Britain ; ' it needed,' as 
Freeman says, ' campaign after campaign, submission after 
submission, revolt after revolt, before the stubborn Dane finally 
bowed to his West-Saxon lord.' In 924 Edward of Wessex 
had succeeded in obtaining their submission, and in 925 
Athelstan had recognised them by giving his sister in marriage 
to their king; but after Athelstan's death they threw off the 
yoke led by Anlaf of Ireland. In 944 Edmund expelled 
Anlaf and once more subdued his people, but when Edmund 
died they again revolted and chose Eric for king. Edmund's 
brother and successor immediately marched into Yorkshire and 
at Tanshelf once more received the submission of the Danes. 
The account in the Saxon Chronicle under the year 947 reads 
as follows : ' In this year came Eadred, king, to Taddenesscylfe, 
and there Wulstan, archbishop, and all the Witan of the 
Northumbrians pledged their faith to the king. And within 
a little while they belied it all, both pledge and oaths as well.' 
We have here the earliest record of the name, namely, Taddenes- 
scylfe. Later records are CR 1257 Tanshelf, YI 1258 Tanesolf 
LC 1295 Thanschelf DN 1362 Tanshelfe. The OE i-cj^ means 
a ledge or shelf of land, and the name Tanshelf may be 
interpreted as ' Tadden's ledge ' or ' Tadden's shelf of land.' 
Although the personal name Tadden is not recorded, we 
possess the forms Tade and Tado. See Pontefract, Shelf, and 

THONG, TONG.— Upperthong and Netherthong are near 
Holmfirth, while Tong, a picturesque rural spot surrounded by 
great centres of industry, is on the borders of Bradford. Early 
spellings of the two names, together with records of the East 
Riding Thwing, are as follows : 


WCR 1274 Thwong DB 1086 Tuinc DB 1086 Tuenc 

WCR 1286 Hoverthong PF 1203 Tanga KI 1285 Tweng 

WCR 1308 Thounge CR 1232 Tange KF 1303 Tweng 

YI 1366 Thwonge KF 1303 Tong NV 1316 Twenge 

YF 1575 Thonge NV 1316 Tonge CH 1339 Tweng 

Three points should be noted : (i) the two Domesday forms, 
Tuinc and Tuenc, both show no for ng\ (2) the later forms of 
Tong show the same change as that exhibited in long, strong, 
wrong, which come from OE lang, Strang, wrung ; (3) the place- 
name Thong, like the common noun of the same form, comes 
from ME thwong, which is itself derived from OE thwang. 

Doubtless the Domesday names for Tong and Thwing are 
variations of the same word, and go back like Thong to the 
Teutonic type, *thvangi, a type which has given OE thwang, 
and ON thvengr, a thong or strap, and which is to be referred 
to a verbal form meaning to constrain. The post-Domesday 
forms of Tong on the other hand go back to OE tange or ON 
tangi, Dan. tange, a tongue of land. 

When we examine the localities we find that three of the 
places, Tong, Upperthong, and Netherthong, possess similar 
characteristics : each consists of a spur given off by the main 
ridge of hills, and each is flanked by streams which unite where 
the spur runs out. Thwing is similar in being placed on a spur 
of the Wolds, but different in possessing only one stream. This 
stream, called the Gipsey Race, changes its course near Thwing 
from east to south, and thus makes a half circuit of the hill on 
which the village stands. It appears, therefore, that the meaning 
of Thong and Thwing is practically the same as that of Tong, 
namely, a spur or tongue of land. 

Additional examples are Tong Lee in Marsden, and Tong 
Royd in Elland. 


— These are derived from the thorn, OE or ON thorn, which 
in the district south of the Aire has provided many place-names. 
To complete the list we must add Amblerthorn, Arbourthorn, 
Cawthorne, Thornhill, and Thurnscoe. 


There is an interesting peculiarity in the DB forms due to 
Norman influence, namely, the substitution of t for initial th ; 
compare Torp and le Torp, Norman place-names from ON thorp 
(Robinson). Among the examples in South-west Yorkshire 
where this substitution has taken place there are three names 
from the thorn, two Thorpes, Throapham, Thrybergh, Thurgo- 
land, Thurlstone, and Thurstonland. 

Thorne, Doncaster, DB Torne, YI 1276 Thome, YS 1297 
Thorn, IN 1335 Thorne. 

Thornes, Wakefield, WCR 1275 Thornes and Spinetum. 

Thornbury, Bradford, comes from OE biirh, a fortified post. 

Thorncliffe occurs in Tankersley. 

Thorncliffe, Kirkburton, PF 1202 Thornotelegh, PF 1208 
Thornetele, WCR 1275 Thorniceley, YS 1297 Thornykeley, WCR 
1307 Thorntelay, YD 13 16 Thornecley, DN 15 17 Thornclay, has 
seen a struggle between two forms of the first element, Thornic 
and Thornot. 

Thornhills, Brighouse, is from OE thornig, thorny, and 
healh, a corner or meadow, witness the forms Thornyhales in 
WCR 1333, Thornyales in WCR 1339, Thornyals in WCR 1419. 
See Hale. 

Thornseat, Bradfield, Thorneset in 1329, is the 'seat beside 
the thorn,' from OE sate, ME sete. 

Thornton, Bradford, DB Torentone, YI 1246 Thornton, 
HR 1276 Thorenton is the 'farm beside the thorn,' from OE 
tun, an enclosure, homestead. 

THORNHILL, Dewsbury, DB Tornhil, Tornil, PF 1175 
Tornhill, PR 1190 Tornhill, YR 1234 Tornhill, YD 1292 
Thornhulle, NV 13 16 Thornhull, PT 1379 Thornhill, is the OE 
thorn ■ hyll. 

Fragments of crosses discovered here are of extreme interest, 
and show that an ecclesiastical establishment existed on the 
spot centuries before the Norman Conquest. One of these 
fragments is believed to be a memorial of the King Osberht 
who was slain in battle by the Danes in the year 867, the year 
when first the Northmen invaded Yorkshire in force. The 
account of the AS. Chronicle is as follows : ' In this year the 


(Danish) army went from East Anglia over the mouth of the 
Humber to York in Northumbria. And there was much 
dissension among the people (the Northumbrians), and they 
had cast out Osberht their king and had taken to themselves 
a king, ^lla, not of royal blood. But late in the year they 
resolved that they would fight against the (Danish) army, and 
therefore they gathered together a large force and sought the 
(Danish) army at the town of York, and stormed the town. 
And some of them got within, and there was immense slaughter 
of the Northumbrians, some within, some without, and both the 
kings were slain \' 

THORPE. — This is one of the most interesting of our 
place-name elements. It is derived from a Teutonic stem 
* thurpa, a troop, a host, a throng of people, a village ; and is 
cognate with Lat. turba, a crowd of people, and OW treb, a 
house. From the stem *thurpa come ON thorp and OE thorp, 
as well as OFris. thorp, therp, OHG dorf, Du. dorp. Place-names 
derived from this stem are common in Norway, Sweden, Den- 
mark, Germany and Holland ; compare the Danish names 
Ulstrup, Qverndrup, Skallerup ; the Norwegian Nordtorp, So- 
dorp ; the Frisian Olterterp, Ureterp, Wijnjeterp ; and the 
German Allendorf, Meldorf, Warendorf 

In South-west Yorkshire either alone or in composition 
there are at least sixty-three examples. Reasons for describing 
these as distinctively Danish have already been given (Chap. Ill, 
p. 33); but an additional series of names which give strong 
support to the argument may here be quoted, viz. the eight 
names containing -thorpe which are found near Sheffield : 
Bassingthorpe, Herringthorpe,Grimesthorpe,Osgathorpe, Nether- 
thorpe, Renathorpe, Silverthorpe, Skinnerthorpe. In all these 
instances the first element may be Scandinavian, but in only 
two can it possibly be Anglian ; in six it is certainly Scan- 
dinavian, but in none is it certainly Anglian. 

Thorpe, near Leeds, was DB Torp, KF 1303 Thorp. 

Thorpe in Balne was simply Thorp in 1150 and 1320. 

1 YAS Journal, IV, p. 416, vni, p. 49. 


Thorpe Audlin, Pontefract, was Torp in DB, Thorp in 
NV 1316, and Thorp Audelyn in FT 1379. Audlin is doubtless 
derived from the DB name Aldelin. 

Thorpe Salvin, on the Notts, border, was Rykenildethorp 
in HR 1276 and Rikenildthorp in KI 1285, but NV 1316 has 
Thorp Salvayn and FT 1379 Thorp Saluayne. It was held in 
1285 by Radulphus Salvayn and in 1303 by Antonius Salvayn. 

Thorpe Hesley, Kimberworth, was Thorpe m. 1307. 

In addition to the five Thorpes above named, there are two 
Thorpes in Sowerby, one in Idle, and one in Hoylandswaine, 
together with the following: — Alverthorpe, Armthorpe, Aston- 
thorpe, Bassingthorpe, Chapelthorpe, Dowsthorpe, Edenthorpe, 
Edderthorpe, Finthorpe, Gannerthorpe, Gawthorpe (2), Gold- 
thorpe, Grimethorpe, Grimesthorpe, Herringthorpe, Hexthorpe, 
Hillthorpe, Hollingthorpe, Kettlethorpe, Kirkthorpe, Ladythorpe, 
Leventhorpe, Lithrop (2), Milnthorpe, Minsthorpe, Moorthorpe, 
Netherthorpe (2), Noblethorpe, Northorpe (2), Norristhorpe, 
Osgathorpe, Ouchthorpe, Overthorpe, Fainthorpe, Friestthorpe 
(2), Ravensthorpe, Rawthorpe, Renathorpe, Rogerthorpe, Scaw- 
thorpe, Shipmanthorpe, Silverthorpe, Skelmanthorpe, Skinner- 
thorpe, Snapethorpe, Streetthorpe, Throapham, Upperthorpe, 
Wilthorpe, Woodthorpe (2), Wrenthorpe. 

Many of the above are doubtless post-Conquest. Ravens- 
thorpe and Norristhorpe appear to have been created during 
the last century ; Chapelthorpe and Noblethorpe have French 
prefixes ; in Hillthorpe and Woodthorpe the prefixes are ob- 
viously Anglian ; and Astonthorpe is a secondary formation. 

Fudsey. — The Cockersand Chartulary has the 13th century 
spellings Threpridding and Trepcroft, and among 12th and 
13th century examples in Scotland Johnston notes Trepewode 
and Threpeland. Quotations in EDD read as follows: (i) 'A 
long tract of land stretches southward which was formerly 
Debateable Land, or Threap Ground ' ; (2) ' Fart of Wooler 
Common is still undivided, owing to disputes ; it is called 
Threap Ground.' And, further, Johnston quotes from a 15th 
century truce between England and Scotland the expression 


'The landez callid Eatable landez or Threpe landez.' The 
prefix is from OE threapian, to reprove, correct ; and Threap- 
land is ' land about which there is dispute.' 

THROAPHAM, Tickhill, DB Trapun, YD 1499 Thropon, 
VE 1535 Tkropon, is by no means an easy word. The DB 
scribe gives t for th and n for m in accordance with his usual 
custom, but he also appears to have given a for 0. If we may 
take the DB form as *Tkropum, a form agreeing with the 
modern name, the meaning will be 'the thorpes.' 

THRUM HALL, Halifax and Rishworth.— The name 
Thrum means a border or edge; compare ON thromr, the 
brim, edge, verge, MHG drzim, and the Dutch place-names 
Drumt, 850 Thrumiti, 1200 Drumthe, and Dreumel, 893 Tremile, 
III 7 Trumele, 1226 Drumel. 

THRYBERGH, Rotherham, is an interesting name of 
which early spellings are as follows : 

DB 1086 Triberge, Triberga KI 1285 Tryberg 
PC til94 Triberge NV 1316 Trebergh 

DN 1200 Triberg WCR 1375 Thrybargh 

As the plural of ON berg, a rock or cliff, is berg, while the plural 
of OE beorg, a mound or hill, is beorgas, it would appear most 
satisfactory to explain the word as Scandinavian and equivalent 
to ' the three cliffs,' the first element being from ON thrtr, three. 
The word berg is extremely common in Norwegian place- 
names, and Rygh places on record such examples as Nordberg, 
Lundberg, Sandberg, and Steinberg. McClure suggests that 
Thrybergh may perhaps be the Trimontium. of Ptolemy. 

LAND. — These names may well be taken together. They 
are all of Scandinavian origin, and in DB they all show 
initial t for th — due to Norman scribes. 

DB 1086 Turgesland DB 1086 Turulfestune DB 1086 Tostenland 
PF 1202 Turgarland YI 1298 Thurlestone PF 1202 Thurstanland 
CH 1294 Thorgerland YD 1301 Thurleston WCR 1284 Thorstanlande 
PT 1379 Thurgerland PT \y]() Dhurleston YS 1297 Thurstanland 

Among the personal names in the Domesday record we find 
Turgar, Turulf, and Turstan. These are obviously the names 


we require to explain the three place-names, and it is clear they 
come from ON Thorgeirr, Thorolfr, and Thorsteinn. The 
terminals are ON land, land, an estate, territory, and ON 
tun, an enclosure or farmstead. 

THURNSCOE, Doncaster, appears to have been par- 
ticularly troublesome to early scribes. Early forms are as 
follows : 

DB 1086 Ternusc, Ternusch YR 1269 Tihirneschouth 

DB 1086 Dermescop HR 1276 ThirnnescK 

CR 1 187 Tirnescogh CR 1280 Thirnesco 

PF 1 190 Tirnesco NV 1316 Thirnescogh 

The latest of these forms is quite the most accurate, CR 11 87 
Tirnescogh only failing because the initial is t instead of th. 
Despite the extraordinary variations in the name its meaning 
is quite plain, 'thorn wood,' from ON thyrnir, a thorn-tree, 
and skogr, a wood. 

THWAITE. — This word is characteristic of the districts 
settled by the Norsemen. It is derived from ON tkveit, a parcel 
of land cleared of wood, an outlying cottage with its paddock, 
and corresponds to the Norwegian tvett and the Danish tved. 
Flom tells us that in Norway tvett is far more common than 
tved in Denmark. A small map of Denmark which shows 
dozens of thorpes — among them Ingstrup and Tulstrup, Skalle- 
rup and Dallerup, Tamdrup and Qverndrup — has only two 
thwaites, Nestved and Egtved ; and Lincolnshire, with its great 
mass of Danish names, has only one thwaite (Streatfeild). When 
used as a suffix in our English place-names the word sometimes 
takes upon itself quite extraordinary forms, such as -fitt as in 
Gumfitt (Gunthwaite) and Langfitt (Langthwaite), and -foot as 
in Follifoot and Moorfoot. 

South of the Aire we find twenty-six examples of the word. 
There are four Thwaites, two Braithwaites, two Gilthwaites, two 
Linthwaites, and two Slaithwaites. There are also Alderthwaite, 
Birthwaite, Butterthwaite, Falthwaite, Gunthwaite, Hornthwaite, 
Huthwaite, Langthwaite, Ouselthwaite, and Woolthwaite, as well 
as Burfitts, Garfitt, and two Linfitts. In addition there are certain 
ancient names apparently not now in use, Brigthwaite, Mickle- 
thwaite, Oggethwaite, Salthwaite, and Thunnethwaite. 


Thwaite, Leeds, is recorded in HR 1276 as Rothewelletwayt, 
and in RPR 1673 as Thwaite. 

Thwaite, Ecclesfield, is Thwayt in PT 1379. 

Thwaites, Keighley, was Twhaytes in YI 1303, Thwaythes 
in PT 1379, and Thwayts in YF 1558. 

Thwaite House is mentioned in YF 1550 in connection 
with Firbeck as Twaite, and in 1576 as Thwaite. 

TICKHILL, in the extreme south, has the remains of 
a priory and castle, the latter on the site of an ancient fortified 
mount. In DB it is called Dadesleia, a name still to be recog- 
nised in Dadsley Well; but PR 1130 has Tykehull, PR I161 
Tichehill, CR 1232 Tikehull, WCR 1309 Tickehill. The etymo- 
logy is very doubtful. The first syllable may possibly be from 
ON tlk which gives OE tike, a dog ; or it may be from some 
such personal name as OE Tica or Ticca, recorded by Searle. 
Tickenhall, Staffordshire, is Ticenheale in an early charter, and 
Ticknall, Derbyshire, is Ticenheal, ' the kid's meadow,' while 
Tickenhill in Worcester is explained as ' the kid's hill.' There 
are other village-names of similar type, for example, Tickton 
and Tickford, Tickenham and Tickenhurst. 

TILTS, Doncaster and Thurgoland.— An undated inquisi- 
tion dealing with the former speaks of Langethauit and Thils ; 
another inquisition, dated 1304, gives the form Tilse; and in 
1602 we find Langfitt cum Tilse. It seems clear that the second 
t in Tilts is intrusive, and the source of the name appears to be 
OE thille, a plank, a stake ; compare Icel. thilja, a plank, Sw. 
tilja, a plank, floor. Thus the meaning is ' the planks ' ; compare 
the Norw. dialect-word Skjeldtile, a plank-way. 

TINGLE Y, TINSLEY.— The latter is recorded in DB as 
Tineslauue, Tirneslauiie, but the former finds no place in that 
valuable survey. Later spellings are as follows : 

WCR 1284 Tyngelowe PR 1103 Tineslei 

WCR 1296 Thyngelawe YR 1230 Tineslawe 

WCR 1308 Thinglowe KI 1285 Tinneslawe 

YF 1 55 1 Tynglay YS 1297 Tyneslowe 

YF 1558 Tynglawe NV 1316 Tynneslawe 


The termination lawe, loive, comes from OE hlaw, a burial- 
mound, cairn, hill, while ley comes from OE l^ah, a lea or 
meadow. Both names, like Ardsley, Blackley, Dunningley, show 
-ley where early records give -lawe or -lowe ; but in the case of 
Tinsley the facts point rather to selection than substitution. 

TiNSLEY, Sheffield, is ' Tynne's lea,' but it seems probable 
that in early days the names Tynneslei and Tynneslawe existed 
side by side, the latter signifying ' the burial-mound of Tynne.' 

TiNGLEY, Morley, means 'the lea of the Thing,' that is, 
'Assembly field,' from ON thing; but the earlier form Thynge- 
lawe meant ' the mound of the Thing.' Everything points to 
the fact that Tingley was once a great meeting-place for the 
freemen of the neighbourhood. It is situated at the point where 
two great roads intersect, the road from Dewsbury to Leeds, and 
that from Bradford to Wakefield. The hill from which its earlier 
name was derived, and where doubtless the annual meetings were 
held, is a prominent object. But more remarkable perhaps is 
the existence of a notable fair, held close at hand, which in all 
probability owes its origin to these very meetings. Lee Fair, as 
it is called, is known throughout the Riding. It is described as 
a horse, cattle, and pleasure fair ; and it is held annually on two 
separate dates, the 24th of August and the 17th of September — 
' the former and the latter Lee.' 

At some period after the conquest by the Danes in 867 the 
existing divisions of Yorkshire were transformed. It was then 
that the county was divided into ridings, and the ridings into 
wapentakes. York remained outside the ridings in a position of 
unchallenged supremacy, but each riding had its own centre, the 
North as it would seem at Northallerton, the East at Beverley, 
and the West at Wakefield. This being so, we should expect to 
find the meeting-place of each riding within a short distance of 
its capital, and when everything is considered the suggestion that 
Tingley was the meeting-place for the West Riding can scarcely 
be seriously contested. For the East Riding it may well have 
been (as suggested in the Victoria County History) at Craikhow 
near Beverley, and for the North Riding I suggest Fingay Hill 
(RC Thynghou) about five miles from Northallerton^ 

' But see Victoria County History of Yorkshire, n, 134. 


TODMORDEN, on the western border, LAR 1247 Tot- 
mardejie, Tottemerden, WCR 1298 Todmereden, WC 1329 
Todmarden, LI 1396 Todmereden, HW 15 21 Todmereden, is 
a name of three elements. First, there was the two-stem name 
Totmar, and afterwards came the three-stem form Totmardene. 
The third element is obviously from OE denu, a valley ; and the 
second is most probably from OE mere, a pool, lake, or marsh. 
But the first is not so simple. It may possibly be the OE 
personal name Tota, Totta ; or it may be the OE tote, a tuft of 
grass, a heap, an eminence. See Leithaeuser who gives ON 
tota, a peak, and a corresponding MLG form tote. We may 
explain Todmorden as ' the valley of Totmar,' while Totmar is 
probably ' hill-marsh ' or ' hill-lake.' 

TOFT, TOFTSHAW, TOPCLIFFE.— The word 'toft' 
is of Scandinavian origin ; compare ON topt (pron. toft^, Dan. 
toft. It means a croft, a field, a cleared space for the site of 
a house, a homestead. As the name of a village the word occurs 
in Cheshire, Lincoln, Norfolk, Cambridge and Warwick ; in 
Normandy it is often found as a suffix in the form -tot, as in 
Yvetot, Ivo's toft, and Langetot, long toft. On the other hand, 
according to Canon Taylor, it is very scarce in Norway and 
Westmorland, and quite unknown in Cumberland. The word 
appears, therefore, to be Danish rather than Norwegian. In the 
West Riding it occurs chiefly as a field-name, as for example 
at Pudsey, Cleckheaton, Liversedge, Morley, Lofthouse, and 
Hunshelf; but it occurs also in Eastoft and the two names 
following : 

TOFTSHAW, Hunsworth, PT 1379 Toschagh and Thofthagh, 
has an Anglian termination, from OE sceaga, a copse, small 

TOPCLIFFE, Morley, WCR 1296 Toftedive, WCR 1297 
Tofteclyve and Thofteclyf, has for its termination the ON klif, 
a cliff. 

TOM HILL, Oxspring, may perhaps be derived from the 
Celtic torn, a hillock, Ir. Gael. Welsh torn. Tomdow in Argyll 
is tom-dubh, the black hillock. 


-TON, -TCWN. — The long vowel of tun was shortened in 
compounds, and the word was written ton as in Newton, or tun 
as in Tunstead ; but when it stood alone it gave ME toun, later 
town ; hence place-names with the termination ' town ' are com- 
paratively late. In 1375 the three hamlets of Liversedge — 
Hightown, Roberttown, Littletown — were called Great Lyvers- 
egge, Robert Lyversegge, and Little Lyversegge, and as late as 
1 564 the names Great Lyversege, and Little Lyversage occur. 

The original meaning of the OE tun was an enclosure, 
a place surrounded with a bank or hedge, the word being 
connected with the verb tynan, to fence, to hedge in. Hence 
the name Barton meant an enclosure for corn, and Appleton 
an apple orchard. Subsequently the word denoted a homestead, 
a farmhouse with all its belongings ; and last of all it took the 
signification town or village. 

It is usual for place-names in -ham to have as their first 
element the name of the settler who first made there his home, 
but those in -ton are more commonly preceded by an adjectival 
term descriptive of the local situation or its general character, as 
in the case of Aston, Clayton, Newton, and Norton ; yet at the 
same time there are many such names as Royston, Rore's 
homestead, and Silkstone, Sylc's homestead. 

TONG, TONGUE.— See Thong. 

TORNE is the name of a small stream which passes through 
Rossington and Auckley. In KC 1187 we find the name 
Tornwad, that is, Torn-wath ; and KC makes further reference 
to the stream in the phrase 'in aquam magnam que vocatur 
Thorn.' The word must be compared with the first element in 
Turnocelum, an early Celtic name in the North of England 
(Williams) ; with Tornolium, an early form of the French 
place-name Tournoel (Williams); and with Tornepe, the 12th 
century form of the Flemish river-name Tourneppe (Kurth). 
In the last example the terminal comes from the Celtic -apa, 
a word cognate with Lat. aqua (Stokes). It seems fairly certain, 
therefore, that Torne is of Celtic origin. Compare the name 
with Balne, Colne, and Dearne. 


TRANMORE,Balne, appears in CR 1305 as Tranemore,vfh\\e 
BM has Tranemoore. The prefix represents ON trana, a crane, 
a bird formerly abundant in Great Britain, and prized as food, 
but now extinct ; compare Sw. trana (for krana), Dan. tram (for 
krane) and OE cran, a crane. The Scandinavian 'tran' appears 
in many Yorkshire place-names, including several Tranmires and 
Trenholmes ; but in Tranby the first element is probably the 
personal name Trani recorded by Nielsen. The English ' cran ' 
appears in such names as Cranbrook, Cranborne, Cranfield, and 
Cran ford. 

TRETON, Rotherham, DB Tretone, Trectufie, PF 1204 
Treton, KI 1285 Tretthon, NV 1316 and PT 1379 Treton, is 
probably ' tree farmstead ' from OE treo, a tree, and tun, an 
enclosure or farmstead ; compare the OE names treow ■ steall 
and treow ■ stede recorded by Middendorff. 

TRIANGLE, a hamlet in Sowerby, appears to have obtained 
its name from a triangular plot of ground situated in the acute 
angle where two roads meet. 

TRIMINGHAM, Halifax, is recorded as Trimingham in 
WCR 1274 and 1275 and Trymyngham in WCR 1307. Its 
first element must be compared with the personal name Trimma 
recorded by Searle. 

TRIPPEY, Liversedge. — This name may perhaps be con- 
nected with the Icel. threp, threpi, which meant a ledge, rising 
ground, an eminence. Aasen connects with this ON word the 
Norwegian word trip which has similar meanings. 

TRUMFLEET, Doncaster, PF 1203 Trumfiet, DN 1322 
Trumflet, DN 1360 Trunsflete, DN 1361 Trumflete, is either 
'border channel,' from Norw. trum, a border, edge, and ONJljot, 
a channel, or ' stump channel,' from OE trum, a tree-stump, and 
OE _^eot, compare wyrttrum, a word occurring in BCS. See 

TUDW^ORTH, Doncaster, DB Tudeimorde, is 'the holding 
of Tuda,' Tuda being a well-known name. 


TUNSTEAD, Saddleworth and Cleckheaton, corresponds 
to the OE tun-stede, a townstead, the site of a farmstead or 

TWISTLE, TWIZLE.-The OE twisla meant a con- 
fluence, the fork of a river or road. It corresponds to ON 
kvisl, a branch or fork of a tree, and it occurs in Twizle Clough, 
Holme, in Briestwistle near ThornhiU, in Wightwizzle near 
Penistone, and in the name Breretwisel near Wath-on-Dearne. 

TYERSALL, Pudsey, has been taken for a descendant of 
early forms like those of Teversall, Notts ; but a comparison of 
the recorded spellings makes the matter quite plain. 

PF 1203 Tireshah DB 1086 Tevreshalt 

KC 1267 Tyrissale, Tyrsale YR 1275 Thiversold 

HR 1276 Tirsal YR 1280 Tyversolde 

KF 1303 Teresall VE 1535 Teversholt 

PT 1379 Tyrisall, Tiresall VE 1535 Teversall 

The second element, which is best shown in PF 1203 Tires- 
hale, comes from OE healh, a corner or meadow. The first 
element is a personal name, probably Tyr\ compare the modern 
surname Tyers. 

UGHILL.— See Gilcar. 

ULLEY, Rotherham. — If we remember that the Domesday 
scribes often wrote for u, we shall find the early spellings very 
consistent with one another. 

DB 1086 Ollei, Olleie YS 1297 Ullay 

YD 1253 Ullay NV 1316 Ullay 

KI 1285 Ulley YD 1323 Ulleye 

Dr Moorman gives a 13th cent, spelling Ulflay which may be 
interpreted 'wolf lea' and seems quite decisive. But doubts 
arise when we compare the early forms with those of Woolley, 
Wooldale, Woolrow, Woolthwaite, where the f of OE widf or 
ON ulfr appears quite regularly down to the end of the 13th 
cent. Probably the correct interpretation is 'Ulla's lea.' In that 
case instead of an early form Ulle-lei we find Ullei, the / in lei 
having coalesced with that in Ulle at a very early date ; compare 
Methley, Owston and Shafton. 

G. 19 


UNDERBANK, UNDERCLIFFE, are examples of a 
small class of place-names formed by means of a preposition 
and a noun. The former occurs in Hunshelf, the latter in 

UPPERTHONG.— See Thong. 

UPPERTHORPE is in Hallam. 

UPTON, Badsworth, DB Uptone, KC 1218 Opton,W<[- 1316 
Uppeton, PT 1379 Vpton, is derived from OE up, up, upwards, 
and tun, an enclosure, farmstead. The meaning is simply ' high 
farm or enclosure.' 

UTLEY, Keighley, DB Utelai, KI 1285 Utte'ley, PT 1379 
Uttelay, Vtlay, appears to be 'the lea of Uta or Utta,' both 
forms of the personal name being recorded by Searle. 

VISET, Hemsworth, DN 1555 Biset, is recorded by Clarke 
in 1828 as Visit, and the transformation in the name appears to 
be due to the influence of the common word ' visit.' The original 
name probably meant ' the seat of Bisi,' from the personal name 
recorded by Searle, and OE set, a seat, entrenchment, camp. 
Viset was for a time the home of Roger Dodsworth. 

respectively near Sheffield, Hebden Bridge, and Doncaster, have 
the following early records : 

DB 1086 Wadesleia DB 1086 Wadesuurde DB 1086 Wadeuurde 

HR 1276 Waddesley HR 1276 Wadewyrth PR 1190 Wadewurde 

YS 1297 Wadeslay WCR 1307 Waddeswrth PF 1202 Waddewurth 

CR 1311 Waddesley PT 1379 Waddesworth KI 1285 Waddeworth 

In the first element of Wadsley and Wadsworth we have the 
strong form Wade, genitive Wades, and in that of Wadworth 
the weak form Wada, genitive Wadan, both recorded by Searle. 
The meaning of Wadsley and Wadsworth, is, therefore, ' the lea 
of Wade ' and ' the farmstead of Wade,' from OE leak and 
weorth, while the meaning of Wadworth is ' the farmstead of 


WAKEFIELD. — There is no lack of post-Conquest records, 
of which the following is a typical selection : 

DB 1086 Wachefeld, Wachefelt WCR 1286 Wakefeud 

PR 1103 Wakfeld WCR 1298 Wakefeud 

YR 1270 Wakefeld NV 1316 Wakefeld 

WCR 1274 Wakefeud PT 1379 Wakefeld 

Wakeley in Hertfordshire, DB Wachelie, is explained by 
Dr Skeat as ' the lea in which wakes were formerly held,' from 
OE wacu, a wake, vigil, an annual village merry-making ; and 
Wakefield may certainly have a similar meaning. On the other 
hand the correct interpretation may be ' Waca's field,' where the 
personal name is a weak form corresponding to Uach recorded 
in LV, and Vakr given by Naumann. Other place-names with 
the same prefix are Wakeham in Dorset and Wakehurst in 

On every side of Wakefield there is marked evidence of 
Danish occupation and settlement. No other town in South- 
west Yorkshire shows in its vicinity so large a number of 
' thorpes.' Though some of these, like Chapelthorpe, are certainly 
post-Conquest, others very probably go back to the loth century. 
Among the names of Scandinavian origin we may enumerate 
Ackton, Agbrigg, Altofts, Alverthorpe, Blacker, Carlton, Carr 
Gate, Cluntergate, Dirtcar, Flanshaw, Foulby, Gawthorpe, Gill, 
Hesketh, Hollingthorpe, Kettlethorpe, Kirkthorpe, Laithes, 
Lofthouse, Milnthorpe, Nooking, Normanton, Ouchthorpe, Pain- 
thorpe, Skitterick, Snydale, Snapethorpe, Thorpe, Woodthorpe, 
and Wragby. 

Within a radius of about ten miles the meeting-places of five 
Wapentakes are clustered together. The sites of four — Agbrigg, 
Staincross, Morley, Skyrack — are known, and that of the fifth, 
though uncertain, must have been in the neighbourhood of 
Castleford and Pontefract, and so within the radius mentioned. 
Thus in every case the meeting-place must have stood at the 
extremity of the Wapentake nearest Wakefield. 

Remembering that the Ridings are of Scandinavian origin, 
that Wakefield is the traditional capital of the West Riding, and 
that it still possesses the Registry of Deeds for the Riding, and 



recalling the points mentioned in the note on Tingley as well as 
those recounted in the paragraphs immediately preceding this, we 
shall come to the conclusion that Wakefield was most probably 
the Viking capital of the West Riding, and that, therefore, it was 
also a place of importance long before the Viking Age. 

' The manor of Wakefield is very extensive, possessing a 
jurisdiction stretching from Normanton to the edge of Lan- 
cashire, and including the lordship of Halifax ; it is more than 
30 miles in length from east to west, and comprises 118 towns, 
villages, and hamlets' (Clarke, 1828). From east to west the 
diocese of Wakefield, formed in 1888, has almost exactly the 
same extent ; it includes, however, many townships not in 
the ancient manor. 

LOW, north-west of Sheffield. — For the first DB gives Sceuelt, 
BD 1290 Waldershelfe, YD 1302 Walderschelf, YD 1307 
Walderschelf. The first element in each is the OE name 
Wealdhere, army-wielder, and the endings come from OE scylf, 
a shelf or ledge, OE haga, an enclosure, homestead, OE hlasw, 
a cairn or burial-mound. 

WALTON. — Early spellings of Wales, Walton, and Walshaw 
are as follows : 

DB 1086 Wales, Walise DB 1086 Waleton WCR 1277 Wallesheyes 

HR 1276 Wales KI 1285 Walton PT 1379 Walschagh 

KI 1285 Weles NV 1316 Walton HW 1543 Walshaye 

PT 1379 Wales PT 1379 Walton HW 1549 Walshay 

These names possess peculiar interest ; they refer to the presence 
of Britons living side by side with the Anglian settlers. The OE 
word wealh, meant a foreigner, a Briton ; and in the nom. pi. its 
form was wealas or walas, the gen. pi. being weala or wala. 

Wales, Rotherham, means ' the Britons,' from OE wealas. 
Its origin is exactly the same as the name of the country, which, 
like Norfolk and Suffolk, first referred to the people, and after- 
wards to the place where they dwelt. 

Waleswood, Rotherham, YD 131 1 Walaswod, YD 1326 
Waliswode, is formed from the previous name, Wales, and the 



OE zvudu, a wood. Its meaning is simply 'the wood near 

Walsh, a group of cottages in Gomersal, probably comes 
from the OE adjective W^lsc, foreign, British, Welsh. 

Walshaw, Hebden Bridge, may fairly be explained as ' the 
copse of the Britons,' from OE sceaga, a small wood, and weala, 
gen. pi. of wealh. 

Walton, Wakefield, appears to represent OE Weala-tun, 
' the farmstead of the Britons,' from OE iiin, an enclosure or 
farmstead. Of Walden in Herts., DB Waldene, HR Waledene, 
Dr Skeat says ' The spelling with -le- is to be noted, as it shows 
that the name begins neither with AS weald, a wood, nor with 
weall, a wall. In fact, it precisely agrees with AS Wealadene, 
dative case of Wealadenu! After explaining Walden as ' the 
valley of strangers,' Dr Skeat concludes by saying ' we here find 
a trace of the Celts.' 

Walton Cross, Liversedge, where there is the base of an 
ancient cross, possibly of the 8th century, has the same origin 
and meaning. 

WALKLEY, Sheffield, 1270 Walkeley, 1285 Walkeleye, HH 
1366 Walkelay, PT 1379 Walkmylne. It seems clear that 
Walkeley has for its first element a weak personal name. The 
patronymic of corresponding form is found in the West Riding 
Walkingham, DB Walckingeka' , and in the East Riding Walking- 
ton, DB Walchinton, NY Walkyngton. Hence Walkley may be 
explained as 'the lea of *Wealca'; compare the Frisian name 
Walke recorded by Brons. The name Walkmylne on the other 
hand means ' fulling mill,' from OE wealcan, ME walke, to roll, 
revolve. From this OE word we get OE wealcere, ME walker, 
a fuller of cloth ; hence the personal name Walker. Perhaps 
*Wealca is of cognate origin. 

WALL, WELL. — These words may fairly be taken together 
because of the instances where variation between one and the 
other is to be found, as, for example, in the field-name White 
Walls or White Wells, which occurs in Austonley, Dinnington, 
Ovenden, Silkstone, and elsewhere. In Lancashire there are 
several ancient names which present this phenomenon : 


Aspinall, 1244 Aspiwalle I24y Aspenewell 

Childwall, 1224 Childewal, in\\ c. Ckeldewell 

Halliwell, 1292 Haliwall, 1246 Haliwell 

Thingwall, 1346 Thingewall, 1228 Thingwell 

When the word is Scandinavian, variation of this kind can be 
fully accounted for, ON vbllr, a field or plain, having a stem of 
the form vail- and a dat. sing, velli. But as this variation some- 
times occurs where the first element is obviously Anglian — as 
in the case of Churwell, 1226 Cherlewall, 1296 Chorelwell — we 
find ourselves beset with difficulties. Perhaps (i) the common 
word ' well ' has been influenced by ON vdllr\ perhaps (2) it has 
been influenced by OE weall; perhaps (3) there is a variant of 
' well ' having the form ' wall ' — compare OFris. walla, a spring, 
and Dan. vceld (for vcsll). 

South-west Yorkshire has the following names where the 
source seems clearly OE well, welle, wiell, a well, spring, 
fountain: Birdwell, Churwell, Dudwell, Hollingwell, Ludwell, 
Mapplewell, Oakwell, Ouzlewell, and Spinkwell. Names pro- 
bably Scandinavian are Braithwell, Heliwell, and Purlwell. 


"WARSIDE. — Warburton occurs in Emley, Warland near 
Todmorden, Warlow Pike in Saddleworth, Warside in Ovenden. 

Without early forms of these names it is quite impossible 
to give definite explanations. Yet among the various sources 
from which the first element may come there are two much more 
likely than any other, namely, OE weard, ME ward, a guard or 
watchman, and ON varSa, a beacon, a pile of stones, or cairn. 
The former occurs in Warborough, Oxfordshire, formerly 
Weard- burg, and may well occur in Warburton, the combination 
I'db becoming rb quite regularly. But the ON varSa, later warthe, 
might occur in any of the four names, for the th would readily 

WARDSEND, Ecclesfield, HH 1235 Wereldsend, YD 
1323 Werldishende, HH 1366 Werlsend, PT 1379 Werdeshend, 
Wardeshend, ' world's end,' from OE weoruld or ON vereld, 
world, and OE ende or Dan. ende, end, quarter, district. 



■WARLEY, Halifax, provides an excellent example of the 
weakening of the unaccented syllable and its final loss. 

DB 1086 Werlafeslei WCR 1342 Warleley 

WCR 1274 Werloweley WCR 1345 Warlilley 

WCR 1286 Werloley WCR 1372 Warlullay 

WCR 1309 Werlouleye WCR 1374 Wherolay 

WCR 1326 Warouley WCR 1442 Warhy 

Spellings strikingly different from the above are 

NV 1 3 16 Warlowby PT 1379 Warbillay 

The Domesday form has been the subject of much discussion. 
In the enumeration of the lands of the King, although the 
berewicks of Wakefield are said to be nine, the Domesday 
record names only eight : Sandala, Sorebi, Werlafeslei, Micleie, 
Wadeswurde, Cru' betonestun, Langefelt, Stanesfelt. In order to 
make up the nine Werlafeslei has been divided into Werla and 
Feslei; but obviously WCR 1274 Werloweley could not come 
from Werla. Further, copying from an early document Watson 
gives the following : 'Manerium de Wackfielde et ville de 
Sandala, Warlef ester, Medene, Wadesworth, Crigestone, Bretone, 
Orberie, Oslesett, Stanleie, Scelfetone, Amelie, Seppleie, Scelveleye, 
Cumbreword, Crosland, Hohne, Halifaxleie, et Thoac! In the 
form Warlef ester we have the best possible support for DB 
Werlafeslei, even though the ending is different, and we may 
safely interpret Warley as ' the lea of Wserlaf,' while Warlowby 
is ' the farmstead of Waerlaf,' and Warlef ester is ' the place of 
Waerlaf,' from ON byr and stcC&r. The form given in PT, 
Warbillay, appears to be merely a scribal error. Note the loss 
of the sign of the genitive, the loss of the first / through dissimi- 
lation in WCR 1326 and 1374, and the change from four 
syllables to three and then from three to two. 

WARMFIELD, WARMSWORTH, Wakefield and Don- 
caster. — Early spellings of these names are plentiful, and tell 
their tale with sufficient clearness. 

DB 1086 Warm sf eld DB 1086 Wermesford, Wemesforde 

RC 121 5 Wamefeld HR 1276 Wermesworth 

YR 1252 Wamefeld YS 1297 Wernusworth 

NV 1316 Wamefeld NV 1316 Wermesworth 

VE IS3S Warmefeld VE iS3S Warmesworth 


Warmfield is 'the field of Waern,' where the strong form 
*Waern corresponds to the weak form Waerna (Searle) ; compare 
BCS WcBrnan -k)) II a.r\d Wernan-broc. 

Warmsworth on the other hand is 'the farmstead of 
*Werm,' such a personal name being assured by the patronymic 
in Warmingham, Warminghurst, Warmirigton. 

WATH-ON-DEARNE, DB Wade, Wate, Wat, YR 1234 
Wath, KI 1285 Wath, NV 1316 Wath. This is from ON va&, 
a wading place, ford. The word is found elsewhere qualified 
by various prefixes; there are, for example. Sand wath and 
Langwath, sand-ford and long-ford. 

WELBECK, Stanley, WRM 1391 Wilbyght, Wilbytht, 
appears to mean 'willow bend,' from OE wilig, ME wilwe, 
willow, and OE byht, a bend, an angle. The name refers to 
a great bend in the Calder opposite Kirkthorpe. 

WELL.— See Wall. 

WELLINGLEY, Tickhill, RC 1231 Wellingleye, YD 1374 
Welyngley, YF 1494 Wellyngley, is 'the lea of Welling or the 
Wellings.' This OE patronymic appears in Welling, the name 
of a village in Kent ; it also appears in Wellingham, Welling- 
borough, and the four Wellingtons. 


WENTWORTH, Sheffield, DB Winteuuord, Winteuuorde, 
Wintreuuorde, YR 1234 Wintewrth, YI 1252 Wintewrde, YI 
1308 Wynteworthe Wodehous. In Cambridge there is a second 
Wentworth, DB Winteworde, derived according to Professor 
Skeat from the OE personal name Winta and OE weorth and 
explained as ' Winta's farmstead.' This may well be the inter- 
pretation of our Yorkshire Wentworth ; but see Went. 

WESTERTON, Ardsley near Wakefield, PT 1379 Wester- 
ton, is probably ' the farm more to the west.' 



WESTFIELD ROAD, Wakefield.— Although this name 
shows no sign of antiquity and awakens no desire to probe its 
history, it carries us back a thousand years and more. 

The district to which Westfield Road leads was in olden 
days the ' common iield ' of Wakefield. According to custom 
this common field was divided into three divisions to agree with 
a threefold rotation of crops. The names of the divisions were 
Cross Field, Middle Field, and West Field, and it is from the 
last of these that the modern road obtains its name. 

The position of the three fields is shown in a map of 
Wakefield dated 1728. In this map we can see something of 
the larger divisions of the open field, something of the isolation 
of strip from strip in the possessions of one individual, and also 
something of the coalescing which gradually took place. 

■WESTNAL. — Bradfield had formerly four divisions, Walder- 
shelf, Dungworth, Bradfield, and Westmonhalgh or Westnal. 
In YAS we find 1329 Westmundhalgh, 1335 Westenhalgh, 1380 
Westmundhalch, 1398 Westmonhall, and YF 1560 has Westman- 
haugh. As PF 1 166 records the name Westmund we may 
explain Westnal as 'Westmund's corner,' from OE healh, a 
corner or meadow; see Hale. 

WHAM. — In the Colne Valley there are Broad Wham, 
Cabe Wham, and Fore Wham ; near Holmfirth, the Wham 
and Boshaw Whams ; near Hebden Bridge, Whams Wood ; and 
the name is also found in Fulstone, Thurlstone, Erringden and 
Golcar. EDD explains the dialect-word ' wham ' which occurs 
in the Northern counties as a swamp, a marshy hollow, a dale 
among the hills, a hollow in a hill or mountain. According 
to the same authority the source of the word is ON hvammr, a 
grassy slope or vale. 

WHARNCLIFFE, Sheffield, is probably 'mill cliff,' from 
OE cweorn or ON kvern, a mill, and OE clif ot ON klif, a cliff; 
see Quarmby. 

WHEATCROFT, WHEATLEY.— The first occurs in 
Ecclesfield, the second in Ovenden, WCR 1307 Queteleyhirst, 


and near Doncaster. Early spellings of the last are DB Watelage, 
YI 1279 Waitele, CR 1280 Whetelagh, YD 1394 Qwhatelay. 
The meaning is ' wheat lea,' from OE hwate and leak. 

WHELDALE, Pontefract— One naturally divides the 
word thus, Whel-dale ; but such a division is topographically 
unlikely, and raises up difficulties in regard to the prefix. Early 
spellings are DB Queldale, PC 1240 Queldale, IN 1252 Weldale, 
NV 1 3 16 Queldale, and the meaning is 'Cweld's corner' from 
OE kealk, and the known personal name Cweld or Kveld. 
Compare the names Beal and Roall found in the immediate 

WHIRLOW, Sheffield, is recorded in 1501 as Hurlowe. 
There is conflict between the spellings, but the termination is 
certainly from OE hldw, hlaw, a burial mound or hill. 

WHISTON, Rotherham, appears on the one hand as 
DB 1086 Witestan, YR 1280 Wytstan, KI 1285 Wytstan, 
YD 1342 Whitstan, 'white stone,' from OE hwit, white, and 
Stan, stone, and on the other hand as DB 1086 Widestan, 
PF 1196 Wisestan, YR 1270 Witkstan, where the first element 
may perhaps represent the gen. of the personal name ViSi 
recorded by Naumann. Other forms like YD 1306 Wystan, 
YD 1 3 14 Wistan, YD 1377 Whystan, spring naturally from 
either of the forms before mentioned. 


OE blac often means dark and dull rather than black, so the 
OE hwlt frequently denotes bright and fair rather than white. 
This is the meaning in place-names. The change of vowel- 
length — hwlt becoming whit instead of white — corresponds to 
that already noted in dc, an oak-tree, brad, broad, stdn, a stone, 
and tUn, an enclosure, words which as prefixes become quite 
regularly ack, brad, stan, and tun. The corresponding word in 
ON is hvitr, white. 

Whitcliffe, Cleckheaton, ' fair cliff,' may be either Anglian 
or Scandinavian in both its elements. 



Whitgift, Goole, SC 1154 Wtiegift, PF 1198 Witegift, 
CR 1203 Wytegift, is 'fair portion,' from OE gift, a portion or 
dowry, and the weak form of OE hwit. 

Whiteley, Ecclesall, ti28o Wyteleye, 1366 Whitley, is the 
'fair lea,' from OE leak, a lea or meadow. 

Whiteley, Hebden Bridge, WCR 1308 Wyteleye, has the 
same origin and meaning. 

Whitley, Knottingley, DB Witelai, PF 1202 Witelay, 
NV 1 3 16 Whitley, comes from the same source. 

Whitley Beaumont, Kirkheaton, DB Witelei, CR 1247 
Wyttelegh, NV 13 16 Whiteley, has the distinctive appellation 
Bellomonte in early documents, later forms being Beumont and 
Beamont, the 'fine mount.' 

Whitwell, Stocksbridge, YD 1302 Whitewell, YD 1307 
Wytewell, is 'the clear spring,' from OE well 

Whitwood, Norman ton, DB Witeuude, PC f 1090 Witewde, 
is ' the fair wood,' from OE wiidu. 

Whitechapel. — See Chapelthorpe. 

Whitehaughs, Fixby, WH Wytehalge, is ' the fair corner,' 
from OE healh, a corner or meadow. 

WIBSEY, Bradford.— Early forms are DB Wibetese, CR 
1283 Wybecey, CR 1311 Wibbeseye, PT 1379 Wybsay. The name 
is of the same type as Arksey and Pudsey, and we expect its first 
element to be a personal name. In DB we find such names as 
Bar and Baret, Eli and Eliet, Leue and Leuet, Tor and Toret ; 
and, as the names Wibba and Wibbo are on record, we are 
justified in postulating the forms Wibo and Wibet. The latter 
would agree with the DB spelling Wibetese, and would warrant 
the explanation 'Wibet's island,' from OE eg, an island. A 
perusal of the lists of Frisian names given by Brons shows the 
actual existence of the name Wibet, as well as Wibba, Wibbe, 
and Wibbo. 

WYKE. — OE wic meant a dwelling, an abode, a village, and 
ON vik a creek, inlet, bay. It would seem impossible to make 
use of the latter for inland places ; yet in Cumberland the form 
'wike' is used to designate 'a narrow opening between rising 


grounds,' the maritime word being apparently converted to 
inland uses. 

The terminal -wick occurs in the two Adwicks and the two 
Hardwicks, as well as in Cowick, Creswick, Fenwick, Huntwick, 
Pledwick, and Wilsick, all words of Anglian origin; but the 
terminal -wike is found only once, namely, in Heckmondwike. 

WiCKEN, Scholes, and WiCKlNS, Upperthong, may mean 
simply 'mountain-ash,' for that according to EDD is the meaning 
of the dialect-word Wicken or Quicken. But compare the Norw. 
place-name Viken, formerly Wickenn, from ON vlk. 

Wicker, Sheffield, HS 1637 Whicker, may be the dialect- 
word Wicker or Quicker, a quick-set hedge (EDD). But com- 
pare the Norw. place-name Viker pi. of ON vik. 

WiCKING, found in Wicking Lane in Sowerby, Wicking 
Slack in Widdop, and Wicking Green in Marsden, is perhaps 
derived from ON vlk, and ON eng, a meadow. 

Wyke, Bradford, DB Wich, Wiche, HR 1276 Wyk, PT 1379 
Wyke, is interesting because the township contains just such a 
' narrow opening between rising grounds ' as is alluded to above. 
It seems very probable that we owe the name to ON vlk. 

The Wyke, Horbury, is a tract of lowlying land alongside 
the Calder. The name is most probably from ON vlk. 

WICKERSLEY, Rotherham, DB Wicresleia, Wincreslei, 
RC 1 1 86 Wikerslai, KI 1285 Wykerslegh, is 'the lea of Wikaer,' 
from OE leak, and the ODan. name recorded by Nielsen. 

WIDDOP, on the Lancashire border north of Todmorden, 
is recorded in HW 1440 as Wedehope and HW 1548 as Widope. 
The meaning is the ' wide secluded valley,' from OE wld, wide, 
and OE hop, a secluded valley. 

WIGFALL, Worsborough, CH ti2So Wig/all, PT 1379 
Wigfall, appears to be 'the sloping horse-pasture,' from OE 
wicg, ME wig, a horse. 

WIGHTWIZZLE, Bradfield, CH ti28o Wygestwysell, 
Wigestwysell, 1311 Wigtuisil, 1335 Wiggetwisell, YF 1573 
Wyghtwysill, is 'Wig's watersmeet,' from OE twisla, a confluence, 
and the recorded name Wig ; see Briestwistle. 


WILBERLEE, Slaithwaite, YS 1297 Wildeborleye, WCR 
1 308 Wildborleyes, may be ' the lea of the wild boar,' but is more 
probably ' Wildbore's lea/ the sign of the genitive being omitted 
as in Alverley and Alverthorpe. The personal name Wildebore 
occurs in DN 1355. 

WILBY, W^ILTHORPE, Doncaster and Barnsley.— The 
latter may be the place referred to as WUthorp in PF 1202. 
Both names are Scandinavian, and the first element in both is 
most probably the personal name Will recorded by Naumann. 
Thus Wilby may be explained as 'Will's farm,' from ON byr, 
and Wilthorpe as ' Will's thorp,' from ON thorp. 

WILSDEN, WILSICK, Bradford and Doncaster.— Early 
records of these names are as follows : 

DB 1086 Wilsedene DB 1086 Wilseuuice 

PC ti246 Wilsyndem PR 1190 Willesich 

NV 1 316 Wyheden KF 1303 Wylsyk 

YF 1558 Wylsden PT 1379 Wilsewyke 

Among ON personal names several have the ending -si, e.g. Elfsi, 
Grimsi, Hugsi (Naumann) ; and among Frisian names many 
have the ending -se, e.g. Bense, Gatse, Inse (Brons) ; while to-day 
the name Wilse is found in Christiania. Hence we may explain 
Wilsden as ' the valley of Wilsa or Wilsi,' and Wilsick as ' the 
habitation of Wilsa or Wilsi,' from OE denu and wlc. 

WILSHAW, Meltham, is probably ' the willow copse,' from 
OE wilig, a willow, and sceaga, a copse or wood. 

WINCOBANK, Sheffield is the site of an ancient camp. 
The earliest available records are Wyncobanke in YF 1573, 
Wincowbanke in the Ecclesfield Registers of 1597 and 1600, and 
Wincowbanke in HS 1637; compare also HS 1637 Wincowe 
Wood. These are sufficient to warrant us in deriving the second 
syllable from ON haHgr, a mound, hill. The first element is 
doubtless a personal name; and Searle gives Winco, which 
would account for the prefix in Winksley near Ripon. For 
Wincow- we require a weak form and must postulate such a 
name as Winca. 


WINDHILL, WINDYBANK.— The former name occurs 
(i) near Bradford, PT 1379 Wyndehill, YF 1578 Wytidhyll, and 
(2) near Sheffield, 1307 Wyndehullefall. It goes back of course 
to OE wind, ME wind, wynd, wind. 

The latter name is also found twice, namely, in Southowram, 
YD 1277 Wyndibankes, and in Liversedge, and derives its first 
element from OE windig, windy. 

WINTERSETT, Wakefield, PR 1190 Winterseta, CR 121.5 
Wintersete, CR 1280 Wyntressete, NV 13 16 and PT 1379 
Wynterset, is probably ' the seat of Winter.' The name Wintra 
is recorded by Searle, and we may postulate the corresponding 
strong form Winter ; indeed Falkman records a Dan. personal 
name Vinter. The suffix is from OE set, a seat, entrenchment, 
camp, or OY^ge-set, a dwelling, habitation. 

■WIRRAL, Sheffield. — In quite modern times an alternative 
spelling, Worrall, has arisen. Early records are DB Wihala, 
Wihale, HH 1350 Wirall, Wyrall, PT 1379 Wirall, Wyrkall, 
YD 1432 Wyrehall. The first instance of the alternative form 
is in YF 1562 Worrall als Wyrrall. The signification appears 
to be similar to that of Wirrall in Cheshire which was Wirhalmn 
in 1002, namely, 'the corner of the wild-myrtle,' from OE wir, 
the wild-myrtle, and healh, a corner or meadow. 

-WITH. — Derived from ON vi'&r, a wood, this termination 
is found in Cupwith Hill, Slaithwaite ; in Stockwith Lane, 
Hoyland Nether ; and in Bubwith, Pontefract. 

WITHENS, WITHINS.— In the neighbourhood of 
Halifax this name is of frequent occurrence. We find it in 
Southowram, Ovenden, Luddenden, Heptonstall, Cragg Vale, 
and Rishworth. There is also Withins Moor west of Penistone, 
and DN 1362 has a Within in Fixby. Rygh records the name 
* Vii&in, now Vien, and derives it from ON vv6r, wide, and vin, a 
meadow, but more probably our words are connected with ON 
vf6ir, a willow, for EDD explains ' withen ' as a name given to 
various species of willow, or to a piece of wet land where willows 
grow. See Lund. 


WOMBWELL, Barnsley, has a name of much interest, 
which is recorded in the following forms : 

DB 1086 Wanbella, Wanbuella YI 1307 Wambewelle 

HE 1276 Wambwell NV 1316 Wambewell 

KI 1285 Wambewell PT 1379 Wombewell 

The substitution of n for m in the Domesday spellings is due to 
the Norman scribes ; but the change from ' wamb ' to ' womb ' is 
quite regular, and corresponds to the change from ' lang ' to 
' long ' and ' Strang ' to ' strong.' Though the meaning is almost 
certainly ' the well in the hollow,' the origin is doubtful, as the 
first element maybe either OE wamb,'WK womb, or ON vdmb{st&m 
vamb\ words used doubtless in the sense of a hollow place. We 
find in Icelandic such names as Vambar ■ kolmr zvid Vambar-dalr 
(Vigfusson), and on the other hand we find in Stafifordshire 
the name Wombourne, DB Wamburne, later Wombeburne, 'the 
brook in the hollow ' (Duignan). See Thong and Wall. 

WOMERSLEY, Pontefract. — Without early records it 
would be impossible to find the true explanation. DB gives 
Wilmereslege, Wlmeresleia, YI 1286 Wilmeresley, YD 13 18 
Wylmersley, PT 1379 Wilmerslay. Wilmser is a well-known 
personal name given by Searle, and the place-name may safely 
be interpreted as ' Wilmaer's lea,' from OE leak. 


The word ' wood ' is from OE wudu, ME wode, wood, timber, or 
a wood, a forest. The following names have this word for their 
termination : Blackwood, Eastwood, Ewood, Greenwood, Little- 
wood, Lockwood, Longwood, Middlewood, Morwood, Norwood, 
Outwood, Pickwood, Sowood, Waleswood, Westwood, Whitwood. 
The corresponding Scandinavian word, found in such names as 
Askwith and Birkwith, comes from ON vi^r, a wood. 

WooDALL, Harthill, YD 1536 Wodekill, appears to have 
suffered a change in its termination. 

WoODHALL, Darfield, correctly represents the early form 
Wudehall given in YS 1297. 

WoODHEAD, Huddersfield, is given in YD 1369 as Wodeheued. 


WOODHEAD occurs also near Penistone. 
WOODHOUSE and WOODSOME form an interesting pair, being 
related to one another as singular and plural ; the ending of the 
former is from the OE dative singular huse, of the latter from 
the dative plural hicsum. The only example of the plural form 
occurs in Woodsome Hall, near Huddersfield, of which curiously 
enough the earliest record is in the singular, DN 1236 Wodehuse, 
though later spellings, DN 1373 Wodsom, CH 1375 Wodhusum, 
DN 1383 Wodsum, DN 1393 Wodesom, YF 1561 Wodosom, are 
obviously plural and signify 'wood houses.' Of the name 
Woodhouse eight examples have come to notice ; they are 
situated at Ardsley, Cartworth, Emley, Normanton, Handsworth 
1297 Wodehouses, Huddersfield DN 1383 Wodehous, Rastrick 
1 3 14 Wodehowses, and Shelley WCR 1275 Wodehuses. 

WOODKIRK, Dewsbury, BM 1196 Wodekirk, CR 1215 
Wdekirka, HR 1276 Wodekirke, is interesting because of the 
form ' kirk ' and its association with the Anglian ' wood.' The 
connection of Woodkirk with the ancient Mystery Plays is well 
known, and the annual horse fairs held close at hand are no less 
famous, though after another fashion. An entry in WCR 1306 
tells us of John, servant of the late Henry de Swynlington, that 
he 'stole a hide worth \i)d. from Wodekirk Fair,' and concludes 
' He is to be arrested.' 

Woodlands occurs in Adwick-le-Street. 
WOODROW, Methley, KC 1332 Woderoue, MPR 1612 Wood- 
rowe, is probably 'the row beside the wood,' from ME rowe, 
OE raw, a row, line. 

WOODSETTS, on the Nottinghamshire border, spelt Wodesete 
in 1324 and Wodeseies in 13S4, seems to be ' the seat in the wood,' 
from OE set, a seat, entrenchment, camp. 

WOODTHORPE, Wakefield, is mentioned in WCR under the 
forms Wodethorp in 1279 and Wodethorpe in 1286. 

WoODTHORPE, Handsworth, was Wodetorp in ti277 and 
Wodethorp in ti300. The termination is derived from ON thorp, 
a village. 

WOODLESFORD, on the Aire near Leeds, is recorded in 
PF 1170 as Wridelesford, in PF 1202 as Wriddlesford, CR 1250 


Wudelesford, DN 1251 Wodelesford, PM 1258 Wridelesford, LC 

1296 Wridelesforde. Apparently there were two forms struggling 
for the mastery, and a third form 1327 Wriglesford, RPR 167 1 
Wriglesfortk, RPR 1670 Wriglesworth, is also to be found. The 
first element is clearly a personal name, and as Searle gives Wodel, 
we may explain the place-name as ' Wodel's ford.' 

ROW, WOOLTHWAITE.— In no single instance is there 
any connection with sheep. The prefixes are, in fact, 'wolves 
masquerading in sheep's clothing,' for the origin is either (i) OE 
wulf, a wolf, (2) ON iilfr, a wolf, or (3) corresponding weak 
personal names Wulfa and Ulfi. We take first those names which 
are Anglian. 

WOOLGREAVES, Cawthorne and Sandal, is 'wolf-thicket,' from 
OE grafa, a bush, thicket, grove. 

WOOLLEY, which occurs three times, is either 'lea of the 
wolves,' from OE wulfa, gen. pi. of wulf, or ' lea of Wulfa,' 
witness the following early forms: (i) WooUey near Wakefield, 
DB Wiluelai, PC 1192 Wlveleia, YI 1297 Wolvelay, NV 13 16 
Wolfelay; (2) Woolley, Shire Green, spelt Wolleghes about 1325 
according to Eastwood ; (3) Woolley Head, Hipperholme, WCR 

1297 Wlveley heud. 

The following names are Scandinavian, and have for their 
first element either ON illfa, the gen. pi. of ulfr, or Ulfa the gen. 
of a personal name Ulfi. 

WOOLDALE, Holmfirth, commonly pronounced Oodle {udl), 
DB 1086 Vluedel, WCR 1274 and 1297 Wlvedale, WCR 1286 
Wolvedale, gets its terminal from ON dalr, a valley. 

WOOLROW, Shelley, YI 1266 Wolewra, WCR 1275 Wlvewro, 
gets its terminal from ON vrd, a nook or corner. 

WooLROW, Brighouse, WCR 1308 Wollewro, Wolwro, HW 
1 5 54 Wolrawe, has the same origin and meaning. 

WOOLTHWAITE, Tickhill, BM Wolvethwaite, RC 1241 Wlve- 
thwait, comes from ON thveit, a clearing. 

W^ORMALD occurs both in Barkisland and Rishworth. 
G. -° 


Burton gives the early forms Wlfrunwell and Wulfrunwall, and 
other early forms are as follows : 

WCR 1286 Walronwalle PT 1379 Wornewall 

WCR 1308 Wollerenwalle HW 1402 Wormewall 

WCR 1326 Wolronwal DN 1632 Hye Wormall 

The final d has been added in more recent times, as in the case 
of Backhold. The name is possibly Scandinavian, ' the field of 
Ulfrun,' from ON vollr, a field ; but it is possibly Anglian, its 
meaning ' Wulfrun's well.' Ulfrun is the Scandinavian form of 
the personal name — which is feminine — and Wulfrun is the 
Anglian form. See Wall, Well. 

WORMLEY, Thorne, PT 1379 Wormelay, may perhaps be 
of the same origin as Wormley, Herts., DB Wermelai. In that 
case it means ' Wurma's lea,' being equivalent to OE Wurman- 
leak, where Wurma is a short form of some such name as 
Wurm-beorht or Wurm^here. But see Wormald. 

WORSBOROUGH, WORTLEY.— These place-names 
provide examples of a personal name in its strong and weak 
forms. They also provide examples where different ancient 
names have produced the same result. 

WoRSBOROUGH, Barnsley. WORTLEY, Leeds. WORTLEY, Sheffield. 

DB 1086 Wircesburg KC 1189 Wirkeleia DB 1086 VVirtleie, Wirlei 

YS 1297 Wortelay 
NV 1 3 16 Wortelai 
PT 1379 Wortelay 

WORSBOROUGH has for its first element a personal name, 
doubtless the strong form Wyrc equivalent to the OE Weorc 
found in BCS Weorces-mere; compare also the Frisian name 
Wirke (Brons). We may explain Worsborough as ' Weorc's 
strong place/ from OE hirg, a fortified post. 

The early forms of the Leeds WORTLEY dififer from those of 
Worsborough in omitting the final s from the personal name ; 
we are therefore dealing with a weak form of the name such 
as Weorca, and hence the meaning is ' Weorca's lea,' from 
OE leak. 

CR 1249 Wyrkesburc 

CC 1200 Wirkelaia 

NV 1316 Wyrkesbiirgh 

KI 1285 Wirkelay 

PT 1379 Wyrkesburgh 

KF 1303 Wirkeley 


WORTLEY, Sheffield, shows a prefix of quite another character, 
derived from OE wyrt, a herb, vegetable. Old English had 
several compounds in which wyrt was the first element. The 
ancient word for garden was wyrt-geard, wort-yard, or wyrt- tun, 
wort-enclosure; the gardener was wyrt-weard, wort-ward; and 
physic was wyrt-drenc, wort-drink. Perhaps Wortley, wyrt-leah, 
was noted for its productiveness. 

'WORTH. — The OE worth, weorth, wyrth, was applied to a 
homestead or farm. According to Professor Skeat it is closely 
allied to the word 'worth' meaning 'value' and it may be 
explained as ' property ' or ' holding.' OE had two derivatives 
worthine and worthig; these have given us the terminations in 
the Shropshire names Shrawardine and Cheswardine, and the 
Devon or Somerset names Bradworthy, Holsworthy, Selworthy. 

Examples in South-west Yorkshire include Ackworth, 
Badsworth, Cudworth, Cullingworth, Cumberworth, Cusworth, 
Dodworth, Fallingworth, Hainworth, Handsworth, Haworth, 
Holdsworth, Holdworth, Ingbirchworth, Kimberworth, Oakworth, 
Rishworth, Roughbirchworth, Saddleworth, Tudworth, Wads- 
worth, Wadworth, Warmsworth, Wentworth. 

WRAGBY, Wakefield, WCR 1308 Wraggeby, WCR 1326 
Wraggebi, IN 1332 Wragheby, should be compared with the 
Lincolnshire Wragby, which appears in DB as Waragebi (for 
Wragebi), and later as Wraggeby and Wragheby. Nielsen records 
an ODan. personal name Wraghi, which appears in Wragathorp, 
now Vragerup, in Skane. Hence we may explain the two 
Wragbys as ' Wragi's farm,' from ON byr, and a personal name 
*Wragi. See Hagg, Haigh. 

WRAITH HOUSE, Oxspring.— In EDD a dialect-word 
■ wreath ' or ' wraith ' is explained as a wattle, underwood, brush- 
wood. Another dialect-word ' wreath ' or ' wread ' is described as 
an enclosure for cattle. The latter is doubtless from the OE 
wr^th, which according to Professor Skeat is found in the 
Cambridgeshire names Shepreth and Meldreth. 

WRANGBROOK, Pontefract, KC fuSS Wrangebroc, YR 
1230 Wrangbrok, HR 1276 Wrangbroc, PT 1379 Wraynebrok, 


derives its first element from OE wrang, twisted, crooked, and 
its termination from OE broc, a stream ; compare BCS 944 
Wrangan-hylle. It should be noted, however, that there is a 
stream in South Wales called Afon Wrangon ; and Mr Henry 
Bradley suggests that Wrangon was the name of the Warwick- 
shire Avon. 

WRENTHORPE, Wakefield, provides an excellent 
example of the 'rounding' which the lapse of time tends to 
produce. Early records include HR 1276 Wyverinthorp, WCR 
1298 Wyverumthorpe, WCR 1307 Wyveromthorpe, 1348 Wyren- 
thorp, 1425 Wyrnethorp. The first element is doubtless a personal 
name, and Searle has Wifrun, a name which neither Naumann 
nor Nielsen records, although they give Dagrun, Guthrun, Oddrun, 
and others. Wrenthorpe is 'the thorpe of Wifrun,' from ON 

WROSE, Shipley, PT 1379 Wrose, YF 1547 Wrose, YF 
1550 Wrasse, appears to be connected with the OE wrdsan, 
which means a knot or lumps. 

WYKE.— See Wick. 

YATEHOLME, Holmfirth.— See Holme. 



APPERLEY, p. 59. — In the curious Nottinghamshire name 
Styrrup there is probably support for the suggestion that apa, 
water, occurs in EngHsh place-names. Early forms of the 
name are : 

DB 1086 Esiirape IL 1348 Stirap 

HR 1278 Stirap IL 1414 Sterap 

IL ti3cx> Sty rap IN tisoo Sterop 

This can scarcely be the common word ' stirrup,' which meant 
literally sty -rope, and which comes from OE stirap (for stigrdp), 
ME stirop. Rather, the first element is a mutated form of stiir, 
which is itself an early form of the common river-name Stour 
(McClure) ; compare the Westphalian place-name Stirpe and 
the Dutch stream-name Stierop, both of which according to 
Jellinghaus involve the word apa. 

BRIDGE, BRIGG. — While 'brigg' and 'rigg' come from 
Scandinavian sources, viz. ON bryggja and ON hryggr, ' bridge ' 
and ' ridge ' are English in origin and come from OE brycg and 
OE hrycg. 

FULNECK, Pudsey.— A settlement of the Moravian 
Brethren was established here in 1744. The name is derived 
from Fulneck in Moravia, which was one of the principal seats 
of the Community. 

HEELEY.— See Healey, p. 163. 

MAGDALE. — For the pronunciation compare Haigh. It 
is of course possible in such names as Mag Field and Mag Wood 
that the source of the first element is the dialect-word mag, a 



NOR"WOOD. — See Norland, p. 219. 

NOSTELL. — See Brierley, p. 72. 

POTTER. — The suggestions in the note on Pott, Potter, 
must not be held to preclude an etymology from OE pott, ON 
pottr, a pot, ME potter, a potter. 

PRIESTLEY, p. 232, is 'the lea of the priests,' iroxn. preosta, 
the gen. pi. of OE preost, a priest. 

QUARMBY, p. 234, has Domesday forms which are in 
conflict with later forms and with one another. Perhaps DB 
Cornelbi is a scribal error ; but DB Cornebi means ' Korni's farm,' 
and DB Cornesbi means ' Korn's farm,' the personal name in the 
former being weak and in the latter strong. 

SKELDERGATE, p. 258, means 'shield- maker's road,' 
from ON skjaldari, a shield-maker, and ON gata, a road 
(Lindkvist). It is therefore connected with ON skjbld, a shield, 
but not in the way previously suggested. 

SKELLOW.— See Skelbrook, p. 256. 

SKYRE.— See Skiers, p. 258. 

SNAPETHORPE, p. 262, has for its first element a word 
connected with ON sneypa. 

SOOTHILL, p. 263.— Forms like DC 1225 SotehiU, DC 
1349 Sotehull, YF 1504 Sotehill, agree with a derivation from the 
ON personal name Soti, gen. Sota. 

SPROTBOROUGH, p. 269, is 'Sprota's fortified place,' 
where *Sprota is a weak form corresponding to the recorded 
strong form Sprot. 

TOPCLIFFE.— See Toft, p. 286. 

TRIPPEY, p. 288. — The first element can scarcely come 
from ON threp, threpi ; more probably it is to be connected with 
the dialect-word trip, a flock of sheep (EDD). 


THE COMMON FIELD SYSTEM.— In connection with 
the note on page 10 it should be noted that while certain 
communities had three common fields, others had only two. 

THE GENITIVE INFLECTION.— There are several 
points of interest in regard to the genitives dealt with in the 
foregoing pages. 

The Genitive Singular.— (i) Many strong personal 
names have lost the -s- they once possessed, witness the early 
forms of Adlingfleet, Alverley, Armley, Armthorpe, Auckley, 
Austonley, Chellow, Dodworth, Heckmondwike, Kettlethorpe, 
Osgoldcross, Painthorpe, Rainborough, Streetthorpe, Warley, 
Warmfield, and Wightwizzle ; compare also Dransfield, Keris- 
forth, and Tankersley. 

(2) Other strong personal names have in their known history 
never possessed this -j-, witness the early forms of Alverthorpe, 
Edderthorpe, Herringthorpe, Osgathorpe, Renathorpe, Rodley, 
Skelmanthorpe, Thurstanland, and perhaps also Attercliffe, 
Chickenley, and Normanton. Of these Attercliffe, Skelman- 
thorpe, and Thurstanland are found in the Domesday record. 

(3) There is no assured example of a weak genitive in -en 
representing OE -an ; but see Rossington. 

The Genitive Plural. — (i) Several names appear to have 
possessed as their first element a genitive plural in -a, viz. 
Bramley, Brierley, Briestwistle, Churwell, Farnley, Farsley, 
Priestley, Rotherham, Shepley, Shipley, and possibly also 
Woolley and Normanton. 

(2) A small number of names show in their first element the 
representative of a weak genitive plural in -ena, viz. Hewenden, 
Oxenhope, Carlentone, and Rodenham. 

THE SUFFIXED ARTICLE.— The map of Norway 
shows large numbers of names ending with -en or -et, where -en 
is the Masc. or Fern, form of the suffixed article, and -et the 
Neut., older forms being -in and -it. From ON oss, the mouth 
or outlet of a river or lake, we get the Norwegian place-names 
Os and Osen, the latter with and the former without the suffixed 
article. Other names of the same kind are Lunden, from ON 


bmdr, a grove ; Viken, from ON vik, an inlet ; Dalen, from ON 
dalr, a dale ; Holtet, from ON holt, a wood. See Lund. 

This suffixed article did not come fully into use until about 
the year 1200, and it has been stated that there is no trace of it 
in English ; but Bjorkman reminds us that Jakobsen gives 
instances of its retention in the Shetlands and asks whether the 
ending -in in Orrmln in the Ormulum may not have the same 
origin'. An examination of the place-names in South-west 
Yorkshire reveals a number of instances which can scarcely 
be accounted for in any other way, early forms being 13 18 
le Swythen and 1362 Within. The list includes the following 
names : Collin, Collon, London, Magdalen, Stubbin, Swithen, 
Swithens, Withens, Withins, some of them several times 

the year 937 was fought one of the most memorable of early 
battles — one which was known for many a day as 'the great 
battle.' In this historic fight the forces of a great confederation — 
Picts and Scots, and Strathclyde Britons, and Vikings from the 
West and North — were met by Athelstan and utterly defeated. 
The fight began with the dawn, and the long and fierce pursuit 
which followed was only ended by the darkness of night. There 
was terrible slaughter, and among the slain were five kings and 
seven earls ; but the two leaders, Constantine and Anlaf, made 
good their escape, the former by land and the latter by water. 

The scene of the struggle is still uncertain, and among the 
places suggested one, Burnswark, is as far north as Dumfries, 
and a second, Brunedown, is as far south as Devon, while others 
are Bourn and Brumby in Lincolnshire, Boroughbridge in 
Yorkshire, Bromborough in Cheshire, Burnley in Lancashire, 
and Bromfield in Cumberland. 

In early Chronicles the place where the fight took place is 
called Brunandune, Brunanwerc, Brunefeld, Bruneford, Brnmes- 
burh, Brunesburh, and Bruneswerc, as well as Brunanburh and 
Brunanbyrig ; but it is also called Brune by the Welsh Chronicle, 
Othlyn by the Annals of Clonmacnois, and Wendune by Symeon 

1 Bjorkman, Scandinavian Loan-words in Middle English, p. 21. 


of Durham. Obviously therefore the site showed a dun, that is, 
a hill ; a burh or were, that is, a fortified place ; a lyn, that is, 
a pool ; and also a ford. Further, according to Florence of 
Worcester and Symeon of Durham, Anlaf brought his Viking 
fleet up the Humber, and according to Ingulf the battle was 
fought in Northumbria. Still further, an army marching from 
Wessex towards York would probably follow the course of 
Riknild Street, which after passing Derby and Chesterfield 
entered Yorkshire and crossed the Don near Rotherham. 

Under these circumstances it seems proper to draw attention 
to certain facts connected with our South-west Yorkshire place- 
names, leaving any further discussion to others. 

1. BrinsWORTH, Rotherham, DB Brinesford, may possibly 
be derived from an earlier * Brunesford \ compare Crigglestone 
and Crimbles. At Brinsworth there is an ancient ford over the 
Don, and close beside the ford an extensive rectangular earth- 
work believed to be of Roman origin and now called Temple- 

2. Went, formerly Wenet, occurs as the name of a stream 
six miles south of Castleford and fifteen north of Rotherham ; 
and the name Wentworth, DB Winteuuorde, occurs three or four 
miles north-east of Rotherham. These may possibly have a link 
with Wendune. 

3. MortheN, five miles south-east of Rotherham, formerly 
Morhtheng, is of Scandinavian origin, and appears to be the site 
of an ancient battle, its meaning being ' slaughter meadow.'