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Full text of "Austria of the Austrians and Hungary of the Hungarians"

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Hungary 



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Hungary of the Hungarians 



Cornell University Library 
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Austria of the Austrians and Hungarv of 




3 1924 028 091 191 



COUNTRIES &■ PEOPLES SERIES 

Each in imperial 16mo, cloth gilt, 
gilt top, with about 30 full-page 
plate illustrations. 6/- net. 

France of the French. 

By E. Harrison Barker. 

Germany of the Germans. 

By Robert M. Berry. 

Italy of the Italians. 

By Helen Zimmern. 

Turkey of the Ottomans. 

By Lucy M. J. Garnett. 

Spain of the Spanish. 

By Mrs. Villiers-Wardell. 

Belgium of the Belgians. 

By D. C. Boulger. 

Servia of the Servians. 

By Chedo Mijatovich. 

Switzerland of the Swiss. 

By Frank Webb. 

Japan of the Japanese. 

By Prof. J. H. Longford. 

Holland of the Dutch. 

By D. C. Boulger. 



Volumes in preparation on Russia 
and Greece. 




The original of tiiis book is in 
tile Cornell University Library. 

There are no known copyright restrictions in 
the United States on the use of the text. 



http://www.archive.org/details/cu31924028091191 




Photo by PietZMr. 

HIS IMPERIAL MAJESTY THE EMPEROR OF AUSTRIA 

AND KING OF HUNGARY 



Austria of the Austrians 

and 

Hungary of the Hungarians 



By 

L. Kellner, Madame Paula Arnold, 
and Arthur L. Delisle 



LONDON: SIR ISAAC PITMAN & SONS, LTD. 
No. 1 AMEN CORNER, E.C. . . . 1914 



Printed by Sir Isaac Pitman 
& Sons, Ltd., London, Bath 
AND New York . . 1914 



33fV3? 6 



X 



CONTENTS 



AUSTRIA OF THE AUSTRIANS 

CHAP. PAGE 

INTRODUCTORY — WHAT IS AUSTRIA-HUNGAHY ? . 1 

I. THE AUSTRIAN NATIONS AND THEIR LANDS . 13 

II. PARTIES AND POLITICIANS .... 29 

III. EDUCATION 42 

IV. COMMERCE AND INDUSTRY .... 51 

V. AGRICULTURE AND MINING .... 55 

VI. GERMAN LITERATURE IN THE NINETEENTH 

CENTURY 62 

VII. THE PRESS 76 

VIII. ARCHITECTURE IN THE NINETEENTH CENTURY . 81 

IX. FINE ART IN THE NINETEENTH CENTURY . . 89 

X. MUSIC IN THE NINETEENTH CENTURY . .112 

XI. VIENNA 127 

INDEX 294 



LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS 

(Austrian Section) 



PAGE 

H.i.M. THE EMPEROR . . . Frontispiece 

GUMPOLDSKIRCHEN 6 

AGGSTEIN 12 

GOSAU SEE 14 

DREI ZINNEN 16 

POLA, THE ARENA 18 

COUNT BERCHTOLD 30 

A NATIVE TYPE FROM BUKOWINA .... 38 

A DALMATIAN GROUP 42 

HARBOUR, ZARA 52 

A DALMATIAN 54 

PARLIAMENT HOUSE 82 

DONNERBRUNNEN .86 

PIRANO (dalmatia) 88 

ST. Stephen's, Vienna .... . 128 

KARLSKIRCHE 132 

DOORWAY, ST. GEORGSHAUS . . . . 138 



CONTENTS 



HUNGARY OF THE HUNGARIANS 



CHAP. 



PREFACE 

I. ORIGINS OF THE MAGYARS 

II. CHRISTIAN HUNGARY 

III. THE HABSBURG DYNASTY 

IV. THE HUNGARIAN CONSTITUTION 
V, POLITICS AND POLITICIANS 

VI. LANGUAGE AND LITERATURE . 

VII. RELIGION AND EDUCATION 

VIII. PHILANTHROPIC INSTITUTIONS . ' . 

IX. THE CITY OF BUDAPEST . 

X. ART, MUSIC, AND THE DRAMA . 

XI. AGRICULTURE, COMMERCE, AND INDUSTRY 

XII. THE JUDICIAL SYSTEM 

XIII. STATE OF SOCIETY IN HUNGARY 

XIV. HUNGARIAN SCENERY 

INDEX 



PAGE 

143 
145 
154 
166 
171 
180 
191 
207 
218 
225 
238 
248 
271 
278 
288 
301 



LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS 

(Hungarian Section) 



PAGE 

STATUE OF THE SAINT-KING STEPHEN, BUDAPEST . . 154 

THE ARCHDUKE FRANZ FERDINAND .... 160 

THE ROYAL PALACE, BUDAPEST 166 

COUNT ALBERT APPONYI, M.P 175 

THE HOUSES OF PARLIAMENT, EASTERN FACADE . .181 

MR. FRANCIS KOSSUTH, M.P 186 

VOROSMARTY MONUMENT, BUDAPEST .... 198 

PROFESSOR AEMINIUS vXmbSrY 203 

DR. ALBERT BERZEVICZY, M.P 207 

THE NATIONAL MUSEUM, BUDAPEST .... 216 

THE HOUSES OF PARLIAMENT, FROM THE FISHER BASTION 225 

Pfcs CATHEDRAL, INTERIOR 240 

THE CASTLE OF VAJDA HUNYAD 248 

DR. ANTAL gOnTER 272 

HUNGARIAN PEASANT TYPE 282 

DITTO DITTO 284 

TRANSYLVANtAN PEASANT COSTUME .... 292 

MAP ...... end of boo]i 



AUSTRIA AND HUNGARY 



INTRODUCTORY 

WHAT IS AUSTRIA-HUNGARY? 

This question seems a strange one, perhaps, yet some years 

ago there were few Englishmen who could have answered it, 

Austria ^^^ even to-day, after pohtical differences 

a Confusing alas ! have awakened interest in the Monarchy 
Notion. Qjj tjjg Danube, the ideas of the English 
concerning it are most hazy. 

The writer, on being introduced to English people as an 
Austrian, has been asked the queerest questions — ^and 
indeed, it must be confusing to meet Germans, Czechs, 
Slovaks, Poles, Ruthenians, Slovenes, Servians, Croatians, 
Italians, Roumanians, and Jews all describing themselves 
as " Austrians," not to speak of the several hundred thousand 
Bulgarians, Albanese, Turks, Armenians, Greeks, and Gipsies 
who also live in our midst, but, not being represented in 
the House of Parliament, do not count. 

The key to the mystery of such disparate races forming 
one State is the geographical unity of the four groups of 
provinces, the Alpine, the Sudetian, the Carpathian, and the 
Carst Group, so that they are more or less dependent on each 
other. They are walled in by high mountain chains, the 
open part pointing towards the valley of the Danube, near 
Vienna, and all the great natural highways of traffic converging 
in this focus of the four spheres. 

To understand this strange conglomerate thoroughly, 
however, it is necessary to see how it has grown. 

1 

I— (2394) 



2 Austria and Hungary 

The nucleus was a little frontier county of the German 
Empire, founded by Charlemagne as a bulwark against the 

Avars about the year 800, with the old 

T^^. Roman town of Vienna (Vindobona) for its 

of the Empire, centre. It was somewhat enlarged by the 

clever and able Counts of Babenberg, who 
held it for about three hundred years and were made dukes 
by the German Emperor. Theirs was a famous court in 
Vienna, and some of the greatest poets of the time Uved 
there. The best known of the Babenbergs is Leopold the 
Fifth, he who quarrelled with Richard the Lionheart in 
Palestine and later kept him prisoner. 

When the last of them died (in 1246), there were quarrels 
as to who should get the Duchy, and in the confusion that 
reigned everjrwhere a clever but most unscrupulous man. 
King Ottokar of Bohemia and Moravia, annexed the Duchy 
as well as three counties in the Alps — ^Stjnria, Carinthia and 
the Ukraine. Thus a large part of what to-day forms the 
Austrian half of the Dual Monarchy (the Sudetian and the 
Alpine Group), comprising already Czech, German and 
Slovenian countries, was then united under one monarch. 
This union, however, did not last long. 

Rudolf of Habsburg, the ruler of Germany, fought 
Ottokar for the armexed countries, remained victor and gave 

the Alpine counties, i.e., Austria, Styria, 

u 1?^* Carinthia and the Ukraine, to his sons (in 

Habsburgs. ^^82). 

From that time onwards it was the chief care of that far- 
seeing, ambitious and energetic race, whose scions reign in 
Austria to this day, to enlarge and round off these possessions, 
and that rarely by war, most often by agreements respecting 
claims of inheritance and by advantageous marriages, so 
that at one time it was well said of them : Bella gerant alii, 
tu, felix Austria, nube. Especially Rudolf IV, and later 
Maximilian I, were clever in this way. 

It would lead too far to tell how often the four groups were 



What is Austria-Hungary ? 3 

united and severed again. Suffice it to say that in 1526, the 

birth-year of the Austro-Hungarian Monarchy, Bohemia, 

Moravia, Hungary, Austria and other Alpine counties were 

united and kept together in spite of several attempts on the 

part of Bohemia and Hungary to regain their independence. 

By the beginning of the eighteenth century the Realm 

was more or less rounded off in its natural boundaries — 

formed by the great mountain chains spoken 

The Realm ^^ above, and now began a period of annexa- 
Kounded On. ' ° '^ . 

tions lymg beyond those boundaries, the 

chief of which were the following : the Polish and Ruthenian 

provinces of Galicia and Bukowina and the strip of Adriatic 

coast called Dalmatia being acquired in the last quarter 

of the eighteenth century, Salzburg, that beautiful bit of 

Alpine scenery, in 1805, Cracow, the most important PoUsh 

town, in 1846, and Bosnia and Herzegowina in 1878 (and 

1908). 

The annexation of these last-named countries has — ^most 

unjustly, as I hope to show — aroused so much bad blood in 

England that I am bound to speak of it at greater length. 

It had belonged to the Turks until 1878, when the Berlin 

Congress followed Lord Beaconsfield's suggestion and decreed 

that the country whose exclusively Croatian 

The population, exceeding 2,000,000, has a 

o"°B^nia" Christian percentage of some 68 and 

which had been rebellious and troublesome 

for a long time, should be occupied and governed by Austria, 

the only neighbouring State powerful enough to bring peace 

to the distracted country. In his famous speech on the subject 

Lord Beaconsfield said : 

The state of Bosnia, and of those provinces and principalities con- 
tiguous to it, was one of chronic anarchy. There is no language which 
can describe adequately the condition of that large portion of the 
Balkan peninsula occupied by Roumama, Servia, Bosnia, Herzegowina, 
and other provinces. Political intrigues, constant rivalries, a total 
absence of all public spirit, and of the pursuit of objects which patriotic 
minds would wish to accomplish, the hatred of races, the animosities 
of rival religions, and above all, the absence of any controlling power 



4 Austria and Hungary 

that could keep these large districts ia an3^hing like order ; such 
were the sad truths, which no one who has investigated the subject 
could resist for a moment. 

What was to be done ? There have been before, in the history of 
diplomacy, not unfrequent instances, in which, even in civilised parts 
of the globe, states having Jallen into decrepitude, afforded no assist- 
ance to keep order and tranquillity, and have become, as these districts 
have become, a source of danger to their neighbours. Under such 
circumstances, the Powers of Europe have generally looked to see 
whether there was any neighbouring Power of a character entirely 
different from these disturbed and desolated Tegions, but deeply 
interested in their welfare and prosperity, who would undertake the 
task of attempting to restore their tranquillity and prosperity. 

In the present case you will see that the position of Austria is one 
that clearly indicates her as fitted to undertake such an office. Austria 
in the present case was deeply interested that some arrangement 
should be made. Austria for now nearly three years had upwards of 
15,000 refugees from Bosnia, who have been supported by her resources, 
and whose demands notoriously have been of a vexatious and exhausting 
character. It was therefore thought expedient by the Congress that 
Austria should be invited to occupy Bosnia. My lords, I am the last 
man who would wish, when objections are made to our proceedings, 
to veil them under the decision of the Congress ; it was a decision which 
the plenipotentiaries of England highly approved. It was a proposal 
which, as your lordships will see when you refer to the protocols which 
I shall lay on the table, was made by my noble friend the Secretary 
of State, that Austria should accept this trust and fulfil this duty ; and 
I earnestly supported him on that occasion. 

The occupation was welcomed in the South (the Herze- 
gowina), and accordingly was almost peaceful, while Bosnia 
resisted for three months. Gradually, however, the country 
was pacified, the populace finding out after a time that living 
under the Austrian flag was far more comfortable than 
under the Turkish one, and when in October, 1908, Austria- 
Hungary formally annexed the province which for more than 
thirty years had only been Turkish in name, the people took 
this as quietly as possible, and Turkey was satisfied also, 
getting back the Sandjak of Novibazax and a handsome sum 
of money. Nobody could seriously expect Austria to give 
up a province that had been solemnly handed over to her by 
a European Congress, and which had cost her thousands of 
men and milliards of money. 

It was only abroad, where the fact of the occupation had 



What is Austria-Hungary ? 5 

been forgotten, and in Servia, which was hoping to get a share 
of the pudding when the time came, that the suddenly pro- 
claimed annexation roused bad feeling. The annexed country 
itself was pleased, if anything. Since then Servia has been 
hard at work to rouse sedition in Bosnia, as elsewhere ; truth 
to say with small results. Her successes are limited to the 
towns, the whole of the Mohammedan population, as well as 
the Christian peasants, having remained most loyal subjects. 
The period of all these acquisitions, however, was also 
one of losses : part of Silesia was given over to Prussia after 
the Seven Years' War, Lombardy and Venetia to Italy after 
the unlucky wars of 1859 and 1866. 

AH these provinces were possessions of the Habsburgs, 

united only by the person of the ruler, who was called King 

of Hungary and Bohemia, Duke of Austria, 

^foraalT*^''^ Count of Tyrol, etc., etc. Now for a very 

Established. lo°g ticae the chief of the House of Habsburg- 

Lorraine (in 1740 the male line of the 

Habsbiu'gs had died out and Maria Theresa married a Duke 

of Lorraine) had always been Emperor of Germany, too. 

But when Napoleon swept across Europe, Francis I foresaw 

the fall of his German Empire, and in 1804 declared himself 

Emperor of the Austro-Hungarian provinces also, thus 

establishing a new Monarchy and keeping at least his title, 

when the German Empire, with which we have no concern 

here, was torn to bits in 1806. 

In 1848 the great revolution broke out in Austria. The 

second Emperor of the Monarchy, Ferdinand, was a feeble 

man of little mental power, his minister 

„ "^^ Metternich, the well-known reactionary who 

of 1848. at a time held all Europe by his leading strings, 

being all-powerful. Metternich fled the 

country, and the Emperor resigned in favour of his nephew, 

the present Emperor Francis Joseph I. 

Under this remarkable personality, then a boy of eighteen, 
the revolution was stamped out everswhere, but the old 



6 Austria and Hungary 

institutions nevertheless gave place to modern ones in all 
respects, and slowly, very slowly, the Constitution of to-day 
was evolved. Trial after trial was made, the difficulties 
being enormous because gf the strife between the different 
races, but in 1867 at last two separate constitutional states 
were formed out of the chaos : Austria and Hungary. 

The leading thought in thus dividing the Monarchy was 
that the Magyar (or Hungarian) race should now be supreme 

The Relations ™ *^^ Hungarian half, to which belong 
between Hungary proper, Slavonia, Croatia, and the 

Austria and port of Fiume with the surrounding bit of 
ungary. country, while the Germans are supposed 
to have the supremacy in the Austrian half, consisting of 
the following provinces : Lower Austria, Upper Austria, 
Salzburg, Stjnria, Carinthia, Carniola, the Adriatic Coast 
(Kiistenland), Dalmatia, Ts^rol and Vorarlberg, Bohemia, 
Moravia, Silesia, Galicia, Bukowina. Bosnia and Herzego- 
wina are ruled more or less absolutely, having autonomous 
diets, but not sending any delegates to Parliament. 

The above supposition has proved correct as regards 
Himgary, where ingenious and fervent statesmen have 
managed to organise the country as a Hungarian National 
State, giving a certain autonomy to the South Slav countries 
(Slavonia and Croatia) and thus neutraUsing them, while aU 
the other Non-Magyars in the State (Roumanians, Jews, 
Germans, Slovaks) have been and are being systematically 
Magyarized, the Magyar language being proclaimed the State 
language, and other measures being taken, not aU of them 
scrupulously fair, but all pointing towards the same goal, 
which is being rapidly reached. 

In contrast to this unswervingly purposeftd nationalisation, 
the Austrian half of the Monarchy has not been reorganised 
on the same principle. What resulted was a sort of United 
Empire with a Central ParUament, but no care was taken to 
draw the poUtical boundary-lines between the provinces 
according to the true national relations. We might have 



What is Austria-Hungary ? 7 

avoided the terrible and incessant quarrels — these being the 
result of almost no single race having a working majority in any 
poHtical district. This, however, will be fully explained later. 

To return to the relations between Himgary and Austria, 
previously pointed out. As has been said before, the two 
are reaUy separate States, each with its own Parliament and 
Civil Government, having in common only the Sovereign 
(called Emperor of Austria and King of Hungary), the Foreign 
OfSce, the Army and Navy, and part of the Finances. 

The Common Affairs are conducted by the three competent 
Ministries (Foreign Office, War Office, Ministry of Finance) 
and the " Delegations," a kind of ParUament for Common 
Affairs delegated every year by the Parliaments proper 
and meeting alternately in Vienna and in Budapeslj. A Bill 
relating to common affairs has thus to pass both the' Austrian 
and the Hungarian Delegations and to be sanctioned by the 
Sovereign in order to become law. 

The present Sovereign, Francis Joseph I, is one of the 
most interesting personalities amongst European monarchs, 
on account of his character as well as his 
loseoii'l experiences. Coming to the throne when 
little more than a boy, at the most difficult 
period imaginable, when the revolution had broken out 
in several provinces, he has reigned most successfully now 
for almost seventy years, and during this time Austria's 
economical and industrial development has been marvellous, 
in spite of two disastrously unlucky wars and the nationalist 
troubles. For almost fifty years he has maintained peace, 
much as this may sometimes have been against his incUna- 
tion, for he is a soldier first and foremost, and has been 
under fire himself more than once. The Army is his chief 
delight, and up to the year 1907 he still sat his horse at 
the Annual Manoeuvres, rain or shine, for eight and even 
ten hours a day — quite a respectable feat for a man of 
seventy-seven. He Uves most frugally, getting up every 
morning at five, sometimes at four, eating very httle, his 



8 Austria and Hungary 

food being of the simplest, and taking a good deal of exercise, 
stag hunting near Ischl, his lovely summer residence, being 
his favourite sport. The Emperor is a famous sportsman, 
and a wonderful shot. People who know say that he has 
never yet missed beast or "bird. He stiU walks about by him- 
self a good deal, talking freely to the people in his genial way, 
with the slight Viennese accent they love to hear. 

He is in particularly close contact with his people by 
means of the audiences which he alone of all European 
monarchs grants three times a week from ten to one o'clock 
whenever he is in Vienna, to whoever wants to come. 

You must first apply for an audience at the Kahinetskanzlei, 
the Emperor's private office, stating your name and the object 
of your visit. When your wish is granted, a day is appointed. 
The ante-room, a splendid hall, is crowded with appUcants, 
male and female, of all nationaUties and walks of life, from 
the poorest peasant in his native garb, to staff officers in 
briUiant uniforms. When you are admitted to the Presence, 
you find yourself in an oblong, rather bare room. While 
you are making yoiu- bow, you notice the Emperor at the 
other end of the long room, bending over some manuscript 
at a little table. This is the list of visitors. He has just been 
looking at your name and the object of your visit. Then 
he comes down with long, firm strides to where you are 
shaking in your shoes — ^for this is what ordinary people do in 
presence of Royalty. If you happen to be a high official, and 
have come to thank His Majesty for yom: latest preferment, 
he teUs you that he is always happy to give merit its due, 
and he is sure to add a question or two as to your present 
aspirations and doings in the pubUc interest. The Emperor's 
wonderful memory has never failed him yet on such occasions, 
and though you may know that he has just been looking for 
your name and vocation, it gives you a most agreeable 
sensation to find the Emperor of Austria interested in your 
little affairs. If you happen to be an applicant for justice 
or an Imperial favour, the Emperor will listen patiently to 



What is Austria-Hungary ? 9 

all you have to say, ask a pertinent question now and then, 
and at last tell you with his inimitable charming good-nature 
that you may be sure he will do ever3^hing in his power to 
comply with your wish. 

Hundreds and hundreds of ancedotes are told of these 
audiences. Two of them, for the authenticity of which we 
can| answer safely, will bear repeating in this connection. 

A famous scholar obtained a professorship in the University 
of Vienna and according to custom came to thank the Emperor 
for the appointment. " What languages do you teach ? " 
asked the Emperor. The professor replied that it was 
chiefly Hebrew, Arabic, and Ass3n:ian. " You have not many 
students, have you ? " asked the Emperor with a smile. 
" Only five, I am sorry to say," the crestfallen professor 
answered. To which the Emperor replied reassuringly : 
" So much the better for the five ! " 

The widow of an of&cer was escorted into the ante-room by a 
comrade of her late husband's. She was extremely nervous in 
view of the imminent trial of speaking to His Majesty in favour 
of a good-for-nothing son who had misbehaved himself in the 
Army. When the poor mother had been admitted to the audience, 
the officers in the ante-room put their heads together, and they 
all agreed that the Emperor could not possibly do an5d;hing 
for the widow, as the minister of war had decided the case 
against her son. After a quarter of an hour the lady came out 
and said, the tears streaming down her sallow cheeks : " The 
Emperor, God bless him, has a heart — ^the minister has not ! " 

He is extremely cultured, and speaks French and the 
languages of his subjects (especially Hungarian, Czech and 
Italian) like his mother tongue. He takes the greatest interest 
in painting, being a good draughtsman himself, and never 
misses an important exhibition, sometimes staying there 
for hours and revisiting it again, if there is something that 
interests him particularly. 

He has been very unhappy in his private Ufe, losing his 
only son, a highly-gifted and most liberal-minded man, by 



10 Austria and Hungary 

suicide, and the beautiful and accomplished wife he had 
married for love (refusing her elder sister who had been meant 
for him) by murder, after she had been melancholy and 
misanthropic for years, owing to the tragic death of her son. 
He is happy in his younger "daughter's charming family, how- 
ever. She has married a cousin and lives not far from Vienna 
in her country place of Wallsee with her eight children, to 
whom the Emperor is devoted. 

Kind-hearted and sweet-tempered as he is, he has always 
been a good friend to children and to the poor. When his 
eightieth birthday was approaching he had a touching idea 
which was carried out with great success : he asked to be 
spared aU noisy and expensive festivals and suggested that 
the money saved that way be put into charity funds for 
children instead. 

His memory and quick perception, even now in his old age, 
are said to be marvellous, and the amount of work he gets 
through in a day can only be explained by these gifts. 

Though very religious, like all his family, he is most liberal 
in his opinions — unlike the Heir to the Throne, with whom he 
does not always see eye to eye in consequence. 

According to constitutional principles he has never put 
himself forward but once, and this instance is well suited 
to show his strength of character. In 1911 the Hungarians 
were wilfully making trouble over a most necessary Army BUI 
he had set his heart on. Negotiation after negotiation failed, 
the ministers were at their wits' end, and things had come to 
a dead-lock, when the old man suddenly stood up for the Bill 
personally, actually declaring his intention to abdicate if it 
were not carried — of course the Hungarians gave in like lambs. 

He is extremely popular, as was also well seen in 1907, 
when he lay ill for the first time for many years. For weeks 
crowds of people of all classes and parties stood before the 
windows of his palace in Schonbrunn night and day, silent 
and patient, waiting for the news, the tears coursing down their 
faces when the tidings were bad. In his convalescence, when 



What is Austria-Hungary ? 11 

he was able to look out of the window again, they brought 
floral offerings, each laying their bunch on the ground, and 
thus the square was always strewn with flowers. 

The Austro-Hungarian Army is a standing one, consisting 
of the Common Army and the Austrian and Hungarian Terri- 
torials. After the disaster of 1866 it was 
J*'^ equipped with modern rifles and altogether 

reorganised, so that now it is equal to the 
other great European Armies in every respect. 

The system of conscription is carried out as follows : Every 
male citizen who is sane and sound (with some exceptions, as 
priests), is obliged to serve for two years consecutively and 
to remain at disposal, with some weeks' training exercises, 
for ten years more. This appUes to the infantry only, in 
the cavalry and horse artiUery regiments three years' active 
service and seven years' reserve service being the rule. When 
they have passed through these two stages the men are 
enrolled in the militia (Landsiurm), to which also belong 
those who in consequence of ill-health could not serve at all. 
Public school men, that is those who have passed their final 
examination at a public school (or after going through at 
least six classes of the same, pass a special examination), 
need only serve for one year. They have a higher status 
altogether : they need not hve in barracks except for the 
first six weeks, may keep a servant for cleaning their things, 
and become officers in the reserve after a year or two. 

The Navy is a comparatively new institution in Austria, 

having only been properly founded by the Emperor's brother 

Archduke Ferdinand Max, in 1850. He was 

j^"^ a man of great ability and ambition who did 

wonders in the short time he worked at the 

organisation of the Navy. As is well known, he was shot by 

the rebels in Mexico, where he had been persuaded to go as 

Emperor by Napoleon HI. His successor in the work of 

naval reform was Admiral Tegetthoff, who fought the first 

naval battles for Austria with great success. 



12 Austria and Hungary 

Since then the fleet has been continually enlarged and 
modernised, and to-day Austria has a small, but perfectly 
efficient Navy consisting of four Dreadnoughts (not launched 
yet) of more than 20,000 tons, nine modern battleships of 
8,000 to 15,000 tons, "three antiquated ones of 5,600 tons, 
apart from several smaller cruisers, torpedo-boats, submarines, 
etc. 

The chief naval port is Pola. 



AUSTRIA 



CHAPTER I 

THE AUSTRIAN NATIONS AND THEIR LANDS 

Apart from the smaller groups mentioned above, the Austrian 

half of the Empire harbours eleven different nations, who Hve 

promiscuously in fourteen provinces, but 

^^acef™* with the exception of the Jews, in more or 
less connected masses. Of these, the Czechs, 
Slovaks and Slovenes alone are wholly under Austrian rule ; 
aU the others are each part of a greater nation which is either 
independent as a whole — such is the case with the Germans, 
the Italians, and the Roumanians — or living under different 
foreign rules — the Poles belonging partly to Germany, 
partly to Russia, the Ruthenians to Russia, the Servians and 
Croatians partly to Hungary, partly to Turkey (and, of course, 
part of them are independent in the kingdoms of Servia 
and Montenegro), and the Jews, as is well known, are scattered 
aU over the earth. 

Their relations in number are the following : the Germans 
with 35 per cent, are the strongest, but this relative majority 
is not of much value to them, because the Slav nations 
together form 60 per cent., of which 23 per cent, go to the 
Czechs and Slovaks, 18 per cent, to the Poles, 12 per cent, 
to the Ruthenians, and 7 per cent, to the South Slavs. These 
sometimes unite against the Germans, and, as the latter are 
politically divided among themselves, the result is disastrous 
to them. 

Of the different provinces there are only five where the 
political boundaries really enclose a homogeneous population : 

13 



14 Austria 

they are the German ones of Lower and Upper Austria and 
Salzburg, the Slovene one of Carniola (though the 6 per cent, 
of Germans there are giving trouble stiU) and the Servo- 
Croatian one of Dalmatia, Servians and Croatians being very 
closely related and friends, so far. In the other nine provinces 
heterogeneous elements are cooped up together in a cage of 
national laws and by-laws, always hampering one part of the 
population and setting them up against the other. In 
Styria and Carinthia Germans and Slovenes are at daggers 
drawn, Italians are fighting against Slovenes and Servo- 
Croatians in the Kxistenland, against Germans in the Tyrol. 
In Bohemia, Moravia and Silesia Czechs and Germans are 
making life a biu-den to each other, the Poles are squeezing 
the breath out of the Ruthenians and the Jews in Galicia, 
and, in the Bukowina, Roumanians, Ruthenians, Germans 
and Jews are struggling with each other. 

In dealing with these different elements, we propose to 
bring some order into the chaos by treating each race separ- 
ately, but together with the country in which it is at home, 
taking for basis the Alps for the Germans and Italians, the 
Carst for the South Slavs, the Sudetians for the Czechs, the 
Carpathians for the Poles and Slovaks, Ruthenians and 
Roumanians. The Jews cannot be properly located 
in any single . province, but they are thickest in the 
Carpathians. 

The Alps undoubtedly contain the most beautiful scenery 

of Europe, and the greater part of them belong to Austria. 

But whereas the rage for Switzerland is 

^the" Al s" ^°^^ *^^" ^ hundred years old, the Austrian 

Alps have only become known to foreigners 

very recently. And yet they are unequalled for variety of 

formation. 

There are the green hUls and fruitful valleys of the two 
Austrias and Styria with their baby rivers, sweetly restful, 
cool and pleasant. 

There is the Danube, between Passau and Vienna, more 



The Austrian Nations and their Lands 15 

beautiful even than the Rhine, with castles, ruins and monas- 
teries perched on the rocks and vineclad hills above it. 
Especially the district called Wachau, only an hour's journey 
from Vienna, with Diirnstein, the castle where Richard 
the Lionheart was a prisoner, is a perfect Eden. 

There is the Salzkammergut with its lakes, some blue and 
serene, with white villages and hotels on their banks, with 
hundreds of boats full of white-clad people skimming over 
them, a cheerful picture of glad, light-hearted youth. Others 
are green, almost black, the steep, pine-clad mountain giants 
stand close to them, darkly reflected in the sombre water, 
leaving no room for pleasant human homesteads on the banks. 
A heavy solitude hangs over them, a mournful peace rarely 
broken by chattering trippers, for none come to stay long — 
it is an oppressive grandeur, brooding melancholy thoughts. 
The most beautiful of these lakes, perhaps, is the Gosausee, at 
the foot of the Dachstein. 

There are the glaciers of the Oetztal and the Stubai, the 
Ortler group and others, majestic like their Swiss brothers, 
with charming httle villages nestling below, sometimes 
chmbing as high as five and six thousand feet, their slim church 
steeples sharply defined against the snow, the torrents shooting 
down close to them, and here and there a magnificent 
waterfall. 

There are the warm Carinthian lakes, in their broad, com- 
fortable, wooded valleys, the mountains looking in on them 
from afar — they are there, they may be climbed any day, 
but they do not oppress, they do not force themselves upon 
you. 

And there are the Dolomites, with the lonely grandeur of 
their red fantastic peaks and stony vaUeys, while two or 
three thousand feet below the slopes are grown with vines 
and fine fruit, with olives and mulberry trees, and the broader 
valleys are golden with corn and maize. There Austria still 
possesses a bit of the lake of Garda, that dream of poets and 
painters which has inspired Bocklin and Segantini, Heyse 



16 Austria 

and Hartleben. A walk on the tableland above the little 
town of Riva, encircling fields and plantations, the sapphire 
lake fringed with olives and cypresses below, and the terrible 
naked red ridges, patched with snow, above — ^truly it is an 
experience worth having. 

AH these lands' are by no means barren rock, though, of 
course, not to be compared with the Sudetians in wealth — 
they are rich in minerals and mineral waters, in woods and 
pastures, fields and orchards, and in cattle and game. Of 
late years the tourists, too, bring a great deal of money into 
the country. 

Nature, however, sometimes works terrible havoc in the 

Alps, and man has to use all his wits to contend against her 

when she sends down her avalanches, her 

C^^ophes roaring torrents, and sometimes landslips, 
catastrophes which generally occur in spring, 
when masses of snow melt rapidly under the first warm touch 
of the sun. The best means of preventing such fatal occur- 
rences is to afforest the danger regions, and this is being done 
everywhere with excellent results. Apart from the planting 
of pine woods, called Bannwdlder (taboo woods), because 
the axe is banished from them, stone galleries are built to 
break the force of the avalanches, and dams to regulate the 
torrents and keep back the rubble. 

The German population immigrated in the sixth century, 
streaming in from the northern valleys, driving back the 
Slavs who had just come in before them, or 
Ge«nans Christianising and Germanising them. Living 
in secluded, and sometimes almost inacces- 
sible valleys, they have kept their variety of customs and 
costumes, and extremely quaint and picturesque some of them 
are. Not even the short green stockings of the men, that 
leave the knee bare, are quite universally worn — ^in a great 
part of the Tyrol long white stockings are the rule. And as 
to the women's dress, every valley has distinctions, and 
especially the headdress is of great variety — sometimes a 



The Austrian Nations and their Lands 17 

black silk turban, sometimes a black straw hat with streamers, 
sometimes the most wonderful bonnets, heavy with gold 
embroidery and beads, sometimes high fur caps not unlike 
those of the EngUsh Guards ; but the two last named are 
already becoming scarce. 

Drunkards are very rare among these people, who meet 
on Sunday to dance and sing, improvising :pTettySchnadahupfel 
as their mostly humorous four-hne songs are called, to play the 
zither, and, if the truth may be said, to fight and wrangle 
a good deal, the Tyrolese especially being quick at picking a 
quarrel. But the drinking on these occasions is very moderate. 

They are thrifty and hard-working people, frugal and 
absolutely honest, inclined towards poetry and philosophy, 
and in contrast to the Germans in the Sudetian Group, who 
are more like the sober Prussians, extremely easy-going and 
kind-hearted. Having been the governing race for a long 
time they have acquired an overbearing manner, however, 
and an insufferable intolerance and national pride which 
often puts them in the wrong where they are actually right. 
Theirs is the highest state of civilisation in the Monarchy, 
it is true, but the Czechs are rapidly gaining on them, and it 
seems doubtful to whom the future belongs, especially as 
they are priest-ridden in the extreme, most so in the Tyrol 
and Salzburg, and the Clerical Party in ParUament is mostly 
recruited from these Germans. In the Sudetians they Uve 
in the poor mountain districts and are kept down by the 
Czechs, so naturally they are more progressive there. 
' The Carst is probably the most interesting part of the 
Empire from every point of view. Its strange, desolate 
aspect is, for the greater part, due to the 
Sre^ery thoughtless and barbarous treatment of the 
woods which in former times were cut and 
never reafforested, so that the strong wind and water carried 
off the soil, and the efflorescence had free play in the soft, 
porous chalk. Now the mountains are desolate and barren, 
except where there are the characteristic moulds with vegetable 

2— (2394) 



18 Austria 

soil at the bottom, called Dolines and Polyes. The Dohnes are 
much smaller and generally round, they are either funnels 
formed by efflorescence, or caves, the ceiling of which has 
broken in. The Polyes are much larger and have very good 
soil indeed. They Extend in the same direction as the 
mountain chain, differing from other valleys by having no 
connection with each other, not being drained by actual 
rivers, but by shafts in which the water disappears, generally 
at the bottom of the Polye, sometimes at the side. There are 
many rivers in the Carst which vanish and come up again ; 
they are not fuUy explored by any means, and there is a rich 
field yet for research in. that direction. In connection with 
these phenomena are the wonderful, world-famous grottoes, 
the one in Adelsberg especially being the grandest in the 
world. It is really a succession of immense grottoes, 9 kilo- 
metres in length altogether, with a broad river running through 
the first of them and then vanishing. They are beautiful 
halls, the largest 600 feet long and broad, and 150 feet high, 
full of fantastical stalagmites and stalactites, mostly white, 
sometimes faintly pink and yellow, and forming strange 
shapes, columns and obelisks, curtains and Gothic ornaments. 
A Uttle railway (with puUe}^ only) has been run through them, 
they are lighted by electricity, and on feast days dances are 
held there, to which the population from mUes around flocks 
eagerly. 

The Carst countries are also the only ones reaching to the 
coast — doubly important because it is such a small strip 
that Austria possesses. The Carst landscape is romantic and 
beautiful even inland — ^in Carinola, for instance, you may see 
pictures out of fairy tales even whea passing through by train, 
as for instance, Veldes (not to be confounded with Velden in 
Carinthia), an enchanting old grey church with a bell tinkling 
all the time, in the middle of a little green lake, surrounded 
by steep rocks. On the top of one a ruined castle is perched 
and goats are climbing the narrow path towards it. And 
behind them rises the gloomy naked ridge of the Karawanken. 



The Austrian Nations and their Lands 19 

But those are nothing compared to the pictures formed 
by the mountains and the sea together, attaining their height 
of lovehness in Dahnatia, that rather neglected country 
which has only very lately been invaded by tourists. There 
is some resemblance to the coast of Devonshire, especially 
round Lynton. But here the Mediterranean climate has 
wound a garland of evergreen vegetation round the blue sea 
— ^woods of laurel and cypresses, clumps and plantations of 
figs, pomegranates, lemons and oranges. And the roses 
bloom in January ! 

It is not only the geologist and the lover of nature, however, 
to whom the Carst affords a never-flagging interest — ^nowhere 
else in Austria are there so many splendid ruins dating from 
Roman times ; and again it is Dalmatia, especially Spalato, 
which offers most to the student of history. 

The most important ports are Triest, Fiume (which belongs 
to Hungary) and Pola, the chief naval port. Triest was not 
a naturally favourable harbour, lying unpro- 
Trlest. tected before the Bora, the terrible cold 

wind of those regions, but it was the only 
possible one, and the Government being eager to make the 
important railroads leading to the sea independent of Venice, 
has taken up the struggle with unfavourable natural condi- 
tions and has won. To-day Triest is a beautiful modern 
town-port offering excellent shelter for the ships. It has 
more than 200,000 inhabitants ; 12,000 ships, of together 
8,500,000 register tons, touch there yearly ; its industry is 
flourishing ; and apart from several small shipping companies, 
the Austrian Lloyd and the Austro-Americana have their 
chief offices there. 

Regarded from a political point of view, the Carst 
countries are a doubtful blessing to the Monarchy so far. 
But since Austria was tmrned out of the German Union 
by Bismarck, its sphere of interest has of necessity been 
transferred to the near East, where hes its chief possibility 
of economic expansion. At the present moment things are 



20 Austria 

at such a stage that it would be absurd to prophesy^— but 
there seems, after all, some hope of pacifying the turbulent 
elements in the Servo-Croatian provinces by making reason- 
able concessions such as the official use of their language, etc., 
and so at last making it feasible truly to civihse those countries 
and develop their immense possibilities — ^for their own good 
and that of the Empire. 

The most dangerous element of the Unity of the Monarchy, 
however, are not the South Slavs, but the Italians, who 
form the bulk of the population in the south 
ItJians °^ *^^ Tyrol and in the Kiistenland. Living 
in close proximity to their passionately 
patriotic brethren across the frontier, they naturally gravitate 
towards them. As they are rather slack and lazy in com- 
parison with their German neighboiu's, these latter generally 
have the whip hand of them economically, and truth to say, 
there is not much love lost between them in any way. The 
German is incUned to consider the Italian underhand, furtive, 
even dishonest, and treats him accordingly, while the Italian 
looks on the German as a tjrrant and barbarian, with feelings 
that are a mixture of contempt and hatred. 

For the rest, the ItaHans in Austria do not differ from their 
brethren in the Kingdom. They are lazy, but violent, 
quick to love and quick to hate. On the other hand, they are 
also frugal, extremely clever, and gifted in learning as well 
as in arts and crafts. A beautiful trait of theirs is also their 
tolerance in religious matters, very rare in a Latin and an 
exclusively CathoHc people. 

The South Slavs (Slovenes in Grain and the Kiistenland, 

Servians and Croatians in Dalmatia and Bosnia-Herzegowina) 

are the most backward in civilisation of all 

^ll vs"* the Austrian peoples, and consequently the 

most interesting as regards their customs. 

Of course the following remarks can be fully applied only as 

regards the South-Eastern part of the provinces, and the 

reader must bear in mind that civilisation increases and 



The Austrian Nations and their Lands 21 

primitiveness decreases gradually as we approach the West, 
that is to say, the Alpine counties. 

TTie most remarkable features in the Ufe of the South Slavs 
are their patriarchal communities. Family life is still so 
distinctly marked that the eldest and ablest member of the 
family exercises absolute power over the others, who some- 
times number as many as eighty, all living in the same house 
or group of houses, in one farm. He gives out the work, 
he administers the property, and to him they all turn for 
advice. 

Large groups of people thus living together and having each 
other to turn to, are not so much given to frequenting the 
pubUc-houses, and thus the South Slavs are not nearly so 
degraded by drink as the Poles and Ruthenians. 

The seamy side of their life is the way the women are over- 
worked. They are no better than domestic animals from the 
time they are married, having to help in the fields, do the house 
work, spin, weave, and sew aU the clothing for the whole 
family and carry water, sometimes from far down the hUl. 
They also have to find time in the winter months to do the 
fine embroidery and lace-work for which they are famous, 
and which sells very well now that bright colours have become 
the fashion. 

When the girls marry they get no portion of the property — 
all they have is their store of linen and clothes, and sometimes, 
when they have been in service, the money they have saved 
there, called their " basket." 

They are generally very beautiful in face and figure, 
with a peculiarly proud carriage and a swinging gait, but 
they get old and wizened even earlier than the German 
peasants. 

Altogether the people are ignorant and Ohterate, dirty 
and sUpshod, but very warm-hearted, extremely hospitable, 
even to the merest stranger, and bold and reckless to the last 
degree, the best soldiers, sailors and fishermen in the 
Monarchy. 



22 Austria 

The Sudetian countries (Bohemia, Moravia and Silesia) 

The are the richest and economically most 

Sudetians. advanced provinces of the Empire. 

The scenery cannot compare with that of the Alps, the 

mountains all being much lower, and never reaching the 

grandeur of even the lesser Alpine chains. 

Scenery. but they have a loveliness all their own, and 

there are many charming summer resorts in 

the Riesengebirge, a country rich in legends, the Erzgebirge, 

where the many ravines produce an impression of ruggedness 

and greatness not warranted by its modest height, the 

Sachsische Schweiz, with the stately river Elbe flowing 

between grotesquely-formed red rocks, the Bohmerwald with 

its wonderful old-time forests and ice-grottos, the Altvaterge- 

birge, where merry rivulets frisk through darkly wooded 

chines, and the fertile Mahrische Schweiz, with its caves 

and other Carstlike phenomena. 

The Bohemian watering-places, Karlsbad, Marienbad, 
Franzensbad and Joachimstal, by far the Strongest radium 
spring on earth, are well known all over the world. Hundreds 
of thousands of sick people from the four corners of the earth 
go there every year, most of whom return home cured, or 
at least, relieved. 

The Czechs immigrated into these countries in the sixth 

century, when the Germans had just left them, and lived in 

the plains forming the centre, without pene- 

Czechs trating into the primeval forests of the border. 

In the thirteenth century the Bohemian 

kings and nobles invited German colonists to come into their 

country for the purpose of advancing agriculture and mining. 

They came, partly cleared the forests and germanised the 

valley of the Eger. This rural colonisation did not last long, 

but the Germans spread over the country in the town-ships, 

and by dint of their high standard of civilisation soon played 

a prominent part, attaining the height of their influence in 

the fourteenth century. Then the Czechs' great religious 



The Austrian Nations and their Lands 23 

and national movement set in, and the German population 
of the central districts was swallowed, while the borders have 
remained German to this day. 

The Czechs are a clever and industrious people, cleanly, 
persevering and thorough-going, very good at manual work 
of all kinds, gifted in music like all Slav peoples, and also in 
science and mathematics. But they are supposed to be 
ra.ther underhand in their ways, and, just because of that, 
extremely suspicious of others. They are dogmatical too, 
never knowing when they are beaten, and never owning 
themselves to be in the wrong. 

Much the same applies to the Slovaks, except that they 
are not so gifted, and altogether on a lower plane of civilisa- 
tion. They stiU wear their quaint national 
SIotsOes costumes, like the Alpine Germans, and stick 
to them even when going to the towns as 
servants. As they are very good wet-nurses and nursery- 
maids, they have become quite familiar figures even in 
Vienna, with their beautifully starched white bonnets, dark 
jackets and short skirts, very fuU and just reaching to their 
knees, and gaudy-coloured aprons and stockings. 

In number the Czechs have the majoiity over the Germans, 
forming 65 per cent, of the population. They are thickest 
in Moravia, while in Silesia the Germans are quite a respectable 
minority, in fact almost half of the population, which also 
comprises a great many Poles. 

The Carpathian Provinces belonging to the Austrian half 

of the Empire, are Galicia and Bukowina, countries rich in 

excellent soil, in coal and oil and wood, and 

Carpathians. ^^^ ^^^^ peasantry is the poorest of all. 

There is a terrible chasm yawning between 

the rich PoUsh aristocracy, whose immense estates extend all 

over the Ruthenian as well at the PoUsh territory, and the 

impoverished peasant population with its tiny bits of ground. 

Poles, Ruthenians and Roumanians ; they are all alike suffering 

from want of ground, want of proper tools and machinery. 



24 Austria 

want of modern methods, want of every kind of knowledge, 
even that of reading and writing. In their distress (and the 
cold climate has something to do with that, too) they are given 
to drink, and the ill-advised, Government has found an 
ingenious remedy for thai : the pubUc-houses being mostly in 
the hands of the Jews (reasons wiU be given later), the licences 
for keeping pubhc-houses werp taken away from these unlucky 
people, thousands of whom were thus robbed of their meagre 
sustenance at a moment's notice. This is well worth remark- 
ing : the drinking houses were not abohshed, they were 
merely taken out of the hands of the Jews and given to the 
peasants themselves, who are at Hberty to drink themselves 
to death as before. 

The landscape of the PodoUan plain is almost devoid of 
beauty, but the mountains, especially the Great Tatra, which 

resembles the Northern Alps in their rocky, 
Scenerv sombre parts, are well worth visiting. There 

are no glaciers, in spite of the height of 
8,000 feet, but there is eternal snow in the clefts of the rocks, 
and for ruggedness and grandeur it stands alone in Eastern 
Europe. There are also tiny green lakes embedded in the 
rocks, many thousand feet high, appropriately called 
Meeraugen (eyes of the sea), and long caves where one can 
wander for hours without coming to an end. 

The Poles form the majority of the population only in 
Western Galicia, but their influence reaches far into the East, 

where bitter struggles between them and the 
pISes Ruthenians are going on. In character they 

are strikingly like the Irish. Their perfervid 
patriotism comes from the depth of their hearts, as is only 
natural in a people of a grand past, but a sorry present, 
being held in subjection by three different powers, and one 
of those powers Russia. They are gifted in art more than 
any of the Austrian peoples, first-class composers and per- 
forming artists, painters, writers and poets of imagination 
and strength. They are courteous and charming in manners. 



The Austrian Nations and their Lands 25 

their women are beautiful, and in the upper classes extremely 
cultured and accomplished, perfect women of the world, 
though helpless in the art of house-keeping. But they are 
improvident and easy-going, shiftless and lazy, quick of tongue 
and slow of deed. Their peasantry is dirty, slovenly, and 
bigoted beyond behef, their aristocracy haughty and pleasure 
loving. 

The Ruthenians in Eastern Galicia and the Bukowina, 
almost equalling the Poles in number, have not nearly the 
same influence with the Government. They 
R th ^^^ ^ quiet, melancholy people, closely 

related to the Russians, whose religion they 
share. They are being roused from their lethargy now by 
their intelligent classes, and likely to become dangerous to 
the Poles, so far the masters of the country. They are not 
very brilliant, and like aU suppressed peoples, are rather sly 
and underhand, quite as dirty and shiftless as the Poles, but 
more industrious. They generally wear their national 
costumes stOl, even the boys going to the pubUc schools. 
The women's is primitive, but pretty : a long Unen garment 
like a nightdress, beautifully embroidered on the sleeves, 
which does duty for chemise, blouse and skirt, a dark woollen 
apron, and in winter a sheepskin jacket. 

The Roumanians, who live in the Bukowina, are a strange 
race, quite unlike the other Latin peoples at heart, though 
outwardly the very images of the ancient 
Roumanians Ronia^ns. Their most striking characteris- 
tics are discretion and caution, which often 
degenerates into cunning, and national pride, which to the 
stranger looks like unspeakable conceit. They never marry a 
stranger if they can possibly help it, regarding everybody outside 
their clan as beneath them. A girl cannot even marry into the 
next village without losing caste. They are extravagantly 
hospitable to friends, and set an absurdly high value on 
pubhc opinion. They are indolent and lazy like all Southern 
nations, especially the women, who never work in the fields. 



26 Austria 

When the Roumanian peasant is asked after his wife, the 
standing answer is : She is cherishing her beauty. Even the 
peasant women have been known to paint and wear false hair, 
so that their complexion, which is beautiful in youth, suffers 
later. They are clever at embroidery, however, and alto- 
gether the arts and crafts are the only things at which the 
Roumanians are really good. 

Owing to the qualities above mentioned, the Roumanian 
is a most loyal subject, and there is not the faintest trace of 
an irredentist movement among them. 

Such are the Austrian nations which are rooted in the 
The soil. And now we come to that unhappy, 

Jews. uprooted race, the Jews. 

This is not the place to speak fully of that phenomenon 
amongst nations, and of the singular circumstances that make 
it what it is. Suffice it to say that the 2,000,000 Jews living 
in Austria were only emancipated sixty years ago from the 
cruel laws invented for them exclusively, preventing them from 
holding land, penning them up in the Ghetti, and shutting them 
out from aU means of getting their living except commerce. 
Naturally, in this short time, they could not all leave the 
business they had acquired a great aptitude for in the hundreds 
of years they had practised it almost to the exclusion of any 
other trade. The other roads open to them in Austria are 
very few, and set with thorns, in fact growing fewer and more 
difficult to pass as time goes on. For the springtide of 
Uberalism which flooded the country in the sixties and 
seventies of the nineteenth century has ebbed away, and 
in its stead the tide of Anti-Semitism is 
Anti-Semitism, swelling and rising still. To-day many pro- 
fessions, as that of army-officer, of state 
of&cial, of judge, are as good as closed to the Jew : he is 
allowed to enter them, but he never advances beyond a 
certain point, reached by the Gentile after a few years' service. 
Besides, he is shown so plainly he is not wanted, that there 
are only very few who are so thick-skinned and hopeful as to 



The Austrian Nations and their Lands 27 

try these professions. Then there are other professions 
where the Jew, if exceptionally gifted, attains the same as his 
perfectly average Gentile colleague, only it takes him twice 
the time to do it : such are the careers of the University 
Lecturer, of the school teacher, and others. In the so-called 
free professions, those of the barrister and doctor, there are 
no barriers raised : though, of course, as is also the case with 
business men, the Christian will always prefer the Christian 
lawyer, doctor, or shopkeeper, so long as he is not convinced 
of being worse off with Mm. Naturally these callings are 
crowded with Jews. 

The state of the educated minority, however, is com- 
paratively good ; they have a hard struggle for life, but they 

are well equipped for it as regards brains, 
''^'^^Jew'"^" and their sufferings are more or less of a 

spiritual nature. The great majority of the 
Austrian Jews, however, are almost paupers. Amongst the 
desperately poor GaUcian peasants they are only just able 
to eke out a living as shopmen, pedlars, carriers, drivers, 
public-house keepers, and artisans. But there are far too 
many of them in those poor and overcrowded businesses, 
and the most they can do is to hold their heads above water ; 
many cannot manage even that, and go under ; thousands 
emigrate every year, and the white slave dealers from over 
the sea, of course, find plenty of their horrible ware here. 
The conditions are getting worse and worse, as they are 
being mercilessly persecuted and hunted out of the few 
positions they are stiU holding. The Public-house Bill 
mentioned above was merely one instance of many. 

It has been said by ignorant and malicious people that the 
Jews have themselves to thank for the miserable state they 
are in, that they do not care to work hard, that they consider 
manual work beneath them. That is an untruth pure and 
simple. They hold learning high. There are no " illiterates " 
among them, and the poorest and meanest reads his Bible in 
the original. But they are at the same time hard-working 



28 Austria 

people, and, for instance, one of the professions requiring 
the greatest muscular strength and daring, that of the raftsmen 
taking timber along the rivers, is practised by the Jews 
exclusively all down the Danube. In the oil-districts of 
GaUcia an oil-shaft sometimes begins to burn, the flames 
leaping high at once and threatening the neighboiuring shafts. 
Water is useless in these cases, and the only way to extinguish 
the fire is to throw earth into the hole. For this work there 
are only Jews to be had, nobody else is found willing to drag 
the great sacks close to that heU and risk their lives. 

These two instances will sufi&ce to show that the Jew has 
other good points besides those grudgingly admitted even by 
his foes — ^his genius for commerce, his hunger for learning, 
his talent for art, especially poetry, his ideal family life, his 
frugality and sobriety — ^that he is also capable and willing 
to do any kind of work, however hard and dangerous, so long 
as it wiU support him. 

Their motet unfavourable traits are terrible want of self- 
respect and proper pride. Of late, however, the national 
rejuvenation has taken hold of them, too, and is doing wonders 
in that respect. Theodor Herzl of Vienna, a man who had 
so far only been known as a charming and graceful writer, 
took up the idea of repatriating his scattered brethren in their 
ancestral home, and in the last ten years of his short life gave 
to the old dream of Zionism a political basis, and an organisa- 
tion spanning the world — sure warrant for a prosperous 
development for the nucleus of a Jewish homestead existing 
already in Palestine. 



CHAPTER II 

PARTIES AND POLITICIANS 

Vienna correspondents of London newspapers are from time 

to time disgusted by the, to them, revolting and monstrous 

Th E r h opinion, that the English Constitution, that 

Constitution bulwark of freedom, that pride of every true 

Imitated Briton, is at the bottom of all the mischief 

m ustria. ^^^^ ^^^ ^^^^^ ^^^^ during the last forty years 

in Austria by unprincipled or misguided politicians. When- 
ever there is a free fight in the Reichsrat (House of Commons), 
whenever the machinery of lawmaking and government 
comes to a deadlock, whenever an unsavory story of bribery 
and corruption of poHticians gets abroad, people are ready to 
cry out : "All this is owing to our having copied the Enghsh 
Constitution with its Parhament and other poHtical customs ! 
The House of Commons may be good enough for Great Britain 
with its more or less homogeneous, more or less enlightened 
population, but it will not work in Austria with her eight 
different nationalities and their diametrically opposed 
interests." 

There certainly is a grain of truth in the statement that the 
English Constitution is to a great extent responsible for the 
Austrian Ahgeordnetenhaus (House of Conmions) and Herren- 
haus (House of Lords). When, after the revolutionary days of 
1848, Austria began to yield to the modem spirit and to feel its 
way towards some sort of government by representation, the 
liberal leaders natmrally looked to England for practicable 
models. The Enghsh Constitution was at that time eagerly 
studied by every serious politician all over Europe, but 
nowhere with more admiration than in Austria. And when, 

29 



30 Austria 

after the disastrous war of 1866, which necessitated a recon- 
struction of the Empire from the bottom upwards, the most 
conservative advisers of the Crown agreed to try representa- 
tive government, the " Mother of Parliaments " suggested 
itself as the best oi aU possible models, and the English 
Parliament was, figuratively speaking, transferred from 
Westminster to the banks of the Danube with enthusiastic 
optimism. 

Our optimism was premature. Only the fault did not 
lie with the English Constitution, but with the optimists. 
No pohtician has a right to expect miracles, and it would have 
been nothing short of a miracle if the Enghsh glove had 
fitted the Austrian hand. Of course it did not and could 
not fit. 

The Austrian problem was too involved, too complex for 
so simple a remedy. What the Austrian middle class 

clamoured for was a safeguard against 
ProW^m *" aristocratic privilege and the aU-powerfidness 

of the Crown. So far the most optimistic 
expectations were fulfilled. Equality before the law has been 
estabUshed in Austria for half a century, nor have the most 
benighted reactionaries ever since attempted to question this 

principle. The equahty of citizenship is a 

^n?*"""?**''^ fact in Austria, much more so than in any 
Monarcny. . , i -r 

other monarchic country of the world. In 

the Church, the Army and Navy, in the Civil Service, in the 
schools and Universities men of the lowest origin have 
climbed to the top of the ladder. There are instances of 
cobblers' sons having become archbishops ; many a soldier 
is known to have risen from the ranks to the command of 
a regiment ; shop-keepers in the smallest way of business 
have seen their boys in the gorgeous uniforms of privy coun- 
cillors and cabinet ministers. For democratic equality the 
Austrian Army is hard to beat. Austria's position in this 
respect is unique. Austrian officers enjoy, among the 
middle classes, a popularity that is practically unparalleled 




Plioto by 



COUNT BERCHTOLD 
{Austrian Foreign Minister) 



Exclusive Nck's Agency 



Parties and Politicians 31 

throughout the world. You see, the most roseate optimism, 
as far as equality goes, was justified by subsequent events. 
The Constitution has proved a most efficient safeguard 
against the arrogance of caste. 

The days of the absolutist government by the Crown are 
gone, it would seem, for good and all. The Emperor Francis 

Francis Joseph Joseph never had any leanings towards 
the most autocratic arbitrariness, and it is not too 

Adherent of the much to say that, of all Austrians, he is the 
Constitution, most scrupulous adherent of the Constitu- 
tion. There is a proviso in the Austrian Constitution, the 
ill-reputed section 14, which gives ministers the possibility, 
when Parliament is prorogued, in cases of emergency to trans- 
act business of state which, under ordinary circumstances, 
would require the sanction of the Commons. Whenever 
such a contingency arises the whole Administration meet 
in council and sign the statute which is published in the name 
of the Crown. Such provisional statutes must be subse- 
quently passed in both the Low^r and the Upper House. 
Treaties with foreign powers, ways and means, taxation, 
administration of justice, and other business of an urgent 
nature come under this head. During the eight years 
between 1897 and 1904 no less than seventy-four statutes of 
this kind were passed. Now, it is a well-established fact that 
the Emperor is strongly averse to making use of this 
emergency section which, for a time at least, does away 
with Parliamentary government. In times of Parliamen- 
tary deadlock he is always ready to exhaust all means 
of conciliation rather than have recourse to that odious 
paragraph. 

But a Great Charter, such as was granted to the English 
ever so many hundred years ago, was not calculated to solve 

Lower Classes *^^ Austrian problem. The aristocracy, it 
Left Out of is true, has been shorn of its privileges to a 

the Reckoning, certain extent, and autocracy was abohshed. 
The upper middle class, the rich captains of industry and of 



32 Austria 

commercial enterprise, came rapidly to the fore. But what 
about the lower strata of the social fabric ? What about the 
small tradesmen, the artisans, the working classes, the tillers 
of the soil ? These had been completely left out of the 
reckoning when the Aijstrian statesmen of the type of the 
famous Schmerling, the so-caUed " Father of the Austrian 
Constitution," Lasser, Perthaler and Lichtenfels were at 
work reconstructing Austria and giving her a new lease of 
life. From the outset it was plain to the thinking minority 
that a representative Government based on the upper classes 
only, utterly disregarding the masses, could not be of any long 
duration. As a matter of fact, socialist aspirations such as 
shook England in the uneasy times of Chartism, made them- 
selves felt in Austria as early as the first half of the nineteenth 
century, and the movement kept growing and spreading 
notwithstanding all the coercive measures of every successive 
Administration, until some twenty years ago, the movement 
came to a head, and made the Socialistic Party one of the 
strongest in Austria. 

And apart from the clamouring of the masses for poUtical 
representation, the national aspirations were a source of con- 

The National stant trouble and vexation, in fact the drop 
Problems. of wormwood in the cup of bliss which 
the new constitution held to the hps of the Liberals all 
over Austria. 

The men who had worked all their lives in the interests 
of political freedom and who, after exhausting struggles 
against odds, after innumerable ups and 
Centralism, downs, had succeeded in permeating both 
the Imperial family and the great feudal 
families such as the Schwarzenbergs, the Fiirstenbergs, the 
Windischgratzs, the Thuns, the Lobkowitzs, the Auerspergs 
and others with the idea of representative government, these 
very men had grown up in the tradition of German superiority 
oVer the Slavonic races, and therefore were naturally incapaci- 
tated from seeing that Austria, constituted as she is, could 



Parties and Politicians 33 

not enjoy internal peace and prosperity, so long as she tried 
the impossible, i.e., to make seven races give up their languages 
and national idiosyncrasies in favour of German. No doubt, 
Schmerling.'Lasser, Perthaler and Lichtenfels, and at a later 
period men of world-wide reputation such as the geologist 
Eduard Suess, the whilom President of the Vienna Academy 
of Letters, were informed with the highest spirit of patriotism ; 
theirs was an absolutely unselfish single-minded love of their 
country such as had inspired the enlightened well-meaning 
despotism of the great Emperor Joseph the Second. Theirs 
was a deep-seated conviction that the Germans in Austria 
had the sacred mission of educating the backward nations 
around them up to their standard of civilisation, and they 
were genuinely disgusted whenever the Poles, Czechs, Slovaks 
and other Slavs ungratefully rejected the blessings of German 
schools and German administrative officials. These " Central- 
ists," as they were called, could not bring themselves to beheve 
that Austria could possibly be governed otherwise than 
according to the old Centralist tradition, that is, by a German 
bureaucracy and through the vehicle of the German language. 
Their ideal of Austria was One Ruler, One Army, One Lan- 
guage. That the One Language was to be the German 
tongue, was, to them, a matter of course. They looked upon 
the Czechs, the Croats, the Poles, who refused to be swamped 
by the aliens, who could not fancy themselves swallowed up 
in a Germanic Austria, as enemies of the State. This attitude 
of mind which is strongly opposed to diversity of speech for 
reasons of State was quite common a generation ago and is 
far from being extinct even now. M. Paul Meyer, the great 
French scholar and Member of the French Institute who 
used to spend the summer months among the treasures in the 
British Museum, one day complained to an English confrere 
that William the Conqueror had not been strong-minded 
enough to stamp out the English speech in the conquered 
island. 
" What a blessing to the world," he exclaimed, " if the 

3— (a3B4) 



34 Austria 

Anglo-Saxon population had accepted French as their 
language. France, England, Scotland, Ireland, America, 
Australia, Africa — ^the whole world that matters would speak 
one language ! " 

It would have beea grand, no doubt — ^for the French. 
So it would have been grand for the Germans if the eight 
nationalities of Austria could have made up their minds to 
give up their mother-tongues. 

But they wQl not. There's the rub. The Poles with their 

great past, their brilliant old literature, and their religious 

fervour had never for a moment wavered in 

Polish ^jjgjj. allegiance to the national ideal. If 

Aspirations. ,,, i r,/-. 

they bore the yoke of the German school- 
master and CivU Servant, it was because it was so much lighter 
than what was imposed upon them by the Russian master. 
But a nation with a language of their own they were and 
meant to be for aU time ; so when in the sixties the Polish aris- 
tocracy made their peace with the Emperor of Austria, the 
German invasion in Galicia rapidly melted away, and after 
a very short time it was neige d'antan. To-day Western 
Galicia is Polish to the bone. 

Czech nationalism is of a later growth. The Thirty Years' 

War and the subsequent events had all but stamped out the 

/ spirit and language of the Slavs in Bohemia 

N t^^^^*" ^"^^ Moravia. The upper classes affected the 

/ ' German language much as the Germans of 
Alsatia, in the times of Louis, affected the French, and as 
late as 1840 the number of cultured Czechs who stuck 
to their mother-tongue was extremely small. When some 
fervent nationalists were one day gathered at a meeting, one 
of them perpetrated the quasi-joke : " If the roof fell in now, 
there would be no Czechs left." But the zeal of the few 
made up for their want of numbers. Dobrowsky, Jungmann, 
Palacky, Safarik, Havlicek, KoUar, Celakowsky, and others 
worked with tireless energy at the nationalist revival. Their 
zeal has been crowned with marvellous success. Two 



Parties and Politicians 35 

generations ago the Czechs were a horde of helots — to-day 
they are a nation. 

The Slavs in the South were roused in the thirties of the 
nineteenth century by Ljudovit Gaj, and later on by JeUacic ; 

nowadays Laibach is the acknowledged 
'"^''^Revlv^.^'*' centre of open Slav agitation, and the 

Germans keep receding before the onward 
movement of the Slovenes. 
The most backward group of Slav nationality, the Ruthen- 

ians, are, under the leadership of able 
A^ftion" tacticians and zealous workers, on the point 

of coming by their own. 
No man has done more to disintegrate the German party 
of Centralists, and to initiate the modern pohcy of conciliating 

the other nations than Count Edward Taaffe 
*^°"Ta5fe'"'^ who, within fifteen years (from 1879 tiU 1893) 

actually put an end to the German upper 
class ascendency in Austria and prepared the way to an 
understanding between the classes and masses on one hand, 
between the antagonistic races on the other. 

Count Taaffe was the scion of an old Irish family long settled 
in Austria. The Count's father had been a cabinet minister 
during the ancien regime. Edward was a playmate of Francis 
Joseph, and when, ever so many years later, the Emperor met 
him in Prague, he was genuinely happy to have.foimd him 
again. Taaffe was a whimsical, good-natured, easy-going 
Irishman, quick of brain and ready with his repartee, sharp- 
eyed, a student of character. He could be highly amusing 
if he chose. The Emperor liked and trusted him, and Taaffe 
deserved his confidence. He always called and actually 
considered himself first and foremost the servant of the 
Crown, His Majesty's Minister. He was not a statesman 
in the highest sense of the word. He was neither a thinker, 
like Gladstone or John Morley, nor a representative of prin- 
ciple and tradition like Lord Sahsbury, nor even an orator. 
But he was full of resource. He knew how to disentangle 



36 Austria 

himself out of a hopeless situation, how to get out of a 
hole. Principles never burdened his back, thoughts of the 
future never troubled his mind. His was, as he laughingly 
acknowledged, a policy from hand to mouth ; he managed 
" somehow to muddle llirough." And with all these short- 
comings Taaffe, perhaps without his knowing it, became, 
in a sense, Austria's man of destiny. During his administra- 
tion the franchise was extended to the lower middle classes, 
and a great many social laws for the benefit of the " small 
man," the artisan, the shopkeeper, the crofter, were passed. 
And the Slav members of the House of Commons who, 
before the advent of Taaffe, had sullenly stood aside, now 
actively took part in the Parliamentary debates, got seats 
on the ministerial bench, and became valuable advisers 
of the Crown. Taaffe knew how to hammer the different 
Slav sections of the Commons, the Poles, the Czechs, the 
Slovenes into the famous " iron ring " which held good for 
over a decade against aU attempts on the part of the Germans 
to break it. Perhaps the ring would have yielded, if Count 
Taaffe had not had the skill to bring about aji alliance between 
the Slavs and the Clericals of all nations. This alliance 
proved impregnable, and is practically unbroken to this 
day. 

The German Liberals were pulverised, almost annihilated. 

This was too much for the Emperor, who, truth to say, never 

felt quite at home with his favourite Taaffe's 

""^of* UteSusm." ^^^^^ ^°^ ^^^^- '^^^* ^^^ Emperor wanted 
was a peaceable working together of Germans, 
Slavs and Clericals, not the exclusion of his own race from 
the government of the Empire. That is why he tried again 
and again to get a new Administration on these lines. The 
Germans were willing enough, and so were the Poles ; only 
Count Hohenwart, the then leader of the Clerical Party, 
demurred, 
" I am too old. Your Majesty," he excused himself. 
The Emperor became very angry indeed. 



Parties and Politicians 37 

" You were young enough to pull down, but you feel too 
old to build up again." 

Prince Windischgratz jumped into the breach. He failed. 

Count Kielmannsegg stepped in. He failed. Count Badeni, 

who had tamed a stubborn diet in GaUcia, 

AdministJations. ^^^ <=^^^ ^V ^^^ Emperor and haUed bythe 
" press as the saving man of the hour. He 
failed. Close on a dozen short-lived administrations followed 
on each other's heels without being able to solve the problem 
of a working alUance between the opposing elements of the 
Commons. Dr. Ernst von Koerber stood his ground longer 
than most of his predecessors since Count Taaffe had resigned. 
Instead of going on with a fight against odds, clever Dr. 
Koerber gave up fighting altogether. It was impossible to get 
together a working majority in the Commons ; consequently 
he tried to do without the Commons. That was the secret of 
his success. Dr. Koerber's administration did excellent 
departmental work. Some of his colleagues in the cabinet 
were, like the political economist Bohm-Bawerk, scholars of 
European reputation. Although a Civil servant himself, 
Koerber hated red tape, and introduced a good many measures 
tending towards administrative reform. He did his best to 
tackle the national problems. He tried every means in his 
power to bring about a reconciliation between the Germans and 
Czechs — and failed. 

Baron Paul Gautsch fared no better. But his adminis- 
tration will not be forgotten in the modern history of Austria. 

He it was who prevailed upon the Emperor to 
Suffr^e* ^^^ ^^ consent to a startling reform of 

franchise — ^in 1907 universal man suffrage 
was introduced. Truly a leap in the dark. The House 
of Commons which was selected on the new lines did 
not justify the extravagant hopes which optimists had 
roused. The Austrian ParHament of to-day is as far as ever 
from having a stable working majority, nor have the national 
disputes been settled. 



38 Austria 

At present the conflicting national and social interests 

of the Austrian population are represented 
^''of^TSid^^"* in ParUament by no less than about twenty 

different clubs. 
There are the Germans — split into five groups. The so- 
called German Nationalists who try to keep up the old Libered 

traditions are most of them the representa- 
^^cP?™*° fives of the German town population. Theirs 

is a difficult position. They are expected 
by their constituencies, most of them hard-working manu- 
facturers and commercial people, to safeguard their class 
interest, to stem the rise of the Slavonic flood in Bohemia 
and Moravia, and at the same time to have the Empire at 
heart, its unity and strength. The members of this club are 
most of them cultxured people, sober and amenable to reason, 
well-mannered in debate. But their very amenability and 
sweet reasonableness is a constant danger to their popularity, 
which is being undermined by the irresponsible extremists and 
rowdies who form the small, but vociferous Pan-Germanic Club. 
The Christian Socialist Germans, about eighty in niunber, 
have, their name notwithstanding, very little or nothing in 

common with Christian Socialism as it is 
^'sod^'iite*" understood in England. They are on the 

best of terms with the capitalists and the 
capitalist order of society ; they are in league with Feudalism 
and its stanchest adherents. Agrarianism of the most selfish 
description is part of their political platform. The famine 
prices of mUk, meat and bread in Austria are their work. A 
good many of their numbers have been branded as corrup- 
tionists of the Tammany Hall type. Their stronghold is 
Lower Austria and Vienna. The ultra-montane members 
pure and simple who hail from the Alpine provinces, such as 
Salzburg and Tyrol, follow their lead without actually approv- 
ing of their methods. The present Burgomaster of Vienna, 
Dr. Weisskirchner, who owes his exceptionally brilliant 
career to the founder of the Christian SociaUst party, the late 




•P'wto by " Kilophot," G.m.b.h., Vienna, 

A NATIVE TYPE FROM BUKOWINA 



Parties and Politicians 39 

Dr. Lueger, is generally considered the strongest personality 
in the Christian Socialist ranks. 

In marked contrast to the Christian Socialist Club the 

fifty-two Social Democratic Germans fight Clericalism and 

Class Privilege tooth and naU. In uncom- 

Democrate' promising allegiance to principle, in discipline, 

in success they are the strongest party in 

the Austrian Parliament. With the high-minded Dr. Victor 

Adler at their head they are a tower of strength against the 

aspirations of clericalism, caste and class. 

The Poles who for close on half a century have been the 
pampered pets of every successive administration, are, in 
the House of Commons, gathered, but not 
^''ciub"^'^ united, under the hospitable roof of the 
Polish Club (Polenklub, Kolo Polskie) — 
seventy-one members. When this club was at the height 
of its power, the House and its destiny were in the hands 
of the Polish members. In those times the club preserved 
an iron discipline ; its chairman was obeyed like a Roman 
dictator in the time of war. Every member bowed to the 
decrees of the club. This unity is a thing of the past. There 
are four groups in the club now. The Conservatives who 
represent the shlachta (nobility) are fought by the democrats, 
the people's party profess to work for a sort of progressive 
agrarianism, and the Pan-Poles are uncompromising adher- 
ents of the old national ideal, the reunion of the three 
Polands being their most cherished aspiration. 

The PoUsh Socialists form a group of their own outside the 
PoUsh Club. 

The Czechs, too, are gathered in one club, the Jednoty 
Kluh Cesky, but they are no more homogeneous than the 
Poles. There is the Catholic group (seven 
^'*Club^*^*' members), there are the Agrarians (thirty- 
five members) , there are the National SociaUsts 
(some sixteen members), and there is the Union of the Inde- 
pendent Progressives (seven members). The Czechs have the 



40 Austria 

reputation of providing the House with the most reckless 
obstructionists, and some of them seem to imitate the Irish 
members by affecting, in times of foreign tension, to side with 
the enemies of the country. Thus Kramarz, during the 
anxious time which followed the annexation of Bosnia, con- 
stantly denounced the Imperial policy and pleaded for 
Servia, to the unbounded disgust of the Germans and Poles. 
Among the Czech Progressives Masaryk is the most pro- 
minent Member of ParHament. The rights of man have in 
him a most ardent and eloquent exponent. 

The Southern Slavs, although only twenty-seven in number, 
are spUt into several clubs, and so are the Ruthenians. The 
Ruthenian Party or (as they prefer to be 
^SlavT'*' called) the Ukrainians have a very hard fight 
of it wresting national rights from the Poles. 
The Ukrainians being of kin with the Russians, the court of 
Vienna laboured a long time under the fear that they were 
secretly in sjonpathy with the empire of the 
Rut^nians ^^^r. In consequence of that misunder- 
standing the Poles were given a free hand in 
dealing with the Ruthenians. Nikolai von Wassilko, one of 
the Ruthenian leaders, has changed all that. He and his 
party vie with the most fervent Tyrolese in demonstrations 
of zeal for Austria and the Emperor. This opportune 
patriotism has gone a long way towards emancipating the 
Ruthenians and giving them some sort of independent national 
existence. 

To the EngHsh mind, used as it is to the simple see-saw 
system of EngHsh party-government, it must seem the height 
of absurdity to try and manage a ParUament which falls 
into some twenty clubs. And to the EngHsh statesman, 
unless he happen to know Austria from a long sojourn in the 
country, it cannot but seem impossible that an empire which 
is composed of eight nations should go on existing for any 
length of time. We Austrians who see things from the inside, 
who have studied the history of this unique empire, know 



Parties and Politicians 41 

better than that. The very co-existence of so many nations 

under the same rule is the raison d'eire of Austria. 

Austria has a mission in the near East. England and 

France seem to have forgotten this fact, but it is a fact all 

the same. It is Austria which has wrested 

Austria's Hungary, Transylvania, andl other wide 

Mission in the ° •'' ,/ , ', j^ i_ -l • -j. 

Near East. provinces from the clutches of barbarism ; it 

is Austria which, for centuries? and centuries 
have borne the brant of the battle against Asi0.tic raids, it is 
Austria that has spread order and civilisation, banishing 
chaos and anarch despotism. Austria actually stands for 
freedom of race, nationality and creed in the East of Europe, 
and we boast, rightly boast, that we have done for the con- 
flicting interests of the manifold and variegated national 
fragments that have taken shelter imder the wing of the Aus- 
trian eagle, something similar to what the English have 
achieved further afield. Austria has been and is still, the 
battleground where Poles and Ruthenians, Germans and 
Czechs, Magyars and Croatians fight it out, not in the old 
fashion, popular stiU in Servia and Turkey, by barbarous 
bloodshed and devastation, but according to the English 
fashion by ballot and parUamentary debate. A large section 
of the English public still takes its notions of Austria from the 
Hterature of the fifties and sixties of the last century, when 
mid-Victorian hterature rang with indignation against 
Austrian oppression in Italy. AU this is over and done with. 
Austria of to-day no more resembles the Austria of 
that time than present England resembles the Great 
Britain of the Chartist Riots. There is hardly a spot 
on God's earth where conflicting races enjoy as much freedom 
as the Poles, Ruthenians, Czechs, Roumanians, Croatians, and 
Armenians in the Austrian Empire. Leave the welter of 
Austrian nationaUties to themselves, and the world will be 
set aflame by the news of fierce struggles surpassing in extent 
and barbarity the atrocities of the Armenian type. 



CHAPTER III 

^ EDUCATION 

Owing to the national friction Austria has remained behind 
the times in many respects. As regards education, however, 
it stands high amongst European nations, and, were it not for 
the terrible handicaps it is again suffering from on the part 
of the Clericals, it would doubtless rank with the best. Per- 
haps one of the reasons for this comparatively fast develop- 
ment is the very rivalry between the different nations, acting 
as a spur in this one instance. 

To the EngUshman the most remarkable features of the 
Austrian system of education are its severe uniformity and 
the absence of boarding colleges — all the schools and colleges, 
with very few exceptions, being day schools. These features, 
however, it shares with most continental systems, those of 
Germany and France among the number. 

Closely connected with these characteristics is the great 
amount of learning acquired, and the comparatively low 
standard in physical training. 

The elementary school had existed for a long time as a 

Catholic and German institution, when the Act of 1869 

freed it from the trammels of the Church, 

"^^ and nationahsed it : to-day the children in 

School. ^^ elementary school must be taught in the 

language of the majority attending it, so that 

even in some Vienna districts closely populated by Czech 

immigrants, there are Czech schools. 

The primary schools are supported by the communities, 
the State furnishing only the teachers' seminaries, and a 
school must be founded wherever there are forty children 
over six years of age who would have to walk more than two 
miles to the nearest existing school. Yet, in spite of this rule, 
and in spite of compulsory instruction (for children aged from 

42 




Photo by 



" Kilophot" 
DALMATIAN GROUP 



G.m.b.h., Vienna. 



Education 43 

six to twelve or fourteen) being already more than forty years 
old, in some backward provinces, especially the Carpathians 
and the Carst, up to 70 per cent, of the population are still 
unable to read or write ; while in the Sudetians and the 
Alps, where in winter the little boys and girls have to wade 
through the deep snow and to coast to school without path 
or light in the bitter winter mornings, there is not even one 
per cent, of " illiterates." Perhaps nothing illustrates so 
well the different standard of Czechs and Germans on the one 
hand, and the remaining Slav and Latin nations on the other, 
than this one fact. 

In the country the primary schools have always been 
conducted on the co-education system, simply because 
separate small classes of boys and girls would have been too 
costly. But now that the modern tendency is aU for co- 
education as a wholesome factor in school-hfe, many private 
schools in the big towns are teaching boys and girls together 
with excellent results, while the parish schools in town are 
still holding back. 

Of late another modern feature has found its way into the 
primary school : the Swedish Sloyd lessons in handicraft. 
This is practised in all the town schools now, 
"Sloyd." the boys enjoying the carpentering, joining, 
book-binding, etc., immensely. In the village 
schools gardens are being laid out for the children, and experi- 
ments in fruit and vegetable growing carried out successfully. 

The kindergarten has only lately been taken in hand by 

the parishes in the towns, but now every dfetrict has several. 

And, indeed, in the country, where the 

„. .^^^ . children are used to all kinds of manual 
Kindergarten. , , , ,, , 

occupations, and where they generally have 

all the supervision needed, because they are always running 

after some member of the family in the house, the garden, or 

the field, it would, be superfluous. Besides the parochial 

kindergarten there are many private ones, where sometimes 

the babies are taught English and French while playing. 



44 Austria 

An interesting modern institution, too, is that of the 
Ferienhorte, which are imitations of the EngUsh Boys' Brigades, 
and an immeasurable blessing for the stunted city boys. 
The little girls also have play-grounds in the woods near 
Vienna, where they are taken on Sundays and in the holidays, 
but there are not nearly so many for them as for the boys. 

The school teachers are excdlently grounded, both theo- 
retically and practically, and generally aU that can be desired. 
Of late the influence of the Clerical Party is at work. Their 
aim, at which they are working together with the Christian 
Socialists, is to get aJl the schools back into their hands. 

The Austrian public schools for boys are mostly sup- 
ported by the State, some few otherwise. (The girl's high- 
schools are mostly private.) They were 
The reorganised sixty years ago by Count Thun, 

Schools. who changed them from the old Latin Schools 
for Gentlemen's Sons into popular schools 
preparing for aU kinds of studies apart from the classics, 
introducing science and other subjects which had been 
barred before. 

His laudable principles have been followed in the more 
recent development also, but even to-day these schools are 
still hampered by their origin. So long as nothing but the 
himianities were studied there, the boys had plenty of time 
to go as deeply into these matters as was required of them. 
But instead of cutting down the amount of classical reading, 
history, etc., to make room for the all-important subject of 
science, for drawing, etc., these new matters were simply 
added to the curriculum. The result is that now the granunar 
school boys are terribly overburdened, having very little 
time for outdoor games, music, their private hobbies, in fact 
recreation of any kind. Jn addition to all this, the final 
examination, which opens the doors of the Universities, is a 
very strict one, and the last year is always one of terribly 
hard craraming even for the best pupils. 

Apart from this sort of pubUc school, the Gymnasium, 



Education 45 

there is a modem type of secondary school, also founded by 
Graf Thun, the Realschule, which chiefly prepares for the 
Technical College. Instead of Latin, Greek, and Philosophy, 
French and EngUsh are taught there, more mathematics, 
and drawing. The boys are not so hard worked, and it is 
possible for them to go to the University, too, after their 
finals, on condition that they pass an additional examination 
there to show that they have mastered Latin to a certain 
extent. 

A third type, the Realgymnasium, is a medium between 
the two : instead of Greek, French is taught, and the boys 
have the freedom both of the University and of the Technical 
High School. 

There are other experiments made in the direction sug- 
gested by this latter type, and it is to be hoped that a 
reorganisation of the pubHc schools on this 

ITje Reform ^yasis will soon be effected. There is at 
Movement. . 

present a strong movement m favour of these 

reforms. But the conservative elements, especially those 

teachers whose subjects (Greek, Ancient History, Philosophy) 

are in danger of being restricted, do what they can to keep 

up the present state of things. There is a standing quarrel 

between these two parties, sometimes very interesting to 

watch, as really great men are to be foimd on both sides, 

sometimes rather amusing for the impartial onlooker. 

The girl student is, in Austria, a product of recent social 

developments, and the Educational Department has not had 

the time yet to tackle the problem with much 
''schools^'* chance of success. Girls are admitted to 

pass final examinations with a view to 
matriculating in the university as students of letters, of 
science, or of medicine, the study of law being inaccessible 
to them as yet. But the State which pays for and manages 
all the Secondary Schools for boys does absolutely nothing 
for the higher education of girls. We have grammar schools 
(Gymnasien) for girls, but they are aU of them private 



46 Austria 

affairs subject to the inspection and approval of the State 
authorities. 

In fact, the State does not encourage the girl students. 
The State is in favour of our girls qualifying for good house- 
wives. That evidently »is the meaning of the " Lyceum," a 
new type of Girls' High School which was inaugurated 
some ten years ago by the Educational Department. The 
" Lyceum " is calculated to take over middle class girls from 
elementary schools at the age of ten, to give them a smattering 
of letters, science, and modern languages, and to dismiss 
them as a finished article at the age of sixteen. This new 
type is a failure. It is generally viewed as an impossible 
betwixt and between, and it is likely to be aboUshed or 
fundamentally changed in a very short time. 

The teaching methods employed in the secondary schools 
are excellent and quite modern. Especially as regards the 

teaching of languages and history they 
^Masters"* compare most favourably with the average 

English school. The secondary school 
teachers are generally very well up in their subjects scientific- 
ally, but the pedagogic side of their education is comparatively 
neglected. They have to study four years at the University 
and to pass the teachers' examination, which is more difficult 
than the degree for doctor of philosophy. But they have not 
much opportunity for learning to teach, as they need only 
attend the lessons of an older colleague for one year, occa- 
sionally trying their hand themselves, and often even this 
single year is not required, and they take to teaching 
immediately on coming from college. 

Besides these secondary schools for general education there 
are a great many special ones : commercial schools, trade 

schools, agricultural schools, forest schools, 
^Schoor^** the famous art and craft school (Kunstgewer- 

beschule) and the Academy of Music in 
Vienna, and many others. The two last named draw a great 
many foreign students to Vienna each year. 



Education 47 

The Austrian Universities are among the oldest on the 
continent, some of them having been founded in the thirteenth 

century. They were reorganised on modern 
Universities principles (the Universities of the German 

Empire serving as models) by the same 
Graf Thun who did such good work in the case of the primary 
and secondary schools. They are supported by the State, 
who also appoints the lecturers, though the University itself 
proposes them, and the Government, as a rule, takes its advice. 
At present Austria has eight Universities proper, five of 
them German, two Polish and one Czech. The Italians, the 
Ruthenians, and the South Slavs are trsmig to get their own 
Universities also, and in spite of great difficulties they are 
likely to have their way soon. At present there are thousands 
of them studying in Vienna, Cracow and Innsbruck. 

In consequence of this the national quarrels are perpetually 
coming to the front, and it is a sorry fact that they are 

regarded, by one t5^e of student at least as 
StiSnts ^^^ more important than their study. The 

Austrian students are organised in different 
societies according to their nationality, their religion, their 
political views, and these organisations play a far greater 
part in the life of the University than the learned societies. 
There are always duels going on between the members of the 
different organisations, sometimes bloody fights between 
whole groups in the Universities themselves. It has happened 
more than once that the University of Vienna had to be closed 
on account of these continual fights. And the position of 
Rektor, that is, the Governor who is elected yearly by the 
professors from amongst themselves, requires a great deal of 
energy and tact. 

As mentioned above, the Austrian Universities, unlike the 
EngUsh and American ones, are places for lecturing and 
research work only — ^the students and masters do not five 
in college, but in their homes, and there are almost no 
scholarships to help the poorer class of students. But as 



48 Austria 

the fees for lectures are very low, the poorest, in fact, getting 
them for nothing, studying at the University is not an 
expensive thing, compared to English conditions. Besides, 
many of the students support themselves by giving lessons. 

As regards popular edjication, England has been Austria's 

model, particularly in respect of the University Extension 

Movement. Considering that the beginning 

Ed°^"t'^n ^■^ *^^ work here falls only into the year 

1885, Austria, and Vienna particularly, may 

indeed be proud of what has been accompUshed. 

It is characteristic of the conditions of Vienna public life 
that the Christian-Socialist Town Council has gradually 
withdrawn alipost the whole of its support from this perfectly 
unpolitical work, reducing the monetary contribution to next 
to nothing, and taking away all the lecturing rooms they had 
lent to the Society for Popular Education {Volkshildungsverein). 

They were mistaken, however, in hoping to mar the work. 
Rich and poor vied with each other in donations to the Society, 
the University helped in every way, members streamed in 
from all sides, and to-day it stands secure, quite independent 
of the local authorities. 

Vienna has two Working Men's Colleges [Volksheim and 
Volksbildungshaus), a University Extension {Volkstiimliche 
Universiiatskurse), another institution standing between the 
two {Urania), and many Toynbee Halls, Popular Libraries, 
and a People's Theatre {Freie VolksbUhne), apart from 
countless minor institutions of the kind. 

The Working Men's Colleges include elementary and 
secondary teaching as well as lectures on the University plane. 
There are demonstrations, experiments and 
I/fen%^o5leefs stereopticon pictures to enhven the lectures. 
The teachers are students, board and high- 
school teachers, and University lecturers. There are also 
concerts and recitals. On Sundays there are performances 
and lectures not only in the two chief buildings, but many 
schools hospitably open their doors to receive the thousan(i 



Education 49 

of hearers eager to improve and enjoy themselves. The 
pubhc consists for the greater part of working-people ; the 
smaller half belongs equally to all the other classes. Women 
— in contrast to the English institutions of the kind^ — ^are 
admitted, and they eagerly avail themselves of the oppor- 
tunity : they form 45 per cent, of the students, though it is 
significant that they frequent the humanistic courses and 
lectures (languages, history, art) far more than the scientific 
courses. 

There are a great many laboratories, thoroughly well 
equipped all of them, some even better than those of the 
University, as for instance the one for experimental 
psychology. 

The teachers and students are in close contact, and several 
groups of them have been formed in the Volksheim. It is 
quite interesting to see what subjects have brought about 
these unions or clubs. They are : PoUtical science, 
philosophy, English, hterature, art, history, natural science, 
music and photography. 

Every year a several week's journey is undertaken, and 
these holiday travels, where lecturers and students come to 
know each other much better than can ever be the case in the 
regular course of things, are such a success, that the 
University has begun to imitate them. 

In the University Extension only scientific work is done, 

and by University lecturers exclusively. The greatest 

scientists and scholars are proud to help. 

^^E^rtindon'*^ '^^ ^^^P^ "^^^ Austrian Extension on a 

higher plane than the corresponding English 

institutions. Here also women are admitted as well as men. 

The Urania is an institution much like the Volksheim, but 

founded on business principles instead of charity, and thus 

obliged to charge entrance fees, making them 

Urania ^^ ^°^ ^^ possible, however, and attracting 

chiefly the middle classes. It has also buUt 

an excellent observatory, the only pubhc one in Vienna, and 

4— U394) 



50 Austria 

very well frequented. Its picturesque building, on the 

embankment in the centre of the town, has become quite a 

characteristic feature of Vienna. 

The Toynbee Halls, on the other hand, offering tea and 

biscuits *without any charge whatever after 

^^^HMs^^ *^^ lecture, appeal most to the poorest of the 

poor. They are kept by the Jewish Lodges. 

There being no free Parish Libraries in Austria, the Society 

for Popular Education has founded Free Libraries, too, and 

this has been, indeed, a blessing. When it 

LiteM-les opened its first branch, in 1887, twenty-seven 

volumes daily were borrowed ; to-day the 

number is 6,000. It is of interest that the music department 

is the most frequented in the world, a fact very characteristic 

of music-loving Vienna. 

The Society for Popular Education is extending its work 
in all branches to the provinces also, but so far only the 
industrial centres have been won over. There wonderful 
results are being achieved, especially by the extension lectures. 



CHAPTER IV 

COMMERCE AND INDUSTRY 

The diversity of production in the several Austrian 
countries, as well as the position of the monarchy between 

The Character ^^® industrial states in the West and North- 
of Austrian West, and the agricultural states in the East 
Trade. j^jj(j South-East have favoured an excellent 
development of commerce and traffic. Austria is double- 
faced in its economical relation to its neighbours : it exports 
raw materials to the industrial states, importing some from 
the agricultural ones, while it imports industrial articles 
from the industrial states and exports a great deal to the 
agricultural ones. Since the Suez Canal has been opened, 
Austria's oversea trade also has been steadily growing in 
importance, so that to-day one-fifth of the foreign trade is 
carried on by sea. This is a good deal when the fact of 
Austria's having such a very small strip of seaboard is taken 
into account. 

The trade traf&c in Austria is also carried on by means of 
the great natural waterways, especially the Danube and the 
Elbe. There are 6,500 km. of river used by small boats and 
rafts, and 1,300 km. used by steam-boats. 
f:i, Railroads are continually in building ; especially in the 
Alps new lines are opened every year. At present Austria 
has 120,000 km. of railway lines. 

The tendency of the Austrian trade (which is under tarLH 
protection) is the development in the over-sea direction. 
Up to a short time ago the trade-traffic went almost exclu- 
sively to European countries, but this is changing rapidly, 
so that to-day 25 per cent, of the import and 10 per cent, 
of the export (together seven nailliard kronen) come and go 
to transatlantic countries. 

At present Austria is at the beginning of a process which 

51 



52 Austria 

is rapidly changing her from an agricultural into an industrial 

State. The conditions, however, are different in the different 

groups of countries, Dalmatia, for instance, having scarcely 

begun with the process, while Bohemia is almost at the stage 

of England. Thus we may speak of these groups separately. 

In the Alps the conditions for the development of industry 

on a large scale are favourable in so far as the raw material is 

plentiful ; but the population is thin as yet and 

^ttiTXlpt *^^ highways of traffic are still restricted to 

the chief valleys, though now they are 

beginning to be carried into the smaller ones. 

Of those branches of industry which are using the raw 

material found at home, the iron industry is by far the most 

important. It has grown to be an industry 

I d^°S' °^ ^ large scale, working with the best of 

technical aid, and has almost completely 

supplanted the small workshops. The chief centres of the 

iron industry are Lower Austria with Neunkirchen, Ternitz, 

Waidhofen and Scheibbs, and Styria with Eisenerz, Steyr 

(which is often called the Austrian Birmingham), and many 

others. From needles to the most complicated machinery, 

everything is manufactured, but for exporting purposes 

sickles, scythes and rifles are of chief account. The rifle 

factory of Stejn: is the largest in Em-ope. 

Gin and beer are manufactured everywhere, 

reweries. ^^^ latter especially round Vienna. 

Famous paper mills are Schloglmiihl in Lower and Stejnrer- 

Paper miihl in Upper Austria, but there are a great 

Mills. many others. 

Of textile industries, linen and wool-spinning and weaving 

is of importance, chiefly as a home industry, while famous 

homespuns are manufactured in Tyrol and 

Textile Vorarlberg. The cotton manufacture, though 
Industries. .^ . , ,.^ , ^ , ., . • i r- 

it IS obhged to get its raw material from 

oversea, is next in importance to the iron industry. Its 

chief centre Ues in Lower Austria, round Wiener Neustadt, 




Photo by 



Kilophot," G.uuh.h., Vienna. 



HARBOUR, ZARA 



Commerce and Industry 53 

The industry of the Carst countries is only a beginning as 

yet, with the exception of Upper Carniola, where iron and 

other factories centre round Assling. For 

^"ht"^Sst" t^« ^^^^ there is chiefly home-industry: 

liquors, especially the famous Maraschino, 

being made in Dalmatia, and carpets, incrusted weapons and 

other products of applied art in Bosnia-Herzegowina. The 

Government is, however, doing its best to encourage industry 

on a larger scale, and several foundries, sugar and tobacco 

factories, etc., have already sprung up in recent years. 

The Sudetian countries, Bohemia especially, are the most 

advanced as regards industry, a fact which is explained by 

their wealth of raw material. The good 

Industry in example of the neighbouring German Indus- 

the Sudetians. , . , i,,^ , , j i.. if j j.i.- j. 

trial States has no doubt had somethmg to 

do with it also. 

There are fiour mills all over the country and though the 
Hungarian competition is a grave danger, stiU they are 
flourishing. 

Breweries, sugar refineries and spirit distilleries thrive all 
over the country. Bohemian beer is famous, and especially 
the brand " Pilsen " is known and appreciated all over the world. 

Leather and wood industries are of importance also, 
especially the manufacture of matches. 

There are numbers of paper mills, especially in Northern 
Bohemia, round Hohenelbe. 

Tobacco is prepared in Bohemia in State factories, but it 
gets its material from abroad, while aU the other industries 
named so far depend only on the native soil. 

The most important branch of industry in the Sudetians, 
however, is the textile manufacture, which has grown to such 
an extent that the raw material provided by the countries 
themselves forms but a tiny fraction of the material used. 

Cotton mUls are numberless, the chief centres being Reichen- 
berg and Warnsdorf, the Upper Elbe country, Prague, 
Hohenstadt, Freudenthal. 



54 Austria 

The wool industry flourishes chiefly in Reichenberg, 
Wamsdorf , Briinn and Bielitz. 

Linen is manufactured in Trautenau, Rumburg, Asch, 
Freiwaldau, and as a product of home industry all over the 
three countries. 

The foundries are of great importance everywhere, the 
centres of the iron industries being the same as those of 
mining — ^the country round Prague, Pilsen, Briinn, Wit- 
kowitz. In Aussig there is a thriving chemical industry. 

Bohemian glass and porcelain is well known aU over the 
earth, even in Central Africa and Australia and India, where 
the natives eagerly buy the Gablonz beads and bangles. The 
finest and most precious glass and porcelain wares are made 
in Winterberg, Karlsbad and Elbogen. 

The Carpathian countries are still chiefly agricultural, 

only on the SUesian frontier there is a district where woollen 

stuffs are manufactiured on a large scale, 

the "c^Shians. ^^h Biala. the sister town of Bielitz, for its 

centre. The other branches of industry 

beginning to be developed are spirit distillery, sugar refinery, 

teer-brewing and tobacco manufacture. 




Plata by 



Kilophot," G.m.b.h., Vienna. 



A DALMATIAN 



CHAPTER V 

AGRICULTURE AND MINING 

Austria could, until quite lately, be rightly named among 
the chief agricultural States of Europe, and though it is now 
rapidly developing into an industrial country, 
^"p^rtiir"^' still 60 per cent, of its population are peasants. 
Apart from the Alps and the Carst the Aus- 
trian lands are amongst the most fertile of Europe, and even 
including these comparatively barren regions, only 5 per cent, 
of the whole area is unproductive — 35 per cent, being corn 
land, 33 per cent, timber, and 27 per cent, pasture. 

Owing to the great differences in climate, the Austrian 
products are most varied, ranging from all kinds of grain and 
hardy fruit to such Southern products as 
^"^tsVroducte °' ^'^^' '^^^^' oranges and chrysanthemums. 

As regards corn, Austria is still among the 
export countries, ranging only after Russia and Germany in 
respect to the quantity of grain produced, and in the quaUty of 
its wine, though there is less and less every year in consequence 
of the ravages of the phylloxera, it comes immediately after 
France, standing higher than Italy or Spain. 

The position of the peasant population is very different 

in the different provinces. They were freed from personal 

bondage by Joseph II. at the end of the 

p ^^\ eighteenth century, but the taxes and the 

statute labour {Robot) that were claimed 

from them by the squires remained until the middle of the 

nineteenth century, when the former serfs were turned into 

small holders, and " freehold bonds " were given out by the 

Government to indemnify the landlords. These were paid 

partly by the peasants, partly by the countries, and partly by 

the State, and it is remarkable that this was done more quickly 

in Austria than in any other European state. Though the 

55 



56 Austria 

results were excellent in the more developed countries, as the 
Alps and the Sudetians, the reform proved a doubtful blessing 
in Galicia, where the peasants for the greater part held such 
tiny bits of ground only that they were not able to keep them 
free of mortgages, and many had at last to sell them outright. 
Thus GaUcia has a numerous proletariate of field-labourers 
to-day. 

Government has done good work in preventing the cutting 
up of small landowners' property by heritage. The laws 
forbidding this parcelling up are only carried through gradu- 
ally, though, as the provinces are independent in these 
matters, a good deal of opposition has to be overcome in 
the diets at first. 

On the whole, Austrian husbandry is in rather a primitive 
stage still. Except in the Sudetians, where machinery has 
been in use for many years aheady, the peasantry is working 
by hand still. It is nothing unusual to see threshing done by 
flail, and the cutting and binding of the corn is scarcely ever 
done mechanically, except on large estates. In the Alps 
one may even see peasants hoeing steep bits of ground, where 
the plough cannot be used. Galicia and Dalmatia especially 
are most backward, in the latter province, in spite of its 
wonderful climate, only 11 per cent, being properly under 
cultivation, while Galicia is cultivated in such a primitive way 
that not half of what it could yield is got out of the soil, 
manuring, for instance being greatly neglected. Bohemia 
and Moravia present quite a different aspect. These 
countries are wonderfully well cultivated, and that by smaller 
holders as well as by the great lords with their model farms, 
such as the Heir Apparent and Prince Schwarzenberg. 

Of grain fruits, every conceivable kind is grown in the 

Monarchy, from corn in the North to maize and rice in the South. 

But the chief grain for export has become 

Cereals, etc. barley, of which the finer quaUties are eagerly 

sought for by the foreign breweries. There 

are, too, large malt-houses all over the country, and Austrian 



Agriculture and Mining 57 

malt is exported not only to Germany and Sweden, but also 
to Central and South America and Japan. 

Masses of peas and beans which are grown on a large scale 
in the Sudetians and GaUcia are also exported. 

Potatoes and sugar beets are cultivated everjrwhere, the 
latter especially in the Sudetians, and in spite of the immense 
consumption by the distilleries and the sugar industry there 
is no need to import any of these. 

Hops are grown in Bohemia and Lower Austria, and they 
also form an article of export. 

Market gardening is done on a large scale near all the 
towns, and in Bohemia whole districts live by it. It is gradu- 
ally being taken up by women too, and one school for lady 
gardeners has just been founded in Vienna. On the whole, 
however, Austiia cannot compete with Germany in this 
respect. 

As regards fruit, Austria ranks high. It is grown aU over 

the country, but the most famous fruit-growing districts are 

Leitmeritz in Bohemia, and above all. 

Fruit. Southern Tjnrol, Bozen particularly, where 

delicious apples and all kinds of fruit for 

candying are grown. The orchards near Bozen are all dotted 

white with little muslin sacks : for every apple is carefully 

sown into such a bag when quite small, to prevent insects 

from hurting it. In Bosnia plums are grown and either 

dried or made into Slivovitz, a kind of brandy. In Dalmatia 

cherries are made into Maraschino liqueur. Cider is made 

ever5^where, and almost every peasant has his own press. 

Austria is, after Russia, the richest country of Europe as 
regards forests. And timber is the most important article 
of export. The woods in Austria are very 
Forestry. carefuUy tended. In the Sudetians the large 
landowners never cut more than the after- 
growth brings ; this ideal state is not reached anywhere else, 
but stiU. the woods in the Alps and the Carpathians are beauti- 
fully kept, and as has been mentioned before, they are not 



58 Austria 

only a profitable culture here, but a necessity, forming the 
most effective protection against avalanches and torrent 
floods. The logs are washed down from the mountains by 
these torrents, locks also being often used. And the opening 
of these picturesque little lakes after all the timber has been 
gathered in them, is a most interesting affair. It is a grand 
sight when these masses of logs come crashing down with the 
foaming torrent. Where there is not enough water, or where 
it is too far away, they are simply slid down a steep incline, 
a so-called Riese, where a few trees have been cut to leave a 
path for these logs. These Riesen generally lead to a brook, 
from where the timber goes on its usual course. 

Where there is water enough there are a great many saw- 
mills, and the logs are cut on the spot. Sometimes there 
are mills all along a Uttle brook, at every few steps — ^because 
every farmer has his own saw for his own lot of wood. These 
merry, noisy little mills are a charming and picturesque 
feature of the loneliest chines in the Alps. 

The only districts where there is scarcely any wood are the 
Carst provinces, the inhabitants having ruthlessly cut down 
everything and ruined their country. Government is doing 
its best to afforest these regions, and a good many visible 
resrdts have been achieved. 

Cattle are raised everywhere, and breeding them is indeed 
the chief occupation of the Alpine population. Some Alpine 

races are reaUy first-rate, while on the whole 
Cattle- quantity is aimed at more than quality. 

Dairy farming, particularly, though the con- 
ditions are quite as favourable as in Switzerland, is much 
behind the times. 

The Austrian horses, however, are the best that can 
be found anywhere, especially those that are bred in 

GaUcia. A fine breed of dray-horses comes 
Horses. from Salzburg, too. As regards quantity, 

only Russia and Germany produce more 
horses than Austria, 



Agriculture and Mining 59 

Small cattle is not now of much importance : goats 

ruin the young woods, and sheep are not very profitable as 

wool has grown so cheap. Besides, mutton 

Other Domestic jg j^^^ j^j „j.^^^ demand in Austria, except in 

Animals. ,^,^, ^r i 

the South Slav countries. So few sheep are 

kept. Pigs are raised on a large scale only in the plains, 
but every peasant has a few pigs for his own wants in the 
mountains as well. Poultry for eating is raised chiefly in 
Styria, while for egg-laying purposes English hens are often 
imported. Compared with the poultry-raising of Hungary, 
the Austrian efforts dwindle to nothing. 

Austria is very rich in game, and sportsmen will find it 
quite worth while to come from far off for shooting purposes. 
It may as well be mentioned here that fox- 
Game, hunting in the Enghsh style is unknown 
in Austria. There are bears still in the 
Southern Alps and in the Carpathians, and lynx and wild 
cat in plenty. Foxes, badgers, otters, all kinds of martens 
are found all over the Monarchy. There are wolves in Krain 
and in the Carpathians, where hundreds are stUl shot every 
year. Not so very long ago a professor at the University of 
Czernowitz, the Capital of the Btikowina, was followed to 
his door by a wolf — he hved on the outskirts of the town — 
and badly mauled. Stags and roes are plentiful everj^where — 
the latter coming almost into the suburbs of Vienna — and 
hares the same. Even wild boars are still found in the 
Carpathians, and the chamois hunt, that most exciting 
sport, may be practised anywhere in the Alps. Only wild 
birds are rarer, eagles especially having almost died out except 
in the South, near the coast. 

Fishing is practised all over the country, the trout in the 
mountain streams offering good sport. But it cannot com- 
pare with Enghsh fishing — or at least the 
Fishing. interest taken in it cannot compare with that 
taken in this sport in England. Sea-fishing 
is not of much importance either, the coast being so small. 



60 Austria 

A good many corals and sponges are brought up from the 
banks in the Adriatic, though. 

As regards the variety of its mining products, Austria 

stands first among the European States, 

Mining. second only to Russia as regards their 

quantity. 

In the Alps mining has always played a great part in the 

life of the people, bringing economical possibilities to the 

loneliest valleys. It is, however, worthy of 

^"'a! T "°^^ *^^* ^^"^^ *^^ Middle Ages a great 
change has taken place : up to the seventeenth 
century it was chiefly precious metals that were sought for. 
Now this branch of mining has been more or less abandoned, 
the price having sunk since the American and Australian 
fields were discovered, and it is chiefly iron, brown coal, and 
salt that are being produced. 

The salt is mostly won by first dissolving it in water, and 
then vaporising or boiling it. The largest beds are found in 
Upper Austria and Styria, the so-called Salzkammergut, where 
the salt water (Sole) is also used for cures, as for instance in 
Ischl, the famous watering-place where the Emperor and his 
family go every year. 

Iron is won chiefly in Styria, but also in the other Alpine 
countries, and coal the same. 

The loam near Vienna is also of great importance, and the 

brick-kilns in this district are unequalled by any in the world. 

The Carst countries are not yet fully opened up. So far 

they are famous only for their quicksilver 

th'"'c^ T ^^^ Idria) and large beds of brown coal in 

Carniola. 

The Sudetian countries possess the richest mining fields, 

50 per cent, of the whole production of the Monarchy coming 

from Bohemia, and 20 per cent, from Silesia. 

. ^'°'"S .'« Besides iron, a great many other ores are 

found, for instance urane, from which radium 

is won. Coal there is in plenty, in fact 90 per cent, of the 



Agriculture and Mining 61 

Austrian coal is found in the Sudetian countries. The chief 
coal districts there are Karwin, Ostrau, Kladno, Boskowitz. 
Salt is the only mineral not found in Bohemia. 

In the Carpathians the chief products are salt and petroleum. 

The former is found almost everywhere, but the most famous 

mines are Bochnia and Wieliczka. The latter 

the Carpathians ^® <l^te unequalled in beauty and picturesque- 

' ness, and as well worth visiting as, for instance, 

the grottos of Adelsberg. Petroleum is found especially 

near Boryslaw and Justanowice, and it is of interest that the 

shafts are mostly in the hands of English companies. There 

are also coal and iron, and other minerals, but these are of 

very Uttle account. 

Austria is able to export considerable quantities of brown 

coal and of mineral waters ; its production and consumption 

are equal as regards quicksilver, lead, iron 

and Imnort ^^^ ^^^^ ' ^^'^ ^^ ^^ obliged to import pit-coal 
and all the metals except the two above 
named. On the whole, it will have been seen that Austria's 
natural resources are very great and diversified, but that not 
enough is done either by the Government or by the population 
to utilise them properly. 



CHAPTER VI 

GERMAN LITERATURE IN THE NINETEENTH 
CENTURY 

It is not only lack of space which forces us to ignore the 
non-German literatures flourishing on Austrian soil — ^but 
chiefly the fact that the Slav and Romanic authors this side 
the frontier are only tributaries of the great rivers flowing 
beyond, having little or no connection with what we teim 
Germano-Austrian literature. 

For there is no " Austrian Literature," in a strictly hteral 
sense, and even the German writers in Austria we cannot 
claim for our own exclusively — except the popular dramatists, 
who have gone their own distinctly Austrian ways. For the 
rest, literary Austria is as much one with the German 
States as literary GaUcia with the Poland beyond the 
frontier. 

For the Austrian Dirama the nineteenth century has been 
a golden age. It has brought forth one of the greatest drama- 
tists of all times — Grillparzer, and several 
jj^'^^ exponents of the Volkssiiick (a name com- 

prising all modern plays in which men and 
women of the people are the chief characters) unequalled by 
those of any other nation. 

Franz Grillparzer was born in Vienna in 1791, the son of 

a pedantic barrister and a high-strung, artistic mother, who 

subsequently died by her own hand. He 

Franz ^^ ^^ become a barrister, but had to give 

up his studies, as the father died and the 

family became quite impoverished. He accepted a post as 

librarian at the Imperial Library in Vienna {Hofbibliothek), 

and in spite of grumbling and dissatisfaction on both sides 

he kept it until 1856, when he retired. In 1872 he died. 

62 



Literature in the Nineteenth Century 63 

Quiet as the outward circumstances of his life were, his 
inner man was constantly shaken by storms. His was 

a strangely melancholy, not very lovable 
Love-story nature, and the strangest part of it was his 

relation to women. He was easily inflamed, 
aiid cooled quite as easily, and there were many women in 
his life — yet he remained true to the first real love of his youth, 
in a way which, nevertheless, ruined her happiness for ever. 
She was Kathi Frohlich, the youngest of four sisters in the 
merry Schubert-Schwind circle, famous for their beauty, 
their talents, and their warm hearts, and the two fell in love 
with each other when quite young. They were engaged to be 
married, but the capricious, unruly and rather selfish young man 
could not make up his mind either to give up his freedom 
or to break with the girl. He daUied round her, for ever 
quarrelling, making it up, leaving her and returning, until 
she was an old maid and he a cantankerous old bachelor, when 
he came to hve with the sisters as a humdrum paying guest 1 
Grillparzer's dramatic career, apart from some youthfully- 
bombastic work, began with a tragedy of fate, " Die 

Ahnfrau" ("The Ancestress"), full of ghosts, 
AnoBsfrSs " bloodshed and worse, but showing remarkable 

dramatic skill and a masterful handling of the 
verse. The superbly passionate and lyrical language does not 
fail to draw tears to this day, even though the absurdity of 
the play is past dispute. It was a great success, but the 
critics were severe on the complicated plot with its atrocities, 
and the youthful poet in a fit of pique made up his mind to 
show them that he could make the simplest story into a 
thrilling drama by his handling. 

That is how " Sappho," with its lack of incident, must be 
explained. The poet has almost made good his word — ^the 

play is certainly a masterpiece (Grillparzer 
" Sappho. ' • himself liked it best of all), and the inspiration 

of the poet as well as his fine language show 
at their best here. On the other hand, its meagre plot is a 



64 Austria 

serious drawback, strongly felt in the theatre ; the first act 
drags exceedingly. The story of the poetess' love for the 
unworthy boy who betrays her with the simple little slave 
Melitta, is more or less GriUparzer's own invention. The 
characterisation is excellent, especially the figure of the 
innocently guilty girl is pathetically life-hke. 

" Sappho " is the first of a series of Grecian plays. The 
others are the trilogy "Das Goldene VUess " ("The Golden 
Fleece "), with the heroine Medea, in her terrible grandeur 
one of the most tragic characters ever set on the stage, and 
the pathetical love-idyU of " Hero und Leander." 

It is in the historical plays, however, that GriUparzer's 

dramatic genius is at its best. The composition is perfect, 

the characters are carefully studied and most 

^Plavs^*' convincing in every detail, and the dialogue 

is admirably adapted to the different 

individualities. 

The first and best of these plays is " Konig Ottokars Gliick 
und Ende " (" King Ottokar's Rise and Fall ") in which Rudolf 
of Habsburg and his great adversary are contrasted. The 
first act is unrivalled in its grandiose gradation, full of dramatic 
impulse and energy. The other plays in this series are " Ein 
treuer Diener seines Herrn" ("A Faithful Servant of his 
Master "), from the Hungarian history ; " Weh' dem der liigt " 
(" Woe to Him Who Lies "), one of the best comedies ever 
written, full of fun and wit ; " Ein Bruderzwist im Hause 
Habsburg " (" A Brothers' Feud in Habsburg "), " Die Judin 
von Toledo " (" The Jewess of Toledo "), and " Libussa." 
The last three were never pubhshed by GriUparzer — they 
were found in his desk after his death. He had been so 
disgusted by the indifferent reception of " Ottokar " and the 
rude (and to-day, inexphcable) hooting at the performance 
of " Weh' dem der liigt," that he resolved never to pubUsh 
anj^hing again. To this resolve he stuck, though he Uved 
to see the resurrection of all his former works by Laube, 
manager of the Burgtheater, and though they brought him 



Literature in the Nineteenth Century 65 

European fame : it came too late, and found him indifferent. 
To-day " Die Jiidin " is one of the most popular historical 
plays in Vienna, and a favourite part of all young actresses. 

One more play of Grillparzer's must be mentioned : it 

is the romantic tale " Der Traum ein Leben " (" The Dream 

a Life") vivid and poetic in plot and 

" ^i' LUe?^*"' diction, and full of humour. 

There is no doubt that Grillparzer is the 
greatest dramatist of the century, one of the three successors 
of SchUler and Goethe. For though he affected to despise 
him Grillparzer was certainly influenced by SchiUer as well 
as by his adored Goethe and his beloved Shakespeare. Besides 
Goethe it was the great Spanish dramatists who held him 
most enthralled, and the influence of Calderon is plainly trace- 
able in several of his plays. If GrUlparzer did not soar nearly 
so high as his great models, it was less lack of genius than the 
backboneless period to which he belonged, the unhappy country 
he lived in, and the fatal Viennese inheritance of melancholy 
and lack of virility. 

Since Grillparzer a good many verse dramas have been 

written in Austria, but there has been no dramatist of great 

power in this field. The flow of|Romanticism 

^H^altn "^ carried one man high : Friedrich Halm, with 

his true name Baron Miinch-Bellinghausen 

(1806-1871), whose pseudo-Spanish plays were once popular. 

But they are of a sickly sweetness, not to say bathos. The 

one play that has remained on the stage to this day is " Der 

Fechter von Ravenna " (" The Gladiator of Raveima "). 

Of late a Viennese Neo-Romanticist has made a name 

for himself as a dramatist : it is Hugo von Hofmannsthal 

(born 1874), the lyrical symboUst, whose 

Hofminnlthal. P^^y^ ^^'^^ ^^^^^"^ *^® ^"ent or the Italy 

of the Renaissance for their scene, glowing in 

voluptuous descriptions, intoxicating the hearer with their 

beautiful suggestive diction, but neither dramatic nor always 

lucid. In his "Electra " (music by Richard Strauss) he 

5— (2394) 



66 Austria 

shows his close relation to Oscar Wilde, in " Das Gerettete 
Venedig " he has used the same story as Otway in his play 
"Venice Preserved." He has found a good many imitators; 
one pupU of promise is Beer-Hofmann, whose "Count of 
Charolois" made quite a^tir, in spite of its lack of dramatic 
spirit. 

And Arthur Schnitzler, of whom we shall have to speak 

in another connection, has written a brilliant Renaissance 

tragedy, far more dramatic than any of 

c w^"/ , Hofmannsthal's— " Der Schleier der Beatrice " 

(" The Veil of Beatrice "). 

The era of Metternich, which was the death of so much 

that was great in poetry and art, and which made even 

Grillparzer's the half-hearted plays they are, 

Drama*^ nevertheless could not quite suppress Viennese 

jollity and love of fun ; and these found an 

outlet in the harmlessly hilarious popular theatres. 

The finest flower growing in this waUed-in garden was 
Ferdinand Raimund (1790-1836), the author of romantic- 
realistic plays unique to this day, and as 
R^'^'^'und^ popular now as they were almost a hundred 
years ago, with the masses as well as with the 
intellectual circles. His life was short and sad. As a boy 
he was apprenticed to a pastry-cook ; he ran off, became an 
actor, and was soon famous in comic parts. Like many 
comedians, his was a sentimental, melancholy character ; he 
was irresponsible, like a child, lovable and good-natured, but 
prone to fits of what almost amounted to mania of persecution. 
His married life was unhappy, and as a Catholic he could 
not marry again, even after he had been divorced. He 
shot himself in his beloved country-place, in the mountains 
near Vienna. His literary career comprises only ten 
years. 

The charm of Raimund's comedies Ues in the natural and 
poetic interlacement of fairy-tale and realistic comedy. His 
fairies and sprites generally represent human frailties and 



Literature in the Nineteenth Century 67 

virtues, and all have a tenderly humorous, realistic touch — 
they even speak the Vienna dialect. Among Raimund's 
immortal creations are the domestics Florian in " The Fairy 
King's Diamond " and, above all, Valentin in the " Spend- 
thrift," who continually makes you laugh through tears, a 
gift that Raimund often exercises. Besides the last-named 
play the most pathetic, tenderly humorous, sweetly-fanciful 
and at the same time profoundly human is " The Mountain 
King and the Misanthrope," the story of a misanthrope 
bearing strong resemblance to the author, who is cured by 
having a mirror held before him, in which he sees his own 
shape represented by a benevolent sprite, the " Mountain 
King." There are some scenes (for instance, one in the 
squalid hut of a poor wood-cutter) which hold their own 
beside Hauptmann's reaUstic pictures, and some farcical ones 
which make you scream with laughter. 

Raimund's sorrow was that he was not learned enough 
ever to be a " real poet " — ^little he guessed that his naive 
genius would charm generations of old folk and young, 
intellectual and simple-minded, long after the works of poets 
appreciated in his time were forgotten. 

In due distance from Raimund we must name his brother 

actor, John Nestroy (1802-1882), a kindred genius in so far as 

outwardly their methods were mudi the same ; 

Nesteoy ^^^ ^^ ^^ ^ thorn in the flesh to the gentle, 

refined Raimund because of his bitterly 

sarcastic, sometimes equivocal wit. His farces lack the sweet 

fancy of Raimund's even where supernatural beings play a 

part. But they are undoubtedly clever and robust, their 

political innuendos, though no longer topical, are still apposite 

and striking, and if the jokes have a bitter flavour, they are 

all the more to the point. His best plays are : " Zu ebener 

Erde und im ersten Stock " (" Pedlar and Merchant-Prince ") 

where a poor and a rich family in the same house are contrasted 

effectively, and " Lumpaci-Vagabundus," the adventures of 

three happy-go-lucky journeymen. 



68 Austria 

The third great comedy-writer of the time was Edward 

von Bauerfeld (1802-1890), who did for the upper classes 

what Raimund and Nestroy did for the people. 

Iluemfeld" ^^^ refined, brilliant comedies of high life 

are good in' their sparkling, natural dialogue, 

in characterisation and in composition — ^he had studied the 

French writers to a purpose, though he always remained 

characteristically Viennese. " Biirgerlich und Romantisch " 

(" Prose and Romance "), and " Grossjahrig " (" Of Age "), 

a persiflage on the poUtical situation, which many consider 

his masterpieces, are played with great success to this day. 

A new impulse was given to dramatic literature in the 

seventies by the village tragedies and comedies of Ludwig 

Anzengruber (1839-1889). He is compara- 

AnzMSiuber lively little known outside his country, for 
he has deliberately caged himself by writing 
mostly in the Austrian dialect. But it is well worth while 
for readers of German to overcome this difficulty, for they 
will be amply rewarded by making the acquaintance of a 
true dramatist, an inspired poet, a man of high ideals, and at 
the same time an inexhaustible humourist, both tender and 
sarcastic. His figures, be they peasants or townspeople, 
are living men and women; the dialogue is natural and witty; 
and the tendency of the plays — ^for there is not one without 
a purpose — never obtrudes itself. The pretty Httle songs, 
of which his plays are full, always grow out of the situa- 
tion and give emphasis to it. There are a great many 
episodes round the central story, but never so many as to 
entangle the thread of the plot unduly. Altogether, 
Anzengruber, being an actor himself, had an excellent eye 
for what was effective, but he never pandered to the baser 
instincts of the public. Most of his plays are acted still, 
some of them even in the Imperial Theatre, from which, 
as a rule, the dialect is barred. The best known are " Der 
Pfarrer von Kirchfeld " (" The Village Priest "), which rails 
against clericahsm, the play which made Anzengruber famous ; 



Literature in the Nineteenth Century 69 

" Der G'wissenswurm " (" The Prick of Conscience "), with 
a Tartuffe in peasant garb, one of the most striking figures 
in modern dramatic literature ; " Das Vierte Gebot " (" The 
Fourth Commandment "), a story of the degeneration of a 
once prosperous Vienna family, which grips the hearer as 
very few grand tragedies do ; " Die Kreuzelschreiber " (" The 
Cross Signers "), a pathetic comedy which tells of how the 
bigoted women of a Bavarian village effectually quench the 
liberal spirit of the men ; and " Heimg'funden " (" Home 
Again "), the tragedy of a man who has risen from a peasant 
boy to a successful barrister, and is ruined by the devil of 
pride. Anzengruber has also written short stories and two 
remarkable novels, in the same vein as his plays. 

He has found successors both in the field of the Viennese 
popular play, and the vUlage tragedy. Among the former 

Langmann, Hawel, and above aU Karlweis, 
Schonherr. have written good, if not very profound plays ; 

among the latter there is a man of genius, 
Schonherr. This young author has already twice had the 
most deserved success of the season, and it is to be hoped that 
he wUl go on in the same way. In his thrilling play " Erde " 
(" Earth "), he lays open the depth of peasant nature, 
picturing that hunger for the soil, for a bit of earth, which 
makes aU other passions dwindle in the breast of the peasant. 
In the historical peasant drama " Glaube und Heimat " 
(" Faith and Home "), which has for its background the 
Protestant persecutions during the counter-reformation in the 
seventeenth century, the conflict is that between rehgious faith, 
and the love of home — an old story, but told in a new way. 
ji Among the reaUsts who write Society plays, one man towers 
above the rest — ^it is Arthur Schnitzler (born 1862). He has 
Society Plays, studied medicine, coming from a family of 

doctors, and his experiences have made him 

Schnitzler. somewhat cynical and frivolous. But in 

spite of a certain looseness as regards sexual relations, 

Schnitzler may be said to have preached more moral than 



70 Austria 

many a highly respectable writer — ^he does not get tired of 
breaking lance after lance for the outcasts of society, always 
taking the part of the woman. Apart from his terribly 
daring " Reigen," a sequence of suggestive dialogues, and 
" Anatol," a series of one-jfct plays not unknown in England, 
all Schnitzler's work points a moral. In " Liebelei " {" Phil- 
andering ") he shows us the typical love affair of the man 
of the world, which to him is no more than a passing fancy, 
while it drives the girl to her death. In " Freiwild " he 
describes the typical fight against overwhelming odds of the 
actress who tries to keep her honour. His last play, " Pro- 
fessor Bernhardi," which has become famous through being 
forbidden in Austria, while it is performed with great success 
in Germany, is the first without any erotic problem — ^in fact 
there is no woman in it at all, excepting an episodical and 
quite subordinate figure. It is a clever picture of the nasty 
side of Viennese pohtics and a certain section of society, 
though, as a drama, not equal to most of Schnitzler's former 
plays. 

An indefatigable fighter against reaction and clericalism 
was also Burckhardt, barrister. Civil Servant, and sometime 

director of the Vienna Imperial Theatre. His 
Burckhardt. caUing gave him plenty of opportunity for 

studying the seamy side of human nature, and 
though his social dramas have not by far the literary value 
of Schnitzler's carefully polished gems, still they are precious 
as pictures of Austrian hfe. Of course, as is unavoidable in 
work of the kind, the picture sometimes degenerates into 
caricature, particularly when the subject is taken from the 
life of the upper ten thousand. 

A brilhant and at the same time profound and poetic 
dramatist is Felix Salten, whose one-act plays were 

a great success in London some years ago. 
Felix Salten. Salten is comparatively young, and great 

things are expected of him by his many 
admirers. Other popular writers of social plays are Bahr 



Literature in the Nineteenth Century 71 

and Auernheimer — characteristically enough all the three 
are feuilleton writers at the same time. 

In poetry the nineteenth century has not yielded such rich 
harvest as in dramatic literature. There are dozens and 

dozens of minor poets, and in song several 
Poetry. truly inspired ones. But there is only one 

who is truly great — one of the half-dozen 
divine lyrists the German tongue possesses — ^it is Nikolaus 
Lenau (1802-1850, with his true name Nikolaus Niembsch 

Edler von Strehlenau). As he was bom in 
NMaus ^Yie melancholy Hungarian steppe, of a 

libertine father and a lunatic mother, no 
wonder that there was a shadow over him always, and that 
his soul died long years before his body. His was a life of 
unrest, he vacillated continually from Vienna to Stuttgart, 
even going to America for a year, fleeing from himself, seeking 
he knew not what. A destroying love for the wife of a friend, 
the noble and beautiful Sofie LSwenthal, at last brought on 
a climax. Lenau was brought to an asylum in 1844. 

The charm of Lenau's poetry lies in its darkly wistful 
atmosphere, instinct with a passionate love of nature in her 
grandest and saddest moods (" Reed Songs," " Forest 
Songs "). He has a note of his own, unlike that of any other 
poet — sweetly musical always, like the soft strain of a gipsy's 
violin or the wind among the reeds, and though his subjects 
are old variations of old themes, love and nature, his handling 
makes them new and fresh. It is characteristic that Lenau 
has attracted more composers than any other lyrist, excepting 
perhaps, Morike, the Suabian poet. 

His epic poetry is quite as inspired and passionate as his 
lyrics, but the true epic spirit is lacking. Both " Savonarola " 
and " Die Albigenser " are rather a series of ballads and 
lyrics, than stories in verse. 

Lenau's faithful friend, Anastasius Grun (1806-1876, with 
his true name Count Auersperg) lifted the party poetry of 
the time to purer heights by his impassioned liberal poems 



72 Austria 

" Spaziergange eines Wiener Poeten " (" Rambles of a 
Vienna Poet "). He has also written powerful and im- 
pressive ballads, such as the cycle " Der 
^"c^^n.'"^ letzte Ritter" ("The Last Knight"), and 
translated* Slovenian folk-songs, being the 
first to draw the treasures of Slav popular poetry to light. 

Baron Zedlitz (1790-1862) was another spirited writer 

of ballads, and so were the three spontaneous and patriotic, 

Minor Poets of ^^ rather humdrum poets Seidl, Beck and Vogl. 

the first half The only epics of note written in that 

of the Century, time are " Ahasver in Rome " and " The 

King of Sion," by Hamerling (1830-1889), clever and brilliant 

historical paintings, full of pulsing life and glowing colour, 

written in a carefuUy polished and noble language, but void 

of soul. He has found a successor in Maria DeUe Grazie, 

whose daring epic " Robespierre " raised a storm at the time 

of its pubUcation. 

Of Ijnrists, we must mention M'aurice Hartmann, an impas- 
sioned hberal ; the vivid poetess, Betty Paoli ; the earnest 
and noble-minded Feuchtersleben (best known by his excel- 
lent essays on philosophic subjects), some of whose poems 
have become so popular that their author was forgotten ; 
Adolf Pichler, the vigorous Tyrolese ; and standing a few steps 
higher than all these, Gilm (1813-1864), a lyrist of deep feehng, 
melodious and tender ; some of his poems, such as " The , 
Night," breathless with melancholy and passion, or the 
wistfully resigned "All Souls' Day," must be placed among 
the pearls of the language. 

The poetry of to-day is mostly under the spell of the 

symbolists — ^beautiful language, musical verse, brilliant 

imagery, quaint conceits, refinement, ela- 

Poetry" boration— but little feehng or thought, and 

less lucidity. 

The leaders of the movement in Austria are Hofmannsthal, 

who is better known abroad as a dramatist, and Rainer Maria 

Rilke. Lesser stars in the group are Wildgans, Zweig, Camill 



Literature in the Nineteenth Century 73 

Hoffmann, and many others. Hugo Salus cannot be quite 
counted one of them, for in spite of a certain hyper-refinement 
he often finds accents of genuinely-felt emotion, and some of 
his poems even remind one of folk-songs in their suggestive 
simpHcity. 

A new talent of remarkable originality is the workman 
Alfons Petzold, whose socialistic poems have lately made a 
stir in Vienna. 

T* V I" T* 

Fiction in the nineteenth century has some remarkable 

representatives in Austria. 
Fiction. In the first half of the century we have 

Adalbert Stifter (1805-1868), who, in his 
" Studies " and other stories, gives faithful pictures of nature 
and humanity. His love of detail, his earnestness and 

fervour, and his moral sense are aU quaUties 
StWte?* which to-day are thrown in his teeth as faults, 

and he is little read except by young people, 
which is a great pity, as his eye for the picturesque in land- 
scape and in human nature, his skill in telling a story, his 
clever and tenderly humorous characterisation and the 
poetry of his descriptions are such as should appeal to maturer 
minds. 

One of the best beloved novelists of the last fifty years 
is Marie, Baronin Ebner-Eschenbach (born 1830). Her 

wonderfully htunan descriptions of the hfe 
Ebner" °^ peasant and aristocrat in Moravia, as well 

as the faithful and brilliant pictures of Vienna 
society, all seen with the eye of a tolerant, great-hearted, 
genial, and profoundly thinking woman, have gained her a 
place among the first writers of the age. She has written 
several fine novels and many short stories, those of child 
and animal hfe being among the most touching of their kind. 
Her aphorisms show an undaunted hberal spirit and quaint 
humour, together with a gift of terse, concise expression very 
rare in one of her sex. 



74 Austria 

Beside these greater ones we must mention Ferdinand 
Kiirnberger, a thoughtful novelist with a fine gift of char- 
acterisation ; Ferdinand von Saar, who is by 
Other Novelists, some considered Baronin Ebner's equal as 
a writer ofpshort stories ; and Baronin Suttner, 
the well-known advocate for the world's peace, who began 
her agitation with the novel Die Waff en nieder ! {Lower Your 
Arms I). 

A different group of writers are the realist describers of 

peasant life. Just as in the drama, so in fiction the peasant 

story and peasant novel flourished in the 

^'^Navel ^ seventies and is again bringing forth blossoms 

to-day. 

We have already spoken of Anzengruber. His friend 

Peter Rosegger (born 1843) is still the foremost representative 

of the village novel. He describes his 

Rosegger. beloved Styria and her people in all moods 

and tempers, always faithfuUy, but with a 

love that forgives the faults of the rugged peasants and 

woodcutters, without idealising them, pathetic and humorous 

by turns. He is to-day one of the most popular Austrian 

writers. His best works are Jakob der Leizte {Jacob the Last), 

which tells of the despair of a peasant doomed to lose his 

farm, his bit of earth ; Der Gottsucher {The Godseeker), a 

profound and tragic story ; and Der Waldschuhneister which 

describes the blessings wrought by a contented little village 

teacher. 

Schonherr, the gifted dramatist, has also written stories. 

And close to him stands a woman, Enrica von HandeV 

Mazzetti, the author of the most thriUing and 

M tt" virile historical novel in the German language 

of to-day. The background of the story is the 

bitter fight between Catholics and Protestants during the 

counter-reformation. Fraulein Handel has a grip and power 

of characterisation, a knowledge of her subject, and a gift of 

story-telling unique amongst living writers in Austria. 



Literature in the Nineteenth Century 75 

A poetic novelist, though a little too ornate and elaborate, 
is Rudolf Hans Bartsch, a Styrian like Rosegger. He has 
written several Styrian novels, but his best 
Bartsch. book is a collection of historical tales, The 
Dying Rococo. 
The social novel of the day has for its chief representatives 
the authors we have already spoken of as dramatists — 
Burckhard, Schnitzler, Salten. As a poetic 
Novets ^^^ thoughtful writer we must also name 
J. J. David. 
The chief Austrian humorists, both Viennese to the core, 
Hu o 'sts ^^^ Vinzenz Chiavacci and — facile princeps — 
Eduard Potzl, the famous feuilletonist of the 
Neues Wiener Tagblatt. 



CHAPTER VII 

^THE PRESS 

Here is a curious fact for politicians and journalists : Vienna, 
which even at the height of the Habsburg ascendency, never 
was the centre of Germany, and which has now for over a 
hundred years been considered altogether outside it, produces 
several dailies in German which are looked upon in Germany 
and abroad on a par with, if not superior to, the very best 
daily papers in Berlin, Munich, Frankfort and Cologne. A 
writer who has been a contributor to the Neue Freie Presse, 
or the Neues Wiener Taghlatt, or Die Zeit (the leading dailies 
of Vienna), is always sure of a welcome reception by the 
Berlin editors ; in point of fact a good many leader writers 
and influential critics in Berlin hail from Vienna, where they 
got their training and made their reputations. 

The Neue Freie Presse, which was started some forty years 
ago, had for a good many years the greatest circulation of any 

German paper, and this marvellous success 
F«!^B Pres^se^' ' ^^ owing solely and exclusively to its 

literary finish. The then editors of the 
Neue Freie Presse, of whom only one, Herr Moriz Benedikt, 
has survived, took great pains and jibbed at no expense to 
get the very best writers on the staff of their paper ; they had 
a wonderful scent for talent and promise and thus it became 
an established fact among writers and readers that for literary 
excellence the Neue Freie Presse was first and unequalled 
among the German daily papers, both in Austria and Germany. 
The most attractive feature of the Neue Freie Presse was 
its feuUleton, a genus of writing which in ever3rthing but its 

name has nothing whatever to do with what 
FeuTueton English, and French readers are used to 

associate with the word feuilleton. In French 
and English papers a feuilleton means a serial, a novel in 

76 



The Press 77 

instalments : the Feuilleton of the Neue Freie Presse, which 
is now being imitated by all the German papers, was a different 
thing altogether. The subject of a feuilleton might be any- 
thing and everything, from a commentary on some topic of 
the day to the inspiration of a philosopher. The material was 
nothing, the handling everything. There was one thing 
required : the piece of writing " below the stroke," that is, 
under the leader, had to be a work of art, complete 
in itself, highly finished in style, suggestive, poignant, 
forcible. 

To give an English reader an idea of what the Vienna 
feuilleton is like, one has to go back to the days of Addison 
and Steele ; perhaps Lamb and Hazlitt would do as weU. 
In our own days WiUiam Archer and H. W. Walkeley have 
proved that ease and grace are not incompatible with critical 
acumen and thoroughness. For a long time the dif&cult 
art of feuiUet on- writing seemed to be a secret of the Neue 
Freie Presse. Ludwig Speidel and Hugo Wittmann were 
eagerly imitated by the young generation. Since then it 
has become the tradition of every Vienna paper to have at 
least one eminent feuilleton writer on its staff. To the general 
reader, unless he happen to be acquainted with the personnel 
of his favourite paper, the feuilleton writer is the only man who 
is known to him by name, and consequently is most intimately 
associated with the paper itself. Thus to subscribers of the 
Neue Freie Presse Ludwig Speidel, Hugo Wittmann, and 
later on, Theodor Herzl, were much better known to the public 
than the editors-in-chief, Wilhelm Bacher and Moriz Benedikt ; 
to readers of the Neues Wiener Taghlatt Eduard Potzl 
is a more famUiar name than Wilhelm Singer, notwith- 
standing the fact that Herr Singer enjoys a wide reputation 
as a first-rate authority on French affairs, as a friend and 
confidant of many a French statesman and as the founder 
and president of the International Press Association. And 
Die Zeit was in its upward struggle greatly helped by the 
feuiUetons of that brilhant writer Felix Salten. 



78 Austria 

As to the politics of the Vienna papers, we have all shades 
and varieties froni the narrowest nationalism and bigoted 
denominationalism up to a broad-minded cosmopolitan 
outlook on life. 

The Clerical Party , which represents the German population 

of the Alpine countries, has for its mouthpiece Die Reichspost, 

which is said to be often inspired by the Heir 

R ■ hsoost " Presumptive, Archduke Franz Ferdinand. 

This report is eagerly spread by the Clericals 

and as eagerly contradicted by the Liberals. Die Reichspost 

is the exponent of Anti-Semitism. 

In this mission it is supported by another widely-read 
paper, the Deuisches Volksblatt, the editor of which started 
as a sort of modern St. George going to kill 
vVk'tj'tt^" ^^^ dragon of political and financial corrup- 
tion ; in due course he amassed a vast fortune 
and was more than once dragged before the law courts to 
defend himself against the reproach of bribery and 
corruption. 

The extreme German nationalism is voiced by the Ost- 
deutsche Rundschau, a paper which has a very limited 
circulation. 

The Social Democratic Party is represented by the 
Arbeiterzeitung, which has some very able editors and is 
coming rapidly to the fore. It is read by a 
zeitune*'''' great many people outside the social Demo- 
cratic Party on account of its uncom- 
promising attitude in matters connected with the upper 
circles. 

Most of the Vienna dailies are conducted on non-party 

lines and are strictly liberal in their views. The Neue Freie 

Presse and Die Zeit are read by intellectuals 

"papers.*^ of aU parties. The Neues Wiener Tagblatt 

and the Neues Wiener Journal have a vast 

following among the lower middle class. The Illustriertes 

Extrdblatt caters for the old stock of those natives to whom 



The Press 79 

Vienna is everything and the world outside of very little 
account. 

Besides these independent papers there is the official 

gazette, Wiener Zeitung, and several dailies which are subsi- 

Official and ^^^'^ W ^^^ Government. Of these the 

Semi-official FremdenUatt is traditionally the organ of the 

Papers. Foreign Office, and up to a short time ago 

was also that of the War Office. The Emperor is believed 

to be a regular reader of the Fremdenblatt. Owing to this fact 

(or fiction) the paper has a wide circulation among officers 

and the Vienna aristocracy. During the war scare of the 

winter 1912-13 a military paper, named Militdrische 

Rundschau has been founded and strongly subsidised by 

the War Office. It was greatly deplored that the tone of 

this semi-official paper during the crisis was ever5^hing but 

correct. 

It will surprise English readers to hear that there are scarcely 

any weekly papers in Vienna. There have been a good many 

abortive attempts at supplying this want. 

Weeklies. Die Zeit seemed in a fair way to hold its own, 

but in the end it was merged in the daily 

paper of that name. And Die Wage, which was started under 

favourable circumstances, barely manages to keep above 

water. 

It is not as if the Viennese were indifferent to argumentative 
writing and hterary discussions. Rather the reverse. But 
what interest there is in political argument and literary 
criticism is amply satisfied by the feuilletons and weekly 
supplements of the leading daily papers. 

The comic weekly. Die Muskete, which was started a few 

years ago, has, by its independent attitude towards parties 

and politicians gained an influential position 

MuslSte " ^^^ ^^^ become very popular in military 

circles by its broad-minded patriotism and 

fearless exposition of bogus and sham. It has the very best 

Viennese cartoonists on its staff. 



80 Austria 

The only magazine of political and literary importance 

is the bi-monthly review, Oesterreichische Rundschau. Dr. 

Glossy, the editor-in-chief, has spared no 

" Rundschau/ ^*P^"^^ to keep it at a high mark of literary 

excelftnse and thorough information. 

In a country of so many nations and languages as Austria 
there is, of course, plenty of room for provincial papers. We 
have three leading dailies in PoUsh, two in 
The Provincial Czech, one in Ruthenian, and so on, aad so on. 
But it may be safely asserted that the pro- 
vincial press of the several Slavonic races is slightly given to 
parochialism and self-ceatred exaggeration of their national 
affairs. This foible is not shared by the chief Italian paper in 
Trieste, the Piccolo delta Matina and Piccolo delta Sera. 

It should be mentioned in passing that Prague, the capital 
of Bohemia, which is claimed by the Czechs as a stronghold 
of Slavonic aspirations, boasts of two excellent German'papers, 
the Prager Tagblati and the Bohemia. 

The Vienna journalists are a powerful body of men and have 
never been wanting in a very commendable esprit de corps. 
To become a member of their association, the " Concordia," is 
a mark of distinction, and their yearly crush, the " Concordia- 
ball " is attended by diplomatists, home and foreign, poU- 
ticians, financiers, captains of industry, painters, theatrical 
stars — in fact, tout Vienna. 



CHAPTER VIII 

ARCHITECTURE IN THE NINETEENTH CENTURY 

The first fifty years of the nineteenth century were lost ones 
as regards architecture. The Emperor Franz, with his very 
necessary principle of saving, had cut down 
The Decline of all expenses relating to building. When 
Architecture jjq^ ^nd again something had to be done, 
beginning of such as a toU-house, a barrack, a Government- 
the Century, house, no artists were employed, but the 
buildings rose at command from the authori- 
ties, and there was far more ink and red tape used than 
pencU and brush. 

The result of this was a sorry one, and the buildings erected 
under the regime of Sprenger, the then almighty Master of 
the Imperial Building Office (K. K. Hofbauamt) are no honour 
to Vienna. 

At the time it would have seemed incredible that the 
healthy breeze which was to sweep over Europe was to rise 
just here, that Vienna should boast the greatest architects 
of the century, and that the " Viennese Style " should become 
exemplary all over Europe. 

In a great measure this is owing to the intelligent, 

generous and great -minded initiative of the Emperor Francis 

Joseph, who planned the rejuvenation of 

Vienna Rebuilt Vienna and found the right men to carry it 

'* of %rS'' through. 

Joseph I. In 1857 the town walls with the fortifica- 

cations encircling Vienna proper were laid 

low, the old ramshackle houses leaning against them vanished 

with them, and a broad street with double avenues, flanked 

by the most beautiful and imposing buildings and palaces, 

81 

6— (2394) 



82 Austria 

rose in their stead, thus making the suburbs and Vienna one. 
The effect of this novelty was such that a great many European 
cities, Paris and the large German towns especially, imitated it. 
This grandiose work was not done in a day, the first plans 
were altered again an^ again, and it took almost thirty years 
to finish it. 

Before we speak of the five men who have made Vienna 
architecture what it is, we must remember two unhappy 

Van der Null artists who were born for great things also, 
and but just a few years too soon. They are 

Siccardsburg. Van der Niill and Siccardsburg, the builders 
of the Imperial Opera House. These two inseparables died in 
1868, the year before their great work was completed, Van 
der NuU, by his own hand, Siccardsburg some weeks later 
of heart failure, brought about by disappointment and grief. 
The Opera House is to-day considered a masterpiece, but at 
the time it was built not one good word was said about it. 
The difficulties were great — ^the site for it being the old moat, 
which was cleverly used for all kinds of cellars, and numbers 
of private apartments and offices having to be accommodated 
in the building. Apart from all this, incessant nagging, 
suggestions, and even commands from all kinds of authorities 
made the work a martyrdom. It cannot be appreciated 
enough that, iii spite of all this, the house was made what it is. 
The style is early French Empire, with a beautiful, most 
effective loggia. Technically it is superb, especially as regards 
light, ventilation and stage construction. 

The five creators of New Vienna are the three great 
friends, Hansen, , Schmidt, Ferstel, together with Semper 
and Hasenauer. 

TTheophil, Baron von Hansen (1813-1891), was by birth a 

Dane, by incUnation a Grecian. He learned to love the classic 

architecture in Athens, and though his first 

Th«)phil work in Vienna was still romantic, he soon 

found himself and remained true to Hellenic 

architecture through life. 




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Architecture in the Nineteenth Century 83 

His great work is the House of Parliament, a pure Corin- 
thian temple, or rather three of them, combined by two 
imposing window tracts, so that the front 

^pLHament * ^^ ^^ ^^^^ ^°"g- '^^^ *^° ^reat haUs to right 
and left behind the pillared temples are 
decorated by caryatid balconies, their high attica is fuU of 
fine statuary seen from afar. The interior is rich with 
marble and painted stucco, its glory the central temple hall 
(128 to 72 feet) with twenty-four colossal red marble pillars, 
the walls being black and white marble. 

Hansen was fond of polychromy, and where he could not 
make use of it on the outside, he lavished it on the interior. 
Other public buildings by Hansen are the Academy of the 
Fine Arts, with a fine pillar-hall, the Bourse, and the 
Musikvereinssale, Vienna's largest concert-hall, with a profusion 
of gold inside. 

Apart from these, Hansen is of the last importance as 
builder of private palaces. The Ringstrasse, with its unheard- 
of broadness (almost 200 feet) required an immense type 
of house, and he, together with Ferstel, was the man to 
create it. 

Baron Friedrich von Schmidt (1825-1871), a Suavian by 

birth, was Hansen's antipode — a Gothic enthusiast of the last 

order. He was an imposing personality, 

Friedrich ^^^ artisan originally, and proud of the fact, 

von Schmidt. -^ t V i -t -j. iv. 

but m spite of many homely traits, the very 

man to deal with court officials, and other authorities, getting 

his own way always, and always without giving offence. 

He was a society man, one of the best after-dinner speakers 

of his time, and yet an artist through and through. To his 

strong personality we owe a sturdy school of architects, while 

the other great builders left scarcely any pupils behind them. 

He became attached to the Gothic style in Cologne, where, 

as a lad, he worked at restoring the dome, and then in Milan. 

When first he came to Vienna, in 1859, his work was still a 

bit hard and angular, but he soon became more Viennese, 



84 Austria 

that is, softer and more graceful. Before he began his great 
work, the Town Hall {Rathaus), he had built the monastery- 
like Akademisches Gymnasium, Vienna's most famous grammar 
school, and five suburban churches, each of a distinct char- 
acter, original and striding. The finest of these is the 
church in Fiinfhaus, with a noble cupola and graceful 
lantern. 

Besides all this, he worked incessantly at the regeneration 
of St. Stephen's (Stefansdom), that finest of German cathedrals, 
which was begun in the thirteenth century 
St. Stephen's, and finished in the fifteenth. This remarkable 
edifice boasts the greatest steeple in Europe, 
450 feet high. It is a pity that the magnificent building 
cannot fuUy assert itself, as it is too closely surrounded by 
secular structures to allow a full view from an3^where. 
Schmidt rebuilt the top of the steeple, restored many bits 
outside and in, which had been spoiled by irreverent hands, 
and altogether sparingly but firmly strengthened the whole. 
The Town Hall is an eclectic building, classical in the 
horizontal lines, gothic in the vertical ones. In its con- 
struction it reminds one of the Brussels Town 

^''h^P" ^^^ ^* *^® ^^"^^^ ''^^^"^ almost free in front. 
There are open arcades on the ground-floor ; 
the upper floors, with their immense Gothic windows, are 
richly decorated, and the whole with its magnificent staircase 
makes a grand impression. The square commanded by this 
building is surely one of the finest in the world, with the 
classic House of Parliament and the University to left and 
right of it, and the Hofhurgtheater opposite. 

A little sister of the Town Hall is the Suhnhaus (House of 
Atonement). This remarkable buUding was erected on the 
Emperor's initiative on the site where the Ring Theatre was 
burnt and hundreds perished, and meant to be an act of 
atonement for that terrible catastrophe. It is really a business 
house vrath a chapel for its centre. 

Schmidt has also buUd many churches in the provinces 



Architecture in the Nineteenth Century 85 

and abroad, and altogether was one of our strongest and most 

fertile architects. 

A third great builder was Baron Heinrich von Ferstel 

(1828-1883), a child of the Vienna soil, cheery and graceful, 

full of imagination and yet ever harmonious, 

Heinnch versatile and clever in technicalities! It is 
von Ferstel. , , . ,. x ^, .1.^1. 

characteristic of the man that he was a 

good painter and musician, a passionate collector of antiqui- 
ties, and a fluent writer. He has always been a favourite 
of the public, and his greatest work, the Votive Cathedral 
(Votivkirche), is almost as well beloved of the Viennese as 
St. Stephen's. 

The Votivkirche is simple in its construction, like the 

Cathedral of Cologne, but not so heavy and massive ; on the 

contrary, in spite of its rich decoration, the 

^'^th^d^'T^ effect is so graceful as to remind one of lace, 

which has its reason partly in the beautiful 

light grey material used, and partly in the fact that the two 

steeples are quite open-worked. The site adds to its effect, 

for so far from being smothered like St. Stephen's, the church 

stands in a huge square, the fine buildings flanking it (like 

the University) weU set back. EngUsh readers will be 

interested in the fact that Sir Tatton Sykes, when travelling 

all over Europe to find a model for the parish church he wished 

to build, chose the Votivkirche. 

When Ferstel won the prize for this church he was only 
twenty-seven years old. Later he was claimed by the 
Renaissance, and his other great buildings were all in the 
classic style. Of these the finest are the Austrian Museum, 
which combines the Vienna Arts and Crafts School with an 
Exhibition Hall. It is rich in polychrome outside, but its 
chief beauty hes in the interior, particularly the arcade 
court with its magnificent staircase. This was a speciality 
of Ferstel's, and the University, his finest secular building, 
has several of these imposing staircases and an inner court 
with arcades rivalling Michael Angelo's court in the Palazzo 



86 Austri^ 

Farnese. Ferstel studied in Italy, in France, and in England, 
before he began this work, but his plans as regards the inner 
decoration were not carried out in spite of his vaUant battles 
with red tape and stinginess. This trouble actually helped 
to bring him to his grave. 

Ferstel was also, next to his friend Hansen, the most 
important builder of private houses, and with him gave 
the Ringstrasse its characteristic aspect. Besides, Vienna 
owes to him the " Cottage Quarter," a suburb in the north- 
west of Vienna, with one-family houses and gardens in the 
EngUsh way, in contrast to the horrid tenement-house prin- 
ciple prevalent in Vienna. It is a pity he could not do more 
in this direction, in spite of his ardent propaganda in word 
and deed. 

On a somewhat lower step of the ladder than these three 

great men stands Baron Karl von Hasenauer (1833-1895), a 

pupil of Van der Niill, and a Vienna man also. 

H nauer ^^ ^^^ ^° P^^® austere genius like that of 

his three great colleagues, but his dazzling, 

effective style suited the Viennese who were schooled by 

Makart to love voluptuous beauty, and he was certainly 

original in his magnificent decorative style, Viennese through 

and through, and a clever manager. 

His faults were counterbalanced by Eriedrich Semper, 
whom we must count as the fifth great creator of New Vienna, 
though he only spent some years here. 
Friedrich Semper is as well known in England as here — 
he lived four years in London, and to him 
England is partly indebted for the construction of the Ken- 
sington Museum, and for the organisation of the Arts and 
Crafts Movement. In 1870 Semper was summoned to Vienna 
to aid Hasenauer, in fact to supervise his work, and the 
Imperial Museums, the Emperor's Palace, and the Imperial 
Court Theatre were built by the two of them. 

The Imperial Museums (of the Fine Arts and of Natural 
History) are two identical buildings in the style of the Italian 



Architecture in the Nineteenth Century 87 

Renaissance, with cupolas 200 feet high, standing opposite 
each other on a large square. The gorgeous entrance halls 
with their grand staircases are the most colossal and magnifi- 
cent ones of the world. Hasenauer has used all kinds of 
many-coloured marble, with a Very network of gold ornaments, 
and the decorations are pictures by Makart, Munkacsy, 
Klimt, and Matsch — the whole an orgy of colour. 

The Imperial Court Theatre is characteristic of Semper in 
its construction — a half circle with two elongated wings — 
and of Hasenauer in the decoration, which in its plastic 
part was undertaken by artists such as TUgner, Wejn:, 
Kundmann, while there is a profusion of pictures by Hynais, 
Klimt, Matsch, Charlemont, Robert Russ. The staircases 
are again magnificent, and the stage is technically above 
reproach. But the house is too large, and the acoustics are 
not what they ought to be, though immense sums have been 
spent in alterations, and even rebuilding. 

The new Palace of the Emperor (in which he does not live, 
feeling more comfortable in his well-known suites in the old 
wing) bears more or less the same stamp as these buildings, 
being a massive and imposing Renaissance structure. 

Besides these eminent artists there were and are a great 

many other architects of high standing. As theatre-builders 

Other ^^^ ^^° inseparables, Helmer and Fellner, 

Architects of are famous all over the world, 
the Old School. Fleischer was a specialist in synagogues and 
built several fine residences besides. To Konig and Deininger, 
Vienna also owes many private houses and palaces, those of 
the latter in a rather too eclectic style. In Prague Zitek has 
built many fine classic edifices. In GaUcia Zachariewitcz is 
probably the most important architect. 

In architecture as well as in the fine arts the last decade 
of the century has brought a revolution, and the head of this 

Otto Wagner, secession in building was Otto Wagner 

(born 1841). He scorns all historical detail, 

working in Uneary modem forms, straight and angular. 



88 Austria 

without pillars, without the popular round loggias, and 
for decoration using a good deal of metal, gold in par- 
ticular, and coloured Dutch tiles. In Vienna his chief 
works are the station buildings of the Underground Railway, 
the huge Post Office Savings Bank, the Church of the Lunatic 
Asylum in Steinliof, and a great many tenement houses. 
Wagner has explained his principles in the widely-read book. 
Modern Architecture. He has a good many ardent fellow- 
ccanbatants and pupils, as well as enemies who use his ideas, 
so that most of the buildings in Vienna which bear his stamp 
are not really his at aU. 

Of these modem architects we must mention Olbrich, the 
builder of the " Secession," Josef Hoffmann, Leopold Bauer, 

Max Fabiani, who has constructed boxes of 
°Archltecte.''° '^"siness houses, looking exactly like blocks 

of marble mounted in metal, and Friedrich 
Ohmann, to whom Vienna owes the charming terraces along 
the river Wien, and the architectural arrangement of several 
fine monuments. The most radical of all is Adolf Loos, 
whose business house on the Michaelerplatz has roused a 
storm of indignation in Vienna, and with good reason too, 
we must add. We cannot bring ourselves to admire a bare 
white block with windows looking like sightless eyes, and that 
in a fine old bit of the city, with beautiful Empire palaces 
all around, not to speak of the magnificent cupola of the 
Emperor's Palace which stands just opposite. Structmres 
of that kind are glaring offences, nothing less ; and it is to 
be hoped that the movement which aspires to put such 
incongruities in the place of aU the dignified old-world houses 
stiU plentifiil in Vienna, will be checked in time. 




Photo by 



" Kilophot," 'G.in.b.h., Vienna. 
PIRANO (DALMATIA) 



CHAPTER IX 

FINE ART IN THE NINETEENTH CENTURY 
1. THE CLASSICISM OF THE FIRST QUARTER 

This was not a brilliant period in Austria. There was little 
originality, and even the imitative art does not get beyond 
mediocrity — with the exception of the miniature portrait, 
and porcelain plastics, where excellence was attained. 

Historical painting was the clou of the time, and Friedrich 

Heinrich Fiiger (1751-1818) the absolute lord of art. But 

Histoi-ical good as he was in miniature painting, his 

Painting. historical pieces lack hfe of any kind. Th6y 

are beautifully composed, light and colour 

"^^'^' are well distributed, the nude as well as the 

draperies carefully studied, but the effect is one of deadly 

correctness, no more. 

His pupils were worse, and we may pass them over, with 
the exception of Caucic and'Russ, two men who fought 
effectually against the cloying sweetness of the prevailing 
taste. 

One painter only in that period found his way to a sort of 
realism : Johann Peter Krafft, whose soldiers and citizens 
are real Hve men, not costumes and attitudes. 

In portrait painting, however, good work was done, especi- 
ally in miniatures. English influence is remarkable here, 
and though the first good portraitists of the 
Palntine period, Lampi, father and son, still use the 
" sweetener " as their chief brush, and are 
but lukewarm in colour, Fiiger, and even more so his pupil 
Daf&nger (1790-1849), who is influenced by Lawrence in his 
Daffineer brilHant colouring, painted the most charming 
miniature portraits, delicate, refined, perfect 
in characterisation. The best known of Daffinger's many 
famous pictures is, perhaps, the miniature of the present 



90 Austria 

Emperor as a baby, the prettiest baby imaginable, with fair 
curls and laughing blue eyes. 

We may here mention the Polish pupil of Lampi's, Peszka, 
who was one of the first Polish painters and collectors. 

In landscape painting Johann Christian Brand was the first 
to leave the well-trodden paths of the ideal classical land- 
scape, and to retiurn to the healthy, natural 
^Patattoe^" picturing of his beautiful native scenery. 
He had plenty of able pupils. Other famous 
landscape painters of the time were Rebell and Koch, the 
latter painting only Italian landscapes. 

Of etchers, etc., there were legion then, mostly clever, but 
not great. The demand for etchings and cuts was immense, 
all the books and reviews were illustrated with them, Christ- 
mas and other congratulation cards as well, and the art 
dealers' business developed rapidly. 

In sculpture one man only achieved real greatness — Franz 

Zauner (1746-1822). At the time Canova loomed gigantic, 

Sculoture ^ nobody could compete with him at first. 

(It may be mentioned here that two beautiful 

works by the Roman are to be seen in Vienna : the tomb of the 

Archduchess Marie Christine in St. Augustine's Church and the 

Theseus Group in the Imperial Museum of Art.) Zauner 

Zauner worked in wood when a baby, in stone as a 

boy, and had done remarkable things before 

he was twenty. His beginnings are rococo, but his great 

works, the beautiful statue of Joseph II above all, are truly 

classic. Not in the cut and dried way of the contemporary 

painters, but with a pathetic and grand simpUcity. 

We may also mention Johann Martin Fischer. He is most 
famous for his " Muscleman," the model figure used in aU the 
studios in Austria and many abroad to this day. But he has 
done good work in other ways, too, a great many Vienna 
fountain figures with effective draperies, for instance. 

Joseph Daniel Bohm was a different man altogether, one of 
the few to see light in the darkness of the time. He only did 



Fine Art in the Nineteenth Century 91 

small things, woodcutting, reliefs, jewelry, medals, but 
everything with a fervour for his art that was almost religious. 
His influence on the younger generation was a remarkable 
factor in the next epoch. 

This leads us to another man who worked at applied art, 
Grassi, the modeller of the Imperial Vienna Porcelain Shop. 
This Vienna Porcelain, called Alt Wien, with the trade-mark 
of the bee-hive, was truly artistic, in plastic work as well as 
in painting, the flower designs being quite a speciality. To- 
day it fetches fantastic prices, as the factory was closed in 
the sixties. 

2. ROMANTICISM UP TO THE ERA OF FRANCIS JOSEPH I 

The reaction against academic constraint and straight- 
lacedness had set in towards the end of the classicistic period, 
as we have seen, and the epoch before us was to complete the 
work of freeing art from its bonds. The Napoleonic Wars 
sent a wave of patriotism over Austria, and in its wake came 
Romanticism. Nothing was done in sculpture, it is true 
(lack of money being the chief reason), but painting attained 
a most respectable height, culminating in the works of one 
man of universal genius — ^Waldmiiller. In historical and 
romantic painting there are also several artists whose work 
will Uve, some of whom, hke Schwind, having come to their 
own only lately, so modern in the best sense are they. 

In historical painting there is the trifolium Blaas, Engerth 

and Wurzinger, closely allied in their manner as weU as in 

Historical ^^® heroic subjects they chose. Blaas was. 

Painting. perhaps, the most striking individuahty of 

the three. He painted frescoes in the famous 

Altlerchenfelder Church, and later forty-five 

gigantic pictures for the Arsenal in Vienna, mostly for the 

cupola. Their colouring is a little dull, but they are no doubt 

Eneerth grand work, very different from the attitu- 

dinous groups of a Fiiger. Engerth painted 

a good deal too, perhaps too much, for his later work 



92 Austria 

is rather superficially effective, though the characterisation 

and composition is always excellent. Wurzinger was 

the best teacher of the time. His fame 

Wurzinger. as a painter rests chiefly on one, monumental 

picture.: " The Emperor Ferdinand II 

refusing to sign the articles of the religious peq(ce which the 

Protestant Vienna citizens are demanding." 

As a historical painter we must also mention the Czech 
nationaUst Manes. Apart from his historical scenes he 
Manes painted portraits, Czech national types, 
romantic legends, etc., and is popular to this 
day. His chief merit, however, is that of having raised a 
great many ancient Czech art treasures from forgotten depths. 
The romantic religious painting of the period is also repre- 
sented by three first-rate men, of whom two, however, soon 
Relieious ^^^* Vienna. Fiihrich (d. 1876), the leader 
Painting. of the " Nazarene " group in Vienna, a strong 
individuality and honest, unshakable worker, 
" "*^ ■ was the only one to remain in Austria. His 
chief work here is the painting of the Altlerchenfelder 
Church (in which he was aided by several others), but his 
smaller pictures, and particularly his wood cuts, were 
appreciated and popular always, even in the time of the 
Makart rage, when good draughtsmanship was rather looked 
down upon than otherwise. 

Steinle, who left Vienna for Frankfort before he had 

reached the summit of his power, was a specialist in Madonnas. 

Schwindt (1804-1871), the third of this trifolium, was also 

lost to Austria when still a young man — ^Uke so many others 

of a later day, he went to Munich. He is 

Schwindt. the romantic painter par excellence, but his 

romance is aUve with personal reminiscences, 

and that is what makes his pictures so powerful, in spite of 

their elusive charm. Characteristically enough, he hated 

oils, and generally worked in water-colours. We have also 

countless pencil sketches from his hand, the most famous 



Fine Art in the Nineteenth Century 93 

being the " Schubertiaden," where Schubert, Schwindt, his 
inseparable, and the whole of that merry group of friends 
were portrayed in all possible and impossible situations. 
Very characteristic of that travel-loving, romantic time are 
also the travel sketches [Reisebilder). But his most beautiful 
work are the great cyclic scenes of folk-songs, legends and 
fairy tales, full of nature and yet most delicate and poetic 
in drawing and colouring, though a bit washy and faded for 
the modern colour-loving eye. 

And now we come to that field where the best work 
of the time was done : social genre painting. The life 
that was portrayed in those pictures is 
pSntfae ^^^ ^^^ described by Hevesi, the clever 
Vienna art critic. He says ; " The art of 
the time was rooted in everyday life, and thus limited by 
mental shackles and inartistic influences, but all the same 
the lovable traits of Viennese nature show to the best advan- 
tage. It is a cheerful, honest, well-meaning world that is 
reflected here, a world that lives and lets live, a hfe that is 
best taken from the sunny side, brightness everywhere, 
animation without agitation, pleasure in little things and 
cheerful renunciation of bigger ones that are hard to reach — 
the fine blue Danube, good wines to drink, good things to 
eat, good music to hear, and pretty women in plenty." 

Such was, indeed, the Vienna world before 1848, and when, 
in addition to these rather uninspiring surroundings, we call 
to mind the shackles of their academic, classicistic past aU 
the painters had to get rid of, it is remarkable what a host 
of excellent artists worked at the time. We can name only 
a few, but the walls of the Vienna galleries show hundreds 
of first-class pictures from the Hfe of " Alt Wien." 

There was Danhauser (1805-1845) the " Englishman " of the 

time, whose bright water-colours might be taken for British 

Danhauser work of to-day. He was first under the spell 

of the old Dutch gerure painters ; then David 

Wilkie taught him much, but in the end he soared above 



94 Austria 

his master by aid of his temperament and fine sense of 
colour. His pictures of the well-to-do Vienna citizens in 
their comfortable and refined family Ufe are unequalled. 

Then there are the humoristic Peter Fendi, a dehcate 

draughtsman, and the veracious if rather elaborate Eybl, with 

the animal painters Ranftl, Strassgschwandtner, and above all, 

the dramatic Gauermann (1807-1862), whose 

Gauermann. pictures of the Austrian Alps and their cattle 
and game are always full of suggestion and 
sentiment. Landseer, a kindred spirit, admired him 
immensely. 

And there is Ferdinand Georg WaldmiiUer (1793-1866), of 

whom we may just as well speak in this connection, though 

he reached the same excellence not only in 

WaldmuUer. genre, but also in portrait-painting, in 
landscape and in still life. 

He was an individuality if ever there was one, learning 
from all the great masters, but imitating none. He returned 
from Paris, from the Netherlands, from Italy, not as he had 
gone, but always himself. As quite a boy he had rebelled 
against the academical death-in-life, and he remained a 
revolutionist always. Here he was only properly valued 
after he was dead, while he was treated infamously in his 
lifetime, but England and America knew him at once for what 
he was worth, and Queen Victoria once bought his whole 
stock (thirty-one pictures) from him when he was on his way 
to Philadelphia to sell it there. " Return to nature " was 
his war cry, but he never became a soulless reahst, his pictures 
always have a great thought of feeling in them. His colours 
are briUiant even from a modern standpoint — he was the 
first to paint in the sun, shocking his critics and dear colleagues 
beyond expression. His landscapes aU have the atmosphere 
that other painters only did twenty and thirty years later. 
His portraits seem about to step from their frames, so Ufe- 
like are they ; and all so very, very Viennese. As a tree- 
painter he is first and foremost. And his genre pictures are 



Fine Art in the Nineteenth Century 95 

the last word in composition, in the distribution of light and 
shade, in characterisation, in humour and tenderness. Only 
in a certain softness is he excelled by Pettenkofen, past-master 
in this kind of painting. 

Except for him, there was no genius in landscape painting 

at the time. His teacher, Franz Steinfeld, paved the way 

for a modern generation, but their work all 

pSntinr *^^^ ^^*° ^^^ *^™^ °* Francis Joseph I. 
Beside him we may name Hoger, a specialist 
in trees, who was surpassed only by WaldmiiUer. 

The graphic arts do not show any growth during this time, 
though a great deal of cutting, etching, etc., was done. Alt, 
the father of the famous landscape painter, may just be 
mentioned. 
In sculpture absolutely nothing of note was done. 

3. THE ERA OF FRANCIS JOSEPH I 

This half century, a golden age, indeed, has doubtless a 
face of its own, but to us the characteristic features are not 
plain yet. We stand too near to make them out clearly. 
If we must trace any schools or movements at all, we have 
to say that the romantic tide of the fifties went out, to make 
place to the Neo-renaissance ; this was followed by the colour 
enthusiasm of Makart and his time, and between that and the 
modern impressionism, with its various radical sections, 
there is no recognisable influence strong enough to form 
anything like a school. 

Thus we shall have to take the good things as they come, 
chronologically, doing our best to group them wherever this 
is possible. I 

The painters mentioned in ithe last chapter : Fuhrich and 
his school, the trifoUum of historians, and WaldmiiUer, the 
lonely one, all wrought in this epoch still, in fact their best 
work was done in the sixties and seventies. 

Other historians of the old school are Carl Swoboda, the 



96 Austria 

Czech, who painted the loggias in the Vienna opera, Eduard 

Swoboda, who decorated the Stock Exchange, Loffler- 

Radymno the Pole with great Pohsh pictures, 

Historical KoUer, who died in the gutter, but painted 

Old School, with wSnderful swing, and many others. Of 

the older genre painters Friedrich Friedlander 

(1825-1899), the last of the WaldmiiUer school, is the best. 

He became a specialist in veterans after the 

9^°''®, . war of 1866, and was very popular. Indeed, 

Old School, liis carefully painted scenes show excellent 

qualities, of which the cleverly observed 

expression and gesture is not the least. His is also the 

merit of having founded the Vienna Artists' Society 

(Kiinstlergenossenschaft). Up to then the Vienna painters 

had suffered terribly under the tyranny of the dealers. 

This calm and rather elderly painting world was rudely 

shaken by the allegorist, Karl Rahl (1812-1865), a man of 

extraordinary vigour, one of those sensual 

Rahl. natures brimming over with the love of life, 

of colour, and of form, and full of imagination, 

a man that the Renaissance of the sixteenth century might 

have brought forth. He died insane, deeply mourned by his 

pupils who had idolized him. 

His titanic nature was at its best when working on a 
gigantic scale, and, indeed, his frescoes and ceiling-pieces 
are his most perfect work. He was the counterpart of his 
friend Hansen the archite "t, working hand in hand with him. 
His influence was very great, and he had countless pupils 
and disciples, of whom we may mention BitterUch, painter 
and sculptor, Eisenmenger and Griepenkerl, who painted 
allegories quite in the style of the master, and carried out a 
great many of his plans and sketches. 

If Rahl had been a great influence in Vienna, Makart 
(1840-1884) became a very pope. This genius in colour held 
the whole city spell-bound, it painted, it acted, it dressed, 
it talked, and, above all, it decorated its houses as the 



Fine Art in the Nineteenth Century 97 

great magician wished it to do. Rahl's school, with its 
heavy sombre colours, was outshone from the moment 
Makart Makart's first great painting, " Modern 
Amorettes," was seen. He painted historical 
scenes, allegories, portraits, landscapes, always on the largest 
scale, dazzhng with hght and colour, revelling in sensual 
beauty, in the most fantastic and voluptuous pageants. 

It is a great pity that these wonderfully rich and glowing 
colours have partly darkened to sickly hues, owing to his 
often using cheap material — he could not always pay for the 
best ! " Romeo and JuUet," for instance, has become 
almost indistinguishable, and in his " Triumph of Ariadne " 
(both in the Imperial Museum) some of the beautiful nude 
figures, not all, have faded into a sickly yeUow. 

He died young, without leaving any pupils ; what he knew 
could not be taught. 

Another great allegorist of the time was Hans Canon (1829- 
1885), an enthusiastic admirer and imitator of Rubens, 
Can n ^^* greater in his more original work. 

As masters of colour we must also name the 
The " Orientahsts " who studied hght and colour 

unentaiists. ^^ Egypt, as Makart, too, had done. Leopold 
Karl Miiller (1835-1892) was the first of them, Wilda and 
Miehch of to-day are following in his footsteps.'; Schonn 
painted street scenes in the same flaringly vivid colours, 
using the same reflex effects, only his subjects were Italian. 
Among MiiUer's famous pictures is a " Camel Market in 
Cairo," Schonn has a " Fish Market in Chioggia," etc. 

The greatest of this group, perhaps the greatest Austrian 

genre painter, was August von Pettenkofen (1822-1889). He 

began with mihtary pictures in the way of 

Pettenkofen. Meissonier, though even then he was richer 

in tone than the Frenchman, and broader 

in touch. Later his colours became simply glowing, without 

ever getting as extravagant as the impressionists'. An open 

cowhouse in the warm brown summer shade with a peasant 

7— (2394) 



98 Austria 

lad at the door, the glaring sun full on his white blouse-^such 

were his subjects. His manner never remained the same, 

for like Alt he never grew too old to learn, and his last 

pictures are perfectly modern in touch, as the first had 

already been in colour.. His brother Ferdinand imitated him 

most successfully, and his pictures are often taken for August's. 

In Galicia this period brought forth two great historians 

of very different mettle — Grottker and the world-famous 

Matejko. Arthur Grottker (1837-1867) has 

Grottker. painted lovely historic romantic cycles of 

Polish history, visibly influenced by Schwind. 

But his is a melancholy poetry, steeped in tears, while Jan 

Matejko (1838-1893) painted defiance and rebellion. His 

composition was masterly at first, as in the 

Matejko. famous " Polish Parhament at Warsaw, 

in 1773 " (Imperial Museum in Vienna), but 

his last pictures suffered from his growing short-sightedness 

and became too intricate and confused. His colour, however, 

remained what it had been from the beginning, so bright 

and fresh as to produce an almost violent effect beside other 

paintings of the time. 

Two other PoHsh nationahsts are Julius Kossak and his 
son Wojcich, who paint scenes of battle and hunting, full 
of temperament and go. 

Czech history painters of note are Vaclav Brozik (1851-1899) 

who also did charming genre scenes of French peasantry, 

and Jaroslav Czermak, who painted a whole 

Czech^HUtory ^^av ethnograph, so to speak, types and 

scenes from all the Slav nations down to 

Servia and Montenegro, where he spent many years. 

A lonely figure was that of Anselm Feuerbach (1829-1880), 

a wholly spiritual genius who was not understood in the 

time of Makart, and who is counted among 

Feuerbach. the greatest to-day. It took him many years 

to paint his heroic and gigantic pictures like 

the " Battle of the. Amazons," or the " Fall of the Titans " 



Fine Art in the Nineteenth Century 99 

(ceiling picture in the Vienna Academy), but the sweetly or 
sadly suggestive scenes like his " Iphigenia," " Hafis in the 
Drinking House," " Dante," show him at his best. He is 
Viennese only in so far as he taught at the Vienna Academy 
in the seventies, so this is aU the space we can give him. 

Another misjudged genius was Anton Romako, an impres- 
sionist long before his time. His mad life had an evil 
influence on his painting, however, and he did 
Romako. not fulfil what his first work seemed to 
promise. 
Decorative painting profited a good deal by this grand 
development of heroic art, and of architecture. Of the 
older school we may mention Laufberger, a 
Decorative g^^jj draughtsman, but cold. Gustav and 
Ernst Klimt and Franz Matsch have in their 
youth done brilliant ceUing-pieces for the Imperial Theatre 
(Hofhurgtheatre), the Imperial Museum and many other 
secular buildings. They will be spoken of later as the 
originators of the Secession. Matsch's work is a bit sweet, 
and so is that of three otherwise briUiant painters, Karger, 
Veith, and Schram. Veith is perhaps the strongest, and 
where he is not too superficial and creamy, as in many of his 
girls' portraits, distinctly picturesque. 

In Cracow there was the remarkable, if phantastic genius 
of Wyspianski, poet and painterj whose stained glass windows 
attracted great attention. He died quite young. 

Taking the step from the historical to the genre painting 

of the younger generation, we must begin with Julius v. 

Payer, the Polar explorer who discovered 

Genre Painters p^anz Josef Land. He is an original talent, 

Generation? ^t his best when depicting life in the Polar 

regions. Other remarkable genre painters 

are Kurzbauer, a fresh and spontaneous colourist with simple 

and effective subjects, Angeh (born 1840) who later became 

famous for his elegantly finished portraits, that of Queen 

Victoria and the Kaiser among the number ; Passini, with 



100 Austria 

Venetian scenes ; Rumpler with quaint, delicate pictures 
something in the style of Pettenkofen ; Hans Temple whose 
speciaUty are artists in their studios ; Eduard Charlemont 
with most graceful nude figures ; Delug, whose first success 
was a TjTTolese peasant woman hanging up her linen, a fresh, 
breezy pictmre ; Jungwirth and Larwin with Austrian 
peasants, market-women, etc., done with dash and humour, 
but always honest and careful in detail ; Hirschl-Heremy, 
who loves painting the sea with mj^thical accessories in cold 
violets and greens ; " The Souls at the Acheron " is one of 
his best and most characteristic pictures ; and Goltz with 
fascinating l5T:ical scenes, suggestive and tender. 

The genre pictures of Jewish hfe, by Isidor Kaufmann, are 
full of feeling and subtle humour, beautifully finished and 
strong in colour. Other Jewish genre painters of note are 
Krestin, and Eichhorn, a versatile and sincere young painter, 
of whom much may still be expected. 

Of the many brilliant Polish genre painters let us mention 
Zygmimt Aidtikiewicz, with Pohsh national scenes, Stachiewicz 
with Madonnas in sweet pale grey tones, Zmiirko, who revels 
in fantastic colours, Jan Styka and his young sons, one of 
them a veritable prodigy who painted a vigorous, gripping 
Prometheus on a large scale before he was sixteen. 

The portrait has been very well represented of late. There 

is Angeli, who was mentioned above, and who has grown a 

Portrait bit too smooth in manner, though his fine 

Painters of the draughtsmanship and vivid colour has not 

G^ne^ralra. suffered. Probably at the top stands 
Leopold Horovitz, the painter not only of 
Horovitz. bodies, but of souls. His portraits in their 
picturesqueness remind one of Herkomer, the eyes particu- 
larly being so fiall of Kfe that they alone seem to tell the story 
of their owner. Another profound psychologist and fresh, 

Po hwalski spontaneous painter is the Pole Pochwalski, 

a specialist in men portraits. The latest 

genius is Quincey Adams, whose portrait of a well-known 



Fine Art in the Nineteenth Century 101 

Vienna surgeon at work on his patient occasioned a great 
controversy. He is at his best when verging on genre, as 
in the portrait of his little girl in yellow silk, dancing to 
the 'cello. Schattenstein is a new painter of ladies, a man of 
undoubted talent but inclined towards coarseness sometimes, 
while Veith (who was named before) and Froschl sin by the 
opposite extreme. Kraus, a careful and honest draughtsman, 
is chaxacterised by a certain dash and a leaning towards 
impressionism, and so is Baschny. As pastellists we may name 
Josephine Swoboda, who has painted the English Royal 
Family, the delicate and vividly characteristic specialist in 
red chalk, Daviv Kohn, and Rauchinger, who works better 
in pastel than in oils. 

A clever and most prolific artist, surpassing even the 
French in the hthographed portrait, was Kriehuber (1801- 
1876). He used to draw on the stone at once, without any 
preliminary studies, and scarcely ever corrected a line. 

William Unger (born 1837) is the acknowledged master of 
the etching needle, but his chief work is copying, while 
Schmutzer and Michalek are almost exclusively portraitists. 
SaUger and Cossmann are two of the most popular modern 
etchers, the latter's speciality being Ex Libris. 

Ernst Juch and Schliessmann are two of the best cartoonists 
in Europe, each in his own way. 

In landscape, as in portrait-painting, there are so many 
first-class artists to-day that it is extremely hard to make 
Landscape ^ selection. We must begin with Rudolf von 
Painters. Alt, who, born in 1812, lived through all 
the art revolutions of the century and 
emerged as modern as the youngest. He was 
a master in water-colours, painting landscapes and architectures 
minutely and accurately, yet with inimitable grace and " go." 
In his long life he has produced thousands of small master- 
pieces, and, perhaps the finest are the last, painted with a 
hand that shook too much to write a single w6rd. Alt made 
a virtue of necessity, doing these last pictures in the 



102 Austria 

pointillist manner. It is very characteristic of the man 
that he became the honorary president of the " Secession " 
that was founded by quite young men, boys ahnost — and 
he was ninety then. 

Of the older generatfon there are Zimmermann, Lichtenfels 
and Schaffer, all vigorous talents, but comparatively 
colourless, better draughtsmen than painters. 

A great step forward was made by the lyrical genius 

Schindler (1842-1892). He loved subdued tints at first, brown 

and grey, then gradually grew more and more 

Schindler. natural and vivid. In this bright period he 

discovered the charm of the gaudy cottage 

gardens, and he has painted many graceful Uttle pictures 

with these gajly coloured patches for their subject. He knew 

how to take nature in her grand moods as well, however, as 

his " Poplars," and above all the pathetic " Pax " (a ruined 

cemetery with cypresses, Imperial Museum), show. 

He has had a good many inspired pupils, Karl Moll (who 
will be spoken of later), Tina Blau, and Olga Wisinger among 
the number. Tina Blau has a preference for sombre moods 
in landscape, while Olga Wisinger loves bright summer 
scenes and glowing autumn foliage. 

Theodor von Hermann (1840-1895) was also influenced 

by Schindler. He was a fanatic of nature, painting honestly 

what he saw, untouched by school or con- 

Hormann. vention. For many years he was sneered 

at and looked upon as half mad ; to-day the 

younger generation make him out a martyr. When at last 

he began to be appreciated, he died of a cold he had caught 

actually sitting in the rising tide to paint the rollers. 

Eugen Jettel and Rudolf Ribarz were masters of the French 
landscape seen in the French way. 

Robert Russ is one of the most versatile modern landscape 
painters, finding new motifs and new manners almost every 
year, but always vigorous in drawing and vivid in colour. 
If one can speak of a speciality with this many-sided talent, 



Fine Art in the Nineteenth Century 103 

it is the South of Tyrol with the golden sun on gay autumn 
fohage. Tomec is a vigorous painter, of rocky alpine scenery 
for preference. 

TTien there is Hugo Charlemont, a lover of the quaint and 
dainty, with tiny pictures of a few birches in the sun, a 
cottage garden with spotted fowls, and the Uke. 

Benno Kniipf er was a specialist in seascapes, a Bocklinesque 
example of which is the beautiful " Fight between Tritons," 
in the Imperial Museum, and so is Zoff, an ardent interpreter 
of the lovely Adriatic coast. 

Ludwig Fischer, a most prohfic painter and draughtsman 
in every technique, is a master in oriental landscapes, India 
and Egypt for preference, with fine yeUows and purples. 

Damaut, one of the most mellow modem landscape painters, 
is a speciaUst in wood and water ; his little lakes surrounded 
with old grey beeches, their fohage gUstening with dew, are 
unsurpassed in their sweet dreaminess. 

Brunner loves lonely houses on grassy plains, the evening 
sun painting a wall yellow. His pictures have a melancholy 
suggestive charm, but they are rather ahke, so far. 

Bernt and Bamberger, architects originally, foUow in Alt's 
footsteps, painting bits of Vienna architecture quite in his 
vivid, bright, and yet carefully detailed way. Pippich is 
also one of the painter-chronists of Vienna town. He loves 
queer light effects, gas lamps burning through the snowy 
atmosphere of a large square, and the like. 

Zetsche is a specialist in ruins and old towns, generally done 
in water-colours with a quaintly elaborate care. 

This period also boasts of some remarkable animal painters, 

chief of whom was Rudolf Huber (1829-1896), a lover of 

browsing cattle, but an excellent landscape 

^dnt* painter and portraitist at the same time. 

His ohve groves with sheep and shepherd 

bathed in sun remind one of Pettenkofen. Schrodl, Pausinger 

and Thoren must also be named, the last, a vigorous painter 

of cattle particularly, has left Vienna for Paris now. 



104 Austria 

In still life there are a great many painters of quality, 
most of whom have already been named in other connections, 

as they are not specialists in this one Hne — 
Painters^ only one man has had the courage to renounce 

everj^hing else and throw himself into this 
generally thankless branch of art with heart and soul, Schodl, 
now one of our most popular painters. 

And now let us throw a rapid glance at the latest develop- 
ment of Austrian art, known as " Secession " in Vienna. 

The " Kiinstlergenossenschaft," founded by 
" Sec^s%n • ' Frifidl^^der and others in the 'sixties, had 

grown a bit stiff and academic, not a breeze 
stirred to tell of the storm that was sweeping the west, names 
like Rodin, Meunier, Charpentier were unknown to the public, 
and their ways and methods undreamed of. A few youngsters 
who tried to follow in the steps of these daring souls were 
laughed at, their pictures remained unhung and unsold, 
and so they made up their minds to " secede," to leave the 
Kiinstlerhaus. They founded a magazine that raised a storm, 
their first exhibition in 1898, showing the best of foreign work 
and most promising beginnings of young Austrians, made a 
great impression on the public, and in the next year they had 
their own house, with a rather bizarre exterior (the Viennese 
call it the " Golden Cabbage "), but very pretty and serviceable 
inside. 

This was but fifteen years ago, and to-day the " Secession " 
has become too academic for some of its members again ; 
they have left the fold and founded a new secession, the 
" Kunstschau." We shall, however, not follow this hyper- 
modern development, as we cannot regard it as anything 
else but a show of freaks bound to give place to serious art 
again in a short time. 

There are two other modern artists' societies, the " Hagen- 
bund " and the " Aquarellistenclub," and we shall now pro- 
ceed to speak of the painters belonging to these three groups 
together. It must be mentioned once for all that a good 



Fine Art in the Nineteenth Century 105 

many of them have returned to the Kiinstlerhaus since, 
this exhibition having now lost its conservative character. 

An erratic genius is the first president of the " Secession," 
Gustav Khmt (born 1862). He began with graceful, brilliant, 
but perfectly normal decorative painting. 
Klimt. To-day he is the enfant terrible even of the 
very latest and wildest modem school, and 
has left the " Secession " as being too academic. Though 
greatly influenced by Beardsley and many Frenchmen, he 
is always original ; every square inch of his paintings is 
unmistakably Klimt and no other. He is the most suggestive 
of the modems, leaving a great deal unsaid always ; this 
often gives his pictures charm, but more often they are 
phantastic riddles for the onlooker. His coloizrs are beautiful. 
He is especially great at silvery hght and aU the other tricks 
of atmosphere. He paints everj^hing, letting his imagination 
run riot in landscapes and portraits, as well as in genre and 
allegory. 

Kramer is a faithful and most brilliant disciple of the 

orientahst Leopold MiiUer. His sunny and bright hued 

Other scenes and landscapes have a particular 

Landscape sweet fervour of their own when the subject 

Painters. jg ^j^g Holy Land. Lately he has shown 

himself a sincere and vigorous portraitist also. 

One of the most remarkable landscape and genre painters 
is Carl Moll, already referred to. His large pictures, repro- 
ducing all the moods of nature, as the wistful " Ruin in the 
Park of Schonbrunn " (Imperial Museum), are beautiful and 
truthful in colouring, impeccable in draughtsmanship, 
and his interiors and still life pictures have the same 
qualities. 

Stoitzner works on the same lines, only with a still greater 
love of detail. 

Nowak and Karl Miiller both paint the lovely Adriatic 
coast in warm tones. 

Bernatzik used to depict legends, but of late he has become 



106 Austria 

a landscape and genre painter of remarkable qualities, 
particularly when he paints running water. 

Then there is Hans Tychy with peaceful grassy 
plains, and the poetic Friedrich Konig with fairy tale 
accessories. ♦ 

Wilt and Kasparides, with rather phantastic colours, 
Ranzoni and Suppantschitsch, with beautiful views of river 
and wood, wholesome and vigorously painted, again exhibit 
in the Kiinstlerhaus. 

Of GaUcian landscape painters there is Falat, a genius in 
depicting snowy woods, frozen brooks and the hke, with the 
winter sun full on them, Stanislawski with sombre, melancholy 
plains, and many others. 

Here we may also speak of a lonely figure, the greatest 
of modern landscape painters to our mind, who is generally 
considered an Italian — Giovanni Segantini. 
Segantini. He was, however, born on Austrian soil, in 
Arco, in the year 1858. He studied in Milan 
for some years, and spent many years of his short hfe outside 
Austria, in Switzerland, but he has most often painted his 
native scenery and his native peasants, so he may safely 
be counted an Austrian. His technique, the progressive 
building up of tones by the employment of touches of pure 
colour set side by side, was invented by himself, though the 
priority has since been doubted. Whatever our opinion about 
the merit of this " scientific " painting, his handhng has 
certainly justified it. His colours are of a transparent glow 
rarely to be found in oil paintings — except, perhaps, those of 
Bocklin — whether he paints a spring morning on his beloved 
heights above the Lake Garda, or a woman milking in the cow- 
house. Most of his paintings are mountain landscapes, but 
he has also some wonderful allegorical pictures, as the legend 
of the " Bad Mothers," which is hung in the " Modern Gallery " 
in Vienna, one of the most pathetic pictures painted in this 
centmry. Segantini died in a hut in the midst of his beloved 
Alps, only forty years old. 



Fine Art in the Nineteenth Century 107 

Engelhart, for some years president of the " Secession," is 
a very Viennese genre painter, full of fun and laughter, and 
at the same time very clever cit applied art 
pSTters. Of aU kinds. 

Andn is a good colounst and full of humour 
also, clever at characterisation with simple means, but his 
drawing is too " modern," and the peasants he loves to paint 
marketing or church-going generally look hke caricatures. 
List has the same subjects, but instead of being awkward 
and angular his figures are graceful, if a bit colourless. 

Myrbach-Rheinfeld, director of the Vienna Arts and Crafts 
School, paints and draws soldiers in a masterly way, his 
composition being especially clever. Ludwig Koch is also 
a smart draughtsman, specially good at joUy bivouac scenes 
which he does in a style of his own, grounding them in pencil 
and then painting them in water-colours. Schwaiger has a 
humorous talent much in the style of the mediaeval 
wood-cutters. 

Rudolf Bacher, now president of the Secession, painted 
fine biblical scenes. Especially his " Quo Vadis ? " made a 
great impression. Now he is a speciaUst in fantastic 
monsters and in woman portraits. The latter are the best 
that can be seen at the Secession now. 

Roller is a great decorative artist and a wonderful teacher, 
famous as such abroad as well as at home. His ornamental 
letters are the best that were ever invented. 

Otto Friedrich was a pious painter of saints and sacred 
subjects. Now he has become a rather enigmatic aUegorist, 
who draws more than he paints. Much the same may be 
said of Jettmar, who is also very clever at black and white 
sketches. 

Liebenwein and Wacik are fairy-tale painters in a charming 
decorative style, Wacik with pecuhar fantastic figures, 
and so is Lefler, now decorative manager of the 
Hofburgtheater. 

A most prolific, many-sided and ingenious painter is Emil 



108 Austria 

Orlik, who studied in Japan for more than a year, and now 
lives in his native town of Prague. He has also been to 
Scotland and has fallen in love with Edinbiirgh, which he 
has represented in all the moods of all the times of the day 
and the year. Whatever he does has a special grace all 
his own, be it landscape, genre, or decorative graphic 
work. 

Uprka and Ruzicka are two Czech painters of peasants, 
exceptionally vigorous in drawing and colouring. There are 
many other new talents in Bohemia, of whom we may name 
Svabinsky, Hudecek and Preisler. 

Malczewski is one of the NationaUst Poles. His Siberian 
sketches have made him famous all over Europe. Another 
well-known modern Pole is Mehoffer, rather too sweet and 
dainty for the large decorative work he is doing at present, 
but harmonious in colouring and faultless in draughtsmanship. 



The architectural rebirth of Vienna brought with it a new 

sculpture also, and a marvellous amount of good work was 

done in a very short time, the sculptors 

Sculpture. seeming to spring up from nowhere after the 

barren years of the romantic epoch, though 

the enforced compromise between classicism and realism was 

a terrible impediment. 

The only descendant of that time was Hans Gasser (1817- 

1868), a very teutonic romanticist. He is not unknown in 

England — ^the well-known Adam Smith in 

Gasser. Oxford being his work. He was very prolific 

for a sculptor, being badly paid, and so 

grew rather superficial in time. But all his work is 

naturally graceful and suggestive, yet vigorous at the same 

time. In Vienna we have his charming Donauwdhchen 

(" the Danube water fairy ") in the Stadtpark, and twelve 

children's statues representing the months in the Belvedere 

Garden. 



Fine Art in the Nineteenth Century 109 

In a way 'the first naturalist was the bronze founder, 
Fernkorn (1813-1878), a specialist in equestrian statues. 

His best is that of the Archduke Carl, the 
Fernkorn. victor of Aspem, though the boldly balanced 

pose was criticised at the time. 
Kaspar von Zumbusch (born 1830) is the faithful historian 
among sculptors, programmatic and vigorous, but devoid 

of imagination. His Beethoven is a beautiful 
Zumbusch. monument, the central figure in its rugged 

raassiveness very characteristic, and the 
allegoric accessories, if not quite original, yet well grouped 
and effective in good sense. But the immense monument 
of Maria Theresa between the two museums of art and 
natural history cannot but be regarded as a failure. The 
whole effect is rather that of a merry-go-round, and the 
Empress' figure is too short and squat for the height on which 
it is placed. His equestrian statues (the Radetzky before the 
new War Office, among them), are very fine, and so are his 
numerous portrait busts. 

Karl Kundmann (born 1838) is a graceful, characteristically 
Viennese talent. A good many Vienna monuments in 

prominent positions are his work, but only 
Kundmann. a few have become deservedly popular, while 

some have excited a not unmerited ridicule. 
His simple if rather uninspired and conventional Schubert, 
and the fine and original Grillparzer (with reliefs by Weyr) 
belong to the first group, while the pretentious and elaborate 
Tegetthoff column, with the small statue at the top and the 
ships' keels sticking out queerly on both sides, looks grotesque ; 
and the huge, deadly correct marble figure of Pallas Athene, 
with her golden spear and helmet, which has been put up 
before the beautiful low front of the House of Parliament, 
quite mars the effect of our finest Greek building. He is a 
very prohfic artist, and has done dozens of other figures in 
Vienna and the provinces. 

A Czech sculptor of a vigour and robustness never to be 



110 - Austria 

found with the Viennese artists is Josef Myslbek whose fine 
statues of " Submission " and " Loyalty " 
Myslbek. (on the attica of the House of Parliament) 
made him famous. 
Edmund von HeUmei* (born 1850), graceful and Viennese 
like Kundmann, is never bizarre hke his compatriot, rather 
agreeably lucid. His Goethe (on the Ring- 
Hellmer. strasse) and his Schindler (in the Stadtpark) 
are good examples of his sincere and unpre- 
tentious art. They sit there comfortably and at home, not 
grand and distant, it is true, but human and lovable. His 
most monumental work so far is the fountain representing 
Austria's land forces {Oesierreichs Macht zu Lande), an antique 
hero thrusting Austria's enemies, aU kinds of monsters, into 
the depths. 

The counterpart of this group is one by Weyr, Austria's 

Maritime Forces (Oesierreichs Macht zur See), and this certainly 

shows more imagination and humour. Alto- 

Weyr. gether Wejn: (born 1847) is one of our most 

spontaneous and original sculptors, not a 

scholar or a thinker at all, but a robust worker. He has done 

a great many beautiful reUef s and medals too, in fact he began 

as a relief sculptor. 

An inspired portraitist was Edgar Bohm, son of Josef 
Daniel, who lived in England for the greater part of his life 
as Queen Victoria's Court Sculptor. His 
Bohm. lifelike Carlyle with its wonderful charac- 
terisation is a good example of his work. 
Another great portraitist in sculpture was Oskar Tilgner 
1844-1896). He has immortalised everybody who was 
anybody in Vienna during the second half 
Tilgner, of the century with an unequalled virtuosity 
in making the best use of his material (often 
coloured marble), the Ukeness always to the life, particularly 
delightful when his models were women or children. He has 
only done very few monuments, the Vienna Mozajrt being 



Fine Art in the Nineteenth Century 111 

among them, but a good many charming Uttle genre 
statuettes. 

Strasser (bom 1854), is a master in painted statuary, with 

strange fantastic subjects, Asiatic for choice. A large bronze 

group " Marc Antony's Chariot drawn by 

Strasser. Lions," which now stands in the garden of 

the " Secession," shows his virtuosity as an 

animal sculptor, and his power of doing more monumental 

work than his usual small groups. 

Amongst many other great talents of this generation, too 

many to name them all, we must mention Heinrich Natter 

(1844-1892), a titanic natiure, characteristi- 

Natter. cally Tsarolese. His best monuments are the 

colossal figure of Andreas Hofer in Innsbruck, 

on Mount Isel, and of ZwingU in Zurich, works of a compelling 

grandeur and simpHcity. 

Of the younger generation let us mention Klotz and 
Zelezny, two excellent wood carvers, the latter of a deUghtful 
humour and great strength in his rugged heads and busts, 
Diirnbauer, a clever reahst who died young and full of promise, 
Rathausky with coloured statuary, Gurschner with graceful 
and original statuettes, and the medahsts Waschmann, 
Radnitzky, Tautenhayn senior and junior, Schwartz, Scharff 
and MarschaU. 

An original and fantastic talent in the Hagenbund is 
Hejda (born 1868), the Klimt of sculpture, though suggestive 
rather than incomprehensible, a lover of 
Hejda. beasts and monsters, painter and sculptor 
at the same time. 
We have attempted to give an idea of the countless forces 
that are at work to-day in the Austrian, especially the Vien- 
nese, world of art. It is quite clear, however, that of the 
living artists we could only pick out a few, often at random, 
for we have not nearly enough space to do justice to them aU, 
and to enumerate mere names is useless. 



CHAPTER X 

MUSIC IN THE NINETEENTH CENTURY 

Music in Austria ma^ be regarded as a harmonious whole 
up to the middle of the century, for during that time 
Beethoven, in one sphere, and Schubert, in the other, were 
the autocrats of the musical world. From that time onward, 
however, it is the same in music as in fine art and in literature 
— divergent influences battling with each other and original 
genius going its own way, so that there is no prevalent 
movement to be traced. 

There is the treasure of popular music which is unearthed 
when nationalism begins to assert itself with the several races. 
There is the all-pervading influence of Wagner. There is the 
great reactionary Brahms, Wagner's anti-emperor, as the 
critic Hanshck calls him, and there are the impetuously pro- 
gressive moderns, Gustav Mahler and Hugo Wolf. Again, 
there are the alluring strains of the Vienna waltzes and musical 
comedies which have so much grown in importance lately. 

But let us begin with the giant who stands at the gate of 
the century and dominates it for several decades. 

Ludwig van Beethoven was born in Bonn in the year 1770, 

as the scion of an old family of musicians. But he came to 

Vienna as a youth, and never left it again for 

Beethoven, any length of time ; the hot summers he 

spent in the immediate surroundings, where 

many a lonely spot has been hallowed by his rambles. He 

only counts his work from 1791, when he came to Vienna for 

good, and thus we may in reason look upon him as an Austrian. 

He was sent to Vienna to study with Mozart, but was 
recalled home at first, so that his real teachers, apart from 
Haydn, whom he left in disgust because of the dear old 
man's too lenient ways, were Schenk, a humorous composer 
of melodious popular operas ; Albrechtsberger, the famous 
theorist ; and Salieri, Mozart's successful rival. 

112 



Music in the Nineteenth Century 113 

Beethoven's patron, the Elector of Cologne, an Austrian 
prince, introduced him to the Vienna aristocracy, and soon 
the young man, though a stout RepubUcan, was hand and 
glove with men like Prince Lichnowski, Count Rasumovski, 
Prince Lobkowitz, and later, with the gifted and generous 
Archduke Rudolf. 

Beethoven was master of several instruments, having learnt 

to play the violin and the hautboy when quite a baby, and 

later, the organ and piano. This latter 

a^Performer^ instrument remained his favourite always, 
and he was the greatest performer of his time. 
His pupil Czerny has preserved his rendering of Bach's 
preludes and fugues, and these notes are an invaluable study 
for the pianist to this day. He was also famous for his 
improvisations, out of which grew some of his finest works, 
such as the " Moonlight Sonata." 

In spite of the patronage of princes and sovereigns — at 
its height in the year 1814, when during the Vienna Congress 
crowned heads literally vied with each other 
Life ^^ honouring the democratic composer — 

Beethoven was never quite free from care. 
Since 1809 he had a pension allowed him by some of his 
patrons, but it was not large and dwindled to next to nothing 
after the bankruptcy year of 1811, and though he had no 
family of his own, he had to provide for a good-for-nothing 
young orphan nephew. Besides these constant pecuniary 
cares which were not borne by Beethoven in the usual light- 
hearted way of genius, the unhappy man grew hard of hearing, 
and eventually stone deaf. His was by nature a melan- 
choly disposition, and when the political reaction set in, and 
the understanding and appreciation of his revolutionary genius 
gradually faded, he became embittered, and spent the last 
years of his life in loneliness and illness, getting release from 
his sufferings in 1827. A small community of faithful friends 
assembled at his grave, and Grillparzer, the dramatist, himself 
a good musician, spoke at the funeral. 

8-(s394) 



114 Austria 

Beethoven's development was a systematic and steady one, 
with none of the fitfubiess so often found in genius. He 
progressed constantly in form and in substance, and his 
grandiose creative imagination, so far from giving out, grew 
more profuse and inventive from year to year. 

He began with pianoforte music, going on to stringed 
quartets, quintets, sextets, and even one septet. The quartets 
were his particular favourites. He wrote 
Mu?ic "^ seventeen of them, but the five last, composed 
when he was deaf, grew out of aU compre- 
hensible rules of harmony, and belong to the most difficult 
and obscure music even to-day. Of his pianoforte sonatas, 
though each is a perfect jewel, the grandest are Opus 3, 
Sonata Pathetique ; Opus 5, Waldsteinsonata ; Opus 57, 
Sonata Appassionata, and Opus 27, the MoonUght Sonata. 
Of his vioUn music perhaps the finest is the Kreutzer Sonata, 
so instinct with passion that Tolstoi, fanatic that he was, 
took exception to it. Beethoven has also written six sonatas- 
for the 'cello, and one for the horn. 

All these works, especially in their merry and sentimental 
parts, contain allusions to folk-songs, of which Beethoven 
was a passionate collector. In many of these scherzos 
we can hear those simple little motives, warm and pulsing 
with life. 

Beethoven's songs — ^he has not written many — are original 
to the last degree. The cycle, " An die feme Geliebte " 
(1816) is probably the best known, if we except 
Songs. " Mignon's Song." 

His instrumental music shows Beethoven 
at the height of his power. As an instrumentalist he has 
achieved effects not nearly reached by the moderns in spite 

c . • of their unscrupulous use of musical and other 

resources. He used the mediums created 

by Mozart and Haydn, and developed them further, 

deepening their substance and completing their structure, 

so that the symphony owes him quite a new Ufe. 



Music in the Nineteenth Century 115 

Of his nine sjonphonies the most famous are the second, 
written in a happy and cheerful mood ; the " Eroica," which 
was originally named after Bonaparte, but stamped upon 
in fury and renamed when Beethoven heard of the misdeeds 
of his hero, particularly the murder of the Due d'Enghien ; 
the merrily rustic " Pastoral Sjmiphony," the first example 
of programme music ; and the last grandiose bequest of the 
deaf master who revelled in spherical harmonies, the ninth 
with the finale on Schiller's " Ode to Joy " {Lied an die 
Freude). 

Though Beethoven is unquestionably the greatest dramatist 
among musicians, he has written but one opera, " FideUo." 
It stands between Mozart's " Magic Flute " 
" Fidelio. ' ' and Wagner's musical dramas, the herald 
of a new time. He has written three over- 
tures for it, and Wagner calls the third of them " the summit 
of dramatic art." Of his smaller dramatic works the music 
for Goethe's " Egmont " is probably the most remarkable. 

In the sphere of church music Beethoven's " Missa 
Solemnis " is the grandest, most passionately religious work 
ever written. Beethoven regarded it as his 
Mus"!" masterpiece. 

Some twenty years after his death his works 
began to be appreciated again, they were played in concerts 
now and then, and at last Billow, Liszt and Wagner knew 
him for what he was and succeeded in making 
taterprltere ^™ popular. To-day Beethoven is the un- 
questioned sovereign of orchestral and chamber 
music. In Vienna his grsmdest interpreters were and are the 
conductors of the famous Philharmonic Concerts, Hans 
Richter, Gustav Mahler, Felix Weingartner, and of the two 
other great orchestral societies, the Gesellschaft der Musik- 
frewnde and the TonkUnstter or Chester, Ferdinand Lowe, Fremz 
Schalk, and Oskar Nedbal. His chamber music is played 
by two remarkable quartets, Ros6 and Prill, And there is 
scarcely any violin or piano concert without Beethoven as the 



116 Austria 

star of the programme. Thus he is more truly aUve to-day 

than in the last years of his hfe in the body, when he had 

no great interpreters at all. 

Beethoven had no very great pupils to follow in his wake, 

but a number of earnest • and sincere musicians remained 

true to the classic principles. Among them 

Classicist are Czerny (1791-1857), whose piano exer- 
Composers after ,■■,), ■,■,-, . 

. Beethoven, cises are still played with great success by 

pupils of all grades, a brilliant performer, 
pupU of Beethoven and teacher of Liszt. Dussek (1761-1812), 
who composed warm and graceful pieces for the piano. 
Hummel (1878-1837), the pupil of Mozart and friend of 
Beethoven, who was a prodigy as a pianist, but unlike many 
such, kept what he promised as a chUd ; his piano concerts 
in the style of Mozart, being elegant and brilliant, are still 
very popular. Moscheles, the jmpil of Salieri and friend of 
Beethoven who has composed^some fine pieces for the piano, 
particularly a much played concert, and exercises for advanced 
pupils. And Diabelli (1781-1858), whose melodious simple 
pieces are well beloved by the young folk to this day. 

There was one man in Vienna then who might have become 
another Beethoven, but he died young, just when he was 

getting near the titan's style — it was Franz 
Schubert. Schubert, the incomparable composer of 

songs, whose Eighth Symphony has some of 
Beethoven's sublimity. 

Schubert was born in 1798 as the son of a poor board-school 
teacher in the Viennese suburb of Lichtental. Like Haydn, 
he entered the Court Choir when a boy of ten. He was 
extremely precocious as a composer, having written church 
music, songs, sonatas, even symphonies and operas before he 
was thirteen. At this time he was also taught by Salieri, 
beside his father and uncle, who were both musical, but in 
spite of his amazing and quite manifest talent, there was 
little chance for him for a long time, and he had to help his 
father in teaching httle boys. At last the well-known tenor 



Music in the Nineteenth Century 117 

Vogl sang his compositions in his concerts, and Schubert began 
to be known. 

He never came into the great world like Beethoven, but he 
grew to be the centre of a famous circle of Bohemians in 
Vienna, partly poets like GrUlparzer and Bauernfeld, partly 
painters like Moritz von Schwind and Kupelwieser. Schubert, 
with his charming, childhke simphcity and sunny disposi- 
tions, was the soul of the merry circle, and countless are the 
pictures that have been drawn and painted, and the stories 
that have been told, of their adventures. Only quite lately, 
in 1912, the famous novelist Bartsch has made him the hero 
of a novel (Schwammerl). Beethoven and Schubert never 
came into personal contact, but Schubert idohsed Beet- 
hoven as a far-off god, and Beethoven was a warm admirer 
of Schubert's songs, in which he recognised the spark of 
genius. 

Schubert died in 1828, leaving hundreds of masterpieces 
behind him — and yet how many more, and of what still 
subhmer quality, could he have written, had he been spared 
to reach at least middle age ! 

Schubert is the most Viennese of the great Austrian com- 
posers ; all his songs were conceived in the Vienna mountains 
and woods, in sight of the green hills, and while drinking the 
young wine grown on them. For Schubert actually composed 
in the garden of the inn, sitting on the mail coach, Ij^ng in 
the grass, or wandering merrily through the wood. The 
songs were carelessly scribbled on the back of an old envelope, 
on a cuff, anjrwhere, as easily as if they were insignificant 
notes. 

Schubert's songs differ essentially from those written 
before his time, the most remarkable progress being that they 
Sones ^^ " composed throughout," the tune run- 

ning not only through one verse, and thus 
having to do for entirely different sentiments, but following 
the poet closely throughout the whole poem. Schubert has 
written about seven hundred songs. It is little short of 



118 Austria 

incredible that one man could find such perfect expression 
for Schiller's grandiose and melancholy " ComplaintT'of the 
Maiden," for Goethe's weirdly suggestive ballad " The Erl 
King," for Miiller's merr^ and sentimental wanderer's songs, 
and scores of others, differing from each other not only in 
substance and sentiment, but in the very essence of thought 
and feeling. His Viennese pliabihty and soft, clinging nature 
did him good service here. A great many of his songs only 
became known years after his death, and a complete edition 
was not pubUshed until late in the nineties of the last century. 
Now they are sung again and again ; in Vienna there is scarcely 
one evening in the season when there is no Schubert on the 
programme of one or the other singer, and a great many 
stars have made Schubert their speciality. Frau Staegemann 
and Meschaert, the world-famous Dutch tenor, for instance, 
have their several Schubert evenings here every year. 

Apart from the songs with pianoforte accompaniment 

Schubert has written beautiful part-songs with orchestra ; 

the most famous are the sublime eight- 

jj^.* voiced " Song of the Spirits above the 

Waters " (Goethe), the four-voiced " Night 

Song in the Forest " and " Miriam's Song of Victory." 

We possess a great many compositions for the pianoforte 

from Schubert's pen also, especially for four hands. In 

concerts — ^and in the drawing-room, too — ^the 

Pieres "Impromptus^' and the "Moments Musi- 

caux " are most popular. These latter, as 

well as the " German Dances " and the ballet music for 

Ch^zy's " Rosamonde," are among his gayest and most 

graceful rhythmic pieces. 

Of Schubert's chamber music we must mention the 

" Trout Quintet," in which the song, " The Trout," is used 

as the central movement, a piece fuU of the 

^Mu^c^"^ gurgling of Uttle mountain streams and the 

glint of the sun on foam and ripples ; and 

the Quartet in D minor with the solemn song, " Death and 



Music in the Nineteenth Century 119 

the Maiden," for the central movement. The novelist 
Otto Ernst has written a beautiful story about this 
quartet. 

Schubert's church music is stiU very popular, but his 

operas are forgotten. His symphonies, particularly the 

second, the seventh and the eighth and last, 

Symphonies, which has remained unfinished, are generally 
appreciated and played frequently. 

Schubert's memory is stUl green in Vienna ; he Uves in every 
heart, but he has left no successors in any sense, much less 
pupUs. After him came the death-in-hfe of Metternich's 
era, and music, art and Uterature alike languished. Par- 
ticularly as regards the world of song, a desert stretches 
between Schubert and the next great composer — Johannes 
Brahms. 

Brahms (1833-1897) was, like Beethoven, an Austrian by 

choice, not by birth, having been born in Hamburg. He 

lived rather restlessly for the first half of his 

Brahms. Ufe, going from town to town, but in 1862 

he came to Vienna — and stayed. Here he 

wrote his grandest work, here he felt at home, and here he 

was fuUy appreciated. The well-known Vienna critic, 

Max Kalbeck, has written a truly monumental biography 

of the master. The grim old bachelor was a well-known 

and weU-beloved figure, and all Vienna mourned him 

as their own when he died, hke Beethoven, stUl in the 

ascendant. 

Brahms was a great admirer of Schumann, who first made 
the young man known, but his work is not Schuniannesque 
in the least. In fact Brahms was rather a successor of 
Beethoven, even of Bach, than of any romantic composer. 
We shall presently speak of his most important compositions, 
the instrumental music. Here we are interested in him chiefly 
as a composer of songs. He has written a good many, all 
characterised by deep feeling, and a certain northern harshness. 
In spite of these qualities — so different from Schubert's 



120 Austria 

Viennese sweetness and pliability — ^which generally do not 
make for popularity, Brahms' songs and part music are amongst 
the most often performed, surely good evidence that even 
in the days of music halls and comic opera, Vienna has still 
preserved its good taste. - 

Another original genius was Hugo Wolf (1860-1903), whose 
songs are now the most popular in the Vienna concerts beside 
Schubert's, but were unknown or laughed at 
Wolf. in his lifetime. He had a stroke of madness 

in him always, and spent the last ten years 
of his life in perfect darkness of mind. His songs are charac- 
terised by boldly original harmonies, and by the independent 
part of the piano, which is not only accompaniment, but quite 
a voice by itself. Amongst his hundreds of songs the com- 
positions of Goethe and Morike poems are the finest. He 
has further composed a choir piece " Feuerreiter," and 
several unfinished operas. 

Mahler, the great conductor and instrumentalist, of whom 
we shall still have occasion to speak, also wrote strangely 
sweet songs, original, sometimes weird in 
Mahler. harmony and structure. 

Besides these composers of serious songs 

Austria has produced a good many popular songsters 

whose merry airs are sung in the street as well as 

in the drawing-room. The most famous 

Koschat. of those is Koschat with his Carinthian 

Quartets, melodious pieces full of fun and 

sentimentahty. 

And this brings us to a characteristically Austrian branch 
of music — the waltz. 

The waltz has its origin in the " Landler," a rustic dance 

popular in the Alps. Schubert had written some charming 

Landler already, but the species was developed 

^^l^ and brought to an undreamed-of popularity 

by the two friends, Lanner and Strauss, and 

by the latter's son. 



Music in the Nineteenth Century 121 

Joseph Lanner (1801-1843), was the conductor of a famous 

band, in which Johann Strauss the Elder (1804-1849) played 

the bass viol. They both composed waltzes 

Lanner. fuU of melody and feeling, instinct with 

grace and sweetness, but they were still 

surpassed by Strauss' son, Johann Strauss the Younger. 

His father had already achieved European fame when he 

left Lanner's orchestra, and travelled all 

^^'and'son*" °^^^ Europe with one of his own, pla3dng 

in Paris and London before crowned heads. 

He became conductor of the Imperial Court Orchestra, and 

his son followed in his shoes. Johann Strauss the Younger's 

work as a composer of musical comedies will be spoken of 

elsewhere, here we must occupy ourselves with the " Waltz 

King," as he used to be called. He has written hundreds of 

waltzes, and each has a new idea to itself, each is full of swing 

and jollity, or of sweet pathos. They are played all over the 

world, in hut and palace, by barrel organs and by pompous 

orchestras, and though one has heard them thousands of 

times, yet they never pall. 

In the latest musical comedies there are some melodious 
waltzes, too, as is only natural ; especially Lehar and Oscar 
Strauss have written some catchy and yet not superficial 
ones. 

From these Ughter strains let us turn to the grand opera, 
at this time under the influence of Romanticism, Weber in 
particular. There are no great Austrian representatives of 
this movement, but some found their second home in Vienna, 
and so may be mentioned here. 

There is the Englishman, Sir Julius Benedict (1804-1885), 

composer of " The Gipsy's Warning " and " The LUy of 

KiUarney." He became director of the 

^O^era""^ Vienna Karnthnertortheatre on Weber's 

recommendation and spent most of his 

life here. 

Then Marschner (1795-1861), Weber's most gifted successor. 



122 Austria 

whose " Hans Heiling " and " Templar and Jewess " still stir 
the pulses of modern audiences with their inspired music, 
lived in Vienna as a young man. 

Gustav Albert Lortzing (1801-1851), that cheerful genius, 
whose natural gaiety no adversity could queU, spent some 
years in Vienna as conductor of the Theater an der Wien, and 
wrote " The Armourer " here. Beside this opera, he has 
written " The Czar and the Carpenter," " The Poacher," and 
" Undine," and their popular humour and sweetly quaint 
melodies have kept them their place on the repertory of all 
the great theatres to this day. Lortzing wrote his own books, 
and very good they are. 

Konradin Kreutzer (1780-1849) came to Vienna in 1822, 
became Beethoven's fast friend and stayed here, with one 
interruption, until his death. He was conductor in the 
Josephstadter Theater, and for this opera-house he wrote 
" The Night Camp of Granada," his greatest work. In 
Vienna he is best known by the music for Raimund's famous 
melodrama " The Spendthrift " {Verschwender). 

Last, but not least, there is Otto Nicolai (1810-1849), the 
composer of the immortal " Wives of Windsor," the finest 
and most graceful German comic opera, excepting Mozart's 
" Figaro." Nicolai was of great importance for Vienna 
by starting the Philharmonic Concerts, an institution 
which has become one of the features of Vienna musical 
life. 

The modern musical drama, as created, or at least perfected, 
by Wagner, found worthy exponents in 

^'^Drama"^^ Austria, though mostly of a more lyrical and 
romantic turn of mind than the master. 

Ignaz Brijll (1846-1905), the famous pianist and teacher, 

wrote several operas, all tuneful and original. The best of 

them, the comic opera " The Golden Cross," 

Briill. which belongs to the standing repertory of all 

German opera houses, is considered to be 

the finest of its kind. 



Music in the Nineteenth Century 123 

Karl Goldmark (born 1830) came out of a Hungarian 
ghetto like Briill, and, like him, left it for Vienna when a 

child. His is an amazingly vivid personality. 
Goldmark. Even now that he is an old man of more than 

eighty, he is still able to take to new roads 
and to siurprise the pubUc again and again, as with " The 
Winter's Tale." His greatest success (in 1875) was " The 
Queen of Sheba." Besides this opera, which is remarkable 
for its Oriental voluptuousness in style and colour, the fairy 
opera " Merlin," the charming " Cricket on the Hearth " 
(after Dickens), and his latest " The Winter's Tale " (after 
Shakespeare), are often played on all the European 
stages. 

Probably the greatest successor of Wagner was Friedrich 
Smetana (1824-1848), the Czech nationalist composer. Like 

Beethoven he grew deaf in his prime, and some 
Smetana. time afterwards his mind gave way also, so 

that he was brought to an asylum. He was 
a pupil and an ardent admirer of Liszt's, whom he surpasses 
in warmth and tenderness. His works acquired European 
fame, but only long after his death — in fact he only became 
known outside Bohemia towards the end of the century. 
To-day his symphonies and chamber music as well as his 
operas with their tender humour, their vigour and tunefulness 
are performed everj^where with the greatest success. The 
best known are " DaUbor " and " The Bartered Bride." 

The St3Tian Wilhelm Kienzl (born 1857), was a well-known 
critic before his pathetic opera " The Christian Beggarman " 

{Der Evangelimann), made him famous all 
Kienzl. over the world. He has since had another 

great success with the opera " Der Kuhreigen " 
(" The Herdsman's Song "), sweetly pathetic like the first, 
with effective dramatic scenes and a very clever use of popular 
motives, such as the well-known Swiss tune which gives 
the piece its title. The story is by the Styrian noveUst 
Bartsch. 



124 Austria 

Bittner, like Kienzl, was a clever writer before he began 
to compose. His opera " The Musician " made quite a stir 
in Vienna, and great things are expected of 
Bittner. him still. 

In Vienna there is a hypermodern move- 
ment in music as in art, the chief exponent for the opera 
being Franz Schreker, a gifted composer, but certainly on the 
wrong track. 

Almost every one of the modern dramatists in music is 

also remarkable as a symphonist. Before we speak of their 

work in this direction, however, we must 

'"^Sc"*^ consider the two great symphonists par 

excellence, Brahms and Bruckner. 

We have already had occasion to speak of Brahms as a 

composer of songs, but his chief greatness lies in his symphonic 

and chamber music. He has written practi- 

Brahms. cally everj^thing except opera, and all his 

work bears the same stamp : it is ruthlessly 

logical, hke Bach's, and, like that old master's, full of melodious 

ideas ; but it has a certain harshness and sublimity absent 

from Bach's sweetly tender and lucid strains, and Brahms' 

construction is more complicated. 

His symphonies and overtures are the greatest since 
Beethoven, his part songs, especially the wonderful ' ' Requiem ' ' 
for soli, choir and orchestra, and the " Song of Fate " for 
choir and orchestra, are amongst the most impressive com- 
positions ever written ; and his chamber music, in spite of 
its great difficulties, is very popular in concerts and with all 
advanced players, be they professionals or amateurs. 

Anton Bruckner, hke Beethoven and Brahms a bachelor 
to his death, Uved (1824-1896) a quiet, retired life until 1884, 
when Nikisch, the great conductor, drew 
Bruckner. his symphonies to light and made him known. 
It is difficult to place Bruckner. He is any- 
thing but romantic, in fact he was often called reactionary, 
and yet he has certainly learned a good deal from Wagner, 



Music in the Nineteenth Century 125 

especially as regards technicalities. Be that as it may, his 
vigorous, vivid music with its touch of the sublime and its 
wonderful instrumentation assure him a place among the 
greatest composers of the century. He has also written 
fine choir pieces, and was an unrivalled organist. 

An excellent contrapuntist Uke Bruckner, but romantic 

through and through, was the Styrian Heinrich von Herzogen- 

berg (1843-1900) who lived in Berlin for the 

Herzogenberg. greater part of his life. His poetical and 

profound part songs as well as his chamber 

music are well hked by the serious public. 

Briill and Goldmark have both written remarkable chamber 

music, and the latter is also the author of a beautiful 

programmatic s5miphony called " A Rustic 

G w"''' k Wedding," as well as of an overture to 

mar . g-j^-g^.g .. pgnthesilea." 

Smetana has. composed a great deal of instrumental music, 

the finest being a monumental programmatic work for 

orchestra, " My Fatherland," in which he 

Smetana. has used Czech popular tunes to great 

advantage. 

Another Czech composer of note is Franz Dvorak (1841- 

1904) ; he has composed melodious and 

Dvorak. rhj^hmical symphonies and string quartets 

that are extremely popular. 

The hero of the moderns in symphonical music is Gustav 

Mahler (1860-1911), the greatest conductor of the century, 

an organising genius under whom the Vienna 

Mahler. opera had its golden age. There is no doubt 

of his genius, but his music is certainly 

bizarre and often obscure. His symphonies demand a good 

deal from the performers as well as from the listeners, but 

his music grows upon you, and very likely a future public 

will understand him perfectly. He has a passionately 

devoted group of admirers in Vienna, and his works are 

comparatively often played here. His greatest successes 



126 Austria 

were the part song "The Lament" {Das klagende Lied), 
with really beautiful and quite lucid parts, and his songs. 

A remarkable phenomenon is a boy composer, Erich 
Wolfgang Korngold, th^ son of a notable critic, who at the 

age of thirteen wrote perfectly mature, 
Korngold. strikingty original music, such as a trio, and 

a pantomime which was performed in the 
Imperial Opera with great success. There is a certain grace 
and humour in his work which have won him the name of 
" the second Mozart," and though this is no doubt an exag- 
geration, still great things may be expected of him. The 
queer long name will probably be one to remember. 



CHAPTER XI 

VIENNA 

The foreigner, on coming to Vienna, is struck by the strange 

attitude of the Viennese as regards their town. It is plain 

that they love it dearly, even passionately — 

The Grumbling ^^^ y^^ ^j^^y continually disapprove, carp, 

scold ; they are never satisfied. 

This is characteristic of the people, but is also 
characteristic of the town. 

Vienna is, indeed, lovable. It is without question the most 
beautiful town of Europe — for Paris, which alone can compare 
with it as regards architectural beauty, has not by far the 
charming surroimdings Vienna is blessed with. It is as fuU 
of art treasures as any other of the great capitals, and it 
makes better use of them than most. Its music is unrivalled. 
Its hterary and theatrical life still holds its own against the 
rivalry of Berlin ; in some respects it is even exemplary. 

All this goes for much, and the indefinable, almost feminine 
charm that lies over it all goes for more. 

And yet, and yet — there is a deplorably definite something 

which mars the charming impression again and again — ^it 

is the slatternly, humdrum, reactionary 

,. .^l^j''.. administration of the place, or to express 

Administration. '^ ' ■ • , 

it negatively, the absence of municipal 

enterprise, of fresh, progressive, truly pubUc spirit. 

We shall content ourselves with naming a few instances 
to illustrate the doings of this erratic, contrary genius loci. 

There is the unsatisfactory traffic, for instance. Vienna 
has unrivalled surroundings, and beautiful pubhc gardens 
with dehghtful cafds and restaurants, where you can have 
your tea or dinner in the open, and, of course, on hot days 
all Vienna rushes to these havens of refuge. Electric trams 
go everywhere, and you should reach the furthest of these 

127 



128 Austria 

places, the " Eisvogel " in the Prater, for instance, in half an 
hour from the city. But can you ? The cars run at inter- 
minable intervals, and when at last, sometimes after seven 
or ten minutes, the longed-for vehicle arrives, it is fuU up, 
of course. So you w&it on. By the time the next car comes 
dozens of people are anxious to get in, and a perfect scrimmage 
ensues, to the detriment of eyes, ribs, feathers and personal 
dignity. 

This is a thing of daily occurrence, especially at the end of 
business hours, and when the theatres open ; and the authori- 
ties cannot be made to see that they must run more cars, 
larger cars, (seats on the roof are unknown so far), and if 
necessary build an underground railway in the city, a, project 
that has been spoken of for years and is no nearer being 
carried out than ten years ago. 

Then the mediaeval way of street cleaning ! In summer, 
when the famous Vienna breezes are merrily chasing clouds 
of dust along the thoroughfares, groups of grave, elderly 
fogies — as a rule, with pipes in their mouths — ^may be 
seen and heard holding animated conversations in a strange 
language (the Viennese dialect is a mystery to many who 
have been born and bred here), and now and then aiding the 
winds in sending a cloud of dust into the air by means of 
their antique brooms. It is true that even Vienna streets 
are sometimes sprinkled, though rarely with a disinfectant, 
but never by any means before they are swept. 

Shall we speak of the horrors caused by the " Mistbauer," 
the man who bears away dust and rubbish in open carts, and 
to whom the dustbins must be brought into the street by the 
servants ? 

Or of the world famous " Hausmeister," the dragon who 
guards every house, who knows all about your income and 
your debts, the illnesses your children have or have not had, 
the characters of your servants — and yourself ; the man to 
whom you must pay an obolus of at least twopence whenever 
you wish to leave your house after ten o'clock at night. For 




Photo by 



Stauda. 



ST. STEPHEN S, VIENNA 



Vienna 129 

you are not allowed to have a latch-key — oh no ! You must 
actually ring the caretaker up, see him or his wife come 
straight out of bed in an attire neither graceful to the eye nor 
particularly decent, and pay him for letting you in or out. 

But enough ! We have fulfilled a disagreeable duty, at 
the same time gratifying the characteristically Viennese 
inclination of grumbhng at oru dear mother town. Now let 
us proceed to sing her praises. 

As has been fully explained in another chapter, Vienna 

has in the reign of the present Emperor and on his initiative, 

experienced the most wonderful architectural 

Ait^itectital development. In addition to this hundreds 

Unrivalled, of parks, gardens, small grass-plots and 

flower beds have been either opened to the 

public or newly created, and the effect of the whole is indeed 

lovely. 

The city proper, though growing more and more a mere 
business quarter, with hideous " modern " buildings, still 
boasts of a good many fine old houses, baroque and empire, 
and some thoroughfares and squares have quite kept their 
dignified old-world appearance, as, for instance, the Freyung 
and Am Hof, two neighbouring flower and fruit markets 
flanked by fine old palaces. 

But the glory of Vienna is the Ringstrasse, a broad street 
planted with fom: rows of trees in the manner of the Paris 
boulevards, and together with the " Kai " (the Danube 
embankment) embracing the city proper. I suppose it is 
the finest street in the world, with its succession of palaces, 
splendid pubUc buildings, and monuments, most of them 
placed to their best advantage in parks or garden plots. 

Altogether there is a profusion of flowers in Vienna — 
wherever there is the least space, as in squares or circuses, 
Uttle beds of them are planted, the windows and balconies 
of private and business houses are decorated with them, and 
even the street lamps are brightly festooned with them during 
seven months of the year. 

9— (S394) 



130 Austria 

The public gardens, of which there are a great many, are 
distinct individualities — not two bear any resemblance to 
each other except as regards one great drawback : the lawn 
must not be stepped on an37where. 

We cannot possibly name them all, so shall content ourselves 
with speaking of a few. 

First of all there is the Prater, something like Hyde Park, 
Richmond, Ascot, Hampstead Heath and Shepherd's Bush 
all roUed into one. It covers an immense 
Prater ^^^^ *° *^^ 'E2st of the town, between the 

Danube Canal and the Danube itself. It is 
really an immense common, densely wooded in parts, in 
others dotted with beautiful groups of trees hundreds of years 
old. There are excellent restaurants and coffee-houses, all 
with large gardens, some of the former famous for their fish 
fresh from the Danube, most of them unpretending, but still 
frequented by the better classes of an evening. There is music 
in all of them, generally a regimental band. It may be men- 
tioned here that the Austrian regimental bands are excellent, 
indeed. It is a joy for the most fastidious to listen to them. 

One part of the Prater (called Nobelprater) is a beautiful, 
well cultivated park in English style, intersected by stately 
chestnut avenues for driving and riding. The finest of those, 
the Hauptallee, has the same function as Rotten Row. It 
also connects the Nobelprater with the Freudenau, the Vienna 
racing ground. There are two fashionable coffee-houses, where 
light refreshments are taken in the open air : one on a terrace 
overlooking a strip of ornamental water (I^onstantinhiigel), 
the other in a delightfully wild and woody bit (Krieau). This 
latter is frequented by the upper ten thousand, who have 
their milk and eggs there after their morning rides, and their 
coffee when driving in the afternoon. It is a good place to 
study the Vienna aristocracy, and, of course, the demi-monde. 

Then there is the famous Wurstelprater, so called after the 
" Wurstel," the Austrian equivalent for Punch. The Wiurstel- 
prater is the delight of the children and of the people, servants 



Vienna 131 

and private soldiers in particular. It consists of several 
long avenues where all kinds of innocent amusements are 
oflEered — a kind of perpetual village fair. Hundreds of booths 
and merry-go-rounds entice the passer-by, all with deafening 
organ music, and with hoarse criers trjdng to outdo each other 
in sentiment, in wit, and in all kinds of antics. In former, 
simpler times, the chief attractions used to be the lady without 
legs, the calf with six legs, the mermaid preserved in spirits, 
the giant lady, the pigmies, the hairy lady, the strong man, 
the diver with his bell. Now there are giant wheels, scenic 
railways, flip-flaps, and above all, moving picture shows, 
to oust these sensations of a still unsophisticated time, and 
the latter are disappearing. Two of them only have pre- 
served their old popularity : the Punch and Judy shows 
before which the happy, eager baby audiences still laugh and 
cry exactly as hundreds of years ago, and the " Watschen- 
mann," a peculiar Viennese invention : it is a measurer of 
muscular force in the guise of a comic figure with a terribly 
swollen cheek, on which the heroes of the suburbs apply theh* 
pimches and boxes, thereby venting their surplus strength on 
this harmless victim and going home satisfied, instead of trying 
to show off before their girls on some human opponent or other. 
This part of the Prater also holds the exhibition grounds, 
the centre of which is the huge round hall called the 
" Rotunde." From the World's Fair in 1873 to the Adria 
Exhibition in 1913 dozens of important shows have been held 
there and have drawn numbers of foreigners to Vienna. In 
winter the Rotunde is often used as a people's theatre, for 
instance, by Reinhardt in his mass productions. In it there 
is room for five thousand spectators. 

The Stadtpark, the Volksgarten and the Schwarzenberg- 
park are probably the finest gardens in the city proper. The 

Volksgarten is quite level and so lacks the 
cSdens^"^ charming effects produced by the undulating 

grounds of the Stadtpark with its beautiful 
lake and stream, or of the terraces in the Schwarzenbergpark 



132 Austria 

with its old, old trees, but is the most central of all and so 
the most frequented. There are fine monuments in all these 
gardens, and the Volksgarten also boasts a small Greek 
temple, the exact reproductiori of the temple of Theseus on 
the Acropolis. It is a great pity that the thousands of 
town-children playing in these pleasure-grounds have not one 
single grass-plot on which to step ; the lawn is rigidly guarded, 
and the babies are forced to play in the dust of the gravel 
paths. There are fashionable coffee-houses and restaurants 
in all the large Vienna parks, the most famous probably 
being that of the Volksgarten, In this respect Vienna com- 
pares altogether most favourably with other great cities, 
where very few restaurants offer the possibiUty of having 
your meals in the open. 

Of the public gardens on the outskirts of the town we can 
only mention Schonbrunn, the Emperor's world-famous 
Court Park. It is an imitation of Versailles, but far prettier 
and less formal, because the site is more advantageous, with 
little undulations and a commanding hill, on which a charming 
temple, the " Gloriette," has been erected. The Emperor 
has thrown open the whole gardens to the public except for 
a small space reserved for himself. Part of them contain 
the grand menagerie, which is also open to the public without 
any fee, and so are the hot-houses, the inunense palm-house 
amongst, them. This Zoo is frequented by thousands of 
children always who are good friends with most of the animals, 
especially with the elephant-babies of whom Vienna is inor- 
dinately proud, as it is the only EuropeEm town which has 
succeeded in breeding them. 

Altogether there are more children to be seen in the Vienna 

public gardens than in London, and the reason is this : The 

Viennese still live in flats like the Parisians, 

Vienna Uves ^gjj -^^^ twenty families in one house — ^without 

a garden. With the growth of the town the 

Enghsh system of one-family-houses with a strip of garden 

has come in, it is true, but so far only the rich, or at least 



Vienna 133 

the well-to-do have been able to indulge in this luxury. At 
present there are two districts in Vienna which look like 
prosperous English suburbs : Hietzing in the South and the 
Wahring Cottage Quarter, as it is called, in the north-west. 
But there is no such thing as the charming London suburbs of 
the lower middle class with their tiny houses and gardens — 
in place of them we have nothing but refined slums. Such 
slmns, more or less, are the districts of Simmering, Ottakring, 
Hernals and Floridsdorf, these being the chief manufacturing 
quarters : straight, gloomy, uninteresting streets with bee- 
hives of houses five stories high, the children plajdng in the 
streets and dodging the trams as dexterously as the sparrows. 
The chief shop districts are the city itself, the Graben and 
Karntnerstrasse having the best and most expensive shops, 

something like Bond Street, and Mariahilf, 
Shopping. where the largest thoroughfare, the Mariahil- 

ferstrasse, may be well compared to Oxford 
Street. The Vienna shops are still specialised and so far 
only one firm has tried the experiment, which has turned out 
very well, of forming itself into a general store after the 
English and American system. 

But on the whole the leisurely way of going from shop to 
shop is more to the taste of the Viennese. They have not 

yet learned to " hustle " in any way ; " Gemiit- 
" ^f ''???J*^'^' lichkeit iiber Alles " is their untranslatable 

device and " Gemiitlichkeit " is perhaps best 
explained by saying that it is the contrary of " hustling." 
The Viennese are, indeed, easy-going in the extreme, even 
casual, the despair of their northern cousins, the Prussians, 
in business deaings. On the other hand they are genial and 
pleasant, courteous and obliging, so that one often forgives 
them their sins. They are also quick and smart, if rather 
careless and slack, and though to do business with them one 
has to look for them in the coffee-houses, one will generally 
find that this loss of time is amply balanced by the way the 
deal is concluded. 



134 Austria 

The coffee-house plays a great part in the life of the Viennese. 

There are few clubs, none to compare with the English, and 

so the coffee-houses take their place for the 

Coffee-'lHouse "len-folk. Besides, they also stand for the 
London teashops and reading-rooms. There 
are upwards of 700 caf6s in Vienna, not counting the smaller 
ones who are only frequented by the lower classes, and they 
are always full in the afternoon and evening. All the Vienna 
papers are kept, in the larger caf^s in the city a great many 
foreign ones also, and so people sit there for hoiurs reading. 
Billiards, cards, check, and dominoes are also played, but 
only by men, while a great many ladies frequent the coffee- 
houses to have their tea, or rather coffee, and read. Most of 
the caf6s have some open-air space to use in summer, and, 
indeed, the Ringstrasse offers much the same aspect as a Paris 
boulevard in this regard ; at every few steps the pavement is 
taken up by the Uttle tables and chairs. Only here the guests 
are shielded from the streets more or less by green ivy walls. 

But apart from its beloved caf6, how does Vienna amuse 

itself ? Chiefly by going to the moving-picture shows, the 

music halls and the musical comedies, exactly 

'^''"''showi''*"''^ hke other capitals, mote's the pity. The 

cinema is the same all the world over, and 

we need only say that where the " dramas " are controlled, 

as it is the case in Vienna to-day, the good it does far exceeds 

the bad. It is the only cheap amusement for the masses, 

and as the proprietors are obliged to have actual photos of 

scenery, etc., in every performance, nilly-willy they are 

educating the people as well as amusing them. Vienna has 

about 150 " Kinos " as they are called here, and all of them 

are doing excellent business. 

The music halls have now become quite international. 

What London is seeing this month is sure to be in Vienna by 

,, . ti „ the next, and vice versa, so no more need be 
Music Halls. . 1 , ' ^, A • J 

said about them. An expensive and even 

more luridly indecent, if a little more literary species of music 



Vienna 135 

halls are the cabarets — though they would be horrified to 
hear us say so. But the best proof for our assertion is 
that music haU and cabaret stars are often interchanged : 
singing or acting now in the former, now in the latter. 

The musical comedy has started on its victorious nm through 
the world from Vienna. So it is well worth looking at more 

closely in this connection. 
^ 0>m"d'''^ It was born in Paris, that is true. But 

Offenbach, its creator, had no great successor 
in France. The man who carried on his work was an Aus- 
trian, though he bears a French name, while, queerly enough, 
the Frenchman was saddled with an " unpronounceable " 
German one. Supp6 (1820-1895) was, indeed, born in 
Spalato, Dalmatia, and though at first quite under Offenbach's 
influence his later works show the spirit of Strauss, especially 
his masterwork " Bocaccio," that graceful and melodious 
musical comedy which is a favourite to this day and will 
probably remain so much longer. 

The man who created a new kind of " Operetta," not 
burlesque or parody, but a refined comedy with sweetly 

sentimental music was Viennese of the 
StaSs Viennese, Johann Strauss the younger, son 

of the famous waltz composer (1825-1899). 
He is a classic in his art, not only inexhaustible in melodies 
and effervescent rhythm, but a refined and ingenious instru- 
mentalist also, which is more than can be said of many a 
modern composer writing for the orchestra or the stage. 
His plays have made their way round the world, two of them 
having become such classics as to be performed even at the 
Vienna Hofoper : " Fledermaus " and " Zigeunerbaron." 

Strauss' imitators have been legion, especially in song and 

dance-loving Austria. Amongst them we may single oat 

MUlocker Millocker (1842-1899), who has written a 

great many melodies if superficial operettas. 
One of them, the " Bettelstudent," has survived its author 
and is likely to have a deservedly long fife before it still. 



136 Austria 

Of the lately successful operetta composers Lehar, the most 
striking and perhaps the most original, is distinctly influenced 
by Strauss. His use of popular motifs, his 
o'°''^tta *^^* composition and his comparative pro- 
Composers, fundity alj point towards that master. After 
his " Merry Widow " he has still had a good 
many successes, but none so undisputed and certainly 
none so deserved as that one. Other popular composers 
of this genre are Oscar Strauss (no relation to the waltz- 
composers' family), Eissler, Ascher, Fall, and Reinhardt, 
all melodious and catchy, but not exactly deep in any 
sense. 

Of late the musical comedy has taken possession of almost 
all the theatres, and it is difficult to say to what this ascen- 
dency is due. Certainly not to the quality 

?h™M'°" °\ °^ ^^^ species, for the majority of the books 
Comedy. have mere apologies for plot, ambiguities 
for dialogue, meaningless jingles for songs, 
and undress scenes for jokes, while the music as often as not 
is a mixture of reminiscences, cacophonies and trivialities. 
Divers reasons are given : That the masses go to the theatres 
more often than formerly and that they prefer light fare ; 
that the strain in the struggle for Hfe has become severer, 
so that people are disinchned for brainwork in the evening — 
they want relaxation merely ; that the people have become 
more musical so that instead of farces they prefer musical 
comedies ; and that the lasciviousness of the modem operetta 
is what attracts them. However that may be — and probably 
aU those reasons together really account for it — ^the fact 
remains, that to-day, when the musical comedy has degener- 
ated into rather a futile thing, a ware manufactured 
simply for gain by experienced but uninspired tradesmen, 
the demand has during the last ten years ousted the recited 
play from three stages in Vienna (the Raimundtheater, which 
was built to play popular drama and comedy, the Lust- 
spieltheater, which was devoted to farce and comedy, and the 



Vienna 137 

Biirgertheater, which was meant to serve the classics and the 
modern drama), and created besides the two old operetta 
stages (the Carl-Theater and Theater an der Wien) a sixth, 
the Johann Strauss-Theater. 

Until a very short time ago, the Vienna theatres all played 
on the repertoire system : that is, there was a change of 
play every evening, and only when a piece 
Theata-e ^^ quite new would it be played two or 
three times a week. A theatre in Vienna is a 
solid unity. The building, the manager, the actors and 
actresses belong together and stick together ; except for the 
summer months, when the theatre is closed and the company 
sometimes goes on tour ; interchanges in this one instance are 
usual. The advantages of this firmly united repertory theatre 
are evident, and Mr. WUham Archer has often pleaded for it 
in England. It is a sensible system from every point of view ; 
from that of the dramatist, because his work is not played to 
death in one season, but is carefully performed for years — ^if 
it is worthy, for decades ; from that of the actors, because they 
are given unlimited opportunities and are not forced to the 
degrading and numbing task of repeating the same parts 
for hundreds of nights running, quite apart from the safety 
and continuity of their position which is uncomparably better 
than that of the EngUsh actors, who are obhged to find new 
berths every few weeks or months ; and, of course, also from 
that of the pubUc, which has a far greater choice of plays and 
sees them much better performed. The only drawback is that 
large fortunes are not made in a few months — as is sometimes 
possible on the EngUsh system. And that is why, so far 
from the sensible continental way being introduced in Eng- 
land, the Enghsh system of " running " a play has come to 
Vienna. It was first tried with the " Merry Widow," with 
what success is well known all over the world, and since then 
the musical comedy has adopted the system for good. Luckily 
the other theatres still hold out, more or less, though one or 
two which play light comedy have already got into the 



138 Austria 

dangerous practice of running only two or three pieces for 
some weeks — a compromise between the two systems. 

Vienna has two theatres for grand opera : the Imperial 

Opera (Hofoperntheater) and the Popular Opera (Volksoper). 

The fortner is well known to be unquestion- 

Ooera ^^^^ ^^^ ^^^^ ^^ ^^^ world, especially as 

regards its orchestra. Formerly the staff 
of singers used to be unique also, but of late the huge 
American fees are luring the artistes across the water and 
their stay with us is generally restricted to a few months of 
the year. At present the Imperial Opera is suffering from 
the want of an able manager ; under Mahler it had its days 
of glory, his successor, Weingartner, already had trouble with 
the staff and lost a good many able singers, and now we have 
a manager who is nothing but a man of business, knows as 
Httle of music as of Vienna, and is simply working havoc in 
the noble institute given into his care by the malinformed 
authorities of the Court. Vienna is in despair at this state 
of things, for the Opera was an object of personal love and 
pride to every child here, and it is only to be hoped that the 
weight of public opinion will soon bring about a change for 
the better in the management. 

The Volksoper is comparatively new, but it has admirably 
filled the gap left by the rather expensive Imperial Opera, 

and is, if not first rate, still an excellent 
Opera-hou^ theatre which has often produced remarkable 

new works refused at the Imperial Opera, 
hke " Quo Vadis ? " by NoogSs, and " Kuhreigen," by 
Kienzl, two of the greatest operatic successes of late years. 

Much the same as was said of the Imperial Opera may 
with justice be applied to the Imperial Theatre (Hofburg- 

theater). It is still considered the first 
^'^TheTtoe!'*' German stage, and it is still the chief ambition 

of every German actor and actress some day 
to become a member of the illustrious company of " k.k. 
Hofschauspieler." But the two last managers, especially 




Photo by " Kilophot," G.m.b.h., Viemm. 

DOORWAY, ST. GEORGSHAUS 



Vienna 139 

Schlenther, the last but one, have had a most unlucky hand, 
both as regards the plays they accepted, and the actors and 
actresses they engaged. Altogether an evil star seems to 
shine over this theatre of late, for it has lost its greatest 
actors within a short time, some of them being stiU compara- 
tively young. To-day those classical performances for which 
the Hofburgtheater has been so famous for long, lack the 
grand manner of former times, and it is only tradition which 
keeps the rather mediocre staff up to the mark at aU. 

In the other Vienna theatres with their different genres 

there is no lack of excellent actors. The " Deutsches Volks- 

theater " is the one coming nearest to the 

Th^^tc Hofburgtheater in its choice of plays ; it 

has a classical evening at least once a week, 

and for the rest plays modern dramas and society plays. 

The " Neue Wiener Biihne " devotes itself to modern plays 
and comedies exclusively, the " Josefstadter Theater " has 
made a speciahty of spicy French plays and farces, the 
" Residenztheater " and the " Lustspieltheater " play farces 
and comedies of aU kinds, and the " New People's Theatre," 
a most promising institution, sees to literary excellence 
in its productions. Their first season's great success was 
Galsworthy's " Strife." 

As regards outside arrangements in the Vienna theatres, it is 
worth mentioning that even the smallest and cheapest are far 
more comfortable than the London ones. There are spacious 
lobbies and refreshment rooms ever5nvhere, the seats are 
broad, and there are plenty of cloak-rooms ; in fact, it is for- 
bidden to take overcoats or cloaks into the theatre. The 
seats are numbered throughout and prices are much more 
various, but there is no " pit " in the EngUsh sense ; the 
seats there are comparatively dear. 

Quite another kind of relaxation has, however, become 
lately the fashion in Vienna and is luring people away from 
the doubtful pleasures of music hall Eind cabaret ; it is 
winter sport. 



140 Austria 

The Viennese have always known how to appreciate their 
lovely surroundings, and mountaineering has been a passion 
with them for a long time. But in winter 
^'ort^ the only sport indulged in was skating, and 
indeed,* every board-school child in Vienna 
is a proficient skater, the winter being hard and long and the 
opportunities for skating excellent. Now that all things 
Scandinavian have become the rage, however, mountaineering 
in winter and ski-ing have come in too, and a blessing they 
prove. The trains going out to the Semmering and other 
country places on a Sunday morning at six are packed with 
joyfully expectant young people, mostly armed with ski 
and knapsack, sure of a day's healthy pleasure in the clear 
frosty mountain air, instead of frousting in the stuffy, smoky, 
coffee-houses and theatres for hours. No other metropolis 
in the world offers the opportunity of climbing 6,000 feet 
without even going away for the week-end — ^twelve or four- 
teen hours are all that is required, so that shop-girls and men 
and poor students can afford it as well as the chUdren of 
the rich. 

And if all is not as it should be in Vienna city at present, 
let us hope that the new generation growing up under the 
influence of snow and mountain air, slim and clean-limbed, 
clear-skinned and clear-sighted, with healthy pleasures and 
clean enjoyments, will some day mend what has been 
marred by fat and red-nosed Philistines, drinking beer in the 
tobacco-laden air of restaurants for their chief amusement. 



HUNGARY 



PREFACE 

Persons with an ambition in the direction of authorship 
sometimes come to Hungary on a hohday visit of a few weeks' 
duration and go home to write a 400 page volume purporting 
to be a reUable account of this country, its people, and all 
that pertains to it. I have lived here for six years, during 
which period I have had abundant opportunity for travel and 
observation. I have frequently enjoyed the hospitality of 
high, middle-class, and low — in palace, mansion, and cottage — 
yet feel diffident to take upon myself the task so lightly taken 
by these tourists, feeling, as I do, how very much there is to 
be learnt about the Magyars and their Fatherland. Like 
a sparkling jewel, emitting rays of different hues as it is turned 
from one point of light to another, this country demands still 
more years of my life ere I can feel competent to render a just 
and accurate estimate of the Hungarians. And as, on nearing 
the top of a hill, new vistas open out before us, and we 
behold more than we at first expected to see, so the more we 
discover of Hungary and the Hungarians, the more we reaUse 
how little we really know about it and them. 

Some foreigners have sought to obtain the good-will of the 
Hungarians by flattering eulogies of them and their land. 
I prefer to regard the Hungarians as.* people too magnani- 
mous to be influenced by such doubtful means ; too great to 
be offended by honest criticism ; and too intelligent to resent 
the telling of a truth when sometimes it happens to be dis- 
agreeable. A book such as this can have no value in the eyes 
of a discriminating reader, and therefore can be of no value 
on the subject of which it treats, unless it bears the stamp of 
the author's sincerity, and, while giving prominence to the 
people's virtues, does not lose sight of their foibles. No 
country is perfect — not even my own beloved England ; so 

143 



144 Preface 

to pretend would be a sign not of intelligence but of stupidity 
— ^why, then, should it be supposed that the aspiring Magyar 
race do not wish to see themselves as others see them ? 

I have endeavoured to approach the task set me in an 
humble spirit, conscious of the dif&culties of the undertaking 
as well as of my own deficiencies. I trust, however, that no 
one — ^in Hungary or out of it — will doubt the honesty of my 
intention to present a faithful portrait of the Hungarian in 
his homeland, or the earnestness with which I have tried to 
arrive at the truth about matters not under my immediate 
cognisance. 

A number of distinguished Hungarian friends have kindly 
assisted me with data, with the loan of interesting historical 
documents, and otherwise. These I thank most cordially, 
regretting my inability for obvious reasons to name them here. 

In dealing Tvith the politics of the country I have tried to be 
fair to all parties, believing them each and all to be actuated 
by a desire to promote their country's welfare ; but if any 
bias be discovered in what I have written thereon, or on any 
other matter, I alone am responsible for it, and do not desire 
that any of my good Hungarian friends should share that 
responsibility. With this declaration I commit this little 
work to the indulgence of the English reading public. 

A. L. DELISLE. 

Hungary. 

I5th August, 1913. 



HUNGARY 



CHAPTER I 

ORIGINS OF THE MAGYARS 

Ancient Pannonia and Dacia, corresponding to present-day 
Hungary, including Transylvania, are thought to have been 
originally peopled by the Cimmerians of the 
Origins. Greek and Latin fables, who lived a life of 
barbaric independence. Their dark valleys, 
on which the sun seldom shone, supplied the early poets, from 
Orpheus to Homer, with their most marvellous and capti- 
vating fictions. The soil was so fertile as to yield all that was 
necessary to human existence without laboiu" ; thus the people 
are said to have passed their time in idleness and sleep. Every 
article was valued in proportion to its power to contribute 
to their ease. Ovid writes of the land as the abode of the god 
of sleep.* 

Such a race could not long maintain themselves in so 
desirable a region. About 640 B.C. a Scythian tribe, driven 
from their homes in the Caucasus by the Massagetae, fied 
westward and entered the land of the Cimmerians. At 
first fugitives, they soon became conquerors, expelling the 
aborigines and occupying their rich valleys. 

These Scythians were probably not of that royal race 
whose exploits fill so large a place in ancient history, but 
rather the conquered subjects of that higher family : and it 
is supposable that their expulsion was the result of an 
insurrection. 

On taking possession of their conquest, they remained a 

1 Qdyssey, Lib. XI. 

14S 

10— (2394; 



146 Hungary 

long time the barbarians they had been before. They had 
no towns nor fortified places : they resided not in houses, 
but 'in covered wagons drawn by oxen. They were particu- 
larly fond of horses, which ranged in immense herds, ready 
for the demands of war. Bordering, however, on the terri- 
tories of ancient Thrace, which, according to Orpheus, was 
civiUsed, they subsequently borrowed from that country 
many of the arts of social life, and finally settled down to 
cultivate and enjoy the exuberant fertility of the land of 
their adoption. Herodotus says that the Scythians were 
opposed to the introduction of foreign customs. He divides 
them into two classes — ^those who ploughed and those who 
did not.^ 

About the middle of the first century after Christ, the 
Scythians were conquered by the Sarmatians, who, according 
to Herodotus, were the natural descendants of the Amazons. 
In the geographical works of Ptolemy these Sarmatians are 
called Metanastce, or wanderers ; by the Roman writers they 
are generally styled Jazyges, of whom there were three dis- 
tinct families : (1) the M motes, who retained their native 
seat, north of what is now the sea of Azof, the Cossack country ; 
(2) the Basilii, who occupied the greater part of European 
Sarmatia, of which the present Russian Empire is principally 
composed, and (3) the third, whose name has not come down 
to us, who poured down into the plains and valleys of their 
Scythian neighbours and subdued them. 

The territory these last acquired extended no further 
westward than the river Tisza (the Tihiscus of the Romans), 
beyond which was Pannonia, inhabited by a Celtic tribe. 
Scythia was first styled Dacia by Ptolemy, to distinguish it 
from Asiatic Scythia, with which it was connected on the 
East. Pannonia at this period was a Roman province, 
having been subdued by Tiberius in the reign of Caesar 
Augustus. The Sarmatians, flushed with their recent vic- 
tories, pushed towards the Roman camps, but were repulsed 

> Lib. IV. c. 76. 



Origins of the Magyars 147 

with great slaughter. They made also several hostile incur- 
sions into the provinces Is^ng south of the Danube, where 
they were again met by the Roman legion and driven home. 
Though beaten by the superior discipUne of the Imperial 
soldiers, they were by no means discouraged and continued 
their depredations till the days of Trajan. They compelled 
Domitian, the persecutor of the Christians, to pay them an 
annual tribute to keep quiet. 

Trajan, whose miUtary abilities have been immortalised 
by PUny, could not brook such an insult to the throne when he 
came to occupy it. In a five years' war he employed all the 
resources at his command in canying out his great design of 
making a final subjugation of the fierce Dacians, i.e., the 
Sarmatians inhabiting the land of Dacia. He threw an 
immense bridge over the Danube and marched an invincible 
army against Decebalus, their king. A terrible battle 
ensued, in which so many wounds were inflicted on the Romans 
that there was not hnen enough in the camp to bind them up. 
Decebalus, however, at last yielded. His chief stronghold 
and palace was destroyed, his army cut to pieces, and he — 
glad to save himself and his subjects from utter annihilation — 
consented to resign the royal dignity : whereupon Dacia, at the 
beginning of the second century, was made a Roman province. 

During the century and half that followed, the Roman 
Emperors spent large sums of money on their new possession, 
in order to make it a safe bulwark against other barbarians 
to the north and east. Towers and cities were built and 
colonies founded. Roads were made and bridges erected 
in so substantial a manner that the remains of them may be 
seen in Hungary at the present day. 

At the middle of the third century arose a new race of 

barbarians, who cast lustful eyes on this naturally beautiful 

country which Roman civihsation had carried 

of «ie'^°(Sthf. *° ^ st^ ^ig^^^ Pitc^ of splendour. These 

were the Goths, who inhabited the vast plains 

of the Vistula and the shores of the Baltic. Leaving their 



148 Hungary 

cold and bleak fatherland, they fixed their temporary habita- 
tions on the northern slopes of the Carpathians. Not venturing 
to attack the Roman garrisons, they poured down upon 
the less protected region^ of Thrace and Macedonia : but 
sweeping backward they entered Dacia with resistless daring, 
drove the Roman legions from their positions at Ulpia Trajani, 
the provincial capital, and held the country against all opposi- 
tion. The Emperor Aurelian concluded a treaty with them, 
relinquishing to them the whole of Dacia, but demolishing 
the famous bridge erected by his predecessor that the bar- 
barians might be the more easily confined to their acknowledged 
limits. 

The reign of the Goths was of brief duration. After a 
century and a quarter on the soil of Dacia, enervated by the 
easy blessings they enjoyed, they became a prey to another 
nation of barbarians from the snowy steppes of Sogdiana, 
between the Ural and the Caspian. These — having conquered 
the Alani in their course, and thus swelled their numbers 
— crushed through the defiles of the Carpathians, The Gothic 
population, taken by surprise, was put to flight, and the 
victors took possession of their homes. These were the 
Huns under their famous leader, AttUa : and thus was settled 
the name of Hungary as a geographical expression. 

Towards the close of the ninth century, when the Huns 
had held undisputed possession of their conquest for more 
than five hundred years, their kindred of 
The Huns, the Caspian, who, during their residence in 
their new country had taken the name of 
Magyars, came and settled on the confines of Dacia and 
Pannonia. They came in reality to the country of their 
brethren, but knew it not. During the five centuries the 
Huns had undergone many misfortunes which had broken 
their power and spirit, so that they were scarcely to be recog- 
nised as the conquerors of the Goths. The want of genius in 
the Huns, after the death of the great Attila was the principal 
cause of their disasters. With their sharp swords they had 



Origins of the Magyars 149 

carved out an empire, but with their swords they could not 
make just laws, nor raise up a civilisation by which their power 
could be consolidated. Hence their decay was almost as 
rapid as their success. 

When the Magyars came, they found a mixed race of 

people made up of unknown tribes who came out to dispute 

the advance of the invading hosts. The 

j^'^'^Ij.^ contest was of short diuation. After the 

first few battles, in which the name of Magyar 

had been rendered synonymous with every martial virtue, 

the fighting practically ceased. The Huns, Goths, Sarmatians, 

and the unknown population, now all massed together under 

the collective appellation of Slavs, fled in wild disorder. 

Some escaped into Italy, others into Germany and France. 

The greater part, however, fled to the surrounding hflls, while 

the invaders settled in the fertile plains. 

But the Magyars were not yet content. Leaving a sufficient 
number to guard their new home, they despatched large 
bodies to north, west and south, to complete their circle of 
victories. Everjnvhere their efforts were crowned with the 
most remarkable success. With a daring never siurpassed 
and seldom equalled, they penetrated to the most densely 
populated regions, crossed the confines of Germany, into 
Italy and France, their progress being stayed only at the base 
of some absolutely impassable moimtain range or on the 
shore of some unknown sea. Thus, with their centre on the 
fertile plains of Hungary they overran all Northern and 
Southern Europe from the Adriatic to the Baltic in an 
incredibly short time. 

A thousand years have rolled away since the Magyars 
crossed the Carpathians into the land then called Pannonia. 
At Pusztaszer, on the banks of the Tisza, may still be seen a 
hill, beneath which thousands of skulls he buried. From 
the summit of this hill it was that the Magyars proclaimed 
themselves a nation, with Arpad as their prince ; and the 
skulls are the remains of the unhappy Huns, Avars, and 



150 Hungary 

others, who fell in the futile struggle to stem the tide of 
invasion. 

There are several theories as to the origin of the Magyars 
— ^the Hungarians of to-day. I shall, however, give only that 
of Professor Arminius VaAbdry, since his seems to me to be 
the least open to criticism and therefore most probably the 
correct one. 

According, then, to the learned OrientaUst, the Magyars 
are of Turko-Tartar origin, mixed with the Finn-Ugrian branch 
of the Ural-Altaic family, descendants of the Huns, with whom 
they came in contact, as we have aheady seen. 

The other theories, though differing, all point to one 
undisputed fact : that the Magyars originally came from 
Central Asia. The Hungarian language is itself a hving 
witness of this, abounding as it does in words that have no 
affinity whatever with the languages of Europe, while strongly 
resembling their equivalents in various oriental tongues. 

There is an interesting legend, well known in Hungary, 
according to which Nimrod, after the confusion of tongues 
at the Tower of Babel, migrated to the land of Havila, where 
his wife bore him two sons, Hunyor and Magyar. As these, 
grown up to young manhood, were one day hunting in the 
Caucasus, in pursuit of a stag, they were led into a delightful 
country, a veritable land overflowing with milk and honey. 
Returning to their father with their report, they obtained his 
consent to their setthng with their flocks in this delightful 
land ; and in course of time married the beautiful daughters 
of Dula, Prince of the Olans. From these unions sprang the 
kindred races of Huns and Magyars, which both grew into 
mighty nations. 

Finding the territory they occupied too small to contain 
them, they made a reconnaisance of the surrounding countries, 
drove out the inhabitants and took possession. The tribe 
of Hunyor occupied the region north of the Volga, while the 
tribe of Magyar settled on the left bank of the river Don. 

Twenty-two generations later came an exodus of the Huns, 



Origins of the Magyars 151 

the Magyars continuing to dwell peacefully on the spot they 
had made their home. 

The exploits of the Huns under Attila, the " Scourge of 
God," need not be recounted here. Sufi&ce it to say that 
though they carried their victorious army over a great part 
of Europe, their empire was destined to be of but brief duration. 

After Attila's death, his two sons, Aladar and Csaba, had 
recourse to arms to decide the question of succession. Aladir 
perished, and Csaba with dif&culty escaped the destroying 
fury of the neighbouring nations. With a handful of followers 
he reached the land of the Hellenes. There some of his 
Httle band, deserting their leader, went to Transylvania, so 
called as it was then a region of primeval, trackless forest. 
Csaba, whose mother had been a Grecian princess, was 
welcomed by the Emperor Marcianus, at whose court he 
remained for some years until he returned to his ancestral 
home by the Don. To the day of his death he urged upon 
his people the duty of invading Pannonia and reconquering 
the empire won by his father, Attila. 

Several fenturies later a woman who dwelt in the Ural 
region bore a son, of whom it was prophesied that he should 
fulfil the living and dying wish of Prince Csaba and reconquer 
Eastern Europe. The child was named Almos (dreamy), 
and at the early age of twelve years he was placed at the head 
of the massed tribes, whom he led on an offensive expedition. 
They crossed the Don and the Volga, entered Pannonia 
(territory nearly identical with present-day Hungary) and, 
overcoming the inhabitants after fierce fighting, occupied it. 

Years elapsed, Almos married and had a son, Arpid, the 
constitutional chief of Hungary and founder of a princely 
dynasty bearing his name. 

During Arp4d's reign, war being waged against a tribe 
inhabiting the forests and mountain fastnesses of Transyl- 
vania, the Hungarians made the joyful discovery that they 
and their enemies were blood-relations. Peace was accord- 
ingly restored amid great rejoicing on both sides, and 



152 Hungary 

a solemn alliance of friendship was concluded between 
them.i 

The Greek Emperor, Leo the Wise, has left to posterity 
a graphic sketch of the Hungarians at this period. He says, 

" They are from their childhood horsemen. 
the Wise They do not like to walk. On their shoulder 

they carry long lances and spears — ^in their 
hands the bow : they use these weapons very skilfully. 
Their breasts and the breasts of their horses are protected 
by shields of iron or hides. Accustomed to fight with the 
arrow and the bow, they do not willingly come to close 
quarters, but prefer to do battle from a distance. They 
attend carefully to everything that concerns them, but keep 
their intentions secret. They place numerous watches round 
their camp, on which account it is difficult to surprise them. 
In battle they divide their armies into small companies, each 
containing about a thousand men, to which they give positions 
not far distant from each other. They have also a reserve 
corps, with which, if not brought into action, they lay snares 
for the enemy, or give needful succour to jdelding or thinned 
battalions. Their baggage they leave a mile or two in the 
rear of the army under the protection of a detachment. Their 
principal care is not to extend their lines too much : their 
single battalions are consequently deep, their front straight 
and dense. Their snares are laid by spreading their wings, 
thus encircling the enemy, or by feigned retreats and quick 
returns. If the enemy flee, they pursue as long as their horses 
can keep up the pursuit, or until they have annihilated him. 
If the flying enemy retreat into a fortress they endeavour to 
prevent succour being sent him, and thus compel him 
eventually to surrender." * 

When not at war the Hungarians spent their time fishing 
and hunting and pasturing their cattle. With agriculture 
they, at this time, had no acquaintance, and knew only 

* Magyarorszdg & Nipei, Felbermann. 
' Tact. cap. ii, Leo Sap. 



Origins of the Magyars 153 

sufficient of the mechanical art to make their weapons and 
their clothing.^ 

Arpad, it may be observed, was the Joshua of the Magyars. 
He it was who led them forth into the Pannonian Canaan. 
Here, however, they were by no means content to rest on their 
laurels. Nearly the whole period of the reign of the Arpad 
dynasty is characterised by warlike incursions into neigh- 
bouring countries. Penetrating even to the Atlantic seaboard, 
the Magyars terrorised Western Europe until their power 
was broken by the Emperor Otto in 955 a.d. in the valley 
of the Lech. 

This overwhelming defeat of the Magyars was a blessing 
in disguise, in that it woke them to a consciousness of the 
advantages of the civilisation of the West. Then, too, the 
Christian religion obtained a footing among them, G6za, the 
last of their rulers to bear the title of prince, allowing his 
son Vajk to receive baptism and the Christian name of 
Stephen. This boy in due time became the first king and 
the first Christian monarch of Hungary. 

' Geschichte der Ungarn, Horvath. 



CHAPTER II 

CHRISTIAN HUNGARY 

Stephen was crowned in 1001 a.d. with a crown specially 

presented for the occasion by Pope Silvester II, the Roman 

Pontiff at the same time conferring upon 

^Croi^°'^ his protege the title of Apostolic King (Rex 
Apostolicus). This crown (called " The Holy 
Crown of Hungary "), plays, even to-day, an important role in 
the coronation ceremony. By law every Hungarian sovereign 
is bound to be crowned with it within six months of his acces- 
sion to the throne. According to legend, this crown was 
originally intended for Boleslav of Poland, but Pope Silvester 
was visited by an angel who directed him to send it instead 
to Stephen of Hungary. To prove his gratitude for this 
signal mark of pontifical favour. King Stephen became very 
zealous in building churches and monasteries, and organising 
the Government of his realm according to the model of the 
Christian states around him. He married Gisela, a Bavarian 
princess, who added her enthusiasm to that of her husband 
in the labour of Christianising and enhghtening the nation. 

In 1083 Stephen was canonised for his zeal for the Church 
by Pope Gregory the Seventh (Hildebrand). This year 
marks the beginning of a period of severe trial for Hungary, 
The German Emperors, particularly Henry III, attempted 
to reduce the land to the status of a fief Their repeated 
efforts, however, proved vain, and in 1055 they were forced 
to conclude peace. 

When the royal power had become consolidated, after the 
days of St. Ladislas, who continued the good work of St. 
Stephen, the country gained in territory by the addition of 
Croatia, Dalmatia and Bosnia. Ladislas, though an ardent 
son of the Church, defended his dominions against Papal 

154 




Photographed for this work by Mr., Ndndor Szabo. 

STATUE OF THE SAINT-KING STEPHEN, BUDAPEST 



Christian Hungary 155 

intrigue. He is also remembered for having inaugurated 
many useful laws. 

Djing in 1114 he was succeeded by Stephen II, who lost 
the greater part of Dalmatia in the war with the Venetians. 
The greatest disorder prevailed for several decades, and the 
country was practically reduced to a vassal state of the 
Byzantine Empire. 

In 1173, in the reign of King B61a IV, it regained its inde- 
pendence, only to fall again in 1241 when the devastating 
Tartar hordes of Khan Batu, numbering a 
Ii^ders million and a half, annihilated the Hungarians 
in the battle of Moh, destroying the churches, 
monasteries, villages and towns, and laying waste entire 
districts. At this time the Hungarian leaders were engaged 
in strife with each other, and the King was left destitute of 
fighting men. Being informed of the approach of this 
terrible enemy, he summoned his nobles, despatched envoys 
to various neighbouring monarchs for assistance, and 
charged the small force at his disposal with the duty of 
defending the frontier. But, alas I the envoys returned 
without a single promise of assistance. The King, in despair, 
implored his magnates to cease their private quarrels and 
rally round him to save the country. Now Hedervary, the 
palatine, appeared before the sovereign and said, " Sire, we 
are lost. The Tartars have broken up our forces, and will 
soon be upon us." On hearing this the assembly was seized 
with consternation : the King, however, retained his calmness 
and calling Michael Vanisa delivered to him the crown pf St. 
Stephen, solemnly charging him to take it and the national 
treasures safely out of the country. Then, drawing his sword, 
the intrepid monarch cried : " The fate of our nation is in 
the han(k of the Almighty, but its honour is in mine. Let 
those who will die gloriously for their country, follow me ; 
let those who will Uve in disgrace, remain." 

In a moment the wavering comrage of thousands was re- 
newed, and a mighty shout rent the air : " We will follow 



156 Hungary 

wherever you may lead us. Eljen a Kirdly I Eljen a haza I " 
But all in vain, the little force of 6,000 Hungarians was 
opposed by more than 1,000,000 Tartars. Magyar bravery 
could avail nothing against such enormous odds, and the sun 
set on that eventful 'day over a scene of blood and ruin. 
The Tartars overran Hungary, Servia, and Bulgaria until 
they could find nothing more to destroy or kill : then Khan 
Batu ordered his troops back to Asia. 

A generation later the nation had shaken off the effects of 
this terrible disaster, and Ladislas IV, in 1278, could even 
help Rudolf of Habsburg, at the battle of Marchfeld, to save 
Austria from the threatened invasion of Ottocar, King of 
Bohemia. 

With the death of Ladislas' successor, Andrew III, in 1301, 
the House of Arpid became extinct, and the right of electing 
another King reverted to the nation. There were many 
claimants and candidates for the throne, besides which the 
country was split up into factions. One party 'accepted 
Charles Robert of Anjou and made him King ; another 
elected Wenceslas, son of the King of Bohemia ; while a 
third crowned Otto of Bavaria. Each of these princes ruled 
in turn, until in their quarrels the crown of St. Stephen fell 
into the hands of Ladislas Apor, Voivode of Transylvania. 

With a view to recovering the lost emblem of sovereignty 
Otto offered to marry the Voivode's daughter ; and he was 
invited to the Transylvanian Court for that purpose, but he 
got neither the princess nor the crown ; Apor consigned the 
luckless Otto to one of his deepest dungeons instead. 

When Charles Robert of Anjou was, in 1309, crowned for 

the fourth time King of Hungary, he had many difficulties 

to contend with in restoring internal peace 

^An^ou*** and bringing the recalcitrant nobles to 

reason. He developed the mining industries 

of the country and raised the commerce to a condition of 

prosperity never before known. He introduced Italian pomp 

and splendour into his palace at Sz6kesfeh6rvar and his 



Christian Hungary 157 

castle at Visegrid, making his Court the first in Europe, 
copied by his brother sovereigns. At Visegrdd the destinies 
of nations were often decided : and Charles Robert was at 
once King of Hungary, Naples and Poland, though the two 
latter titles were little more than nominal. 

During the reign of his son, Louis the Great, Hungarian 
dominion extended from the Black Sea to the Baltic, and the 
brilliant campaigns in Naples paved the way for the " golden 
age " of chivahry in Hungary. His Court, like that of his 
father, was the centre of European culture and elegance. 
He encouraged the arts and industries and improved the 
general condition of the country. Leaving no male issue, his 
daughter Mary's husband, Sigismimd, grandson of the Emperor 
of Germany, became King of Hungary in 1395. 

Sigismund proved but an indifferent ruler. He was soon 
called upon to face the Turkish hosts under Sultan Bajazet. 
At the first encounter the Turks were defeated, but as the 
Hungarian forces were but 10,000 against 200,000 they were 
finally borne down by overwhelming numbers. This was the 
beginning of a long war. 

Belgrade having been ceded by treaty to Hungary, a 
soldier named John Hunyady was sent there as governor 
of the fortress. This was the rising of a new 
HunvadT ®*^ ^ *^® historical firmament. Concerning 
his origin, tradition has it that Sigismund, 
who, besides being King of Hungary, was Emperor of Germany 
and Rome, had an amatory adventure with a beautiful 
Wallachian girl, Elizabeth Marsinai. Maintaining his incognito, 
he gave her a ring and left her, with the parting assurance 
that if, when her child was born, she should take the ring to 
the King in Buda both she and the infant would be treated 
with kindness. Some years afterwards the woman with her 
little son, accompanied by her brother, set out on foot to the 
distant capital. During the journey the mother, overcome 
with fatigue, fell asleep under the shade of a tree. The 
child, in the meantime, toyed with the ring, which hung by 



158 Hungary 

a slender cord from his neck. Finally, a mischievous jack- 
daw swooped down upon the ring and flew off with it. The 
screams of the infant woke the woman, who was seized with 
despair at seeing herself deprived of her passport to royal 
favour. But Elizabeth's brother soon brought the bird down 
by a clever shot from his bow. Thus to their great delight 
the ring was recovered, and the King's joy when he heard 
the story was unfeigned. He acknowledged the boy as his 
son, bestowed on him the name of Hunyady, ^ and presented 
him with the town of Hunyad and sixty villages besides. 
The surname Corvinus * and the armorial bearings of 
a crow and a ring were later assumed to commemorate 
the event recorded. Elizabeth's birthplace, the village 
of Szonakos, was by royal decree exempted from taxes 
in perpetuity. 

The child John was destined to be a great hero. At 
the battle of Nicapolis he destroyed the whole Turkish 
force of 80,000 men. Later he drove out Sultan Murad, 
and subsequently, with an army of 24,000 men only, 
defeated him in his attack upon Belgrade with 130,000 
men. 

The King dying at this time, was succeeded by his nephew 
Albert, in 1437, who reigned but for two short years. His 
widow had consented to re-marry with Ladislas, King of 
Poland ; but giving birth to a posthumous son, she revoked 
her promise Ladislas thereupon declared war against her, 
and the Queen took her child and her crown and placed both 
in the care of the German Emperor. 

Subsequently she sold the crown and certain territory to 
the German Emperor, and with the proceeds hired Bohemian 
brigands against Ladislas. These wretches plundered the 
country and committed innumerable excesses. As for the 
German Emperor, he kept the crown and the rightful heir 
thereto into the bargain. 

• Of Hunyad. 

• Jackdaw or crow. 



Christian Hungary 159 

Meantime the Turks invaded Transylvania and Hunyady 

marched against them, inflicting upon them, after a fearful 

struggle, a crushing defeat. Sultan Murad II, 

^«!?TurS* enraged at the loss of his Vizier, Mezet Bey, 
in this battle, swore revenge and despatched 
Abdin Shah with 80,000 reinforcements. Hunyady was 
prepared. With their respective battle cries of " Jesus I " 
and " Allak-il-Allah ! " the Christian and the Moslem foemen 
met in a terrible mel6e. A hand-to-hand struggle soon 
ensued, in which the Hungarians proved victorious and put 
the Turks to flight. The Sultan himself then came on the 
scene with an enormous army, but was put to rout by Hunyady 
with only 12,000 horsemen. The victor then pushed on and 
captured Nisch and Sofia. 

Murad took alarm. AssembUng every available man and 
forming an alliance with Ladislas, King of Poland, the com- 
bined forces attacked the Hungarians, the battle raging 
throughout a day and a night. This encounter resulted 
in a further defeat for the Turks, Hussein Bey, the Commander- 
in-Chief, being taken prisoner. Hunyady returned to Buda 
with thirteen captive Pashas and more than fifty Tiurkish 
standards as trophies of victory ; while the Turks fled back 
to their own country. 

Hunyady's fame spread over the civiUsed world, and 
martially disposed mothers — of which in those stirring times 
there were many — ^taught their infants to hsp the name of 
the great hero. 

As this is not a history of Hungary but merely an historical 
survey, many events of the reign of King Ladislas, who 
succeeded Sigismund, must be passed over. 

The war with the Turks was renewed, at the instigation 
of Pope Eugenius IV, though a truce for ten years had been 
declared. The result of this breach of faith was the crushing 
defeat of the Hungarians at the battle of Varna (10th Novem- 
ber, 1444), in which both the King of Hungary and the Papal 
Legate were slain. 



160 Hungary 

John Hunyady escaped, and returning home was appointed 
Regent of the kingdom during the minority of Lau' 1, 3 V. 

A further period of sanguinary warfare, lasting lor more 
than eight years, in which the tide of victory alternated 
between the Magyars and the Moslems — ^the latter always 
managing to retain their hold on the country — culminated 
in the decisive defeat of the Hungarians at Mohacs on 
19th August, 1526, when King Louis II (St. Louis) and the 
flower of the Hungarian chivalry perished. 

We must not omit, however, to tell briefly the story of the 
preceding King Matthias, son of the renowned John Hunyady. 
After the death of King Ladislas in 1458, 
MatthUis Matthias ascended the throne, which he 
worthily filled for thirty-two years. In all 
respects a child of the Renaissance, he was a lover of books 
and an admirer of scholars. He founded the most famous 
library of his day in Buda and surrounded himself with the 
most learned men Eiurope could produce. As warrior, he 
kept the Bohemians in check, put a stop to the Turkish con- 
quests for the time being, restored order in Croatia, overcame 
Austria, and took possession of Vienna, and promptly sup- 
pressed a self-styled " King " of Transylvania, whom he, 
however, made Voivode ; while as a statesman, too, he 
restrained the turbulent nobles, and, in the making of laws, 
was guided by wise moderation and love of justice. 

There was one grave flaw in his otherwise faultless states- 
manship, however, as though to exempUfy the axiom that 
no man is perfect. Matthias reigned for five years without 
being crowned, the reason for this being that the German 
Emperor, Frederick, had the crown of St. Stephen in his 
possession and refused to give it up. King Matthias — 
unfortunately for Hungary, as later history proved — induced 
him to part with the crown for a large sum of money, certain 
forts, and an agreement that he — the German Emperor — or his 
successor should appoint the next King of Hungary, in the event 
of the family of Matthias becoming extinct. 




Photo by Pieizner. 

THE ARCHDUKE FRANZ FERDINAND OF AUSTRIA 



Christian Hungary 161 

Matthias paid great attention to the welfare of his people. 
He established the first printing press in Hungary, built many 
schools, and founded the first University. He gave equal 
rights to everybody, even appointing a member of the des- 
pised Jewish race to be minister of the Royal household. 
No wonder, then, that he was almost worshipped by his 
subjects, and when he passed away they sincerely mourned 
the loss of a friend and benefactor. " Matthias is dead» and 
justice has died ^yith him," they said, and this saying is 
sometimes heard from the lips of Magyars to-day. 

The fatal consequences of King Matthias's agreement with 
the German Emperor began to be seen after the disaster of 
Mohacs. From this period Hungary came under the sway 
of the House of Austria. ^ The nation fretted for a national 
king, such as the glorious Matthias had been. Accordingly 
John Szapolya, a wealthy Hungarian magnate, was elected 
to the throne by a powerful party, while another party, also 
powerful, gathered round the Habsbrurg prince, Ferdinand H, 
husband of the daughter of Ladislas. Although the latter's 
appointment was influenced to a great extent by the personal 
interests of certain individuals, as well as by the agreement 
of King Matthias referred to, the decisive point was the con- 
viction, perfectly justifiable, that the country would derive 
far more advantage from the rule of a monarch who could 
bring the wealth and military power of his own dominions 
to the aid of Hungary. Unfortunately, however, the high 
hopes entertained were not realised. 

, Owing to the lack of unity of purpose among the people, 
Hungary soon found herself divided into three parts. In 
the west the House of Habsburg, represented by Ferdinand, 
was in possession ; and the east a national principaUty with 
Transylvania as its centre ; between these two the Turk 
with his capital at Buda. 

The bleeding divisions of the country were for a centxiry 
and a half the scene of continual warfare and devastation. 

' At that period also Emperors of Germany. 

II— (2394) , 



162 Hungary 

At intervals large armies advanced from Germany and the 
Austrian provinces against the Turks ; but beyond robbing 
the unfortunate country they did practically nothing. Even 
at the time when Nicholas Zrinyi with a few thousand men 
held an ordinary earthVork and died a patriot's death, an 
enormous army was lying inactive at Gyor under the command 
of the Emperor-King Maximihan, which might with ease 
have taken the field against the Turkish forces. ^ 

When Ferdinand I was elected King of Hungary he was 
lord of Bohemia and the Austrian provinces only, but after 
the death of Charles V he obtained also the crown of the 
Holy Roman Empire, and his successors, without exception, 
were chosen to be rulers of the German Empire. This had 
an effect on the relations between the monarchs and Hungary. 
Even had this country maintained its ancient territory and 
power unimpaired, it would, to a certain extent, have been 
thrown into the background by the policy of a dynasty which 
at the same time sat on the throne of a mighty empire sur- 
rounded with the almost saintly halo of traditions. StLQ less 
was the importance attached to that little tract of land, all 
that remained of the Hungarian kingdom in the hands of the 
Habsburgs. Thus we cannot be surprised that the Habs- 
burgs looked upon their Hungarian possession as nothing 
more or less than a glacis acting as an impediment to the 
onslaught of the Turks ; and it was their constant endeavour 
to incorporate it in their empire. But it was quite as natural 
that the Hungarian nation, jealous of its hberties, clung 
obstinately to its ancient constitution, a fact that led to 
bloody conflicts between the nation and the raUng dynasty. 
The antagonism was accentuated by the fact that the monarchs, 
as patrons of the Catholic faith, used every violence to 
eradicate the Protestant religion that had so firm a hold on 
the country ; and national resistance was rendered still more 
passionate and fierce by the grievances of the persecuted 
Protestants. 

' Julius de Vargha : Hungary — a sketch, etc. 



Christian Hungary 163 

In the struggle that ensued, an important part was played 

by Transylvania, which had developed into an independent 

principality. Her distinguished princes, 

Transylvania. Bocskay, Bethlen, and George Rakoczi I on 
more than one occasion gave assistance 
to the Hungarians. By the Peace of Vienna, as well as 
by those of Nicolsburg and Linz, they secured hberty of 
conscience and the maintenance of the Hungarian constitu- 
tion unimpaired, without, however, an unbroken continuity 
of peace and quiet. Out of gratitude to the reigning dynasty, 
by whose aid they had succeeded in throwing off the Turkish 
yoke, the Hungarians agreed to the annulment of the final 
clause of the Golden Bull (Bulla Aurea) of Andrew III which 
had sanctioned the use of armed forces against the Kings 
who had defied the constitution. They even resigned their 
right of electing a king, and recognised the right of succession 
of the male hne of the Habsburg House. But aU this was of 
no avaU. Leopold I treated Hungary as a province conquered 
by force of arms. 

Although the national resistance had no longer a pillar 
cA support in Transylvania (which had in the meantime also 
come under the rule of Leopold), harrassed to death, it took 
up arms, and under the leadership of Prince Francis Rakoczi II 
at the opening of the eighteenth century, carried on a bloody 
struggle for nearly eight years against the oppressor. The 
struggle was concluded, not by defeat, but by the honourable 
Peace of Szatmar, in 1711, which secured the immunity of the 
Hungarian constitution. ^ 

In 1723 King Charles III summoned a Parliament at 

Pozsony for the ratification of the Pragmatic 

^''sanc^oT*^'' Sanction, which secured the Habsburg 

succession to the female line as well as to 

the male. 

No sooner had Charles III expired, in 1741, than his daughter 
Maria Theresa, who succeeded to the throne by virtue of the 

1 Julius de Vargha : Hungary — a sketch, etc. 



164 Hungary 

Pragmatic Sanction, found all Europe in arms against her 
The Prussian, Bavarian, French, Saxon, Spanish, and Nea- 
politan Kings aU claimed her inheritance. In despair, she 
appeared in the Parliament at Pozsony with her two-months 
old baby, Joseph, on her arm and implored, with tears, " her 
faithful Hungarians " to protect her throne and person. 

We can hear, in imagination, the roar that ascended from 
those hundreds of loyal Magyar throats as sabres leapt from 
their scabbards and flashed on high as their bearers swore 
" Vitam et sanguinem moriamur pro rege nostra Maria Teresia ! " 
("Our lives and our blood, to the death for our Queen Maria 
Theresa!").! 

Not only did they hasten to take up arms, but they voted 
supplies to aid their young queeri, who was thus enabled 
soon to obtain a brilliant victory over all her enemies. 

Joseph II (1780-90), Maria Theresa's son, was an enlightened 
monarch, far in advance of his time. He was never crowned, 
objecting to the restrictions imposed by the coronation oath. 
His great reforms — ^the decree of toleration, the census, and 
the use of the German language in instruction and adminis- 
tration — ^were received by the Hungarians with extreme 
indignation. The magnates rose against him, because he 
desired to abolish the unjust institution of serfdom and 
obHge them, the magnates, to pay taxes, from which they had 
from time immemorial been exempt. He increased the 
number of schools and gave education to the peasantry, as 
well as encouraged backward industries and agriculture. 

Conscious of the purity of his intentions, he died broken- 
hearted at the conduct of his Magyar subjects. These 
regarded their Sovereign's acts as illegal, since he never 
consulted Parhament. Shortly before his death he confessed 

* I have translated rege as " queen " as the sense requires ; but as 
Latin scholars know, the word actually signifies " king." The fact is, 
the Sovereign of Hungary is in law always a king, tiie sex notwith- 
standing. Thus, instead of a queen of Hungary it would be more 
correct to speak of a female king. The reference is, of course, to a 
reigning Jsovereign lady (kirdlyno), and not to a king's wife [kirdlyni). 



Christian Hungary 165 

his failure and sent back the crovm of St. Stephen (at that 
time in Vienna) to Buda. 

Joseph's successor, Leopold (1790-92), made concessions 
to the Magyars, and carried on the war with Turkey, which 
was the hope of the enslaved Servians. At his decease, the 
new French RepubUc declared war on his successor : and it 
is well known that Napoleon endeavoured by specious pro- 
mises to seduce the Hungarians from their allegiance to the 
House of Habsburg. They remained true, but got nothing 
for their faithfulness. Their country was drained of its 
manhood to supply soldiers and its exchequer was exhausted. 
When, after many vicissitudes, Francis was once more firmly 
seated on the throne, he refused to convoke the Hungarian 
Diet until forced to do so by his failure to levy taxes (1821-25). 
The selfishness of the aristocracy was now, as ever, the great 
barrier to national progress ; but, nevertheless, this was a 
period of great revival. A National Academy and Theatre 
were founded, and many works of pubUc benefit begun ; 
whUe in 1833 the Diet passed enactments ameUorating the 
condition of the peasantry, and in 1848 the Hungarian lower 
nobihty — ^the backbone of the country — ^relinquished their 
class privileges and placed themselves in the van of progress. 

The whole of Europe was now seething with the ideas of 
individual Uberty and national independence ; the Magyars 
were carried away on the wave of revolution, and never 
afterwards, despite temporary checks, abandoned their 
programme of national development and complete political 
independence. ^ 

It is hoped that this brief outline of the past history of 
Hungary will enable the reader better to understand the 
conditions prevailing in the country at the present day. 

• Colquhoun : Whirlpool of Europe. 



CHAPTER III 

THE HABSBURG DYNASTY 

To whatever may be ascribed the cause, every Hungarian is 
convinced that his country has suffered nothing but ill. in 

a greater or lesser degree, since the first 
Habsbures ^^^^^ of the House of Habsburg sat on the 

throne of the Magyars by virtue of the short- 
sighted agreement made by King Matthias with the astute 
Emperor Frederick. Far be it from me to desire to convey 
the impression that the Habsburgs have been all evil, or worse 
rulers in general than those of other dynasties that have 
wielded the sceptre of St. Stephen. By no means ; there 
have, indeed, been excellent princes among them. But the 
rilling spirit of that Imperial House is a prodigious vanity 
and vaulting ambition, disposed to trample under foot all 
popular rights and rule as by " Right Divine " every nation 
and people it can by any means bring under its sway. Count 
Julius Andrassy says : " The Habsburgs, moreover, had 
earned for themselves a sinister reputation in Hungary. 
Their conviction that the country belonged to them by right 
of inheritance had caused long years of conflict. They were 
a source of constant anxiety to the Hungarians, who clung 
to the free election of their King as the very foundation of 
their hberties. The unhappy reign of Ladislas V, the unlawful 
execution of Ladislas Hunyady, and the cunning policy of the 
Emperor Frederick against King Matthias, had all increased 
the unpopularity of Himgary's formidable neighbour. These 
various memories had been crystallised into popular sayings, 
which passed from mouth to mouth until they were on the 
lips of the whole people. Amongst the gentry, the prevalent 
and all-distorting party animosity had increased the hatred 

166 



The Habsburg Dynasty 167 

of foreigners, especially Germans, and above all of the 
Habsburgs."! 

It will, then, no doubt be of interest to be told something 
about the rise and progress of this powerful family. 

On the banks of the Aar, in Switzerland, towards the close 
of the eleventh century a bishop named Werner built himself 
a fortified palace among the crags of a lofty eminence. To 
those in the deep valley below the bishop's residence seemed 
like a speck on the horizon, and thus, in course of time, having 
regard to the predatory and unepiscopal habits of its owner, 
the peasantry came to refer to it as " Der Hahichtshurg," 
which may be anglicised as the Hawk's Nest or stronghold. 
Bishop Werner's episcopal successors appear to have given 
ample reason for the application of the name. In their 
inaccessible ejnrie they kept vigilant eyes on the valleys and 
seized every opportunity (not always restricted to moral or 
lawful means) to increase their wealth and power. Having 
reduced the immediate district to absolute fear, dependance, 
and subjection, they next made the adjoining districts the 
objects of their unwelcome attentions. In that age of bar- 
barism social distinctions were not nicely drawn, the lines of 
separation between ecclesiastical and secular authority were 
very faint and irregular, and thus the occupants of the Hawk's 
Nest gradually added a civil to their rehgious influence. A 
little town sprang up under their feet, which, called Habichts- 
burg, after the episcopal castle, was corrupted by the peasants 
into Habsburg. The lord of the Hawk's Nest now threw off 
the sacred mantle, took the secular title of count, and" later 
married. His descendants, by violence and intrigue, brought 
the whole north-east of Switzerland under their dominion, 
and their territory, defended by the Alpine mountains, could 
defy the proudest and mightiest barons of the land. 

Rudolf, who became Count of Habsburg in 1240, spread 
the terror of his name throughout Switzerland. He would 
quarrel with his best friends, if by so doing he could have 

1 Development of Hungarian Constitutional Liberty, p. 296. 



168 Hungary 

occasion to attack them and get possession of their estates. 
He raised his sword against his uncle, and as the price of 
peace demanded a strip of his relative's property. From 
another uncle he borrowed money, and being denied when he 
sought to borrow more, •seized the whole of this kinsman's 
fortune. As guardian to his cousin Anne, he took advantage 
of his position to convey her vast properties to himself. He 
conquered many cities, among them Zurich, and was about 
to batter down the walls of Basle when he received the intelli- 
gence of his election to the Imperial throne of Germany. 
When the Bishop of Basle heard the news he is reported to 
have exclaimed, " Sit fast, O God, or Rudolf will have Thy 
throne next ! " 

Ottocar, Duke of Austria and King of Bohemia, at first 
refused to acknowledge him, but Rudolf compelled his 
submission by force of arms on the field of Marchfeld. ^ 

Styria, Illyria, Carinthia, and Carniola were soon annexed, 
as well as part of Poland, by violence ; and the Habsbmrgs 
ultimately reached a height of authority which enabled them 
to secure the succession to the German throne in their own 
family. Generations later Francis I resigned the crown of 
the Caesars and declared himself Emperor of Austria : a 
cunning political move, as will be admitted when it is pointed 
out that the preceding Habsburgs had already swallowed 
up the German empire and incorporated it, piece by piece, 
with their extensive dominions. 

Coxe, the historian of the House of Austria, ^ tells us that 
Frederick III used to amuse himself with the construction of 
anagrams. One of these compositions was extremely curious. 
It was based upon the five vowels. A, E, I, O, U. These 
letters were engraved on all the royal plate and carved on 
every article of palace furniture. The Sovereign never 
condescended to explain their significance, and his visitors 
were puzzled. Thousands attempted to interpret them, but 

' Vide Chapter II. 
* Vol. I, p. 277. 



The Habsburg Dynasty 169 

in vain. They continued an unsolved mystery till after 
Frederick's death, when the riddle was explained. On one 
of the leaves of his diary, the Imperial executors found the 
following singular inscription : 



Austria TI?st Tmperare /^rbi T Tniverso 

lies Crdreich 1st Westerreich Unterthan 



1 



This is indicative of the Habsburg pohcy, though it did not 
originate with Frederick ; it had been the actuating spirit 
of all his predecessors. It was bred and born in the Habichts- 
burg fastness. From the bishop it descended to the count, 
from the count to the duke, from the duke to the king, and 
from the King to the Emperor. The records of the Habsburgs, 
through a long Hne of princes, covering many centuries, 
furnish a clearer exposition of their family poUcy than even 
this royal enigma. 

The present monarch, Francis Joseph, has passed the period 
of life when he c4n be dazzled by dreams and schemes of 
conquest, and reached an age when peace and tranquillity 
are preferable to the wild alarms of war. 

The same cannot, I fear, be said of the Heir to the Thrones, 
Archduke Francis Ferdinand. The late Crown Prince Rudolf 
fixed Salonica as the future boundary of the Dual Monarchy ; 
and it is held by many at this moment that his present 
Imperial and Royal Highness contemplates in the not distant 
future a coup d'etat. Vienna has to-day two opposite policies, 
and two chiefs representing them : the policy of peace inspired 
by Francis Joseph and defended by diplomacy, and the policy 
of aggression pursued by Francis Ferdinand and backed, 
as a matter of course, by the miUtary leaders. 

Judging his dominions to have reached the decisive point 
when they must live or die, dissolve or rise to greater power 
and glory, the Archduke has conceived a mighty plan. He 
designs to set free all those peoples who, discontented and at 

1 1 Latin : To Austria is it given to rule the universe. 
(German : Everything in the universe is subject to Austria. 



170 Hungary 

variance, make up the Dual Monarchy ; of establishing new 
principalities, and thus the great confederation of states 
comprising Hungary, Bohemia, Poland, with their personal 
chiefs and autonomy ; Servia, with her frontiers expanded by 
recent victories over the Tttrks and even increased by Slavonia ; 
and Montenegro, increased by a portion of Dalmatia and of 
Herzegowina — all these, erected into duchies, principalities, 
and kingdoms, he would make free, vigorous, and contented 
in a vast empire of which he himself would be the head and 
centre ! This would be the reconstruction, not of the Holy 
Roman and Germanic Empire, but of a Slavonic Empire 
outside Russia. 

If we are to believe the Paris Journal's special correspon- 
dent at Vienna, Poland has already accepted the scheme, 
Bulgaria has divined it, and Servia is beginning to understand 
it and offers no serious objection. 

Such a new Slavonic Empire would make short work of 
the political forms of Europe. There would doubtless be 
the rupture of aUiances, the tearing up of 
A Slavonic treaties, and the snapping of international 
friendships ; but peace would be assiured 
in the Near East, and to Francis Ferdinand's brand new 
empire, and incidentally to himself, would aU these stupendous 
blessings be due. Dream worthy of a Habsburg ! But to 
realise this dream, in spite of all assurances of the acquiescence 
of certain parties, would be to deluge Europe in blood and 
bring to pass the prophesied Armageddon. Let the Hun- 
garians beware of participating in an enterprise of this wild 
nature, which, even if successful, would drain the blood and 
resoiu'ces of the country and rivet the fetters of bondage and 
oppression once more on their limbs. Let them rather 
cultivate the arts of peace, developing their commerce, and 
estabhshing friendly relations with their neighbours. In 
this, and not in schemes of conquest, he Hungary's hopes of 
prosperity and independence. 



CHAPTER IV 

THE HUNGARIAN CONSTITUTION 

True to the spirit of civil liberty, the ancient Magyars, on 
entering their new country, called a general assembly of the 
_. people, discussed their poUtical needs, and 

Constitution, laid the foundations of a constitution. Con- 
Its Origin and sisting of about a million souls, they were 
Development. Qj-iginaUy divided into 108 tribes, distributed 
into seven grand divisions, each entirely independent of the 
others in its private affairs, but aU hving together in the form 
of a general confederation. Each of these grand divisions 
acknowledged the supremacy of a chief, called a voivode, ^ or 
duke ; and a convention of these voivodes constituted the 
highest assembly and exercised the supreme authority of the 
nation. When thus gathered together for the transaction of 
business, they elected one of their number temporary president, 
this election giving him no new permanent powers, but only 
authority to guide the deliberations of the assembly while 
in session. The convention was not a legislative body, for 
it could make no laws binding on the divisions which affected 
their private interests. Each division had its own pecuhar 
institutions, and each voivode at the council represented 
the predetermined wishes of his constituents. AU the divi- 
sions were, however, naturally interested in whatever concerned 
the federal operations of the nations, so that a majority of 
votes in the voivodes' council always gave direction thereto. 
But this form of government, eminently repubUcan — 
though it would have been very valuable to a people suffi- 
ciently civilised to appreciate it — ^needed in those barbarous 
times a central authority above that of a mere chairman of 
assembly, or even a president of a modern state. Necessity 
soon taught the Hungarians that, unless some such central 
' In Hungarian, vajda (pron. voida). 

171 



172 Hungary 

authority was appointed, the success they hoped for in their 
great enterprise would be impossible. This important need 
was accordingly met. The voivodes assembled and, in the 
presence of the whole people, each voivode opened a vein in 
his arm, and the blood thus shed, collected in a vessel, was 
drunk by the contracting parties. This solemn rite performed, 
lots were drawn for the new officer. The lot fell to Almos, ^ 
whose valour in war, wisdom in counsel, and virtues as a man, 
all rendered him worthy of the exalted position he was hence- 
forth to occupy. This result announced; the voivodes 
addressed Almos : " From this day thou art our supreme 
chief and commander. Lead on ; we follow thee." * 

At the subsequent convention the following covenant was 
ratified : (1) The supreme chief should always be elected from 
the descendants of Almos. * (2) Whatever property or spoil 
should be acquired, should be divided amongst the voivodes. 
(3) The voivodes, having elected Almos to his high dignity, 
should, as well as their descendants, never be excluded by 
Almos or his successors, either from the supreme chief's 
council or from the government. (4) Should any voivode or 
his descendant break this covenant made with the supreme 
chief, his blood should be shed, even as the blood of the 
original covenanting parties had been shed at the election of 
Almos. (5) On the other hand, should Almos or any des- 
cendant of his, or any of the present voivodes, or their des- 
cendants, break this pledge mutually made, the outlaws' 
curse should be pronounced upon them and rest on them for 
ever ; they should be degraded from their offices and banished 
irrevocably. 

By this original constitution of the Hungarians four estates 
were recognised : the supreme chief, the voivodes, the officers 
under them, and the common warriors. Besides these, how- 
ever, there were, led onward and defended by the warriors, 

» Vide Chapter I. 

' Horvath : Geschichte der Ungarn. 

' No mention of the hereditary right of any member of the family. 



The Hungarian Constitution 173 

a considerable mass of human beings who, on account of 
various disabilities were not prepared to fight ; they per- 
formed what other services they could, and were glad to be 
acknowledged as the useful, albeit servile, kindred of their 
armed brethren. Feeling sufficiently compensated for their 
services by receiving food, clothing, and protection, they 
claimed no right in the making of rules or laws, but were 
content to obey those made by their superiors ; hence they 
were, according to their tacit admission, simply peasants, 
or countrymen, without sovereign rights in any form. Hence 
in the National Assembhes of early times we find two distinct 
classes (sub-divided, of course, into other classes) — ^aristocracy 
(comprising the prince, nobles, and warriors) and democracy 
(the peasants just now alluded to). 

Now Arpad, son of the first supreme chief Almos, proved 
very much like most men whose family has risen to a privi- 
leged position : he wished to secure the 
Arp4d. supremacy to his descendants. Aware of 
the high respect in which he was held — 
he was, as I have already pointed out, the " Joshua " who 
had led the Magyars into the Land of Promise — ^he resolved 
to turn that respect to his own advantage. Calling all his 
armies together on the plain of Pusztaszer, he gave them a 
revision of the charter of their Uberties. An vmknown 
Hungarian writer, a monk, who has left to posterity a number 
of interesting manuscripts ^ signed Anonymous, says : " The 
rights and duties of the people, as well as the relations between 
them, the nobles, and the prince, were more accurately set 
forth than they had been before ; judges were appointed, 
and the execution of the laws, and the penalties for infringing 
them, were estabUshed." Territory was then distributed 
by Arpad among his followers ; for it was above all his desire 
to attach to himself servants to defend him and his descendants 
against the voivodes and lesser chiefs, who were disposed to 
conduct themselves towards Arpad with greater independence 
' Many of them, however, giving data now proved to be false. 



174 Hungary 

than pleased him. The importance of these latter he effectu- 
ally reduced by generous gifts of estates to the most faithful 
of his people, who themselves looking to him for protection 
against the other chiefs, would naturally be interested in the 
preservation of their ^tron's power. All the fortified places 
of the land Arpad took unto himself, thus holding the key 
of the house, to use a figure of speech. He could not, however, 
long hold these numerous and widely scattered domains 
entirely in his own hands. Therefore he appointed the chief 
leaders under himself to be comites castri, empowered to hold 
these national properties in the name of the prince, who 
possessed the prerogative to change his representatives 
whenever he thought fit for the common good. Thus, in 
effect, all the castles and strongholds continued to be his 
and his descendants', securing his and their authority for all 
time. 

After the question of the castles was settled, came that of 
the fighting forces ; and again by a judicious granting of lands 
Arpad secured the warriors as the special supporters of the 
prince as much as the defenders of the fatherland.. Foreigners 
also he favoured who were disposed to leave their own birth- 
lands and become his subjects ; thus further strengthening 
his position. 

Such were Arpad's poUtical characteristics ; he was, 
however, just and humane. When he fought and had con- 
quered, those who submitted he restored to their rank and 
possessions, reducing none to a position of servitude. When 
he died, in 907 a.d., he was mourned by a people whom he 
had raised to a position of prosperity and contentment. 

Stephen, the Saint-King, the fourth of Arpad's successors, 

the first Christian ruler of Hungary, and the first to bear the 

title of king, made essential changes in the 

St. Stephen, constitution by request of the Pope, whose 
protegi he was, and to whom he was indebted 
for the " holy " crown he wore. ^ 

» Vide Chapter II. 




HIS EXCELLENCY COUNT ALBERT APPONYI, M.P. 
{Sometime Miniskr for Public hniniclinn) 



The Hungarian Constitution 175 

There is no one written document in existence called the 

Hungarian Constitution ; it is the product of evolution 

through a series of precedents and laws 

Golden Bull ejctending over a period of many centuries. 
As, however, the Magna Charia of King John 
(1217) is the first known document of the EngUsh constitution, 
so the first written document of the Hungarian constitution 
is the Bulla Aurea or " Golden Bull " of King Andrew II, 
bearing date 1222. 

In Chapter II the reader has already seen how Hungary 
had constantly to contend with fierce enemies, Tartars and 
Turks, and how for a period of 150 years the half of the 
country was occupied by the Tiurkish invaders. 

When, towards the end of the seventeenth century, the 
armies of the Emperor-King Leopold finally drove the 
Turks out of Hungary, German oppression followed, which 
was hardly better than the Turkish rule had been. It drove 
the people to despair, so that this poor country, almost 
exhausted, almost annihilated by the three centuries of 
struggle that had gone before, had to take arms again and 
fight for ten years a heroic war against her own kings who had 
become oppressors — a war which, after many fluctuations of 
defeat and victory, ended in a compromise which was on the 
whole favourable to Hungary, because therein Hungary 
again solemnly recognised the right of the Habsburg ds^nasty 
to rule in Hungary, but on the other hand the djmasty 
solemnly pledged itself to respect the Constitution.^ 

Notwithstanding the ideas of despotism that prevailed all 
over Europe in mediaeval times, the continuity of the Hun- 
garian Constitution has never been interrupted. The six- 
teenth century, which crushed the life out of almost all free 
institutions, left (wo standing : the English and the Hungarian 
Constitutions. 

The King of Hungary's prerogative was a powerful one ; 

^ Count Albert Apponyi, M.P. : Lecture on The Growth of the 
Hungarian Constitution. 



176 Hungary 

it was necessary, in the interests of the country's defence, that 
it should be so. That prerogative was, however, so hedged 
about with guarantees that it was prevented from being 
a danger to the commonwealth. So early as the thir- 
teenth century we find' an enactment that no ordinance 
of the King should have any legal value unless it were 
signed by certain officers of state ; and another that he should 
be deposed if there were any adverse vote of the estates 
against him. 

Like all mediaeval Constitutions, that of Hungary was 

founded upon privilege. Political rights were possessed only 

by the class who bore arms — called by the 

Aristowacy* Hungarian law-books nohiUs ai.nd membrum 

sacrae coronae. These do not correspond 

much to the English conception of " nobles," but rather 

to " free citizens " — ^free men liable to bear arms in 

their country's (or their Sovereign's) cause. At the 

time of the French Revolution the population of Hungary 

was about 6,000,000, and of that number some 300,000 were 

" nobles " in the sense described, and therefore were entitled 

to vote. These " nobles " were, however, a democratic 

body in an important respect : the wealthy and powerful 

were equal before the law with the poorest possessors of the 

franchise. 

This aristocratic regime continued till about the middle 
of the nineteenth century, when Count Stephen Sz^chenyi 
(affectionately styled by his compatriots " The Greatest 
Hungarian ") introduced plans for reform which should give 
the lower classes also their due share of constitutional privi- 
leges. His actions brought him into conflict with the most 
eminent men of his age, but he eventually triumphed, and an 
end was put to privilege in 1848 by the privileged persons 
themselves consenting to renounce the special rights they and 
their forefathers had enjoyed for ages. 

Notwithstanding the multiplicity of races in Hungary, 
there is only one kind of citizenship — Hungarian citizenship. 



The Hungarian Constitution 177 

Whether Magyar, Slovak, or Roumanian, a man is Hungarian. 
and entitled to the benefits of the Constitution. * 

In close connection with the Constitution are the relations 

of Hungary with Austria. When the Hungarians called the 

Relations ^^^ Habsbiurg to reign over them, it was not 

between Austria in the least with the intention of their realm 

and Hungary, becoming a portion of the Austrian Empire. 
It was an alhance for mutual safety — ^not an amalgamation or 
an assimilation the one of the other. The prime condition 
under which the Habsburgs were called to the Hungarian 
throne was that they should rule in Hungary according to the 
provisions of the Constitution. This condition was solemnly 
accepted by the first Habsburg, and afterwards sworn to by 
every Habsburg at his coronation as King of Hungary. In 
practice it has often been evaded by the monarch and his 
advisers, but the theory has never legally been abandoned. 

By the terms of the Pragmatic Sanction, the Habsburg 
ruler of Austria was also to be the ruler of Hungary ; both 
countries were to assist each other against foreign aggression ; 
but the independence and ancient hberties of Hungary were 
to be preserved inviolate. Joseph II* made strenuous 
attempts to convert Hungary into a province of Austria. 
From his point of view it was with the best intentions. The 
excellent popular reforms he would have instituted, we cannot 
fail to admire ; but the Magyars would have none of them 
since he defied their Constitution. In the reign of his successor 
Leopold II, a law was passed, similar to the EngUsh " Declara- 
tion of Right " under Charles I, in which the Habsburg King 
of Himgary was made to reassert the legal status of the 
realm. The original is in Latin ; the following is an exact 
translation : 

" Law XI, 1791. On the humble petition of the Estates 
and Orders of the Realm, His Most Sacred Majesty has been 
graciously pleased to recognise : That though the succession 

1 Vide Chapter V. 
* Vide Chapter II. 

12—12394) 



178 Hungary 

of the female branch of the Austrian House, decreed in Hun- 
gary and her annexed parts by Laws I and II of 1723, belongs, 
according to the fixed order of succession, and in indivisible 
and inseparable possession, to the same prince whose it is in 
the other kingdoms and Jiereditary domains situated in or out 
of Germany, Hungary with her annexed parts is none the less 
a free and independent kingdom concerning her whole form of 
rule {including therein every branch of administration) which 
signifies : under submission to no other kingdom or people,^ 
but possessing her own consistence and constitution ; therefore 
must she be ruled by her hereditary and crowned kings, as 
well by His Present Majesty as his successors, in accordance 
with her own laws and customs and not after the example 
of other provinces, as already enacted by Laws III of 1715, 
and VIII and XI of 1741." 

Nothing, one might suppose, could be plainer than this ; 
yet in published books and in the daily press one is constantly 
meeting with references to the " Austro-Hungarian Empire " ; 
places in Hungary are said to be in Austria ; Hungarian 
statesmen are Austrian statesmen ; Hungarian nobles, 
Austrian nobles ; events happening in Hungary are given as 
taking place in Austria, and so on ad infinitum, much to the 
annoyance of the Hungarians themselves, who like their 
poUtical existence to be recognised by the nations abroad. 
It is a greater matter even than calling a Scotsman or Irishman 
an Englishman, since both belong to the British Empire ; 
the Hungarian on the contrary does not belong to the Austrian 
Empire, and to avoid wounding the susceptibilities of the 
Magyars, visitors to Hungary will do well to remember this fact. 

There is a party or political school in Austria who are 
trying to make out a case for a unified Austrian Empire, 
to include Hungary, and they claim that when the Emperor 
Francis I, in 1804, put off the title of German Emperor and 
assumed that of Emperor of Austria, he intended to assume 
it with regard to his dominions as a whole. That may or 

' Nulli alio regno vel populo subditum. 



The Hungarian Constitution 179 

may not be so ; but if Francis did intend, the intention was 

in conflict with the law. No person, even a king, has the right 

^:o alter arbitrarily a condition of things arranged on the 

basis of a convention with another party. 

Though the Emperor of Austria and the King of Hungary 

happen to be the same physical person, he is juridically TWO 

persons, his prerogative in the A)ne case being 

_ ^^^v entirely different from his prerogative in the 
cmperor-King. , -^ ._ , .-i • a , - . i 

other. For mstance, while m Austria the 

people have only such rights as the Emperor has allowed them, 

in Hungary the position is reversed, and the King has only such 

rights as the people have allowed him in the Constitution. In 

Austria the Emperor may issue ordinances that have the 

force of law, even to coUect taxes and levy recruits ; in 

Hungary the King may do nothing of the kind. If he should 

attempt to do so, any officials who dared to assist him would 

be guilty of high treason and dealt with for that capital crime. 

As in the laws of aU civihsed nations it is an act of treason 

for a subject to appeal to a foreign sovereign, so it is treason 

for a subject of the King of Hungary to appeal to the Emperor 

of Austria ! 

All Hungarian institutions are based on the firm bed-rock 
fact of an independent Hungarian kingdom. There is an 
Austrian ParUament and a Hungarian Parliament, but there 
is no such thing as an Austro-Hungarian Parliament ; conse- 
quently there are no Austro-Hungarian M.P.'s, neither are 
there any Austro-Hungarian subjects. They may belong to 
either the one State or the other, but not to both. ^ 

The actual true significance of the term " Austria-Hungary " 
— so familiar to British ears, yet so Uttle understood — is 
that two independent nations, called respectively Austria and 
Hungary, have become united for certain definite purposes to 
their mutual advantage. Simply that, and nothing more 
nor less than that. 

1 For the " Common Affairs " (Army, Navy, and Foreign Relations) 
of the Dual Monarchy, vide the Austrian section of this work. 



CHAPTER V 

OF POLITICS AND POLITICIANS 

Politics in Hungary are very complicated, and the British 

reader will not understand them until he has learned the 

difference between the Hungarian and the 

Roya?R)wer. English systems of government. The King 
of Great Britain reigns but does not govern : 
the King of Hungary both reigns and governs. In theory 
there is no difference between the prerogative of the Hun- 
garian monarch and that of the English ; but the actual 
distribution of power between the Crown and the representa- 
tives of the nation is in Hungary to-day what it was in 
England in George Ill's time ; it is a natural phase in the 
evolution of parliamentary government. Though King 
Francis Joseph has never refused to sanction a BiU passed 
through both Houses of ParUament, his personal will in the 
work of the legislation is effected in his requiring his consent 
to be given to any Bill before it is brought before ParUament. 

In Great Britain custom and precedent oblige the Sovereign 
to choose as premier the leader of the poUtical party pre- 
dominant for the time being : in Hungary the King may, 
and often does, choose the man most likely to give effect to 
his (the King's) views and wishes.^ British ministers are 
in a real sense the servants of the people, responsible to 
Parliament : in Hungary they are the servants of the King, 
and must submit to His Majesty a programme he wUl sanction 
before he invites them to take office. Thus a man ambitious 

1 A good illustration of this was the case of Baron Fej6rvary in 
1905. Appointed Premier by the king without a following, he made no 
attempt to seek the confidence of the nation ; he was in fact indifferent 
to it ; he had the King's confidence and that was sufficient for him ! 
This was, of course, most unconstitutional. Again, in 1910, Count 
Khuen-H6dervS.ry was appointed Premier with no party behind him ; 
he did, however, succeed in getting a majority — somehow I 

180 



Of Politics and Politicians 181 

for the premiership must have the honour to be " known " by 
the King or he stands but Uttle chance of achieving success 
in that direction : popular favour avails him nothing. 

Another interesting difference between the sovereignties 
is that, on the one hand the British monarch on the assembling 
of Parliament goes in person to meet his people in " The 
House " and there reads his " Speech from the Throne." 
In the event of the Sovereign's illness, or bodily infirmity (as 
in the case of Queen Victoria in her later years) the " Speech " 
is read in Parliament by the Lord Chancellor. On the other 
hand, King Francis Joseph of Hungary never goes in state to 
ParUament, but summons the members thereof to his presence 
in the Royal Palace, where he makes known his will. 

Parliament is summoned by the King for a period of five 

years ; but, in accordance with law, it must assemble within 

three months of its dissolution, or even 

Parliament, within any shorter period if the budget for 
the ensuing year has not been passed. 

During the past ten years parliamentary deadlocks have 
been frequent, sometimes attended with disgraceful scenes 
in " The House." To mention only a single instance : the 
members of the Fej^rvary Cabinet (1905) were socially boy- 
cotted ; army suppUes were refused by Parliament ; and 
nearly everybody throughout the country refused to pay 
taxes. 

The Houses of Parliament at Budapest were completed so 
recently as 1896 at a cost of £1,500,000. In florid Gothic 
style they form, Westminster excepted, the most magnificent 
legislative palace in the world. Abutting on the Danube, 
as St. Stephen's abuts on the Thames, it is a most imposing 
pUe, though a row of common wooden palings in the imme- 
diate vicinity spoils the otherwise pleasing effect, and as the 
eye turns from the one to the other the beholder experiences 
a descent from the sublime to the ridiculous. For interior 
magnificence the Hungarian Parliament building vies with 
that of the English. Stately corridors, whose ceilings are 



182 Hungary 

exquisitely carved and gilded, whose walls are adorned 
alternately with gigantic mirrors and historical paintings, 
whose floors are laid with the softest of carpet, yielding to the 
footfall and deadening the noise ; noble staircases and lofty 
halls, superbly furnished'and decorated with statuary, busts, 
and other works of national art, as befits the traditions of a 
great people ; its awe-inspiring throne-room, which the King 
has never deigned to use ; the rich decoration of the whole 
building, its frescoes, and the majestic proportions of its 
exterior, adorned with 258 statues of statesmen and others 
who have won the gratitude of posterity — aU render it a 
worthy home for the legislature of a nation whose constitution 
is nearly as old as that of the English. 

And what of the legislators themselves ? The Hungarian 
Lower House consists of 453^ members, many of them lawyers. 
Each receives the equivalent of £250 a year as salary, and 
travels at half rate on the State railways. These professional 
legislators represent a population of 19,000,000, of whom 
only about 1,200,000 are electors. The present qualifications 
for exercising the franchise are somewhat involved : (1) A 
minimum income of £A 10s. and pajnnent of direct taxes 
amoimting to 16s. 8d. (2) In the large towns the renting 
of a dweUing of three living rooms. * (3) The emplojnflent of an 
assistant. (4) Ancient privileges under the Constitution. (The 
initial condition is that the citizen be not less than twenty-four 
years of age.) Besides these, however, there are more than 
30,000 persons who have votes in right of professional quali- 
fications : such are, members of learned bodies, clerg5anen, 
professors, physicians, apothecaries, notaries, civil engineers, 
and schoolmasters. (Soldiers, policemen, and revenue officials 
have no votes.) 

The following extracts from Law XXXIII (1874) on the 

' Forty of whom represent the Provincial Diet of Croatia. 

^ Two living rooms (with the usual appurtenances) are generally 
as much as the clerk or shop-assistant can afford ; while the artisan, 
if he must live in town, has often to be content with one room. In 
Budapest rents are very high. 



Of Politics and Politicians 183 

subject will assist the reader to a right understanding of the 
situation : 

" Property qualification : (a) In free towns, owners of 
houses which contain three dwellings paying house tax, and 
owners of land paying taxes on a direct income of 32 crowns 
(Sec. 3 a, b). (b) In country districts, owners of " a quarter 
urbarial session ' or its equivalent. (This nominally corre- 
sponds to about 14 acres.) (c) Owners of houses whose house 
tax was imposed on a basis of 210 crowns of clear income 
(Sec. 6a). {^ In Transylvania, house owners who pay 
ground tax on a direct income of 168 crowns, 159 crowns 
60 filler and 145 crowns 60 filler respectively, according to 
the class under which they are scheduled for purposes of 
taxation (Sec. 5a). 

" Taxation quaUfication — (a) Merchants, manufacturers or 
town artisans, paying taxes on income of at least 210 crowns 
(Sec. 6 c, d). (b) In boroughs, those who pay taxes for at 
least one apprentice (Sec. 6e). (c) Those paying State taxes 
on a direct income of at least 210 crowns (Sees. 56, 66). (d) 
Those pa3dng income tax on 210 crowns' income in Class I, 
on 1,400 crowns in Class II, or in the case of officials on 1,000 
crowns in Class II (Sec. 7). 

" Professional and official qualification : All members of the 
Hungarian Academy, academy artists, professors, doctors, 
veterinary surgeons, engineers, chemists, foresters ; public and 
communal notaries, advocates, clergy, schoolmasters (Sec. 9). 

" Ancestral qualification : All those possessing the franchise 
previous to 1848 (Sec. 2). In 1905, according to the Statistical 
Year-Book, 32,712 persons still voted by right of ancient 
privileges." 

The ballot is not secret in Hungary,^ and as a result 

' Till 1874 the option of the secret ballot lay in each county and 
municipal authority ; but this option was abolished by Law XXXIII 
of that year. Most shop windows in Budapest display the legend, 
Eljen az iltaldnos titkos vdlasztdjog I (Long live universal secret suffrage !]. 
Whether this be the real sentiment of all those who display the legend 
is a question ; but even so Hungarians get, not what they want, but 
what their Government thinks good for them. 



184 Hungary 

intimidation and corruption are too often brought to light. It 
is not likely that a poor man with wife and family to support 

The Ballot ^^ shout up his vote " according to his con- 
science " when he knows that to utter the 
name of the candidate whom his employer, or his employer's 
friends, disapprove, will probably cost him the loss of his 
position, or at least the favour of his employer. Such heroics 
can hardly be expected of the working or dependent classes. 
Many are in favour of the secret ballot, for, in the words of a 
certain Hungarian statesman, " unless the ballot be secret 
it is like taking back with one hand what has been given 
with the other." 

The question of electoral reform overshadows all others, 
and the extension of the franchise is admitted on every hand 
to be inevitable. Men of all parties are in agreement with the 
statement of Count Andeassy, on introducing his Bill (Novem- 
ber, 1908), that the future of Hungary depends on the solution 
of the electoral problem. Though differing widely on many 
things, they are apparently at one in regarding Universal 
Suffrage as the remedy for the present poUtical evils. The 
King himself is said to favour it. " Social reform," says 
Count Tivadar Batthyany, " is inconceivable without 
Universal Suffrage " ; while Mr. Julius Justh holds that 
" electoral abuses can be cured only by the introduction 
of universal equal, and secret suffrage (dltaldnos titkos 
vdlasztojog)." 

I suppose no EngUsh reader will be disposed to challenge 
the principle of voting in secret, though there is room for 
difference of opinion as to whether all citizens should enjoy 
the vote or only a selection of them. My personal view is 
that there should be an educational qualification for the 
exercise of the franchise and that the authorities of any country 
should see to it that their citizens are given proper opportunity 
to raise themselves to the required standard. " So long as 
the people are uncultivated," says Mr. Sigisiaund Varady, 
M.P., " so long will there be electoral abuses," 



Of Politics and Politicians 185 

\ 

The Independence Party, to which belong Count 
Albert Apponjd and Mr. Francis Kossuth, are in favour of 
the secret ballot in principle, the abohtion of the property 
qualification, and the extension of the franchise to all adult 
male persons able to read and write, and who, if workers, 
are members for one year out of two, of an insurance society. 
This scheme would confer the franchise on about 2,500,000 — 
more than double the present electorate. Though the 
Independence Party consists of two sections (the Kossuth 
section standing principally for an independent army, and 
the Justh section for an independent national bank), both 
sections are united to restore legal continuity in the House 
of Parliament. ^ 

A franchise BUI framed by the present Government (the 
National Work Party, otherwise the Liberal Party, but 
more corresponding to the British Conservative Party), was 
recently the cause of serious agitation among the working 
classes of this country, who threaten a general strike if it should 
pass the Lower House. Its provisions are even more involved 
than those of the law actually in force. 

The present Cabinet is composed of Count Stephen Tisza 
(Premier), Dr. John Teleszky (Finance Minister), Baron 
John Harkanjd (Commerce), Mr. John Sindor (Interior), 
General Hazay (National Defence), Baron Imre Ghillany 
(Agriculture), Dr. Bela Jankovich (PubUc Instruction), and 
Dr. Eugene Balogh (Justice). 

Other pohtical parties are the People's (or Clerical) Party, 
led by Count Aladar Zichy, and the two Sociahst parties — 
the Christian Socialists and the Democrats — whose heads 
are respectively Canon Giesswein and Dr. WiUiam 
Vazsonyi. 

The four leading figures in present-day Hungarian politics 

are Count Tisza, a statesman of great abihty and honesty of 

purpose, with the courage of his convictions ; Count Apponyi, 

' The legal continuity was broken in November, 1904, by Count 
Tisza's coup d'Slat to crush obstruction. 



186 Hungary 

his doughty opponent ; Count Andrassy, whose ruling 
passion is poHtical honesty ; and Mr. Francis Kossuth, 
whose unsatisfactory health however prevents his frequent 
appearance in public. 

The description of a Hungarian election cannot fail to 

be instructive to the English reader, and he shall have one : 

but though I have witnessed several elections, 

Election ^* '® preferable to hear what the Magyar 

himself has to say on the subject. The 

following is, therefore, the narration ^ of a Hungarian Deputy 

or M.P. : 

" An election begins by the introduction of the candidate, 
which may be made by ten electors of the constituency. 
When this has not been done on the day preceding the elec- 
tion, it may be pointed out before the poUing commences. 
If, half an hour before polling, one candidate only has been 
introduced, the returning officer announdes that there will 
be no contest and declares the said candidate duly elected. 
If there is more than one candidate and the electors demand 
a poll, it is proceeded with. 

" The voting is everywhere uniform, public, and oral. 
Each elector, having given his name and established his 
identity, proclaims in a loud voice the name of the candidate 
for whom he intends to vote : and then, beside the elector's 
name on the voting paper, is written the name of the candidate 
to whom he gives his vote. 

" The various communes comprising a constituency are 
admitted to the poll in the order arranged by the Central 
Committee, and the electors of each are called separately, 
according to the candidate for whom they vote. It is decided 
by lot for the first commune at a particular polling station 
which party shall be first admitted to vote : after that, the 
adherents of each party are called by turns, in batches of 
twenty or more. 

" No fixed number of votes is required for the validity of 

1 Translated by the author. 




HIS EXCELLENCY FRANCIS KOSSUTH, M.P. 
{Sometime Minister of Commerce) 



Of Politics and Politicians 187 

an election, but when neither candidate has obtained an 
absolute majority a ballot takes place between the two 
candidates who have polled the most. In such an event 
the Central Committee fixes the date of the second poll, 
for which there must be an interval of at least fourteen 
days. 

" With regard to our electoral manners, I must confess 
that they leave something to be desired. Illegitimate 
governmental influences and individual corruption have been 
spread so assiduously that, for a long time, no serious attempt 
was made to check the evU. I am happy, however, to be 
able to add that the recent law on jurisdiction in electoral 
matters has produced a revolution in this respect. The 
elections of 1901 were, on the whole, very clean-handed ; so 
were those of 1906 ; but those of 1910 were the most 
corrupt within our memory." 

There is no fixed hour for closing the poll : it is left to the 
discretion of the returning officer — a discretion which it is 
not impossible to abuse. 

It has been proved again and again that the most effective 
weapon in diplomacy is straightforwardness ; it is equally 
true that the proletariat is most easily ruled by the statesman 
who unswervingly follows the straight path. There is every 
reason for scrupulous integrity in those at the head of affairs 
in Hungary, where it is admitted that underhand dealing 
exists in connection with political matters, while cases are 
not unknown in which prominent politicians have been 
openly convicted of jobbery. The progress of popular 
education, however, will no doubt cause such scandals to 
diminish; as highly placed public servants can hardly 
afford to defy a fully enlightened public opinion. 

Of the two Chambers forming the Hungarian Par lament, 
one — ^the Chamber of Deputies — ^has already been referred to 
sufficiently for the reader to gather a fairly correct idea of what 
it is like, and in what respects it differs from its British 
counterpart. 



188 Hungary 

I will now endeavour to present a word-picture of the 
Chamber of Magnates, or " House of Lords." It comprises 
seventeen members of the Royal family, 
M^nates *^® presidents of the Royal High Courts 
of Appell, the CathoUc diocesan bishops,^ 
Roman and Greek, and Greek Orthodox, six representa- 
tives (clerical and lay) of the two great Protestant 
confessions, the Lutheran and the Calvinist, one Unitarian 
bishop, and the hereditary aristocracy to the number of 234 
(each of whom must pay at least ;£250 a year in land tax). 
Besides these there are " life-members " created by the King, 
the total number of whom may not exceed fifty, nor may 
His Majesty create more than four annually : three members 
elected by the Diet of Croatia, and the twenty odd remaining 
members of the fifty appointed once for all by the Magnates 
who, having sat before the Reform Law was passed, have lost 
the exercise of their right in the Upper House, the taxes they 
pay not reaching the amount prescribed by the new law. 

Members of the Hungarian House of Lords — unlike those 
of the British Empire — are eligible for election to the House 
of Commons (Deputies) ; but should they exercise an M.P.'s 
mandate their right in the Upper House is suspended for the 
time being. The chief dignitaries of the realm, however, 
cannot seek popular suffrage without definitely renouncing 
their high offices. 

A few words on the sub-nationalities' question must bring 
this chapter to a close. 

On the language basis the Magyars in Hungary form a 

majority over all the sub-races or nationaUties. They are 

also superior in wealth and cultiu-e. On 

nationalities. ^^^^ grounds they justify their supremacy 

in the government of the country. It is 

often charged to the Magyar's .account that he " oppresses 

the strangers within his gates," depriving them of their 

political rights. This accusation, so wounding to his amour 

> The titular bishops have been excluded. 



Of Politics and Politicians 189 

prapre, he is constantly rebutting. Indeed, it would be inter- 
esting to know what sums of money the Hungarian Govern- 
ment spends annually in pubUcations, permanent and ephe- 
meral, intended to explain the whole matter to the satisfaction 
of their foreign neighbours — Great Britain especially. It 
must be considerable. It is a common saying among the 
Magyars, with regard to this question, that " a man must 
be master in h's own house " : and they beg to know, with 
apparent sincerity, what England would do if she had (for 
example) colonies of Germans, French and Russians settled 
in various parts of her country, who, while claiming to be 
British subjects, were always working in the interests of their 
original fatherlands, instead of in those of their adopted 
country, stirring up strife and causing strained relations 
between the one and the other. As we EngUsh have never, 
I believe, had a similar experience, it is not easy to find an 
answer to the query. 

In Hungary there are Roumanians (16'6 per cent.), 
Germans (11'3 per cent.), Slovaks (ITS per cent.), Servians 
(2'6 per cent.) and Ruthenians (2'5 per cent.).^ 

Dr. Julius Vargha claims (and his is no doubt the official 
view) that the tendencies of these sub-nationahties is towards 
disintegration and ought to be checked. No single non- 
Magyar race living in Hungary, he says, can base any claim 
to a separate national existence on the right of pre-settlement, 
as they were all welcomed as colonists during the rule of the 
Hungarian Kings. Unbiased historians have proved that the 
proud claim of the Roumanians, or Wallachians, to be the 
descendants of the Dacian legionaries of Trajan, is neither 
more nor less than a fable. They did not make their appear- 
ance in Hungary until the thirteenth century, when they 
were foimd as shepherds tending their flocks among the hills. 
Groaning under the yoke of their own hoyars, they were 
attracted to this country by the more humane treatment of 
the Hungarian landed proprietors. 

' Figures furnished by the Government Statistics' Department. 



190 Hungary 

The fact that uniformity of speech — a characteristic of 
most European States — ^is not found in Hungary, is due 
chiefly to her turbulent history and partly to her toleration. 
The sub-nationalities are welcome to their languages, but the 
Magyars claim the right to lead. The assimilation of the 
races, too, especially of the better educated classes, is so exten- 
sive that it would be impossible to-day to settle Hungarian 
society according to descent. Intermarriage has been so 
common that it would be hard to find a Magyar who has not 
the blood of one or more of the sub-nationalities in his veins. 
Those whose mother-tongue is German, Slav, or Roumanian 
enjoy perfect freedom in the use of their idiom. There are 
thousands of churches in Hungary in which the Magyar 
tongue is never heard. They enjoy their idiom also in 
parochial and county administration. Though the teaching 
medium is Magyar in the grammar schools belonging to the 
State, two-thirds at least of the grammar schools are denomi- 
national, supported nominally by the religious communities 
whose names they bear, but really by generous State grants. 
In such schools the teaching medium is the language of the 
nominal supporters — non-Magyar in quite a third of the cases. 
The Hungarian Government merely stipulates (1) that the 
instruction shall be inspired by a patriotic spirit, and (2) that 
the Magyar language shall also be taught. 

When the aboHtion of the privileges of the nobility over- 
threw class distinctions (in 1848), all those who had received 
a good education, of whatever nationality and rank of society, 
became Magyars in tongue and sentiment. Even the children 
of foreigners recently settled in the country have become 
Hungarians in the first generation. 



CHAPTER VI 

LANGUAGE AND LITERATURE 

Of oriental origin, as we have already seen, the Magyars have 

dwelt so long in Europe that their language is neither oriental 

nor occidental, but a mixture of both. It is 

^'^Htfnear'^ ^ language of prefixes and suffixes, rich in 
inflections, almost every relation existing 
between things being perfectly expressed by modifications of 
the words. One may almost regard it as a syUabic tongue, 
the syllables being capable of an infinite variety of unions : 
and although usually the Magyar employs simple terms to 
express himself, it is quite possible to construct a whole 
sentence in a single word. Thus : Megkarimdzitlaniihatndlak 
(" I could take the brim off your hat "). Megkopenyegesit- 
telenittehhetnelek ("I could deprive you of your gown"). 
With all its flexibility, however, it is remarkable that many 
relative words have no abstract forms on which the relatives are 
based. Though the word asszony (woman) has a number of 
modifications, the Hungarian word for wife cannot be expressed 
without qualification ; one may speak of my wife {felesegem), 
or his wife (felesege), but never of wife simply. Though a 
woman may stand alone, a wife is always associated with 
another person, naturally a male. 

It is known that several European languages have absurdi- 
ties with regard to the gender of some substantives. In 
French for instance, all inanimate objects are either masculine 
or feminine : in German a " httle man " is neuter as well 
as a " girl " and a " Miss " : the same in Greek ; but the 
greatest absurdity is in the Hungarian, for man, woman, and 
child, are neither masculine, feminine, nor neuter : there 
being no genders at all in the Magyar tongue. 

A favourite way of presenting a strange language to a 

191 



192 Hungary 

reader is the use of the Lord's Prayer as a medium. This I 
give, with a sublinear rendering into English, as follows : 

Mi Atydnk hi vagy a Mennyekben, szenteltessek meg a Te 
Our Father who art in , Heaven, hallowed be Thy 

Neved ; jojjdn el a Te Orszdgad ; legyen meg a Te akaratod 
Name ; come Thy Kingdom ; let Thy will (be done) 

miitt a Mennyben tigy a foldon is ; a mi mindennapi 
as in Heaven so on Earth also ; our every-day 

kenyerilnket add meg nikiink ma; is bocsdsd meg a mi 
bread give us to-day ; and pardon our 

vetkeinket, mikSpen mi is megbocsdtunk azoknak, a kik 
trespasses, as we pardon those who 

elleniink vetkeztek ; is ne vigy minket kisertetbe ; 
trespass against us : and not lead us into temptation ; 

de szabadits meg minket a gonosztol ; mert Tied az 
but deUver us from evil : for Thine (is) the 

Orszdg, es a hatalom, is a dicsosig mind orokke. 
Kingdom, and the power, and the glory forever. 

There are many striking analogies between the Magyar 
and the Hebrew tongues, as the few examples following will 
show : Kalap (hat) suggests the Hebrew kelub, anything 
woven — as were the hats of the common Hungarians in the 
early times. Nap (sun, or day) is similar to the Hebrew 
noph (hght). Compare csillag (star) with kilak, the Hebrew 
for flashing or twinkling. 

On the other hand, there are a few words in Magyar that 
will sound familiar to English ears — ^not, however, that the 
Hungarians have borrowed them from us, but we from them 
in most cases : Hdz (house), kocsi (coach), huszdr (hussar), 
csdk6 (shako), juh (ewe), kapitdny (captain), it (eat), 
mester (master), orkdn (hmricane), posia (post-ofhce), Szent 
(saint), tyiik (hen, chuck), csirke (chicken) and vers (verse). 



Language and Literature 



193 



A little knowledge, however, is often a dangerous thing, 
and it were well that the reader, if interested in the study of 
comparative philology, should pay due attention to the 
following : 

Buior is not butter, but furniture. 

Boldog is not that fierce animal to which the Briton is 
sometimes likened : it signifies happy. 

Elegy is a mixture, and has no reference to Gray's well- 
known verses. 

Eleven is not the number, it means alive. 

Fog is not the famous product of London, but a tooth. 

Hat is not to be worn on the head, it is the number six. 

Hit is not suggestive of a blow, it means faith. 

Karpit is not for the floor, it is wall-paper. 

Every priest or minister of reUgion in Hungary is a pope 
(pap). 

The foregoing examples of Hungarian words will be better 
understood by a few explanatory remarks on the pronuncia- 
tion, and the value of the letters of the alphabet, where they 
differ materially from the English : 
a pronounced as in watch. 
d „ „ bar. 

e „ ,, let. 

e „ as « in late. 
,, ea ,, meat. 
„ oa ,, moan. 

as in fuU. 
as 00 in tool. 
6 and 8 „ hke the German o — o being given a 

longer drawl. 
a and M „ like the French u in mur and une 

respectively. 

As to the consonants : c is always soft ; g is always hard 
(to soften it y must be added -gy) ; / has the value of y in yes / 
and s is pronounced Uke sh in she (the addition of z — ^thus sz — 

13— (2394) 



194 Hungary 

gives it the value of the English s) . Besides the two compound 
consonants referred to, there are cs, Uke the English ch ; and 
zs, like the. French /. 

Once the various sounds are mastered, the pronunciation 
of Hungarian is extremely* simple. It is absolutely phonetic 
and the accent is invariably on the first syllable. 

But the student must beware of the accented vowels, or 
he will be caught tripping. Kar means arm, and kdr injury ; 
kerek is round, kerek wheel, and kerek please ; triilt means mad, 
and oriUt, he was glad ; megyek, I go, and megyek, countries ; 
kutya means dog, and kutja, his well ; erem, my vein, and 
erem, medal ; rdk, crab, and rak, to store. 

Any language must appear diiificult to the uninitiated, 
and those who know the Magyar tongue except Hungarians, 
are somewhat few and far between. Yet it is a language 
worth knowing ; for, new as it may be to many of my 
compatriots, Hungary has a hterature worthy of the country's 
great past. 

The most ancient manuscript existing in the Magyar is 

a funeral oration and prayer dating as far 

UteratarT ^^^^ ^ *^^ twelfth century, having been 

transcribed in the year 1171 during the reign 

of Stephen III. 

After the nation had become Christian an impetus was 
given to hterary activity, and numbers of translations of 
parts of the Holy Scriptures, sermons, prayers, hymns, and 
legends appeared. In the Hungarian Academy to-day are 
thirteen large volumes of these, which not only show the 
development of Hungarian style but also the effect of eccle- 
siasticism on the people. The influence of Huss is seen in the 
Bible translations, the philosophy of St. Thomas Aquinas in 
the controversial works of Nicholas MirabUibus, while the 
spirit of popular devotion breathes from the pu,bhshed ser- 
mons of Pelbirt of Temesvar, a famous preacher of the 
fifteenth century. 

The spirit of the Renaissance completely captivated King 



Language and Literature 195 

Matthias, who not only called in Italian artists to build and 
decorate his palace, but also surrounded himself with Latin 
historians, orators, and poets. An army of copyists and 
illuminators were constantly at work for him ; and his cele- 
brated library, consisting of between six and seven thousand 
volumes, was regarded as a most wonderful achievement in 
that early age. In 1472 the printing press was introduced 
into Hungary, thus anticipating England by five years. 
Virgil was the poetic ideal of those days, and his spirit and 
form inspired the Hungarian votaries of the muse. Among 
the learned circle of King Matthias, one John of Pannonia 
{Janus Pannonius) attained European fame as a poet. 

It was a sad day for all literary aspirants, as well as for the 
cause of literature itself when Matthias died. The splendid 
intellectual monument he had reared fell to ruins ; the pro- 
fessors were dispersed, and the books carried away by the 
Germans and the Txirks. 

iFor 350 years after the battle of Mohacs (1526) no Hun- 
garian king occupied the throne. The three sections into 
which the country was spUt up were waging constant war 
with each other ; ^ political and religious disputes, struggles 
between oppressors and oppressed, were a source of anarchy, 
uncertainty, and misery, causing the mother-tongue to 
languish. Yet the soul of the nation was not crushed ; 
their trials only strengthened the Magyars' love for their 
language and promoted its cultivation. 

The Reformation did invaluable service to the cause of 
literature in Hungary. Its preachers preached and sang in the 
native tongue, whereas the priests and teachers of the earlier 
faith (the Catholic) used the Latin, not only in the services 
of the Church but in the ordinary daily intercourse, to the 
detriment of the native idiom. Numbers of printing 
establishments were erected, books (mostly on religious 
controversy) were printed and sold on the markets and at the 
periodical fairs. Schools also were opened, three of which 

> Vidg Chapter II. 



196 Hungary 

(those at Sarospatak, Debreczen, and Papa) are flourishing 
to-day. To the zeal of the Reformers, the Hungarians are 
indebted for their first grammar, first dictionary, and first 
translations of foreign works into the Magyar tongue. Pro- 
testantism in Hungary was eminently patriotic, and though 
its adherents regarded religious propaganda as their chief 
work, the fundamental condition of nationalism — ^the cultiva- 
tion of its mother-tongue — ^was thoroughly fulfilled. The 
Catholics reaUsed that their power and influence in the country 
were doomed unless something was done. To counteract, 
therefore, the work of their opponents, the Jesuits were caUed 
in, who, with their weapons of learning, enthusiasm, and 
violence, sent the Protestants to the waU, condemned their 
most gifted clergy to prison and the gaUeys, and closed their 
churches and schools. 

In this counter-reformation, Peter Pizmdny, Cardinal 
Archbishop of Esztergom, was the moving spirit. He turned 
the Protestants' own weapon — the vernacular — ^against them ; 
wielding the Magyar with greater force than they all, and 
vanquishing every opponent that dared to enter the dialectic 
lists against him. Thus proving that Magyarism was not 
incompatible with Catholicism, he became the second founder 
(St. Stephen being the first) of the Roman Church in Hungary. 
He founded, in 1635, the Jesuit University of Nagyszombat, 
the mother of the University of Budapest. 

Transylvania alone remained firm against the assaults 
of Cardinal Pazmany. Her greatest Protestant, Albert 
Molnar, of Szencz, wandered about from one German Uni- 
versity to another, often weary and hungry, yet besides a 
Hungarian grammar and dictionary, he managed to translate 
Calvin's works into his mother-tongue. 

Count Nicolas Zrinyi, the terror of the Truks, was the 
contemporary of Pdzmany. Though a renowned warrior — 
as one might have supposed more familiar with the sword 
than with the pen — ^he has left to posterity a number of poems 
of considerable merit. 



Language and Literature 197 

Another contemporary, Stephen Gyongyosi, a magistrate 
of Gomor, has immortalised in verse some of the stirring 
deeds of Hungarian history. 

Protestantism being identified with national freedom, it 
was the constant policy of the Imperial Court to crush both. 
The Princes of Transylvania, Bocskay, Bethlen, and 
Rak6czy, raised armies in defence of Hungary and Protest- 
antism, resulting in a more tolerable condition of affairs, in 
which learned men, summoned from abroad, displayed great 
zeal in the development of education along national and 
Protestant hnes. 

Clement Mikes was the last representative of mediaeval 
literature, his literary utterances being directed against the 
tyranny of the Court of Vienna. 

By degrees the insurrections against oppression lost their 
rehgious character and became purely national. Early in 
the eighteenth century this sentiment is expressed in poems 
recounting the heroic deeds of Thokoly and Rak6czy. 
The Rak6czy Song, composed after the defeat at Trencs6n, 
was the forerunner of Liszt's spirit-stirring Rak6czy March, 
which is not unknown in England. 

The kindly personality of Queen Maria Theresa was a 
magnet drawing Hungary within the sphere of Viennese 
influence. Hungarian nobles broke with their family tradi- 
tions, and their society became Germanised through such 
intimate contact with the Court. Once more Latin was in 
the ascendant, a History of Literature being begun in that 
language, but never finished. Pastor Peter Bod shook his 
head at Latin and sat down to write in Hungarian his History 
of the Protestant Church and of Hungarian Literature. The 
times were mediocre ; nevertheless they produced George 
Bessenyey, Alexander Baroczy, Joseph PeczeU, Nicolas 
R6vai, the great philologist, and Benedict Virag who wrote, 
besides poems, a History of the Hungarian Centuries {Magyar 
Szdzadok TortSnete). 

In 1790 reaction set in ; the crown was brought back from 



198 Hungary 

Vienna, 1 and the peculiar Magyar dress became fashionable 
throughout Hungary. Societies for the cultivation of the 
national language sprang up and were well supported. At this 
time two distinguished* poets flourished : Michael Vitez of 
Csokona, and Alexander Kisfaludy ; the former a miUtary 
officer, the latter a country squire, whose Songs of Himfy 
have secured him a niche in the temple of fame. 

Another country gentleman, Francis Kazinczy, of Zempldn, 
who suffered a long imprisonment for his liberal opinions, 
besides editing periodicals, translated into Himgarian a 
number of the works of Cicero, Shakespeare, Moli^re and 
Goethe. 

To accord mention to all Hungarian litterateurs jilstly 
worthy of it, would require a volume instead of a chapter ; 
therefore I must regretfully pass over several names of 
nineteenth century celebrities. 

In the early part of the century the Holy AlUance fettered 
every literary aspiration among the Hungarians. Police 
t5rranny and espionage ruled supreme. But repression always 
has its rebound. In this case it produced Joseph Katona, 
who, with the patriotic tragedy Bdnk Bdn aroused the national 
spirit. Not understood at first, the work attracted no public 
attention, but in the 'forties (when the author slept in his 
quiet grave) it called forth enthusiastic applause, and with 
Petofi's fiery appeals, paved the way for the events of '48. 

After the death, in the thirties, of Charles Kisfaludy 
(brother of the Alexander previously mentioned), Michael 
Vorosmarty became the acknowledged leader of Hungarian 
literature. He edited the Weekly Athenceum. His Szozat 
(Appeal) alone, among his numerous beautiful poems that 
have been set to music, would have earned his title to an 
imperishable memory. His statute, adorning Gizella Square, 
in Budapest, bears carved on its marble pedestal the opening 
lines of this deeply affecting patriotic address, of which an 
English rendering is given : 

* After the death of the Emperor Joseph II (vide Chapter II). 




Photographed for this work by Mr. Ndndor Szahd. 

VOROSMARTY MONUMENT, BUDAPEST 



Language and Literature 199 

" Hazddnak rendiiletleniil, legy hive Magyar I " 

O Magyar, by thy native land 
With faithful heart abide ! 
Thy cradle first, thy grave at last. 
It nursed thee and shall hide. 

For thee the spacious world affords 
As home no other spot. 
Here must ;thou live and here must die. 
Be weal or woe thy lot. 

Upon this soil thy fathers' blood 
Flowed to redeem thy claims. 
Upon this soil ten centuries 
Engrave immortal names. 

Here struggled Arpad's gallant crew 
To win our fatherland. 
And here the yoke of slavery 
Was snapt by Hunyad's hand. 

Here Freedom's banner, dyed with blood. 

Shone proudly from afar. 

Here fell the bravest of the brave 

In long protracted war. 

It cannot be that all in vain 
Have countless tears been shed : 
Or vainly for the fatherland 
Unnumbered hearts have bled. 

O Magyar, for thy country play 

A firm and faithful part ; 

She gives thee strength, and if thou fall 

She hides thee in her heart. 

The spacious world doth offer thee 
For home no other spot ; 
Here must thou live, and here must die. 
Be weal or woe thy lot. 

Among Vorosmarty's literary associates must be mentioned 
Bajza, Kolcsey, Garay, and Toldy, not omitting Andrew Fay, 
the Magyar ^Esop, author of more than 600 fables. 

We have already referred to Count Stephen Sz6chenyi as a 
reformer ; ^ we have now to see him as a man of letters. 
Finding his countrymen indifferent to high culture, which 

1 Vide Chapter IV. 



200 Hungary 

alone could redeem the nation from the prejudices of an 
obsolete system, Sz6chenyi resolved to set an example of 
patriotic self-sacrifice. In 1825 he founded the Academy 
of Science, the chief object^of which was to revive the Magyar 
tongue and liberate it from the Germanising influences of 
Austrian domination. The stirring words of the greatest Hun- 
garian are recalled to-day, though the circumstances under 
which they were uttered have happily changed : Hungary 
was not, but shall be I Let us not weep over the past, but labour 
for the future I 

" I am not here," he said, " as a great dignitary of the 
kingdom ; but I am an opulent landowner, and if an institu- 
tion be estabUshed that will develop the Magyar language 
and, by so doing, advance the national education of our 
countrjnnen, I will sacrifice the revenues of my estates for 
one year." Loud Eljens (Hurrahs) greeted this generous 
offer, after which ensued dead silence for some minutes. 

Then Mr. Vay, M.P., rising, said : " The unexpected offer 
just made, like all great actions, stunned us for the instant ; 
now, however, we are conscious again. I offer 20,000 florins 
in aid of the good work." 

Then followed Count Andrassy with an offer of 10,000 
florins, and Count Karol}^ of six months' revenue. 

These were the four original founders of the Hungarian 
Academy of Science in 1825. Five years later saw the noble 
institution an accomplished fact. 

Count Stephen Szlcheny's personal contributions to the 
national hterature consisted of a number of publications on 
Credit and Economic Reform. 

Before the War of Freedom (1848) the three principal 
Hungarian novehsts were Baron Nicolas Josika, Baron Joseph 
Eotvos, and Baron Sigismund Kemeny, whose productions 
inspired their countrymen with hope for the future. 

A National Theatre was sanctioned by the Government, 
for the encouragement of dramatic hterature. Thus encour- 
aged, excellent play-writers and actors made their appearance : 



Language and Literature 201 

among them Edward Szigligeti, Mesdames Kintor and D6ry, 
Charles Megyeri, the comedian, and Madame J6kay, the 
poetical reciter. 

To Michael Tompa, a poor Calvanist pastor of Gomor, the 

Magyars are indebted for Folk Tales and Legends, collected 

from the residents around the ancient castles 

Tom^a! °^ *^® neighbourhood in which he hved and 

laboured. His works betray a love of nature 

and simplicity of heart not unlike those of Sir Walter 

Scott. 

The impetus given by Sz&henyi and his three companions 
to the reform movement never slackened. Indeed, its 
rapid progress alarmed even the one who had called it into 
being. The national spirit, now awakened, grasped its 
possibihties, and under the leadership of the heroic Louis 
Kossuth the Magyars resolved to put their destiny to the 
test. The story of the Revolution belongs to the domain 
of history and not to that of Hterature ; though the reference 
to that stupendous event was necessary, since it gave to the 
Hungarians their bard of freedom, Alexander Petofi. At the 
age of twenty-six this gifted poet met the glorious death he 
prayed for at the battle of Segesvar. 

It must not, however, be inferred from this remark that 
Petofi was an enthusiast for mihtary life. On the contrary, 
his Conscript service was most distasteful to his refined and 
sensitive sotil, as we find in a letter he wrote from barracks 
to a friend : " I feel how deeply I have sunk, from the 
profession of a scholar, to mix with uneducated, unfeeling men, 
the prey of a rude tyrant." ^ 

Yet when the supreme hour struck a few years later (1848) 
he roused his country with the clarion call : 

" Talpia Magyar I 
Hi a haza " ' 

• Alexander Petdfi, Poet of the Hungarian War of Independence, by 
Dr. A. B. YoUand. 

' Magyars arise ! Your country calls you. 



202 Hungary 

shouldered his musket and marched away with the rest, to 
offer all he had — ^his life — on the altar of Freedoin, as did 
thousands of his heroic compatriots. He was the idol and the 
ideal of the youth of Hungary, an admirer of Shakespeare, 
some of whose works he translated, and above all an 
enthusiastic lover of his native land. 

The greatest epic poet of Hungary was John Arany, con- 
temporary with Petofi, though unknown to fame at the time 
of the latter's death. 

Mamice Jokai, whose entertaining romances are much read 

in England, was for fifty years one of the chief ornaments of 

Magyar hterature. A prolific story-writer, 

I ' legacy to posterity, the best known being 
A Ma^ar Nabob, Black Diamonds, and Rab Rdby. An excel- 
lent dehneator of character, J6kai has drawn for us, with the 
fideUty of a master, pictures of the Ufe that moved around 
him, in the towns and on the iUimitable plains of the land of 
his birth. 

From Jokai to the present day the path of hterature is 
marked by the forms of many eminent writers — Fogarasi, the 
lexicographer, Paul Gyulai, the biographer of Vorosmarty 
and Katona, Francis D6ak, whose state papers are treasures 
of Hungarian political literature, Charles Szasz, the translator 
of foreign hterary masterpieces, and Kalmdn Mikszath, the 
popular noveHst, to name only a few. 

The greatest Hungarian poem of modern times, and one of 

the chief glories of Magyar hterature, is the Tragedy of Man, 

by Imre Madach. It is related that 

Ma^ch John Arany, after reading it, saluted the 

author as his superior. In this work the 

highest summits of poetic thought are scaled. With the 

subUmity of expression and the boldness of conception of a 

Milton, the poet seems to have beheld with his own eyes and 

felt with his own heart the struggles of humanity upward, 

toward the hght of divine truth. Dramatised and produced 




THE LATE PROFESSOR ARMINIUS VAMBERY 
(Disd loth September, 1913) 



Language and Literature 203 

on the Hungarian stage, The Tragedy of Man has evoked 
universal admiration from the most celebrated thinkers and 
teachers of the age. 

The three most prominent Hungarian dramatists to-day 
appear to be Menyhert Lengyel, whose Typhoon has had 
immense success in New York and later in London ; Francis 
Molnar, whose Devil brought him fame and fortune in 
America ; and Alexander Br6dy, author of The Lady-Teacher, 
whose realistic theatre pieces always secure crowded houses. 
Among the eminent living writers — it would be impossible 
to name them all — ^may be mentioned Eugene Rakosi, editor 
of the Budapesti Hirlap ; Dr. Albert Berzeviczy, president 
of the Academy of Sciences ; Professor Bernard Alexander, a 
Shakespearean scholar ; Count Julius Andrassy, an authority 
on constitutional law ; Count Albert Appon5ri, a keen political 
controversialist ; Mr. Francis Kossuth (son of the famous 
Dictator), some time Minister of Commerce, who has written 
on industrial labour legislation ; Dr. Antal Giinter, ex-Minister 
of Justice, and now President of the High Courts ; Professor 
Arminius Vambery, famous all over the world for his linguistic 
attainments and ethnographical research ; and Professor 
Zsolt Beothy, whose works I have drawn upon for the present 
chapter. Dr. Giinter has the traditional merit of having 
risen from the lowest rung of the ladder, by dint of indomitable 
perseverence allied to sterling integrity of character. Even 
his opponents speak well of him — and in Hungary that is 
valuable testimony to a man's worth. 

To the venerable Professor Vambery ^ belongs the peculiar 
distinction of having spent a long period of his Ufe in England 
— at Oxford University — and enjoyed the 
VSmb&T intimate friendship of Britain's most illus- 
trious, including Queen Victoria, King 
Edward, and the present reigning sovereigns. So anglophile 
is he that the fact has sometimes been used to reproach him 

1 Since the above was printed, Professor Vambfiry's death has been 
announced. 



204 Hungary 

with ; unjustly, however, since he declined the offer of Eng- 
lish citizenship — ^the stepping-stone to power and wealth — 
choosing to remain faithful to the land of his birth. Pro- 
fessor Vambdry, like Dr. Giinter, is a " self-made man " and 
another striking example of what may be accomplished by 
force of character and that patience which, in the words of 
Longfellow, can 

Learn to labour and to wait. 
Such is in brief the story of Hungarian literature. But 
nearly everything genuine has its counterfeit, and there is 
in this case a reverse to the medal. Flooding some of the 
bookshops of Budapest to-day is a pseudo literature, consisting 
of erotic novels with suitably piquant illustrations, degrading 
to the taste and ruinous to the moral sense of the nation. 
Some of the humorous papers, too, are vulgar and even 
indecent, while the picture post cards exhibited in some shop- 
windows would not be tolerated in England. The words of 
Tennyson most aptly describe the state of things to which 
I refer : 

Author, essayist, atheist, noveUst, realist, rhymster — play your part. 
Paint the mortal shame of nature with the living hues of Art. 
Rip your brothers' vices open, strip your own foul passions bare ; 
Down with Reticence, down with Reverence — forward — naked^ — let 

them stare. 
Feed the budding rose of boyhood with the drainage of your sewer. 
Send the drain into the fountain, lest the stream should issue pure. 
Set the maiden fancies wallowing in the troughs of Zolaism, 
Forward, forward, ay, and backward, downward too into the abysm. 
Do your best to charm the worst, to lower the rising race of men : 
Have we risen from the beast ? Then back into the beast again 1 ' 

It is a pity that some concerted action is not taken to check 
this growing intellectual corruption which, if persisted in, 
must sooner or later recoil on the heads of the authorities 
that permit it. * Books — good ones — ^are as httle read in 

^ Locksley Hall Sixty Years After. 

^ The question of Legal Measures against Immoral Literature was 
discussed at the International Publishers' Congress held at Budapest 
in June this year, when important resolutions on the subject were 
adopted. 



Language and Literature 205 

Hungary to-day as newspapers are read too much ; though 
happily there are signs of improvement in this respect, thanks 
to the praiseworthy efforts of a small band of young authors 
of the right sort. Ida Ferency's stories are among the few 
that can safely be put into the hands of young people ; many 
of them are reminiscent of Maria Edgeworth. 

Between thirty and forty daily papers are published in 

Budapest, the most extensively circulated being the Pesti 

Hirlap (originally founded by Louis Kossuth), 

The Press. Budapesti Hirlap, Az Ujsdg, Pester Lloyd, 

and Neues Pester Journal. To the quality 

of the news that these and the rest supply little exception 

can be taken, but it is to be regretted that more discrimination 

is not shown in the matter of the advertisements. Many of 

the latter have a truly oriental flavour, and would bring a 

blush to the cheek of any self-respecting Briton able to 

understand them. 

In Hungary, as in England, the Press is supposed to be free 
and unfettered, yet the paper attacking the Government 
must look out : it is not uncommon for a newspaper 
that has so offended to be forbidden to be sold in the streets 
and at the railway-stations. As another writer has justly 
observed, any attempt to limit the freedom of the Press 
invariably leads to grave danger. ^ The Press being one of the 
great safety valves of the nation, to sit upon it is naturally 
to court explosion. 

Of magazine hterature there are the organs of the various 
churches and societies, as well as those representing nothing 
in particular. The Vasdrnapi Ujsdg (Sunday News) is one 
of the best illustrated weekly popidar journals ; the Huszadik 
Szdzad (Twentieth Century), edited by Mr. Oskar Jaszi, is the 
organ of a smaU band of outspoken politicians who are 
" spreading the light " ; the Budapesti Szimle (organ of the 
Academy of Science), edited jointly by Dr. Berzeviczy and 

' To prosecute editors and journalists on account of libellous or 
obscene matter is, however, quite a different thing. 



206 Hungary 

Professor Beothy ; and the Tarsadaiomtudomdwyi Szemle 
(Social Science Review), edited by Professor Eugene Gaal, are 
treasure-houses of current knowledge respecting scientific 
and social movements at home and abroad ; while two 
English illustrated journate, Hungary and the Hungarian 
Spectator (organ of the British-American Literary Society) 
foirm connecting links between the country and English- 
speaking people who have visited or who are in any way 
interested in the land of the Magyars. 

Native journalism is not accorded such an honourable place 
as in England. Hungarian journalists are badly paid in 
comparison with their English confreres, and the esteem they 
enjoy is in proportion to their low emoluments. This is a 
great drawback to the development of literary talent among 
the poor ; and it may be that many a budding Shakespeare 
or Milton in this country is, owing to his poverty, 

born to blush unseen 

And waste his sweetness on the desert air. 

Vorosmarty, Tompa, Petofi, and Arany were all fearfully 
poor, and but for their dogged pertinacity would never have 
secured public recognition of their glorious talents even after 
their deaths. They were the exceptions proving the rule. 

Pure wholesome Uterature does not to-day in Hungary 
offer sufficient advantage and reward to cause many to desire 
to cultivate it as a means of Uvelihood ; so that, generally 
speaking, the most prominent Hungarian writers of to-day 
are men and women of private means, or of incomes derived 
from other professions, who write, not for gain, but either for 
the love of Uterature or the laudable desire to instruct and 
uphft their fellows. Their efforts will in due time, we feel 
sure, have their recompense in the raising of the national 
hterary tone to the place it formerly occupied, and, with an 
enlightened pubUc opinion, making a clean sweep of the 
debasing prints that poUute the minds of the rising generation. 




HIS EXCELLENCY DR. ALBERT BERZEVICZY, M.P. 

[Sometime Minister for Public Instruction ; now President 
of the Academy of Sciences) 



CHAPTER VII 

RELIGION AND EDUCATION 

The religion of the original Magyars was a kind of monotheism. 

Like the Druids of ancient Britain, they erected their altars 

on the hill-tops, in the forest glades, and shady 

Religion groves. Their favourite sacrificial victim was 

a white horse. Their Good Spirit was Isten, ^ 

their Evil Spirit Ordog, by which names they are known 

to-day in the Magyar tongue. 

Believing in the immortality of the soul, they encouraged 
no mourning over their dead, regarding a relative's departure 
from this life rather as an occasion for feasting and merriment, 
to celebrate the deceased's entrance into a better world. 
They usually buried their dead by the side of a river, as though 
to facilitate their passage to the spirit-land. 

Their priests were also the counsellors, poets, physicians, 
and philosophers of the nation. The Hungarian historian, 
Horvath, says : " In their festivals and at the sacrifices they 
sang heroic songs, accompanied by the harp, to awaken the 
love of glory in the people, to incite them to courage and 
fortitude, or to soften their savage moods. The people paid 
their priests profound respect, but decUiied to allow them to 
violate or curtail the popular liberties, as the priests had done 
in so many other Eastern lands." ^ 

When King Stephen imdertook to bring his subjects into 
the Christian fold, he found his task beset with difficulties. 
They argued that the old faith was as good as the new one ; 
the latter was certainly more compUcated and speculative, 
while those who professed it were more quarrelsome and 
uncharitable than themselves ; moreover, they were neither 
more moral nor more honourable. To abandon their ancient 

1 Compare the Persian Izdan. 
' Geschichte der Ungarn. 

207 



208 Hungary 

faith was in their eyes to abandon their dead ancestors who 
had professed it, and that were an act of disloyalty. 

As in the case of other heathen nations in the days when 
the Christian faith was young, attempts were made to coerce 
the Magyars into an aoceptance of it, and much bloodshed 
resulted. Hardly by that means, however, was the conver- 
sion of the Hungarians finally effected, but rather by the noble 
character of the monarch himself. King Stephen was as 
upright and virtuous as he was pious and patriotic. He 
despatched Christian missionaries over the length and breadth 
of his dominions, and the people's love for their monarch 
constrained them to examine the new faith more closely 
than at first — with the desired result. 

From the eleventh century till the Reformation the Hun- 
gariahs bore undivided allegiance to the see of Rome. The 
Slavs of Hungary, however, evinced a pre- 
^^h ^^^ ^""^ ference for the doctrines of the Greek Church, 
Churches. whose patriarch had his seat at Constanti- 
nople. Sending a deputation to the Greek 
Emperor Basil, asking the monarch to intercede with the 
patriarch that rehgious teachers might be sent to them, then- 
request was compUed with, and the Slav provinces of Lower 
Hungary were, in the early part of the thirteenth century, 
received into the pale of the Greek Church. The conversion 
of the Russians following soon afterwards, nearly aU the Slavs 
in Europe, from the Baltic to the Bosphorus, and from 
Bohemia to the Euxine, professed Christianity as taught by 
the Greek communion. 

The Roman pontifEs could not view with equanimity the 
loss of the support of these rich lands ; while on the other 
hand, the Greek patriarchs on various occasions made pro- 
posals for reunion with the Western branch of the Church. 
But whenever the schemes put forward were on the point 
of being accepted the lower Greek clergy would rise en masse 
in uncompromising resistance and the negotiations would 
consequently be abruptly broken off. 



Religion and Education 209 

Individual priests and small groups of clergy there were, 
however, who went over from the Greek to the Roman 
allegiance. They were not required to abjure any of their 
distinguishing doctrines or ceremonies. Such were, and stiU 
are, known in Hungary as the United, or Greek Oriental 
{Gorog Keleti) Church. They anoint the sick, baptise by 
immersion, administer commimion in both kinds, and the 
clergy marry. 

It may safely be said that the Roman Catholics of Hungary 
have never been such docile children of the Church as have 
those of most other CathoUc countries. They have always 
contended for the right of private judgment, and the papal 
system has apparently often been too arbitrary to suit their 
temper. Count Julius Andrassy says : " The Hungarians 
played a comparatively small part in the Crusades, and they 
managed to remain at peace even with the pagan Cumanians. 
They never developed that zeal in the persecution of heretics 
which the Pope expected of them. In spite of the most 
urgent requests to the contrary, they tolerated the Jews in 
the country and did them no harm." ^ And when the dogma 
of papal infaUibiUty was promulgated in 1871 only a single 
Hungarian bishop* could be found bold enough to publish 
the declaration in his diocese, and he for his temerity was 
compelled promptly to resign his see. With a race of people 
of such independent spirit, it was small wonder that the 
doctrines of the Reformation found many adherents, and that 
Protestantism took firm root and flourished. The Magyar 
is passionately tenacious of his individual liberty ; though it 
must be admitted that, unless the subject be a person of high 
culture and strength of character, individual liberty is not 
an unmixed blessing. 

The King of Hungary is the head of the Catholic Church 

1 Development of Hungarian Constitutional Liberty, p. 25. 

" Bishop Jekelfalussy of Szfekesfehfervir. Haynald, Archbishop 
of Kalocsa, too, stoutly refused to accept the dogma of papal 
infaUibility at the (Ecumenical CouncU of 1870. 

14— (2394) 



210 , Hungary 

I 
within his dominions. Being a layman, however, his eccle- 
siastical authority is delegated and divided among the three 
archbishops : the Archbishop of Esztergom^ and Prince- 
Primate (Dr. John Csernoch), the Archbishop of Kalocsa 
(Dr. Glattf elder), and the Archbishop of Eger (Dr. Szmre- 
csany). Under these are fifteen diocesan bishops, a greater 
number of titular bishops, 260 canons, one arch-abbot 
(HypoUte Feh6r, of Pannonhalma), 150 abbots, and the rank 
and file of the regular and secular clergy in their thousands. 

The Greek Church in Hungary is governed by two bishops 
(who in their turn are controlled by the Roman Catholic 
Prince-Primate), eleven canons, six honorary canons, and 
upwards of a thousand ordinary priests. The United, or 
Greek Oriental Church, more numerous than the so-called 
" Independent " body, is under the spiritual — and in some 
respects even the temporal — ^jurisdiction of the Patriarch 
of Karlocza (Dr. Lucian Bogdanovics), who, like the Roman 
Pontiff, is accorded the official title of " His Holiness." 

At the last religious census the numbers of the adherents 
of the various confessions were as follows : 



Roman Catholics 


9,919,913 


51-5 per cent. 


Greek Oriental 


2,815,713 


14-6 „ 


Reformed 


2,441,142 


12-7 


Greek Catholics 


1,854,143 


9-6 


Evangelical 


1,288,942 


6-7 


Jews 


851,378 


4-4 


Unitarians 


68,568 


■4 


Baptists and others 


14,760 


•1 



These figures include Croatia-Slavonia, where the inhabi- 
tants are about evenly divided between the Roman and the 
Greek communions. In Hungary Proper {i.e., exclusive of 
Croatia-Slavonia) the Roman CathoUcs are in the proportion 
of 71 '3 per cent. The adherents of the two Greek churches 
comprise nearly one-fourth, and those of the three Protestant 
confessions about one-fifth of the total population. The 
Baptist community, though small, is exceedingly active, and 

' The Strigonium of the Romans. 



Religion and Education 211 

enjoys the assistance and support of the brethren in Germany 
and Great Britain. A still smaller body are the Nazarenes, 
who resemble the Quakers in many respects — especially in 
their rejection of forms and ceremonies and their uncom- 
promising attitude towards military service. As by law 
every man not physically incapacitated must undergo a 
period of training in some branch of the Army and fight if 
required to do so by the authorities, it was inevitable that 
such a rehgious body as the Nazarenes should have to endure 
suffering for conscience sake. The Hungarians are, however, 
a humane people, and this has been shown in recent measures 
for letting down the Nazarenes as easily as possible : so that 
nowadays every bona fde member of that body when with the 
colours performs only non-combatant's duties, assists the 
ambulance or medical corps, in accordance with his education 
and abilities. 

The Hungarian Government keeps a controUing hand on 
the clergy of all denominations, as it does, indeed, on every- 
thing else. The Miaister for Public Instruction is also 
Minister for Religion, and it is an unwritten law that this 
minister must always be a Roman Cathohc. (In the rare 
instances in which he has been a Protestant, his rule has been 
temporary only, until a suitable member of the predominating 
church could be found to fUl the post.) No appointment to 
any clerical office in any church can be made without his 
sanction. 1 The Catholic priest, the Protestant pastor, and 
the Jewish rabbi are practically on the footing of State 
employes, the amount of their salaries, emoluments, and pen- 
sion allowances being fixed by the Government and paid out 
of a fund raised by a tax per capitem. Every person is 
expected to subscribe himself as adhering to one of the first 
seven rehgious bodies mentioned on page 212 (the Baptists 
and others not being legally recognised), which is empowered 

1 Exceptions are, however, the bishops and chief dignitaries of the 
Catholic Church, who are appointed by the King in concert with the 
Pope of Rome. 



212 



Hungary 



by law to tax him, and to distrain on his goods in default"of 
payment within a prescribed period. To understand better 
the force of this, let us suppose that the English reader has 
no particular religion* convictions and never attends any 
/place of worship (as is sometimes the case with Hungarians), 
but being requested to write himself down as of some per- 
suasion he puts Congregationalist on his " identity form " and 
thinks no more about the matter. By and by he receives a 
demand note for the payment of, say, £1 10s. to the funds of 
the Congregational Union. He is astonished. " I never 
trouble these people, never go to their churches, I receive 
nothing from them," he says ; and the document is consigned 
to the waste-paper basket. A fortnight or so later a collector 
calls in person, and should the citizen remain obstinate, the 
collector wiU proceed to appraise certain articles of his furni- 
ture as a preliminary to removing them if the amount be not 
paid within eight days from the date of that visit. ^ 

It will now be interesting to observe the quality, from the 
standpoint of culture, of the adherents of the various officially 
recognised religious bodies. According to 
Den^omhJ^fons *^^ omdsl report of the Hungarian Govern- 
ment Statistics' Department, the proportion 
of the inhabitants of Hungary who, being upwards of six 
years of age, can read and write, is as foUows : 



1. Jews 

2. Evangelical 

3. Reformed . 

4. Roman Catholics 

5. Unitarians 

6. Greek Catholics 

7. Greek Oriental . 



83-03 per cent. 

82-26 

75-52 

68-26 

64-95 

23-86 

20-83 



The Jews of Hungary are enthusiasts for education and, 
as we see, stand at the top of the list. Their zeal in this respect 

1 Such was an early experience of the author, who describing himself 
as an English Protestant was erroneously classed with the adherents 
of the native Reformed Church. The error was, however, rectified before 
any harm had been done. 



Religion and Education 



213 



is so well recognised that ia the event of a person being 
mentioned as having acquired any exceptional distinction 
in the realm of science or art, it seems natural in this country 
to ask : " Is he a Jew ? " 

The Protestants follow next in order of merit ; the lowest 
being the adherents of the Greek communions, who, like 
ignorant people generally, are very superstitious. In Buda- 
pest, however, coming under the cultural influences afforded 
by the metropohs, their condition is not nearly so degraded 
as in the country. 

An examination of the various rehgious denominations 
according to the language is instructive. In Hungary Proper 
65 per cent, of the adherents of the Occidental Christian 
churches (those numbered 2, 3, 4, and 5 in the list) accept 
Magyar as their mother-tongue, whereas only 6-9 per cent, 
of the Oriental Christian churches (numbered 6 and 7) do so. 
Taking each church separately, their proportions of Magyar- 
speaking adherents are as follows : 

Unitarians . . . 99-09 per cent. ^ 

Reformed .... 98-24 „ ' 
Roman Catholics . . 60-50 ,, 

Evangelical . . . 28-56 

(38-73 per cent, being Slovaks and 32-71 per cent. Germans.) 
Greek Catholics. . . 13-39 per cent. 

(57-83 per cent, being Roumanians, 23-26 per cent. Ruthenians, and 
5-52 per cent. Slovaks.) 

Greek Oriental . . . 1-45 per cent. 

(77-99 per cent being Roumanians and 20-56 per cent. Servians.) 

Now let us take the state of education in Hungary according 
to nationality. Of persons over six years of age who can 
read and 'Arite are : 



Germans . 


. 79-63 per cent 


Magyars . 


. 72-52 


Slovaks . 


. 60-36 


Servians . 


. 48-38 


Roumanians 


. 23-88 


Ruthenians 


. 17-78 



^ Thus the Unitarians and the Reformed Church are pre-eminently 
Magyar bodies, 



214 



Hungary 



Thus the most advanced are the Germans. It should be 

explained, in fairness to the Magyars, that on the Great Plain, 

inhabited almost exclusively by them, the 

Education. population is so widely scattered that it is 

next to impossible for the children to attend 

school. The State is, however, endeavouring to remedy 

this evU to some extent by establishing " homestead " schook 

with itinerant teachers. 

To form an idea of the educational progress of the Nation- / 

alities, let the reader compare the foregoing percentages with 

those for the year 1880 : 

Germans . 
Magyars . 
Slovaks 



Servians . 

Roumanians 

Ruthenians 



68-25 per cent. 
53-56 
39-27 
37-25 
U-Ol 
8-64 



Attendance at school is compulsory in Hungary between 
the ages of six and fifteen yearS. The following table shows 
at a glance the present number of elementary schools in Hun- 
gary Proper, with the aggregate number of teachers and 
pupils attending : 



Kind of Elementary 


Number of 


Number of 


Number of 


School. 


Schools. 


Teachers. 


Pupils. 


Roman Catholic 


5,305 


9,431 


710,779 


State 






2,744 


5,291 


316-005 


Parish 








1,473 


4,314 


265,094 


Reformed . 








1,903 


3,110 


204,822 


Greek Oriental 








1,723 


2,320 


148,162 


Evangelical 








1,338 


2,317 


137,514 


Greek Catholic 








1,963 


2,207 


132,574 


Jewish 








466 


903 


35,594 


Private . 






308 


(No data) 


19,540 


Proprietary 




(No data) 


2,096 


Unitarian .... 


36 


301 


2,021 



The schools of the two Greek churches are badly staffed, 
many of them having only a single teacher each. As already 



Religion and Education 215 

pointed out, the adherents of these religious bodies are on a 
very low plane as regards education and culture. 

State schools were not established in Hungary till 1875, 
and in the following year they numbered 125 only, with 237 
teachers and some 25,000 pupils. To-day the cost of maintain- 
ing the State schools exceeds half a million pounds sterUng. 
The State assists the non-State schools also to a similar 
extent. 

The City schools, not mentioned in the table, play a very 
important part in the educational Kfe of Budapest. They 
number 385, accommodating 61,529 pupils — 25,450 boys and 
36,079 girls — and costing £350,000 annually, about a third 
of which sum is contributed by the State. 

Of Teachers' Training Colleges there are 89 — 49 for men 
and 40 for women ; 27 State-maintained, the rest denomina- 
tional. The students attending these number 2,540 men 
and 5,408 women. The predominating number of women 
contemplating a scholastic career is, an unhealthy sign. 

Of Secondary schools there are tWo kinds — ^the Gymnasia, 
for the study of the humanities, classics, history, and htera- 
ture ; and the Modern schools [RedUskola), for modern lan- 
guages, mathematics, and the natural sciences. In the 
former category are 178, staffed by 3,341 teachers, and 
attended by 54,199 pupils ; in the latter 32, with 710 teachers 
and 9540 pupils. The proportions of these pupils according 
to nationality are : Magyar, 78'89 per cent. ; German, 9*81 
per cent. ; Roumanian, 6' 13 percent. ; Slovak, 2'84 per cent. ; 
Croatian-Servian, 1*75 per cent. ; Ruthenian, 0*14 per cent. , 
others, 0"44 per cent. 

With regard to the educational establishments of University 
rank, Veszpr^m rejoiced in a University College even in the 
remote period of the Arpad kings ; and P6cs also in the year 
1367. Under the influence of the Renaissance in the reign 
of King Matthias several colleges were raised to the status 
of Universities. In Hungary Proper there are 59 such 
estabhshments ; two universities of science, one technical 



216 Hungary 

university (polsTtechnic), 10 academies of law, and 46 theolo- 
gical colleges. Government sanction has just been given 
for the foundation of two new universities, at Debreczen and 
Pozsony respectively. Budapest University has upwards of 
7,000 students, that ol Kolozsvar about 2,500. The Poly- 
technic at Budapest, has about 1,400 students, including a 
considerable proportion of women. At the two universities 
of sciences the overwhelming majority of the attenders are 
law students, while the medical students number upwards 
of 1,000. At the Polsrtechnic half the students are enrolled 
in the department of mechanical engineering, the other half 
being divided between the chemistry and architecture depart- 
ments. Outside of Hungary Proper — ^at Zagrab (better known 
to the Enghsh as Agram) — there is another University ; 
though the teaching medium there is the Croatian language. 

University extension has not yet become general in 
Hungary, though the progress made in that respect during 
the past few years is very encouraging. Among the agencies 
working in the cause may be mentioned the Urania Scientific 
Theatre and Society, the Queen Elizabeth Popular Academy, 
the People's University College, and the Free Lyceum. 
During last year the publications of these five institutions 
exceeded half a miUion, and the number of students who 
availed themselves of the opportunities of self-improvement 
were nearly as many. Of institutions devoted to the teaching 
of art, are several schools of painting, the Theatrical Academy 
and the National Academy of Music — all in Budapest — ^whUe 
there are others also at Kolozsvar, Debreczen, Zagrab, and 
the chief provincial towns. 

Museums and hbraries are naturally an important factor 
in public education, and such institutions abound in the 
capital and principal cities. The Hungarian National 
Museum at Budapest, founded in 1802, is remarkable for its 
antiquities, natural history and ethnographical collections ; 
as well as for its library, the most valuable in Hungary, 
consisting of 1,420,000 volumes and manuscripts, and the 



Religion and Education 217 

most ancient documents in the Hungarian language. Worthy 
of mention also are the Anthropological Museum, Commercial 
Museum, Technological Museum, Museum of Industrial Art 
(famed for its magnificent specimens of carpets, old chasubles, 
goldsmith's work, and rare porcelain), the Agricultural 
Museum, Geological Museum, the Academy Library (200,000 
volumes), the University Library (400,000 volumes in all 
languages, including the chief EngUsh works), the Polytechnic 
Library, and the Municipal Library, with its unrivalled 
collection of works on social science. These are all in Buda- 
pest ; many of the principal towns have institutions scarcely 
inferior to those of the metropohs. 

Hungary, with her 20,000,000 of inhabitants, ranks to-day 
next after Germany and France for her cultural means and 
the earnest efforts she puts forth ih the interests of popular 
enlightenment. 



CHAPTER VIII 

PHILANTHROPIC INSTITUTIONS 

From educational establishments to philanthropic and 
charitable institutions is not a far cry, especially with regard 

The Children to those which concern themselves with the 

of the State, welfare of the children. 

It is doubtful whether there is any country in the world 
where the children are taken so much care of as in Hungary. 
Indeed, the State has constituted itself the " over-parent " 
of every child born and living within its jurisdiction, so that 
every Hungarian boy and girl if not healthy and happy 
ought to be. In their interest the State has, directly and 
indirectly, provided no less than 1,631 infant homes, 230 
infant asylums, and 734 summer homes all over the land. 
Some of these establishments are distinctly State, county 
or municipal, while others are denominational in character ; 
in all cases, however, the State controls and insists on the 
fulfilment of the prescribed duties towards the children. 
" Baby farming " is impossible, as no private person may set 
up an infant home. 

It would not, perhaps, interest the general reader to quote 
the enactments of the law, which require every municipality 
and community to make adequate provision for its children. 
Suf&ce it to say that all the homes are fitted up in the most 
modern style, comprising a hall for games, another for work, 
dormitories, a playground with a covered shed, and suitable 
quarters for the staff. 

For the purpose of child protection Hungary is divided 
into seventeen districts, each of which has its Children's 
Court, whose business is to see that each child is properly 
cared for. The moment that the court receives notice that 
a child is being ill-treated or neglected, or exposed to immoral 

218 



Philanthropic Institutions 219 

influences, it warns its parents or guardian of the penalties 
of such conduct. If a father neglects his child he is threatened 
with deprivation of the rights of parentage imless he mends 
his ways. This deprivation wiU not, however, relieve him 
of the cost of the child's maintenance. If a father be caught 
in the act of Ul-treating his child, it is at once taken from him 
and placed in the district home. Abandoned infants, waifs 
and strays, and the children of parents who are in hospital 
or prison, are also sent to the home, and the circumstances 
reported to the court. This tribunal has authority to inflict 
punishment on all convicted of wrong-doing towards children. 
On the other hand, parents too poor to keep a child may 
make it over to the authorities to be placed in a home, the 
State taking all responsibility for its maintenance and 
education. 

Only about 5 per cent, of the children sent to the homes 
remain any length of time therein. The bulk of them, after 
a period of medical attention, are boarded out with peasant 
famiUes in vUlages selected for their salubrity. These villages 
become, in effect, children's colonies under the superintendance 
of the directors of the district homes. These gentlemen 
keep a sharp eye on the foster-parents and relieve them of 
their charges if they fail to comply with the conditions under 
which they are permitted to bring up the children. To 
deprive a peasant couple of their foster-child is a real punish- 
ment, as the pay they receive on its account forms an 
acceptable addition to their income, to say nothing of the loss 
of honour involved. If after three years the treatment of 
the child by its foster-parents is certified by the State inspector 
to have been satisfactory the couple receive a pecuniary gift 
accompanied by a letter signed by the Minister of the Interior. 
These rewards are naturally coveted and are an incentive 
to the fulfilment of duty. 

There are at present nearly 40,000 children under the 
guardianship of the State, and most of them are of the class 
that would have to be taken care of either by the nation or 



220 Hungary 

by public charity. When Parliament introduced its Chil- 
dren's Protection Bill in 1891, its opposers argued that its 
being passed would promote the increase of illegitimate 
children. The prediction has, however, been falsified, as the 
illegitimate birth-rate ' has decreased by 7 per cent., while 
the death-rate also among this class of children has been 
appreciably reduced. 

The Patriotic League for the Protection of Children 
(Orszdgos Gyermekvedo Liga), whose president is Count 
Ladislas Szdchenyi (husband of Gladys 
^'""l^^r"'* Vanderbilt), is a State-controlled charitable 
institution. Besides a State grant and the 
assistance of its wealthy patrons and members, its funds are 
augmented by general charity. Following the example of 
the Salvation Army, it makes street collections on two con- 
secutive days in every year. In this laudable work the young 
ladies of some of the most aristocratic families assist. Each 
is appointed to her post, where she remains with brief inter- 
vals from morning till night, and, with such wiles as the fair 
sex know so well how to employ, induces a transfer of silver 
and nickel (and occasionally gold) coins from the pockets of 
the by-passers to her coUecting-box. 

, At the present time the League has upwards of 50,000 
members, and its activities include every phase of child 
protection from earliest infancy till latest youth. Deaf, 
dumb, blind, deformed, and sick children it sends to suitable 
institutions and resorts ; affords such education as the con- 
dition of each child renders it capable of receiving ; and, in 
the case of specially talented children, even places opportunities 
for higher education in their way 

The League also, like the State, boards out many children, 
placing them under the supervision of the physicians attached 
to its asylums or homes. It has six asylums, in Budapest, 
Rikoskeresztur, Sopron, Szeged, Szaloncza, and Nagy- 
Szollos respectively. In these institutions the boys are 
taught handicrafts and the rudiments of agriculture and 



Philanthropic Institutions 221 

horticulture, after which they are placed with tradesmen 
and farmers for practical experience, while still being under 
the League's care and control. The girls are trained for 
domestic service. 

Should a child prove incorrigible — and this happens only 
in a small percentage of cases — ^he is transferred to one of the 
State reformatories. 

Besides pa37ing the nurse's and doctor's fees in cases of 
confinement among the poor, the League further supplies 
medicines and bandages gratis to all in need. 

The maj ority of the public hospitals of Hungary are equipped 
with all the requirements of modem hygiene as weU as with 
the latest scientific appliances. Unfortunately their number 
is insufficient for the population, there being only some 450 
in the whole country, with an aggregate of 40,000 beds. 
Budapest is, however, well provided for in this respect, there 
being in the city upwards of sixty hospitals, dispensaries, 
sanatoria, and medical institutes — ^public and private — at 
the service of the sick and afflicted ; an average of one 
establishment to every 16,000 inhabitants. 

It would be uninteresting to enumerate them all, but a 
brief reference to the principal ones may be acceptable. 

The oldest and largest hospital in Budapest is that known 

as the St. Rokus Hospital, which has an interesting history. 

To commemorate the visitation of the plague 

H(KoltaIs ^ 1711, and as a thank-offering on the part 

of the survivors, they subscribed to a fund 

for building a votive chapel dedicated to St. Rokus. ^ In 

connection with this, a little later, an asylum for destitute 

old people was erected, and this edifice became, in 1796, the 

hospital. In 1860 it was enlarged to its present dimensions. 

The hospital has no less than 1,623 beds for the use of patients. 

It treats disease and ailments of every kind, and possesses a 

Rontgen laboratory. 

St. Stephen's Hospital was built in 1885 at a cost of £118,360. 

1 Fr., St. Roche. 



222 Hungary 

It comprises nineteen separate buildings occupying an exten- 
sive park, eight of which are used for the accommodation of 
patients. This institution also has a Rontgen installation. 
Four hundred and thirty-six beds are here available for those 
needing them. 

St. Ladislas's Hospital for infectious diseases was built in 
1893 at a cost of £53,250. It consists of sixteen separate 
buildings, eight of which, containing 224 beds, are for the 
accommodation of patients. 

St. Gerard's Hospital, adjoining St. Ladislas's, was inau- 
gurated in 1898 and enlarged in 1904. It has 200 beds. 

AU four of these hospitals are under the direction of Baron 
Kilmin MiiUer, the most eminent of Hungarian physicians. 

The institution originally known as the Hospital for Nervous 
Diseases has recently been officially designated the Third 
Medical Clinic, and placed under the direction of the eminent 
nerve specialist, Baron Alexander Koran3d. It contains 
128 beds. On the ground-floor is a commodious lecture-hall 
for medical students, with all the latest scientific appliances 
for radioscopic demonstrations. 

Ever since the eighteenth century the study of eye diseases 
(ophthalmology) has occupied the special attention of the 
medical faculty of Budapest, their attention being first drawn 
to its importance by a Frenchman, Baron de St. Idelfont, 
who came to lecture on the subject and, as it proved, to settle 
in the Hungarian capital. In 1802 a professorship of the 
science was created in connection with the Budapest Uni- 
versity. To-day the chair of ophthalmology is worthily 
filled by a comparatively young man. Dr. Emil Gr6sz, who 
is also director of the Ophthalmological Clinic, one of the 
finest edifices devoted to the healing art in Hungary. 

Erected in 1907 at a cost of £37,500, it is a large quadrangular 
building, situated practically in the centre of the city. The 
entrance to its dispensary department, standing higher than 
the street level, is approached by an inclined path, obviating 
the necessity for the patients, bhnd, or nearly blind, ascending 



Philanthropic Institutions 223 

steps, while for reaching the upper floors electric lifts with 
attendants are provided. This institution has eighty-four 
beds. Last year 1,306 in-patients and 17,610 out-patients 
were treated. 

St. John's Hospital, pleasantly situated 9± the foot of the 
Suabian hill, treats diseases of every kind, and has a special 
department for tubercidosis. On the same estate is a Con- 
valescent Home for patients of the hospital, which owes its 
existence to the munificence of Baron Wodianer. 

The old St. John's Hospital, more than a mile distant 
from the new one, dates from 1820. It is now used only in 
the event — somewhat rare — of the new establishment being 
fuU. 

The Adele Brody Hospital for Children was founded in 1893 
by Mr. Sigismund Brody, a Jewish gentleman, as a memorial 
of his deceased wife. Tbirteen large rooms contain altogether 
114 beds, besides which there are sixteen single chambers 
each containing a bed and a child's cot. This excellent 
institution treats an average of 1,500 in-patients and 16,000 
out-patients annually. 

The Jewish Hospital, founded and supported entirely by the 
Hungarian Israelite community, was erected in 1837 and 
rebuilt, with considerable extensions, in 1889. It has 200 
beds. 

The Polyclinical Dispensary Hospital is maintained by an 
association of that name for the dual purpose of assisting the 
indigent sick and the advancement of medical science. In 
the institution are fifty beds ; and upwards of 50,000 cases 
(in and out-patients) are treated annually. The entire staff 
render gratuitous service, their reward consisting in the 
valuable experience they obtain. 

A reference to the Red Cross Hospital must not be omitted. 
Situated in one of the most salubrious suburbs of the city, 
at a height of 135 feet above the level of the Danube, it 
consists of sixteen separate mansions, besides a number of 
offices, in the midst of beautifully laid-out gardens. The 



224 Hungary 

hospital proper claims eight of these mansions, the rest 
consisting of private rooms furnished with the acme of comfort. 
The institution contains 680 beds. 

The Hungarian branch of the International Red Cross 
Society was founded in 1879. Besides the service it renders 
in war-time, it is active also in peace and contributes to the 
happiness and well-being of the civil community in a multi- 
tude of ways. It is a very wealthy organisation, owning 
considerable property in buildings and land ; it has a reserve 
fund of £250,000, to which must be added the annual con- 
tributions of its 37,357 members. The president of the 
central committee is Count Andrew Csekonics. 

Budapest being a cosmopolitan city on the high-road to 
the Orient, experiences the effects of the white slave traffic 
to no small degree. This terrible evil, the combating of 
which gives scope for the exercise of the noblest quaHties of 
womanhood, has found vaUant adversaries here. Miss Emma 
Dessewffy spares neither herself nor her wealth in the cause 
of enlightening and protecting unfortunate members of her 
sex against the cunning and violence of debased men. Practi- 
cally at her own expense this lady has opened two " homes " 
for young fallen women who desire to return t9 the path of 
virtue. Other zealous workers in the same useful sphere 
are Miss Augusta Rosenberg and Miss Rosa Latinovitz, the 
latter being the representative in Budapest of the National 
Vigilance Association. 

It would be impossible within the Umits of this Uttle work 
to mention in detail a tithe of the numerous philanthropic 
institutions and charitable organisations of Hungary. With 
her 108 orphanages, sixteen deaf and dumb asylums, and five 
institutes for the bUnd, provided by the State and supported 
by the generosity of many large-hearted men and women 
within her borders, this country ranks second to none in the 
world for her noble efforts in the service of humanity. 



CHAPTER IX 

THE CITY OF BUDAPEST 

Topographically Budapest, the Hungarian metropolis — 
after London, Paris, and Vienna, the largest city in Europe 

as regards superficial area, — consists of two 
Budapest. parts, Buda and Pest, separated from each 

other by the " blue Danube's " broad ribbon, 
and slenderly joined up again by six threads in the form of 
bridges. 

Buda is set on a hill, its foreground broken by the preci- 
pitous slopes of the Blocksberg, or Mount St. Gerard. Mir- 
rored in the calm river, the dismantled citadel that crowns it 
could, had it speech, tell a tale of struggle alternately of 
Magyar against Turk and Austrian equal to the most stirring 
deeds recorded in history or fiction. Close by is the steep 
hill dominated by the Royal Palace, with its hanging gardens, 
and embellished with flights of ornamental stone stairs, 
buttresses, pilasters, embrasures, arcades, columns, and 
turrets, culminating in the ancient Coronation Church of 
St. Matthias. Originally built and dedicated to Our Lady 
by King B61a IV in the thirteenth century, it was rebuilt in 
Gothic style in the fifteenth. During the Turkish occupation, 
when the Cross had perforce to hide before the conquering 
Crescent, the stately fane was used as a mosque. The back- 
ground is in autumn a gorgeous blaze of many-hued hiUs 
dotted with pretty villas of Ught blue, white, yellow, and 
green. 

Standing on one of the bridges that span the noble river, 
or on the terrace of the Houses of Parliament, in the glow of 
sunset and lifting the eyes towards Buda, the spectator is 
spellbound by a scene of panoramic splendour unequalled 
anywhere in the world. Then when darkness has fallen, the 

225 
15— (S394) 



226 Hungary 

myriad twinkling lights that line the river-banks and silhouette 
the contour of the hills give a genuine touch of romance to 
the scene. 

Pest is quite fiat, spreading out fan-shape from the Belvdros, 
or inner city. Its most beautiful building is St. Stephen's 
Cathedral, in the Renaissance style, the mere empty shell of 
which cost £320,000, to say nothing of the enormous sums that 
have been spent on the interior decoration. Though it has 
none of the vastness of Gothic cathedrals, or the spaciousness 
of basiUcas like St. John of Lateran or Santa Maria Maggiore, 
majesty exhales from its fagades, and the exquisite lines of its 
cupola and campanile form a veritable epic in stone. Its 
design is peculiar : massive, columned, arcaded, balustraded, 
sculptured, subUmely and solemnly rich ,in ornament. 

Other noteworthy edifices abound in Pest, some of 
which — ^the Houses of Parliament,^ hospitals,* art galleries, 
museums, * and pubUc hbraries * — ^have already been referred 
to, while stiU others will be given attention in subsequent 
chapters of this work. 

The baths and curative mineral springs of Budapest are 
too world-famous to be passed over in silence. They were 
known for centuries to the conquering nations that from time 
to time settled on the banks of the Danube. Romans and 
Turks at their respective periods left their mark in the form 
of bathing establishments around the springs, some of which 
to-day have lost nothing of their original beauty, wlule the 
healing power of their waters is more widely recognised than 
ever. Their fame has extended to 

Regions Caesar never knew, 
Where his eagles never flew. 

Portions of the Imperial and the Rudas baths date from 
the Turkish period, the latter having been founded in 1560 

1 Vide Chapter V. 

' Vide Chapter VIII. 

» Vide Chapter X. 

« Vide Chapter VII. 



The City of Budapest 227 



I 



by Mustapha Pasha, at that time Governor of Buda. The 
Rascian bath was elevated to royal dignity by King Matthias. 
This, with the Imperial and the St. Luke's baths, are run by 
private enterprise. The Margaret Island baths are State 
property. An ideal resort, rej oicing in umbrageous woodlands 
smiUng flower-beds, and a murmuring cascade, this Eden is 
refreshing to the eye and soothing to the nerves. On the Pest 
side is the Artesian bath, originally built at a cost of £125,000. 
Its recent extension and embellishment have cost nearly 
£100,000 more. The Saros (or Mud) bath lies at the foot of 
Moimt St. Gerard. The Municipality has now in course of 
erection on its site a palatial establishment which is expected 
to be the " last word " on baths. 

The Hungarian metropolis has experienced many trials 
and vicissitudes. The soil on which it stands has witnessed 
the successive dominion of Celts, Romans, Huns, Avars, and 
Slavs, before the Magyars came to take possession of it. 
It has been the scene of memorable historic events ; and if no 
attempt has been made till recent years to create a great city 
upon it, the omission has been due solely to unsatisfactory 
political conditions. 

The peoples of antiquity recognised the advantages afforded 
by its geographical situation. Under the name of Ak-ink 
(the place of abundant waters) the Celts founded there, 
before the Christian era, a town which the Romans, in the 
second century after Christ, called Aquincum. The place 
soon acquired considerable importance. The Emperor 
Hadrian raised it to the rank of a municipaUty, and Septimus 
Severus to that of a colony. A bridge-of-boats connected 
it with Contra-Aquincum^ on the left bank of the Danube, 
thus forming a bulwark against the incursions of the bar- 
barians who threatened the Roman Empire on the east. 
When Diocletian sought to preserve the tottering empire 
by sub-division, Pannonia fell to Valerius, who named the 
country Valeria, with Aquincum as capital. To-day may be 

* To-day called Ujpest. 



228 Hungary 

seen on the site the remains of the amphitheatre, capable of 
holding 20,000 spectators ; while scattered around are the 
remains of dwellings destroyed many centimes ago : broken 
columns, ruins of ba^hs, of temples — ^notably of one in honour 
of Mithras, of pagan altars, of a theatre with accommodation 
for 8,000, and sarcophagi crumbUng to dust ; all of which 
tend to show that Aquincum must have been an important 
city of at least 60,000 inhabitants. 

The brief supremacy of the Huns, Goths, and Lombards 
passed away leaving scarcely a trace behind ; the same with 
the domination of the Avars and Slavs. The only souvenir 
the last-named have left is the name of the city of Pest, 
which, in the Slav tongue, signifies " oven," as does also the 
name " Ofen," given by the Germans to the city of Buda on 
the opposite shore. These designations preserve the remem- 
brance of the brick-works and Ume-kilns formerly existing 
in both places. 

When the Magyars appeared, the region of which Budapest 
now forms the centre witnessed a new period of prosperity. 
Their prince, Arpad, took up his residence on Csepel Isle, 
which he fortified as a base for his operations in the subjugation 
of Hungary to his sway. 

After the devastation by the Tartar hordes in 1241, Buda 
rose from its ruins under King Bdla IV, who, taking account 
of the strategic importance of the Danube, fortified the hiU 
on which the Royal Palace now stands. 

Later, in 1286, Pest began to play a more important r6le, 
the National Diet assembling in that year for the first time 
on the neighbouring plain of Rakos. 

The royal line of Arpad having become extinct, Buda rose 
again to eminence under the Anjou kings, Charles Robert 
and Louis the Great ; but in the troublous times that followed 
she had much to endure. 

Under King Sigismund (who was also Emperor of Ger- 
many) the Royal Castle of Buda became an Imperial 
residence. This glory was, however, of fleeting duration, for at 



The City of Budapest 229 

Sigismund's decease, struggles between the nationalities and 
parties broke out and Ladislas, son of the renowned John 
Hunyady, fell a victim to the malice of his enemies, being 
beheaded in 1457 on the spot now known as St. George's 
Square. 

Under the brother of that prince. King Matthias, a new 
epoch of prosperity set in. The royal residence and the 
Parliament were transferred to Buda, a college was founded, 
and the city became the poUtical, scientific, and commercial 
centre of the kingdom. After Matthias's death, however, this 
brilliant period ended, and the internal dissensions were 
renewed, stifling all progress and bringing to naught the work 
of the great and good king. The land was, moreover, menaced 
from without. After the battle of Mohacs, Buda fell into the 
hands of the Turks without striking a blow ; and for 145 years 
the Crescent banner floated from the walls of the Hungarian 
capital. 

In 1686 Prince Charles of Lorraine, at the head of the 
allied armies, drove out the Turks and roused the Hungarians 
of Buda from their long torpor. But their trials and afflictions 
were not yet over ; the Rakoczi insurrection and the plague 
reduced the population to such a degree that in 1710 there 
were in both Buda and Pest only 300 souls. Yet with praise- 
worthy courage this handful of citizens took up the task of 
setting their house in order. Civic authorities were appointed, 
and the sister cities prospered once more. In 1784 the 
University of Nagyszombat was transferred to Pest, and 
shortly afterwards the first hospital, seminary, and barracks 
were erected. Under the influence of the example set them 
by their beloved palatine, Archduke Joseph, a new spirit 
took possession of the people. During the early part of last 
century the National Museum, Hungarian Scientific Society, 
National Theatre, National Casino, Institute for the Blind, 
and other works of public culture and utility were inaugurated, 
while the Danube was rendered navigable for all kinds of 
ships. 



230 Hungary 

Then came the year of calamity, 1838, when the mighty 
river overflowed its banks, spreading death and destruction 
for miles around. 

Late in the aftemqon of the 13th March the waters of 
the Danube had risen so high that grave fears began to 
pervade all breasts. Orders were given to fortify the 
dike, and hundreds of laboiu-ers were soon at work with this 
intention. 

Towards eight o'clock in the evening the alarm bell boomed 
forth its warning peal, and then the scene in the neighbour- 
hood of the river baffled description. Workmen and soldiers 
lighted by torchbearers, were actively employed in streng- 
thening the defences ; crowds thronged the quays, impeding 
the passage of the wagons laden with sand to fill the breaches. 
It is calculated that not less than 60,000 persons must have 
been collected on the shore, when about ten o'clock the swollen 
river suddenly burst the dike, and the v/ild waters, laden with 
jagged ice, rushed onwards with resistless violence, driving 
before them the cowering crowd, who fled appalled and 
breathless before the swift pursuit of this strange and terrible 
enemy. Night fell, as if to aggravate the terror ; and men 
hurried on, they knew not whither, pursued by a danger against 
which the bravest could not contend. The shrieks of women 
and the groans of men rent the air ; mothers screaming for 
their children, children wailing for their parents ; the sharp 
sound of flying footfalls upon the frozen earth ; and over all 
the rushing, dashing, swirling noise of the emancipated waters 
made up the frightful diapason. By an hour past midnight 
most part of the city was flooded to a height of 27 feet, and 
in several streets large boats might have been seen moving 
from house to house rescuing the inhabitants. 

On the morning of the 14th whole streets of houses, imder- 
mined by the pent-up volume of water filling the subter- 
raneans, fell with a succession of deafening crashes, collapsing 
like houses of cards, burying human beings and animals alike 
amid the rtiins ; 2,281 houses were completely destroyed ; 



The City of Budapest 231 

827 were seriously damaged ; and only 1,147 in the whole 
city remained intact. 

During these distressful days the most eminent men of the 
country, aided by unknown heroes, performed prodigies of 
valour and gave proof of the noblest Christian charity in 
rescuing thousanck of destitute inhabitants. A memorial 
tablet on the Franciscan church in Kossuth Lajos utca (street) 
records the heroic deeds of Baron Wesselenyi and his brave 
companions on that never-to-be-forgotten occasion. 

In the ten years that followed this disaster the city recovered ; 
industry and commerce, literature and the arts flourished 
and developed with inconceivable rapidity. The year 1848 
marks the beginning of a new era in the history of Budapest, 
as, indeed, in that of all Hungary. The nation awoke to the 
ideals of liberty and constitutional government. The first 
responsible Hungarian Ministry was appointed, and the first 
Parliament based on national representation superseded the 
ancient Diet founded on class privileges. 

But the unfortunate result of the War of Freedom rendered 
the situation most precarious. During the reign of martial 
law and the succeeding police rule, utter stagnation was 
experienced in all branches of public activity throughout 
Hungary. 

Yet once again the nation revived. The bonds of oppression 
were by degrees relaxed, imtil in 1866 the Sovereign and the 
Nation became reconciled. Francis Joseph's coronation as 
King of Hungary, on 8th June, 1867, is a red-letter day in 
the history of Budapest. The restoration of the Constitu- 
tion, the transfer of the Parliament to Pest, and the uniting, 
in 1872, of the hitherto separate cities of Buda and Pest 
under the title of Budapest, and as the capital of Hungary, 
resulted in renewed prosperity and bright hopes for the future. 

Diuring the forty-one years that have since elapsed Budapest 
has become the metropolis of the Hungarian kingdom in a 
very real sense ; the seat of national cultmre, and a rival of 
the other great cities of Europe. 



232 Hungary 

Its Municipal Council is composed of 400 members, half 
of whom are elected from 1,200 citizens paying the highest 
^l,e taxes, and the other half from the rest of 

Municipal the inhabitants. These two bodies are the 
Council. Aldermfen and the Councillors respectively. 
At the head of the Council is the Chief Burgomaster, or Lord 
Mayor, elected for six years by the Council from three candi- 
dates nominated by the King. CEie present Chief Burgo- 
master, is Mr. Francis Heltai.) Under him is the Burgo- 
master, the head of the executive, who, in the absence of the 
Chief Burgomaster, presides at Council meetings. (The 
present Burgomaster is Dr. Stephen Barczy.) Besides these 
two officials, there are -two Vice-Burgomasters, the Mayors 
of the ten wards into which the city is divided, and a host 
of other officials of more or less importance. 

The growth of the city may be appreciated by the fact 
that, whereas in 1872 the expenses of municipal government 
were only £200,000, they last year exceeded £3,000,000 
sterling. The funds of the capital are, in round figures, 
£20,000,000; its debts, £8,250,000. Four hundred and 
forty-five buildings, the property of the municipality, figure 
in the latest inventory for the sum of £6,875,000, while the 
land owned by the municipaUty is set down for £7,000,000. 

Its increase of population has been nothing short of mar- 
vellous dmdng the last generation. At the beginning of the 
eighteenth century, when the population of Berlin was 55,000, 
that of Naples 300,000, and that of Paris, 720,000, Buda and 
Pest (not then united) had only 2,000 souls between them ! In 
1910 the population of Budapest was 880,371, and to-day it 
lacks but few of a million. ^ 

It is not, however, oiu: intention to set down flattery, and 
in writing of " things as they are " we shall give equal pro- 
minence to the disagreeable as to the pleasing and meritorious 
feattu-es of this interesting city. 

The annual birth-rate is 27'4 per thousand, the death-rate, 

1 Actually 990,000. 



The City of Budapest 233 

20'6. Twenty-six per cent, of the births are illegitimate. 
Illegitimate births are rarest among the Jews (11 per cent.), 
and most numerous among the adherents of the Greek churches 
(46 per cent.). The Protestants contribute 15 per cent, and 
the Roman Catholics 20 per cent, to the illegitimates. ^ 

The cheerful optimism of the Hungarians fosters the 

gambling spirit within them.* Gambling in aU its forms is 

met with on every hand. Quite half the 

and^Lottenes Population of Budapest indulge in games of 
chance to a greater or less degree. The most 
serious persons gamble ; even some of the clergy cannot be 
excluded from this category. Among the upper classes 
fortunes have sometimes changed hands in a single night 
over the cards ; and in the streets of Budapest may be 
seen to-day genuine titled nobles destitute of means in 
consequence of either their parents' or their own profligacy. 

After the cards the favourite form of gambling is the lottery. 
Is it necessary to raise funds for any purpose, secular or 
sacred, the lottery is resorted to. Schools, hospitals, asylums, 
churches, and cathedrals are often built and supported with 
money raised by this means. " Buy a lottery-ticket and God 
will bless you I " may sound incongruous to some ears, yet 
such was the purport of an appeal recently issued in connection 
with an effort to provide the wherewithal for erecting a 
certain church in the neighbourhood of Budapest ; while 
St. Stephen's Cathedral lottery-tickets {Bazilikai Sorsjdtek) 
can be procured to-day at most of the banking houses. Rich 

1 " A Budapest, plus d'un quart des naissances sont iU6gitimes. 
Bien qu'une ISgdre amelioration puisse €tre constatee k cet £gard depuis 
quelques annees, la frequence en est toujours trds grande (26 a 27 per' 
cent.). Les naissances iU6gitimes sont le plus rares (10 a 12 per cent.) 
Chez les israfelites, le plus nombreuses (44 k 48 per cent.) chez les 
grecs-unis." — (Guide Midical de Budapest par le Dr. Tibfire deGyory.) 
For the whole country the proportions of illegitimate births are 
as follows : Protestants, 8-70 per cent. ; Catholics, 9-40 per cent ; 
Jews, 11-19; Greek Churches, 19-17. 

* This is, of course, equally true of other peoples besides the 
Hungarians. 



234 Hungary 

and poor alike patronise the lottery — ^the latter in many cases 
first patronising the State pawn-shop.* Secure in the pos- 
session of his lottery-ticket, the potential Hungarian million- 
aire often glides through Ufe without a thought as to its 
responsibilities, his duty to himself or others. Like Mr. 
Micawber, always expecting something to turn up, when it 
does not — which is only too often the case — ^he is apt to 
degenerate into a lazy drone, an utterly imreliable person, 
dissatisfied with everybody and everything, blaming his 
failure in life to the social organisation of which he is a unit. 
It is not, therefore, to be wondered at if he drifts into 
SociaHsm or even Anarchism. The multipHcation of such 
social failures becomes in time a menace to the State, as 
Hungary is finding to her cost to-day. 

The Government of Hungary causes this gambling spirit 
to contribute to the revenue by imposing a heavy tax on the 
winnings in the Royal Hungarian Lottery, an institution not 
unknown in England. 

The headquarters of the Royal Hungarian Lottery are a 
palatial edifice overlooking the Danube, and there the 
periodical drawings of prizes take place. The respectability 
of its numerous ofi&ciaJs is above suspicion. The method 
of conducting the drawings, too, leaves nothing to be 
desired on the score of honesty. The Hall of Drawings is 
open to the general pubUc, so that the curious, whether 
ticket-holders or not, have free access to witness the 
proceedings. 

On a platform are to be seen two burnished copper cyUnders, 
or wheels, with plate-glass sides, and consequently trans- 
parent. The tiny rolls of paper bearing the winning numbers 
are placed in the one cylinder, and those bearing the amounts 
of the prizes in the other. This done, the cylinders are closed 
and turned rapidly until their contents are well mixed up. 
They are then re-opened and the drawing commences. 

' Pawnbroking is in Hungary conducted by the State, which exacts 
a lovr rate of interest on pledges sufficient to meet working expenses. 



The City of Budapest 235 

Two girls from an orphan asylum, got up for the occasion 
in holiday attire, with bare arms, preside at the cylinders, 
each drawing forth simultaneously a roll from the wheel. 
These rolls they hand together to the clerk or secretary, 
who announces with loud voice the winning number and the 
amount of the prize that has fallen to it, the public notary 
recording the same in his book and filing the slips for permanent 
reference. 

This arrangement precludes the possibihty of collusion or 
unfairness in awarding the prizes. Patrons of the Lottery 
living abroad may, however, sometimes have to suffer from 
the sharp practice of some agent or other whose business 
methods would scarcely commend themselves to Englishmen. 

Taken as a whole — although there are very numerous and 
notable exceptions — punctuality is not a virtue on which 
the Hungarians can pride themselves with any sense of justice. 
Too many of them pay little regard to the value of time, their 
own or other people's. The coffee-houses of Budapest are 
well patronised throughout the day — and night.'^ Hours 
are often spent over a single cup of coffee or other beverage, 
in conversation, dozing over the newspaper, or listening to the 
dreamy strains of the gipsy b^nd. This evil is recognised 
and deplored by many enlightened inhabitants of the Hun- 
garian metropolis, who, however, are powerless to effect 
improvement except by force of their own excellent example. 
Multiply the hours wasted daily by the number of days in 
the year, the number of years in a generation, and the loss 
to the country as well as to the individual may be somewhat 
realised. 

The Hungarians are not brilliant as correspondents. Many 
things which in England can be effected by means of a few 
written lines through the post require in Hungary a personal 
interview. Hungarians who have hved some time in England 

^ Az eglsz ejjel nyitva (open all night), and Reggel 3 irdig nyitva (open 
till 3 a.m.). are legends which frequently meet the eye in the windows 
of the coffee-houses in Budapest. 



236 Hungary 

or America are fully aware of these differences telling to the 
disadvantage of their own people, and to deal with such 
individuals is usually more agreeable than dealing with their 
untravelled compatriots. Hungarian manufacturers and mer- 
chants now send their sons to England and America to study 
the business methods of those countries. These young men, 
after their sojourn abroad, retujrn home and immediately 
begin to put their newly acquired modern ideas into practice, 
with beneficial results to themselves and others. 

The greater contact with the outside world afforded by 
international congresses at Budapest is of incalculable value 
for the stay-at-home Magyars ; and such events have been 
rather frequent during the past decade. As examples may 
be mentioned the Post Office Congress (1905), Press Congress 
(1906), Postal Telegraph Congress (1908), Law Congress (1908), 
and the Medical Congress (1909). On each of these occasions 
Budapest was the rendezvous of representative men (many 
of them accompanied by their wives and daughters) from all 
quarters of the globe. 

In an exceptional degree was this the case with the Sixteenth 
Medical Congress in 1909. On that occasion the city of Buda- 
pest was en fiie and the Burgomaster, on behalf of the Munici- 
pality, extended an of&cial welcome to distinguished physi- 
cians from Great Britain and her Colonies (172), United 
States (188), the Argentine Republic (35), Japan (43), Brazil 
(22), Cuba (6), Chih (4), Mexico (3), Uruguay (3), Egypt (21), 
Germany (277), Austria (247), France (280), Italy (165), 
Russia (210), Spain (66), Belgium (46), Portugal (32), Holland 
(33), Switzerland (29), Turkey (20), Bulgaria (17), Greece (18), 
Roumania (10), Denmark (10), Servia (7), Sweden (5), and 
Norway (3), and the ladies who accompanied them to the 
number of 800. The 1,267 native physicians who played the 
hosts, under the lead of Professor Kalman Muller (since 
created baron for his eminent services to the cause of medical 
science) and Dr. Emil Gr6sz — President and General 
Secretary respectively of the Congress — gave their guests 



The City of Budapest 237 

an object-lesson in the art of entertaining of which they will 
doubtless long retain pleasant reminiscences. But, then, 
Magyar hospitality is proverbial. 

This year (1913) the Hungarian capital welcomed the 
world's publishers to the International PubUshers' Congress, 
and ere these had returned home the ladies of many lands 
appeared on the scene to compare notes and discuss problems 
of importance to the sex at the Universal Feminist Congress. 
The spiritual needs of the Anglo-Saxon colony of Budapest 
are met by Church of England, Methodist Episcopal, and 

Presbj^erian Missions. The last-named owes 
^itish and j^g origin to a somewhat romantic incident. 
Churches. When in 1839 a party of Scotch missionaries 

were returning from the Holy Land, one of 
their number — Rev. Dr. Alexander Keith — ^was taken seriously 
, ill, obliging the whole party to remain in Budapest until he 
had recovered sufficiently to continue the journey. The 
news of this gentleman's illness happened to penetrate to the 
Court and reached the ears of the wife of the Archduke- 
Palatine. The Archduchess Maria Dorothea, a Protestant, 
lost no time in calling on the sick clergjonan. She called 
indeed more than once, and on one occasion related that, 
having prayed God to open the way for the Gospel to be 
preached in Budapest, she regarded the presence of these 
clergymen as the answer to her prayers. With the moral 
and material support of Her Royal Highness the commence- 
ment of the work was easy. It led, however, to the passing 
of a " House Law " prohibiting any member of the Habsburg 
Family from taking a Protestant for consort without 
renouncing the rights and privileges of his order. 



CHAPTER X 

ART, MUSIC, AND THE DRAMA 

Art of a kind seems to have flourished in Hungary since 

before King Matthias introduced foreign painters, sculptors, 

carvers, and gilders into the country for the 

Art. embellishment of his palaces and castles. In 

olden times Magyar pottery-ware, jewellery, 

embroidery, carpets, and ornamental leather-work were 

renowned in all the chief towns of Western Europe. The 

constant struggles, however, with the Turks and other 

enemies arrested the progress of those industries, obliging 

them to seek refuge among the peasantry, who carried them 

on as well as they could in the obscurity of their cottage 

homes in those regions that had escaped the furies of war. 

Remote from foreign influences, the humble Magyar peasantry 

thus preserved the artistic traditions of their ancestors. 

After the Ausgleich^ of 1867 efforts were made to develop 
the artistic Ufe of the country in teaching the methods and 
principles of the chief Western schools ; but later the need of 
a national school was apparent, and a basis thereof was dis- 
covered in the productions of popular art. The Magyars, 
conceiving an ambition to create a modern Hungarian style, 
founded the Society of Industrial Arts, as the most direct 
means to the desired end. This institution, supported by the 
Government, has brought to the front a galaxy of talent, 
resulting in the productions of Hungarian artistic skill being 
known in aU the markets of the civihsed world. Zsolnay 
pottery and porcelain, Rappaport enamels, Kalotaszeg 
embroidery, the peasant needlework of North Hungary, and 
the carpets of the south, as well as the peculiarly ornate 

1 Agreement with Austria. 

238 



Art, Music, and the Drama 239 

wood-carving of the Magyar peasantry have found admirers 
and purchasers everjnvhere. 

On entering a city for the first time the architecture is 
naturally the first thing to strike the eye, that is to say, if 
it differs at all from the architecture of other cities. In 
Budapest this is eminently the case. The architecture there 
certainly has individuality ; being neither Gothic, Ionic, 
Corinthian, nor any other style approved in the West : it 
is Hungarian, combining the Oriental with the Occidental 
in a fashion calculated to raise a smile on the countenances 
of British visitors to the Magyar capital. It is not inelegant, 
of course, but it is strange. Motifs of every figure known to 
geometry, the tiniest tiles of every colour of the rainbow 
placed here and there, and much gilding are especial features 
of the faQades ; while representations of the human form, 
generally undraped, meet one at entrances and at the foot 
of staircases. 

These observations apply to the buildings in general. 
There are in Budapest edifices of classic design, some of which 
have already been referred to. The Royal Palace is in the 
Rococo style ; the Art Gallery, Museum of Fine Arts, and 
National Museum are pure Greek ; the Ssoiagogue is in 
Byzantine style. The most interesting examples of modern 
Hungarian architecture are the Gresham Insurance Company's 
offices — ^the work of Quittner — ^Museum of Industrial Art, 
Post Office Savings Bank, and the Parish Chm-ch of Kobanya 
(a suburb of Budapest) — all designed by the eminent architect 
Edmund Lechner. The Houses of Parliament are the 
masterpiece of Imre Steindl ; the Opera, Cathedral, and 
Custom House are worthy examples of the genius of Nicolas 
Ybl, these two men being unquestionably the greatest of 
Magyar architects. 

In beautiful paintings and statuary Budapest is not lacking, 
though insufficient appreciation at home has driven many 
a promising Hungarian artist to try his fortune in a foreign 
land. Several such are flourishing in London to-day, among 



240 Hungary 

them Philip Laszlo, whose exhibits at the Royal Academy 
and his portraits of members of the British Royal Family 
are well known. The most prominent knights of the brush 
and palette living at home are M6sz61y, Sz6kely, Ladislas 
Pal, Szinyei-Merse, B^czur, Than, and Lotz. 

" The Baptism of King Stephen," " Rakoczi's Arrest," and 
" Homage to the King " (the Magyar nobles in national 
costume at a Royal reception), by JuUus Benczur, are his- 
torical paintings of which any nation might be proud. In 
the last-named work all the figures are authentic portraits. 
Munkacsy's fame is derived chiefly from his paintings on 
sacred subjects : " Christ before Pilate," " Golgotha," and 
" Ecce Homo ! " though he has also produced several striking 
pictures illustrating incidents in the history of his native land. 
His " Coming of the Magyars " is in this respect perhaps his 
chef-d'oeuvre, containing several hundreds of figures each 
painted with a fidelity to detail that excites the wonder of 
every intelligent spectator. 

Sz6kely's genius is shown in his delightful frescoes in the 
Coronation Church and also in P6cs Cathedral. Of portrait 
painters Horowitz and Karlovsky are the best known. Genre 
painting is ably represented by Cs6k, Tornay, Jendrassik, 
Pataky, and yag6 ; while as impressionists Mednyanszky 
and Kacziany are perhaps unequalled. 

In sculpture the pioneers were Engel and Ferenczy. Living 
sculptors of European renown are Aloysius Strobl and George 
Zala, whose chefs-d'ceuvre are respectively the statues of 
Arany the poet and of Semmelweiss the gynsecologist, and 
the equestrian monument of Count Andrassy before the Houses 
of ParUament. Of Ligeti, whose statue of Anonymous 
adorns the City Park ; of Teles, whose Vorosmarty group 
evokes the admiration of every beholder, and of George 
Vastagh the world will hear more in the near future. 

The two art palaces of Budapest would be valuable acquisi- 
tions to the greatest cosmopolitan city. The Museum of 
Fine Arts is rich in the works of the native artists just referred 




Photographed for this work by Miss Tcri Mattyasovszky. 

PECS CATHEDRAL, INTERIOR 

[The most ancient Christian church in Hungary) 



Art, Music, and the Drama 241 

to, both painters and sculptors, besides those of modern 
French, ItaUan, German and Spanish artists. The National 
Picture Gallery has upwards of 800 paintings, including five 
Murillos, various Raphaels, Corregios, Van Dycks, Rem- 
brandts, and other invaluable specimens of the ItaUan and 
Dutch masters. Most of the exhibits were originally the 
property of Prince Eszterhazy, from whom the Hungarian 
Government purchased them in 1871 at the comparatively 
low price of 100,000 guineas. 

In Hungary great importance is attached to the drama 

as an educational adjunct. The Opera Houses and the 

National Theatres of the capital, as well as 

The Drama, those of the chief provincial towns, are 
absolutely under the control of a special 
department of the Ministry of Public Instruction (correspond- 
ing to the EngUsh Board of Education), their permanent 
staffs being on the footing of civil servants, entitled to State 
pensions and other honours on retiring from service. Numer- 
ous other playhouses enjoy subventions from the Government. 
The Budapest Theatre* is subventioned by the Municipality, 
who presented also the site for the handsome People's Opera 
inaugurated two years ago : a building capable of accom- 
modating an audience of 2,000. Thus it may be gathered 
that the Hungarian Stage acquires a respectabiUty not 
usually associated with its English counterpart. The prin- 
cipal exponents of the histrionic art * in Hungary are, in 
tragedy, Mdme. Emiha Markus, Miss Mari Jaszay, Oscar 
Beregi, and Julius Gal ; in comedy. Miss Irene Varsanyi, 
Edward Ujhazi, and JuUus Hegedas ; in operette, the two 
Saris — ^Misses Petras and Fedak ; while among the portrayers 
of society life are Mdme. Louise Blaha (the " Hungarian 
Nightingale "), Miss Irma Alszeghi, and Eugene Ivanfi. 

Who has not heard of the Hungarian Band? It is often 

* The of&cial designation ; there are, of course, a number of theatres 
in Budapest. 

* For the play-writers, see Chapter VI. 

l6— (2394) 



242 Hungary 

in evidence at Earl's Court exhibitions, garden parties, and 

all high-class social functions to which it is desired to 

attract the wealth and fashion of London. 

Music. Generally, however, it is not Hungarian : it is 

more lively to be German. At any rate, 

the popularity of the name is the measure of the fame of 

the Hungarians as a musical people. 

Their music is much more ancient than their painting and 
decorative art. The Anonymous monk, whom we have 
already had occasion to quote, records that, after Arpad had 
conquered the land, he marched his army into Attila's strong- 
hold, where " amid the ruins they held daily feasts, sitting 
in rows, the sweet tones of their lutes and shalms, and all 
kinds of songs echoing from the company." There is 
abundant evidence that music was common in Arpad's time. 

Eight centuries ago Hungarian music appears to have been 
in great repute. The principal native instruments are the 
lute {koboz), the violin (hegedo), the pipe (tilinko), the buffalo's 
horn (kiirt), the trombone (tdrogato), and the dulcimer {cim- 
balom) ; though the piano (zongora) is now quite as common in 
Hungary as in England. In Transylvania another instru- 
ment of the lute class (the timhora) is met with. Earher 
than that period the exploits of the national heroes were 
sung by minstrels to the accompaniment of their lutes in 
camp and village. The wanderings of the Magyars, the 
covenant of blood, Arpid and his battles, Lehel and his horn, 
and other stirring events of history and legend formed the 
subjects of primitive Hungarian ballads. 

Under King Stephen sacred music first came into vogue, 
and the Gregorian chant soon became common among the 
Christian converts. The chief objects of the schools founded 
by Stephen and his immediate successors at Esztergom, 
Pannonhalma, Vacz, Veszpr^m, and Nagyvarad were " to 
instruct in the faith of Christ and in song." 

The first Christian priests in Hungary being Italians, we 
may well suppose that the young people were taught mostly 



Art, Music, and the Drama 243 

Latin songs and hymns. When later native Hungarians 
became priests they were taught to sing in the vernacular. 

It is interesting to observe how often sacred subjects 
inspired musical composition. Thus, among many others of 
a similar character, we have the " Story of the Holy Marriage 
of the Patriarch Isaac," and " How God led the Children of 
Israel from Egypt and the Magyars from Scjh:hia." The 
former is by Andrew Batizi, the latter by Andrew Farkas, 
both of whom flourished in the sixteenth century. This was 
also the age of Sebastian Tinodi, the great lutist and chronicler 
in song of the events of his day. 

Valentine Bakfark, born in Transylvania in 1507, went to 
Vienna in 1570 at the invitation of the Emperor Maximilian. 
Several of his compositions have descended to posterity. A 
contemporary of his and another Transylvanian was Chris- 
topher Armbruster, whose " Song on Mortahty " appeared 
in 1551. 

The advent of the Reformation promoted the development 
of Hungarian music. When the people sang their own tongue 
in the churches they began also to sing outside on secular 
themes to sacred tunes, and many of the hymn-tunes of 
Gaudimel the Huguenot became naturalised in Hungary. 

The period of Thokoly and Rdkoczy was the " golden age " 
of Hungarian ballad, and many real musical gems have 
those days bequeathed to the present. The great masters, 
Handel and Bach, were then in their childhood ; and the 
incomparable Haydn, Mozart, and Beethoven did not arise 
till a half-century later. This was the time of the " Rak6czy 
Song " and the " Rak6czy Lament," on which was foimded 
later the spirit-stirring " Rakoczy March." 

Dance music became popular through the wandering 
gipsies of the fourteenth century. Not only did the common 
people welcome these nomads, but they even found entrance 
into the castles and mansions of the nobles and the wealthy. 
In the sixteenth century one of these gipsies, Dominic Kalmdn, 
rose to fame as a violinist. 



244 Hungary 

The old " Palace Dance " is a Court dance of the fifteenth 
century. Its music differs quite from the other music of the 
period, being much Uvelier ; and since it consists of slow 
turns and walking, elderly people and the clergy often took 
part in it. In Italy it is still danced under the name of il passo 
mezzo ongarese. 

In the eighteenth century Michael Barna, Czinka Panna, 
and John Bihary flourished ; the last-named being composer 
of the dance tunes " Primate," " Palatine," and " Coronation." 
all of which are very popular to-day. Bihary had several 
times the honour of being invited to play at the Imperial 
Court at Vienna ; while he gave concerts also in Transylvania, 
Poland, and his own country. Even the great Beethoven 
expressed his admiration for Bihary's genius. 

There are the " Wedding Dance " and " Coquettish " for 
marriage festivals ; and the " Tent," " Arm," and " Drum 
Dances " as pastimes among the soldiers in camp. Dtiring 
last century a number of social dances arose, among which 
the " Round Dance," " Wreath Dance," and " Tavern Dance " 
are quite fashionable at the present day. 

Foreign music-masters were often found at the Courts of 
the Hungarian kings. At King Sigismund's was the renowned 
George Stolzer ; at King Matthias's the great Dutchman, 
John Tinctoris, who, formerly at the Court of Ferdinand of 
Naples, was brought to Hungary by that monarch's daughter, 
Princess Beatrice, on the occasion of her marriage to King 
Matthias. Peter, Bishop of Volturno, legate of Pope Sixtus 
IV, says that the choir of King Matthias was the finest in 
existence. Besides this, there was a band of trumpeters. 
The royal orchestra also consisted of thirty executants : 
a large number at that early period, for even in the eighteenth 
century the band of the Imperial Court at Vienna numbered 
eighteen only. Another Dutchman, Adrian Willaert, the 
creator of the madrigal, was " master of the King's music " 
under Louis II. One of his works in several parts may be 
seen to-day in St. Marks' Library at Venice. 



Art, Music, and the Drama 245 

Organs were first introduced into the churches generally 
in the reign of King Sigismund ; though there is a document 
extant, dated 1452, in which John Hunyady sanctions certain 
expenses in connection with an organ at the parish church of 
Felsobanya, while there is also mention of an organ with 
silver pipes in the chapel of King Matthias at Visegrad. 

The pioneer of Hungarian opera composers was Sigismund 
Cousser, a native of Pozsony. In 1700 we find him choir- 
master of St. Patrick's Cathedral, DubUn. His operas, 
" Pyramus and Thisbe " and " Scipio in Africa," evoked 
universal admiration. 

John Francisci, born at Beszterczebanya in 1691, attained 
to considerable fame as an organist. Sometime choir-master 
at Pozsony, he retired, in 1735, to his native town, where he 
filled a similar if less distinguished post till the end of his life. 

The Eszterhdzy family have always been known as great 
patrons of art and music. Prince Nicolas kept at his castle 
of Kis-Marton a splendid theatre and orchestra, the latter 
being led first by Joseph Haydn and afterwards by Pleyel and 
Hummel. Other distinguished patrons of music are the 
Karolyis, Batthyinyis and Erdodys. 

Beethoven's master, Albrechtsberger, and Michael Haydn 
lived many years at Gyor, and Karl Dottersdorf at Nags^virad, 
exercising great influence on the development of musical 
life in both those towns. 

Though, as already stated, the piano is now quite common 

in Hungary, it did not make its appearance till the beginning 

of last century. To that instrument the 

Liszt country owes a genius of harmony in the 

person of Francis Liszt, who was bom at 

the little village of DoborjAn, in Sopron county, on 22nd 

October, 1811. Even in his ninth year Liszt's pianoforte 

execution excited such wonder that he was styled the second 

Mozart. The Szapiry, Apponyi, Eszterhizy, and ErdSdy 

families took the boy under their protection, guaranteeing 

between them the expenses of his education. Under this 



246 Hungary 

arrangement he went to Vienna and became the pupil first 
of Czerny and afterwards of SaUeri. At his first concert 
young Liszt was publicly embraced by Beethoven, who pre- 
dicted for him a brillianf future. At the age of seventeen he 
had achieved more than European fame. Twenty years 
later he retired to Pozsony and settled down to the composi- 
tion of those " Rhapsodies " which have so deUghted the 
whole musical world. In 1862 he entered the seclusion of 
the Convent of Monte Mario at Rome, receiving there the 
lowest clerical ordination of abbe. During this period of 
peaceful retreat he produced his oratorio " St. Elizabeth " 
(first performed at Budapest in 1865), his " Coronation 
March," for the auspicious event that took place on 8th June, 
1867, and a second oratorio, " Christus " (first rendered at 
Budapest in 1875). In that year he was appointed the first 
director of the Royal Hungarian Academy of Music. When 
his death occurred at Bayreuth on 31st July, 1886, the 
Hungarian people mourned the loss of one whose genius had 
brought his native land to the forefront of cultured nations, 
while the whole world was the poorer for the passing of a 
great master of the divine, uplifting art of music. 

His famous contemporary, Francis Erkel (born 5th Novem- 
ber, 1810, died 15th June, 1860), was the founder of modern 
Hungarian opera. His chief works are " Maria Bathory " 
and " Ladislas Hunyady." 

Charles Goldmark, the dramatist, must not be omitted 
from our list of Hungarian musical worthies. Born at 
Keszthely in 1832, he achieved a universal reputation with 
his Oriental piece " Sakunthala," first produced in 1860. 
Of his other works the best appreciated are " Penthesilea," 
" Sappho," and " The Queen of Sheba," the last named 
being undoubtedly his chef-d'oeuvre. 

Her living musicians of international repute are sufficiently 
numerous to justify Hungary's claim to be considered a 
musical nation. Karl Thern, Charles and Eugene Huber — 
father and son — ^are well known abroad. Edmund Mihalovich 



Art, Music, and the Drama 247 

(" Hero and Leander " and " The Phantom Ship "), Francis 
Sarossy (" Attila " and " The Last of the Abencerages "), and 
among the younger generation Imre Elbert, Edmund Farkas, 
JuHus Mannheimer, and Maurice Verinecz are all operatic 
composers of whom any land may be proud. 

Among violinists — ^the distinctive production of musical 
Hungary — must be mentioned Joseph Joachim, Eugene 
Hubay, Joska Szigeti, Francis Vecsey, Stefi Geyer, and the 
greatest 'cellist of the century, David Popper. 

An aristocratic pianist is Count Gdza Zichy, who, when a boy, 
had the misfortune to lose his right arm in a gun explosion. 
His left-hand playing has excited the admiration of the musical 
world ; he is, moreover, the author of a successful opera. 

The names of the Hungarian song-writers and singers are 
legion. We must, however, mention Benjamin Egressy, 
Ernest Lanyi, Alexander Erkel, Francis Gaal, Edward 
SzigUgety, Ignacius Bognar, Julius Kaldy, Michael Fiiredy, 
Aloysius Tarnay, Lorand Frater, and Bela Zerkowitz ; while 
among the ladies are Madam Hegediis and " the Hungarian 
Nightingale," Madam Blaha. For ballet music Charles 
Szabados and Louis Toth are unrivalled. 

During the course of the last century many institutions for 
musical culture have arisen in Hungary. The first Conserva- 
toire was founded in 1819 at Kolozsvar ; the second at Arad 
in 1833. The institution known originally as the Musicians' 
Society of Pesth, developed into the National Conservatoire 
of Music. In 1860 a Conservatoire was inaugurated at 
Debreczen ; an example followed within the next few years 
by the towns of Kassa, Szeged, and Szabadka. In the year 
named the Musical Academy of Buda was also founded. In 
1875, as already stated, the Royal Hungarian Academy of 
Music was opened with the Abb6 Liszt at its head. Besides 
these, the Hungarian metropolis boasts numerous choral 
societies, glee unions, and other organisations devoted to the 
cultivation of musical talent ; while its concert season is as 
brilliant is that of Vienna. 



CHAPTER XI 

AGRICULTURE, COMMERCE, AND INDUSTRY 

Upwards of 6,000,000, ot 68 per cent, of the bread-winners 

of Hungary, are employed in agricultural pursuits ; and 

since 7,000,000 more may be reckoned as 

Agriculture, dependent upon these, we have a total of 
13,000,000, or 68 per cent, of the total population 
of the country living by agriculture. Even this great number 
is, however, a decrease since 1890, in which year no less than 
72 per cent, of the population were engaged in or dependent 
upon the cultivation of the soil for their livelihood. 

The Ministry of Agriculture does all in its power to ensiu-e 
the success of this the principal occupation of the inhabitants 
of the land, by providing special agricultural schools wherein 
facilities are given the farmers and small landowners to acquire 
the necessary practical knowledge, and to become acquainted 
with the latest scientific discoveries in all branches of agri- 
culture. Besides these facilities for the already educated 
agriculturists, however, there are also schools for the training 
of farm labourers along the most practical lines, as well as 
schools of dairy work, horticulture, viticulture, and forestry. 

Property ownership in Hungary is characterised by extremes. 
There are many large estates and many small ones, but those 
of medium extent are now very few and fax between. A 
different state of affairs, too, is found in Hungary from that 
obtaining in England. In the latter country tenant-farming 
is the rule ; in Hungary it is the exception. The Hungarian 
gentlemen farm their own lands, and are often inferior in 
business capacity and agricultural knowledge ; the same state- 
ment holds good also with regard to the small-holders ; hence 
the solicitude of the Agricultural Ministry for their general 
enlightenment is not without reason. 

More than 30,000,000 hectares, * out of the 32,500,000 

> One hectare = 2-471 acres. 

248 



Agriculture, Commerce, and Industry 249 



forming the area of Hungary, is productive land : its 
distribution being as follows ; 







Area 






(in hectares) 


Ploughed-land 


. 41-63 per cent. 


13,531,028 


Forest-land 


27-88 


9,060,888 


Pasture-land 


. 12-59 


4,092,882 


Meadow-land 


10-31 


3.349,806 


Gardens 


1-30 


421,705 


Vineyards . 


•72 


234,182 


Cane-brakes 


•23 


75,042 


Non-productive . 


5-34 


1,734,261 



100-00 



32,499,794 



The latest data (1913) show the yield of the productive 
area for last year to have been as follows : 



Wheat 

Carrots and Turnips 

Potatoes 

Maize 

Mixed Provender . 

Beetroot 

Lucerne and Clover 

Vetches and MUlet-grass 

Barley 

Rye . 

Oats . 

Tobacco 

Hemp . 

Peas, Beans 

Hemp-seed 

Rape-seed 

Harl . 

Clover-seed 

Linseed 

Lucerne-seed 



and Lentils 



5,273, 

5,428, 

5,223 

4,100, 

2,775, 

2,987 

2,328, 

1,755 

1,578, 

1,508, 

1,381 

63 

67 

34 

21 

21 

15 

9 

7 

4 



,624 tons. 
556 
,682 
489 
,740 
593 
,465 
017 
,607 
,711 
,987 
,314 
,287 
563 
,396 
,174 
,795 
,389 
,014 
,196 



Practically all the forest land is included in the large estates, 
while the arable is in the hands of the small-holders — a class 
which in the past formed the very backbone of the poUtical 
and social life of Hungary. This was the class which suppUed 
the leaders in the struggles for religious and poUtical freedom at 
the time of the Reformation and later, upholding the national 
glory and sacrificing themselves in their country's cause. 



250 Hungary 

Diiring the last few years there has been a movement 
towards co-operation, but only as regards leasing. The 
responsibility towards the landlord is shared by several 
tenants, but when the agreement is signed, the leased land is 
divided and each partf proceeds on his own responsibility ; 
a good method of keeping men on the land, but it is not 
co-operative farming. Hungarian legislation, prior to 1848, 
sought to control the proprietor's rights of selling and mort- 
gaging, somewhat after the fashion of the Wyndham Act 
(for Ireland) ; but the changes made in the law in the year 
referred to, freed the farmers and gave them the absolute 
right to dispose of their land. Neither the selling of the land 
to foreigners nor the parcelling out into small plots is satis- 
factory to the Government, yet no practical remedy is forth- 
coming up to the present. Some propose to introduce the 
law of primogeniture, as in England ; to exempt the ancestral 
estate from sale, as in America ; or to fix Umits to the dis- 
posal of inherited property, as in Germany. The matter 
will no doubt resolve itself ere long ; in the meantime the 
national legislators demand that the agricultural education 
already alluded to shall be vigorously pushed forward. 

The position of the Hungarian farm labourers until the last 
few years was a very miserable one. Dr. Ignacius Daranyi, 
when Minister of Agrictdture, took a keen interest in that 
class and did much to brighten their lives, by establishing 
reading clubs and passing Acts of Parliament to improve 
their material conditions. Among the latter were (a) a 
Labour Bureau with a central office at Budapest ; (b) old-age 
pensions for farm servants, and (c) a vote of £12,500 annually 
for the next thirty years for erecting more comfortable 
dwellings for them. Many of the farm labourers' so-called 
" homes," even on the estates of the wealthy nobles, were a 
disgrace to any country claiming to be civilised. Dr. 
Daran5d especially distinguished himself in his successful 
struggle with agricultural strikes. Fourteen or fifteen years 
ago the agriculture of the country was jeopardised by the 



Agriculture, Commerce, and Industry 251 

refusal of the harvesters to fulfil their contracts. It is 
always necessary to secure in the previous winter or spring 
the signed undertakings of the hantk required for the summer 
harvest, and if they are not forthcoming in due time, the har- 
vest is ruined. The State cannot allow agreements of such 
far-reaching national importance to be lightly broken, and 
thus was justified in its intervention on the occasion referred 
to. The State itself being the largest farmer in Hungary, 
Dr. Daranyi, as Minister of Agriculture, collected the work- 
men's reserve from all the State domains and placed it at 
the disposal of .those landowners who were able to prove 
that they had lost the services of workmen through no fault 
of their own. This precedent has been followed ever since, 
when necessary, and is found to work satisfactorily. 

In their endeavours to get higher pay the labourers are 
assisted by combination before contracting. Their wages 
are, however, going down, owing to the retiirn of many who 
emigrated to America. The average daily pay of a farm 
hand in spring is Is. 5d., in summer, 2s. 2Jd. ; in autumn. 
Is. 7d. ; and in winter. Is. IJd. The farm labourer's life 
has little attraction to offer, and is consequently taken up 
only by the least desirable class. 

Hungary is a considerable wine-producing country, the 

annual output varying between 3,500,000 and 4,500,000 

hectolitres. ^ ' ' Nullum vinum nisi ungaricum " 

erovSne ''^ ^ famiUar saying, dating from the Middle 

Ages. The quality of the wine is excellent, 

but the truth must be told — adulteration is practised on a 

gigantic scale. The Government has tried to put a stop to 

the evil ; heavy punishments are inflicted on convicted 

deUnquents, but in spite of all the game goes merrily on, and 

one Hungarian gentleman (himself a wine-grower) has said : 

" For many a year not a single bottle of genuine Hungarian 

wine has been sold in London." 

Hungarian fruit is unsurpassed in Europe : the grapes, 

> Hectolitre = 22-0097 gallons. 



252 Hungary 

melons, pears, apples, apricots, peaches, cherries, and nuts 
would be hailed with deUght in Covent Garden, if only they 
could be got there in fresh condition. Alas ! there are no 
refrigerating carriages on the Hungarian railway system ; 
and cold storage is unknown outside Budapest. 

With the exception of horses, the breeding of animals is 

not so general in Hungary as in England. The State has 

stud-farms at Kisb6r (for English thorough- 

^Fwrns*!"* ^t^^^), Babobia (for Arabs), and Mezohegyes 

(for both kinds). Besides these there 

are more than a thousand breeding-stations belonging 

to the State, with^an aggregate of 3,500 staUions. The 

quality of the Hungarian horse is well known in England. 

It may be interesting to recall here Lord Rosebery's facetious 

observation to the effect that " there were none but good horses 

in Hungary, since the Hungarians had exported all their had ones 

for the war in South Africa I " The revenue from the export 

of horses represents upwards of f 1,000,000 sterling a year. 

For draught purposes in the country oxen are largely used 
— ^long-horned, white animals, akin to the Padolians of Russia. 

The latest inventory of the quadrupeds in Hungary, from 
the reports of the official veterinary inspectors, reads as follows : 



Sheep 

Pigs 

Homed cattle 

Horses . 

Goats 

Mules and Asses 



8,548,204 
7,580,446 
7,319,121 
2,351,481 
426,981 
21,953 



Formerly pig-breeding was a flourishing trade in Hungary, 
but the outbreak of swine-fever in 1895 dealt it a heavy 
blow, from which it has not yet recovered. To-day, however, 
pork is still one of the commonest articles of diet. The 
Hungarian pig is woolly, and at a distance can hardly be 
distinguished from a sheep. 

Cattle disease is controlled pretty much the same as in 
England. Rinderpest has been quite abolished ; anthrax 
and glanders are rare ; rabies rarer still ; but swine-fever is 



Agriculture, Commerce, and Industry 253 

still a factor to be reckoned with. The Government indemnifies 
farmers and others for loss of cattle through disease. 

The forest-land of Hungary, covering an area of more than 

9,000,000 hectares,^ abounds with game. Statistics are 

deficient, as the statements of sportsmen 

^^Lands'** cannot be absolutely relied on ; but it is 
estimated that 4,500,000 head of game are 
killed annually, the majority consisting of hares and par- 
tridges. Deer and wild boar are also shot in great numbers ; 
as well as chamois, mouflons, and bears to a smaller extent. 
The late King Edward, when Prince of Wales, was a familiar 
figure in the hunting parties of the Hungarian magnates. 

One million five hundred thousand hectares of this forest-land 
belong to the State. It is not on this territory only, however, 
that scientific forestry is practised ; there are nearly 150 State 
nurseries which, in one year, produced an aggregate of 
67,000,000 saplings. These were used in the re-afforestation 
of barren districts and for planting along the country road- 
sides. There are also gardens for the rearing of fruit-trees 
destined to be planted on the road-sides ; for mulberry trees 
in connection with sericulture ; and for willows in connection 
with the basket-weaving industry. Every municipality is 
under legal obUgation to estabhsh and maintain one such 
garden, but, generally speaking, this measure is not a success, 
as too much expense is involved, and often more knowledge 
of horticulture is required than is to be found in the locality. 

The Ministry of Agriculture takes the oversight of all 
matters relating to the waterways of the country. Preventive 
works against inundations exceed in extent and importance 
those of any other European land. In Russia and America 
only are the flood areas and morasses more extensive than in 
Hungary, in which the protected area covers 3,670,000 hectares. 

The natural water-ways of Hungary are 2,500 miles in 
extent. In the winter and the rainy season these, but for 
the excellent preventive works, would be a source of grave 

» Vide page 249. 



254 Hungary 

danger to the lives and property of thousands living in the 
adjacent towns and districts. As it is, this danger cannot 
be entirely obviated. The disaster at Budapest in 1838 
has already been described ; ^ in 1879 the town of Szeged 
(105,000 inhabitants) was practically destroyed by the River 
Tisza bursting its banks. This year also, by the overflowing 
of the River Maros, several villages in Transylvania have 
been wiped out, hundreds of lives lost and thousands rendered 
homeless. The pecuniary damage done is estimated at 
£1,600,000. 

There are 523 inland water-locks and bank flood-gates in 
the valley of the Danube, and 2,804 in that of the Tisza ; 
while the number of bridges are 898 and 1,978 respectively. 
Neither the flood-gates nor the dykes are sufficient to lead off 
the water from certain areas of the Great Plain, as the water 
in the channel of the river, between the embankments, is 
often for months together at a higher level than that upon 
the protected areas behind the, embankments. 

The shipping affairs of the country, the harbour works of 
the only seaport (Fiume), and the maintenance of the " Iron 
Gate " of the Danube — ^near the Serbo-Roumanian frontier — 
are in the department of the Ministry of Commerce. 

The economic development of Hungary dates from a very 

recent period : forty years ago it could scarcely be said to 

have begun. Hungary is a country to which 

Economic Nature and circumstances have denied the 
Advance. . , 

two factors necessary to commercial greatness 

— an extensive seaboard and a highly developed home industry. 

We may not be surprised, therefore, that she has been unable 

to rise to the level of prosperity attained by more favoured 

nations ; though I shall endeavour to show, in the course 

of this chapter, that the progress of the past decade is 

remarkably gratifying from the Hungarian point of view. 

An important sign of this commercial Renaissance is the 
fact that for the past year or two the Ministry of Commerce 

» Vide Chapter IX. 



Agriculture, Commerce, and Industry 255 

has been overwhelmed with work. The Factory Act of 1884, 
which circumstances had rendered practically obsolete, is 
now being completely revised, and a nurhber of Bills have 
been laid before ParUament intended to settle various pressing 
social questions of the day. 

For reasons that I do not feel competent to explain, the 
Hungarian Government considers foreign capital a sine qud 
non to the development of the economic resources of the 
country ; and accordingly offers generous subventions, 
exemption from taxation, and other favours and concessions 
to foreigners as inducements to them to estabUsh their busi- 
nesses in Hungary. During the last ten years no less than 
£1,250,000 sterling have been devoted to this purpose ; and 
in the past twelve months alone upwards of £200,000. Since 
1902 foreign individuals and firms to the number of 512 have 
been assisted ; these in return finding employment for 15,425 
Hungarians ; for it is one of the conditions attaching to every 
subvention or concession of this kind that only natives shall 
be employed whenever such can be found competent for the 
work required to be done. 

The number of industrial schools of all kinds erected during 
the past few years, and the Zealous activity with which others 
are being added, are a tacit admission on the 
^Schools*' P^"^ °* ^^^ authorities that the Hungarian 
artisan has much to learn ere he can hold his 
own against his neighbours. There are at present in the 
country four higher grade industrial schools, twenty-three 
handicraft schools, one industrial school for girls, and five 
artisans' schools, the whole acconamodating 18,500 pupils ; 
while three other institutions are approaching completion : 
at Pdcs, Miskolcz, and Ujpest respectively. The higher 
grade industrial school at Budapest has just been enlarged, 
in the metals, chemistry, and machine-construction depart- 
ments ; while among other institutions that have recently 
undergone extension may be mentioned the clock-making 
school of Budapest, the wood-carving school at Gyor, and the 



256 Hungary 

school of ironwork at Temesvir, Besides these there are 
460 apprentices' schools with 66,300 pupils, six schools for 
training in basket-weaving, toy and lace-making, and four- 
teen women's schools for practical needlework. It wiU thus 
be seen that the Hungarian State is endeavouring to place 
its home industry on a soUd foundation by the systematising 
of technical education, preparing young men and women for 
useful careers and enabling older ones to complete their 
knowledge of their callings and become acquainted with the 
most modern methods and improvements. 

The backwardness of Hungary was not observed until the 
manufacturing industry of her foreign neighbours had made 
a hitherto unexpected advance and the completion of the 
means of communication made it possible for the factories 
abroad to inundate the country with their goods. The feeble 
and in many respects primitive industry of Hungary was 
unable to compete with that of Austria, which had enjoyed 
a protective tariff for centuries ; and home industry was 
every year less able to cope with the constantly increasing 
demands of home consumption. Nevertheless, after gradually 
overcoming the troubles incident to a transition stage, the 
industry of Hungary began vigorously to develop. Whereas 
in 1869 only 9'4 per cent, of the aggregate nimiber of workers 
were employed in industrial pursuits, to-day there are nearly 
15 per cent. 

The social legislation of the Government during the past 

twenty years is deserving of a few words here. The first 

important step was the passing of Act XIV 

Urislation °^ ^®^^' ^y *^^ provisions of which all factory 
hands were obUged to become members of a 
sick fund guaranteeing them free medical attendance, medicine, 
and sick pay, as well as confinement allowance in the case 
of wives, and defrajmaent of funeral expenses at death. The 
employer paid one-third and the employ^ two-thirds of the 
contributions. Act XIX of 1907 was an improvement upon 
the earlier law, providing for the maintenance of workmen in 



Agriculture, Commerce, and Industry 257 

cases of incapacitation owing to accident as well as sickness. 
By virtue of this law the beneficiary pays half the premium 
only in the insurance against sickness, while in the insurance 
against accident the employer pays the whole. Dludng the 
course of the expired year Bills have been passed for the 
better regulation of the building trades and itinerant occupa- 
tions ; while other Bills are in preparation relative to shop 
hours, prohibition of unfair competition, protection of 
women-workers and minors, and Sunday rest. 

In 1906, while the Act of 1891 was in force, there were 
440 sick funds, whose aggregate capital amounted to £588,333, 
and aggregate income to £610,000. Their aggregate member- 
ship numbered 780,217 persons. At the last census there 
were 1,127,130 industrial employes in Hungary ; 1,077,226 
engaged in industry proper, 43,081 in domestic, and 6,823 
in itinerant industry. All these are by law members of a sick 
benefit fund. Although the economic depression of 1900 
caused many establishments to reduce the number of their 
employes, there were nevertheless single ironfoundries and 
machine works in Hungary employing upwards of 2,000 hands 
each, while in one steel-works no less than 4,447 were employed. 
The number of industrial employes mentioned are 
apportioned as follows : 

Clothing 281,320 

Articles of Food and Drink 143,736 

Iron and Metal-workers ...... 128,219 

Building Trade 125,070 

Wood and Bone 95,824 

Hotels and Restaurants ...... 95,332 

Machinists, Vehicles, Electrical Industry . . . 72,415 

Earthenware, Glass and Stone ..... 44,886 

Domestic Industry ....... 43,081 

Spinning and Weaving . . . . . . 34,156 

Decorative Art 17,059 

Leather, Brush and Feather Work .... 16,595 
Chemical Industry ....... 14,491 

Paper-making 7,727 

Itinerants 6.823 

Total .... 1,127,130 

I?— («394) 



258 Hungary 

There are no exact data giving the present state of Hun- 
garian industry ; but at the last census there were in the 
country 703 native firms and companies with 
Varietiit! ^^^ ""°^^^ °^ establishments, and 22 foreign 
firms ^th 29 factories. The paid-up capital 
of the former amounted to £41,208,333 ; the aggregate 
capital, £86,041,666 ; and the net profits, £12,340,417. 

There are 85 breweries, which produce in the aggregate 
2,158,402 hectohtres of beer annually ; 55,317 spirit dis- 
tilleries, large and small, with an aggregate annual output 
of 108,343,400 hectohtres of pure spirit ; 23 sugar factories 
employing 17,985 hands and producing 333,342 tons of beet- 
root sugar a year. The Hungarian milling industry is very 
highly developed, not only satisfjdng the demands of the 
native consumers, but exporting flour in a constantly increasing 
quantity. The mills of Budapest alone grind upwards of 
837,000 tons of corn annually, while the annual export of 
flour exceeds 782,000 tons, representing a value of £7,647,900. 
The greater part of this goes to Austria ; though, American 
competition notwithstanding, Hungarian exporters have 
been able to place 29,400 tons of flour annually on the Enghsh 
market ; a fact due to its excellent quahty. 

Mining plays a conspicuous rdle in the industry of Hungary. 
The digging and smelting of ore may be traced back to the 
bronze age ; later the Roman conquerors of Pannonia engaged 
in the industry, and in the days of the Arpad kings it formed 
an important branch of the economic hfe of the country. 
The greater part of the revenue being of old contributed by 
the mines, the Hungarian monarchs not unnaturally did all 
in their power, by the granting of valuable concessions and by 
other means, to foster the industry. But on the discovery, 
to a fabulous extent, of mines of gold and silver in 
Australia and America, the mining of Hungary lost much 
of its importance, and since that time the exploitation 
of coal and iron-ore has, owing to the backward state 
of Hungarian industry, never been able to reach the 



Agriculture, Commerce, and Industry 259 

level of importance attained by lands in which industry is 
better developed. 

Exclusive of coal-miners, of whom no data are available, 
there are 80,409 persons employed in the mines of Hungary. 
Twenty years ago the number was 46,134 only : an increase, 
therefore, of 74 per cent. Of the' former number 14,237 
(21 "2 per cent.) are employed in the mines and smelting 
works belonging to the State. 

Hungary is immensely rich in salt-mines. The production 
of that indispensable domestic requisite is a monopoly of the 
State, giving employment to 2,605 persons. Silver-mining, 
too, is conducted chiefly by the State ; while gold-mining is 
generally undertaken by private enterprise, which has given 
a great impetus to the production of that precious metal. 
From 1868 to 1876 the average annual gold output was 1,534 
kilograms only, whereas since 1906 it has risen to 3,738 
kilograms, representing a value of £513,000. On the other 
hand, the silver output has declined. While from 1868 to 
1876 the average output reached 21,787 kilograms a year, 
since 1906 it has fallen as low as 13,642 kilograms. The 
output of Hungarian copper also has dwindled in conse- 
quence of the over-production of the United States. Hungary 
produces also, though in insignificant quantities, lead, 
antimony, and zinc. 

Next to coal, the most important mineral production of 
Hungary is iron, the northern and eastern counties being 
especially rich in ore. The output is advancing by leaps and 
bounds. In the year 1887 the production of iron-ore was 
566,000 tons only. In 1906 it had risen to 1,698,000 tons, 
and to-day it exceeds 2,400,000 tons annually. Unfortu- 
nately for the country, the production of pig-iron has not kept 
pace with that of ore. Every year the ore in ever-increasing 
quantities is exported to Silesian furnaces to be turned into 
metal. The metal industry, nevertheless, ^ows an advance 
of more than double during the last twenty years : i.e., from 
193,000 to 420,000 tons annually. This advance has not 



260 Hungary 

however, been a steady one ; it reached its cHmax in 1899 
(471,000 tons), since which year a decline has had to be 
recorded. 

The advance in the coal output is, on the contrary, much 
more permanent and vigorous. Coal-fields abound throughout 
Hungary ; though, unfortunately, they produce chiefly the 
less valuable lignite, or brown coal, the more valuable anthra- 
cite, or stone coal, representing only some 20 per cent, of the 
whole output. Taking the complete production, we find 
immense progress has been made during the last thirty years. 
In 1887 it was 2,510,000 tons ; in 1906 it was 7,603,000 tons ; 
to-day it exceeds 12,000,000 tons. The coal export trade 
has increased proportionately. In 1887 some 84,300 tons 
were sent out of the coutitry ; in 1906 the export had risen 
to 372,000 tons ; to-day upwards of 400,000 tons are exported 
annually. The superior coal — anthracite — ^is largely imported 
from the coal-fields of the North of England and South Wales. 
Last year no less than 1,847,000 tons were admitted into 
Hungary from abroad — chiefly from the ports of Newcastle 
and Cardiff — ^the total coal consumption of the country 
amounting to 9,000,000 tons. Though the output is rapidly 
increasing, its consumption is increasing still more rapidly — 
a sign of the development of the industry of the nation. 

The remuneration of those persons — ^not men alone, but 
women, and youths of both sexes — ^who risk their lives and 
limbs in the bowels of the earth, is by no means princely ; 
official statistics showing the maximum daily wage for a 
man as 4s. lid., the minimum, lOd. (for a woman, 2s. 2d. — 6d. ; 
for a youth, Is. 7d. — 3d.). Miserable as these rates 
certainly are, they are, nevertheless, 65 per cent, higher than 
those obtaining in 1891. The working day is usually about 
twelvie hours, without a Saturday half-hoUday. The cost of 
living varies in different parts of the country, but on the whole 
it is about the same as in the mining districts of England. 

Compared with the position of their English brethren, that 
of the Hungarian workers is not an enviable one. The average 



Agriculture, Commerce, and Industry 261 

weekly earnings of a factory hand are 22s. for a seventy-two 
hour week (a woman, 10s. 6d. only). The rates of pay are, 
of course, somewhat higher in Budapest. 

Hungary has a seaboard of 94 miles only, the value of which 
is considerably discounted by the fact that the great mountain 
range of the Karst shuts it off from the heart of the country, 
rendering transport by rail difficult and consequently expen- 
sive. The navigable rivers, however, compensate somewhat 
for this disadvantage. The Danube, the largest Evuropean 
river, crosses Hungary in a south-easterly direction, covering 
a distance of 625 miles. The Tisza, flowing from north to 
south, practically divides the country into two halves, tra- 
versing 750 miles before joining the Danube below Titel. 
The direction taken by these two great water-ways cannot 
be said to be altogether favourable for inland traffic. While 
the former brings the industrial products of Western Europe 
down stream quickly and at Uttle cost, the raw material of 
Hungary is obliged to fight its way up stream at a greater 
expense of time and money. The Tisza flows for a consider- 
able distance almost parallel with the Danube before finally 
joining it. A canal connects the two rivers, but being too 
far south, goods coming down the Tisza must go a long way 
round to reach the Danube. The cutting of a second canal 
to remedy the present unsatisfactory state of things, is now 
engaging the attention of the Government. 

The provision and maintenance of good roads has always 
been an object of the solicitude of the Commerical Ministry. 

Last year 238 miles were added to the length 
CommSntcftion. ^^ ^^^ State roads, bringing it up to 7,360 

miles ; while by an additional 940 miles the 
aggregate length of the county roads has been increased to 
18,533 miles. The high-roads of all kinds (State, county, 
municipal, and district council) have an aggregate length of 
60,748 miles, an average of 30 miles of pubUc road to every 
100 square miles of territory, or to every 10,000 of the popula- 
tion. Nevertheless, there remains much to be done to improve 



262 Hungary 

the roads of Hungary. Outside the towns in autumn and winter 
much of the road is practically morass, impassable for the 
pedestrian and extremely dangerous for vehicles carrjdng even 
light loads. Road metal being scarce the maintenance of 
the public roads is an expensive item, the State roads alone 
absorbing £333,000 a year, and the county roads not less than 
£1,000,000 sterling. A Bill now before Parliament provides 
for the completion of all the public roads within a period of 
eighteen years. 

The first railway was laid down in Hungary in 1846, but 
the Revolution breaking out two years later put a stop to 
popular aspirations for at least a generation. In 1866 there 
were only 1,350 miles of railway in the whole country, a figure 
which was trebled by 1876. Up to that time the railway was 
in the hands of private companies. Several factors, however 
— among them the burdens imposed on the State by the 
guarantee of dividends and the backward economic conditions 
of the land — convinced the Government of the necessity of 
taking over this branch of the public service. Accordingly 
the old lines were bought by the State, and the construction 
of new lines immediately commenced. To-day, from Buda- 
pest as the centre, railways run in all directions. There are 
eighteen routes to Austria, five to Roumania, one to Servia, 
two to Bosnia, the most important of all being that connecting 
the capital with the port of Fiume. 

More than £208,000,000 have already been invested in the 

railways of Hungary. In last year's budget the following 

sums were voted to defray the expenses of further development 

of the State lines : 

For Rolling Stock .... ;£420,000 

Locomotives 340,000 

Completion of unfinished lines . . 2,374,333 

Laying down of new lines . . . 267,083 

Works of special urgency . . . 548,500 

The employfe of the State railwa57s number 53,51 1 officials 

and 49,220 workmen, whose salaries and wages amount in the 

aggregate to £5,125,000 annually. 



Agriculture, Commerce, and Industry 263 

The first great enterprise of the State after taking over the 
railways, was to make Fiume the great emporium of Hun- 
garian commerce. A railway line was accordingly laid down 
from Budapest, right across the country, boring through the 
Karst, to the port, rebuilding and extending the harbour and 
furnishing it with wharves and warehouses : a gigantic under- 
taking that cost the Government between the years 1871 to 
1906, no less than £1,920,000. 

Schemes of far-reaching importance are now occupying the 
attention of the Commercial Ministry, having for their object 
the attainment of new outlets for Hungarian export traf&c. 
Certain conventions with shipping companies have just been 
renewed ; the mercantile marine is to be increased ; and to 
accomplish these things important subsidies have been granted. 
The Adria Steam Navigation Company is to reorganise its 
North African service, its vessels putting in at Mogador 
instead of Gibraltar ; and, increasing its fleet, wiU multiply 
its periodical sailings between Marseilles, Oporto, and Fiume. 
Moreover, a new steamship Une is about to be formed connect- 
ing Fiume with the newly acquired Itahan possessions of 
TripoU and Benghasi. The coasting service of Fiume will 
also be vastly improved, and wiU embrace the whole eastern 
shore of the Adriatic. A new line of steamers has recently 
commenced to run between Fiume and Patras ; while a new 
vessel of the Ungaro-Croata Company, capable of accom- 
plishing 16 knots an hour, is engaged in the Cattaro traffic. 
The Hungarian Orient Steam Navigation Company com- 
menced last year a service between Fitime, Australia, New 
Zealand, and the Dutch East Indies ; and steps are being 
taken by this company to start, after the Balkan war is over, 
a weekly service between Galatz and Constantinople. In 
view of these considerations the port of Fiume must ere long 
prove inadequate for the requirements of the commerce of 
Hungary. 

Thirty-five years ago Fiume was scarcely more than a 
fair-sized fishing village, while to-day it has a population 



264 Hungary 

little short of 60,000. ^ Of these 50 per cent, are Italian, 
30 per cent. Hunjgarian, and the rest mainly Croatian. All 
three languages, with the addition of German, are freely used. 
The centre of the pubhc life of the city is the Via del Corso, 
where numerous mural tablets commemorate prominent 
incidents, an inscription under the vaulted City Gate recording 
the memory of the great earthquake of 1750. A reUc of its 
Roman origin is the Arco Romano, thought by many to have 
been originally a triumphal arch in honour of Caesar Claudius 
II. The city is pleasantly situated ; the blue Adriatic in 
front, in the background the dark mountains, with Monte 
Maggiore, capped with eternal snow, towering like a gigantic 
guardian over all. 

The Hungarian Post and Telegraph Administration is also 
a branch of the Ministry of Commerce, its immediate head 
(differing somewhat from the British Postmaster-General in 
that he is not of Ministerial rank) being known as the 
Director-in-Chief {Vezerigazgato). 

Throughout the country there are 314 Treasury (or " Crown " 
offices, and 4,274 other head, branch, and sub-of&ces. In 
Budapest alone are forty-six Treasury branch offices and 
twenty-four sub-offices, besides the General Post Office, at 
the public service. Added to these must be the thousands 
of tobacco-shops in every town, whose owners sell stamps 
and usually take in parcels and register letters in return for the 
coveted privilege of being allowed to engage in the remuner- 
ative business of vending the favourite weed, of which the 
Government has the monopoly. 

According to data kindly suppHed by Dr. WUliam Hennyey 
(whose position in the Hungarian service corresponds as nearly 
as possible to that of an English post-office surveyor), a year's 
traffic in the Hungarian Post and Telegraph Department 
comprises : 

Letters and newspapers . . . 650,000,000 
Sample-packets and circulars . . 290,000,000 

' At the census of 1910 the population was actually 49,806. 



Agriculture, Commerce, and Industry 265 



Parcels 


. 40.000,000 


Postal Orders 


. 30,000,000 


Money Orders 


2,500,000 


Inland telegrams 


9,000,000 


Foreign telegrams despatched . 


2,000,000' 


Foreign telegrams received 


2,400,000 » 



An aggregate sum of nearly £10,000,000 is collected annually 
by means of the Remboursement S3retem, — a public convenience 
which the English Post-Office ought to have adopted, in its 
interior service, at least, long ago. 

Another advantage not yet enjoyed in England, but which 
has obtained in Hungary for many years, is the delivery of 
sealed letters within the town area per Jd. post. The 
Hungarian Post-Office was one of the pioneers in the utilisation 
of motor tricycles for the collection of letters from the street 
wall-boxes, which are planned on a most ingenious principle. 
Incredible as it may seem to the English reader accustomed 
to see the postman taking the letters out of the box by hand 
in good old-fashioned style, in Hungary the postmen never 
handle nor even see the letters they collect from the boxes. 
The collecting-bag is already locked when handed to them 
empty at the head office. The act of attaching it to the letter- 
box causes both to open automatically, and the contents of 
the letter-box fall from above into the collecting bag beneath. 
The act of withdrawing the bag from the box effectively 
locks both. On the return of the men to the head office the 
bags are unlocked by responsible officials, and then the first 
personal handling takes place. 

The letter-bags used for the conveyance of official remit- 
tances from office to office are furnished with patent safety 
locks. Automatic post card and postage stamp supply 
machines, on the " slot " principle, are met with in all the 
large towns ; while even an apparatus for the automatic 

' It may be well to point out that Austria, between which and 
Hungary there is naturally a considerable amount of telegraph traflfic, 
is regarded by the Hungarians as a foreign country. 



266 Hungary 

registration of letters is now on trial. One Jnay, also on the 
" slot " principle, deposit one's spare silver (in crowns) in 
the Post-Office Savings-Bank. All these are pubUc con- 
veniences in regard to which the English Post-Office may 
well take a leaf from the llungarian's book. 

The Hungarian Post and Telegraph (including the Tele- 
phone) Service finds employment for upwards of 40,000 
persons of both sexes. There are 2,200 offices at which tele- 
graph and telephone business is transacted. Of these, sixty 
are open during the whole twenty-four hours ; some others 
are open during half the night as weU as throughout the day. 
Eight hundred call offices 'phone messages to the nearest 
head office for transmission by telegraph ; while 2,300 railway 
stations also undertake public telegraph business. As in 
England, the charge for inland telegrams has a 6d. minimum ; 
though " local " telegrams (i.e., those originating and delivered 
within the town radius) cost 4d. only. Budapest is in direct 
telegraphic communication with Vienna, Trieste, Prague, 
Lemberg, Sarajevo, Belgrade, Bukarest, and BraUa ; and 
telephonically with the whole of Austria, besides places in 
Bosnia, Bulgaria, Roumania, Servia, and Germany. The 
Telephone Centre at Budapest is overloaded with upwards 
of 18,000 subscribers ; another for the accommodation of 
14,000 being now in course of erection. 

Though there is much to praise in the Hungarian Post and 
Telegraph Administration, yet to the EngUshman there is 
also something to criticise. Many offices, for instance, close 
for one or two hours during the middle of the day, at the very 
time when the general pubUc are themselves most free, to 
transact their postal business. Most of the offices, too (head 
ofiices excepted), close as early as six p.m., rendering it con- 
siderably inconvenient for the employd class to transact their 
postal business, as they usually do not leave their employ- 
ment until after that hour. If the Post-Office is, as it certainly 
ought to be, a public service, the public convenience should 
be considered before that of the post-office employes. Since 



Agriculture, Commerce, and Industry 267 



the Administration makes an annual profit of £680,000^ it 
would appear well able to afford the additional expense of 
keeping all post-offices open throughout the day as well as 
of extending the evening service until at least eight p.m. 

From the Post-Office to the Post-Office Savings-Bank is an 
easy step. This useful institution, founded in 1886, resembles 

in its chief features its English counter- 
Savings-Banks, part, but differs in two important respects : 

it not only performs additional public 
service by means of its cheque-clearing department, 
but has, moreover, a reciprocal arrangement with the savings- 
banks of Bavaria, Wurtemberg, Switzerland and Belgium, 
besides, of course, Austria, the partner in the Dual Monarchy. 
For the first five years after its foundation its accounts 
showed a deficit ; now, however, one may regard it as finan- 
cially sound as the Bank of Austria-Hungary. During the 
year 1911 (the latest year for which I have been able to pro- 
cure data) the Hungarian Post-Office Savings-Bank transacted 
cheque-clearing business representing a total value exceeding 
£333,000,000 sterling. At the close of the same year some 
780,000 depositors had the sum of £4,626,000 standing to 
their credit. The following table shows at a glance the rate 
of progress. 



1886 


. ;£1 18,297 


1890 


339,263 


1895 


904,849 


1900 


. 1,361,318 


1905 


. 2,868,523 


1910 


. 4,522,916 


1911 


. 4,626,000 



Besides the ordinary mode of depositing one's spare funds, 
the youthful Hungarian may elect to lay by his savings till (1) 
his majority, * (2) his marriage, or (3) imtil his miHtary service 

' Seventeen million crowns : information specially supplied for 
this work. 

^ In Hungary a person is not legally of age until the twenty-fourth 
year. 



268 Hungary 

is completed. Such deferred deposits bear interest at the 
rate of 3"6 per cent. 

Witnessing the popularity of the Post-Of&ce Savings-Bank 
private bodies decided, to emulate its example. To-day the 
number of private savings-banks in Budapest and the pro- 
vincial towns is almost legion. From investigations I have 
made, there appear to be some 1,674,000 savings-bank deposit 
books in the hands of the general pubUc, the aggregate 
amount deposited being £119,870,000, equal to £71 5s. per 
book. These facts prove thrift in a nation whose annual 
budget is about £60,000,000 sterhng. 

The Austro-Hungarian Bank being the bank of issue of the 
Dual Monarchy, has been treated of in the Austrian section. 
I shall therefore content myself with stating that Hungary is 
represented in that institution by a Managing Council and a 
Director, with the Hungarian headquarters at Budapest, just 
as the Austrian managing body and headquarters are at 
Vienna. Over both branches is a Governor-in-Chief. 

There are innumerable other banking houses, whose aggre- 
gate funds amount to £360,953,750. These establishments 
do not cash each other's cheques ; neither are their regulations 
uniform ; some cheques must be cashed within fourteen, 
others ten days, or they are void. A cheque drawn on a 
certain branch will not be accepted at another branch even 
of the same banking firm. 

Twenty Hungarian towns have Chambers of Commerce, 
supported by a number of private associations with similar 
aims and objects. The Budapest Bourse (or Tozsde) is also 
the Com Exchange. Its annual sales of corn average 
32,000,000 tons. 

I am informed there are no statistical data of the inland 
trade, except with respect to cattle — a branch of business 
of minor importance. The Statistics Office appears to 
concentrate its activities rather on keeping account of the 
foreign trade of the country. During the last quarter of a 
centviry this has increased 73 per cent., its aggregate value 



Agriculture, Commerce, and Industry 269 

exceeding £125,000,000 annually. In the period under review 
the value of the imports has risen from £36,462,500 to 
£64,816,000 ; and the exports from £37,204,166 to £62,867.000 
— ^the trade balance showing an export surplus of £12,000,000. 
It must be pointed out, for the benefit of the English reader 
who is too apt to regard the Dual Monarchy as a single State, 
that the preceding data are based on the definition of Austria 
as a foreign country. As may be supposed, the Empire 
naturally plays the most important rdle in the foreign trade 
of the Hungarian Kingdom. The following table shows at a 
glance the relative importance of the various States in the 
foreign commercial relations of the country : 



VALUE PER ANNUM. 





■ 






PERCENTAGE. 




Imfokts. 


Exports. 


Both. 






















Imports 


Exports 


Both 


Austria 


49,797,500 


£ 
44,704,666 


94,502,166. 


76-83 


71-11 


74-01 


Germany 


4,533.291 


6,092,083 


10.625,374 


6-99 


9-69 


8-32 


Gt. Britain . 


1,160,583 


1^453,083 


2,613,666 


1-79 


2-30 


2-04 


Bosnia 


1,093,833 


1,444,750 


2,538,583 


1-60 


2-31 


2-00 


British India 


1,405,291 


759,958 


2,165,249 


2-17 


1-21 


1-70 


Italy . 


710,875 


1,415,917 


2,126,792 


1-9 


2-26 


1-67 


Roumania . 


653,417 


1,255,666 


1,909,083 


l-OI 


2-00 


1-49 


France 


687,291 


1,152,875 


1,840,166 


1-06 


1-81 


1-44 


United States 


1,141,791 


271,666 


1,413,457 


1-76 


0-43 


Ml 


Servia 


966,375 


338,291 


1,304,666 


1-49 


0-54 


1-02 


Russia 


289,041 


665,791 


954.832 


0-45 


1-06 


0-75 


Switzerland . 


286,417 


488,800 


775,217 


0-44 


0-78 


0-61 



With the whole British Empire, Hungary has a commercial 
turnover exceeding £5,000,000 sterling per annum. 

Of the imports of the country, textile goods comprise 
30 per cent., articles of cotton being most conspicuous ; the 
remainder consisting chiefly of ready-made clothing, leather 
goods, iron and hardware, and machinery. 



270 



Hungary 



The value of the principal exports in an average 
year is as follows : 



Corn and Flour 

Animals 

Animal Products • . 

Wood and Coal 

Wine and Spirits 

Fruit and Plants 

Sugar .... 

Leather and Leather Goods 

Iron and Hardware . 

Machinery and Vehicles 

Textile Goods . 

Explosives 



;^20,829,166 
10,347,917 
4,209,166 
3,718,750 
1,877,500 
1,671,666 
1,472,084 
1,363,666 
1,542,500 
1,677,500 
2,559,584 
992,917 



A few words on the Hungarian currency, weights, and 
measures may fitly conclude this chapter. 

Bronze coins are 1 and 2^ filler pieces (10 filler = Id.) ; 
nickel, 10 and 20 filldr pieces ; silver, 1 crown {= lOd.), 2^ and 
5 crown pieces ; gold, 10,-20,-50, and 100-crown pieces. 

Liquids are measured by the litre (=8888 quart) and 
hectoUfre (=22-01 gallons) ; dry goods by the*i7o (=2-2055 lbs.) 
and metercentner (=220-46 lbs.) ; and land by the hold 
(= 1-43 acre) and hectare (= 2-471 acres). 

' A 2-fill6r piece and a 2-crown piece were formerly called a kreuzer 
(krajcxar) and a florin (forint) respectively, but those terms are now 
unfashionable and discouraged. 



CHAPTER XII 

THE JUDICIAL SYSTEM 

The first object of a civilised community is the administration 
of justice between man and man, without regard to power, 

wealth, or social distinction on the one hand 
Tud^'iar ^^ *^® ^^^ °^ these on the other. In Hungary, 

as in England, no exemptions from the regular 
judicial procedure are permissible, or at least they are never 
acknowledged, the highest nobles being amenable to the law 
equally with the humblest peasant. That " money is power," 
and that the possession thereof sometimes enables a Utigant 
to defeat justice, are indisputable facts, exemplifications of 
which are not confined to any single country under heaven. 
Human laws and their administrators are both alike Uable to 
error ; but when due allowance has been made for human 
frailty, it njay justly be said that the Hungarian Code compares 
very favourably with that of England. 

The great legist of Hungary was Stephen Verboczy, who, in 
1517, wrote his Tripartiium Corpus Juris consuetudinarii 
indytcB Regni Hungarice, a kind of Hungarian " Blackstone," 
and codified custom and statute law. 

The right of primogeniture is unknown to Hungarian law, 
and titles are inalienable. Thus when a man is created a 
count, not only does his wife become a countess, but all his 
children are counts and countesses too, and their children 
after them ad infinitum ; so that in the course of a few genera- 
tions there may be some hundreds of persons bearing the 
same countly title, many of them too poor properly to support 
the dignity. The same apphes also to other titles of nobihty. 
The inheritance is divided among all the children, the eldest son 
having the custody of the family archives, and the youngest 
the possession of the ancestral home. So long as one member 

271 



272 Hungary 

of the family is alive, the property remains in its possession, 
reverting to the Crown only in the event of the family becoming 
extinct. 

When, in the sixteenth century, Hungary first came under 
the rule of the Habsburgs " only the nobility," says the 
ex-Minister of Justice, Dr. Antal Giinter, " could counter- 
balance this foreign authority, for the peasant was at the 
lowest stage of development, and the cities were at this time 
considerably estranged from the national hfe. From the 
point of view of independent national existence the conserva- 
tism of the nobility became therefore a necessity. Its power 
could be maintained only by the system of serfdom, the 
unfree tenants (jobhagiones) receiving a holding as wages for 
the work done for the landlord." 

The influence of Western civiUsation on Hungarian law was 
noticeable towards the close of the eighteenth century. 
Joseph II, as we have already seen, sought to impose laws on 
Hungary in defiance of the Constitution, but aU his efforts 
were thwarted by the national opposition. In that monarch 
we have an example of one who tried to do a right thing in 
a wrong way. At a later period we find the estates of the 
realm themselves endeavouring to initiate the necessary 
reforms by consUtuUonal means ; and though they were not 
immediately successful, the good seed was nevertheless sown 
that bore fruit in the year 1848. By that time the old feudal 
law was changed into a common law for aU citizens. Landed 
property was enfranchised, the old bonds between landlord 
and tenant were dissolved, the former being indemnified by 
the State for the loss of the latter's services. 

It was soon discovered that the old Hungarian law could 
not quickly adapt itself to modern conditions, and this led 
to the adoption of many of the laws of the neighboiuing 
states, though in a revised form. 

In Hungary as in England from the dawn of history to 
mediaeval times the monarchs took a personal part in the 
administration of justice. Then to facilitate the King's 




HIS EXCELLENCY DR. ANTAL GUNTER 
(Sometime Minister of Ti-istice : now President of the 



The Judicial System 273 

judicial duties itinerant judges were created to assist him. 
Besides the supreme court, the Curia Regis, there were special 
courts for the nobles, and landlords' courts for tenants. In 
1848 the judicial power of the landlord came to an end and 
in 1871 the nobles' courts were superseded by the State coiu-ts, 
the administration of justice thus becoming at length 
completely democratised. 

The Hungarian Minister of Justice is at the head of all the 
institutions of judicial service, and supreme administrative 
authority under the Crown in everything concerning justice. 
The principal functions of the Ministry over which he presides 
are : to supervise aU the courts and take care that they keep 
within legal Umits in the fulfilment of their duties ; to devise 
means for the perfecting of justice and a rational organisation 
of judicial administration ; to issue instructions for the 
conduct of cases, without, however, changing the prescrip- 
tions of the law or hampering the independence of the judges ; 
to make representations to the King with regard to pardons ; 
to supervise the organisation of prisons and penitentiaries ; 
and to give effect to the new laws passed in Parliament. 

AU the judges and magistrates must report to the Minister 
on the cases tried by them. The Minister, moreover, presents 
to the King the nominations for the appointoent of judges, 
presidents of the courts, and secretaries. AU lower oflBicers 
the Minister may appoint himself. 

In dispensing justice the judges are independent ; they 
judge and decide in accordance with the law. The presence 
of three judges is necessary for a coiurt to be able to dispense 
justice, which is done publicly in the cotirts, except in such 
cases where the judges consider it necessary to exclude the 
public in the interests of order. The discussion and the vote 
are secret, whUe the judgments are deUvered aloud and 
publicly. The judges, dispensing justice in the King's name, 
are irremovable ; they may not be despoiled of their rank, 
nor deprived of their posts except in case of malversation by 
virtue of a disciplinary condemnation in a higher court. They 

1 8— (2394) 



274 Hungary 

cannot be held responsible before the law for their judicial 
acts, neither may they be retired against their will before 
reaching the age of sixty-five years. . 

The qualifications for, appointment as a judge are : (1) 
Hungarian citizenship, (2) sound and complete legal erudition, 
(3) knowledge of the language of the court over which he is 
td preside, ^ (4) good moral character, and finally (5) he must 
not be under twenty-six years of age. A judge's salary varies 
according to the rank of his court ; it may be an5^hing from 
£160 to £500. The President of the Curia, corresponding 
with the EngUsh Lord Chief Justice, receives £1,200 a year. 

There are in Hungary Proper 385 district courts, 67 county 
courts, and 11 courts of appeal. In Croatia-Slavonia, which 
enjoys judicial autonomy, there are 73 district courts, 9 
county courts, and 1 court of appeal. Besides these, is the 
Royal Supreme Court, or " Septemviral Table." Both the 
district and county courts are competent to give judgment 
in civil and criminal cases, though in the latter the punishment 
inflicted may not exceed 12 months' imprisonment. 

There are in Hungary Proper 2,274 judges of first instance 
(magistrates) whose office is by no means a sinecure, since each 
deals with an average of 2,300 cases annually. The courts of 
second instance (Courts of Appeal or " Royal Tables ") have 
214 judges ; while the Supreme Court of Justice at Budapest 
(the Curia Regis) has 79 judges. Besides these there are 76 
presidents and vice-presidents of the tribunals. 

In Crotia-Slavonia there are 60 district and 75 county 
judges, and exactly 40 of the courts of second and third 
instance, besides 14 presidents and vice-presidents. 

Law costs are lower than in England ; consequently a 
Hungarian lawyer, if his income be derived from his pro- 
fession alone, is not so comfortably situated as his EngUsh 
colleague. 

Owing to the number of sub-nationaUties in Hungary, 

' This is not necessarily Magyar ; it may be Croatian, Servian, 
Roumanian, German, or Italian. 



The Judicial System 275 

though every judge and magistrate is required to know the 
language prevailing in his jurisdiction, a considerable number 
of interpreters are employed. 

Legal procedure in Hungary follows very closely that of 
England, though in practice the punishments inflicted are 
generally less severe than in the latter country. As recent 
instances of Hungarian leniency may be cited : (1) The case 
of an M.P. shot dead by a young man who went to the house 
of the former evidently in a quarrelsome mood. As the victim 
angered by the reproaches levelled at him, rushed at the 
accused to strike him with a stick, the jury took the view that 
the accused, in shooting, merely acted in self-defence and 
accordingly acquitted him. (2) The outrage on the Speaker 
of the House of Commons, when that dignitary was shot at, 
fortunately without effect, by a member. The assailant, 
after trial, was set at Uberty on the ground that at the time 
of the occmrrence he was suffering from " brain storm " and 
therefore not responsible for his actions. The Hungarians 
claim that this mildness tends to the diminution of crime, and 
point out that, whereas in 1889 there were some 7,000 con- 
victs in penal servitude, there are now some 4,000 only, 
notwithstanding the increase in population. 

As in England, in Hungary also pursuit of the guilty is 
carried out with the utmost caution to avoid implicating the 
innocent ; no person may be compelled tp give evidence 
incriminating himself ; and trial by jury obtains in all cases 
of serious crime involving five years' penal servitude or more, 
as well as in political and press offences. Should a case of 
wrongful conviction or of mistaken identity be brought to 
hght, the victim receives compensation from the State. 

Even so early as the thirteenth century the legal status of 
woman in Hungary was considerably superior to that enjoyed 
by woman in the neighbouring coimtries ; and had it con- 
tinued to lead the van of progress in this respect it is possible 
that at least a modified form of female suffrage might to-day 
be an accomplished fact in the land of the Magyars. At that 



276 Hungary 

early period a Hungarian married woman could dispose of 
real estate, act as the independent guardian of her child, and 
even vote by male proxy. To-day a married woman has 
absolute control over her own property. If she have none 
and be left a widow, full provision is made for her to the extent 
of her late husband's estate. 

Hungarian law has, however, no legal provision against the 
exploitation of female virtue by dishonourable men, such, 
for instance, as that afforded by the salutary Breach of Pro- 
mise law of England, or the more recent measures against 
the White Slave traffic. Though corporal punishment is 
foreign to modern Hungarian sentiment, it nmght advantage- 
ously be revived for the chastisement of creatures of either 
sex whose actions have put them without the pale of humanity. 
Cases have been known (I hope they are rare) in which Hun- 
garian brides have been abandoned at the very altar ^ and no 
redress at law could be got. The result of this state of things 
is to hedge round the virtuous of the sex with precautions 
unusual in England ; young ladies must be accompanied by 
a chaperone if they go out in the evening ; if belated in the 
afternoon without escort, they must hurry home ; in short, 
the familiar friendship and the chivalrous relations between 
man and woman which constitute one of the chief charms of 
English life, do not exist in Hungary to such a great extent. 

Since 1894 civil marriage has been obUgatory, the reUgious 
solemnisation being left to the option of the contracting parties. 
As in England, the State undertakes the registration of births, 
marriages, and deaths. 

Hungary has an Employers' Liability Act ; there are legal 
restrictions against the exploitation of the economically weak 
by the strong, as well as measures regulating the conditions 
of labour in the lower grades. For the regulation of com- 
mercial relationships and the removal of abuses, there are the 
Commercial Code (1875), the Bill of Exchange Act (1876), 

* Or rather at the Town Hall, since civil marriage must precede the 
religious ceremony. 



The Judicial System 277 

the Bankruptcy Act (1881), and the Co-operative Societies' 
Act (1898). 

The legislation in the interests of the children has already 
been dealt with.^ First offenders and juveniles are never 
(unless the circumstances be very exceptional) sentenced to 
imprisonment, but put on probation. Culprits under eighteen 
years of age are usually committed to a reformatory, of which 
there are five in Hungary, capable of accommodating 1,000 
boys and girls. 

On the principle that environment influences conduct and 
moulds character, the youthful criminal is removed from his 
unwholesome surroundings and placed in a reformatory 
conducted on the " family " system. There he makes one 
of a family of thirty " brothers," with the teacher as the 
" father " {in loco parentis) who not only gives formal lessons 
but guides his charges in all the circumstances of their life 
in the institution. He attends them in workshop and garden, 
encouraging them in manual labour and taking part in their 
recreations. He is constantly on the watch to detect and 
correct their faults, to encourage them by praise or restrain 
them by reproof. Often on leaving the reformatory a youth 
finds himself on a higher plane, mentally, morally, and materi- 
ally, with the knowledge of a useful trade that places him 
on the high-road to a successful career. At Aszod is a reforma- 
tory with a coach-building school ; at Kassa is another with 
schools of carpentry, leather-work, and textile industries, 
the productions of which have gained prizes at international 
exhibitions. The inmates of these institutions, when morally 
regenerated, are sent forth again into society, of which in 
nearly all cases they become useful and respectable members 
— ^the hope of Hungary of the next generation. 

' Vide Chapter VIII. 



CHAPTER XIII 

STATE OF SOCIETY IN HUNGARY 

The social system of Hungary, which differs considerably 
from that of the surrounding countries, may be said to consist 

of four classes : the magnates or higher 
Condittons nobility, the lower nobility, the tradespeople 

of the towns, and the peasants of the country. 

The famihes of the magnates form regular clans after the 

Scotch fashion, between which people and the Himgarians 

there are many points of resemblance. The 
Magnates ^^^^^ being inaUenable, as explained in our 

previous chapter, it passes to all the children ; 
and as there is rarely any entail of property, except in the case 
of some score of the highest families, the whole is usually 
divided among all the members of the family. Thus it 
frequently happens that, in the course of generations, estates 
are divided and sub-divided until they become almost invisible. 
The Hungarian magnates are usually very accomplished, 
speaking several foreign languages with ease, and being 
acquainted with the literature of all the cultured nations, 
besides which they are musical and artistic in their tcistes. 
Usually good horsemen and keen sportsmen, easy and graceful 
in their movements, they are among the best dancers in the 
world. Towards each other genial and hospitable, courteous 
and tactful in their intercourse with their inferiors, yet their 
pride of race is strong and social barriers are sharply defined. 
They acquired much of their wealth and influence from their 
connection with the Court of Vienna, in the palmy days of 
Queen Maria Theresa, who attracted them thither, causing 
them to a great degree to become denationalised. Though 
the nationaUstic sentiment of Hungary to-day is intolerant 
of lack of patriotism, the Esterhazys, Batthyanys, Festetics, 
Pilffys, Karol3ds, Andrassys, Sz&henjds, and Wenckheims 
are, nevertheless, very cosmopolitan in taste and habits. 

278 



State of Society in Hungary 279 

The lower nobility correspond as nearly as possible to the 
English county families, many of them being able to trace 
back their pedigree to the earUest days of 
^^Nobtes""^ Hungarian history. They are the descendants 
of the landed proprietors who, as freemen, 
received the patent of nobility from the sovereign. Though 
they may have lost their estates, be poorly educated, and 
occupy humble stations, some of them living in scarcely 
better style than the peasants around them, yet all their 
hnen will be decorated with the five-pointed coronet and 
monogram, a framed coat-of-arms hanging from the wall in 
the parlour, and an air of unmistakable superiority upon their 
countenances. Though untitled, they are very proud of their 
right to the use of the coronet, a right that mere wealth cannot 
purchase. They are above all remarkable as being the most 
distinctively national element of Hungary, being the real 
Magyars who have never succumbed to Viennese influences. 

Before 1848 both magnates and lower nobiUty enjoyed, by 
right of birth, certain privileges denied to their social inferiors 
— ^the chief of which was exemption from taxation of every 
kind ; but in that year, when the nobility generally sur- 
rendered their privileges for the common good, the magnates 
declined voluntarily to join in the sacrifice. This led to a 
gradual cleavage between the two ranks, and now there is 
practically no social intercourse between them. 

While the magnates hold aloof from the lower nobility, 
the latter are equally proud. Many are wealthy and live in 
considerable style, both in Budapest and on their country 
estates. This class, according to Dr. Elem6r Hantos, M.P., 
was of the greatest social and political importance in past 
times. " Every possessor of the land was a noble, though 
he owned but a few acres, and furnished his slender contribu- 
tion towards the equipment of a knight. In England, those 
who were three degrees removed from the King in order of 
tenancy were considered as ignoble, but in Hungary, where 
subinfeudation was unknown, we never meet such distinction. 



280 Hungary 

The word ' noble,' therefore, had a meaning altogether 
different from its signification in England. It answered more 
to the ' freeman ' of Magna Carta and expressed a right to 
certain political and civil privileges not enjoyed by the rest 
of the population." 1 

A few words may be said here concerning the family names 
of the aristocrats and nobles. The custom prevails in Hungary 

similar to that in vogue among the lairds 
Nams °^ Scotland, of calling families after their 

ancestral estates, as " James Campbell, Esq., 
of Campbelltown " ; and though in many cases the ancestral 
estate may have long passed from them, the predicate (as 
it is in the Hungarian usage) is still retained. In some 
instances famiUes possess (or have possessed) more than one 
estate, in which cases they attach the designations of them 
all to their names, thus : SzentmiMosi es Nagykeresztesi 
Szilassy Jdnos = John Szilassy, Esq., of Szentmiklos and 
Nagykeresztes. Where the family name has been derived 
from the estate (which is the case with all the most ancient 
aristocratic houses), the family name ends with yi, as Apponyi 
(of Appony), Batthydnyi (of Batthyany), Kdrolyi, and 
Szechenyi. Sometimes we meet with family names prefixed 
with de (as de Nadosy, de Maitheny). This is not the French 
form, as many suppose, but the Latin, thus : Princeps Paulus 
Esterhdzy de Galdnta (Prince Paul Eszterhazy of Galanta), 
the classic idiom having been used in Hvmgary until a 
comparatively recent period. 

The tradespeople are, generally speaking, not real Magyars, 
but mostly Germans and Jews. To distinguish the ones from 

the others is not an easy task to the 
^^^ Class^™^" uninitiated, seeing that both have usually 

German names. After residence for a 
time in Hungary, it begins to dawn upon the Englishman that 
though most of the tradesmen have German names, some of 

' The Magna Carta of the English and of the Hungarian Constitution, 
by Elemfer Hantos, D.C.L.. M.P. 



State of Society in Hungary 281 

those nam^s are sufficiently dignified while others are rather 
ridiculous. Better acquaintance will reveal the fact that the 
latter are generally borne by the Jews and the former by the 
Germans. Thus, while Klein, Schreiber, Beyerlein, Billow, 
Schultz, and Seidel may he Germans, Reinkopf (Cleanhead), 
Feuerloscher (Fire-extinguisher), Himmelreich {Kingdom-of- 
Heaven), Goldfaden (Golden-thread), Rauchbauer (Hairy 
peasant), and Klopfer (Knocker) are certain to he Israelites. 
There is a reason for this, and one that does not say much 
for the sense of fairness of the Magyars of a past age. Up 
to the reign of Joseph II the Jews were not permitted to 
have surnames, besides being compelled to wear a distinctive 
badge, Uve outside the town boundaries, and suffer other 
humiliations. They were known somewhat as " Isaac the 
money-changer," " Abraham the umbrella-mender," and 
" Jacoh the pedler." 

In the " Introduction " to J6kai's Rah Rdhy we read : 
" The rough outline of the Ter&viros* was just beginning to 
show itself in a cluster of houses huddled closely together, and 
the narrow street they were then building was called ' Jewry.' 
In this same street, and in this only, was it permitted to the 
Jews, on one day every week, by an order of the magistrate, 
to expose for sale. . . Within the city they were not allowed 
to have shops, and when outside the Jews' quarter they were 
obliged to don a red mantle, with a yeUow lappet, and any 
Jew who failed to wear this distinctive garb was fined." 

Dr. Hantos, already quoted, says : " The position of the 
Jew was peculiar and unhappy. He was an alien, and as 
such had no poUtical rights, and so could inherit no landed 
estate, his very residence in the country being on sufferance. 
He was, moreover, an hereditary alien, for he was unable to 
do homage or fealty. He was the King's chattel." Reading 
further we find that, although often the monarch was disposed 
to be lenient towards the despised race, " under the influence 
of the Church Bulla Aurea took efficient measures to exclude 

1 One of the wards of the city of Budapest. 



282 Hungary 

Jews and all heretics from the holding of pubhc offices, 
pledging the King to confer such posts only on the nobles of 
his realm. (Article 24.) " 

To return to the subject of Jewish surnames. When the 
Emperor Joseph (1765-^) admitted the Israelites — ^in spite 
of the opposition of the Magyars — ^to the 
Jews. rights of citizenship, he gave them the 

privilege of choosing a surname, which should 
be German. Owing, however, to the Ul-will of the Magyar 
authorities of the period, the good intentions of the Emperor 
were frustrated; and most of the unfortunate Jews were 
registered for life and posterity with the nickname (in German) 
that their neighbours in derision had fastened upon them.^ 
In the course of a century many of these names have under- 
gone such modification as to render them less objectionable, 
though some are still sufficiently curious, as may be gathered 
from the examples given. 

Now, however, a happier state of things prevails ; and 
though antisemitism is not yet dead in Hungary, a different 
spirit animates the Magyars to-day. They are only too 
pleased for anyone with a German cognomen to exchange it 
for another (generally its translatable equivalent) in the 
Magyar tongue. The present writer himself is sometimes 
called " Szigeti " (of the island) by his Hungarian friends — 
a direct Magyarisation of the name Delisle. 

The position of the Hungarian peasantry has vastly im- 
proved since 1848, but their lot is still a hard one, providing 
ample material for the philanthropic labours 

Counlytfolk. °* ^"y ^^^^ " i°^'' ^"S^* " "^ " ^^ley- 
Cooper." Francis Deik, in his published 

speeches and papers, draws a gloomy picture of his humble 

fellow-countrymen in the early part of the last century. In 

' Even some of the pure-blooded Magyars, however, have pecuUar 
surnames : Bornemisza (He drinks no wine), Boromisza (He drmks my 
wine). 

Compare these with the Duke of Westminster's surname, Grosvenor 
{i.e., Grosventre). 




pjto/ogmphed /or this work by 



Miss Teri Matiyasovszky. 



HUNGARIAN PEASANT TYPE 



state of Society in Hungary 283 

allusion to the practice of billeting troops upon them, he 
declared, " The wild beast has its den, and the bird its nest, 
from which they have power to keep off all intruders ; but 
the Hungarian tax-payer ^ is not even master over that which 
is most exclusively his own — he is not free to do as he likes 
in his own house ; for the State, whose whole burden falls on 
his shoiilders, does not leave even the peace of his home 
undisturbed, but foists upon him guests whose presence he is 
compelled to tolerate, who are frequently aliens from foreign 
lands, and who are not even connected with him by the bond 
of a common tongue and the love of a common country." 

Pleading that the peasantry should be allowed to possess 
land, Deak said, " Let us grant to the people the right of 
property, and thereby draw them closer to us, and attach 
them with a bond of affection to that Fatherland which has 
been in great measure both supported and defended by them. 
Let us allow the people to hold land." " No," answered the 
majority, " ioT—omrUs terra proprietas ad dominum spectat — 
property is sacred and inviolable." " True," we replied, 
" we are willing to grant that the people must obtain property 
from the lord of the soil, ad quern omnis terrcB proprietas 
spectat, by means of voluntary sale." " Heaven forefend ! " 
exclaimed our opponents ; " such an idea is contrary to the 
Constitution." Thus limited in our scope, we finally prayed 
that the people might at least be absolved from compulsory 
labour. . . To this it was answered, " We will consider that 
question another time." And now we have come to the very 
last clause of our humble petition, so much of which has been 
refused. We have now but one request to make, and that is, 
that the bodily sustenance of the people may be cared for ; 
that they who bear on their shoulders the burdens of the whole 
nation should not have the very bread taken out of their 
mouths. This can hardly be refused ; this surely is " not 
contrary to the Constitution." . . . I wish to see the injustice 
which has gone on during the 800 years of our constitutional 

' The peasantry were the only taxpayers in Hungary at that period. 



284 Hungary 

existence atoned for. I wish it in the interest of our country, 
for the full development of the nation can never be achieved 
so long as personal seciurity is only a privilege enjoyed 
exclusively by the minority." ^ 

These bold and noble words of the great Hungarian tribune 
were not in vain. Supported by the eloquence of a few of his 
contemporaries, and aided by the state of the times, radical 
changes for the better in the condition of the peasantry were 
effected. 

That their condition is not yet satisfactory the constant 
stream of emigration to America is sufficient to show. In 
1906, according to official statistics, 169,202 
Emigration. Hungarians left their homeland. The emi- 
gration problem has been a source of anxiety 
to the Government for some years ; and that something has 
been done in the matter may be assumed, as in 1910 (the 
latest statistics procurable) the number of those who sought a 
home across the Atlantic was reduced to 96,324. This pleasing 
sign is no doubt due in some measure to the economic revival 
referred to in Chapter XI. It is to be hoped that ere long 
sufficient emplojrment may be f oimd to enable every Hungarian 
to remain on his native soil. 

Technically illegal, duelHng is as rife in Hungary as in the 
dominions of Kaiser William II. If a gentleman's " honour " 
be touched, there is no help for it but a resort 
Duelling. to arms, and sanguinary encoimters are the 
rule. After a duel with swords both com- 
batants are sometimes compelled to hide their disfigured 
features from pubUc gaze for a week or two. The best that 
can be said for Hungarian duels is that they seldom leave 
rancour behind. I have in mind the case of a gentleman 
challenged who, less than a couple of months after a murderous 
combat, in which the challenger (as he deserved) got a split 
skull, interested himself to procure for his whilom adversary 
a good berth in the public service. When a duel comes under 

'■ Francis Dedk : Hungarian Statesman, by M. E. Grant-Duff. 




Plnlogrxflud /or this work by Miss Teri M attyasovszhy . 

HUNGARIAN PEASANT TYPE 



state of Society in Hungary 285 

the notice of the authorities the offenders axe given a mild 
term of imprisonment, which involves no social disgrace, such 
as the refusal to fight would certainly do. In one year 
fifty-five cases of dueUing were dealt with by the magistrates, 
but those probably do not represent a tithe of the duels actually 
fought, most of them taking place in private houses and 
fencing schools, where the police are little likely to interfere. 
Those who make the laws {i.e., the poUticians) are among those 
who most often break the law in this respect. 

It is a good sign of the times that the militant upholders 
of personal honour are counterbalanced by the Anti-Duelling 
League in Budapest, which numbers among its members 
several prominent legislators and representative men in 
various branches of public life, all pledged to rid the country 
of this rehc of a barbarous age. Mr. Aristide Dessewffy, 
M.P., is President of the League, as well as being prominently 
identified with the Interparliamentary Union and the Universal 
Peace Movement. 

Though the modern Hungarian, whatever his class, is not 
usually a strict chiurch-goer nor a regular, to the peasants 
both CathoUc and Protestant the utterance of pious phrases 
and Scriptural quotations and allusions comes as natural as 
swimming to the duck. This is said to be an inheritance 
from an earher age when sincere religious faith played a greater 
part in the lives of the people than apparently it does to-day. 
In all the chief events of life the name of " God " and " the 
Lord " is frequently invoked. As for instance, when walking 
in the country one is frequently greeted with the salutation, 
" Jesus Christ be praised ! " To which the expected answer is, 
" Now and forever, Amen ! " 

When a young peasant couple have decided to wed, the 

young man chooses a spokesman from among his friends and, 

with him, proceeds to his sweetheart's home 

Custom^ *° formally demand the consent of the 

parents, who, it might be presumed, have 

been prepared for the visit. Without preliminary the 



286 Hungary 

would-be benedict's friend addresses the girl's parents some- 
what after the following manner : " As it was God who 
instituted the holy ordinance of marriage when He said to 
Adam, ' It is not good for man to be alone ' and created Eve 
to be his help-meet, be it therefore known unto you that this 
worthy man, A. B., having carefully considered the matter, 
desires to take a wife ia obedience to the commands of the 
Lord. We have heard a good report of your daughter C, 
and if Almighty God hath been pleased to unite her heart 
with this man's it would be sinful for mortals to put them 
asunder. We pray you to give permission for their union." 
The suit is naturally received with favour, since it has all been 
arranged beforehand, and refreshments are now served round. 
Later in the day the now betrothed couple call together on 
the priest or pastor to receive his blessing, returning to the 
home of the young woman for the " betrothal festival." 

The reUgious solemnisation of matrimony (after the civil 
marriage at the Town Hall) differs but httle from the English 
form ; but invitations to the wedding feast are verbal through 
the intermediary of the " best man," who calls on those whom 
it is intended to invite and delivers himself of the following 
message : " Pardon my intrusion, but I am deputed by 
Mr. and Mrs, A. B. to invite you to the celebration of their 
daughter C.'s wedding on the . . . instant. Please bring 
your knives, forks, and plates." 

In the wedding procession all the male friends of the bride 
and bridegroom, wearing garlands of flowers, ride gaily be- 
ribboned and flower-decorated horses and gallop along, wildly 
discharging pistols into the air. 

The toasts in honour of the newly-wedded are always 
most flowery effusions, such as : " May holy affection's 
bonds entwine your hearts for ever." " May the fruit of 
your union be as the trees in blossom." " May you be over- 
whelmed with happiness." The " best man's " benediction 
upon the bride is a performance worthy of the clergyman 
himself. Addressing her, he says : " May the Almighty 



State of Society in Hungary 287 

crown thy head with happiness ; may Nature smile upon 
thy face ; may care and affliction never draw a sigh from thy 
lips ; mayst thou dwell in peace and unity with thy husband ; 
may thy earthly life be prolonged, and when at last thou 
yieldst it up, may it be to exchange it for eternal life in 
Paradise." As a reward for this pretty speech the " best 
man " is kissed by the bride. 

Among the rural festivals of Hungary may be mentioned 
the Vintage, the Harvest Home, and the Pig-kiUing, aU 
accompanied with music and dancing, affording unbounded 
merriment to all present — except, in the case of the last, to 
the poor animal in whose honour the festival is given. 

At Easter it is customary to present €ggs of chocolate or 
sugar'- and to sprinkle one's friends with scent. Among the 
rustics the " sprinkling " is usually performed by means of 
a pail of water thrown over the object of the polite attention. 

The decorating of horses, carts, and carriages on May Day 
is carried out in Hungary to-day as it used to be in England 
a generation or more ago. 

In Hungarian towns there is no "rule of the road" for 
pedestrians, and much jostling and dodging to avoid collision 
are the natural result ', while in the event of an unusual 
attraction in a shop-window a crowd collects, blocking the 
foot-path and extending, perhaps, half-way into the horse-road. 
Such is the " Uberty of the subject " in Hungary that the 
policeman has no right to interfere. 

' Among the farming people real eggs painted red are exchanged. 



CHAPTER XIV 

HUNGARIAN SCENERY 

No work on Hungary would be complete that failed to make 
mention of some of the natural beauties and peculiarities of 

the country ; and in point of interest in 
Region/^ both these respects the High Tatra region is 

facile princeps. 
It is, in short, a rock-bound land of romance, with castles 
long gone to ruin and their ancient chivalry forgotten. In 
this land, at more than 3,000 feet above sea-level — cpnsider- 
ably higher than the Peak in Derbyshire, or even than Scafell 
— ^is Csorba, the most elevated village possessing a railway 
station in all Hungary. Still higher up is the lovely Lake 
Csorba, its banks fringed by pine forests and snow-capped 
mountains surrounding it on all sides. This lake, covering 
an area of fifty English acres, is, though more than 60 feet 
deep, quite transparent, the bottom being easily visible at 
all times. At an altitude of 5,000 feet is another lake, Poprad, 
in whose emerald green depths, clear as crystal, disport 
shoals of lively trout. Here one may experience snowstorms 
in the middle of summer, and gaze on beautiful pine-clad 
heights, whose summits glisten with coronets of eternal snow, 
and on innumerable lakelets, cascades, and streams that 
glitter on the plateaux like stars in the Milky Way ; while 
down in the valley lie the villages of the Tatra, nestling 
amidst lovely foliage and looking for all the world Uke the 
contents of a toy " Noah's Ark." 

The principal resorts are Tatra-Fiired and Tatra-Lomnicz, 
where warm sunshine may be enjoyed in the depth of winter. 
Even when the snow is several feet deep one may witness 
what to a foreigner must be a novel spectacle : men strolling 
about in straw hats and the lightest of clothing ! In the 

288 



Hungarian Scenery 289 

neighbourhood are the two falls of the Tarpatak river, both 
resembling sheets of plate-glass, the lower having a sheer 
descent from a height of 120 feet. In the Tarpatak valley 
are numerous lakelets, called by the peasantry " the eyes of 
the sea" (tengerszem), as according to their lore they are 
connected with the ocean. This is a fallacy, however, for 
the lakes have been sounded and their greatest depth is found 
not to exceed 235 feet. 

Hidden away in the Tatra forest-lands is the famous cavern 
of Dobsina, whose ceiling and walls are of Umestone and its 
floor a mass of slippery ice. Entering the 
A Cavern. cavern a sudden transformation is experienced, 
from the brilliant warm sunshine without, 
to this frigid underworld where one's very breath is congealed, 
forming hoar-frost on moustache or face-wrapper. A verit- 
able realm of ice it is, sparlding and scintillating in the glare 
of the electric arc-lamps. As far as the eye can reach are 
majestic columns, slender pinnacles, graceful minarets, 
stately domes, fountains, altars, alcoves — all of chaste ice, 
clear as crystal ; to say nothing of the fringes and curtains 
of exquisite lace-Uke delicacy and beauty which hang sus- 
pended from the ceihng — all of the same transparent material 
— while flashing gems of ice, like myriads of diamonds, are 
strewn around. The visitor conversant with the " Arabian 
Nights " is sure to think of Aladdin's enchanted palace. 

There is the Grand Hall, the floor of which forms a natural 
skating-rink of 1,750 square yards superficial area. Descend- 
ing wooden stairs we reach a corridor, upwards of 600 feet 
long and 60 feet high. Traversing this and descending still 
lower, we gaze upon weird, fantastic shapes, icicles, forming 
dainty tassels which refract the Ught Uke so many crsrstal 
prisms. Passing from chamber to chamber, each in turn 
presents some new and startUng specimen of Nature's handi- 
work, suggesting such fancies as the " Bedouin's Tent," the 
" Winter King's Palace," the " Fairy's Bower," the " Organ," 
and the " Magic Curtain." Long after returning to the Ught 

19— (2394) 



290 Hungary 

of the sunny day, we find ourselves wondering whether what 
we beheld was a reality or but a fantastic dream. 

At six miles distance is the charming valley of Sztraczina, 
with Mount Rhadzim forming a pxuple background in the 
declining rays of the setting sun, and the 
The Golnicz Golnicz river winding its tortuous course 
'^^'^' through the verdant meadows. In contem- 

plative mood we follow the stream, until suddenly we experi- 
ence a shock of surprise. The earth has swallowed it up ! 
Some miles down the valley, however, it reappears, now 
dashing madly over boulders, now scattering its pvu-ple waters 
in thousands of tiny spray-drops, sporting rainbow tints in 
the sunlight ; now whirling in a vortex, its clatter subsiding 
into a subdued murmur as it glides smoothly over a sandy 
bed, or floating above slabs of polished granite Uke a trans- 
parent veil. Where it fills the deeper recesses the dark grey 
crags and motionless pines are mirrored in its glassy surface, 
presenting a magic harmony of silence and repose in vivid 
contrast to the ceaseless unrest of life. 

In the inmiediate neighbourhood is the village of Aggtelek, 
boasting a wonderful stalactite cave, which for the magnifi- 
cence of its proportions is unrivalled in all 
AStafectite £uj.ope. Its principal chamber is 6,000 
yards in length ; another chamber branching 
oft to the right is at least half that length, the total area of 
the cave covering five square miles. Two streams flow 
through the length of the cavern, dubbed not inappropriately 
Styx and Acheron. 

Close to the entrance is the " Chaxnel House," used in the 
Stone Age as a cemetery. The primeval inhabitants of the 
cave appear to have been the ursus speltBus, or cave bear, 
and certain domestic animals that were the companions of 
man at that early period. Investigations within the cave 
have established the fact that in the Neolithic Age the dead 
were buried face downwards, flat stones being placed under 
and above the head. There is abundant evidence, too, that 



Hungarian Scenery 291 

the cave was used in the Bronze Age as a human habitation, 
domestic implements, the remains of a hearth and of food 
having been discovered therein. 

Crossing the rude bridge over the Acheron we enter the 
" Fox Hole," and proceeding through the " Vampire Cave," 
skirt the "Stinking Pool," our stroll terminating at 
" Paradise," which, superfluous to add, is the prettiest part 
of the cavern. Here are numerous stalactite columns which, 
reaching the floor, practically support the roof, and, when 
illuminated, strike the beholder as a most impressive sight. 
He geizes with admiration on the " Alabaster Column," a 
white stalagmite superbly formed ; and the "Observatory," 
another stalagmite rising to the height of 65 feet from a 
pedestal 25 feet in diameter. The furthermost recess of the 
cave has been given the awesome name of the " Infernal 
Abyss." 

A few hours hence by rail in a south-westerly direction 

will bring us to the largest lake of Central Europe, a possession 

of which Hungary is not unnaturally very 

Lake Balaton, proud. This is Lake Balaton, of which the 
reader may have heard under its German 
name, Plattensee. 

The Tihany peninsula divides the lake into two parts, the 
upper being the broader and more extensive, while the lower 
is the more impressive on account of its length. Beyond the 
Fiilop roads, at a distance of thirty miles from the head of the 
lake, the finest basaltic cones in Europe rise up sheer out 
of the water. The chief of these is Mount Badascony, a 
magnificent broken cone rising to a height of 1,350 feet, 
protruding into the lake and forming two inlets, above the 
vine-clad slopes of which a row of superb basaltic columns 
support a wooded summit. Balaton's shores were cultivated 
in the remote days of the old Romans, who planted the first 
vines on its fertile slopes and built their villas on the more 
charming spots, the remains of which have been brought to 
light by modem discoverers. 



292 Hungary 

Between Balaton and Fiume, in the vicinity of Ogulin, 

is a bit 6f the picturesque certainly unequalled in Europe, 

perhaps even in the whole world. The falls 

Szlujin Falls. °^ Szlujin are one of the wonders of the 
wonderful Karst region. Bursting forth from 
a cave, the Szlujinsicza rushes boisterously down between 
rocky banks, forming a series of cataracts, until the stream 
joins the larger Korana river right under the ruins of Count 
Frangepani's ancient castle of Szlujin. 

The south-eastern highlands of Hungary formed for some time 

in the past the independent principality of Transylvania. 

To-day, however, that name is merely a 

Transylvania, geographical expression, though its sharply 
defined natural boundaries and the peculiar 
customs, costumes, and language of the peasantry still 
preserve the impression that it is a separate state. 

Walled in by her seven mountains, ^ Transylvania has been 
amply compensated by Nature for her isolation from the rest 
of the world by the lavish gift of scenic beauties. Whoever 
has had the good fortune to travel in Transylvania never tires 
of describing the bewitching pictvires of rushing waters, 
frowning rocks, snow-covered peaks and verdant valleys, 
as well as of the variety of picturesque national costumes of 
the Wallachs, Roumanians, and Saxons who form the bulk 
of the population of that wildly romantic land. 

Of certain interest to the novelty-seeker is the island of 
Ada Kaleh, in the Danube below the " Iron Gate." Here 
among ruined forts are groups of small housefe, with a mosque 
whose minarets stand out boldly against a background of 
azure sky. Grave-looking Orientals, wearing the fez and 
smoking their narghiles, attend to their business in the 
leisurely manner peculiar to the inhabitants of the East. 
This island, a perfect paradise as regards its flora and climate, 
is a remnant of the once mighty Ottoman Empire, whose 

' The German name for Transylvania is Siebenbzirgen, meaning 
literally ■' Seven fortresses " {i.e., fortified hills). 




By permission of 



Miss Maimic L. Dclisle 



TRANSYLVANIAN PEASANT COSTUME 



Hungarian Scenery 293 

glory has departed even during the past six months. To- 
day the island is peopled exclusively by Moslems and the 
Austro-Hungarian garrison. Its poUtical status is peculiar : 
for, though a Hungarian possession, it sends a representative 
to the Turkish Parliament ! 

Hungary is rich in beauty-spots besides those already 

referred to ; while many of her cities are of thrilling historical 

interest. Pozsony, or Pressburg, her ancient 

Notable'cities capital, is sacred to the memory of the glorious 
Maria Theresa, who knew how to reward her 
" faithful Magyars." Komarom, or Komorn, is her virgin 
fortress, and the headquarters of the Danube torpedo-boat 
flotilla. Esztergom, or Gran, is the Hungarian " Canterbury," 
the seat of the Prince-Primate, possessing a cathedral practi- 
cally as stately and magnificent as St. Peter's at Rome. The 
University city of Kolozsvar, or Klausenburg, is remarkable 
as the capital of the former principality of Transylvania, the 
scene of eighty ParUaments, and the Mecca of Unitarianism. 
Pecs, or Funfkirchen, has the most ancient cathedral in 
Hungary, said to have been erected on the ruins of an old 
Roman structure. 

To do justice to — ^nay, merely to mention — all that is of 
interest in Hungary is impossible within the limits of this 
work. Those travellers whose acquaintance with Hungary 
is confined to Budapest, have not seen Hungary at all, and can 
hardly be said to have seen the Hungarians. For Budapest 
is eminently cosmopolitan, having Httle in common with the 
land of which she is the metropoUs ; her vices and virtues 
are peculiarly her own ; Uke a queen enthroned, she holds 
aloof, as it were, from her subjects, the provincial towns. 
The real Hungary and the real Hungarians are not to be found 
in the Capital, but in Debreczen, the Protestant " Rome," 
Kecskemet, famed for its fruit, Temesvar, the garden city, 
Szeged, of painful memories, and other towns of the Great 
Plain. 



Austrian Index 



Academy of the Fine Arts, 8S 

of Music, 46 

Adams, J. Q., 100 
Adelsberg, 18 
Adler, Dr. Victor, 39 
Akademisches Gymnasium, 84 
Aidukiewicz, 100 
Albrechtsberger, 112 
Alps, the Austrian, 14, 52 
Alt, R. von, 101 
Altvatergebirge, 22 
Alt-Wien porcelain, 91 
Andri, 107 
Angeli, 99 

Annexation of Bosnia, 3, 5 
Anti-Semitism, 26 
Anzengmber, Ludwig, 68 
Aquarellistenklub, 104 
Arbeiterzeitung, 78 
Architecture, Modem, 88 
Army, the Austrian, 1 1 
Ascher, Leo, 136 
Assling, 53 

Auemheimer, Raoul, 71 
Auersperg, Count, 71 

Babenberg, Counts of, 2 
Bacher, Rudolf, 107 

,Wilhelm. 77 

Badeni Count, 37 

Bahr, Hermann, 70 

Bamberger, 103 

Bartsch, R. H., 75 

Baschny, 101 

Bauer, 88 

Bauemfeld, Eduard von, 68 

Beaconsfield, Lord, 3 

Beck, 72 

Beer-Hofmann, 66 

Beethoven, 112 

Benedict, Sir Julius, 121 

Benedikt, M., 76 

Bemt, 103 

Bismarck, 19 

Bitterlich, 96 



Bittner, 124 
Blaas, 91 
Blau, Tina, 102 
Bochnia, 61 
Bohemia, 22 

(newspaper), 80 

Bohm. E., 110 

, J. D., 90 

Bohm-Bawerk, 37 
Bohmerwald, 22 
Boryslaw, 61 
Bosnia, 3, 4, 6, 53 
Bourse, the Vienna, 83 
Bozen, 57 

Brahms, J., 112, 119, 124 
Brand, J. Ch., 90 
Breweries, 52 
Brozik, 98 
Bruckner, 124 
Brunner, 103 
BruU, J., 122, 125 
Bukowina, 3, 14, 23 
Burckhard, 70, 75 
Burgtheater, 84, 86, 138 

Carinthia, 14 
Camiola (Krain), 2, 14, 18 
Carpathians, 23, 54 
Carst, 17, 53 
Canon, Hans, 97 
Canova, 90 
Caucic, 87 
Charlemagne, 2 
Charlemont, Eduard, 100 

.Hugo, 103 

Chiavacci, 75 

Christian Socialists, 38 

Centralism, 32 

CofEee-Houses, 134 

Concordia, 80 

Conscription, 11 

Constitution, the Austrian, 6, 29 

Co-education, 43 

Cossmann, 101 

Cottage Quarter, 86 



294 



Index 



295 



Cracow. 3 

Croatia, 6 

Croatians, 13, 14 

Court Theatre, the Imperial, 84, 

86, 138 
Czechs, 13, 14, 22, 23, 34, 39 
Czermak, Jaroslaw, 98 
Czerny, 113, 116 

Daffinger, 89 
Dalmatia, 3, 14, 19, 53 
Danhauser, 93 
Danube, 1, 14, 51, 130 
Damaut, 103 
David, J. J., 75 
Deininger, 87 
Delegations, 7 
Delug, 100 

Deutsches Volksblatt, 78 
— Volkstheater, 139 
DiabeUi, 116 
DoUnes, 18 
Dolomites, 15 
Donauwaibchen, 108 
Dreadnoughts, 12 
Durnbauer, 111 
Diimstein, 15 
Dussek, 116 
Dvorak, 125 

Ebner-Eschenbach, Marie 

Baronin, 73 
Eger, 22 
Eichhorn, 100 
Eisenmenger, 96 
Eissler, 136 
Elbe, 22, 51 
Elementary School, 42 
Engelhart, 107 
Engerth, 91 
Erzgebirge, 22 
Extrablatt, Illustriertes, 78 
Eybl, 94 

Fabiani, Max, 88 
Falat, 106 
Fall, 136 
FeUner, 87 
Pendi, Peter, 94 
Feuerbach, Anselm, 98 



Ferdinand, Emperor, 5 

Max, Archduke, 11 

Perienhorte, 44 

Femkom, 109 

Perstl, Heinrich von, 83, 85 

Feuchtersleben, 72 

Feuilleton, 76 

Fischer, Johann Martin, 90 

, Ludwig, 103 

Fishing, 59 

Fleischer, 87 

Forestry, 58 

Francis the First, Emperor, 5, 81 

Joseph the First, Emperor, 

5. 7, 31, 81 
Pranzensbad, 22 
Premdenblatt, 79 
Preudenau, 130 
Friedlander, Friedrich, 96, 104 
Priedrich, Otto, 107 
Prohlich, the Sisters, 63 
Froschl, 101 
Fruit, 57 

Piiger, Priedrich Heinrich, 89 
Fiihrich, 92 

Game, 59 
Galicia, 3, 23 
Galsworthy, 139 
Garda, Lake of, 15 
Gasser, Hans, 108 
Gauermann, 94 
Gautsch, Baron Paul, 37 
Germans, 13, 14, 16, 17, 38 
Gesellschaft der Musikfreunde, 

115 
Gilm, 72 

Girls' High Schools, 45 
Gloriette, 132 
Glossy, Dr., 80 
Goldmark, Kari, 123, 125 
Goltz, 100 
Gosausee, 15 
Graben, 133 
Grassi, 91 

Grazie, Maria delle, 72 
Griepenkerl, 96 
Grillparzer, Franz, 62, 113 
Grottker, 98 
Griin, Anastasius, 71 



296 



Index 



Gurschner, 111 
Gymnasium, 44 
, Akademisches, 84 

Habsburgs, 2, 5 
Hagenbund, 104 • 

Halm, Friedrich, 65 
Hamerling, 72 
Handel-Mazetti, 74 
Hansen, Theophil von, 82 
Hanslick, 112 
Hartmann, M., 72 
Hasenauer, Karl von, 86 
Haydn, 112 

Heir to the Throne, 10, 56, 78 
Hejda, 111 
Hellmer, 110 
Helmer, 87 
Herremhaus, 29 
Herzegowina, 3, 4, 6 
Herzl, Theodor, 28, 77 
Herzogenburg, Heinrich von, 125 
Hevesi, 93 
Hietzing, 133 
Hirschl-Heremy, 100 
Hofburgtheater, 84, 86, 138 
Hofiman, Camill, 73 

, Josef, 88 

Hofmannsthal, Hugo von, 65, 72 
Hoger, 95 

Hohenwart, Count, 36 
Hormann, Theodor von, 102 
Horowitz, Leopold, 100 
Huber, Rudolf, 103 
Hudecek, 108 
Hummel, 116 
Hungary, 6 
Hynais, 87 

IDRIA, 60 

Illustriertes Extrablatt, 78 

Industry, 52 

Iron Industries, 52 

Ischl, 8, 60 

Italians, 13, 14, 20 

Jettel, Eugen, 102 
Jettmar, 107 
Jews, 13, 14, 24, 26 
Joachimstal, 22 



Joseph the Second, Emperor, 55 
Journal, Neues Wiener 78 
Juch, Ernst, 101 
Jungwirth, 100 

Kalbeck, Max, 119 
Karawanken, 18 
Karger, 99 
Karlsbad, 22 
Karlweis, 69 
Kamtnerstrasse, 133 
Karwin, 61 
Kasparides, 106 
Kanfmann, Isidor, 100 
Kielmannsegg, Count, 37 
Kienzl, Wilhehn, 122 
Kindergarten, 43 
Klimt, Ernst, 99 

, Gustav, 87, 99, 105 

Klotz, 111 
Knupfer, Benno, 103 
Koch, 90 

, Ludwig, 107 

Koerber, Dr. Ernst von, 37 
Kohn, David, 101 
KoUer. 96 
Konig, 87 

, Friedrich, 106 

Konstantinhugel, 130 
Komgold, Erich Wolfgang, 120 
Kossa^, Julius, 98 

.Wojcich, 98 

Krafft, Johann Peter, 89 
Krain (Camiola), 14, 18 
Kramarz, 40 
Kramer, 105 
Kraus, 101 
Krestin, 100 
Kreutzer, Konradin, 122 
Krieau, 130 
Kriehuber, 101 
Kundtmann, 87. 109 
Kunstgewerbeschule, 46 
Kunstschau, 104 
Kiimberger, Ferdinand, 74 
Kurzbauer, 99 
Kustenland, 14 

Lampi, 89 
Laimer, 121 



Index 



297 



Larwin, 100 
Laufberger, 99 
Lefler, 107 
Lehar, 121, 136 
Leitmeritz, 57 
Lenau, Nikolaus, 71 
Leopold the Fifth, Duke, 2 
Libraries, the Free, 50 
Lichtenfels, 102 
Liebenwein, 107 
List, 107 

Loffler-Radjrmno, 96 
Lombardy and Venetia, 5 
Loos, Adolf, 88 
Lortzing, 122 
Lowe, Ferdinand, 115 
Lower Austria, 14 
Lueger, Dr., 39 
Lyceum, 46 

Magyar Race, 6 

Mahler, Gustav, 112, 115, 120, 125 

Mahrische Schweiz, 22 

Makart, 87, 96 

Malczewski, 108 

Manes, 92 

Maraschino, 53 

Mariahilferstrasse, 133 

Maria Theresia, Empress, 5 

Marienbad, 22 

Marschall, 111 

Marschner, 121 

Matsch, 87, 99 

Matejko, 98 

Maximilian the First, Emperor, 2 

Mazaryk, 40 

Mehoffer, 108 

Meschaert, 118 

Metternich, 5 

Michalek, 101 

Mielich, 97 

Militarische Rundschau, 79 

Millocker, 135 

Mining, 60 

Modern Architecture, 88 

Modern Gallery, 106 

Moll, Karl, 102, 105 

Moravia, 23 

Moscheles, 116 

Moving-Picture Shows, 134 



Mozart, 112, 122 

Miiller, Carl, 105 

Miiller, Leopold Karl, 97 

Miinch-Bellinghausen, Baron, 65 

Munkaczy, 87 

Museum, the Austrian, 85 

, the Imperial, 86 

Music Halls, 134 

Musikfreunde, Gesellschaft der, 

115 
Musikvereinssale, 83 
Muskete, Die, 79 
Myrbach-Rheinfeld, 107 
Myslbeck, 110 

Napoleon the First, 5 

the Third, 1 1 

Natter, 111 

Navy, the Austrian, 11 
Nedbal, Oskar, 115 
Nestroy, Johann, 67 
Neue Freie Presse, 76 
Neues Wiener Journal, 78 
Neues Wiener Tagblatt, 76 
Nicolai, Otto, 122 
Novibazar, Sandschak, 4 
Nowak, 105 

Occupation of Bosnia, 4 
Ohmann, Friedrich, 88 
Offenbach, 135 
Olbrich, 88 

Opera House, the Imperial, 82, 
138 

— , the Popular, 138 

Orlik, Emil, 108 
Ostdeutsche Rundschau, 78 
Oesterreichische Rundschau, 80 
Ostrau, 61 

Ottokar of Bohemia, 2 

Paoli, Betty, 72 

Palace, the Emperors, 86 

Paper MiUs, 52 

Parliament, the House of, 38, 83. 

110 
Passini, 99 
Pausinger, 103 
Payer, Julius von, 99 
Peasantry, 55 



298 



Index 



People's Theatre, 48 

Peszka, 90 

Pettenkofen, August, 95, 97 

, Ferdinand, 98 

Petzold, Alfons, 73 , 

Philharmonic Concerts, 115 
Piccolo delta Matina, 80 

Seya, 80 

Pichler, Adolf, 72 

Pippich, 103 

Pochwalski, 100 

Pola, 12, 19 

Poles, 13, 14, 21, 23, 24, 34, 39 

Polyes, 17 

Popular Education, 48 

Opera House, 138 

Porcelain " Alt-Wien," 91 
Post Office Savings Bank, 88 
Potzl, Eduard, 75 
Prager Tagblatt, 80 
Prater, 130 
Preisler, 108 
Presse, Neue Freie, 76 
Prill Quartette, 115 

Radetzky (statue), 109 
Radnitzky, 111 
Rahl, Karl, 96 
Railroads, 51 
Raimund, Ferdinand, 66 
Ranftl, 94 
Ranzoni, 106 
Rathausky, 111 
Rauchinger, 101 
Realgymnasium, 45 
Realschule, 45 
Rebell, 90 
Reichspost, 78 
Reichsrat, 29 
Reinhardt, 136 
Rektor of the University, 47 
Revolution of '48, 5 
Ribarz, Adolf, 102 
Richter, Hans, 115 
Riesengebirge, 22 
Rilke, Rainer Maria, 72 
Kingstrasse, 83 
Riva, 16 
Robot, 55 
Roller, 107 



Roinako, Anton, 99 
Rosegger, Peter, 74 
Ros6 Quartette, 115 
Rotunde, 131 

Roumanians, 13, 14, 23, 25 
Rudolf von Habsburg, 2 

the Fourth, Emperor, 2 

Rumpler, 100 

Rundschau, Militarische, 79 

, Ostdeutsche, 78 

, Oesterreichische, 80 

Russ, Robert, 87, 89, 102 
Ruthenians, 13, 14, 21, 23, 125, 

135, 139 
Ruzicka, 108 

Saar, Ferdinand von, 74 

Sachsische Schweiz, 22 

SaUeri, 112 

Saliger, 101 

Salten, Felix, 70, 75, 77 

Salus, Hugo, 73 

Salzburg, 3, 14 

Salzkammergut, 15, 60 

Schafier, 102 

Schalk, Franz, 115 

Scharff, 111 

Schattenstein, 101 

Schenk, 112 

Schindler, 102 

Schlenther, 139 

Schliessmann, 101 

Schmerling, 32 

Schmidt, Friedrich von, 83 

Schmutzer, 101 

Schnitzler, Arthur, 66, 69, 75 

Schodl, 104 

Schonbrunn, 132 

Schonherr, 69, 74 

Schonn, 97 

Schram, 99 

Schreker, Franz, 124 

Schrodl, 103 

Schubert, Franz, 116, 117 

Schumann, 119 

Schwaiger, 107 

Schwartz, 111 

Schwarzenbergpark, 131 

Schwind, 91, 92 

Secession, 88, 110 



Index 



299 



Secondary Schools, 44 

Segantini, 106 

Seidl, 72 

Semper, 86 

Servia, 5 

Servians, 13, 14 

Siccardsburg, 82 

SUesia, 5, 23 

Singer, Wilhelm, 77 

Slavonia, 6 

Slivovitz, 57 

Slovaks, 13, 14, 23 

Slovenes, 13, 14, 35 

Sloyd. 43 

Smetana, Friedrich, 123, 125 

Smith, Adam (statue), 108 

Socialistic Party, 32, 39 

South Slavs, 20, 21, 35, 39 

Speidel, Ludwig, 77 

Sprenger, 81 

Stachiewicz, 100 

Stadtpark, 131 

Stagemann, Frau, 118 

Stanislawski, 106 

Steinfeld, Franz, 95 

Steinle, 92 

Stefansdom, 84 

St. Stephen's, 84 

Steyr, 52 

Stifter, Adalbert, 73 

Stoitzner, 105 

Strassgschwandtner, 94 

Strasser, 111 

Strauss, Johann, senior, 121 

, junior, 121, 135 

, Oscar, 121, 135 

Students, 47 
Styka, 100 
Styria, 14 
Sudetians, 22, 53 
Suffrage, Universal, 37 
Siihntmus, 84 
Suppantschitsch, 106 
Supp6, 135 
Suttner, Baronin, 74 
Svabinski, 108 
Swoboda, Carl, 95 

, Eduard, 96 

, Josefine, 101 

Sykes, Sir Tatton, 85 



Taaffe, Count Eduardj 35 
Tagblatt, Neues Wiener, 76 
Tagblatt, Prager, 80 
Tatra, the Great, 24 
Tautenhajm, 111 
Tegetthoff, Admiral, 11 
Temple, Hans, 100 
Textile Industries, 52 
Theatre, 137 

, the Imperial Court, 84, 86, 

138 
Thoren, 103 
TUgner, 87, 1 10 
Tomec, 103 

Tonkiinstler Orchester, 115 
Town Hall of Vienna, 84 
Toynbee Halls, 50 
Trade, the Austrian, 51 
Triest, 19 
Tychy, Hans, 106 
Tyrol, 14 

Unger, William, 101 
University of Vienna, 46, 47, 85 
Upper Austria, 14 
Uprka, 108 
Urania, 48, 49 

Van dek NUll, 82 
Veith, 99, 101 
Veldes, 18 

Vienna, 1, 7, 81, 127 
Vindobona, 2 

Vogl, Johann Nepomuk, 72 
Voglsang, 117 
Volksbildungsverein, 48 
Volksblatt, Deufsches, 78 
Volksgarten, 131 
Volksheim, 49 

Volkstheater, Deutsches, 139 
Votive Cathedral, 85 
Votivkirche, 85 

Wachau, 15 
Wacik, 107 
Wage, Die, 79 
Wagner, Otto, 87 
Waldmiiller, 91, 94 
WaUsee, 10 
Waschmann, 111 



300 



Index 



Wassilko, Nikolai von, 40 
Watschenmann, 131 
Weber, 121 

Weiagartner, Felix, 120 
Weisskirchner, Dr., 28 
Weyr, 87, 109, 110 • 

jWieliczka, 61 
Wiener yieustadt, 52 
Wiener Zeitung, 79 
Wilda, 97 
Wildgans, 72 
Wilt, 106 

Windischgratz, Prince, 37 
Wintersport, 140 
Wisinger, Olga, 102 
Wittmann, Hugo, 77 
Wolf, Hufeo, 112, 120 



Working Men's College, 48 
Wurstelprater, 130 
Wurzinger, 91, 92 
Wyspiansky, 99 

Zachariewitcz, 87 
Zauner, Franz, 90 
Zedlitz, Baron, 72 
Zeit, Die, 76 
Zelezny, 111 
Zetscbe, 103 
Zimmermann, 102 
Zitek, 87 
Zmurko, 100 
Zoff, 103 
Zumbusch, 109 > 
Zweig, 72 



Hungarian Index 



Abb6 Liszt, 245 
Academies of Hungary, 216 
Actors and actresses, status of, 

241 
Ada Kaleh Island, 292 
A.E.I.O.U., 168 
Aggtelek Stalactite Cave, 230 
Agriculture, Commerce, and 

Industry, 248 
Aladar and Csaba, Attila's sons, 

151 
Alexander Petofi, 201 
Almos, 151, 172 
Amazons, 146 
American and British Churches 

in Budapest, 237 
Anagrams of Frederick III, 168 
Andrew III, 156 
Anjou House, 156 
Aquincum, 227 
Architecture in Hungary, 239 
Arpad, 151, 173 
Aristocracy, privileges of, 176 
Art and artists in Hungary, 238 
AttUa, the " Scourge of God," 

148, 151 
" Austria-Hungary," significance 

of, 179 
Austrian Dynasty, Hungary 

comes under, 161 
Austro-Huugariau Bank, 268 
" Austro-Hungarian Empire " a 

misnomer, 178 
Avars, 149 

Bajazet Sultan, 157 
Balaton Lake, 291 
Ballot, the, 183 
Banks, 268 
Baths, 226 
Batu Khan, 155 
Battle of Marchfeld, 156 

— Moh, 155 

— Mohacs, 160 

B§la IV, 155 



Birth-rate in Budapest, 232 
Blood Covenant, 172 
Breweries in Hungary, 258 
British and American churches 

in Budapest, 237 
Budapest, history and description 

of, 225 
Bulla Aurea, 175 

Cabinet (Hungarian) of 1913, 

185 
Chamber of Deputies, 182 

Magnates, 188 

Chambers of Commerce, 268 

Charles Robert of Anjou, 156 

Charles III, 163 

Charles Goldmark, 246 

Child criminals, treatment of, 

277 
Children of the State, 218 
Children's League, 220 
Christian Hungary, 154 
Churches, British and American, 

in Budapest, 237 
Cimmerians, 145 
Civil Marriage obligatory, 276 
Coal-mining in Hungary, 260 
Coffee-houses of Budapest, 235 
Communications, 261 
Congresses in Budapest, 236 
Conservatoires of music, 247 
Constitution of the Hungarians, 

171 
Covenant of Blood, 172 
Currency, 270 

Dacia, 145, 146 
Dances, 244 
Deak Francis, 282 
Death-rate in Budapest, 232 
Defeat of Magyars at the Lech, 

153 
Deputies, Chamber of, 182 
Disasters by flood, 230, 254 
Dobsina ice-cavern, 289 



301 



302 



Index 



Drama, the, 241 
Dramatists of to-day, 203 
Duelling, 284 

Early religion of the Magyars, 

207 
Easter customs, 287 
Ecclesiastical dignitaries of 

Hungary, 210 
Economic advance, 254 
Education in Hungary, 214 
Election in Hungary, an, 186 
Electoral reform, question of, 184 
Emigration, 284 
Emperor-King, in law two persons, 

179 
Exports and imports, 269 

Falls of Szlujin, 292 

Family names, 280 

Farm labourers, 250 

Ferdinand I, 162 

Festivals, rural, 287 

Fiume, 263 

Foreign capital a sine qua non, 

255 
Forest lands, 253 
Francis Deak, 282 
Francis Ferdinand, Archduke, 169 
Francis Joseph I, 169 
Francis Liszt, 245 
Franchise quaUfications, 182 
Frederick Ill's anagrams, 168 
Fruit-growing, 251 

GoLNICZ RIVER, 290 

" Golden Bull," the, 175 
Goldmark, Charles, 246 
Gold-mining in Hungary, 259 
Goths, 147 

Greek and Roman Churches in 
Hungary, 208 

Habsburg Dynasty, 166 
High Tatra region, 288 
"Holy Crown," the, 154 
Hospitals of Budapest, 221 
House of Anjou, 156 

■ — ■ — Austria, 161 

Parliament, 181 



Hungarian Academy founded, 200 

Architecture, 239 

Constitution, 171 

currency, 270 

Parliament, 181 

Hungary divided, 161 
Huns, 148 
Hunyady, John, 157 

Hunyor and Magyar, legend of, 
150 

Imports and Exports, 269 
Imre Madich, 202 
Industrial employ6s, 257 

schools, 255 

International Congresses in 

Budapest, 236 
Inundation of Budapest, 230 

Szeged, 254 

Invasion of the Tartars, 155 
Iron-mining in Hungary, 259 

Jews IN Hungary, 212, 281 

John Hunyady, 157 

J6kai Maurice, 202 

Joseph II, 164 

Journalism and journalists, 206 

Judicial system, 271 

Khan Batu, 155 

Ladislas IV, 156 

Lake Balaton, 291 

Language and Literature, 191 

Leading figures in Hungarian 

politics, 185 
Legal procedure in Hungary, 275 
Legal status of Hungary, 177 
Legend of Hunyor and Magyar, 

150 
Leo the Wise on the Hungarians, 

152 
Leopold I, 165 
Lesser nobihty, 279 
Libraries and museums, 216 
Liszt Francis, 245 
Literature, history of, 194 
Locks and flood-gates, 254 
" Lord's Prayer " in the 

Hungarian language, 192 



Index 



303 



Lotteries in Hungary, 233 
Louis the Great, 157 

Madach Imre, 202 
Magnates, 278 

Chamber of. 188 

Magyars, 149 
Marchfeld, battle of, 156 
Maria Theresa, 163, 197 
Marriage customs, 285 
Matthias the Just, 160 
Maurice J6kai, 202 
Michael Tompa, 201 
Michael Vorosmarty, 198 
Mining in Hungary, 258 
Minister for Religion, qualifications 

and functions, 211 
Moh, battle of, 155 
Mohacs, battle of, 160 
Municipal Council of Budapest, 

232 
Murad II, 159 
Museums and libraries of Hungary, 

216 
Music and musical composers, 

242 

Nationalities, the, 188 
National Theatre founded, 200 
Navigation and shipping, 263 
Nicholas Zrinyi, 162 
Nobility, lesser, 279 
Notable Hungarian cities, 293 

Opera and opera-composers, 245 
Organs first introduced into 

Hungary, 245 
Origins of the Magyars, 145 
Ottocar, King of Bohemia, 168 

Pannonia, 145 

Parliament, the Hungarian, 181 
Pawnbroking in Hungary, 234 
Peace of Szatmar, 163 
Peasantry, 282, 285 
Petofi, Alexander, 201 
Philanthropic institutions, 218 
PoHtical parties, 185 
Politics and politicians, 180 



Post-Oface Savings-Bank, 267 
Post, Telegraph, and Telephone 

administration, 264 
Pragmatic Sanction, 163 
Preface, 143 

Presbyterian Mission in Buda- 
pest, origin of, 237 
Press in Hungary, 205 
Privileges of aristocracy, 176 
Pronunciation of Hungarian, 193 
Pseudo literature, 204 

Quadrupeds in Hungary, 252 
Qualifications for exercising 
franchise, 182 

Railways in Hungary, 262 
Red Cross Society of Hungary, 

224 
Relations between Austria and 

Hungary, 177 
ReUgion and education, 207 
Religious denominations, 212 
Rehgious statistics, 210, 212, 213 
Roman and Greek Churches in 

Hungary, 208 
Royal Power, 180 
Rudolf of Habsburg, 167 
Rural festivals, 287 

Salt-mines of Hungary, 259 
Sarmatians, 146 
Savings-banks in Hungary, 267 
Scenery in Hungary, 288 
Schools in Hungary, 214 
Scythians, 145 

Seaboard, the Hungarian, ,261 
Shipping and navigation, 263 
Sigismund, 157 

Significance of " Austria- 

Hungary," 179 
Singers and song-writers, 247 
Slavs, 149 

Social Legislation, 256 
" State Children," 218 
State of society in Hungary, 278 
State stud-farms, 252 
Statistics, religious, 210 
, educational, 214 



304 



Index 



status of actors and actresses in 

Hungary, 241 
■ — — women in Hungary, 

275 
St. Ladislas, 154 . 

St. Stephen, 154, 174 
Stephen II, 155 
Struggles with the Turks, 159 
Sub-nationalities, the, 188 
Sultan Bajazet, 157 

Murad II, 159 

Szatmdr, Peace of, 163 
Sz6chenyi, Count Stephen, 176, 

199 
Szlujin faUs, 292 
Szdzat of Vorosmarty, 199 

Tartar Invasion, 155 
Tatra region, 288 
Tompa, Michael, 201 
Tradesman class, 280 
" Tragedy of Man," 202 
Training Colleges in Hungary, 215 
Trajan, 147 



Transylvania, 163, 292 
Treatment of child criminals, 
277 

Universities and university 

colleges, 215 
University extension, 216 

VAiUBfiRY, Professor Arminius, 

203 
Vambery's theory as to origin of 

Magyars, 150 
Violinists of Hungary, 247 
Vorosmarty, Michael, 198 

Wages in Hungary, 260 
Waterways of Hungary, 253 
Weights and measures, 270 
Wine-growing, 251 
Woman's status in Hungary, 275 

ZiCHY, Count G6za, 247 
Zrinyi, Nicholas, 162 



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BIOGRAPHY [conld. ) 

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THE LIFE: OF SIR ISAAC PITMAN (Inventor of Phonography). By 
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THE LETTERS OF PERCY BYSSHE SHELLEY. Containing about 
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REMINISCENCES OF MY LIFE. By Sir Charles Santley. In 
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THE HEROIC IN MISSIONS. Pioneers in six fields By the Rev. 

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3 



COLLECTIVE BIOGRAPHIES jcontd.) 

MUSICAL COMPOSERS AND THEIR WORKS. By the same Author. 
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THE ORGAN AND ITS MASTERS. A short account of the most 
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DANTE. THE DIVINA COMMEDIA AND CANZONIERE. Trans- 
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JOHNBUNYAN; HIS LIFE, TIMES AND WORK. By John 
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4 



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FLEET STREET IN SEVEN CENTURIES. Being a History of the 
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THE FRANCO-PRUSSIAN WAR AND ITS HIDDEN CAUSES. By the 
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A HOSPITAL IN THE MAKING. A History of the National Hospital 
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6 



HISTORY jcontd.) 

A HUNDRED YEARS OF IRISH HISTORY. By R. Barry O'Brien 
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THE DISSOLUTION OF THE MONASTERIES. As illustrated by the 
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obsolete." — The Times. 

MAKERS OF NATIONAL HI STORY. Edited by The Ven. W. 
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CARDINAL BEAUFORT. By the Rev. L. B. Radford, D.D. 
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ARCHBISHOP PARKER. By W. M. Kennedy, B.A. 

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GENERAL WOLFE. By Edward Salmon. 

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FRANCIS ATTERBURY, Bishop of Rochester (1662-1732). By the 

Very Rev. H. C. Beeching, M.A., Litt.D., Dean of Norwich. 

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EDWARD THE FOURTH. By Laurence Stratford, B.A. 

THOMAS BECKET, Archbishop of Canterbury. By The Ven. W. 
H. HuTTON, B.D., Canon of Peterborough, and Archdeacon of 
Northampton. 

NATURAL HISTORY, ETC. 

THE A B C OF POULTRY. By E. B. Johnstone. In crown 8vo, 
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NATURAL HISTORY, ETC. {contd.) 

CATS FOR PLEASURE AND PROFIT. By Miss Frances Simpson. 

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REPTILES OF THE WORLD. Tortoises and Turtles, CrocodiUans, 

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INSECT LIFE : Its Why and Wherefore. By Hubert G. Stanley, 

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THE CHOW CHOW. By Lady Dunbar of Mochrum. With 24 

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ASTONISHING ANATOMY. An anatomical and medical skit pro- 
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THE AMERICAN STATESMAN'S YEARBOOK. From Official 
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COMMON COMMODITIES OF COMMERCE. Each handbook is 
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Tea, from Grower to Consumer, by Alexander Ibbetson. Coffee, 

8 



MISCELLANEOUS (confd.) 

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DICKENS IN YORKSHIRE. Being Notes of a Journey to the DeUghtful 
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THE FEDERAL SYSTEMS OF THE UNITED STATES AND THE 
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FRENCH PROSE WRITERS OF THE NINETEENTH CENTURY AND 
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FOR HOME SERVICE AND OTHER STORIES. By Lyde Howard. 
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HOME GYMNASTICS FOR OLD AND YOUNG. By T. J. Hartelius, 
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HOW TO CHOOSE A HOUSE. How to Take and Keep it. By 
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HYPNOTISM AND SUGGESTION. In Daily Life, Education, and 
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TRAVELLING PALACES. Luxury in Passenger Steamships. By 

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PUBLIC SCHOOL LIFE. Each in foolscap 8vo, cloth, with 32 full 
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THE REVERIES OF A BACHELOR : Or, A Book of the Heart. 

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THE BOOK OF THE CHILD. An Attempt to Set Down what is in the 
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MYSTICISM AND MAGIC IN TURKEY. An Account of the 
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10 



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SYMBOLISM OF ANIMALS AND BIRDS Represented in English 

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THE SUNLIT ROAD : Readings in Verse and Prose for Every Day 

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THE INNER LIFE OF GEORGE ELIOT. A Study of the Mental 

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POETRY, CRITICISM, & LITERARY HISTORY 

THE POETRY OF ROBERT BROWNING. By Stopford A. Brooke. 
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TENNYSON : HIS ART AND RELATION TO MODERN LIFE. By 
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11 



POETRY, ETC. (contd.) 

A STUDY OF CLOUGH, ARNOLD, ROSSETTI, AND MORRIS. With 
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EXPERIMENTS IN PLAY WRITING. Six plays in Verse and Prose 
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THE POEMS OF JAMES HOGG. The Ettrick Shepherd. Selected 
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GREEK INFLUENCE ON ENGLISH POETRY. By the late Professor 
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POLITICS, ETC. 

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THE TRUTH ABOUT HOME RULE. By Pembroke Wicks, LL.B., 
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PROVINCIAL SELF-GOVERNMENT versus HOME RULE. By An 
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12 



SCIENCE 

GREAT ASTRONOMERS. By Sir Robert Baix, D.Sc, LL.D., F.R.S. 
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IN STARRY REALMS. By the same Author. The Wonders of the 
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ASTRONOMY FOR EVERYBODY. By Professor Simon Newcombe, 
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cloth gilt, gilt top, 3s. 6d. net. 

BY LAND AND SKY. By the Rev. John M. Bacon, M.A., F.R.A.S. 
The Record of a Balloonist. With four illustrations. In demy 
8vo, cloth gilt, gilt top, 3s. 6d. net. 



SOCIOLOGY 

SOCIALISM. By Professor Robert Flint, LL.D. New, Revised and 
Cheaper Edition. In demy 8vo, cloth gilt, 6s. net. 

" A new, revised and cheaper edition of Professor Flint's masterly 
study will be generally welcomed. References show that the 
additional notes are well up to date." — Daily Mail. 

THE PEOPLE OF THE ABYSS. By Jack London. A study of the 
social and economic conditions of life in the East End of London. 
By the author of The Call of the Wild. With 24 illustrations from 
actual photographs. In crown 8vo, cloth gilt, 6s. 

"... Mr. Jack London, who is already known to the British 
pubUc as a fine descriptive writer, has done for the East End of 
London what he did for the Klondyke — ^has described it fully and 
faithfully, looking at it as intimately as dispassionately." — Daily 
Chronicle. 

WHAT IS SOCIALISM ? By " Scotsburn." An attempt to examine 
the principles and policy propounded by the advocates of Socialism. 
In demy 8vo, cloth gilt, 7s. 6d. 

THE SOCIAL WORKER'S GUIDE. (See page 20.) 

13 



THEOLOGICAL 

THE PRAYER BOOK DICTIONARY. An Indispensable Volume of 
Reference dealing with the origins, history, use, and teaching of the 
several authorised editions of the Book of Common Prayer within 
the Anghcan Communion. Its scope embraces all accompanying 
ceremonies and supplementary rites, the ornaments of the Church 
and of all ministers. Church structures and fittings in their relation 
to worship, ecclesiastical persons and bodies, and the legislative 
judicial or administrative authorities now or heretofore empowered 
or exercising powers in regard to the above. Edited by George 
Harford, M.A., Vicar of Mossley Hill, Hon. Canon of Liverpool ; 
and MoRLEY Stevenson, M.A., Principal of Warrington Training 
Collegia, Hon. Canon of Liverpool. Assisted by J. W. Tyrer, M.A., 
Formerly Vicar of St. Luke the Evangelist, Walton. Preface by 
The Lord Bishop of Liverpool. 

Articles by nearly 150 Contributors, including : — The Bishop of 
Ossory ; Lord Hugh Cecil ; Dr. Hermitage Day ; The late Dr. 
Dowden (Bishop of Edinburgh) ; Canon Driver ; The Bishop of 
Ripon ; The Provost of King's College, Cambridge ; The Bishop of 
Lichfield ; The Rev. T. A. Lacey ; The Bishop of Moray and Ross ; 
The Bishop of Aberdeen ; Bishop Montgomery ; The Bishop of 
Durham ; The Bishop of Exeter ; Canon Simpson ; Chancellor 
P. V. Smith ; Canon Staley ; Dr. Eugene Stock ; The Dean of 
Canterbury ; Canon Bullock Webster ; The Rev, James Baden 
Powell ; Professor H. B. Swete ; Dr. H. P. Allen ; Professor Du 
Bose ; Dr. Guy Warman ; Dr. St. Clair TisdaU ; Mr. Robert Bridges ; 
Mr. Francis Burgess ; Mr. Edwin H. Freshfield, F.S.A. ; Mr. J. A. 
Fuller Maitland, M.A., F.S.A. ; Sir T. Sydney Lea, Bart. ; Sir 
Charles Nicholson, F.R.I.B.A. ; Mrs. Romanes ; Professor J. E. 
Vernham. The work is complete in One Volume, crown 4to, half 
leather gilt, gilt top, 850 pp., 25s. net. Write for 16 pp. Prospectus 
containing lists of Contributors and articles, specimen pages, etc. 

" A very successful attempt to meet a real want." — Guardian. 
" Thorough and scholarly." — Church Times. " The book will 
take its place at once amongst our indispensable works of refer- 
ence ... a great and scholarly achievement." — The Churchman. 
" We do not think that any Clergyman can afford to be without this 
highly scholarly volume." — Church of Ireland Gazette. " Its 
contents answer practically every question that we can ask about 
the book. It wiU make for itseU a place on our reference shelves 
next to Hastings." — Record. 

THE BOOK OF ISAIAH. Newly Translated with Intro- 
ductions, Critical Notes and Explanations by G. H. Box, 
M.A. Together with a Prefatory Note by S. R. Driver, D.D., 
Regius Professor of Hebrew in the University of Oxford, and Canon 
of Christ Church. In demy 8vo, cloth gilt, with two maps, 7s. 6d. 
net. 

The Athentsum says it " deserves high commendation," and that 
" the advantage of having the prophecies placed before us in 
something hke the original grouping of Unes far outweighs the 
drawback of what might here and tiiere be regarded as arbitrary 

14 



THEOLOGICAL (contd.) 

or unnecessary alterations . . the book recommends itself by its 
scholarly character, its clearness of exposition, and the fearless, 
yet reverent spirit of investigation by which it is animated." 

THE EZRA-APOCALYPSE. Being Chapters 3—14 of the Book com- 
monly known as IV. Ezra (or II. Esdras). Translated from a criti- 
cally revised text, with critical Introductions, Notes, and Explana- 
tions ; with a General Introduction to the Apocalypse, and an 
Appendix containing the Latin text. By G. H. Box, M.A., Author 
of The Book of Isaiah, etc. Together with a Prefatory Note by 
W. Sanday, D.D., LL.D., Litt.D., Lady Margaret Professor and 
Canon of Christ Church, Oxford. In demy 8vo, cloth gilt, 488 
pp., 10s. 6d. net. 

" Already known to the student by his excellent edition of 
Isaiah, Mr. Box has now ventured successfully as we think, into a 
field which Dr. Charles had almost made his own ; and Dr. Charles, 
we are sure, will not be backward in greeting him as a worthy 
confrere. Mr. Box's treatment of the various problems presented 
by the book is marked by the same clearness and thoroughness which 
characterised his Isaiah . . . Mr. Box has laid the readers of 2 
Esdras under the highest obligations, and has produced a work, 
the only thorough English work on the subject, which does honour 
to English scholarship and will be indispensable to all students of 
this portion of the Apocrypha." — Spectator. 

THE RELIGION AND WORSHIP OF THE SYNAGOGUE. An Intro- 

' duction to the Study of Judaism from the New Testament Period. 

, 1 By W. O. E. Oesterley, D.D., and G. H. Box, M.A. In demy 8vo, 
cloth gilt, with eight illustrations. Second, Revised, and Cheaper 
Edition, 7s. 6d. net. 

its " It is not often that a large book can be written on a large subject 
Mn the field of religion, which is so entirely new and fresh as this 
' important volume. ... Its novelty and freshness lies in its point 
lof view. It is a study of Judaism by Christian scholars of the Church 
lof England, written for a Christian public, and it is a sympathetic, 

feven a loving study." — Church Times. 

i'ln " Its authors have written with good will and with quite excep- 

Jtional knowledge."^ — Jewish Chronicle. 

THE EVOLUTION OF THE MESSIANIC IDEA. A Study in Com- 
parative Religion. By the Rev. W. O. E. Oesterley, D.D. 
In crown 8vo, cloth gilt, 3s. 6d. net. 

" Dr. Oesterley's new work deserves the serious consideration 
of students. . . It is stimulating, earnest, frank, full of interesting 
information. . . . Likely to prove very useful to a wide circle of 
readers." — Athenceum. 

THE FUTURE LIFE AND MODERN DIFFICULTIES. By F. 
Claude Kempson, M.B. In crown 8vo, cloth gilt, with diagrams, 
3s. 6d. net. 

" The author shows the simplest educated reader that there is 
nothing whatever in scientific discoveries to weaken our faith in 
Christianity," — The Record. 

15 



THEOLOGICAL {contd.) 

THE SAMSON-SAGA AND ITS PLACE IN COMPARATIVE RELIGION. 

By the Rev. A. Smythe Palmer, D.D. In crown 8vo, cloth gilt, 
with three illustrations, 5s. net. 

The Westminster Gazette says : — His book is full of interest, 
and is a distinct help tqfvards the understanding of a very difi&cult 
section of the Old Testament. 

THE KINGDOM WITHIN. Being Teaching for our Day Recorded 
Exclusively by St. Luke. By Agnes Stanley Leathes. In crown 
8vo, cloth gilt, gilt top, 3s. 6d. net. 

THE GOSPEL OF JOY. By the Rev. Stopford A. Brooke, M.A., 
LL.D. In crown 8vo, cloth gilt, gilt top, 6s. 

THE OLD TESTAMENT AND MODERN LIFE. By the same Author. 
In crown 8vo, cloth gilt, gilt top, 6s. 

THE LIFE SUPERLATIVE. By the same Author. In crown 8vo, 
cloth gilt, gilt top, 6s. 

THOUGHTS ON SOME OF THE MIRACLES OF JESUS. As Marks 
OF THE Way of Life. By the Right Hon. and Most Rev. Cosmo 
Gordon Lang, D.D., Lord Archbishop of York. In crown 8vo, 
cloth gilt, gilt top, 6s. 

" A delightful book, full of helpfulness and cheer." — Methodist 
Times. 

THOUGHTS ON SOME OF THE PARABLES OF JESUS. By the same 
Author. In crown 8vo, cloth gilt, gilt top, 6s. 

" We can only express our wonder at the freshness of treatment 
which he has been able to bring to a familiar subject." — The Times. 

FAMOUS SERMONS BY ENGLISH PREACHERS. From the Ven- 
erable Bede to H. P. LiDDON. Edited with Historical and Bio- 
graphical Notes by Canon Douglas Macleane, M.A. In demy 
8vo, cloth gilt, 6s. net. 

" This is a delightful collection, and the reading pubUc owe a 
debt of gratitude to Canon Macleane. Canon Macleane's Introduc- 
tions to the Sermons are bj no means the least valuable part of 
the work ... it deserves, and will no doubt receive, a hearty 
welcome from all reading men interested in the history of our 
Church." — Record. 

LAY SERMONS FROM " THE SPECTATOR." By M. C. E. With 
an introduction by J. St. Loe Strachey. In crown 8vo, cloth 
gilt, gilt top silk register, 5s. net. 

"... The prime merit of these essays is their simplicity — a 
quality which should commend them to many who instinctively 
reject sermons as sermons are too often preached." — Pall Mail 
Gacette. 

16. 



THEOLOGICAL {contd. ) 

THE PRESENCE OF CHRIST. By the late Bishop Thorold. In 
crown 8vo, cloth gilt, 3s. 6d. 

THE TENDERNESS OF CHRIST. By the same Author. In crown 
8vo, cloth gilt, 3s. 6d. 

" Deals with questions of universal and abiding import. His 
style, too, has a rare charm." — Pall McUl Gazette. 

THE GOSPEL OF CHRIST. By the same Author. In crown 8vo, 
cloth gilt, 3s. 6d. 

" May well take its place amongst the classics of experimental 
religion." — Record. 

ON LIFE'S THRESHOLD : Talks to Young People on Character 
AND Conduct. By the same Author. Translated by Edna St. 
John. In crown 8vo, cloth gilt, gilt top, 3s. 6d. 

THE SIMPLE LIFE. By the same Author. Translated from the 
French by Marie Louise Hendee. With biographical sketch by 
Grace Kjng. New Edition. In foolscap 8vo, cloth gilt. Is. net. 

THE COMMANDMENTS OF JESUS. By the Rev. R. F. Horton. 
Popular edition. In crown 8vo, cloth gilt, 2s. 6d. net. 

THE TEACHING OF JESUS. By the same Author. Popular edition. 
In crown 8vo, cloth gilt. 2s. 6d. net. 

HELP FOR THE TEMPTED. By Professor Amos R. Wells. With an 
Introduction by the Rev. F. B. Meyer, B.A. In foolscap 8vo, 
cloth gilt, gilt top, 2s. 6d. ; also in paper covers, price Is. 6d. 

THE INDWELLING CHRIST. By the late Hbnry Allon, D.D. 
In large crown Svo, cloth gilt, gilt top, 3s. 6d. 

" Worthy to take their place among the masterpieces of the old 
divines." — Daily Telegraph. 

CONSIDERATIONS FOR LENT. Readings for the Forty Days' Fast. 
By The Rev. Vernon Staley, Hon. Canon of Inverness Cathedral. 
Author of The Catholic Religion, etc., etc. In foolscap Svo, cloth, 
Is. 6d. net. Leather gilt, gilt top, 2s. 6d. net. 

The plan of the work is to give the reader food for reflection 
founded on Christian doctrine, in the best sense of the term, and to 
turn each day's reading, or portion, to bear upon character and 
practical religion. 

CONSIDERATIONS FOR ADVENT. Devotional Readings for the Season. 
By the same Author. Cloth, Is. 6d. net ; leather, 2s. 6d. net. 

A BOOK OF THE LOVE OF JESUS. By Mgr. R. H. Benson. 
In foolscap Svo, leather gilt, gilt top, 3s. 6d. net ; cloth 2s. net. 
" An anthology of some old Catholic devotions, slightly modern- 
ized, which will appeal to many by reason of its simplicity and 
beauty." — To-day. 

17 



THEOLOGICAL ^ontd.) 

A BOOK OF THE LOVE OF MARY. By F. M. Groves. Preface by 
His Eminence Cardinal Bourne. In foolscap 8vo., cloth, with 
frontispiece, 2s. net. Leather gilt, gilt top, photogravure 
frontispiece, 3s. net. 

" We give a cordial and grateful welcome to this beautiful little 
book about Our Lady, and her churches, pictures, images, shrines, 
guilds, wells and salutations, and the poems, prayers and days that 
honour her." — Catholic Times. 

A LITTLE HISTORY OF THE LOVE OF THE HOLY EUCHARIST. By 
the same Author. In foolscap 8vo, leather gilt, gUt top, 3s. 6d. net. 
In a previous work Mrs. Groves traced the history of the devotion 
to Our Lady in these islands, showing the various forms it took and 
the traces it has left in the language and the social customs of the 
country. In the present work she renders a like service to the 
history of the devotion to the Blessed Sacrament of the Altar in 
England during the centuries between the planting of Christianity 
here and the reign of Mary Tudor. 

IN OUR LADY'S PRAISE. An Anthology of Verse. CompUed by 
E. Hermitage Day, D.D., F.S.A. With Preface by the Right 
Hon. Viscount Halifax. In foolscap 8vo, cloth, with photo- 
gravure, 2s. net ; leather gilt, gilt top, with photogravure 
frontispiece, 3s. net. 

IN ANSWER TO PRAYER. Testimonies of Personal Experiences. By 
Bishop Boyd-Carpenter, the late Dean of Salisbury, Canon 
Knox Little, M.A., the late Rev. Dr. John Watson (" Ian 
Maclaren "), Rev. Dr. R. F. Horton, the late Rev. Hugh Price 
Hughes, and others. Cheaper edition. In crown 8vo, cloth gilt, 
gilt top, 2s. 

THE LITERARY STUDY OF THE BIBLE. An account of the leading 
forms of literature in the Sacred Writings. By Professor R. G. 
Moulton, M.A., Ph.D. Cheaper Edition. In demy 8vo, cloth gilt, 
6s. net. 

" A valuable help to the study of the Sacred Writings. . . 
We heartily recommend this book." — Daily Chronicle. 

THE PRACTICAL WISDOM OF THE BIBLE. Edited with an intro- 
duction by J. St. Loe Strachby (Editor of The Spectator). In 
demy 16mo, cloth gilt, gilt top, 2s. 6d, net ; leather 3s. 6d. net. 
" No one, after reading the elegant and carefully produced 
volume can doubt that Mr. Strachey has done a good work in a 
thoroughly good manner." — Standard. 

THE ST. PAUL'S HANDBOOKS. Edited by E. Hermitage Day, 
D.D., F.S.A. Each in crown 8vo, cloth gilt, 2s. 6d. net. 

This new series makes a strong appeal to the large number of 
busy Churchpeople who desire to obtain clear guidance for them- 
selves upon those questions of faith and practice which emerge 
from time to time into the field of controversy. The volumes will 
be written by Priests and Lajonen who have received the Faith 
from the CaliioUc Church in the EngUsh Provinces. 

THE MINISTRY OF THE CHURCH. By E. Hermitage Day, D.D., 
F.S.A. 

Other Volumes in preparation, 

18 



THEOLOGICAL (contd.) 

THE SOCIAL RESULTS OF EARLY CHRISTIANITY. By C. Schmidt. 
Translated by Mrs. Thorpe. With Preliminary Essay by R. W 
Dale, LL.D. In crown 8vo, cloth gilt, 3s. 6d. net. 

" An easy book to read, and the educated lasrman will find it 
full of vital interest, while the more exacting student will have the 
further satisfaction of being provided with full and precise references 
to the original authorities in which many startling assertions are 
made."— ^Nottingham Daily Express. 

EDUCATION AND SOCIAL LIFE. By the Rev. J. Wilson Harper, 
D.D. In crown 8vo, cloth, 4s. 6d. net. 

MODERNISM. A Record and Review. By the Ven. A. Leslie 
LiLLEY, M.A., Archdeacon of Ludlow. In demy 8vo, cloth gilt, 
6s. net. 

"Mr. Lilley is admirably suited, both by knowledge and sjmipathy, 
to be the medium through which the modernist position may be 
made known to the English public." — Church Times. 

BODY AND SOUL. An Enquiry into the effects of Religion upon 
health with a description of Christian works of healing from the 
New Testament to the present day. By Percy Dearmer, D.D. 
Ninth impression. Cheaper Edition. In crown 8vo, cloth gilt, 
2s. 6d. net. 

" Here is the book for which we have so long waited. . . We 
may say at once that the work could hardly have been better done. 
It takes a comprehensive survey of the main question, and of 
matters related to it. It is arranged with an admirable clearness." 
— Church Times. 

THE CHURCHMAN'S GUIDE. A Handbook for all persons, whether 
Clerical or Lay, who require a Book of Reference on questions of 
Church Law or Ecclesiology. Edited by Arthur Reynolds, M.A. 
In crown 8vo, cloth, 368 pp., 3s. 6d. net. 

" The work is extremely well done. Within the space of 333 
pages, well and clearly printed in double columns, the editor has 
managed to include nearly a thousand articles and definitions. 
The articles on various legal points are lucid and authoritative ; 
those on ecclesiology interesting and practical ; those on historical 
points are commendably free from bias. In fact it is a trustworthy 
and convenient guide on the many matters on which the churchman 
constantly finds himself in need of information." — Church Times. 

CHURCH ACCOUNTS. A Simple, Concise Method of Account Keeping, 
for use by the Clergy, Churchwardens, and other Officials. With 
Model Accounts. Compiled by the Rev. W. G. Dowsley, B.A. 
Size 15J in. by 9J in., haU-leather, 106 pp., with interleaved blotting- 
paper, 6s. 6d. net. 

" An exceedingly useful volume. ... As to its thoroughness 
there can be no doubt ; . . . for large and highly organised parishes 
it would be dif&cult to devise anything better." — Guardian. 

19 



THEOLOGICAL [conid.) 

THE SOCIAL WORKERS' GUIDE, A Handbook of Infonnatjon 
and Counsel for all who are interested in Public Welfare. Edited 
by the Rev. J. B. Haldane, M.A., Secretary of the Southwark 
Diocesan Social Service Committee, with assistance from Fifty 
Experts. In crown 8vo, cloth, 500 pp., with over 500 articles. 
3s. 6d. net. » 

" A book of reference of more than average value. The need 
of such a book is patent, and we do not know of any other publica- 
tion which attempts to supply it. The notes are arranged in 
alphabetical order, and, generally speaking, they are wonderfully 
esiaustive." — Guardian. 

HOW TO TEACH AND CATECHISE, A Plea for the Employment 
of Educational Methods in the Religious Instruction of Children. 
By the Rev. J. A. Rivington, M.A., formerly Second Master at 
St. Paul's Cathedral Choir School. With a Preface by the Lord 
Bishop of Gloucester. Cheaper Edition. In crown 8vo, cloth 
gilt. Is. 6d. net. 

" This is an invaluable Uttle book ... it might well be put 
into the hands of every Sunday School teacher." — Chitrchman. 

A POPULAR HISTORY OF THE CHURCH IN WALES From the 
Beginning to the Present Day. By the Rev. J . E. De Hirsch-D avies, 
B.A. In crown 8vo, cloth gilt, 356 pp., 5s. net. 

" It shows wide reading no less than special study. It is written 
with the simplicity befittirig a popular history, and its interest never 
flags. It makes the Welsh Church, in strength and weakness, 
depression or re-awakening, live before our eyes." — Church Times. 

THE LONDON CHURCH HANDBOOK, Being a Compendium of 
Information upon Church Affairs in the County of London [Dioceses 
of London and Southwark]. Second year of issue (1913-14). In 
crown 8vo, cloth, 400 pp., 2s. net. 

THE SPRING OF THE DAY, Spiritual Analogies from the Things 
OF Nature. By the late Hugh Macmillan, D.D., LL.D. In 
crown 8vo, cloth gilt, 3s. 6d. net. 

THE CLOCK OF NATURE. By the late Hugh Macmillan, D.D., 
LL.D. In crown 8vo, cloth gilt, 3s. 6d. net. 

An attempt to bring out the wise lessons which the objects of 
Nature teach, and to illustrate the spiritual revelation of God in 
Christ by the revelation of God in Nature. 

THE POETRY OF PLANTS, By the late Hugh Macmillan, D.D., 
LL.D. In crown 8vo, cloth gilt, 3s. 6d. net. 

A collection of popular studies, showing the many points of beauty 
and interest about some of the commonest of our trees and wild 
flowers. 

20 



TRAVEL, TOPOGRAPHY, AND SPORT 

THE ADVENTURER IN SPAIN. By S. R. Crockett. With 162 
illustratioiis by Gordon Browne and from photographs taken by 
the Author. In large crown 8vo, cloth gilt, 6s. 

WANDERINGS ON THE ITALIAN RIVIERA. The Record of a leis- 
urely tour in Liguria. By Frederic Lees. With coloured plate, 
and 60 illustrations, map. In large crown 8vo, cloth gilt, gilt top, 
7s. 6d. net. 

" The Italian Riviera ... is practically unknown to the majority 
of visitors, and Mr. Lees has done it and the public a service in 
writing this very readable and pleasant volume. All intellectual 
people will appreciate the description of local customs, art and 
architecture, literature and folk lore, which Mr. Lees has set himself 
to expound." — World. 

THE IMMOVABLE EAST. Studies of the People and Customs of 
Palestine. By Philip J. Baldensperger. With Biographical 
Introduction by Frederic Lees. With 24 full-page plate illus-' 
trations and map. In demy 8vo, cloth gilt, gilt top, 7s. 6d. net. 
" Nothing so intimate has yet appeared upon the subject as this 
book. To those who know already something of the people and the 
life described, there is no book we should recommend more strongly 
to enlarge their knowledge." — The Athenteum. 

Countries and Peoples Series 

Each in imperial 16mo, cloth gilt, gilt top, with about 30 full-page 
plate illustrations, 6s. net. 

ITALY OF THE ITALIANS. By Helen Zimmern. 

" The knowledge and judgment displayed in the volume are truly 
astounding, and the labour the author has expended on it has made 
it as indispensable as Baedeker to the traveller, as well as invaluable 
to the student of modem times." — Daily Telegraph. 

FRANCE OF THE FRENCH. By E. Harrison Barker. 

" A book of general information concerning the life and genius 
of the French people, with especial reference to contemporary 
France. Covers every phase of French intellectual life — architec- 
ture, players, science, and invention, etc." — Times. 

SPAIN OF THE SPANISH. By Mrs. Villiers-Wardell. 

" Within Uttle more than 250 pages she has collected a mass of 
ordered information which must be simply invaluable to any one 
who wants to know the facts of Spanish life at the present day. 
Nowhere else, so far as we are aware, can a more complete and yet 
compendious account of modem Spain be found." — PcUl Mall 
Gaxette. 

21 



TRAVEL, TOPOGRAPHY, AND SPORT {contd. ) 

SWITZERLAND OF THE SWISS. By Frank Webb. 

" Mr. Webb's account of that unknown country is intimate, 
faithful, and. interesting. It is an attempt to convey a real know- 
ledge of a striking people — an admirably successful attempt." — 
Morning Leader. " 

GERMANY OF THE GERMANS. By Robert M. Berry. 

" Mr. Berry abundantly proves his ability to write of Germany 
of the Germans in an able and informing fashion. What he does 
is to state, so far as can be done within the scope of a single handy 
volume, particulars of all aspects of life as lived in Germany to-day." 
— Daily Telegraph. 

TURKEY OF THE OTTOMANS. By Lucy M. J. Garnett. 

" There could hardly be a better handbook for the newspaper 
reader who wants to understand all the conditions of the ' danger 
zone.' " — Spectator. 

BELGIUM OF THE BELGIANS. By Demetrius C. Boulger. 
" A very complete handbook to the country." — World. 

HOLLAND OF THE DUTCH. By the same author. 

"... It contains everything that one needs to know about 
the country. Mr. Boulger has the seeing eye, and everything is 
described with vivacity and sympathetic insight. The book is as 
interesting as it is useful, and a series of splendid photographs is 
not its least notable iea,tw-e."— Aberdeen Free Press. 

SERVIA OF THE SERVIANS. By Chedo Mijatovich. 

" It is a useful and informative work and it deserves to be widely 
read." — Liverpool Daily Courier. 

JAPAN OF THE JAPANESE. By Professor J. H. Longford. With 
map. 

" A capital historical resume and a mine of information regard- 
ing the country and its people." — London and China Telegraph. 

AUSTRIA OF THE AUSTRIANS AND HUNGARY OF THE 
HUNGARIANS. By L. Kellner, Paula Arnold and Arthur 
L. Delisle. 

Other Volumes in preparation. 
22 



TRAVEL. TOPOGRAPHY. AND SPORT (contd.) 



The "All Red" Series 

Each volume is in demy 8vo, cloth gilt, with 16 full-page plate 
illustrations, maps, etc., 7s. 6d. net. 

THE COMMONWEALTH OF AUSTRALIA. By the Hon. Bernhard 
RiNGROSE Wise (formerly Attorney-General of New South Wales). 
Second Edition Revised. 

" The ■ All Red ' Series should become known as the Well-Read 
Series within a short space of time. Nobody is better qualified to 
write of Australia than the late Attorney-General of New South 
Wales, who knows the country intimately and writes of it with 
enthusiasm. It is one of the best accounts of the Island Continent 
that has yet been pubUshed. We desire to give a hearty welcome 
to this series." — Globe. 



THE DOMINION OF NEW ZEALAND. By the late Sir Arthur P. 
Douglas, Bt., formerly Under-Secretary for Defence, New Zealand, 
and previously a Lieutenant, R.N. 

" Those who have failed to find romance in the history of the 
British Empire should read The Dominion of New Zealand. Sir 
Arthur Douglas contrives to present in the 444 pages of his book an 
admirable account of Ufe in New Zealand and an impartial summary 
of her development up to the present time. It is a most alluring 
picture that one conjures up after reading it." — Standard. 



THE DOMINION OF CANADA. By W. L. Griffith, Secretary to 
the Ofjice of the High Commissioner for Canada. 

" The publishers could hardly have found an author better 
qualified than Mr. Griffith to represent the premier British Dominion 
... an excellent plain account of Canada, one of the best and most 
comprehensive yet pubhshed . . trustworthy." — Atherueum. 



THE BRITISH WEST INDIES. Their History, Resources, and Pro- 
gress. By Algernon E. Aspinall, Secretary to the West India 
Committee. 

" . . . hence the value of such a book as Mr. Aspinall has 
compiled so skilfully. Its treatment of current topics is copious, 
up-to-date, and full of varied interest . . . every visitor to the 
West Indies will be well advised if he takes Mr. Aspinall's book £is 
his guide." — Times , 

23 



TRAVEL," TOPOGRAPHY, AND SPORT (contd.) 

THE UNION OF SOUTH AFRICA. With chapters on Rhodesia and the 
Native Territories of the High Commission. By W. Basil Worsfold, 
Sometime Editor of the " Johannesburg Star." 

" . . The promoters of ' All Red Series ' got the right man for 
the work. Mr. Wqfsfold's considerable experience of the making 
of the country from within, combined with his training as a jour- 
nalist, have enabled him to cope with the task in a way that would 
have been impossible to a less skilled and well-informed annalist. 
Into 500 pages he has compressed the main outlines of the history 
and geography of that much-troubled dominion, the form of its 
new Constitution, its industrial developments, and social and 
political outlook. The volume is an encyclopaedia of its subject." 
— Yorkshire Post. 



THE EMPIRE OF INDIA. By Sir J. Bampfylde Fuller, K.C.S.I., 
Formerly Lieutenant-Governor of Eastern Bengal. 

" Sir Bampfylde Fuller was well qualified to write such a book as 
this which will serve admirably for an introduction to the study of 
Indian conditions and politics. Sir Bampfylde Fuller presents a, 
complete picture of the Indian Empire — ^the country, its people, 
its government, and its future prospects." — Times. 

"No western mind more practically versed in and sympathetic 
with the Indian spirit could be found than his, and his long adminis- 
trative experience could not fail to lead him to compile a well 
balanced volume." — Times of India. 



WINTER LIFE IN SWITZERLAND. Its Sports and Health Cures. 
By Mrs. M. L. and Winifred M. A. Brooke. In crown 8vo, 
cloth, 290 pp., with coloured frontispiece and many full-page 
plates, maps, and other illustrations, 3s. 6d. net. 

" This book is so full of description and useful information on 
all points as to be an indispensable possession to anyone intending 
a winter visit to Switzerland . . . this invaluable little book." — 
Throne. 



Sir Isaac Pitman & Sons, Ltd., 1 Amen Corner, London, E.C. 



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