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In England : by MICHELIN TYRE C L'" — 81, Fulham Road, LONDON, S.W. 








iTBte Due 


0& T- 4-H 99 » - 


k.ey to^AFBTtrai 

flSsjjB Comtortable hotels, with mo- j 100 m. About 100 yards from the hotel, 

dern. or modernised installn. ( Depot tor " bouteilles 

flSs Well-managed hotels. Compressed air ] d'air Michelin " for 

ICCJ Oent'al Heating. (inflation of tyres. 

[Lj Electric Light. IT= Repair shop. 

|BJ Batii-room. Agt de Manufacturer's agent. 

[WCJ Modern W. C's. [3] Garage and number of cars it 

^104 Telephone Number. will accomodate. 

-T* Telegrapfiic address. U Inspection pit. 

Gar [6] Accommodation for automo- [E] Petrol can be obtained here. 

biles and the number of cars E" Electric plant where accumula- 

which can be accommodated. tors may be recharged. 

Box Private lock-up compartments. lA-A] Ajient of " Automobile Associa- 

Att Adjoining the hotel. j tlon" of England. 


{fiSSiB Hotel Bellevue, 35. rue Jean-Roisin et ^7-19, arande-Place, Lift [CC] [Li 

[B] [WC) Gar. 100 m. (20] -r H6tel Bellevue ^ 12-98. 
SiSA Hdtel de I'Europe, 30-S3, rue Basse, Lift [CC] [L] [B] [WCl Gar. [15] U ^4.75. 
{Qj Hotel et Restaurant de la Paix, 46, rue de Paris, [CC] [L][B1 IWC] Gar. att. 
m 1539. 

t^" STOCK MICHELIN (Compressed air) Garage Dulleux, S6. rue de I'HdpUat-Mili- 
taire. Annexe : rue de Fontenay. Agt de : Corre la Licorne, [30] t [E] E'.' 
[A-A] -T' Dulieux-Automobiles ^ 14.04. 

— STOCK MK HELIN (Compressed air) Agence Renault, 141, boulevard Carnot. 

La Madeleine-16s-Lille, [30] U [E] E" |% 19.78 (r^seau Lille) -r Renauto. 

— STOCK MICHKLIN, Louis Vallez, 5, rue du Palais- Rihour. (401 [E] E' 

t^ 22.70. 

— STOCK MICHELIN. Grand Garage Farcot, 6S-70, rue JlfeMrein (2^9, rwe iVa- 

tinnale) [80] t [E] E" ^ 20.20. 

— STOCK MICHELIN (Compressed air) Succursale des Automobiles Berliet, IS', 

r-ueNationale (100](100] [E] E"Autoberlie-Lille ^16.96. 

— STOCK MICHELIN. bte des Anciens Etablissements Hanhard et Levassor 

(Succ"), 187. boulevard de la Republique (new boulevard), La Made- 
leine-16s-Lille, 140] U [E] E" -r' Panhard-Levassor ^ 5.83 (rfeseau Lille). 

— STOCK MICHELIN, Agences Hotchkiss, lbi3, rue de la Chambredes Comptee. 

[20] D (E| E" ^ 26.83. 

— STOCK MICHELIN, Repair Shop for motor-cars. Emile Faure et Cie, ave- 

nue Verdy et rue du Ballon, La Madeleine-16s-Lille [20] D [E] f^ 14.27 
(rfiseau Lille). 

— STOCK MICHELIN, Kalfleche et Bachmann, 147, boulevard de laBepublique, 

La Madeleine-l^s-Lille [10] U [E] E" t^ 24.18 (rfeseau Lille). 

— STOCK MICHELIN, E. Bouriez et Uie, 1,0-52. rue Jean-Bart el 239, boule- 

vard de la Republique, La Madeleine-les-Lille. Agts de .'Peugeot [10] 
U [E] E" ^ 3.88 (rfiseau Lille). 

— Society Anonyme des Autos et Cycles Feugeot (Succursale de la}, 62, bou- 

levard de la Liberie. ^ 20.84. 

— KoEchlin, SI, rue Colson, [30] D [E] E" (% 18.30. 

— Marcel Villette, .5, rue St-Augustin, [10] U [E] ^ 26.81. 

— John et Henry Sergy. 340, rue Nationale, [15] U (lj E" 1^27.24. 

— Succursalelh Schneider et Cie, 3, /■ti.eSi-Genoi's, [30] U[E]'f Theiderco(^2.92. 

— Usine Pipe, 56, boulevard de la Liberie et 5 bis, rue de VOrpheon, [50] 

20 boxes U [E] E". 

— iVlannessier, rue Nationale, [E]. 

' The above information dates from March 1st. i9i9, and may no longer be exact 
\rhen it meets the reader's eye. Tourists are llierefore recommended to consult the latest 
edition of the " Michelin Guide to France " [English or French), before setting out on 
the tour described in this volume. 

The " Michelin Wheel" 

BEST of all detachable wheels 
because the least complicated 


It embellishes even the finest coachwork. 


, It is detachable at the hub and fixed by 
six bolts only. 


The only wheel \Yhich held out on all 
fronts during the War. 


Can be replaced in 3 minutes by anybody 
and cleaned still quicker. 

It prolongs the life of tyres by cooling 







Cornell University Library 
DC 801.L682L72 1919 

Lille before and during the war, 

3 1924 028 187 288 

Copyright by Michelln & C'» 1919 

All rights of translation, adaptation or reproduction (in part or whole), reserved 

in all countries. [ ' /,' ' 

i: k (95.3S2I 




The marvellous tales of " Liliane " and the forest rangers Phinaerl 
and Lyderic, which take Lille back to the days of Julius Caesar, are mythical. 
The first mention of Lille in history dates back to the 11th century, when 
the town was divided into the " casirujn " or entrenched camp of the Counts 
of Flanders, (where Baudoin V erected the Basilica and Forum in about 1050), 
and the " forum " (today the Grand' Place), where the church of St. Martin 
already existed. 

The " forum " grew rapidly in the 12th century ; the suburb of Fives, 
with its two churches of St. Saviour and St. Maurice, being enclosed with- 
in the new wall. There were no further changes of importance until the 
17th century, when the Vauban fortifications to the North further enlarged 
the town. It was only in 1858 that Moulins, Vazemmes and Esquermes 
were included in the southern portion of the town, leaving the important 
suburbs of Fives and St. Maurice outside the ramparts. 

Its situation on the frontier embroiled Lille in all the great wars. In 
1213, Philippe-August took it twice from Count Ferrand, burning it com- 
pletely the second time, to punish the inhabitants for having received their 
former chief. Philippe le Bel took it in 1297, and built the Chateau de 
Courtrai to commemorate the event. The Flemish conquered it in 1302, 
but were defeated in 1304 at Mons-en-Puelle by Philippe, who forced them 
to abandon the town after a month's siege. Then, for half-a-century, Lille 
belonged to the Kings of France, but the marriage of the Duke of Burgundy, 
Philippe le Hardi with the Heiress of Flanders, in 1369, restored it to the 
counts. When Maximilian of Austria espoused Marie of Burgundy, daugh- 
ter and Heir of Charles the Bold, last Duke of Burgundy, Lille became part 
of his dominions. 

At the head of his armies, Louis XIV, besieged and took it in 1667 
after " nine days of trench fighting ", and the Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle 
confirmed the capture. 

As an advance citadel, it defended the northern frontier, but in 1708, 
the Spanish were before its gates, and Marshal de Boufflers, after exhaust- 
ing his supplies and ammunition, was obliged to surrender to Prince Eu- 
gene and the Duke of Marlborough. After a five years' occupation, the 
Treaty of Utrecht gave it back to France in 1713. 

In 1792, it was besieged by 30,000 Austrians under Albert of Saxe- 
Cobourg, who bombarded it day and night for nine days. The famous Lille 
gunners beat off the enemy, wlio raised the siege, and the Convention 
having decreed that " the town had deserved well of the country ", a com- 
memorative column was erected in the Grand'Place (p. 26). 

In the Franco-German war of 187'^-1871, Lille remained outside the 
battle area, and the only local souven , connected with that struggle was 
a visit from M. Antonin Dabost (now President of the French Senate) in 
October 1870. Leaving Paris, which was besieged, in a balloon named 
" The Universal Republic ", he landed between Rocroi and Mezi^res, going 
thence on foot to Belgium, and from there to Lille. He was received by 
the Commissary of the Government for National Defence (Mr. Testelin) 
(p. 50) and General Bourbakl, who had escaped from Metz, and harangued 
the people from the steps of the Grand' Garde^ Plaee de la Bourse, p. 29). i 

In 1914, the victorious Germans were at its gates, and the Capita of 
Flanders was; destined to suffer a four years' occupation. 




Importance and Military Situation of Lille in 1914 

Lying between the rivers Lys, Escaut and Scarpe, in the plain before 
the hills of Artois, Lille forms an isolated advance-post between Maubeuge 
(which guards the Pass of the Oise), and Dunkirk (which commands the 
region of the Dunes). Vauban had fortified the place, but the treaties 
of 1815 and 1871 deprived France of her essential points of support, and 
rendered these defences valueless. In 1873, General Siri de RlvUres, 
Director of the Engineering Section at the Ministry of War, commenced 
a comprehensive scheme which aimed at the reorganization of the entire 
northern frontier, whereof Lille was one of the pivots. 

Situated in the centre of France's richest coalfields and allied industries. 
Lille has justly been called the " Key to France's Treasure-House " (see 
" Le secret de la fronliere ", by M. Fernand Engerand, 1918). To enable 
it to withstand a surprise attack and hold out against a long siege, the 
city's intermediate defences were increased to such a degree that Lille 
became the point of support of the French frontier between the rivers 
Sambre and Lys. By thus protecting the Arsenal of Douai, it became 
possible to assemble a reserve army within the entrenched camp of Lille, 
31 miles in length. The total cost of these works was 126.000.000 frs. 

But, as in Vauban's days, a reactionary movement set in against defen- 
sive works, and it was demonstrated by their opponents that besieged towns 
must fall, and that in future, the destinies of nations would be decided in 
the open battlefield. In 1880, the works of S6re de Rivieres, were abandoned. 

In the meantime, the great cities of the north, with Lille at their head. 

LILLE IN 1914 


had become industrial centres ol primary importance, tlianks to their 
wealth of raw materials (coal, iron and steel). To protect them from the 
horrors of war, it was considered only necessary to make open towns of 
them. The fortifications of Lille were among the first to be condemned, 
as being of no real value, and a Bill to this effect was passed by Parliament. 

Collaborators of S6r6 de Rivieres gave the alarm in March 1899, pointing 
out that the neutrality of Belgium was insufficient protection, that its vio- 
lation was inevitable, that the Pass of the Oise was an open road for inva- 
sion, that with Lille outflanked, the Forest of Saint-Gobain (which Laon 
and La Ffire, whose dismantling the Bill provided for, would no longer be 
able to protect) would fall, and that the enemy would be at, the gates of 
Paris within a few days. 

Finally, the fortifications of Lille were not dismantled, but were allowed 
to fall into disuse. 

On the other hand, the eastern frontier was considerably strengthened. It 
was in vain that the Belgian General Brialmont, who had just completed the 
forts of Antwerp and Liege, pointed out that the abandonment of the northern 
frontier would inevitably cause a violation of Belgium's neutrality. Like 
her peaceful neighbour, France relied on the sacredness of treaties, and made 
it a point of honour to leave that part of her frontier practically unprotected. 

At that time, Germany was neglecting the East, and making all her 
railways converge towards the Pass of the Oise. In other words, a frontal 
attack against the East being considered impracticable, Germany decided 
to turn it from the north. The fortifications of Lille were again condemned 
in November 1911, and it is a curious coincidence that this was the year 
of the Agadir Incident and of the first tangible German threats of War. 

In July 1914, 3,000 artillery-men and nearly a third of the guns had 
been removed from the fortifications. On August 1st, the Governor, Gener- 
al Lebas, received orders to consider Lille an open town, but on August 21st 
his successor, General Herment, increased the garrison troops from 15,000 
to 25,000, and later, to 28,000 men, taking units from each of the regiments 


in the 1st region. At this time, the armament consisted of 446 guns and 
79,788 shells, to which were added 9,000,000 cartridges, 3,000 75 m/m shells 
and 12 47 m/m guns sent from Paris. 

How Lille fell in 1914 

(See Maps on pages 3 and 6) 

At the beginning of the battle of Charleroi, General d'Amade was in the 
vicinity of Lille, with territorial divisions extending from Dunkirk to Mau- 
beuge. The 82nd. division alone held the entire space between the Escaut 
and the Scarpe, with advance posts at Tournai, Lille and Deul^mont. It 
was manifest that these troops were insufficient to offer serious resis- 
tance. However, the first care was to defend the town. For two days, 
trenches and shelters were made, and the troops sent to their respective 

On August 23rd, the British, defeated on the previous day at Mons, 
retreated, leaving Tournai unprotected. The Germans drove out the 82nd 
territorial division and entered the town. Elsewhere, they advanced as 
far as the railway-station Roubaix-Tourcoing, blowing up the station of 
Mouscron. The French territorials counter-attacked vigorously, and units 
of the 83rd and 84th regiments reoccupied Tournai during the night. 

In the early morning of the 24th., General de Villaret, commanding 
the 170th. brigade, organized the defence of the bridges over the Escaut, 
where sharp fighting took place. However, his troops were obUged to fall 
back about noon, before the numerically superior enemy forces. 

While these events were taking place close to Lille, the Mayor requested 
that the town should not be needlessly exposed to the horrors of a siege. 
A meeting of the principal civil authorities (town councillors and members 
of both Houses of Parliament) was held, at which it was decided to petition 
the Government to declare the town open, and withdraw the military. 
At 5 p. m. on the 24th., a telegram arrived from the War Minister, with orders 
to consider Lille undefended, and to evacuate the troops between La Bass^e 
and Aire-sur-la-Lys. 

On the 25th., the right wing of the German army was reported to be 
advancing, protected by about three divisions of cavalry with supporting 
artillery. Patrols reached the outskirts of the town soon afterwards. 

General Herment executed the orders he had received. Moreover, 
he knew that the neighbouring town of Maubeuge was holding out with 
45,000 men, and that the Belgian army was intact at Antwerp. 

On September 2nd, enemy detachments entered Lille, disappearing three 
days later. The town was only occupied by patrols, who had orders to 
secure the German right (Von Kluck's army), which was executing its famous 
flanking movement. Then came the Victory of the Marne. After the Ger- 
man retreat and the indecisive Battle of the Aisne, the enemy began their 
northward movement known as the " Race for the Sea ", the aim of which, 
on either side, was to turn the adversary's wing. 

On October 3rd., Joffre formed the 10th. army under General de Maud'huy 
to reinforce his left and prevent its envelopment. The 21st. Army Corps 
arrived from Champagne, and the 13th. Division detrained to the West 
of the town. 

On the morning of the 4th., battalions of Chasseurs, belonging to the 
13th. division, received orders to take up positions to the North and East 
of the town. After spending the night at Armenti^res, they passed through 
Lille, where they had an enthusiastic reception. 


ThelVth battalion, which was to occupy the suburb of Fives, was met with 
a sharp fusillade as It left the ramparts. Organizing promptly, it drove the 
enemy from the railway station and fortifications, capturing a number of 
machine-guns and prisoners. To the North of the town, the French troops 
came into contact with German patrols near Wambrechies and Marquette.whlle 
the 7th cavalry Division had skirmishes in the neighbourhood of Fouquet.. 

Meanwhile, the garrison, consisting of territorials and Algerian mounted 
troops, took up positions to the South at Faches and Wattignies, in liaison, 
at Ronchin, with other units of the 13th Division. The enemy attacked at 
this point, and reached the railway. 

On the 5th, after a sharp counter-attack, the French took Fives, HcUemmes, 
Flers, the fort of Mons-en-Baroeuil and Ronchin. To the "West of the town, 
cavalry engagements took place along the Ypres Canal. On the 6th, 
the 13th Division left the outskirts of the town, following the 21st Corps in 
the direction of Artois. Only two battalions of Chasseurs were left in Lille. 
The French cavalry engaged the enemy successfully near Deulfimont. 

On the 7th, the two battalions of Chasseurs rejoined the 13th Division, 
the defence of Lille being left to the territorials and Algerian troops. On 
the 9th and 10th, the 2nd cavalry Corps engaged the enemy near Estaires- 
Merville (between Aire-sur-la-Lys and Armenti^res), but was unable to 
open the road to Lille, which was then left to its fate. 

At 10 a. m. on the 9th, the first enemy aeroplane appeared, and dropped 
two bombs on the General Post Office. In the afternoon, all men from 18 to 
48 years of age were ordered to the B^thune Gate, with instructions to leave 
Lille immediately. 


A crowd of people from Lille, Tourcoing, Roubaix and the neighbouring 
villages, left on foot for Dunkirlt and Gravelines. Several died on ttie way 
of ejchaustion, others being taken prisoners by the Uhlans. The last train 
left at day-break on the 10th. At 9 a. m., the first enemy shell burst, 
being followed by many others which fell in the neighbourhood of the 
station, and on the Prefecture and Palais des Beaux Arts. The afternoon 
was quiet, but at 9 a. m. the bombardment began again, lasting until 1 in 
the morning, then from 5 a. m. to 8 a. m. and from 10 a. m. to 6 p. m. 
On the 12th, when the garrison capitulated, 80 civilians had been killed 
and numerous buildings destroyed by the bombardment. That part of 
the town near the railway station was almost entirely destroyed (see 
plan, p. 25). 

The rue Faidherbe, Cafe Jean, Grand HStel, Grande Pharmacie de 
France, part of the Rue des Ponts-de-Comines, and the whole of the Rue 
du Vieux-March6-aux-Poulets were in ruins. The Hotel Continental in 
the Parvis-St. -Maurice Square, was a mere heap of rubbish. The Rue de 
Bethune, Rue de I'Hopital-Militaire and Rue du Molinel were partially 
destroyed. In the Boulevard de la Liberte, the premises of the " Belle 
Jardiniere " Stores were wiped out (p. 38). 

At 9 a. m., on October 13th, while hundreds of fires were still burning, 
five companies of Bavarian troops entered the town, followed throughout 
the day by Uhlans, Dragoons, Artillery, " Death Hussars " and Infantry. 
The occupation had begun. 



■' :%!T 29/9 .--' .•-",„ 'Wr ■■ *'I0 

' "ho 

Jqajlteul -' ; 


HAZEBRouA;-;.' .■ '''?--.--^^,(;'-- 7 '•'» oWnoy,/o, 
/ is^arvi/i^ /%,/oFiUaiff^:;^^^ 

* ' ' ' I/a' ■• '7 .' O Fipme fes,,^5s=T: l,i ' 

2*0 '\y^^'^~^'' } \ I'/IO // ; 
QMarqgilles \ JJ ;' 



1 ''■!;'i°'8 

»/,„ ^/ 

3% "1 


iLb Bass^ ^ 




,li;,;', I2||0 ^.^ 


); Fbrrt-a-Marcq 

\ O,Meni:|0(jnt -- 

\ /; OfiouVroy ,„, 

I QAvleux-Vn^-Go/jBlle 


127/4 "^iO 


''--, ', 12/10 \ 

The Manoeuvre of Marshal Foch. 

This map shows the successive advances of the Allies, from August i (i/8) to October i8 (iS/io). 
On October l6 (t6/io), the line reached (shown by thick dots) threatened Lille with enve- 
lopment and forced the enemy to retreat along a wide front. 


The Deliverance 

For more than three years, the inhabitants of Lille had heard the guns 
thundering almost at their gates, as for a long while, the front was bounded 
by Armenti^res, Vermelles and Lens. In December 1914, the Battle of 
Artois partially cleared Arras. The offensive of Ma!/-.7unc 1915 was mark- 
ed by the capture of Notre-Dame-de-Lorette, Ablain-St.-Nazaire, Carency, 
Souchez, stopping at Vimy Ridge and hemming in Lens on the south. The 
victory of September-October 1915 cleared Lens further to the North, by 
the capture of Loos. In March 1918, a powerful German offensive from 
Armenti^res, forced the Allies back for several months, until the successive 
and correlated offensives of the Allies, under Foch, beginning on July 18th, 
finally liberated the French soil, town by town, and village by village. In 
August and September there was an advance along the whole front from the 
Argonne to the Artois, while in October, the Artois-Picardy front also burst 
into flames. 

While the French, in the centre of their line of attack, crossed the Oise 
at Mont-d'Origny, to the South- West of Guise, the British, North of Douai 
and East of Lens, encircled Lille more closely on the South, and approached 
S6clin, Aubourdin and Quesnoy-sur-Deule. 

At the other end of the front, on the left, Belgian^ British and French 
forces under the King of Belgium, Albert I, took the offensive, and on the 
14th, 15th and 16th of October,, in spite of the rain and mud, took Roulers, 
Thourout and Courtrai. Meanwhile, the 2nd British Army captured Menin, 
crossed the Lys 9 miles from Lille, taking from the rear the northern defences 
of the latter. In possession of Menin and Bouchain, the British continued 
to encircle Lille and Douai, and approached the two ends of the important 
Menin-Tourcoing-Roubaix-Cysoing-Orchies-Somain-Cambrai railway. 

On the 14th, the Germans, who were preparing to evacuate Lille, des- 
troyed the railway behind them, and on the 15th, burnt the goods station 
of St. Sauveur, after hurriedly plundering it. 

At 4 a. m. on the 17th, the inhabitants were ordered to form up and 
march towards the British lines. 

At 5 a. m. on the 17th the last of the Germans left Lille, after blowing 
up all the bridges and a number of locks on the canal. 

At noon, on the 1,536th day of the war, the 5th British Army entered 
Lille, after a four years' occupation. 

Although they had organized powerful defences to a depth of 12 miles 
around the town (barbed-wire entanglements, concrete trenches etc.), 
the Germans made only a faint show of resistance. To console the people 
at home, the newspapers (Strassburger Post) announced that " retreat was 
the only wag to preserve the elasticity of the front and prevent a break-through 
at all costs " (See opposite, Map showing, step by step, the advance of the 
Allies, from August 1st. to October 18th 1918). 

The joy of the liberated population may best be expressed by the words 
with which the Mayor of Lille received President Poincari on October 21st : 
" For four years, we have been like miners buried alive, listening for the sound 
of the rescuers' picks; then all at once the dark gallery opens and we perceive 
the light. " 

In Paris, the news was received with singing and cheers. In the Place 
de la Concorde, the Statue of Lille was decorated with the French and Brit- 
ish colours and flowers. The Fourth National Loan, named the " Libe- 
ration Loan ", opened under the most favourable conditions. 




(riu Faidherbe and place du THdtrt, betore the ruins of the Cafi Jean) 

(Most of the photographs in the '« Occupation of Lille » 

portion of this guide, were taken by M. Hazebroucg, engineer, in spite of enemy 

prohibitions and threats). 


(A portrait of the Kins of Belgium is seen in one cf the shop windows). 



The Kaiser in motor-car, in the Place Cormontaigne. 


The German occupation began on October 13th 1914. From the lath, 
to the 28th. of that month, it was Major General Wahlschaffe who directed 
the operations, levied the War Contributions and chose the hostages. His 
successor. Artillery General Von Heinrich, was appointed Governor on 
October 25th., and held the post until December 27th. 1916,. when he was 
made Governor of Bucarest. General Yon Graevenitz was Chief of the 
Kommandantur, which occupied the premises of the Credit du Nord bank 
in the Rue Jean Roisin. 

The King of Bavaria and the Kaiser in the Place de la Gare. 



The Hostages and War Contributions 

Sixty hostages were chosen from among the most notable persons in 
the town, and included the Bishop (Mgr. Charost), the Prelect of the North 
(M. Tripont), MM. Delorg and Chesquiire, Members of ParUament, the 
Mayor (M. Delesalle), and deputy mayors. In groups of ten, they were 
made to spend the night in turns at the Citadelle {photo p. 59). 

From December 31st., they were required merely to sign a presence- 
sheet, but were later again forced to spend the whole of their time (day and 
night) in the Citadelle, this time in groups of five. Finally, they had to 
sign a presence-sheet each morning and evening until October 5th 1915, 
when this formality was dispensed with, i. c. after the Census operations 
had been completed. 

In November 1914, began exorbitant exactions in the guise of War Con- 
tributions. On the 4th, Von Graevenitz demanded a million frs, to be 
paid on the 10th ; then two milUons on the 17th, and three miUions on the 
24th, in addition to the expense of feeding the troops, which alone amounted 
to 10.000 frs. daily. After much negociating, the Governor finally agreed 
first to give more time, then to reduce the amounts of the contributions. 

To ensure an effective control, a very strict census of the population 
was taken on August 27th. 1915. Particulars of the persons in each house 
were constantly posted up, and after September 1st., identity-cards with 
photographs were obligatory. To be found in the street or even standing 
on one's doorstep without this card, was punishable by fine (3 to 30 marks) 
or imprisonment (one to three days). 

1. jacquet's 


(see p. i6). 




] N" de la carle d'ideiilil^ 

; /V £/«r Amfjcenkarle,} . y / y / ■ " 

; N" du certificat d'inscription 'T.JJi^y/^ - ^ /J^ 
I ,.\'.der WehrfilMge^tKj. y^ C 

Nom fit priSnoros ^^iCO^^/C^iCfyr . ^> 

I W6 lo..'^., .... 
(Gebaren am}. 



: Dottiicitc 






Rue /^^>2<^ .i^fl'^i^^^^^ y^ 

■ Cetle carle est exclusivemciit personnelle. Elic lie 

' droll & aucune prerogative (libre cireuiation. elc), 

' Elle sera toujours porl^e par son proprifStairc tjiii d^*i-ra ia 

' presenter A loute'rdquisition. 

[ Signature du possesseuf :. 
I (iNom ol prfinom) ' 

; (VnteritehrifU iIps .lulmbers) : 
\ O'ifvnd /iiuaiii 

T> WCOTO Oia. A.»«IB 

Cacbot 'dfl la Matna 

(Peraonalbeschreibung ) 

Taille iGrOsse) ..y/TX^ _._ 
Cljfevenx (Ilaare) ^i-*^. 

Yeui {Augen) /r?*»^^«*r*'K<'»-rf 

Ncz \Nase) ...'.. £<;'*-*?*-t-«^ . ..- 
Barbe (Bart) . «'W*^^*-*.«a-«.^i^^.. 
Signes parlicuKeia j-. rr^cs***^/ - 

iDesond. Kennzeidien) 

Dteee Karte diiirit ledigliek ziiiu Aufweiae 
(tes Jahabers, irekher sie au-la hri xicU iragen 
und aiif Vtrlangen voTzfi-jfu mufif. 

Slitnitlurc it IViiipiflii^ i]Di eat mpauiMe 
lit IV'ii'llludp ia em !iidli|up. .' 




In January 1915, 
the Kommandan- 
tur drew up rules 
for the granting ol 
passes, a fruitful 
source of profit to 
the Germans, and 
of annoyance to 
the population. A 
scale of prices pro- 
vided even for the 
shortest journeys. 
Funeral processions 
going to the South 
Cemetery were also 
required to have passes (free), to go through the Porte des Postes. and 
were escorted by soldiers, both going and coming, to prevent the people from 
leaving the ranks. 

However, little by little, the people took up their occupations again. 
Forty schools for boys and girls re-opened early in November. Of the 
remainder, five had been destroyed, two turned into hospitals and ten into 
barracks. The higher 
schools and later, the 
Lyc^e reopened, as did 
also the Conservatoire, 
whose pupils were 
exempted from having 
passes. The only news- 
papers allowed were 
the Bruxellois and the 
Gazette des Ardennes, 
both under German 
control. On November 
15 1915, at the request 
of the Kommandantur, 
the Municipality start- 
ed the bi-weekly 
Bulletin de Lille, which 
appeared on Thursdays 
and Sundays, and con- 
tained the Proclama- 
tions, Birth and Death 
notices, etc. 

Next came the Re- 
quisitions : saddles 
and bridles, bicycles, 
photographic apparat- 
us, telephones, bedding 
and horsehair (ph. op- 
posite). The Germans 
relentlessly seized all 
bedding, including 
that of the old people, 
some of whom died of 
cold from sleeping on 





bare stone floors. Neither sickness nor old age could soften them, 
and when at last Lille was relieved, very few houses contained any 


The town now began to be threatened with famine. Since 1914, bread 
had only contained one-third of wheat flour. At the request of the Military 
Authorities, the Mayor sent an urgent appeal to Switzerland for help, 
to save the women and children from starving, and cited the case of Stras- 
burg generously revictualled by her in 1870. In March 1915, a Commission 
of Swiss Officers visited Lille, but was unable to conclude arrangements. 
On April 19th, after lengthy negociations, the Comiii National Beige, under 
the patronage of the Ambassadors of the United States and Spain, obtained 
permission to revictual the famine-threatened town. 

In the meantime, recourse was had to various expedients to eke out the 
stocks of food. In December, wheat flour was mixed with rye, Indian corn 
and rice. In April, potatoes were added. On the 11th, bread cards were 
inaugurated, fixing the daily ration per head at 9 oz. The inhabitants 
were divided into two classes, the ration being distributed every other 


The gold, silver and copper coinage disappeared, and was replaced by 
cardboard pennies and paper " bons " (photos above and below.). 



i 1 ■■ 



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■j^^^Mj i^BHHji^l 

^^^^^^^B* 1 -' J'- ' ' . ^^^^B :M^^BBB 




THE KAISER AND THE KING OF BAVARIA, in front of the ruin}, in the Rue de Tournai 
(Place de la GareJ , 


Prohibitory Decrees followed in quick succession, in an endeavour to 
terrorize the people, who were forbidden to possess arms, approach the 
prisoners, import Belgian tobacco, or sell their wares in the streets, breaches 
being punished often with vindictive severity. Two of the first victims 
were the Prefect (M. Trepont) and his secretary (M. Borromie), the former 
accused of treason, the latter of stirring up revolt against the German 
Authorities. Their " crime " was that, on August 24th, in conformity with 
their duty, they had mobilized the French citizens, within sight of the enemy. 
They were roughly handled at the time by the German soldiers, and would 
probably have been shot, but for the intervention of one of the University 
professors (M. Piquet) who, acting as interpreter, managed to smooth 
matters over. After being closely watched and spied on, they were arrest- 
ed on February 17th 1915. M. Borrom^e was tried by Court Martial on 
March 13th., and sent to prison at Alrath. Nine months later (December 
27th 1915), his release was obtained through diplomatic representations. 
The Prefect was sent as hostage first to Rastatt, then to Cellaschloss in 
Hanover, and his liberation was only obtained on January 17th 1916. 

In April 1915, a system of Roll Calls was inaugurated, to prepare the 
way for the wholesale deportations which followed. At a given time and 
place, the people were required to present themselves, with a small quantity 
of baggage. Absentees were first fined, then imprisoned, the penalty increas- 
ing in severity with each succeeding " offence ". 

Domiciliary searches were carried out at all hours of the day and 
night, for hidden soldiers, arms, carrier-pigeons, smuggled French news- 
papers, and the like. 

Then, as if fines, imprisonment and starving were not punishment 
enough, the Germans started shooting. 




Les personnes meationnSes oi-dessous ont 6t6 
condamnfees par le Tribunal dn Gonseil de 
Guerre et fusiI16es oe mesne jour & la Citadelle, 
i savoir : ~ ■ - . . 

Lo Soua-Lhsulenaal 

La Comaertant 

Eufitene JACQUET 

Georejes MAERTENS 

i' Poar avoir cache I'aviateur an^lus qui a atlerri a 
Watliffnics, Ic If Mars dernscp, I'avoir fcebergre ct lui 
avoir lacilite son passag'e en France, de sorte qu'il a pu 
rejoindrc les iigncs enncmies;, ^' 

2*'Poiir avoir b.ilretenu el aide des Slembres des Armces 
cnnciuies el. aprcs avoir quiite leur uDiforrae, seiourne 
(Inns Lille cl Ics environs et Scs avoir fail evader en France. 

Par proclamation du Gouverneur, du 7 Avril 
1915, ces deux cas 6tant consid6r6s comme 
espionnage, sont portfes 4 la j^connaissance du 
public pour quils servent d'avertissement. ^ 


Lille, If 22 Septembre fftfS. 



Georges MAERTENS. 

The undermentioned persons were tried by Court-Martial and sliot today at 
the Citadel : 

Wholesale Wine merchant : 
Second-lien tenant : 
Shop-keeper : 
Workman : 

1) For hiding the British aviator who landed at Wattignies on March 11 last, 
supplying him with food and lodging and helping him to reach France and get 
back to the enemy lines. 

2) For assisting members of the enemy forces, helping them to remain in Lille 
and neighbourhood in civil dress, and procuring their evasion to France. 

In conformity with the Proclamation of the Governor, dated April 7 1915, these 
two cases are considered as espionage, and are brought to the notice of the public 
as a warning. 

Lille, September 22 1915. The Governor. 

The Case of the Four 

When, on October 12th 1914, the small garrison which was holding Lille, 
surrendered, several hundred French soldiers escaped capture and hid 
themselves in the town. Until evasion should be possible, it was necessary 
to feed and shelter them, and this M. Jacquet, a wholesale wine merchant, 
undertook to do. A good organizer, his coolness and courage fitted him 


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1 HtftM^ 

The Citadel, Lille, September 22, 1915. 
My Beloved Wife and Cliildren. 

At the moment of starting for the place of execution, I tenderly embrace your 
dear image lor the last time. My last kiss, from the bottom of my heart, here for 
you. Farewell ! Long live France ! E. Jacquet. 

well for the task. He was assisted by his daughter Geneviive (who, later, 
narrowly escaped being shot), bis friends Deconinck and Georges Maertens 
and a Belgian, Sylvire Verhulst. 

On March 11th. lOl,"), a British aviator was forced to land in the town, 
after having bombed a German telephone station. Hidden by Jacquet, 
he eventually escaped to Belgium, guided by Melle. Genevieve. A few 
days later, he again flew over the town and dropped notes reading as follows : 

" Lieatenanl Mapplebeck sends his compliments to the Kommandant 
of the German Forces in Lille, and regrets that he was unable to make his 
acquaintance daring his recent pleasant stay in the neighbourhood. " 

The joy of the inhabitants and the rage of the Kommandantur may 
be better imagined than described in print. Orders were immediately 
given, and the " Polizei " set to watch. Previously, on March 16th, notices 
had been posted up aU over the town, threatening with death any person 
who should hide " any member of the enemy forces ". 

Hostages, including the foremost persons in the town, were imprisoned, 
in the Citadelle, while the liberties of all were severely curtailed. Passes to and 
from the surrounding villages were stopped, and "lights out" was saunded 
at 5 p. m. 

Being unable to imprison the entire population, the Kommandant 
deprived them of liberty and air in mid-summer. 

Meanwhile Jacquet, who knew that he was suspected, made light of 
the danger. 

Arrested several times under various pretences, all efforts to incrimi- 
nate him failed. However, a spy was at last found, who undertook, to 
do the business. Passing himself off as a French prisoner, he asked Jacquet 
and his friends to help him. and then betrayed them to the " Polizei ". 




DELLE where 

M Jacquet, 

his friends 

and Trulin 

were shot. 

A new search enabled the Germans to lay hands on 2,000 frs. in gold, but 
they could not find any incriminating documents (the list of the soldiers in 
hiding, 200 in number, was in the upholstering of an arm-chair at Deco- 
ninck's house). 

In consequence of the spy's information, Deconinck's house was watched. 
Informed of the recent search of Jacquet's premises, Deconinck was looking 
round for a safer hiding-place, when his next-door neighbour, who was in 
the secret, suggested that the armchair would be safer in her keeping. 
The offer was well-meant but unfortunate, as the Police, who were on the 
watch, seized the chair, smashed it and found the list. Returning at once 
to Jacquet's house, they arrested him and his daughter, and locked them 
up in the Citadelle. 

At the same time, Deconinck, Maertens and Verhulst were arrested. 

Jacquet's daughter, Melle Genevieve, owed her life to lack of evidence. 

The four men were tried on September 16th. and sentenced to death. 
They were shot on the morning of September 22nd, and died bravely, 
" standing, their hands free, and their eyes unbandaged ". Their last 
words, shouted together, were : " Vive la France, Vive la R6publique. " 
Their names are inscribed on the Roll of Honour of the Army, and the 
Journal Officiel of December 8th. 1918 announced that the Legion d'Honneur 
had been conferred on Mr. Jacquet. 

Execution of Leon Trulin 

When the war broke out, Lfeon Trulin, a Belgian subject, aged 17, was 
living at Lille. Intensely patriotic by nature, he burned to serve his 
country against the hated invader. With the help of a few comrades, 
among whom were Raymond Derain and Marcel Golli, he got together various 
documents and succeeded in bringing them to the Allies across the Dutch 
frontier. In 1915, he decided to go back to France and enlist in the Belgian 
Army, in company with his friend Derain. On October 3rd, they arrived at the 
frontier. For three hours, in the dark, they burrowed under the "live" 
wire entanglements, when suddenly the alarm was given. Lights flared up, 
shots were fired, and Trulin and his companions were taken. The docu- 
ments found on Trulin proved to be his death warrant. His friends 
Derain and Gotti were condemned to penal servitude for life. 

On his way to the place of execution, on November 8th, Trulin's neive 
(he was 18), gave way for a moment, but recovering himself quickly, he 
walked to the post with a firm step, and so another name was added to the 
long list of the victims of Kaiserism. 







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My dearest Mother, 

November 7, 1915, 

I am very sorry for all I have done since I left home on June 30. 

I suffered greatly during July, often homeless, then in September Ufe changed, 
I was a Uttle happier, I had a pleasant time in Holland and England for a month, 
then came back to Belgium, when suddenly misfortune overtook me. By ill luck 
I was caught within half a minute of Dutch territory. 

I beseech you not to despair, live for Renfe, who would be an unfortunate orphan, 
also for my brothers and sisters, set them an example of resignation and lift up 
your head, your son has given his life for the Fatherland (Long live little Belgium). 

I embrace you with all niy heart, courage mother, we shall see each other again 
some day, kiss my brothers and sisters tor me and tell them your son knew how 
to die. 

Now I am going to lie down, it is already late, to be ready for the execution 

I forgive everybody, friends and enemies, I pardon, because, they do not pardon 

trulin's hKwr letteh 



\XOiStM^vviA^ iM^^' 



Vr \nu<j l-trUo 'ijiA' ■L^o^'V^-^jr' 


You will find a note-book, in which I have noted my last wishes. 
I ask you to forgive Denfique for what he has done, I have forgiven him, it is 
the request of a doomed man. 

Your son, who causes you much suffering and is deeply grieved. 

L60N Trulin. 

I have put 5 marks in the note-book which is in my bag, for one or two masses 
and an indulgence, I have given the rest to the Priest for the same purpose. 

November 7, 1915, the last day before my death. 

Excuse me, if I do not write very well, I am writing on a garden table. 

Courage, dear Mother, courage, brothers and sisters, live in peace, without 

I die a good Christian. 

W.oN Trulin. 


The Explosion of the " Dix-huit Fonts " 

On January 11th, 1910, at about 2 o'clock in the morning, a terrific 
explosion shoolc the town, hurling huge stones and debris in all directions 
for a distance of several miles. An ammunition depot situated in the 
South-East portion of the ramparts, between the Gates of Valenciennes and 
Douai, about 400 yds distant from the railway station of St. Saviour, had 
blown up. It was an enormous underground vault, commonly known as 
the " Dix-huit Fonts ", because of the 18 massive stone arches which formed 
the entrance. 

It will probably never be known how many thousand shells and tons 
of explosives blew up, as the greatest secrecy was observed by the German 

Authorities. All the soldiers who 
were there were killed. The damage 
was tremendous, whole streets and 
numerous factories, including two 
large spinning-mills, were entirely 

At the funeral, which took place 
on Saturday, January 15th. 1916, 
there were 108 coffins, but this figure 
does not include the numerous per- 
sons who were literally pulverized 
by the explosion. The noise of the 
latter was heard at Breda, in Holland, 
nearly a hundred miles away, and 
houses as distant as the Rue Jeanne 
d'Arc, Place Philippe le Bon and Rue 
des Postes were destroyed by the 
flying stones. In general, the catas- 
trophe was stoically borne by the inha- 
bitants, one citizen remarking: "There 
were enough shells to have massacred 
whole regiments. Better we should 
mourn our dead, than the precious 
lives of so many of our soldiers. " 

One huge stone weighing more than 
a ton, fell in the studio of the sculp- 
tor Deplechin (Rue de Douai), Director of the Ecole des Beaux-Arts, who 
carved the bas-relief " Lille in Tears " on it (see Ilinerary, p. ,36, and photo 
above) . 

The Deportations 

In 1916, the prohibitions increased in number, the people being forbidden 
to leave their houses after 6 p. m., or before 7 a. m. ; to criticise the news 
published by the Authorities, to remain at their windows, or to stand on 
Iheir doorsteps, under a penalty of 5 to 10 days' imprisonment. They were 
also forbidden to use the trams without a special permit. These measures 
paved the way for the deportations of April-May 1916. During Easter 
week, under the pretence that the revictualUng of the population was 
difficult, the Governor decided to deport the inhabitants of Lille, Tourcoing 
and Roubaix into the country, and make them cultivate the soil. Rumours 
to that effect had been rife for several days previously, but the people 
would not believe it. However, all doubts were cleared away on April 20th, 
when posters warned the people to hold themselves in readiness with about 
70 lbs of luggage. The 21st was a day of painful suspense. On the 22nd 
a I 3 a. m., German soldiers hemmed in the Fives quarter, and placed Ma- 


ij6 « h 



the night of 
April 24 

chine-guns at the corners of the streets. House by house, street by street, 
amid blows from the butt-ends of their rifles, the Germans forced the 
people out of their houses. They were counted like cattle, and the number 
checked with the sheet posted up on each house. Those who were to go, 
mostly girls, were forcibly taken from their parents and led away between 
fixed bayonets, then loaded into cattle-trucks and sent to an unknown 
fate. Girls were taken from mothers and wives from husbands, with cold- 
blooded indifference. It was in vain that the Mayor and the Bishop indig- 
nantly protested, the former to the Kommandantur and the latter from 
the pulpit. Methodically, this abomination was perpetrated. 

For ten days, the people lived in mortal suspense, asking themselves 
if and when their turn would come. 

On Easter-Sunday night, Ihe 64 Ui. German Infantry regiment surrounded 
the Vauban Quarter, the horror ot the scene being intensified by the Hotel- 
de-Ville in flames. 

Each night, until April .30tb, 1,800 to 2,000 persons were wrested from 
their homes. 

Although grealty depressed, the deported people recovered their courage 
as the trains left the station and to the amazement ot the Germans, sang 
the " Marseillaise " in a mighty chorus. 

Twenty-five thousand persons, mostly women and children, were for- 
cibly taken from their homes and made to cultivate the soil, break stones, 
build bridges, make sand-bags, turn shells etc., their only food consisting 
of a little black " bread ", nauseating soup and broken scraps of meat. 

As soon as the French Government learned the facts, a Note was sent 
to the Neutral Powers, protesting against these inhuman deportations, 
which were ordered by General Von Graevenilz, and executed by the 64th 
Infantry Regiment, commanded by Captain Himmel. 

Five months later, thanks to the intervention of the King of Spain, 
Alfonso XIII, these unfortunate people were allowed to go back to their 

For several months in 1917, things Went better, but in 1918, the German 
Authorities recommenced deporting. A first batch of men and women 
was interned at Holzminden, while on another occasion, the women were 
sent to Holzminden and the men to Jewie near Vilna (Lithuania). The 
Official Records, to which the reader is referred, contain full details of these 
inhuman crimes and of the abominable treatment to which the exiles were 
subjected : privations of every kind, humiliation, torture and degrading 

On September 30th. 1918, the Kommandantur ordered the evacuation 
of all males from 15 to 60 years of age, but the German soldiers carried out 



thcirinstructions in a half-hearted 
way, and many escaped. The ap- 
proaching sound ot the guns and 
the lax discipline of the soldiers 
announced the Allies' Great Vic- 
tory and the coming deliverance 
to the war-weary people. 

On October 17th, the British 
troops entered Lille. 

The Ruined Industries 
of Northern France 

Before the War, Northern 
France was one of the most 
flourishing industrial centres in 
the country. 

The metallurgical Arms of 
the North produced annually 
over a million tons of steel, 
representing nearly a quarter 
of the country's total produc- 
tion. This steel was transform- 
ed locally into finished articles. 
The exceedingly prosperous tex- 
tile industry was carried on mainly at Tourcoing, Roubaix, Rhcims and Sedan. 
The Ilax industry was also concentrated around Armentifires, Lille 
and Halluin. 

The cotton mills of Roubaix, Tourcoing and Lille were extremely pros- 
perous and important. 

The following general figures give an idea of the industrial importance of 
this region, whicli contributed one-sixth of the country's total taxes. Before the 

War, the annual industrial produc- 
tion was estimated at 4,000,000,000 
frs, of which the textile industries 
accounted for 2,500,000,000 frs. 
The industries of Northern 
France have been ruined, not 
so much by the War, as by the 
systematic pillaging and des- 
tructions carried out l^' the 

Official documents left behind 
in Brussels by the routed enemy, 
brought to light the existence of 
two German Organizations : the 
" Abbau Konzern " and the 
" Wumba Waffen und Muni- 
tions-Beschaffuugs Anstalt ". 
The mission of the former was to 
cripple France industrially, by 
methodically destroying her fac- 
tories and mills, while the latter's 
agreeable and profitable task was 
to sell stolen French machinery 
and tools to competitive German 
industrial concerns. 


To enable tourisls to visit the town quickly and thoroughly, we have drawn 
up 4 itineraries, each of which starts from and returns to the Grande Place. 

1st Itinerary (p. 25 to 35). — The Centre of the town. The Ruins 

in 1914. 

2nd Itinerary (p. 36 to 48). — From the Grande Place to the 
' ' Dix-huit Fonts ' ' . The Ruins in 1916 . 
3rd Itinerary (p. 49 to 54). • — • From the Grande Place to the Citadelle. 
4th Itinerary (p. 55 to 58). — The Old Town. 


Quarters destroyed by the bombardment of 1914 ; rue de Paris, rue de 
Tournai, rue Fjiidherbe, etc. 

Monuments seen on the way : The " Bourse ", Town Hall, Palais de 
Rihour, St. Maurice's Church, Tournai Gate, Theatre, " New Bourse " 

Starting-point : the Grande Place. 

Starting from the Grande Place, follow the streets indicated by thick lines, 
in the direction of the arroivs. 

The blocks of buildings shown by the blank spaces were destroyed by the 1914 bombardment. 





I.eit : Column commemorating 1792 ; right : Corner of the Bourse 

The Grande Place 

In the centre of the Square is a fluted Granite Column by Benvignal; 
erected in 1848 to commemorate the Siege of Lille in 1792. At the top is a 
statue of Jeanne Maillolle holding a lighted torch in her hand. During 
the siege of the town in 1792, she crossed the enemy lines and set fire to 
the Austrian batteries which were shelling the town. The name of this 
heroic woman was given to one of the streets, in which a later hero, 
M. Eugene Jacquet, lived {see p. 44). The inhabitants have surnamed the 
statue '" The Goddess "- 


In iroijt THE n GODDESS M STATUE (left} and the thea'ire (behind the Bours-i. 

See Ilinerary, p. 25 


Behind the column is the " Bourse " or Stock Exchange. Square in 
shape, it stands between the Grande Place, Rue des Sept-Agaches, Place 
du Theatre and Rue des Manneliers. Rising above the roof is a polygonal 
turret, the upper part of which forms a terrace with small timber-work 
campanile. It has been restored in recent times. 

The " Bourse 

^The Bourse is the finest specimen of 17th century Flemish architecture 
in France. Dissatisfied with transacting their business in the open, 
twenty-four merchants of Lille petitioned the King of Spain, Philippe IV, 
for permission to erect a building in the Place du GrandjMarche, to be 
known as the " Bourse ". 

The plans of the architect Julien Desire were accepted in 1652. It was 
stipulated in the specifications that the fafades should be " of like symmetry 
and construction ", that only the armorial bearings of the King were to 
appear over the entrances, and that the twenty-four buildings composing 
the edifice should be beneath one continuous roof, so as to form a harmonious 
whole. The petitioners were to guarantee the completion of the building 
within a given space of time. 

Today, shops on the ground-floor hide part of the fafade, so that it is 
difficult to distinguish "the bossages and semi-circular tympanums, but the 
rich, severe ornamentation of the upper stories, composed of caryatids, 
pilasters, pediments, and garlands carved in the stone-work, is plainly 
visible. The different periods of life (childhood, youth and old age) and the 
passions, are depicted. The head of King Midas with stellated crown is 
especially noteworthy. A judicious use of brick with stone, while ensuring 
a harmonious ensemble, reposing to the view, also causes the relief motifs 
to stand out well. 







01 the four doors ornamented with scroll-work, horns of plenty and 
royal coats of arms, in the four sides of the edifice, one gives access to the 
interior courtyard which is lined with four wide arcaded galleries. Doric 
columns of polished black stone support the vaulting, which is of brick, 
with binding ribs and nerves of white stone. On the plinth are heads of 
leopards connected by garlands of flowers and foliage. A bronze statue 
by Lemaire, representing Emperor Napoleon I, protector of the national 
Industries, stands in the middle of the courtyard. This statue was inaugu- 
rated in 1854, and was cast from old presses from the Mint of Lille, which 
had previously been made from guns taken at Austerlitz. 

The interior galleries of the Bourse were decorated in. 1850. 

Facing each of the bays formed by the intercolumniations, are large 
tablets of marble surrounded by carvings, which recall those of the fa?ade. 
In the midst of this sculpture are the symbols of commerce, industry and 
science. Inscriptions recall the most important dates and institutions 
relating to the commerce and industry of Lille. The busts over them 
represent great inventors or learned men (Jacquart, Philippe de Girard, 
Chaptal, Brongniart, Chevreul). 

On leaving the Bourse, cross the square to the left, and enter the Place de 

At the corner of the Grand'Place, the black fafade of the Grand' Geirde 
decorated with trophies and curved pediments bearing the arms of France 
and Lille, should be noticed. A large shell-hole in the left-hand pediment 
has been temporarily bricked up. 

Cross the ruins of the Hotel de Ville, burnt down on April 24th 1916 (photo 
below), at the time of the deportations. To the right, abutting on the Hotel 
de Ville, is the Palais de Rihour which escaped damage from the fire. 

THE HOTEi, DE vil.l,E, 'burnt down on the night of April 24 igi6 (set p. 23), 









The Palais de Rihour 

Built in 1457-1462, tliis palace was the residence of Philippe le Bon, 
Duke ol Burgundy. Only an octagonal Turret, the Guard-Room and the 
Chapel of brick and white stone remain. The H6tel-de-Ville was erected 
on it"! site. 

The low Guard-Room, in which the Town Records are kept, is divided 
in the middle by three polygonal columns unequally interspaced. The 
stone staircase with ribbed vaulting and graceful ornamentation, was 
formerly the grand staircase. Transferred to its present position, it now 
leads to the chapel known as the " Salle du Conclave ", where the magis- 
trates of Lille sat until 1789. 

To the right of the chapel is a brick building, the faf ade of which is divid- 
ed by two similar gables. Jutting out at the corner, is an octagonal 
Turret containing two small vaulted chambers. Above is a third room 
with timber-work ceiUng, known as the " Oratory of the Duchess ". An 
opening in the wall communicates with the chapel, and through it the 
choir is visible. From this room, which is reached by a spiral staircase of 
stone inside the turret, it is possible to hear the service without being seen. 

Re-cross the H6tel-de- Ville ruins and return to the Place de Rihour. Follow 


PARIS ; in the 




See Itinerary, p. 25 


the Rue de la V ieilte-ComMie 
and Rue du Sec-Arembault 
(plan, p. 25) ; the latter comes 
out into the rue de Paris, in front 
of St. Maurice's church. 

The Church of St. Maurice 

{historical monument). 

The church was seriously 
damaged by the bombardment 
of October 1914 which set fire 
to the root. 

It is a curious specimen ol 
the 15th century Gothic-Flam- 
boyant style of Walloon-Flan- 
ders, and comprises live naves 
of equal height arranged quin- 
cuncially, whereas most of the 
churches belonging to that pe- 
riod have three naves under a 
single roof, the aisles being 
shorter than the great nave, 
while the tower is necessarily 
placed over the main entrance (see 



Si'. Catherine's Church, p. 54). 
It also contains an ambulatory and an apse formed by polj'goiia! cha- 


The facade, with its three portals, steeples of open construction, and 
white stone tower at the entrance, dates from the second iialf of tlie 19th 
century. The old square tower was pulled down in 1826, as unsafe. These 
different alterations were carried out under the direction of the architect 
Lannissie. According to Monseigneur Dehaisnes, the remarlcable exterior 
of this church is due to these 
successive restorations and al- 

Inside the church are rows 
of round slender columns with ^^^^^_^^^,— ^„- ,., n-jsyn , — 
sculptured capitals, irregularly ^^^ffinP^^|^^^^||^^9 church^ ^ 
spaced. ^^^^^^li1i//^0^^^^^^«lili9l^^^H ^«s navk. 

The springing of the bind- 
ing ribs or projecting arches 
which line the vaults, and tlieir 
graceful arched branches, rest 
on and meet at the capitals. 
The point of intersection of 
the arches is marlfed by a pend- 
ant lieystone. High and broad 
muUioned windows (note the 
stone uprights dividing the 
bays) amply Ught the interior. 
In the choir aisles are the follow- 
ing paintings : St. Charles 
Borrom^e and St. Francis, by 
Van Oost and " Les Disciples 
d'Emmaiis",by VanderBurgh; 
in the chapel of St. Barbara : 
" Vision de Ste. Therese ", by 




Van Oost and a Landscape, by Van der Burgh; in the chapel of the Virgin : 
" Mariage de la Vierge ", by Wamps, " Glorification de la Vierge ", by Van 
Minne and " La CSne ", by Van Audenaerde. In the vestry are 15th and 
16th century chasubles and 17th century tapestries. 


See Itinerary, p. 25 


THE KUE DU PARVIS-PAINT-MAtElCE (see plan, p. 25). 

(The photographer with his bach to the Church, laced the Rue Scheipers. In the background 
are the theatre and the campanile of the nouvelle bourse). 

After visiting the Churcti, take the Rue da Priez, behind the Church, leading 
to the Place de la Gare. 

THE RUE DES FONTS DE COMINES (see plan, p. 25). 

The operator faced the rue Scheipers. In the background is the church of saint Maurice. 
against which he had his hack when taking the preceding photograph. 




Follow the Rue de Tournai, on the right (numerous houses damaged by 
shells) as far as the Tournai Gate. 


A iemporary road replaces the bridge over the moal, aesaoyeU by the retreating Germans, 



View taken from the Place du TftSdtre, In the background 


The Tournai 

Gate was built in 
the reign of Louis 

The bridge 
over the moats of 
the ramparts, 
which the Germans 
blew up before leav- 
ing, has been tem- 
porarily repaired . 

Return by the 
Ruede Tournai and 
the Rue Faidlierbe 
(partially in ruins) 
as far as the Place 
du TMdtre : see the 
Nouvelle Bourse 
surmounted by a 
tower, and the 
New Theatre, 
inaugurated during 
the German occu- 








starting from the Grande Place, follow the streets indicated by continuous 
black Unes, in the direction of the arrows. 






From the Grande Place to the Douai Gate quarter, destroyed by 
the Explosion of the u IS Fonts » . 

Principal sights on the way : The Prefecture, Museum and Paris 

Starling Point : The Grande Place. 

To the right of the Grand' Garde, take the Rue Neuue, continued by the 
Rue de Bithune (one of those which suffered most from the bombardments). 

Follow this street to the Place de Bithune and to the Place Richebi; see the 
bronze equestrian Statue of General Faidherbe (1896), at the foot of which 
are two feminine figures with palm-branches and arms symbolizing France 
and Lille. Two bas-reliefs representing the battles of Pont-Noyelles and 
Bapaume adorn the sides. The Monument is the combined work of the 
architect Pugol and the sculptor Mercii. 

In front of the statue : Boulevard de la Libert^ and the fine Place de la 
R6publique ; on the right is the Prefecture, on the left, the Palais des 
Beaux Arts. 

The Prefecture is a richly ornamented building, erected in 1869 from 

THE PREFECTURE, Place de la Republigue. 






the plans of llie 
architect Mal- 
leau. The walls 
have been deeply 
scarred in places 
by shell splinters 
(note the while 
patches on the 
blackened fagade). 
Beaux Arts was 
inaugurated in 

Composite in 
style, it is very 
richly ornament- 
ed. Flanked by 
two round pavil- 
ions with cupolas 
containing stair- 
cases, its principal fafade is in the Rue de la Republique. The Museum 
of Lille is installed there. 


This is one of the finest provincial museums in France. As early as 1795, 
it contained 183 works of art. A Consular Decree, dated the 14th Fructidor, 
Year IX, added 46 paintings taken from the collections of the Louvre and 
Versailles. The first catalogue dated 1850, comprised 274 works of art, 
which number had increased to 1,275 at the time of the inventory of January 
1st 1908. 

The Museum during the War 

The Museum was the edifice which most suffered from the German bom- 
bardments. On October 11th 1914, it was struck by 75 shells. The curator 
took measures at once to have the roof repaired and protect the collections. 
However, the Museum was not proof against German greed. On 
Saturday, November 17th, two officers, accompanied by military police- 
men came to " requisition " the works of art, in the name of the German 

Authorities. After 
visiting the differ- 
ent rooms, and 
being unable to ob- 
tain the keys of the 
cabinets, they broke 
open the latter and 
took all the medals 
and miniatures, 
which they placed 
in paper bags from 
a neighbouring gro- 
cers's shop. The cur- 
ator protested the 
sam e day, both ver- 
bally and in writ- 
ing, to the Kom- 
mandantur and 
Military Governor. 



The miniatures wore brouglil bacli on November 19th., and the medals 
on December 3rd, less various antique gold jewels, two miniatures and two 
gold medals which had been " lost " 

Later, two well-known German art experts Herr Demmler and Ilerr 
Professor Klemen, armed with carefully annotated catalogues, made a gener- 
al " requisition " comprising : 1,500 drawings (including those by Raphael 
and Michael Angelo), 420 paintings and 518 other works of art, all of which 
were packed up, labelled and sent off. The famous " Wax Head " (page 43) 
had, however, been hidden away in an underground vault, and replaced by a 

In an endeavour to justify their action, the Germans sent out a radiogram 
on November 4th 1918, stating that the Museum of Lille had been damaged 
so seriously, as to be unsafe for works of art, and that at the request of the 
curator, an inventory of the collections had been made and the latter trans- 
ferred first to Valenciennes and then to the Old Museum in Brussels. 


The collections are classed under four distinct heads : paintings, 
modern sculpture, archeological £ind lapidary specimens and the 
Wicar collections. 

I. — Paintings 

The Flemish and French schools are the best represented. (For a 
detailed description of the paintings, see " La peinlure au ISIasie de Lille ", 
by Frangois Benoit, 3 vols. ;n-4°, 
with reproductions, 1908). 

The Spanish school includes a 
St. Jerome, by Ribera, dated 1643. 

The Italian school contains 
The Martyrdom of St. George by 
Veronese (duplicate of the painting 
by San Giorgis Maggiore at Vero- 
na) ; two circular panels : Eloquence 
and Science (symbolized by two 
Venetian women with auburn 
hair), also by Veronese; The Flight 
into Egypt by Carlo Saraceni, and 
the Assumption of the Virgin by 
Piazzetta (two very original paint- 
ers little known in France) ; a 
delicate " Virgin with wild roses ". 
of exquisite colouring, by Ridolfo 
Ghirlandajo ; " Magdalene at the 
feet of Christ " and a " Judith and 
Holopherne " by Lambert Zaslris 
(often called Lambert Lambard) — 
two paintings of limpid colour- 
ing; (note the delicate lilac-grey 

As befits the " Capital of 
Flanders ", the Flemish and Dutch Schools of the North are fully 

The Mystic Press, by Jean Bellegan:be; the triptych, Virgin surrounded 
by Angels, attributed to Girard David; the first portrait of Philippe le Bon, 





bv Veronese 
(CI. LL) 



attributed to Pierre Etret; the Sym- 
bolical Fountain, an exceedingly fine 
altar-screen panel by Thierry Bouts de 
Haarlem, is particularly noteiivorthy ; 
a portrait of Emperor Charles Quint at 
the age of 32, by Christophe Amberger 
and Charles-Quint taking the Monk's 
Gown, by Nicolas Francken (he Elder. 
Rubens is represented by seven paint- 
ings : The Descent from the Cross, 
of admirable clearness ; the expres- 
sion is more natural than that of the 
painting in Antwerp ; Vision of the 
Virgin appearing to St. Francis, of warm 
colouring ; St. Bonaventure Meditating, 
and St. Francis receiving the Stigmas 
(two fine long panels) ; The Death of 
Magdalene (a somewhat monotonous 
^^^ but strangely intense monochrome). 
l^^^mQi^ ''-_ ' 'X'T ^^M yon Dyck is well represented by the 

following : The Crucifixion, considered 
by Paul de St. Victor to be his greatest 
masterpiece (the figure of Christ stands 
out clearly against a cloudy sky pierced by lightning) ; Portraits of ah 
Old Lady and Marie de Mfedicis (in the background are seen Antwerp and 
the Escaut). The following artists are also represented : Jordaens, by the 
Prodigal Son, Christ and the Pharisees, the Temptation, and a wonderful 
study of cows ; Gaspard de Crayer, by Martyrs buried alive (fine harmo- 
nious composition) ; F. Franchoys, by a Portrait of the Prior of the Abbey 
of Tongerloo, Gisherts Mutsarts, dated 1645. (Paintings by this artist 
are exceedingly rare). Verspronck, by the Portrait of Young Boy ; Jansen 


by van Dyck (Cliche LLJ. 


by Verspronck (Cliche LL) 


Van Ceulen, by a very fine portrait of Anne Marie de Scliurmann ; Pieter 
Codde, by Conversation, of delightful colouring. 

The French school, although incomplete (Prudhon, Ingres and Anioine 
Watleau are not represented), is nevertheless rich and instructive. First 
of all an anonymous, 17th century Portrait of an Architect, whose pale 
harsh face arrests the attention and haunts the memory. Ph. de Champaigne 
is represented by the Good Shepherd ; Resioul by a Jesus at Emmails ; 
Mignard, by A Judgment by Midas ; Largilliere, by a very fine portrait 
of his father-in-law, the painter, John Forest ; Douvi (native of Lille), by 
a fine portrait of the painter Savage ; Jean Voilles, by a delightful portrait 
of Madame Li6nard ; Frangois Watleau (grand nepTiew of Antoine Wat- 
teau), by two amusing sketches : Procession of our Lady of the Vine in 1789 
and The Old Clothes Market of Lille ; David by his first picture after return- 
ing from Rome, " B^lisaire " (1781), of which there is a reduced copy in 
the Louvre (this painting marks the re-birth of the antique) ; Boilly, a 
native of the district of Lille, is fully represented by his Triumph of Marat 
— masterpiece of great truth and delicacy — and 28 portraits of artists 

THE TRIUMPH OF MAPAT, by Boitiy (CHcke LL). 

painted for the picture " Reunion d'artistes dans I'ateher d'Isabey ". The 
following are the names of these portraits : Van Dael, flower painter ; 
Houdon, sculptor, (grey overcoat) ; Chaadei, sculptor, seated ; Duplessis 
Berleaux, designer (head resting on hands) ; Hoffman, art critic (long pow 
dered hair) ; Redoute, flower painter ; Bourgeois, designer ; Demarne, painter ; 
Thibaut, architect ; Swibach, genre painter ; Lemoi, sculptor ; Serangeli, 
historical painter, (half-length, hands in pockets) ; Taunay, landscape 
painter ; Isabey (red coat) ; Percier, architect (looking at a plan) ; Talma, 
actor ; Drolling, portrait-painter (red waistcoat) ; Corbet, sculptor (grey 
coat and white waistcoat) ; Meynier, painter ; Fontaine, architect ; Blot, 
engraver; Bidaull, painter; Boilly-Chenard, singer; Girodet-Trioson, 
Girard and the remarkable group Leihiere and Carle Vernet. 

In the modern school, the following are especially noteworthy : La 
M^dfie, by Engine Delacroix (strikingly dramatic), L'apr6s-diner & Ornans, 



by Courbel, the colouring of which is unfortunately fading ; La Becqu6e, 
charming genre painting by Millet; Effet du Matin, by Corot, remarkable 

for its beautiful effects of silvery 


II. — Sculpture 

Of the collections of sculpture, only 
the fine bust of Bonaparte by Corbet, 
dated 1799, is worthy of special men- 

III. — Archeological and Lapidary 

The Archeological Museum contains 
the following remarkable works of art : 
Three 14th century statuettes of the 
Virgin (two of wood, one of marble) ; 
an ivory diptych of the Crucifixion ; 
a 13th century reliquary cross of 
Flemish origin ; divers curious specimens 
of brass-'work, including the Censer of 
Lille, rightly considered a masterpiece ; 
a richly embroidered altar-cloth, repre- 
senting the Annunciation. 

IV. — • The Wicar Collections 

The important Wicar Collections 
were bequeathed by the Lille painter, Jean Baptist Wicar, pupil of David 
(1762-1834), who in 1815, succeeded in protecting the Museum of Lille 
from spoliation by the Allies. 

Commissary to Bonaparte in Italy, and later Director of the Royal 
Academy at Naples, Wicar adopted Roman nationality, and collected a 
large number of fine drawings and art treasures. Parts of his collections 
are today at Oxford; The famous ■' Wax Head " (p. 43) is in the centre 
of the Wicar Room. 

There are several Renaissance bronzes worthy of note, also a marble 
bas-relief by Donatello, representing the Beheading of John the Baptist, 
and a fine terra-cotta Head of Child by Verrochio. The drawings merit 
careful inspection. The following are especially remarkable : studies on 
pink and yellow grounds, by Filippo Lippi, Filippino, Cbirlandajo, and 
La Verrochio ; Head of Bald Man, by Montegna; 14 drawings on parchment, 
representing scenes from the Metamorphoses, Children's Games and Ara- 
besques, attributed by L. Gonse to Jacopo Francia, attest marvellous delicacy 
and skill ; two sheets of caricatures by Leonard de Vinci and 60 sketches by 
Raphael; studies in black and red by Michael Angela, especially a Dead 
Christ, figure of a naked man, fantastic masks and a series of 184 architec- 
tural drawings, generally known as the " Book of Michael Angelo ". Anni- 
bal Carrache, Le Guide, Guerchin, Sodoma and Andri del Sarto are also well 

On the other hand, French drawings are few in number, the most remark- 
able being one by David for his " Serment des Horaces ". The others 
include : " Le Corps de Garde ", by Boilly (fine, carefully finished drawing) ; 
A naked Woman, by Watteau; two drawings by Ingres for his " Apotheose 
d'Homdre " ; a drawing by Poussin for the " Massacre des Innocents " ; 
a wonderful Portrait of Old Man, by Lagneau, an artist little known in the 
reign of Louis XIII, but a great master ; lastly a fascinating fusain drawing 
by Millet : " Le Troupeau de Moutons au milieu d'un bois "- 


The " Wax Head " 

The moet celebrated work of art in the collections is the Wax Head 
(T§te de Cire), which has so often been reproduced in engravings, pho- 
tograplas and casts. This funeral souvenir, which stands in a golden niche 
in the middle of a room draped with red plush, was made to perpetuate 
the memory of a young girl 15 to 18 years of age. The pedestal and 
draperies are of terra-cotta, and date from the 18th century. 

Of Italian origin, the head is attributed by some to Raphael, by others 
to Leonard de Vinci. The possibility of its being antique, is no longer 



(Cliche LL). 

admitted. According to Gonse, it came from the Tuscan studio of Orsino 
Benitendi, and dates from about 1480. The wax was tinted at a later 

Leaning to one side, the face is pensive in expression. The neck is 
flexible and sits with easy grace on the shoulders. The cheeks are rather 
broad and somewhat flat, the chin round and short. A faint smile hovers 
I'ound the delicate mouth. The eyes are considered by some to be rather 
small. The waving hair is divided into two graceful masses, which are 
rolled up on the back of the neck. 

The expression of the face is enigmatical and changes with the angle 
from which it is regarded. Psychologists and artists alike will long discuss 
its charms. 

When the two German experts Herr Demmler and Herr Professor Klemen 
" requisitioned " the collections of the Museum (p. 38), what they took 
away was a copy of this head, the original having been hidden in one of 
the underground vaults. It narrowly escaped destruction in October 1918 
when the Germans, previous to evacuating the town, cut the water-mains, 
so that the sub-basement of the Museum was flooded. Fortunately, the 
water did not rise high enough to do serious damage, and the head was 
eventually restored intact to its velvet pedestal. 

Wear the Museum, at the corner of the Rue Jeanne Mailloite and the Hue 



Denis-Godefroy which opens on the Boulevard de la Liberli, in line with the 
Museum) , is the house where M. Eugene Jacquet lived (his apartment was 
on the 1st floor, see photograph below and page 16). 

Leave the Place de la Ripublique by the Rue Nicolas Leblane (at the corner 
ot the Square, by the side of the Museum) at the end of which is the Church of 

St. Michael. Conti- 
nue as far as the Place 
Philippe le Bon : in 
the middle. Monu- 
ment to Pasteur ; 
071 the left, Univer- 
sity of Lille. 

The University 
of Lille occupies spa- 
cious buildings inau- 
gurated in 1895. An 
important library 
and various wings 
have since been add- 
ed, including the Coal 
and the Gosselet Geo- 
logical and Mineralo- 
gical Museums, the 
Electro -Technical 
M. jACQUEi's BOUSE. gud Pastcur Insti- 

tutes, etc. The University of LiUe is the second in importance in France. 
On the left, at the end of the Place Philippe le Bon, take the Rue Solfirino 
which crosses the Place Jeanne d'Arc and leads to the Rue de Douai. 

From the Place Philippe le Bon. the tourist may visit the curious Monu- 
ment built by the Germans in the Southern Cemetery, where several thou- 


sands of their soldiers were buried. The monument represents a Walkyrie 
carrying off a dead warrior to the Walhalla (p. 64). 

To reach the Cemetery, take the Rue des Pyramides, on the right of the 
Church, then the Rue des Posies, go through the Porle deS Posies and follow 
the Rue du Faubourg des Posies to the cemetery. Return to the Porte des 
Posies, taking on the right the Boulevard Victor Hugo which leads back to the 
crossing of the Rue Solfirino and the Boulevard des Ecoles (see Itinerary, p. 36). 

If preferred, the tourist can go direct from Philippe le Bon Square to the 
Douai Gate, via the Rue Solfirino (continued by the Rue de Douai), passing 
between the University and SI. Michael's Church. 

See Itinerary, p. 36 



The " Dix-huit Fonts " (see p. 22) 

On reaching the Rue de Douai, the cracked walls of the houses, many 
of them roofless, which were damaged by the Explosion of the Germein 
Amunition Depot known as the " Dix-huit Fonts ", come into view. The 
tourist will get a closer view of them as he proceeds. At the Douai Gate, 
talis the Boulevard de Belfort on the left, which leads to the scene of the 
catastrophe. The crater is still plainly distinguishable, although its sides 
are no longer sharp, and grass is springing up everywhere. 

Climb to the highest point of the fortifications above the crater, to get a good 
view of this moving scene. 

To the right and left extends the regular and picturesque line of the 
Vauban fortifications, the red brick walls standing out well against the 
green of the grass-covered slopes. In the nearest walls are large crevices. 





while below, the tourist sees the crater strewn with rubbish and portions 
of the vaulting. In front, the wrecked splnnlng-mills, of which only the 
chimneys remain standing, and the devastated streets (Rue de Ronchin 
Rue de Tr6vise, etc.), form impressive silhouettes. 

Return to the Douai Gate, in front of which traces on the ground mark 
the site of a block of buildings burnt down by the Germans in October 1914 
when they entered the town. Take again the Rue de Douai, then the Bou- 
levard des Ecoles, following the latter to the Rue and Porte de Paris. 

To the right of the Rue de Paris, in the Boulevard Louis XIV are the 
School of Arts and Crafts and the Pasteur Institute) 



i ji 




pKKMP^g&rp^'' -^"giwyami 



r- US' 


See Itinerary, p. 36 


The Paris Gate 

This gale was built in 1685-1695 from the plnns of a local architect 
(Simon Vollant), to commemorate the return of Lille to France (1 667). 
It was completely restored in 1895. The demolition ol' the old line o f for- 
tifications left this gate isolated in the middle of the town, and it was to 
ornament and finish off those portions which adjoined the ramparts, that 
additions in the same style were then made. The whole forms a Monu- 
mental Gate and Triumphal Arch. 

In a large semi-circular arch is the Royal Coat of Arms, while below 
are the Arms of Lille carved on a stone tablet. On either side of the latter 
are channels for receiving the drawbridge levers. 

To the right and left, two Doric columns on pedestals support the whole 
of the entablature with frieze and cornice, above which are trophies, helmets 
and flags. On pedestals between the columns are statues of Hercules (on 
the right) and Mars (on the left), while above are sculptured motifs in derai- 

The most remarkable part of the monument is the great sculptured motif 
which crowns the whole. In the middle, Victorj' seated amidst arms and 
standards, raises her right hand to crown the King (Louis XIV), seen in 
the medallion Immediately below. At Victory's feet, somewhat to the 
right and left, two figures of Fame proclaim the glory on trumpets. 

The whole is expressive and graceful, attesting the great ability of the 
artist in treating this somewhat commonplace theme. 

Take the rue Carnot to the right of the Gate, ikirting the Square Ruaull, 
which is the continuation, as far as the Hospital of St. Saviour. 

This hospital, sometimes known as that of St. John the Evangelist, was 



foundedinl216, after 
the battle of Bouvi- 
nes, by the Countess 
Jeanne de Constan- 
tinople. The present 
brick and stone build- 
ings date from the 
17th and 18th cen- 

In the Middle- 
Ages, hospital wards 
contained an altar 
at one end, so that 
the patients could 
hear Mass from their 
beds. A heavy cur- 
tain was then drawn, 
cutting off the altar 
from the remainder 
of the room. 

In the hospital of 
St. Saviour, the choir 
of the chapel, which 
is lighted by high, 
broken-arch win- 
vaulted room, openingon the right, serves as an 




dows, still exists. A low, 
oratory for the nuns. 

Skirting the Hospital on the right, the tourist comes to the Noble Tower. 
Built in 1459, the Noble Tower was formerly the centre of the town's 
defences. It consisted originally of three stories, one of which contained 
ribbed Gothic vaulting. Of great size and massive construction, the 
tower is flanked by two smaller ones connected by a curtain. The upper 
portion of the tower has disappeared. 

Near by, is seen the steeple of the church of St. Saviour, a modern, 
pseudo-Byzantine edifice. 

Return to the Paris Gate, via the Ruaull Square, taking again ilie Rue 

de Paris. On the left, 

J. at n' 224 is a high 

gabled wall, con- 
taining vestiges of a 
broken - arch bay, 
all that remains of 
the old Hospice 
Ganthois, founded 
in 1466 by Jean de 
la Cambe, surnam- 
ed Ganthois. The 
right wing was 
rebuilt in the 17th 
century. Over the 
entrance appears 
the date - 1664 "- 
An interior court, 
shaped like a cloi- 
ster, leads to the 
patients' ward. 


(Follow the arrows along the streets indicated by continuous lines). 

From the Grande Place to the Citadelle. 

Monuments to be seen on the way : The Monument to Desrousseaux 
in the Jussieu Square, the TesteUn Monument, the Church of the 
Sacred Heart, the Palais Rameau ; the Bridges over the Deule, 
Monument to Negrier, Churches of St. Andre and St. Catherine. 

The temporary bridges mentioned further on, existed in April 1919. 
In whatever state the tourist may find them, he need only follow Ihe Deule 
canal, after the Jardin Vaubeui, cross the first bridge he meets, and tarn back 
to the left (if necessary) on the other side, until he comes to the avenue which 
opens out on the right opposite the Boulevard de la Liberti, and which leads 
to the Citadelle. 

Leave the Grande Place by the Rue Nationale, following the lalter as far 
as the church of the Sacred Heart, whose high unfinished tower will be seen 
on the right. To the right is the Jussieu Square (landscape garden laid 
out by Barillet in the moats of the old fortifications), at the entrance to 
which is a monument to the local poet and song- writer Desrousseaux 






vard Vauban, on the right of which is 

(photo opposite),who started his 
career (1820-1892) as a simple 
working-man, and whose dia- 
lect songs are still sung. At 
the foot of the monument is 
the figure of a young mother 
rocking her child to sleep, re- 
calling the composer's most 
popular song: "Dors, min p'tit 
qainguin. " 

Cross the Boulevard 'de ]la 
Liberty, then skirt the Testelin 
Monument. M. Testelin was 
Prelect of the North of France 
and " Organizer of National 
Defence in the North in 1870- 
1871 "- The monument bears 
traces of the bombardment, 
while the bronze statues which 
surrounded the pedestal were 
carried away by the Germans. 

On reaching the Church 

of ! the Sacred Heart, turn 

to \the right and follow the 

Rue de Solferino to the Boule- 

ihe Palais Rameau. 

The Palais Rameau 




This fairly large building was erected in 1878; with the financial help 
of an agriculturist named Rameau. The principal hall is used for exhibi- 
tions, more especially horticultural. The rather curious facade includes 

a bust of Rameau flanked by 
figures of the goddesses Flora 
(flowers) and Pomona (fruits). 
In the rear of the Palace Gar- 
den is a fine circular conser- 

On leaving the Palais, take 
on the right the Boulevard Vau- 
ban which, a little further on, 
crosses the Jardin Vauban 
(pretty public garden), leading 
to the Canal de la Moyenne 

Skirting a portion of the Cit- 
adelle and continuing the canal 
of the Haute Deule, this canal 
connects Lille with la Bassde 
and Douai. The river Deule was 
first opened up to navigation 
in 1271, while in 1830, its sid- 
ings were improved and the 
water-way deepened. 

(In April 1919, it was neces- 
sary to follow the Deule as far 
as the Square du Ramponneau, 




where a temporary wooden bridge had been built close to a half-destroyed 
foot-bridge. After crossing the bridge, visitors had to come back to the left 
as far as the first avenue on the right leading to the Citadelle (see p. 49). 

The Citadelle 

This masterpiece of the fortification art is the work of Vauban 
(17th. century). In shape a regular pentagon, it includes numerous detached 
out-works. Entrance to it is gained through the Royal Gate, which dates 
from 1670 (photo above). It contains barracks and a chapel (photo below), 
and it was in the latter, that the hostages of Lille spent their nights during 
the German occupation (p. 12). 

Jacquet, Deconinck, Maortens, Verhulst and Trulin were shot 
in the northern moats by the Germans (p. ISV 

After visiting the Citadelle, re-cross the bridge, turn to the left and follow 
the Fagade de I'Esplanade, fine avenue planted with linden-trees, which 
runs alongside the canal. The ruins of Napoleon Bridge, blown up by 
the retreating Germans, will be noticed (photo p. 52). 

Further on, at the northern end of the avenue, is the Negrier 
Bridge which was also destroyed by the Germans. Looking towards 
Napoleon Bridge, the toTverof St. Catherine's church appears above the 






THE NAPOLEON BRIDGE dated from 1912. It was destroyed by the retreating Germans 

(see -b. 10). 

Beyond the bridge is seen the tower oj St. Catherine's church (see p. 54). 

This photograph was taken from the Negrier Bridge (p. 53). 




trees bordering the canal. Near by, is the statue of General Negrier by 
Bra (1849), photo below, which was damaged by flying debris, when the 
bridge was blown up. 

Take the Rue da Magasin on the right to the rue Royale, and follow the latter to 
the right. With its continuation, the Rue Esquermoise, which leads to the 
Grande Place, the Rue Roy ale forms one ot the main arteries of the old town. 

The Churcli of St. Andre is reached shortly afterwards. 

Church of Saint- Andr6. 

This church was erected in 1702. The doorway, with its two tall mo- 
dern statues of St. Peter and St. Andrew in niches, is of two different orders, 
superposed and divided by an entablature, 

the whole being surmounted by a triangular ■ [ 


Near the entrance are two peiintings : 

The Purification, and the Adoration of 
the Wise Men, by Otto Venius. In the 
southern aisle is a St. Theresa in Heaven 
by A. de Vuez; in the chapel of St. Joseph : 
God sending his Son to save the World, 
by Van Oast; on the High Altar ; Mar- 
tyrdom of St. Andrew by a local artist, 
G. Descamps; on either side of the choir, 
marble busts of St. Peter and St. Paul, by 
Quellin; in the northern aisle, the Annun- 
ciation by A. de Vuez; in the Chapel of 
the Virgin, the Virgin giving the scapulary 
to one, Simon Stock, by Jean Van Oost ; 
a silver Tabernacle with bas-relief repre- 
senting The Crucifixion, by the local gold- 
smith Baudoux; an 18th century, wrought- 
iron railing ; 16th century sacerdotal 
ornaments from theAbbey of Loos. The 
pulpit {phofo p. 54) by J.-B. Daneson of 
Valenciennes, dates from 1876. Its sound- 








ing-board represents a heavy curtain 
raised by an angel. 

Further on in the Rue Royale, after the 
Banque de France, in a small street on 
Ihe right, is the Church of St. Catherine 
(photo below). 

Church of St. Catherine 

Like many Flemish churches, that of 
St. Catherine has no transept, and con- 
sists of three practically identical naves. 
Standing out from the fagade, a large 
square tower, flanked at the corners by 
eight buttresses, supports the ancient 
timber-work belfry — one of the finest 
in the region. The bell-chamber is 
lighted by broken-arch bays. One of the 
heavy bells (1403) bears a curious ins- 
cription in rhymes. Below the tower 
is the great doorway 

The exterior decoration is very sober 
in style. The right-hand side of £he 
building is masked by houses. The left 
facade, between whose high mullioned 
windows are buttresses decorated with small ornamental arcades, has 
been restored in modern times. Belts of foliage run round the gutters of 
the roof. The carvings on the great and small doorways are modern. 
Inside the church are two rows of columns on moulded bases, the corbels 
of whose capitals are ornamented with foliage. The nerves of the vaulting 
are plaster. 

In the northern aisle, is a painting by Rubens : The Martyrdom of 

St. Catherine, dating from 
about 1622 ; in the Chapel 
of our Lady of Lourdes, on 
the left of the choir, in a 
small niche, is a statuette of 
our Lady of the Seven Afflic- 
tions, given by Philippe le 
Bon, in 1450, to the collegiate 
of St. Peter. In the Chapel 
of the Sacred Heart, to the 
right of the choir, is a small 
15th century funeral monu- 
ment in a niche. The car- 
ved stalls ornamented with 
statues are also noteworthy. 
After visiting the church, 
return to the Rue Royale; at 
nos. 1 and 3, curious 17th 
century houses. 

Attheendofthe Rue Royale, 
take the Rue Esquermoise, 
(which is ihe continuation, and 
which contains 18th century 
houses at nos. 83 arid 101), 
as far as the Grande Place. 


(Follow the arrows along Ihe streets indicated by continuous lines) 

From the 
Gate, tourists 
may go to the 
Eaii Ceme- 
tery, where 


and TRULiN 
are buried 
(see p, 24) 


Chief Buildings : The Church of our Lady of the Vine ; Gomtesse 
Hospital, Law Courts. Church of St. Magdalene, Hotel des Ceinonniers, 
Roubaix Gate. 

Starting from the Grande Place, cross the Place du Thidtre and take the 
Rue de la Grande Chaussie, on the left of the Nouvelle Bourse : 13th and 14th 
century houses at nos. 11, 14, 15, 42 and 52. On ihe right take the Rue des 
Chats Bossus and Place du Lion d'or, leave the Place St. Martin on the right 
and take the Rue de la Monnaie on the left. At n" 31 in this street, opens a 
narrow passage leading to the Church of Our Lady of the Vine, which 
is being erected on the site of the Castle of Buc. When finished, it will 
be one of the largest of modern Gothic churches. The inhabitants of Lille 
have already surnamed it " the Cathedral ". Building was begun in 1855, 
from plans by the English architects Glutton and Burges, revised by the 
Jesuit, Arthur Martin. 13th century in style, the choir, over crypt, is only 
half-finished, while the remainder of the edifice has not yet been begun. 

In the chapel of the apse, over the altar, is a statue of Our Lady of the 
Vine, venerated since the 13th century as the Patron Saint of the town. 
In a chapel on the left are plans and a model in relief of the finished basi- 

Return to the Rue de la Monnaie, at n" 32 of which is the Comtesse 



The Comtesse Hospital was founded in 1243, by Countess Jeanne de 
Flandre ; the entrance dates from 1649, and opens on to a curious vaulted 
passage. A 15th century gable faces the Rue Comtesse. 

Inside are paintings by Arnould de Vaez and Wamps. The chapel 
contains fine timber-work vaulting and a commemorative tablet 
inscribed with the names of the French officers who died in this hospital 
of wounds received at the Battle of Fontenoy. 

Follow the Rue de la Monnaie, as far as the Place du Conceit. Turn 
to the right, as far as the Canal de la Basse Deule, by the side of which is the 
Colonnade of the Law Courts (1837) (photo below). 

The Deule is an important river about 40 miles long, which tr&verses 
the whole of the coalfields of Northern France, and helps to carry the enor- 


mous traffic connected with the metallurgical, cotton, woollen and sugar in- 
dustries of that region. 

Follow the Deule Quay to the left, to the steps of the Pont-Neuf (If motoring 
or driving, the tourist will have to go via the Place du Concert, Rue St. Andri, 
then taking on the right the Rue du Pont Neaf). The latter crosses the Deule 
by the Grand Pont or Pont Neuf, formerly called the Pont Royal. Built 
in 1701 from plans by the architect Vollant, this bridge connects up the two 
parallel roads which run alongside the canal. Originally, it was composed 
of six arches, two of which spanned the river, the other four passing over 
the low-level roads on either bank. 

To allow the trams to pass, the two arches on the quay where the 
colonnade of the Palais de Justice stands, have been replaced in recent 
times by an unartistic platform resting on iron pillars, which has spoilt the 
appearance of the bridge. 

Steps connect the bridge with the quays. 

After crossing the bridge, the tourist arrives in front of the Churcb of 
St. Magdalene (1675), a vast round edifice surrounded by chapels and 
surmounted by a cupola. It contains several interesting paintings • 
on the High Altar, the Resurrection of Lazarus, by Jacques Van Oosl; under 
the dome. The Four Doctors of the Latin Church, by the same painter ; 
in the Chapel of Our Lady of Help, The Adoration of the Shepherds, by 



Rubens; in the Chapel of the St. 
Sacrement, Christ crucified, by 
Van Dyck: at the entrance to 
the choir, The Woman of Sa- 
maria and the Canaanitish Wo- 
man, by Arnould de Vuez. 

Follow the Rue de Thionville, 
which begins opposite St. Mag- 
dalene's Church, then turn to the 
left into the Place de Gand, at the 
end of which is the Gand Gate. 
On the right, take the Rue de Cour- 
trai which leads to the Place aux 
Bluets. At the lower end of this 
square, turn to the left into the 
Rue des Urbanistes, then take the 
first street on the right, the Rue des 
Canonniers, whichskirts the Hotel 
des Canonniers. The latter, 
formerly an Urbanist Convent, 
was given by Napoleon in 1804 
to the " Sedentary Gunners 
Corps " of Lille. It contains town 
records and a small museum of 
local interest. 

A little further on, at the comer of the Rue des Canonniers and the Rue 
de Roubaix is the old Hdtel d'Aigremont, dating from the 18th century. 

Turning to the left into the Rue de Roubaix, the tourist uomes out in front 
of the Rouliaix Gate. 







As in the case of the Tournai Gate (p. 34), the retreating Germans blew up the bridge over the 
moat, seen on p. 57 (before) and above (after) the explosion. A temporary road replaces 

the bridge. 


The Roubaix or St. Maurice Gate dates from about 1620, and was 
erected from the plans of Jean de Mesre, Jean Pelil and Jean Fayet. Of 
its three entrances, the middle one only is ancient. Above each entrance 
is carved a coat of arms. The one in the centre, forming a tympanum, is 
between two pilasters supporting a triangular pediment. At the top is a 
row of battlements, with a stone niche surmounted by a broken pediment 
in the centre. The niche contains the statue of a woman. 

Over the passage is a slate-roofed building ornamented with coloured 
glazed bricks. 

Go through the gate and talce the Rue du Faubourg de Roubaix to the 
Eastern- Cemetery. The graves of Jacquet and Trulin are in that part 
of the cemetery marked K. 6. on plan (p. 24). 

Return to the Grande Place by the Rue de Roubaix, Rue des Ponts-de- 
Comines and Rue Faidherbe. 


From Lille to Roubaix and Tourcoin^, via the Boulevard des Trois 


Total Distemce, including return journey : 16 miles. 

ROUBAIX, one of France's chief industrial centres, is of very ancient 
origin. The first important mention of it in history, however, only goes 
back to the 15th century (1469), when one, Peter of Roubaix, obtained per- 
mission from Charles the Bald, to manufacture cloth. It was occupied 
and sacked several times by foreign invaders. In 1792, it was taken by 
the Austrians, in 1794 by the English and in 1914 by the Germans. 

In 1554, Roubaix, which had become a rival to Lille, obtained permission 
from Charles-Quint and later (1609) from the Council of the Arch-Dukes 
of Austria, to manufacture velvet, fustian and common grey linen cloth. 

A decree of the State Council in 1762, granting similar privileges to all 
the parishes, was the subject of long lawsuits, which were decided against 

The popular song-writer, Gustave Nadaud (1820-1893) was a native of 

There are no monuments in the town anterior to the Revolution. 

The population, largely composed of the working-classes, increased 
rapidly between 1881 and 1891, and numbered 120.000 in 1914. The 
suburbs : Wattrelos, Lys, Croix, Wasquehal and Mouvaux, are extensions 
of the town itself and are growing steadily. 

Since. 1830, Roubaix has been an important centre for wool combing 
and spinning, the machinery employed comprising 700 washing, carding, 
combing and weaving machines and 300.000 spindles. Before the War, 
the wool-spinning mills produced 6.000 tons of yarn annually, the whole 
of which was used in France. 

The dyeing and finishing industries, which date back to 1760, had 
steadily prospered. In 1914, 48 firms, employing 8.000 work-people, were 
engaged in this branch. 

TOURCOING shared the fate of Flanders during the course of its his- 
tory. The English and Flemish burnt it during the 14th century, while the 
French seized it in 1477. In 1566-1568, it was twice sacked by the Gueux, 
and the Duke of Albe held it to ransom. From 1667 to 1708, it was an- 
nexed to France by Louis XIV. Later, it fell successively under the yoke 
of the Austrians, Dutch and Saxons. Qn May 18th 1794, the French 
beat the Duke of York's troops at Tourcoing, and paved the way for the 
Victory of Fleurus on June 26th. 

Tourcoing is essentially an industrial town. Its population has 
steadily increased since 1491, when it numbered 2.500. In 1851, it had 
grown to 27.615 and in 1914, to 82.644. 

From time immemorial, Tourcoing has been a wool manufacturing 
centre. Here, the wool is first washed and dried, then treated with cocoa- 
nut fat, before combing, and lastly spun. Since 1845, the combing has been 
done mechanically (Heilman's system). The same may be said of the 
.spinning, which, since 1811, was done on Bobo machines. Before the War, 
5.000 tons of spun wool were exported annually. 

Among the specialities made at Tourcoing were : fine thread, table- 
cloths and tapestry-w^ork of mixed silk and mercerized cotton (well- 
known for their fine colouring and reasonable price), and carpets of the 
Wilton and Oriental types. 




Itinerary : Leave Lille by the Boulevard Carnoi at the Place du TMatre, 
between the Theatre and the New Bourse. Follow the Boulevard des Trots 
Villes to Roubaix. Enter the latter by the Rue de Lille, follow its continua- 
tion, the Rue Neuve, which leads to the Grande Place : Hotel de Ville and 
Church of St. Martin. 

Hotel de Ville 

The present building is the work of the architect Laloux (1911) ; It 
replaced the old Town-Hall, built in 1845 and pulled down in 1907. The 
latter, as the town grew, had several times been enlarged and otherwise 
altered, but had finally become too small for a population of more than 
50,000 workpeople and an annual production exceeding 500,000,000 frs. 
in value. 

The new Town-Hall is a fine building, with a frieze representing scenes 


(Cliche I.L). 


from the local industries. A wing on the right serves as the Stock-Ex- 
change, while another on the left contains the town's records. 

Church of Saint-Martin 

This church, which was rebuilt and transformed in 1849. recalls vaguely 
the 15th century Gothic style of the original edifice. Only the steeple 
is ancient. The church has five, naves and contains four ancient tombs 
and a Flemish altar-screen. 

Take, the Rue de la Gare, lo the Nord-West of the Grande Place. At the 
corner of the Rue Nain is the National School of Industrial Arts, to which 


has been added a Museum of Paintings and Sculpture (recently organ- 
ized by M. Victor Champier), a Textile Museum and a Library contain- 
ing 15.000 volumes. 

The School proper (whose courses, which are well attended, include 
dyeing, spinning, weaving, etc.) and its annexes (museum and Ubrary) are 
installed in a fine building erected in 1889 from the plans of the architect 
F. Dutert, who designed the Galerie des Machines in Paris. Built of dressed 
stone and brick,- the three doorways lead to the library, museums (sculpture, 
paintings, art-history and textiles) and the public lecture-hall. 

The central pediment by Allar, represents Industry and Art. On 
the pediments of the pavilions are symbolized : The Arts {by Lanson) 
and the Sciences (by Hughes). The frieze (by Laoust) represents, symbo- 
lically, the various branches of learning taught in the school. 

At the station, take the Rue de I'Alma on the right, then turn to the left into 
the Rue de Tourcoing, which leads straight to Tourcoing. 




Heavy German Artillery crossing the Square. 


The Rue de Roubaix {continuation of the Rue de Tourcoing) is prolonged 
bg the Rue Carnot, which leads to the Grande Place. Here the tourist will 
find the Church of St. Christopher. 

ST, Christopher's church (Cliche L1.1 

TBE DOOR-WAY (Clichi Ll.j, 




German Review in the Grande Place. 

The Church of Saint-Christopher 

The original church was erected in the 12th or 13th century, but was 
entirely rebuilt in 1860, in 15th century Gothic style. The body of brick 
and stone, with its various balustrades, graceful sculptured pinnacles, and 
richly decorated tracerj' windows, recalls the churches of that period, but 
it is evident from the aspect of the interior, where the decoration is less 
rich, that the church is modern. The spire above the tower is 17th century. 

To the N. W. of the church is the Hotel de Ville, a modern, French 
Renaissance building, surmounted by a large dome. It contains a library 
of about 10.000 volumes, a museum of fine paintings, mostly modem 
{Paul Chabas, David, Guardi, Harpignies, Peter Naefs, Henri Zo, Henri 
Zuber) and specimens of old clothstuffs of local manufacture. 


Origin and chief historical events 2 

How Lille lell in 1914 5 

The deliverance 9 

The German occupation 11 

The Case of the Four 16 

The Execution of L^on Trulin 18 

The Explosion of the « Dix-huit Ponls 22 

The Deportations 22 

1st Itinerapy 25 

The Grande Place . . .'~ 26 

The Bourse 27 

The H6tel de Ville . . 29 

The Palais de Rihour 30 

The Church of St Maurice 31 

The Street and Gate of Tournai 34 

2nd Itinerary 36 

The Museum 38 

The Ruins of the . Dix-huit Ponts 45 

The Paris Gate 47 

The Noble Tower 48 

3rd Itinerary 49 

The Palais Rameau 50 

The Citadelle 51 

The Napol6on and N6grier Bridges 52 

The Churches of St. Andr6 and St. Catherine 54 

4th Itinerary 

The Church of Our Lady of the Vine . 

The Palais de Justice 

The Roubaix Gate 

Roubaix and Tourcoing. . . . . 




X-2. 114-6-1920 



17, Rue de Suresna. PARIS-VIIl^ 

The "Office National du .Tourisme "was created by 
Act of Parliament on April 8th 1910, and reorganised 
in 1917. It enjoys civil privilege? and financial autonomy. 

It is directed by an Administrative Council chosen 
by the Minister of Public Works. 

Its mission is to seek out every means of developing 
travel '; to urge, and if necessary to take any measure 
capable of ameliorating the conditions of the transport, 
circulation and sojourn of tourists. 

It co-ordinates the efforts of touring societies;and indus- 
tries, encourages them in the execution of their programmes 
and stimulates legislative and administrative initiative 
vi^ith regard to the development of travel in France. 

It promotes understanding between the Public Services, 
the great Transport Companies, the " Syndicats d'lnitia- 
tive " and the " Syndicats Professionnels ". 

It organises propaganda in foreign countries ; and tends 
towards the creation of Travel Inquiry Offices in France 
and abroad, with a view to making known the scenery and 
monuments of France, as well as the health-giving powers 
of French mineral waters, spas and bathing places. 


65, Avenue de la Gfande-Armee, 65 


Dotted with picturesque old castles, and rich in sou- 
venirs of a gldrious past, these provinces — surnamed by 
the poets "The Garden of France" ■ — are celebrated for, 
their wondrous fertility, smiling landscapes and splendid 
Renaissance mansions. A favorite resort with motorists 
of all countries, the tour known as ''.The Castles of the 
Loire" enjoys, in particular, a world-wide reputatiMi. ' 

Principal Sights : Among the more celebrated castles 
are : . , 

, In the neighbourhood of Blots : Chambord (Renaissance 
marvel), Cheverny and Chaumont. 

Near, Tours (in- the valley of the Loire) : Amboise, home 
of Charles VIII ; Langeais, feudal castle ; Villandry, 
Usse and Luynes. 

Valley of the Vienne : Chinon, first meeting-place of 
Joan-of-Arc with Charles VII. 

Valley of the Indre , .• Azay-le-Rideau, Renaissance 
Museum ; Loches, residence of Agnes Sorel, favorite of 
Charles VII. 

Vallelj of the Cher : Chenonceau, built on a bridge in 
the bed of the river ; Valen; ay. 

In the neighbourhood of Saumur and Angers : Montreuil- 
Bellay, Brissac, Serrant and Durtal. 

AH the great cities arotind here are interesting : Angers, 
Middle-Age castle, cathedral, "Vieux Logis " and impor- 
tant industries; Saumur, imposing feudal castle and 
town-hall; Tours, cathedral, towers of St. Martin and 
. Charlemagne and great bridge over the Loire ; Blois, 
magnificent castle (Louis XII and Franfois I) ; Orleans, 
cathedral, Renaissance town-hall and immortal Joan-of- 
Arc souvenirs. 




Touring Offite : 81, Fulham Rosd, S. W. 


Toun'ng Office : 97. Boulevard Pereire. PARIS 

-y.i^ i' "^-^-, ^^^~ 

Wh^ ask the Way, when 

Michdin will tell you free of charge ? 

Drop a line, ring us up, or call at one of our 
Touring Offices and you will receive a carefully 
worked out description of the route to follow.