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Chronological tables of Greek history : 


3 1924 028 260 036 


Cornell University 

The original of this book is in 
the Cornell University Library. 

There are no known copyright restrictions in 
the United States on the use of the text. 




EonllOtt: C J. CLAY AND SON, 


17, Paiebnostek Row. 

leinifi: F. A. BKOCKHAUS. 


















The regulations recently issued for Section C in the second part of the Classical 
Tripos mark a new departure in the nature and extent of the knowledge 
required by the University from Students of Ancient History. The translation of 
Dr Peter's work has been undertaken in the hope that it may supply a want 
likely to be felt by candidates, who in examination " wUl be expected to illustrate 
and support their statements by reference to the ancient authorities." 

The Translator has to offer the most cordial thanks to Dr Peter for his 
courtesy in authorising the present translation, and to Mr Oscar Browning, Fellow 
and Historical Lecturer of King's CoUege, for his kindness in promoting the issue 
of the book. 

3Iay, 1882. 


The plan and aim of my Greek and Roman Chronological Tables have been set forth in 
detail, partly in the prefaces to the first editions of those works (1835 and 1841), partly 
in my essays "Ueber den Geschichtsunterricht auf Gymnasien" (Halle, 1849) and "Zur Reform 
unserer Gymnasien" (Jena, 1874). I shall therefore merely repeat here, that, according to 
the view I there developed, a suitable foundation must first be laid in the lower forms by a 
general view of the whole field of history, and that in the highest form history must be 
taught in such a way as to afford pupils some insight into historical criticism, and at the same 
time, so far as is possible at this stage, to educate in them the faculty of forming an 
independent judgment. But, for the reasons I have adduced, this can only be effected by a study 
of the history of the two ancient classical races, and by a first introduction to the sources from 
which that history is derived. It is with this end in view that the chronological tables are 
designed to aid both teachers and pupils by a statement and brief estimate of the original 
authorities, by citation of the same for each individual fact, and by transcription of specially 
instructive passages. 

I have only to add that the literary notices in the second and third edition were 
revised by Professor Corssen, my friend and former colleague, whose premature death was a 
severe loss to the learned world; that in the third edition I had to thank Professor 
G. Hertzberg, of Halle, for several additions and corrections; and that the fourth edition was 
brought out wholly under the supervision of my son. Professor Hermann Peter, who in this fifth 
edition also has given me his help, more especially in those portions which deal with the history 
of literature. 

From the circumstance that the Chronological Tables have maintained themselves in use for 
upwards of forty years, and that quite recently a fifth edition of both has become necessary, 
I may venture to draw the pleasing conclusion that they have been productive of some good. 
It is my earnest hope that they may still continue in the future to promote the true aims of 
school teaching. 


Jena, May, 1877. 




Greece ('E\Xa?) is the ' southernmost part of the great eastern peninsula of Europe, which lies 
between the Adriatic and Black Sea to the south of the Danube, and stretches out into the 
Mediterranean. On the north it is bounded by the Keraunian and Kambunian mountains, on the 
west by the Ionian and Sicilian seas, on the south by the Myrtoan or Libyan, on the east by 
the Mgean. Its greatest length (between the 41st and 36th degree) is about 280 miles, its 
breadth (between the 21st and 26th degree) varies from 211 to 93 miles. Its area comprises 
about 38,600 square miles. 

This region presents two natural divisions : for whilst north and central Greece constitute one 
uninterrupted mass, the Peloponnese is a peninsula, formed by the incursion of the sea on the 
east and west, and only connected with central Greece by a narrow isthmus. Further, a large 
number of islands situate on the east and west are included under the term Greece. 

The configuration and character of north and central Greece are determined by a mountain 
chain, which forms a chief branch of the mountains that cover the whole of the great peninsula, 
being itself an offshoot of the Dalmatian Alps, from which it runs, discharging its function of 
watershed between the Adriatic and .^gean seas, in a south-easterly direction to the promontory of 
Sunium, the south-easternmost point of central Greece. At its entrance upon Grecian territory 
at the 40th degree of latitude, where Lakmon forms the junction of the several chains, it sends 
out the Keraunian and Kambunian ranges, which mark the boundaries of the country; it then 
continues its course under the name of Pindus as far as the 39th degree. Here a fresh 
junction is formed ^at Tymphrestus by the branching-out of two cross chains, Othrys and 
(Eta, both of which run in a parallel direction at a short distance from one another to the 
Mgean sea. Southwards of Tymphrestus the main range is continued in the heights of 
Parnassus, Helikon, Kithseron, Parnes and Hymettus, till it comes to an end in the promontory 
of Sunium. 

The whole district to the westward is for the most part covered with parallel chains of this 
main range. This part has therefore little of the regular organisation of the eastern; and as it 
moreover possesses but few harbours, and is removed by its position from the civilising influences 
which in olden times all came from the east, its share in the development of Greek culture was 
insignificant, and almost exclusively communicated through colonies of other more favourably 
situated states. As these parallel chains traverse the entire length of the western division, 
we can easily understand, that the longest of all the rivers of Greece is to be found here, the 
Achelous (Aspropotamo), which, rising on Lakmon, discharges itself into the Corinthian gulf. 


viii Introduction. Greece, its Distribution, Physical Characteristics, and Oldest Inhabitants. 

The development of the east is all the more rich and manifold by contrast. Here, 
travelling from north to south, we come first of all upon the outspreading basin of a fertile 
valley, which is encircled and shut in by the Kambunian range on the north, on the west by 
Pindus, on the south by Othrys, on the east by Pelion and Ossa (both of which chains 
connect Othrys with the Kambunian mountains). This basin is traversed by a broad curve of 
the Peneius, which takes its rise upon Lakmon, and finds its way into the sea through 
the narrow vale of Tempe between Olympus, the easternmost peak of the Kambunian range, 
10,500 feet in height, and Ossa, about 6,500 feet in height, this being the only break 
in the chain. The waters, which everywhere stream down in abundance from the heights, 
form the two lakes, Nessonis at the foot of Ossa, and Bcebeis at the foot of Pelion. 

Between Othrys and OEta there follows next in succession the narrow valley, widening only 
by degrees and always of limited extent, but at the same time of extraordinary fertility, which 
is drained by the Spercheius: this river has its source on Tymphrestus and divides the valley 
as far as the coast into two fairly equal halves. OEta reaches close down to the shore; 
at which point its precipitous cliff leaves only a narrow strip of land, known as the pass 
of Thermopylse *). The coast-line, up to this point destitute of a single harbour, is here 
broken in the neighbourhood of the mouth of the Spercheius by the Malian gulf (gulf of 
Zeituni), and somewhat to the northwards between Othrys and Pelion by the Pagassean gulf 
(gulf of Volo). 

South of CEta we find another basin-shaped valley, similar in character to that of the 
Peneius, but of less extent. It is shut in by (Eta, Parnassus, Helikon, Kithseron, Parnes, 
and on the east by Knemis. The Asopus finds an outlet between Parnes and Knemis, 
whilst the Kephissus collects in the lake Kopais, which has only a subterranean egress. 
Other waters form a second lake, Hylike. But besides this basin, the country south of OEta 
further comprises the mountain district of Parnassus and Korax (the latter, lying to the 
westward runs directly south), the southern slope of CEta itself, the mountain district of Knemis, 
and finally a district of peninsular form, which stretches from Kithseron and Parnes to the 
promontory of Sunium, and is for the most part (in the east) mountainous, but contains 
several fertile plains. Stretching along the whole east coast south of Q5ta lies the mountainous 
island of Euboea (Negroponte), only separated from the main land by a narrow channel, or 
Euripus. The south coast of this region is remarkable for its fine harbours. 

The boundary between north and central Greece is formed by OEta and the gulf of 
Ambrakia (Arta), which cuts deep into the western coast. From the Peloponnese central 
Greece is divided by the Saronic and Corinthian gulfs (gulfs of jEgina and Lepanto). It is 
united to the Peloponnese by the isthmus of Corinth, a narrow and low ridge of hills, 
which at the narrowest part is not fully four miles broad. On the north the way is blocked 
by the Geraneia range, on the south by the Oneion range, the former shutting out central 
Greece, the latter the Peloponnese. 

The Peloponnese itself, like the rest of Greece, is a land of mountains, but is of an 
essentially different conformation. The heart of the country is formed by a central region of 
the nature of a plateau, some 1,950 square miles in extent, in shape of a square fairly regular, 
and shut in by a circle of lofty skirting mountains, which are only interrupted by a short 
open space on the west. The course of these skirting ranges is marked by the mountains 
Pholoe, Lampeia, Erymanthus, Aroania, Kyllene (7,500 feet high), Artemision, Parthenion, Parnon 
and Lyk^us. The rest of the peninsula consists, in part of the gradually subsiding slopes 
of the skirting ranges (so especially on the west and north), partly (in the east and south) 
of branch ranges, which run out from these skirting mountains and in some instances stretch 
far out into the sea. The most important of these branch ranges is the Taygetus, which 

1) Described in Herodot. VII, 176. 

Introduction. Greece, its Distribution, Physical Characteristics, and Oldest Inhabitants, ix 

stretches from the southern extremity of the central region to Cape Taenarum, reaching an 
altitude of 7,910 feet. Further east, Pamon extends south as far as Cape Malea ; on the 
west, ^galeus runs out from the south-west comer of the skirting ranges. The fourth of 
the branch chaius, starting from the north-east corner, continues to run eastwards till it 
ends in the promontory of Skyllaeum. The sea forces its way between these chains and forms 
deep gulfs (the Argolic, Laconian and Messenian). Hence the extraordinarily rich development 
of Peloponnesian coast (416 miles to 8,300 square miles) ^). The nature of the ground precluded 
rivers of large size : they are mostly coast rivers of short course and slender volume. The 
only rivers which deserve mention as of more than ordinary importance are, the Eurotas, 
between Taygetus and Parnon ; the Pamisus, between Taygetus and jEgaleus ; and the Alpheius, 
which, rising on Parnon at the south-east corner of the skirting ranges, winds along through 
the central region, and thence finds an outlet at the open space between Pholoe and Lykaeus 
already alluded to. 

On the whole, the soil of Greece is of such a nature that, leaving out of consideration the 
valleys, which are for the most part of insignificant extent, no great amount of produce can 
be won from it except at the cost of severe labour. But the climate is mild, and the 
deficiency of the soil is amply compensated by the facilities for navigation in which the wide 
extent of the coast and its wealth of harbourage invite the people to engage. A further 
peculiarity of Greece is seen in its great variety of climate and soil, and in the distribution of 
the whole country into petty districts separated from one another by lofty ranges, which proved 
a serious obstacle to the union of the whole population. The Peloponnese was distinguished 
from the rest of Greece by its internal strength and inaccessibility, and was for that reason 
frequently regarded as the acropolis of all Greece. 

The character of the mainland is in general shared by the islands : of these, some are ranged 
round the west and south coast (Kerkyra, Leukas, Ithaka, Kephallenia, Zakynthus, Kythera), 
others cover the ^gean sea. Of these latter, a number form the group of the Cyclades, 
centred round Delos : the remaining islands of small size in the Mgean sea are comprised 
imder the name Sporades. To the south, this island tract is hedged in by the two large islands 
of Krete and Cyprus. 

The distribution of the mainland into districts is as follows : 

I. Northern Greece is divided into two districts, Epirus and Thessaly, which are separated by 
Pindus : of these, the latter comprises, in addition to the two valleys of the Peneius and Spercheius, 
Magnesia, the mountain land of Pelion and Ossa. 

II. Central Greece contains eight districts: 1) Akarnania; 2) ^tolia, both on the extreme 
west, separated by Korax from the rest of central Greece, and from one another by the 
Achelous ; 3) Lokris, of the district so called one-third, lying on the southern slopes of Korax, 
is Lokris of the Ozolffi : the two remaining parts, Epiknemidian and Opuntian Lokris, lie upon 
the eastern slope of Knemis and its offshoot Mykalessus; 4) Phokis, on the east and southern 
slopes of Parnassus and the mid course of the Kephissus ; 5) Doris, on the southern slope of CEta 
and the upper course of the Kephissus as far as Parnassus ; 6) Boeotia, a basin shut in by 
CEta, Parnassus, Helikon, Kithseron, Parnes and Knemis; 7) Attica, the peninsula situated to the 
south of Kithaeron and Parnes (not quite 860 square miles in area but with a coast-line of 112 
miles) ; 8) Megaris, in the district of the Geraneia range. 

III. The Peloponnese comprises the six following districts : 1) Arcadia, the central highland ; 
2) Achaia, the northern slopes of the ranges skirting Arcadia; 3) Argolis, together with 

2) Hence too the Peloponnese is shaped like a leaf, see Strab. p. 83, 326 : Icrnv ij Ile\oir6rvria-os ioiKvia (piXKy TXardvov rb iTxni"'-^ 
and so frectuently in the old writers. 

X Introduction. Greece, its Distribution, Physical Characteristics, and Oldest Inhabitants. 

Sikyon, Corinth and Phlius, the most easterly portion of the peninsula, situated partly on the 
slopes of Kyllene, partly on the Oneian range, partly comprising the district of those easterly 
chains which branch off from the ranges skirting Arcadia; 4) Laconia, the district of Parnon 
and Taygetus and of the river Eurotas; 5) Messenia, the country west of Taygetus, as far as 
the river Neda on the north-west; 6) Elis, comprising partly the slopes of Lykseus, partly 
flat coast land where a break occurs in the skirting ranges, partly the slopes and ramification 
of Pholoe and Erymanthus. 

The Pelasgian race is for the most part designated as the oldest population tenanting the 
whole of Greece. An offshoot of the vast and wide-spread Indo-Germanic family, and coming 
from central Asia, it spread itself over the whole of Greece and the coasts of the neighbouring 
seas at a period antecedent to all historical knowledge, partly under the common name Pelasgians 
(of whom the Tyrrhenian Pelasgians are a special branch), partly under the name of Leleges, 
Kaukones, Kuretes, Kares, partly under other special names of branch tribes"). 

From the earliest ages Epirus had a Pelasgic population, which it preserved to the latest 
times*) : the most celebrated of the Pelasgic tribes which dwelt there are, the Greeks, Chaones, 
Thesprotians and Molossians. It always remained a stranger to Hellenic development*). The 
Selli on the western slope of the Tomaros range and south of the lake Pambotis (lake of 
Janina) are a solitary exception, inasmuch as they at a remote period exercised a not unimportant 
influence on the whole of Greece, partly through the oracle of Dodona, which lay in their 
territory, partly by their migration^). 

Thessaly, before the immigration of the Thessalians') called Hsemonia after Haemon, 
the son or the father of Pelasgus'), was inhabited at the earliest period partly by Pelasgians"), 
partly by offshoots of Pelasgic tribes, viz. the Lapithje, Perrhsebians, Phlegyans, Magnetes, Phthians, 

3) The Pelasgians telong to the Indo-Germanic family, as is 
proved by the relationship subsisting between the Greek and the 
other Indo-Germanic tongues. Indeed the Greeks themselves 
regarded the oldest population as primitive and aboriginal, and 
hence styled themselves irpocri\Tjvoi and -YTiyeveis. A most important 
passage with reference to the spread of the Pelasgians is Strabo pp. 
220 and 221 : ToiJs 5^ IIeXa(r7oi)s oVt fikv dpxaidv tl <pv\ov Kara t^v 
'EXXafia Trdaav ^ireiroXaffe Kal fjiaKiffTa Trapct rots AloKevffi Toh /card 
OerToKlav, 6/Mo\oyov(yiv awavres ffxeSoy n. So also Herodotus says 
(II, 56) : T^s vvv 'EXXaSos, irporepov S^ HeXaffjlTis KaXevfi^vTjs, cf. 
Thucyd. 1, 3, and speaks of the olden time as that in which the 
Pelasgians were in possession of the whole of Greece. The most 
important passage with regard to the Tyrrhenian Pelasgians is 
Thuc. IV, 109 : Ko( ti, Kal '^dXKiSLKbi' evi Ppax^> ''^ ^^ irXeiirToi' 
IXcXairyLKbjf twv Kal Atj^vSv irore Kal 'Ad'^vas HvpiTTivuv olKTjffdvTUv, 
Kaukon is cited ApoUod. Ill, 8, 1 amongst the sons of Lykaou and 
grandsons of Pelasgus, whereby the Kaukones are brought under 
the common head of the Pelasgic stock. With regard to the 
Leleges, Kuretes, and Karians (perhaps also the Thrakians), their 
affinity to the Pelasgic stock cannot be proved by the special 
testimony of ancient writers, but can only be inferred from the 
precise similarity of their position. Cf. the following notes. 

4) Cf. Strab. p. 221 ; ttoXXoI Si Kal rd 'SireipunKa edvri Ile- 
\atryi.Ka elpi^Kacny, us Kal M^XP' Seupo hirap^avTUv. 

5) For this reason the ancients do not generally reckon Epirus 
as apart of Greece, see Strab. pp. 323. 334. Dio Cassius, LIII, 12. 

6) The Selli, also called HelK and HeUopes, were likewise a 
Pelasgic stock, cf. Strab. p. 327 and 328. The oracle at Dodona 
was very ancient, and formerly the only one in Greece (Herod. II, 
52 : TO yh,p Sri fiavTrilov tovto veviiuarai, ipxaiorarov tuv hv "EXXt/o-i 

Xpyi(^T'qpio}v eivat Kol yjv top xp^^ov toutov fiovfov) ; it was dedicated 
to Zeus, who is therefore called Hom. II. XVI, 234 Dodousean and 
Pelasgian; the SeUi themselves are his vrrotpTJrai, cf. id. v. 236. 
With regard to this oracle see especially Hesiod. fragm. 80. ed. 
Gottling. Herod. H, 52—57. Strab. p. 328. Pausan. I, 17, 5. 
Vin, 23, 4. The possession of the oldest oracle and the primitive 
service of Zeus show us in the land of the SelU a primeval seat of 
Greek culture. The high esteem in which agriculture was there 
held (and this, the foundation of all culture, was certainly imported 
by the Pelasgians) is proved by the remarkable invocation of 
Mother Earth, which is said to have been first used by the 
priestesses at Dodona : Pa Kap-jrois aviet, did KXiifere ^/Arepa 
Tatav, Pausan. X, 12, 5. With regard to the migrations of the 
Selli cf. p. 4. obs. 6 and 7. 

7) See p. 9. obs. 27. 

8) For the old name Hsemonia cf. Strab. 443. Dionys. Hal. I, 
17, etc. For the relationship between Heemon and Pelasgus (i.e. 
in other words, the affinity of the Hfemonians to the Pelasgic 
stock) cf. Eustath. on Hom. H. II, 681. Steph. Byz. sub voc. 
Alfiovla. After the spread of the ^olians the district was also 
called ^olis, cf. Herod. VII, 176. 

9) Thessaly is everywhere designated as a chief seat of the 
Pelasgians ; see e. g. the passage of Strabo quoted in obs. 3. Hence 
too, at a stiU later time, a part of the country was caUed Pelasgiotis, 
hence too 'HeXaayiKov "Apyos itself, see Hom. II. H, 681, cf. ^schyl. 
Suppl. 250 ff. ; hence finally the name Larissa for towns occurring 
thrice in Thessaly, see Strab. 440, which recurs everywhere, where 
a Pelasgic population is found, cf. id., and is commonly referred to 
the mother or the daughter of Pelasgus, see Pausan. II, 23, 9. 
Eustath. on Hom. II. II, 681. Dionys. Hal. I, 17. 

Introduction. Greece, its Distribution, Physical Cliaracteristics, and Oldest Inhabitants, xi 

Achseans, Dolopians, and -iEnianes"). lolkus and Halus on the Pagassean Gulf were held by 
the Minyans") 

In central Greece the Leleges are the chief element in the old population. Their home was 
in Akarnania, .^tolia, the whole of Lokris, in Megaris, and Boeotia'^). iEtolia was moreover 
the home of the Kuretes"); Boeotla of the Hektenes, Aones, Temmikes, Hyantes, Thrakians, and 
the Minyae of Orchomenus"). The population of Attica is Pelasgic'^). Doris was in the oldest 
times the seat of the Pelasgic Dry opes'"). 

Boeotia and Attica, in central Greece, were the chief centres of culture in the oldest times, 
and consequently the chief seats of the oldest folklore. Both appear originally in close 
connexion") ; Megaris in the earliest times was only a part of Attica'*). 

The Peloponnese was at a very remote age par excellence a Pelasgic land, and thus 
originally bore the name, Pelasgia'"). 

Arcadia, the heart and central land of the peninsula, was regarded^") as the peculiar home 
of the Pelasgians. Here Pelasgus was born, and from his stock there sprang in the third 
generation Areas, the eponymous Hero of the land ''') ; here too the population remained Pelasgic 

10) The country was later divided into the four districts, 
Phthiotis on the south-east, Pelasgiotis on the north-east, Hestiseotis 
on the west, Thessaliotis in the centre, Strab. 430. In Phthiotis 
dwelt the Phthians and Achseaus, who are marked as Pelasgic by 
the fact that Phthius and Achseus are called the brothers of 
Pelasgus and sons of Larissa, Dionys. Hal. I, 17 : the LapithsB in 
the plain of Pelasgiotis and the Perrhsebians on the mountains are 
comprehended under the collective name of Pelasgiots, Strab. 441. 
In Pelasgiotis and Gyrton lived also the Phlegyte, Strab. 330. 442. 
These and the Magnetes in the mountainous district of Pelion and 
Ossa, and the Dolopians and ^nianes on the north slope of CEta, 
are likewise to be held Pelasgic, even though no express mention 
is made of the fact. 

11) With regard to them see obs. 14 and p. 7. obs. 21. 

12) The most important passage with regard to the Leleges in 
general and their extension as referred to above is Strab. 321 and 
322 : Tois Sk \i\eyi,s rices fih Toils auroiys Ka/xrii' ciKcifoKcnc, oi 5^ 
(TvpoIkovs fibvov KoX avfTTparitoTas. — OTt fi^f ovv ^dp^apoi T^tray ovrot^ 
Kal avri rb Kotv(oy^(rai tois "Kapal vofd^oiT ay <rTip.uov' on 6^ 
irXdvqres Kal pter iKeivuv Kal x^P^^ '^'^^ ^f^ iraXaioOj Kal al 'ApLffTo- 
tAous TToXiTEiat SrjXovcnv iv ixkv yhp rj 'Axapvavav 07)<ri to piv 
^X"" ouT^s Koup^as, TO 8^ rpoaeairipiov AiXeyas, etra Tr;Xej36as" 
iy 8i T^ AItcoKuv rods vup AoKpods A^Xeyas KoKei, Karaax^'^f Sk Kal 
T^v "Boioniav avrovs (prjtnv ' Ofioiios S^ Kal hi t^ 'OTOvvriwy Kal 
"M-eyapitav ' &v 5k t'q AeVKaSitav Kal avrbx^ova Ttva A^\e7a ovop-d^ei.^ 
Toirov di ffvyarpidow TTjXe/Sdaj/, toO Si iraidas Svo Kal etKon TijXf^oas, 
wy TiKas olKrjffai rfiv AevKada' paKiara S' dn ns 'MawSip TviaTtvireuv 
avTWS irepl airuv ehrovTi " ^rot yhp AoKpos AeX^7Ui' ■^yrja-aro Xawv, 
Tovs ^d wore KpoviSTjs Zei>s, a4>diTa /XTjSea e^Sws, XeKTOi)s iK yaiTjs 
Xoous irope AcvKoKloipt." Leleges and Kares are according to Herod. 

I, 171. Strab. p. 661 the same race, and the former is only its 
older name. 

IB) See Strab. loc. oit. Their chief seat is Pleuron, Horn. II. 

II, 531, from which place they engage in bloody struggles with the 
^tolians at Kalydon. Pleuron and Kalydon, the scene of the 
legend of the Kalydonian Boar, see Horn. n. IX, 529—600. H, 641. 
ApoUodor. I, 8. Paus. VIH, 45, 4. of. Ovid. Met. VHI, 260 ff. 

14) See Strab. p. 401. 410. Paus. IX, 5, 1. Old names of 
Boeotia : Aonia, Messapia, Ogygia, Eadmeis, Steph. Byz. sub voc. 
BoiuTfa, cf. Strab. p. 407. Thuc. I, 12. For the Minys see Herod. 
I, 146. Strab. p. 414 : KaXei 5i* Mivietov Tbv 'Opxop^vbv diro eBvovs 
Tov MimwV iiiT€\J0ev Sk diroi.K'^ffal ri^/os tuv Miyvwv els 'Iu\k6v 
cj>a(nv, Sdev Toii' Apyovairat Micuos \ix'^iivai. cf. p. 7. obs. 21. 

15) The Athenians prided themselves on being the only race of 
all the Greeks which dwelt on the land where it sprang up. See 
Herod. VH, 161 : (jjmvvoi ibvTes oi pteTaviarai "EXkfivav). Thuc. I, 
2. II, 36. Plat. Menex. p. 237 b. For their Pelasgic origin see 
Herod. VHI, 44: 'AdnvaXoi. Si iirl iiiv UeXacryai/ ixoprav ttji' cCk 
'BXXdSa KoKeopiivrfv ^iraii HeXaayoX oiivop.a^'op.evoL Kpavaol. Old names 
of the district, Aite or Aktsea, Atthis, Mopsopia, Ionia, Poseidonia, 
Strab. p. 397. Paus. I, 2. 3. 

16) The Dryopes are marked as Pelasgic, inasmuch as Dryops 
is called the son of Arkas, see Arist. in Strab. p. 373, or the 
grandson of Lykaon, Tzetzes on Lykophr. 480. The district was 
hence called originally Dryopis. (Of Phokis no other ancient 
inhabitants are mentioned except the Phokians : here too, in all 
probability, the oldest population was akin to the Leleges.) 

17) The myths of Ogyges and Kekrops are common to both 
districts, see Paus. IV, 5, 1. 33, 1. Strab. p. 407. For the Ogygian 
flood, which is said to have taken place 1020 years before the first 
Olympiad, see Akusilaus, Hellanikus, and Philochorus in Euseb. 
Prsep. Bvang. X, 10. p. 489. As for Attica, the legend of the 
contest between Poseidon and Athena for the possession of the 
land deserves special mention, concerning which see Herod. VHI, 
55. ApoUod. IH, 14, 1. Paus. I, 24. 3, 5. For the shape taken by 
the abundant legends of both lands after Kadmus and Kekrops see 
p. 3. obs. 2 and 3. p. 4. obs. 8. p. 6. obs. 22. p. 8. obs. 24. In the 
rest of central Greece, with the exception of the legend of the 
Kalydonian boar, myth has nowhere found a place. 

18) See Paus. 1, 19, 5. 39, 4. Strab. p. 393. Plut. Thes. 25. 

19) Pelasgia the name of the whole Peloponnese, Ephorus 
in Strab. p. 221. Another old name of the peninsula is Apia, 
Paus. n, 5, 5. Plin. H. N. IV, 4, 5. (Hom. H. I, 270. IH, 49?) 
perhaps also Argos, ApoUod. H, 1, 2. Dionys. HaL I, 17. The 
name Peloponnese occurs first in the Hyrou to Apollo, 260. 290. 

20) Ephorus in Strabo p. 221. Hence too Arcadia was called 
Pelasgia, Paus. VIII, 1, 2. 

21) Pelasgus, son of the earth, begat Lykaon; the latter begat 
22 (or 31 or 51) sons, amongst whom were Nyktimos, Kaukon, and 
the two first founders of Pelasgic settlements in Italy, (Enotius and 
Peuketius, and a daughter Kalhsto: Arkas was the son of the 
latter and Zeus, and in his turn had three sons, Azas, Apheidas, 
and Elatus. See Paus. VIH, 1 — 4. Apollod. Ill, 8—9. Dionys. 
Hal. I, 11. Of Pelasgus we are informed by Paus. (loc. cit. 1,2): 
HeTroiTjTat. Si koZ *Aalt^ rotdSe' ^s avrov, ^^'AvHdeov di JleXaayov iv 
v^iKbpiOinv Bpean Taia /liXaiv dviSioKev, Xva Bvrfrdv yims ei'i;." 
lieXaffySs Si /SairiXewas toDto piiv iroirjffaffBai KoXvjSas iTrevb-qaiv, us 

xli Introduction. Greece, its Distribution, Physical Characteristics, and Oldest Inhabitants. 

without admixture up till the very latest times^''. The country, owing to its physical 
characteristics, was split up into a number of detached cantons, and throughout, whilst Greece 
was at the height of her prosperity, was cut off from her historical development and confined 
within its own narrow bounds"). 

Achaia, called originally iEgialus or ^Egialea"'), in the earliest times had a twofold 
population, corresponding to a division of the country into two halves west and east of the 
promontory of Ehium. The first half was the original home of the Kaukones and ^tolian 
Epeians"^), the eastern half that of the iEgialeans '"). Issuing from this latter half, the 
lonians at a later period spread themselves over the whole district, which now received the 
name of Ionia"). 

In the district of Argolis, which owing to the nature of the ground is split up into a 
number of independent townships (under which head Sikyon, Phlius and Corinth also fall), 
all noteworthy accounts of the oldest population confine themselves merely to Argos, which 
lies on the interior of the Argolic Gulf, and appears, as well as Arcadia, as the chief seat of 
the Pelasgians™). 

The original population of Laconia and Messenia, and common to both, consisted of Leleges^). 

The oldest inhabitants of Elis were the Kaukones'"), and later the Epeians, who spread 
over the land from the north, and the Pylians from the south : these two peoples confined the 
Kaukones to the mountains of Triphylia and the neighbourhood of Dyme"). 

The oldest population on the islands consisted for the most part of Karians^''). 

Uri pLyovy re KaX veirBat tovs dvOpunrovs fjLTjSk viro tov Knvfiaros raXat- 
irwpelv' TOVTo 5^ Toi/s X'-'^'^^^^ roiis e/c tu/v depfiaTCjfP Tiav vQv—ovtos 
iffTiv 6 4^evpi!jv, Kal Srj Kcd tOv (fivKKwv rd ^rt -xXtjipd. koX Trias re koX 
pil^as ov5^ iditidlfiovSj aXKa Kai oXcdptovs ifias aiTovfievovs Toiis dpSpcatrovs 
Toirav fiiv Iravffev 6 IIeXaff7os. 

22) Herod. Vin, 73. Paus. V, 1, 1. 

23) The distribution into small independent Btates, clearly 
pointed to by the number of Lykaon's sons, continued till the time 
of Epaminondas. Of these, only Tegea and Mantinea are already 
conspicuous in the earliest times ; the rest preserved their ancient 
manners and customs in perfect seclusion, so that the Arcadians 
collectively were still about 600 b. c. styled acorn-eating men, 
Herod. I, 66. Paus. Vm, 1, 2. 

24) .ffigialos, Paus. H, 5, 5. VH, 5, 1. Strab. p. 333. 383. 386. 
Horn. II. II, 674 (?); ^gialea, ApoUod. H, 1, 1, 4. Tzetzes on 
Lykophr. 177. So caUed from King iEgialeus, ApoUod. II, 1, 1. 
Paus. VH, 5, 1. 

25) Hence Dyme was called Epeiis by HekatsBUS, Strab. p. 341, 
by others Kaukonis, id. p. 342. 

26) UeXcuryol AlymXies, Herod. VH, 94. 

27) strab. p. 333, 383. Herod. VII, 94. For the lonians see 
p. 5. obs. 12 and 13. 

28) This follows from the genealogical tables of the rulers of 
Argos, Paus. U, 15, 5. ApoUod. II, 1. which begin with Inachus 
or Phoroneus as founder of the race, and in which there always 
appear a Pelasgus, an Argos, and Ukewise a Larissa (name of the 
citadel of Argos). Hence also, "Pelasgic Argos," Strab. p. 369. 
In those genealogical tables also lo, daughter of Inachus, Herod, 
I, 1, or of lasus, Paus. and Apollod. loc. cit., cf. ^schyl. Prometh. 
827 fi. Further Niobe, daughter of Phoroneus, for whom see 
Horn. n. XXIV, 602 ff. Paus. I, 21, 5. VHI, 2, 3. Danaus appears 
in the same table as a descendant of Inachus in the tenth genera.- 
tion, cf . SynceU. pp. 62—66. Euseb. Prsp. Evang. pp. 487—491. 
For Danaus see infr. 

29) See Paus. HI, 1. IV, 1. ApoUod. Ill, 10, 3 ff. According 
to this Lelex is the ancestor of the rulers of Laconia ; but as his 
eldest son Myles succeeds him as ruler in Laconia, and another sou 
Polykaon emigrates to Messenia and there founds his rule, the 
inhabitants of Laconia and Messenia are hereby pointed out as of 
kindred race, and in each case as Leleges. The list of the descen- 
dants of Lelex in Laconia further comprises Eurotas, Lakedsemon, 
Amyolas, Sparte and Taygete, mere names, grounded upon locali- 
ties in this district. (With regard to Messenia it is further notice- 
able, that Kaukones are also found there, which the legend ex- 
presses by saying that a Kaukon was born to Messene, the wife of 

30) Kaukon son of Lykaon, ApoUod. Ill, 8, 1. For the 
Kaukones in Elis see Strab. p. 345 : oi p^v yhp Kal oXt/k ri/v vvv 
'BXelav dirA ttJs 'Mecr<rrivlas yu^x/" AiJ/xtjs KaVKUiplav Xex^rji/ai <pa,ffiv. 
cf. Hom. Od. in, 366. 

31) Strabo proceeds in the passage cited in the preceding note : 
'AvTlp,axos 700;* Kai "ETaois Kal Eai^Kuvas airavTas wpoaayopeici, nvh 
Sk okqv liiv firj KaTaffxeiK airois, Slxa Si fie/iepiff/iivoiis oUeiv, rois fih 
irpbi Ty Meo-o-i/x/j Kard, t^ TpupvXlai/, rois Si -irpbs ry Ai5/iTj, and we 
see that by these different accounts is signified the twofold 
character of the population, according to the distinction drawn 
above, of. Strab. p. 351. For the struggles between the Epeians 
and Pylians see Strab. p, 351, cf. Hom. II. XI, 670 ff. XXIII, 630 ff. 
The genealogy of the rulers of the Epeians is according to Pans. 
V, 1, 2 as follows; Aethlios, son of Zeus^-Endymion^Pseon, 
Epeius, .SItolus— Eleius, grandson of Epeius. iEtolus, the brother 
of Epeius, emigrated to .ffitoUa, which was caUed by his name. 
Paus. V, 1, 6. 

32) Kar, son of Phoroneus, Paus. I, 40, 5. With regard to the 
Karians as being the oldest inhabitants of the islands, the chief 
passages are Thuc. I, 4 and 8. On Leukas dwelt Leleges; but 
they according to Herodotus and Strabo were not different from 
the Karians, see obg. 12, 


2 First Period. From the Earliest Times to the Migration of the Dorians and Herakleidse. 




X— 1104B.C. 


Pelasgian tribes, the earliest inhabitants of Greece known to us (from legend), lay amid continual 
migrations j the first foundation of civilised life, their progress being advanced by their struggles with one 
another and also by the foreign influence, which they first admit, then happily overcome. The way is 
paved for the development of a peculiar Hellenic nationality by several wars, undertaken more or less in 
concert, and by a national folk-lore, which arises chiefly from these wars and assumes artistic shape: With 
the establishment of the Dorians and Herakleidse in the Peloponnese permanent settlements become 
general in all parts of Greece, and the first condition of a steady inner development is thus satisfied. 

AuTHOKiiTES. Onr historical knowledge of this period, so far as Hieronymus, and both boots in an Armenian translation), in Synkellus 

this is possible, is to be drawn from Hellenic legend, which lies before (iKKorfj xpovoypcuplas circ. 800 a.d.), and in the Scholia of Enstathins 

us, partly in the epic poems of Homer, Hesiod, and the so-called and others on Homer, and of Tzetzes on Lykophron (in xiith sascL a.d.). 

Homeric hymns, to all of which it gave birth, partly in the geographical From these fragmentary records our history is pieced together. As 

writings of Strabo (bom circ. 60 B.C. His work, Teuiypa^iKa in seven- for chronology, the so-called Marmor Parium yields some important 

teen books, was composed in the first years of the reign of the Emperor materials. This is a marble table, found on the island of Paros, 

Tiberius) and of Pausanias ('BXXdSos irepai-^tiais circ. 150 a.d.), partly which was executed in the third century before Christ, and is now at 

in the collection of ApoUodorus (Bi/SXwfl^K?; in three books, circ. 140 Oxford : it contains a list of dates taken out of Greek history from the 

B.C.), partly in later writings of various contents, e.g. in the Biographies earliest times down to the year 264, with chronological notes ; but the 

of Plutarch (bom 50 A.D.), in Diodoras Siculus (bom 1 a.d.), in the part preserved only goes down to 355 (it may be found printed in 

'Ovo/ioffnKoy of Julius Pollux (circ. 180 a.d.), in Eusebius, a, contem- C. Mviller's Fragm. Histor. Grsec. vol. i.). Further, scattered notices 

porary of Constantine the Great (iravToSair^ iaTopla in two books ; part are found in the fragments of the so-called logographi, HekatEens, 

of the first book is preserved in the eiayyc\iK-^s airoSel^eas irapaixKevI) Pherekydes, AkusUaus, HeUarukus, and also in those of Ephorus ; lastly, 

of Eusebiug himself, the second book in the Latin translation of more numerous and of greater value, in Herodotus and Thucydides. 

X — 1104 B.C. Prehistoric Age. 


of the most Olustrioua royal families in 






Immigration of Kekrops from 
Sais in Lower Egypt into Athens"). 

Immigration of Danaus from 
Chemmis in Upper Egypt into 
Argos ^). 


Hypermnestra = Lynkeus. 





1) The chronology of this period is based, partly upon the gene- 
alogies of the most celebrated families, our accounts of which are in 
fair accordance; partly, upon the computation of the time of the 
Trojan war; for which latter see p. 8, obs. 25, 

2) The legends of the immigrations of Kekrops, Danaus, Eadmus, 
and Pelops, originated at a later period, and have only so far a cer- 
tain historical significance, as they exhibit the conviction of the Greeks 
themselves of an influence, which at a very remote period the East 
exercised upon the development of Greece. Of these, the legend of 
the immigration of Kekrops is the latest in its origin. Theopompus 
(in ivth steel. B.C.) first mentioned a colony of Egyptians at Athens 
(Pr. 172 ed. MiiUer); the statement that Kekrops came from Sais, is 
found first in Ensebius and other later writers. The older legend, 
based on the notion that the Athenians were aboriginal and pure from 
admixture with foreigners (see Int. obs. 15), made Kekrops into a twin- 
shaped being, in its upper part human, but from the hips downwards 
a snake [Demosth.] Epit. p. 1398. Justin. 11, 6 ; and related of Erechtheus 
(or of Erichthonius, Isoor. Panath. p. 248. d. ApoUod. in, 14, 6. Paus. 
I, 2, 5), that he was the son of the Earth, Hom. 11. n, 546. Herod, 
vrrr, 55. According to the Marm. Par., Kekrops commenced his reign 
in 1581, according to Eusebius in 1557, according to HeUanikus and 
Philoohorus in 1607. 

3) The chief passages referring to the royal houses at Athens are 
ApoUod. m, 14, 15. 16. Paus. I, 2, 5. 5, 3. Strab. p. 397. Kekropia, 
the citadel of Athens, is said to have received its name from Kekrops. 

This prince died without leaving a male heir; he was therefore suc- 
ceeded by Kranaus (outox^m;' liv, ApoU. Ill, 14, 5) ; Atthis, daughter 
of Kranaus (from whom, it is asserted, the name Attica comes), 
married Amphiktyon, who, however, was expelled by Erichthonius. For 
the names of the country and people cf. Herod. VIH, 44 : 'ABr/vaiot Si 
iwl fiiv HeKacyuiv ^x^^"^^^ "^^^ ^^^ EXXaSa KaXeofih-qv -rja-av TleXao'yoi 
oivofiaioiievoi Kpavaol, iirl Si KiKpoiros ^aaCKios ^TreicX^Sijirac KeKpOTrlScu, 
iKSe^afiivov Si '"Epex^ios ttjv a.pxv*' 'AdTjvatOi pLerovvofJidfrdrjaap, "Iwyoy 5^ 
TQV ^ov$ov ffTparapx^^ yevofj^vov ' AdTjyalotfft iKXridTjffav aTTO tovtov l-uves. 

4) See Herod. H, 43, 91. Paus. H, 16, 1 and the most detailed 
account of all, ApoUod. n, 1. According to this latter passage Danaus, 
Uke his brother ^gyptus, before whom he flies from Chemmis, is a 
descendant of Ino, see Int. obs. 28 (Ino — Epaphus — Libye — Belus — 
Egyptus, Danaus). Gelanor, on the arrival of Danaus at Argos, makes 
over the sovereignty to him; and this the latter then bequeaths to 
Lynkeus, the consort of his daughter Hypermnestra. For his 50 
daughters cf. Strab. p. 371 : o (i.e. the springs at Argos) rais Aavofirn' 
dyaTTTOvo'tVj ws iKelvujv i^evpouffiHv, afj> ov Kal to ?7ros elTciv touto. 
"'Apyos dvvSpop 4bv Aa^aal 8i<rav 'Apyos SvvSpov," and for Danaus 
himself, id. : T^k Si dxpovoKiv tQv 'Apyetav oUlaai "Kiyerai iyavaos, is 
TotTOVTOv rous Tpb ahrov Swacrrevovras iv rois totols virep^dXiadat SoKc'i, 
uare Kar EipnrlSriv "Ile\a(ryi,aTas wvofiCuriJ.ii'OVi to vplv Aavaai'S KaXe'urSat. 
vopLOf ^BtjK av "EXXaSa." 

5) Apollod. n, 1 ff. Paus. H, 16. 


4 First Period. From the Earliest Times to the Migration of the Dorians and Herakleidae. 

B. c. 



of the Hellenes. 



Flood of Deukalion"). 

Immigration of Kadmus from Phoenicia 
into Thebes'). 



iEolus"), Dorus"), Xuthus. 

Ion, Acheeus'^). 

6) The oldest home of the legend of the flood of Deukalion was 
the valley of Dodona (of. Int. obs. 6), see Aiistot. Meteorol. I, 14 : d 
(caXovjuecos iwl AevKaXiuivos KaTUKXvff/uis' KoX yap ovtos irepl T6v"E\\T]Vi- 
Kov i-ylvero fwXurra tottov Kal roirov Trcpl ttj/v 'EXXaSa ttiv apxaiav avrri 
S' ia-rlp ri Tepl i^aSilirqv Kal tov 'Axe\i}ov ■ oStos yap woWaxov to ^evfia 
fUra^^pkriKcv i^kovv yap o! SeXXoi ivrmda Kal oi KaXovfieyoi tots /ih 
TpaiKol, vvv S "BXXiyyes. With Deukalion and his descendants the 
legend migrated to Thessaly, ApoUod. I, 7, 2 (in this case Deutahon's 
ark landed, according to HeUanikus, Schol. Pindar, 01. IX, 64, on 
Othrys, or again, according to ApoUod. loe. cit., on Parnassus upon 
the peak Lykorea), and still further to Lokris, Boeotia, even to Attica, 
in aU which countries Parnassus was regarded as the landing-place 
of Deukalion, Schol. Pind. loo. cit. Strab. p. 332, 425. Paus. I, 18, 7. 
40, 1. X, 6, 1. Marm. Par. 

7) Deukalion, the son of Prometheus (the fire-giver and con- 
sequently the author of civilisation), see ApoUod. I, 7, 2. Hesiod 
and HeUanikus in Schol. ApoUon. HI, 1085. 1086, lived according to 
Arist. loc. cit. in Dodona, or according to Schol. Pind. loc. cit. in Opus, 
or in Kynos, see id. and Strab. 425, or in Lykoreia in PhoMs, see 
Marm. Par., or in Delphi, see Pint. Quasst. Gr. p. 292; according to 
Dionys. Hal. I, 17 he is thought to have migrated (from Parnassus) 
to Thessaly, cf. Strab. p. 432. But according to the common tradition 
his son HeUen is said to have firjt founded a settlement. For him and 
his descendants see Hesiod in Tzetzes on Lykophr. 284 : "EXXi/kos 5' 
kyivovTO BefjiitrTOTToKoL ^aaCKriei \ Aupos re Sounds re Kal A&Xos linno- 
X^PM^t I AioXWai 5* iyivovro BeiuaTowoKoi. ^aaCKries | Kpijfleus rfS' 'Affd/ias 
Kal Xltrv^os aioKoiiTp-qs \ 'ZoKpMveis t oBikos Kal iiripBiiixoi Ilepiriprjs. 
^olus generaUy passes for his eldest son, to whom accordingly the 
father's sovereignty in Thessaly descends, wMlst the two other sons 
emigrate to seek new homes, see Strab. p. 383. Konou in Phot. p. 
437. For the conception of Thuoydides as to the method, in which 
the extension of the HeUenes took place, and their earhest ethno- 
graphical relations generaUy, see the locus classious I, 3: Upo yap 
Twv 'ipuLKuiv oibiv ^alverai. irparepoii Koiv^ ipya<rap.4i>rj r) 'EXXos' 
SoKeX Si p,oi, ovSi rovvofw, tovto ^vfi-rraci wa ef^ey, dWit, rd /jih irpo 
"BXXtjj'OS tov AevKoKluivos Kal irdvv oiSk eZvai ij iirlKXricns avT-q, Kara IBrq 
Sk aXXa re Kal to HeXaayiKov iirl TrXeurrov dtp' iawQv ttjv itrojvv/xiav 
rap^x^ffBai, "EWtjpos S^ Kal twv iraiSuv avTov iv t% ^Stumdi icxvadvTbiv 
Kal iirayopiivav avTovs iir' u<pe\lq. is ris aXXas jriXeis Kad' 
eKoa-rovs piv ^d-q Trj 6pu\l(} p,a,X\ov KaXciaBai "EWrivas, ov pAvToi ttoWov 
ye %pwou -qSivaTO Kal S.-waaiv iKviK^aai. TeKfi-ripiol Si paKuTTa "Ofajpof 
TToXXy yap vKTTepov in Kal rm TpiaiKuv yevop-evos oiSapuni tovs ^vfiTravTas 
opopiaaev oiS' aXKovs rj tovs per' 'AxiXX^ws iK t?s iffidnSos, o'lirep Kal 
Tpwroi"EXKTji'es ^crai', Aapaovs Si iv roll iireai. Kal 'Apyelovs Kal 'A^aious 
dvaKaXet- ov p.riv ovSi ^ap^ipovs etp-qKe Sid ro pijSi "EXKrivdi jrui, us ipol 
SoKei, dvTlirakov is Iv ovopa diroKeKplffOai- ol S' ovv us 'iKaaroi, "TSiKK-qves 

Kara irdXeis re oaoi dXX^Xoii' ^vvletrav Kal ^v/nravres varcpov KXriSivTes — , 
with which Herodotus also agrees, when he calls (VIH, 44) Ion a 
arpardpxris of the Athenians. The passages in Homer are H. H, 684. 
XVI, 595. Od. I, 344. XI, 495. XV, 80. For the pruaitive seats of 
the HeUenes see Strab. loc. cit. and p. 431. According to ApoUodorus 
in Strab. p. 870 the name HeUenes, as a ooUective name of the Greeks, 
occurs first in Hesiod and Archilochus, therefore in 8th saecl. e.g., and 
it is exceedingly probable, that at this very time, with the growing 
consciousness of a common nationality, the behef in their common 
descent from HeUen and DeukaUon graduaUy grew up and estabhshed 
itself among the HeUenes. 

8) Kadmus, son of Agenor, Eurip. Bacch. v. 171, of Tyre in 
Phoenicia, Herod. H, 49. Eurip. Phcen. v. 639 (but also according to 
others of Sidon, Eurip. Bacch. loe. cit., or even of Thebes in Egypt, 
Diodor. I, 28. Paus. IX, 12, 2), was sent forth by his father to search 
for Europa, who had been carried off by Zeus, and came by way of 
Krete, Ehodes (Diodor. V, 58), Thera (Herod. IV, 147), Samothrace, 
Lemnos, Thasos (Herod. H, 44. VI, 47), to Boeotia, where, at the in- 
stance and under the guidance of the oracle at Delphi, he founded the 
Kadmea, and by sowing the dragon's teeth created a new race, that 
of the SirapToi, see Paus. IX, 12, 1. Schol. Eurip. Phcen. 638. Aristoph. 
Ban. 1256. Kadmus (from the Phoenician word Kedem, land of the 
morning) is the representative of the Phoenician colonisations of the 
Greek islands and mainland and of the influence of the Phoenicians 
upon the development of the Greeks. Besides the colonies on the 
above-mentioned spots, which were everywhere founded with a view 
to commerce and mining, Cyprus and Kythera are also mentioned 
as seats of Phcenioiau settlers, see Herod. I, 105. Furthermore the 
service of Aphrodite Urania ( = the Astarte of the Phoenicians) at 
Athens and Corinth (Paus. I, 14, 6. Strab. p. 879), the worship of 
Melikertes (= the Phoenician god MeUsarth) at the latter place (Pint. 
Thes. 25), the sacrifice of human victims amongst the Minyse (see infr. 
obs. 21), and the subjection of Attica and Megara under the rule of 
Krete (see infr. obs. 16 and 20), aU point back to a time, in which at 
aU these places Phoenician settlements exercised a ruling influence. 
As an example of their influence upon the culture of the Greeks, 
special prominence is usuaUy given to the introduction of the alphabet, 
which is ascribed to them; see especiaUy Herod. V, 58 : Oi Si ^oiviKcs 
ouTOi oi (TW KaSp-iji diriKop^oi — iariryayov SiSaa-KdXia is rois "EXXijcos Kal 
S-q Kal ypdp.p.ara, ovk iovra irpXv '"EiXXrtcrcv tis ipA SoKiew, -irpCrra p.iv rol&i 
Kal awavTes XP^'^"'''"'^ iotviKes, /ncrd Si xP"''ou Trpo^alvovros dpa t% ^avy 
/ieripaXov Kal tov pvdjj,ov rwv ypap,pA,ruv. TJepioUeov Si (r<t>eas rd iroXXd 
tQv xwp'w Tovrov TOV xp^i'ov 'EXXr/vav "luces, o£ irapaXa^ovres SiSaxv 
irapcL rCiv ^oivIkoiv rd ypdpptara p.erafil>vBpl<ravTis aipewv oXlya ixp^o"'''''' 
Xpeopevoi Si itpdriirav, airirep Kal rd SUaiov l<j>epe, iaayayovrav ^oivIkwp 
is rrpi "EKXdSa iowiK-qui KeKXijaeai. Cf. Diod. HI, 67. PUn. H. N. 

X — 1104 b. c. Preiustorio Age. 


of the most illustrious royal families in 






Akrisius, Prcetus'), 



Danae = Zeus. 

Kreusa = Xuthus, Kekrops II. 




Ion"), Pandion 11. 


Vn, 56. Hygin. Fab. 277. That the Greek alphabet is related to the 
Phoemeiau is clearly proved by the names and original forms of the 
Phoenician and Greek letters. 

9) Akrisius and Prcetus were at war with one another : Prcetus was 
expelled by his brother, but established himself at Tiryns, and there 
asserted himself, whilst Akrisius remained at Argos, see Paus. 11, 16, 2. 
ApoUod. n, 2, 1. Strab. p. 372 and 373. Cf. Horn. 11. VI, 152—210. 
Of the walls, with which according to the legend the Cyclopes sur- 
rounded Tiryns, ApoUod. 11, 2, 2. Paus. 11, 16, 2, important remains 
are still preserved — one of the most remarkable monuments of the 
BO-oalled Cyclopean structure. 

10) A most important passage with regard to the fortunes and 
wanderings of the three brothers is that aheady cited from Strabo 
(p. 383) : tpaal d^ AevKaKiojvos fikv "EWT^i/a eXvai.^ tovtov d^ irepl rrjv ^dlav 
tQv fiera^v Jiriveiov koX 'Affojirov SwcurreuovTa tQ irpea^vrdrcp Tiov iraidoiv 
Trapadouvat ttjv apxo^^ '^^^^ ^' oXKovs ?^w diairi^spcu ^Tp-fjaovras tSpvaiv 
^KoaTov ciiiT(^' (Sj* Awpos li^v Tovs irepl Hapvaffaov AwpUas ffvvoiKiaai 
KaT^Xiirev iiroivufiovs avTov, ^ovdos d^ ttjv 'Epex^^ws Ovyar^pa yfj/xas 0Ki<re 
TTjv TerpairoKiv ttjs 'Attlktjs, OIvotjv, Mapaduiva, Upo^aKtvdoi' koX TptKO- 
pvBov. Later, the greater part of all the Hellenes was comprehended 
under the name Cohans, see Strab. p. 333 : vavres yhp ol (ktos '1(t6ixov 
ttXtiv 'A6r)valuv Kal Meyapiav Kal rav irepl top Tiapvaairdv AapUuiv Kol 
vvv (ti AioXeTs koKovvto.!. : thus to ^olus was attributed an especial 
wealth of posterity. According to the passage quoted obs. 7, he had 
five sons, Kretheus, Athamas, Sisyphus, Sahnoneus, Perieres ; according 
to ApoUod. I, 7, 4 he had seven sons (in addition to those mentioned 
Deion and Magnes) and five daughters ; according to others the number 
was still greater, and from these sons and daughters were derived the 
old ruhng famUies in numerous towns and districts ; thus from Sisy- 
phus (for whom see Hom. II. YI, 152 ff. Od. XI, 593 ff. Paus. H, 1, 
2) the rulers of Corinth are said to be descended, from Athamas those 
of the Minyan Orchomenus, from Kretheus those of lolkus, and from 
Kretheus again Neleus and Nestor at Pylus, etc. 

11) For the Dorians see the important passage Herod. I, 56: 
AoipiKov yivos — iroKvifK&vrifrov xipra' M iiiv yap AevKa\iavos iSatriX^os 
of/cee y^ rrjv ^Qirp-LV ^irl dk Aihpov tov "EXXt/vos ttjv utto t-tjv "Oaaav re 
Kal Tov OvXy/iwov Xihprpi, KaXiOjiMvyfli di 'larmLrfriV ix di ttjs 'lo-Tiairp-idos 
as i^aviaTTj iiro Kad/ietoiv, offcee iv UlvSip MaxeBvov KaXeo/jievov ivSevTcv 
dk avns is Trpi ApvoirlSa neTi^ri Kal iK ttJs Apvowidos oiSras h HeXoTrovyri- 
aov i\06v AoipiKov iKX'qQri. For the first settlements of the Dorians in 
Hestiffiotis of. besides Diod. TV, 87. 67, Strab. p. 437. 475. 476. 

12) See the passage of Strabo (p. 383) quoted in obs. 10, which in 
reference to the sons of Xuthus proceeds thus ; Tav Si roiirou iralSuv 
'Axaios ixiv (povov aKovaiov Tpd^as ^r^vyev els AaKedaifiova Kal *Axatovs 
Tovs iKel KXrid-qvai TrapeffKevatrev^ "liav di rovs /Mer EO/aoXttou vLK7}aas 
Qp^Kas ouTois T}u8oKlfi.7j(rei'j uktt' i-jrirpe^av aur^S ttiv irokLTeiav 'Adrjvaiot. 
6 Si irp&Tov p.iv els rirrapas 0uXds SteTKe to ttX^^os, etra els Tirrapas 
piovs. — oiiroi 5^ TToXvavSpijcrat ttjv x^pav Tore avviireaev^ uiaTe Kal airoiKlav 
Twv 'Iwpttiv ^(TTeCKav els Ile\oir6vv7](70P 'AdrjvatoL Kal t7}v xcipai' rjv Kariax^^ 
iirJjvvp.ov iavTojv iiTol'qaav 'lujviav dvT' AlyiaXov K\-q6elaav, ot re avSpes 
6.vtI AlytaXicov 'T.uves irpoff'qyopevB'qaav els dcodeKa iroXeis iiepLadivTes. 
Cf. Paus. VII, 1, 2 (according to which passage Achseus returned to 
Thessaly). Herod. VII, 94. Euripid. Ion, v. 59 ff. (according to which 
Ion is the son of ApoUo and Kreusa, but adopted by Xuthus). But 
Achseus at the same time passed for a Pelasgian, see Introduction 
obs. 10, cf. also Paus. loo. cit., which makes the sons of Achseus, 
Archandrns and Architeles, come from Thessaly to Argos in the time 
of Danaus; but even the lonians are looked upon by Herodotus as 
Pelasgians, see I, 56. VII, 94. Such a proof as the genealogy, which 
connected the lonians and Aohfeans with the HeUenio stock, had by 
no means found full or universal recognition. 

13) Ion (who, according to Conon Narrat. 27, was also made 
king of Attica) is held to be the founder of the four Athenian tribes 
{(pvXaL), see Herod. V, 66 : TeTparj>i\ovs iovTas 'ABrivalovs ScKacpiXovs 
(6 KXeLo-divTjs) iTol7](Te, twv "Iqjvos iraiSwv Ve\iovTos Kal AlytKopeos Kal 
'ApydSea Kal "OirXTp-os dwaWd^as Tds iiruivviilas. Cf. Euripid. Ion v. 
1579 ff. PoUux Vm, 109. Plut. Solon. 23. The names of the four 
tribes : Tekiovres (other readings : Tekiovres, TeSiovTes), "OTrk-qres, 
AlyLKopeTs, 'ApyaSeis, 

14) See ApoUod. H, 4, 1—5. Paus. II, 16. Schol. ApoUon. IV, 1091. 
After Perseus had escaped the machinations of his grandfather, who 
in consequence of an oracle apprehended death at his hands, and had 
performed marveUous exploits in other lands (cutting off Medusa's 
head, rescuing Andromeda), he returned to Argos, sought out his 
grandfather in Pelasgiotis, who had retired thither to avoid him, kiUed 
him unintentionaUy by a quoit-throw, then, returning to the Pelo- 
ponnese, exchanged Argos, wliich had been rendered distasteful to biTn 
by his grandfather's death, for the territory of Tiryns, the heritage of 
Megapenthes the son of Proetus; there he buUt himself a new town 
and citadel, Mykense. Important remains of both are stxU in existence ; 
of the citadel, the gate with two hons represented in rehef above it ; of 
the town, besides other less important ruins, the so-caUed treasure- 
house of Atreus. On this point cf Paus. loc. cit. § 4 and 5. 

6 First Period. From the Earliest Times to the Migration of the Dorians and Herakleidae. 

B. C. 



of the Hellenes. 




Immigration of Pelops from Asia Minor into 

Argonautic Expedition"). 

Expedition of the Seven against Thebes'*). 

Pamphylus, Dymas. 

15) Pelops was, according to the (later) legend, the son of Tantalus, 
king of Mysia, or Phrygia, or Lydia, or Paphlagonia, Paus. II, 22, 4. 
V, 13, 4. Diodor. IV, 74. Strab. p. 571. 580. Schol. Pind. 01. 1, 27. 
Expelled from his home by Ilus, the king of Troas, he comes to Pisa, 
conquers the king (Enomaus in a chariot race, and wins, as the prize of 
his victory, the king's daughter Hippodameia and his kingdom Ehs, see 
esp. Pmdar. 01. 1, 67 ft. Paus. V, 17, 4. 10, 2. VI, 21, 9. Homer knows 
Tantalus Od. XI, 581, and also TrX^fwTros Pelops, H. II, 104, but knows 
nothing of the descent of Pelops from Tantalus or of his immigration 
into Greece. For the proverbial wealth and power of Pelops see Thuc. 
I, 9 ; A^oufft 5^ KoX ol ri tra^^araTa HeXoTovvTjcrUov fivyfiT] iraph tuv 
TrpoTepov dedeyfi^i/OL H^oird re irpurrov TrXridet xPVl^'^^^i ^ TJKdev ^k t^s 
'Atrtas ^(av h dvdpuyjrovs ^TopovSj Svvafuv TepnroiTja-dfievoy Tqv iiroivvfitav 
rijs x^P^^ iTrrfXvTTjv ovra oiuas (7X«y koX vcrrepov Toh iKyovois ^t (lei^ta 
^vvivexSrpiaL — •. For the name Peloponnese cf. Int. obs. 19. 

16) King Pandion II, according to the legend, divided his kingdom 
(which also comprised Euboea and Megaris) amongst his four sons 
mentioned above; ^gens, as the eldest, received Kekropia; Nisus the 
Isthmus and Megaris; Lykus Marathon with Euboea; Pallas the moun- 
tainous district in the east and south of the peninsula (cf . the distribu- 
tion of the country into 4 parts, Aktaea, Mesogaea, Paralia, Diakris, PoUux 
Vin, 109), see Sophokles in Strab. p. 392. Sohol. Aristoph. Lysistr. 58. 
Lykus was expelled by ^geus, Herod. 1, 173 ; Nisus lost his hfe through 
an invasion of king Minos of Krete, Apollod. ni, 15, 8, in which Megaris 
was also taken, and ^geus compelled to pay a tribute (consisting of 
7 youths and 7 maidens, who had to be sent every nine years to Krete, 
there to be sacrificed to the Minotaur), ApoUod. loo. oit. Plut. Thes. 
15. Paus. I, 27, 9. 

17) Herakles, the son of Zeus and AUanene, connected both by 
Alkmene and Amphitryon with the Perseid family, was bom at Thebes, 
Hom. n. XIX, 97 ff. ; for Amphitryon had killed his uncle and father- 
in-law Elektryon, and had therefore fled from Mykense, see Hesiod, 
Scut. Here. v. 11. 80. Hated and persecuted by Hera, he was in con- 
sequence of a rash oath of Zeus (see Hom. H. loc. cit.) compelled to 
serve Eurystheus, a far paltrier man, by whose orders he performed 
difficult and demeaning tasks, Hom. II. VHI, 362. Of these tasks 
Homer only mentions one, that he fetched up the hound of Hades from 
the lower world and brought it to Mykense, II. V, 395. Odyss. XI, 
622; further, reference is made in Homer to the murder of Iphitos, 
Od. XXI, 22—30, to the murder of the sons of Nestor, n. XI, 690 ft., 
and to his expedition against Troy, H. XX, 145. XXI, 442 ; Homer 
knows nothing of the later legends of his death, see II. XVHI, 115. 
Od. XI, 600 ft. In Hesiod mention is found of some few other legends, 
e.g. that of the Nemean lion, Theog. 326—332, of the Lemaean hydra. 

id. 314 ff., of the oxen of Geryones, id. 287, of the slaughter of the 
eagle, which devoured the liver of Prometheus, id. 530, and of Kyknus, 
So. Here. 122 ft. All else belongs to the further development of the 
myth ; which process was completed, partly under Phoenician influence 
(of Melkarth), partly in conformity with new ideas springing up a- 
mongst the Hellenes themselves : hence the twelve labours, the motive 
of the bondage under Eurystheus, the voluntary death by burning on 
(Eta (Soph. Trachin.), etc. The whole myth is presented in its most 
perfect form in the connected arrangement of the various details by 
Apollodorus n, ch. 4, 5 to oh. 7. Cf. also Xen. Mem. H, 1, 21. 

18) With Atreus the sovereignty of Mykense passed from the 
Perseidse to the Pelopidse. That is to say, Sthenelus married Nikippe, 
the daughter of Pelops, Apollod. H, 4, 5, and made over the sove- 
reignty of Midea to the two sons of Pelops, Atreus and Thyestes; see id. 
§ 6. But when Eurystheus marched to Attica against the Herakleidse 
and lost his life in the battle (see obs. 28), Atreus was first raised to be 
regent, then to be the successor of Eurystheus, see Thuc. I, 9. The 
sovereignty of Mykense next passed to Agamemnon, the elder son of 
Atreus, while the younger sou through his marriage with Helena, the 
daughter of Tyndareus (Apollod. in, 10, 6. 7), became possessed of 
Sparta. For the genealogy of the Atridae see Hom. H. H, 105 ft.; for 
their power see the continuation of the passage quoted from Thucy- 
dides in obs. 15, (I, 9): — koI tQv Hepcreidiov rovi HeXoiridas fieii^ovs Kara- 
ffTTJvai.' a fioi SoKcV Aya,ii,ip,vav TrapaXa^iv Kai vavriKif a/M lid irX^ov tup 
a.Wui' l(Txv<T(is Trpi arpaTiciv oi x^piri to TrXeioi' ^ tpo^ifi |wa7a7ui' iroi^ 
trao-Sai" tpalr/eraL yap vaval re TrXedrraiS avTos icjuKofievos Kal 'Ap/cifft 
TrpoffTrapaa-X'it', us "O/i-ijpos tovto SeSr)\o>Kep (H. H, 576, 610), ei Tip iKavos 
TeKp,7iptuxrai' Kal iv tov iTKiprTpoii a/ia rrj irapadoirei etpr/Kcv avrov iroW^cri 
vTjffOLfft Kal" Apye'C TTavrl dLvdtra-etv (II. H, 108). ovk dv ovv vrfcrijov ^|w tCv 
irepLoiKlSav (aurai S ovk dv TroXXai dtitrav) ^7reipwT7)S um iKpdTa, el ptrj ti 
Kal vavTiKov elx^v. 

19) Herakles assisted the Dorian ^gimius (or ^paUus, Strab. p. 
427) in the struggle against the Lapithse; in return for which iEgimius, 
conformably to the condition laid down by Herakles, adopted his son 
HyUus and made over to him the third part of his territory and the 
succession to the crown, Apollod. H, 7, 7. Diod. IV, 37. Pind. Pyth. 
I, 62. V, 66. Hence the union of the Dorians and Herakleidse, and 
hence too the division of the Dorians into the three tribes of the 
'TXXeis, IId/i0vXot and Av/xdves, see Herod. V, 68. Steph. Byz. h. v. 

20) Theseus, son of -.ffigeus (or Poseidon) and .Ethra the daughter 
of king Pittheus of Traszeu, see ApoUod. IH, 16, 1. Plut. Thes. 3. 
Paus. I, 27, 8, was brought up in Troezen : then, on his way to Athens, 
he slew Periphetes, Sinis, the Krommyonian sow, Skiron, Kerkyon., 

X — 1104 b. c. Prehistoric Age. 


of the most illustrious royal families in Argos, Athens, and Thebes. 


Elektryon, Alkaeus, Sthenelus. 
Alkmene = Amphitryon. 
Herakles"). Eurysth 





Agamemnon, Menelaus. 

Pandion II. 

.^geus, Pallas, Nisus, Lykus'*). 


Damastes or Prokrustes, Plut. Thes. 6—11; then subdued and extermi- 
nated the PaUantidffl, the sons of Pallas (see obg. 16), Plut. 13, caught 
the Marathonian buU, Plut. 14. Paus. I, 27, 9, next slew the Minotaur 
and thereby put an end to the tribute (obs. 16), Plut. 15 — 22, of. Horn. 
Od. XI, 321. Sohol. Horn. H. XYHI, 590; and when, after the death 
of .SJgeus, he had himself come to the sovereignty, he made Athens 
the central point and seat of government for the whole country, by 
abolishing the deliberative assemblies in the single districts as hitherto 
constituted, and combining them in the Prytaneium at Athens (crwoi.- 
Kur/ios, feast of the a-vvolKia and of the iravaBrivaui), Plut. 24. Thuo. 11, 15 ; 
invited strangers to Athens and founded the feast of the fieroiKia, Plut. 
loo. cit. ; divided the whole of the people into the three orders of the 
eiwarpldcu, yew/iopoi, and Sr}ixiovpyol, Plut. 25, furthermore conquered the 
Amazons, who had invaded Attica, Plut. 26. 27. Paus. I, 2, 1. 17, 2. 
.3!sch. Eumen. 685, reduced Megaris again to subjection, and founded 
the Isthmian games, Plut. 25 ; but was nevertheless, in spite of these 
heroic deeds and services (he is said also to have wished to set aside 
the monarchy and to introduce a democracy, Plut. 25. Thuc. II, 15), 
during his absence with his friend and comrade Peirithous in the 
attempt to carry off Kora for the latter, Plut. 31. ApoUod. Ill, 10, 7, 
supplanted in the sovereignty by Mnestheus, who stirred up the 
nobles against him; finally he died in Skyros, Plut. 30 — 35. For the 
succession of kings, see p. 12, obs. 9. 

21) In the legend of the voyage of the Argonauts the scene is laid 
at lolkus and Halus on the PagasEean Gulf, which in consequence of 
their favourable "situation (see Int. ) had probably at a very early time 
raised themselves, like Corinth, to great prosperity by coromerce and 
sea-traffic, and attained great wealth ; and for this very reason neces- 
sarily recommended themselves to the Phoenicians as places to settle at. 
In Halus (Herod. YII, 197. Strab. p. 433, or perhaps in Orchomenus, 
Paus. IX, 34, 5) dwelt Athamas, king of the Minyae, son of .ffiolus 
(Hesiod in Tzetzes ad Lykophr. 284. ApoUod. I, 7, 3), who by 
Nephele begot Phrixus and HeUe, and afterwards Learchus and 
Melikertes by Ino (of. obs. 8). After his death he was succeeded by his 
brother Kretheus, of whose 5 sons, Pehas, Neleus, >!son, Pheres, 
Amythaon (Horn. Od. XI, 254, ff.), the first mentioned made lolkus 
the seat of his rule, and from hence despatched Jason, son of .ffison, 
whom he had robbed of his share in the sovereignty, to fetch back the 
golden fleece of Phrixus. This is the outline or framework, ui which 
the Argonaut legend is set; and for it see Hom. II. VII, 467. Od. XII, 
69—72. Hesiod Theog. 955—962. 991—1003. Fragm. 85. 86. 111. 
114. 145. 183. Pindar. Pyth. IV. Herod. I, 2. IV, 179. VH, 197. 
ApoUod. I, 9. Paus. IX, 34, 4. I, 44, 11. By degrees aU celebrated 
heroes of the time were claimed by the legend as participators in the 
voyage : besides Argus, the buUder of the ship Argo, Herakles, Orpheus, 
Kastor and Polydeukes, Theseus, Peleus, Telamon, Idas and Lynkeus, 
Zetes and Kalaia, Meleagrus etc., see ApoU. I. 9, 16. The goal of the 
expedition, at first conceived only as at an indefinite distance, becomes 



Eteokles, Polyneikes''). 

fixed, in proportion as the east (after the VIHth century) becomes 
better known, and so the route is described with increasing exactness 
with the chief stations Lemnos, Lampsakus, Kyzikus, Herakleia, 
Sinope. But at the same time aU that the Greeks knew of legendary 
sea-voyages and sea-adventures, was graduaUy incorporated in the 
legend, so especiaUy by ApoUonius (circ. 200 b. c.) in his epic poem, 
the Argonautica. The connexion of the Argonautio legend with 
Phoenician influence, besides the name Melikertes and the adoration 
paid to MeUkertes as to a god, is stiU further attested by the intended 
sacrifice of Phrixus and HeUe, by the common belief at Halus, which, 
as the sequel of the meditated crime, was stiUretaiued in the fifth century, 
that if the head of the house of the Athamantidse aUowed himself to be 
seen in the Prytaneium there, he must be sacrificed to Zeus Laphystius 
(i.e. the devourer), Herod. VII, 197, and by the close connexion of the 
legend with Lemnos, a chief centre of Phoenician settlements, etc. 

22) The genealogy of the house of Kadmus, see Herod. Y, 59 — 61. 
ApoUod. ni, 4, 2. 5, 5 ff. Paus. IX, 3. The (Edipus legend— for the 
earUer and simpler form of which, differing in several points from the 
later, see Hom. Od. XI, 271—280. H. XXIH, 680. Paus. IX, 5, 5. 
Piad. 01. II, 43 — 45 — was afterwards expanded and recast by the tragic 
poets in the form in which it appears, notably in the 'Seven against 
Thebes' of JSschylus, in the 'CEdipus Hex' and the 'Oildipus at 
Kolonus' of Sophokles, and in the 'PhoenissaB' of Euripides; also in 
the compUation of ApoUodorus, in, 5, 7 — 9. For the expedition of 
the Seven, with regard to which there are found, even in Homer, 
several details chiefiy concerned with Tydeus, II. IV, 376. V, 802. 
X, 285, see the coUeotion of the various legends, ApoUod. m, 6. The 
names of the Seven; Adrastus (for whom see Herod. V, 67. Pind. 
Nem. IX, 25 — 65, grandson of Bias), Amphiaraus (who was enticed by 
his wife Eriphyle to take part in the war, Hom. Od. XI, 327, great- 
grandson of Melampus ; but Bias and Melampus, grandsons of Kretheus, 
the son of Jiolus, were by Proetus placed in possession, each of a third, 
of the kingdom of Argos, Herod. IX, 34. ApoUod. II, 2, 2. Paus. II, 
18, 4. Diod. lY, 86), Eapaneus (the descendant of Proetus in the fourth 
generation), Hippomedon, Parthenopoeus, Tydeus, Polyneikes, see 
ApoUod. m, 6, 3. On the way to Thebes the Nemean games were 
founded, ApoUod. id. § 4. 

23) Herakles had entrusted his chUdren to Keyx, the sovereign of 
Trachis. But at the demand of Eurystheus he sent them away to 
Theseus, with whom they found shelter and protection. In con- 
sequence of this, Eurystheus invaded Attica, but was defeated in a 
battle on the field of Marathon, and kUled, see ApoUod. II, 8, 1. Paus. 
I, 32, 5. 44, 14. Herod. IX, 27. Thuo. I, 9. Cf. Strab. p. 377. Diod. 
IV, 57. HyUus, after waiting in compUanoe with the oracle for the 
third harvest, thereupon marched towards the Peloponnese, to subdue 
his heritage, the kingdom of the Perseidas, but was slain at the Isthmus 
in a duel with Eohemus of Tegea, see Herod. IX, 26. ApoUod. H, 8, 2. 
Paus. I, 41, 3. 44, 14. VHI, 5, 1. 45, 2. Diod. lY, 58. 

8 First Period. From the Earliest Times to the Migration of the Dorians and Herakleidae. 

B. C. 






Expedition of the Epigoni against Thebes^*). 
Trojan War^^). 



Invasion of the Thessalians into what is now called Thessaly ; the Boeotians 
expelled from Arne in Thessaly^'). 

The Dorians under the conduct of the Herakleidse, Temenus, Aristodemus, 

24) According to Apollodor. HI, 7, 2 the expedition of the Epigoni 
■was ten years later than that of the Seven; yet on account of Horn. II. 
VI, 222, we must suppose an interval of at least 15 years. Those 
taking part in the expedition are the sons of the Seven (hence Epigoni), 
viz. .Slgialeus, sou of Adrastus, .Diomedes, son of Tydeus, Sthenelus, 
son of Kapaneus, Promachus of Parthenopaeus, Thersandrus of Poly- 
neikes, Alhrnason of Amphiaraua. The last named is the leader of the 
expedition; and Thebes is taken after the flight of Laodamas, son 
of Eteokles. Thersandrus is made king of Thebes. See Herod. V, 61. 
ApoUod. in, 7, 2—4. Pans. IX, 5, 7. 8, 3. Of. Horn. H. IV, 406. 
Pindar Pyth. Yin, 41 ff. 

25) The date as determined above rests upon the testimony of 
Eratosthenes (in the second half of the third century e. o.) and 
ApoUodorus, see Clem. Alex. Strom. I, 21, p. 402 : 'EparocrBivris tovs 
Xpovovs wde dvaypd^ei' 'Airo fi^if Tpofas dXcitrews iirl 'Hpa/cXeiSajj' KaSoSov 
irrj oydoriKOVTat ivreudev di iirl ttjs 'luvias ktIglv ^ttj e^TjKOvra, rd 5^ tov- 
Tois i^TJs ^ttI fjikv TT^v iirtTpoTriav t-^v AvKoiipyov ^ttj eKarov wevTriKOPTa 
ivv^a, iirl d^ TrpoTjyovfJt.evov h'os rQv trpwrcai/ 'OXvfiTrluv h-y) sKaTov oktio, 
accordingly 776 + 108 + 159 + 60 + 80=1183; Diodor. I, 5: 'Atto Sk tQv 
TpaiKdv i,Ko\ov0as'ATroK'KodJipCj> tQ' ABiivaLif rWfyUcy oydoTiKovra h-r) wpos 
TT)v KaOodov Twv ''S.paKXeLdojv, airo S^ ravTTjs iirl ttjv Trpi0T7)V 'OXvfMTidda 
dvirl Xelvovra twv TpiaKocrldiv koX Tpi&KOVTa, (niKKoyi^ofievoi. rovs xP^^ovs d-rro 
Tuv if AaKeSal/j-ovi ^aa-iKevaavrar, consequently 776 + 328 + 80=1184, 
so too id. XrV, 2, 3. XIX, 1. Dionys. Hal. I, 74. One of these num- 
hers we find also in Thuo. I, 12, and thus the date of the Trojan war 
adopted above appears to have been the foundation, or at least an 
essential part, of a widely extended chronological system for the history 
of the earliest period. Yet many difi^erent accounts are found. Thus 
1217—1208, Mann. Par., about 1280, Herod. H, 145, of. H, IB, etc. 
(The discrepancy Thuo. V, 112 is only apparent, reference there being 
only made to round numbers.) Starting from another basis, the dates 
given for the Trojan war and likewise the succeeding events would 
be brought down about one hundred years later, see p. 14, obs. a. 

26) For the oath, which Tyndareus exacted from the suitors for 
the hand of his daughter Helena, as occasion of the Trojan war, see 
ApoUod. HE, 10, 7 — 9, cf. Thuc. I, 9 ; ' Aya/jU/ivav ri fioi, SoKei tZv rare 
dvvdfiet irpovx^ov Kcd ov ToffovTov rots Tvvddpeoj opKOiS KaretKTjfifihovs Toi/s 
''Ei\^V7)S fiVTjffTTJpas ojytiiv rov ffTokov dyelpat. The chief heroes of the war 
on the side of the Greeks (who are comprehended in Homer under the 
coUeotive names of havaol, 'Apyeioi, 'AxmoI, see Thuc. I, 3) are, besides 
Agamemnon and Menelaus, Achilles, son of Peleus, the sovereign of 

Phthia, Nestor of Pylus, Odysseus of Ithaka, Ajax, Telamon's son, 
from the island of Salamis, Diomedes, son of Tydeus, Sthenelus, son 
of Kapaneus, Ajax, son of OUeus, Idomeneus, from the island of Krete, 
etc. Priam was the king of the Trojans, and his family was descended 
from Dardanus (Dardanus — Erichthouius — ^Iros — ^Ilus — Laomedou — 
Priam). On their side only Hektor and .Eneas stand prominently 
forward as heroes, the former a sou of Priam, the latter of Anchisea 
(Tros — Assarakus — Kapys — Anchises). The Trojans were moreover 
assisted by Phrygians, Lykians, Masonians, Thrakians, and even by 
Pseonians from the banks of the Axius. On the strength of the Greek 
forces Thucydides makes the foUowing observation, I, 10 : vo/d^eip di 
(ekos) T'Tiv ffrpandv iKeLvqv fieyUrTiji' ixkv yevicrBai tCiv irph airrjs, \eixo- 
fihijv S^ TiZv vvv, T^'O/i^pov av Toiiitrei ei Ti xpv K&vravSa irurTeiea/, flu 
eUos iwl TO fiel^ov fiiv iroirfrriv ovra KO/r/iTJirat, S/iois Si ipalverai. Kal ovras 
ivSee(rTipa- ireirol-qKe yhp xMuv Kal SiaKoirioiv veSiv (more exactly 1186), 
Tas p.hi Boiuruc etKoai. koX kKwrov dvSpw (H. H, 510), ris Si ^CKoKTrp-ov 
■wevT-qKovTa (id. 719), StjKQv lis ifiol SoKc'i rds pieyla-Tas KoX iXaxlcras, 
according to which the number of the combatants amounted to some 
100,000 men; to this, according to Horn. H. H, 123 ff., the number 
of the Trojans was in the proportion of 1 to 10. The political relations 
of the Greeks appear in Homer such as we find them later in the 
monarchical period in the HeUeuic states in general, and in that of 
Sparta in particular; only that in Homer they are nowhere circum- 
scribed, and nowhere rest on laws or other settled principles, hut 
everywhere upon divine ordinance. A king stands everywhere at the 
head (ou/c dyaBov iroXvKoipavlri, ffs Kolpavos (ittw, H. H, 204), of divine 
descent (Storyevui ^afftXijes), to whom, as such, there belonged by way of 
provision a public estate (ri/ievos), and to whom men brought com- 
pUmentary presents and portions of the spoil {yipara, Swtivm, Sapa, 
0ip.urT€s) ; near, but subordinate to him, were the nobles forming his 
council {yipovres, pASovres, vyrropes, apurrot, ^aaiXijes, ocoKres); lastly 
the people, which was assembled, yet not by any, settled rule, and only 
to hear the resolution of the king and his council; besides these classes 
of perfectly free persons, there were stiU the S^res and S/iHes, the latter 
either taken as spoil in war or bought of pirates. Very noticeably, 
mention is made of Phratries and Phylse in the foUowing passage : 
Kpiv di/Spas Kard (pvXa, Kard (ppijrpas, ' Ay dp.eii,vov, (is #^p5j ^pnTpri<piy 
dprp/ii, <l>vXa Si (piXois, II. H, 362. 

27) For the determination of the date see obs. 25. For the event see 
Thuc. I, 12 : ml /ierd rd Ipuixd ^ 'EXXds h-i iJ^Tavlarwro re koX Karcpd- 
fero ciio-re p,ri -^trvxda-affa ai^rjO^var 1] re ydp dvaxi^prfnx twi 'MXXrjvuni #f 

X — 1104 B.C. Peehistoric Age. 


of the Herakleidae. 




Temenus, Aristodemus, Kresphontes, 

of the Atreidse. 

Agamemnon, Menelaus. 

Orestes = Hermione. 

Tisamenus, Penthilus. 

'IXiow xpo"^"' y^oixivq iroWa heoxp^tre KoX imStrets h rats iroKeaiv us iirl 
TToXv iyiyvoVTO, d0* uv iKTriiTTOVTes rots iroXeis '4ktl^ov, Boiwroi re yb.p ol 
vvv i^riKoarf fret fuerd, 'IKlov SXaaiv i^ 'Apvris avcurrdVTes iiro GetrcraXiSi' 
Ti}V vvv "Bouarlav^ irporepov 5^ Kadp-Tjida yrjV KaXovpAytpi tpKuraVf rjv d^ 
airrSv Koi AiroSturpxis vparrepov iv rij y^ Tairin, &<p' S>v Kal h "IXioK iarpd- 
reva-av. The Thessalians, coining from Thesprotia (Herod. VII, 176 : 
QeaaaXol ^\$op iK QeairpUTi^v oUriaovTes yijv rrjv AloKtda, TTjvtrep 
mv iKTiarai), established themselves in the country, which now first 
received from them the name Thessaly, see id., and expelled the 
Arnaaans from the valley of the Spercheius, the latter throwing them- 
selves into Bceotia and taking possession of it, see Thuo. loo. cit. 
Diod. IV, 67. Pans. X, 8, 3. Strah. p. 401; they further expelled 
the Dorians dweUing on Pindus, who in their turn expel the Dryopes 
dwelling on the southern slope of (Eta, and found here the so called 
Doric tetrapohs, see Herod. I, 56. Vin. 31, 73. Paus. IV, 34, 6. 

28) Aristomachus, the grandson of HyUus, in the third fruit of the 
oracle (see obs. 23) more correctly discerning the third generation, 
renewed the expedition against the Peloponnese, but, mistaking the 

direction of the oracle, that he should pass into the land "by way of 
the sea-strait," took his way over the Isthmus, and was in consequence 
defeated and slain. His son Temenus with his brothers and the 
Dorians now marched to the promontory of Antirrhium, there built 
ships (hence Naupaktus, see Ephorus in Strab. p. 426), and crossed 
over to the Pelopoimese, conducted by the "three-eyed guide," the 
iEtoHan Oxylus (Ephor. in Strab. p. 357). There Tisamenus was 
defeated in a great battle; whereupon Temenus took possession of 
Argos, Aristodemus of Sparta, Kresphontes of Messenia, see Thuc. 
1, 12. Herod. I, 56. VI, 52. Isocr. Archidam. p. 119. Ephor. in Strab. 
p. 357. ApoUod. n, 8. Paus. II, 18, 6. V, 3, 5. Oxylus with the 
consent of the Herakleidse took possession of the land of the 
Epeians, after the .lltoUan Pyrsechmes had there defeated the Epeiau 
Degmenus in a duel, see Ephor. loc. cit. Paus, V, 4. Tisamenus with 
the Achseans turned to the land now called Achaia, and overthrew the 
lonians : whereupon the Achseans estabhshed themselves in the country. 
Paus. II, 18, 7. VH, 1, 3. Herod. I, 145. VHI, 73. Polyb. II, 41, 4. 
Strab. p. 383. 

10 Second Period, 1104 — 500 b. c. 


1104— 500 B.C. 

When tlie Dorians had permanently established themselves and their empire in the Peloponnese, the 
movement, which had hitherto continued almost uninterruptedly, subsided in the rest of Greece also. In 
consequence, an impulse makes way in the several states, leading men to develope and determine their 
internal organisation. In most states monarchy is speedily abolished. Its place is taken by an aristocratic 
constitution : this, as a rule, degenerates and is overthrown. Then, after a short interruption of the natural 
development by tyranny, the tendency to democracy begins to assert itself in a large number of instances. 
At the same time the consciousness of unity, the feeling of nationality, gradually grows up in all the Greek 
states. This result is chiefly due to two causes: firstly, to the extension and growing importance of the 
Hellenic Dorians ; and, secondly, to the influence of the national games and Delphic oracle. Colonies spread 
the influence and commercial dealings of Greece beyond the boundaries of the country, and draw the sur- 
rounding coasts of the Mediterranean into the circle of Hellenic life. 

During this period Greek literature, following in its peculiar development the laws of an inherent 
necessity, takes its commencement with epic and lyric poetry : whilst art cannot as yet free itself from the 
fetters of the traditional and symbolic, and so its advances are at first confined to mere technical 

Obs. The authorities are in general the same as in the former of Stephanus of Byzantium (Vth bsbcL a. d.) ; for the national games 

period. The most important information for this period is to be found and questions connected with them Pindar and the Scholiasts on that 

above all in Herodotus; but still — with the exception of Plutarch, author yield plenty of material; for the constitutional history the 

whose biographies of Lykurgus and Solon belong to this age — we Politika of Aristotle are the most important and instructive antho- 

have little to go upon except scattered notices. For the Greek rity — We have only very scanty information about the three centuries, 

colonies these notices are to be looked for, besides Herodotus and which lie between the migration of the Dorians and the first Olympiad, 

Strabo, chiefly in the Ile/ji^vijo-is of the so called Skymnus of Chios and to a certain extent form the boundary line between mythical and 

(ed. Meineke), and in an excerpt from the geographical lexicon (ESvixi) historical Greece. 

The Age of the Inner Development of the Hellenes. 



1104— 776 b. 0. 





Temenus, king of Argos^), Aristodemus, king of Sparta^), Kresphontes, king of Messenia'). 
Aristodemus dies, and leaves the sovereignty to his twin-sons Eurysthenes and Prokles, the 
forefathers of the two royal houses of Sparta^). 

1) According to Apollod. n, 8, 4 Pans. IV, 3, 3, the posgession of 
the three countries Argolis, Messenia, and Laoonia, was decided by lot 
between Temenus, Kresphontes, and the sons of Aristodemus (see obs. 
2), cf. Eurip. in Strab. p. 366. Polysen. I, 6. Sohol. Soph. Aj. 1271. 
Still the countries did not by any means come at once into the fuU 
and unqualified possession of the conquerors. In Argolis Temenus 
fortified Temenium in the neighbourhood of Argos; and from this 
place he carried on the war againt Tisamenus and the Aohseans, and 
BO gained Argos, see Pans. II, 88, 1. of. Strab. p. 368. Polysen. II, 12. 
As for the further history of Argos we may now observe, that Temenus 
was murdered by his sons, ApoUod. II, 8, 5. Paus. II, 19, 2, and that 
of his successors upon the throne we have the following mentioned 

(besides Pheidon, for whom see obs. 28): Keisus, Medon, Lakides,.... 

Meltas, with whom the kingship at Argos (probably not before the fifth 
century b.u., see Herod. VII, 149) ended, see Paus. II, 19, 2. Cf. id. : 
*Ap7e(ot dk are Iffrjyopiav Kal to avTovo/j.ov dyairoivTes ^k iraKatordTov rh 
TTJs ^^ouffias Tov ^airiXiav is iXdx^O'Tov irpoifyayov, lis Mijdavi tiJj Keluov 
Kal Tols diroyovoLS to ovofia XeKpdrjvai Tijs ^acrtXeias fiovov. M^rai' di 
rbv AaKiSeiij tov d-jroyovov M^5tu;/os to irapd-wav ^iravffev dpxrjs KaTayvovs 
6 d^iMos. According to Herod. I, 82, the whole east coast of Lakonia 
(therefore Kynuria also) belonged originally to the territory of Argos, 
which for several centuries stood at the head of the Dorian states of 
the peninsula. 

2) This according to Hesiod. VI, 52 was the view adopted by the 
Spartans themselves, whilst "the poets" (and after them most of the 
later authors, see Xen. Ages. VHI, 7. Apollod. H, 8, 2. Strab,. p. 364. 
Paus. ni, 1, 5. IV, 3, 3, etc.) made Aristodemus die before this, and 
only the sons enter upon the occupation of Sparta. According to 
Ephor. in Strab. p. 364, 365, Lakonia to begin with was distributed 
into six parts, and the former inhabitants were allowed to remain in 
possession of their homes with the same privileges as the conquerors, 
but were afterwards reduced to subjection under Agis the son of 
Eurysthenes. According to Paus. IH, 2, 6 Mgjs was first made sub- 
ject under Archelaus; Amyklee, Pharis, Geranthrs under Teleklus; 
and Helos, according to §. 7 id., not till the reign of Alkamenes. 

3) Kresphontes gained Messenia by a stipulation with the former 
inhabitants, who recognised his sovereignty (with the exception of the 
NeleidEe of Pylus, who emigrated to Athens, see obs. 9), and to whom 
in return he ceded equal privileges with the Dorians ; he made Stenyk- 
larus his capital, where accordingly the Dorians chiefly resided. See 
Ephor. in Strab. p. 361. Paua. IV, 3, 3. He was afterwards killed, 
together with the whole of his famUy, by the discontented Dorians; 
only one of his sons (Epytus was saved, and he succeeded his father 
on the throne, Paus. loc. oit. §. 5. Apollod. H, 8, 5. The succeeding 
kings up to the first Messenian war are Glaukus, Isthmius, Dotadas, 
Sybotas, Phintas, Antiochus and Androkles, Euphaes, Paus. IV, 3, 5. 
6. 4, 1. 3. 5, 2. For the nature of the country as compared with 
Lakonia see Eiurip. in Strab. 366: Tr/ii AaKwyi.Krip <j>riai.v ^eiv "irokiv 
Ijikv dpoTov, iKiroveiv S* ov ^^diov, koCKt] yap, opeai irepiSpojws, Tpax^'td re 
5viTeifffio\6s T€ ToXefdoLs" ttjv S^ M.eao-TjViaKijv " /caXXf/capTroy KaTd^pvroy 
re /MvpioLffL vdfiaai Koi ^ovffl Kal Tolfivata-iv ev^OTujTdTTjv out iv irvoaiffL 
X'EifiaTos SviTx^lf^pov ovT av TcdpLinrots TJKiov depfiifv ayai'." 

4) For the reason why both twins (who were only bom in 
this year) were made kings, so that in consequence the kingship, for 
the future also, remained divided between the descendants of both, see 
Herod. VI, 52; stOl the house of Eurysthenes was the more important 
and ranked higher, see id. 51. Yet neither of the royal houses was 
named after these progenitors, but one after Agis, the son of Eurys- 
thenes, the other after Eurypon, the grandson of Prokles (Agidte or 
Agiadae and Eurypontidse), see Paus. HI, 2, 1. 7, 1. Plut. Lyo. 2. 
They were placed during their minority under the guardianship of 
their uncle, Theras, and, when they had grown up, were continually 
disagreeing amongst themselves, Herod. VI, 52. Paus. HI, 1, 6, and 
so too their descendants, Herod, loc. cit. Arist. Pol. H, 6. The 
succession of kings here recorded (which is of some value and 
interest as one of the chief points on which the chronology is based) 
is chiefly founded upon Pausan. IH, 2—10. Herod. VH, 204. VHE, 
131, and, as regards the duration of their reigns, upon Eusebius Chron. 
Arm. ed. A. Mai I, 166, e4 Sohone H, p. 58 ff. (following ApoUodorus, 
Miiller, fragm. histor. Grseo. I, p. 443 f.). 



Second Period. 1104 — 500 e.g. 





1) Doric: 


Corinth made subject by 
Aletes to Dorian rule^). From 
Argos, directly or indirectly, Si- 
kyon, Troezen, Epidaurus, and 
^gina are dorised. 



Megara Dorian*). 

Death of Kodrus, abolition 
of the monarchy, institution of 
archons holding office for life and 
chosen from the family of the 


Melos"),Kos withKa- 
lydnus and Nisyrus, Knidus, 
Halikarnassus, Rhodes, seve- 
ral towns in Krete"). 

5) Aletes was the son of Hippotes, who derived his descent from 
Antiochus, the son of Herakles (Herakles^Antioohus — Phylas — 
Hippotes— Aletes), see Paus. n, 4, 3. Diod. in Syncell. p. 176. 0. 
According to Didymus in Sehol. Find. Olymp. XIII, 17 the establish- 
ment of Doric rule in Corinth took place in the thirtieth year after the 
immigration of the Dorians. Hippotes had accompanied the expedition 
of the Dorians, but having killed the seer Kamus at Naupaktus had in 
consequence become a fugitive, see Conon. 26. ApoUod. H, 8, 3. Paus. 
in, 13, 3. Aletes (so named from the flight and wandering of his 
father) conquered Corinth by entrenching himself, like Temenus at 
Temenimn, upon the hiU Solygeius near the town, and from here 
making war upon the city, see Thuo. IV, 42. The admission of the 
Dorians took place by way of compromise, and so the former inhabit- 
ants remained in their homes (they formed five tribes by the side of 
and subordinate to the three Dorian tribes, Suid. s. v. irivra oVrti), see 
Paus. loo. cit. Here ten kings after Aletes held rule (the fifth of the 
number being Bakchis), and after this Prytanes, changing annually, 
till the time of Kypselus, see Paus. loc. cit. §. 4. Diod. loc. cit. 

6) Sikyon by Phalkes, a son of Temenus, see Paus. H, 6, 4 : Troezen, 
as may be inferred from Ephor. in Strab. p. 389, by AgrSBUs, another 
son of Temenus, see Paus. H, 30, 9 : Epidaurus by Deiphontes, the 
son-in-law of Temenus, see Paus. H, 29, 5 of 28, 3. From Epidaurus 
Mgtna, was then dorised, see Herod. VHI, 40, cf. V, 83. Paus. H, 29, 
5 (by Triakon, Schol. Pind. Nem. HI, 1. Tzetzes on Lyk. 176.). That 
these towns were at an earlier period in a manner dependencies of 
Argos, is proved by several relics of this relation preserved to a later 
time, see Herod. VI, 92. Thuc. V, 53. 

7) The colony was led forth by Theras, a descendant of Eadmus 
and CEdipus, who, as uncle of the kings Eurysthenes and Prokles, 
filled the office of regent at Sparta, see obs. 4, and, after his occupation 
had come to an end, could not endure the thought of living there as a 
subject; the Minyse, who had sought refuge in Sparta, attached them- 
selves to him. The most important passage is Herod. IV, 145 — 149. 
of. CaUim. Hymn, in Ap. 74. Strab. p. 347. 484. Paus. HI, 15, 4. 
VH, 2, 1. 2. 

8) Herod. V, 76. Strab. p. 392—393. Paus. I, 39, 4. The ex- 
pedition was made under the conduct of Aletes, Conon. 26. Schol. 
Pind. Nem. VH, 155. 

9) Upon the death of Menesthens, who had deprived Theseus of 
the sovereignty at Athens (see p. 11, obs. 20), the Thesidte came back 
to the throne, and of this line there ruled in. succession Demophon, 

Oxyntes, Alpheidaa, Thymcetes. But the latter was deposed for a 
display of cowardice upon an invasion of Attica by the Boeotians (see 
First Period, obs. 27). In his stead the Neleid Melanthus was raised 
to the throne, who with the rest of the Neleidse had been driven out of 
Pylus by the Dorians (see obs. 3), and who now slew the leader of the 
enemy in a duel See Paus. H, 18, 7. Strab. p. 393. Herod. V, 65. 
Ephor. fr. 25. Polyffin. I, 19. He was succeeded by his son Eodrus, 
who on the expedition of the Dorians against Athens rescued his 
country at the sacrifice of his Ufe, and thereby at the same time gave 
occasion for the aboUtion of the monarchy. The most detailed account 
in Lykurg. adv. Leokr. p. 158. Cf. Herod. V, 76. Pherekyd. fr. 110. 
Polysen. I, 18. Conon 26. Medon, a son of Kodrus, was the first of 
the archons. 

10) According to Thuc. V, 84 the Melians were AaKeSai/wvlwy airoiKot. 
According to Conon. 36 in Photius p. 445. Plut. Quasst. Grac. c. 21. 
Polysen. VH, 94 the colony was founded by Achaeans, to whom 
Amyklje was assigned as a dwelling-plaoe in reward of the treachery of 
Philonomus. Part of the emigrants went stOl further to Gortyna in 

11) Tradition in respect to the above mentioned Doric colonies is 
wavering and uncertain. In Homer we already find dwelling in Krete 
the Awpi^cs Tpixo'fes, Odyss. XIX, 177, and hence the first Doric settle- 
ments are referred back to Tektamus or Tektaphus, a son of Dorus, 
see Diod. V, 80. Strab. p. 475 — 476. Steph. Byz. s. v. Adpiov. Later, 
after the death of Kodrus, the Herakleid Althsemenes goes from Megara 
to Krete, Strab. p. 653. cf. p. 479. This Althsemenes is then said to 
have gone to Ehodes and dorised it (the three towns Lindus, Kameirus 
lalysus) Ephor. in Strab. p. 479. Conon. 47. Diod. V, 59. Apollodor. 
HI, 2. On the other hand, in Thuc. VH, 57 the Ehodiaus are called 
'ApyetM yivoi and according to Strab. 645, simultaneously vrith the 
colony of Althfemenes, another colony, also from Megara, goes to 
Ehodes, Kos, Knidus, and Halikarnassus. Again the colonisation of 
Kos together with Kalydnus and Nisyrus is referred by Herodotus (VH, 
99) to Epidamrus, that of Halikarnassus by the same author (loc. cit. of. 
Strab. p. 656. Paus. H, 30, 8) to Troezen : and the Knidians are called 
AaKcSaifiovtav airowoi, Herod. I, 174. of. Diod. V, 61. Paus. X, 11. 
Strab. p. 663. Of the whole number of Doric colonies mentioned 
above, the three towns of Ehodes, together with Kos, Knidus, and 
Halikarnassus, formed a league, the so called Doric HexapoUs, which 
had a common sanctuary upon the promontory of Triopium and there 
celebrated an annual alliance-feast : but HaHkamassus was afterwards 
expelled from it, see Herod. I, 144. Dionys. Hal. IV, 25. 

The Age of the Inner Development of the Hellenes. 







Agidce : Eurypontidce : 

2) JEolic: 

Foundation of the 
12 towns on the north- 
west coast of Asia Mi- 
nor and of the towns 
on the islands, Lesbos, 
Tened os, and Hekaton- 

Kyme COumEe) in 
central Italy"). 

3) Ionic : 




Phlius dorised by 

Foundation of the 

twelve Ionic towns on 
the south-west coast of 
Asia Minor and in Chios 
and Samos under the 
conduct of sons of Ko- 

12) The foundation of the colonies is said to have been already 
begun by Orestes (on account of a plague. Demo in Sohol. on 
Eurip. Ehes. v. 250), and to have been carried out after many long 
delays by Gras, the great grandson of Orestes (Orestes — Penthilus — 
Archelaus — Gras), and by Kleues and Malaus, who are called de- 
scendants of Agamemnon ; it was to the former that the colonisation 
of Lesbos is in particular ascribed, to the two latter that of Kyme, the 
most important of the towns on the continent, see Strab. p. 582. 621 
(cf. Pind. Nem. XI, 34. HeUanikus in Tzetzes on Lykophr. 1374). 
The colonisation of Lesbos is placed 130 years after the destruction of 
Troy, that of Kyme 20 years later, (Ps.-) Plut. V. Homer. 36, cf. HeUan. 
loo. oit. The colonists stayed on their way in Boeotia, and were here 
joined by numerous (^olian) Boeotians; hence the designation of the 
colonies as ^olic, Strab. p. 204, cf. Thuc. VII, 57. For the colonies 
themselves the most important notice is Herod. I, 149 — 151. The 
names of the twelve towns on the continent, which embrace the whole 
coast from Kyme to Abydus (see Ephorus in Strab. p. 600), are ac- 
cording to that passage as follows: Kyme, Larissa, Neon Teichos, 
Temnus, KiUa, Notium, .fflgiroessa, Pitane, ^gse^, Myrina, Gryneia, 
Smyrna; the last was afterwards wrested from the .iEohans by the 
Kolophonians and attached to the Ionic confederacy, Herod, loc. cit. 
Strab. p. 633; six towns were founded on Lesbos, Mytilene, Methymna, 
Antissa, Pyrrha, Eressus, and Arisba; of which the last-named was 
afterwards reduced to subjection by Methymna; pne each on Tenedos 
and Hekatonnesoi, called by the same name as the island, Herod, 
loc. cit. 

13) Bhegnidas was the son of Phalkes (see obs. 6) and grandson of 
Temenus. Submission was made by way of a compromise, so that 
the former inhabitants remained in their homes. See Paus. H, 13, 1. 
cf. 12, 6. 

14) Founded by Kyme in Asia Minor and Chalkis in Euboea, the 
oldest of the Hellenic colonies in Italy, and the oldest altogether out- 
side the district of the Mgean sea, see Strab. p. 243. VeUei. Pat. I, n. 
Euseb. in SynkeU. p. 360. (H, p. 60 ed. Schone). 

15) For the time of the foundation of these colonies see the im- 
portant passages in Eratosthenes and Apollodorus, p. 12, obs. 25. For 

the colonies themselves and their foundation see esp. Herod. I, 142 

148. Strab. p. 632 S. As leaders of these colonies the sons of Kodrus 
occupy the most prominent position ; Neleus, to whom the foundation 
of Miletus, is ascribed, Herod. IX, 97. Paus. VH, 2, 1. .SiKan. V. H. 
Vin, 5. Strab. p. 633, and Androklus the founder of Ephesus, Strab. 
p. 632. Paus. Vn, 2, 5. The names of the towns : Miletus, Myus, 
Priene (these three in the district of Karia), Ephesus, Kolophon, 
Lebedus, Teos, Klazomens, and Phoksea (in Lydia), Erythrse, .Samos, 
and Chios, Herod. I, 142. As taking part in the movement, besides 
the lonians from the Pelopormese, there are also mentioned Abantes 
from Euboea, Minyse from Orchomenus, Kadmeians, Dryopes, Phoken- 
sians, Molossians, Arkadians, and even Dorians from Epidaurus. 
Herod. I, 146. of. Paus. VH, 2, 2. IX, 37, 3. The twelve towns (later, 
after the addition of Smyrna, thirteen, see obs. 12) formed an alliance 
with a common sanctuary, the Panionium, which was erected on the 
slope of the Mykale range and dedicated to Poseidon, Herod. I, 148. 
For the favourable situation of these towns, which, as regards pohtical 
and intellectual developineut, outstripped the motherland, but quickly 
fell into decay, see Herod. I, 142 : 01 SJ "laves ovtoi, <Sv Kal to 'liivLof 
^tXTL, Tov fikv oipavov KoX Tuv wp4ojv iv T(fJ KaWlffTi^ ^Tvyxo-vov Idpv- 
aa^eviji iroXtas iravTiav dydptjjTrcav t2v 'Qfiets tdfjLeif. Besides these towns, 
there were numerous other Ionic settlements upon the islands, see 
Herod. VU, 95. VHI, 48. 


SECOND Period, 1104 — 500 b.c. 










Commencement of hostilities between Sparta and Argos"), 



Epic Poetry flourishes. 

Homer and Homeridse. Iliad 
and Odyssey*). 

16) The Hngs, Soos, Eurypon, and Polydektes are omitted in the 
passage of Eusebius cited in obs. 4. It is therefore impossible to deter- 
mine exactly the length of their reigns. 

17) According to Pans. Ill, 2, 2—3 the Spartans had conquered 

Kynuria in the reign of Echestratus, and entered upon the war with 
the Argives under Labotas and Prytanis, on the ground of cffences, 
alleged to have been committed by the Argives touching the conc[uered 
territory, of. id. 7, 2. 

a) The acootmts given by ancient writers of the age of Homer vary 
between 1159, li-toi in PhUostratus Heroic, ch. XVIII, p. 194 and 685, 
Theopomp. iu Clem. Alexand. Strom. I, p. 327. By far the greatest 
number and the most authoritative writers set him down as co- 
temporary with the immigration of the Ibnians into Asia Minor, or 
later — ootemporary in particular according to Aristotle, (Pseud.-) Plut. 
Vit. Hom. and Aristarchus, (Ps.-) Plut. loo. cit. Clem. Alex. loe. cit., 
consequently about 1044, and stfll later accordiug to the oldest testi- 
mony, Herod. II, 53 : "RaloSov yap Kai "Oiitipov rfKiKl-qv TerpamaloKn 
(T€<nv SoKia fiev irpeff^vT^pov! yevi(r6ai Kal oi ttX^octi, consequently about 
850. Hence the account of ApoUodorus holds the mean between the 
date as fixed by Aristotle and as fixed by Herodotus. At a later period 
various towns laid claim to the honour of passing as Homer's birth- 
place, see Antip. Sidon. Ep. XLIV. Anthol. Pal. H, p. 716, of. Ep. 
Inc. 486 f. : 'Ettto TrdXets fidpvavro (ro(p'^v dta pi^av 'OfiTJpoVj X/j,vpvaf 
X&s, KoXo(ptiv, 'IddxTj, IIuXos, "Apyos, 'ABijvai, ct. Ep. Antipater (Ps.-) 
Plut. V. Hom. Procl. V. Horn. Of these, two have the best founded 
claim : Chios, the home of the minstrel-guild of the Homeridffi, Pind. 
Nem. II, 1: "Qdevirep koX '0fi7}piSaL | pairruv iir^iijv rd ttoXX' doidol | 
dpxovTai. Schol. loc. cit. 'Ofitjpidas iKeyov to fi^v dpxacov tovs dwo tov 
'Ofiripov yivovs, ot Kal ttjv TroiTjaiv aiirov iK StaSoxv^ rjdov, Strab. p. 646; 
and so moreover the bUnd bard of the Homeric Hymn to Apollo, 
(whom Thucydides holds to be Homer himself, HI, 104), and Simoni- 
des regarded Chios as Homer's native town, Anon. Vit. Homer. Equal 
claim is laid by Smyrna, where a sanctuary 'Opt.ripei.ov with a statue 
was dedicated to Homer, Strab. p. 646. Cio. pro Arch. 8, and accord- 
ing to the local legend Homer composed his poetry in a grotto by the 
springs of the river Meles and was called MeXvinyevijs, as being bom 
of the river-god, (Ps.-) Plut. V. Hom. Procl. V. Hom. Paus. VH, 5, 6. 
The island los must next be taken into consideration, Aristot. in GeU. 
HI, 11, 6, where the grave of Homer was shown, Paus. X, 24, 3, and 
the inhabitants of the island brought him sacrifices, Varr. in GeD. loc. 
cit. From the cultivation of Homeric poetry in these and other towns 
arose their claim to be accounted birthplaces of the poet. Of the other 
circumstances of Homer's life the Greeks had no more certain know- 
ledge, than of the time at which he lived. In any case the Homeric 
poems originated upon the west coast of Asia Minor; from thence they 
were transplanted to the mother-country in Europe, to Sparta by 
Lykurgus, as it is asserted, Plut. Lyk. ch. 4, to Argos before the time 

of Kleisthenes, Herod. V, 67. MMn. V. H. IX, 15. In Athena they 
were already naturalized at the time of Solon and Peisistratus, Diog. 
Laert. I, 57. Mhan. V. H. VlU, 2 ; passages from these poems were 
recited publicly at religious festivals, notably so in Athens at the 
Panathensea, as ordained by Solon and Hipparchus with precise di- 
rections to the various minstrels reheving one another, Diog. Laert. 
I, 57: Td 5^ 'Opivpov ^| vtto^oXtjs y^patpe {'ZoKuv) ^aif/udetadcUf otoi 
OTTOV 6 TpQnoi ^\7]^ev, iKclOev apxeadai tov ix^f^^^^^i ^^ (jyqffi Aievx^Sas 
iv Tois MeyapiKoTs. These minstrels were hence called />at)/aSol, "stitch- 
ers of songs," Bekk. Anecd. H, p. 769 : (rw^^pairTov yap tovs KaTdWriXov 
didvoLav d-rrapri^ovTas (TtIxovs 'OfnjpiKoiis Kal ^^aXXoy to i^ap/jiol^v fWiOS. 
Peisistratus about this time appointed a commission of three learned 
men, Onomakritus of Athens, Zopyrus of Herakleia, and Orpheus of 
Kroton, to collect and arrange in orderly series the scattered or loosely 
arranged Homeric ballads, Cramer Anecd. Grsec. Paris. I, p. 6. Schol. 
Plautin. Cod. Eom. sac. XV. Pausan. Vn, 26, 6. Cic. de orat. HI, 34. 
Epigr. Bekk. Anecdot. H, p. 768 : 6s tw "OpiTipov -ijepoura airopdSiiv to 
irplv de(.S6p.evov. What poems are to be ascribed to Homer is a point, 
upon which the ancients were already in doubt. By some sohoIarB a 
large number of the most heterogeneous poems was attributed to him, 
Suid. s. V. "Opi-qpos; another school of the old grammarians only allowed 
the IHad to be a genuine work of Homer, Procl. Vit. Horn.: 'OSmaeiav, 
■fjv 'Sbioiv Kal "EKKdviKoi dipaipowTai avToS ('O/tijpou), and therefore 
attributed the Ihad and Odyssey to different authors, and was hence 
called oi%(.)/)£forrcs," the Separatists." Longbeforethelliad and Odyssey, 
ballads treating of heroic legends, and in particular the cycle of Trojan 
legend, were sung to the Kithara, as is proved by the passages in both 
poems, in which performers such as AchiUes, Demodokus, and Phemius, 
sang of the "glories of heroes," H. IX, 189, of the "strife of Odysseus 
and AchiUes," Od. VHI, 73, of the "deeds and calamities of the 
Aohieans," Od. Vill, 489, of the "fashion of the wooden horse and 
of Troy's fall," loc. cit., of the "woeful return of the Achsans," 
Od. I, 326. Cf. also Herod. H, 23. Also the later origin of certain 
parts of the Homeric poems was already recognised by Alexandrine 
scholars; Aristarchus and Aristophanes regarded the conclusion of 
the Odyssey as spurious from XXIH, 296 onwards, Schol. Eustath.; 
Aristarchus passed the same judgment upon the twenty-fourth book 
of the lUad; further a large number of single verses were marked as 
later interpolations by the same scholars. The critical investigation 

The Age of the Inner Development of the Hellenes. 


B. C. 




Archelaus. Polydektes. 


Lykurgus, younger son of Eunomus and brother of Poly- 
dektes, conducts the government, as guardian of Charilaus") : 
by his legislation he puts an end to the factions and disorders 
which are rife in Sparta, and lays the foundation of the Spartan 
constitution and morals, which was to endure for centuries^"). 

Homeric Hymns"). 

Hesiodand his School. "Epya 
KoX rjfiepai. ©eoyovia"). 

18) This aooording to Eratosthenes and Apollodorus is the year, in 
which Lykurgus entered upon the guardianship, see p. 12, obs. 25, on 
which too hinge the dates of the reigns of the Spartan kings adopted 
in Eusebius from Apollodorus. Yet according to Herod. I, 65 Lykur- 
gus was the guardian of Labotas, consequently in the third generation 
from Eurysthenes; according to Thuc. 1, 18 the legislation of Lykurgus 
must be placed about sixty years later^han the date as given above. 
It must further be remarked, that according to Herod, loe. cit. Lykur- 
gus set about the work of legislation immediately after he had become 
guardian ((5s yap iTreTpoirevire rdxi-CTa /ier^o-Tijo-e rd p6/j.i/jLa Trdvra), accord- 
ing to Ephorus in Strab. p. 482, not until Charilaus had been invested 
with the sovereign power, up to which time he is said to have gone to 
Erete, to avoid suspicion, and to have stayed there, of. obs. 19. For 
other chronological accounts, see Hut. Lyk. 1. According to a fre- 
quently repeated account, Lykurgus in conjunction with the Eleian 
Iphitus organised the Olympic games and instituted the rehgious peace 
{{Kex^ipla) which lasted during the games, see Aristot. in Plut. Lyk. 

cf. id. 23. Paus. V, 4, 4. 20, 1. Athen. XI, p. 495 F. For further in- 
formation on this point see on 776 b. o. 

19) Our knowledge of the history of Lykurgus' life rests almost 
exclusively upon the biography of Plutarch, aooording to which he 
travelled before his legislative work (see in opposition to this view 
the passage of Herodotus in the preceding note) to Krete, Asia Minor, 
and Egypt; and in his task relied throughout upon the oracle at 
Delphi (for the latter circumstance cf. Herod. I, 65). 

20) For the before Lykurgus see Herod. I, 65. Thuo. I, 18. 
Hut. Lyk. 2. For the legislation of Lykurgus in general the chief 
passages are, besides Plutarch, Aristot. Pol. II, 6. Xenoph. de Eep. 
Lac. Ephorus in Strab. p. 481 ff. and the exhaustive judgment upon it 
in Polyb. YI, 48 — 50. The constitution appears in general a more pre- 
cise embodiment of the poUtical conditions in Homer. At the head 
stand the two kings, for whom see obs. 1. For their privileges and 
honours see especially Herod. VI, 56 — 60. At their side stands the 

of modern times, instigated in particular by Fr. A. Wolf (Prolegomena 
ad Homerum, 1795) has proceeded further in this direction, and denied, 
both in the case of the lUad and Odyssey, the unity of the authorship 
and also of the date of composition. In the case of the Ihad in par- 
ticular, by the side of the ancient belief two different views of capital 
interest have been propounded concerning the origin of the poem. 
According to one, the Hiad is the concretion of a number of smaller 
ballads, which were woven together, the gaps being filled by inserted 
passages, and the traces of the process removed in revision ; Homer is 
therefore no historical personage, but only the personified conception 
and expression of aU poetry of this type. According to the other view, 
a great and surpassing poet-genius, Homer, selected from the older 
ballads concerned with the Trojan cycle of legend the narrative of 
the wrath of Achilles (H. I, 1), and composed with unity of design 
an AchiUeis, an Hiad of smaller compass. This poem was elaborated 
with greater breadth and fulness by brotherhoods of minstrels, akin 
in spirit, not only within the limits of the original design, but also 
by the insertion of passages and rhapsodies, which were not confined 
within those limits. In regard to the Odyssey, modern investigation 
has brought forward preponderating reasons to show that it is of a 
later origin than the Hiad, but that, to begin with, it was originally 
planned with a definite unity of design from the store of older 
ballads dealing with the return home of the Achaean princes, then 
worked out with greater fulness, and extended by later interpola- 
tions and additions. The worth of the Homeric poetry was already 
appropriately pointed out by the ancients. So Aristotle in Plut. de 
Pyth. Orac. p. 398 A : 'A/mittot^ijs ti,kv oiv fwvoj/ "Oiiripov IXeye mvoi/ieva 

ovonara troielv Sid rriv ipipyeiav, and Cic. Tuso. V, 39, 114: Traditum 
est etiam Homerum caecum fuisse. At elus pioturam, non poesin 
videmus. Quae regio, quae ora, qui locus Graeciae, quae species 
formaque pugnae, quae acies, quod remigium, qui motus hominum, 
qui ferarum non ita expictus est, ut, quae ipse non viderit, nos ut 
videremus, effecerit. The different character of the poetry in the Iliad 
and Odyssey is defined in Aristot. Poet. 24, 3 : ^ p.iv 'IXids d-TrXow Kal 
iradTjTLKOVj 7] d^ 'Odvaaeca ireirKeyp.^voi'* dva.yvdjpLtn^ yap dc6\ov Kal ri$iK7i. 

b) The so-called Homeric hymns, thirty-three in number, may be 
traced to very different times. The older and longer hymns, to the 
Delian and Pythian Apollo, to Aphrodite, Hermes, and Demeter, be- 
long to the age of the Homeridse. Thucyd. HI, 104. Schol. Pind. 
Nem. n, 1, Paus. IX, 30, 6. Athen. I. p. 22 B : "O/j-ripo! rj tw tis 
'Op,7jpiScov hf TOLs eh 'ATroXXwpa vp.vois. Later in origin are the 'Etti- 
7pd|U/xaTo handed down under Homer's name, and two parody epics, 
the lost Mapylrrfs and the extant Barpaxop-vofiaxl-ay about the author 
of which the ancients were themselves very doubtful. Aristot. Poet. 4. 
Harpoor. v. MapvfrTjs. Suid. v. niypris. Plut. De Malign. Herod. 43. 
p. 873 f. Tzetzes Exeg. H. p. 37. 

c) Hesiod was bom at Askra in Bceotia, to which place his father 
had emigrated from the iEoHc Eyme. With regard to the time at 
which he Uved, accounts differ, Tzetzes Chil. XII, 165 ff: 'Ho-ZoSos o 
irporepos Kara rtvas 'OiiT}pov, | /card Tivas 5" Woxpovos, vffrepos Kad' er^povs. 
He was looked upon as older than Homer, amongst others by Ephorus, 
Gell. m, 11, 2, and Nikokles, Schol. Pind. Nem. H, 1, as contem- 
porary with Homer by Herodotus, H, 53, HeUamkua and Pherekydes, 


Second Period. 1104 — 500 b.c. 







council of old men, yepovo-la, wHch, including the two kings (the 
latter had only one vote each, see Thuo. I, 20, cf. Herod. VI, 57), con- 
sisted of thirty members, see Hut. L. 26. By the side of these powers 
in the state the five ephors (instituted according to Herod. I, 65. Xen. 
de Eep. L. VLU, 3 by Lykurgus himself, according to Plut. Legg. HI. 
p. 692. Arist. Pol. Yin, 11. Plut. L. 7, 27 only by Theopompus) 
raised themselves little by little to an authority which grew steadily; 
they were chosen from the people {iK tov Sij/iou, Arist. Pol. II, 6, hence 
called ol ruxoVres ib.) for one year only, and finally usurped ahnost all 
the powers of government. Lastly, the popular assembly (dXia Herod. 
Vn, 134, direWd^eiv, Plut. L, 6) could only accept or reject the 
measures of the council of elders (and afterwards of the ephors), but 
could not itself propose measures. The members of this assembly 
consisted only of Spartiatse, the descendants of the Dorian conquerors, 
who were the masters of the country, and alone possessed of full civic 
rights. They were divided into three tribes, the HyUeis, Pamphyli, 
and Dymanes (see p. 10, obs. 19), into (probably 30) Obse, see Plut. 
Lyk. 6, and were originally equal in rank and privileges [oiioioi. Xenoph. 
De Eep. L. x, 70. Isocrat. Areop. § 61), whilst at a later period the 
KoXoi KayaSoi, Arist. Pol. H, 6, 15, or yviipi/xoi, id. Y, 6, 7, are elevated 
above' the rest {{nrofieioi'e!, Xenoph. Hell. HI, 2, 6?) as a higher class 
of Spartiatffi. Besides the Spartiatas there were still the two sub- 
ordinate classes of the population : UepioiKoi, also called Aa/ceSai/iii'ioi, 
and E'iXoiTes (so called either from the town Helos, Plut. L, 2. 
Ephorus in Strab. p. 365, or from the verbal stem "BAfi) ; the persons 
of the former were free, but they had no right of voting in the pubUo 
assembly or share in honourable privileges ; the latter were bondsmen, 
not of the individual Spartiatse, to whose service they were only 
appointed by the state, but of the state, see especially Ephorus loc. 
cit., and were chiefly employed to cultivate the lands of the Spartiatse 
and to accompany them as Ught-armed soldiers in war, see Herod. IX, 
28, where it is stated that at Platsea the 5000 Spartiatae had with them 
35,000 Helots as light-armed troops, (Neo5a/iu5eis, freedmen, see e.g. 
Thuc. Y, 34. YH, 19. 48. 58. Xenoph. HeU. IH, 1, 4. 4, 2. /lifln/ces, 
the children of Helots, who were brought up with children of the 
Spartiatas and afterwards generally set free, see Phylarch in Athen. 
VI, 271, the KpvTTTeia, Plut. Lyk. 28, an instance of atrocity practised 
on Neodamodes, Thuc. IV, 80. Eough statement of the comparative 
numbers ia the three classes at the time of Sparta's greatest pros- 
perity : 40,000 Spartiatffi, 120,000 Perioeci, 200,000 Helots.) In regard 
to the character of the Lykurgean constitution in general see Aristot. 

Pol. n, 3 : "EvioL /ih ovv \(yovnv, lis SeT tjjv aplaTT/v troKirelav i^ i.rairui' 
elvai Tdv to\lt€lwv ^e^y^hy^v Sto Kal T7]V tuv AaKeSaifwj/tojjf ^iraivomLV, 
eXvai. yhp avrriv ol fih i^ oXiyapxlas Kol fiovapxtis Kal Sij/w/cparfos <pa<rl, 
\dyovT€S TTjv pt^v ^axTikelav pA>vapxlav, ttiv 8^ tCjv yepovTOJv dpxrjv oktyap- 
X^av, S-rffiOKparelffdat d^ Kara t7)v tup i(f>6po3v lipxv^ ^f^ to ^k tov dripiov 
etvai Tom i<p6povs, and in greater detail Polyb. YI, 10. — ^But Lykurgus 
especially aimed at the formation of mind and morals in the Spartiatse, 
by means of specially adapted institutions in harmony with his legis- 
lation, and particularly at the development, to the highest possible 
degree, of the iretdapxi'iv and the Kaprrepetv. Hence the distribution of 
the soil, by which a fixed landholding was assigned to every head of 
a famOy among the Spartiatse, of which he had not the free disposition, 
either by sale or purchase, by deed of gift or bequest (the latter rule 
was in force tiU the law of the Ephor Epitadeus after the Peloponnesian 
war, see Plut. Ag. 5) : to this end the lands of the Spartiatse were 
distributed ilito 9000 lots (/cXSpoi; to begin with, however, perhaps only 
4500 or 6000, the full number only after the conquest of Messenia) 
Plut. Lyk. 8. cf. Herachd. Pont. ch. 2. Hence the public education, 
dywyri, which was also extended to females, Xen. de Rep. L. I, 4, but 
in which the boys and young men in particular were obliged to take 
part from their seventh to their thirtieth year, if they did not wish to 
lose their fuU civic rights, Arist. Pol. H, 6, and in the course of which 
the boys were distributed into TKai and dy^cu (dor. jSouat), under 
special superintendents {irai.Soi'o/ioi, ^ovayol), exercised chiefly in gym- 
nastics, and further hardened by peculiar contrivances (the SmiuuttI- 
yaa-is at the altar of Artemis Orthia, stealing, Plut. L. 18. Xen. De Eep. 
L. n, 6), and accustomed to the practice of obedience by the subordi- 
nation of the younger to the elder in various gradations (o-iSeijrai, 
fieXKelpevei, irpwreipai., a-^aipeTs, elpeves). The principle of the training 
was, Thuc. I, 84 : xpaTuXTOV elyai oWts ^i* tois dvayKaioTaTois raiSeierai, 
its effect Xen. de Eep. L. m, 4. Arist. Pol. Y, 4. Hence, finally, the 
(Tva-trlTia {(piSlTui, avSpeta) of the men, with the standing dish of black 
soup (called al/MTla or /Sa^d), the ivia/ioTlai. in war, Herod. I, 65. 
Thuc. Y, 68, the banishment of the noble metals, Plut. Lyk. 9, 19. 
Lys. 17. Pol. YI, 49, the restrictions upon intercourse with foreigners 
(^evTiXacrla.), Thuc. I, 144. H. 39, and other regulations.— To compel 
the Spartiatffi to maintain these laws, Lykurgus exacted an oath from 
them, that they would not alter anything until his return; he travelled 
to Delphi, but never returned back, Plut. Lyk. 29, 31, and thus the 
laws were actually retained up to the time of the Peloponnesian war 
essentially unaltered. 

Procl. Yit. Horn., and also in the inscription of a tripod on Mt. 
HeUkon, Dio Chrysost. T. I. p. 76. ed. Eeiske: "RaloSos Moucrois 
'KKiK(i>vl(n Tovff dviOr]Kev | vfivip viK-rjuas h 'KoKkISi. 0eiov 'Ofnipov, as 
later by PhOochorus and Xenophanes, Gell. HI, 11, 2, Eratosthenes, 
Strab. p. 23, and ApoUodorus, Strab. p. 298. 299. The latter supposi- 
tion is supported by the character of the poems attributed to the poet. 
The accounts of Hesiod's Ufe are mythical and wavering, Paus. IX, 
31, 5; his tomb with its epitaph was shown at Orchomenus, Paus. IX, 
38, 3. Great difference of opinion ruled amongst the Greeks as to 
what poems were the genuine work of Hesiod. Only the "Bp-yo koX 

rj/idpai, a poem upon the daily duties of husbandry and housekeeping, 
was unanimously ascribed by all to Hesiod, with the exception of the 
first ten lines, Paus. IX, 31, 4. Yet this poem was already at an early 
date eiJarged and mutilated in various ways by interpolations and 
additions. The eeoyovla, an epic collection of the legends of the 
generation and struggles of the gods, giants, and heroes, is indeed 
suspected, Paus. YHI, 18, 1. IX. 31, 4, but still regarded as the work 
of Hesiod, in conformity vrith the universal opinion of Greek antiquity, 
and in particular of the Alexandrine scholars. The Theogony also suf- 
fered great changes at an early period in its component parts, and was 

The Age of the Inner Development of the Hellenes. 






Alkamenes. Theopompus. 

Epic treatment of the Greek 
legendary material by the Cyclic 

reduced in form to loosely connected patchwork. The 'Ao-ttIs 'HpafcX^ous, 
a description of the shield of HeraMes on occasion of the fight between 
Herakles and Eyknos, was aheady disclaimed as the work of Hesiod 
by Alexandrine scholars, Bekk. Anecdot. p. 1165 : dal yap koI iv airoU 
ofitijvvfia jSi^Ma ^evSij olov t] 'Ao-ttIs 'HirioSou Kal ra Qfipiam 'NiKaydpov- 
Mpuv yap ela-i iroLrp-dv. Further, a number of poems now lost were by 
some scholars attributed to Hesiod. Thus the KaraXoyos yvvaiKui/, 
'Holae, 'AlyifiLOSj M.eKafiTodla, Kiyu/cos ya/j/)s, but nothing certain is 
known of the authors of these poems. 

d) KvXiKol TOLTp-al was the name given to the Epic poets, who were 
later than Homer and in particular handled the heroic legend, which 
borders upon Homer's legendary material. Sohol. Clem. p. 104 : 
KvXiKol 5h KoXovvTdi TTOirp-al ol Ta KVKXtp ttjs 'IXtddos rj ra fierayevitTTepa 
^1 avrCiv twv ' Ofj/rjptKuiv ffvyypa^avres. Their poems are, except un- 
important fragments, entirely lost; for our knowledge of them we 
depend chiefly upon an epitome, which the grammarian Proklus made 
of them (in Phot. cod. 239), and further upon the works of plastic art, 
the so-called tabula Iliaca (in Eome) and the marmor Borgianum (in 
Naples). The Trojan cycle of legend was handled in the following 
poems: Kvirpta, from the origin of the Trojan war to the beginning 
of the niad, Herod. H, 117. Athen. "VHi, p. 334. „. XV, p. 682. D. E., 
AWioirls by the Milesian Arktinus, from the close of the Iliad to the 
death of AohiUes, Procl. Chrestom, Phot. Bibl. Cod. 239. Suid. v. 

' ApKTwoi; 'IXias fuKpi. by the Lesbian Lesches, Pansan. X, 25. 3, or by 
another poet, Sohol. Eur. Troad. 821. Pausan. HI, 26, 7, from the 
contest for Achilles' arms to the conquest of the town ; 'IXlov tiipan by 
Arktinus, Procl. Chrest. loo. cit. Hieron. 01. 4. p. 50, the conquest and 
destruction of the town; Noittoi by Agias of Troezen, Procl. loc. cit. 
and by other poets, Suid. v. Noo-tos, the return home of the Greek 
chiefs, T-qXeyovla by Eugammon of Kyrene about 560 B.C., Clem. Alex. 
Strom. VI. p. 751. Procl. loc. cit, the final fortunes and the death 
of Odysseus. To other legendary cycles belonged the Gi/jSafs, Paus. IX, 
9, 3, ''Eiivlyovoi., Herod. IV, 32, 0i5i7r65«a, by Kinsethon, Marmor 
Borgianum, or by another poet, Pausan. IX, 5, 5; OlxaXlm aXuffis 
by Kreophylus of Samos, Pausan. IV, 2, 2; 'HfriKXeio by Kinsethon, 
Sohol. ApoUon, I, 1357 ; Mivuis by the Phoksean Prodikus, Pausan. IV, 
33, 7, etc. Of a genealogical character, like the Theogony, were: 
liravoiMxla, Clem. Al. Strom. I. p. 361; NctuiroKTia (wt) by Karkinus 
of Naupaktus (?), Pausan. X, 38, 6; ^apavU ('ApyoXiKaj, Sohol. ApoU. I, 
1129 ; 'AtBIs by Hegesinus, Paus. IX, 29, 1, etc. Apart from the Cyclic 
poets stands Peisandrus of Kameirus in Rhodes, who flourished pro 
bably about 647, Suid. v. lida-avdpos. In his epic poem 'RpiKXeia he 
was the first to furnish Herakles with the club in his labours, Pausan. 
H, 37, 4. Yin, 22, 4. Strab. p. 688. Schol. ApoU. I, 1195. Suid. 
loo. cit. Theokrit. Epigr. H,6. ed Ahr. The age of the Epic poet Asius 
of Samos is uncertain, Athen. IH. p. 125. 


Second Period. 1104 — 500 b.c. 

776—500 B.C. 









Koroebus, victor in the Olympic games, the first whose name is recorded : Com- 
mencement of the Olympiads ^^). 

21) Tlie Tvpavvh (omnes liabentur et diountur tyranni, qui potestate 
sunt perpetua in ea civitate, qusB libertate usa est, Com. MUt. 8. cf. 
Aiist. Pol. YI, 10, 4) generally arises from tlife rfebellion, or at least 
disoonteiit and liostUity , kindled amongst the people by tbe pressiu* 
of the oligarchic rule; these circumstances some indiridual then 
utilises to make himself tyrant by the agency of the people. In the 
mixed Doric states, in which the citizens consisted in part of Non- 
Dorians, it generally happened, that the Non-Dorians rose up against 
the pri-rileged Dorian population, and stripped them of the sovereignty. 
The chief passages in regard to tyraimy in general are Plut. de rep. 
Vrn. & IX. Xenoph. Hiero, and particularly Aristot. Pol. YIII, 
10 — 11. See id. 10, 3 : o 5^ Tvpavvos (KaBlcrTarai) Ik tou Sij/xou koI toO 
ir\7fdovs iirl to{/s yvoipi/Xovs^ ottois 6 5^/ios ddcKrjrat fxrjSkv vir aOrQp. 
^avepbv 5* ^K rSiV (TM^^e^Titcbrtiiv, "Zx^^hv yhp ol irKeunoi tojv Tup&vfoiv 
yeybvaaiv iK Srjfiayojyi^Pj ws eiirciv, TriaTevO^VTes ^k tov Sta^dWeiv roi/s 
yvuplfMivi. For the measures, by which the tyrants generally attempted 
to estabhsh their power, see id. 11, 5: "Bim Sk rd re TrdXm Xex^^^'^a 
wpis ffuynjptav ws ot6y te rrji Tvpavvidos, Tb robs v7rep^xo^^**s KoKobeiv Kal 
Tois (ppcvTHJ.aTlas dvaipetv Kal fi.'^e aVaah-M iav /irp-e iraiplav jiTfre jrAiSdav 
fi-lp-e oXXo liriSh toiovtov, dXXA Tr&vTa tj)v\i,TTe(.v , odev etuBe ylve<r$ai dio, 
(ppov-qiMTd re koX Ttfftm. Besides the tyrants of Sikyon, Corinth, 
Megara, and Athens, for whom see infra, we further find recorded 
Prokles of Epidaurus at the time of Periander, Herod, in, 50, Pansetius 
at Leontium, Kleander at Gela, Anaxilaus at Ehegium, Aristot. Pol. 
Vm, 12, 13 (where aU these are counted amongst the tyrants of 
the earUer time, i. e. somewhere about the sixth century, with the 
additional statement, koI i» aXXais irbXetiv uxtaiTas), Hippokrates and 
Gelon at Gela, Herod. Vn, 154, 155, Telys at Sybaris, Herod. V, 14. 
Diod. Xn, 9. 10, Aristodemua at Cumss, Dionys. Hal. VH, 2 — 11, 
Syloson at Samos, Herod. HE, 39. 189 — 149, Polykrates at the same 
place, Herod. IH, 89—56. 120—125, of. Polyten. VI, 44. I. 23, 1, 
Lygdamis at Naxos, Herod. I, 61. 64. Arist. Pol. VHI, 6. 1, and 
others. Their rule was generally (though not always) violent and 
cruel, and for that very reason of short duration, see Arist. Pol. YIH, 
12, 1 : TTO/ritJv dXiyoxpoPictiTepai. rajv ToKiTeLwv el<rlv dXiyapxia koX rvpavvLs. 
TXeldTov yb,p iyivero xfi>vov 17 Trepi 2i/ci;i3ya Tvpapvls, rj Tuv 'Op8aybpov 

TulSap Kal aiTOv'OpBaybpov iri) S aiin) SU/Meivev iKarbv. To show the 
disposition of the Hellenes towards the tyrants at a later period, 
Eurip. Suppl. 429 may suf&oec WSh rvpivvov Sva-nevinTepov irbXei, | 
ovov rb piiv n-p'arujTov ovK elalv vb/wi | Koivol, Kparei S" efs, rbv rbfioji 
KeKTri/Mims | airbs trap avTip. The Spartans were especially active in 
expelling the tyrants, see Arist. Pol. VIH, 10, 30. Plutarch, de Herod. 
Mai. ch. 21. p. 859, and in this very policy, aided by many other 
favourable circumstances, found a chief means of establishing their 
hegemony in Greece. 

22) For the traditional institution of the Olympic games by Herakles 
see Pans. V, 7, 4. Pind. 01. H, 3, 4. IH, 21, etc. Polyb. XH, 26, 2; 
for the renovation of the games by ElymenuB, Pelops, Amythaon etc., 
Pans. V, 8i 1. According to Strabo p. 354 Oxylus was the founder, 
of. Paus. V, 8, 2 ; after Oxylus the games are said to have fallen into 
oblivion, until Iphitus in common with Lykurgus restored them in the 
year 884 b.c, see obs. 18. But the victors are only recorded, and the 
Olympiads reckoned, from the year given above and onwards, see 
Phlegon. Trail, fr. 1. 12 (ed. MiUler). According to Aristot. in Plut. 
Lyk. 1 the name of Lykurgus was inscribed upon a discus, existing at 
Olympia, together with that of Iphitus, as founder of the Olympic 
games, of. Pausan. Y, 20, 1 ; and according to Phleg. fr. 1 the organi- 
sation of the Olympic games was recorded on this same discus. If, 
then, according to Paus. VHI, 26, 3 the inscription on the tomb of 
Koroebus stated, that Koroebus was the first victor of aU, some proba- 
bility accrues to the theory, that Koroebus was victor at the first 
celebration of the Olympic games reorganised by Lykurgus and 
Iphitus; and hence that Lykurgus belongs to the time of the first 
Olympiad, and the earlier date rests upon false premises of later 
chronologists, notably of Timseus, see Plut. loo. cit. For the place of 
the celebration and its remarkable sights, Paus. V, 10—27. At first 
the contest consisted only of the footrace over the single stadium 
(=600 feet, GeU. N. A. I, 1. Herod. H, 149) : in 01. XIV the doiible 
course, SiauXos, was added; in 01. XV the long course, S6Xixos (the 
length of which is variously stated at 7, 12, 14, 20, and 24 stadia, see 
Suid. s. V. SiauXos and S6Xixos); in 01. XVHI the vivTaBXov {oK/ia, 
SiffKos, dpi/Mos, ir&Xit and ■n-uyix-q, or later i,KbpTurvs) and the wrestling; 

The Age of the Inner Development of the Hellenes. 







II, 3 


In Italy, etc. 

in the Eastern Sea^). 
Sinope by Miletus"). 

in 01. XXin the boxing; in 01. XXV the race with the four-horse 
chariot (iinrijiv reXeW) ; in 01. XXX TIT the Pankratium and the race 
on horsehaok (frTros K^Xrjs), etc., see Paus. V, 8, 3, Euseb. Chron. 
The olivebranoh was the prize of victory from 01. VII, see Phleg. Tr. 
fr. 1 ; cf. the pleasing narrative Herod. Vm, 26 (a Persian there says 
to Mardonius : imiral MapSdne, koIovs iw dvSpas ^a7e! fiax^^ofjAvovs 
TljiAas oJ oi Trepl xpi/itidTUP rbv i,yu>va ttoiovvtiu iXKb, wepl dpeTTJs). The 
celebration of the festival took place every four years, on the tenth to 
the sixteenth day of the first month in the year, which coincided with 
the first month of the Athenian year, Hekatombseon, and consequently 
began with the first new moon after the summer solstice (according to 
another , theory with the new moon which lay nearest the summer 
solstice) ; therefore approximately in the first half of July, see Schol. 
on Pind. 01. IH, 33. 35. V, 6. 8. The employment of the Olympiads 
as a chronological era is found in isolated instances in Thucydides 
{m, 8. V, 49) and Xenophon (HeUen. I, 2, 1. H, 3, 1), but only 
becomes the rule in Timaeus and of extant writers in Poly bins, 
Diodorus, and Dionysius of Halikamassus. In placing the years 
reckoned by Olympiads parallel with the years reckoned before the 
birth of Christ in the tabular columns, the Olympiad year has been 
assumed to correspond to that year of the Christian era, in the 
course of which the Olympiad commences; so that e.g. 01. I, 1 and 
the year 776 b.o. have been placed together as corresponding to one 
another, whilst the former properly extends from July 776 to July 775 ; 
consequently, if an event falls in the half-year prior to the festival, the 
Olympiad year immediately preceding must be assumed. Orsippus is 
mentioned as the first, who ran in the footrace naked, a custom which 
from that time became the rule for contests of all species, Paus. I, 44, 
1, or Akanthus, Dionys. Hal. VH, 72, in the 15th Olymp. Dion. H. loc. 
cit. Distinctions awarded to the Olympian victors : the entry into their 
native town (ela-eXaiyeiv), celebrated with rejoicings, at which, to do 
honour to the occasion, a breach was not uufrequently made in gate 
and waUs, see Plut. Symp. H, 5, 2. Dio. Cass. LXIH, 20. Suet. Ner. 
25, the presidency at public games and festivals, Xenophon in Athen. 
XI. p. 414 ; at Athens, the privilege of dining in the Prytaneium, Plut. 
Apol. Socr. p. 36. D, at Sparta, the honour of fighting in battle near 
the king, Plut. Lyk. 22; and statues were often erected to them in 
their native town, Lykurg. Leokr. p. 151. Paus. VI, 13, 1, etc. More- 
over the victors were permitted to have their statues placed in the 
sacred grove Altis at Olympia, which was frequently done at the 
expense of the state, to which they belonged, Paus. V, 21, 1. VI, ch. 
1—18, after 01. LIX, see Pans. VI, 18, 5. Of the indd^eis (show- 
declamations), which were delivered at the games, the most celebrated 
is that of Herodotus, see Lucian. Herod. I, 2. Quomodo hist, sit 
censor. § 42. Suid. s. v. OovKudldris. Phot. Cod. 60. Marcellin. Vit. 
Thuo. p. 32; for that of Gorgias, see Paus. VI, 17, 5. For the uni- 
versal significance of the games see Lysias in Dionys. Hal. de Lys. 
Jud. c. 30. (ed. Eeiske V. p. 520): dySva /liv o-oi/jAtoiv iwolTice (Herakles), 
<l>L\oTifiiav 5^ TrXoiSry, yvuifiT}^ 5^ ^iriSu^iv iv t(^ KaXXfffTy ttjs "EXXdSos, 
tua TO&rojv awdvTav ^j/SKa is rb adrb ^X^w/iei* tcl fikv 6^6fiei'ot. to. di 
dKOVffhp^voi' TjyTjcraro ycip rbv ifddde ff^Woyov dpxw y^viadai TOis 
"EXXijo-i Trjs Tpbs dXX^Xous ^iKlas. — Similar to the Olympic games, 
though not of equal repute, were the Pythian games at Delphi, which 
were said to have been instituted by Apollo, but only attained a wider 

extension and significance after 01. XLVIH, 3, see especially Paus. X, 
7, 3. Strab. p. 418—423. Schol. Pind. Pyth. Arg. cf. Soph. El. v. 
681 — 756, and obs. 67 ; the Nemean in honour of Zeus, said to have 
been founded by the Seven on occasion of their expedition against 
Thebes, see Apollod. HI, 6, 4 : the Isthmian at the isthmus of Corinth, 
the foundation of which is attributed to Sisyphus in honour of 
Melikertes, Paus. H, 1, 3; or to Theseus, Plut. Thes. 25; the two 
latter dating their historical commencement according to Euseb. 
Chron. p. 94 f. from 01. LI. 3 (Arm., LH, 1 Hieron.) and L, 1 
(Arm., XLIX, 4 Hieron. Cf. however in regard to the Isthmian Plut. 
Sol. 23) ; both were celebrated every two, not like the others every four 

23) The Colonies in the eastern sea — subsequent to the earlier 
colonies which followed upon the migration of the Dorians and Hera- 
yeidse and prior to the naval supremacy of Athens — proceed chiefly 
from ChaUds and Eretria in Eubcea and from Miletus. The numerous 
colonies of ChaMs and Eretria cover the whole of the peninsula of 
Chalkidike; for these see Strab. p. 447, and the names of the greater 
part in Herod. VH, 122. 123. Mende, for example, is mentioned as 
having been founded by Eretria, Thuc. IV, 123, Torone by Challds, 
id. 110. But Potidffia was a Corinthian colony, Thuc. I, 56, and the 
towns Akanthus, Stageira, Argilus, and Sane were founded by Andros, 
Thuo. IV, 84. 88. 103. 109. The colonies of Miletus extended in great 
numbers from the Hellespont to the remote interior of the Pontus 
Euxinus. Scymn. Ch. v. 734; TrXelaras diroiKfas yap i^ 'lavlas (oi 
MtXiJffiOt) ^trretXap ds rbv HdvTOVt ov irplv a^^vov Sict rhs iirL0iirecs Xeyd- 
fjkevov Tihv ^ap^dpcov irpoaryyoplas iiroiq<ra.v ev^ehov rvx^'^v, Strab. p. 365 ; 
■KoKKk bk T-qs TToKiws ^pya Ta&njs, fjAyiarov 5k rb ttX^^oj tS)v dirotKtwv ' 
b re ydp "Ev^eivos irbvTos vrb roirwv cvv(^KLffTai Tras koX 7} 'npoTrovrU koX 
aXXot TrXetcrrot t&jtol. 'Ava^ifUvTjs yovv 6 Aafi^paKtjvbs oiiroj tptjalv otl koX 
"iKapov TTjv vriaov Kal Aijpov MtX^trtot txvv^Kiaav koX Trepl 'KKXTjairovrov 
if fjUv T^ 'Ke^povrjac^ \ip,vas, iv bk t§ 'Aaig, "A^vbov "Apia^av Jlaiffby, iv 
bk TTJ 'Kv^LKTJvQv VTJ(T(^ ' AprdKTJV KO^LKOf ' iv bk T^ iieffor^diq. TTJs Tp(f)dbos 

^KTjtf^iv. In addition to these, there are further mentioned as colonies 
of Miletus in those parts ; Lampsakus, Strab. p. 589, Kardia, Scymn. 
699, ApoUonia, id. 730, Odessus, id. 748, Tomi, id. 765, Istrus, id. 769, 
Tyras, id. 830, Olbia or Borysthenes, id. 833, Eepus, id. 890, Sinope, 
id. 947, Phasis, Steph. Byz, s. v., Pantikapseum, Strab. p. 310. Be- 
sides the colonies of Miletus, there were a number of colonies from 
Megara (Chalkedon, Byzantium, Selymbria, Mesembria), and from 
Lesbos (Sestos, Madytus, ^nus). The date of their foundation is 
generally unknown; the majority must be placed in the 7th, and a 
considerable number in the 8th century B.C.; those only are cited in 
the tables, the date of which can be, at least approximately, de- 

24) Sinope was twice founded from Miletus, the second time ac- 
cording to Hieron. Chron. in 630 B.C. (= 1387 Abr.) p. 89; the first 
foundation must be placed somewhere about the year as given above, 
as Trapezus together with Kotyora and Kerasus was founded from 
Sinope, see obs. 25. Its relationship to Miletus is mentioned, besides 
Scymn. 947, in Xen. Anab. V, 9, 15. Diodor. XIV, 31. Strab. p. 


Second Period. 1104 — 500 b.c. 


B. C. 




y, 4 



in Italy. 

in the Eastern Sea. 

Trapezus together 
with Kotyora and 
Kerasusby Sinope''"); 
Artake and Kyzikus 
by Miletus'^). 

VII, 1 

Archons holding 
office ten years"). 

Rhegium by Chal- 
kidians and Messe- 

VIII, 1 
IX, 2 

Pheidon, tyrant of 

Alkamenes and 
Theopompus, kings 

The Spartans sur- 
prise Ampheia in 
Messenia; first Mes- 
senian war''). 

25) See Xenoph. Anab. IV, 8, 22. V, 5, 3. 3, 3. The date fixed in 
accordance with Euseb. Chron. (Arm) p. 80. 

26) Strab. p> 635. The date fixed in accordance with Euseb. Chron. 
in Hieron. p. 81. Kyzikus, according to Euseb. Chron. Ann. p. 86, 
was founded anew, and that by Megara in 676 B.C.., Jo. Lyd. de Mag. 
Eom. in, 70. 

27) Dion. Hal. I, 71, 75. VeU. Pat. I, 8. Euseb. Chron. Arm. 
01. TI, 2. Hieron. 01. YI, 4 p. 80 f. The headship of the Medon- 
tidsB, the descendants of Kodrus, lasted till about 714, when, in con- 
sequence of the barbarous conduct of the arohon Hippomenes, it was 
abolished, see Suid. ». v. 'linro/jUvris, cf. Pans. IV, 13, 5. Alkmaeon was 
the last of the archons, who held office for life; Charops the first, who 
held the decennial office. 

28) Pheidon is quoted by Aristotle, Pol. Vin, 10, 6, as an instance 
of the tyranny, which arises from monarchy. He recovered the su- 
premacy oyer the towns of ArgoUs, and also sought to extend his rule 
beyond Argohs; he was the first to coin money, and introduced standard 
weights and measures, the so cailed ^ginelan, probably to be referred 
to Babylon; he further deprived the Eleians of the agonothesy at 
Olympia, and himself filled the office of president at the games. Im- 
portant passages: Ephor. in Strab. p. 358. Herod. YI, 127. Pans. 
VI, 22, 2. The date assigned to Pheidon rests on the passage cited 
from Pausanias, as there the 8th Olympiad is given as the one in 
which Pheidon usurped the presidency. At variance with this, his 
date is given on the Marm. Par. and by SynoeUus about 100 years 
earUer, while according to Herod, loo. cit. it would have to be placed 
about 600 B.C. 

29) The above mentioned kings are recorded by Pausanias (IV, 5, 
3. 6, 2) as the ones, in whose reign the first Messenian war was com- 
menced. Alkamenes died before the fifth year of the war, see Paus. 
IV, 7, 3; whilst according to Paus. IV, 6, 2, it appears as if Theo- 
pompus had brought the war to a conclusion. This certainly does not 
fully harmonise with Eusebius (see obs. 2, MiiUer fr. Hist. Gr. I. p. 444), 
according to whom Alkamenes and Theopompus came to the throne 

in 786 B.C. and the former reigned 38, the latter 43 years. The follow- 
ing kings up to Leonidas are known by name, but we are ignorant of 
the length of their reigns: the Ust of Eusebius breaks off with Alka- 
menes and Theopompus. The successors of Alkamenes, of the line 
of the Agidse, are: Polydorus, Eurykrates, Anaxandrus, Eurykrates, 
Leon, Anaxandridas; of the line of the Eurypontldse : Zeuxidamus, 
Anaxidamus, Archidamus, AgasiMes, Ariston; see the passages cited 
from Pausanias in obs. 2. The second Messenian war broke out under 
Anaxandrus and Anaxidamus, see Paus. IV, 15, 1. 

30) With regard to the colonies in Italy our knowledge is chiefly 
drawn from Strab. p. 252 — 265. 278—280. Besides the chief colonies 
mentioned in the tables, some others are mentioned as already 
founded by the Achaeans on their way home at the time of the Trojan 
war, e.g. Petelia, Strab. p. 254, Krimissa, id. SkyUakion, id. p. 261, 
Lagaria, id. p. 263, Metapontium, id. 264 (but in regard to this last 
other legends were also current, id. p. 265) etc. For Ehegium see 
Strab. p. 257. Herael. Pont. fr. XXV (ed. MuUer). 

31) The causes of the war: the pretended deceit of Kresphontes 
when drawing lots for the conquered territories (see obs. 1), the murder 
of the Spartan king Telekles, and the refusal of the Messenians to 
surrender Polychares, who had slain several Spartans, see Paus. IV, 
c. 4—5, cf. lustin. HI, 4. Died. XV, 66. VI— X. fr. XXTT, (vol. HI. 
p. 194. Bind.). The outbreak of the war falls in the reign of Antiochus 
and Androkles. The latter wished Polychares to be surrendered to 
the Spartans, but was slain in an uproar caused by the proposal : 
Antiochus died soon afterwards, and thus Euphaes as king succeeded 
to the conduct of the war, Paus. IV, 5, 2. Strab. p. 257. The sources 
of the narrative in Pausanias are Myron of Priene and Ehianus of 
Bena in Krete (the latter for the second war), for whom see Paus. IV, 6. 
(Myron was a late historian : Ehianus, an Alexandrine writer, composed 
an epic poem, of which Aristomenes was the hero. Their accounts 
are, however, in many points contradictory, and the authority of the 
prose writer is depreciated by Pausanias himself); the fragments of 
Tyrtasus are especially valuable; for this poet see obs. 1. 

The Age of the Inner Development of the Hellenes. 






X, 2 

XI, 2 

XI, 3 

XII, 3 

XIII, 1 

XIV, 1 




, The Messenians, 
after two indecisive 
battles, retire to the 
mountain stronghold 

Messenia subdued, 
and the inhabitants 
made Helots'*). 

32) The first battle in the year 740 e.g., Paus. IV, 7, 2; the second 
in the year 739, Paus. IV, 7, 3 — e. 8. The reason, why the country 
was abandoned, is said to have been exhaustion of pecuniary means 
and a pestilence, Paus. IV, 9, 1. 

33) For the colonies in Sicily the most important passage is Thuc. 
VI, 3 — S. In the same book, o. 1 and 2, information is given about 
the former inhabitants of the island. For Naxos see id. 3 and Strab. 
p. 267. The founder is Theokles, an Athenian; for the date fixed see 
obs. 35. 

34) Corinth was then the richest and most prosperous naval 
state in Greece (the first triremes buUt there. Thuc. I, 13), and ac- 
cordingly about this time commenced the foundation of colonies in 
Sicily, see obs. 33 and 35; to this end the occupation of Korkyra, as a 
station for ships on the voyage, was an indispensable requisite; and 
this was followed by the establishment of the other colonies, which 
oomn&nded the coast of Akarnania and Epirus (Epidamnus, ApoUonia, 
Ambrakia, Anaktorium, Leukas). For the foundation of Korkyra by 
Chersikrates on the voyage to Syracuse see Strab. p. 269. Timse. fr. 
53 (ed MuUer.) This town in 644 b. o. made itself independent of 
Corinth in a sea-fight, the oldest of aU sea-fights amongst the Greeks ; 
asserted its independence tiU the time of Periander, recovering it again 
after his death, Herod, m, 49—53; it then persisted in a hostile atti- 
tude towards the mother city, so that it even neglected aU the pious 
duties, which colonies owed to their mother cities, s. Thuc. I, 25. 
In aU probability the colonies Molykreium and Chalkis were founded 
cotemporaneously with Korkyra at the mouth of the inner Corinthian 
gulf, Thuc. m, 102. I, 108. 

35) The founder Archias. See Thuc. VI, 3. Strab. p. 269—270. 
380. Athen. IV, p. 167. d. The date fixed for the foundation of 
Syracuse, on which the dates of the Sicilian colonies for the most 
part depend, rests on Euseb. Chron. and on grounds of probability. 

in Italy. 

in Sicily. 

Naxos by 


and Katana 
by Naxos'^). 

Hyblsea by 

on the coast of 
Epirus, etc. 

Korkyra by 
Corinth =*). 

in the Eastern 

36) "Five years after the foundation of Syracuse," Thuc. VI, 3. 
cf. Polysen. V, 5, 1. The celebrated lawgiver Charondas belongs to 
the town Katana, for whom s. Arist. Pol. II, 12, 6. 7. Diodor. XII, 
11 — 19. Stob. Floril. XLIV, 40. His laws were also transplanted to 
Ehegium, Heraclid. Pont. fr. XXV, to Mazaka in Cappadocia, Strab. 
p. 539, to Thurii, Diod. loc. cit., and to several other towns in Italy 
and Sicily, s. Arist. Pol. H, 12, 6. 

37) Thuc. VI, 3. 4. About the same time Zankle (afterwards 
Messana), which had been founded at a stiU earher period by 
pirates from Kyme (Cumse), was organised as a colony by immigrants 
from Chalkis and the rest of Euboea under an Oilkist from Kyme and 
one from Chalkis, Thuc. VI, 4. Paus. IV, 23, 3. With the six colonies 
hitherto mentioned the Hellenic colonisation of Sicily came to an end 
for some forty years, see 690 B.C. 

38) After the retreat to Ithome another indecisive battle was fought 
in 731 B.C., in which king Euphaes fell: whereupon Aristodemus was 
chosen king, Paus. IV, 10. The latter fought another battle with the 
Spartans, at which the Corinthians were present as aUies of the 
Spartans, the Arcadians and a number of Argives and Sikyonians on 
the side of the Messenians, and in this the Messenians were vic- 
torious, Paus. IV, 11. Nevertheless some years after this, chiefiy in 
conseguence of evil omens and other tokens of the displeasure of the 
gods, Ithome was given up, after Aristodemus had fallen by his own 
hand, Paus. IV, 9. 11 — 13. We learn from the following verses of 
TyrtsBus, that the war lasted nineteen years : 'A/i^' aiTTfv 5' i/uixovT 
ivveaKaideK ^?7, ^'OjXe/t^ws aiel ToKa^rltltpova dvjxhp ^ovTes^ alxfJ^rfal 
iraT^puv TjfiET^pwv irar^pes' cIko(Tt<^ 5' ol fi^v Kara iriova. ^fyya XnrdvTe^ 
tpevyov '18(a/j.aiiov iK fieyaXuv op^wv, Strab. p. 279. Paus. IV, 15, 1. 
13, 4. The beginning of the war 01. 9, 2=743 b.c. is recorded by 
Paus. IV, 5, 4, in agreement with which is the record of the victory 
gained by the Polychares already mentioned at Olympia, 01. IV, Pans. 


Second Pebiod. 1104—500 b.c. 


XIV, 4 

XVI, 2 
XVII, 3 


XX, 1 

B. c; 








IV, 4, 5. The fate of the Messenians, so far as they remained in the 
country, is described by Tyrtffius : "ila-irep oVoi /ieydXais axBeci, Teipbixevoi, 
SeairotrivouTi <pipovT€s avajKol-qs vw6 XvypTJ! tJ/xutv wan, oit(tov Kapirbv 
dpoupa, (pipei, dea-irdras ol/jui^ovTes 6/xws dXoxol re Kal airoi, eSri Tii' 
oi\o/j,4p7j fioipa kIxoc Bavdrov. 

39) Strab. p. 262—263. Axist. Pol. Vm, 3, 11. Por the date s. 
Scymn. Ch. v. 360 cf. Diod. XI, 90. Xn, 10. The great power of the 
town s. Strab. p. 263: To<rovTov S eirvxig- Sir/veyKev 17 iriXis alirri ri 
■jrdKaiSv, us TeTrdpav fiiy iBvdv tS>v -irXrialov iwrjp^e, irhrc Si Kal rf/coirt 
TTiSXeis VT7iic6ovs iax^, rpcdKovra Si iivpidciv dvSpCiv iid KporuvidTas 
iirTpdTev<rav, irevT'qKoVTa Si araSluv icIikXuv avveirXripovv oIkovvt($ iirl 

e) Lyric poetry at this period took two chief directions, which may be 
distinguished by their rhythmical and metrical form : firstly, the elegiac 
and iambic poetry, the phief forms of which are the dactyhc distich 
and the iambic trimeter, specially peculiar to the Ionic race, and hence 
always composed in the Ionic dialect : and, secondly, the melic poetry 
of the Dorians and JiJolians. MfKos signifies a song set to music, 
sung to the lute or flute on festive occasions, often to the cyclic dance, 
in various and often partly strophic rhythms. Plat. Eep. m. p. 398 : 
tS iU\oi ir. TpiOiv icrrl crvyKdiievov, \6yov re Kcd dp/iovlas Kal five/Mov. 
Such songs had in part, especiaDy in the earliest times, a religious 
significance, as j>6/ioc, vii,voi, iraiavs^, hymns of praise and chorals- 
irpoa-dSia, processional hymns; mopxril^Ta, festal songs to accompany 
mimic dances; SMpa/x^oi, Bacchic choral songs with cyclic dance, etc.: 
others were of a secular character, as the iyKu/ua, songs in praise of 
human beings; iiru/lKia, songs of victory; aKbXia, irapolvux, drinking 
songs; ipanKd, love songs; ^jriffuXd/ua, v/iimtoi., wedding songs; epijvoi, 
dirges; i-jnKTjSeia, funeral songs, etc. 

f) KaUinus, usually designated the oldest elegiac poet, Strab. p. 
638. Orion, p. 58. Sohol. Cio. pro Arch. 10, 3. Terentian. v. 1721 ; 
yet his date is uncertain. According to Strab. p. 647. 648 cf. Clem. 
Al. Strom. I, p. 333. B, he is older than Archilochus. A large fragment 
is preserved of a war song of his. Poet. Lyr. Th. Bergk. ed. U, fr. I, 

in Italy. 

Sybaris by 

Kroton by 

by Sparta^'). 

in Sicily. 

Abydus by 

in the East- 
ern Sea. 

Lyric Poetry') 
rises and flourish- 
es : Kallinus of 
Epbesus'); Arcbi- 
lochus of Paros*); 
Simonides of Sa- 
mos, the lambo- 
graphist"") (Elegiac 

T(f Kpdffiii. For the luxury of the town s. Athen. Xn, p. 519 522. 

It was destroyed by the Krotoniates 511 b.c, Scymn. loc. cit. Diod. 
XI, 90. xn, 9—10. Founded from Sybaris : Poseidonia, Strab. p. 251, 
Laos, id. 253. 

40) Strab. p. 590 : ^TnTpkij/avros Viyov tov AuSSc ^acrtXiois. 

41) Dionys. Hal. H, 59. Herod. VHI, 47. Strab. p. 262. Founded 
from Kroton, Terina, Steph. Byz. s. v., Scymn. Ch. v. 306. 

42) Antiochus and Ephorus in Strab. p. 278 — 280. Cf. Arist. Pol. 
VIH, 7, 2. Justin. HI, 1.. Diod. XV, 66. The date is fixed in ac- 
cordance with Hieronymus p. 85 (705 b. c. = 1312 Abr.). Founded from 
Tarentum, Herakleia (on the Siris) Strab. p. 264. 

g) Archilochus, son of TelesUdes, lived about 700e.c., Herod. 1, 12. 
Cic. Tuso. I, 1. SynoeU. p. 181, emigrated to Thasos on account of 
poverty, .Elian. V. H. X. 13. Warrior and poet alike, Athen. XIV, 
627, he attacks his opponents in biting satirical poems, Pind. Pyth. 
n, 55. Berg. fr. 92, notably so Lykambes and Ms daughters, Hor. 
Epod. VI, 13. Epist. I, 19, 25. Ovid. lb. 53. After a Mfe full of 
passion and tribulation. Berg. fr. 9. 13. 19. 65. 67. 68. 84, he fell in a 
battle with Naxos, Suid. v. 'Apx^Xoxos. Divine honours were paid to 
him by the Parians, Arist. Bhet. H, 23, 11. By reason of his poetical 
gifts and his perfect language he was ranked by the ancients with 
Homer, Pindar, and Sophokles, was reputed the inventor of the 
iambic trimeter, of the trochaic tetrameter, and various compound 
metres, and regulated the melody and delivery in recitative of his 
poems. Mar. Vict. p. 2588. ed. Putsch. Plut. d. Mus. p. 1134. D. 1140 
extr. Of his poems, 'BXeyeio, "Ia/t/3oi, Terpdiierpa, 'EvvSol, "Tp.vos els 
'RpaKXia, 'lb§dKxoi,, only short fragments are preserved, Bergk. p. 
536 f. 

h) Simonides, the iambographist, a younger cotemporary of Archi- 
lochus, led a Samian colony to Amorgos, Suid. v. Xi/MuviSris, v. Zi/i/das 
'F6Slos. Clem. Al. Strom. I, p. 333. B, composed elegiac and iambic 
poems : it is of the latter only that fragments are preserved, in parti- 
cular two of considerable length, Bergk. fr. 1. 7. 

The Age of the Inner Development of the Hellenes. 



B. 0. 






XXII, 3 





in Italy. 

in Sicily. 

Gela by 
Rhodes and 

in the East- 
ern Sea. 


The Messenians 
rise under Ari- 
stomenes : second 
Messenian War"). 

Tyrtseus at 
Sparta') (Elegiac 
poet); Terpander 
of Lesbos '');Alk- 
man fromSardes') 
(Melic poetry). 

XXIY, 2 

Nine Arch* 
ons appointed 
for one year. 
Kreon ''). 

XXIV, 4 

XXV, 2 

The Messenians 
retreat to Eira*). 

43) Thuo. YI, 4: "44 years after Syracuse." Cf. Died. Exo. Vat. 
Xm. Paus. Vni, 46, 2. Herod. VH, 143. The names of the founders 
are Antiphenus of Rhodes and Entinus of Krete. 

44) Paua. IV, c. 14, 4— e. 24. lustin. in, 5. Diod. XV, 66. The 
allies of the Messenians ; Arcadians, Argives, Pisatans and Sikyonlans : 
of the Spartans; Corinthians, Eleans, and Lepreatans: Paus. IV, 15, 
1. 16, 2. Strab. p. 355. 862. According to Paus. IV, 15, 1. the re> 
beUion took place 39 years after the ending of the first war; according 
to lustin. in, 5 the second war began 80 years after the first ; accord- 
ing to Euseb. Chron. Arm. p. 88 not until 635 b.o. The passage of 
Tyrtffius {iraTipav ■qfieripai' iraHpes) cited in obs. 38, and the circum- 
stance, that according to Paus. VE, 22, 2 the Pisatans under their king 
Pantaleon had the conduct of the Olympian games, whilst, according 
to Strabo p. 355, immediately after the ending of the second Messenian 
war, the Eleans with the help of the Spartans completely subdued the 
Pisatans, make it probable that the second war is placed too early by 

45) African, in Sync. p. 212. B. Euseb. Chron. p. 84. The first 
in the board of " the nine Archons was styled Axchon par excellence, 
and the year was called after him (hence iwumv/ios ; for the commence- 

i) Tyrtffius, son of Archemhrotus, commonly styled an Athenian or 
Aphidnsan, Paus. IV, 15, 3. Strab. p. 362. Plat. leg. 1, 629 a. 630, 
but also a Laconian or Milesian, Suid. s. v., at the time of the second 
Messenian war reconciled by his lays the striving factions at Sparta, 
Arist. Pol. VTTT, 7, 4. Paus. IV, 18, 2, and fired the war spirit of the 
youth, Plut. Cleom. 2. Hor. A. P. 402. Hence, even at a later period, 
his war songs were sung in the field, Lyk. Leokr. p. 162. Athen. XIV, 
p. 630 f. Fragments of an elegiac poem ' are preserved, in 
praise of the Doric customs and constitution, Plut. Lye. 6. Bergk. fr. 

2 7; three considerable fragments of his war elegies, Bergk. fr. 10. 

11. 12, and scanty remnants of his anapaestic marching songs {ip-^a- 
Tiipio ijJXti), Bergk. fr. 15. 16. 

k) Terpander, probably of Antissa in Lesbos, Suid. v. lipTravSpos, 
conquered about 676 B.C. in the musical contest at the Earneian festi- 
val at Sparta, Athen. XIV. p. 635. E, and four times in the Pythian 
games at Delphi, Plut. d. Mus. p. 1132. B. He is called the inventor 
of the seven- stringed Kithara, which he substituted for that with four 
strings, Strab. p. 618 ; and composed songs for this instrument, which 
he set to various tunes, Plut. d. Mus. p. 1132. C. 1133. B, and thus 

ment of the year s. obs. 22); the second was styled ^airiXeiis; the third 
■!ro\ip.apxos; the rest together $ea-p.offh-ai, cf. PoUuc. Onom. 85 — 91. 
For the power of the Archons at that period see Thuc. I, 126 : rire Si 
TO. TToXXa tlHv ttoKitikCiv oi lvv4a apxovres hrpaaffov. The first dpxt^v 
iTriimfi.os, holding office for one year, was Kreon; the last, who held 
the decennial office, was Bryxias. 

46) This happened after the loss of a battle (at the great Trench), 
which is placed by Pausanias in the third year of the war. But he 
contradicts himself; for according to 17, 6 and 20, 1 the war lasted 
11 years more after this battle, and, according to 23, 2, 17 years alto- 
gether. Besides this battle (for which of. Paus. IV, 17, 2—5; it was 
lost owing to the treachery of the Arcadian king Aristokrates), mention 
is further made of an indecisive battle fought in the earlier years of 
the war at Derae, see Paus. IV, 15, 21, and of a great victory at Boar's 
Grave if 'SrevOKX-^pip, see id. § 4. f. Polyb. IV, 33. For the rest, the 
whole narrative of Pausanias (or rather of Bhianus, whom he every- 
where follows) is nothing but a glorification of Aristomenes, a second 
Achilles, as he himself calls him, IV, 6, 2. On the side of the Spartans 
Tyrtseus is the only prominent figure, who by his songs continually 
restored and rekindled their sinking spirits, see obs. i. 

as poet and composer was the founder at once of Doric music and 
mehc poetry at Sparta, Plut. d. Mus. p. 1134. B. 1146. B. Like his 
successor Thaletas, who was invited to Sparta from Krete, and Tyrtseus, 
he too is said to have tranquiUised the party quarrels at Sparta, Plut. 
d. Mus. 1146. B. Amongst the scanty fragments of his poems two 
verses are preserved in praise of Sparta, Plut. Lye. 21. At an early 
period such songs were indigenous in Krete with the usual armed 
dances, Schol. Pind. Pyth. H, 127. Hymn. Horn. ApoU. 518. f., the 
composition of which was ascribed above all to Thaletas, Strab. p. 481. 
Thaletas sang also at Sparta, Plut. Lye. 4, and his compositions were 
sung stiU later at the festival of the Gymnopaedia, Athen. XV, p. 
678. C. For similar poets and musicians cf. Plut. de Mus. p. 1132 C. 
1133. A. 1134 B. 

1) Alkman circa 671 — 657, settled at Sparta, Suid. v. 'AXK/idy. 
Euseb. Chron. arm. Olymp. 30, 3 (Hier. 30, 4) p. 86 f. ed. Schbne. 
cf. Alex. Mthol. Plan. I, p. 207. He composed hymns and set them 
to music, Bergk. fr. 1. 2. 8. 17. 18. Paeans, fr. Banqueting-songs, fr. 
25, Love-songs, fr. 28. 29; for the most part short songs in the Doric 
dialect with varying, in part strophic, rhythms 


Second Period. 1104— 500 b.c. 


XXV, 4 

XXVI, 4 


xxvn, 3 














B. C. 





Orthagoras, the first 
tyrant ofSikyon*'). 

The Spartans de- 
feated by the Argives 
at Hysise'"). 

Eira taken by the 
Spartans, and the 
Messenians again 
completely sub - 


Kypselus, tyrant of 









in Italy. 

Lokri by the 

in Sicily. 

Akrse by Sy- 
racuse °^). 

in the Eastern Sea. 

Chalkedon by 

Byzantium by 

47) Thuc. rV, 25. Strab. p. 320. Herod. IV, 144 : " 17 years before 
Byzantium." According to Hieron. chron. p. 85 in 685 b.c. (= Abr. 

48) Strab. p. 259. Arist. ap. Polyb. Xn, 5—11. According to 
Ephor. in Strab. 1. o. Lokri (sumamed Epizephyrii) was a colony of 
the Opuntian, according to others of the Ozohan Lokrians. For 
Zaleukus the law-giver of Lokri, circ. 660, see Epbor. ap. Strab. p. 260. 
Sohol. on Pind. 01. XI, 17. Diod. Xn, 20 ff. Arist. Pol. n. xii, 6. 7. 
Hipponium (Vibo Valentia) and Medma were formded by Lokri, Strab. 
p. 225. 

49) See Arist. Pol. ViU, 12, 1, Orthagoras was succeeded by 
(Andreas?) Myron, Aristonymus, Kleisthenes, see Herod. VI, 126. 
Paua. n, 8, 1. Arist. Pol. Vm, 12, 12.— Arist. Pol. Vm, 12, l] 
irXeio-Toc yd.p iyivero XP'"'"" V '"'^P^ SiKufflva rvpavvU 7] rCiv 'Opdayipov 
Tralduiv Kal airoO 'OpBaybpov Sri) d' avrr) Sii/ieiPef iKardy To&rov d' 
oXtiov, on ToTs i.ffXPfi4vois ixpuyro /lerplas Kal TroXXa Tols Apxo/J^vois 
iSoiXevov Kal Slot rb iroXe/iiris yei/ia-ffai oiK t]V eiKaTa^pbvTjroi KKeurdivrjS, 
Kal rh TToXXa tois iinft,e\etai.s idri/Mydyovv. For chronology see obs. 74. 

50) Pans. H, 24, 8. According to Pans. HI, 75 Kynuria was 
conquered by the Spartans under Theopompus: but probably the 
conquest was not made tih after the battle of Hysis, 

51) Paus. IV, 20 — 24. Aristomenes died at lalysus in Ehodes. 
The Messenians, who remained behind, were again made Helots, Pans. 
IV, 23, 1. 

52) Thuc. VI, 5 : "70 years after Syracuse." According to Steph. 
Byz. s. V. Enna was also founded in the same year by settlers from 

53) Herod. IV, 144. Scynm. Ch. 717. Steph. Byz. s. v. The date 
as given by Euseb. Chron. Arm. p. 86 (660 e.g. = 1367 Abr.; Hieron. 
658 = 1359). Shortly before Byzantium, Selymbria was also founded 
by Megara, Soymn. Ch.'715. 

54) See Herod. V, 92. For the previous state of affairs and the de- 
scent of Kypselus see id. § 2 : rjv dXiyapxlv nal ovrot BaKXidSai /caXeA/twoi 
Ive/MOD TTjv Tr6\iv, iUSoirav Sk Kal -^OVTO ^| iW-^Xav. 'Afuplovi Sk Hvti 
Toiroiv tCiv dvSpQv yiverai BvydrTip x<^^V< ovvo/m Sf ol rjv Ad^Sa. Tairipi, 
BaKxi-aBiuiv yitp oidels TJBeXe yrnxai, tffxei 'Serlav o 'Exexpireos, Sriiwv likv 
iK Uh-pris iiliv, Arap ra dviKaSiv AoTriSijs re Kal TS.aivdSiit. This Eetion 
was the father of Kypselus, himself a descendant of Melas, who had 
come with Aletes to Corinth, see Paus. V, 18, 2. To commemorate 
the preservation of Kypselus, the chest was consecrated at Olympia, 
in which, according to tradition, Kypselus was concealed; this Pau- 
eanias saw and described, V, o. 17—19. According to Arist. Pol. 

The Age of the Inner Development of the Hellenes, 



B. C. 

XXXI, 3 






XXXV, 2 













in the Western Sea. 

in Sicily. 


Himera by 
Zankle ; 

Kasmense by 

Selinus by 
Megara Hy- 


Kyrene by 

Naukratis by 

in the Eastern Sea. 

Akantbus and 
dros ; Abdera 
by Klazomense; 
Istros, Lampsa- 
kus, Borysthe- 
nes by Mile- 

of Kolophon"). 
(Elegiac poet). 

Vin, 12, 4 Kypselus was 517/^070)765, and /cari riyp Apxv" ^riXeirev dSopv- 
^6p7]Tos; with which however Herod. 1. 0. § 8 does not agree. The 
date is settled from the fact, that the rule of the Kypselldffl according 
to Arist. Pol. 1. c. lasted 73J years (Kypselus 30 years, see id. and 
Herod. 1. 0. § 9, Periander 40 years, see Diog. Laert. I, 98, Psammeti- 
chus, the son of Gordias 3 years, Arist. 1. c), and that Periander, 
according to Diog. Laert. I, 95, died in the year 585 e.o. (01. XLVHI, 


55) See Euseb. Chron. p. 86 ff., who places the foundation of the 
first four Colonies in the years 657—652 (Ahr. 1360—1365). 
Borysthenes, according to Hieron., was founded in the year 645 b.o. 
(Abr. 1372). For Abdera see further Solin. Poh 0. 16. This latter 
town was restored in B.C. 543 by the Teians, who fled from the 
Persians, see Herod. I, 168. Strab. p. 344. 

56) For Himera see Thuo. VI, 5. Diod. XIH, 62. According to 
Thuo. 1. c. fugitives from Syracuse also took part in the colony, so 
that in oonsec[uence the language spoken there was a mixture of Doric 
and Chalkidic. For Kasmenffi see Thuc. VI, 5 : "twenty years after 

57) Chief notice is Herod. IV, 150—167. The date is fixed by 
Euseb. Chron. p. 88. Cf. Theophrast. Hist. Plant. VI, 3. Schol. on 
Pind. Pyth. IV, 1. From Kyrene Barka was founded about the year 
550 B.C., Herod. IV, 160. 

58) Strab. p. 801. Cf. Herod. H, 154. 178. (The date is only 

59) Thuo. VI. 4 : "a hundred years after the foundation of Megara 

m) Mimnermus, Suid. v. Ml/Mvepfws, lived circa 630, Strab. p. 643, 
at once .flute-player and poet. A collection of his Elegies was known, 
called after his love Sayvu, Strab. p. 633. 634. Athen. XHI. p. 597. a. 
XI. p. 470. a., and an elegy on the battle of the Smyrnseans against 
the Lydian king Gyges, Pans. IX, 29, 2, and other songs besides. He 


was preeminently esteemed as a bard of the tender lovesong, Herme- 
sian. in Athen. XHI. p. 697. f. v. 36. Propert. I, 9, 11, Bergk. fr. I. 
For the subjects and character of his other poetry cf. Bergk. fr. 1. 2. 
4. 6. 6. 7. 


Second Period. 1104 — 500 b. c. 








XL, 1 

XLI, 2 
XLII, 3 







Periander tyrant 
of Corinth*). The- 
ao^enes makes 
himself master of 



in the Western Sea. 
in Sicily. Elsewhere. 
Corinth and 


Kylon's at- 
tempt to make 
himself master 
of Athens^.) 

Arion of 
Methymna") ; 

60) Of Periander we are told Arist. Pol. XII, 3, 4 : iyhero iiiv 
TvpamiKO!, dXXA iroXe/MiKos, and id. II, 4 it is said of him, that he made 
most use of the precautionary measures, which tyrants usually employ 
(see obs. 21). According to Herod. V, 92, § 9 he did not display his 
cruelty, until after receiving the well known counsel of Thrasybulus, 
the tyrant of Miletus, cf. Arist. HI, 13, 17 (where it is Periander, who 
gives the advice to Thrasybulus). See further concerning him Herod. 
in, 47 — 54. Amongst other proofs, that under him and the KypseUdEe 
generally the power and the wealth of Corinth increased to a consider- 
able extent, is the fact that, according to Plutarch, De Sera Numinis 
Vind. c. 7, the colonies Apollonia, Anaktorium, and Leukas were 
founded in his reign (cf. obs. 61). 

61) The founders of Epidamnus were drawn chiefly from Eerkyra, ■ 
but they were under a Corinthian leader {olKlcrris), and Corinthians 
also took part in it, Thuc. I, 24. Strab. p. 316. The foundation of 
all the other colonies mentioned above is ascribed as a rule to Corinth, 
Thuc. I, 30. Herod. VHI, 45. Soymn. Ch. v. 459. 465. Plut. Tim. 
15. Steph. Byz. s. v. AiroWoivla; but the KerkyrsBana took part at all 
events in Anaktorium and Leukas, Thuc. I, 55. Plut. -Them. 25; and 
probably in ApoUonia, hke its neighbour Epidamnus, the Kerkyrsean 
element was predominant. The date here given for Epidamnus rests 
on Buseb. Chron. p. 88. f.; with regard to Amprakia, Leukas, and 
Anaktorium, we are told that they were founded under Kypselus, 
Strab. p. 325. 452. Scymn. Ch. v. 454, or under Periander, cf. obs. 
60; vrith regard to Apollonia (Steph. Byz. s. v. Pans. V, 22, 2), we 
have only the testimony of Plutarch, cited in obs. 60, to fix the date of 
the colony. 

62) Arist. Pol. "VIH, 5, 9. Ehet. I, 2, 7. Of the measures, which 
he adopted, the TaXivToda is alone mentioned by Plutarch, i.e. the 
demand for repayment of interest paid, Plut. Qusest. Grtec. c. 18. The 
date c4n only be fixed approximately by the circumstance, that it was 
with his assistance, that Kylon made himself tyrant of Athens, Thuc. 
I, 126. Obs. 64. After the fall of Theagenes many changes took place 
in the political situation; but of these we hear only in general terms, 
see Arist. Pol. VI, 14, 4. VHI, 5, 4, and the elegies of Theognis, in 
which this poet, in the period after the fall of Theagenes, complains of 
the oppression of the nobles by the base rich, cf. obs. 66. 

63) The year is only approximately determined : according to Suid. 
S-. V. A/JoKui', Tatian. p. 140. Clemens. Alex. Strom. I. p. 309. B. 
Hieron. Chron. p. 91, he belongs to the 39th Olympiad, according to 
Euseb. Chron. Arm. p. 90, to the 40th. Plut. Sol. 17. Arist. Pol. H, 
12, 13 1 ApdKOVTOS dk v6/j,oi /liv clcri, iroXireiif di {nrapxoiari rois vbixovi 
'iB-qmv (i.e. his laws made no alteration in the existing constitution). 
tSiot S if Tois vo/Locs oidh ianv, S n Kal /ivelas afioc, ttX^c 17 x<'^"''<'''is 
dik Tb ^tt/das fiiyeBos. 

64) VPith regard to the chronology, we can only say with cer- 
tainty that the occurrence took place somewhere about this time, 
and in an Olympic year: this latter is told us by Thucydides. Chief 
notice: Thuc. I, 126. The attempt failed. Kylon escaped; his fol- 
lowers were put to death contrary to express promise, part in holy 
places. Hence the murderers, amongst whom the Altmsonids are 
specially mentioned, were ^j'a7ers Kal dXirripuii, Thuo. 1. c. Pans. VII, 
25, 1. Plut. Sol. 12. 

n) Arion flourished circa 625 — 609. Herod. I, 23. Euseb. Chron. 
Arm. 01. XTiTT, 3. p. 90, regulated the Bacchic 'double dance,' for 
which he composed songs and set them to music, naming them 
StBupa/j-^oi, Suid. s. v. 'kploiv. Herod. 1. c. His wonderful preservation, 

see Herod. 1. 0. GeU. N. Att. XVI, 19. .Elian. V. h. XH, 45. The 
hymn to Poseidon, which goes under his name, Bergk. p. 662, is the 
product of a later age. 

The Age of the Inner Development of the Hellenes. 








XLII, 3 

















to 01. XLVIII, 3 = 586. 
The first Sacred (orKir- 
rhisan) War^'). 





in the Western Sea. 
in Sicily: Elsewhere. 

Kamarina by 

Syracuse °°) 

Massalia by 

Alkseus of Mytilene"); 
Sappho P) and Errina«) 
at Lesbos; Stesichorus at 
Himera'') (Melic Poetry). 

The Philosopher Thales 
of Miletus, founder of 
the Ionian Philosophy^). 

65) Aristot. in Athen. XIII, 576. Strab. p. 179—181. lust. XLIU, 
3 — 5. Herod. I, 163 ; oi Si $w/cai^es ovtoi vavTiKljia-i fmKpya-i irpaToi 
'EXX^cwK ixPV^O'''''''' ""■^ ■'■'''' ■'■^ '■A.Spttiv Kal ttjv 'l^-qplriv koX tov Ta/3Ti;ir(roK 
ovTol ilaw oi KwraSi^avTes, 

66) Thuc. YI, 5 : "135 years after Syracuse." 

67) The war lasted 10 years, see KalHsthenes in Athen. XTTT, 560. c, 
and was brought to an end in the archonship of Damasias, Schol. 
Find. Pyth. Argum. The war was occasioned by Eirrhtean outrages; 

o) Alkffius, of noble birth, lived ciro. 610 — 595. Suid. v. 2a7r0ci. 
Strab. p. 617, Eiuseb, Chron. Arm. 01. XLVI, 2 p, 92, fought with 
disaster jn the struggle between the Mytilenteans and the Athenians 
for Sigeium, Herod. V, 94. 95, Involved in the political broils of his 
native city, he as an aristocrat opposed the tyrants Melanchrus, Myrsi- 
lus, and others, He led an unsettled hfe in banishment, continually 
fighting; he made an attack on the .Ssymnete Pittakus, Bergk. fr. 37. 
Anthol. Pal. IX, 184, and vainly attempted to secure his restoration by 
force at the head of political exiles, Strab. 1. o. Diog. Laert. I, 74. 76. 
As we see from the fragments preserved to us, he composed hymns, 
Bergk. fr. 1. 5. 9. 11, pohtical songs and war songs (rrrao-iwriKd), fr. 15. 
18. 25, a panegyric on his brother Antimenidas, fr. 33, drinking songs, 
fr. 34. 35. 36. 39. 41. 45, and love songs, fr. 55. 59. 60. 62. 63, fresh 
and lively outpourings of an active, passionate, pleasure-lo.ving nature, 
in dactylic, logacedic, iambic, choriambic and Ionic metres. 

p) Sappho, a contemporary of Alkaeus, born at Eresus or MytUene 
in Lesbos, Strab. p. 617. Euseb. Chron. Arm. 01. XLVI, 2 p. 92, 
Suid. B. T. Sair0c6, Athen. XIH, p. 599. c. Anth. Pal. VH, 407. Anth. 
Plan. I, p. 196, daughter of Skamandronymus and Elei's, Herod. H, 
135, hved and wrote in a circle of matrons and maidens, (Ov.) Her. 
XV, 15. PhUostr. vit. ApoUon. I, 30. Suid. 1. c, some of whom she 
celebrated in song, as Atthis, Bergk. fr. 33. 41, Mnasidika, Gyrinus, 
fr. 75. etc. cf. fr. 11. AJkaeus' love for her is testified by the fragment 
of a love song addressed to her, Bergk. Alk. fr. 55; a younger lover 
was refused by her, fr. 75. On the other hand, the passion for Phaon, 
traditionally attributed to her, and her leap from the Leukadian rock 

Kirrha was destroyed 591 B.C., but probably the war was only brought 
to a conclusion five years later with the total annihilation of the 
KirrhsBans, see Schol. Pind. 1. o. Strab. p. 418. Plut. Sol. 11. Pans, 
n, 9, 6. X, 37, 4. Polyajn. IH, 5, 1. Solon (Plut. 1. c.) and Kleisthenes, 
tyrant of Sikyon, are speciaUy named as taking part in it (Paus. and 
PolysBn. 1. c). This war, moreover, led to the extension of the Pythian 
games ; and the Pythian era begins with the year, in which the war was 
brought to a close (or with 01. XLI, 3, as in the celebration of this 
year an i.yCiv aretpavlTrii first took place), see obs. 22 and Marm. Par. 

are inventions of a later period, Menander in Strab. p. 452. Suid. 1. c. 
(Ovid,) Her. XV. 220. Stat. Shv. V, 3, 155. Other tales and scandalous 
rumours about her were devised by Attic comedy, Athen. XIH, p. 599. 
u. d. Suid. 1. I!. Max. Tyr. XXIV, p. 472. Her love songs, in short 
strophes composed of iambic dipodies, dactyls, and choriambi, exhibit, 
together with softness and grace, the glow of passion and freshness 
of sensuous feeling, Bergk. fr. 2. 3. 52. 53. 64. Plut. Erot. p. 762. 
Hor. Od. IV, 9, 10; she is therefore highly praised as a poetess by 
the ancients, Strab. p. 617. Antip. Sid. Anth. Plan. H, p. 25. 

q) Erinna, probably an associate of Sappho, Suid. v. '' 
Eustath. n. II, 726. Anthol. Pal. VH, 710, composed Epigrams, Bergk. 
fr. 118 — 120, a poem ''BXaKa.T-q, and Epopees, Suid. 1. c, which are 
frequently praised by old writers, Anth. Pal. VH, 11. 12. 13. 710. 712. 
7i3. IX, 190. Damophyle was also a contemporary poetess, PhUostr. 
V. ApoUon. I, 30. 

r) Stesichorus, the oldest and greatest poet of SioUy, lived at 
Himera circ. 632^-563, Suid. v. ^nr/a-lxopos. Euseb. Chron. Arm. 01. 
XLin, 2. Hieron. 01. XLH, 1 p. 90. f. Of his life nothing was known 
except legends, e.g. the nightingale, which sang on the mouth of the 
boy, Anth. Plan. I, 128. Plin. H. N. X, 29, 43, his fable of the horse 
and stag, Arist. Ehet. H, 20. Conon. narr. 42, the loss of hia eyesight, 
Plat. Phffidr. 243, A. Pausau. IH, 19, 11. Isokr. Hel. Enc. p. 218. 
For his dying strains, Hieron. Ep. 34, and for his death by a robber's 
hand, Suid. v. inTrjdevfM. Of his lyric-epio poems, as'AflXa iirl UcXla, 
TripvovTils, 'Bpi0iJXo, KiJKvos, 'TKlov T^pais, NoffToi, 'BX^ca, 'OpiaTeia, only 
scanty remnants are preserved, chiefly in daotyhc-logacedic metres. 


Second Period. 1104 — 500 b. c. 


B. C. 






XLVl, 3 



of Solon '*). 

in the Western Sea. 
in Sicily. Elsewhere. 

Solon') (political Elegy, 
Gnomic poetry). 

68) Up to the time of Solon the basis of the political organism 
consisted merely of the 4 tribes (see p. 9. obs. 13), which were divided 
each into 3 phratries, these again each into 30 clans, and the clans 
each into 30 houses; see PoUuc. Vin, 111: are iiivToi. Tetr<rapes ijcav 
al tpvXalt els rpla fi^pij iKdffTTj 5t^p7p-o, Kal rb fi^pos touto iKaXelTO rpLTriis 
Kal IBvos Kal ^parpla- iKiarov Si Wvovs yivii rpiiKovra i^ ivSpwn To<roi- 
TiaVf d iKaXelro rpiaKiiSes, Kal ol fierixovres roD yivovs yevpip-aL Kal o^oyd- 
\aKTeSj y4v€L fikv ov irpoty^KOvres, iK 5^ ttjs ffvvodov ovtw wpoffayopevofievoL. 
But of all those who belonged to these tribes, the Eupatridse (p. 11. 
obs. 20) were the only ones, who shared in the sovereignty, Plut. 
Thes. 25. Dion. Hal. II, 8. Polluo. 1. c, and besides them there was 
certainly a large number of persons, who were not included in the 
tribes. From the Eupatridse were chosen the archons, see obs. 45; 
likewise the Areopagus, which, already in existence before the time of 
Solon, supported the Archons as a board of advice (Plut. Sol. 19), and 
at the same time formed the highest tribunal; further the vauKpapoi, 
for whom see PoUuc. YHI, 103. Herod. T, 71 ; and the ^0frai, who 
were instituted by Drakon to try charges of homicide, Polluc. VIH, 
125. The constitution was therefore thoroughly aristocratic, and at 
this period had become more and more oppressive from the merciless 
employment of the laws concerning debt on the part of the aristocrats, 
so that many of the citizens had mortgaged their lands, others had 
given up themselves or their children to serfdom, or left the country, 
Plut. Sol. 13. 15. But the discontent at this state of affairs had 
given rise to the formation of three parties at enmity with one another, 
the Aidxpioi (Democrats), ireSiels or irfSiaioi (Oligarchs), and irdpdXoi (who 
stood midway between the other two), Plut. Sol. 13. Thus, as Drakon's 
legislation had not led to the desired result, the task of remedying the 
existing evils by new laws was allotted to Solon, the son of Exekestides, 
of the race of Kodrus (Diog. Laert. IH, 1), when Archou for the year 
594. The chief source of our knowledge about him is Plut. Solon. 
His good service in the conquest of Salamis, which had fallen into the 
hands of Megara, id. 8 — 10, his participation in the first sacred war, 
id. 11, cf. obs. 67. The banishment of the Alkmseonids, and the 
purification of the city as a preparation for the new legislation, id. 12, 
cf. obs. 64. The work of legislation was inaugurated by the ffeiadx- 
0eia, by which, according to Solon's own acoount (in his verses pre- 

He perfected the choral song by adding the Epode to the Strophe and 
Antiatrophe. Suid. s. v. Tpla 2,Tri<nx°pov. For his fame as an artist 
see Cic. Verr. H, 35, 87. Anth. Pal. "VTI, 75. 

s) The Ionian philosophy sought to solve the problem of the first 
cause of things. The first Ionian philosopher, and at the same time 
the first Greek philosopher, is Thales, ciro. 639 — 549 b. c, Euseb. 
Chron. Arm. 01. XXXV, 2. LTin, 2 p. 88. 96. Herod. I, 170. Diog. 
L. I, 22 f. Suid. s. v.; he was also counted amongst the seven wise 
men. In his capacity of statesman he gave advice to the Ionian towns, 
Diog. L. I, 95. Herod. 1, 170, and diverted the Halys, Herod. I, 75. 
As a student of natural science, mathematics, and astronomy, Diog. 
L. I, 22. 23. 24, he foretold an eclipse of the sun, Herod. I, 74 : see 
also Arist. Pol. I, 11, 8 f. As a philosopher he saw in water the origin 
of all things, Arist. Metaph. I, 3. Cic. de nat. d. I, 10. He left no 

served in Plut. Sol. 15 and Aristid. H. p. 536. Dind. : opovs dvetXov 
TToXXax^ ireirriyoTas — ToWoiis d' 'Adrivas irarpld' ^s deoKTiTov dvTjyayov 
irpadivTas), the mortgage-piUars were removed, serfdom for debt 
abolished, and the exiles restored; which measure in aU these cases, 
as regards the poor, must necessarily have consisted, as Dionys. Hal. 
V, 65 expressly says, in a cancelling of debts, whQst to the creditors 
it only afforded in other ways some reUef, by a depreciation of the 
currency (in a proportion of 100 : 73), Plut. Sol. 15. He next divided 
the people according to their property into 4 classes ; TevraKOino/jJSLfi.- 
yoi, whose property annually yielded at least 500 medimni (about one 
bushel and a half) of corn, or 500 metretse (about 9 gaUous) of oil; 
lirireis with 300; i-evyirai with 200 (or 150, Dem. adv. Makart. p. 1067) 
medimni or metretas; ^-^res with an income falling below this last 
standard, Plut. Sol. 18. Arist. Pol. H, 2, 6. PoUuc. VIH, 130. These 
classes furnished the scale, by which the taxes (the proportion of the 
4 classes being 1 Talent, h talent, 10 minse, nothing, Polluc. 1. c.) and 
other burdens, but also at the same time participation in the exercise 
of civU rights, were regulated : thus the constitution was a " timokracy," 
or, as Aristotle also called it, an SKiyapxla iroKiTLKri, i.e. midway between 
an oUgarchy and democracy, Arist. Pol. n, 12, 2. The most impor- 
tant points to notice in this constitution, which perhaps was not com- 
pletely organised in the one year 594 b. c. , but gradually in a number 
of years, are as follows : Archons and Areopagus were retained, both 
for the administration of justice; but the latter was likewise entrusted 
with the supervision of the whole state administration, Isokr. Areop. 
p. 147. Philochor. fr; 17 and 141. b. ed. Muller, of. .ffischyl. Eum. 660 ff., 
both boards accessible to citizens of the 1st Class alone, Plut. Arist. I. 
Sol. 19 ; for the management of public affairs he instituted the ^ovXti, 
consisting of 400 members, 100 out of each tribe, whose decrees were . 
partly absolute, partly preliminary decrees (Trpo^ouXev/ia-ra) prepared 
for the final decision of the pubhc assembly {iKKK-qala). Only citizens 
of the first 3 classes were admitted to the /SouXiJ, but all citizens to the 
dKK\7ia-ia. Finally a popular tribunal, the TjXiaia, was also instituted, 
consisting of (so at least later) 6000 citizens. See Plut. Sol. 18 — 19. 
Arist. Pol. II, 12. For criticism of Solon see Arist. 1. u. § 4 : 2d\w>/ 
ye loiKe ttiv dv ay KaiordT-rfv dtroSiSovai rij S-qiitf Sufa/juv, to tos dpxas 
alpe'MSai. Kal euBivav, and Solon's own words, Plut. Sol. 18 : Srni,-^ fiip 

writings behind him in the opinion of most ancient authors, Diog. L. 
I, 23. Themist. or XXVI, p. 317. 

t) With regard to Solon's poems, mention is made of the elegy 
' Salamis' in 100 verses, by which he stirred up his fellow citizens to 
recover Salamis, Bergk. fr. 1. 2. 3, further of elegies on the Athenian 
state, fr. 4. For his constitution, fr. 6, cf. obs. 68. For the tyranny 
of Peisistratus, fr. 10, 3. He also composed in elegiac metre 
"tTToBjJKai els iavrov, fr. 13, wpos ^CKoKvirpov, fr. 19, irpos Mlp-vepiuiv, 
fr. 20, -n-pos Kpirlav, fr. 22, and others, fr. 23—27 ; trochaic tetrameters 
Trpos ^uKov, fr. 32 — 35; iambic trimeters, fr. 36 etc. His poetiy is 
praised by Plato Tim. p. 21. c. Moreover the statesmen, for such we 
understand by the wise men, worked by poetry, as Solon did; so 
Periander, Diog. L. I, 97. Suid. v. HeplavSpos, CheUon, Diog. L. I, 
68, Bias, id. I, 85, Pittakus, id. 78. 79, Kleobulus, id. 1, 91, cf. Plat. 
Protag. p. 343. a. Diog. L. 41. 42. 


XLVI, 4 





XLIX, 3 
XLIX, 4 

L, 2 

L, 4 
LII, 3 

The Age of the Inner Development of the Hellenes. 









Periander dies : 
the last tyrant 
of Corinth'"). 

Tyranny in 
Corinth over- 
thrown by the 

dies : end of the 
tyranny at Si- 





Damasias I ? 

Damasias II 


in the Western Sea. 
in Sicily. Elsewhere. 


Lipara by 

in the Eastern Sea. 



of Miletus ") 

Sakadas of 
Argos') (melic 


yi,p ISuKO Toaov Kpiros oiraov iwapKei, niiijs our dipeXuiv ovt ^jropefd/ifvos. 
ot 3' etxov Sivaiuv koL x/'Wai''"' riaav iyryrot, Kal tois lippa,<rdii,7iv iXT]bh 
deiKh ^€tv' ^(TTTjv S' dfi^L^oKwp Kparepcv cdKos dfji,(poT4poto'i, VLKav 5' ovk 
eta(7 ovSsT^povs ddUas. Other remarkable laws: the prohibition of 
neutrahty, Plut. Sol. 20, the arrangement about heiresses, id., the 
command not to speak ill of the dead, id. 21, the prohibition of idle- 
ness, id. 22. etc. All the laws were written upon droves or Kvp^ets, 
id. 25. Pollux Vin, 28. To prevent the Athenians from making any 
immediate changes, he made them swear to retain the laws unaltered 
for ten years, and then went to travel abroad, Herod. I, 29. Plut. Sol. 
25, visiting ^gypt, Kyprus (and king Kroesus of Lydia? Herod. I, 
30 — 33) ; but returned to Athens, and died there, either two years after 
Peisistratus had made himself tyrant, or still later, Plut. Sol. 32. 
According to another tradition, Solon first began his travels during the 

tyraimy of Peisistratus, and died, not at Athens, but at Soli in Kyprus, 
see esp. Diog. Laert. I, 59. 62. 

69) "Under Astyages." Scymn. Oh. v. 748. 

70) Of Psammetichus nothing further is known, than that he was 
nephew of Periander, see Nicol. Damase. fr. 60 ed. MilUer, a Kypselid, 
and son of Gordias (or Gordius), see Arist. Pol. VIII, 12, 3. In general 
see obs. 54. 

71) Thuc. VI, 4: "108 years after Gela." 

72) Plut. de Herod. Mai. c. 21. p. 859. 

73) Diod. V, 9. Strab. p. 275. Pans. X, 11, 3. 

74) For the measures, which Kleisthenes took to assure his rule, 
and at the same time to satisfy the revengeful feelings of his fellow 
clansmen against their Dorian rulers, see Herod. V, 67 — 68 : most 

u) Anaximander, pupil of Thales oirc. 611 — 547, Apollod. ap. Diog. 
L. II, 2. Procem. 14, Student of natural science, astronomy, and 
geography, manufactured, as the story goes, sun-dials, maps and 
globes; taught that "the iufinite" (to dirupov Diog. L. 1. o.) was the 
first cause (dpxh) of ^ things, and is said to have set forth his views 
in a work irepX ipicreus (the first philosophical writing). 

v) Sakadas, poet and composer, conquered thrice with the flute at 
the Pythian games, 586—578. Plut. Mus. p. 1134. a. b. Amongst 

his known works were songs and elegies, Pans. X, 7. 3. VI, 14, 4. 
H, 22, 9. IV, 27, 4, and an 'l\lov r-ipcris, Athen. XIH, p. 610 C. 

w) The oldest fable, in which animals are introduced, is that in 
Hesiod. Op. et D. 202 f. iEsopus, of Phrygian descent, hved circ. 
572 B.C., Diog. L. I, 72. Suid v. Ata-oiwos, Herod. 11, 134; he is said 
to have been at first a slave, afterwa.ds to have hved at the Court of 
KrcEsus, Plut. Sol. 28, finally to have been slain by the Delphians, 
Herod. 1. c. Plut. ser. num. vind. p. 556 f. The best part of Babrius' 


Second Period. 1104 — 500 b.c. 







LIII, 3 
LIV, 1 




in the "W 
in Sicily. 

''estern Sea. 

Alalia by 

in the Eastern 

Amisus by 

of Lydia"), 
subdues the 
Greeks on the 
continent of 
Asia Minor*"). 

LIV, 2 


LV, 1 

and Ariston, 
kings of Spar- 


The Philoso- 

phers Anaxime- 
nes of Miletus''); 
Pherekydes of 
SyrosO- (Rise of 
Greek Prose). 

characteristic of them all is the alteration of the names of the Doric 
tribes, to which he gave the new names 'Tdrai, 'Ovearai, Xoipedrai.. A 
proof of his wealth and great consequence is afforded by the festivities, 
with which he celebrated the marriage of his daughter Agariste to 
the Athenian MegaMes, Herod. VI, 126—130. After the death of 
Kleisthenes the insulting epithets were still apphed to the Dorian 
tribes for a period of 60 years, after which time a reconciliation was 
effected and the old names restored; at this time we may perhaps 
set the tyranny of iEschines, Plut. de Herod. Mahgn. c. 21. p. 859. 
The dates thus given rest partly on Aristotle's account of the duration 
of the Orthagorid dynasty (obs. 49), partly on the fact, that Myron is 
recorded as victor in the Olympic games of 01. XXXUI (648 n.c), 
and last of all, on the fact, that Kleisthenes took part in the first 
sacred war, obs. 67, and in 582 b.c. conquered in the Pythian games, 
see Pans. X, 7, 3. 

75) Herod. I, 165—166. 

76) Scynm. Ch. v. 918: "4 years before Herakleia." 

77) According to Herod. I, 67 the rule of these sovereigns was con- 
temporaneous with that of king Kroesus. In their reign the Tegeatans 
were subdued, see obs. 83. 

78) The party struggles of the Diakrians, Parah, and Pedifeans 
(obs. 68) had at this time broken out afresh; the leaders were Peisis- 
tratus (of the Diakrians)j the Alkmaonid Megakles (of the Parah), and 

Lykurgus (of the Pediseans). Peisistratus first craftily obtained him- 
self a bodyguard, and then by means of it raised himself to supreme 
power, Herod. I, 59. Plut. Sol. 30. The character of his rule,-Herod. 
1. u. : 'El/da Sr; 6 JleurlcrTpaTos ^PX^ 'A6r)valav oSre ri/jias iovcras a-vvra- 
pd^as ovre Bi<r/Ma. fi^raWd^as, ivl re tois Karecrreuffi ft/e/tc ttiv iroXiv 
KoiTiUav KoKas re Kal ev, cf. Thuc. VI, 54 and the instances of his mild- 
ness, Arist. Pol. Vni, 12, 2. Plut. Sol. 31. He was twice driven out 
by the coahtion of his adversaries, the first time probably 554 b.c, the 
other time 547, but both times returned and again possessed himself 
of the tyranny; first (probably 548 B.C.) by his reconcilmtion with 
Megakles, next (537). by force, Herod. I, 60—64. Arist. Pol. VHI, 12, 
5. The time and duration of the Peisistratid dynasty in general, also 
the year in which Peisistratus died and Hipparchus was murdered, are 
perfectly established, see Herod. V, 55. 65. Arist. Pol. VTTT, 12, 5. 
Thuc. VI, 59. Eratosth. ap. Schol. on Aristoph. Vesp. 500 j w^h re- 
gard to the interruptions in the rule of Peisistratus, caused by his ex- 
pulsion on two occasions, this much only is certain, that his second 
exUe came to an end in its eleventh year, Herod. I, 26, and that both 
periods of banishment together lasted 16 years, Arist. 1. c. 

79) His reign lasted 14 years, Herod. I, 86, and as his fall happened 
in 546 B.C., obs. 85, it follows that he came to the throne in the year 
given above. 

80) Herod. I, 6 : 7rp4 8^ rrjs Kpola-ov ipx^s iriin-es "EWrjves ^<rav 
iXeidepot. For their subjection to Kroesus, see id. 26 — 27, 

collection of fables must be referred to .ffisopus, who does not appear 
to have committed his fables to writing. 

x) Anaximenes, pupil of Anaximander, astronomer and philosopher, 
held air to be the origin of things, Diog. L. H, 3. Proem. 14. Arist. 
Metaph. I, 3. 

y) Pherekydes, circ. 596—540, Diog. L. I, 121. Cic. Thuo. I, 16, 

said to have been the teacher of Pythagoras, Diog. L. Proem. 13. 15. 
I, 119. lambhch. v. Pyth., and acquainted with the learning of the 
Phoenicians, as also of the Egyptians and Chaldseans, Suid. v. *epeKi5Si;s. 
Euseb. Prsp. Ev. X, 7, 5; was one of the oldest Greek prose writers, 
wrote Xlepl ^iaeas Kal ffeuii/, Theopomp. ap. Diog. L. I, 116. Suid. 1. c, 
and taught the migration of souls. 

The Age of the Inner Development of the Hellenes. 








LV, 2 
liVI, 1 






Herakleia (in Pontus) 
byMegaraand Boeotia*'). 

Kyrus founds the Persian 

Tlie Lydian Empire con- 
quered by Kyrus 85). 

Subjection of the 
Greeks in Asia Minor 
and the islands to 

The Phokaeans found 
Velia in lower Italy: 
the Teians fly to Ab- 

LVI, 3 

Lviir, 1 

Tegea compelled 
to acknowledge the 
hegemony of Sparta*') . 


The Argives de- 
feated by the Spar- 

LIX, 2 

Anakreon of Teos^) ; 
Ibykus of Rhegium"^) ; 
Theognis of Megara''") ; 

81) Scymn. Ch. v. 972 ft. 975 ; Kaff oh xpovovs kKpir-qae KO/jos 
M7,5ias. Cf. Xenoph. Anab. V, 10, 1. Paus. V, 26, 6. Diod. XIV, 31. 

82) He was king 29 years, Herod. I, 214 (or 30 years, aooording to 
Dinon ap. Cic. de div. I, 23. lustin. i; 8, 14). Cf. obs. 89. 

83) The Spartans had always been unfortunate in their former 
operations against Tegea ; they now conquered it, after they had, in 
obedience to an oracle, fetched home the bones of Orestes, Herod. I, 
65 — 68. Paus. m, 3, 5. But the Tegeatans were, nevertheless, 
always peculiarly honoured aUies of Sparta. The prosperous termi- 
nation of the war falls in the period immediately preceding the 
embassy of Kroesus to Sparta, which probably took place in 554 b. o., 
see Herod. I, 69. 

84) The war arose in consequence of an attempt on the part of the 

Argives to win back the lost territory of Kynuria. Both parties agreed 
to Iteave the decision to a picked body of 300 men frorh each side. 
Biit a's the result of this combat was not altogether free from doubt, 
it ended in a battle, in which the Spartans were victorious, Herod. I, 
82. Strab. p. 376. This happened, when Kroesus was already besieged 
by Kyrus, see Herod. 1. c, cf. obs. 85. 

85) Soliu. Polyb. c. 7. Sosikrates ap. Diog. Laert. I, 95. Dion. 
Hal. Ep. ad Cn. Pomp. p. 773. de Thuo. iud. p. 820. 

86) Herod. I, 141. 152—153. 161—171; also of the islands, id. 171. 
The conquest took place in the years immediately following the fall of 
the Lydian empire. 

87) Herod. I, 167. For Abdera see obs. 55. 

z) Anakreon lived circ. 560—531, Athen. XHI, p. 599 C. Suid. 
s. v., attained the age of 85, and, after the Teians fled before Kyrus to 
Abdera, stayed at the court of Polykrates at Samo'B, Strab. p. 638, 
then at Athens with Hipparchus, Plat. Hipparch. p. 228 C. Julian. 
V. H. Vni, 2 ; after his fall, again at Teos, and, after the faUure of 
the Ionian revolt, at Abdera, Suid. v. 'AvaKp. Numerous poems pass 
under his name, written in his manner by later poets of different ag^s, 
cf. Bergk. Anacreontea, p. 807—862; the genuine poems are for the 
most part fragments. Amongst them are invocations of deities, Bergk. 
fr. 1. 2; love songs, fr. 4. 14. 46. 47. 48. 75; lampoons, fr. 21; drinking 
songs, 'fr. 63. 64. 90; elegies, fr. 94; epigram's, fr. 100. 108. 111. 112. 
113, 115, etc., chiefly in logacedic metre. The poet h-iruself says of his 
poetry fr. 45 : xaplevra ptiv rfi.p ?to, xa/iieyra S" (USa X^|ai. Kritias 
praises him in Athen. XTTT, 600 D {riSbv 'AvaKpelovra). 

aa) Ibykus flourished circ. 560—540. He emigrated to Polykrates 
at Samos, and was murdered, as the story goes, by robbers at Corinth, 
^uid. V. I^Vkos. Anth. Pal. VH, 745, whilst an epitaph states that he 
dtied in his native city, Anth. Pal. VH, 714. He wrote, taking Stesi- 

ehorus especially as his model, seven books of lyric poems in the Doric 
dialect with choral systems of rhythm, in particular fiery love- songs 
[ipuTo/ji.avicrTaTos irepl fi.ei.pdKi.a), Suid. 1. c. Bergk. fr. 1. 2. 26. 

bb) Theognis lived circ. 540, after the fall of Theagenes, Steph. 
Byz. o. V. M^yapa. Suid. B. V. Bioyvis. In the struggles between the 
aristocratic and democratic party he threw in his lot with the former, 
Bergk. Theogn. v. 219 f. 949 f., was attacked by both parties as a 
moderate aristocrat, v. 367 f., betrayed by friends, v. 813. 861, lost his 
property by plundering, v. 677. 1200, and wandered about in banish- 
ment in Sicily, Eubcea, and Sparta, v. 783 f. Being homesick, he 
returned to Megara, v. 787 f. 1123 f. , and lived through the Persian 
wars, V. 787 f. 1223 f. He composed a crown of elegies addressed to 
Kymus in 2800 verses, Suid. 1. c, which at an early period were 
abbreviated, mutilated, transposed, and interpolated. Together with 
the elegies addressed to other persons, the total number of the poet's 
verses preserved amounts to 1389, Bergk. 1. o. In these he upholds the 
claims and principles of the Dorian nobility, v. 28. 31 f. 53 f. 183 f. 319 f. 
609 f., and, fuU of contempt and bitterness for the ruling democracy. 


Second Period. 110 4 — 50 b. c. 







LXI, 4 
LXII, 1 





Polykrates, tyrant of 

Death of Kyrus; Kam- 
byses succeeds 8^. 

Phokylides of Miletus'^) 
political elegy and gnomic 
poetry ; Hipponax of 
Pythagoras of Samos^°), 
Mathematician, Philoso- 
pher, Statesman; Xeno- 
phanes of Kolophon"), 
founder of the Eleatic 

LXII, 4 


Death of Peisi- 
stratus : his son 
Hippias suc- 
ceeds him™). 

LXIV, 1 


88) The date assigned to the commencement of his rule is from 
Euseb. Chron. Arm. p. 98, ef. Polysn. I, 23, 2 and Herod. I, 64. His 
fall took place at the time when Kambyses was ill, therefore shortly 

before his xleath, Herod. HI, 120. For him see Herod. HI, 39 60. 

120—125. cf. Arist. Pol. TIH, 11, 9. According to Herod. IH, 139, in 
his reign Samos was the greatest of all Hellenic and barbarian towns, 
and the naval power of Samos seems to have been at that time the 
greatest in the Hellenic world, Herod. IH, 39. Thuc. I, 13. After 
the death of Polykrates Samos was subdued by the Persians, and made 
over to Syloson, the brother of Polykrates, who had been banished by 

sees in its rabble government the ruin of the state and the dissolution 
of the good old customs, v. 42 f. 53 f. 287 f. 315 f. 675 f. 833 f. 1109, 
and, as its result, tyranny v. 39 f. 52 f. 1081 f. 1181 f. He thinks fuU 
licence should be given to mere pretence of friendliness, v. 61 f., perfidy, 
V. 283 f., and violence towards the common citizens, v. 847 f. 

cc) Phokylides, the contemporary of Theognis, Suid. v. ^oikvXIStis, 
Cyrill. adv. Julian. YU. p. 225, well off, Bergk. fr. 7 f. 10, of moderate 
poUtical views, fr. 12 {fiiaos 6^ui iv 7r6X« elvai), composed moral 
proverbs and rules for conduct under the title Ke^dXia, of which only 
few fragments are preserved, Bergk. p. 357 — 360. A toItj/m vovSeTmbv, 
which was ascribed to PhokyUdes, is of later origin. 

dd) Hipponax lived circ. 540 — 537, at Klazomena, having been 
banished by the tyrants Athenagoras and Komas from his native city, 
and composed bitter lampoons, in particular against the sculptors 
Bupalus and Athenis, who had caricatured his ungainly figure, Plin. 
XXXVI, 5. Suid. B. V. 'Iii-inl>va^. Prool. ap. Phot. Bibl. Cod. 239. 
Athen. XTT , p. 552. .^Elian. V. H. X, 6, in choUambics or skazons, 
which were his invention, Bergk. fr. 11. 12. 13. 14. 83. The external 
circumstances of his life, as also his disposition and poetry, make bim 
appear the proletariate amongst the Greek lyric poets, Bergk. fr. 17. 
18. 19. 42. 

ee) Pythagoras, pupU of Pherekydes and Anaximander, lived cire. 
680 — 500, educated himself whilst travelling abroad, especially in Egypt, 
and emigrated from Samos on account of the tyraimy of Polykrates to 
Kroton in lower Italy, Diog. Laert. VHI, 1 — 4. 45. Suid. s. v. Hvdayopas. 

the tyrant and obtained help and support from Dareius, see Herod, 
m, 139—149. 

89) Kambyses reigned 7 years, 5 months, Herod. HI, 66. Pseudo- 
Smerdis 7 months, Herod. Ill, 67, Dareius 36 years. Herod. VH, 4. 
These accounts, in conjunction with the established date of Dareius' 
accession to the throne in 485 b. o., are the basis, on which rest the 
dates connected with the kings Kyrus, Kambyses, Smerdis, and Dareius. 

90) For the rule of Hippias, the murder of Hipparehus, and the 
expulsion of the Peisistratids, see Thuc. I, 20. VI, 54 — 59. Herod. V, 
55—56. 62—65. 

Here he gave the constitution an aristocratic form, Diog. L. VIH, 3. By 
his many-sided learning as philosopher, mathematician, and inventor 
of the system called by his name, as astronomer, student of medicine, 
and musician, he gathered round him a circle of numerous pupils, 
Diog. L. 7. 12. 14. These he organised into a secret league closely 
knit together by community of goods, with religious rites of initiation 
and different grades and classes of members, Suid. 1. c. ; its aim being 
the cleansing and improvement of the moral and rehgious life, as is 
shown by the Pythagorean apophthegms and moral precepts {■^Biko, 
doy/j-ara, Diog. L. VHI, 22, 8 : <ru/i/3oXa, Suid. etc.). Pythagoras either 
met with a violent death at the hands of the democratic party in 
Kroton, Diog. L. VHI, 44. Suid. 1, c, or he died at Metapontium, 
Diog. L. VHI, 39. As a philosopher (he is said to have been the first 
to call himself ^iXdcra^os, Diog. L. I, 12), he saw in number the 
essence of things; the best known of his doctrines is that of the 
migration of souls (Xenophon. ap. Diog. L. VIH, 36 f.). The accounts 
of writings by him are as dubious as the numerous legends and tales 
about his person, which were widely propagated at a later time, 
especially amongst the Neo-Platonists. The most prominent of the 
Pythagoreans are Philolaus, who reduced the doctrines of the school 
to a scientific system and committed them to writing, contemporary 
with Sokrates; and Archytas, contemporary with Plato. 

ff ) Xenophanes flourished circ. 540 — 477, Diog. L. IX, 20. Timasus 
ap. Clem. Strom. I, p. 301, Euseb. Praep. Ev. XIV, p. 757, and lived at 
least to the age of 92 years, Bergk. fr. 7. Being banished, he wandered 

The Age of the Inner Development of the Hellenes. 



B. C. 




LXIY, 4 




Death of Kambyses ; Pseudo- 

LXVI, 2 

Smerdis ; Dareius, son of Hy- 

Expedition of Dareius against 
the Scythians »=). 

LXVI, 3 

Murder of Hipparchus''). 
Hippias overthrown"'). 

Expansion of the Solonian 
constitution by Kleisthenes"^). 

LX\^II, i 

Kleomenes and Dema- 
ratus, kings of Sparta^*). 

91) See obs. 89. 

92) The date of the Scythian expedition cannot be determined with 
certainty. (Herod. XV, 1 — 144.) That it was undertaken before 514, 
we infer from Thuc. VI, 59, of. with Herod. IV, 138. It cannot weU 
have taken place earlier than 515, as up to that time Dareius was 
employed in the reduction of the rebellious satraps and provinces, in 
particular of Oroetes, the Medes and the Babylonians. On his return, 
Dareius left Megabazus behind him in Thrace to effect its conquest, 
Herod. IV, 143. V, 1. 2. 15. Tor the service rendered by Histiseus to 
Dareius, see id. IV, 130 — 139, and his recompenoe, id. V, 11. 

93) Although Hipparchus was not tyrant, but brother to Mm, and 
so his death did not secure the hberation of Athens — nay, its immediate 
consequence was that the tyrant's rule pressed still more heavily (see the 
passages quoted in obs. 90) — nevertheless his murderers, Harmodius 
and Aristogeiton, lived in the minds of the Athenians as the hberatora 
of Athens, and were extoUed as such. So in the famous skoUum ap. 
Athen. XV, p. 696 : 'Bi' fuiprov KKadl rb ^t^os (popTjua, \ uairep 'Ap/j.6dios 
K 'ApiaToydrav, | ore rhv Tvpavvov KTaviT-qv, \ laovopjixis T 'A6Tjvas ^arow;- 
ffAriji^f ft. r. X. 

94) That these two kings, the successors of Anaxauadridas and 
Ariston, were reigning in this year, follows from the fact that both 
took part in the expedition for the liberation of Athens, Herod. V, 
64. Pans. HI, 7, 7. From Herod. VI, 108, cf. Thuc. HI, 68, it is 
probable that Kleomenes was already king in 519 b.c, cf. Herod. HI, 

95) The Alkmseonids first collected an army and marched against 
the Peisistratids, but were defeated at Leipsydrium, Herod. V, 62; 
then by the repeated exhortations of the Delphic oracle, the support of 
which had been won for the Alkmseonids by their restoration of the 
Delphic temple (burnt down in 548 B.C., Paus. X, 5, 5. Herod. I, 50. 
n, 180), the Spartans were induced to take upon themselves the ex- 

pulsion of the Peisistratids; accordingly they first sent Anchimolius 
against them ; but he was defeated : then the king Kleomenes. Hippias 
retired to the AcropoUs, but came to terms with Kleomenes, as his sons 
had fallen into the Spartan's power, and betook himself to Sigeium. 
See the passages quoted in obs. 90: cf. Herod. VI, 123. Aristoph. 
Lysistr. 665 ff., and for Sigeium, which Peisistratus had conquered, 
Herod. V, 94. 

96) Kleisthenes belonged to the family of the Alkmaaonids, and 
was a grandson of Kleisthenes, tyrant of Sikyon, Herod. VI, 131, He 
had been especially active in the expulsion of the Peisistratids, id. V, 
66, but after his return to Athens became involved in a quarrel with 
another Eupatrid, who, however, was not a member of the Alkmseonid 
famUy; being in danger of succumbing to his adversary, he ranged 
himself with the popular party (so at least Herodotus), and advanced 
to his exceedingly important reforms, so pregnant with influences in 
the future, the fundamental principles of which are contained in the 
following passages. Herod. V, 66 : p-era dk rerpatfiv^ovs iovras 'AS-qval- 
ovs deKa^vXous iiroiyias, Tiav "^ijivos ircdSi»)V, TeKhvTos Kal AlytKopeos Kal 
^Apyadetij Kal "OttXi^tos daraXXafas rets iiriayvpJus, iwcx^P^^^ ^ iripuv 
Tjpilijiv iToiyvfiias i^evpijoy Trdpe^ AHayros' rovrov Sk are dtrTVyeiTova Kal 
ffvpi.p.axov ^eivov iovra irpoaideTo, cf, id. 98 : further Arist. Pol. VH, 4, 
18 : "Brt 5^ Kal Totavra KaTauKivcuypxira xpr}(7Lp,a Trpbs ttjv d7jp.0KpaTiav 
Trjv TOLavT-qv, oh KKeurdii/TjS re 'ABrivTi(!i,v ixpitraro fiovK6p.evoi au^TJirai 
TTjV 5rip.0KpaTiav — - (f}v\ai re yap h-epai TrocTjTioL irXelovs Kal (pparpiat. Kal 
TO, rav ISluiv Upav (TvvaKriov eh dXiya Kal Koiva Kal iravra (TotpidTiov, oirois 
av on p,a\icTTa avapuxBwai. iravres dXXijXois, al Bi nvv-qBeLai, Sia^evxBaacv 
at irporepov, and id. HI, 2, 8: jroXXous yap 4<pv\4Teva-e (KXeicdiviis) 
f^TOus Kal SoiiXous /lerolKov!. i.e. he abolished the 4 old tribes, by which 
a part of the citizens was excluded from the exercise of civil rights, 
and instituted 10 altogether new tribes, in which he enrolled, not only 
the excluded citizens, but also metios and manumitted slaves (Arist. 

about in Hellas, Sicily, and lower Italy; and resided in Zankle, Katana, 
and Blea, Bergk. fr. 7. Diog. Laert. IX, 18, 20. He wrote epics on the 
foundation of Kolophon and the settlement of the Phokseans in Elea ; 
elegies, iambics, and a didactic poem. As a student of natural science 
and philosopher he combated the faith in Gods and legends taught by 

Homer and Hesiod, Diog. Laert. IX, 18. Earsten Xen. Eel. fr. 1. 5. 7. 
Bergk. fr. 1, v. 22 {irXdffpM.ra tGsv ■wpmipoiv) ; and taught that God is 
the oneness of the universe, Arist. Metaph. I, 5, Diog. Laert. IX, 19. 
Cio. Aoad. IV, 37, 118. 


Second Period. 1104 — 500 b.c. 


B. C. 








Kleisthenes expelled from Athens at the insti- 
gation of his opponent Isagoras, but recalled after 
a short time*"). 

March of the Peloponnesians, under Kleomenes 
and Deinaratus, together with the Thebans, and 
Chalkidians against Athens. The Peloponnesian 
army is disbanded owing to the dissension of its 
leaders and the opposition of the Corinthians ; 
and the Thebans and Chalkidians are defeated'*). 

LXIX, 1 


The Philosophers He- 
rakleitus of Ephesus'^^j ; 
Parmenides of Elea '"''). 


The disastrous undertaking of Aristagoras against Naxos*"). 

1. c). The names of the tribes are: Ereotheis, ^geis, Pandionis, 
Leontis, Akamantis, (Eneis, Kekropis, Hippothoontis, Mantis, and 
Antiochis, Pans. I. 5. [Demosth.] Epit. p. 1397 f. The number of the 
demes, into which the tribes were distributed by Eleisthenes, was origi- 
nally 100, Herod. T, 69, afterwards 174, Pol. ap. Strab. p. 896. As 
a result of this new distribution the number of the |8ouX^. was in- 
creased from 400 to 500 (50 from each phyle) ; and the 50 senators of 
each phyle managed current affairs for the tenth part of the year, that 
is for 35 or 36, and in a leap year 38 or 39 days {wpvravela, Trpvrdvas) ; 
one was always president, iwurTaTris, and had the conduct of business, 
and 9 deputies from the other 9 phylse usually supported the TpvTivei.5, 
(irpoedpoi), Suid. v. irpvravela, Liban. Arg. to Demosth. adv. Androt. 
p. 590. It must be added, that ostracism was introduced by Eleis- 
thenes, Thuc. Vm, 73 (SiA Swd/ieas Kal d^iiifiaTos ^o^ov). Arist. Pol. 
in, 13, 15. Diod XI, 55. Plut. Arist. 7. Alkib. 13. Them. 22. etc. 
Pollux vm, 19—20. 

97) The Spartans by a herald demanded the expulsion of the 
Alkmseonids (see obs. 64), and consequently also that of Kleisthenes; 
the Athenians obeyed, and Kleomenes himself came to Athens; but 
when he tried to abolish the ^ouXi} and hand over the goverimient to 
a corporation of 800 followers of Isagoras, an outbreak occurred; 
Kleomenes with his followers occupied the acropolis, and on the third 
day retired by virtue of a convention, Herod. T, 70 — 72 : cf Arist. 
Lysistr. 272. The Athenians were now for a short time so appre- 
hensive, that they applied for help from the Persians, Herod. V, 73. 

98) Herod. V, 74—78. 4000 Athenian citizens were sent as k\tj- 
podxoi into the Chalkidian territory, id. 77. For the elevated tone of 
the Athenians at that time, see id. 78 : 'AdTjvaloi ixiv vvv Tjv^rivTo • SijXoi 
5^ ov Kar ^v fxovvov a\Xd iravraxv V tffTjyopla ws ^<ttI XPVf^^ {Tirovdaiov, el 
Kal ' Mrivaioi Tvpai'vevo/J.evoi. iJ,iv ovdafiuv rav (r<l>ias irepiotKeovTav Tjuav 

gg) Herakleitus flourished circ. 504 — 501, Diog. Laert. IX, 1. He 
taught that the essence of all things consists in a constant becoming, 
or flux (iravTa pel); that the becoming is brought about by the strife 
{iroXefws, Ipis) of the elements; and that in this movement fire is the 
active, ever-changing principle. As his teaching, which he laid down 
in a work, styled irtpl ^weus or MoOcrai, and which he designated as 

TO ToXifua afieivovs, aTraWaxd^i^es 5^ Tvpxvvoiv fiaKp^ irputToi ^yivovro' 
St]\ol uiv Tadra otl Karexo/ievot fi^f ideXoKOKeov ws detriroT'g ipya^ofievoi, 
iXevdepajBivTiav d^ aOros ^KaffTos ^ojvtc^ Trpoe&vfjJero Karepya^eadau The 
Thebans now contracted an alliance with the .ffiginetans, whereby the 
Athenians became involved in a war with ^gina, for the indecisive 
events of which at its outset, see Herod. V, 79 — 20. The Spartans, 
in order to revenge themselves on the Athenians for the injury, which 
they thought they had suffered in the ejection of Kleomenes, (Herod. 
1. u. 74. 91), and to prevent the rise of Athens, at this time actually 
formed the plan of restoring Hippias to power; but their design was 
wrecked on the opposition of their allies, in particular of the Corin- 
thians, Herod. V, 90 — 93 ; hereupon Hippias, who had been summoned 
to Greece for the said purpose, retired again to Sigeium and left no stone 

unturned to induce the Persians to march against Athens, id. 94 96. 

The dates assigned to events from 509 — 492 b. o. rest purely upon 
considerations of probabOity, as we have no firm standiug ground; 
other, but insufficient, chronological data are brought forward, each in 
its proper place. 

99) Histiaeus was summoned from Myrkinus, which Dareius had 
given him, and under some complimentary pretext detained in Susa 
against his will, Herod. T, 23 — 24. His son-in-law, Aristagoras, who 
had been made tyrant in his stead, seduced by Naxiau exiles, per- 
suaded Artaphernes, the satrap of Sardis, to embark in an attempt 
against Naxos, which failed, Herod. V, 30 — 84. Moved by fear of the 
vengeance of Artaphernes, by the burden of debts, which he had con- 
tracted by the expedition, lastly by the urgent appeals of the discon- 
tented Histiaeus, Aristagoras was driven to the resolution of revolting 
from the Persian King, Herod. V, 35. It follows from Herod. V, 36, 
that the revolt took place immediately after the expedition against 

his own exclusive property (id. § 5), often seemed obscure to the 
ancients, he was called 6 trKOTeivos, (Aristot.) De Mund. 6. Cie. De 
Nat. D. I, 26. 

hh) Parmenides lived circ. 519 — 454, Diog. Laert. IX, 21. Alex. 
Aphrod. Schol. Arist. 536. Plat. Parm. p. 127 A. Theast. p. 183 E. 
Sophist. 217 C, pupil of Xenophanes, Arist. Metaph. I, 5. Sext. Emp. 

The Age of the Inner Development of the Hellenes. 







LXX, 1 



The revolt of Aristagoras and his journey to 
Greece, in order to solicit help from Sparta and 
Athens against the Persian king™). 

Rise of historical com- 
position : The Logogra- 
phers HekataBus"), and 
Dionysius of Miletus''''). 

100) Aiistagoras first set free the Greek towns of Asia Minor from 
their tyrants, hoping thus to induce them to take part in the revolt, 
Herod. V, 38 : he then went, first to Sparta, to beg for help there ; but 
in vain, Herod. V, 38, 49 — 51: next to Athens, where it was resolved 

to send 20 ships to his aid, id. 55. 57, "aurai dk al vies apxv kukiov 
lyhovTo "EWtjo-L re Kai ^ap^dpoun." The twenty ships sent by Athens 
were joined by 5 from Bretria, id. 99. 

adv. Mathem. YH, 111. Clem. Al. Strom. I, 301. He wrote a didactic 
poem in the Ionic dialect and epic metre irepl tjiiaeois, in which he 
taught the unity and immutability of being as the fundamental essence 
of things, and asserted that thought directed to the pure unified exist- 
eace was true knowledge; he was the legislator of his native city, 
Diog. L. 1. c. Plut. adv. Col. p. 1126. 

ii) Aoyoypd^oi is the name given to the first Greek historians, who 
recorded in simple and unadorned prose, for the moat part uncritically, 
the legends of former ages, especially of the foundation of cities and 
sanctuaries, which up to that time had been orally transmitted. Thuc. 
I, 21. Dionys. Jud. de Thuc. 5. Diodor. Sic. I, 87. Strab. I. p. 18. 
Omitting the apocryphal Kadmus of Miletus, Hekatffius is the first of 

these writers. He flourished ciro. 520 — 500, travelled much, especially 
in Egypt, dissuaded his fellow citizens from revolt; but when in spite 
of this it was resolved upon, he exhorted them to shew perseverance 
and energy in the struggle, Herod. H, 143. V, 86. 125. Suid. v. 
'E/caTaios. He wrote a geographical work, IleptoSos 7^s (7repii?7i)<ris), 
and a collection of legends, Tei>ea\oylai, {la-Toplai), both in prose and in 
the Ionic dialect, Suid. v. 'EWdviKos (1. 'Ekotoios). Athen. X, 447 C. D. 
IX, 410 E. IV, 148 F. 

kk) Dionysius, a contemporary of Hekatteus, Suid. s. v. 'EjcaToiof, 
wrote a Persian history, Suid. v. Aiovinos. Accounts of other works 
from his pen are doubtful. 

36 Third Period. 500—431 b. c. 


500—431 B.C. 

As a result of the wonderful victories, by which the Persian king's attacks upon the independence 
of Greece are beaten back, power and consciousness of power are rapidly developed in the Hellenes, and 
culminate at the highest possible pitch. Amongst all Hellenic states, Athens has already developed the 
greatest energy during the wars with Persia ; it is under her leadership that subsequently the struggle is still 
further continued, with the object of freeing the rest of the Hellenes in the islands and the coast towns of the ^gean 
sea from the Persian yoke. The fruits of these victories and glorious exertions redound chiefly to the good of 
Athens. She makes herself the first Hellenic naval power, and obtains not merely the hegemony by sea, 
but even for some long time disputes with Sparta the hegemony by land. With regard to home affairs, 
the last bounds, which confined the democracy, are gradually removed, and thus the whole nation in all 
its members is raised to the freest and most active participation in public life. Art and literature spring 
rapidly into the bloom of perfect beauty, whilst master-pieces of skill are produced in the casting of metals, 
in sculpture, and in architecture, as well as in tragedy. Yet in the soreness and hostile collisions between Sparta 
and Athens there appeax increasing signs of the long and bloody struggle, which in the next period shat- 
tered the power and independence of Greece. 

Obs. For the period up to the battles of Platsea and Mykale we pos- much later period, afford us little help, only dealing with single 

sess in the last four books of Herodotus a connected and detailed state- episodes. To this class belong a short epitome in Photius of 

ment of events; from this point onwards Thucydides, ia the intro- the Persian histories of Etesias (oiro. 400 B.C.); Diodorus Siculus, 

duotion to his great historical work, is our guide; here he gives a whose eleventh book (the preceding five have been lost) commences 

sketch of the period between the Persian wars and the Peloponuesian with the year 480 b.o. : Plutarch in the Lives of Themistokles, Aris- 

whioh, though short, is both trustworthy and instructive. By the side teides, Kimon, and Perikles : lastly Cornelius Nepos and Justin, for 

of these historical works of the first rank, other works, chiefly of a whom see Chronological Tables of Eoman History, p. 75 k and 93 b. 




500—479 B.C. 




LXX, 2 


The lonians together with the auxiliary troops from Athens and Eretria sur- 
prise Sardis and burn it'); but are defeated on their retreat at Ephesus"). 

The towns on the Hellespont and Karia and Kyprus join the revolt'). 

LXX, 3 


Kyprus reconquered by the Persians') ; gradual conquest of the towns on the 

Flight and death of Aristagoras'). 

1) Herod. V, 99 — 101. The chronology of this period down to 490 
rests on the foUowing data. For 490 b.o. as the year of the battle 
at Marathon, see obs. 16; 2 years before the expedition of Mardonius 
took place, that is in 492 B.C., see Herod. YI, 95, cf. id. 46 and 48; 
2 years earlier the reduction of MUetus, Herod. VI, 31 and 43 ; whilst 
the reduction of Miletus happened in the 6th year of the revolt, Herod. 
VI, 18. Our information about the course of the revolt is not so 
perfect, that we can assign events, each to its particular year. 

2) Herod. V, 102. The Athenians hereupon left Asia Minor, and 
abstained from all farther participation in the war, id. 103. Notwith- 
standing, it was against them that the anger of the Persian king was 
specially directed, id. 105 : jSao-iX^i Si Aapelip lis i^Tjyy fKB-q 2,dpdis 
&\o6ffas ifiTeTpTJaSai viro re 'A.8ipialav koX '\iiivuv — , irpuha /liv X^erat 
avTov, <is iirvBeTO ravra, 'Jiivuv oidha \6yov ToitjirdiMei'ov, ev elSira lis 
ovToi ye ov Karairpot^ovTai dTroffrdpTej, ^p€<rdat otrtpe^ etey ol 'AdTj^aloi, 
aerh di irvBoiievov alTr)(rat, to toJoc, XajSopTa S^ Kal iviBivTa olarhv avio 
is riv oipavhv direirat Kal /uv is rbv T/ipa /SaXo^TO elireiv w Zeff, ix- 
yevi(r6at fioi, 'kdrp/alovs rlffaffdaf diravra Si Tavra irpoffTd^M id tiSv 
BepaTOVTiiiv Selvvov irpoKHixivov avT^ is rpls eKOKTrore etTreti>' SiiriroTa, 
li.ilJ.veo rdv ' A.6rivalwv. Accordingly the Ionian revolt, through the 
share which the Athenians had in it, became a chief occasion of the 
Persian wars, cf. however obs. 8. 13. 20. 

3) Herod. V, 103. 104. (But only the greater part of Karia took 
part in the revolt, and in Kyprus Amathus held aloof, id. 1. o.) 

4) Artybius with an army and the Phoenician fleet were sent 
against Kyprus. The fleet was worsted by the lonians, who had been 
summoned to the rescue ; but, on the other hand, the Kyprians them- 
selves suffered a complete defeat on land; whereupon the island was 
reduced to subjection, Herod. V, 108 — 115. The Kyprians had enjoyed 
their freedom for the space of a year, Herod. V, 116. 

5) Daurises conquers Abydos, Perkote, Lampsakus, and Paesus on 
the Hellespont, Herod. V, 117; then turns his arms against Karia, 
where at first he wins two battles, but is then surprised and destroyed 
with the whole of his forces, Herod. V, 117 — 121. At the same time 
Kios on the Propontis and what was once the Trojan territory, now 
in the possession of the iEolians, are subdued by Hymeas; also 
Klazomense and Kyme by Artaphemes and Otanes, id. 122 — 123. 

6) Aristagoras deserts the Ionian cause, and retires to Myrkinus, 
where he and his army are destroyed by the Thracians, Herod. V, 124 — 
126. After the flight and death of Aristagoras, nothing further is record- 
ed with reference to the events of the Ionian war, except that Histiaus 
arrives in Asia Minor, commissioned by the Persian king to assume 
the command in chief against the rebels, but intending to betray the 
Persian army to their enemies : that he was unmasked by Artaphemes, 
and afterwards turning pirate roamed about the islands of the Archi- 
pelago and the coasts of Asia Minor, Herod. VT, 1 — 5; in which 
occupation he met with his death in 494 or 493 B.C., id. 26 — 30. 


Third Period, 500 — 431 B.C. 






LXXI, 1 



LXXI, 2 



LXXI, 3 



The Ionian fleet defeated at Miletus, and Miletus conquered'). 
Defeat of the Argives by the Spartans at the grove of Argus ^). 

LXXI, 4 



The islands of the Archipelago and the towns on the north coast 
of the Hellespont and the Propontis again brought into subjection"). 




The first expedition of the Persians against Greece under Mar- 
donius; Fleet and army almost totally destroyed on Mt. Athos, or 
in the neighbourhood"). 




New preparations of Dareius : at his summons a large number 
of the Greek states acknowledge his supremacy"). 

7) The Persians unite their land and sea force, for an attack upon 
Miletus, as the hotbed of the war, rdWa iroXfir/iora jrepl i\d<Taoi>os 
iroi'ri(Ta,fiemi, Herod. TI, 6 : the number of their ships, which were 
chiefly furnished by the Phoenicians, but in part also by the Kyprians, 
Kil ilrians, and Egyptians (see id.), amounted to 600, id. 9. The 
lonians, restricting the war on land to the defence of Miletus, collected 
their fleet at Lade, an island lying in the neighbourhood of MUetus, 
intending to venture an engagement with the enemy, id. 7. Their 
fleet consisted of 80 ships from Miletus, 12 from Priene, 3 from Myus, 
17 from Teos, 100 from Chios, 8 from Erythrs, 3 from Phoksea, 70 
from Lesbos, 60 from Samos, altogether 358, id. 8. The Persians did 
not venture a battle, until they had succeeded in corrupting the 
Samians, id. 9 — 13. So when the fight began, the Samians (all 
except 11 ships) took to flight, after tbem the Lesbians and also most 
of the other lonians : the few that made any resistance, amongst 
whom the Chians chiefly distinguished themselves by their bravery, 
had to yield to overwhelming force, id, 14 — 16. Miletus was then 
taken, and the inhabitants were exiled to Ampe on the Tigris, id. 
19 — 20: "MIXtitos ixiv vvv MiXr/a-loiv Tipri/iaTo," id. 22. Then, ia the 
same year, Karia was subdued by the Persians, id. 25. (Part of the 
Samians, iU-pleased with the treachery of their fleet, went with a 
number of Milesians to Sicily, where they made themselves masters 
of the town Zankle, id. 22—25. Thuc. YI, 4. Arist. Pol. VIH, 3, 12. 
However, not long afterwards, Zankle was lost to them again; for 
AnaxUaus, tyrant of Ehegium, expelled them from the town, to which 
he gave another population "^vhhIktuv avBpiirav" Thuc, and at the 
same time the name Messana, Thuc. YI, 5 : cf. Pans. IV, 23, 5.) 

8) Herod. VI, 76—83. Cf. Paus. H, 20, 7—8. Plut. De Virt. Mul. 
p. 245 D — F. Eleomenes defeated the Argives, and then set fire to the 
grove of Argus, in which the routed had taken refuge. By this means 
6000 Argive citizens perished, Herod. VH, 148; and hereby the nation 
was so weakened, that for the space of a generation the Perioeks, or 
according to Herodotus the slaves, were masters of the state, Herod. 

VI, 83. Arist. Pol. VIH, 3, 7. The date rests on the circumstance, 
that in Herod. VI, 19. 77 an oracle comprised both the fall of Miletus 
and the defeat of Argos, and that in Herod. VH, 148 the latter event, 
at the time of the approach of the second Persian war, is designated 
as having taken place shortly before. 

9) Herod. VI, 31—42. (The inhabitants of Byzantium and Eal- 
chedon fled and found a home, but only for a time, in Mesambria, 
id. 33, a colony of Megara, Strab. p. 319.) The lonians had to suffer 
all the calamities attendant on an enemy's conquest, Herod. 1. c. 
31 — 32, but were afterwards treated by Artaphemes with relative 
mildness and justice, id. 42. 

10) Herod. VI, 43 — 45. For the object of the expedition see id. 43 : 
itropevovro iirl Te'Epirptav Kal'Ad'^vas' avrai fih wv a^t irpoaxvt^^ TJtrap 
ToO (TToKov. drap in voi^ ^oyres ocras av TrXeioras SivaivTo KaraffrpiifieffBai 
Tov "EWriviSav iroKLwv — By a storm the fleet lost 300 ships and 
20,000 men on the promontory of Athos, whilst the army was surprised 
by the Brygians, and a great part of it destroyed. Mardonius there- 
fore relinquished the expedition and returned, after revenging himself 
on the Brygians. 

11) Herod. VI, 48—49. 49: toicti T^Kovn h Tipi 'EWdSa /oj/juft ToKKtU 
/ih riireipaTiuv Boaav rh irpotirxero aMav o liiptrris, Trdrres di Ptiatarcu 
is Tois diriKola-To alrfiirovTes. Amongst the latter also .ijgina, which 
had for a long time past been at war with Athens (see p. 38, obs. 98), 
and which — so at least the Athenians feared — ^joined the Persian king, 
in order to overpower Athens with the help of Persia. Accordingly 
the Athenians sent ambassadors to Sparta, and accused ^gina of 
treason to the whole Hellenic race : after many delays the .Siginetans 
were compelled to furnish 10 hostages, who. were given over to the 
Athenians, Herod. VI, 50. 73. In consequence, war broke out afresh 
between Athens and iEgina, id. 87—93. For the reception and treat- 
ment of the Persian heralds ia Athens and Sparta see Herod. VH, 

The Hellenic Race in its Prime. 









Demaratus is dethroned, Kleoraenes dies : Leotychidas and Leonidas 
kings of Sparta '^). 




First Persian war"). The Persians under Datis and Artaphemes'*) 
sail through the MgesiU Sea and come to Euboea, take Eretria'^), and 
then land on the plain of Marathon ; where they are defeated by the 
Athenians and Plataeans under the command of Miltiades"). 




The disastrous undertaking of Miltiades against Paros : his con- 
demnation and death"'). 




12) Demaratus and Kleomenes were always at feud with one 
another : Demaratus had thwarted and opposed Kleomenes in the 
affair of iEgina (see obs. 11), and for this reason Kleomenes compassed 
his deposition : whereupon Demaratus fled to king Dareius, Herod. "VI, 
50. 61 — 70. Kleomenes died soon afterwards, id. 74 — 75. For the 
successors of both see id. 71 and VII, 204 — 205. 

13) Herod. VI, 94—124. Cf. Ctes. Pers. § 18 (ed. Bahr). Justin. 
H, 9. Cornel. Nep. Them. 4 — 5. Vengeance on Athens and Eretria 
was again declared to be the object of the expedition, but at the same 
time Dareius intended to subdue the whole of Hellas, Herod. VI, 94. 

14) Herodotus only states the number of the Persian triremes (600), 
VI, 95, but not the size of the army. According to lustin. I.e., the 
latter amounted to 600,000 men ; according to Plato Menex. p. 240 A 
and Lysias Epitaph, p. 192. § 21, 500,000 men; according to Val. 
Max. V, 3. Paus. IV, 25, 2, 300,000, according to Corn. Nep. Milt. 5, 
only 110,000 men. 

15) Herod. VI, 95—101. On the voyage Naxos was plundered and 
destroyed, but Delos spared ; troops and hostages were taken from 
other islands; in Eubcea Karystus and Eretria were taken, the latter 
by treachery after a six days' siege; whereupon the temples were burnt 
down in revenge for the burning of Sardis, and the inhabitants led 
away as captives. For the fate of Eretria cf. Plat. Legg. HI, p. 698. C. 
Menex. p. 240. B. Diog. Laert. IH, 33. Strab. p. 448. 

16) To the plain of Marathon the Persians were conducted by 
Hippias, as the best use could be there made of the cavalry. The 
Athenians marched against them under the command of the 10 strategi 
and the polemarch Kallimachus; the Spartans promised assistance, 
but delayed, as they dared not march out before the full moon (Herod. 
1. 0. 105 — 106. 120) ; the Plataeans, ,on the other hand, came to the 
rescue with the whole of their forces (1000 men). According to lustin. 
n, 9 the Athenian numbers reached 10,000 men, not counting the 
Platteans; according to Com. Nep. Milt. 4. Paus. IV, 25, 2. X, 20, 2 
the total of both armies was 10,000. Owing to the successful 

exertions of Miltiades the attack was made without delay, Herod. 1. o. 
109. The number of the fallen: 6400 Persians, 192 Greeks, id. 117. 
For the nature of the attack and the bravery of the Greeks see id. 112 : 
TrpcaToi fJi^v yctp'^Wrjvojv twv ijfiets (Sf^ev Bpofii^ h iroXefiious ^XP'O^^^'^^^ 
Trpun-ot 5k aviax<>vro iffSijrd re M.-rfStK-rp' opiovres koX avbpas tovs raOra 
iadrifUvovs ' t^ojs dk ijv To't(n "EXKtjo-l koX rb ovop-a ri M-^Scov ^o^os 
aKoOcrai. The day of the battle was the 6th of Boedromion (corre- 
sponding roughly to the last few days of September) Plut. Cam. 19. Mor. 
p. 861 (De Mai. Herod, c. 26). p. 305 (De Glor. Athen. c. 7). In oppo- 
sition to these accounts of Plutarch, Bookh (Jahnsche Jahrb., Supple- 
ment b. 1 N. F. S. 64 ff.) on many grounds, in particular that the 
battle according to Herod. VI, 105. 120 must have taken place on one 
of the days immediately following the new moon, has made it probable 
that the day of the battle must be placed shortly after the middle of 
the preceding month of Metageitnion, that is about the 17th of this 
month (=the 12th of September). According to Plut. Arist. 5, Aris- 
teides was one of the 10 strategi, and perhaps Themistokles : at all 
events, according to this passage, the latter was present at the battle. 
For the sepulchral mounds raised in honour of the Mapaffavopdxo^ see 
Paus. I, 32, 4 — 5. The year of the battle of Marathon is positively 
established by the testimony of various writers that 10 years inter- 
vened between it and the battle of Salamis, Herod. VH, 1. 3. 4. 7. 20 
Thuc. I, 18. Piatt. Legg. HI, p. 698 C. Marm. Par. 

17) Herod. VI, 132—136. Com. Nep. MUt. 7. Herod. 1. c. 132- 
138 : aiT7]{ras v4a^ epSoprjKovTa koX arpaTi-qv re Kol xpvf^o.Ta 'AdT}va.ious, ou 
tppdcras fftpi iir rjv ^TriaTpaTsverac x^PV^t dXXA 0is avrods KaraTrXovTieLv, 
rjv ol ^irtavTaL — . ' Adriuaiot dk TovroLffi ^irapd^res wapidocrav' irapaXa^iov 
5k 6 Mi,\TiddT]S T-rpt arpaTLTji' ^Xee ^7ri Ildpov, Tpotpaccv ^xuc ws ol lldpioi 
inrTJp^o-v irpoTepoi aTpa.Tevop.evoc rptripei is Mapa^wca ap.a rtp Hipo'rj' touto 
fikv 5t) irpouxv^^ \6jov ^v, drdp Ttva koI 'iyKOTOv elxe rotai HapioLai 5ta 
Av(ray6pea rev Ttcrfew, kovra yivos Hdptov, Sta^aXovTa iilv Trphs 'TSdpvea 
to;" nipirrii'. He effected nothing, and after his return was accused by 
Xanthippus, the father of PeriUles, and sentenced to pay a fine of 50 
talents : but he died from a hurt in the foot, which he had got before 
Paros. His son Kimon discharged the fine in his stead. 


Third Period. 500 — 431 b.c. 


B. C. 














Aristeides ostracised''). 




Themistokles lays the foundation of the maritime 
power of Athens, by persuading them to expend the 
revenues from the silver mines of Laureium on the 
building of triremes, and to construct the harbour 

T,XXV, 1 



Second Persian war°°). Xerxes") sets out against 
Greece at the head of a fleet of 1207 vessels of 
war and an army of 1,700,000 infantry and 80,000 

The Lyric Poets: 

18) Plut. Arist. 7. Com. Nep. Arist. 1. The date is given from 
Plut. Arist. 8, according to which he was recalled in the third year; 
according to Com. Nep. 1. c. his recall took place in the 6th year, so 
that his banishment would belong to 486 b. o. 

19) With regard to Themistoldes, who from this time forward plays 
a prominent part as the director in chief of Athenian affairs, see in 
general the character given him by Thucydides (I, 138) : ^j/ yap o 
QefLLOTOKKTJs ^e^aLorara dri tpvffews tax^^ STjXdaas Kal dia(p£p6pTOJs tl is 
avrb fiaWov er^pov a|tos davfidcau olKelq. yb,p avv^aei Kal oirre irpoiiadtav 
is avTTpi oiSkv ovt iTi/iaSiiy tSv t£ TrapaxpTJ/M 5(.' i\axl(rTr;s I3ovKtjs 
Kparurros yi/wpjjiv Kal twv fieXKovTOjv itrl irXeuTTov tov yevrjaofiivov dpiaros 
eiKaaTTjs' kdX a iiiv pierd, xei/jas ?x<" f''' ^fiTy^trao-ffai otos tc, wv S' airapos 
etrj Kpivoi iKavws ovK dTr/WaKTO' to re dfietpov ^ xeZ/Joj' iv ti^ d<pav€i ^t 
Trpoewpa yxaXttrra* Kal to ^vixirav eltreiv, <pvaews fiiv dvvdfiei /j,e\iT7}s Si 
PpaxvTTp-i KpcLTUTTOs Sri ovTOS auroo'XfSta^et;' rd SiovTa iyivcTo. Fear 
of a renewed attack by the Persians showed him the need, but the 
.Siginetan war was his immediate pretext for effecting the build- 
ing of 200 triremes (the number given by Herodotus) out of the 
revenue of the Laureian mines, Herod. VH, 144 ; ih-e ' Ad-qvaloiffi, ytvo- 
IjAvuv xpTj/HtTui' tieydXoiv iv rip Kouiif, to, iK tZv /xcTaWav (r0( Trpo<rriK8e 
T(jiit dwo Aavpeiov, IfieWov Xd^etrdai 6pxt]Sov 'iKoffTos SiKa SpaxpuSj tots 
SefuffTOKXitjs dviyvojae 'AdtjvaioLS ttjs Scaipio'ios TavTTjs irav^apAyovs y^aj 
rovTwv Tajv xPVf^'^^^ TrofqiyaffBai, 5c7jKO(rias is tov iroKetxov, Tbv irpos 
AlyiyrJTas \iyiay' ovros yap 6 woKefjujs aviXTas Iffwce tots ttjv 'E\Xa5a, 
avayKoffas daXaaslovs yeviaSai 'Affiivalovs, cf. Plut. Them. 4. Com. Nep. 
Them. 2. Polysen. I, 30, 5 (according to all these latter passages only 
100 ships were built). In connexion with this undertaking he brought 
about the construction of the harbour Peiraeus, to replace Phalerum 
with its insufficient accommodation, Thuc. I, 93. cf. Pans. I, 1, 2. Por 
the result of the alteration see Plut. Them. 4 : iK Si tovtov — dvrl p.oH- 
/iuv oirKiTuiv, as 057<« HXaTinv (Legg. IV. p. 706 B), vav^aTas Kal iiri- 
doKaafflovs iwol'qae Kal Sui^oXrpf Ka& axiTov irapiax^v, as dpa QefuiTTOK\^s 
TO Sopv Kol TTiv dffiriSa rav ttoKitQiv TrapeXo/iepos els virripifftov koX KioTnjj/ 
<Tuiii<TTei\e Thv tux 'ASr/valoiv Stj/mv. The date of these measures cannot 
be certainly fixed, as the account given in Thuc. I, 93 is of doubtful 
interpretation. The date given above rests chiefly on Thuc. I, 14 : 
according to which the Athenians in the period up to the death of 
Dareius, that is up to 485 b.c, had only a few ships of war, and those 
for the most part only penteoonters ; further on Herodotus' whole 

a) Simonides, of lulis in Keos, lived from 556 to 468 B.C., Mann. Par. 
Suid. s. V. Strab. p. 486, in close intercourse with the most eminent 
men of his time; at the court of Hipparehus, Plat. Hipparch. p. 228 d. 

account of the matter (VH, 143 — 144), where e.g. Themistoldes in 
481 B.C. is cahed an ivrip is irparovs veaaTl irapuiv ; on these and other 
grounds the question has been settled, being worked out in detail, 
above all by Kruger (hist, phU. Studien I. p. 13 f), in opposition to 
Eockh pe Arch. Pseudon. in the Abh. der Berl. Acad. 1827. p. 131 f) 
who places the arohonship of Themistokles together with all his other 
measures in the year 492 b.c 

20) Herod. VH. VHI. IX. Cf. Ctes. Pers. § 23—27. Diod. VI, 
1 — 37. Plut. Them, and Arist. On the present as on the former 
occasion the chief object was the conquest of the whole of Greece (cf. 
obs. 13), Herod. VH, 139 : 57 Si (TTpaTTJKairlri ^ patrikios oSno/ia phi etxe 
lis i-TT 'ABrjvas iXaivei, KaHero S is irdaav tt/v 'EXXaSa, cf. id. 157. The 
preparations had continued the whole time since the first war, almost 
without interruption, first under Dareius, Herod. VII, 1, then under 
Xerxes, id. 20. Moreover the way was paved for the expedition by 
digging through the isthmus of Athos, id. 21 — 24, and bridging over the 
Strymon, id. 24, and the Hellespont, id. 25. 33—36. Xerxes had also 
made an alliance with the Carthaginians, that they might make an 
attack on Sicily and the Greeks there, Diod. XI, 1, 20. cf. Herod. VH, 
165. Besides Demaratus (obs. 12), the Aleuadae of Thessaly and the 
Peisistratidae followed in the train of Xerxes, Herod. VH, 6. The 
Greeks on their side, when they heard of the arrival of Xerxes at 
Sardis, that is towards the end of the year 481 b.c, held a congress 
at the Isthmus, in which they first of all renounced all intestine war 
and dissension, and resolved to send ambassadors to Gelon, tyrant of 
Akragas in Sicily, further to Krete, Kerkyra, and Argos, to beg for 
assistance, id. 145 ; but they nowhere met with success, 148 — 171. No 
part was taken in this congress by those, who had at the summons of 
the Persian king given hi m earth and water; namely the ThessaUaus, 
Dolopes, Jiinianes, PerrhEebi, Lokrians, Magnetes, Maliaus, the Achseana 
of Phthiotis, the Thebans, and the rest of the Boeotians with the ex- 
ception of Thespiae and Platffias, 132. Athens distinguished herself 
above all by her patriotism, see 139 : 'AB-qvalovs av tis \iywv (rarrjpas 
yeviaBai t^s 'EXXdSos ou/c dv duapTavoi. TdXr/Bios — iXo/ievot Si Trjv 'BXXo5o 
ireptelvai iXevBiprjv toSto to 'EWtivikSv Tar t6 Xohtw, oitov piij ip.TiSuTe, 
avTol ovTOL rjcav oi iTreydpavTes Kal ^auCKia p.erd yc Beoiis avaad/ievoi. 
The "wooden walls," 140 — 144. 

21) Xerxes had.succeeded to the throne after the death of Dareius 
in 485 B.C. Herod. VH, 1—4. 20. Sync. p. 208. B. 

and of the AleuadsB and Skopadse in Thessaly, Plat. Protag. p. 339 
B. Cic. de orat. H, 86. Bergk Lyr. fr. 5. After the battle of Marathon 
he at first resided in Athens, where he enjoyed the intimacy of Themis- 

The Hellenic Hace in its Prime. 






LXXV, 1 


cavalry-^). The Spartan king Leonidas takes up his 
position with 300 Spartiates and some other troops 

Pindar*), Bakchylides"^). 
The epic poet Panyasis''). 

22) The army assembled in the course of the year 481 B.C. at 
Kritalla in Eappadokia, and marches from there to Sardis, where it 
passes the winter together with Xerxes himself, Herod. Vn, 26 — 32 ; 
the fleet coUeoted in the harbours of Kyme and Phokaea, Diod. XI, 2. 
At the beginning of spring the army marches to Abydos, Herod. YII, 
40 — 43, from thence to two bridges over the Hellespont, id. 54 — 55, 
which it required 7 days and 7 nights to cross, id. 56 : the advance is 

resumed both by water and land as far as Doriskos, a plain on the 
Hebrus, id. 58, where a muster of the army and the fleet was held, 
id. 60 — 80. The numbering or rather appraising of the army showed 
a total of 1,700,000 infantry and 80,000 cavalry, id. 60. 87; the fleet 
comprised 1207 triremes, amongst which were 300 Phoenician, 200 
Egyptian, 150 Kyprian, 100 Kilikian vessels, etc., besides 3000 other 
craft, id. 89. 148 : to these must still be added 120 ships and 300,000 

tokles and won prizes in poetical contests, Herod. VI, 105. Vit. .^Boh. 
Westerm. p. 119. Plut. Them. 1. 5 ; last of all, at the court of Hiero of 
Syracuse, whom he reconciled to Thero of Agrigentum, Bergk. fr. 142. 
Cic. Nat. D. I, 22. Schol. Pind. 01. II, 29. By composing for money, he 
incurred the reproach of avarice, Pind. Isthm. U, 5 and Schol. on 
Aristoph. Pac. 698; on account of his powerful memory he was es- 
teemed the inventor of mnemonics, Marm. Par. Cic. de orat. II, 74. 86. 
Quint. IX, 2, 11. He was an extraordinarily fertile poet and recognised 
throughout Hellas; he composed chiefly 'EttiVikoi, 'T/hkoi, naiaves, Ai6vp- 
afi^oi, 'TTopx^/tara, Bprivoi, "EKeyetai, Bergk. fr. 1 — 89, 'B?ri7pa/n/iaTa, 
Bergk. fr. 90 — 170, of which numerous fragments are preserved. For 
the history of the period the fragments of his poems are of importance; 
as in many elegies and epigrams he celebrates the exploits of the Persian 
wars: thus the heroes of the battles of Marathon, Vit. ^sch.; Ther- 
mopylae, Bergk. fr. 4. 92. 93. 95. 96. 97. 98; Salamis, Bergk. fr. 1. 100. 
101. 102; Platsese, Bergk. fr. 84; and of the battles of Eimon, fr. 107. 
108. 109, cf. fr. 110. 111. He also composed epigrams on dedicatory 
offerings of Harmodius and Aristogeiton, fr. 134, of Miltiades, fr. 36, 
of the Athenians after the battle of Artemisium, fr. 138, of the Hellenes 
from the Persian spoils, fr. 141, cf. fr. 144. 145, and of Pausanias, 
fr. 143. etc. The grace of his poems procured him the epithet MeXuc^p- 
Tijs (Sib. t6 TjSi, Suid.), Plato says of him : aoiphs xal Selos 6 drrip, Eep. 
I, p. 331 E. 

b) Pindar, son of Daiphantus, born circ. 521 — 518 e.c. in the 
Theban borough Kynoskephalse, of the family of the iEgidse, Suid. 
s.v. Bust. Proem. 25. Vit. Pind. Pyth. V, 71, composed at first under 
the guidance of Lasus of Hermione, Eustath. 1. c, and of Korinna, 
Plut. glor. Atheu. p. 347. 348; by the latter he was fifty times con- 
quered in musical contests, Paus. IX, 22, 3. ^1. V. H. XIH, 24. Suid. 
s. \. Kopwa : the first time that he came forward independently was in 
his 20th year with the 10th Pythian ode. That the poet travelled much, 
chiefly to conduct the performance of his songs at festival gatherings, 
is shewn by his residence at Delphi, Paus. X, 24, 4, at Olympia, Pind. 
01. X, at Anthedon, Paus. IX, 22, 5, at Argos, Pr. Eust. 16. Vit., at 
Syracuse at Hiero's court in company with Simonides and BakchyMdes, 
Pr. Eust. 17. Vit., where he also formed a connexion with Thero of 
Agrigentum, Pind. 01. H. IH. According to his poems he enjoyed 
intimacy, amongst others, with ArkesUaus of Kyrene, Pyth. IV. V, 
and especially with the jEginetans, 01. VHI. Pyth. VIII. Nem. HI. 
IV. V. VI. vn. Isthm. IV. vn. In praise of Athens he sang, Pseudo- 
.^schin. Ep. 4 : at re \tTapal Kal doidi/ioi 'EXXaSos lpei<r/ji' 'Affarai, for 
which the Thebans imposed a fine upon him ; but the Athenians paid 
him twice the amount of the fine, and set up his statue in brass. 
Besides his songs, he approved his orthodox piety by the consecration 

of shrines, Pyth. Ill, 77. Paus. IX, 16, 1. 17, 1; but the poet took no 
active part in politics or war. He is said to have died a painless death 
in the theatre at Argos at the age of 80, Pr. Eust. 16. Plut. Cons, ad 
ApoU. p. 109. Suid. 1. c. ; Alexander the Great honoured his memory 
by sparing his house alone at the destruction of Thebes, Arr. Anab. I, 
29. Of his various lyric poems we have preserved to us four books of 
'EirlviKot, 14 Olympic, 12 Pythian, 11 Nemean, and 7 (8?) Isthmian 
triumphal songs to victors in the chariot race with horses, mules or 
filhes, in the single course, long course, double course and armour 
race, in wrestling, boxing, the pancratium, and flute-playing; they 
were sung by choirs to the lute or flute, in Dorian, jEolian, or Lydian 
harmony and the most varied strophio rhythms : the compositions of 
the poet of which fragments are stiU preserved were "Tp,voi, cf. Bockh 
fr. 1. 2, AiSvpa/x^oi, fr. 3. 4, "EyKW/ua, fr. 2, XKoXia, fr. 1. 2. Qpfjvoi, fr. 
1. 2. 3, ripoffoSia, fr. 1, 'Tiropxnp-o.Ta, fr. 3. 4. Of his poetry Quintilian 
says, X, 1, 6 : Novem lyricorum longe Pindarus princeps spiritus 
magnificentia, sententiis, figuris, beatissima rerum verborumque copia 
et velut quodam eloquentiae flumine. Cf. Hor. Carm. IV, 2. — Timok- 
reon of lalysus in Rhodes was a contemporary of Pindar. Athlete and 
poet, first he was the friend of Themistokles ; then banished on account 
of alleged sympathies with Persia, he attacked Themistokles and Si- 
monides in lampoons, after he had in vain invoked the Athenian's 
intercession, ^ergk. Tim. fr. 1. 5. Suid. s. v. Plut. Them. 21. Athen. 
X, p. 415 f., for which Simonides revenged himself by a biting epitaph, 
Bergk. Sim. fr. 171. Of his poems (MAi;, S/co'Xia, "Snnyp6.p.ijjx.Ta.) only 
a few fragments are preserved. Contemporary with the lyric poets 
enumerated, there were three poetesses : Koriima of Tanagra, nick- 
named Mwa, Suid. v. Paus. IX, 22, 8, who wrote songs in the ^olic 
dialect from legendary materials, of which only scanty relics are pre- 
served, Bergk. f r. 2. 14. 18. 20 ; TelesiUa of Argos, who by her bravery 
and songs rescued her native city from the Spartans, Plut. mul. virt. 
d. 235 C. Paus. H, 20, 7. 8. Suid. s. v.; PraxiUa of Sikyon, Euseb. 
Chron. 01. LXXXH, 2 p. 105, of whose poems, "T/ixoi, Ai06pap,l3oi, 
llapolvia, S/coXia, only a few remnants are stiU preserved, B. fr. 1 — 5. 

c) BakchyUdes of luhs in Keos, nephew of Simonides, with whom 
he lived at the court of Hiero, was at feud with Pindar, Strab. p, 486. 
Steph. V. 'louXfs. Schol. Pind. 01. H, 154. Nem. IH, 143. Pyth. H, 97. 
He flourished in his prime according to Eusebius Chron. Arm. p. 102 
in Olymp. LXXVIII, 3. Of his most considerable poems, 'EttIi'i/coi, 
"T/.icoi, Jlaiaves, At6upap.^ot, TlpotroSia, 'TTropxvP-f^Tf^j 'B/Jwrt/ea, ^ETriypd/j.- 
/iara, only few fragments of any length are preserved, B. fr. 13. 27. 

d) Panyasis of Halikamassus, nearly related to Herodotus, flourished 
circ. 500 — 460, and met with his death from Lygdamis, the tyrant of 
his native city, Suid. s. v. Clem. Alex. Strom. VI, p. 206. Hieron. 01. 



Third Pebiod, 500 — 431 b.c. 





from the rest of Greece in the pass of Thermopylae, but 
is surrounded and overpowered after a heroic resis- 
tance ''''') : the Greek fleet fights two engagements with the 


Upgrowth of dramatic 

The tragic poets Phry- 
nichus'), iEschylus^). 

men from the islands and the Greek towns, with which Xerxes came 
into contact on his way, from all of which he demanded contingents, 
BO that the total of fighting men, including the ships' crews, amounted 
to 2,641,610, id. 184 — 187. Such are the really incredible numbers 
given by Herodotus. According to Otes. § 22, the army consisted of 
800,000 men, the fleet of 1000 ships; according to Diod. XI, 2, 3. 5, 
there were 1200 ships and 800,000, or with the auxiliary forces added, 
1,000,000 men; according to Com. Nep. Them. 2, 1200 ships, but 
700,000 infantry and 400,000 cavalry; according to lustin. H, 10 the 
same number of ships and a total of 1,000,000 men. From Doriskus 
the army marched in 3 parallel lines {Herod. YII, 121), first to Therma, 
where it was again met by the fieet, Herod. VH, 108 — 126; and from 
here into the land of the Malians, where Xerxes pitched his camp at 
Trachis, id. 196 — 201 : the fleet sailed from Therma, first to the coast 
of Magnesia between Sepias and Kastansea, and, after it had here lost 
409 ships in a storm, to Aphetffi on the Pagassean guU, id. 179—195. 
The Greeks first decided to defend the entrance into Thessaly, and to 
this end occupied the pass of Tempe with 10,000 men under the Spartan 
Eusenetus and Themistokles, but gave up this plan for fear of being 
surrounded, id. 172 — 173, and resolved to post an army at Thermopyte 
(for which see Introd. p. 2. obs. 1) and to occupy Artemisium, that 
is the north coast of Euboea, with the fleet, in order to hinder the 
advance of the Persians into Central Greece both by land and sea, id. 

23) Herod. VH, 202 — 288. The fighting force of the Greeks con- 

sisted, in addition to the 300 Spartans, of 500 Tegeatans, 500 Manti- 
neans, 120 men from Orchomenus in Arcadia, 1000 from the rest of 
Arcadia, 400 Corinthians, 200 from Phlius, 80 from Mykense : further 
700 from Thespise, 400 firom Thebes (who according to Herod. VII, 
222 joined the army under compulsion, according to Diod. XI. 4 
belonged to a non-Medising party), the whole force of Opuntian 
Lokrians, and 1000 Phokians, id. 202. Xerxes first sends a spy, who 
finds the Spartans busied with their gymnastics and combing their 
hair, 208 — 209; then, after waiting 4 days in the expectation that they 
would take to flight of themselves, he kept up the attack for three days 
in vain, first with the Kissians and Medes, then with the 10,000 im- 
mortal Persians (for whom cf. Herod. VH, 83), 210—213 : after this 
by the treachery of Ephialtes, the Greeks were surrounded, 213 — 218, 
and the last struggle followed, 219 — 227 ; in which, however, only the 
Spartans, Thespians, and Thebans — these last under compulsion — 
took part, as Leonidas had dismissed aU the rest on receiving the news 
that they were smrrounded, 219 — 221. 228 : 6aip$et<n 64 cr<pi avrov tj 
Tre/) ^weffov Kal roifft irparepoy reXeVTTjffao'i -rj vwh AeoiviSeci} dwoTefi^d^i^as 
otxf(r8a.i, iiriyiypairTai ypd/i/Ji.a.Ta, \iyovTa raSe' Mvpiinv Tori TySe 
TpiaKoaiaLi ifidxovTO ^k He^oirovftiaov xiXtoSes r^Topes ' ravra fiiv di] Toiffi 
waffL iTTiy^ypaiTTaL' rolai d^ ^wapTnjrrja-t. ISiy u ^etp, dyy^WeiP AaKe- 
dai/jiovtois mi T^Se Kelp^Ba Tols Kelvwv ^■^ Trei66fji,€voi. According to 
Herod. VIH, 24, 20,000 of the Persians had faUeu at Thermopyle. 
According to Herod. VH, 206 the Olympian games were being cele- 
brated at the very time that the battle was fought. 

LXXXII, 4 p. 103. SynceU. p. 472. He was reckoned amongst the 
poets of the epic canon, and composed an 'BpaKkews in 14 books and 
9000 verses, of which thirty short fragments have been preserved, and 
'luviKo, in elegiac metre and 7000 verses, Suid. 1. c. 

e) Tragedy was originally a mere choral song with cyclic Dance at 
the wine feasts of Dionysus, and was called rpayipUa (goat-song) from 
the goat sacrificed to the god, Diog. Laert. HI, 56 : t4 iraXai-hv iv tv 
TpayifSl<i. irpoTepov /ih /tows 6 xopJs SieSpap.dnt;'ev, Arist. Poet. IV, 15 : 
y€Pop.ivr) mv dif dpxvs airoffX^SmffTiKri Kal avrri (so. Tpay(pdla) Kal i/ 
Ka/iipSla, Kal 17 fiif dirb rav i^apxdvTuv riv hBipafi^ov, 1) Sk dirh tQv rh 
4>a\\iKd. In addition to the choral song in praise of the god, an actor 
declaiming was next introduced, who narrated stories of Dionysus. 
When other narratives were intermingled, there arose the proverb: 
OiSiv Tpbs Tbv hiivvaov, Suid. b. v. OiSiv k.t.\. Zenob. V, 40. With the 
introduction of a second actor the dialogue assumed chief importance; 
with the addition of the thhrd, tragedy reached its perfection, see infr. 
and obs. g. k. The Satyric drama, an offshoot of Tragedy, arose from 
the introduction of a chorus in Satyr masks upon the stage, just as it 
appeared in the revels and mummeries of the Dionysian festivals and 
sang dithyrambs. Suid. s. v. 'Aploiv. Athen. XIV, p. 630 C. The oldest 
tragic poets were: Thespis, circ. 536—533, of the Attic district Ikaria, 
Suid. s. V. Plut. Sol. 29, at once poet, composer, and actor, Athen. I, 

22. Hor. A. P. 275. Anthol. Pal. VH, 410. 411, who is looked upon as 
the founder of tragedy from his having added to the choral song an 
actor, who declaimed his part, Diog. Laert. HI, 56; further, Pratinas 
of Phlius (circ. 500 B.C.), who is said to have been the first to produce 
Satyric dramas, Suid. s. v. Pans. H, 13. 5. 

f ) Phrynichus of Athens circ. 511—476, Suid. s. v. Plut. Them. 5. 
Sohol. Arist. Ban. 941, the first tragic poet of importance, who fur- 
nished iiiSovs Kal irdB'n, Plut. Symp. I. 1 p. 615. The most famous 
amongst the tragedies exhibited by him were the MiXijtou aXuo-is, which, 
in consequence of the painful impression that it made on the Athenians, 
brought upon the poet a fine of 1000 drachmas, Herod. VI, 21, and 
^olvLiro-ai, a glorification of the victory of Athens at Salamis, and 
accordingly brought out by Themistokles in 477 B.C., Plut. 1. c. Athen. 
XIV, p. 635 C. Only a few verses from his dramas are preserved, Nauck. 
Trag. Gr. fr. 5. 6. 10. 14. In these the lyric choral song was stiB 
predominant, for which Aristophanes praises him, Av. 750 : ^pvvixoi 
dp.^poffioiv pt£\4ojv dire^offKero Kapirov^ del tjtipov yKvK^lav ifiSav, Cf. 
Schol. Vesp. 220. Ban. 1299 f. 

g) ^schylus, son of Euphorion of Eleusis, bom 525 B.C., Marm. Par., 
first came forward with dramas at the age of twenty-five as a rival of 
Pratinas, Suid. v. Pratinas, but only obtained his first dramatic victory 

The Hellenic Race in its Prime. 



B. C. 



T,XXV, 1 


Persian at Artemisium of doubtful issue, but retires, on 
hearing the news of the loss of Thermopylae, to Salamis^*). 
Pleistarchus succeeds Leonidas as king of Sparta 
under the guardianship of Kleombrotus and afterwards 
of Pausanias''^). 

• The Sicilian Comedy''). 

24) Herod, Vni, 1—22. The Greek fleet, commanded by the 
Spartan Eurybiades, consisted of 127 triremes from Athens (partly 
manned by Platseaus), 40 from Corinth, 20 from Megara, 20 from 
Chalkis (the ships themselves were lent to the Chalkidians by Athens), 
18 from ^gina, 12 from Sikyon, 10 from Sparta, 8 from Bpidaurus, 
7 from Eretria, 5 from Troezen, 2 from Styra, 2 from Keos ; together 
271 triremes ; in addition, 2 pentekonters from Keos and 7 such 
vessels from the Opuntian Lokrians ; in all 280 ships, id. 1. 2. From 
the Persian fleet 200 ships were sent to blockade the Euripus and cut 
off the retreat of the Greeks, id. 7. The Greeks then ventured the 

first battle, 9 — 11, and after the 200 Persian ships had gone down in a 
storm, 12 — 13, and they themselves had been reinforced by 63 fresh 
Athenian vessels, 14, the second, 15 — 17. Both battles proved 
indecisive, and the Greeks had suffered, if less than the Persians, 
still very considerably ; they were therefore already thinking of retreat, 
when, to clinch the matter, they received the news of the events at 
ThermopylaB, by which the defence of their position at Artemisium 
was rendered utterly useless, 18 — 22. 

25) Herod. IX, 10. 

(over 13) in 485, Marm. Par. His poetry was inspired by the great 
period of the struggle with Persia, in the battles of which he took part 
with glory, first at Marathon, where he received several wounds, then 
at Artemisium, Salamis, and Plataea, Marm. Par. Paus. I, 21, 3. I, 14, 
4. Phot. s. V. Mapa$iiiyLoi> Trol-qiM. He added the second actor, and gave 
the dialogue of the actors a more prominent place than the chorus, 
{rbv \oyov TrptaTaytaviaT-qv TrapeffKevcLffev, Arist. Poet. IV, 15. Diog. L. 
in, 56), and by splendour of costume and decoration lent lustre to the 
tragic stage, Vit. .ffisch. Philostr. v. Soph. I, 9. Hor. A. P. 278 : it was 
probably he, who introduced the tetralogic form of tragedy. His Kfe 
was not without its trials ; for Simonides conquered him in a poetical 
contest with his elegy on Marathon, Vit. iEsch., the young Sophokles 
with the first play that he brought on the stage, Plut. Cim. 8. Marm. 
Par. ; and he was even accused of impiety, for having disclosed on the 
stage the secret doctrines of the mysteries, and was only acquitted by 
the Areopagus on the score of his former services, JEl. V. H. V, 19. 
Arist. Eth. Nicom. HI, 2. In displeasure the poet repeatedly retired 
to Sicily, Paus. I, 2, 3. Plut. De ExU. p. 604, where he produced dramas 
at Hiero's court, and died at Gela, in 456 B.C., Marm. Par. Vit. iEsch, 
Suid. ^1. V. H. Vn, 16. That his renown as a soldier was dearer to 
him than his renown as a poet, is proved by his epitaph, which he 
composed himself, Athen. XIV, p. 627 D. Vit. Msch. But the Athenians 
honoured his memory by a decree that his dramas should be performed 
after his death, Schol. Arist. Ach. 10. Of at least 70 tragedies, which 
he composed, Vit. Msch. Suid. s. v., only seven have been preserved 
in a perfect form; they are : IIpo/i7;9eus Aea/uirrjs, 'Birrd iTl 9r)^as (ac- 
cording to the didaskalia performed, in 467 b.c), IlE/jffoi (performed 
472 B.C.), the three connected plays ' Aya/ii/ivav, Xoij^opoi, 'Bv/ierlSes, 
as a trilogy also called 'O^o-reia, Aristoph. Ban. 1135. Schol., the poet's 
masterpiece, triumphantly produced in 458 e. c. , 'iKeHSes. Only scanty 
fragments are preserved of other dramas, the most important being 
from the tragedies, Aavaldes, Nauok. Gr. fr. 43, THio^t), fr. 153. 154. 
156. 157, npo/iT/fci)s \v6ix,ei'os, fr. 186. 189. 190. 193, ^puyes, fr. 259, 
cf fr, 275. 297. 340, But little has come to us of his elegies and epi- 
grams, Hermann, ^sch. fr. 460 f. Of his poetry an ancient critic says, 
Vit. ^sch. : KotA Si rriv cruvdeaai t^s iroiriaeas iyjXoi rb adpbv cUl ir'Kdfffui, 
Kol wrkpoyKov SvonaroToUais re xal iwiBeTOis, fri Si xai p,eTa^opais koX 

iratTi ToU SwafievoLS SyKOP ttj (ppaaei Trepi$eTvai xP^fJ-^^oi' aX re Sta^etrets 
TuJp SpajxaTiiiV ov woXXis oi/ry TreptireTeias Kal Tr\oKb,s ^xo^""*** ^^ trapii roh 
vetijT^poa ' fiovov yap (nrovSd^et tS ^apos irepidetvai tois Tr/jotrajirois, apxalov 
eXyai Kplvav tovtI rh l^ipos, ri p,eya\oirpeiris Kal rb ripiambv . . .Sare Stb, rb 
TrXeovd^eiv T(p ^apet tQv Tpotrcairoji' KitipLipSelTai Trap ' ApLiTTOipdvovs, Cf. 
Aristoph. Ban. 814 f, Dio Chrys. Or. LH, p. 267. (Of Chcerilus, the 
contemporary of ^schylus, we have not one single perfect verse, Suid. 
s. V. Nauck. fr. 1 — 3.) 

h) Comedy sprang from the songs of raUlery and improvised jests of 
peasants and vine-dressers at the vintage feasts of Bacchus, Aristoph. 
Pol. IV, 14. Uepl Kw/upSLas Proleg. Aristoph. ed. Bergk. HI, 1 — 4. 
The germs of comedy are seen amongst the Dorians in the Spartan 
pantomimes, Athen. XIV p. 621, and the Megarian farce, Arist. Poet. 3. 
Eth. IV, 2. Suid. s. v. yiXws Meyapiic6s. This latter is said to have 
been first brought into metrical form and introduced into Attica by 
Susarion of Tripodiskus in Megaris, circ. 578 e.g. Marm. Par. Anon. 
Hepl Ku/i. YHI, 6, 10 p. 585 Mein. Schol. Dion. Thr. p. 748. 

i) Epicharmus of Kos lived circ. 500 — 477, migrated to Megara in 
Sicily, and was the first to produce comedies in Syracuse shortly 
before the Persian wars, Suid. v. "E-n-lxap/Ms, Diog. Laert. VIH, 78. 
Schol. Pind. Pyth. I, 98, reducing the indigenous farce of the SikeUots 
to an artistic form, Uepl kujj.. HI, 5. Being attached to the doctrines 
of Pythagoras, he looked with disfavour on the absolute despotism of 
Hiero, Iambi, v. Pyth. 266. Plut. Num. 8. He attained an age of not 
less than 90 years, Diog. Laert. 1. c. He composed at least some 30 
comedies in the Dorian dialect, Suid. 1. c. Iambi. V. Pyth. 241, often 
in trochaic tetrameters (metrum Epicharmium). The number of 
fragments preserved is very small. Of his poetry it is said, Ilcpi /cw/t. 
IH, 5 : T-Q Si TTOL-ijcreL yvwfiLKbs Kal evperiKbs Kal (pCKbrexvoi, On account 
of the wisdom of his apophthegms he was ranked high by philosophers, 
especiaUy by Plato, Iambi. V. Pyth. 166. Plat. The^t. p. 151 E. 
Amongst Sicilian comic poets, his contemporaries and successors, are 
Phormis and Deinolochus ; further Sophron of Syracuse, the founder of 
the mime written in prose (Suid. s. v.), and his son Xenarchus, 
likewise a writer of mimes, Arist. Poet. I, 8. Suid. s. v. 'Priylvovs. 



Third Period. 500 — 431 B.C. 





LXXV, 1 
LXXV, 1 



The battle of Salamis on the 20th of Boedromion. Xerxes flees, 
leaving 300,000 men under the command of Mardonius*^). 

On the 4th of Boedromion") victory of the Hellenes under Pau- 
sanias and Aristeides at Plataese, by which an end was made of the 
Persian attacks"*), and victory at Mykale, the first step towards the 
assumption of the offensive by the Hellenes and towards the liberation 
of the islands and the towns on the coasts of the ^gean Sea'"). 

26) The Greek fleet retired to Salamis, Herod. VHI, 40; the 
Persian fleet foUowed it, and took up its station at Phalerum, id. 66. 
Now that the road through Thermopylse was opened, Xerxes pressed 
into central Greece, where all tendered their submission, except 
PhoMs, PlatsBSB, Thespiae, and Athens. The expedition to Delphi, 
35 — 39 ; Athens deserted by its inhabitants, 41, and occupied by 
Xerxes 50 — 55. The Peloponnesians post themselves on the Isthmus, 
and endeavour to protect the Peloponnese by a wall built across the 
Isthmus, 71 — 73. Doubt and wavering of the Greeks in the fleet, 49. 
56 — 63. 74 — 80, at last overcome by the perseverance and craft of 
Themistokles and by Aristeides ar^p (ABrifoios fj,h, i^aarpaKiaiUvot Si 
iirb Tou d-rifiovt Tbv iy(a vevofUKO, irvifdavofievos avToD rbv rpoirov apiffrov 
yeviaBai. iv 'ASrivriffi koX SiKMararoi', 79.) Battle of Salamis, 83 — 95, of. 
Msah. Pers. 353 — 514. The number of the Greek ships was, accord- 
ing to Herodotus, 378 (with which however the numbers of the several 
contingents do not exactly agree, only giving 366), Vm, 43 — 48 ; ac- 
cording to ^schylus 310, Pers. 339 ; according to Thuc. I, 74 nearly 
400 ; of these the Athenians furnished 200 (including the 20, which 
had been lent to and manned by the ChaUddians, see obs. 24) ; the 
Persian fleet is said to have repaired its losses with the fresh 
contingents furnished by Greeks, and to have again reached the former 
total of 1207 ships, Herod. Vm, 66, so too ^sch. Pers. 341 : but 
according to Ctes. 26 there were over 1000 Persian against 700 Greek 
ships. For the day of the battle see Plut. Cam. 19. Polysen. m, 11, 2. 
Instead of the 20th. of Boedromion Bookh (Jahnsche Jahrb. Supple- 
mentb. N. P. 1. p. 73 f.) adopts the 19th and makes it correspond, 
not, as is usually done, to the 22nd but to the 20th of September, 
because in Plutarch's account, De Glor. Ath., the moon was shining 
brightly on the day of battle ; which, as the full moon fell on the 
18th of September, could not well be said of a day later than the 20th. 
FortheflightofXerxesseeHerod.Vni, 97—107. 113—120. Mardonius 
accompanies the king to Thessaly and winters there, after choosing 
300,000 of the bravest soldiers from the army, id. 113. Artabazus 
also returned to the same place, after he had accompanied the king 
further on his way as far as Thrace, first taking Olynthus and vainly 
besieging Potidsea, id. 126 — 129. The Greek ships pursue the enemy's 
routed fleet as far as Andros, but here relinquish the pursuit and 
besiege Andros, though without success, id. 108 — 112. The proceedings 
at the Isthmus in reference to the prize of valour, id. 123 — 125. 

27) See Plut. Arist. 19 : tt; rerpiSi, tou 'BoriSpo/iiwi'os larankvov Kara 
'AdTjvalovs, Kara Si BoiiiiTois TcrpaSi tov Uavifwv (pBlvovTos. According 
to Plut. Cam. 19, on the Brd. Both battles on one day, that at 
Platseae in the morning, that at Mykale in the evening, Herod. IX, 90. 
100—101. Pint. Cam. 1. c. Here also Bockh takes the 3rd or 4th of 
Boedromion not for the day of the battle, but for that on which the 
battle was celebrated, and places the battle some time earlier, Jahnsche 
Jahrb. Supplementb. N. F. 1. p. 67 f. 

28) Herod. IX, 1 — 89. Mardonius returns to central Greece early 
in the spring, id. 1, and occupies Athens for the second time (in the 
summer, id. 3 : 17 Si /3a«Xeos aipetn$ is ri/v MapSodov Sera/iT/Kos iyevero). 
When the Spartans after long delay take the field, id. 6 — 9. Plut. 
Arist. 10 (contrast the heroic constancy of the Athenians in spite of 
the offers of Mardonius, Herod. YIH, 136. 140—144. IX, 4—5), the 
Persian retires to Boeotia, where he pitched his camp by the side of 
the Asopus, reaching, from Erythrse beyond Hysise up to the 
neighbourhood of Platsese, 300,000 strong; to which must be added 
50,000 Medising Hellenes, Herod. IX, 32. The Hellenic army en- 
camped opposite, at the foot of Kithasron, 110,000 strong, viz. 38,700 
hopUtes, 69,500 light-armed, and 1800 Thespians altogether unarmed; 
of these 5000 were Spartans, 5000 Lacedaemonians, and 35,000 light- 
armed Helots, 8000 heavy armed Athenians, etc. id. 28 — 30. After 
both armies had lain opposite each other for 11 days and had already 
once changed their camps, the Persians begin the attack, when the 
Hellenes had a second time broken up their camp in order to change 
their position ; the Spartans and Tegeatans engage the Persians, the 
Athenians the Medising Hellenes ; the rest of the Hellenes only come 
upon the scene, when the victory is already won. The Persian army 
was almost totally destroyed with the exception of 40,000 men, who 
made good their escape under Artabazus, id. 70. {^ ApiaToSruio^ \v<t(tSiv, 
id. 71.) Pausanias' arrogant inscription on the offering dedicated at 
Delphi, Thuc. 1, 132. The pedestal of the tripod, which was at this 
time set up in honour of Apollo at Delphi, formed by a coiled serpent 
of brass, was dug up in 1856 at Constantinople, and in place of the 
inscription of Pausanias, cancelled by the Spartans, it contains the 
names of the Greek peoples who took part in the battles of Platsese 
and Salamis, viz. the _ Lacedaemonians, Athenians, Corinthians, 
Tegeatans, Megarians, Epidaurians, Orchomenians, Phliasians, Troe- 
zenians, Hermionians, Tirynthians, Plataans, Thespians, Mykenseans, 
Keans, Mahans, Tenians, Naxians, Eretrians, Chalkidians, Styraeans, 
Eleans, Potidseans, Leukadians, Anaktorians, Kydnians, Siphnians, 
Amprakiotans, Lepreatans. 

29) In spring the Persian fleet first sails from its winter quarters 
at Kyme to Samos, where they '^ i<t>i\acr<rov riip'Iiiivlriv /iij diroffrj, i-^os 
eX"""? <riv Triai 'Utri TpuifKoirlas", Herod. VHI, 130. The Greek fleet, 
110 ships strong (250 according to Diod. XI, 34), sailed first to ^gina, 
then to Delos, id. 131—132, from thence to Samos ; and when they 
found that the enemy's fleet was not there, to the coast by Mykale, 
where the Persians had taken refuge under the protection of an army 
of 60,000 men, Herod. IX, 90—92. 96—98. Revolt of the lonians, 99. 
103 — 104. The Greeks land, attack the enemy, and win the victory, 
100—102, chiefly through the good service of the Athenians, 105. 101 : 
oi iJkiv 517 "EWTjKes Kal oi ^ap^apoi iawevSor is Trpi iiAxr/ii, us (701 fcai ai 
v^iroi Kdl 6 'EXXiJo'Troi'Tos ae^Xa TpoiKctro, 

The Hellenic Race in its Prime. 



LXXV, 2 


Sestos besieged and taken by the Hellenic fleet under the command of Xanthippus™) 


478—431 B.C. 



. B. C. 



LXXV, 3 



a) Up to the breach with Sparta, 461 B.C. 

Athens rebuilt, and in spite of Sparta's opposition surrounded 
with a wall'').. 

30) Herod. IX, 106—121. 106: dwi.K6nevoi S^ ^s Zajxov o! "BXXiji/es 
i^aukevovTO irepl dvaa-Taffios Tijs 'lavlris Kid okt) x/aeu"' eti) rrji "EWdSos 
KaToidirai, t^s auTol iyKparies rjcrav, Triv ii 'lavlijv dwewai Toln 
^ap^dpot<rt ' AdvvaTOV yap i^aiv^ro (rtpL elvai iojVTOvs re 'Idvajv Trpo/car-^o"- 
6(u <f>poup4oi/Tas t6v iravra -xpovov, koX eavTwv firj irpoKaT'qii.ivuv 'lavas 
ovSefdav iXirlSa eXxov xaIpo;'Tas xp6s Tav llepaiuv aTdWa^eiv irpbs 
ravra UeXoirovvTiaiojy fiky rouTi, 4v xAet ioviTL iddKee t(2v fiTidLaavToiv 
iBviuv tQi> "ESXtpiiKuv ra i/j.ir6pia i^avaaT-qcravTas Sovvai Trjv xupT)v1iji(ri 
ivoiKTJtrat, ' AdijvaloiaL S^ ovk idoKee dpxv^ 'IcjvLtjv yev^trdoL dvaararov 
ovSi HeXoTTOVvqaioKn irepl rwf (rtperep^uv diroiKL^uv ^ovXeveiv. At first 
the Peloponnesians gave way and joined in the expedition to the 
Hellespont to help in destroying the bridges of Xerxes : but when 
they found the bridges already destroyed and the Athenians turned to 
the siege of Sestos, Leotychidas left the fleet together with the 
Peloponnesians, id. 114. Thud, 89. Sestos was taken in the course 
of the winter. Herod. I.e. 117 — 118. Thuc. 1. c. His words : SijittJi' 
iiroXtipKOVv — Kai iirtxet/Ji'dfravres etXov avTTjv^ niay be reconciled with 
Herodotus, for they do not necessarily mean that Sestos was not taken 
till after the end of the winter. 

31). The period embraced in this section, on account of Thuc. I, 
118 where its duration is given in round numbers as 50 years, is 
usually termed the irevTriKovTa.eTla of Thucydides (I, 89 — 118): so first 
by that author's Scholiast on I, 18. 42. 75. 97. For the course of 
events in this period, see Thuc. I, 18 : koh'S tc dvaadiievoi rbv 
pdp^apov vffrepoy ov iroWip dt€Kpid7](rav trpds re 'Adrfvaiovs Kal AaKedai- 

/iovtovs of re diro(TTaPTes PaviXias '"EXKriPes Kal ^v/iiroXenTiiravTes ' Suvd/xei 
yckp ravra fi4yurra SLe</)dv7i • taxvov yap ol piv Kara y'ijv, ol 5^ vavffiv ' Kal 
oKiyov fikv xpo^o^ ^vv4p.ecvev tj ojxaixjda, ^ireira 5k Stevex&^vrei ol 
AaKeSai/wpioi Kal ol ' kdrivaioi iTokinriaav fierd Tan ^vft/Mxav irptis 
aXXr/Xovs, Kal tQ>v oKKav "EXKrivav et rivh vov diairraTev, rpos rovrovs tJSti 
^x^povv. ware diro ruv MTjStKQv is rovde del tov iroXefiov rd fikv 
ffTrevSi^evoL rd 5k iroXefiovvres rj aXXriXoiS 7} rots eavrijjv ^vfifmxois 
dfpLffrafxkvoLS ev irapeaKevdaavro rd ToXkpta koI kfiireipoTepoi iyhovro fierd 
KLv5vvit3v ras /xeXkras iroioiip^yoi, cf. id. I, 118. For the chronology of 
this period we are dependent upon Thucydides (I, 89 — 118. 128 — 138) 
and Diodorus (XI, 39 — XH, 37) ; but although the latter has arranged 
his narrative throughout by years, yet from his uncritical and 
superficial method he has been guilty of many contradictions and 
manifest errors ; and Thucydides, on the other hand, though here, as 
everywhere, he has laboured to attain the greatest accuracy, and that 
too in the matter of dates (o. 97), with the exception of a few 
isolated remarks has omitted to give an accurate statement of 
the years. In many instances, therefore, dates are only founded on 
conjecture and grounds of more or less probability. The most 
important passages for the combinations which must consequently be 
made, are Thuc. I, 101. cf. IV, 102, and I, 112. 115. 87; see the years 
465 and 445 B.C. 

32) Thuc. I, 89—93. Plut. Them. 19. Com. Them. 6—7. Thuc. 
1. c. 92 : ol 5^ AaKeSaipiviOL aKomavres opyriv iikv ipavepdv ovk itroiovvro 
To'is 'ASrivaioiS — ttjS pAvroi, ^ovXTjireus dp.aprrdi>ovTes d5iqXias ijxBovTO. 


Third Peeiod. 500 — 431b.c, 






LXXV, 4 



The harbour of Peirseus completed and surrounded with a wall™). 




On the motion of Aristeides a law is passed at Athens abolishing 
the limitation, which excluded the citizens of the fourth class from 
the public offices and dignities'^). 

The Hellenic fleet under the command of Pausanias conquers the 
greater part of the towns in Kyprus and Byzantium'*). 

Treachery of Pausanias '°) ; transference of the hegemony by sea 
to Athens"). 
















Themistokles ostracised '*). 




The Persians expelled from Eion and the Dolopes from Skyros by 
the allied fleet under Kipaon j-£arystus conquered by the Athenians''). 

33) Thuo. I, 93. Plut. Them. 19. For the commencement of the 
harbour's construction see obs. 19. The circuit of the wall comprised 
60 stadia, Thuc. II, 13. The building of the wall round the town and 
round the Peirjeus is assigned to two consecutive years on the 
authority of Diod. XI, 41 ; id. 43 ; we are informed further, that 
the Athenians had now resolved to build 20 new triremes every year. 

34) Plut. Arist. 22 : ' ApicTTeiStjs — dfia ixkv d^iov '^yovfievos Std rrjv 
avdpayaBiav ^irtf/^Keias rhv drjfiov dfia 5^ ovKirt pqZiov IcrxvovTa Toh oVXois 
KoX fj^ya (ppovowTa Tois rtxais H^taadrivai, ypdipei \('7}0itr/na, KOiv^v elyai 
TTjv irokirelav Kal tous dpxovras i^ *A67]vai(av irdvTtitv alpelffOai. cf. Arist. 
Pol. Vin, 3, 7. With regard to the date, we only know thus much 
generally, that the law was made shortly after the victory at Platsese. 

35) Thuc. I, 94. Diod. XI, 44. 

36) Thuo. I, 95. 128—134. Pausanias first of all roused general 
discontent by his arrogant and tyrannical behaviour. He was 
accordingly recalled by the Ephors to Sparta to answer for his 
conduct, and though acquitted of the charge of treason from defective 
evidence was nevertheless deprived of his command, id. 123 — 134. 
The condemnation and death of Pausanias cannot have taken place 
before 471 b. c, as the Spartans accused Themistokles of comphcity in 
the plot, at the time when he was already living in banishment at 
Argos, see Thuc. I, 135, and obs. 38. 

37) Thuo. I, 95—97. Plut. Arist. 22—24. The Lacedamonians, 
after deposing Pausanias, sent Dorkis to assume the command ; but 
the allies had meanwhile attached themselves to Athens, and in 
consequence refused to acknowledge Dorkis as commander-in-chief : 
whereupon aWous oixirL mrepov i^iveixij/av ol AaKeSai/wvioi, tpo^oifjevoi. 
firj fftpiffiv oi i^tovTss x^^povs yiyvojvrait oirep koX iv Tt^ Hau(ravig. iveldoVj 
dwdWa^elovTes Si tov ^tjSikov Tro\4/iov Kal tovs 'ABn^valom vop-i^ovres 
Uavavs i^riyeiaBcu, Kal (r^lnv h t$ tots vapovn imTrjdelovs, Thuo. I, 95. 
cf. Diod. XI, 50. For the organisation of the hegemony (which was 
settled by Aristeides, Plut.) see Thuc. I.e. 96—97. Plut. 1. c. 24. 

Thuc. 96 : ''EWTjj/oTcifdai rare irptotov 'A0T]vcdots Kar^ffrrj dpxTf, otiS^x^^'^^ 
TOV ipopoVf ovTta yap uyofidadrj rijov xpvf^'^"*' V <popdf tiv 8k 6 irptoros 
tpopos TaxBeU TerpaKoiria ToXavTa Kal k^-qKOvra' raixieiov re AtjXos tjv 
avTOLs Kal al ^vvoSot h to Upbv iylyvovTo, Tjyovfievot 5i avTovo/j.ajp to 
irpuTov Tuw luju/iaxwx koX dro Kotvdv ^vvodoiv Pov\eu6vTw». The amount 
of tribute was gradually raised, so that at the beginning of the 
Peloponnesian war it came to 600 talents, see p. 64, obs. 1. It is 
more advisable to replace the recall of Pausanias and the transference 
of the hegemony to Athens, as above, in 476 b. c, as the undertaMngs 
against Kyprus and Byzantium might occupy 471 b. c. This does not 
contradict Thucydides and Diodorns (XI, 46), and agrees perfectly with 
Dem. Olynth. HE. p. 35. and Plul. in. p. 16 ; who says that the 
hegemony of the Athenians lasted 45 years to the beginning, in the 
former passage ; in the latter, 73 years to the end of the Peloponnesian 
war. Otherwise the duration of the Athenian hegemony is generally 
given in round numbers at 70 years. Dem. 1. c. p. 118. Isokr. 
Paneg. p. 62 etc. 

38) Thuo. I, 135, Plut. Them. 22. Diod. XI, 55. "When ostracised 
he first went to Argos, but fled thence .when the Spartans accused 
him of complicity in the treason of Pausanias (according to Plut. 1. c. 
23, Pausanias first made overtures to bim when he was living in 
banishment at Argos), and finally betook himself to the king of 
Persia, who received him with honour and gave him the towns 
Magnesia, Lampsakus, and Myus. He died at Magnesia, as 
Thucydides assures us (I.e. 138. cf. Cie. Brut. o. 11), by a natural 
death. See Thuc. I, 135—138. Plut. Them. 23—31. Diod. XI, 
55—59. On the passage to Asia he passed by Naxos, when that place 
was held in siege by the Athenians, Thuc. 137, therefore in 466 b. c, 
see obs. 42 ; and when he had arrived in Asia and from thence wrote 
to the king of Persia, Artaxerxes had recently succeeded to the throne, 
Thuo. 1. c. cf. Plut. Them. 27. 

39) Thuc. I, 95. Diod. XI, 60. With the dates thus determined on 
the authority of Diodorus there certainly remains a large gap, 

The Hellenic Race in its Prime. 










Leotychidas is banished ; Archidamus king of Sparta *"). 




Death of Aristeides ") : beginning of Perikles' influence *'). 







Naxos made subject by the Athenians*'). Double victory of 
Kimou over the Persians at the Euryinedon**). 




Xerxes dies: Artaxerxes I. (Longimanus) king of Persia «). 
Athens at war with Thasos"). 




Earthquake at Sparta and revolt of the Messenian Helots : be- 
ginning of the third Messenian war*'). 




Thasos made subject by Athens"). 




inasmuch as the years from 476 b. o. onwards are not occupied with 
any undertaking against the Persians ; but probably numerous other 
conquests must be placed within this period from 476—466 B.C., 
which are mentioned neither by Thuoydides nor Diodorus : for the 
whole of Thrake and the Hellespont had been subdued by Persia, 
according to Herod. YH, 106. 107. 108, and had therefore to be 
reconquered by the Greeks. For Eion of. Herod. VH, 107 : for Skyros 
Plut. Thes. 36. 

40) Herod. VI, 72. Paus. IH, 7, 8. of. Diod. XI, 48. Leotychidas 
was banished for allowing himself to be defeated by the Thessalians 
in a campaign against Thessaly. 

41) Corn. Arist. 3 (" in the fourth year after the banishment of 
Themistokles "). Plut. Arist. 26. 

42) According to Plut. Per. 7 he first came forward after the death 
of Aristeides. Accordiug to the passage id. 16 and Cic. De Or. IH, 
u. 34 he was at the head of the Athenian state for the space of forty 
years. As he died in 429 e. c, this would lead us to 469 ; but we 
must probably regard the time as stated in round numbers at 40 years, 
and therefore not place too much stress upon it. 

43) Thuc. I, 98. The date rests simply on the statement of 
Thucydides c. 100, which makes the battle at the Eurymedon and the 
beginning of the war against Thasos foUow immediately upon the 
reduction of Naxos. Thuo. 1. o. ; irpm-ii re avrri ttoXis ^viifmxis irapi 
TO KaSejrriKbs iSovXtidTj, lireira Si Kal tod aXXuK us iKdffrr} ivvi^-ri. The 
causes, which led to its subjection, id. 99 : aWot S' aWai re TJdav tuv 
airoaTdffeuiv Kal /i^yuTTat al Tuiv (jibpav Kal veS>v ^KSeiai koX Xeciroa-TpaTiov 
ef Ttfi iyivero. But the allies were themselves to blame for the fact 
that their subjection was possible, id. : 5ia yap Trjv d.iroKvriffi.v Tair-qv 
ti2k a-Tparemv ol irXeiovs airuv, ha /iij cxt oUov iSciv, xp^iMfro ird^avro 
o-ptI twp vewv to iKvoi/iemv dvoKw/ia cjiipnv, Kal tois IJ.h 'ABrivalois ijuJcto 
TO vavTiKOV airo tt]S dairavris ijii iKelvoi ^u/i^y^poiev, avTol Si more diro- 
ffToiev, dwapiffKevoi. Kal aTreipoi is tov voXe/jLov KaOlffTavro. Consequently 
the ^vfifiaxoi. gradually became metamorphosed into UTroTeXcIs or 


44) Thuc. I, 100. Diod. XI, 60. First the Phoenician fleet was 
defeated with a loss of 200 ships (Thuc.) ; the Greek crews then landed 
and inflicted a further defeat on the Persian army. (For the so-caUed 
peace of Kimon often assigned to this time, see year 449 b. o.) 

45) Diod. XI, 69. SynceU. p. 208. B. 

46) Thuc. I, 100. The quarrel arose "irepl tuv iv ry anTivipat 
Opq-K-n iixroplav Kal tov /ieraXXou, d ivi/iovro," Thuc. For these Thasian 
mines on the opposite Thrakian coast cf. Herod. VI, 46 — 47. It was 
probably these mines, which induced the Athenians in this same year 
to plant a colony on the site afterwards occupied by Amphipolis : but 
it was shortlived, for the 10,000 settlers were soon afterwards slain by 
the Bdonians, Thuc. I.e. According to Thuc. IV, 102, Amphipolis 
was founded 29 years after this first attempt ; as the foundation of 
Amphipolis took place in 437 e.g., this gives 465 (or possibly 466) as 
the year of this first attempt and likewise as the year in which the 
war with Thasos began. 

47) The Spartans had given the Thasians a solemn promise in 
answer to theic prayers to aid them against Athens by an invasion of 
Attica, when the pressure of a two-fold danger, the Earthquake and 
Helotio rebellion, arose and prevented them. Thuc. I, 101. Plut. Cim. 
16. Diod. XI, 63 — 64. The rebel Helots were mostly of Messenian 
descent and were therefore collectively styled Messenians ; they were 
also joined by Perioeki from Thuria and Mthxa, (Thuc). They 
meant to surprise Sparta itself in the first moment of consternation ; 
but king Archidamus had immediately summoned to arms all the rest 
of the Spartans who had not perished in the earthquake, Diod. and 
Plut. 1. c. The rebels therefore retired and established themselves on 
Ithome, where they were then blockaded. The passages Herod. IX, 35 
and 64 point to two battles between the Spartans and Messenians. 
Both Paus. IV, 24, 2 and Plut. Cim. 16 agree with the date deduced 
from Thucydides. 

48) Thuc. I, 101 : Gatrioi Si Tphif iTu troXiopKoifievoi wiu>\6yrt<rav 
'A$r]valoi.s reixos re KadeXovTcs Kal vavs irapaSoyTes, j^ijjiiaTa re oVa ISei 


Third Period. 500 — 431b.c. 


B. C. 




LXXIX-, 4 



The Athenians, sensitive of the affront put upon them by the 
Sparta,ns before Ithome "), banish Kimon '''), renounce the alliance with 
Sparta, and conclude a counter-alliance with Argos, which is joined by 
Thessaly, and soon afterwards by Megara ''). 

b) Up to the thirty year's truce between Athens and Sparta, 445 b. c. 

LXXX, 1 



By Perikles and Ephialtes the Areopagus is stripped of its pre- 
eminent influence, and the operation of the popular tribunals is en- 
larged''''). Introduction of pay to jurors^'). 

airoSovvat auTLKO. ra^dfisvoi Kol to \onrov ^ipeiv, ttjv re rpr^ipov koX to. 
Ix^TaWa a(phTes. Surrender of ships, demoHtion of walls, defrayal of 
war-costs, were the usual conditions, whioh accompanied the sub- 
jection of the allied towns. 

49) "When the siege of Ithome made no progress, in addition to 
their other allies (^ginetans, Thuc. n, 27. IV, 56, Platffians, id. HE, 
54, Mantineans, Xen. Hell. V, 2, 3), the Spartans appealed to the 
Athenians, who sent them troops under Kimon. But "deUravrcs tiSv 
'ASrivaiiiiP ri To\/ntpiiy Ktd tt)v vearepoTroilav koX dXXo^i/Xous apa riyTjcrapLe- 
VOL, fi-^ TL Tjv Trapap^lvuxTLV virb tQiv iv 'ld(ap,7i TetirdivTes vewrepUruxn^ 
fiovovs t(ov ^vp.fiaxwv diriTepLipaVj ttjv ixh> viro-^lav ov SifKovvTes, elirovres 6* 
ort ovdkv Trpoad^ovTcu avTwv ^tu" Thuc. 1, 102 : " Kal Sta^opd iK TavTTjs 
TTJs cTTpaTeias irpQrrov A.aKe5aLpLovloLS KoX 'A&ijvatoLs (pavepd iy4veTo" id. 
According to Plut. Cim. 16. 17, the Athenians must have made two 
expeditions to assist Sparta, one at the time of the first danger, the 
other in 461 b. c. ; but this seems to rest on a misconception of 
Aristoph. Lysistr. 1138. 

50) He was ostracised for 10 years on account of his inclination to 
Sparta, and because he was chiefly accountable for the despatch of 
the expedition, Plut. Cim. 17, cf. 16. 

51) Thuc. I, 102 : Seivhv Troirjcrd^voi koX ouk d^L(j(ravT€S virb AaKeSai- 
fiovluv TOVTo iraSelv^ evdiis iirel dveXf^pyi(yo.v, a^ivTes t-^v yevop^vTjv iirl Tip 
M^5y ^vfifiaxiav irpbs avTOVs 'Apyeiois tols ^Keivtav ToXefdois ^vpifiaxot 
iy^vovTo KoX Trpbs QeffffdKous apui dfitpoTipois ol avTol opKot Kal ^v/M/iaxia 
KaTiffrri. Megara joined the alliance, id. 103, and the Athenians 
accordingly built the long walls from the town to the harbour of Nissea, 
id. (Since their defeat by the Spartans, obs. 8, the Argives had 
gradually recovered their strength, and just before this time had 
enlarged their power by the subjection of Omeae, Midea, and Tiryns, 
and the destruction of Mykenaj, Strab. p. 342. Pans. IV, 17, 4. 25, 5. 
7. Uiod. XI, 65.) 

52) See Arist. Pol. H, 12, 2 : Kal t^k piiv iv 'Apelip irayip /SouXiJc 
'E(j>i.6,\TTis iKoKovae Kal UepiKXTJs. Plut. Cim. 15 : ol iroWol avyx^ayres 
Tov Ka0€(rT&ra ttjs Tro\LTeias KoffpAiv 'E0ta\rou irpoetTTiOTOs dipelXovTO ttjs 
e| 'Apelov irayov Pov\ijs ras Kplffeis trKiiv oKlyav dirdaas Kal tQiv biKoaT-q- 
ptojv Kvpiovs eavToiii TTOLTjffavTes ets dxpaTov STjfiOKpaTiav iv^^aXov ttjv 
vo\tTeiav, ^5ti Kal JlepiKMovs SwapAvov Kal ra tuv iroWiSii (ppovovvTOi. 
Up to this time the Areopagus at all events in connexion with its 

general censorship of morals (p. 28. obs. 68), had jurisdiction "repl 
■wavTuv o'xfSov tuv (r<j>aKp.6,Tuv koX Trapavop,iQv" Androt. and Philochor. 
in Midler Fr. Hist. Grseo. I, p. 387 (fr. 17 of Philochorus) : this 
was completely withdrawn, excepting in the case of capital charges, 
Philochor. 141: /novo /coT-AiTre t-j i^ 'Apelov irayov fiovX^ to. i-wip toB 
cru/iaros. According to Plut. Per. 9. PeriMes made use of Ephialtes 
only as his tool ; but at all events it was the latter, who became the 
chief object of the opposite party's hate, so that he was actually 
murdered by them, Plut. Per. 9. Diod. XI, 77. The date rests on 
Diod. XI, 77, cf. Plut. Cim. 15. The supervision of the state adminis- 
tration in general, which the Areopagus had hitherto exercised, was 
transferred to the seven democratic vopo^iXaKes, who were now first 
instituted, see Philochor. L c. : whilst the juridical functions fell to the 
ijXiaia (see p. 28. obs 68), the influence and operation of which were thus 
considerably extended. By this means, the last aristocratic element 
in the constitution was removed, and thus the fabric of Athenian demo- 
cracy was brought to completion: at the same time the influence of 
Perikles reached its height, so that from this time forwards the conduct 
of public affairs at Athens lay almost altogether in his hand; see 
Thuc. H, 65 : eylyvero re \oyip fikv STjpLOKpaTla, ^pytp S^ vtto tov wpurov 
dvdpos dpxv* 

53) The payment of the jurors (p,ia-$6s StKaa-TLKos or t^Xioo-tikos) was 
introduced by Perikles, Arist. Pol. H, 12, 3. Plut. Per. 9, and 
amounted at first to only 1 obol, but was afterwards raised by Kleon 
to 3 obols, Aristoph. Eq. 51. Sohol. on Aristoph. Plut. 330. In 
addition to this, Perikles also iutroduced the BeoipiKov, originally 
intended to defray the entrance-money at the theatre and amounting 
to 2 obols, but afterwards distributed on other festive occasions, and 
by degrees raised in value, so that Demades actually promised every 
citizen half a mina, see Liban. Arg. Demosth. Olynth. I. Plut. Per. 9. 
Harpocrat. s. v. BeupiKa. Plut. Mor. p. 818 (Praeo. Keip. Ger. ch. 25). 
(Other si mil ar payments and donatives were the iKKXrjffuumKor — but 
this was not introduced in the life-time, or at aU events the earlier 
years, of Perikles, and probably amounted first to 1, afterwards to 3 
obols, see especially Aristoph. Ecoles. 300 — 310: KaUistratus and 
Agyrrhius are named as its inventors, see Paroemiogr. ed. Leutsch et 
Sohneid. p. 437. Schol. Arist. Eccl. 102 -further the puaffbs |3ou- 
XevTLKos, avvrp/opiKos, etc.). For the injurious influence of these 
donatives see Arist. Pol. H, 7, 19. Plut. Per. 9. Plat. Gorg. 515. E : 

The Hellenic Race in its Prime. 







LXXX, 1 
LXXX, 2 



Athenian expedition to Egypt for the support of the satrap Inarus, 
who had rebelled against the Persian king"). 

LXXX, 3 



The Athenians at war with Corinth, Epidaurus, and .^gina. On 
land they are defeated at Halieis, but then win a naval victory at 
Kekryphaleia, and a second, still more decisive, at jEgina; .^Egina 
besieged '^). 

The Corinthians invade Megaris, in order to relieve Mginsb, but are 
defeated by Myronides at the head of the youngest and oldest of the 
Athenian citizens^'). 

LXXX, 4 



The Spartans at the head of a Peloponnesian army in central Greece 
defeat the Athenians in the battle of Tanagra"). Kimon recalled^'). 




The Athenians under Myronides conquer the Boeotians at (Eno- 
phyta ; whereupon Boeotia, Phokis, and Opuntian Lokris join the Athe- 
nian alliance™). 

Completion of the long walls from Athena to the Peirseus and 
Phalerum""). iEgina reduced to subjection''). The expedition of 
Tolmides round the Peloponnese'"). 




The third Messenian war ended by the capture of Ithome ; the 
Athenians assign Naupaktus, lately conquered by them, as a dwelling 
place to the Messenians"'). 

Athenian army and fleet in Egypt annihilated"). 

ravTa y&p (yurye aVouui, HeptKXia ireTroi.t)Kivai 'ASrivatovs apyois KCiX SeiXois 
Kal \a\ovs ^iXapyvpovs els fiitrdoipopiav irpCrrov KaraffTTiffiivTa, so that thus 
with the completion of the democracy (see obs. 52) there were at the 
same time planted the seeds of degeneration into ochlocracy, which, 
though checked by Perikles, after his death gradually broke out and 
spread in an ever widening circle. The date, as regards the introduction 
of the juror's pay, is only approximate. 

54) Thuc. I, 104. Diod. XI, 77. 

55) Thuc. I, 105. In the battle of JEgina the .Slginetans lost 70 
ships, and their naval power was thereby annihilated. 

56) Thuc. I, 105 — 106 (105 : tuv S' ix rrjs ir&Keus vroXolwav ot re 
irpeff^&raToi Ktd ol veilrraroi itpiKvovvTcu 4s rd, M^yapa Mvpojvidov 
arpaT-qyovvTos). Lys. Epitaph, p. 195. Diod. XI, 79. Two battles 
were fought, both in the vicinity of Megara (the second h tJ Xeyonhy 
KtniM^, Diod.), as the Corinthians, jeered by the old at home after 
their first expedition, attempted a second, which had a still more 
disastrous issue than the first. There is stHl preserved one of those 
tables, which contained the register of the Athenians, who fell in this 
year (^i* Kiirpip, iv Alyi'm(fi, iv ^oivIktj, iv 'AXieOiru', iv Mylvrj, Meyapot 
Tov airoO ivtavrov), and which were put up in the Kerameikus, Bookh. 
Corp. Inscr. Grsec. I. p. 292 f. nr. 165. 

57) The Spartans had marched to the aid of their relations, the 
inhabitants of Doris, who had been illtreated by the Phokians. When 
they found the way over the mountain range Gerania occupied by 
the Athenians, they marched to Boeotia, where the Athenians, with 
their allies, in all 14,000 strong, offered them battle. Thuc. I, 


107 — 108. Plat. Menex. p. 242 B. The only result of the combat was, 
that the Spartans retired home unmolested, Thuc. 108. 

58) Plut. Kim. 17. Per. 10. Eimon's recall was the effect of the 
noble patriotism, which Kimon displayed before the battle of Tanagra 
(cf. Thuc. I, 107), and of the enthusiasm, which seized upon all 
parties at Athens after this battle, and afterwards found its expression 
in the battle of OEnophyta. 

69) Thuc. I, 108. The battle was fought on the 62nd day (Thuo.) 
after that at Tanagra ; but must be placed in 456 b. c, as the battle of 
Tanagra, as is proved by Plut. Kim. 17. Per. 10, took place at the end 
of the previous year. The result, which the loss of the battle had for 
the Thebans, was that the ruling aristocratic party was overthrown, 
the democratic took its place, and concluded an a,Uiance with Athens. 
The example of Thebes was followed by Phokis and Opuntian Lokris — 
though not without pressure on the side of Athens — so that now the 
hegemony of Athens, on land as well as by sea, comprised no small 
part of Greece. 

60) Thuo. I, 108. The building had been begun in the previous 
year, id. 107. The wall to the Peirseus was 40, the other 35 stadia in 
length, Thuc. II, 13. 

61) Thuo. I, 108. piod. XI, 78). 

62) Thuc. I, 108. Diod. XI, 84. He burnt Gytheium, took 
Methone, Chalkis and Naupaktus, and won over Zakynthus and 
KephaUenia to the Athenian alliance. 

63) Thuo. I, 103. 

64) Thuo. I, 109—110. 



Third Period. 500 — 431 b.c. 




















Enterprise of Perikles in the Krissaean gulf; 
Achaia joins the Athenian alliance *°). 

Five years' truce between Athens and Sparta 
Thirty years' peace between Sparta and Argos*'). 


The Tragic poets 

65) Thuo. I, 111. (Diod. XI, 85). We infer from the words of 
Thuo. I.e. eiBis TrapaKapdrrcs, that Achaia now joined the Athenian 
alliance, although they might mean, that the Achseaus, as members of 
the alliance, were Bommoned to take part in the campaign : in 
which case the AohsBans entered on the alliance ia the previous year, of. 
Thuc. 1, 115. (Before this campaign, another, but fruitless, expedition 
had been made to Thessaly, Thuc. I, 111.) Diod. 1. c. : oJ /iiv oup 
'Adripaiot Kark toutov ritv ^viavrbv irXeiffTUv Trh\eo3v ^p^atf, iir &v5pei^ Si 
Kal ffTpaTijyl^ fieya^tjv dd^av KareKT-fiaavTo. According to Plut. Per. 11. 
Diod. XI, 88 at the instigation of Perikles Athenian Eleruchs were 

k) Sophokles, the son of SophiUus, bom circ. 496 b. o. in the 
Athenian deme of Kolonus, and carefully instructed, especially in 
music and gymnastics, Vit. Soph. Plut. De Mus. 31, led, when a 
youth, the festive song and triumphal dance around the trophies from 
Salamis, Athen. I, p. 20. Vit. Soph. Plut.; at the age of 28 he 
conquered iEschylus in the contest for the tragic prize, Marm. Par. 
Plut. Cim. 5, and often afterwards carried ofE the first or second, never 
the third prize. Vit. Soph. Suid. s. v. In the organisation of the stage 
he effected numerous changes : he relinquished a connected ground- 
work in the plays of a trilogy; he distinctly gave chief importance 
to the dialogue ; he increased the chorus from 12 to 15 performers ; 
he introduced the third actor ; he departed from the custom, which 
brought the poet on the stage as an actor in his dramas; and made 
many alterations in costume, Vit. Soph. Suid. s. v. After the pro- 
duction of the Antigone the people elected him general with Perikles 
for the campaign against Samos, Vit. Soph. Plut. Per. 8. Strab. p. 638. 
In the activity of political life he appears as proboulus, Arist. Ehet. 
Ill, 18, 6, and as such uses his influence to promote the institution 
of the Four Hundred ; but he gained no distinction, either as general, 
or statesman, Athen. XTTT , p. 603. 604. He persistently refused invita- 
tions of princes to their courts, so great was his devotion to his native 
city (^iXoffi/raiiraTos ^, Vit. Soph.), where he was a general favourite, 
1. o. In consequence of a preference for his grandson Sophokles, son 
of Ariston, who was bom to Sophokles by his mistress Theoris, the 
poet is said to have been summoned by his son lophon before a 
family tribunal and charged with being in his dotage, but to have been 
acquitted upon his reading a passage from the CEdipus at Kolonus, Vit. 
Soph. Athen. XIH, p. 592. Cic. De Sen. 7, 22. Plut. De Eep. Sen. Ger. 
n, p. 508. He died in 406 b. c. after a happy life at the age of 91. 
Vit. Soph. Marm. Par. Argum. 3 (Ei. Col. Various tales were current 
concerning the manner of his death, Diod. Sic. XIH, 103. Vit. Soph. 
Pans. I, 21, 2 f. The Athenians paid divine honours to their greatest 
tragic poet after his death, Vit. Soph. Plut. Num. 4. Etym. M. s. v. Aefiui/. 
Of the 113 dramas, which Sophokles probably composed, only seven are 
preserved in a perfect state ; viz. 'Ajinybvri, the poet's masterpiece 
(produced 441 B. c), "HW/cr/ja, OWiTrous (ripavvoi), OlSlirovs ivl KoXwi'ip, 

at this time sent to the Thrakian Chersonese and Naxos, likewise to 
Andros and the coast of Thrake. 

66) Thuc. I, 112 : "Ttrrepov Si (i. e. after the expedition of Perikles) 
SLoKnrdvTwv ^Ttav Tpiwv ff-jrovStd ylyvovrat. lleXoirovyritrlots Kcd 'AdfiycUou 
irevracTeis, Kai'BWiji'iKoiJ fiiv iroKiiiov laxov oV K8i)vaMi. According to 
Diod. XI, 86. Plut. Kim. 18. Theopomp. fr. 92, it was Kimon, who 
was the prime mover in securing the truce, his object being to divert 
the quarrels between Athens and Sparta by a foreign war. 

67) Thuc. V, 14. 

-Uas, ^iXoKTTfrrjs (produced 409 B. c), Tpaxlviai. Of the rest, some 
1000, for the most part short, fragments are in existence, Nauck. 
Trag. Grffic. fr. p. 103 f. The longest are from the dramas AXedSm, 
N. fr. 86, 'AXijT?;?, fr. 104, 'AxiXX^ws ipatrral, fr. 154, Gu^o-ttjs, fr. 235, 
Kpiovaa, fr. 327, NaiJirXios, fr. 396, JloXv^ivv, &• 479, Ttj/jeus, fr. 521, 
TupuJ, fr. 593, cf. fr. 736. 856. Further, mention is made of elegies, 
pseans, and a work on the chorus by Sophokles, Suid. s. v. The 
younger Phrynichus praises Sophokles, Argum. HI. (Ed. CoL : /linap 
So0okX^7;s, OS 7roXi>v XP^^°^ ^toiis | diridavev eOSaipuav dvTjp Koi fie^tds, | 
jroXXas TTOt^ffas Kal KoKd.^ rpayipSias, \ koXQs S' ^reXeiJn^ff, oiShr inro- 
p.elva.': KOKoc. Of the characteristics of his poetry it is said in Dio. 
Chrys. Or. LH, p. 272 : 6 Si 2o0okX^s fU<Tos hiKev dyu^oir etvcu, ouTt 
rb avffaSes Kal ri airXovv rb Toi/ AlirxiXov Ix'^" "^'''^ ''* iKpi^is Kal Spi/ii' 
Kol iroKiTiKbv rb tov EiJpt7r£5ou, aefivijv S^ Ttva Kal fieyoKoTrpeirTJ irottiffLv 
TpayLKorrara Kal Gvirpe-ir^ffTaTa ^x^^^^^t cHo'Te irXeLffTtjv rjSovijv fuerii 
v^pom Kal a-efivbTTp-os ivSeUvvfrdai. 

1) Euripides, the son of Mnesarchus, born in the island of Salamis 
480, B. c, on the day, so it is said, of the battle of Salamis, Vit. Eur. a . 
j3'. y'. Westerm., enjoyed a careful bringing up. As a boy, he gained 
such distinction in gymnastic arts, that he won a prize in a contest, 
Vit. o'. GeU. XV, 20; he also had some talent for painting Vit. a', p' . 
In his youth, he devoted himself zealously to philosophy, especially 
ethics, in intercourse with Anaxagoras and Sokrates, and attended 
the lectures of the Sophists Prodikus and Protagoras on rhetoric, Vit. 
a . (3'. y ; his dramas in consequence showed traces of these teachings, 
especially of Anaxagoras (of. Troad. 886 : Zei>s, ctr AvdyKi) ipiaeos (Ire 
vovs ppoTwv), and rhetorical artifices (Vit. a' : TpoaeSpe Xiyoi/s ipwui- 
\oyias, Inp-opelas) ; and the comic poets jeeringly intimated, that 
Sokrates assisted Euripides in his tragedies, Vit. a'. Athen. IV, 131 C. 
Diog. Laert. H, 18. A stern, gloomy, and meditative man, the poet 
lived retired from company and poUtioal Ufe, Vit. /3'. y', conscious of 
his own powers and little troubled about the verdict of the public, Val. 
Max. in, 7. His first appearance on the stage was with the drama 
IleXiiiSes (in 456 B. c), and in spite of the number of his tragedies he 
only won the first prize five times, Vit. y. Suid. s. v. of. Varro ap. 
GeU. XVn, 4, 3. However, though the poet was the subject of many 

The Hellenic Race in its Prime. 










The Athenians resume the war against Persia 
under the conduct of Kimon, and after Kimon's 
death win a double victory at Salamis in Ky- 
prus, by land and by sea°*). 

The Comic poets 
Krates™), Kratinus"). 

68) Thuo. I, 112. According to Died. XIII, 3 it ia Kimon himself, 
who wins the victory. According to this same author (c. 4) the so- 
called peace of Kimon (according to Demosth. De P. leg. p. 428. Pint. 
Kim. 13, cf. Herod. VII, 151 more properly named the peace of KaUias) 
was concluded after this victory, by which, it was said, the Persian 
king bound himself to, grant complete independence to all Hellenic 
towns in Asia, and to that end never to sail with his fleet west of 
Phaselis or the neighbouring Chelidonian isles to the south, to the 

east never beyond the Kyanean rocks at the entrance of the Pontus 
Euxinus, and to keep his army at the least three days' march from the 
west coast of Asia Minor. By Plutarch (Kim. 13) this peace is placed 
after the battle at the Burymedon ; no mention at all of it is found in 
Thucydides; and the orators are the first to quote it, at first referring 
to it in general terms, then with increasing exactness of detail, see Isokr. 
Paneg. p. 65. Areop. p. 150. Panath. p. 244. Demosth. De F. Leg. p. 458. 
of. De Ehod. Lib. p. 199. Lykurg. Leokr. p. 199 : in later rhetoricians 

hostile attacks (Vit. a'. : inri yap' Mifvalav i^Boveiro), yet at the date 
of the Sicilian expedition his poems lived in the mouths of all men, 
Plut. Nic. 29. Among the innovations, which Euripides made on 
the stage, first and foremost are the introduction of the prologue, Vit. 
/3'. Aristoph. Ean. 946, 1177, and of monodies or arias, Aiistoph. 
Kan. 1380 f. 944. 851, and the severance of the choral songs from any 
connexion with the play, Schol. Arist. Aoh. 442. He showed great 
aptitude in delineating states of the soul, in particular the passion of 
love, but is often too rhetorical. He was not spared bitter experiences. 
The infidelity of both his wives called forth sharp and Ulnatured 
utterances about women in his tragedies, and was not vrithout 
influence on the delineation of his female characters, Vit. a'. |8'. y'. 
Aristoph. Thesm. 82 f. This domestic unhappiness and the gibes of 
the comic poets, which culminate in the Frogs and Thesmopho- 
riazusse of Aristophanes, induced him to leave the city of his 
biith, Vit. /3'. y'. He betook himself to Pella to the court of king 
Arohelaus of Macedonia, who treated him with great honour, and to 
whom the poet showed his gratitude by his last drama 'Apxil^aos, Vit. 
o'. There he died in 406 B. o. shortly before Sophokles, who 
sincerely mourned his loss, Vit a. p'. y'. The Athenians honoured 
his memory with a cenotaph. Paus. I, 2, 2. He wrote at least 75 
dramas, Vit. y'. Varro ap. GeU. XVHI, 4. Suid. 1. c, of which 16 
tragedies are preserved perfect : 'B/cd/S?;, 'O/j^o-tijs, M^Seia, ^olrurcai, 
'linrdXvTos (TTpe^aifTjtpdpoSi 'AvdpofmxVj 'l/c^rt5es, 'l^iy^veia rj iv A{t\tdt, 
'liptyiveia ii iv taipoii, T/DwdSes, BdKX'") 'Hpa/c\ei5ai, "lav, ''EKivq, 
'H/ja/cX^s fiaivd/i^fos, 'HMKTpa, a satyrio drama, KiixXu^, and a play 
filling the place of a satyrio drama, "A.\kti(xtls (Argum. : t6 bi Spdind 
ian (xaTvpiKunpov). The 'Pijo-os, preserved under his name, is not 
from his pen. Of the rest, nearly 1100 fragments are preserved, the 
more important from the dramas 'AW^acSpos, Nauok. fr. 53, 'Arri^Tnj 
fr. 187. 188. 219. 220, Ap^Aajs, fr. 230, Ai5t6Xukos, fr. 284. 287. 288, 
^ava.r), fr. 318—332, Ai/criis, fr. 336. 889. 349, 'EpexBtm, 362. 363, 'Ivui, 
fr. 406. 407, Kps(T<p6i>TTis, fr. 462, Kpijres, fr. 476, OMfiaos, fr. 575— 
577, UaXa/i'^Sris, fr. 582, nXeurBivris, fr. 628, 'PaSatiUveis, fr. 660, 
ia^ewv, fr. 779. 781, *ofci?, fr. 809. 813. 816, XpaOTTros, fr. 836. cf. fr. 
889. 890. For Euripides as a poet see the criticism of Aristotle Poet. 
13, 9. 10 : Kal 6 ^vpiiridriii el Kal to, dWa (lij eu olKovop.ei, dXXa rpaycKU}- 
Tards ye rav iroityrav (paiverai. Cf. Longin. 15, 3 : Icrri fxiv ovv (pCKoirova- 
raros 'KvpLirlb-q^ Suo raurl irad-q fuivias re koI ^pcaros iKTpayifibTJiraL Kciv 
TOVTOis (is ovK oIS* ef Tiffiy er^pois ixLTVX^ffTaTos' ov fiyjv dXXa KaX rats 
oXXcus iiriTiSecrdat ^ayraaiats ovk droXfws. (Of the numerous other 
tragic poets about the time of Sophokles and Euripides the most 

prominent are : Aristarchus of Tegea, Suid. b. v. Nauck. trag. Gr. fr. 
1—6; Ion of Chios, Suid. s. v. Schol. Aiist. Pac. 835. N. fr. 1—68 ; 
Aohajus of Eretria, Suid. a. v. Athen. X, p. 451. N. fr. 1 — 54, dis- 
tinguished for his satyr-plays, Diog. L. 11, 138 ; and later Agathon, 
the friend of Plato, Sympos. ridiculed by Aristophanes for the 
effeminate, over-refined character of his poetry (as a KaXos), Thesm. 
25 f . 60 f. 100. 130 f . 150 f . of. Schol. N . fr. 1—29. Of the mass of tragic 
poets of his time Aristophanes says, Ean. 89 : ovkow h-ep for' 
ivTav6a. p^LpaicvXXta | 'EupttriSou irXelv 7j aradlip XaXiffrepa ; | iirKpvXXiSes 
TJ.VT io-rl Kal ffT(ijp.vXfiaTa, | x^XtSo^wv fiovae^a, Xca^jp-al rix^V^- The 
like is true of the great number of later tragic poets, none of whom 
had any creative genius. The names of some 130 tragic poets, and 
more than 50 fragments of their works, are stiU preserved.) 

m) The great historians of literature themselves divided Attic 
comedy into an apxat-ci Koip-ipdia, fi^atj KwpLipdia and via Kwjx^Sia, Anon. 
Ilepl Koi/j,. III. IX, 8. The characteristic marks of the older Attic comedy 
are: the political satire with masks caricaturing real persons, Platon. jrepi 
Statpopas kw/j.'^6lwv 19, called by their proper names [Koifiipdetv ovofiaiTTi), 
Isokr. De Pac. p. 161, Ilepi Kup,. VIII, 8. IX, 7, the 24 members of the 
chorus in burlesque or phantastic masks, Ilepl icafi,. VIII, 34, and the Ila- 
papacris, the Intermezzo or digression from the subject of the piece, when 
the chorus, singing or declaiming, turns to the spectators and expresses 
itself in jest or earnest upon circumstances of public life or the relations 
of the poet to the public, or gives whimsical vent to its thoughts, 
Aristid. T. II. p. 528. Platon. Ilepi Aia0. Kw/i. 11: d xopos ovk ix'-'" 
irpos Tovs viroKpLTOs dLaX4ye(T6at aTr6aTpo(f>oP iirote'LTO irpos tov S7Jfj.ov ' Kara 
5^ TTJv aTrotrrpotpoP iKeivtjv ol irotTyral 3td tov x^pov ij vir^p iavrdv direXo- 
yovvro rj irepl d7}fj.o(7i(jJf TpayptAroyv elaTjyovyTo. The older Attic comedy 
developed with the growth of the democratic constitution, and fell 
with it. The number of poets and their fertiUty is extraordinarily 
great. Chionides is called the oldest comic poet of Athens (circa 460 
B.C.). Krates of Athens, ciro. 450 B.C., the first important comic poet 
and likewise actor, substituted for the farce innocent of all laws of 
composition the treatment of definite material taken from real life, 
Ilepi Kw/i. Ill, 8. Suid. s. v. Kpdri)s, Arist. Poet. 5; this poet was 
sometimes applauded, sometimes hissed ofi the stage by the public, 
for which he is derided by Aristophanes, Eq. 537. 549. Short fragments 
are preserved from nine of his comedies. Pragm. Com. Meineke p. 
78 f., the most important from the Qripla, M. fr. 1 — 4, IlaiSiai fr. 1. 
Za/jLioi fr. 1. 

n) Kratinus of Athens, flourished ciro. 449 — 423, Ilepl Kw/t. Ill, 7. 
Aristoph. Pac. 700 f. Lucian, Macrob. eh. 25, and conquered nine 



Third Period. 500—431 b.c. 












Renewal of hostilities between Athens and 
Sparta through the Sacred war"'). 

The Boeotians defeat the Athenians at Ko- 
roneia, and abandon the Athenian alliance™). 

The philosophers 
Zeno °) , Empedokles ") , 

it forms a frequently recurring theme in their panegyrics on Athens. 
For this reason doubt was thrown on the peace by KaUisthenes, see 
Plut. Kim. 13, and often by scholars in modern times: however, 
although the peace is subject to many well-founded suspicions, still 
the passages Thuc. VIII, 5. 6. 56. Herod. VI, 42 are not, as has 
been thought, incompatible with it ; and practically it had a real ex- 
istence, as after this time the war against Persia ceased for a con- 
siderable period, Plut. Kim. 19. 

69) The Lacedaemonians made an expedition to central Greece, in 
order to restore the oracle to the possession of the Delphians, who 
had had it wrested from them by the Phokians ; after their departure 

times with great applause, Suid. !i. v. Arist. Eq. 526. 330; his most 
brilliant victory of all being gained at an advanced age (in 424 e. c.) 
with the IlvTivri (wine-flask) against the Clouds of Aristophanes, Arist. 
Argum. Nub. V. ed. Bergk, when the latter had shortly before ridiculed 
him as worn out and decayed, Eq. 531—536. He is said to have fixed 
the number of actors appearing on the stage in comedy at three, Ilepl 
Kail. V, 3. Of 26 of his comedies fragments, short for the most part, 
are preserved. Frag. Com. GrsBo. Meineke p. 7 f., the most important 
being from the comedies 'Apxl^oxoi, BovkoXoi, epfrrai, MaXeaKoi, 
mfietris, 'Odv(T<rTJs, Uvrlfri, Tpo^iivtos, Xeipavfs. His poHtioal satire was 
sharp and bitter, Arist. Acham. 849. Platon. Ilepl diiupopas xapofr^pw 
1, 3. Anon. Ilepl KUfi. V, 3 : tSa-irep Siifuxrlg, luumyt tj Koi/jufSli} KoKa^v. 
This is also clear from his attacks on Perikles, cf. Thra. M. fr. 1: 
ixx"'OKi<f>a\os T(fSetov iirl tov Kpavlov Ix'^i Cheir. fr. 3 : ripavvov, KeKfeaXri- 
yepiriui, and on Aspasia, Cheir. fr. 4 : TraWaK^i/ KwiJnriSa, as opposed 
to Kimon, of whom he says, Archil, fr. 1 : (rvv anSpl $el(p Kal fiKo^evoi- 
TOTip KoX viwT opiffTcp Twv UoyeW^^vajv irpofitp K.ip.ojvi. He is denoted as 
having a poetical nature, fond of life, by Suid. ». v. : \d/nrpos toj" 
XapoKTTJpa ^iXoiroTTjs Si Kal iraiSiKuv TiTTinxivos, cf. Ilepl Kup,. Ill, 7: 
yiyove Sk iroiTjTt/twraTos, KwratTKeva^wv els tov Max'iXov xapaiiTTJpa. Cf. 
Platon. Ilepl dia</>. x"-?- II> 1- Aristoph. Pac. 700 f. — ^Pherekrates of 
Athens, was his contemporary, and in 437 b. o. won a prize, Ilepi ku/x. 
Ill, 9. To him belong for certain 13 comedies, of which fragments are 
in existence, the most important being 'Xypioi, fr. 1. 2. 4. 11. Auro- 
juoXoi, fr. 1, AovKoSibo/TKoXos, fr. 1. 2, KopiavviOf fr. 1 — 5. From 
personal satire he seems to have shrunk, Uke Krates, yet he ridicules 
Alkibiades, Inc. Fab. fr. 5 : ovk iSv aviip yap 'AXm/SiaSi^s, us SoKei, aviip 
aTraffwv twv yvvaiKWP iffTi vw. He is praised for the invention of new 
stage materials, Hepl kui/i. 1. c. The refinement of his language is 
denoted by the epithet 'ATTiKwrans, Athen. VI, p. 268 e. Steph. Byz. 
p. 43 ; the metrum Phereorateum is called after him. 

o) Zeno, bom at Elea in lower Italy, flourished circ. 468—433 e. c, 
Diog. Laert. IX, 25. Suid. s. v. CyriU. InHan. I, p. 23. A pupU of 
Farmenides, Plat. Parm. p. 127. Diog. L. 1. c. Athen. XI, p. 605, he 
came repeatedly to Athens, where he met with Sokrates, Plat. Soph. p. 
217. Parm. 1. c. Theset. p. 217. Diog. L. IX, 28, and lectured on his 
doctrines to Perikles and Kallias for 100 minie. Plat. Alkib. I, p. 119. 
Plut. Perikl. 4. He improved the laws of his native city, Diog. L. IX, 

the Athenians sent a force under Perikles and put the Phokians in 
possession again. Thuc. I, 112. Plut. Per. 21. 

70) Thuc. I, 113. Diod. XII, 6. The Athenians had marched to 
Bceotia under Tolmides, inasmuch as exiles from Chseronea and 
Orchomenus (at all events the aristocrats banished in consequence of 
the battle of CEnophyta, see obs. 59) had made themselves masters of 
these towns. After the Athenians had conquered Chseronea, on their 
return they were assailed by the exiles from Orchomenus, who had 
been joined by exiles from Eubcea and Lokris, and defeated: where- 
upon, in order to recover the prisoners, they gave up all the towns of 
Bceotia, i.e. they gave them up to the aristocratical party, which 
opposed Athens. 

33, and attempted to free it from a tyrant. It is uncertain, whether 
his enterprise succeeded or resulted in hia death, Plut. adv. Col. p. 1126. 
Diog. L. IX, 26—28. Cic. Tuso. II, 22. De Nat. D. Ill, 33. With regard 
to his writings, which were composed in prose, partly in the form of 
dialogues, Plat. Parm. 1. o. Diog. L. Ill, 47 we hear of "BpiSes (polemical 
writings) and 'E|7i7i;iris tuv 'E/i7re5o«cX^ous irpos tovs ^i\off6ifiovs vepl 
tpiffeas, Suid. 1. c. He developed the doctrines of his master Parmenides 
and was looked on as the originator of dialectic, the proof which 
advances to the truth by refutation of the apparent. Plat. Parm. p. 128. 
Plut. Per. 4. Diog. L. IX, 25. (Melissus of Samos must also be 
mentioned, as belonging to the Eleatio school, Diog. L. IX, 24. Plut. 
Per. 26.) 

p) Empedokles of Agrigentum, adherent of the teaching of 
Pythagoras, pupil of Xenophanes and Parmenides, and contemporary 
of Zeno, flourished circ. 445 — 433, Cyrill. lulian. I, p. 23. Diog. 
L. VIII, 51. 52. 54. 55. 56. He taught rhetoric and found in Gorgias 
a distinguished Scholar, 1. u. 57. 58. Suid. s. v. ; as a statesman 
laboured for the introduction of the democratic constitution, Diog. L. 
72. 73, and traversed the towns of Sicily in great pomp as physician, 
worker of miracles, wizard, and prophet. I.e. 59 — 63. 67. 70. 73. 
Amongst the legends of his death his voluntary leap into the crater of 
Mtna, is the most famous. Nothing certain is known about it, 1. u. 67. 
69. 70 — ^73. His chief work. To (pvcriKa or Ilepl ipva-ews, was written in 
hexameters in the Ionian dialect; of these about 400 are preserved, 
1. c. 77. Suid. 1. c. He served the Boman poet Lucretius as a model, 
De Ker. Nat. I, 77 fE. He taught that through the two motive forces of 
blending friendship {^iKLa) and severing discord the four primary 
elements were mingled and endowed with form. 

q) Anaxagoras, bom at Klazomense, lived from 500 — 428 B. u., 
Diog. Laert. II, 6, 7, spending a considerable time at Athens, where he 
was connected with Perikles and other important men, awakened an 
interest in philosophy, and exercised considerable influence. Shortly 
before the beginning of the Peloponnesian war he was accused of 
impiety (Diod. IX, 38 f. Plut. Per. 32), and was only rescued from 
death at the intercession of Perikles: but he was obUged to leave 
Athens, and went to Lampsakus, where he is said to have died at the 
age of seventy, Diog. L. II, 12 — 15. Suid. s. c. Plut. Per. 4. 32. Cic. 
De Nat. D. I, 11. He wrote a work irepi ^iaem, of which several 

The Hellenic Race in its Prime. 



B. C. 







Eiibcea and Megara revolt from the Athenian 
alliance : the Peloponnesians under the Spartan 
king Pleistoanax invade Attica, but retire with- 
out inflicting any damage upon the Athenians"). 

Herodotus the father 
of History""). 

Plastic art flourishes') 
— Myron*). 

71) By his retreat Pleistoanax incurred the suspicion of having 
allowed himself to be bribed by Perikles. Thuc. I, 144. II, 21. V, 16. 
Plut. Per. 22. 23. Diod. XII, 6. The battle of Koroneia took place 

Xpofov iY^ivoiuhov fiera Tavra i. e. after the Sacred war : the revolt of 
Euboea occurred ou iroXXi^ Sarepor, 14 years before the outbreak of the 
Peloponnesian war, Thuc. I, 113. 114. II, 21. 

fragments are preserved ; and taught that a single spirit {vous) created 
the world out of the primitive material, and in consequence received 
the name Nous. Diog. L. II, 6. Suid. s. v. Archelaus of Miletus the 
master of Sokrates, was his pupil, who is designated the last Ionian 
physicist and also the forerunner of Sokrates in Ethics, Suid. s. v. 
Diog. L. II, 6. 

r) Following the fashion of the old compilers of legends (\oyoypd<poi.), 
Pherikydes of Leros, a settler at Athens, called d yeveaKoyos, wrote 
circ. 450 B. c. his work AvroxSoves, which treated of family legends, 
especially Attic, Eratosth. ap. Diog. Laert. I, 119. Strab. p. 487. 
Suid. s.v. Dion. Hal. A. B. I, 13. The jtransition from tale-telling to 
history is made by Hellanikus of MytUene in Lesbos, whose earhest 
years coincide with the beginning of the Persian wars, Thuc. I, 97. 
Vit. Eurip. Gell. XV, 23. Suid. s.v. Of the numerous writings, 
which are ascribed to him, those genuine are : AcvKoKiiiveia, ^opuvts, 
'ArXavTias, IpaiKa, which recounted family legends; the histories of 
single countries formed the subjects of 'AtSIs, AloXim, nepo-ira, whilst 
'lipeicu TTJs "Upas and KapveoviKcu. were chronological writings. Hero- 
dotus, bom at Halikarnassus, of an influential family, a cousin of 
Panyasis, Suid. s. v., born between 490 and 480 b. c, died between 428 
and 424 b. c, Gell. XV, of. Herod. Ill, 15. V, 77. VI, 98. VII, 137. I, 
130. To avoid the tyrant Lygda.mis, he went abroad to Samos, Suid. 
1. c. As is proved by his history, he visited in the course of extensive 
travels the mainland of Greece, the islands of the iEgean sea, Asia 
Minor, Krete, Kyprus, Phoenicia, Syria, Babylonia, Assyria, Media, 
Egypt, as far as its southern boundary, and Italy. He read in public 
single sections of his work before the completion of the whole, e. g. at 
Olympia, see p. 23 obs. 22, at Athens, Plut. De Mai. Herod. 25, at 
Corinth, Dio Chrys. Or. XXXVII, T. II, p. 103, and at Thebes, Plut. 
1. c. 31. In 443 b. o. he took part in the foundation of Thurii by the 
Athenians, Suid. 1. c. Strab. p. 790. Schol. Arist. Nub. 331, where he 
finished his work and died, PUn. N. H. XII, 18. Suid. 1. 1. In his 
historical work, 'Iffroplai, now divided into nine books, each of which 
bears the name of a muse for its title, his aim was to relate the 
causes and events of the struggle between the Hellenes and barbarians ; 
he begins with the subjection of the Asiatic Greeks by the Lydian 
King Krcesus, the first injury inflicted upon the Hellenes by barbarians, 
and carries his history, interwoven with numerous comprehensive 
episodes, which contain the history of the Lydians, Egyptians, 
Scythians, and other nations, up to the conquest of Sestos by the 
Hellenes. Of the verdicts of ancient critics on Herodotus we may cite 
in particular : Dion. Hal. Ep. ad On. Pomp. 3 : ■^Sovrlv 8^ Kal treida koI 
T^ptj/iv Kai Tos o/ioioyeveis opeTos datpiperai, fiaKpf QouKvdiSov KpdTTovas 
'BpoSoTos, Quint. IX, 4, 18: In Herodoto vero cum omnia (ut ego 
quidem sentio) leniter fluunt, turn ipsa SioXcktos habet eam iuoun- 
ditatem, ut latentes etiam numeros complexa videatur. 

s) Legend ascribed old statues, especially wooden figures of gods, to 
Daedalus : the artists Epeius and Dibutades are likewise mythical 
names. At an early period art-schools existed in the islands of 
jEgina, Chios, Samos, and Krete. Thus statues in iEginetan style 
are ascribed to Snulis of .Egina, Pans. VII, 4, 4. 5. V, 17, 1. Plin. 
H. N. XXXVI, 90. Glaukus of Chios, Herod. I, 25, or Samos, Steph. 
Byz. s. V. AldaXri, invented circ. 695 (?) the art of soldering metals, 
Euseb. Chron. 84 f. Herod. 1. u. Steph. Byz. I.e. Paus. X, 16, 1 ; his 
successors formed a school of statuary in Chios, which already worked 
in marble, Plin. XXXVI, 11. Dipoenus and Skyllis of Krete, famed 
for their works in marble circa 572 b. c. Paus. II, 15, 1. Ill, 17, 6. 
Plin. XXXVI, 9, 14, were also founders of an art-school. Ehoekus 
and Theodoras of Samos, architects and sculptors, discovered the 
casting of metals about 580 — 540, Herod. Ill, 60. Paus. VIII, 14, 5. 
IX, 41, 1. X, 38, 3. The ancients knew of both buUdings and statues by 
both masters. The invention of the square, the level, the turning-lathe, 
and the key, is also attributed to Theodoras, PUn. VII, 198. The 
subjects treated in the statuary of the oldest period are gods and 
divine beings ; art appears tied down to the service of religion. About 
the time of the Persian wars there were schools of statuary at Argosi 
Sikyon, ^gina, and Athens : in which the most eminent masters were 
Ageladas of Argos, the teacher of Myron, Pheidias and Polykleitus, 
Paus. VI, 14, 5. IV, 33, 3. VIII, 42, 4, Kauarchus of Sikyon, Paus. IX, 
10, KaUon, Paus. II, 32, 4, Quint. XII, 10, 7. Cic. Brat. 13, and Onatas, 
Paus. Vin, 42, 4 of .ffigina. Besides gods, heroes and Olympian 
victors were represented by these artists. Amongst the statues pre- 
served of this archaic or hieratic style, the most noticeable are : the 
JEginetan statues from the pediments of the temple of Pallas at 
.ffigina, the Pallas of the Villa Albani, at Dresden, and at Herkulanum, 
the Herkulanean Artemis, the Apollo of the Museo Chiaramonti, the 
Giustinianian Vesta, etc. : and of the old reUefs ; the altar of the 12 
gods, the tripod-theft, the Samothrakian relief, etc. Forerunners of 
the great sculptors, who brought their art to perfection, appear in 
Kalamis circ. 460 b. c, Paus. IX, 16, 1, and Pythagoras of Rhegium 
about the same time, Paus. VI, 4, 2. 13, 1. 

t) Myron, born at Eleutherae, settled at Athens, a pupil of 
Ageladas, Plin. XXXIV, 57. Paus. VI, 2, 1. 8, 3. 13, 1, worked chiefly 
in bronze, and devoted himself especially to the forms of heroes and 
athletes, and of animals. Of his works the most famous were the 
diskus-thrower (of which copies are stOl preserved, the best in the 
palace Massimi at Rome), Plin. XXXIV, 57. Lukian. Philopseud. 18. 
Quint. II, 13, and the cow, Plin. I.e., which was often celebrated in 
epigrams, Anthol. Pal. Ind. Auson. Epigr. 58—68. Tzetz. Ghil. VIII, 
94. Cic. Verr. IV, 60. He overcame the stiffness of the old style by a 
living truthfulness to nature; in the representation of the hair and 


Third Period. 500— 43L b.c. 







Euboea reconquered by Perikles"j. Thirty years' peace 

Architecture flourishea"). 

72) Thuo. I, 114. Diod. XII, 7, 22. Plut. Per. 23. To ensure their 
possession, the Athenians expelled the aristocrats (styled iTvo^rai) 

from Chalkis, and the whole free population from Hestiffia : to which 
latter town they sent a thousand Athenian Kleruohs. 

face alone he retained the traditional type, Plin. XXXIV, 58. Cio. 
Brut. 18. Quint. XII, 10. 

u) Pheidias, of Athens, son of Charmides, lived from about 500 to 
438 B. c, Plut. Per. 31. Plin. XXXIV, 49, instructed by Hegias and 
Ageladas, Sohol. Arist. Ban. 504. Suid. s. v. TeXadas. Tzetz. Chil. 
VII, 154. VIII, 192. From the booty taken in the Persian wars he 
executed various works of art, especially the colossal brazen statue of 
Athene Promaohos on the Akropolis, Herod. V, 77. Paus. I, 28, 2, the 
statue of Athene Areia at Plataea, made of wood and marble, Paus. IX, 

4, 1, and a statue-group as an offering for Delphi, Paus. X, 10, 1. He 
was then entrusted by Perikles with the chief direction of his great 
buildings, Plut. Per. 12. 13, and completed the statue of Athene 
Parthenos for the Parthenon, Max. Tyr. Dissert. XIV, p. 260. Paus. I, 
24, 5. 7. Plin. XXXIV, 54. XXXVI, 10. Plut. Per. 31, of gold and ivory, 
which was consecrated in 438 b. o. Schol. Arist. Pac. 604. s. Euseb. 
Chron. Arm. p. 106. He then went in connexion with several pupils 
to EUs, and executed the statue of Zeus for the temple at Olympia, 
likewise of ivory and gold, Plin. XXXV, 54. Paus. V, 10, 2. V, 11. 14, 

5. Strab. p. 353 f. Dio. Chrys. Or. XII, p. 248, Emp. : TJ/iepoi' kuI 
(refivov iv oKinru) (rxTj/iart, tov ^lov Kal i^diTjs Kal ffv^iraifriav boTjjpa tQv 
a,yad^, koivov aifdpunriov Kal iraT^pa Kal cojrijpa Kal ^uXa/ca, tis dwarov tjv 
6v7}T(^ diavoTjdivTa fjLLfj.i^ffa<r6at T-qv 6eiav Kal afx-qx^vov ^ufftj*. After his 
return he was accused by Perikles' opponents, in the first place of 
embezzlement of a part of the gold intended for the Athene Parthenos, 
and secondly of impiety in having introduced his own likeness and 
that of Perikles on the shield of the goddess ; and he died in prison, 
Schol. Arist. Pac. 605. Plut. Per. 31. Diod. XII, 39. Of his artistic 
idealism, vrith which he united perfect technical acquirements, Cicero 
speaks in the following terms. Or. II, 3 : Neo vero iUe artifex, cum 
faceret lovis formam aut Minervse, eontemplabatur aliquem, e quo 
simihtudinem duceret, sed ipsius in mente insidebat species pulchri- 
tudinis eximia quaadam, quam intuens in eaque defixus, ad ilUus 
similitudinem artem et manum dirigebat. We can judge of his works 
from the fragments of the pediment statues and the reliefs of the 
metopes and of the frieze of the ceUa of the Parthenon. To the same 
period belong the reliefs of the temple of Nike Apteros at Athens, the 
reliefs of the metopes of the temple of Zeus at Olympia, and of the 
frieze of the temple of Apollo at Phigalia, and the lately discovered 
statues from the pediments of the temple of Olympia, and the statue of 
Nike discovered on the same spot, a work of Pffionius. The most 
important among the pupils and fellow-workers of Pheidias are 
Alkamenes, Plin. XXXVI, 16, Agorakritus, Paus. IV, 34, 1. Plin. 1. c. 
17, Kolotes, Plin. XXXV, 54, and Theokosmus, Paus. I, 40, 3. 

v) Polykleitus of Sikyon, a contemporary of Pheidias, residing at 
Argos, a pupil of Ageladas, Plin. XXXIV, 49. Paus. VI, 6, 1. cf. Thuc. 
IV, 133. His most celebrated statue representing a god was the Hera 
of Argos, Paus. II, 17, 4. Strab. p. 372 ; his Amazon was also exceed- 
ingly famous, with which he gained the prize in competition with 

other artists, and even with Pheidias, Plin. XXXIV, 53. But for the 
most part he worked at figures of boys and youths and Olympian 
victors. Specially famous amongst the latter was the Diadumenus, a 
youth, who is binding the victor's wreath round his head (an imitation 
may be seen in the Palace Farnese at Borne), and the Doryphorus, a 
boy with a spear, Plin. XXXIV, 55. Cic. Brut. 86. Orat. II, 5. He 
laid down in a treatise the harmony and relative proportions of the 
limbs in the human body, and illustrated them in a figure, which was 
taken as a universal model, both treatise and figure being named Kanon, 
Plin. 1. u. He rested the centre of gravity in his statues on one leg, 1. c, 
perfected Torentike, the chiselling of noble metals for smaller works of 
art, Plin. XXXIV, 54. 56, and excelled preeminently in gold and ivoiy 
work, Strab. p. 372. He was also famous as an architect, having 
built the theatre at Epidaurus, Paus. II, 27, 5. Quintilian has the 
following criticism, XII, 10, 7 : DUigentia ac decor in Polyeleto supra 
ceteros, cui quamquam » plerisque tribuitur paJma, tamen, ne nihil 
detrahatur, deesse pondus putant. Nam ut humanae formse decorem 
addiderit supra verum, ita non explevisse deorum auctoritatem videtur. 
Quin SBtatem quoque graviorem dicitur refugisse, nihil ausus ultra 
leves genas. — To the same period belongs Kallimachus, Paus. I, 26, 7. 
IX, 2, 5, to whom the invention of the Corinthian capital is ascribed, 
Vitruv. IV, 1, 9. He made improvements in boring stone, Paus. I, 26, 
7, and is called KoTOTT^IiTejcos on account of his care in the expression 
of the smallest and most delicate details. Pliny enumerates a long 
series of pupils of Polykleitus, XXXIV, 50. 

w) The oldest Greek structures are the giant walls surrounding the 
akropolis in various towns, often called Cyclopean walls (KuKXuTreio 
oiipini.a reixvt Soph. Eleotr. 1167), remains of which are seen in the 
ruins of Tiryns, Mykense with its lion-gate, Orchomenus, Lykosura, 
Larissa, etc. Amongst the oldest buildings too must be reckoned the 
so-called treasure-houses of the princes, and especially the dome-shaped 
treasure-house of Atreus at Mykense. After the immigration of the 
Dorians architecture was developed in the building of temples, and 
it was the Doric style which was thus first formed, the buildings being 
origiually of wood, Paus. VIII, 10, 2 ; its special characteristics are the 
fluted pillars without a base, the simple capital, and the triglyphs or 
triple grooves of the frieze. The Doric style then appears in Corinth 
richly developed (and here was invented the ornamentation of the 
pediments with reUefs of earthenware, and likewise of the front tiles 
with figured decorations), especially after Byzes of Naxos had invented 
the artistic carving of the marble blocks Pind. 01. 13, 21. Plin. XXXV, 
152. By the side of the simple and severe Doric, there was developed in 
Ionia the lighter and more ornamented Ionic style, which already 
appears in its perfect form in the 6th century in the temple of Diana 
at Ephesus, distinguished from the Doric by the slimmer shafts of the 
piUars, and the volutes of the capital, Herod. I, 92. Plin. XVI, 212. 
XXXVI, 95 f. Vitruv. IV, 1. After the time of Perikles the Corinthian 
style also came into prominence, now that KaUimaohus had invented 

The Hellenic Kace in its Prime. 



B. C. 





between Athens and Sparta, by which the former utterly 
relinquishes the hegemony by lancr**). 

Rise of painting: Poly- 
gnotus") ; vase-painting''). 

73) Thuo. I, 115. Diod. XII, 7. Thuc: a,vax<afrfi(TavT€! ii an Ru^olaj 
ov TToXXy vffrepov (TTTOj'Sds i-jTOfriffavTo Trpos AaKcSaifiovlovs Kal tovs 
(viifiAxovs TpLaKOVToiireis OTroSii'Tes Niaaioi' Kal U^iyds Kal Tpotf^yo Kal 

'kxatav. In Thnc. I, 87. II| 2 it is distinctly stated that this peace 
was concluded 14 years before the Feloponnesian war. 

the vase-shaped capital with intertwining volutes and acanthus leaves 
Vitruv. IV, 1, 9. Paus. I, 26, 27 : moreover at this time other buildings, 
besides temples, began to be erected and decorated in an artistic method. 
The most noticeable remains of buildings in the pure Doric style, 
which are still in existence, are the temples at Syracuse, Akragas, 
SeUnus, Psestum, Corinth, .Sgina, PhigaUa in Arcadia (built by Iktinus, 
Paus. VIII, 41, 7), and at Athens the Parthenon, built by Iktinus 
and KalUkrates under the supervision of Pheidias, Plut. Per. 13. Sohol. 
Aristoph. Pac. 606. Strab. p. 396. Paus. VIII, 41, 5, the Propylsa 
built by Mnesikles, Plut. 1. c. PhiLochorus ap. Harpocr. V. VlpoirvKaia 
Corp. Inscr. Att. I. obs. 314 (begun 437 b. c, completed in 5 years, 
Harpocr. p. 159 Bk., fragments of the bill of Expenditure, (J. A. n. 315), 
the temple of Nemesis at Khamnus, and of Pallas at Sunium. The 
noblest buildings in the Ionic style are the Erectheium, the temple of 
Nike Apteros on the Athenian acropolis, the Didymseon at Miletus, and 
the temple of Pallas Polias at Priene. The buildings in the Corinthian 
style are of later origin : of these, ruins still exist at Athens, in 
particular of the temple of Olympian Zeus, which was begun on a 
magnificent scale by Peisistratus and after many vicissitudes completed 
by Hadrian. Of the artistic works of the time of Perikles Plutarch 
says. Per. 13: xoXXei nkv yap ^Koffrov (udis ijv Tore dpxaioi', ok/x^ 5^ 
fjAxpi- vvv TrpotrtpaTov iffrt Kal veoupyov. 

x) The accounts of the origin of painting are thoroughly untrust- 
worthy and fabulous, PUu. XXXV, 15, 55. VII, 205. It is said of 
Eumarus of Athens, that he was the first to distinguish man and 
woman represented with the pencil, PHn. XXXV, 36 ; Kimon of Kleonse, 
an elder contemporary of the poet Simonides, lac. anal. I. n. 77 f., 
perfected the dravring of the profile, especially of the eye in profile, 
the representation of the joints of the body, and the drapery folds, 
Plin. XXXV, 56. Ml. V. H. VIII, 8 ; Aglaophon of Thasos, father and 
teacher of Polygnotus and Aristophon, lived eirc. 500 — 470 b. c, Paus. 
X, 27, 2. Suid. s. v. IloXxiyvuTos, Cic. de orat. Ill, 7, 26. Polygnotus, a 
Thasian by birth, actively followed his profession as a painter chiefly 
at Athens, where he occupied the same position with Kimon, that 
Pheidias did with Perikles, and in reward for his paintings received 
the civic rights of an Athenian burgess, Suid. s. v. Plin. XXXV, 59. 
Plut. Cim. 4. Paus. IX, 4, 1. The most important and famous of his 
works, nearly all of which represented scenes from the world of heroes, 
are the paintings in the Lesohe of the Enidians at Delphi, PUn. 1. c. 
59. Paus. X, 25 — 31, which depicted the destruction of Troy and the 
lower world. Polygnotus further painted part of the pictures in the 
Stoa Poekile at Athens, Paus. I, 15, 2. Plin. I.e., in the temple of 
the Dioskuri at Athens Paus. I, 18, 1, in the temple of Theseus, 
Harpocr. s. v., in the Pinakotheka of the Propylasa, Paus. I, 22, 6, in 
the vestibule of the temple of Athene Areia at Platsea, Paus. IX, 4, 1 ; 
also wall-paintings at Thespte, PUn. XXXV, 123. He was praised for 
the delicacy of the drapery in his paintings, which allowed the shape 
of the body to appear through it, the animation of facial expression. 

Plin. XXXV, 59, Luk. Imag. 7, and excellent drawing together with 
simple colouring, without effects produced by light an4 shade, Cic. 
Brut. 18. Quint. XII, 10 : the similarity of the grouping in his 
compositions is vouched for by the description of the paintings at 
Delphi, Paus. 1. c. He was also famous as a sculptor, PUn. XXXIV, 
85. Mikon was his contemporary, Schol. Aristoph. Lysistr. 679 ; he 
painted in company with Polygnotus in the Poekile, the Theseium, and 
the temple of the Dioskuri, Plin. XXXV, 59. Harpocr. v. Mkwi'. Arr. 
Anab. VII, 13, 10. Suid. Harpocr. s. v. TloXiyvm-os. Paus. I, 18, 1. He 
was celebrated as a painter of horses, Ml. V. H. IV, 50, and as a 
sculptor besides, PUn. XXXIV, 88. Pansenus, a relation of Pheidias, 
Strab. p. 354. Paus. V, 11, 2. PUn. XXXV, 54. 57. XXXVI, 177, 
painted with Polygnotus and Mikon in the Poekile; he was then 
engaged with Pheidias on the temple of Zeus at Olympia, partly witli 
the colouring of the statue of Zeus, partly with paintings in the temple ; 
and also painted in the temple of Athena at EUs and coloured the 
statue of the goddess. Other important painters of this period are 
Dionysius of Kolophon, an imitator of Polygnotus, ^1. V. H. IV, i! 
(ttX^c tou ii,ey4dovs), Arist. Poet. 2. Plut. Timol. 36 ; Pauson, who 
made his figures more ugly than those of real life, Arist. 1. c. Pol. V, 6, 
21, Ml. V. H. XIV, 15, often ridiculed by Aristophanes, Plut. 602. 
Aoharn. 854. Thesmoph. 949 ; Agatharchus, a decorative painter eirc. 
450 B. c, Vitruv. VII. prfef. § 10. Plut. Alcib. 16. Per. 13 ; Aristophon, 
brother of Polygnotus, PUn. XXXV, 138. 

y) On the subject of Greek vase-painting our knowledge is not 
derived from ancient authors, but from the unearthing of painte*! 
fictile vases. The chief centres of their discovery are, in Greece: 
Athens, Corinth, Sikyon, Megara, Mgina, Melos, Thera : but the 
vessels found in the graves of Italian and SiciUan burying-grounds are 
much more nimierous ; so especiaUy in Etruria at Voloi, where alone 
some 6000 have been brought to Ught, CsBre, Tarquinii, Veil, Clusium, 
Volaterrae ; further at Hadria, in Campania at Nola, Cumse, PUstia, 
and Surrentum, in ApuUa at Eubi, Canusium, Barium, Gnathia, Uria, 
in Lucania at Ptestum and Anxia, in Sicily at Agrigentum, Syracuse, 
Gela, Kamarina, Panormus, Akrs. These fictUe vessels may be 
divided into three classes according to the painting: 1) the oldest 
vases with pale yeUow ground and blackish, brown, violet, or red 
figures, for the most part phantastic forms of animals, flowers, and 
branches in a clumsy stiff style ; 2) vessels with red ground and black 
figures, chiefly human shapes in old-fashioned drawing with strong 
prominence given to the chief Unes of the body ; 3) vases with black 
ground and red figures, with regular or beautiful drawing, of a later 
period than the two first classes. Most of the vases found in Etruria 
belong to the period from the Persian wars to the Pelopounesiah war, 
and do not exhibit the alphabet of Eukleides : most of the SiciUan 
and Campanian vessels are of later origin, especiaUy those of Nola : 
most modern of aU are the ApuUan and Lucanian. By the inscriptions 
on the vessels the names of some 84 vase-painters or potters have 


Third Period. 500 — 431 b.c. 






c) To the outbreak of the Peloponnesian War. 




Perikles in sole possession of the government at Athens"). Another 
wall is built from Athens to the Peirseus"). 




Thurii founded by the Athenians"). 










The Samian war : Samos and Byzantium reduced to subjection"). 










Amphipolis founded by the Athenians™). 










Outbreak of the war between Corinth and Kerkyra on account of 
Epidamnus"). Naval victory of the Kerkyrseans at Aktium*"). 




Athens forms an alliance with Kerkyra*'). Sea-fight between the 

74) After Kimon's death (obs. 68) Thucydides, the son of Melesias, 
became the head of the aristocratic party opposed to Perikles ; but in 
444 E. 0. he was ostracised, after which Perikles remained the sole leader 
of the nation, Pint. Per. 11 — 15. The year, when Thucydides was 
banished, is fixed from Plut. Per. 16, according to which Perikles ruled 
at Athens " not less than 15 years " after his rival's fall. 

75) For greater security a second wall was built from the town to 
the Peirseus, parallel with the already existing wall and to the south of 
it (between the first wall to the Peirseus and that to Phalerum, see obs. 
60), Plut. Per. 13. Plat. Gorg. p. 456 A. Andok. De Pac. p. 25. .ffischin. 
De P. L. p. 51 ("to /iaKpor reixos to votwv"). The existence of this 
second wall is also proved by Thuc. II, 13. 

76) Died. XII, 9—11. The date from (Plut.) Vit. Deo. Or. p. 835 
D.. Dionys. Lys. p. 435. It was founded in the place of Sybaris, 
which had been destroyed by the Erotoniates. 

77) The war arose in consequence of a dispute between Samos and 
Miletus about the possession of Priene ; the Samians paid no heed to 
the Athenians, when ordered by them to resign their claims: in 
consequence the aristocracy in power was first overthrown and a 
democratic constitution established: when the aristocrats again 
possessed themselves of the government, the town was besieged by 
Perikles and "after nine months" forced to surrender, Thuc. I, 
115—117. Plut. Per. 24—28. Diod. XII, 27—28. The war began in 
the 6th year after the thirty years' peace, Thuc. 1, 115 ; for its difficulty 
see Thuc. VII, 76; according to Thuc. I, 41 the Peloponnesians 
intended to go to the aid of the Samians, but were dissuaded by the 

Corinthians. The result of the war was, that the Samians and the 
Byzantians, who had joined the Samians, became subjects instead of 
allies, so that now only the Chians and Lesbians remained free aUies, 
Thuc. II, 9. As a sequel of the altered position of Athens 
towards her former allies, the treasury of the league was removed 
from Delos to Athens, Plut. Per. 12. lustin. Ill, 6. cf. Plut. Arist. 25, 
probably in 454 b. c, see Corp. Inscr. Att. I. n. 226 ff. 

78) Diod. XII, 82. Thuc. IV, 102. Cf. obs. 46. 

79) Thuc. I, 24r— 28. 

80) Thuc. I, 29 — 30. The Corinthians together with their allies 
had 75 ships, the Kerkyrceans 80. According to Thuc. I, 31 after the 
battle two years were spent by the Corinthians in fresh preparations ; 
the battle therefore may also be suitably placed in 435 b. c. On the 
same day as the battle Epidamnus was compelled to surrender, 
Thuc. I, 29. 

81) Both parties sent ambassadors to Athens, in order to secure 
her assistance for themselves. Their speeches Thuc. I, 32 — 43. 
Athens decided in favour of Kerkyra, Thuc. I, 44, chiefly for the reason 
that the alliance with Kerkyra promised great advantages for the 
voyage across to Italy and Sicily, to which the minds of the Athenians 
at that time were already directed, Thuc. 1. c. : ana. Sk t^s re 'IraMas 
KoX 2(ice\ias koXSh i^alvero aurois ^ v^ffos iv TTapairXif KeiaBai, cf. Diod. 
Xn, 54. However the alliance only amounted to an eiri/j-axla, not a 
avii,ix.axla, i. e. it only bound the Athenians to the defence of Kerkyra 
and its territory, but not to take part in the offensive war with 

become known to us, Corp. Inscr. Grsec. Vol. IV, Faso. I, Praef. p. 
XIV; but no trace is found to show that painters of importance 
occupied themselves with vase-painting, as it was regarded more as a 
trade than an art, of. Aristoph. Eccl. 99 ff. Plut. Per. 12 (X7;/tu9oup7oi). 
The largest potteries of Greece were at Coriath, Plin. XXXV, 151. 
Pind. 01. Xin, 24, and at Athens, as is proved by the name of the 
town-quarter Kepa/xetKos and express statements to that effect, Kritias 
ap. Athen. I, 28. Plin. XXXV, 155. VII, 198. Suid. s. v. KuXtaSos Kepa- 
//.■qes. Both towns carried on a trade with Etruria and Magna Graecia 

in painted earthenware. As regards Corinth, this is proved by a 
number of older vases with the Doric alphabet found in Sicily or Italy : 
the extensive trade of Athens, besides the account of Herodotus, V, 88, 
is proved by the numerous vases from Volci, Hadria, Sicily, Campania, 
Apulia, with Attic characters, word-forms, and subjects, and also by 
the Panathenaic prize vases found at Volci, Nola, and Cyrenaica. But 
there were also native manufactories in I%ly, where Greek vases could 
be executed under the direction of masters imported from Greece, 
PUn. XXXV, 152. 155 f. 

The Hellenic Race in its Prime. 









KerkyraeR.ns and Corinthians at Sybota, in which the Athenians also 
take part*'). 

The revolt of Potidsea from the Athenian alliance^). 

The war resolved on at Sparta**), and by the advice of Perikles at 
Athens also*^). 

82) Thuo. I, 45—55. The Eleans, Megarians, Leukadians, 
Amprakiotans and Anaktorian6 fought on the side of the Corinthians ; 
and the number of their ships amounted to 150, id. 46, whilst the 
Kerkyrffians had only 110 besides the 10 Athenian vessels, id. 47. The 
result of the battle was indecisive, and though the Corinthians had 
rather the advantage, they retired in fear of 20 more Athenian 
vessels, which just then appeared on the scene of action. It is 
rightly inferred from the inscription Corp. luscr. Att. I. n. 179, 
that the battle took place in 433, not 432 b. o. 

83) The Athenians demanded that the PotidsBans should dismiss 
the magisterial personages received from Corinth, their mother city, 
and pull down their walls : whereupon they, in connexion with the 
Chalkidians and Bottiseans, and confiding in the promise of support 
from the Corinthians and the rest of the Peloponnesians, revolted from 
Athens. The Athenians sent an army against the town, and after 
gaining a victory blockaded it by land and water. Thuc. I, 56 — 65. We 
stiU possess 3 epitaphs, each in two distiohs, on the Athenians who 
fell before Potidsea, see Corp. I. A. I. n. 442. — A third and further 
cause of the war was the exclusion of Megara from all harbours under 
the jurisdiction of Athens, which probably took place soon after the 
revolt of Megara in 445 b. c, see Thuc. I, 42. 67. 139. Plut. Per. 29— 
30. PrsBo. Gerend. Eeip. (o. 15) p. 812 D. Ar. Acharn. 515—556. 

84) The Corinthians caused the other allies of Sparta to send 
ambassadors with them to Sparta, with the object of bringing about 
the resolve to declare war against Athens. The war was first resolved 
upon by the Spartans, Thuc. I, 67—68. The resolution was then 

adopted by the majority of the allies in a congress held for the 
purpose, id. 119 — 125. Of the speeches, which were made at these 
meetings, those of the Corinthians, 68 — 71, 120 — 124, and of King 
Archidamus, 80 — 85, are especially instructive from the clear light, 
which they throw on the character of the Spartans and Athenians 
(see esp. c. 70) and on the circumstances of the time. " Less than a 
year " (Thuc. I, 25) had passed since the last meeting, when the war 
was openly begun with the invasion of Attica. During this time three 
embassies were sent to Athens, of which the first demanded the 
expulsion of the Alkmffionidse, the second the abolition of the 
Megarian psephism and the raising of the siege of Potidtea, the third 
the restoration of the independence of all Hellenic towns throughout 
the Athenian empire, Thuc. I, 126. 139. For the real reason, why the 
war was resolved upon by Sparta, see Thuc. I, 88 : ''Etpri^taavro di ol 
AaKeSaifwvioi. rds ffirovSas \e\v<r8ai xal ToKe/iriria elyai ou toctovtov rwv 
^vfifidxoJv Tretffd4vT€s Toh \6yois o<rov <l>o^ovfievoL rovs 'AdTjvaiovs f/.-q iirl 
fi€i^ov duvri6(ji<Ttv, opuivTes rairoXXd tt}^ ''EtWados tjStj vwoxdpta ovra, cf. id. 
23. For other accounts of the origin of the war, but very unhistorioal 
and altogether unworthy of Perikles, see Ephorus ap. Diod. XII, 
38 — 40. Plut. Per. 31—32. The Corinthians, .aSginetans, and 
Megarians, showed themselves the most vehement opponents of Athens 
and the most zealous instigators of the war, Thuc. I, 67. 

85) Thuc. I, 140—146 (Speech of Perikles, 140—144). The 
resolution runs (145) : iireKplvavro t^ inetvov yviiiiji KaB' tKajsTa, re lis 
^tf>pcure kclI to ^v/xiraVf ovdh KeXevo/xevoi iroi^treti', dUij dk Kara Tas 
^vvO-qKai ^Toifiot civaL diaXv^ffSai trepl twv iyK\7jfiaTWv ^ir ta-p Kal ofjioit}. 


431—338 B.C. 

First Section. The Peloponnesian war, 431 — 404 B. c. The evils, out of which the Peloponnesian war 
had arisen. — the jealousy cherished by Sparta and its allies of the power of Athens, and the hostile 
opposition of the aristocratic and democratic principle, which affected not merely the inner life of the 
Greek states, but also the mutual relations of individual states — grow in sharpness and intensity owing 
to the war, and develope results increasingly destructive. After a duration of 27 years the war is brought 
to a close; Athens is conquered and its glory destroyed, but at the same time the force and independence 
of the other Greek states is broken. 

- Second Section. Arrogance and humiliation of Sparta, 404 — 362 b. c. Sparta upholds the supremacy, 
which it had won in the Peloponnesian war, with severity and arbitrariness. A first attempt on the 
part of the other important Greek states to shake off the Spartan yoke (in the Corinthian war) is 
frustrated by Sparta's successful application for Persian support, by means of which it again reduces its 
foes to subjection. New severities and acts of violence, however, on the part of the Spartans lead to 
the uprising first of Thebes, then of Athens; in the Theban war, which was the sequel, the importance 
of Sparta is destroyed and an end made of its sovereignty even in the Pelopounese, not merely in the 
rest of Greece. For a short time Thebes under the leadership of Epameinondas wins the first place 
amongst the Greek states, but proves unable to maintain it. 

Third Section. The struggle with king Philip, to 338 B. c. Philip of Macedon utilises the weak- 
ness and dissensions of Greece, first to render the Greek towns on the Thrakian coast subject to his 
rule, with but weak and disorganised resistance from Athens ; and then, when thus strengthened, to 
bring Greece itself under his sway. When Philip's designs become more and more apparent, Athens, 
fired by the eloquence of Demosthenes, once more unites a considerable number of Greek states to do 
battle with him. But these last efforts end with the battle of Chseroneia, in which the independence 
and freedom of Greece were lost for ever. 

During the whole period literature and art are richly developed. After poetry has put forth in 
comedy the last of its branches, the golden era of prose follows, in which the most perfect master- 


pieces are produced in the province of philosophy, history, and oratory. In art, sculpture and architecture 
maintain themselves at the high excellence of the previous period ; for in both provinces, what is lost 
in power, is replaced by a greater refinement and technical perfection; at the same time painting attains 
a progressively higher development. 

Obs. Thuoydides ia the chief authority for the Peloponnesian war 
till towards the end of the year 411 B.C. Xenophon in his Hellenic 
Histories carries forward the narrative from this point up to the battle 
of Mantineia : and this writer, though of far less value than Thuoy- 
dides, and following a very narrow conception of history, ranks first 
amongst our authorities. Besides these, single supplementary notices 
and further details are derived from Plutarch (in the biographies of Peri- 
kles, Nikias, Alkibiades, Lysander, Artaxerxes, Agesilaus, andPelopidas), 
from Diodorus (Book XH — XV), and from passages in Aristophanes 
and the orators Andokides, Lysias, and Isokrates ; but in all cases great 
caution must be used with these vreiters, as Plutarch does not always 
proceed with the necessary criticism in the choice of his sources of 
information, and Diodorus makes use of his with great carelessness 

and superficiality, whilst Aristophanes and the orators only mention 
the events of the day on occasion, and, as a rule, colour them to suit 
their own immediate object. For isolated portions of history use must 
further be made of the Agesilaus, probably composed by Xenophon, 
which however for the most part only repeats the words of the Hel- 
lenic histories, with here and there small additions, and the excellent 
Anabasis of the same author. After the battle of Mantineia we are 
restricted solely to Diodorus and Plutarch's biographies of De- 
mosthenes and Phokion for a connected narrative ; but the more 
inadequate these sources of information, the more fortunate the 
chance that just at this very time contemporary orators, before all 
Demosthenes, supply rich and valuable materials to supplement the 



FouETH Period. 431—338 b. c. 


431— 404 B.C.' 



B. C. 




a) The Arohidamian war''), to the peace of Nikias, 
431— 421 B.C. 




The Thebans open the war in the spring with the surprise of Platsese*). 

The Peloponnesian allied army under the Spartan king Archidamus 
invades Attica'). The Athenians revenge themselves for the plundering 
of their territory by a naval expedition, in which they land and harass 
the coasts of the Peloponnese ; conquer Sollium and Astakus and win 

1) For the causes which occasioned the war see ohs. 79 — 85 of 
former period. For its extent and the forces which both sides 
brought to the combat our chief source of information is Thuo. U, 9. 
cf. Diod. Xn, 42. By these accounts the Spartans had on their side : 
the whole of the Pelopoimese, except Argos and Achaia, both of which 
remained neutral (but Pellene ranged itself with Sparta, and according 
to Aristoph. Pao. 475 Argos furnished mercenary troops to both 
parties), further Megara, Phokis, Lokris, Boeotia, Ampralda, Leukas, 
Anaktorium. Of these allied states Corinth, Megara, Sikyon, PeUene, 
Elis, Leukas, and Amprakia possessed ships of war. But in the force 
on the side of Sparta, as compared with that of Athens, on the whole 
the land troops were far the most preponderant factor, see Thuc. I, 80 : 
according to Pint. Per. 33 the army could be raised to 60,000 hophtes. 
However, it was hoped that the Greek towns in lower Italy and Sicily 
would in virtue of their relationship furnish money and ships, and that 
so a fleet of 500 vessels would be got together, Thuc. H, 7. Diod. XII, 
41. On the side of Athens there were in the character of ^ifi/jjixo^ • 
Chios and Lesbos, PlataesE, Naupaktus, the greater part of Akamania, 
Kerkyra, Zakynthus (and after a short time KephaUenia, see obs. 6), 
and the ThessaUan towns Larissa, Pharsalus, Krannon, Pyrasos, Gyrton, 
Pherse, for which see Thuc. II, 22 (for the difference between the posi- 
tion of Chios and Lesbos and the rest of the allies see Thuc. VI, 85. 
VII, 57) ; in the character of vtotcXcU : the towns on the Asiatic and 
ThraMan coasts of the ^gean sea, and all the islands as far as Krete, 
with the exception of Thera and Melos, which remained neutral. From 
these subject towns Athens drew a yearly tribute of 600 talents, Thuc. 
n, 13, which shortly before the peace of Nikias was raised to 1200 
talents, Andoc. De Pac. p. 24. § 9. ^sch. De Fals. Leg. p. 51. § 175. 
Plut. Arist. 24, and in place of which after 413 b.o. a duty was levied, 
Thuc. Vn, 28 : further 6000 talents were stored up in the treasury, 

Thuc.II, 13. The Athenian sea-force consisted of 300 triremes, its land- 
force of 13,000 hoplites, not counting the 16,000 hoplites who served for 
the defence of the Attic territory, Thuc. 1. c. cf. id. 31, and as regards 
the fleet see esp. m, 17. — ^For the feeling of Greece see Thuc. H, 8 : 
^ eSvoLa Trapci ttoKv eToiei Tuiv avSpujTrwv fiaWov is Tois AaKcdai/iovlovs, 
aWojs Te Kal irpoecTOVTwy, oti. 'EXXciSa iXevdepovffiv — outws op7^ cXxov 
ol irXelovs roirs ' Adtjvalovs, oi pi^v t^s apxv^ airoKvffTJvai povXofievot, oi d^ 
f^V apx^tStrt (po^ofufievot. II, 54: iireparrufft roh AaKeSaifioviois tqv 6eov 
el xf"l iroKep^Xv aveiXe kotH Kpdros iroXcpuivffL viKtjv lacaBoi Kal aiiTOS e^r) 
<rv\\-/i\j/effeai, cf. IV, 85. 

2) Such is the name given to this part of the war by Lysias (or 
Deinarchus ?), see Harpocr. s. v.'ApxtSafdos -iroXep^s. Thucydides calls 
it TrpuTos TToXc/nos, V, 20, 24, o BcKacrfis jroXe^uos, V, 35, and o irpwros 
iroXefios o Se/caenjs, V, 26. 

3) For the events of the first year, see Thuo. H, 1 — 46. Diod. XII, 
41—44. Plut. Per. 33— 34. 

4) Some 300 Thebans made themselves masters of Platasae, having 
been called in by an aristocratic faction, but were overpowered by the 
Plataeans and cut down, Thuc. II, 2—6. Diod. Xn, 41. The date is 
fixed by Thuc. id. 2 : Tiaaapa piv yap koI d^Ka (ttj kvinfivav al rpta- 
KovTovreis <nrovSai, at iyivovro /iera t^v Euj3o£a? oKwaiv ry 5^ TrifiiTTifi 
Kal S€KaT(p ^ret ^Tri ^pv(ridos iv "Apyei t6t€ irevrriKOVTa Svoiv 54ovTa iTTj 
lepufiivTIs Kal Alvqaiov itjmpov iv Sirdprii KaX llvSoSiipov h'l 5i5o p.'^vai 
ipXOVTOs ' AdTivalois, /iera t^c iv Hondalq. pudxiW f-V^ ^'^'''f ""^ ^i"" W' 
apx^^^^V — ■ 

5) Thuo. n, 10—23. Diod. XII, 42. Prior to the invasion, 
Archidamus sent another herald to Athens ; where however he was 
not admitted. As he left the Athenian territory, he cried out : fS 

The Incipient Decline. 









over Kephallenia to their alliance') : further they make descents on the 
territory of the Opuntian Lokrians'), expel the .ffiginetans from their 
island'), and in the autumn invade the territory of Megara'). 

The siege of Potideea is continued"). 




Second invasion of the Attic territory by the Peloponnesians"). 

Outbreak of the plague at Athens"). Naval expeditions of the 
Athenians"). Perikles is fined by the disheartened populace, and for 
a short time deprived of his ofi&ce as Strategus"). 

Fall of Potideea"). 

•q riixipa Tois "B\X»;ffi ixeyaKwv KaKuv &p^£C, Thuo. 1. 0. 12. The 
invasion then took place, on the eightieth day after the episode at 
Platffiffi, id. 19, and the army, containing two thirds of the contingents 
from the several states, id. 10, according to Plut. Per,, 33 60,000 strong, 
penetrated to Acharnse, 60 stadia from Athens, Thuc. 1. c. 19. 21. 
The inhabitants of Attica had transferred themselves and their goods 
for safety to Athens, id. 13 — 17 (cf. Arist. Eq. 789 : oIkovpt iv tois 
iri0aKvaun Kav yvTraplois Kal irvpyiSiois), and their cavalry, reinforced by 
the T^hesaalians, alone left the city to offer some resistance to the 
enemy, id. 22. 

6) Thuc. II, 23—25. 30. The Athenian fleet (100 vessels) was 
reinforced on this expedition by 50 Kerkyrsean ships, id. 25. 

7) Thuc. II, 26. They take Thronium, and defeat the Lokrians 
at Alope. During the course of the summer the island Atlante 
was occupied and fortified as a point of attack against the Lokrians, 
id. 32. 

8) Thuc. n, 27. 

9) Thuo. 11,31. The invasion of the Megarid territory is from this 
time forward repeated twice in every year, Thuc. IV. 66. cf. Plut. Per. 
30. Aristoph. Acharn. 762. Pac. 481. 

10) Thuc. n, 29.— At the close of the year came the funeral 
ceremony in honour of those who had fallen in the course of the 
year, and the funeral oration of Perikles, id. 34 — 36. 

11) Thuc. n, 47—70. Diod. XH, 45—47. Plut. Per. 34—37. 

12) Thuo. II, 47. 55 — 57. They penetrate to Laureium, id. 55, 
and lay waste the whole land during 40 days, id. 37. 

13) It broke out shortly after the invasion of the Peloponnesians, 
Thuc. II, 47, and raged first for the space of 2 years; then, after 
a short intermission, for the further space of one year, Thuc. m, 87. 
The famous description of the plague is in Thuc. II, 47 — 54. Ac- 
cording to Thuo. m, 87, it swept off 4400 hophtes, and a countless 
host of other persons besides, cf. Diod. XH, 68 ; of 4000 hoplites, who 
were sent under Hagnon against Potidtea (obs. 16), 1050 died in 40 
days alone, Thuc. II, 58. For its injurious effect on Athenian morals 
see especially id. 53 : HpuTOii re r/P^e ™1 h raXXa t^ ttoXci to vorrj/ia. 
ji^ov yap iroX/Jia Tts a irpoTepov aireKpvitTtTo /ly KaB' riSorfiv Troieu', 

ayxl<yTpotf>ov tt^v ^Ta^oKijV opuvTes twv t evSaipLovuv al^ytSidK 6vyj- 
iTKovTUv Kal Twv ouS^v TTpoTepov K€Kn)fiivuv, eidiis 8^ TaKeivav ix^^"^^^ ' 
(jjtTTe Taxeias Tcts iiravp^treLS Kal trpos to repTryov ^^iovv T0L€7iTdat, 
i</)7}fxepa Ta re ffufiara Kal Tct x^V/^ara dfwius •qyovfievot. — o Tt 5^ 
•^Si] re Tjdd Kal ravraxoBev is ajro Kepda\4ov, tovto Kal Ka\6p Kal 
X/nJfft/ioi' Karia-Tt}' dewv 5^ <f>6^os rj avOpwirui' vofios ovSeU aireipyeVf t6 
IMiv KplvovTes iv o/iolifi Kal ai^civ Kal iiTj (k tov ircWTas opav iv tffip ottoX- 
Xv^vovs, Ti2v 5^ a/iapTTjfiaTCov ovdels iXiri^i' fJ-^XP^ "^^^ SLkt^v yevitydax 
^iods av T7JV TifjLOjpiav avTidouyat., iro\u d^ fiel^ta ttjv TJdTj KaTeypTjtpiaf/^vtjv 
(r0wp iiTLKpep^affdTJvai, ijif irplv ifnreaeiv eUos elvat tov ^iov tl aTroXaCffai. 

14) WhUst the Peloponnesian army was stiU present in Attica, 
Perikles at the head of a squadron of 100 Athenian ships and 50 from 
Chios and Lesbos (carrying 300 cavalry on board kv vavalv lirwayuyols 
irpicTop TOTS €K TiHv TTaXattGy veup iroiTjBeio'aLs) made descents on the 
territory of Epidaurus, Trcezen, Halise, Hermione, and LakouifF 
(where he took and destroyed Prasise), Thuc. II, 56: in the following 
winter Phormio sails with 20 ships to the Krisssean gulf, to keep guard 
there, id. 69. (The Peloponnesians also made this year their first 
expedition by sea with 100 ships against Zakynthus, without any 
material success, id. 66.) 

15) Thuc. n, 59 — 65. The populace was so disheartened, that 
it actually sued for peace at Sparta id. 59. Its mood was so far 
changed by a speech of Perikles (id. 60 — 64), that it thought no more 
of seeking peace; notwithstanding Perikles was removed from his 
generalship and fined (according to Plut. Per. 35, 15 or 50, according 
to Diod. Xn, 45, 80 talents), id. 65. 

16) In the course of the summer a second fleet of 40 ships was 
despatched to Potidsea under Hagnon and Kleopompus, which how- 
ever performed but little, Thuc. II, 58 : in the following winter the 
town surrendered, id. 70. The inhabitants, who had been reduced to 
the greatest extremities (/cai iroi nves koI aWriXav kyiyivvTo, Thuc), 
were allowed to depart unmolested, whilst town and territory were 
allotted to Athenian colonists. (A remarkable event happened this 
year : the Spartans sent ambassadors, to conclude an alliance with 
the king of Persia; they feU into the hands of the Athenians and 
were by them put to death, Thuo. H, 67. cf. Herod. VH, 137.) 


Third Period. 431 — 338b.c. 


B. C. 







Platsese besieged by the Peloponnesians ") . Brilliant naval 
victories of Phormio"). 

Death of Perikles'"). 




Third invasion of Attic territory by the Peloponnesians"'). Lesbos, 
with the exception of Methymna, revolts from Athens: Mytilene is 
blockaded both by land and water by the Athenians^'). 




Death of King Archidamus; Agis his successor^). 

Fourth invasion of Attic territory by the Peloponnesians ''). 
Mytilene compelled to surrender to Athens^'), and severely punished'^. 

17) ThuB. n, 71—103. Diod. XH, 47—51. 

18) Thuc. H, 71 — -78. There were 480 men able to bear arms 
in the town, and only 110 women besides ; all other inhabitants, 
old men, children, the rest of the women, and slayes, had left the 
town, id. 78. The wearisome siege that ensued is the first, of which 
we have an accm-ate description, see esp. Thuc. m, 21. 

19) At the instance of the Amprakiots 1000 Lakedsemonians 
with large numbers of the allies invade Akamania, but are repulsed 
at Stratus, Thuc. n, 80 — 82. It was arranged that a fleet should 
sail from Corinth to Akamania to support the enterprise: twice 
it was repulsed (the first time it was 47, the second time 77 ships 
strong) by Phormio and his 20 ships (obs. 14) owing to the dis- 
tinguished bravery and skill of the Athenians, id. 83 — 92 : after which 
Phormio assures himself of Akamania anew by an expedition thither, 
id. 102. 

20) Thuc. n, 65 : ive^iu (rij) iroKiiuf) dvo erii /col l| fiijvas. The 
judgment of Thucydides upon him, id. ; offov re yap xpovov TrpovcTti ttjs 
TToXeus ev t-q elp^jV-Q^ fieTpiws e^-rjyetTO Kol cur^aXws 5ie^v\a^€V avTT)y, 
KoX kyivero kif exeivov fieyiiTTT] ' htrei re 6 7rdXe/ios KarioT-q, 6 d^ tpaivcrat 
Koi kv TovTi^ irpoyvoiis Trpf Svvafuv. — atrtof b' ijv ort eKeivos fjt^v Svvaros 
uv Tip T£ a^iufian Kol tj yvuifirj, xPVf^''''^ '''^ adapoTaros yevofievos 
KOretxe TO irX^flos e\ev84pui Kal ovk ^yeTo ^XXok vt avrov rj 
avTos rfyev, Sia to /irj KTii/ievos ef ov irpoirriKOVTiav Trpi Siva/uv vpos 
riSorfiv TL \4yav, oXX' Ix''"' f""' oI'Mff" <"»' ""/ws opynv Ti avTeiTeiv. 
oirore yow aicrOoiTo tl outou! Trapa Kaipov S^pei BapaovPTOS, Xiyav 
KaTiTr\qcr<Tev ivl to tpo^eurffai Kal dedwras av aXr)7itis iamKaBiffTTi iroKai 
firi TO Bap<Tciv. eylyfcTO re \6yif /liv SjinoKpaHa, tpyif Sk viro toS irpdrov 
dvSpos apxv' ^^ ^^ vffTepov taoi avrol fmKKov irpos dXXiJXoi/s o;'Tes Kal 
6pey6iievoi tou irp&ros exaaTos ylyveffffai eTpairovTO Kaff ■^Sovas tQ Srnitp 
Kol TO. ■Kpayp.aTa hSidovai.. In the last words reference is made to 
the so-caUed demagogues, and most of all to Kleon, who had already 
won influence about this time, and was coming more and more to the 
front, Plut. Per. 83. 35. (Aristophanes has sketched him for us, 
especially in the Knights, though it is a very exaggerated caricature ; 
see esp. 61. 809. 834. 960 ff. : the names of other demagogues are : 

before Kleon, Lysiiles d wpo^aTowdXris and Eukrates d o-TU7nr«oiruXr)S, 
id. 129 ft.: later than Kleon, Hyperbolus, Thuc. YIH, 73. Plut. Ale. 13. 
Nic. 11. Arist. Pac. 665 flE. 921. 1319, Lysikrates, id. Av. 513, Peisander, 
id. Lysistr. 490, Kleophon, obs. 129, etc.) 

21) Thuc. m, 1—25. Diod. XH, 52—53. 55—56. 

22) Thuc. in, 1. 

23) Thuc. Ill, 2—19. The Mytilenmans are first blockaded by 40 
ships under Kleippides, and then by 1000 hophtes under Paches by 
land as well. 

24) Thuc. in, 26—88. Diod. XD, 53—57. 

25) According to Diod. XI, 48. XH, 35 he reigned 42 years. The 
chief proof, that he died in this year, is the fact that the invasion of 
Attica in 428 was made under liis command, Thuc. m, 1 ; whilst in 
426 his son Agis, Thuc. Ill, 89, and in 427 Kleomenes, the guardian 
of Pausanias of the other royal house, was in command of the troops, 
Thuc. m, 26. The real king of the other house was Pleistoanax. 
But he was banished in 445 and not recalled till about 426. During 
his banishment his son Pausanias reigned, or rather, as he was a 
minor, his guardian Kleomenes, Thuc. n, 21. V, 16. 

26) Thuc. m, 26. 

27) Thuc. m, 27—28. The Peloponnesians, whose aid had been 
invoked by the MytUenseans, sent a fleet of 42 sail to their assistance 
under Alkidas, id. 26 : but it effected nothing owing to the hesitation 
and incapacity of its leader, id. 29 — 33. 

28) More than 1000 of the most eminent Lesbians were executed, 
the walls of Mytilene pulled down, their ships taken from them, and 
the landed possessions of aU the Lesbians, with the exception of the 
Methymnffians, conflscated to the Athenian people : the land was then 
distributed into 3000 lots, and cultivated by the Lesbians as tenants 
in flef, who had to pay a rent to their Athenian lords. A public 
decree was first passed, chiefly at the instigation of Kleon, actually 
condemning all the Mytilenaeans to death : on the next day, however, 
it was cancelled through the exertions of Diodotus. Thuc. m, 35—50. 

The Incipient Decline. 



B. C. 






Platseae taken and destroyed by the Peloponnesians''). 

Bloody faction-fights at Kerkyra'"). 

War between the Doric and Ionic towns in Sicily: to the aid of 
the latter the Athenians send a fleet of 20 ships under Laches and 




The Spart.a,nR found the colony Herakleia in Trachinia"). 

Naval expeditions of the Athenians under Nikias'*) and Demo- 
sthenes; the latter makes descents on the coasts of the Peloponnese 
and the island Leukadia, and, after an unsuccessful enterprise against 
iEtolia, inflicts a severe defeat on the Amprakiots and Spartans at 
Argos Amphilochikum°°). 

29) 212 of the besieged had escaped in the previous year, cKmbing 
over the enemy's works with great boldness in the night time, Thuo. 
in, 20 — 24. The scanty remnant, consisting of 225 men, surrendered 
in this year, after being promised a fair and equitable trial on the 
part of the LacedsBmonians ; notwithstanding, they were all executed, 
id. 52—68. 

30) This civil war is the prelude to similar bloody struggles in 
other Greek towns and for that reason is described in detail by 
Thuoydides, ID., 70 — 85. 82 : ovtus w/ii) ffraffis irpoix'!>P''l<'( xfi ISo^e 
fidWoy, 8iOTL ev rots Trptarr] eyepero, eirel vtyrepov ye Kal irdi' uy elireo' to 
^'EKKriVLKOv kKLvqdyi, 83 : Tratra IHa KariaTf] KaKorpoirias Sia ras ffTctcrets 
T<f 'EXXtj^'ikiJ; Kcd to evriffes, ov Tb yevvaiov wXeia-Tov /ner^x^'j KurayeXturBiv 
■^(pavlaBt). It was caused by the return of the Eerkyrteans, taken prisoners 
in the battles of 434 and 433 b.c, who during their stay at Corinth 
had been won over to the side of the Peloponnesian alliance and 
aristocratic- principles. It was they who raised the dispute and first 
shed blood, id. 70. The aristocrats had first of all the upper hand, 
id. 71, they attacked their opponents and conquered them in a battle, 
72 — 73 ; then the democrats were again victorious, 74. For a short 
time an arrangement was effected by the exertions of the Athenian 
Nikostratus, who arrived with a fleet of 12 ships, 75 ; a few days 
afterward the fleet of Alkidas also arrived (obs. 27), now 53 ships 
strong, whereby the democratic party was brought into great peril, 
76 — 80. Their superiority was, however, fully restored by a fresh 
Athenian fleet of 60 sail, and most of the aristocrats were now 
murdered, 80 — 81, with the exception of 500, who at first had taken 
refuge on the mainland, and who, when the Athenians retired, re- 
turned to the island, and entrenched themselves on the mountain 
Istone, from which they plundered and infested the neighbourhood, 85. 

31) On the one side was ranged Syracuse with all the Doric towns 
in the island, except Kamarina and Lokri in lower Italy : on the 
other side there were all the Chalkidian towns and Kamarina and 
Ehegium in lower Italy : the war had arisen from a feud between 

Syracuse and Leontini, Thuc. in, 86. The latter sent Gorgias to 
Athens to beg for assistance, Diod. Xn, 53. Paus. VI, 17, 6, and the 
Athenians granted the request t^s /liv oiKetoVip-os rpotpdaei, ^ovXofieyoi 
S^ firjTe fflTov is Triv neXoiropvijaov dyeffdiu aiTodev, irpoweipdy re Trotou- 
fievot el (T^iffi Suvarci. etij rd if Ty XtKeXiq. wpdy^aTa viroxelpt-a yeviaOat, 
Thuc. 1. e. Their enterprises in this year, id. 88, and also in the 
following year, id. 90. 99. 115, were of little importance. 

32) Thuc. m, 89—116. Diod. Xn, 58—60. The Peloponnesiane 
did not invade the Attic territory this year; for when they had 
already reached the Isthmus under the command of Agis, they were 
induced to return owing to an earthquake, Thuo. m, 89. Diod. Xn, 59. 

33) Thuc. ni, 92—93. Diod. Xn, 59. The colony was founded at 
the request of the Trachinians and Dorians (in Doris) as a protection 
against the neighbouring CEtseans : but at the same time it was hoped 
that the place would afford great advantages for the war, as the 
voyage from thence to Euboea, and even to the Thrakian coast, 
seemed to present no difficulties. However, this, the last of the 
Greek colonies, and also the first purely military colony, did not 
thrive, as it was continually attacked by the neighbouring iBnianians, 
Dolopians, Meliaus, and several Thessalian tribes, and it was badly 
governed, Thuc. 1. c. and V, 51. 52. According to Diodorus 1. c. the 
number of colonists at its foundation amounted to no fewer than 

34) Nikias first sailed with 60 ships to Melos, laid the islatil 
waste, then invaded the territory of Tanagra in Boeotia, defeated, in 
conjunction with an army sent from Athens, the Tanagrseans and the 
Thebans who had come to their aid, and lastly made descents on 
Lokris, Thuc. HI, 91. 

35) Thuc. m, 91. 94—98. 100—102. 105—114. The enterprise 
against .ffitoHa was undertaken at the instigation of the Messenians at 
Naupaktus, who told Demosthenes (Thuc. 94) : /liya fiiv etyai to rUr 
Mtw\wv Kai fjidxi-fJ'OVj oIkovv Si /card oreix^ffTovs, koX ratjTas 5td 
TToXXou, ^ai <rKeoy ^iX^ xP^f^^^^ ou XttXeTrov dW^aifoi' irplv ^vfi^oTjO-^acu 


Fourth Period. 431 — 338 b.c. 








Fiftih and last invasion of Attic territory by the Peloponnesians''). 

Reinforcements sent by Athens under Sophokles and Eurymedon 
to Sicily'*). On the voyage round the Peloponnese, Demosthenes, who 
accompanies the fleet, establishes himself at Pylos in Messenia™), 
maintains it against the assaults of the Spartan army and fleet*"), and 
upon the return of the Athenian- fleet, the Spartans are beaten at 
sea*') : a number of distinguished Spartiates are in consequence cut off 
in the island of Sphakteria, and after fruitless peace proposals, are 
either killed or taken prisoners by Kleou and Demosthenes*^). 

The faction struggles at Kerkyra ended by the extermination of 
the aristocrats"). 

KatcurTpcuprji/ai, iTixeipein S' iK4\evov irpurov fiiv 'AtoSiotois, lireira Si 
'0<f>toveva-Lt Kol fierd, tovtovs Eupvroo'ti', oirep fUyiGTOv fji^pos iffrl twv 
AItuXQv, ayvuffTOTCLTOL Si yKtJstyffav koX uifiotpdyoL elalv, ws \iyovTaL, 
However, it ended mth heavy loss and retreat on tlie part of the 
Athenians and Nanpaktians. Thuc. HE, 94 — 98. Hereupon the 
^tolians plucked up courage, and invited 3000 Peloponnesians to 
oome and conquer Naupaktus ; upon the failure of the attempt, at the 
demand of the Amprakiots they turned against Argos Amphilochikum, 
where they and the Amprakiots suffered a very bloody defeat from 
the inhabitants of Argos and the Akarnanians under the command of 
Demosthenes, Thuc. HI, 100—102. 105—114. 

36) Thuc. IV, 1—51. Diod. XH, 61— «3. 65. Plut. Nik. 6—8. 

37) Thuc. IV, 2. On account of the course of events at Pylos it 
lasted only 15 days, id. 6. And it was owing to the affair of Pylos, 
that the invasions of Attica were not repeated, as heretofore, obs. 42. 

38) After the petty results of the years 427 and 426 (obs. 31) 
the Athenians resolved, at the request of their SiciUan allies, to send 
40' fresh ships to Sicily, Thuc. HI, 115 : Siita p.iv Tiyoi/ievoi Saaaov tov 
iKa TToKeiiov KaraXvOritreaBai., a/xa Sk ^ovXafievoi p^XirTpi tou vavrCKoS 
TTBieureai. These set sail in the spring of 425, Thuc. IV, 2. For 
the further (but not important) events in Sicily up till the arrival of 
the Athenians, see Thuc. IV, 1. 24—25. 

. 39) Thuc. IV, 3 — 5. The situation of Pylos and the island 
Sphakteria, Thuc. id. 8 : i; vTJffos tj Z^a/cTijpia KoKovfiivr; tov re \ipL4va 
irapaTelvovaa koX iyyis emKeiiUini eX"?"" T^oiei Koi roils l<rT\ovs ffrecous, 
T J liiii Svoiy vediv Si&tKow Kwrb, to relx^ffpLa tuv 'AOijvalwp Kal Tijv IliXov, 
t5 Si TTpo! Trf aSXTiv fiweipov oktw ij hvia, iXusS-qs re Kal dr/ji/3^s Troiro 
vir eprjfdas ijK Kol /liyeSoi irepl TevTeKalSeKo, (rraSlovs pAKiffra. When 
the rest of the fleet continued its voyage, Demosthenes remained 
behind with 5 ships at Pylos, id. 5. 

40) Thuc. IV, 6. 8—12. 

41) Thuc. IV, 13—14. 

42) A detachment of the Spartan army had been landed on the 
island, to maintain it against the Athenians, Thuc. IV, 8, and was 
now cut off by the victory of the Athenian fleet, which had left the latter 
masters of the sea, id. 14. 15. There were 420 hoplites, and amongst 
them many of the foremost Spartiates, id. V, 15 : fiaav yap ol "Lirap- 
Tiarai avTUJf trp&Tol re Kal ofioiws c<j>ltTi. ^vyyevels. In order to rescue 
their beleaguered citizens, the Spartans endeavoured to conclude a 
peace ; but this was frustrated, chiefly through Kleon, id. IV, 16—23. 
Kleon, that is {avTip Srifjuyiayos Kar eKeivov tov xpwoj' uv Kal tQ irXij^et 
TiBaviiraTos, id. 21), misled the people to demand the restoration of 
Nisaea, PagsB, Troezen, and Achaia, as the price of the peace, id. 21. 
cf. Aristoph. Equit. v. 801 : iva /xSXXov | aii (KWu;/) /iiy dpvrofTjs xal 
SapoSoK-^s vapb. ti2v irdXeux, o Si S-^/ws \ iiro tov ToXi/xou Kal rijs ipixXri^ 
& iravovpyels p.'fi Kadop^ irov, id. v. 864. Pac. 669 : o rous yap ij/taw ^v 
TOT kv Tofs aKiTeaiv. When the capture of the beleaguered Spartans 
was delayed, Kleon insisted upon greater efforts being made to attain 
this end ; he was chosen commander by the populace in a flt of wanton- 
ness, but actually succeeded by the help of Demosthenes in bringing the 
undertaking to a prosperous issue : in an attack upon the island a part 
of the 420 hoplites were killed, the rest, 292 men, amongst them 120 
Spartiates, were taken prisoners and carried to Athens, where they 
were retained as security for the peace, and security against the 
repetition of the invasions, which had been hitherto made into the 
Attic territory, Thuc. IV, 26—41. Pint. Nic. 7—8. cf. Arist. Equit. 
64 (said by Demosthenes of Kleon) : koI irpi^v y e/wv \ pJa^av liepaxiTos 
kv mXif AaKUViKrjv | TravovpyoTari was trepiSpap.av iipapiriffas | ambs 
irapiBriKe t7)v iv efwv p.eixayp.ivriv. A garrison was then posted at 
Pylos itself, chiefly composed of Messenians from Naupaktus, who 
inflicted great damage on the Spartans by their raids and the shelter 
they afforded to runaway Helots, Thuc. IV, 41. 

43) Thuc. rv, 2. 44—46. This was accompUshed with the help of 
the Athenian fleet, when it continued its voyage from Pylos to Sicily 
by way of Kerkyra. 

The Incipient Decline. 









The Athenians make hostile landings on the Corinthian territory"^ 
establish themselves on Methone^'), and take Anaktorium^}. 




Nikias takes Kythera, and, making it his head-quarters, plunders 
the Lakonian coast and other parts of the Peloponnese**). 

In Sicily peace is established by the reconciliation of the 
belligerents; the Athenians return home from thence*'). 

Nisffia taken by the Athenians'"). 

The fortunes of Athens at their culminating point; despondency of 
Sparta ='). 

Brasidas marches to the Thrakian coast*''), and there brings about 
the revolt of most of the towns on the Chalkidic peninsula from the 
Athenian alliance^). 

The Athenians in an invasion of BcBotia totally defeated at 

U) Thuo. IV, 42—45. 

45) Thuo. IV, 45. 

46) Thuc. IV, 49. 

47) Thuo. IV, 52—116. Diod. XII, 66—70. 

48) Thuo. IV, 53 — 54. The enterprise was oonduoted by Nikias 
and Nikostratus and was of great importauoe, as by it the Athenians 
gained a second station from which they could harass Laconia and 
the rest of the Peloponnese, id. 54 — 57. Starting from this point, 
they also landed in Kynuria, conquered Thyrea, and took prisoners 
the ^ginetans, who had found a refuge there after their expulsion 
from .Slgina (obs. 8), and were now all put to death, id. 56 — 57. 

49) Thuo. IV, 58—65. The settlement was effected chiefly at the 
instigation of the Syraonsan Hermokrates, id. 58, to the great chagrin 
of the Athenians, id. 65. 

50) Thuo. IV, 66 — 69. They would also have taken Megara, had 
not Brasidas been in the neighbourhood and prevented it, id. 70 — 74. 

51) See esp. Thuc. IV, 55 : yey^vrmivov /ih tov kwl t§ yQ<rif wdSovs 
aveXtrlaTov Kal fieyiXov, IliXov S' exofi^yris Kal 'KvBripav nal TravTaxoBev 
iripas TrepKarai-os iroKiiiov rax^os Kai wirpo^vXdKTov, wVre irapA, to elaSos 
lirwias TerpoKOiriovs KOreirrfiiraVTO koX ro^oras, h re Ttt TroV/M/ti elirep 
irori lidXiara dii iKVT)poTepoi eyivovTo, imeirrwTes iraph, rrpi vTdpxovffav 
(Ttpaii ISiav rrp wapaaKevrJ! vavTiKip dyuvi Kal tovto vpos 'Adrivalovs, 
oTs TO yttTJ iTn.xeipoiii.ivov ael iXKiirh Tjv ttjs SoK^trei^s n irpa^eiv, koI a/ia 
Ti TTJs TiJxi)S jro\X4 Kal ev oXlyip ^ufi^dvr'a wapd, \6yov aurois IktcXtj^iv 
jxeyltTT-qv Trapelxcv- 

52) The expedition was undertaken at the invitation of the 
ChaUddians and Perdikkas, king of Macedonia, Thuo. IV, 79. (Per- 
dikkas is the first Macedonian king that exercises any influence 


on the affairs of Greece. Before the Peloponuesian war he was in 
alliance with the Athenians, but then became hostile to them ; and 
after that sided, now with the Athenians, now with their opponents, 
Thuo. I, 56—63. H, 29. 80. 95—101. IV, 79: iroXi/i-ioi piv om av 
CK TOV (pavepov, tpo^ovpevos 5^ koX avTbs Tb, iraKaid Sidipopa tQiv ' A$T]vaiii)v .) 
For the object of the expedition see Thuc. IV, 80; twv ydp 'Adrivalwv 
eyKetpi4if(i}F rij Jl€\oTovvri(rci) Kal ovx TJKLiTTa ttj iKeivwv 77} rikirt^ov diroffrp^- 
^ai airroiss fidXiaTa, el avTnrapaXvToiev Tr^jtt^acTes ewl Toits ^vppdxovs 
avTuv (TTpaTiaVj aXXojs re Kal h-oip.(x}p ovtuv rpifpeiv re Kal eirl airoffTdaei 
a-^as kiriKa\o\)p.ivav, ef. id. 81. With great boldness Brasidas led the 
expedition by land ; he was at the head of 1700 hophtes, of whom 700 
were Helots (afterwards manumitted, Thuc. V, 84), Thuc. IV, 78 — 80. 

53) The first to revolt were Akanthus and Stageirus, Thuc. IV, 
84 — 88 ; then in the winter AmphipoHs, id. 102 — 106 ; next Torone 
and other towns. (The historian Thucydides, who was stationed 
at Thasos with a small fleet, hurried up to the support of AmphipoUs, 
but was only able to save Eiou, id. 107 ; and was on this account 
banishei, id. V, 26 ; 'o; the importance of Amp'iipolis, see id. IV, 108.) 
For the feeling of the towns see Thuo. IV, 108; al ir'oXus — al tuv 
'Adrjvaiojv vtt-^kool — /zoXurra 5^ eirTipBTjffav cs to veoyrepii^eLV Kal eireKri- 
pvKevovTO irpbs avTov Kpv^a^ ewtTapt^vai re KeXevovTes Kal ^ovX6p.evot 
avTol ^KoiTToi irpGroi. aTrotrrijcat, for Brasidas, id. 81 : t6 yap irapavrlKa 
iainov irapaax'^ SUaiov Kal p.iTpiov es Tds ttoXcls diri(TrT)a'e rb. iroXXd, 
108 : Kal iv toIs Xoyois iravraxov eSijXou lis hXevBepuiTmi t^v "EXXdSa. 

54) The invasion of Boeotia was part of a concerted plan for the 
reduction of Boeotia ; Demosthenes was to make his way into the 
country from Siphse on the Corinthian gulf, whilst Hippokrates 
invaded it by way of Oropus. Both reckoned on the support of a 
democratic party devoted to Athens. But Demosthenes began tlie 



Fourth Period. 431 — 338 b. c. 










Armistice between Sparta and Athens for a 
year™). But the war is continued on the Thrakian 
coast, where the Athenians again make some pro- 




The Boeotians wrest Panaktum from Athens™). 

Kleon is sent to Thrake and fights the battle 
of Amphipolis with Brasidas ; the Athenians are 
defeated: Kleon and Brasidas fall™). 




Peace of Nikias®*). 

b) The period of a half peace between Sparta and Athens with 
the continuance of hostilities between the rest of the Greek states 
up to the open breach of the treaty stipulations and the end of 
the Siciliau expedition, 421— 413«3). 



Discontent of the Spartan allies at the peace. 

The Comic 
Poets Eupolis"), 

enterprise too soon, and as simultaneous action on the part of both 
was thus rendered impossible, Demosthenes was foiled at Sipha and 
Hippokrates suffered a severe defeat, in which nearly 1000 hophtes fell. 
Thuc. IV, 76—77. 89—101. For the part taken by Sokrates. and 
Alkibiades in the battle see Plat. Apol. Sokr. p. 28 e. Lach. p. 181 b, 
Symp. p. 221 a. b. Plut. Ale. 7. Strab. p. 403. 

55) Thuc. IV, 117—135. Diod. Xn, 72. 

56) Thuc. IV, 117—119. Both parties were inclined for it; 
the Athenians, in order to check the advances of Brasidas ; the 
Spartans, in order to recover their prisoners by a peace to be con- 
cluded in continuation of the armistice, id. 117. The conditions were, 
that both parties should retain what they held on the conclusion 
of the armistice, id. 118. But as Brasidas refused to restore Skione, 
which had gone over to him two days after the armistice had been 
concluded, id. 122, the war was stiU carried on on the Thrakian coast : 
at home peace was preserved tOl after the expiration of the armistice 
id. 134. 

57) The result of the enterprise, which was conducted by Nikias 
and Nikostratus, was that Mende, which had followed Skione and 
gone over to the enemy, Thuc. IV, 123, was reconquered and Skione 
blockaded, Thuc. IV, 129—131. 

58) Thuc. V, 1—13. Diod. XH, 73—74. 

59) Thuc. V, 3. 

60) Thuc. V, 2—3. 6—11. 

61) Thuc. V, 13—38. Diod. XII, 74—76. 

62) Thuc. V, 14—20. The peace was concluded on the 24th of 
Elaphebolion ('E\a05)/3oXiu!'os /jijpds ferg (pBivovros), Thuc. V, 19, of. id. 
20 : ttyua TipL CK ^ov\j<tIu>v eudvs rQv cuttlkiov, aiirodeKa erwv dieXdoprwy 
Kol Ti/j.epQy 6\iyav wapei/eyKova-uv -ij us to irp&rop ^ lirjSoXi) es t^x 
'Attiktiv Kal 97 apx'7 '''''" T'oKip.ov roCSe ey^ero, i.e. about the end of 
March. Nikias and Pleistoanax were especially active in promoting 
the peace, id. 16 ; the chief incentives were on the side of the 
Athenians, the disastrous battles of DeHum and Amphipolis and 
the apprehension that the revolt of the allies would spread stiU 
further ; on the side of the Spartans, the prisoners taken at Pylos, 
the hostile stations at Pylos and Kythera, further the treaty with 
Argos now at the point of expiration, id. 14—16. An additional 
motive at Athens was the financial exhaustion; for they had not 
only consumed the treasure of 6000 talents (obs. 1), all except the 
reserve fund of 1000 talents (for which see obs. 103), but had also 
borrowed considerable sums from the temples, Corp. Inscr. Gr. I. 
n. 76. The sum and substance of the convention, communicated 
to us by Thucydides, id. 18, was that both parties should restore what 
they had won in the war, that is aU prisoners and aU conquered 
places. Accordingly Pylos and Kythera were to be given up by the 
Athenians, Panaktum, Amphipolis and the rest of the Thrakian towns 
by their enemies. Nisaea was to be left to Athens (in compensation 
for PlatsBffi), id. 17. AU allies of both parties were to be independent. 

63) Thuc. V, 25 : f| (eTrri? id. VI, 105) ^tt; ijJkv koX dha M^m 
airiaxovTO ixtj e-wl Trjii iKaripav yijv (TTpaTiOaai, l^uBev Si ner okokux^s 
ov ^e^alov l/SXairroj dXXijXous t4 imKiara- liretra idvTO(.—aS0i.s h wiAep-ov 
<t>a.vep6p KaridTriaav, id. V, 26 : Tiij- Sta ii,iaov ^ippaffiv d tis iiij djiiitra 
TToKeixov vojil^eiv, ovk opdQs SiKouucret. 

a) EupoUs, named with Eratinus and Aristophanes as the most 
important poet of the old comedy, born at Athens in 446, came 
forward with his first comedy in 429, and met with his death before the 

end of the Peloponnesian war, probably in a sea-fight, Suid. s. v. Anon. 
nepi Ka/i. Bergk. Prol. Com. Ill, 1. VIII, 24. The titles of 14 of 
his comedies have been handed down to us with certainty ; those, from 

The Incipient Decline, 








especially of the Boeotians, Corinthians, and Megarians, 
and their refusal to accede to it^^J. 


64) The Boeotians were discontented, because they had to give up 
Panaktum, the Megarians because they were not to recover Nisaea, 
Thuo. V, 17. 20, the Corintliians, because SolUum and Anaktorium 

were withheld from them, id. 30, and the Eleans, because tliey had to 
grant the Lepreatans their independence again, id. 31. 

which the most important fragments are preserved, are: "Ac-TpaToi ij 
'AvSpoyvvoi, Mein. Fr. Com. Grffio. Eup. fr. 1, Aij/ioi, fr. 2. 3. 15, 
E'AwTes, fr. B, KoXa/ces, fr. 1. 10. 11. 18, Mapwas, fr. 5. 6, ndXeis, fr. 7. 
8. 10, Xpvcody yhoi, fr. 1 — 3. His political comedy was full of bitter 
personal sallies, as the fragments testify. Thus, for example, he 
attacks Kleon, Chrys. Gen. fr. 1 — 4. Inc. fab. fr. 10 : "KXiav ILpofi-qBevs 
iaTi uera ra Trpi-yfiara, the demagogue Hyperbolus in the Marikas, 
Quint. I, 10, 18. Hesyoh. v. 'lepeus Aioricrov, the poltroon Peisander, 
Astrat. fr. 1. Marik. fr. 6. Schol. Aristop. Av. 1556, the debauchee 
KaUias, Kol. fr. 5. Schol. Aristoph. Av. 284, Alkibiades on account of 
his loose living, Kol. fr. 18, and in the BairTat, Ilepl Kap,. VIII, 24, and 
even Nildas on account of his weakness towards sycophants, Marik. fr. 
5, and Kimon on account of his Spartan sympathies, Pol. fr. 10, 
although elsewhere he recognises the merits of the two last. Platonius 
says of the genius of Eupohs, llcpl Aia0. Xap. II, 2 : BuxoXis di 
evipavraaros p.kv els inrep^oXriv iari Kara Tcts VTrod^a€Ls...uiaTrep S^ kariv 
vy^rjXos, ouruj Kal iirixapLS Kal irepl ra aKtoppLara \lav evtrroxos. 

b) Aristophanes, an Athenian of the phyle Pandionis and the deme 
Kydathenffium, son of PhUippus, flourished ou-c. 427 — 388, Vit. 
Aristophan. ILepl Kup. Ill, 12. Bergk. Prol. de Com. We know 
neither the year of his birth nor of his death, and of the circumstances 
of his life Uttle more than is disclosed by the production of his 
comedies. The young poet had his first play brought upon the stage 
in the name of the actor KalUstratus ; this was the Aoit-oX-^s, Aristoph. 
Nub. 524. Schol., with which he won the second prize. Early in 426, 
during the presence of many ambassadors from the allies at Athens, he 
produced his Ba/Si/Xiixioi in which he ridiculed the election of officials 
by lot and by show of hands, and first attacked Eleon. He was there- 
upon accused by the wrathful Kleon of Ubel and underhand acquisition 
of civic rights, but acquitted, Acharn. 377. Schol. 502. Schol. 632. In 
425 he won the first prize in competition with Eratinus and EnpoHs 
with the 'AxapvTjs, Argum. Acharn., in which he recommends peace 
and covers the war-loving Lamaohus with ridicule, v. 566 f. : 'lu Aa/xax', 
u pkiirav cuxTpaTTos, \ ...c3 yopyo\6<f>a, and also Perikles, as the 
originator of the war, v. 530 f. : 'EprevOev opy-y IIepikX^tjs ovKvpTnos | 
TiarpaiTT, i^povra, ^vveKma rrjv 'EXXaSa, and Aspasia, v. 527. In 424 
he conquered Kratinus and Aristomenes with the 'Itttt^s, Argum. Eq. 
II. Eq. 793, in which he lashes Kleon's demagogy, v. 310 : T^j/' ivoKtv 
airaaav Tip-Qv dpareTvp^aKios, | ooTis -rjp.uv ras 'ABrjvas iKKeKUKp-qicas 
(Sou)', V. 795: T^v elpTjvTjy i^effKiSairas, ras wpea-^das r aTreXaweis, 
V. 892 : ^vpa-Tis Kana-Tov ofui', cf. v. 75 f. 802 f., and Kleon's assistant 
Hyperbolus, v. 1304 ; 'AvSpa iioxStipov TrokWriv, o^hrjv 'tirip^oXov, cf. v. 
978. Eupohs travestied and distorted the play, when he brought 
Hyperbolus on the stage in his Marikas, Nub. 551 — 556. Schol. The 
Ne0Aoi, in 423 B. c, found little applause, for Kratinus won the first, 
and Ameipsias the second prize, Argum. Nub. V. Schol. Nub. 549. 552. 

Schol. Vesp. 1033. 1039; it is a satire on the groundless and straw- 
sphtting subleties of the Sophists, v. 360: peTeiopo<To^i(XTuv, v. 401: 
/j.(pipii'o<ppovnTTai, V. 103 : tous dXa^ovas, and also on the dialectics and 
the supposed atheism of Sokrates, v. 359: XeTrTordruj' X^puv UpeS, 
V. 104: KaKoSaip.iiJv Sw/cparT/s, v. 1477: i^^jSaWov tous deovs 5ta 
'ZuKpaTriv , V. 247. 365. 367, who is brought on the stage as the repre- 
sentative of the whole movement, v. 103 f. When the piece was altered 
and produced a second time, it was still unsuccessful, Argum. Nub. V. 
In 422 the poet won the second prize with the 20^/ces, Arg. Vesp., in 
which he laughs at the litigiousness of the Athenians, v. 505: 'OpBpo- 
(poiToffvKQipaprodiKOTdKanruipwv Tpdiriov, v. 1108, and their represen- 
tative Kleon, V. 595 f. : o KX^uj' 6 KeKpa^iddpias, v. 342 : AtjpoXojokX^iiiv, 
cf, V. 62.409. 758. 1224 f. 1285, f. After the death of Brasidas and 
Kleon in the battle of Amphipolis the poet (iu 421) in his comedy 
Elprivij, with which he won the second prize, recommended the 
peace just inaugurated, Argum. Pac. 11, and attacked the heads 
of the war party; thus Perikles, v. 608: JIplv Traffeif n Seimv 
ourds i^^cfiXe^e rfjv ttoXlv, j ip^aXwv ffinvSrjpa ptKpov McyapLKOv ^Tj^irr- 
lUaTos I €^e(j>i<rri<r€>' touovtov iroXepoi', Pheidias, v. 605, Lamachus, v. 
303 : 'MpL^pa yap e^iXap^ev TJde puro\dpi.axos, v. 473 f., Kleon, v. 48. 270 : 
*0 ^uptroTTOjXTjs OS EKUKa TTJv 'EXXdSa, V. 652 f. ; iravovpyos ijv or ^^-q \ Kal 
XoXos Kal ffvKoipdvrTjs | Kal KVKTjBpov Kal rdpaKrpov, v. 753 f., and 
Hyperbolus, v. 680 f. 921. 1319. The next play of the poet preserved 
to us is the 'OpviBes, which won the second prize on its production in 
414, during the Sicilian expedition, Argum. Av. H. Schol. Av. 998. 
Prompted by the venturesome enterprise against Syracuse, he 
represents in the foundation of Cloud-cuckoo-town, TS€<j>eXoKOKKvyla, 
V. 551 f. 819 f., and the bird-repubhc the high-soaring bubble-enter- 
prise of Athenian policy and the immoderate arrogance of the 
demagogy, v. 1284 : 'OpviBopavovin, iravra 5' viro rrjs rjiovfis woLova-iv, 
V. 1289 : EZr ajrev^povr hvravda rd ^-rj^iapara ' | wpptdopdvovv 5' ouVw 
irepiipavas etc., and ridioiiles the demagogues Kleonymus, v. 289. 1470 f., 
and Peisander, v. 1556. The Avtriarparri was produced shortly after 
the disastrous issue of the war in Sicily and the fall of the democratic 
constitution in 411, Schol. Lys. 173. 1096, in which the poet again 
recommends peace, v. 1266 : cue S' av | 0iX(a t atis emropos etr) | rats 
(TuvdriKais, \ Kal ray alpvXdv dXuir^KOjv \ •iravaaip,eda. The Q€crp,o(popL6r 
foi/irai, produced in the same year, Thesm. 1060, exposes the corrupt 
morahty of the Athenian women, and ridicules the poetry of Euripides 
and Agathon, v. 29 f. In the Bdrpaxoi, with which the poet won the 
first prize, Argum. Ran. I, in 405, he parodies the poetry of ^Eschylus 
and Euripides, v. 814 f., and gives the older poet the preference. The 
'BKKXi](ndl^ov(Tai, produced in 392, Schol. Eccl. 193, is a satire upon a 
democratical state with community of goods and women, v. 590 f. 
613 f. The poet's last play is the second nXouTos, produced in 388, 
Arg. Plut. HI, in which the god of wealth recovers his sight and from 



Fourth Period. 431 — 338 b.o. 







Fifty years alliance between Sparta and 

Alliance between Corinth, Argos, Mantineia, 
Elis, and the Chalkidic towns in Thrake""}. 

The Philosophers Leukippus"), 
Demokritus'^). The Sophists^) Pro- 

63) Thuc. V, 22 — 24 : aSni ■q ^v/i/iaxia eyhero lUera rds ffirovSas ou 
TToXXtp vtrTepaif. 

66) Thuc. V, 27—31. The discontent of Sparta's allies was 
intensified by the stipulation contained in the treaty between Sparta 
and Athens : "^v tl Sqk^ AaKedaLfiovloLs koI 'A8i}vcdoLS irpoadeiviu koX 
afpeXeiv Trepi t^s ^u/i/iax^as, o rt ay Sok'q^ evopKov afiiporipois elvaL, id. 23. 

29. In general /card t6v xP^^^^ tovtqv tj re AaKedatfUtW fioKiffra Sr/ 
KaK(2s '^Kovtre Kal virepujipdTj 5id tos ^v/xtpopas, id. 26 : consequently 
ol iroWol apfiTjVTO- irpos toOs 'Apyelovs Kal avTol eKOffroi ^vp,p^x^ 
TTOLetcrBai, id. However, Tegea could not be induced to join the 
alliance, and Thebes and Megara still observed for the time a waiting 
policy, id. 81. 

this time forwards distributes his bounties to the deserving. Besides 
these plays of Aristophanes preserved in a perfect state, short 
fragments from some 30 dramas are extant, the most important being 
from the Ba^uXwuoi, Mein. fr. 1. 17, Feuipyol, fr. 1. 13, AairoKTJs, fr. 16, 
6ecr|iio0opidfou<rai Sevrepcu, fr. 3. 6. 15. When Dionysius of Syracuse 
wished to become acquainted with the Athenian state, it is said that 
Plato sent him the comedies of Aristophanes and declared them the 
truest mirror of the life of state and people at Athens, Vit. Arist. 9. 
Plato was also the reputed author of the epigram, Thom. Mag. 
Vit. Arist, 5 : At Xaptres r^^evos rt Xajie^v oirep ovx^ Trecre'LTCu \ ^TjToverai 
fvxv evpov 'Apio-To^dKous. Cf . Antipater Thessal. Anth. Pal. IX, 186 : 
'fl Koi dvfiov apiare, Kal 'EWdSos TJd€<nv lo'a | KoifUK^ Kal trrv^as d^ia Kal 
ye\w7as. The most prominent contemporary poets of the older 
comedy are : Phryniohus, Aristoph. Nub. 548. Schol. Ban. 13. Suid. v. 
Uepl Ku|U. III. Bergk. Prol. de Com., who won the second prize with 
his play MoOo-ai, when Aristophanes conquered with the Frogs, Argum. 
Ban. I. Fragments of 10 of his comedies have come down to us, 
especially 'E0iri\T9;s, Mein. fr. 1, MovoTpoTros, fr. 1. 4, MoCo-ai, fr. 1. cf. 
Inc. fab. fr. 1. 3; Plato of Athens, Suid. s. v. Diog. Laert. Ill, 109. 
Cyrill. adv. lul. I, p. IB. 6, an excellent comic poet. Fragments are 
preserved of nearly thirty of his comedies, thus in particular : 'BXXds 
17 vrjaoi, fr. 1, Zeus KaKoufievoSf fr. 1. 5. 6, AaKc^ves rj iroiTjral, fr. 1, 
Uclffavdpos, fr. 2, 2o0UTTat, fr. 1. 3, 'Ttt^p/SoXos, fr. 1. 2. 3, iaMV, fr. 1. 2. 
Altogether, fragments are preserved of some 40 poets of the older 
comedy; besides those mentioned, the most numerous from Tele- 
kleides, Hermippus, Ameipsias, Archippus, Strattis, Theopompus, etc. 
Cf. Mein. Fragm. Com. Grseo. 

c) LeuHppus, reputed a pupil of Eleatio philosophers, Diog. Laert. 
IX, 30 f. Tzetz. Chil. n, 90, cf. Arist. De Gener. et Corr. I, 8, was the 
founder of the atomic system, according to which the world was a 
concretion of an infinite number of indivisible and qualitatively simOar 
atomic bodies, Diog. L. 1. c. : Trpwros re arSfiovs cipxas uiretTT'^o'aTo, Cic. De 
Nat. D. I, 24. Acad. IV, 37. He wrote X6701 and Trepi vov, Stob. Eel. 
Phys. I. p. 160. 

d) DemokrituB of Abdera, born circ. 460, is said to have lived to the 
age of 109 years, Diog. L. IX, 34. 41. 43. He spent his property on 
extensive travels to Babylon, Persia, and the Red Sea, Egypt, and 
Meroe, also to Greece, where he visited Athens, 1. c. 35. 36. 49. Strab. 
p. 703. He deposited the rich treasure of the knowledge he had 

amassed in numerous writings, composed in the Ionic dialect, which 
handled materials in every branch of science; in Ethics, physics, 
mechanics, mathematics, astronomy, medicine, grammar, philosophy 
of language, geography, military science, jurisprudence, music, poetry 
and painting, as is proved by the register of his works in Diogenes 
Laertius, IX, 45 — 49. He perfected the atomic system of Leukippus, 
1. c. 44 f. Of his writings only scanty fragments are extant ; but 
Cicero praises his style, Or. 20. De Divin. H, 64. De Orat. I, 11. 

e) The Sophists, leaving the track of former philosophers, do not 
occupy themselves with nature and theoretical science as such ; they 
profess to be teachers of virtue, i. e. of practical wisdom in matters of 
state and private life, and of oratory ; but, as their teaching has no 
positive character, they apply themselves to merely formal education and 
often take their chief task to be mere declamation about the subjects 
dealt with. They travelled round the Greek towns, where they dehvered 
lectures and imparted instruction for money, and they exercised 
considerable influence on their time. Plut. Soph. 218 o.f. 234 e. s. 
261 A. F. Phasdr. 267 a. Prot. 310 d. 315 A. Rep. X, 600 e. Aristot. 
Metaph. IV, 2. Soph. Elenoh. I, 2 : lo-n yap 6 <ro(pL<rTrls XF'II"'-''''-'''''^^ <•"■" 
Kpaivoiiivqi (TO(f)las, dXX' ovk omr)!, Plut. Them. 2 : r-qv KoKoviiAvqv ffoijiav, 
ova'av d^ ireivoT-qra 7roXtrt/cT)y Kal dpao'Tripiov crvveiriv, 

f) Protagoras of Abdera, an elder contemporary of Sokrates, born 
circ. 485, Diog. L. IX, 50. 56. Plat. Prot. 309 c. 320 c. 361 E, for 10 
years went the round of the Greek towns (from about 455 b. c. onwards) 
teaching for money, Plat. Prot. 310 e. 349 A. Hipp. Mai. 282 B. Athen. 
V, p. 218 B. c. XI, p. 506 A. Diog. L. IX, 52, and in particular was the 
first to discuss disputed questions conversationally, Suid. s. v., as he 
was also the first to receive the epithet o-o^iittijs. Plat. Prot. 349 A. He 
was in close intercourse with Perikles, Plut. Per. 26. Cons, ad ApoU. 
p. 450, and was employed as legislator at Thm-ii, Diog. Laert. IX, 50. 
On account of his verdict : Ilepi /iji/ deav ovk Jx" elSirai, eW us eicrfo 
eW' ws OVK dalv, his books were publicly burnt, and he was himself 
banished from Athens as a denier of god, Diog. L. IX, 51. 52. Suid. s. v., 
and perished on the voyage to Sicily, being 70 years old at the least, 
Diog. L. IX, 55. Out of his numerous writings of a dialectical, ethical, 
and political character, 1. u., only a few doctrines are preserved: thus 
his chief doctrine, Plat. Theset. 152 a: woa/tuv x/"//^'''"'' f^rpov 
avdpuTTov elvai, cf. Cratyl. 385 E. Aristot. Metaph. IV, 4, 5. X, 1. Cic. 
Acad, n, 46 : id cuique verum esse, quod ouique videatur. 

The Incipient Decline. 







XO, 1 

XC, 2 




Alliance between Sparta and Thebes^) j 
Alkibiades**') brings about a counter-alliance 
between Athens, ArgoSjElis, and Mantineia'"). 

Alkibiades marches to the Peloponnese 
and wins over Patrse to the Athenian- Argive 

Gorgias''), Hippias**), Pro- 
dikus'), Sokrates, opponent 
of the Sophists'"). 

Thucydides, historian'). 

67) Thuc. V, 39'— 51. Hut. Ala. Diod. XII, 77. (lu consequence 
of the hostile disposition of the Eleans towards Sparta the Spartans 
are excluded from this year's celebration of the Olympic games, 
Thuc. V, 49—50.) 

68) The Athenians did not restore Pylos, as they failed to recover 
Panaktum and the ChalMdian towns. The Spartans accordingly 
made overtures to the Boeotians, in order to persuade them to deliver 
up Panaktum, Thuc. V, 35. But a further reason for the turn which 
events took was, that at Sparta with the change of the year warhke 
Ephors had come iato office, id. 36. As the Boeotians refused to sur- 
render Panaktum, unless the Spartans would conclude an alliance with 
them, an alliance was effected ' ' wpos iap ", id. 89. At this the Athenians 
were provoked in a high degree, partly because they perceived in it an 
infraction of the terms of their agreement with Sparta, id. 42, partly 

g) Gorgias, of Leonti in Sicily, lived circ. 480—375. Plin. H. N. 
XXXH, 83. Suid. ff.v., and died over a hundred years oM, Plat. Phsdr. 
261 0. ApoUod. ap. Diog. L. VHI, 58. Paus. VI, 15, 5. Cic. Sen. 5. 
Quint, ni, 1, 9. Athen. XH, p. 548 d. A pupil of Empedokles, Diog. 
L. 1. c. 1^ kpuTToriXTis ev tiJ Socpia-T^ (pT)<nv irp&rov "Eiii,ireSoK\ia. ptiTopiKriv 
evpeiv, 7iT]vwa Si SiaXsKTiKv)- Quint. 1. u. Suid. s. v., he came forward 
in various towns in Greece as a teacher of oratory and philosophy. In 
his own home he gave practical proof of his powers as statesman and 
popular orator, and in 422 Be c., when sent as ambassswJor of Leontini 
to Athens, he won the support of the Athenians for the city of his birth 
against Syracuse, Diod. XH, 53. Plat. Hipp. Mai. 282 b, then came 
again to Athens, Plat. Men. 71 c, and in later years lived at Larissa in 
Thessaly, 1. o. To an advanced age he retained his mental powers. 
Quint. Xn, 11, 21. Athen. Xn, p. 548, and died a gentle death with 
soul at peace, M}. V. H. II, 35. A master of impromptu speaking, Cic. 
De Fin. II, 1. De Orat. 1, 22. Ill, 82, and of ornate prettiness {KdWiKoyia) , 
Dion. Hal. Demosth. 4, he exercised an important influence on the de- 
velopment of Attic eloquence, Dion. Hal. Lys. 3 : "Hi/'aro KaiTUp'Aeiii'i^cn 
pTjTopay ■^ Troi.-nTiKri Kal rpoiriKT] ^ipitns Topylov ap^airros. Of his philoso- 
phical writings the most important was Ilepl tou i^-rj ovtos i? Trepl tijs 
0uireus, preserved partly in Aristotle, De Melisso, Xenophane et Gorgia, 
and in Sextus Empiricus Adv. Math. VH, 55 f; His famous declama- 
tions (eiriSeifEis) are lost. The airoXoyla UaKafiriSovs attributed to him, 
as also the eyKa/Miov 'EXivris, is not from his pen. 

h) Hippias of Ehs, Suid. s.v., a contemporary of Frotagoras, 
Sokrates, etc., statesman and diplomatist, Plat. Hipp. Mai. 281 a. 
Philostr. Vit. Soph. I, 11. p. 495, rhetor, sophist, grammarian, 
mathematician, astronomer, musician. Plat. Hipp. Mai. 285 b. o. d. 
Protag. 315 o, poet, painter, sculptor, art-connoisseur, and universal 
artist, Hipp. Min. 368 B— d. Cic. De Or. Ill, 32, a man of many- 
sided but superficial knowledge, Xen. Mem. IV, 4, 6, ToXvij.a0ris, vam 
and boastful. Plat. 1. o. Cic. 1. o., and as a philosopher not nearly so 
important as the two sophists above mentioned. Of Hs numerous 
declamations and poems, Hipp. Min. 368 c. Paus. V, 25, 1. Plut. Num. 
1, only one epigram has come down to us. 

because Panaktum., instead of being restored by the Boeotians, was 
destroyed by them, id. 89. 40. 42. 

69) For the youth of Alkibiades and for his character in general see 
Plut. Ale. 1—13. 23. cf. Plat. Symp. p. 216 ff. Prot. p. 309. 320. etc. 
He first came into prominence on the present occasion by the part 
which he played in the public affairs- of Athens, and that as an 
opponent of the Spartans, by whom he felt himself hurt in his 
pride and ambition, Thuc, V, 48. He was the son of Kleinias, who fell 
in the battle of Koroneia ; by Ms mother Deinomaehe a grandson of 
Megakles and Connected with Perikles, who had filled the post of 
guardian to him in virtue of his relationship, Plut. 1. 

70) Thuc. V, 40—47. Plut. Ale. 14. 

71) Thuc. V, 52—57. Ditod. XII, 78. 

72) Thuc. V, 52. 

i) Prodikus of Keos, Suid. s. v., appeared as a diplomatist and orator 
at Athens in the interest of his native city. Plat. Hipp. Mai. 282 c : 
highly respected for his wisdom (hence the proverb ffo^wrcpos IlpoSlKov 
Apostol. XVI, 62), he like the other Sophists delivered lectures for a 
fee, Plat. Cratyl. 384 E, in which amongst other things he treated of 
the meaning of words and the usages of language, 1. c. Prot. 341 o. 
He was a friend of Sokrates and bore a part in his conversations, 
Hipp. Mai. 1. o. Amongst his auditors were Xenophon, Philostr. V. 
Soph. 1, 12, Kritias, Plat. Charm, p. 163, Theramenes, Suid. s. v. Athen. 
V, p. 220 B, Thucydides, Vit. Marc. 36, Euripides, Gell. XV, 20 etc. 
Only reports of his declamations and doctrine have come down to us: his 
tale of the young Herakles at the cross-roads, entitled 'fipai, became 
famous, Xenoph. Memor. H, 1, 21. Suid. s.v. Cic. Off. I, 32. Quint. IX, 
2, 36. Maxim. Tyr. Diss. XX, 232 f. 

k) See below obs. w. 

1) Thucydides, son of Olorus, born probably circ. 460—453 (472 
according to the untrustworthy account of Pamphila in Gell. XV, 23) 
in the Attic deme Hahmus, of an influential family, and related to 
Miltiades, Thuc. IV, 104. Plut. Kim. 4. Thuc. Vit. MarceU. 2. 15. 16. 
34. 55. Suid. s. v., is said to have been present on one occasion when 
Herodotus recited a portion of his history, Vit. Marc. S4. Suid. 1. c, and 
to have been a pupil of the orator Antiphon and the philosopher Anaxa- 
goras, Vit. Marc. 22. Vit. Anon. 2. Suid. 1. u. s. v. 'Aj'ti0wp, v. "A^tuXXos. 
He possessed gold-mines in Thrake, Thuc. IV, 105. Plut. Kim. 4, and 
married a Thrakian wife from Skapte Hyle, Vit. Marc. 19. At the 
beginning of the Peloponnesian war he was ill of the plague, Thuc. 
n, 48 : some years later he commanded an Athenian squadron, with 
which he saved Eion, the port of Amphipolis, but was unable to 
protect Amphipolis itself against the attack of Brasidas, obs. 58. In 
428, he was in consequence accused by Kleon and banished, Vit. Marc. 
4. 23. 26. 46. 55. Cic. De Orat. H, 13. Plin. H. N. VII, 111, lived 20 
years in banishment, for the most part at Skapte Hyle, Thuc. V, 26. 
Vit. Marc. 25, 46, where he wrote his history, and only returned to 
Athens circ. 403, Vit. Marc. 31. 32. 45. 55. Vit. Anon. 10. Plut. Kim. 4. 
Neither the time nor the manner of his death is established ; probably 


Fourth Period. 431 — 338 b. c. 






XO, 3 

XC, 4 




War between Sparta and Argos'*). Battle 
of Mantineia"). Argos and Mantineia com- 
pelled to conclude a peace and alliance with 

The democracy overthrown at Argos'*), 
but soon restored, and at the same time the 
alliance with Athens renewed"). 

Hippokrates, Physician"). 
The Painters, ApoUodorus"), 

73) Thuc. V, 57—81. Diod. XH, 78—30. 

74) The oooasion which led to the war was that the Argives, in 
connexion with the Athenians, had in the previous year repeatedly 
invaded the territory of Epidaurus, in order to compel the Epidaurians 
to join their alliance, Thuc. V, 53 — 56. The Spartans had already in 
419 marched out twice to the aid of the Epidaurians, but were on 
both occasions compelled to return by unfavourable sacrifices, jd. 64. 
55. In this year a large army from Sparta and all its aUies (the 
Spartans airol Kal ol 'EiXoires iravdri/xei, the Boeotians 5000 hophtes, 
5000 light-armed, and 500 horsemen strong, 2000 Coiinthian hophtes, 
Tegeatans, Sikyonians, PeUenians, Phliasians, Megarians, id. 57, 
arparoTredov yap d'q touto KoXKiffTov 'KWriPLKoy tQv fi^xP^ roude ^vvTJXdGV, 
id. 60) mustered under the command of Agis at Phhus, and from 
thence penetrated by three different ways into Argos, id. 57 — 59 ; and 
the Argives, who were surrounded by their foes and cut off from their 
town, were in a most critical situation : at this juncture Agis allowed 
himself to be persuaded by two Argives, who, just like Agis him- 
self, conducted the negotiation on their own private authority alone, 
to conclude a four months' armistice, with which both parties were 
discontented, Argives as well as Spartans, id. 60. 63. (In consequence 
the Spartans ordained, that the king should be accompanied in miUtary 
expeditions from this time forward by ten commissioners, fu/i/3ot;Aoi, 
id. 63.) 

75) Up to this time the Eleans and Mantineians were the only 
aUies of Argos who had taken part in the war: u, furtljer force of 

he was murdered circ. 403 — 401, according to some at Athens, according 
to others at Skapte Hyle, Marc. Vit. Thuo. 32. Plut. Kim. 4. Pans. I, 23, 
11. 2, 23. Vit. Anon. 10, His history, Xvyypacpri irepl tov jroXifiov tCjv 
JleKoTTovvriaLuv KoX ' A6i]val(j}p, begun during the war, Cio. 1. c. Phn. 1. c. 
Vit. Marc. 25, 47, but not completed tDl after its conclusion, Thuo. I, 18. 
18. n, 54. 65. V, 26, comprises the first 21 years of the war in 8 books; 
the last of which, however, was never revised, Seefor the history and the 
speeches inwoven into the narrative, Thuc. I, 20 — 22 and especially 
22 — 3 : KTTJ/M re Is ael /uaX^oj' i; ayiliviaixa is to Trapa-^prjfw, gLKoiew 
luyKeiTai. Quiutilian passes this criticism on Thucydides, comparing 
him with Herodotus, X, 1, 73 : Census et brevis et semper instaus sibi 
Thucydides, dulcis et candidus et fusus Herodotus ; iUe concitatis, hie 
remissis affectibus mehor : ille contionibus, hie sermonibus ; ille vi, 
liio voluptate. Of. Cic. Brut. 7, 29. (Contemporary historians, 
writing upon the same periods as Herodotus and Thucydides, are : 
Kratippus, who supplemented and continued the work of Thucydides, 
Dion. Hal. De Thuc. lud. 16. Plut. glor. Athen. I, p. 845, and 
Stesimbrotus of Thasos, Plut. Kim. 4. Athen. XIH, p. 580 d, who 
interpreted the Homeric poems at Athens in the manner of the 
Sophists, Tatian. Or. Adv. Gr. 48. Xen. Symp. HI, 6. Vit. Hom. p. 31. 
Westerm., and composed a treatise Hepl Qe/ua-TOKkiovs Kal BovKvSldov 
Kal JlepiKXioiis, of which Plutarch made use, Athen. 1. c. Plut. Them. 2. 
24. Kim. 4. 14. 16. Per. 8. 13. 26. 86, and also another Jlepl TeXeruv. 
Etym. M. p. 465". About the same time Antiochus of Syracuse wrote 

1000 hoplites and 300 cavalry now arrived from Athens, and the 
Athenians (accompanied by Alkibiades as ambassador) prevailed upon 
the allies to sanction the imnjediate resumption of the war, Thuc. V, 
61, They accordingly attacked and took Orchomenus, id., and then 
turned to attack Tegea: but from this enterprise the Eleans held 
themselves aloof, id. 62. The Spartans, summoned to the rescue by 
Tegea, march out under Agis (who promises to make good his former 
error, id. 63), call out their Arkadian allies, and fight the victorious 
battle of Mantiueia with the enemy, id. 63 — 64. Five-sixths of the 
whole fighting population of Sparta took part in the battle, id. 64, the 
number of which according to 0. Miiller's computation based on Thuc. 
Y, 68 amounted to 4784 men. Id, 75 : r-qy mo twv 'EXX^pwi' rare 
€7rL(pepop^vT]V alrtav h re fiaXaKiav — Kal es ttjv aWTjif a^ovXiav Kal 
^pa5vT7JTc{ ii/l ^pyy aT eXvcrai'TO. 

76) Thuc, V, 76—79, 81. 

77) Thuc. V, 82—83. Diod. XH, 80—81. 

78) Thuo, V, 81, This took place before the end of the winter, - 
but towards spring, id. , chiefly through a chosen body of 1000 men, 
whom the Argives maintained at the cost of the state, Diod. XH, 80. 

79) Thuc. Y, 82, The record of the alUance Corp. Inscr. Att. n. 50. 
It was in consequence of this treaty that Argos was connected with the 
sea by long waUs, so that the Athenians could bring them help at any 
time. This gave rise to a fresh campaign against Argos on the part of 
Sparta, which had no important results, id. 83. 

a history of the Sicihans, Diod. XH, 71, and a work Ilepl 'IraMas, 
Strab. Y, p. 242. VI, p. 252 ff.) 

m) Hippokrates of Kos, the founder of scientific mediciae, was 
sprung from the family of the Asklepiads, in which the art of medicine 
was hereditary, and fiourished circ. 436, Hieron. 01. 86, 1. p. 107. 
Gell, XVH, 21, 18. He was a pupil of Demokritus and of the Sophists 
Gorgias and Prodikus, Suid. s. v., and appears from the intimations 
given in his writings to htive undertaken travels, especially to the 
countries on the Black Sea, as well as to Thrake and Macedonia. 
Many kinds of untrustworthy accounts and tales are found of his life ; 
all that is certain is, that he finally practised at Larissa in Thessaly 
and also died there, Suid. s. v. AJmongst the numerous writings 
attributed to Hippokrates many are from the pen of later authors ; the 
most important of those held to be genuine are: Uepl endij/uav 
(concerning epidemics), TipoyvuffriKo, (oonoerniug the diagnosis of 
diseases), 'A^opur/Mil (short medical precepts), Ilepl SiaiT-qs o^iav 
(concerning the diet in feverish diseases), He/ji aipav, vSaTuv, Toirav 
(concerning the influence of soU and chmate on the origin of diseases), 
Ilepl tQv h Ke^aKrj TpufMToiv, Ilepl ayfiuv (concerning fractures), Hepl 
leprjs miffov (concerning epilepsy). His fame and his teaching 
reached as far as Persia and Arabia, and the writings attributed to him 
are translated into Persian and Arabic. 

n) ApoUodorus of Athens, an elder contemporary and precursor of 
Zeuxis, PUn. N. H. XXXY, 60. Plut. glor. Athen. p. 362 b, was called 

The Incipient Decline. 







XCI, 1 
XCI, 2-4 



Melos taken by the Athenians^'). 

Sicilian Expedition, at the instance of an 
embassy from the Egestseans, which begged 
for help against Selinus and Syracuse''^). 

Zeuxis"), Parrhasius"), 

80) Thuc. V, 84— YI, 7. Diod.. XII, 80—83, 

81) Thuo. V, 84—116. In the first years of the war Melos had 
remained neutral, obs. 1, but after the attack of Nikias in 426 e. c. 
(obs. 34) it had adopted a hostile attitude, Thuo, V, 84. Especial 
interest attaches to the present attack as on this occasion the Athenians, 
in the course of lengthy negotiation with the Melians, lay down their 
political principles, the sum of which is contained in the words (89) : 
dlKaia iiiv kv rf iaiBptiiireiif \<yyif airo Trjs t(nis duayKiis Kplvercu, dwara SJ 
o! TrpovxovTes irpaaffovffi KaX oi anBiveh ^vyxi^povo-i. The issue of the 
war is, that the Melians surrender after an obstinate resistance, the 
males capable of bearing arms are put to death, the rest of the 
population is sold into slavery, and the territory ig divided amongst 
Athenian citizens, id. 116. 

82) The Egestasans were hard pressed by Selinus and Syracuse, 
Thuc. VI, 6. Their ambassadors (they came to Athens in the winter 
of 416 — 415) represented to the Athenians, that the Syraousans, who 
had already annihilated the town of Leontini (cf. Thuc. V, 4), would 
subdue the whole of the island, and then lend their support to their 
kinsfolk, the Spartans ; at the same time they promised large pecuniary 
subsidies, id. An Athenian embassy, which was seat to Egesta to ascer- 
tain the truth as to the value of these promises, returned .(tricked by the 
Egestseans, VI, 46) with favourable tidings, and thus the undertaking 
was determined upon in spite of the opposition of Nikias (his speech 
VI, 9 — 14), chiefly at the instigation of AJkibiades (his speech VI, 
16 — 18) : a second speech of Nikias, in which he gave prominence to 

the difficulties of the vmdertaking (20 — 23), had only the effect of 
kindling still more the zeal of the Athenians, and it was resolved to 
furnish and provide aU that the generals should think necessary, 
Thuc. VI, 8 — 26. For the whole Sicilian expedition see Thuo. VI. VII. 
Diod, Xn, 83— Xm, 35, Plut. Nic. 12—80. For the ultimate cause of 
the undertaking see especially the contiuuation of the passage cited in 
obs, 20, Thuc. II, 65 ; e^ av (viz. in consequence of the corrupting 
influence of the demagogues on the character of the Athenian people) 
aWa Te iroXKa, ws ev fxeyoK-Q iroXei Kal apxw ^X°^^V> V/^^P^V^V '^^^ o ^^ 
SiKeXioj' ttXoCs. For the motives of Alkibiades as the prime mover of 
the expedition see id. VI, 15 : hiiye di irpodv/wTara ttji/ (rrpaTdav 
'AXici^ittSTjs d 'Kkeivlov, ()ov\6/j.evos ti} re Niri? hanriouffBai., uv Kal h 
rdWa dtatpopos rd ttoKitlko, Kal on aurou 5ta/3o\aJS e/ivrjadr], Kal ixaXiara 
(TTpaTTiyffual re eViSu^tui' Koi eXirl^uv 'ZmeKlav re Si' aurou Kal Kapx'}S6va 
Xiji/'fcrffai K<d ra 'iSia a/M euruxijiras XPW""'' ''^ ""^ ^^Sv u^eX^trei;'. 
Alkibiades himself at a later period represents the Athenian plans to 
the Lacedaemonians in the following way, id. 80: eifKeiaaixev es 
"ZLKeKiav irpwrov fxh, el SvvaifieOa, St/ceXtwras Karaffrpe^op^evoL, fj.erd dk 
CKeivovs auSi! Kal 'IraXiwras, (ireira Kal T-ijS 'K.apxrjioviav apxv! Kal auTuv 
airoireLpcuTOVTei' el 5^ Trpoxw/njffete raura rj Tvdvra 97 Kal rd irXeiw, TJdTj rrj 
XleXoirovvrifftp epi^Wofiev kinx^ipTjffeiv , KopXtyavres ^up^iraaap p^v ttjv 
eKeWev Trpo(yyevop^vr\v dvvapLiv rwv 'EXX^i'tjj', iroXXous Bk ^apj3apovs 
HurBiMTdpevoi. Kal 'l^-qpoi k. t. X,, and that the Athenians from the very 
beginning aimed at least at the whole of Sicily, is expressly attested 
by Thucyd, VI, 6 ; such were the plans, with which they busied 

aKiaypdipoi, because he discovered the gradation of colours obtained 
by distribution of light and shade, Plut. 1. c. Schol. H. X, 265, Hesych. 
s. V. ama. 

o) Zeuxis of Herakleia (in lower Italy ?), a younger contemporary 
of ApoUodorus, Plin. H.N. XXXV, 61. Ml. V,H, IV, 12, flourished at 
the time of Sokrates, Plat. Gorg. 453 0. Xen. Memor. I, 4, 3. CEcon. 
10. 1, and painted at various places, especially at EphesuS', Tzetz. 
Chil. Vm, 196. Famous amongst his pictures was the Centaur 
family, Luc. Zeux. 4 f. ; his Helena for the temple of Lakinian Hera, 
Plin. XXXV, 64. Cic. De Inv. H, 1. M\. V. H. IV, 12. XIV, 17; an 
Eros crowned with roses at the temple of Aphrodite at Athens, Schol. 
Aristoph. Acharn. 991 ; bunches of grapes so true to nature, that the 
birds flew to them, Plin. H. N. XXXV, 65 ; and a boy with bunches of 
grapes, 1. c. 66. He also decorated the palace of Archelaus, king of 
Macedonia, with paintings, Ml. V. H. XTV, 17. His pictures were 
characterised by uncommon situations, sensuous beauty, and pictures- 
que illusions produced by effects of light and shade on the colour tones, 
Aristot. Poet. 6. Plin. XXXV, 61. Cic. 1. 0. Quint. XH, 10, 5. Many 
traits are preserved of his pride as an artist, Plin. XXXV, 63. Plut. 
Per. 13. ^1. 1. c. 

p) Parrhasius of Ephesus, Suid. s. v. Harpocr. s. v. Athen. XII, p. 
543. Strab. p. 462. Plin. XXXV, 60. 67, a rival of Zeuxis at the time of 

the Peloponnesian war, Quint. XII, 10, 4, lived a considerable time at 
Athens, Seneo. Controv. V, 10, Acron. Hor. Od. IV, 8, 6. Xenoph. 
Memor. IH, 10. Famous amongst his pictures were the Athenian 
Demus, Plin. XXXV, 69, and a curtain, so deceptively painted, that 
Zeuxis took it for an actual curtain, and gave it the preference over his 
own grapes, 1. c. 65. His pictures are praised for delicate individuali- 
sation of characters, correctness of drawing, exactness of proportions, 
as also for the dehcate handling of light effects, 1. c. 67. Acron. Hor. 
1. c. His presumption and vanity as an artist were notorious, Phn. 
XXXV, 71. ^1. V. H. IX, 11. Athen. XII, p. 543 c. XV, p. 687 b. 

q) Timanthes, probably of Kythnus, was a contemporary of 
Parrhasius, over whom he obtained a brilliant victory with his picture 
of the contest between Aias and Odysseus for the arms of AchiUes, 
Plin. XXXV, 72, ^1. V. H. IX, 11. Athen, XII, p. 543. He likewise, 
carried off the prize against Kolotes of Teos with his famous picture of 
Iphigeneia standing at the sacrificial altar, where the artist depicted 
Agamemnon with veiled countenance, not dehneating the father's 
grief, but leaving it to the imagination, PUn. XXV, 73. Cic. Orat. 22. 
Quint. II. 13. Some of the motives of this picture of Timanthes are 
reproduced in a wall painting of Pompeii, Miiller and Oesterley, 
Denkmaler I, no. 206. His genius chiefly proved itself in the circum- 
stance that his pictures expressed more than his brush had actually 
depicted, Plin. 1. c. 


Fourth Period. 431 — 338 b.c. 






XCI, 2 



The Athenians sail with a fleet of 134 ships and numerous troops to 
Sicily under the command of Nikias, Alkibiades, and Lamachus^), but 
at first owing to the disunion amongst the commanders*^) and the recall 
of Alkibiades, which took place soon afterwards*), they make but little 
progress"). Victory of the Athenians at Syracuse, with no important 

XCI, 3 



After the arrival of reinforcements from Athens'") Nikias advances 
upon Syracuse, takes Epipolse, the height commanding the town, and 
after gaining the upper hand in the open field begins from this point to 

themselves, although most of them were totally unaoijuainted -VTith the 
size and circumstances of Sicily, id. 1. It is further a remarkable 
circumstance in this connexion, that at this time, as is proved by the 
inscription cited in obs. 62, not only had the sums borrowed from the 
temples been repaid, hut 3000 talents had also been again deposited in 
the state treasury. 

83) Thuc. VI, 8—93. 
Ale. 17—23. 

Diod, Xn, 83— Xni, 6. Plut. Nio. 12—16, 

84) Of the 134 triremes 100 were furnished by Athens, 34 by the 
allies ; besides the rowers, there were on board 5100 hophtes {2200 
from Athens, 500 from Argos etc.), 480 bowmen, VOOEhodian sHngers, 
only 30 horsemen. The departure from Athens took place ia the 
middle of the summer ; the ships and crews of the aUied forces put in 
at Eerkyra. Thuc. VI, 30, 42—43. The Athenian fleet was fitted out 
with extraordinary care and magnificence, id. 30 — 31. 

85) The fleet sailed from Eerkyra to Italy and along the coast, 
without being repeived by any of the Italia^ towns, as far as Bhegium, 
where the inhabitants likewise refused to receive the army into the 
town, Thuc. VI, 44. There they gained intelligence of the trick 
played upon them by the Egestsans, id, 46, cf. obs, 82; in the 
council of war, which then followed, Nikias proposed to sail to Egesta, 
adjust its quarrel with Seliuus, and then return home. Alkibiades 
insisted that they should first estabUsh themselyes in Sicily by 
intriguing with the rest of the towns and then attack Syracuse ; whilst 
Lamachus declared for an immediate attack upon Syracuse while still 
unprepared, id. 47^^9, Lamachus, however, went over to the opinion 
of Alkibiades, which accordingly prevailed : thereupon the Athenians 
sailed to Nasos, which joined them voluntarily, and won over Eatana 
as well by trickery, id. 50 — 51, 

86) Thuc. VI, 27—29. 53. 60—61. Andoe. de myst. p. 2—9 
(§ 11—69 Bekk,). Plut, Alo, 18—22. Already before the departure of 
the fleet the Hermes.-pillars at Athens were mutilated in one night, and 
the opponents of Alkibiades utilised this opportunity to make him 
suspected with the populace. However, the charge, when Alkibiades 
came openly forward to meet it, was for the time withdrawn. After 
his departure the popular agitation induced by the occurrence was 
yet further heightened by the announcement that the Eleusinian 
mysteries had been mocked and desecrated by being parodied in private 

houses. It was generally thought that these proceedings were 
connected with traitorous plans for the overthrow of the democracy 
(Thuc. VI, 28. 60 : iravTO, avrois edoKei ctI ^wufioalq. oKiyapxiK^ koX rvpav- 
viKTj ireirpaxSa-i). The prosecution of Hermokopidse was now, it is true, 
brought to an end by the information furnished by Andokides, Thuc. 
VI, 60. Andoc. de myst. p. 5—9 (§ 34—69). de red. s. p. 20 (§ 7—9). 
Plut. Alo. 21 : nevertheless the prosecution on account of the 
mysteries was continued, and Alkibiades recalled in consequence, 
Thuc. VI, 61. Plut, Ale. 22. Alkibiades obeyed the summons of the 
Salaminiau vessel despatched for the purpose, but seized an opportu- 
nity for escape during a landing at Thurii : the Athenians then con- 
demned him to death in his absence, Thuc. VI, 61. Plut. Alo. 22. 

87) The summer passed, and they had only made a fruitless 
attempt to win over Eamarina, Thuc. VI, 52 : after which they sailed 
along the north coast of the island to Egesta, took a small town, 
Hykkara, but on the other hand made unsuccessful attacks on Himera 
and Hybla, id. 62. 

88) Thuc. VI, 63—71. The battle was won in the winter by a 
stratagem ; after it the Athenians returned back to Naxos and Eatana, 
to winter there, id. 72. Subsequently the Athenians were again 
disappointed ia a design upon Messene, id. 74. But the Syraousans 
utilised the delay of the Athenians, above aU at the instigation of 
Hermokrates, who had at an earlier period called attention to the 
danger threatening from Athens and recommended energetic measures 
(id. 32—41) ; by reducing the number of generals from 15 to 3 they 
obtained greater unity in the conduct of the war, id. 73, they extended 
the town walls so as to include the quarter Temenites, id. 75, and sent 
ambassadors to Corinth and Sparta, to beg for assistance ; there they 
found a zealous advocate in Alkibiades, id. 73. 88—93 (who had gone 
from Thurii by way of EyUene to Sparta, id. 88). Meanwhile the 
Athenians gained some support from the Sicilians living in the interior 
of the island, id. 88 : besides which they were actually suing for the 
aUianoe of Carthage and Tyrrhenia, id. 

89) Thuc. VI, 94— Vn, 18. Plut. Nic. 17—20. Diod. VIH, 7—9. 

90) Thuc. VI, 74. 93. 94. The reinforcements consisted of 250 
horsemen (without horses), 30 mounted bowmen, and 300 talents, 94. 
The cavalry was soon afterwards further strengthened by 300 horse- 
men from Egesta and 100 from Naxos and other SiclHan towns, id. 98. 

The Incipient Decline. 


B. C. 




XCI, 3 


shut in the town with walls^'). But, when the circiimvallation is nearly- 
completed '"), the Spartiate Gylippus comes with help from the 
Peloponnese"), defeats the Athenians and throws them back on the 

The Athenians harass the coast of Lakonia with hostile landings, and 
thus lead up to the renewal of open and direct war with Sparta"'). 

XCI, 4 



Dekeleia in Attic territory occupied by the Spartans °'). 

91) Thuo. VI, 96 — 103. Epipolse was an elevated plain, whioh 
immediately adjoined the town to the westward, rising in the form of 
a triangle, of whioh Buryelus was the apex to the west, and falling 
precipitously on every side [litvofMaa-Tai vwb twv ^vpaKoirio)v did, rh 
imvoXiji Tov aWov etvM 'EmroKal), id. 96. The Athenians forestalled 
the Syracnsana in occupying the height, to the importance of which the 
attention of the latter was only drawn when too late, defeated a de- 
tachment of Syracusans, which at the last moment attempted to dispute 
the possession, id. 96—97, then began to buUd the wall of oircmnvaUa- 
tion, defeated the Syracusans in a cavalry encounter, id. 98, destroyed 
a line of cross-works, by which the Syracusans tried to intercept the 
Athenian wall, and inflicted fresh losses upon them on the occasion, 
id. 99 — 100; when they had completed more than half the wall on 
Epipolse, and had further gained a new victory over the Syracusans, 
(in whioh Lamachua was MUed), and their fleet had entered the great 
harbour, they then continued the walls southwards on the low ground 
toward the great harbour, id. 101—102. Their success procured them 
iuoreasuig numbers of allies : for not only did many of the Sicilians 
appear in their camp, but 3 pentekonters also arrived from Tyrrhenia 
(of. obs. 88), id. 103. 

92) Thuo. VII, 2 : i-n-Tci, ixiv 7J o/cra a-TaSlai> tiSt) ireriXeffTO rots 
'ASrivalois is tov /J^av \tnha SiirXovv retxos, TrXrin Kari, ppaxv rt to 
irpos Trjv 86Xa(raav, tovto S* (ti (fUcoSo/MW • t$ di aXXij) tov kvkKov irpos 
TOV IpaytXov M t^k Mpav 6&\a.<raav \l6oi. re wapa^e^Xriiiivoi T<f irXiovi 
^8ri riaav, koX iaTW a xal ■^/itepya, Tb. Sk Kal i^eipr/airiUva KaTeXdireTO. 
irapi, ToffouToy iJ.h SvpdKovirai ^Xffov klvSvvou. Thus the Syracusans 
were already beginning to negotiate amongst themselves and with 
Nikias about surrender, id. VI, 108. VII, 2. 

93) Thuc. VI, 93. 104. VII, 1—2. 7. Gylippus precedes vrith 4 
ships, at first only with the intention of protecting the towns in Italy ; 
for, from the intelligence he had received about Syracuse, circumstances 
there were hopeless, id. 104 ; he then continues his voyage to Himera, 
(Nikias omitted to prevent him, id.), lands there, draws some 2000 
men to his standard from Himera, SeUnus, Gela, and other towns, 
and Vfith these and his own troops (700 men) marches for Syracuse, 
into whioh he forces his way at the spot not yet fortified by the 
Athenians, id. VII, 1 — 2. Before this event, the Corinthian Gongylus 
had already entered the harbour of Syracuse with a single trireme and 
had brought the news of the aid approaching, id. 2 ; stOl later there 
came 12 more ships, for the most part Corinthian, id. 7. 

94) Gylippus upon his entry into Syracuse, as soon as he had 
united his troops with the Syracusans, prepared to offer battle to the 
Athenians, but neither army would begin the attack : on the next day 
he took fort Labdalum, an important Athenian position, Thuc. VII, 
3 ; he then began to buUd a cross wall to cut the Athenian fortifications, 
id. 4, and though he was defeated in the next battle, id. 5, he made 
a fresh attack upon the Athenians, defeated them and now completed 
the wall he had begun, which rendered it impossible for the Athenians 
to complete the circumvaUation, id. 6. Gylippus next traversed the 
other Sicilian towns, to stir them up to the warm support of Syracuse, 
id. 7. ; and the result was that nearly the whole of Sicily rose against 
the Athenians, id. 15 : applications were again made to Corinth and 
Sparta, id. 7. 17, and Syracuse itself began to fit out its ships to try 
conclusions with the Athenians by sea as well as by land, id. 7. 
Nikias fortified Plemmyrium at the entrance of the harbour, irpoaetxi 
re iJSi) fiaWov Tip naTi, SdXcurirav iroXifup, opwv to, Ik Trjs 7^s ir^tffiv, 
itreidTl VvXiirtros ■^/cev, d-veXTiffTorepa 6vTa, id. 4, and sent messengers 
with a letter to Athens, in which he described his distressed situation 
(see esp. id. 11 : ^vn^i^TiKi re iroXiopKeiv doKovvTus ij/ios oXXous airois 
/ioXKov oVo 76 Kari yrp) tovto irdax^i-v), and begged the Athenians 
either to recall him and the whole of the army or send considerable 
reinforcements id. 8. 10 — 15. The Athenians chose the latter al- 
ternative, and during the winter sent Eurymedon with 10 ships and 
20 talents in advance. Demosthenes was to follow with the main 
force in the spring, id. 16. The further prayer of Nikias, that he 
might be released from the command, was not granted, but Menander 
and Buthydemus were appointed joint commanders with him ; later 
Eurymedon and Demosthenes were to share the command with him, 
id. 16. 

95) Thuc. VI, 105. cf. V, 25. Vn, 18, and obs. 63. 

96) Thuc. vn, 19— Vni, 6. Plut. Nic. 20— -30. Diod. XHI. 10— 

97) This was done at the advice of AlHbiades. Thuo. VI, 91. 93. 
vn, 18, at the very beginning of the spring, id. 19. Dekeleia was 
only 120 stadia distant from Athens, iirl Si rij! iredlip Kot ttjs x^pas 
Tols KparlffTOts is to KaKovpyeiv lixoSofielTO to Teixo'i ^Ti0a>'^s /K^XP' t^s 
TiSv 'MifvaXuv iroXeas, id. For the losses thus inflicted on the town 
(the total devastation of the country, desertion of slaves, obstruction 
of supplies from Euboea, etc.), id. 27 — 28. 28: tov tc tt&vtwv o/iolas 
eiraKTov eSeiro rj woXis Kal dvTl tov woXis elcot (ppovpiov xaTiffTi). 



FouETH Period, 431 — 338 b.c. 


B. C. 




XCI, 4 


Demosthenes arrives with a fleet of 73 ships and an army before 
Syracuse to the support of Nikias^). He makes an attack upon the 
Syracusan fortifications on Epipolse, which fails'*) ; the fleet is defeated 
in the harbour, and itself blockaded there in consequence ; after which 
the whole Athenian army upon its retreat into the interior is either 
cut down or captured"""). 

0) The Dekeleian War'"). The last efforts of Athens up till the surrender of the city, 

XCII, 1 



Most of the former allies of Athens, in particular Euboea, Lesbos, Chios, 
Erythrse, solicit alliance with Sparta""). Sparta, in alliance with the 

98) For the expedition of Demosthenes s. Thuc. VU, 20. 26. 31. 
33. 85. His arrival with 73 triremes and 5000 hoplites, furnished 
partly by Athens, partly by allies, and numerous light-armed troops, 
id. 42. Meanwhile the Peloponnesians also had made preparations 
to send aid to the Syraousans, id. 17. 19. 81, and a part of these 
auxiliaries had already reached Syracuse, id. 25, the others came some- 
what later, id. 60 ; further Gylippus had returned to Syracuse with 
numerous reinforcements from the Sicilian towns, id. 21, of. n. 94 ; 
the Syracusan fleet had ventured to defy the Athenians, and had been 
worsted in a, first battle, id. 21—23, but had afterwards won a 
brilliant victory, id. 37 — 41. In addition to this, GyUppus made 
an attack upon Plemmyrium simultaneously with the first sea-fight, 
which resulted in its capture, id. 23. 24. The consequence of aU 
which was that the Syracusans ttiv eXwida ijSij exvphv elxo" ''a's 1^-^" 
vaval Kol troXv Kpeiairovs etvat, edoKovv d^ Kal top ire^ov ;^ei/)wo'e(7^at, 
id. 41. The arrival of Demosthenes restored the balance of power, 
at least for the moment, and reduced the Syracusans from their sense 
of superiority to their old doubts and apprehensions. 

99) Thuc. Vn, 48—45. 

100) The advice of Demosthenes, to set sail and return to Athens 
with the fleet and army immediately after the failure of the attack on 
Epipolffi, frustrated by the unhappy procrastination of Nikias, Thuc. 
vn, 46 — 49 ; sickness amongst the Athenians, id. 47 ; fresh reinforce- 
ments on the side of the Syracusans, id. 60; resolution to set out 
for Thapsus or Katana, and frustration of the plan by an eclipse 
of the moon (on August 27th 413 e.g.) and the superstition of Nikias, 
id. ; naval victory of the Syracusans, id. 51—54 ; blockade of the 
harbour, id. 66. 69 ; unsuccessful attempt of the Athenians to break 
through, id. 61 — 71 ; after a delay of two days, again caused by 
the procrastination of Nikias, a, start made by land, to seek a place of 
refuge in the interior of the island, and after six days wandering 
up and down, the whole army overpowered, id. 72—85. Nikias and 
Demosthenes executed, id. 86—87. Plut. Nic. 28—29. (At its 
departure from Syracuse the army was still 40,000 strong, Thuc. 
vn, 76 ; the number of prisoners brought to Syracuse amounted to 

7000, id. 87. The states, which sent help to the one or the other 
party, are enumerated id. 57 — 58; they are, on the side of the 
Athenians : Lemnos, Imbros, .angina, Hestisea, Eretria, Chalkis, 
Styra, Karistus, Kos, Andros, Tenedos, Miletus, Samos, Chios, 
Methymna, ^nus, Bhodes, Kythera, Argos, Kephallenia, Zakynthus, 
Kerkyra, Naupaktus, Mantineia, Kreta, Thurii, Metapontium, Naxos, 
Katana, and in addition, Platseans, ^olians, Akamanians, Sicilians, 
Tyrrhenians ; on the side of the Syracusans : the Greek towns in 
Sicily with the exception of Naxos and Katana; further Sparta, 
Corinth, Sikyon, Leukas, Ambrakia, the Boeotians, Arcadian merce- 
naries and Sicilians.) 

101) So called according to Diod. XTTT, 9. Harpoor. s. v. AexeXet- 
Kos iroXe/ios. Pomp. Trog. Prol. lib. v. So in Isokr. 166 D. Demosth. 
Androt. § 15. p. 697. de Cor. 96. 

102) Thuc, VIII, 7—60. Diod. XHI, 34. 86. 87. 

103) For the position of Athens in genera;l after the Sicilian 
disaster s. Thuc. Vni, 1 : ndi/Ta di TravraxoBev airovs eXvrei. re xal 
irepiiiffTriKei iirl Ty yeyevriiUvif 0o/3os re Kal KardirXri^is feylffrri S-q- a/ia 
/j^v yap (TTe/JO/iecoi koX ISlq. haa-Tos Kal ^ irdXi5 ottXi.tuii' re ttoXXwj' Kal 
hnrioiv koX TjXirias oXav oix Mpav iupuv vwdpxovirav, efiapivovTO, ap.a 
ik vavi oix opwvTes h Tois vewa-oUois IxaKcts 0^5^ x("ll"'-'''o- ^i' '''V !">""? 
oih vinjpefflas Ta7s pavfflv df^XircffToi jjaav ev Tip Trapovri (Tw^ijceff^at, rolls 
re airo Tyjs StKeXfas Tro\ep.lovs eiidd^ (T^iatv evofiLJ^ov T<p vavTLKip CTrt rov 
Iletpata TrXeuo'eicr^ai, aXXwj re Kal roaovTov KparriaaPTas — Kal roi)S 
^v/i/iaxovs atjiuv ii£t' aurw;/ airoa-TavTas' o/nus Si tx tCip xitrapxovTiMV 
eSoKei xpwo-i- M (vSidovai — . A commission of 10 persons was chosen 
to conduct affairs at this extraordinary juncture, id., and, to remedy 
the deficiency of supplies, it was determined (in the summer) that a 
sum of 1000 talents, which had been set aside at the beginnmg of the 
war to meet any desperate emergency, should be put in use, id. VIH, 
16, cf. n, 24. For the inclination of the allies to revolt generally 
s. id. Vin, 2, and for the embassies sent from Eubosa, Lesbos, Chios, 
Erythrffi to Agis or Sparta, id. 6. Moreover, both the Persian satraps 
in Asia Minor, Tissaphernes and Pharnabazus, vied with one another 
in their efforts to secure the Spartan aUiauce, id. 6. 6. 

The Incipient Decline. 








XCII, 1 


Persian satrap Tissaphernes'"), gradually brings 
Chios, ErythraB, Klazomen8e"=),Teos""'), Miletus™), 
Lebedos, Erse"'), Lesbos'™), and also Rhodes in 
the course of the winter""), to revolt from Athens. 
Athens, by degrees collecting a fleet to oppose 
the Spartans of more than 100 ships"'), retakes 
Teos, Lesbos, and Klazomense"^), and attacks 

Alkibiades, who had taken refuge with 
Tissaphernes from the machinations of the Lace- 
deemonians"*), negotiates with the Athenians 
at Samos for his recall"^). Preparations for the 
overthrow of the democracy at Athens""). 

XCII, 2 



Oropus wrested from the Athenians by the 

Artistic political 

104) They first decided in favour of Tissaphemea, Thuo. VHI, 6, 
and by the end of the winter 411 b.o. three conventions were con- 
cluded with him, id. 18. 37. 58. The two first of these ceded back to 
the king aE that he and his forefathers possessed : afterwards the 
Spartans thought this unworthy of them (id. 43 : Seivov eXvoj. el xi^P"-^ 
0(7i)S /3ai7iXci>s Kal ol irpbyovoi Tjp^av irpoTepov, ravT-qs Kal vvv dfiuffei 
Kpareiv kvjjv ykp Kal vqcrov^ aTTOtras iraKw SovKeieiv koX QeaaaKlav 
Kal AoKpois Kal tcl fiixpi- Boiurcuv, Kal avT eKevBepla^ av MyiSlktiv apxfjv 
ToU "BXX))o-t Toiis AaKeSaip.ovlovi irepiBeivai), and therefore made the 
third convention, by which, however, the whole of Asia was stiU made 
over to the king. In return Tissaphernes promised to furnish them 
with pay. 

105) Thuo. VTTT, 11 — 14. This important acquisition (for the 
power and flourishing condition of Chios at that time, id. 15. 24. 45) 
was won for the Spartans chiefly through Alkibiades, owing to whose 
successful interposition the Spartans sailed in advance vrith 5 ships 
and induced the Chians to revolt, when the rest of the fleet destined to 
cooperate with them was detained by the Athenians, id. 7 — 11. 

106) Thuo. Vin, 16. 

107) Thuc. Vni, 17. 

108) Thuo. Vin, 19. 

109) Thuc. Vni, 22—23. 

110) Thuc. Vin, 44. 

111) Little by little the Athenians sent against the enemy in 
the archipelago, first 8 ships under Strombichides, Thuc. YHI, 16. 16, 
then 10 under Thrasykles, id. 17, 16 under Diomedou, id. 19, 10 under 
Leon, id. 23, 48 under Phymiohus, Onomakles, and Skironides, together 
with 3500 hoplites (1000 from Athens, 1500 from Argos, 1000 from 
other allies), id. 25, and lastly 35 under Charminus, Strombichides, 
and Euktemon, id. 30. After all these detachments had been sent, on 
one occasion 104 ships appear united at one point, id. 30. 

112) Thuc. Vm, 20. 28. 

113) Thuo. Vni, 24. 80. 38. 40. 55. The Athenians are in 
possession of several strongholds in the island, from which they press 
the town hard. They have their headquarters at this time regularly 
at Samos, id. 21. 

114) Thuc. Vm, 45. Plut. Alo. 24. 

115) Thuo. vm, 45—52. Plut. Alo. 24—26. Alkibiades induced 
Tissaphernes to hang back in his support of the Spartans, and, instead 
of aiding them to conquer Athens by his assistance, to allow both 
belligerents mutually to exhaust themselves with the war : then he 
deluded the Athenians at Samos with the hope of Persia's aid, which 
he promised to obtain for them, if they would only change the consti- 
tution, Thuc. vm, 48 : o 'AX^t^tdS?;?, oVep Kal rjv, ov5kv tiBXKov dXtyap- 
Xias i) dTipioKpaTlas Seitrfloi eSoKei airip (rip ipvi/lxv) i? aXXo tc ffKoirelffdai 
Tj OTip TpoTTip CK Tov TTapovTos KOfTfiov TTjv TToKiP /ieraffT^ffas viro ruv 
kralpitiv irapaK\7]6els KareiuL. 

116) Peisander is sent to Athens by the fleet at Samos, which 
is inclined to fall in with the proposals of Alkibiades, in order to bring 
about the recall of Alkibiades and the change in the constitution, 
Thuo. VTTT 49. The populace, which also on its part was not un- 
favourable, gives him plenary power to negotiate with Alkibiades and 
Tissaphernes, id. 53 — 54. 54 : koI 6 p,h TldcavSpos tos re (miap.o<rlas, 
atirep ervyxavov irpoTepov kv ry iroXei oucrac eirl dUats Kal apxaU, aTracas 
eireXdwy Kal irapaKeKevadfievos ottws ^vcrrpafp^pres Kal Kotfy ^ovKevtrapLEVoL 
KaraKvaovffL tov b-qfiov, Kal raXXa TrapatTKevafxas eirl tols irapovuLV i^ffre 
fji.7jK^Ti dtafi^WecdaL, auTOs fiera Ttvv d^Ka avdpwv tov ifKovv ws Tbv 
TuTffa^ipyr)!' iroie'iTai. Alkibiades is at first able to put off the 
Athenians with false hopes, id. 56. (Tissaphernes, not to estrange 
the Spartans too widely, concludes with them the third convention - 
mentioned above in obs. 104.) 

117) Thuc. Vni, 61 to the end. Xen. HeU. I, 1. The events related 
from § 11 of the first chapter of the HeUenika up to the end must be 
placed towards the end of the winter 411/0, see obs. 129, and therefore 
according to the Thuoydidean method of reckoning the years, which 
Xenophon too follows in both the first two books, still belong to 
the year 411, but according to calendar years to the year 410. Diod. 
XH, 38—46. Plut. Ale. 26—27. In Diodorus the events of this year 
are distributed over two arohonships : the ease is the same with regard 
to the occurrences of the year 406 : conversely under the years 409 
and 408 are comprehended the events of two years. 

118) Thuc. vm, 60 : reKevruvToi ■^Sri toC x^'M'^i'os. 



Fourth Period. 431 — 338 e.g. 






XGII, 2 


The democracy overthrown at Athens by Peisander, Antiphon, 
Phrynichus, and Theramenes ; and an oligarchic council ot 400 
members instituted""). Split between the town and fleet, which 
latter declares in favour of the democracy""). Alkibiades recalled 
by the fleet'"). The oligarchy in the town is overthrown again 

Oratory: Antiphon'), 
Andokides'), Lysias'). 

119) Thuc. Vin, 63—69. Lys. adv. Eratosth. p. 126 (§ 65—67). 
The appointment of the 400 took place, after the people had been in- 
timidated by the Hetaerise (Thuc. 1. o. 66. of. obs. 116), the method 
being as foUows : 5 irpoeSpoL are appointed : they choose 100 members, 
and the hundred 3 members each, Thuc. 1. o. 67. The 400 were 
further to institute a popular assembly of 5000 citizens; but this 
was never done, id. The heads and leaders of the revolution named 
above are described id. 68. By these same men the revolution was 

r) Antiphon, of the deme Ehamnus in Attica, bom ciro. 480 B.C., 
Suid. V. Harpocr. v. Antiph. Vit. a. Westerm., instructed by his father 
the sophist Sophilus, Ant. Vit. a. /3'. TV, opened a school of oratory at 
Athens, Plut. de glor. Athen. p. 350, where Thucydides was one of his 
pupils and admirers. Ant. Vit. o. j3'. Thuc. VJLU, 68, and took fees 
for composing forensic speeches for defendants. Phot. Bibl. Cod. 309, 
on which account he was ridiculed by the oomio poet Plato, Ant. 
Vit. a. Philostr. Ant. Vit. XV. p. 498. He never spoke in the popular 
assembly on questions of state, nor as attorney ia the law-courts, 
except once in his own behalf, when accused of high treason, Thuc. 
1. c. Cic. Brut. 12 ; it is said that in the Peloponnesian war he 
distinguished himself, not only as a diplomatist and ambassador, but 
also as a general and admiral, and that he fitted out ships of war 
at his own expense. Ant. Vit. o. Philostr. 1. o. He was the main- 
spring of the movement that overthrew the democratic constitution 
and set up the select board of 400 citizens, Thuc. 1. c. Ant. Vit. 
p'. Philostr. 1. c. cf. obs. 119. After the restoration of the democracy 
he was charged with high treason at the instance of Theramenes, atid 
in spite of his able defence was condemned and executed ; his property 
was confiscated,--his house pulled down, and his children punished 
with atimia. Ant. Vit. a. Lysias adv. Eratosth. p. 427. Thuc. 1. c. 
Cic. 1. c. The ancients knew a t^x"''! pwpi-'^'h by Antiphon and 
35 speeches esteemed genuine, Ant. Vit. a. Quint. HI, 1, 11. Of his 
speeches 15 are preserved, three probably written for actual criminal suits 
(the most famous of them liepl tou 'HpuSou <p6vov) ; the other twelve are 
model speeches on fictitious cases, each set of four speeches com- 
prising two speeches for the prosecution and two for the defence 
on one and the same case. On account of his eloquence he received 
the name of Nestor, and he was the oldest of the 10 Attic orators 
adopted in the canon of the Alexandrines, Ant. Vit. a. Philostr. 1. c. 
For the character of his eloquence cf. Dion. Hal. de Is. 20 : 'Aiituj>Cjv 
ye iiiiv TO aiarripov ii.6vov Kal apxcuov, ayumrrrjs 5k \6ym> otre SiKCWiKui' 
o^Te avp.^ovKevTi.Ktai' eariv. 

a) Andokides, son of Leogoras, born 444 — 441 b. o. (de redit. 7. de 
myst. 117 ff. 148, 448 as the year of his birth is incorrect), was closely 
identified with the poUtical events of his time. He commanded the 
Athenian flotUla, which aided the Kerkyrseans against the Corinthians, 
1. c. Thuc. I, 51, was afterwards implicated in the prosecution of 
the Hermokopidse, and in spite of his denunciation of the guilty 
parties was punished with the loss of civic rights, obs. 86. He 

carried out in several of the allied states : the result of which was, 
that several of these states, in particular Thasos, immediately upon 
the institution of the ohgarohy, revolted and went over to Sparta, 
id. 64. 

120) Thuc. Vm, 72 — 77. In bringing about this alteration in 
the feelings of the fleet and its return to democracy Thrasyllus and 
Thrasybulus displayed the greatest activity, id. 75. 

121) Thuc. Vin, 81-82. 

then undertook sea voyages in the course of commercial speculations. 
And. Vit. de myst. § 137. Ps.-Lys. c. Andoc. § 6. And. de red. § 11 f ; 
but returned to Athens during the rule of the 400, was imprisoned, 
escaped out of prison to Blis, and did not return home till after the 
downfall of the thirty in company with Thrasybulus, And. Vit. But 
his iU success in an embassy to Sparta during the Corinthian, war 
brought down banishment upon him anew, in which he probably died, 
1. c. Four speeches have come down to us under his name, which are 
not without importance for the history of the time: Hcpl ttjs iavroS 
Ka065ov, Uepl Tui' fiVffTTjpiojv, Hepl Tijt irpos AaKeSou/iovlovs elp^vtjs, of 
which however the genuineness is doubted, and the speech Kor 'AX«- 
/SuiSou, which is decidedly not from his pen. He belonged to the 
canon of the ten Attic orators. Of the style of his speeches it is said, 
And. Vit. : Iitti 6' airXois xal aKaraffKevos hv toU X0701S, d^eX^s tc khI 

t) Lysias, son of the Syracusan Kephalus, who came and settled at 
Athens, bom 459 B.C. ([Pint.] Vit. Lys., according to modem critics 
432) at Athens, at the age of 15 joined the Athenian colony sent 
to Thurii, where he enjoyed the instruction of Tisias, and lived for 
32 years. After the defeat of the Athenians at Syracuse he was 
obliged to leave Thurii on account of his Athenian sympathies, 
returned to Athens, and laboured there as an orator and teacher of 
rhetoric, Vit. Lys. a. /3'. Westerm. Imprisoned under the rule 
of the thirty as an enemy of the government, he saved himself by 
escaping to Megara ; but his property was confiscated, obs. 153. He 
then supported the undertaking of Thrasybulus against the tyrants by 
contributions of money, and after their downfall lived at Athens in 
retirement from the activity of pubho life, as civic rights had not been 
conferred upon him. He died 379 b.o. Vit. Lys. /3'. Phot. bibl. cod. 
262. Cic. Brut. 12. The ancient critics recognised 233 speeches by 
him as genuine, Vit. Lys. j3'. Phot. I.e. Of these, 35 are preserved 
(amongst them some not genuine), chiefly forensic speeches, but never- 
theless very important in part for the history of the time, and 
fragments of from fifty to sixty of the rest, cf. Or. Att. Bekker I, 
p. 399 f. ; probably the speech against Eratosthenes was the only 
one that he himself delivered. Cicero says of him. Brut, g : egregie 
subtiUs Bcriptor atque elegans, quem jam prope audeas oratorem 
perfectum dicere. Cf. Quint. X, 1, 78. XH, 10, 24. Dionys. Hal. mpl 
Twv ipxaluv fnp-bpiav mop.viiimTi.(Xiu>L 

The Incipient Decline. 







XCII, 2 


from its being suspected of traitorous relations with Sparta"''), and the 
democracy restored"'). 

Euboea is lost to Athens''"). 

The Spartan fleet, renouncing its connexion with Tissaphernes, betakes 
itself to the Hellespont to Pharnabazus'^*). The Athenians follow'^") 
and win two naval victories at Kynossema"'). 

XCII, 3 

410 >^=) 


The Spartan fleet is totally annihilated by the brilliant victory of 
the Athenians gained under the command of Alkibiades at Kyzikus""). 
The Athenians masters of the sea""). 

122) Immediately after the institution of the oligarchic senate, 
ambassadors were sent to Agis and to Sparta to negotiate a peace, 
but without success, Thuc. VIII, 70 — 71. And when after this 
the rupture between town and fleet had taken place, and an 
attempt at mediation had come to nothing, id. 72. 86. 89, the 
oligarchs tried to secure peace with Sparta at any price for the sake of 
their own safety, and with this object built the fort Eetioneia at the 
entrance of the PeirsBus, to give them, as it was universally believed, 
the command of the harbour and enable them to admit into it with 
security a Spartan fleet for their support, id. 90 — 92. 91 : iKeu/ot yap 
liiXiiTTa /jih i^oiXovTO 6\iyapxoiifi^i'oi dpx^iv xal twv ^vnix&xav, el Sk 
liri, rdt re vaSs Kal rh reixr) ^ovres avTovo/ietaSai, i^eipydiievm 5i 
aal TOUTOV yni) ovr iiro toS S'^fiov ye aSBis yevoiiAvov airol vpo tuv aKKav 
^dXtffra di.a(p6apTJvaL, dWd, Kal rods TToXefiiovs i(rayay6fJLevoi di/ev tux'^v 
Kal veav ^v/i^^vai Kal tnriiiaovv tA t^s TroXews ^x^'") ^' '"'''' 7^ (Xiifuun (!<j>wi> 
dSeia iarat,. 

123) An opposition party had been formed in the ranks of 
the oligarchs themselves, which, with Theramenes for its chief 
leader, taking advantage of the popular discontent, now effected the 
counter-revolution, Thuc. VIII, 89 — 94. Lys. adv. Eratosth. p. 126. 
In consequence of this the council of 500 was restored, and the 
popular assembly of the SOOO was instituted, Thuc. 1. c. 97. id. -. Kal 
qvx ijKtffTa 5ri rov irp^Tov XP^^^^ ^""f y' ifiov 'AdTjvaioi (paLvovrai ev 
voKmiaavTes (i.e. the Athenians displayed excellent management 
in their political affairs), fxerpla yb.p ij re h Toiis oXtyovs Kal tovs 
TToWous ivyKpaffLS iyivero Kal eK irovripav rav vpayimTUv yevoiiivuv tovto 
irp&rov &vrjpeyKe T-ijv ttoXix. The full democracy was either soon 
restored, of which, however, mention is nowhere made, or the con- 
stitution now newly adopted was held to be such, as at this time 
there can hardly have been more than 5000 citizens at Athens : at least 
in Lys. adv. Eratosth. p. 124. § 43 it is said of the period shortly 
before the battle of ^gospotami : drj/ioKparias Stl oila-ris. According 
to Andoc. de myst. § 95 — 99 the old constitution was restored after the 
lapse of less than one year. The recall of Alkibiades now followed in 
the regular legal method, id. 

124) A Spartan fleet under Agesandridas, which had for a con- 
siderable time stayed at various places in the neighbourhood of Athens, 
in understanding, as it was thought, with the oligarchs, when the 
counter-revolution had taken place at Athens, sailed against Euboea 

and defeated at Eretria an Athenian fleet under Thymochares, which 
had been hastily collected and sent in pursuit : whereupon the whole 
of Euboea revolted, with the single exception of Oreus, Thuc. VIII, 
94 — 96. (cf. Xen. Hell. I, 1, 1, which is probably a second account of 
this same battle.) For the severity of the loss, Thuc. 1. c. 95 : Bu/Sota 
yUp avroh airoKeKK'QpAvTjS t^s 'ArTt/c^js Travra rjv, 96 : oiJre yb,p tj ev 
2iKe\Lq, ^vfi<f>opi, Kalirep fieyoK-r] Tore Sofocro etvai, oSt aXKo oiMv iroi 
ovTus e^o^riffev. 

125) (The Spartiate Derkyllidas had already at the beginning of the 
summer marched with a small force to the satrapy of Fharnabazus, 
and there induced the towns Abydos and Lampsakus to revolt from 
Athens : but the latter was soon afterwards retaken by the Athenians, 
Thuo. VIII, 61—62.) The Spartan fleet under Astyochus lay the 
greater part of the summer in the harbour of Miletus, without achieving 
anything of importance, waiting for the Phoenician fleet promised by 
Tissaphernes ; but as this fleet failed to arrive, and Tissaphernes on no 
single occasion furnished their pay, Mindarus, who was the successor 
of Astyochus in the command, set sail with the whole of his fleet for 
the Peloponnese, Thuc. VIII, 63. 78—79. 83—85. 87—88. 99—103. 
(A small squadron had already sailed in advance, which had effected 
the revolt of Byzantium, id. 80.) 

126) Thuc. VIII, 100. 103. 

127) The first battle, Thuc. VHI, 104—106. Diod. SIII, 39—40, the 
second, Xen. HeU. I, 1, 4—7. Diod. XIH, 45—46, Plut. Ale. 27. In 
both TbrasyUus and Thrasybulus were the Athenian leaders, but the 
second was won chiefly owing to the arrival of Alkibiades during the 
fight. The time of the second apxofihov xei/tw;'os, Xen. 1. e. § 2. 

128) Xen. Hell. I, 2. Diod. XIII, 49—53. 64. Plut. Ale. 28—29. 

129) Xen. HeU. I, 1, 11—26. Diod. VIH, 49—51. The time of the 
victory, \71y01iT0s rov x^'M'Si'os, Diod. 1. 0. 49. Mindarus himself fell. 
The remarkable announcement of the battle by the Spartan lieutenant- 
general Hippokrates in the following v/oris : 'Eppei toi xaXd (icaXa?). 
MLvdapos air^tyuva' iretvojVTtTdjfSpes, airopiofies ri XPV Spav. Xen. Hell. 1. e. 
§ 23. Plut. Ale. 23. According to Diod. 1. e. 52—53. ^schin. de f. leg. 
p. 38. § 76 the Spartans were so disheartened by this defeat, that they 
sent ambassadors to Athens with proposals for peace, which were 
however frustrated by the demagogue Kleophon. 

130) Plut. Ale. 28 says (though with some exaggeration) : ol 'kdr)- 
vaioi. — ov ijUivov t6v 'EXXtjo'ttocto;' elxov pe^alois, aXXd Kal ttJs oXXijt 


FouETH Period. 431 — 33 8 B.C. 


B. C. 




XCII, 4 



Chalkedon and Byzantium taken by the Athenians"^). 




Cyrus governor of Asia Minor"*). Alkibiades at Athens'*^). 
Death of the Spartan king Pleistoanax: Pausanias his successor"*). 


407 '^0 


Lysander, the Spartan commander-in-chief, defeats the Athenian 
fleet at Notium in the absence of Alkibiades"'). Alkibiades deposed 
from his command ''"). 




Kallikratidas, the Spartan commander-in-chief"'), takes Methymna, 
defeats the Athenian admiral Konon, and shuts him up in the harbour 
of Mytilene"'0- 

6aXlu7iTT]S i^Xaaav Kara k/)(£tos tous Aa/ceSai/ioxJous, cf. obs. 132. 
Immediately after tlie battle a fleet was stationed at ChrysopoUs at tbe 
entrance of tbe Bosporus, to command tMs important sea-way and to 
levy a tithe from tbe passing vessels, Hell. I, 1, 22. In Attica itself 
ThrasyUus, who had been sent to Athens to announce the victory, 
gained some advantages over Agis, id. 33, and was then equipped with 
50 ships, 1000 hoplites, and 100 horsemen, id. 34, with which he made 
several landings on the coast of Asia Minor, and then effected a 
junction with Alkibiades, id. 2, 1 — 13 ; after which Pharnabazus was 
attacked and defeated at Abydos, id. § 15 — 19. On the other hand the 
Messenians were this year driven out of Pylos, which they had hitherto 
held with a garrison, id. § 18. Diod. VIII, 64 ; also the Megarians 
recovered Nissea, Diod. 1. c. 65. 

131) Sen. HeU. I, 3. Diod. XIII, 65—67. Plut. Ale. 29—31. 

132) Xeu. HeU. I, 3, 2—22. The conquest of Byzantium more fully 
in Plut. Ale. 31. Diod. XIII, 66—67. In the following year Thasos and 
the Thrakian towns were reunited to the Athenian alliance, Xen. Hell. 
I, 4. 9. Diod. XIII, 64. cf. Xen. 1. c. 1, 32, and also about the same time 
(in 409 or 408 B.C.) according to Diod. XIII, 86 aU the towns on the 
Hellespont except Abydos were again reduced to subjection by the 
Athenians. At the surrender of Chalkedon, Pharnabazus, with whom 
a convention was concluded on this occasion, was obliged to bind 
himself amongst other conditions to conduct Athenian ambassadors to 
the Persian king, Xen. Hell. I, 3, 8. 13 : but on the way (in the spring 
of 408) Pharnabazus met Cyrus, obs. 134, and, at his request, instead 
of leading the ambassadors to the king, retained them in captivity for 
three years (from 408—405 B.C.), Xen. 1. c. 4, 5 — 7. 

133) Xen. HeU. I, 4. Plut. Ale. 32—35. Diod. XIII, 68—69. 

134) Xen. HeU. I, 4, 2—7. He was appointed by the king, his 
father, Kapavos tuv h Kaa-TuAov dffpoi^ofiivur, id. § 3, and was bound by 
his father's charge, and stiU more by his own wish and intention, to 
lend Sparta most emphatic support, id. 5, 3. In the spring of this 
year he arrived at Gordium in Phrygia. 

135) Xen. HeU. I, 4, 8—20. Plut. and Diod. 1. c. He arrived at 

Athens at the time of the Plynteria, Xen. 1. o. § 12, on the 25th of 
ThargeUon (in June), Plut. 1. c. 34, and remained there tiU the 
Eleusinian mysteries, which were celebrated on the 30th of Boedromion 
(September), Xeu. 1. o. § 20. 21. Plut. 1. o. He then sailed with a fleet of 
ioO ships to Andros, defeated the Andrians, but failed to take their 
town, Xen. 1. c. § 21 — 22. Plut. 1. c. 35. He had been chosen trTpnTriybs 
avTOKpariop, Xen. § 20. 

136) Diod. XIII, 75. XIV, 89. of obs. 25. 

137) Xen. HeU. I, 5. Diod. XIH, 70—74. Plut. Ale. 35—36. 
Lys. 4 — 5. 

138) Lysander had by his sMlful address won the particular favour 
of Cyrus, and raised his fleet by means of the liberal support of Cyrus to 
90 triremes, Xen. HeU. I, 5, 1 — 10. Plut. Lys. 4. The Athenian subordi- 
nate commander Antiochus ventured a battle against the express order 
of Alkibiades, and was defeated, Xen. 1. c. § 11 — 14. Alkibiades then 
hurried up and offered Lysander battle, which the latter declined, id. 

139) Xen. HeU. I, 5, 16 — 17. He escapes is Xe^fiovTiJov is to iavroO 
relxt, id. § 17. Ten generals were appointed to fiU his place, viz. 
Eonon, Diomedon, Leon, Perikles, Erasinides, Aristokrates, Arches- 
tratus, Protomachus, ThrasyUus, Aristogenes, id. § 16. 

140) Xen. HeU. I, 6, 1— II, 1, 9. Diod. XIH, 76—79. 97—103. 

141) Xen. HeU. I, 6, 1. He increases the Spartan fleet from 90 
to 140, id. § 3, and later to 170 saU, id. § 16. His proud Spartan 
self-respect in his dealings with Cyrus and his genuinely HeUenic 
patriotism, id. § 6 — 7 (h Si avrtfi etire Sio ■q/iipas iiriirxeiv • KaXKucparlSas 
Si ax6e<r8els tJ ova/SoXj Kal tols iirl rds 8vpas tj>oi.T'fi<7€aiv 6pryur6els K(d 
elirav adXiUTarovs etiicu Tois "EWTinas, on ^ap^apovs KoXaKeiovnv hem 
dpyvplov, tpdaKojv re, ^v trtad^ otKaSe^ Ko/rd ye to avTi^ Swarov SiaXKa^eiy 
'A6T}mloiis Kal AaKcSaipiovlovs dwiirXevo-ep, id.); his great moral influence 
on the aUies, id. § 8 — 12 ; his mUdness, id. § 14 — 15. 

142) The conquest of Methymna, id. 6, 12—15. Diod. XHI, 76. 
Konon (who had only 70 ships, with which to oppose him, Xen. 1. o. 
5, 20) defeated and shut in, id. 6, 16—18. Diod. XIII, 77—79. 

The Incipient Decline, 



B. C. 







Victory of the Athenian fleet at Arginusse"'). 
Condemnation of the Athenian generals^"). 


405 '") 


Lysander again takes the command""). 

The Athenian fleet annihilated at the battle 
of ^gospotami"'). The allies of Athens made 
subject"*;. Athens blockaded by land and 


XCIV, 1 



Athens compelled to surrender: its walls 

Epic Poets: Antima- 
chus"), Choerilus'). 

143) The Athenians, informed by Konon of the posture of affairs, with 
the utmost exertion fit out 110 ships piod. XIII, 97), which were 
swollen by 40 from Samos and other allies, Xen. HeU. I, 6, 19—25. 
KaUikratidas goes to meet the Athenian fleet with 120 ships (he left 
50 behind to blockade Konon), id. 26. Battle of Arginusse, id. 27 — 38. 
of. Diod. Xm, 97—100. The Spartans lost 77 ships, Diod. 1. c. 100. cf. 
Xen. 1.0. § 34, the Athenians 25, Xen. id. KaUikratidas was killed, 
id. 33. 

144) Xen. HeU. I, 7. Diod, Xm, 101—103. Owing to a storm the 
Athenian commanders had been unable to save the crews drifting on 
the wrecks of the vessels shattered by the enemy or to bury the dead, 
Xen. 1. 0. 6, 35. On this charge they were accused and condemned by 
the agitated populace, whose excitement was chiefly due to Theramenes 
(id. 7, 5 cf. II, 3, 35) and the demagogues KalUxenus and Eleophon 
(Xen. Hell. I, 7, 8. 35). Two of them (Protomaohus and Aristogenes) 
had saved themselves by flight, six (Perikles, Diomedon, Lysias, 
Aristokrates, Thrasyllus, Erasinides, id. § 2) were actuaUy executed ; 
Konon and Archestratus had not been present at the battle. The 
proceedings in their condemnation were iUegal : but Sokrates was the 
only one of the Prytanes, who had the courage to oppose them, id. 
§ 15. cf. Xenoph. Mem. I, 1, 18. Plut. Apol. Socr. p. 32. b. The 
sentence faUs in the month of October, as it was passed at the time of 
the festival of the Apaturia, Xen. Hell. I, 7, 8, wMch was celebrated in 

145) Xen. HeU. H, 1, 10—2, 9. Diod. XIH, 104—107. Plut. Lys. 

146) After the death of KaUikratidas the aUies begged the Spartans 
to place Lysander again in command : whereupon the Spartans, 
though they could not make him navareh — as re election to this post 
was iUegal — appointed him Epistoleus, but practicaUy with the power 
of the chief in command, Xen. Hell. II, 1, 6 — 7. The commanders of 

the Athenians were Konon, Adeimantus, Philokles, Menander, Tydeus, 
Kephisodotus, Xen. id. I, 7, 1. 11, 1, 16. Lysander was most HberaUy 
supplied with money by Cyrus, who at this time left Asia Minor, id. 
II, 1, 11—14. 

147) After some unimportant enterprises on both sides (Xen. Hell. 
II, 1, 15 — 16) Lysander sailed to the Hellespont and there took the 
town of Lampsakus, id. § 17—19 ; the Athenian fleet of 180 sail 
foUowed the enemy to the HeUespont and took up its station at .aSgos ■ 
potami, opposite Lampsakus, id. § 20 — 21, where it was surprised by 
Lysander and captured without resistance, id. 22 — 28. cf Plut. Lys. 
10—11. Diod. XIII, 105—106. Only Konon with 8 ships and the 
Paralus escaped : the latter announced the disaster at Athens. Konon 
fled to Euagoras at Kyprus, Xen. 1. c. § 28 — 29. The crews of the rest 
of the ships were for the most part made prisoners, and put to death 
to the number of 3000 (Plut. Lys. 11) : the other commanders also fell 
into the hands of the conqueror and were likewise executed, with the 
exception of Adeimantus, Xen. 1. c. § 30—32. Suspicion of treachery 
against the commanders, especially Adeimantus, Xen. 1. c. § 32. Pans. 
IV, 17, 2. IX, 36, 6. X, 9, 5. Lys. adv. Ale. A. p. 143. § 38. For the 
time of the battle see obs. 150. 

148) Xen. HeU. II, 2, 1—2. 5—6. 6 : eMOs Sk Kal v oiWv 'BXXds 
aipeLo-TriKa 'Adrji/alav fierd Trjv vavfiaxiav ttXtiv Xa/iluv. The Athenians, 
who were found in the aUied towns and elsewhere, were aU sent to 
Athens, so that in consequence of the increase in population scarcity 
might be felt aU the sooner, Xen. 1. c. § 2. 

149) At the instance of Lysander, with an army comprising 
contingents from aU the Peloponnesian states with the solitary exception 
of Argos king Pausanias posted himself before the waUs of Athens, 
whilst Lysander blockaded the harbour with 150 ships, Xen. Hell. 
II, 2, 7—9. 

u) Antimaohus of Kolophon, flourished towards the end of the 
Peloponnesian war, Cic. Brut. 51. Diod. XIH, 108, in intercourse with 
Panyasis and Stesimbrotus, Suid. s. v., as weU as with Plato, who is 
said to have admired his poems, Plut. Lys. 18.Procl. Plat. Tim. p. 28. 
He wrote an elegiac poem Avdr;, dedicated to his deceased love, in 
which he strung together mythical love-stories, and so furnished the 
Alexandrians with a model, Athen. XIII, p. 597. Plut. Consol. ad 
ApoU. p. 403. Phot. bibl. cod. 213, and a comprehensive Q-q^ats, Cic. 
1. c. Hor. A. P. 146. Schol. His poetry was admired by Hadrian and 
the Alexandrians, Spart. 15. Suid. s. v. 'ASptams, but was also censured 

as learned, forced, showy and proUx, without grace and ill composed. 
Quint. X, 1, 53. Plut. Timol. 36. {iK^e^ia<T/jiii>oi.s Kal KaraTrovoLS ^oiKe). 
Dion. Hal. de verb. comp. 22. 

v) Choerilus of Samos, reputed a slave by birth who had gained 
his freedom by running away. He carried on the history of Herodotus 
in verse, was advanced by Lysander, whose victories he was to celebrate, 
and then lived at the court of king Archelaus of Macedonia, Suid. s. v. 
Plut. Lys. 18. He sang of the victory of Athens over Xerxes, Suid. 1. c. 
in an epic poem {nepinjts or Hep<nKa), of which no considerable 
fragment is extant. 


Fourth Period. 431 — 338 b.c. 


XCIV, 1 


pulled down, and its ships surrendered to Sparta'"") ; the rule of the Thirty instituted"'). 

150) In spite of the pressure of want, the Athenians offered an 
energetic resistance for a considerable period, and at the same time 
By a comprehensive amnesty they removed aU occasion of domestic 
dismiion, Xen. Hell. II, 2, 10—11. Andoc. de myst. p. 10. § 73—79. 
(The decree to that end, Andoc. 1. o. § 77 — 79.) They then sent am- 
bassadors to Agis and to the Spartans to beg for peace on condition 
that they should confine themselves to the tovm and Peirffius and join 
the Spartan league. But when the Spartans demanded that the long 
walls should be pulled down for the distance of 10 stadia, the negotia- 
tions were broken off, Xen. 1. c. § 11 — 15. Lys. adv. Agor. p. 130. § 8. 
After the intrigues and machinations of the aristocratic hetserise had 
already spread confusion and insecurity in Athens, Lys. adv. Erat. 
p. 124. § 43 — 44, Theramenes volunteered to go first of all to Lysander, 
in order to ascertain the actual intentions of Sparta with regard to 
Athens, but stayed there over three months, and when the Athenians, 
who had meanwhile been reduced to the uttermost extremity by 
his delay, despatched him to Sparta on his return with fuU and un- 
conditional powers, he brought back peace on the terms, that the 
long walls and the fortification works of the Peirseus should be 
destroyed, the ships be surrendered, all but 12, the exiles be recalled, 
and the Athenians themselves be bound to follow the Spartans every- 
where as allies; and the Athenians now could not help submitting 
to these conditions, Xen. Hell. U, 2, 16 — 23. Lys. adv. Agor. p. 130. 
§ 9—33. adv. Erat. p. 125. § 62—70. The decree of the ephors in 
reference to the conditions of peace ran (Plut. Lys. 14) : TdSe rd riXtj 
Tuv A.aKeSai/wi'lav lyvw KajS/SoXicT-es t6v IleipiuS, xal ra (iaKpa <XKi\ri 

Kal iKpivrei Ik iraaav twv ToXeav raf avrQii yav ?xoiTes, ravri kh 
Spuvres tok elpavav ?xotTe cJ Xf"l Sovres {al xp^SotTe ?) Kid tous tpvyiSat 
avhres. Ilepl di rai/ vaQv t<3 irK-fjOeos okoUv tL Ka rrjuel SoKi-Q, touto 
iroUeTe. The Thebans and Corinthians were actually of the opinion 
that Athens must be destroyed, Xen. I.e. § 19. Andoc. de pac. p. 26. 
§ 21. " AaKeScu/MVioi. Si ovK Itpairav iroSiv "EWijviSa anSpawoSieiv /iiya 
dyaSov elpyaaiUvriv h/ Tois /ieylffTois Kivduvoi-s yevoiUmi-s ry "EXXi{5i," 
Xen. 1. 0. § 20. According to Plut. Lys. 15 the walls of Athens were 
destroyed on the 16th of Munychion i. e. the 25th of April, with which 
Thuc. V, 26. n, 2 is in agreement. The battle of .Slgospotami must 
accordingly be placed at the latest in the month of August of 405 B. c, 
as it is only thus that the time is adequate for the events which 
happened in the interval (obs. 149). 

151) The Thirty are appointed shortly after the destruction of the 
■walls, Xen. Hell. II, 3, 11, and that under the personal cooperation 
of Lysander, who had sailed for Samos after the conclusion of peace, 
but was fetched back to Athens some months later for this purpose, 
Diod. XIV, 3. Lys. adv. Erat. p. 126. § 71. The manner of their 
choice, Lys. 1. o. p. 126. § 71—77. Their names, Xen. Hell, m, 3, 2, 
their pretended object: "oJ tous irarplovs rS/wvs ^vyypa-^ovji, Koff oi)s 
TToXiTeuo-oi/o-t," id. § 2, but toutous iiiv del l/ieWov ^vfipa^eai re rai 
diroSeiKvivai, /SouXijv Si Kal tos oXXas opx^' Kariarriirav lis iSoKct airois, 
id. § 11. — ^Paus. Ill, 7, 10: xal 6 iroXe/ws ovtos e5 t^v 'EXXoSa In 
PepriKvtav Siiffeiaev (k p&BpiDv Kal varepov *iXt7nros o 'A/tforou aaSpm 
■^dri Kal oi! xavrairairiv vyirj irpoiTKaTripi^eii avrfp. 

The Incipient Decline. 


404—362 B.C. 






XCIV, 1 



a) Up to the outbreak of tlie Corinthian War, 394 b.o. 

Tyranny of the Thirty at Athens'^') ; Athenian exiles under Thra- 
sybulus make an inroad into Attica and there maintain themselves'"*). 

152) This conception of the history of the section is clearly 
expressed by Xenophon at the turning point of Sparta's good fortune 
(when the Spartans were expelled from the Kadmeia in 379 B. c.) in 
the following words ; JlpoKexf^pV'^^'^^*' ^^ '^^^^ AaKedatfjLoviots^ ware 
Qyj^alovs fjiv koX Toits diXXous Botwroi)s TrafTairafftv vir ^Keivots elvat^ Kopiv- 
diovs 8i TTLaTOTaTovs yeyev^ffdai, 'Apydovs d^ reTaireLvuiffBai — , 'Adfjvaiovs 
Si riprj/iQirdai, twv S' av ffv/jL/iaxi^" KeKoXafffiivuv, o! dvff/ievws elxo" outois, 
TavTairacnp ■qdri icaXus Kal da-cficiXus ij apxv iSdKei airois KareiTKevaaBat. 
IloXXot pih ovv S.V Tii ix"!- Kal aXXct \4yei.y Koi 'EXXTju/ca Kal pap^apiKa, 
COS 6eol 0VT€ riov dtre^oiJVTiov ovre rwv aybffia irotouvTUV afj.e'XovffLV vvv 
ye IJ.7IV \i^o} rh irpoKel/ieva. AaKsSai/idviol ts yap oi dfiiffavres airoydfiovs 
ia/reiv t&s 7r6Xei!, Tij;/ if Gif/Sats aKpiiroKiv xaraax^"'''^^ ^ir airQv jiivov 
Tuv aSiKij/MTUv iKoXcurBiia-av, Hell. V, 3, 29. i, 1. For the severity and 
arrogance of the Spartans see the speech of the Thebans at Athens, 
id. Ill, 5, 8 — 15, especially § 12 — 18: Toi>s /n-h ctXaras apixoarh Kadi- 
CTcaiai dfioOiri, tuv 8i ^v/i/j.dx'^i' iXevBipuv &vtwv, iirel eirixv^av , SeairbTai 
avaTretpi^vafftv. 'AXX& iJ.riv Kal ous v/iwii aTtiarriaav (pavepoi ela-iv cfi;7raTij- 
Kdres' avrlyap iXevBeplas SiirKfy airoh SovKeiav irapeaxwaaw, virb re yap 
Tuv dpfiOffTi^v Tvpavvovin-ai Kal utto diKa dvdpwv, ovs AvaavSpos Kari<rT7i<r€P 
iv iKacTT-g TiKet. Cf. Plut. Lys. 14: KariXve rds woKiTelas (AvaavSpos) 
Kal KaSli^TTi ScKaSapxlas, ttoXXm;' /liv iv iKaaTri <r(f>aTTop.hav, woWSm Si 
<j>evy6vTiiiv. Not only their lust for dominion, their avarice also de- 
veloped its pernicious effects, having been first chiefly kindled by the 
470 talents, which Lysander brought home with him as the surplus 
of the donations of Cyrus, Xen. HeU. II, 3, 8, and also by the 
1000 talents and more, which flowed every year from the allies into 
Sparta's exchequer, Diod. XIV, 10, cf. Plut. Lys. 17. 

153) At first the Thirty showed themselves moderate, only bringing 

to trial and condemning those who had incurred well founded hatred 
as informers {a-vKS^avrai.), or otherwise objectionable persons, Xen. 
Hell, n, 3, 12. But in a short time, when they had provided for their 
own security by a Spartan body-guard, granted by Lysander at their 
request, they also put to death men who were suspected by them 
merely on account of their political views, or men whose wealth 
excited their avarice, id. § 13 — 21. From the number of the citizens 
they had chosen out 3000, who together with the Spartan body-guard 
were to form their support; all the rest of the citizens they had 
disarmed, id. § 17—20. Theramenes (" KoSopvoi " Xen. 1. o. § 31), 
who was discontented with these measures, was executed, chiefly 
at the instigation of Kritias, id. § 15 — 56. (Speech of Kritias, § 24^34, 
of Theramenes, § 35—49.) Examples of their cruelty : the execution 
of 800 citizens of Eleusis and Salamis, Xen. Hell. 11, 4, 8 — 10. Lys. 
adv. Erat. p. 125. § 82. adv. Agor. p. 183. § 44; the ill-usage of 
Lysias and murder of his brother Polemarchus, Lys. adv. Erat. 
p. 120. § 4 — 24; the murder of Leon, Nikeratus, Antiphon, Xen. 
Hell. II, 8, 39—40. cf. Plat. Apol. Soor. p. 32 c. According to Isocr. 
Areop. p. 153. § 67. .SIschin. de f. leg. p. 38. § 77 they put to death 
1500 citizens without trial or verdict ; more than 5000 were compelled 
to save themselves by flight, Isocr. 1. c. The name, ' thirty tyrants,' 
iirst in Diodorus (XIV, 2, 3 etc.), ComeUus Nepos (Thrasyb. 1), 
lustin. (V, 10), etc. 

154) Xen. HeU. II, 4, 2—7. The exiles, 70 in number, starting 
from Thebes, made themselves masters of the fortress Phyle in Attic 
territory, id. § 2: the Thirty with the 8000 (obs. 158) make a fruitless 
effort to expel them, § 2 — 3 ; a detachment of troops, which they 
left behind them, is surprised by the exiles and driven off with loss, 
§ 4 — 7. This happened in the winter, as is proved by § 3. 



Fourth Period. 431 — 338 b.o. 






XCIV, 2 



Victory of the exiles over their opponents'^'); their return to Athens 
through the mediation of the Spartan king Pausanias'^'') ; universal 
amnesty '") ; establishment of the democracy in the archonship of 
Eukleides '='). 

XCIV, 3 



XCIV, 4 



Campaign of the younger Cyrus against his brother Artaxerxes with 
an army of 11,000 Hellenic hoplites, 2000 peltasts, and 100,000 

155) The exiles, whose numbers had now been swollen to 1000, 
starting from Phyle, made themselves masters of the Peirseus, and 
here (at Munychia) fought a victorious battle with the Thirty, who 
advanced to the attack; in it fell Kritias, Xen. HeU. II, 4, 10—19; 
on the fifth day after the successful surprise of Phyle (obs. 154), 
id. § 13, so still in the winter : in perfect agreement with which is the 
fact that id. § 21 ( : toZs ai'ocriuTarois TpLoxovra, ot ISiav xepSiuv hcKa 
iXlyou Sell/ Tr\elovs aireKTbva<n,v 'Affrjvaliay iv 6ktui /jn/fflv rj TcLvres IXeXoTrOK- 
vrinoi S^Ka h-ij TroXefwOvres) the duration of the rule of the Thirty 
up to this time is stated at 8 months, 

156) The victory won by the exiles, and the intercourse which was 
afterwards in many cases maintained between them and the citizens in 
Athena, and the continually increasing numbers and strength of the 
exiles led to an outbreak of the discontent that reigned in the town, 
and the Thirty were obUged to leave the town and hand over the 
sovereignty to a newly elected board of ten persons, Xen. Hell. II, 
4, 20—27; which, however, instead of mediating with the exiles, 
as was hoped, showed itself no less hostile to them than the Thirty, 
Lys. adv. Erat. p. 125. § 53—61. Diod. XIV, 42. lustin. V, y. 
Accordingly the Ten, like the Thirty, who had gone to Eleusis, sent 
ambassadors to Sparta, to pray for help; and through the efforts 
of Lysander 100 talents were supplied to them, whilst he himself was 
commissioned to go to the aid of the oligarchs at Athens with an 
army, and his brother Libys with a fleet, Xen. 1. c. § 28—29. 29 : oio-re 
Taxi TraXiK iv airopltj. riaav oi iv Ileipaiei, o! 6' iv Tif dffrei raKiv au fjAya. 
i(pp6fovp inl Tip XmavSpip. But in their distress the exUes were aided 
by the iU-wiU and jealousy which had at that time grown up 
against Lysander in consequence of his violence and arrogance, not 
merely in the other Greek states, but even in Sparta itself. The 
measures enumerated in obs. 152, which were imposed on the Greek 
states, had come from him, and it was also his doing, that the 
Spartans prohibited all Greek states from receiving the Athenian 
fugitives, Lys. adv. Erat. p. 129. § 97. Diod. XIV, 6; at Sparta 
jealousy had been excited chiefly by the exaggerated honours, which 
were everywhere paid him, Plut. Lys. 18, and the suspicion was even 
harboured, that he intended to make himself king, Plut. Lys. 24—26. 
30. Diod. XIV, 13. In this way the feeling against Athens in those 
very states which had displayed the greatest hostility, namely Corinth 
and Thebes (obs. 150), underwent a total change, so that the exiles 
found at Thebes, not only a welcome, but even support, and both 
Thebes and Corinth refused to take part in further hostilities against 
Athens, Xen. Hell. II, 4, 30. At Sparta the king Pausanias won 
over three ephors to his side, (pdovijaas AvadvSpiji, el Kareipyafffiivos 
raSra a/ia fiei/ e6Soiicp,il(roi, d/ia di iSlas jroiijcroiTo Tos 'AS^ras, Xen. 

id. § 29: he followed Lysander with an army to Attica, where he 
at first joined in the operations against the exiles, but secretly entered 
into negotiations with them and with the better disposed party in 
the town, and brought , about the convention, ^0' y t€ elpipniv likv 
^ety ujs Tpos dW^Xovs, aTiifai 5^ ^irl rd ^avTijv eKOffrovs ttKtiv twv 
TpiaKoma Kal Twv ^vSeKa Kal rdv if Xletpaiet dp^dj/Tuv d^Ka, Xen, id. 
§ 38 : after which Thrasybulus entered the town, and soon afterwards 
the oligarchs, who stiU maintained themselves at Eleusis, were 
conquered. For the whole of the events subsequent to the march 
of Pausanias see Xen. HeU. H, 4, 29—43. That the Spartan ex- 
pedition lasted tin late in the summer of '403 e. c, must be inferred 
from Xen. 1. e. § 25, where it is said of the exiles, that they made 
raids from the Peiraua upon the Attic territory and collected ^v\a 
Kal dirdpav : according to Plut. Mor. p. 349 f. (de glor. Athen. c. 7), 
which is in perfect agreement, the return of the exiles took place on 
the 12th of Boedromiou, i.e. in the month of September. 

157) Xen. Hell. II, 4, 43. Andoc. de myst. p. 12. § 90—91. The 
oath, which all the exiles took upon their return, ran : Kal ov pjiriatKa- 
KTiaia Tuiv iro\i.Twv oi/devl ttXtjv Twy TpidKovra Kal twv hrSeKa, oidi tovtuv 
OS av iS^Xy eu^uj'as dLSdvai ttjs dpxv^ tJs vp^eVf id. § 90; and similar 
oaths were also for the future invariably taken by the senate and the 
board of jurors, id. § 91. 

158) Most important authority, Andoo. de myst. p. 11. § 81 — 90, A 
co m mission was appointed to draw the laws up anew on the basis 
of Solon's and Drakon's legislation ; these were then examined by the 
senate and by 500 Nomothets elected by the people; after which 
a law expressly provided, ras Skas Kal rds Sialras Kvplas elvai, oirimai 
en S7iiJ,0KpaTDvp.ivQ Ty Tr6\ei kyivovTo, rots 5i v6p.m,s xpw^ai air EuxXeiSou 
dpxovTOi, id. § 87. The newly constituted democracy is everywhere 
associated with the name of the Archon Eukleides. During his year 
of office state recognition of the new Jonic alphabet (introduction 
of H and O, X, ^, etc.) was also first made. 

159) The expedition, presented to us by Xenophon in his well 
known and admirable narrative, the Kupou dvafiavis (with which 
we must compare the account of Diodorus, XIV, 19—31. 37, drawn 
seemingly for the most part from Ephorus and Theopompus), was 
undertaken by Cyrus, to dispossess his elder brother Artaxerxes of the 
throne, Xen. Auab. I, 1, 1—4. The leaders of the Greek mercenaries 
were Klearchus, Proxenus, Sokrates, Menon, Cheirisophus ; for the 
mmibers of the Greek and likewise of the barbarian troops see id. 
I, 7, 9 of. 2, 3, 6. 9, 25. 4, 3. The point of departure was Sardes, 

The Incipient Decline. 



B. C. 





XCIY, 4 


Battle of Kunaxa and retreat of the Ten 

XCV, 1 



The Spartans send Thimbron with an 
army to Asia Minor, to protect the Greek 
towns there against Tissaphernes"'). 

XCV, 2 



The remnant of the Ten Thousand, taken 

Death of Sokrates"). , 

a. I, 2, 1 : the marcli lasts, including the days of rest, 180 days up to 
the battle of Kunaxa, as may be seen from the statements, id. I, 
2 — 7 : it was begun in the spring of 401 b. c. see obs. 160. For the 
signifioanoe of the enterprise for the history of Greece see obs. 161. 

160) The Hellenes are victorious, but Cyrus falls, and his bar- 
barian troops are routed, Xen. Anab. I, 8 — 10. The Hellenes now 
begin their retreat, the narrative of which occupies the remaining six 
books of the Anabasis of Xenophon, at first under the conduct of the 
Persians as far as the river Zapatas in Media (now the great Zab) ; 
from this point, after the Persians had broten their agreement, and 
the chief leaders together with 20 loehages had been treacherously 
murdered by Tissaphernes (id. II, 5—6), alone and harassed by 
continual attacks from the Persian army and the inhabitants of the 
country. The departure of the expedition is correctly placed by 
Diod. XIV, 19, Diog. L. II, § 55 in 401 b. c, but in the archon- 
ship of Xen£enetus, anli therefore in the second half of the year. 
But it follows that this latter is incorrect from the fact that 
the whole retreat up to Kotyora on the Black Sea lasted 8 months. 

Xen. Anab. V, 5, 4, and that it is the depth of winter whilst they 
are still in Armenia, id. IV, 5, 12; for from this it follows, that 
the battle of Kunaxa must have been fought in the autumn, and 
accordingly the departure from Sardes, as it took place 180 days 
before the battle (obs. 159), must be placed in the spring. 

161) Xen. Hell. IH, 1, 3 : 'Ewel /livroi ti.aa-a'pipvrjs ttoXKou afios 
^aaiKei S6^as yeyevriffQai iv t(^ Trpbs rbv a,5e\(phv irdKifup ffaTpd-jnji 
KareirifiipBTif wv re auris irpotrdev vpx^ i^^^ ^Sc KSpot, evOd^ rj^iov rets 
'IdjviKCLS TriXets Awdfras iavTip virtjKdovs elvai ' al S^ cf/xa p.^v k\e^depat - 
^ov\6/M€vac etvaL, a/tft 5^ tpo^oifievai t6v Ti(Ttra(p^pv7jv , otl "Kvpov ot 
Ifi; 6,uT iKstvov Tipri/ihai ^(rav (s. Xen. Anab. I, 1, 6), es p.h t&s iriXcis 
oi!K kS^x°^'''° o.^TdVj es AaKeSaifjLova 5* ^ire/XTrov 7rp^cr/3ets Kal 'fj^iovv, eTrei 
irdaijt TTJs 'EXXaSos TrpoardraL elatv, eTifi€\r]dT}vai Kcd irtputv, tujv kv ' Aaiq. 
''EtXK'f]Vwv , 8ir(jjs ij re X'^P^ f^^ Stjolto auTwv Kal avrol eXeiJ^epot eZei^. 
Hereupon the Spartans sent Thimbron with 1000 Neodamodes and 
4000 Peloponnesians, Xen. HeU. Ill, 1, 4^5. of. Diod. XIV, 35—36 ; 
who at first achieves but little success. (There were 300 Athenian 
horsemen in Thimbron's army, who were furnished by Athens at the 
call of Sparta, Xen. 1. c. § 4.) 

w) Sokrates, son of the sculptor Sophroniskus and the midwife 
Phasnarete born 469 B.C., ApoUod. ap. Diog. Laert. II, 44. Plat. 
Apol. 17 D, at first pursued his father's art, Diog. Laert. II, 19, 
and learnt the kithara from Konnus, Plat. Euthyd. 272 c. Menex. 
235 E. He cultivated his powers in personal intercourse with dis- 
tinguished men, Xen. CEc. II, 16. Plat. Apol. 21, e. g. with Prodikus, 
Meno 96 D, and by studying the works of poets and philosophers. 
Plat. Phffid. 97 b. Xen. mem. H, 1, 21. I, 6, 14. In form and face 
ugly as a Silenus, Xen. Symp. 5, 2 f. 4, 19 f. 2, 19. Plat. Symp. 215. 
ThesBt. 143 e. Meno 80 A, wretchedly poor, Plat. Apol. 23 c {iv ireviq. 
fiuplf) 38 b. Xen. Oee. 2, 2 f. mem. I, 2, 1. 6, 5 f. Aristoph. Nub. 103 f., 
hardened and troubled with no wants, Plat. Symp. 219 e. 229 a. 
Phsed. 229 a. Xen. 1. c. 6, 10. Oeo. II, 10, Sokrates is praised by Plato 
and Xenophon as a model of piety and justice, of disinterestedness 
and self-command, of steadfastness, intrepidity and tranquillity of soul, 
of true friendship and patriotism. Plat. Phted. Xen. mem. I, 1, 11. 
IV, 8, 10 — 12. I, 2, 1 f. Thus he bore with serenity and playfulness 
the humours of his wife Xanthippe, Xen. mem. II, 2. Diog. Laert. H, 
36 : he unselfishly admitted every one to his company, without asking 
for remuneration, Plat. Apol. 31 o. Euthyphr. 3 n. Xen. mem. I, 6, 11 : 
also in his pleasures he preserved his discretion and self-command. 
Plat. Symp. 176 o. 213 e. 223 b. Xen. mem. I, 2, 1 f. Symp. 2, 24 f. 
In his public life he everywhere showed himself upright, steadfast. 

brave, see obs. 54. 144. He taught conversationally in the most 
unconstrained intercourse, Plut. an sen. resp. s. ger. p. 796 : Su/cpirjjs 
yoOv ovre ^dQpa deU ovt els 6p6vov Kadiffas ovre oipav diarpi^^s y itepi- 
TTCLTov TOLs yvitiptfiOLS TeTayfi^vrfV (pvXdrrup dXXct Kal iral^tdv, ore r^x^h fctZ 
avfiirivuv Kal avtrrparevoixevos ^vtots Kal avvayopd^iav, ri\os Sk Kal 
ffvvdedefiivos Kal wivi^v ro (pdpp^Kov, i(pL\oa6(pei. His highest vocation 
seemed to him to be the spiritual and moral education of men, 
Plat. Apol. 32 b f. 28 b f. Theset. 150 c f., for which the Delphic 
oracle praises him as the wisest of mortals. Plat. Apol. 21. Xen. Apol. 15. 
He thought he perceived the voice of a divine revelation in his breast, 
TO Saiij.6vi.ov, a presentiment, whether an action should be undertaken, 
whether it would be salutary and productive of the wished for result. 
Plat. Apol. 31 E. Theffit. 151 A. Xen. mem. I, 1, 4. IV, 8, 5. etc. 
He had this in common with the Sophists, that he did not inquire 
into nature, as presented to our senses, or its creative cause, but only 
into the spiritual and moral condition of man : he was opposed 
to them, in that he looked upon conceptual knowledge, in which he 
held all virtue to consist, as the goal of philosophy. Plat. Prot. 
329 B f. 349 b f. Xen. mem. Ill, 9. IV, 6. Symp. 2, 12. Aristot. Eth. 
Nio. Ill, 11. VI, 13. Eth. Eud. I, 6. Ill, 1. VII, 13. etc.; 
he looked upon the consciousness of ignorance as the stepping-stone 
to knowledge. Plat. Apol. 21 n. 23 e. Theset. 159 o: this consciousness 
he woke in others by his method of questioning (elpi!ivei.a). Plat. 



FouBTH Period. 431 — 338 b. c. 





XOV, 2 


into pay by Thimbron, joins in the struggle against the 
Persians'"^). Thimbron is recalled, and Derkyllidas put in 
his place '*^). Campaign of the Spartans against Elis'°*). 

Sokratic school : Eukleides 
of Megara''), Antisthenes, 
the cynic''), Aristippus, the 

162) The Ten Thousand reach the Black Sea at Trapezus, Xen. 
Anab. IV, 7, 21 — 27. 8, 22 : from here they proceeded, partly by land, 
partly by water, by way of Kerasu3, Kotyora, Sinope, Herakleia, and 
Kalpe, to Chrysopolis, then crossed over to Byzantium, and finally, 
after various annoyances on the part of the harmost at Byzantium 
(first Anaxibius, then Polus), took service with the. Thrakian prince 
Seuthes. This happened in the winter, id. VII, 3, 13. 42. etc., 
and two months afterwards, that is sometime in the spring of 399 b. c, 
they entered Thimbron's service at his request, id. VII. 6, 1. Their 
number at that time still amounted to a total of 6000, VII, 7, 23. cf. 
V, 5, 3. 10, 16. Their arrival enabled Thimbron to act on the offensive 
against Tissaphernes, so that the Spartans made some progress, Xen. 
HeU. ni, 1, 6—7. 

163) Xen. Hell. Ill, 1, 8 : AepKvWidas — iv^p SokSv etvai /iiXa 
firix'U'iKos,. Kol iKoXeiro Si 2lo-v<pos. He subdued ^olis, id. 1, 9 — 2, 1 ; 
then wintered in Bithyuia, id. 2, 1—5; in the following spring 
crossed over to the Chersonese, and there occupied his army till the 
autumn with the building of a wall across the isthmus, id. § 6 — 10 ; 
upon its completion he returned to Asia and took Atarneus after 
a siege of 8 months, id. § 11 ; then (in the summer of 397 B. c.) 

undertook at the bidding of the ephors a campaign against Karia, but 
soon afterwards, on hia way back from Karia, concluded an armistice 
with Tissaphernes and Phamabazua, which the Persians offered him 
at the moment when both armies were posted opposite each other 
in battle array in the vicinity of the Maander, id. § 12 — 20. With 
reference to the chronology, it follows from this account, that up 
to the armistice Derkyllidas had spent three summers and two 
winters, 399 — 397 u. v., in Asia. It is proved by Xen. 1. c. 4, 6, that 
he also remained during the following winter tiU the arrival of 
Agesilans and even after that. 

164) Xen. HeU. HI, 2, 21—29. Pans. HI, 8, 2. Died. XIV, 17. 
The causes of the war, Xen. id. § 21 — 22. A first invasion resulted in 
nothing, as Agis returned home on account of an earthquake, just 
when he had entered the enemy's territory, id. § 24 ; on the occasion 
of a second invasion, which according to Xenophon took place in the 
same year (irepuMvn n? iviavri}, id. § 25. cf. Thuo. I, 30), but ac- 
cording to Pausanias a year later, while Diodorus only mentions one 
invasion altogether, the whole of Elis, with the exception of the 
capital, was taken and plundered. For evidence as to date see obs. 

Apol. 21 0. 22 b f. 23 b f. At the same time he set up no definite 
system, Cic. Acad. I, 4, 18, but only supplied a general impulse 
to others, Plat. Mem. p. 98. Further, he wrote nothing, Cic. de 
orat. Ill, 16, so that for our knowledge of his teaching we are 
dependent on the works of his pupils, Plato and Xenophon. But 
hia method of teaching excited much displeasure at Athens, especially 
in the party, which, like Aristophanes, was unfavourable generally 
to the new philosophical movement, or wished to restore the old 
Attic democracy. Consequently Sokrates was accused by the democrats 
Meletus, Anytus, and Lykon: 'ASmel Su/cpariys, ovs p-h ^ t6\is 
vopl^u Seois oil vopl^av, Ire/ja 5^ Kaivi, dai/wvia eliTiiyovpevos, dSiKet 
Si Kal Toils viovs Sia(l>Belpav, Diog. L. II, 40. Plat. Apol. 24 b. 
Xenoph. mem. I, 1, 1. Vfithout making use of the ordinary legal 
means, Sokrates defended himself with the pride of innocence. 
Diog. L. 1. c, and was found guilty by a small majority of the votesi 
Plat. Apol. 36 a, but when, upon being called on to fix the extent 
of punishment due, he declared himself worthy of the honour of 
ma,intenance in the Prytaueion, he was condemned to death by a 
greater majority of the votes, Apol. 36 d. On account of the festal 
embassy to Delos a reprieve of 30 days intervened before the execution 
of the aentence. Plat. Phasd. 58. Xen. mem. IV, 8, 2, which Sokratea 
diadained to make use of for escape. Plat. Phsed. 99 a. Apol. 37 c. 
Kriton. After ita expiration he drank the cup of poison with the 
unruffled calm and cheerfulness of soul, which Xenophon, mem. IV, 8, 
and more especially Plato, Phsed. 115 b ff., pourtray in a touching 

x) Eukleidea of Megara, a faithful pupil of Sokrates : Plat. Theat. 
142 cf. Phffid. 59 c, after the latter'a death afforded a shelter to his 

pupils, Diog. Laert. n, 106, and became the founder of the Megarian 
school or the Dialectics, and the composer of 6 dialogues. He united 
the teaching of Sokratea, that knowledge ia the easence of virtue, with 
the teaching of the Eleatics on the unity of being, Diog. L. 1. c. Cic. 
Acad. H, 42. There were six dialogues by him, though doubt was already 
cast on them in ancient times ; but of these nothing has been preserved, 
Diog. L. n, 64, 108. Suid. s. v. Amongst his pupUa the most famona 
were Diodorus, Diog. L. H, 111, and StOpo, I.e. 113 f. The Elean- 
Eretric school was a lateral branch of the Megarie, founded by Phsedon 
of Elia, the friend of Sokrates, Diog. L. 1. o. H, 105. Suid. s. v. Gell. 
n, 18, Plat. Phffidon. 

y) Antisthenes of Athena, at firat pupil of Gorgias, subsequently a 
faithful foUower of Sokrates, Diog. L. VI, 1, 2. Xen. mem. HI, 11, 17. H, 
5. in, 4, 4. Symp. H, 10. HI, 7. IV, 34, after his master's death 
collected pupils around him in the gymnasium Eynosarges. Owmg to 
the neglect of outward appearances and ruling customs he himself was 
called '\oKvav, and his pupils KwikoI, Diog. L. VI, 13. His chief 
dogma was, 1. c. 11 : avrdpK-q — ttji/ dperrji/ etmi irpbs iiS<up.ovlav, p.T)Sivhs 
irpoa-Seop^vriv. Of his numerous writings, 1. c. 15, only scanty fragments 
are preserved. Two declamations, which were ascribed to him, AXas 
ani'OSva-ffevs, are hardly genuine. The beat known of his pupils is 
Diogenes of Sinope, caUed 6 Kilu;' (died 323 b. o., Diog. L. VI, 79), who 
carried to extremes the teaching of hia maater to the complete re- 
nunciation of the moat ordinary needs and conveniences of hfe and 
neglect of prevaUing custom. Numeroua anecdotes and characteristic 
traits are preserved of the bizarre eccentricities of this proletarian 
among phUosophers, Diog. L. VI, 20—81, amongst them his meeting 
with Alexander the Great, Cic. Tusc. V, 32. 

The Incipient Decline. 







XCV, 3 



Elis submits to the demands of Sparta'^). 

Deatli of the Spartan king Agis: Agesilaus 
his successor""). 

Cyrenaic^), Plato the 

165) Xen. HeU. in, 2, 30—31. Paus. IH, 8, 2. Diod. XIV, 34. 
The Eleans were obliged to pull down the walls of their capital, and 
renounce the sovereignty, which they had hitherto maintained over the 
other towns and races of the district. This result was arrived at in the 
summer following the Spartan invasion. (At the same time according 
to Diod. 1. 0. the Spartans also expelled the Messeniana from Eephal- 
lenia and Naupaktus.) 

166) Xen. HeU. HI, 3, 1—4. Plut. Lys. 22. Ages. 3. Paus. IH. 
8, 4 — 5. Agis died after the conclusion of peace with Elis, Xen. 1. e. 
§ 1. Agesilaus, his brother, succeeded him, chiefly through Lysander's 
support, although Agis left a son behind him, Leotychides, whose 
nearer relationship gave him the better title. 

z) Aristippus of Kyrene came to Athens to hear Sokrates, Diog. 
L. n, 65. Plat. Phsed. 59 o, travelled much and lived at Syracuse in 
intercourse with the elder Dionysius, Diog. L. n, 66 f : he was the 
first of the Sokratics to teach for money, 1. c. 72. 74. 80, and became the 
founder of the Cyrenaic school. He taught that pleasure, ridorri, is the 
highest good, Diog. L. H, 75 : rb Kpareiv Kal /iri riTTauSai, tiSovuv, Xen. 
mem. H, 1. HI, 8 : whence the Cyrenaics were also called 'HSow/coI. 
The accounts of his writings are uncertain and contradictory, 1. o. 64. 
88 f. 

aa) Plato, sou of the Athenian Ariston, whose family derived 
its lineage from Kodrus, and of Periktione his mother, who was 
descended from Solon and therefore also from Kodrus, was born 
probably in the year of Perikles' death, 429 b. c. (or 427 ?), Diog. in, 1. 
2. 3. Vit. a. ^'. Westerm. Vit. min. p. 382. 388. Suid. s. v. Besides 
stories of his birth, the biographers inform us of his instruction in 
grammar, music, and gymnastics, of a wrestling prize, which he is 
said to have carried off, and of poetical attempts, Diog. L. 1. o. 4. 5. 
Vit. a, and also of military service, Diog. 1. c. 8. Through Kratylus 
he became acquainted with the philosophy of Heraldeitus, Arist. 
Metaph. I, 6. Vit. a. p. 385. When about 20 years old, he became 
connected with Sokrates, Diog. L. Ill, 6. Vit. §' . p. 391. Suid. s. v., 
who regarded him with affection, Xen. mem. HE, 6, 1 ; but he was 
absent at the death of Sokrates through sickness. Plat. Phsed. 59 b. 
Apol. 38 B. Diog. L. HI, 36. Of the Sokratics, Antisthenes and 
Aristippus were his opponents, Plat. Phsed. 59 a. Soph. 251 e. Diog. 
L. Ill, 35. 36. After the death of Sokrates he betook himself together 
with other followers of that philosopher to Eukleides at Megara, and 
then undertook journeys to Kyrene, Egypt, Lower Italy, and Sicily, in 
which he made nearer acquaintance with the Cyrenaic Theodorus and 
the Pythagoreans, in particular PhUolaus and Archytas, 1. c. 6. 9. 
Vit. /3'. p. 392. a. p. 385. At the court of the elder Dionysius in 
Syracuse he excited such offence by his frankness, that the tyrant 
gave him to the Spartan ambassador PoUis to be sold as a slave at 
^gina, where Annikeris of Kyrene is said to have purchased his 
freedom, Plut. Dion. 5. Diog. L. IH, 18—21. Vit. a. p. 385 f. Upon 

his return he delivered lectures to numerous pupils in the gymnasium 
' AKaSrifiua, situate hard by Athens, and so called from a hero ' AKaSri/jios, 
Diog. L. HI, 7. 41 : Sffev Kal 'AKaSij/iai'm) irpoarfyopeidTi rj cm' avToS 
dlpecns, of. Vit. a. p. 387. He is said to have come a second time to 
Sicily after the death of Dionysius at Dion's invitation (368), and after 
Dion's banishment a third time (361) without any favourable result for 
the pohtical circumstances of Syracuse, 1. o. 21 f. With his mental 
powers unimpaured Plato attained big 81st year and died 348, B.C. 
Hermipp. ap. Diog. L. HI, 2. Cic. de sen. 5. The purity and loftiness 
of his character are highly extolled by the ancients, Diog. L. 1. c. 44 : 
t6v tls Kal T7]k6dL vaiiav \ Ttpi^ avTjp ayados deTov ihbvra, ^iov. There are 
extant, passing under his name, 41 philosophical dialogues, a collec- 
tion of philosophical definitions and 13 letters, 1. c. HI, 57 f, of which 
however the definitions, the letters, and likewise a number of the smaller 
dialogues, in particular Minos, Hipparchus, the second Alkibiades, 
Anterastse, Theages, EUtophon, and Epinomis, are generally esteemed 
spurious. The ancients had already attempted to connect the dialogues 
of Plato in tetralogies or trilogies, 1. o. ; modern scholars have 
arranged and grouped them in various ways according to chronology 
and internal relationship. The dialogues of preeminent importance 
for Plato's teaching are : iaiSpos, on love as a yearning after the idea ; 
Uparayopas, on the teachableness and unity of virtue and its origin 
from knowledge; Vopyias, on the worthlessness of the principles of 
happiness taught by the sophists, and of the unity of virtue and 
happiness; GeafrTp-os, on the distinction between knowledge and the 
perceptions and notions of sense; So^itrriys a refutation of the views of 
the Eleatic school about being and non-being; Ilapfj.evL5rjs, Plato's 
peculiar doctrine of supersensible, uncreated, unchangeable and 
indestructible essences as prototypes of the things of sense and 
becoming, iSiat, efSi;; KpariiXos, on the relation of speech to cognition ; 
"Zviiiroaiov, on philosophic love; $aWuc, on the soul and its immortality; 
*IX7;j3os, on the highest good, and the different kinds of being ; 
IIoXiTcia, on the realisation of justice in the state, together with a 
description of a model state ; Tiiaaios, on the origin and disposition of 
the world. The 'A-roXoYia Suk/jotous and 'Kplrav are important above 
all as historical accounts of the work and fate of Sokrates. 


Fourth Period. 431 — 338 b.c. 






XCV, 4 
XCVI, 1 




Conspiracy of Kinadon at Sparta"'). 

Agesilaus in Asia Minor; his successful 
enterprises against the Persian satraps'"*). 

Historians : Xenophon'*') 
Ktesias""), Philistus""). 

167) Xen. HeU. Ill, 3, 4—11. cf. Arist. Pol. VIII, 7, 3. The con- 
spiracy was in esistence tiU ouVw evLavrbv ovtos ev t^ ^a(rL\eiq.' AyrjirtXAoVf 
Xen. I. 0. § 4. Of Kinadon, its originator, it is said, id. § 5 : oJros S" ijv 
Kcd TO etSos peavi(rKos Kal ttjv ^vx^v evpciiaros, ov jj^vtoi tCv ofioiuv (for 
the o>oioi cf. Xen. de Kep. Lac. X, 7. XIII, 1, 7. Anab. IV, 16, 14, 
and Arist. 1. c. ; the uTroiueloces stood opposed to these, Xen. 1. 0. § 6) ; 
the object of his enterprise he stated to be, fi-Qdcms iJTTav etvai iv 
AaKeiatnovi, id. § 11. What is most worthy of note besides the great 
fenger which menaced Sparta, is that on this occasion a revelation 
is first made of the extraordinarily small number of Spartiates in the 
enjoyment of full rights. The informer, who brought the conspiracy 
to light, recounts on 6 Kivaduy ayaydv airrov iirl to ^crxttTOJ' ttjs ayopcis 
api6fj.7jfffu KeXeuot ottocol XirapTLaTOri gXev iv Tjj ayopg.' Kcd ^7c«j, ^tpVy 
aptdfiyffa? ^aatX^a re /cat i<p6povs Kal y4povTa$ koX aWous tjs T€TTapaKOVTa^ 
ripo/iTiv, tI Sy ^e toutovs, a 'Ki,vi£wv, KeXeveis dpiSfi'^aai ; 6 di eiTre, 
TovTovs, ^<py], v6fj.t^4 txot iroXefji.iovs elj/at, tovs 3' aXXovs irdvTas au/xfidxovs 
ttX^O!' rj TCTpaKLiTxtXlovs ovras tovs iv tJ ayopq; iiriSeiKuvvai. 5" auTOC, l^i?, 
EC rats oSols ivda ixiv ha, h6a Si S\io iroXefilovs airavTaVTas, tovs 5* 
aXXovs diravTas av/j,f>.dxovs, Kal ocroi Si iv rots x'^P^o'-^ SwapTiaTuv Tvxoi-ev 
ovreSt eVa fxiv TroXi/jLiov Toy SeairoTTjVf (rvfi/jjixovs S' iv iKoUrTcp ttoXXovs, 
id. § 7. For the hatred against the Spartiates cherished by the Helots, 
Neodamodes, wo/teioi/es, and Perioeki, see id. § 6. The plot was 
frustrated, as has been said, by the confession of an informer, and a 
most fearful vengeance was wreaked on all the acoompHoes, id. § 11. cf 
Polyffin. n, 14, 1. 

168) Xen. Hell. Ill, 4, 1—15. After the suppression of Kinadon'a 

conspiracy (id. § 1), Agesilaus, upon receipt of the intelligence that the 
Persian king was making great preparations, offered to take the com- 
mand in Asia in person, and in the spring of 396 b. c. commenced his 
journey to that country with 30 Spartiates, 2000 Neodamodes, and 
6000 allies, id. § 2. Upon his arrival in Asia Tissaphemea offered him 
an armistice, on the pretext that he was anxious to bring about a peace 
acceptable to Sparta at court : this Agesilaus agreed to for 3 months. 
After the expiration of that time he invaded Phrygia, whilst Tis- 
saphernes, deceived as to his plans, massed his forces in Karia for 
the defence of that district, id. § 11 — 15. It is certain that the 
expedition of Agesilaus was entered on in the spring of 396 b. c, from 
the following considerations. His return from Asia took place in the 
summer of 394 B.C., the preparations for which were begun in the 
spring, see obs. 177 : but according to Xen. Ages. I, 34. Plut. Ages. 14. 
15, his operations in Asia comprehended a period of two years, and in 
Xen. HeU. Ill, 4, 20 it is expressly noticed in the spring of 395 b. c, 
that one year had elapsed since the departure of Agesilaus from Sparta 
(see id. § 16) . The narrative of events in Xenophon is also in complete 
accordance with this assumption : for after the events of 396 b. o. the 
approach of spring is remarked, HeU. Ill, 4, 16; then foUows the 
march of AgesUaus into Lydia and Phrygia, the latter a/ta p.eToiriipif, 
id. IV, I, 1 ; then the winter quarters in Phrygia (that it is winter 
during his stay there, is proved in particular by the passage, id. § 14) ; 
and in the following spring (id. § 41) he is busied with preparations for 
a campaign in the interior of Asia at the very moment when he 
receives orders to return, id. 2, 1 — 2. 

bb) Xenophon of Athens, son of GryUus, bom circ. 444, Diog. 
Laert. II, 48 f (according to others circ. 431), companion and pupil of 
Sokrates, also of Prodikus, Philostr. Vit. Soph. I, 12, after the end of 
the Peloponnesian war, betook himself to Cyrus at Sardes, Diog. L. II, 
55. Anab. Ill, 1, 4, accompanied his Grecian mercenaries, and after 
the battle of Kunaxa and the murder of the Grecian captains con- 
ducted the 10,000 back to Thrake. In consequence of this he was 
banished from Athens and fought under Agesilaus ; the Spartans pre- 
sented him with an estate near SMUus, which they had wrested from 
the Eleans ; and here he employed himself with agriculture, hunting 
and riding, and the composition of his works, Diog. L. II, 51. 52. 
Anab. V, 3, 7. Pans. V, 6, 4. When expeUed from his property by the 
Eleans, Diog. 1. u. 53, though meanwhile recaUed by the Athenians, he 
betook himself to Corinth, where he passed the rest of his days, 1. c. 56. 
After bearing with composure the death of his son GryUus, 1. c. 53, he 
died probably circ. 355 b. g. His writings, for the most part of an 
historical or political character, are : Kvpov vaiSeta, 'Avd^affis, 
'EXXrjviKd, a Greek history of the time from where the work of Thucy- 
dides ends to the battle of Mantineia, Adyos eZs 'AyrjirtXaovi AokcSoi- 
liovloiv TToXiTfia, 'Affrjvaluv voXiTeia (the three last suspected), IIcJpoi rj 
Trepl irpoabSuv, on the resuscitation of the Athenian finances, 'lipuv 

Ile/jl ItviktiS, 'IirirapxiKos, KvvrjyeTi.Kos — ^partly of a philosophic 
character : ' Airofivrjp^ovevf/.aTa Sw/cparous, ^wKpaTovs diroXoyla Tpos tovs 
SiKonTas, ^vfiTroaiov ^iXoiToipuv, OlKovofUKos Xoyos. His language was 
esteemed a model of the purest Attic, and he was therefore caUed'ATriK^) 
ftiXiTTa. Cf. Dion. Hal. Ep. ad Cn. Pomp. 4. Cens. de vet. script. Ill, 
2. Cio. orat. 19. de orat. II, 14. Brut. 35. Quint. X, 1, 82. 

cc) Etesias of Enidus a contemporary of Xenophon, was at the 
time of the battle of Kunaxa physician in ordinary to the Persian 
King Artaxerxes Mnemon, but left the Persian Court in 399 b. c, and 
returned home to his native country, Diod. H, 32. Anab. I, 8, 27. 
Suid. a. V. He wrote in the Ionic dialect a history of the great 
monarchies of the east, in part drawn from native sources, under the 
title JlepaiKd in 23 books, Suid. 1. c, from which extracts are pre- 
served in Photius, Bibl. Cod. 72, Diod. I, H, etc. Plutarch Vit. Artax., 
etc., and a smaUer work 'IvStKi, from which Photiua Ukewise gives 
extracts, together with some other writings, which have been altogether 

dd) PhiUstua of Syracuse, born before the attack made by Athens 
upon Syracuse, Plut. Nic. 19, a relative and adherent of the elder 
Dionysius, Diod. HI, 91. XIV, 8. Plut. Dion. 11, 36. Corn. Nep. Dion. 

The Incipient Decline. 





XCVI, 2 

XCVI, 3 



Agesilaus invades Lydia and overthrows the Persian cavalry'™). 
Tissaphernes is deposed in consequence : his successor Tithraustes 
sends Timokrates to Greece, to stir up war against Sparta by means of 

The war opens in Phokis : Lysander is defeated at Haliartus and 

The Spartan king Pausanias deposed ; his successor Agesipolis'"). 
Agesilaus occupies winter quarters in Phrygia'"). 

b) TheCorinthianWar 394— 387 B.C. 

The allied Thebans, Athenians, Corinthians, and Argives are 
conquered by the Spartans at Corinth'"). 

169) Schooled by the injury, which he had suffered from the 
enemy's oavaky in the previous year, he had strengthened his mounted 
troops, Xen. Hell, m, 4, 15, and had made use of the winter generally 
to train and discipline Ms forces, id. 16 — 19 : the favourable results 
of this year were also produced by the success of a stratagem, id. 
§ 20—24. 

170) Xen. HeU. in, 4, 25. 5, 1—2. Thebes, Corinth, and Argos 
were the states, in his dealings with which Timokrates employed 
bribery ; Athens was also inclined to war, without however receiving 
any bribe. (Otherwise in regard to the Athenians, Pans, m, 9, 4. 
Plut. Ages. 15.). 

171) On the occasion of a territorial dispute between the Phokians 
and Lokrians (according to Xen. Hell. HI, 5, 3 they are the Opuntian, 
according to Paus. V, 9, 4 the Ozolian Lokrians of Amphissa) the 
Thebans supported the latter : thereupon the Phokians applied for 
help at Sparta, and Lysander was despatched to call out the QEtseans, 
Malians, JSnianes and Herakleotes, and to commence the war against 
the Thebans with these forces and the Phokians ; the king Pausanias 
was to follow after with a Peloponnesian army, Xen. Hell. HI, 5, 3 — 7 : 
Lysander penetrated into Bceotia and invested Haliartus, but was 
defeated and killed in a saUy of the Haliartians, supported by a 
Theban contingent, id. 17 — 21, cf. Plut. Lys. 28. Pausanias came 
too late to help Lysander, and returned without venturing a battle 
against the united Thebans and Athenians (the latter had been won 
over by the Thebans to join in the war as their allies, Xen. 1. c. 
§ 8—16), Xen. 1. o. § 21—24. The war is caUed, Diod. XTV, 81. Plut. 

Lys. 27, the Boeotian, and is at first merely a war between Sparta and 
Thebes, the latter having Athenian support; it must therefore be 
distinguished from the Corinthian war foUowiag. 

172) Pausanias was condemned to death for the cowardice which he 
displayed in the circumstances described in obs. 171, but also at the 
same time for the favour which he had shown the Athenian democrats 
in 403 B. 0. (obs. 156) j he anticipated the sentence and saved 
himself by flight. Xen. HeU. HE, 5, 25. He left behind him two sons 
under age, Agesipolis and Kleombrotus, of whom the former became 
his successor, at first under the protectorate of Aristodemus, id. IV, 2, 
9. Paus. ni, 5, 7. 

173) Tithraustes had concluded an armistice (for 6 months, Diod. 
XTV, 80) with him, Xen. HeU, HI. 4, 25—29. For his winter quarters 
see id. IV, 1, 1—40. 

174) After the Boeotian war the league was formed between the 
above mentioned states, Diod. XIV, 82. cf. Xen. HeU. IV, 2, 1, and was 
also joined by the Euboeans, the Lokri Ozolse, and the Aiarnanians, 
Diod. 1. c. Xen. I.e. § 17. After this the Thessalians were also 
GompeUed to join the league, though they had hitherto stood on the 
side of Sparta; Herakleia on (Eta was taken, and thus the aUiance of 
the neighbouring tribes was also secured, Diod. 1. c, cf. Xen. id. 3, 3. 
In the spring the aUies mustered at Corinth, the Spartans marched to 
oppose them ; and a battle took place at Corinth (Dem. Leptin. p. 
472 § 52, according to Diod. 1. c. XIV, 83 on the river Nemeas) in 
which the Spartans were victorious, Xen. HeU. IV, 2 (according to 
Diod. 1. 0. the issue was doubtful). The forces on both sides : 6000 

3, afterwards lived in banishment at Adria, Plut. d. exil. 14, p. 605 c, 
and was probably reoaUed by the younger Dionysius in 357 B. c, Plut. 
1; c. Corn. Nep. 1. 1. In a sea fight with Dion and the Syracusans he 
was taken prisoner and executed, when admiral of the fleet of 
Dionysius, Plut. Dion. 35. Diod. XVI, 11, 16. He wrote Si/ccXi/cd, 
Plut. Dion. 11, a history of SicUy from the oldest times dovm to the 

younger Dionysius, Diod. XHI, 108. XV, 89. Dion. Hal. ep. ad Pomp. 
6, and perhaps other works as weU, Suid. s. v. Only very scanty 
fragments of his work have come down to us, Fragm. Histor. Grsec. 
ed. C. MuUer I, p. 185 f. Plutarch caUs him, Dion. 36 : ^t\oTvpa.vv6- 
raros dvepdirav. Cf. Quint. X, 1, 74 : Imitator Thucydidis, et ut 
multo infirmior ita aliquando lucidior. 


Fourth Period. 431—338 b.c. 






XCVI, 3 


The Spartan fleet under Peisander defeated at Knidus by Konon 
and Pharnabazus"'* 

Agesilaus recalled from Asia"'; his victory over the allies at 

XCVI, 4 



Corinth the central point of the war and the mustering place of the 
allied forces"'). 

The long walls of Athens restored by Konon"'). 

hoplites from Sparta, 3000 from Elis, 1500 from Sikyon, 3000 from 
Epidaurus, Troezen, Hermione and Haliffi, 600 Laoedsemonian horse- 
men, 300 Kretan bowmen, 400 sKngers: on the other side, 6000 
hoplites from Athens, 7000 from Argos, 5000 from Boeotia, 3000 from 
Corinth, 3000 from Euboea, besides 1550 horsemen from Bceotia, 
Athens, Euboea, and the Opuntiau Lokrians, and also light-armed 
Arcadians, Lokrians, Melians, Xen. I.e. § 16—17 (according to 
Diodorus the Spartans numbered 23,000 infantry and 500 cavah-y, the 
allies 15,000 infantry and 500 cavalry, XIV, 82, 83). The battle had 
no further result, than that the allies were obhged to renounce their 
design of penetrating into Laconia. For the time see Xen. Hell. TV, 
3, 1. cf. obs. 177. 

175) Konon (for whose flight from iEgospotami to Kyprus see obs. 

147) had ahready in 397 or 396 e. o. been provided with money by the 

Persian king at the instance of Pharnabazus for the equipment of a 

fleet, but up to the present time had achieved but little, chiefly for the 

reason that pay was not furnished by the Persian monarch, Diod. XIV, 

39. 79. Isoer. Paneg. p. 70. § 142. Philipp. p. 94, § 62—64. cf. Xen! 

HeU. in, 4. 1. In rader to obtain warmer support from the Persian 

king, he travelled himself to the court at Babylon, Diod. XIV, 81. Com. 

Nep. Con. 3, cf. Ctes., Pers. fr. 63. Wben in consequence the strength of 

his fleet had received considerable additions, together with Pharnabazus 

he fought the battle of Knidus with Peisander (who had been appointed 

navarch by Agesilaus in 395 b. o. Xen. HeU. HI, 4, 27—29), by which 

an end was made for the present of Sparta's naval supremacy, Xen. 

HeU. IV, 3, 10—12. Diod. XTV, 88. The Spartan harmosts were now 

expeUed from aU the islands and from the coast-towns : in Abydos 

and Sestos alone the Spartan rule was upheld by DerkyUidas, Xen. 

1. c. 8, 1—11. laocr. Phil. 1. c. § 63 : viK-fiaas tJ vavimxlq. CK.6vav) 

AaKeSaiixovlovi nh iii^oKev ifc rns 6.pxvs, toi>s 5,»"E\Vas ■n\ev84paffef. 

According to Diod. 1. e. Konon a»d Pharnabazus had about 90 ships, 

Peisander 85; but from Xen. 1. o. § 12 the disproportion between the 

combatants seems to have been greater. According to Xen. id. § 17 

Konon had HeUenes under his command, but according to Plut. 

Menex. p. 245 A. they were only ^vyaSes Kal iBeXovral. As for the 

time, the battle must be placed towards the end of the month of July 

or in the first few days of August, Xen. id. § 10. obs. 177. 

176) On the approach of spring Agesilaus marched from Phrygia 
(obs. 173) to the coast, and there made preparations for a campaign in 
the interior of the Persian empire, "voi^l^av o^6<ro Sirure^ Troi7i(raiTo 
•^evTi, vdvra dTrotrTepijVei;' /SainX^us," Xen. HeU. IV, 1, 41. Here he 
was found by the message from home ordering his return ; and to 
this, in spite of the brilUant prospects which opened to his view, he 

yielded instant and unmurmuring obedience, only aUowing himself 
sufficient time to complete his preparations, Xen. id. 2, 1 — 8. Ages. 
I, 35—36. Plut. Ages. 15. 

177) Agesilaus took the same way, which Xerxes had done on his 
expedition against Greece, but, instead of consuming 6 months as the 
Persian did, he traversed the distance in 1 month, Xen. HeU. IV, 2, 8. 
Ages. H, 1. V^^hen he was at AmphipoUs, he received tidings of the 
Spartan victory at Corinth, Xen. id. 3, 1 ; and, when he was on the 
point of invading Boeotia, news reached him of the death and defeat of 
Peisander, and at the same time an eoUpse of the sun took place, id. 
§ 10. Plut. Ages. 17. For the battle of Koroneia (in which the hostUe 
forces were composed of Boeotians, Athenians, Ajgives, Corinthians, 
jEnianians, Euboeans, and the Ozoliau and Opuntian Lokrians, id. 
§ 15) see id. § 15—21. As the eclipse of the sun just mentioned 
occurred on the 14th of August 394 b. c, it foUows that the battles of 
Corinth and Knidus must be placed somewhere about the same time, 
the first about the middle, the latter towards the end of July iu this 
year: this eclipse affords us at the same time firm standing ground 
on which to base our chronological computations from 401 b. o. 
onwards, aU of which rest on this date and the combinations con- 
nected with it. 

178) Xen. HeU. IV, 4, 1 : 'E/c 5^ to&tov iiroX^fUivv 'Ae-rivatoi fiiv to! 
BoiUToi Kal 'Apyeloi, Kal oi (riii/iaxot aiirSv e/c KoplvSou opfidnevu, AaKe- 
datfi.6vi.oi 8i Kal ol <nJ/i/iaxoi ix Sikuwi/os. Hence too the name 
"Corinthian war," Diod. XIV, 86. Paus. IH, 8, 6. Of the further 
events of the war only two occurrences, besides the conclusion of 
peace, can be determined with chronological certainty, obs. 180 and . 
183 ; aU other dates rest merely on combinations, and can aU the less 
lay claim to anything more than mere probability, as Xenophon (who 
first relates the war by land, IV, 4—7, and then the war by sea, IV, 
8— V, 1) has here almost wholly abstained from giving any indications 
in regard to the time of the events. 

179 Xen. HeU. IV, 8, 7—10. Konon and Pharnabazus saU out at 
the beginnmg of spring (id. § 7), first plunder the coast of Laconia, 
take Kythera, subsidize the aUies at Corinth; Konon then goes 
to Athens, to set up the waUs with Persian money: and on this 
account he is often celebrated by the orators as the second founder of 
the Athenian hegemony, Demdsth. Lept. p. 477, § 68 : deOp' {\e<h> 
iviarnae rk relxv Kal irpHros iriXiv Tepl r^s ■ny^fiovlas ^iroiV^ t% irUKu 
Thv Uyov irpbs AaKsSai/Movlavs ehai, cf. Isocr. PhU. p. 95. § 64. Areop. p. 
153. § 65. About this time, probably in 292 e.g., the Spartans 
send Antalkidas to the Persian satrap Tiribazus, to offer him an 
aUianee, Xen. HeU. IV, 8, 12-16; although the aUiance was not 

The Incipient Decline. 









Victory of the Spartans at Lechseum'*"). 

Agesilaus invades the territory of Argos'*'), the Spartans masters 
of the territory of Corinth and of the Corinthian gulf^*''). 

Iphikrates restores the ascendancy of the allied powers'^'). The 
naval enterprises of the Spartans under Teleutias, and of the Athenians 
under Thrasybulus'**). 

effected, stiU the negotiations liad this result, that Konon was taken 
prisoner by Tiribazus, and the satrap furnished the Spartans with 
money to fit out a fleet, id. § 16. Diod. XIV, 85. "Whether Konon 
was put to death or escaped, is doubtful. Corn. Nep. Con. 5. of. Lys. 
de bon. Aristoph. p. 155. § 39. Isocr. Paneg. p. 73. § 154 : at aU 
events to the great loss of Athens he took no further part in the war. 

180) After a bloody party-struggle at Corinth the Spartans are 
admitted by the opposition party into the long walls between the 
town and the harbour Leohseum, and inflict a severe defeat on the 
allies, who try to drive them out again, Xen. Hell. IV, 4, 2—12 : the 
long walls are then destroyed, and later Sidus and Krommyon are 
also taken, id. § 13. (Lechseum itself was probably also taken, Diod. 
XrV, 86, of. Xen. 1. c. § 12. 17.) From Aristides Or. XL VI. vol. II, p. 
276 (Jebb) ttjs S iv Koplvffiji ix&xri^ Kai rijs iv Aexai'ij) ii.i(Tos apx!^" 
Ei)/3ou\i5i)s it follows that the battle of Lechseum occurred in the year 
following the archonship of EubuUdes, therefore in the second half of 
893, or in the first half of 392 B. o. ; the latter is the more probable, 
as it fits ii^ better with the chain of events. Of the manner, in 
which the war was conducted after the battle, it is said, Xen. 1. o. § 13 : 
'E/c 5^ To&rov aTparicd fiiv /ie^dXat iKar^puv Sieir^TravifTO, (ppovpois d^ 
iriitTrovaat, al Tro'Xeis, ai likv is 'KoptvBov aX Si is Sixi/uca, i(l>ii\aTTOv ri, 
Teixv' iu(rSo(p6pom ye /lyjv eKdrepoi. ^X'^"'^^^ 8ii ToiTOV ippw/xivdis 
iwoXi/ioiiv. Iphikrates especially distinguished himself in this war 
with mercenary troops (the use of which began- at this time, Demosth. 
Phil. I, p. 45. § 23. Isocr. PhU. p. 101. § 96. Harpocr. ». v. Jcki/cw); 
he improved the equipment of the light-armed forces {weXTacrTcd) Corn. 
Nep. Iphicr. I. Diod. XV, 54, and now won several advantages over 
the allies of Sparta by their means, Xen. 1. c. § 14—17. 

181) Xen. HeU. IV, 4, 19. 

1*^2) The long walls of Lechasum (obs. 180) had been meanwhile 
rebuilt by the Athenians (and Lechsum had probably been occupied 
by them at the same time), Xen. HeU. IV, 18; Agesilaus now took 
them once more, id. § 19, and his brother Teleutias, who at this same 
time commanded the Corinthian gulf with 12 triremes, id. 8, 11, came 
and took the ships and docks of the Coriuthians, making himself master 
of the harbour Lechseum, id. 4, 19. 

183) Agesilaus again invaded the territory of Corinth at the time 
of the Isthmian games, Xen. HeU. IV, 5, 2, and there made himself 
master of Peirseum, id. § 3 — 6. At this same time, however, Iphikrates 

with his peltasts attacked a division {fwpa) of Spartan hoplites and 
almost totally destroyed them, id. § 9 — 17, see esp. § 12, according to 
which only a few of the whole division, 600 strong, made good their 
escape. (The number of the slain given at 250, id. c. 17, is therefore 
certainly too smaU.) After this, with regard to enterprises by land, 
we are only informed of another campaign of Agesilaus against 
Akarnania, id. c. 6, and an invasion of Argos by Agesipolis, id. 7, 
2 — 7. For the great impression made by this success of Iphikrates 
(like that made by the capture of the Spartiates on Sphakteria) see id. 
5, 10. However, Iphiki-ates was soon recalled from Corinth, as by his 
briUiant exploits he had excited the jealousy of the other allies, id. 8, 
34 ; according to Diod. XIV, 92, of. Aristid. Panath. I, p. 168 (Jebb), 
because at Corinth he had made himself master of the town, and the 
Athenians themselves were displeased with his conduct. The Isthmian 
games were always celebrated in the spring of the 2nd and 4th year of 
each Olympiad, and the annihilation of the Spartan mora must there- 
fore be placed in 392 or 390 B.C. That the latter date is the more cor- 
rect, is plain from the consideration that the occurrences of the war can 
hardly be brought under the period up to 392, see in particular obs. 
180 and 182 ; a further proof in favour of the later date is furnished 
by the speech of Andokides on the Peace, that is, presupposing its 
genuineness, which can hardly be doubted. This speech was delivered 
in 391 j>. c. see p. 25. § 20, and whilst mention is made in it of the 
battles of Corinth, Koroneia, and Lechceum, § 18, it is expressly 
noticed that the Spartans have never yet been defeated in a single 
battle, § 19. Further, the Uvely wish of the Thebans for peace is 
recorded in § 20, which according to Xen. HeU. IV, 5, 6 existed before 
the destruction of the mora, whUst after that incident the Thebans 
were anything but inclined to peace, id. § 9. We may add that just 
at this time, as we learn from the same speech, negotiations for peace 
were also pending between Athens and Sparta, and ambassadors came 
from Sparta to Athens about the peace, but went away again without 
effecting their object, see Philochor. in the argument of the speech. 

184) The Spartans had already at an earlier date (in 391 b.c.) 
despatched Ekdikus as navarch with 8 ships, to reestablish the 
aristocrats at Rhodes, who had been driven out by the democratic 
party (Diod. XIV, 79. 97) : but he had failed to accomplish anything, 
Xen. HeU. IV, 8, 20—22. They then sent Teleutias, who coUected a 
fleet of 27 ships, and established himself in Khodes, carrying on war 
with the democratic party in power, id. 23 — 24. 25. At this same time 
Thrasybulus was sent out by the Athenians with 40 ships, and he 
made himself master of Byzantium and Chalkedon, defeated at Lesbos 



Fourth Period. 431 — 338b.c. 


B. C. 




xcriii, 2 



The Spartans through their ambassador Antalkidas win over the 
Persian king to impose a peace in harmony with their own interests, 
to which all the other belligerent states submit under compulsion'^). 




c) The violent conduct of Sparta towards Mantineia, Thebes, Olynthus and 
Phlius up to the expulsion of the Spartans from the Kadmeia, 386 — 379 b. c. 




Mantineia destroyed by the Spartans'**). 

XCIX, 1 



XCIX, 2 



XCIX, 3 



Commencement of the Olynthian War"'). 
The Kadmeia occupied by the Spartans'^). 

the Spartan harmost, Therimachus of Methymna, but afterwards when 
on the point, as it appears, of attacking Teleutias at Ehodes, he was 
killed at Aspendns, id. 25—30, ef. Diod. XIV, 94. Lys. ad Ergocl. 
Demosth. Lept. p. 475. § 60. Teleutias was succeeded by Hierax 
as navarch, Xen. Hell. V, 1, 5, and he by Antalkidas, id. § 6. Of the 
undertakings by sea, attention must also be drawn to the defeat which 
Iphikrates inflicted on the harmost Anaxibius of Abydos (probably in 
389 B.C.), Xen. HeU. IV, 8, 34—39, and to the war between Mgina 
and Athens, id. V, 1, 1 — 24, which was carried on from 390 b.c. 
onwards, id. § 1. 2, and in which (in 388 or 387 jj.c.) Teleutias 

obtained a great advantage by surprising the Peirseus, id. § 13 24. 

Antalkidas placed his lieutenant Nikolochus in command of the fleet; 
he, however, is shut up in Abydos by the Athenian leaders, 
Iphikrates and Diotimus, id. § 6—7. 25. Antalkidas himself makes 
a journey to the Persian Court. 

185) Antalkidas, after winning over the Persian king, returned to 
the scene of the war, and with support from Persia collected a fleet of 
80 sail, with which he commanded the sea, Xen. Hell. V, 1 25—28. 
"With Sparta in such overwhelming superiority, the allies could not 
help accepting the peace which Antalkidas had brought with him 
from the Persian king. Accordingly they submitted to it: yet it 
was only when compeUed by the threats of Sparta, that Thebes 
consented to vouchsafe independence to the other Bceotian towns 
and also Corinth to dismiss the Argive garrison and take back her 
exiles, id. 29-34. The peace ran (id. § 31) : 'Apra^iptr,! /ScuriXeis 
i?p,aif« SiKcuov, Tds /> iv tJ 'Acrlg, ttoXks lavroB etpcu Ka.1 twv vqauv 
K\afo/ieca! koX Kiirpov t4s Si aUas 'EWTjWSas TtiXeis Kal fUKpas Kal 
■lisydXas airovofious a^e'wai. irXriv Arip.vov Kal'I/ijlpov xal SKipoV rairas Si 
oinrep ro apyuov tlvax 'AB-qvaiav oTrSrepoi Si ravT-qv rfit elfnjvrfl> /iij 
Sixotrai, tovtms ^70) iroXf/i^cru /lerA tSv tuvto. ^ovKo/iiyuy Kal Tref^ i"d 
Karb. BaKaTTav Kal paval Kal xpwi^i-''- For the advantages which the 
peace gave to Sparta, id. § 36 : 'E^ Si r^ ttoX^/.^ ^^Xo^ a,r,pp6Tu, 
Tois ivavHois TrpdrTOPTes oi AaKeSaip.6noi, ttoXi) imKuSiarepoi iyivovro ix 
T^s iir 'AvtoKkISov elpr/yris KaXoviUv-q^. irpoariraL yhp yet,bp.eni ttjs vtto 
Pa<n\im KaTaTrepjpedari^ dpriv-q,— ; the ignominy of this peace is an 
oft-recurring theme for blame and accusation in the Attic orators, see 

esp. Isocr. Paneg. p. 64—67. § 115—128. Plat. Menex. p. 245. For 
the date see Polyb. I, 6 : eras evettrrriKei. p^ra T-fpi 4v Alyos irorapLoh 
vavpaxlav cvreaKaiSiKarov, vpS Si rijs ev AeiKTpois fiaxv iKKCuSiKaTW. 
(In consequence of this peace Platsese was restored, Paus. XI, 1, 3, 
but was again destroyed by the Thebans in 374 b.c. (or 373 ? Paus.) ; 
Paus. l.c. Xen. HeU. VI, 3, 1. Diod. XV, 46. Isocr. Plataic, and was 
only rebuUt by Alexander the Great.) 

186) Xen. Hell. V, 2, 1—7. Diod. XV, 5. 12. The Spartans 
required the Mantineians to pull down their walls (their reasons, Xen. 
l.c. § 2, especially en Si yiyvoxTKeiv l^a<rav (pBovovvTas piiv airovs, et ti 
atl>lai,v dyaffdc ylyvoiTO, etj>riSop.4iiovs 5" et Tis <rvp,<popa Trpo(nrlirToi, id,), 
and when they refused, the Spartans besieged the town, and in the 
end compelled the inhabitants to pull them down, and to settle 
as of old in 4 villages : from this measure followed of itself the 
restoration of the aristocratic constitution. The date assigned rests 
in this instance, as in the majority of the events immediately follomng, 
upon Diodorus ; here again no definite accounts of the time are found 
in Xenophon, and thus only isolated and chance indications as to 
chronology can be turned to account from that writer. 

187) The Olynthians, utilising the straitened situation of the 
Macedonian kings, had united the Greek towns in the vicinity of the 
coast in a league, to which even Pella belonged : according to Xenophon 
the Akanthians and ApoUoniates now came to Spai-ta, and begged for 
its support against the preponderant power of Olynthus; according to 
Diod. XV, 19 (cf. Isocr. Paneg. p. 67. § 126) it was Amyntas, king of 
Macedonia, who applied for Sparta's assistance, and the Spartans first 
sent Eudamidas with 2000 men against Olynthus ; a larger force was to 
follow as soon as possible, Xen. HeU. V, 2, 11 24. 

188) This was effected by Phoebidas, the brother of Eudamidas/, 
he had to conduct the reinforcements sent after his brother to the 
scene of the war, and whilst on his way thither made himself master 
of the Kadmeia through the treachery of a Theban party friendly 
to Sparta, Xen. HeU. V, 2, 25—36. Though the Spartans imposed a 
fine on Phoebidas, stUl they left the garrison in the Kadmeia, Polyb. 
IV, 26. Plut. Pelop. e. Diod. XV, 22. According to Diod. l.c. this, 
cannot have happened before 382 b.c : and with this Aristid. or. XIX,. 

The Incipient Decline. 



B. C. 




XCIX, 4 



Teleutias, the Spartan commander, is defeated by the Olynthians 
and falls in the battle'*'). 

C, 1 



King Agesipolis, leader of the Spartans against Olynthus, dies""). 
Kleombrotus King of Sparta in his stead"'). 

Phliu's besieged by the Spartans under Agesilaus"*). 

C, 2 



Olynthus"') and Phlius"^) reduced to subjection. 
The liberation of Thebes and the Kadmeia"^). 

1. p. 258 (Jebb) is also in agreement ; according to which passage the 
occupation of the Kadmeia happened at the time of the Pythian 
games, i.e. in the first months of the third year of the Olympiad: 
Xenophon only tells us, that it took place in the summer, 1. c. § 29. 
The succession of events, which must be settled in agreement with 
Xenophon, is not opposed to the adoption of this year as the date. 

189) Teleutias led (certainly still in 382 a c.) the larger army, 
fixed at 10,000 men, into the territory of Olynthus : he strengthened 
himself with mercenary troops from Amyntas and a Thrakian prince 
Derdas, and won (stBl in the same year) a victory over the enemy, 
Xen. Hell. V, 2, 39—43 : but in the following year (Xen. 1. u. 3, 1) he 
was totally defeated, and himself lost his life, id. 3, 1 — 6. 

190) Xen. Hell. V, 3, 8—9. 18—19. From Xen. 1. c. § 3, cf. § 18, 
it is clear that Agesipolis cannot have conducted the war in the same 
summer, in which Teleutias feU ; and, besides that, this is improbable 
on account of the great preparations, which were made for the 
campaign under Agesipolis, id. § 8. However, it does not foUow from 
that passage, that the beginning of the war must be placed in 383 e. c. : 
Polybiades, the successor of Agesipolis, could join the army in a short 
time, and then very easily bring the war to an end by the summer of 
379 B. 0. 

191) Diod. XV, 23. Paus. HI, 6, 1. 

192) Shortly after the destruction of Mantineia, probably in 384 B.C., 
the Phliasians had been obliged to take back their exiles at the demand 
of Sparta and to restore them to their property, Xen. Hell. V, 2, 8 — 10. 
The result, as was easy to foresee, was that disputes arose between 
them ; whereupon AgesUaus marched into their territory and invested 
the town, id. 3, 10 — 18. According to Xen. 1. o. § 10, the disputes, 
which resulted in war, broke out at the time when Agesipohs was 
conducting the war against Olynthus. 

193) Xen. Hell. V, 3, 26. Diod. XV, 23. The Olynthians were 

overcome by Polybiades, the successor of Agesipolis : they were 
obliged to renounce their league, and join the Spartan alliance. 

194) Xen. HeU. V, 3, 21—25. According to id. § 25 the affair 
with Phlius (ret fi^v irepl ^Xiovvra.) lasted altogether 1 year and 8 
months. The town was obliged to surrender unconditionally, and 
Agesilaus appointed a commission, half being composed of exiles, to 
punish the guilty and introduce a new legislation; for the better 
security of which he left a garrison behind him. 

195) Xen. HeU. V, 4, 3—12. Plut. Pelop. 7—12. de gen. Socr. 
p. 575—598. Diod. XV, 25—26. The leaders of the bold enterprise, 
by which the liberation was effected, were Mellon, Charon, PhyUidas, 
and above all Pelopidas (the last not named by Xenophon) ; by them 
the heads of the party which had betrayed Thebes to Sparta, AJchias, 
Philippus, Leontiades, Hypates, were murdered, and thus the town 
itself was freed : on the following day, with help from the rest of the 
exiles and Athenian volunteers, who had been summoned from the 
borders of Attica, the Kadmeia was assaulted by storm, and the 
garrison immediately surrendered on the condition of a free departure 
being granted them. For the time of this event, so important in 
its consequences, see Plut. Ages. 24, according to which it took place 
shortly after the reduction of Phhus, whilst according to Plut. Pelop. 
9. Xen. 1. c. § 14, it took place in the winter (379/8). (For the turning- 
point marked in the history of this period by the liberation of 
Thebes, see obs. 152 : cf. also the Panegyric of Isokrates, composed 
in 380 B.C., which everywhere discloses to us the arrogance of Sparta, 
the pressure with which that arrogance weighed on the other Greek 
states, and in particular the evil case of the Greek towns in Asia 
Minor, which Sparta had given up to the Persians, see esp. p. 65. 
§ 117 : Toffouroc S' iir^xovn r^s i\ev0eplas Kal ttjs avTovo/xlas, wad' 
at ix^v vird rvpavvoLS elffl, rds 5* apfioffral KaT^x^^ffiv^ ^vioL di ovacTTaTot 
yeyoycurc, twv d' ol ^dp^apoi SeffTrorat KadearriKaaiv, further Isocr. de 
pao. p. 179. § 97—101. etc.) 



Fourth Period. 431— 338 b. c. 




0, 3 

0, 4 
CI, 1 



d) The Theban War. 378—362 b. c. 

Kleombrotus and Agesilaus make successive invasions of Boeotia, 
but without important result™). 

Athens unites with Boeotia against Sparta"') and recovers the 
hegemony by sea"'). 

Second invasion of Boeotia by Agesilaus™). 

Unsuccessful attempt of Kleombrotus to penetrate again into 

Naval victory of the Athenians under Chabrias over the Spartans 
at Naxos''"). 

196) Xen. Hell. V, 4, 13-18. 35—41. The first expedition of 
Kleombrotus was undertaken in the second half, and before the end 
of, the winter 879/8, see Xen. 1. c. § 14 ; on the second expedition of 
Agesilaus the Athenians had already come to the aid of the Thebans 
under the command of Chabrias, and it was they chiefly who kept 
AgesUaus from venturing a battle through the imposing attitude of 
their peltasts, Diod. XV, 32—33. Corn. Nep. Chabr. 1. 

197) After the Hberation of the Kadmeia the Athenians had at first 
attempted to appease and pacify the Spartans for the help, which they 
had lent the Thebans on that occasion (obs. 195), by condemning 
to death the two generals who had been concerned in the affair, Xen. 
Hell. V, 4, 19. Plut. Pel. 14. (It is also worthy of note as a proof of 
the fear which was universally entertained of Sparta, that even the 
Thebans after the liberation of the Kadmeia stUl sent an embassage 
to Sparta, offering to remain under Sparta's hegemony as heretofore. 
Isocr. Plat. p. 301. § 29.) But soon after this Sphodrias, whom 
Agesilaus had left behind as harmost at Thespise, made an inroad 
into Attica, Xen. 1. c. § 20 — 24, which the Spartans left unpunished, 
id. § 25 — 33. This induced the Athenians to take part openly with 
the Thebans, id. § 34. 

198) Diod. XV, 28. 29—30. The Athenians summoned the islands 
and the towns on the Thrakian coast, to unite in a league with them ; 
in which, little by little, some 70 towns (Diod. 1. o. Maah. de f. leg. 
p. 37. § 70) came to participate. The alliance was estabUshed with 
very fair conditions for those who joined it (e.g. the Athenians bound 
themselves never to acquire possessions in foreign territory, and 
generally showed no wish to prejudice in any way the independence of 
the allies, Diod. l.u. Isocr. Plat. p. 300. § 18. p. 305. § 44), and the 
conditions were embodied in a record, which was signed by the 
members, and which happily is stiU preserved in an inscription 
found in 1851, see Meier Comment, epigr. H, p. 53 ff. The first 
to join the alliance were, as we are told, Chios, Byzantium, Bhodes, 
Mytilene, Diod. 1. o. 28, then Eubosa, with the exception of the town 
Histijea, SMathus and Peparethus, id. 30 ; numerous other names 
are found in the inscription mentioned, e.g. Perinthus, Maroneia, 

Paros, Andros, Tenos, Antissa, Eresus, Keos, Amorgus, Selymbria, 
Siphnus, Zakynthus : Thebes also joined this league, id. and Diod. 
1. c. 20. The common concerns were discussed in a avviSpiov at 
Athens, id. 28, and the contributions of the allies were styled avvToitu, 
in order to avoid the name <p6pos, which had become odious; so 
in Isocr. de pae. p. 165. § 29. p. 166. § 36. Xenophon does not 
mention this alliance, but he at least intimates its existence. Hell. V, 
4, 35, and presupposes it in his later narrative. That it was concluded 
in this year, we learn from the inscription, already referred to, in 
which the archon of the year 378/7 is named Nausinikus : when 
in line 4 mention is made of the seventh Prytany of this year, 
i.e. February or March 377 B.C., this only refers to the composition 
of the document, which, as is shown by line 24, did not take place 
tiU after the alliance had been concluded with several states. 
Diodorus places it, as he does the events of this period generally, 
a year too late. 

199) Xen. Hell. V, 4, 47—55. The time is given definitely id. 
§ 47. On the way home he was attacked by an iUness, which arose 
from a sore in the foot : this prevented him for a consideral^le time 
from taking any part in the war, id. 58. Plut. Ages. 27. 

200) Xen. Hell. V, 4, 59. The Thebans and Athenians had 
occupied Kithteron, and Kleombrotus vainly endeavoured to expel 
them from their position, and so open up the way into Bceotia. 

201) The Peloponnesians had fitted out a fleet of 60 ships, with 
which they harassed and commanded the sea in the neighbourhood of 
Athens: accordingly the Athenians went on board their vessels, and 
gave them battle at Naxos, when the Spartans were totally defeated, 
Xen. HeU. V, 4, 60—61. Diod. XV, 34—35. Plut. Phoc. 6. Demosth. 
Lept. p. 480. § 77—78. (According to Demosthenes Chabrias took 
49 ships, according to Diodorus 24 were scuttled, 8 taken.) The 
time of the battle, the 16th of Boedromion (September), Plut. 1. c. 
Cam. 19. After the battle many islands in the archipelago were won 
over to the Athenian aUiance, Plut. Phoc. 7. Dem. I.e. (According 
to Dem. Phil. IH, p. 116. § 23 the prostasy of the Lacedsemomans 
ceased with this battle.) 

The Incipient Decline. 



B. C. 




CI, 2 



The Athenians under Timotheus extend their naval supremacy 
over the Ionian sea*""). 

The Thebans restore the Boeotian league, formed under their 
own headship, and compel the Boeotian towns to join it'"'). 

CI, 3 



The Thebans invade Phokis'"'*) ; but are compelled to retire by 
Kleombrotus, who had been sent by the Spartans with an army to the 
aidof thePhokians'^"'). 

A short peace, soon ruptured again, between Athens and Sparta™). 

CI, 4 



Successful naval expedition of Iphikrates to Kerkyra, by which the 
supremacy of Athens in the Ionian sea is restored and fortified'""). 

CII, 1 



202) Xen. Hell. V, 4, 62—66. Diod. XV, 36. TimotheuB defeated 
the Peloponnesiau fleet under Nikolochus at Alyzia, Xen. 1. o. § 65, 
and won over Kerkyra to the Athenian alliance, id. § 64, likewise 
KephaUenia, the towns in Akarnania, and Alketas, king of the 
Molossians, Diod. I.e. of. Xen. id. (For Timotheua generally cf. 
Isocr. de permut. § 109—130. Dem. Lept. p. 480. § 78.) 

203) Xen. Hell. V, 4, 63 : "Are dk eli rds O^iSas ow inPepK-qKOTav 
Tav TToXefiiui' oiiV iv <J KXeo/i^poTos ^7e tijk ffT/janix Irei out iv (fi 
Ti/t69eos repdirXevtre, Spaffiws Si) iarpaT^iovTo ol Bij^aioi. iiri t&s ire/jioi- 
KtSat voXeis koX irdXic auris dceXa/ijSai'oi'. At all events much was 
contributed to this result by a victory, which the Thebans under 
Pelopidas gained over a troop of enemies, superior in number, at 
Tegyra, Plut. Pelop. 16—17. Diod. XV, 37. (It is not mentioned 
by Xenophon.) Orchomenus alone still remained unsubdued. The 
passage cited from Xenophon is of great importance for the chronology, 
as in it the year in which Kleombrotus made his fruitless attempt to 
invade Boeotia (376 b. c.) is expressly distinguished from the year in 
which Timotheus sailed round the Peloponnese and the Thebans 
reduced the Boeotians to subjection. Now if for the year 375 b. c. 
the advance of the Thebans was limited to this, and it is not tiU 
below VI, 1, 1 that it is noted as a further advance, that they invaded 
Phokis, then it follows at the same time, that this invasion cannot 
well be placed earlier than 374 B. c. 

204) Xen. Hell. VI, 1, 1. 

205) Xen. Hell. VI, 2, 1. 

206) Xen. Hell. VI, 2, 1—3. The causes which led to the peace on 
the side of Athens, id. § 6 : oi 3' 'AdrivaXoi ai^avofiivovs p.iv opdvTes rois 

.QTj/Satous, Xj3)J|HaTa re ou ffv/i^aWo/Uvovs els ro vavri-Kov, airol Si airo- 
,Kvai.6iKvoi Kal xptiiun-wv el(T(l>opah Kal Xxt^Tflais i^ klylvifs koX 0u\a/for! 

T^s X'^/"") iT^tSiiJ^riiTav t^s elpTivl^i koX iri/i'pdi'Tei xp^ff^eis els AaKeSal- 
fiova elp-qfriv iiroi-qaavTo. They now immediately recalled Timotheus, 
who still remained with the fleet in the western sea; but the war 
soon broke out again : for on his way back Timotheus reestablished 
some fugitives (the expelled democratic party) in Zakynthus, and 
the Spartans on their side sent a fleet again to the western sea, 
in order to expel these fugitives, id. § 2 — 3. cf. Diod. XV, 45. 

207) The Spartan fleet (obs. 206), 60 ships strong, Bails Under the 
command of Mnasippus to Kerkyra and besieges the town, Xeh. Hell. 
VI, 2, 2 — 9 : the Athenians, applied to for help by the Kerkyrseans, 
first send 600 hoplites under Ktesikles by the land route, id. 10 — 11, 
and then fit out a fleet of 60 ships, and again appoint Timotheus 
to the command ; he however, in order first to obtain sufficient 
hands to man the ships, sails eastward to the islands, instead of to 
Kerkyra, id. 11 — 12. Diod. XV, 47. In the speech of Demosthenes 
(or ApoUodorus?) against Timotheus p. 1186. § 6 we find t^e 
welcome account which fixes the time of this event in the month 
of Munychion in the archonship of Sokratides ; from the same speech 
we learn, that he was accused for his conduct and that the case was 
tried in the month of Maimakterion (November) in the archonship 
of AsteiuB, id. p. 1190. § 22. In consequence the Athenians replaced 
him in the command by Iphikrates, who then (as it appears, not till 
after the trial of Timotheus in the winter of 373/2 or perhaps in the 
spring of 372 b. o. ?) proceeded to Kerkyra, Xen. 1. o. § 13—14. 27—38. 
But before he arrived there, Mnasippus had been already defeated 
and slain, and Kerkyra liberated, id. § 15—27. Iphikrates at first 
remained in those waters, continually widening the boundaries and 
strengthening the foundations of the Athenian supremacy, id. (j 


Fourth Period. 431 — 338 b.c. 







CII, 2 



The Greek states conclude peace with one 
another, all except Thebes, which refuses to ac- 
cede to it'"'). 

Kleombrotus invades Boeotia, to compel the 
Thebans to accept the peace, but is totally de- 
feated by Epameinondas in the battle of Leuk- 
tra '■"''). Kleombrotus himself falls : his successor 
on the throne is Agesipolis II, and after the 
death of the latter, which took place shortly 
afterwards, Kleomenes 11^"). 

CII, 3 



Mantineia rebuilt"') ; the whole of Arcadia 
imited into one common state with Megalopolis 
for its capital "'0. 

Middle Comedy'^): 
Antiphanes"), Alex- 

208) Xen. Hell. VI, 3. The conditions of peace, see id. § 18; 
e^ri(pi<ravro Kal oi AaK€dai/ji.6vi.M SixeaBai ttiv cl/yrivrji', i<j> if tous re 
apfioarcLS iK tcHv TroXeojv ^^ayeiv, rd re (rrpaToTreda dioKvetv koX ri vavriKb, 
Kai TO, ire^K(£, rds re TroXeis avTovo^vs hav el d^ tls iraph, ravra iroiolTj, 
rbv fih ^ovXofievov ^o-qdeiv rats a^tKov^vaA,% TroXeert, Ttf 5k firj ^ov\ofiiv(f 
/I1J cTvai, ivopKov avfiiiax^'iv rois aSiKov/Mim^s. The Thebans were excluded 
from the peace, because they were not wilUng to sign it for themselves 
separately, but only for the whole Boeotian league, id. § 19 — 20. Plut. 
Ages. 28. Date of the peace: the 14th of Skirophorion (June), 
Plut. id. 

209) Xen. Hell. VI, i, 2—15. Mod. XV, 51—56. Plut. Pel. 
20—23. Paus. IX, 13. According to Diod. 1. c. 52 the Thebans were 
6,000 men strong, the Spartans, according to Plut. 1. o. 20, 11,000 
strong. The victory was chiefly due to the oblique order of battle 
adopted by Epameinondas, Diod. 1. c. 55 : Xof iji' iroiijo-os t'^v <j>a\ayya., 
cf. Plut. 1. c. 20, and to the fact that this general gave his left wing a 
depth of 50 men, and with this threw himself on the right wing of the 
enemy, where Kleombrotus was stationed with the most distinguished 
of the Spartiates, Xen. 1. u. § 12 : Xoyi^fievot ws el viKTiaeiav to irepl tov 
PtuTiXia, TO SXKo irHv eixelpurrov IffoiTo. Of the 700 Spartiates, who 
were present in the battle, 400 feU with the king Kleombrotus, besides 
1,000 Lacedsemoniaus, id. § 15. of. Diod. 1. c. 56. Dionys. Hal. Arch. 
H, 17. Plut. Ages. 28. Paus. IX, 13, 4. Of the Thebans only 300, 
Diod. 1. u., or actuaDy only 47, Paus. 1. c, are said to have fallen. For 
the important share of Pelopidas and the sacred band in the victory, 
Plut. Pel. 23 (for the sacred band generally see id. 18—19). The time of 
the battle : on the 5th of Hekatombeeon (July), 20 days after the peace. 

ee) The special characteristics of middle comedy, the writers of 
which embrace the period from the end of the Peloponnesian war up 
to Alexander, are stated in particular as follows : instead of the un- 
fettered personal and political satire of the old comedy, the ridicule 
under feigned names (alvty/mTuSuis KoiiiifSelv), Xlepl ku//,. VIH, 8, 9. IV, 
4. IX, 9. Schol. Dion. Thrao. p. 749. Arist. Poet. 9. Eth. Nicom. IV, 
8 ; the preponderance of parodies on serious poems, Platon. Uepl Sia^. 
Kwn. I, 16. Athen. XI, p. 472 e ; and the travesty of myths (Eubul. 
Antiop. fr. 2) ; the absence of the costly chorus and of the lively play 
of fantasy, which was an element in the old comedy, Ilepi Kup,. VIII, 15 ; 
and the introduction of standing masks or characters. For the style 
see Uepl Kay.. 3 : ttjs di p^a-ris Kupufdlas oi 7roi?;rai 7rXd(r/iaros ju^v oix 
ij^avTO ToiTyriKov, Sii, dk ttJs avvqBovs lovTes XaXios Xo7i(ciis ^X'""''' ros 
(j/jerds, ui(rre aTiviov ■woitjri.Kbv elvai xapaicrij/ja Trap ourois. 

Plut. Ages. 28. Cam. 19. Paus. VIII, 27, 6, in the archonship of Phrasi; 
kleides, Dionys. Hal. Lys. p. 479. Marm. Par. For the firmness of the 
Spartans on receiving intelligence of the disaster, see Xen. 1. o. § 16, es- 
pecially r^ 5^ uaTepatg, rfv opaVy c5v fxiv eT^dvourav ol irpotri^KOVTes, Xiwapovi 
Kal tpaidpovs ev Tip ipavepcp dvatrTpeipop^vouSt wv dk t^ojvTes TjyyeXpAvoi T^ffav^ 
, oKlyovs dv elSes, tovtovs Sk trKvdpwjrovs Kcd Taweipovs irepudvTas. They 
immediately equipped a new army and despatched it under the 
command of Archidamus : but meanwhile a convention had been 
arrived at through the mediation of Jason (obs. 224) between the 
Spartans and Thebans, which allowed the Spartans to depart freely : 
Archidamus thus met the retiring army at Megara, and returned back 
in its company, Xen. 1. c. § 17 — 26. Cic. de off. I. § 84 : Ula (plaga) 
pestifera, qua cum Cleombrotus invidiam timens temere cum Epami- 
nonda conflixisset, Lacedsemoniorum opes corruerunt. Further, for 
the ruinous results of the battle to Sparta, cf. Isocr. Phil. p. 91. § 

210) Diod. XV, 60. Paus. IH, 6, 1. Plut. Ag. 3. 

211) Xen. HeU.VI, 5, 3—5. Cf. obs. 186. The restoration was but 
one manifestation of the universal effort to obtain independence of 
Sparta, which was awakened in many parts of the Peloponnese by the 
battle of Leuktra. In regard to the time, thus much only is proved by 
the passage cited from Xenophon, that the rebuilding took place 
shortly after the battle of Leuktra ; according to Paus. VIH, 8, 6. IX, 
14, 2 it did not follow until the occasion of a Theban invasion of 
the Peloponnese, obs. 213. 

212) Xen. Hell. VI, 5, 6—9. Diod. XV, 59. Paus. VIU, 27, 1-*. 
According to Paus. 1. u. the foundation of Megalopolis took place in the 

ff) Antiphanes, bom it is uncertain whether at Smyrna, Ehodes, or 
Chios, lived ciro. 404 — 328, and wrote numerous comedies at Athens, 
Suid. s. V. Ilepi Ka/Ji. IH, 14 (eviftviaTaTov eis rbypdipeiv ksX Spa/j-aTorocTv). . 
Of these, titles and fragments of some 230 plays have come down 
to us, the most important from the comedies 'AypoiKos, ' kXieuopivii, 
A^poSlffios, ' X<j>poSlT-qs yoval, BouraXiwx, Tavv/niSTii, /^ISv/ioi, KvourStSevs 
1? Tdarpwi', KiK\(o\p, A-qiaiMi., Olvinaos tj II^Xo^, UapdaiTos, IlXouffioi, 
Hoiijcris, Xlpo^Xriiw,, Sair^ti, Srpariuriis ij tixuv, iiXoB-n^Mos. Cf . Meineke 
fr. com. med. p. 3 f. The refinement of his style is praised, Athen. I, 
p. 27 D. IV, p. 156 0. 168 d. 

gg) Alexis, bom at Thurii, then an Athenian citizen, Suid. s.v. 
Steph. Byz. p. 610, lived over a century, from about 390 to 286 b. o. 

The Incipient Decline. 






CII, 3 


First invasion of the Peloponnese by Epameinondas: he 
penetrates into Laconia, and marches through the country as far 
as Gytheium and Hehis"'). Messenia restored^"). 

Alliance between Athens and Sparta"^). 

Orators : Isokra- 

tes*""), Isseus"). 

same (Olympiad-) year, and only a few months after the battle of 
Leuktra : Xenophon and Diodorus 1. c. only inform ua of the Arca- 
dian rising : the foundation of Megalopolis is placed by Diodorus in 
another passage (XV, 72) in the year 368/7. The decision of common 
concerns lay with the Ten Thousand (oi fiipioi), who met together at 
Megalopolis as the representatives of the united communes, Diod. 1. c. 
cf. Xen. Hell. VH, 1, 38. 4, 2. 38. 84. Demosth. de f. leg. p. 344. § 11. 
p. 403. § 198. 

213) In consequence of the Arcadian movement the Spartans under 
Agesilaus undertook an expedition against that country, without 
achieving any important success, Xen. Hell. YI, 5, 10 — 21, "in the 
middle of the winter" (870—369), id. § 20. After the Spartans had 
retired, the Boeotians arrived (Orchomeuus had at this time joined the 
league Diod. XV, 57), reinforced by Phokians, Euboeans, Lokrians, 
Akamanians, also Herakleiotes, Malians, and Thessalian cavalry, 
Xen. I.e. §23, according to Diod. XV, 62 over 50,000 strong, according 
to Hut. Pel. 24. Ages. 31 actually 70,000 men strong. They united 
with the Arcadians, Argives, and Eleans, and then invaded Laconia, 
Xen. 1. c. § 23—32. Diod. XV, 62—67, the first time for 500 years 
that the country had been invaded by an enemy (Diod. 1. c. § 65. Xen. 
id. § 28 : rwv Si €k tiJs iroXews at ^kv yvvaiKcs ovSi tov Katrvov opwcai 
■tivelxovTo, are oiSiirore iSov<ra(. TroXe/xious). The Orchomenians, 
Phliasians, Corinthians, Epidaurians, Pellenians, Haliseans, and 
Hermioneans, who remained true to their alliance, came to the help of 

Sparta, Xen. id. § 29. cf. VH, 2, 2, and the Athenians also sent at their 
request an auidliary force under Iphikrates, id. VI, 5, 33 — 49. Diod. 

1. c. 63. Epameinondas however not only marched through Laconia, 
but also returned without hindrance, Xen. id. § 50—52. It was still 
winter at the time, id. 50. (He, together with the rest of the Boeotarchs, 
had retained his command beyond the legal period, and is said to have 
been charged with this offence upon his return to Thebes, but to have 
vindicated his conduct with brilliant success, Plut. Pel. 25, Pans. IX, 
14, 2 — i. Corn. Nep. Epam. 7—8.) 

214) Diod. XV, 66. Plut. Pel. 24. Pans. IV, 27, 5. IX, 14, 2, cf. VI, 

2, 5. The restoration took place in connexion with the expedition of 
Epameinondas, see the passages quoted, esp. Pans. IV, 27, 5 : in 
Xenophon it is not mentioned on this occasion, but in the following 
year he takes the fact for granted, see HeU. VH, 1, 27, cf. 29. 86. 

215) Xen. Hell. VH, 1, 1—14. Diod. XV, 67. With regard to 
the hegemony it was determined, that both by land and sea it should 
be held alternately by Athens and Sparta for the space of 5 days, Xen. 
I. c. § 14. The conclusion of the alliance took place certainly not long 
after the Athenians had as a matter of fact already lent aid to the 
Spartans, obs. 213, that is, as this event had happened in the winter of 
870/69, before the expiration of 369 b. c, and when Xenophon (1. c. § 1) 
says that it was concluded tiJ iaripi^ ini., the official year or the year 
from spring to spring can only be meant. 

Plut. d. defect, orac. p. 420. Tlepl ku/i. Ill, 316. Aristot. ap. Strab. 
Ploril. CXVI, 47, and is said to have written 245 comedies. The most 
considerable fragments preserved are from the plays Atcroiros, 'Aire- 
yXaVKa/i^vos, 'AaunroSiSdaKoXos, ArinTiTpios i} ^iWrai/sos, 'lo-ooTaffiOK, 
K/JBTeuas ^ #ap/ia/co7ruXi;s, A^jSi?!, Alvos, Mavdpayopi^o/j.dvri, MiXi7(7ia, 
OXwSla, Havvvxh 'rj'Epi,6oi,,'Sapai'Timi,^atSpo9, cf. 
med. p. 382 f. He is praised for his wit, Athen. H, p. 59. Athenaeus 
knew over 800 plays of the middle comedy, VHI, p. 336 d : the names 
and fragments of 59 poets have come down to us. Besides those 
already named, the most numerous and important fragments pre- 
served are from the comedies of Anaxandrides of Kamirus, and 
Eubulus of Athens. Mein. I. o. p. 161. 203. 

hh) Isokrates of Athens, the master of epideiktio eloquence, bom 
436 B. 0., Isocr. vit. Westerm. Vit. min. p. 245 f. Vit. j3'. y, enjoyed 
a careful training, and attended the lectures of Tisias, Gorgias, 
Prodikus, and Sokrates (Plat. Phsedr. p. 278 e. 279b.). Vit. a. p'. y. 
Suid. s. v. As timidity and bodily weakness prevented him from 
coming forward in pubUc, Isocr. Panath. § 9. Philipp. § 81. Vit. a. j3' 
(: lo-xyStfiams t uv Kal euXa/S^s tov rpoirop). y', he founded a school of 
rhetoric, first in Chios, then at Athens, Vit. /3', wrote speeches for 
parties at law, for which he took payment, and made a large fortune, 
so that he could discharge the trierarchy, Vit. o'. j3'. Isocr. Ilepl ovtiS. 

§ 5. An opponent of the sophists, he gave prominence to the practical 
ethical side of political oratory, Isocr. Karo tw ,to4>. § 19. 'EX^ki;!; 
iyKO>/i. § 1—13. Epos NikokX. § 6. Uepl ivriS. § 3. Vit. a', and educated 
numerous pupils, e.g. Timotheus, Theopompus, Ephorus, Issus, 
Lykurgus, Demosthenes (?), Hypereides, etc. Vit. ^'. y' . Cic. de orat. 
H, 22, 94. He was a zealous patriot and committed suicide 
through grief at the defeat of Chsroneia, Vit. a. p'. y'. Pans. I 17. 
Of his speeches, about the number of which the ancients themselves 
differed in opinion, Vit. /3'. y'. Suid. 1. c, 21 are still preserved, 
8 forensic and 13 political declamations (iinSci^eis) ; amongst them of 
special prominence and also historical importance are the navrryvpiKos 
and the JlavaerjmCKos, panegyrics on Athens ; further ' ApeioTaymKO!, 
Hepl elp^VTis ij a-vfi/iax^Kos, Ilpos Nik:okX&, ^IXitttos, 'Apxldafioi, nXarai- 
Kos. Also ten letters have come down to us bearing his name, Bekk. 
Oratt. Att. n, p. 482 f.; and a treatise on oratory, t^x'm (rix'Vly was 
ascribed to him, Vit. /3'. Cic. de invent. H, 2. Quint. II, 15, 4. 
Westerm. I, p. 298. Cicero eaUs Isokrates " pater eloquentiffi",' de 
orat. n, 2, 10 : cf. Dion. Hal. Isocr. 3 : Baviuurnv yhp Kal fiiya to tij? 
IffOKparovs KaTaiTKemjs Stj/os, TipuiKrJ! /iSXKov ij d.vdpwirlrijs. 

ii) Isffius of Chalkis in Eubcea, lived circ. 420—348, and settled at 
Athens, where he became the pupil of Isokrates and Lysias, established 


Fourth Period. 431 — 338 b. c. 







CII, 4 



Second invasion of the Peloponnese by Epa- 

Sculptors : Sko- 
pas""), Praxiteles"). 

cm, 1 



The Arcadians defeated by the Spartans^"). 

cm, 2 



Fruitless attempt on the part of Thebes to 
establish peace by means of Persian influence^"j. 

21fi) Xen. Hell. Vn, 1, 16—22. Mod. XV, 67—69. The Athenians 
ahd Spartans had occupied the Oneium range, in order to close the 
entrance into the Peloponnese against the Thebans : bnt the Thebans 
defeat the Spartans, and so open the way, Xen. 1. c. § 15 — 17. They 
next win over Pellene and Sikyon to join their league, and lay waste 
the territory of Epidaurus, id. § 18. cf. 2, 11 : then return back again, 
without achieving any further important success. It is also worthy 
of notice, that at this time auxiliary troops were sent to the Spartans 
by Dionysius, tyrant of Syracuse, Xen. 1. c. 1, 20 — 22 ; as also on two 
future occasions, the last time in the reign of Dionysius the younger, 
id. 1, 28. 4, 12. From Xenophon and also from Diodorus it is probable 
that the second expedition, as well as the first, took place in 369 jj. u. 
But considering "the nature of our sources of information this cannot 
be looked upon as fuUy proved, and it is not impossible that the 
expedition was not undertaken till 368 B.C. In point of fact, for 
the chronology of the whole period up to the battle of Mantineia, 
not counting the fixed points secured to us by the celebration of the 
Olympic games, obs. 223, and by an eclipse of the sun, obs. 224, 
we are dependent merely on Diodorus and on combinations, as 
Xenophon only yields us few and inadequate landmarks. Now 
Diodorus is in the habit of classing together all the events of the 
Olympiad year (or, what is nearly the same thing, of the year calculated 
by the arohonship at Athens), i. e. of the time from the middle of summer 
in one year to the same time in another {not to mention that he very 

often combines the events of two years under one, and generally 
proceeds in a very incorrect and superficial manner), and consequently 
it always remains uncertain, where we are confined to his testimony, 
whether the events are to be placed a year earlier or later. 

217) In the consciousness of the increase in their strength pro- 
duced by their union, the Arcadians had made several successful 
enterprises on their own account, Xen. Hell. VII, 1, 22 26. Ac- 
cordingly Archidamus, the son of Agesilaus, undertook a campaign 
against them in connexion with the auxiliaries from Syracuse, and by 
a bold attack, when the Arcadians attempted to surround him, won a 
brilliant victory, in which many Arcadians fell, but not a single 
Spartan lost his hfe, Xen. 1. c. § 28—32. Diod. XV, 72. Plut. Ages. 
33, hence called the aSaKpm i^axv, Plut. I.e. Owing to the growth of 
their self-esteem just referred to, the Arcadians had already at this 
time become more and more estranged from Thebes, Xen. I.e. 
§ 24. 39 : also the disputes with Elis were already beginning, § 26. 32. 

218) Xen. HeU. VH, 1, 33—40. Pint. Pelop. 30. Artax. 22. The 
conditions of peace (for these see Xen. 1. c. § 36), in the negotiation of 
which Pelopidas, who had been sent by the Thebans as ambassador 
to Susa, was mainly instrumental, were dictated by the Persian king, 
but not accepted by the rest of the Greek States. An attempt to 
establish peace, made a year previously by Philiskus, the ambassador 
of the satrap Artabazanes, had been shipwrecked on the refusal of 

a school of rhetoric, which was visited by Demosthenes, and, as 
counsel, wrote speeches for his clients to deliver in the courts. Is. vit. 
a', p'. y. Vfesterm. Vit. min. p. 260 f. Suid. s. v. Plut. Glor. Athen. 
p. 350 c., all on cases relating to inheritances. We know the titles 
of 55 of his speeches, but only 11 are extant. Mention is also made 
of a theoretical work of his, tSiai t^x*'"'. Vit. ^'. It is said of the 
style of Isseus in comparison with Lysias, Vit. y' : Sia^ipei S' on r^j 
fi^v TToXi) TO d^eX^s Kal to ijdtKov Kal tJ X^/"^» V ^' '^o'aiov TexvtKtiJT^pa 
So^eien civ elvai Kal aKpi^ea-Tdpa Kal axnH-o-TUTpio'LS Si.ei,\-qp,idvri jroi/ciXois 

kk) Skopas of Paros flourished between 392 and 348 B.C., Strab. 
p. 604. Pans. VIII, 45, 3. 4, worked specially in Karian marble, and 
enriched Greece, Ionia, and Karia with numerous representations of 
gods, demigods, and heroes, notably those of the circle of Dionysus 
and Aphrodite. The most famous of his statues were the raving 
Bacchante, CaUistrat. Stat. 2. Anthol. Pal. IX, 774. Anth. Jao. I, 75, 
his gods of love Eros, Himeros, and Pothos in the temple of Aphrodite 
at Megara, Pans. I, 43, 6, and the group Poseidon, Thetis, and 
Achilles, Plin. XXXVI, 26. He was employed as architect on the 
temple of Athene Alea at Tegea, the most beautiful in the Peloponnese, 

Pans. Vm, 45, 4, and on the tomb of Mausolus, Plin. XXXTV, 30, 31. 
The living truth to nature and the beauty, with which he expressed in 
marble human passions and violent emotions of the soul, filled the 
beholder with admiration. 

11) Praxiteles of Athens flourished circ. 368—336 b.c. Corp Inscr. 
Gr. no. 1604. Plin. XXXIV, 50, and, like Skopas, worked chiefly in 
marble, Plin. XXXIV, 69: marmore felicior ideo et clarior fuit. 
EspeciaUy famous among his many masterpieces were the resting 
Satyr (irepi/3o',;ros) Plin. XXXIV, 69. Pans. I, 20, 1, the Knidian 
Aphrodite, Plin. XXXVI, 20: ante omnia est non solum Praxitelis 
verum in toto orbe terrarum Venus, and the Eros at Thespiffi, 
Paus. IX, 27, 3. Plin. XXXVI, 22: propter quern Thespim visebantur. 
In the delineation of sensuous charms and the grace of bodily form he 
was a master unsurpassed, Luc. amor. 13. imag. 4. Pliny says of 
him, 1. u. 20: marmoris gloria superauit etiam semet. Whether the 
famous group of the dying children of Niobe was the work of Skopas 
or Praxiteles, the ancients were themselves doubtful, Plin. XXXVI, 28. 
Amongst extant statues, from which we can gain an intuition as to 
the artistic style of the period of Skopas and Praxiteles, are the 
NiobidsB at Florence, the so-called Niobide at Paris, the so-caUed 
Ilioneus at Munich, and the reliefs on the monument of Lysikrates. 

The Incipient Decline. 







cm, 3 



Third invasion of the Peloponnese by Epameinondas^'"). 

Alliance between Arcadia and Athens"'"'). Phlius and Corinth con- 
clude a peace with Thebes ^^'). 

cm, 4 



War between Elis and Arcadia"'"). 

CIV, 1 



The Arcadians in possession of Olympia : under their protection the 
Pisatans arrange the celebration of the Olympic games instead of the 

Pelopidas is killed in battle with Alexander of Pherse'"^). The 

Thebes to accept a peace, whioli did not recognise the independence of 
Messenia (Xen. 1. c. § 27. Diod. XV, 70). 

219) Xen. Hell. Vn, 1, 41—43. Diod. XV, 75. The expedition was 
directed against Aohaia. The towns there were, it is true, compelled 
to join the Boeotian alliance ; but when the Thebans in these towns 
at the instigation of the Arcadians and contrary to the wish of 
Epameinondas forcibly established the democratic constitution and 
expelled those opposed to it, they not only revolted again, but even 
openly espoused the side of Sparta. 

220) Occasion for this alliance was furnished by Oropus, which, 
having been wrested from Athens in 411 b.c. (obs. 118), and having 
lapsed again to Athens in the first years of the Theban war, was now 
taken possession of once more by the Thebans, Xen. Hell. VH, 4, 1. 
Diod. XV, 76. The Athenians, namely, were irritated with the allies, 
because they refused them the required assistance for the recovery of 
Oropus ; and the Arcadians made use of the opportunity, to induce 
Athens to conclude an alliance with themselves, Xen. 1. c. § 2 — 3. 
Accordingly the Athenians were now at one and the same time in 
league with the Spartans and their enemies, the Arcadians, just as the 
Arcadians were with the Thebans and their enemies, the Athenians ; a 
relation, which is explained by the position of the Arcadians at that 
time (obs. 217), but one which naturally could not be lasting. For 
the misunderstandings hence arising between Athens and Corinth, 
Xen. 1. c. § 4—6. 

221) Xen. HeU. VH, 4, 6—11. Diod. XV, 76. The Corinthians 
together with the Phliasiaus and other allies (who, however, are not 
named) concluded peace (which according to Diodorus was dictated by 
the king of Persia), because they were exhausted by the hardships and 
losses of the war, from which Phlius in particular had suffered severely 
(Xen. Hell. VII, 2). They first called on Sparta to share in the peace : 
but the Spartans could not make up their minds to do so, as they 
were unwiUiug to recognise the independence of Messenia. (This 
was the situation, when the Spartans were called on to conclude 
peace and recognise the independence of Messenia, to which the 
speech of Isokrates refers, that bears the name of Arohidamus.) 

222) Xen. HeU. H, 4, 12—18. Diod. XV, 77. The Eleans had 
surprised Lasium, which belonged to the Arcadian league ; whereupon 
the Arcadians, after defeating the Eleans at Lasium, invade EUs, lay 
the country waste, and take several towns, amongst them Pylos. The 
result of the war was that the Eleans enrolled themselves amongst the 


allies of Sparta, Xen. 1. c. § 19 : on the present occasion support was 
lent them by the Achsans, id. § 17, who were Spartan allies (obs. 219). 

223) Xen. HeU. VH, 4, 19—33. Diod. XV, 78. The Arcadians 
invade Elis anew and defeat the Eleans, Xen. 1. c. § 19. At the 
request of the Eleans the Spartans under Archidamus invade Arcadia 
and take Kromnus : in consequence the Arcadians return back from 
Elis, invest Kromnus and compel the garrison, such, that is, as had 
not made their escape, to surrender, id. § 20 — 25. 27. The Arcadians 
now renew their invasion of Elis, and get the Pisatans to under- 
take the management of the Olympic games under their protection ; 
and this is done in spite of a brave attack made by the Eleans, id. 
28 — 32 : for that reason this Olympiad was not coimted by the Eleans, 
as being a,n.'Ayo\vixinds, Paus. VI, 22, 2. 

224) (In Thessaly Jason of Pherae, already mentioned in obs. 209, 
had in 374 b. o. gained possession of the sovereignty as Ta7o!, Xen. Hell. 
VI, 1 : after the battle of Leuktra he was just on the point of marching 
into Greece, and his power was so great, that much apprehension 
was entertained there, when he was murdered in the summer of 370 B.C., 
about the time of the Pythian games, id. VI, 4, 27 — 32. His im- 
mediate successors were Polydorus and Polyphron ; and when 
Polydorus had been murdered by Polyphron and Polyphron by Alex- 
ander, the latter ascended the throne, id. § 33 — 35 ; and he maintained 
his sovereignty for the space of 11 years, from 369 — 858 b. c, Diod. 
XV, 61. Owing to his cruelty the Aleuadas of Larissa first applied to 
the king of Macedonia, and then the Thessalian towns applied to 
Thebes for assistance, Diod. XV, 61, 67. Plut. Pel. 26.) Pelopidas, 
probably in 369 B.C., made a first invasion of Thessaly, in which he 
Uberated the Thessalian towns and at the same time compeUed the 
Macedonian king Alexander to yield up Larissa, of which he had 
taken possession, Diod. IX, 67. Plut. Pel. 26. In the foUowing year 
he returned to Thessaly as an ambassador without an army, but was 
treacherously held prisoner by Alexander of Pherae, untU the Thebans 
under the command of Epameinondas, after the failure of a first 
expedition under another commander, restored him to freedom 
(probably in 368 B.C.), Plut. Pel. 27—29. Diod. XV. 71. 75. Both 
times (so according to Plut. 1. c. , according to Diodorus only the first 
time) Pelopidas made liis way as far as Macedonia and so obtained 
the conclusion of an aUiance between the Macedonian king and 
Thebes. In the present instance it again remains doubtful (cf. obs. 
215) whether the expeditions must be placed as stated or a year later. 



Fourth Peeiod. 431 — 338 b.c. 






CIV, 1 


Thebans extend their hegemony over Thessaly''^''), and even attempt to 
win the hegemony by sea""'). 

CIV, 2 



Schism amongst the Arcadians^"). 

CIV, 3 



Battle of Mantineia and death of Epameinondas''^). 

The belligerent parties conclude peace, in which Sparta refuses to 
share *''). 

In 364 B.C. Pelopidas was again invoked by the Thessaiians to their 
aid against Alexander of Pherae, and defeated him at Kynoskephalse, 
but feU himself in the battle. Pint. Pel. 31—32. Died. XV, 80. The 
precise date of this expedition is established by an eclipse of the sun, 
which according to Plutarch and Diodorus happened immediately 
before it, and which fell on the 13th of July 364 b. o. 

225) On the inteUigeuce of Pelopidas' death the Thebans im- 
mediately undertook a Greek expedition to Thessaly (with an army of 
7000 hoplites and 700 horsemen under command of Malkites and 
Diogeiton, Plut.), and compelled Alexander of Pherse to free the 
Thessalian towns, as also the Magnesians, Phthiotians, and Achseans, 
to confine himself to Pherse, and to join the Boeotian league, Plut. Pel. 
85. Diod. XV, 80. 

226) At the instance and under the command of Epameinondas a 
voyage was made, which was extended as far as Byzantium, but 
remained without further consequences owing to the death of 
Epameinondas occurring soon afterwards, Diod. XV, 78 — 79, cf. 
Isocr. Phil. p. 93. § 53. Msch. de f. leg. p. 42. § 105 : "ETraiieivuvSas 
crrpaTTiybs oix itrowTTi^as to tov 'Affijvaloiv a^iu/ia dve dtappriStiv h ry 
irX'qdet. twv Qrj^ai(i)t', (as del ra rijs ' AOtivaioji/ aKpoToXeus irpoirvXata 
liereticyKe'iv els t^x irpoaTairlav t^s 'KaSfielas. The expedition to 
Thessaly, obs. 225, and the sea voyage of Epameinondas are in all 
probability synchronous; else, it may be presumed, Epameinondas 
would have held the command in the former, but whether both should 
be placed in 364 or 363 b. o. cannot be determined with certainty. 

227) The schism arose out of the possession of Olympia and of the 
temple-treasures there, which were applied by the common Arcadian 
board to the payment of the troops (the so-called 'BTropiroi). The Man- 
tineians were the first to declare against this proceeding, and their 
example was followed by other Arcadians (it was the aristocratic party, 
it appears, that made the opposition, and the states, where the aris- 
tocrats were in the ascendant, went over to this side, Xen. HeU. VII, 
4, 84. 35, 5, 1), and this party now concluded peace with the Eleans, 
Xen. 1. c. 4, 85, and sent ambassadors to Athens and Sparta to pray 
for assistance, id. 5, 3, whilst the other party called the Thebans to 
their aid, id. 4, 34. For the whole of these events, id. 4, 33—5, 3. 
Diod. XV, 82. In the Peloponnese there were now ranged on the 

one side, the Spartans, Eleans, Aehteans (obs. 222), and one half 
of the Arcadians with Mantineia at their head ; on the other side, the 
Argives, the Messenians, and the other half of the Arcadians with 
Tegea at their head : Corinth and PhUus remained neutral (obs. 221). 

228) Xen. HeU. VII, 5, 4—27 (i. e. to the end of the work). Diod. 
XV, 83 — 88. Plut. Ages. 34. The army of Epameinondas comprised 
the whole force of Boeotia, the Euboeans, and many Thessalians; 
in the Peloponnese his ranks were swollen by the peoples named in 
obs. 227. Xen. 1. c. § 4 — 5 : the Phokians had refused to accompany him 
id. § 4. The strength of the two armies is stated by Diodorus (84), at 
30,000 infantry and 2000 cavalry on the side of the Thebans, and 
20,000 infantry and 2000 cavalry on that of Sparta. Before the battle 
Epameinondas made an attempt to surprise, first Sparta, and then 
Mantineia : both attempts failed in consequence of unfavourable 
accidents, Xen. 1. o. § 9—17. Polyb. IX, 8. The battle, like that of 
Leuktra, was won by the oblique formation of the Theban ranks, Xen. 
1, c. § 23 : '0 Sk TO CTpareviw, avHirpupoy uairep TpiripTj irpoffijye vopX^uv, 
OTTTj ^fi^dKtav diaKO\l/eLe, dtatpQepe'ip d\ov to tCov ivavTiujv trTparevfia, but 
after the fall of Epameinondas (for his death see Pans. Vni, 11. 4 — 5. 
Diod. XV, 87. Plut. Mor. [Apophth. reg.] p. 194 o. Corn. Nep. Epam. 
9. Cic. de finn. II, § 97. ad div. V, 12) the Thebans did not follow up 
their victory any further, Xen. 1. c. § 25, 'Eirel ye ij.tjv exelvos eireaev, 
ol XotTTol oidi Trj vUjj opBas Sti i5vvaa-$r](Tav xpijcoo-ffai, (iWd tji\iyo\><n\s 
liii> auTois TTJs havrlas rjioXayyos ovSiva airiKTetvav oirXiTcu oiSi vporjKBov 
ex ToO x'^pl'Ov, hiBa tj irw/i/SoX^ eyivero. For the time of the battle see 
Plut. Mor. p. 845 E. (Vit. X. or. 27) p. 350 a. (deglor. Ath. 7), according 
to which it took place on the 12th of Skirophorion (June), 362 b. c— 
Diod. XV, 87 : Ha/ia fiAv ydp eKoirTifi tuv SXXav ev an eSpoi (tis) irpoT4piip,a 
Tris So^v^, wapd Si TovTip CEira/ieiviovSf) irdaas Tas apeTas r/Opouriihas.— 
Toiyapovp 1) irarpls aiiTov fuj/ros /lii/ eKT^aaro T-qv Tryenovlav ttJs 'EXXoSos, 
Te\eVTri<ravTos Si Taxmis ecTepriBii. 

229) Diod. XV, 88. Plut. Ages. 85. Polyb. IV, 33. The Spartans 
excluded themselves from the peace, because they were unwiUing 
to recognise the independence of Messenia. In Arcadia several of the 
towns united in Megalopolis wished to separate themselves again, but 
they were retained by force, Diod. XV, 94. 

The Incipient DecKne. 



361— 338 b. c. 






a) Th.e war of the allies and the Sacred War and the advances of Philip 
up to his first expedition against Greece in 346 b. c.^"). 

CIV, 4 



Death of Agesilaus, Archidamus III king of Sparta^"). 

CV, 1 



CV, 2 



Philip, king of Macedonia"'^). He rids himself of his rival aspirants 
to the throne^''), and concludes peace and an alliance with Athens''''*). 

230) The war of the allies serves to roh Athens of the means to 
oppose Philip, and by the sacred war the power, which Thebes had 
just lately won, was broken. The chief reason, however, why Greece 
succumbed, must be sought in the degeneration of the Greeks, and 
accordingly Demosthenes, the most vigorous and noble of Philip's 
opponents, directed his chief efforts to kindle greater energy in the 
Athenians. Of the other states, in particular of Thebes, we are 
without detailed information: for Athens, see Dem. PhU. I, p. 41. 
§ 4 : povXeffSe (viz. for the future as for the past) Trepuovres avTuv 
TTvvffiveffBiu, Xiyeral ti KaiySv : cf. id. p. 53. § 44. p. 45. § 20 : oirois 
lai TTOHjo-ere o iroXXo/cis U|Uas ۤ\a.ipe, TrdvT ftarrw voiil^ovres ehai roO 
diovTos Kdi tA fjt^yuTT iv tols ypTjcpi&fKKriv alpovfievoCf iirl rt^ irpoTTeLV 
oiSk tA lUKpa iroiEiTf, thus their Une of action in opposition to Philip 
p. 51, § 40 : wffirep ol ^ap^apoi TrvKredovtrtv — vfAeh iav iv 'K.eppovTiffi^ ttuGt}- 
ffde ^iXiTTTOif, iKe'tae ^OTjdetv ^rjcpL^eade, idv ev IluXats, eKeiae, eav aWodi 
TTOV, avfj/irapadelTe ayw Karu Kal (TTpaTtyyeiade fi^v utt eKelvou, ^e^ovXeuffde 
S^ oud^v avTol (rvfitp4pov irepl rod ToK^fWv o6d^ irpb Ttav Trpayfidrwv 
irpoopan-e ov8iv, irplv ay ij yeyefTj/x^vov ij yiyvofievov tl Trvdrjffde. Cf. also 
Olynth. n, p. 25. m, p. 29. § 8. PhD. n, p. 66, § 3—4. The want of 
money, which was a bar to all enterprises, was chiefly caused by the 
practice of distributing the surplus of the public exchequer amongst 
the people in the form of the so-called dewpiKo, (see third period, obs. 
53) ; and these, like all other pernicious measures, proceeded for the 
most part from the demagogues, who flattered the people : see for the 
eeapiKo, Olynth. Ill, p. 31, § 11, and for the demagogues in particular 
id. p. 36. § 29 — 31. Finally a great evil lurked in the fact, that wars 
were now, as a rule, carried on exclusively with mercenaries, obs. 240. 

231) Plut. Ages. 36. 40. Diod. XV, 93. Xen. Ages. II, 28—31. He 
vent after the battle of Mantiueia in the spring of 361 b. c. to Egypt, 
laving been called by Nektanebus, the king of that country, to his 
tssistanoe, and died on his way home in the winter of 361/0 B.C. 

232) (For the origin of the royal house in Macedonia see Herod. 
Vm, 137 — 139. V, 22. The Macedonian kings' are mentioned in 
Greek history, beginning with Amyntas, a contemporary of the 
Peisistratids, onwards, id. V, 94 : he was succeeded by Alexander, who 
reigned at the time of the Persian wars, see id. VH, 137. Vni, 136. 
140. IX, 44, 45., etc., and this monarch by Perdikkas, who reaches 
down to the second half of the Peloponnesian war (to 413 B.C.), and 
often came into contact with the Greeks during its continuance, obs. 
52 : Archelaus then reigns till 399 ; Orestes tUl 397 ; Aeropus, the 
guardian of Orestes, after the murder of his ward, till 394 ; Pausanias, 
son of Aeropus, till 393, when he was murdered by Amyntas II, who 
then maintains the sovereignty with interruptions till 370, when he 
died, leaving behind liirn three sons, Alexander, Perdikkas, and Philip. 
Alexander reigned tUl 368 ; then his murderer Ptolemsus of Alorus 
tm 365 ; then the second brother Perdikkas till 359, when he fell in a 
battle with the lUyrians.) PMhp came to the throne in 359 B.C. 
(Diod. XVI, 2), at the age of 23, as is shown by Pans. VH, 7, 4. Justin. 
IX, 8, after passing 3 years previously as a hostage at Thebes, Justin. 
Vn, 5, cf. Diod. XVI, 2. Plut. Pel. 26 etc. (It appears from .ffisch. 
de f. leg. p. 31. § 26 — 29, that he did not come to Thebes till after the 
death of his brother Alexander, and likewise it is proved by Speusipp. 
ap. Athen. XI. p. 506 e, that he returned to Macedonia, not after the 
death of Perdikkas, but whilst he was stUl on the throne.) He 
succeeded to the sovereignty under the most difficult circumstances, as 
the empire was threatened in the north and north-west by the Pseonians 
and niyrians, of whom the latter had just defeated Perdikkas, and by 
several rivals for the throne within the kingdom itself : but he overcame 
these dilBculties mainly by the shrewdness with which, over and above 
his many distinguished qualities, he succeeded in isolating his enemies 
and conquering them one by one : his mode of procedure may be gatheied 
in greater detail from the accounts following. First he rid himself of 



Fourth Period, 431 — 338 b. c. 






CV, 2 


Philip subdues the Paeonians and Illyrians'^). 

CV, 3 



Euboea recovered by the Athenians''"'). 

CV, 4 



Philip conquers Amphipolis^") and Pydna''") : 

his alliance with 

the rival claimants of the throne, then, quieting Athena with a peace, 
an alKance, and promises, he conquered the Paeonians and lUyrians ; 
after which he strengthened himself by contracting an alliance with 
Olynthus and the Thrakian towns, in the hope of wresting from Athens 
its possessions on the Thrakian coast ; he next annihilated Olynthus, 
and finally, with the support of Thebes, pushed hia way into Greece. 
For his introduction of the phalanx see Diod. XTI, 3. Polyb. XVIU, 
12—15. For his character as contrasted with the inactivity of the 
Athenians, see Dem. 01. H, p. 24. § 23 : oi Si) BaviiMTov hanv, el 
(TTpaTevo/Mevos Kal irovuv eKelvos auras Kal Trapiiv i<fi Sjraci koX fxriSiva 
Kdipov ixTjd iSpav vapaKdTuv ■tjpi.ay /j.eXKovTav Kal f-q(j>i.^oiiivav koX vvvBa- 
vofJvaii veptylyviTai.. (According to Justin. Til, 5 he at first undertook 
the duties of sovereign only as the guardian of Amyntas, the son of 
his brother Perdikkas, but was soon compelled by the people to assume 
the royal title.) 

233) His rivals were Pausanias, who was supported by the Thrakian 
King Kotys ; and Argsus, supported by Athens : the former was put 
aside owing to negotiations with Kotys, Diod. XVI, 2. 3. Theop. fr. 
33, the latter was defeated, Diod. XVI, 3. Justin. Vn, 6. Mention is 
made of a third pretender in the person of Archelaus, Theop. fr. 32. 

234) Dem. adv. Aristocr. p. 660. § 121 : ilXnriros— Xpyatov xari- 
yovras Xa^dj/ tuv TiiJ.eTipav nphs ttoKituv d(/iijK£ iikv airois, ajr^SuiKe di 
irivra off dvuiKeffav airoh, iriix-j/as Sk ypd/xfiara ^irijyyiXKeTO eToifios elvai 
avp-l^axlav iroieicrBai Kal Trjv irarpiKriii tpMav majieovaBai., cf. Diod. XVI, 
4. Justin, vn, 6. The alliance was actually concluded, and Philip 
secretly promised the Athenians, that he would help them with the 
conquest of Amphipolis, Theop. fr. 189. Dem. 01. n, p. 19. § 6. 7. 

235) Diod. XVI, 4. 8. Justin. VII, 6. Since according to Diod. 1. c. 
8, the conquest of Amphipolis followed immediately upon the subjection 
of the lUyrians, and this cannot have taken place before 357 e. c., obs. 
236 and 240, the campaign against the Pseonians and lUyrians cannot 
be placed earlier than the year 358 b. c. 

236) Euboea, which previously belonged to the Athenian aUiance, 
obs. 228, had gone over to that of Thebes after the battle of Leuktra, 
Xen. Hell. VI, 5, 23. VII, 5, 4. Eretria was now threatened by other 
Eubcean towns and the Theban allies of the latter, and in its distress 
turned to Athens : Athens very readily granted the aid implored, 
defeated the opponents of Eretria together with the Thebans, and then 
brought over the whole of Euboea to its side once more, Diod. XVI, 7. 
Dem. adv. Androt. p. 597. § 14. pro Megalop. p. 205. ^ 14. Olynth. I, 
p. 11. § 8. de Chersones. p. 108. § 74—75. Isocr. Phil. p. 93. § 53. 
jEsoh. adv. Ctes. p. 65. § 85. The eagerness with which the 

Athenians pursued the matter is shown in particular from Dem. de 
Chers. 1. c. tare ykp Siprov tovt'^ oti Titfiodeos wot iKclvoi iv vfuv iSji^Tj' 
yoprjffev us Sei ^trriBeiv Kal Tovs EujSo^os <ru^eiv, ore Oij^awi KaredovKovrTo 
airrovs, Kal \^yojv etirev oiiVw ttws" ** c^W /iot, ^ovKeveffde" 107/ "Gi/jSa/ous 
Ixovres iv vqnif, tI xpriaeaBe Kal ri Set Troieiv ; ovk i/iir\riireT£ ripi BiXarrav, 
(3 avSpes 'AB7}vaXoij Tpvqpbjv ; ovk avaaT&VTes TJdij iropeiffeffBe eU top IleLpatd \ 
oi KaBiX^ere t&s vavs;" oiKovv elire /iiv ravra 6 Ti/wBeos, tTrairjaaTt S 
v/iets ; and from .ffisch. 1. c. iwaS^ diiprjaav els 'Evpoiav 9i)/3aioi Kara- 
iovkuxraaBaj. rhs iroXeis irei-pdfievoi, iv irivre ■^fiipais (cf. Dem. adv. 
Androt. 1. c.) i^orjBriaaTe ainoXs Kal vavffl Kal irej^ dvvdp^ij koI irplv 
Tpi6,KovB' T)iJ.ipas Si,eKBetv virocrirovdovs Qti^alovs d^TiKare, Kvptoi rijs 
'EO^olas yevofnevoi, Kol t6,s re iroXeis auras Kal ras TroKiretas awiSore dpBws 
Kal StKaius Tots wapaKaTaBe/iivois — and in consequence the orators are 
pleased to make frequent mention of this enterprise to the renown of 
the Athenians. The actual conclusion of an aUianoe is proved, 
partly by Dem. pro Megalop. 1. c, partly, and that more par- 
ticularly, by a record found in modem times, Eangabe Ant. Hell. II, 
no. 391 and 392. According to the inscription just mentioned the 
aUianoe was resolved upon in the archonship of Agathokles, 857/6 ; 
according to Dem. 01. I, 1. o. the ambassadors from Amphipolis came 
to Athens to beg for help, just at the time when the operations in 
Euboea had been brought to a close. 

237) Diod. XVI, 8. The people of Amphipolis sent ambassadors 
begging for help and offering to make over town and territory to the 
Athenians, Theop. fr. 47. Dem. 01. I, p. 11. § 8 : but the Athenians 
allowed themselves to be deceived by Philip's assurance, that he would 
fulfil his promise (obs. 234) and give up the town to them, Dem. 01. 
n, p. 19. § 6. (Dem.) de Halon. p. 83. § 27 : whereupon PhiUp stormed 
the town (according to Dem. Olynth. I, p. 10. § 5 being assisted by 
treachery), and retained it for himself, Epist. Phil. p. 164. § 21. The 
inhabitants were mildly treated on the whole, but PhUip's opponents 
were banished, Diod. 1. c. Corp. Inscr. Gr. H, no. 2008. Upon this 
war between Athens and Philip broke out, and lasted up to the peace 
of 346 B. 0. 

238) Pydna together with Pptidsea, Methone, and the whole region 
round about the Thermaio gulf belonged to Athens, Dem. Phil. I, p. 
41. § 4. For its conquest see Diod. XVI, 8. Dem. Lept. p. 475. § 63. 
According to the latter passage it was taken by treachery, cf. Olynth. 
I, p. 10. § 5. 

239) Dem. adv. Aristocr. p. 656. § 108. Olynth. H, p. 22. § 14. 
Phil, n, p. 70. § 20. He contracts the alliance to prevent his being 
hmdered at first in his enterprises by the powerful Olynthians, and, 
in order to win them over, gives them Anthemus, which had long been 

The Incipient Decline. 





CV, 4 

CVI, 1 
CVI, 2 



Chios, Byzantium, Rhodes and Cos revolt from the Athenian 
alliance : beginning of the war of the allies^*"). 

The Athenians defeated at Chios : Chabrias falls in the battle^*'). 

Philip subdues Potidaa''^''). Foundation of Philippi ''*'). 

The war of the allies ends with the grant of independence to the 
revolted allies""). 

a bone of contention between Olynthus and Macedonia, Dem. Phil. H, 

I. c, and also promises to subdue Potidsea for them, obs. 242. 

240) The outbreak was chiefly owing to the fact, that the Athenians 
did not remain faithful to the principles of equity and mildness, which 
they professed at the reestablishment of their hegemony, and also at 
first practised (obs. 198) ; thus, in particular, they had begun to 
partition property in foreign countries amongst Athenian Kleruchs, as 
at Samos, Philochor. fr. 131. Strab. p. 638. Heraclid. Pont. X, 7, cf. 
Diod. XVm, 18. Isocr. de permut. § 111. Dem. de Ehod. lib. p. 193. 
§ 9, at Potideea, obs. 242, and elsewhere, Isoor. 1. c. § 105. Another 
principal subject of complaint consisted in the mode io which Athens 
habitually carried on its wars. It was the regular practice, that is, to 
employ mercenaries only, and, as the leaders usually got no pay from 
Athens, they were obliged to extort money from the allies, see Dem. 
Phil. I, p. 63. § 45 ; Swoi. 5' av arparriybv koI \pri<l>i.(!ixa, kcvov koI ras a-wb 
Tov ^7]fw,Tos eXiridas kKirifi^rp-e, oiid^v vixtv tuv 5e6vT<av yiyveratt 
aX\' oi |U^y exSpoi KarayeXuffiv, oi 5^ ffiifi/xaxot redvaai Tip Siei toi)s 
ToiovTovt airoaroKom, id. p. 46. § 24 : e| oC S' airh Kad' avrh. to, ^eviKci, 
vfitv ffTparevsTai, rods tpiKovs viK^ koX tovs tru/t/.taxoi'y, ol d' kx^pol fiel^ovs 
ToC d^ovTos ycyovaa-tp, cf. id. § 46. 47. etc. According to Dem. de Ehod. 
lib. p. 191. § 3 the occasion of the war was the fear of the Ehodians, 
Chians, and Byzantians, that Athens would make an attack upon their 
independence, and the promise of support from Mausolus, the prince 
of Karia, a dependency of the Persian empire, cf. Diod. XVI, 7. 
According to Diod. 1. c. the beginning of the war belongs to the 
archonship of Kephisodotus, 358/7 ; but according to Dionys. Hal. 
Lys. p. 480 the whole of the war belongs to the archonships of 
Agathokles and Elpines, i. e. from the summer of 357 to that of 355 
B.C.: according to Diod. XVI, 7, cf. 22, the war lasted three years. 
The outbreak of this war was the reason why the Athenians were at 
first prevented from any undertaking in opposition to Philip. 

241) The Athenians made an attack on Chios : Chabrias fell, 
whilst attempting to force his way into the harbour with the fleet ; 
whereupon the Athenians were beaten back, Diod. XVI, 6. Corn. Nep. 
Chabr. 4. Plut. Phoc. 6. 

242) Diod. XVI, 8. The help from Athens came too late, Dem. 
Phil. I, p. 50. § 35. The Athenian Kleruchs there were expelled, the 
rest of the inhabitants were sold into slavery, Diod. 1. o. Dem. Phil. 

II, p. 70. § 20. (Demosth.) de Hal. p. 79. § 10 : town and territory 

were handed over to the Olynthians, Diod. 1. u. Dem. Olynth. II, p. 
19. § 7. adv. Aristocr. p. 656. § 107. And this was done in spite of an 
aUiance, which Philip had previously made with the town, (Demosth.) 
de Hal. I.e. The time of the capture of Potidssa is fixed with the 
greater precision, as according to Plut. Alex. 3. Consol. ad ApoU. p. 
105 A. § 6. Justin. XII, 16 there arrived immediately after the 
occupation of the town the joyful intelligence of three events, the 
birth of Alexander at Pella, the victory of PhUip's racehorse at 
Olympia, and the defeat of the Illyrians by Parmenion : now the birth 
of Alexander is placed by Plut. Alex. 1. c. on the 6th of Hekatombseon 
(21st of July) 356 b. c. 

243) Diod. XVI, 8. Philip was invoked by the inhabitants of the 
town Krenides, situated on this spot, to aid them against the Thrakians, 
and after repulsing the Thrakians, founded Philippi, and peopled it 
with the inhabitants of Krenides and Datus, which latter had shortly 
before been established by the Thasians on the coast, Artemid. -ap. 
Steph. Byz. s. v. iiXiTrTroi. Appian. B. C. IV, p. 105. Strab. p. 323. 333. 
fr. 33. 34. 36. 41. 43. The most important gain secured by this 
measure to Philip was, that he extended his conquests from Philippi to 
the Nestos, Strab. p. 323, and that from Philippi he was able to work 
the mines in the Pangseum range, the annual yield of which he brought 
up to 1000 talents, Diod. 1. c. 

244) Of the further course of the ' war of the allies ' all that we know 
is as follows. When Chares had already been despatched with 60 
ships, the Athenians fitted out a second fleet, with an equal number of 
vessels, under Iphikrates, Timotheus, and Mnestheus (Isocr. de 
permut. § 129. Com. Nep.). Both fleets united; and when the enemy 
who had entered on the siege of Samos relinquished it upon re- 
ceiving news of the approach of the Athenian ships. Chares insisted 
upon giving battle to the enemy's fleet, whilst the other commanders 
considered this impracticable owing to a storm. Hereupon Chares 
attacked the enemy alone, but without success (in the Hellespont, 
Diod., at Embata, Polyan., at Samos, Corn. Nep.), Diod. XVI, 21. 
Corn. Nep. Tim. 3. Polyjen. IH, 9, 29, and then entered into relations 
with the Persian satrap Artabazus, who had revolted against the 
Persian king. But at the menace of the Persian king, that he would 
support the foes of Athens with 300 ships of war, the Athenians 
recalled Chares and granted complete independence to the allies, 
Diod. XVI, 22. Timotheus, Iphikrates and Mnestheus were for their 
conduct in the battle arraigned by Chares and Aristophon, according 
to Dionys. Hal. de Din. p. 668 in 354 b. o. ; the first was condemned 


Fourth Period. 431 — 338 b.c. 






CVI, 2 


Commencement of the (second) Sacred War''*^). 

CVI. 3 



CVI, 4 



Philip conquers Methone'^). He marches to Thessaly to support 
the Thessalian towns against the tyrants Lykophron and Peitholaus of 
Pherse, and is twice defeated by the Phokians allied with Lykophron 
under the command of Onomarchus^'). 

to pay a fine of 100 talents, the other two were aoqnitted, Diod. XVI, 
21. Corn. Nep. Tim. 3. Isocr. de perinut. § 129. Timotheus thereupon 
fled from Athens, and died in the same year : Iphikrates retired from 
all concern in public affairs, and thus Cornelius Nepos rightly says 
(Timoth. 4) : Hseo extrema fuit ffitas imperatorum Atheniensium 
Iphicratis, Ghabrise, Timothei, neque post Ulorum obitum c^uisquam 
dux in ilia urbe fuit dignus memoria. (The revolted allies after this 
fell under the sway of the Karian prince, Dem. de pac. p. 63. § 25 : 
and, except for Eubcea, the Athenian aUiance was confined to a num- 
ber of small islands, so that the contributions of its members amounted 
to no more than 45 talents, Dem. de Cor. p. 305. § 234.) 

245) The origin and progress of the sacred war are most closely 
bound up with the Amphiktyonio league (hence too the name ' sacred 
war': it is called the second with reference to the war of 595 b. c. see 
p. 27. obs. 67 ; the war of 448, see p. 52. obs. 69, is usually not counted). 
It is upon this occasion that the league first assumes prominent 
historical importance, whilst according to the legend it had been 
founded of old by Amphiktyon, the son of Deukalion : it was composed 
of 12 races (Thessalians, Boeotians, Dorians, lonians, Perrhsebians, 
Magnesians, Lokrians, CEtseans or ^nianians, Phthiotio Achseans, 
Malians, Phokians, Dolopians), the representatives of which (lluXa- 
yopaL and 'lepofivqfioves) assembled twice each year (in the spring and 
autumn), at Delphi or Anthela : each of the 12 peoples named had two 
votes, see the chief notices .ffisohin. de F. Leg. p. 43. §§ 116 — 117. 
Strab. p. 420. The principal object of the league was the administra- 
tion and protection of the temple and the public games : but besides 
this it was also laid down, that none of the Amphiityonic towns 
should be razed to the ground, that none should have its water cut off, 
and that no brazen trophies should be erected, JSschin. 1. c. § 116. 
Cio. de inv. n, § 69, cf. Plut. Mor. p. 273. (Quajst. Eom. 37). The 
Thebans now made use of the preponderant influence, which they 
still possessed at this time, to have the Phokians condemned by the 
Amphiktyons to pay a heavy fine, on the charge that they had tilled 
sacred territory, and when the fine was not paid, to have the whole of 
PhoMs consecrated to the Delphian god (the true ground must 
certainly be sought in the ancient hatred of the Thebans towards the 
Phokians, which was also shared by the Thessalians, Pausan. X, 2, 1, 
cf. Herod. VII, 176. VIII, 27 fi., and which in the case of the Thebans 
, had lately been intensified by the refusal of Phokis in 362 e. o. to join 
in the expedition to the Peloponnese, obs. 228) : Philomelus now 
placed himself at the head of his countrymen and made himself 
master of the temple at Delphi, Diod. XVI, 23 — 24. Pausan. X, 2, 1. 
Justin. VIII, 1. The Phokians found allies in the Spartans and 
Athenians, of whom the former, probably several years before this date, 
aad likewise been condemned by the Amphiktyons to pay a heavy fine 

on account of their occupation of the Kadmeia ; the other members of 
the Amphiktyonio league united to make war against Phokis, Diod. 
XVI, 27. 29. The war lasted 10 years, .Slschin. de F. Leg. p. 45. 
§ 131. adv. Ctesiph. p. 74. § 148, and as it was ended in 346 b. c, obs. 
255, it must therefore have begun in 356 or 355 b. o. Diodorus places 
the beginning of the war in the latter year, and also states its duration, 
XVI, 59, at 10 years : but he contradicts himself, inasmuch as in XVI, 
14 he places the conquest of Delphi, with which the war opens, in 357 
E. 0., and in the same passage assigns the war a duration of eleven 
years, and of nine years in XVI, 23. The Phokians supported the 
expenses of the struggle by plundering the temple-treasures of Delphi 
(from which Philomelus according to Diod. XVI, 24. 27. 28. 56 as yet 
abstaioed, but cf. id. 36), by which they were placed in a position to 
levy fresh relays of mercenary troops, Isocr. PhU. p. 93. § 55 ; this, 
however, was doubly detrimental to Greece, firstly because by the mass 
of money thus put into circulation (according to Diod. XVI, 56 over 
10,000 talents were stolen) venality and extravagance were fostered, 
Diod. XVI, 37, and secondly because the gangs of mercenaries increased 
in number, see e. g. Isocr. PhU. p. 101. § 96. As regards the course of 
the war, Diodorus, on whom we are almost entirely dependent, informs 
us of a number of battles lost and won ; but we can nowhere gaia any 
clear and definite knowledge beyond the facts quoted in the following 
observations. For the hostilities passing in the Peloponnese along 
with the Phokian war proper see obs. 251. 

246) Diod. XVI, 31. 34. The town was destroyed, Dem. Phil, m, 
p. 117. § 26. The Athenians again came too late to the rescue, Dem. 
Phil. I, p. 50. § 35. (It was at the siege of Methone, that PhiUp lost 
his right eye by a wound from an arrow, Dem. de Cor. p. 247. § 67. 
Strab. p. 330. fr. 22. p. 374. Justin. Vn, 6. PUn. H. N. VU, 37.) 

247) In Thessaly the immediate successor to Jason of Pherse (obs, 
224) was Alexander, and after his murder in 359 B.C. Tisiphonus; 
Lykophron and Peitholaus followed, and both the two were now in 
possession of the sovereignty, subsequently to the death of Tisiphonus, 
Xen. HeU. VI, 4, 35—37. Plut. PeL 35. Diod. XVI, 14. The Phokians 
had contracted an alliance with them, Diod. XVI, 35. 35 : on the 
other hand the Aleuads apphed to Philip for aid against the tyrants, 
Diod. XVI, 35. (According to Diod. XVI, 14. Justin. VH, 6 this had 
aheady happened once in 357 or 356 b.c and Philip had at that 
time made an expedition to Thessaly, in which he is said to have 
liberated the Thessalian towns.) In the war, which thus arosei 
Onomarchus (who was now, after the death of Philomelus in 354 b. c. 
Diod. l.p. 31, at the head of the Phokians, and in 353 b. c. had made 
great progress against his foes, id. 33) first sends Phayllus to Thessaay, 
and then, when he is defeated, comes in person with the whole of 
the army and defeats Philip in two battles, id. 35. Polysn. H, 38, 2. 

The Incipient Decline. 







CVII, 1 

CVII, 2 



The Phokians defeated by Philip ; Onomarchus falls''^). Philip's 
attempt to penetrate through Thermopylae into Greece, frustrated by 
the Athenians^*"). He possesses himself of Pagasae and Magnesia*^"}. 

Struggles in the Peloponnese^°'). 

CVII, 3 



Euboea lost to Athens"^'). 

CYII, 4 



Philip against Olynthus'"). 

248) Diod. XVI, 35. Dem. de F. Leg. p. 443. § 319. Pans. X, 2, 3. 
The army of Onomarchus was annihilated, Diod. 1. o. 37 : Phayllus was 
appointed commander in the place of Onomarchus, id. 36. Diodorua 
places the three battles of Onomarchus under one (Olympiad-) year, of. 
also Dionys. Hal. de Din. p. 665 : but it is probable that the two first 
are separated from the last by an intermediate winter ; and these two 
battles must therefore be placed in 352 B.C., as after them Philip had 
first to return to Macedonia and make new preparations. 

249) Diod. XTI, 37. 38. Dem. Phil. I, p. 44. § 17. p. 52. § 41. De 
F. Leg. p. 443. § 319. de Cor. p. 236. § 32. 

250) Dem. Olynth. I, p. 15. § 22. II, p. 21. § 11. The tyrants 
were expeUed, Diod. XVI, 37. Dem. Olynth. n, p. 22. § 14. Phil. II, p. 
71. § 22. 

251) When the Thebans were involved in the sacred war, the 
Spartans attempted- to reduce Messenia to its former subjection and 
generally to regain their hegemony in the Peloponnese. Accordingly 
the Messenians, probably in 355 B.C., applied at the very first to 
Athens for assistance, and the Athenians concluded a defensive aBianoe 
with them. Pans. IV, 28, 1—2. Dem. de Megal. p. 204. § 9. The 
Spartans then menaced Megalopolis: but in 352 b.o. the Thebans 
sent an army to the Peloponnese and in conjunction with the Megalo- 
poUtans, Messenians, Argives, and Sikyonians fought several en- 
gagements with the Spartans, but without any decisive result, Diod. 
XV, 39. Paus. VIII, 27, 7. After that the war slumbers for a time, 
or is confined to mutual hostilities with no important consequences. 
At a later period, the Megalopolitans also, when once more hard 
pressed by Sparta, applied to Athens, on which occasion Demosthenes 
(probably in the first months of the year 352 B.C., cf. Dionys. Hal. ad 
Attitti. I, 4 p. 725) delivered the speech 'Twip MeyaXoToXirwy, in which 
he so far supported their prayer for aid, as to recommend the 
Athenians not to allow the town to be overpowered by Sparta. Of the 
general aim of the Spartans he says in this spefech (p. 207. § 22), 
opu yap avToiis Kal vvv oix wt^P tou liri iradeiv n kukov Tro\ep.ov 
apa/ihovs, dX\' iwip tov K0/d(Ta<r6cu rfiv vporipav ov<rav iavTols Swaiuv, 
and for the means, which they employed to effect their object (p. 206. 
§ 16) : vwl yip tjiaaiv ixetvoi Selv 'HXeious p^y ttjs Tpi0uXias rivh KopXaa- 
ffdat, iXicurlom Si to tpiK&pavov, 6.\\om U rtras twv 'ApKdduv rfjv 
airQv Kal tov 'iipawov ■qpas, oix '^v' ^icdaTOVS Tipav Uaaiv (xo^<^^ t^ 
iavTuv, oiS' dUyov SeV dxj/i yci,p S,y ^i.\cw0pwiroi, yeyoviiTes eUv dXX' IVa 
wcun SoKu<n avp-irpaTTdv Situs av iKaaToi Kopla-uvTai. Ta06' a ^aa-i.y aiirav 
etvai, iv iireidit.v twinv M HiO-cr^vriii avrol, avaTpcLTeiuvTai irojiTes airro'is 
ovToi. Demosthenes, however, was unable to secure the adoption of his 

252) Party struggles had broken out in Eubcea, which was again 
in alliance with Athens, from 358 b. u. (obs. 236), at the instigation, as 
it appears, or at least with the cooperation of Philip, Plut. Phoc. 12. 
Dem. Phil. I, p. 51. § 37 : Plutarohus, the tyrant of Eretria, had 
sought aid at Athens against his enemies, and Phokion had been 
despatched with an army to Euboea. But although that general won 
a victory at Tamynse, yet the Athenians could not bear down the 
resistance of all the other inhabitants of the island ; Plutarchus him- 
self proved false and untrustworthy, and so the Athenians were 
obliged to leave the island with ignominy and loss: and after that 
time it showed increasing favour to Philip, Plut. Phoc. 12 — 14. Msch. 
adv. Ctes. p. 66. § 86—88. Cf. Dem. De Pao. p. 53. § 5. obs. 261. 
The date as determined rests on Dem. in Boeot. p. 999. § 16, cf. 
Dionys. Hal. de Din. p. 656. 

253) After the war had been ended in Thessaly, Philip marched in 
352 to Thrake (infr. obs. 262), and was then for a long time engrossed 
by a sickness, and also, it seems (Dem. de Hal. p. 84. § 32), by a 
campaign in Epirus : at the same time he employed his marine force, 
just newly organised, on all kinds of voyages, in the course of which he 
actually landed on Attic territory, Dem. Phil. I, p. 49.. § 34, cf. ^sch. 
De F. lieg. p. 37. § 72. (Dem.) adv. Neoer. p. 134. § 3 : in the summer or 
the autumn of 349 b. o. he next turned against Olynthus, for which the 
time had come in pursuance of Philip's plans, cf. obs. 239. For the 
progress of his conquests up to this point see Dem. Olynth. I, p. 12. 
§ 12 : TO irpoTOV ' Api<piiro\Lv \a^iir, p,eTi, raOra JliSvav, ttoXic IIoTiSaia;', 
Meffwpijv aufts, eZra QcTToKlas eiri^-ri ■ peTo, ravra ^epa^, JIaya(rds, Uayvri- 
alav, iravd' 6v f/3ouXero euTpeiri<ras Tpoirov 4x^t' f'' Qprn"' f^'''' ^"^f' '"'"'5 
piv eK^aXwi, tovs Si Karaffrijo-as tuv ^aailKiwv ri(r6ivq<re ' iroKiv pa'taas 
ovK e-jrl TO pq.dvpeCv aviKkivev, oXX' iWvs '0\vvBloLi iwex^lprio-ei/. ras S' e-rr 
'IWvpi-ovs Kal Uaiovas aiTov Kal irpis Apvp^ari Kal oirot Tis ay eiwoi. 
■irapakdiTu o-rpaTelas. The Olynthians, who gradually began to 
conceive apprehensions about their alliance with Ph il ip and about his 
intentions, had, probably in 352 B. c, concluded peace with Athens, 
Dem. Aristocr. p. 156. § 109. Olynth. IH, p. 30. § 7 ; these apprehen- 
sions were heightened still more, when PhiUp in 351 b. o. made an 
expedition into the neighbourhood of the Olynthians against the 
Bisaltans and thus touched the territory of the Olynthian league, Dem. 
Phil. I, p. 44. § 17. Justin. VHI, 3. This strained relation, during 
which Philip never ceased to put off the Olynthians with perpetual 
assurances of friendship, Dem. 01. IH, 1. c, lasted tiU the 
summer of 349 b. c, when Philip invaded the territory of Olynthus 
(stiU repeating his friendly assurances) and took Geira and some other 
places, of. Diod. XVI, 52 and the most important accounts of the whole 
war, Dem. De F. Leg. p. 425. § 263—267. Philoch. fr. 132 (ap. 


FouKTH Period. 431 — 338 b.c. 


B. C. 








Olynthus taken and destroyed by Philip'^^). 







Philip concludes a peace and alliance with 
Athens, and, being iavoked by the Thebans 
to their aid., penetrates into Greece, subdues 

The orators Demo- 

Dionys. Hal. Ep. ad Amm. 1, 9. 11. p. 734—735), which latter passage 
contains the most exact accounts of the time, as well as of the various 
occasions, on which succour was despatched by Athens. The 
Athenians were induced by repeated embassies from Olynthus to send 
assistance on two occasions, first under Chares, then under Charidemus, 
but in both instances consisting merely of mercenaries : both the two 
first Olynthiac orations of Demosthenes, which belong to this the first 
period of the war, contain for the chief part general appeals to the 
Athenians to take an active share in the struggle. 

254) In the winter Philip had been obliged to undertake an ex- 
pedition to Thessaly, where at that time serious discontent with his 
rule was rife, and where Peitholaus (obs. 247) had reestablished him- 
self at PheriE, Diod. XVI, 52. Dem. Olynth. I, p. 15. § 22. II, p. 21. 

§ 11. After he had restored the country to tranquillity, he again 
marched in the spring of 348 upon Olynthus ; first of all many towns 
in the territory surrendered to him, for the most part owing to 
treachery, Dem. De F. Leg. § 266 ; he then attacked Olynthus itself, and 
finally captured the town through the treachery of Lasthenes and 
Euthykrates, Diod. XVI, 53. Dem. De F. Leg. § 267. Phil. IH, p. 125. 
§ 56. It was destroyed, and with it 32 other towns in Chalkidike, 
Dem. PMl. Ill, p. 117. § 26. Diod. I.e. At the instigation of 
Demosthenes, who delivered his third Olynthiac oration at the time 
when Olynthus was already in great distress, the Athenians sent a fresh 
force under Chares, consisting of 17 ships, 300 horsemen, and 2000 (or 
4000 Demosth.) citizen hophtes ; which, however, was too late to 
effect its object, Dem. De P. Leg. § 267. Philochor. 1. o. 

mm) Demosthenes, bom in the deme Pseania in 384 B.C., Dem. 
Vit. a', Westerm. Vit. min. p. 281 (according to Dion. Hal. ad Amm. 
I, 4 in 381), made oratory his study, stimulated by listening to 
the eloquence of Kallistratus and the instruction of Isaus, Plut. Dem. 
5. Suid. s. V. Vit. a, p. 281. Feeble in body and defective in voice, 
Vit. |8', p. 295 : rpavKhs — Tr)v yXuTrav — ; rb di TrveO/ia droKure/ios, Vit. 
y, p. 299 : Kcd Trjv duoiiv daBevjjs, by perseverance he overcame all 
difficulties, 1. o. Plut. Dem. 4. 5. Cic. de or. I, 61. Phot. bibl. cod. 
265. Vit. /3', p. ?95, yet never spoke extempore, Plut. Dem. 8. Vit. a', 
p. 290. Deprived of his father's care when eight years old, as soon as 
he came of age he charged his guardians with embezzlement of his 
estate, cont. Aphobum I, p. 817. § 12. p. 828. § 49. IH, p. 861. § 58. 
contr. Onet. p. 868. § 15. Vit. o', p. 232. 7'; p. 299, wrote (as a X070- 
ypd(pos) speeches for others, delivered speeches in the law-courts as 
attorney, and made his first appearance in public life in 355 b.c. with 
the speeches against Leptines and Androtion, delivered in the popular 
assembly, Dion. Hal. Ep. ad Amm. I, 4, officiated as senator, c. Mid. 
p. 551. § 111, and as architheorus, id. p. 552. § 115, but also suffered 
from the outrageous attacks of his enemy Meidias, id. p. 540. 545. 
547. 548. He first spoke on questions of state in 364 B.C. in his 
speeches Ilepl aviiixopiHv , against the war with Persia, de Ehod. lib. 
p. 191. § 5. 192. § 6, and in 352 b. 0. 'tirip MeyaXowoXiTuii, of. obs. 251. 
But his greatest and grandest achievements as statesman, orator, and 
liead of the patriots, were reserved for the struggle with the plans of 
Philip of Macedonia. It was during the Phokian war, that he first 
;ame forward to oppose that prince and to support Olynthus in the 
speeches Kard ^iKlwirov a (in 351 B.C.), 'OXwftaicis a', ^', y' (in 
J49), of. De F. Leg. p. 426. § 266. Dion. Hal. Ep. ad Amm. 1, 9, cf. obs. 
!53. 254. After the fall of this town, however, he acted as ambassador, 
md spoke in the asserribly in 346 b.o. on behalf of peace, Uepl elprivris, 
md against iEschines in the indictment Uepl TapaTpecr^eias, cf. obs. 
155 ; both which speeches, however, in their present form were in the 
ipinion of ancient critics only written, not delivered, Plut. Dem. 15. 

Argum. ^schin. De F. Leg. p. 314. Argum. De Pac. p. 56. Vit. 
JEsohin. a. Westerm. p. 236. Meanwhile the interference of Phihp in 
the disputes of the Peloponnesians gave rise to the second speech KotA 
*iXiir7rou in 344 B.C., cf. obs. 258; then his policy of perfidy and 
violence in Thrake called forth in 341 the speeches Uepl rav iv 
'S.eppovTiaif and Kari ^iXItttov y , cf. obs. 262. 263. In like manner 
Demosthenes is the soul of all Athenian enterprises and exertions in 
opposition to Philip up to the battle of Chsroneia, cf. obs. 267, where 
he was carried along in the flight of his countrymen, ^schin. c. CteB. 
§ 175. 244. 253. Plut. Dem. 20. Vit a. p. 284. He was now appointed 
to deliver the memorial oration over those, who had fallen inlthis 
battle, 'EiriTa0io5 Xivos, cf. De Cor. p. 320. § 28 f. He was at this 
time exposed to the hostile machinations and charges of the Mace- 
donisiug party, De Cor. p. 310 : in particular ^schines came forward 
to oppose him, Vhen the proposal was made to crown him publicly, 
d/ieT-?! iveKO, KoX Kdhomyadlas, ijs Ix'^" SiOTEXe? ^c ravrl Katp^ els tov StJ/mp 
Tov' kB-qvalav, De Cor. p. 266. § 118 f. : but Demosthenes triumphed over 
his opponent after delivering his speech lie/)! toO aretpivov in 330 B.C. 
Philip's death he hailed as a joyful event, .Sisohin. u. Ctes. § 77. Plut. 
Dem. 12. Vit. a, p. 287 f., and now repeatedly used his influence to 
promote a rising against Alexander, Plut. Dem. 23. .ffischin. c. Ctes. 
§ 160 f., so that after the fall of Thebes that monarch demanded the 
extradition of Demosthenes and other patriots, a demand from which 
he however desisted, Diod. XVH, 15. Arr. I, 10, 7. Plut. 1. c. Phoc. 
17. One consequence of the residence of Harpalus at Athens was, 
that Demosthenes was charged by the Macedonising party with 
corruption, and, though innocent (Pans. H, 33), condemned, Plut. 1. c. 
25. Vit. a, p. 285. ^', p. 301. Dinarch. e. Demosth. Athen. XIH, p. 
592 E. However, he escaped from prison, resided in Troezen and 
.ffigina, Plut. 1. c. 26. Vit. a', 1. c. Vit. B' , p. 308, and on the revolt of 
Athens after the death of Alexander was recalled and conducted 
home with festive pomp, Plut. 1. 0. 27. Vit. o', 1. c. After the 
disastrous issue of the Lamian war, when Aatipater demanded the 

The Incipient Decline. 








and lays waste Phokis, and is adopted as a member of the 
Amphiktyonic league^*^). 

Lykurgus™), ^schines™;, 

255) For the further course of the sacred war after 352 b. o. see 
Diod. XVI, 38 — 40. 56 — 59, where many other incidents of the war are 
noticed, but without giving us a clear insight into them. At last the 
Phokians were in possession of Orohomenus, Koroneia, Korsije, and 
Tilphossseum, Diod. 1. u. 58. Dem. De F. Leg. p. 385. § 141. p. 387. 
§ 148 : the Thebans were hard pressed, Dem. 1. e. Isocr. Phil. p. 93. 
§ 54 — 65 : els tovtq d' avrwv irepiiffTfi e rd irpdy/J.aTa, w(Tt ^Xirla-avres 

airavras roi>s "EXXT/vas v(f> aurots ^aeadai vov ev <7ol {^CKiinrt^) rhs ^Xirldcts 
^ovai. Trjs mTwv ffumiplas. Accordingly at the invitation of the Thebans 
Philip came to the rescue, without hindrance on the part of the 
Athenians, who were tricked by false promises, compelled the capitu- 
lation of Phalffikus, who, as the next successor but one to Onomarchus, 
was now in command of the Phokian army and had hitherto defended 
Thermopylae ; then pressed into Phokis, and destroyed all the Phokian 

Burrender of the heads of the popular party, Demosthenes fled to 
^gina, sought protection in the temple of Poseidon at Kalauria, and 
died by hia own act, taking poison before the eyes of Antipater'a 
emissaries, in 321 B.C. Plut. Dem. 29. Vit. o', p. 287. 291. (Lucian) 
Encom. Dem. 43. Of the 65 speeches of Demosthenes, known to anti- 
quity. Tit. a , p. 289, 60 have come down to us bearing his name, com- 
prising political speeches, forensic speeches, and declamations, several of 
which are held to be spurious, as Ilepl ^AXovvqaov, Kara ^iKlinrov S', Ilepi 
Tuv Trpos ' KKi^avSpov itvuStikuv, 'BpuTi/cos, 'ETTirtl^ios &c. It is said of 
Demosthenes, Suid. s. v. : A7iiJ,o<T04pris 6 (i-rp-uip aurip r/v yvavaJ. re /col 
eliretv oVo h8vp.ijBei-q dvyaruTaros yevo/jtei/or odev Kal deu'CTaros ^Sofe 
tcGk Ka.9' avTov, ota Sf; iKavuraros to a(j>avh eUmrcu Kal to yvaa-diu 
(imiraiTBai,, and of the impression made by his oratory, Dion. Hal. 
de adm. vi dicend. Demosth. 22 : "Orav Si Arnj-oaBivovs two, Xafia 
Xoyav, hidovina re Kal SeSpo KaKe7(re ayo/iai, TraOos irepov ^| Mpov 
liCToKaii^ajiityv, airiarQv, ayaviav, SeSiois, KaTa(j>povav, /iMuv, iXewii, 
eivoav, ipyi^Ofiaios, ip6ovai>, airavra rd toBti p^ToKap-^avav, Sua. Kparetv 
avSpiiiTrlvqs yviip-rfs. For his ethical standpoint (as opposed to Phihp) 
see Olynth. 11, p. 20. § 10 : ou yap lunv, oia ianv, u oj/dpes 'Ad-qvaloi, 
aSiKovvra Kal iinopKOVVTa Kal ^pevSo/ievov BxivaiMV ^e^alav KTr/aacrOaL, 
dXXd rd ToiaCra eis /Uv ttTraJ Kal Ppaxiv XP^""" w^^X^'i ""' <r0oSpa yc 
■qpSijcrev irl rais i\iri<riv, av rix'Q, rip XP^'V ^^ (ptoparai Koi wepl avri, 
KaToppet- w(Tirep yap oldas, oT^ai, Kal irXolou Kal tuv aXXuiK tuv toioutmv 
rd Karadev luxvporara eXvai Sec, outw Kal tuv irpd^euv rds apxds Kal 
VTodiireis aXrideiS Kal SiKaias chat Trpoffij/cei, toOto Si ovk Ipt vSv iv ToiJ 
veirpayfiivoLS 0L\iTir({). 

nn) Lykurgus, born at Athens between 399 and 393 e. c, Liban. 
Arg. Or. c. Aristog., of the noble clan of the Eteobutadse, educated 
nnder Plato and Isokrates, Diog. L. HI, 46. Vit. Lye. a'. Westerm. 
Vit. Min. p. 270, rendered great services in the domestic administration 
of Athens in his twelve years management of the finances, by raising 
the state revenue, Vit. a, 271. 278, by augmenting the war material 
and stores of weapons, 1. c. p. 271. 279, by his care for state buildings 
and works of art, festal pomp, the drama, poetry, and science, 1. c. 
p. 271 — 274, and by his laws enforcing public moraUty under pohce 
supervision, 1. c. p. 272. 273. 278. In the law-courts he was victorious 
alike as accuser and counsel for the defence, 1. o. p. 272. 275. In foreign 
politics he appears only once to have taken an active part as ambassador, 
1. 0. p. 272 : yet as a tried patriot he was amongst those, whose surrender 
was demanded by Alexander. His uprightness, irreproachableness, 
and stedfast character, and also his excellent administration, procured 
him high honours from the Athenians, 1. 1;. p. 274. 276. 278. 279. 
He died before 323 b. c, p. 274. Of his 15 speeches only one is extant, 


Kara AewKparovs. Of his oratory it is said Dion. Hal. Vett. scr. cens. 
V, 3: '0 Si AvKovpyos iurt SiawavTos ai^TjTiKos Kal SfQprffxhos Kal uefivos Kal 
oXos KaTTjyopLKOs Kal 0tXaXT/^7js Kal irapp-qaLadTiKbs' ov fiijp dcreios ovSi 
?;5i5s, dXX' dvayKotos. 

oo) .ffischines, born at Athens in the deme Kothokidse in 390 b. c, 
Vit. a, p. 261. Vit. /3'. p. 265. Westerm. Vit. Min. Msch. c. Tim. § 49, 
of lowly origin, Dem. De Cor. p. 270. § 129. p. 313. § 258. Vit. ^', 
managed to obtain civic rights (oTruirS^TroTf), Dem. De Cor. p. 314. 
§ 261, served as a scribe to subordinate magistrates, Vit. y. Dem. De 
Cor. p. 314. § 261. Endowed with a strong body and beautiful voice, 
he next went upon the stage, Dem. De Cor. p. 288. § 180. p. 314. § 262. 
Vit. o'. iS". y, then became secretary to Aristophon, afterwards to 
EubuluB, and fought in the ranks in the battles of Mantineia and 
Tamynffi, .aSschin. De. F. Leg. § 169. Vit. a', p! . He acted as 
ambassador for Athens in the Peloponnese, Dem. De F. Leg. p. 344. 
§ 10 f. Vit. /3' : and after the first embassy for peace sent to Philip 
appears to have been won over to his interests, Dem. 1. c, cf. obs. 255. 
He was accused of high treason by Demosthenes and Timarchus for 
delaying the journey of the second embassage, Dem. 1. c. Arg. Or. 
p. 337, but got rid of one of his accusers by the counter-charge Karct 
lipApxav, Argum. Msoh. Or. c. Tim. Dem. De F. Leg. p. 341. 
§ 2. p. 433. § 287. Vit. a. Suid. s.v. As one of the Pylagorse at 
Delphi he brought about the sacred war against Amphissa in Philip's 
interest, cf. obs. 266, and after the battle of Chseroneia came forward 
to combat Ktesiphon's proposal to crown Demosthenes in the speech 
Kara KTi)(ri0t3>'Tos, by which he sought the overthrow of Demosthenes. 
But when vanquished by his rival's speech Ilepi aretjidvov, he left 
Athena and betook himself to Asia Minor, and after Alexander's 
death to Ehodes, where he established a school of rhetoric, t6 "PoSiaxSv 
SiSaaKokelov, Vit. a. y. Suid. s.v. Philostr. V. I, 18. He died at 
Samos in 314 b. c, Plut. Dem. 24. Vit. u . Phot. Bibl. Cod. 61, p. 20. 
264, p. 490. Of the three speeches, which have come down to us 
under Ijis name, KarA Ttfidpxov, Kard, KrricrKpQpTos, Ilepi wanawpea^eias, 
the last in the opinion of the ancient critics was not spoken, but was 
only a written defence against the charge of Demosthenes. Other 
writings attributed to him were already declared spurious in ancient 
times, Vit. a'. Endowed with all the gifts of a bom orator, his free 
flow of eloquence made him a master of extempore speaking, and 
after Demosthenes he was the first orator of his time, Vit. a'. Dion. 
Hal. de adm. vi dicend. Demosth. 35. Suid. s. v : irpuros Si irdvToiy to 
deldis Xiyeiv riKOvae Sid tS (TxeSid^etv ws ivdovffLwp. 

pp) Hypereides of the Attic deme KoUytus, the contemporary of 
Lykurgus, educated under Plato and Isokrates, Vit. a'. Westerm. Vit. 



Fourth Period. 431 — 338 b.c. 


B. C. 






b) Philip strengthens and extends his influence in Greece, and continues his 
conquests in Thrake, till the second Sacred War affords him the opportxinity to 
annihilate the independence of Greece by the battle of Chseroneia^^^). 

Philip strengthens his rule in Thessaly"^'). 

towns (the Boeotian towns conquered by Phokians he restored to 
the Thebans), and procured a sentence from the Amphiktyonic 
tribunal condemning the Phokians to pay annually a sum of 60 
talents to the Delphic temple, until the whole of the stolen money 
was replaced: he himseh", besides the two Phokian votes in the 
Amphiktyonic tribunal, received still further the irpoixavrela at Delphi 
and the conduct of the Pythian games, Died. XV, 59 — 60. Dem. 
De Pac. p. 62. § 21. De F. Leg. p. 359. § 57. For the fearful desolation 
of Phokis see Dem. 1. c. p. 361. § 65. p. 373. § 100 : for the time 
of the capitulation of Phalsekus (23rd of Skirophoriou=17th of July), 
id. p. 359. § 57—59. p. 440. § 327. The behaviour of Athens in the 
midst of these events attracts our attention all the more, as it forms a 
chief theme in the speeches of Demosthenes and iEsohines and the 
subject of the hottest contention between the two great orators in their 
speeches (dehvered in 343 b. o. Dion. Hal. Ep. ad. Amm. I, 10. 
p. 737. Arg. ^'. ad Dem. De F. Leg. p. 338) on the false embassy and 
in the speech of Demosthenes for the crown, and that of .Sschines 
against Ktesiphon. AUared by the arts of Philip, the Athenians first 
sent in February of 346 b. o. an embassy of 10 persons to him, 
amongst whom were Demosthenes and ^schines : and these brought 
back home a letter and promises from Philip, see in particular .SJsch. 
De F. Leg. p. 29. § 12 — 55. Hereupon a peace and aUianoe were 
resolved upon on the 19th of Elaphebohon (April) at the proposal of 
Philokrates, and sworn to by the Athenians, see id. p. 53, § 56 — 78. 
Dem. De F. Leg. p. 359. § 57, and for its provisions (Dem.) de Halon. 
p. 82. § 24—27. p. 84. § 31. Dem. De F. Leg. p. 385. § 143. p. 444. 
§ 321. But whilst Philip's not gaining time to make fin:ther con- 
quests — for the principal article in the peace was to the effect that 
each party should remain in statu quo^ — depended upon the peace 
being now sworn to as soon as possible by PhiUp, who was at the time 
cariying on war with Kersobleptes in Thrake, yet the ambassadors 
were most dilatory, much against the will of Demosthenes (who with 
^sohines again took part in the mission), so that Philip further 
conquered Serreium, Doriskus, Hieron Oros ; and when they at last 
returned home after an absence of 2 months and 10 days on the 
13th of Skirophorion, Dem. De F. Leg. p. 389. § 156. p. 390. § 108. 
p. 359. § 57—58, they deceived the Athenians with the illusive 
representation, that Philip had no thought of annihilating the 
Phokians, but on the contrary only of punishing the Thebans, so 
that Philip was enabled to penetrate into Phokis and annihilate 

the Phokians without let or hindrance: see for these events Dem. 
De F. Leg. p. 346. § 17—71. p. 387. § 150—176. De Cor, p. 230. 
§ 18—52. of. iEschin. De F. Leg. p. 41. § 97—143; and for the 
deceitful promises of ^schines, Dem. De Pac. p. 59. § 10. Phil. II, 
p. 73. § 30. De F. Leg. p. 347. § 20—22. De Cor. p. 231. § 21. etc. cf. 
^schin. De F. Leg. p. 46. § 136. The Athenians, in the highest 
degree irritated at the issue of the matter, at first wished to refuse 
recognition to the foregoing resolutions of the Amphiktyons, and to come 
to a rupture with Philip again : but Demosthenes produced an alteration 
in their frame of mind, representing to them in his speech on the 
peace, that under existing circumstances they could not resume the 
war without the greatest detriment to themselves. 

256) For the progress, which had been made by treachery in the 
various Greek States in consequence of bribery on the part of Philip, 
see Dem. De F. Leg. p. 424. § 259 : viffrnia ydp, (3 dvdpes 'A$rivcuoi, 
Seivhv ifiir^TTTUKev els r^c'EXXaSa Kal x^XeTrcj' Kai ttoXX^s Ttpbs e^uxias 
Kal Trap vptwv iTtfieXelas SeSfj-evov * ol yb,p iv rais 7r6Xe<rt yvtapLiiityraroL koX 
TrpoeffToj/ai Twv kolvwv d^toupLevot^ Trpr avTwv irpoSidovres ^evBeplap ol 
5v(rTVxe'ts, avdalperov avroh itrayovTai dovKelay^ ^LKlirrov ^evlap koI 
kraiplav koX <piKtav Kal TOLaud' viroKopi^bfxevoi^ ol Si Xoiirol Kal rd K^pt 
arra ttot iffrlv h ^Kaffrri Ttav iroXeuv, ovs ^dei tovtovs KoXa^etv Kal 
irapaxpvf^^ airoKTLVVi/vai^ touovt dir^ouff-i tov roiovriv tl iroietv, iSare 
BaufM^ovffi Kal fijXoOfft Kai /SouXoiyr ok airos iKacrros toioStos etvai, cf. 
De Cor. p. 324. § 365, where the names are given of the traitors in the 
various states, in Thessaly, Thebes, Arcadia, Messenia, Argos, Sikyon, 
Elis, Corinth, Megara, Euboea. At Athens the chief were .fflschines, 
Philokrates, Pythokles, Hegemon, Demades ; they were confronted by 
Philip's opponents Lykurgus, Hypereides, Hegesippua, and above 
aU Demosthenes, who at this time had the conduct of pubUe affairs 
placed more and more in his control. For the situation and feeling 
of the Greeks in general, Dem. Phil. HI, p. 119. § 33. tov airrw rpoToii 
opwep TTji' xa^ai^"' ?/ioi7£ BoKovffi Beiapetv, sixo/J-evoi p-iv pcfj Ka$' iavTois 
iKacToi, ysvia-dai, KuAiieLv Si ovSeU iinxeipav, cf. De Cor. p. 241. § 45. etc. 

257) He instituted dekadarchies in the various towns, and also 
placed garrisons in some. Died. XVI, 69. Dem. PhU. H, p. 71. § 22. 
De F. Leg. p. 424. § 260. (Dem.) de Hal. p. 84. § 32. Diodorus 
places this event a year later: but from Dem. Phil. II, 1. c. it seems 
probable that it belongs to 345 b. c, as the speech was dehvered 
in 344, and the measure is here mentioned as carried out. 

Min. p. 312. Suid. s. v., a patriot, but of loose morals, Vit. o'. p. 314, 
contributed to the expedition to Euboea, Dem. De Cor. p. 259. § 99. 
i^. Mid. p. 566. § 160. Plut. Phoc. 12. Vit. a, p. 315, went as 
ambassador to Ehodes, 1. c, took part in the expedition to Byzantium 
Vit. a, p. 312, and was accused of having taken Persian gold, 1. c. 
He then came forward as joint-accuser of Philokrates in the embassy 

prosecution, Dem, De F. Leg. p. 376. § 116 ; after the occupation 
of Elateia cooperated as ambassador to promote the defensive aUiance 
with Thebes, Dem. De Cor. p. 291. § 187, and after the battle of 
Chteroneia proposed energetic measures for the defence of the town, 
Vit. o'. p. 313. Lye. o. Leocr. § 41. Dem. c. Aristog. p. 803. § 11. He 
was also an active opponent of Alexander, so that his surrender 

The Incipient Decline. 



B. C. 




CIX, 1 



He makes the Messenians and Argives dependent on himself, by 
taking them under his protection against Sparta'''**;. 

CIX, 2 



His fruitless attempt to bring Megara into his power'^'). 

CIX, 3 



His expedition to Epirus and Thessaly'"") : the institution of mace- 
donising tyrants in Euboea''"'). 

CTX, 4 



Expedition to Thrake*'). 

258) After the conclusion of tlie saored war Philip espoused the 
cause of the Messenians, Argives, and Arcadians against Sparta (of. 
obs. 251), sending troops to their aid and promising to come in person : 
Demosthenes went as ambassador to the Argives and Messenians, 
in order to warn them against joining Philip, and after his return 
delivered (in 344 b. c, Dion. Hal. ad Amm. I, 10, p. 737) the second 
Philippic, from which details of these circumstances may be drawn ; 
see especially p. 68. § 9. p.' 69. § 13. p. 71. § 23, and his speech to 
the Argives and Messenians there repeated, id. p. 70. § 20 — 25. But 
his exertions produced no good results : not only the Messenians, 
Argives, and Arcadians appear from this time forth as the dependents 
and allies of Philip, but even the Eleans, Paus. V, 4, 5. Dem. Phil. 
Ill, p. 118. § 27. 

259) Chief authority is Dem. De F. Leg. p. 435. § 294—295. of. id. 
p. 368. § 87. p. 404. § 204. p. 446. § 326. p. 448. § 334. Phil. Ill, p. 115. 
§ 17. p. 118. § 27. De Cor. p. 248. § 71. Plut. Phoo. 15. The 
incident is quite fresh at the time, when the speech on the false 
embassy was delivered, that is in 343 b. c, id. § 294. 834. Megara 
is from this time forward the ally of Athens, Dem. de Chers. p. 94. 
§ 18. PhU. Ill, p. 130. § 74. ■ 

260) In Epirus Arybbas is dethroned, and Alexander, the brother of 
Olympias, made king in his room. Just. VII, 6. YIII, 8. Diod. XVI, 72. 
XIX, 88. (Dem.) de Hal. p. 84. § 32. Plut. Pyrrh. 1, and at the same 
time three Elean colonies Pandosia, Bucheta, and Elateia are captured 
by him, de Hal. 1. o. He had concluded an alliance with the .^tolians 
and intended to march against Amprakia and Akarnania, and even 
into the Peloponnese, Dem. Phil. HI, p. 118. § 27. p. 119. § 34 : but this 
design of his was frustrated by the Athenians, who marched to Akarnania 
with an armed force, Dem. adv. Olymp. p. 1173. § 24, and sent em- 
bassies to call upon the Peloponnesians to resist, Dem, Phil. Ill, 
p. 129. § 72. The date is settled by the fact that in the speech on 
Halonnesus delivered in 342 b, c. mention is made of these events, and 

in the third Philippic of 341 b. c. the embassies to the Peloponnese 
are referred to, as having been sent in the previous year, 1. o. Philip 
then returned from Epirus by way of Thessaly, and here instituted a 
tetrarohy, to bring the country in this way still more thoroughly under 
his rule, Dem. Phil. HI, p. 117. § 26. For the absolute authority, 
with which he after this time disposed of Thessaly's armed force, see 
Dem. id. p. 119. § 33. cf. Arrian. VII, 9, 4. 

261) Kleitarchus made himself master of Eretria, and Philistides 
of Oreua, both being supported by auxiliaries of Philip, Dem. Phil. Ill, 
p. 125. § 57—62. p. 128. § 66. p. 117. § 27. p. 119. § 33. De Cor. p. 248. 
g 71. These auxiliaries were probably despatched by Philip at the 
time, when he marched with his army through Thessaly, obs. 260: 
apart from this probability, the date here given rests solely on the 
fact, that these events are first mentioned in the third Philippic. 

262) Athens had her possession of the Thrakian Chersonese con- 
tinually imperilled by the Thrakian chieftains, in particular by the 
rulers of the Odrysian empire, which according to Strab. p. 33. fr. 48 
stretched from the Hebms to Odessus. After many previous negotia- 
tions and obstructions it was assured to the Athenians in 357 a. c. by 
a convention with the Odrysian prince Kersobleptes, with the exception, 
however, of Kardia, Dem. adv. Aristocr. p. 678. § 173. p. 681. § 181 : 
in 353 B. 0. Chares conquered the town Sestos, and with this conquest 
the Athenian occupation of the Chersonese, aU except Kardia, was 
completely effected, Diod. XVI, 34. Philip had already in 353 b. o. 
made a campaign against Thrake, though without any result of 
importance, Dem. 1. c. § 183 : this he repeated in 351, and on this 
occasion compelled Kersobleptes to subjection, and took his son as a 
hostage, Dem. 01. I, p. 12. § 13. HI, p. 29. § 4. Isocr. Phil. p. 86. 
§ 21. .Slschin. De P. Leg. p. 38. § 81 : for a third campaign in 346 b. c. 
see obs. 255. His intention in these campaigns was, partly to prepare 
the way for his march to Asia by taking possession of the coast-lands 
of the Hellespont and the Propontis, partly to inflict damage on the 

was demanded with that of his fellows, Vit. a- p. 312. Arr. I, 10, 7. 
In spite of this he came forward as prosecutor in the Harpalian 
suit against Demosthenes, whose political creed he shared, 1. c. ; again, 
he was a zealous promoter of the Lamian war, and delivered the 
funeral oration over the fallen, 1. c. p. 815. Plut. Phoc. 23. Diod. 
XVIII, 3. Accordingly after the battle of Krannon he fled from 
Athens to Mgina, but was seized by Antipater's myrmidons, and 
cruelly put to death (in 322 e. c), Vit. a, p. 315. Plut. Phoc. 29. 
Dem. 28, jiTfriap tuv irpurav KeKpi/ihuv i' efs. Suid. s. v. Of his 52 

speeches, recognised as genuine by the ancients, up to a short time 
ago only a few fragments were extant. But lately four of these 
speeches have been discovered on papyrus rolls in graves at Thebes 
in Egypt, in a better or worse state of preservation ; in 1847 fragments 
of the speech against Demosthenes in the ease of Harpalus, in 1853 
the speech for Lykophron almost perfect and that for Euxenippus 
quite perfect, in 1856 the funeral oration for those who had fallen in 
the Lamian War, imperfect and defective. 



Fourth Period. 431 — 338 b.c. 






CX, 1 



With the help of Demosthenes the Athenians rally round their 
flag a number of allies, comprising Byzantium, Abydos, Euboea, Megara, 
Corinth, Achaia, Akarnania, Leukadia and Kerkyra"*'). 

Philip besieges Perinthus and Byzantium ; the former is supported 
by the king of Persia, the latter by the Athenians, Chians, and 

CX, 2 



Philip is compelled to relinquish the siege of Perinthus and 

Second (third) sacred war ; Philip invoked by the Amphiktyons to 
their aid against Amphissa^). 

Athenians; for this latter point see Dem. de Chers, p. 100. § 44 — 45. 
De Cor. p. 254. § 87. De F. Leg. p. 397. § 180. The present expedition 
was undertaken in the summer of 342 B.C.: this is proved by the fact, 
that at the time when the speech of Demosthenes on the Chersonese 
was deUvered, Philip had been ten months in Thrake, id. p. 90. § 2. 
p. 98. § 35: but the speech in question was delivered in 341 and 
towards the time of the EtesisB (which prevail in the month of July), 
Dion. Hal. p. 737. ad Amm. I, 10. Dem. de Chers. p. 93. § 14, 
after Philip had already spent a winter in Thrake, id. § 35. In 
the first two years, 342 and 341,. Philip subdued Kersobleptes (and 
Teres), Diod. XYI, 71. Ep. :^hil. p. ICO. § 8: Diopeithes at the head 
of the Athenian kleruchs defended the Chersonese, and carried on war 
• with Kardia, which Philip strengthened by a Macedonian garrison, 
Dem. de Chers. p. 104. § 58. p. 105. § 64. Phil. IH, p. 120. § 35. Ep. 
Phil. p. 161. § 11. The hostilities of Diopeithes gave Philip a handle 
for complaint at Athens: bnt Demosthenes took him under his 
protection in the speech on the Chersonese. For Diopeithes see 
further Philochor. ap. Dion. Hal. p. 666. de Din. 13. 

263) Megara had been the ally of Athens since 343 B. c, obs. 259 : 
in Euboea Chalkis was the first town to enter into an alliance with 
Athens ; this was brought about by KaUias, .ffischiu. adv. Ctes. p. 66. 
§ 89 — 93, probably in 342 b. c. : as in 341 in the speech on the Chersonese 
and in the third Philippic the Chalkidians together with the Megarians 
are named as allies of Athens, Dem. de Chers. p. 94. § 18. Phil. Ill, 
p. 130. § 74. In the third Philippic, delivered shortly after the speech 
on the Chersonese, about May in 341 B.C., Demosthenes called on 
the Athenians to enlist fresh allies in their cause, id. p. 129. § 71, 
and the alliance with Byzantium and Abydos was now effected 
(in 341 or 340), Dem. De Cor. p. 326. § 302 : ambassadors were even 
sent to the Persian king, though without any result, Ep. Phil. p. 160. 
§ 6. .Esohin. adv. Ctes. p. 81. § 228 ; in Eubcea, the tyrant Philistides 
was overthrown in Oreus and the tyrant Kleitarohus in Eretria, 
and so the whole of the island was secured to the alliance, Dem. 
De Cor. p. 252. § 79. p. 254. § 87. Diod. XVI, 74. The Hberation of 

Eretria was effected by Phokion, who then sailed to Byzantium, 
consequently in 340 b. c, see Diod. 1. e. The liberation of Oreus on 
the other hand must be placed in 341 from .Sischin. adv. Ctes. p. 68. 
§ 103. For the alliance with the other states mentioned above see 
what is an exceedingly invidious account, ^schin. adv. Ctes. p. 67. 
§ 94^105, of. Dem. De Cor. p. 306. § 235. Plut. Mor. p. 5813". 
According to iEschin. adv. Ctes. 1. c. § 68 the 16th of Anthesterion 
(February) was fixed as a, general meeting-day for the allies, when 
probably the league was resolved on : this can only be that particular 
day in 340, as in the third Philippic, delivered in the previous year, 
the necessity and object of such a league are everywhere insisted on, 
but its existence nowhere spoken of. 

264) Diod. XVI, 74^77. Philochor. fr. 135 (ap. Dion. Hal. p. 741. 
ad Amm. I, 11). Pans. I, 29, 10. Plut. Phoc. 14. Hesych. Mil. 
Origg. Const. § 27—31 (Miiller fragm. histor. grsec. Vol. IV. p. 151). 
The Athenians declared the peace broken and overturned the pillar 
recording the alliance, Diod. XVI, 77. Philochor. I.e. .ffischin. adv. 
Ctes. p. 61. § 55 : they then sent, first Chares, and later Phokion to the 
rescue, Diod. Plut. Hesych. Mil. 1. c. From Philochorus we gather, 
that the siege of Perinthus was first entered upon in the archonship of 
Theophrastus, which began in the summer of 340 b. c, whilst Dio- 
dorus places it in the previous archonship. Also the Chians, Koans, 
and Ehodians sent help to Byzantium, Diod. 1. c. 

265) Diod. XVI, 77. Plut. Phoc. 14. 

266) In the Amphiktyonio congress, in the spring of 339, war was 
declared at the proposal of ^schines against the town Amphissa, for 
having tilled the sacred territory of Amphissa, see p. 27 obs. 67 : the 
Ajmphiktyons fail to effect anything against Amphissa and therefore 
in the autumn meeting invoke Philip to their aid, ^sehin. adv. Ctes. 
p. 68. § 106—129. Dem. De Cor. p. 274. § 140—158. It is proved, 
that the first Amphiktyonio congress referred to met in the spring 
of 339 B. c, by the passages .Sischin. adv. Ctes. p. 69. § 115. p. 71. 

The Incipient Decline. 







CX, 3 



Philip occupies Elateia ; the Athenians, The- 
bans, and the other allies of Athens rise against 
him'"); their defeat at Chseroneia"*). 

Historians : 


sippus(older Academy)^'). 

267) Philip came forward at the call of the Amphiktyons, while 
it was still winter time, and occupied first of all the two towns Kytinium 
and Elateia, commanding the plain of Boeotia, by which the Greeks 
had their eyes opened to his further plans, s. PhUoch. fr. 135. Dem. 
de Cor. p. 278. § 152. p. 284. § 168. vEsch. adv. Ctes. p. 73. § 140. 
Diod. XVI, 84. For the effect, which the news caused in Athens, 
s. Dem. de Cor. p. 284. § 169 : 'Eairipa fih yap tjv, jJKe 5' d77^XX<i)i' 
Tts ws Toiis Trpirrdveis, ws 'EXdreta KaTeiXTjTrTaL' KoX fiera ravra oi fikv 
evdi/s i^avaaTavTes fiera^ii deLiri/ovvrei Tovi r eK twv aKTivdv tu3V Kara 
rijv ayopav i^eTpyov Kal ra yippa iveirlp.Tr pafftw ^ ol S^ toi)s (TTpaTtp/oiii 
fieT€n4p,T0VT0 Kal rdv aaXinyKT'TjV ^koKovv koX Sopv^ov T\rip7]S riv ij 7r6Xis* 
tt) S^ vffTepaiq, afia t^ Vf^P9 oi p.h Trpvrdveis rrp/ ^ovkr]V iKoXovv els 
tA ^ov\evTripiov^ u/xf ts Sk els ttjv iKK^rjatav iwopeveade k. t. X. How 
Demosthenes thereupon came forward in the popular assembly, and 
urged an alliance with Thebes, and then went himself as ambassador 
to Thebes, and there overcame all difficulties and hindrances by 
his eloquence, for this s. Dem. I.e. § 169—187. p. 298. § 211—214. cf. 
Plut. Dem. 18. Justin. IX, 3. The war was carried on a long time 
'with success (the other allies besides the Thebans, s. obs. 263), and 
the Greeks even won two battles, Dem. de Cor. p. 300. § 216. At this 
very time, however, Amphissa was taken by Philip, and a mercenary 
force of 10,000 men, raised by the allied Greeks, annihilated, s. JSsch. 
adv. Ctes. p. 74. § 146. Diod. XVni, 56. 

268) Diod. XVI, 84—87. Philip had over 80,000 men, s. id. 86 ; 
on the side of the Greeks, besides the citizen soldiers, there were 
15,000 mercenaries and 2000 horse, Justin. IX, 3; 1000 Athenians fell 
upon the field and 2000 were taken prisoners, Dem. de Cor. p. 814. 
g 264. Lyk. adv. Leokr. p. 168. § 142. Demad. fr. p. 179. § 9. 
Diod. XVI, 86. 88. The fame of the slain, Lyk. 1. c. p. 153. § 46—50; 
the glorious end of the Theban sacred baud, Plut. Pel. 18. Alex. 9. 
The day of the battle was the 7th Metageitnion (August or September), 
Plut. Cam. 19. For the dismay, which the defeat spread at Athens, 
B. Lyk. 1. c. p. 152. § 37 — 45. Athens submitted, and was punished 
with the loss of her possessions by sea, on the other hand recovering 
Oropus, s. Pans. I, 25, 3. 34, 1. Diod. XVIII, 56; also the 2000 
prisoners were restcrel without ransom, Demad. fr. p. 179. § 9. 
Thebes received a Macedonian garrison, Diod. XVI, 87. Justin. IX, 
4. — Lyk. 1. c. p. 154. § 50; amerdipT) toU TOVTai/ (those slain at 
Chseroneia) u<lip.ainv rj twv aXKav "EiW-qvuv i\ev6epla : Justin. IX, 3 : 
Hie dies universSB Grajcise et gloriam dominationis et vetustissimam 
libertatem finivit. — Philip marched on after the battle into the 
Peloponnese, where submission was made by all but Sparta, and 
where he took and gave portions of territory, as he pleased : see Diod, 
XVn, 3. Polyb. IX, 28, 33. Paus. VIH, 7, 4. 

qq) Theopompus of Chios, born about 380, Phot, Bibl, Cod, 176, 
p. 203, emigrated with his father, who was suspected of Laconian 
sympathies, to Ephesus, Diod. XV, 48. Suid. s. v. "E^o/jos. Phot. I.e., 
and also came on his travels to Athens, where he received rhetorical 
instruction from Isokrates, Vit. Isocr. y\ Westerm. Vit. min. p. 256 f. 
Suid. 1. c. Phot. Bibl. Cod. CCLX, p. 798. Dion. Hal. Ep, ad Pomp. ' 
6, 1, and shone in declamations. Phot. 1. c. p. 205, Vit. Isoor. 1, u, 
Gell. X, 18. He was then induced to write history by Isokrates, Phot. 
1. c. Athen. HI, p. 85. a. Recalled by Alexander's influence to his 
native town, after that king's death he was again obhged to flee, and 
was coldly received even by Ptolemy, Phot. 1. u. Of his fortunes after 
this no record has been handed down to us. BQs chief works are 
'EXXT/i/ifcai loToplai or 'EXXtji'ito, a continuation of the narrative of 
Thucydides down to the battle of Knidus, Diod. XIII, 52. XIV, 84. 
Thuc. Vit. Marc. 45. Anon. 5. Suid. s. v., and ^iXiirTrira, Diod. XVI, 3. 
Phot. 1. c. p. 406. Cf. Fragm. Hist. Griec. ed. C. Th. Muller, Vol. I, 
p. 278 — 833. He is unanimously reproached with censoriousness. 
Polyb. VIH, 12. Dion. Hal. 1. c. 6, 8. Nep. Ale. 11. Plut. Lys. 80. 
Herod. Mai. p. 855. a. Athen. VI, p. 254. b. For his style of. the 
following note. 

ir) Ephorus of Kyme in .ffiolis, Suid. s. v. , was trained by Isokrates 

in company with Theopompus, 1. c. Vit. Isocr. a', /3', y, Westerm. Vit. 
min. p. 248. 252. 256 f., and persuaded to devote himself to writing 
history, Senec. Tranq. An. c. 6. Quint. X, 1, 74, and lived into the 
time of Alexander, Clem. Alex. Strom. I, p. 145. The chief work 
amongst his writings was 'liTToplai in 30 books, which comprised the 
history of Greece from the return of the Herakleidse to the siege of 
Perinthus in 340 b.c, Diod. VI, 1. V, 1. XVI, 26. Suid. s. v., but 
was only completed by his son, Diod. XVI, 14, the first universal his- 
tory, Polyb. V, 33, 2, Cf. Fragm. Hist. Grajc. ed. C. Th. Mfiller, Vol. I, 
p. 284—277. In contrast with Theopompus it is said of him, Suid. 
s. V. : "Bi^opos TJv rb ^^os aTrXoCs, t?)p 5k ipp,7}velav t^s ItTToptas virrtos 
Kal vtfjdpoi Koi p7}depLav ^x^^ ^TrlTacnv, 6 dk Qeo-wopiros to t]9os inKpos 
KoX KaK(yij9iii,T-§ 5i tppdaei iroKAs koX avvexvs Kal ipopas p-earos, (j>iKa\ri9i)'S 
if oh ^ypaij/ev, '0 y ovv 'IffOKpaTTjs tov p.kv ^tpi) xctXii'ou Seitr^at, tov 
S ''&tj>opov KivTpov. Cf. Cic. de orat. H, 13. HI, 9. Quint. X, 1, 74. 

ss) Speusippus of the Athenian deme Myrrhinus, bom somewhere 
about 395 — 893, son of a sister of Plato, Diog. L. IV, 1, was trained by 
Isokrates, I.e. 2, and in particular by Plato, I.e. 1: koI ^p.ewe piv 
i-jrl Tibv airiav TVKaTOjvi boyp-druv ; but he also adopted many of the 
Pythagorean doctrines, Arist. Eth. Nic. I, 6. He stood in connexion 
with prominent men of his time, such as Dionysius, Dion and 


Fourth Period. 431 — 338 b.c. 


B. C. 



CX, 4 



Philip appointed commander against the Persian king by the 
Hellenes in the national assembly at Corinth ■'"°). 

Diod. XVI, 89. Justin. IX, 5, 

Philippus, 1. 0. 5, and axjoompanied Plato to Syracuse, Plut. Dion. 35. 
After Plato's death he was for eight years president of the academy, 
I.e. 1. Feeble in body and passionate, he became the prey of 
melancholy, and put an end to his own Ufe, 1. c. 1. 3. 4. Of his 
numerous writings f Tiro/ii-iJ/iaTa, AiaXoyoj, 'MwuttoMI) only the titles, 

1. c. i. 5, and a few fragments are still extant. The leading philoso^ 
phers assigned to the so-called older academy are, besides Speusippns, 
his successor Xenokrates and the contemporary Herakleides of Pontus, 
and later Polemon, Krates, and Erantor. 


336—146 B.C. 


Whilst Alexander the Great is subduing the Persian empire and extending his sway over the vast 
extent of its dominions, thus opening up the East to Greek speech and culture, whilst after his death 
the huge Macedonio-Persic empire, which he had established, is being split up into several empires 
amid long, bloody, and desolating struggles between his generals, the so-called Diadochi, — Greece, in 
spite of repeated attempts to regain its freedom, is kept in a state of dependency on Macedonia, or 
even drawn into the disputes of the Diadochi to its still greater discomfiture; until Macedonia is so 
weakened by quarrels about the throne and domestic wars and finally by the Keltic invasion, that it 
is obliged to relinquish Greece. Greece now raises herself once more to a brief enjoyment of freedom ; 
to secure which there are founded leagues of federal states. In the Peloponnese especially a more 
active vitality asserts itself: here the Achaean league expels the macedonising tyrants and unites a large 
number of towns under its protection ; and here too about this same time the attempt is made 
at Sparta to restore the Lykurgean constitution in its purity, and thus to inspire the state with its 
old energy. But with this upward impulse the old dissension soon returns. Sparta, which employs its 
newly awakened force in striving to pass its narrow limits and regain its former hegemony, comes into 
conflict with the Achaean league. The league, in danger of succumbing, invokes the king of Macedonia 
to its aid; but with this result, that together with Sparta the Achsean league and all the rest of 
Greece again fall under Macedonian rule. Meanwhile the Roman Empire had grown, until it reached 
the boundaries of Greece and Macedonia. The struggle between Rome and Macedonia follows. The 
various states of Greece side with one or other of the belligerent powers; and those, which take part 
with Rome, at first gain in that state a champion in reserve against Macedonia. Afterwards, when the 
king of Macedonia is conquered and confined to the ancient limits of his empire, the whole of Greece 
obtains its freedom as a gift from the conqueror, but only to fall again together with Macedonia under 
Roman sway after an enjoyment of freedom more apparent than real. When such was the course of 
history, it was impossible that art and literature should display a vigorous and independent development 


during this period. Notwithstanding art on the whole maintains itself at its former level and in some 
branches, particularly in painting, even makes considerable progress towards perfection. In literature, 
not taking into account oratory, which continues to flourish for some time, and also a certain revival 
of comedy, the production is throughout confined to imitations and to more learned works, which 
have only a subordinate value for the Greek race. 

Authorities. For the history of Alexander Arrian in his 'AXefwSpou 
'Ava^ans and the 'IkSikt} is the chief Bource of our information. It is 
true that he only belongs to the second century after Christ, but 
he has lent his historical works a proportionately high value by 
the careful and conscientious use which he made of contemporary 
writers (Ptolemseus, Aristobulus, Nearohus). For the rest of the 
period it is in Polybius alone, and so far as he is lost, in the parts 
of Livy drawn from him, that we possess an at aU pure and trust- 
worthy source of historical information. For the time of Alexander 
we have still further a special source in Curtius (De Eebus Gestis 

Alexandri Magni): but from his want of thoroughness and the 
partiality of his views set forth with a predominance of rhetoric he, 
compared with Arrian, only takes a subordinate rank. Besides these 
writers, for the period as a whole we are dependent merely on 
Diodorus, whose work, however, breaks off with the 20th book 
and the year 302 B.C. (of the rest we only possess extracts and 
fragments); on Plutarch in the biographies of Alexander, Demo- 
sthenes, Phokion, Eumenes, Demetrius Poliorketes, Pyrrhus, Agis, 
Kleomenes, Aratus, and Philopoemen; and on some supplementary 
notices from Strabo, Pausanias, Justin, etc. 

The Extinction of Greek Freedom. 



336—323 B.C. 








CXI, 1 



Philip murdered'). Alexander succeeds^). 

Alexander suppresses the movement, which 
arises in Greece at the news of Philip's death, by 

The orators Dema- 
des^), Deinarchus''). 

The Philosopher 

1) Diod. XVI, 91—94. Justin. IX, 6. Plut. Alex. 10. He was 46 
years old, Paus. YIII, 7, 4, (47 according to Justin. IX, 8), and had 
reigned 24 years, Diod. 1. o. 95. He was murdered by Pausanias, a 
captain of tlie body-guard, to whom he had refused satisfaction for an 
outrage inflicted upon him by Attains, of. Arist. Pol. VIH, 10, 16. 
But the murder was committed not without the guilty Itnowledge and 
complicity of other persons, Plut. 1. c. : in particular Olympias is 
■ designated the prime mover, Justin. IX, 7, and even Alexander did not 
remain unassailed by suspicion, Plut. 1. u. Justin. 1. c. : Alexander 
himself accused the Persian king of being the arch-contriver of the 
crime, Arr. H, 14, 5. 

a) Demades of Athens, of humble origin, Suid. s. v., the deadly 
enemy of Demosthenes, Plut. Dem. 28, after he had been taken 
prisoner at Chteroneia, was bribed by Macedonian gold to act in 
PhiUp's interest, Diod. XVI, 87. Gell. XI. 9. Sext. Empir. 1, 13. p. 281, 
and was in favour with Alexander, whose vengeance he, in community 
with Phokion, averted from his native city, Plut. Dem. 23. Diod. 
XVII, 15. The Athenians released him from the civil disability 
to which he had been condenxned, in order to send him to Antipater to 
beg that the Macedonian garrison might be withdrawn from Munyohia, 
Plut. Phoo. 30. At a later period he was charged by Antipater with 
traitorous intrigues against him, was seized and put to death (319 
or 318 B. c), Diod. XVIH, 48. Paus. VII, 10. Venal, dissipated, and 
extravagant, Plut. Phoc. 1. 20. 30, Suid. s. v., he was still a born 
orator, witty and ready, Plut. Dem. 8. 10. Cic. Or. 26. There is no 
speech by him extant, and even the genuineness of a fragment attri- 
buted to him (iirip ttjs SuSeKaerlas) is doubted, cf. Cic. Brut. 9. Quint. 
n, 17, 12. , 

b) Deinarchus, born at Corihth ciro. 361 B.C., Dionys. Din. 4, 
came at an early age to Athens, where he became intimately acquainted 
with Theophrastus and Demetrius Phalereus, 1. e. 2, and as a stranger 
won himself fame, in particular by speeches written to be delivered 
by others in the law-courts. I.e. He spoke as an adherent of the 
Macedonians in the Harpalian prosecution, 1. c. After the hberation 
of Athens by Demetrius Poliorketes he went into banishment at 
Chalkis in Euboea, Dion. Hal. I.e. 3. Vit. (3'. Westerm. p. 321, from 
which he first returned in 292 B.C. He pleaded for the first time in the 
law-courts as an old man against a faithless friend Proxenus, who 


2) Plut. Alex. 11 : irap^Xa^e — T-qv ^a<n\eiav, <jiBbvovs |iie7ci\ous Koi 
Sewai),lari Kal kivSvvovs iravraxlidev ix"^""-"- ^°^ the dangers threatening 
him from without, see obs. 3 and 4 : at home he was menaced by the 
partisans of Kleopatra, the wife whom Philip had married after 
divorcing Olympias, and of her uncle Attains, who had aheady in 
36 E. 0. been sent by PhUip to Asia in advance, Diod, XVI, 91. XVII, 
2. Accordingly Alexander had Attains put to death, Diod. XVII, 2. 5 : 
and besides that several members of the royal family were executed, 
(in part only as victims of the hatred and cruelty of Olympias), Paus. 
Vm, 7, 5. Justin. IX, 7. ^lian. V. H. XIII, 36— Alexander was 20 
years old, when he ascended the throne, Plut. 1. o. Arr. I, 1, 1. For a 

had cheated him of his property, Dion H. 1. c. Vit. 3. §' . It is uncertain 
when he died. Of his speeches, the number of which is variously 
stated, Vit. j3'. Suid. s. v., three are extant, all of them delivered in 
the Harpalian trial : Kara ^^rfpLOffd^vovs, Kara ' ApLfrroyehovos, Kara 
$iXokX^ous. Of his oratory it is said, Dion. H. 1. c. 5 : ouS^k yap cure 
KOLvov OVT tSiov ^(Tx^f OUT ip ToU ISioLi ovT^ kv Tois dr/fioHots 6.y<dcrLv, aXKa 
Kcd Tols Avaiov ira/jaTrX^cto's iffTi-v oirov ylverai Kal rots 'TirepelSov koX toIs 
ATjpLoa&ivQvs "KoyoLS. 

c) Aristotle, bom at Stageira in Chalkidike in 384 b. o. , the son of 
a physician Nikomachus, who himself wrote works on natural science 
(Suid. s. V. Nifco/taxos), ApoUod. ap. Diog. L. V, 9, after losing his 
parents, came to Athens when 17 years old, having received a careful 
education, and lived there for 20 years, Diog. L. 1. c. Arist. Vit. a'. 
Westerm. Vit. min. p. 498. At Athens he was Plato's most prominent 
pupil, being called by him vovs t-^! Siarpip^s, Diog. L. V, 2. II, 109. 
Ml. V. H. ni, 19. IV, 9. Vit. a. |3'. p. 399. W., and during part of this 
period imparted instruction in rhetoric in opposition to Isokrates, 
Cic. de Or. HI, 35. Quint. HI, 1, 14. On one occasion he also acted as 
ambassador for the Athenians with Philip, Diog. L. V, 2. After Plato's 
death he betook himself to his friend Hermeias, tyrant of Atarneus 
and Assus in Mysia, 1. o. 7. 9 — 11, and after his downfall in 345 e. o. 
to MytUene in Lesbos, 1 c. Two years later he was summoned by 
Philip to undertake the education of the young Alexander, and 
remained for eight years in Macedonia, 1. c. It was at thfs time that 
he procured from Philip or Alexander the restoration of his native 
town, which had been destroyed by PhiUp, 1. c. 4. Plut. Alex. 7. He 
then returned back to Athens, where he taught philosophy for thirteen 



Fifth Period. 336— 146b.c. 





CXI, 1 


his swift appearance in that country, and is appointed in an 
assembly at Corinth, just as his father had been, commander of 
the Greeks against the Persians"). 

The sculptor Ly- 
sippus*). The art of 
stone-engraving and 
die-sinking : Pyrgo- 

description of his oharaeter see esp. Plut. 8. Diog. L. V, 1, 6. Strab. 
p. 69. Arr. Ind. XX, thirst for knowledge and Greek education. 
Plut. 4, thirst for glory. Arr. VH, 14. Plut. 52, enthusiastic friend- 
ship, Arr. 5, 2 {pi yap xp^vai — tov /SamX^o oXXo ti tJ a\iii6evei,v). 
Plut. 9, his bravery in his earliest youth. Id. 21, temperance and 
abstemiousness in the earlier period of his life. Id. 73. 75, adherence 
to the popular creed. His praise generally see Arr. VII, 23 — 30. Curt. 
X, 5. For his degeneration later on see obs. 18. 

years (335—322 e.g.) in the Lyceum, Diog. L. V, 5; and delivered 
strictly scientific lectures to his pupils in a narrower sense (aKpoomKo), 
as well as lectures generally intelligible to a larger circle of hearers 
marepiKa), GeU. XX, 5. His relations with his royal pupil became 
cold in cousec[uence of the incarceration and death of Kallisthenes, 
Aristotle's nephew, Diog. L. V, 10. Plut. Alex. 55. After Alexander's 
death he was accused of impiety, Diog. L. 1. c, and found a refuge in 
Chalkis in Eubcea under Antipater's protection, 1. c. 5. 9. 14. There 
he died in 322 b. c, shortly before Demosthenes, at the age of sixty- 
three, 1. c. 10. Vit. a', cf. Dion. Hal. ad Amm. I, 5. Of his numerous 
works, which according to the registers handed down to us, Vit. y, p. 
402—404. W. Diog. L. V, 22—27, embraced aU provinces of human 
knowledge and thought, and laid the foundations of several sciences, 
as of logic, natural history, the theory of poetry, etc., many have been 
lost, and those which have come down to us are not all of them 
genuine. The most important are the following. Those which treat 
of the laws of thought : Karriyopiai, on the most universal class- 
notions, Uepl ep/ir/veias, on speech as expression of thought, 'AyaXuTiKat 
Tporepa, on syllogisms, 'AvaXvTiKo, mrepa, on demonstrable knowledge 
and proof by syllogism, Tottiko, points of view for the invention of 
reasons and counter-reasons, Uepl two aocfiuTnKwv iXiyxuv, on fallacies. 
These works are comprehended under the title 'Opyavov. The things 
of sense and the essence of things are treated of in : To fierd to. 
tpviTLKa, on the universal first cause of things ; and amongst the works 
on natural science touching the nature of particular things are 
'AKpdaffis ipmiKTi, general view of nature, Uepl yeiii<rews xal ipdopas, 
MeTeapoKoyiKa, Uepl fuav laropla ; the treatise Jlepl ^i/x^s, one of 
the most important, contains his teaching on the soul. Mathemati- 
cal subjects are handled in Ilepi drS/iuiv ypa/jip.wi' and MrixaviKci 
Trpo^XtjfmTa. His ethical and political doctrines are comprised above 
all in "HffiKd, Nmo/idxeia and IXoXiTuni (XIoXtTi/cTJ dKp6airts), his doctrine 
on the arts of poetry and speaking in Ilepl iroiririK^s and T^x""? 
pryropiK-fi. Of Aristotle it is said, Vit. |8', p. 401. W. ; iv <j>iKo(roipl(i, S' 
iirep^ipijKe t4 ifBpanya luirpa, iir/Bh iWivh irepl airfis irpayp.aTeixrapx- 
vo^, ctXXct KoX TToKkd aiiTjj irpoff&els iK ttjs eaVToO dyx^-^^^^^ ''"1^ oXtji/ 
KariiipBoiae ijiCKotrotpiav. His school is named the Peripatetic, because 
Aristotle was in the habit of teaching whilst walking up and down 
(irepnraTwv), Diog. L. V, 2. Cic. Acad. I, 4. GeU. XX, 5. etc. Its 
leaders after Aristotle were Theophrastus, Eudemus, and Strato. 

d) Lysippus of Sikyon flourished at the time of Alexander, Plin. 
H. N. XXXIV, 51. Paus. VI, 1, 2 ; was originally a worker in metal, 
and as an artist self-taught, Plin. 1. c. 61, and is said to have executed 
1500 statues, for the most part in bronze, 1. c. 37. The most famous 

3) Diod. XVH, 3—4. Arr. I, 1, 1—3. At Athens Demosthenes 
first announced the news of Philip's death to the people, ^sch. adv. 
Ctes. p. 64. § 77. Plut. Alex. 11. Phoc. 16, and the people resolved 
to bestow a crown of honour on the murderer and to refuse the 
hegemony to Alexander, Plut. Dem. 22. Diod. XVII, 3. But at 
Athens, as elsewhere, the arrival of Alexander immediately suppressed 
the movement, and at Corinth greater concessions were made to 
Alexander, than had been granted to his father: on this occasion the 

of these were : a colossal statue of Zeus in brass at Tarentum, Plin. 
XXXIV, 40, a four-horse chariot vrith the sun-god of the Ehodians, 

I. c. 63, the bronze colossus of Herakles at Tarentum, 1. u. 40. Strab. p. 
278. Plut. Fab. Max. 22, and an allegorical figure of KaipSs, Jac. anal. 

II, n. 13. Callistr. stat. 6. Tzetz. Chil. VHI, 200. X, 322. Numerous 
and highly celebrated in antiquity were his representations of Alex- 
ander, Plin. 1.0. 63, who refused to allow any one but Lysippus to 
execute a statue of him, Arr. Alex. I, 16, 17. Plut. de virt. Alex. p. 
335. A. Alex. 4 ; koI ydp a fiaXiara iroWol rwf diaSoxtifv vcrepov koX tiov 
<l>l\iM aTe/ufwilvTo, rtpi t waTaaiv tov avx^os els eiiwm/juiv •^(rvxv 
KeKKifUvov KoX T^v vyp6TT!Ta tuv d/i/iiTdJv Staren/jpiiKer dicpt/Sw!. He, 
as opposed to Apelles, represented Alexander with a lance, Plut. Is. et 
Osir. 24. p. 360, and of such a statue in bronze it is said in an 
epigram, Anth. Jac. H, 13. p. 50 : Aicrtrve, irXoffra Sikuwwc, BapaaKiri 
Xelp 1 SiaeTexviTa, vvproi 6 xi^ios opfj, | ov Kwr 'AXe^ivdpov pjipipai x^"' 
ovKiri /leiiiTTol \ Uipaaf ffvyyvii/iTi poml Xiovra tfivyeai. Besides this 
Lysippus was also commissioned by Alexander to execute the portrait 
statues of the Macedonian knights, who feU by the Granikus, Plin. 
1. c. Arr. Alex. I. c. Plut. Alex. 17. Criticisms on him may be found 
in Plin. 1. o. 65 : Statuaries arti plurimum traditur contuHsse capillum 
exprimendo, capita minora faciendo quam antiqui, corpora graciliora 
siccioraque, per quaa proceritas signorum maior videretur, of. Propert. 
in, 7, 9 : Gloria Lysippi est animosa effingere sigua. We still possess 
imitations of the works of Lysippus in the Apoxyomenos of the Vati- 
can and in the Pamese Herakles. — A whole artistic school at Sikyon 
and Argos attached itself to Lysippus. After this the development of art 
ceases for a considerable period in Greece, and continues only in Asia 
Minor, where at Pergamon and in Ehodes it arrived at a particularly 
high standard of perfection. The art school of Pergamon had under- 
taken the task of ennobUng by their works the victories of the kings 
Attains (241—195) and Eumenes (197—159) over the Gauls- (Plin. 
XXXIV, 84), and thus created historical works of art, of which we 
still possess imitations in the dying gladiator and in the group of 
Arria and Psetus at Eome, both scenes from the Gaulish combats. 
The characteristics of the Ehodian school are the tendency to the 
colossal and the desire to excite and keep at tension the emotions of 
the beholder by the action represented : the most prominent works of 
this school are the groups of the Laokoon and the Farnese bull. 

e) Of the art of engraving stones it is said Macrob. Vll, 13: 
Imprimebatur sculptura materia anuli, sive ex ferro, sive ex auro 
foret — . Postea luxuriantis setatis usus signaturas pretiosis gemmis 
coepit insculpere, of. Plin. XXXVH, 1—9. Glyptics began to flourish, 
after the precious stones of India had become known at Alexander's 

The Extinction of Greek Freedom. 



CXI, 2 







The revolted Thrakian, Pseonian, and lUy- 
rian tribes subdued by Alexander*). 

Revolt of the Thebans : Thebes taken and 

The Painters A- 
pelles^), Protogenes"). 

Spartans alone once more refused to recognise his hegemony, Arr. I, 
1, 2 : AaKeSai/Jiovlovs airoKptvairBai, lO) etvai a<pl<n irarpiot OKoKouBeCv 
cJXXott, aXV aiirous SXKuiv i^TiyeurOai. At Corinth a convention was 
established (called koii'i) etpr/vri koX avinixaxLa), the conditions of which 
we lea.rn from the speech (Dem.) De Feed, cum Alex., which, though 
not from the pen of Demosthenes, may perhaps be from that of 
Hypereides, and at all events is from the pen of a contemporary (in 
the year 335 B. c). The most important clause is that providing for 
the estabUshment of a Koivbv avviSpmv at Corinth, in which affairs 
of common interest are to be deliberated on, and which remained 
in existence during the reign of Alexander, see e. g. Uiod. XYII, 73. 
The members of this body are styled in the speech referred to ol avve- 
SfKiovres Kol ol iirl ry Koivj (pvKaK-g rerayiiivoL, p. 215. § 15. All Greek 
states are to be free and independent, p. 213. § 8, no changes are to be 
made in existing constitutions, no exiles are to be recalled without 
the knowledge and consent of the Synedriiun, no fresh exiles to 
be made, no distributions of land to be set on foot, no slaves to 
be manumitted for state purposes, etc. p. 214. § 10. p. 215. § 15. 
p. 216. § 16 : all provisions, the object of which was to suppress 
freedom and independent movement in the individual states, and 

time. Most frequent of all are works in amethyst, hyacinth, topaz, 
garnet, jasper, onyx, agate, cornelian : and these engraved stones are 
either sunk (intaghos) or raised (cameos), the former being employed 
for signet-rings, the latter for ornaments. Also the engraving of dies 
for coins attained perfection at this time, as is shown in particular by 
coins of the lower Italian and Sicilian towns Tarentum, Herakleia, 
Thurii, VeUa, Metapontum, and the Macedonian coins struck during 
the reign of Alexander. The names of a number of die engravers are 
known merely from coin inscriptions. — Pyrgoteles, a contemporary of 
Alexander, and the most famous gem-engraver of his time, alone had 
permission to engrave the likeness of the king on gems, Plin. XXXVII, 
8 (non dubie clarissimo artis ejus). 

f) Apelles, born at Kolophon, Suid. s. v., or at Ephesus, Strab. 
p. 642. Luciau. De Calumn. non Tern. Cred. 2, or at Kos, Plin. 
XXXV, 79. Ovid. Ars Am. IH, 401. Pont. IV, 1, 29, first the 
pupil of Ephorns at Ephesus, and then of PamphUus at Amphipolis, 
Plin. 1. 0. 76. Plut. Arat. 13, afterwards lived in Macedonia, where 
he became the friend of Alexander, who often visited his studio and 
would allow no other artist to paint him. In the course of his 
travels he came to Ehodes, where he generously gave his support 
to Protogenes, Plin. 1. o. 81. 88, and also painted at Athens, Athen. 
Ill, p. 590 E, Corinth, 1.0. 588 D, Smyrna, Paus. IX, 35, 2, Samos, 
Plin. 1. c. 93, as also at Alexandria, where, however, he was exposed to 
attacks from the jealousy of his fellow artists, Plin. 1. o. 89. His 
most famous pictures were Aphrodite Anadyomene, the goddess rising 
up from the sea, for the temple of Asklepins at Kos, Plin. 1. c. 
91. Strab. p. 657, Diabole, an allegorical picture of calumny, Luoian. 
1. 0. 5, and amongst the numerous portraits of Philip and Alexander, 
Plin. 1. c. 39, in particular Alexander with the thunder-bolt in his hand 
(Kcpawoipopos) for the temple of the Ephesian Artemis, I.e. 92. 

to put them in the power of Alexander, who was master of the 

4) Arr. I, 1—6. Diod. XVn, 8. Plut. Alex. 11. Strab. p. 301. 
He marched from Amphipolis over Haemus and advanced as far 
as the Ister, and even crossed it : then, after receiving ambassadors 
from the most distant races, even from the Kelts, with offerings 
of friendship and gold, Arr. I, 4, 6—8. Strab. 1. c, he turned 
westwards against the Pseonians and lUyrians, and here reached as 
far as the town Pelion in the neighbourhood of the lake Lyohnitis. 
From these campaigns, besides the subjection of the peoples named, he 
gained a further advantage, in that he was enabled to draw from those 
regions light-armed troops, which did him great service in his wars: 
amongst these the Agrianians are in particular frequently mentioned, 
niyrian auxiliaries, see Curt. IV, 13, 31. VI, 6, 35 : besides them and 
the Agrianians, still further Odrysians,Tribamans, Thrakians, PiEonians, 
Diod. XVII, 17. 

5) Arr. I, 7—10. Diod. XVII, 8—15. Plut. Alex. 11—13. The 
revolt was called forth by the false news, that Alexander had fallen, 
Arr. VII, 2. Demad. fr. p. 180. § 17. Justin. XI, 2. Besides the 
Thebans the .EtoUans, Eleans and Arcadians were also in revolt : and 

Cic. Verr. IV, 60, of which the king himself said, Plut. de virt. AJex. 
p. 335 A : on SuorK 'AXe^ifSpuv o pJkv *i\iir7rou -iiyovev ai>lK-ifo$, o ii 
'AttcXXoS anlfiriTos : very celebrated also was his picture of a horse, so 
true to nature, that a living horse neighed to it, Plin. I.e. 35. It 
is said of him, Plin. 1. c. 69 : Picturro plura solus prope quam ceteri 
omnes contulit. Prsecipua eius in arte venustas fuit, cum eadem 
ffitate maxumi pictores essent, quorum opera cum admiraretur, 
omnibus conlaudatis deesse iUam suam Venerem dicebat, quam Graeci 
Charita vocant. From the numerous anecdotes and traits of character 
recorded in the authors referred to we catch a clear view, not only 
of the artist's genius, but also of his amiable, witty, and magnanimous 
nature. Antiphilus was a rival of ApeUes, but equal to him neither in 
genius nor technical perfection : his most celebrated work was a boy 
blovring a fire, Plin. XXXV, 138. 113. Quintilian, XII, 10 gives 
special praise to his ' facilitas.' 

g) Protogenes, either of Kaunus, Plin. XXXV, 101. Paus. I, 3, 4. 
Plut. Demetr. 22, or of Xanthus in Lykia, Suid. s. v., lived for a long 
time in poverty and obscurity at Rhodes, is said to have painted ships 
even up to his fiftieth year, and only worked himself into notice 
by laborious and persevering industry, Plin. 1. u., supported by Apelles, 
cf. obs. f. His most celebrated painting was the picture of lalysus, 
the hero of Rhodes, with the still more famous hound, the foam 
drippiag from its muzzle, 1. c. 102 ; also the resting Satyr with 
the double-flute in his hand, painted at Ehodes, whilst Demetrius 
Poliorketes was taking the town by storm, Strab. p. 652. Plin. 1. c. 
105. By the most attentive observation of nature he attained to the 
most miQute truth to nature. It is said of him, 1. c. Impetus animi et 
qusedam artis libido in hseo potius eum tulere. Petron. sat. 84: 
Protogenis rudimenta cum ipsius naturse veritate non sine quodam 
horrore tractavi. 



Fifth Period. 336 — 146 b. c. 





CXI, 3 



Departure of Alexander on his expedition against the Persian 
empire^). He conquers the Persian satraps in the battle of the Grani- 
kus and subdues Asia Minor'). 

the latter had abeady advanced as far as the isthmus : Athens had 
resolved on war, but was still delaying. Thebes was taken after 
a brave resistance, and was destroyed chiefly at the instigation of 
its enemies in Hellas, the Phokians, Orchomenians, Thespians, and 
Platseans : only Pindar's house was spared, Arr. I, 9, 10. Plut. Al. 11. 
The inhabitants were sold as slaves, to the number of 30,000 ; 6000 
had fallen in the struggle, Diod. XVII, 14. Plut. 1. u. From Athens 
Alexander at first required the surrender of his chief opponents, 
Demosthenes, Lykurgus, Hypereides, Polyeuktus,-Chares, Charidemus, 
Ephialtes, Diotimus, Moerokles, but was so far appeased by am- 
bassadors from Athens, as to rest content with the banishment of 
Charidemus and Ephialtes, Arr. I, 10, 2—6. Diod. XVII, 15. Plut. 
Phoc. 17. Dem. 23. Justin. XI, 4. Dinarch. adv. Demosth. p. 94. 
§ 32 — 33. The fall of Thebes happened in October, as follows from 
the circumstance that the Athenians were celebrating the great 
mysteries just at the time, when the intelligence arrived at Athens. 

6) The start was effected d;aa tiJ ■^pi dpxo/J-ivip, Arr. I, 11, 3. His 
army consisted according to Diod. XVH, 17 (the solitary passage, 
where the various component elements of the army are stated at the 
commencement of the expedition) of 12,000 Macedonians, 7000 aUies, 
5000 mercenaries, 5000 Odrysians, Triballians and lUyrians, 1000 
Agrianians, together with 30,000 infantry, and 4,500 cavalry, viz. 1500 
Macedonians, 1500 Thessalians, 600 Greeks, and 900 Thrakians and 
PsBonians ; with which the statement of the total in Arr. 1. c. nearly 
tallies, where the numbers are given as " not much more than 30,000 
infantry, and over 5000 cavalry." Other accounts, for the most part 
rather higher, Plut. Al. 15. Polyb. XH, 19. Justin. XI, 6. The 
12,000 Macedonian foot-soldiers formed the greater part of the phalanx 
(consisting of 6 rdfeis under the leaders Perdikkas, Koenus, Kraterus, 
Amyntas, Meleager, Phihppus ; the soldiers belonging to the phalanx 
were called jref^rai/joi, and were ranged 16 deep in order of battle, 
being armed with aapiiraai. 21 feet in length) ; the rest composed 
the corps of hypaspista (lighiter-armed foot-soldiers) under the com- 
mand of Nikanor, the son of Parmeniou. The command in chief over 
all the Macedonian infantry and also over the 7000 allies and 5000 
mercenaries was held by Parmenion. The Macedonian cavalry, iTnroi 
rCiv iraipoji^, rh ^aiptKhv, Xiriros iraipiK'^, ol &f/,(p' avrof iTnreiSf consisted 
of 8 tXm, amongst which was the ?\i; ;8a<riXiKi7, also called to ay-rifia, 
commanded by Philotas, the son of Parmenion. See esp. Arr. I, 
14, 1—3. II, 8, 1—4. m, 11, 8—12, 5. Diod. XVII, 57, cf. p. 99. 
obs. 232. Besides the land force, the king was also accompanied by a 
fleet of 160 ships, see esp. Arr. I, 11, 6. 18, 4, amongst which were 20 
Athenian vessels, Diod. XVII, 22. To protect Macedonia he left 
Antipater behind him with 12,000 infantry and 1500 cavalry, Diod. 
1. p. — The king of Persia, with whom he began the war, was Dareius 
Kodomannus : this monarch had been raised to the throne by Bagoas 
in 336 E. c. after the murder of Arses : it was this same Bagoas, 
who had murdered Artaxerxes Ochus in 338 B.C. and made Arses 
king. Seeing the position of existing affairs, the Persian king sought 
to strengthen his forces with Greek mercenaries and to enter into 
relations with the Greek towns ; and for their part all the discon- 
tented Greeks were inclined to favour the king of Persia. Hence 

in all the great battles following Greek mercenaries formed the most 
serviceable part of the Persian armies; hence several remittances 
of money sent by the king to Greece, Diod. XVII, 4. Arr. H, 14, 6- 
Dinarch. adv. Dem. p. 91. § 10. p. 92. § 18. Msoh. adv. Ctes. p. 88. 
§ 239. p. 90. § 259; hence embassies from Greece to Persia, Arr. II, 
15, 2, and continual apprehensions on Alexander's part on account of 
the defection of the Greeks, Arr. 1, 18, 8. 11, 17, 2, although Alexander 
left nothing undone to win over the Greeks to his side, and in particular 
always represented his expedition as undertaken at once in the name 
and the interest of Greece, see esp. Arr. I, 16, 6. 7. II, 14, 4. III. 
6, 2. Plut. Al. 16. 

7) Arr. I, 11—29. Diod. XVII, 17—28. Plut. Al. 15—18. Justin. 
XI, 6. Whilst his army crosses oyer from Sestos to Abydos, Alex- 
ander first goes to Ilium, where he sacrifices to Pallas and exchanges 
his arms for those of Achilles, fiaKaplaas axtrhv, ort Kal ^wv <pi\ov ttuttov 
KoX T€\€VT^ffas fj^yoKov KTjpvKos irvx^f, Plut. 15. Arr. 12, 1. He then 
joins his army again at Arisbe, and advances by way of Perkote, 
Lampsakus, the river Praktius, Kolonse, Harmotus, to the river 
Granikus, on the eastern bank of which he finds the enemy encamped. 
The commanders of the enemy, Arr. 12, 8 — 10. Dangerous advice of 
Memnon, not to risk a battle, but to confine themselves to the 
defensive, to waste the land in advance of Alexander and to make 
descents on Greece and Macedonia with the fleet in his rear, Arr. 12, 
9—10. Diod. 18. For the battle on the Granikus, Arr. 13—16. 
Diod. 18 — 21. The numbers of the enemy amounted according to 
Arr. 14, 4 to about 20,000 cavalry and nearly 20,000 Greek foot 
soldiers (according to Diod. 19 to over 10,000 cavalry and 100,000 
infantry, according to Justin, to 600,000 men). For the nature of the 
battle, Arr. 15,4: ^v /iiv axi tQv liriruv tj /ioQCVt TEft>/«xf? ^^ /laXMy ti 
it^KeL' ^vvex^fJ'^voL yap tiriroL re Xtnrois Kal dvdpes avSpdtnv -^yojvii^ovTO. — 
For the danger to Alexander's life averted by Kleitus see Arr. 15, 8. 
Plut. 16. The Persian infantry had taken no part whatever in the 
battle; and it was not tiU the battle was finished, that it was attacked 
and cut down almost to a man, Arr. 16, 3. Plut. 16. The number of 
those who fell on the side of the Macedonians amounted according to 
Arr. 16, 4 only to a total of some 100 men, or even 34 according to 
Aristobulua ap. Plut. 16. After the battle, which was fought according 
to Plut. Cam. 19 in the month Thargelion (May), Alexander captured 
in succession Sardes, Arr. 17, 3—8, Ephesus, id. § 9—12, Magnesia, 
TraUes and other Ionian and ^olian towns, id. 18, 1 — 2, and next 
Miletus, id. 18, 3—19, 11. In the siege of Miletus the fleet still 
cooperated with the army: after the capture of the town it was 
disbanded, id. 20, 1 : XptrifuiTUV re iv rf rdre diropiq. Kal d/ia oiK a|i4- 
fiaxov opiSv TO alrrov vavTiKbv t^ XI^ctikQ, oSkovv iSiXuv oiS^ fiipH 
Twl Trji trrpaTids KivSweieiv ■ oXXus re 4Trep6ei, Kar^xuK rjSri rif Trefip t^v 
'Acrlav, on oSre vavTiKou In S^oiTo, ras re Trapa\tovs rSXeis Xa^av 
KaraXiaei. rb HepiriKiv vavriKbv, ovre OTrbffev ras iirripeaiai <rviXTrXr]pm(TOviTiv 
oijTe oTji TTJs 'Atrias irpori^ovtnv ^x""'''"-'- The siege of Halikamassus, 
which stiU remained, was a work of especial difficulty, and was only 
brought to a successful issue after great obstacles had been overcome, 
Arr. 20, 2—23, 8. When finaUy this town had also been taken (the 
citadel at first still maintained itself), Alexander sent Parmenion 

The Extinction of Greek Freedom. 



B. C. 




CXI, 4 



Memnon's enterprises by sea, and his death'). 

Alexander prosecutes his march and defeats the Persian king Dareius 
at Issus°). 

CXII, 1 



Conquest of Syria, Phcenicia, Palestine, and Egypt'"). Foundation 
of Alexandria"). 

(it was already winter time, Arr. 24, 1. 5) to march to Phrygia by way 
of Sardes, id. 24, 3, whilst he himself continued to follow the coast 
through Lykia and Pamphylia, and then marching in a northerly 
direction by way of Kelsenffi to Gordium effected a junction with 
Parmenion, id. 24 — 29. In the Hellenic towns, which submitted 
to him, he everywhere established a democracy, id. 17, 10. 18, 2 : for 
the rest, he always, if practicable, allowed not only the former laws, 
institutions, and taxes, but even the rulers, to remain, as he found 
them, see e. g. id. 17, 24, 23, 7. 

8) Arr. 11, 1—2. Diod. XVII, 29. Memnon (cf. obs. 7, Sttx^e^o-imivos 
M (Tw^crei <rTpaT7]yi.Kri, Diod. XVII, 18) was appointed by Dareius 
commander in chief of the entire fleet : he took Chios and Lesbos, 
except Mytilene, which town he besieged, and entered into relations 
with Greece, in particular with the Spartans, so that Alexander was 
menaced by him in Greece and even in Macedonia : his death, which 
lamed irrecoverably the whole enterprise, dircp n oXXo Kal toOto iv Ty 
Tire l^Xa^pe rd. /SaffiX^us Trpdy/JiaTa, Arr. 1, 3. Mytilene was now taken 
byAutophradates and Pharnabazus, Arr. 1, 3— 5, likewise Tenedosand 
several other islands in the archipelago, id. 2, 1 — 2. 13, 4 — 6 : but in 
the following year all was reconctuered by Hegeloohus, which put an 
end to this section of the war, Arr. Ill, 2, 3—7. Curt. IV, 5, 14—22. 

9) Arr. H, 3—12. Diod. XVII, 30—39. Plut. Al. 18—21. Curt. 
III. Polyb. XII, 17—22. (The first two books of Cui-tius are lost.) 
Before his departure from Gordium the cutting of the Gordian knot, 
Arr. 3. Plut. 18. Curt. Ill, 1. (According to Plutarch 1. c. by this 
method of undoing the knot is also signified the dismemberment 
of Alexander's empire after his death, " iroXXis ^f airov KOTrhros 
apxas <t)avTJmt") His march passes through Paphlagonia, Kappadokia, 
Kihkia (where he fell dangerously ill at Tarsus and was saved by 
the Akamauian Philippus, Arr. 4, 7—11. Diod. 31. Plut. 19. Curt. 
5—6) : when on the point of crossing the Amanus and attacking 
Dareius, who was encamped on the opposite side, he hears that 
Dareius has marched by a pass situated to the north over the Amanus 
into the defile between the Amanian and Syrian Gate, and is now in 
his rear (Arr. 6, 6 : Kal n Kal SaLpivLoa tux*" '77^" i^*" «'« ^ks'ivov tov^ 
xHpov, ov urire iK T^s tTrwov ttoXXt) d^iXeia a-iirCi iyivero p.r)Te iK tov 
rXriSous auVoC rSiv re avBpairup Kal twv cIkovtIoiv tc Kal To^evp.aTOiv-~ 
id. 7, 1: vvep^aXiiv Stj to 6pos Aapcios to Kara ras TTiiXas rhs 'kjiaviKhs 
Ka\oup.4vas us iirl'Ia-aw Tporjye): he therefore reverses his march, and 
fights a battle with him somewhat to the south of Issus by the river 
Pinarus. The army of Dareius numbered 600,000 /tdx'/to'. A"^. 8, 8. 
Plut. 18, (500,000, Diod. 31): the loss on the Persian side in the 

battle amounted to 100,000 killed, Arr. 11, 8; on the side of Alexander 
only 300 infantry and 150 cavalry are said to have fallen, Diod. 36. 
Amongst the prisoners were the mother, the wife, and two daughters 
of Dareius, Arr. 11, 9, who to their good fortune experienced the most 
generous treatment at Alexander's hands, id. 12, 3—8. The battle was 
fought in the month Maimakterion (November), id. 11, 11. The rich 
treasures of Dareius were captured after the battle by Parmenion 
at Damaskus, id. Curt. 13. Athen. XIII. p. 607 f. Proposals of 
peace from Dareius shortly after the battle, Arr. 14, and during the 
siege of Tyre; in these latter he offered to cede to Alexander all 
countries west of the Euphrates, id. 25. Cf. Curt. IV, 1, 7—14. 5, 1—8. 
Diod. 39. 54. 

10) Arr. II, 13— III, 5. Diod. XVII, 40—51. Plut. Al. 24—28. 
Curt. IV, 1—8. On the way to Egypt (the reasons, why he at once 
undertook the expedition, instead of pursuing Dareius, see Arr. II, 17, 

1 4) all places voluntarily submitted to him, with the exception of the 

towns Tyre and Gaza. The former, situated on an island, and 
separated from the mainland by a channel 4 stadia in breadth (Curt. 
2, 7) and 3 fathoms in depth (Arr. 18, 3), with walls 150 feet high 
(Arr. 21, 4), was only taken after a siege of seven months (Diod. 46. 
Plut. 24. Curt. 4, 19) by means of a mole, constructed from the 
mainland to the island, and with the help of a fleet collected by 
the rest of the Phoenicians, the Kyprians, Rhodians, etc., Arr. 16—24. 
Diod. 40—47. Curt. 2—4. Plut. 24—25, in the month Hekatombjeon 
(July), Arr. 24, 6. Gaza offered an equally obstinate resistance, and 
was taken after a siege of two months, Arr. 26—27. Diod. 48. Curt. 
6. Plut. 26. Egypt yields without resistance, Diod. 49 : oi Alyvimoi 
Tuv Uepffwv Tia-e^riKdrav els to lepa. Kal /3ia(ws apxaira" dap^vois TpoceSi- 
XOVTO Toiii 'SAaKeSbvas. For his sojourn in the country see Arr. Ill, 
1—5. Diod. 49—52. Curt. 6—8. Plut. 26—27 : for his march to 
the oracle of Jupiter Ammon, Arr. 3-4. Diod. 49—51. Curt. 7—8. 
Plut. 27. According to Diodorus, Curtius, and Plutarch, from this 
time he had himself addressed as God. 

11) Arr. in, 1, 5—2, 2. Diod. XVII, 52. Curt. IV, 8. Plut. 
Al. 27. For the position and importance of the town see Diod. 
1. c. : ava pAirov oma ttjs re Xi|iii'i)s (the lake Mareotis) Krai ttjs SaXctTTTjs 
dio pAvov aTTO Tijs y^s Ix" TrpoiroSovs (TTems Kal Travrik&i ei(l>v\dKTovs • 
TOV Se TUTTOK diTOTcXoOtra x^a/'i^St irapawXria-LOV ^x^i irXoTeiai' p.4ariv 
a-X^Soi' TTjV TvoKai Tipyovsav Kal koXKu 8avp.a<TT^v .—Ka06\ov Si i) TriXis 
TOffavTYiv MSo(nv JXa^eK iv to'is iiffTepov x/wi^o'S, "O'Te irapa iroXXoIs aiir-nv 
TrpuTTiP d.pi6pi.ei<r6a(. rSiv KaTO, ttjv oWovpiv-qv. 


Fifth Period, 336 — 146 b. c. 






CXII, 2 



Alexander penetrates into the interior of the Persian empire and 
defeats Dareius a second time at Gaugamela"). Dareius flies to Media"). 
Alexander in Babylon, Susa, and Persepolis"). 

The Spartans under king Agis'°) in connexion with the Eleians, 
Achseans, and Arkadians (except Megalopolis), in revolt against Mace- 

CXTT, 3 



The Spartans and their allies defeated by Antipater"). 

12) Arrian. m, 6—15. Diodor. XVH, 52—61. Curt. IV, 8—16. 
Plut. Al. 29—33. The departure from Egypt took place at the 
beginning of spring, Arrian. 6, 1 ; the line of march first led over 
the old route as far as Tyre, from there it turned eastwards to the 
Euphrates, which was crossed in the month Hekatombaeon (July, 
Arrian. 7, 1) at Thapsakus; they now march first in a northerly 
direction, then through the north of Mesopotamia, cross the Tigris 
(with no opposition on the part of the enemy, but with no little 
difficulty) and keeping to the left bank of the Tigris during a further 
march of forty days, reach the neighbourhood of the foe (Arrian. 7, 7), 
who had encamped at Gaugamela, distant 600 stadia westwards from 

_Arbela (Arrian. 8, 7) and about the same distance south-eastwards 
from Nineveh. After Alexander's passage of the Tigris, an eclipse of 
the moon took place, Arrian. 7, 6, which falls on the 20th or 13th 
September, and the battle was also fought in the same month, id. and 
15, 7, in the month Pyanepsion, id. ; but according to Plutarch Cam. 
19, the battle took place on the 26th Boedromion, cf. also Alex. 31, 
where the eclipse of the moon is placed at the commencement of the 
great mysteries, and the battle eleven days later. The army of Dareius 
numbered 1,000,000 infantry and 40,000 cavalry, Arrian. 8, 6, cf. 
Diodor. 53. Plutarch. 31. Curt. 9, 3 ; its composition Arrian. 8, 3 — 6. 
11, 3 — 7 ; Alexander had now (in consequence of repeated reinforce- 
ments) 40,000 infantry and 7000 cavalry, id. 12, 5. According to id. 
15, 6, 300,000 Persians fell in the battle, and a still greater number 
were taken prisoners ; of the Macedonians not more than 10 are said 
to have fallen, id. According to Diodorns (61) the number of Persians 
slain amounted to 90,000, and that of Macedonians to 500. 

13) Arrian. m, 16, 1—2. Diodor. XVII, 64. Curt. V, 1. Plut. 
Alex. 38. He directed his flight to Media and stayed first of all in 
Kkbatana, uirevStav rifi diaffTr/fiart tuv Tbiriap \a^€?v ivcurrpo^)^ koX 
Xpovov iKavov eh TrapoiTKev^v dwdjuas, Diodor. 

14) Arrian. HI, 16—18. Diodor. XVn, 64—72. Curt. V, 1—7. Plut. 
Al. 34—42. In Babylon he stayed 30 days, Diodor. 64, in Persepolis 
4 months, pov\6fi,evos Tois (TTpariwras cwaKa/j.pdvfip {Kal y&,p rfv x^^f^os 
wpa), Plut. 37. The destruction of the royal fortress at Persepohs by 
fire, Arrian. 18, 11—12, cf. Diodor. 72. Curt. 7. Plut. 38. 

15) Agis ni had succeeded his father Archidamns III (p. 99. obs. 

231) in 338 B. c, when the latter had fallen in Italy in the war, which 
he was conducting as the ally of the Tarentines against the Messapians, 
Diodor. XYI, 63. 88. Plut. Ag. 3. Cam. 19. 

16) Agis had already in 333 B.C. placed himself in connexion 
with Autophradates and Phamabazus (see obs. 8), and from them 
received 30 talents and 10 triremes, with which he had begun the war 
in Erete, in order to put himself in possession of the island in 
opposition to Alexander, a Arrian. II, 13, 4. 6. Diodor. XVEI, 4S. 
And in 331 b. c. the Peloponnese itself was in revolt, as is 
proved by the circumstance that Alexander in this year despatched 
Amphoterus with a considerable fleet to the Peloponnese (t4 iv 
Jl€\o'irovv'q(r(p oTi avTi^ yevsonepiffffai diTTiyyeXTo), to assist the states 
which supported his cause, Arrian. Ill, 6, 3. Diodor. XVQ, 62. In 
the following winter he sent 3000 talents from Susa to Antipater 
for the purposes of this war, Arrian. Ill, 16, 10. 

17) Diodor. XVH, 62—63. 72. Din. adv. Demosth. p. 94. § 34. 
.Sischin. adv. Ctesiph. p. 72. § 133. p. 74. § 165. Curt. VI, 1. The 
aUies besieged Megalopolis, and were on the point of taking it (iEschin. 
I.e. § 165), when Antipater arrived with 40,000 men (Diodor. 63; 
the Greeks had 20,000 foot and 2000 horse, id. 62), and in spite 
of brave resistance totally routed the Greeks. In the battle there fell 
5300 Greeks and 3500 Macedonians, Diodor. 63, cf. Curt. 1. c. § 16. 
Haec victoria non Spartam modo sociosque ejus, sed etiam omnes, qui 
fortunam belli spectaverant, fregit. id. The punishment of the 
Eleians and Achaeans, s. Curt. 1. c. § 21 ; the Spartans were referred 
to Alexander for the decision of their fate, and consequently sent 
ambassadors to him, s. iEschin. I.e. § 133. The battle must be 
placed, not in 331 B.C., but (with iDiodorus) in 330; for when 
^schines delivered his speech against Etesiphon, the aforesaid Spartan 
ambassadors had not set out, s. id. § 133, and Alexander was l^u toO 
dpKTou, whilst this speech was not delivered till the second half of the 
year 330, see Plut. Demosth. 24. Dionys. HaL p. 476. (Bp. ad. Amm. 12) ; 
it is therefore incorrect to place it, as Curtius does (1. c. § 21), before 
the battle of Gaugamela ; and when Alexander says : loixev, w arSpes, 
ore Aapeiov ^jneis hiKwiiev, ixei Tis iv 'ApKaSl<f yeyovivai. /i.vofUixla, 
Plut. Ages. 15, these words must not be understood, as if both battles 
had been exactly simultaneous. 

The Extinction of Greek Freedom. 





CXII, 3 

CXII, 4 



Alexander pursues Dareius through Media and Parthia, and after 
the Persian king's murder by Bessus") continues his march in pursuit of 
Bessus through Parthia, Areia, Drangiana, Arachosia, to Baktria''). 

He subdues Baktria, and marches over the Oxus to Sogdiana^"). 
Bessus taken prisoner*'). Crossing of the laxartes'''). 

18) Arr. m, 19—22. Curt. V, 8—13. Plut. Al. 42—43. Diod. 
XVH, 73. On hearing of Alexander's approach, Dareius flies to the 
north-east with 3000 cavalry and 6000 infantry (Arr. 19, 5), intending 
to retreat as far as Baktria, and there to form an army out of the 
military forces of these districts (id. § 1). Alexander marches first to 
Ekbatana, then — ^with only a part of the army for the sake of greater 
swiftness — ^in 11 days (id. 20, 2) to Bhagse on the southern slope of 
Elbur in the neigbourhood of the Caspian gate, afterwards with in- 
Creasing speed and detachments decreasing in strength along the slope 
of Elbur through the north of Parthia, till (in the neighbourhood of 
Hekatompylus, probably in the district of what is now Damaghan, 
Died. XVII, 75. Curt. VI, 2, 15) he finds Dareius murdered by Bessus, 
Nabarzanes, and Barsaentes. That is, they had first thrown Dareius 
into chains, intending, el niv diwKovra <r<pas 'AXi^avSpov vwBi,voi.vTo, 
ira/taSouKai Aapelov 'AXe^dvSpif koI <T(pliii n &ya.0bv evplcTKejBai, el di t4 
^/iTToXip itraveXipivddTa fiddotev^ roi/s 5^ CTpaTidv re ^vW^yety mtjv 
ifKelffTtiv ddvatvTo koX Siacrufi^ecv es rb KOivbv ttjv dpxh^y Arr. 21, 5, and 
now put him to death, when they were surprised by Alexander, in the 
month Hekatombteou (July), id. 22, 2. Bessus fled to Baktria, and 
there crowned himself king, id. 25, 3. From this time forward, now 
that, Dareius being dead, Alexander was able to look on himself 
as heir to the Persian empire, he began according to the general 
supposition to incline to debauchery, to adopt Persian customs, and to 
require divine veneration, Curt. VI, 2, 6. cf. Arr. IV, 7, 3 — 5, 9, 9. 
Diod. 77. Plut. 45. 

19) He first marched in a north-westerly direction to Hyrkania 
(the modem Masenderan), where he subdued the Mardians and 
Tapurians, Arr. in, 23—25, 2. Curt. VI, 4—5. Diod. XVH, 75—76. 
Plut. Alex. 44. For the further march, Arr. HI, 25—28. Diod XVII, 
78—83. Curt. VI, 6— VII, 4. (Plutarch has from this point onwards 
entirely lost the thread of events.) Originally he intended to march 
straight to Baktria, but turned southwards to Areia (Hera-t) because of 
the defection of Satibarzanes, whom he had appointed governor of 
this province, Arr. 25, 4—6. On the approach of Alexander Satibar- 
zanes took refuge in flight, id. § 7 : and Alexander now continued his 
march in this direction as far as Drangiana (Sedschestan), id. § 8. 
(Here the trial and execution of Philotas: shortly afterwards the 
murder of Parmenion at Ekbatana, Arr. 26. Curt. VI, 7— VII, 2. 
Diod. 79—80. Plut. 48 — 49.) Then the march through Arachosia, 
Gedrosia, Arr. 28, 1, through the country of the Paropamisadte, where 
he founds a new Alexandreia (some miles to the N.E. of Cabul), id. § 

4, cf. IV, 22, 4, and across the Faropamisus (Hindukusch) in spite of 
all the difSculties and hardships incident to winter time, Arr. 28, 1, 9. 
Bessus fled on his approach to Sogdiana, id. § 9 — 10. 

20) Arr. HI, 29, 1—4. Curt. VH, 4—5. Baktria with its chief 
towns Aomus and Baktra (Balkh) surrender to him without resistance, 
Arr. § 1. The crossing of the Oxus, which was 6 stadia in width, id. 
3, is aceompUshed within five days on inflated skins, made out of the 
army's tent coverings, id. § 4. Diodorus XVII, 83 records the entry 
of Alexander into Baktria, and the capture of Bessus, which according 
to this author happens in Baktria itself : then follow in the next 
chapter events, which belong to the winter of 327 — 826 b.o. and to 
Alexander's expedition to India : the intermediate portion has been 

21) Arr. m, 29, 6—30, 5. Curt. VH, 5. Bessus is betrayed by 
his comrades Spitamenes and Dataphemes, and taken prisoner by 
Ptolemy, son of Lagus. Alexander had him brought out as a captive 
naked and in chains to be scourged, Arr. 30, 4 — 5, he then had him 
mutilated at Baktra, and led off to Ekbatana, where he was executed, 
id. rV, 7, 3. Spitamenes and the rest of those, who had delivered up 
Bessus, in fear of Alexander continue the war against him, id. IV, 1, 
5. Owing to them the rising spreads over a large part of Sogdiana 
and even as far as Baktria, id., cf. Curt. VI, 6, 15. 

22) Alexander founds a new Alexandreia on the banks of the 
laxartes (about the neighbourhood of the modem Kodschend), Arr. IV, 
1, 3 : re yb.p x^pos eTrmjdeios avT(p etpalvero av^-rjtrai ttjv ir6X(i' etrl pjya 
KoX kv KcCKip olKurBriffeirBai rrjs ctI SKvOas, etwore ^vfi^alyoi, eXaireus Kol 
T^s irpoipvXaKrjs r-qs x'^P"' ""/*'' '''^^ KaraSpo/iAs tuv wipav tou Trora/xov 
eiroLKovvTov ^ap^apaiv. According to Curtius the foundation of this 
city caused the appearance of a Skythian army on the further bank, 
Vn, 7, 1 : Hex Scytharum, cuius tum ultra Tanaim imperium erat, 
ratus eam urbem, quam in ripa amnis Macedones oondiderant, suis 
impositam esse cervicibus. But Alexander crosses over the river and 
repulses them with great loss, Arr. IV, 4 — 5, 1. Curt. VII, 7 — 9. 
Before and after this expedition he has to combat with the rebellion, 
which continually breaks out afresh at different places in Sogdiana, 
Arr. IV, 1—3. 5—6. Curt. VH, 6—7. 10. He spends the winter in 
Baktra, Arr. IV, 7, 1 : TaCva Si SiaTpa^&fKvos is ZaplaaTo. (the usual 
name for Baktra in Arrian) aipUeTO, Kal auroD xariixevev Icrre irapeXdeiv 
TO aK/iaiov tov xet/iwcoj. 


Fifth Period. 336—146 B.C. 


B. C. 







Continuation of the war in Sogdiana^'). 




Subjection of Sogdiana*"). Departure for India and march to the 
neighbourhood of the Indus^^). 




He crosses the Indus, and advances into India across the rivers 
Hydaspes, Akesines, and Hydraotes as far as the Hyphasis, where he is 
compelled to return by his discontented army. March back to 

23) Arr. IV, 16—17. Curt. VH, 10— VUI, 3. The complete sub- 
jection of Sogdiana was rendered difficult by reason that the greater 
part of the country, with exception of the fruitful and permanently 
cultivated districts of the laxartes in its upper and middle course and 
of the Polytimetus (Kohik), consisted of Steppes, and was inhabited by 
nomads, called Skythians and Massagetse in Arrian ; and in this part 
the rebellious always found a refuge and gathered new forces. Alex- 
ander now marched through the country with his army in five divi- 
sions, which reunited in the capital Marakanda (Samarkand), where 
Alexander granted them some rest, Arr. 16, 1 — 3. (It was here, at 
Marakanda, that Alexander, whilst intoxicated, killed his friend 
Kleitus, Arr. IV, 8—9. Curt. Vin, 1—2. Plut. Alex. 52—53.) New 
towns were founded to keep the country in check, Arr. 16, 3. 17, 4. 
Curt. Vn, 10, 15. But the greatest advantage, that befell Alexander 
in this year, was the death of Spitamenes, who was killed by the 
Massagetse (according to Curtius by his wife), Arr. 17, 4 — 7. Curt. 
Vin, 3. This time he pitched his winter quarters in Sogdiana itself 
at Nautaka, Arr. 18, 2. 

24) Arr. IV, 18—20. Curt. (VII, 11) VIII, 4. The chief under- 
taking in this year was the conquest of the rock of Oxyartes, esteemed 
impregnable ; his daughter Eoxane was then married by Alexander. 
This brought the conquest of Sogdiana to a close, Arr. 21, 1. Alex- 
ander now first marched to Baktra, subduing on his way thither the 
Parsetakas, and capturing in the course of his operations a second 
similar stronghold, the rook of Chorienes, Arr. 21 — 22, 2. (During his 
stay in Baktra the philosopher KaUisthenes was put to death by the 
command of Alexander, Arr. IV, 10, 14, cf. 22, 2. Plut. Alex. 53—55. 
Curt. Vni, 5-8.) 

25) Arr. IV, 22—30. Curt. Vin, 9—12. Diod. XVII, 84—85. 
Alexander started from Baktra at the end of the spring, Arr. 22, 3. 
His plans, id. 15, 6 : oiirip 5^ ri, 'Ivduv l^'V ^'' '"'? '''^'''^ iJ.i\eu>, To&rovs yiip 
KaTaarpe^d/ji^ms Trairav av ^x"" "'"'I" 'Affiax' ^xo/i^vi/s Si ttJs 'Atrias inav- 
livai. is TTJv 'BXXciSa, iKeWev di i(fi "EM\T](TirbvTov re KaX ttjs npoirovTlSos 
^iiv ry dvvd/Mei. Toa-Q ry re vavTLK-^ Kol ry Tel^Ky iXaxreiv etata tov 
TI6vTov. He first marched over the Paropamisus to Alexandreia (obs. 
19), and from there to the river Kophen (Kabul), where the Indian 
prince Taxiles met him on his march, to make submission to him, Arr. 
22, 6. He then sent Hephffistion and Perdikkas with a detachment 
in advance, to march straight to the Indus and to get a bridge ready 
built over that river, id. § 7. He himself marched with the rest of the 
army rather more to the north through the southern outlying moun- 

tains of the Paropamisus range (Hindukusch), conliuually fighting 
with natural obstacles and with the warlike inhabitants of these 
districts (and here again he conquered a fortress named Aomus, 
situated on a seemingly inaccessible mountain, id. 29 — 30. Curt. 
11. Diod. 85). It was winter, when Alexander was passing through 
these mountainous regions, and it was not till the spring, that he 
descended into the lowlying plains of the Indus : this is definitely 
attested by Aristobulus, see Strab. p. 691 : Si.a.TpifdvTav Kuri, ttiv 
bpeiVTiv ^v re rf ' AffaciKavov y^ tov x^tM^Spa, tov S Sap^s dpxop-ivov 
KaTa^e^TjK&rojv els rd, iredia — . 

26) Arr. V, 3 to the end of the book, Curt. VIH, 12— IX, 3. Diod. 
XVHI, 86 — 95. The modem names of the rivers are : Hydaspes = 
Dschelum, Akesines = Dschenab, Hydraotes = Eawi, Hyphasis = Sut- 
ledsch. The most important battle, which he had to fight on this 
march, was that with Porus, who had posted himself at the passage 
of the Hydaspes, and whom he treated with the greatest generosity 
after his victory, Arr. 9—19. Curt. VHI, 13—14. Diod. 87—89. 
On the eastern bank of the Hydaspes he founds the towns of Niksea 
and Bukephala, Arr. 19, 4. His further plans, prevented by the 
refusal of the army to follow him, id. 26, 1 : el Si ns /toi airi} ircXe/xetv 
TToflei d/coCirai o mrep iiyrai. Tripas, imdirw oVi ov ttoWt? (ti rifi'v ^ Xonr-q 
lanv isre M rbv iroTa/wv tov Far/yriv Kai t^v ii^av BaXaa-aav Tairrj 
Si 'Kiya ip,tv ^vvatprjs tpaveiTM i) 'TpKavia dakanaa.- Kai iyu airoSei^u 
Ma/CfSiffi Te Kai tois ^v/Mfiaxois tov /xiv 'lvSi.Kbv kUKitov ^ippovv wra 
tQ XlepaiKQ, TTJv Si 'TpKaviap T(f 'lvSiK(fi- qwo Si tov UepaiKov is ki^irjv 
repiT\eua-8ri<reTai. iTToktp TineTiptp ra li^xpi- "B.paK\iovs CTriKav airo Si 
(TTTiKwv ri ivTos Ai^vTi TTOtra ■^/j.cTipa ylyverai. Kai i) 'kula 5t) ovtw TrS/ra, 
Kol opoi TTJs TavTTi apxTJs oSa-irep Kai ttjs yrjs Spovs 6 Beds iirolw^. 
The spot, at which he turned, was marked by 12 altars of towering 
height, which he caused to be erected, Arr. 29, 1. The passage 
of the Hydaspes and the battle with Porus took place in the time 
after the summer solstice, Arr. 9, 3. 4 ; and this statement is con- 
firmed by the weighty testimony of Aristobulus in Strabo (p. 691) 
already quoted, according to which the passage of the Hydaspes and 
the march to the Hyphasis (here called Hypanis) and the return march 
to the Hydaspes fall in the time of the Etesiffi, whilst the building of 
the ships and the preparations for the continuation of the expedition 
made there faU in the period about the setting of the Pleiads (i.e. 
according to Arr. VI, 21, 2 about the beginning of winter). The 
statement of Arrian, V, 19, 3,. which makes the passage of the 
Hydaspes take place iir dpxovTos 'Aerivalois 'nye/ibvos /tiji-os Uowv- 
Xi-uvos (i.e. in April of 326 B.C.) must therefore be erroneous or 

The Extinction of Greek Freedom. 



B. c. 


CXIV, 1 

CXIV, 2 










He proceeds, partly by water, on the rivers 
Hydaspes, Akesines, and Indus, partly by land, 
along the banks of these rivers, till he arrives in 
the ■vicinity of the mouth of the Indus"). From 
there he marches by land through the territory 
of the Arabians and Oreitse and through Gedrosia 
and Karmania to Persis'^^), whilst Nearchus with 
the fleet looks for the sea road to the Persian 

His stay at Susa, Opis, and Ekbatana'"). His 
attempts to secure the fusion of the Persians and 

He commands the Greek towns to receive 
back their exiles"''). 

New Comedy 

27) Arr. Anab. VI, 1—20. Ind. XVni— XIX. Curt. IX, 3—10. 
Diod. XVII, 95 — 104. The number of vessels, -whicli formed the fleet 
fitted out on the Hydaspes, amounted to 1800, partly triremes, 
partly ships of burden and transports for the horses, Ind. XIX, 7. 
The army advanced amid perpetual struggles with the tribes on the 
route, which were subdued by force, if they refused a voluntary sub- 
mission ; of these the Mallians offered the most obstinate resistance. 
For the fight with the Mallians see Arr. 6—13, and for the severe 
wound, which Alexander himself got in the battle owing to his mad 
rashness, id. 10—13. Curt. 4—6. Diod. 98—99. Plut. Al. 63. The 
army halted at Pattala, where the Indus branches into two arms, and 
Alexander himself sailed down both arms as far as the sea, to acquire a 
knowledge of the looaUty, Arr. 18—20. Curt. 9—10. The expedition 
lasted 10 months according to Aristobulus, Strab. p. 692, only 7 
months according to Plut. Alex. 66 : the latter is the more probable, 
see obs, 28. 

28) Air. YI, 20—30. Curt. IX, 10-X, 1. Diod. XVH, 104—107. 
He had previously sent Kraterus in advance with a part of the army, 
to take the road through Arachosia and Gedrosia to Karmania, Arr. 
15, 5. 16, 3. He himself traversed the route above indicated (through 
the modem Beludsohistan) amid extraordinary difSoulties, for a 
description of which see Arr. 24—26. In Karmania he rejoined 
Kraterus, id. 27, 8, and here Nearchus also sought him out to bring 
him intelligence of the progress of the fleet, id. 28, 7. Ind. XXXIV— 
XXXVI. Alexander's expedition was begun before the cessation of 
the Etesiffi, i.e. before the month of October, Arr. 21, 1. 3. In 60 days 
he completes the march to Pura (Bunpur), the capital of Gedrosia, id. 
24, 1. It is winter, when he marches through Karmania, id. 28, 7. 

29) Arr. Ind. XXI to the end. Alexander had chosen Nearchus, from 
his great confidence in that general, to conduct this exceedingly 
dangerous and arduous voyage, id. XX. He waited at Pattala, till the 
Etesise (the so-called monsoons) blowing from the south-west had 
ceased, and set sail on the 20th of Boedromion, id. XXI, 1. Anab. VI, 

h) The new comedy, which flourished in the time of Alexander 
and the Diadochi, is a further development of the middle, inasmuch 
as personal satire and parody retreat still further into the background, 

21, 1. He rejoined Alexander at Susa in the following spring, Ind. 
XLLI. Anab. VII, 5, 6. 

30) Arr. VH, 4—15, 3. Dion. XVII, 107—111. (Up to the end of 
the section, in Curtius the greater part of the narrative still preserved 
is, with the exception of some short fragments, chiefly occupied with 
the Macedonian revolt and a passage on the death of Alexander ; the 
rest is lost.) In Susa the marriage of Alexander to a daughter of 
Dareius and of many distinguished Macedonians to Persian ladies, 
Arr. 4, 4—8. Plut. Alex. 80. From there he sailed down the Pasitigris 
or Bulffius to the Persian gulf, and then up the Tigris to Opis, Arr. 7. 
At this place the revolt of the Macedonian army took place ; its im- 
mediate cause was the proceeding of Alexander, who formed a new 
phalanx out of 30,000 Persians, and enrolled many Persians in the 
ranks of the Macedonian cavalry, and even appointed them to posts ot 
command, id. 6. 8—12. Curt. X, 2—4. Diod. 108, 109. Plut. Al. 71. The 
rebellion was allayed : and then 10,000 Macedonians were despatched 
home under the command of Kraterus and Polysperchon, Arr. 12, 1 — 4. 
Next comes his march to Ekbatana (the mention of which in Arrianhas 
been lost through an hiatus at the end of chap. 12), Diod. Ill, where 
Hephffistion dies, Arr. 14. Diod. 110. Pluti 72. In the winter (Arr. 
15, 3) he undertakes another campaign against the mountain tribe of 
the Kossffii, Arr. 15, 1 — 3. Diod. 111. 

31) In particular the measures made mention of iu obs. 30 were 
directed to this end; viz. his own marriage and that of many distin- 
guished Macedonians with Persian ladies, and the enrolment ot 
numerous Persians in the army. For this mingling of races in the 
army cf. further Arr. VII, 23, 3 — 4. 

32) Diod. XVII, 109. XVIII, 8. Curt, X, 2, 4. The object of 
Alexander in adopting this measure, Diod. XVni, 8 : oi^a fiiv S6J);! 
hieKev, d/xa Si ^ovKd/J-evos Ix^w i" iici/iTTi 7r6Xei ttoXXous iSIous rais 
ewoiais TTpos rolls veoiTepM/xovs Kal ras awotTTa/Teii rdv EWrivoiv. The 
number of exiles to be recaUed is stated at 20,000, id., and the result 
of the measure must certainly have been to cause an outbreak of party 
struggles and discord in all the towns, id. cf. obs. 36. 

and it becomes the comedy of manners and character, drawn from 
ordinary Hfe, Euanth. de comoed. : Nova comoedia, quse argumento com- 
muni magis et generaliter ad omnes homines, qui mediocribus fortunis 



Fifth Period. 336— 146 b. c. 





CXIV, 2 


His plans for further campaigns of conquest '°). 
His death at Babylon'*). 

Menander*), Diphilus''). 

33) His next plan was to sail round the Arabian peninsula, Arr. 
Vn, 19, 6. Accordingly he collected a large fleet at Babylon, to which 
town he had gone in spite of the warnings of the Chaldseans, id. 16, 
5 : for the fleet he had requisitioned Phoenician sailors, id. 19, 3—5, 
erected docks at Babylon, id. 21, 1, and made aU other necessary 
preparations for the enterprise. Another plan of his was to have 
the Caspian sea explored : this, like the Persian gulf, he held to be a 
gulf of the great Ocean : with a view to the enterprise he had already 
given orders for the construction of a fleet there, id. 16, 1 — 4. In 
addition to which other plans were attributed to him, aiming at 
nothing less than the subjection of the whole world, id. 1, 2. Curt. 
X, 1,17— 19. Diod. XYHI, 4. Pint. Al. 68. cf. obs. 25. 

agunt, pertiueret et minus amaritudinis spectatoribus et eadem opera 
multum delectationis afferret, coneinna argumento, consuetudine oon- 
grua, utUis sententiis, grata sahbus, apta metro. Cic. ap. Donat. Kep. 
IV, 11 : Comcediam esse imitationem vitss, speculum oonsuetudinis, 
imagiuem veritatis. No play belonging to the new comedy has been 
preserved in a perfect state, but we can get a good idea of its character 
from the imitations of Plautus and Terence. — Philemon, either of Soli, 
Strab. p. 671, or more probably of Syracuse, Uepl kio/i. HI, 15. Bergk, 
Prol. Arist. Suid. s. v., received civic rights at Athens, and made his 
d€but as a dramatic poet about 330 — 328 b.c, with the play "two^o- 
Xi/ioios, Clem. Alex. Strom. VI, p. 267, in which he entered on 
the track of the new comedy. He was the rival of his rather 
younger contemporary Menander, over whom he generally carried 
off the victory, Vit. Aristoph. 10. Gell. XVH, 4, travelled for a long 
time, Aleiphr. Ep. II, 3. Plut. de ira coh. p. 458 a. de virt. mor. 
p. 449 E, and then returned to Athens, where he died in the year 
292 B.C. at least 96 years old, Suid. s. v. Diod. XXIII, 7. Lucian, 
Macrob. 25. Of the 97 dramas ascribed to him, Ilepi kiojj,. 1. c. Suid. 
s. v., we have the titles and short fragments of 57 plays, the most 
important from the comedies : 'A5eX0oi, "E<j>tj^os, SdpSios, Si/ceXiicis, 
^TpcmuTris, of. Mein. fr. com. Grsec. II. 821 — 867, ed. min. It is said 
of him, Apul. Flor. 16 : Eeperias apud ipsum multos sales, argumenta 
lepide inflexa, agnatos luoide explicatos, personas rebus competentes, 
sententias vitae congrueutes, ioca non infra soccum, seria non usque ad 

i) Menander of Athens, born 342 B.C., Strab. p. 526, son of the 
general Diopeithes (p. 108, obs. 262), brought up by his uncle, the 
comic poet Alexis, He/jl ku/x. in, 16. Suid. s. v. "AXeJis, led a briUiant 
life devoted to enjoyment, Suid. s. v. {irepl yvvalKas iK/i'av^ffTaTos) , and 
was on intimate terms with the most important personages, as with 
Epikurus, Strab. 1. c, Theophrastus, Aleiphr. II, 2, Demetrius of 
Phalerum, Phtedr. VI, 1. Diog. L. V, 79, etc. Before he was twenty 
years old, he came forward with his first play, 'Opyn, Tlepl kui/i. 1. c. 

34) Arr. VII, 24 to the end. Plut. Al. 75—77. Curt. X, 5. Diod. 
XVH, 117—118. He died of a fever in the 114th Olympiad, in the 
archonship of Hegesias, at the age of 82 years, 2 months, 8 days, after 
a reign of 12 years and 8 months, Arr. 28, 1, i. e. according to a com- 
putation, founded on Plut. Al. 3 and 75, on the 11th or 13th of June, 
323 B. c. A story is told of the last moments of his life : (peaBat rois 
^ToLpovs avrbv OT(p Tfjv ^affikeiav a/iroXelirei ' Toy d^ diroKpivaaOai art, rtp 
KpaTi(7T(j)" o! 0^, irpoirdetvai irpos TOVTip t<} Xiy^ on jii-yav iirtTarptov 
dywva Spq, i<p' airip iffo/ievov, Arr. 26, 3. cf. Diod. XVlil, 1. Curt. 
5,5. He is said to have given his signet ring to Perdikkas, Diod. XVIH, 
2. Curt. 6, 4. His interment at Alexandria, see Diod. XVIH, 16 — 28. 
Curt. X, 10. Paus. I, 6, 3. 

Euseb. 01. 114, 4. p. 117, but only conquered 8 times, Gell. XVH, 4. 
Martial V, 10. He refused to comply with an invitation to Alexandria 
sent htm by king Ptolemy, the son of Lagus, Aleiphr. H, 3. 4. Plin. 
H. N. vn, 29, and stayed in the city of his birth, where he died in 
290 B. 0., 52 years old, in the prime of his poetical activity, Uepl Kup.. 
1. c. Plut. Aristoph. et Men. comp. 2. Of more than a hundred of 
his dramas known to the ancients, Suid. s. v. Hepl Koip,. I.e. Gell. 1. c, , 
the titles and fragments of 88, besides a number of unnamed fragments, 
are preserved, the most important from the comedies : 'ASeX0oi', 'Ap- 
prjipopos Ti AvXip-pls, Teapyos, AecnSal/i,uv, AvctkoXos, 'Ett/kXtj/jos, 'Emrpi- 
Tovres, 'Rvioxos, Qeoipopoviiivq, Ki8apl(TTris, K6/paf, Kv^epv^ai, AevKaSla, 
Miffoywijs, Mt<Tovp,evos, NaufcXTj/jos, 'Opyri, HepiKeipop^vTi, TLepii/Bla, IlXd- 
Kiov, 1po(pu>vios, 'Tiro^oXi/iaios ij 'AypoTxos, ^evdripaK\rjs, for the most 
part comedies of character, cf. Mein. fr. com. Gr. 11, 867 — 1066, ed. 
min. His imitators amongst the comic poets of Bome were CsecUius, 
Afranius, Hor. Ep. II, 1, and above all Terence, Donat. Vit. Ter. p. 
754 ; of whose plays preserved to us the Adelphi, Andria, Heautonti- 
morumenos, and Eunuehus are translations of the similarly named 
plays of Menander. The verdict of a Greek critic on Menander, Jlepl 
KUjj,. IX, 10 : iirlaTipios S' 6 MivavSpos, os aarpov iffrl Trjs vias KopjfSiai, 
and of his plays it is said by QuiutUian X, 1 : ita omnem vitffi 
imaginem expressit, tanta in eo inveniendi copia et eloquendi facultas, 
ita est onmibus rebus, personis, adfeotibus aooommodatus. 

k) Diphilus of Sinope, Strab. p. 546. Hepl Kup.. V, 17, was, hke 
Menander, not averse to the enjoyments of Hfe, Atheu. XHI, p. 583. 
Aleiphr. Ep. I, 37, and composed 100 comedies, UepL Kwp.. 1. e. He 
died at Smyrna, 1. c. The titles and fragments of 49 of his comedies 
are preserved, the most important fragments are from the plays: 
ATToXiirovaa, "Ep,wopos, Zuypd^os, Jlapaatros, HoXuTpayiiuv, Xvnapls, 
of. Mein. fr. com. Gr. II, 1066—1096, ed. min.— Further, names, titles 
and fragments of plays are preserved from 24 poets of the new comedy, 
the most important fragments being from Philippides, Sosipater, 
Euphron, Baton, Damoxenus. Meinek. H, 1096—1160. 

The Extinction of Greek Freedom. 



323—280 B.C. 




CXIV, 2 




The generals of Alexander distribute the provinces of his empire amongst them- 
selves under the nominal sovereignty of Philip Arrhidseus and of Alexander, the son of 
Roxane, and under the supreme direction of Perdikkas^^). 

Almost the whole of Greece revolts against the Macedonian rule'*). 
The allied Greeks under Leosthenes defeat Antipater, and shut him up 

35) Curt. X, 6 — 10 (up to the end). Arr. de rebus post Alex. 
(Photius Bibl. Cod. 92) § 1—7. Diod. XVm, 1—4. Justin. Xm, 
1 — i. After the death of Alexander a dispute broke out between the 
commanders of the cavalry and Meleager, who put himself forward as 
commander of the infantry : it ended in a compromise, by which 
Arrhidffius, the son of PhiUp by his marriage with Philinna, was 
raised to the throne under the name PhiUp, as well as Alexander's 
son by Eoxane (obs. 24), who was not yet born. Antipater was 
appointed commander-in-chief in Europe, Kraterus the guardian 
of Philip Arrhidseus, whilst Perdikkas was to have the supreme 
dii'ection of the whole in his capacity as chiliarch, Arr. § 3. Meleager 
was soon afterwards put out of the way together with other mal- 
contents, id. § 4. Curt. 9. The distribution of the provinces amongst 
the various generals resulted in the following arrangement : Ptolemy, 
the son of Lagns, received Egypt and Libya; Laomedon Syria; 
Philotas KOikia ; Peithon Media ; Eumenes Kappadokia and Phrygia ; 
Antigonus Pamphylia, Lykia, and Great Phrygia ; Eassander Karia ; 
Menander Lydia, Leonnatus HeUespontine Phrygia; Lysimachus 
Thrake ; Eraterus and Antipater Macedonia and Greece ; in the rest 
of the provinces the governors appointed by Alexander were allowed 
to remain unchanged, Arr. § 4 — 8. Diod. 3. Curt. 10. Justin. 4. 
(Besides the two new kings mentioned the following members of 
the royal family were stiU in existence : Olympias, the mother of 

Alexander, who was now resident in Epirue, "non mediocre 
momentum partium," Justin. 6 ; Herakles, a son of Alexander by 
Barsine, Plut. Alex. 21. Curt. 6 ; and the sister of Alexander, 
Kleopatra, as also his half-sisters Thessalonike and Eynane ; finally 
Adea the daughter of the latter, afterwards called Eurydike ; who was 
married to Phihp Arrhidffius, Diod. XYHI, 28. XIX, 35. 52. Justin. 
XIV, 5. Arr. § 22. In the course of the wars between the Diadochi 
with the exception of Thessalonike, who married Eassander, they 
were all put out of the way, Philip Arrhidaeus and Eurydike in 
317 E. c, Diod. XIX, 11. Justin. XIV, 5 ; Olympias in 315, Diod. 
XIX, 35 — 36. 49 — 51. Justin. XIV, 6 ; Eoxane and her son Alexander 
in 311, Diod. XIX, 105 ; Herakles in 309, Diod. XX, 20, 28 ; Eleopatra 
in 308, Diod. XX, 38.) 

36) (For the whole war see Diod. XVni, 8—15. 16—18. Hyperid. 
Epitaph. Plut. Phoo. 22—28. Demosth. 27—30. Justin. XHI, 5.) 
The revolt was occasioned by the ordinance of Alexander for the 
recall of the exiles, obs. 32. The Athenians and .StoUans most of 
all felt great aimoyance: accordingly the Athenians on the first 
rumour of Alexander's death entered into negotiations with Leos- 
thenes, the commander of the mercenary troops, which had been 
disbanded by the satraps in pursuance of an order from Alexander, 
and had collected on the promontory of TsBuarum ; and when the 



Fifth Period. 336 — 146 b.c. 






CXIV, 2 


in Lamia (Lamian war)"). Leosthenes falls; Antiphilus succeeds to 
the command of the Greeks''), 

CXIV, 3 



Leonnatus comes to succour Antipater, but is defeated by the Greeks 
in a cavalry engagement and is slain''). Still the approach of Leonnatus 
raised the blockade of Lamia, and Antipater effects a junction with the 
remnant of Leonnatus' army, as also with Kraterus, who likewise comes 
to his aid, and defeats the Greeks at Krannon*"). 

The Greek states are subdued singly by Antipater"). _ Athens is 
compelled to change its constitution, and to admit a Macedonian garrison 
into Munychia*^). 

certain mteUigenoe of Alexander's death arrived, ttey took 8000 
of these mercenaries into their service ; Leosthenes now betook him- 
self to ^tolia and joined his forces to those of the iEtohans (7000 in 
number), Lokrians, Phokians, and other neighbouring tribes, i)iod. 
XVII, 106. 111. XVin, 9—9. Paus. I, 25, 4. V, 52, 2. The Athenians 
then sent ambassadors and called on a number of other Greek States 
to take part in the war (in the Peloponnese Argos, Epidaurus, Sikyon, 
Troezen, Elis, Phlius and Messene jomed their standard ; in central 
Greece, in addition to the peoples mentioned, the Dorians and 
^Akamanians; further Karystus in Eubcea and aU the Thessalian 
tribes) ; they themselves took the field with an army of 5000 foot and 
500 horse, all citizens, and 2000 mercenaries, and in conjunction with 
Leosthenes defeated the Bceotians at Platasse : after which the whole 
army marched to Thermopylae, to wait for Antipater, Diod. XVIII, 
10—11. 12. Paus. I, 25, 4. Hyper. Epitaph. § 10—11. 

37) Diod. XVni, 12—13. Paus. I, 1, 3 (?|u tQv QepiioirvKiZv). At 
this time Antipater had only 18,000 infantry and 600 cavalry at his 
disposal, Diod. 12. When he was shut up in Lamia, he made 
proposals for peace; but they produced no result, as his enemies 
required an unconditional surrender, -Diod. 18. Plut. Phoo. 26. 

38) Diod. XVIII, 13. (The Athenians honoured him with a public 
funeral, at which Hypereides delivered the funeral oration : for this cf.' 
p. 107 obs. pp.) 

39) Diod. XVni, 14—15. Leonnatus came with 20,000 foot and 
2500 horse. Antiphilus had only 22,000 foot and 3500 horse left, as 
many soldiers of the allied army had gone home : he was therefore 
constrained to relinquish the blockade of Lamia, in order to go and 
meet Leonnatus. 

40) Diod. XYIII. 16 — 17. The army of Antipater now numbered 

40,000 heavy-armed) 3000 light-armed troops, and 5000 cavalry, Diod. 
16. The place, where the battle was fought, is mentioned in Plut. 
Phoc. 26. Paus. X, 8, 8. The day of battle was the 7th of Metageitnion 
(August), Plut. 0am. 19. Dem. 28. For Kraterus see p. 121. obs. 30. 

41) Diod. XVm, 17. The proposal of Antiphilus for entering on 
mutual negotiations was rejected by Antipater and Kraterus ; the rest 
of the allies then submitted singly, as mild conditions were offered 
them: thus only the Athenians and J3tolians remained, and they 
were consequently menaced by the whole of the enemy's force, Athena 
first of all. 

42) Diod. XVni, 18. Plut. Phoo. 26. Dem. 27. The peace was 
arranged by Phokion and Demades on the condition, that the 
Athenians paid the costs of the war, that they surrendered the orators 
hostUe to the Macedonians, in particular Demosthenes and Hypereides, 
that they limited civic rights to such as possessed at least 2000 
drachmas, that they evacuated Samos, which was stiU in the possession 
of Athenian Kleruchs (p. 101. obs. 240), and that they received a 
Macedonian garrison in Munychia. This garrison then took up its 
quarters at Munychia on the 20th of Boedromion (September or 
October), Plut. Phoc. 28. All citizens, who were not possessed of 
the aforesaid minimum of property were banished (to the number of 
12,000, whilst only 9000 remained at Athens), and for the most part 
transported to Thrake, id. The orators fled, but were condemned to 
death by the Athenian people, and sought out by Antipater's emissaries : 
Hypereides and two others were seized in .ZEgina, carried before 
Antipater and executed by his orders : Demosthenes escaped the same 
fate by a voluntary death in the island of Kalauria, Plut. Dem. 28 — 30. 
Vit. V. orr. p. 846 f. Arr. De Eeb. Post Alex. § 18. (Lucian.) Encom. 
Dem. — ^Antipater and Kraterus then marched against the ^tolians, 
to reduce them also to subjection, but they were met with an 
obstinate resistance, and were called away by the war breaking out in 
Asia, before they could effect their conquest, Diod. XVTTT, 24—25. 
Polyb. IX, 30. cf. obs. 43. 

The Extinction of Greek Freedom, 







CXIV, 4 



War of the governors Antigonus, Antipater, Kraterus, and Ptolemy against 
Perdikkas and Eumenes ; Perdikkas deserted and slain by his troops^^). The war is 
continued with Eumenqs^). The growing power of Antigonus''^). 

CXV, 1 



CXV, 2 



CXV, 3 



Death of Antipater : war between Polysperchon and Kassander, the son of Anti- 
pater, to dispute the succession to the possession of Maoedonia^^). 

Kassander makes himself master of Athens"). 

CXV, 4 



The Athenians attempt to regain their freedom by siding with Poly- 
sperchon; but are compelled to yield submission to Kassander anew**), 

43) Died. XVm, 23. 25. 29. 33—36. Justin. XU, 6. 8. 

44) As the ally of Perdikkas, Eumenes had won a victory in 
Kappadokia over Kraterus and Neoptolemus, hoth of whom fell in the 
battle, Diod. XVni, 30—32. Plut. Eum. 5—7. Corn. Nep. Bum. 
3_4. After the death of Perdikkas he was defeated by Antigonus in 
oonseq.uenoe of treachery and shut up in Nora (in Kappadokia), but 
afterwards recovered liberty of movement, was appointed the royaUst 
commander-in-chief by Olympias and Polysperchon, and now carried 
on an exceedingly cheq^uered war in Kihkia, Phoenicia, Susiana, 
Persis, Media, and Partstakene, till he was betrayed in the winter 
of 316/5 by his own troops, surrendered to Antigonus, and was by him 
put to death, Diod. XVin, 40—42. 50. 53. 57— 6B. 73. XIX, 12—34. 
37 — 14. Plut. Eum. 8 to the end. Corn. Nep. Eum. 5 to the end. 
Justin. XIV, 1—4. 

45) After the fall of Perdikkas Antipater was raised to be 4Tnii.e- 
Xtittjs avTOKpdTwp, and at Triparadeisus in Syria a fresh distribution of 
countries was arranged ; in regard to which it is specially noteworthy 
that Seleukus received Babylonia, Diod. XVIH, 39. Arr. De Eeb. 
Post Alex. § 30—38. At the same time Antigonus was appointed 
commander-in-chief of the i;oyal forces ; in which capacity he con- 
tinually strengthened his power and by degrees won a totally 
independent position, Diod. XVIII, 41. 47. 50. 52. 55. He raised 
his ai-my accordmg to Diod. 50 up to 60,000 infantry and 10,000 

■ cavahy. 

46) Diod. XVin, 47. 48—49. Antipater appointed Polysperchon as 
his successor, Tpca^iTaTov ffx^Sbv 6pTa rif 'AXe^di'dp^ avveuTparevijAvav 
icoi npiiipievov viro tuv Kara rfpi MaKeSodav, Diod. 48. Kassander was 
appointed chhiareh by his father, id. ; with this he did not rest 
satisfied, but betook himself to Antigonus, in order to begin the 
war against Polysperchon with his support, Diod. 54. He first of 
all estabUshed himself in Greece, obs. 47—49, and then, with 

Greece as the base of operations, conquered Macedonia in the .years 
316 and 315, Diod. XIX, 35—36. 49—51. Polysperchon stUl main- 
tained himself in Greece, but made submission to Kassander in 309 B.C. , 
who in return appointed him strategus of the Peloponnese, Diod. 
XX, 28. 

47) Immediately after the death of his father, and before the news 
of that event was bruited about, Kassander sent his devoted follower 
Nikanor to Athens, to take the command of the garrison in Munychia 
in place of Menyllus ; and he managed to make himself master of the 
Peirffius as well ; in both which proceedings the guilty complicity of 
Phokion cannot be denied. Plut. Phoc. 31—32. Diod. XVHI, 64. 

48) Polysperchon, to win over the Greeks to his own side, issued 
an edict in the name of the kings, in which he proclaimed that all 
Greek states should have then former constitution restored to them 
and enjoy complete independence, Diod. XVIII, 55—57. He then 
sent his son Alexander to Greece and followed himself with a larger 
army: and whilst the former lay before the walls of Athens, the 
Athenian exiles (obs. 42), who had returned in great numbers, 
condemned the ruhng authorities and the friends of Kassander either 
to banishment or to death: part of these fled to Polysperchon, 
but were surrendered by him to the Athenians, and the capital 
sentence was cariied into effect (also in the case of Phokion), Pint. 
Pboc. 23 to the end. Diod. XVHI, 65—67. Kassander then put 
into the Peiraus with 35 ships of war and 4000 men, and as 
Polysperchon met with no material success in the contest, either at 
Athens or elsewhere, the Athenians saw themselves compeUed to 
submit to Kassander, who limited civic rights to the possessors of 
1000 drachmas, and secured his sovereignty, partly by the garrison 
in Munychia, which he continued to support there in the future, 
partly by the appointment of a xpoo-raTTjs in the person of Demetrius 
of Phalerum, Diod. XVHI, 68—74. cf. obs. 49. 


Fifth Period. 336—146 b. c. 





CXV, 4 


who places the government of the town in the hands of 
Demetrius of Phalerum*"). 

The Philosophers Theo- 
phrastus'), Epikurus™), Zeno 
the Stoic"). 

The Orator Demetrius of 

49) Diod. XYin, 7i. His prostasy lasted till 307 B.C., see obs. 5fi. 
For him cf. further Polyb. XII, 13. Ml. V. H. in, 43. Diog. L. V, 
75—85. Cic. de legg. Ill, § 14. de rep. n, § 2. Brut. § 37. etc. During 

1) Theoplirastus of Eresus in Lesbos, born ciro. 372 e.g., is said 
to ha^e originally been called Tyrtamus, and only to have had the 
name Theophrastus given him by Aristotle on account of his eloquence, 
Diog. L. ;V, 36. 38. He was a pupil of Leukippus, of Plato, but 
above all of Aristotle ; and after his master's flight from Athens in 
322 B.C. undertook the conduct of the Aristotelian school, and is said 
to have trained 2000 pupils, 1. c. 36. 37. 39. cf. GeU. XIH, 5. He was 
banished with other philosophers from Athens in 305 by the law of 
Sophokles, which prohibited freedom of teaching, but returned again 
shortly afterwards on the repeal of the law, Diog, L. V, 38, attained a 
great age, L.t. 40. cf. 'H9ik. x'^P- praef-, and died about 287 b. c. I.e. 
58. Gf his numerous writings, of which the catalogue, Diog. L. 
42 — 51, bears witness to the wealth and multiplicity of his knowledge, 
there are extant in particular : 'B.81K0I X''-P<'-'<'''VP^^t character sketches, 
Uepl (pvTWv IcTTopia,, Mria ^vtikA, Hepi \lBav, Jlepl Trvp6s. The extension 
and active employment of philosophy in the various fields of empirical 
knowledge and the foundation of botany are the most eminent of the 
services, which he rendered to science. — Amongst the pupils of Aristotle 
besides Theophrastus we must name Diksearchus of Messana and 
Aristoxenus of Tarentum ; both of whom displayed the many-sidedness 
and learned zeal for the accumulation of facts peculiar to the Peripatetic 
school, and employed themselves actively as writers in various branches 
of science. Dikaearchus, to whom Cicero awards especial praise (de 
off. n, 15. Tusoul. I, 18), in addition to works on philosophy {irepl 
fvxvh Cic. ad Att. XIII, 12. Tusoul. I, 10. 1, 31. de off. H, 5) and 
political history, wrote geographical treatises ((3ios ttjs 'EXXdSos), based 
on preliminary labours of a thorough description, e. g. measurements 
of heights (Plin. n, 65) and drawing of maps (Cic. ad Att. VI. 2. 
Diog. L. V, 51). Aristoxenus was especially valued for his studies 
in the domain of music ; so much so, that as the highest authority of 
antiquity in this province he was called 6 /iouo-iKis, Cic. de fin. V, 19. 
Suid. s. V. Of his musical works we are still in possession of the 
three books apfwvmai/ a-roix^tav, though preserved in a very fragmentary 
form, and a larger fragment together with extracts from the pvdiuKa 

m) Epikurus, born in 342 b. a. at Samos, where his father had 
settled as a kleruch, though as an Athenian belonging to the deme of 
Gargettus, Diog. L. X, 1, 14, first came to Athens at the age of 10, 
1. c. 1, and educated himself in the study of the earlier philosophers 
and sophists, 1. c. 2. 3. 4. 12. He now taught in Kolophon, 1. c. 1, 
MytUene and Lampsakus, 1. c. 15, not returning to Athens until 307 
B. c, 1. c. 2. 15. There he lived and taught in close intercourse with 
numerous pupils, withdrawn from public life in the retirement of his 
gardens, 1. 0. 10. 17. 25. 119. He is praised for his temperate and 
simple life, for the purity of his morals, his goodness of heart, and his 
love for his country, 1. 0. 10. 11 ; yet failed to escape the jeers and 
calumnies of comic poets and hostile philosophers, 1. 1;. 6. 7. In his 
old age he was chained to a sick bed by severe bodily sufferings, 1. c. 
7. 8, but, true to his teaching, he still preserved tranquillity and 

his prostasy a census was taken at Athens, which yielded the number 
of 21,000 citizens, 10,000 metoeks, and 400,000 stoves, Ctesicl. ap. 
Athen. VI, p. 272 c. 

cheerfulness of soul up to his death in 270 b. c, 1. c. 15. 22. Cic. de 
fin. II, 30. One of the most prolific authors of antiquity (ttoXu- 
ypacpiiraTOi), he is said to have written 300 volumes, Diog. L. 26. 27. 
28. Of his chief work Tiepl <j>tjireus alone have single mutilated 
fragments come down to us in the roUs of Herculanum. He taught 
after Demokritus that the world, the gods, and the soul arose from 
atoms, Diog. L. 41 f., and further developed the doctrines of the 
Cyrenaics, that the spiritual pleasure of the tranquil soul, conditional 
on knowledge, is the goal of happiness and the essence of virtue, 1. c. 
128 — 138. His doctrine, so often misunderstood and refuted, is 
magnificently enshrined in the poem of Lucretius De Berum Natura. 

n) Zeno, of Kitium in Kyprus, lived circ. 340 — 260, Euseb. Hieron. 
Chron. ol. 128, 1. p. 120, ol. 129, 1. p. 121, and is said at first to 
have pursued his father's trade, as a dealer in purple, but to have 
made an early acquaintance with the writings of the Sokratics, till he 
came to Athens in consequence of his ship being wrecked, Diog. L. 
VH, 1 — ^5. 58. 31. Here he applied himself to philosophy, attended 
the lectures of the Cynic Krates, I.e. 2. 3. 4. VI, 105, the Megaric. 
Stapo, 1. u. 2. 24. II, 120, the Academics Xenokrates and Polemo, 1. e. 
2. 25. Suid. s. v. Cic. de fin. IV, 6, 8. Acad. I, 9. H, 24, and 
trained himself by the study of the older philosophers and poets, 
Diog. L. 3. 4. 31. Cic. nat. deor. I, 14. In the ripeness of manhood 
he first taught in the crrod. ttoikIXti, whilst walking to and fro, to a 
large concourse, Diog. L. IV, 4. 14 : from which circumstance he 
himself was called (ttuMs, Suid. s. v., and his pupils, at first styled 
TtTivuji/eLOL, came to be called ffrtaXKol or ol axb ttjs oToas <l>LKoffoipoi 
I.e. 5, Suid, s. V. ; he was held in high honour by his countrymen 
the Kitians, by the Athenians, 1. c. 6. 10, and by Antigonus, 1. c. 6. 7. 
13. 15. He was repulsively ugly, 1. c. 1. 16, indefatigably active, 1. c. 
15, sparing to the veriest trifle, 1. 0. 16, proverbial for his temperance 
(ToO 0iXoffoi^ou Z^KiH/os iyKpaT^arepos), 1, c. 27. Suid. s. v. Ziji/. lyK., 
disinclined to great company, 1. c. 14, calm and dignified, 1. c. 15. 18, 
silent, 1. c. 20. 21. 23. 24, but a master of short, trenchant repartee 
and derisive observations, 1. c. 17 — 28. His writings comprehended 
works on logic as the source of knowledge, physics, and ethics, 1. c. 4. 
PecuUar to him and his school in particular is the doctrine of the single, 
eternal god, the aU.diffused creative soul of the universe (?c re chat 
Oebv KoX vodv, 1, c. 135, (nrGpfiaTLKbv X6yov ovtcl tov Kofffiov^ 1. C. 136, 
aipSapTos iuTt Kal ayivvrfroi dijfuovpybs uv ttjs Sio/cocr/i^ircais), and of 
virtue which is happiness in and for itself and must be striven for on 
its own account. I.e. 89. 127, but finds its active expression more 
especially in four chief virtues mutually conditional on one another, 
<j>p6v,Tit!i.s, &v5p4a, SiKatoavvTf, aatppoaivTi,!. c. 92. 102, 125. Of his pupils, 
special mention must be made of Chrysippus of Kilikia (ciro. 282 — 
209), who by his numerous writings reduced the Stoic teaching to an 
established system, 

o) Demetrius, born in Attica of the deme Phalerum, received a 
learned and n:^any- sided training, in particular under Theophrastus, 
and entered on £V political career at the time of the Harpalian trial. 

The Extinction of Greek Freedom. 







CXVI, 1 



CXVI, 2 



Defeat and death of Eumenes™). 
Restoration of Thebes by Kassander^'). 

CXVI, 3 



War of the governors Seleukus, Ptolemy, Kassauder and Lj-simachus against 

Peace between Antigonus and Kassander in Greece °^). 

CXVI, 4 









Peace between the governors^*). 

Greece is declared free in the peace of the governors'^). 

50) Died. XIX, 40—44. Plut. Eum. 17—19. cf. oba. 44. 

51) Diod. XIX, 53—54. Pans. IX, 7. 

52) The cause of the war was in part quite general, namely the 
jealousy of the rest of the governors at the growing power of Antigonus : 
in part It was stirred up by Seleukus, who feared the machinations of 
Antigonus, and so fled from his governorship of Babylonia, Diod. 
XIX, 55—56. App. Syr. 54. For the whole war see Diod. XIX, 
57—64. 66—69. 73 — 75. 77—100. It consists chiefly of isolated 
enterprises productive of no decisive results, of which, not taking into 
account the events in Greece (obs. 53), prominence deserves only to be 
given to the battle of Gaza in which Demetrius Poliorketes, the son of 
Antigonus, meets with a defeat, Diod. 80—84. Plut. Demetr. 5, and to 
the return of Seleukus to Babylonia in the same year, with which 
eonunenoes the era of the Seleukids (known to us from the books 
of the Maccabees, Josephus, and coins), see Diod. 90—92. App. Syr. 

53) Antigonus proclaimed freedom and independence to the Greeks, 
in order to draw them over to his side, Diod. XIX, 61 ; and to give 
emphasis to his proclamation and to drive Kassander out of Greece, 
he successively sent in the years 314 — 312 Aristodemus, Dioskorides, 
Telesphorus, and his nephew Ptolemy with money, troops, and ships ; 
and they succeeded in expelling the garrisons and freeing the towns of 
the Pelopounese and central Greece, with the exception of Sikyon, 
Cormth, and Athens, id. 67. 60—61. 63—64. 66—68. 74. 77—78. 87. 
Ptolemy of Egypt issued the same proclamation, and also sent a fleet 
of 50 sail in 814 B.C. to Greece, which, however, achieved no successes, 

Diog. L. V, 75. Strab. p. 398. Cic. de off. I, 1. Brut. 9. de legg. Ill, 
6 : for ten years, from 317 to 307 b. c, he stood at the head of the 
Athenian administration, cf. obs. 49. 56, and raised the revenues and 
resoui-ces of the state, Diog. L. 1. c. Cic. de rep. 11, 1. Strab. 1. c, in 
gratitude for which the Athenians erected 360 statues to him, Nep. 
Milt. 6. Diog. L. 1. c. , but at a later period he excited displeasure by 
prodigaUty and extravagances, Athen. XII, p. 542 o, so that on the 
appearance of Demetrius Poliorketes before the walls of Athens he was 
obhged to fly and was condemned to death. Diog. L. 77. Plut. Demetr. 
8 f. Dion. Hal. Dm. 3. He then betook himself to Thebes, cf. obs. 
56, and from thence to Egypt, Diog. L. 78. Strab. 1. c. Diod. XX, 45, 

id. 62. 64. Kassander undertook several campaigns against Greece, 
but without any important result, id. 63. 67. Besides all these, 
Polysperchon and Alexander also maintained an army in Greece 
(obs. 48), and the latter at first joined Antigonus, id. 57. GO, then 
went over again to Kassander, id. 64, but soon died, id. 67 ; whilst 
Polysperchon (who had likewise at first joined Antigonus, id. 59) 
maintained himself independently in possession of Sikyon and Corinth, 
id. 74. Athens retained its Macedonian garrison : it compelled 
Demetrius to conclude a convention with the general of Antigonus on 
his entering the Attic territory, of the provisions of which we have no 
information given us, id. 78. 

54) Diod. XIX, 105. The peace agreed upon provided that the 
belligerent generals should retain their governorships, but Kassander 
only until Alexander, the son of Eoxane, came of age; this last 
provision led to Kassander's putting him and his mother to death 
(which was probably the object of all the parties to the agreement), 
see obs. 35. 

55) Diod. XIX, 105. This condition contained in the peace was 
afterwards turned to account by the governors, to make war mutually 
on one another under the pretext of freeing Greek towns. Thus Ptolemy 
of Egypt in 310 and 309 B. c. overran Kilikia, Lykia, and the islands 
of the .fflgean sea, Diod. XX, 20. 27, and in 308 even made a campaign 
against Greece itself, where he took Sikyon and Corinth, id. 37 : and 
under a, like pretext Demetrius Poliorketes embarked on his enter- 
prises, obs. 56, so that the war never whoUy slept, till it again broke 
fully out in 302 B.C. 

where he lived for science and was the confidential adviser of 
Ptolemy Soter, Ml. V. H. HI, 17. Cic. de fin. V, 19 : but fell into 
disgrace with his successor and died not long after 283 b. c. in upper 
Egypt from the bite of a snake, as the story goes, Diog. L. 1. c. Cic. 
pro Rab. Post. 9. A catalogue of the titles of his works is alone 
preserved, Diog. L. 80 f. : they embraced the province of history, pohtics, 
literature, philosophy, and rhetoric. He was looked on as the last 
Attic orator ; and with him the decadence of eloquence already began, 
Quint. X, 1, 80 : still he is praised for the refinement and grace of his 
style, Cic. off. I, 1. Or. 27. de or. H, 23. Brut. 9 : itaque delectabat 
magis Athenienses quam inflammabat. o. 82. 


Fifth Peeiod. 336 — 146 b. c. 





CXIX, 1 
CXIX, 2 
CXIX, 3 
CXIX, 4 

CXX, 1 
CXX, 2 
CXX, 3 










Demetrius Poliorketes frees Athens °°). 

The governors Antigonus, Demetrius, Seleukus, Ptolemy, Kassander, and Lysi- 
machus assume the royal title*'). 

Battle of Ipaus, in which Antigonus loses empire and Ufe. His empire is divided 
between Seleukus and Lysimachus ^). 

Demetrius conquers Athens and secures his possession by a garrison 
in the Peirseus, in Munychia, and in the Museum'^). At the same 
time he extends his rule in the rest of Greece °°). 

56) Diod. XX, 45—46. Plut. Demetr. 8—14. The day of Ms 
arrival was the 26th of Thargelion (June), Plut. 8. He conquered 
and destroyed MunycHa, declared Athens free, restored the demo- 
cracy (Demetrius of Phalerum, whose prostasy now came to an end, 
was conducted by him to Thebes), promised the people 150,000 
medimni of wheat and timber to build 100 ships — a promise, which 
was afterwards actually fulfilled by Antigonus — and restored Imbros 
to them : in return the degenerate Athenians loaded both Antigonus 
and Demetrius with exaggerated honours; they erected statues to 
them, named them kings and saviours {8eol a-oiTijpes), buUt altars to 
them, had their names inwoven together with those of Zeus and 
Athene on the peplus annually offered to that goddess, and added 
two new tribes, called Antigonia and Demetrias, to the 10 phylse, eto. 
see Plut. 10—13. Diod. 46. Athen. VI, p. 253—254. Phaooh. fr. 
144. (Dion. Hal. p. 650). Also Megara is taken by Demetrius on 
this occasion and declared free, Plut. 9. Diod. 46. Philoc. 1. o. 
But he is recalled by his father from fmrther undertakings in Greece, 
and by his orders carries on the war in Eyprus against Ptolemy, 
Diod. 47 — 48, wins a brilliant naval victory over Ptolemy at Salamis, 
id. 49 — 52. Plut. 15 — 16, accompanies his father as commander of 
the fleet on a fruitless expedition to Egypt, Diod. 73 — 76, besieges 
Ehodes for the space of a year, 304—303 B.C., Diod. 81 — 88. 91 — 100. 
Plut. 21 — 22 (in which he won the epithet IIoXio/okijtt/s from his 
magnificeut siege-works, of which the so-caUed 'BX^ttoXis is especiaJly 
famous, Diod. 92. Plut. 21) : when the siege was brought to an end 
by a convention with the Ehodians, who had offered the stoutest 
resistance, he returned in 303 b. c. to Greece, where Kassander and 
Polysperchon had meanwhile regained a firm footing r he there 
completed the liberation of the towns, by relieving Athens, which 
was besieged by Kassander (Plat. 23), and conquering Sikyon (which 
was stiU in the hands of Ptolemy, obs. 55), Corinth, Bura and Skyros 
in Achaia, and Orchomenus in Arcadia, Diod. 100. 102 — 103. 110. 
Plut. Demetr. 23 — 27. He then resided in Athens, where new 
honours were heaped upon him; and from here he started in the 
spring of 301 e.g., in the month of Munychion (April, Plut. 26), to 
march through Thessaly to attack Kassander, but was called away 
by his father to take part in the great war, which had meanwhile 
broken out (obs. 58), see Diod. 110. 

57) Diod. XX, 53. Plut. Demetr. 17—18. Antigonus set the 
example, as on receiving intelUgenoe of the naval victory of Demetrius 
at Salamis (obs. 56) he assumed the royal title himself, and also be- 
stowed it on Demetrius; thereupon the rest of the governors followed 

58) The renewal of the war between Antigonus and his former 
opponents (obs. 52) was occasioned by the straits to which Kassander 
had been reduced by Demetrius, obs. 56. When Kassander had 
secured the union of the Kings against Antigonus, Lysimachus (in 
302 B.C.) advanced into Asia as far as Ephesus and Sardes, both 
which towns were captured by him, Diod. XX, 106 — 107. But 
Antigonus, who set his army in motion from Antigoneia, forced him 
back on the coast of the Pontus Euxinus, where both passed the 
winter in the district of Herakleia, id. 108—109. In the spring of 
301 Antigonus called in Demetrius, obs. 56. For the battle, in which 
the army of Antigonus, composed of 70,000 infantry, 10,000 cavaJry 
and 70 elephants, was opposed by 64,000 infantry, 10,500 cavalrj-, 
400 elephants, and 120 war chariots (Plut. 28), see Plut. Demetr! 
28—29. Diod. Exc. XXI. (Exo. Hoeschel., de vu't. et vit., Vatic). 
Juetiu. XV, 5. App. Syr. 55 (in which last passage only is the site 
of the battle mentioned). 301 e.o. must be accepted as the year of 
the battle, as Diodorus, who forms almost the sole foundation for the 
chronology of the period after the death of Alexander, places the 
beginning of the -war in 302 b.c, and after next mentioning the 
winter quarters of the belligerent kings, XX. 111. 113, announces 
the battle of Ipsus as forming the beginning of the 21st book (which 
has been lost with all the remaining books). 

59) Demetrius escaped from the battle of Ipsus, and was still 
possessed of a considerable force in his large fleet and a number of 
towns, which were m his power, Plut. Demetr. 31—32. Immediately 
after the battle it was his intention to betake himself to Athens, 
but messengers were sent to meet him and refuse him admittance, 
id. 30. And at the same time Kassander, turning the overthrow of 
his adversary to account, again extended his sway in Greece, id. 31 
(el^TTiTTT-oi' yiip iKoaTaxMai al tj>povpal Kal irivra fie0l<TTaTO vpbs toi>s 
iroXeiiiovs); he secured his position at Athens by setting up Laohares 
as tyrant there and upholding him by his force, id. 33. Pans. I, 25, 5. 
Demetrius, however, returned after he had raised his forces to still 

The Extinction of Greek Freedom. 



B. C. 




. - - 

CXX, 4 



CXXI, 1 



Death of Kassander. Disputes about the throne in Macedonia"'). 

OXXI, 2 




CXXI, 3 


Diotimus ? 

Demetrius makes himself master of Macedonia «2). 

CXXI, 4 















CXXltl, 2 



Demetrius overthrown by Pyrrhus^^). 

The Athenians under the leadership of Olympiodorus expel the 
garrisons of Demetrius, and assert their freedom^*). Administration of 

Antigonus Gonatas, the son of Demetrius, maintains himself in a 
part of Greece™). 




Pyrrhus expelled by Lysimachus out of Macedonia"'). 

greater strength by certain other undertakings (the time, at which this 
took place, cannot be determined -with precision ; but the connexion 
of events, as given by Plutarch, makes it necessary to assume an 
interval of at least 2, perhaps even of 3 years), conquered Athens, and 
now posted a garrison, not only in the Peiroeus and Munychia, but 
also in the Museum, Plut. 33 — 34. Paus. 1. c. 

■ 60) The only information afforded to us by Plutarch up to the 
expedition of Demetrius to Macedonia is, that Demetrius had con- 
quered the Spartans, Demetr. 35 ; but that he in this interval subdued 
the.greater part of the Peloponnese, and Megara in addition to Athens 
in central Greece, follows from the passage id. 89, where it is said of 
him immediately after the seizure of Macedonia : ^av di Kai ttjs 
UeKoTovvTia-ov tA TXeTirra koX t&v ektos 'I<r9/io0 ^iyapa KaVAOrivas. 

61) Plut. Demetr. 36. Paus. IX, 7, 3. Kassander left behmd him 
three sons, Philip, Antipater, and Alexander : the first died very soon, 
and disputes arose between the two latter, in consequence of which 
Alexander invoked Pyrrhua of Epirus to his assistance, as well as 
Demetrius. The date assigned rests on Porphyr. fr. (ed. Muller, vol. 
Ill, p. 693 ff.) 3. § 2 and 4. § 2 : according to which Kassander died 
19 years after the murder of Olympias. 

62) Demetrius had Alexander put to death and then made himself 
master of the throne : Antipater, the brother of Alexander, was put to 
death by Lysimachus, to whom he had fled for refuge, Plut. Demetr. 
36—37. Pyrrh. 7. Justin, XVI, 1. Porphyr. fr. 3 and 4. § 3. 

63) Demetrius by his hauteur had made himself hated in the army 
as well as amongst the people ; so when he entered on a war at one 
and the same time with Lysimachus, Seleukus, Ptolemy, and Pyrrhus, 
his army deserted him, on his leading it against Pyrrhus, and went 


over to that prince, Plut. Demetr. 44. Pyrrh. 11 — 12. Justin, XVI, 2. 
Demetrius fled and died after many adventures in 283 b. c, a prisoner 
of Seleukus, Plut. Demetr. 52. The reign of Demetrius in Macedonia 
lasted 7 years according to Plut. Demetr. 44, 6 years according to 
Porphyr. fr. 3 and 4. § 3 : according to this latter source (fr. 4. § 3) 
the sons of Kassander reigned in all 3 years 6 months, and in this 
case the accession of Demetrius would have to be placed, not in 294, 
but 293 B.C. 

64) The occurrence, as well as the date of the occurrence, rests on 
the combination of Paus. I, 26, 1—3 with Plut. Demetr. 46. Pyrrh. 12 : 
according to the last passage the Uberatiou was effected with the help 
of Pyrrhus. 

«5) Plut. Vitt. X or. p. 847 n. p. 851. Polyb. XII, 13. He was the 
nephew of Demosthenes and conducted the administration with so 
much approval that in 270 b. o. a statue was erected to him in pur- 
suance of a popular decree, which is preserved to us in Plut. 1. e. p. 
851. The date is estabhshed as 270 by the decree itself, as in it 
Pytharatus is named as archon, and he was archon in this year 
according to Diog. L. X. § 15 ; it is likevrise estabhshed by the decree, 
that Demochares was dead in this year: that he undertook the 
administration of the state in 287 B. c, may be inferred with proba- 
bility, partly from the position of affairs in general, partly from the 
special accounts contained in the decree of his services. 

66) In 287 b. c. Pyrrhus had charged Antigonus with the task of 
maintaining Greece, Plut. Demetr. 44. 51 : but a part of the towns 
were wrested from his grasp by Ptolemy, id. 46. Pyrrh. 11. 

67) Plut. Pyrrh. 12. Porph. fr. 3 and 4. § 4. Pyrrhus maintained 
Macedonia only 7 months, Porph. 1. c. 



Fifth Period. 336—146 B.C. 














Kimon ? 







Lysimaohus defeated by Seleukus and slain in the battlers), Seleukus murdered 
by Ptolemy Keraunus*'). 

CXXV, 1 



Invasion of Macedonia by the Kelts : Ptolemy Keraunus defeated by them and 


280—221 B.C. 






CXXV, 1 


The first germ of tlie Achaean league in the union of 
Dyme, Patrse, Tritaea and Pharse"). 

The historian Philochorus"), 

68) Paus. I, 10, 3—5. Justin, XVII, 1—2. Porph. fr. 3 and 4. § 4. 
His reign over Macedonia lasted 5 years 6 months, Porph. 1. o. : the 
battle was fought at Korupedion (in Hellespontine Phrygia), id. fr. 4. 

69) Justin, XVn, 2. Porph. fr. 3 and 4. § 5. (AooordiHg to Porph. 
Seleukus was murdered immediately after the victory, according to 
Justin 7 months after it.) 

70) Diod. XXn, 13. Bxo. Hoesch. Paus. X, 19, 4. Justin, XXIV, 
4—5. According to Porph. fr. 3. § 5. fr. 4. § 6 the rule of Ptolemy 
lasted 1 year, 5 months : that the invasion of Macedonia by the 
Gauls cannot be later than 280 follows from the circumstances 
that attended their inroad into Greece, which took place at least 

p) Philochorus of Athens Hved circ. 306 — 262, Dion. Hal. d. Dinarch. 
3, was a seer and interpreter of signs, Suid. s. v. Procl. Hesiod. 0pp. 
810, and was put to death as an adherent of Ptolemy Philadelphus 
after the occupation of Athens by Autigonus Gonatas, Suid. s. v. His 
most important work is an 'AtBIs in 17 books, a history of Athens from 

one year later and according to Paus. X, 23, 9 in the 2nd year of the 
125th Olympiad. According to Polyb. H, 41 the kings Ptolemy, son 
of Lagus, Lysimachus, Seleukus and Ptolemy Keraunus, the brother 
of the Egyptian monarch, all died " about the time of the 124th 
Olympiad." In Macedonia the last-named was succeeded by Meleager 
(2 mouths), Antipater (45 days), and then by Sosthenes (2 years), 
Porph. fr. 3. § 7. fr. 4. § 6. 7 : Kal ylverai ampxla M.aKfS6(n. 

71) After Tisamenus had taken refuge from the Dorians and 
HerakleidfB in Achaia, his descendants at first held the sovereignty 
there, p, 9. obs. 28 : but later the monarchy was abohshed, as in other 
places, and a democratic constitution was estabUshedin all the towns : 

the earliest period up to Antiochua Theos (01. 129, 3), Suid. s.v. 
Dion. Hal. 1. o, 3. 13. Mention is made besides of other writings on 
history and the history of literature from his pen, Suid, s. v. : but of 
all these nothing but fragments has been preserved to us, Mtiell. hist. 
Grsec. fragm. I, p. 384—417. 

The Extinction of Greek Freedom. 







CXXV, 2 



Invasion of Hellas by the Kelts and their defeat"). 

CXXV, 3 



CXXV, 4 



Antigonus Gonatas king of Macedonia"). 



iEgium, Bura, and Keryueia join the Achaean league"). 

whilst at the same time the towns, 12 in number, entered into a league, 
which maintained itself up to the era of the Macedonian supremacy ; 
at which time the various towns were separated, and garrisons were 
posted in the towns, or tyrants established there, chiefly by Demetrius 
Poliorketes and Antigonus Gonatas, Pol. II, 41. Strab. p. 384. The 
names of the 12 towns, Herod. I, 145 : Pellene, jEgeira, ^g8B, Bura, 
Helike, ^gium, Bhypes, Patrse, Pharse, Olenus, Dyme, and Tritsea, 
cf. Pans. VII, 6, 1, where Keryneia is named instead of Patrse. Of these 
towns, Helike was destroyed by an earthquake in 373 e. c, Diod. XV, 
48—49. Paus. VII, 24, 4—5. 25, 2 ; whilst Olenus, Ehypes, and 
^gse had gradually fallen so low, that they were deserted by their 
inhabitants, Paus. VH, 18, 1. 23, 4. 25, 7. Strab. p. 386. 387. On 
the other hand Keryneia and Leontium had so prospered, that they 
were qualified to become members of the league ; and thus Polybius 
(I.e.) enumerates the following 10 towns: Patra;, Dyme, PharaB, 
Tritffia, Leontium, iEgeira, Pellene, jEgium, Bura, Keryneia. For the 
union of the 4 first mentioned towns as the germ, from which sprang 
the renovated Achsan league, see Pol. 1. c. Strab. p. 384. The revival 
took place about the 124th Olympiad, at the time when Pyrrhus 
crossed over to Italy, Pol. and Strab. 1. c, 88 years before the battle 
of the .ffigatian isles, Pol. 11, 43. For the object of the league see 
Pol. 1. e. : Ic riXos — toOto S' ^v tA Ma/ceSiras /liv iK^aXetp e/c IXeXoTroir^- 
crov, ris Si /iovapxlas KaToXStrai., ^e;8oiW(rai S' iKOCTTOis ttiv Koivriv Ka.1 
Trirpiov iXevdepLaf. The supreme direction of the league was at first 
placed in the hands of two strategi together with a grammateus : after 
255 one strategus only was chosen, Pol. 1. c. ; with him an hipparchus, 
Pol. V, 95. XXVin, 6, an hypostrategus, id. IV, 59. V, 94, and 10 
demiurgi (also called Spxoi'Tes, probably the representatives of the 10 
Achaean towns, to which the league was originally confined), Pol. XXTV, 
5. V, 1. XXIII, 10. Liv. XXXII, 22. XXXVIH, 30. These last, together 
with the strategus and perhaps the hipparchus, formed a sort of probou- 
leutio board for the general assembly {iKxKTiffia), in that they convoked 
the assembly and prepared the resolutions to be adopted, see Pol. and 
Liv. 1. c. The regular general assembly was convened twice a year, in 
spring and autumn, Pol. IV, 37. V, 1. H, 54. Liv. XXXVni, 32, at 
^gium up to the latest times of the league, when (in 189 b. c.) a 
change was introduced in the custom, which had made ^gium the 
sole place of assembly hitherto, Liv. XXXVIU, 30. The strategus 
and other strategi entered on office at the time of the rising of the 
Pleiads, i.e. in May, Pol. IV, 37. V, 1. For the league generaUy cf. 
Paus. Vn, 17, 2 : are Ik Sivdpov \e\u^-niiAvov—ave^\6.<TTri(rev ix t^s 'EX- 
XdSos rb 'AxoiViv, Pint. Arat. 9 : ot rijs fiiv TrdXat tux 'EXXiji/wc dx/i^s 

ovSh lit eliretv /lipos Svrts — 6u/3ouXI{i koX eivotf — oi fiivon airobs h iiiaif 
TToXeav rq\i,Koin>v Kal TvpavvlSwv Sie(j>i\a^av i\ev84povs, dXXi K(d tiSv 
aWav 'YtW^qvav ws irXeiffroi/s i\ev6epovvTe$ Kal o'ufoi'Tes SieriXovv, Pol. II, 
37 : Toiair-qv KoX TriKiKail-niv iv Tois KaS' -q/ms Kaipots iaxi TrpoKoirrjV Kal 
<rvvT4\eiav toSto t6 f^pos, Uffre p.ij iJivov av/i/iaxi-Kijii Kal (pCkiKriv Koiva- 
vlav yeyovivai. rrpaypATUv repl airois, dXXa Kal v6/wi.s XPV'^"'^ ■'"'''' 
auTots, KaOoKov 5i rovrifi iwvip dLaKKaTTecv tov fi^ /itSs tdJXcws SiaOeffiy 
^Xcix (TXcSbv TijP aiiiirairav HeKoirowqaov, ti} fi-q tov airov Trepl§o\ov 
liirapx"" ■'"O'S KaroiKomiv airrjv, T&Wa S' ehai Kal KJivjj Kal Kari, TroXeis 
^KO/TTOti Tadrd. Kal TrapaTrXTjirta, 

72) Paus. I, 4, 1—5. X, 19—23. Diod. (Exc. Hoesoh.) XXI, 13. 
Justin, XXIV, 6—8. After their invasion of Macedonia (obs. 70) the 
Kelts first return home again, Paus. X, 19, 4 : and it was when at home, 
that they were induced by Brennus to undertake a fresh expedition, 
directed on this occasion against Hellas, id. § 5, on which they enter 
with an army of 152,000 foot and 20,400 horse, id. § 6, in the 2nd year 
of the 125th Olympiad, id. 23, 9. The Greeks occupy Thermopylae 
with a numerous army, consisting of 10,000 hoplites and 600 horsemen 
from Bceotia, 7000 .ffitohan hopUtes, 3000 hoplites and 500 horsemen 
from Phokis, 1000 Athenian hoplites, etc., whilst the whole of the 
Athenian fleet stationed itself in the neighbourhood of the coast, id. 
20, 3. Here the Kelts were defeated in a battle : nevertheless they 
got past the Hellenes and directed their march against Delphi ; but here 
they suffered a total defeat, partly from the Delphians, partly— so it 
was imagined— from the miraculous support of the god, who interested 
himself in the protection of his sanctuary. 

73) The reign of Antigonus is said to have lasted 44 years, (Lucian.) 
Macrob. 11, Porphyr. fr. 3 and 4. § 8, reckoned, that is, from 283 b. c„ 
the year of his father's death (obs. 63) onwards. According to 
Porphyr. fr. 4 1. c. he ruled 10 years in Greece, before he made himself 
master of Macedonia, reckoned from the flight of his father in 287 
B.C. onwards, obs. 63. Pint. Demetr. 51. In the same passage of 
Porphyrins Olymp. CXXXV, 1 is stated as the year of his death. It 
follows from the chronological data cited in obs. 70 touching his 
predecessors, that he made himself master of Macedonia in 277 B. c. 

74) Pol. il, 41. The ^gians expelled the Macedonian garrison " in 
the fifth year " after the foundation of the league ; at the same time 
the Burians slew their tyrant, whilst the tyrant of Keryneia, recog- 
nising the force of circumstances, voluntarily abdicated. 



Fifth IPetiiod. 336—146 e.g. 


B. C. 







Aristarchus ? 

Death of Pyrrhus'^). 

Bucolic Poetry*): 
Theokritus'), Bion=), 



Peithodemus ? 







Athens once more subject to Macedonian rule™). 

CXXX, 1 





— ofDiomeia. 







Aratus frees Sikyon and unites it to the 
Achaean league"). 

Alexandrines: Ara- 




75) Pyrrhus, immediately after leaving Italy (Plut. Pyrrh. 26), 
consequently in 274 b. c. , attacked Macedonia, made himself master 
of this empire, apd then marched against Greece: here he first 
attacked Sparta, but without success, and then turned against Argos, 
where he met with his death in an attempt to take the town by storm 
(as the story goes, he was killed by a roof-tUe, when he had already 
forced his way into the town), Plut. Pyrrh. 26 — 34. Pans. I, 13, 5 — 7. 
ni, 6, 2. Justin, XXV, 3—5. The year of his death is established, 
partly by the sequence of events, partly by the statement of Oros. 
IV, 3, that the Tarentines submitted to Kome on receiving the intelli- 
gence of the death of Pyrrhus : and this event took place in 272 b. o. 
according to the triumphal fasti. 

76) Pans. Ill, 6, 3. Justin, XXVI, 2. From the combination of these 
two passages it becomes clear, that Antigonus, probably soon after the 
death of Pyrrhus, marched against Greece, where he had to struggle, 
not only with the Greeks, but also with a fleet of Ptolemy under 
Patroklus, that this Patroklus and king Areus of Sparta came to the 
aid of the Athenians, who were besieged by Antigonus (which must 
have happened prior to 265 b. c, as in this year Areus feU in a battle 
at Corinth against Alexander of Epirus, Plut. Ag. 3. Diod. XX, 29), 

q) Bucohc poetry is a mixed species between descriptive and 
dramatic poetry, with pastoral Hfe and pastoral love for its theme. 
Anon. Uepl t(Sv ttjs voiijo-. xi-po-KT. : to Si PoukoKikw wol-qim filyfui iffrl 
iravTos efSous — ■■^ovv bvrp/tifmTiKov koX Spa/iariKOV — , avTTi 17 Troli]<ri.s to, 
Tuv iypolKuv rjBri ixfuia-ffeTcu. — This form of poetry arose principally 
from popular pastoral songs connected with the service of Artemis 
in Sicily and Laconia, Anon. Uepl t^s eip4a-ews t^p /3ou/co\., to which 
Theokritus gave an artistic finish. 

r) Theokritus of Syracuse flourished at the time of Ptolemy 
PhUadelphus, was a pupU of the poet PhUetas of Kos and Asklepiades 
of Samos, and lived at Kos, Syracuse and Alexandria, Vit. a, 
Westerm. Vitt. min. p. 285. Suid. s. v. Theocr. Id. XV, 56. XV. 
XVII. Mosch. Id. Ill; the story of his execution by Hiero for 
slanderous abuse, Schol. Ovid. Ibis 551, has little probability, 
compared with Id. XVI. Under the name of Theokritus we possess 
30 eldvWia, short poetical sketches of pastoral hfe or social conditions, 
and 26 epigrams, for the greater part in the Doric dialect, cf. Ahrens, 
Buoohcor. Grsecor. rell. p. 165—175 : but the genuineness of several 

that Antigonus was at first recalled from this war by a fresh Keltic 
invasion of Macedonia, and then by an attack of Alexander, the son of 
Pyrrhus, but that finally Athens succumbed after a brave resistance 
(according to Polysn. IV, 6, 20 Antigonus succeeded by stratagem). 
The year of the capture is fixed by the circumstance, that the comic 
poet Philemon according to Suid. s. v. *iX. died immediately before 
the event, and that his death according to Diod. (Exc. Hoesch.) XXUI, 7 
is to be placed in 262 b. 0. An inscription discovered in modem times, 
first pubhshed by Pittakis {'B<f>ri/i. 'ApxaioXoy. Nr. 1), informs us, that 
Athens and Sparta, the latter in company with its allies, had about 
270 B. c. concluded an alliance with one another and with Ptolemy for 
the protection of their own independence and that of the rest of the 
Greeks; and at the same time affords interesting corroboration of 
Niebuhr's conjecture, that the war carried on between Antigonus and 
the Greeks was the Chremonideau war mentioned by Athenaeus (p. 
250 f), as Chremonides is mentioned in the inscription. Antigonus 
stationed garrisons in the Peirteus, in Munychia, and in the Museum : 
but the last was soon afterwards withdrawn again. 

77) Pol. n, 43 (where the year is given). Plut. Ar. 2—10. With and 
through Aratus the league first attained its greater importance and 

of these poems is doubtful. Other poems from his pen have been lost, 
Suid. s. V. cf. Qumt. X, 1, 55: Admirabilis in suo genere Theocritus, 
sed musa ilia rustioa et pastoralis non forum modo verum ipsam etiam 
urbem reformidat. 

s) Bion, bom at Smyrna, a contemporary of Theokritus, Suid. s. v. 
Mosch. 'EiriTatj). Btuv. 70, lived in SicUy, id. V, 55 f. 76 f., and died of 
poison, which had been administered to him. A poem of his, 'EiriTo^tos 
'ASwvtdos, is preserved in a perfect state, and, besides, fragments of his 
pastoral and love songs, cf . Ahrens, Bucolicor. Grac. rell. I, p. 179—193. 
In his epitaph it is said : o-i);/ airi} \ Kal rb ni\os ridvaKe koX OKcto 
AupU aoiSd. 

t) Mosohus of Syracuse, Suid. s. v., a younger contemporary of 
Theokritus and Bion, 'Bttit. Hiav., a friend of Aristarchus, Suid. s. v. 
Of his extant poems the most important is the ^ipuirri, Ahrens, 
Bucolicor. Grae. rell. p. 197-210. The authors of several of the 
poems ascribed to Moschus, as also to Theokritus, are uncertain, of. 
Incert. IdyU. Ahrens, 1. c. 213 — 263. 

n) Aratus, probably of Soli in Kilikia, according to others of Tarsus, 


' jLXTiinCTion 01 bfreek: ±ireedom. 






. — t 





— s of Erchia. 



kophron^), Apollo- 







Coriath and Megara united to the Achjean 



Disastrous attempt on th e part of the Spartan 
king, Agis IV, to restore the Lj'kurgean constitu- 






— onofAlopeke. 


higher aims, Plut. Philop. 8. For Aratus see esp. Plut. Ar. 10: iroXifjitfi 
fikv KoX aydvi Xf^<fo^9aL ^cwepws adapir^i Kal SuffeXTrts, K\4^aL S^ irpdyfiara 
K(d ffutr/ceudffao'^at Kpiitpa TroXets Kal Tvpdvvovs iirt^ovXoTaToSj cf, Pol. IV, 

78) Pol. n, 43. Plut. Ar. 16 — 24. A Macedonian garrison lay in 
Aoro-CorinthuB, by which Antigonus commanded the whole of the 
Peloponnese, Plut. 1. c. 16. cf. Pans. VII, 7, 3. Aratus conquered 
Aoro-Corinthus and carried over the town, which thus regained its 
freedom, to the Achaan league. From this time Aratus, who in this 
year was strategus for the second time, was up to his death the 
virtual leader of the league, Pol. 1. c. ; fieydXriv Si -irpoKoirTjv Troiijiras ttjs 
^mjSoX^S ii/ oXi7<() xP°'"f "KoLTTOv ijSii SieWXei TpouTaTuv pikii toO tuv 
'Kxuwv iSvom, Plut. 1. c. 24 : imt iirel iii) xar iviavrbv i^v, irap iviavrov 

6f noble famUy, Vit. a, Westerm. Vitt. min. p. 53. Vit. /3', 1. c. p. 57, 
Vit. 8', p. 59. Suid. s. v., flourished about 284—276, Vit. o, Suid. s. v., 
attended the lectures of the Stoic Persseus at Athens, Vit. S\ and went 
with him to the court of Antigonus Gonatas, with whom he stood in 
favour, Vit. a, y', d', and at whose instigation he composed his chief 
poem, ^atpo/ieva, on the movements of the heavenly bodies with an 
appendix on weather signs (Aioo-Tj/iao), written in hexameters. In 
addition to this he also wrote other works of various descriptions, 
Suid. s. V. Macrob. Sat. V, 20. Vit. y' {<r<p6dpa irokvypiiiimToi avr/p). 
His chief work was translated into Latin by Cicero, de nat. d. 11, 41, 
Ctesar Germanicus, and Festus Avienus ; and in spite of its learned 
monotony, Quint. X, 1, 55, was held in high esteem by the Eomans, 
Cic. de orat. I, 16. de rep. I, 14. Ovid. Amor. I, 15, 16: Cum sole et 
luna semper Aratus erit. 

v) KaUimachus, of the family of the Battiadffl at Kyrene, the pupil of 
the grammarian Hermokrates, then head of a school at Alexandreia, and 
afterwards appointed by Ptolemy PhUadelphus to a place in the Museum 
and Library there, of which he finally became the director, Suid. s. v. 
Ilepi Kfiix. Vin, 20 f. Bergk, Prol. Aristoph., lived circa 260—230. 
A learned poet and critic, he is said to have composed 800 works, 
Suid. s. V. We possess 6 of his hymns and 60 epigrams ; of his other 
writings only fragments are now extant. His elegies were especially 
prized. Quint. X, 1, 58 (princeps elegias), and thus served as the models 
of Eoman poets, as Ovid, Propertius (cf. Eleg. Ill, 1) and Catullus 
(LXVI, de coma Berenices) ; just as his lampoon 'IjSis on Apollonius of 
Ehodes was copied by Ovid in his poem of the same name. Then we 
must mention his afria, a learned coUeotion of legends in 4 books, and 
hisirii/nKes, in which he catalogued the whole contents of Greek hterature, 
and became the founder of Greek literary history, Suid. s. v. He also 

alpeTffdat (TTpaTTjyov avTov, ^pyia di Kal yvwfi-Q Std iravros apx^iv, Troezen 
and Epidaurus also joined the league at this time, Plut. 1. c. Pans. II, 
8, 4. VH, 7, 1. 

79) The deohne of Sparta, which begins with the Peloponnesian 
war and was above all hastened by the influx of large sums of money 
during and after the war, see p. 81. obs. 152, and which soon after- 
wards was still further fostered by the rhetra of Epitadeus, p. 16. obs. 
20, was specially manifested in the fact that the landed property 
became more and more concentrated in the hands of a small minority, 
and the number of citizens in possession of full civic rights continually 
diminished, Plut. Agis 5 : toxi) Trjs evwopiai els oXlyovs (rvppvela-qs 
irevla T-qv iroK^v Kar^crx^v aveXevdepiav Kal tuv KaXwv d^xoXiav iirnpipovffa, 
— aTTeXeitpdriaaf iiTTaKoaiwif ou irXeioves 'ZirapTidrai Kal tovtojv taojs ^Karoy 

exercised very considerable influence as a teacher: Eratosthenes, 
Aristophanes, and others were his pupils (KaXXi,u(ix«oi). It is said of 
him, Ovid. Amor. I, 15, 14, Battiades semper toto cantabitur orbe; | 
quamvis ingenio non valet, arte valet. 

w) Lykophron, of Chalkis in Euboea, poet and grammarian, had a 
post assigned him by Ptolemy Philadelphus in the libraryof Alexandreia, 
to arrange the works of the comic poets, Vit. a', Westerm. Vitt. min. p. 
142. Suid. s. V. Ilepi Kdiii. Vin, 19 f. Bergk, Prol. Aristoph., and was 
ranked in the seven-starred constellation (nXeicis) of poets of the 
Alexandrine period. Of his writings only his epic poem 'AXe^anSpa 
(erroneously entitled Kaa-advSpa) is now extant, Suid. s. v. : to o-kotci- 
vov irolriim. All his other works, and in particular his 20 tragedies, 
Suid. s. v., are lost. 

x) Apollonius of Alexandreia lived about 250 — 190, but left his 
native city, on meeting with ill success in the public recitation of his 
epic poem, ' kpyovavriKo, owing, it is said, to the envy and slander of 
other poets, Vit. a, ^, Westerm. Vitt. min. p. 50. 51. On this 
occasion he also took offence at Kallimachus, and attacked him in an 
epigram, Authol. Gr. lac. T. HI, p. 67; to which the latter replied 
with the Ibis. He then went to Ehodes, there opened a school of 
rhetoric, and won such applause by the public recitation of his poems, 
that he obtained civic rights and hence too the epithet d 'Po'Sios, Vit. 
a', p'. He was afterwards recalled to Alexandreia to the Museum, and 
was head librarian at the library there. Besides his learned epic, 
'ApyopavTLKa, and the epigram referred to, nothing of his writings is 
now extant. 

y) Eratosthenes, bom at Kyrene in 276 B.C., was educated at 
Athens, was then promoted by Ptolemy Euergetes to be president of 
the Alexandrine library, Suid. a. v. Xlepl KUfi. VIII, 21. Bergk. Prol. 


Fifth Period. 336 — 146 B.C. 








Demetrius II king of Macedonia 8°). 



Kleomenes III king of Sparta*'). 



Megalopolis joins the league*^). 






Antigonus II king of Macedonia 8'). 

Athens freed by Aratus from Macedonian rule^). 



Argos, Hermione and Phlius join the league "'). 



Commencement of the Kleomenean war. Hostilities 
Sparta and the Achaean league in Arcadia"'). 


^trai/ ol yrjv kcktti/i^i'ol Kai kXtjpov, cf. p. 86. obs. 167. Accordingly Agis 
entered on a course of active reform with a law, by which debts were 
remitted ; and this was followed by a second law, which provided that 
a redistribution of the soil should be taken in hand, and that the 
whole territory should be divided into 4500 lots for the Spartiates and 
into 15000 for the perioeks; whilst the number of the Spartiates was 
to be supplemented by the adoption of perioeks and strangers, Pint. 
Agis 8. The chief opponent of the new laws, the other king Leonidas, 
was deposed and banished, id. 11. 12, and the prosperous course of the 
undertaking seemed fuUy assured, when the selfishness of one of the 
ephors, Agesilaus, a kinsman and adherent of Agis, spoilt all by the 
deferment of the land-distribution, id. 13. 16. So whilst Agis was 
absent with the army, to aid the Aohaeans against the ^tolians, a total 
change in the public feeHng took place ; Leonidas returned, made himself 
master of the state, id. 16, and had Agis executed together with his 
mother Agesistrata and his grandmother Arohidameia, id. 18 — 20. The 
date, as here determined, is based chiefly on the passage Plut. Agis 
13, where it is related, that in the campaign referred to Agis advised 
Aratus to prevent the .ffitoHans from penetrating into the Peloponnese 
by the occupation of the isthmus. This presupposes that the Mace- 
donians were no longer in possession of Corinth, as in the other case 
nothing could have been said of any occupation of the isthmus: it 
must therefore have taken place after 243 B.C., obs. 78: but again, on 
the other hand, an ^tolian inroad could not happen after 239 B.C., as 
after the death of Antigonus, which took place in this year, the iStolians 
and Aohseans concluded peace, Polyb. n, 44. The campaign referred 
to must therefore be placed between 243 and 239, perhaps in the year 
241 : it then follows that the commencement of Agis' attempts at reform 
belongs to the year 242 B.C., as between this and the campaign a 
change of ephors takes place, Plut. Agis 12. 

80) He reigned 10 years, Pol. II, 44. Porphyr. fr. B and 4. § 9, and 
died in the year in which the Romans first crossed over to Ulyria, i.e. 
in 229 B.C., Pol. I.e. cf. II, 10. 11. 

81) He was the son of Leonidas, obs. 79, and reigned 16 years, Plut. 
Cleom. 38 : thus, presupposing that he died in 219 B.C., obs. 95, it 
follows that he ascended the throne in the year given above. 

Aristoph., and died in 196 or 194 B.C., by voluntarily abstaining from 
food, it is said, Suid. s. v. Lucian. Macrob. 27, He was nicknamed 
B-iyra, because he took the second rank in every department of learning, 
Suid. He is said to have been the first to call himself ii\6\oyos, Suet, 
de Grammatt. 10. His great work, Teaypa^tKo, (■yeit>ypa<t>oiiieva or 
yeujypaipla), raised geography to a science, but is lost, all except 
citations in Strabo. Besides this, his writings extended to the province 

82) Pol. n, 44. Plut. Arat. 30. Lydiadas, the tyrant of Megalopolis, 
voluntarily abdicated, and carried over the town to the league. The 
date here given rests on the statement of Plut. 1. c, that the Achseans 
appointed Lydiadas strategus after his resignation of the sovereignty, 
and repeated their choice on two subsequent occasions, and that in 
alternation with Aratus : now the last occasion on which he filled the 
office of strategus cannot be placed later than 229 B.C., as Aratus was 
strategus in 228, Aristomaohus in 227, Aratus again in 226, and 
Lydiadas fell in 226 B. c. in the battle of Leuktra, Plut. 1. c. 35. 37. obs. 
87 ; whilst on the other hand the union of Megalopolis with the 
league must be placed as short a time as possible before the death of 
Demetrius, as Polybius 1. c. says that it took place whilst he was 
stm aUve. Accordingly it is rendered at least probable, that Lydiadas 
was strategus in the years 233, 231, and 229, and consequently that 
Megalopolis joined the league in 234 B. c. 

83) For the time of Demetrius' death see obs. 80. He was 
succeeded by Antigonus Doson, a nephew of Antigonus Gonatas on a 
brother's side, at first as guardian of Philip, the son of Demetrius, 
then as king, Pol. II, 45. Porphyr. fr. 4. § 10. He reigned 9 years 
according to Diod. ap. Porphyr. fr. 3. § 10, in perfect agreement with 
which are the passages Pol. U, 70. Plut. Cleom. 27. 30, according to 
which he died shortly after the battle of SeUasia, whilst the account of 
Porphyrius himself, fr. 3 and 4. § 10, that he reigned 12 years, is 
irreconcilable with these passages. 

84) Diogenes, the commander of the garrison, was induced to 
withdraw by a sum of 150 talents, to which Aratus contributed the 
sixth part out of his own means, Plut. Arat. 24. 34. Cleom. 16. Pans. 
II, 8, 5. Athens, however, did not join the league. The town was 
freed ArifiriTplov TeXeimjiravTos, therefore probably in 229 B. c. 

85) Pol. n, 44. Plut. Arat. 85. Aristomachus, who was tyrant of 
Argos, was induced by Aratus to lay down the tyranny ; and in return 
for this he was appointed strategus for the following year, Plut. 1. o. 
The strategia of Aristomachus must be placed in 227 B. c, obs. 95 ; 
and this fixes the year adopted in the Table. 

86) Kleomenes wished for war oio'/iif "os ox iv iroX^nif ixS.\\oi> ij kot 
elpf]vr)V ixcTaffTrjffai ri trapovTa, Plut. Cleom. 3 : so too Aratus and 

of philosophy, chronology, history, history of literature, mathematics, 
astronomy, and grammar. All that is preserved is a solitary epigram 
on the doubling of the cube, Anthol. Grroc. lac. I, P. 2. p. 315, and a 
letter to King Ptolemy about this problem, Eratosth. Bernhardy, p. 
175 f. The KaTaarepur/jiol, a catalogue of stars, which has come down 
to us under his name, is of much later origin. 

The Extinction of Greek Freedom. 



B. C. 




The victories of Kleomenes at Mt Lyksum and Leuktra in the territory of Mega- 



The reintroduction of the Lykurgean constitution at Sparta by Kleomenes^). 
Invasion of Achaia by Kleomenes and his victory at Dyme^). 



Fruitless negotiations for peace'"). Kleomenes makes a fresh inroad into Achaia. 
He conquers Pellene and Argos: Kleonse, Phlius and Corinth voluntarily join his 



He besieges Acrocorinthus and Sikyon'^). 

King Antigonus, invoked by the Achseans to their aid, penetrates into the 

with him the Achaean league, because Sparta alone opposed his plans, 
which were directed to the union of the whole of the Peloponnese, id., 
and because he feared, that the ^tolian league might unite with 
Sparta and the Macedonian king for the suppression of the Achaean 
league, Pol. II, 45. 46; an apprehension, which sprang from the 
Circumstance, that about this time the Spartans took away the towns 
Tegea, Mantineia, and Orchomenus, which were in alliance with the 
^tolians, without remonstrance on the part of the ^tolians, Pol. II, 
46. The ephors at Sparta, perceiving the hostile intentions of the 
Achaans, charged Kleomenes with the task of occupying Belmina on 
the frontier of Laconia and Megalopolis : Kleomenes executed their 
orders and fortified the Athensum there : the Aehaeans then captured 
Kaphyffi in Arcadia, whilst Kleomenes took Methydrinm, and when 
the Achseans penetrated into Arcadia with an army of 20,000 infantry 
and 1000 cavalry, Elleomenes marched to oppose them with 5000 men, 
and offered them battle ; but the Aohseans retired. This was the 
prelude to the Kleomenic war, see Plut. Cleom. 4. Arat. 35. Pol. II, 
46. For the chrQnology of the whole war, of which Polybius only 
gives a short survey up to the advent of Antigonus, see obs. 95. 

87) The Aohffians under Aratus had invaded EUs : Kleomenes 
came to the assistance of the Bleans, and won the first victory at 
Mt Lykffium, Plut. Cleom. 6. Arat. 36. Pol. n, 51 : Aratus then took 
Mantineia by a bold stroke, Plut. 1. c. But Kleomenes again took the 
field, captured Leuktra near Megalopolis, and inflicted a defeat on the 
Achseans, when they came to the succour of the distressed Megalopolis, 
Plut. Cleom. 6. Arat. 36—37. Pol. II, 51 (in which last passage 
Laodikeia is named as the place of the battle). 

88) Kleomenes, who was more energetic than Agis (Khfpov tl OvfioO 
Tj 0u<rei irpoaiKUTo, Plut. Cleom. 1), and sought for the reason of the 
ill success of Agis principally in the ephors, began with the murder of 
the ephors, Plut. Cleom. 8. 10, and then carried out the reform, taking 
in hand a fresh distribution of the land and reintroducing (with the 
help of the Stoic Sphterus) the dYan"?. i<i- H- By the admission of 
periceks he raised the number of the hoplites to 4000, id. He also 
appointed his brother, Eukleidas, joint-king, id. : up to this time he 
alone had filled the royal throne, as his father Leonidas had done 
after the murder of Agis. 

89) Plut. Cleom. 14. Pol. II, 51 (near the Hekatombaeum). He 
had also previously retaken Mantineia, Plut. 1. o. Pol. 11, 58. 

90) Disheartened by his repeated defeats, Aratus had refused the 

office of strategus for this year, although his turn had come round, 
Plut. Cleom. 15. Arat. 38, and the Achseans were disposed to accede 
to the demand of Kleomenes, that the hegemony should be yielded 
to him : the negotiations, however, were frustrated, in the first place 
by chance occurrences, and afterwards by the intrigues of Aratus (who 
was already in secret treaty with the king of Macedonia, Pol. II, 51. 
Plut. Arat. 38), see Plut. Cleom. 15. 17. Arat. 39. 

91) Plut. Cleom. 17—19. Arat. 39. Pol. II, 52.— Plut. Cleom. 17 : 
' Byeyovei Sk KlvqiJ.a tuv ' Axa'wi', xai Trpos aTroo'Taffij' u)pnijffa.v al ttoXcis, 
TUX fiiv Sri/' vop-riv re x'^/"" ""■^ XP^"" diroKowai i\irt,<ra,vTOiv , tuv bi 
ttpuTiav iroXXaxou fia.pwoiiivi'iv roc 'Aparov, ivlav Sh KoX Si opyrji ix^vrav 
us iwayovra rg XitKoiroviniaif Ma/ce5()<'as. The capture of Argos was 
effected on the occasion of the Nemean games, i. e. in the winter of 
224/3 B. C, cf. obs. 95. 

92) Plut. Cleom. 19. Arat. 40. Pol. II, 52. 

93) Aratus, who feared a combination between Sparta, the 
^tolian league and the ting of Macedonia, and saw, not merely his 
life's plan of uniting the Peloponnese under the hegemony of the 
Achffian league, but even the existing constitutions of the individual 
towns menaced by Kleomenes, had for a considerable time past been in 
secret treaty with Antigonus : after then: repeated defeats the negotia- 
tions were conducted openly and with the assent of the league, and 
were now brought to a satisfactory conclusion ; for, now that Corinth 
had gone over to Kleomenes and Acro-Corinthus was blockaded by 
him, there was no more hesitation about fulfilling the condition 
imposed by Antigonus, which had hitherto been the stumbling-block, 
that Acro-Corinthus should be made over to him, Pol. II, 45—51. cf. 
Plut. Cleom. 16. Arat. 88. For the cession of Acro-Corinthus 
Plut. Arat. 1. c. : Ou -yhp irpirepov iivi§rj tois 'Axaiois Seo/J^mts Kal iiro- 
BaKkomiv aurous 5i& tuk Trpeir/Seiwc /cai tCiv ^^iit^tuv ij rg cppoupq. Kcl 
Tois OMWO'S '^'^^^P Xa^-'"™/^^"""' dcaffx^creai. Antigonus came with 
20 000 foot and 1400 horse, Plut. Arat. 43. On the approach of 
Antigonus Kleomenes rehnquished the siege of Sikyon and occupied 
the isthmus : but as Argos in his rear revolted and was occupied by 
the Achajans, he saw himself compeUed to give up this position, and 
Antigonus now advanced to the frontier of Laconia, where he destroyed 
the Spartan fortifications at Behnina and Mgs), Pol. H, 52—54. 
Plut Cleom. 20—21. Arat. 43—44. Kleomenes now sought to rely 
prinoipaUy on Ptolemy for support, and at this time sent his mother 
and his son to him as hostages, Plut. Cleom. 22. cf. Pol. H, 51. 


Fifth Period. 336 — 146b.c. 





ckxXIX, 3 



Antigonus conquers the Arcadian towns Tegea, 
Orchomenus, Mantineia, Hersea, and Telphusa"*). 

Kleomenes totally defeated by Antigonus at Sel- 

The Alexandrine Gramma- 
rians and Critics Zenodotus''), 
Aristophanes**), Aristarchus'"'*). 

94) Pol. II, 54. Plut. Cleom. 23. Kleomenes manumitted all helots, 
who paid 5 minse, and after strengthening his army by enlisting these 
freedmen (according to Plutarch their numbers amounted to 6000, 
according to Maerob. Sat. I, 11 to 9000), he surprised Megalopolis in 
the winter-time, took and destroyed it, Plut. Cleom. 23 — 25. PhUop. 
5. Pol. II, 55. 61. 

95) In the spring, before Antigonus had mustered his troops again, 
Kleomenes invaded and laid waste the territory of Argos, Pol. II, 64. 
Plut. Cleom. 26. Then at the beginning of summer he takes up his 
station at SeUasia (Pol. II, 65), waiting for Antigonus, with a total of 
20,000 men. Antigonus marches to meet him with 28,000 foot and 
1200 horse ; and a battle follows, in which Kleomenes is totally 
defeated, Pol. II, 65—69, Plut. Cleom. 27—28. Philop. 6. According 
to Plut. Cleom. 28 the 6000 Spartans, who were present at the battle, 
are said to have fallen, all but 200. Kleomenes flies to Egypt, where 
he vainly labours to induce the king to grant him succour for his 
native land, and where two years later (Pol. IV, 35), when at last he 
was even treated as a prisoner and an attempt to regain his 
freedom by exciting a rebellion in Alexandreia had failed, he puts 
himself to death together with his followers, Plut. Cleom. 32 — 39. Pol. 
V, 35—39. Antigonus was admitted without resistance into Sparta 
and ahoUshed the institutions of Kleomenes, Pol. VI, 70, and then 
returned to Macedonia, -whither he was called by an Illyrian invasion ; 
but left behind a garrison in Corinth and Orchomenus, by which he 
upheld his sovereignty in the Peloponnese, Pol. IV, 6. Plut. Arat. 45. 
Fpr the military importance of Corinth cf. Pol. VII, 11. Plut. Arat. 
50. Flam. 10. Paus. VII, 7, 3. The Achaeans were united with the 

z) Zenodotus of Ephesus, the pupil of Philetas, head director of 
the library at Alexandreia and tutor to the sons of Ptolemy Phila- 
delphus, busied himself with the grammar and criticism of Greek 
poets, and prepared the first edition of Homer, Suid. s. v. Hepl ku/j.. 
Bergk, Prol. Aristoph. VIII, 22. 

aa) Aristophanes of Byzantium, critic and grammarian, the pupil 
of Zenodotus, KaDimachus, and Eratosthenes, and teacher of Aris- 
tarchus, and after ApoUonius Bhodius director of the library at 
Alexandreia, Suid. s. v. ' Apiarapxas, v. 'Eparoa-Ohris. The invention 
of signs for accents and stops is attributed to him, Villoison. 
Aneod. Gr. II, p. 131. ApoUon. Alex. IV, p. 304, and to him to- 
gether with Aristarchus the estabhshment of the Alexandrine canon, 
Procl. Chrestom. p. 340 f. Qumt, X, 1, 46 f. The studies of 
Aristophanes, like those of all the other Alexandrine scholars, 
centred in the Homeric poems, which he edited with an apparatus 
of critical marks, but his labours were also directed to other Greek 
poets, and moreover he wrote a lexicological work, Xefeis. But of all 
his books fragments only have been preserved in the scholia on the 
poets. ,...._..,. 

Epirotes, Phokians", Boeotians, Akamanians and Thessalians in a 
league ; which in reality stood under the supreme headship of Mace- 
donia, Pol. IV, 9. In like manner the relations between Sparta and 
Macedonia were firmly established by a special alliance, id. For the 
complete dependence of the Achaean league on Macedonia see Pint, 
Arat. 45 : ''E\p7](pt(ravTo 5' dWip p/fi ypa^etv ^turtKei pLtjSk Trpeff^eieiv irpbs 
aWov aKovros 'AvTiydvov, Tp^tpety re Kcd /uffdodoreiv TjvayKa^ovTo tov% 
M.a.mSovai. That the battle of SeUasia took place in 221 b. c, not as 
is commonly assumed in 222, is established by the fact, that Antigonus, 
after the battle and further after settling affairs at Sparta to suit his 
pleasure, was present at the Nemean games, Pol. H, 70, which, as is 
proved with especial clearness by Pol. V, 101, were always celebrated 
in summer-time at the beginning of the third Olympiad year, there- 
fore on this occasion not 222, but 221 B. c. If this is established, it 
then follows, that Antigonus came to Greece in the summer of 223 
B.C., as Pol. II, 54 expressly mentions his winter quarters in the 
Peloponnese in two different years : and in perfect agreement with 
this is the fact, that the conquest of Argos by Kleomenes happened on 
the occasion of the Nemean games, obs. 91, which in winter-time were 
always celebrated in the first Olympiad year, consequently in this 
case in 224/3. The other events of the war are fixed by the strategi, 
under whom they occurred ; these are successively, Aristomaohus (in 
227 B.C.), Plut. Arat. 85. Cleom. 4, Aratus (in 226 B.C.), Plut. Arat. 
1. 1., Hyperbatas (in 225), Plut. Cleom. 14, Timoxenus (in 224), Plut. 
Arat. 38, cf. Cleom. 15. But the chronology adopted receives further 
confirmation from the statement of Polybius, H, 57, that the capture 
of Mantineia by Aratus (obs. 87) took place in the fourth year before 

bb) Aristarchus of Samothrake, educated at Alexandreia by 
Aristophanes, became tutor to the young Ptolemy Epiphanes and 
(after Aristophanes) head librarian, and as the most celebrated of all 
grammarians and critics (d Kopv^MUos twv ypaii.puTi.Kav, 6 ypafipjtTiKw- 
raros) trained numerous pupils, but finally went in his old age t& 
Kyprus, where he is said to have died voluntarily of starvation at the 
age of 72, Suid. s.v. 'Apwrro^ttpijs, Athen. II, p. 71 b. He occupied 
himself in particular with the criticism and interpretation of the 
older poets (see above p. 15. obs. a). Homer, Pindar, Archilochus, 
.Sischylus, Sophokles, Ion, Aristophanes ; and according to Suidas 
wrote over 800 commentaries and several grammatical works, of which 
fragments alone are preserved in the collections of scholia. His 
important services in the criticism and interpretation of Homer are 
rendered most conspicuous by the Homeric scholia and the com- 
mentary of Eustathius. His chief opponent was Krates of MaUns, 
who taught at Pergamum and replied to the chief work of Aristarchus 
Uepl ivaXoyia! by a treatise Uepl ana/juMas, Gell. H, 25. cf. XIV, 6, 3. 
Varro de L. L. IX, 1. He became the founder of the Pergamean 

The Extinction of Greek Freedom. 



220—146 B.C. 







CXL, 1 
CXL, 1-4 


Philip V. king of Macedonia'"). 

War of the allies; the Achseans, Boeotians, Phokians, Epirotes, Akarnanians, and 
Messenians, allied with Philip, in conflict with the iEtolians, Spartans, and Eleans"). 

he advent of Antigonus. It must be confessed, that several obscure 
loints still remain: thus, on the above supposition, it is at least 
noorreot, when in 219 e. o. at the time of the change in the strategus 
'olybius reckons 3 years from the flight of Kleomenes to the battle of 
lellasia, IV, 35. 37 : further the statement of Polybius, II, 43, that 
iratus was strategus for the second time in 243 b. c. (obs. 78), and 
hat he filled the strategia every alternate year, is irreconcilable with 
he fact, that his strategia in 226 e. c. is said to have been the twelfth, 
'lut. Arat. 38 : finally there still remains a difficulty, which is hard 
explain, that Timoxenus, who was strategus in 224 e. c, is said to 
:ave been again strategus in 223, Pol. II, 53 : with which, however, 
1. 52 and Plut. Arat. 41 must be compared. Still these doubts are 
,ot sufficient to overthrow the assumptions adopted above, which are 
ased on certaia proofs. 

96) For the time of his accession to the throne see obs. 83. He 
'as now 17 years old, Pol. IV, 5, and in the first part of his reign 
ained universal approbation and love by his justice and mUdness, 
a well as by his bravery and military capacities, Pol. IV, 77. VII, 
2 {Koivis Tis olov ipd/ievos iyivero rwv "EtW-livuv Stk rb -njs alpitreois 


eiepyenKiv), but afterwards degenerated, Pol. VII, 12. 13. X, 20. 
Plut. Arat. 51. 

97) The war (d <rufi.iiaxiitis iriXe/tos, Pol. IV, 13) aros3 out of a 
plundering raid of the .ffitoUans through Aohaia as far as Messenia, 
Pol. rV, 1 — 13. For the date of its commencement, id. 14. 26. On 
the one side were ranged those who had entered into affiance with 
Macedonia after the Kleomenio war, obs. 95 ; only with this 
difference, that the Spartans went over to the side of the ^tolians, 
Pol. rV, 16. 35, and, as a set off, the Messenians attached themselves to 
PhiUp and the Achaean league, id. 9. 15. 25 : besides their new allies, 
the Spartans, the jEtohans were stiU further supported by their old 
allies, the Eleans, id. 36. For the whole war, which was carried on 
by both sides merely by plundering inroads into hostile territory 
without decisive result see Pol. IV, 1—37. 57 to V, 30. 91—105, cf. 
Plut. Arat. 47 — 48 : at last, however, Philip and his alhes are in the 
ascendant: notwithstanding, he concludes peace on receiving the 
news of Hannibal's victory at lake Trasimene, in order to leave 
himself free to ally himself with Hannibal against Rome, Pol. V, 
101—105. cf. Eoman Chron. Tables (5th ed.) p. 48. obs. 18; 



Fifth Peeiod. 336 — 146 B.C. 






CXLI, 2 


War between Rome and Macedoma°8). 

CXLI, 4 


Aratus poisoned by Philip ''). 







The ^tolians contract an alliance with the Romans, and are thereb 
drawn into the struggle between Rome and Macedonia ; their exampl 
is followed by the Spartans, Eleans, and Messenians : whilst the Achaean! 
Boeotians, Phokians, Epirotes, Akarnanians, Eubosans, Lokrians, ani 
Thessalians take part in the war on the side of Macedonia""). 




Peace between Rome and Philip and the allies of both parties"'). 




CXT.V, 1 



Second Macedonian war^'^). 

CXLV, 3 


The Achaeans go over to the side of Rome"'). 

CXT,V, 4 



Defeat of Philip at Kynoskephalsei'^). 




Peace between Rome and Macedonia^'^). 
Greece declared free"^). 




The Romans and Achseans at war with Nabis of Sparta : Nabis sul 
mits and is confined to the possession of the town of Sparta"'). 

on the condition, uffre ix^iv ifiipoHpovs, a vvv Ix""''''. Plut. 1. u. 103. — 
Pol. V, 105 : Tas liiv ow'EWijyi/cAs koI rets 'iToXmhs, In Bi tos AijSukos 
irpojeis oSt-os d /caipds Kal toOto to Sia^oiXiov ffuviirXe^e irpurov ' ov yi.p 
In $iXi7nros oOS' ol twp 'EXXijcui' TrpoeffTures apxomres irpos rets /card t^c 
'BXXaSa irpa^eis TroLovfiefOL ris dvatpopa^ oSre roiis irok^fiovs oure ris 
SiaXuireis iiroiovvTO wpos dXXijXous, dXX' iJSt} iravres irpos tous iv 'IraXisi 
ffKOTTods aTT^/SXejroy. 

98) See Eoman Chron. Tables, p. 48. obs. 18. 21. Immediately 
aftei; the conclusion of the war of the allies, Philip had turned against 
lUyria, which he wished to conquer, in order to be able to lend a 
helping hand to Hannibal from that country, see Pol. V, 108 — 110. 
Vin, 15. Accordingly lUyria was at the very first the chief theatre of 
the war between Philip and the Eomans. 

99) Pol. Yin, 14. Plut. Arat. 52—54. Pans. II, 9, 4. After his 
death Philopoemen came into increasing prominence as director of 
the affairs of the league, "the last of the Hellenes," Plut. Philop. 1. 
For huu see Plut. Philop. Pans. YIII, 49—52. Pol. X, 22—24. XI, 
8—10, etc. 

100) See Eoman Chron. Table's, p. 49. obs. 31. cf. Pol. XI, 5. 

The Messenians who had hitherto sided with Philip had gone over ( 
the enemy in consequence of the ill-treatment and injustice, whic 
they suffered from PhiUp, Pol. VIII, 10. 14. Plut. Arat. 49—51. 

101) See Eoman Chron. Tabl. p. 51. obs. 45. 

102) See Eoman Chron. Tabl. p. 53. obs. 1—5. 

103) See Eoman Chron. Tabl. p. 53. obs. 5. For the vaciUatii 
and ambiguous attitude of Nabis, the tyrant of Sparta see obs. 107. 

104) See Eoman Chron. Tabl. p. 53. obs. 7. 

105) See Eoman Chron. Tabl. p. 53. ohs. 8. 

106) See Eoman Chron. Tabl. p. 53. obs. 9. 

107) After the death of Kleomenes, Agesipolis HI and Lykurgns (tl 
latter a non-HeraWeid) were chosen kings at Sparta, Pol. IV, 35 : b 
Agesipolis was expelled by Lykurgus, Liv. XXXIV, 26. Lykurg 
now ruled alone as tyrant, after him Machanidas, and when he hi 
been slain by Philopcemen, Pol. XI, 11—18. Plut. Phil. 10, Nab: 
War was undertaken against Nabis, partly because, when the Achsea 
had joined the Eomans (obs. 103), he had entered into a coalitii 
with Philip and made himself master of the town of Argos, Li 

The Extinction of Greek Freedom. 












Murder of Nabis, and union of Sparta with the Achfean league""). 

Beginning of the Syrian war between Rome and Antioohus, king of Syria i"'). 

The iEtolian.s allies of Antiochus""). 

End of the Syrian war^"). 

The power of the ^tolians broken by the peace dictated to them 
by the Romans"^). 

Philopoemen compels the Spartans to abolish the last remnants of 
the Lykurgean constitution'"): then follow continual disputes, fostered 
by the Romans, between Sparta and the Achaean league""*). 

XXXII, 38 — 40 ; partly with the object of preventing his alliance with 
Antioohus, with whom war was now impending, Liv. XXXUI, 44. 
For the war with Nabis, Liv. XXXIV, 22—41. Plut. Flam. 13. The 
upshot was, that the tyrant was confined to Sparta and its immediate 
territory, was cut off from all sea-communication, and was condemned 
to pay a considerable fine, Liv. XXXIV, 35—40. cf. XXXV, 12. VS^ith 
this, however, the Achseans were not satisfied, as in their opinion the 
war ought only to have been brought to an end with the overthrow of 
Nabis, Plut. I.e. ; Siei/'euo-oro ras rij! 'BXXdSos €\7rLdas, Liv. XXXIV, 
41 : serva Lacedaemon reliota et lateri adhaerens tyraunus non 
sincerum gaudium praebebant, cf. id. 48. 49. XXXV, 31. 

108) War had again broken out between Nabis and the Aehasans, 
because the former, seduced by the .Sltolians, had made an attempt to 
reconquer the coast of Laconia. Nabis is totally defeated by the 
Achseans under Philopoemen, and compelled to shut himself up 
within the waUs of Sparta, Liv. XXXV, 12—13. 25—30. Hereupon 
the ^toUans send a detachment of troops to Sparta, nominaUy to aid 
him, but in reality to put him out of the way, and to take possession 
of the town. Nabis is in fact killed, but the ^toliaus neglect to secure 
the town; and- now Philopoemen hurries up and compels the Spartans 
to join the league, without, however, disturbing the Lykurgean con- 
stitution, id. 35—37. Plut. Phil. 15. Pans. Vin, 50. 

109) See Roman Chron. Tabl. p. 54. obs. 10—15. 

110) The iEtolians were discontented with Eome on account of the 
peace with Philip, as in their opinion their services had not been 
sufficiently rewarded, Liv. XXXIII, 11. 12. 13. 31. 35. 49. XXXIV, 22. 
23. Pol. XVni, 17. 21. 22. 28. 31. Plut. Flam. 9 ; they were likewise 
ill pleased, not only on account of the war, but also of the peace with 
Nabis, Liv. XXXIV, 23. 41. Hence their negotiations and alliance 
mth Antiochus, Liv. XXXIH, 43. 44. XXXV, 12. 32—33. 34. 43—45. 
Pol. XX, 1. Appian Syr. 12. 

111) See Eoman Chron. Tabl. p. 54. obs. 15. 

112) After various unsuccessful negotiations for peace, for which 
see Liv. XXXVI, 22. 27—29. 34—35. XXXVII, 1. Pol. XX, 9— 11, further 
after both the Scipios had granted them an armistice for six months 

in 190 B. c, in order to leave themselves free for the campaign against 
Antioohus in Asia, Liv. XXXVU, 4—7. Pol. XXI, 1—3, M. Fulvius, 
the consul of the year 189, recommenced the war, took Amprakia, and 
threatened to invade iEtoha. Peace was now at last concluded on the 
following terms : the J5tolians were to pay 500 talents, to cede all 
towns, which the Eomans had taken from them since the time of 
Flaminius, to furnish hostages, and to bind themselves to carry on 
war only with the consent of the Eomans, etc., Liv. XXXVII, 49. 
XXXVIH, 1— 15.Pol.XXn,8— 15. After this they brought themselves 
to utter ruin owing to factions, Pol. XXX, 14. Liv. XLI, 25. XLH, 2. 

113) Liv. XXXVni, 30—34. Pans. VII, 8, 4. VIH, 51, 1. Plut. 
Phil. 16. This measure was occasioned by an attempt on the part of 
the Spartans to make themselves masters of the coast-towns : Philo- 
poemen (auctor semper Achaeis minuendi opes et auctoritatem Lacedse- 
moniorum, Liv. 1. e. 31) demanded the surrender of the authors of 
this attempt, and when the Spartans not only refused his demand, 
but also arrived at the resolution to separate themselves from the 
Achasau league, he marched into Laconia, and now demanded the 
sm'render of those, who had advised the adoption of this resolution ; 
and when the surrender was made, he had them executed to the 
number of 80, or rather as many as had escaped being slain im- 
mediately on their arrival in the Achsan camp (outrage of Kompasion, 
Pol. XXIII, 1. 7). The Spartans themselves were now obliged 
to recall the citizens banished by Nabis (cf. Liv. XXXIV, 35. Pol. XX, 
12), and on the other hand to banish the citizens enrolled by him, to 
pull down their walls, to abolish the Lykurgean constitution, etc. — 
Per haec enervata civitas Laeedsemoniorum Achseis diu obnoxia fuit, 
Liv. XXXVin, 34. The full admission of Sparta to the Achasan 
league did not take place till the year 181 B.C., Pol. XXV, 1 — 2. 

114) In consequence of the frequent revolutions at Sparta there 
were a number of banished Spartans, who had their adherents in 
Sparta itself (according to Pol. XXIV, 4 Sparta was spht into 4 
different factions) and were continually sending embassies to Eome to 
beg for help : embassies of this kind are mentioned in the year 187, 
Pol. XXHI, 1, in 185, id. 4. 5. 7. Liv. XXXIX, 33. 35—37, in the year 



Fifth Period. 336 — 146 b. c. 


B. C. 








War of the Achaean league with Messenia and 
death of Philopoemen"'). 




Philip of Macedonia dies : he is succeeded by Perseus"^). 




Third Macedonian war"'). 




Perseus defeated at Pydna and taken prisoner ii^). 





Violent measures adopted by the Romans against 
the Achaean league: a thousand of the noblest 
Achaeans are summoned to Rome and detained 
in Italy as prisoners'"). 
















Release of the Achsean prisoners""). 

The poet Nikander™). 

182, Pol. XXIV, 10. Liv. XXXIX, 48, in the year 181, Pol. XXV, 2. 
3. Liv. XL, 20, in the year 179, Pol. XXVI, 3. The Bomans at first 
return ambiguous and evasive answers, till they think the time has 
come for active interference. Even during the war, and before 
Philopoemen invaded Laconia, senatus responsum ita perplexum fuit, 
ut et Achsei sibi de Laoedsemone permissum acciperent et Laoedse- 
monii non omnia concessa lis interpretarentur, Liv. XXXVIII, 32: it 
is not till the occasion of the subsequent embassies in 187 and 185 
B. c, that they declare, that, though not satisfied with Philopoemen's 
proceedings, they will leave matters as they stand, Pol. XXIII, 1. 7. 
10 : in 182 b. c. they repeat this declaration, but at the same time add 
a light menace, Pol. XXIV, 10: Sid rois /j-ev ck t^s Aanidal/iovos 
ciTr€Kpi07i(raj', tols Trepl "Zripiinrov^ ^ovXofievot fiereupov eatrai ttiv iroXtv, 
SiOTL TTQifTO. TetroL'^KaffLV avTols Tci dward, Kara 5e to irapov ov vopX^ov<yiv 
itvai TovTO TO wpayfia irpos aVTOvs' twv 6e ^ Axo-tdv irapaKoXovvTOJv , 
— TOVTbyv ix^v ovbevi irpoffelxov, direKpld'qffav Se St6rt ovd^ av 6 Aa/ccdat- 
liovluv TJ Kopivffiuiv ^ 'Apyelav dipisTTfai S^/ios, ou Se-riau toi)s 'Axaious 
davfidi^eiv eoy ^'q irpos avTovs 'qyuVTar TauTrjv de ttjv diroKptffiv €Kd4/x€voL, 
KTjpvyfiaTos exovffav SioBeffiv tois ^ovKop-kvoiS eveKev 'Fw/xafwi/ dtplffTOffdoL 
TTJi Tiav 'Axaiwi' TToXtreios — in 181 and 179 B. c. they make a direct 
demand for the recaU of the banished Spartans, Pol. XXV, 2. XXVI, 
3. Liv. XL, 20. For the history of the further relations between 
Sparta and the Achaean league see obs. 121. 

115) Messenia had been compelled in 191 B. c. to join the league, 
Liv. XXXVI, 31. cf. Pol. XXIII, 10. It now deserts the league, and 
it appears that Flaminius had knowledge of their determination, Plut. 
Flam. 17. Pol. XXIV, 5 : hence the war with the league, in which 

Philopoemen meets with his death, Plut. PhOop. 18—21. Pol. XIV, 
8. 9. 12, TeaaapaKovTo, erri ffwex(Jos TroXe/i^iraj, Pol. 1. o. 12. The war is 
brought to an end in the following year with the subjection of the 
Messenians, id. 

116) Roman Chron. Tabl. p. 55. obs. 2. 

117) See id. obs. 3—6. 

118) See id. p. 56. obs. 7. 8. 

119) Notwithstanding many attempts, the Achasans had refused to 
allow themselves to be seduced into an aUianoe with Perseus, Pol. 
XXVIII, 3 — 7. Nevertheless the patriots of the league, with Lykortas, 
Arohon, and Polybius at their head (Pol. XXVIII, 3), were accused by 
Kallikrates and Andronidas, of whom the former had been spreading 
his calumnies and charges ever since 179 b. c. and not without success, 
Pol. XXVI, 1 — 3 (for the infamy and degradation of both see id. XXX, 
20), on the ground that they had secretly favoured Perseus, and when 
they had rebutted this accusation and declared themselves ready to 
justify themselves by all means in their power, they were summoned 
to Rome, and detained there, Pol. XXX, 10. Liv. XLV, 31. Paus, 
VII, 10, 2. 

120) After the AchoGans had repeatedly begged through am- 
bassadors for their liberation to no purpose, Pol. XXXI, 8. XXXII, 7. 
XXXIII, 1. 2. 13, they were at last released on Gate's representation, 
that it mattered little irepl yepovrltav rpatVcUv, iroTepov utto twv Trap' 
T]p,iv 57 Twv h'Axoif veKpoipopuv iKKo/xurBacn, Plut. Cat. mai. 9 : this was 
in the 17th year of their captivity, when they now scarcely numbered 
300, Paus. Vn, 10, 2. 

cc) Nikander of Kolophon, Vit. a, Westerm. vitt. min. p. 61. Suid. 
s.v. Cic. de or. I, 16, lived circ. 160 — 140, was a priest of the Klariau 
Apollo, and at the same time grammarian, physician, and poet, Vit. a. 
Suid. s. V. 0/ his poems only two have come down to us : QijpiaKa, on 

poisonous animals and remedies for their bite; and ' AKe^upapfuiKa, 
on antidotes to the consumption of poisoned meats and drinks, both 
fuU of learning, but of no poetical value. Of his lost poems we must 
mention the 'Erepoiovfi.ei'a, Ovid's model in his Metamorphoses. 

The Extinction of Greek Freedom. 



B. C. 










The Achseans declare war against Sparta and 
consequently with Rome'"). Their defeat at 

The historian Poly- 

121) The chief authorities for the last catastrophe of Greece are Paus. 
Vn, 11—16 and the fragments Pol. XXXVIII, 1—5. XL, 1—5. 7—11. 
In addition to the suhjects of dispute between Sparta and the Achsean 
league a fresh quarrel had arisen between Sparta and Megalopolis, a 
member of the league, on a question of frontier. C. Sulpioius Gallus 
was in 164 b.c. commissioned by the Roman senate to decide the 
dispute; and he left the concern to Kallikrates (obs. 119), but at the 
same time made use of the opportunity to entice such towns, as were 
members of the league, to revolt, Pol. XXXI, 9. Paus. VII, 11, 1. 
Thus on the one hand the hostility between Sparta and the league was 
maintained, and on the other the hostile feeling of the Achfeans against 
the Eomans was still further fostered. And the flame was fanned by 
the prisoners returning home from Eome (obs. 120), who were incensed 
to the uttermost by the injustice perpetrated on themselves, Zonar. 
Ann. IX, 31. The immediate occasion of the war, however, was a 
quarrel between Athens and Oropus. The latter, although standing 
under the suzerainty of Athens had been unmeritedly plundered by 
the Athenians, and after many fruitless negotiations (which also gave 
rise to the despatch of the three celebrated Athenian philosophers 
Kameades, Diogenes, and Kritolaus as ambassadors to Eome, see 
Roman Chron. Tabl. p. 56. obs. h) the Oropiaus had bribed with ten 
talents Menalkidas, a Spartan, who however was strategus of the league 
in the present year (150 B.C.), to prevail on the league to procure them 

justice against Athens, Paus. VII, 11, 2 — 3. Menalkidas, on being 
accused by Kallikrates, because the former had withheld the share of 
the 10 talents, which he had promised him, now bribed Diseus, the 
strategus of 149 B.C., to secure himself from an adverse verdict. But 
Diasus, in order to divert the attention of the Achosans from himself 
and this disgraceful proceeding, brought about the outbreak of the war 
between the league and Sparta, Paus. VII, 12. 13. Then follows in 
147 the embassy of L. Aurelius Orestes, who announced to the Achseans, 
that Sparta, Corinth, Argos, Orchomenus, and Herakleia by CEfcawere 
to be separated from the league : but this announcement excited such 
a storm of fury in the Achsean assembly, that his very person hardly 
escaped ill-usage, Paus. 1. c. 14, 1 — 2 : next the embassy of L. Julius 
with easier terms, but with no better success, Paus. id. § 3 — 4. Pol. 
XXXVIII, 1 — 3. The same ill-success attended a further embassy 
sent to the league by Q. Caecilius Metellus from Macedonia in the 
spring of the year 146 e. o., Pol. id. 4. Kritolaus, who was appointed 
strategus for 146 (the election was made towards the end of the year 
at this time, a deviation from the former custom), had made use 
of the winter 147/6 to stir up the Achseans by fanatical speeches and 
revolutionary measures, Pol. id. 3; and now brought about in the 
assembly at Corinth, the same before which the last Eoman embassy 
had appeared, the declaration of war 'nominally against Sparta, but 
virtually against Rome,' Pol. id. 5. 

dd) Polybius of Megalopolis, son of the AcliEean general Lykortas, 
Suid. s. V. Paus. VIII, 30, 4, born circa 240 B.C., admirer of 
Philopcemen, Pint, an sen. resp. ger. p. 790 f, whose burial urn he 
brought home from Messenia, Plut. Philop. 20. In the war between 
the Romans and Perseus he recommended neutrality, Pol. XXVIII, 
3. 6, then acted as commander of the cavalry, 1. c. XXVIII, 7, and 
frequently as ambassador and diplomatist, 1. u. XXV, 7. XXVIII, 10 f. 
XXIX, 8, but was carried off to Eome together with other leaders of 
the patriotic party, cf. obs. 119. 120. At Eome he was received into 
the house of .ffimilius Paullus, instructed his sons, App. Pun. 132, and 
became the confidential friend of Scipio .SlmUianus, Pol. XXXII, 9. 
10. Plut. Symp. IV, 1. Veil. Pat. I, 18. He returned to Greece in 151 
B.C. with the other Aohsan captives, and from this time forward 
frequently used his influence at Rome in favour of his countrymen, 
Pol. XXXn, 7. XII, 5. XXXV, 6. Plut. Cat. mai. 9: afterwards 
followed Scipio to Africa, to be present at the siege of Carthage, App. 
Pun. 132. Paus. Vin. 30, 4, and explored with a fleet the north and 
west coast of Africa, Plin. H. N. V, 9. 26. VI, 199. Returning to 
Greece shortly after the destruction of Corinth, he was unweariedly 

active in his efforts to alleviate the fate of his country and to settle its 
affairs, Plut. Philop. 20. Pol. XL, 7. 8. 9 ; in return for which he was 
loaded with honours by Greeks and Eomans alike, 1. c. 10. Paus. VIII, 
9, 30. 44, 5. 48, 6. With a view to writing his history he undertook 
journeys to Asia Minor, Pol. XXII, 21, Egypt, 1. c. XXXIV, 14, Gaul, 
Spain, and Africa, id. Ill, 59; after the completion of the history he 
returned back to Greece, XXXVII, 2-. XL, 2, where he died in 122 e. c. 
at the age of 82, in consequence of a fall from his horse, Lucian. 
Maerob. 22 f. Of the history of Polybius (la-ropla KaSoXoci}) in 40 books 
the first five are extant in a perfect state, the remainder in fragments 
and extracts. In this work he had set himself the task of describing 
the subjection of the countries of the Mediterranean to the Roman rule 
from the second Punie war to the conquest of Macedonia. He adopted 
a synchronous arrangement of events, and in his 'urropla iTnSei.KTi.Kri 
(H 37), i.e. the careful statement of the causes and consequences of 
the actions recorded (IX, 1), pursued the practical aim of instructing 
the ToXmKoi and educating them for the conduct of public affairs (1, 1. 
IX, 1. 21) 


Fifth Period. 336 — 146 B.C. 




Skarphea and Leukopetra : destruction of Corinth, and subjection of Greece to Roman 

122) Paua. VH, 15—16. Pol. XL, 1—5. Thebes and Challda were 
allied with the Aehsans, Paus. VII, 14, 4. Liv. LII. After the 
conclusion of the Macedonian war Metellus wished to bring the war in 
Greece also to a conclusion, and accordingly marched down to Greece, 
where he defeated Kritolaus at Skarphea (in Lokris). As Kritolaus 
himself feU in the battle, Diseus assumed the command, and by em- 
ployment of the most extreme measures and the enlistment of slaves 
collected an army of 14,000 foot and 600 cavalry, Paus. I.e. 15, 4. 
Metellus had now to give place to the consul L. Mummius, who with 

an army of 23,000 infantry and 3500 cavalry posted himself on the 
isthmus over against the Achseans, id. 16, 1. On this spot a battle 
followed, which decided the fate of Greece, id. § 6 : SriiioKparias ixh 
itrave, KaBlffTaro Bi airb Ti/j.iiimTOii' ras apx^^^ fai 0o/)os re erdx^Tl tj 
'EXXoSi, Kal ol ra x/";M'"''' ^X"""' iKui\vovTO iv tt) VTepoplif KratrBai, 
awi^pia, Te Kara ISpos 'iKaarov, to 'A;(aiaj<' KoX to kv iuKeunv rj BoiuTofs 
rj eripoSi tov tijs 'BXXdSos, KaraXk'KvTO ofiolui vavTa — , §. 7 : ijYfjtiuj' 6^ 
in Kal h ifii dTrcirWXXeTO, KaXoiJffi Bi ovx 'EXXdSos, dXX' 'Axafas yyefi.6va 
orPw/ia?oi, cf. Pol. XL, 7—11. 

















aonSon: C. J. CLAY, M.A. & SON. 


17, Pateenosiee Row. 




n»*ti«i' :