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Enlightened despotism of the teth centur 

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Bibliography ----«---- vi-xi 

Chapter I. / short rsccourt of Leopold'* rftign# Paj-nlly, 
acces.don, conditions of th'^ cour^try ©ncl situation 
under !:arla Theresa, boundaries settled, peace 
policy, treaties, adviBors, riots at tho end of Ms 
reign, abdication, - - • - - - -1-5 

Chapter II, A dcd ni 3 1 r at i o n « Ar-vlaorB, freed from Ms 
rnothar, no- depertmonts and ninist^rs, secretaries 
of comisunities, list of councils abolished, various 
councils, state, finance, /nnona, district council, 
city gorernment , supreme court, preaervinf of the 
laws, archives, royal advocate, Piscus, Florence 
goveriBTrient, other councils abolished, legal consult o, 
cixirch tribunals, fees, exemptions, army end navy 
abolished, oltad-^ls destroyed, militia, post offic"^, 
rivsr administration, sanitary, census, pension, 
police, spy system, police regulations, censorship 
abolished, foreigners, prison regulrt ions, theater, 
gambling, begg-Jng, debts, minor regulations, districte, 
royfl monopolies, humanitarian, Jews holidays, 
luxury, public -fforlcs, marshes, canals, roads, rivers, 
hospitals, libraries, srt. - - - - - 6 - 29 

Chapter III, Finance, ^Taxation, abolition of cont^-acts for 


public revenue, real estate, crown property taxed, 
taxes on other property, church property taxed, 
redemption tax, minor texes ©nd tax regulation, 
exemptions, local taxation ; public debt, Interest 
on it reduced, foreign holders paid off, its amount 
greatly reduced ar.d cseana of doing it ; iifmks ; 
minor flnarce regulstions ; loss of revenue by 
abolition of monopolies ; conclusion. - - -30 -38 

Chapter IV, Agrl culture , :!^ndu3try pnd CormTsg'ce . Orain 
and bread , relieved from local restriction, th'^ir 
export p-nd import, Graac^ a nnd abundance, the 
Annona ; e attle , former conditions of th?ir trade, 
many restrictions ramoved, free pasturage ; ^ine 
trade, export and import, it^onopoly abolished, min^r 
regulations ; Piaheries , rules, minor r^.'xilBtions, 
royal preserves abolished ; Game preserves , torm'^x 
conditions, abolition of nnny ; Salt , importance 
and former condition, a royal monopoly, abolished 
in Maretfima, smuggling, resumption of royal mono- 
poly but freed frorr. ryjany reaticit-^ ons ; Hay and 
straw ; Tobacco , royal monopoly, regulations, 
monopoly abolished in tho J^ar^nmia, its oultur?; and 
sals further freed, monopoly resumed again and 
then abolished in all Tuscany ; Fuel, Wood anc 
coal ; forestry laws much slackened, royal fo^-ests 
Sold, minor ref^ailRti ons ; oil export, import, In- 


ternal trade ; pthsr Agricultural Iriduatrlea j ''^r - 
katS t iiuch r©li©T©d and rogrwl? tsd } OolonizatJ on , 
Maranuim, M.any privilRg;5S, Appsninss, Sorgona, help 
bu51dirii5, Val di ITerol© ; If ortpialn ; (rengra l ; 
Lso{old»s vlev;;s on Rgrl culture. Industry and 
ComaeycD ; Silk , guilds, much freedom to trpd», 
axport and import, coooona, mulberry leaves, sibo- 
lit^on of guilds, prom^iura j yool , ©xport and Im- 
port, preiniurris ; Linr^n , export and import, stsmping, 
minor r^^^gulations ; Cotton , Plax t H3rjip ; Cloths ; 
leaving and spinning ; Sty few ; Leather , tanning 
monopolies, regulations , sxport end import, manu- 
facture fr«o, tanning freed, monopolies a'Dolished, 
minor rfsfiulations, furs; Pye , wa x , .so&£, twine ; 
Iron , royal monopoly, ?^agon&, tools, abolished 
iTionopoly first retail, then all togoth^r ; Mining , 
rsgulations, royal monopoly abolish'^d;^, ^aper , niinur 
rogulations, printed books tres ; Glass , regula- 
tions, trad© fr@9 to all ; Salt Petre , monopoly 
abol4,shed « Qun Powder , mcnoply abolished ; Potesh 
monopoly abolished ; Marble, porcelain , ar t war^ , 
gmory , inusj c string s ; Inns, livery stables, mills, 
stores ; ChambQr of Gomrn^rcQ -;p;uild8 abolished ; 
foreign artiaans ; shl^pidng ; G^^neral, - - - 39-63 
Chapter V. Criiriinal Law Cod®, Prse-mblei Court Proceciure, 

*■ i wwn iM«Miiiw P ii» iiwii i I. It! ■Ill It m in * III iMiiiiTiil il m iM « n »iiiiMii«W>i -til III ■■lantii r Jh 

instancQ of whom, oaths, warrants and arrests, evi- 


ecclesiastical courts r«istr4ct9d, also prisons, rifjht 
of s&nctuary, its fr/buse anc ebolltion ; Jews , given 
rij:i:at3 ; aalaries and titlies ; aoae abolished. ; poor 
clergy benefited ; foreign f®©s & boll shad , church 
partiujony board, coinpRRv of charity, EsarriRge regu- 
lations ; holidays. ------- 7g_98 

Chapter VII. Cofafelusj on , Leopold's di f ficitltifts, surnnary 
of iniport?'Tit roforras in administration, finrnc^, 
industry, colonization, criminal lets', religion, public 
works, education, humanitarian meanurss ; his con- 
Gonstitution t looel govsrnmanta, neutrality, millti&, 
trade liberty, dsbt , new requisitions, conclusion. 99-103 



Thl.^ contains a short article on Leopold in vol. 


Allgemeln® (reschichte, r^erlln, la^ia* 

This ooatajns an article on Loopolc* and riyes 
a Si hurt aurmnary of his reforms, but treats at 
soM«» length of the expulsion of the Jesuits, 
Is of value in a comparison of tr-r: enlight«!R<5d 
despots. Section III, yol„ tHK 

/irneth Joseph II anc Leopold jon TosGana . Ihr brief^rechsel 
von 1781 bis 17)0, nen 1?72, 

/ corresponderci? that relates mainly to po^son^l 

Arn^th ivlaria Theresie.' s Letzs Regi^rungaz.-^it, Men, 1^76* 
The -rork covr-rs th--^ period from 1763 to 17R0, 
Vclunie Vii treats with Lf^opold.*s r-^forms. Is 
valuable fron its point of vi ??w, 

Balbo 3tQria a*Italig . '-"Icronca, 1856. 

Covers th'g p-^^iod but not niuch good for L?orold*s 

Botta Storia d» It alia . Pariiii , 1837. 

In vclu.':;es ix and x contain t';at'?r5al about 
Leopold. This book is Kuch referred to in 
other wo-'ks'. 


Cantu Hi st o^ re .des Itall ens . Paris, 1861. 

In volume x of this work Leopold's reforms are 
dealt vrlth. This worlt gives a long account 
/ ; of ths suppression of the Jesuits, 

Gantu HistoirQuUnJYerselle . Paris 1855, 

In volumra xvii a brief account of some of 
Leiopold's reforms, Int -resting because it Gives 
the French point of viev/ of his religious reforms. 

Crome ri 9 Staatsver'yaltung von Toskena unter Tier Regier- 

un^^ Siener Kgrycljchen itTaJastat Leopold II, aus 

difiim Italianischen ubersotzt und irdt j^nmerkungen 

I ' li \ ' ' ■ ' ' ■ ■' " ' ■ " ^ 

■ ' i ■- \ 

b#fel|.eitet von Tr» August Priodrlch y/ilhelm Crome , 

Gotha, 1795, 5 vols. 

This work is a translation from a work wW. ch 
Leopold had published in Italia:j. It is a 
collsction of all the laays passed by Leopold in 
Tuscany during his 25 years there. It .^as 
tiranslated Into German by Leopold's orders so 
that his people might see how nuch he had done 
'for Tuscany and that other rulers might find 
a good example. As a collection of actual laws, 
this book is of the greatest i riport&nce as a 
primary authority, Tl"o first two volumes are 
taken up with a cominentory on the laws. This com- 
mentary is so poorly arranged that the rr^sent 
Witer was not able to got much out of it. The 

rwAn fault with the collsction of laws 33 that th©y 
are abbreyicited, and in many cases say simply 
'• Inst riACt ion for post offico", for instrnoe, or 
'•Rsguiations for officors", vjithcut sayinf': rhet 
tho instructions or regulations were, Ir, the 
main, ho.vever ths gist of tka Ifrs is put do7?n« 
This book giv'-^s ths fjdicta 'dth their oxrct 
dftes, E:.nd has at the ond of th^ third voluno 
a chronological tabls with th© edicts, bv.c' th'^ 
pages on which they are found. For this r'^eson, 
in this thesis the pages on isrhich they may be 
fouml are not inserted, S^h^^rever th» date of sn 
©diet is givnn in this thesis, the odi ot msy be 
found by refr?rlKg to this chronologic??! table^ 
The book is full of typographical err or a ♦ It 
has ba0n t&kan as th® main basis of this thesis, 
SShererer cited is called "C". 

I!0l9clu2>e, I.'!, fflorencfii ot sos Vlsisaitud-^a , Paris ISi^e, 

2 vols, Fairly good account of Leopold^s roforms. 

de Potter vie-- ■ et. . M®aioire3 da Bcipiona de Hicc5 , ^v®que de 
Piatoie at Prato, por de Potter, Prris 1p^2G, 
4 vols. 

This is e, ?'ork of much historic vpIup, b^^nr 
taken from tl:e works of f-e Hioci, ?'ho wns 
Laopold's chiQf advisor on religious effsdrs. 


It ij-ives H thor*oUfi;h statement of conditions in 
Tuscany In 'R-:=*llg,i on and th-^ relations "ith the 
popas. It hps In th*^ fourth Yoluin*^ most about 
Leopold ene*. r.sny docurasnts from T,eopol6'3 edicts. 
Hftpler's er or. relii^^on Is tfik-sn ali-'iost 
entirely from It, so that r* referonc^ from Uapior 
on rsli{':ion practically ni^ans a rofererio© froti 
de Hicci, In this thesis, vol* iv is cited as 
slmpl-y H, and rofcr^ncrvs to oth/^r volurr:es as 
Kl or H2. 
l^;diet of the Qr and Duka of Tuacgiay for tho R-^forBi 
of cripdnal I,a-g in ^is Pondniona , 'Prirt-tr'iy 
printed at W&rrington 1789, 

TMa contf'ina a copy of Loopold's criminal core in 
Italian pnd its tranaleti on into English, The 
chapter on Leopold's crirrnal code' is simply a 
auHunary of this book, 

Lrvisse ot "Rainbaud., Hi st oi r g u on or ale , Paris 1B96, In 

vol viil fe short aurxiary of Leopold's r?^ forms, 

Lao, H, ggiflchichts dor ^uropalschen StaatQn , {Hef>ron und. 

Ukert) vol V, Italian von H* Lao. 'irmburg l^as, 
TMs book treats with tc/^n^rnl Italian history 
rath'^r than specific, but i:i\f9s a little ebout 
Leopold* 3 reforms, 

Ilapi nr Florentine History fron the earliest authentic re- 


cot*ds to the ficcession of Perdlnan^Jl th© third, by 
Henry "'fldward itspier, 6 toIs, London 1B47. 
This book with Crome, has be©n of the greatf^at 

assistance In thia thssls. It Is pretty r'^ln.a- 
ble, irx the main, but has a slight tendency to 
sweeping stPteni^nts* In yol vl , almost the 
whole Tolumft is teksn up with a systematic study 
of Leopold's reign ahrono logically talc^sK, t#5 th 
the rsforsis sach yaar. Two chapters In the 
b-Sf^njilng glTs an ©xcollent skstch of conditions 
at Leopold's accession. An otitiro chEptar Is 
df^voted to religious reforms, Kapler, hps had 
access to many originel docuroents In th© Floren- 
tinfJ archSres, rtic'! to otrsr unprlnted manuscript. 
All the iTiRterlpl '-??lRtinc to Leopold's own opin- 
ions Is tpken from H£'.p3 er. Cited as "]'«, 

. HouvellQ BlofcT&.phle Gen-arftlg t Pr-ri s 1R6P., 

Article on Leopold In vol kkx* 

P.^ur.ont, Alfred yQn«-" 0e8ChJ chte von l^uropftlfetchen Staaton , 
(Heeron un& Ukert ) Osso^iiichte von Toscana von 
Airred von ■ReuHiont, vol 11, Cfothn, 1877* 
This gjv©s & complete account of th«; ^^i^^i of L-^o- 
pold 'vith his reforms In sonic dPtrll, Seoine to 
be an authentic account, 

Richard, Abb», De»3Ci?lptioa illstorlyiue 7it Critique de I'ltalle ^ 


Paris 1769, 6 vols, 

A genaral description of Tuscajiy in vol lii, 

Spaulding Italy BJ'^e the ItF.lian lalos , !!«'" York 1B43, 

A short sumj.pry of '^.Gopold^s refonns, "Rof-^rs to 
a good many other books, so a h^lp in biblio- 

Volkraann !'achriohten von Itali sri , Leipzig 1778, '6 vols, 
A g©r.e**al account of th-^ timss in Tuscany, 

Wolf, AdPTO, Loopold II and yarie Chri3tiri<? , Ihr Brief -s^echsel 
17R1-J2^ Hen 13r^7, 

ITot of ar.y value from a historical standpoint, 
exc!^pt in gi vlng personality, 

Zobi, Antonio, — Storia Civile dolle. Toscona. 1757-1848. 
Flori^ncft 18^0. 5 vols. 

A very good book that covers Leopold's reitn? thor- 
oughly taMne in p,11 the reforma* •lot usee' 
naich in this thesis becouse Hep? t and C^-oms 
cover much the aeine j^round. 



For a proper understanding of Leopold's reforms In TuBoan:f, 
it may be well to give in brief who he was, and to whoa relat- 
ed, together with a few worde about conditions when he arrived 
in Tuscany, and a short account of the ia^portant events in his 

To begin with then, Leopold was the seoond son of ^ranois 
1st of Lorraine, Grand Duke of Tusoany and Holy Roman Baperor 
from 1745 to 1765, and of Maria Theresa. His best known 
biP^^hers and listers were Joseph 2nd, Holy Roiaan :SEBi>eror 17t?S« 
B9 ; l?erdlnfmd, Governor General of Lombardy j Maxlmlllian, 
Sleotor of Cologne, 1784-1803 | Maria Christina, who married 
Dulce Albert of Saxe-Tesohen, Qovernor of the Austrian Nether- 
Itun^n 1781-92 J Maria Amelia, who married ]?erdinand, Duke of 
Panaa ; M»ria Carolina, who raarried TJVsrdinand 4, King of Naples 
and Bioily j and Marie Antoinette, who r«alrried Louis 16th, King 
of TS'ranoe. 

On August the 18th, 1768, th& daath Vft ths ^jsKperor JiIb 
father, Ferdinand 1st, L^iopold succeeded to th® ^rand Duohy of 
Tuscany and Joseph beeaaae Toly Roiaan SBS>erc»r« On the thir- 
teenth of Septesiber 17«3S, at tho age of el^Meen, Leopold, as 
Grand Duk© of Tusoany, entered hi® dominioj^s With his wife 
Maria Louisa of Spain. 

Tusoany, at fhbout the ®nd of his reign, had nn are^ of 
about 7,000 fjquare ml3Le», and. a population of about 1,250,000. 
It had «. 8«a coast en the western ooaet of Italy of noftrly 100 
mileo.d) Twsoany ha^ grown out of $> multitude of fr«© cities 
that abounded in medieval tiajsa, and for this reaaon, ever/ 
llttl® district which had ^rown up around one or anoth«jr of 
these cities, had Its o^w govBrnment ; not eeXf govornaient , but 
a governraent peculiar to itself, Som** diet riots, because of 
poor condit5.cin», hart befin favcrad, and others beoauB4s of the 
■srhiH of the ruler, Sob>© of thetse districts, particularly the 
Mareaffiaa, were very unhealthy and had laxwh land unciiltlvatad. 
Ir gcnsral, tho soil whh y&ry fertile and brought good orop» 
with lit t 10 labor. 

Before Leopold oawe to Tuscany, the Tuscan peopln had gon© 
through centuries of oppreesion undsr the v'edici, iris father, 
]?erdinn.nd Ifit, had ep®nt all his tine away from Tuscany, had 
farmed out the revenues, and had spent tho incorao h@ dret^ from 
Ttifioany outside of that country, lit- had no tiia© to spend over 
th© gov«>rning of such a B^riall plaes ».b Tuscany, ho ho l«f s its 
goverri'sjent in the hands of p«opl® iwho used it for their own 
profit, Und*ir such clrcwmstancas, it ie not mueh to bo won- 
dered at that he found tho people prejudiced, ignorant, and lan- 
guid from decay ; unfitted for patriotic feeling, or imraudiate 
liberty j unprepared to believe their real intore^^a identioal 
with thoB® of thft prince. {2) These are some of thn conditions 

{1) Tu»cany was hemmed in on every aide by the rtates of 
the church, except the west which waa on the sea 
coast, and a small pateh on the north-west fron- 

wlth which Leopold at the age of eighteen had to eomba-t, and txie 
Object of this thesis is to show how he did it. 

In th© beginning, Maria Theresa did not give Leopold free 
rein, but made him subject to the prime minister Botta, and the 
Captain of the guard, Count Thurn. In his early years up to 
1770, h« was much hampftred by th© caution of his riioth«*r, who did 
not wish hira to take radical steps. (1) Leopold chafed under 
this yoke, and finally in 1770, he went to Vienna to see his 
mother about it. At this time h« was twenty-threft* years old. 
With the help of his brother Joseph, he finally persuaded Maria 
Theresa to free him from all restraint, {%) An ©xaraination of 
his reforms In e-retry line will show that he started isimediatcly 
to carry out many radical ones which he had evidently had in 
ttind, but could not carry out on account of his mother's cau- 

On account of disputes with Rome about boundaries, he is- 
sued an edict on April 30, 1767, ttiat all boundaries be settled. 

There is rery little to tell about the history of Leo- 
pold's reign, for he spent almost all his time helping his 
people, and the true history of his reign is to be found In the 
reforms and minor weasures for the benefit of hla people, Leo- 
pold did not believe In war for Tuscany, beoaus© he knew that 
she would only waste her resources without doing any good on 
aocount of her aaall slae. yor this reason he abolished his 

(1) 17-123. 

(2) K-15S. 

navy shortly Rft®r It had taken pai't In tui ©xpeAltion ligainst 
AXgiera in 1.7'?5, and beglnriing with 1780, he abolished his ^^r- 
my in about three years, nnd wstablisheid militia in its plsice. 
Th®Be ar« both tr®at®<ii in ih^ ohftpter on admini strati en. 

On April g, l'»67, wan heW a conTention between Kodena and 
Tuecany, both agreeing to apprehend and retxtrn criisinale flee- 
ing from the other cotintry. On Ihmct 1st, l'?69, TuscEtny agreed 
with Franoe that subjects of both countries should ho treated 
with all the privileges of natives while dw&lllng in the other. 
On Deoeraber 18, 1776, the old agreement betweem AuptriQ. and 
Tasoany was renewed and enlarged so that free trad«s and inter- 
course of all kinds between th© two nations rtil^ht b^. furthered 
and Kanufactures helped. On ^''ay H'l, 1778, a ptsace treaty be- 
tween Tuscany a,nd Morocco was signed, Napier asserts that this 
trftaty also aholishsid slavery in both nations, but this is 
doubtful, (1) On Aucust 1, 1778, Tuscany declared ne\4trality 
in the Kuropean naval wsr, in. »rd«r not «,« distwrb h»r mferltirae 
trade. On the- J57th of April and l«t of Nay I'yai, trad© treat- 
ies were Eu^uie with LoKsbardy, Mantua and "rtodona. On thtj 12th 
of Peptsmbnr 1782 arrangements were mad® with Luooa for the re- 
turn of criminals, and on July 15th of the next y«ar, the stme 
was made with Genoa* 

Leopold's chi<jf advisors, Gianni and ''©ri, and Rucellai and 
Hlcci, are! treated under administration. 

In th® early parts of his reign partj cwlarly, he was con- 
tinually travelling around to the different districts to see 

U) N-210. 

conditions for himself, and to see how Jiiu ©dicta and how jus- 
tica waa earriftd out, (1) 

On account of th^ i^osition of Tuscan;^, almost aurroundadl 
as it was fey th® Btatas of the Churoh, Leopold had a great deal 
of trouMe with th® various popt^a, particularly with Piua the 
(5th. ThiB is all treated in the chapter on religious reforms. 

Toward the end of >)is reign, the ©iviisBaries of thu churoh, 
and many who hnd. lest pririiegwa, and other enemies of his oir- 
oulated false storiea ahout what Leoptsld waa to do with refer- 
ance to oliuro)! and taotatlon, Txioy stirred up the people to 
think they must fl-fnt f^r thoir rir^hts or be crushed and hart 
their roiigion dssti'oyod. Thii-s l<:jad uO r^n/ riots. This is 
troatad in oh>i chaptsr on rtsligious re/orins. All thla coming 
Just dbou'c tht^ time of his hroth^jr't; death i»h«n h© was prepar- 
ing to depart for Auatj-ia, put t-hinga in a serioue light, so ha 
plao<3d th» coux-itry in the Jtands of a reg^sney. He asoonded 
t'i3 "ohrone sx& Holy Kuuian iiiT»pfe»ror, .i>Oi.t»id k-nd, on S'wbruar.y 20, 
1790 ; and in April, on account of many ooncesaions and mea8- 
uras of t]i(j regency exactly contrary to t,ha orders which he had 
l#ft iiiia regants, lie xjl&c^d l.i« 6S«oo«d son, ;f^erdinand, on the 
'"/i-u""one of TuBoany. 

(1) W-132. 


A study of Leopold's adminis^tratJ.Te policy is d,ifficult, 
on aooownt of lack of material on su'ojodt.ffl, p^irti-rsvilar- 
ly s?,ith refereno;'^ '^■o the VHrlotiS CQUiiolls a?Ki chambr::.'"*}, whooe 
duties are nowhrsrQ plstinly fj:i.T«n« .*. careful pc-?-usal of tiu"; 
various lava that they jiia-ssod, ho^/eTsr, would sjtsora to point tn 
the fact that tYm r«asoR, for lack of ■mxtf,iri(il on tiiAs ra-^^iQ^-i- 
lar subject probeiliJly was that their di<t,ifta -were not c.istlnotly 
jmrked. In fact, a giirajsl?? sjysttSK of administration for Tus- 
oany, with its irwit.iturlR of dlstricta ^hicb h^A growmi out of 
freo cities in lo&ny oarjeis, eaoh with a diffarant isyatcim of ad- 
ministration, was a KsoBt dlffioult proclera for Leopold to solvo. 
The w^ltRr h.ft,& stuiply dono hiy best to slaov? 'syhat L'fiopold di^. Jis 
far as the ava.lla'ble matrsrinl Iias laade it pofjsibl©. 

First of all, a f*)w wordB with referenoe to his jnininters 
and advisors. Pompeo 'W'^ri anid Francesco Gianni w??re hi& most 
»hle advisors with rsferenoo to taxaticn, euatoms, fiutiea and 
agri culture, and their written opinion« ware ©tudi«d on all oo- 
caelone by Leopold, In affairs relating to the church, Senator 
Kuoellfti and Selpion d© Rieoi were of tha j^rf^ategt valii© in 
giving hiiB thwir oi>inionB ana in carrying out hi« orders, Theso 
four ra«n gavo him writt«n papers in which miiy be found th® gorms 
f©r nearly #very reform he a&de in tJieir reapeotive lines. (1) 

(1) H-104. 

Ontsldo of fhese fs^ctsj thQ only »natsrlal av^iilable about 
his psinlsters Is that ho *a.B plao«A u^der Prixm Mnister Botta 
and captain of the guard, Cou^^t Thi^rn, hy "his m^^A.h^ir until 
1770 J that Coimt Ton Ror^onV^Qr;^ r^i signed .from the hisid of the 
state and finance d,«partments on Dsoe.vahor P.Q^ I7'?0 ; 'Uncl thnt 
On April 30, 17S4, .w, g«ratti w-as. na'l='^ rain! r.ter of th'.'- int'S'^ior 
and secretary of at^to, 

By an edict nf D^ooraher T;8j I'J'VO, -ffiiRn he --"f'.s freci frjm 
his Mother's re!9tr;a5.nt , ho aholiahed ^-ha old ni'ntt'.y'y of depart- 
mentSj and inaugurfited a cojt^ji^tcil/ n^rj" n;; i^"*: fun . B,^'' ^'"'>:,1:. iitjw 
system, thtt goy^'^mnent waa dirided into four de^ "''■'■■ '"'i*-^''^8s v,ith 
a minister fer «a®h. ^iratj c^-'.e the rainJ-Bter for foreign a.f- 
fairs, eeaond tm rj-oister .for d^^Kt^at:'." tiffn'ro, , rcbabl;r the 
ralnister of the inters or ^ third, t:n'?:' rJ.niEtor for ^ and 
la«t t?!© war jn.lnlster. All four of tnege cilreotorB s?ith the 
Grand r^jJce hime;eif vjeret to oosTpos© the counc^?. of ptnt®, which. 
by this virtually »ii )iue. in Lrwi,tuld'© uwiarj. All theae 
of fi cere jsu^t >mnd In a written report at Xeaat cnce a ry.onth of 
ail that had "toeep. done In their departi'-.entE. They wore also 
required to Bet aside «^ ,lf? oro <if.'.y a week for open audi<!inc«, 
80 that any one who had eny adTio© or any grievanct©© could find 
a hearing for thera. 

An attewipt to tell just hew the various councils df^i-ended 
on each other and how the authority of Leopold ojif««^ th« trincipal 
councils ^Bre carried out, has proved futil®, Howp^tTer, the 
fallowing glren by l^apier, page 179, ms^F threw bcbi6 light on 

the subject, «Th@ appointment of seoretari@s of ooMEwmitieji 
was r«i served to the or own, tout with some Alight oheclc on the 
latter toy th@ ooTamunities theuselTreB j but tlio followin(^ may be 
girnn as an illustration of one of these systems. The chan- 
cellor of Sesto and '^'3 e sole comi-i-ised undar him th*? co»-n:ffani- 
ti«8 of Flesole, Sesto, HfKJt naj^.i ; the firf.t cor.talned thirty- 
seven parishes^ the swcontJ twi^inty-rowr;, end. the third iVjirty- 
flv« J ^aoh *r!OB«rmnjty was rei\>rmBisnte,d by » gonfn? order and dti- 
pwtiea or priors, and tb« gener^il oovincils or s.3&ex-ihlles by 
tw^Bty, twfjnty-four and tventy d«»p!?ti6g! rfj-epf-otivsly j g<o that 
ninety-six mnRll parisheR w«re locally r^presi-'Xite^. -irid govern- 
ed by ninety-s«5'ven «}.««ctwu. fro* t^.htf^J^9l ^v«srj cJ<^»s o'c>*in .a«?a,rly 
to the most indigent, of the* people ; %nd all this by '?.n abso- 
lute isonaroh ."• 

When Leopold osBi® to Tuscany, he fovmd a network of old 
councils in erex^ district, w,(hoB« diities overlapped, and who 
took to themselves many others. These coi.moils haiapered good 
adwini strati on, and were Ihe rneanB of lauoh oorruxjtion and imnj 
unjiist laws In tho variovm dlstrlotp, Th«y ^&r^ most of than 
r«llo8 of old tyra.nny and despotism and Leopold set to worJs to 
rid himself of these hindrances to good adiainlstration as soon 
as possible. Many of th®iB were ohansed and regvlatod and than 
finally abcllflhed, whil« others wars aboHsh^ri ouHrinht, The 
first-class is tr«ated h@r® s«parat«ily, whil^^ those abolished 
wit-hoitt mueJs or with no regulation are ^iv^n in a list below, 
slnoQ it would. b« useless to try to give a suamary of thoir 



Tnw fellowing li»t, whioh .Ifi pttrti/ of «*ffiG«sra a^nd i>arfcly 
of counolls abolis)i«d, Is glvtin to ahow In h anall measure hoJir 
rnnny ©Id restrictions Xeopold had to do away with. 

In October 1768. th« anv-iient f?:a,«;intrncl«^ei of Orafjoia and 
AlE»md%noe ware aupprssaed* On June '-??., 17^9, Pwrtpj nn old 
polio© and ri"7«r sdi5ini)?tration counnil, v^-aia ahol 5. shftd ftnu i^ith 
it certain other map:i»trf!,pioiB» ;i.n(\ thft Tr.ibimal of +h® T±n&, 
On is'ebruary .1, 177o, the Cour^j^' of ??ijr. Trade Councillors was 
Abolished^ On .Tun^ 14, 3.77.^, thn Prrtntina f^acr^tw,^ a, trsdc 
ommcil wsiiB abolished in Piatoia, and on Apr:!l 16, ?.7B4, It was 
abolished in all Tuscany. On June 19 » X?7?s, tho rourt of 
SwworB, that of Mnnufaotures *ind A^rieultvire and also another 
tribunal were abolished. On Awmst 14, 1778, the Provincial 
Councils for Coiaraftro** were gi^en up. An Jtmoiant court of four 
hundred jesKrn* di^ration was given up on 'Tay 26 ^ 1777, Two 
dnyB later, th« oollsfe of ^/ri« '^^yndic^tn of ^uota and nf Pro- 
curator of PaXa««o were abolished. In the nsxt isoT?th, the 
aiagliatracieis of the Arohires ssnd cf Consarvators of tha Laws 
vhigh Imd existed for ;B14 and 349 jreara respect ivaly, were abol- 
iahed. On "Deoemher 1, 1777, the fJrand Buoal nhamber xnB-n abol- 
ished. On February 8, 1782, th^ old dotmeil of %y\ti r.OO i»as 
abolished. The oollaga for disposal of office*; and ohonaing 
of magistratftg was abolished on ?t®pt©mb©r 14, 1782, <>.M in the 
80we year an wnneoesaary tribunal called th* Tratte ^b.h also 
aboIi«hed* (1) On April 3, 1786, tho Syndicate of th« District 

(1) April 1, 1784, burghers court, giving; them special 
XirirXlafii9B. aboli«b«rt- 

was a))oliBli*jd ss uselass and ©xpsnsive. B©si(i«s this list, 

aany e+.he-rs which it would not tee worth while to jsention wer© 
a>)olished, «in<i laany that wor® aboliishad, wars united with other® 
or olmngad. Mo»t of tiiis latter class will be fjiven in tlie 
iict of some of Leopold's councils and officers which l»mi®d- 
iatsly follow thin Beet Ion 4 

First cf «11, Leopxjifl iiad a Council of St fit© which he re- 
vjKfed to co»t8i©t of only the i'otjr rji.M& of th© different de- 
partments, && has heen yointea tut h&fov® In '-hi 55 chapter , Tic 
finaneas were r«guXatM by th^r '/^ner&l Vinfei'ice council which he 
1'oT'i'.-,«d on M-igUfcit '4&f l'r6S« €•») "'C.fco'-,>(;'r a'a^tb of th« sarae yt'?ar, 
>/e fo^-Tied thf:; Ov®rBfc<«iirK* CcMr;l>vsi<'n tfv have charge mostly of 
thc: j-fiRrkel rtin^^iHtifffi. >!Ut Silwt. ail tttvil and oriiain&l Justice 
in conn&ei:. icr': with ihor.;-* Ors .Ti-itit; b, aTS?', he forinbd the Court 
cf Vv&rds »ik4 Irmai-i?.bl«tJ, Thift, cowt *?%» eiveiri at the ssu?*e 
time very ainute irmLr^ctionfi 4%'r.ut!.f^ which w©r«» the following : 
The court ibh&il (sorm^at cf o^ «*tsn»-to)', r-n adnsinistrator, and a 
6(?put-y ftkilifcd ir law ; it ghull lu^^tst thr8<j time» a week j it 
0h?ill Imvt Qli^r^is of all iar,ie cf crop6;rty ; and *ill civil and 
criainal JiUits cormected with w&rdt?, and im^Sit keep r* record of 
fell c&fi<^t; Tcr th.*, ti,rch.iVBs, its officers must conduct oases 
ae quickly^ orderly mw. tai'tnotgiicMlly i^s possihlt:. Any one 
-•>>ic.B«n for B'. gu&rdisr. siuct s,ctj ffiuigt flirts security, and shull 
racftlrt. @k feinas.ll fix;<*0. r»}jaLmcra'-ioa. Poor w&rda fro«d from all 
court and law^f-er f«eiK» 

In Octoher l'?e»(5 he founded the Annona, to have charge of 


trade gjodl agrlcultur© in all Tusoany. This was not at all un- 
like ths m&n^f tribunals ?!*iich had existed in Tuscany for cen- 
turies for r^gvtleLtinrr cosmerce and trade, Leopold finally sa%" 
that the Annona vmn not only uselass, but even harmfwl, so he 
abolished It in Augusit 3 778, as is ftxplained; in the Industrial 
chapter. Another tribunal th^t Teopolrt established was the 
Chamber of Ci^TKmunStieg » on Jxme ,^S^, 1769, This msib a council 
wl^inh wae to act as a sort of '^o-b^^twedSK bet'ween the general 
poTRrnpierit an^ the various convfimi t lea. This involved a great 
daal of patronage, bo much indeed, thfst tfiopold was obliged to 
Pholtiih it ir 1.?Bft, On January 2^6^ 1770 » h6 abolished the old 
Province officeru T>irector in each province, and put in his 
place « council to be raade up of two cojsfriJ. asloners, two depu- 
ties from th» principal city, Rnd two otheru, This ayetem h® 
found to Fork mxmh better in rsj^ulatjnf* the officerB of eaoh 
urovinois. On ?«,tbruecr/ 1, X770, iw ejsiti->.i.ishfc;d jK-rKiiiRontly it 
r'Qw eolleg-e called t>ie Coi*WHroe College. Thie ^as to have 
gupervir^.cr otrer trades ^nc' Renvf&cturt-s. Ataong other in- 
struct -ocs to thio new <'0Xlege vert- the following : to further 
trfiAe g.R muoh at j)ofii5ibl«, to publish and (spread ail laws they 
my pa?.ff, to locJr nfter the eoonor^lc running of rell^^louc af- 
fair^;, to exercise ni:* cr.ljfi'inp.l ji-^Rtioe that the provincial 
t'"jbun«.lfii u!?ed to have s.nrt finally to keep a ooinp4.ete record of 
all lairaB and all trx-?.f?«? rf^ports from the various districts for 
reference. By '^.n rs-Jlnt of 7f«,rch 29, 1781, this oollego was 
ref ormM and its d'Htiee made all eoonoaio. 

Leopold foj-med a ohitjf aaagistracj in 1774, corapoead ©f 
rep rs sent at ires from ail eoBWinmities, 'i^lth a gonfal«>nier as 
pr®ssidentt Srery distriet had a general oounoil ooisai'OBed of 
t>if)»« in the M&gietrHcy, s*ni. one deputy fro-si «very parieh, 
Theoft colleges wen* made up of property holfiers who held poa- 
sfessiows of a c@rtftin vmlus. All ssuch r;&i'i6a wisr® put Into a 
pume and t'u»r.>p ci.rH«rn Vy i.c^'i., vJ-.e f .1 '- gt dr^^.^'^n ^o aerv« until the 
r0quii.rf;d m.Vi'bwr were drjiwr, !)ui of oolicgcr were nearly 
aix tJit; ioofel offiofara tJlee^Oiu cit^..^ fo*' j-vi*. tiwiae , tha tax col- 
IftiutorH and a0iBe83or» silncts tiii*. ccLiroird! .ioe hud local teocation. 
'ITie trfci'.ev;;-'vr of i-.b'i' cct-:-..iuni'i.v and suiisrviBor of roade and 
brlr5.j-:6fci v'fav a i^.ii^.o chc son fron it » Those isagis trades ran al- 
mofix ul.l viiii Ji^cal .A.rfuira in ";;>:.>;ir .:;.l,strlctg, Leox^old i»- 
s'.seo jt.uvai".e ,'..-,t'?'':-rv!olioa8 to ''•K-. i^' iiS*WTi£;traoics, and ainong other 
l-hiyifTS rA:;.uirH>t %'hnim to r-iiirt-'. ej /.jrj^ rio vfttan, v/hathesr there w«5is 
any xms'^m l>ULii.n^^;3S or not, I*-, l-".'3'-', 'u^opold had. th&i^e men 
cihossifl eviir/ /eaj', H-^i i .arr.ittvrd er^n roli^ioUB institutions 
h!"id hoi6pitsii;v mho riaii uiiei r«:r,iir®<'; ^iraps-irty to send representa- 
tiTOjs, {!) 

T,flopol«?. :,Ti.o Si cl'iftd his oil.y iiO\;iriT.;r./nt tif^er th«t of the 
C^^f-ariiili&si, Ym'' cJ.J r-ct fci^a the;:; thla govermaent till leiter, 
pro'bfotli-'' beoa.^C't! V;c v^anti-o lij nee ~';0'* it worked in t}Te cotsmun- 
iuifcs. For in«tanac, :?iorfciiOc Ut l?ol isas given the following 
goYerriBient, 'Hja oi'.v ■-wn-.- to 'hav« aa a p*ir:'',an«nt aaftlstracy 
eleven priors; '«llh a ganfalonier, and as a general council 

(1) if-.-177-a. 

tw«nty liepntlee. These were chosen from t.hrse ditsxinct purass. 
In Ih© first were all the noble!H«n oon««id8r»d a© h.fss,.d& of the 

farallj ; 4b the soeond, the chlcsfs of those en^jojinp the ric^ts 
of clti^ftr.shJp ; and in the third, th*? represent at Its a of those 
possessing real property to the valns of 2000 orowns, includlnc 
convents ^nA oorf.orsitxnnn, "from the first ^@rB drawn four 
naresB B^r@r:/ voa'-, tf'.e first f.^ra'^s^i to bn gonfalonier, and the 
otlie^ thrHs, priori. from thes sfscftwd, four mora prions were 
chr'%-!?n ; ni.vr'^ fron the third, th?t athor '^'our i^riora ^ere taken. 
Tlio f!*?in"r-t7 coimcll h.Hd a ^5e -israt.^ T«ura«' composed of %11 those 
'vho iifttfi th.f^. dft<?iwa tax, tojen'^y nsi^ss wflr« annually drawn 
frojEB this for thjj general council. All those wera re.'.|®d to 
nmnr9 under heavy penalty. 

In IVV-tij the. ?iij>rer..e Oor*rt of 'Siorv^no® was reformed and 
Its jud.'^efl incr«aa«?d \vith r>f:ri>\;4ri&nt salsrlae, its duties were 
clearly defined, ftnd it wag tci fistve chara^^ of oau®e» alone , 
Isavinf \he »«cr«5X«a.i-:'' to h.Hve oharf>« of all other husiness so 
t/:.-. i, the t>xT..>:ne«t d.«.lay 'Anti •,ino*»rt«i,irity of ,^xistice «fere par- 
ti 'jlly r.'^moT'^'i. (U By an sdiot of Hay SSth of the naxt year, 
a '^.i/prfrTB.© Tribunal cf niutin^ was eiftahlisshed and at the ©aiaa 
tltne »':Rr'-/ c-th'Sr co»^'"t« feboH>~h'j>n, bo th.^t this beoat^' the sole 
cr'.inii*'.? cr^urt Iri li'lcrtne**. Tt w^sc divided into three depart- 
r.<T^ta, eaph \'?ith ^ s30or«t,.!fery,^'«r~ft«%or®tary pm.6. a coadjutor, 
and it.5;, dntittf rlTipv If inA, At ths sRraiS' tine* he eatahllshed a 
Supreiae Tr^huna-l in ether f^tstriots. On January 3, 1777, he 

(1) K. 203-4, 


appoint&dl thre'^ n«w audltorn for the Magistra-'-es Tr:lbunaX to 
inquira Inte the justice of cases, end ai-lso apjointort a Birect- 
ory of cimr?e«ry to preside OTer the court. On 'a:/ 27, 177?^ 
h© forT?wd a n«w eevmoil for PreserYing tlw, i.^xm^ tu^d ii'boli&h&d 
Borae ojtd trifeimals auoh ass the Court of thts Arohiveo* Their 
duties w®r© to be to keep all t^.^ law© up to datt* in the ar- 
chlres, to hav« ohara;© of '.iivil (SonirHc*;.s of «<srts-iri kinds, and 
many other duties of tho chyriffa J3,nfi i-ro-vinoial triounals. 
On th© ^^^'le ^ste he oraated tvi^ c-.;^tce of PxO"/?*! As^Tocat©, to 
have chwrsr© of all civil juwilcsi ift t«;>.*? "rarinim depfertnents, 
nnninp whic>» ar« jnentLofiSft thf' TrsArjryj Oha^tiWr of the Royal 8Tid CrowTJ ?f)f?f38Sttlons, th-s ^'iij-isus, Po&t-Offlce, Lottery, 
f'^'.^.Tv-'ber of T'uildirsL.TS and rraril«ins» Genisral B«»,nk, Loan Bsink at 
■^lcr<snfl«, Cfrand T)umxl Tithe, and ili oi'.fioor© vmrter the general 
ad;T>i.n.1;ftr3it,icn ^^.f f.l.n'in.'-.SK, Oi-j, oovoo^r £8, 1777, h@ complwta- 
ly raf«rme<i frnd siffiplifiejii hbvI rej-.-viXatfj-i dutless of '-tm S^iana 
1?iw co-art « smJ ^a«^ irricsn* ''•ra/jistrai.-ss C.ulBgsai. 

O'- the firai of Destsea^jei", I'HV, Jie tooJst a ^strong m«a»ur© 
in al^oIJ shsnjT; t'nti Qr-^nf^, Baeal crK^ii'^r and 8.i:.],ointinR in its 
]:)l!i,ce 51.11 ?i;?.ait^r, This^ auaitc-r was to have a nt^wly formecl 
oormeil of hiD ftxJfc&Xtem^, Ir^ I'V^w-'-uary of tho nazt jear he 
r^iuce<: th« cfflco of Auditor visscai to & mere aoooimt office, 
B.rd R;ave his ji:!ri»d.iotlc>jp, to "cbe .nswly created Judge of the 
■Rey&l Poe!«5««Eior<&, I^t«jr ir, -che y^ar he aspfointed a corarais- 
sicr to investigate the iMnsinci^I majnageirant and other mattors 
relfttinfr to reli?^iou» InstitutionB and hospitals. (1) On 

(1) N.-222. 

Mikrch 7» VfT& Ite,® alN>Xl»lieid the ^sn^jrifgatlone of th« Picus and 
put in their plae« a sircl^^ courioil K;.t>i the flstoal amdltor at 
its head. 

fhe college f©r the rtBTlsiori of just .toft wan abrlifithedi on 
Oeto^er 84, 1*?30, and wrthiin regular off .1 osiri-i toc-i:: itis duties. 
On FoY^iitjer 29, 1?B1, the district of flr,remii.-> wiis enltirKt'd and 
its goTBrnment eosjplately ■^esvJf;:f-;d, In futtira it slmll bfe -vest- 
<^ in a ^©ufalorsier,. .elfv^n priers ?ir«3, a co«i'.rjll of ^2 psraosfia,. 
is r«eidentsi of the ai^rtr let and 20 ;iij,«5'>-eri';. Or. hi:-ril 22, 
2.7U4, the .?iii@fiX Aw-'ltor arid the ■':!>>Ji«t.'ijrTat.«r of tL*" 'Lit''-.'i5 w<!;^re 
&"boliahed. f^ui'ir dut-1,fc;«' va-; re -fa go- ti* u st-iWly cri.-feti'jd. of3^iCf>r 
who wafii <3&lle4 i;.hfr IVfc;!t of aoosi Oovsmfm^'rit, wh^* \.og©ih€r 
witla the presicic-n't of ;.'•,« ■'^-uprette Triburiiil Whi^ to ;,i,6,ve fnip<iria- 
tmtdmnoe ov©r sr.ll |>alxo«i; iaf fairs. On >f'«i' o, iv.!r>4, ht created 

q«ir«d all !:iApXsJKatJ.<j and «>t,}vi-r public <:!.t?oii-ffiiynt» tc br: }9«rit tt) 
tha J^lQr&n-llns: arc-i.ivea» Tl.ilt.< «<«j» to «*ppl,f to Jill r&ligious 
d®ou»@nts sfcK miiX &£i t-o 6^1.1 courta and prlYatfe <5oo'aj;;i,-'.nt8i of in- 
terest R?Hi -/aiue. On S3i?tftijfDer 23, 1786^ th^ anciifent ConsuXt* 
WS3 abolished, ar-d its diu.ifsi? partly :J-'^f:it. to tho High Jutstio© 
■Trilbuasl and partly tc a Oonwaltor, as b.«s was calitid, who m^n 
to hav« eharg^ of pi^rdonlng prine«B. At the sanae tima, a gr©fet 
imny ®th«r oeurte WJid off.1.ri«B were afeoliohad, and th«1.r duties 
giyen t€» «* gisftlJLi^r number of -courts ^h^im dutiea w«re difltinotly 
dsflMiM* On i^^rll a9, 17S9» h* fo.f"iaed <* nev^f oounoil oalltd the 
leg&X CoSB^lto &f thm King, It wjaa a. ne-s- p-rincis.l^ (^ounsll, 

By «ra sdiot a-f Ootob«»r SO, 1?M, hii tsok aXl ciyil ca^as 
©t It a^eular natur«i! fr^is the oimreto ^ri-ouBal-s. Aiseng other 
things, he begpj:)! e&rXy in 17 ©6 te regwltite ft<sg 4n oriniiml an4 
ciTi2. 0as«:»| aM ©R June 8, I*?'?*?, t^JJowisd th© paor aeac-a^ to tM« 
l«i,w,fr©« ©r wit.}-: feKlj'- hs.if fK®s aeeordin'? to tlicsrlr ability to 
pa^-, wliic^ ;s^fe,s^vt© b^ i.;Siii.«4. £;> t«-ie affi^isrs of t^a dietricst. 
On Maj 18, 3.?6^, h© iiST&l#4 ©'ver^r oKf^ in tha flj*^??,. of th«5 Ibm 
•and permitted no moru .jiigiicta «*2t©»i|>tl0nfe. H» retquir^sd all 
filTil c»Bisfc i& Sse trl?.td in p'u'telie. »•- 

in a» adminitirailfi^ l.i.?*tss, "-sMsh rxTQ^nf & frooci deal of isjiort~ 
aae®. F&r one tMnipj M^ -teilitisr:/ pal.ley Is note'^mrthy, Ifrcm 
th@ ' very f i?*«i h^ s^eaitl ts r«all«# that ass small <% plaa^i at 
fm»e&?iF fes<l B© b"u.gir,«iiifi« ia .■Siaj-Qptaa, -.mrs* Bfisid®^ that, hcj 
wantfgfii t.0 retucd t.a&.seoassjjr ©;f ^©■rerrsiaiiRt and, f\irt.her s-tlll, 
h® did not. want to ks'<r» .» ntiafeer of man out of produet ive in- 
diistry* Qy» v'f }ji© firssv ast© was ®n SeptsiaVsr 11^ l?0&-, »i^ 
dsys after his a©e?ssi©n t'« the tliroix,® , -^rhan h^ issued a, gE©a«»r- 
ai p&rAaa for ?ii'ssert@rs, i*nd oe Aagtsst gttii Q>.f tla® next^ Ji© 
p©nEitt®4 4«»©i't®rfi to rfttttrn in i>eae@ If they feaY® oosaaitted 
no ot.h@r criBi®. Th©ft- tver« folle-'w.d "fej 'rith«»;re ef tlm Bf&sB aa- 
tyre »t differant»«. In 1?€S» he tried a «s®ln8m# of fcrm- 
isf s ©OBij^aay "#i«r<i aay mtm ceula l»# dieeh&rt^td «B>t uvill, but 
It proved s> f^lMf® am it ©euM gire no fU^oiplina. (1) Oa 

(1) JI,-1M. 

thfi IXtTa. of AjprJl Vfm, h« ym.% Into ®xteutio« a 3L©ng; cherialxetl 

oorp« ®.t Fl^rsacc'* and f*>i'Risig f©ar 0Gif4i«U«f, of jelliiia, from 
the city InhateitsintK-. oon-j^miiefe w&re gtye^n minute regu- 
latiens ^a to thslr friti^*!*, ranic, a.r;<-l drill. On the 1411.1 of 
B^iptimbnr ef Sil-i® gi*:;ue yc-sir, h« tistabli£>i'''d (sis«.lar ;.nn..1ti©. at 
l*i»a. On fi*3pte.i9,>j<ir 1/:, l'?Blg he: isKuac & ni'T.'iber of rridc i-si-a,oh- 
ing adicte on -.h^s Uwr*.^ ii^i.^ ; the g;arrJ..'3on of .,?rea?iQ was ali>oli«fe^- 
&& and "burger iiiil5.tjta forfueji ; fsr i/.u'^ eM"oty of c!-rftr7 sit/ and 
proTlace s cffF^-.v-vny of />U53; ,^-illt..lf!i wass to n-:? formed, -^.0 b@ a!;.- 
way» read;?- far ?s6rTlftrij etrf-sci&lly '■■hon^" n?'a^' the ■hc'iji.l.arlss j 
in ^isita, t^o G»rc-^>i^''^*'' t">t thin nxlitie^t ;p^,rt eaTr^lrj and p©,rt 
foot soldi&ra is >)t I'srajat, whoeK> diatjisE vn-^nj* principally t® 
guarii the Gros»«J*0 ■«?h«>r»* ariiaiiiifclB m-^r?? ArsprJ s^on^'d. Proa th® 
V'aO' fijfst, li^yi^&lcL !ri.i4d m*g3.e?^tsd fortress^ej a;isf. oltadals j 
ijorae were cli?3i£RTitl(td, ?/nd sopjs fjc-lcl a,t imblir, auction,, !& 
1775, th,e two faja^-ius ori^-.e .•-».€ Mont© Carlo aM ?^\.n Tfartlfic shg.rad 
^ lilse .fat». CD *<s & f^Kal step in thiB Xlae, ?>v- a notifi- 
cation of kx^ni II, I'^'ll^, hXl ci^'Wyfilnf fertreases and tow«rs, 
etc., were to b<?>I«ng to the vsirioua,^ distriotfi in ^feich they were 
Miltu&ttd ftrtd oouXtl fee disposed of m they thoui^t "beat. In 
about the year 177 g, he ifsswed a nsw ood® of 3mT«4l Instructione, 
and permitted Aoton, hie admiral, to partioip&t« in mj sttitck of 
AXgieru T&y a Bp&rilgh exj/oditiori ; "hut sson after thi» h« &T»ol- 
lished th.@ whDX© nm^vtiX aystes-u (2) 

(£>> S. -191-2. 

Iieei^oM did a g©©?t &^&,l in th^ ^n;r of resn-jlating and iei- 
provlnpf the ]^o«it*affic«>8, 'hnt i.'.T7.fort.t»r?.«it.s:i7 the ©rjly rnateriai 
st laand is iadefiaite on t.>(iK «»!j'h,i*»rt . On -Tuly ?'"ij l?6s>, he 
issued an ee'ttot rtf:"le t :. ng the tin® of nnils r»stv.-'®«:?:n -^al tha 
?ti«es«« districts ^nA j.'lore»nc<s s.s vm:!,.!, as in fcreirn r-oimtri^s, 
sind also th«s poiftfcal rfi.t,'^ whleli he uhiv^'Xi.ticvi ■i',cA nsida .aora vmi- 
f^rm, M& also re-guls«,t<srd, -U-t^ v^cr^lngr. of t-^ie poa-t-offic«. At 
other tiasB M in.^utid mw-': rei^^ulai^.^oitn, 'bnt :in H:A.rnh fl''^^ I'fSS, 
ho oaagjlatxid a, wholt? nef'? rcjstfi^. yjvl (-vi^iTe i% to Tusoan/, At 
the same time, h« --^sh?*.)?,!.^ f'hf.-i ;\ «;''^tem o:^ tr'a'« -filing '<.nrt (Ex- 
press, A nonth l^'cnr, i^j yrdorciA '-r>:r> i.ld !?<.1.'.-; tfvr.v- r-'>tMis Itt 
^vnry distr.lfi*. 'f.o b<« mnairiiid w!)'^. K^j-t in :;:oc*fi rtond.V^.Ion for tha 
bettering «f '}ii«3 po-^itml sf'-stsm. 

•Fhe admiril;:»triStt:lori sf i-lverri nnn rrvifilf? toai: a good (i«al 
of M» att3nti!-;2i. Cm ;m«/i,-3 ^n^ ivo?, Jv: forbada nil riv^ra and 
oanals wh.l<»J5. w^r® MS(?r? f.'vr t.fjsifi© to hei Amm^A o^ ^.Uienedj JWid 
in the nea?^ .ysfsrtr, on ■^vi.rch 30th, rtqiitred t.h,e;.''i, to b-j j<e»t elear, 
H« began to r«eeilv<:; o^HrJ.^ints from all aidna frots -Ji.-.T5d holders 
a^eut th0 s.f>Jitrary %•%;>.>■ in -^hich hX% offitsera orderad lMS>r©ve- 
jaentB for wM«h th®«si9 property holders musiit p«i,y, without (*ny 
cense nt or, in tmnj oaeeig, any knowled®® of th« ii^prAX'-amenta, 
Ob August 1SJ> 171fl, fee ®rd®r®d an iE'^eatigatlon arfid asked for 
stfeteraents ef .*ll usK^laints* AS % re»ttlt of tJiic itiTeistiga- 
tlo-R, he Ts^ft. th.e» ©QjmoiRic aana??:et"i!?nt df ■»"ir'%r« R>ici o^,nai« 
in the igmall district of P.t. MiBiato to th^. prnp«rtj holder» 
ag an «j^<»riiBtiit , Thla pr&r^i^ suooessBful, so on }?el3. SO, 1773, 

he ft:^#i!id©d .it t© sBfityeral o'^'-V'^t diKtriot^ ?A«d u^tve them tin*. 
powsr of ffileotinff ^iiS)t.\itl»-.jf; fi>" thlw if'Sinv^cei-ii-nt * 0?i Jul^r igad 
of the inext .yi5«arj h^ i?5*u«'*, ?»ji ©diet- cayini.-^*t!'nit T;e*:'!f«iSie the 
trlaJ. ha*i pr'o'v*<3d «f> ;-^i<c?!*5Ki%fv:lj h*.* "flo'-O.':' f^om .f>ov' v^jk leaTo the 
laanaf^tisraent nf ?5vll t/t.R r.^.f^^rs- anc^ titi^'-mEW in '^■vpn^'iyiy "•.It,/'!, t}i«j 
^.xompt ion of th'.; i- '"* if^. -'•';"* ^^- o^t^iftl <^f ''■'''■•'•'■ "'al t'^* CJhl^rm sf-nd thcss® 
that rtan into it, to th i propert;;-' haX'.i''«.rs* aii>n't iitj narika. In 
l'?35, h© ?iV)5>13 3h(ij'ii 'r->^ ir''r5-*',i«!ri of k-vtfp.trif^ V'lr-! 4vi.t-criCi!B and sawalfi 
partly in r^ 'b;r ,<5^'5 Tabrtr in't. -;« sPlo-f-Rritinrt diatrHot, 
and l.^ft thss ta,??'* t;o r'Vis.i n'.fighbo'-ina I-in-Hioldftrs. (1) On 
Septesmber 13, 178fi, fell i-.j:-;=? old n!ot:i.i.t;l.l.'i Y'l.liVii h'-^a arr;' siuthof" 
Ity oirer canal s, * ^^ t- ^. , '%(sr® aholiHi-^i,, ,tri«l t,.V' •"'!Hri'i?5.-'*?asrit .I'-^ft 
perf«otlj frss for th-j Ij^iihol t^jr®, .^ 

On I,'»g §fc,Gs«i'isS.-;>n» In* found '.V.« .ranitar./ ti'Vijarku^nt 

made varlot-'t- -•^«?e;-i:'l?>,-^.'',onsi, rcsllfiYing the p'sople f'^o^'s i?o.i:«e of 
this oppress ion, but ia '"-©hrtiary S8, l'?78, h« finallj ahelish- 
©d siXl health -.NH^li^tratefs with the exceplion o.f thos^-j in tw» 
cities, a?'G' l^ft t',ja.t fl-lR to thf. r^wful^t:^, on of ths r®pi.lar lo- 
cal i9f fleers. In Jl&r^r^t^f h«»w®T®r, tMa «as i*i^®n to femr 

On ""Hshruary J?5, li'e'?, he hf%d a n«'«? cenraa tak«n. This 
-x-^n te he coiapiletd I*!- the parish pri©»ts, &««(: «a« to inclwt« 
01,11 oitiesj 'Tlllag^a, horoti^he and dletricts, -wi «>. «,11 howees, 
faUKlliea, persons In ©aeh, with, ihe'ir rt^»;e, irttfict; ayjd, f;onoral 

(3.) H. -261-2. 


Thas© fere tr®ifet«!d. in iha /irsi ehaiistfir uf thjo the.-sij*. 

1r 17??, hQ reir-iriaod tlw whole nisararitine rlopartw.MCRt. (1) 
Ob«b of his Iffij^orviiTit .•:ic-s,r3Hr«s-;i •/«•%?-; D-'c^'on./ah.i^g; af thfj- -*cru'lal 
power, vrMXs tm &l'4;Htic>» of • arid tlM~ o^-jn.saqi>c.'!t, sariarKJl- 
pation of property g*?:?!; -(..n l':sj.-.ftt-nst tf> i''. g cireulji'^-5.oft that ve^s 
generally feXt. tjdn^.sf IcialXj. ('•:') ?:' an i*d:ic'/-* of ^?'.aroh 14, 
i78ri, he al>oiiia|-i©d all Joirit eiitt-ails after they liad paee^d 
through th« four def^r^^H^B formf^rly rv-iCjuireii !32,' la*, "but wlthotit 
^©trismnt itj living f.fvrsona.i; 

With.'KXX hi& r+jfpr.;i6 in ^acs-nonv/ nf .'!-:o%'>irnn.:ent , 3'.eopoliil, did 
no<, ciit off hif> r-foy'^Kaon list. ry an r^idlci of 0<sto>)9r 19, 1779, 
Ji» d<i©rs«4 tliJ5.t a m\ldii>T*& p«snslo/i' cev-ld not "ha t^icen im favor 
®f tjreCltorg* On /u.-T^j^t. 1.^, 17817, he c/rt^M.-'i -*. s^stc-rc, of ]'en- 
siioBS for the ttfficore of tb*'s rtistriot, 

-I.©«|v>oM belitsvcd that i,hfi pelio© seystaai *as of greit ia- 
pertanee, tiO toa jiB»t in oloss touch with it. Kla Ghirtf ab^aet 
W4» t0 prevent, not t0 xiunieh crL^te* (.''>) He had a weekly &c* 
ooimt gi^en Mm by privsito individual* of the moat trifling ae- 
tlona of his suljjeot*. In faot, he estaluliislied a regular spy 
gy«teiffl, and on aoeount of his rare JudgM«nt» was aeldoa de- 
c<$iir«»d« (4) 0utsi4«! of an ©41et of June 20, 1786, «»hioJi in- 
oraasfsd th<? number of fjollce, thex*i? Js il*t-l<* wa<*-«»r|.al r^eJliitisjg 

(1) l?,-203. 
(4) ^.-88. 

to p@24.c« ferwati^n* .ii»-"F'<^'«w5Ter, hf^ pafsM «% ^r-ftt^t wftr>y x»^3ul©« 
regulationis, Sf^Sffie ■■.o.f 'Wbieh %r«?, .^riTan "ht-Xow, On October 2#» 
1782, h« al)«li«h»d th'^j «?;;jSt«-i ^".f ar^-yist in olvSl cgv3<2:?;. He 
also a'bolliiii»d the ss/sstcTi of r^jwards:. for tV;.'^ «a'r*'tur* <"•? cer- 
tain kinds ef ftriisii ?),&!=.., n^it? rlr^ t'h© pl-^^tif ;?>yiJ -T;- Kf:.aJl fee of 
a^boiit ten cents to |Kf;f4<jern for f^Te'^y Kf^^y-i, '■•;:« a'foXlsho^ 
the oensors^tlp c,f ^.'h'-^ pr^.B^^ 'uu^- Itatd te ex^ri-- lilr, *,b»«o3.wte aw- 
theritv in the e^itSe ef certain Xibjsls m\if;h l,ac' fe^e-n puhlizh^d 
Toy the nhurch, unft is-i.-'icprfit-jfjf.d tKese boo'icu i'/McIi t ht'^-- fjer® clr* 
GUlating, ?^y an adi ct'»t)i: October &^ I'^B*?. (l).n! Mth rafereiROQ 
to forfti(jr;«>r^, Kc- ref.M'xrv'ff' -■'xX ferei«rn«rF ■..^j^ctDf'ir'f'^ tCie nift'ht at 
any inn or «jT«n itrixf-a^.t--- •i^'.-t'/lling, *ii'\;tt.her ri;.U.i.iveH c-r not, tc 
hai^d their r':\\1.'l. n'%i'\v arv fr«;ii;'ri«-o:- nt arr i \'J^,1 i-m- cU-'parture to 
the j)0?-ioe on a j~H.'T«».r?.' pisri.nitv for n^sgltrctinc it, bv an ediet 
of Januar:-- 3*;&, l7(>'/t On i-ftireh ft.cj 2V..'iO,«f-or«i£;n*rs coiiint: in- 
to Tuscany,^ »?«r«i ff^r^idd.^nx r.o caxry -i^irmh, ?j!-«;;vlobst to thi»5, 
ais explain'ir^. ii i>u* ^*j).,n,j'ta]f <^n H&,nufactunet-i, ^ste., htt had c^n- 
oourafjed for^rilt'jJ'' iirtis^ms t.y ^ettlw in Tu60®.ny, gwici rjov; by an 
sdict of Oct'e'b»5r XI;- i 171-3, he permitted thcii to tf^c* positions 
as 9Chooima^-t<3rs atu! if^.ootors, ct^?., "o't?-?. Nt}:',-:>(3u t>mt in oa»ts» 
of do'iht a-® to ftT^ility, Tysoarji* '«sr« to h*^ pr«f«ifrred, On» of 
his measures was to inorea»e th« a«>unt of fereaA for eaoh pfl- 
f»oner to SS otiiie#» * ^«^, «n Julj?" 89, 1767,*(B) Otiaer prisoa 
r«>,'5-alatl0n« ar« tT&Mt&^ in the chapter on Leopold's orimin^X 

(.1) 1^.-281. 

(g) 14thS<spt^ 17'?0 arrest f«a ■^'boXl^jh^-'u. ■ 4th Aup-;. 11^62 
HoTSBs 0f Correction e0t.a'Dlifii.hed. 

law code. On February 1, 1768, he repaaled a goocl many old 
stringent mob laws, and decreed that in putting down moba no 
one was to be unnecessarily arrested. On April 13, 1773, all 
card and dice playing in public or private forbidden, and on 
January 4th, 1776, all wagering was forbidden. On Sept«mber 5, 
1771, all jugglers wxd ballad singers were forbidden to perform 
on the »ta«;e or in other public places. On 'S'fetoruary 1, 1780, 
rope walking was forbidden on the stage, but foreign music and 
dancing and the French play were penaltted. At the same tijx, 
all the theatres in Tuscany were re?':ulated, and the price of 
admission fixed. An edict of November 20, 1778 forbade all 
begijlng, except where written permission has been obtained fros 
the bishop. With reference to impriBomaent for debt, he rxilt-d 
that a bankrupt debtor could be imprisoned eight days for tho 
first $20, and one day for each fotir dollars after that until 
the penalty amounted to 60 days, no longer imprisonment for 
debt was perinltted, no matter how much the debt. On December 
12, 1769, a reward was offered for all body snatohers who were 
caught. On Becember 1, 1776, carrying arms was forbidden. 
In 1767 and 1768 a number of rainor regulations were made, onu 
requiring all oitiaens in "clorence to keep the streets free from 
rubbish in front of his house j another forbidding bathing in 
the Am© in Florence in day-time } another forbidding fire-works 
in T?l0reno«, and another forbidding thB shooting of tam© doves. 
Leopold did a good deal towards consolidating different dis- 
tricts and slu^llfying their management and taxes, imch of 

this is treated earlier in this ohajtter and j>art of it in il-e 
chapter on finsmoe, and also th(^ on© on industry. Por inatancei 
local taxation and local government, treated elsewhere, war© 
granted to the oosmunitiea, Thifs fenoouragewent of sottleraants 
in thft rarAmiB distriets "by a-rnvt-^ of Ipind., «tft,, is «,lso 
treated under agriculture, as also relisring certain districts 
from taxes and other restrictions ^h&n th©y were in a bad con- 
dition financially, or when crops had failsd. As an example 
of the fmount of time «uid attention which he must have spent 
on this difficult problem ©f unifying Tuscany and treating all 
its districts fairly, it might be mentioned that he issued in 
1774, 177i>, 1776 and 1777 over one hundred edicts relating to 
th« governing of the different distriotSi and sinplifying and. 
uniting smaller districts* Some of these united »s many as 
tw«nty small districts into one. Carrying out tha saDsa plan, 
h«4 erased tlie boundary lines as far as ceimaero<a want between 
laany of tin? districts, and incorporated them all as a i*art of 
Tuscany in general in 1788. (1) 

Leopold had a royal monopoly of many trados when he ci^une 
into office. ?or instance, Iron, SuCLt , Tobacco and certain 
kinds of Wine trades war® monoriolies. Each of thesse had of- 
fices to regulate them, and many o.'^f^oers to sots that th«ir 
privileges were kept. They all proved oppressive upon the 
people, and raost uf thwrn were giv«!n up. TJiis ia treated in 
the industrial chapter, Tha lottery was at first sold as a 

(1) H.-291. 

monopollstic privil«K« to be mana,f;ed by others, but finally on 
June 16, 177S, was tak«n and kept as a royal monopol.y- 

larly in his reign he wadft regulations for physicians, for 
hospitals, for the insane, and other humanitarian measures. 
On April 16, 1766, the sal« of medicinal material wa» restrict cjd 
to those who had authority and kn®w how to ust; theia rif;htly. 
On Oct, HO, 1767, he required all physicians to present their 
bills within three years, or to give th&m up altogether. On 
December iiH, 1772, he piiblishsd instruct Ions froia the judical 
college of ?lor«noe on how to holp drunken people, and another 
on Septeaber 10th of th« next year.«r he offered a re- 
ward for saving people, particularly drunken i eople from drown- 
ing, and another to the physician finding the best method of 
restoring those ai>parently drowned. On Decenbtsr a, 177b, he 
gave th# money reoeived from the aale of tna goods of tno gov- 
ernment of St, Antony to the hospital of Bigallo, and about a 
month later changed the manapiement of this hospital. In "^eb- 
ruary 1776, he founded a maternity hospital in j?lorence and 
donated a^stiim ■ at »ix lire to ^yr^ry indigent woman during har 
eonfin«Fient, He also appointed a midwife to ever/ district in 
yiorenoe to attend poor women free, and established a school 
for midwives and nurses at Florence. (1) In January 1774, he 
decreed that all insane persons shotild be treated free in the 
hospitals in Florence, if they were not a'nle to pay for treat- 
ment, and shotild be icept therts free if the./ did no-, recover. 

(1) N.-200. 

-2 b- 
On Maroh 26, 1789, he eiitabXisht^d a foundling house. 

AfflOng otfier ediota are the following : On July ^, 176c, 
the Jews are not to be harmed or interfered with in trade or 
othar ways. In 1778, all Jewiah proprietors in bhe Florentine 
and Piaan district a were »iad« ®ligil3le to the councils-gentsral 
of communities, and ao far admitted to citizenahip, (1) In 
1789, th« J©w» w^ro admitted to full citizenship, and in defer- 
ence to their reli«?lou8 scruples they were allowed to refuse 
office with iiopunity, and were not requirsd to attend religious 
functions, processions, etc., with the other magistrates, (2) 

In 1772, court festivals were limited to three a year, (6) 
By an edict of 37th June 1767, on holidays inn-iceepers were to 
%«- keji^ open only for travelers, and no games, etc., were to 
he played on such days before two o'clock. Another on Janu- 
ary 4, 1783 regulated carnivals with reference to masks, etc. 
At the sarqe time a new system of feast days was inaugurated. 
In 1766, he regulated the value of money, and forbade the cir- 
culation of old coinidi, but offered to redeem them at the value 
of the metal which they contained. On July 10, 1781, he es- 
tablished a mint warden, and permitted any one to coin raoney 
at a r^ry anmll cost. An edict of farch 15, 1V81 laade the 
Tlerentinf elle tv»e tmit of meastJ^'e, on Aug, 10, 1781, he 
asked that all nobles and th«ir fanllies have as little luxury 
in t^ieir dress and households as possible. i e asked all no- 

CD H. -222-3, 
(2) 1T.-295. 
(a) K,-i66. 

"bles t© appear in "blaok at oourt, and to reduce their household. 
An edict of Ddoemlosr 7, 1778 p;&.re a reward to offio^srs in tho 
'^.arsBKaa for their part in getting that district populated and 
in inoreusing itis trade. A »andate of October 28, 1769 for- 
bad® any offioers of the kingdom to onrry on trade in their o^n 
or any other person' a nasm^ Leopold on several ocoasions In- 
siied royal decrees ai^ainst the prevalent custom of burying the 
dead in vaults, hxkt did not enforce them till 1784, v?h@n all 
fmnily, convent, sind parish vaults were forbidden, and. only 
biahops could be entombed in ohurohsiB. ?« mad« special i-ro- 
vision for grave yard, and regul^tt^d the form, siae and depth 
of graves. H«« also ordered all funerals to be conducted with- 
out pong? or oersaony, and at night or early morning. (1) 

Leopold's imblic workf! j>ollcy is not such an extensive on® 
as that of other rulers of hia timti but it must be remembG-red 
that thi-R <>roi>ntry wafii munh sroaXler than most of them, And that 
therefore the revonue available for public works waa much less. 
Even under thes^ conditions ho did quit« a little in that line. 

Leopold was not able to do iHUCh toward canals and toward 
helping agriculture by drainim;^ marshes, but he started th© 
worJc that was later finished. The war she B in tiie Maremma and 
the ?al di CMana made those places bo unhealthy that working 
there was almost fatal, and that was one reason why l.hoac-s fona- 
erijj flourishing distriots had becocift aliaost depopulated at hie 
aooession. The r!hian,a River was a tributary to both the Arno 

(1) H. -250-1, 

Sknd. this Paglia rlvfsrs, onti of «>iich runs north, and the other 
south fit thl8 valley. It ha«\ become a succession of laujces, 
ponrts and Jiiarshea #U.h littl« current, except in certain seas- 
ons, when it ov«rf lowed an.d Ifcft dangerous dap0»ltB on fioing 
down. Thu8 its valley sixty rail«ii long and from two to five 
lailes broad was wora« than WBoleHS, Many attempta to remedy 
these diffioTltiftB had been Made. In 176o, Leopold appointed 
th© Oftvaliere Vittorlo 5'ossoiabroni superintendent of the hy- 
••|r%nllc «o**k« ir) thH Val di nhiann. hIb plan was by a series 
of hydraulic works called oolraata to restore thfs narshes, by 
making the stream di^fosit siuapended matter nnd thua restore the 
raarsheiB by lus.tinjj good Boll upon thKpt for agriculture. This 
f*ould of oourB«i! taice away the lar/^s^et part of the unhealthinos© 
of the ref^ion, and at tlie saiirt tim« raise 'he wholts slope of 
thft valley, so that the ^^hiana would becoiae a flowing ntream 
at all times. By neans of this new addition of »vater, the 
Arno would beoome more navigable, Hojfever, as Leoiiold only 
started tlie work and had little c' anoe- to see si,ny rwaults, It 
Is not within the scope of this iaper to treat the actual re- 
sults, (1) In 17«';o, Leopold cleared out and kept open many of 
the old canals around f^rosetto which had taetjn entirely blocked 
and which had larf3;aly contributed to tht* i-mrshes In that dis- 
t#!ict. (2) An edict of December 15, 1775 provided for th® 
Aldening of the Oaberone River. 

The foundin," of hoapitala mentioned bt.fore in this chapter 

(1) K, -.593- 411. 

(2) M,-428. 

wii,8 one Bid« of his policy- Early in Mb roijfcn he started 
road bulldlnR, some of which is treated in th8 industrial chap- 
ter. On Ai*gu»t ga, 1767, he startad ouilding roads In Pisto- 
ia, and in this year startod rotids through erory coBitnunity in 
a larg« ?fi®asure for public employment. On 'aroh 7, 1766, he 
ordered a numbor of different bridges and roads to b® built. 
In 1774 he built roads to medirjinal springs, and vlso arected 
bath houses and public hou®i?Js at thesie sprin,'!;s. 

In 1775, he united the royal library with that of 'faglia- 
baoohl, and thrwi* them open for the public, thus forming:; ono of 
ths most valuable libraries in Europe, (1) 

In 1775, he bought property adjoining the ro/al j^oboll 
Gardens and «srect®d on it an obserTatory with inetrumsnts froia 
Paris and London. In the lower story of this building hu forii- 
ed a great museuis of natural history. (S) 

ie also did a p^&o6 deal toward enlarging picture gailaries 
and throwing thewi open to thts public. In varioviK places w« 
find HMsntion of fine pictures and statuary which he bought for 
these. For Instance in 1770, the statue of Venun dl F.edici 
and Apollo arrived at Plorenc©. In this year he also bouc>it 
iiiany collections for tho royal ^.H.llmrXi3e: and placed the art de- 
partment under the minister of finance. At thf; Bar* tinse he 
rearranged and n::'^8tematia«d t.ha galler/ into departments. In 
1775 he threw open to the public tht- royal galleries, and that 
of several other plaeea including the Pitti Ps^lace and the maus- 


(2) :?r.-iy5. 

oXmaa of Ban I.orenao. (1) 

Thesft, togotJier with Mb grants of Xand and. h^lp in house 
"building to colonists, constitute tlie r/iain part of Leopold's 
public works. 

(X) W.-.196, 



A consideration of Leopold's financial policy and of the 
reforms which he made in the finances of Tuscany is treated in 
this chapter, Per convenience the matter is divided into, 
firat J taucation and its administration j second, other finan- 
cial administration j and lastly soeob general remarks about 
Leopold's policy. 

Taxation . Leopold found taxation on his accession in a 
very Isad state, Tuscany under the older regimes had been tax- 
ed, not for the good of the country, but for the private gain 
of the rulers, Ke found the running ©sqtenses of the govern- 
ment very high as well. After oarefully and minutely examin- 
ing; the subject, he set about gradually reducing the economy of 
the governaient and at the same time reducing taxation, and aim- 
plifying it. He had to repeal maxiy of the old laws on taxa- 
tion, araong them all that farmed out the taxes, and to make the 
method of applying it easier amd to also make it more just. 
This took him his mihole reign, and even then ha expressed him- 
self as not satisfied with the results. (1) 

Leopold started on the old network of taxes and restric- 
tions and regulated and abolished many of thera. Among this 
number the following will serve to show his policy. He abol- 

(1) ]f.-86-7. 

Ished every sontraot for im"blic revenue as a nisoeasary moveinont 
toward reducing taxation. (X) Real estate* He pascted a 
number of regulations oonoerning real eetate. An ediot of 
february 176'i' demanded from all rent maetere an exact stattaruint 
of all th» property in their district, the araoimt of thv^ir rent^ 
and an account of all back etanding rents. On Atigwst 3, 1?5S, 
he ordered property budgets to be formed for taxation and all 
pereons owning property had to regiater them with their value. 
On September 22, 1769, a tax of 3;C was placed on all real es- 
tate for road building una other iiBSprovemonts, On narch 28, 
1770, all of iho faotorles of the ffrand 'ukfc, all goods in 
trust, and all poeseesione of the rellgioue orders and sooie- 
tlea, of universltiea, of corporations, and of courte of jus- 
tice were taxed the sanie ae other properly , in Wovember 1770, 
he lowered all the private property of the crown to the. level 
of ordinary real eetate and mtid© it aubjeot to all taxes. In 
1776, he reorganised the ayatem of rent taxes and rent offi- 
cers. On Moveiftber 1h, 1778, he pvt a tax of 8;? on all leases. 
On March 20, 1780, the system of real estate taxes was ooiaplotc- 
ly reformed, and on May 2nd of the next year some more taxes on 
it wtjre removed. In the next year, 17B>:, he slmplifiod the 
system for registering real estate, put a tax ©f 7 3/4;;- on rents 
and also one on leases and all leased goods. On April iio, 
1784, he abolished the tax on all leas'^s and private contracts. 
The Grand !)uo«l Tithe was tlie tax levied on all property 

(1) N.-S7. 

holder« in th« arand Buohy. In 17V&, h& abolished th© church 
tithe »nd united it with this Grand Ducal Tith©. On Xy ^i 
1V81, all property pairing thf^ ratjular raal estate taxes la thi. 
district of yiorenoe was freod from the arand BuoaX Tithe, 
Anothar tax on raal estate wan called tiie red®jJ5>tlon tax. In 
1773, Leopold abolished a nimfeer of little vexatious tax®a on 
r®al property and gub»titutefl in their plao® this redei'tption 
tax. It was to T86 paid hy the different districts and they 
W0r«e to meet it by the income froia the municipal rents, or if 
that were insufficient, by a small tax upon all i>roperty hold- 
era, (1) In the same year, a poll tax, or really a tax on 
nearly avery peraon in the land, was lowarad for each person 
by distributing it amoni^ a greater nvffaber, tho total was made 
pwrmanent and not to hh changed. Among other regulations were 
the follow! nr : father of twelve sons and each of th« sons 
themselves to pay only 2/5th8 of all taxes. Mict of August 
^0, 1777, all guild taxes in IP'lorence abolished, at a loss of 
|1,400, (2) In TPlorenoe alone, 15th Fiepteraber 1785, General- 
iesiiao, consisting of several vexatious taxes nboliehed ; 
June 6, 1782, a tax waw placed on eill theatres j 1782, all whc 
were ealled vassals of the crown and paid taxes to the royal 
treasury now to pay tham to th^ district ; January 14, 1780, 
notice of all taxes to be. posted fifteen days bftfore such tax 
falls due } 1783, all taxes divided up and now to be paid In 
three payments j August 30, 1779, the poor were fre«jd frpw nany 

(1) ]sr.-.17<3, 

(2) In this thesis the lire ^is taicen at a value of $,;'!0, 
the crown at 7 1/2 lires and the 80l*i at X/aO of a lire, Theso 
iissrei «ff "he^ft transferred to American money. 

taxes and th.oig@ whose income w%» Inuu than a. certain Bim did 
not have to ps^ any tflix©8 whatever j on Peeember 1, 176B, all 
who hart exeiaptions from all kinds or any kind of tax, laust prove 
that this exefficptlon was just or ©Ise have It aboil Bhort corj^letc- 
ly, and many offloee that gave exemptions wsre aholishud. On 
May 17, 1778, and S©pteiah®r 17, 1787, certain dlBtriotB which 
w®re strii^gllng against, unfavorable conditions w@r® freed froas 
all tax®0. Under this head would come th« different taxes on 
transit, @3sport and import and sale of j'^oods of all kinds, froia 
agriculture to manufactures, fewt they are all treated in the 
chapter on Agriculture and Industry, It will Buffloe to say 
that he removed a great many taxes, and destroyed a great many 
royal raonopolicB which formed a lar^ei part of his revenue. 

At first 0ip;ht it may seem as if Leopold did not do rtiry 
muoh in the way of reforming taxation, "because hm did not is- 
sue a T&ry large number of (Bdiots about thlB Important branch, 
but it siuat b© taken into account that auoh of th© taxation was 
looal taxation. I'his had to be levied by th® ^-Tin® and by the 
Chamber of Cci;^tiniti«8 formerly, but thay were haiap<rired by so 
many restriotlone that in reality it #aa not IooelI taxation 
except in name. In 1773, Leopold made a great laany changes in 
thia- Baclfwi . He vested the power of levying it in a general 
council in each district, who were to levy it exactly according 
to what a man could pay instead of so much per pur son. They 
were also to see th«,t all back accounts were paid within the 
jwmrf and their accounts were carefully audited, (1) At the 

(1) ]<l. -176-7, 

aajp'i® time he decreed that there ahould h® no general tux upon 
coromunitleB except in ©actraordinary oircuaatances, ana then the 
means of eollecting it wa& left to the district Itself, Thlc 
system was extended oy degrees until finally on December 22, 
1789, he ^ave i^ all authority OT©r district taxation and al- 
lowed each district to levy and decide upon it© own tiixes. 

One ©f Leopold's chief cares was the manageRtent and re- 
duction of the public debt. At his aceeesion the debt of Tus- 
cany sRiount to nearly |lii,0O0,0O0, while the whole yearly reven- 
ue of Tueoany was at that time only $1,490,000 and t,}ie annual 
expenses amounted to $1,880,000. Most of this debt, on account 
of the tmeertalnty of its interest and of its ultimate payment, 
drew r^ry large interest, and lauch of it was in thtt hande of 
foreigners, (1) Considering the oirouiastances, it seeiaed al- 
raoet hopeless to try to pay off the debt, but Leopold set about 
it in various ways with great success. One of his first steps 
was on November ft, 1768, to acknowledge all the unelaJEie^ and 
unpaid dividends on the debt, some of ^hich had been running 
nearly a century. In Mareh 1770, he had collected a sum suf- 
ficient to pay off all bond-holders of the debt who refused a 
imiform 3^< a year, (2) in all |575,000. Then he set himself 
to pay off all debt in th« hands of foreigners. In 177d, he 
was able to pay off |88,000, raost of which cwi© from eoonoaiee 
which he had been able to iaait©. On August 88th of this year, 
he announced his Intention of leasing public lands to help pay 

(1) N.-sa. 
{•^) K.-151. 

off this debt, (1) B/ this mefuns he was able to pay off a 
larg© amount of th® <tebt every year. In 1788, Leopold finally 
took stepss to rid the nation altogetht-r of debt. In the first 
place, he r»q^tiired th« corporations who held lar^e landed pos- 
sesaions, to sell or let their land and to invest the jirocoeds 
in bonds of the public debt. By this riennft he finally paid off 
all foreign debt and all of the i\isoan debt was held in Tuscany. 
Then h& proceeded to carry out an ingenious plan for leaseninE 
this amount. By an edict of March 1, 1768, all those holding 
public bonds, must on penalty of having the interest reduced to 
?.;5;,if thuir held real estate equal to tho amount of auch bonds, 
have such real estate freed from the redenption tax forever by 
giving up a corresponding ansotrnt in bonds. As the redemption 
tax wrtounted to 'S I/B/j, ajid the interest on the t^aac only wa»i 
^/o, by this means the bond holders cleared l/kf. For instance, 
if a aaan held bonds for public deb^^ aiaounting to |100, on which 
he frets 5f^ interest Bxid had real estata fiuiiounting to that svua 
on which he paid 3 l/s;^ tgucea, hn was, in certain districts, to 
hav6 his bonds cancelled, and at the sane time to have his prop- 
®)^tyf #100 svorth, freed from th« real estate tax forever. By 
t'iiat means in three districts alone, a debt of nearly |;10,00©',000 
was abolished, leaving only « little over .ji5,000,000. Another 
edict of Jiirarch 7th of the same year, extended this fart?iur into 
nearly all oomraunities, and all collefjes, hospitals, boards of 
works, religious sooleties, and even crown proji .rty, having 

(1) if.-^:22. 

oX«ar«d the r«<l«mption tax from %t» own i»rop<f»rty, was oorni.slluci 
to sell, to others wishing to d© the umm to their own but not 
harinp; t;he neoeasary bondB, nil toonds which they ntill hela, 
"By this me«jis, n€> l@»s than thirty-four cor.jaunitlt.>s had Gom~ 
pltjtely extinfsi^^aished the redemption tax in th«ijAr ter-^ttorr in 
a year, t^nd a l».r?:Q ausiount of puhlic tiebt was don© away with. 
The fen^ was fast approaching »?.m;n Tiiscany would hare hKen free 
from de'ht entirely, !«h©n Lsopoltl waa corapfill©d to depart, (1) 
Leopold took a *jraat deal of interest in bf*iUi:;5 and mink.-' 
i^F,» 1?«arly »rery year of hi» roign hi& passed at leant one 
®diot, r«'uis4ting the hanic. On ''ovsmb^r 15, 176^-'., }iv. Iuhmqu a 
ooM|)l*3t« e®t of hankinft reffwlations b^A ax'mng other things 
aboli«h<%<;l thi- old cuatom of bank« confissorxtinG capital which 
had be«n left in their hands without any interact heinj;: drawn 
for a o«rtaln number of years. In other years he sirnpiified 
the "lethodB of banking, and r«pnilatad th« r^te of Intnrcat at 

A ntsifiber ©f oth«r financial r^ipjular-iona are : '5ay 1, I'/ts'.^, 
the state and finance oolltjg® united for ©cononi,/ and '-liraplifi- 
oation : Januao' 20, 1770, a debt of th« BKnitar.' ooiamission of 
the various districts paid from t3ie ro.ya,! traaeswry, and In 
future, this ejqjwna© to b«-^ i-iet moBtly fror', tiie royal treasur;,'- 
and partly from the treasury of tho coraHunities, 18th Jime 
1784, imi th« lott«ry which had foraterly bv^en fariicd out, ^/m a 
royal monopoly. March 3, 1778, aold tho royal forests to the 

CD Sf.-a8f»-9. 

various dlatrlots in which th^j were at, a moderate aum, l''''?t>, 
h© rtlinquished thfe debt- ef fh*^ various ies to the f:eri- 
eral govornmwnt, and also at other tiraes the.t of different in- 
cUrlduals who viere not able; to i'l^' ix for Tarioua reasons. 
i^y a raandatH of March 14, XfiVdf he iriade certain r«f.u,lai ions 
afjainat the old Xaw of ijrirao-geniture, tiiws Rplittinp: ai tho 
li'ind into smallsr sections and riaxing it mort* j-rodi-iotiv© and 
at the sapie tins© bringinj^ In u larger n^venww. His ref^ulations 
h<5lpin^ paaffunte build new houses, awong them on# in Hepteriber 
1'?P.4, took H good deal of hies revenue. On TMcenher 29, 1^89, 
he regulated tho value of a lir« r»i*king it orth 20 soldi. 
One means by which his revenue waf> increased wa« throu,-^h the 
confiscation of the funds and property of t>ie Jesuit j?, a.no_ of 
the ot>^er reli'^ious societies which he aboliehud. 

One of tht; first thoupfhts tjait sv-ggeeted itself in loolc- 
inf^ ov--.y Leoi'Old'a financial *'i«iasvj-r«a, is how ha ',va.B able to 
run the finances of the f.overnwent when he had abolished so 
•'(i.r}y of tht! tax@& which formerly hnd laad® up such larpcs part 
of his revemie. J'or instanotJ, ti>ti abolition of the salt ronoi/- 
oly ga®ant h loss of i^60,000 ** yoar (1) the lotss o.f the tobaoco 
monopoly took away |ll.j,000 (2) a year, tmd the iron foundries 
which were Siholifih&d a© a monopoly raeant h, loss of a very largu 
revfnua. Then the guild t«xes abolislied, ^.of^ether with the 
TferiouB tajces on lill Jslnd?^ of inrii^strieB all took away another 
large aouroe of r@v«raie, Tiie misi'^er to these is simple. In 

(1) K-.-^90. 

ateolialilng msuny taxes tm& almplifyini?^ thow^i rmnt^xn\v4% Leopold 
took away a great many of the ©xpftnses of government, and re- 
moved so HBiny of the shackX«te from trad« that the resulting in- 
crease in the total soount of trade hroujf^t in a r&rnmie almost 
as larr;«» and in saany oases Xarfjer, than tht; old hi^er taxes 
on fi smaller amount of trade. Besides this th<». saJe and leaae 
of ro/al lauidSi and funds from reli^^ious institutions Increased 
his revenue, ^iy this means he was ahle to better the condi- 
tion of the i)eople materially without much of a loss, in fact 
even a gain in ths total revenue of the kingdosi, as oonpared 
with it a exi^enses. • 



In looMng over tvu- varioi.e iawB wJiicli Leopolf't passed for 
trade of various kindiiii from provieiona and their ftttiendant In- 
dustry to manufactures, it was founci that no syaterfiatic arrange- 
rnjjnt coulrt well b® mafi©„ But as th(t jmln otiject of this thesis 
is to eive irfjoj'Old'B roforaiBin tho most orderly arrari^^iriunt, 
tyie ones relating to these trades have been collecttsd. under the 
head of * Agriculture, Indwatry and. Corarierce" without any dis- 
tinct aaparatloni since one grows ©ut of th«; oi.her in many 
cases . The present ohnptar, then, hRgins "d.t}\. agriculture and 
treats with Xeopold'e refor?ny connected with tiiat industry 
first, "«"or conrenlanoe, oolonixation is included uridor this 
first head, sinoe all Leopold's ooloniaation Wiis for tho bena- 
fit of »gri culture, 

Whon Leopold asoandec* tlin throne, h© found Tuacan,/ in a 
nt&.rririff condition osinp; to th«:s failure of orops. In 17<i6, 
the r;-«ixt y«ar, the oropfi wer« vTain poor, so ha &et hiiaself to 
s&e ho'V the misery of hi a people could ha relleyed. lis* first 
%9i-' I^^y nad© rfe'r<^latione for the freer circulation of i>rovi- 
Biona. An old tribimal, slif^/itly ohan^'ted and p;iven tli^ nvx^c. 
of t/,o Annona, had co^ple-ta oh&rce of all grain. They re- 
quired that no grain could ho &old excopt to their own wrar©- 
houe^s, anrt. —'.at thu prica t)'.«*iy aet, ■vvh.ioh was often "below tho 
oo»t of production. If they didn't wish to buy th« grain, 


the farmer had no i-.tthod of disposing of it except by Bmuggling 
it out of the country, Kinoe exportation *aa for'biddcn. Be- 
aideB, tliis is a tr.-insport tajs: send, tolls were ciiargwU. for the 
carrying of grain anyv*kiirR in the Grand Duel:/. i is crop was 
useless to him because j-ie had no right to grind, or bake it. 
Bakers nraet uae the iiufelic ovens for which a tsix had to "be 
jjaid ana th« weight B,nd price of their hread wa;? regulated by 
law, so that if tjie i-rice of ^r&in ro»e they hnd to sell at a 
loss. They had zo huy all their grain Irom thtr Annona, pay- 
ing a i-dgh price for dwiiaged grain. 

Wich &uch imi'edi:iu6iits, whcire no tnixn fiouid bu^ or ?>«!! 
grain freely, or bake his own bread, it waa no *«onder that 
fanners wer^ not ea^jur to rfiliacf f^rain. So w'.en tht; i'&j-dn© 
c«Hie, tiie AnnoBH had not sufficient to supply the country &vQn 
Sit enorijiou'3 prict-tftf, Leopold had investigntwu t/icse raatters 
and t30on etpplied remediss. In the fall of 176<; he had all the 
local officers prfipare for him a table o;.'' i-roduoe, and was able 
to make his calculations A'ith t:i,-.e full knowledge of -•;r''rat each 
district produced. Edict of September *^4, 1766. Fe removed 
many iBSjJedimentB, Hliowed grain to be sold in sraall quantities, 
and allowed any one to bahe brfsad. These worked so well that 
in Septeinber 1767 h'is issued a lengthy edict regulating grain 
and bread. All "or-^ml was free6. from the Si^al, stamp, and 
police tax, and all taxsf; on bakin^^ either in public or pri- 
vate ovens were aboil ahed. Grain for bread need not be bought 
from the Annona. Bread was divided into three olassee accord- 
in^i to quality and the market pric® o^' each regulated on a scale 

"varying witli thn price of grain* vreo trangport. of graiu w«ss 
permittejd withotit. any taxes or tolla wiyvihere in thti cfrurid 
Duohy. Export of grain wa» permitted if ohu iriou in the. 
Grand Duchy whs b«l©w » certain figur«!i and than no exiiort fiuty. 
Import of Rrain aiwuys permitted, b'ut. if tho price in Tusoany 
was l«!3e thaui .>^ a f»&ok, a, dut:- wa3 ohir^.r;r'fid, 'hlmn grain in 
foreign countries was over -^is.dO a sack, ax^.ort vvas forlDiddttn 
and no fjrain could be icept v^ltJain i.>trc«3 asiists of tiis boundary. 
The mwrkat pr.toe of grain 'fHiiU re^i^lated aocordinri to i^he prictj 
in the principal cities, iSvery woeJc officer© must report 
price of f-^rain in their district. Ex^^ort of "breiid >vaa always 
permitted, and later Van ini-ort of bread wai> i-ermittud on the 
payment of a alii^t duty. In 17 70 ail dutiaB on It export of 
bread or grain by la^d or water were rcviioved, Th»j Annon» 
which had made the ohit-if trouble for trade, and had coi)tinuod 
to enforce many of I'm old laws in spite of t>iMir repeal was 
given le»8 and lm»n powt;r, and fintilly abolished in If'f .. 
One tax abolished in th.:; samo year wus tjj« sowers' tax by wiuch 
«T«ry district -vas taxed so much, and it waa dlTided ajiont: the? 
sowers. This araountwd to a considerable sum for such sow©r 
in thinly populated districts, altlioUf^h it aid not give a large 
total r«sv«nu©, (1) In ffi)lt« of all Ls^opold's efforts, eocio 
of thesti old laws continued to be enforced upon ignorant i-eople 
In outlying districts, ''rt^ do not fln« a sinclis ytmr of his 
twenty-fiva y9imr r©ign in i}hi oh he did not have to itieue orders 
and edicts to row© «ii strict'; the freedom of tht^. brsad 

(1) H.-219. 

and grain indUBtriea, 

OlcjBely .'allied with the grain trade, and one '-vliich affect- 
ed the peovl«5 of Tuscany almost .is muoh, was tit: oHtLIe Irftde. 
Here imieh the swwe oonrtitlons ©xieted as in tha irrnln trade. 
The ifi5>ort and, export of cattle had b«en forbidden, ^ueavy ttuces 
on slaughtering, pasturing, butchers' atallK, tranBi'OJ l of c^it- 
tle, eto. had been rlgoroualy leviect. I.oopold early in .l?67 
made, minor nogulatlons that rhlievoa thti moat x^reBsinr: need, 
Aroonp: others »•.]!« farmers wore not coapf-.llod to fatten, thalr 
cattlft for the Qraacia* On Octobi-ifr ?J.\ i76fi, h© issued an 

edict, rereoving all tax for 8la-i?p:hierinj2, freeing butc'iers from 

aererH.1 taxes, and auppresising^^seal tax. T>ie '-Klioit; b.yst©tfl was 

airaplifled and ;% email tax s/as ^ut on eaoii ./ound of nuiat, And 

the meat officar^s-who had ?iO rinoroualy enforoed the; old laws 

^ere 6\ippresa«d, thtiir du-^ief:? goini^ to thu rf}t';ular province of« 

fiotsrs. On January 'dS^ 1769, tha farmers v.i&2-& allowed to sell 

thftlr cattle to a.ny one instead of the ref:ui<ir slaUfViter houses 

and ^ny ono could go into thn -neat trade. i'at and tallow, too, 

were trinecL from all tax,^ - In 1770, the old laws reguliting 

the price of smBit wer« rftpaaied , and buyers, and aeilers wertj 

to f jx the price toy competition. At tho 3a,,':« t,ii!::e, the tjix 

for r,he? perrriission to Blau,p^itGr wass aboliyhod. In 1771, aosao 

taxes on slaUf^J'itering, >.ito, still re'-n.i.i ne d in certain distrio-s, 

hut L^eopold eimpllf led tyt&m all into a sin;::l« tax< On April 

26, 1773, he Issnaa orders to hit: officers to further all irc-- 

Tision tra<S« in every way possible, and to give coi-iplete freedom 

to any one to enter into Bucli traae. In 17?t3 tlia irap >rt of 
eatilH waB pemiitted with certain nominal, dutit^a. In 177d 
the ttxj3ort, ;li'i|*ort and trantsit of oattl^ was freed ei-c«i..t I'M 
usual Oaljella tax« In 1781 the fl®ah F.taj:;!' was Btill in exl»- 
tt-ince. It was auctioned in Ootobar of finat y(-.;ar. In 1733 the 
fiftsh I'lOnopoly was leaeedj but it w&b rt^strictec;. so aw to b© 
harailess. In ihu eame y^^ar, the fording of streaian was- n'j:*,do 
frae* Up to 1V88 wt atill find trifXi;:£ duties left in soms 
dif5t,rlcts, "but they were finally abolished a» thorougihly as Leo- 
pold coulci iioccmplXnh it. Aside from the actual trade in cicat 
find cattle, paljturage was regxilated, A» early as October H9j 
1763, he frtt«d paistura^.^e from certain restrictions. In Octo- 
ber 1775, Itecpold iaEued an edict raaioTing aome of his ovm ro- 
strictions and seven other prohibitory laws on pasturage, lear- 
ing the landowner fret^ to graa© oattle vji'iere ha pleaaed, with 
the exception of gouts, {1} In 177B he xiade a good snany rei^ii- 
lationa, among thera on© pdrrritting herdsmen to carry on otlior 
trades at the amm tiae, another allo^/iing free pasturag# on pub- 
lic lands in certain districts, and ;4nother aboliBhini?; an old 
law called the "Fide", Its aholition left the lanc.i^-nor in 
full posodssion of his property wifhor-t havintj the mortification 
of s&tiinc ST'^rry third ytar'a ^.^aaturage tafetjn "by the. crtt-Brnment, 
3y Another law he per?titt«d i/«i.Bt,tJrage within a few riiles of 
Florence which h^d hitherto heen fortoidden. By all thtsse 
means Leopold freed t>i.w meat and cattie tr&da for th*:* benefit 

(1) :^.-i95. 

of hiK people, but at a large loss of reT®rm« to himt&lf. 

On the I'^th of Kov@ml3er 1765, Leopold TD«gan to regulate th® 
win« trade. At that time ra^^y '^rin&m axifX l,i ^iuo rs were In the 
hands of a royal Konopolyj wrdch dispensed theai to small aollar& 
Iieopold.'& first edict waa to put a duty on fort'-ign wine sent tc 
:^lor"rce, and a var^- hlcl, dut;;- on wine I'&porttjd to an,.' other 
pl^iae. In Sopt@!8"ber 1767 Ko pcrTnAtted the e53»0'-t of •#?in# with 
B. sr}al.l dfit:/. A3 early a.G th»5 S7th of December, 17o6, hw 
abolished the royal non op oly of brandy and sj,>iritoij.B li^iuors 
and cave per'aaslon to any on« to Tany or keep the®, tax free, 
except in cities -s^lTere the old iM^.-ort tax rEinain^;d, On June 
S5, 177;i, th© tax on foreign wine was? remev&fif but the tax on 
domestic vyine brought irto ^loronce -jva.-? reraored. In 1778, the 
12th of T^'ebruary, porKission wae ;?iYen to &r\y on© to buy or »&XX 
•«ine in laj-ge or raraall CiUantities, and on April lb, 1780, tho 
tax on the wine trade and on wine stalis was aboliehtMi, The 
royal monopoly in all other liquors vmi; aooiiolied Avig* 17, 1780. 

Another branch of industry' that needed hii? attemlion was 
tho flRherios, They '■■''&rn so resiriotud and nonoijolies w©r«s so 
na,ny and so oPi>ras0lTe that Tuscan fisheman were uDaolo to 
corapoti; with t rtu'ir neigJibora in trade with nearby coimtries. 
L>'50pold. s®t himself to work, and on '-arch fj>, 1767 issued a set 
of rijle» anrt instn',ct ions conc«rnlng fiaixeriesi. Mo nete that 
tooic. sGve)ral boats to wield them -var© .dlowod, and even anaall 
not0 must be of mesh large enoufjh to allow Ha;.U.l fish to «»Gap<e. 
life etRall fish could ha sold du^'in,^^ the- laying tine. Also »©v- 

eral oth«r regnlat t ons nonoernlnr tJie fish trade, 7y\& draught- 
ing of this law Irftw Mn attentlor? to tlia Ha.r',:'- rt>sti-iotiouf to 
fl«'-dn<;, and h« soon began to '•ftirior© ther.: arul to fr^& certain 
X>lao«@, On April 80, 1768, he rtvv^ulated the fisheries in the 
Caotigllon© f?ea f^nd ^ave fishers certain priyllef^ea therfs. On 
.Tar>. J?n, 1'7'J'Q, he aholished thy old cuatom of leaslne the flsli- 
erles. On JvCLj 13, 17?2, an ®dlct freaini'c a number of dlis- 
trlcta from many flBhlng rcgtrictiona and gi-ring ther freo -^.cr- 
mlBBiori to fish. On April IS, 1773, he freed flKheries arotmd 
■"•lorenoe and sey^ral other diatrlots from all t?jc, ?m(X on Oct. 
,'36th of tv.ft f?af'.;s year, granted par'nisision to th.-^ to fiah 
In a ,t;rsat number of the royal X'resarTss aground Florence, In 
t'lP yf:-nr 177f., ho piased t>iroe acts fnsein^^ a nxmhi^r of fstraai/is 
for fishlff and rst^iaatlnp: the trade. In July 1777, oame an 
*?.ct fraeing; in all thp kingdom the trade in "both salt and froah 
f^sh, """Ton this time to the end of his reign, "sopold gare 

up to thc-i paople a nt^nhor of royal fish preserTQB and freed nany 
-tistricts 5>r!fi alreams, hr.t left certain restrictions aa to fish- 
in," In the brsedinc tl^e, Tho Arno was freed entirely for 
fishing iri 1780, For sorm reaeon in 1783, TXaMng in the 
Chiana was forbidden and that rirsr was not afterwa-rds opened 
iiurivr, hi« reign, 

Cl08«ly allied with the fisheries were the royal, rarae i>rc- 
gienres* Th«?ee had .not only kept a (yreat deal of f^ood l^and fror. 
h<-jin<^ t-urncrd to agrlcwltur«(, but baaidss that had l«ft a great 
broad atrip around theoi deiraitated, because no farmer oould grow 

crops for fear of their destruotion by the wild animala which 
h# was forblddeia to Jcill undar the most ssvsrts penalty. To 
Obvi*t,0 thiai Booii after hi^ c&n» to tke threne, Lisopold gavt 
permi8Si®n to farmers to kill gacie whioh was destroying th^sir 
cr@ps, swid »oon after oarae the* ■pftruiB&ion in otrtain casee to 
carry the nseessary firsarma. On Auguat 3i, 176i^, Leopold is- 
sued an sdlct forhividing all hunting; from Marali to 3opttmb©r. 
On August 13, 1778, he gav© i)i»rnissiQn to the inhabitants of 
certain districts to hunt, particularly to fannarg, except dur- 
ing the "breeding season. In the next y@ar, thi& permission 
was granted free in th® Florentine district and in certain oth®r 
plao©». In 1773 the royal gmm preserr^s of the oastla of 
J'lorenoe wer® given up to the public » and thusa b®gan a serie© of 
abolition* of royal pre serve. 8. Iia one year fifteen were 
given up to the people. (1) Thi® m®ajit norm than 8ii!S)ly al- 
lowing the people so much gi*me j it ra^ani ptirmisfciion to build 
fence® and start oropei right up to the ©dg«r of tm-'. priseerTes 
and later on it meswit that Es&ny of th«sf preserye© thiu'stilves wore 
given up to agriculture. 

Ralt_ had l®n« been ona of the larF,eet indtietrie© in Tuscany 
and as a royal monopoly had been alwayn a large souroe of re- 
venue to the government, and hud a special part of the public 
dsbt to pay. Every family wa» coi^crllQd to buy a certain 
amount of ©alt according to th@ m-mber of mouths, not the vmnts 
of th0 family i th® discrepancy b»t'.«eiin royal and municipal 

(I) KT.-IGS. 

w^itihts, "by tJw former ortlj was salt retailed tu t}f«< poc-ple ; 
the different varieties and colors*. vmlcJi wer<c' diif?patcluKi 't,c cer- 
tain disstricta to prevent atp).ug;j':X"Jn,r j and the Yaryirir;;: nrio^e In 
di-fferent districts togstJier /■d'ii t'h"i ssvore araug^'lirr laws ; 
all trjtirje aallad forth .yuolt a nut'ih.^jr' of R£?.it oi'fif:i.-.;rji ard so 
i'iv-f:V.. Taxation t/iat L,-;opo3,d 'jvould i^'ladly >.<»,v<a- aboJ.iBlvjd all re- 
Btrlctions hut for tha reycnuo. In 1773^ .Tune l-?th, Leopold 
abo-llBhcjd •f-.he aalt na,'';i^'-trate in the ;^lfmft and in tht> sajue y@ur 
a:?olis>ied the salt nGnopol;' in the Marsrsi'ia, both a& an sj^ieri- 
ra«n.t :.-;u-id to -ncoiirage the diMtrict. In thia j/rar too, he alsol- 
Ichfid oi,..-! salt tax. at Arnzzo a-nd left its trada fr,iQ, On 
,Tu,n..: iiS, 1778, he forbad® tho importation of aaXt finally, and 
in the bh:'.© ;^ear ar>oli ^-ihed thu transport tax on salt in the 
'Hrer-trfia. But in tris '?rr'.rt«l T:uchy SkB a whole, the state of »f- 
f.Hirs rts-iainod much f;e ssu-iC, In 1788, Leopold found t'lin.t tho 
fr>-v3dora of salt in t;-ie Mare.^-aa had made s-.-.oh a hoBt of redclCiiS 
sr^ugglore, and had enticed BO'VMirQ- from agrioalture to the oon- 
tra'ovid trade, that he d<it<.ifry.;.ined to mmme tiia monoyQlj through- 
out his do;-'jinion3, Accordln^j-y, i^- i|areli 178n, he resuratid the 
rojal nonojoly of salt, hr.t .-•5K;;;prf7ttS«d its forced distribution, 
s^rr^li;5<;d its prioe in a.11 districts, and dimlniBhtKi tris price 
learly half j orotif^ht all weights to a uniform istandard j re- 
iQOVwd thiS duties on it, ui-nd liT;ft the i.^ople fraei to p'arohas© 
*'hen and frora ^hoiu t'.tioy plt;ia.teed. Thig. aaor if loi* was t'jade at 
th© loss of .mi-tch reTenve. 

Tlaj AnS straw had exiff^jrud tax.&tion with other agricultural 


pr©Auct». On P8oemN»r i6, 1768, Ii«oppld. Hbolia'red t^e tax on 
hay crops X''r'0'»'i<*«^<i t?'ft,y did net reach a certair> vFtluo, but t]-.!;:. 
yalua must "b® proved, and eever© penaltl®^ w^re applied for 
undervaluatiOT'S, In 1771 th© Importation of straw <mn allowed 
and by an act of Ootober 1775, both hnrr and gtraw coOf* be ex- 
ported sind iinpo»-ted with, nominal clutleB, and another on July 10, 
1777 removed even thane e krII duttoj? and all otht^r r^5 strict ions 
as well. Irs 1779, the Inhatiltants of t.he ynrmmir*, -/era urged 
to raise hay f»]^ straw In as larr^s quantltiiSfi a? possible. 

Another ias^iortant step was the reticulation of tho tohacoo 
industry and culture. On Ms acc«aalon, tobacco wa?^ a royal 
raonopoly both '^holeaal« and retail, and its culture was for- 
bidden with of course its &7:pcir% and. irapct. On "'a.;'- 11, 1769, 
he resul/itcd ths retail i-rice and also its culture ; and on 
Deoemb'sr 4th of the ner.t year allowed its iraport froa of duty 
in oartain placos. About the y&mr 1777 h^ ri=>lin'.i'.tl3h©d the 
retail monoiJoXy and permitted Its orilture in a few di strict©. 
At th« fsaifls tiw.e the tobacco adr.ini strati on was .•-o^ulatf.'d ^nd 
all rtyt&il rttial*jr8 wf^re required to buy tbftlr tobacco from this 
office? at a regulated prico. On Apr. 11, 1778, the monopoly 
of tobAeoo and it** jnana>^ein®nt by tho novarnrr/ 1: t , h.z well as its 
transport duti®£, -were abolished ix the T%r©r/Bna. In the saac 
year, tobacco wr® fr^^^ea from all taxes at Llvorno, and its im- 
port wa» entirely forbluden. The '■■ext year, tobacco export 
from ■Florence wass per'nitted without duty, '^.rd in seyeral othijr 
plae«» its sale vai^ relieved of tax. In the next year, 1780, 

periaission to plant, trade in, and Tmnufa.otxire tobacco was ex- 
tended to five oth«r districta nBar the Hareja?ia, and in the 
next y©ar isany of tlis old. tobacco magazines were -^Iven up, prac- 
tically abolishing the monopoly. In Maroli 1788, for muoh the 
Sfiras reasons as those in the tsalt trade, Leopold found it naoes- 
sary to abolish some of these pri-^ilsf^es, such aR permission 
for tohacoo culture and trade, but ha aade up for th© losa to 
t?!, se distrxots affectad hy remitting certain taxes, treated in 

the adrainistratlva and financial chapters. On March 18, 1?89, 
he deoidoci to carry out ona of his cherished r-lans, which was 
to abolish the royal tobaooo monopoly entirely, and on that 
date took his first step by permitting tobacco culture in all 
Tuscarj'-. About two months later, he followed this np by abol- 
is?iing the whol«? nonopoly entirely at an. enorr'jous loss of re- 
venue, Tobacoo export was declared free and iinport allowed 
on pay-'irmt of duty, and the old manufaoturies becaTne mere pri- 
vate entBrpriiaes. (1) 

Another very iEfijiortant industry -was that relating to fuel, 
wood and coal, and thuir source, the forests. Leopold found 
forastry lawtj in a terrible ptate when he ascended the throne, 
\>uz owinr to the mistaketx ideas of the time in relation to 
forests, he did not do much to refj;ulato thorn for aone time, but 
enforced the Btrinfl;ent laws af^alnet tree felling, even on a 
raari's own property, *^'e renewed the old laws ap-airist the Im- 
port and ajcport of wood and coal. In 1768, he slackened the 


foreptry laws a trifle, and even granted jvensission t& cut aiaall 
chrulj® and t.r©efi in th.e royal patrimony* On '^^Arch 5, 1^69, 
the inhabits^nts of Pisa were allowacl to plant pine and fruit 
treea by obtaining special pert'iisaion. In i*?70, a law '*aa 
passed allovting free transport of wood within the arand Buchv , 
and in 1771" the iisport and export of wood and ooal w^tre per- 
siitted with duties which in l?7r» wers* raade morel;/ nojninsil* In 
1'!'71 he pwrifiitted mtiibarry trews to be plant «d in ti.e ent ranch- 
raent and ©mbankniffint of the city wall of J^lorenow . In 17*72, by 
la's of AuKust 7th, the peopl& were permitted to root up ahrvih© 
and sr-all buahea from the fle3.ds. In 17'75j August 16th, Leo- 
pold saw thr* necessity of freeing tho forests, so hu pss^Bssed 
laws gi-^ing aljnoat imiverual liberty of felling trees on a man'e 
own property and allowing hira to olear out brush and man-mg© his 
own forests and orchards. This was followed up later by a 
number of rules in later years all for felling or regulating 
foroete. In 178S, Mfereh •'5rd, he sold tne royal forests to the 
various difltriete in whieh they were situated, and their wan- 
ageioent waa left to those di«trict8. On January ^,0, 1789, he 
offered a preraium for planting chestnut trees. The importance 
reached beyond the trade in fuel and lumber j it neant that a 
great deal of Tuscan Ifmd hitherto idl® could bti cleared aiid 
tiSipd for agriculture. ''i- 

Oil as fuel and as food was of some ic^^ortanoe in Tii^cany. 
Its export was rigorously forbidden in 1767. In 1770 the wholosai: 
trade of olive oil was freed from duty and all rest riot ions, but 

its retail trade was still taxed. On Oetototjr ^8, 1771| doiae®- 
tio oil was freed from all transit duty in all tiitj (Irand ':mchy. 
On Febn^ary 29, 1772, Leopold freed olive oil and fish oil, 
both wholesale and retail, from all tax. In Hovaiutaer 177o he 
freed foreign oil for fuel from all duty for five yaare. Aft- 
er t}iat he i^assed a f«w minor regulations about the oil trade 
but nothing of nuch importanco. 

"Besides these acts Leopold relieved and regulated a large 
niisber of industries which are not of sufficient iinportano© to 
deserve speoific treatment. The following wk re ret^ulated and 
relieved of reetrlotiona of various kinds ; olives, chocolate, 
rice, butter, milk, chwese, honey, beet-root, ioe, poultry, 
manure, and horse fodder. 

Another thing in which Leopold benefitted nis peopit was 
in markets, JIarkat stalls were, for each trade, practically 
in the hands of a monopoly, and fanaere who sold their iroduce 
through them were much restricted and oppressed. In 1768 Leo- 
pold repealed the laws compelling farmers to bring certain 
kinds of produce to market and also permitted theia to take honws 
what they did not sell at market. In 1770 he made many mar- 
ket regulations, among them one allowing Bawga two weekly mark- 
ets free and three fairs a year for selling produce and another 
Monte ■'j'etturnn a free market once a month and one fair a year. 
These are given as showing his diverse policy ; on account of 
different conditions he had to make different regulations for 
each district. On September 10, 1773 he issued an edict al- 


lowing prorieions to b«s aold fr«»ft In the ?lar»ntine laarkirita. 
In tha next year^ he freed jBarkats everywhere in ^.h© Grand 
Duohy frOHi taxes, and gavw pormisaion to rmy one to seXl any- 
thing In markets. Fe passed jnarsy oUu-r ©diets r«gulatins 
str®<i.t8 on which markets were to bo held, and othfsr rainor mat- 
tars conneotifitd with the™. 

Many districts of Tuaoany- on aocount of TJnfaTorable con- 
ditions QT unjust taxation haA become almost depopulated, ;.n.d 
Leopold took msasurea to bvdld them ux> again. Hi a r.aastires 
far relieving th«i MsreasiJia !*nd o"h«r districts are treated to 
aor,e 3Xt3nt in th© ohaptar on Ad21.ini strati on. On Fe'Y>r\xa,ry 9, 
1769, ha granted to tho«« who would olear ^nd riake arable 
avfaraj)/ land in th© !5ararmaa, auch land in full pessesBion be- 
sides certain privileges and exemptions. Other lands in the 
aarie district he granted, free of taxation for twenty year® to 
tiwsft who would af:re«i to le^rove them and besides g;rs.nted then 
free tiaih«r and ir^n for building. He also invited foreigners 
to settle imder th© SMie conditions. In I'^VS, he instructed 
th« local officers to «!;rant 1 X/2 Italian miles in the Appen- 
inaa to thosc-j who would, oiear, plow a,na sow them witnin txiree 
y«ar». In March 1?77, ho offerttd f^round and help in huildin^-j 
houses to all who would go to colon ljs« the Island of G^rgona. 
In 1784, h® issued an edict granting I/4 the cost of building 
to any colonist or peasant who would huild a new house or add 
to his old one, provided the* cost be aa much as $30, On July 
28, 1766, he offered land, help in bxillding and iraraunity froa 

c«?rtaln taxes to colonists in ^hm ?al 4i F©vol®. 

Another law that do serve a to Tae mentioned in conmsotion 
with agrioultur® was th&t of Mortmain. The p-nforotment of 
this law stopped iHimediately all stagnation of property and 
caused instant disposal and tillage of vast tracts formwrly 
uneltis®. It gav® new life to agriculture. 

On Septeaher lrS| 1767, he passed a law that no agricul- 
tural implement or catti© cotild ba seized for debt (sither pub- 
lic or private, \md9r severe p^nalt/. 

In August 1768, the rmglBtracies of Grasoia mnd abimdi*noc 
which had greatly hazapered tra^e, particularly that of i-rovi- 
slone, were abolished, and tba Annona establish^A, 

In the aai-^ie year he established an academic ♦'IhMiHttr® of Agri- 
oiiltura* to encourage tneorsst-ipal discusssions ana solutions of 

His views about agriculture rnay be of some interesst. In 
brief, they were according to IJapior (1), "that as the soil 
would only yield fruit in x^roportjon to the amount of labor 
beatow@d, it Toeosms th<s) sovereign's duty to promote its moBt 
extensive division, con ^i stent with the snconrarJieruent of a olose 
and active application of siic^ labor aia might ^rove most con- 
ducive to prodiAotion 5 that a vast breadth of crown and cor- 
poration land w*i0 owned by thos® of al.l others 1»eat adapted to 
facilitate active industry and agricultural prosiierity in any 
country J that the existing mana^^^ement of this proi>erty was 

N. -253-4. 

fraught with avil to the poor j, with iQMn and *-)xftbar*ra«i8merit j 
ftill of Hlnui.e details, and clogged with ©xpunsea thiit obstruot- 
&d its a<imini strati on, absorbed profits, occ«kSion««(l Imrtful 
operations, carelessness, peculation, and other disorders al- 
ifioat inseparable from it, and fin«.lly depriT<i<J the public of 
any benefit from their own possessions. Landlords mo fptr re- 
i/ioved from the soil as were t.h<^ crown an'i th« ramieipalitieg 
could only in hits coneeption t^]g.& a bird's-eye view of it and 
were connequently %}m worst p&tfonB of production that oould 
poBsibiy bfc given to agriculture j while on tlto contrary, ©rri&Il 
proprietors and laborers were its nearest <ind most active im- 
provers. }fe mormo'v&r considered that the far.'dnf^ nyntism. then 
prevalent in Tuaoany as touching the "jwalfarw of l&borera and 
colonists had generated a olasi^ of! serfs, paid only by a 
yearly subslBteno© to i^^rove the capital of others, but. 'With- 
out stimulus or ».ny prospect of advancing their own condition 
boyond that low and narrow bourne wi.Jeh confines human view© 
to thfc simple gain of daily sujstenanoe, and tiius keeps man 
scarcely above the level of irrational beings without tlseir in- 
fttinet or enjoyment. Leopold thouf^ht it a sovereign's duty 
to procure for this class a real Interest in the land, that 
they also might share thoH© fetilingis which jtiroporty crtsates, 
and thU8 be stiraulated to giv<! the public ita portion of the 
fruits resulting from private e^rtions and individual inter- 
ests, mwiely, an augmenting national wealth." 

A number of laeasures whicii Leoiiold paBsed and r.easures 

whloh referred partly to a.griculture, but mere eapeci^-lly to 
otlier forme of indugtrj, are treated. later in this chapter. 

The silk industry was one uf mxioh importa,no© and one vvhich 
had been nuoh harapfired, "Mulberry leaves, cocoon©, and raw 
silk could not be tranein^rted without a license, or be wold 
freely by any but privileged persons, or be deposited in any 
warehouse but that of t> e cowfysroial chambers, or be sold in 
Florence without a tax besides custom duty, (i) Besides this, 
tVie wo>-'<erB were rnxmh hanpered by -nilds. On '"'ay If,, 1''<'9, 
Leopold put Sb tax on cocoons ; on the ;^.6th of ^^ay 1770, he abol- 
ished the silk workers' tribunal at Pisa, leaving the trade 
tree from a few restrictions. In ay 1771, he permitted bi)»1- 
borry trees to be planted in the entrenchments about Florence. 
In Octobi^r 1775, he removed a few eiore restrictione. On Ai>- 
ril 19, 1776, he required all pilke to be stamped. On Septem- 
ber S3, 1776, he decreed that the silk cocoon trade and thilr 
transport be fr(sed. On ^ept, 1, 1777, ht? removed certain 
transport taxes on ailk. On June 1, 1778, silk weaving was 
permitted in any part of Tusoapy instead of at Pisa and Florence 
alone, Tliree edicts of August 23rd, Peptenber 24, and Decem- 
ber 2, 1779 freed the trade in raw silk, cocoons, and mulberry 
leaves entirely and abolished all taxes on the buying and sell- 
ing of silk ; removed all obslnActions to the eilk tradt ; 
traeA even foreign silk from taxes in T?lorence ; T>ermitted the 
export of »ilk on payment of a small duty j &.nd finally abolish- 

(1) Kr.-223. 

©d all guilds in allk laanufaetviring on wither & large or small 
scale. Id 1780 another law, feefcid© learing the quasi ion of 
wag©3 to master ss and workmen, frBtHi th® silit industry from nine 
district laws, each :*'iill of ir.inittfc r»^ulat.ionfi fur the r'?an«fac- 
turo of silk froa th«s egg to the tealed product, (1) Tv/o other 
edio'. s of thfc- eaine y«ar were beneficial ; one of 'iareh 29th 
freed silk workers froiia Byf^ry burden and the other of Decu Jxr 
13th offer«d a preriiuia of &i. of itg v&lu© on the exijort of 
stlk. For BOH© reason on April 5th, 1738, the export of riaw 
silk was forbidden. 

Wool and its products took much of his attention. via 
policy with regard to export fmd iaiport changed -very often. 
On April 14, ive*?, h«3 pi^nuitttad its exj)ort for tv¥o vearg frse. 
An edict of ,Jima 8, 1763 pivrmitt^d the lE^ort of raw wool for 
weariRf:: fr&e. Woolen goods were permitted to hw exported fr®e 
by an edict of 26th 7)©ceiaber, 1768, Inst this in^ort vm& for- 
hlrlden. In the next yoar their export was forbidden and this 
was renewed in 1771 "to encourage wearlns" Leopold s^id. Kc 
permitted the erfeoticn of fulling mills after i7th 'Jarch, 1773, 

An ©diet of May ;i9, i7?M which hB made offered a bounty 
on the a^QJort of native -voolena *tid on Dsoeisber lith of the 
ear.c year h© freed Its trade in Taiscany. On A^-rii l&th of the 
next j&m' ha d©ore«d that woolian goods must b« ateaniied. Bone 
of hia othe-r odiots with thtsir provisions are on«8 of 1776 
lightening the* vooX trade and puttin;: a duty on the iaiport of 

(1) H.-226, 

forelgn woolens j of Reptenbt«r 17?7 rejuoving certain transport 
duties ; of Deo«mb«r ij, 1779 regulating duties on foreign wool- 
ens ; of De comber 9, 1780 and n^eember 13, 1785 offering a pro- 
nium for domestic woolens copying a certain Enr^lieh style ; and 
finally one of April 5, 1788 forbidding the e3!i>ort of raw wool. 

In linen, too, Tuscany had soaife trade, and Leopold largel;/ 
favored it. On g9th July, 176*), he d©cr®**d that linen oould 
b*i exjjorted free and also gave certain privileges to the trade. 
An edict of AugiAst ?-'.7, 1770 made the stamping of linon goods 
free, and another of Beotjmber 9, 1771 forbade Its ©xport. On 
April 28th of tho next year he permitted the exijort of linen 
on payment of duty, and about a j^&r later permitted fulling 
ffiilla to b«3 erected hj an^ one. Bj an edict of Eeptenber 1, 
l'?77, he freed linen from certain transport duties. 

In cotton, flax and hem^f Leopold made aome refonis. On 
April 14, 1767, he freed hemp of ej^^ort duty for two years. 
An edict of 11th of ^%roh 1773 freed flax, hei^> and cotton froe 
import duties and raade export free in certain places and anoth- 
er of the Bmnd year frt^ed hemp and cotton and all their depend- 
ent industries from a great i?iany restrictions within the Grand 
Duchy. On Beptemher 1, 1777, hemp and cotton and flax wera 
freed from certain taxes und transport duties in Tuscany- 

Sorae of Ms regulatiops referred not to any particular 
kind of cloth, bvit simply ;t.o cloths and others r&f^rrtid to 
^veaving and spinning. Two edicts of February 3 and 5, 1770 
relieved weavers of many restrictions and allowed a free export 

of woven goads, but put « tax on th*-ir ijjs|>ort to ©noourage do- 
mast lo waring. In Beeaiubisr 1770 hm rsslievad spinning by 
talcing the tape off yarn. , An adiot of u^roh 14, 1777 parwit- 
ted weaying to b« carried on within h mile of Florence ; anoth- 
er of February ^3, 1780 abolished amny intarnal taxes on clothss 
rtr^ii n+.ill itn-.*-.he^ of y^^lf J^l, l'?BB' Increased +h« ir^po*** tax or. 
foreign oloth«, 

L«oj,>old made sowe regxilations of straw for weaving. Idiots 
of July 21, 17t>a fix®d the pries of straw for working ; of 
April 5, 1771 made the importation of straw for weaving fra« 
and tools some other restriction from th« industry j and another 
edict of Becembwr 9th of the »mm yoar put an export duty on 
sorae of the finished i^roduct® of sitraw, such as straw hats. 

Another indiiairy of jrmoii importance in Tiigcany was th;%t 
of leather, hides and tanning, and furu. At Leopold's acces- 
sion, there were laany tanning monopolies and laws of exclusive 
privileges which excluded any but the favored few from profits 
in this trade, but he earl^ 3^1, to worit to relieve it and re- 
moved one priviltige after anot^ier until the aonopoliea were 
practically worthless, and tf.on hu fin<*ll/ aboli»hcid them alto- 
gether, Tha following edicts show most of his regulations ; 
17th September 1766, various tapces on leather were abolished ; 
Oetobvjr H, 1767, duty on irai>ortad calfskin increased for thrue 
years j anoliicr -of tha t-ctcie y^^^r abolishing the tax paid an- 
nually to the Tuscan government by orery member of th*; tanning 
trade • (1) 30th August 1769, leatlierware in vioreno© and 

(1) H.-134. 

Siena d«Qlar«d free In expo'-t <4nd, manufaoturo j 2Bth Septemtoer 
1769, duty on export of tawned leathnr pw.d raw hides aboliahtjd ; 
25th June 17'?0, the transport of leather from district to dlB- 
triot declared fr^^ wad pwr .listjioiit jtranted m\y one to buy it j 
3d June 1"71, export of siheepBlcin f0rbi<ld@:n ; 16th. Novtnuher 
1771, thn tax on tanning aa-id maniifaoturing leather reduced l>y 
half If sold in Florentine district ; 87th varoh 177*^, many re- 
atrtotions r®jnoved from the fur &,r%d leather trade^ tax on the 
import of fur and leather work and permiasion to an/ one in 
wior*3noe to tan leather j 28th October i77b ey«;r/ •ixisting; 
monopoly in any "way connected with the tanning trade abolished 
and all old priyilegss to tanneries abolished, also &.ny om-s can 
«nt«r Into tannin^r buelnees ar'd b^itohers rnay prGp^re and sell 
the hldfts of the anlaals thay alaui-^hter j at the sauie tivcio the 
tax on the import of hides was reriO-?( d i 23d of '^ebriiary 17-0, 
l/i5 of the tax on hides was aboliished j 15th -ay 17B2, stsufip on 
domestic leather abolished and many other s^inor edicts mn&ng. 
which migh.% be mentioned one in 17oH forbidding th© ©Xiuri of 
skins and furs ouriously «noiigh for protection of the internal 
trade . { 1 ) 

Then in other rdnor indna-riee somfci of th© regulntions he 
made arts as follows : Pya March 2, 1771, certain dyes freed 
from internal tax and e25>ortation fvQB when coi^letaly iiroi^red, 
but not at all in th« unfinished stale, and all foreign dyes 
««_„ "h^ iy^ortffd fr^*" I ■•"«?.y ??«, 1'''^'^, tax ^^ all -lolor vnatsrial 

(1) M,-291. 


much redU0ed. Wax , SXat. Janwarjc 1772, any one pergiltted to 
"blnHn^. '"ftw waur nnll t© wf»r1? it ; l^+.'h, noto>>^r' i"?*???, ssp^nlal fa- 
vor® to tlionn starting; i»ax-maai«faot ■siring or wax indusstry ; 
Hnoth«r in 17?g suppr^aeing a -rery larga wax monopoly (1) ; 
1773, ■be^swjcc fr@®<i of essport, ia^ort and transit tawc©8 (8) j 
35t,h Soptemlver 1787 a t^ix of PMfj on all wax works. foreign 
and doneatio noap wsa freed b,y an edict of March JiS, 1773 and 
twine was fr^md in certain diatrlctii an I'aroh 87, 1773. 

Asaeng other Induistri©® whioh Leopold fr®©d waa that of 
iron and it® prodiicta, ?hi» industry was b. rojail monopoly said 
as auoh ■«?as5 administered oy an offices called %im Kagona. It 
r€tgulat@d the price of iron in all parts of the arand 'nuoliy and 
among other restriotlons &ren r^&®rred &xolueire ri^^tta for 
felling treea i«ii.Mn a certain distanoa of iron foundries. In 

1770 Ii0«i>old issued an edict freeing many tools of iron and 
steel from certain taxes. C^) AnotH-^r edict of Daoosiibcr s, 

1771 ptirnitted a i^ood metnj Kindfi of iron war«f to bo sold and 
circulated free ; one of l'??S abolished several tax®s on naila; 
of .Tul7 1, 1776, jH rraltting smiths to rasUc© all kinds of nails j 
of February 7^ l"??? reducing th© i'rice on mmi^r m^ooSBary tools 
such as haaaers *nd spndea ; of the 11th and l^th of April 177a 
ah»lishlnf* the mon©poly, ovsrsi^fnt of manufacture and trad© and 
transr^ort tj*x on iron in t}io Maroama ; of Atigust 31st of th© 
nmxt year permitting any one to trUrda in iron war© in small 

(1) W.-165. 

i?i} j?.-i6f. 

(3) H.-151. 

quantitieB, but -iSfitlL a tax ; of I^'ehruiir/ XA -.uul 'ai'oh la, 17.:iO 
porznitting any Qtiet zo trade in or iaanufactui-o Iron in a few 
diecrictft j of the 2'^%h July, ish!':« /war, regulating the t«,x on 
the wholesale and retail sal^ of iron, ^nd finally an edict of 
August 30, 1761, diaaolTing ©nt-irsiy Vm royal monopoly v3f 
iron, the Magona or offie« of its adisiniatration and unahaoJs- 
ling its «xf)Grt, irai<ort, transit arid manufacture. Soon after 
he 8old the royal foundries. (1) 

Mining was a royal monopoly iintil 'Hay i», 1788, ^Mh&n Leo- 
i'Old £iboli»hed it to^tsthyr i!«ith his royalties ovar lairicral ores, 
precioufl stones, *;jtc, (2) Ai» ©diet of 11th ll&j 1771 permit- 
ted the import of gold and si Iyer , but forfeade that of fringes, 
taaeiJls, fe'to», of imitation gold j another of :'»rch 20, 177;-., 
freed all gold and siirer work made in Tuscany front all tax ; 
and one of September 29, 1780 jierwitted frB& transport of gold 
and siirer whether lainted or not. 

Paper . On Oetoher 10, 1766, an adict forljad© the export 
of paper &» well ati i^aroitoent and rauii for i apsr-ffiakint, i*nd 
xorl>a(I<s the ijj^ort of foreign imjicra with the Q-scei-tion of 
Turkisl'i i'iiper. On August 80, 1768, th© iisport of i^rint®d 
boolca was i^ade fr«6 ; on December ^, 1771, liie oxpor-t of any 
BUitf^rial for pap^r and paet- -n«*king was forbidden j on FoTembcr 
29, 1776 patotefeoard and Oiirda were allowed to "oe Isjfciorted with 
a f»v'!all duty i on October 15, 1732, tho stamping of paper was 

(1) N.-a33. 

(a) N. i)71» 


i*"boiiii'w<i in «* WJUsber of rXnoea, 

qift»s . On 9th Beees^'b^r 1768, i^laas was fr««d from vxi-ort 
duty for five ye*r8. An «Jdici, of Jujui 27, 17 V7 gave free olr- 
oulation to clay, b'-icic oruciblQS for glass smelting, and liroken 
glaas, a.i.l for glaiaa making. Anotht&r edlot of "-^ebrimry 17, 
178d abolished tha old lnw of 1?38 resirlctlng ^'jlaasj •■?orjc;>rs 
to the inhabitants of «* »mJill town 0'^il(s»'i T^ontajone and left 
tha trade frets to all. (1) 

Among his othsjr regulations for industry are th« follow- 
i«C i SaXtp«tr<s &nd Gfun-pQwdter « ISth Jwa-^j^stry 1773 the monopol- 
las in saltpctr* and j^un-poiwder were abolished with all their 
iirivilegas and SMy ok<8 -was pe.r-.ittccl to aanufaoturs, huy or 
aoll them, «*nd bot-h their isa^ort &nd ej^ort waa made free. 
Potash. Edict of October 2, 1781, aboliahr-d t.he monopoly in 
Potfcah nnd trade in it, both foreign and doia«!Btic, tms permitted 
^A nils Ma»22lfl» ^^^ edicts of A'^^^u^t 9, T77.*j ar»d "'ay SB, 
17r3S; Leoijold removed some old restrictions to thtt itiarblo indus- 
try and ttixmi it. Art v>ar@ . 12th August 17. iO ^vmry bond and 
iBfjiediraent to «irt war«» abolished, Porcolain was freed from u 
number of duties in 1766, flround c^iory was ptaTiitted to b© 
exported Auguat 15, 1766. Muajo atringa . These oould bo 
mad® of «ny matsr^rial 'My 15, 1773 aiid in thej artjis year wort; 
fr«»d from taxa© and their industry deoiared open to all. 

Inna war* fr«od from all taxes by am edict of Ho^'^omber 16, 
1785, Livery atablss within threu iBilfcJS of vlorence wsre freed 

(1) 1?.. 247-8. 

froia taxeet f^ei>tctnr>or 4, .1779. Old Mills wera taxed cind er- 
ection of nfiw onen a» vmlJ 25tk AuifUBt 1782, Btore pt and wara- 
hotiB«« could be built within a inila of Florrmoe, M»roh 14, 1777. 
Bo{»lnnir-G with .Hxly 15, 1^66, up till 178*?, >i«i ifiBued firo 
©diets r«igul6,ting shipplr^i^, 

A nurab^r of neaeures referring to iprtiiijtry and corariercc, 
which do not "bwlong to any pRy^tovilRr Industry wer© aa followe : 
f'ullda^ Pont- of thesii^ Imve T3u<m treated under the various in- 
dustries. By a law of :Fe"bnmry 1, 1770, hm abolished a great 
mi^ny snjildB in Tlor^noe and put others tmder the newly created 
•♦C5iaK'h<!r of CoKrnftrce, Trades and M.-inufacturlea* an'l the sup- 
yrosHlon of most matriowlation fe«s soon follo'sed. (1) By an 
esdict of ?foT©mber 24, 1775, gviilde ami ,-^;vdld taxes on woriaaen 
in 'Florence were abolished and in Frato the guilds itwl f\i\M 
'v-ribunal ware ©.boliehud. On 7^tiau::(bvr '.^th of iha following 
yoar, the guilds in Area.".© ware aoolished. Publio g^ilaaman or 
♦•r^^eagani", without i^hose aid no a«rcantile transaction oould b@ 
effectsd, were s-ltogath-nr abollsht^rt in 1784, (2) In 1770, 
foreigin artisans w®r® encouraged to settl© in Tuscany -and thjjs© 

together with other workmen v?«r<9i ih all lent more than 200,000|^ 
with strict orders to m&ic® repayiaont a,a easy as possible so as 
not to diecourage indUBtry. (3) On mr.exix\)er ..50, 1779 li<s or- 
dered a Y&ry larg© warehouse tn be built at Li-rorno for thy re- 
ceipt ©f food® to further induestry, l,eiopold .ssade several 

U) ^* 149-§0. 

(2) >T. 25a. 

(3) F. 151. 

agreements ifith othor countria® for nutual trad® bsnsiUt. 
On Dec, 15, 1778, on© was laade with Austria for free trad© 
and Intercourse between the countries and for benefiting 
Eianufactures* In 1778 a similar one was made with ^"orocco, 
end on April J37 and y^j 1, 1781 agreeiasnts of somewhat th© 
setro nature with Lombardy, Mantua and ?:odene., 

Thes*. Rre Leopold's principRl msaaurss with regard to 
agriculture, industry and coimjierc®. Although a f©w of his 
reasvires were contradictory, on ths whola his efforts were 
directed toward fiirtharing the best interest of the different 
trad'?s and toward lesrlng them free froia ra^itrlct^on. His 
own ideas about trad^ arfe given in the epristitution which h® 
had prepared but n&v&r issued. It is tree,ted In the last 

■■ O *.' ■" 

Chapter V» 
Criminal Law Code, 

Prom the very beginning of his reign up to 1786 Leopold 
issued many edicts for the reform of criminal law. In that 
year he published his criminal law code, and in it are em- 
bodied, all the legal reforms which he tried and found satis- 
factory, as well as many new reforms, and some of the old 
laws which were in use at his accession. 

In the preamble to his code, Leopold says that he found 
the laws in force much too severe, so he set about modify- 
ing and lessening penalties for various offenses. He says 
a trial at mitigating punishments, a scrupulous attention to 
prevent crimes and a despatch in a certainty of 
punishment has greatly diminished crime, For this reason 
hs has issued this criminal code for the good of his people. 

The first part of the code is taken up with regulations 
of court procedure and general rules about trials. In the 
first place, all criminal cases must be begun at the instance 
of the attorney general or the aggrieved person, both of 
whom must sign their coaplaint, so that if the accused is 
innocent, the accuser may be prosecuted for calumny. Sur- 
geons may inform in cases coming under their notice except 
in cases of personal abuse, slander, fighting, seduction and 

All this criminal code chapter is taken from Leopold's 
criminal law code, privately printed at Warrington in 1789, 
and the book was so small that it was not thought worth while 
to give reference to pages. 


adultery. In these cases thos© injured hare to bring suit 
and they may withdraw it at any time. In case of such with- 
drawal, if the offense is known to have been comaiitted, word 
shall bo sent to have the accused watched. 

Severs-1 regulations with r-^g-ard to oaths were reforms 
by Leopold, Any man charged with a crime is forbid('^©n to 
take oath as to rrfaat concerns himself or others, whether 
they be accomplices or not, Purthor the plaintiff is for- 
bidden to take the oath wM ch he used to be forced to take to 
avoid calumny, unless the accused require it. Witnesses, 
too, need not STr?ear at their exsMnation unless the accused 
require it* In giving ball the oath is not required euTd 
in fact is practically abolished in all criminal affairs. 
In case it is adiainistered, lnr;tead of swearing on a Bible, 
the person must kneel before a crucifix and take the oeth. 

Other regulations referred to warrants and arrests. All 
warrants for arrest in criminal matters raust be sig^ned 
by attorney general of the Chief Justice Tribunal at Florence, 
by chief attorney at Siena and by the lieutenant of the 
province. No witness, even, may bo imprisoned without such 
a signed warrant. No warrants to be issued where the 
accused is subject only to a fine. In criminal cfises in 
which the accused rnay have to suffer corporal punishment, 
the judge may or may not issue a warrant. If, Then released 
on bail, a delinquent fails to appear after two summons have 
been aent to him, he shell be brought by force. To declare 


outlav/ry against a person, he must have bean cited, to appear 
three times, with 8 days interval. If an accused parson 
have a judgment passed, agsinst Mm in his absence, ha uiay 
claim a new trial if he sippear within tvfo weeks, otherwise 
the sentence goes into force. If the &ccused is sentenced 
only to a fine, he may claim a new trial i^ithjn six months. 
If he be condemned to bodily punishment vAenever he r-ppcar, 
willingly or brought by force, his dofonss shall be heard 
and his sentence regulated. 

Many other and important refortris and regulations were 
made with refsrencs to evidence and 'sritnesses. T'videncs 
under oath or not shall have the ssoae weight j but the Judge 
shall explain that e. falsohood is contrary to human end divin® 
law. Ho witnesses may be imprisoned and tried for not giving 
evidence, unless their knowledge of the subject can be law- 
fully proved, Warrant to bring witnesses under guard, but 
not at their own expense, may be issued to prevent evasion 
and bribery if the case bo important. If any witness fail 
to appear after two sucanonses he shall be brought at his 
own expense. If the accused name any wi.tnes3 or proof that 
niay lead to hia acquittal, such proof or witness shall be 
exei/iined. In certain cases witnesses are to be fined for 
non-appearance within 3 days unless sufficient cause bo shown 
for non-appearance. Another reform ir the same line con- 
cerned the using of blood relatives as witnesses. Father, 
son, mother, husband, wife, brothers and sisters are all for- 

biddsn to testify against each other, unless it is in relation 
to murder or other great crime s,gainst some member of th© 
farnily. In this case the judge must get dispensation to hay© 
such testimony received and then only when no other proofs 
can be obtained. No secret ©videnc© shall be received and 
prejutiiclng judges etc outside of court forbidden. Another 
reform of some interest is the rejection of presumptive proof, 
however atrocious the criine be, Leopold says, "these proofs, 
being always irregular, iriust of consequence be unjust and 
therefore cannot be gLdndtted of any possible case", Wo 
evidence was to be obtained by means of torture, 

Another reform which Leopold considered particularly 
important was that of expedition in trials. Judges are 
charged to see trials despatched as quickly as possible and 
to fcry cases where th© accused is imprisoned before any 
other kind, Also to exaiain© the accused as soon es brought 
into their presence, that he mey be released on ball if 
possible, Witness and those who are only suspected of crimes, 
who are kept in confinement, shall be treated as well as pos- 
sible and released whenever it can be done, This sperdy 
release or speedy bringing to justice was considered of much 
importance and often referred to in Leopold's edicts. 

Another step toward justice was that which required a 
copy of all evidence and all proceedings to be given to the 
accused or his counsel in order to help him prepare his de- 
fense. This former process shall be made public also. 


Araong other rulv^s are the following, if a person has 
comiTiitted crimes in various juri adictions, the chief tribunal 
at Florence or Siena, shall be notified, and thoy shall appoint 
a single judge and tribunal to collect all the evidence and 
make one judgment. In the sairie line, if a trial is started 
before one tribunal by miatake or for convenience, it shall be 
continued even although it should have been tried before 
another and no appeal shall be allowed from its decision, 
on the grounds of incompetency of the court. For poor 
criBilnals an advocate shall be ©ppointed to assist them in 
their defense. 

Two financial reforms wera of much benefit, ITo money 
for trial expenses may be demanded until th-:-' triPl is com- 
pletely over, formerly trials had been often stopped until 
Such money was paid. In trial expenses the usual reduction 
is made to the poor. In caae of su5t for damages the offended 
party shall have first claim upon the property of the offender, 
but in cfse he have no property or insufficient property, 
the government shall indemnify the injured ones from a fund 
under control of the president of the Chief Tribunal of 
Florence, Out of this fund, filso, shall those who hf-v© been 
accused and found innocent after imprisonment be prdd. 

Magistrates and lieutenants of districts moy condemn 
prisoners to small fines and puni shurants, but must in their 
we-^kly reports assign their reason. The higher- officers 
may condemn to a little more severe punishments, but in both 


of these cases the condenmed may appeal and have s, regular 
trial. Murder, robberies, t/3 olence of any kind to be tried 
vdthin 10 days of act and other inisdomeanors within 5 days, 

Finally in section 116 Leopold says, in substance, that 
he has left so much power of discretion in the hands of the 
Judges in every case, ths.t they must not decide without some 
well founded reason, ^n6 thst this reason be published, also 
that each tribunal keep a copy of such cases in order to have 
uniformity of judgments. 

Besides these regulations just stated Leopold's pttitude 
toward and reforms of various kinds of punishments is in- 
teresting and instructive, Pirst of all torture is abolished 
completely in every form, and forbidden to be used under any 
circumstances, next the punishment of death for aiy offense 
is abolished completely. Branding, the strappado and all kinds 
of mutilation are abolished as inhums^n and barbarous. The 
right to kill those accused or even suspected of crime is 
abolished forever. Another puni shment abolished is that of 
confiscation of property of crininals since"thi s affects only 
the innocent far-'i ly or heirs and not the guilty person". 

Its fonner use wks more to enrich the treasury than to punish 
the offender. Besides this is the abolition of the ri^rht 
to romute or lessen punishment by fines. 

After abolishing punishments formerly used new onos are 
instituted* After the abolition of death sentence, in order 


that crijaiiials formerly to b® punished by death nay still 
m«0t r®tr:^^bution ftn4 yat ihat lafty h«5,y0 ^ chcmca to r'-form and 
atone by aom© good actions thai bad ones they hare coirinilttod, 
the sftateaco of hard labor for life Is substituted for the 
death sentence* Th;? following |>unislir.i©nt3 way hereafter be 
uaeO by judges j pecuniary fines, laahQS in jsrlratQ, Imprison- 
ment provided it do not continue for uior© thi^jn a year, banish- 
ment in v&rlous degrees, confinement to vfirloua places, pillory, 
public floga'ing, public flota:,lriO upon an as 3, Bridewell or 
house of corraotion for omen from ons^ year to 11 f ?» Imprison- 
ment, o«*,eh prisoner to h&.v: lisr heir cut'? to be eniploycd 
in some labor | h»rd labor for mon— 3, 7, 10, IB, 20 yr-nrs 
and for life* fo this puni uhm'^nt r lP.oel expri^ssing the n&ture 
of the crin^? shall be ^orn by all undergoing it, Tho3^-5 who 
are to have hr^rd lf>bor for life km at wear an iron rir.;g with a 
double chain also a label*- «Th^ T^asst Punishnient*, Th^^ a.-za© 
kind of a label nmst be worn by -wcsen coEinltted to Bridewell 
for lifo» Public exposure at gates of court of justice shall 
precede puniahia-^nt for all of the more violent crimes, 

Bf-nlsh»ent3 are from the bailiwick (>nv 3 miles a^ounr. ; 
frojii thn ViC'Tlat end 5 miles around j or froa- th'o ^Jr? nd 
Tuchy, which is r*»?serYed for those crlBiinalB dl scovTlng 
thoir eccottsplSoes, vaijabonds, quacks, fdrsl^:n©r3 "±o trans- 
gress, $in(^ calunmiator3» 

Imprisonj'ient is inp<\o aom'-^tivMB in ths* Volt-^r'^e, fn the 
lower proviace, ^nd at Groaseto. 

In order to m©-ke ordinary imprisonment ^rsl^r, the 


prisons are t© b© regulated, cleaned, adred, and those priso- 
ners in duHgedns ar« tc have tLeir dungeon changed tor at 
loasl^ a. day oncd a week. 

Finally the power of perriutir^tj these senteroe® pnc 
punishiflants is coiapletcly revoked. 

Aft or the vRrJous punishirients allowed, comas thif? crimes 
to «!rhich these ar« assignffid. Fir at ov' tsll Leopold Pbol5 shes 
th© crime eallod Lea© Majoste, or high tr«ason~-thsre hf.(^ been 
much misuse of th-a tsrci, e.nd it had liiany times served to 
rid the kincs of thoir privata eneKleK, L©opol<?, although 
broad on msaiy lilies was still narrows- with refr^rssnce to religion* 
"v^oevor**, raads thia provision "shall dcra to profane ths 
divin© mysteries, or shrll be publicly guilty of isipi. etios 
or shall inculcate Ea&xlas contrary to our holy Catholic reli- 
gion, shell never reesivs a loss punisbinont than hrrd lebor, 
either for a or during life. But siiriplc blasphemlss, 
which m^y come froa a disordered mind or excess of rin:^ are 


punishable only by small imprisoniaQrit* Kobhory of sacred 
vessels, of no iriati^er ho* snail vfclua, ahf?lX bo con3i<'er9ri grand 
larcany and raay ba fji ven a puElsiiinent of jubli c if/oor for 20 

Concerning public lib^la or slanders, printed or ysi^brl, 
those against high officors such as attorney c^neral ney be 
overlookad with a reprimand to the offender, but in cas?^ of 
such slandsr a^jainst any of the inagiut rates:, the offendar 
siuat b© punished according to the degree of abuse and besides 
must make a public recentation. In cases of ordinary sl&jader. 

of pri'/at<5 parsons, a pecanivry fin? and public retraction 
may be required if tb^ injxired peracan demsnd it, bjici ^t the 
slr;nder bo particularly shameful, inpriaoranent or ban3 shinant 
nay be Inflicted, In th--- sane I'-na falsa evidence and false 
accusations in court sha.ll be puttished by public tlostfi'^^B -■'^^-^ 'slijner-.t from th© Grand TiiChy, axicl. iu spoc;ia.l oases of such 
caluritiy, '--ven iniprS soniasnt for life at hfrd labor j;;ay be 

For prem?*dltr.teid xrairders, or for those who order or 
assist in them, th-s punlehner.t ste, 11 be hard labor for life, 
previous to wr.lch the of fond or sMll be exposed for v.n hour 
in the pillory, /ll other C£'.:.©a ol Bturd'=-^r, raiii^ing from that 
in n quarrel to s?;lf, s-ud accidental murdar, shall bs 
left aithftsther to the discr'3tlon of the judfe,:ss to punish 
severely or acquit entirely. Police if they kill or wound 
8. prisoner in arresting him, shall bo subject to .most rigorous 
punishment unless it can bo pro'ved that the prisoner openly 
resisted arrest. In this casra tha ofJlcers may bs slightly 
punished or oven released f^ntiraly. In oasoj in this resis- 
tance to arrest, the pbl:^ ce are vouncsd^ sov'n't? penalties 
shall be inflicted* 97oundino; of othars with arms sjsall in- 
variably be punished from corporril punishment up to public 
labor according to th9 dQirrefi of injury and pr-:^rj:editation. 
If no weapon be used, the pur.iahmsnt shall be a fins fron 
5 to 40 dollars, 

Tnen tiier© are various punisninants for stealing, burglar. 


ies, thefts committed with false keys, embezzlsment s etc 
it th.Q loss equal about 25 dollars, shall condemn the thief 
to public labor from 3 to 20 yonrs* Patty la.rceny, if the 

amount stolen is Issa ihv.a 53 dollars, stmll be jpunj shed 
by a less punishment than hard labor. If mors than 50 
dollars, the sam© punishment a:-: burglary* Hitjhw&y robbsry 
or 2 dollar a su ejects the otTendoir to public labor, and if it 
is oommitted -with arris, no matter hoi? sjaall the ai-iount atolsn, 
Kust be punished with public labor, e\r&ia for 15 f© in extreme 
cases. Fraud, forg-^ry, svs-ln.^ling and extortion shall be 
puro 3h9d the same as pet by lareony, 

fith reference to incf^r.dl arl es, hard labor for f^ time or 
even for lifs shall be proaoribed according to the loss and 
also intent, Vv^^, arising froiJi negligence is punishfsble 
by banishjEient or imprisonment, or if the loss be trifling, 
may be treated as a ciTil B:r-tter, 

Forgery and falsi fi c&t ion in papers shall be punished 
"oy afflictive punishiasnt* In cass public pa-pers are fo-ged 
it niay even extend to 20 years public labor, Goinsrs of 
false Bioney, who used to be considered guilty of high tr-aason, 
shall now bs guilty of j^rand irrcsny. This applies also to 
those ^ho alter or clip mon©y, and those who buy it, and the 
punishraent is from 3 to 20 ypars hard labor. 

Th-^ punishjriGnta for ndultory, bitten:,-, adduction and 
raps are not chart-ed, Th&y rang© from f. fin© to hard labor 
for lif® and aro tlependont upcn the circumstf^ncos of the crime, 


Any judge or officftr* in the kingdom, who misuses, his 
authority or exceeds it, by doing injustice to the weak or 
favoring the guilty, shall be guilty of public vdolence 
punishable by all degrees up to and including the last punish- 
ment and shall be forever excluded from an public office in 
Tuscany, He is the one who "doss the greatest injury to 
society pzi6 to 2ni s sover;iipi"» The ^bove puniahzient is 
proscribed also for those who corrupt by bribes such judses 
or officers, 

Sinus(%lin^: laws a^-e refori.'ed and ir.ade milder, Th- 
srriig.^;;ling laws -vrith referorce to salt aro left rs^ther severe 
still, 3i-pna salt msy iiot be brou^-ht but district 
end penalty for using or sellii?.';:; it up to 60 collars. No 
bargains for salt bet'r^ee?'. privcito j ndivic'u&ls pm-jalty 30 
dollars. Theft of salt the same S3 any oth-^r theft, / 
fine of ] 50 dollars for bringing salt into the 'Iraa^ Tuchy 
if th3 ariount is less than 10 pounds, if above the fine may 
ffo as high as 300 dollars er:d for buying the same r penalty 
from 60 to 150 dollars. If it be r foreigner .vho inpo-"ts 
he shall be excluded fron; fhn coiintry. If the siriufr''":ll ng 
be attended -pith viol^:nce, h.^rd labor shall be the peiialty. 
Similar laws are 'pith refTenco to tobacco, the fine 
being 6 dollars per pound if under 10 aid 3 dollars for every 
pound over 10, In detection of ill Inr.ds of smui'-Tli rif^, no 
search is allowed, the offenders laist bs csught in th^ i.ct , 

The carrying of f5.r?arr.i3 3hall be fined 25 dollors and 


of oth-^r arms, axcept s'-.ort v'iatrjers, 10 dollars. To we^r 
suoh aiiort i^eapons 50 «.!oll<"rg, No .iearch pennittsci unless 
arms mnployed in fm offensive '<^ay R4;:ain3t anyone, oxid in 
such, tiie carrying of such weaporiS Ghrll j ncr©ase the 
puni 3hni«?r-t, 

A fins o r 10 doll?i-s is li^id upoB tho killing of 
pic'^ou and if any public! officers are gu-^. Ity of killing,. tb«ffl 
th&y :shPll b.^ givers 5 y^ars putilic labor. 

If a person suapeetad of i- cr5raa has not sufrtcient 
evidence fc.;.:aiD3t Min to convict Mm, but yery strong con- 
j9ctu!*es concur to point to tj s guilt, he ripy bo puni sher' 
but not .'-itrorit'-r thtn bani Giu.cnt or confiaiOin''.n.t , ond in case 

where his supposed criuie js capital, thr? a.mliost dctrroG 
of public iaoor iriay t:e !,J ;oii» /, i|-, r asg ?.'cttch is dociarod 
over tho33 susptjcted bitt not stronrly onough for ur:j puni sh- 
in ent « 

'liesides various r e^julci t :5or,,s wj th refrTenc;;^ to e:iC£ pes, 
■f'-ocr po fro":;i hard labor shall give tr-n ye^-rs adnjf^onpl, /. 
priaoner e'scAipiiis froi;; bani ^hiuCTit in btdliwick ahrll bo 
banishsd froi.-; th'^ vi c.i-j.r:U!.t s , af he disobey ijn r>l;r.,ll be 
jtnpriaoned in tha Voltorra, if Iq eacope fruJa tj^-Tc, he? 
3hall b^ bt.rn shsd to the loivor province of tho ,'i"rnfi, qjxA 
03Co.p'3 from the Si'-^n.n yh.i--,lX be punished v/itii ixuprihsunMent 
at OrossQts, p..nd escape froja there sh£i,ll double tho l--n..i:th 
of uiiaa to be spont there i or i f lis saatence wara n y-aa-'s 
or over sna.ll hc-re hard In.bor for 3 •/-•ars, " froiii 



officers, weth or suCCOB:;ful or not axd ^rf-ith-sr B.ttvnr\ec -.'dth 
injury or not to the poljce, shp.ll bo puijishec!. 

One noticeable fssturc ^n all these cases is tliat the 
.judge is In sH crsc:.z left Ir.rg-' 11 tr.Tti in pronouricing penalty, 
f-'i s r1»*cret5on is to hn ussd f;ccorc5n£ to ci reur!:>tanco3» 
'£■>-/> 3 roforii; ■^ s p. -.^-i do r'-achir.g rrrci' vj-crs t orj'.'rt 

/ ^^li^'nc® p-t thes© crii;:;ir:r.l la-f^s of "'^eopol''" serr^'' to 
show thFt h >^ certPinly "a.'> doir;, lis best for Tusccr?;, He 
st-^ll 3ho''/ed soms l?cl' of .^nli f:hterj-;'c?rt , in his puniehrnent 
for h ^reoy for ir;3tr.nce , but on thn -.vhol© these crirt^inel 
ie.-i^s, ^ven to us to-ds.y, aei^n; pretty e-ffic5ent and Ju«t, 


To propm'iy uadarstemd I.raopolo!»3 rallKioua r«formSj it 1: 
neoaasary to know fjrat a little about hiij own b<iliefs. He 

'i/&,s not as 13 sen«»riiily b«li^?v«(i, of unorthodox fr^ith, Hn 
ifss a true Ho«iaii Catholio, rnd &11 of Ma rtforms hsd in view 
the advantage of rsliglon and th-s gooo of th^ church. (1) 
Ho w&o ready to do any-hiiig for tho ouiture and purity of the 
church, (2) Ho triad to |Lmancipat« his citiaens froi; every 
tie uncRllecl for dy a just id^a of ring's on» but th® aleapy 
intellect of thi^ imtlon wrapt in m.ipm' ntxti on had lost all 
d835r^; for ^--mlj ghtenmaiit, Th-o cl??rgy were r«ady to trke 
up this advisntage wid skilfully profit by it, (3) 

Leopold jr;"5t with opposition on every hanf', rjid na:;? of 
atrong©3t of it came froa the Popes w3. th whom he hsd to c:eal« 
They wsr« awch afriald that their .-authority rould he di.Mlnlshed, 
as indeoc it luas. Fi«-at, Clsmsnt 15 opposed ri<^arly ©very 
chur6h raform which Leopolr- proposed, but his donth put b stop 
to this in a Bsaasure, as Pops CieK'=':rtt, 14, his aucceai^or, .vas 
a great reforming Pope, wmo h-^iped Loopold in some th^nr'S«{4) 
His death in 1774 put Vius 6 in pcwer, timi h<? proved h5ii;S"af 
opp*..;a<3«''. to till;.- or r^fon:i^ Ko did p11 in his powar 

(A) 13-319 

(I) H-fe (4) :!-.5?,a 

(2) HX-68 


to oPt'ose taopold, i-m'' the fa^,? conces:-;5 ons h«? rlJc^ nt.}i.^ v?9r© 
only drawn fron him shen li*-? Jcnsw that l^opold would tf^ko 
the measures hisaseli'' -^vinhout authority If th© Pops '-vould not 
live his coTisorvts (l) 

Aftor this "v^opold many tir.-^s forced Pius 6 to aubndt to 
kis d-^K&ticis, ^'irfvlly h'' &brincoiuo(5 all :u)t;1on3 of Ooncordi?ts 
P3 msr*^ methods o," awi,ndlin<r rul«rs lr>t:o submitting to the 
Pope's deiornds.(P) Tn i;:pi:y l:;otp>ices hi? actually r;^flis<5H 
to allow the. discipline ordersd. by t'b.^ Pop« to bg carried 
out, (3) ?>*'•'; ?opf» rftt?0„llP.tad by ir.structln.';? the cl&ri-jt 
both r<.\^ils.r B.n6. ssciaar, to rrafuso to carry out th-" rnforLiS 
of Leopolf'^ The Papal "Vncio's court ussd svsry psans to 
3tlr up dlseord and ft tne lat^r part of Leopold's rs5 rn 
stirred up a rebellion a(T«ir»st him by wording' upon th<? Ifrno^exce 
f^nd sup^rstitioa of th® psopls. (4) „. I®opolf^ repressed a 
nuaiber of th-^j Papal 'Julls &nc' f'icl not allow th-^^m to br; 
circulated at rll und-r severe penalties. (5) T:^'e history 
of th« different tr&ys Lfoifolcl j^bt: the Popes cjr;'? Into op- 
position is explained fully farthisr on in this chapt^r^ 

In m«jclrif; his r'-tlif^loua or «c«lasiei*iti cal refoTis, Leo- 
pold was advisee^ by .Selplon d^ PJccij e3:)<^ by nor.Ptor Fiic^ll&i, 
Th^jse two i-fiQji worked out rno.«-Jt of th-^f refors'.a •which he cnrrl^-id, 
out, and Fiucb cr?/fl5t 1.*? flue to thf-r; for thMr efflci--Rt rrtv^co. 

(1) >T-529-.)2 

(2) H-321 

(3) H-366 

(4) H*375 

(5) H-215 


The Society of J®3us had long workB^. great hfri;! jtj Tus- 
cany, and had oppoaad Yiolsntly all Leoi:tGia»4S reforms rsiv; h^" 
was thin.JdLng seriously of -tftklKf steps agtiast thwi when 
Pope urj-itrnelll J to his aid Vv abolishing tht^ aocicty 
iii all its brenciiea, In 1773(1) » It was sasy auourh to say 
that they w«^rft abolJ ah«d buu f. di fff»r©nt inatt^>^ to break 
up the orgeMxation thr-t had flourished for so .".fw years, ar.r! 
T.oopoid had i:;r«Rt troubles with then, A grep.t many of thac; 
urdt-'^d under this najns of tho oacrod Haart of .Tcaus, (2) 
tl'.i s forsi thay cor;tinu<'9'ri. to be a moat troubl<?aom« and A-orlscad 
out u-.3ir spite at^i'dnst Leopold by stirring up the people 
and in oppoaiag ell his raforias* Ir. vue: co^^e th^y *orkod up 
a rsTolt by telling th© .p2opl« that Leopold had mao:e son;-' 
rafornus that h*? had ney^r tnou!-ht of we.MR.s,(3) Strict laws 
■wsr® paasac" g ainst th^w and L^opoln ordered th« polico to 
s«?areh out and arrest any persuna suapsct^d of bsirji,,, J'j.suits,(4) 

Anotl;";r thing th»t T,ocpol<3 &bol:5sh©d was the Inquisiti^ on 
''hich ivfea still in fctiva opeT-f,tion 'shsn hs cams Irito po'var^ 
H© 3?5id it hftd become obsolete an'- that it ;ra.3 only no^v iiSed 
to coerce raonarchs an<' ignorant paoplrt, no in 1782, in 
July, ha f.boliah»d the ;vhols Qtti.ce with its ccurts, rncl scat 'ad its yi"op''"-^ty. In ap.lte of ?k-P®.1 oppoKition« (5) 

Another old inatitutioR that waa still coiitjnum? in Tua- 

(1) TT-)24, H-32 (4) Tl-32 

(3) :7«370 

cany was that of hermits, Thsy wers supposed to spend their 
tim® ill religious meditation, but really did not much but 
smuggle and indulge in vie© and crime, Leopold took the 
matter in hand and abolished all hermits except six whom he 
knew to be virtuous, in 1776,(1) 

Tuscany was full of religious societies and associations 
that were ssiai- clerical. There were 117 in Florence, (2) 
They did not take orders but had some privileges and exemp- 
tions. They wsre highly endowed and wore supposed to spend 
their money helping the poor, celebrating mass and in 
similar ways. But they h&d turned int(S> ways of luxury, 
vice and crime. They mi smanaged marilal:® portions entrusted 
to thein, and did i.ot attend to the poor and the sick pt all. (3) 
All these faults led Leopold to issue eji edict abolishinr the 
societies on March 21, 1785,(4) In their placf* he in- 
stituted a new company called "The Rruthorhood of Chafity'*, 
to help the sick and poor. This ineasure of aboHi;ion end 
the making of the nsw company was very unpopular, especially 
because Leopold had confiscated some personal property with 
that of the society, (S) 

The state of the s^tcular clergy c-rew h j s pttention as 
soon as he came into office. In Tuscany there were in all 
in the yeer 1734, of which re havs record, 10,536 persons 
in the secular clergy. (6) This number was far too nany for 
the needs of tha inhabitants slightly over a million end. was 

(1)R-214, H-333 (3)R-74 (5)R-215 

(2)?r-354 (4)3T-354 (6)R-213 


a constant drain on th«ir r^iSourc&B le support then, Bincra 
they did no work but r«?15 ©d on tl\"> people for money* It 
would not havs> been ao bad If thay had be^n doing good, 
but thi" ©norwous nurnb'^r of them left few duties to tnost of 
them and in thf?lr Idlonesa they turned to all forms of vie® 
and crime* ?ho whole of Tuscany was filled with a imltitude 
of little benesfices ^hosr^ priests h§.d no duties at all. 
■■"ftrxy native and foreign priests A^ent about chanting }r.ass*?s 
for pay, Abuss of the confessional to .s<5duoa women, j.^pmbling, 
frequentinr !^ow taverns, poiaining, and J5v©ry form of rlco 
In tha clergy set a bad ©xampl© for the people to follow, jl) 
In one church in Florence ,r^ hav?* record that 16,aoo masses 
wer® cb'^tntsd in ons year, (2) All these conditions showed 
in whe,t a bfid stat© the secular clergy urns ln» But bsside^s 
these th^; priests and curates were vory poorly Qducfterl rnd 
ifer® altogether unfifc for their duties. It took only t^^r 
years ssrYice in a cathedrfil to riRka one eligible for orcors, 
grid that service only iru'iant ett ending rnassss. In Plorsnce 
alone oTer 100 priest a wore- turned out every year in this 

L-3opold took Piany measures to r'^stirct their numbnrs. (;5) 
Hf? requirsd all who wiahed to tfke orders to pass an «xamir,n- 
tion before a synoo bofor--: ih'^y could be adndtted, (4) 'Jo 
priests coulc bo ordained without deftnitft duties for thora 

(1) lT-342 (3) H-2g9 

(2) 1^-289 (4) 21-3:34 


in th© fUtura,{l) All prleats -?or© required to be native, 
and no forelgix ones were allowed, to coii;® in. (2) Th© people 
wsro encouraged to go into some productive extr^rpris©, 

Whjl'-^ th^ citi'^s wore supplied v?ith clsr.L'y in sup'-r- 
abundanc©, the country fi5 3tricts ware in t;T«^)Pt want for 
spirtual advice. The rural livings were so poor thet 
Leopold tried to remedy this, (3) This is explained letsr 
ii: this chapter, 

Leopold eerli took up the reforc^fitj on of tho vice in 
th^ clargy, Hs used ern^y neana in his power and, tried 
to g;5t porr.Jssion from Romo to punish thon but it was re- 
fuS'Tcl. ?in»ll:/ ha took up flagrant cases on hi s c-'m 
authority and punished a ^rreat najiy of them, (4) Hn hrd a 
hard proposition before hirn though and hi a efforts did not 
meet ^ith cjuoh success , as tho Pope countenanced all these 
vices «vith dispsmsati ons, s5aply to show- opposition to 

Some of th© livings were ©lected, and th^se became a 

source of rnuch corruption. Priests -oulc'' go arounf> nmong 

their flock soliciting votes and promising absolution from 

sins for votes, (5) Leopold to do away with tids corruption, 

abolished these oleotlv© livings altogf>thor, 

Another abuse w&s thrt of gettin^^ permission from the 
Pope to live from th'Ar "living", Thoy of course furnished 

substitutes but did not pay then well and often put in their 

"CI") I.t-32';5 (A) H-315 (5) TT~315 

(2} I^-SSS (4) R-IS etc*. 


placffl nen '.*o were altogather unflttcfd for tne vork. Leopold 
not. only forbad© all priests to live away from their parish 
but alao forbade pariah priests to be away for ?■' day dthout 
pstrmission, (1) All bishops gmd every diocese wes required 
to pay taxes to th® Pop©, this Is treated fsrthsr on in this 

Thn aducat^onal colleires for '^ccl'jssj ».sti cs p.xid thos® 
wishing to take orders, which wr s on© way Li^opold took lo 
reform the; clsrf'y, is treated i« the irst chapter. 

Th-^ great ceremony tmC pomp ettendinf rar-sses end rellirlous 
festivals was a nrttor of great expense and was used to attract 
comraon peopl?> to l^ay© their l®eltltnate -.vortr, 1,-^opolci 
ordered that all unnecessary coreiaony as well as all uncalled 
for ssrvicss b© stopped iKiim^idiatsly, (2) Thia ^jst-s one means 
h? Uv^ed to k3(?p doi^ tho number of prlssts, too* 

Laopold saw that the supervision of clergy that 'Romp ..-ss 
supposed to carry on had b^^come nothln£: et p11 and that the 
Pop© could have done vc»ry little rsal good if h'- hfd cerocl 
to, bncaus® h^ wrs so far away. Th''^-r'r^for>»» he t^lod to f^.r-t 
the Pop9*9 p'^rrtiission to rdlow th? Bishops of the various 
c/ioeeses to have supervision anc authority ov<sr th'^ secular 
clergy undar thorn, ^he Pope indi ta^antiy '^fused, but finally 
after Leopold had taken some steps on his owa authority, he 

TO !Tr^^5^ 

{2) H-533 

aaw that this refusal would r<o no aood. So in 1786 Pius 6, 
gave in and allowed tha bishops to have authority over thosa 
under the^j, (1) Th»> i?3 shops wer« also to s«e thet the monks 
and nuns in thoir fSi strict behnved themselves pnci w^ri^s criven 
authority to forca thero to c^o this, (2) Th^y y^ore to use 
civil po^wer if neceasery, and did so in a numb'^r of esses. (3) 
Resides t?i€!y were to be th© confessors and ir ^pchers of nun- 
neries* instead of ijotH-ib as f orr,! erly , ( 4 ) ":.i shops ^ore 
required to furnish detail'^d reports of how their priests 
f-^nd p:'ople wf;r'-? gattiiig.;; on, and wh©,t chfu.gss were nec^ssnry- (f>) 
Wrhen the foreign supsr-j ors of tha roijulr-r clBrgij ^v-y.y^. cut off, 
th--^ bishops wer?; put in th^'ir plp.C5,(6) By an ©diet of 
Oct. 17B'.. 

All foreign biahopa anc* vicprs already in Tusc&ity h- d to 
appear before Leopold t-:nd,. ware not allowed to stay until the 
Hoyal «©xequRtor» had been put upon their Papal bulls of 
islection* (7) 

For some tiin© Loopold had beon considering points thtt 
he thought should b« reformed in church government &Xi6 /general 
ecclesiastic affairs. In 1786 !i^ collected all th©8© and nfde 







(1) lv-366 (3) 1-3:56 

{?.) ^--542 (4) ^T-336 

* In thSs thesis "nunnery" is used to refer to convent! 
'A'hore women IJv®. '*::'.Ior»e' st sr y •• refers to convents -fhs^re risn 
liv® snd « convent" is us*^d as -" frf^neral tartix to rnean both. 


them into a treatise call:^d the "57 I'lcclesiastical Points", (1) 
These wsre in tha form of quest Sons and ar;s^Qrs and took up 
a great many of th© reforms he had already tiad®* Then he 
sent & copy of these around to the cU.ff©rent prelates irj Tus- 
cai^r for ratification, but as thsy did not ratify thsm as ha 
thought they isrould but sp^n-t their time in discussion and 
delay > ha decided to have a general assembly or synod at 
Pistoia. By a circular of March, 1787, he convoked this 
&3 3offibly,(Ji) They i:.6t ovi April ?>3, IVrr, Threo arch- 
bishops and 14 bishops were i resent with their secrM-pri ts 
but no rsgulP-r olargy war?? allow^sd, Thf=5 synod discussed raany 
of the points and did soejq goo^, but in ths main, all they 
did was to wrangl© oT^r little points and r«fuse to ^-^rrfto. 
The Pope hsd given theEi orders to act tl'iat way. Finy'lly 
Leopol<3 saw that thsy were doing no good, and that th?) Jesuits 
and Pspal agents and 'Tonics were stsiply using th''5 assombly 
to tell li<^3 about terrible laws they were psssing, so h© 
adjourned theip, on June 5, 1705* The p.ssi?Bibly did soma 
good hoTirever, Among the acts it passed are: A regulrtion 
of the studies of th'^ regulsi* olergy; a rule thrt the ordim-ry 
rmst obey his priest; abolition of all fees paid for spiritual 
aid; and a general condemnation of the Ti!r;nn«r of life c^ the 
clergy, (.5) All these s-^er© Kimply parts of the 57 points, 
Leopold, issued many circulars to priests and bishops 

(1) Tl-250-1 

(2) R-316 

(3) R-248 


telling them what was expected of theM, In the way of super- 
TisioB and caring for tho poor and s5ck, as wall as teaching 
true dootrlnQB, and tryini: to uplift ths p»opl« by their 

Another thing that took Leopold's attention was the 
T'-^forMP.ti on of the rsfcular cl."?rg-y» Tusna,r37 abour.^ded in 
ITunnerias and sionaatsries, so Eiuch so that a very lerge pro- 
portion of the p'}opl5 w©re in orders, "Par Imtanc®, thftre 
w«r5 72 nunl^=;rias in j?lor9nce alone* (1) In p11 Tuscany tbsr© 
were 7, 670 nuns»{2) Monks existed in alssost as Iprg-s 
nuriibers. !7o« all these people taken fro?t? productive 
enterprise, with almost no work to do and ^ith no proper outlet 
for thair natural passions, naturally turned to vice and 
crline, the rsccrda show that the state of aor,-? of th=» orders 
was awful. Ths ©onks Tho ,sup??r"rissd th© convents used to 
resort there and ?nt';r into all kind? of license. One con~ 
Ysnt ha-'i baco'-fls so dopravecl that they had com© to b?>ii «ve 
th.3 o::ly tiu^- religion ^ras ths pursuit of carnal pleasure, 
':^.nd all nuns in that co.nvsnt w?»rc tauf,;ht that doctrine, (3) 
Toc°thsr A'ith this vies was th® problem of ignorfinct^ which 
was almost universal on the part of the- wonks and nuns. The 
libraries of ths monast «?rles wrre almost nevar used, they 
kne?f no Latin, hf*d r^o doctrine taught them but the Infallia- 
bility of trie Pope, and we-'-e not In any way fit to give th® 

(1) R-23 
(^) R-213 
(3) R-365 


people religious coBifort Bri6 advice, (1) Th© Pope courstencjiqed 
the^ ir. all thf^ir rice simply iii order to oppose T-sopold. 
H9 0ncouras;Sd thejn not to obey his edicts, end refused to take 
any action ^.vhon Leopold asked him to correct them. (R) 

This was ths state of afi'airs that Leopold hrd to contsnd 
^yith when hs 3ttrt&u his rniorws, Thr- fSrst thini? he tri nd 
was to lixait the numbers of tho tnonics and nuns. At tart 
time nearly ©vary woman -s^as sent to 3oin<s convent for education 
for at least a part of her life. Thf^re they war® unduly 
influenced before then were of pro3>or ag© to judge and to 
understand what it Biaant, to take the veil, Lsopold irot 
thj.3 problem by limiting the ag® at which girls could b'? ad- 
rr.itted to convents. Ho girls could be adndtted for study 
till they were tan years old, nor,^ could become lay siatsrs, 
'A'hi ch did not mean fun vows, till twenty years old, and 
furth-TT, for six months before taking th:^ final vows ^v^ry 
woman must mingle freely vrlth the world, without any in- 
fluence froi/> nunnories, Pinelly after sin i^onths, shs 
must be examined by some disinter^-^ssted cleriiyman bfffore the 
bo^rr! of ^Kteiners, b<5fore she could b^ allowed to ti^k*^ the 
veil and renounce the world. (3) «teen then no convent was 
a.llowed to r ';ceive a nftw nun unless thoy could r.i^arly prove 
that th®y were &.bla to supcort her without nid,(4) Novices 
vf^re pillowed to stay novices till th-^y wsre 30 years old. 

(1) !T-312 (3) >--330, R-34 

(g) Il-;315 (4) ••-347 


aoiiTsriits fsrers so rich that ». girl by teMxsg the tows ofteii 
exohsjigftd a life of poverty for one of luxury. An atte&pt 
to stop this wealth -ms where Leopold conanand^d that no rirl 

could taii-e bar n-^rrip-gs portion '^th her into a f;onvpnt,(l) 
AdxniBnion to a ccRV^-iit bad be=>n s ftreat evsnt prin .hnd bson 
celf?bratpd with grs&t pomp md oereraony* So that sonie poor 
Kirl»s "vea rrd f-jht not b*» da,Kzl»d ^th ell thj s show and that 
shf) night Koi. tbus bo lef* to take orders, Lf»opold abolished 
all such Cf?rojncr.y connect sd with entrance into a conver:t.(H) 
Al"?- tiior.'? ^^rfe to niako the irto e) converit h>:.rrc*'- 
ar.d to Kfike all Koinen winter it wjth op^n ^y©s, Instfjod of 
r-3grettlng ^t later in life, 

^If^ f? TrMds sirellar re.f^lF-t j.o3^.3 \-7ith respect to Bonks. 
!!o rionks oou.ld ©nta;." a nionai^tciry as le.y brotV^TM^ till 18 
of f ge and could not tak-T firjal vows till 24 years ol<3.{3) 

/rother great ©vil In Tuscr-ny T?s-fu> th?» mendicant orders, 
Tbe.?© ord.ers w?;r? raally rich, and moiffibora oi^ ent»;*-i;rig tb:^ 
ordern cnl:/ ex^'-hanged real poiT'^^'ty of tho 'srorld for fels© 
po7->^.y cf tht? or(3.!3r,(4) Oft^n the mendicant brothers s&t 
o.t their ease whll^ th^^y sent out lay brothers to s-^t P.lins 
for th».K;, (?) Leopold suppressed mendicity in thos^ orders 
-.vhi ch h'-;!'*^ property, anr urged th«M to stop som^ of their 
"* lafciQes^ nrjA to h?'lji the poor and r;5 ck as th^iir vows r-^quircdi 

TT) H^HiT (3) IT-531 (5) 11-317 

(2) H-330 (4) F-3ia (6) IT-384 


A good many rsgulations were nec9ssa,ry for convents, and 
Leopold made a great many of thes©» Among others, he per- 
mitted nuns to change their nunneries at will, so that they 
might live with those that were most suited to their tastes, (1) 
Th3 Monks were no longer made supervisors of nunneries, but 
the bishops were to oversee them and to watch their conduct, 
(2) Their confessors and praach'^rs were to b*^ seculcr 
priests of known reputation, (3) 

All monasteries were to be supervised by bishops, too* 
They were to use civil authority to discipline them if 
neccessary. Some who had taken orders when too young to 
realize their step a^id who wished to be relieved from their 
vow were given their freedom, (4) To educate them better 
for their positions instructors were given to many of the 
convents, and besides that Leopold founded a school for 
ecclesiastic education at Pistoia, (5) The numerous feast 
days and ©Bsy peiialtias exacted at confession drew people 
away from the churches and into the convents. This Leopold 
tried to stop by forbidding unnecessary ceremonies, and by 
advising the people to resort to their own parish church. (6) 

In many of the nunneries, the nuns had their own private 
fortunes and managed their own affairs. This gave rise to 
jealousies and worldliness. In March 1785, he reduced all 
such convents to the rank of msre conservatories, (7) TXiring 

(1) N-337 (3) N-3a6 (5) RII-50 

(6) TT-316 

(2) N-342 (4) R-142 (7) 11-358 


th?? riots of 1787, which were stirred up against his reforms 
by the Pope's eumiissaries and by tho efforts of th© superiors 
of many monasteries, Leopold tooTf severe measures and ebolished 
all convents whose superiors had been involved in stirring 
up the riots, (1) Besides this he abolished a good many 
convents and rnonasterids at various times, and for various 

Ona way Lsopold triad to niake convents better was by for- 
bidding all foreign superiors and comrn.pnding them to leave 
the coubtry within two months. This edict was issued Jun^^ 1, 
1781,(2) Every monastery ^nd nunnery sent taxes to Rome, 
This Leopold abolished with certain exceptions, by forcing 
Pius 6 to give him a bull to that effect in Oct, 1775.(3) 
Nearly all the convents and societies of a religious 
nature opposed Leopold's reforms as much as they dared, Thero 
were four parties in Tuscany, The first had men who really 
believed in his reforms, but who were intimidated by throsts 
of Jansenism, so did nothing. The second was composed of 
people who had taken orders simply for their own material 
good, 30 they naturally did not favor reforms that took their 
financial aims away. The next class were ignorant fanatics 
who obeyed the Pope blindly. And the fourth class was com- 
posed of a very few who saw thr; good of his reforms pnd had 
moral couras® enough to support them. On the 7/hole then 


(2) H-342 

(3) N-333 


LeopoXd had to nmke these reforrfls In the regular Clergy in 
the fi:QB of the opposition of almost the whols ord«r#(l) 

The church had for so lonfc; a tin'* be^n In powejr in Tus- 
cany that i.hey had usur; ed nearly ev©rythiKg to thmnselves. 
Among th?» things they had trksn on themselves was that of th@ 
autliority of their ecclesiastical courts and prisons. Their 
courts tr-ied all sorts of offenses both criminal and spiritual, 
and tried not only clergy but also laymen. Their prisons 
too were used for their own corrupt purposes, and wers often 
used to get out of the road persons who had obtained knowlodg© 
of offenses committed by the clergy. On the oth ^r hand, it 
had been ordained that Clergy should be tried in ecclesiastical 
courts only, no matter what th^ir offenss, and should h^- in- 
prisoned in ecclesiastical prisons only. This state of 
affairs was too rauch for Leopold 1,o stand. As soon as he can: 
into power we have records of numbers of priests and monks 
bsina punished in the royal council, and in certain lay 
courts, (2) This, too in spite of rauch Papal opposition. 
Soon after that he took up the law of Mortmain that had been 
passed some time before but n^v^r enforced to any extent in 
Tuscany, and decided to rigidly enforce, (3) Then h-^ took up 
the 'iuast^on of ecclesiastical prisons. By sn edict of 
June 7, 1770, he abolished all ecolealastical prisons, except 
for purely spiritual cases of discipline, ^v-^n then they 
must be open for inspection at ©ny time, end the names rnd 

TTl H=3I3- 

(2) K-16 

(3) M-113 


offenoes of all prisoners inust be reported. Prisoners were 
allowed to be transferred, to 3tp.t« priaona at any tlm© if 
they 30 preferred, (1) 

Whan Leopold bocpme Grand T!uke of Tuscany, he found that 
the old inatitution of the inviolability of the sanctuary was 
still kept up in Tuscany. Hot only was it kept up, but so 
actively that f'll the cathedrals had their complement of 
thieves and wiurdc^rers who stayed indoors in the day-timo gjad 
Issued out at night to seek plunder and to see what vice thsy 
could indulge in. They //ould bring their booty back to 
enjoy it in the sanctuary. They even used their abod?)s to 
sell their Koods, =>nd often interrupted th*? religious exercises 
so niuch with their drunken feasts that the services could not 
go on, ■5^V'5ry monastery sheltered criminals, and so numerous 
were the places whero they could get refuge from the Ifw that 
a criminal was not often cauL5ht,(2) Leopold triad to get 

authority from the Pope to abolish this old ouston, but pft^r 
much delay and discussion it was rf^fused him. Then he took 
th'> cistter in his own hends and abolished the rit.:ht of 
sanctuary altogeth;rr , but vicde some concessions to crlmlrrls 
taken in sacred buildings. Civil debtors were still allowed 
to be safe while in th'* sanctuaries. Those who had conmiitted 
crimes punishable by death were to be given ten years in 
prisons, and for lesser offenses tho ordinary sentence was to 
be reduced by helf, (3) 

(1) k-TA, hl'S^A^ 

(2) N'91 
(S) N-322 


Th'in he took the reformstion of th© sccl«slastical courts. 
At diffsrent times h© r-?j^iilat9d and lessened slightly their 
autiiority but by an odiot of Oct. 30, 1784, he abolished all 
their duties except those purely spirtual. He >; boll sh©d the 
use of Latin in those court, Tlcj^rulated their feos according 
to lay courts* Put as thstr clerks, layiaent '^rho had gradua.t@d 
froiii Tuscan l&v University, (1) He forbade e-ny ecclsslasticsl 
measure or edict, such as Paprl Bulls to b© count snancsd or 
cited in any court where temporal pains w«re involved. (2) 
Pe>Tiitted Tuscans who had been tried in a foreign court on 
ecclesiastical itnatters, to appeal back to home from any un- 
satisfactory decision, (3) H© also required the Koyal ©xe- 
quator to be affixed to many of the pontiff's dispensatory 
acts to make them valid, (4) And finally, on the gOth of 
September, 1788 he destroyed the last vestige of ecclesijistical 
authority in temporal affairs, by abolishing the Papal lTuncio*s 
court. It had still claimed maiiy rights, rnd had stirred up 
much opposition to his reforms, (5) 

Leopold's treatment of the Jews is important. On July 
2f 1766, h(i ordered that the Jews wer? not to be hmned or 
int??r fared with. In 1789 th® Jews were pdmittea to full 
citizenship but, out of deference to their religious scruples, 
were allowed to refuse office end did not have to attend 
religious ceremonies with the other Eoe^gistrptes, This is 
treated in the chapter on Administration, 

JT) !r-3!?l, "B.-'^lb (3) J1-337 (5) 11-380 

(g) H-3:i9 (4) F-:if^3 


A not ©worthy feature of his criminal cod© -.^liich was 
issued in 1786 is th® sevor© penalty for hsrasy and for 
blaspheBQr which are treated in the chapter on criminal law. 

The financial system with referonce to church taxation 
end tithes needed much attention, Wiat he tried to c^o was 
to simplify thia taxa,tion and to make it fall on syeryone reference to what he could afford as well 8.s to distribute 
th9 church funds where they coulc! do the most good, Kumbers 
of the country clergy wer-^ go poor that they could liv© rith 
difficulty, yet they were taxed the same amount that the rich 
city clergy had to pay. He instructions to all bishops 
to see that all his poor clergy had a salary of at least 110 
dolls-rs a year. One way of accomplishing this wps to unite 
several small parishes into one larger one»(l) All private 
livings were forbidden to be charged with pensions. The 
poorer clergy were to be exempt from all tithes B.nd cpth-tdral 
dues, (2) priests in private benefices were made independent 
and iajinovable, but patrons had to pay them the full 3G,lary 
fixed by law or give up the adiipowson, (5) In the future no 
private livings were perirdttad to bo founded, (4) 

On May 11, 1775, Leopold abolished the "Ecclesiastical 
pecinia tax, leveled lay ecclesiastic property and subjected 
all to a coMflon tex cf^lled the Grand Tucal P^clma, (5) In 
1769 he practically abolished all parochial tithes. That is 
where the income of the priest amounted to $120 the tithe 

JTj F=333 (3) N-.349 (5) lT-331 

(2) H-336 (4) H-113 


ceased, but incumbents actually in poss-sssion allowad to 
levy it during their stay. In livings less than !f;l20 it wes 
made up by tithes, but this really abolisjhed tithes as they 
wers no longer s, tax on i^iiprovGmsnts. The priests wer^ not 
allowed to collect money or raise tithes st all. This was to 
be cone by collectors who got five percent for their trouble. (1) 
The Bioney which he rscsived fro?i! the Jssuits after their 
abolition, irom the property of the inquisitJon, from the 
abolished relifcsioua comp&nies or societias, from the abolition 
of all foreign fees (he took them for his own use), fror/i the 
money which came from suppressed convents, s.n6 that tfken 7;hich 
formerly went &.s entrance portions into convents ; &11 this 
and other money contributed from tho national treasury, wss 
put into 8. fund called Church patrimony. This fund was dis- 
tributed by the Church Patrimony Board nrhich he foriiied for 
that puriose. This board had to give a weekly detailed 
statement to Leopold of just how ;;iuch money had been received 
and just how every cent hsd been spent. He vv; s continually 
giving thciTi ecvica a-nd suggesting new -jirays -ffhich the poor, 
hospitals, poor clergy, etc., could b';^ benefited. (2) Sonie 
of the ways of spending t?iis fund which benefited the people 
will be treat ad later. In every parish he instituted a com- 
pany of charity, -.vith the parish priest at the head of it. 
This company took tho place of th-^ religious companies, rnd 
it was given funds for specific purposes by the Church Pcit- 

JT) !?=35B 

(2) j>!-318-o49 


rlMony Board. (1) 

In all r^illj^doua rsforcis Leopold had bX h^BTt the b®st 
interests of his people, and while he was trying to stop the 
increase of conyents, the crime of clargy en& so nany evils, 
it W8S always for the good of the people, Whm\ h^ stopped 
the tithes and stopped raendicant orders from inrpoveri shi ng 
the people, it was not so much to reduce the power of the; 
church as it was to raise the condition of tho people. In 
his regulations of allowing the ixunsi to go about and change 
convents he tried to make their lot as easy as possible. One 
of the ways he tried to benefit hi a people '^f^s by trying to 
keep theiB from going into nunnaries. Ho mp-.dc; a j\ind for 
ai&rriage portions and every girl of good reputation who was 
between 18 and 30 years could get one of these portions, (2) 
Besides that he rensovad many iuipedimsnts to nif^rripge such as 
license f®os, which had often r.ade people keep fi*om narringo, (3^ 

Among other things, he r-5.':ul?'t®d the la-ffs for Sunc^ipy 
and other church holidays, Thf5SQ had come so often and had 
strictly kept peasants and laborers from work, that often they 
had to lose somn perishfcibl? crops, or got into la/,y hpbits, 
th&t were demoralizing, l^f33id«53 that holydfiys wr^rt^ the 
signstl for great pomp snd ceremonies that brouf^ht vdth them 
much Tic©* To help th"- people in that line, h«? reduced the 
number of holydays, end diininishad the pomp of their cere- 
monies, (4) Besides that he allowed all necessary work to b® 

frj — !r-"t^> (3) R II-50 

(2) H-35T (4) H-324 


carried on and pennitted arnusemeiits, wM ch wsr*^ proper, but 
they w®r© not to int®rf®r® with th'^ religious observftions, (1) 
Innkeepers were allowed to keep op®n, piid provision stores, 
but tay^rjis were to be closed on such days. (2) 

Then the companlea of charity which he formed were simply 
for helping the sicic and for rf^ising the religious aim of th© 
people, .B^sid?s that the bishops were instructed to be sure 
to help th© people, not by learned serBions which th©y could not 
und-^rstfind, but by thfti>- example, &nd by getting their priests 
and ti.emaelves to know them intimately, and to tf He with th??rr, 
on religion ta applied to everyday lif®» 

He took away from th?^ people th*? right to elect soros of 
th-^ curates whiich they hed formorly elected, but the»t was 
simply becpuae they were doing harra arc' not because he wanted 
to tfJce &way their power „ (3) 

Finally he h«d mode out a series of religious reforms 
'tM ch were all for the gooc' of th^ people, but which hn did not 
get f chence to enforce beer use of riots end rebellion which 
took up the later part of his reign in Tuscany, 

(1) 11-324 

(2) !T-324 

(3) 3*383 
( 4 > B-256 

■ 99- 



After following Leopold throu>i-i his rsigK, end tpJ^ing up 
his various reforms, f ^"-K^ral view of the whole may bcs of some 
valus, Thly chapter is a final r??vi©w of th« subject iirith e 
ment-^on of some of the most noteworthy refornis showing enlightoH 
Mf5nt , and in conclusion a few words about Leopold's coaaotltu- 
tion which he -srould have i.:iven to Tuscany h&d circurnst5-'nc03 
liot prevented it, 

Bsioro be:7innin^ it rrd ght be well Just to montl on r, few 
of the difficulties which Leopold had to fl/^ht aivai nst in his 
reforna, Tvtscany had an snormous debt ; it yas p riess of 
different districts ©ach c^j. f ferently govern od ; t.sny of 
these districts vfsrs unhealthy ; e-yory trade w&s fUll of 
ancient restrictions that shackled it lalmost bayond a-ndur- 
{'nc9 ; and finally "Roi:!^ exercised such f. strong influenes 
over the vhol^ country thft its i>ow®r was parti culrrly bard 
to op3'use» Bi^aid'ss all this ho -*ai> only IB y^-^ars old "-h^n 
hn ascended the thronw, 

Ifsfith thes® difficulties in mind, th?^ following; list is 
particularly noteirotthy. In the fir at plfc^^ Leopold believed 
in kaoping out of wars of the foroign powers, Bn6 rmoni: othar 
things abolished his regular army bxid nevy, dismantled his 
fortresses at the stn:.'?. tlwa starting a regular mi litis.. 
Giving local adinini strict' on fxic loc&l taxation to th'^ diffrrnnt 
districts was another importrnt mr^asure. His forming of b 


r@|fular postal system vnii hfvint;' n oonaus taken are rIso 
sot a worthy. 

In a t3 Ka?ic5 p1 ',w.y, tlm &lj!;i.3t oosplf^t^ abolition of the 
public debt, local taxation, fnd pbollt-Son of fermlnf out of 
th?^ revanu*>3 ar^ inportput* 

In an Industrial and ?*eonomlo ^my, th*=* freeing of so nr^ny 
rftstrictions and taxes from trades, pf«rtiffiularly the provl. sion 
trade, t'n« abolition of guilds } and of most monopolies, rnc 
among exceptions to this the lottery ; th^? abolitiori of seizing 
agricultural iPiiilniTjfTfiits for debt j thsi throMnp; open of gam© 
preserves snc! fish'^rlss ; and encouraging colonl ?.&ti on by 
i^^rpnts of lend rnd help in building houac^s ; all the-s© shoir 
pretty thoroughly Ms ®nll';ht^nad policy. 

In his criEdrif'l law code th-^ abolition of torture ptx all 
kincl;. of wutiletlon ; his refusrd to ?iCcopt pr?>sumptlTe proof ; 
not allowlnp; r •■^If^tivss to testify &nainst ©ach other ; end th® 
quickness of trifl totS^th^r -^tt Ms bf^ll •^f thft vh? rrlinc 
object shoulf b© to rr«5V9nt not to punish crime, all show 

Tfc-r; abolition of the inauisitlon pkc- of th'^ ri^ht of 
srinctuary ; th^ f^bolition of ccnTrents rrir- nttempts to reform 
those which remained ; the taxing of church i.r-operty end re- 
stricting sceleslRStical courts ; the grfntinp of ftill citizen- 
ship and tol??rf^tion to thf; Sb^jb ; 3av'3re perialtl ®3 for hf^r -^sy ; 
and the foundation of th?^ T>rothf)rhooc'. of Ohprity, are .some of 
his meESures. 


Tbe buildini- of roads enti, tho sterting of reclal.ndne 
marshoa toivether with the clearing out of canals are &lao 
import feiit, 

j-Iis ©stablishme'x.t of s. achoul for yoL.n.s girls which coin- 
biriad. thn practical fnc; the IJter&ry (1) ; the rourjdini' of e 
professorship in criminal !&■■« ; increaaing the srlaries of 
university professors ; th^ fouridation of librprl?is, pnd 
o{:?rin^r iheia to the public ; t>-n(i. formirig f^nd ir?cr©fjbi n;;- 
museui.'is and ^rt tall^ries ind throwing them ojn^n to tr;R public 
?r'5 ell worthy of noticing'. 

Then his hurnr.nitariei.n n^easures i»uch as trki rit:, car'; of 
the insane ; founding rnaternlty and ot>- ^r ; ©str.b- 
lishrientof .afoundlinM' houye j rnd according': to llevier hie 
abolition of slavery (2), are worthy of ra(3ntion, 

A glonca at all thes© meaaurss will show how inuch at 
h'sart Leopold must have had tho good of ths people. ''^ 
took a personal intorsst in all thsir most trifling actions traveled fcrouj^C' to the diff'-rsnt ciiatrlcta to 3i^-^ what 
ho coulc^ do to help theiiu In all his n;®asure3, although 
h<^ rscoiyed ?>dTice from his minifjtors, h^ meor th" f^rr 1 
dscir.-ion hinmelf of ^hat wes to bf) done. 

Having trsatad his moaaurea, what more fitting conclusion 
to this thesis could tk^re bo thf.n o. f&w words ab^^ut h5 9 con- 
stitution and ii. itructi on3 to bis rninistprs on. l^fving Tusc-iny, 

(1) H-220 

(2) H-310 


By this a**- constitution ths nets on whs to b® governed by 
Community Assemblies, Provincjal Assemblies » and a aenfsral 
Assembly. A certain rsumbsr of comisruriitlas made up r province. 
Certain n;^n chosen from th-?; Coxiiriinity iissernblies rnadei up the 
Pi^ovincial Assemblies, bji6 certf^in ni©n chosen ffom 5t In 
turn made up the Senerel Assembly* Lews were to be ?»n&ctsd 
by the coricurrent vole© of the- priiic?? f>nd the General Assembly, 
but thr;5-r -:xf50uti on r'e.3 plp.c?c! altogether in th® hcr^ds of the 
>rB.nd T\ik^, who ap^ to hsve full powar over the cjvll fores 

of 'j?U3Cf:.liy, (1) 

A:mong othf^r notable things -was thet p. perfect nsutrrlit;; 
Tas to bo kept -^'ith ell nations, fn6 that f, regulrr ndtitle 
only WE3 to b?? naintsined. 

Anoth'=*r clause was the perfect liberty of trad*^; which 
•-va.'i estfibli :?hcc as & fXindam^ntal la?--, sacred and imriutpble ; 
incapable of suspf^nsi or, or of iKpescimont by taxes or other 
rr. strict ions, eith'^r dirsctly or 5nnir«ctly applied, (2) 

Besides that no public or provincial debt coulf- b^ con- 
tract sd in any forui, p.nd he mr6n spociPl provisions 3o that 
"fV-j^t filr'ie.dy sxj stod shoulr' soon bs pf id off* (3) 

Anotho-^ fmndnr/^iontf^l article forbade fny incrersQ of 
territory by ne".- acquisitions, or any altsrr/tion by ex- 
changes, (-i) 

(1) N-302-3 

(S) IW604, 

(3) H-304 

(4) N-305 


Qne noticeable feature in all Leopold's reforuiii was that 
they were brought about laore slowly than most of the other 
enlightened, despots* reforms. In nearly evfn-y c&se h« set 
a certain date ahead at ivhich tirns each edict was to be enforced 
Besides thst he tried to educate the people up to certain 
reforjHS, In conclusion the follonsdng pr ssage from TTppj er 
seems to pretty well sum up Leopold's whole rf?ign. He says, 
"Leopold fully exercised his despotic powers for opening 
a rord to liberty, and perhaps no despotism was ever* swayed 
by purer intentions, and with less offensive consequences,"