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Full text of "Armenia, and the campaign of 1877"

(ll0rit0U HmucrHlta Hibrara 



atljara. Ncto fork 



FROM THE 



BENNO LOEWY LIBRARY 

COLLECTED BY 

BENNO LOEWY 

1854-1919 



BEQUEATHED TO CORNELL UNIVERSITY 



Cornell Unlvefslty Library 
DB 573.N84 1878 

Armenia, and the «{n>,(>ak(n,^^^ 



3 1924 028 512 519 



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Cornell University 
Library 



The original of this book is in 
the Cornell University Library. 

There are no known copyright restrictions in 
the United States on the use of the text. 



http://www.archive.org/details/cu31924028512519 



ARMENIA, 



AND THE CAMPAIGN OF 1877. 



BY 

C. B. NORMAN, 

LATE SPECIAL^ CORRESPONDENT OF "THE TIMES" AT THE SEAT OP WAR. 



WITH SFECJALLT-FMEFAREI) MAPS AND FLANS. 



€)^conO ©Oltion. 



CASSELL PETTER k GALPIN: 

LONDON, PARIS ^ NEW YORK. \i \ \ \ 



[all RIGHTS RESERVED.! 

, I I.- K A in' 

La 



TO 

\ 

LIEUTENANT-GENERAL 

SIE ARNOLD KEMBALL, C.B., K.C.S.L, 

f 

ROYAL ARTILLERY, 

WHOSE CAREER IN PAST DAYS AS A BOMBAY HORSE ARTILLERYMAN, 
IN THESE NO LESS STIRRIN& TIMES AS A SOLDIER DIPLOMATIST, 
TESTIFIES ALIKE TO HIS TACT, ENDURANCE, AND GALLANTRY — WHOSE 

NAME ADDS ONE MORE TO THE LIST OF THOSE INDIAN HEROES OF 

V 
WHOM EVERY ENGLISHMAN MAY BE JUSTLY PROUD — 

TEIS VOLUME IS BEBICATED 

BY HIS OBEDIENT SERVANT, 

THE AUTHOR. 



PREFACE. 



My apology for launching yet another book on the 
world must be that I am aware the history of the 
war in Armenia is but imperfectly known in this 
country. More vivid interest attached to the scenes 
nearer home, Plevna and Schipka eclipsed Zewin and 
Kars in both honour and gallantry, and though British 
interests were more sensibly affected, according to party 
cry, by the events in Asia, yet popular interest was 
more, visibly affected by the deeds upon European 
ground. 

I landed at Trebizond an advanced philo-Turk, 
and deeply impressed with the idea that Turkish mis- 
rule and Turkish maladministration had been grossly 
exaggerated. Being a novice in the profession of 
journalism, I was not bound to adhere to my former 
opinions for the sake of consistency in my future 
articles; and being entirely unfettered in my instruc- 
tions, I determined to write fairly and honestly what 
came before me, and endeavour to the best of my 
ability to uphold the Ottoman cause. 

I have seen misrule in native states in India; I 
have seen Oriental vice and profligacy amongst the 
higher classes of Her Majesty's Eastern subjects; I 
a2 



viii THE GAMFAIGN IN ARMENIA. 

have studied the Oriental character for some years, and 
flattered myself I knew a little about it. These pages 
will show how soon my views changed; how soon I 
learnt that no words could exaggerate the amount of 
misrule that exists in Asiatic Turkey, where Christian 
and Mahomedan alike groan under an intolerable yoke. 
I learnt, too, that the debauched rajah is an innocent 
compared with the majority of pashas. 

As regards the Turkish army, I never saw a Nizam 
battalion that could hold its own with our worst- 
drilled regiment of Bengal Infantry. Our native officers 
are as a rule infinitely superior to the Ottoman regi- 
mental officers, few of whom, in Lord Napier of 
Magdala's regime, could have qualified educationally 
for promotion to naiek. Some few among the superiors 
— how few the campaign shows — were good men. It 
is no exaggeration to say that the success of the earlier 
portion of the war may be traced to the exertions of 
less than half a dozen men — Ahmed Mukhtar, Djameel 
and Paizi Pashas, Halit, and Captain Mahomed Bey. 

Eemembering what the Ottoman army did in the 
Crimea, fighting by the side of our own men, and 
remembering what our native troops in India have 
done at Lucknow, Delhi, Chillianwallah, Punniar, 
Jellalabad, Grhuzni, and a hundred other places — com- 
paring these acts with those of the present campaign, 
we ought, at any rate, to feel satisfied that if with 
their faulty organisation, bad officers, ignorant stajff, 
and lack of pecuniary resources, the Ottoman armies 
have been enabled to hold Russia at bay for eight 
long months, we with our well-trained troops, and 



PEEFAGE, ix 

our inexhaustible native reserve (every whit the equal 
in physique and gallantry of the Osmanli), need have 
no fear should we unfortunately be drawn into war. 
If the Czar's armies have taken two -thirds of a year 
to march from Alexandropol to Erzeroum, and seven 
months from Goomri to Kars, they may abandon all 
hope of ever reaching Peshawur, of ever ruling in 
Hindostan. 

I have not touched on the political view of the 
Eastern Question, for I know little about it. I am 
aware that the war is entirely due to the machinations 
of Russia. I know that her agents fomented rebellion 
in Bulgaria ; that her ambassador persuaded the Porte 
to suppress the revolt with Bashi-Bazouks, and to 
repudiate her loans. I am aware that, behind the 
flimsy pretence of the amehoration of the Christian 
subjects of the Porte, the real reason for the war 
was love of aggression, and that the Czar still hopes 
to see the Cathedral of St. Sophia the head of the 
Greek Church. Thus, though I know the conduct 
of Russia to be indefensible on every ground, I cannot 
but feel that if the war is the cause of granting a 
good government to the subjects of the Porte, if it 
strangles the rule of the pasha and the zaptieh, the 
Czar will deserve as much credit for the invasion of 
Turkey as for the emancipation of the serf. 

As for British interests being affected by the annexa- 
tion of Armenia, I fail to see the point. Alexandropol 
and Erivan are nearer the Persian Grulf than Kars and 
Erzeroum, Samarkand and Khokand nearer the Punjaub 
than either. Those who advance the theory that the 



X THE CAMPAIGN IK ARMENIA. 

Mahomedan tribes of Hindostan would join Eussia were 
we involved in hostilities with her, because we failed 
to support the Sultan in his hour of need, forget the 
lesson taught in 1857, just one year after the Treaty 
of Paris, one year after the Crimean War, when we 
sacrificei 100,000 men and £100,000,000 to bolster up 
the Ottoman Empire, the Bengal army mutinied, and 
our bitterest foes in that dire struggle were the Maho- 
medans of Northern India.*' 

Before these pages see the light we may be at 
war with Eussia. A large section of the people seem 
urging the Government to defend ''British interests;" 
but not a man seems able to define the term. Should 
unhappily we find ourselves called upon to defend 
either of the two points laid down by Lord Derby 
as debatable ground, I feel no fear for the result. 
We know Eussia's armed strength : the events of the 
last few months have thoroughly opened our eyes to 
the exaggerated views we formerly held of her power. 
She has no idea of our power; and as this war has 
proved the value of infantry, the uselessness of un- 
trained artillery fire, so if we go to war will we prove 
that our infantry are the finest-trained soldiers in the 
world, even as they ever have been. I have no doubt 
in my mind that a battalion of native troops, organised 

* I recently read a lecture given by a Lieutenant-Colonel of Yolunteers, 
in which it was deliberately stated that the capture of Kars in '55 
weakened our hold of India, and was one of the primary causes of the 
Mutiny. This is as amusing as the statement gravely made by Sir H. Hoare 
to Lord Derby, that our first news of the capture of Kars on the 18th 
November was derived by telegraph from Cabul ! Truly, as Lord SaUs- 
bury remarked, the study of large scale maps is most desirable — a little 
knowledge is a dangerous thing I 



PREFACE, XI 

as they now are, would prove more than a match for 
any battalion the Czar could put against them; and, 
as far as the cavalry of the army of the Caucasus is 
concerned, our Indian irregular cavalry, I am con- 
vinced, could walk round them. If Kussia, overpowered 
by conceit at her recent successes, rushes into war 
with us, she will, I believe, emerge a crippled and a 
third-rate Power. • 

In my correspondence to the Times I made it a 
rule to report nothing but what came under my own 
personal observation, or facts confirmed by European 
evidence ; in the re-publication of my letters I have 
adhered to that rule. I have endeavoured to write 
impartially, neither glossing over the faults of the Turks 
nor imputing .glaring atrocities to the Eussians ; in 
truth I may say that I failed to obtain one authenticated 
case of cruelty committed by the army of the Grand 
Duke, and in this statement I am borne out by the 
despatches of Sir Arnold Kemball, published in the 
recent Blue Books on the Eastern Question. 

Of the conduct of the Turkish administration no 
one could speak too strongly : in making no provision 
for their sick and wounded ; hx sanctioning the employ- 
ment of irregulars ; in failing to punish the perpetrators 
of deeds which roused the indignation of every honest 
man ; and in circulating the most barefaced falsehoods 
about Eussian cruelty, notably the statements of the 
treatment of prisoners at Ardahan, and of the inhabit- 
ants of the Alashgird plain. Such acts as these must 
inevitably alienate the support of those who feel for a 
gallant people fighting for effete rulers. 



XII 



THE CAMPAIGN IN ARMENIA. 



In conclusion, I have to offer my heartfelt thanks to 
many, but for whose kind assistance I should have been 
unable to lay before the public what I venture to trust 
will be accepted as a truthful history of the Armenian 
campaign. To Dr. W. H. Eussell, the king of war 
correspondents, I am indebted for much help — hints as 
to kit, aird warnings as to the danger that besets the 
unwary correspondent ; to Mr. Wylde for his invaluable 
help in the compilation of the map which accompanies 
this volume ; to Mr. Zohrab, Her Majesty's Consul at 
Erzeroum; Mr. Biliotti, Consul at Trebizond; Mr. A. 
Magack, of Erzeroum, all and each of whom vied in 
kindness and hospitality, placing not only their houses 
and libraries at my disposal, but aiding me in collecting 
news of hostilities and facts concerning the history and 
administration of the country; without their help I 
should have been powerless. To Sir Arnold Kemball 
and his indefatigable aide-de-camp, Lieut. Maitland 
Dougall, E.N., I owe more than words can express. 
I can only hope that they retain as pleasant a re- 
miniscence of our united efforts to rub along under 
discomforts of no ordinary kind, on the sunny slopes 
of Ararat, as I ever shall. 



CONTENTS. 



CHAPTER T. 

LONDON TO TREBIZONr. 



FAQB 



Austrian Custom House — Travelling Companions — IMisseri's Hotel— Search 
for Horse-flesh— Krikol, Possum, and Mr. Vincent — Early Impressions 
of the Turkish Army — Defences of the Bosphorus— Eedif and Eaoiif — 
Turkish Volunteers— Trebizond and Her Majesty's Consul— Trade in 
the Black Sea— Sport and " Polly "—Djameel Pasha— The Abkhasians 



CHAPTER 11. 

TREBIZOND TO EEZEEOUM. 

DJameel Pasha at Work— The Sword of my Escort — Turkish Troops 
pushing on to the Front — Anatolian Trout — The Zigana Pass — A 
Night's Lodging — " Riz-au-gras " — The Pests of Armenia — Guns and 
Volunteers — Comfortable Quarters — Esprit de Corps — Monsieur Magack 
— Erzeroum — Its People and Defences — Its Drains and Dirt — Its 
Shepherd — Its Trade 19 

CHAPTER III. 

THE HOSTILE ARMIES. 

The Turkish Army, and its Changes during the Present Century — Thirty 
Years' Stagnation — Abdul Azeez's ileforms---Equality of Race as "^ 
regards Military Service — Nizam, Ichtayat, Bedif, and Mustahfiz — 
Military Districts — Administrative Staff — Sappers and Miners — Ar- 
tillery — Guns — Equipment of Mounted Branch — Horses — Pay of all 
Grades — Cavalry Equipment — Horses — Men — Pay of all Grades — In- 
fantry Staff — Uniform and Equipment— Arms and Pay — Rations and 
Quarters — Scarcity of Officers — Mukhtar's Forces — Russian Army — 
Composition — Artillery — Position of Turkish Army — Position of 
Russian Army . • . 34 



xiv THE CAMPAIGN IJsF ARMENIA. 

CHAPTER lY. 

THE STORY OF ABDAHAN. 

PAGE 

Ismail Kurd's Invasion of Eussia — Discontent in the City— The Petition 
to the British Consul— Mr. Zohrab— Eussian Designs on Armenia — 
Alacrity in following up the Declaration of War — Capture of Bayazid 
— City Canards— Aidahsin — Captain Mehmed Bey — Sahri Pasha — 
Gallant Defence of the Emir Oghlou— Flight of Sahri— Capture of the 
Town 59 

c 

CHAPTER Y. 

ON THE WAY TO THE FRONT. 

Fugitives from Ardahan — Sahri Pasha again — Conduct of Eussians— 
Eetreat from Olti — The Herman Dooz — Kuipri Kui and its Defences — 
Suspicious Death of a Christian — Khorassan — The Fight at Beghli 
Ahmed — First Impressions of Circassians — Ahmed Mukhtar Pasha — 
The Zewin Dooz — Disposition of Turkish Troops — Apathy of Ismail 
Pa§ha — The Kurds — Discontent among Troops at Erzeroum — Appeal 
for Help from England — Visit to the Camp at Delihaba — The Pass — 
Turkish Oflficers — Ee-occupation of Olti— Our Kurdish Escort — Sortie 
from Kars— Faizi Pasha's Opinions— Other Versions of Beghli Ahmed 
— The Head- quarter Camp — Talked- of Court-martial on Sahri Pasha — 
Want of Cavalry — Position of Eussian Forces — Position of Turkish 
Forces 76 

CHAPTER YI. 

THE BATTLE OF TAGHIR. 

A Fatal Omen! — With Sir Arnold in Search of a ** Scrim" — Mahomed 
Pasha wishes to Fight — Our Breakfast Interrupted— View the Ground 
— Kurds and Circassians — A Eough Time of it — Eussian Intentions — 
Disposition of our Troops — Description of the Ground— Wild Firing of 
the Turks — Gallantry of their Gunners — Pluck of the Tcherkess — 
Excellence of Eussian Infantry — Waste of Ammunition — Our Flank 
Turned — Yahvash! Yahvash! A Eun from the Cossacks — Hospital 
Arrangements — Eeflection on the Fight — ^The Energetic Djameel Pasha 
— Turkish Losses 104 



CHAPTER YII. 

A LULL IN THE STORM. 

Ismail's Canards— Halit Bey— Disorganised state of Turkish Eight Wing- 
A Eussian Scape— A Fish Dinner-, Position of the Hostile Armies- 



CONTENTS, XV 

Ke-occupation of Bayazid.by Faik Pasha — Mukhtar Pasha reinforces 
and assumes Command of Right Wing — Ismail the Kurd joins Central 
Column — Moussa Pasha — News of a Turkish Success at Eshek Khaliass 
— Awkward Position of Tergukassoff— Faik Pasha's Division . .130 

CHAPTER YIII. 

THE MOSLEM AT BAY. 

Leave Erzeroum once more for the Front— The Battle of Eshek Khaliass — 
Conduct of Turkish Cavalry — No Ammunition! — Wounded Men — 
German Doctors — Hand- wounds — True Missionaries — Sir Arnold 
KembaU — Fresh News of Eshek Khaliass — Turkish Losses— Fate of 
Skirmishers against Shelter Trenches — More Fighting — Another 
Stampede — Tcherkess Heroes — A Christian Village — Reinforcements 
for Zewin — Rumours of 'a Fight — '■'■ Perish India ^^ — Outrages on 
Christians — Faizi Pasha's Victory — ^Enthusiasm of the Turks — Ismail 
and the Koran — Russian and Turkish Losses — Value of Turkish 
Cavalry — Value of Turkish Casualty Returns — Melikoff's Returns . 143 

CHAPTER IX. 

IN PURSUIT OF THE RUSSIANS. 

Visit from the Mushir — Complications in Daghestan — An Advance on the 
Enemy — A Cold Night — Inefficient Quartermaster- General's Depart- 
ment — The Bivouac on the Mellidooz — Treatment of Sir Arnold Kemhall 
— March to Sara Kamysh— A Turkish Camp — Turkish Hospitals — 
Rations of the Turkish Soldier — Discipline on the Line of March — The 
Peabody-Martini Rifle — Russian Letters — The Opinion expressed in 
them of the Conduct of the. War — Russian Retreat from Zaidikan — 
Desecration of the Graves of Russian Dead — Stripping the Dead — Dis- 
position of the Army — Rumour of Russian Retreat — Turkish Reverse 
near Ardanutsch — Kurdish Atrocities — Lawlessness of the Circassians 

Russian Wounded killed on the Field — Murder of Two Karapapak 

Irregulars — A new Mushir with Reinforcements — Detail of our Army— • 
Officers of Redif Battalions on the Line of March — Stories of Russian 
Cruelty — Not home out by Facts — Plunder of Christian Villages by 
Circassians — Vairan Kale — ^A Late Dinner 1 74 

CHAPTER X. 

THE RELIEF OF EARS. 

We enter the Fortress — The old familiar Names — Turkish Forts and Turkish 
** Obstacles" — Losses during Bombardment — Round-headed Shell — 
Russian Siege Batteries— Changes in our Staff— The Town well supplied 
with Provisions — Fortress with Ammunition — Description of the place 
from the Moskovskiya Vedomosii 204 



x^-i TEE CAMPAIGN IN ARMENIA, 

CHAPTER XL 

CAMP LIFE IN FRONT OF KAES. 

PAGE 

Massacre at Bayazid— Kurdish Atrocities— Conduct of Faik Pasha— Murder 
of a Russian Doctor near Kars— His Diary— Eussian Opinion of Battle 
of Khaliass— Strictures on Heimann— The Siege raised— Yet one more 
instance of the value of Turkish Cavalry— Siege Batteries— Move our 
Camp to Vezinkui — Beggars on Horseback — Success of the Turks 
deemed only Temporary — Conduct of the Officer in charge of Hospitals 
— An Interruption to our Breakfast — An Interchange of Civilities on 
the Slopes of the Yag-ni- Kindness of the Consul at Erzeroum— Energy 
displayed by the new Governor there — News from Van — Treatment of 
Christians throughout Armenia — Eussians change their Camp — Their 
Kindness to Turkish Prisoners at Ardahan — A Flag of Truce fired on, 
and Bearer killed, by the Eussians — ThQ Polish Legion — Cavalry 
Skirmish near Sabatan — Turkish Opinion of Kurds . . . .220 

CHAPTEE, XII. 

ON THE WATCH. 

Shift our Camp once more — Strength of our Forces — Stoppage of Telegrams 
— Hospitals in Erzeroum — EeHef of Bayazid by Tergukassoff — That 
General's Operations during the War — The Kurds once more — Court- 
martials on Faik and Sabri Pasha — Turkish Accounts of the EeHef of 
Bayazid — Circassian Account of same Affair — Losses in the Engagement 
— Eussian Punishment of Kurds — Pleasures of Camp Life — Expec- 
tations of a "Scrim" disappointed — Turkish Eeconnaissance into 
Eussian Territory — The Enemy's Attempts to cut it off — Peace and 
War — Eussian Eeinforcements at Tashkale — Hailstones and Pigeons' 
Eggs — Spies' Tales of Bayazid — British Officers' Accounts of Scenes in 
Bayazid — Sir ALmold Kemball's Endeavours to stop the Kurdish 
Atrocities — Mukhtar Pasha's little Affair with the Circassian — His stem 

Ideas of Discipline — Eussian Atrocities in Armenia — Utterly False 

Disposition of Eussian Troops 244 

CHAPTER XIIL 

HEAD-QTJARTEKS, FOURTH TURKISH ARMY CORPS. 

The Eussian Entreat — Machinery of Turkish Staff — Medical Department 

An Amateur Opinion on Eussian Eeconnaissances — ^A Skirmish on the 
28th — Cossacks left to bear the brunt of the Fight — Dash of the Cir- 
cassians — More Eussian Eeinforcements — Story of a Deserter — Strength 
of the Invading Army— Demoralisation after Defeat at Zewin— Eussian 
Casualties— Projected Assault at Kars — Value of our Cavalry Eus- 
sians occupy Ani unobserved— Mukhtar attacks them— Fresh Details 



CONTENTS. xvii 

PAGR 

from Bayazid— The Instigators of the Massacre — Sir Arnold Kemhall 
Demands their Punishment — Positions of Ismail Pasha and Tergu- 
kassoff — ^Turkish Ofificial Telegrams — Their close Adherence to Truth 
— Interchange of Civilities between ISIelikoff and Mukhtar — Ahmed 
Vefyk Pasha and the Stafford House Surgeons 264 

CHAPTER XIV. 

MOSLEM AND CHRISTIAN. 

Return to Erzeroum — Russians evacuate Ani — Incompetency of Commanders 
of Turkish Right and Left Wings — Christian Harvest and Moslem 
Reapers — Disinterred Russians — Behaviour of Kurds in Head-quarter 
Camp, and in the Right Column — English Hospital at Erzeroum — War 
Preparations at Erzeroum — Ani once more reoccupied — Conduct of the 
Russians in Armenia — The Kurds of Shoragel, Mehded, and Youssouf 
Bey— The Kurds in Alashgii-d— At Moosh— At BitHs— In Van— The 
Treatment of American Missionaries — Of Armenian Villages— Apathy 
or Sympathy of Ismail Pasha — Skirmish at Taouskui — Another at 
Hieraai Bulak — Engagement on 18th August — Preparations for a 
Winter Campaign — ^War Taxes, and prompt Pajnnent of subordinate 
Officials 281 

CHAPTER XV. 

TURKISH SUCCESSES. 

Battle on the 18th August — Attack on the Nakharji-Tepe unsuccessful- 
Russians fail to press home any of their Assaults — Turkish Losses — 
Stripping the Dead — Skirmishes between Ismail and Tergukassoff at 
Khalifin and Abazgool — Battle of Kizil-Tepe — Successful Assault of 
the Hill by Mehmed Bey — Grallant Attempt of the Abkhasian Prince 
to retake it — He is Wounded — Sheremetieff succeeds to the Command-r- 
Melikoff arrives with Reinforcements — Defeat of the Russians — Losses 
on both Sides— Reinforcements called for by both Mukhtar and Ismail 
Mr. Zohrab's position in Erzeroum — Paper Organisation of the Ottoman 
Army and its actual Condition — Drill and Discipline — Skirmishes and 
Sentries — Taxation in Armenia— Movements of Ismail Pasha , , 305 

CHAPTER XVI. 

ARMENIANS — THE TRUE STORY OF BATAZID. 

Arrival of Stafford House Stores at Erzeroum— State of Hospitals in Main 
Army and in Right Wing— Turkish Authorities refuse Permission to 
amputate— Refuse Carriage for Medical Stores— Our Hospitals in 
Erzeroum— My Ideas of the Armenian— The Exodus to Russian 
Territory, caused by Kui-dish Atrocities— Denial of this by Kurd Ismail 



xviii TEE CAMPAIGN IN ARMENIA. 



TAOE 



Pasha— Changes in the Turkish Staff— Jealousy of General Kohlmann 
—Court-martial on Sabri and Faik Pashas— Hussain Avni, and Zarif 
Mustafa— The True Story of Bayazid— Ferocity of the Kurds— Supine- 
ness of Faik Pasha— Neglect of Ismail to Support — Consequent Defeat 
of the Turks at Bayazid by Tergukassoff- Defence of Mr. Zohrab . 322 

CHAPTER XYIL 

WINTER PREPARATIONS. 

Ghazi Mukhtar Pasha— Promotion of Captain Mehmed Pasha— Further 
Plans of the Turkish Commander-in-Chief — Condition of the Erze- 
Toum Garrison — Prospect of Famine — Komaroff's Measures for the 
Defence of Ardahan — Eumoured Reinforcements for Tergukassoff — 
Winter Clothing for Turkish Troops— The British Ambulance — Re- 
ported Violation of the Geneva Convention by the Russians — Conduct 
of the Turks on the Battle-field — Conduct of the Russians in Ardahan — 
Explosive Bullets — Desertion of the Circassians — Probability of the 
Loss seriously affecting Mukhtar — Difficulty of an Advance on Erivan 
— Successful Raid of Arab Cavalry — Force despatched to Natschevan — 
Russian Reinforcements — Skirmish at Tcherkgi 344 

CHAPTER XYIII. 

THE MOSLEM AT THE END OF HIS TETHER. 

Skirmish near Zaim — Russians defeated — Plans of the Grand Duke — 
Mukhtar preparing for a Winter Campaign — His Position near Ears 
— Skirmish at Natschevan — Battle of the Yagnis on 2nd October — 
Gallantry of Mehmed Pasha's Brigade — Turkish Success at the Little 
Yagnj — ^Attack and Capture of the Great Yagni — Repulse of the 
Russians — Heavy Losses — Misery in Ears — Paucity of Doctors — 
Hospital Arrangements 357 

CHAPTER XrS. 

TURKISH ADMINISTRATION IN ARMENIA. 

Mahomedans Exempted from War Taxation — Christians Forced to Pay 

Pensioners of Turkish Government — Irregular Imposts— The Discon- 
tent they Cause — The Hadji— The Caimakam and the British Consul 
—The Police Station at the Mouth of the Ghiurji Boghaz— Mr. 
Layard and the Danger to India — American Missionaries' Yiews on 
Christian Oppression— Turkish Reforms— Her Hospitals— Dr. Casson 

on Turkish Atrocities — Employment of the Press by the Porte The 

Abkhasian Exodus— Treatment of the Bayazid Refugees by the 
Russians and Persians— Treatment of their own Wounded by Turks- 
Reduction of Unpaid Salaries .... 

' • • . 366 



CONTENTS. xix 

PAGE 

CHAPTER XX. 

THE TURN OF THE TIDE. 

Russian Reinforcements— Mukhtar draws in his Men— The Grand Duke 
occupies the late Turkish advanced Posts — Mukhtar's Confidence — 
Despondency of Turkish Soldiers — Increased Desertions — Russians 
learn the Value of a turning Movement — The Battle of the Aladja 
Dagh — Gallant Defence of the Little Yagni — Loss of the Olya Tepe — 
Extraordinary Conduct of Men sent to support the Position — Russians 
occupy the Nalhand Tepe — Panic on the Aladja Dagh — Flight to 
Ears — Scene in the Fortress — Hassan Bey's Exertions — Sanitary State 
of Ears — Mehmed Pasha evacuates the Little Yagni — Mukhtar's Plans 
— He falls back on the Araxes — Ismail Pasha also retires — Russian 
Trophies — Retreat through the Eose Dagh — Evacuation of Euipri Eui 
^Energy of Faizi Pasha — Ismail surprised at Hassan Eale — Capture 
of Captain Creagh — Treatment accorded to him, and to Dr. Casson — 
Turks fall back on the Devi-boyun— Reinforcements from Constan- 
tinople and Batoum 382 

CHAPTER XXI. 

OPERATIONS ROUND ERZEROUM. 

Turks strengthen both Erzeroum and the Devi-boyun — -Heimann attacks 
Mukhtar — Great Gallantry of Mehmed Pasha — Faizi holds the Turkish 
Right — Heimann tries a Ruse — Faizi tries to rally the Osmanli — Flight 
to Erzeroimi — Turkish Losses — Mukhtar Pasha encourages his Men — 
His Refusal to surrender — Russians invest Erzeroum — They construct a 
Redoubt on the Tope Dagh — Relative defensive Value of Erzeroum and 
Ears — Heimann' 8 ill-judged Attempt to assault the Place — Gallantry 
of Tamaieii — Capture of the Medjidieh Lunette — Mehmed Bey retakes 
it — Death of Tamaieff — Failure of the Attack on the EremedU Fort 
— Coolness of the English — Mr. Zohrab — Dr. Featherstonhaugh — 
Reginald and Percy Zohrab — Conduct of Turks to Wounded — The 
gentle Ladies of Erzeroum — Mutilation of Russian Dead , . . 396 

CHAPTER XXII. 

THE THIRD CAPTURE OP EARS BY THE RUSSIANS. 

Siege of Ears — Capture of Fort Hafiz Pasha — Russians move their Head- 
quarters — Projected Assault of the Place— Detail of Attacking Columns 
— Success of Lazaroff on the Right — Death of Count Grabbe in front 
of the Kanli Tabia — Capture of aU Works on the Plains— Capture of 
Earadagh and Citadel — Hussain Hami Pasha Escapes—The Majority 
of the Garrison surrender — Grand Duke enters the Place in Triumph — 
Melikoff moves towards Erzeroum — His Column forced to fall back 
from Olti — Eomaroff moves to Ardahan — Thence to Ardanutsch — 



XX THE CAMPAIGN IN ARMENIA. 

PAGE 

Skirmish there— Condition of Erzeroum—Treachery at Kars— Huasain 
Bey, Commandant of Artillery — Osman the Eenegade— Hussain's 
Visits to the Kussian Camp — The Circassian Letter-carrier — His Death 
— Abandonment of the Hafiz Pasha Tahia — ^Escape of Hami Pasha — 
The Man whom the Russian General allowed to wear his Sword — 
Like Father, like Son 410 

CHAPTER XXIIL 

paskiewitch's campaign in 1828-29. 

Paskiewitch's Forces — Doubts about Persia — Pankratieff watches her at 
Khoi— Brigade for the Circassians— The Russian Plans— Their Three 
Columns — Their Strength and Leaders — Inability to Siege Erzeroum in 
one Campaign — Cross the Frontier 14th June — Detail of Army of 
Czar — Of that of the Sultan— Kars Captured 23rd June — Akhalk- 
alaki, 24th July — Hertwitz, 26th July — Akhalzik, 16th August — 
Ardahan taken same day — Aitzkui, 18th August — Russian Right 
Column captures Baj'-azid — The Russian General cantons his Army in 
Armenia — Turkish Spring Preparations — Endeavour to re-capture 
Akhalzik — Massacre of Christians — 19th May, 1829, Paskiewitch 
rejoins the Army — 11th June, he advances — 19th, Battle of Zewin 
— 20th, Battle of MelKdooz — 28th, Erzeroum surrenders — Treaty of 
Adrianople 422 

APPENDLK A.— Organisation of Turkish Army . . . .439 

APPENDIX B.— Russian Army Organisation 459 

APPENDIX C— The Armenian Theatre of War .... 469 

APPENDIX D.— HussAiN Avni Pasha 481 



LIST OF MAPS AND PLANS, 

Map of Armenia Frontispiece 

Plan of the Affair at Taghir to face page 104 

Plan of the Engagement on the Zewin Plateau 
Map of the Ground between Kars and Alexandropol 
Plan of Battles of the Aladja Dagh .... 

Plan op Erzeroum ........ 

Sketch Map showing Campaign of 1828-29 . 
Map of the Country around Erzeroum 



J) 



n 



>> 



>) 



>> 



162 
305 
366 
386 
405 
437 



ARMENIA, 

AND THE CAMPAIGN OF 1877. 



CHAPTEE I. 

LONDON TO TREBIZOND. 

Austrian Custom House — Travelling- Companions — Misseri's Hotel — Search, for 
Horse-flesh — Elrikol, Possum, and Mr. Vincent — Early Impressions of the 
Turkish. Army — Defences of the Bosphorus — Redif and Raouf — Turkish 
Volunteers — Trehizond and Her Majesty's Consul — Trade in the Black 
Sea — Sport and " Polly ^' — ^Djameel Pasha — The Abkhasians. 

Trebizond, May \^ili. 

The evening of Monday, April 30, 1877, was cold 
and stormy, not such, an one as an unfettered traveller 
would have chosen for the purpose of crossing the 
Channel ; but, with my head towards Kars, and an ardent 
longing to reach Armenia before the actual outbreak 
of hostilities, it did not behove me to be too particular 
about the weather at the commencement of my trip. 
Breaking my journey to Buda Pesth of a necessity at 
Vienna, I experienced the annoyance of an Austrian 
custom-house examination. It was useless aflSrming 
that my saddlery was old ; that my waterproof sheeting 
was destined for Armenia, not Hungary; that my 
note-paper was for my own use ; and that I considered 
soap an indispensable article for my journey. The 
cadaverous chief carefully examined, weighed, and 
measured everything, from a spare tooth-brush to a 
Colt's revolver, and, after a delay of two hours and a 

B 



2 TEE CAMPAIGN IN ARMENIA 

half, permitted me to proceed to the Hotel Imperial, 
where, as usual, everything was most comfortable. At 
three p.m. on the 3rd of May, I left Vienna for Pesth. A 
popular colonel of the Scots Guards, bound for Widdin 
and the theatre of war on the Danube, was my companion. 
At ten p.m. we parted, he for the Eoumanian frontier, 
I to make some necessary arrangements with a friend, 
driving straight to the Casino Nationale. I was present 
during the reception of the Softa Deputation by re- 
presentatives of the Hungarian nation, the interest of 
which was much heightened when I was informed that 
there was not a single Softa in the group of fezzed 
heads. 

At six the following morning I was once more 
ready for Trieste, and at noon on Saturday, the 5th, 
embarked on board the Austrian Llovd's steamer, 
Diana, for Constantinople. Even on a five days' sea- 
voyage, I think one naturally looks with interest on 
one's fellow-travellers, amongst whom, no matter of 
what nationality or creed they may be, an Englishman, 
I may say invariably, meets with a friend. 

Among the passengers were a naval confrere, en route 
to join Hobart Pasha, and relate the doughty deeds 
of the Ottoman fleet; two ex-naval oificers, about to 
place their services at the disposal of the Sublime 
Porte ; a Scotch peer, travelling in search of informa- 
tion, and seeking it even at the cannon's mouth ; an 
American journalist ; a Prussian nun, who lost her 
heart during that short water- trip ; and last, though 
not least, Turfek Bey, the late Charge d' Affaires 
at St. Petersburg, returning with his suite to Con- 
stantinople. His first-secretary, Aristarchi Bey, was 
a perfect English scholar, and to him I am much 



ABBIVAL AT CONSTANTINOPLE. 3 

indebted for valuable information on the subject of the 
Ottoman administration. Thouf^li fine and smooth as 
we steamed out of the Trieste harbour, the breeze 
outside was decidedly freshening, and as the sun went 
down behind a thick dirty bank of clouds, the old 
Scotch engineer on board prophesied a nasty night. 
A dead head-wind, rising to a fresh gale, accompanied 
by heavy showers, ushered in the storm, in which the 
Diana showed her rolling powers. I am afraid few of 
ns turned up to breakfast on Sunday, though dinner- 
time saw most of the male passengers earnestly 
discussing the very excellent repast furnished by the 
burly, good-tempered old steward, who must have been 
sorely tried by the babel of orders and the practical 
jokes played on him by more than one member of our 
mess. 

Monday afternoon we spent at Corfu, and heard the 
usual wail of lamentation from shopkeepers and hotel 
proprietors, at the cession of the isles to Grreece. 
Whether the move was politic or not is very question- 
able ; that it was most unpopular is doubtless the case. 
Steaming away the same evening, we reached Syra at 
four p.m. on Wednesday, the 9th, and then we learnt 
that the Eussians had crossed the frontier of Armenia, 
and captured Bayazid without a struggle. Here we 
lost the Prussian nun, the charms of her Smyrniote 
admirer outweighed all other scruples, and, renouncing 
her intention of joining the Eed Cross Hospital on the 
Danube, she took ship to the coast of Syria. 

At dawn on the 11th we awoke to find ourselves 

steaming into the Grolden Horn, and an hour later 

we were toiling up the hill from the custom-house to 

Misseri's. Mr. Murray, Mr. Murray ! you have much 

B 2 



4 TEE CAMPAIGN IN ARMENIA. 

to answer for ! confiding in your recommendation, the 
whole of our party went to the hostelry kept by the 
late dragoman of Eothen; but that any of us would 
endorse your opinion, or pay it a second visit, I much 
doubt. 

After breakfast, in company with my naval confrere, 
I drove out to Therapia, where his Excellency Mr. 
Layard kindly promised me his assistance in obtaining 
the necessary papers to enable me to go to the front. 
The ambassador's earnest promises were to a great extent 
nullified by the extreme discourtesy of his Levantine 
dragoman, who certainly appears to think that the fact 
of sitting at a Minister's footstool robes him with 
a Minister's importance. Keeping appointments and 
answering letters do not seem to be part of the duty of 
embassy subordinate officials in Pera. 

The following day was spent, in company with some 
of my fellow-passengers, in exploring the streets of 
Stamboul in search of horse-flesh. I suppose there are 
some good cattle in the city ; we failed, however, to see 
anything resembling a horse, and returned, hot and 
thirsty, and somewhat out of temper, to our hotel. 
Here I heard of two animals, of which I eventually 
became the purchaser, and two better little beasts I 
never wish to own. One, a bay Arab, the property of 
Hobart Pasha ; though peculiarly marked, a very hand- 
some horse, and just as good as he looked. The other, 
a very ugly bay pony, with two big splints, a huge 
head, and altogether quite as ugly as the '' Earl " was 
handsome ; but as good as he was hideous, and that is 
saying a great deal. 

Having overcome the difficulty of horses, the next 
thing was to obtain servants. Through the kindness of 



GROOMS AND DRAGOMAN. 



5 



•Hobarfc Pasha I engaged two Armenian grooms who 
had been in his employ for some years. Krikol, the 
father, was a thoroughly trustworthy old gentleman, 
who spoke nothing but Armenian. "Possum/' the 
son, spoke and read French, Turkish, and Armenian ; 
a smart, willing, intelligent boy, he possessed all his 
father's reliability, with twice his intelligence. They 
certainly were the most favourable specimens of their 
class I have ever met. They did not lie, they did not 
cheat much; they stood all the hardships which we 
subsequently went through most cheerfully, and they 
had no scruples about going under fire. 

A dragoman who could also cook, and who would 
not be above pitching tents, or putting his hand to 
all work, was the next difiiculty, and it was not until 
just an hour before the boat left for Trebizond that 
Mr. Vincent Graldies was introduced to me. A Maltese 
by birth, and consequently a British subject, Mr. 
Vincent assumed great airs amongst the people with 
whom he associated in Armenia, and upheld the dignity 
of our flag in a comical though authoritative manner. 
His knowledge of the culinary art was limited ; but, 
situated as we often were, it merited, as it received, our 
warmest encomiums. His knowledge of English was as 
small; many was the hearty laugh we indulged in at 
Mr. Vincent's expense. Poor fellow ! the hardships of 
the campaign told on a not too strong constitution, and 
it is with much regret I have heard since leaving Pera 
that he now is in a rapid decline. 

During my short stay in Constantinople I had in- 
terviews with several Turkish gentlemen, who one and 
all received me most courteously. They seemed im- 
pressed with the idea that both England and Austria 



6 THE CAMPAIGN IN ARMENIA. 

would be forced to help them, though they felt pretty 
confident of holding their own without any foreign aid. 
There was no excitement or passionate declamation con- 
cerning the war. Everything was received in the usual 
Oriental stoical manner. The Volunteer barracks were 
slowly fiUing, chiefly with Circassians and Zeibeks, who 
strolled into the gates to enlist themselves with the 
same easy nonchalant air that the drummer outside was 
beating his drum. The good people of Stamboul itself 
seemed supremely indifferent on the subject; hundreds 
of able-bodied men, well calculated to form food for 
powder, were collected in groups at corners of streets 
discussing affairs in a matter-of-fact sort of way, without 
betraying any enthusiasm whatever. 

In spite of the declaration of neutrality, there 
were several Englishmen seeking employment under the 
Porte, but the Turkish officials show great jealousy of 
English interference, and naturally wish to keep all the 
superior appointments in their own hands. 

The Turkish army is divided into seven army corps, 
having their head-quarters as follows : — 

1st Army Corps, Constantinople. 



2nd 


\ 


Shumla. 


3rd 




Monastir. 


4th 




Erzeroum. 


5th 




Damascus. 


6th 




Bagdad. 


7th 




Yemen. 



The strength of each corps differed, and as the fourth 
is the only one liable to be called upon to play any part 
in the campaign, I will in a subsequent chapter give a 
detailed account of its constitution. 



TUEKISE ARTILLERY, 7 

The authorised composition of a corps d'armee is two 
divisions of infantry, each consisting of two brigades of 
four battalions, one regiment of artillery of twelve bat- 
teries, two brigades of cavalry of two regiments each, 
and a company of engineers, the whole under the com- 
mand of a Mushir or Marshal. 

From what I saw of their regiments, they would 
not be amiss for the importation of a few smart com- 
mandants and adjutants; the physique was admirable, 
but the clothing, drill, setting-up, and discipline left a 
very great deal to be desired. The artillery seemed 
the smartest branch of the service, the guns being 
Krupp's breechloaders, of a similar pattern to those in 
use in the German army, while the heavy siege guns 
and guns of position were either Armstrongs or Krupps. 
The batteries, like ours, had six guns each, and were 
chiefly four or six pfdnders. There were several 
mountain batteries of 5J-centimeter Krupps. These 
guns are mounted on mules similar to our Indian 
mountain batteries, though the carriages are more clumsy, 
and ammunition boxes not so complete. Each cavalry 
regiment is commanded by a colonel, with two majors 
and two adjutants under him ; it is divided into six 
squadrons of 156 sabres, with one captain, one second 
captain, and three subalterns, as the staff. Each infantry 
regiment is commanded by a colonel, with a lieutenant- 
colonel under him. There is a major to each battalion, 
assisted by two adjutants, and there are eight companies 
of from 80 to 100 men in each, officered by one captain, 
one lieutenant, and one sub -lieutenant. To every regi- 
ment of cavalry and battalion of infantry there are several 
doctors and a paymaster. This is the organisation laid 
down, but I fear the army is far removed from it. 



8 THE CAMPAIGN IN ARMENIA. 

However, it reads well on paper. As there is no pub- 
lished army-list, and as there are no outward and visible 
means of distinguishing regiments from each other — ^for 
they are not numbered, nor have they different facings 
— it must be almost as difficult for an officer on the staff 
of the Turkish army to know the corps one from another 
as it is for a stranger. 

Leaving the Golden Horn on the afternoon of the 
14th, we steamed slowly up the Bosphorus. I thus had 
a good opportunity of looking at the new works for the 
defence of those Straits. The old Eoumeli Hissar is 
supplemented by a powerful earthwork battery, mounting 
twelve 10-inch Armstrongs, in embrasures, with traverses 
between each gun portion, and six 12 -inch Armstrongs 
en barbette — i.e., two in the centre of the face and two 
on either flank ; the face of the battery thus has fourteen 
guns. The parapets are thirty-six feet in thickness, with 
a command of forty feet over the sea-level. So I was 
assured by a major on the Turkish staff, a fellow-passenger 
of mine. Between the Eoumeli Hissar and the Euxine 
are four earthworks, each mounting four 10-inch Arm- 
strongs ; the Anatole Hissar has a battery of similar 
profile and construction to the old fort of Europe, except 
that in the centre are mounted four 12 -inch guns en 
barbette, making twenty pieces in all. Between it and 
the sea are six earthworks, two mounting six guns and four 
four guns each, all 10-inch Armstrongs. Four Turkish 
ironclads are moored in the stream, and supplement the 
defences considerably. I could not ascertain their names 
or armament, but one looked very like the MessoudieJi 
I saw in the Thames in 1875, and I noticed two Gatlings 
in the after quarter-deck ports of each of them. 

Clearing the Bosphorus at eight p.m., we experienced 



A TURKISH REGIMENT, 9 

brisk wind and dense mist through the Black Sea, 
reaching Samsoon, half way to Trebizond, late on Wed- 
nesday night. Samsoon is a small town on the coast, 
with some interesting Greek ruins. There are three 
small masonry works, one at either extremity of the 
bay and one in the centre of the town ; the garrison 
consists of two battalions of infantry and 200 gunners. 
The guns in these antiquated forts are old smooth 18- 
pounders, but the eastern battery has one 7 -inch Arm- 
strong, and the western battery two 40-pounders. The 
regiment which I saw on parade was a disgrace to any 
army — material excellent, but training, accoutrements, 
and discipline wanting. The equipment is there, for 
the greater part of the Turkish army is now furnished 
with the Henry-Martini rifle, with the Berdan cartridge ; 
but the men have not been instructed in its use, and 
very few ofiicers even understand the sights of their new 
weapon. Discipline in one sense of the word seems to be 
unknown, but I believe crime is very rare amongst the 
subordinate ranks. Sentries relieve each other at pleasure, 
lay their rifles down, and converse pleasantly with their 
officers on various topics, the most general one being 
abuse of the War Minister. I am sure even Lord Card well 
never suffered from our service half so much as Redif 
Pasha does from those under his command. In Con- 
stantinople the opinion was pretty openly expressed that 
he would fall in a few days, and that Eaouf Pasha, the 
present Minister of Marine, r^uld take over his port- 
folio. Eaouf is an old St. Cyr cadet, and served in the 
Crimea. He is well educated, intelligent, and free from 
the obstinate conservatism so common among Turkish 
officials, being very popular in his own service, which is 
the army; and having been successful at the Ministry of 



10 THE CAMPAIGN IN AHMENIA. 

Marine, tlie military Turks look forward to having tlie 
army put on the same efficient footing as the navy is at 
present, and for their sakes I hope Eaouf will soon rule 
the War Office. 

Leaving Samsoon at eight a.m. on the morning of 
the 17th, we coasted along the mountainous shores of 
the Black Sea, reaching Ounieh at two p.m. I there 
went ashore with the correspondents of the Temps and 
Moniteur, fellow-passengers of ours, in order to see a 
battalion of volunteers, which a major on the general 
staff of the Turkish army had told me was lying here 
waiting for transport to Batoum. Volunteers, forsooth ! 
The poor fellows were confined in the common jail of 
the town, and on seeing us clamoured loudly, im- 
ploring us to use our influence to obtain their release. 
They evidently were not fired with that love of country 
sufficient to induce them to sacrifice all home ties for 
the sole purpose of fighting the Giaour. Many of the 
men were fine, smart, intelligent, clean-limbed young fel- 
lows, just the stuff to make troops out of ; but there were 
a great many weeds too, and not a few greybeards quite 
unfit for work. I was told that the religious enthusiasm 
of these elders would inspire some of their more faint- 
hearted comrades with zeal, and so compensate for the 
lack of bodily vigour. I noticed that many of the men 
seemed scarcely to enjoy their position, and the wives, 
mothers, and sweethearts, sitting under the jail windows, 
fostered their discontent. The pride of taking part in a 
religious war scarcely seems to deaden human feelings, 
even in the breast of the Turk. 

Although Ounieh is a telegraph station, we could 
hear no news from the seat of war ; the merchants of 
the place seemed strangely uninterested in the subject. 



WE BHAGR TEEBIZOND. 11 

They had a mmour that the Circassians had risen and 
massacred the garrison of Poti, but the story was told 
in such general terms, with such an absence of detail, 
that I could not credit it. They also said Kars had 
been reheved by the Erzeroum force ; but as you have 
later and more trustworthy news than these good folk 
on the shores of the Euxine, I will not repeat their 
tattle. 

One fellow-passenger, a major, who has lately been 
promoted from a captaincy in the 1st to the post of 
c/ief de hataillon in the 5th army corps, treated the 
whole subject with true Oriental indifference. He did 
not know, nor did he seem to care, to what regiment he 
was going, but would have preferred staying at Trebi- 
zond. He asked no questions as to recent news, but had 
an idea that the Russians had been driven back on 
Alexandropol with heavy slaughter. Although a first- 
class passenger, he did not dine at our table, but mixed 
entirely with some non-commissioned ofl&cers, who are 
going to Trebizond as deck cargo, took his meals with 
them, and played draughts with them all day. 

The Ulysses steamed into the Trebizond Eoads at 
three p.m. on the 18th, having taken ninety-six hours to 
perform the 540 miles from Constantinople. A fine iron- 
clad was at anchor, also a Turkish transport, which had 
just landed a cargo of guns, both heavy and light Krupp 
breechloaders. The field guns were minus limbers, and 
were intended for the reserves, which are being called 
out all over Asia Minor. The heavy pieces were meant 
for the defence of Ardahan and Erzeroum, but how they 
will be sent on to Ardahan no one seems to know, as 
the Russians are between it and the Turkish corps at 
Erzeroum. A British steamer, the Florence Trenchaw,, 



12 THE CAMPAIGN IN ARMENIA. 

was in the harbour, having come in yesterday morning 
from Poti, which she found completely abandoned. The 
captain told me he had been* ashore three days, and 
found the custom-house deserted, all merchants' offices 
closed, and being unable to find the consignees of his 
cargo, had been forced to return. He says the Turkish 
bombardment had done no harm. Very few of their 
shells had reached the town, but the bombardment had 
completely frightened all the inhabitants away. He 
heard there of a rising among some hill-men in the 
neighbourhood, but could give me no accurate informa- 
tion on any subject except that the town bore no traces 
whatever of the recent bombardment. On landing I at 
once proceeded to the house of the British vice-consul, 
whose kindness and attention deserve my warmest 
thanks. M. Biliotti did his utmost to procure horses 
for my servants, and baggage animals for my luggage. 
His efforts were so far successful that three hours after 
touching the shore I had all my traps packed and was 
ready to start. In spite of the day being the Mahomedan 
Sunday, and all offices being closed, M. Biliotti himself 
went to the governor of the town and procured the 
necessary passports for me, and, notwithstanding the 
order that all horses and mules are to be used solely for 
the purpose of transporting war material to the front, 
he succeeded in inducing the Pasha to spare me four. 

At dinner I met Monsieur Eiva, the Italian consul 
at Trebizond. The conversation during the evening 
was amusing as well as instructive. Our representative 
is decidedly Turcophile in his views, whilst M. Eiva is 
strongly opposed to the continuance of the Ottoman 
Empire. As he represents Germany, and, consequently, 
is in charge of all Eussian subjects, this gentleman has 



TBEBIZOND PAST AND PRESENT. 13 

his hands very full at the present time. He, however, 
was good enough to spare time to give me much informa- 
tion regarding the tribes in the Caucasus, and the state 
of feeling with regard to the war amongst the populace 
at Trebizond. 

From the harbour Trebizond presents a view than 
which it would be hard to find a fairer. The brightly 
whitewashed houses cluster in groups on the sides of the 
well-timbered hills, which rise higher and higher until 
their snow-capped crests cut the deep blue arch of the 
Armenian sky. To the east the shore stretches away in 
hills thickly covered with vegetation, whilst to the west 
a rocky cliff — on which the citadel stands — shuts out 
a further peep of the same range. The surrounding 
country is full of ruins, Greek, Eoman, Byzantine, 
and Genoese all bearing witness to the wealth dis- 
covered in the Anatolian provinces by its successive 
rulers. The capital of a kingdom in its earlier days, 
a port at which Xenophon embarked, and which had 
survived the fall of many a prouder empire, it was des- 
tined on passing into the hands of the Osmanh, in the 
year 1461, to become a mere fishing village. Closing 
the Bosphorus to all vessels but their own, the Porte 
effectually crippled the maritime trade to which Trebi- 
zond owed her importance. By the treaty of Adrianople, 
in 1829, the Dardanelles were once more opened, and by 
degrees Trebizond regained her trade, but her position, 
once lost, seems gone for ever. Lines of Russian, 
Turkish, Austrian, and French steamers now run weekly 
from Constantinople and the other ports in the Black 
Sea. The principal imports are Manchester goods for 
Persia, which here are transferred on to the backs of " the 
ships of the desert " or of mules, the caravans travelling 



14 THE CAMPAIGN IN ARMENIA. 

via Erzeronm and Tabreez. Carpets and tobacco are 
brought in exchange ; also skins and furs to a goodly 
amount. The opening of the Suez Canal, however, has 
to a great extent ruined this trade. The merchants of 
Teheran find it cheaper to procure their goods by the 
Persian Gulf, and eventually, if some other Eeuter 
comes to the front, and actually builds railroads in the 
dominions of the Shah, the Erzeroum route will be 
almost entirely superseded.* Even Oriental merchants 
are well aware that any carriage is preferable to pack- 
carriage — with the daily lading and unlading, and 
continual exposure to weather. 

In 1831, the first English vessel carried a cargo to 
Trebizond, the advantages it possessed as a sea-port 
for trade with Persia being ably pointed out by 
Mr. Brant, the consul there. Subsequently the 
Peninsular and Oriental Company ran a fortnightly 
steamer ; but for the last few years our flag has 
seldom been seen in the roadstead. The decline 
of the Persian trade, doubtless, is the cause, for, if 
statistics are reliable, Trebizond is fast sinking into the 
same position whence she emerged in 1829. Whereas 
in 1858 the imports amounted to £3,750,529, and 
exports to £1,280,794, in 1875 they had fallen to 
£1,253,647 and £598,073, respectively— a decline of 
upwards of fifty per cent. ! 

Trebizond possesses many advantages : the chmate 
is glorious, the surrounding hiUs full of game — ^hares, 
woodcock, partridges (the red-legged, much like the 

* I am aware there is a general idea that the Persian trade has been 
diverted from the Trebizond and Erzeroum to the Poti-Tiflis route. A 
glance at the books of the British India Steam Navigation Company will 
show that English steamers now convey the greater bulk by the Persian 
Gulf route direct from London to Bushire. 



A VISIT TO DJAMEEL PASEA. 15 

chikorr of the Himalayas, and a grey bird resembling the 
common English species), quail in the season, and snipe 
near the river ; the roadstead, too, is plentifully stocked 
with fish, turbot and sword-fish being the most sought 
after, whilst in the mountain streams trout abound. 

There are many most interesting ruins -in the 
immediate neighbourhood, the finest being the church 
and monastery of St. Sophia, which contain some mag- 
nificent frescoes. I regret that my short stay prevented 
my visiting these places. 

Amongst other points worthy of notice, in these 
days of Taunus and '' Polly," I ought not to forget a 
very excellent spring of mineral water, which our worthy 
consul patronises handsomely. 

Just before sitting down to dinner, an aide-de-camp 
arrived from Lieutenant-Greneral Djameel Pasha — who 
has been sent here to arrange the forwarding of all war 
material — asking me if I could spare him half an hour, 
as he wished to forward some letters to his brother, who 
commands a battalion at Ears, and also to hear the 
state of public opinion in Pera. I arranged to call on 
him at nine p.m., but slightly before that hour the 
general, unaccompanied by any staff officer, appeared at 
the consulate. I was much struck with him. He is a 
man of forty -two (so he says), looks about thirty-five, is 
very intelligent and active, speaks French well, and is 
very well up in all subjects of general interest. Entering 
the army at fifteen, he remained in the rank of Kol- 
aghassi, or adjutant-major, for fifteen years, when, in 
consequence of his conduct in the Syrian and Cretan 
affairs, he suddenly found himself famous and a major- 
general ; he now is a general of division of some seven 
years' standing, and hopes to obtain command of one of 



16 THE CAMPAIGN IN ARMENIA. 

the corps in Asia Minor. He complains bitterly of the 
manner in which he is treated by the War Office 
authorities at Constantinople. Field guns without 
limbers are sent to him, and siege guns without car- 
riages. He is furnished with no means of transport 
nor money for the payment of impressed cattle, and yet 
he is expected to push everything on to Erzeroum 
without any delay. As he says, he wants money to 
repair the road, which is practically impassable; and 
he finds it utterly impossible to get the country 
people to work cheerfully without prompt payment. 
It was a pleasure to converse with the general — a 
thorough soldier, a perfect gentleman, and an enthu- 
siastic patriot. Without despairing of his country, 
he saw and acknowledged all her faults, and urged 
that she was not only not so black as she was 
painted, but that, as her artists were chiefly Russians, 
v/e ought not to look on the pictures as very life-like 
representations. He assured me that the Anaksia, or 
Abkhasians, as they are occasionally called, a hill tribe 
dwelling on the southern slopes of the Caucasus from 
Kertch to Anaklia, near Poti, were in a state of revolt ; 
that they had attacked Soukoum Kaleh, on the Black 
Sea, killed the general commanding, massacred the 
garrison, and were flocking into Batoum in thousands. 
This corresponds with the news I heard at Samsoon, 
and also with the stories picked up by the captain of 
the steamer which had arrived from Poti. Djameel 
Pasha told me he had despatched 15,000 Snider rifles 
to Batoum to-day to arm these men, and was endeavour- 
ing to spread the revolt all down the Caucasus. The 
rifles were taken by the ironclad we saw in the roads as 
we entered — an Egyptian vessel, presented by the 



THE ABKHASIAN8. 17 

Khedive to the Porte two years ago. Should this 
movement succeed, it will interfere with the Eussian 
advance in Asia Minor somewhat, as they cannot push on 
with insurrection rife in their rear. The Abkhasians had 
burnt two towns near Poti, and were to make an attack 
on that place in conjunction with the ironclads of the 
Black Sea blockading fleet. The general also informed 
me that during the success of the Turkish Troops 
on the Chorouk Su, near Batoum, the Russians were 
surprised in a mountain pass, and after nine hours' 
fighting were forced to retire. He divides their esti- 
mated loss by ten, and says, from his information, they 
have lost about 400 killed, while the Turks had one 
lieutenant-colonel and 140 killed, with a slightly larger 
proportion wounded. The Russians had no artillery 
engaged. 

The Abkhasians deserve a passing notice. For the 
following brief description of them I am indebted to 
Mr. Biliotti, Her Majesty's consul at Trebizond, whose 
knowledge of the tribes dwelling on the shores of the 
Black Sea is equalled only by his kindness to all 
Englishmen visiting them. 

The earliest historical notice we have of this in- 
teresting tribe is, that in the third century their country 
was annexed to the Empire of Constantinople, under 
whose dominion they flourished until the thirteenth 
century, when they passed into the hands of the 
Genoese. The ruins of more than forty towns testify 
to the grandeur of their buildings in those days, the 
Temple of Pitsnada being a particularly magnificent 
structure. There are also many Greek and Byzantine 
ruins, the frescoes on the walls of which are worthy of 
study. 



18 THE CAMPAIGN IN ARMENIA. 

Initiated into the mysteries of Islamism in tlie early 
days of that religion, the Abkhasians for some centuries 
abandoned their idolatrous courses, and became tolerably 
faithful followers of the prophet, but by degrees the 
contact with Armenian and Georgian Christians almost 
effaced all traces of Mahomedanism, and they lapsed 
into their old superstitions. Their god, whom they 
name Tsitsinatelli, is all-present, and all-powerful; but 
sacrifices to him can only be made on the summit of 
Mount Dudrupeh, near the source of the Bzib river. 
Baptism is performed according to the rites of the Grreek 
Church. Funeral ceremonies, except in the case of 
wealthy or great men, are never performed; whilst 
marriages are conducted in a most primitive manner. 
When an attachment springs up between a young 
couple, the man asks permission of her father to marry 
the daughter. If the parents approve, a dinner is 
given, to which all mutual friends are asked, and during 
the entertainment a male infant is brought in and placed 
on the knees of the bride, as a delicate hint that she 
now is permitted to be fruitful and multiply, and an 
expression of hope that her first-born may be a son. 

The reigning house is that of Tchawachawadze, and 
though under the Russian rule they are bereft of power, 
they are permitted to retain their rank, and are treated 
with much deference by the Grovernment. In the cam- 
paign of 1828-29, the head of the family placed his sword 
at the disposal of Paskiewitch; and at the present 
moment the Prince is commanding the regiment of 
Nijni Novgorod Dragoons, under Loris Melikofi*.* 

*He was badly wounded at the battle of Kizil Tepe on the 25th 
August, 1877, but subsequently recovered sufficiently to command the 
Cavalry Brigade, which under him did most excellent service at the assault 
on Kars, 18th October. 



CHAPTEE II. 

TREBIZOND TO ERZEROUM. 

Djameel Pasha at Work— The Sword of my Escort— Turkish Troops pushing 
on to the Front— Anatolian Trout— The Zigana Pass— A Night's Lodging 
— '*Riz-au-gras" — The Pests of Armenia — Guns and Volunteers— Com- 
fortable Quarters — Esprit de Corps — Monsieur Magack — Erzeroum Its 

People and Defences — Its Drains and Dirt — Its Shepherd — Its Trade. 

Erzeroum, May 23rd. 
On the morning of the 19th, after bidding farewell to 
our hospitable consul, M. Biliotti, I went to return 
Greneral Djameel Pasha's visit, and found him hard at 
work in a large, scantily-furnished room, endeavouring 
to arrange for the transport of guns, heavy and hght, 
and of 30,000 cases of ammunition to the front. Strings 
of peasantry had volunteered to drag the artillery, and, 
as we conversed, gun after gun was pulled up the steep 
hill in front of the Pasha's house, the men singing 
cheerily as they toiled away. Ever and again the 
general would go into the street and cheer these 
villagers with a few kind words of encouragement. 
Little else has he to offer them. His Excellency had 
no news that he could give me, but very kindly furnish- 
ing me with letters of introduction to his brother, who 
commands a battalion in Kars, as well as to other officers 
in the 4th army corps, and giving me some sausages of 
Turkish manufacture, which he highly commended, bid 
me God-speed, and at noon I set off on my ride to 
Erzeroum, escorted by two zaptiehs, or mounted police- 
c2 



20 TBE CAMPAIGN IN ABMENIA. 

men, kindly provided by Djameel Pasha. These men 
were dressed in the usual uniform of the Turkish 
cavalry, and armed with Winchester repeating rifle and 
sabre. Their accoutrements, both in material and 
cleanliness, left much to be desired. I was amused, 
though I cannot say I was surprised, after cantering 
for a few miles, to hear a clanking sound, behind me, 
denoting the fall of a sword on the metalled road. I 
pulled up, and saw that the unwonted strain had carried 
away the slings of one of my escort's sword-belt. He 
seemed used to such accidents, for quietly tucking the 
weapon between his leg and the saddle, he announced 
that he was perfectly ready to proceed. 

For the first few miles the road winds along the 
shores of the Black Sea, and then, turning sharp off 
to the south, follows the right bank of the Degirmen 
river, to a place called Djhevizlik, distant sixteen miles. 
Here post-horses are changed, and seeing my baggage, 
which had been waiting for me since morning, shifted 
on to new animals, I selected the best-looking pony in 
the stables, and at once startiiig off again, reached the 
next post stage, Khamsi-kui, in about two hours. 
Again changing animals, I proceeded, and in about 
half an hour overtook a battalion of the 5 th army 
corps, commanded by Colonel Ahmed Hamid Bey, to 
whom Djameel Pasha had kindly given me letters of 
introduction. I found the colonel had taken up his 
quarters in a very comfortable little ''khan,'' or guest- 
house, some short distance from his men. I sat for 
about half an hour, conversing with the colonel and 
two or three of his officers, who came into the room on 
hearing an Englishman was present. One and all 
seemed perfectly satisfied that England would help them 



80ENEBY OF ARMENIA, , 21 

in the coming struggle, not only with an army, as she 
did in 1854-55, bnt also with what Turkey needs far 
more — money. It was with some difficulty I could get 
away from my new-found friends, who were most 
anxious that I should march with the regiment to 
Erzeroum. Time, however, was of vital importance to 
me, and as I had already learnt that the Turkish watch- 
word, "yahvash, yahvash" (slowly, slowly), is the cry 
even of troops moving up to the seat of war, I declined 
their kind hospitality, and, mounting my post pony, 
started off for Zigana. 

The beauties of Kashmir and Kangra pale before 
the scenery I now passed through. The road — an ex- 
cellent metalled highway, some fifteen feet in breadth — 
followed the course of a clear, rippling stream, the banks 
of which were in many places overhung with thickets of 
ash and hazel. In the long still reaches more than 
once I saw the speckled beauty of our English brooks 
rise greedily to the small blue quill-gnat, which, even in 
Asiatic waters, is a sure killer ; and as I pushed my pony 
on, I could not help regretting that I had none of 
Charles Farlow's handiwork with me, wherewith to try 
my skill on the Matscka trout. 

As I ascended the slopes of the Chulat Dagh range, 
which had to be crossed before reaching my halting- 
place of Zigana, the roadway wound along a narrow 
mountain pass, down which the brook dashed and 
foamed with all the wildness of a Scotch burn. On 
either side towered huge basaltic columns, giving an air 
of grandeur to the scenery, which, softened down by the 
luxuriant vegetation growing on the lower slopes of the 
mountains, was again brightened by the many-hued 
flowers, which in wild profusion lent colour to the 



22 THE CAMPAIGN IN ARMENIA. 

whole. The somhre tints of the oak, pine, larch, beech, 
and birch, were thrown into contrast by the rhododen- 
dron, peony, and wild rose, which grew in their midst ; 
whilst on the grassy banks of the stream wild gera- 
niums, tulips, cowslips, and primroses, lent a home-like 
air to the scene. 

It was dark ere I reached the crest of the Chulat 
Dagh, near 8,000 feet above sea-level. The snow had 
been cleared from the roadway, but still lay in wide- 
spread masses on the neighbouring slopes ; a chill breeze 
whistling up the pass, grew still more piercing as it 
gained intensity from the snowy bed it passed over. It 
was with no small sense of relief that I spurred my 
pony down the mountain road, and gained the shelter of 
the thick forests on the southern slopes of the range. 

The " bir sat '' (one hour) of my zaptieh was not 
unlike the '' ek koss " of an Indian guide, for it was past 
ten by my watch ere I reached the village of Zigana, 
which (notwithstanding the noisy greeting accorded me 
by the numerous dogs my entrance disturbed from their 
slumbers) seemed locked in everlasting sleep. Not a 
light was to be seen, not a sound to be heard, except the 
dreary howl of the village dogs as they accompanied us 
in our search for a night's shelter. After knocking at 
the doors of about a dozen khans, my zaptieh broke the 
news gently to me that he feared there was no help for 
it, but the Bey must sleep in the post-house stable. It 
was with some difficulty we could induce the owner of 
this edifice to open his doors to us, and when, having 
succeeded in doing so, I looked in, and saw the number 
and nature of my fellow-lodgers, I could scarcely per- 
suade myself to enter. A sharp rain drove all thoughts 
of sleeping in the open out of my head, so procuring a 



AN OBJECTIONABLE LODGING. 23 

light and despatching my zaptieh for some wood, water, 
and fire, I strolled round my bed-room. 

It was the basement floor of the principal khan in 
the place, in which (it being filled with troops proceeding 
to the front) I could obtain not even a corner. The 
stable consisted of a long, low room, measuring forty- 
eight feet by eighteen feet, scarcely six feet in height. 
Down the centre was a long heap of manure, the accumu- 
lation of months ; on either side were rows of horses 
and bullocks, whilst huddled up at the farther end lay a 
group of sheep and lambs. Forty-three animals and six 
men shared my humble abode. These latter were 
crowded round a small lamp in one corner of the room, 
smoking and using not very complimentary language 
towards the Griaour who had invaded their sanctum. 
The atmosphere inside the place was stifling, the odour 
overpowering, so I took up a strong position near the 
door, determined to have as much fresh air as possible. 
My zaptieh returned in about a quarter of an hour, and 
we together made a fiire, then ferreting out a saucepan 
from myhoorjeen (small leather mule trunk), and a cake 
of "Eiz-au-gras" from my holsters, I prepared my dinner. 
I cannot too strongly recommend these invaluable pro- 
ductions of the " Societe General des Potages Econo- 
miques '' to those travellers to whom expense is an object. 
They are very cheap, very portable, and, though not 
quite so tempting as the more costly soups, yet the fact 
that eight cakes of the " Eiz-au-gras " occupy the same 
space as one tin of soup makes them preferable to those 
whose means of carriage are limited. A tumbler of very 
dirty water, the evil effects of which were nullified by a 
dash of brandy, washed down my meal, and was con- 
ducive to a sound sleep. Alas ! my fellow-lodgers were 



24 TEE CAMPAIGN IN ARMENIA, 

averse to fresh air, and no sooner had I rolled myself up 
in my blanket than one stealthily rose and closed the 
door. To open it again was the work of an instant, and 
as there appeared every probability of a second Eastern 
Question being raised on that same subject, I informed 
my zaptieh that if it was again closed he should have to 
stand sentry with his back against it for the remainder 
of the night. This threat induced him to enter into an 
. alliance, offensive and defensive, with me, and I turned 
round once more in search of sleep. Vain effort ! I had 
counted forty -three animals in that den but half an hour 
previously; I now was turned into a grazing ground for 
a hundred times that number of those domestic insects, 
which are supposed to haunt English lodging-houses. I 
learnt a little of the habits of these diminutive creatm'es 
when occupying Barra-durrees, on the road to Srinuggur, 
but a real knowledge of their powers must be reserved for 
those whose fortune leads them to the khans and odahs 
of Armenia. I was forced to own that I was profoundly 
ignorant of their ways : their sole aim and object seem 
to be to deprive their human enemies of all sleep ; and 
the ingenuity they display in discovering new methods 
of assault, their perseverance in overcoming every ob- 
stacle that man can contrive to prevent their access to 
his flesh, the utter disregard they have for all those 
chemical preparations which are presumed to be '* insect 
destro3^ers," prove most conclusively to my mind that 
Armenia is the home and birthplace of the '' industrious 
flea." It was with no small sense of relief that at 
one a m. I heard footsteps outside, and my fellow-traveller 
from Constantinople, *' Mr. Williams," entered the 
stable ; fortunately, my soup was still hot, and I was 
enabled to give him what he stood in great need of — a 



I I " 



''MtBEGIN MALGBJ^ MOL" 25 

good mealr Leaving him in undisturbed possession of 
the khan, I got up at four a.m., and started off once more 
towards Erzeroum, descending the lower slopes of the 
Chulat Dagh, and passing through Ardasat, Gumesh 
Khaneh, and Khadrak, I reached Baiboort about two p.m. 
Here I was assailed by two men, who, like most 
Orientals, seemed persuaded that all English are doctors, 
and who insisted upon my prescribing for them. From 
past experience I knew that severe and sudden remedies 
are much appreciated by all dwellers in the East, who 
certainly would never believe in homoeopathic treatment. 
My knowledge of the Pharmacopoeia is limited, so was 
my store of medicines; but the never- failing Cockle came 
to the rescue, and giving each man six pills, to be taken 
three at a time, I left them and rode on. I presume 
they still hve, but I doubt if they will ever forget the 
Ingliz hakeem who passed through Baiboort on the 
20th May, 1877. 

Ascending the Kop Dagh range, which was covered 
with snow, and on the summit of which I passed a 
battaUon of the 5th army corps, straggling in a manner 
that showed too plainly that the want of competent 
regimental officers, and the utter absence of discipline, 
would be the ruin of the Ottoman cause. It was nearly 
dark ere I reached the next staging-house ; but as the 
road was good I determined to push on, and reached 
Karabooyak at ten p.m., having covered, according to my 
watch and the milestones, one hundred and twenty -six 
' miles in seventeen hours. I here found a very comfort- 
able room attached to the post-house, stables luxurious 
as compared with my previous night's lodgings, inas- 
much as I was alone, and enjoyed comparative immunity 
from the visits of nocturnal enemies. 



26 TEE CAMPAIGN IN ARMENIA. 

The road the whole way from Trebizond was in 
excellent order— by far the best hill road I have yet 
seen, one that throws quite into the shade the Hima- 
layan and Tibet road from Simla to Cheenee, and 
infinitely superior to that which runs down oui' Punjab 
frontier from Kohat to Jacobabad. Every few miles we 
passed bands of peasants dragging heavy siege guns up 
the steep inclines, singing merrily to airs played on the 
zoorna and dhaol, similar instruments, with similar 
names, to the soornai and dhole of the Affghan tribes ; 
and more than once I passed small bodies of volunteers 
pushing on to the front ; some of them were headed with 
a small band, and all carried the national standard. They 
were in their own peasant dress, armed with their own 
arms, old flint smooth-bores ; but these they hoped to 
exchange in Erzeroum for new Martini-Peabodies. 

I had only twenty-one miles to do the following 
morning, and I rode into the Consulate at Erzeroum at 
about ten a.m., where the hospitable representative of her 
Majesty received me with much kindness, and gave me 
what seemed drink fit for the gods — a bottle of Ind and 
Coope. From him I learnt that Ardahan had fallen, 
Mukhtar Pasha's forces were much scattered, and that 
the Russians were fast making their hold good in 
the eastern districts of Asia Minor. An American 
missionary, Eev. J. E. Pierce, very kindly placed a 
room at my disposal, so now I am resting in clover, 
waiting for my baggage to arrive before proceeding to 
the front. Moreover, I wished to spend a day or two 
at Erzeroum, to look over the defences of the place, and 
ascertain what means Mukhtar Pasha has of making 
any stand in this neighbourhood. 

Dui'ing my ride I passed five battahons of Eegular 



TE00F8 FOB THE FRONT. 27 

troops and three of the Eeserve Mustahfiz, pushing on 
to the front ; I also saw four batteries of Krupp's field 
guns, 34 guns of position, Krupp's pattern, but made 
of bronze — I learnt that they had been cast in the 
Tophane at Constantinople; they were chiefly 12 and 
15 centimeter guns, but I believe there are some of 18 
on the road — and nine 8-inch rifled howitzers. The 
regiments of regular troops were from Syria, and the 
physique of the men, on the whole, was good, though 
there was a great deal of falling out, and many men 
were left lying sick by the roadside. They were armed 
well, four battalions having the Martini-Henry, the 
fifth the Snider rifle. The accoutrements were very 
bad, one pouch behind containing fifty rounds, belts 
and pouches of bad material, bad shape, and in very 
bad condition. The rifles also were in a shocking 
state — evidently inspection of arms does not occupy 
company officers many moments at morning parade. 
The men all had great-coats, with hoods, some of dark- 
blue cloth, some of brown homespun; knapsacks, and 
canteens. The shoes were all of different patterns, and 
generally in bad condition — a sandal made of strips of 
carpet being the favourite. There was a fair supply of 
tents to each corps, but no commissariat transport, no 
hospital comforts, and no doctors. The officers appeared 
perfectly ignorant of the meaning of the word discipline, 
and the men sauntered along as they pleased. The 
officers were generally mounted on little ponies, which 
carried their bedding, clothes, and cooking utensils, and 
themselves. Their clothing was in as bad order as that 
of the men. I noticed one mule carrying a tent which 
had fallen into a muddy quagmire, and was fast being 
submerged. The man in charge was doing his best 



28 THE CAMPAIGN IJSf ABMENIA. 

to extricate the poor beast, and called on comrade after 
comrade who passed him to lend a hand ; but they one 
and all passed by on the other side. Finally, the oflacer 
commanding the rear-guard came up, and, in spite of 
his appeals, the poor wretch was left struggling with 
his dying mule and abandoned tent. There seems to be 
no enthusiasm — no esprit de corps — among the officers. 
To note one thing, I saw just opposite the guard-tent 
of a regiment in camp a small bridge, which was broken 
down, making the road quite impassable for guns. The 
officer commanding the regiment knew that a large 
convoy of carts and guns was following him, and yet 
no attempts were made to repair the bridge, although 
500 or 600 men were lolling about the camp. Strings 
of arabas (bullock-carts much resembling the hackery of 
India) were on the road the whole way from Trebizond 
to Erzeroum, laden with tents, corn, and ammunition ; 
but the rate of progression was so slow that more than 
a fortnight must elapse before any of this can reach 
Mukhtar Pasha. 

The following morning, in company with the 
talented interpreter to the British Consulate, Monsieur 
Antoine Magack, I visited the various bazaars, hospitals, 
and other places of interest. Permission to go over the 
detached works was refused me, and as a similar refusal 
had been accorded to a request preferred by Colonel 
Macgregor and Captain Lock wood, of the Quarter- 
Master Grenerars Department in Bengal, I was not 
surprised at my rebuff. 

Situated on the southern portion of a large plain 
some thirty miles in length by twelve in breadth, and 
nestling, as it were, under the crests of the Devi-Dagh 
range, Erzeroum is fully exposed to the cold blasts which 



F0ETIFI0ATI0N8 OF EEZFEOUM. 29 

wliistle over the peaks of the Giaour-Dagh. To the 
north of the town, at a distance of three miles, flows the 
Euphrates, here called the Kara-Su, or Blackwater, and 
a small, muddy-looking, insignificant stream it is. The 
city possesses few peculiarities. The ancient citadel, a 
brick building almost in ruins, consists of a double wall, 
with ditch in front ; the governor's house and some 
barracks are in it, but for defensive purposes it is useless. 
An enceinte on Vauban's principle, with a perimeter of 
about three miles, surrounds the place. The ditches 
cannot be flooded, nor are they deep enough to afford 
any serious obstacle to an assaulting army. The escarp 
and counterscarp have been allowed to fall into dis- 
repair, and can be scaled in many places. Nor are there 
any ditch defences, except the fire from the flanks of the 
bastions. The main ditch is not extended round the 
ravelins, and on the southern face the ground slopes 
down into the work. The parapets are all revetted with 
sods, laid on vertically, and, as may be imagined, the 
revetments are not of much value. 

The guns, which are all Krupp's breechloaders, the 
majority being 12, 15, or 18 centimeter, are mounted 
en barbette. The carriages are painted scarlet, and, 
whilst affording a pleasing sight to the eye, they make 
an admirable target for an enemy's fire. In addition 
to the bastioned enceinte, there is a series of outworks 
built on the adjoining hills, as well as I was able to 
judge, following the general rule in Turkish fortifications, 
aU of which were commanded by neighbouring heights. 

Erzeroum is by no means a striking- looking place, 
even for an Oriental town. It contains about 40,000 
inhabitants, the majority being Mahomedans ; but there 
is a large Christian community ; perhaps the finest 



30 THE CAMPAIGN IN ABMENIA. 

public building is the Armenian cathedral. I was 
informed there were forty-five mosques and nineteen 
baths. I won't dispute the point. Twice that number 
would be far too few to cleanse either the minds or 
bodies of the good people of the place, for a more evil- 
looking, dirty set of rascals as were daily to be seen 
grouped at the comers of the streets, I have never met. 
Persians and Greorgians, Circassians and Kurds, Jews, 
Greeks, Armenians, and Turks, all dwell together, but 
not in brotherly love. The wrangling and noise going 
on at every door were never-ceasing ; at the same time, 
the different costumes, composed, as many were, of the 
bright colours which all Orientals love, lent a pleasing 
effect to the scene. The cause is beyond me, for a 
Turkish saddle is no worse than an Indian one, but I 
certainly saw more sore backs in Erzeroum than I have 
ever seen before ; and whether it is the air of the place, 
or contact with Turkish rule, I know not, but I never 
saw so much cruelty to animals. I have seen horses, 
wounded, sore, and lame, in such a state that to kill 
them would have been mere charity, driven to the 
nearest fountain, rather than that their brutal owner 
should have the trouble of carrying a bucket of water 
twenty yards to water them. 

Situated on the slopes of the Devi-Dagh range, 
Erzeroum should be a splendidly-drained city, whereas, 
with the exception of Kars, it is the very dirtiest town 
I have been in. The streets are badly paved ; whilst 
down the side runs an open channel, into which all the 
refuse from the houses is thrown. Much of this is 
devoured by the dogs, who, I think, exceed even their 
brethren of Constantinople or Cairo in numbers. What 
is left by them remains to be washed away by the next 



CURIOUS CUSTOM OF "EEBDING:' , 31 

shower, and in the meantime poisons the air and breeds 
disease. The houses are for the most part lower than 
the street, and are built o£ stones and mud, with flat 
roofs, and, as a rule, have but one floor. The windows 
are seldom glazed, but in winter are covered over with 
greased paper; as summer approaches, this is torn ofi* 
to admit fresh air, which during the cold months is 
religiously excluded. Except in the houses of the rich, 
horses, cattle, sheep, and poultry all share the same roof 
as their owners, so the atmosphere inside an Armenian 
house is simply indescribable. 

The most striking buildings in the city are the Iki- 
Chifteh, two exceedingly graceful minarets standing near 
the citadel. They are fluted, like Byzantine columns, 
with a light-blue, highly-glazed brick. Originally they 
formed a portion of a Mahomedan college, but the dome- 
like roof of the original structure has fallen in, and none 
have cared to repair the place. I could learn no more 
about them, nor could I gather any information con- 
cerning the numerous circular towers with conical tops, 
which greet the eye in every direction. I was told they 
were tombs of holy men who died in the fourteenth 
century. There must have been a goodly number of 
holy men in Erzeroum in those days ! 

One of the most amusing scenes in Erzeroum was 
the witnessing the operations of the herdsman. Leaving 
the city in the morning, accompanied by two dogs, he 
would start from his own home with his own small 
flock, and perambulate the city. At every turning he 
would be joined by yet other flocks and herds, brought 
to the corners by their owners or their owners' servants. 
These would soberly amalgamate with their former 
acquaintances, and walk quietly out of the city towards 



32 THE CAMPAIGN IN ARMENIA. 

the Euphrates plain. In the evening, on his return, he 
would simply follow his old route, and as each little 
flock neared its own home, it would break into a trot, 
and scurry off to its own door. The intelligence of the 
dogs here showed itself. There never was the slightest 
attempt to head them back ; though such slack discip- 
line as breaking the ranks at any other time of the day 
would be promptly checked. Every owner of cattle, or 
sheep, or goats — and nearly every household in Armenia 
possesses some live stock — pays the herdsman a small 
sum annually for the trouble in escorting the beasts to 
the plain. I never knew which to admire most, the 
utter nonchalance of the man, the sagacity of the dogs, 
or the bright intelligence of the cattle and sheep, which 
joined in the whole affair as a matter of course — 
though I fancy it would take some generations before 
English beasts would behave likewise. 

There are a few shops in Erzeroum where European 
goods may be bought. These are kept chiefly by Arme- 
nians. As in most Oriental towns, each craft keeps to 
its own quarter — one street being devoted to workers in 
iron, another to workers in brass, a third to leather 
workers, a fourth to tailors, to silversmiths, to provision 
sellers, to butchers, and so on. The bazaar where meat 
was sold was the one to be avoided — flies abound ; and 
the dogs looking hungrily up at the joints, which 
appeared to have been torn from the carcase, not cut, as 
in England, gave me the idea that the canine species 
aided the butchers in their labours. The ''Kassai" 
bazaar in Indian towns, notably at Kalabagh, on the 
Indus, is bad enough, but they are simply magnificent 
markets when compared to the like places in Asiatic 
Turkey. 



TRADE OF EBZEBOUM. 33 

The climate of Erzeroum is bad — bitterly cold in 
winter, during which snow falls to a depth often of four 
feet ; it is oppressively hot in summer. The want of 
drainage and the filthy habits of the people cause an 
immense amount of sickness, typhoid and dysentery 
being the principal scourges. 

The manufacture of brass is carried on to a great 
extent in Erzeroum, some of the brazen vessels and 
large candlesticks being particularly handsome. There is 
also a large trade in leather goods — saddles, bridles, and 
such like ; silks and wine from Kharpoot ; carpets and 
tobacco from Persia ; cats from Van ; furs from Eussia ; 
and Manchester goods are also seen in large quantities. 
The wine is a very fair red wine, not unlike Bordeaux, 
but decidedly superior to much that we drink in 
England. I thought it preferable to some Greorgian 
wine given me in Kars. The price was moderate, and 
assuredly during the hot months it was most refreshing. 



D 



CHAPTEE III. 

THE HOSTILE ARMIES. 

The Tui'kisli Army, and its Changes during the Present Century— Thirty Years 
Stagnation— Abdul Azeez's Reforms— Equality of Race as regards Military 
Service— Nizam, Ichtayat, Redif, and Mustahfiz— Military Districts— Ad- 
ministration Staff— Sappers and Miners— Artillery— Guns— Equipment of 
Mounted Branch — Horses — Pay of all Grades— Cavalry Equipment- 
Horses— Men — Pay of aU Grades — Infantry Staff — Uniform and Equip- 
ment — Arms and Pay — Rations and Quarters — Scarcity of Ofl&cers— • 
Mukhtar's Forces — Russian Army — Composition — Artillery — Position of 
Turkish Army — Position of Russian Army. 

Erzeroum, 21th May. 

Before entering further into the details of the cam- 
paign, it may be advisable to describe somewhat fully 
the organisation of the Turkish army, and in doing 
SO I shall dwell at greater length on the constitution 
of the Fourth or Armenian Corps, although it is but 
a sample of the whole. 

Until the year 1801 the corps of Janissaries formed 
the sole standing army of the empire. In that year, 
however, Sultan Selim III. raised a new corps, styled 
the '' Nizam geded," officered, armed, and clad after the 
style of European armies. In 1807 he was deposed, 
and his army massacred. In 1826, on the disbandment 
of the corps of Janissaries, Mahomed II. determined to 
organise his forces on the Prussian model. Taking ad- 
vantage of the peace after the campaign 1828-29, and 
availing himself of the services of one Captain von Moltke, 
then travelling in Turkey, he raised an army of 215,000 
men, based on the model of the Prussian Landwehr. In 



BEFOBM OF THE TURKISH ARMY. 35 

1834 this system was in fair worting order, and in 1837 a 
school for young officers was established in Constanti- 
nople. In 1842 Abdul Medjid improved on the work of 
his predecessor. All able-bodied men between the years 
of eighteen and twenty-six were liable to serve five years 
in the active army, after which they were drafted into 
the Eedif, or reserve regiments. The artillery were 
organised on the Prussian, the other branches on the 
French, system. The army was divided into six corps 
d'armee, each of two divisions of three brigades, the 
total strength being about 300,000 men. 

Thus the army remained for thirty years. The vic- 
tory of Sadowa, however, opened Sultan Abdul Azeez's 
eyes to the fact that his troops were not fit to cope with 
those of other European powers; and in 1869 a committee, 
of which the late Hussain Avni Pasha was President, 
assembled to decide on a new military system that would 
provide an army large enough to satisfy the requirements 
of modern warfare. The result of their labours was the 
Hatti-Houmayoun of the 1 8th of February, 1869, which, 
annulling all previous decrees on the subject, drew up a 
series of regulations to provide for the better defence of 
the country. Theoretically these are second to none in 
the world. 

Having first satisfied themselves that a force of 
150,000 men would be ample for the peace footing of 
their army, the committee judged that a first reserve of 
50,000 would be necessary for the purpose of strength- 
ening the standing army in the event of rebellion or 
disturbances in the interior of the kingdom. Looking 
to disquieting causes from without, the conclusion was 
arrived at that 200,000 men in Eoumelia and 150,000 
in Anatolia would suffice for all defensive purposes, while 
D 2 



36 THE CAMPAIGN IN AEMENIA, 

an additional 300,000, as a last reserve, should be or- 
ganised, in order to have at hand an army fully prepared 
for any eventuality. Having thus laid down the strength 
of the army, it now became a difficult question to deter- 
mine the means for providing a healthy flow of young 
blood through its ranks. Since the abolition of the 
corps of Janissaries in 1826 the army had undergone 
many transformations, all being based on the Prussian 
model ; therefore, the population was in some measure 
accustomed to conscription, and was consequently pre- 
pared for the edict that all able-bodied males — Jews, 
Greeks, and Christians — ^were alike, with Mahomedans, 
liable to military service between the ages of twenty 
and twenty-six. Religion, however, has proved an in- 
superable bar to military employment, even in this great 
war, when the resources of the empire have been strained 
to their uttermost. In the Armenian army corps not a 
single Christian was to be found ; Mahomedans flocked in 
sufficient numbers to fill the ranks of the standing army ; 
so the services of Jews and Christians not being needed, 
a poll-tax, varjdng from sixteen to thirty piastres per 
annum, is levied on all Jews and Christians, they thus 
purchasing exemption from service. As this tax is per- 
manent, and clings to the Giaours from birth to death, 
it falls heavily — too heavily — on the poorer classes. A 
Mahomedan wishing to escape service pays a fine not 
exceeding 2,300f. and not less than l,500f. 

The duration of military service was fixed at twenty 
years for all arms, and this period was apportioned as 
follows : — Six years in the Nizam, or standing army ; 
six years in the Eedif, or reserve army ; eight years in 
the Mustahfiz, or territorial army. The Nizam, or 
standing army, furnishes the 150,000, or peace-footing 



CLASSES OF THE TURKISH ARMY. 37 

organisation. In this every man serves — in the infantry- 
four, in tlie mounted or ordnance branches five years, 
after which he is draughted into the Ichtayat, which has 
a fixed strength of 60,000, and is supposed to serve as 
that first reserve to be drawn upon in the event of in- 
ternal complications. The infantry soldier serves two 
years, other branches one year in this force. Having com- 
pleted his time with the colours, the Nizam soldier, should 
there be no need of his services, is permitted to go to his 
home, when he reports himself to the oflicer commanding 
his recruiting district. From him short periods of leave 
may be obtained, not exceeding a month at a time. Per- 
mission to marry is refused, and the Ichtayat soldier is 
liable at any moment to be recalled to his own regiment 
or battalion, on the rolls of which he is still borne. 
Thus it may justly be considered that the Ichtayat con- 
sists of Nizam soldiers at home on furlough, for they 
still draw pay and rations. Havicg completed his six 
years with the colours, the soldier is transferred to the 
Eedif, or reserve army. This is again subdivided into 
two " bans " or classes, in each of which a service of 
three years is required. These furnish 240 battalions of 
800 men,- or the 190,000 men requisite to bring the 
army up to its strength of 400,000 men, deemed the 
number requisite for the proper defence of Eoumelia and 
Anatolia. 

Like the Ichtayat, the Eedifs are under the orders 
of the officers commanding their recruitiog district ; 
but they are only called upon to serve in case of war, 
and for short periods of training, under the direction of 
the Minister of War. They obtaia pay and rations 
only when enrolled. The Eedif battalions are supposed 
to be complete in officers, non-commissioned officers, 



38 THE CAMPAIGN IN ARMENIA. 

and men. Their arms, uniforms, and equipments are in 
store at their recruiting depots, and every man knows, 
in the event of his services being required, exactly where 
to go. 

Having served six years w^ith the colours and six 
v^ith the Reserve troops, the Turkish soldier is now 
draughted into the Mustahfiz, or Territorial Army, the 
period of service in w^hich is eight years. This force is 
destined to furnish the 300,000 men necessary to bring 
the total strength of the Ottoman forces to 700,000. 
The cadres of all these corps are complete; but it 
must be remembered that a vast army numbering 863 
battalions, or 676,200 men, is nominally enrolled in the 
infantry of the Eedif and Mustahfiz. Being without 
officers, they cannot be considered tactical units of the 
army, but they practically form inexhaustible reserves 
from which the gaps formed by war may readily be 
filled. 

The Turkish army is divided into seven army corps, 
each of which has a territorial as well as a numerical 
designation ; and the empire is apportioned into seven 
cii'cles, one of which is allotted to each corps. These 
circles are subdivided into districts, the number varying 
in each circle, and these districts are once more divided 
each into four divisions. Each of these divisions forms, 
as it were, a depot centre, and is the head-quarters of 
three reserve battalions — ^viz., one of each class. A 
permanent staff is quartered in the depot barracks, 
where are stored the arms, equipment, and clothing 
of the men. Each military district comprising four 
divisions furnishes, therefore, one complete regiment 
of each class. The regimental staff are quartered in 
the chief town of the district, while in the capital of 



TURKISH CORPS D'ABMEE. 



39 



the circle dwells the staff of the army corps. The 
following is a table showing the name and designation 
of each corps, with the number of divisions and districts 
into which it is divided : — 

{Ismidt. Isbarta. 

Broussa. Kaisarieh. 

Koniah. Kara Hissar. 

Kali Sultanieh. 





/'Shumla. 


Tchorum. 


2nd, or Shumla, Corps.- 


I Sofia. 


Angora. 




(Adrianople. 


Boli. 




/'Monastir. 


Smyrna. 


3rd, or Monastir, 


) Jasina. 


Aidin. 


Corps. 


j Uskub. 


Seraievo. 




^ Drama. 


Travnik. 




f Erzeroum. 


Diarbekir. 


4th5 Armenian Corps. 


< Van. 


Sivas. 




( Kharpoot. 


Kars. 




/'Damascus. 


Aleppo. 


5th, Damascus, 


^ Antioch. 


Beyrout. 




(Jerusalem. 


Adana. 




t Bagdad. 


HiUa. 


6 th, Bagdad. 


< Mossoul. 


Solimanie. 




( Kherkouk. 


Bassorah. 



7th, Yemmen. 



In course of formation. 



The districts of Trebizond, Tireboli, and Samsoon, 
each furnish four battalions in either ban of Eedifs. 
These troops are not permanently attached to any corps, 
but are meant for coast defences — during the war they 
will be employed in Batoum. 

Taking the Fourth Army Corps as an example, it will 



40 TSE CAMPAIGN IN ABMEmA. 

be seen that it comprises six districts, and is, therefore, 
composed of six regiments of Nizam, six of Eedif of the 
1st ban, six of Eedif of the 2nd ban, six Mustahfiz— 
24 regiments, or 96 battalions of troops in all. The 
territorial divisions of the corps are as follows : — 

1st District, Erzeronm. — 1st Division, Erzeroum; 
2nd, Erzingjan ; 3rd, Kara Hissar ; 4th, Arabkir. 

2nd District, Ears. — 1st Division, Kars; 2nd, 
Batoum ; 3rd, Olti ; 4th, Artvin. 

3rd District, Kharpoot. — 1st Division, Kharpoot; 
2nd, Molahja ; 3rd, Eehesni ; 4tli, Argans. 

4th District, Sivas. — 1st Division, Sivas ; 2nd, 
Amasya; 3rd, Tokat ; 4th, Zileh. 

5th District, Yan. — 1st Division, Van ; 2nd, Bitlis ; 
3rd, Sert ; 4th, Bashkale. 

6th District, Diarbekir. — 1st Division, Diarbekir; 
2nd, Hidja; 3rd, Djezireh ; 4th, Mardin. 

Nizam corps are known only numerically as the 
3rd battalion of the 2nd regiment of the Fourth Army 
Corps ; whereas the battalions of reserve or territorial 
armies are distinguished by their local designation, as 
the Kharpoot Mustahfiz battalion, or the 2nd ban of 
the Djezireh Eedif. Cavalry and artillery are dis- 
tinguished in the same manner. 

The constitution of an army corps, the command 
of which is entrusted to a Mushir, or marshal, is as 
follows : — Two divisions of infantry, each commanded 
by a Ferik, or lieutenant-general. One brigade of cavalry, 
commanded by a Liva, or general of brigade. One 
regiment of artillery, commanded by a Liva ; one com- 
pany of engineers. 

The staff of each corps is divided into two distinct 
portions — the executive and the administrative. The 



ADMimSTEATIVE STAFF, 41 

former consists of the Mushir, aided by a major-general, 
as a rule, as chief of the staff, one colonel, one lieutenant- 
colonel, one major, and seven adjutants-major, and is 
entrusted with all questions relating to the drill, dis- 
cipline, or movements of troops in their command. 
The administrative staff is presided over by a lieutenant- 
general, with the designation of " Eeiss ; " he is assisted 
by two colonels, one lieutenant-colonel, one commissary- 
general, one surgeon-general, and one first-class War 
OflBce clerk. All matters concerning pay, clothing, and 
provisioning the men, together with questions relating 
to hospitals, repairs of buildings, ordnance stores, and 
armament of men and fortresses, are decided by this body. 

To touch briefly on the main points connected with 
the various branches of the army, commencing with the 
scientific corps, not one sapper could be discovered in that 
corps.* Nominally there is a corps of engineers in the 
Turkish army. The First Corps d'Armee boasts of five 
battalions of eight companies, but the other corps have 
to rest satisfied with one company each, the strength of 
which is six officers and one hundred and eighty-one 
non-commissioned officers and men, the command being 
vested in an adjutant-major. Of the pay and equipment 
of this branch I could learn nothing. 

As in other armies, the battery forms the tactical 
unit of the artillery. These are massed into battalions, 
each of which consists of three batteries, and into regi- 
ments, consisting of four battalions. To each regiment, 
however, a certain number of extra batteries are attached 

* I asked many officers to give me information concerning the corps of 
Sappers and Miners, but to every inquiry I learnt that in the 4th Army 
Corps engineers did not exist; the Chief of the Staff performing the 
duties of that branch of the service. 



42 TEE CAMPAIGN IN ARMENIA. 

— in all cases one or two of mountain guns, in some one 
or two field or horse. With the exception of the First, 
or Constantinople Army Corps, which contains three, one 
regiment of twelve batteries is considered the normal 
complement of a corps. The first battalion of a regi- 
ment is composed of horse, the other three of field 
batteries. The regiment is commanded by a Liva Pasha, 
or general of brigade, with a colonel and lieutenant- 
colonel on his staff, to which is attached a first-class 
veterinary surgeon and thirteen other sub-officers. The 
command of an artillery battalion is entrusted to a chef 
de hataillon, or Bin-Bashi, with two adjutants-major, 
medical officers, a veterinary surgeon, and three sub- 
officers as a staff. 

All batteries have the same number of officers — 
namely, one captain and two lieutenants. Horse batteries 
have 164 non-commissioned officers and men ; field, 162 ; 
mountain and mitrailleuse, 107 and 139 respectively. 

The equipment of a horse battery consists of six 
guns, two ammunition wagons, one baggage wagon, and 
one forge in the first line, with twelve ammunition 
wagons in the second line, and eighty-seven and one 
hundred and fifty draught horses in the first and second 
lines respectively. A field battery has the same equip- 
ment in every particular, except that the number of 
riding horses is twenty-five. As a rule, the ammuni- 
tion, relegated to the second line, is carried on arabas 
or on pack ponies in small mule trunks. 

A mountain battery consists of six guns. The com- 
plement of ammunition is carried in ninety-six mule 
trunks, two on each mule. As a rule, the guns, limbers, 
wheels, and carriages are carried on the backs of mules, 
though often they are to be seen dragged with one 



TURKISH ARTILLERY. 43 

animal in the shafts. During the campaign in Armenia 
I was mnch struck with the battery mules in Armenia 
— strong, jS^ne animals, many fourteen hands. They 
mostly come from Persia, and command a long price — 
indeed, a man asked me £35 for a really good animal, 
and not only refused to take less, but rode away when 
I offered it. 

There were no mitrailleuse batteries in Asia, but 
the authorised equipment is twenty-six saddle and one 
hundred and twenty-six draught horses, six guns ; the 
same number of wagons in the first line as field batteries, 
and eleven in the second line. 

The field-guns in use in the Turkish service, as far 
as I had an opportunity of judging, are all on the 
Ej-upp pattern, made of steel, and are either 4-pounder 
with a calibre of eight centimeters, or 6-pounder with a 
9-centimeter calibre. The twelve batteries in a regiment 
of artillery are equally divided — six being 4-pounder, 
six being 6-pounder. The smaller gun with limber 
complete weighs 3,9601b.; the larger gun weighs 
4,208 lb. All guns are drawn by six horses in both 
horse and field batteries. There are two systems in 
vogue in the mountain batteries. The first is Whit- 
worth's small 3-pounder rifled gun. In Asia there were 
a few of these in Kars. Two, early in the campaign, 
were entrusted to Moussa Pasha and his Circassians, and 
were lost by them in the affair at Beghli Ahmed on the 
29th of May. The second system is Krupp's bronze 
5J-centimeter breech- loading gun; its weight is about 
two hundredweight. 

In addition to the field artillery in the Turkish army 
there is a very strong body of garrison gunners, destined 
for the charge of the various fortresses. The company 



44 THE CAMPAIGN IN ARMENIA. 

is the unit of this branch, and the number of companies 
varies in each army corps. The strength of the unit is 
fixed at three officers and 150 non-commissioned officers 
and men. The 1st Army Corps has 96 companies, 
14,400; the 2nd Army Corps has 20 companies, 3,000; 
the 3rd Army Corps has 21 companies, 3,150 ; the 4th 
Army Corps has 12 companies, 1,800; the 5th and 6th 
Army Corps have each three companies, 450 ; and the 
7th Army Corps has five companies, 750. The twelve 
companies in the Armenian Corps were distributed among 
the fortresses of Ardahan, Batoum, Erzeroum, and Kars. 
In Europe guns of a calibre of 27 centimeters are mounted 
on the fortifications. In Asia there are a few 18-centi- 
meter guns in Erzeroum ; but in Kars and Ardahan the 
principal pieces were Krupp-pattern bronze 12 and 15 
centimeter cannon, cast at the Tophane at Constantinople, 
and muzzle -loading 12-centimeter shunt guns. Of these 
latter there were a great number. The artillery undoubt- 
edly are the finest corps in the Turkish army. The 
drill, discipline, and bearing are far superior to the other 
branches. Their practice, as a rule, was excellent, and 
though provided with nothing but percussion fuzes, 
the losses they inflicted on the enemy in the numerous 
engagements in Armenia prove that their training had 
not been thrown away. 

The horse furniture and equipment of the artillery 
consist of a saddle of the same pattern as that used in 
the Spanish army, a holster on the near, a wallet on the 
off', side of the pommel, a valise on the cantle containing 
one vest, one fez, one shirt, one pair of drawers, one pair 
of shoes, one pair of laced boots, one housewife, and one 
turnscrew. On the near side of the saddle, attached to 
it by D's, hangs a nosebag, and on the off* side a leathern 



TUEKiSE CAVALBT, 45 

water-bottle. The uniform of the men consists of a short 
tunic, with sling sword-belt, cross-belt, and pouch in 
black leather, a pair of pantaloons, and half-boots, with 
the national head-dress of the fez. Drivers are armed 
with a sword and Smith and Wesson's revolver ; gunners 
with sabre and Winchester carbine. 

Artillery horses are mostly imported from Hungary, 
and are, though small, powerful, hardy animals. They 
are allowed twelve pounds of barley and sixteen pounds 
of grass per diem. In the month of May they are turned 
out to graze for fifteen days, when they receive only half 
rations of grain. 

The pay of the various grades in the artillery is as 
follows: — Captain, per annum, £70 13s. 2d; first lieu- 
tenant, £53 18s. 4d.; second lieutenant, £49 7s. 6d. ; 
third lieutenant, £47 10s. 4d. A gunner in the horse 
artillery receives 6s. 7d. per mensem ; in the field or 
garrison, 5s. 7d. 

The cavalry in a corps d'armee consists of two 
brigades,, each commanded by a Liva Pasha, or general 
of brigade; the brigade is composed of two regiments, 
each of six squadrons, the efiective strength of which is 
152 men and 165 horses. The stafi" of a regiment 
comprises one colonel, one lieutenant-colonel, two cAefs 
d'escadron, two adjutants-major, two paymasters, nine 
medical officers of various grades, three veterinary sur- 
geons, an armourer, a farrier, and a saddlemaker. Each 
squadron is commanded by a first captain, with a second 
captain, two lieutenants, and two sub-lieutenants under 
him. The total strength of a regiment consists of 131 
officers, non-commissioned officers, and staff*, and 831 
sabres in the ranks. The uniform of the cavalry is 
similar to that of the horse artillery, except in the matter 



46 TEE CAMPAIGN IN ARMENIA, 

of buttons and belt-plates, in which there are slight 
variations. The armament consists of a sabre carried in 
a sling belt, a revolver carried in the holster, and a 
Winchester repeating rifle, with either twelve or sixteen 
cartridges, slung across the shoulder. In certain regi- 
ments some squadrons are armed with lances ; however, 
I saw none of these in Armenia. The equipment con- 
sists of sling sword-belt, two small cartridge-cases, each 
containing twenty rounds, worn on the waistbelt, one 
on either side of the clasp, a valise strapped in rear of 
the saddle, containing the same kit as the artillerjrman's. 
The saddle is of the same pattern, and all ranks carry 
the nosebag and water-bottle. The horses generally are 
country-bred, and their daily rations are nine pounds of 
barley and twelve pounds of grass. Occasionally, more 
especially in the 1st and 2nd Army Corps, Hungarian 
horses are found. They receive the amount stated as 
the ration for artillery horses. All animals, country-bred 
as well as those imported, are turned out to grass for 
fifteen days in the month of May. The manner of 
shoeing is difierent to what we practise. A circular 
plate of iron, with a small round hole the size of a shilHng 
in the centre, is fastened on with seven nails. This cer- 
tainly protects the frog, and I found myself compelled 
to adopt it after a very short acquaintance with Armenian 
roads, although my horse had up to that time in 
European Turkey worlti only the ordinary Enghsh 
shoe. 

The pay of subordinate oflicers and men is as follows, 
per annum: — First captain receives £73 15s. 2d.; 
second captain, £66 Os. lOd. ; first lieutenant, 
£55 12s. lOd. ; second lieutenant, £51 4s. 2d.; sub- 
lieutenant, 1st class, £48 10s.; sub -lieutenant, 2nd 



TUBKI8E INFANTRY. 47 

class, £44 16s. lOd. A sergeant receives 9s., a corporal 
8s., and a private dragoon 6s. 7d. a month. 

The battalion is the tactical unit of the infantry. 
It is commanded by a Bin-Bashi, or chef du bataillon, 
and is divided into two half -battalions under adjutant- 
majors. These again are sub-divided into four com- 
panies each, commanded by captains. I believe it is 
intended that the battalion shall consist of four instead 
of eight companies. The administrative staff of a 
battalion is composed of the chefy one adjutant-major, 
one captain, one lieutenant, and one sub-lieutenant, all 
selected by the officers of their own grades. Each 
battalion has two medical officers borne on its rolls. A 
regiment of infantry consists of four battalions, one of 
chasseur s-a-pied, the remaining three of ordinary bat- 
talions. The regimental staff, the head of which is the 
Mir AUai, or colonel, comprises a lieutenant-colonel, a 
regimental writer, and eighty bandsmen. The effective 
strength of a battalion is 827 of all ranks ; that of a 
company 102, which includes three subordinate officers 
— ^viz., a captain, a first lieutenant, and a second lieu- 
tenant; the administrative staff of each regiment 
consists of an officer of each grade selected by his 
comrades, the colonel being the president. Nominally 
the chasseur battalion is accompanied by two small 
mountain guns of the Whitworth pattern, but this 
certainly was not the case in Asia during the present 
campaign. 

The uniform of the infantry consists of a blue tunic 
with red piping, blue pantaloons with red seam. The 
universal fez, buttons, and piping (except that the first 
regiment of each corps d'armee wears yellow) are the 
same in every battalion and regiment; there are no 



48 TEE CAMPAIGN IN ARMENIA, 

distinguisliing marks, so that it is impossible to tell one 
battalion from another — ^Nizam from Eedif, cbasseurs 
from ordinary line corps. All brandies wear a blue 
great-coat with hood ; mounted corps carry tbis rolled 
up on the cantle of the saddle, dismounted corps on the 
back. The equipment of the infantry is as follows : — ^A 
waist-belt, with bayonet frog — on the belt is carried a 
pouch containing fifty rounds ; a haversack slung over 
the right shoulder, capable of carrying three days' sup- 
ply of biscuit, a small tin canteen, and a pack which 
contains forty cartridges, and the same articles of kit 
enumerated as in the possession of artillerymen. As a 
rule, in time of war spare cartridges are carried on the 
breast in small stitched receptacles, similar to those 
which Circassians wear, or else in a coarse cloth cart- 
ridge-belt of the same pattern that EngHsh sportsmen 
use, only slung over the shoulder, not worn round the 
waist. The Martini-Henry, manufactured by the Pea- 
body Company in America, is the weapon of the Tm'kish 
infantry, but some regiments are still armed with the 
Snider. The bayonet is a four-sided weapon, except 
in the case of the Tallia or chasseur battahons, which 
carry a sword-bayonet. 

The pay of the various grades of subordinate 
officers is as follows : — Per annum, captain receives 
£70 13s. 2d.; first lieutenant, £53 18s. 4d. ; second 
lieutenant, £49 7s. 6d. Per mensem, sergeant-major, 
13s. 2d.; sergeant, 10s.; corporal, 7s.; private soldier, 
5s. 7d. 

A brigade of infantry consists of two regiments, or 
eight battalions, and is under the command of a Liva 
Pasha, or general of brigade. A division consists of 
two brigades ; this is commanded by a Ferik, or lieu- 



BABBA0K8 OF TEE TURKISH ARMY. 49 

tenant-general — the junior grade in the Ottoman army 
permitted to wear a beard. 

Eations per day for all arms are the same, and nomi- 
nally stand thus: — Bread, 2 lb.; meat, 8i oz.; rice, 3oz. 
butter, i oz.; salt, f oz.; onions, g oz.; candles, 1-10 oz. 
wood, 23 J oz.; charcoal, 9? oz. ; clarified butter, 1-10 oz. 
soap, 1-10 oz. On sei-vice the Government reserves to 
itself the right of issuing 23 oz. of biscuit or of flour in 
lieu of bread, and the soldier on enlistment has to agree 
that 2oz. of meat shall be deducted from his daily 
rations and sold, and with the amount vegetables pur- 
chased to provide him with soup. Companies are 
divided into messes of eight, and the men have, when in 
barracks, two meals a day — one an hour after sunrise, 
the second an hour before sunset. In the Eamazan, or , 
month of fasting, the hours are changed to an hour 
before sunrise and immediately after sunset. The dinner 
hour, as in our service, is announced by bugle sounds. 
The barracks vary much, some being fairly comfortable, 
but the great majority are, it would seem, low, 
badly ventilated, and indescribably filthy. The men 
sleep on wooden platforms raised about a foot from the 
floor of the room, which is rarely or never boarded. 
Each man is supposed to have a mattress, a pillow, and 
two blankets. Sergeants, corporals, and the like grades 
of non-commissioned officers sleep in the men's barracks ; 
captains, subalterns, and the higher grades of non-com- 
missioned officers dwell apart in separate rooms. 

It must be borne in mind that a Bin-Bashi, or 
ckef du hataillon or d' escadron, is the junior com- 
missioned officer in the Turkish army. Captains and 
all below him in rank have quarters in barracks. Ad- 
jutants-major and all above that grade have to find 

E 



50 TEE CAMPAIGN IN ARMENIA. 

quarters in the town. They, however, receive money 
compensation in lieu of rations, which enables them to 
do this. Commissioned officers of all branches receive 
the same pay ; those of the mounted receive extra 
rations for horses, which makes a slight difference in 
the total amounts. 

The annual pay of the various commissioned officers 
is as follows : — Mushir, £5,420 ; lieutenant-general, 
£1,300; general of brigade, £725; colonel, £395; 
lieutenant-colonel, £270 ; chief of battalion or squad- 
ron, £200 ; adjutant-major of right wing or squadron, 
£110 ; of left wing or squadron, £93. This includes 
rations and lodging allowance. 

It should be remembered that for reasons of economy 
the Porte made an all-round deduction in 1869 of 
seventeen per cent, of all pay and allowances of civil 
and military servants. This has never been remitted. 
Officers and soldiers also have to subscribe two per cent, 
of their pay towards the *' widows and orphans " fund, 
and twelve per cent, towards their own pension fund. 
By a decree published in July, 1877, all salaries were 
reduced by one-half, in order that the Porte might be 
enabled to prosecute the war with renewed vigour, and, 
as the regiments in Armenia are in arrears varying from 
twenty-four to fifty-one months, the scale of pay laid 
down by the Hatti-Houmayoun of the 18th of February, 
1869, scarcely represents the actual amount drawn by 
the soldier of the present day, although in that docu- 
ment appears the following paragraph : — 

'' L'Etat pourvoit a tous les frais de nourriture, d'equipement, et 
d'entretien du sold at, et lui donne en outre en numeraire un solde 
mensuelle fixe qui, contrairement k Tusage generale des puissances 
militaires, n'est susceptible'"'d'aucune diminution ou retenue." 



TURKISH RESERVE TROOPS. 51 

The composition of regiments and battalions of- re- 
serve troops is ttie same as tliat of the Nizam. They 
are called out only in time of war, and though pre- 
sumably not so efficient as the corps of the standing 
army, yet in this campaign Nizam, Eedif, and Mus- 
tahfiz battalions have fought side by side, and to the 
spectator there was no visible difference between them. 
The corps which on the 25th of June repelled a flank 
attack of a Russian brigade on the left of the Zewin 
Dooz position, charging the enemy, who were the 
grenadiers of the Caucasus, with the bayonet, and 
driving them headlong down the valley, was the Aleppo 
Battalion of the 2nd Ban of Redifs. The battalion 
which held the Great Yagni hill on the 2nd of October, 
and was literally annihilated, was the Erzingjan 2nd 
Eedif Battalion. Indeed, the reserve troops in Armenia 
have proved that in releasing all Eedif prisoners at 
Ardahan the Russians far undervalued their foes. 

On paper the organisation of the Turkish army is 
second to none in the world ; in the field they have 
proved themselves to be the same. 

In the Appendix I give the authorised establish- 
ments of batteries, regiments of cavalrv, and battahons 
of infantry, as well as a tabulated statement of the 
strength of the Ottoman army in all its branches — 
Scientific, Ordnance, Cavalry, and Infantry. The total 
number of troops nominally supposed to be at the dis- 
posal of the Porte in case of war, drilled, equipped, and 
officered, amount to— 

Cavalry ... ... 48,819 

Engineers ... ... 8,789 

Artillery ... ... 90,000 

Infantry ... ... 496,6 94 

E 2 644,302 



62 



THE CAMFAIGN IN ARMENIA, 



This organisation, admirable as it appears on paper, 
broke down hopelessly when called upon to stand the 
strain of actual war. The Eedif battalions were absolutely 
without officers. Sergeants and corporals were hurriedly 
transferred from Nizam corps, with the rank of captain 
and lieutenant, and the battalions, instead of numbering 
800 men, rarely mustered 500. 

At a moderate computation Mukhtar Pasha ought 
to have been able to place a force of 5,000 cavahy 
(regular and irregular), 65,000 infantry, and 180 guns 
in the field within a week of the declaration of war. 
Yet so shamefully mismanaged were all matters rel^^ting 
to the Seraskierate that on the 1st of May his available 
forces numbered but 87 weak battalions, 24 squadrons, 
and 20 batteries, of which 11 only were horsed. His 
troops were distributed as follows : — • 



Place. 


Battalion. 


Squadron. 


Battery. 


Erzeroum 


13 


6 


6 


Bayazid 


2 


2 


1 


■i^cLl. 0*«» ••* ••• #«• 


29 


6 


5 


Ardahan 


12 


3 


3 


Between Erzeroum and Kara 


8 


— 




Vy J. vl •■• ••• ••• ••■ 


8 


— 




Khagisinan 


1 




— 


Erzingjan ,. 


4 


3 


1 


Gutenfcab 


2 


— 


— ' 


V clLL ••• ••• ••• ••■ 


6 


3 


2 


Toprak-Kali ... 


2 


— 


1 


Delibaba 


2 


1 


1 



The composition of the Eussian army was as 
follows : — 

Main Column. — The Grenadier Division of the Cau- 
casus, head- quarters at Alexandropol, and consisted of 
the 13th, 14th, 15th, and 16th Eegiments of Grenadiers, 
with the Grenadier Field Artillery Regiment. 



RUSSIAN ARMY IN ARMENIA. 63 

Srd Division. — The 20th Infantry Division, head- 
quarters, Alexandropol ; commandant, Lieut. -General 
Heimann; the 77th, 78th, 79th, and 80th Eegiments 
of the Line, with the 20th Field Artillery Eegiment, 
formed the corps. 

hth Division. — The 39th Division, head-quarters at 
Akhalzik, under Dewel, with the 153rd, 154th, 155th, 
and 156th Eegiments, with the 39th Field Artillery 
Division. 

Left Column. — The 19th Infantry Division, head- 
quarters, Erivan. The commander of this was Lieut.- 
Greneral Swoyeff, and it comprised the 73rd, 74th, 75th, 
and 76th Eegiments of the Line, with the 19th Field 
Artillery Eegiment. 

4<th Division. — The 38th Infantry Division under 
Tergukassoff, head-quarters, Erivan, contained the 149th, 
150th, 151st, and 152nd Eegiments, with the 38th Field 
Artillery Eegiment. 

Bi^ht Column. — The 41st Division, under Oklobjia, 
with its head-quarters at Kutais, consisted of the 161st, 
162nd, 163rd, and 164th Eegiments of the Line, with 
the 41st Field Artillery Division. 

In addition to these there was a brigade of rifles of 
the Caucasus, a brigade of sappers, four flying parks of 
field artillery, Ij parks of horse artillery, four batteries 
of Cossack horse artillery, three batteries of Kuban horse 
artillery, one battery Terek horse artillery, and two 
divisions of cavalry. 

Main Army. — 14th Caucasian Dragoons, 15th Cau- 
casian Dragoons, two regiments of Kuban and two of 
Terek Cossacks. 

Left Column. — 16th Caucasian Dragoons, 17th Cau- 
casian Dragoons, four regiments of Terek Cossacks. 



54 THE CAMPAIGN IN AHMENIA. 

Showing a grand total of 100 battalions of infantry, 
one brigade of sappers, 12 regiments of cavalry, and 300 
guns.* 

Bravely as these showed on paper, I believe it is now 
an acknowledged fact that, leaving the army operating 
on Batonm out of the question, the Eussian army did 
not exceed 50,000 infantry, 10,000 cavalry (including 
Karapapak irregulars), and 128 guns. 

It was assumed that their men were better equipped, 
drilled, and disciplined than the Turkish troops; that 
their officers were more advanced in the knowledge of 
the art of war ; that their organisation was more com- 
plete ; and that the campaign in Armenia would virtually 
be a mere *' walk over " for the Grand Duke. 

On all these points we were lamentably ignorant. 
Their transport and commissariat failed utterly in the 
hour of trial, and their officers, in the earlier part of the 
war more especially, proved absolutely incapable. With 
the exception of their dragoon regiments, their cavalry 
certainly were not superior to the Circassians under 
Mukhtar Pasha's command, their infantry never proved 
itself when engaged in equal numbers of the same quality 
as the Turks, their arms were far inferior, and I doubt 
if their marching qualities or powers of endurance 
equalled those of the Osmanli. 

Their guns were heavier metal, were better served 
than those of the Osmanli — indeed, the Eussian artillery 
deserve a passing notice. The field-guns were of the 

* Colonel Stracey, of the Scots Guards, with whom I travelled through 
Europe on my way to Armenia, assured me that these numbers were 
greatly exaggerated, and that I should not find 50,000 Russians in the 
field. I subsequently found that the gallant Colonel was right not only 
in this, but on many points of information connected with the Russian 
army, with which he was good enough to furnish me. 



RUSSIAN ABTILLEBY, 55 

Krupp pattern, made of bronze, either 4 or 9 pounders, 
the horse artillery brigades being armed with the 
Kghter weapon, whilst infantry divisions were supplied 
with an equal number of each calibre. 

The 4 -pounder has a calibre of S*69 centimeter, and 
weighs, with limber complete, 3,960 lb., the gun itself 
being 6771b. The 9-pounder has a calibre of 1067 
centimeter, and weighs close on 5,0001b., the gun alone 
weighing 1,3501b. This piece, however, may almost be 
classed a siege gun. Indeed, during the siege of Kars very 
many of them were mounted in the batteries. Each bat- 
tery has eight guns, the guns are drawn by eight horses. 

The complement of a 4-pounder battery is six ojBB.cers, 
256 men, and 109 horses. The heavier batteries having 
six officers, 317 men, and 223 horses. The Cossack bat- 
teries were armed with a small 3 -pounder bronze moun- 
tain gun, weighing just 2 cwt. These were sometimes 
carried on the back of a pack animal, but more often 
drawn by one horse in shafts. 

There are three projectiles used with the Eussian 
artillery, the common shell, the shrapnel, and the round- 
headed shell, and their weights in a 4-pounder gun 9|, 
Hi, and 141b. respectively. In a 9-pounder gun, the 
missiles, which are of the same description, weigh 27, 
29, and 321b. The charge for the lighter piece is IJ, 
for the heavier 3 lb. 

The supreme military and political administration 
was vested in the Grrand Duke, but preferring the com- 
forts of Tiflis to the hardships of camp life, he handed 
over command (virtually) to General Loris Melikoff, a 
scion of an Armenian princely house, who conducted 
all operations, assisted by Greneral Dutrovskoi as chief 
of the staff. 



56 THE CAMPAIGN IN ARMENIA, 

Mukhtar Pasha determined on holding on to Kars, 
and giving the Eussians battle in the neighbourhood of 
that fortress. Finding, however, they were too strong 
for him, he fell back, hoping to be able to defeat one of 
the three wings of the Russian army in some more 
favourable position, and the Turkish army, when I 
reached Erzeroum, was disposed as follows : — 

The extreme right was at Van. It consisted, as I 
said before, of eight battalions, 4,000 irregulars, and 
two batteries, under the command of Faik Pasha. It 
effectually threatened the flank of the Eussian wing ad- 
vancing from Bayazid, and made its progress a matter 
of some difficulty. At Delibaba, which commanded the 
pass over the Kose Dagh, and thus barred the road from 
Bayazid to Erzeroum, there were eight battalions and 
two batteries in strong entrenchments. On the Hoonkiar 
Doozi, or Imperial plateau — a level table-land on the 
Soghanly Mountains, and scattered between it, Bardez, 
Zewin, and Yenikui — was Mukhtar's main army, which, 
with the reinforcements lately received from Constanti- 
nople and Syria, amounted to about 40 battalions and 
two batteries. At Pennek, to the north of Bardez, and 
at Olti, slightly in rear of Pennek, there were six 
battalions and a battery ; these watched the Ardahan 
road, and the remnants of the late garrison, who escaped 
after the assault on the 20th, endeavoured to co-operat« 
with them ; they amounted, it is said, to about 6,000 
men and twelve guns. Thus Mukhtar Pasha's first Una 
extended from Pennek to Van, and comprised sixty-two 
battalions and seven batteries, scattered over a front of 
about 120 miles. 

Keeping open communications between Erzeroum 
and Olti were two battalions, and a battery at Ghiurji 



SITUATION OF THE RUSSIAN AmiY. 57 

Boglias; and at Koprikui, midway between Delibaba 
and Brzeroum, were six battalions and a couple of bat- 
teries in entrencliments. Erzeroum itself is a very strong 
position, and might be made much stronger ; but, leav- 
ing everything to the last moment, the Turks delayed 
untiL after the Declaration of War to throw up earth- 
works and to repair the old entrenchments, which were 
in sad need of much labour and skill to make them fit 
to stand against modern arms. The road into Erzeroum 
from Kars passes over a very difficult pass, the Devi 
Boyun — or "Camel's Neck" — ^which might be made a 
most formidable position. To the east of this lies the 
Passin Plain, where it seems probable a decisive battle 
will be fought.* Earthworks were hurriedly thrown 
up on the Devi Boyun, and I believe redoubts will be 
erected in suitable positions on the Passin Plain ; so 
doubtless if the Eussians ever get so far, they will meet 
with a warm reception, as these earthworks will receive 
the guns en route from Trebizond, and will make any 
approach from that quarter a matter of great difficulty. 

The Eussian army, as far as I could gather, was 
situated as follows : — 

The right wing having captured Ardahan, left three 
battaUons behind to hold the place and keep open com-' 
munications, and threatened an advance down the main 
road on Pennek. The centre and head-quarters, having 
left a sufficent force to mask Kars and prevent the 
garrison issuing forth, moved down the main road on 
Erzeroum, and left outposts at Tcharpakli, some twenty 
miles to the east of the Soghanly range, and directly 
in front of Mukhtar Pasha's forces. The left wing 
advanced to Kara-KiHssa (black church) on the direct 

* I am here speaking of the earlier events of the campaign. 



58 THE CAMPAIGN' IN ARMENIA. 

road from Erzeroum to Teheran, about forty miles in 
front of the Turkish force at Delibaba. The movements 
of this column were much hampered by the Van Brigade 
of Tui^ks, and had a combined attack by the Delibaba 
and Van forces been made on the Russian left wing, a 
very decided blow would have been struck on their ad- 
vance, which at this season of the year was necessarily 
much impeded by the snowy ranges and swollen rivers 
they had to cross. I hear that the army is well 
equipped; their commissariat and ordnance supplies 
being conveyed on strongly-built light carts drawn by 
horses, while the men are housed in the felt kibitka, 
or Central Asia tent. In spite of these precautions, I 
hear that sickness is rife. 

General Loris Melikoff has given orders that sol- 
diers found pillaging will be hanged, and that villagers 
who place themselves under Russian protection will be 
well taken care of . It is reported that he has 15,000 
cavalry ; so when the snow melts and the country becomes 
more practicable, I fear that the districts for miles round 
will be open to their attacks, for the Turks have nothing 
worthy of the name to oppose them. 



CHAPTER IV. 

THE STORY OF ARDAHAN. 

Ismail Kurd's Invasion of Russia— Discontent in the City— The Petition to the 
British Consul— Mr. Zohrab— Russian Designs on Armenia— Alacrity in 
following up the Declaration of War— Qapture of Bayazid— City Canards 
—Ardahan— Captain Mehmed Bey— Sahri Pasha— Gallant Defence of the 
Emir Oghlou— Flight of Sabri — Capture of the Town. 

Erzeroum, 31s^ May, 
There is no doubt that great dissatisfaction exists in 
Erzeroum with regard to the conduct of the Turkish 
officials. In the spring, Sami Pasha, who was Gover- 
nor-General and Commander-in-Chief of the District, 
was recalled, and Mukhtar Pasha sent over to take 
command of the army, while one Ismail Pasha, a 
Kurd, assumed the civil government. The former 
is with the main army at Barudez, while the latter 
has shut himself up in his citadel, and never appears. 
The feeling towards the Civil Governor was much 
intensified by a telegram appearing in the Levant 
Herald, in which ijb appeared that Ismail Pasha re- 
ported to the Porte that he was ready to take the 
field with 40,000 volunteers. The grey-beards of 
Erzeroum are most wrathful, and ask when has he been 
seen outside his palace with four men. Indeed, so 
high has this disafiection risen that a large deputation 
of the principal Moolahs of the district waited on Mr. 
Zohrab,* our Consul here, with a petition signed by 
all the chief inhabitants, begging him to use his in- 

* I happened to be in the Consulate when this interview took place, and 
can testify to the fact that there were many Mahomedans in the group, 
and that they were more vehement in their denunciation of Ismail Pasha 
than the Christians. 



60 TEE CAMPAIGN IN ARMENIA. 

fluence to save the city from the horrors of a siege 
and bombardment. What confidence can we have, 
they say, in our leaders ? " Ardahan has fallen with- 
out defence ; Kars is about to fall ; Mukhtar Pasha 
flies whenever the Eussians approach him ; Ismail 
Pasha has shut himself up in his palace, and is never 
seen ; our troops have received no pay for twenty- 
eight months ; they are badly clad, have no hospitals, 
are dying by hundreds of disease, and only receive 
bread every other day ; how can they fight under 
such management, and what is the use of attempting 
to stay the advance of the Eussians ? We know 
Ismail Pasha has made up his mind to retire to 
Erzingjan directly the enemy gets any closer, and to 
abandon his government here. Why should we sufier? 
Can the city hope to hold out against the Eussians? 
Why not send out at once and welcome them rather 
than expose ourselves, our families, and property to 
the calamity of a siege?" It is extremely gratify- 
ing to find our country represented by a man like 
Mr. Zohrab, a gentleman in every sense of the word — 
well read, thoroughly versed in all Oriental languages, 
with an accurate knowledge of the country-people, 
their manners, customs, and history. There is no 
man, I believe, in Asia Minor more respected by 
Turks and Christians alike. It is pleasing to know 
that in their distress the people of Erzeroum turn to 
Her Majesty's representative for counsel and assist- 
ance. It is well to find that such a representative is 
able and willing to advise them effectually and deter- 
minedly ; that he can soothe their discontent, appeal 
to their better feelings, and by his cheerful bearing, 
and by the noble disregard of danger displayed by 



MB. ZOEBAB, 61 

him in keeping his family at a post of much diffi- 
culty, hardship, and trial, show them that things may 
not be so black as they are painted. No living man 
knows this part of the country as well as he does. 
For twenty-two years he has been intimately asso- 
ciated with its history. As interpreter and private 
secretary to Sir Fenwick Williams he manfully bore 
his part, though but a boy in years, through the 
heroic defence of Kars. Associated with Teesdale in 
preparing for the siege throughout the winter of 
1854, he, on the advance of the Eussians, dropped 
the pen, and taking up the sword, proved himself an 
adept at either profession. Since those days Mr. 
Zohrab has held various posts in European Turkey 
with but little gain to himseK, but with much ad- 
vantage to Government. 

The Moscow speech never alluded to Asia ; she was 
omitted in the proceedings of the Conference, in the 
wording of the Protocol, and in the declaration of war. 
The promise of the Czar is that his armies will recross 
the Pruth when the suJSerings of the Christians in 
Turkey have been alleviated ; it does not bind him to 
withdraw one man from his newly-acquired territories 
in Asia Minor. Thus the Eussians have hoodwinked 
Europe, and, without violating a pledge, will secure to 
themselves the greater portion of the shores of the Black 
Sea, the important quadrilateral of Trebizond, Erzeroum, 
Kars, and Batoum, and will hold the key of the Eu- 
phrates and Tigris valleys. They will, moreover, have 
the only good port in the Black Sea now left to the 
Turks — Batoum, which is capable of being made a most 
formidable fortress — and Trebizond, a fairly good road- 
stead, commanding the direct Persian road. It now 



62 TEE CAMPAIGN IN ABMBNIA. 

appears evident that from tlie first Asia has been the 
point aimed at by Eussia, and that the movements on 
the Prnth were meant to occupy the attention of Turkey 
and to induce her to mass her main army on the 
Danube for the defence of Constantinople, whereas all 
last year the Czar has been organising three columns for 
the conquest of this district. The right column formed 
at Akhalzik, the centre at Groomri, the left at Erivan, 
were employed all the winter in preparations for the 
campaign. Baggage -animals were daily exercised, the 
men taught by Kurds the art of pitchiog kibitkas, and 
stores of grain, &c., formed at depots on the extreme 
frontier. Moreover, ofl&cers who had been travelling in 
Asiatic Turkey had sent in very full reports of all the 
Turkish posts, roads, and grain-establishments. Thus 
prepared, the Russians commenced their advance, and, 
crossing her frontier on the 24th of April, declared war. 
Their advanced guard of cavalry captured a squadron of 
Turkish horse who were quietly reposing under some 
trees, and who surrendered without firing a shot, and, 
pushing on, seized the Turkish stores of grain in the 
village of Khodja Kaleh and the districts of Alashgird, 
Ghendeh, Shora-gol, Khagazman, and Childer. The 
right column, moving rapidly down on Ardahan, in- 
vested it, and assaulting it on the 16th of May, carried 
the place, with but slight loss, the Turks losing about 
2,000 men. Leaving a garrison in Ardahan, the column 
moved down on Pennek. The centre column, advancing 
from Alexandropol, invested Kars before the end of the 
month. Mukhtar Pasha moved out on the 3rd of May 
to attack them, but finding them too strong, he rapidly 
retired on the Soghanly Eange, exchanging a few shots 
with the enemy, but never facing them fairly in fight. 



CAPTURE OF BAYAZID. 63 

It appears that tlie Eussians intended compelling 
Kars to surrender by starvation; for, leaving a suffi- 
cient force to invest tlie place, the Eussian com- 
mander was following up Mukhtar Pasha on to the 
Soghanly, and was now halted at Tcharpakli. The left 
column, advancing from Erivan, crossed the frontier 
simultaneously with the other two, and it seems pro- 
bable that this division marched through Persian 
territory, appearing before Bayazid. The Eussian 
general sent a flag of truce into the place, saying 
he had seven battalions and three batteries, that if 
the place capitulated the garrison might march out 
undisturbed, but that if it were not evacuated on the 
morrow he would assault it, and no quarter would be 
shown. Hastily availing himself of this permission, 
the Turkish commandant withdrew his three battalions 
and joined Faik Pasha at Van. The inactivity of Faik 
Pasha is unaccountable, and if he cannot co-operate with 
the Dehbaba force, or conjointly with them attack the 
Eussian left column, he will in all probability have to 
surrender in a few days. 

Extravagant rumours, having no foundation what- 
ever in fact, seem to be the order of the day. The last 
bonne houche duly transmitted to the Porte, and circu- 
lated here yesterday, was that, by the grace of Grod and 
the assistance of the light reflected from the Sultan's 
throne, a body of Circassians had attacked Ardahan, re- 
captured it, and driven the Eussians back with much 
slaughter. It is unnecessary to add that this achieve- 
. ment was the work of some fertile brain in the neigh- 
bourhood of the Pasha's Palace, and that no Circassian 
has ventured to show himself in the vicinity of the 
Eussian army since the war began. 



64 THE CAMPAIGN IN AHMENIA. 

Details of the Ardalian affair came in slowly, more 
slowly far than the stream of unharmed fugitives who 
pour into this city daily. 

Ardahan is a town containing about 7,000 inhabi- 
tants, and is situated in the valley of the Kur Su ; it is 
surrounded by hills on which are built various detached 
forts, the principal being the Ramazan to the north at 
a distance of about 5,000 yards, the Senghier Eedoubt, 
about 1,500 yards distant, and the Emir Oghlou, to the 
west, some five miles from the town. This was con- 
sidered the key of the position, and was under the com- 
mand of Colonel Mehmed Bey, an oflBcer of German 
origin, whose father had taken service with the Tm-ks 
some thirty years ago. The garrison of the town con- 
sisted of 9 battalions of Nizam and Eedif troops, 2 of 
local militia, 3 batteries of field artillery, and 80 guns 
of position, many of them being Ejrupp's 15-centimeter 
pieces. Hassan Sabri Pasha, the commandant of the 
fortress, was a man possessing much influence, but even 
this failed to prevent his removal from a command in 
Montenegro, the previous year, where he had shown 
gross incompetence, and it was rumoured also a want 
of courage. During the winter the Ardahan garrison, 
owing to scarcity of fresh meat and vegetation, suffered 
much from scurvy; and when the spring broke, fully 
one -third of the men were suffering from this com- 
plaint. 

Towards the end of April, the Eussians, having 
crossed the frontier from Alexandropol, detached a 
column, under Greneral Komaroff, by way of Zarchat 
and Boskui towards Ardahan. They were enabled, owing 
to the apathy or treachery of Sabri Pasha, to throw a 
bridge across the Kur Su, and thus to make their 



CAPTURE OF TEE EMIR OGHLOU. 65 

attack on the Emir OgMou, the fall of which would 
necessarily reduce the place to submission. On the 
14th May, a large Eussian division was seen advancing 
from the direction of Kars, and these, having effected a 
junction with Komaroff's brigade, on the 15th inst. 
took possession of a height commanding the key of 
the position. On seeing these movements, Mehmed 
Bey, having some knowledge of the art of war, and 
spite of change of name, nationality, and religion, not 
being a firm believer in Kismet, sent word to Sabri 
Pasha begging for reinforcement in order that he might 
attack the Eussians before they had made good their 
position. His request was declined, and so, unmolested, 
the Muscovite artillerymen gained the summit of the 
crest, hastily constructed batteries, and by 5 p.m. that 
evening opened fire on the doomed Emir Oghlou. All 
night the bombardment continued, Mehmed Bey making 
what defence he could, when in the morning, being very 
severely wounded, his garrison, who as long as he was 
able to direct seemed instilled with something like 
courage, lost heart, and fled into Ardahan. The Eus- 
sians then, advancing their artillery, moved on to the 
destruction of the Eamazan Tabia, and by sunset had 
commenced its bombardment. During the night Sabri 
Pasha victoriously retired (as a Turkish official informed 
us), on Ardanutsch with two battalions. 

On the morning of the 16th, having seized and 
strongly held the Emir Oghlou, Loris Melikoff, who it 
appears was in command of the forces, moved the main 
body of his troops round to the heights on the south of 
the town. In this operation the Eussians were vigorously 
attacked by five battalions moved out from the Senghier 
Eedoubt, and suffered some loss from the heavy guns in 



6Q THE GAMTAIGN IN ARMENIA. 

the Eamazan Tabia, under whose fire they were com- 
pelled to pass ; but they succeeded in establishing them- 
selves on a height some 4,000 yards to the south of the 
town, which they entrenched during the night, and at 
break of day commenced a vigorous bombardment, which 
continued for seven hours ; in the afternoon a parlemen- 
taire was despatched by the Eussian general to summon 
the garrison to surrender ; the proposal was rejected. 
At dawn on the morning of the 17th May, three strong 
Russian columns advanced to the assault ; these were met 
by troops from the town and from the Senghier Redoubt, 
and a sharp engagement ensued. The two armies were 
engaged at such close quarters that neither party could 
use their artillery, and for upwards of three hours a cease- 
less rattle of musketry continued. At noon, the Tm^ks 
— having lost enormously, their entrenchments being ab- 
solutely piled up with dead and wounded — all their 
senior officers having abandoned them, broke and took 
to flight, and the main Russian column pushed forward 
and entered the town from the south. They were here 
met by a well-directed rifle fire from the Pasha's house, 
in which a detachment of the Van Redifs had posted 
themselves. This act was fraught with much annoyance 
to those in the main hospital, which was crowded with 
a great number of un wounded men, who gladly availed 
themselves of the protection afibrded by the ' Red Cres- 
cent ' waving over the building. In returning the fire 
on the Pasha's house, several rifle-bullets struck the 
walls and windows of the hospital. Fortunately no one 
was hurt, and as the Russians made a rush on the 
Pasha's house and carried it, all danger to sick and 
wounded ceased. About this time a second Eussian 
column, mainly composed of Cossack cavalry, entered 



CAJPTURE OF ABDAHAN. 67 

the city from tlie north, and as they advanced on the 
bridge in the middle of the town, barred the passage 
of the fugitive Turks, numbers of whom in despair 
threw themselves into the stream already dyed crimson 
with the blood of their dead comrades. By 2 p.m. all 
firing had ceased, but the work of pursuit was vigor- 
ously carried on; large numbers of prisoners were 
brought in before nightfall. For the three succeeding 
days the place was handed over to pillage, and the 
Karapapak Irregulars were not slow to avail them- 
selves of this licence. Prior to the assault, Loris 
Melikoff had announced his intention of shooting any 
man found guilty of ojBfering violence to man, woman, 
or child, and I could learn of no case where any outrage 
had been committed. 

From a Turkish medical officer who was made 
prisoner and subsequently released, I learnt that the 
Eussians had buried 1,930 bodies of their enemies after 
the fight. 

It is now reported that 800 have reached Artvin, 
and about 500, mostly unarmed, have arrived at Olti 
and Erzeroum. 

Such is the story of Ardahan, as gathered from the 
lips of men who were there. The Turks lost everything 
— ^munitions of war, commissariat stores, magazines of 
arms, and, including mountain pieces, 112 guns in all. 
The Eussians are now reported busy dismantling the 
place, and sending the captured cannon over the border 
to Alexandropol ; and Sabri Pasha is still, with his two 
battalions and a few hundred fugitives, at Ardanutsch, 
forming a nucleus, as he reports, of a force with which 
he means to recapture the place. 

On the 28th May I paid a visit to the Viceroy at the 
F 2 



68 TEE CAMPAIGN IN ABMENIA, 

Palace of Erzeroum — a straggling building, in very 
bad repair, situated in the ancient citadel, which is 
of Byzantine construction, and stands on a hill in the 
centre of the city. As I passed through the archway 
a body of about 200 irregular horsemen were issuing 
forth — I presume being mustered, for a Turkish officer 
was sitting down on a chair apparently entering their 
numbers in a note-book. The men were armed diversely, 
mostly with a very curved sword and lance. Some had 
pistols, and there were a few matchlocks among them. 
They were mounted on small ponies, few of which 
would have been accepted as grass-cutters' ''tats'' by 
any cavalry commandant in India. The swords were 
carried in sling-belts, but to prevent the nuisance of 
banging about they were tucked between the saddle 
and the leg, in such a manner that the drawing of 
them would be a matter of some difficulty. The lances 
were short, unwieldy, and heavy ; and the men appeared 
to be indifferent horsemen, and quite valueless as cavalry. 

Leaving my horse in a large courtyard, I passed the 
usual unwashed crowd collected about the feet of aU 
Pasha footstools, up a very rickety pair of stairs, to a 
small, meanly -furnished room — ^the office of the inter- 
preter, an Armenian, I had a long conversation with 
this gentleman, and after about a quarter of an hour's 
delay, was conducted to the presence of Ismail Pasha. 

Although forewarned, I certainly was not prepared 
to meet a man of Ismail Pasha's stamp in such a posi- 
tion. Entering his audience -chamber, I saw him seated 
on the usual Turkish sofa, at the head of the room, 
smoking the everlasting pipe. Two aides-de-camp were 
in the room, and a menial; one of the aides-de-camp 
was an aged gentleman, who certainly would have come 



MY INTEEVIEW WITH ISMAIL PASHA. 69 

under the 55-year rule in India some ten or fifteen years 
ago. The other was a smart, active-looking young man, 
decorated with the Medjidie and three war-medals, whom 
I afterwards learnt to know and respect as Colonel Eiza 
Bey. Eising, and shaking me by the hand, with but 
small show of cordiality, Ismail begged me to be seated. 
Our conversation was somewhat restricted. 

On my asking for news, he told me that he thought 
it would be far better if the English, instead of sending 
for news, were to come and fight for the Turks. I 
endeavoured to explain that it was useless fighting for 
people who would not help themselves, and that a vast 
section of my countrymen failed to see why we should 
fight at all for Turkey. I learnt from him that the 
rumours of Armenians having, volunteered to join the 
army were all false, for there was not a single Christian 
in the army. He seemed extremely jealous of Ahmed 
Mukhtar Pasha, the Commander-in-Chief, and used 
language concerning him which a British General would 
certainly never use in the presence of junior officers. 

I left him, impressed with the idea that the Porte 
could not have found a more bigoted, fanatical, or worth- 
less man for the post of Vali of Erzeroum. A short time 
ago, as I have ab-eady mentioned, he telegraphed to 
Pera that he was preparing to proceed himself to invade 
Eussia with 40,000 Kurds. The Constantinople autho- 
rities were so delighted with this news that they sent 
him by return mail the first-class of the Order of the 
Medjidie. It is needless to add that Ismail has not 
collected his 40,000 men, nor is there the smallest 
hope of his ever doing so. This telegram, being pub- 
lished in the Levant Herald, in due time found its way 
to Erzeroum. Ismail Pasha made many inquiries after 



70 TBI} CAMPAIGN IN ARMENIA. 

Captain Burnaby, so I take this opportunity of con- 
\;eying his compliments, as I know of no other means 
of bringing them to the notice of that adventurous 
traveller, whose reports on the condition of the Arme- 
nians of this district are read with some indignation 
and much astonishment by the gentry here. It appears 
that both here and at Erzingjan, Captain Burnaby stayed 
with the Pasha, and that the accounts of the good feel- 
ing existing between the Christian and the Turk must 
have been culled in conversation with th6 rulers, not 
with the ruled. I have had an opportunity of talking 
with many gentlemen of this neighbourhood, as well 
as with some of the American missionaries, who devote 
their whole lives to the task of preaching among the 
Armenians, and they one and all testify to the manner 
in which the Christian is oppressed and tyrannised over. 
Since I have been here I have seen a petition addressed 
to the Consul by the inhabitants of a Christian village 
about thirty miles off, complaining that their cattle and 
corn have been seized by Grovernment officials, their 
wives and daughters ravished by soldiers, and that no 
notice having been taken by the Pasha of their com- 
plaints, they implore him to protect them. Again, 
only this morning, two Armenian merchants returning 
to their homes were set upon within sight of this 
town, and in the presence of a Turkish caravan robbed 
of 13,000 piastres. Such acts as these remain un- 
redressed. A Christian has no chance of bringing his 
complaints before a Court of Justice, so can there be 
contentment and happiness? There certainly has been 
no such open persecution as in Bulgaria, but tyranny 
and oppression are the normal condition here, and after 
centuries of such misrule the Armenian has become as 



MUKHTAE PASHA'S ''DISPOSITIONS:* 71 

bad as, if not worse in many points than the Turk. 
Their mean cringing spirit cannot inspire one with 
much desire to help them, yet at the same time it 
would be wrong to allow Captain Burnaby's account 
to go uncontradicted. 

The position of the troops remains practically un- 
changed since my last. Mukhtar Pasha follows the 
plan adopted by all Turkish Grenerals in the defence of 
Asia Minor, viz., of frittering away his army in small 
detachments ; so that at no one point except Van has he 
more than 6,000 men. His head-quarters are on the 
Tchakir Baba plateau, near Bardez ; and I am assured, 
on the authority of an officer who returned from camp 
yesterday, that he has only 5,000 men and one battery 
with him. His left is at Olti, and consists of eight 
battalions ; his right is at Delibaba, and there are four 
battalions and one battery entrenched with advanced 
posts at Grulentab, two battalions and two guns, and at 
Toprak Kale two battalions and four guns. At Kuipri 
Kui, keeping up communication between his main army 
and Erzeroum, he has 3,000 men and one battery; these 
men are being employed in throwing up earthworks ; 
and on the Devi-Boyun, near this, he has four battalions 
of reserve troops, with one battery. There are earth- 
works there capable of holding four batteries. 

Connecting the Olti troops with Erzeroum, he has 
3,000 men and a battery at Grhiurji Boghaz, where en- 
trenchments are being constructed. The idea is that no 
stand will be made until the troops have fallen back on 
Ghiurji Boghaz and the Devi-Boyun ; but I doubt these 
men under these officers making a stand anywhere. I 
am assured, on the authority of an English officer who 
was in Servia, that these troops cannot be compared to 



72 THE CAMPAIGN IN ARMENIA. 

the corps of the Danube, which consists of the flower of 
the Turkish army ; and I am willing to believe that 
the 1st, 2nd, and 3rd Corps are better than the 4th. 

Mukhtar Pasha finds much difficulty in providing 
food for his men. On Monday night two urgent mes- 
sages came from the front, imploring that more food 
should be sent him, but there seem very scanty supplies 
to draw on in Erzeroum. Ismail Pasha has telegraphed 
to Constantinople for 1,000 horses to be sent here in 
order that he may organise a transport train ; but it is 
rather late in the day to adopt such an obviously neces- 
sary plan. 

Sickness and desertion are diminishing the strength 
of the army very rapidly. Upwards of 1,200 men have de- 
serted from the centre and right columns of the Turkish 
forces during the past week, including runaways from 
Kars, More than 700 have been recaptured, and these 
were marched out this morning, under a strong escort — 
300, I should say — ^being handcuffed, to work on the 
defences of the Devi-Boyun. A very miserable-looking 
body of men they were, without shoes or great-coats, 
and many of them so sick that they could hardly drag 
themselves along. 

The Eussian movements are, I fancy, better known 
to you at home than to us here. The right column is 
advancing from Ardahan, and is in the neighbourhood of 
Pennek, thus seriously threatening Mukhtar Pasha's left 
flank. The centre column seems delaying for some un- 
accountable reason near Kars, though its advanced posts 
are as far advanced to the Soghanly Dagh as Tcharpakli. 
The left column seems to have made a detour in the di- 
rection of Van with the object of preventing Faik Pasha 
effecting a junction with the troops at Delibaba. Strict, 



AN OUTPOST AFFAIR. 73 

and in my humble opinion somewhat unnecessary, orders 
have been received from Constantinople expressly for- 
bidding the Turkish Grenerals to undertake any offensive 
movements, desiring them to act purely on the defen- 
sive. There seems some difficulty about their complying 
even with that. On Sunday there was a small affair 
of outposts. It appears that a reconnoitring party of 
Cossacks pushed close up to Toprak Kale, when the 
commander of that position deemed it advisable to at- 
tack them ; so, moving out his whole force, he threw 
himself on their left flank and drove them back some 
distance, killing five, wounding several more, and suffer- 
ing the loss of one man himself. What the real truth 
of the affair is, of course, one cannot tell. I, however, 
repeat it as told to me. 

Sir Arnold Kemball, with one A.D.C., Lieutenant 
Maitland Dougall, E.N., is in here at present ; and he 
was joined yesterday by Captain H. Trotter, E.E., who 
was attached to Sir Douglas Forsyth's Kashgar Mis- 
sion in 1874. By this officer's appointment, as extra 
Military Attache to the Embassy in Constantinople, the 
Eoyal Geographical Society lost the opportunity of 
hearing an account of Central Asian geography from 
the lips of one of the few thoroughly scientific as well 
as practical men who have travelled in those regions. 
Sir Arnold starts to-morrow for Olti, and thence pro- 
ceeds round the Turkish position. He has been good 
enough to permit me to accompany him ; so next week 
I trust I shall be able to give you a more detailed 
account of the strength of Mukhtar Pasha's army, 
which I fear is under 30,000 strong, all told. It is 
a great pity that the well-organised expedition we read 
of as having been detached to Soukoum Kaleh was not 



74 TEE CAMPAIGN IN ARMENIA, 

sent to reinforce Erzeronm. Ten thousand picked troops 
on the Soghanly would probably make a great difference 
in the result of the campaign, although at present it 
seems as if nothing short of a miracle could save the 
whole country from Erzeroum to Trebizond. The 
works around Erzeroum, which are in a very bad state of 
repair, seem not to have been touched for years. Those 
on the Devi-Boyun are scarcely commenced, and no 
stores of provisions have been collected for transmission 
to the front. The town itself is filled with able-bodied 
men who should be labouring on the defences. It is too 
late, however, now to think of defending Erzeroum, 
that is if the Russians push on with anything like 
vigour, and any reinforcements that might arrive would 
merely be swept away in the general destruction of 
Turkish men and material that must ensue when once 
the enemy drive Mukhtar Pasha back from Kuipri Kui. 
The slowness of the advance of the Russian General 
appears quite inexplicable. It is true that the rivers 
are swollen and the mountains covered with snow; but 
still there is no army to oppose him, and a steady 
movement of even 20,000 men would be sufiicient to 
drive the Turks back into the fortress. 

It appears from the home papers received by the 
last mail that the Russian Grovemment has again as- 
sured the Powers that she does not intend to annex 
any territory, and will retire from all conquered pro- 
vinces on Turkey giving satisfactory guarantees for the 
efficient carrying out of reforms. Our recollection of 
Russian promises savours more of their non-fulfilment 
than otherwise, and looking at the systematic way in 
which Asia Minor has been ignored throughout the 
whole correspondence on Eastern affairs, one can scarcely 



TURKISH VIEWS ABOUT ENGLAND, 76 

help coming to the conclusion that Eussia's promise 
does not applj'- to Asiatic Tui-key. 

I notice in the English daily papers of the 5th of 
May, under the heading of Military Intelligence, appears 
a list of seven regiments of cavalry, four brigades of ar- 
tillery, and forty-three battalions of infantry, ordered 
to hold themselves in readiness for active service, and 
the same paper also describes the activity in the various 
dockyards. AU this gives the Turks the idea that at 
the end we will come and fight for them, and that 
consequently there is no necessity for them to hurry 
themselves in the matter. Not a single Turkish 
officer have I met who has not asked me the question, 
" When is the English army coming to help us ? " and 
I invariably give the same answer, ''I do not think 
England will send an army to help you." 



CHAPTEE V. 

ON THE WAY TO THE FRONT. 

Fugitives from Ardahan — Sabri Pasha again — Conduct of Eussians — Retreat 
from Olti — The Herman Dooz — Kuipri Kui and its Defences — Suspicious 
Death of a, Christian — Khorassan — The Fight at Beghli Ahmed — First 
Impressions of Circassians — Ahmed Mukhtar Pasha — The Zewin Dooz — 
Disposition of Turkish Troops — Apathy of Ismail Pasha— The Kurds — 
Discontent among Troops at Erzeroum — Appeal for Help from England — 
Visit to the Camp at Delibaba — The Pass — Turkish Officers — Re-occupation 
of Olti — Our Kurdish Escort — Sortie from Kars — Faizi Pasha's Opinions — 
Other Versions of BeghU Ahmed — The Head- Quarter Camp — Talked-of 
Court-Martial on Sabri Pasha — Want of Cavalry — Position of Russian 
Forces — Position of Turkish Forces. 

Khorassan, June 6. 

Immediately after posting my last, on the 31st nit., Sir 
Arnold Kemball, who had most kindly given me per- 
mission to accompany him on his visit to the Turkish 
camp, left Erzeroum with the intention of proceeding 
to Olti to acquaint himself with the disposition of troops 
in that neighbourhood, as well as to examine the de- 
fensive works reported to be in progress in the Grhiurji 
Boghaz Pass (Georgian defile). Captain H. Trotter, 
E.B., Additional Military Attache, and Lieutenant 
Dougall, E/.N., A.D.C., also accompanied the Greneral. 
Leaving Erzeroum at noon we skirted the western 
slopes of the Devi-Boyun range, keeping well on high 
ground in order to avoid the swamps and bogs which 
abound in the valley and make travelling at this season 
both difficult and dangerous. Proceeding only at a 



FUGITIVES FROM AEBARAN, 77 

foot's pace, ia order tbat our baggage, which, was on 
pack-horses, might not lag behind, we reached Hindsk 
at six p.m. There we found fairly comfortable quarters 
in the gnest-chamber of the house belonging to the head 
man of the village, and so made ourselves snug for 
the night. 

We passed a great number of men armed and un- 
armed, hale and wounded, fugitives from Ardahan. 
Their accounts of the fall of that place, on the 16th, 
corroborated my previous news. One and all spoke 
loudly in praise of Mehmed Bey, the gallant com- 
mandant of the Emir Oghlou, whose behaviour seems 
to have been beyond all praise, while the conduct of 
Hassan Sabri Pasha, the commander of the forces, seems 
to have been quite the reverse. It appears that the 
day before the attack he shot two men, a gunner and a 
linesman, for desertion ; and that on the first symptom 
of assault he himself abandoned his command. The 
general idea I received was that the garrison of the 
Emir Oghlou fought well, but that the troops in 
Ardahan itself did not show much valour. The losses 
in the outwork were most severe. Out of four com- 
panies of the Angora regiment who were present only 
sixteen men escaped. This corps, together with the 
Van, Moosh, and Sivas battalions, seems to have par- 
ticularly distinguished itself. As a rule, the regimental 
ofiicers appear to have shown much courage; 112 are 
reported as killed. The fugitives spoke in the highest 
terms of the Russians, who treated the sick and wounded 
with the greatest consideration and kindness, sending 
the worst cases to their own hospitals for treatment, 
and distributing the others among the neighbouring 
villages. All soldiers of the Nizam, or regular troops. 



78 THE CAMPAIGN IN ARMENIA, 

taken prisoners are to be sent across the border to 
Eussia ; but all prisoners of the Eedif, or reserve troops, 
after being disarmed, were supplied with five days' 
rations, and allowed to proceed where they pleased, not 
even being put on their parole to refrain from serving 
again. Grain also has been distributed among the 
frontier villagers to sow in their fields. This treatment, 
so foreign to what soldiers and villagers receive at the 
hands of their own Grovernment, has produced a most 
favourable impression. If prompted by political motives, 
it is a most sagacious step ; if by a nobler feeling, it is 
worthy of the highest praise. 

A great number of men perished in the flight owing 
to the destruction of the bridge over the Kur Su by the 
Eussian guns when it was crowded with fugitives. The 
cavalry, however, who conducted the pursuit, appeared 
to have behaved with more forbearance than pursuing 
cavalry usually do, for they contented themselves with 
heading the flying masses and driving them back to 
camp, where, as I have before remarked, they were 
received with kindness and attention, the sick being 
well cared for, and the reserve troops being furnished 
with rations. I am afraid this shows that the Eussians, 
in spite of the reported bravery of the Van, Moosh, 
Sivas, and Angora corps, do not value the Eedif 
regiments as antagonists, but, despising them as soldiers, 
do not consider them worth an expense which their 
detention as prisoners would naturally entail on the 
Czar's Government. 

Early on the morning of the 1st of June we again 
proceeded on our way, Sir Arnold, accompanied by 
Captain Trotter, going via Bar to Kutamar, while 
Lieutenant Dougall and myself made a detour by 



A DISCREDITABLE MARGE, "79 

Lisgaf, passing throiigli tlie Grhiurji Boghaz defile. We 
saw three battalions encamped at a spot about three 
miles north, of Hindsk, and in rear of them were two 
small earthworks which the men had been upwards of 
a fortnight in constructing. They were of weak profile 
and in very bad position, being commanded on both 
flanks as well as by a hill some 500 yards in front. 
What their object in erecting them was I am at a loss 
to conjecture ; for the purpose of defending the defile 
they were utterly worthless. 

A few miles farther on we came across the head of 
a column of four battalions, with two mountain guns, 
accompanied by a string of about 400 pack-horses carry- 
ing ammunition, in full retreat from Olti on Hindsk. 
There were very few officers with this force, and the 
way in which the march was conducted was most dis- 
creditable, straggling along in no formation at all. 
The men covered fully ten miles of ground, so at least 
I reckon from the fact that it was three hours from the 
time we met the head of the column until we entered 
Lisgaf, where some men were still dawdling behind. 
There were no advanced guard and no rear guard. The 
ammunition pack-horses were certainly accompanied by 
soldiers, who for the most part had slid their rifles 
through the slings of the cases, and were strolling along 
as they pleased ; but, instead of the baggage being kept 
well together, it was scattered throughout the string of 
the column. The few officers we met were usually in 
groups of twos and threes, often entirely unaccompanied 
by men. It is no exaggeration to say that we often 
covered a mile of ground without seeing one. This was 
a retreat caused by the advance of the Russians on 
Olti, a movement conducted almost in the face of 



80 THE CAMPAIGN IN ARMENIA. 

the enemy, certainly within striking distance of liis 
cavalry ! 

Pushing on through Lisgaf, we reached Kutamar 
at 7 p.m., having been twelve hours in the saddle, and 
on the same horses ; there meeting Sir Arnold, we re- 
ported what we had seen. As there were no Turkish 
troops at Olti — indeed, none between us and the Eus- 
sians — we abandoned our intention of visiting that 
place, and deeming a retrograde movement desirable, 
started at 6 a.m. on the following morning, and, taking 
a south-westerly course, struck over the Kharga Bazaar 
range, across the Herman plateau, which stands 9,000 
feet above the level of the sea, and reached Killa Varend 
about 7 p.m. There was still snow remaining on the 
Herman Dooz. The parts where it had recently melted 
were covered with wild flowers of every hue and kind. 
A delicate blue-bell, such as I have never before seen, 
drooped gracefully at the very edge of the snow, while 
within a few yards a more homely -looking bell and a deli- 
cately tinted pink anemone were to be seen. A large and 
very handsome orchid, with tulips of every colour, were 
found on the lower slopes of the mountain, and sweet- 
briar, mint, thyme, fennel, and wild rhubarb were in 
great profusion. Killa Varend was a wild, desolate- 
looking village, situated on a rocky ridge at the foot 
of the Herman Dooz. We, however, found a most 
magnificent apartment placed at our disposal, and re- 
velled in the luxury of being free from the odours of 
stables and from the proximity of fleas and cattle, 
which at our previous halting-place had shared our 
humble lodging. 

At 8 a.m. on the 3rd of June we moved on to 
Kuipri Kui, a village on the left bank of the Araxes. 



KUIPRI KUL 81 

The Araxes, which here takes a bend towards the north, 
receives an afl9.uent called the Passin Su. This stream 
gives its name to the fertile valley which lies between 
it and the main river. A solid masonry bridge with 
seven piers is situated just below the junction of the 
waters ; it is stated to have been built in the time of 
Darius Hystaspes. This bridge, which is called the 
Tcheban-Kerpi, or bridge of grazing grounds, forms the 
junction of the two main roads, one from Kars, the 
other from Persia to Erzeroum. 

To the west of the bridge are the remains of a few 
earthworks thrown up in 1854, by order of Sir Fenwick 
"Williams ; they are now being strengthened, but in the 
usual dilatory manner of the Turks ; a depot of com- 
missariat stores has also been established here, and 
evidently Mukhtar looks upon it as a point which 
he may have to fall back upon, and which he ought, 
therefore, to defend. The position he has selected, 
however good it may have been in 1854, when 
smooth-bores were in vogue, is quite unsuitable for 
defence now. The earthworks are commanded by hills 
running to within 800 or 900 yards. These once in 
the possession of the enemy, the abandonment of the 
entrenchments becomes imperative, and a retreat across 
the plain to the next defensive position, Devi-Boyun, 
would be a most dangerous affair in presence of the vast 
cavalry force with which the Russians are accredited. 
The bridge is barely commanded by these works, which 
are badly situated, and although only meant for tem- 
porary occupation, have closed gorges. Kuipri Kui is 
a Christian village, and as such suffers more or less 
from the conduct of the battalion quartered in its 
vicinity. Indeed, while we were at breakfast we were 

6 



82 THE CAMPAIGN IN ARMENIA. 

disturbed by mucli howling and sbonting, several Chris- 
tians running up towards us. On inquiry we found that 
a Turkish soldier had, just at that moment, shot an 
Armenian (in whose house he had been living for a 
month) through the head with his revolver, killing 
him on the spot. Our zaptiehs, of course, said the 
affair was an accident ; but our Christian servants, who 
were close by when it occurred, said that there was a 
dispute about a bridle, when the zaptieh drew his 
revolver and shot the poor fellow through the head, 
killing him instantly. I believe the lieutenant- colonel 
commanding at Kuipri Kui will hold an inquiry into 
the occurrence. After breakfast we pushed on along 
the left bank of the Araxes to Khorassan, reachiDg it at 
five p.m. Here we found excellent quarters in the tele- 
graph office, and Sir Arnold determined on making it 
his head-quarters for some short time. 

Encamped in the plain, just in front of our window, 
are the two battalions and the two mountain guns which 
have just fallen back from Gulentab, an outpost on the 
Araxes, whence a road branches off .to Kars, and where 
there is a wooden bridge. Here we heard that Ahmed 
Mukhtar Pasha had fallen back from the Tchakir Baba 
position to one near Zewin, and that the Eussians had 
pushed forward their outpost as far as Sara Kamysh, on 
the Soghanly Dagh. We met a number of Circassian 
horsemen escorting sick and wounded to Erzeroum. 
They gave us details of the fight at Beghli Ahmed, a 
village situated about eighteen miles south-west of Kars. 
According to their accounts, 2,000 Circassians, com- 
manded by Moussa Pacha, moved out to attack the 
Russian cavalry, who numbered sixteen regiments. 
After a sharp skirmish, owing to ammunition running 



THE CIRCASSIAN CAVALRY WITH TEE TURKS. 83 

out (these men are all armed by the Turkish Govern- 
ment with Winchester repeating rifles), they were forced 
to retire, having about thirty killed. They complain of 
the want of leaders, and boast that if they only had 
six good battalions and a good commander they would 
drive the Russians back to Goomri. According to some 
accounts the enemy, prior to the fight, brought up 6,000 
infantry, mounted behind the dragoons, and, having 
posted them in a very good position, sent the cavalry 
forward. These fell back before the Circassians, and 
thus drew them into the ambuscade so cleverly prepared, 
when, being exposed to the infantry fire, they were 
forced to retire. These men say that all the Circassians 
on the Russian side are most disaffected, and that many 
are coming into Turkish head-quarters daily. They 
remind me much of the better class of Pathans, on the 
north-west frontier of India — simple and unaffected in 
their manner, gallant in their bearing, talking with 
perfect freedom and openness, they easily win the hearts 
of all Englishmen with whom they come in contact. 
They make excellent irregular cavalry, though I fancy 
that the hand which held them in would require a 
strong steel glove under the kid covering. They 
are well armed with their own native sword and pistol, 
and the Winchester carbine supplied by the Turkish 
Government. Mukhtar Pasha has altogether about 
1,500 of these men, but only about 1,200 were engaged 
in the Beghli Ahmed affair on the 28th ult. In common 
with all Turkish cavalry, they are mounted' on small, 
under-sized ponies — wiry, hardy animals, but dreadfully 
over-weighted ; and though possessing great endurance, 
without any speed whatever. Their saddlery is of the 
rudest description— cord reins, tape bridles, huge wooden 
G 2 . 



84 THE GAMPAIGJSr IN ARMENIA. 

saddles, like howdahs, with a sheepskin coat strapped on 
the cantle, two large holsters on the pommels, and rough 
leather saddle-bags complete their equipment. Each 
man, however, carries in addition a whip, and many lead 
a spare pony, generally the property of some Christian 
in a far-off village. There are no men in the world 
equal to the Tcherkess for looting. 

On the 4th, finding myself so close to Mukhtar 
Pasha, I determined to pay him a visit. Lieutenant 
Dougall and myself left Khorassan after breakfast, 
and, escorted by a zaptieh — who was stupid even for 
his class — tried to find our way by a cross-country and 
short cut to Zewin. Of course our escort professed 
to know the road perfectly well, and of course he 
was as ignorant of the geography of the district as 
he was of the binomial theorem -, so although we rode 
pretty fast, it was not until 4 p.m. that we found our- 
selves opposite the Grenerars tent. His chief of the 
staff, Faizi Pasha (General Kohlman), a Hungarian 
by birth and an old defender of Kars under Sir 
Penwick Williams, welcomed us most kindly, and of 
course produced cigarettes and coffee. I had a letter 
of introduction to General Kohlman from an old 
Hungarian friend, and armed with this I found my- 
self a welcome guest. After a conversation of about 
half an hour we went to pay our respects to the Com- 
mander-in-Chief, who is a short, square-built man, 
with a determined face surrounded by close-cut black 
moustachios and beard. Ahmed Mukhtar Pasha is 
an exceedingly good specimen of a Turkish General; 
ha\dng spent the greater part of his career in the 
Palace, his manners are more those of the courtier 
than of the soldier ; but although his influence is due 



AHMED MUKETAE FASHA. 85 

to the fact that he was for many years an aide-de- 
camp and trusted friend of the late Sultan Abdul 
Azeez, yet amongst the men he is better known for 
his conduct when on the head-quarter staff in the 
Yemmen and Cretan Expeditions, for which he earned 
his promotion to Major-Greneral and subsequently to 
that of Mushir or Field-Marshal. He was appointed 
in 1873 to the Viceroyalty of Erzeroum. In 1875 he 
was transferred to the command in Montenegro, where 
his conduct as Commander-in-Chief brought down 
upon him severe criticism from the outside world. 
How far this was deserved I know not. On the an- 
nouncement of the armistice in the autumn of 1876 
Mukhtar Pasha was transferred to Crete ; but the 
Porte, feeling convinced that a collision with Russia 
was inevitable, availed themselves of his knowledge 
of the Armenian theatre of war, and appointed him 
Marshal of the 4th Turkish Army Corps, which he 
joined in March, and straightway busied himself in 
aU arrangements for the supply of the troops in the 
field, for the organisation of the reserve forces, and 
for the concentration of the reinforcements from the 
Syrian and Arabian Army Corps. With an empty 
treasury, with an antagonistic civil coadjutor, and 
with the worst staff a Greneral ever took the field with, 
Mukhtar occupied a very unenviable position. How- 
ever, he set to work with an energy rarely seen in a 
Turkish official, and although he could not command 
success he certainly deserved it. He was quite simplv^ 
dressed in the undress blue pea-jacket, trimmed with 
red cord, so much affected by the Turkish officer, with- 
out order or decoration of any sort. He seemed per- 
fectly open and free in his conversation, and dilated 



86 THE CAMPAIGN IN ABMENIA. 

with some enthusiasm on the strength of his position, 
which certainly is a most excellent one for defence. 
It is situated on a plateau to the west of Zewin, and 
is about 2,000 feet above the Chan Su, from which 
the ground rises gradually for about a mile, after 
which the ascent is more difficult and in many parts 
almost scarped. The plateau extends for about two 
miles, with a knoll some 150 feet high in the centre; 
and to the south, at the distance of another mile, 
but separated from the main position by a deep and 
difficult ravine, is a lofty ridge dominating the Zewin 
Dooz, which, jutting forward to the Chan Su, com- 
pletely flanks the whole position. To the rear, again, 
is a still higher ridge which commands the whole. 
The plateau is at the junction of three roads from 
Kars, and is about equi-distant from Delibaba^ the 
right of the Turkish line of defence, and Olti, the 
left of the line. 

The front of the Zewin Dooz is protected by shel- 
ter trenches which run completely from north to 
south, and there are earthworks for four batteries, 
one of which is on the commanding spur south of 
the ravine, one on the knoll in the centre of the 
position, the other two nearly about the centre. The 
force actually with Mukhtar Pasha available for the 
defence of the Zewin Dooz consists of eighteen bat- 
talions of infantry, 500 regular cavalry, including 
zaptiehs, two field batteries, and two mountain bat- 
teries. The Commander-in-Chief told us that he had 
counter-ordered the march of the troops from Olti, 
and that to-day the disposition of his troops was as 
follows : — 



RUSSIAN MOVEMENTS. 



87 



Olti ... 
Zewin Dooz 
Delibaba 
Moola Suliman 
Toprak Kale 
Khorassan 
Kuipri Kui 
Ardish 
Devi-Boyun 
Erzeroum 

Total 



Battalions. 

8 

18 
6 
6 
2 
2 
1 
6 
4) 
4 

57 



Cavalry. 
500 

200 
200 
200 



500 



1,600 



Field 
Guns. 

12 

6 
6 



6 
18 

48 



Mountain 
Guns. 
6 
12 

8 
4 

2 

6 
12 
50 



There are besides 4,000 irregulars also at Ardish. 
This is the force I reported in my last at Van. The 
Eussian troops pushed forward from Bayazid to ope- 
rate against them fell back, so Paik Pasha moved up 
to Ardish, where he certainly threatens the flank of 
any force moving along the Persian road. 

The Eussian advanced posts are reported at Pen- 
nek on the right, Tcharpakli, Sara Kamysh, and 
Kaghisman in the centre, and Kara Kilissa on the 
south, the right column being still at Ardahan, the 
centre in the neighbourhood of Kars, and the south at 
Bayazid. What their intentions are it is difficult to say ; 
their delay in advancing, and their conduct with regard 
to the incomplete investment of Kars, is perfectly in- 
explicable. Yesterday an officer, Lieutenant-Colonel 
Ibrahim Bey,* arrived in camp only two hours before 
we did, and he reported the road to Kars perfectly 
clear and open. The Commander-in-Chief himself in- 
formed me that there was telegraphic communication with 
the beleaguered (?) fortress, which was well provisioned, 

* He is a brother of Djameel Pasha, and I therefore had an early op- 
portunity of delivering the letters entrusted to me, and of making the 
acquaintance of one of the most modest and most gallant officers in the 
Turkish army. He speedily earned his promotion to Colonel for gallantry 
in the field. 



88 Tn:E CAMPAIGN IN AEMENIA. 

the health and spirits of the troops being excellent. 
Mukhliss Pasha has recently come into head-quarters, and 
Hassan Hami Pasha now has the chief command there. 
Just before I left Erzeroum the Governor of Bayazid 
came in, and his account of the capitulation of that place 
does not reJlect much credit on the officers concerned ; 
1,700 men with six guns moved out of the place with- 
out firing a shot, and the Governor, though he saved 
his harem and all his private property, had no time to 
bring away either treasure or Government records ! 
There seems to be but little cordiality between the civil 
governors and the military commanders. The former 
accuse the latter of ignorance and cowardice, while the 
latter retaliate by calling the civilians apathetic idlers, 
who hamper the movements of the military by neg- 
lecting all commissariat arrangements, and who delay 
A\dlfully the forwarding of supplies and materiel, thus en- 
dangering the safety of the army. There is no doubt 
that if any disaster befall this army the blame will 
rest chiefly on Ismail Pasha, the Governor-General at 
Erzeroum, He shows no energy whatever in sending - 
supplies to the Commander-in-Chief, and as for endea- 
vouring to hasten onward the guns now en route from 
Trebizond, and which were despatched from that place 
with such expedition and in such excellent condition by 
that energetic officer, Djameel Pasha, such a thought 
has nev^er entered his head. Fifty -four of those guns 
a fortnight ago were within 100 miles of Erzeroum, 
and as yet not one has arrived. More guns, more 
food, more doctors, is the cry daily coming from the 
Commander-in-Chief, and though the road from Trebizond 
is literally covered with guns, and though the district 
is full of food and stores of grain in villages within a 



CONDUCT OF THE KURDS, 89 

few miles of Erzeroum, Ismail Pasha fails to collect it ; 
the consequence is that the soldiers are on short rations, 
and the Christian villagers are robbed and plundered by 
them in order to satisfy the cravings of hunger. 

The complaints on all sides of the conduct of the 
Kurds are constant and most bitter. After their subju- 
gation by the Turks their custom of levying black mail 
was summarily stopped, and they themselves compelled 
to pay revenue. Now, when their services are required 
by the Government, and they are sent away from their 
homes to fight the common foe, they have recommenced 
their predatory habits, and levy contributions from 
every village they pass through. Numerous petitions 
setting forth their misdeeds have been laid before the 
Governor, who (himself a Kurd from Shoragel, near, 
Kars) pays no heed whatever to the prayer of the 
Christian villagers, who seem more favoured by the 
attention of these gentry than their Mahomedan 
neighbours. In despair, the Christians have appealed 
to Mr. Zohrab, our consul, and it is to be hoped now 
that the constant reports of ravishing women, high- 
way robberies, plundering villagers, and murders will 
cease. As soldiers they are worse than useless — as the 
chief of the staff informed me — so, for the sake of all, 
it would be preferable that they should be sent back to 
their homes and allowed to plunder the Eussian camps, 
if they are so minded, rather than left to ravage terri- 
tory as yet untouched by the horrors of war. As long 
as Ismail Pasha reigns in Erzeroum, it is much to be 
feared that nothing will be done to check the Kurds 
or to place the Christians on a better footing. His con- 
duct towards the troops now in garrison at Erzeroum 
very nearly led to an emeuie ; indeed, the men of one 



90 TEE CAMPAIGN IJSf ARMENIA. 

battalion were in a state of open mutiny for some hours, 
and were only pacified by the conduct of the major, 
who insisted on some pay being disbursed among them, 
and on their receiving proper food. It is scarcely to be 
wondered at that the feeling among the men should be 
somewhat mutinous when they are nineteen months in 
arrears, and when they only receive rations every other 
day, and then merely the allowance of flour, all other 
articles, from motives of economy, being carefully with- 
held. 

Were the Commander-in-Chief only provided with 
men, provisions, and money, I feel satisfied affairs 
would shortly assume a very different complexion ; but, 
with a total of about 40,000 men, and with 48 field- 
pieces, in place of the recognised complement of 120, 
it is impossible that he can make much show of re- 
sistance against the vastly superior force the Russians 
are bringing against him. Had the expedition des- 
patched to Soukoum Kaleh — which, after all, can efiect 
no real good — been sent to reinforce him, those 10,000 
men and those 24 guns would have enabled him com- 
pletely to check the enemy in any attempt at an 
advance. As it is, his small force now is necessarily 
spread over a vast extent of territory, and is liable to 
defeat in detail, the blame of which would, of cburse, 
be thrown on the general, and not on the Minister of 
War, who is really responsible for the paucity of troops 
in Anatolia, or on Ismail Pasha, who is responsible for 
the scarcity of supplies and consequent deterioration of 
the morale of the army. 

I hope the society for the relief of sick and wounded 
Turkish soldiers will remember the troops in Anatolia 
when they are distributing their comforts and coin to 



URGENT NEED FOE THE BED CROSS TRAIN. 91 

tlie army. In the army of the Danube the men are in 
a good climate, near home, with large towns and cities 
near at hand to which their sick and wounded can 
be sent. Moreover, nearly every battaUon has two 
Italian, French, or German doctors. Here the men 
are in a climate which will shortly bring on them 
tropical heat, to supersede the almost Arctic cold to 
which they have been exposed ; they are badly clothed, 
ill-supplied with food, there are very few doctors, and 
nearly all these are in Erzeroum attending the hospitals, 
which are filled with typhoid patients ; there are no 
ambulances, and very few litters, to carry sick and 
wounded, who are consequently transported on arabas, 
the jolting of which on those hilly roads must be almost 
death to an invalid; the supply of medicines is very 
limited, and I shudder to think of the misery which will 
ensue should any great battles be fought. Hundreds of 
our countrymen, ay, and countrywomen, nobly volun- 
teered in the Franco- Grerman War, numbers gave their 
services in the Servian and Montenegrin campaigns last 
year, but as yet not one Eed Cross man has appeared in 
Anatolia, where there is more need a thousand times 
for them than there was in 1870. I trust it may not 
be said that the climate has frightened them away, 
but it is the fact that no wars in tropical or semi- 
barbarous countries have been accompanied by the 
Eed Cross train. In Ashantee our medical arrange- 
ments were never supplemented by voluntary assistance, 
and here in Asia Minor the faulty hospital requirements 
and scanty medical comforts of the Turkish service are 
left to satisfy the wants of the vast army of sick and 
wounded which must necessarily be the results of this 
campaign. Surely the Mahomedan troops in Anatolia 



92 TEE CAMPAIGN IN ARMENIA. 

are deserving of the same attention and comforts as 
their more fortunate brethren waging war in more 
favourable circumstances on the banks of the Danube, 
and I trust that my feeble efforts to bring their sufferings 
and their wants to the notice of the Stafford House and 
Eed Cross committees may be the means of diverting 
some of the good things from the broad channel of the 
Danube to the mountainous regions of Armenia. 

On the morning of the 6th of June, I rode out to 
the Delibaba Pass to look at the position on the right of 
the Turkish army. The Araxes, which flows about one 
mile south of Khorassan, was very full for this season 
of the year, and the small raft by which foot-passengers 
cross was too frail a craft to carry a horse, so I was fain 
to swim the stream, and got thoroughly wet in conse- 
quence. A hot sun soon dried my clothes, but my saddle 
suffered somewhat from my imprudence. Following 
the right bank of the Taikhojeh stream, I reached the 
village (whence the rivulet takes its name) at about 7 a.m. 
There I found encamped two battalions of infantry, the 
finest I have yet seen, men of good physique, and well 
set up, arms clean and in good order, tents regularly 
pitched, and a general air of smartness and discipline 
about the whole detachment, very diflferent from the 
style generally adopted in the 4th Army Corps. They 
were Eedif battalions of the 2nd Ban from Erzeroum 
and Erzingjan. Leaving Taikhojeh, I continued along 
the valley of the stream until I hit off the road from 
Erzeroum to Bayazid, when I turned to the left, and 
following a nearly easterly course, in an hour crossed a 
ridge, on the crest of which was encamped another bat- 
talion. 

Dropping down the eastern slopes of this branch of 



GENERAL MAHOMED PASHA. 93 

the Kose Dagh, T reached the Delibaba camp at 11 a.m., 
and found four battalions encamped in the plain at the 
mouth of the Pass; and a couple more, having piled 
arms, were resting on the ground. A staff-officer rode 
up to me, and very civilly asked me into his tent, where, 
during the inevitable coffee and cigarettes, I learnt that 
Lieutenant-General Mahomed Pasha, commanding the 
Division, was expected in every moment with the force 
recently occupying Moola Suliman, which had been 
ordered by the Commander-in-Chief to fall back on Deli- 
baba. Major Issit Bey very kindly offered to accompany 
me through the Pass until we should meet the Pasha, so 
moving on we entered the defile, which at its western 
extremity presents a very formidable appearance, but 
after proceeding about a mile the hills get broken up ; 
all the eastern slopes, being gentle, present no difficulty 
whatever to an attacking force. Indeed, there is no 
reason why field-artillery should not avoid the defile 
altogether and advance over the hills themselves. In 
about half an hour we met the General, who was accom- 
panied by five battalions of infantry, two field and one 
mountain battery, and a weak regiment of Dragoons. 
The men were all in good condition, and though natu- 
rally dusty and weather-stained from their long sojourn 
in camp, as well as from the effects of their long march, 
looked thoroughly up to work. Their arms were in 
capital order, clean, and evidently well taken care of. 
The field batteries were well horsed with small hardy 
animals, reminding one of the stamp of cattle used in 
the Punjab frontier batteries, rather than those with 
which our own horse artillery troops are drawn. The 
mountain guns, instead of being carried on mules, as in 
' our service, and in other batteries of this arm I have seen 



94 THE CAMPAIGN IN ARMENIA, 

in this country, were each drawn by one mule.* All the 
artillery were Krupp's, and seemed in thoroughly ser- 
viceable condition. The cavalry, though far superior 
to any I have yet seen, were very bad in every respect 
except their armament ; and I am inclined to think the 
repeating rifle is an admirable weapon for cavalry, espe- 
cially in hilly country, where their value is necessarily 
much impaired, and where long-range shooting is not 
absolutely necessary. 

Returning to camp with Mahomed Pasha, I was in- 
troduced to Mustafa Pasha, a very stout little gentle- 
man, who bustled about everywhere, and seemed the 
mainspring of the division. Prom him I learnt that 
a small cavalry detachment of the Russians was at 
Toprak Kale, but that there was no force of any strength 
nearer than Dijadin, and that this retrograde movement 
had caused much dissatisfaction among the men, who 
were most anxious to be led against the enemy. After 
a stay of about an hour I took my leave of the 
General, and going to Major Issit Bey's tent, was 
introduced to several officers, among others the Colonel 
commanding the artillery, and the Lieutenant-Colonels 
of the Erzeroum and Kharpoot battalions. They all 
seemed strangely ignorant of the movements of the other 
portions of their army, and though cognisant of the 
fall of Ardahan had heard no particulars, for the few 
I could furnish them with were most thankfully re- 
ceived. They appeared anxious to be led forward, and 
certainly expressed no very favourable opinions of their 
leaders. They were very anxious to know if England 
was going to declare war, and a telegram in Turkish 
was shown to me stating that six regiments of cavalry, 

* As in France. 



OLTI TO BE BE'OOGUPIED. 95 

four brigades of artillery, and fifty-nine battalions of 
infantry were under orders for active service ; also that 
provisions for 80,000 men had been ordered to be collected 
at Alexandria. This information has been printed on 
small slips of paper and freely distributed in the army. 

Bidding adieu to my new-found friends, I turned 
my horse's head homewards, and after once more swim- 
ming the Araxes, reached Khorassan at about 5 p.m., 
where I found Captain Macalmont, an extra military- 
attache, who had just arrived from England to join 
Sir Arthur Kemball's staff. About half an hour after- 
wards the Greneral, accompanied by Captain Trotter, 
E.B., and Lieutenant Dougall, R.N., rode fn, having 
been on a visit to the Commander-in-Chiefs camp, and 
brought back the welcome news that the Russian re- 
connoitring party of three battalions of infantry, one 
regiment of cavaliy, and one battery of mountain guns, 
had evacuated Olti, and that Ahmed Mukhtar Pasha 
was going to re-occupy it with eight battalions, two 
regiments of cavalry, and six mountain guns. So, 
early in the morning of the 7th, Captains Trotter and 
Macalmont rode out to Zewin and accompanied this 
force with orders to report on its movements, and the 
large room in the telegraph station at Khorassan was 
left to the General, Dougall, and myself. 

On the 8th Sir Arnold Kemball, wishing to see for 
himself the nature of the country round Delibaba, and 
to ascertain from personal observation whether the 
position could be turned or not, proposed a visit to 
Mahomed Pasha's camp. I asked permission to accom- 
pany him, so setting out at 6 a.m. we reached the camp 
at 8 a.m., and after a short stay with the Lieutenant- 
General, rode on through the Pass towards Moola Suli- 



96 THE CAMPAIGN IN ARMENIA, 

man, accompanied by an escort of mounted Kurds, 
dressed fantastically, armed extravagantly, and having 
the appearance of men more calculated to fly than to 
fight. They one and all reminded me of the guard who 
escorted Mark Twain to Jerusalem, and whose appear- 
ance is so graphically described in the '' New Pilgrim's 
Progress/' Following the Pass for about an hour, and 
having seen more than one road diverging from it 
towards Erzeroum, we retraced our steps, and when 
within about three miles of Delibaba, dismissed our Bashi 
Bazouk escort, and, turning up a path, took a southerly 
course for a mile or more, when, seeing a village to 
our right, we proceeded to it, and hitting ofi" a track 
quite practicable for guns, crossed the Kose Dagh at 
a height of about 7,200 feet, by a road lying mid- 
way between the Delibaba and Khara Darband Passes ; 
and, after passing the village of Andak, situated at 
the source of the Taikhojeh stream, we followed the 
water until we reached the Araxes. Sending our horses 
over with our grooms, we crossed by the boat and 
reached our quarters at 6 p.m. The 9th we spent at 
home, and on the 10th, Lieutenant Dougall being still 
on the sick list, I accompanied Sir Arnold Kemball to 
head- quarters, distant about fifteen miles. We break- 
fasted with the Commander-in-Chief, and afterwards 
went over the position, which, in my humble opinion, 
though well chosen, is too extended for the small force 
at Mukhtar Pasha's disposal. 

While in his Excellency's tent three Circassians came 
in with letters from Kars, giving an account of the 
affair on the 8th of June, which appears to have been 
of very little importance ; the Eussians, changing their 
position from the southern to the northern side of the 



THE AFFAIR AT BFGELI AHMED. 07 

fortress, were attacked in flank by a sortie from the gar- 
rison. The action lasted some hours, and its severity- 
may be judged by the fact that the Turks lost seven 
and the Russians about twenty wounded. As Faizi 
Pasha, the chief of the staff, naively remarked to me, 
*' It was not a brilliant victory, but it is very en- 
couraging." Poor fellows, they need some encourage- 
ment, opposed as they are to an army superior to them 
in numbers, equipment, in cavalry, artillery, in the 
military knowledge of their leaders, and in pecuniary 
resources. I had an opportunity during my visit to the 
head-quarter camp of conversing with some men who 
were present at the affair near Beghli Ahmed on the 
29th ult., and I also was present when Mukhtar Pasha 
himself was discussing the business. It appears that 
his Excellency despatched Moussa Pasha, the Circassian 
chief, with about 1,500 men, accompanied by a squadron 
of regular cavalry with two small Whitworth Galloper 
guns, to attack the enemy. When within about thirty 
miles of Kars they came upon the Russian outposts, 
who fell back before them, and presently found them- 
selves opposed to about 6,000 horse. Among them 
there were six regiments of Circassians, who, refusing to 
operate against their Mahomedan brethren, may be put 
out of the fray. 

According to the Turkish accounts, infantry were sent 
out from the Russian camp, posted in broken ground, 
and then the Cossacks fell back until the Turkish horse 
came under the fire of the ambuscade, when, finding them- 
selves outnumbered and outmanoeuvred, they retired. I 
am inclined to think that the Russians, dismounting some 
of their men, employed them as skirmishers against the 
Circassians. Be thi^ as it may, the accounts agree that, 

H 



98 THE CAMPAIGN IN ARMENIA. 

having suffered a loss of 13 killed and 37 wounded, the 
Turks retired in some disorder. Many, escaping round 
the enemy's flank, got into Kars, and being returned as 
missing, swelled the casualty roll. Eecent returns from 
the fortress, however, have reduced the list, and I feel 
sure you may safely accept the above statement as sub- 
stantially correct. The Turks say that the Eussians 
suffered severely from the fire of their Galloper guns, 
but I am inclined to doubt this, and as no details of 
the Russian loss can be obtained, it is difficult even to 
make an estimate of it. 

Mukhtar Pasha's force is at present encamped on 
the spur which runs down from the Kargha Bazar 
range towards Zewin. It is in two lines, the front 
occupying a ridge about a mile and a quarter in length, 
with a deep, almost scarped, ravine in front. In the 
centre of this ridge is a knoll 300 feet above the main 
camp, on which is placed an earthwork holding four 
guns, and on the extreme right of the ridge, which 
here takes a sweep forward, is another knoll, on which 
is placed a battery of two field-guns; five battahons are 
encamped on the reverse slope, and the whole front is 
covered by shelter-trenches of a novel construction, for 
the earth from the trench, instead of forming a parapet 
in front, is carefully spread about the ground, thus 
giving the defenders a minivium amount of cover with a 
maximuiu of labour. Immediately in rear of this ridge 
is a deep ravine, the descent to which is very steep and 
precipitous ; the ascent, however, is gradual, forming a 
natural glacis, about 1,000 yards in length, to the crest 
of the second position, which consists of a semicircular 
ridge with its convex side to the enemy. On it are 
placed six field and eight mountain guns in earth- 



MUKHTAB PASHA AT ZEWIN. 99 

works; two of tlie latter, being on the right flank and 
slightly thrown forward, sweep the whole front. The 
defence of this is entrusted to 11 battalions, while on 
a steep hill two miles to the front, and on another 
nearly as far to the rear, are posted two battalions 
with four guns. A deep ravine runs entirely round the 
right flank and front of Mukhtar's position, up which 
advance would be diSicult, and as the fire from the 
hill on the right completely searches this, it may be 
considered a source of strength rather than weakness. 
The left flank is more open, and is approached through 
rocky, undulating ground, affording cover to the enemy, 
and much facilities for an attack. This is the weak 
point of the defence, and, strangely enough, is left 
comparatively undefended. As I said before, the posi- 
tion is naturally a strong one, and, looking at it with 
the eye of an inexperienced man, I should venture an 
opinion that although his Excellency has made the very 
best dispositions possible, yet it is too extended a one to 
hold with his small force. Could he put 30 more guns 
and 10,000 more men on it, he might defy the Eussians 
for weeks. The situation is high (6,500 ft. above the 
sea), the air clear and bracing, water plentiful and good, 
grass sweet and abundant, and firewood obtainable in 
the neighbourhood. There is every natural advantage ; 
only the means are wanting to make a stubborn resist- 
ance. 

I have been informed on the highest authority that 
orders have been received from Constantinople for the 
trial at Erzeroum of Hassan Sabri Pasha, the com- 
mander of the troops at Ardahan. He reached that 
place on the 7th inst., accompanied by Mahomed Bey, 
the gallant defender of the Emir Oghlou, whose wound 
H 2 



100 THE CAMPAIGN IN ARMENIA, 

does not appear to be so severe as was reported. They 
brought with them 1,300 men. This makes up the 
total now re-assembled out of the nine battalions to 
about 3,500 men, but a very large proportion of these 
are unarmed. Some are wounded and many are sickly. 
The reason for Sabri's delay on the road remains to be 
known. He evidently is afraid to account for his weak 
resistance and hasty flight, and so delayed three weeks 
on a march "which, taking into consideration the fact 
that he was unopposed, and in very light marchiag 
order, should not have occupied more than ten days at 
the extreme limit. It certainly is advisable that a very 
stern example should be made of him, especially at this 
juncture, when Kars is besieged and in danger of daily 
assault. Thus, hampered by incompetent lieutenants, 
thwarted at every step by an uneducated and apathetic 
civil superior, left with an empty treasure-chest, utterly 
unprovided with commissariat or means of transport, 
and with an army mainly composed of raw levies, it is 
not to be wondered at that Mukhtar Pasha is unable 
to undertake any offensive operations. The conduct of 
Ismail Pasha, the Grovernor-Greneral of Erzeroum, is 
little short of criminal. It is now seven weeks since 
war was declared, and yet no preparations have been 
made for the defence of that city. Although situated 
in the midst of a most fertile district, a land literally 
flowing with milk and honey, and filled with corn and 
wine — for here we see large herds of oxen grazing on 
all sides, goats and sheep cover the hills, the valleys 
are bright with young green corn-fields, and the vine- 
yards of Kharpoot supply a large stock of drinkable 
claret — yet, with all these means at hand, there posi- 
tively is not grain enough in the city of Erzeroum to 



KURD ISMAIL'S INCOMPETENCE, 101 

furnish 20,000 men with a week's rations, nor live 
stock for a day's food. The guns which, owing to the 
untiring energy of Lieutenant-Greneral Djameel Pasha, 
were pushed on from Trebizond in such haste, have 
been lying at Baiboort, 50 miles from Erzeroum, for 
more than a week, awaiting the transport to bring them 
in. Five batteries of field-guns lie unhorsed in the 
citadel yard, within 100 yards of Ismail Pasha's house, 
and yet, in spite of Mukhtar Pasha's repeated entreaties 
for more guns, more guns, more guns, no attempts are 
made to fit out and forward these 30 pieces of cannon 
to the front. Again, the earthworks ordered to be 
constructed on the Devi-Boyun to the east, and in 
Grhiurji Boghaz defile to the north of Erzeroum, pre- 
sent much the same appearance that they did a month 
ago. Instead of employing all the able-bodied men of 
the district to throw up works which would detain the 
Eussians, he sends out some weak battalions, who for 
the first few days scratch up a few scarcely bullet- 
proof trenches, and then sit down in their tents and 
wait orders. By his apathy in all matters relating to 
the defence of his capital, and his neglect in not pun- 
ishing his own tribesmen the Kurds, who are harassing 
the whole district, he has exasperated the population to 
such a pitch of excitement, that his recall becomes a 
matter of imperative necessity. More than a month ago, 
as will be remembered, he telegraphed to the Porte that 
he was setting out to invade Eussian territory with 40,000 
Kurds. This telegram was, I presume, firmly believed in 
Stamboul, for he was immediately decorated with the 
1st Class of the Medjidie. Yet he has not only nevei 
set out, but has never collected his 40,000 men. The 
idea of 40,000 Kurds venturing to invade Eussia 



102 THE CAMPAIGN IN ARMENIA. 

is sufficient to raise a smile, but the sight of Ismail 
at the head of them is past ridicule. An able, ener- 
getic man at Erzeroum would have put a different 
complexion on the campaign. Its disastrous results 
will be entirely owing to the carelessness of the Porte 
in not selecting the best men for important and re- 
sponsible posts. 

The actual position of the Eussians is difficult to 
ascertain, solely for the reason that, owing to his paucity 
in cavalry, Mukhtar Pasha is quite unable to reconnoitre 
properly. Even had he plenty of horsemen, I doubt if 
he has an officer in his army to whom he could intrust 
a reconnaissance. Absurd as it may appear, he asked 
me — one of the pests of modern warfare, as I beheve a 
young and distinguished general officer stigmatised the 
profession to which I belong — if I would furnish him 
with a sketch of the Delibaba Pass and the roads 
thereto. I am glad I was enabled to gratify His Excel- 
lency. It seems that the right column of the Eussians, 
numbering three battalions, one regiment of cavalry, 
and six mountain-guns, are close by Pennek, having 
fallen back from Olti on the 5th inst. The centre and 
main column, leaving outposts at Tcharpakli, Sara 
Kamysh, and Kotanli, are concentrated round Kars, 
while the left wing, in three detachments, are at Baya- 
zid, Utch Kilissa, and Kara Kilissa. This latter force 
numbers in all twelve battalions, forty-eight field and 
four mountain-guns, with 1,500 Cossacks. 

The Turkish forces occupy much the same ground 
they did a fortnight ago. Eight battalions, six moun- 
tain-guns, with two regiments of Bashi-Bazouk cavahy, 
and 1,200 Circassians, are at Olti, under Hadji Easchid 
Pasha. Mukhtar Pasha, at Zewin, has 18 battalions, 



MOVEMENTS OF TURKISH FORGES, 103 

two field and two mountain batteries, with one squadron 
of regular and 800 Circassian horsemen. A battalion 
with two mountain-guns is at Khorassan, and Mahomed 
Pasha, leaving four battalions at Delibaba, has to-day 
moved forward to Moola Suliman with ten battalions, 
one field and one mountain battery, one weak regiment 
of regular and 400 irregular horsemen. Detachments 
of varying strength occupy Kuipri-Kui, Hassan Kale, 
the Devi-Boyun, and the Grhiurji Boghaz defiles, while 
Erzeroum has three field-batteries horsed, five unhorsed, 
and about six battalions of infantry. The strength of 
the posts in rear is so constantly changing that I am 
unable with any degree of exactness to report them. 

The Van column, under Lieutenant-Greneral Faik 
Pasha, is in the Abagha district, between the Van lake 
and Persia, with its head-quarters at the Bagir Fort 
(Beigir Kale in Kiepert), and consists of four to six 
battalions, six mountain-guns, and, it is now said, nearly 
5,000 Kurdish horsemen. 

The movements of the Russians point to an early 
assault on Kars. Should it be successful, a rapid ad- 
vance on Erzeroum will be its immediate consequence. 
Mukhtar Pasha, however, is very confident it will hold 
out; his best troops are there, and the place is pro- 
visioned for a year. If the Turks repel the attack, 
there is hope that the Russians may be checked for 
some weeks, by which time reinforcements of men, 
money, and guns will have reached him, and a fairer 
contest be waged on the Zewin Dooz. 



CHAPTEE VI. 

THE BATTLE OF TAGHIR. 

A Fatal Omen ! — With Sir Arnold in Search of a " Scrim" — Mahomed Pasha 
wishes to Fight — Our Breakfast Interrupted — View the Ground — Kurds 
and Circassians — A Rough Time of it — Russian Intentions — Disposition of 
our Troops — Description of the Ground — Wild Firing of the Turks— r 
Gallantry of their Gunners — Pluck of the Tcherkess — Excellence of Russian 
Infantry — Waste of Ammunition — Our Flank Turned — Yahvash! Yah- 
vash ! — A Run from the Cossacks — Hospital Arrangements — Reflection on 
the Fight — The Energetic Djameel Pasha — Turkish Losses. 

Head-Quarters, Eight Wing, Turkish Army, 

Camp, Taghir, June lith. 

Late last night Sir Arnold Kemball was good enough 
to inform me that the Russian force, under Tergukassoff, 
was pushing a reconnaissance towards the Dehhaba 
Pass, and that there was every chance of a coUision. 
So, obtaining the General's permission to accompany 
him, I started from Khorassan at 6 a.m. We had 
been disturbed during the night by three very sharp 
shocks of earthquake, which caused the telegraph house 
to shake to its very foundations, and certainly gave me 
the idea that the whole building was coming down, 
and subsequently had been kept awake by the persis- 
tent tapping of a raven at our window — adiiit omen! 
Crossing the Aras by raft, we passed Taikhojeh, where 
we met two battalions and nine guns, all under orders 
to move up to reinforce Mahomed Pasha, who we heard 
was at a place unnoticed in the chart, about five miles 



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ADVANCE OF TEE RUSSIANS. 106 

short of Moola Suliman. On reaching Delibaba, the 
late head-quarters of the left wing, we found it entirely 
deserted. Breakfasting by the side of the stream at 
eleven, we pressed on, and passed stray men going to 
the rear in charge of regimental baggage. From them 
we learnt that the division had struck camp, and was 
moving forward to meet the Russians, who were 
advancing from Zaidikan, where there had been a con- 
siderable encampment for some days. Passing large 
quantities of baggage and commissariat stores, we 
traversed the Eshek Khalias Valley, and, crossing the 
watershed of the Delibaba and Zaidikan streams by a 
ridge 8,200 feet high, descended the eastern slopes, and 
reached Taghir at 2 p.m. Here we found Lieutenant- 
General Mahomed Pasha, with one battalion — the Ohf 
Corps of Lazitan — and, dismounting, heard from him 
that the Russians in the morning had struck camp, and 
advanced westwards ; but that being entirely destitute 
of cavalry — he had only two troops in his division, 
barely 70 sabres — he was unable to watch their move- 
ments, especially as they were very strong in that arm. 
He pointed out that there were three roads from 
Zaidikan, and that he had despatched a force consist- 
ing of three battalions, two mountain and one field 
gun, to the crest of the hills commanding each road, 
thus disposing of nine battalions and all his guns, and 
meant to oppose them should they continue their 
advance during the day ; if, however, they stood fast, 
in the morning, when he would be reinforced by four 
more battalions, 1,000 cavalry, and nine guns, he would 
move down and attack them. 

The enemy advanced along the centre road, but, 
seeing the crest held, moved off to the right, hoping 



106 THE CAMPAIGN IK ARMENIA. 

to turn the position by a hill road quite impracticable 
for guns ; but on finding the heights commanding it 
crowned by a strong force of infantry, they withdrew 
into Zaidikan. Their force consisted of one regiment 
of dragoons, two of Cossacks, about 1,200 irregular 
cavalry, six battalions of infantry, and at leasjb twelve 
mountain guns. I could see no field artillery. Shots 
were exchanged between the cavalry, without any loss 
on our side. One Cossack was seen to fall, but I doubt 
if there were any other casualties, as the range was far, 
and the firing wild. The reports brought in by scouts 
and spies point to the fact, that the small body of 
Russians seen by the Turkish outposts had fallen back 
to the main body encamped at Zaidikan. Statements 
as to their strength varied, though all agreed in the 
detail of the cavalry force. 

At six p.m. Lieutenant-General Mahomed Pasha 
sent word that he would send his dinner to our tent, 
and do us the honour of sharing it with us. Sir Arnold 
Kemball, whose aide-de-camp had been compelled to 
return to Erzeroum owing to sickness, was alone, and 
very kindly permitted me to accompany him, had 
suggested, that for the sake of '* travelling light," we 
should only take one tent between us, and divide the 
services of our attendants, so, at hearing of the change 
in our entertainment, he brought his Oriental experience 
to bear on the subject. Beds were stowed away, carpets 
produced — very old and dirty they were, having been 
used to save our waterproof sheeting from fraying 
against pack saddles — and at eight p.m. the Greneral's 
Turkish orderly announced the Pasha. Mahomed 
Pasha was accompanied by Major-Greneral Mustafa 
Pasha, his second in command, and by Toghra Werdi 



BREAKFAST UNDUE BIFFIGULTIES. 107 

Bey, a deserter from the Eussians, who until lately- 
had held the post of Adjutant-Major of one of their 
Circassian regiments ; but shortly after the outbreak of 
war had joined the Turks with five men of his regiment, 
and now is the right-hand man of Mahomed Pasha, 
who asks his opinion on every subject, and, what is 
worse, takes it, too. All correspondence passes through 
his hands, and he is treated with much more deference 
than any colonel in the division. 

After dinner the Lieutenant-Greneral became very 
lively, assured us of his intention to attack the Eus- 
sians in the morning, and told us that he had certain 
information they were in very small numbers, and had 
only five field-guns. Mine diflered from his ; however, as 
his sources of information were presumably more trust- 
worthy, I bowed to his superior knowledge. Subsequent 
events proved him wrong, however. 

On the morning of the 1 5th we rode out to visit the 
position, and saw that the Eussians had crowned the 
heights occupied by our advanced posts yesterday. We 
employed our time in going over the whole line, which 
certainly is very strong, and were the Lieutenant- 
Greneral to push on to a ridge about 1,200 yards in 
front, I believe he would be able to hold his own 
against three times his force. Going slightly in front 
of the ridge now held by our men towards a stream, 
where Sir Arnold Kemball suggested breakfast, we 
found ourselves drawing down the Eussian fire. Their 
shells fell short, but still too close to the stream to 
make breakfast desirable, so we abandoned our enter- 
prise, and on our retiring, the Eussians ceased firing. 
At noon it was quite evident that Mahomed Pasha did 
not mean to attack, so we climbed to the top of the 



108 THE CAMPAIGN IN ARMENIA. 

peak to the left of the Turkish position and surveyed 
the ground. Prom that spot we could see the Eussians 
moving up in considerable force to the ridge on the 
extreme east of my plan, and by 4 p.m. they had six- 
teen field-pieces in battery there, with two battahons 
and a very heavy cavalry force. 

At about 2 p.m. we noticed a great gathering of 
the Kurdish horsemen, numbering about 300, in the 
vicinity of Mahomed Pasha's bivouac, so descending 
from our vantage-ground we joined the Turkish General, 
who informed Sir Arnold he was going to meet a large 
body of Circassian horse, sent to his aid by Mukhtar 
Pasha. The conduct of the Kurds who accompanied 
us augured badly for any Eussian cavalry that might 
stand in their way on the morrow. Every now and 
then a solitary horseman, his feelings overpowering 
him, would dash out from the crowd, spur his horse 
vigorously down the slope, shivering his lance, gnashing 
his teeth, and uttering anathemas against the Griaour. 
His example would be speedily followed by yet other 
men, who, dashing forward, would make as if they were 
about to attack each other, and soon the whole body 
of these fantastically dressed creatures, with their em- 
broidered muslin burnooses flying behind them, were to 
be seen circling round in the plain, brandishing their 
lances, and hurling curses of defiance at their invisible foe. 
In less than a quarter of an hour we saw emerging from 
the Taghir defile the head of the column of Circassians. 
They moved slowly forward until their rear was clear 
of the Pass, and then advanced in line across the plain. 
Mahomed Pasha halted them, and addressing a few 
words of encouragement to their officers, promised them 
a fight on the morrow, where he hoped they would sus- 



CIECA8SIAN8 AND KUEDS. 109 

tain the honour of the Ottoman Empire, and make the 
Eussians feel the power of those swords they had dis- 
carded in days gone by. There was an air of business 
about the Circassians sadly lacking in the Kurds, and 
I fully hoped to see them distinguish themselves should 
occasion arise in the coming fight. 

Having seen the Circassians "dismissed,'* we once 
more rode round the position, which now was in many 
parts fairly entrenched. No positive orders had been 
given on the subject, but the commandants of those 
battalions situated in the immediate vicinity of the 
Zaidikan road had thrown up shelter trenches from the 
ridge dominating the stream to the right of our posi- 
tion as far as the foot of the knoll on our extreme left. 
Much was left undone that might have been done — 
little done that ought to have been done. 

A ridge some 1,200 yards in front of us, running 
parallel to our line, and which completely commanded 
us, was left unoccupied. The possession of this was 
of vital importance, and if seized by the Eussians 
nothing could prevent their turning us out of our 
position. We were excessively weak in artillery owing 
to some unaccountable delay. The battery and two 
battalions at Taikhojeh had failed to join us, although 
Mahomed Pasha had sent orders the previous day for 
them to be moved up with all despatch. In spite of 
all this the General was confident of success, and pro- 
mised me that I should see the Giaours running before 
the Moslems ere I was twenty-four hours older. 

Unfortunately, some mistakes had occurred in the 
orders given as to our baggage, and we saw night coming 
on with every prospect of our having to sleep on the 
hill-side in our cloaks and without a chance of any food. 



110 THE CAMPAIGN IN ARMENIA. 

Our bivouac was over 8,000 feet above sea level, the 
range to the south was still covered with snow, and the 
wind passing over it most bitterly cold. Firewood there 
was none, and though occasionally Circassians would 
pass us carrying beams of wood from some dismantled 
house, no pecuniary consideration would induce them to 
part with a single stick. At about 10 p.m., when tired 
of stumping up and down the ridge, in the endeavour 
to keep our feet warm, we huddled together in a cleft ' 
of the ground. Sir Arnold's faithful body servant pro- 
duced from his saddle-bag a piece of tongue. Fortunately 
it was dark, and we could not see the state it most 
assuredly must have been in, so we ate it contentedly ^ 
enough, and lay down, hoping that the morrow wortld 
bring up our servants and supplies of meat and drink. 

At 4 a.m. we rose from a very uncomfortable night's 
rest on the hill-side. "Washing was out of the question ; 
no water was to be had, and breakfast seemed very 
problematical. The business of the day, however, put 
all such thoughts out of our heads, for passing our 
glasses over the Russian position, some three miles dis- 
tant, we saw indications of a coming attack, and straight- 
way mounting our horses, which seemed none the worse 
for no corn and no shelter, rode in search of Mahomed 
Pasha, whose dispositions we now learnt. The Russians 
held a very strong position about 4,000 yards — perhaps 
rather less — to the east of the Turkish front, which was 
stretched along a ridge running from the high knoll to 
the north of their line. Between the two lay a third 
ridge, completely commanding us. Between this and 
the Turks was a deep ravine, which ran down to a stream 
with precipitous banks. This flowed to the south of the 
ridge forming the right flank of the Turks, and round 



DISPOSITION OF TEE TURKISH FORCES. Ill 

the unoccupied ridge. So convinced was Mahomed 
Pasha that the Russians were not in strong force that 
he neglected to occupy this vantage ground, the posses- 
sion of which was the turning point of the day. The 
Turkish force consisted in all of fourteen battalions of 
infantry, one battery of field and one of mountain guns, 
three troops of regular cavalry, 600 Circassians, 300 
Kurdish horse — ^the latter a great deal worse than use- 
less. This force was disposed as follows : — One bat- 
talion, with one mountain gun, on the knoll to the right 
of the front, and commanding, not only the road by 
which the Russian artillery would be forced to advance, 
but also the ravine, which skirted the whole flank, and 
which gave cover to any turning force the Russians 
might send. One battalion, with three guns, was on 
the neck of the ground connecting the right knoll with 
the road; and then running along the front of the 
whole position up to the very high peak on the left were 
stretched five more battalions, with two guns in a bat- 
tery, about half a mile north of the road ; one mountain 
gun the same distance further on, and one more on the 
peak to the extreme left. In reserve were two mountain 
guns and six battalions. The cavalry was massed to 
the right of the road, behind a ridge ; and of the reserve 
battalions three were quite close up, and about 400 
yards in rear of the reverse slope of the position, which 
was succeeded by a series of ridges, all springing from 
the same peak, which was 1,500 feet above our ground, 
and at a height of 7,700 feet above sea level. The 
remaining three were drawn up in line about a mile 
and a half in rear of the first line, on the road leading 
to Dehbaba. 

To the front of the centre of the Turkish line the 



112 TEE CAMPAIGN IN ARMENIA. 

ground sloped gently away for a distance of about 800 
yards, where there was a very deep, stiflF ravine, which, 
as I said before, ran along the front of the unoccupied 
ridge. To this was sent a body of about 200 Circassian 
horse, armed with Winchester rifles. As they were per- 
fectly powerless to act as cavalry in that position, for 
the ravine was completely commanded from the Eussian 
side, and as they were perfectly untrained men, it is 
difficult to conceive why they were sent forward at all. 
The gentle dechvity, however, in front of the centre, 
completely swept by our fire for more than 700 yards 
without a vestige of cover for a man to avail himself of, 
made an assault in that quarter a matter of much danger 
and difficulty ; and the deep, precipitous ravine on the 
right flank, while affording cover to an attacking force 
and concealing them from sight until close to our posi- 
tion, quite prevented any artillery fire being brought 
to bear on them during their advance, owing to its tor- 
tuous character. 

At 5 a.m. four battalions of Eussians moved down 
the road in column of companies, with one battalion 
about half a mile in rear. Their guns, of which 16 
were distinctly visible on the sky-line of their position, 
opened fire, but their shells fell far short of our front 
line. I had accompanied Sir Arnold Kemball to a point 
about two-thirds of the way up the peak, when, sending 
our horses behind the ridge, we sat down to watch the 
proceedings. At 6.10 some Eussian skirmishers, whose 
advance we must have overlooked, appeared on the 
central ridge, quietly lining it, while a small body, m 
admirable order, crossed it, our shells doing them no 
harm (althotigh the range could not have been more than 
1,500 yards), and descended to their left, evidently 



TURKISH GUNKEES UNDER RUSSIAN FIRE. 113 

with a view of turning onr right' flank, and at this 
moment their guns opened fire, their shells falling 
over the ridge. As yet only a few men had appeared 
here, but they were gradually strengthened. Now our 
artillery fire on their line became hotter, some few men 
even opening with their Henry-Martinis at a distance 
of about 1,500 yards. I particularly noticed the 
men, who evidently looked upon sights as a useless 
appendage, and fired wildly in the air, giving what 
elevation they considered necessary. Some officers exerted 
themselves to restrain their men from thus throwing 
away their ammunition; but the men objected strongly 
to obey these orders, and so this random firing con- 
tinued all along the line. The Eussian skirmishers 
behaved admirably, a few men now and again show- 
ing themselves, evidently with the intention of drawing 
our fire and distracting attention from the main attach 
on the right. 

At a quarter to 7 the Eussians, who up to this had 
only been firing an occasional shot, now got the range 
of our position, and the shells came in quick and with 
consummate accuracy. I must bear witness to the ex- 
treme gallantry with which the Turkish gunners stood 
to their pieces, and the steadiness with which they 
served them under the rain of shells from the 16 Eussian 
guns, which ploughed up the ground round our two- 
gun battery in every direction, many falling into the 
earthwork itself. Owing to the softness of the ground, 
the plunging fire, and the badness of the fuses, many of 
these shells did not burst ; still, the gunners suffered con- 
siderably, and most nobly stood to their guns. About a 
quarter past 6 Mahomed Pasha sent forward some 200 
Circassians to line the ravine immediately beneath the 
I 



114 THE GAMFAIGN IN AHMENIA, 

central ridge. From tlie nature of the ground this 
movement could not be seen by the enemy. 

At 7 o'clock two Eussian battalions, moving to the 
front in column of fours at company distance, appeared 
above the further crest of the central ridge, and 
our guns immediately opened fire on them. The 
men then extending, crossed the level ground in loose 
order, and formed up, lining the nearer crest, one 
battalion on the right, one on the left of the road. 
They at once commenced plying the Circassian horse 
with rifle fire, who answered with their Winchesters, 
whilst our guns plied the crest with shell. In a very 
short time it was evident that the cavalry must fall 
back, which they did in small groups, leaving a few 
killed in the ravine, and some horses. On crossing the 
natural glacis to the Turkish position they came in full 
view of the Eussian guns, who had the range to a yard, 
and pitched their shells one after another into the re- 
tiring horsemen with great accuracy. Owing, however, 
to the aforementioned cause, the casualties were small — 
a large proportion of the missiles failing to burst. The 
gallantry of the Circassians was most marked. In spite 
of the heavy rifle fire on the ravine, in spite of the ac- 
curate artillery fire on the ground to be crossed before 
reaching it, many men were to be seen crossing, lei- 
surely leading horses on which to carry back their dead, 
wounded, or dismounted comrades. It was 8 p.m. before 
these two battalions had established a strong position 
on this ridge; but no sooner had they done so than 
four field-pieces, of far heavier calibre than our own, 
were brought into action on the western crest of the 
same ridge, and firing over the heads of their own skir- 
mishers, made beautiful practice on our line and on the 



THE EUS8IAN FIEE. 115 

retreating Circassians. At the same ^ time Mahomed 
Pasha moved two battalions which, until now, had been 
in reserve to the left of his position, to strengthen his 
centre, which he apparently conceived would be the 
main point of attack. These, moving across the brow 
of the hill in column, were warmly welcomed by the 
Russian guns, and as they passed in rear of our own 
position, we, in turn, for a few seconds, were under an 
unpleasantly heavy artillery fire. As they passed on we 
were once more left unmolested, and from our vantage 
ground could see both forces below us — the Russians 
advancing in splendid order — men moving rapidly from 
point to point, taking advantage of every cover they 
could find, and working in a style that proves them not 
only to be admirably drilled, but well disciplined and 
skilfully and gallantly led. At a quarter past 8 two 
more Russian battalions appeared on the central ridge, 
and crossing over the plateau at the double, extended 
to reinforce the front line, which now consisted of two 
strong battalions on either flank of the road. With 
them came up six guns to the right, making a com- 
plete battery of eight guns (it must be borne in mind 
that the Russian field-batteries consist of this number) 
on that side of the road, with two only on the left. 
These eight guns, being only 1,500 yards from our 
line, made excellent practice — shell after shell burst- 
ing right among our men, many even in the shelter- 
trenches. Up to this time only percussion-fuses had 
been used; but now they commenced with the time- 
fuses, which were fired with remarkable accuracy. 

It was now that the gallantry of the Turks " showed 
itself — ^not a man moved or flinched from his post, and 
the two solitary field-guns which were able to reply to 
I 2 



116 THE CAMPAIGN IN ARMENIA. 

this overwhelming fire nobly did their duty. No troops 
could have shown more valour. Alas ! it was of no 
avail. At half -past 8, for some unknown reason, the 
Turkish General withdrew his three guns from the right 
of his position, leaving in the front line one mountain- 
gun on the extreme right, and the two field-pieces so 
constantly mentioned, in the centre. At five minutes 
to 9 small parties of Russian skirmishers appeared, 
advancing up the ravine skirting the extreme right 
flank of the Turkish position, and a very heavy fire was 
opened on them from the two battalions and the one 
mountain-gun holding that knoll, which had been 
strengthened by weak stone breastworks. The Eussians 
now pushed up the remaining six guns to the battery 
already in position on the left of the road, and the six- 
teen pieces commenced pounding the Turkish line. At 
ten minutes past nine the fire was so hot, shell after 
shell falhng into the gun-pits — I counted thirty-seven 
shells pitch into one gun-pit in four minutes, and yet 
the gunners never showed a sign of abandoning their 
position, never quailed before the death-storm rained 
upon them — that the general gave orders for the with- 
drawal of the only two pieces left in the front line, the 
defence of which was now left to the infantry, eight 
battalions of which lined the position, three of them 
only being in shelter-trenches. The fire from these 
battalions was very rapid, and altogether ineffectual 
Very few of the enemy showed themselves, and those 
only at a distance of 800 yards. Yet a ceaseless rattle 
from the Henry-Martini told the tale that ammunition 
would soon run out, unless the ojBBcers could restrain 
their men from such reckless waste of what later on 
would be priceless material ; but instead of this, the 



RUNNING THE GAUNTLET, 117 

officers seemed to encourage them, and the game went 
on brisker than ever. 

The skirmishers, now advancing np the ravine, ap- 
peared in large numbers, and commenced ascending the 
knoll. They were supported by four regiments of 
cavalry, who came down the hill-side in column of 
troops, with the evident intention of moving round the 
right rear. Our guns having been removed, this large 
force was enabled to advance unmolested, and at the 
same time three more cavalry regiments in column of 
troops moved down the main road in support of the 
central attacking force. At half -past 9 Sir Arnold 
Kemball expressed a wish to join the Lieutenant- Greneral, 
and we consequently abandoned our position under the 
peak to the left of the Turkish line, and passed along 
the line to the extreme right, running the gauntlet of 
the Russian fire, which was unpleasantly heavy — shell 
after shell passing close by us, plunged into the opposite 
bank of the ravine, and bursting, sent their hurtling 
fragments around us. I was glad when we got on the 
knoll to the extreme right ; but very soon shells began 
bursting there also, and after hunting about for the 
General for about half an hour, we determined on push- 
ing up to our old spot, which we did, again having to 
pass straight across the line of fire. On reaching the 
height we saw that the skirmishers of the central attack 
had pushed down to the ravine in front of their position, 
and were drawing the fire of the Turks by an occasional 
shot, while the Turks were firing wildly in their direc- 
tion, although not a man could be seen. The waste 
of ammunition was terrible, officers encouraging their 
men to fire when the enemy were under excellent cover, 
whilst the men, needing no encouragement, were 



118 TEE CAMPAIGN IK ARMENIA. 

raising their pieces in tlie air and discharging round 
after round at an angle of 45°. I spoke to one man 
of the Amassia regiment, who I noticed had not been 
wasting his ammunition, and he told me that his 
regiment had gone into action with only fifteen rounds 
per man, and that he had but seven left, which he was 
keeping for close-quarter business. 

At a quarter to 12 there was a' lull in the Eus- 
sian fire, during which their turning movement was 
being prosecuted with much vigour, men having 
ascended the front of the knoll on the right, and, 
under a sharp fire from a battalion not 200 yards off, 
had thrown up a rough shelter-trench, from which they 
speedily commenced a very efiective return fire. Seeing 
the cavalry moving up the ravine, I went round to the 
rear of the peak to reconnoitre for a safe line of retreat, 
and while away, an officer came to Sir Arnold to report 
the death of Mahomed Pasha, who had been shot 
through the head, and to announce that Major-Greneral 
Mustafa Pasha had succeeded to the command. "While 
this message was being delivered by the aide-de-camp, 
I noticed that the right of the position was completely 
turned, that the Eussian cavalry were driving back the 
infantry skirmishers from the entrenchments on our 
right, and seriously tlireatened the line of retreat to 
Delibaba. We accordingly pushed down the hill 
quickly, to find the infantry falling back off the ridge 
in a confused crowd, with the Eussian horse among 
them. The reserve battalions were too far off for 
reach, and not caring to date my next to you from. 
Moscow, I counselled a retreat, which was speedily put 
into execution. 

It was 11.45 when we left the ground, and then we 



FLIGHT, 119 

became aware that the affair had assumed very much 
the appearance of a rout ; that the Cossacks were 
getting round the rear, and that if we did escape it 
would be merely by a short neck. Our horses were not 
in very good condition for a twenty-five mile gallop 
after all the hard work they had gone through the last 
three days ; however, there was no help for it, and 
so we pushed on, pressing up over the watershed of 
the Taghir and Delibaba streams, through the Eshek- 
Khaliass valley, where we met two battalions leisurely 
proceeding to the front. On Wednesday they received 
orders to move on to join the left wing of the Turkish 
army, and to press on, as fighting was imminent. They 
were then forty -seven miles ofi", and true to the watch- 
word of the country, "Tahvash, Yahvash" (slowly, 
slowly), they proceeded by ordinary marches. Having 
put them between us and the Cossacks, we thought we 
were safe, and, pulling up, were proceeding to the 
village of Delibaba to telegraph the result of the 
day's work to the Commander-in-Chief, Mukhtar 
Pasha. Some providential inspiration induced us to 
turn off when within a mile and a half of the village, 
and, striking across the hills, we cut into the Khorassan 
route. We had not changed our plans haK an hour, 
when a friendly sergeant of zaptiehs dashed up breath- 
less, saying the Cossacks had passed through Delibaba, 
reaching it by another road, and were now close behind. 
Fortunately, we knew that there was a battalion with 
six guns about two miles farther on, and I can assure 
you we did not spare our horses in that gallop. Having 
reached Taikhojeh, the village in which the troops were 
e.ncamped,'We warned the colonel, who could not find a 
bugler, and not knowing the strength of the pursuing 



120 TEE CAMPAIGN IN ARMENIA. 

force, and not caring to see a figlit between a surprised 
Turkish detachment, who evidently could not be got 
under arms for the next half hour, we pushed on, forded 
the Araxes, and reached Khorassan at three p.m. We 
at first thought of moving back on Kuipri-Kui ; but 
abandoned that intention on hearing that a regiment 
of cavalry and three of infantry were moving into 
Khorassan to hold the ford across the river. 

Of the bravery of the Turkish troops it is impossible 
to speak too highly ; of the utter incompetence of their 
leaders it is equally impossible to speak in terms of 
sufficient disparagement. On the Thursday evening 
the Turkish General held the position from which the 
Russians commenced their attack — one almost im- 
pregnable, and certainly commanding all ground within 
four miles. That evening he abandoned it, and on 
Friday morning found a Russian field-battery and a 
strong body of cavalry holding it. Even then it would 
not have been too late to recapture it, with the force at 
his disposal, for the Russian main force we knew was 
at Zaidikan, five miles ofi*; but Mahomed Pasha was 
under the belief that the Russians dared not attack 
him. All men could see with the naked eye sixteen 
cannon cutting the sky-line, but his spies said the 
Russians had only five field and five mountain guns; 
so he abstained from bringing up six guns, which were 
about twenty miles off — the timely arrival of which 
might have saved the day. Then, instead of employing 
his time on Friday in throwing up really good entrench- 
ments, he contented himself with a few short shelter- 
trenches and two gun-pits, without any screens in front 
of them. These were placed on the sky-line, and 
served as admirable marks for the very efficient Russian 



SUMMARY OF EVENTS. 121 

artillery. The arrangements, too, concerning ammuni- 
tion were simply disgraceful. Each regiment has 
attached to it thirty-two ponies, carrying each two 
boxes o£ 1,000 rounds; but these were by some fatality 
ordered to the rear in the morning, and to my know- 
ledge more than one battalion went into action with a 
very short supply in the men's pouches. 

A brief resume of events leading up to this disaster 
may be of value here, and, at the risk of appearing 
tedious, I give it. 

The Eussians, crossing the frontier on the 23rd of 
April, the day prior to the declaration of war, ad- 
vanced, as you are aware, by three roads on Erzeroum. 
Each was defended by a fortress, and consequently 
until these barriers had been removed the movements 
of the separate columns were somewhat hampered. 
Bayazid, on the southern road, capitulated without 
firing a shot, on the 26th of April, the garrison escap- 
ing to Van. Ardahan, on the northern road, fell 
after an assaidt on May 17th; but Kars, the strongest 
of the three places, kept the main central column em- 
ployed, and stiU does so. It seems that the Eussian 
plan is, not to advance on Erzeroum until Kars has 
fallen. Eeconnaissances, however, were pushed on, 
and in such considerable force that the Turkish army 
(also in three columns) at Olti, on the Hoonkiar Dooz, 
and at Toprak Kale, fell back on the Ghiurji Boghaz, 
Zewin, and Delibaba. Subsequently the Eussian 
advanced brigades occupied Olti on the 28th of May, 
and Zaidikan on the 9th of June. Ahmed Mukhtar 
Pasha learning they were not in any strength in these 
places, determined to advance his two wings. So re- 
inforcing his left to a strength of eleven battalions. 



122 THE CAMPAIGN IN ARMENIA. 

three regiments of irregular cavalry and six mountain- 
guns, lie pushed it forward. The Eussians retired, 
avoiding a collision, to beyond Pennek, and Olti was 
reoccupied on the 7th of June. Delighted with this 
success, he now ordered up three more battalions and 
600 cavalry to strengthen Mahomed Pasha at Deli- 
baba, and ordered him with seventeen battalions, two 
j&eld and one mountain battery, with about 800 
cavalry, to drive the Eussians out of Zaidikan. On 
whom the blame rests no one ever will know, but 
the fact remains that one field-battery, which I was 
assured by Mahomed Pasha on the 15th had been 
ordered up to Taghir from Taikhojeh, never left their 
quarters at all, and on passing through that place on 
the afternoon of the 15th, after our narrow escape 
from the Cossacks, not only were the guns parked 
along with commissariat stores, but the horses were 
all grazing on the neighbouring hills. Either Lieute- 
nant- Greneral Mahomed Pasha had never ordered these 
guns up — guns which might have saved the day — or 
else the oflficer commanding the battery had deliberately 
disobeyed orders. An oflScer high on the staff of the 
army informed me that two battalions at Kuipri- 
Kui had been directed to march forthwith from Deli- 
baba. This was on the 12th. On the 16th, after 
the fight, I met them quietly straggling through the 
pass, moving to the front, truly, but having taken four 
clear days to cover thirty-two miles. The officer com- 
manding was informed of the fight, rout, and flight 
of the force in his front ; but instead of taking mea- 
sures to occupy a strong position and endeavour to 
cover the debandade, he allowed his men, already in 
the usual state of disorder that a Turkish regiment 



TUEKISH MISMANAGEMENT. 123 

exhibits on the line of march, to continue their strag- 
gling advance, and on meeting the baggage of the 
retiring army a block occurred in the narrow pass 
near Eshek Khaliass. This was increased as the fugitive 
troops passed through, and these being quickly fol- 
lowed by the pursuing Cossacks, a scene ensued that 
can only be imagined by those who have seen cavalry 
acting on a disorganised, and for the most part un- 
armed, body of troops. Thus it happens that instead 
of attacking a Russian brigade at Zaidikan with seven- 
teen battalions, two field and one mountain battery, the 
Turks were themselves attacked, when they actually 
had only fourteen battalions and five guns to oppose 
the Russian forces. Taghir, or Tahar, is in the main 
caravan road from Erzeroum through Delibaba to 
Bayazid, but the hills being particularly steep just 
there, the road branches ofE into three, one being prac- 
ticable for carts all the year round, the southernmost 
one; the centre being practicable for wheeled vehicles 
only in summer ; while the third, or northern road, 
is only available for horse-trafiic. On the 14th, 
Mahomed Pasha having advanced from Delibaba 
with ten battalions, one mountain and one field- 
battery — he had most unaccountably left one field- 
battery and two battalions at Taikhojeh — was informed 
by his outposts that the Russians were in force at 
Zaidikan. He accordingly sent forward three battalions, 
with two mountain and two field-guns, along each of 
the roads to the west immediately above Zaidikan, and 
stayed at the village with one battalion, contenting 
himself with the stories of the Kurdish spies as to the 
Russian position and strength, never dreaming of pro- 
ceeding to the front to verify their reports himself. In 



124< THE CAMPAIGN IN ARMENIA. 

r 

the evening more Kurds came in, saying that they had 
had an engagement with the Russian cavalry outposts, 
whom they had driven in, killing 40. This report also 
was believed, and Mahomed Pasha avowed his deter- 
mination of attacking in the morning. However, late 
at night fearing a sudden surprise, he withdrew his men 
from the advanced ridge, which commanded everything 
within range, and, hearing that the Russians were ad- 
vancing on the southern road, massed his troops on the 
westernmost and lowest of the three spurs south of 
Taghir. At dawn the Russian horse had appeared on 
the late Turkish ground, by 9 a.m. a field-battery was 
in support, and by noon a mixed force, with two field 
and one mountain battery, had entrenched themselves 
on the ridge unnoticed in any way. The road once 
secured, their work was easy. In the evening we could 
distinguish four regiments of cavalry, seven battalions, 
besides artillery, within three miles of us ; and, in spite 
of the evidence of his own eyes, the Turkish commander 
assured me that he knew positively they had only five 
field-guns. He, however, told me he had ordered up 
the battery from Taikhojeh, which should, according to 
the original instructions, have moved with him. 

At 5 a.m. on the 16th the Russians advanced to the 
assault. At 9.15 they had, owing to their overwhelming 
force of artillery, driven the Turkish guns out of action, 
and by noon were in possession of the ridge held by 
the Ottoman troops, and of nearly every gun they pos- 
sessed ; following up the infantry, who were out of 
ammunition, they drove them through the pass to 
Delibaba, capturing about 1,000 prisoners, while a 
second body of cavalry, with horse-artillery, moved 
rapidly by another road to Dodi, and appearing on the 



TURKISH BLUNDERS AND BUNGLING, 125 

hill above Taikhojeh on tlie morning of the 17th, 
very effectually prevented all communication between 
Mukhtar Pasha and the remnants of the right wing, 
and, as I hear, easily captured a number of prisoners 
from the battalion and battery encamped on the 
Taikhojeh stream. The whole arrangements of the 
Turkish army are faulty in the extreme. On the 15th 
of June there was but one ration of bread served out 
to every four men. Wood to cook with or meat to 
eat there was none, and yet the country is not only 
fertile, but the surrounding hills were covered with 
flocks and herds grazing ; money, and common sense, 
and energy only were wanting, and these three com- 
modities Turkish officials do not indulge in. 

Doctors and hospital arrangements there were none 
— absolutely none. I saw wounded officers being car- 
ried to the rear, thrown bodily across baggage-mules, 
and thus being driven, wounds undressed, across stony, 
mountainous roads to a place of safety — not to field 
hospitals, for the nearest was 46 miles off, and such a 
thing as a regimental hospital did not exist. There 
was not a doctor with the division. Far different were 
the Eussian arrangements, for in the rear of the skir- 
mishers were litters with awnings to protect wounded 
men from the sun, and the men, instead of presenting 
the ragged, forlorn, miserable appearance of the Turkish 
troops, were neatly dressed, and all provided with white 
cap-covers, which they wisely discarded during action. 
The regimental commanders in the Ottoman army 
showed as much carelessness as their superiors ; no pre- 
cautions were taken to fill up men's pouches prior to 
the fight, or, indeed, to keep the 32 ponies carrying 
spare ammunition within easy distance. Consideriug 



126 TEH CAMPAIGN IN ARMENIA. 

the nature of the ground, it wo aid not have been 
difficult to have kept them under cover behind some 
friendly ridge. One corps, the Amassia battalion, went 
into action with one full packet of ten, and a few (rarely 
more than five) loose rounds per man. It seemed op- 
tional whether shelter-trenches were thrown up in front 
of regiments or not; and although the position was 
held on the 15th, and battalions posted in the very 
spots they occupied on the day of the engagement, very 
few commanders took the trouble to entrench their men, 
and even then a Kttle earth scratched up or a few stones 
piled in front of a man were considered sufficient. The 
Russians, on the contrary, on reaching the eastern 
ridge, which they did in very small numbers on the 
morning of the 1 5th, immediately deployed a regiment 
of cavalry ; and thus screened from view threw up what 
appeared from the distance to be very formidable works. 
The training, too, of the Turks was such that they 
should never have been suffered to contend with a dis- 
ciplined foe. Men ignorant of the rudiments of drill, 
and perfectly innocent as to the meaning and use of 
sights on their rifles, were to be seen standing upright 
on a sky-line, or collected in groups drawing down 
artillery fire, and discharging their weapons wildly in 
the air ; some truly taking aim, but many more 
merely letting off" their pieces at an angle of 45° 
when the enemy was fully 2,000 yards away. The 
Turkish cavalry, too, were not worthy of the name. 
A body of some 500 Circassians, armed with Win- 
chester 16 -shot repeating carbines, behaved with some 
gallantry. Indeed, there were many cases of individual 
heroism ; but, undrilled and undisciplined, they had no 
chance of standing against the Eussian horse, whose 



THE RUSSIAN CAVALRY. 127 

movements over the broken and mountainous ground, 
over country where our horsemen would never dream of 
working, were steady in the extreme. I shall never forget 
the sight they presented as four very strong regiments 
moved down the mountain in column of troops to support 
the flanking movement on our right ; and the way they 
operated on the Turkish infantry after their steep des- 
cent and hard gallop up a stony ravine was a beautiful 
and yet a ghastly scene. The Kurdish cavalry, some 
300 in number, who were supposed to face the well- 
trained Russian troops, were a mere bundle of fantas- 
tically-dressed and ridiculously and badly armed rubbish. 
As I have before written, on the evening of the 15th 
of June they amused themselves by dashing about 
the plain, shaking their spears, gnashing their teeth, 
hurling curses of defiance at their Christian foe, and 
chanting paeans of the victory that was to be. On the 
morrow they contented themselves — ^the few that re- 
mained, for early in the day their numbers diminished 
wofuUy — ^with keeping well behind a ridge, ever and 
anon firing a flint pistol in the air to the extreme 
danger of their braver Circassian comrades, who were 
in front. One more fault — ay, crime — requires to be 
pointed out. All through the winter and spring 
numerous guns were despatched from Constantinople 
to Trebizond, with which to arm Erzeroum. On the 
3rd of May there were 86 of these lying on the beach, 
just as they were disembarked. On the 23rd of May 
these pieces — thanks to the untiring energy of that 
indefatigable oflBcer Lieutenant-General Djameel Pasha 
— had reached Baiboort, 66 miles from this, and to-day, 
28 days after — thanks to the apathy, listlessness, and 
criminal neglect of the Erzeroum ofiicials — they are 



128 THE CAMPAIGN IN ARMENIA. 

still lying at Baiboort, and the earth-works on tlie 
Devi-Boyun are yet unarmed. 

As a set-off to the conduct of those in authority it 
is more than a pleasure to bring to notice the great 
gallantry of the rank and file of the Turkish army. 
Untrained men, ignorant of the use of their weapons, 
and for the most part agriculturists fresh from the 
plough, they were yet unused to the hard school of war. 
Cold and hungry, badly clad and badly shod, uncared 
for and unnoticed, they stood their ground right nobly 
under a murderous fire from the sixteen 16-pounder 
Russian guns playing on their front, under a hailstorm 
of rifle bullets from the battalions that had turned their 
flank, and it was not until their ammunition had failed 
and the Cossacks were riding them down, that they 
turned and broke. A squad of the Erzingjan battalion 
of the 2nd ban of Eedif went quietly forward and 
dragged the field-guns out of action when shell after 
shell from the Russian battery burst among them, doing 
terrible damage, and yet these untrained raw mihtia 
never hesitated a moment, but performed their task in a 
manner that her Majesty's Guards could not have sur- 
passed. The rank and file of the Turkish army are men 
of whom any nation might be proud. The real Turkish 
loss we never shall know. The nearest computation to 
the truth, I opine, is that which can be given by the only 
two Englishmen on the ground, and that is that not a 
single gun has been saved, and not a battalion pre- 
serving its formation reached Delibaba. About 800 
fugitives of various corps arrived at Kuipri-Kui. Many 
of these, however, left before the action was in full swing; 
the Circassians and Kurds, finding the day going against 
them, and assuming that discretion was the better part 



LOSSES OF TEE TURKS, 129 

of valour, retired, suiting their own convenience, at 
about 10 a.m. 

Having had many opportunities of conversing with 
officers and men of battalions present in this engage- 
ment, and with the doctors quartered at the field 
hospital at Hassan-Kale and the general hospital at 
Erzeroum, I have ascertained that the losses of the 
Turks on the 16th were 1,426 killed and missing, with 
963 wounded. The Zileh and Amassia regiments suffered 
most heavily, two subalterns of the former corps being 
the only officers who escaped. The Erzeroum Eedif 
battalion lost 60. killed and 200 missing, while eleven 
pieces of artillery were abandoned in the headlong 
flight. 



CHAPTEE VII. 

A LULL IN THE STORM. 

Ismairs Canards — Halit Bey — Disorganised state of Turkish Eight Wing — ^A 
Russian Scare — A Fish Dinner — Position of the Hostile Armies — Re-occupa- 
tion of Bayazid hy Faik Pasha — Mukhtar Pasha reinforces and assumes 
Command of Right Wing— Ismail the Kurd joins Central Column— Moussa 
Pasha — News of a Turkish Success at Eshek Khaliass — Awkward Position 
of TergukassofE — Faik Pasha's Division. 

Erzeroum, Jwm 21. 

I AM afraid that this letter will be dull and un- 
interesting, after the stirring events of the past few days 
which I endeavoured to describe in my last. Since 
my arrival on Sunday the place has been fdled with 
rumours, those current among the Christian population 
tending to magnify the Eussian advantages, and placing 
Tergukassoff far nearer this than even he possibly can 
be ; those, on the other hand, concocted in the gover'* 
nor's palace, and disseminated by the Mahomedans, 
make little of the affair on the 16th, and prophesy the 
early destruction of the Eussian forces. With these 
contradictory reports flying about, it is simply impos- 
sible to give you any accurate statement of the present 
position ; but as far as I can judge the Turks seem to 
be disposed thus : — The Olti forces, numbering nine bat- 
talions, six mountain guns, and a regiment of cavahy 
(Bashi-Bazouks), have joined Mukhtar Pasha at Zewin 
Dooz, bringing up his force to twenty-six battalions, 



HALIT BEY. ]31 

about 3,000 cavalry (mostly irregulars, and worthless), 
and two field batteries with eighteen mountain guns. 
At Khorassan and Kuipri Kui are five battalions, 800 
Circassians, and one horse artillery battery. At Deli- 
baba are the remains of the right wing ; but it is im- 
possible to estimate their strength, and I certainly do 
not think they have a gun with them. The Governor 
of this place, Vali Ismail Pasha, has at last gone 
to take command of the central brigaide, situated at 
Khorassan and Kuipri Kui. He telegraphs word this 
morning that Tergukassoff is surrounded, as Mukhtar 
Pasha is advancing from Zewin Dooz via Mezingerd to 
Gulentab, and so cutting off* his rear, while Mustafa 
Pasha, with the right wing of the Turkish army, will 
attack him on the flank at the same time as he does so 
in front. 

I give you these telegrams ; but long before this 
letter reaches you the wire will have apprised you of 
the true state of affairs. I do not think I am over- 
stating the case, and my opinion was concurred in by 
others present on the 16th, when I say that in the 
right wing of the Turkish army there was but one 
ofiicer who showed himself fit to command a corporal's 
guard, and it is only just that he who proved 
himself the very mainspring of the division, who 
posted every picket, who conducted every reconnais- 
sance, and who warmly and urgently pressed the neces- 
sity of holding the advanced ridge, the abandonment 
of which gave the Russians an enormous advantage, 
should be brought to pubhc notice. If anything had 
to be done, the call was for Halit Bey ; if any doubt 
was expressed as to the strength or position of the 
enemy, Haht Bey was sent to reconnoitre ; if a regi- 
j 



132 THE CAMPAIGN IN ARMENIA. 

mental officer ventured to ask where he was to obtain 
hread for his half-starved men, he was referred to Halit 
Bey ; if a battalion had to be moved, Halit Bey had to 
give the necessary orders ; if the miserable Kurds came 
in with a story of a victorious skirmish in which they, 
unaided, had overthrown the Cossack outposts, Haht 
Bey at once dispelled the Lieutenant-General's joy by 
doubting the whole story, and ordering the Kurds to 
bring in the dead bodies and thus show proof of their 
prowess ; and, finally, on the death o£ Mahomed Pasha, 
officers were to be seen galloping over the field looking 
for Halit Bey, whose advice now was sought by Mustafa 
Pasha, on whom the dead Grenerars cloak of irresolution 
had fallen. 

On the morning of the 17th, whilst engaged in 
making a fair sketch-plan of the preceding day's opera- 
tions, we were disturbed by the advent of two stafi* officers 
whom Mukhtar Pasha had despatched, the one to bring 
him accurate information as to the state of his right 
wing, the other to order up all troops from Kuipri Kui, 
and to stop and send back to the front all fugitives from 
the late Mahomed Pasha's army. From these officers 
we learnt that the losses had been quite as serious as we 
had imagined, that not three battalions had reached 
the Delibaba Pass, and that the whole road between 
Taghir and Erzeroum was crowded with men flying from 
the scene of combat. It was barely noon when firing 
was once more to be heard in the direction of Taikhojeh. 
Our horses were too done up to risk another gallop, and 
as a strong body of Eussians, horse and foot, were dis- 
tinctly visible on the hills just across the Araxes, we 
packed our scanty kit, and hurried ofi* towards Erzeroum. 
Midway between Khorassan and Kuipri Kui we passed 



BAGK TO EBZEBOUM. 133 

two battalions of infantry, moving np to the front. 
These were the men that Mukhtar Pasha on the 13th 
had informed me had been ordered np to snpport Ma- 
homed Pasha, and now, fonr days after the receipt of the 
Commander-in-Chiefs orders, they had condescended to 
leave their camping ground. Passing through Kuipri 
Kui, crowded with fugitives, who were being collected 
by an A.D.C. of the Mushir, we passed a brigade of 
five battalions of infantry, one horse battery, and 800 
cavalry, under the command of Eeiss Ahmed Fazil 
Pasha. That night we slept at Hassan-Kale in a khan 
filled with soldiers. Our servants and kit were all be- 
hind, but a tin of sardines had found its way into my 
holsters, and this, opened with the point of Sir Arnold's 
sword, furnished us with an excellent meal. At dawn 
we rose, and r-eached Erzeroum in time to partake of Mr. 
Zohrab's excellent breakfast, and to receive the warm 
congratulations of all at our escape, for the first rumours 
of the fight that reached the city had magnified exceed- 
ingly the risks we had run ; indeed, if I had led Sir 
Arnold in headless, it would not have surprised the 
terror-stricken inhabitants of the capital of Armenia. 

As matters stand now, Mukhtar is at Zewin, with 20 
battalions, two field and two mountain batteries ; two 
battalions at Khorassan guard the ford of the Araxes ; at 
. Delibaba is the remnant of his right wing; at Kuipri Kui 
is Ahmed Fazil Pasha with the brigade above men- 
tioned; whilst at Olti, Rasched Pasha has 11 battalions. 
Tergukassofi* (with his cavalry at Taikhojeh and Kara- 
tchurga) is at Taghir. Melikoff', with 17,000 men, is 
advancing from Kars, whilst Komaroff*, with a weak 
brigade, is falling back from Pennek to Ardahan. 

Ismail Pasha, Vali of Erzeroum, has, I have already 



134 THE GAMFAIGN IN ARMENIA. 

stated, at last, in consequence of peremptory orders from 
Constantinople, set out for tlie army. He has, ever since 
the declaration of war, been ridiculing Mukhtar Pasha, 
and accusing him of cowardice in not assuming the 
offensive. These accusations, freely transmitted to Stam- 
boul, have led the Ottoman Government to believe that 
the Commander-in-Chief was not making the best of his 
means, and consequently an order arrived on the 19th 
directing the Vali himself to proceed to the front. What 
his position will be I do not know. Mukhtar Pasha is 
a Mushir of some standing, while the Vali has but re- 
cently been promoted to that grade ; but it is rumoured 
that he will take command of the recent reinforcement 
despatched to the front, amounting to about five bat- 
talions, 1,000 cavalry, and one horse battery. These 
troops are at Khorassan and Kuipri Kui. If, as is re- 
ported, Tergukassoff has fallen back on the Khaliass 
Plain, and abandoned Taikhojeh, Ismail may effect a 
junction with Mustafa Pasha, who still must have some 
3,000 or 4,000 men with him, and with these his present 
intention is to attack Tergukassoff in front, while 
Mukhtar Pasha, reinforced as before stated, cuts off his 
retreat. There is no doubt that the Eussian General 
has fallen back, but the reason of this retrograde move- 
ment is evident. After the fight of the 16th he pursued 
the beaten Turks in two columns. One, passing by the 
Delibaba Pass, pushed them hard, while the other, ad- 
vancing via Dodi, on Taikhojeh, cut Mustafa Pasha off 
from communication with the main army. The right 
column was commanded, I believe, by Emiliffkassoff, a 
Georgian Prince, and a major-general of cavalry. This 
ofiicer pushed on a strong advanced guard as far as 
Kara-tchurga ; but the stubborn defence of Kars pre- 



KEW8 FROM EARS, 135 

vented tlie Grand Duke Michael from supporting Tergu- 
kassoff by a move of the central army, and he being too 
weak to hold such an advanced position himself, and 
moreover, Ferik Faik Pasha, with the Van Division, 
being reported as advancing in his rear, he recalled the 
cavalry brigade, and retired to a very strong position 
in the Khaliass Plain, whence the Turks will find it hard 
to dislodge him. 

In conversation with Sir Arnold Kemball, that 

officer came to the conclusion, owing to Tergukassoff's 

forward movement subsequent to the action of the 

1 6th, that Kars must have fallen, and that the advance 

of the left wing was but a prelude to the general move 

on Erzeroum of the whole Eussian army. The halt on 

the 18th renewed hopes that Kars still held out, and 

the retrograde movement yesterday from Taikhojeh to 

Khaliass confirmed that view. Late last night the 

Commander-in-Chief telegraphed that there had been 

a heavy artillery duel going on for more than a week 

at Kars, and that the Turks had made one or two 

very successful sorties. This would fully account for 

peremptory instructions being sent to Tergukassoff not 

to compromise himself by a too rapid advance. This 

morning news, which I ought to have no reason to 

doubt, has reached me that Faik Pasha, with the Van 

division, numbering six battalions, six monntain guns, 

and 5,000 Kurdish irregulars, has re-occupied Bayazid ; 

the Eussian garrison, numbering only 300 men, retiring 

without provoking a conflict. It seems extraordinary 

that there should have been such a small garrison left in 

so important a position, for Bayazid commands the road 

from Erivan, one of the three lines of communication 

that the Eussians possess. That it should have changed 



136 THE CAMPAIGN IN ARMENIA, 

hands twice in such, a short space of time possibly 
points to the fact, that its possession is not deemed of 
much importance by either Turk or Russian. How- 
ever, its capture will be made much of by the Ottoman 
journals, and will give colour to the rumours that the 
Muscovite is not having it all his own way in Armenia. 
Still, I cannot quite believe that the Russians should 
have abandoned Bayazid without a conflict. 

June 22nd. 

Shortly after despatching my letter yesterday, I 
received authentic information that Mukhtar Pasha 
had crossed over from Zewin to Delibaba to assume 
command of the right wing of the Turkish army, which 
for the future will be known as the head-quarters of the 
Fourth Army Corps. The command of the central 
division has been taken over by Ismail Pasha. 

The right wing and head-quarters now consist of the 
remains of Mahomed Pasha's troops, strength quite un- 
certain ; five battalions and a battery which have been 
moved down from Zewin, one battalion from Gulentab ; 
one battalion and a battery from Taikhojeh ; three 
battalions, 1,000 horse, and two batteries from Erzeroum; 
and two battalions from Khorassan, together with two 
battalions not engaged on the 16th — total, fourteen 
fresh battalions, with four batteries. I presume he 
has, then, a total of about twenty battalions, all told, 
at Delibaba. At Zewin he has twenty-one battalions, 
with one field and two mountain batteries ; and at Olti 
two battalions and six mountain guns. There are in 
the various camps about 4,000 irregular horse, all well 
armed, but not organised, and for the most part very 
badly mounted. There are also nearly 1,500 Circassians 



THE FAMOUS KURDS. 137 

en route from Trebizond ; but these men will not face 
the Eussian cavalry, are under no sort of discipline 
whatever, and when they see afiairs turning against 
them leave the field without waiting for orders, and 
entirely at their own discretion. It is true the 
Circassians will advance against infantry, but they 
never continue to do so when once they find casualties 
occurring. The Kurds, of whom there are a great 
number, are worse than useless. Scarcely an Armenian 
village in the country has escaped their heavy hands. 
They do not content themselves with stealing, plunder- 
ing, and murdering their weaker and unarmed fellow 
subjects, but they outrage and violate every girl on 
whom they can lay their hands. The stories that reach 
us— stories from too authentic a source to admit of 
doubt — are perfectly unfit for publication. The Otto- 
man Grovernment are showing great want of policy in 
encouraging, arming, and feeding these men, who, 
useless in action, are causing all the Christians of 
Armenia to turn with thankfulness to the Russians 
as their deliverers, instead of aiding the Government 
with all the means in their power to repel the Muscovite 
aggressor. 

Moussa Pasha, too, the Circassian chief, a' fanatical 
Mahomedan, left head-quarters' camp a few weeks 
ago, ostensibly to proceed to Constantinople, but he 
remained here, proceeding from mosque to mosque 
preaching a Jehad, or religious war, against all Chris- 
tians. Fortunately, the Vali is a man of a very timid 
disposition, and foreseeing that the massacres of Chris- 
tians would only bring them retaliation when the city 
fell into Eussian hands, he called Moussa up, pointed 
out the danger he was running, and summarily ordered 



138 THE CAMPAIGN IN AltMENIA. 

him out of the city. Now lie is returning to head- 
quarters, where I trust he may find some opportunity of 
earning fame at the head of his Circassians. 

This man was for many years in the Russian service, 
and finally rose to the command of a cavalry regiment, 
and was by them known as Colonel KondukoflF. Tor 
some fancied slight he abandoned the Muscovite and 
entered the Turkish army, where he was received with 
open arms, given the grade of lieutenant-general, and 
on the outbreak of war was despatched to Asia Minor 
to assume command of the irregular cavalry of the 
Fourth Army Corps. For some unknown cause he is 
eminently unpopular amongst both his countrymen the 
Circassians and the Turks. His conduct at the action 
of Beghli Ahmed on the 29th May cannot have raised 
him in the opinion of the authorities ; indeed it is pretty 
generally rumoured that Mukhtar Pasha wishes to be 
rid of him, and gladly gave him permission to proceed 
to Constantinople, hoping that once in Europe some 
other command might be found for him. 

Yesterday the public criers were going round the 
city calling on all good subjects of the Porte, Maho- 
medan or Christian, to arm themselves and go out to 
repel the common foe ; those that owned horses to go 
mounted, those too poor to do that to go on foot. I 
have not heard that the order was largely responded to ; 
indeed it seems to me that the advent of the Russians is 
hailed vdth unbounded pleasure by both Mussulman 
and Christian alike. 

Mukhtar Pasha evidently is not satisfied with the 
behaviour either of officers or men in the affau' of the 
16th, for on the 19th he had a general parade of the 
troops, and an order of the day was read to them, 



MUKHTAR AND HIS OFFICERS, 139 

stating that some officers and men of certain regiments 
had misbehaved themselves on the field of battle and 
had deserted their post. He exhorted all present to 
vindicate the traditions of Turkish gallantry when 
called upon to meet the foe, and announced his deter- 
mination of shooting all those concerned in the '' deb an- 
dade'' of last Saturday. True to his word, he has 
caused inquiries to be made into the subject, and this 
morning two regimental officers were degraded and 
flogged in the citadel of Erzeroum — somewhat a sum- 
mary proceeding, surely, and one not calculated to en- 
courage the others, for from what I saw of the action 
junior regimental officers and the rank and file behaved 
with consummate gallantry, and only gave way when, 
by the negligence and incompetence of their leaders, 
they ran short of ammunition, and were surrounded by 
the enemy. No troops coidd have behaved better under 
the very disadvantageous circumstances in which they 
were placed, and when I remember that these men had 
not seen pay for eighteen months, and received but one 
ration of bread among four soldiers for three days prior 
to the fight, my wonder is that they fought at all. 

While I write, news has just come in that Mukhtar 
Pasha, reaching Delibaba early in the morning of the 
3rd, at once pushed on through the pass to attack the 
Eussians in the valley of Eshek Khaliass. He took 
with him nineteen battalions infantry, twelve field, ten 
mountain guns, and about 2,500 cavalry. That afternoon 
there was slight skirmishing between the outposts, in 
which the Turks lost three killed; the troops bivouacked 
on high ground overlooking the Eussian camp, and at 
dawn moved on to a stronger position on very com- 
manding ground. At noon the Eussians under Ter- 



140 THE CAMPAIGN IN ARMENIA. 

gukassoff advanced to attack, numbering ten battalions, 
eight field guns, some mountain guns, and some say 
one rocket troop. The Russians fell back to their camp, 
leaving one mountain gun in the hands of the Turks, who 
may claim a decided success, although their losses were 
most severe — 400 killed and the same number wounded 
being the oflScial report. The Turkish troops bivouacked 
on ground slightly in advance of their previous night's 
position, and were prepared in the morning to follow 
up their advantage ; but the Russians, according to my 
news, broke their camp and retired. The news has only 
just come in, in a short note from one of Her Majesty's 
extra military attaches on the field. Captain M'Cal- 
mont, 7th Hussars, who was present, says the Turkish 
infantry behaved with consummate gallantry, but that 
their supports were not pushed up quickly enough, or 
else the result might have been a signal victory. The 
Turkish horse behaved badly, and this, coming from a 
cavalry ojBGlcer, I am glad to say, confirms the opinion I 
have so frequently expressed as to the worthlessness of 
these irregulars against the highly disciplined Russian 
cavalry. The same ofiicer reports that the artillery 
practice was bad, and this was the case on the 16th, 
when the Russian gunners drove the Turkish pieces 
out of action very quickly. Tergukassoff is wise to 
fall back; his force is not very strong, and he appears 
to have pushed on too far from the main army before 
Kars, endangering his communications ; for Paik Pasha, 
having left suflicient force to besiege the small garrison 
at Bayazid — which I learn did not abandon the place, 
but fell back into the Citadel, a masonry building ill- 
adapted to withstand a siege — is marching on his rear 
to join Mukhtar Pasha, and unless reinforcements 



TEB0UKASS0FF8 MOVEMENTS. 141 

are sent down from Kars, and can reach the Eussian 
left wing via Kagisman prior to the arrival of the 
Van column, the Arnienian general Tergukassoff may- 
find himself seriously compromised. On seeing his 
rapid advance after the fight on the 16th, I could 
not avoid coming to the conclusion that Kars had 
fallen, and that the move on the left was but a part of 
a general advance on Erzeroum. On hearing positively 
yesterday that Kars still held out, I was not surprised 
to learn that Tergukassoff had fallen back on Eshek 
Khaliass, and entrenched himself. There he is in an 
admirable position (were he not hampered in rear by the 
Van force, under Faik Pasha), having three roads by 
which he can adv^ance into the Passin Plain, a^d three 
roads by which he can communicate with the central 
army, viz., one by Kagisman, Alamad, Toprak Kale, 
and Zaidikan ; a second by Zerbkhana, Toprak Kale, and 
Zaidikan ; and a third by Grulentab. 

The Van division, under Ferik Paik Pasha, which 
has just re-occupied Bayazid, now consists of six bat- 
talions of infantry, the late garrisons of Moosh, Bitliss, 
Bayazid, and Van; of a field battery and a half, two moun- 
tain guns, 7,911 irregular infantry, of whom 6,000 are 
equipped with the Henry-Martini rifle; 1,640 irregular 
cavalry, of whom 800 are armed with the Winchester 
rifle. These irregulars, led as they are by fanatical 
priests, may possibly be of some use should Tergu- 
kassoff be driven back by Mukhtar Pasha ; but I can- 
not venture to hope that they will ever face the enemy 
in fair fight, though they doubtless would harass the 
Eussians in retreat very severely, and will be very 
useful, if he maintains his position on the Alishgird 
plain, in cutting off the convoys of provisions, which 



142 THE CAMPAIGN IN ARMENIA. 

must necessarily be forwarded to him now from Kars, 
as his communications with Bayazid are completely cut 
off — in fact, if Mukhtar Pasha and Faik Pasha now 
only behave with common prudence, they ought utterly 
to destroy Tergukassoff's force; but the greatest prompti- 
tude is necessary in order to overwhelm him before 
reinforcements can arrive from Loris Melikoff. 



CHAPTEE VIII. 

THE MOSLEM AT BAY. 

Leave Erzeroum once more for tlie Front — The Battle of Eshek Khaliass— 
Conduct of Turkish. Cavahy — ^No Ammunition ! — Wounded Men — German 
Doctors — Hand "Wounds — True Missionaries — Sir Arnold Kemball — Fresh 
Men of Eshek Khaliass — ^Turkish Losses — Fate of Skirmishers against 
Shelter Trenches — More Fighting — ^Another Stampede — Tcherkess Heroes 
— A Christian Village — Keinforcements for Zewin — Rumours of a Fight 
— ^^ Perish India " — Outrages on Christians — Faizi Pasha's Victory — Enthu- 
siasm of the Turks — Ismail and the Koran — Russian and Turkish Losses- 
Value of Turkish Cavalry — Value of Turkish Casualty Returns — Mehkojffi's 
Returns. 

Camp, Kuipri Kui, June 24. 
I LEFT Erzeroum this morning at 6 a.m. with Sir Arnold 
Kemball and his aide-de-camp, Lieutenant Dougall, 
en route to rejoin Mukhtar Pasha's head-quarters 
at Eshek Khahass. Reports received from Captains 
Trotter and M'Calmont yesterday, giving brief details 
of the engagement on the 21st, certainly gave me the 
impression that the Turks had achieved a decided suc- 
cess, and that with comparatively slight loss. I own I 
was at a loss to account for the difference in form be- 
tween the contending forces. On the 16th the Russians 
moved in excellent order, men kept well in hand, 
fired very steadily, were supported by an admirable 
artillery fire, and finally carried everything before them ; 
the Turks showing but little enthusiasm, no discipline, 
and not the remotest knowledge of hill warfare. Ac- 
cording to the accounts received of the action of the 



144 TEE CAMPAIGN IN ABMENIA. 

21st, the Turkish skirmishers moved in "beautiful 
order," showed great enthusiasm, and at the close of 
the day bivouacked in advance of their morning's 
position. 

On the road between this and Erzeroum we met 
numbers of officers and men coming in wounded, and 
the account they gave of the affair gives a very different 
description from that we first heard. It appears that 
Mukhtar Pasha advanced from Delibaba on the 20th 
with nineteen battalions, two field batteries, ten moun- 
tain guns, and about 2,500 cavalry, to attack Tergukas- 
soff, who, after the fight on the 16th, had taken up a 
strong position, which he entrenched, in the hills near 
Eshek Khaliass. That afternoon the cavalry of the two 
forces came in contact, and desultory skirmishing en- 
sued. The following morning (21st), leaving all his 
field guns and five battalions in reserve under Mustafa 
Pasha (who succeeded to the command on the 1 6th, on the 
death of Mahomed Pasha) at Haidar Kui, about five 
miles in rear, Mukhtar Pasha advanced to attack the 
Russian position, consisting of eight battalions, eight 
field guns, one rocket troop, and some — number not 
stated — mountain guns. The enemy threw out skir- 
mishers, who were pushed back on the left to their 
own entrenchments, when a severe fight ensued. I 
have conversed with numerous officers and men of the 
Amassia battalion, who were in the assaulting column 
on that flank, and they complain bitterly of their 
ammunition running out, no fresh supplies being sent 
them, and that they were never supported. A British 
officer present on the occasion told me that had this 
attack been properly supported the Eussians must have 
given way. I saw this battalion in action on the 16th, 



BATTLE OF E8HEK KHALIASS. 145 

and know for a fact that they entered the fight with 
only one complete packet of ten rounds and what few 
loose cartridges they had in their pouches. As they 
commenced firing when the Eussians were upwards of 
a mile distant and in skirmishing order, it naturally 
came to pass that in the final attack they were with- 
out ammunition, and so the Eussians advanced up the 
glacis to the crest of the position at Taghir in unbroken 
order and unchecked. This I saw on the 16th, and 
from all I can gather the same mismanagement occurred 
on the 21st. Troops advanced to the attack with un- 
filled pouches, and were shot down like dogs when 
gallantly trying to carry the Eussian entrenchments. 

Eeports are many, and from the many it is difficult 
to extract even one grain of truth. It is evident that 
there was a heavy engagement on the 21st, lasting from 
noon till dark ; that the Turks attacked the Eussian 
position, but failed to carry it. They claim a success, 
as Tergukassoff fell back the following morning from 
Eshek Khahass to the ridge he entrenched on the 15th 
above Zaidikan, and Mukhtar Pasha reports that 
Schamyl's son captured three guns with his Circassian 
horse. This does not tally with the accounts given by 
the British officers on the ground, who say all behaved 
well except the cavalry. 

The loss, considering the number of troops engaged, 
has been awful. The Commander-in-Chief himself tele- 
graphs 400 killed, and to-day, on the road between 
Erzeroum and this place, which is nearly fifty miles 
from the battle-field, I have seen from 800 to 1,000 
wounded being carried in to the hospitals — some walk- 
ing, some on mules, and the remainder in country carts ; 
doubtless many more, and those the most serious cases, 

K 



146 THE CAMPAIGN IN ARMENIA. 

are yet beliind, for one doctor assured me the total 
could not be less than 3,000 casualties. The sights I 
have witnessed to-day must be seen to be believed. 
Half-starved, half-naked men tottering along, vainly 
striving to reach some place where their wonnds should 
be attended to ; hundreds sitting by the roadside, near 
pools of water, endeavouring to moisten their clotted 
bandages or cool their fevered limbs. At Hassan Kale, 
twenty miles from Erzeroum, a small field-hospital of 
fifty beds has been formed. There are already in the 
village 270 serious cases from last Saturday's fight, and 
the two German doctors there have their hands full; 
but in the midst of a group of 400 wounded men I saw 
these two men nobly upholding the honour of their 
profession, standing bareheaded in the broiling sun, and 
working with a speed and vigour that boded fairly to 
clear off* the ghastly group by which they were sur- 
rounded before the arrival of the next train of carts. I 
saw Turkish soldiers standing up while their wounds 
were being probed, and not flinching a muscle ; and I 
saw others, unable even to crawl, lying on the ground, 
waiting their turn to at least have their hurts bandaged. 
A very large proportion of the men were hit on the 
hands and arms — indeed, of the group of men we saw 
entering Erzeroum, nine out of every ten were wounded 
there ; and I began to look with suspicion on them. 
However, it has been represented to me that men 
fighting behind breastworks show only their heads, 
arms, and shoulders. Those struck in the head rarely 
figure among the wounded. Hence the apparently 
large proportion of sHght hand- wounds. However, as 
we increased our distance from Erzeroum and came 
upon the more seriously wounded men, I am forced to 



DEFECTIVE TURKISH MEDICAL AEBANGEMENTS. 147 

confess that there were as many body and leg- wounds 
among the later arrivals as there were hand-wounds 
among the earlier batches. The doctors, as you may 
guess, were terribly overworked, and their stock of 
bandages and lint was soon exhausted, so all they could 
do was to apply fresh dressing, thoroughly wash the 
wounds (this was done by the men suffering from shght 
wounds), and replace the old stiff and clotted rags which 
the unfortunate fellows had themselves apphed. 

The American missionaries, the Eeverend Messrs. 
Pierce and Cole, in Erzeroum, have nobly volunteered 
to proceed to the front and assist the doctors all 
in their power; but as the supply of bandages and 
lint is very small, until more arrive their services 
without material would be useless. I trust that my 
many appeals in former letters have produced some 
effect, and that a moiety of the vast stores despatched 
to the Danube may be forwarded to Armenia, where 
the Turks have to contend with a far worse climate than 
their more fortunate comrades in Europe, and where 
there is no regular hospital organisation as in the other 
army corps. 

I hope to reach head- quarters to-morrow, when I 
will send you what more particulars I can gather with 
reference to the fight, which seems to have been con- 
tinued, but without much vigour, on the 23rd. It is 
also rumoured that a force of 16,000 men has been de- 
spatched from Kars towards ^Zewin Dooz, where Ismail 
Pasha is commanding but fifteen battalions, with one 
field-battery. 

Here we have five battalions guarding the bridge 
over the Araxes. The old earthworks thrown up in 1 854, 
under the direction of Sir Fenwick Williams, are still 
K 2 



148 THE CAMPAIGN IN ARMENIA, 

here untouclied in any way; tlie small redoubt that has 
been thrown up during the last month, and the slight 
shelter-trenches now in course of construction, will 
afford but slight opposition to the Eussian advance. 

Captains Trotter and M'Calmont have this moment 
arrived from head- quarters. They assure me that the 
fighting was most severe on the 21st. In one brigade 
there were upwards of 200 killed, but they think the 
Russian loss was heavier. As far as I can now as- 
certain, the Turkish loss was 400 killed and 2,000 
wounded. I must now close to catch this mail, and 
will send you further reports by next steamer. The 
Russian published official loss amounted to 54 killed 
and 375 wounded. 

Information has reached me from a very high source, 
that the Russians have offered a reward of 2,000 roubles 
for the head of any English officer. It seems scarcely 
credible, and I shall be glad to learn that this rumour 
is untrue ; but I have had it from many sources. The 
position occupied by Sir Arnold Kemball is one of 
great importance, requiring much tact and discretion, 
a thorough knowledge of Oriental character, coupled 
with a keen appreciation of military difficulties. I doubt 
if there is another officer in Her Majesty's army 
qualified to hold the post. A soldier by training and 
profession, yet a diplomatist from a thirteen years' 
experience as Consul- General at Bagdad, Sir Arnold 
possesses all the qualifications for his present respon- 
sible appointment. He possesses a thorough knowledge 
of Persian, Arabic, and Turkish, and can converse or cor- 
respond v^th equal fluency in any of these languages. 
Erom his intimate knowledge of the customs of the 
people, learnt during a lengthened sojourn in Turkey, 



SIR ARNOLD KEMBALL. 149 

he is able to gain tlieir confidence, and so to advise 
them in delicate and difficult matters, when a less 
experienced man would have to stand aloof, or when 
his advice would be neglected. Not that General 
Kemball ever advises during the present crisis, for his 
functions are to watch and report to Grovernment upon 
the affairs in Armenia, not to mix himself up with 
actual military operations. Sir Arnold earned his 
"jacket *' for conduct in Afghanistan nearly forty years 
ago, and had the "Bath" conferred upon him for 
gallantry in Persia, and yet he is well content to sleep 
on the hill-side wrapped in a Turkish officer's coat, to 
share the greasy and innutritions food found in 
Turkish camps, to stand by the side of Turkish troops 
under a fire that our younger soldiers of Abyssinia and 
Ashantee do not dream of; and for what cause? Not 
for the honour and glory that would naturally fall to 
a Major-General of artillery standing with British 
troops exposed to the same danger and privations, but 
merely because he has been selected by the Foreign 
Office to represent Her Majesty's Ambassador at Con- 
stantinople with the Turkish army in Asia Minor. It 
needs the constitution of a strong man to stand a 
ride of 259 miles in five consecutive days, with changes 
of temperature from snow-clad hills 9,000 ft. above sea- 
level to the dry and dusty plains of the Passin river. 
It needs a man with manly vigour to ride all day and 
write all night; it needs a General with something 
more than his country's reputation at heart to travel 
about, occupying the position Sir Arnold Kemball 
does occupy here, unattended by an aide-de-camp, 
often accompanied only by a single Mahomedan horse- 
keeper, trusting to luck for his food, and to the cold 



150 THE CAMPAIGN IN ARMENIA. 

hill-side for his bed. By all this, by his simple, un- 
affected manner, his unostentatious style of living, his 
warm sympathy for the Turkish soldiers, his severe 
condemnation of the conduct of many of their officials, 
his indomitable energy and perseverance, his cheery 
spirits, and his gallant bearing on the field of battle, 
Sir Arnold has knitted to himself all with whom he 
has been thrown into contact, and while upholding in 
a pre-eminent degree the character of the British 
soldier, has never, to the slightest extent, given the 
Turkish offi.cers reason to believe that his mission was 
to help them, or in any way to compromise the neutral 
position of our Grovernment. 

I have been much annoyed by the announcement 
just received from the chief of the telegraph-office here 
that my telegram, despatched on the 17th, giving you 
a full description of the action at Taghir, has been de- 
tained by order of the Ottoman Grovernment, and the 
amount paid for it will be returned to me. I suppose 
I ought not to complain, as I happen to know that all 
cipher despatches from our Consul here are refused; 
but still it seems an absurdity that the Porte should 
endeavour to hide from its own subjects news which m 
a few days must be known all over the world, and 
should encourage the dissemination of false reports, to 
the detriment of the public good. 

Camp, Kuippj Kui, June 2Qtk 
There are few things more difficult, none more dis- 
heartening, than the attempt to extract trustworthy 
information from the Turkish officials. I forwarded 
you a short note on the 24th, giving you the few par- 
ticulars I could gather concerning the battles that were 



MORE ABOUT TEE BATTLE OF E8HEK KHALI AS 8. 151 

fought on the 21st at Eshek Khaliass. Since then I 
have had an opportunity of conversing with Captains 
Trotter and M'Calmont, additional military attaches, 
the only English present on the field ; but as they were 
on the right of the position, where the fighting was 
confined merely to an artillery duel, it is impossible for 
me to give you any very accurate account of the en- 
gagement, and I much fear that until the Eussian 
oflS.cial and detailed reports are published, we shall be 
ignorant of the particulars of one of the bloodiest 
battles, considering the number of men engaged, of 
this century. 

I reported to you in my last that on the 19th inst. 
Mukhtar Pasha, hearing that General Tergukassoff had 
established himself in a very strong position at Eshek 
Khaliass, moved across from Zewin Dooz to Delibaba, 
the head-quarters of the right wing of the Turkish 
army, taking with him five battalions, with six field 
and six mountain guns. He had previously ordered up 
one battery from Hassan Kale, and one from Taikhojeh, 
three battalions and 1,000 horse from Kuipri Kui, two 
battalions from Khorassan, one from Gutenlab, one from 
Taikhojeh, and two joined the force a few hours subse- 
quent to the engagement on the 1 6th. What his total 
force was on the morning of the 20th I am unable to 
ascertain with any degree of accuracy. As I said 
before, it was perfectly impossible to estimate the 
losses at the battle of Taghir; but from what I saw, 
and what I could learn, only three battalions reached 
DeUbaba that night, whilst two were sent back from 
Kuipri Kui, whither they had fled. This opinion is 
strengthened by the report given by the officers above- 
mentioned, who state that Mukhtar advanced from 



152 TEE CAMPAIGN IN ARMENIA. 

Delibaba on the morning of the 20th with all his forces, 
leaving but one battalion at Taikhojeh to keep np his 
commnnication with his centre at Zewin Dooz, and that 
his force consisted of nineteen battalions,* twelve field 
and ten mountain guns. Advancing through the pass, 
he left a reserve of five battalions and all his field guns 
under Major-Greneral Mustafa Pasha, at Haidar Kiii, 
about six miles from Delibaba, and pushed on with 
the remainder towards the Eussian position. That 
evening there was slight skirmishing between the 
cavalry outposts, the Turkish division bivouacking on 
a ridge about three miles from the Eussian camp. At 
dawn on the 21st the Turks once more advanced, and at 
8 a.m. had t^ken up a position overlooking the Eus- 
sians, their camp being distinctly visible about two 
miles distant, immediately below the Turks. Captain 
M'Calmot assures me that he could see the Eussian 
troops parading, and that had Mukhtar Pasha brought 
up a field-battery to play on them, he would probably 
have driven them off before they could have formed; 
but, although thus surprised, no attack was made on 
the Eussians, who quietly paraded, struck camp within 
sight of their enemy, and then moved off to command- 
ing ground in the immediate vicinity, which they had 
previously entrenched. 

It was not until noon that the fight commenced, 
when the Eussians, having taken up position on this 

*As reinforcements to the extent of fourteen battalions and two 
batteries had reached Delibaba between the 16fch and 19th, and as the 
forces engaged at Taghir, to my certain knowledge, amounted to twelve 
battalions, one field and one mountain battery, with one battery at 
Taikhojeh, the obvious conclusion is that the Turks lost seven battahons 
and twelve guns in the action of the 16th, and from what I saw I see no 
reason to doubt this estimate. 



A DBAWN FIGHT. 153 

ridge, opened an artillery fire on tlie group of horsemen 
composing tte head-quarter staff, and sent forward a 
body of infantry to turn the right flank of the Turkish 
position. This attack was checked, and apparently not 
persisted in, the contending forces on this part of the 
battle-field contenting themselves with long-range firing. ' 
On the left of the Turkish position, however, very severe 
fighting occurred ; but to get at any accurate report is 
beyond the bounds of possibility. The Turks evidently 
advanced in some force, with the view of carrying the 
Russian entrenchments. They pushed quite close up to 
them, and were repulsed only to renew the attack over 
and over again. The regiments composing this brigade 
complain bitterly that they were not properly supported, 
and they also complain that they were sent into action 
with a very limited supply of ammunition, their pouches 
not having been filled up prior to the engagement. It 
is reported that on one occasion the infantry were 
supported by a body of Circassians under Moussa Pasha; 
but that the Russians immediately let loose two regi- 
ments of dragoons on the irregular horse, who were 
crumpled up Hke a pocket-handkerchief, with a loss, so 
Moussa Pasha says, of thirty killed and sixty wounded. 
This I doubt, for reasons I will dilate upon later. 

The Turks failed to capture the position which the 
Russians still occupied at nightfall. The Turks claim a 
success, however, as they bivouacked on ground that 
night in advance of the spot they were on in the 
morning; and the following day, early, the Russians 
moved off to a ridge about three miles in rear, which 
they at once entrenched. Prior to their march, they 
removed their dead from the battle-field, and in the 
afternoon the Turks moved down to coUect theirs, 



154 TEE CMIPAIGN IN AHMENIA. 

amounting to over 400. Mukhtar Pasha did not follow 
them up, and although in his report he claims a victory, 
and announces the capture of two guns, yet, at the 
most, it v/as a drawn fight, and his loss was enormous. 
Turkish officers have, in conversation with me, estimated 
it at 2,000 men, and I am inclined to think this is not 
an exaggeration. I myself saw fully 1,000 wounded 
men on the road between Erzeroum and this ; those 
able to walk were forced to struggle on as best they 
could, those able to bear removal were placed on mules 
or country carts, while the more dangerous cases were 
left in villages by the roadside. The Commander-in- 
Chief estimates the Russian strength at ten battalions, 
with thirty guns, and their loss at a figure much heavier 
than his own, while he announces the capture of 
two field-pieces. This latter statement is unfounded. 
Attempts were made by the infantry on the left to 
capture a redoubt which contained that number of 
guns, but they were unsuccessful ; and as Captains 
M'Calmont and Trotter were on the ground the whole 
time, and went over the battle-field the subsequent day 
with Mukhtar Pasha, and assure me that no guns 
\vere taken, I must own to a belief that the Turkish 
Commander-in-Chief has been misinformed on this 
point. The whole Turkish force engaged amounted 
to seventeen battalions and nine field and ten mountain 
guns, for, as the fight waxed hotter, large calls were 
made on the reserve, so that the .Russians were over- 
matched in men ; and the British officers present also 
assure me that they certainly had only eight field and 
a few mountain guns and one rocket-troop in action, so 
that in point of artillery fire the opposing forces were 
pretty equally matched. I am inclined to doubt, from 



TURKISH LOSSES, 1^5 

wliat I have seen of the Turks, if the Eussian loss were 

so heavy as it is supposed to have been— firstly, because 

I know how wildly the Ottoman soldier fires away his 

ammunition ; secondly, because I have seen how utterly 

regardless he is of cover ; thirdly, I have watched the 

Eussians skirmishing on the hill-side, and have been 

struck with admiration at the manner in which they 

conceal themselves while advancing, husband their 

ammunition, and never waste a shot. In addition to 

all this, those present state that the Eussians scarcely 

showed themselves at all; indeed, Captain M'Calmont 

informed me that he never saw a single battalion, and 

very seldom a skirmisher. Taking all these things into 

consideration, it appears patent to me that the Turks, 

with their usual dauntless courage, recklessly exposed 

themselves in storming the entrenchments, and, while 

unable to touch the Eussians, were shot down by them 

in hundreds from the perfectly secure position they 

enjoyed behind their breastworks. I am afraid this is 

a very meagre account of the battle ; but, in spite of all 

my endeavours, I have as yet been unable to get any 

more details, so I must content myseK with sending 

you what I have, in hope that I may shortly be in 

possession of fuller particulars. 

Yesterday morning, early, Sir Arnold Kemball was 
informed that the Eussians were advancing in two 
columns, and that severe fighting might be expected at 
both Zewin and Delibaba. We accordingly moved on to 
Khorassan, it being a very central position on the road. 
However, we met numbers of Circassians tailing off to 
the rear, certainly between 200 and 300 men. From 
these we learnt that a strong force of Eussians had 
attacked Ismail Pasha on the Zewin Dooz, and that 



166 THU CAMPAIGN IN ARMENIA. 

Moussa Pasha, who with 1,000 Circassians had been 
detailed by Mukhtar Pasha to proceed to support Ismail, 
had been unable to force his way through them, and 
was at present encamped at Khorassan, while on the 
right bank of the stream Mustafa Pasha was posted 
with five battalions. We accordingly sent back our 
baggage-animals, and moved on. We constantly as- 
cended the hills on our left to see if any signs of the 
enemy were visible ; but beyond Mustafa Pasha's bat- 
talions posted on the crest of a ridge about tlxree miles 
to our right front, and large parties of Circassians has- 
tening to the rear, not a sign of war was noticeable. We 
reached Khorassan at 6 p.m., but were not allowed even 
to give our horses a feed of corn. The Circassians had 
reported a large body of Cossacks advancing on the 
village, and their leader, Moussa Pasha, judged it expe- 
dient to beat a hasty retreat. He insisted on our leaving 
immediately, and even waited to see us mount. So, 
bowing to necessity, we once more set off, and, in com- 
pany with Moussa Pasha's horsemen, forded the Araxes, 
and proceeded by the right bank to Kuipri Kui, pushing 
on so as to avoid the Circassians who we knew would 
occupy every nook and corner of every village we might 
reach. The first place we came to, Yuz Vairan, where 
we had hoped to find a rough night's lodging, was in 
flames, having been fired by the Circassians and Kurds, 
and was, of course, quite deserted. The fact that it was 
a Christian village was quite sufficient excuse for these 
gentry to destroy it. As Sir Arnold, accompanied by 
his two orderlies, and Dougall and myself, passed 
through at about 9 p.m., we came across a party of 
Ghazi Mahomed's (Sheik Schamyl's son) men, returning 
from Delibaba, with that officer's belongings. Seeing 



kOUSSA PASEA'S SLUGGARDS. 157 

our English costumes, these men raised a cry of " Euss ! 
Euss!" and dashing off, left baggage, grooms, and 
horses to their fate. One of Sir Arnold's orderlies fol- 
lowed and calmed them, and together we moved on, 
finding fairly comfortable quarters in the '' odah " of a 
stable at Komadsor, where we passed the night. Such a 
sight as the march of this body of cavalry, said to be 
1,000 strong, I never saw, and, for the sake of Turkey, 
I hope never to see again. When we mounted at 
Khorassan I fancy there must have been about 400 men ; 
but, instead of marching in one Compact body with their 
chief, they moved off as it pleased them, in twos and 
threes, by whichever road suited their convenience. 
Scarcely 200 men crossed the river with their leader 
and these soon dwindled down to a small troop of about 
40 men. As I write I see the tent of Moussa Pasha 
pitched within a quarter of a mile of mine, surrounded 
by about 100 other bell-tents, all occupied by the 
horsemen whose dashing gallantry and fanatical hatred 
of the Eussians were announced as certain to bring the 
war to a speedy conclusion. So far from these men 
showing any dashing gallantry, when in bodies they 
display a remarkable tendency to keep out of the 
way of the enemy, and spend their time in ravaging 
villages, pillaging the inhabitants, living in clover, 
and never paying a sou for anything they appropriate. 
The fattest lamb in the flock, the best horse in the 
stable, the largest cooking-vessel in the '' khan " are all 
considered fair prize : it is not to be wondered at, then, 
that Armenian and Mahomedan alike should look for- 
ward with feelings of welcome to the coming of the 
Eussians. It is exasperating to see the Circassians all 
round one lying down in comfortable tents, living on 



158 TEE CAMPAIGN IN AHMENIA. 

the fat of tlie land, and declining to join in the conflict, 
while the Turkish soldiers are without cover, without 
food, and fighting gallantly for their country. For two 
days now heavy fighting has been reported as going on 
at Zewin Dooz, where Ismail Pasha, aided by the 
gallant Hungarian Greneral, Faizi Pasha, with a force 
of barely 10,000 men, has kept at bay a Eussian force 
which is reported to be half as strong again. Instead 
of proceeding to the assistance of the beleaguered Turks, 
who are much harassed by the Russian cavalry, Moussa 
Pasha and his Circassians take it easy at Kuipri Kui, 
25 miles to the rear. 

Yesterday five battalions and three guns forced 
their way up to Zewin from this place ; but they 
moved off before I learnt their intentions, and, as it is 
quite impossible to join the camp except in company 
with a large body of infantry — for strong bodies of 
Cossacks are prowling about the road, have cut the 
telegraph-wire, and captured small parties endeavouring 
to join Ismail — and as I have no wish to date my 
next letter from Tiflis, having had one narrow escape 
from an unforeseen journey in company with a Eus- 
sian escort, I am naturally rather careful where I go. 
So when Moussa Pasha informed us at Khorassan that 
the Cossacks were within half an hour of the village, 
I gladly joined in the evacuation of the place. 

Naturally, since I have been here I have had many, 
very many, opportunities of conversing with Turkish 
officers and men on the so-called Eastern Question ; and 
the consequence is that, arriving in the country a strong 
philo-Turk, deeply impressed with the necessity of 
preserving the " integrity of the Empire " in order to 
uphold " British interests,'' I now fain would cry with 



ON TEE EASTERN QUESTION. 159 

Mr. rreeman, " Perish India rather than one English 
soldier should fall fighting for Turkey." * I am fully 
aware that partisans of the Ottoman Empire maintain 
that we should not be fighting for the Porte, but to 
keep open our communications with India, which would 
be seriously imperilled by the contiguity of such an 
aggressive Power as Eussia. What did we fight for 
in 1854, and what was the result, at a sacrifice of life 
almost unprecedented in our annals of warfare ? At a 
sacrifice of 100 millions of English money we bolstered 

* In deference to Mr. Freeman's injured feelings, betrayed in a 
somewliat lengthy letter to tlie Times, on the 25th of July, 1877, I 
here give the exact words he made use of in the St. James's Hall 
speech of December, 1876, and apologise for my mis-quotation : — '* Perish 
British interests, perish our dominion in India, rather than that we 
should strike a blow on behalf of the wrong ' against the right ! ' " On 
reading the lucid explanation of the true meaning of this sentence, I 
find I am quite of the same opinion as its originator. My experience of 
India and the East, I humbly submit, is equal to that possessed by 
Mr, Freeman. I have many, very many, warm friends there, native 
as well as English, and am the last man to wish a deluge to submerge 
the peninsula of Hindostan, as the Somersetshire historian would seem 
to imply is the translation of the words *' Perish India I" As regards 
the objection to the phrase " fighting for Turkey," by Turkey I mean 
the government of that country. Mr. Freeman, whose knowledge of 
the Turk surely must be very limited, wishes blows to be struck " against 
the Turk." There is no finer race in the world than the Turk proper. 
Brave, honest, industrious, truthful, frugal, kind-hearted, and hospitable, 
aU who hnow the Osmanli speak well of him. He is as much oppressed 
by the curse of misgovernment as his Christian fellow-subject; and 
had the members of the Eastern Question Association as keen a sensa 
of justice as they have love of writing, they would long ago have 
obliterated the word " Christian " from their lengthy documents, and 
striven to ameliorate the condition of the lower orders of the subjects 
of the Porte, down-trodden as they are by an effete section of the Ma- 
homedan race, who have degenerated in mind, body, and estate, since 
coming in contact with Western civilisation. The fanatical hatred 
towards the Moslem shown by a large section of the Christian com- 
munity in England has done more to bring about the present crisis than 
we dream of. 



160 THE CAMPAIGN IN ARMENIA. 

up an eflfete Power, and for twenty -five years allowed 
it to labour under the impression tliat we should 
always prop it up by our stalwart aid when assailed. 
What has been the consequence ? The upper classes 
have enriched themselves by sucking the life-blood of 
the lower ; the country is in a state of bankruptcy 
owing to its maladministration ; the officials buy their 
promotion with money extorted by threats and com- 
pulsion from the poorer community, and continue in 
office by the same means ; trade is at a standstill, and 
no man durst embark in a new venture, on account of 
the heavy fees demanded by every Grovernment official 
as his own private perquisite ; and, although the actual 
Imperial taxation is small and falls lightly even on 
the poorer classes, yet the power placed in the 
hands of all Government servants is so enormous, 
and usually is so arbitrarily wielded, that the in- 
habitants groan under a yoke almost too hard to be 

borne. 

The constant reports by our energetic Consul of the 
o-ross outrages committed on Christian villagers, and 
his inability to obtain adequate compensation; the burn- 
ing houses of Yuz Vairan, which we ourselves saw on 
the 26th ; and the deserted Armenian hamlets all over 
these hills, point to the fact that oppression, however 
much it may be denied by the Constantinople officials, 
is openly practised and connived at, at any rate by those 
in authority in Asia Minor. Several glaring cases have 
come under my own personal observation, and many 
more have been reported to me by the American mis- 
sionaries and our own consular officials in Erzeroum. I 
do not for one moment mean to deny that there are 
honest, energetic Turks, capable of exercising their 



TAST REDEMPTION, 161 

talents for their country's good ; but these men are 
powerless. The vital powers of the nation are so 
sapped by centuries of misrule, the minds of the ma- 
jority are so imbued with the belief that all ideas not 
born of Moslem brains and sanctified by Moslem usage 
are false and to be scorned, that were any honest-minded 
gentleman to rise to power, and endeavour to check the 
present system of misgovernment, he would not remain 
in office one week.* After accompanying a Turkish army 
in the field, after witnessing the privations of the men 
owing to the criminally faulty commissariat arrange- 
ments, after seeing the miseries of the wounded, un- 
tended and uncared for, after hearing of, as well as 
seeing, the oppression habitually exercised on Chris- 
tians by all Mahomedans, after reading the history of 
the Ottoman nation, and after learning from the lips 
even of Turkey's staunchest supporters of the vacilla- 
tion and weakness of her Ministers, I cannot help 
feeling that she is past redemption, and that any en- 
couragement given to her will only prolong the present 
struggle, afford Eussia a pretext for further aggression,, 
and make the blow when it does come fall the harder 
upon the misguided nation. 

On the 27th we made one more attempt to make^ 
our way to the head-quarter camp^ but were strongly 
recommended by an officer commanding a battalion we 
met on the road, to turn back, as he was unable ta 
force his way through the Cossacks, who were in large 
numbers near Ala-Kilissa. Fearing our attempts would 
be useless, we determined to abandon them, and to join 
the Commander-in-Chief at Delibaba. With this in 

* Captain Gambler's able article on the " Life of Midhat Pasha," in the 
Januaiy (1878) number of the Nimteenth Cmtwn, ^aj-s me oat in this idea. 
L 



162 THE CAMPAIGN IN AJIMENIA. 

view we once more forded the Araxes, found our way 
into our old lodgings at Komadsor, and revelled in the 
luxury of home news, for here we found a missing mail. 
At night we learnt from a Turkish captain that Mukh- 
tar Pasha had pushed across from Delihaba to Zewin, 
that Mustafa Pasha was holding the ford at Khorassan, 
and, astounding assertion, that Tergukassoff, with all his 
forces, had surrendered to the Commander-in-Chief on 
the preceding day. 

Camp, Zewin Dooz, June 28. 

Leaving Komadsor at 3 a.m., we forded the Araxes. 
Pearing Cossack patrols, who had been reported as 
scouring the country, we passed over the hills via 
Ardost, in rear of the Zewin Hills, reaching the camp 
at 10 a.m. We proceeded at once to Mushir Ahmed 
Mukhtar Pasha's tent, where we found him and his 
gallant old chief of the staff, Paizi Pasha, in a great 
state of exultation. It appears that the fight on the 
25th here was a complete success. The Eussians at- 
tacked the position very heavily on the right front. 
Unfortunately, however, for the Muscovites, this front, 
owing to the open nature of the valley running up it, 
defied attack. 

The battle lasted until 8 p.m., when the Eussians 
drew off, leaving 265 dead bodies on the ground. From 
reports of ofl&cers on the ground, it appears that the 
Eussians, who, as I have already informed you, had de- 
tached a force of 16,000 men with 1,500 cavalry from 
Kars, were reported at MeUidooz on the 24th inst. A 
reconnaissance showed that their General had detached 
a force of five battalions, a battery, and some cavalry, 
towards Khorassan, with the view of cutting off the right 



To face pa^e 162. 



u 



t^* 



ircfrwl^udV 




Turts 
Russiajis 



SJVEles 



J.'^eW&r, Lidw 



GALLANT OBSTINACY OF THE RUSSIANS. 163 

wing from the centre, and probably also of seizing the 
Kuipri Kui position (at present almost undefended) by a 
coup-de-main, and thus forcing the centre of the Turks 
to fall back on Erzeroum without effecting a junction with 
theDelibaba division. At 11 a.m. the Eussian column, 
consisting (as now could be distinctly seen) of fifteen bat- 
talions, three batteries, and from 1,500 to 2,000 cavalry, 
was visible, moving over the hills from Mellidooz to 
Zewin. Without waiting even to halt and rest his men, 
the Eussian Greneral (by some said to be Loris Melikoff 
himself, by others Greneral Heimann) pushed on heavy 
columns to the right front of the Turkish position, where 
the ground is split up into numerous rocky ravines, ter- 
minating under the Turkish entrenchments, in almost 
precipitous walls, enfiladed for a distance of about 800 
yards, and in many places exposed to cross-fire from 
three entrenchments held by infantry, as well as to a 
sweeping fire from the six Krupp guns. The Eussian 
guns, owing to the nature of the ground, could not come 
into action at a nearer range than 5,000 yards^ and the 
Turks being about 1,500 feet above their batteries, 
shots not actually striking the entrenchments either 
buried themselves in the ground, on the face of the 
slope, or passing over, fell harmless a long distance in 
rear of the ridge. The infantry fire, too, owing to their 
low position, was to a great extent nullified, while the 
Ottoman troops, safe behind their shelter-trenches, rained 
in a tempest of bullets from their Martini-Henry rifles 
that no troops could have lived under. Ten times were 
the Eussians driven back, and ten separate times did they, 
with the gallant obstinacy characteristic of the nation, 
assail this almost impregnable position — certainly im« 
pregnable from the face they attacked it from. Seven- 
l2 



164 THJS CAMPAIGN IlSf ARMENIA. 

teen TurkisL. battalions, armed with, the best-shooting 
weapon in the world, poured down an almost incessant 
fire on the Russian column ; and when they, shaken and 
broken by their heavy losses, endeavoured to move oS to 
their right up the valley, and attack the more open 
ground in that direction, they were met by two fresh 
battalions, accompanied by two field-guns, very fortu- 
nately sent down by Faizi Pasha, and although these 
suffered very heavily (one having no less than 150 men 
put kors de comhaf) they effectually checked the enemy. 
Again and again did the Russians press their attack, 
sometimes to within 200 yards of the Turkish trenches. 
Again and again were they forced back, unable to face 
the furious storm hurled against them. The sun went 
down on this scene of carnage, and yet the fight went 
on, the midsummer moon lending her bright light to 
enable aggressor and oppressor to carry on their dread 
slaughter. In spite of their enormous losses, in spite of 
the death of two of their most gallant and determined 
leaders, in spite of their being unable to inflict any loss 
on their opponents, the Muscovites pressed on their 
attack; but at half-past eight in the evening, having 
lost nearly one-fourth of his force, Melikoff* drew off 
to Zewin. Had the Turkish commander possessed any 
confidence that his men would face their foe in the open, 
the Russians would have been followed up, and probably 
not a man would have escaped to tell the tale to the 
Grand Duke Michael at Kars ; but, knowing that the 
strong point of his men was in fighting behind entrench- 
ments, and being destitute of cavalry (for Moussa Pasha 
had been idly lying at Khorassan all day instead of 
moving up to support his bravely-fighting compatriots), 
Faizi Pasha wisely determined to abandon all hope of 



CAPTAIN KOHLMAN, FAIZI PASHA. 165 

pursuit, and allowed the Eussians to draw off unmolested 
to a position near Zewin, on the left bank of the Chan Su. 

The following morning, on the 26th, a smart can- 
nonade was commenced by the Eussians at a very long 
range, and under cover of it they retired to Mellidooz, 
where they now are, waiting for reinforcements from 
Kars. On the arrival of these they, doubtless, will once 
more try conclusions on the spot. The Turks now are 
inspired with confidence in themselves and their leaders. 
Dispirited by the surrender of Bayazid, the capture of 
Ardahan, and the defeat of Taghir, they were somewhat 
encouraged by the slight success gained at Khaliass, 
when the Eussians certainly fell back before Mukhtar 
Pasha ; and although the very heavy loss sustained that 
day somewhat damped their ardour, the complete vic- 
tory on the 25th here has inspired them with the 
greatest enthusiasm, and will probably put a very dif- 
ferent complexion on the issue of the next few weeks* 
campaign. 

As I have already told you, Mukhtar Pasha, on the 
19th, crossed over to Delibaba, and Kurd Ismail 
Pasha on that day assumed command here. On the 
25th he satisfied himself with sitting on the ground 
reading his Koran, and praying in a rapid and audible 
tone. In my humble opinion, and in the opinion of 
every Turkish officer with whom I have conversed, the 
whole credit of the day is due to Faizi Pasha, the chief 
of the staff, whom Ahmed Mukhtar had wisely left here 
to assist Ismail. Not only did this gallant old officer 
superintend all arrangements, personally visiting every 
battalion and shelter-trench, but once or twice early in 
the day, when the Eussians, pressing close up to the 
entrenchments, caused the Turks to waver — in one in- 



166 THE CAMPAIGN' IN AJRMENIA, 

stance, indeed, to retire somewhat rapidly — ^he himself 
led them forward, revived their drooping spirits, inspired 
them with fresh courage, and so won the day for his 
adopted Government. 

A Hungarian refugee after 1848, Captain Kohlman, 
as he was then called, sought employment in the Turkish 
army under Kmety. He gained some renown, and was 
rapidly promoted to the rank of Major-General; but, 
with their usual obstinacy and pride of race, the Turks 
look with jealousy on the man who fought and bled at 
Kars, who executed the fortifications at Batoum, who 
reorganised the Fourth Army Corps ; and although he 
has changed his faith, and is now as orthodox a Mussul- 
man as the most conscientious Turk, Faizi Pasha has the 
mortification of seeing men who were boys when he 
won his spurs in the Ottoman army pass over his head, 
and gain the coveted rank of Mushir, while he still 
grows grey in the grade of Ferik. It is to be hoped 
that the Porte will show signs of some gratitude, and as 
his just reward give him the rank of Marshal. With 
seventeen weak battalions and twelve guns he completely 
defeated fifteen very strong Russian battalions with 
twenty -four guns, inflicting on them enormous losses, 
while his own casualties did not amount to 500 men. 
The division of General Heimann, on the contrary, is 
reported by prisoners taken subsequent to the battle, 
and by deserters, to have lost 2,000 killed and upwards 
of 3,000 wounded. An Austrian officer present on the 
field, one who graduated in the '57 and '66 campaigns, 
and held high rank on the stafi* of the cavalry division 
at Sadowa, informed me that their losses were fully 
3,000 men. The villagers of Zewin informed us that 
upwards of 1,000 men with seventeen superior officers 



BEHAVIOUR OF THE TURKISH CAVALRY. 167 

were buried on their hills, and the Turkish soldiers state 
they buried 265 in front of their own position. All 
these reports must be received with caution, but I think 
the Eussian losses may certainly be put down at from 
1,500 to 2,000 men. The Turks suffered heavily in 
officers, fifty-seven out of the 500 being of the com- 
missioned grade. Lieutenant-General Mukhliss Pasha 
received two severe wounds in gallantly encouraging 
his men, and many officers commanding battalions fell 
at the head of tKeir regiments. 

I must mention one incident in the action, showing 
the value of the Turkish cavalry and their leaders. 
When the Eussians, shaken by the fire in front, 
endeavoured to move off to their right, they were met, 
as I told you, by a couple of battalions and two guns, 
who checked and drove them back. The scene of this 
affair was an open valley well adapted for cavalry 
manoeuvres. Faizi Pasha ordered his horse, some 500 
Kurds, Circassians, and zaptiehs, down the hill, to 
charge the broken infantry. Instead of proceeding down 
the watercourse which opened into the valley, and where 
they would have been completely covered, these daunt- 
less horsemen moved boldly across the sky-line of the 
ridge, fully exposed to the Eussian fire, and before 
any attempt to descend had been made they suffered 
casualties to the extent of about seventy horses, when, 
considering they had sufficiently vindicated their cha- 
racters, they retired, and declined to fight again that 
day. 

I have endeavoured since my arrival here to report 
fairly and conscientiously all that has come under my 
personal observation. I have never hesitated to expose 
the vices, follies, and shortcomings of the Turks, but I trust 



168 THE GMIFAIGN IN ARMENIA. 

at the same time that I have fully given them their due 
for their gallantry in the field, or their noble conduct in 
bearing privations which no other nation in the world 
would submit to. It is no pleasure to harp always on 
one string, and it has been a source of sincere gratifica- 
tion to me that I have at last been enabled to change 
my note, and chant my feeble lay of praise to the 
honour of the officers and men engaged in the battle- 
field of Zewin Dooz on Monday last. It is more than a 
pleasure to be able to recount the energy, good judg- 
ment, and gallantry shown by the Commander-in-Chief, 
Ahmed Mukhtar, in the operations of the last few days. 
His conduct at Kars, subsequent retreat from that place 
at the end of April, and the apathy he evinced at the 
commencement of the campaign, led to his bravery being 
freely questioned, officers and men inveighing in no 
measured terms against a leader who was rarely seen out 
of his tent, never visited the regimental camps, invari- 
ably retired on the advance of the Russians, apparently 
took no pains to insure his commissariat being regularly 
supplied, and allowed his men to sufier cold, hunger, 
and want without raising a finger to assist them. I am 
inclined to think that Mukhtar Pasha was hampered by 
the Constantinople officials, who permitted him to open 
a campaign with an empty treasure-chest, and then with 
a flourish of trumpets sent him £35,000, and bade him 
go in and win, and also by the jealousy of Kurd Ismail 
Pasha at Erzeroum, who took no pains to feed the army 
in his district, or to horse and push on the numerous 
guns lying useless at that city to the Fourth Army Corps. 
However much the Commander-in-Chief's conduct may 
be open to criticism prior to the 16th, there is no doubt 
that, subsequent to that date, he has shown an energy 



BETEEAT OF THE RUSSIANS, 169 

and capacity rarely seen in a Turkish official. Imme- 
diately on learning of the defeat at Taghir, and conse- 
quent depression and loss of morale of the Delibaba 
Division, he himself proceeded to the spot, led the men 
forward against the Eussians, and gained a decided 
success. Although achieved at a frightful sacrifice of 
life, it showed the Turks that they could hold their own 
against their foe ; and thus having inspired them Tvith 
fresh courage, and seen personally to the faulty com- 
missariat arrangements, which the unfortunate Mahomed 
Pasha entirely neglected, he crossed back to Zewin — too 
late, however, to participate in the gallant fight of the 
25th, the success of which must be attributed to the 
arrangements and gallant bearing of the chief of the 
staff, Faizi Pasha. 

As I close this letter, Osman Bey, aide-de-camp to 
the Commander-in-Chief, and as gallant an officer as ever 
drew sword, has just come into our tent and reported 
that the Russians have retired both from Mellidooz and 
from Zaidikan, leaving the front both of the head- 
quarters and Delibaba Division free from threatened 
attack. It seems that the Russians lost heavily in the 
fight at Khaliass, and that Faik Pasha, moving up from 
Bayazid w^ith his force (the details of which I have pre- 
viously given you) amounting to about 11,000 infantry 
and 1,600 cavalry, with nine guns, has placed Tergu- 
kassoff between two fires, and forced him to fall back. 
Prom the same source I learn that, having detached this 
division to attack Zewin, the Grand Duke Michael has 
but twenty-eight battalions at Kars ; and that Mukhtar 
Pasha, feeling the morale of his troops so much improved, 
has determined on making a forward movement. I trust, 
however, that this may not be true, for his weakness in 



170 THE CAMPAIGN IN ARMENIA. 

artillery will bring ruin on the Turks if they attempt 
to act on the offensive. It has been ascertained beyond 
doubt that Loris Melikoff commanded in person on the 
25th here. If so, he deserves to be removed from his 
command ; and the Eussian General, whoever he may be, 
who led his men against the position* without a recon- 
naissance, and sacrificed thousands of valuable hves in 
driving them against precipitous clifis, deserves to be 
tried by court-martial. Very different was his conduct 
from that of Tergukassoff on the 16th, who handled his 
men in the most perfect style, and gave as pretty an 
illustration of hill warfare as could well be desired. 



Camp, Zewin Dooz, June 30. 

I find it quite impossible to obtain any accurate 
information as to the Turkish losses at the battle of 
Taghir. All reports, even assurances from oflBcers on 
the personal stafi'of the Commander-in-Chief, and Ahmed 
Mukhtar Pasha's despatches themselves, are directly 
contradictory to the opinion formed by Sir Arnold 
Kemball and myself on the battle-field. I am almost 
tempted to disbelieve the evidence of my own senses, 
and to accept as'' a fact the statement, now officially put 
forward, that the Turks did not lose a single prisoner 
or a single gun. Yet I can hardly reconcile this with 

* There can "be no excuse urged by the partisans of the Russian 
General. The Russian maps give an excellent representation of the 
ground ; and as Paskiewitch defeated Salegh Pasha on the same spot on 
the 19th of June, lS29, and as admirable plans of that battle were pub- 
lished by the Russian Topographical Department, showing the impracticable 
nature of the hills in front of the old Chateau of Zewin, the easy gradients 
to the north, it seems incredible that, casting aside the experience gained 
in the war of 1828 — 29, Melikoff should have run the risk of incurring 
such a crushing defeat as he did on the 25th of June, 1877. 



TURKISH OFFICIAL EFFORTS. 171 

the sight I saw on the 16th of June, when the Eussian 
cavalry, charging up the slope, were mingled in one 
confused mass with the disordered Ottoman troops; 
nor with the accounts of various regimental officers 
with whom I have conversed, who admitted that their 
own regiments lost many prisoners — one, indeed (the 
Erzeroum battalion), having as many as 200 captured. 
The number was given to me by two men of the corps 
on two different occasions, as well as by a wounded 
officer. I cannot reconcile, then, the official reports 
with what I actually saw ; and I am the more tempted 
to place faith in my own report when I read the Eussian 
account of the affair at Beghli Ahmed, and compare it 
with the statement made by the Commander-in-Chief, 
who distinctly said in my presence that the total casual- 
ties of the Circassians were 13 killed and 37 wounded, 
omitting all mention of the loss of the two Whitworth 
guns with which Hussein Hami Pasha, the commandant 
of Kars, had provided them, although he owned that 
they were in action. Now, after the publication of the 
Eussian account, Mukhtar Pasha confesses that they 
did lose upwards of 100 kiUed, many prisoners, and not 
only the two guns, but also 70 tents, which they aban- 
doned in their flight. After these discrepancies I must 
confess I cannot place much faith in the Turkish official 
reports, and utterly disbelieve their statements of the 
losses at Taghir, which they aver amounted to only 25 
killed and 119 wounded. If this is a fact it reflects 
the greater discredit on the Turkish army, for I saw 
hundreds of men in small groups moving over the hills 
in rapid flight, many of them being unarmed fugitives ; 
and an officer of the Commander-in-Chief's staff, whom 
I met at Khorassan the day after the flight, informed 



172 TUIU CAMPAIGN IN ARMENIA, 

me that lie had been ordered to Kuipri Kui to turn 
back any fugitives he might meet. I again encountered 
this officer on his road back from Knipri Kui, when he 
assured me he had turned back two battalions who had 
precipitately fled from the field, and while I was con- 
versing with him he pointed out various bodies of men 
belonging to different corps, whom he had met on the 
road and ordered back to join the force at DeHbaba. 
Viewing the battle of Taghir from my own standpoint^ 
and from that of the Turks, I find such vast differences 
that I am again forced to disbelieve their version of the 
battle of Khaliass, when they confess to have lost 363 
killed and 1,020 wounded; and later on, the battle of 
Zewin Dooz, on the 25th, which they claim as a com- 
plete victory, in which they assert that the Eussians 
lost 2,000 killed and 3,000 wounded, and they them- 
selves but seven officers and 131 men killed, 15 officers 
and 313 men wounded, seems to me a complete mystery. 
I have gone over the ground, and can quite believe that 
any troops in the world attacking such a position held 
by steadily disciplined men would have suffered enor- 
mously ; but then, again, I was informed by officers on 
the staff of the Turkish army that they had buried 265 
men in front of their position, and that the villagers 
of Zewin had seen 1,080 buried in the bed of the Chan 
Su. I myself went to the village, questioned the few 
remaining inhabitants, and could not find a single trace 
of a grave beyond some half-dozen on the hill-side. I 
saw the bodies of a few horses, and also of two Turkish 
villagers, evidentlj^ spies, whom the Eussians shot in 
punishment for having led them into such a trap as 
they found the Zewin Dooz position. I have traversed 
the road for seventeen miles taken by the Eussians in 



MELIKOFF'8 BEP0BT8, 173 

their retreat, and passed through then- first bivouac, 
fifteen miles east of Zewin, on the Mellidooz, but could 
see no traces of burying-places. Any soldier will know 
that a retiring army numbering but sixteen battalions 
would not carry 2,000 dead with them, but would inter 
them near where they fell, especially as they remained 
within two miles of the battle-field for two days. 

So the glorious victory of Zewin remains to me a 
mystery. That there was an action I cannot doubt, 
for the Turkish position is fairly ploughed up with 
shell ; that the Russians were driven back, too, is clear, 
and that they left some dead and many stand of arms 
on the hill-side is also clear. But I venture to throw 
discredit on the greatness of the victory, brief details 
of which I telegraphed to you on the faith of the 
Commander-in-Chief's own statement. Until we get 
General Loris Melikofi^'s report we shall never know 
the truth. His accounts of the capture of Ardahan 
and the minor engagements at the commencement of 
the campaign have been marked with such fairness 
and moderation, that I think they can be implicitly 
accepted. 



CHAPTEE IX. 

IN PURSUIT OF THE RUSSIANS. 

Visit from the Musliir — Complications in Daghestan — An Advance on the 
Enemy — A Cold Night — Inefficient Quartermaster- General's Depart- 
ment — The Bivouac on the Mellidooz — Treatment of Sir Arnold Kemball— 
March to Sara Kamysh — A Turkish Camp — Turkish Hospitals — Rations of 
the Turkish Soldier — Discipline on the Line of March — Peabody-Martini 
Rifle— Russian Letters— The Opinion expressed in them of the Conduct 
of the War — Russian Retreat from Zaidikan — Desecration of the Graves of 
Russian Dead — Stripping the Dead — Disposition of the Army— Rumour of 
Russian Retreat — Turkish Reverse near Ardanutsch — Kurdish Atrocities — 
Lawlessness of the Circassians — Russian Wounded killed on the Field — 
Murder of Two Karapapak Irregulars — A new Mushir with Reinforce- 
ments — Detail of our Army — Officers of Redif Battahons on the lone of 
March — Stories of Russian Cruelty — ^Not borne out by Facts — Plunder of 
Christian Villages by Circassians — Vairan Kale — A Late Dinner. 

Camp, Mellidooz, July Xst. 

Yesterday morning I was compelled to stop writing, 
as his Excellency came to our tent to pay a visit to 
Sir Arnold. He seemed full of exultation at the result 
of the battle of the 25th, and the subsequent retreat 
of the Russians. In the course of conversation he in- 
formed me that he had certain information that the 
enemy .had fallen back behind Toprak-Kali and Sara 
Kamysh {i.e., that both wings had retired), and that 
he was thinking of advancing to relieve Kars. He had 
heard rumours from villagers, obtained in conversation 
with Russians, that there was a rising in the Caucasus ; 
that the Greorgians had seized Tiflis, and that the 
Grand Duke Michael was falling back on to the Rus- 
sian frontier. Of all this he assured me with the 
utmost gravity, and seemed to consider the campaign 



A COLD BIVOUAG. 175 

at an end, with tlie exception of the trifling finishing 
tonch of driving the Enssians over the Caucasus. Al- 
though he said he had thoughts of advancing, it was 
with no small surprise that we learnt at 4 p.m. that 
the Commander-in-Chief had actually left camp, taking 
with him twelve battalions, six field and six mountain 
guns, and all the cavalry ; also that Faizi Pasha was 
to follow early in the morning with the remainder of 
the head-quarter division, amounting to an equal 
number of battalions and guns. We speedily had our 
horses round, and with cloaks only, and three days' 
grain for our animals, followed the Mushir's track, 
making a detour by the village of Zewin to see the 
Russian graves, withou^success. 

At 8 p.m. we overtook the straggling column, which 
was halted on a crest 8,600 feet above sea-level, with- 
out water or wood, and with a bitterly cold wind 
blowing. We ourselves moved on below the ridge to 
a spot some three-quarters of a mile in advance, when 
we found a beautiful clear stream and a soft bit of 
grass. Then, hobbling our horses, we bivouacked for 
the night, with our syces for our only attendants, hard- 
boiled eggs and soldiers' biscuits for our dinner. It was 
a bitterly cold night, and I do not think any of us got 
much sleep ; for there was no wood with which to make 
a fire, and we were 8,200 feet above sea-level, and with 
a heavy dew falling, the temperature was not conducive 
to sweet slumbers. At half-past one we awoke, perish- 
ing with cold; and as the Commander-in-Chief had 
given orders that he would march at 3 a.m., we sent 
one of the syces to forage for wood, in order to get a 
cup of tea before our start. Our haste was needless, 
for it was five before the first bugle sounded, and 6.20 



176 THE CAMPAIGN IN ARMENIA 

before we got off. Ton may imagine our disgust after 
riding for less than half an hour to arrive at a beautiful 
grassy plain, studded over with groves of fir-trees, and 
covered with the huts made by the Russian army, who 
three days before had bivouacked on the spot. The 
Turkish cavalry had passed over the ground two days 
previous to our advance, staff officers had ridden over 
it that same afternoon, and yet the Turkish General 
preferred allowing his men to sleep on a bare mountain 
crest, where they were unable even to light a fire, or get 
water to wash down their unpalatable biscuit, rather 
than accept the reports of his staff officers, and move 
on a mile to an equally strong and in every respect 
far more advantageous position. 

I am now writing on a ridge east of the bivouac 
of the Eussian army, the Turkish troops having drawn 
up on it, piled arms, and there is some show of entrench- 
ing the place. Whether Mukhtar Pasha will remain 
here or not it is difficult to say. His intention yester- 
day was to move on and relieve Kars ; but as I look 
around me and see the undrilled, undisciplined battalions 
that constitute his army, I cannot think he will be 
rash enough to face Loris Mehkoff in the open field; 
and yet to hold this would be sheer madness. Thick 
fir forests surround it on all sides but the rear, approach- 
ing on the southern face to within 200 yards, and on 
the eastern to about 400 yards, affording admirable 
cover to an enemy who, I know from personal expe- 
rience, avail themselves of shelter when advancing under 
fire in a manner that I have never seen equalled by our 
troops. There is a ridge also on the eastern front, 
about 1,400 yards distant, well covered with pines, 
along which an enemy could easily plant their batteries 



RUSSIAN FIELD AUTILLERY. 177 

undetected, while three miles off, sloping down to our 
right flank, is a conical hill, the lower spurs of which 
dominate and enfilade our position. This is the very- 
spot where, on the 20th June, 1829, Marshal Paskie- 
witch defeated Hakki Pasha ; and the remains of the 
old Turkish breastworks may yet be seen around us. 

I think I mentioned in my last the fact that the 
Russian field artillery was of much heavier metal than 
the Turkish, and that on examining the fragments of a 
shell at Taghir I gathered it must have been fired from a 
gun resembling our 16 -pound field-gun. At Zewin it 
appeared that they had still heavier metal ; an unex- 
ploded shell was brought to the Commander-in-Chief's 
tent, which Sir Arnold saw and pronounced to weigh 
about 30 lbs. It was thickly coated with lead, through 
which the scoring of the groove was plainly visible. 
An Austrian officer present at the fight informed me 
that they had two of these heavy guns with the six 16- 
pounders composing their batteries, and that they never 
came within 400 yards' range, when the practice was 
excellent. I was much struck with the neatness of the 
Russian bivouac, each battalion having halted them- 
selves under the boughs of fir-trees, the company lines 
being quite distinct. Fireplaces made of stones, with 
forked sticks at either side, were left standing, and the 
well-dressed lines of horse leavings and unused hay 
showed that they paid as much attention to the appear- 
ance of their encampments as we ourselves do. 

It is but a duty I owe to the English public that they 
should be informed of the very scant courtesy our mili- 
tary attache receives at the hands of the Turkish officers. 
Sir Arnold Kemball is too old a soldier, too tried a poli- 
tician, and too deeply imbued with a sense of the 



"fj 



178 THE CAMPAIGN IN ARMENIA. 

extremely delicate nature of his mission, ever to let fall 

even a hint that he is dissatisfied with the treatment he 

receives ; hut it must, nevertheless, he galling to an 

officer of his position to he left without attendants, 

allowed to hivouac on the open ground, when even 

regimental officers carry tents, and to he not only kept in 

the dark as to the intentions of the Commander-in-Chief, 

hut constantly misinformed as to the actual state ot 

affairs. Attended only hy his aide-de-camp and one 

Turkish orderly officer, Sir Arnold may he seen riding 

through the camp, making himself thoroughly acquainted 

with the real state of affairs ; and although attired in the 

uniform of a British general officer, he is rarely received 

with any marks of respect, and is still more rarely 

saluted by either officers or men ; all day long in the 

saddle, at night sleeping on the bare ground, wrapped 

only in his cloak, sharing the rations of the Turkish 

soldier, and cheerfully putting up with privations that 

few of our generals would stand. It is but just to add 

that there was a marked change in the treatment of 

Sir Arnold after the relief of Kars, when all superior 

officers received him with every mark of respect. Yet 

throughout the campaign it grated on my sense of the 

fitness of things, that the Turkish subaltern, his orderly 

officer, was saluted by every man who passed, whilst 

the British general rarely received the honour due to 

his rank, even from the private soldiers. 

Camp, Sara Kamysh, July 3rd 

The night before last we succeeded, after some 
difficulty, in procuring a soldier's bell tent, for the cold 
on the Mellidooz plateau, which is about 8,600 feet 
above sea level, was intense, and the great variation in 



EUSSO-TUBKISH FRONTIER ROAD. 179 

temperature between the extreme heat of the sun in 
daytime and the bitter coldness of the nights was 
beginning to affect some of our party. We were 
aroused at five a.m. yesterday by a squad of men 
striking the tent about our heads, and at nine a.m. the 
column advanced through the Mellidooz Pass. The 
road was most picturesque — high cliffs on either side, 
well covered with thick clumps of fir-trees, and further 
on soft grassy slopes, thickly wooded with pine and 
beech, and carpeted with flowers of every hue, while a 
clear stream bubbled down the centre of the valley. It 
was a great treat to get a wash — for two days we had 
been restricted to less than a quart a day for all pur- 
poses, as the well from which the camp was supplied 
was more than three miles from our halting place. The 
state of the road over which we advanced was very 
different from that left behind Zewin ; every stream was 
well bridged with the trunks of fir-trees, the numerous 
bogs which abound wherever streams crossed the path 
were filled in with boughs of trees, fascines, &c., 
gradients eased off ; in fact, our progress was far more 
rapid over the improved E,usso-Turkish frontier road 
than over any other cross-road that I have seen in the 
country. At last, after a march of twelve miles, we 
reached the two villages of Sara Kamysh, situated at 
the eastern end of the pass, and ascending a ridge to the 
left we saw the plain of Kars. The troops bivouacked 
on the slopes on either side of the pass, in dense groves 
of fir-trees, at an elevation of 8,200 feet above sea 
level. Firewood there was in abundance, but the water- 
supply was bad and at a great distance. The arrange- 
ments of a Turkish army in this are perhaps more 
disgraceful than in any other respect. There are no 
such things as water pickets, and the consequence is 
M 2 



180 THE CAMPAIGN IN ARMENIA. 

bhat men bathe, wash linen, and water horses where 
they please. Those acquainted with Oriental customs 
will know how fatal they are to all hopes of a pure 
supply of water, and no soldier will wonder that in an 
army where no attention is paid to this most essential 
point, dysentery and sickness should be rife. 

I have had an opportunity of conversing with some 
of the German doctors attached to the army, and from 
them have had the most harrowing accounts of the 
sufferings of the sick and wounded. The hospitals at 
Erzeroum can accommodate about 1,000 men ; prior to 
any engagements every ward was filled with patients 
suffering from typhoid fever, dysentery, and pneumonia, 
the average death-rate being thirty to forty a day. 
The three actions of the 16th, 21st, and 25th of June 
furnished their quota of invalids in increasing the 
number by upwards of 2,000 wounded men, giving 
more than enough work to the eleven doctors already 
overworked in Erzeroum. There being insufficient 
accommodation for these wounded, they were dis- 
tributed amongst the khans and native houses in the 
vicinity of the hospital ; but, as the supply of medicines, 
bandages, and instruments was more limited even than 
that of doctors, the suffering and privation of these 
poor fellows can hardly be imagined. I do not know 
why some of the money collected in England for the 
relief of Turkish soldiers has not been diverted from 
the capacious maw of the European-Turkish army to 
the far worse equipped Fourth Army Corps. Here the 
men have received no pay for two years, their rations 
are distributed with gross irregularity, and it is a very 
rare occurrence for the men ever to see meat. Thus on 
short commons, unable to purchase even the commonest 
necessaries of life, it is not to be wondered that the 



CONDITION OF TURKISH SICK AND WOUNDED, 181 

unfortunate soldiers suffer terribly from sickness, and 
when once struck down it is still less surprising that 
the death-rate is so high. The American missionaries, 
the Eev. Messrs. Pierce and Cole, have, as I have 
already mentioned, nobly volunteered to come out to the 
front, when occasion requires, to assist the few over- 
worked doctors in their distressing labours; and now 
these two gentlemen, regardless of creed or race, are 
doing true missionary work by daily visiting the various 
hospitals in Erzeroum, and spending hours in endeavour- 
ing to alleviate the sufferings of the unfortunate men, 
aiding the surgeons in replacing bandages, washing 
wounds, reducing fractures, and, by distributing un- 
known luxuries, such as fowls, meat, eggs, tobacco, 
&c., among the men, enabling them to bear up better 
under their dreadful privations than if they were 
living on the meagre war rations issued with the same 
irregularity in the hospital as in the camp. Want of 
money is the great stumbling-block. I have succeeded 
in collecting a small sum, so small, indeed, that it seems 
but a drop in the ocean compared to the amount we 
really need. This sum I have intrusted to the Eev. 
Mr. Pierce, to be spent in such necessaries as he may be 
able to purchase; but lint, bandages, clean linen, &c., 
are simply unprocurable. For these we must depend 
entirely on the exertions of the committees at home, 
and I can only trust that should the good people of 
England forward any sums of money to Erzeroum to be 
expended on behalf of the wounded Turkish soldiers, 
they will annex as a condition that it is on no account 
to pass through Turkish hands, but to be placed solely 
at the disposal of the American missionaries and German 
doctors in Asia Minor. 



182 THE CAMPAIGN IN ARMENIA. 

With regard to the fund for wounded soldiers, I 
have been at some pains to ascertain, from various 
sources, the real state of the hospital arrangements in 
this camp, and the means taken for the comfort and 
transport of the sick. The total strength of the corps 
is about 16,000 fighting men, and possibly another 
1,000 followers. To attend upon this force there are 
two Prussian and three Turkish doctors ; there is one 
case of amputating instruments. Each surgeon has 
his own small pocket case. There are twenty tents, but 
without beds, for the accommodation of the sick, two 
cases of lint, bandages, &c., and two cases of medicine, 
and this is all that the Turkish Government has provided 
for the poor fellows with the head-quarters of the Fourth 
Turkish Army Corps ! There are no ambulance carts or 
litters with the army. In Erzeroum there are many 
lightly constructed litters, with wheels, by means of 
which it would be easy to convey wounded over these 
hills. But, as with their guns, so with their litters, 
the Turkish officials strongly object to bringiug them 
to the front, and the wounded accordingly suffer. Sick 
men get no stated rations, but occasionally a sheep 
is served out to the hospitals. Fortunately for the 
men themselves, this army is mainly composed of 
battalions of the Eedif, men who, having served their 
time in the army, have returned to civil life, been 
draughted into the reserve, and now in time of war are 
called out for the defence of their country. These men, 
consequently, have small sums of money of their own, 
and so are not dependent on their rations for subsistence. 
The men of the Nizam, or regular army — men solely 
dependent on their pay and their rations — are very 
poorly off for food. I believe no army in the world 



» • • 


34i 


• • • 


9 


• ■ • 


3 


« • ■ 


4 


• « ■ 


1 


• • • 


i 




■ ■' 1 


■ • ■ 


To 


• ■ ■ 


25 


• • • 


11 




1 


• • « 


Iff 



RATIONS OF TURKISH SOLDIERS, 183 

is better fed than the Turkish in time of peace, or 
rather, than they would be if their regulations were 
strictly carried out. It may interest some of my 
military readers, if I give the scale of rations as laid 
down, and also the amount they now are allowed in 
the field. 

Scale of Rations for Turkish Soldiers : — 

Ounces. 

Bread 

Meat 

Rice 

Butter 

Salt 

Onions 

Oil 

Wood 

Charcoal 

Soap 

Thirty of these rations are computed at 16 francs. 
In time of war bread is replaced by 25 ounces of 
biscuit or of uncooked flour; and the fresh meat by 4 J 
ounces of preserved meat. 

The above is the daily scale of food ; now, however, in 
consequence of the emptiness of the treasure-chest, the 
soldier gets but 200 drams of bread, and a sheep is 
occasionally given for distribution among the men 
of a company, which numbers little more than fifty 
to sixty men. The extra luxuries are never given, but 
as I said before, the men of the Eedif are able, now 
and then, to provide themselves with butter, eggs, &c., 
which enable them to eat the very unpalatable ration 
bread with a little gusto. 

The march of the division yesterday, through the 
Sara Kamysh Pass, was not one that reflected any 
credit on the stafi* or regimental officers. The men 



1B4 THE CAMPAIGN IN ARMENIA. 

straggled disgracefully; baggage animals moving on 
in the midst of a battalion column ; whilst Circassian 
horsemen, Kurds, and zaptiehs, marched in twos and 
threes, as it pleased them. Men never ask permission 
to fall out, but leave the ranks with their arms and 
accoutrements, as occasion arises, and either rejoin their 
company at the next halt or straggle on in the rear. 
At one spot on the road, near a stream, where there 
was a sharp descent, with a stiff pull-up on the far 
side, a block occurred, I dismounted, and, sitting on 
the grass, watched the mass of guns, cavalry, 
infantry, and baggage train disentangle itself from 
the apparently overwhelming confusion that reigned; 
the men, as usual, showed great cheerfulness, running 
forward with a shout to man the drag-ropes and get the 
guns over the crest, which they did in a' very creditable 
manner; but the officers looked on with their usual 
stolid indifference, smoking their everlasting cigarettes, 
and offering no assistance whatever. Coming down the 
incline — ^which was very steep — ^the officer commanding 
the battery never attempted to lock his wheels, or ease 
the strain for his horses. How the wheelers stood it 
I do not know. I fully expected to see one down and 
run over every moment. I was very thankful when 
the guns reached the bottom, and I saw the gallant 
little beasts, all safe and sound, panting and quiver- 
ing in every nerve, after their exertions. 

The field-guns with this force are of two descrip- 
tions, Krupp's four and six-pfiinders. The former are 
issued to the horse, the latter to the field batteries. 
They are all manned with eight horses, the forge and 
wagons only having six. It is a matter of some surprise 
to me that the batteries have only two wagons each, the 



TEE FEABOBY-MARTINI, 1^5 

remainder of the ammunition being carried in country 
carts or on ponies, in the same manner as the spare 
ammunition of the infantry corps is carried. I have 
also been struck with the armament of. the infantry. 
The rifle, which is a very close imitation of our Henry- 
Martini, is called the Peabody-Martini, presumably 
because the barrel is of the Peabody pattern. The lever 
for opening the breech is of a slightly different pattern 
to ours, and the bayonet (except in the Tallia or 
Chasseur battalion of each regiment, which is armed 
with the sword-bayonet) is a four-sided weapon, deeply 
duted, and capable of producing a particularly nasty 
wound. I had heard from Americans that the arms 
were very roughly turned out, and would prove as 
destructive to friends as to foes. I, however, saw them 
very hardly used at Taghir, when one or two regiments 
fired away upwards of 100 rounds, and I can gather no 
complaints reflecting on their strength and durability. 
An English officer, who was present at Khaliass, in- 
formed me that he saw 120 empty cartridge-cases in one 
heap by the side of a soldier, so I think the Providence 
Company may be congratulated on the success of their 
contract, more especially when the treatment to which 
the arms are daily exposed is taken into consideration ; 
rarely cleaned, thrown down on. rocks, piled carelessly, 
and unpiled violently ; it, to me, is a simple marvel how 
the weapons stand it at all. I have constantly taken 
the. rifles out of men's hands and examined them, finding 
them in a condition that would drive the captain of a 
line regiment into an early grave. 

I must not omit to mention that last night a party 
of Circassians captured a Eussian post proceeding from 
their position at Beghli Ahmed to Tiflis. The bag 



186 THE CAMPAIGN IN ARMENIA. 

contained some eighty letters, seven only of which 
were brought in. These were private (no official 
letters, apparently, being in the mail) from officers 
present at the battle of Zewin, which they describe as 
being disastrous. The fire from the shelter -trenches is 
styled " tm feu infernel'' and their losses are stated at 
790 killed and wounded. As I said before, until we 
receive the Eussian official reports it will be impossible 
to obtain anything like a truthful report. There is a 
great difference between the 5,000 killed and wounded 
of the Turkish despatch and the 790 of the Eussian 
officers' letters. The letters go on to speak of the hard- 
ships endured during the campaign, one man complaining 
bitterly of the price of sugar, which, he says, is most 
difficult to procure. I trust that Ahmed Mukhtar Pasha 
will have the good taste, now that he has read the letters, 
to forward them to their destination, for I doubt not 
that those eighty poor fellows have many hundred 
friends and loved relatives at home looking out anxiously 
for news from Asia Minor ; many dim eyes are tearfully 
scanning the accounts of the battles of Taghir, Khaliass, 
and Zewin, hoping against hope that the loved name 
may not appear in the fatal list, so coldly recorded in 
the public press. ''As cold water to a thirsty soul, so 
is good news from a far country.'* Would that the 
Turkish general would remember this, for I feel sure 
that no act would go further towards healing the deadly 
breach between Turk and Eussian than the simple act 
of kindly courtesy in sealing up and forwarding to their 
destination these eighty private letters, and in sending an 
intimation to the Eussian general that this has been done. 
Some of the letters speak of the action itself, and 
give the names of the various officers killed and wounded. 



MELIKOFF'S PLANS. 187 

One in particular, a Prussian, Schroeder by name, seems to 
have behaved with the greatest gallantry. All speak in 
very strong terms of the conduct of Loris Melikoff, who 
accompanied the forces, but permitted General Heimann 
to plan and carry out the scheme of attack, which ended 
so disastrously for the Eussian arms. This latter officer 
was very anxious, indeed, to press the assault on the 
following morning, but in consequence of the very 
serious losses sustained on the 25th Melikoff refused to 
entertain the project, and, finally, on the 27th, deter- 
mined to fall back on the main army at Kars, as the 
force at his disposal was quite inadequate to the task of 
forcing the Zevdn position and pushing on toErzeroum. 
There seems no doubt that the Grand Duke Michael 
detached the two forces under Tergukassoff and Loris 
Melikoff to force the Delibaba and Zewin roads, and 
effect a junction at Kuipri Kui, march straight on 
Erzeroum and seize that place. Had these two Eussian 
divisions been successful in their attempts to drive back 
the Turks from Delibaba and Zewin, the capture of 
Erzeroum might easily have been effected, for its 
garrison was nominal, its armament niost defective, 
and the works in a most dilapidated condition. 
Fortunately for the Turks, the Eussian corps were far 
too weak for the purpose assigned, and by the timely 
aid of reinforcements pushed up after Taghir, Mukhtar 
Pasha was enabled to check the advance of Tergukassoff 
at Delibaba, while Faizi Pasha effectively defeated Loris 
Melikoff himself. Checked on both flanks, and threat- 
ened in rear of his left wing by the Van force, the Grand 
Duke had no alternative but to recall his two advanced 
columns, endeavour to entice the Turks into the plain, 
and there defeat them in detail with his combined forces. 



188 TBIE CAMPAIGN IN ARMENIA. 

Head Quarters, 4th Turkish Army Corps. 

Camp Sara Kamysh, July ith. 

By the courtesy of an English gentleman present 
I am enabled to give you an account of the Russian 
retreat from Eshek Khaliass, an account totally at vari- 
ance with the exaggerated reports brought in by Major- 
Greneral Mustafa Safvet Pasha. On the afternoon of 
Wednesday, the 27th ult., cavalry reconnoitring parties 
brought in word to Eeiss Ahmed Pasha, the Lieu- 
tenant-Greneral commanding the Turkish right wing, 
that the Russians were retiring from their position on the 
ridge above Eshek Khaliass. Moving forward his whole 
force, the Turkish general prepared to attack their rear- 
guard, but the bold stand made by the two Russian 
battalions, aided by two batteries, with some dragoon 
regiments, effectually checked the efforts of the Otto- 
man troops, who apparently were not very eager for 
the fray. The enemy retired by alternate half-batteries, 
screening the movements of the rearmost one by a mass 
of cavalry, which was withdrawn directly the guns were 
well off. The Turks never approached within a mile 
and a half or two miles of the enemy, who retired in 
the most orderly manner, moving as steadily as if on 
parade. 

All night through this retrograde movement con- 
tinued, but the Turks abandoned all pursuit on Thurs- 
day afternoon, failing even to follow up the enemy 
sufficiently to ascertain by what road they moved after 
passing Zaidikan. It is conjectured, however, that 
hearing of the defeat of Loris Melikoff, at Zewin, and 
of the approach of Faik Pasha in his rear, Tergukassoff 
judged it expedient to fall back on the Araxes and 



TKE RUSSIAN RETREAT FROM KHALIASS. 189 

endeavour to join the Grand Duke at Kars, or else that 
he will return towards the Russian frontier at Parnawut. 
The Russian column apparently kept their pursuers 
at a very respectable distance, and succeeded in carry- 
ing off everything except two or three carts which 
had broken down, but had previously been cleared of 
aU contents except a few pounds of sugar and some 
cigarettes. At Zaidikan they abandoned a considerable 
supply of wheat, of which about 800 sacks were re- 
covered unhurt, the remainder having been burnt. The 
Turkish official account states that the Russians aban- 
doned stores, wine, tents, rifles, large quantities of 
ammunition, also many bullocks and horses, and that 
the Kurds and Circassians hovering about the columns 
cut off stragglers, in one case a whole company of fifty 
men being cut down to a man. Mr. Williams, who 
accompanied the staff* of Eeiss Ahmed Pasha through- 
out the operations, assures me that he did not see a 
single tent or cart captured, nor a single rifle or dead 
or wounded Eussian on the road, that the whole of the 
stores captured consisted of 800 sacks of wheat, and 
that any other statements are deliberate fabrications. 
As for Kurds and Circassians venturing to face the 
Russian infantry, that is an absurdity, and on this 
occasion, Mr. Williams assures me that they showed 
anything but an anxiety to meet the foe. One thing 
he saw, however, which he very properly brought to 
the notice of the Commander-in-Chief and of Sir 
Arnold, and that is, on passing through Zaidikan, 
where the Russians interred their dead after the battle 
of Khaliass, he saw the Kurds busy opening the graves 
and despoiling the corpses of their clothes. Such 
barbarity deserves universal reprobation. A grave 



190 THE CAMPAIGN IN ARMENIA, 

containing some Turkish bodies, which, evidently had 
been left on the field after the flight from Taghir, had 
been opened and the bodies disinterred. These were 
all clothed in uniform, showing that the Russians respect 
the bodies of their slain, and bury them with decency. 
On our side, however, I regret to say that both officers 
and men roam over the field, stripping all the corpses, 
which are invariably buried naked. The clothes are 
appropriated by the finders, and there are numbers of 
officers present here, whose battalions were in Servia, 
clad in the brown jacket of the Servian uniform — ^the 
commandant of Mukhtar Pasha's own personal escort 
is thus attired ! Although I believe the custom of 
violating the graves of the dead is not practised by 
the Turkish soldiers themselves, yet the custom of de- 
spoiling the slain is openly sanctioned by authority. 

Head-quarters of the army moved on this morning 
from this place in the direction of Beghli Ahmed, where 
Mukhtar Pasha proposes to encamp, and now at this 
present moment the disposition of his army corps is as 
follows : — Head-quarters, consisting of fifteen field and 
six mountain guns, twenty-five battalions, 500 regular, 
and 3,000 irregular cavalry, at Beghli Ahmed; left 
wing, consisting of twenty-four battalions, twelve field 
and ten mountain guns, and 1,000 irregular cavalry, 
with about 200 regular Nizam horse, at Kara Kilissa; 
one battalion, with fifteen field-guns, at Kuipri Kui (of 
these nine guns are under orders for this force) ; in the 
Grhiurji Boghaz, three battalions, with six field-guns ; 
at Erzeroum, thirteen battalions. All the regiments 
there are very weak, few numbering more than 500 
men, while the majority are under that strength; and 
as they all belong either to the 3rd Ban of the reserve 



NEARING KABS, 191 

or to the Mustahfiz (old soldiers who have passed through 
the line and all three grades of the reserve) they cannot 
he considered very formidable troops. 

Both Eeiss Ahmed Pasha and the Commander-in- 
Chief have committed the error of pushing forward 
their troops without taking means to keep open their 
line of communication ; and as they are entirely depen- 
dent for their supplies on the stores collected at Kuipri- 
Kui, they would be very awkwardly situated if the 
Eussians moved their numerous body of cavalry round, 
and operated on the many mountain roads left unguarded 
in the rear of the two Turkish divisions. Here espe- 
cially a few men passing round by Tscharpakli and Kara 
Orghan might in half an hour, with the aid of a few 
ounces of gun-cotton, completely block up the Sara 
Kamysh Pass, through which we advanced, by levelling 
trees and blasting a few rocks. Between Kuipri-Kui and 
this place, a distance of sixty-six miles over a moun- 
tainous road, Mukhtar Pasha has not left a man or a gun 
to cover his retreat, while there are on either flank of him 
three or more roads leading to his base, by which the 
Eussians can send a force to cut off his communication. 

Head-Quarters, 4th Turkish Army Corps, 

jCamp Kirk Punar, Jidy 6th. 

Here we are at last within easy distance of Kars, 
which lies about twenty miles north-east of our encamp- 
ment. Men ride in and out daily, and this morning a 
large party, including Captains M'Calmont, 7th Hussars, 
and Trotter, E.E., have ridden in to spend a few days 
in the beleaguered fortress. The problem appears to me 
without solution. One short fortnight ago the Eussians 
seemed about to make a military promenade to Erze- 



192 THE CAMPAIGN IN AEMENIA. 

roum; their right and left columns were face to face 
with weak divisions of Turkish troops, which, though 
equal in numbers, were far inferior to their enemies in 
guns, in discipline, and in organisation. The check at 
Khaliass and the defeat at Zewin, so far as we on the 
spot, judging from appearances only, can determine, 
seem to have completely overthrown the Russian plans, 
and of the army of 100,000 well equipped men with 
which they are said to have invaded Armenia, only forty 
battalions are in the field ; at least, the strength of the 
Russian aimy before Kars, I am assured by the highest 
authority in the camp, amounts to forty battalions of 
infantry, three regiments of dragoons, fifteen regiments 
of Cossacks, and eighty field guns. Their head-quarters 
are at Zaim, a spot some seven miles north-east of Kars 
on the Kars Tchai, and their line stretches from Ainali 
to Mazra. Mukhtar Pasha states that they are in full re- 
treat, and have removed their heavy artillery to Kharrak 
Darrah, an excessively strong position on the Alexandropol 
road. From Kara Kilissa we hear that Tergukassoff very 
cleverly effected a retreat from before the vastly superior 
forces of Eeiss Ahmed Pasha, and that, without losing 
a gun, he has so far eluded the vigilance of the Turkish 
cavalry, that they do not know by which road he has 
moved off, but believe ha has succeeded in following 
cross-roads towards Parnawut, on the Russian frontier. 

The Russians at Ardahan may claim a slight success. 
Some few weeks ago Lieutenant-Colonel Dedi Bey was 
detached from Batoum with two regular battalions, and 
directed to raise an irregular corps in the Livana dis- 
trict. He succeeded in organising five volunteer batta- 
lions, which he placed under the command of Major All 
Nihad Effendi, and left in Ardanutsch while he himself 



BEHAVIOUR OF THE BUSSIANS. 193 

moved about the district endeavouring to collect more 
men. The Eussian general at Ardahan, profiting by his 
absence, detached a brigade, consisting of one field- 
battery, one regiment of Cossacks, and three infantry 
battalions, to attack Nihad Effendi, and on the 27th 
ult. a small skirmish occurred, in which the Turkish 
irregulars were completely dispersed. The Eussians, 
having destroyed Ardanutsch, fell back on Ardahan.* 

Of course Turkish oflicial accounts tell of the atro- 
cities committed by the Eussians ; pillaging of villages, 
outrages on women, and slaying of children being freely 
attributed to the foe. I believe none of these things. I 
have now for the last week been following in the wake 
of the retiring Eussian army, and can see no traces nor 
hear any reports of any such misdeeds. On the contrary, 
they appear to have behaved with the greatest modera- 
tion, and paid for everything they consumed. It is true 
that there is a great scarcity of grain in the villages 
through which they passed, but this is accounted for by 
their large force of cavalry requiring enormous supplies 
of this commodity. Fowls, sheep, goats, and cattle are 
as plentiful in the district recently occupied by the Eus- 
sians as in that in rear of the late Turkish positions. 
And while all over the Passin Plain there were signs of 
misrule and piratical violence, and loud complaints of 
outrages perpetrated on the Christian populations, out- 
rages of which it is not well to speak, here all is peace 
and plenty; no smoking villages to speak of Kurdish 
atrocities ; no wailing women crying for their murdered 
husbands ; no ruined husbandmen seeking redress from 
Circassian pillagers. We have here in camp a force of 

* Ardanutsch was again captured on 17th December by a Brigade 
under Komaroff , detached from Ardahan. 

N 



194 THE CAMPAIGN IN AHMENIA. 

4,000 Irregular Cavalry — Kurds and Circassians — men 
without any organisation, under no discipline, and obe- 
dient to no chief — men who go and come as they please ; 
rarely receiving pay, they are dependent for subsist- 
ence on their own exertions, and the loud complaints of 
their conduct, which reach us from all sides, and which 
have constantly been reported to the Commander-in- 
Chief, show that there is a thorough understanding 
between the Turkish Government and its levies as to 
the method of drawing their rations. It was only the 
day after Zewin that the Circassians dehberately refused 
to follow the Eussians unless Ahmed Mukhtar Pasha 
gave them 60,000 piastres. Instead of treating these 
mutineers as any other general would have done, their 
demands were complied with. Again, after the battle 
of Khaliass, Moussa Pasha declined to advance, as his 
men had no tents, and finally, on hearing of a Cossack 
detachment in his front, fell back on Kuipri Kui. Once 
more, a body of 1,100 Circassians, on arrival at Erze- 
roum, proceeded en masse to the palace and demanded 
revolvers in addition to their Winchester rifles, declaring 
that they would go no farther until these were dis- 
tributed. I do not know which reflects more discredit 
on the army — ^the insolence of these men, or the weak- 
ness of the leader who complied with their demands. 

I mentioned in my last the fact that a Eussian post 
had been captured, with many private letters from 
ofticers speaking very openly of the battle of Zewin. 
It appears that in more than one of them mention was 
made of the fact that the Turks killed all the wounded 
men left on the ground. I am afraid that the accusa- 
tion is too true, for I can learn of not a single wounded 
man having been saved, although 265 dead were found 



MUBBEE OF LETTER-GABBIIJJES, 195 

close up to the Turkish entrenchments. I am aware 
that in Servia no quarter was given or expected ; but 
after the treatment of the prisoners taken at Ardahan it 
speaks badly for the spirit actuating the Mahomedan 
troops if they refuse quarter to wounded Russians. It 
is not to be wondered at that a spirit of vengeance per- 
vades the latter, or that more than one writer should 
declare that henceforth no Turk shall be taken alive. 

I regret that now I have to place on record an act 
which reflects the greatest discredit on the Turkish 
commander. On the 3rd inst. two Karakapaks were 
seized by a Circassian patrol. They owned that they 
were the bearers of letters from one Russian division 
to another, and without any attempt at concealment, 
produced them, candidly declaring that they were to 
receive seventy piastres for their safe delivery. They 
were not spies, they were not disguised in any way, 
they were not in the vicinity of our camp, but, while 
conveying a post from Kars to Tergukassoff's army, 
were apprehended by Circassians, taken up before the 
Mushir, quietly led to a secluded spot, and then, by 
his orders, shot, and left to lie unburied on the bare 
hill-side. Their corpses, riddled with biJlets, were seen 
by more than one Englishman, and I trust that all who 
did see the ghastly sight will place on record their 
detestation of the cowardly deed, so utterly opposed to 
all sense of justice, and so opposed to all military law. 
Although spies are employed by all armies, their fate, 
if caught, is too well known to need comment; but 
that the bearer of a letter should be subjected to the 
same dog-like death is an event unparalleled in my 
knowledge of military history. 

This morning, Mushir Mustafa Memenli Pasha 
N 2 



196 THE CAMPAIGN IN AEMENIA. 

marched into camp with five battalions of infantry, three 
field-guns, and 300 Circassian horsemen. The battalions 
were in excellent order, of more than average strength, 
and moved exceedingly well ; the guns, too, moved by 
in line as well as any Woolwich commandant would care 
to see. This makes our force now thirty battalions, 
eighteen field and six mountain guns, one regiment of 
regular and 3,500 irregular cavalry. The garrison of 
Kars, a moiety of which could always be pushed for- 
ward to join in any fight that might now occur, 
amounts to twenty-nine battalions of infantry, five 
field-batteries, one regiment of regular cavalry, and 
280 siege-guns. To-morrow, Major-Greneral Mustafa 
Djavid Pasha is expected from Grulentab, with three 
more battalions, so that if the siege of Kars is raised, 
Mukhtar Pasha would be able to follow up the Rus- 
sians, who are said to contemplate falling back on 
Goomri, with forty-eight battalions, at least, forty- 
eight field-guns, and 4,500 cavalry. At Kara Kilissa, 
-Eeiss Ahmed Pasha, now reduced by the three bat- 
talions which Mustafa Djavid Pasha is bringing up 
here, has twenty-six battalions, twenty-one field and 
sixteen mountain guns, with about 3,000 irregular 
cavalry and 8,000 irregular infantry. This includes 
the force with which Paik Pasha was attacking 
Bayazid, as it was supposed it would effect a junction 
with the Turkish right on the 4th inst. The troops 
which Mushir Mustafa Pasha brought in to-day, are 
two battalions of regular Nizam troops, and three of 
Eedifs, organised from the remnants of the Ardahan 
force. The Mushir himself has just arrived from Con- 
stantinople, and is under orders to proceed to Kars, 
to relieve Hussein Hami Pasha in command. The 



EEmFOnCEMENTS FOB THE TURKS, 197 

last-named officer will remain there, holding his own 
position of Ferik. 

This force is divided into two divisions, each divi- 
sion into two brigades; but I fancy the new arrange- 
ment will be upset, owing to the arrival of the five 
battalions which reinforced us to-day, and the three 
expected to-morrow. The 1st division is commanded 
by Lieutenant - General Hadji Easchid Pasha; 1st 
brigade. Colonel Osman Bey ; 2nd brigade, Colonel 
Mehemet Bey. The 2nd division is commanded by 
Major-Creneral Shefket Pasha ; 1st brigade, Colonel 
Suleiman Bey ; 2nd brigade. Colonel Ibrahim Bey. 
The artillery is commanded by Lieutenant - Colonel 
Tefik Bey, and the cavalry by Major-Greneral Mustafa 
Safvet Pasha, thus making three generals of that name 
in camp. The battalions are made up as follows: — Four 
battalions, 1st army corps ; twenty-one battalions, 4th 
army corps ; five battalions, 5th army corps. Of these 
thirty battalions, only four are regulars or Nizams. The 
remainder all belong to reserve troops only called out 
in time of war, men almost entirely ignorant of drill, 
and officers equally so ; in fact, so under-officered were 
these Eedif battalions that dozens of non-commissioned 
officers in the Nizam regiments have been promoted 
to superior grades, and a sergeant of last month is to- 
day a captain. Thus it is not to be wondered that 
the discipKne or drill of these men should be defective ; 
it only reflects the more credit on them that they 
should be able to defeat the Eussians, and, to my 
mind, proves that if the Turk was well led and well 
trained he would be second to no soldier in the world. 

The army has been detained here two days owing 
to heavy rain. To-morrow, if the weather holds up, 



198 TEE CAMPAIGN IN ARMENIA. 

• 

we hope to move to Beghli Ahmed, only twelve miles 
from Kars ; and then, I hear, that Mukhtar Pasha 
means to attack the Eussians and try to raise the 
siege. Their preponderance in artillery and cavalry 
makes the issue appear very problematical ; but, as I 
said in the commencement of this letter, so I now say 
at the close, that the conduct of the Eussians in per- 
mitting us to advance so far from our base, without 
severing our communications, and thus starving us into 
submission, is to me perfectly inexplicable. 

To-day, our servants and kit rejoined us, much to 
our delight ; having been without a change of clothes 
for a fortnight, a clean shirt was a luxury : and the 
meal with which the faithful ''Mr. Vincent" regaled 
us, after the sun went down, tasted to us, who had 
been revelling in soldiers' biscuits, worthy of Bignons or 
Vefours. This little Maltese, albeit somewhat nervous 
of the Muscovite, was a treasure in his way, and a 
bit of a humourist, as well as of a tactician. His droll 
sayings often raised a smile on our faces, and the air 
with which he would lay a tin plate containing stewed 
kidneys on the ground at our feet, as he announced 
*' Eognons sautes," was worthy of more polished scenes. 

Mr. Vincent, fearing a Eussian surprise, had made 
a system of night signals with the grooms, who gene- 
rally bivouacked some short distance from our own 
sleeping-ground, and before going to sleep, for at this 
time he shared a tent with Sir Arnold Kemball, Mr. 
Dougall, and myself, he would assure us that all 
arrangements were made in the event of a " combina- 
tion," which being interpreted meant a night surprise. 
When we got into a standing camp on the Aladja Dagh, 
he endeavoured to make us comfortable, improvised 



CAVALRY, REGULAR AND IRREGULAR. 199 

a table out of a one-dozen case, a table-cloth out of 
the advertisement sheet of the Times, and fed us on the 
fat of the land. 

Head Quarters, 4th Turkish Army Corps. 

Camp Vairan Kale, Friday, Juli/ 6th. 

At eight a.m. this morning the army left their 
camping ground on the Kirk Punar Hill, and moved 
across the Kars plain to Vairan Kale, distant about 
thirteen miles. The two divisions formed up to the 
north of the ridge in column of brigades, which marched 
in line of quarter-columns. The artillery was massed 
in Kne of batteries between the two divisions, and as 
the men moved off in fair order with bayonets fixed and 
bands playing, the sight was pretty enough; but the 
whole idea was marred by the childish manner in which 
flank guards were thrown out, a long line of skirmishers 
in single rank, men at intervals of six paces, moving 
parallel to the column, at a distance of 100 yards on 
either flank. As this line extended from the front of 
the advance guard to the rear of the long string of carts 
and ammunition animals, the number of men wasted in 
this absurd manner can be easily conceived. With the 
exception of about 300 regular cavalry, who, with swords 
drawn, moved in the immediate front and rear of the 
guns, the whole of this branch of the army was away 
some miles in front reconnoitring. There are supposed 
to be about 3,500 irregular cavalry with this force, but 
as the men are not formed in regiments, and move 
hither and thither at their own sweet will, I do not 
think Ahmed Mukhtar Pasha could collect 1,500 men 
in the event of occasion requiring their services, and of 
these I much doubt if 500 could be induced to face the 



200 THE CAMPAIGN IN AEMENIA, 

enemy. In marching across the valley, we passed the 
villages of Kara Hamza, Ali Sofa, and Beghli Ahmed, 
the first two Mahomedan, the last a Christian hamlet. 
I saw numerous signs of plenty in the abodes of the 
followers of the Prophet, while the unfortunate Arme- 
nians had been forced, owing to the oppression and 
tyranny exercised by their own fellow-countrymen, to 
abandon their houses, leaving large stores of grain, 
grass, fowls, cattle, &c., to the prey of the marauding 
Circassians. 

On all sides, from the Marshal and his staff down 
to the poorest villager, we hear tales of the cruelties 
practised by the Eussians, how cattle have been stolen, 
grain carried off, corn trampled down, women and chil- 
dren killed ; but as far as we can see, and we have 
moved directly in the route taken by the Eussians on 
their march to and return from Zewin, facts point 
exactly to the contrary. The Mahomedan villages teem 
with men, women, and children, all following their 
usual avocations; fowls, turkeys, geese — all in great 
numbers-^are seen feeding in the immediate vicinity of 
the plain ; large herds of cattle and flocks of sheep are 
grazing on the neighbouring hills. The corn is now 
full in ear, and shows plainly that the Eussian troops 
carefully avoided trampling down the crops, while . the 
abundance of rouble notes, for which the villagers refuse 
to take less than their full value, is satisfactory evidence 
that Loris Melikofi^s army possesses sufficient disci- 
pline to respect the property of harmless villagers, and 
that his men pay for all they take. Very different is 
the sight when we approach Christian villages. These 
are considered fair field for pillage by the irregular 
horsemen of the Turkish army, and I regret to say that 



MAS8AGEE BY CIRCASSIANS. 201 

these disgraceful proceedings are not checked in any 
way by the officers of the army. Yesterday, as I have 
just informed you, we passed through the village of 
Beghli Ahmed, the scene of the cavalry action on the 
29th of May, when the Eussian horse surprised the 
Circassians, defeated them with heavy loss, and captured 
their two guns. These brave warriors, who by their 
own accounts abandoned their camp and artillery after 
suffering only fifty casualties, returned when the coast 
was clear, accused the unfortunate Christians of having 
given information to the enemy, straightway massacred 
thirty-one men in cold blood, and proceeded to pillage 
the village. When we passed through, the place was 
completely deserted, doors of granaries burst open, the 
contents spilt over the road, eager groups of soldiery 
being busy filling bags with grain, a commodity never 
supplied to horsemen by the Turkish commissariat. 
Stacks of straw were being pulled down, and large 
bundles carried off by all who chose to lay hands on 
the samcj while infantry soldiers were busy filling 
their various vessels with the flour strewn in front of 
the houses. Others were cutting the half -ripe com, 
and driving off ponies and donkeys laden with huge 
sheaves of the same, I regret to say that I encouraged 
this system of pillage by purchasing from a Circassian 
a large wooden water-bucket, for, owing to the scarcity 
of vessels to contain this precious fluid, we have often 
been put to the greatest inconvenience a man can suffer 
on service ; and this bucket was almost priceless to us. 
At 6 p.m. we crossed the Kars stream just below 
this village, selected a nice green spot to the south of 
the group of houses for our camping-ground, and pro- 
ceeded in a very heavy thunderstorm to pitch our tents, 



202 THE CAMPAIGN IN ARMENIA. 

getting thoroughly wet through in the operation. Only 
those who have travelled in Asia Minor and been 
burdened with Turkish servants can understand the 
difficulties we experienced in obtaining food, or only 
those whose travels have been in company with a large 
force can thoroughly appreciate our situation. It was 
half -past 7 before our tent was pitched, and then we dis- 
covered that our zaptiehs had quietly gained the shelter 
of a friendly house, leaving us to obtain our own food, 
firewood, water, and stabling for our horses. As a last 
resource, I proceeded myself to the village, which was 
crowded with Circassians, Kurds, and regular soldiers, 
loudly hammering at every door, demanding food and 
house-room. Every house was shut, the inhabitants 
knowing full well that food and shelter given to the 
men entailed a heavy pecuniary loss, for the irregular 
horseman of Turkey having obtained what he requires, 
which is invariably the best that a village can afford, 
mounts and rides away. Money compensation never 
enters into his head. Is not he fighting for his 
country, and so entitled to all he can lay his rapacious 
hands upon ? It was another hour before my persua- 
sions, backed by the silent eloquence of a 100 -piastre 
note, induced the mukhtar of the village to produce 
eggs, milk, water, fowls, and sheep for our men ; but 
attaching myself to this worthy's sleeve, I followed him 
from house to house, and found that an Englishman 
with Turkish paper money in his hand could rush in 
where even Circassians feared to tread. I returned 
to the tent laden with my spoil, and at 11 p.m. we 
sat down to a sumptuous repast of omelettes, and 
lamb chops, washed down by sherry and water, an 
unexpected luxury produced by my faithful Maltese 



MB. AND MRS. ZOHBAB. 203 

servant, a treasure of his kind, who triumphantly entered 
the tent with a bottle in his hand. As we none of ns 
possessed such a beverage, we were anxious to know 
whence it came, and learnt that the ever- thoughtful 
wife of our Consul at Erzeroum (a truer specimen of the 
kind-hearted English lady never drew breath) had, un- 
known to us, sent him some few bottles to produce 
when our own stores should fail. Any tribute of mine 
to the care and kindness shown by Mr. and Mrs. 
Zohrab to all wanderers in the desert would be super^ 
fluous. It is but fair to own that all our comforts, and 
not a few of our necessaries, are due to the goodness 
and hospitality of this English couple, who, exiled in 
Erzeroum, are ever ready to welcome warmly all Eng- 
lishmen, provide them with the best their house can 
afford, and fit them out for the longest journeys, con- 
tent to earn their reward in the kindly remembrances 
in which they are held by all who have had the pleasure 
of meeting them. 

Our camp here is situated most picturesquely on a 
grassy knoll, a few yards to the south of the village of 
Vairan Kale, which nestles in a deep ravine bounded 
on both sides by rugged basaltic rocks. Between these 
flows a clear, rippling steam, with cherry- orchards on 
either bank. Smaller ravines run down from the higher 
mountains to the Vairan stream ; in each of these are 
encamped the various battalions of our force, their 
snow-white tents on the emerald carpet, with the rough 
grey crags as a background, and in the far distance the 
dark hill of Kars, from which ever and anon a 15-cen- 
timeter Krupp belches forth its volume of smoke and 
flame, the whole forming a picture rarely to be equalled 
in any country. 



CHAPTER X. 

THE RELIEF OF KARS. 

We enter tlie Fortress — The old familiar Names — Turkish Forts and Turkish 
" Obstacles " — Losses during Bombardment — Round-headed Shell — Russian 
Siege Batteries — Changes in our Staff — The Town well supplied with 
Provisions — Fortress with Ammunition — Description of the place from 
the Moskovskiya Vedomosti. 

Kars, July 9th. 

Little did I think one short week ago that I should be 
able to date my letters from this place. I am almost 
tempted to haul down my colours, forswear all my 
forebodings, count the Turks superior in numbers, in 
discipline, and aptitude for warfare to the Russians, 
and prophesy a triumphant entry into Tiflis. Indeed, 
judging from present appearances and the events of the 
past few days, it seems as if the Muscovites were beaten 
out of the field, and that nothing remains but to 
advance on Loris MelikofE, and push him back on 
Groomri. Situated as we now are, 100 miles from the 
nearest telegraph-office, our latest English dates being 
the 31st of May, we are necessarily dependent on the 
Turks for all our European news. So we are ignorant 
of the march of events on the continent, where com- 
plications may have arisen to account for the quietude 
of the Grand Duke's force, and for our unmolested 
advance from the Zewin position. To attribute the 
inactivity of the enemy to their two adverses at 



TEE *' BELIEF" OF EARS. 206 

Khaliass and Zewin is an absurdity, for their losses 
in these two actions certainly did not exceed those 
of the Turks. Impeded as we are by faulty com- 
missariat arrangements, an absence of transport, and 
the very worst system for moving an army that I have 
ever seen or read of, we have contrived to move this 
force forward, and take up a decidedly strong position 
for the support of Kars. To call it a relief is an 
absurdity. We have not brought up one pound of 
grain or one round of ammTinition to the place ; but we 
have placed within striking distance a force equal in 
strength to the garrison, and one that, combined with 
it and supported by the fire of the batteries, might 
venture with some hope of success to drive the enemy 
from the ridge they now occupy. 

And now for Kars. Yesterday morning, after an 
early breakfast, I started, in company with Sir Arnold 
Kemball and his aide-de-camp, Lieutenant Dougall, 
R.N., to visit the beleaguered fortress — the place that 
has been haunting our dreams day and night — rumours 
of the fall of which have reached us ever and anon with 
such a minuteness of detail as to lead us to doubt the 
stories of its impregnability, and to fancy that, sooner 
or later, it must fall. It was not without some small 
feeling of pride that I rode through the open chevaux 
defrise in the outer entrenched line to the south of the 
town, and, looking at the frowning heights above, 
thundering forth their notes of > defiance to the Eussian 
batteries, I thought of that gallant band of our own 
countrymen, under whose heroic guidance, twenty-two 
years ago, the Turkish army withstood one of the most 
memorable sieges of modern times, finally surrendering 
— when starvation stared them in the face, and all hope 



206 THE CAMPAIGN IN ARMENIA. 

of succour, owing to the supineness of the Ottoman 
Government, had passed away — to a foe as chivalrous 
as they themselves had proved to be. 

It is hard for an inexperienced pen like mine to 
attempt to give an idea of this fortress, which two 
decades ago was familiar to all Englishmen, and which 
has been so ably, so minutely, and so often described 
by men whose names are household words in all military 
circles. In these times, however, of blind faith in the 
all-powerful wisdom of the rising generation, of scorn- 
ful scepticism as to the gallantry or skill of the giants 
that lived in those days, there may be many who have 
never read of the difficulties experienced by Sir Fenwick 
Williams, and of the indomitable valour and persever- 
ance with which they were surmounted. There may 
be many to whom the names of Fenwick Williams of 
Kars, of Kmety, of Lake, of Teesdale, convey no mean- 
ing whatever, although little more than twenty years 
ago all England was ringing with the sound of their 
gallant deeds, and all Russia paying a noble meed of 
tribute to their bravery and endurance. 

Kars is situated at the extreme end of one of the 
easternmost slopes of the Soghanly range. This spur 
is pierced by the Kars Tchai stream, which flows between 
precipitous banks, rising some 950 feet above the level 
of the water. On the eastern side of this river the 
ridge constitutes a flat plateau, about one mile in length 
by 800 yards in breadth, with steep rocky slopes to the 
north and south, and a gentle grassy glacis towards the 
Russian frontier. On this eastern spur are built the 
Karadagh and Kara Paltak forts (the latter known as 
the Arab Tabia in the days of 1855). Five miles off* on 
a spur some 300 feet below the Turkish crest, lies the 



THE FOBTS OF KAES. 207 

army of the Czar, their siege-batteries being placed in a 
ravine some 4,000 yards from our works. The hills on 
the western side of the Kars Tchai extend on command- 
ing heights for about a mile, when a second stream cuts 
the Soghanly spur, and beyond it the range is lower, 
and, consequently, valueless for all military purposes to 
friend or foe. On this western hill are built the largest 
forts — I believe it is generally conceded that when 
the Karadagh falls the place cannot hold out, for it com- 
mands the town, situated as it is on both banks of the 
Kars Tchai, on the southern slopes of the hill ; and in the 
town are the magazines, commissariat stores, hospital, &c., 
the possession of which by the enemy would necessitate 
the capitulation of the fortress. At some distance from 
the town, in the plain on the southern side, three 
very substantial permanent redoubts have been built 
since the campaign of 1855; these are connected with 
each other by a breastwork of strong profile, which is 
carried on over the hills, and runs from fort to fort. I 
was not enabled to ascertain exactly the profile of any 
of the works, but I judged the trench running round 
the works to have a parapet four and a half feet in 
height and six feet in thickness. It was revetted with 
stones (!), and had a trench two feet deep and about six 
feet in width in rear. The whole front was defended by 
various obstacles — troup de loup — smaller military pits, 
and wire entanglements being freely made use of. At 
irregular intervals small batteries for two or more field- 
guns were placed. These were neatly constructed, but 
I am afraid the School of Military Engineering at 
Brompton Barracks would not approve the Turkish 
works. The troups de loup were about four feet deep, 
and about five feet in circumference ; < in fact, they were 



208 THE CAMPAIGN IN ARMENIA. 

excellent rifle-pits for an enterprising enemy. The sod 
revetments, which were few and far between, were built 
up with the turf being laid, not horizontally but 
vertically; they were not even pegged in; while the 
splinters from the stone revetments caused the casualties 
from the enemy's shell-fire to be largely increased. The 
works on the plain and on the western hills are very- 
substantial, the parapets being from twenty -four feet to 
thirty-six feet in thickness, with a command varying 
from fifteen feet to twenty -four feet ; but the batteries, 
four in number, on the Karadagh hill are very weak, 
with only from six feet to ten feet of thickness. These 
are not revetted, and, consequently, are in a very 
dilapidated condition. The shots fired by the enemy 
show that they have some sixteen and a half centimeter 
guns, and altogether thirty-five heavy siege-cannon in 
their advanced batteries. It may appear absurd, but I 
was assured by an officer of the Eoyal Engineers, on the 
authoritj'', I believe, of the Turkish Commandant of 
Artillery, that the garrison commenced firing at the 
enemy's camp at a range of upwards of 10,000 yards, 
and at that distance did considerable execution ! ! 

The day I went over the batteries was the twenty- 
first of the bombardment, and during that time the Turks 
had fired 17,558 shell at the enemy, who in their turn 
had replied with an average of 2,000 a day, their largest 
number being 3,200. It was amazing to see the ground 
round about the Kara Paltak and Karadagh batteries, 
which had been the principal objects of the Eussian fire. 
The place was literally covered with fragments of shell, 
and in many places with unburst sixteen-centimeter 
projectiles. It was marvellous to see the wreck that 
the ridge appeared, and then to learn that the total 



PROJECTILES USED BY THE RUSSIANS, 209 

damage done by this frightful cannonade had been 
eighty-five men killed, 155 wounded, three women and 
one child killed, one field 6-pounder completely disabled, 
one fifteen-centimeter Krupp partially disabled, one nine- 
centimeter shunt gun partially disabled, three carriages 
totally disabled, and eight expense magazines blown np. 
It is impossible to estimate the Russian loss, but 
twelve magazines have been seen to explode. They 
have not as yet attempted to advance by regular ap- 
proaches, but threw up, at what I should jndge a dis- 
tance of 6,000 yards, two batteries, each containing two 
16i-centimeter guns, and then they constructed, under 
cover of their fire, six batteries at 4,000 yards' distance ; 
these each contain five fifteen-centimeter guns, but 
whenever a bombardment is contemplated, forty field- 
guns are brought up before dawn,* placed in the trenches 
which connect the siege-batteries, and with these the fire 
is considerably strengthened. The projectile fired from 
some of these field-pieces excites considerable curiosity, 
and is as unfamiliar to the British officers present as it 
is to the Turk. The diameter was 3 inches, the extreme 
length 92 inches. A hollow cylinder of i-inch iron, sur- 
rounded by four belts, is surmounted by a solid iron 
shot, through which the percussion-fuse is screwed, 
connecting it with the charge of powder in the lower 
cylinder. On striking, the fuse explodes the bursting- 
charge ; the shell scatters its splinters in every direction, 
and the solid round shot is propelled for a further dis- 
tance — sometimes as much as 2,000 yards. So I am 
assured on the authority of the Turkish commandant of 
artillery. Colonel Hassain Bey, an officer who studied 

* These were 9-Pf under field Krupps, with a shell equal ii weight to 
the 12-centimeter siege g^uns of the Turks. 




210 TEE CAMPAIGN IN AHMENIA. 

for seven years at Woolwich, and who would be a credit 
to the ordnance branch of any nation. I saw a great 
number of these projectiles ; some were perfect, the fuse 
having failed to explode ; the cylindrical shot was still 
unseparated from its spherical head, while in others the 
round shot was only found intact, the cylinder having 
burst into innumerable fragments. I do not know 
whether I am attaching undue importance to a well- 
known invention, but never having seen such a shell in 
any of my numerous visits to Woolwich, I cannot help 
thinking that as complete a description as my unpro- 
fessional pen can give may be of interest to some. 

The Russian batteries were very well constructed. 
The Turks have an idea that they have Moncrieff 
carriages, as they never see the gun, only the puff of 
smoke ; but my glasses, which are an excellent pair, 
showed me screens at a distance of about thirty yards in 
front of each battery, which would fully account for the 
guns being invisible. The whole line was covered with 
rifle-pits about fifty yards in advance of the batteries, 
and in these all day long were seen the white cap- 
covers of the Russian infantry. 

The. Turkish garrison at this time consisted of 
twenty-nine battalions of infantry, averaging about 400 
rank and file, 1,700 garrison artillery, 1,500 armed 
citizens, and about 300 cavalry. 

The Turkish forts, as I said before, are all connected 
by a trench of strong profile. This is manned day and 
night by one-half of the garrison, so that the duties of 
the men are exceedingly heavy, and they suffer in health 
accordingly. The gunners never leave the batteries, so 
they may be said to be continually on duty, and under 
fire too. There has been a slight change in the staff of 



FOOD SUPPLY IN KAES. 211 

the two forces since we arrived. Mushir Mustafa Pasha, 
who arrived on the 6th instant with five battalions 
of infantry, assumed command of the fortress on the 8th, 
and took Faizi Pasha (Greneral Kohlmann) as his chief of 
the stajff; the late commandant, Hussein Hami Pasha, re- 
mains in Kars as second in command, and Hassan Kiazini 
Pasha, chief of the stafE in Kars, joins this force in the 
same capacity. We were reinforced yesterday by three 
battalions from the right wing of the Turkish army under 
Major-Greneral Mustafa Djavid Pasha, who succeeded to 
the command on the death of Mahomed Pasha, at Taghir ; 
so that now, including the Kars garrison, we have here 
sixty- three battalions, six field-batteries, two regiments 
regular and 3,500 irregular cavalry, a force with which 
Mukhtar Pasha ought to be able to raise the siege. 
But I doubt if he will face the Russians in the open field, 
although I am assured on the highest Turkish authority 
that the enemy have only forty-eight battalions, three 
regiments of dragoons, fifteen of Cossacks, and eighty 
field-guns in front of Kars. 

The stories as to the want of provisions here are all 
false. Stores of all kinds can be obtained in great 
quantities, even luxuries, such as sugar, tea, brandy, and 
wine, being easily procurable. Indeed, prices of many 
things are lower than in Erzeroum. Ammunition also 
is abundant, there being 62,500 rounds for the siege- 
guns, enabling them to fire 500 shells a day for 125 days, 
while the supply for field-guns and small arms is com- 
paratively inexhaustible. Now the Commander-in-Chief 
has made up his mind to remain encamped at Vairan 
Kale, and to bring up victuals and ammunition enough 
to last the garrison a whole year. Whether the 
Russians will allow him to remain unmolested is another 
o 2 



212 THE CAMPAIGN IN ARMENIA. 

matter. The following description o£ the fortress, taken 
from the MosJcovsJci^a Vedomosti, gives a far better 
description of the works than I can ; so I produce it, 
merely adding, that advanced batteries have been con- 
structed in front of the Mukhliss, the Karapatlak, and 
the Karadagh redoubts, and that these contain fifteen- 
centimeter Krupp guns, of which there are a con- 
siderable number on the works. The artillery for the 
defence consists of 327 siege-guns (not 100), all rifled; 
I did not see a smooth-bore on the works. A very large 
number of traverses have recently been thrown up ; their 
utility has been demonstrated by the marvellously small 
loss sustained by the garrison, during the late siege. 

From the right wing we hear that Eeiss Ahmed 
Pasha has been leisurely following up Tergukassoff, 
who, moving by Kara Kilissa and Dijadin, has effected 
a retreat across the Alasgird Plain, to the mountains in 
the immediate vicinity of Balykly lake, where he is 
apparently waiting for reinforcements, and whence 
Ahmed Pasha means to drive him, following him up, if 
necessary, to Tiflis — at least, those are the orders he has 
received; but as Eeiss Ahmed during the Eussian 
retreat from Zaidikan never attempted to attack Tergu- 
kassoff, I cannot think that he will be so rash as to 
beard the lion in his den. 

THE FORTRESS OF KARS. 

The Moshovshiya Vedomosti gives the following de- 
scription of Kars : — 

" The foi-tress of Kars lies at a distance of 57 versts (30 English 
miles) from the Russian district-town Alexandropol, and 200 versts 
(130 English miles) from Erzeroum, in the fertile valley of the 
Kars Tchai, on the principal transit route from Erzeroum to 



THE CITADEL OF KAR8, 213 

Tiflis, The situation is very picturesque. The town and its three 
faubourgs are crowded into a kind of amphitlieatre in the western, 
southern, and eastern slopes of a pretty high hill, cut through from 
the south-west to the north-east by the Eiver Kars TchaL That river 
flows through the town in a course of about 2,500 yards, and makes 
three decided bends. Entering the town from the south, it flows first 
for a distance of about 1,000 yards in a northerly direction, during 
which it is broken up into several arms by two large and several 
small islands. Then it makes a curve, and leaves the city in an 
easterly direction. To the south and east of this curve, on a high 
hill, stands the town, properly so called, and the citadel. Further 
south lies the faubourg of Orta Kapi ; to the east is that of Bairam 
pasha ; and to the west, along the left bank of the river, stretches 
the narrow faubourg of Temur-pasha. 

" Kars is surrounded by a continuous wall. The citadel, called 
by the Turks Itch Kaleh, extends for about 300 yards a long the highest 
ridge of the hill on which the town is built. It is composed of a high 
brick wall, with stone foundation, of which the largest side faces the 
town in the form of a re-entering obtuse angle. The opposite side. 
crowning the steep descent to the river, is built almost in a straight 
line. On each face of the re-entering angle is a small tower, and 
within the walls are two large towers. Behind the north-eastern 
tower is the powder-magazine. The walls of the citadel are con- 
structed for defence by artillery. There is but one gate, and it is to 
the soutL The easiest approach is from the east. To the west and 
north there is a high precipice. From the side of the town the slope 
is steep ; but along it runs the most convenient road by which the 
citadel is provided with supplies. The fortifications are too weak to 
bear a long si^e. As the walls could not resist the destructive force 
of the artillery now in use, the Ottoman Government has constructed 
forts all round the place according to the plans and under the direc- 
tions of foreign engineers, chiefly English. These forts, of various 
strength and construction, have converted K^rs into a strongly 
fortified camp, which could not be taken by sudden open attack. 
The exterior fortifications crown the ridge of hills which approach 
the town from the north-east and the west ; but the three principal 
forts are on the plain, on the east and south of the town. All the 
surrounding heights compose three groups, under the names of the 
Karadagh, the Shorakh, and the Tchakhmak Hills. The highest of 



214 THE CAMPAIGN IIT ARMENIA, 

these, commanding all the others, ai*e the Karadagh Heights, forming 
the continuation of the ridge on the western extremity of -which 
stands the citadel, and extending along the right bank of the Kars 
Tchai. The Shorakh and Tchakhmak Heights lie on the other side of 
the river, and form the extreme eastern offshoots of the Tchalgaour 
Hills, which lie to the north-west of Kars. They are separated from 
each other by the Tchakhmak Kayine, which runs from the village of 
Tchakhmak in the direction of the citadel. The Shorakh Plateau 
begins near the left bank of the Kars Tchai, about two miles above 
the town, and extends to tihe village of Tchakhmak. The highest 
point of it is called by the Kussians Bashi-Bazouk Hill. The 
Tchakhmak Hills stretch from the Tchakhmak Ravine towards the 
north-east till they reach the Kars Tchai, about a mile and a half 
below the town. They cover the town on the north and north-west ; 
but they are less elevated and more liable to be attacked than the 
others. 

" Let us now turn to the description of the exterior fortifications, 
beginning with those on the right bank of the river. These may be 
divided into three groups — those on the Karadagh Hills, those on the 
plain, and those on the left bank of the river. 

"L On the Karadagh Heights. 

" 1. Arab Tabia, or Karapatlak, presents an irregular figure, the 
gorge of which is closed by stone barracks. The left face is built on 
the top of the high precipitous bank of the Kars Tchai, commanding 
the opposite bank, on which are the forts Williams Pasha and Teesdale 
Tabia. It serves to protect the approaches from the valley. The 
front and right face are strengthened by a supplementary parapet, 
constructed in advance of and parallel to them. The fort is composed 
of earthworks, and surrounded by a glacis arranged for defence by 
artillery and musketry. The following are the proportions of the 
profile : — Height of the principal parapet, 14 feet ; thickness of the 
parapets, the principal one, 40 feet, and the supplementary 37 feet ; 
breadth of the terre-plein, 22 feet. There are no ditches or traverses. 
The powder-magazine is constructed under the extremity of the right 
face of the chief parapet. The line of fire of the chief parapet is 606, 
and of the supplementary 312 paces. 

" 2. Karadagh Tabia lies at a distance of 560 paces to the south- 
east. Its form is an acute salient angle cut off at the point. It has 



FOBTS ON THE PLAIN, 215 

an elevated battery called Ziaret, defensive barracks, and a glacis for 
defence by artillery and musketry. Like the former, it has no ditch, 
because it is built on rock. The height of the parapet is from 9 to 
12 feet, and the thickness from 21 to 24 feet. The battery Ziaret is 
placed behind the chief parapet, on a square stone foundation 2 1 feet 
high. Each side of the square is 65 paces in length. There is one 
small powder-magazine. The fort defends the approaches on the side 
of Melik-Kui and Mazra, and serves for the cross defence of the forts 
Arab and Hafiz. The length of the whole line of fire is 1,518 paces. 
In the principal fort there are two powder-magazines, one in the 
advanced gorge and the other at the end of the right face of the chief 
rampart, under the parapet. 

" IL On the Plain. 

" 3. Hafiz Pasha Tabia is on the plain at a distance of 1,890 
paces from Fort Karadagh. It has the form of a bastioned fort, having 
traverses for the chief parapet and for the covered passage. The 
length of the exterior side is 266 paces ; the parapet is 9 feet high 
and 21 feet thick. Depth of the ditch not known. The entrance 
faces the town, and is defended. At 230 paces in front of the south- 
eastern bastion is a JlecJie (called by the Turks Ekhali), having faces 
of 77 paces in length. Inside of the fort is a stone barracks and a 
small powder-magazine. The length of the line of fire of the chief 
parapet and the Jleche 1,782 paces. 

"4. Kanli Tabia lies at a distance of 3,103 paces from Fort 
Hafiz, and is composed of three separate fortifications, two redoubts 
and a reduit, having the form of a lunette, closed at the gorge by 
barracks, with supplementary constructions of a bastion form, with 
ravelins or demilunes. All the fortifications are surrounded by a 
common ditch. The covered passage has traverses. Small powder- 
magazines are aiTanged in the lunette. In the chief lunette the 
parapet is 21 feet high. The breadth of the terre-plein with bcmquette 
is 42 feet. The ditch is 12 feet broad, and 6 feet deep. The length 
of the whole line of fire is 2,163 paces. 

" 5. Suvari Tabia, at a distance of 1,690 yards from the preceding, 
has just been constructed, and is said to be one of the strongest forts 
around Kars, but we have no details concerning it. Another new 
fort, it is said, has been recently built in this part of the defences, and 
armed with Krupp guns ; but of this likewise we have no information. 



216 THE CAMPAIGN IN ARMENIA, 



"III. On the Left Bank op the River. 

" 6. Yassif Pasha Tabia, called also Fort Tchim or Ted-Kharab, 
has the form of a lunette. It is intended to defend the defile through 
which the river flows, and the back of Fort Suwarri. It is composed 
of earthworks, and being built on rock has no ditch. At 57 paces 
in front of the parapet there is a glacis. Under the parapet of the 
left flank is the powder-magazine. The parapet is from 9^ feet to 12 
feet high, and 18 feet thick. The line of fii-e extends to 415 paces. 

"7. Fort Lake, called also Fort Yeli Pasha, at 1,200 paces from 
Yassif Pasha Tabia, and 960 from the citadel, is an inclosed fort, 
three sides of which are bastioned. The fourth side — facinsr the 
citadel — is protected by stone barracks and a defensive wall. The 
exterior side of the bastion-faces is 107 paces. The parapet is 28 
feet thick, and 24 feet high. The ditch is 21 feet wide, and 7 feet 
deep. The length of the Hne of fire is 335 paces. There are two 
entrances, one through the barracks, another through the curtain from 
the ditch. The left flank of the fort has no ditch. The glacis is 
constructed for defence with musketry. The fort is intended to cover 
the back of the Forts Takmash, and Laz-Tabia, and to defend the 
approaches to the northern side of the faubourg of Temu Pasha from 
the direction of the Tchakhmak Defile. 

" 8. Fort Takmash, 2,100 yards distant from Fort Lake, and 2,650 
from Yassif Pasha Tabia, consists of two bastioned forts connected 
together. Inside the fort there are barracks and a small powder- 
magazine. The entrance is from the side of Fort Lake. The parapet 
is 12 feet high, and 12 feet thick. The ditch is 9 feet wide, and 7 
feet deep. The length of the line of fire is 520 paces. Fort Takmash 
is intended to bar the approach to the Shorakh Heights from the side 
of Shorakh, Kumbet, and Tchiftlik. 

" 9. Fort Yarimai Tabia, situated about 580 paces to the north- 
west of Fort No. 8, is a bastioned fort without glacis. The parapet 
is 12 feet in height, and the same in thickness. The ditch is 9 feet 
broad, and 7 feet deep. The length of the line of fire is 520 paces. 
The aim of the fort is to defend the approaches from the villages 
Shorakh and Tchiftlik. According to the description of the taking 
of Kars in 1828, this fort stands on the spot where General Moura- 
vieff" placed his battery, and from which Count Paskiewitch watched 
the movements of the attacking columns. 



FORTS ON THE LEFT BANK OF THE EIVEE. 217 

" 10. Yaksek Tabia lies to the north of the preceding fort. The 
length of the line of fire is 261 paces. 

"11. Laz-Tabia, or Fort Tchakhmak, crowns the Bashi-Bazouk 
Hill — or, more strictly speaking, a rocky position with precipitous 
sides near the top of that hill — commanding the left bank of the 
Kars Tchai. It is composed of three distinct batteries, surrounded 
by one glacis, constructed for defence with musketry. The parapet 
is 12 feet high, and 24 feet thick. The length of the line of fire is 
806 paces. The fort protects the approaches from the villages of 
Tchiftlik, Djavra, and Mazra. 

" 12. Fort Bluhm-pasha lies to the east of Laz-Tabia. The pro- 
portions and profile of that fort are unknown to us. 

" 13. Williams Pasha Tabia is situated at a distance of 1,860 
paces from No. 12, and 1,420 paces from No. 1. It is an irregularly- 
traced inclosed fort, with an entrance from the south-east, and con- 
structed merely for musketry defence. The parapet is 14 feet thick, 
and 9 feet high. The ditch is 21 feet broad, and 7 feet deep. Length 
of the line of fire, 262 paces. 

" 14. Teesdale Tabia, the most northerly of the forts, about 815 
paces from Fort No. 13, and 1,210 paces to the west of Arab Tabia, 
It has been recently constructed, and is of an irregular form, with 
open gorge. It is constructed on the brink of the precipice, in order 
to cover the approaches from the defile of the Kars Tchai to the 
Tchakhmak Plateau. Though the trace of the parapet is irregular 
and broken in several places, there are situations in front not exposed 
to its fire. The parapet has a banquette ; and it is intended to dig a 
ditch for the westward faces. The height of the parapet is 9 J feet, 
and the thickness 21 feet. Length of the line of fire, 429 paces. 

" From this description of the Kars fortifications, we see that th« 
entire length of the line of defence exceeds 15 versts (about 10 
English miles), and the inclosed space about 17 square versts. The 
artillery for the defence of the works, now that all necessity for 
secrecy has passed away, may be given. It may interest some of my 
readers. It, at any rate, will show that the Turks failed to make the 
most of the many months' leisure during which it was patent to all 
the world that Kussia meant war. 

" There were in the works 157 siege-guns of 9, 12, and 15-centi- 
meter calibre, with 60 4 and 5-pounder Krupp field-guns ; and there 
were 48 field Krupp guns in field-batteries. Many of the siege-guns 



218 TSE CAMPAIGN IN AHMENIA, 

were muzzle-loaders, some being M.L. bronze guns, rifled, with a 
calibre of 9, 12, and 15 centimeters; others were the old 6 and 9- 
pounders, smooth bore. The breech-loading siege-guns were all of 
Krupp's pattern, bronze, 9, 12, and 15 centimeters, made in the 
Tophane at Constantinople. Of the largest size there were but 18. 

" The normal garrison, according to the length of the lines, 
should consist of 23,000 men ; but the actual number of troops in 
the place at present is unknown. The Cologne Gazette gives the 
number as 32,000 ; but according to the data obtained bj the 
Eussian army from deserters there are not more than 15,000. 
Looking at the position from the point of view of attack and der 
fence, we may draw the following conclusions : — 

" The advantages for the defenders are — 

" (1) The favourable arrangements of the heights commanding the 
surrounding country ; (2) the strong mutual defence of the foi-ts by 
artillery ; (3) the rocky subsoil, which prevents siege operations. 

" The disadvantages of the position are — 

" (1) Its great extent ; (2) the absence of ditches in many of the 
forts ; (3) difficulty of repairing the parapets, in consequence of the 
scarcity of earth ; (4) the absence in some forts of flank ditches ; (5) 
insufficiency of strong buildings for sheltering the garrison and storing 
the supplies ; (6) absence of water in almost all the forts, and diffi- 
culty of obtaining it ; (7) absence of covered traverses, and the small 
number of ordinary traverses ; (8) the exposed position of some 
powder-magazines ; (9) — and this is the chief weakness — the dif- 
ferences which have arisen between the garrison and the inhabitants, 
who, according to the latest accounts, obstinately demand the sur- 
render of the place." 

The old citadel, called now Itch Kaleh, was built by 
Siiltan Amarath III. in 1578, when it played an im- 
portant part in the Turko-Persian war, then raging; 
in 1732 Sheik Nadir besieged it, after having defeated 
the Turkish army, but was forced to raise the siege in 
the following year, owing to the advance of Topal 
Osman, who signally defeated him near Bagdad; in 
1807, the fortress then only consisting of the old citadel 
and some batteries on the Karadagh, successfully resisted 



FORMER SIEGES OF EARS, 219 

the Russian attack, but on the 24th June, 1828, owing 
to the treachery of Emin iPasha, it surrendered to Pas- 
kiewitch, after a bombardment of two days. In 1854, 
after a most gallant defence, it was starved into sur- 
rendering to Mouravieff on the 28th November, 
since which time, the fortifications, then much improved 
by the British officers under Sir Fenwick Williams, 
have been strengthened, the number of outworks in- 
creased, and heavy guns of Krupp pattern mounted 
under the able direction of Faizi Pasha. 



CHAPTEE XI. 

CAMP LIFE IN FRONT OF KARS. 

Massacre at Bayazid — Kurdish Atrocities — Conduct of Faik Pasha — Murder of 
a Russian Doctor near Kars — His Diary — Russian Opinion of Battle of 
Khaliass — Strictures on Heimann — The Siege raised — Yet one more instance 
of the value of Turkish Cavalry — Siege Batteries — Move oui- Camp to 
Yezinkui— Beggars on Horsehack — Success of the Turks deemed only 
Temporary — Conduct of the Officer in charge of Hospitals — An Interruption 
to our Breakfast — An Interchange of Civilities on the Slopes of the Yagni — 
Kindness of the Consul at Erzeroum — Energy displayed hy the new Gover- 
nor there — News from Van — Treatment of Christians throughout Armenia 
— Russians change their Camp — Their Kindness to Turkish Prisoners at 
Ardahan — A Flag of Truce fired on, and Bearer killed, by the Russians — 
The Polish Legion— Cavalry Skirmish near Sarbatan — Turkish Opinion 
of Kurds. ' ^ 

Head Quarters TV. Turkish Army Corps. 

Kars, July lOtL 

From Bayazid we learn of an act of atrocity that will 
do more to harm the Turkish cause than half a dozen 
defeats. It appears that on the 13th of June Faik 
Pasha, advancing on that fortress, encountered the 
Russian forces, consisting of two battalions and 1,2&Q 
Cossacks. As the Turkish division numbered six bat- 
talions, two batteries, and about 8,000 Kurds, a fight 
in the open was hopeless, so the Eussian commander 
retired to the citadel, leaving the Cossacks in the town; 
then seeing that resistance was out of the question, 
oflfered to surrender, and this offer being accepted, they 
laid down their arms. A flag of truce was sent to the 
citadel calling upon the commandant to capitulate. 



FEARFUL MA88ACBE AT BAYAZIR 221 

While their messenger was away the irregular Kurds 
came up and commenced vilifying some Mahomedans 
who were among the prisoners. One of these answered 
somewhat sharply, and was immediately cut down. The 
sight of blood and of unarmed and defenceless men was 
sufficient for these scoundrels, who immediately fell on 
their hapless prisoners, and deliberately massacred three^ 
fourths of them in cold blood ; the number of those killed 
varies, some saying 970 ; others, among these being the 
Commander-in-Chief, put down the slain at 170. Some 
regulars coming on the scene, the work of slaughter 
was stopped, and Faik Pasha coming up, despatched the 
survivors under escort to Van. On the road the detach- 
ment was set upon by a second body of Kurds, who 
murdered some more men, stripped the remainder per- 
fectly naked, and left them to pursue their journey 
unmolested. It is but fair to add that Mukhtar Pasha 
has sent orders that a certain number of these scoundrels 
shall be hung, that the prisoners shall be furnished with 
clothes, money, food, and all that they require, and sent 
on immediately to Constantinople. Whether the execu- 
tion of these villains wiU have the desired effect of 
restraining them I much doubt, and I refrain from 
passing any comments on the above facts, which admit 
of no contradiction, as the Commander-in-Chief himself 
owned to them, but what I do comment upon is that in 
spite of the known atrocities committed by Kurds and 
Circassians alike — in spite of the continual complaints 
made of their conduct to the Mushir — in spite of his 
oft-expressed opinion as to their utter uselessness in the 
field — Mukhtar Pasha still retains a body of 4,000 of 
them in his own camp, every village in the vicinity of 
which has been pillaged under the very eyes of the 



222 TEU CAMPAIGN IN ARMENIA, 

general himself, and by keeping them in its pay the 
Turkish Government silently approves their acts. Were 
these villains disbanded, disarmed, and sent to their 
homes, Europe would believe that Turkey meant re- 
form; but as long as bands of undisciplined barbarians 
are provided with the best weapons that America can 
produce, as long as these men are kept in the pay 
of the Ottoman Government, so long must the support 
of every right-minded nation be withheld from the 
Porte. 

I regret to have to report another circumstance 
which goes far to prove that the Eussians had some 
authority for stating their wounded were never cared 
for by the Turks, and rarely escaped alive. It appears 
that after their last fight on the 4th the Russians left 
their wounded men in the village of Tchiflik-Kui, about 
three miles from Kars, in charge of a doctor, that they 
put up a white flag over it, and were making arrange- 
ments to send in a flag of truce to ask permission to 
remove them, when a body of Kurds swooped down on 
the village, and massacred and stripped every man in it. 
This is the story given by the Commander-in-Chief 
himself, and I must own that it is disgraceful enough. 
A German doctor, however, in this service, gives the 
folio wiDg version — viz., that on the fight of the 4th 
being over, the Eussians sent in a flag of truce 
with a doctor to ask permission to see the wounded 
prisoners, and ascertain the treatment they were 
receiving. The flag was fired upon by the Turkish 
infantry, every man slain, stripped, and left naked 
on the field. I do not know which is the true story ; 
but I glean that a doctor, attending the wounded, 
was shot with the Geneva Cross flying over his head. 



TEE MUBDEBED BOGTOB'S DIABY, 223 

that his body was stripped. His diary is now in 
the tent of the Turkish Commander-in-Chief, and in it 
he states that the total strength of the army which 
invaded Armenia was 50,000 men, of whom only 25,000 
were operating on the Kars frontier. 

If these numbers be true, I do not know which nation 
deserves the palm for military incapacity — the one that 
invaded a country and undertook the siege of a place like 
Kars with but 50,000 men, all told, or the one which has 
allowed a small force to besiege a first-class fortress with a 
garrison of 20,000 men, and to keep a second 20,000 fully 
employed for two-and-a-half months. This unfortunate 
man had, from all I can hear, kept a complete and very 
interesting diary of the proceedings since the 24th of 
April. He wrote somewhat strongly of General Hei- 
mann's conduct at Zewin, and the supersession of that 
officer leads me to believe that there must be some 
foundation for the numerous strictures passed on him so 
freely. He puts down the Russian losses at Khaliass 
as 500 killed and wounded, and at Zewin as 800, all 
told. The former affair he considers a success for the 
Russians, as their ten battalions withstood Mukhtar 
Pasha's attack of twenty-three battalions, held their 
ground all day, and retired unmolested on the following 
morning to Zaidikan, where they remained for a whole 
week. I think a Russian may well be pardoned for 
considering Khahass a success, for they certainly held 
their own against a vastly superior force, and drew off 
unpursued twenty-four hours after the fight. The 
battle of Zewin he owns to have been most disastrous. 
This, in common with all his countrymen, he ascribes to 
the wanton conduct of Heimann, who, without recon- 
noitring, led his men up by deep precipitous ravines to 



224 TRE CAMPAIGN IN ARMENIA. 

a perpendicular wall, where they were shot down by 
hundreds without any hope of success. 

Kars, July 13^A. 

I am in hopes that the few lines I am now sending 
will reach Trebizond in time for the same steamer that 
carries mine of the 9th to you. It was at noon on that 
day that messengers were sent out to Mukhtar Pasha, 
encamped at Vairan Kale, to inform him that the Rus- 
sians had raised the siege and moved off bodily from 
Kars. I could scarcely believe my ears when I heard 
the news, but that it was true was evident. Not a sign 
of a tent was visible. How the Russians contrived to 
slip away unobserved is a mystery, and one that reflects 
but little credit on the vigilance either of the garrison or 
of the Circassian horsemen, 4,000 of whom are encamped 
within four miles of this place. On the 8th instant 
the bombardment had slackened considerably, but large 
bodies of foot and horse were seen constantly moving 
about. Spies accounted for this by saying that a con- 
siderable force had received four days' provisions, and 
bad moved off to the south. The trenches, moreover, 
presented an unusually lively appearance, teams of 
horses being sent down every now and again to the bat- 
teries. This agitation seems to have excited no com- 
ment, and at night the blaze of several bonfires in the 
Russian hnes, though noticed by the Turkish sentries, 
aroused no attention. It was not until 9 a.m., appa- 
rently, that some of the garrison, struck by the unusual 
quietness reigning in the trenches, thought of turning 
their eyes further northward to the spot where the long 
row of Russian tents usually glistened in the morning 
sun. To their surprise none were there. On reports 



RUSSIAN BETBUAT FROM KAUS. 226 

being made to the new commandant, Mnshir Mustafa 
Pasha, lie sent out parties of irregular horse to recon- 
noitre. These soon returned with the news that not 
only were batteries, trenches, and encampments deserted, 
but that the Russians had gained the pass of Kharrak- 
Darrah, where, on the 8th August, 1854, Mouravieff in- 
flicted such a signal defeat on Zarif Mustafa Pasha, and 
had established two other camps at Yeni-kui and Gadi- 
kler, where they had strongly entrenched themselves. 
On proceeding to the late siege works, the reason of the 
last night's bonfires was apparent ; not a gun platform, 
gabion, or fascine was left in the batteries, their charred 
and smoking remains showing that Loris Melikofi*, judg- 
ing retreat desirable in the face of the superior forces 
now in front of him, had determined that no material 
should fall into the enemy's hands. So quietly and so 
expeditiously had he set to work, that without exciting 
the suspicion of the garrison, he succeeded in removing 
all his stores, tents, and guns safe to the entrenched posi- 
tion at Kharrak-Darrah without any molestation. The 
siege works appear to have been constructed with much 
care and skill, and with all the improvements that late 
experiments, both in England and on the Continent, 
show to be necessary, owing to the increased range and 
accuracy of rifled cannon. The batteries were half 
sunken ; owing to the soil being of a peaty nature, 
crumbling up readily when once broken, the parapets 
were shored up with large beams. The traverses be- 
tween the gun portions contained bombproof recesses for 
the detachments, thus doubtless affording perfect immu- 
nity from all shells bursting in rear of the battery. I 
believe the batteries did not seem to have suffered much 
from the Turkish fire, though the screens, thrown up in 
p 



226 TEE CAMPAIGN IN ARMENIA. 

front at a distance of about twenty-five yards, were raucli 
knocked about. These were about four feet in height, 
and about ten feet in thickness, while the parapets were 
about eighteen feet in thickness ; they had been revetted 
with sand-bags, the majority of which had been removed, 
but a fair number were left on the ground. The whole 
of the trenches, bombproof recesses, and rifle-pits were 
well lined with grass, showing that the comfort of their 
men was studied by the Czar's officers. The timbers 
used in the construction of the magazine, &c., were 
heavy beams, from nine inches to twelve inches in 
diameter. Most of these were destroyed in the bonfires 
of the preceding night, but some few were necessarily 
left. It is surprising that the Eussians contrived to 
move off, not only their men and guns, but all the mate- 
rial, without exciting remark and provoking a conflict, 
for at this time, in and around Kars, Mukhtar had 
64 battalions, 48 field-guns, 1,000 regular and 4,000 
irregular cavalry. 

It is useless speculating on the future or dreaming on 
the past of this campaign, pregnant as it has been with the 
most glaring errors on both sides. When I arrived in this 
country I was assured that the invading force consisted 
of 100,000 men, of whom 16,000 were cavalry, with 300 
field-guns. The week before last I was informed by an 
officer high on the staff that they had only sixty-four 
battalions at Kars and with Tergukassoff's column. 
Last week Mukhtar Pasha himself said they had forty- 
eight battalions, three regiments of dragoons, fifteen of 
Cossacks, and eighty field-guns before Kars alone, and 
now he maintains that his information has proved correct, 
that the Eussians invaded Armenia with 50,000 men all 
told, and that the force in front of Kars never exceeded 



THE RUSSIAN INVASION OF ARMENIA. 227 

25,000 men. To extract the truth from these conflicting 
statements is obviously impossible. Should the larger 
number of men be correct, it goes far to prove that 
Russia has degenerated as a military power, that the 
lessons the campaigns of the past ten years have taught 
the world have been wasted on her, and that she need 
no longer be feared as a foe. Should the smaller number 
be accurate, it shows that she has far under-estimated 
the value of her enemy, and, by despising the improve- 
ments effected in the armament and equipment of the 
Turkishforces,has drawn upon herself well-merited defeat. 
Being ignorant of any outside cause that may have 
tended to bring about the abandonment of the occupation 
of Armenia, and assuming that Loris Melikoff commenced 
the war with the six divisions for which he has been given 
credit, I can only stand aghast at the innumerable errors 
he has committed, the many chances he has lost, and the 
total failure of a campaign the success of which would 
have been assured had ordinary forethought and care 
been exercised by the Russian general. 

Yesterday Mukhtar Pasha moved his force from 
Vairan Kale to a ridge east of Vezinkui, about ten 
miles south-east of Kars ; but on hearing of a more 
favourable position he shifted camp this afternoon to a 
plateau under the Sevri Tepe possessing very strong 
natural defence, some five miles further east. There he 
has entrenched his men, and probably means to provoke 
a conflict with the Russians, who are said to be twelve 
miles north of him. I have ridden out to the camp, which 
to my mind is very extended, and which in the eyes 
of an Englishman possesses the extreme disadvantages 
of having a scanty supply of bad water and being totally 
destitute of firewood. These are drawbacks which never 
p 2 



228 THE CAMPAIGN IN ARMENIA. 

enter into the calculations of Tni'kish generals, who, in 
my short experience, rarely, if ever, study the comfort of 
their men, the endurance, willingness, and gallantry of 
whom cannot but excite the warmest admiration of all 
who may be thrown into contact with them. Flushed 
with success, the Turks are not pleasant companions. 
In their distress a month ago, when all seemed going 
against them, an Englishman was treated with courtesy 
and deference. Now, when appearances seem favour- 
able, the)^ are filled with pride, openly talk of the 
selfishness of our Grovemment — one that only consults 
her own interests, as they complain — and loudly pro- 
claim their ability to defeat the Russians single-handed, 
and their intention in a few weeks of carrying the war 
into the enemy's territory. Although the Turks have 
gained successes in the past three w^eeks which I deemed 
perfectly impossible, yet when I look round me and see 
the material vdth which these successes have been gained, 
see the absence of all commissariat arrangements, and 
hear the cries on all sides from both officers and men of 
want of money, shoes, and clothing, I cannot but chng 
to my opinions previously expressed — look upon this 
phase of the campaign as but a temporary check for the 
enemy, and prophesy the ultimate success of the Eussians. 
I may mention one trivial circumstance here, which 
goes far to prove how utterly the Turkish regimental 
officers disregard the feelings of their men. I stayed 
behind in Vairan Kale for a few hours after the camp 
had moved on to Vezinkui. The hospital, which was 
the last to go, was under the charge of a captain, who 
struck his tents and moved off. A foreign doctor, in 
medical charge, begged for a working party to bury two 
men who had died that morning. This request was 



A RUSSIAN DESERTER'S REPORT, 229 

refused ; nor was the doctor granted leave to remain 
behind to see the corpses interred. Some short time 
after the party had moved off, my servant came to me 
and reported the circumstances, when I obtained some 
villagers, who, for a small pecuniary consideration, 
buried the poor fellows. There was no excuse for the 
conduct of this officer ; the army was only shifting camp 
a few miles, so that the few moments' delay to enable 
their co-reHgionists to receive a decent burial would not 
have been a grave military error; indeed, the incident 
was only on a par with the general behaviour of the 
company officers to the rank and file in the Turkish 
army. 

Head-Quarters, Fourth Turkish Army Corps, 
» Camp near Vezinkui, JuIt/ lith. 

This morning we were informed by an officer on the 
staff of the Commander-in-Chief that a Eussian deserter 
had come into camp at dawn, reporting that the whole of 
the Loris Melikoff forces had struck camp at Yeni-kui, 
and marched during the night toKharrak-Darrah — where 
previously only one division had been entrenched — and 
that this move was only prior to a general retreat on 
Alexandropol. Owing to the thick haze over the plains 
we were unable to see the Eussian tents which yester- 
day had been distinctly visible to the north, and so 
were unable to verify this man's statement. As the 
Mushir himself believed it, we saw no reason to doubt 
the truth of the story, and consequently prepared our- 
selves for a quiet day. Our breakfast, however, was 
rudely disturbed by the sound of artillery ; so, hastily 
swallowing a meal, which certainly was not worth dally- 
ing over, we mounted our horses, and set out in the 



230 THE CAMPAIGN IN AMMENIA. 

direction of tlie firing, whicli from the sound we judged 
to be about three miles distant. Descending the ridge 
on which the head-quarters camp was pitched, at an alti- 
tude of 8,400 feet above sea level, we rode along the 
most fertile table-land it has been my lot to traverse ; 
for miles and miles it stretched to the east and south- 
ward, until lofty snow-clad peaks, rising grandly from 
its undulating surface, brought the luxuriant vegetation 
to a standstill. Not a yard was under cultivation, and 
with the exception of a few kibitkas, or Kurdish black 
blanket tents, not a sign of habitation was visible, and 
yet the soil was rich enough to please a Kent farmer, 
and the vast expanse of clover through which our horses 
literally waded would give a handsome competence to 
any one energetic enough to cut and transport it. 

As the sun rose the mist cleared off, and there in 
the plain some 2,000 feet below us, we saw ghstening 
to the north the Russian camp at Yeni-kui, and farther 
eastward their entrenchments at Kharrak-Darrah, thus 
proving the story of the deserter to have been false, 
and showing without doubt that Armenia was not yet 
rid of the Muscovite invader. All firing had ceased, but 
small parties of Kurdish and Circassian horsemen were 
hastening to the left to join a large body of irregular 
horsemen, who were jdxawn up in columns — if the 
irregular crowd they formed may be so designated — at 
the north-western edge of the plateau. As we advanced 
we saw coming down on our left two Turkish horse 
artillery guns, while in rear of them, with standards 
flying, bugle sounding, and men cheering, were two 
battalions moving to the front in columns of double 
companies. We joined the artillery, who came into 
action a few moments before noon at a distance of some 



A CAVALRY DEMONSTRATION. 231 

5,000 yards from the enemy. The Eussian force con- 
sisted of three regiments of dragoons and eight of Cos- 
sacks, as well as I could judge, and were accompanied 
by a half battery of Gralloper guns. They were all dis- 
mounted, but had taken up a position on the southern 
slopes of the Tagni Tepe, a lofty tor (as we should call 
it in the west country), or conical hill, from the summit 
of which a good view of our whole position was dis- 
tinctly visible. 

At noon precisely our guns opened fire, the shells all 
bursting fully 2,000 yards short. After a few rounds 
they were pushed _ forward about 500 yards, and at the 
same time bodies of irregular cavalry were advanced on 
either flank. On this, at 12.45, the Eussian guns 
leisurely came into action, but finding the range too 
great, ceased firing after fouj rounds, and leisurely 
moved ofi*, the cavalry accompanying them. No at- 
tempts at following the enemy were made by Mukhtar, 
and in this he was wise, for his badly-mounted, un- 
disciplined irregular horsemen are no match for the well- 
organised cavalry Loris Melikofi* that day showed xis. 
While this little diversion was occurring we saw a large 
convoy of carts, &c., moving from Yeni-kui to the 
eastward towards Groomri, this cavalry demonstration 
evidently being made with a double object of protecting 
it during its flank march straight across the front of our 
position and of ascertaining the strength of our force. 
Although the enemy's troops consisted entirely of 
cavalry, and never approached within five miles of our 
camp, Mukhtar Pasha took the opportunity of manning 
all his entrenchments, thus displaying to the Eussian 
general all the troops at his command, and at the same 
time a body of twenty battalions, with three field 



21 52 THE CAMPAIGN IN AUMENIA, 

batteries, moved out from Kars under the command 
of Faizi Pasha, with the intention of intercepting the 
retreat to Yeni-kui of the Eussian cavalry. They were, 
however, discovered long before they could effect their 
purpose, and retired again about sunset, when they 
pitched on the banks of the Kars Tchai stream, about 
five miles to the north-east of the fortress. At three 
p.m., the enemy having effected their retreat to camp, 
and there being no intention of following them up, we 
returned to camp, where we found awaiting us a box of 
provisions, sent out by the ever-thoughtfal consul at 
Erzeroum, who, mindful of the tastes of Britons, had 
enclosed what were, indeed, pearls of great price, some 
bottles of beer. To us, whose sole beverage for the past 
six weeks has been water, tempered, when its quality 
was more offensive than usual, with a dash of brandy, 
this consignment was a perfect godsend. 

We had been so constantly on the move during the 
past month, and our means of communicating with 
Erzeroum are so precarious, that I have been unable to 
give you more than the news immediately concerning 
the head-quarters of this army corps. It appears that 
since the departure of the governor, Ismail Pasha, 
to join the left wing of the army in the Alashgird 
Plain, the authorities have awoke to the fact that 
prayer and the constant reading of the Koran were not 
sufficient to supply the army with food and reinforce- 
ments. The new governor, Hassan Pasha, seems to be 
a man of energy and determination, and to have in- 
fused some of his spirit into the palace officials. To 
the Olti road, whence all troops had been most un- 
wisely withdrawn on reinforcements being needed at 
Delibaba, he has despatched eight battalions, 1,200 



ACTIVITY AT EBZEBOUM, 233 

irregular cavalry, two field and one mountain battery. 
These are in an entrenched position in the Grhiurji 
Boghaz defile, a short distance to the north of Hindsk. 
He also has called up twelve more battalions from 
Angora, Konieh, Kharpoot, Diarbekir, and Bagdad, 
with 600 cavalry from Angora, and about 3,000 irregu- 
lars from Syria. These men will be forwarded, haK to 
this and half to the left wing of the Turkish army. 
He also has obtained permission from Constantinople 
to make a forced levy of all males in Armenia between 
the ages of sixteen and sixty. By this means he hopes 
to raise 50,000 men ; and towards their equipment he has 
already received 25,000 Martini-Peabody rifles, 25,000 
sets of accoutrements, and the same number of infantry 
uniforms. To provide transport for these men he 
himself has issued an order that every one hundred 
houses in his vilayet shall furnish one horse, either 
for pack or cavalry purposes. Thus he has already 
collected some 1,500 ponies and horses. The need of 
provisions which was being severely felt in Erzeroum 
has passed away, and there now is sufiicient to feed the 
army for the remainder of the year. Last week 1,000 
camels and 2,560 horses and mules arrived laden with 
wheat, barley, and flour from Bagdad, Moussaul, Mardin, 
and Diarbekir ; 680 camels also arrived from Sivas, and 
1,800 horse-loads of biscuit from Trebizond. It will be 
seen that at last the civil administration are awakening 
to the urgency of the situation, and seconding with 
promptitude the energy displayed by Ahmed Mukhtar 
Pasha and his brave soldiers. The latter have shown 
throughout the campaign the greatest patience, en- 
durance, and gallantry. 

The news from Van daily becomes more revolting. 



234 THE CAMPAIGN IN ARMENIA. 

Faik Pasha seems quite unable to restrain the Kurds, 
who commit every description of atrocity unopposed 
and unchecked. The American missionaries have been 
forced, for fear of their lives, to take refuge in a boat 
on the lake, where they enjoy comparative immunity, 
although they have to be careful, when in need of pro- 
visions, to land at night and move off again before dawn. 
Their Christian charges have been subjected to the 
grossest treatment — crops cut and carried away, cattle 
killed, villages burnt, men murdered, and worst of all, 
women and even children violated. Churches afPord 
no refuge for these wretched mortals. Ten who fled 
for safety into the church at Utch-Kilissa were there 
foully murdered, and at Tsitawankh, near Erzeroum, 
the Armenian superior of the monastery has been 
threatened with death if he ventures to preach again. 
Hundreds of Christian villages in Armenia, having been 
gutted and fired by these miscreants, are completely 
abandoned, and their inhabitants have fled for refuge 
into the Eussian camps. Hordes of fanatics, led by 
Moolahs, have joined the Turkish army ; their fury, 
daily fed by the exhortations and addresses of the priests, 
who have denounced the war as a menace to the Otto- 
man religion, leads them to commit every conceivable 
excess against the defenceless Christians, whom they 
accuse of furnishing information to the enemy. Facts 
prove the reverse, for as yet not a single Armenian spy 
has been discovered by the authorities, while several 
Kurds and Circassians, preferring money to faith, have 
paid for their treachery with their lives ; in short, every 
spy hanged during this war has been a Mahomedan. 

In spite of the gallant manner in which she has 
repelled the Eussian invasion of Armenia — a feat which 



OUTRAGES ON CHRISTIANS. 235 

no one can but adnaire — Turkey has irretrievably 
alienated the good wishes of even her best supporters 
by the cowardly and cruel excesses committed by her 
irregular soldiers — excesses which, if not connived at 
by the authorities, are invariably excused, and seldom 
punished. Outrages on Mahomedans, being against the 
Koran, are visited with great severity ; outrages against 
Christians, who are considered beyond the pale of the 
law, are left unnoticed. The massacre at Bayazid, the 
desecration of Eussian graves, mutilation of corpses, 
violation of a flag of truce, and the recent cruelties 
towards the Christians at Van, all furnish excuses, and 
valid excuses too, for a continuance of the war. We 
cannot hope that a great power like liussia will sit 
quietly down under the reverses her arms have sustained 
during the past month, and will permit the Christians, 
on whose behalf she has ostensibly made war, to be 
treated in Armenia as they were last year in Bulgaria. 
She must compel the Porte, by force of arms, to respect 
the rights of all her Christian subjects, and afford 
to them equal protection and privilege as to Mahome- 
dans. At present this is far from being the case, Mus- 
sulman officials literally treating them worse than the 
dogs which act as scavengers in their streets. I mean 
this as no mere figure of speech, but as an actual fact, 
borne out not only by what I myself have witnessed, 
but also by reports of occurrences which have come 
under the notice of many of the American missionaries 
in Armenia, who daily receive complaints from their 
Christian congregations of the cruelties and acts of 
oppression they endure at the hands of the Kurds, 
whom the Ottoman Grovernment have now let loose 
in Anatolia. 



236 THE CAMPAIGN IN ARMENIA. 

July \^th. 

Last night we were disturbed by rumours that 
the Russians had struck camp at Yeni-kui, and were 
advancing in force to attack us. However, these 
turned out, as most camp rumours usually do, to be 
false, for on riding out in the morning to our advanced 
posts, I saw that the first half of the rumour certainly 
had some foundation, for not a single Eussian tent was 
to be seen on the Teni-kui ridge; but, instead of 
coming forward to attack us, Loris Melikoff had con- 
centrated his forces round Kharrak-Darrah and Parget, 
a village on the Ears Tchai stream, about four miles 
north of the Goomri road. It is impossible to estimate 
his forces ; but, from the number of tents, I am of 
opinion that he cannot have less than 40,000 with 
him. 

It is rumoured that the Russians are preparing 
to evacuate Ardahan, where they have mined all the 
barracks, and completely levelled the earthworks. How 
far this is true I cannot say; but this I know, that 
they have upwards of 240 wounded Turkish prisoners 
in the hospital there, whom they have been treating 
vrith the greatest kindness. Among those taken on 
the 17th of May were four Turkish and two German 
doctors. As I told you in a previous letter, they 
released all prisoners belonging to the Eedif, or reserve 
force, and with them the four Turkish doctors, who 
proceeded to Erzeroum; the two German doctors, Ardler 
and Weiss, were retained, and placed in charge of the 
wounded Turks, receiving the same pay guaranteed by 
the Porte. I hear from all sides of the consideration 
shown to the sick and wounded, who receive far better 



TEUGE'MESSENGEB KILLED BY RUSSIANS. 237 

nourishment and far more attention in the Russian 
hospitals than they do in their oavtl. While recounting 
their generosity, it pains me to be compelled to place 
on record an act of savagery committed by the Russians 
before Kars on the 5th instant, which, if true, admits 
of no excuse. Unfortunately, I have it on such good 
authority — authority independent from any Turkish 
source — that I cannot but believe it to be true. It 
appears that Hussein Hami Pasha, the commandant of 
Kars, wished to send a flag of truce to the enemy 
respecting their shells, which were doing considerable 
damage to the main hospital. Above this the white 
flag was certainly flying, but owing to the Karadagh 
hill being between it and the Russian siege works, it 
was not possible for the enemy to see the hospital flag ; 
and, moreover, it was so situated that all shells passing 
over the Karadagh redoubt must necessarily fall in 
the vicinity of the hospital. I therefore am of opinion 
that the damage done to the building, which was very 
trifling, was purely unintentional. However, the Turks 
thought, and still think, otherwise ; and Hussein Hami 
Pasha, accordingly, despatched a Kol-Aghassiz with a 
flag of truce to the Russian camp. This man proceeded 
alone, unaccompanied even by the traditional bugler. 
He was fired on and killed, whether intentionally, and 
in revenge for the murder of the doctor killed, with the 
Greneva Cross above his head and the white badge on 
his arm, the day previously, as the Turks maintain, 
or whether accidentally, I cannot say. I give the story 
as I have learnt it from lips which ascribe the deed to 
revenge. The same oflficer who informed me of the 
above also told me that a '* chaous,'' or sergeant of 
regulars, went about Kars boasting that he had killed 



238 THE CAMPAIGN IN ARMENIA. 

the Russian doctor by cutting off his head as he would 
that of a sheep ! 

It seems that there is a certain amount of discontent 
rife among the small band constituting the Pohsh 
Legion in this army. From what I can learn, it appears 
that, after volunteering for service, they were detained 
in Stamboul for some weeks, and then despatched to 
Trebizond to escort back 400 Polish prisoners captured 
in sorties from Kars, or rather deserters from the 
Russian army before that place. These men they were 
to organise, drill, and instruct in Turkish, and with 
them they were to form the nucleus of a Polish 
regiment, which was to be sent to the Danube. On 
arrival at Trebizond they were told that the prisoners 
were in Erzeroum, and these misguided men were con- 
veyed there in arabas, receiving no pay and no meat on 
the road. At Erzeroum they, of course, learnt that not 
a single Polish deserter or prisoner had been seen. 
Having come so far, the thirty-six men determined to 
join the army, and so were forwarded on to Mukhtar 
Pasha. Now I hear that their wrath against the 
Russians has somewhat subsided, and that no pay, short 
rations of bread and meat, and total abstinence from all 
spirits do not tend to increase their admiration for the 
Ottoman rule. They have been provided with a large 
standard with the Polish national colours emblazoned 
on it. The idea is that on the occasion of the first great 
fight they will proceed to the front, holding this aloft, 
when the numerous Poles serving in the ranks of hated 
Russia will throw down their arms and at once espouse 
the cause of the Porte and — Liberty ! 

This afternoon the force here was reinforced by six 
battalions and one field battery, under the command of 



RUSSIANS AGAIN ON THE MOVE. 239 

Mustafa Nihadji Pasha, who has been detached from 
Kars. This brings up our strength to forty battalions, 
four field batteries, one mountain battery, two weak 
regiments of regulars, and about 4,000 irregular cavalry. 
When I think of the days when I joined the Mushir's 
army on the Hoonkiar Doozi, and found a marshal of 
the Ottoman Empire in command of eight battalions 
and a battery, and then look round me on this army, I 
am overwhelmed with astonishment at the energy dis- 
played by the Turkish authorities. To-day Mukhtar 
Pasha has been making a reconnaissance, but I doubt if 
it will lead to any decisive movement, though it is 
extremely probable that the head-quarters will be 
advanced some three miles in the direction of Kharrak- 
Darrah — to a hill higher, more barren, and further from 
water than its neighbours, and, therefore, for this reason, 
I suppose, possessing inestimable advantages in the eyes 
of our Commander-in-Chief. 

July ISth. 

The signal-gun denoting that the Russians were 
moving boomed out at 10 a.m. My servants by this 
time are as well drilled as an outpost of Punjab frontier 
cavalry, and in six minutes from the sound of the gun 
my horse and orderly were in front of my tent. 
" Yahvash " being the watchword of the camp as of the 
empire, I had to wait some ten minutes before the 
Commander-in-Chiefs pony was ready, and then we 
ambled — for our chief is no horseman — towards the 
advanced battery, which had given us notice of the 
enemy's movements. On reaching it I saw two bodies 
of Russian cavalry in the plain below, at a distance of 
about five miles. They had dismounted, and were 



240 THE CAMPAIGN IN ARMENIA. 

quietly feeding their horses on the luxuriant crops of 
grass which bound the banks of the Kars stream. 
Beyond them, shining brightly in the morning sun, lay 
the two Eussian camps, at Parget and Kharrak-Darrah ; 
but as for any movements betokening an advance of the 
enemy, the most powerful glasses could not discover 
anything approaching them. At about noon, however, 
the cause of this demonstration was apparent, for a long 
column of men, horses, and guns were visible winding 
along the road to the foot of the Karajal hill, toward 
the Kizil Tepe hill, which was shortly afterwards 
crowned by a strong party of infantry, supported by a 
battery of field-guns. In the meantime the remainder of 
the column, passing round the rear of the hill, com- 
menced pitching their camp on the left bank of the 
Mazra stream, in the immediate vicinity of the village of 
Bash and Onka-Gadikler. It was a very formidable 
defensive position, protected in front by the deep, pre- 
cipitous ravines of the Mazra, whilst the Kizil Tepe hill 
dominated the whole plain by which an attacking foe 
would advance. Our right was seriously threatened, too, 
by the new camp of the enemy, who, under cover of the 
broken ground on the western slopes of the Aladja Dagh, 
would find it an easy matter to move forward by Hadji- 
veli and Bolanik to the Olya Tepe, and thus turn our 
flank. 

The Eussian Commander-in-Chief being idle was no 
excuse for our gallant Marshal to abstain from employ- 
ing his men, and, consequently, the brigades of Ibrahim 
Bey and Captain Mahomed Bey were moved off some 
five miles to the right to cover a valley up which it was 
just possible the enemy might advance, while the remain- 
der of our troops, with fixed bayonets, lined the shelter- 



GALLANT TCEEEKES8. 241 

trenches surrounding our camp. For six hours did the 
poor fellows remain in this cramped position, although 
at no time was a single Eussian infantry soldier in sight, 
and the cavalry never approached within five miles. It 
is such acts as these, the unnecessary worrying of these 
men, which, to my untutored mind, show the imbecility 
of the Turkish commanders. I noticed Moussa Pasha, 
the whilom commandant of the Circassians, on the staff 
of the Mushir. He has at last been removed from the 
command of the Circassians, who are much incensed, and 
justly so, at his conduct throughout the campaign. 

Edhem Pasha, who has assumed command of the 
cavalry, gave the Circassians a chance of showing 
their mettle this afternoon. It appears that after the 
Russian demonstration in the forenoon, which was 
evidently made with the view of covering the move- 
ment of their division from Parget to Kizil-Tepe, a 
regiment of dragoons was left to cover the retirement 
of the cavalry corps making the demonstration. At 
4 p.m. this regiment began to fall back, when the 
Circassians, to the number of some 2,000, who with 
Edhem Pasha had been thrown forward in advance of 
our position, asked permission to attack and endeavour 
to cut them off. He accordingly sent forward a 
couple of regiments, with one more in support, at the 
same time drily remarking to a British officer at his 
side, " See how these Tcherkess will split up into small 
bodies and be kept at bay by that handful ! " The 
Circassians dashed forward at a gallop, and in a quarter 
of an hour were within 400 yards of the Eussian 
dragoon regiment, who, merely dropping a squadron to 
cover their retreat, continued falling back at a walk. 
The officer commanding this squadron dismounted his 

Q 



242 THE CAMPAIGN' IN ARMENIA, 

men, and they, acting as infantry skirmishers, kept 
their pursuers at bay. Directly these were checked, 
Edhem Pasha's estimate of them proved correct, for 
they at once broke into small groups. All three 
regiments became intermingled, other bodies came 
galloping out from the reserve, and in swarms of tens 
and twenties they harassed the Russians on all sides. 
As far as sound was concerned, the fight now re- 
sembled an infantry skirmish, for the constant crack- 
ing of the Winchester rifles from one side, and the 
steady fire from the dismounted Russian dragoons, did 
away with all one's ideas of a cavalry encounter. 
Slowly falling back, the Muscovites came abreast of the 
small village of Sarbatan, from behind the friendly 
shelter of which swooped down, on the Circassian left 
flank, a fresh squadron of dragoons. Though barely 
numbering 120 sabres, their dashing leader never hesi- 
tated a moment, but charged clean across the front of his 
dismounted comrades, clearing the ground in a moment. 
The sight of the gallant Tcherkess, to the number of some 
1,500, tailing ofi" to the rear as hard as their ponies could 
carry them, was one scarcely calculated to increase 
Edhem Pasha's opinion of the value of his troops. 
When they were well beyond the reach of Russian 
sabres, the bolder spirits rallied, and continued harass- 
ing the retiring enemy with a harmless long-range 
fire from their Winchesters. Every now and again 
the colonel of dragoons would leave a troop hidden 
in some ravine, which by a dashing charge would 
drive the Circassians still farther back, and finally, at 
6 p.m., they drew off on the appearance of a second 
regiment of Russian cavalry moving up to support 
their comrades. The Russian loss, though unknown, 



BBAGGABT KURDS, 243 

» 

is reported as immense. I have it on the best au- 
thority, however, that they certainly did not lose 
half-a-dozen men, and considering that the only 
attempt the Circassians made to get at them was 
with their repeating rifles, and knowing the value of 
mounted fire, I am inclined to think the above esti- 
mate correct. It is very difficult to get at the truth 
of the Circassian losses, but I hear they had twenty- 
two men and forty-seven horses killed, and twenty-seven 
men wounded. The flank charge of the Eussian 
squadron certainly did some execution; the Chef 
d'Escadron himself was seen to cut down four men, 
and from the fact that the above numbers come from 
a Turkish source, I am of opinion they are entitled to 
some weight. I must not omit all mention of the 
Kurds, a body of whom were sent out with the 
Circassian supports. These men, cheering loudly, gal- 
loped forward, firing their pieces as they advanced. Un- 
fortunately, their gallant intentions were frustrated by 
the conduct of some of the fainter spirits in their midst, 
who commenced to lag behind as the distance between 
themselves and the enemy was lessened. On the sudden 
appearance of the Russian supporting squadron from 
behind the village, an irresistible impulse to strengthen 
the reserve seems to have seized them, and they accord- 
ingly rode back as defiantly as they had advanced. 
I have conversed with many officers on the staff* of the 
Turkish army, and they are unanimous in their denun- 
ciation of the employment of these men, who are simply 
useless as soldiers, untrustworthy for purposes of recon- 
naissance, and faithless as spies, and who by their dastardly 
cruelty bring discredit on the name of the Ottoman 
army. 

q2 



CHAPTEE XII. 

ON THE WATCH. 

Shift our Camp once more — Strength of our Forces — Stoppage of Telegrams — 
Hospitals in Erzeroum — Relief of Bayazid by Tergukassoff — That General's 
Operations during the War— The Kurds once more — Court Martials on Faik 
and Sabri Pasha — Turkish Accounts of Eelief of Bayazid — Circassian Account 
of same Affair — Losses in the Engagement — Eussian Punishment of Kurds — 
Pleasures of Camp Life — Expectations of a ' Scrim ' disappointed — Turkish 
Eeconnaissance into Eussian Territory — The Enemy's Attempts to cut it 
off — Peace and War — Eussian Eeinf orcements at Tashkale — Hailstones and 
Pigeons' Eggs — Spies' Tales of Bayazid — British Officers' Accounts of Scenes 
in Bayazid — Sir Arnold Kemball's Endeavours to stop the Kurdish Atro- 
cities — Mukhtar Pasha's little Affair with the Circassian — His stem Ideas 
of Discipline — Eussian Atrocities in Armenia — Utterly False — Disposition 
of Eussian Troops. 

Head Quarters TV. Turkish Corps. 

Camp above Sarbatan, July 19th. 

This morning we followed Mukhtar Pasha, who had 
struck his camp, and moved the majority of his army 
to this spot, which is situated on the same table-land as 
our late encampment, but about nine miles to the north- 
east. Immediately below us to the north, distant about 
five miles, lies the Eussian camp at Kizil-Tepe ; while 
four miles farther to the north is their entrenched position 
at Kharrak-Darrah. It is quite impossible to estimate 
their strength, but I judge it to be greater than ours. 
We have been further reinforced to-day by a division 
of twelve battahons, under Hussein Hami Pasha, from 
Kars. These are holding our old ground, and connect 



DRAWBACKS OF THE TURKISH POSITION. 245 

US, in some measure, with the fortress. A body of 600 
Circassians, under the command of Mahomed Schamyl 
Pasha, son of Schamyl, the old Circassian chief, also 
marched in here. This now brings up our force to fifty- 
two battalions infantry, five field batteries and one moun- 
tain battery, two regiments of regular and about 4,600 
irregular cavalry. The force is very much extended, 
and, lining as we do the edge of the northern slopes of 
the Aladja Dagh, we must present a very formidable 
appearance to our foes who are on the plain some 2,500 
feet below us. Although the mountain positions present 
many advantages to a general who prefers to act on the 
defensive, they are extremely distasteful to the men. 
Many regiments have to send three miles for water, and 
the supply of firewood is absolutely nil. The health of 
the men suffers from the extreme changes of tempera- 
ture. At midday the sun is overpoweringly hot, while 
at night the cold wind whistling over the snowy slopes 
of Ararat pierces our bones. With good English 
blankets we are enabled, to some extent, to defy the 
elements ; but the poor soldiers, with but a thin great- 
coat made of contractor's cloth as their only covering, 
must feel the chilly nights terribly. 

My telegrams denouncing the arrangements for the 
wounded have, I learn, been stopped in Constantinople. 
I regret this for two reasons — first, because I was in 
hope that by calling the attention of the British public 
to the destitute condition of these men, I might touch 
that chord of sympathy which never fails to raise in 
breasts of our fellow-countrymen a desire to aid in the 
relief of pain and distress ; and, secondly, I regret the 
circumstance, because by their folly in hiding the de- 
fects of their system, the Ottoman Grovernment allowed 



246 TEE CAMPAIGN IN ARMENIA, 

the wounded men to He comparatively uncared for and 
untended for more than a month. 

When I tell yon that in the company of a very 
distinguished British officer I passed upwards of 1,000 
wounded men, many hundreds obliged to walk seventy 
miles to the nearest hospital ; when I tell that with my 
own hands I distributed money, and, what was even 
more welcome, tobacco, to as many as my limited means 
would allow on riding from Erzeroum to Kuipri Kui ; 
when I tell you that I collected among our small 
English community here the sum of £55, which I was 
enabled, through the unselfish exertions of the American 
missionaries, to distribute in meat and suchlike luxuries 
among the wounded Turks, I think you will agree 
with me that however strong my telegrams may have 
been, they were actuated by no ill-feeling to the men 
with whom I am now daily thrown in contact. Would 
that the Ottoman authorities had awoke to the necessity 
of aiding these sick and wounded, for here we are in the 
immediate presence of a large hostile force, in expecta- 
tion of a great battle, and there is not a single litter or 
ambulance with the 4th Turkish Army Corps I 

From Bayazid we have just received the news that 
TergukassofF, who had succeeded in eluding Kurd Ismail 
Pasha, and who had effected a retreat to Igdyr to the 
east of the Balykly Lake, moved suddenly to the south, 
and threw himself on Faik Pasha, who, with six bat- 
talions, one field and one mountain battery — together 
some 8,000 irregulars — was besieging the two Russian 
battalions in the citadel. After a sharp encounter, Paik 
was driven back with the loss of three guns ; and know- 
ing that Ahmed Pasha was moving down from Moussin, 
Tergukassoff, collecting all the sick and wounded of the 



TEBGUEASSOFrS GENERALSHIP, 247 

late garrison, abandoned the place, and crossed the fron- 
tier with the whole of his charge. Throughout this 
campaign the only Russian who has shown any pre- 
tension to generalship has been the man Tergukassoff. 
The manner in which he handled his men at Taghir 
on the 16th of June, when, with eight battalions, he 
thoroughly defeated the twelve which Mahomed Pasha 
opposed to him: the stubborn resistance with which he 
checked Mukhtar Pasha's onslaught on the 21st at 
Eshek Khaliass ; the gallant retreat which his half- 
division effected in front of Ahmed Pasha's twenty- 
three battalions ; and, finally, his dashing flank march 
from Igdyr to Bayazid, and the relief of that place 
in front of two Turkish corps, both superior to him 
in numbers, stamp him a general of division of the first 
class. Had the Czar many more like him, this war 
would have been completed a month ago. 

Continued reports of Kurdish outrages reach me 
from Van and Bayazid, where these outrages on 
Christians are now beginning to bear fruit in the literal 
starvation of the Turkish armies ; all the stores of grain, 
herds of cattle, and flocks of sheep belonging to Arme- 
nians were considered fair pillage by these gentry. Now 
that the troops are more than 100 miles from Erzeroum, 
and the difficulties of transport are being severely felt, 
Ahmed Pasha turned to the Christian villages for com- 
missariat supplies. Alas ! all the stores have been gutted 
and burnt by his auxiliaries, and the result is that his 
men are suffering the greatest privations. 

The conduct of Faik Pasha in permitting the escape 
of the Bayazid garrison is very severely criticised here, 
and it is rumoured (with what truth I do not know) 
that Mukhtar Pasha has applied for a court-martial on 



248 THE CAMPAIGN IN ARMENIA, 

him. While, however, Sabri Pasha, the commandant of 
Ardahan, and Monssa Pasha, the late Circassian chief, are 
permitted to go unpunished, it is absurd to suppose that 
any serious notice will be taken of the misdeeds of Paik. 
We hear rumours of a revolution in Daghestan, and 
that the Grand Duke has been forced to withdraw men 
from Loris MelikofF to support authority in these re- 
gions ; if this is the case, the inactivity of the Russian 
commanders is accounted for. At the same time it re- 
flects little credit on the Czar's Government that such 
a complication was not taken into consideration and due 
allowance made for it when the plan of campaign was 
laid out. Had the most ordinary forethought entered 
into the minds of the Russian authorities, a first-rate 
Power would scarcely have been driven back by the 
undisciplined, semi-organised reserves of the Ottoman 
Empire. 

Camp above Sarbatan, July 25th. 

The news from Bayazid is, of course, most conflicting, 
and it seems quite impossible to obtain a true statement 
of ^ what actually occurred. The story in vogue at head- 
quarters is that Ismail Pasha, although warned by spies 
of Tergukassoff 's movements, never attempted to succour 
Faik Pasha, but remained at Moussin with his twenty 
battalions, and that after a short fight, in which the 
Haideranly Kurds, who form no insignificant portion 
of Faik Pasha's force, did not distinguish themselves, 
Tergukassofi* drove the Turkish commander back on Te- 
periskui with heavy slaughter, capturing three mountain- 
guns. My experience of Orientals leads me not to place 
too implicit trust on head-quarter rumours, and when I 
scan Mukhtar Pasha's official telegrams in your columns 



CONFLICTING DESPATCHES. 249 

and compare them with the events that occurred under 
my own eyes, I am not tempted to change my want of 
faith. Ismail Pasha's official despatch ran as follows: — 

''A Russian division, consisting of 12 battalions, eight regiments 
of cavalry, and 30 guns, coming from Erivan, arrived before Bayazid, 
evidently witb the intention of surprising Munib Pasha, who was 
occupying the hills commanding the town. The enemy being in 
very superior numbers, Munib Pasha was forced to fall back under a 
heavy musketry fire. On hearing of the Russian advance, I im- 
mediately detached a brigade of six battalions, one battery, and 400 
cavalry, under Hakif Bey, who attacked the enemy with much spirit. 
After a sanguinary contest of some hours, the Russians were put to 
flight, leaving on the field, besides a large number of dead, many 
thousand stand of arms, several yburgons, and a large train of pro- 
vision wagons. I now am myself marching down to efiect a junction 
with Faik Pasha's corps, and intend to make a combined attack on 
the enemy. Send immediately large quantities of provisions and 
ammunition, as we are in need of both." 

This story differs considerably from the Commander-in- 
Chief's report, which acknowledges the success of the 
Eussians, who captured three guns, and succeeded in 
carrying off all their sick and wounded and blowing 
up the citadel when they evacuated it. 

From an intelligent unofficial source I obtained the 
following information, and as I have had an opportunity 
of hearing what Ghazi Mahomed Pasha (Schamyl's son) 
— who, with his Circassians, was present at the fight — 
says on the subject, and as it agrees in the main with 
my informant's story, I give it without any hesitation 
as the really true account of the battle of Bayazid. On 
Friday, the 13th of July, a Russian division, consisting 
of twelve battalions of infantry, thirty-two field-guns, 
two regiments of dragoons, and five of Cossacks, arrived 
at dawn in front of Bayazid from Erivan. Munib Pasha, 



250 THE CAMPAIGN IN ARMENIA. 

who, with four battalions, five field-pieces, and 1,200 
cavalry, held two hills to the east of the citadel, com- 
pletely commanding the ground, on the approach of the 
enemy, seeing their superior strength, evacuated his posi- 
tion, and endeavoured to fall back on Faik Pasha's force 
at Teperiskui. Rapidly moving forward his cavalry, Ter- 
gukassoff cut off Munib Pasha's retreat, and compelled 
him to accept battle. In the meantime the Eussian 
artillery and infantry came up, and a sharp encounter 
ensued. Munib Pasha being unable to retire on Teperis- 
kui, owing to the Eussian cavalry being on the road, fell 
back towards Moussin, and at about 2 p.m. was reinforced 
by Hakif Bey's brigade, consisting of eight battalions, 
one battery, and 1,200 cavalry, which Ismail Pasha had 
detached to his support. The fight then continued 
until 5 o'clock, when the Turks fled in disorder to Kizil 
Diza, about ten miles N.W. of Bayazid. Tergukassoff 
then fell back to the town, where he remained the night, 
making arrangements for the transport of the sick and 
wounded of the beleaguered garrison to Erivan. On the 
15th he moved off unattacked, blowing up the citadel 
and partially destroying the town. Thus, in face of a 
force at least double his own strength, and which was 
fully aware, not only of his movements, but of their 
object, Tergukassoff, by a rapid march and brilliant vic- 
tory, succeeded in relieving the garrison of Bayazid, who 
for twenty-three days had been closely besieged by the 
faint-hearted Faik, who, though his forces numbered 
13,000 men, feared to assault the citadel, with its gallant 
garrison of 1,270 men. The battle of Taghir, the retreat 
from Zaidikan, and the relief of Bayazid, stamp the com- 
mander of the thirty-eighth Eussian division a general of 
no mean order. Were the other divisional leaders or the 



THE VILLANOUS KURDS, 251 

Commander-in-Chief of the same calibre as Tergukassoff, 
I much doubt if our advance from Zewin would have 
been unopposed, or if we should have relieved K^rs 
without a struggle. 

It is simply impossible to estimate the losses of the 
Turks in the engagement on the 13th inst. Mukhtar 
Pasha acknowledges to 500 killed, besides wounded and 
prisoners, as well as three mountain guns which fell 
into the hands of the Russians ; and this tallies in the 
main with my own information, which gives three guns 
(not mentioning whether field or mountain), 800 pri- 
soners, and 900 killed and wounded. The Commander- 
in-Chief has sent down instructions for Faik Pasha to 
be placed under arrest, and tried for failing to afford 
support to his advanced brigade under Munib Pasha. 

Prom all sides we hear complaints as to the scarcity 
of provisions in the Bayazid, Van, Dijadin, and Kara 
Kilissa districts — a scarcity amounting to a famine. 
The Turkish commanders telegraph daily to Erzeroum 
for corn, grain, flour, and meat to be sent out imme- 
diately and in the largest possible quantities, as every 
village store has been clean swept by the Kurds. It 
appears that these worthies, of whom there are some 
10,000 with the Turkish right wing, have been roam- 
ing over the country, taking whatever they pleased, 
and murdering any one who said them nay. Such 
cattle as they could not drive away they slaughtered 
and left to rot in the sun. Grain that they could not 
carry away was either burnt or thrown into rivers. It 
appears that thirty Kurds were captured by the Rus- 
sians after the afiair of Bayazid. These were imme- 
diately brought before a court-martial, and twenty of 
them sentenced to death. Of these many were inhabi- 



252 THE CAMPAIGN IN ARMENIA. 

tants of Eussian territory, one Ayub Aga, the son of 
Jaifir Agha, chief of the Zilan Kurds, who dwell on 
the left bank of the Araxes. This man held the rank 
of honorary colonel in the Eussian army, and was 
decorated by the Emperor Alexander on his visit to 
Alexandropol some years ago. Having been convicted 
of atrocities on Eussian prisoners in Bayazid as well as 
of faithlessness to his salt, he well merited the punish- 
ment he received. 

The past week has been so devoid of incident that it 
seems hardly worth while to attempt to chronicle the 
doings of the camp for the benefit of your readers. 
Incessant rain, with vivid lightning, varied the dull 
monotony of our existence both yesterday and on Mon- 
day. Two miserable days indeed ; when to write was 
impossible, for my paper was reduced to the consistency 
of pulp if I removed it from my sabretache for a 
moment, and my brain so sodden with the atmosphere 
that all ideas were as vapid as the air around me. 
Night was a relief indeed, and in spite of the damp 
surroundings, in spite of the prognostications that damp 
blankets foreboded rheumatism, fever, ague, any and all 
the ills that Oriental travellers are exposed to, I slept 
as soundly as man could wish. At six a.m. I was 
rudely awakened by Sir Arnold Kemball's orderly in- 
forming him that the Eussians were advancing in force, 
and our troops moving off to meet them. Damp boots, 
damp saddles, and damp coats were quickly rubbed 
down, and in a very few minutes our horses were at the 
door, and we ready to accompany the Commander-in- 
Chief ; but, in spite of the agitated assurances of the 
excited Moolazim (Sir Arnold's Turkish orderly officer), 
there seemed to be an air of peacefulness over the 



THE ENEMY'S MOVEMENTS. 253 

Mushir's camp that boded of anything rather than an 
impending attack ; so, leaving our horses by the tents, 
we moved on to the edge of the ridge about a couple of 
hundred yards from us, and sat down to watch the 
progress of events. 

There was no doubt as to a movement on the part 
of the enemy, for half way between Kizil-Tepe and 
Sarbatan were three regiments of cavalry, five battalions 
of infantry, and two field batteries, while between 
Tainalik and Jelanly were a couple of cavalry regiments. 
Our 1st cavalry brigade, under Mustafa Pasha, was 
moved down to Chela, and our second, under Edhem 
Pasha, from Bolanik to Hadji-veli, and at one time I 
certainly thought an engagement was imminent. The 
Russian horsemen, however, dismounted, and commenced 
feeding their animals on the rich green grass with 
which the plain below us is covered, and our Circas- 
sians, mindful of the losses they sustained almost on 
the very spot now occupied by Eussian dragoons only 
one short week ago, never ventured beyond the range 
of our guns on the ridge below Kharkana. As the 
enemy certainly was not likely to run under the fire of 
their Krupps, my expectations were disappointed, for 
at 11 a.m. the Eussians mounted and retired to their 
camp in rear of the Kizil-Tepe hill, the infantry pre- 
ceding the cavalry by about half an hour. I cannot 
imagine what was the object of this demonstration, 
unless it was to give the men a marching-out parade to 
warm them after the damp chilliness of the past two days. 

Thursday, Juli/ 26th. 

This morning I learnt that the Commander-in-Chief 
had yesterday detached 1,200 cavalry, under Major- 



254 THE CAMPAIGN IN ARMENIA. 

General Mustafa Pasha, on a reconnaissance across the 
Arpa Chai to Mastara, in Eussian territory, and that, 
fearing their retreat might be threatened, he meditated 
moving out with a strong force to support them at 
9 a.m. Previous to that hour an unusual stir was 
seen in the Eussian camp at Gadikler, and presently 
two battalions of infantry, twenty squadrons of cavalry, 
and two horse batteries were seen moving out in 
the direction of Aras-Oghlu, evidently with the in- 
tention of cutting off Mustafa Safvet Pasha's retreat. 
Marching down the banks of the Arpa Tchai, this 
brigade drew down upon it the fire of the troops posted 
in the Nakharji-Tepe, and as they debouched into the 
plain between Utch Tepe and Aras-Oghlu, Edhem 
Pasha, at the head of a body of Circassians, moved out 
to oppose them, the Mushir supporting him by a heavy 
fire from two batteries, which on the first announcement 
of the Eussian advance had been ordered out to Chela. 

This was replied to with much spirit by the Eus- 
sians. The Commander-in-Chief, however, at 11 a.m., 
advanced three brigades of infantry to support the 
Circassians, who were contenting themselves with firing 
at the enemy's skirmishers, never attempting to come 
to close quarters. On this the enemy retired to Aras- 
Oghlu, and occupied a ridge to the east of the village, 
whence it would have been difficult to dislodge him. 
Desultory firing between the Circassians and the infantry 
skirmishers of the Eussian force now was the order 
of the day, and it was not until 2 p.m. that Loris 
Melikoff advanced a division from the Gadikler camp 
to support his detachment. It was a pretty sight to 
see the men parade in front of their snowy tents, and, as 
the sun shone on their white caps and glistened on 



''PEACE AND WAR." 255 

their bayonets, they presented a fair enough spectacle 
for any artist to delineate. The column was headed by 
four regiments of dragoons, moving in column of troops, 
and in splendid order ; in rear of them were two horse 
batteries, followed by two more cavalry corps. As they 
were without the white head-dress, I concluded they 
were Cossacks. Immediately behind these men was a 
battery, and then, in half -battalion columns, came two 
infantry brigades, numbering twelve battalions — fine, 
strong corps, too, numbering fully 800 bayonets. As 
these moved out to the eastward, another force advanced 
straight to the front on Sarbatan, consisting of four 
battalions, one battery, and five squadrons of horse. 
The scene now witnessed would have been an admirable 
study for a picture of " peace and war." The opposing 
armies, in all the pomp and circumstance of war, moved 
in compact order over the ground, already dotted with 
the gathered sheaves of corn, whilst the husbandmen, 
regardless of the roar of cannon in their vicinity, con- 
tinued their reaping with the stoicism and nonchalance 
of which only a Mahomedan is capable, whilst here 
and there was to be seen a herdsman quietly watch- 
ing his flocks browsing on the stubbly fields. In the 
low ground between Tainalik and Kharkana, lay one 
of these ; for a long time his goats were a subject of 
discussion amongst us, one thinking they were a Russian 
column well in advance of the main body, the other 
maintaining they were aiximals. The first shell whistling 
over their heads served to strengthen the delusion, for, 
frightened by the noise, and awakening to the sense 
of danger, the goatherd commenced driving his herds 
towards our camp, and they in turn, startled by the 
fire, which now became hotter, spread out into irregular 



256 THE CAMPAIGN IN ARMENIA. 

order, and running forward some fifty or sixty paces, 
stopped, and gazed round in bewilderment. The 
anxiety of the villager to get safe away was natural, 
though ludicrous, and we could not help indulging in a 
hearty laugh as a few Circassians galloped forward, and 
soon covered the retreat of their future meals. 

Being thus threatened, Mukhtar, by a heavy attack 
on his front, withdrew his force from the attack on 
Aras-Oghlu, moved to his left, and opposed the Eussian 
division, who, covering their front with a long cloud 
of skirmishers, supported on either flank by a battery, 
moved on until they came within range of the Nakharji- 
Tepe. On our left another column advanced, covered 
with cavalry and guns, but on nearing Sarbatan it was 
halted, and opened a desultory fire, freely responded to 
by our guns. 

In the meantime, the Eussian general detached five 
squadrons of Cossacks, who threatened the left flank of 
our troops near Bolanik. Grhazi Mahomed at once went 
out to repel this attack, and though in doing so his Cir- 
cassians came under the fire of a field-battery, posted on 
the lower slopes of the Kizil-Tepe Hill, they charged 
the Cossacks most gallantly, driving them back on to 
their guns. 

Neither party seemed willing to advance ; the Eus- 
sians not caring to come under the fire from our en- 
trenched position, and the Turks not venturing to face 
an overwhelming force of cavalry in the plain; so at 
sunset both armies retired to their own camp, a fright- 
ful hailstorm considerably hastening their movements. 
Taking advantage of the diversion on their right, Meli- 
koff* pushed forward a couple of regiments of cavalry, 
two batteries, and two battalions to Ani — which they 



IDLENESS AND BOUGH WEATHER. 257 

occupied unopposed, and held for a couple of hours, but 
unaccountably evacuated about sunset. 

One thing I learnt, which up to that time had 
escaped the notice of the Commander-in-Chief, namely, 
that a strong cavalry camp had been formed at Tash- 
kale, about twelve miles to the north-east, and that 
the Gadikler camp contained one complete division of 
infantry. This had been a moot point iji camp, the 
Turks maintaining that there were only cavalry there, 
while the English of&cers were equally certain that 
infantry formed the front line of the encampment. ^ 

I trust you will excuse the shortness of this letter. 
It has rained heavily the last three days. Everything 
in my tent is thoroughly saturated. I myself am wet 
through, and, though I fain would write more, I feel 
that the effects of quinine and the aching in my bones 
are but too sure indications that even damp blankets 
are preferable to wringing clothes. 

Camp above Sarbatan, Fifteen Miles East 
OF Kars, July 26th. 

The past week has not been marked by any stirring 
incident. Continual rain, violent hailstorms, and the 
absence of all military movements have made the mo- 
notony of camp-life almost insupportable. Our days are 
spent in watching the two Russian camps at Kharrak- 
Darrah and Gradikler, and vainly endeavouring to discover 
the symptoms of advance ; our nights in futile attempts 
to make our tents waterproof. Our efforts in these 
directions were not attended with success till noon yes- 
terday, when a long string of cslv^Iyj, four^ons and guns 
moving from Alexandropol to Gadikler told us that the 
long-expected reinforcements had arrived, and that our 

R 



258 THE CAMFAIGN IN ABMENIA, 

eyesight Lad not been strained in vain. Alas ! the 
endeavour to keep a whole tent over our heads was less 
successful, for the most violent hailstorm I ever wit- 
nessed broke over the camp, and raged with frightful 
violence for two hours. The hail, breaking the outer 
covering of our tents, drenched everything inside, and 
caused us a night of misery. 

Until now, I had been wont to regard the stories of 
hailstones as large as pigeons' eggs as travellers' tales, 
but now I awoke to the fact that they were indeed a 
reality. Much damage was caused not only to the tents, 
which, originally made of weak material, had from expo- 
sure become quite rotten, but also to the sheep and cattle 
in the commissariat camp, many of which were killed by 
the violence of the storm. The crops in the neighbour- 
hood of Sarbatan and Kharkana also suffered greatly. 

The reports I have received of the relief of Bayazid 
reflect the greatest credit on Greneral Tergukassoff, 
the commandant of the 38th division of Infantry. It 
appears that after the battle of Eshek Khahass, on the 
21st of June, where, with eight battalions he success- 
fully resisted the continued assaults of Mukhtar Pasha 
with nineteen battalions, he retired on Zaidikan, where 
he remained until the 27th, when, being threatened in 
the rear, he fell back through Kara Kilissa and Djiadin, 
across the frontier to Igdyr. In this retreat he was 
cautiously followed by Ismail Pasha, who, however, 
never ventured to attack him, but contented himself with 
encamping at Moussin, on the western shore of the 
Balykly Lake. Ismail Pasha did not attempt to cut off 
his retreat, but remained satisfied with closely investing 
the citadel of Bayazid, the garrison of which on the 13th 
had suffered a severe repulse at the hands of Paik Pasha 



TRE BELIEF OF BAYAZID. 259 

near Teperiskiii, whither they had advanced to attack 
him, falling back into the citadel in some confusion. 
They lost many horses and some prisoners, and the 
Tm-ks pressing them closely, invested the place. As 
might have been expected, the most strenuous efforts were 
made by the Grand Duke to effect the relief of the 
beleaguered garrison ; and on the 10th of July General 
Tergukassoff, having been reinforced by four battalions, 
bringing up his strength to thirty-two field guns, three 
regiments of dragoons, four of Cossacks, and twelve 
infantry battalions,- moved rapidly down on Bayazid. 
Although it seems that Ismail Pasha had warning of 
this movement — indeed, there is no doubt that he was 
aware of it, for on the morning of the 9th he rode over 
to Teperiskui, where Faik Pasha was encamped, and 
spent the day with him — it was not until that morn 
ing that he detached a brigade, under Hakif Bey, to 
reinforce the six battalions, two batteries, and about 
10,000 irregulars who were besieging the town. At 
dawn on the 13th General Tergukassoff appeared on 
the north-east front of the place, where Major-General 
Munib Pasha, with three mountain guns, four batta- 
lions, and 1,200 cavalry, was holding a commanding 
position. Finding himself opposed to such a superior 
force, Munib evacuated his position and endeavoured to 
fall back on Teperiskui. A rapid movement of Eus- 
sian cavalry cut off his retreat. Munib was forced to 
fight his way to the north, where Hakif Bey's brigade, 
consisting of eight battalions, a battery, and some 600 
horse, was seen advancing. A junction was effected ; 
but General Tergukassoff 's onslaught was so vigorous, 
that the whole force was driven back on Kizil Diza, 
with the loss of three guns, 500 killed, and 800 pri- 
R 2 



260 THE CAMPAIGN IN ABMUNIA. 

soners. Upwards of 1,500 wounded are reported to 
have been sent into Van. Faik Pasha never attempted 
to support Munib Pasha, and well merits the court- 
martial which Mukhtar Pasha threatens to bring him 
before. 

From the accounts of two British ofl&cers who have 
visited Bayazid since the relief, it appears that the 
whole town is in ruins and filled with the bodies of 
Christians whom the Kurds ruthlessly slaughtered. 
The Turkish soldiers for six days were employed in 
burying the dead citizens. In this crisis Mukhtar 
Pasha has not only shown himself a gallant and able 
officer, but also a firm disciplinarian and a humane, 
courteous gentleman. He openly spoke of this mas- 
sacre to Sir Arnold Kemball, and not only assured him 
that he had given orders for the ringleaders to be shot, 
but that he had also sent instructions for the Hai- 
deranly Kurds, numbering more than 8,000 men, to be 
disarmed and sent home. He complained of the ex- 
treme difficulty of apprehending the delinquents, as they 
were always warned of their danger by their chiefs, and 
got out of the way. I may give two instances to show 
his determination to conduct the war on principles that 
cannot fail to merit the approval of European nations. 
On the 10th inst. a report was made to him by the 
head man of the village of Tchiflik Kaiah, near Kars, 
that two Circassians the preceding evening had ridden 
into the place and stolen a lamb, and that, on being 
remonstrated with by the owner, one of them raised 
his Winchester rifle and shot the villager dead. As 
the man was easily identified, the Mushir summoned a 
court-martial, who found the Circassian guilty, where- 
upon the Commander-in-Chief gave orders that he 



"RUSSIAN ATROCITIES.'' 261 

should be hanged. All the chiefs begged his life, and 
one went so far as to threaten that if the man was 
hanged he would retire to his home with his whole 
tribe. Undeterred by this, Mnkhtar carried the sen- 
tence into execution, and, to the dishonour of the irre- 
gular cavalry, I grieve to say that 1,100 men deserted 
the following day. The second instance is as follows : — 
Yesterday 500 irregular cavalry arrived from Diarbekir. 
Eeports had preceded them as to their vague notions 
of meu7n and fuum, and, consequently, on their arrival 
in camp the Commander-in-Chief paraded them, and 
informed them that if any man was brought up for the 
theft of a single egg he would hang him, and if the 
culprit could not be found, he would cause the whole 
detachment to draw lots in his presence, and that he on 
whom the lot fell would suffer. 

I must now, in the most emphatic manner, deny 
aU reports of Eussian atrocities in Armenia. I have 
had the privilege of accompanying Sir Arnold KembaU 
throughout this campaign, and, should any atrocities 
have been committed, I should assuredly have seen or 
heard of them. On the 31st of May, in company with 
Sir Arnold KembaU, I proceeded towards Olti, and on 
the way met hundreds of the Ardahan fugitives. So 
far from their accusing the Eussians of cruelties, they 
were loud in praise of their kindness, and assured us that 
they had received free passes to their homes, which they 
showed us, and also five days' provisions. They told us 
that several Grerman doctors had been retained to look 
after the Turkish sick and wounded, and that all those 
who wished and were able to travel to their homes were 
permitted to depart. In addition to the testimony of 
those men, I may mention that I have marched with the 



262 THE CAMPAIGN IN ARMENIA. 

Turkish army in the wake of the retiring Eussian 
forces from Zewin to this place, and that so far from 
there being any signs of oppression, it is impossible to 
believe that we were in a country forming the seat of 
war. All Mahomedan villages are left untouched, cattle 
feeding on the pasture-land, the crops ripe for the sickle, 
and all seems as if smiling peace, not grim war, was 
around us. To-day a village happened to be between 
the Turkish cavalry and the Russian guns, and as shells 
screamed overhead we saw the phlegmatic Turk coolly 
driving his goats under cover. Does this look as if the 
Russians really committed the atrocities of which they 
are accused? One instance, and one only, has come 
under my notice, which happened in this wise: — The 
villagers of Tchiflik, to the north of Ears, were warned 
by the Russians that as their hamlet lay between the 
fortress and the siege-batteries, they must either move 
into the fortress or into the Russian lines. They not 
only refused to do either, but were strongly suspected of 
giving information to the Commandant of Kars which 
enabled him to surprise the besiegers. Consequently, 
the villagers were driven into the fortress at the point 
of the bayonet. There are stories of women being vio- 
lated, and of men who refused to embrace Christianity 
being sent to Siberia. These are all false. I heard the 
story of Tchiflik from the lips of one of the sufferers, a 
man who, having held the post of personal orderly to 
Sir Penwick Williams in the siege of 1855, would not 
have hesitated to tell the truth to an Englishman. He 
denied all the statements except that they were forcibly 
driven out of their homes, and I feel sure that any 
English general in similar circumstances would have done 
the same. Were I to harp on the atrocities committed 



"TURKISH atrocities:' 263 

by Kurds and Circassians on the Christian inhabitants 

of Armenia I should be dubbed a " Eussophile/' and 

probably disbelieved. All I can say is that between 

Kuipri-Kui and this I have not seen one Christian village 

which has not been abandoned in consequence of the 

cruelties committed on the inhabitants. All have been 

ransacked, many burnt, upwards of 5,000 Christians 

in the Van district have fled to Eussian territory, and 

women and children are wandering about naked, bereft 

of their honour ^ and despoiled of all they possess. If 

Turkey had more men like Mukhtar Pasha, her. future 

might yet be one of prosperity ; but when her rulers 

are of the stamp of the men who at Bayazid were 

powerless to stop the massacre, it is no wonder that 

many look on her as doomed. 

The Eussians now are in three divisions in front of 
us, the main and strongest being at Kharrak-Darrah, the 
second at Gadikler, the third at Tashkale, in Eussian 
territory. Greneral Tergukassoff, with his left wing, is 
at Igdyr, and Komaroff, with a small brigade, is holding 
Ardahan. "When they advance they will find a powerful 
army opposed to them, who have been raised to the 
highest state of enthusiasm by recent events, whose 
equipment and organisation have been vastly improved 
by the energy of the Commander-in-Chief, and who, 
thanks to the zeal of Djameel and Hassan Pashas at 
Trebizond and Erzeroum, are now well supplied with 
commissariat and ordnance stores; indeed, until very 
strong reinforcements arrive, a forward movement on 
the part of the enemy is impossible. 



CHAPTER XIII. 

HEAD-QUAUTEUS, FOURTH TURKISH ARMY CORPS. 

The Russian Retreat — Macliiiiery of Turkish Staff — Medical Department — 
An Amateur Opinion on Russian Reconnaissances — A Skirmish on the 
' 28th — Cossacks left to hear the hrunt of the Fight — Dash of the Circas- 
sians — More Russian Reinforcements — Story of a Deserter —Strength of the 
Invading Army — Demoralisation after Defeat at Zewin — Russian Casual- 
ties — Projected Assault at Kars — Value of our Cavalry — Russians occupy 
Ani unobserved — Mukhtar attacks them — Fresh Details from Bayazid — 
The Instigation of the Massacre — Sir Arnold Xemball demands their 
Punishment — Positions of Ismail Pasha and Tergukassoff — Turkish official 
Telegrams — Their close Adherence to Truth — Interchange of Civihties 
between Melikoff and Mukhtar — Ahmed Vefyk Pasha and the Stafford 
House Surgeons. 

Camp, Heights above Sarbatan, Aug. 2nd. 

Throughout the afternoon of Friday, the 27th July, 
groups of officers might be seen congregated in front of 
the head-quarters tents, anxiously scanning the Eussian 
camp at Gadikler. Their excited looks and vehement 
gestures betokened some move on the part of the 
enemy ; so, inspired by curiosity, I strolled down about 
sunset from the English camp and joined the party. I 
certainly was not prepared to see the stolid Turk betray 
so much eagerness and pleasure, nor was I prepared for 
the news which was vehemently imparted by some of 
them — namely, that the Russians were in full retreat, 
that tents had been struck, and that cavalry, artillery, 
and infantry were moving in long strings towards 
Goomri. This has been reported to me so often during 



THE TURKISH STAFF. 265 

the past fortnight that I must own that I received it 
with some incredulity, which was not lessened by the 
fact that my field-glasses, on which I most particularly 
pride myself, failed to show any movement of troops, 
except that the left of the enemy's position had been 
strengthened by four battalions, and that their artillery 
and cavalry encaijapments had considerably increased. 

' I mentioned my doubts as to the retirement, and 
my certainty as to reinforcements, to my friends on the 
staff; but my announcement was received with scorn, 
and not caring to argue the point, I, after again satis- 
fying myself as to the actual position of afiairs, returned 
to my own tent, struck with wonder at the absence of all 
trustworthy intelligence in camp, and marvelling greatly 
at the smooth way in which the machinery, rude and 
primitive as it is, of the Turkish stafi" worked. Un- 
trained men, who had never handled a rifle in their 
lives, have in a few short weeks been converted into 
obedient, enthusiastic, and workman-like troops; and 
this, too, has been achieved by officers notoriously 
inefficient, and who, in this instance, are no exception to 
the rule. The various departments which are deemed 
in European armies so absolutely necessary for the 
harmonious working of the whole, are here wanting 
— adjutant-general, quartermaster-general, commissary- 
general, paymaster-general, advocate-general — are not to 
be found here. A chief of the staff, aided by two young 
officers from the military school at Constantinople, and 
one civilian secretary, comprise the staff at head-quarters. 
Divisional generals are provided with one staff- officer ; 
officers commanding brigades with none. There is not 
an officer on the staff capable of making a military sketch. 
It was only last week that a supply of maps was 



266 THE GAIIPAIGN IN ARMENIA. 

received, and these are copies of the Eussian ordnance 
survey. The men have received no pay for upwards of 
two years ; they are poorly clad and hadly shod ; their 
rations are limited in quantity, and of bad quality ; our 
hospitals are destitute of the commonest medicines, and 
there are but four doctors among 40,000 men. In fact, 
the administration has left no stone unturned to insure 
the discontent of their men and the defeat of their 
armies ; and yet, in spite of all, in spite of the lack of 
officers, in spite of their faulty organisation, the Turks 
have checked and held at bay an army far their superior 
in numbers and equipment, and one which confidently 
expected to conquer Armenia in six weeks. 

In fact, looking at the Russian troops as I have now 
seen them in some half-dozen encounters, there seems 
nothing to prevent them doing what they please with 
the Turks, and yet they hold back. Their troops, in 
appearance, in manoeuvring, in organisation, in marching 
power, leave nothing to be desired ; and yet, with the one 
exception of General Tergukassofi*, their leaders appear to 
be men of little intelligence and no dash. The nume- 
rous reconnaissances they have conducted the last few 
days have been marked by the grossest incapacity. 
Although large bodies of troops, generally numbering 
from 10,000 to 15,000 men, have been employed in the 
course of these operations, detached troops have been 
pushed forward unsupported, and often sacrificed use- 
lessly. 

On the morning of the 28th one of these re- 
connaissances was made. At dawn two battalions of 
infantry, four regiments of cavalry, and three field-bat- 
teries were detached from Gadikler, and, marching by 
Aras-Oglu and Ani, passed down the Arpa to our right 



GALLANT CAVALRY COMBAT. 267 

rear. At the same time five regiments of cavalry, two 
field-batteries, and twelve infantry battalions, advanced 
from the Kharrak-Darrah camp, by Chalif Oghlu, towards 
Vezinkui. This place is held by Hassan Hami Pasha, 
late commandant of Kars, with twelve battalions, two 
batteries, and a few hundred irregular horse. Fearing 
for this position, Mnkhtar Pasha detached Major 
General Edhem Pasha with his cavalry brigade, num- 
bering nearly 3,000 sabres, to the Yagni Tepe, a lofty 
conical hill some four miles north of Vezinkui to ope- 
rate on the Eussian flank. By the time Edhem Pasha 
had reached this position the lower slopes were held by 
a body of Cossacks, while the main Eussian column, 
passing round the western slopes, had come under fire 
of the guns on the Vezinkui position. They replied 
vigorously to this, and, rapidly • moving forward his 
cavalry, the Eussian general was enabled to capture a 
small convoy of provisions en route from Xars to the 
head-quarter camp. In the meantime, a very dashing 
cavalry combat was going on on the eastern slopes of the 
Grreat Yagni Tepe, where a regiment of Cossacks — some 
say Lesghians- — ^were endeavouring to ward off the flank 
attack of Edhem Pasha. Why this regiment was not 
supported by guns it is difiicult to say ; and why it was 
not drawn off when the main column retired is inex- 
plicable. After most gallantly holding his own, entirely 
unsupported for more than an hour, the Cossack com- 
mander, seeing that the main body were clear out of 
action, endeavoured to draw off his men ; but being left 
entirely unsupported, the Circassians, who all day had 
behaved with the greatest gallantry, closed in on them 
and pursued them round the hill with great vigour. 
On emerging on the north side, however, a few rockets, 



268 THE GAMPAIGJSf IN ARMENIA 

judiciously planted in the midst of the Circassians, sen- 
sibly cooled their ardour, and they wisely drew off on 
seeing two infantry battalions of the line manoeuvring 
in support of the rocket-troop. The Russian com- 
mander now drew up his men in the plain to the east of 
the Yagni Tepe, and endeavoured to entice the Turkish 
troops away from the hills ; but Easchid Pasha, who had 
taken out an infantry brigade and a battery to support 
the Circassians, refused to expose his men ; so, after wait- 
ing for more than two hours, and seeing there was no 
chance of provoking a conflict, the Eussian commander 
retired unmolested to Kharrak-Darrah. In the mean- 
time, four infantry battalions, two regiments of cavahy, 
and a battery had moved out from Gadikler towards 
Sarbatan, with the endeavour to entice Mukhtar Pasha 
from his entrenchments, but without success, and after 
remaining on the ground until 4 p.m., this brigade also 
retired. 

It is impossible to estimate the Eussian loss. That 
they carried off some dead I am confident, yet I am not 
prepared to receive the Turkish official reports, which 
say they left 300 dead on the ground, for I went over 
the field immediately after the engagement with Sir 
Arnold Kemball and his indefatigable aide-de-camp, 
Lieutenant Maitland Dougall, E.N., and we could only 
discover three Eussian bodies, which, in conformity with 
Turkish usage, had been stripped; and two, I regret 
to say, were grievously mutilated. Eight Eussian 
prisoners, Mahomedan irregular cavalry soldiers, fell 
into our hands. Our published loss amounted to 30 
killed and 161 wounded. 

From the prisoners we learnt that up to the 27th 
four regiments of cavalry, four battalions of infantry, 



*'FBOM INFORMATION BEGBIVEBr 269 

and three field-batteries, had marched 'into camp from 
Groomri ; and that rumours were prevalent at that place 
that peace or an armistice would be concluded in the 
course of the next few days. I am forgetting the 
Eussian brigade which marched round Ani on Saturday 
morning : it returned about sunset ; but I am unable to 
report its movements, except that it never came into 
collision with our troops. 

From a deserter of a Eussian dragoon regiment, who 
gave himself up to our outposts on the 29th, I have 
learnt some details of the enemy's forces, which may 
account for the want of success achieved by General 
Loris MelikofE in the campaign, as well as for his in- 
activity at the present moment. It appears from this 
man's statement that at the outbreak of the war the 
Eussian army of the Caucasus consisted of seven com- 
plete infantry divisions — namely, the Grenadier, the 
19th, 20th, 21st, 38th, 39th, and 41st divisions ; two 
divisions of cavalry, five brigades of horse-artiUery, and 
eight batteries of Cossack horse -artillery. Each infantry 
division consisted of four regiments of four battalions and 
a brigade of field-artillery, consisting of two 4 -pounder 
batteries and two 9-pounders. I now speak of German 
"pfiinde." The field-batteries have eight guns, the 
horse -artillery brigades have four batteries of six guns, 
Krupp's 4-pounders, and the Cossack batteries have 
fom- Krupp 3 -pounder mountain guns. There were 
also three - rocket batteries attached to the cavalry 
divisions. General Melikoff's army consisted of the 
Grenadier and 39th divisions complete, one brigade 
from the 19th and one from the 20th division. The 
Batoum forces consisted of the 41st division complete 
and a second division composed of brigades of other 



270 THE CAMPAIGN IK ARMENIA. 

corps. General Tergukassoff, operating on Bayazid and 
the line of the Araxes, has the 38th division complete. 
The distribution of the cavalry and artillery I cannot 
give you with any accuracy, except that I know the 
2nd division of cavalry, with a rocket troop, was with 
Tergukassoff, who had the artillery of his own division 
complete. Loris Melikoff had eighty field-guns, one 
rocket troop, and a cavalry division, consisting of three 
dragoon and four Cossack regiments ; but his force has 
been considerably streugthened since the commencement 
of operations. The 39th division was detached to aid 
in the capture of Ardahan, and subsequently rejoined 
head-quarters at Ears ; and the Grenadier division pro- 
ceeded, under General Heimann, to force Mukhtar Pasha 
back from Zevin. According to my informant's story, 
it appears that this division suffered so heavily in the 
battle of the 25 th of June that on its return march it 
was moved round by Vezinkui and Ani into Eussian 
territory, and never rejoined the head-quarters at all. 
Where it has been sent he is unable to say; but it 
would be either to Erivan or Tiflis, as it has never even 
passed through Goomri. The story of another deserter, 
a Pole, who was servant to the commandant of artillery, 
confirms this, and says the Grenadier division had to 
fall back owing to failure of ammunition, and that for 
three days after the fight the men had no rations. It 
must be borne in mind, however, that deserters, in order 
to insure good treatment, are very likely to exaggerate 
the diflBculties of the army they leave, and that not only 
do the Eussian official accounts put down the casualties 
at under 1,000, but that the numerous letters from 
officers found in the intercepted letter-bag on the 29th 
of June, while freely criticising Heimann's dispositions, 



HOW AN ASSAULT ON KAB8 FELL THROUGH, 271 

never put the loss at more than from 900 to 1,000 men. 
The Polish gunner gave some interesting details regard- 
ing his own corps during the siege of Kars. He stated 
the number of casualties to have been seventy killed 
and 156 wounded, and he added that four guns had 
been disabled, one from a Turkish shot and three from 
the rapidity of their own fire. He also said that during 
the twelfth night of the siege all arrangements were 
made for assaulting the fortress, and that at 10 p.m. 
the columns were all drawn up, and an extra ration of 
liquor served out to the men, when the accidental dis- 
charge of a gun in one of the Russian batteries alarmed 
the Turks, who at once opened a very heavy fire from 
the Mukhliss and Karadagh redoubts, and the attempt 
had to be abandoned. This account was confirmed by 
Hassan Bey, colonel of the Turkish artillery, who states 
that on that night a gun was fired from the siege bat- 
teries, which he vigorously replied to on the supposition 
that an assault was intended. 

On Sunday, the 29th of July, no movements Were 
made; but on Monday, the 30th, at noon, we were 
somewhat surprised at seeing a hurried stir in the head- 
quarters camp. We learnt that the Eussians had sud- 
denly moved down from Tashkale and occupied Ani in 
force. To mount our horses and canter through the 
tents of the first division to the extreme right of our 
position was, perhaps, the work of half an hour, and I 
could scarcely credit my senses when I saw encamped 
on the plains of Ani a division of infantry, four field- 
batteries, and two regiments of cavalry. The whole 
road from Tashkale was covered vnth strings of waggons 
and detachments of cavaby. The fact that this move 
•was carried out in broad daylight, within full view of 



272 THE CAMPAIGN IN AJRMENIA. 

the troops on the Nakharji-Tepe, within two miles of 
our right cavalry brigade, and within five miles of our 
main camp, shows of what miserable material our horse 
are composed, and what enormous difficulties Mukhtar 
Pasha has to contend against. It was not until the 
greater portion of this division was encamped, and their 
outposts, consisting of two battalions, twelve field-guns, 
and two regiments of cavalry, had been pushed forwards 
to the vicinity of Chela, that the Commander-in-Chief 
learnt the news, when he at once detached Lieutenant- 
Q-eneral Easchid Pasha with fourteen battalions and 
three mountain guns to attack from the south, while he, 
with both cavalry brigades, moved down towards Chela 
to engage the enemy's outposts. As he advanced across 
the open between Kozludja and Chela, the Eussian guns 
opened fire, and after a round or two succeeded in getting 
the range of the Circassians, who immediately com- 
menced tailing away in such numbers that Mukhtar 
deemed it advisable to order them to retire at once, 
when Edhcm Pasha moved them round to the northern 
slopes of the Nakharji-Tepe, where, under cover of 
its guns, and also protected by the extremely rugged 
nature of the ground, they were presumably safe from 
a uxacj^ . 

In order to divert attention from Easchid Pasha's 
movement, Mukhtar engaged the Eussian artillery in a 
duel with his horse batteries, and threatened them with 
an infantry attack, but all was of no avail, for owing to 
the deep precipitous ravines to the south of Ani, which is 
a ruined fortified town, in a very commanding position, 
and possessing great capabilities of defence, Easchid 
Pasha was forced to draw ofi* his men without even 
threatening the place ; and, finding all opposition with- 



THE MA88ACBE AT BAYAZID. 273 

drawn, the Russian general called in his outposts, and 
continued the pitching of his camp. 

I have received fresh details concerning the lament- 
able occurrences at Bayazid, and as they come from an 
official source, I am justified in claiming some atten- 
tion for them. I gather that after the engagement at 
Teperiskui on the 13th of June, between Faik Pasha's 
division and the Russian garrison, the latter, being over- 
powered, fell back on the citadel. The infantry suc- 
ceeded in reaching it in safety; but the cavaby were 
surrounded by some 6,000 Kurdish cavalry, under a 
Moolah, named Sheik Jelaludeen, and called upon to 
surrender. Their fate I have previously related, and to 
dwell upon it can do no good. After deliberately mur- 
dering the Cossacks, the Kurds, under their fanatical 
leaders, Sheik Jelaludeen, Obeidullah of Nari, Sheik 
Pekar of Vastan, Fahim Effendi, Mahomed Beg of 
Julamerik, Sheik Tell, and his nephew Osman, both of 
Sert, and Takhir Beg of Van, entered Bayazid. The 
scene that ensued was one of unparalleled horror. The 
town contained 165 Christian families, and all of the 
men, women, and children were ruthlessly put to the 
sword. A Turkish officer who visited the town. a few 
days subsequently states that there was not a single 
inhabitant left; all had fled, and, including Russian 
prisoners, upwards of 2,400 people had been kiUed. In 
every house he entered small groups of dead were lying 
shockingly mutilated and in the most revolting and 
indecent positions. Captain M'Calmont, who visited the 
place shortly after the Russian relief, states that it is 
entirely deserted, and a mere heap of ruins; also, that 
soldiers were employed for six days in burying the dead, 
the number of whom it was impossible to estimate. On 
s 



274 THE CAMPAIGN IK AMMENIA. 

hearing of this massacre, Mukhtar Pasha at once sent 
down orders to have the Kurds disbanded and dis- 
armed, and their ringleaders shot. They, however, 
anticipated the first of these instructions by throwing 
down their arms and deserting en masse on the approach 
of Tergukassoff's column on the 10th of July. Safe in 
their mountain fastnesses, these miscreants will defy the 
Commander-in-Chief's orders, and unless Europe sternly 
demands their execution, and deputes officials to see the 
sentences carried into effect, they will escape. We are 
very fortunate in possessing an officer of Sir Arnold 
Kemball's calibre with the Turkish head-quarters. He 
has strongly impressed on Mukhtar Pasha the necessity of 
inflicting summary punishment on these vile scoundrels. 
Immediately communications were opened between 
Mukhtar Pasha's forces and the Van column, he 
detached Captain M'Calmont to Ismail Pasha's camp, 
with instructions to point out to that officer the horror 
with which these atrocities would be regarded by the 
whole civilised world, and the injury that would accrue 
to Turkey owing to their perpetration. He requested 
that he might be furnished with a list of the authors 
and the punishments meted out to them, and directed 
that in the event of any further atrocities being com- 
mitted Captain M'Calmont was to leave the Turkish 
camp immediately, and to report to Ismail Pasha his 
reasons for doing so. I fear that the ringleaders will 
not be apprehended, and I am aware that Mukhtar 
Pasha holds out but small hopes of his ability to put his 
hands upon them. The employment of this irregular 
soldiery, the savage mode of warfare they practise, the 
cruelties and outrages they have committed, and the 
failure to bring them to punishment, must surely 



FAIR PASHA TO BE COUET-MABTIALLED. 275 

alienate from Turkey the support of the few who yet 
hold to her. While on the subject of these atrocities, 
it is but just that I should state that Ahmed Mukhtar 
Pasha has received Sir Arnold Kemball's representations 
in a friendly spirit, that he has exerted himself, and, as 
far as his own immediate command is concerned, has 
fairly well succeeded in keeping his irregular troops in 
hand. He has cordially concurred in General Kemball's 
demands for the punishment of the Bayazid criminals ; 
and, adjudging Lieutenant-Greneral Faik Pasha to be 
in blame, inasmuch as he was in command of the force 
and was unable to stop the massacre, he has suspended 
him, and directed that he shall be brought before a 
court-martial. This latter statement, though received 
from the highest authority, must be accepted with the 
reservation due to all Turkish official reports, as I hear 
from a British officer now at Bayazid that Faik Pasha 
still commands a division there. 

Mushir Ismail Hakki Pasha, governor of Erzeroum, 
is in command of the army corps which is now encamped 
at Narriman, some four miles west of the town of 
Bayazid. It consists of five batteries of artillery, 4,000 
cavalry, of which all but 500 are irregulars and Km-ds, 
twenty-six battalions of infantry, and 3,000 irregular 
infantry. The force is divided into two divisions of 
thirteen battalions each, commanded respectively by 
Lieutenants-General Faik and Eeiss Ahmed Pasha. 
The brigade commanders are Hussein Avni Pasha 
and Hakif Bey to the first, Shahin Pasha and Mahomed 
Bey to the second division. Opposed to this force is 
Tergukassoff, just inside the Russian frontier, with 
detachments at Igdyr and Koolpi. He has with 
him, as far as I can learn, twelve battalions of infantry, 
s 2 



276 THE CAMPAIGN IN AEMENIA. 

five regiments of cavalry, and thirty-two guns; but 
it is rumoured that reinforcements, in the shape 
of one complete division, are within three days' 
march of him. If this is the case, it will fare 
badly with Ismail Pasha, who, although he was 
following Tergukassoff with a force double that of 
the Russians, never once dared attack in the retreat 
from Zaidikan. 

I have been much amused by a perusal of Turkish 
ofl&cial telegrams of this campaign. Mukhtar Pasha, 
reporting the engagement of Khaliass, states that after 
thirty -three hours' hard fighting the Russian army was 
cut in two, and fled in disorder, pursued by him. In 
point of fact, the fight lasted eight hours, during 
which time eight battalions of Tergukassoff 's army held 
their ground against Mukhtar's division of nineteen 
battalions, and though they fell back to Zaidikan on 
the following day, the Turks never advanced from 
Khaliass until the 27th, when the Russians effected a 
most masterly retreat through Kara Kilissa and Dijadin 
to Igdyr. The Turkish general so far failed in his 
duty as to have to report to the Commander-in-Chief 
that he was ignorant of the route pursued by Tergu- 
kassoff, and the feat performed by that dashing and 
intrepid officer in relieving the garrison of Bayazid in 
the face of a force of double his own strength within one 
fortnight of the time he was reported as fleeing before 
the Turkish right wing, with his army demoralised and 
his guns buried, shows that Ismail Pasha must have 
overrated considerably his success at Kara Kilissa and 
Zaidikan. I am assured by an English gentleman 
who accompanied the Turkish troops in this march, 
that the only Russian corpses he saw by the road were 



TURKISH BRAGGADOCIO AND CONCEIT. 277 

bhose disinterred hj Kurds from the burial-ground at 
Zaidikan, so I can scarcely credit the report that the 
infection from decomposing bodies was the cause of the 
slowness of Ismail's advance. Turning again to the 
operations of this corps from the date of our leaving 
the camp at Zewin on the 30th of June, until the 14th 
of July, when Loris Melikoff made a reconnaissance in 
front of our camp at Vezinkui, not a shot was ex- 
changed between Mukhtar Pasha's forces and the 
Russians. The ofl&cial despatches which say that the 
Russians had been defeated and driven successively out 
of Mellidooz, Sara Kamysh, and Beghli Ahmed, are 
utterly false. We not only did not come into collision, 
but we never came in sight of the Russians at those 
places. The sympathy that one naturally feels for the 
Turks in their gallant struggle in Armenia is deadened 
by the braggadocio and childish conceit indulged in by 
all ranks regarding their successes. The withdrawal of 
a Russian reconnaissance after its object has been fully 
effected is construed into a great victory ; its losses are 
multiplied by hundreds, and the enemy openly vilified 
as cowards and barbarians. With all this Mukhtar 
Pasha, and very wisely too, never ventures to oppose 
these reconnaissances in the plains, declines absolutely 
to hazard his army by attacking, and is unable to bring 
forward one instance of oppression or cruelty practised 
by the Russians in this country. As to reports of cruelty, 
I may mention that on the 28th ult., during the re- 
connaissance to the west of the Yagni Tepe, the 
Cossacks carried off a number of carts. The owners, 
complaining to Loris Melikoff that they were poor men, 
and would be ruined if he confiscated their goods, he 
assured them that if the carts were private property 



278 TEE GAMTAIGN IN ARMENIA, 

they should be released, and he immediately sent a 
parlementaire to the Mushir to inquire into the truth of 
their statement, and on learning that it was true, he 
allowed the men to take their arabas back to Kars. I 
am glad this act of courtesy produced a like civility on 
our part, as Mukhtar Pasha at once returned some cattle 
captured by his patrols. 

I notice that Mr. Gibson Bowles, in The Times of 
the 8th of July, states that Ahmed Vefyk Pasha has 
reported to him that ambulances have been purchased 
with money sent by the Stafford House Committee and 
despatched to Asia Minor. I can assure the members 
of that body, who have so liberally sacrificed time and 
money in the good cause of relieving the sufierings of 
the sick and wounded of the Turkish army, that up to 
this day not one single ambulance or one single bale of 
medical comforts has reached Mukhtar Pasha's head- 
quarters. I have this moment returned from the 
hospital, where I have conversed with the only two 
qualified doctors in this camp, and they have not even 
heard of such help having been despatched from Con- 
stantinople. It is true that two English doctors, 
Messrs. Casson and Featherstonhaugh, are at Erzeroum, 
where, aided by our consul, Mr. Zohrab, his son, a boy 
of sixteen, and the American missionaries, they are 
working nobly among the wounded, who have been 
neglected in the most cruel manner. The British 
public should know the treatment that these English 
doctors received in Constantinople, where Ahmed Vefyk 
Pasha refused them any assistance or money, and where 
the English residents had to make a subscription in 
order that these gentlemen should have funds in hand 
to enable them to commence their labours on arrival 



GE088 MISGONDUGT OF TURKISH OFFICIALS. 279 

at Erzeroum.* I have learnt from the highest authority 
that the most urgent representations were made to the 
Stafford House Committee by gentlemen whose position 
and past careers place them beyond suspicion, as well 
as firm friends of the Turks, begging that in no case 
might distributions of money be left to any Otto- 
man officials. These representations have been steadily 
disregarded, and the result now is that on this 3rd day 
of August there is an army of 35,000 men without a 
litter, without one single ambulance wagon, without one 
case of surgical instruments, and, neither here nor at Kars, 
nor at Erzeroum, has a shilling of the money so nobly 
subscribed by the English public been received. Would 
that I had the pen of Dr. Eussell to describe the 
harrowing scenes I have witnessed, and the still more 
terrible stories I have heard of wounded men left in 
hospital for their wounds to mortify, rather than 
Turkish bigotry and Turkish fanaticism should so far 
relent as to permit amputation; men with undressed 
wounds left to find their way to the nearest hospital, 
forty miles from the scene of battle ; maimed soldiers, 
unable to walk, crawling on hands and knees to the 
nearest well to slake their burning thirst and then to 
die ! The only gleam of sunshine to relieve this ghastly 
picture is the patient endurance, the uncomplaining 
fortitude, the noble heroism with which the poor suf- 
ferers have borne their terrible agonies. It was heart- 

* This statement was contradicted in public print by Dr. Dickson, the 
surgeon to the Constantinople Embassy ; but I have subsequently seen and 
conversed with the promoter of this subscription, who states that £60 were 
by this means handed over to Dr. Oasson, and Dr. Casson himself assured 
me that had it not been for the generosity of a certain section of the 
English community in Pera he would have been unable to start his 
hospital in Erzeroum. 



280 THE CAMPAIGN UST AEMENIA. 

rending to pass by group after group of wounded, and to 
feel how utterly powerless I was to help. I have written 
and telegraphed strongly on this subject, and have not 
hesitated to blame the Administration, who are alone at 
fault ; and for this reason my letters have been detained 
and my telegrams suppressed. Is it to be wondered at 
that a man, with one drop of human kindness in his 
breast, could pass through the scenes I have feebly 
attempted to describe, and not boil over with indigna- 
tion at the conduct of a Grovernment which treats its 
soldiers worse than it does its damb cattle — ^fails to 
clothe them, fails to pay them, and then, when sick and 
wounded, leaves them utterly uncared for ? 



r 



CHAPTEE XIV. 

MOSLEM AND CHRISTIAN. 

Return to Erzeroum — Russians evacuate Ajii — Incompetency of Commanders of 
Turkish Right and Left Wings — Christian Harvest and Moslem Reapers — 
Disinterred Russians — ^Behaviour of Kurds in Head-quarter Camp, and in 
the Right Column — English Hospital at Erzeroum — "War Preparations at 
Erzeroum — Ani once more reoccupied — Conduct of the Russians in Ar- 
menia — The Kurds of Shoragel, Mehded, and Youssouf Bey — The Kurds 
in AJishgird — ^At Moosh — At Bitlis — In Van — The Treatment of American 
Missionaries — Of Armenian Yillages — Apathy or Sympathy of Ismail 
Pasha — Skirmish at Taouskin — Another at Hiersai Bulak — Engagement on 
18th August — Preparations for a Winter Campaign — ^War Taxes, and 
prompt Payment of subordinate Ofl5.cials. 

Erzeroum, August \^th. 

General Loris Melikoff's unaccountable inactivity and 
the rumoured advance of a Russian column on Olti, 
induced me to leave the head-quarter camp and to return 
to Erzeroum, where I shall be in a better position to 
learn the truth regarding the operations of the Turkish 
right and left wings, and be enabled, should occasion 
require, to move out to join any force which may become 
involved in actual hostilities. 

At davm on the 5th inst. we were somewhat aston- 
ished to hear that the Russian division, which in my 
last I told you had taken up a very strong position to 
the north of the ruins of Ani, had during the night 
fallen back across the Arpa Eiver, and encamped near 
Kizil Kilissa. The reason for this retrograde movement 
is involved in obscurity, for, with a Russian force there. 



282 THE GAMPAIGN IN ARMENIA. 

Mukhtar Pasha's right was most seriously threatened, 
and any attempts by him to thwart an attack on either 
Kars or Vezinkui would most assuredly have been 
defeated by a demonstration by this body. Their retire- 
ment across the river thus left his right flank free, and 
was hailed by the Turks as another proof of the dread in 
which they were held by the Muscovites. 

This movement certainly did not lead me to anti- 
cipate any immediate action on the part of the 
central Eussian column, and coupled with the reported 
arrival of reinforcements, both with Tergukassoff's forces 
at Igdyr, and Komaroff's at Ardahan, forced me to the 
conclusion that the Grand Duke would throw forward 
his now strengthened right and left wings by Olti and 
Bayazid on Erzeroum, and endeavour, by cutting off 
Mukhtar's retreat to that place, to force him into Kars. 
This, of course, is a mere supposition, but the fact is 
that both the Olti and Bayazid roads are guarded by 
comparatively small bodies of troops, under generals 
whose knowledge of the art of war, and whose aptitude 
for command, can only be represented by a negative 
quantity ; and as this is as well known in the Grrand 
Duke's tent as in Mukhtar Pasha's, it would not surprise 
me any moment to hear of a strong Eussian advance on 
this place, and of the Turkish Commander-in-Chief being 
forced into Kars, where, of course, his fine army would 
be useless for all further operations during this cam- 
paign, or to hear of the central Eussian column inter- 
posing between Mukhtar Pasha and that fortress, 
consequently severing him from his base, placing him in 
an extremely hazardous situation, and eventually com- 
pelling him to fight his way through them to Erzeroum, 
or to lay down his arms. 



MORE ''RUSSIAN ATROCITIES." 283 

The march from Kars to this place presented no 
features worthy of record, except that the villagers 
were busy cutting an extremely rich barley crop, the 
Mahomedans profiting by the absence of the Christians 
to appropriate their untouched fields. I followed the 
route taken by the Russian army in its retreat from 
Zewin with a view of ascertaining from the villagers 
themselves the extent of the '' atrocities '' inflicted by 
Loris Melikoff's troops. Passing through Vezinkui, the 
site of a Russian encampment, Azatkui, Vairan Kale, 
Tchiflekkui, Beghli Ahmed (a Christian village), I halted 
the first day at Kotanli. At this latter place the 
Russian division, marching on Zewin, made their first 
halt from Kars. At none of the villages, with the 
exception of Kotanli, could I hear of any cruelty or 
oppression. Everything taken was paid for — it is true, 
in rouble notes, but a ready sale was found for them to 
the Armenian merchants of Kars and Erzeroum. At 
Kotanli a man complained to me that a bullock had 
been taken from his herd by some Cossacks for which 
no payment was made. The deserted state of Beghli 
Ahmed I have before described to you. It bore the 
same appearance now. The neat fields ready for the 
sickle were being cut by Mahomedans from the neigh- 
bouring villages, who were loud in their indignation at 
the conduct of the Circassians and Kurds who followed 
the Turkish army. 

On the second day I made a march of 42 miles, pass- 
ing Ali Sophi, Kirk Punar, Sara Kamysh, through the 
pass of that name, over the MeUidooz plateau by Kara 
Orghan to Zewin. At none of these places could I find 
any traces of Russian cruelties, but the ghastly sight I met 
on the site of the Russian encampment at MeUidooz will 



284 THE CAIIPAIGN IK ARMENIA 

ever live in my memory. The graves of their dead had 
been opened, and seventeen corpses, stripped of the clothes 
in which their comrades had buried them, lay exposed, 
naked, mutilated, and rotting, to the sight of the passer- 
by. This fact has been reported by so many, and officially 
so by our Consul at Erzeroum, that I feel I am repeating 
an oft-told tale when I write this pitiable and deplorable 
tale of outrage. I found some villagers who were 
willing for a small sum to re-inter the bodies. These men 
told me that this act of sacrilege had been committed, 
for the sake of the clothing, by Kurds, who thought it 
a pity it should be wasted. The crimes of these men are 
glossed over or else attributed to the Eussians by their 
clansman, Mushir Kurd Ismail Pasha, late Vali of this 
place, and now commander of the Turkish right wing. 
In spite of Mukhtar Pasha's stringent and oft-repeated 
orders for the summary execution of the instigators of 
the Bayazid massacre, the blame of this foul act of 
treachery has been laid at the door of the Mahome- 
dan inhabitants of that town, while Sheik Jelalu- 
deen has been allowed to go scathless. Ferik Faik 
Pasha, too, through whose negligence and supineness 
the act was committed, still holds the command of a 
division, although a month ago the Commander-in- 
Chief sent orders for his suspension and trial. As long 
as the Turkish Government permit Ismail Pasha and 
Paik Pasha to retain their commands, and allow Sheik 
Jelaludeen to go free, so long does it connive at the 
atrocities committed by the Kurds, and is itself respon- 
sible for the lives of those who have been thus cruelly 
murdered. 

I have been unable to obtain any confirmation ot 
Ismail Pasha's reports of Eussian atrocities in the 



SIR ARNOLD KEMBALL'8 BEPOETS. 285 

Alishgird plain. Although I have coaversed with a 
great number of inhabitants, both Mahomedan and 
Armenian, they one and all maintain that they were 
treated with consideration by Tergukassoff's column, 
and that it was not until the Eussians had fallen back 
from Zaidikan that they were exposed to the cruelties 
spoken of by Kurd Ismail Pasha, and these acts were 
one and all committed by Kurds, not by Eussians. I 
myself can testify to the manner in which Loris Meli- 
koff's column behaved to the inhabitants. It is high 
time th^,t the Foreign Office should publish Sir Arnold 
Kemball's reports on the subject to the people of 
England. 

It is only just, on the other hand, to state that 
with Mukhtar Pasha's column the Kurds and Circas- 
sians have been kept well in hand. Marauding and 
plundering have been promptly and severely punished ; 
and though it is possible that this severe discipline may 
be attributable in no small degree to the presence of our 
military attache at Turkish head-quarters, yet the Com- 
mander-in-Chief deserves more credit for restraining his 
irregular levies than he does even for the successful 
issue of this part of his campaign. 

Prior to leaving the head-quarter camp I visited the 
field-hospital, with the view of ascertaining whether 
any stores had been received since the commencement 
of the war, either from the Stafford House or Eed Cross 
Societies. I was positively assured by the Commander- 
in-Chief, by Tusuf Bey, the principal medical officer, 
and by Dr. Schoeps, the surgeon in charge of the fields 
hospital, that nothing whatever had been received from 
any English society. The state of the hospital was 
most pitiable : there was no hospital bedding or blankets ; 



286 THE CMITAIGN IN ARMENIA. 

drugs were at their lowest ebb ; there was one case of 
instruments (received only after the battle of Eshek 
Khaliass; there was no iron among the stores in any 
shape or form, no quinine, no splints, and but a very 
limited quantity of bandages. On my informing Dr. 
Schoeps that Ahmed Vefyk Pasha had assured the 
Stafford House Committee that he himself had purchased 
and sent out stores, blankets, litters, and ambulance- 
carts, he said that nothing whatever had been received 
from Constantinople for this army corps, except a 
gratuity of two medjidies to each wounded man in Kars 
and forty cases of empty medicine-phials. In order 
that I might have ofl&cial authority for this statement, 
Sir Arnold Kemball was good enough to speak both to 
Mukhtar Pasha and to Dr. Tusuf Bey on the subject, 
and they both declared that no stores at all had been 
received from Ahmed Vefyk Pasha, or from any English 
society. On my arrival here I called on Dr. Casson, 
who assured me that, so far from Ahmed Vefyk having 
afforded him any assistance either in stores or money, 
he had deliberately declined doing so, and that had it 
not been for the liberality of the English at Constanti- 
nople and at Erzeroimi, he would have been quite un- 
able to commence work here, owing to want of funds. 
I am afraid I must take exception to Mr. Gribson 
Bowles's statement, or else must include myself on 
the roll of the '' worst-informed of correspondents." 
Ahmed Vefyk's statement that he held receipts for the 
blankets issued to the Turkish soldiers was received 
with ridicule, a brigade -commander telling me, with a 
smile, that he could get receipts for any number of them 
from any major in his brigade. All I can say is, that 
I have spoken to the Commander-in-Chief, to both 



AHMED VEFYKAND TEE STAFFOED HOUSE FUNDS. 287 

divisional and to two brigade-commanders of the 4th 
army corps, and they deny the receipt of anything 
whatever from Ahmed Vefyk. I am aware that he 
himself declined to furnish a statement of his expendi- 
ture to an ofllcer in the employ of the Stafford House 
Committee, and absolutely refused either money or 
stores to Drs. Casson and Featherstonhaugh when they 
were passing through Constantinople for Erzeroum, and 
with a show of some rudeness, said : — 

'' We do not want a paltry £20,000 or £30,000 ; 
our hospitals are splendidly supplied. They need 
nothing in the way of medicines, instruments, or am- 
bulance-trains. What we want is a universal subscrip- 
tion throughout England. Let every man, woman, and 
child show sympathy for our cause by subscribing even 
sixpence — that is what we want." 

Where the money intrusted to Ahmed Vefyk Pasha 
has gone to I do not pretend to say, but this I can say, 
and with certainty too, that not a single penny of it 
has come to the 4th Turkish army corps, that at this 
moment there is not a litter or an ambulance-wagon 
at the head-quarters of the army, and that the field- 
hospital is almost without medical stores of any kind. 

I have since learnt that the stores purchased by 
Ahmed Vefyk were sent to Batoum and Trebizond. It 
seems odd, however, that in spite of the numerous 
appeals made in the columns of The Times and other 
papers, no efforts should have been made by this gentle- 
man to forward stores to Erzeroum and Kars, where 
even at the outbreak of the war heavy fighting was 
anticipated. 

Mr. Layard has taken exception to my statements as 
to the hospitals in the Turkish army. The evidence of 



288 THE CAMPAIGN IK ABMUNIA. 

my own eyes, coupled with the knowledge that every 
word I have written must be borne out by the des- 
patches of our gallant military attache. Sir Arnold 
Kemball, as well as by our Consul at Erzeroum, Mr. 
Zohrab, and by Doctors Casson and Featherstonhaugh, 
who repeatedly spoke to me of the difficulty they en- 
countered in Pera on their way to the front, induce me 
to adhere to the above text. 

It is a pleasure to turn from the scene of criminal 
carelessness and mismanagement daily visible in the 
Turkish hospital to the clean, well-ordered, admirably- 
organised establishment under the charge of Doctors 
Casson and Featherstonhaugh, who have been sent 
out here at the sole expense of that philanthropic noble- 
man Lord Blantyre. These gentlemen were kind enough 
to permit me to accompany them on their morning visit 
to their hospital yesterday morning, and though I am 
not one of those who care for ghastly sights, and must 
plead guilty to a feeling of nauseating anguish when I 
look upon the agonies that soldiers daily suffer, yet it 
was with no small feeling of national pride that I noted 
the comfortable beds, the snowy sheets, the clean 
bandages, the cheerful, willing bearing of the patients 
themselves, all showing such a marked difference to the 
surroundings of the neighbouring Turkish hospitals. 
When I contrasted the womanly gentleness and kindly 
firmness with which my countrymen performed their 
labour of love, with the perfunctory, indolent manner 
with which the Turkish surgeons attend to their 
patients, I did not wonder at the statement I had 
so constantly heard as to the piteous entreaties of 
wounded men to be transferred to the "Ingliz" hospital. 
Through the liberality of Mr. Layard, Lady Kemball 



THE NEW GOVERNOR OF ERZEROUM. 289 

and other English ladies in Constantinople, these gentle- 
men were enabled to provide themselves with many- 
comforts hitherto unknown in Turkish hospitals; but 
their means are now at a very low ebb, and unless they 
receive speedy and liberal support from a generous 
English public their sphere of usefulness will be much 
curtailed. Is it too late to reiterate the injunction that 
funds should be sent direct to the officers themselves, 
and on no account should they be permitted to pass 
through the hands of any Turkish official ? I forward 
a letter to you from Dr. Casson, which will corroborate 
all I have said as to the obstacles thrown in his way by 
the Ottoman authorities, and will, I trust, prove to 
even the most advanced philo-Turk that to trust in the 
honesty of a Turkish official is to trust, indeed, in a 
broken reed. 

The new Grovernor of Erzeroum seems a man of a 
very different stamp from Kurd Ismail Pasha. A 
soldier by education, he has busied himself in frequent 
brigade parade -days, in seeing personally to the repair 
of the fortifications, to the mounting of the artillery, 
which now has nearly all arrived from Trebizond. He 
has made an excellent gun-road over the Devi Boyun 
Pass into the Passin Plain, and has placed a number of 
heavy field-pieces in the earthworks on that position; 
so if the Russians ever find themselves within striking 
distance of Erzeroum, they will meet with a very different 
reception from what would have awaited them had they 
pushed boldly on in June, when there was absolutely 
nothing to prevent them marching into the town. 

As I close this, a rumour reaches me, from an 
authentic source, that the Russians have re-occupied Ani, 
after a sharp engagement with Mukhtar Pasha's troops, 

T 



290 THE CAMPAIGN IN AJiMENIA, 

in whidi his cavalry were worsted, and that a brigade, 
amounting to four battalions of infantry, two batteries 
of artillery, and one regiment of cavalry, marching 
down from Ardahan, have occupied Zaim, or Yenikui, 
the site of their head-quarters during the recent siege. 
I hope to be able to send you particulars of these 
operations in my next. 

Erzeroum, August 20tk, 

Having accompanied Mukhtar Pasha's army in the 
advance from Zewin to the Eussian frontier, I have 
been enabled to speak from personal experience as to 
the conduct of his troops on the line of march, and I 
must confess that, with the exception of a few cases 
of pillage, and one of murder, committed by Kurds 
and Circassians, the villagers were left unmolested, 
the country presenting no signs whatever of having 
witnessed the passage of the two armies. There is no 
doubt that the presence of Sir Arnold Kemball in- 
fluenced the Turkish Commander-in-Chief in promptly 
repressing all acts of marauders. That the severity 
meted out to the offenders was unlooked for and un- 
welcome, may be judged from the fact that on Mukhtar 
Pasha hanging a man for murder, 1,100 of his irregular 
comrades deserted. 

My statements as to the moderation shown by the 
Russians, both in their advance to the Soghanly Range 
and their retreat to Kharrak-Darrah, have been borne 
out by the despatches of the Turkish Greneral, who only 
instanced one act of severity on their part — ^Az., the 
treatment of the Kurds of Shoregel. I can safely 
assert that not a single village their armies passed 
through was in the slightest degree damaged, and 



ABOUT THE KURDS, 291 

although. I made the minutest inquiries on the two 
journeys I have made over the road, I have only been 
able to ascertain one instance of property having been 
taken without having been paid for, and that was at 
Kotanli, where a buUock was carried off by the Cossacks. 
As, however, I lost a horse from this village when the 
Russians were not in the neighbourhood, it is more 
than possible that the theft was the work of Moslem 
thieves, who abound in the valley of the Kars Tchai. 

As Mukhtar Pasha himself brought to the notice of 
the Porte the treatment of the Kurds of Shoregel, and 
as the Ottoman Government has communicated his 
despatch to their representatives abroad, I have made 
inquiries into the matter, and am enabled to give you some 
particulars as to their past history and relations both 
with the Turkish and Russian Grovernments, which 
may in some way palliate the conduct of Loris Melikoff 
towards them. The inhabitants of the Shoregel district, 
which lies due east of Kars, are either Turkish peasants 
or Karakapaks — emigrants from Persia. Prior to 
Paskiewitch's invasion of 1828 the population was 
entirely Armenian, but now very few Christian families 
remain, the most part having abandoned their homesteads 
and fled to Russia in 1829. The chief family in this 
district is that of Khatoon Oghoulleri, and the head of 
this family is Ismail Pasha, the late Governor-General of 
Erzeroum, commonly known as Kurd Ismail Pasha, a 
name of course derived from his Kurdish origin. This 
family, owing to several of its members holding positions 
under Government, has constituted itself the ruling 
power in the district, the other Mahomedans being 
virtually slaves of the Khatoon Oghoulleris. After 
the Crimean war, Mehded Bey, the elder brother of Kurd 
T 2 



292 THE CAMPAIGN IN ARMENIA. 

Ismail Pasha, collected a band of chosen spirits, and 
commenced a system of brigandage along the frontier, 
pillaging Russian and Turk alike. His wealth was a 
means of silencing all opposition on the part of the 
Governors of Kars, who recognised in him a turbulent 
spirit, Ukely to raise disturbances in their province, were 
his vocation to be interfered with, and they were only 
too willing to secure peace in their vilayet by the simple 
expedient of filling their own coffers. His depredations, 
however, grew so bold, that they reached the ears of the 
authorities in Constantinople, and they, learning of his 
power, and the difl&culty there would be in repressing his 
band eflfectually, made him Kaimakam, or lieutenant- 
governor, of the Shoregel district, very much on the 
same reasoning that after the Mahsood Vaziri campaign 
of 1861 a famous robber chieftain, Futteh Eoz, was made 
commandant of the British outpost of Mortaza. From 
the date of this appointment the name of Mehded 
Bey ceased to be a terror in the Kars district, but 
his occupation in Turkey was gone. He commenced 
brigandage on a more extended scale in Russian territory, 
and a lengthened correspondence ensued between the 
Governor-Greneral of the Caucasus and the Governor- 
General of Erzeroum; dissensions rose to such a pitch 
that remonstrances on the conduct of Mehded Bey were 
addressed by the Russian ambassador to the Ottoman 
Government, and it was proved beyond doubt that on 
more than one occasion, members of his band who had 
been arrested by Turkish police, while robbing 
caravans on the main Persian route, had been released 
by the Kars and Erzeroum Pashas, under circumstances 
that savoured very much of bribery. At length Sir 
Robert Dalyell, late Consul at Erzeroum, took the matter 



A RENEGADE KURD, 293 

up, on some English subject having laid a complaint 
before him, and on his earnest representations Mehded 
Bey was removed from his appointment. But until 
his death robberies, though on a smaller scale, con- 
tinued; and I hear on authority that the people 
taken of Shoregel by Loris Melikoff are members of 
Mehded Bey's band, which has not yet been 
broken up. 

It is a well-known fact, and I have it from an officer 
high on the Commander-in-Chief's staff, that Youssouf 
Bey, son of the late Mehded Bey, and nephew of Kurd 
Ismail Pasha, has been bought over by the Russians, 
and since the commencement of the war has been sup- 
plying them with grain. This man is an inhabitant 
of the village of Digor, and only a few days before I left 
the camp a party of Russians proceeded to that place to 
pay Youssouf Bey a friendly visit, who, fearing that 
a knowledge of the enemy being so close to the rear 
of his camp might come to the ears of the Marshal, 
determined to take the bull by the horns, so, warning 
them of their danger, he galloped off to Mukhtar Pasha's 
camp, and told him that a body of Cossacks were attack- 
ing Digor. The Commander-in-Chief, knowing Youssouf 
Bey's character, was not disturbed by this news ; he 
merely detached Mustafa Safvet Pasha with some 
cavalry to drive them off, and warned the Kurd that 
it was only his relationship to Ismail Hakhi Pasha that 
saved him from the hangman's knot. 

I give you a brief list of some of the atrocities 
committed by Kurds in the Van, Bitlis, and Alashgird 
districts. The majority of these, I am aware, have been 
reported by our energetic Consul, Mr. Zohrab, to her 
Majesty's Government ; but I trust for that reason they 



294 THE CAMPAIGN IN ARMENIA 

will not be the less interesting to the British public. 
A complete list it is impossible for me to obtain, but 
from all sides — from Turk and Armenian alike — I hear 
piteous tales of the desolation that reigns throughout 
Kurdistan — villages deserted, towns abandoned, trade 
at a standstill, harvest ready for the sickle, but none to 
gather it in, husbands mourning their dishonoured 
wives, parents their murdered children ; and this is not 
the work of a Power whose policy of selfish aggression 
no man can defend, but the ghastly acts of Turkey's 
irregular soldiery on Turkey's most peaceable inhabi- 
tants, acts the perpetrators of which are well known, 
and yet are allowed to go unpunished. 

On the 28th of June, on Tergukassoff falling back 
from Zaidikan, Ismail Pasha's irregular cavalry, instead 
of following up the Eussians, proceeded to scour the 
country in small bands, pillaging and destroying all the 
Christian villages in the Alashgird plain. Fortunate it 
was that upwards of 3,000 Armenians placed themselves 
under the protection of the Eussian general (himself an 
Armenian), and under his escort passed safely into Eussian 
territory, or the loss of life would have been ten times 
as great as it now proves to be. In Jeranos, Utch 
Kilissa, Kaya Beg, Moola Suliman, Ahmadkoi, Kara 
Kilissa, and Kheshishkui, all Armenian houses were 
destroyed, and the few remaining Christians ruthlessly 
put to the sword. In the church at Utch Kilissa 
ten men who had sought refuge there were brutally 
murdered. I have conversed with an Armenian priest 
of that place, who indignantly denies that this was 
committed by Eussians — a statement made by Ismail 
Pasha, and circulated by the Porte to the European 
Powers --and who solemnly assures me this was the 



KUED ATROCITIES. 295 

work of Kurds after the Eussians had passed through. 
Some of these irregulars, under the command of Has- 
saranli, of Sofi Agha, proceeded to Kaya Beg, midway 
between Kara Kilissa and Moola Suliman, and there 
killed Johannes Kehya, the head man of the village, 
and with him one Serkis, a merchant from Bitlis. They 
then went on to Moola Suliman, and killed an Arme- 
nian merchant named Ampassoon, having robbed him 
first of all his property, completely destroying the place, 
as well as the neighbouring village of Ahmad, where, 
together with some Circassians, they slaughtered all the 
cattle. At Kara Kilissa four Armenians found hiding 
were murdered, their wives violated and then killed, 
under circumstances of the most atrocious nature. 

In the neighbourhood of Moosh, one Moussa Bey, 
a son of Mirza Bey, a Kurd from near Van, has been 
ravaging the country at the head of a small body of 
cavalry. The villages of Moolah Akjam, Hadogan, and 
Kharkui, having been first pillaged, were set on fire. 
At Ardouk he extracted £60, and at Ingrakam £40 
from the head men of the village, under pretence of 
sparing them from destruction, and straightway set the 
places on fire. He then proceeded to a Mussulman 
village called Norashen, and hearing that an Armenian 
merchant of Bitlis was passing through, robbed him of 
all his goods, to the value of 30,000 piastres, and then 
ordered his men to murder him. At Khartz this 
monster entered the house of the Armenian priest, who 
had lately brought his bride to his father's home. Bind- 
ing the old man and his son together with cords, this 
inhuman scoundrel ravished the poor girl before their 
eyes, and then gave orders for the murder of the three. 

I can write no more. A bare recital of the horrors 



296 TEE CAMPAIGN IN ARMENIA. 

committed by these demons is sufficient to call for their 
condign punishment. The subject is too painful to need 
any colouring, were my feeble pen enabled to give it. 
Suffice to say, that the town of Bayazid, having been 
pillaged, and more than 1,100 people slain, is now a 
heap of ruins. 

Bitlis is entirely deserted — not a shop open in the 
bazaar. The villages of Philirieh and Ishmirondagh in 
its immediate neighbourhood have been completely 
devastated. In Van and its immediate neighbourhood 
they have been guilty of the greatest excesses. The 
American missionaries for months have been living on 
the lake in boats, fearing each day would be their last. 
The governor of the district, an able and humane man, 
has affi^rded them all the protection in his power, but he 
at last, for fear of exciting the Kurds against himself, 
was obliged to beg them to leave the place, when they 
took refuge in an Armenian monastery on the lake. 
From these gentlemen I received a long account not only 
of their own sufferings, but of the cruelties practised on 
all Christians in their districts. I am aware I shall be 
told that the Kurds were instigated by Eussian gold, 
with a view of exciting European indignation against 
the Porte, but as the leaders of these gangs of murderers. 
Sheik Jelaludeen, Obaidulah and Pekas, Fakim Effendi, 
Sheik Tell and Osman of Sert, and Tahir Bey of Van, 
all served against the Eussians, under the command of 
Kurd Ismail Pasha, this accusation falls to the ground. 
On the 4th of Mav, the Kurdish volunteers commenced 
to enter the city of Van, in obedience to the summons 
of their clansman Ismail; en route they committed much 
damage, attacking a caravan of cotton-merchants return- 
ing from Persia, and after completely looting the .loads. 



KURD ATROCITIES, 297 

they murdered in sheer wantonness the three chief men, 
and gutted the following villages : Khoosp, Pertag, 
Kuzilja, Noorkui, Dulozen, Nakhta. In Avgugli, they 
burst open the church, in which the women and children 
had been placed for safety, and violated them all, leaving 
them naked. The people of Latwantz and Shahbaghir 
shared the same fate. In Jaim, Sheik Jelaludeen's 
men, headed by their fanatical leader, seized every- 
thing of value, and compelling the villagers themselves 
to carry the goods, drove them off to their mountains. 
Out of 600 who started, only 400 finally reached 
Van in safety ; the greater part of the absentees were 
virgins and young boys, doubtless kept for the worst 
form of slavery. This gang also attacked the village of 
Kordjotz, violating the women, and sending off all the 
virgins to their hills ; entering the church they burned 
the Bible and sacred pictures ; placing the communion- 
cup on the altar, they in turn defiled it, and divided 
the church plate amongst themselves. In sheer wan- 
tonness they emptied all the flour and oil they could 
find in the village into the streets, and mixing baskets 
full of manure with them, kneaded the whole together. 
They then attacked the vineyard of the head man, 
Melikian, cutting down all the trees, leaving it a mere 
wreck. Passing on to Kharbobitz, they performed 
similar acts of barbarism, and again at Kharagoons the 
church was desecrated and spoiled, women violated in 
the very streets ; the Hooseeh monastery in the neigh- 
bourhood was attacked, the graves of the elders dug up, 
and, on these savages finding no treasure in them, used as 
latrines. Between Van and the Persian border, in the 
neighbourhood of Bashkala, the following villages were 
attacked and looted, all boys and young women carried 



298 TEE CAMPAIGN IN ARMENIA. 

off, whilst the remainder, stripped naked, were driven 
into the fields amidst the jeers of their Moslem tor- 
mentors : Soladeer, Vank-ki-kni, Bazingird, Eringanee, 
Hatchpodan, Kharodan, Malkaven, Arag, and Baz, were 
ail thus treated ; in the first-named, some show of resist- 
ance being offered, fourteen men were slain. 

Sheik Obaidulah's men rivalled their comrades 
under the flag of Jelaludeen; these latter operated 
between Van and Paik Pasha's camp. They attacked 
and robbed the villages of Shakbahgi, and Adnagantz, 
carrying off all boys and virgins. At Kushartz they 
did the same, and killing 500 sheep, left them to rot in 
the streets, and then fired the place. Khosp, Jarashin, 
and Asdvadsadsan, Boghatz and Aregh suffered in like 
manner; the churches were despoiled and desecrated, 
graves dug up, young of both sexes carried off, what 
grain they could not transport was destroyed, and the 
inhabitants driven naked into the fields, to gaze with 
horror on their burning homesteads. 

The monastery of St. Bartholomew, the richest in 
the district, was attacked by Ali Khan's horsemen, and 
completely destroyed— its valuable treasury broken 
open, and its contents distributed amongst the robbers. 
A number of women and children from the neighbour- 
ing villages had taken refuge in the building. The most 
desirable of these were carried off, and a priest, in en- 
deavouring to defend his daughter, was murdered. The 
monastery was completely destroyed, the grave of the 
saint, its founder, was dug up, his bones scattered to 
the winds, and his resting-place defiled. 

Early in June a body of men coming up to reinforce 
Jelaludeen attacked and looted the village of Dushag ; 
amongst other acts of villany, the wife of the priest was 



*'QUI FACIT PEE ALIUM FAGIT FEB 8E:' 299 

violated in turns by a gang of men, before his eyes. 
The poor woman died from the injuries she received ; 
and having mutilated the husband in the most grievous 
manner, they left him to die. Lesk, Hawantz, Shahbahgi, 
and Pergal were treated in like manner — women vio- 
lated, whilst the young of both sexes were driven off 
into the most hopeless captivity. 

In spite of Mukhtar Pasha's energetic remonstrances, 
the perpetrators of these outrages are allowed to go free, 
and the man who shelters and screens these miscreants 
is retained in his command by the Ottoman Grovem- 
ment. As long as Kurd Ismail Pasha is at the head of 
a Turkish force, so long will the Kurds be allowed to 
carry on their war of creeds with impunity. 

Should the Russians obtain reinforcements, I dread 
to think what may happen, for the rank and file will 
doubtless burn to avenge their murdered comrades of 
Bayazid, the desecrated graves of Zaidikan and Melli- 
dooz, and the war, which hitherto (with the exception of 
the conduct of the Turkish irregular soldiery) has been 
carried on in a chivalrous manner, will be stained with 
excesses on both sides, and, like all wars in which re- 
ligion is made use of as the incentive to fight, will be 
sanguinary and awful in the extreme. 

Erzeroum, Aug. 2ith. 
I am happy to be able to announce that on the 1 5th 
inst. orders were received from the Seraskier for the 
assembling of a court-martial here to try Hussein Sabri 
Pasha, late commandant of Ardahan, and Faik Pasha, 
the general of the Van division. The condition of the 
Armenians in the country through which Ismail Pasha's 
army has passed is pitiable in the extreme. Out of 



300 THE CAMPAIGN IN ARMENIA. 

122 villages in the Alashgird plain, all but nine are 
entirely deserted, as I told you in my last. The few- 
Christians who had not availed themselves of Eussian 
protection were, on the retreat of Tergukassoff, bar- 
barously murdered, and a number of hamlets were 
burnt down. In the Moosh district several villages 
were destroyed and many of the inhabitants killed. 
The town of Bayazid and neighbouring villages shared 
the same fate. In the majority of these places, men, 
women, and children have been put to death under 
circumstances of most atrocious cruelty. In spite of 
many of these outrages having been clearly traced to 
the followers of Sheik Jelaludeen, and in spite of the 
cold-blooded murder of the Eussian prisoners of war 
being attributable to his instigation and actually per- 
petrated by his own men under his own eyes, it seems 
more than probable that this monster will escape justice 
altogether, as Kurd Ismail Pasha, the fanatical com- 
mandant of the Turkish right wing, has now reported 
that the massacre of the Eussians and of the Armenians 
in Bayazid was the act of the Mahomedan inhabitants of 
the place, not of the Kurds, although it has been proved 
most conclusively that Jelaludeen did instigate, and his 
men did carry out, this act of foul treachery; and, to 
the shame of the Ottoman Government, this monster is 
still an honoured guest in the camp of Kurd Ismail Pasha. 
Mushir Ismail Pasha, commanding the army at 
Bayazid, moved his camp on the 3rd inst. to Varpoz, 
and subsequently to Zor, with the view of being better 
able to observe Tergukassoff 's movements. On the 11th 
inst., being informed that a party of Eussian cavalry 
were at Taouskui employed in removing the inhabitants 
to the interior to protect them from the Kurds, Ismail 



ISMAIL PA8EA AND HIS MEN. 301 

at daybreak moved down on the place with one regi- 
ment of cavalry, 2,000 irregular Kurds, eight battalions 
of infantry, and three guns. The village, being fourteen 
miles from the Turkish camp, was not reached until 10 
a.m., by which time five squadrons were seen escorting a 
large convoy of country carts, horses, and cattle away 
from Taouskui. On the approach of the Turks the 
Russian cavaby formed line to the right, leaving one 
squadron echeloned about half a mile in the rear, and 
covered their front with dismounted skirmishers. They 
then retired their main body by alternate squadrons 
from the left. Ismail Pasha's Kurds, Arabs, and Bashi- 
Bazouks made no pretence of closing even with the 
Russian skirmishers, and, of course, his infantry and 
cavalry did not appear on the field in time to be of use ; 
consequently, the Russians were enabled to draw off 
their heavy convoy with the loss of only one man killed, 
the Turkish loss amounting to ten. Captain M'Calmont, 
of the 7th Hussars, who was present on the field, says, 
in a letter to me, that nothing could have been prettier 
than the manner in which the Russian commander 
handled his men, and he commented in forcible terms 
on the want of dash and utter absence of discipline and 
order among the irregular cavahy of the Turks, who all 
displayed an irresistible longing to move to the rear 
directly the Russian skirmishers opened fire. He owns 
that, considering the Turks outnumbered their oppo- 
nents by more than six to one, and considering that the 
Russians effected their object of moving off a heavy 
convoy with comparatively little loss, the affair at 
Taouskui does not reflect much credit either on Ismail 
Pasha's generalship or the valour of his troops. 

On the 16th the Turkish right wing again had 



302 THM CAMPAIGN IN ARMENIA 

skirmish with TergukassoJBf's cavalry. At dawn Hadji 
Hassein Pasha, a noted freebooter, whose men have 
gained an unenviable notoriety by pillaging the 
Christian villages in the Alashgird plain, was sent, 
with all the irregular cavalry, numbering upwards of 
3,000, supported by oneinfantry regiment, under Colonel 
Hakif Bey, to Hiersai Bulak, fourteen miles south-east 
of Moussin, to which place Ismail had moved subse- 
quently to the engagement on the 11th. The Cossack 
vedettes, being far outnumbered, evacuated the village 
and fell back, covering their retreat by dismounted 
skirmishers. As usual, the Turkish infantry were late 
on the field, and the irregular cavalry would not face the 
Cossacks, who retired rapidly through the villages of 
Mula Ahmed and Grulyan. Just beyond the latter 
Russian reinforcements were met, and the retreating 
Cossacks then faced about and made a vigorous onslaught 
on the Kurds, who retired in much confusion, losing 
some ten men killed. The Russians, however, did not 
push their success, for Shahin Pasha's brigade, which, 
on the sound of firing, had moved out from camp, now 
came up, and deploying in support of Hakif Bey's 
battalions, effectually checked pursuit and covered the 
retreat of the Kurds. 

On the 18th there was a sharp engagement between 
the Russian main army and Mukhtar Pasha's forces. 
At about eight a.m. the Russians were seen advancing in 
five columns from their camps at Gadikler and Kharrak- 
Darrah ; the strongest, which was on the extreme right, 
moved towards the Yagni Tepe, evidently with a view 
of preventing the Vezinkui division, under Hussein 
Hami Pasha, moving to the assistance of the main 
body. The defence of the front was intrusted to 



RUSSIAN GAVALBY AND INFANTRY. 303 

Mahomed Nadjib Pasha, while the Commander-in-Chief, 
with Easchid Pasha's division, proceeded to the support 
of the Nakharji-Tepe, a knoll on the extreme right, 
which was threatened by three columns. As yet I have 
been unable to obtain more than the briefest details of 
the affair ; but it appears that the Russians drew off 
towards the evening in excellent order, and that 
although Edhem Pasha and Ghazi Mahomed Pasha, 
Schamyrs son, attempted to harass their retreat with 
cavahy, they were unable to effect anything. Mukhtar 
Pasha himself bears witness to the extreme gallantry 
displayed by the Eussian cavalry under the heaviest 
artillery &re, and more than one account states that 
their infantry were magnificently handled. The Eussian 
retreat was slow, and throughout marked with much 
coolness and decision. What their object was it is most 
difficult to say, for no single attack was pressed home. 
Their losses must have been heavy, as ours amounted to 
more than 400 killed and wounded. It seems extra- 
ordinary that the Eussian Commander-in-Chief should 
persist in making fruitless, half-hearted attacks against 
the Turkish position, which is virtually impregnable 
against any assault of Loris Melikoff's forces in their 
present strength. 

It is evident the Porte anticipates a winter occupa-^ 
tion of the Kars Valley by the Eussians, as orders have 
been received that the engineer officers of this army 
corps should prepare estimates for the construction of 
temporary barracks on the Soghanly mountains for an 
army of 25,000 men. The site has not yet been fixed on, 
but I believe that opinion is divided between Tcharpakli 
and Sara Kamysh. Stone, wood, and water are in 
abundance, and wooden huts could be erected at a sinall 



304 THE CAMPAIGN IN ARMENIA. 

cost at either of these places. Sara Kamysh being in a 
valley, is well sheltered, and perhaps for this reason is 
the preferable site, owing to the extreme latitude of the 
Soghanly range and the heavy snowstorms. The Syrian 
and Arabian troops will be fairly annihilated, should the 
Porte determine to keep them hutted during the ensuing 
cold season. 

Orders have been received in the Erzeroum district 
authorising the Grovernor to appropriate for the use of 
the troops seventy-five per cent, of the harvest, leaving 
the remainder for the support of the inhabitants. This 
is termed an extra war tax, and is causing the utmost 
discontent among the rural population, who already have 
been called upon for contributions far beyond their 
means. Mahomedans and Christians alike rail at the 
intolerable exactions of the Grovernment authorities, who 
pay for nothing that they export in the Sultan's name. 
Where the money goes is a mystery. With the excep- 
tion of officers in the highest grade, whose complaints 
would be likely to reach Constantinople, not a soul in 
this army has seen pay for two years. A colonel of 
artillery informed me that no officer or man in his 
command had received any for forty -seven months. The 
foreign doctors in the employment of the Porte yesterday 
brought a most painful case to my notice, where a poor 
Italian veterinary surgeon was actually dying of starva- 
tion in this' city, having received no pay, allowances, or 
rations for twenty -two months. They themselves are 
many months in arrears, and it is only owing to the 
untiring exertions of our indefatigable consul, Mr. 
Zohrab, that they ever receive even their pecuniary 
compensation in lieu of rations. 



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KARS 
ALEXANDROPOL, 

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OF SIEGE OF KARS, BATTLES OF KIZILTEPE, 
YAGNI AND ALADJA. 



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CHAPTEE XV. 

TXTRKISH SUCCESSES. 

Battle on ISth. August — Attack on the Nakharji-Tepe unsuccessful — Russians 
fail to press home any of their Assaults — Turkish Losses — Stripping the 
Dead — Skirmishes between Ismail and Tergukassoff at Khalifin and Ahazgool 
— Battle of Eozil-Tepe — Successful Assault of the Hill hy Mehemed Bey — 
Grallant Attempt of the Ahkhasian Prince to retake it — He is Wounded — 
Sheremetieff succeeds to the Command — Melikoff arrives with Reinforce- 
ments — Defeat of the Russians — Losses on both Sides — Reinforcements 
called for by both Mukhtar and Ismail — Mr. Zohrab's position in Erzeroum 
— ^Paper Organisation of the Ottoman Army and its actual Condition — DriU 
and Discipline — Skirmishers and Sentries — Taxation in Armenia — Move- 
ments of Ismail Pasha. 

Erzeroum, September 3rd. 

A SHARP touch of the sun, which has confined me to bed 
for the past ten days, prevented me from forwarding you 
my usual weekly budget last mail, and repeated attacks 
of fever, which retard my recovery, must be my excuse 
for a brief letter to-day. I have been enabled to collect 
some particulars of the battles near Kars on the 18th 
and 25th of August from trustworthy eye-witnesses. 
In T^oth of them the Turks were victorious, and in the 
latter engagement, where they assaulted the Eussian 
camp, they proved that they are a match for their oppo- 
nents in the open field. The result of these victories 
has been to instil fresh courage and enthusiasm into 
Mukhtar Pasha's troops, to improve the morale of his 
men — in fact, to double the value of the fighting 
strength of his army. 
u 



306 TEE CAMPAIGN IK ARMENIA. 

It appears that at dawn on the 18th the Eussian 
forces were descried drawn up in the plain between 
Gadikler and the Turkish camp. Their strength was 
computed at from forty -two to forty-eight battalions of 
infantry, 112 guns, and ten regiments of cavalry. They 
advanced in five columns, making their first attack on 
the villages of Kharkana and Tainalyk, which were only 
held by small detachments of irregulars, and, having 
occupied them, commenced a violent cannonade on the 
Turkish entrenchments and on the villages of Hadjiveli 
and Sarbatan, in which were outposts of considerable 
strength, the defence, however, was not vigorous, and 
by 8 a.m. the enemy were in possession of Sarbatan, 
whence, moving their guns into the cover afforded by 
the banks of the Mazra stream, they opened a violent 
cannonade on the head-quarter camp. Situated on the 
slopes above Kharkana, their guns were served most 
accurately, and although owing to the steep embank- 
ments behind them, and the fact that the percussion 
shells plunging into the soft soil often failed to burst, 
the losses were not heavy, yet the moral effect of the 
storm of shells was such as to open Mukhtar's eyes to 
the fact that his men would not advance under such a 
deadly fire. They then moved forward a column, with 
four batteries, and commenced a heavy artillery fire on 
the Nakharji-Tepe, a conical hill on the extreme right 
of the Turkish position, which was held by one battalion, 
strongly entrenched, with three field-pieces in an earth- 
work. This knoll rises to a height of 800 feet above the 
plain, the sides are smooth, but very steep, having a 
gradient of over forty-five degrees, and it can only be ap- 
proached by a single path in the rear. Thus it may well 
be considered impregnable ; indeed, it seems the Russians 



PB0GBE8S OF THE BATTLE, 307 

thought SO, for they never pressed their attack, merely 
contenting themselves with a violent cannonade, which 
did but trifling execution, the garrison losing only three 
killed and seventeen wounded The majority of the 
shells, being necessarily fired at a great elevation and 
at a range of 3,000 yards, passed clean over the crest, 
bursting harmlessly in the rocky ravines in the rear. 
The Russians using only percussion fuses, the projec- 
tiles were absolutely harmless to the defenders, who 
were reinforced at 10 a.m. by three battalions and 
cavalry, under Schamyl's son, and thus defied attack. 

While these two columns were threatening the 
right front of the camp, it became apparent that the 
remainder of the Russian forces were about to prosecute 
a determined attack on the Vezinkui position, to which, 
on the first appearance of fighting, Mukhtar Pasha had 
despatched Major-Greneral Mahomed Nadjib Pasha with 
six battalions and two batteries. He took up a position 
to the west of the Tagni Tepe, and was promptly sup 
ported by Hussein Hami Pasha from Vezinkui, with 
twelve battalions and two more batteries, while Edhem 
Pasha, with all the regular cavalry and some 3,000 
Circassians, also lent his assistance. Opposed to this 
force were eight battalions of infantry, four batteries, 
and seven regiments of cavalry, the remainder of the 
Russian forces being held in reserve. These were some 
1,200 yards north of Tagni Tepe, and from 9 a.m. 
to 2 p.m. a violent cannonade was kept up from both 
sides, but with smaU results. The Turks held the 
ridges connecting the hills, from which the Russians 
made but one ineffectual attempt to dislodge them. At 
noon Edhem Pasha moved his cavalry round, with the 
intention of cutting off the Russian retreat. A regiment 
u2 



308 THE CAMPAIGN IN ARMENIA. 

of dragoons charged him in flank, but was repulsed 
with a loss of fifty killed. Shortly after this, Major- 
General Shefket Pasha, with a force of eight battalions 
and two batteries, assaulted and carried the village of 
Sarbatan. This was effected in conjunction with Grhazi 
Mahomed's men, who, finding the attack on the Nak- 
harji-Tepe not likely to be developed, moved round by 
Tainalyk, and, threatening the flank of the Russian 
column, compelled it to retire. Following it up, the 
position of the enemy advancing on Nakharji became 
dangerous, and these, too, were forced back. Lieutenant- 
General Hadji Easchid Pasha, marching down on the 
Tagni Tepe with his division, released by the repulse of 
the Russian attack on the Nakharji-Tepe, threatened 
the column operating on the Yagni side. They were 
compelled to retire, which they did in good order, though 
losing heavily, leaving, however, only one prisoner — an 
officer's orderly, with his dead master's horse — in the 
hands of the Turks. With the retirement of the right 
Russian column of attack all fighting ceased. The 
enemy drew off* on all sides, and, withdrawing their de- 
tached camps from Ani and Parget, concentrated their 
forces at Kharrak-Darrah and Gradikler. The Turkish 
losses are estimated at 114 killed and 352 wounded; 
those of the Russians are unknown. A Prussian doctor 
present on the field told me he counted between seventy 
and eighty dead on the ground, and that the contrast 
between them and the Turkish dead was most marked 
— the latter fine-bearded men, with excellent shoulders 
and legs, the former thin, attenuated boys, scarcely 
able to hold a musket. He remarked also that not a 
single Russian lay on the ground with a vestige of 
clothing. The sight of the naked corpses, he said, adds 



FLAN FOB SIGNALISING THE SULTANS BIETEDAY, 309 

to the misery of the task the surgeons have to perform. 
Surely Turkey might try to prevent, at least, this bar- 
barous custom of despoiling their dead enemies ; but, 
alas ! both ojfficers and men indulge in it, and the senior 
officers even lend their sanction to the custom. 

From the Turkish right wing we hear of a couple 
of small skirmishes — one near the village of Khalifin, 
where a detachment of Turks, consisting of four field- 
guns, 1,200 cavalry, and three battalions, moved up to 
support a cavalry picket which was in difficulties. The 
Russians, numbering but two battalions, without artil- 
lery, fell back on Igdyr with but slight loss, the Turks 
not caring to pursue. Our loss was five killed and 
thirty-five wounded. On the same day there was an 
affair between the Russian outposts in the vicinity of 
Abasgool and Turkish irregulars there. The losses are 
not known, but it appears that Ismail Pasha mentions 
a noted Kurdish chieftain, Sheik Khalid Effendi, as 
among the missing. 

The battle of Kizil-Tepe, which resulted in a 
complete victory for the Turks, has been followed 
up by Mukhtar Pasha entrenching the heights to 
the south of the villages of Gadikler, and holding 
them with six battalions of infantry and five heavy 
guns. I have been enabled to gather the following 
details concerning the battle: — The 24th being the 
birthday of the Sultan, Abdul Hamid, Mukhtar 
Pasha in the evening assembled the commanders of 
divisions and brigades, and unfolded to them a plan 
he had decided on for signalising the day by a vigorous 
onslaught on the enemy. The Russians, as before, were 
in three camps, at Kharrak-Darrah, Gadikler, and Ani. 
Spies had kept him informed for some days of the 



310 TEE CAMPAIGN IK ARMENIA. 

watchword of his foes, and he had also learnt that 
preparatory to striking a decisive blow at his left, 
Loris Melikoff had drawn off the majority of the troops 
from his centre camp, the 39th Division having left 
it that afternoon, and that he had massed them at 
Kharrak-Darrah ; indeed, it was afterwards ascertained 
that but one battalion of infantry had been left to hold 
the Kizil-Tepe hill, whilst three more were in the 
camp at Bash Gradikler. To the First Division was 
given the post of honour. The plan unfolded was as 
follows : — At midnight Captain Mehemed Bey, with 
his division (Hadji Easchid Pasha, the rightful com- 
mander, was in Erzeroum on court-martial duty), was 
to advance on the Kizil-Tepe. Favoured by the dark- 
ness of the night, and accompanied by Circassian spies, 
who possessed the watchword, it was judged he would 
gain the summit unperceived, or, at any rate, un- 
suspected. This movement was to be supported by the 
Second Division moving on between Kizil-Tepe and 
Utch Tepe, thus preventing the troops in Ani affording 
help to their comrades ; whilst the main body of cavahy, 
supported by Hussein Hami's troops from Vezinkui, 
were to advance by Yagni and Khalif-Oghlou to 
threaten the Kharrak-Darrah position. The total 
number of men at Mukhtar's disposal for these 
operations were fifty-four battalions, eight batteries, 
and about 6,000 cavalry. 

At about 2 a.m. on the 25th Mehemed Bey's divi- 
sion, consisting of thirteen battalions, with three bat- 
teries, having pushed forward by Kharkana and Sarbatan, 
reached the Kizil-Tepe hill, and commenced the ascent 
on the southern side. The Russians, deceived by the 
counter-sign being given to their challenge, permitted 



A NIGHT SURPRISE. 311 

tlie advance of the Turks until too late ; but on discover- 
ing their mistake made a most determined stand. This, 
however, was^ of no avail in face of the vastly superior 
numbers opposed to them, and they were speedily 
driven off, leaving eighty dead on the summit of the 
hill. Having gained the crest, and knowing that dawn 
would see him heavily attacked, Mehemed Bey com- 
menced to entrench his position, and ere day broke had 
two batteries on the hill well covered in gun-pits, whilst 
his men had thrown up for themselves very effectual 
shelter trenches. As soon as it was light the captain 
opened a heavy fire on the enemy's camp at Gadikler, 
in which the utmost confusion reigned. The bursting 
of shells in the midst of the terror-stricken camp- 
followers only heightened disorder ; tents were hurriedly 
struck, and left lying on the ground, only to entangle 
the feet of horses passing over them ; shopkeepers in 
the bazaar commenced dismantling their huts, and 
packing all their portable property in fourffons, pre- 
paratory to a hasty flight on Alexandropol, whilst 
staff officers were seen dashing hither and thither, vainly 
endeavouring to get under arms the few soldiers left in 
the camp. The sun was scarcely above the horizon ere 
Loris Melikoff was made aware that his centre was in 
imminent danger, and his communications with the 
force at Ani threatened. Hastily getting his division 
under arms, he despatched Prince Tchavachavadzi (the 
chief of the Abkhasian race), with all the cavalry and 
horse artillery, to endeavour to shell the Turks out of 
their newly-won position. Placing his guns within 
2,500 yards of the hill, and supporting them with his 
dragoons, the prince opened a terrible fire on the Kizil- 
Tepe. The Turkish loss, however, was comparatively 



312 THE CAMPAIGN IN ARMENIA. 

slight, for many of the shells, passing over the crest, 
fell harmlessly in the gullies beyond, whilst many more, 
plunging into the soft grassy slope, failed to explode 
at all. His cavalry, however, were fully exposed to 
Mehemed Bey's fire, and one regiment, the Nijni 
Novgorod Dragoons, suffered terribly. 

In the meantime Melikoff was advancing, by the 
road from Karajal to Kizil-Tepe, his men in three 
columns, he with the left moving straight to Tchava- 
chavadzi's support. Heimann threatened Sarbatan, 
whilst Komaroff opposed Hussein Hami at Vezinkui; 
but before the welcome reinforcements arrived the 
Abkhasian prince had been struck down grievously 
wounded, and some confusion was caused by the 
absence of any general officer with the cavalry. But 
Sheremetieff, who had advanced from the Bash Gadikler 
camp with two battalions, assumed command, moved 
the troops round to the east of the Kizil-Tepe hill, 
and endeavoured to carry it by assault. Time after 
time did this gallant officer lead his men up the steep 
slopes of the Red Knoll, under the deathly storm that 
rained on them from above ; time after time were his 
men hurled back in confusion. Melikoff at the same 
time made strenuous efforts to assault the hill from the 
north, but with like success, whilst all Heimann's efforts 
to carry Sarbatan, and thus cut Mehemed Bey off from 
the main camp, were frustrated by the gallantry of 
Mukhtar Pasha's troops, who, inspired with enthusiasm 
by their success, redoubled their efforts, and in spite 
of the murderous artillery fire rained on them from 
upwards of 100 guns, drove the enemy back on to his 
main camp at Kharrak-Darrah ; indeed, at one time it 
appeared as if this would be carried, and a scene of the 



AN APPEAL TO MB, ZOHBAB. 313 

wildest confusion ensued. Tents were struck, and every 
preparation made for a hasty retreat ; but owing to the 
personal gallantry of Generals Heimann and Komaroff, 
who received a severe wound, the men were rallied, and 
the Turks compelled to draw off, satisfied with their first 
success, the capture of Kizil-Tepe. The Russian official 
loss was twelve officers and 237 men killed, thirty-four 
officers and 667 men wounded. That of the Turks is 
421 killed, and 938 wounded. 

Both he and Ismail have sent in the most urgent 
requests for reinforcements, especially of artillery. The 
only field-battery fully horsed in this neighbourhood 
was at the Grhiurji Boghaz, and that, with a battalion 
from that place, has been to-day despatched towards 
Kars, leaving but one battalion, with one battery 
unhorsed, to guard the defile leading to Olti. 

Large bands of Circassian and Kurdish deserters are 
prowling about the neighbourhood of the town plunder- 
ing and murdering to the fullest extent they are able. 
They are all armed with Government repeating rifles, 
and, as there are no troops here, it has been found im- 
possible to check them. Last night a village within 
three miles of this was attacked, three men (Mahome- 
dans) murdered, and 120 head of cattle driven away. 
It speaks well for the English name, for the Turks' 
knowledge of English justice, and still more for the 
reputation in which our consul here is held by Mussul- 
man and Christian alike, that the villagers should in 
the first instance have come to Mr. Zohrab to beg him 
to submit their case to the Pasha of Erzeroum. I am 
enabled to state this as a fact, as Mr. Zohrab was in my 
rooms when the men came to him with their piteous 
tales. I have the more pleasure in making this inci- 



314 TEE CAMPAIGN IN ARMENIA, 

dent public as I am aware that there is a Tery large 
party, many of my fellow-countrymen, too, who, having 
partaken of our consul's liberal hospitality, do not hesi- 
tate openly to bring accusations against him which they 
must know to be false. Mr. Zohrab has not hesitated 
openly to denounce the system of oppression that exists 
in Armenia. He has not hesitated to denounce the 
corrupt character of the majority of the Turkish Pashas, 
and to show them in their true light to our Minister 
at Constantinople. The feeling there being of an emi- 
nently Turkophile character, Mr. Zohrab's reports have 
been unfavourably received, and doubts have been 
thrown on their accuracy. Ask any of the American 
missionaries in Armenia if the British consul has not 
rather underrated than overrated the barbarities that 
are openly committed. Ask them to whom they turn 
in danger or difficulty ; ask them to whom they submit 
all cases of oppression practised on the Protestants ; 
ask them who is accessible at all hours of the day to 
Mahomedan and Armenian, English, American, Aus- 
trian, or Grerman alike, and they will at once answer, 
Mr. Zohrab. To whom do the Grerman doctors turn for 
protection when unable to obtain their just pay from 
the Turkish Government ? To Mr. Zohrab. He is 
secretary and treasurer to the Stafford House Committee 
here. He is the interpreter to Lord Blantyre's doctors, 
and the instrument through which they obtain permis- 
sion to perform operations. He is postal agent, house 
agent, and forwarding agent to the majority of English- 
men here, and there is not one among us who on 
arrival did not meet from him a warm English welcome, 
a comfortable meal, and for whom he did not im- 
mediately find house-room. I have travelled with him 



TREATMENT OF MB, ZOBBAB. 315 

through the district, and can bear testimony to the way 
in which the lower classes — the agriculturists — turn to 
him as a guide and a friend, and welcome him in their 
villages. Thoroughly acquainted with their language, 
with their manners and customs, he is at home among 
them, ever ready and willing to hear their smallest 
trouble, and never forgetting a promise. Because he 
openly denounces Turkish rulers and the Turkish Go- 
vernment, because he openly states his conviction, 
founded on a twenty-three years' acquaintance with this 
country, that it will be the happiest thing possible for 
Mahomedan and Christian alike when Armenia passes 
out of the hands of the Porte, because he boldly re- 
pudiates the mendacious statements of Russian atrocities 
in Asia Minor, and because he has not hesitated to 
blame the Kurds, and their bigoted, fanatical chief, 
Ismail Pasha, as being the perpetrators of every outrage 
committed in the Van and Alashgird district, he is 
dubbed a Russian agent, and treated with discourtesy 
and disrespect by those from whom he is entitled to 
nothing but gratitude and thanks. 

I have, in a previous chapter, given the paper organi- 
sation of the Turkish army, by which it will be seen 
that no European State possesses such a perfect military 
system as the Porte, but on examining into the actual 
state of afiairs we find matters very different. 

The Nizam battalions, as a rule, are fully officered, 
and each one has a surgeon, but the Redifs are very 
badly off — one officer per company usually being con- 
sidered quite sufficient to answer every purpose in war. 
Discipline, in one sense of the word, does not exist, but 
crime is very rare. Strong drink being forbidden by 
religion, the Turks, consequently, are a sober, abstemious 



316 THE CAMPAIGN IN ARMENIA. 

race, and drunkenness, the curse of European armies, is, 
I may say, unknown in the rank and file of the 
Ottoman army. I wish I could say it was equally rare 
among the officers, but I am forced to confess that, 
although I have never yet seen a Turkish soldier the 
worse for liquor, I have seen officers of all grades, from 
that of lieutenant-general downwards, in a state of 
intoxication. Articles of war exist, but are rarely 
called into requisition ; more rare still is it for a court- 
martial to be held. Should a private or subordinate 
officer commit a crime, the dictum of the colonel or chef 
du hattailon is sufficient to insure condign punishment ; 
while in the case of an officer of superior grade, court 
influence or bribery wards ojff the evil effects of any 
faux pas. 

In the matter of drill, I have yet to see a Turkish 
infantry battalion that could hold its own with our worst 
militia corps, while their cavalry are totally ignorant 
of the meaning of the word. To expect a Turkish 
cavalry soldier to take a fence would be to strike at 
the root of all their liberty. The artillery is by far 
the best disciplined and best drilled branch of the 
service. I have seen batteries walk past in a very 
creditable manner, but I have never seen them attempt 
to manoeuvre at a faster pace. Of the sappers and 
miners I can say nothing. In Armenia, at any rate, 
they are like the snakes in Iceland — *' there are none." 
Drill of all sorts is carried on with as much noise as 
possible ; every bugle or trumpet call is repeated by 
every officer and non-commissioned officer in the bat- 
talion. The consequence is that at all the skirmishing 
parades the confusion is appalling.. A faint attempt 
to copy the English system has been introduced. 



TAXATION m ARMENIA. 317 

Men skirmish in single rank on the hill-side, but in 
presence of cavalry invariably in groups. Supports 
move in the same formation as skirmishers — i.e., either 
in single rank or in groups — reserves always in column 
of half companies or companies. Men fire as they 
please, and they generally please to fire standing. 
Guard duties are carried on in the most slovenly 
manner possible. The relief of sentries is never carried 
on in the presence of a non-commissioned officer, nor 
do sentries walk ''briskly backwards and forwards on 
their posts in a soldierlike manner," for they never 
move at all, but stand on the same post until the 
next man for sentry strolls forward as a relief. 

Erzeroum, Sept. 7th. 

I am not aware whether an account of the taxation 
of a country comes legitimately under the head of '' war 
news," but as I have not seen any description of the 
interior economy of Armenia in any English journals, I 
am in hopes that the following brief notes may interest 
some of your readers, bearing as they do on the iniquitous 
system of government in vogue in this land, explaining 
in themselves the unequal burden imposed on Christian 
and Mahomedan, and the reason for the grave discontent 
that exists among the entire Armenian population. It 
is a custom sanctioned by usage, if not by law, that all 
Grovernment servants are exempt from taxation, and as 
all Mahomedans except the poorer classes hold official 
appointments, it follows that the greater proportion of 
the revenues is derived from the lower orders, from those 
classes, in fact, who in England pay nothing to the State by 
direct taxation. By far the heaviest and most obnoxious 
charge is that for ''military services." Mahomedans 



-318 THE CAMPAIGN IN ARMENIA, 

only are called upon to bear arms, but the Christians 
pay for their exemption a poll-tax o£ sixteen piastres 
per annum. I find on inquiry that in the vilayet of 
Erzeroum this impost has been increased to thirty 
piastres per annum for the last two years, and that, in 
addition to this sum, there is a permanent war-tax, 
which has existed in its present form since 1854, of 
twenty-five piastres per head on all Christian families. 

The tax on house-property amounts to one-third per 
cent, per annuin, but on mills and on shops and houses 
of business to ten per cent. ' Every man following a 
trade or profession pays ten piastres per annum for the 
privilege of pursuing his calling, while a Medjlis, or 
committee of merchants, in every city sits annually to 
fix the amount of profession-tax to be deducted from all 
men of business. This varies, but rarely is fixed at less 
than seven per cent, of a man's income, in many cases 
amounting to as much as fifteen per cent. 

Government, again, claim ten per cent, of the harvest, 
the value of which is computed by an official specially 
appointed for the purpose. More often, however, the 
viceroy of a district farms the tax, and the "mooltazim," 
or speculator, who has purchased this tribute has a great 
field for extortion. Municipalities claim, in addition to 
the State exaction of ten per cent., a further sum of one per 
cent, for city purposes from all townsmen owning arable 
or meadow land, and this latter is subject to the same 
impost — viz., ten per cent. — as the harvest is. A charge 
of three piastres on every sheep and goat above the age 
of one year is levied at the expii-ation of each lambing- 
season. Horses, cattle, camels, and mules are exempt 
from this tax, but they are subject to a special charge of 
two and a half per cent, on sale, each sale having to be 



TAXATION IN ARMENIA. 319 

registered in public market. All wood brought into 
bazaars for sale, except for fuel, is subject to an impost 
of two per cent. Permission to erect new buildings has 
to be obtained from the governor of the township, who 
invariably exacts a handsome fee for granting a warrant 
to build, while the unhappy dabbler in bricks and mortar 
is further mulcted in the sum of ten piastres for every 
workman employed. Import and export duties, though 
very heavy, varying from three to fifty per cent., are 
often evaded by a liberal backsheesh to the Custom- 
house official. Indeed, many merchants pay a fixed sum 
per annum to these worthies, in order to insure a prompt 
clearance of their goods, and to avoid the trouble of 
Grovernment dues. For the privilege of carrying arms 
every man (Christians are forbidden to use firearms) is 
called upon to pay two and a half piastres per annum 
for each gun he owns, but, I believe, except in towns 
this tax is never collected. 

The proceeds of the harvest-tribute are remitted to 
Constantinople for State purposes, while the balance of 
the revenues is kept in the district treasuries for pro- 
vincial purposes. By this means the governor of a 
vilayet is responsible for the payment of the officials 
under him, and each town is nominally called upon to 
disburse the pay and allowance of the regiments of their 
murkess or circle; Erzeroum, for instance, paying the 
Erzeroum battalion, Erzingjan its own battalion, and so 
on, so that really the Porte is not responsible for the 
non-payment of its soldiery. The onus rests upon the 
vali or governor of the district, and to show what a 
punctual regard they have for the performance of their 
duties, I may mention that I have conversed with men 
of nearly every battalion and battery in this army corps, 



320 THE CAMPAIGN IN ARMENIA. 

and find that they are from nineteen to forty- eight 
months in arrears. 

I was unable in my last to give you more than a few 
lines referring to the movements of Ismail Pasha's force 
near Bayazid. It appears from information I have since 
obtained that he received orders from Mukhtar on the 
1st August to move the camp from Narriman, five 
miles west of Bayazid, to some spot where he could 
better observe the movements of Tergukassofi"s force, 
which was encamped at Igdyr. These instructions were 
coupled with the most stringent injunctions that he was 
on no account to cross the Russian frontier, and that he 
would be held personally responsible for any outrages 
committed on Russian subjects by his irregular soldiery. 
Notwithstanding these express orders, Ismail Pasha 
moved on the 4th inst. to a place called Arzab, near the 
Balykly Lake ; on the 5th to the Jila Gedik Pass ; and 
on the 6th to Zor, about seven miles inside the frontier, 
and six from Igdyr, where the Russian left wing, 
numbering, I believe, but twelve battalions of infantry, 
four batteries, and seven regiments of cavalry, were 
encamped. As might be supposed, the Kurds at once 
got loose, and the first day attacked a Christian village 
in Russian territory, killed seven men, women, and 
children, besides completely sacking the place. Ter- 
gukassoff", on the 11th, sent an escort of cavalry to 
bring off* the Armenian villagers in Taouskui. This 
brought on the conflict I briefly described in my last, 
which resulted in the Kurds ignominiously declining to 
attack a small body of dragoons, less than one-sixth of 
their ovna number. Ismail Pasha is most indignant at 
the Russian General removing the Christians from 
beyond the reach of his fanatical clansmen, and asserts 



KURD RAID m RUSSIAN TERRITORY. 321 

that lie was about to forward a party of men to protect 
those very villagers from pillage, when Tergukassoff 
sent his men -to escort them farther inside the frontier. 

Mnkhtar Pasha is, as might be supposed, justly 
indignant at this deliberate disobeyal of orders on the 
part of his subordinate, Ismail, more especially as it has 
led to the pillage of a Christian village in Eussian 
territory, and the cold-blooded murder of inoffensive 
inhabitants. He has sent down the strictest orders that 
the offenders, whoever they may be, are to be seized, 
and, regardless of their rank or position, hanged on the 
scene of their crime. It is, however, much to be feared 
that Ismail's fanaticism and his dread of offending his 
own tribe will lead him to screen the culprits. As yet 
I have been unable to learn of any men having been 
executed for participation in the Bayazid massacre, and 
I know on the authority of an officer recently returned 
from the army that both Jelaludeen and Faik Pasha, in 
spite of the Commander-in-Chief's orders, are still at 
large. 

Sir Arnold Kemball has, as usual, shown much deter- 
mination and promptitude in calling on Mukhtar Pasha 
for the just and speedy punishment of all the per- 
petrators of these barbarities; but it is only just to add 
that the Commander-in-Chief has invariably met our 
gallant military attache half-way, and has proved him- 
self throughout this campaign a man determined that 
no odium of brutality shall mark the track of his army. 
Loris Melikoff has nothing to fear should his wounded 
fall into the hands of Mukhtar Pasha. 



CHAPTEE XVI. 

ARMENIANS THE TRUE STORY OF BAYAZID. 

Arrival of Stafford House Stores at Erzeroum — State of Hospitals in Main Army 
and in Right Wing — Turkisli Authorities refuse Permission to amputate — 
Refuse Carriage for Medical Stores — Our Hospitals in Erzeroum — My Ideas 
of the Armenian — Their Exodus to Russian Territory, caused Ly Kurdish 
Atrocities — Denial of this by Kurd Ismail Pasha — Changes in the Turkish 
Staff — Jealousy of General Kohlmann — Court-martial on Sabri and Faik 
Pashas — Hussain Avni, and Zarif Mustafa — The true Story of Bayazid— 
Ferocity of the Kurds — Supineness of Faik Pasha — Neglect of Ismail to 
Support — Consequent Defeat of the Turks at Bayazid by Tergukassoff — 
Defence of lilr. Zohrab. 

Erzeroum, Sept. 9^/i. 

I THINK I mentioned in one of my previous letters 
that Lieutenant Malcolm Drummond, K.N., last month 
brought to this place from Constantinople, at his own 
expense, several cart-loads of Stafford House stores, 
Avhich were handed over to Drs. Casson and Feather- 
stonhaugh for distribution to the hospitals here. The 
former gentleman, taking with him one assistant, has 
proceeded to Mukhtar Pasha's head-quarters with a 
large supply of medical comforts, as the only qualified 
medical 2^ractitioners in the camp were some weeks ago 
ordered into Kars. There has been very severe fight- 
ing, entailing heavy losses in killed and wounded on the 
Turks, so the arrival of Dr. Casson with his English 
supplies will be most opportune. On all sides I hear 
stories, from Turkish officials too, speaking of the 
frightful state of the hospital arrangements at all the 



TUEKISB MISMANAGEMENT OF HOSPITALS. 323 

camps and fortified towns in Asia Minor. I myself was 
a witness of the discreditable state of things both at 
Kars and at Mukhtar Pasha's camp, where the hospitals 
were destitute of drugs, where there were no beds for 
the patients, and where there was not a single litter or 
ambulance for the conveyance of the sick and wounded. 
I, consequently, am not surprised to learn from our 
oflficers at Bayazid that there is no hospital in Ismail 
Pasha's army, not a single doctor with a corps of 
35,000 men, and that sick and wounded have to be 
sent into Erzeroum for treatment — a distance of 130 
miles. It will scarcely be believed in England, but it 
nevertheless is a fact, that here in Armenia, where we 
have had upwards of 3,000 wounded in our hospitals, 
until the arrival of Lord Blantyre's doctors not a single 
case of amputation had been performed. On the day 
after reaching Erzeroum, Drs. Casson and Peatherston- 
haugh went over the hospitals, in company with our 
Consul, Mr. Zohrab, and the principal medical officer, 
Ismail Bey, They noticed many cases requiring the 
use of the knife, and pointed them out to the principal 
medical officer, who kept a discreet silence. The fol- 
lowing day they were handed over a hospital containing 
about 200 patients — wounded men, many of them suf- 
fering from wounds inflicted two and a half months 
previously. All their hurts were most neatly bandaged, 
but on removing these there was scarcely one that was 
not suffering from gangrene, and the poor fellows owned 
that their wounds had not been looked at for weeks ; 
in fact, as Drs. Casson and Feathers tonhaugh have both 
remarked to me, such cruelty and mismanagement they 
could not conceive to have been possible. Having 
carefully examined the men committed to their charge, 
V 2 



324 THE GAIifPAIGN IN ARMENIA. 

tlie doctors selected eight on whom it was urgently- 
necessary to perform operations. They at once sent to 
Ismail Bey, who came down to the hospital and flatly 
refused permission for any amputations to be performed. 
Mr. Zohrab, our Consul, was present at the interview, 
which has been recounted to me by all three English- 
men there. Dr. Casson, on hearing this refusal, said, 
'' But the men will die if these operations are not at 
once performed." Whereupon Ismail Bey replied, 
'' Better that they should die than that they should 
become burdens on the Sultan as pensioners." Drs. 
Casson and Featherstonhaugh at once closed the inter- 
^dew by stating that if free permission were not 
accorded to them to act according to their judgment, 
they should return to England immediately, and Mr. 
Zohrab notified his intention of reporting the conver- 
sation officially. This frightened Ismail into granting 
permission for one operation (a slight case) to be per- 
formed ; and subsequently, on a renewal of the threat 
that the English doctors would return, they were per- 
mitted to exercise their own discretion in performing 
amputations. I am happy to say sixteen cases have,, 
been carried out successfully in the English hospital, 
whereas up till to-day not one case has been attempted 
by other than British surgeons. 

I am aware that Mr. Layard has written strongly 
denouncing Dr. Casson's conduct in asserting that the 
Turkish Grovernment prefer to lose their soldiers rather 
than that they should remain burdens on the State as 
pensioners. With all due deference to the ambassador's 
superior judgment, I must venture to uphold Dr. 
Casson's opinion. I have conversed with Turkish 
doctors, and with foreign doctors in Turkish employ, 



THE TURKISH GOVERNMENT AND ITS WOUNVED, 325 

many of them strong Turkophiles, and they, cne and 
all, have assured me that they have been unable to obtain 
sanction to a single amputation, and that the reason 
is as above stated — the senior medical officers are 
strictly enjoined by Government on no account to 
permit them. If Mr. Layard would only reflect for 
one moment, he would see that facts disprove his 
statement. If the Turkish Grovernment are anxious to 
save the lives of the gallant men who risked their aU, 
without even hope of reward, to stem the torrent of 
Russian invasion, why does the Porte not make some 
efforts to establish hospitals, to organise ambulances, to 
furnish instruments and medicines? As I have re- 
peatedly stated in my letters, these things do not exist 
in Asiatic Turkey. With Ismail Pasha's army there 
is not one doctor. Does that look as if the Ottoman 
Government was anxious about the lives of its men? 
In spite of my letter of the 23rd of June, feebly 
describing the sufferings of the wounded in their march 
from Taghir and Khaliass to Erzeroum, and my request 
that litters might be sent out ; in spite of Ahmed 
Vefyk Pasha's letter to the Stafford House committee, 
that Htters and ambulances had been sent to Armenia, 
there is not one with this army to-day. One more 
instance, and I have done : — A few days ago a German 
doctor was ordered to Olti, where there is a force of some 
5,000 men and no medical man. This gentleman called 
on Dr. Casson, and begged from him some stores, as he 
was being sent without medicines or instruments. Dr. 
Casson made a selection of three horse-loads of various 
drugs, instruments, lint, and hospital necessaries. 
What was his astonishment to learn that Ismail Bey 
had refused to provide carriage for these things, and 



326 THE CAMPAIGN IN ARMENIA. 

had told the German doctor that if he wished to take 
them he must do so at his own expense. The same 
state of things exists at Kars, where typhus fever is 
raging, and where the doctors have been so terribly 
overworked that all four are on the sick-list with that 
dread disease. A German doctor in Turkish employ 
has written me several letters, begging me to use my 
influence to cause some of the doctors and Stafford 
House stores so freely distributed throughout European 
Turkey to be despatched to Kars, where they are far 
more needed than in Erzeroum. 

I mentioned some few weeks ago that we had organ- 
ised a small fund for the relief of the wounded men 
in hospital, providing them with such luxuries — meat, 
tobacco, fruit, &c. — as we could afford, and giving them, 
on their discharge from hospital, a small gratuity to 
enable them to go to their homes. Mr. Zohrab, our 
Consul, who is foremost in all works of charity, and 
whose goodness to the labouring classes about here, 
Turks and Christians alike, has given him a position in 
Erzeroum that few Consuls hold in other Turkish 
cities, is the honorary treasurer, and he daily visits the 
hospitals for the purpose of distributing his little doles. 
Our money is very low ; but last mail a handsome 
donation from Lady Chesterfield gave us a fresh start. 
Any contributions to this fund should be sent to our 
Consul here, through Messrs. Coutts or Hanson, to 
Constantinople, and I can assure you they will be well 
spent and most gratefully received. Besides assisting the 
patients, the money is expended in paying the hospital 
attendants, dressers, night-watchers, and the like ; for 
these men, like all Government servants, have seen no 
pay for months. It is impossible to expect that they 



THE TURKISH GOVERNMENT AND AMPUTATION. 327 

will show even ordinary care and attention to the 
patients if they are never paid ; so now they have been 
temporarily transferred to our establishment, and are 
paid regularly every week by Mr. Zohrab. This has 
had a most beneficial effect. Any man found neglect- 
ing his work is dismissed, and the result of prompt 
payments, firm discipline, and gentle supervision, can 
be seen in the cheery, willing manner in which all our 
English hospital attendants perform their work, and 
may be learnt also from the fact that patients in the 
other hospitals beg to be transferred to ours whenever 
vacancies occur. 

While writing the above I have been visited by a 
doctor in Turkish employ, whom I questioned on the 
subject of amputations. He informs me that they are 
not absolutely forbidden by the Government, but that 
the following procedure is laid down, should a surgeon 
deem a case worthy of operation : — The doctor in charge 
of the patient makes a report to the principal medical 
officer, who himself visits the hospital, examines the 
man, and, if he considers amputation necessary, lays the 
whole case before the military committee of the district, 
who decide as to whether the operation shall be per- 
formed or not. This doctor informed me that though 
he has repeatedly during the war apphed for permission 
to amputate, he has invariably been refused by the 
principal medical officer here; and, after conversation 
with doctors of all nationalities, I cannot learn of one 
single instance in which permission to amputate has been 
accorded by any of the three principal medical officers, 
either here, at Kars, or at Ardahan. Again, I have 
ocular evidence that amputation is disapproved of, if 
not formally forbidden. In this army there are thousands 



328 THE CAMPAIGN IN ARMENIA. 

of officers and men decorated with war-medals for 
service in Yemmen, Crete, Servia, Montenegro, and 
Herzegovina. Is it possible that, had amputation been 
performed, we should not see proudly riding at the 
heads of their companies, their regiments, brigades, or 
divisions, men whose armless sleeves tell of a life saved 
by a judicious use of the knife? After our wars in the 
Crimea, in India, in China, and New Zealand, regi- 
mental officers might be counted in scores whose looped- 
up sleeve told of surgical skill. Scarcely a regiment in 
the service did not possess one living evidence that the 
British Grovernment, at any rate, encouraged amputa- 
tion ; and a glance at German and French corps to-day 
tells the same tale, Who has seen a Turkish officer 
similarly situated ? I, for one, certainly have not ; nor 
can I learn of a single instance of amputation having 
been performed, except by British doctors, and then only 
after the strongest pressm'e had been brought to bear on 
the Turkish authorities. 

I have had several opportunities during my recent 
visit to Erzeroum of conversing with many of the lead- 
ing Armenian famihes in the place on the subject of the 
war, of Turkish rule, and of their ideas as to the effect 
of any change of Government upon them. These con- 
versations have not improved my ideas of the Armenian. 
A more selfish, narrow-minded, mean, cringing race, I 
fancy, does not exist, the Protestant Armenian being 
of a lower type than those who have clung to their 
old religion ; but both are despicable to a degree. Far 
preferable is the agricultural Turk, who bears uncomplain- 
ingly the heavy burdens imposed on him in the way of 
taxation, sends out all the males of his family between 
the ages of sixteen and sixty to fight the common foe 



TEE ABMENIANS. 329 

— the hated Moscov — entrusts the gathering of his har- 
vest to the women of his family, and sees ruin, absolute 
ruin, staring him in the face through the wickedness and 
corruption of his Pashas, whose ears never hear the 
maledictions hurled at them by their poorer, suffering 
fellow-countrymen. As far as I have been able to 
learn, the bulk of the Armenians would welcome any 
change. They have been oppressed for centuries, 
treated with contumely, unable to obtain a hearing in 
the law-courts, compelled to pay, in addition to the 
Government taxes (which fall far heavier on the Chris- 
tian than on the Mahomedan), innumerable unjust 
levies forced on them by officials against whom there is 
no redress ; and they consequently see that there is no 
hope for them to obtain an equal footing with Mussul- 
mans in this country. When the Russians, in June, 
were close on Erzeroum, and the fall of the city was 
looked on as inevitable, the Armenian might have been 
seen moving briskly about, as if he longed to welcome 
the invader, the prowess of whose deeds, the valour of 
whose men, and the invincibility of whose armies had 
for years been old wives' tales in every Armenian house- 
hold. The check at Zewin and the subsequent retire- 
ment of both Russian armies caused a revulsion of 
feeling, and the evil deeds of the Moscov began to be 
recounted, his tyrannical form of government, his re- 
ligious intolerance; dim visions of the knout and of 
Siberia flitted through the Armenian brain, and the 
question began to be asked whether it would not be 
better to bear the ills they had than fly to others they 
knew not of. 

The idea of freeing themselves and establishing a 
'' Switzerland in Asia Minor " has never entered their 



330 THE CAMPAIGN IN ARMENIA. 

heads, and though, since I saw the scheme mooted in your 
columns I have propounded it to many well-educated, 
intelligent Armenian gentlemen, they have one and all 
denounced it as impracticable and absurd. For centuries 
they have remained a subject race, and so they will 
remain to the end of the chapter. Those few who have 
travelled in Europe, and become politicians of a minor 
character and merchant princes, may have formed wild 
visions of a kingdom in the mountains of Anatolia, but 
the idea is scouted with scorn by residents of the 
country itseM. They long for change, that is all ; they 
long to escape from the hateful thraldom of th^ Turk ; 
they long to be taken in hand by some beneficent, just 
Grovernment — to them it is immaterial, though they 
would prefer America, England, or Grermany to Eussia 
— and allowed to live peaceably and quietly, tilling their 
own land, selling their own merchandise, living their 
own uneventful, unambitious lives, free from all dread 
of their wives being dishonoured by their Kurdish 
neighbours, their children carried off into captivity 
far worse than death, and themselves quite unable to 
move a finger in self-defence, and powerless to call for 
justice. 

In fact, so strong has this longing for change 
become, that many of the wealthier families, both here 
and in the neighbourhood, seeing the chances of Russian 
occupation diminish, have determined on emigrating; 
and more than one already, having realised all its pro- 
perty, has gone to America. 

That the Armenians are content with Turkish rule 
is false. Their hatred and dread of it are evident from 
the fact that upwards of 5,000 families have fled from 
the Van and Alashgird district and taken refuge in 



THE EXODUS OF CHEI8TIAN8. 331 

Russia. 1 am aware that Ismail Pasha states that 
these people were forcibly taken away by Tergukassoff 
in his retreat from Zaidikan. Common sense repels 
such an idea. We know the Russian General had an 
army consisting of eight battalions, twenty-four guns, 
and seven regiments of cavalry, and we know that he 
was threatened in rear by Faik Pasha with 12,000 and 
in front by Ismail Pasha with 15,000 men. The 
despatches of the latter General state that he so closely 
pursued Tergukassoff, and harassed his retreat so con- 
tinually, that the advance of his men was impeded 
owing to the infection arising from dead Russian 
corpses. This we know how far to believe ; for Mr. 
Williams, an English gentleman, present at the so-called 
pursuit, states that on the 28th all touch of the Rus- 
sians was lost, and Ismail Pasha himself reported to the 
Commander-in-Chief that he did not know which road 
they had taken. Still, any military man will know 
that it is a moral impossibility for an army of less than 
5,000 to convoy over a hundred miles of ground some 
15,000 souls, with aU their worldly belongings, in face 
of an army following them in rear, with one double 
their strength harassing them in flank. No ; I have 
conversed with many refugees from Alashgird, who 
came into Erzeroum for safety from the Kurds, and 
these people — Mahomedans for the most part — inform 
me that immediately after the battle of Khaliass 
the Armenian exodus was made, and that Tergukassoff 
never broke camp at Zaidikan until he was assured of 
the arrival of the fugitives in safety across the Russian 
border. In the Van district the Muscovite never 
appeared. There, in consequence of the barbarities com- 
mitted by the Kurds, the Christians spontaneously fled— 



332 TEE CAMPAIGN IN ARMENIA, 

not, however, until they had suffered terrible losses, and 

more than 380 young girls and boys had been 
carried off into the most hopeless slavery one can 
imagine. 

I have not yet heard a Turkish officer attempt to ex- 
tenuate the conduct of the Kurds ; nor have I met one 
who did not freely own that the Christians were fairly 
driven out of the country by their revolting outrages. 
There is one, however, who denies all this, who writes 
.despatches to the Turkish Government, stating that the 
desolation worked in Van and Alashgird is Eussian 
doing, in spite of the Commander-in-Chief knowing 
that these despatches are false — for has he not ordered 
the arrest and trial of Jelaludeen, the greatest offender? 
— in spite of the Ottoman Grovernment knowing it — ^for 
have they not ordered the trial of Faik Pasha, who, by 
his negligence, contributed to these atrocities ? The 
Porte circulates Ismail Pasha's statements to its Minis- 
ters abroad as evidence of Eussian cruelty and oppression. 
I simply state as a fact, after the most careful inquiries 
from Turkish officers and soldiers, as well as from the 
Armenians themselves, that the exodus from Van and 
Alashgird was purely voluntary on the part of the 
Christians, that it was solely on account of the horrors 
and barbarities they were daily and hourly subjected 
to by the Kurds. Ismail Pasha is himself a fanatical 
Mahomedan, connected with the chief robber clan in 
Shoregel, and, consequently, is anxious to screen his 
fellow-clansmen from the effects of their misdeeds. 

It is simply a disgrace to Turkey that, after the 
foul massacre of Eussian prisoners at Bayazid, the well- 
known perpetrators of the murders are not only allowed 
to go free, but should even remain as the honoured 



PROMOTIONS m THE TURKISH ARMY. 333 

guests of the Commander-in-Chief of the Turkish right 
wing. 

There have been a few changes and promotions in 
the staff of the army since my last — Ferik Eeiss Ahmed 
Pasha, the commander of the first division of the Van 
and Alashgird army, has been ordered to Kars tem- 
porarily to take command of the garrison during the 
absence of the recently appointed governor, Mushir 
Mustafa Memenli Pasha, ordered to Erzeroum to assume 
the functions of President of the general court-martial 
assembled for the trial of two general oflBcers. Ferik 
Hadji Easchid Pasha, commander of the first division of 
the head-quarters army, and Ferik Faizi Pasha (General 
Kohlmann, the hero of Zewin Dooz) have both arrived 
at Erzeroum, nominated members of the same court- 
martial. Major-General Mustafa Safvet Pasha, at 
present with Mukhtar Pasha, has been promoted to 
Lieutenant-General, and nominated to the command of 
the first division of the Van and Alashgird army ; 
Colonel Hakif Bey, of the staff of the same army, has 
been promoted to Major-General, and appointed tem- 
porarily to the second division of that army, vice Ferik 
Faik Pasha, placed under arrest. Captain Mehmed 
Bey, the Prussian officer, whose defence of the Emir 
Oghlou Fort was the one gallant deed performed at 
Ardahan, and who commanded the column of assault 
at the recent battle of Kizil-Tepe, where he was wounded, 
has at last been recommended for promotion to a Major- 
Generalcy, and is temporarily appointed to the command 
of Hadji Easchid Pasha's division during that officer's 
absence on court-martial duty at Erzeroum. It is 
rumoured, with what truth I know not, that poor old 
General Kohlmann will not return to his post at Kars ; 



334 THE CAMPAIGN IN ARMENIA. 

that the praise so freely bestowed on him for his personal 
gallantry and the skilful nature of his dispositions at 
the battle of Zewin Dooz, on the 26th of June, has 
aroused the jealousy of his Turkish comrades, and that 
the Mushir has promised not to employ him again 
during the war. If there is truth in these rumours, the 
fine old General will add one more name to the long list 
of foreigners who, having spent their best jesLVS in the 
service of Turkey, are in their old age, or in the hour 
of Turkish triumph, thrown aside and forgotten. 
General Kohlmann's conduct at the* siege of Kars in 
1855, the skill and care with which he has organised the 
Fourth or Armenian Army Corps, the judgment and 
engineering knowledge he brought to bear on the con- 
struction of the new fortifications round Batoum, Kars, 
and Erzeroum, and finally his brilliant repulse of the 
Russians at Zewin Dooz, constitute in all fairness a just 
claim for his promotion to the rank of Mushir; but 
jealousy of foreigners stands in the way, and Kohlmann 
has no more chance of his well-earned Mushirlik than 
the last-joined private in the Polish Legion. 

The court-martial for the trial of Lieutenant-General 
Hussain Sabri Pasha, the Governor of Ardahan, and of 
Lieutenant-General Faik Pasha, the officer who per- 
mitted the massacres at Bayazid, and finally failed to 
prevent the place being relieved by a much inferior 
force under Tergukassofi*, has assembled ; but as the 
chief evidence against Sabri Pasha, Captain Mehmed 
Bey, is still retained at head-quarters, and as Faik Pasha 
has not arrived from Bayazid, the proceedings as yet 
must be devoid of interest. It is generally believed 
that both men will escape ; but even if they are sen- 
tenced to degradation, they know full well that there is 



COUBT-MABTIAL FAUCES. 335 

always hope for a Turkisli Pasha. Hussain Avni Pasha, 
tried at Kars in 1855 for peculation, was reduced to the 
ranks, and a promise extracted by our Minister at 
Constantinople that he should never be employed under 
Grovernment again, and yet he died Prime Minister of 
Turkey, by the hand of a man he had grievously 
wronged.* Zarif Mustafa Pasha, who commanded at 
the battle of Kharrak-Darrah in 1855, was tried for losing 
that battle, and sentenced to degradation to the ranks. 
He was sent to his home, and in six months was again 
promoted to the rank of Liva Pasha, or Major-General. 
So the two prisoners about to be brought to trial need 
be under no fear as to their fate. If Hussain Sabri 
Pasha's Court influence was sufficient to obtain for him 
the command of Ardahan after he had been removed 
from his post in Montenegro for inefficiency, it will be 
quite sufficient to keep him from all harm in this little 
difficulty. As for Faik Pasha, to the shame of the 
Ottoman Government it must be told that he is not to 
be tried for permitting the murder of Eussian prisoners 
of war — men whose surrender he had accepted, and 
whose arms had been laid at his feet — but merely for 

* My statement concerning Hnssain Avni Pasha called forth an indig- 
nant remonstrance from General Sir Lintom Simmons, who characterised 
the story as *' utterly groundless and devoid of all truth." I gave it on 
what may be considered unimpeachable authority, and I regret that I 
inserted the word "peculation" in place of "gross debauchery, and habitual 
insolence to Sir Fenwick "Williams." Hussain Avni, I find, was never 
tried ; he was sent under escort to Pera, and there released, subsequently 
serving with such distinction as could be earned in that mismanaged 
affair, the expedition to Soukhoum Kaleh. In the Appendix I quote the 
correspondence that passed between Sir Fenwick Williams, Lord Stratford 
de Redcliffe, Lord Clarendon, and the Porte on the matter. As the 
name of one Major Simmons appears in these letters, it is but fair to 
conclude that Sir Lintorn has forgotten the circumstance. 



336 TEE CAMPAIGN IN ARMENIA, 

not preventing tlie relief of the Bayazid garrison by 
Tergukassoff. 

Althougli well aware so far back as the lOth July of 
the actual fact of the Bayazid massacre, I have been 
nnable up till now to obtain any reliable account of the 
frightful scenes enacted. Now, however, through the 
courtesy of Sir Arnold Kemball, I have been placed in 
possession of the main details, which I proceed to give. 
It appears that on the 14th of June, Lieutenant-General 
Faik Pasha, in command of the Van division of the 
Turkish army, having organised his forces, which prior 
to the outbreak of war were much scattered, advanced 
from Pergi, on the eastern shore of the Van Lake, on 
Bayazid (which, as yon may remember, was evacuated 
by Ahmed Nuri Bey on the 30th of May without re- 
sistance). The Eussian commandant, leaving two com- 
panies in the citadel, an old massive masonry building, 
marched to Teperiskui, some ten miles S.E. of the place, 
and gave battle to Talk's forces. Being much out- 
numbered he was worsted, and retired in some confusion 
into the town, occupying the citadel with his infantry, 
while the cavalry remained just outside its walls. With 
the aid of two field-guns the officer commanding the 
cavalry managed to keep the Turks at bay ; but, Faik 
sending Munib Pasha with two battalions and three 
mountain guns to occupy a hill about 1,200 yards east 
of the castle, the Turks were enabled to command the 
Russian position, and finally rendered it untenable. On 
the 28th June, their water supply having been cut off, 
the commandant of the garrison hoisted a white flag, 
and finally sent an officer out to arrange terms of capitu- 
lation. An officer of similar rank was deputed by Faik 
Pasha, and these two met in a house in the town and 



THE MASSACRE AT BAYAZID. 337 

drew up the proposed treaty, which received the sanction 
of both the Russian and Turkish commandants. 

At 4 p.m. that afternoon, all preliminaries having 
been gone through, Faik Pasha betook himself to the 
three-gun battery to the east of the town, and sent a 
company of infantry up to the citadel, over which the 
white flag still flew, to line the road from the gates, in 
order that the Russian prisoners of war might march 
between the ranks and so down to the camp prepared 
for them. At the appointed time the gates were thrown 
open, and the garrison, unarmed, filed out. Some 200 
or more had already passed between the lines of Turkish 
soldiery, when suddenly a body of Kurds (of whom in a 
previous letter I have reported there were 8,000 in 
Faik's forces) rushed on the defenceless men and com- 
menced a wild massacre. In vain did the Turkish 
regular soldiery interpose ; it was all to no purpose ; in 
vain did the Russian ofiicers appeal to their sense of 
honour, and cry that they were unarmed prisoners of 
war ; demons let loose from hell could have shown no 
worse devilry. A party dashed on in rear of the column 
and endeavoured to cut ofE the Russian retreat to the 
castle, but, fortunately, some Russian soldiers retain- 
ing their presence of mind, and saving their own at the 
expense of their comrades' lives, closed the gates and 
opened fire on the hell-hounds outside. It is stated, on 
Faik Pasha's authority,* that he opened fire on these 
miscreants from his own guns, and thus aided the Russian 
garrison to disperse them. ^ Suffice it to say that, baulked 
of their prey in the Russian garrison, of whom it is 
said 236 were thus massacred, the Kurds unchecked 

* This was subsequently denied by several Turkish officers of high rank 
present on this occasion. 

W 



338 TEE CAMPAIGN IN ARMENIA. 

rushed sword in hand into the city, and carried their 
work of butchery among the defenceless inhabitants. 
Mussulman and Christian, men and women, children 
and babes, alike fell victims to their lust of blood. 
In one church 200 bodies were found. Scarcely one 
house existed in which there were not two or more 
corpses — and, shame to Turkey, shame to the name of 
soldier, Faik Pasha, a lieutenant-general, at the head 
of six battalions of soldiers, heaven save the mark ! 
never moved a file into the town to check these blood- 
thirsty scoundrels in their work of slaughter. On the 
contrary, he moved his personal camp to Teperiskui, 
retained the Kurds in his service, and re-opened fire on 
the citadel. 

From the Russian account of the siege it appears 
that the garrison, which consisted of thirty officers and 
1,587 men, were reduced to the greatest straits prior to 
their relief. On the 14th of June, immediately after 
the engagement at Teperiskui, Faik Pasha, in order to 
insure submission, cut off the flow of water into the 
citadel, and the garrison had to depend on the small 
quantities brought in by men who volunteered for 
this purpose at night. As early as the 20th of June 
the ration of liquid was reduced to half-a-pint per 
diem ; at times even this quantity could not be spared, 
and then the day's order notified : '* In consequence of 
yesterday's sortie for water not having proved success- 
ful, the sick and wounded will receive one pint, men in 
health one quarter of a pint, daily." Then again, on 
dark nights, when the vigilance of the Kurds was not 
so keen as usual, we have a more cheering order: "From 
the quantity of water brought in last night, a sufficient 
quantity will be served out to cook food and bake 



SIEGE OF BAYAZIB, 339 

bread." Provisions soon became as scarce as water, and 
when a sortie was made to the stream, a party was^ 
detached to search the deserted houses for food. Even 
this did not suffice, and on the 6th of July the com- 
mandant, himself confined to his bed by a dangerous 
wound, issued the following pithy order: ''My horse and 
that of the brigade major to be killed, as the remainder 
of the biscuit is required for the use of the sick; they are 
to be roasted, not boiled, so that all the water may be 
kept for drinking." Of the severity of the bombardment, 
which lasted twenty-seven days, we may judge from the 
fact that the garrison lost two officers and 114 men 
killed, seven officers and 359 men wounded, irrespec- 
tively of those massacred by the Kurds. Having no 
artillery, the commandant was unable to reply to the 
fire poured upon him from twelve field-guns, which Faik 
Pasha placed in position on an eminence campletely 
commanding the interior of the work. 

On the 6th of July, Ismail Pasha effected a junction 
with Faik; thus the Turkish forces available for the 
siege amounted to twenty-eight battalions, but the 
Kurdish chief was so convinced the place would be 
starved into submission, that he would not hear of an 
assault. He, however, sent in a Parlementaire to the 
Russian commander, offering to permit him to march 
out with all the honours of war, if he would capitulate. 
As if to add to the indignity of the proceeding, the 
message was sent in by a corporal, who was told to inform 
the Turkish Greneral that, having regard to the perfidious 
manner in which the Ottoman troops behaved on the 
19th ult., the garrison preferred death to treating with 
such inhuman monsters. On the following daj^ another 
Parlementaire was despatched from the Turkish camp, 
w2 



340 THE CAMPAIGN IN ARMENIA. 

but he was ifired on; whereupon Ismail retired to his 
own camp at Moussin, and told Faik to prosecute the 
siege \\dth all vigour. The supineness of these two 
Generals enabled Tergukassoff to cut in between them on 
the 10th of July, and relieve Bayazid. 

The sufferings of the Eussians, bad as they were 
prior to the massacre, when want of water, the direst 
want a garrison can feel, led them to offer to surrender, 
were now increased a thousandfold. To die of starvation, 
preserving their honour, was preferable — far preferable 
— to death at the hands of the murderous villains whom 
a Turkish General permitted to remain in his army. 
In spite of the breach of faith of which men in his 
own command had been guilty, Faik Pasha showed no 
signs of remorse for an act at which all Europe will 
stand aghast in horror, no sign of shame at the infamy 
which must inevitably fall on his own head, no sign of 
pity for the gallant men inside the chateau, no sign 
of acknowledgment of the white flag which still floated 
over the Russian garrison; but gave orders for the 
continuance of the bombardment, and exultingly pointed 
out the accuracy of his own artillery practice, boasting 
that night after night the stream from which alone the 
Russians could obtain their supply of water was watched, 
and that the forlorn hope, which ever and anon made 
desperate efforts to carry up some drops of the precious 
liquid to their comrades, were attacked in their gallant 
mission, and nightly driven back with loss. For twenty- 
three days did this pitiless warfare continue ; for 
twenty-three days did this gallant band hold out, 
enduring all the horrors of a siege, enhanced by the far 
worse terrors of a death from thirst, until on the morn- 
ing of the loth of July, Tergukassoff, by a feat which 



THE UPSHOT OF THE BAYAZID AFFAIR, 341 

must stand on record as one of the most dashing feats 
of arms of modern times, with eight battahons, thirty- 
two guns, and seven regiments of cavalry, cut in 
between Ismail Pasha with twenty, and Faik Pasha 
with six battalions and 11,000 regulars, relieved his 
beleaguered comrades, carried them off, sick and wounded, 
guns, and munitions of war, and then turning on Faik 
Pasha, signally defeated him, capturing three guns and 
800 prisoners. And what did the infuriated Kurds 
all this time — the fanatical " Ghazis " — who were to 
carry death and destruction into Russia under their 
gallant leader, Kurd Ismail Pasha — the heroic men 
who did not for a moment hesitate to throw themselves 
on unarmed prisoners of war, on defenceless women and 
children? No thought of facing that avenging army, 
no thought of fighting an armed foe. One glance at 
the steady advance of the Eussian infantry, one look 
at the squadrons of dragoons sweeping round their rear, 
and then, casting aside their arms, they fled like sheep 
from the battle-field. 

I wiU not attempt to criticise the conduct either of 
Faik Pasha on this horrible occasion, or of the Ottoman 
Government, for emplojdng such mercenaries. I will 
merely point out that this massacre occurred on the 19th 
of June ; that Mukhtar Pasha has informed Sir Arnold 
Kemball that orders have been sent down to suspend 
Faik Pasha and to try him by court-martial ; that 
Kurd Ismail Fakki Pashi has interceded for him; and. 
that he still commands the 1st Division of the right 
wing of the Turkish army. 

Permit me to say a word in conclusion on a some- 
what analogous subject. More than once it has been 
my pleasant lot to speak of the conduct of our consul, 



342 THE CAMPAIGN IN ARMENIA. 

Mr. Zolirab, during this campaign, and to point out the 
very prominent position he has taken in endeavouring 
to allay excitement and calm the passions of the fanatic 
population of Erzeroum. I am aware that he never 
glosses over the faults or the crimes of Ottoman officials. 
For this reason he has been dubbed a hater of the Turk, 
and I have reason to believe his reports have been 
regarded as highly coloured. As he has dwelt in this 
country since he reached manhood, and has a know- 
ledge of Oriental languages, manners, and customs 
possessed by few, and is moreover a straightforward, 
honest, gallant, English gentleman, his despatches 
should possess a peculiar value, and his suggestions be 
received with the respect due to the well-weighed words 
of a master of the Armenian question. Without attempt- 
ing for one moment to deny the numerous faults in the 
Armenian character, I maintain that no report describing 
their sufferings and oppressions can be too highly 
coloured. The conduct of Mr. Zohrab at Kars in 1855, 
where, as one of that gallant little band of our fellow- 
countrymen who so bravely defended the place against 
the repeated assaults of the Eussians, he added a fresh 
name to the list of those who, shedding lustre them- 
selves on the name of England, have been forgotten by 
their country ; his noble abnegation of self in now daily 
sacrificing hours of a day already far too short for the 
work this war imposes on him, in order that he may aid 
Lord Blantyre's doctors in their task of love and charity ; 
his never-ceasing endeavours to provide for the comfort 
of all his countrymen, ay, and of Americans too, official 
and non- official, whom this crisis has attracted to 
Erzeroum ; and the cool front and cheery demeanour he 
now exhibits among the scenes of danger, of distress, of 



IN MB, ZOHBAB'S BEHALF, 343 

suflfering, and of sickness, to which his family and him- 
self are daily exposed, compel me to say one word in his 
defence against the cruel imputations I have heard cast 
upon him, and to claim for him that meed of sympathy 
which Englishmen are ever willing to accord to a fellow- 
countryman who tries to do his duty. 



CHAPTER XVII. 

WINTER PREPARATIONS. 

Ghazi Mukhtar Pasha — Promotion of Captain Mehemet Pasha — Further Plans of 
the Turkish Commander-in-Chief — Condition of the Erzeroum Garrison — 
Prospect of Famine — Komaroff's Measures for Defence of Ardahan — 
Rumoured Reinforcements for Tergukassoff — Winter Clothing for Turkish 
Troops - The British Ambulance — Reported Violation of the Geneva Conven- 
tion by the Russians — Conduct of the Turks on the Battle-field — Conduct of 
the Russians in Ardahan — Explosive Bullets — Desertion of the Circassians 
— Probability of the Loss seriously affecting Mukhtar — Difficulty of an 
Advance on Erivan — Successful Raid of Arab Cavalry — Force despatched 
to Natschevan — Russian Reinforcements — Skirmish at Tcherkgi. 

Erzeroum, 12th September. 

During the last few days we received information 
that the Sultan has bestowed upon Mukhtar Pasha the 
title of Ghazi, as a reward for his conduct during the 
campaign, more especially for his brilliant victory at 
Kizil-Tepe, on the 25th of August. Captain Mehemet 
Bey, who led the assault on the Kizil-Tepe Hill, and 
who previously, as our readers will remember, had shown 
the most marked gallantry at the defence of Emir Oglou 
Tort at Ardahan, on the 16th May, was promoted to the 
rank of Liva Pasha, or major-general. As far as I 
know, this is the only instance of a foreign officer being 
promoted by the Turks in this campaign for services in 
front of the enemy. Mukhtar determined to establish 
his right to the title of Ghazi, and so evidently resolved 
to drive the Muscov across the Arpatchai into Eussian 
territory. Ismail Pasha, it will be remembered, suc- 
ceeded in forcing Tergukassoff back into Georgia, and is 



MUKHFAB'S NEW DISPOSITIONS. 345 

established in such a strong position on the hills in front 
of Igdyr, that I doubt the possibility of the Eussians 
being able to drive him back into Armenia. Mukhtar 
is so convinced of the impregnability of his own 
position, that he has called up from the right wing six 
battalions, and has ordered every available man to be 
pushed forward from Erzeroum and from the Grhiurji 
Boghaz defile to his camp on the Aladja Dagh, and now 
there literally is not a man keeping open communications 
between this place and the Turkish advanced columns at 
Pennek, Sarbatan, and Igdyr; by massing his forces near 
Kars, and throwing himself, with all his strength, on the 
flank of Melikoff*, Mukhtar is in hopes that he will rid 
Armenia of the hated Giaour. His recent victories have 
increased the enthusiasm of his men, and he very wisely 
stirred the spirit of disaffection in Daghestan, proclama- 
tions having been circulated amongst the Abkhasian and 
the Mingrelian and Circassian tribes by Ghazi Mahomed 
Pasha, the son of Sheik Schamyl, the hereditary prince 
of that nation. With the Russians in their own terri- 
tory and insurrection in the mountainous district between 
the Caspian and Black Seas, the work of the spring cam- 
paign would be much lightened. The common talk of 
the head-quarter staff is of wintering in Tiflis and 
Erivan ; however, the fact of having denuded his line 
of communications of troops somewhat jeopardises the 
position of Mukhtar. Erzeroum is garrisoned only by 
the Mustahfiz battalions of Koniah and Baiboort and 
some 400 volunteer artillery, so that were either of 
Mukhtar's columns to be defeated and driven back, 
it would necessitate the retirement of the others, other- 
wise the capital would fall into the hands of the 
Russians, and the process of revictualling Kars would 



346 TBE CAMPAIGN IN ARMENIA. 

be summarily interfered with. The Turkish armies are 
now reaping the fruits of having raised levies in Kur- 
distan, the massacres in the Alashgird Plain, and the 
horrible atrocities committed in Van, Bitlis, and Moosh 
having caused a general exodus of the Armenians to 
Russian territory. The crops, though ripe, are waiting 
for the sickle; there is none to gather them in but 
robber horsemen, who wander over the country plunder- 
ing, ravishing, and murdering wherever they please. 
The consequence is that there is a prospect of a famine 
throughout the province. 

As in Bulgaria, the steady tillers of the ground are 
Christian inhabitants. In Mahomedan villages all able- 
bodied men have been drafted off to fill up the gaps caused 
by the war, and the harvest is being gathered in by 
women. All grain is seized by the Government officials 
for commissariat purposes, and the harvest-tax, instead 
of being one-tenth, as it usually is, is now increased to 
three-fourths, the remainder being left for the support of 
the villagers ; but even with these large exactions the 
supply is most limited, and urgent messages have been 
forwarded to the vilayets of Sivas and Diarbekir to 
collect and forward all the grain that can be procured. 
The difficulty of transport, however, will be very con- 
siderable for them. Fortunately the harvest there has 
been an unusually good one ; yet, owing to the absence 
of pack-animals, all of which have been pressed into the 
transport service of the army, much delay must occur 
before the supplies reach these. 

Mehkoff seems to have been well aware of the 
danger of Ardahan, and, having received early infor- 
mation of the mobilisation of a column at Pennek for 
its recapture, took prompt steps to insure its safety. 



DESIGNS AGAINST THE RUSSIANS. 347 

The Emir Oglou, Dooz, and Ramazan Tabia have been 
considerably strengthened; several minor earthworks 
have been razed. The barracks and all masonry 
buildings in the town which would afford cover for an 
attacking force have been mined. Telegrams have been 
sent to Akhalzik'for reinforcements to be promptly 
pushed up, and Komaroff has been directed to hold the 
place to the last extremity. Hassan Bey, commanding 
the column at Pennek, seems fully alive to the diffi- 
culty of the undertaking, and, I hear, will not move 
forward until he receives intelligence of the arrival of 
Dervish Pasha's brigade at Ardanutsch. After the 
junction, in the event of his still considering the place 
too formidable to be attacked with the troops at 
command, Hassan Bey has received instructions to 
stand fast at Pennek, and bar any attempts of a Russian 
advance by that road to Erzeroum. There are rumour^ 
that Tergukassoff has been reinforced by three regi- 
ments of cavalry and a brigade of infantry. It is 
impossible to say what his actual strength is ; but we 
know that in his adventurous advance on Zaidikan he 
had only eight battalions at his disposal. It is pro- 
bable, however, that now he has fourteen battalions 
of infantry, five batteries, with ten regiments of cavalry. 
Although this does not amount to more than half the 
forces of Ismail Pasha, who has twenty-nine battalions, 
six batteries, and from 6,000 to 10,000 horse, yet the 
Russians are quite strong enough, under their able and 
gallant leader, effectually to bar the way to Erivan ; and 
I think it may be safely assumed that Ismail Pasha, 
who has already tested the metal of Tergukassoff*s 
troops, will abandon his loudly-proclaimed intention 
of wintering in the capital of Georgia ; his army, too, 



3iS THE CAMPAIGN' IN ARMENIA. 

is in the most pitiable state. As regards supplies, tlie 
whole district in his vicinity has been completely 
pillaged by his clansmen, the Kurds, and provisions 
are nowhere obtainable nearer than Erzeroum, where 
the authorities very naturally pay more heed to orders 
sent from the Commander-in-Chief thto they do to those 
from Ismail Hakki. Indeed, it was not until he 
threatened to fall back on Van, and report that he was 
obliged to do so owing to the neglect of the Erzeroum 
officials to replenish his commissariat, that Hassan 
Pasha awoke to the real urgency of his state. 

His army is divided into two divisions, one of 
which he has sent out under Hakif Pasha to Alkah, 
while he himself with the remainder of his forces stays 
at Zor. Active preparations have been made through- 
out the provinces for a winter campaign ; 80,000 suits 
of new uniform have been ordered by Mukhtar Pasha, 
and he has shown a prescience rare in the Osmanli, by 
directing that the whole of the skins of the beasts killed 
by the commissariat dnring the campaign are to be sent 
into Erzeroum, for the purpose of being turned into coats 
for his troops. This is a measure certainly adopted 
none too soon, for the majority of the soldiers are in 
rags and tatters. 

Doctors Casson and Buckby are at present at Kars, 
organising an ambulance corps for the head-quarter 
column of the Turkish army, whilst Dr. Feather- 
stonhaugh, with two assistants, has been left in charge 
of the English hospital in this place. Mr. Zohrab, our 
energetic consul, is busily aiding them in collecting 
material and means for the ambulance train. 

I see in a recent issue of the Times that Mukhtar 
Pasha has formally complained of the Russians having 



CHAEQES AND COUNTEE-GHAEGES. 349 

violated the Greneva Convention during the battle of 
the 25th of August by firing upon his ambulances. 
As these ambulances consisted of a few '' Arabas '' or 
country carts, of the same pattern as those used for the 
transport of artillery and infantry ammunition, as well 
as for the general commissariat purposes of the army, 
and as they were surmounted merely by a small flag, just 
eighteen inches square, it would be difficult for an enemy 
to recognise them as hospital institutions ; and I think, 
taking into consideration the conduct of the Russians to 
the Turkish wounded at Ardahan, we may acquit them 
of having wilfully perpetrated the crime which Mukhtar 
Pasha lays to their charge. These accusations only 
tend to embitter the feud now raging between the 
Moslem and the Slav, and throw a blot on the civilisa- 
tion of both. When the Russians take to exaggerating 
the savagery of their opponents, they forget that they 
too lay themselves open to a charge of inhuman conduct 
in having armed the Bulgarians, in having fomented 
insurrections among the Christians in the European 
provinces of Turkey, and having repeatedly violated the 
armistice during the Servian war, when Turkish water- 
bearers were shot down in cold blood by Russian rifle- 
men in Servian trenches. When the Turks, as they 
have too frequently done in Armenia, accuse the 
Russians of crimes which exist only in their own 
heated imaginations, they must expect unbiassed spec- 
tators to expose 'their misstatements to the Christian 
world. It is generally admitted, indeed there can be no 
two sides to this question, that off the battle-field the 
Turkish regular soldier has shown no disposition to 
commit these so-called atrocities. When under fire, and 
under the influences of the excitement of the moment. 



350 TEE CAMPAIGN IN ARMENIA, 

the Turk undoubtedly behaves in a somewhat savage 
manner, and I think from the fact that during this cam- 
paign the prisoners taken in various actions may be 
counted on one's fingers, and the wounded prisoners 
represented by a negative figure, we shall not be wrong 
in arriving at the conclusion that the Turk slays aU 
wounded men found on the field of battle ; and when 
we remember that until the year 1826 a reward was 
ojffered for the head of every enemy brought to the tent 
of the Commander-in-Chief, we can scarcely be surprised 
that the custom is still in vogue. That they strip 
their dead foes is also an undeniable fact, and that they 
mutilate the dead in as brutal a manner as the Afghan 
tribes on the north-west frontier of India, I myself can 
bear witness to. The atrocities committed ofi" the 
field of battle, the vengeance wreaked on unofiending 
Armenian ^dllagers, the desecration of the graves of the 
Russians, the carrying ofi* of boys and maidens for the 
most diabolical of purposes, have all been committed by 
the Kurds. The Russians in general, at any rate, 
have shown their enemy a good example with reference 
to the wounded men. The statement of the Grerman 
doctors, Addler and Weiss, taken prisoners at Ardahan, 
show that the Turkish wounded were treated with the 
same kindness and consideration as their own; they 
received the same pay as they would have done had 
they been serving with their regiments, but very much 
more regularly. Their rations were accompanied by an 
extra allowance of meat and soup as refreshing as it was 
unusual to the Turkish soldiers, and when reported fit 
for duty the wounded men were provided with five days' 
provisions, and permitted to return to Erzeroum. 

The stories of explosive bullets which have been 



EXPLOSIVE BULLETS. 351 

bandied about from side to side during the last few 
weeks is another of those exaggerations of which both 
parties may well be ashamed. Any sportsman who is 
used to the Henry-Martini rifle will know that the 
express bidlet striking on a bone inflicts a wound very 
similar to that made by the old explosive shell. That 
there is gun-cotton used in the Turkish bullet, or any 
explosive material whatever, I can confidently deny. 
I have examined, I may say, hundreds of their cart- 
ridges, both in quarters and in the field. The bullet, I 
have no hesitation in averring, is exactly the same as 
our own. I have also picked up some unexploded 
cartridge-cases belonging both to the Krinker and 
Berdan rifles, with which the Russian forces are armed. 
In many of these there was a compressed felt plug in 
the cup at the base of the ball ; but I submitted this 
plug to test, and it possessed none of the qualities of 
gun-cotton. Consequently, I am satisfied that, so far as 
explosive bullets are concerned, the Geneva Convention 
has been violated by neither party during the present 
war. 

We hear that the Q-rand Duke has been recently 
reinforced by a complete division of infantry and seven 
regiments of cavalry. This increase of horse jeopardises 
Mukhtar Pasha's position considerably. His large force 
of cavalry is being rapidly diminished by numerous 
desertions of both Circassians and Kurds, who arrive here 
in parties sometimes up to the strength of 150 sabres. 
A day or two ago we received telegraphic information 
from Kars that a body of 150 of these gentlemen had 
quietly deserted from the camp and were returning to 
their homes. Instructions were forwarded to the 
governor to send a sufficient force to arrest them. 



-r '^ i 1 



352 THE CAMPAIGN IN ARMENIA, 

Accordingly a body of infantry and cavalry was de- 
spatched from this place, and they very shortly met the 
Circassians on the road from Kars. They were promptly 
disarmed and marched prisoners into the town, where 
they have been located in one of the empty barracks. 

On my asking one of the officers what was meant 
by this desertion en masse of the Circassian horse, he 
replied, *' We get no pay, we get no rations, we get no 
grain for our horses, we get no warm clothing for our- 
selves. How can we fight under those circumstances ? 
We have constantly applied to Mukhtar Pasha for 
some of the arrears of pay due to us, for great-coats, and 
for blankets for our horses, and to all our appeals we 
received the answer that it is quite sufficient for a 
Mahomedan to fight for the Sultan with the hope of 
receiving a reward in the future world. Unfortunately 
the hope of the reward hereafter does not fill our 
stomachs or those of our horses, and so we have re- 
turned here and mean to appeal to the Sultan for our just 
dues." Whether the Sultan antedated the bill I cannot 
say. This reduction of his cavalry is a very serious thing 
for Mukhtar, still, in the sense in which we speak of 
cavalry, it certainly was not of much use. There was 
not an officer in the whole force who understood the art 
of reconnoitring. He was never able to depend upon 
the information brought to him by the cavalry leaders. 
Although, as a rule, the men were willing enough to 
face the Cossack horse, they distinctly declined to face 
either infantry or guns. Indeed, on more than one 
occasion, their hurry to take up a strong position with 
the reserve when the Russian artillery opened fire upon 
them was somewhat ludicrous. As long as Mukhtar 
Pasha could place two battalions in the field to one that 



TEEGUKASSOFF'S POSITION. 353 

the Eussians could show, his weakness in this respect 
was not so discernible. But now the want of sufficient 
cavalry forces, the want of the eyes and the ears of the 
army, will, I fear, prove disastrous to him. Should the 
Grand Duke succeed in cutting in between the Aladja 
Dagh and Kars, the loss of the greater portion of the 
Turkish army will be the inevitable result. How- 
ever, throughout this campaign the Eussians have 
ignored every principle of war in the most disastrous 
manner. They have allowed to pass by so many ex- 
cellent opportunities for striking a fatal blow upon 
their opponents, that even should Mukhtar be seriously 
defeated in his present position, I see no reason why he 
should not be able to retire on the Soghanly range with 
as large a force as he did in May last. There have 
been a few minor encounters between Ismail Pasha's 
troops and Tergukassoff's small division, yet the 
Kurdish chief, who in April proclaimed to the world 
his immediate intention of invading Eussia with 40,000 
clansmen, now fails to cross the twenty miles of ground 
that intervenes between him and Erivan, and he shows 
more wisdom in remaining in his position on the Igdyr 
Hills than he did in despatching his bombastic telegram 
to the Porte. 

The valley of the Araxes as it passes through the 
Erivan plain is entirely devoted to the cultivation of rice. 
Those of my readers who are acquainted with the paddy- 
fields of Bengal will easily understand the difficulty of 
moving a large army of 35,000 men, with its attendant 
transport consisting either of arabas or pack-animals, 
across that style of country; by the simple act of cutting 
a few sluices, Tergukassoff would convert the plain into 
one large morass, and then T think he would gain a more 

X 



354 THE GAMPAIGN IN ARMENIA, 

decided triumph on the plains of Erivan than he did at 
Taghir on the 16th July last. 

On the 20th of September there was a small cavalry- 
affair in this vicinity. A squadron of Sulimani irregular 
cavalry was detached on reconnoitring duty across the 
Araxes. It advanced towards Erivan, and actually cut 
in between the outposts on the Alexandropol road. These 
appear to have been very inefficiently commanded, for 
the detachment succeeded in overpowering the postal 
escort, bringing letters from the Grrand Duke to Erivan. 
The sound of firing brought up one outpost, but the 
Arab horse, showing the greatest gallantry, having seized 
the letter-bags, charged the enemy's cavalry; and, laden 
with the arms of the escort, and leading thirty captured 
horses, the Arabian irregulars returned with their booty 
to camp. 

From these letters we learnt that Tergukassoff had 
recently been reinforced by twelve battalions under 
General Dewel, but the Grand Duke, anxious to 
strengthen his centre as much as possible preparatory 
to making a determined assault on Mukhtar's position, 
had ordered seven of these battalions to return imme- 
diately to Karajal. From the letters also we found that 
there was an intention of pushing in a force to cross the 
Arpa Tchai, and intervene between the two Turkish 
wings. This fact was at once communicated to Mukhtar 
Pasha, who detached five battalions and a battery to 
Natschevan with orders to entrench themselves there. 
On the following day, the 27th of September, Ismail 
Pasha endeavoured to seize the village of Tcherkgi. 
For this purpose at dawn he sent three battalions 
with a half -battery, supported by the remainder of 
Hakif s brigade. The village was held only by a 



ISMAIL PASHA'S GENERALSHIP. 355 

small detachment, but the Eussian general at once 
threw forward eleven battalions, two batteries, and 
three regiments of cavalry, who opposed the assault 
of our men. Seeing that they were terribly over- 
matched, Ismail ordered Lieutenant-General Mustafa 
Safvet Pasha to support this force with the remainder 
of his' division, and after a brisk cannonade on the 
Eussian position, Hakif Bey's troops were again led 
forward to the assault. They, however, were driven 
back, and owing to the impetuosity of the Eussian 
advance, were forced to retire to the hills near Alkali, 
which Tergukassoff proceeded to storm ; night was 
coming on, and after two attempts, during which his 
men were brilliantly repulsed by six Turkish battalions 
on the hill, Tergukassoff drew off. The Turkish loss 
was 132 officers and men killed, amongst them being 
Major Ibrahim Bey. 

Ismail Pasha, who throughout the campaign has 
distinguished himseK as much by the inaccm^acy of his 
despatches as by his disinclination to expose himself 
to danger, and who, evidently, is of opinion that a 
knowledge of strategy is valueless to a general who has 
the Koran at his fingers' ends, despatched a flaming 
report to the Seraskierate, in which he announced that 
he had signally defeated the Eussians, who left 1,100 dead 
on the field. The want of leaders in the Turkish 
right wing is very severely felt. If Mukhtar Pasha 
could spare a skilful, determined man to supersede the 
Kurdish chief, the campaign would have a very different 
result. There was a rumour that Captain Mehmed 
Pasha was to have the command, but the blind jealousy 
of Europeans will stand in his way, and although 
he and his brigade (who follow him with a rare 
X 2 



356 TEE CAMPAIGN IN ARMENIA. 

devotion) are always pushed forward wherever the 
fighting is thickest, yet it is too much to expect 
that, sinking their blind conceit in their powers, the 
Osmanli generals will allow Mukhtar Pasha to carry 
out this move, so necessary for the successful issue of 
the campaign. 



CHAPTEE XVni. 

THE MOSLEM AT THE END OF HIS TETHER. 

Skirmish near Zaim — Russians defeated — Plans of the Grand Djike — Mukhtar 
preparing for a Winter Campaign — His Position near Kars — Skirmish at 
Natschevan — Battle of the Yagnis on 2nd October — Gallantry of Mehmed 
Pasha's Brigade — Turkish Success at the Little Yagni — Attack and Capture 
of the Great Yagni — Repulse of the Russians — Heavy Losses — Misery in 
Kars — Paucity of Doctors — Hospital Arrangements. 

On the 30th of September all things pointed to the 
fact that the Grrand Duke was in receipt of heavy- 
reinforcements, and was evidently determined to assume 
the offensive. News reached the Turkish camp that 
Komaroff had been reinforced by a complete division 
from Akhalzik, and that, feeling his position there to 
be impregnable, he had detached a brigade of four 
battalions, one field-battery, and one regiment of cavalry, 
to reinforce the Russian head- quarters. These men 
marched by Zarchat, encamped on the 29th to the 
north of the Arpa Tchai, near Zaim, throwing 
out pickets in that direction. Hassan Ahmed Bey, 
who commanded at Pennek, aware of this move, and 
wishing to prevent the proposed junction, detached 
a regiment of Arab cavalry to watch the force, at the 
same time warning the Commander-in-Chief of the 
march of the Eussian brigade, so that it might be 
attacked by troops moving up from Kars, and anni- 
hilated before effecting a junction with its head- 



368 THE CAMPAIGN IN AMMENIA. 

quarters at Karajal. The Turkish, cavalry regiment 
reached the banks of the Kars-Tchai simultaneously with 
the Eussian brigade, and with true Oriental negligence 
the colonel bivouacked his men without even posting 
one picket. The Russians, aware of the usual custom 
of the Turks on such occasions, attacked them after 
nightfall, completely surprised them, and succeeded in 
cutting up some forty or fifty men before the Arabs 
were able to escape. The following morning Mukhtar 
Pasha sent a force under Colonel Tcharkir Bey to 
avenge the loss that his cavalry had received the pre- 
ceding evening. The Turkish colonel, placing him- 
self at the head of three regiments of cavahy, 
at once charged the enemy's position, and in spite 
of a very heavy fire from their field-battery, suc- 
ceeded in driving the enemy, in some confusion, as far 
as Parget, when, on perceiving reinforcements moving 
out from Karajal, Tcharkir Bey wisely retired. On 
the following morning, 1st October, the Grand Duke 
sent forward a cavalry brigade, accompanied by two 
horse-batteries, to harass Mukhtar's right ; and now 
commenced that series of operations which were in- 
tended to cover the real advance of the Russians . It 
was evidently the Grand Duke's intention to wear out 
Mukhtar's men, to reduce his force day by day by 
slight losses, and, finally, by cutting in between him 
and Kars, compel him to abandon his forward position 
on the Russian frontier, to leave Kars, and fall back on 
his base at Erzeroum. By these means the Grand Duke 
hoped to be enabled to assault and capture Kars, to 
drive in the detached brigade at Natschevan, and thus 
compel Ismail Pasha to execute a retrograde movement — 
in fact, to begin the campaign entirely anew, advance 



READY FOB A WINTER CAMPAIGN. 359 

on the three old roads of Ardahan, Kars, and Bayazid, 
concentrate at the foot of Devi-boyun, and take up bis 
winter quarters in the capital of Armenia. The 
skirmish on the Turkish right was of no importance ; 
their losses, as losses in sheltered trenches exposed to 
artillery fire invariably are, were slight, and the Russians, 
receiving as good as they gave, retired at dusk to their 
camp. 

During the month of September Mukhtar Pasha 
employed himself in entrenching the hills of Little 
Tagni and Kizil Tepe ; on the latter were posted some 
heavy siege-guns, and the position was altogether one 
comparatively impregnable. In fact, the Tarks were 
making their preparations for the winter campaign. A 
site had been selected on the eastern slopes of the 
Soghanly for a standing camp. Many Christian in- 
habitants of Kars had been warned that their houses 
would be required for the quarters of the troops ; large 
supplies of ammunition and provisions had been thrown 
into that fortress, not merely for the consumption of 
the garrison during winter, but for the consumption of 
an army of occupation. From spies Mukhtar learned 
that the Russians were employing themselves in like 
manner, that huts were springing up at Karajal, 
similar to those which the Russians erected during the 
campaign of '55, and the remains of which may now be 
seen round Kars. 

But Mukhtar, doubting the reports of deserters and 
spies, disbelieved the story of Russian reinforcements, 
and hoped that he would be enabled to drive them back 
to their own territory before winter set in, in its real 
severity. 

The Little Yagni position, having been strengthened 



360 THE CAMPAIGN IN ARMENIA. 

and entrenclied, was garrisoned by six battalions ; eight 
guns were also placed npon it, and it was intrusted to 
Capt. Mehmed Pasha. Hussain Hami Pasha was in 
command of the division at Vezinkui with a battalion 
occupying the Grreat Yagni hills in his front, whilst 
Hadji Raschid Pasha, with thirty-four battalions, was 
holding the slopes of the Aladja, his flank resting on 
the Nakharji and Olya Tepe. The command of the 
cavalry division had been vested in Lieut. -Greneral Omar 
Pasha, a German ofiicer of some distinction, who had 
recently arrived from Bagdad. 

The garrison of Kars, terribly reduced by the many 
demands made upon it, now consisted of four battalions, 
and these men, under the superintendence of Hassan 
Bey, the gallant commandant of artillery, were busy in 
throwing up four new redoubts, two to the north of the 
Mookhliss Tabia, two to the east of the Karadagh hill. 
Now, having given a detailed account of the position of 
the Turkish armies on the 1st October, I will proceed 
to describe the operations commencing on the morning 
of the second. Prior to this, however, I must state 
that on the 30th September, Ahmed Pasha's brigade at 
Natscbevan was attacked by a Russian brigade of 
superior strength, which after a sharp engagement was 
driven back, the Turks suffering a loss of about 250 
killed and wounded. At dawn, on the 2nd, a signal- 
gun boomed out from the Olya Tepe, announcing the 
fact that the Russians were in motion ; indeed, columns 
were to be seen advancing en wasse along the Kars road, 
towards the Little Yagni, whilst others threatened the 
whole Turkish front. It was evident that the Grand 
Duke's intention was to turn Mehmed Pasha out of his 
post, for by 7 a.m., thirty-four battalions, sixty-one 



ATTACKS ON TEE YAGNI8. 361 

jscuiis, and six regiments of cavalry, were drawn up in 
line in front of the Little Yagni hills. The cavalry 
(owing to some absurd blunder on the part of the 
Eussian commander) for a length of time were massed 
in column, well within the range of Mehmed's guns, 
and suffered very heavily from the accurate artillery 
firing brought to bear on them. Following the tactics 
of their grandfathers, the Eussians threw column after 
column upon the steep slopes of Little Tagni, but, as 
must inevitably be the case where troops armed with 
breech-loaders have availed themselves of tlie spade, 
the defenders were enabled to repulse every attack 
upon their front, with the most hideous slaughter. 

Mehmed Pasha's heroism inspired his men with the 
utmost enthusiasm. Although they were but Eedifs — 
soldiers fresh from the plough — ^they showed all the 
gallantry of trained veterans ; they were, however, for 
some hours exposed to a galling fire from sixty guns in 
their front, and suffered most heavily. Mehmed Pasha 
at last saw that unless aid arrived he would by sheer 
weight of numbers be driven from the Little Tagni hill ; 
so he despatched urgent messages to Kars for aid. The 
Eussian general, however, seemed to think that his men 
had had enough of it, for about noon there was a cessa- 
tion of attacks on this position, and a division numbering 
fifteen or sixteen battalions with twelve guns moved off 
to the left for the purpose of seizing the Great Yagni, 
and thus keeping off the reinforcements which were 
being moved from the Aladja to the support of the 
Little -Yagni. Whilst this was going on in the left of 
the Turkish position, a heavy attack developed itself on 
the right, where two columns of infantry, covered by 
sixty guns, advanced on Sarbatan, and the easternmost 



362 THU CAMPAIGN IN ARMENIA. 

slopes of the Aladja Dagh. Hadji Easchid Pasha com- 
manding this position sent forward two brigades under 
Mustafa Djavid Pasha and Ibrahim Bey, to repel them. 
Obeying the calls of their gallant leaders, the Turks 
went at the enemy with the bayonet. On all sides one 
hears of the bravery displayed at this point. After 
fighting the Russians were driven back to the banks of 
the Arpa Tchai with terrible losses. In the meantime 
the commandant of Kars had sent out five battalions to 
the aid of the gallant Prussian. Cheered by these rein- 
forcements the Eedif soldiers gained courage and practi- 
cally sealed the issue of the day. Great Yagni, however, 
in spite of the repeated suggestions of the staff, had been 
left comparatively undefended, one solitary battalion 
numbering scarcely five hundred men manned the 
entrenchments on its crest, and although these men 
showed heroism that has not been surpassed in this war, 
the place was carried after a most obstinate defence ; 
three junior officers and thirty-seven men alone escaped 
to tell the tale. The cannonade on the Little Yagni 
continued all day long, and before nightfall seven 
hundred and fifty men had been removed into Kars. 
Ahmed Pazel Pasha,* who had superseded Mehmed Pasha 
in the command on the arrival of the reinforcements, 
received a ball through the thigh, and the command of 
the position once more devolved on Mehmed Pasha. 
Long after dusk the cannonade on this point continued, 
although all actual assaults had long since been dis- 
continued. 

Well now might the Eussians have despaired of suc- 
cess. AU their attacks on the Turkish positions had been 

* This officer was amongst the prisoners taken in Kars, and died early 
in December from the effects of the wound received on the 2nd Octoher. 



SICK AND WOUNDUD IN KAES. 363 

repelled with the exception of that on the Great Yagni 
Hill, and they were doubtless surprised to find that no 
attempts were made by the Turkish Commander-in-Chief 
to recapture this ; but Mukhtar was well aware that 
there was no necessity for him to waste valuable lives to 
effect that which must shortly ensue as a matter of 
course. 

The losses on both sides were most severe. A doctor 
with the Turkish army computed the Ottoman casualties 
at 1,000 killed and 3,500 wounded, whilst of the Eussians 
Mukhtar asserted that 2,800 dead bodies were found on 
the slopes of the Little Yagni alone !* 

The 3rd of October was spent in desultory artillery 
firing between the advanced artillery posts, without 
leading to anything more; but the following day, seeing 
that the Russians had occupied the Kapack Tepe in 
some force, Mukhtar Pasha sent forward Hadji Easchid 
Pasha with a strong column to reconnoitre, charging 
him most particularly on no account to bring on a 
general engagement. Prior to that the Great Yagni 
had been evacuated, owing to the extreme difficulty of 
supplying the garrison with water. 

The arrival of the wounded men in Kars strained the 
hospital resources to their utmost. There were but four 
doctors in the place fit for duty, and prior to this 
engagement there were upwards of 4,000 sick and 
wounded in the fortress, Por those in England or for 
those who have campaigned only with our own armies, 
which, as a rule, are so adequately provided with medical 
officers, with ambulances, litters, and hospital comforts, 
it is difficult to conceive the amount of misery daily to 

* The Russian official report mentioned 960 killed, 2,400 wounded, 
and two missing, while 24-0 Turkish prisoners remained in their hands. 



364 THE CAMPAIGN IN ARMENIA. 

be seen in the streets of Kars — hospital accommodation 
existed only for 1,200 men, and even for that number 
there was not sufficient bedding, nor were there cots 
for more than 300 patients. The barracks and khans (rest 
houses for travellers) were speedily filled, and yet scarcely 
one-half of the wounded were provided even with shelter. 
In despair, the doctors applied to the commandant for the 
various masonry Government buildings, but this request 
was refused, and the victims of Turkey's misgovemnient, 
of Eussia's love of aggression, were perforce crowded into 
the small, ill- ventilated huts which abound in the city, 
men suffering from typhoid, from dysentery, from scurvy, 
lay side by side with comrades brought low by shot or 
bayonet. It was practically impossible for one-fourth of 
these men to be visited by the doctors, who were fear- 
fully overworked ; indeed, it was impossible that the 
medical men could know where all their patients were 
housed — fresh cases came daily to notice, and men were 
hourly found who had been lying for days with undressed 
wounds, unset limbs. 

The Stafford House stores that Dr. Casson brought 
out from Erzeroum early in September were expended 
before the battle of the Yagnis, and from a letter I 
received from a German doctor in Kars, dated the 10th 
of October, I learnt that they were utterly without car- 
bolic acid, lint, charpie, there were no bandages, no splints, 
no tourniquets, in the hospitals. 

From all quarters, however, the story was the same, 
the Turkish authorities took no means to provide for 
the medical requirements of their army, and help from 
England was not only inadequate, but came too late. 
The hospitals in Erzeroum were now crowded; but whereas 
in former days such a thing as a man being discharged 



HOSPITALS AND THEIR ACCOMMODATION. 365 

fit for duty was never heard of, now, under the skilful and 
kindly treatment of Dr. Featherstonhaugh and his assis- 
tants, men were daily turned out cured. It is a pleasure 
to read the universal testimony borne to the comfort 
experienced by the Turkish soldiers in the Blantyre 
Hospital. Officers and men located in the other build- 
ings used to beg for admission, in order that they, too, 
might reap the benefits of England's charity. In antici- 
pation of a further increase in the number of such, the 
Governor of Erzeroum despatched Dr. Galenthay to 
Erzingjan, with instructions to provide hospital accom- 
modation for a further number of 1,000, in addition to 
the 1,500 who were sent under the doctor's charge. 

At Olti, too, early in October, Dr. Fliiss reported 
that his stores were exhausted and his hospitals full, 
whilst the same story was repeated at Bayazid. In 
fact, it was computed by the medical authorities that 
at this time fourteen per cent, of the whole strength 
of the Armenian army was on the sick list. 



CHAPTER XIX. 

TURKISH ADMINISTRATION IN ARMENIA. 

Mahomedans Exempted from War Taxation— Oliristians Forced to Pay — Pen- 
sioners of Turkish. Government— Irregular Imposts — The Discontent they 
Cause — The Hadji — The Caimakam and the British Consul — The Police 
Station at the Mouth of the Ghiurji Boghaz — Mr. Layard and the Danger 
to India — American Missionaries' Views on Christian Oppression — Turkish 
Reforms — Her Hospitals — Dr. Casson on Tui'kish Atrocities — Employment 
of the Press by the Porte — The Abkhasian Exodus — Treatment of the 
JBayazid Refugees by the Russians and Persians — Treatment of their own 
Wounded by Turks — Reduction of Unpaid Salaries. 

Erzeroum, Sept. \2>th. 

The publication o£ the Grovernment orders relative 
to the new internal forced loan of 600 million piastres 
was received with the most marked signs of discontent 
and dissatisfaction — so much so, indeed, that a deputa- 
tion of the principal Mahomedans called on the Governor 
of Erzeroum and pointed out to him that the people in 
this district were more heavily taxed than in any 
other part of Asiatic Turkey ; with regard to the war, 
they were subject to numerous requisitions which those 
living at a distance from the seat of hostilities were 
not liable to ; they were called upon to feed any de- 
tachments of soldiers passing through their villages, 
receiving no compensation ; and they were constantly 
obliged to furnish carts and oxen for the transport of 
Government material, for which they received no pay- 
ment. In fact, their demands were so reasonable that 



'lb fbuc& page 366. 




BEABEBS OF THE BURDEN. 367 

the Grovernor at once telegraphed to the Porte, who 
directed that all Mahomedans in the vilayet of Erzeroum 
should he exempt from the operations of the tax, on 
condition that they continued to supply horses, carts, 
and oxen for the transport of munitions of war. Em- 
boldened by this success, the Christians formed a 
deputation and waited on his Excellency, begging 
that they, too, might be relieved, as they had already, 
since the commencement of hostilities, been called 
upon to pay nine separate money contributions towards 
the expenses of the war. Hassan Izzet Pasha, how- 
ever, pointed out to them that they were exempt from 
military service, that they had all their able-bodied 
men at home, and were in a position not only to 
carry on their ordinary business avocations, but also 
to cut and gather their harvest, which the Mahomedans, 
owing to the majority of their males being with the 
army, were unable to do ; and that, although he would 
forward their petition to the Sublime Porte, he could 
not hold out much hope of relief. 

As is usual in all wars, the effect of this falls with 
far heavier force on the labouring classes than on any 
other; the distress rife throughout the district is 
almost inconceivable. The Pashas and richer people 
do not feel it, as they take care to draw their pay 
regularly from the Government Treasury, while the 
lower officials and the private soldier never see their 
allowances. These all suffer extremely, more especially 
the pensioners of the last war — widows of men who 
fell in 1855, of whom there are still a few dependent 
on Government bounty for support. Their pensions, 
small as they are — only 30 piastres a month — have not 
been paid them this year, and they are consequently 



368 TEE CAMPAIGN IN ARMENIA. 

plunged in the greatest want and destitution. The 
people do not complain of the regular taxes, but what 
they do inveigh against most bitterly are the irregular 
imposts, from which they have no escape, and which 
they know full well never go into the Grovernment 
Treasury. Christians and Mahomedans speak alike on 
this point, and I have met as many of the latter 
creed as of the former who state there will be no 
happiness in Turkey as long as a Pasha exists. I will 
give you one or two instances to show you the unjust 
way in which taxes are levied here. These have come 
under my own personal observation, and I have con- 
versed with the villagers concerned, chiefly Mahomedans, 
whom, as a rule, I have found more bitter against the 
system of Pasha rule than their Armenian fellow- 
countrymen. 

In a village some fifteen miles from this, which I 
have visited three times, dwells a certain Hadji, who is 
one of the chief men of the place. He is a farmer on a 
small scale, owns a small plot of land, a few cattle, and 
is able by the sweat of his brow to earn his own living, 
and keep his head above water, which comparatively few 
Turks are. Just after the outbreak of the war, the 
Caimakam, or sub-governor of his district, called on this 
man, and demanded a war contribution. The old 
gentleman gladly consented to give towards the good 
purpose of driving the hated Giaour out of the kingdom 
of the Faithful, but did not see his way to the large 
sum the Caimakam was anxious to extract from him. 
Appeals were made to his pride as head man of the 
village, to the odour of sanctity which surrounded him 
and his family in consequence of his pilgrimage to 
]\Iecca, and finally the old gentleman was induced to 



TEE GAIMAKAM AND THE HADJI. 369 

part with 2,000 piastres in good money, equal to £200, 
on the express condition that he was not to be called 
upon for any more war taxes during the present year ; 
but, as the Hadji piteously remarked, " there has not 
been one single week since then that I have not had to 
pay towards the war in some shape or another.'' The 
first blow that fell upon him was the announcement 
that he had been drawn for the Mustahfiz, or Eeserve 
troops, and was to join the battalion in Erzeroum. 
The poor old fellow fled to the British Consul, Mr. 
Zohrab, who, with his usual kindheartedness, at once 
went to the palace, explained the old man's case, pointed 
out that he was over sixty, was the only male in his 
family, that if he were sent to the front those dependent 
upon him for support would be plunged into starvation 
and misery, as their crops would be left standing, and 
their cattle untended, and that, moreover, he had already 
served fifteen years in the regular army, had voluntarily 
given 2,000 piastres to the war fund, and was a just 
object for the Mushir's benevolence. The pleadings of 
the British Consul were successful, and the old man, to 
his delight, was granted exemption. Freed from that 
trouble, his old friend the Caimakam continued, never- 
theless, to make calls upon his purse ; his village every 
week is called upon to furnish a certain number of carts 
for Grovernment transport; and he, of course, is com- 
pelled to pay his share of their cost, varying from ten 
to thirty piastres a week. As he says, '' When and 
where is this to end? Neither I nor the rest of the 
agriculturists can go on paying these sums or giving 
our labour for nothing, and we see nothing before us 
but ruin and starvation. We help the Government to 
the best of our power, but Grovernment will not help us ; 

T 



370 THU CAMPAIGN IN ARMENIA, 

they only take our money, our young men, our all, and 
return us not even thanks/' 

Another instance of oppression, though of a different 
kind : — In April last the Grovernor conceived the idea 
of building a police station at the bridge across the 
Euphrates, just at the mouth of the Ghiurji Boghaz, 
and an official was sent to warn the villagers in the 
immediate vicinity that they would be called upon 
to contribute £500 towards its construction. They 
are all small agricultural hamlets, and such a sum 
was almost beyond the grasp of their intellect. They 
at once sent a deputation to Ismail Pasha, say- 
ing that there were no thieves in the Pass, that they 
had done without a police station since the com- 
mencement of the world, that they were utterly unable 
to find such a sum among them, and they implored him 
to reconsider his determination. He refused, and 
threatened to quarter soldiers in the villages until the 
money was forthcoming. Thus pressed, the greybeards 
of the neighbourhood met together, apportioned the 
various sums to be contributed by each village and by 
each household, and conveyed the money to Erzeroum. 
They were then told to collect stones and beams of wood 
at a certain spot. Workmen were sent out, and the 
building commenced. It is now finished ; I have seen 
it. It consists of a rectangular, stone, one-storied 
house, containing but one room 30 by 24 feet; it is 
14 ft. in height, unboarded; there are two holes for 
windows, unglazed; the door consists of a couple of 
rough planks joined together; the stones are undressed, 
and no mortar was used in the construction ; the roof 
is a flat mud one — in fact, it is similar to the road-side 
police stations one sees all over India. The cost, I 



THE WAY TEE PASHAS FILL THEIB PURSES. 371 

should say, could not have exceeded 5,000 piastres, 
especially as the village gave the beams and stones, 
and many of the villagers were forced to labour on the 
work. I have conversed with many men who have seen 
it, and they all say that £30 was the outside sum it 
cost. What has become of the balance of £500 ? The 
answer given by Mussulman and Christian alike is — 
"' It is in this way our Pashas enrich themselves, and 
grind us down to the dust." 

I have read with much interest Mr. Layard's de- 
spatch of the 30th of May. With all due deference 
to the large school of Eussophobists who inveigh so 
loudly against our policy of masterly inactivity in 
India, I cannot conceive any man who has travelled 
down the North- West Frontier of the Punjab and 
viewed the natural ramparts which surround us, andhas 
studied the physical geography of the country beyond 
them, fearing that the conquest of Armenia, or even 
the possession of Herat, would endanger the safety 
of our Indian Empire as long as our rule is as 
beneficent and as tolerant as it is now, and as long as 
we have or can put at call 100,000 bayonets, British 
and native, to man the mouths of the passes in the 
Suliman Mountains. With regard to the majority of 
the Christians preferring Turkish to Eussian rule, I 
fear my short experience in this country and my con- 
versation with American missionaries, men as much to 
be depended upon as Dr. Washbourne, have led me to 
form a completely opposite opinion. Moslem and 
Christian alike groan under an intolerable yoke — the 
yoke of Pashas whose wills are unfettered, whose 
passions are unbridled, whose vices are beyond descrip- 
tion, and whose oppressions are too well known for 

Y 2 



372 THE CAMPAIGN IN AHMENIA. 

my pen to attempt to describe. Turkey bears a 
striking resemblance to the Infernal Eegions, which 
good George Herbert said are paved with broken pro- 
mises ; all her promises of reform have been swept 
away ; her conduct in this war has been marked by the 
vilest crimes of which a nation can be guilty. She has 
not only committed the crime of arming and letting 
loose bands of undisciplined, fanatical robbers, whose 
passions, fed by the religious exhortations of their 
bigoted priests, and strengthened by the proclamations 
of the Sheikh-ul-Islam, have led, as the Porte knew full 
well and firmly intended that they should lead, to the 
brutal massacre of the survivors of the Bulgarian re- 
bellion and the cold-blooded murders of the inoffensive 
Christians in Armenia. Of worse crimes even than 
these has Turkey been guilty ; she has been guilty of 
plunging into a war which she knew would be a bitter 
and a sanguinary one, and she has made no preparation 
for the care of the sick and wounded men — of men who 
pour out their lives like water for the sake of the Pro- 
phet and the Sultan. Armies without a single doctor 
are sent 100 miles from the nearest hospital, and sick 
and wounded men are left to drag their weary limbs 
as best they may to the nearest harbour of refuge ; no 
preparations are made for their transport, no escort 
sent with them to obtain shelter or food at the various 
villages en route ; they are left unprovided with money 
to procure themselves even the commonest necessaries 
of life on the way, and, as Turkish doctors themselves 
have said to me, only the slightly wounded men ever 
reach Erzeroum ; and it is the wish, doubtless, of the 
G-overnment that it should be so, for, as I have before 
asserted, so I repeat, that it has been deliberately stated 



REAL TURKISH ATR0GITW8. 373 

by the principal medical officer of Erzeroum, in the pre- 
sence of three Englishmen, that " the Porte prefers its 
soldiers to die rather than that they should become 
pensioners on the State." The conduct of the Ottoman 
Government goes far to prove there is too much truth 
in Ismail Bey's statement, and until the hospitals in 
the Turkish army are put on the same footing as those 
of other European armies, so long, in my humble 
opinion, should the condition be annexed to the gifts 
of English stores and the services of English doctors, 
that no convalescent man should be permitted to return 
to the ranks, but should be straightway sent to his 
home ; indeed, I do not see why such conditions should 
not be annexed in all future wars as the price of the 
assistance given by all sick and wounded aid societies. 
At the present time they cease to be charities ; in the 
case of Eussia they are auxiliaries to her own excellent 
hospital arrangements ; in the case of Turkey they 
simply fill a void, for it may be said that medical men 
and hospitals do not exist here, and so the charitable 
institutions of England heal the wounds of men in order 
that they may be the more speedily able to destroy 
some more of Grod's creatures. Is this charity ? I 
think not. As Dr. Casson very pertinently remarked 
to me the other day, '' the greatest atrocities to be seen 
in this country are to be daily witnessed in our hos- 
pitals. There you have the most dire outrages that 
Moslems have ever perpetrated, and they are daily and 
hourly committed by the Turkish Grovernment on her 
brave soldiers." If the Porte really meant reform, why 
did it not take measures for the protection of the Chris- 
tians in Armenia and Bulgaria ; why did it not take 
steps to procure proper medical assistance for the 



374 THE CAMPAIGN IN ARMENIA. 

300,000 fighting men, who need, Grod only knows how 
much, every help that man can afford them ? 

The statement that Turkey does not employ the 
Press to support her cause, which I saw in a recent 
issue of the Ti?nes under very high authority, is 
perfectly unfounded. The Porte does employ the Press, 
and very largely, too. I know two European journals 
which are heavily subsidised by the Ottoman Govern- 
ment. I know that divers advantages, some partaking 
of a very solid character, are offered to correspondents 
who advocate the Turkish cause, and who forward tele- 
grams dictated by Turkish authorities. I am making 
no idle accusations now, and I know cases in which 
credits have been opened at various telegraph oflBces 
by the Ottoman Grovernment in favour of their said 
con'espondents. If this is not employing the Press, I 
know not what is ; in fact, as far as my short 
journalistic experience goes, I have been astonished at 
what I have learned since my arrival in Turkey. I 
knew, at least I was told, that every Turkish official 
had his price, and that the longest purse obtained the 
services of the best man. But I was not prepared to 
learn that the razor cut both ways, and that the Turk 
knew full well that the European could be bribed 
too. 

The Turkish fleet in the Black Sea has been very 
busily employed of late in transporting the insurgent 
Abkhasians from Soukoum Kale to Trebizond. Upwards 
of 4,000 have been already landed at that port, where 
they are in a state of the greatest destitution. Removed 
from their homes — where, at any rate, they had land 
to till, crops to cut, and wherewithal to earn a liveli- 
hood — they had been shipped off penniless to a strange 



THE ABKRA8IAN EMIGRANTS. 375 

land, and left stranded in Asia Minor, without money 
to provide themselves even with the barest necessaries 
of life. Many of these men are Christians, and have 
appealed to the American missionary at Trebizond, 
laying their hard case before him, and many hundreds 
have complained to him that they were actually carried 
off against their will, and would gladly even now 
return and face the anger of the Russian Grovernment.* 
M. Biliotti, our energetic vice-consul at that place, with 
the assistance of Mr. Cole, is inquiring into the case, 
which, as far as I have been able to learn, reflects but 
little credit on the Ottoman Government. What will 
become of the poor creatures it is hard to say. There 
is no hope that they will receive a money grant from 
the Porte to enable them to purchase agricultural 
implements, oxen, horses, &c., or that they will be 
assisted to build homesteads. I hear that small grants 
of land will be made to them, but at the best these 
Abkhasians will find that their lines have not been cast 
in pleasant places. 

It is satisfactory to learn that the survivors of the 
Bayazid massacres who fled into Russia to escape the 
fury of the Kurds were treated with the greatest 
hospitality and kindness by the Mahomedan inhabitants 
of Maku and the neighbouring villages, whither they 
fled for protection, arriving, many of them, perfectly 
naked, having been stripped to the skin by the blood- 
thirsty savages, who even now form part of Ismail 

• A lengthened correspondence on this subject took place between 
Prince Reuss and Mr. Layard on the one hand, and the Porte on the 
other. Promises were given by the latter that all Abkhasians who so 
willed it should be sent back to Russia ; and about 4,000 signified their 
wish to return. It is needless to add that the giving the promise, not the 
fulfilment of it, satisfied the scruples of the Porte. 



376 THE CAMPAIGN IN ARMENIA. 

Paslia's army. They were provided with food and 
clothing, and the Eussian general at Erivan sent £500 
in gold to the governor of Maku to be divided among 
them, as the town was gutted and burnt by Sheik 
Jellaladeen's men. Everything of value being destroyed 
and upwards of 460 Christians, men, women, and 
children, murdered in cold blood, under circumstances 
of the most revolting cruelty, it is not to be wondered 
at that the survivors decline to return to Turkish 
protection, and announce their intention of settling 
permanently in Persia or Russia. Some few merchants 
have returned in the hope of recovering money they 
had buried, but in every instance, as far as I can learn, 
they had been forestalled in their search by the Kurds. 
In the district of Van order has been partially restored. 
Two battalions from Mussaul and Djezireh have 
arrived, and the governor, a man of firm and humane 
temperament, has succeeded in a certain measure in 
reassuring the Christians of their safety. The Ameri- 
can missionaries, after months of wandering in disguise 
in fear of their lives, have at last been enabled to 
return to their homes, but are forbidden to pursue 
their labours, for fear of irritating the Kurds. 

Large batches of wounded men have been arriving 
in Erzeroum during the past few days from Kars, as is 
usual here ; the slighter cases pour in fast, and the 
hospitals now are deluged with hand wounds, very 
many of them requiring amputation. Owing to the 
very strong pressure brought to bear on the principal 
medical ofiicer, Ismail Bey, Dr. Featherstonhaugh has 
no difficulty now in procuring the necessary permission 
for these operations. Yesterday he carried out eight 
successfully ; the poor fellows were overwhelmed with 



BB. FEATHEB8T0NHAUGH. 377 

gratitude at the kindness with which they were 
received in the British hospital, and the extreme care 
and attention shown them by our surgeons. ''There 
is no pride about the English," said a wounded man to 
a comrade after Dr. Featherstonhaugh had been busy- 
ing himself in washing a wounded limb, the hurts of 
which were much aggravated by the fact that the 
owner had ignored the principle that cleanliness is 
next to godliness for some months previous to his 
wound. 

The 1,800 wounded men were sent in from Kars 
without any doctor to attend on them. So it is not to 
be wondered at that the mortality en route was some- 
thing frightful. Four Turkish doctors were sent out 
from Erzeroum to meet these poor fellows on the road, 
and afford them all the assistance in their power ; but 
of the sixty-five wounded handed over to the care of 
Dr. Featherstonhaugh, one and all denied that their 
bandages had been removed since the day they had 
been first put on. They said, " The doctors came out to 
be seen, but they did not touch one of us ; they just 
walked about and smoked at Hassan Kale, and never 
even looked at us.'' Of course the number of carts 
was far from suflftcient for the large number of men 
they were supposed to convey, and I am in no way 
exaggerating when I say that hundreds of men, badly 
hit too, walked the whole distance from Sarbatan to 
Erzeroum, 130 miles. No preparations were made for 
them to receive rations at the various villages on the 
road ; the consequence was that the stronger and 
healthier were enabled to forage for themselves, while 
the sick and weakly often and often went without a 
meal. No money even was distributed among these 



378 THE CAMPAIGN IN ARMENIA, 

poor fellows, already upwards of three years in arrears 
of pay, to enable them to purchase a good meal. And 
this is the country, forsooth, that is trying to in- 
augurate reform, and would do so even if not paralysed 
at its earliest efforts by the wicked aggression of Holy 
Eussia. Turkish reform ! When Pashas, Effendis, 
Cadis, and all the blood-sucking officials have been 
vigorously suppressed, when the Turkish peasant, 
Mahomedan or Christian, can freely ventilate his 
wrongs and obtain justice against his superior in the 
social scale, then we may hope for reform in Turkey. 
Has Turkey one whit improved in the last five cen- 
turies ? No. Her diplomatists have learnt to tell 
falsehoods with more freedom and more unblushingly ; 
her cruelties and oppressions are practised more vigor- 
ously, but more secretly ; and she is far more steeped 
(I mean her higher classes) in vice and barbarism than 
she was 500 years ago. The lower classes have not 
improved one whit either. The same depravity and 
ignorance ; the same rude implements that were used 
1,000 years ago are used now; the unmuzzled ox 
treadeth out the corn, guarded by a small boy with a 
stick to see that the dumb beast does not help himself 
to the grain ; the same low, half-underground mud huts 
that satisfied their ancestors satisfy the present Turkish 
peasantry ; the same blind faith in the doctrine of 
Mahomed and absurd belief in the superiority, intel- 
lectual and moral, of the followers of the Prophet over 
all other nations, and the same willing, cheerful en- 
durance under all difficulties, the same free, open hospi- 
tality to strangers, exist now in the humbler classes as 
ten centuries ago. The saving clause in Turkey is, 
indeed, her poor. They are her nobility. I have met 



BEDUOTION OF UNPAID SALARIES, 379 

in my travels in this country few Pashas who could, 
by any means, be made to answer to the term '' gentle- 
man;" but I have 'met many specimens of Nature's 
true nobles under the ragged garb of a private of Eedif s, 
or the still more tattered clothing of a Mahomedan 
villager. 

I have in the course of the past few days received 
visits from two officials high in Government employ in 
this vilayet, and took the opportunity of questioning 
them as to the effect the recent order reducing salaries 
by one-half would have on the employes here. They 
both gave me much the same answer. The order lays 
down that during the war Government officials will only 
receive one-half of their salaries ; the remainder will be 
looked upon as a loan by the Sublime Porte, who will 
give bonds for the sum, which will be redeemable at the 
close of hostilities. Both my friends assured me that 
this order was issued solely for the purpose of standing 
well in the eyes of certain European Governments. 
One informed me that he had seen no pay at all for 
twenty-seven months ; while the other, though forty- 
three months in arrear, had at his urgent entreaties 
received one month's pay in April ; but they said the 
Mushirs and Valis of districts, and Caimakams, or sub- 
Governors, as well as all Treasury officials, take care to 
receive not only their pay regularly every month, but 
to take it in good money, thus making a difference to 
them of eighty per cent., when we consider the present 
value of paper money. One of them — from his position 
he is enabled to speak with certainty on such a theme, 
and from my knowledge of him, and from the fact that 
I have never yet detected him in a falsehood, I believe 
him to be trustworthy — positively assured me that the 



380 TEE CAMPAIGN IN ARMENIA, 

Vali of this district took his money from the treasurer 
every month in gold ; that Mushir Mukhtar Pasha, on 
leaving Erzeroum for Kars in April, took what, according 
to regulations, he was allowed to take — viz., an advance 
of six months' pay — and that this was taken in gold, 
leaving the paltry sum of £1,500 in the Erzeroum 
Treasury wherewith to carry on the expenses of the 
war. " If," said these men, " the pay of all Pashas is 
to be reduced by one-half, a small saving AviU be effected 
by Government; but if they are to be permitted, as 
hitherto, to rob as they please, and only the salaries of 
small officials are to be mulcted, well, the saving will be 
nil ; we are months — nay, years — in arrear, and never 
hope to see our back pay again, so a reduction of our 
salaries by one-half will not affect ns or men in our 
position in the sHghtest degree, and most certainly will 
not affect Government." 

There are one or two errors into which I have fallen 
in my previous letters, which I now wish to correct. 
The first is the statement made shortly after the battle 
of Taghir, to the effect that the Eussian General had 
offered a reward of 2,000 roubles for the capture of any 
English officer. This rumour was current, not only 
throughout the Turkish camp, but also in Erzeroum. 
I, however, treated it as a mere rumour until I saw it 
stated, as I thought in all seriousness, in a semi-official 
letter from one of Sir Arnold Kemball's assistants, an 
officer of a scientific corps, whose connection with a 
recent high official at Constantinople makes his anti- 
Russian proclivities a matter of family pride. I have 
since learnt that this officer made the statement as a 
joke. It was a joke, however, which I maintain I was 
justified in placing some credence in, although I must 



A TURKISH OFFICER IN SERVIAN UNIFORM. 381 

express my regret that I was led into the error of 
accusing the Eussian general, Tergukassoff, who has 
throughout these operations shown himself a gallant 
and humane officer, of such a dastardly act as that of 
offering rewards for the capture of the military attaches 
of a friendly Power. 

The second mistake into which I have fallen has 
caused some annoyance in the Turkish camp, and 
although it is a very trivial one, yet I feel it my 
duty to correct it. In a more recent letter, referring 
to the barbarous custom of disinterring the Eussian 
dead as practised by the Kurds and Bashi-Bazouks, 
and of stripping the Eussian corpses, I stated that an 
aide-de-camp of the Turkish commander-in-chief might 
be seen in the head-quarters camp wearing a Servian 
officer's coat, thus showing that Turkish officers sanc- 
tioned the custom of despoiling the dead. Again I was 
wrong. The officer in question is not an aide-de-camp 
of Mukhtar Pasha. He is merely commanding the per- 
sonal escort of his Excellency, not on his personal staff. 
The fact, however, remains unaltered that an officer 
living in Mukhtar Pasha's camp, the daily companion 
of his aides-de-camp, and one who constantly accom- 
panies the chief himself in his rides, in his walks — one 
holding a position much sought after in our service — 
might be daily seen in the uniform patrol jacket of a 
dead Servian officer. That this custom of despoiling 
dead enemies is sanctioned by the Turkish authorities 
I have on the highest authority, and I know that in 
Servia the Turkish Commander-in-Chief declined to 
interfere with it. 



CHAPTER XX. 

THE TURN OF THE TIDE. 

RuBsian Remforcements — Mukhtar draws in his Men — -The Grand Duke occu- 
pies the late Turkish, advanced Posts — -Mukhtar's Oonfidence^Despondency 
of Turkish Soldiers — Increased Desertions — Russians learn the Value of 
a turning Movement — The Battle of the Aladja Dagh — GaUant Defence of 
the Little Yagni — Loss of the Olya Tepe — Extraordinary Conduct of Men 
sent to support the Position — Russians occupy the Nalband Tepe — Panic on 
the Aladja Dagh — ^Flight to Kars — Scene in the Fortress — Hassan Bey's 
Exertions — Sanitary State of Kars — Mehmed Pasha evacuates the Little 
Yagni — Mukhtar's Plans — He falls back on the Araxes — Ismail Pasha also 
retires — Russian Trophies — Retreat through the Kose Dagh — Evacuation 
of Kuipri Kui — Energy of Faizi Pasha — Ismail surprised at Hassan Kale — 
Capture of Captain Creagh— Treatment accorded to him, and to Dr. Casson 
— Turks fall hack on the Devi-hoynn — ^Reinforcements from Constantinople 
and Batoum. 

On the Gtli and 7th of October, heavy columns of 
reinforcements arrived at Karajal, and the Turkish 
Commander-in-Chief learned from spies that his oppo- 
nents had been strengthened by two complete divisions. 
It was impossible now to conceal from himself the fact 
which he had hitherto strenuously denied, that the 
Russians were about to commence an offensive move- 
ment on a very grand scale. It would have been wise 
if Mukhtar, even at this late hour, had fallen back on 
the Soghanly range, leaving in Kars a strong garrison ; 
but he still possessed the firm belief in the qualities of 
his own soldiers and of his own strategic powers, and 
felt certain that he would be able even now to hold his 
own on the slopes of the Aladja Dagh. He however felt 



MUKHTAB CONTRACTS HIS POSITION. 883 

that his position was too extended, and that a brigade 
on the Kizil Tepe still was exposed to capture. Conse- 
quently, on the morning of the 8th, he abandoned all 
his advanced positions, withdrew from the plains of 
Sarbatan, and concentrated his forces in the position 
occupied in the early days of August. On the 9th the 
Grrand Duke, taking advantage of the retrograde move- 
ment on the part of the Turkish Commander-in-Chief, 
occupied Kizil Tepe, Sarbatan, Hadji- veli, and the eastern 
slopes of the Great Yagni, As he thus was exposed to 
the artillery fire from the whole of the Turkish guns, 
he pushed forward his own' artillery accompanied by 
strong columns of infantry, and vigorously replied to 
the Turkish fire, never venturing, however, to assault. 
At dusk the Eussians, who had pressed forward to the 
left bank of the Mazra stream, now retired to the far 
side, and bivouacked for the night. On the 10th, the 
Grrand Duke bombarded the Turkish camp from dawn 
to sunset, threatening it at the same time with the 
usual dense masses of infantry. The two following 
days were passed in comparative quietude. On the 
12th, the ball opened by the Eussians repeating the 
manoeuvre of the preceding week, pouring a most 
destructive fire into the Turkish shelter trenches, which 
covered nearly their whole front, and harassing the 
Osmanli by repeatedly threatening an infantry assault. 

Mukhtar, although personally unacquainted with the 
ground, had always persistently maintained that it was 
impossible for an army to move round the rear of the 
Aladja Dagh, and feeling convinced that only small 
bodies of troops could intervene between him and his 
right wing at Igdyr, felt safe with the occupation of 
Natschevan; consequently he thought only of his front. 



384 THU CAMPAIGN' IK ARMENIA. 

His flanks and his rear were left comparatively un- 
defended, and absolutely unreconnoitred. In spite of 
Mukhtar Pasha's confidence in the security of his 
position, there was a pretty general feeling throughout 
the Turkish camp that a turning movement was not 
only possible, but was really on the tapis. A settled 
conviction of impending danger seems to have fastened 
itself on the minds of his men. Since the advance 
from Zewin, they had fought with the courage and 
boldness of conquerors, with the enthusiasm of men 
fired by religious exhortations. Now the weight of im- 
pending danger fastened on them, and they became most 
despondent. On the night of the 10th October up- 
wards of 700 deserted. On the morning of the 14th 
it became known that a Russian division had crossed 
the Arpa Tchai, and had made its appearance in the 
vicinity of Bazardjik, and Hadji Easchid Pasha was 
moved off to oppose this body with twelve battahons of 
infantry, eighteen guns, and some cavalry. His first 
attack was successful, and he succeeded in driving 
Lazaroff's division back on to a small range of hiUs 
near Orlok. For a time it seemed as if the impetuosity 
of the Turkish infantry would carry the day, for there 
is no doubt Lazaroff's men were thrown into great 
disorder by the gallantry of the onslaught. Hearing 
the sound of firing to the south of the Aladja Dagh, the 
Grand Duke learned that his turning movement had 
proved so far successful as to necessitate the march of a 
Turkish division from the main camp on the Aladja 
Dagh, towards Orlok. Leaving this attack to develop 
itself, on the morning of the 15th, he advanced with 
his entire forces to crush the Ottoman army. His right 
column, which was the strongest, moved via Kapack on 



THE STRUGGLE ON THE LITTLE YAGNL 385 

the Little Yagni hill, the troops bivouacking on the 
Great Yagni, advanced on Vezinkui ; those at Hadji- 
Veli were directed on the Olya Tepe, whilst the division 
at Sarbatan and on the Kizil Tepe were ordered to 
assault the camp on the Aladja Dagh. 

All day long Captain Mehmed Pasha defended his 
position on the Little Yagni against the repeated 
assaults of the enemy. He had with him but ten bat- 
talions, six field and four siege guns, whilst his assailant 
numbered thirty-six battalions and fifty-six guns. The 
Russians with dogged pertinacity endeavoured to gain 
the crest of the hill ; the Turks, inspired by the valour 
of their commander, as often repulsed them. On one 
occasion, shortly before noon, a very powerful assaulting 
column made a most determined attempt to reach the 
summit, and for a few moments the place seemed lost. 
As the Russians poured in over the northern face of the 
entrenchments the Turks fell back in confusion to the 
southern slopes of the hill; but Mehmed Pasha, with 
his usual dauntless courage, placed himself at the head 
of the Ohf battalion of Mustahfiz, and drove the enemy 
back at the point of the bayonet, following them up 
nearly to the foot of the hill. 

The fight on the Olya Tepe for a time was conducted 
with equal gallantry ; four battalions holding it behaved 
in a marked manner. Their losses, however, were most 
severe, for the Russian artillery, which now fired mostly 
timed fuses, burst their shells on the summit of the 
conical hill with deadly accuracy. Mukhtar, forseeing 
that the loss of this hill meant the loss of the day, made 
a determined attempt to retain it. He despatched five 
battalions to its assistance, retiring himself to the Sevri 
Tepe for the purpose of taking the Russian columns in 
z 



386 THE CAMPAIGN IN ARMENIA. 

flank. The leading half -battalion of the brigade, des- 
tined for the relief of the Olya Tepe, reached the crest 
of the hill in safety, but the remainder for some nn- 
accountable cause were seized with a sudden panic; 
when they were about half-way up, there was no 
attempt at a disorderly stampede, no breaking the ranks 
and rushing headlong on their comrades below, but 
mer^y reeling from the effects of the sudden rain of 
sliot that burst on them, as they cleared the summit 
of the Bolanik ravine they turned and retired slowly 
towards the Aladja Dagh. This strange conduct seems 
also to have animated the officers. No one seemed 
capable of taking command, of deploying the men, or 
of returning a shot to the Russian infantry who were 
now pressing after them. They never rallied, never 
made another attempt to reinforce their hardly- stricken, 
bravely-fighting comrades on the crest, who, seeing the 
help once so near gradually passing away, lost heart; and 
as the Russians, emboldened by the failure of the attempt 
to reinforce the Olya Tepe, pushed up its slopes with re- 
doubled vigour, the Moslems turned and fled. Pushing a 
few companies up the sides to occupy the hill, the Russian 
commander continued the pursuit of the five battalions 
who had recoiled from his fire, and pressing up the 
Bolanik ravine, by noon had completely cut in between 
the troops on the Aladja Dagh and those at Vezinkui. 
Promptly taking advantage of the ground, field guns 
were dragged up the slopes of the Nalband Tepe, and a 
heavy fire poured on a division which Mukhtar had 
hastily collected and placed on the Sevri Tepe. 

At the sight of the Russian division strongly estab- 
lished in their midst, a general panic seems to have 
seized the troops on the Aladja Dagh, who, regardless 







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PANIC AND FLIGHT, 387 

of the entreaties and threats of their officers, broke their 
ranks and moved rapidly in dense disorganised crowds 
in the direction of Kars. Makhtar vainly endeavoured 
to rally the fugitives, whose conduct was already begin- 
ning to tell amongst his own men, who were falling 
back rapidly ; indeed, the panic now appears to have 
set in generally amongst the men, as it almost inva- 
riably does with Turkish troops when once the flank is 
turned, and a frightful scene ensued. The sole aim and 
object of one and all seemed to be to reach the friendly 
shelter of the fortresses as soon as possible ; horse 
and foot, officers and men, guns, baggage, wagons, all 
dashed forward in one confused mass. Every man for 
himself was the cry, and no one hesitated to use what- 
ever arms he had in order to open a path for himself in 
the living mass before him. 

Mukhtar Pasha showed, as he has invariably shown 
throughout the campaign, the greatest gallantry, and 
bravely endeavoured to rally his men. Some few, be- 
lieving in their chief, still clung to him, and with these 
he was able to make a stand on a hill near Vezinkui. 
By this means he was enabled to cover the disgraceful 
flight of the troops. Hussain Hami Pasha, who was 
commanding at Kars, at once moved out a brigade, 
who, with fixed bayonets, barred the way. Thus a 
certain amount of order was restored among the flying 
masses before they entered the city, where the scene 
defied description. Women, having thrown ofl* their 
veils, thronged the parapets, straining with eager eyes 
to watch for the advent of those loved ones never to 
return. The Christian merchant, ever mindful of his 
worldly goods, was hurriedly gathering his property 
together, and removing it to a place of safety. The 
z 2 



388 THE CAMPAIGN IN ARMENIA. 

pressed commissariat bullock cart-drivers, heedless 
of the curses of the Circassians and Kurds, who 
vainly endeavoured to force their horses through the 
endless strings of vehicles, were goading on their 
bullocks in hopes to pass through the fortress and reach 
the peaceful quiet of their own homes before the stern 
necessity of war should again compel them to serve a 
thankless and rapacious government, whilst the Governor, 
aided by the gallant commandant of artillery, was 
vainly endeavouring to restore some sort of order amongst 
the flying masses, who now thronged the entrenchments 
to the south of the town. In vain did Hassan Bey try 
to rally these men ; in vain did he point to the smoke 
still wreathing up from the crest of the Little Yagni 
where Mehmed Pasha still barred the march of the 
Grand Duke's army. Prayers, threats, exhortations 
were of no avail, and the brave gunner soon found him- 
self compelled to visit his batteries, and prepare for the 
renewal of the siege which he foresaw was now about to 
burst upon him. As far as his own department was 
concerned he had no fear ; the batteries all had been 
thoroughly repaired; extra traverses had been erected 
in the works on the eastern and western hills; extra 
bombproof accommodation had been provided for the 
garrison of the forts ; the number of armed citizens had 
been largely increased; he had received reinforcements 
of trained artillery, and he had more than 800 rounds 
per gun in the magazine ; but the sanitary condition of 
the place was worse than ever. Typhoid was raging 
amongst the sick and wounded, and though supplies of 
food were abundant, there was no firewood, nor was 
there fodder for the cavalry or artillery horses. 

Mehmed Pasha was enabled to retain possession of 



DESPJEBATE SITUATION OF THE TURKS. 3S9 

the Little Yagni Hill; but at niglitfall, perceiving that 
the whole of the Turkish positions except his own were 
in the hands of the enemy, and that there was no hope 
of receiving further support, made preparations for eva- 
cuating it, dismantling the guns, and carrying off their 
breech pieces. At midnight he retired unperceived and 
unmolested into Kars, where he found Mukhtar Pasha 
and Hami Pasha (who had been re-appointed com- 
mandant on the 5th October), together with all the 
senior officers, in the Tahmasp Battery, making ar- 
rangements for the future of the campaign, which 
seemed dark enough. The Commander-in-Chief, on 
receiving the reports of staff officers, found that not 
more than 13,000 men fit to bear arms could be col- 
lected, and he was well aware that, unless he could 
throw a force between Kars and Erzeroum, there was 
not a man to bar the Eussian advance on that city ; be 
determined, therefore, to leave Hussain Hami Pasha with 
10,000 men to hold the place, while he himself, with 
the remaining 3,000, would fall back on the Soghanly. 
He at once telegraphed to Ismail Pasha, who was in 
Eussian territory, near Igdyr, ordering him to retire 
immediately on Kuipri Kui. This retrogade move- 
ment caused much surprise in the camp of the Kurdish 
chief, for on the 16th instant, two days before he 
received Mukhtar Pasha's telegram, Tergukassoff had 
fired a salute of 121 guns, on learning the news of the 
Grand Duke's victory. Ismail Hakki, with that facility 
for invention which has characterised him throughout 
the campaign, published an order to his men that 
Tergukassoff had received intelligence of an insur- 
rection in Eussia, the Panslavonic conspirators having 
dethroned Alexander, and proclaimed the Czarewitch in 



390 THE CAMPAIGN IN ARMENIA. 

his stead. On the 17th, however, Ismail Pasha learned 
the true cause of this rejoicing, and discovered that 
Mukhtar had been routed and compelled to abandon his 
advanced position. At daybreak on the 19th, the 
Kurdish chief, having destroyed all his spare ammunition 
and commissariat stores by fire, detached six battalions 
and a battery to Bayazid, while he himself with 
the remaining twenty-two battalions and thirty-three 
guns fell back on the Araxes. At mid-day on the 16th, 
Mukhtar, being unable to learn any tidings of the 
division under Easchid Pasha, came to the unwelcome 
conclusion that the whole of the troops on the Aladja 
Dagh had fallen into the hands of the enemy. In 
this he was not far wrong, as it transpired that, with 
the exception of thirteen battalions, who were enabled 
to cut their way towards Khagisman, and who in 
driblets afterwards rejoined the force, the whole of the 
infantry, cavalry, artillery, commissariat, and hospital 
equipments, with large trains of baggage animals, had 
fallen into the hands of the victors. 

Nine thousand men, 56 guns, upwards of 3,000 pack 
animals, with seven pashas were prisoners in the Russian 
camp. Among these were Hadji Easchid Pasha, the 
commander of the division ; Hassan Kiazim Pasha, chief 
of the staff, together with his five aides-de-camp ; Shefket 
and Mustafa Pashas, brigade commanders ; and Omar 
Pasha, the German renegade in command of the cavahy 
division. Thus, taking into consideration the serious 
losses his army had sustained, and remembering that he 
must retain sufiicient men to form the nucleus of a 
force destined to defend Erzeroum, Mukhtar was enabled 
to leave with Hami Pasha, in Kars, the remnants only 
of thirty battalions, numbering barely 10,000 men. The 



GHAZI MUKBTAW8 BE TREAT. 391 

hospitals, as I said before, were crowded with sick, and 
it is computed that there were no less than between six 
and eight thousand men unfit for duty in the fortress. 
At mid-day on the 16th, Mukhtar fell back on the village 
of Teni Skui, reaching it on the 1 8th. He had with him 
then ten battalions, numbering about 3,000 bayonets, 
and ten mountain guns. The Grand Duke having made 
arrangements for the despatch of the prisoners to Groomri, 
detached General Heimann with two divisions to follow 
up Mukhtar Pasha. Lazaroff was directed to move on 
Magardjik, and thus cut off the communications between 
Erzeroum and Kars. On the 27th, owing to the rapid 
pursuit of Heimann, Mukhtar was forced to fall back 
on Kuipri Kui, where he effected a junction with Ismail 
Pasha, who had succeeded in traversing the Alishgird 
plains, avoiding the pursuit of Tergukassoff's strong 
cavalry force. In passing through the defiles of the 
Kose Dagh range Ismail Pasha divided his force into 
two columns, in order the quicker to pass this obstacle. 
The left column marching by Moola Suliman and 
Taikhojeh, was attacked on the 26th by a brigade of 
Cossacks, but owing to the steadiness of the infantry- 
commander in charge of the rear guard the Russians 
were beaten off. Learning from Ismail Pasha that 
Tergukassoff was also in hot pursuit, Ahmed Mukhtar 
determined to abandon Kuipri Kui and fall back on the 
Devi-boyun. In this he was wise, for the field-works 
erected to cover the bridge were completely commanded 
on the northern and eastern faces, and so were not 
calculated to enable the Turkish commander to make a 
stand behind them. Another reason, doubtless, for this 
decision was that his men, as also Ismail Hakki's troops, 
were much demoralised, and it was a matter of question 



392 THE CAMPAIGN IK ARMENIA, 

whether they would face the Eussians in the plain ; so 
that Mukhtar wished to traverse the five-and-twenty 
miles constituting the Passin Plain unexposed to the 
attacks of the large Eussian cavalry force in his rear. 

Leaving Ismail in command of the combined divi- 
sions, numbering scarcely 13,000 bayonets, Mukhtar 
pushed on towards Erzeroum, directing his lieutenant 
to retire at once on Hassan Kale. This movement was 
carried out none too quickly, for at 4 p.m. on the 28th, 
just three hours after the Turks evacuated the place, the 
Eussian advanced guard occupied Kuipri Kui, finding 
large quantities of grain which the Osmanli had 
forgotten to destroy. ^ 

Mukhtar, on reaching the Devi-boyun ridge, defend- 
ing the south-eastern entrance to the capital, found that 
Faizi Pasha had not been idle. Immediately on receipt 
of the intelligence of Mukhtar's reverse and disaster, 
which the gallant old Hungarian had long predicted, 
he set to work to place Erzeroum in as complete a state 
of defence as was possible with the scanty means at his 
command. He had hurriedly collected all the able- 
bodied men in the citj^ convalescents as well as civilians, 
armed them, and sent them up to the batteries on the 
Devi Dagh range ; but even with this precaution he was 
not enabled to place more than 3,000 men on that 
position. He, however, had contrived to send up forty 
guns, the majority of them Krupp's breech-loading 
siege guns ; the entrenchments had been much im- 
proved, redoubts had been thrown up on the advanced 
spurs, and every inch of the road from the Nabi Tchai 
was swept by a cross fire from the heights above. Ismail 
Pasha, although well aware that he was being pui^sued 
by three divisions of Eussian infantry and by vastly 



. .> THE GEEAGH INCIDENT. 393 

superior forces of cavalry, with true Oriental negligence, 
bivouacked his men in the plain to the south of Hassan 
Kale, without throwing out one single picket. Many- 
men, more particularly the superior officers, entered the 
village, and slept in the numerous khans inside the 
old battlemented walls. Heimann's advanced guard 
discovered and reported this fact; the general in com- 
mand immediately determined to surprise the Turkish 
n. bivouac that night. Moving a force by Ogomi to the 
north of the place, so as to take the sleeping Turks in 
flank, he himself about midnight advanced straight on 
the town. Another panic, another flight, was the 
inevitable result. Disturbed in their sleep by the sound 
of firing in their immediate vicinity, the Turks sprang 
to their feet. All thoughts of defence were at an end ; 
men abandoned their arms, gunners abandoned their 
guns, commissariat drivers their carts, and all dashed in 
headlong confusion along the road to Khooroodjook, 
Many hundreds were cut down by the Cossacks, who 
dashed in upon the unarmed fugitives, hundreds more 
were taken prisoners in the town of Hassan Kale, amongst 
them being Captain Creagh, late of the 1st Eoyals, who, 
after being robbed of everything he possessed by the 
Cossacks, was taken a prisoner to General Heimann. 
That officer, with much courtesy, expressed his regret 
at the somewhat rough treatment the gallant captain 
had received, which, however, under the circumstances, 
was perfectly unavoidable, and at once gave him a 
permit to return to the Turkish camp at Erzeroum. 
I think this little incident deserves to be recorded. I 
doubt whether any British general would have treated 
a newspaper correspondent in the same manner. And 
surely when we hear of the treatment to which Doctors 



394 THE CAMPAIGN IN ARMENIA. 

Casson and Buckby were subjected in Melikoff's camp, 
Heimann's conduct is worthy of all praise. These 
two doctors had in August proceeded from Erzeroum 
to the head-quarter camp for the purpose of organising 
hospital and ambulance corps at the front. Whilst 
there, Dr. Buckby had been stricken down by typhoid 
fever, and was consequently, owing to prostration, 
unable to accompany Mukhtar Pasha in his retreat 
from Kars on the 17th October. When he was 
sufficiently recovered to bear the fatigues of the journey, 
he and his comrade determined to endeavour to reach 
Erzeroum; but shortly after commencing their march 
they were met by Cossack patrols, and led into the 
Eussian camp. Their request to be permitted to pass 
on to the Turkish head-quarters was refused; and, in 
a military point of view, Melikoff, I humbly submit, 
was justified in so acting: but the treatment they 
received from Eussian subordinate officials can only 
be stigmatised as brutal. Yet it was scarcely on a 
par with that meted out to Dr. Armand Leslie and 
his companions in Europe. 

The fugitives from Hassan Kale were checked in 
their flight by some of the troops at Khooroodjook, 
who, on the noise of the firing, promptly turned out, 
and advanced in its direction. Ismail Pasha was 
thus enabled on the 29th to effect a junction with 
Mukhtar Pasha on the crest of the Devi-boyun. 

Urgent telegrams had been sent to Constantinople 
for all available help, and on reaching Erzeroum, 
Mukhtar Pasha received the welcome intelligence 
that Dervish Pasha had been enabled to Send him five 
battalions from Batoum, which were already on the 
march from Trebizond, and that twelve more battalions, 



BUMOBALISATJON OF MUKHTAE'S TROOPS. 395 

with two batteries, were en route from Constantinople. 
Prior to the arrival of these men, Mukhtar Pasha was 
enabled to place in position on the Devi-boyun ridge 
about 16,000 men and sixty guns, and with these he 
seemed confident that he should be able to repel all 
attacks that Heimann might make on him. He was under 
the impression that the Russian forces opposed to him 
amounted to only twenty-two battalions, fifty-six guns, 
and seven regiments of cavalry, whereas, with the 
arrival of Tergukassoff's troops, the Eussians had no 
less than forty-eight battalions, ninety-six guns, and 
twelve regiments of cavalry on the eastern slopes of 
the Devi Dagh. As may be imagined, the morale of 
Mukhtar 's troops had been much affected by the 
recent defeat and flight. Mukhtar showed the greatest 
energy and gallantry in endeavouring to repair the 
irreparable mistake he committed in pushing so far 
forward from Kars, and mixing freely with his men 
endeavoured to rally their spirits. In this he was aided 
by the cheery bearing of his two foreign generals, 
Faizi and Mehmed Pashas, 



CHAPTEE XXI. 

OPERATIONS ROUND ERZEROUM. 

Turks strengthen botli Erzeroum and tlie Devi-boynn — Heimann attacks 
Mukhtar — Great Gallantry of Mehmed Pasha — Faizi holds the Turkish 
Right — Heimann tries a Ruse — Faizi triss to rally the Osmanli — Flight to 
Erzeroum — Turkish Losses — Mukhtar Pasha encourages his Men — His 
Refusal to surrender — Russians invest Erzeroum — They construct a 
Redoubt on the Tope Dagh — Relative Defensive Value of Erzeroum and 
Kars — Heimann' s ill-judged Attempt to Assault the place — Gallantry of 
Tarnaieff — Capture of the Medjidieh Lunette — Mehmed Bey retakes it — 
Death of Tamaiefi' — Failure of the Attack on the Kremedli Fort — Coolness 
of the English — Mr. Zohrab — Dr. Featherstonhaugh — Reginald and Percy 
Zohrab — Conduct of Turks to "Wounded — The Gentle Ladies of Erzeroum — 
Mutilation of Russian Dead. 

The first three days of November were spent by the 
Turks in strengthening the works, both at Erzeroum 
and the Devi-boyun. The recent heavy falls of snow 
made advance from Olti a matter of such difficulty, 
that Mukhtar Pasha considered it impossible for the 
Ardahan column to turn his left flank. He, however, 
posted a small detachment in the Grhiurji Boghaz, and 
on the suggestion of Faizi Pasha, the Euphrates was 
dammed up to the north of Erzeroum, so as to convert 
its valley into one large morass. On the morning of 
the 4th of November, Heimann advanced from Khoo- 
roodjook with the intention of forcing Mukhtar out of 
his strong position. 

Profiting by the lesson taught him at Zewin on the 
25th of June, and by the repulse of the many frontal 



HEIMANN'8 ATTACKS. 397 

attacks he had so gallantly led during this campaign, 
Heimann at last appeared convinced that to gain a posi- 
tion defended by breechloaders and spades, he must either 
attempt a strong flanking movement, or draw the Turks 
out of their entrenchments by stratagem. It is more 
than probable that this was suggested to him by Tergu- 
kassofP, who throughout the campaign had shown him- 
self a thorough master of the art of tactics ; indeed, few 
living generals could handle troops better than this 
general has done. Heimann determined on this occa- 
sion to try both a turning movement and a ruse, so 
during the night of the 3rd of November he sent off a 
strong column along the mountain road towards Partak, 
and another column towards Nabi Kui. These were 
directed to conceal themselves in the numerous ravines 
on either flank of the road leading up to the Turkish 
position. 

Mukhtar's troops were divided into three divisions. 
The right, under the command of Faizi Pasha, held the 
high ground above the village of Topalack. It had 
been strongly entrenched, and on it two or more re- 
doubts had been placed. The centre was under the com- 
mand of Mukhtar Pasha himself, whilst the left column, 
under Captain Mehmed Pasha, occupied a flat-topped 
conical hill, which enfiladed the whole Turkish front, 
and commanded all the ground in its vicinity. This 
was the key of the position, and Heimann sent forward 
a strong body of troops to endeavour to seize it. The 
gallant Prussian succeeded in repelling all these attacks ; 
but towards mid-day, owing to very severe losses, he was 
obliged to apply to the Commander-in-Chief for assist- 
ance. Mukhtar Pasha, appreciating the danger, de- 
tached three battalions and two batteries to reinforce 



398 THE CAMPAIGN IN ARMENIA. 

liis left. Two of these battalions Mehmed placed on 
the crest of the hill, and threw the guns with the other 
battery slightly forward on some rising ground to his 
left, thus completely raking the Eussian attacking 
columns. These movements seem to have been so far 
successful that all idea of carrying Mehmed Pasha's 
position was abandoned by the Russian general, and 
their columns withdrew out of range. 

Success seemed certain for the Turks, and more so 
when, at about 2 p.m., a strong cavalry division was 
seen advancing up the Persian road, straight on their 
entrenchments. Mukhtar at once sent an infantry 
column, supported by two horse artillery batteries, 
down the road to drive these adventurous horsemen 
back. With loud cheers the Turks leapt out of their 
entrenchments, and dashed down the hill, halting now 
and then to pour volleys at long ranges into the Eussian 
cavalry. Some of these were already dismounted, and 
plied the Turkish infantry as they advanced with a 
sharp fusilade. This only drew them further into the 
trap, for the Cossacks now began to retire, and the 
Turks pressed on in all haste. Soon they reached the 
Nabi Tchai, when, suddenly, from either flank sprang up 
thousands of footmen, who, pouring volley after volley 
into the astonished Tm^ks, dashed in at them with the 
bayonet. Mukhtar now saw his mistake. His advanced 
brigades turned, and in much confusion endeavoured to 
regain the safety of their entrenchments ; but the 
Eussians were already between them and the works. 
Hundreds of gallant Osmanli were shot down in brave 
but ineffectual attempts to hew their way through the 
dense masses of Eussian infantry, whilst hundreds more 
sullenly threw down their arms and gave themselves up 



THE FLIGHT TO EEZEROUM, 399 

as prisoners. Mukhtar could not but see that the ambus- 
cade must prove fatal ; however, with that heroism which 
he has shown throughout the campaign, he at once placed 
himself at the head of two battalions, and endeavoured to 
stem the torrent of advancing Russians. It was too late, 
however ; the contagion had spread, and the majority of 
the troops in the centre, regardless of their commander's 
personal example, of his entreaties, his orders, regardless 
of the threats of their own officers, turned and fled towards 
Erzeroum. In vain did Faizi Pasha endeavour to rally 
these men ; it was in vain he pointed out that if they 
would only cling to the hill on the right above Topalack 
they would be enabled to enfilade the Russian advance, 
and at any rate check their pursuit. It was of no use. 
As long as the sun shines brightly the Turk will fight 
to the death, but he is a bad player at a losing game. 

The scene on the road leading down to Erzeroum 
defied all description. Large convoys of commissariat 
cattle blocked the road, and through these Circassian 
and Kurdish horsemen endeavoured to cleave a way, 
while the infantry, rushing over the low hills on either 
flank, sought the safety of the town- Mehmed Pasha 
and Paizi Pasha, the two European officers commanding 
the flanks, behaved with the greatest gallantry. The 
steady front showed by their men did, in fact, check the 
rapid advance of the whole of the Russian force, and thus 
delayed the capture of Erzeroum. Had the panic spread 
to their men, there is no doubt that Heimann could 
have passed over the Devi-boyun, reached and entered the 
capital of Armenia that night. The Governor, hearing 
of the defeat, closed the gates of the city in order to 
prevent the fugitives rushing in, and as he feared pillag- 
ing the town ; but at about midnight, the excitement 



400 THE CAMPAIGN IN ABMENIA. 

having to a certain extent calmed down, strong guards 
were placed at the gates and the men allowed to file 
slowly in. All the barracks in the place were filled 
with sick and wounded men, so that there was no accom- 
modation for the fugitives, whilst to add to their other 
horrors a heavy sleet commenced at about 11 p.m. 
The streets were crowded with famished, panic-stricken 
soldiers, who, wearied with the hardships they had 
recently undergone, sank exhausted into the mud and 
endeavoured to seek comfort in sleep. Where Mukhtar 
Pasha went that night no one knows. Shortly after 
midnight, Paizi and Mehmed Pasha reached the city ; 
the former drew off his guns, and managed to escape 
unperceived by the enemy. Mehmed Pasha, however, 
was not so fortunate ; he was followed up in his retreat 
by a Russian brigade, and had to contest every inch of 
the way from the Devi-boyun to the Pasha Punar, 
some three miles from the walls. The following morning 
the Russians could be distinctly distinguished on the crest 
of the Devi Dagh mountains, busily engaged in throwing 
up redoubts, and preparing for the bombardment of the 
city. It is very difficult to estimate what the Turkish 
losses were, but it may be safely assumed that 3,000 
prisoners and 42 guns were left in the hands of the 
enemy, while between 2,500 and 3,000 men were either 
killed or wounded.^' 

This was a severe blow to Mukhtar Pasha, quench- 
ing, as it did, the last hope of being able to undertake 
the offensive during the campaign. He, however, 
busied himself to raise the fallen spirits of his men. 
He daily visited the fortifications, addressing some few 
words of spirited encouragement to his. soldiers. He 

* Mukhtar Pasha acknowledged to 1,000 men killed. 



8UBBENDER OF EBZEBOUM DEMANDED. 401 

assembled a council of war in the palace, to which he 
invited the leading Mahomedans and Christian in- 
habitants, and there explained to them the real state of 
the case. Fired by the enthusiasm of their chief, and 
prompted by the hope that large reinforcements would 
speedily arrive, these announced their determination of 
aiding him with all their ability in the defence of the 
city. On the 6th inst. 2b parlemeniaire arrived from the 
Eussian general, and demanded a surrender of the place. 
To this Mukhtar returned an answer that Erzeroum 
belonged to the Sultan and not to him, and that until 
he received instructions from his royal master he was 
unable to return a reply. He at once despatched a 
telegram to Constantinople informing the Porte of the 
very warlike feeling amongst the inhabitants, and his 
own determination to lay down his life rather than 
resign his charge. 

On the following day he received an answer direct- 
ing him to defend the place to the last man and the 
last cartridge. A note to this effect was despatched to 
General Heimann, who informed Mukhtar Pasha that 
he would give him three days' grace, and if at the ex- 
piration of that time he did not surrender, he should 
commence the bombardment. 

On the 7th inst. the Russians busied themselves in 
throwing up a redoubt on the hills to the eastern face of 
the tovm. Prom what we learn, this must have been a 
large work some 200 yards in length, with a parapet ten 
feet in height, and a ditch in front. It was situated 
about 2,500 yards from the Tope Dagh, and completely 
dominated the city. All day and all night men were 
employed in its construction. Mukhtar's forces were too 
weak for him to attempt to prevent the erection of these 

A A 



402 THF CAMPAIGN IN AEMUNIA 

siege works. He could do nothing but collect supplies 
and make all arrangements for withstanding the assault, 
which he knew would not be long delayed. Erzeroum 
is perhaps better adapted for this purpose than Ears : 
the enceinte is of strong profile, and cannot be carried 
until it has been breached. The perimeter is about three 
miles, whereas that of Kars is almost ten, and the en- 
trenchments of Kars, as we have already seen, owing to 
their weak profile, can easily be carried by assault. On 
the walls of Erzeroum there are mounted upwards of 1 50 
Kjupp siege guns, many of them being eighteen centi- 
meters in calibre. The garrison, including armed in- 
habitants, of whom there are several thousands, cannot 
be less than 20,000. This gives four men per yard 
for the defence of the walls, which would render an 
assault an extremely hazardous undertaking. 

On the morning of the 9th November, Greneral 
Heimann made an ill-judged attempt to carry the out- 
works by storm. Columns were directed upon the Azizi 
position on the south-east, on Ejremedli Fort, to the 
south-west ; but owing to the darkness of the night, or 
the treachery of the spies, the attacks were not deUvered 
simultaneously, and so resulted in failure. 

It appears that during the evening of the 8th 
November there was a council of war in General Hei- 
mann's tent, on the crest of the Devi Dagh range, 
to consider and discuss the best means of capturing 
Erzeroum. All saw that a most favourable opportunity 
had been lost on the 4th November, when in all pro- 
bability if Mukhtar had been promptly followed up, 
the place would have surrendered without a struggle. 
However, several causes combined to make this move- 
ment particularly hazardous at that moment. In the 



COLONEL TABNAIMFF. 403 

first place, a severe snow-storm came on as the sun went 
down, which much impeded the advance ; in the next, 
the feat o£ crossing a mountain-range 8,000 feet above 
sea-level, by a single road, with an army of 50,000 men 
and 120 guns, is not one lightly to be undertaken ; and 
lastly, the Eussians were thoroughly worn out after their 
late long and rapid marches. So Heimann judged it 
inexpedient to risk an assault on the 5th November. 
At this meeting in the Eussian commander's tent, 
a staff officer named Tarnaieff, a man of Armenito 
extraction, who had distinguished himself on more 
than one occasion during the campaign, and who 
was personally acquainted with the city of Erzeroxmi,* 
volunteered to undertake the capture of the outlying 
Azizi works, if he were entrusted with the command 
of three battalions, and were supported by a complete 
brigade. His views at first were scouted as ridiculous^ 
but so earnest was the young lieutenant-colonel, and so 
fired by enthusiasm, that at last he succeeded in im- 
pressing his opinion on the minds of the senior officers. 
Heimann himself, a bold, daring leader, had readily 
fallen in with them, but the more cautious divisional 
generals, mindful of recent disasters against fieldworks 
defended by the breech-loader, dissuaded him for some 
time from countenancing Tarnaieff's proposal. In the 
end, however, the young Armenian carried his point, 
and arrangements were made, not only for carrying out 

* Tarnaieff was for some years employed in the Russian Consulate at 
Erzeromn, nominally as a dragoman. The fact that carefully prepared 
plans of all the works were found on his body, proves the real nature of 
his employment, and that the capture of Erzeroum had for many years 
been determined on. The act of employing staff officers as dragomans in 
the consulates of fortified towns, is a novel feature in diplomacy, one that 
redounds more to the far-sightedness of the Russian Government than to 
its honour. 

AA 2 



404 THE CAMPAIGN IN ABMENIA. 

the attack on the Azizi outworks, which command the 
whole eastern system of fortifications, and virtually 
constitute the key of the position, but also for support- 
ing it by a simultaneous attack on the south-western 
face near the Kremedli redoubt. 

At midnight the Eussian columns paraded — the 
right, consisting of ten battalions, near the Loussa- 
voritch Monastery, destined for the attack on the Azizi, 
whilst the left column of sixteen battalions assembled 
on the Yerli Dagh, to the south of the town. Tarnaieff 
with three battalions led the right column of attack, 
being supported by seven more battalions under a 
general of brigade. These were left some two miles 
in rear, and covered by the darkness. The brave young 
colonel moved silently onward, accompanied by one field 
battery, until he arrived within about three-quarters of 
a mile of the fort. Here he deployed his men, and 
dropping two battalions, with instructions to push on 
directly they heard the firing commence, he crept 
noiselessly on. His men were provided with scaling- 
ladders, and he determined to throw the ladder party 
on the salient angle of the Medjidieh lunette, whilst 
he with the remainder of the battalion entered the work 
through the open gorge. 

From Turkish sources we learn that before break 
of day a sentry in the Medjidieh lunette, an outwork of 
the Azizi fort, hearing what he took to be the approach 
of a large column of troops, reported the matter to the 
officer of the guard, who declined to believe the man's 
statement. As dawn broke, the garrison of the lunette 
learned that the sentry had not been mistaken, for 
two bodies of Eussian troops suddenly entered the work, 
one from the parapet in the front, one from the open 



REPULSE OF THE RUSSIAN ATTACKS. 405 

gorge in the rear, and before the men could even 
seize their arms, the place was in the possession of 
the Russians. Captain Mehemed Pasha, commanding 
Azizi, which is about 1,200 yards in the rear of these 
outworks, hearing a disturbance, with that promptitude 
and gallantry that have characterised him throughout 
the campaign, placed himself immediately at the head of 
half a battalion of one of the new regiments recently 
arrived from Trebizond, and proceeded to ascertain the 
cause. On approaching the Medjidieh fort, he at once saw 
it was in the hands of the enemy. Without giving the 
matter a thought, he fixed bayonets and straightway 
charged them. A sanguinary hand-to-hand fight took 
place inside, but such was the impetuosity of the 
onslaught that the Russians were fairly driven out of 
the work, not before they had removed the garrison, 
consisting of twenty officers and 500 men. Tarnaieff's 
reserve battalions now made a desperate effort to retake 
the lunette, and the sound of the firing was now to be 
distinctly heard in the city. The big guns of Azizi 
opened upon the Russian columns with terrible effect. 
Awakened to a sense of their real danger, thousands of 
citizens, stirred with frenzy by the wild exhortations 
of^ the Moolahs (who thundered forth their anathemas 
on the hated Giaour from every minaret), dashed up to 
the citadel, where arms were hurriedly distributed. 

By 7 a.m. the whole road from the Tabreez Gate 
to the Azizi was crowded with a mass of armed men 
proceeding to defend the city. With this welcome re- 
inforcement Mehmed Pasha was not only enabled to 
repel all the Russian attacks, but towards the afternoon 
had so far gained the ascendency that, delivering one 
more impetuous bayonet charge, he hurled the Russians 



406 THE CAMPAIGN IN ARMENIA. 

back from the lunette, and then drove them inch 
by inch up to the walls of the Tope Dagh redoubt. 

To turn to the Russian column of attack on the 
south-east, descending the Yerli Dagh, instead of keep- 
ing along the crest and moving down the eastern- 
most slopes of the Palantukan range, it found itself 
discovered, and under a heavy fire from both the Djebri 
and Ahali forts long before they had approached their 
goal. Further advance was useless. The Kremedli 
is a permanent work, and to endeavour to carry it by 
storm must only have ended in disaster and disgrace, 
so Heimann very wisely recalled the column, which at 
about 2 p.m. fell back on Topalack. The casualties here 
were very small. Had the commander of the detach- 
ment been enabled to reach the Kremedli unnoticed, in 
all probability Erzeroum would have fallen, for, attacked 
on both sides, Mukhtar would not have been able to 
devote the whole of the garrison to the repulse of the 
gallantly-led attack on the Medjidieh lunette. 

Mukhtar Pasha, on the first sound of firing, had 
proceeded to the Azizi fort, and himself directed the 
fire of the heavy guns on the Russian columns. The 
gallantry of the Turks was most marked, and augured 
badly for any Russian columns that might endeavour 
to assault their stronghold; but no less marked was 
the conduct of Dr. Featherstonhaugh, who, aided by 
Reginald and Percy Zohrab, sons of the worthy 
British consul of the place, went about regardless 
of the hail of bullets, binding up the wounds and 
helping the stricken men to a place of safety. These 
two English youths were on the field of battle carrying 
out their humane work until long after midnight, when 
they proceeded to the English Hospital, there to make 



COLD-BLOODED ATROCITY. 407 

all necessary arrangements for tlie large number of men 
waiting admission. They were not alone in their work 
of charity, for the consul himself, accompanied by his 
eldest son, a lad of eighteen, and by the old consular 
cavasse, Mustafa, who has been a faithful servant of 
Her Majesty for upwards of forty years, were equally 
busy on the battle-field, superintending the conveyance 
of the wounded to a place of safety, and endeavouring 
to save Eussian prisoners. In this humane work Mr. 
Zohrab nearly lost his life. A Turkish soldier, foiled 
in his attempts to plunge his bayonet into the body 
of an already badly wounded Eussian, turned on the 
consul, and threatened to bayonet him. The timely 
arrival of a Turkish officer saved the life of one of the 
best men in the consular service. 

And now I have to place on record one of those 
acts of cold-blooded atrocity which, alas ! have been 
furnished in such ghastly quantities by the present war. 
Directly it became known in the city of Erzeroum that 
the fortunes of the day rested with the Osmanli, bands 
of women trooped up to the field armed with knives, 
hatchets, choppers, whatever household weapons came 
first to their hands, and then commenced a system of 
mutilations which it does not do to dwell on. Suffice 
to say that from Englishmen, who visited the battle- 
field on the following day, I learn that nearly every 
Eussian found lying on the ground was decapitated 
and subjected to nameless outrage, and that the appear- 
ance of the wounds proved that many of them were 
inflicted on still living men. 

The gallant Tamaieff, who was wounded early in 
the day, surrendered to a Turkish officer, but this was 
not sufficient to save his life : his dead body, mutilated 



408 THl^ CAMPAIGN IN ARMENIA. 

in the cruellest manner, was found in the Medjidieh' 
lunette the following day, clad merely in a silk shirt 
dyed crimson with the life-hlood of the brave young 
Armenian. Heimann, on learning from others present 
that he had been wounded and had surrendered himself 
a prisoner, sent in a parlementaire to Mukhtar Pasha, 
offering any two Turkish officers in exchange for the 
hero of the day, but the Turkish Commander-in-Chief 
was compelled to return answer that no such officer 
was to be found amongst the prisoners. Some few 
Russians, including one officer, were taken ahve, owing 
to the exertions of the gallant little Captain Mehmed 
Pasha, to whom belonged the honour of the day. His 
prompt attack on the Medjidieh lunette before the 
Eussian supports had time to arrive was the sole cause 
of success. His personal bravery on this, as on every 
other occasion in which he has been engaged during 
the war, extorted the admiration of all who saw him; 
he certainly well earned his promotion to the grade of 
lieutenant-general, which it is rumoured Mukhtar has 
recommended him for. 

The Turkish casualties in this engagement were ex- 
ceedingly heavy, about 700 killed and 1,500 wounded, 
whilst twenty officers and 500 men were left pri- 
soners in the hands of the enemy. But the Russian 
loss must have been far heavier. Three hundred 
dead bodies were left in the interior of the Medjidieh 
fort, and Captain Mehmed Pasha may be trusted 
to have given a very good account of the columns 
whom he broke and pursued to Tope Dagh. The Rus- 
sians, having failed in their attempt to carry the 
outworks, and having learnt that reinforcements were 
daily arriving from Trebizond, determined completely 



THE ONLY BRITISH OFFICIAL IN ERZEBOUM. 409 

to invest the place. To effect this, a road was made 
over the Deyi Dagh range, via Partek, to Tsitawankh, 
in the Euphrates valley, and by this means bodies of 
cavalry were enabled to pass over the range and 
occupy Madirga. In obedience to directions received 
from the ambassador at Constantinople, Sir Arnold 
Kemball, who throughout the campaign had been 
present wherever the J&ghting was thickest, and wherever 
the danger was greatest, now left Erzeroum, and took 
up his head-quarters at Baiboort, midway to Trebizond. 
The only British officer left in the place was Mr. 
Zohrab, the consul, who, however, was quite at home 
in a besieged town. November, 1877, will seem to 
him but a counterpart of November, 1855, when, as 
secretary and interpreter to Sir Fenwick Williams, he 
aided in the heroic defence of Kars. 



CHAPTEE XXII. 

THE THIRD CAPTURE OF KARS BY THE RUSSIANS. 

Siege of Kars — Capture of Fort Hafiz Paslia — Russians Move their Head^ 
quarters — Projected Assault of the Place — Detail of Attacking Columns — 
Success of Lazaroff on the Right — Death of Count Grabhe in front of the 
Kanli Tabia — Capture of all Works on the Plains — Capture of Karadagh 
and Citadel — Hussain Hami Pasha escapes — The Majority of the Garrison 
surrender — Grand Duke enters the Place in Triumph — MelikofE moves 
towards Erzeroum — His Column forced to fall back from Olti — Komaroff 
moves to Ardahan — Thence to Ardanutsch — Skirmish there — Condition of 
Erzeroum — Treachery at Kars — Hussain Bey, Commandant of Artillery— 
Osman the Renegade — Hassain's Visits to the Russian Camp — The Cir- 
cassian Letter Carrier — Hig Death — Abandonment of the Hafiz Pasha 
Tabia — Escape of Hami Pasha — The Man whom the Russian General 
allowed to wear his Sword — Like Father like Son. 

To turn now to the main Russian column, under the 
immediate command of the Grand Duke Michael, which 
after the battle of the Aladja Dagh had been established 
at Kharrak-Darrah with a division at Magardjik, having 
cleared his camp of all sick, wounded, and the many 
thousand prisoners, who were all sent into Groomri, and 
having ordered up the siege train from that place, he 
determined once more to open the siege of Kars. 

Lazaroff was accordingly directed to commence siege 
batteries at Magardjik, whilst one division was moved 
to Vezinkui, with instructions to bombard the eastern 
face of the town. The Grrand Duke himself on the 10th 
inst. moved round from Karajal to Vairan Kale, the spot 
which MouraviefE selected in 1855 for his head-quarters 
camp. During this march the Russian flank was exposed 
to the attack of the enemy, and Hami Pasha was not 
slow to take advantage of it. Moving out the greater 



PLAN FOB SIEGE OF KAM. 411 

portion of his garrison, he attacked the Eussian division 
on the line of march, and threw it into some confusion. 
But Melikoff quickly ralUed his men, and turning on 
the Turks, drove them at the point of the bayonet back 
into their entrenchments. So sudden was the onslaught 
and so rapid the flight, that for some time the Eussians 
were in undisputed possession of Hafiz Pasha's fort, and 
were enabled, before the garrison recovered their surprise, 
to dismantle the guns and remove the breech -pieces. As 
there had been no intention of carrying the place by 
assault, this Eussian column was unsupported, and con- 
sequently forced to retire from the position it had so 
successfully and gallantly won. The next day the 
Grand Duke sent a parlementaire to the city to demand 
its surrender, but Hussain Hami Pasha declined to 
discuss the subject, and threatened to fire on any party 
venturing on a similar errand. The following day, on 
the 12th of November, the Eussian batteries commenced 
to bombard the forts on the southern and eastern faces of 
the city. 

The Grand Duke had now adopted the plan followed 
by Paskiewitch in 1828, by Mouravieff in 1855, viz., 
that of commencing siege operations on the southern 
face of the fortress. In May and June the mistake 
was committed of bombarding the place from the north, 
when it was found that the works situated on lofty 
hills suffered little or no damage ; the siege batteries now 
covered an arc of a circle, stretching from Komadsor on 
the right bank of the Kars stream, through Karadjuren, 
Magardjik, and Azatkui, to the foot of the hills west 
of Vezinkui; their fire was directed against all the 
southern forts, which comprise the Suwarri, the western- 
most, the Kanli, Paizi Bey, and Hafiz Pasha; the 



412 THE GAMPAIGl<r IN ARMENIA. 

magazines and town must also have suffered, from the 
bombardment, whereas in the first so-called siege they 
escaped scathless. 

On the 16th the Hafiz Pasha fort was silenced, the 
guns had been dismantled, and breech-pieces removed 
dm^ing the attack on the 10th; and it is supposed that 
the new breech-pieces of Kars workmanship were 
scarcely calculated to stand the same test as Herr 
Krupp's handiwork. The effect of this success was to 
leave the south-eastern angle of the work entirely 
undefended; and on the 17th the Grand Duke, after 
assembling a council of war, determined to assault the 
place — the smallness of the garrison, the large extent 
of front, with scarcely a man available for every three 
yards of parapet, the state of demoralisation to which 
the men had been reduced since the recent defeats, the 
fact that typhoid was raging inside the city, and 
that there was dissension amongst the Turkish generals, 
were quite sufficient reasons to induce the Grand Duke 
to attempt an assault, and gave him every hope of 
success. It was well known in the Russian camp that 
the entrenchments connecting the various works were 
of very slight profile, that the obstacles in front were 
scarcely calculated to delay an assaulting column for five 
minutes, that many of the so-called forts had open gorges, 
and that few had flanking defences for their ditches. 

On the night of the 17th the columns were told off for 
the attack : that on the extreme right advancing from 
Vezinkui was to threaten the Karadagh works, whilst it 
was to seize the Hafiz Pasha fort, and then climbing up the 
southern slopes of the Kara Dagh, take the Ziaret Tabia 
in reverse ; this was composed of the 40th Division, 
under the command of Lazaroff, he who successfully 



THE ATTACKING PARTIES. 413 

carried out the turning movement at tlie battle of the 
Aladja Dagh. The central column, which extended from 
Magardjik to Komadsor on the Kars Tchai, was under 
Count Grahbe; it consisted of fourteen battalions, 
drawn from the 19th Division, the Moscow grenadiers 
and the Caucasian rifles. This force was destined to 
attack the Kanli and Suwarri forts to the south of 
the place. On the left bank of the Kars Tchai, 
General Eoop, with the remainder of the Moscow 
grenadiers, was directed to attack the Tahmasp fort, 
whilst Komaroff, with the Ardahan brigade, was told 
off to capture the Mukhliss Tabia. Three storming 
columns, as it were, surrounded the whole fortress; 
they numbered forty-four battalions, exclusive of reserve, 
and assuming each battalion to be but 600 strong, the 
attacking force amounted to 26,400 men, exclusive of 
artillery and engineers, whereas the garrison did not 
amount to one-haH that number. One hundred and 
forty-four field guns accompanied the assaulting column, 
and did admirable service. 

Under cover of a very heavy fire from fifty-two 
siege guns, the columns advanced, those on the south 
and east with orders to carry the works opposed to 
them at all cost; those on the west and north with 
orders only to make a very serious demonstration, 
without pushing an actual assault. 

Each column was accompanied by a ladder party, 
but with the fatality that usually attends such detach- 
ments, the ladders were far too short, and heavy loss of 
life was the consequence. 

Lazaroff"s column, moving on the Hafiz Pasha Tabia, 
carried it with comparatively little loss, the troops 
holding it, having no artillery, hastily abandoning the 



414 THE CAMPAIGN IN ARMENIA, 

place. Moving the greater portion of his division to 
the right, he swept the entrenchments clean, and 
straightway proceeded to climb the steep rocky slopes 
of the Kara Dagh hill. This was accomplished without 
loss, for the assailants were sheltered from the fire of 
the guns on the crest, and the forts on the plain were 
too much occupied in their own defence to spare a 
thought for the Karadagh. 

As one brigade of Lazaroff's 40th Division advanced 
on the Ziaret Tabia, the only work with a closed gorge 
on the crest of the Kara Dagh, the other moved on to 
the citadel, an antiquated masonry work, capable of 
making a stubborn defence against infantry assailants, 
but quite precluded from defending itself against troops 
accompanied by guns. Its artillery consisted of one 
muzzle-loading rifled gun, and three field-pieces. It was 
garrisoned by a couple of companies of Eedif artillery- 
men, who speedily took to flight, and the citadel, with its 
vast stores of small arms, ammunition, ordnance stores, 
magazines, &c., fell into the hands of the Eussians. At 
about the same time the Ziaret Tabia was carried, and 
this commanding the Kara Dagh redoubt and the Kara- 
patlak battery, speedily led to their capture. 

To turn to the central column under Count Grabbe, 
a brigade moved on the Suwarri, whilst a second under- 
took the capture of the Kanli fort ; the Suwarri, held 
by an Arab Eedif battalion, was captured with slight 
loss, but the Kanli '^I'abia, held by Anatolian Nizams, 
made a most determined resistance. Count Grabbe was 
killed in leading the assault, and more than one attack 
was hurled back with heavy slaughter. The officer who 
succeeded to the command, a colonel of engineers, 
instead of trying a frontal attack, worked round to 



FALL OF KAB8. 415 

the gorge, closed by a masonry block-house. The 
massive gates were blown in, and the garrison were offered 
two alternatives : that the redoubt in which they had 
taken refuge should be subjected to djniamite experi- 
ments, or that they should surrender unconditionally. 
After a short parley, the place was given up ; thus the 
citadel and the works on the southern and eastern faces 
were in the hands of the Russians. In the meantime, 
Greneral Eoop, finding the fire opposed to him very 
slight, pushed up to the walls of the Tahmasp Tabia, 
which after a slight skirmish was captured. 

A large portion of the garrison now endeavoured 
to cut their way out of the works, but Komaroff's 
infantry and Prince Tchavachavadzi's dragoons opposed 
and captured by far the greater number. It is a curious 
coincidence that Mukhtar Pasha reported both these 
ofiicers as killed in the battle of Kizil-Tepe on the 25th 
August, yet they sufficiently survived to take part in 
the crowning act of the campaign ! Both had been very 
severely wounded in the Kizil-Tepe fight. 

The commandant, Hussain Hami Pasha, succeeded 
in escaping, together with some few horsemen,* but by 
noon on Sunday, the 18th, the whole of the garrison, 
numbering about 12,000 men, several Pashas, 25.7 siege 
and sixty field guns, were in the hands of the victors, 
besides vast quantities of provisions, ammunition, &c. 

On Monday, the 1 9th, the Grand Duke entered the 

* It is wortliy of note that Sabri Pasha, commandant at Ardahan, and 
Hami Pasha, commandant of Kars, both served under Mukhtar Pasha in 
Montenegro j that they were at his request removed from their commands 
for incompetence during the campaign of 1876; that when he succeeded 
to the charge of the Fourth Army Corps, he found these two most worth- 
less gentlemen in command of the two chief fortresses in Asia ; that both 
should have unsuccessfully defended their trusts, and that both should 
have escaped scatheless ! 



416 THE CAMPAIGN' IN ARMENIA. 

city, receiving the homage of the chief inhabitants, 
Mahomedan and Christian, and on the following day 
the Turkish prisoners were moved under escort to 
Alexandropol, a civil governor was appointed over the 
city, native inhabitants enrolled as pohce, and quiet 
reigned around. Melikoff, with two divisions and the 
siege train, consisting of fifty-two guns, immediately 
marched for Erzeroum with the object of aiding Hei- 
mann, who, being provided only with field gims, was 
quite prevented from commencing the siege of a fortress 
which mounted upwards of 150 heavy Krupp guns on 
its walls. Moving by Tcharpakli and Bardez, Melikoff 
tried to push a brigade to Olti, and there enter the 
Erzeroum valley by the Ghiurji Boghaz, and Euphrates 
valley simultaneously as by the Devi Boynn, but the 
rugged nature of the road and heavy falls of snow 
prevented this column reaching Olti. It accordingly 
returned, and with the Commander-in-Chief entered the 
Passin plain, where they found all Heimann's troops 
located. Tailing in his rash attempt to carry the Azizi 
works by storm, Heimann had detached a brigade to ' 
Madirga, about five miles north-east of Erzeroum, to 
prevent the garrison obtaining supplies from the nu- 
merous villages in the Euphrates valley. To support 
this detachment he had constructed a road via Partak 
to Kiossa Mahomed, but the Turks had burnt this last- 
named village, and destroyed his road. Typhoid fever, 
too, had broken out with much virulence in his army, 
and he was now giving his men that rest they had so 
long needed. 

Simultaneously with Melikoff's move to the south- 
west, the Grand Duke had detached Komaroff with his 
old brigade on Ardahan, with orders to settle the civil 



PBEPAHATIOKS FOE DEFENCE OF EEZEEOUM, 417 

and military administration of tliat district, and then 
marching via Ardanutsch and Artvin, suppress en route 
all attempts at a rising in Lazistan, push down the 
banks of the Tchoruk Su, and co-operate with Oklobjia 
at Batoum. 

Ardahan, over which the Russians had kept a firm 
grip since its capture in May, needed no further super- 
vision, so Komaroff, in spite of the terrible weather 
and bad state of the roads, pushed on towards Batoum 
encountering a band of Lazi irregulars at Ardanutsch, 
where it may be remembered on the 28th of June he 
fought a similar fight on the self-same spot. After a 
sharp engagement, in which his losses were most in- 
significant, he swept these undisciplined bands before 
him and occupied Ardanutsch, which he placed under 
the jurisdiction of the governor of Ardahan. 

Erzeroum in the meantime had been profiting by 
Heimann's inability to prosecute the siege with vigour : 
reinforcements both of men and guns came up from 
Batoum, from Trebizond, and from Constantinople. 
Large supplies of food were procured from Erzingjan, 
and the neighbouring villages in the Euphrates valley. 
All inhabitants not volunteering to bear arms were 
summarily expelled the city, and Mukhtar dismantled 
their houses to increase his stock of firewood. Mainly 
owing to the lack of vigilance of the Eussian cavalry 
commander, the Turkish general was enabled to employ 
the many mills (forty- three in number) in the immediate 
vicinity of the city in grinding the large stores of 
wheat Faizi Pasha had providentially collected. 

By the end of November it was calculated that 
Mukhtar had about three men for the defence of every 
yard of front, and that he had upwards of four months* 

B B 



418 THE CAMPAIGN IN ARMENIA, 

full provisions for these men. His great want was in 
cavalry, and his cavalry general, Moussa Pasha, a Rus- 
sian deserter of the name of Kondukoff, was a man 
whom the Commander-in-Chief distrusted, and the men 
openly abused. 

There seems to be no doubt that Kars was to a 
certain extent captured by bribery — that is, that the 
key of the work, the Hafiz Pasha Tabia, on the south- 
east corner of the fortification, was purposely left un- 
defended. I have once or twice in these pages spoken 
of Hassan Bey, the Commandant of Artillery, as a 
man of much ability; he served for many years in 
England in studying artillery at Woolwich, and flattered 
himself that he knew the temper of the English nation 
towards the Turks. It was amusing to hear his opinion 
of the utter selfishness that marked our conduct in all 
matters pertaining to our Foreign policy ; and he did 
not hesitate to impute the basest motives to all 
Englishmen who did not openly uphold the Osmanli in 
all their doings. 

During the first siege, in June and July, Hassan 
Bey behaved with much zeal and gallantry. It was not 
until after the battle of the Aladja Dagh, when every 
one saw that the game in Armenia was lost, that 
suspicion attached itself to him, and then hot until 
he had begged to be permitted to accompany a flag of 
truce to the Russian camp for the ostensible purpose of 
learning the strength and disposition of the enemy's 
forces. 

From several sources I have gathered the following 
story, which may be relied on as giving the truth 
regarding the " Fall of Kars : '' 

A certain European doctor in Pera, owing to in- 



08MAN THJEJ RENEGADE, 419 

compatibility of temper, obtained a divorce from his 
wife, who, preferring the honour of reigning in a harem 
to the privilege of sitting at the table of an English- 
man, espoused one Kibrisli Mahomed Pasha. Within 
a short period of the second marriage this lady 
gave birth to a son, who was received into the Maho- 
medan Church, and named Osman. The youth became 
a fluent French and English scholar, was educated at 
the Military School of Constantinople, and, after en- 
tering the service, was attached to the Embassy in 
Paris as military pupil. He also visited England, and 
. made himseK thoroughly acquainted with the organisa- 
tion of the various European armies. On his return 
to Constantinople he was promoted to the grade of 
major on the staff, and appointed to Van, where he 
remained for some years. Owing to an unfortunate 
quarrel with the Governor, he fell into temporary dis- 
grace, and on the outbreak of the war tendered his 
sword to the Eussian Government. His services were 
eagerly accepted, and he was given a high appointment 
on the Intelligence Branch of the staff of the Cau- 
casus, for which his previous training peculiarly fitted 
him. 

Whilst on the staff in Armenia Osman Bey had 
many opportunities of forming an acquaintance with 
Hassam Bey, colonel of artillery, and then commandant 
of the citadel at Erzeroum. Their European education 
and common knowledge of English drew the bond 
closer, and the higher Ottoman officials in Erzeroum 
remarked that they held aloof from Turkish officers, and 
mixed much in the society of the Europeans in the place, 
being frequent guests at the house of Mr. Obermiiller, 
the Russian consul. 
B B 2 



420 THE CAMPAIGN IN AltMENIA, 

Mukhtar Pasha was well aware that Osman Bey 
was in MelikofF's camp, and that through him the 
Russians had obtained an accurate knowledge of 
the organisation of the Ottoman Forces, and of the 
construction of the various fortresses. He, however, 
placed much confidence in Hassan Bey, but did not 
consider his services sufficient to warrant his promotion 
to the rank of Liva Pasha, or general of brigade. 
This fancied act of injustice rankled in the mind of 
the " patriot," and is supposed to have been the cause 
of his disafi*ection. 

It appears that early in November Hassan Bey 
volunteered to take a flag of truce to the Russian 
camp and ascertain their exact strength, also what 
troops they had detached in pursuit of Mukhtar Pasha. 
He was granted permission, and visited Lazaroff's 
camp, in the vicinity of Magardjik. He returned to 
Kars with the story that Osman Bey was there, very 
disgusted with the treatment received at the hands of 
the Moscovs, and anxious to rejoin the Crescent ; that 
the Russians were not numerous, had no siege guns, 
and that no fear need be entertained for the safety of 
Kars. On the 10th of November, it will be re- 
membered, that a sortie of the garrison was repulsed 
with much slaughter, the Turks being driven back with 
such impetuosity that the Russians seized the Hafiz 
Pasha Tabia, and dismantled the guns. The following 
day, before commencing the bombardment, the Grand 
Duke sent a flag of truce to Hami Pasha, demanding 
the surrender of the place, which was indignantly re- 
jected. On the 12th Hassan Bey once more volun- 
teered to visit the Russian camp, and ascertain if they 
were in a position to bombard or assault the town. He 



HASSAJSr BUY—LIKE FATHER, LIKE SON. 421 

returned again, stating they were very weak, quite 
unable to risk an assault, and lie suggested that there 
was no necessity to repair or occupy the Hafiz Pasha 
Tabia. On the 13th the bombardment commenced, and 
the next day a Circassian was seized endeavouring to 
pass the sentries at night with a letter from Osman 
Bey, in the Russian head-quarters at Vairan Kale, to 
Hassan Bey. Though written in Turkish, it was 
couched in such ambiguous phraseology that it was 
found impossible to attach any meaning to it. Hassan 
Bey, when sent for, denied all knowledge of its con- 
tents, but urged that the man should be put to death. 
He denied that the letter was for him. Being a man 
of great force of character — quite the leading spirit of 
the place — he was listened to. The Circassian was 
thrown from the citadel clifF, and the commandant of 
artillery went about his work as usual — he carried his 
point. The Hafiz Pasha Tabia was left undefended by 
guns, and on the first assault was captured. The 
column then was enabled unopposed to scale the southern 
cliffs of the Kara Dagh, and to seize both the works on 
its summit and the citadel with absolutely no loss. 
The commandant of the fortress managed to escape, 
but amongst the prisoners was Hassan Bey, who now 
may be seen an honoured guest in the camp of the 
Grand Duke — ^the only Turkish ofiicer who is per- 
mitted to wear his sword. The evidence is but circum- 
stantial; but the links of the chain seem strongly 
riveted together, and I fancy would be considered 
sufficient in any court to justify the death of the 
Turkish gunner. A strange feature in the history 
of the case is that Hassan Bey*s father sold Varna 
to the Russians in 1828. 



CHAPTEE XXIII. 

PASKIEWITCh's campaign in 1828-29. 

Paakiewitch's Forces — Doubts about Persia — Pankratieff watches ber at Khoi — 
Brigade for the Circassians — The Russian Plans — Their Three Columns — 
Their Strength and Leaders — Inability to Siege Erzeroum in one Campaign 
— Cross the Frontier 14th June — Detail of Army of Czar — Of that of 
the Sultan — Kars captured 23rd June — ^Akhalkalaki, 24th July — Hert- 
witz, 26th July — Akhalzik, 16th August — ^Ardahan taken same Day — 
Aitzkui, 18th August — Russian Right Column captures Bayazid — The 
Russian General cantons his Army in Armenia — Turkish Spring Prepara- 
tions — Endeavour to recapture Akhalzik — Massacre of Christians — 19th 
May, 1829, Paskiewitch rejoins the Army — 11th June, he advances — 19th, 
Battle of Zewin — 20th, Battle of MeUidooz — 28th, Erzeroum surrenders — 
Treaty of Adrian ople. 

A BRIEF account of the campaign of 1828-29 will be 
a fitting sequel to this story of the war of 1877. To 
the general reader, it will be one more proof of the truth 
of the old adage, " History repeats itself." To the 
military student, it will be a proof that it does not do 
in these days of the breech-loader and the spade to re- 
hearse the tactics of our fathers ; and that, after all, as 
Napoleon pithily expressed it, *' Grod favours the heaviest 
battalions." 

In December, 1827, Russia then being at war with 
Persia, the feud between the Sultan and the Czar that 
had been slumbering for many years broke out. Hastily 
concluding a peace with the Shah on the 6th February, 
Paskiewitch, the Grovernor-Greneral and Commander-in- 
Chief of the Caucasus, commenced preparations for the 



PASKIEWITGW8 FORCES. 423 

subjugation of Armenia. Irrespective of the natural 
wish to extend her conquests completely round the Black 
Sea, a campaign in Anatolia necessarily must form a 
portion of the plan of any war waged between the 
Porte and Eussia. The vast resources Turkey possesses 
in her Asiatic provinces enable the Sultan to recruit his 
forces to an almost unlimited extent from the hardy 
mountaineers of Armenia, consequently the aim and 
object of the Russian War Minister is, by decisively at- 
tacking the Ottoman on this side, to hinder men from 
being despatched to Europe to swell the armies there. 

The forces at the disposal of Paskiewitch for his 
operations amounted at this time to 

51 battalions of infantry, 

11 squadrons of cavalry, 

17 regiments of Cossacks, 

12 J batteries of artillery, numbering 154 guns. 

The policy of Persia, in spite of the recent peace, 
was still undefined, and it was thought more than 
probable she would take advantage of the fact of 
Eussia's complications, and once more declare war. 
She had only just ceded to the Czar two rich provinces, 
and paid a very heavy war contribution, so Paskiewitch 
deemed it advisable to be quite prepared for her entering 
into an alliance offensive and defensive with the Turk. To 
guard against any coalition of troops, the Russian general 
organised a corps under Pankratieff, consisting of six 
battalions, two regiments of Cossacks, and sixteen guns, 
which he posted at Khoi,in Persian territory, be it minded. 

Another evil has to be guarded against in all wars 
between Russia and Turkey, and that is insurrection in 
the Caucasian provinces. They were, it was known, ripe 



424 THE CAMTAIGN IN ARMENIA. 

for revolt, and it was rumoured Mahomedan emissaries 
had been travelling through the Abkhasian and Min- 
grelian country, endeavouring to incite the people to 
rise. To guard against this, Paskiewitch occupied the 
Caucasian country with fifteen battalions, three squad- 
rons of cavalry, forty-two guns, and four regiments of 
Cossacks. 

Thus there were left for the expeditionary army — 

30 battalions, 

8 squadrons of cavalry, 
11 regiments of Cossacks, 
96 guns. 

The ports of Poti and Batoum were, as for many 
years they had been, the object of Russia's desire ; con- 
sequently, Paskiewitch detailed one column to act on 
the shores of the Black Sea whilst, with the remainder 
of his army, he determined to operate in two columns : 
the main or central one advancing by the Allaghoz 
chain was to reduce the frontier towns of Akhalzik, 
Akhalkalaki, Hertwitz, Kars, and Ardahan ; whilst the 
left corps, pushing across the Ararat range, was to 
subjugate the province of Bayazid, and guard the flank 
against the attacks of the Kurds, who, it was known, 
attracted by " loot," would swoop down from Van and 
Moosh. In fact, the corps operating on Poti and on 
Bayazid were acting as wings of the main army ad- 
vancing into Armenia. 

The right, or Batoum army, was placed under the 
command of Major-General Hesse, and consisted of — 

8 battalions of infantry, 
14 field guns, 
1 regiment of Cossacks. 



DESIGNS OF THE RUSSIAN COMMANDER, 425 

The left, or Bayazid column, was under the order of 
Tchavachavadzi, the reigning prince of the Abkhasians, 
and numbered — 

3 battalions of infantry, 

8 field pieces, 

1 regiment of Cossacks. 

Whilst at Natschevan, keeping open free commu- 
nication between the left wing and main army were 
posted 2 battalions. 

Paskiewitch himself commanded the main column, 
which was to be massed in the neighbourhood of Goomri, 
and amounted to 

18 battalions of infantry, 

9 squadrons of cavalry, 

' 7 regiments of Cossacks, 
56 field guns. 

The Russian commander felt that his forces were too 
weak for him to hope to reduce Erzeroum in one cam- 
paign, for prior to an advance across the Soghanly range, 
it would be necessary to seize all the fortified places, 
many of them very strongly garrisoned, in the provinces 
of Kars, of Akhalzik, and of Bayazid. He therefore 
determined to devote his whole time to subjugate these 
districts, leaving the conquest of Armenia to the fol- 
lowing year. 

There were many reasons in favour of Goomri 
being chosen as the base of operations in Armenia. 
In the first place, the ground between it and Kars was 
open, and feasible for the movements of large bodies 
of troops ; in the second place, it enabled a blow to be 



426 THE CAMPAIGN IN ARMENIA. 

struck at one of the main Turkish fortresses, without 
exposing the Eussian frontier to the danger of an 
attack ; and thirdly, it threatened the flank of any 
army advancing by the Soghanly range to the relief of 
Ardahan or Akhalzik. There were other minor reasons, 
too, which led to the selection of Goomri : it was in a 
central position, and easily furnished with supplies ; the 
siege train, quartered at Erivan, could more easily be 
moved by this road than any other ; and lastly, the 
subjugation of Kars gave the Russians possession of 
the large valley watered by the Kars and Arpa rivers, 
with abundance of grain and forage. 

Then, as now, the Ottoman organisation was ill- 
adapted for offensive warfare, and it never seemed to 
have struck Paskiewitch that the Turks could plan a 
counter-stroke. 

Prior to commencing operations, the Eussian Com- 
mander-in-Chief threw forward a detachment under 
Major-Greneral Popoff to Suram, to guard the defiles of 
Bordjom. This force numbered 

3 battalions, 
608 Cossacks, 

4 guns, 

and formed a connecting link with Hesse's troops on 
the Batoum line. Thus on the 12th of June, all pre- 
parations being complete, Paskiewitch massed his troops 
at Goomri, which now consisted of but 

15 battalions of infantry, 

8 squadrons of cavalry, 

6 regiments of Cossacks, 
52 guns. 



RUSSIAN' COMMISSARIAT ARRANGEMENTS. 



427 



Distribution of Russian Army, 12th June, 1825. 



Designation of Column. 



Major- General Hesse. Black Sea Column - 

Major-Greneral PopofB. Bordjom Flanking Column 

General Paskiewitch. Central or Main Column. 
Chief of the Staff — General Yon Sacken. 
Quartermaster- General — Colonel Yalkhovski. 

Ist Brigade Infantry, Major-Greneral Mouravieff 
2nd „ „ „ „ Bergmann 

3rd „ „ „ „ Korolkoff 

Cavalry Brigade, Colonel Rarevsky - - - 
Artillery „ General Gillensehmidet - 

Major- General Prince Tchavachavadzi. Left or 
Armenian Column- - - - - 

General Merlini. Left Central or Natschevan 

General Pankratieff. Corps of Observation on 
Persian Frontier - 

Total - 



Infantry. 



4,541 
1,180 



Cav. 



Guns. 



2,511 

2,562 
3,488 



2,151 
1,730 

2,691 



20,854 



462 
608 



14 
4 



3,346 

336 

47 

715 



6,514 



70 

8 
2 

16 
114 



Great pains were taken to arrange a good com- 
missariat establishment, the organisation of which the 
Commander-in-Chief himself took in hand ; and in May- 
he had already succeeded in collecting at Goomri — 

Government wagons - - - 530 
Hired arabas ----- 540 
Pack animals - - 2,250 

Whilst in the vast storehouses at Goomri and in its 
immediate vicinity, he had stored for transport — 

12,000 sacks of biscuits 
1,000 „ barley 
4,000 „ wheat 
4,000 casks of salt meat 
1,100 gallons of brandy. 



428 THE GAMFAIGN IN ARMENIA. 

More than. 3,000 men were hired to assist in 
the commissariat train; an extremely liberal scale of 
wages, coupled with firm supervision, ensured good 
work. 

Field hospitals were established, one at G-oomri for 
300 ; one at Tsalki for 200 sick. An ambulance train 
for the movable columns was organised, numbering 
sixty-six specially -con structed /o2^r^<9;«5; there were two 
companies of trained hospital orderlies to aid the 
surgeons in their work, whilst a large corps of litter- 
bearers were also organised. 

Let me turn now to the Turkish army, of which, I 
regret to say, I can find no such detailed account as of 
the Eussian. The most strenuous exertions were made, 
not only to strengthen the garrisons of all the fortresses, 
but also to organise an army for oficnsive operations. 
For this purpose — during the early spring — the chief of 
the Karakapaks reconnoitred the whole course of the 
Arpa river, as well as the passes through the Bordjom 
range, all of which were held by strong detachments 
of irregular troops. 

Akhalkalaki was held by 1,000 Lazi volunteers ; 
Ardahan was occupied by upwards of 2,000 regular 
soldiers ; Akhalzik was reinforced by a large detachment 
of cavalry ; and Kars, considered the key of Armenia, 
besides being furnished with a garrison of 15,000 
infantry to man the walls, was further strengthened 
by a brigade of 3,000 cavalry, with fourteen field 
guns. Van was garrisoned by 1,500 men; Bayazid by 
1,000 ; whilst a corps of 40,000 was being organised 
by Halib Pasha with which to take the offensive. The 
religious feeling of the multitude being worked upon by 
the Moolahs, recruits came forward in great numbers, 



PASKIEWITGR BEFORE EARS, 429 

and it seemed as if the Porte would be able to crush the 
Eussian forces by sheer dint of numbers. 

On the 14th of June, Paskie witch, advancing from 
Groomri, crossed the Arpa Tchai, carrying with him in 
his vast commissariat train forty days' provisions. He 
halted that day at Tikhniss, in Turkish territory, 
and the next morning moved to Maskni, encounter- 
ing slight opposition from a small party of Turkish 
horse. 

A brief reconnaissance of the fortress of Ears in- 
duced the Eussian general to determine on attacking 
Kars on the southern face, the northern and eastern 
beiDg too precipitous to admit of assault, or of the 
construction of regular siege works. Moreover, the 
occupation of ground on the south-east face cuts off 
communication more completely with Erzeroum. Con- 
sequently, on the 17th, Paskiewitch moved via Az^tkui 
to Magardjik, where he halted for the night, and the 
following day advanced to Kitcik-kui ; but during this 
march his flank was exposed to attack, and the Turkish 
commander was not slow to take advantage of the op- 
portunity presented him : he made a vigorous sortie, 
which for some time promised success ; but the conduct 
of his irregular Kurds and Karakapaks threw the main 
force into confusion, and he was eventually compelled 
to retire with heavy loss, the casualties amongst the 
Eussians amounting to twelve killed and thirty-nine 
wounded. 

On the 20th of June the siege park reached Pas- 
kiewitch, and enabled him to commence his offensive 
operations against the city. At the same time he was 
aware that Kiossa Mahomed Pasha was advancing 
in all haste to relieve the fortress, so he threw up some 



430 TH:E campaign in ARMENIA. 

field works on tlie banks of the Kars river to guard his 
left flank. 

On the 22nd of June, covering the work by a 
feigned attack on the citadel, Paskiewitch opened his 
first parallel, and on the 23rd assaulted the place on the 
south and south-western faces with numerous columns. 
At 8 a.m. he was in possession of the enceinte, when 
the Pasha surrendered the citadel with 151 guns, and 
11,000 men became prisoners of war. liiossa Mahomed 
Pasha, hearing of the fall of Kars, abandoned his 
intention of crossing the Soghanly, and moved north 
towards Hoonkiar-Dooz. Paskiewitch now determined 
to capture Akhalkalaki. For this purpose he lefi 
Kars, with a strong garrison, under Greneral Bergmann 
and on the 17th of July, moving to Zaim, and thence, by 
the eastern shore of Lake Tchildar, to Ghegh Dagh. 
On the 22nd, he sent Colonel Abukoff to the com- 
mander of the fortress of Akhalkalaki with a flag of 
truce, to demand the surrender of the place. This was 
fired on, and that ofiicer killed. On the 24th, Paskie- 
witch assaulted the town, and captured it, with fourteen 
guns and 300 men. The Eussian soldiers, infuriated at 
the conduct of the Turks for having fired on their flag 
of truce, slew upwards of 600 men. Without losing a 
moment of time, the Eussian Greneral detached the chief 
of his staff. General Sacken, to Hertweiz, which sur- 
rendered without firing a shot. Thirteen guns and 300 
men fell with the place. General Hesse, in the mean- 
time, with the right column, had captured Poti, with 
forty-three guns, thirteen standards, and 2,000 men. 
By the capture of Akhalkalaki and Kars the routes by 
the Bord.jom mountains and Arpa-Tchai were now opened 
to the Eussians ; and on the 26th of July reinforcements 



BUS SI AN SUCCESSES, 431 

reached Paskiewitch from Tsalki and Goomri. On the 
1st of August, the Russian Commander learnt that the 
Osmanli forces had reached Ardahan and were moving 
forward to attack him. The Eussian, nothing loath 
to accept battler, advanced towards Akhalzik, reaching 
Koltchi-kui on the 3rd inst. On the 5th, he attacked 
the Turks and drove them back, but Kiossa Mahomed 
Pasha was able to effect his junction with the garrison 
of Akhalzik, where now were encamped 30,000 men. On 
the 9th, after a hard battle, in which the Russians were 
victorious, the Turks abandoned their guns and fled 
towards Ardahan. On the 10th, Paskiewitch com- 
menced the siege of Akhalzik, and by the 12th had 
completed the investment of the place. On the 15th, 
breach-batteries were opened, and on the 16th of 
August, after a desperate fight, the place was cap- 
tured. The garrison fought with the most determined 
valour, and it is computed that upwards of 5,000 men 
were slain in its defence. Out of 400 artillerymen 
who manned the guns on its walls, but fifty were left 
to tell the tale. Thirteen hundred Lazis out of a 
body of 1,800 recently raised were slain. Sixty-seven 
guns, and fifty-two standards, were captured ; the 
Eussian loss being only 128 killed and 495 wounded. 
In consequence of the heroism displayed by the defence, 
Paskiewitch permitted the garrison of the citadel to 
march out with all the honours of war. On the l8th, 
the Eussian Marshal determined to reduce Aitzkui, 
and despatched Colonel Vidbelski, with five companies 
and six guns, to effect this. The place surrendered, 
with twenty-four pieces of artillery, without attempting 

a defence. 

In the meantime orders had been sent to Bergmann, 



432 THE CAMPAIGN IN ABMENIA. 

in Kars, to move on Ardalian, and the Oommander-in- 
Chief, on the 18th inst., directed Mouravieff to march 
for the same place. This officer, however, learnt on his 
road there that the fortress had capitulated to Bergmann 
on the 16th inst. The left column in the meantime 
had been equally successful. Having subjugated the 
whole province of Bayazid, with the exception of the 
citadel, which was left masked. Prince Tchavachavadzi 
had marched as far as Toprak Kale. He had been re- 
inforced by two battalions and four guns from Klioi, 
and Bergmann had also sent a force down from Kars 
to keep open communications with him. On the 20th 
September, the Prince, finding that his flank was 
threatened by the Pasha of Moosh, at the head of a 
large body of Kurds, determined to recapture Bayazid, 
and hold it. For this purpose he returned, attacked 
and defeated a body of 3,000 Kurds, who were covermg 
the place, when the garrison fled, and with the loss of 
but ten men Bayazid, with its twelve guns and three 
standards, fell into the hands of the Russians. 

Early in September, the Prince, having made all 
arrangements for the government of the province, 
advanced into the Alashgird plain, seized the fort of 
Toprak Kale, which had been occupied by Kurds 
during his absence, and busied himself with collecting 
supplies on the fertile district. 

On the 19th inst., the Pasha of Moosh having 
advanced to Grrakon, the Prince determined to attack 
him, and on the following day defeated him, with a loss 
of 600 men, his own casualties amounting to sixty- 
seven. On the 28th, finding that the Pasha of Van 
was rousing all the Kurds in his district, and fearing 
that his communications might be cut off*, he retired on 



PASEIEWITGS'S BRILLIANT CAMPAIOK 433 

Bayazid. Winter now setting in, Paskiewitch felt that 
Ids forces were far too weak to attempt the subjugation 
of Erzeroum in one campaign. He therefore left 
strong garrisons in the principal towns, and returned 
with the main portion of his army to Eussian 
territory. General Berbutoff was left in command at 
Akhalzik with 2,300 infantry, 326 cavalry, and four 
guns. Bergmann was left at Kars with 2,400 infantry, 
and 280 cavalry, and twelve guns ; whilst Pankratieff 
occupied Bayazid and the neighbouring towns with 
8,000 men, 376 cavalry, and eighteen guns. Thus, 
with a force of 20,000 infantry, 5,000 cavalry, and 
ninety-six guns, Paskiewitch had completely conquered 
the provinces of Kars, Akhalzik, Bayazid, and Poti in 
the short space of J&ve months, had captured three 
fortresses and several fortified towns, 313 guns, and 
8,000 prisoners graced the Eussian General's triumph, 
whilst his own casualties only amounted to 3,200 killed 
and wounded. As may be imagined, the greatest con- 
sternation reigned at Constantinople. On learning of 
the reverses in Armenia, the generals in command were 
immediately disgraced, and two new officers who were 
in favour at court were sent to supersede them. 

Every effort was made to raise the army in Anatolia. 
Envoys were sent to Persia to endeavour to draw her into 
the war, and emissaries were despatched to Abkhasia, 
Ghuriel, and Mingrelia, to stir up revolt there. 

The plan of the new Turkish Generals Salegh and 
Hakki Pashas was as follows. An army of 80,000 men 
and 66 guns was to be massed at Erzeroum, and 
advanced via the Soghanly range on Kars; whilst a 
second army of 50,000 men and 50 guns was to be 
massed on Van to act on the Eussian flank, 
c c 



434 THE CAMPAIGN IN ABMENIA. 

In February, Paskiewitch heard that the Turks were 
advancing on Akhalzik, and he at once detached Moura- 
vieff to Suram with six battalions and eighteen guns 
to cover that fortress, whilst General Hesse was directed 
to suppress the insurrection in Ghuriel as promptly 
as possible. 

On the 28th of February, Osman Bey entered the city 
of Akhalzik. The garrison retired into the citadel, and 
there succeeded in keeping him at bay. The Turks, 
with their usual ferocity, commenced a system of 
carnage, and, as at Bayazid in these latter days, so at 
Akhalzik in 1829, every Christian inhabitant was slain. 

Mouravieff in the meantime pushed forward with all 
vigour to relieve the place, and on the 28th attacked the 
Turks, defeated them with a loss of 3,000 men, and 
relieved the garrison. 

Hesse, after some sharp skirmishes in which his 
casualties amounted to 187 men, succeeded in sup- 
pressing the rebellion in Ghuriel. The snow having 
cleared away, and the roads being tolerably practic-^ 
able for troops, in April Paskiewitch determined to 
renew his operations for the subjugation of Erzeroum. 
PankratiefE, at Bayazid, was directed to proceed with 
four battalions and twelve guns to Katchewenk on the 
Arpa-Tchai, whilst Paskiewitch, on the 19th of May, 
having settled the difficulty with Persia, rejoined head- 
quarters at Akhalkalaki, and none too soon, for he here 
learnt that the Turks had 15,000 men near Ardahan, 
marching to the relief of that fortress, whilst 50,000 
men were at Hassan Kale, on the western slopes of the 
Soghanly Dagh. 

On the 25th of May,Pankratieff was directed to march 
on Karadjuran, near Kars, to cover that fortress. Paskie- 



PA8KIEWIT0H ADVANCES ON EEZEROUM. 435 

witch, at the same time pushed forward to Beghli Ahmed. 
Salegh Pasha had now reached the Soghanly. Finding 
that the majority of the Eussians were at Kars, he deter- 
mined to move towards Akhalzik, Mouravieff was sent to 
counteract this movement to Tsurskabj and on the 2nd 
of June this general attacked the Turkish forces, de- 
feated them, and took one gun and 1,200 prisoners. 
The Osmanli being thus checked on their advance on 
the northern road, Paskiewitch felt free to concentrate 
all his troops and advance on Erzeroum. This move- 
ment was carried out in three columns, the right under 
the command of Mouravieff, the left under the command of 
Pankratieff, and the third under the Commander-in-Chief; 
the two roads leading from Kars and Erzeroum diverge 
at Kotanli and meet again at Kuipri Kui, the first or 
southernmost road passing through Sara Kamysh, Melli- 
dooz, and Khorassan, whilst the second or northernmost 
road passes by Deli Mussa, Kara Orghan, and Zewin. 
Salegh Pasha, at the head of the main body of the Turkish 
army, barred the northernmost road on the Zewin Dooz ; 
whilst Hakki Pasha, with 1,300 infantry, 7,000 cavalry, 
and sixteen guns, took up the entrenched position on the 
Mellidooz plateau. Just where the road ascends from 
the Sara Kamysh defile, a knoll in the centre of the plateau 
commands all the roads, and this was strongly en- 
trenched by the Turks. On the 11th of June, Paskie- 
witch, who determined to advance by the northern road, 
sent forward strong parties of cavalry to patrol the 
Sara Kamysh defile, and thus drew off attention from his 
main attack. Burtsoff, with 2,000 infantry, was now 
sent into the defile, whilst the Commander-in-Chief, 
with 14,000 men and fifty guns, moved towards the 
Tchakir Baba. On the 13th of June, Burtsoff made a 
c c 2 



436 THE CAMPAIGN IN AHMENIA. 

threatened attack on Hakki Pasha's camp. Fearing as- 
sault, tjiis general drew in all the outposts, and thus the 
Eussian Commander-in-Chief was enabled to cross the 
Soghanly Eange without firing a shot. On the 17th 
inst., however, Osman Pasha, with 1,200 men, was 
detached to Bardez to reconnoitre, and on the 17th he 
was attacked by Mouravieff and driven back, not on his 
own army, but on Salegh Pasha's forces at Zewin. 
Further concealment now was useless, and Paskiewitch 
determined to attack the Turkish Commander-in-Chief, 
who was posted on the Zewin plateau with 40,000 men. 
Pankratieff was sent to the left bank of the Chansu to 
prevent Hakki Pasha falling back and joining his chief, 
and Burtsoff was warned to attack the Mellidooz position 
directly the Turks showed any disposition to abandon 
it. On the 19th, Paskiewitch, passing through Kanli, 
descended towards Zewin; Salegh Pasha advanced to meet 
him, but was driven back into his entrenched position, 
which was immediately attacked by the Bussians, who 
drove the Turks off in complete disorder, captured 
500 prisoners, and twelve guns. The following day, 
Paskiewitch, leaving a force at Zewin, and crossing the 
Chansu, ascended by Kara Orghan to attack Hakki 
Pasha at Mellidooz. After a sharp fight, the Turks 
were defeated, the commander and fifteen guns being 
taken. 

Being aware that promptitude constitutes half the 
battle in fighting with Oriental nations, Paskiewitch 
immediately set off in pursuit of the Turks, and on the 
23rd inst. reached Kuipri Kui, which he found to have 
been abandoned. He at once placed himself at the head 
of a flying column of cavalry, eighteen horse-artillery 
guns, and dashed on Hassan Kale. So close was the 






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AHMENIA TWICE CONQJJEBED, TWICE CEDED, 437 

pursuit, that Selegh Pasha had only just time to escape 
from the place, leaving twenty -nine guns in the hands 
of the Eussians. On the 24th the whole of the Eussian 
army concentrated at Hassan Kale, and a parlementaire 
was sent in to the Grovernor of Erzeroum, demanding its 
surrender. This was refused ; so on the 25th Paskie- 
witch advanced to the Nabitchai stream, and on the 27th 
seized the Devi Boyun heights unmolested. On the 
28th the city surrendered, a slight skirmish taking place 
between the excited soldiery in the citadel and the 
Eussian troops as they entered the town, 150 guns, four 
Pashas, and about eight . thousand prisoners falling into 
the hands of the Eussian General. Thus, in five short 
weeks from the commencement of the campaign, Paskie- 
witch had been enabled^ to effect his object. He sub- 
sequently advanced towards Trebizond, and occupied 
Baiboort. Insurrections among the Lazis, however, 
broke out, and this, coupled with the badness of the 
roads, prevented him advancing further than Gumish 
Khane. In August, the treaty of Adrianople having 
been signed, the Eussians evacuated all the conquered 
provinces with the exception of Akhalzik, Akhalkalaki, 
and Kars. 

The frontier-line was laid down afresh, and has 
remained unaltered since those days. In the war of 
1855, Kars capitulated to Mouravieff, Paskie witch's lieu- 
tenant ; but by the Treaty of Paris, in 1856, it was 
again ceded to the Turks. It is not my province to 
speculate on the future of Armenia, but I doubt if an 
instance has occurred in the history of any nation of a 
province twice conquered at the point of the sword, 
having been twice ceded by a stroke of the pen. 



APPENDIX A. 

Organisation op Turkish Army. 

1. Tabular Statement of Regular Troops on War Footing. 

2. „ „ Reserve Troops, completely organised. 

3. „ „ Field Artillery. 

4. „ ,, Cavalry. 

Siege Artillery. 
Regular Infantry. 
Reserve Troops without cadres. 
Engineers. 



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„ Field Artillery. 

„ Mountain Artillery. 

Cavalry Regiment* 
Company ^of Engineers. 
Regiment of Infantry. 

15. Scale of Pay of Officers. 

16. „ „ Non-conunissioned Officers and Men. 

17. Tabular Statement of Military Districts. 



440 



THE CAMPAIGN IN ARMENIA, 



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APPENDIX A, 



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442 



THE CAMPAIGN IN ARMENIA. 



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•2 






JO -0 


ii 


I-H 


(M 


CO 


-^ 


o 


CO 


t^ 





APPENDIX A. 



U3 











ctive 

[iiad- 

and 










• 










03 '-'^ rt 










1 










H «« a 




























«S 










C*^ be 00 


• 

00 








o 
o 










1 fl "^ 


m 








9 










f^ 00 »H 


M 

o 








8 










!zi 










a 










• 
00 


io o 


CO 


CO 


CO 


00 




1:^ 


^* 






0) 
09 


CO t^ 


i:^ 


1:^ 


t- 


00 


« 


Cm 

CO 

0% 


M 






Ik 


lO »— 1 


T— • 


1—1 


»— 1 


o 


« 


^^ 






o 


»« «> 


V\ 


•\ 


•N 


•N 


• 


1ft 

(?q 


3 




■i 
1 


w 


CO -?*< 


^ 


^ 


^ 


(N 




'^ 




















1 

03 


• 


t- o 


O 


O 


o 


o 




o 






s 


CO C£> 


CO 


CO 


CO 


CO 


• 


M 






^ 


O 00 


00 


00 


00 


Oi 


* 








CO CO 


CO 


CO 


CO 


l-H 


• 


CO 


t 




















&« 




• 

DO 














J>» 


o 


a 




o 


CO C<l 


C<l 


<M 


(M 


CO 
05 


• 


lO 




® 




S 


05 Oi 


oa 


Oi 


Oi 


• 


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H 


u 




o 


CO »-H 


1— 1 


l-H 


l-H 


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m 


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w 






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I— 1 


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o 


















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o 




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CO r-l 


1-H 


f-H 


T— 1 


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< 


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• 

w 


cq '^ 


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f^ 


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o 


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m^ 


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p^ 




1 


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CO CO 


CO 


CO 


CO 


l-H 




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fo 




es 
















o 




rC 


















^^ 






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o 


O 


o 


o 










o 
Q 


a 


CO <M 






1^- 


CO 
00 


• 
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cj 






»» »« 


«\ 


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•v 


•s 




d 








lO CO 


CO 


CO 


CO 


i-H 






rl 








































Pi 


• 


•BUOip-BUbg 


CO (M 








1—t 


• 
• 
• 


r-l 


^ 

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0) 


















g 


















1 


sl 


'B^uBmiSo-jg^ 


t* >:H 


-«!»< 


-<4^ 


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• 
• 
• 


cq 






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<» : 


• 




• 


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<— < . 


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* 


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0/ 


1 


1 


1 


1 


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1 


1 


bo 

1 

3 


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is 




1 


1 


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1 






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rajy^p sdjoQ 




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i' 


D jeqin- 


n^ 


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CO 


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lO 


CO 


t- 





444 



THE CAMPAIGN IN ABMENIA. 






pi] 



IT" 



o 



(K4 
O 

H 

< 

e:5 









"^ fl fl fl © o 


05 ca 












ia Force 
1 of expa 
Redif a 
hfiz gn 
ing draft 
in time 


00 O 












almo 
edam 












capable 
sion — 
Mnsta 
ners be: 
into it 


war to 
unlimit 












^ 












o 


CO T-H "^ 


Oi 




^ 


I— ( 


•snnjc) 93eig 


o 


lO CO l>- 
(M ir- 00 

I— I 


T— 1 


• 
• 
• 


o 


r— I 
CO 






o 


o o o 


o 




o 


o 




d 


o 


O lO o 


lO 




XO 


lO 




^ 


^ 


O r-H CO 


-^ 


• 


i:^ 


CO 


^4 


% 




#V WN, ^\ 

CO CO CO 




• 






o3 bo 
1 •> f-i 




I— t 










CI 


o a» 


t 
to 


00 


O CO <M 


Ci 


• 


iO 


1^- 


JZ2 


o 


00 


CO CO t^ 




• 


I— 1 


o 




m 


<M 






• 




lO 




O 














■sera'Bdnio;^ jo 'o^ 




O 1— 1 -^ 
(M C<? <M 


CO 


■ 
• 


lO 


05 
CO 

l-H 




fl 


o 


o o o 


o 


« 


o 


o 


© >l> 


1 


lO 


to o »o 


lO 


• 


lO 


o 


•^ 03 ea 


>— 1 


r-H j-H 1— 1 


l-H 


• 


1—1 


Oi 


EfPec 
of 
Comp 
















09 
f-t 
<X) 


CO 


CO CO CO 


CO 


• 
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CO 


00 




Sfl 








• 




l-H 




o 
















• 


• • « 

• • • 

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• 
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a 
• 


■ 
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rd 


CO 












bo 


s s 




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• 


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a 


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o 














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H a 


02 






d 








Monasti 
Erzerou 


i 


be 


<D 


H 


f 


o 

o 


ft 


eg 


(D 




•9arajy;p edjoo 


-+i 


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rd 


pd 


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JO -ovr 


CO 


-p 


h3 


':+3 




V X 


^ 


l-H 


cq CO "^ 


iO 


^ 


!>• 





APPENDIX A. 



445 



55 



3 

M 

O 

o 

» 
O 

W 

O 
525 

m 
to 

cq 

e5 





•sunf) 


'«J' 


oq 


CO 


cq 


cq 


O 


O 


CO 




nraq-unoj^ 


tH 


lH 


tH 


I-H 


1—1 


rH 


iH 


00 


• 


0) 


CO 


t3» 


O 


-^ 


-* 


lO 


XO 


o 


• 

-4 


A 


in 


oa 


Oi 


00 


OS 


Oi 


OS 


OS 


XO 


"B 


s 


CD 


JO 


OS 


to 


XO 


r}« 


''J* 


'^ 


O 


-§ 


w 
















'^ 






















^ 




00 


-^ 


-* 


''ft 


-* 


o 


O 


"f 






g 


<M 


cq 


«3 


cq 


cq 


cq 


cq 


OS 






00 


-^ 


CO 


"f 


"* 


o 


o 


-^ 




•% 


•k 


#k 


•« 


•» 


•\ 


A 


9% 




1o 


s 


CO 


o 


^ 


o 


o 


!>. 


t* 


CO 




E4 


(N 


cq 


CO 


cq 


cq 


1-i 


1-t 


XO 






















rH 




•snnf) 




cq 


CO 


cq 


cq 

- -« 


O 


o 


CO 
00 




ui'wjimou 


r^ 


i~i 


rn 


^^ 


ir^ 


^^ 


r^ 




• 

GQ 


Oi 


cq 


CO 


cq 


cq 


XO 


XO 


iH 


2 


^ 




00 


CO 


tH 


CO 


CO 


CO 


CO 


CO 




on- 


(4 

o 


iH 


iH 


d 


»H 


t-l 


iH 


tH 




DO 

to 


4 


U 
















T-i 




















d 


JO 


• 


CO 


00 


'<S» 


00 


00 


o 


o 


^ 


H 


^ 


d 


CO 


cq 


o 


cq 


cq 


OS 


OS 


CO 


O 


fn 


a> 


00 


o 


CO 


o 


o 


1-i 


r-i 


OS 




r^ 


^ 


U5 




CO 


JO 


lO 


0% 


0S 


XO 
CO 


•SUOllW^-Ba 


1> 


CO 


00 


CO 


CO 


XO 


XO 


CO 






s 


-«? 


cq 


OS 


cq 


cq 


o 


o 


OS 






m 


o 


CO 


CO 


CO 


CO 


CO 


CO 


00 






O 


JO 


^ 


1> 


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CO 


CO 


cq 




3 


w 
















CO 


























<M 


CO 


o 


CO 


CO 


o 


o 


o 




H 


• 

a 


CO 


OS 


xo 


OS 


OS 


CO 


CO 


CO 






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CO 


l> 


CO 


CO 


00 


00 


lO 






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M 


*\ 


n 


9% 


n 


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^ 


t* 


lO 


t* 


lO 


lO 


cq 


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W 


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r* 


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t^ 


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fH 




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OQ 


• 
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lO 


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o 


o 


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lO 


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^ 




c» 


rH 


lo 


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cq 


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cq 






1^ 


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lO 


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00 
CO 




« 






















9 


Oi 


cq 


OS 


CI 


cq 


XO 


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s 


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^ 


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00 


00 


x? 




o 


1 


CO 


CO 


CO 


CO 


CO 


cq 


cq 


CO 




-4J 
























t* 


CO 


o 


CO 


CO 


xO 


XO 


XO 




-s 


fl 


CO 


00 


o 


00 


00 


O 


o 


CO 




m 


0) 


CO 


00 


OS 


00 


00 


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l> 




^ 


m\ 


•% 


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#% 


•* 


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C" 


"* 


CO 


'* 


-«? 


cq 


cq 


CO 








1-1 


I-H 


01 


rH 


iH 


rH 


iH 


rH 


•buoh'b:j:^'B5 


r-l 


00 

1-1 


CO 
CO 


00 


00 


XO 


XO 

r-t 


00 

CO 

1-i 


•si^uannSaa 


'^ 


CO 


o 

1-i 


CO 


CO 


XO 


XO 


XO 




• 


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■ 


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• 


• 


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• 


m 


« 


• 


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m 


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9 
















a 


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s« 
















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g 


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m 




ta 


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1 

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1 




i 


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o 

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B 
B 






o 


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w 


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03 






:$ 


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rB 


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I-H 


cq 


CO 


-* 


"5 


CO 


i> 





440 



THE CAMPAIGN IN ARMENIA. 



O 

1-4 
t^ 

o 

Eh 
5zi 

» 

QQ 

1-4 

< 

O 

>^ . 

^ 8 
« O 



03 

Hi 



O 



^ ^ 



O 



Ec] 

» 
Eh 

O 

5z; 

E£| 
Eh 

< 

e3 







o 


o 


O 


o 


o 


o 




o 


o 






o 


o 


o 


o 


o 


o 




o 


o 




•q!^3n9j:^g 


00 
CD 


o 

00 






CO 


uo 


• 
■ 


CO 


CO 


• 




»o 


CO 


CO 


CO 


id 


CO 




(M 


l-H 






I— 1 


f-H 


p— 1 


l-H 










l^- 


H 


























CO 


o 


^ 


00 


(M 


-^ 


a 


CO 


!>■ 




•snoT^t'B^'Ba; 


05 


I— 1 


J:^ 


CO 


Ir- 


''f 


• 


CO 


C3i 






I— t 


<M 


l-H 


r— ( 










00 






o 


o 


o 


o 


o 


o 




o 


o 






o 


o 


o 


o 


o 


o 




o 


O 


6 


•T[q5a9j;^g 


CO 


o 


CO 


00 




(M 


• 
• 


-* 


00 




1:- 


CO 


1—1 


CM 


Ci 


Ci 


■ 


<?q 


00 


CD 




»— 1 


Oi 


00 


iO 


I— 1 


l-H 






00 


CO 




1— ( 
















CO 






















^3 


- 


t^ 


o 


crq 


CO 


'^ 


^ 


• 


CO 


CO 


CO 


•snoT{i'B:^'Ba; 


1— 1 


cq 

r— I 


o 

I— I 


CO 


CM 


(M 


• 
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00 






O 


O 


o 


o 


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o 


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00 


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00 


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CO 






1— 1 


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cq 


cq 


cq 






r-H 


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PI 


■ ^i«^ ^^^"^p^nrtn m^*w* 


l-H 


CO 


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00 


CO 


(M 


•iU0TYI^!^^9. 


CM 


CO 


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l-H 


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rH 






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o 






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CM 


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c^ 


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cq 


T*< 


CO 


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r-4 








00 






















l-H 


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l-H 


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00 

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CO 
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00 

l-H 


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l-H 


• 
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l-H 


00 
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mmk • 


• 
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• 
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• 
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• 


» 


* 


. 


• 


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o 




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o 

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p 






1—1 

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ni 


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^ 


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fo -ON 


CO 

1— 1 


CO 


+3 




CO 


-p 
*> 


** 





APPENDIX A, 



447 



w 

OQ 

1-4 
Pi 

H 



(Hi 
H 

o 

O 

H 



n 

e2 





1 










» 










1—4 


o 


'* 


t- 


t^ 


t- 


t^ 


!>. 


OS 


ce 


00 


t* 


00 


00 


00 


00 


00 


00 


"S 


'^ 


CO 


r^ 


r- 1 


r-t 


1— t 


l-H 


!>- 


H 
















00 




s 


o 


cq 


r^ 


j-H 


i-H 


l-H 


f-H 


t* 




xj< 


CO 


00 


00 


00 


00 


00 







s 




CQ 


i-H 


l-H 


f-H 


r-i 


»-H 


10 


• 




t* 














00 


^ 




















^ 


































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® 




















M 




















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CQ 


QD 




















© 


o 


cq 


CO 


CO 


CO 


CO 


CO 


(M 




1 


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r-( 












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o 


















■ 


















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's'a 


















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l-H 


F-H 


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43 


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5Zi ^ 




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lO 


CO 


l> 


» 





448 



THE CAMPAIGN IN ARMENIA. 



Establishment of a Battery of Horse Artillery. 



Captain ... 
Secretary... 
First Lieutenant. 



Second Lieutenants 



Sergeant-Maj or ... 



Sergeants 



Quartermaster-Sergeant 
Bombadiers 



Gunners ... 
Drivers . . . 
Trumpeters 
"Water-carrier 



Ordnance Corps Private 
Farriers . . . 



Saddler ... 
Wagon-maker 
Carpenter 
Armourer 



Men. 



1 

2 
1 
8 
1 
12 
54 
42 
3 
1 
1 
2 
1 
1 
1 
1 



133 



Saddle 
Horses. 



1 



1 

2 
1 
8 
1 
6 
54 



3 
1 
1 
2 
1 



82 



Draught 
Horses. 



Mules. 



60 



60 



A Battery has Six Guns (either of four or six Pfund weight), Krupp's steel breech- 
loading guns ; one Ammunition Wagon, one Baggage Wagon, one Forge, 
completes the establishment. 



APPENDIX A. 



449 



Establishment of a Battery of Field Artillery. 



Captain . . . 
First Lieutenant 



Second Lieutenants 



Sergeant-Maj or ... 
Sergeants ... 
Quartermaster-Sergeant 



Bombadiers 



Gunners 



Drivers . . . 



Trumpeters 
"Water-carrier 
Ordnance Corps Private 



Farrier 
Wheelwright 
Carpenter... 
Armourer 
Saddler . . . 



Men. 



1 
1 

2 

1 

8 

1 

12 

54 

42 

3 



132 



Saddle 
Horses. 



1 
1 

2 
1 
8 



1 



1 



1 



19 



Draught 
Horses 



60 



Mules. 



60 



1 
5 



The Battery has Six Guns. As a rule these are Krupp's steel breech-loa ini-; 
sii-Pfiinder rifled pieces. Some batteries are armed with the four-Pf under. 
One Ammunition Wagon, one Baggage Wagon, one Forge, completes the 
establishment. 

D D 



450 



TEJE CAMPAIGN IN ARMENIA. 



Establishment of a Mountain Battery. 





Men. 


Saddle 
Horses. 


!Miiles. 




A*^L VA.A\^H * 


Captain 


1 


1 




First Tiieutenant 


1 


1 




Second Lieutenants... 


2 


2 




Sergeant-Maj or 


1 






Sergeants 


8 






Quartermaster-Sergeant 


1 






Bombadiers ... 


12 




• • • 


Gunners 


36 






Drivers 


18 




18 


Trumpeters ... 


3 




• • • 


Water-carrier 






1 


Ordnance Corps Private 




1 


5 


Farrier ... 








Saddlemaker 








Wheelwright 








Carpenter ... 








Armourer ... 










90 


5 


24 



APFENBIX 


A. 




451 


Establishment of a 


Turkish 


Cavalry 


Regiment. 


■ 


Regimental Strength. 


Squadron 


Strength. 




Men. 


Horses. 


Men. 


Horses. 


Colonel 


1 


3 


• • • 


• • • 


Lieutenant-Colonel 


1 


2 


* • • 


• « • 


Squadron Commanders ... 


2 


4 


« • • 


■ • ft 


Major on the Staff 


1 


2 


• < • 


• « • 


Regimental Secretary 


1 


2 


• . • 


« • • 


Adj utants-Maj or . . . 


2 


4 


• a • 


• « ■ 


Secretary of 2nd Class , . . 


1 


2 




« • 


Assistant Secretary 


1 


1 




* ■ • 


Paymasters 


2 


2 


• • ■ 


• • • 


Standard-bearer ... 


1 


2 


« • • 


p « » 


Veterinary Surgeons 


3 


4 




a « • 


Physician ranking with 










Lieut. -Colonel ... 


1 


2 


« • • 


a a • 


Physicians ranking with 










Major ... 


2 


2 


* 9 m 


• ■ • 


Physicians ranking with 










Adj utant-Maj or 


2 


2 


• ■ ft 


• • % 


Physician ranking with 










Captains 


1 


1 


■ • • 


• • a 


Surgeons of the 1st Class. . 


1 


1 


» ■ • 


a « • 


„ „ 2nd Class.. 


2 


2 


• • & 


a • ■ 


Armoiirer 


1 


1 


• • • 


a « • 


Master Saddler ... 


1 


1 


• • « 


• a • 


,-, Farrier 


1 


1 


• • ■ 


• a * 


Riding Master 


1 


1 


• • • 


• a « 


First Captains ... 


6 


6 


1 


1 


Second Captains ... 


6 


6 


1 


1 


First Lieutenants 


6 


6 


1 


1 


Second Lieutenants 


6 


6 


1 


1 


Sub-Lieutenants ... 


12 


12 


2 


2 


Sergeants 


60 


60 


10 


10 


Corporals 


96 


96 


16 


16 


Privates 


672 


672 


112 


112 


Water-carriers ... 


12 


12 


2 


2 


Musicians 


30 


30 


5 


5 


Saddlers 


6 


6 


1 


1 


Total strength 


941 


954 


152 


152 



D D 2 



452 



THE CAMPAIGN IN ARMENIA, 



Establishment of a Company of Engineers. 



Major in Command . . . 

Secretary 

Paymaster 

Surgeon 

Captains 

First Lieutenant 

Second Lieutenant 

Sub-Lieutenant 

Sergeant-Maj or 

Sergeants 

Quartermaster-Sergeant 

Corporals 

Privates 

Musicians 

"Wheel wriglit ... 

Carpenter 

Saddler 

Water-carriers 



12 
1 
12 
144 
3 
1 
1 
1 
2 



187 



Although laid down in the Haiti -Honmayoun of 1869, Engineers do not 
exist in all the corps of the Turkish army. In the fourth there were none, 
except a few mechanics in Erzeroum. Nominally each corps has a, battalion of 
eight companies, the first, or Constantinople army, having three battalions, one 
a pontoon corps, the other two sappers. 



APPENDIX A, 



453 



Establishment of a Turkish Infantry Regiment. 







L 

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& 

1 


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^§ 


'd § 


• 


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§i 

fit 

• • • 


: Firs 
Batalli 


: Secot 
Batalli 


: Thir 
Batalli 






Com 
Organi 


Colonel 






Lieuten an t-Colonel 




1 


• * • 


• « • 


• • ■ 


• • « 




Chief of BataUions ... 




• • • 


1 


1 


1 


1 




Major on the Staff. . . 




1 


• • • 


• • • 


• « • 


• • • 




Paymaster-in-Chief 




1 


• • • 


• • • 


• • • 


• • • 




Regimental Secretary 




1 


• • « 


• • • 


• • • 


• • • 




Adjuta,n ts-Maj or . . . 




* • « 


2 


2 


2 


2 




BataUion Secretaries 




• • • 


1 


1 


1 


1 




Assistant Secretaries 




• • • 


1 


1 


1 


1 




Paymasters of Ilatallions ... 




• • • 


1 


1 


1 


1 




Standard-bearer 




1 


« • • 


■ • • 


• • 


• • « 




Regimental Physician 




1 


• « « 


• • • 


« • • 


• • • 




Doctor ranking with Chief of Ba- 














tallion ... ... •«.. 


. ■ . 


• • • 


1 


1 


1 


1 




Physician to Right Half Batallion 


• • ■ 


1 


1 


• « « 


• » • 




„ to Left H alf BataUioE 


L ... 


• • • 


• • • 


• * • 


1 


1 




,, ranking as Captain 


... 


■ • ■ 


1 


• • • 


• fe • 


1 




Surgeon-in-Cliief ... 


. .• 


• • • 


1 


1 


• ■ • 


• • • 




Assistant Surgeons 


... 


• • • 


• « • 


« « • 


1 


1 




Armourers... 


• •• 


• • • 


1 


1 


1 


1 




Regimental Musicians 


... 


80 


* • » 


• ■ • 


* • • 


• . » 




Batallion Musicians 


. « • 


• « • 


33 


33 


33 


33 


4 


Capta.ina ... 




• « ■ 


• ■ • 


8 


8 


8 


8 


1 


Lieutenants 




... 


• • • 


8 


8 


8 


8 


1 


Sub-Lieutenants .. 




... 


« • • 


8 


8 


8 


8 


1 


Sergeants-Major . 




... 


• • • 


8 


8 


8 


8 


1 


Sergeants ... 




... 


• « • 


40 


32 


32 


32 


4 


Corporals ... 




... 


mm m 


64 


64 


64 


64 


8 


Privates ... 




... 


• • « 


640 


640 


640 


640 


80 


Water-cai'riers 




• • . 


• • • 


8 


8 


8 


8 


1 

• 


Total strength 


• • • 


87 


828 


819 


819 


819 


101 



454 



TEE CAMPAIGN IN ABMENIA. 



Annual Scale of Pay Received by the Officers op the 

Turkish Army. 



grade. 


£ s. 


d. ^ 




Marshal Commanding First Corps . 


5,637 12 


6 




„ „ other Corps 


5,421 2 


6 




Tiieutenant-General of all arms . . . 


1,302 3 


4 




Major-General „ 


725 2 


6 




Colonel „ 


391 7 


6 




Lieutenant-Colonel „ 


269 1 


8 




Chief of Battalion or Squadron ... 


197 14 


2 




Major on the Staff 


133 19 


2 


) Commissioned 


Kegirnental Paymaster ... 


131 10 





Officers. 


Adjutant-Major of Right Wing or 








Squadron 


110 8 


4 




Regimental Secretary 


97 19 


6 




Adjutant-Major of Left Wing 


92 9 


2 




Battalion Secretary 


91 11 


8 




„ Paymaster 


65 18 


4 




„ Assista.nt Secretary 


65 18 


W 




CAVALRY. 








First Captain 


73 15 


10 




Second Captain 


62 


10 \ 
4 




First Lieutenant ... 


55 13 




Second Lieutenant 


51 4 


2 




Sub-Lieutenant of First Class 


48 10 







„ „ Second Class ... 


44 16 


8 




ARTILLERY. 








Captain 


70 11 


8 


s Subordinate 


First Lieutenant ... 


53 19 


6 


Officers. 


Second Lieutenant 


49 7 


6 




Third Lieutenant ... 

• 


47 10 


10 




INFANTRY. 








Captain 


70 11 


8 




Lieutenant 


53 19 


6^ 




Sub-Lieutenant 


49 7 





APPENDIX A, 






455 


Monthly Scale of Pay of Non-Commissioned Officers and Men. 


ARTILLERY, 


£ 8. d. 


Sergeani-Major of Battalion ... 






13 9 


Battery Sergeant-Major 






10 6 


„ Quartermaster-Sergeant 






8 9 


Corporal 






7 8 


Gunner of Horse Artillery ... 






6 5 


„ Field or Garrison Artillery 






5 9 


Corporal of Drivers ... 






8 4 


Farrier Sergeant 






13 6 


Saddler Sergeant 






12 2 


Magazine Sergeant ... 






15 3 


Sergeant of Water-carriers ... 






10 6 


Water-carrier 






7 6 


Trumpet-Major 






13 8 


Trumpeter 






7 6 


CAVALRY. 




Regimental Sergeant-Major ... 






12 3 


Quartermaster-Sergeant 






9 1 


Troop Sergeant-Major 






8 4 


Corporal .., 






7 6 


Private 






6 4 


Farrier Sergeant 






13 6 


Saddler Sergeant 






12 2 


Corporal of Water-carriers ... 






8 4 


Water-carrier 






7 6 


I Regimental Trumpet-Major ... 






13 6 


Squadron Trumpet-Major 






8 4 


Trumpeter 






7 6 


INFANTRY. 




Battalion Sergeant-Major 






13 8 


Quartermaster-Sergeant 






10 6 


Sergeant 






9 


Corporal 






7 6 


Private ... 






5 9 


Water-carrier 






5 9 


I»u^le-Major of Iiegiment 






13 6 


Battalion Bugle-Major 






10 6 


Bugler 






8 2 


Drummer or Fifer 






5 9 



456 



THE CAMPAIGN IN ARMENIA. 






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• APPENDIX A. 



457 



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APPENDIX B. 

Russian Army Organisation. 

1. Cavalry Organisation. 

2. Artillery „ 

3. Engineer „ 

4. Infantry „ 

5. Pay of Officers. 

6. „ Non-Commissioned Officers and Men. 

7. General Statement of Russian Forces. 



The cavalry of the Russian army consists of two divisions of cavalry 
of the Guard, seven of the Line, and one of the Caucasus ; the first 
division of the Guard contains seven regiments, that of the Caucasus 
four, all other six regiments. Each is composed of four squadrons ; 
thus there are 56 regiments, or 224 squadrons, of regular cavalry in 
the army. With the exception of those of the Guard and of the 
Caucasus, each division consists of two regiments of dragoons, two 
of lancers, and two of hussars. 

All dragoons, and the rear rank in hussar and lancer regiments, 
are armed with Berdan's breech-loading carbine. Cuirassiers, 
hussars, and lancers, and all non-commissioned officers, with Smith 
and Wesson's breech-loading revolver. Dragoons are armed with a 
long rifle of the Kiinker converted pattern — eventually they will be 
served out with Berdan's — they carry 32 rounds each. All mounted 
troops wear a sabre, varying in shape and weight for the different 
branches. 

There are two establishments for cavalry, namely, the War, and 
the Peace; in the former there are 128 men per squadron, in the 
latter 112 men. 



460 



THE CAMPAIGN IN ARMENIA. 



Authorised War Establishment op a Russian Cavalry 

Regiment. 





Regiment. 


Squadron. 




OfEcei' Commanding 


1 


• • • 


Lieutenant-Colonels 


2 






Regimental Adjutant ... 








„ Paymaster... 








,j Quartermaster 








„ Instructor at Arms 


J 






Officer commanding Non-Combatants ... 








Trumpet-Major ... 








Senior Surgeon ... 








Junior Surgeon... 








Veterinary Surgeon 








Chaplain... 








Squadron Commander ... 


4 


1 


Captain ... 


4 


1 


Staff-Captain 


4 


1 


Lieutenants 


8 


2 


Cornets ... 


8 


2 


Senior Sergeants-Major... 


4 


1 


Cadets ... 


8 


2 


Junior Sergeants-Major 


16 


4 


Non-commissioned Officers 


56 


14 


Trumpeters 


16 


4 


Privates ... 


672 


168 


Officers' Servants 


28 


7 




841 


207 



APPENDIX B. 461 



Artillery Organisation. 

The generally recognised constitution of a brigade of artillery is 
four batteries of eight guns each. To each division of infantry there 
is attached a brigade, consisting of two 9-pf Unders and two 4-pf tinders. 
The Grenadier Artillery Brigade of the Caucasus has three mountain 
batteries in addition, and 19th, 20th, and 21st Caucasian Divisions 
have an extra 4:-pfibider battery attached to them. 

The Horse Artillery Brigade of the Guard consists of five 
4-pfunder batteries. The other seven Horse Brigades have but two 
batteries of the same caKbre : there are thus — 

48 Batteries, rifled ... ... 9-pfunders, 

105 „ „ ... ... 4-pftinders, 

4 „ „ ... ... 3-pf tinders, 

18 Horse Batteries, rifled ... 4-pfiinders, 

and it is intended to raise 50 mitrailleuse batteries. The guns are 
mostly bronze, Krupp's breech-loaders, the weight of the 4-pfiinders 
being 6| cwt., of the 9-pfunders, 12 J. The smaller gun carries 130, 
the larger 120 rounds of ammunition. The fuzes are mostly per- 
cussion ; the time-fuze is, however, being rapidly introduced into the 
service. The larger gun is frequently used as a siege piece, its pro- 
jectile weighing 30 lbs. All non-commissioned officers and gunners 
are armed with short dragoon sword and breech-loading revolver, for 
which they carry 12 rounds in a small pouch. 



462 



THE CAMPAIGN IN ARMENIA. 






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APPENDIX B. 



463 



Organisation of Engineers. 

Tlie Corps of Engineers in the Russian army consists of " Sappers 
and Miners" and " Pontoniers ; " the former include engineer field 
parks, siege parks, telegraph parks, whilst the latter merely the 
bridging corps. There are 11 battalions of sappers, and six half- 
battalions of pontpniers; each of these latter carries sufficient 
pontoon boats to make a bridge 700 feet in length. As in the 
infantry, so in the sappers, each battalion is composed of four com- 
panies ; the peace and war establishment being entirely distinct. 

Authorised Establishment of a Battalion of Sappers and 

Miners. 







Battalion. 








Cumpany. 


Colon«l Commanding ... 






• • • 


Lieutenant^Colonel 










Battalion Adjutant 










„ Paymaster 










„ Quartermaster 










Instructor in A rms 










Administrative Officers ... 




2 






Battalion Drummer 










„ Bugler 










Senior Surgeon ... 










Junior „ 










Captains 




4 


1 


Subalterns 




16 


4 


Cadets 




4 


1 


Sergeants-Maj or 




4 


1 


Senior Non-Commissioned Officers 


16 


4 


J^i^or „ „ 


56 


14 


Sappers and Miners 


832 


208 


Drummers 


12 


3 


Buglers 


12 


3 


Officers' Servants 


20 


5 






988 


244 



464 



THE CAMPAIGN IN ARMENIA. 



Authorised War Establishment of a Half-Battalion of 

pontoniers. 







Half 
Battalion. 


Company. 




Colonel Commanding ... 






Battalion Adjutant 






„ Paymaster and Quartermaster 






„ Drummer 






„ Bugler 






Senior Surgeon ... 








Veterinary Surgeon 








Captains ... 




2 




Lieutenants 




2 




Sub-Lieutenants... 




2 




Ensigns ... 




2 




Sergeants-Major... 




2 




Senior Non-Commissioned Officers 




10 


5 


Junior „ „ 




28 


14 


Pontoniers 




240 


120 


Drivers ... 




120 


60 


Drummers 




6 


3 


Buglers ... 




6 


3 


Officers' Servants 




8 


4 






435 


214 



APPEKDIX B. 465 



Russian Infantry. 

The Infantry of tlie Russian army consists of three divisions of 
Guards, four of Grenadiers, 41 of the Line, and seven brigades of 
Rifles \ each division is composed of four regiments, those of the 
Guards numbered according to their division, those of the Grenadiers 
from 1 to 16, whilst those of the Line run from 1 to 164 j the regi- 
ments of regular Rifles are styled numerically from 1 to 20 ; the 
brigades of Turkestan and the Caucasus have territorial designations. 

Each regiment is composed of three battalions except in the case 
of those from 73 to 84 inclusive, which have four battalions. These 
are again subdivided into five companies, four of the Line, one of 
Rifles — ^these latter companies, on service, are amalgamated and form 
an extra battalion styled the Combined Rifle Battalion. 

Battalions have four separate establishments, viz. : — 

1. The War Establishment. 

2. The Increased Peace Establishment. 

3. The Peace Establishment. 

4. The Cadre Establishment. 

I have only given the war strength of all branches in this 
appendix, none other being necessary for the purposes of this work. 

The total strength of the Russian infantry is 188 regiments, 
consisting of 580 battalions, with 32 rifle battalions in addition, 
making a total of 612 battalions of the regular army ; but there are 
also 48 frontier battalions of irregular troops. 

Eventually the whole of the infantry will be armed with the 
Berdan rifle, which as yet, however, has only been served out to the 
division of the Guard, Grenadier division, and Rifle battalions. The 
Krinka and Carle rifles now are the principal weapons in use. 
Every soldier carries, in two pouches, 60 rounds. Forty rounds in 
addition are carried by the regimental train, and 60 more by the 
army reserve train. Non-commissioned officers of line battalions, and 
all ranks in the Guard and Grenadier divisions, carry a short, two- 
edged sword in addition to the bayonet, which is invariably fixed 
when troops are on the move. 



£ E 



466 



THE CAMPAIGN IN ARMENIA. 



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APPENDIX B. 



467 



Pay of Non-Commissioned Officers and Men. 





Guard. 


Line. 




Annual Pay. 


Daily Pay, 


Annual Pay. 


Daily Pay. 




£ 8. d. 


£ 


8. 


d. 


£ 5. 


d. 


£ 


s. d. 


Sergeant-Major ... 


5 15 11 








3f 


3 17 


3 





^ 


Senior JSTon-Com- 


















TniasiOTiefl Officer 


2 15 7 








If 


14 


9 





OJ 


.Junior Non-Com- 


















missioned Officer 


2 U 8 








If 


13 


3 





0.', 


Bombardier and 


















Lance-Corporal 


10 9 








Of 


9 


2 





01 


Private, Drummer, 
















A 


and Bugler ... 13 OJ 








0| 


8 


8 





Oi 



In addition to the above the men receive a "mess allowance," 
varying in amount, but averaging about l^d. per diem, and the 
following rations free — 



Flour 

Barley 

Salt 



2 lbs. 
:Joz. 



EE 2 



468 



THE CAMPAIGN IlSf ARMENIA, 



Authorised Establishment of Infantry Regiment, Battalion, 

AND Company of the Russian Army. 



■ 


Regiment. Battalion. 


Company. 


Hegimental Staff- 








Major-General 


• • • • 








Field Officer for Interior Economy ... 










Executive Field Officer 










Regimental Adjutants ... 










Paymaster 










Quartermaster 










Tnstiiictor in Arms 










Officer in Command of Non-couibatants 










Regimental Drummer ... 










,, Bugler 










Senior Surgeon ... 










Junior Surgeons 


4 








Chaplains 


2 






Battalion Staff. 








Colonels ... 


4 


1 


• • * 


Battalion Adjutants 


4 


1 


• • * 


„ Druinrners 


4 


1 


• « • 


,, Buglers 


4 


1 


• • • 


Oaptams ... ... ... ..• ••» 


20 


5 




Lieutenants 


20 


5 




Sub-Lieutenants ... 


20 


5 




Ensigns ... 


20 


5 




\_/acieiis ... ... ••• «•• ••• 


20 


5 




Sergeants-Major ... 


20 


5 




Senior Non-Commissioned Officers 


80 


20 


4 


Junior ,, „ 


240 


60 


12 


Corporals... 


400 1 


00 


20 


jrri Y axes ... ... ... ... ... 


2,960 7 


40 


148 


Drummers 


60 


15 


3 


a5ugiers ... ••• ... .4. ... 


60 


15 


3 


Officers' Servants 


80 


20 


4 




4,034 1,C 


)04 


,200 



N.B. — Each Company is provided with the following tools: — 12 hatchets, 

6 shovels, 3 picks, 3 axes, 1 scythe. 



APPENDIX C . 

Memorandum on the Nature .of the Armenian Theatre of 
War, as regards Requirements for Military Purposes. 

Roads. 

Trehizond to Erzeroum. — An excellent liill-ro9.d, of an average 
width of twenty-seven feet : it passes over ranges of a height of 
8,000 feet, consequently the gradients in many places are steep, 
but are practicable everywhere for heavy guns. 'Bridges. — All 
the streams are bridged over, and culverts thrown over small 
mountain torrents. .The bridges do not admit of guns or wheeled 
vehicles passing each other. The stages, which are dealt with 
farther on, are somewhat longer than we consider an average 
march, but there is good accommodation for troops at each. 

Erzeroum to Kara, — By no means such a good road as that 
from Trebizond. The ascent to the Devi-Boyxui is steep ; but 
lately it has been eased off, and an excellent gun-road now crosses 
the range : through the Passin plain the road is excellent. Cavalry 
and infantry could march with a wide front on either flank as 
far as Khorassan. Across the Soghanly range there are four 
roads, dealt with later in this Appendix. Neither of these is 
metalled, nor are streams bridged : that vid Ala-kilissa, Bardez, 
and Tcharpakli is the best, but both by it and the Mellidooz, guns 
can be freely moved. 

Eraeroum to Ardahan. — Merely a hill-road, practicable for field 
artillery after some engineering labour. Between Lisgaf and 
Olti there are two routes, that by Id and Narriman being the 
easier. 

Erzeroum to Bayazid. — This branches off from the Kars road 
at Kuipri-Kui, where it crosses the Araxes by a fine masonry 
bridge. The Kose Dagh range may be traversed by four routes, 



470 TSE CAMPAIGN IN ARMENIA. 

that from Delibaba to Zaidikan being the one most generally- 
used, but all are practicable for field-guns. 

Supplies. 

Armenia is a land flowing with milk and honey, with many 
flocks and herds. ' As in India, so here, there is no dearth of 
meat; large quantities of cattle may be procured in every village — 
goats and sheep principally in the mountainous country, kine in 
the plains ; fowls also in abundance. 

Grain. — Maize, wheat, barley, and oats are cultivated, the 
Alashgird, Passin, and Kars plains being the richest districts. For 
a large force the country mills are not numerous enough to turn 
out sufficient flour ; handmills should therefore be carried. 

Forage. — In abundance : the gi-ass and clover are particularly 
rich, especially on the slopes of the Allaghoz and Soghanly ranges. 

Fruit. — Grapes, nectarines, peaches, apples, pears, mulberries, 
filberts, walnuts, melons, are found in various parts, the Thortoom 
and Khagisman districts being perhaps the most famed. 

Vegetables. — Potatoes in and round Trebizond ; beans, pump- 
kins, vegetable marrows, turnips, carrots, onions, in nearly every 
village. 

Firewood. — Only to be found in the mountainous regions near 
Trebizond, and the Soghanly. Tezek, or compressed manure, is 
greatly used for fuel. Its manufacture occupies the Armenians 
all the winter, but quantities sufficient for a large force could 
not be found. 

Strong Drinks. — There is a fair claret to be procured in bulk 
at Kharpootj the supplies at other places are small, being 
imported from Europe. Indeed, such things as wine and brandy 
can only be procured at the large towns. 
Tobacco. — In any quantity, but not good. 

Water. — Plentiful and good ; but the Turkish soldier and camp- 
follower require more supervision even than natives of India to 
keep the supply undefiled» 

Transport. 

Arabas, similar to the Indian bullock-cart, of either two or 
four bullocks. These and pack-ponies could be procured in, I 



APPENDIX 0. 471 

may say, unlimited quantities by employing local agents. Mules 
are dear and not easily found. 

Accommodation. 

The mud, flat-roofed houses, which form the majority of the 
dwelling-places in Armenia, are not very pleasant quarters, but 
are preferable to a bivouac in the rain. There are many places 
enimierated in the accompanying Road Report, which contain 
two-storeyed houses, airy and substantial, admirably adapted for 
field hospitals or barracks. 

Climate. 

Most variable, on account of the changes of altitude as the 
traveller passes over the road. Commencing at sea-level at Trebi- 
zond, two high ranges of 6,000 and 8,500 feet are crossed before 
reaching Erzeroum^ 6,100 ; there the Devi-Boyun, upwards of 8,000 
feet, is traversed, and the Araxes followed, until it drops to 5,000 ; 
the Soghanly again rises to 8,200, and a further descent to Kars 
once more brings the aneroid down to 5,600. Thus, warm clothing 
is necessary, for even in the height of summer, when the glass 
reminds one of July in the Punjab, the nights are piercingly cold ; 
indeed, the inhabitants wear furs all the year round. The winter 
is most severe. Snow to a depth of several feet covers the ground, 
rendering locomotion a matter of much difficulty and danger. 



ROUTES. 



Ro2t>te No, 1. — Trebizond to Erzeroum, 

1st Stage, Djevizlik; distance, 18 miles. — Koad excellent; a slight 

ascent the whole way. Water 
and grazing in abundance. 
Djevizlik is a village contain- 
ing about 80 stone houses ; 
there is a good deal of fruit 
in the vicinity during the 
season. Supplies of all sorts 
to be obtained in any quantity 
in giving short notice. There 
is a post-horse station here, 
and fair Armenian accom- 
modation for the traveller. 

2nd Stage, Khamsikui; distance, 16 miles. — Eoad good; still an 

ascent. The village contains 
about 100 houses, scattered 
a good deal. Water and 
grazing in abundance; also 
fuel. Supplies in large quan- 
tities on giving short notice. 
Excellent accommodation for 
the traveller in one of the 
many stone khans which 
abound in the village. There 
is also a post-horse station. 

Khamsikui to Zigana ; distance, 21 miles. — Over a very stiff moun- 
tain range. The road, though 
good, is very steep, and it 
, is a long stage for wheeled 
vehicles or guns. There is 



476 THE CAMPAIGN IN ARMENIA. 

Kop to Farna-kapan j distance, 16 miles. — Koad good, but very steep, 

crossing the Kop Dagh, 
nearly 9,000 feet above sea- 
level. The stage, which is 
also a post-horse station, con- 
sists of a small hamlet. Sup- 
plies very scanty ; accommo- 
dation bad. 

Farna-kapantoKarabooyuk ; distance, 16 miles. — Road good and level. 

The halting-place consists of 
a khan, where only very 
small quantities could be ob- 
tained. There are villages in 
the vicinity whence supplies 
could be obtained. The water 
supply is from a spring oppo- 
site the khan, and would 
have to be carefully guarded. 
This is a post-horse station. 

Karabooyuk to Erzeroum ; distance 27 miles. — Passing through 

Ilidja, famous for its hot 
springs. This village is of 
considerable size, and would 
furnish supplies to a large 
extent. Fuel is the most 
scarce commodity. 

Ilo2ite No, 2. — TLrzeroum to Kars. 

Erzeroum to Hassan Kale ; distance, 20 miles. — Road good, crossing 

the Devi Dagh by a newly- 
made gun road,* 16 feet in 
width, at 5 miles ; then de- 
scending to the Passin plain, 
passing through the village 
of Khooroodjook, which 
possesses large flocks and 
herds. Hassan Kale is an old 

* This road, I hear, has fallen into a terrible state owing to the amount of 
traffic over it, and is now anj'thing but a "gun road.'* 



ROUTES. 477 

{Erzeroum to Kara,) walled town, containing about 

6,000 souls. There is a very- 
picturesque though useless 
castle here. Suj)plies in large 
quantities, but there would 
be difficulty for fuel for a 
large force. There are hot 
springs here, much resorted 
to by scrofulous and rheu- 
matic people. Being on a 
branch of the Araxes, there 
is an endless water supply, 
and very good fishing in the 
neighbourhood. 
Hassan Kale to Kuipri-Kui ] distance, 10 miles. — Road good and quite 
{On the Araxes River.) flat; the village contains about 

300 houses. Supplies, except 
fuel, would be obtainable in 
fair quantities, and the neigh- 
bouring villages would afford 
a vast number of cattle and 
sheep. The roads here diverge 
to Kars and Bayazid. 
KuipriKtii to Khorassan ; distance, 20 miles, along the left bank of 
(On the Araxes River.) the Araxes. — Excellent graz- 

ing ground in the vicinity. 
Khorassan is a large village 
with flocks, herds, and an 
admirable water supply. Yery 
good accommodation for the 
traveller ; fuel scarce. 
Khorassan to Mezingird. — Ascending the southern slopes of the 

Soghanly Dagh ; road fair, 
practicable for guns; but at 
this stage supplies scarce, 
with the exception of fire- 
wood, which can be had in 
abundance. There is difficulty 
about water here ] the stream 
is very small. 



478 THIJ CAMPAIGN IN ARMENIA. 

Mezinp;ird to Sara Kamjsli; distance, 18 miles. — Road quite practi- 
cable for guns j first ascends 
to the Mellidooz plateau, 
then down into the Sara 
Kamysh defile. There are 
several Circassian villages in 
the neighbourhood of this 
halting-place, whence supplies 
could be procured. Water 
and firewood in abundance; 
accommodation limited, but 
the vast pine forests offer 
every facility for the bivouac 
of troops. 

Sara Kamysh to Kotanli ; distance 20 miles. — Road level and good. 

The village is rich in flocks 
and herds ; there is a very 
good camping-ground on the 
left bank of the Kars Tchai. 
Fuel is scarce. 

Kotanli to Kars j distance, 25 miles. — Road good ; crosses the Kars 

Tchai twice, which is always 
fordable, passing through 
several villages, the popula- 
tions of which are devoted to 
agriculture. Fuel in the whole 
valley is scarce, as it all has 
to be procured from the 
Soghanly Range. 

Rotite No. 3. — Erzeroum to Kars (another Route), 

Erzeroum to Hassan Kale. — Same as before. 

Hassan Kale to Kuipri-Kui. — Do. 

Kuipri-Kui to Ala-Kilissa; distance, 18 miles. — Road quite practicable 

for guns ; ascends the western 
slopes of the Soghanly. The 
village is insignificant, and 
supplies scanty ; water plenti- 
ful ; camping-ground cramped. 



ROUTES. 479 

Ala-KilissatoZewin; distance, 1 6 miles. — Road good. Water plentiful; 

supplies and accommodation 
very scanty. Camping ground 
good. 

Zewin to Mellidooz; distance, 15 miles. — Large camping-ground. 

Water at some distance ; sup- 
plies nil. Nearest village, 
Mezingird, 3 miles. 

Mellidooz to Sara Kamysh; distance, 16 miles. — As route No. 2. 

Sara Kamysh to Kotanli. — As route No. 2. 

Kotanli to Kars. — As before. 

Route No, 4. — Erzeroum to Kars, 

Erzeroum to Hassan Kale. — Same as before. 

Hassan Kale to Kuipri-Kui. — Do. 

Kuipri-Kui to Ala-Kilissa. — Do. 

Ala-KHissa to Yeni-Kui ; distance, 20 miles. — Road practicable for 

guns. Small village, but with 
notice supplies could be pro- 
cured from places in the 
neighbourhood. Water good ; 
fuel limited. 

Yeni-Kui to Bardez ; distance, 15 miles. — Road good. Camping-ground 

fair ; fuel and supplies plenti- 
ful. 

Bardez to Tcharpakli; distance, 20 miles. — Road practicable for 

guns. A small village with a 
limited quantity of supplies. 
Water and fuel plentiful. 

Tcharpakli to Kotanli ; distance, 1 6 miles. — Road excellent. 

Kotanli to Kars. — As in other routes. 

Route No, 5. — Erzeroum to Olti, 

Erzeroum to Hindsk; distance, 13 miles, — Through the Euphrates 

valley ; road excellent. A 
small village, but in such a 
closely-populated district that 
supplies can be obtained in 
great quantity ; fuel scarce ; 



480 



TEE CAMPAIGN IN ARMENIA, 



{Erzeroum to Olti.) 



grazing and water in abund- 



ance. 



Hitidsk to Lisgaf ; distance, 20 niiles. — Road bad, practicable for 

pack, not wheeled carriage, 
though after some engineering 
labour guns could be moved 
on it. Here is the Ghiurji 
Boghaz, a defile most difficult 
to defend, easy to turn. Sup- 
plies of cattle, sheep, fuel, 
forage, and water in abund- 
ance. 

Lisgaf to Id; distance, 16 miles. — E-oad good. Supplies fair; collec- 
tions could be made after 
short notice. 

Id to Olti ; distance, 20 miles. — Passing through Narriman, still 

keeping to the stream. Sup- 
plies plentiful; accommoda- 
tion good. 



The following Table of Altitudes may be of interest to some of 
my readers, illustrating the extreme variation of temperature to which 
we were exposed, and the difficulties that stand in the way of militaiy 
operations : — 



Trebizond 

Zigana 

Kop Dagh 

Erzeroum 

Hindsk 

Kara-Kobeg . . . 

Lisgaf 

Kutumar 

Kntuman 

Hemron Dooz . . . 

Kuipri-Kui 

Khorassan 

Deli-baba 



sea-level. 

5,200 feet. 

8,000 

6,150 

6,200 

6,600 

6,800 

6,700 

8,000 

9,000 

5,600 

5,300 

6,600 



Zewin Dooz .. 
Eshek-Khaliass 

Taghir 

Mellidooz ... 
Mezingird . . 
Sara Kamysh 
Kirk Punar 
Vairan Kale 
Kars (town) 
Kars (citadel) 

Vezuikui 

Aladja Dagh 



6,500 feet. 

7,800 

7,400 

8,600 

7,800 

7,500 

6,800 

6,400 

5,800 

6,130 

6,400 

8,500 



7J 



APPENDIX D. 

HussAiN AvNi Pasha. 

Correspondence published in the Blue Book relating to the 
" Defence and Capitulation of Kars," havLug reference to Hussain 
Avni Pasha : — 

Despatch No. 16 — D. Therapia, September 27, 1854, from Lord 
Stratford de Redcliffe to the Earl of Clarendon — announces the 
appointment of Hussain Pasha as Chief of the Staff, to Shukri 
Pasha, the newly-nominated Commander-in-Chief in Armenia. 

Despatch No. 60 — D. Erzeroum, November 17, 1854, from Colonel 
Fenwick WOliams to the Earl of Clarendon — complaiQS of the 
conduct of both Shukri Pasha and Hussain Pasha towards 
him. 

Enclosure No. 3 in above despatch. — Colonel Williams complains of 
the studied incivility of Hussain Pasha. 

Despatch No. 62 — D. Foreign Office, December 29, 1854, from Lord 
Clarendon to Lord Stratford de Redcliffe — insistiag that General 
Williams must be upheld, and demanding that the most 
stringent instructions be sent by the Porte to the Mushir in 
Armenia to avoid a recurrence of the affronts to which General 
Williams is exposed, from Shukri and Hussain Pashas. 

Despatch No. ^^ and Enclosures — D. Erzeroum, December 8, 1854, 
from Colonel WiUiams to Lord Stratford de Redcliffe — coai- 
plairis still more strongly of the " insolence " of Shukii and 
Hussain Pashas. 

Despatch No. 69 — D. Constantinople, December 14, 1854, from Lord 
Stratford de Redcliffe to Lord Clarendon — announces that the 
Porte has reprimanded Shukri and Hussain Pashas, and em- 
powered Yassif Pasha to dismiss them. 
P F 



482 THE CAMPAIGN IN ARMENIA. 

Despatch No. 165 — D. Erzeroum, February 25, 1855, General 
Williams to Earl of Clarendon — announces that Yassif Pasha 
has placed Hussain Pasha under arrest. 

Enclosure No. 2, in 165 — 

Charges against Liva Hussain Pasha, Chief of the Staff. — " As 
the British Commissioner to the army at Kars, I charge Liva Hussain 
Pasha, the Chief of the Staff, with the following instances of disregard 
for the English Government, and of personal contempt towards me. 

" 1. — On his arrival at the camp of Kars, he began by making 
alterations in the defences of that place, and by causing considerable 
movements of troops, without informing me of his object or instinic- 
tions ; and on my resenting this neglect, he told me, in presence of 
Kerim Pasha, that ' he had received his orders as to what was necessary 
to be done.' 

a 2. — For having from that day continued to treat me with con- 
tempt and silence, this conduct being pursued towards a friendly 
Commissioner, sent to communicate to his Government all intelligence 
necessary to enable that Government to assist the Porte. 

" 3. — For habitual drunkenness and debauchery, evincing his 
sympathy for Shukri Pasha as regards that officer's disrespect towards 
me, and a fellowship for that Ferik in all those vices which degrade 
the military profession and lower the dignity of man. 

" (Signed) W, F. Williams. 

^^ Erzeroum, February 25, 1855." 

Despatch No. 176 — D. Constantinople, March 21, 1855, from 
Lord Stratford de Redcliffe to Lord Clarendon — reports that 
the Seraskier disapproves of the arrest of Shukri and Hussain 
Pashas; and further states that whatever may have been 
their demerits at Kars, yet they served with distinction under 
Omar Pasha. 

N.B. — It was whilst serving with Omar Pasha that Major Lintorn 
Simmons formed that acquaintance with Hussain Pasha which 
induced him to deny the fact of the disgrace in 1855. 

Enclosure No. 2, in Despatch No. 179, from Brigadier-General 
Williams to Kerim Pasha. — Announcing the departure of 
Hussain Pasha for Constantinople to undergo trial. 



IIUSSATN AVNL PASHA, 483 

Enclosure No. 3, in Despatch No. 187 — D. Erzeroum, March 20, 
1855, from Brigadier-General Williams to Earl Clarendon — 

*'It is also notorious that the Pashas in question, Shukri and 
Hussain, had given themselves up to such habitual drunkenness and 
dissipation, that, besides their having become a bad example to the 
Sultan's troops, and a disgrace to their fellow officei'^, they were 
never by day, in consequence of their nocturnal gambling and 
debauchery, in a fit state of mind to transact the business of the 
Council." * * * 

Hussain Pasha made no secret of his dissipated conduct ; and on 
one occasion the people of his quarter of the town were exasperated 
to such a degree, that they would have actually made an attack on 
his house had they not known that the Mushir was about to arrive ; 
and they therefore decided on laying a formal complaint before His 
Excellency. 

Despatch ITo. 213 — D. Constantinople, May 17, 1855, from Lord 
Stratford de Redcliffe to the Earl of Clarendon — reports 
that neither Shukri nor Hussain Pashas have been submitted 
to any judicial proceeding, and that Omar Pasha has applied 
for the services of the latter. 

Enclosure No. 1, in Despatch No. 213. — The Seraskier states that so 
far from charges existing against Hussain Pasha, he has been 
much praised by the Commander-in-Chief at Kars ; and that, 
on the express demand of Omar Pasha, he was to be sent to 
the army of Eupatoria. 

Despatch No. 228 — D. Constantinople, June 14, 1855, Lord Stratford 
de Redcliffe to Earl of Clarendon — reports the determination 
of the Seraskierate to release Hussain and Shukri Pashas, and 
to send the former to Omar Pasha's staff. 

Despatch No. 236 — 237, on the same subject. — Lieutenant-Colonel 
Simmons urges that Omar Pasha was unaware that charges 
had been preferred against Hussain Pasha when he applied 
for his services, and states that Omar Pasha wishes his 
appointment to be delayed until the charges shall have been 
inquired into. 

Mr. Zohrab, in a letter to me dated Erzeroum, December 7th, 
1877, says, " I think Sir Lintorn Simmons' memory is at fault. I was 



484 THE CAMPAIGN m ARMENIA. 

the meiluin of communication between Sir Fenwick Williams and 
Hussain Avni Pasha, saw him under arrest, translated the charges that 
were to be preferred against him, and know that he was released on 
reaching Constantinople. He was subsequently employed with Sir 
Lintorn Simmons in Asia, and murdered last year." 

Although I was in error in accusing Hussain Avni of peculation, 
I think these extracts prove that my story was not " utterly ground- 
less,'' and to clear myself from the imputation of rashly listening to 
Armenian stories, I publish the above. 

They prove that the Porte then, as now, in the case of Chefket 
Pasha, paid little attention to the requests of the British Government 
for the punishment of evil doers. Lord Stratford notwithstanding. 



THE END. 



X- 



CASSELL PETTBR & GALPIN, .BELLE SAUVAQE WORKS. LONDON, E.C. 

478