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Oriental biographical dictipnar 

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AUTHOR OF The Fall of the Moghul Empire, etc. 




©ublwDcrg to m 3[ntiia Dffice, 







The substance of this Dictionary was collected by Mr. T. W. 
Beale, formerly a Clerk in the office of the Board of Eevenue, 
N.W.P., at a time when the Secretary was Henry Myers Elliot, 
afterwards well known as Sir H. M. Elliot, K.C.B. It is pro- 
bable that, in preparing his extracts from the Muhammadan 
Histories of India, Elliot availed himself of the aid of Mr. 
Beale, of whose scholarship Prof. Dowson makes justly deserved 
mention in the eighth volume of his valuable edition of Elliot's 
work.* Mr. Beale died at Agra, at a very advanced age, in the 
summer of 1875 ; having before his death expressed a wish that 
I would see his MS. through the press, and reduce the trans- 
literation into conformity with the system then recently adopted 
by the Glovernment of India, and founded (as I need hardly 
observe) upon the system of Sir W. Jones. 

Accordingly, on the 5th October of that year I laid the MS. 
before Sir- John Strachey, the then Lieut. -Governor, in a letter 
from which the following is an extract : — 

" This is no ordinary book. I have used it as a work of 
reference for years : and have lately had an opportunity of 
showing it to the eminent scholar Mr. E. B. Eastwick, C.B., 
who, I am authorised to say, concurs with me in thinking that 
the Dictionary will be of unique value to oriental students." 

Sir J. Strachey took up the subject with that enlightened 
energy which always actuated him in dealing with the past 
history of the country over whose administration he then pre- 
sided. The MS. and copyright were acqiiired at the expense 

* " The Histoiy of India, by its own Historians," Triibner and Co., 1877. 


of Government; and it was ultimately resolved — in view of the 
importance of the work and my own official occupations — that 
the editing should be entrusted to the Asiatic Society of Bengal. 

The Society confided the labour of seeing the Dictionary 
through the press to their Philological Secretary, Principal Bloch- 
mann, of whose qualifications it would be presumptuous to say 
more than that they have an oecumenical reputation. That dis- 
tinguished man (of whom it has been observed by Count von 
Noer that he united the enthusiasm of an artist to the most 
patient accuracy of research*) undertook the task with his cha- 
racteristic earnestness and ability. But unhappily for oriental 
scholarship Mr. Blochmann's lamented death occurred before he 
had completed the preparation of more than a few sheets; and 
the duty ultimately reverted to the present Editor. 

The substance, as already stated, is almost entirely Mr. 
Beale's ; and I cannot close this notice more fitly than by giving 
the following extract from the preface originally drafted by 
himself : — ■ 

" In preparing a work of this nature, intended to be used 
as a work of reference on matters connected with Oriental His- 
tory, it is proper to state that the greatest care has been taken 
to ensure accuracy in the narrative, as also in the dates of births, 
deaths, and other events recorded. . . . Yarious MSS. have been 
collated whenever discrepancy was observed .... To remove 
all doubt, chronograms indicating the dates with a certainty not 
to be found by any other method and written when the events 
were fresh in the minds of men, have been inserted, when 

I may, however, add that it has been judged expedient to omit 
these chronograms, for the most part, in printing the book. In 
the chapter of Mr. Dowson's book already cited, will be found 
an account of this species of memoria tecJinica. But it is chiefly 

* " Kaiser Akbar," Leyden, 1880. [Since the above was written the illustrious author quoted 
has himself died.] 


interesting as machinery for producing a certain result ; and 
when the result has been produced is not of much more use 
than the scaffolding of a building when the building is complete. 

This notice may well terminate with a repetition of Mr. 
Beale's guarantee of accuracy : and with an appeal to scholars 
of larger leisure and opportunities for an indulgent treatment 
of a work originated by a man who had never been in Europe 
nor enjoyed the use of a complete Library. Mr. Beale had, 
however, drawn up a list of more than thirty books in various 
languages which had furnished him with materials. In addition 
I have from time to time referred to the translation of the 
Ain Akhari and its invaluable notes by the late Mr. Bloch- 
mann, of which the First Yolume (never, alas, continued) was 
published in Calcutta some years ago ; also to the works of 
Garcin de Tassy and the Baron McG. de Slane. 

One word more as to the inexhaustible subject of trans- 
literation. The English, as is well-known, have three methods ; 
the Haphazard (which indeed is no method at all) ; the Gil- 
christian; and the popularised Jonesian introduced by the Go- 
vernment of India under the inspiration of Sir W. W. Hunter. 
None of these is quite satisfactory. The French adopt a system 
of their own, and so do the Germans. Mr. Beale had followed 
an orthography, compounded of the two first-named elements, 
which has been conformed to the third method in printing these 
pages. The principle is, mainly, to accentuate the long vowels 
and to express the other vowels by the English sounds in 
"rMmmant" and "obey." G is always to be pronounced hard, 
as in "yive." For the convenience of Continental European 
scholars the names have also been printed in the Persian 
character: and it is hoped that no practical difficulty will 
be experienced by those who may have occasion to use the 


This work has been carefully revised and mucli amplified: 
and now appears, for the first time, as an English publication. 
The fresh additions to Mr. Beale's matter are chiefiy taken from 
Ibn Khalikan and the works of Garcin de Tassy, with occasional 
references to Blochmann, von I^oer, and some historical books 
by the Editor himself and other recent authors. It is still far 
from complete ; but great pains have been taken to make it a 
trustworthy and useful work of reference to students of Eastern 
history. " The Imperial Gazetteer of India," 2nd edition, 1886, 
has been consulted throughout. 

It must be understood that Anglo-Indian lives have been 
omitted : they will be found, in some instances from the pen 
of the present Editor, in the Dictionary of National Biography : 
to have included them here would have made the book too 
bulky. Similarly, Chinese matter is excluded ; indeed, Sinology 
forms a distinct department of research. 




A'azz-Uddin (^^_jJl yA), Prince, 

second son of Shiih 'Alam Bahadur Shah. He 
was born on the 17th Z!-Qa'da 1074, and 
appears to have died early. 

A'azz-Uddin (^^->aJ1 yA), son of 

Mu'izz - uddin Jahaudar Shah, emperor of 
Dehli. He was blinded and imprisoned by 
Farruljh-siyar, in the end of a.h. 1124. 

AbaBakr(^ Ul), Mirza or Sultan, 

the sou of Shahrukh Mirza, the son of Amir 
Timur. He was murdered by order of his 
brother Mirza TJlugh Beff, a.d. 1448 (a.h. 

Aba Qaan or Abqa Khan or Abaqa 

Khan (^Tljs lj| or ^J^:^ Uj^), a king 

of Persia, of the tribe of Mughuls or Tartars, 
and descendant of Chingiz Khan, succeeded 
his father Hulaku Khan in February, a.d. 
1265 (Eabi'-us-Sani, a.h. 663), and was 
crowned on Friday the 19th June following 
(3rd Ramazan) . He was a prince who added 
to the qualifications of courage and wisdom 
those of moderation, clemency, and justice. 
His ambassadors were introduced in 1274 
to the ecclesiastical Synod at Lyons. He 
proved a somewhat formidable neighbour to 
the Christians who settled at Jerusalem. The 
intrigues of his court embittered the latter 
years of his reign ; and liis days were believed 
by many to have been shortened by poison 
given to him by his minister Khwaja Shams- 
uddin Muhammad, which occasioned his death 
on Wednesday the 1st April, a.d. 1282 (20th 
Zil-hijja, A.H. 680), after a reign of 17 years 
and some months. He had married the 
daughter of Michael Palfeologus, emperor of 
Constantinople, who had been betrothed to 
his father, but arrived at Maragha in Tabriz, 
the seat of his government, after the death 
of that prince. Aba Khan was succeeded 
by his brother, Nekodur Khan (?.«.), who 
embraced Muhammadanism, and took the title 
of Ahmad. 

'Abbas [^jS^c), tie son of 'Abd-ul- 

Muttalib, and uncle of the prophet Muham- 
mad. He at first opposed the ambitious 
views of his nephew, but when defeated in 
the battle of Badr, he was reconciled to him, 
warmly embraced his religion, and thanked 
heaven for the prosperity and the grace which 
he enjoyed as a Jlusalman. He served the 
cause of Muhammad at the battle of Hunain 

by recalling his dismayed troops to the charge, 
and inciting them boldly to rally round their 
prophet, who was near expii-ing under the 
scimitars of the Sakafites. He died on the 
21st of February, a.d. 653 (17th Eajab, a.h. 
32) ; and 100 hmar years after Abul- 'Abbas, 
surnamed As Saffah, one of his descendants, 
laid the foundation of the 'Abbasi or Abbaside 
family of the CaUphs in Baghdad, which con- 
tinued for 524 lunar years. The tomb of 
'Abbas is in Madina. 

'Abbasa (^UiL^), a sister of Hariin-ur- 

Eashid, the Ivhalifa of Baghdad, who bestowed 
her hand on Ja'far Barraaki, his minister, on 
condition that she abstained from the marriage 
rights. The promise was forgotten, and the 
husband's life was sacrificed by the tyrant, 
and 'Abbasa was reduced to poverty. This 
circumstance took place in a.d. 803 (a.h. 
187). There are still extant some Arabic 
verses which beautifully celebrate her love 
and her misfortunes. [.Ste Ja'far ul-Barmaki.] 

'Abbas 'All (^A.c (^Lc), a physician, 
and one of the Persian magi, who followed 
the doctrines of Zoroaster. He wrote, a.d. 
980, a book called Rot/al irork, at the request 
of the son of the reigning Khalifa of Baghdad, 
to whom it was dedicated. It was translated 
into Latin by Stephen of Antioch in a.d. 

'Abbas 'All ( Lc j^Lc), Mirza, -whose 

poetical name was Betab, the son of Nawab 
Sayadat 'AH Khan, son of Ghulam Muham- 
mad Khan, the son of Faiz-uUah Khan, 
Nawab of Eampiir in the 18th century. 

'Abbas Bin-'Ali Sbirwani (^ (_/-'*-^ 

jli .^ ,ir), author of a history, 

containing the narrative of Sher Shah the 
Afghan, who drove Humayiin from Hindu- 
stan, a.d. 1639, and mounted the throne of 
Dehli. This work was dedicated to the 
emperor Akbar, and is called Tuhfa-i-Akbar- 
s/ia/iT. The first part of this work was trans- 
lated into Urdu by Mazhar 'Ali Khan in the 
time of Lord Cornwallis, and is entitled 
Tarlkh-i-Sher Shafii. 

\_Vide Dowson, Elliot's Eistory of India, iv. 
p. 301.] 

'Abbas Mirza (\jj^ (jwL*), a Persian 
prince, son of Path 'Ali Shah, was born in 
1783. He died in 1833. His death was 


a great loss to Ms country, alttiougli he could 
not preyent the encroachments of Eussia. 
His eldest son, Muhammad Mirza, mounted 
the throne in 1834, on the death of Fath 'Ali, 
under the united protection of England and 

'AblDas Mirza {\\j^ ^/,/^Lr), whose title 

•was Nawab Iqtidar-uddaula, was the author 
of a Masnawi in Urdu verse, containing 
a history of Christ. He was living in Luck- 
now in A.D. 1849, and was then about eighty 
years of age. 

'Ablias (Shah) I. (iLii ^jj^.^.), sur- 

named the Great, and seventh king of Persia 
of the Safawi family, was born on Monday 
the 29th of January, A D. 1571 (1st Earaazan, 
A.H. 978). He was proclaimed king of Persia, 
in his sixteenth year, by the chiefs of Kjmra- 
san, and took possession of the throne during 
the lifetime of his father, Sulfan Sikandar 
Shah, sumamed Muhammad Klmdabanda, 
A.D. 1588, (a.h. 996). He was the first 
who made Isfahan the capital of Persia. He 
Tvas brave and active, and enlarged the bound- 
aries of his dominions. He took, conjointly 
with the English forces, in a.d. 1622, the 
island of Ormuz, which had been in the 
possession of the Portuguese for 122 years. 
He reigned 44 lunar years, was contemporary 
with Akbar and Jahangir, and died on 
Thursday the 8th of January, a.d. 1629 
{24th Jumada I., a.h. 1038). His grandson 
succeeded him and took the title of Shah 

[He was a bigoted ShT'a. In later histories 
he is generally called |_5^U mdzi ; vide Bloch- 
mann's Am Translation, i. pp. 445, 453.] 

'Abbas (Shah) II. (^Ij iLi, (_>uU), 

great grandson of Shah 'Abbas I. succeeded 
his father Sliah Sail on the throne of Persia 
in the month of May, a.d. 1642 (Safar a.h. 
1052), when he was scarcely ten years old. 
Qandahar, which was lost by his father, was 
recovered by this prince before he was six- 
teen years of age. Shah Jahan made many 
efforts to recover this city, but with no 
success. He reigned 25 lunar years, and 
was cut off by the lues venerea in his 34th 
year, on the 26th August, a.d. 1666 (5th 
Eabi'-ul-awwal, a.h. 1077). He was suc- 
ceeded by his son Safi Mirza, who took the 
title of Shah Sulaiman. According to Char- 
din, he died on the 25th September which 
corresponds with the 5th Eabl'-us-Saui. 
[Vide Orine's Historical Fragmetits of the 
Mogul Emjyire, p. 196.] 

Abdal (J1jo\), son of 'All Eal, ruler 

of Little Tibet during the reign of Shah 
Jahan. He was captured, and Adham Khan 
was appointed governor of Little Tibet. 

[Vide Dowson, Elliots History of India, 
rii. p. 63.] 


Abdal Chak ((-jC=- JUjO, uncle of 
Yasuf Whin Chak "(last King of Kashmir, 
who succumbed to the emperor Akbar). 
[A^ide Ain Translation, i. p. 478.] 

Abdali ( Jlju^), vide Ahmad Shah 

Abdals, the Forty, hence called CMhil- 
taaan. After Muhammad's death, the Earth 
complained to God that she would henceforth 
be no longer honored by prophets walking on 
her sirrface. God promised that there should 
always be on earth forty (or, according to 
some, seventy-two) holy men, called Ahdbls, 
for whose sake he would not destroy the 
earth. The chief of the Forty is called 
' Gliaus.' 

Abdar Begam {jL^SsA ), one of the 

concubines of the emperor Akbar. 

'Abdi i^s^s.), his proper name is not 

known. He is the author of the work called 
larjami-i-Takiiiila, a. translation of Yafi'l's 
Legends of Qadiriya saints into Persian verse, 
completed in a.d. 1641, a.h. 1051, under 
Shah Jahan. 

'Abdi of Tun i^s^), a poet who had 

a predilection for Masnawls, and is the author 
of the Gatthar-i- Shah -war, which is in the 
style of NizamT's Mal-hznn-ul-Asrar. He 
came to celebrity in Khurasau in a.d. 1545, 
A.H. 950. 

[ I'ide Khwaja Zain-ul-'Abidin 'Ali 'Abdi, 
who appears to be the same person.] 

'Abdi i^s^^), and Nawedi (^j,_! J), 
vide Khwaja Zain-ul'-Abidin 'Ali 'Abdi. 

Abdi {i_jsj\), author of a heroic poem 
called Anwar -nama in praise of Nawab 
Auwar-uddin Khan of the Kamatik, in 
which the exploits of Major Lawrence and 
the first contests between the English and 
French in India are recorded with tolerable 

[Vide Abjadi.] 

'Abdul-' Ali (Maulana) ( i^Jl A->r), 

entitled Bahrul-ulum (i.e., The Sea of 
Knowledge), the son of Mulla Nizam-uddin 
Sih.lli. He is the author of the Arkan Arba' 
Mqah' and several other works. He died 
A.D. 1811, A.H. 1226. 

'Abdul-'Aziz bin 'Umar ( ;_)L)tJI J*-.c 

j-^^ ^J-J), son of 'XJmar (Omar), the 

second Khalifa after Muhammad. He did 
not succeed his father in the khilafat. The 
Muhammadans consider him a great lawyer. 



'Abdul-' Aziz ( IjjjtJl ^^), author of 

the TarTJch-i-Htisainl, containing the Life 
of the famous Sadr-uddln Muhammad 
Husaini Gesu-Daraz, whose tomh is held 
in the highest veneration at Kulbarga in 
the Deccan. This work was dedicated to 
Ahmad Shah Bahmani in a.d. 1445. 

'Abdul - 'Aziz bin - Ahmad Dairini 
(Shaikh) ( _:._j _jj), an Arabian 
author who died a.d. 1294. 

'Abdul-' Aziz Khan, vide 'Aziz. 

'Abdul-' Aziz (Maulana Shah), son of 
Shah Waliullah, a learned Musalman of 
Dehli. He is the author of a Persian com- 
mentary on the Quran, entitled TafsJr Fath- 
ul-'Aziz, and several other works. His death 
took place in June a.d. 1824 (7th Sha^vwal, 
A.H. 1239). 

'Abdul-' Aziz, emperor of Turkey, son 
of Sultan Maljmiid, succeeded his brother 
Sultan 'Ahdul-Majid on the 25th June, 1861, 
A.H. 1277 ; deposed in 1875. 

'Abdul-'Aziz (Shaikh) (i^^^JkW J.^^), 

of Dehli, a learned man who died in the time 
of the emperor Akbar, a.d. 1567, a.h. 975. 
'Abdul- Qadir of Badaon found the chronogram 
of his death in the following words — " Qutb- 
i - Tariqat-numa . ' ' 

'Abdul-'Aziz (Shaikh) (iA.i, b ;«!! s^c). 

His poetical name was 'Izzat. He held a 
mansab of 700 in the reign of Aurangzib, and 
died in the year a.d. 1680, a.h. 1091. He 
is the anther of a poem called Saq7-nSma. 

[For a detailed biography vide the Maja'- 

'Abdul-Baqi (^LJI A.-^), author of 

the Maosir-i-Sahlml, or Memoirs of 'Abdur- 
Mahlm K/ian, Kkan-J^kanan, and of all the 
Dlustrious nobles, authors, and poets, who 
resided at the court of Akbar. He completed 
his work in a.d. 1616, a.h. 1025, and died 
about the year a.d. 1642, a.h. 1052, in the 
reign of Shah Jahan. 

[For further notes vide Dowson, Mlliot's 
History of India, vi. 237.] 

'Abdul - Baqi (Maulana). He was 
a Sadr (or Judge) in the beginning of 
Akbar' s reign. 

'Abdul Basit (Maulana) (k-yjUl Ji_<.c 

Xi'iy), the son of Eustam 'Ali. He 

wrote a commentary on the Quran which 
he left incomplete. He also wrote a work 
called 'Ajib-ul-Bayan fl 'uliim-il-Qurun. 
He died in a.d. 1808, a.h. 1223. 

'Abdul-Fattah ( Uj.!! Ju-_c), author 

of the Persian work called ^«<ro(?-»-ff/(aMOTi/a' 
on Sufism, and of one entitled Jawa-hir-ul- 

'Abdul-Ghaffar (^LLAJI s.^), whose 

full title is Shaikh Najmuddin 'Abdid- 
Ghaffar ush-Shafi'i Qazwini, is the author 
of the Hilwl, Fiqah, Lubab, and Shark 
Lubhb. He died in the year a.d. 1265, 
A.H. 663. 

'Abdul-Ghafur, of Lahor (.»i.*Jl jk.^ 

i_f ,»_&}!), was an author and a pupil 

of 'Abdur-Eahman Jami. He died in the 
year a.d. 1506, a.h. 912. 

'Abdul-Ghafur(Shah) (isUi^^AiJl j,^), 

commonly called Baba Kapiir, a saint whose 
tomb is at Gwaliar. He was a native of 
Kalpi, and a disciple of Shah Madar. He 
died in the year a.d. 1671, a.h. 979. 
[Vide Am Translation, i. p. 539.] 

'Abdul-Ghafur (Shaikh), of Azampiir 

in S.ambhal, a pupil of 'Abdul Quddiis. He 
died in a.h. 995. 

'Abdul-Ghani (Mirza) ( ^Jt.]\ j>.^_c 

i;,-<\ a native of Kashmir, wrote 

under the name of Qabul. He died in the 
year A.D. 1726, a.h. 1139. 
[J'ide Qabul.] 

'Abdul -HaqcL (Shaikh) (j.J\ S.^ 

■^-^ ^yi^JaS), of Dehli, surnamed 

" Mubaddis," son of Saif-uddin, son of 
Sa'd-idlah Turk. He was a descendant of 
one of Amir Timur's followers, who had 
remained at Dehli, after the return of the 
conqueror to his native land. He is the 
author of the Tarikh-i-Haqql , wliich is more 
frequently styled Tar ikh-i-' Abdul- Saqq, 
compiled in the 42nd year of the emperor 
Akbar's reign, a.d. 1696, a.h. 1005. He 
went on a pilgrimage to Mecca and Madina, 
where he dwelt for a long time, and "wrote 
works upon many subjects — Commentaries, 
Travels, Sufi Doctrines, Eeligiou and History, 
and his different treatises amount altogether 
to more than one hundi-ed. The best known 
are the Madina Saklna, Matla^-ul-Anwar, 
Madorij-un-l^ubuwivat, Jazb-ul-qulitb, Akh- 
bar-ul-Alchyar, a book on the saints. He 
was born in the month of January, a.d. 1651, 
Muharram, a.h. 958. In the year a.d. 1637, 
although he was then nearly ninety years old, 
he is said to have been in possession of his 
faculties. He died in the year a.d. 1642, a.h. 
1052, aged ninety-four lunar years ; lies buried 
on the bank of the Hauz Shamsi in Dehli, and 


now holds a hifjh rank among the saints of 
Hindustan. His son Shaikh' Niir-uI-Haqq 
is the author of the Zuhdut-ut-TaiourilA. 

[For further notes vide Dowson, Etliofs 
Sistory of India, vi. pp. 175, 483.] 

'AMul- Hakim of Siyalkot (j,_^£ 

>._-_L.s5l) was a pupil of Maulana 

of Kamal-uddin of Kashmir. He wrote the 
Saihiya, or marginal commentary, on the 
Tafsn- Baizuwi, and a Hasliiya on the 
marginal notes of 'Abdul- Gliaffar. He died 
in the year a.d. 1656, a.h. 1066. 

'Abdul-Halim bin-Muliammad {s-^c 

*,-J..s'0, surnamed " Kanalizada," an 

Arabian author, who died in the year a.d. 
1589, A.H. 997. 

'Abdul - Hamid, vide Ahmad IV, em- 
peror of Turkey. 

'Abdul - Hamid of Lahore was the 

author of the Fadshah-nHmn-i-Sluihjahani. 

[Regarding this history, vide Dowson, 
Elliot's SisUry of India, vii. p. 3.] 

'Abdul -Hasan (Kazl), author of an 
Arabic work on Jurisprudence called Ahkam- 

'Abdul-Hay (Mir) Sadr (^-Jl J,_^_£ 

-^^ jS.J) , a learned man who wrote 

a chronogram on the death of the emperor 
Humayiin, and one on the accession of Akbar 
in A.D. 1556, A.H. 963. 

[Vide Ain Tfanslation i. p. 480.] 

' Abdul- Jalil (Mir or Sayyid) (j,_->_i 

-.^ ^.«Ua.Lj J.J^!), of Bilgram 

in Audh. He was a great scholar and an 
elegant poet, and his poetical name was 
WasitT. In A.D. 1699, a.h. 1111, he visited 
the camp of Aurangzib at Bijapur; and being 
presented to that monarch by Mirza 'AIT 
Beg, the royal intelligencer, obtained a 
niansab and jaglr, with the joint offices of 
Bakhshi (Paymaster) and News-writer of 
Gujrat ; from which place he was removed 
to Bhakar in Sindh, with similar appoint- 
ments. Through some intrigues at court, he 
was recalled from Bhakar in the reign of 
Farrukh-siyar in a.d. 1714, a.h. 1126, but 
upon circumstances being explained, he was 
restored in the most honourable manner, and 
was at length permitted to officiate by deputy, 
whilst he himself remained at Dehli until 
A.D. 1721, A.H. 1133, when he resigned in 
favour of his son, Mir Sayyid Muhammad. 
He was the son of Sa\'yid Ahmad of Bilgram, 
was born on the 2nd June, a.d. 1661 ; 13th 
Bhawwal 1071, and ched on Monday the 2Sth 



December, a.d. 1724; 23rd Rabbi' I- llS"; 
an-ed 66 lunar years, and is bui-ied at Bilgram 
close to his father's tomb. He is the author 
of several works, one of which containing 
letters written in Persian is called Adab-ul- 

[For a detailed biography, iside Azud's 
Sarw-i-Azad, and the Tahsirat-un-Kazirln 
by 'Abdul-Jalil's son.] 

'Abdul -Qadir (Sultan) was the de- 
scendant of .a Marabaut family of the race of 
H5shim, who trace their pedigree to the 
Klialifas of the Uneage of Fatima. His 
father died in 1 834. His pubUc career began 
at the time of the conquest of Algiers by 
the French, In 1847, he was defeated and 
surrendered himself, but was afterwards per- 
mitted to reside in Constantinople. He died 
in 1873. 

'Abdul-Qadir bin-Abil-Wafa al-Misri 

(Shaikh Muhiy-Uddin) (^jljUl S^ 

author of the Jau-ahir-al-Ma:iya fl Tabaqdt- 
il Htmnjiya, a biographical dictionary giving 
an account of the Hanafi lawyers, arranged 
in alphabetical order. He died in a.d. 1373, 
A.H. 775. 

'Abdul-Qadir Badaoni (Shaikh) {s^c 

-JjljvJ jjLsJl) was the son of 

Muluk Shah of Badaon and pupil of Shaikh 
Mubarak of Nagor. He is the author of a 
work called Mttntakab-iit-Taivar'i'kh. He 
was a very learned man, and was frequently 
employed by the emperor Akbar to make 
translations into Persian from the Arabic 
and Sanskrit, as in the case of Mu'jam-ttl- 
Biildan,Jami-ur-Rashidl, and the Ramayan. 
He also composed a moral and religious work, 
entitled Nafit-ur-Rashid,^ and translated two 
out of the eighteen Sections of the Maha- 
bhiirat, and made an abridgement of the 
History of Kashmir in a.d. 1591, a.h. 999. 
The year of his death is not known, but he 
was living in a.d. 1596, a.h. 1004, in 
which year he completed the Muntakhab-ut- 
Tawdrlkh. His poetical name was Qadiri. 

[He died at Badaon, in 1004. For a 
detailed biography, vide Jonr. As. &., Bengal, 
1869, pt. i. p. 118 ; and Dowson, v. p. 477.] 

'Abdul-Qadir Suhrawardi {.As^\ ^^si 
^lij^j-j^) , author of the work called 

'Abdul - Qadir Bedil (Mirza) {^....^ 
\\y i^'^h^ jjViil^), a celebrated poet, 

better known by his poetical name of Bedil or 
Mirza Bedil. fie was ■■•. Tartar of the tribe 
of Birlas ; in his youth he was employed by 
prince A'zam Shah, son of Aurangzib, but 




being one day ordered by the prince to write 
a panegjTic in his praise, he resigned the 
service and never afterwards served any one. 
He is the author of several works, such as 
MiihU A'zam; Ch'ir 'JJmur; Insha-i-Bedil, 
also called Ruq'at-i-Bedil ; and of a Diwan 
or book of Odes in Persian, containing 20,000 
couplets. He died in the commencement of 
the reign of Muhammad Shah, on the 24th 
November, o.s. 1720; 4th Safar, a.h. 1133. 
He is also the author of a work called Nukat- 
i-Bedil, containing the memoirs of Shaikh 
Junaid, third in descent from the celebrated 
Shaikh Safi, and grandfather of Shah Isma'il 
Safavi, king of Persia. 

l^Vide Sprenger, 
p. 379.] 

of Oudh MSS., 

'Abdul-Qadir Gilani or Jilani or Jili 

(Shaikh), also called Pir-i-Dastgir 
and Ghaus-ul-A'zam Muhiy-ud-dm, a saint, 
who is said to have performed a number of 
miracles during his lifetime. He was bom 
in Gilan or Jilan in Persia, in the year a.d. 
1078, A.H. 471, and was greatly revered for 
his learning, his piety, and the sanctity of his 
manners. He died on the 22nd February, 
A.D. 1166, 17th Rabi' II. 561, aged 91 lunar 
years, and is buried at Baghdad, where he 
neld the place of guardian of Abii-Hanifa's 
tomb. The order of Dervishes, called after 
him the Qadiris acknowledge him as founder. 
His tomb is held in high veneration amongst 
the Muhammadans. He is said to have 
written many books on Mystical Theology, 
amongst which are the Fntuh-ul-Ghaih, 
Malfuzat-i-Qadir'i in Arabic, and a trans- 
lation of the same in Persian, named Mnl- 
fiizat-i-Jllani. Another work of his in 
Arabic on Jurisprudence is called Ghunyat- 
ut-TSlibm, and another work on Sufism is 
entitled Bakjat-id-Asrar, and a book of Odes 
called Dzwan-i-Ohaus-ul-A^zmn. 

\_Vide Muhammad Qasim (Sayyid) and 

Some say that he was bom at Jil, a village 
near Baghdad ; hence he should be called 

'Ahdul-Qadir (Maulana) (.jUl!! S^c 

Lj^j.^ ^JubS), of Dehli, the son of 

Maulawi "WalT-uUah. He is the author of 
an Urdu commentary on the Quran, entitled 
I'afslr Milzih-vl-Qurcin. He made an Urdu 
translation of the Quran, which was finished 

[ Vide AbduUah Sayyid.] 

'Abdul-Qadir Naini (Maulana) (j,,^£ 

^i-jj u .oliill), a poet who was a native 

of NaTn near Isfahan, and contemporary with 
Shaikh Sa'di. 

'Abdul - Qadlr, a resident of Devi, 
a village in the district of Lucknow. From 

the Jami'-tit-Tiuarikh of Easlad-uddhi he 
translated that portion which is called the 
book of Patanjali into easy Persian, at the 
request of Major Herbert, in May, 1823. It 
is a collection of all the sciences, and one of 
the most valuable works of the sages of Hind. 
It contains an account of their various sects, 
and the history of their ancient kings, also 
the life of Sakyamuni. 

'Abdul-Qahir Jurjani (Shaikh) (j,-ii 

-JLp-_5^ -JkLiUl), son of 'Abdur- 

Eabman, was the author of the book called 
Daioil-ul-I'jaz, and several other works. He 
died in a.d. 1081, a.h. 474. 

'Abdul-Karim i/^^J^\ J^), STirnamed 

Imam-uddin Abul-Qasim, author of the Shark 
Kahir and Shark Sagh r. 

'Abdul-Karim bin - Muhammad al- 
Hamadani, author of a Persian Com- 
mentary on the Sirajiya of Sajawandi, en- 
titled Faraiz-ut- Tiljl Shark Faraiz-is-SirSji. 

'Abdul-Karim Sindhi (MuUa) (j,_^£ 

^jii~j 1,1 ,^\), a native of Sindh who 

served under Khwaja Mahmud Gawau in the 
Deccan, and was living about the year a.d. 
1481, A.H. 886. He is the author of the 
history of Sultan Mahmud EahmanT, entitled 

'Abdul-Karim, a native of Dehli, who 

accompanied Nadir Shah to Persia, and wrote 
a history of that conqueror about the year 
A.D. 1754, A.H. 1168, entitled Bayan-i- 

[Regarding this work, »»&Dowson, Elliofs 
History of India, viii. p. 124.] 

'Abdul-Karim, Mir, of Bukhara, who 

died at Constantinople about a.h. 1246, a.d. 
1830. He is the author of a history of 
Afghanistan and Turkistan (a.d. 1740 to 
in 18), translated into French by C. Schefer, 
Paris, 1876.] 

'Abdul-Karim, Munshi, who died about 

thirty years ago. He is the author of the 
TariMi-i- Ahmad, a history of Ahmad Shah 
Durrani and his successors. The Persian 
text was lithographed in 1266, and an Urdu 
translation under the title of Waqi'at-i- 
Durranl was issued at Kanhpiir in a.h. 1292 
(a.d. 1875). 'Abdul-Karim also wrote a 
larger work, entitled Mutiaraba-i- Kabul o 
Qandahar (h. 1265), which contains the 
heroic deeds of Akbar Khan, son of Dost 
Muhammad Klian, and is chiefly based on the 
Akbar-nama written in_ verse by Munshi 
Qasim Jan ; and the Tar'ilch-i-Panjab ttth- 
fatan Ul-akbab (a.h. 1265) on the Sikh wars. 


'Abdul - Quddus GangoM (Shaikh) 
(:^i^-^ J6j$l^ ^^.JkiiJ^ ^i^), a native 

of Gaiigoli, near Dehli, was a descendant of 
Abu-Hanifa Kula, and a famous saint of 
India.' He died on the 27th NoTemher, a.d. 
1637, 23rd Jumiida II. a.h. 944, the chrono- 
gram of the year of his death being "Shaikh- 
i-ajall." His grandison Shaikh 'Abdun-Nabi 
held a high post in the reign of Akbar, but 
■was subsequently imprisoued and murdered. 

'AMullah (i_-LL^!l A*£^^a..lJU-r), 

the father of Muhammad the Prophet, was a 
younger sou of 'Abdul-Muttalib the sou of 
Hashim. He was remarkable for his beauty, 
and though a driver of camels, he is said to 
have possessed such merits, that his hand was 
solicited in marriage by the fairest and the 
most virtuous of the women of his tribe. He 
was so imiversally admired, that on the night 
of his nuptials one hundred young females 
expired in despair. His wife Amina, though 
long barren, at last became the mother of 
Muhammad. 'Abdullah died during the life- 
time of his father, eight days (some say eight 
years) after the birth of his son, and left his 
widow and infant son in very mean circum- 
stances, his whole substance consisting of 
only five camels and one female Ethiopian 
slave. 'Abdul-Muttalib, his father was there- 
fore obliged to take care of his grandson 
Muhammad, which he did and at his death 
enjoined his eldest sou ..Vbii-Talib to provide 
for him for the future. 'Abdullah died about 
the year a.d. 571. 

'Abdullah bin-'Ali al-Halabi was one 

of the first writers on Shifa jurisprudence, 
as he was amongst the earliest compilers 
to the traditions of that sect. It does not 
appear that any of his legal compositions 
are extant. 

'Abdullah (,i.^\}j ^-J ^.!lj^c), son of 

Eawaha, was an Arabian poet, who signalized 
himself in arms as well as poetry. He 
became an associate of Muhammad and was 
sent with the army, of which Zaid was the 
chief, against the Greeks, and was killed at 
Miita in S}Tia with Zaid and Ja'far the 
brother of 'All, in a.d. 629, a.h. 8. 

6 'ABDU 

'Abdullah, son of Zubair 



--».jj) was a Musalman born at 

MadTna amongst those who were called 
"Muhajirin," that is to say, fugitives from 
Mecca. After the battle of' Karbala in a.d. 
680, in which Ilusaiu the sou of 'All Avas 
slain, the inhabitants of Mecca and Madina, 
perceiving that YazTd did all that lay in his 
power to suppress the house of 'Ali, made an 
insurrection against Yazid, the second khalifa 
of the house of Uma}7a, and proclaimed 
'Abdidlah khalifa in the city of Mecca. The 

Musalmans of S>Tia also, after the death of 
Yazid and Mu'awiya the 2nd, acknowledged 
him for the space of 128 days, after which 
time Marwan the son of Hakam was pro- 
claimed khalifa in the city of Damascus. 
'Abdullah still remaining in the city of Mecca, 
was besieged there in A.D. 691, a.h. 72, by 
Hajjsj, general of the khalifa 'Abdid-Malik. 
The siege lasted 8 months and 17 days, after 
which 'Abdullah made a sally upon the 
enemy, destroyed a great number of them 
with his own hand, and was at length killed 
fighting valiantly in a.d. 692, a.h. 73. His 
head was cut off and sent to the khalifa 

'Abdullah (j.stAu/» ^^ <dnji->.c), son of 

Mas'iid, companion of Muhammad. He died 
in A.D. 652, A.H. 32. 

'Abdullah (^.^Ur, ^j i!f\!i\s^£.), son of 

'Abbas, the uncle of Muhammad, was dis- 
tinguished as a teacher of the sacred book. 
Before he was ten years of age, he is said 
to have received inspiration from the angel 
Gabriel. He was born in a.d. 619, three 
years before the Hijra (622), and was con- 
sidered the ablest interpreter of the Quran 
then in existence. He was appointed governor 
of Basra, by the khalifa 'Ali, and remained 
there for some time. He then retm-ned to 
Hijaz, and died at Tayif, a town lying 60 
miles eastward of Mecca, in a.d. 687, a.h. 
68, aged 70 years. His mother Umm-ul-Fazl 
was the sister of Maimiina, one of the wives 
of Muhammad. 

'Abdullah ( .^r ^ aJJU_..r), son of 

'Umar the second khalifa after Muhammad, 
was one of the most learned Arabians amongst 
the contemporaries of Muhammad. He ched 
in A.D. 692, A.H. 73. He is famous for his 

'Abdullah (s^U ^^_ A.Lllj>-.c), son of 

TazTd, was celebrated as a lawyer in the 7th 
centm-y. He was the disciple of Abii-Huraira 
and Abil- 'Abbas, companions of Muhammad, 
and lived till the hundredth year of the Hijra, 
or A.D. 718, A.H. 100. 

'Abdullah (^^ ^j ^U^), the son of 

'All, son of 'Abdullah, son of 'Abbas, the 
uncle of Muhammad, was the uncle of the 
first two khalifas of the Abbasides, viz., 
Abul-'Abbas al-Saffah and Al-MansOr, under 
whom he served as general against the khalifa 
Marwan, and having vanquished that prince, 
proclaimed his nephew Al-Saffiih. He was 
guilty of horrible cruelties on the family of 
the Ommaides. AMieu his eldest nephew 
died, his brother Al-Mansur took upon him 
the governmeut, which displeased 'Abdullah 
so much, that he raised an army against him, 
but was defeated and afterwards perfidiously 
murdered in a.d. 754, a.h. 137. 



'Abdullah {si}\j ^j jJJU^e), the son 

of Rawand, was the founder of an impious 
sect, who were called after him the KS- 
wandites, during the Khilafat of Al-Mansur 
the Abbaside, about the year a.d. 776. 

'Abdullali (idSU^c), the son of Sliams- 

uddin, author of the marginal notes on the 
Talwih, entitled Hashiya bar Talwih, a work 
on jurisprudence. 

'AbduUali (^iiUs ^^ .slJlA-^i), the son 

of Tahir, the general of Al-Mamiin. He 
succeeded his brother Talha in the govern- 
ment of Kliurasan about the year a.d. 828, 
A.H. 213, reigned 17 years, and died in a.d. 
844, A.H. 230. He was succeeded by his son 
Tahir II. 

'Abdullah (>_^_-_L ^^ UJ1a.->_c 

^^j^jj-i^j-jj^SX) , the son of Tayyib al- 

Sarakhsl, preceptor to the KhalTfa Mu'tazid 
Billah, by whom he was put to death a.d. 
899, A.H. 286. He^is the author of the 
Bahr-td-Mantiq^ and Isaughjl (a commentary 
on the Isacjoga of Porphyras) . 

'Abdullah (^^Ar ^^ iULv^), the son 

of 'Adiy, author of the Kitab Kamil. He 
died in a.d. 975, a.h. 365. 

'Abdullah, author of a collection of 
Letters, entitled Inshd-i-'AiduUah. 

'Abdullah (<U^ ^ X^^ ^ i]]\x^), 

the son of Muslim, the son of Qutaiba, was 
the author of the work called Xitnb-ul- 
ma'arif, and several other works. He died 
in A.D. 889, A.H. 276. 

'Abdullah (i_Ul j,.^.^), author of the 

Persian work on jurisprudence, called Ahkam 

'Abdullah (, X-i^ aJJIj^-c), of Kul- 
\^^ > ■ 

barga, author of a work called Fars-nama, 
written in a.d. 1407. 

'Abdullah (Maulana) (LL^ aJJij^^c), 

son of Ilahdad. He is the author of Shark 
Mizan-il-Mantiq, and several other works. 
He was a native of Dehli, flourished in the 
reign of Sultan Sikandar, and died in a.d. 
1516, A.H. 923. 

'Abdullah (Maulana), of Sultanpur, 

a learned bigoted SunnI at Akbar's Court. 
He had the title of " Makhdiim-ul-Mulk." 
He played a prominent part in the religious 
discussions which led Akbar to renounce 
Islam. He died, or was poisoned, in a.h. 990. 
[_Yide Am Translation, p. 544, and p. vii. 
of Abub-FazVs Biograjihij.'] 

'Abdullah (^L. ^_ iH\^^), the son 

of Salam, author of the questions which 
Muhammad was asked on the subject of his 
prophecy. He is also the author of a work 
called 'Apnat-ul-Manqul. Another work, 
called Sazur Masayil, is ascribed to him. 

'Abdullah {sa-st^ ^^j ^UU^r), son of 

Muhammad, sumamed Qalauisi, an Arabian 
author. He died in a.d. 1121, a.h. 515. 

'Abdullah ( ^«l^ ^^.U\ A illU..c), 

the son of 'Al-Yafi'i Shafl'I, author of the 
Arabic work called Baitzat-ttr-Ruiiuhm, con- 
taining a detailed accoimt of the lives of 
Muhammad, the twelve Imams, and of all 
the saints of Arabia, Persia, and Hindustan. 

'Abdullah Abu-Muslim (.jl iiJJlji^i 

*Ljj,^), author of the Commentary on 

the Qm\"in, called Sahlh Muslim. He was born 
in A.D. 817, A.H. 202, and died in the year a.d. 
875, A.H. 261. He is called by some writers 
Abul-Husain Muslim bin-al-Hajjaj bin- 
Muslim al-Qushairi, and by others Muslim 
biu-Hajjaj Nishapiira, which see. 


author of the Malfii-zat-i-Khivaja 'Abdullah, 
containing the doctrines of the Naqshbandis, 
and of the Anis-us-Salikln. 

'Abdullah Ansari (Khwaja) (aU\A,>£ 

i_Sy—^-jy), surnamed Shaikh Ahu 

Isma'il, the son of Abii-Mansur, the son of 
AbH-Ayyub. He was born at Hirat in May, 
A.D. 1006, Sha'ban, a.h. 396, and is the 
founder of the sect called 'Ansaris in Hirat 
and Kliurasun. He died on the 2nd July, 
a.d. 1088, 9th Rabi' I. a.h. 481, aged 84 
lunar years, and is buried at Hirat, in a place 
called Gazm-gah. 'Abdullah was struck with 
stones by the boys when he was doing 
penance, and expired. 

'Abdullah bin -'All bin-Abu-Shu'ba 

'Abdullah Ahrar {\ • 

al-Halabi ( 

'i-^- ^- ^'^^ ^■ 



J A.JJ1A-.J 

.-J_.s:M di-*^). One of the earliest 

writers both on the Hadsi and Law of the 
Imamiyasect. His grandfather, Abu-Shu'ba, 
is related to have collected traditions in the 
time of the Imams Hasan and Hirsaiu. 
'AbduUah wi'ote down these traditions, and 
presented his work, when completed, to the 
Imam Ja'far Sadiq, by whom it is said to 
have been verified and corrected. 

'Abdullah bin-'Ali, author of the work 
called Siralc-nl-Eind', which he paraphrased 
from the Persian into the Arabic, for it had 
been originally translated from Sanskrit into 
the Persian. 


'Abdullah bin-Fazl-itllali, of Shiraz, 
autlior of the Tarllh-i- TFassSf. 

[The first four volumes of this work, -which 
may he looked upon as a coutinuation of the 
Jalmn-kitsha', go as far as Sha'ban, 690 
(March, 1300). Suhsequeutly, the author 
added a filth volume which relates the events 
down to the year 728 (a.d. 1328) ; vide 
Elliot's History of India, iii. p. 24. 'Ab- 
dullah is also the name of the author of the 
Tarikh-i-Daiidl, an Afghan History, written 
during the reign of Jahangir ; vide Dowson, 
iv. p. 434.] 

'Abdullah Hatlfi, 


'Abdullah Khan Uzbak {^\~>- i.W\s^c 
t_io ;\) was a renowned officer in the 

time of Akbar. He was made governor of 
Manda (Malwa) in a.d. 1562, and afterwards 
rebelled against the king, but was defeated 
and compelled to leave the country. 

[For further notes, vide Aln Translation, 
i. p. 320.] 


'Abdullah Khan (,(_J^Jj\ ^U- <);U1a-x), 

chief of the Uzhaks, was the son of Sikandar 
Khan, the son of Jani Beg Khan, a descend- 
ant of Juji Khan, son of Chingiz Khan. 
After the death of his father (during whose 
Hfe he had several battles with him), he 
ascended the throne of Samarqand and Buk- 
hara in A.D. 1682, A.H. 990, invaded Khura- 
san, and took Hirat after a siege of nine 
months in a.d. 1585, a.h. 993. Its governor, 
'All Qui! Klian, with several other chiefs 
were put to death, and the city was plundered. 
He was contemporary with Shah 'Abbas of 
Persia and Akbar Shah, and died after a 
reign of 15 years, aged 66, on the 12th 
February, a.d. 1697, 5th Rajab a.h. 1006. 
The chronogram of the year of his death is 
" qiyamat qayim shud." He was succeeded 
by his son 'Abdul-Miimin Khan. 

'Abdullah Khan Firuz-Jang (j>U\j,^£ 

lS^^ \^j^ e^^)j 8- descendant of 

Hiwaja 'Abdullah Ahrar. He came to India 
in the latter end of the reign of the emperor 
Akbar, was raised to the rank of 6000 by the 
emperor Jahangir, and died in the time of 
Shah Jahan, A.n. 1644, 17th Shawwal 1054, 
aged nearly 70 years. 

'Abdullah Khan (Sayyid) (^Ij*^^. 

A-~j u^), styled Qutbul-Mulk, was 
governor of Allahabad from the time of 
Bahadur Shah, emperor of Dehli, and his 
younger brother Sayyid Husain 'All Khan, 
that of Bihar. These brothers sprung from 
a numerous and respected family of the 
descendants of the prophet, who were settled 
in the town of Barha, and in consequence of 


this origin, they are best known in Jiijia l^X 
the name of Sadat, or Sayyids, ol Barha. 
FaiTuldi-siyar, who by the aid of these two 
brothers hid ascended the throne of Dehli, 
on his accession in January, a.d. 1713, ah. 
ir?5 made the former his prime minister, 
with the title of Qutb-ul-Mulk, and appointed 
the latter Amir-ul-Umara. Husain 'All 
Khan was assassinated by Mir Haidar Klian 
at the instigation of the emperor Muhammad 
Shah, on the 18th September, o.s. 17'20, 
27th Zil-qa'da 1132, and his brother, 'Ab- 
dullah Khan, who made some resistance, was 
defeated and taken prisoner on the 4th 
November following, 14th Muharram 1133, 
and died in confinement, after three years, on 
the 19th September, o.s. 1723, 30th ^il- 
hijja 1135. The remains of Husam 'Ah 
iOian were transferred to Ajmir for burial. 
His brother 'Abdullah was buried at Dehli. 

[Eegarding the Sayyids of Barha, vide Am 
Translation, i. p. 390; and for 'Abdullah 
Quth-ul-MiJk, vide Dowson, vii. 447if.] 

'Abdullah Qutb-Shah (t_^ki dUlj^^i 

il.^), the sixth Sultan of the Qutb- 

Shahi djTiasty of Golkonda in Haidarabad, 
Deccan. He succeeded Muhammad Qntb- 
Shah, and reigned many years under the 
protection of the emperor Shah Jahan, to 
whom he acknowledged himself tributary, and 
paid an annual sum ; but in the year a.d. 
1656, a.h. 1066, he displeased that monarch, 
and brought upon himself much trouble. The 
emperor had commanded him to permit his 
prime minister, Mir Muhammad Sa'id, and 
his son Muhammad Amiu, to repair with their 
effects to court. Qutb-Shah disobeyed the 
mandate, and confining Muhammad Amin, 
then at Haidarabad, seized part of his wealth. 
The prince Aurangzih, then governor of the 
imperial territories in the Deccan, enraged at 
this conduct, marched to Haidarabad, which 
he took and plundered. 'Abdullah was 
obliged to pm-chase pardon by a contribution 
of a erore of Rupees, and the gift of his 
daughter in marriage to the sou of his enemy, 
the prince Sultan Muhammad. From this 
time 'Abdullah, during the remainder of his 
life, was, in fact, a vassal of the empire. 
'Abdullah Qutb-Shah died in June, a.d. 
1674, Eabi I., a.h. 1085, and was succeeded 
by his son-in-law, Abul-Hasan. 

'Abdullah Mansur {.^^j^ iSl\s^z), 

author of the Tarjama-i-Tabaqdt-i-SilJiya, 
containing the lives of the most celebrated 
Siifis and Shaikhs. 

'Abdullah Mirza (Ij^^ ailU^) was the 

son of Ibrahim Mirza, the son of Shahrakh 
Mirza, and great-grandson of Amir Timux. 
Upon his father's death (about the year a.d. 
1443), he became possessed of the sovereignty 
of Fars, or Persia ; hut, four years after, he 
was dispossessed by one of his cousins-german, 
named Mirza Abii-Sa'id, and was obliged to 
fly to his uncle Mirza Ulugh Beg, who then 




reigned in Transoxiana, and who gave liim 
his daughter in marriage. Some time after, 
TJlugh Beg having been defeated in a battle 
against liis son Mii'za 'Abdul -Latif, and 
afterwards put to death by him in October, 
A.D. 1449, Ramazan, a.h. 853, and the latter 
not enjoying the success of his parricide 
above six mouths, 'Abdidlah, as son-in-law to 
TJlugh Beg, took possession of his dominions ; 
but Mirza Abu - Sa'id, his cousin - german, 
declared war against him, and defeated him 
in a pitched battle, in which he perished. 
This event took place in the year a.d. 1451, 
A.H. 855. 

'Abdullali Sayyid, son of Bahadur 'Ali, 

a native of Sawana, near Thanesar, and a 
prominent disciple of Saj-yid Ahmad [q.v.), 
under whose inspiration he published Abdul 
Kadir's Urdu version of the Koran, with 
commentary, 1822. 

'AladuUali Sliattari (Shaikli) (a,l!U-at 

i_j.U2_i), a descendant of Shaikh 

Shihab-uddin Suhrawardi. He came from 
Persia to India, and died in Malwa, a.d. 
1406, A.H. 809, and is biu-ied there. 

[Eegarding the ShattarTs vide Jour. As. 
Soc. Bengal, 1874, pt. i. p. 216.] 

'Abdullah Tamimi (^^' <tL!lj._.£), 

author of the Arabic work called Eaazat- 
ul-Jbrar, which contains the history of 
Muhammad, and Memoirs of many of his 

'Abdullah Tiimizi (Mir) (j;_U\ 

^_^S-'^J-j) was an elegant poet and 

wrote an excellent Nasta'liq hand, for which 
he received from the emperor Jahangir the 
poetical name of Wasfi, or praiseworthy, and 
the title of Mushkin- Qalam, that is to 
say, out of whose pen flowed musk. He is 
the author of several poems. His death 
happened in the year a.d. 1626, a.h. 1035. 
His tomb stands "at a place in Agra, called 
Nagla Jawahir. 

[For the inscription on his tomb, and his 
son Muhammad Salih Kashfi, vide Froc. As. 
Soe. Bengal, 1874, p. 162.] 

'Abdul-Latif (i a.^JJl J..-_c), a cele- 
brated physician bom at Bagl^dad, a.jj. 
1261, A.H. 660. To the acquirement of 
medical knowledge, he applied himself with 
diligence ; and it was chiefly with this view 
that, in his 28th year, he left Baghdad in 
order to visit other countries. Having spent 
a year in Mausil, he removed to Damascus in 
Syria and thence to Egypt, where the people 
of the highest rank continued to vie with each 
other in cultivating his friendship. He after- 
wards travelled to Aleppo, and resided several 

years in Greece. Of 150 treatises which he 
composed on various subjects, only one, 
entitled Historice j^Kgypti Compoidiiim, has 
survived the ravages of time. He died 
suddenly at Baghdad in his 65th year. 

'Abdul-Latif (i_i_j2.Ul A^^), a great- 
grandson of Amir Timur. In October a.d. 
1449, he defeated his father Mirza XJlugh 
Beg in an action near Samarqand, took him 
prisoner and put him to death. He did not 
long enjoy his success, for he had scarcely 
reigned six months, when he was murdered 
by his own soldiers on the 9th May, 1450, 
26th Eahi I. a.h. 854. His head was 
separated from his body and sent to Hirat, 
where it was placed on the gate of the college 
built by his father. 

'Abdul-Latif (i a^LUl A-i), a native 

of Qazwiu, and author of the work entitled 
liibb-ut-Tawarhh, a history of Persia, 
written in the middle of the 16tli centui-y. 

'Abdul-Latif (Mulla) (1^ (_i-.LUl J^r) 

of Sultanpiir, was the tutor of the prince 
Auranzib. In the last years of his life he 
became blind, received from the emperor 
Shah Jahan a few villages free of rent for his 
support, and died in the year a.d. 1632, 
A.H. 1042. 

'Abdul-Latif, author of a collection of 

Letters called Insha-i-' Abdul- Latif . 

'Abdul-Latif (i__2->LlJl Jy.^), author of 

the work called Intaif-i-Ma'naiii, a com- 
mentary on the difficult passages of the 
Masnawi or Maulana Eum, written in a.d. 
1640. He also is the author of a Dictionary 
called Latnif-ul-Ltighat. 

[Regarding the author vide Jour. As. Soc. 
for 1868, p. 32.] 

'Abdul-Maal ( JLtwJl A-x), author of 

a system of Geography, written in the Persian 
Language, and entitler 
the survey of the earth 

'Abdul-Majid Khan (a^^'^'I S^), the 

Turkish emperor of Constantinople, was born 
on the 23rd April, 1823, and succeeded his 
father Mahmid II. on the 2nd July, a.d. 
1839, A.H. 1277. He died on the 25th June, 
1861, aged 39 years, and was succeeded by his 
brother 'Abdul- 'Aziz. 

'Abdul-Majid KhanC^l-^- j>^.sr*'U^), 

entitled Majd-ud daula, a nobleman who was 
promoted by Ahmad Shah of Dehli to the 
post of 3rd Bakhshigari or paymastership, in 
A.D. 1748, A.H. 1161. He died in the year 
1752, A.H. 1165. 

Language, and entitled Masa/iatul-Arz, or 




'AMul-Majid (Shaikli) (a.^^'^1 J.-.^ 
^r^), a learned man who flourislied 

in the time of Shall Jahaii, and wrote_ a 
history of that emperor entitled Shah Jahan- 
iiuiiia . 

[This seems to be a mistake for 'Abdul- 

'Abdul-Malik {J'^.j- ^^ CS\.^\ J.^), 

the son of Marwan I. and the Sth Khalifa of 
the house of Umayya (Ommaides). He 
succeeded his father' at Damascus, on the 
13th April, a.d. 685, 3rd Eamnzan, a.h. 63, 
siu'passed his predecessors in military exploits, 
and extended his power as far as Spain in the 
west, and India in the east. lie was so 
generous as not to take a church from the 
Christians, which they had refused to grant 
him when he requested it. He was called 
Ahul-Zubab or "father of flies," because 
his breath was so offensive, that it killed the 
very flies that settled on his lips. He reigned 
upwards of 21 lunar years and died in October, 
A.D. 705, Shawwal, a.h. 86. He was suc- 
ceeded hy Walid I. the eldest of his sixteen 
sons, who greatly extended the Moslem 

'Abdul-Malik (J I, 


the son of Salili, the son of 'Abdullah, the 
son of 'Abbas, was related in blood to the 
prophet Muhammad ; was invested by Harun- 
nr-Eashid, the Klialifa of Baghdad, with 
the government of EgJTiti i^ which he 
continued till about the year a.d. 794, a.h. 
178, when Hariin, suspecting that he was 
engaged in some cabals, in order to obtain 
the empire, threw him into prison, where he 
remained till Harun's death. His son re- 
leased him, and invested him with the govern- 
of Syria, a.d. 809, a.h. 193. 

'Abdul-Malik (^Ja ^\ t_<LL»ll a^), 

the son of Zuhr, au eminent Arabian 
physician, commonly called by Europeans 
Avenzur, a corruption of Ibn-Zuhr. His 
full name is Abu-Marwan 'Abdul-Malik ibn- 
Zuhr. He flourished about the end of the 
11th or the beginning of the 12th centm-y. 
He was of noble descent, and born at Sevilla, 
the capital of Andalusia, where he exercised 
his profession with great reputation. His 
grandfather and father were both physicians. 
It is said that he lived to the age of 1 35 ; 
that he began to practice at 40 or, as others 
say, at 20 ; and had the advantage of a longer 
experience than almost any one ever had, for 
he enjoyed perfect health to his last hour. 
He left a sou, also kno^vn by the name of 
Ibn-Zuhr, who followed his father's pro- 
fession, was in great favour with Al-Mansiir, 
emperor of Morocco, and wrote several 
treatises on physic. Avenzur wrote a book, 
entitled Tayassur Ji-l-miidawat wat-iadbir^ 
which is much esteemed. This work was 

tran.slated into Hebrew in a.d. 1280, and 
thence iuto Latin by Paravicius, whose version 
has had several editions. The author added 
a supplement to it, under the title of Jami', 
or Collection. He also wrote a treatise 
Fil-adw'njat wal-aghziyat. i.e., of medicines 
and food, wherein he treats of their qualities. 
Ibn-2uhr was contemporary with Ibn-Eashid 
(Averroes), who more than once gives him a 
very high and deserved encomium, calling him 
admirable, glorious, the treasure of all know- 
ledge, and the most supreme in medicine from 
the time of Galen to his own. 

'Abdul-Malik (i__^J_^Jl S^), king of 

Fez and Morocco, was dethroned by his 
nephew Muhammad, but he afterwards de- 
feated Sebastian, king of Portugal, who had 
landed iu Africa to support the usurper. The 
two African monarchs and Sebastian fell on 
the field, a.d. 1678 (a.h. 986). 

'Abdul-Malik (Khwaja), a native of 
Samarqand who held the oflice of Shaikh-ul- 
Islam in that city in the reign of Amir 

'Abdul-Malik Samani I. ((JJ^UH J.-C 
i^_jl_^L~:), a king of the house of 

Saman, and son of Amir Nuh I., whom he 
succeeded in a.d. 954 (a.h. 343). He reigned 
in Khurasan and Mawaran-uahr seven and a 
half years, and was killed by a fall from his 
horse while plajiug at ball in a.d. 961 (a.h. 
360). He was succeeded by his brother Amir 
Mansur I. 

'Abdul-Malik Samani II. (tl^UI j^^ 
j^iUtL), an Amir of the house of 

Saman, was elevated to the throne of 
Khurasan, after his brother Amir Mansur II. 
in A.D. 998 (a.h. 388). He was the last 
Amir, or king, of the race of the Samanides. 
He reigned only a few months, and was 
defeated in battle against Sultan Mahmiid of 
Gliazni in a.d. 999, who took possession of 
his country. 'Abdul-Malik was shortly after 

'Abdul-Manaf (uJli^l A-i), or 'Abd- 

Manaf, {i.e. slave of the idol Manaf) the 
great-great-grandfather of Muhammad, was 
the son of Qusajy, who aggrandised the tribe 
of the Quraish by purchasing the keys of the 
Ka'ba from Abii-Ghassan, a weak and silly 
man, for a bottle of wine. Qusayy was 
succeeded by his second son 'Abdul-Manaf, 
to whom the prophetic light, which is said to 
have manifested itself iu his face, gave the 
right of primogenitiu-e. After his death his 
son Hashim, the father of 'Abdul-Muttalib, 

['Aisd-Manap is also the name of a son of 
the Prophet, who died in infancy.] 




' Abdul-Mannan (Mir) {^ ^J.u^\ s^-)^ 

son of Mir Nu'man Khan, son of Khwaja 
'Abdur-Ealnm Ivhan of Andijan. He served 
under the celebrated Nizam-ul-Mnlk Asaf-Jah 
in the Deccan for several years, was an 
excellent poet, and is known under the poetical 
name of 'Ibrat. 

'Abdul-Mumin (^^^Jl a^), a man of 

obscure origin and son of a potter, who seized 
the crown of Morocco, after destroying the 
royal family. He extended his dominions by 
the conquest of Tunis, Fez, and Tremezen. 
He meditated the invasion of Spain, when 
death stopped his career in a.d. 1156. His 
son Yiisuf who succeeded him, carried bis 
ambitions into effect. 

'Abdul-Mumin Khan (^^^^H ^.^ 

^J^^), the son of 'Abclullah Khan, 
chief of the Uzbaks, was raised to the throne 
after the death of his father at Samarqaud in 
the year a.d. 1597, a.h. 1005. He took 
Mashad and put the inhabitants to the sword. 
He was soon after assassinated by his own 
officers in a.d. 1598, a.h. 1006 ; the chrono- 
gram of his death beiug contained in the 
words " Badbaklit-i-sar-burida." After his 
death, D7n Muhammad Khan, the son of 
'Abdullah Khan's sister, was placed on the 
throne ; but he fell shortly after, in a battle 
fought at Hirat, against Shah 'Abbas, king 
of iPersia. 

'Abdnl-Muttalib (L_^Ua.JI S^), the 

grandfather of Muhammad, the son of 
Hashim of the tribe of Quraish. He is said 
to have been extremely affable and easy of 
access, as well as just and generous. The 
well which God shewed Hagar the mother of 
Ishmael, in the wilderness, is said to have 
been miraculously discovered to 'Abdul-Mut- 
talib, about five himdred years after it had 
been filled up by 'Amr, prince of the 
Jorhomites. The well is called Zamzam by 
the Arabs and is on the east side of the Ka'ba, 
covered with a small building and cupola. 
Its water is highly reverenced, being not only 
received with particular devotion by the 
pilgrims, but also sent in bottles as a great 
rarity to most parts of the Muhammadan 
dominions. 'Abdul - Mutfalib had ten sons 
whose names are as follows : Abu-Talib, the 
father of 'AlT ; 'Abbas, the ancestor of the 
Abbasides who reigned at Baghdad ; Hamza ; 
Haris ; Abii-Lahab ; Abdullah, the father 
of Muhammad ; Al-Maqawwam ; Zubair ; 
Zirar ; Qusam. His younger son 'Abdullah, 
the father of Muhammad, dying eight days 
after the birth of his son, 'Abdul-Muttalib 
was obliged to take care of his grandson 
Muhammad, which he not only did during 
his life, but at bis death enjoined his eldest 
son Abii-Talib to provide for him for the 
future. 'AbduI-Muttalib died about the year 
A.D. 579, at which time Muhammad was 
about eight years old. 

'Abdul-Nabi (Shaikh) { ^.Jl a-.£ 

*s^ ' * 

!<^''), son of Shaikh Ahmad, and 

grandson of Shaikh 'Abdul-Quddus of Gan- 
goh. He was the tutor of the Emperor 
Akbar, and was honoured with the post of 
Sadr-us-Sadiir (Chief Justice). No Sadr 
during any former reign had so much favour. 
The Emperor was for some time so intimate and 
unceremonious with him that he would rise to 
adjust the Shaikh's slippers when he took his 
leave. At last, tlirough the enmity of 
Maulana 'Abdullah Makhdam-ul-Midk (vide 
p. 6) and others, he fell in Akbar's estima- 
tion, and began to be treated very differently. 
He was banished to Mecca, and after lus 
return was murdered in the year a.d. 1583 
(A.H. 991). 

[Vide 'Ayn Translation, i. pp. 538, 546, and 
p. xiii (Ahnl-FazV s Biography) ; and Froc. 
As. Soc. Bengal, January, 1876.] 

'Abdul - Nabi Khan served "under 
Aurangzib, and bmlt the large Mosque at 

[Vide Froe. As. Soc. Bengal, 1873, p. 12.] 

'Abdul-Rahim bin-Ahmad Sur (j,.ȣ 
j_j-; ,Xi.^\ (^ *^=»-^ll), author of the 

Persian Dictionary Kashf-iil-Fwjliat. 

[Vide Jour. As. Soc. Bengal, for 1868, 
p. 9.] 

'Abdul-Rahim Khan (>_;|w5^ Ji tX_.»_c 

^jljl-:=- j^i^-^ u''^)> ?h5.n Khanan, 

commonly called Khan Mirza, was the son of 
Bairiim Khan, the first prime-minister of the 
emperor Akbar. He was born on the 17th 
December, a.d. 1556 (14th Safar a.h. 904) 
and was only foiu: years old when his father 
was assassinated. When of age, he received 
a command in the force attached to the 
emperor's person. In 1584 he was one of 
the commanders of the army sent to Gujarat, 
and on the conclusion of the campaign, was 
made head of the army. On Todar Mai's 
death (1589) he was made prime-minister. 
His daughter JanI Begam was married to 
prince Danyal in the year a.d. 1599 (a.h. 
1007). He translated the IVaqi'nt-i-Bnharl 
(Memoirs of the emperor Babar) from Tm-ki 
into Persian. After Akbar's death he served 
under Jahangir for 21 years, and died a few 
months before that emperor, shortly after the 
suppression of Mahabat Khan's rebellion, in 
the year a d. 1627 (a.h. 1036), aged 72 lunar 
years, and lies buried at Dehli near the Dargah 
of Shaikh Nizam-nddin Auliya, where his tomb 
is to be seen to this day. His poetical name 
was Kahim. 

[For a detailed biography, vide Ain Trans- 
lation, i. p. 334.] 




'Abdul-Rahim (^.>. Jl A.---), one of 

the principal nobU-s who joined Prince 
Kluisrau in lus rebellion against his father 
Jahanjfir in a.d. 1606. He was taken 
prisoner with the prince and brought to the 
emperor at Lahor; liy whose order he was 
sewn up in the raw hide of an ass, kept 
constantly moist with water, in which miser- 
able condition he remained twenty-four hours. 
He was afterwards pardoned. 

[Vide Ahi Tramlntion, i. p. 455.] 

'ATDdul-Rahim Khan (Khwaja) {s^ 

^?-l.ri- i^lri. *;»j>-Jl), the son of Abul- 

Qasim. He was a native of Andijan in 
Farghana, came to India in the reign of the 
emperor Shah Jahan, and served under 
Aurangzib for several years. He died in 
A.D. 1692 (A.H. 1103.) 

'Ahdul-Rahman {^j\ ^-i-s.- Jl Ji.--c 

■> "^ )i the son of Muljim, the 

murderer of 'All, son-in-law of Muhammad. 
He was killed by Hasan, son of 'AlT, in 
January, a.d. 661 (Ramazan a.h. 40). 

[No Shi'a would now-a-days call his son 
'Abd-ul Rahman, just as no orthodox Mu- 
hammadau would call his son Yazid.] 


\), the son of Abii-Bakr, first 

'Abdul-Rahman (^_) 

Khalifa after Muhammad, and brother to 
'Ayisha, the favourite wife of the prophet. 
He died in the same year that his sister died, 
i.e., in a.d. 678, a.h. 58. 

'Abdul-Rahman ( ._j ._ 


.Ji J..-^c 

' g.-.-»- li^s^), the son of Muhammad 

Hanif son of 'Ali. He raised a formidable 
power against Hajjaj , the governor of Arabia, 
defeated him in several battles, and at last, 
rather than fall into his bauds, threw himself 
from a house and died, a.d. 701, a.h. 82. 

'Abdul -Rahman, a popular Afghan 

poet of Peshawar. His verses are written 
with fiery energy, which has made them 
popular amongst a martial people, and yet 
with natural simplicity which is charming to 
the lover of poetry. Not far from the city is 
his grave, situated on the road to Hazar- 
khana, the poet's native village. 

'Abdul-Rahman C^-^- 




a Saracen general of the Khalifa Hisham 
(called by some of our authors Abderames) 
who penetrated into Aquitain and Poitou, and 
was at last defeated and slain by Charles 
Martel near Poiters, in a.d. 732, a.h. 114. 

'Abdul-Rahman Mustafa (^.^a- JI Ji-r. 

|Jk.<2^), who in Watkin's Biographi- 
cal Dictionary is called Babacauschi, was 
mufti of the city of Caffa, in Tauris. He 
wrote a book called The Friend of Princes. 
He died in a.d. 1381, a.h. 783. 

'Abdul-Rahman ( ...4,5- J I J>.*.c), also 

called by old wi'iters Abderames, a descendant 
of the KJiallfas of the house of Umayya. He 
was invited to come to Spain, in a.d. 756, 
a.h. 139, by the Saracens who had revolted ; 
and after he had conquered the whole king- 
dom, he assumed the title of king of Cordova. 
He was the founder of the Ommaides of 
Spain, who reigned above two huuch'ed and 
iifty years from the Atlantic to the PjTenees. 
He died in a.d. 790, a.h. 174, after reigning 
32 years. 

'Abdul-Rahman lehi {-as-jW S..>~s. 

,-=£^1), or III, the father of QazT 

'Azd-uddin of Shiraz, a learned man and 
native of Ich, a town situated 40 farsakhs 
from Shiraz. 

'Abdul-Rahman (^.^j^yH ■^), called 

by us Abderames, a petty prince in the king- 
dom of Morocco, who murdered 'Imad-uddin, 
his predecessor and nephew, and was himself 
after a long reign assassinated by a chieftain 
whose death he meditated, a.d. 1505, a.h. 

'Abdul-Rahman, the Sultan of Fez 

and Morocco, born 1778, was rightful heir 
to the throne when his father died ; but was 
supplanted by his uncle, after whose death he 
ascended the throue in 1823. His eldest son 
Sidi Muhammad (born 1803) is heir to the 

'Abdul-Rahman Khan (..^rv.J| a->£. 

(jjLj=-), Nawab of Jhajjar, who on 

account of his rebellion during the mutiny of 
the native troops in a.d. 1S57, a.h. 1274, 
was found guilty and executed at Dehl! before 
the Kotwali on the 23rd December of the 
same year. He was a descendant of Najabat 
'Ali Khan, to whom in 1800, when Sir G. 
Barlow was Governor- General of India, were 
granted the large territorial possessions held 
by the late Nawah, yielding a yearly revenue 
of 12J lacs, and consisting of Jhajjar, Eadli, 
Karaund with its fort, Narnaul, etc. In 
addition to these, expressly for the purpose 
of keeping up 400 horsemen, the territory of 
Badwau and Dadi'I was granted. Up to May, 
1857, he had always been looked upon as a 
staunch friend of the British Government; 
but when the rebellion bui-st forth, he forgot 
all his obligations to the British, and sided 
with the rebels. 




'Abdul-Ratman Klian (^^s- Jl s^i. 

^^Lri-), Sadr-us-Sudur of Kanhpur 
(Cawnpore), a rebel and a staunch supporter of 
Nana Sahib, when that rebel commenced 
his career. He was hanged at Kanhpur, in 
June, 1858, a.h. 1274. 

'Abdul - Rahman Sulami (Shaikh), 

author of the Taiaqat Siifiya, a work on 
Suflsm. He died in a.d. 1021, a.h. 412. 
He is also called Abu-'Abdiu:-rahman. 

'Abdul-Rahman, son of 'Abdul-'Aziz 
Naqshbandl, the father-in-law of Salaimau 
Shikoh, who married his daughter in a.h. 
1062, the 25th year of Shah Jahan. 

'Abdul-Rahman Chishti ( i^-^ J\ j^^i 

:v-»A -^ ), author of the Mir-at-i- 

Mas'udT, which contains the legendary history 
of Salar Mas'ud Ghazi, buried at Babraich 
in Audh. 'Abur-rahmSn died during the 
reign of Aurangzib in a.h. 1094. 

[For extract translations vide Dowson, 
Elliofs History of India, ii. p. 513. An 
Urdu translation of the Mir-at-i-Mos'Udi 
was lithographed at Kanhpiir a.h. 1287, under 
the title of Ghuza-'num.a-i-Mas^ud.'] 

'Abdul-Rashid (a-JL^I A^), was the 

son of Sultan Mas'ud, of Ghazni. He began 
to reign, after deposing and confining his 
brother 'Ali, in a.d. 1052, a.h. 443. He 
had reigned but one year, when Tughril, one 
of his nobles, assassinated him and mounted 
the throne of GhaznT. Tughril reigned only 
forty days, and was miu-dered on the Persian 
New Year's day in March a.d. 1053, a.h. 
444, when FarruJchzad, a brother of 'Abdur- 
Eashid, succeeded him. 

'Abdul-Rashid (Mir) {^ s. 


son of 'Abdul- Ghafur-ul-HusainT. He lived 
in the time of the emperor Shah Jahan, and 
wrote chronograms on his accession to the 
throne of Dehll in a.d. 1628, a.h. 1037. 
He is the author of the Persian Dictionary 
called Farhang-i-EasMdl, also of the Mun- 
iak/iab-ul-Zurihat, a very useful Arabic 
Dictionary, with Persian explanations, dedi- 
cated to the emperor Shah Jahan. Another 
work of his is called Eisala-i- Mii' arrabat. 

The Farhang-i-Mashidi, which was written 
in 1064 (a.d. 1653), is the first critical 
dictionary of the Persian language, and has 
been printed by the Asiatic Society of 

[Vide Jour. As. Sac. Bengal, 1868, p. 20.] 


'Abdul-Rashid Khan ( 

^^Us-), son of Sultan Abii-Sa'id Khan, 

king of Kashghar. He was the contemporary 
of Humayuu, the emperor of Dehli. Mirza 

Haidar, author of the TurlBi-i.S.ashldi, 
dedicated his work to him. 

[ri& Dowson, _£Zftoi's History of India, 
V. p. 127 ; and Ain Translation, i. p. 460.] 

'Abdul-Razzaq (jlj^l s^, a chief 

of the Sarbadals of Sabzwar. He was at first 
employed by Sultan Abu-Sa'id Kjian as a 
Yasawal, or mace-bearer, but after his death, 
when confusion took place, he possessed him- 
self of Kluirasan in a.d. 1336, ah. 737, and 
was slaiu, after one year and two months, 
by his brother, Wajlh-nddiu Mas'ud, in 
September, 1337, Saf'ar a.h. 738. Mas'ud 
reigned seven years, and was deposed by his 
brother Shams-uddin, who after a reign of 
four years and nine months was slain at 
Sabzwar by 5aidar Qassab. After him Amir 
Yahya Qirati made himself master of 
Khm-asan, and gave the command of his 
troops to Haidar Qassab. In the mouth 
of December a.d. 1363, a.h. 754, Yahya 
slew Tugljan Timur, a descendant of the 
Mughul kings, in battle, and was himself 
slain by his nobles, after he had reigned four 
years and eight months. After him they 
raised Khwaja Lutf-ullah, the son of Khwaja 
Mas'ud to the masnad. He was slain after a 
short time by Hasan DamghanI, who reigned 
four years and four months, when Kliwaja 
'All Muayyad slew him, and reigned eighteen 
years in Khurasan, after which he made over 
his country to Amir Timur, who passed 
Khiu-asan in a.d. 1380, a.h. 782. 'All 
Muayyad was killed in a battle in the year 
1386, A.H. 788, and with him terminated 
the power of the Sarbadals. 

'Abdul-Razzaq, Kamal-uddln, son of 
Jalal-uddin Is-haq, born at Hirat on the 
12th Sha'ban, 816 (6th November, 1413). 
He is author of the historical work entitled 
'Matla'-us-sa'-dain. He died in 887 (a.d. 

\_Vide below in i>oo. Eamal, and Dowson, 
iv. p. 90.] 

'Abdul-Razzaq, the son of Mirza Ulugh 
Beg, the emperor Babar's uncle. He was 
killed by the command of that monarch, 
before his invasion of India, for raising 
disturbances at Kabul, about a.d. 1509, 
A.H. 915. 

' Abdul-Razza(i(Mulla)(L« jU J 1 j^-r ), 

of Lahijan, author of the G miliar -i-Mur ad, 
a dissertation on the creation of the world, 
and the pre-eminence then given by God to 
man, dedicated to Shah Abbas II. of Persia. 
He lived about the year a.d. 1660, a.h. 1072. 
His poetical name is Fayyaz. 

'Abdul-Salam (a^.s'* ^^ *LJ1 iX-c), 

son of Muhammad, a celebrated learned man, 
and author of the Tafsir Kabir, a commentary 
on the Quian. He died in the year a.d. 1096, 
A.H. 488. 




'Abdul-Salam (Qazi) ( Ji_u*_n A_-~£ 

^-JjljkJ _jLj), of Badaon, son of 

'Ata-ul-Haqq. He is the autlior_of the 
commeutary called Tufsh- Zad-id-Akliiral, 
in Urdu, consisting ot 200,000 verses, which 
he completed ahout the year a.d. 1828, a.h. 
1244, as the name of the work shows. 

'Abdul-Salam, a famous philosopher 
and physician, who died at Damascus in a.d. 
1443, A.H. 847. 

'Abdul-Salam (MuUa) (^L^H J>^£ L.), 

of Lahor, a pupil of Amir Fath-ullah Shirazi. 
He died in the year a.d. 1628, a.h. 1037. 
[Tide Aln Translation; i. p. 545.] 

'Abdul-Salam (MuUa), of Dehli, -was 
the pupil of MuUa 'Ahdus-Salani of Lahor. 
He wrote the Sharli, or marginal notes, on 
the commentaries called Tahzlb, Manor, etc., 
and is also the author of the work on Sufism, 
in Arahic, called Hall-ur-Eumiiz. 

'Abdul Samad (a./»-.,2J1 J^.-^:), uncle of 

the two first Khalifas of the house of 'Abbas, 
died at a great age during the khilafat of 
Harun-ur-Eashid, in the year a.d. 801, a.h. 
185. It is said of him that he never lost a 
tooth, for both the upper and lower jaws were 
each of one single piece. 

'Abdul-Samad (Kli-waja) (ji^.,^1 s-^i^ 

i_=^lj_~-), a noble of Akbar's court, 

also well-known as a caligrapher. He was 
the father of Sharif, Amir-ul-Umara, under 
Jahanglr (vide Am Translation, i. pp. 495, 
517), and had the title of " Shirin-aalam," 
or sweet-pen. 

'Abdul - Samad, nephew of Shaikh 
Abul-Fazl, secretary to the emperor Akbar. 
He is the compiler of the work called Insha- 
i- Abul-Fazl, which he collected and published 
in the year a.d. 1606, a.h. 1015. 

'Abdul-Samad Khan (l^j^^.J\ S.^), 

styled Nawab Samsam - uddaula Bahadur - 
Jang, was the son of Khwaja 'Abdul-Karim, 
a descendant of Khwaja 'Ubaid-uUah Ahrar. 
The native country of his father was Samar- 
qaud, but he was bom at Agra. In his 
childhood, he went with his father to Samar- 
qand, where he completed his studies. In 
the reign of Aurangzlb he returned to India, 
and was, at his first introduction to the 
emperor, raised to the rank of 600, and after 
a short time to that of 1500, with the title of 
Khan. In the reign of Jahandar Shah, the 
rank of 7000 and the title of 'Ali-Jaug were 
conferred on him. He wa,s made governor of 
Labor, in the time of Farrukh-siyar, and was 
sent with a great army against the Sikhs, 
whom he defeated and made prisoners with 

Banda their chief. He was made governor of 
Multan by the emperor Muhammad Shah, 
with the title of Samsam-uddaula, and his 
son, Zakariya Khan, Subadar of Luhor. He 
died in a.d. 1739, during the invasion of 
Nadir Shah. 

[The histories call him "Diler-jang," not 
"All-jang" ; vide also Dowson, vii. pp. 456, 
491, 511.] 

'Abdul-Samad Khan (Iri. A-*...JI J'^i), 

Faujdar of Sarbind, distinguished himself in 
the Maratha Wars, and was at last beheaded 
by Bhao in a.h. 1174 (a.d. 1760). 
\_Vide Dowson, viii. p. 278.] 

'Abdul-Shukur (Maulana) (^^LiJl Ji-c 

\iiy*). His poetical name was Bazml 

[j'.i'.J, and he was killed, or mortally 
wounded, in a skirmish near Karnal, 16th 
February, a.d. 1634. 

'Abdul Wahhab (Qazi) (^_>^.J1 S^r. 

^_»aLjj) lived in the time of the 

emperor 'Alamgir, and died on the 26th 
November, a.d. 1675, 18th Eamazan, a.h. 
1086, at Dehli. He is the author of a 
Dastur-ul-' Amal, which he dedicated to that 

'Abdul Wahhab (Mir) (c_jU_yJl d^s. 
_-»-^), author of the Ta%}iira-i-Be- 

naz'ir, which he ^vi-ote about the year a.d. 
1768, A.H. 1172. 

'Abdul-Wahhab, author of the Mana- 
qih-i Maulaivl Mam, containing the memoirs 
of the celebrated Jalal-uddin Eiimi. 

'Abdul-Wahhab bin-Ahmad {s-^-s:- 


>\jbyi\), author of the 

Arabic work on theology, called Anwcir 
Ahmadiya, written in a.d. 1648. 

'Abdul-Wahhab, or Muhammad bin- 
'Abdul-Wahhab, founder of the sect of the 
"Wahhabis, was born at Huraimala, in the 
province of Najd, in Arabia, about the year 
A.D. 1750. 

'Abdul- Wahid {a^\^\ j,^^), author of 

the Sab' a Sanabil, essays on the duties of 
Instructor and Student, written in the year 
A.D. 1561, A.H. 969. 

'Abdul-Wahid (Mir) (^^ s^\^]\ j,^^), 

a native of Bilgram, in Audh, whose poetical 
name was Shahidi. He died in his native 
country on the 11th of December, a.d. 1608, 
3rd Ramazan, a.h. 1017. His son's name 
was Mir 'Abdul-Jalil the father of Sayyid 
TJwais, whose son's name was Sayyid Barkat- 





'Abdul-Wahid (Mir), of Bilgram. He 
wrote under two assumed names, viz, : "WaMd 
and Zauql, was an excellent poet in Persian 
and in Hindi, and is tlie author of a work 
in prose and verse, called Ishakar-istnn-i- 
Khaycil, wherein he has mentioned the names 
of aU kinds of sweetmeats. He was killed on 
the 13th October, a,d. 1721, Friday, 2nd 
Muharram, a.h. 1134, in an afiray with the 
Zamindars of Rahun, in the Panjab, the 
settlement of wliicli place was entrusted to 
his father Sayyid Muhammad Ashraf . 

'Abdul-Wahidi, a Turkish poet, author 
of £1 Diwan, comprising 30 Qasidas, 200 
Ghazals, 29 Tarikhs. and 54 Euba'is. 

'AMul-Wasi' of Hansi («__>j\.J\ s.^c 

i^^-uj—JK-Sti), author of a Persian 

grammar, called after his name, Hisala-i- 
'Ahdul-Wasi. He flourished in the last 
century, and is also the author of a Hindu- 
stani Dictionary, entitled GJiaraih-ul-Liinhat. 
[For further notes, vide Proc. As. Soc. 
Bengal, for 1887, p. 121.] 

'Abdul - Wasi' Jabali (j^_jl.Jl S-,.^ 

Li^), a celehrated poet of Persia, 

who flourished about the year a.d. 1152, a.h. 
547, in the time of Sultan Bahram Shah, son 
of Sultan Mas'iid, of GliaznT, and Sultan 
Sanjar Saljiiqi, in whose praise he wrote 
several beautiful panegyrics. He died in the 
year a.d. 1160, a.h. 665. "Jabal" means 
a mountain, and as he was a native of 
Ghurjistan, a mountainous country, he chose 
"Jabali" for his poetical title; vide Jabali. 
[Vide Sprenger, Catalogue of Oudh MSS. 
p. 443.] 

Abengnefil (a corruption of an Arabian 
name, spelt so in Lempriere's Biographical 
Dictionary) , was an Arabian physician of the 
12th century, and author of a book, the 
translation of which, entitled De virtutibus 
mediciniirum et eidorum, was printed at Venice 
in 1851 ; folio. 

'Abhai Singh (a$1-: ^^^\ ^=rl;^> ^^^3^ 

of Jodhpiir, who had acquired his power by 
the murder of his father, Eaja Ajit Singh 
Eathauri in the beginning of tlie reign of 
Muhammad Shah, emperor of Dehli, about 
the year a.d. 1726, a.h. 1139. He served 
under the emperor, and having in a battle 
defeated Sarbaland Khan, the usurper of 
Gujrat, was appointed governor of that 
province in a.d. 1727, a.h. 1140; but his 
younger brother Bakht Singh succeeded his 
father to the Eaj of Jodhpiir. Abhai Singh 
was poisoned in a.d. 1752, and after his death 
his son Bijai Singh succeeded him. 

'Abi Bakr, author of the Jawahir-ul- 
Ganj, and of another work on Suflsm, called 
Mar^ad-ul- 'Ibad. 

'Abi Bakr Muhammad (A,4,s'*il) A), 

author of an Arabic work in prose entitled 
Adrib-ul-Kitab, written in a.d. 984, a.h. 

'Abid Khan (^^l^^ j.jLc'), a nobleman 

on whom Aurangzib conferred the Siibadar- 
ship of Multau. 

Abjadi {^s^\), the poetical name of 

Mir Mu.hammad Isma'il Khan, tutor of the 
Nawab 'Umdat-ul-TJmara of the Karnatik, 
who made him a present of 6700 Es. on the 
completion of the history, called Anioar- 
nama, a masnawi, or epic, containing an 
account of the exploits of Nawab Anwar 
Klian, the father of the patron of the author. 
It was completed in a.d. 1760 (a.h. 1174), 
and in 1774 the title of Malik-ush-shu' ara, 
or poet laureate, was conferred on the author. 

[ Vide Abd!.] 
'Abaa Khan (j^li. Uol), vide Aba Qaan. 

Abrakh Khan (^^lri. ^^A) (the son of 

Qizilbash Khan Afshar, governor of the fort of 
Ahmadnagar, who died there in the 22nd year 
of Shah Jahan) was a nobleman of high rank 
in the time of 'Alamgir. A few years before 
his death, he was appointed governor of 
Barar, where he died on the 24th of July, 
A.D. 1685, 3rd Eamazan, a.h. 1096. 

Abru (. jl), vide Hafiz Abru. 

Abru (,._jl), poetical name of Shah 

Najm-uddin, of Dehli, alias Shah Mubarak, 
who flourished in the reign of the emperor 
Muhammad Shah. He died in a.h. 1161. 

[_Tide Sprenger, 

MSS., p. 196.] 

Abtin ( ._»^jl ), the father of Faridiin, 

seventh king of Persia of the first, or Peshda- 
dian, dynasty. Abtin pretended that he 
derived his origin from Jamshed, king of 
Persia of the same dynasty. 

Abu-' Abbas (i)-Lc jA), the first kha- 
lifa of Baghdad, of the race of 'Abbas. 
[Fi* Abul-'Abbas.] 

Abu-'AbduUah (<t..lJU-c _y-)l). There 

are three Muhammadan saints of this name, 
whose lives are written by Abii-Ja'far. j The 
first is surnamed Quraishi, because he was of 
the family of the Quraishites, and a native 
of Mecca. The second bore the name of 
Iskandar, and the third that of Jauhari. 

ABU-'A 16 

Abu-' Abdullah Bukhari, vide Muham- 
mad Isma'il Bukliai'i. 

Abu-'Abdullah, Muhammad Fazil, son 
of SajTid Ahmad, the son of Sayyid Hasan 
of Aiii-a, author of the poem called MiiMir- 
iil-Jf'asi/'in, written in praise of Muhammad 
and his descendants, with the dates of their 
respective deaths in verse. The title of the 
book is a chronogram for a.h. 1106, in which 
year it was completed, corresponding with 
A.D. 1650. He flomished in the time of 
'Alamgir, and died in the year a.b. 1694. 
He is also called Mazhar-ul-Haqq, wliich 

Abu-'Abdullah(L_XJU^^j1 <dl\^-c_jjl), 

commonly called Ibn-Milik, author of the 
Shark Snivh BiiMiarl. He died at Damascus 
in A.i). 1273 (a.h. 672). 

Abu-'Abdullah, the surname of Shafi i, 
which see. 

Abu-'Abdullah {s^=^\ ^^ a-UU^c ^\ 
Jt^ ^j\^:j\), the son of Ahmad 


Ansari, an author, of Cordova, who died a.d. 
1272 (A.H. 671). 

'Abu-'Abdullah {^S^^ <s.U\j,^£_jj^), 

Hamidi, son of Abii-Nasr, author of the 
work called Jiim'baina-l-Suhihnin, and the 
history of Andalusia, called Tarlkh Undulus. 
The former comprehends the collections of 
al-Bukhari and Muslim, and has a great 
reputation. He died in a.d. 1095 (a.h. 

Abu-'Abdullah Maghribi (a.L!Lv-£ ^\ 

^—k-.^), named Muhammad bin- 

Isma'il, tutor of Ibrahim Khawas, Ibrahim 
Shaiban of Kirmiinshah, and of Abii-Bakr of 
Elkand, and pupil of Abul-Husain Zarrin of 
Hirat. Abii- 'Abdullah died iu the year a.d. 
911 (a-h. 299), and was buried on Mount 

Abu-'Abdullah Muhammad ( aU 1 A-. .- ^j \ 

iX*.s.-'), son of Sufyan, a native of 

Qairuwan in Africa. He is the author of the 
work called Scidl. He died iu a.d. 1024 
(a.h. 415.) 

Abu-'Abdullah Muhammad bin-' All 

ar-Rahibi (tX,Ks^ aU^Jv^j: ijl), author 

of a short treatise, entitled the JBighyat-ul- 
Bnhis consisting of memorial verses, which 
give an epitome of the law of inheritance 
according to the doctrine of Zaid bin-§abit. 

Abu-'Abdullah Muhammad Ha'kim 

Kabir { .^ S\:>- Sa-sT ^U^£^1), 

author of the work called Mustadrik. He 
died in a.d. 1014, a.h. 405. 

Abu-'Abdullah Muhammad bin-Mu- 
hammad al - Nu'mani, surnamed 
Shaikh Mufid and Ibn-Mu'allim, was a 
renowned Shi'a lawyer. Abk-J'afar ut-TusI 
describes him in the Fihrist as the greatest 
orator and lawyer of his time, the most 
ancient Mujtahi'd, the most subtle reasoner, 
and the chief of all those who delivered 
Fatwas. Ibn-KasIr-ush-ShamT relates that, 
when he died, Ibu'-Naqih, who was one of the 
most learned of the Sunni doctors, adorned 
his house, told his followers to congratulate 
him, and declared that, since he had lived to 
see the death of Shaikh MufId, he should 
himself leave the world mthout regret. 
Shaikh Mufid is stated to have written 200 
works, amongst which one, called the Irshad, 
is well-known. He also wrote many works 
on the law of inheritance. His death took 
place in a.d. 1022, a.h. 413, or as some say 
a.d. 1025, a.h. 416. 

Abu - 'Abdullah Muhammad bin - 

'Umar al-Wactidi {s^^-^ allU-r ^3} 

^AJiU !./♦.£ i^j), an author who wrote 

in Arabic the work, called Tahaqat Wnqidl, 
containing the history of the conquest of 
Syria by the generals of 'Umar during the 
yearsA.D. 638-9. He is said by some to have died 
in the year A.D. 824, a.h. 219, but as he makes 
mention of Al-Mu'tasim Billah, whose reign 
began in 833, he must have died about the 
year 834 and not a.d. 824, a.h. 209. 
[ Vide Waqidi.] 

Abu-'Abdullah Muhammad bin-Hu- 

sain al-Shaibani (j,..»usr^ (dlljk^i;^^ 

jI.^-.AJ1 ^.^-jjj-:^ ^j-S), commonly 

called Imam Muhammad, was born at "Wasit 
in 'Iraq-'Arab in a.d. 749, a.h. 132, and 
died at Eai, the capital of Khurasan in a.d. 
802, a.h. 187. He was a fellow pupil of 
Abii-Yilsuf, under Abii-Hanifa, and on the 
death of the latter pursued his studies under 
the former. His chief works are six in 
number of which five are considered of the 
highest authority, and cited under the title 
of the Zahir-ur-Riwaynt ; they are Jami^' 
ul-Kah r, Jam i^-us- Satjli ir, the Mabsut fi 
funV -il- Hanafiya the Ziiyadat fl furu^-iU 
Hanajiya^ the Siyar-ul-Kablr wal- SffghTr ; 
and the jfaivadir, the sixth and last of the 
known compositions of Iman Muhammad, 
which, though not so highly esteemed as 
the others, is still greatly respected as an 

Abu-'Abdullah Salih, vide ■ AbQ- All, 
Wazir of Man?ur I. 

ABU- 'A 



-^i), author of the 

Abu - 'Abdul - Rahman Ahmad bin- 
'Ali bin-Shu'aib al-Nasai (a^ jjI 
ijjLuJ o^s-i |^/».»- 

■works called Stman Kiibra and Sunan Sughra'. 
The first is a large work on the traditions ; 
but as Nasai himself acknowledged that many 
of the traditions which he had inserted, were 
of donbtful authority, he afterwards ^NTote an 
abridgement of his great work, omitting all 
those of questionable authenticity ; and this 
abridgement which he entitled Al-Mujtahq 
and is also called Hunan Suijhra, takes its 
rank as one of the sLx books of the Sunna. 
Al-Nasal was bom at Nasa a city in 
Khurasan, in a.d. 830, a.h. 303, and died at 
Makka in a.d. 915. 

Abu - 'Abdul - Rahman Sulami. 

'Abdnl-Eahman Sulami. 

Abu -'Abdul -Rahman Yunas (a-^-j: 

'J^9- tu)'*'=*7^^)) the son of Habib, an 

excellent grammarian who died in the year 
A.D. 798, A.H. 182. 

Abu-'Abdul- Wahid {\:>.\^\ ^.-£3^!), 

an elegant Turkish poet who flourished in 
Constantinople in the earlier part of the 
seventeenth century. 

Abu-Ahmad (^Di ^j ^^,^-^1 ^j!), the 

son of Qasim, was born in the city of Amasia 
in Natolia a.d. 1483, a.h. 888 ; he publicly 
explained the book written by his father 
Ahmad bin-'Abdullah nl-Kirmi on the funda- 
mental points of Muhammadanism. 

Abu-'Ali (^^SJ^ J,j; .jl), sumamed 

Muhandis, " the Geometrician," who excelled 
in that science. He flourished a.d. 1136, 
A.H. 530, in the time of Al-Hafiz li-dln-illah. 
Khalifa of Egypt, and Al-Eashid Billah, the 
son of Al-Mustarshid of Baghdad. 

Abu-'Ali ( ],£ jj\), the wazlr of Man- 

siir I. the son of Nuh, prince of the Samanian 
dynasty of Khurasan. In a.d. 963, a.h. 352, 
he translated the Tanlth Taharl into the 
Persian language from the Arabic. It is a 
general history from the creation of the 
world, down to the 300th year of the Hijra. 
In the course of eight centuries the language 
of Abu-'AlT having become obsolete, Abu- 
'Abdullah Salili bin-Muhammad was per- 
suaded by Niiruilah Ivhan, prince of Turau, 
to put it into modern Persian. 

\yide Abu Ja'far at-Tabari, and TabarT.] 

Abu - 'All Ahmad bin - Muhammad, 
the son of Ya'qiib bin-Maskawaihi Khazin of 
Eai, author of the Arabian work entitled 

Kital-ut-Taharat, which was translated in 
Persian by Nasir-uddin Tusi, and named 
AMlaq i-Nasirl. He flourished about the 
12th century. 

Abu-'Ali Ismail ( J^^^l ^^ ^\)^ an 

Arabian author who died iu a.d. 967, a.h 

Abu-'Ali Qalandar (Shaikh) ( ^^ .j1 

j,XjA^), commonly called Bu-'Ali 

Qalandar Shaikh Sharaf-uddin Panipati, a 
celebrated and highly respected Muhammadan 
saint, who is said to have performed numerous 
mu-acles during his life. He was born at 
'Iraq in Persia, but came to India and fixed 
his residence at PanTpat, where he died, aged 
about 100 years, on the 30th August, a.d. 
1324, 9th Eamazan a.h. 724. His tomb is 
held sacred and is visited by the Musalmaus 
to this day. 

[Vide Proc. As. Soc. Bengal, for 1870, p. 
125, and for 1873, p. 97.] 

Abu-'Ali Sina (U_j.^ ^!._c ^\). Vide 

Abu-'Ali 'UmarCj^^s"* ^^ij^s: ^z ^\), 

son of Muhammad, was the author of the 
commentary, called Shark Kahir and Shrah 
Saghir. He died in the year a.d. 1247, a.h. 

Abu-Ayyub (t_j^l >J^X a companion 

of the prophet Muhammad, who had been 
with him in the battles of Badr and XJhud, 
and lost his life in the expedition of 
Constantinople (a.d. 668, a.h. 48) in the 
reign of Mu'awiya, the first Khalifa of the 
house of Umayya. His tomb is held in such 
veneration by the Muhammadans, that the 
Sultans of the 'XJsman, or Ottoman, djmasty 
gird their swords on at it on their accession 
to the throne. 

Abu-Bakr {i..^ ^j\ ^^J^ ^D, son of 

Abu-Shaiba, an Arabian author who died in 
the year a.d. 849, a.h. 235. 

Abu-Bakr Ahmad (a^.^-! .^ ^jl), son 
of Husain BaihaqI, vide Baihaql. 

Abu-Bakr Ahmad bin'Umar al-Khaa- 
saf {^\^s)\ jA.c ^ A^=^1^'^0, 

author of_several treatises, known by the 
name of Adal-ul-Qazl. Hajl Khalifa speaks 
very highly of this work. It contains 120 
chapters, and has been commented upon by 
many learned jurists : the most esteemed 
commentary is that of 'XJmar bin-'Abdul- 
'Aziz bin-Maja, commonly called Husam-ush- 
Shalild, who was killed in a.d. 1141. Al- 
Khassaf died in a.u. 874, a.h. 261. 




Abu-Bakr Baqalani ( ^jl.i[j .C) »j\), 

son of TajTib. He was of the sect of Imam 
Malik, and author of the work called ^l- 
Tiiuh'd, and several other works. He died 
in A.D. 1012, A.H. 403. See Eaqalanl. 

Abu-Bakr Bikandi, a pupil of Abu- 

'AhduUah Maghrihi. He lived ahont the 
year a.d. 900. 

Abu-Bakr bin-Mas'ud al-Kasbani 

(jJLiW\ JSjum^ i^j .Cj yl), author 

aiithor of the work on jurisprudence, entitled 
Bnd^'i^. It is also called B"d\ii-us-Sanai\ 
He died in a.d. 1191, a.h. 587. 

Abu-Bakr Kattani, Sliaikh Muhammed 

bin-'Al; Ja'far, a famous saint, who was horn 
at Ba gh dad, and died in a.d. 954, a.h. 322. 

Abu - Bakr Mubammad al - Sarakbsi 

( giMci^yJA Sa~s.-^ S^ «jO, whose title 

was Shams-ul-Aimma ; he composed, whilst 
in prison at Uzjand, a law book of great 
extent and authority, entitled the Mubsut. 
He was also the author of the celebrated 
Al-Miih't. He died in a.d. 1096, a.h. 490. 

Abu-Bakr, or Aba-Bakr (.Jo ^1 or 

Xj ui), son of Miranshah, was killed 
in battle a.h. 810, a.d. 1407. 

Abu-Bakr Sbadan (Shaikh) (JL) j_j1 

ir:^'*' (jL^Lij), of Qazwin, a celebrated 

pious Musalraan who died at Qazwin in the 
year A.D. 1137, a.h. 531. 

Abu-Bakr Shashbani( jLji^^ Jj jjl), 

a valiant commander, born in a village called 
Shasban in the province of Mazandaran. 
He was one of the greatest opponents of Amir 
Timur in his conquest of Asia. 

Abu-Bakr Shibli (Shaikh) (^j ^1 

•.^rfr^ ^Jl^JI), a celebrated doctor of 

divinity, born and brought up at Baghdad, 
but the native country of his parents was 
Klmrasan. This Sufi followed the doctrines 
of the sect of Iman Malik, and had for his 
masters Junaid and other holy men of that 
epoch. He died at Baghdad on Friday 31st 
July, A.D. 946, 27th Zil-hijja a.h. 334, aged 
87 years. 

Abu-Bakr Siddiq {^S^^ ^\), the 

father of 'Ayisha, the wife of Muhammad the 
prophet, by whom he was so much respected 
that he received from him the surname of 

Siddiq, which signifies in Arabic "a great 
speaker of truth," and at the Prophet's death, 
in June, a.d. 632, he was elected Khalif 
in opposition to 'Ali, the son-in-law of the 
prophet. He supported with energy the new 
faith, and reduced several of the Arabian 
tribes who wished to abandon the new 
doctrines and return to the religion of their 
fathers. Afterwards he turned his arms 
against foreign nations, and by the valour of 
his active general Klialid, he defeated an army 
of 200,000 men, whom the Greek emperor 
Heraclius had sent to ravage Syria. He did 
not long enjoy his victories : a slow fever 
wasted his vigour, and he died the very day 
that Damascus was taken ; but before he died 
he appointed for his successor 'Umar (Omar) 
the son of Khattab. He reigned two lunar 
years three months and nine days, and expired 
m his 63rd year on Friday the 23rd August, 
a.d. 634, 22nd Jumada II. a.h. 13. He 
was buried close to the tomb of Muhammad 
in Madina. 

Abu-Bakr Tughluq {^J^'jjj ^\), the 

son of prince Zafar Khan, and grandson of 
Firuz Shah Tugbluq, was raised to the throne 
of Dehli after the assassination of his cousin 
Gliiyas-uddin Tughluq, in February, a.d. 
1389, Safar, a.h. 791. He reigned one year 
and six months, after which his uncle Prince 
Muhammad Tughluq, the son of Firuz Shah, 
who was at Nagarkot (Kangra), proclaimed 
himself king, and proceeded with an army 
towards Dehli. After some repulses he was 
victorious, entered Dehli, and ascended the 
throne in the month of August, a.d. 1390, 
Kamazan, a.h. 792. Abii-Bakr who had fled 
towards Mewiit, was taken prisoner on the 
29th November of the same year, 20th 
Zil-hijja, and sent to the fort of Mirath 
(Meerut), where he died some years after. 
\_Vide Dowson, iv. p. 20.] 

Abu-Bakr Yahya ( ( .^sT^^G j_jO, 

author of the Bahjnt-vl-ul-MahaJil, or the 
Delight of Assemblies, containing various 
anecdotes recorded of Muhammad, the four 
Khalifas, and other illustrious persons, in 

Abu - Bakr Zain - uddin (Maulana) 

^^V* cH'^'^ i^.j y''. i"}\ sumamed 
Zaiu-uddin, a learned Musalman, who died at 
Taibad, on Thursday the 28th of January, 
A.D. 1389, 30tb Muharram, a.h. 791. 

[For further notes, vide Am Translation, i. 
p. 366.] 

Abu-Bakr Zangi (^ ^^ ^^.J^. y^ 

i^jj), son of Sa'd, son of ZangT, one 

of the Atabaks of Persia, who reigned at 
Shiraz for thirty-five years, and died in the 
year a.d. 1260, a.h. 658. The celebrated 
Shaikh Sa'di of Shiraz dedicated his Gulistau 
to him in a.d. 1258. 




Abu-Darda (bjO ^\), a companion of 

Muhammad, who was governor of Syria in 
the time of the Khalifa 'Umar. 

ATsu-Daud Sulaiman bin - al - Ash' as 


named Al-Sijistani, author of a Eitdb vs- 
Sunan, whichcontains4,800traditions, selected 
from a collection made by him of 600,000. 
It is considered the fourth book of the Sunna. 
He was born in a.d. 817, a.h. 202, and died 
at Basra in a.d. 888, a.h. 275. 

Abu - Daud Sulaiman bin - 'Uqba 

surnaraed Az-Zaliir!. He is the translator 
and commentator of Euclid in Arabic. He 
was also the founder of a Sunui sect, but had 
few followers, and was called Az-Zahiri, 
because he founded his system of nu-isprudence 
on the exterior {zahir), or literal meaning of 
the Quran and the traditions, rejecting the 
qiyas. He was born at Kufa a.d. 817, a.h. 
202, and died at Baghdad in a.d. 883, a.h. 
270. Some authors say that he died a.h. 27/5 
(a.d. 888). He was a, great partisan of 

Abu - Hafs al - Bukhari (|^J.s- ._>1 

,_? il-i^.n), a mufti of Bukhara, and 

a very rigid Musalman. He was surnamed 
Al-Kabir, the Great, to distinguish him 
from his son, who was surnamed Al-Saghir, 
the Little, or the Younger, and was also a 
learned teacher, but not so famous as his 

Abu-Hafs Haddad, Amr, son of Sa- 
lama, of NishapQr, a saint, who died in a.h. 

Abu-Hafs 'Umar {^j^c (_^-i-=>- j-J^ 

ii<*,=-l), son of Ahmad, author of 330 

works, among which are Targhib and Tufs'rr 
and Masnad. He died in a.d. 995, a.h. 

Abu - Hafs 'Umar al - Gbaznawi 

surnamed Siraj -uddin, a follower of Ahu- 
Hanifa, and author of the Arabic work called 
Zuhdat-ul- Ahkam, which expounds the prac- 
tical statutes of the different doctrines of the 
four Sunni sects. He died in a.d. 1371, 
A.H. 773. 

Abu-Hamid (Imam) {A^ A-»Lr^ yi\ 

^'j£ Ji/^s" ^j), son of Muhammad, 
surnamed GhazzalT. He is the author of 


the Arabic work on theology, called Ihyau- 
'ulum-id din, and of many other works. He 
died in a.d. 1111, a.h. 505. 
\_Vide Ghazzali.] 

Abu - Hamza bin - Nasr al-Ansari 

(ijr,U2JJi -aJ ^ i]^s>- y'), surnamed 

Aus bin Malik, was one of the six authors 
most approved for Muhammadan traditions. 
He died at Ba?ra, in the year a.d. 710, a.h. 
91, aged 103 years, after having begot 100 
children. He was the last that was styled 
Sahaba, that is to say, friends, companions, 
and contemporaries of Muhammad. 

Abu-Hanifa (Imam) (^Ul il^f-^ ^}), 
Vide Hanifa. 

Abu-Haraira {ajyuy}), that is "father 

of the kitten," so nicknamed by Muhammad, 
because of his fondness for a cat, which he 
always carried about with him. He was so 
constantly called by this name, that his true 
name is not known, nor his pedigree. He 
was such a constant attendant upon Muham- 
mad, that a great many traditions go under 
his name ; so many, indeed, that the multi- 
tude of them make people suspect them. 
Nevertheless, others receive them without 
hesitation as of undoubted authority. He 
was Qazi of Mecca in the time of 'Usman. 
He died in the year a.d. 679, a.h. 59. 

Abu-Husain Zarrin i^^Sj] |^--tu=^ .j\.'), 

of Hirat, and master of Abii- 'Abdullah 
MaghribT. He died at the age of 120. 

Abu-Hatim (>_;l 

.-jO, a celebrated 

Musalman lawyer. 

[ Vide Hatim, surnamed Al-Asamm.] 

Abu-IbraMm Ismail (J.^.t,«..^l ^ji\ ^\ 

jj^li ^-f^. i^j), son of Tahya al- 

Mazani, a, distinguished disciple of Imam 
Shafi'i, and author of the Jami^ Saghhir 
and other works. He died in the year a.d. 
878, A.H. 264. He was the most celebrated 
amongst Shafi'i's followers for his acquaint- 
ance with the legal system and juridicial 
decisions of his preceptor, and for his know- 
ledge of the traditions. Amongst otherworks, 
he ivrote the iluldttanr, the Mansiir, the 
Sasail-ul- MiiHabira, and the Eitub-ul- 
TVas'iiq. The MiMtiisir is the basis of all 
the treatises composed on the legal doctrines 
of Shafi'i, who himself entitled Al-Mazani 
"the champion " of his doctrine. 

Abu-Is-baq, son of Alptigln, indepen- 
dent governor of Ghazni. Abii-Is-haq handed 
over the reigns of the government to Subukti- 
gin, who, on Is-haq's death, in a.d. 977, 
a.h. 367, usurped the throne. 




Abu-Is-liact (a^s'» ^ (J^"^^ ^^), the 

son of Muhammad, an inhabitant of Sma, 
■\vho Avrote an excellent commentary to Mnta- 
nabbl. He died in a.d. 1049, a.h, 441. 

AlDU-Is-liaq Ahmad (j,^=^l (J-^"^^ ^^) 

or Abnl-Is-haq Ibrahim bin-Isma'il, author 
of the Qisas-ul-Anbiya, which contains an 
account of the creation of the world, and 
a history of all the prophets precedinp^ 
Muhammad ; also the history of Muhammad 
till the battle of Uhud, a.d. 623. He died 
in A.D. 1036, A.H. 427. 

Abu-Is-hacL al-Kaziruni (^.^-1 »j^ 

|Jjy jlxjl), a Muhammadan saint who, 

they say, lighted a lamp in the mosque of 
the college called " Takht Siraj," which con- 
tinned burning for four hundred years till the 
time of Bin-Qasim. 


^ yj\ 

Abu-Is-haq. Hallaj (_L= 
i^>^\). Vide Is-liaq. 

Abu - Is -ha q^ Isfaraini (^_.s~=l ^\ 
^j^\.LJ\), son of Muhammad, author 

of the Jami' -ul-Jila, which refutes the 
doctrines of various sects. He died in a.d. 
1027, A.H. 418. 

Abu-Is-haq (Shah Shaikh) (^.s-^\ ^\ 

iL-i). His father Amir Mu- 


hammad Shah, a descendant of Khwaja 
'Abdullah Ansari, was governor of Shiraz in 
the reign of Sultan Abii-Sa'id Khan, and was 
murdered during the reign of Arpa Khrm, in 
A.D. 1335, A.H. 736. His son, Amir Mas'iid, 
who succeeded him, was also slain shortly 
after, when his brother, Abii-Is-haq, took 
possession of Shiraz in 1336. He reigned 18 
years ; but when Amir Muhammad Miizaffar 
besieged Shiraz, in a.d. 1353, a.h. 754, 
Abii-Is-haq fled to Isfahan, where he was 
slain four years after, on Friday the 12th 
May, A.D. 1357, 21st jnmada I. a.h. 758. 

Abu-Is-haq Shami, of Syria, a famous 
saint, who died on the 14th Eabi' II. 329, 
and lies buried at 'Akka. 


author of the Tahaqiit ul-F^iqahd^ a collection 
of the lives of celebrated lawyers. He died 
A.D. 1083, A.H. 476. 

Abu-Ismail Muhammad (^L>;t,*^l .jl 

ti..*-s'*), author of the history called 
Tar'ildi Futi'ih-il-Shnm, the conquest of Syria 
by the generals of 'Umar in forty-two battles, 
dui-ing the years 638 and 639 of the Christian 
era, translated and abridged from the Tahaqat 

Abu-Ja'far (Juts'- ^A). Vide Al-ilansur. 

Abu - Ja'far Ahmad bin - Muhammad 
Tahawi {.^.a-s^ ^^J ^x^j^l^pL*:^- jjl 
^.Ls'^), an inhabitant of Taha, 

a village in Egypt. He was a follower of 
the Hanafiya sect, and is the author of the 
commentary on the Quran, called Ahknm-nl- 
Qiiraii, and other works, called IklitilSf-ul- 
'ulama, MriTiHt-l-Asfir, Ndsikh and Mansukh, 
all in Arabic. He died in the year a.d. 933, 
A.H. 321. He also wrote an abridgment of 
the Hanafi doctrines, called the Mukhtasir 
ut' Tahawi. 

two great 
teachers of 
the spiritual 

Abu-Ja'far al - Haddad ^ 

Abu - Ja'far al - Saffar 

life ; one was a locksmith, and the other a 
brazier. The latter is called " Al-Haffar," 
i.e., gravedigger, in Jami's Nafhat-ul-Uns. 

Abu-Ja'far al-Tabari {^ Jai\ Axs^ J\ 
j^„j=T rj^'X son of Jarlr, author of the 

TdriM Tnbari, a very authentic history in 
Arabic, which he wrote in the year a.d. 9 1 2. 
This work was translated and continued by 
Abil - Muhammad of Tabriz in Persian. 
Tabarl was the founder of the seventh SunnI 
sect, which did not long survive the death of 
its author. He was born at Amul in 
Tabaristan in a.d. 838, a.h. 224, and died 
at Baghdad in a.d. 922, a.h. 310. He was 
also the author of a commentary to the 
Quran. His son, Muhammad Tabari, was 
also an author, and died about twenty years 

Abu-Ja'far Muhammad bin-'Ali bin- 

Babwaihi al-Kumi (j,^s^ .i«?- .jl 

^jiiuall '^.-'.^r'V cT^ ls^ rJ^^> surnamed 

As-Saduq, one of the earliest of the many 
writers on the Quran among the Shi'as. He 
lived in the fourth century of the Hijra, 
and was a contemporary of Rukn-ud-daula 
Dailami. He was one of the greatest of the 
collectors of ShI'a traditions, and the 
most celebrated of all the Imamiya lawyers 
of Qum in Persia. This writer composed 
a large and a small Tafsir. There is 
considerable uncertainty as to the exact 
time when he lived. Shaikh Tiisi says in the 
Fihrist that Abii-Ja'far died at Kai in a.h. 
331, A.D. 942, but this appears to be 
erroneous. Shaikh Najashi, who died in 
A.D. 1014, .states that' Abii-Ja'far visited 
Baghda_d_^ whilst yet in the prime of life, in 
A.H. 355, A.D. 965, which might well have 
been the case, since Abul-Hasan 'Ali bin- 
Babwaihi, the father of Abii Ja'far, did not 




die until a.h. 329, a.d. 940. In addition to 
this, Nur-ullali relates, on the authority of 
the Shaikh ad-DQrysati (Duryast, a village 
near Eai, which is now called Durasht), that 
Ahii- Ja'far lived in the time of Eukn-ud-dauln 
Dailami, and had repeated interviews with 
that prince, who, as is well-known, reigned 
from A.H. 338 to a.h. 336, a.d. 949—976. 
He is also the author of the jl/«« In yahzarhu 
al-Faqih, which is the fourth of the four 
authentic hooks on Shi'a tradition, called 
" Kutab Arha." He is said to have written 
in all 172 works, and to have been specially 
skilled in Ijtihad (jurisprudence, q.v.). 

Abu -Ja'far Muliaminad. bin -Hasan 
al-Tusi Shaikh, who was one of the 

chief Muj tabids of the Imamiya or Shi 'a 
sect, is the author of the work entitled 
J'\hristu-Kutub-ish-Shf'a iva Asma-il-Mmnn- 
mfin. It is a bibliograjjhical dictionary of 
Shi'a works, together with the names of the 
authors. The greater part of this author's 
works were publicly burnt in Baghdad in the 
tumult that arose between the Sunnis and 
Shi'as in a.d. 1056, a.h. 448—460, Abii- 
J'afar died in a.d. 1067. He is also the 
author of a very extensive commentary on the 
Quran, in twenty volumes, which is generally 
called the Tafstr-ut-Tusl, though it was 
entitled by its author the Majmn' -ul- Baynn 
li-'idum-il-Qiiran. Among the Four Books 
on Shi'a Hadis, called Kutab Arba', the two 
first in order were composed by him entitled 
Tuhzib-ul- Ahkam, and Istibsar. His chief 
works are the Mabsilt and K/iitdf, which are 
held in great estimation, as are also the 
Nihil y a and the Mukit by the same author. 
The Risala-i-Ja'fariya is likewise a legal 
treatise by at-Tusi, which is frequently 

Abu-Jahl (J_y.j^ ^jl), the uncle of 

'Umar ibn-ul-Khattab (" Father of ignor- 
ance." Jahl means theological ignorance, or 
unbelief). He was one of the most inveterate 
enemies of Muhammad and his religion. 
Though his son 'Ikrima became a convert to 
the tenets of Muhammad, yet the father was 
for ever shut out from paradise ; and so 
violent is the resentment of the Musalmans 
against this first enemy of their prophet, that 
they call the colocynth, in contempt, the 
melon of Abu-Jahl. Abu-Jahl was slain in 
the battle of Badr, which he fought against 
Muhammad, together with Al- As, his brother, 
in the 70th year of his age, in the mouth of 
March, a.d. 624, Ramazan a.h. 2. 

Abu-Lahab (l_-^ ^\), the uncle of 

Muhammad, also called 'Abdul- 'Uzza, was 
the son of 'Abdul-Muttalib and one of the 
bitterest enemies of Muhammad and his 
doctrines. He died of grief within a week 
after the defeat of Abii- Suf yan in the battle 
of Badr, which took place about the begin- 
ning of the year a.d. 624, a.h. 2. He was 

a man of wealth, of proud spirit, and irritable 
temper. His son 'Utba was engaged, or 
according to some, married to, Muhammad's 
third daughter Euqayya, but when Muham- 
mad appeared as a prophet, the contract was 
dissolved, and Euqayya married her lover 
'Usman. Abu-Liiliab was also allied to 
the rival line of Qiiraish, having man-ied 
Umm-Jamll, sister of Abii-Sufyau. 

Abu-Lais Nasir Samarkandi, author 
of the work on juiisprudence in Arabic called 
Fiqh Abu- Luis, &ni the fTJiunyat-ul-Jluhtadi. 

Abul - 'Abbas, surnamed Al - Saffah, 
which see. 

Abul-'Abbas Ahmad bin-Muhammad, 

commonly called Ibn-'Uqda, was one of the 
greatest masters of the science of traditions, 
and was renowned for hia diligence in collect- 
ing them, and the long and frequent journeys 
which he undertook for the purpose of obtain- 
ing information on the subject. Al-Darqutnl, 
the Sunni traditionist, is reported to have 
said that Ibn-'Uqda knew 300,000 traditions 
of the Ahl-i-Bait and the Banu-Hashim. He 
died in A.D. 944, a.h. 333. 

Abul - 'Abbas bin - Muhammad (..j\ 

^.y^s^ ^ (j<ul--_itil), author of the 

Arabic work Mn'rifat-us-Sahaba, and other 
books. He died in a.d. 1041, a.h. 432. 

Abul-'Abbas Fazl, bin-Ahmad, of Is- 
farain, was minister to MahmM of Ghazni. 

Abul-'Aina (Li-^jiJl jjl), a Musalman 

lawyer, celebrated for his wit. When Musa, 
son of the khalifa 'Abdul Malik, put to death 
one of Abul-'Aina's friends, and afterwards 
spread a report that he had escaped, Abid- 
'Aina said in the words of the Lawgiver of 
the Hebrews, "Moses smote him and he 
died." The sentence was reported to the 
prince, and Abul-'Aina was summoned to 
appear. Instead of di'eading the threats of 
the tjTant, he boldly replied in the words of 
the following verse in Exodus, ' ' Wilt thou 
kill me to-day as thou killedst the other man 
yesterday ? ' ' The ingenuity of the expression 
disarmed the anger of Musa, who loaded him 
with presents. 

Abul-' Ala (ijjl yA), entitled Malik- 

ush-Shu'ara, or royal poet, of Ganja, 
flourished ia the time of Maniichihr, ruler 
of Shirwan. The poets Falaki and Khaqani 
were his pupils, and to the latter he gave his 
daughter in marriage. 

Abul-'Ala Ahmad bin-'Abdullah al- 
Ma'arri (lU-Jl j.->c ^^.j A^=>-1 LxJl yj\ 
j_jjjc.4,ll), a celebrated Arabian philo- 
sopher, free -thinker and poet, born at 




Ma'arra in Sjxia on Friday the 26th 
December, a.d. 973, 1st Ra'bi' I. a.h. 
363. Though he lost his sight in the third 
year of his age by the small-pox, his poetry 
is animated and his descriptions are beautiful 
and striking. He died on Friday the 9th of 
May, A.D. 1057, 1st Rabi' I. a.h. 449. He 
Tvas the pauegjTist of Al-qSyim Billah, the 
Idjalifa of Baghdad, and has left a Diwan in 

[Vide Zeitschrift, D.M.G. xxix. p. 304.] 

Abul-'Ala Mir {^^\,\jj,\l^\ ^\j^.,), 

(Mir), son of Mir Abul-Wafa Hasani, of 
Agra, was bom in the year a.d. 1682, 
A.H. 990. His grandfather Mir 'Abd-us- 
Salam came to India from Samarkand, and 
went on a pilgrimage to Mecca, and died 
after some years. His father Mir Ahul- 
Wafa died at Fathpiir Sikri, from which 
place his remains were conveyed to Dehli 
and buried close to the college situated near 
the Lai Darwaza. When Raja Man Singh 
was appointed governor of Bengal, Mir Abul- 
'Ala accompanied him, and was honored with 
the rank of 3000, but he soon left him and 
proceeded to Ajmir, and thence to Agra, 
where he passei the remainder of his life, 
and is said to have performed many miracles. 
He died on Friday the 21st January, a.d. 
1651, 9th Safar, a.h. 1061, aged 71 lunar 
years, and lies buried at Agra, at a place 
near the karhala, where every year on the 
anniversary of his death a great number of 
people assemble together and worship his 

He was a Naqshbandi and a descendant of 
Khwaja Abrar. 

Abul-Barakat 'Atidullah bin-Alimad 

{s^:>-\ ^ <sS]]s^£. ci-'l^n ^A), vide 

Atiiil-Barakat Nisliapuri {,,::J^ JiA .j1 
^j^jIAJ), author of the work called 

Abul-Barakat, Shaikh, brother of 
Abul-Fazl, born a.d. 1552. 

[ Vide Blockmann's Am Translation, p. 

Abul Farah, of Wasit, the ancestor of 

the Sayyid families of Barha, Bilgram, 
Khairabad, Fathpiii-, Hanswa, and other 

[Vide Aln Translation, i. p. 390.] 

Abul-Faraj („^1 y\), who in some 

of our Biographical Dictionaries is called 
Abulfaragius (George), was the son of Aaron, 
a Clu'istian physician, born at Malatia in 
Armenia, near the sorrrce of the Euphrates 
in a.d. 1226. He followed his lather's 
profession, but afterwards studied the 

Eastern languages and divinity, and was 
ordained bishop of Guba in his 20th year, 
from whence he was translated to Lacabena 
and Aleppo. He wrote a work on history, 
called Mukhtasir-ud-Datfal, divided into 
djmasties, which is an epitome of universal 
history fi'om the creation to his own time. 
The most excellent part of the work is that 
which relates to the Saracens, Mughuls, and 
the conquests of Chingiz Khan. Dr. Pococke, 
Professor of Hebrew and Arabic at Oxford, 
published this work in 1663, in the original 
Arabic, with a Latin version to it. Abul- 
Faraj died in a.d. 1286, a.h. 685. 

Abul-Faraj 'All (^j 15-^ — y-aJl j->\ 

^^M.^), the son of Husain bin- 
Muhammad Quraishi Isfahan!, was born in 
the year a.d. 897, a.h. 284, and was 
brought up at Baghdad. He is the author 
of a famous work called Kitdi-nl- A ghanl, or 
Book of Songs, an important biographical 
dictionary, notwithstanding its title, treating 
of grammar, history, and science, as well as 
of poetry. The basis is a collection of one 
hundred Arabian songs, which he pi;esented 
to Saif-ud-daula, prince of the race of Ham- 
dan, who ordered him a thousand dinars. 
The minister of that prince, thinking tliis 
sum too small for the merit of the work, on 
which the author had laboured fifty years, 
doubled it. The author of this celebrated 
work died in a.d. 967, a.h. 356, having lost 
his reason previous to his death. 

Abul-Faraj al-Khalidi \ 

Abul-Faraj al-Bagbawi P"*^*^' ^^° 
(^jAJ\ ^/\ y\), ] li^e^i at the 

court of the Sultan Saif-ud-daula of the 
house of Hamdan, who was a protector of 
men of letters, on whom he bestowed large 

Abul-Faraj ibn-Jauzi ( j1 ttj^^ J-i^ 
,_j'3«r^), surnamed Shams-uddin, was 

the most learned man, the ablest traditionist, 
and the first preacher of his time. He com- 
piled works on a variety of subjects, and was 
the tutor of the celebrated Shaikh Sa'di of 
Shiraz. He died on the 16th June, a.d. 
1201, 12th Ramazan, a.h. 597, and is buried 
at Baghdad. His father's name was 'Ali, 
and that of his grandfather Jauzi. One of his 
works is called Talbls Iblls, The Temjitation 
of Satan. 

Abul-Faraj Runi (^^^ ^^1^1), of 

Eiin, said to be near Lahore. He is the 
author of a Diwan, and was the panegyrist 
of Sultan Ibrahim (the grandson of Sultan 
Mahmiid of Ghazni) who reigned from a!d. 




1059 to 1088, A.H. 451 to 481. Auwarl 
imitated his style. 

\_ride Spreng-er, Oitdh MSS., p. 308. He 
is often ■wron<jly called Abul-Farah Euwaini ; 
vide Dowson iv. p. 205.] 

Abul-Faraj Sanj ari ( ^jf^^sl^ --^ ^ ^ 1 ), 

a Persian poet who lived in the time of the 
great irruption of the Tai-tars under Chingiz 

[Vide, however, Sprenger, Oudh MSS. p. 
308, from which it appears that Sanjari is a 
mistake for Sijizi, i.e. of Sijistan.] 

Abul-Fatli, author of a Persian work 
called Chahar Bagh or The Four Gardens, con- 
taining forms of letters on different subjects. 

Abul-Fath, Muhammad bin-Abii-Bakr 
al-Marghinani al- Samarqandi, author of the 
Fusfil-ul-'Imndiya, which comprises forty 
sections containing decisions respecting mer- 
cantile matters, and being left incomplete at 
the author's death, which took place in a.d. 
1253, A.H. 651, was finished by Jamal-uddm 
bin- 'Imad-uddin. 

Abul-Fath Bilgrami Qazi {Jis^\ ^\), 

commonly called Shaikh Kamal. It is men- 
tioned in the work called Sharaif-i-' TJsmdni, 
that he was born in the year a.d. 1611, a.h. 
917, and that in the reign of the emperor 
Akbar he held the situation of Qazi of 
Eilgram, and died in the year a.d. 1592, 
A.H. 1001. Mulla Firuz 'TJsmani found the 
chronogram of the year of his death in the 
letters of his name, viz. : Shaikh Kamal. 

Abul-Fath Busti Shaikh {JxJil\ y\ 

jUij), a learned Musalman of Bust, 

who lived in the time of Sultan Mahmiid 
of Ghazni, wrote excellent poetry on divinity, 
and died in July, a.d. 1039, Shawwal, a.h. 
430. He is the author of a Diwan in Arabic. 

Abul-Fath Gilani {ilJj.l}i\ yj\), 

sumamed Masih-uddin, the son of 'Abdur- 
Eazzaq, a nobleman of Gilan, was a physician 
in the service of the emperor Akbar. In the 
year a.d. 1589 he proceeded to Kashmir with 
that monarch, and during the emperor's 
progress from Kashmir to Kabul, he died 
at a place called Dhantur, on the 20th June 
of the same year, 16th Sha'ban, a.h. 997, 
and was buried at Baba Hasan Abdal. He 
had come to India with his two brothers 
IJakJm Humam and Hakim Nilr-uddin 
Qarari about the year a.d. 1567, a.h. 974. 

[For further notes, vide Am Translation, 
i. p. 424.] 

Abul-Fath Lodi, chief of Multan. 
Sultan Mahmud of Ghazni took Multan in 
a.d. 1010, and carried away Abul-Fath as 
prisoner to Ghazni. 

Abul-Fath Muhammad al-Shahris- 

tani ( Jliiw^^ll .^A-sr* ^.k}\ ^\), 

author of the Arabic work called Xitnl ul- 
Milal tvan-Nikal, or the Booh of Jieliffious 
and Philosophical Sects. This hook, which 
gives a full account of the various SuunI 
sects, was translated into Latin and published 
by Dr. Haarhriicker, in a.d, 1850, and into 
English by the Rev. Dr. Cureton. Shah- 
ristani died in a.d. 1153, a.h. 548. 

Abul-Fath Nasir bin-Abul-Makarim 
Mutarrizi (^_jl ^^.j -wsL) -.^JJl _j.j1 

^jj^y* *,K^!0, author of the Arabic 

Dictionarj' called Mughrih. He died in a.d. 
1213, A.H. 610 in Khwarazm. He was a 
Mu'tazihte and invited people to that faith. 
He is also the author of the Shark Maqamit 
Sarlrl, and of another work called Kitab 
Azhari. The inhabitants of Khwarazm used 
to call him the master of Zamaqhshari, and 
on his death the poets wrote more than seven 
hundred elegies in his praise. 

Abul - Fath Nasir bin - Muhammad 
(..ksIJ -sLaJl •jO, author of the Jami- 


Abul-Fath Rukn-uddin bin-Husam 

Nagori {i^i,'^\^^^j ^^•^\ ^}), author 

of a work on jurisprudence, entitled the 
Fatuwa Hammndiya, which he composed and 
dedicated to his tutor, Hammad-uddin Ah- 
mad, chief-qazi of Naharwala (Patan) in 
Gujrat. This work was lithographed in the 
original Arabic at Calcutta in a.d. 1825. 

Abul-Fath 'Usman (^Ui£ JiiJl ^\), 

surnamed Malik ul-'Az!z 'Imad-uddin, 
second king of Egypt of the Ayyiibite 
djTiasty. He acted as viceroy of Egypt 
during the absence of his father. Sultan 
Salah-uddin Yiisuf ibn-Ayyiib, in Syria. 
On the demise of his father at Damascus 
in A.D. 1193, he took possession of the 
supreme power with the unanimous consent 
of the great military officers of the empire. 
He was born at Cairo on the 7th of January, 
A.D. 1172, 8th Jumada I., a.h. 567, reigned 
about five years, and died at Cairo on the 
23rd November, a.d. 1198, 21st Mubarram, 
A.H. 595. 

Abul-Fazl 'Abdul-Malik bin-Ibrahim 
al-Hamadani al-Mukaddasi (^\ 

t_^L*Jl S^ J^-iJO, author of the 
Faraiz-'ul-Muqaddasi, a treatise on the law of 
inheritance according to the Shafl'i doctrine. 
He died A.D. 1095, a.h. 489. 




Abul-FazlBaihakiC^^ J^LW y\), 

author of several works on history. J^ide 

Abul-Fazl Ja'far {^U^ J^.iJl y\), 

son of the khalifa Al-Muktafi, was a great 
astronomer. T'ide Al-Mutawakkil. 

Abul-Fazl Muliammad (J^iJl ^A 

iX+^s'*), author of the Arabic Dic- 
tionary called SiirSh-ul-Lughat. 

Abul-Fazl (Shaikh) (^--^ J^iJl^l), 

Akhar's faTorite Secretary and Wazir. His 
poetical name was 'AUami. He was the 
second son of Shaikh Mubarak of Nagor, 
and brother of Shaikh Faizi. He was born 
in the year a.d. ISol, a.h. 938, and was 
introduced to the emperor in the 19th year 
of his reign. His writings prove him to 
have been the most learned and elegant 
writer then in the East. He is celebrated 
as^ the author of the Akbamritna and the 
Aln-Akbari, and for his letters, called 
Maktiibat-i-' Allaml, which are considered 
' in India models of public coiTespoudence. 
The history of the Mughul emperors he 
carried on to the 47th year of Akbar's reign, 
in which year he was murdered. He was 
deputed with prince Sultan Murad in a.d. 
1597, A.H. 1006, as Commander-in-Chief 
of the army of the Deccan, and on his being 
recalled five years after, he was advancing 
towards Narwar with a small escort, when 
he fell into an ambuscade laid for him by 
Birsingh Deo Bundela, raja of Urcha in 
Buudelkhand, at the instigation of Prince 
SalTm (afterwards Jahanglr) on suspicion 
of being the occasion of a misunderstanding 
between him and the emperor his father ; 
and although Abul-Fazl defended himself 
with great gallantry, he was cut off with 
most of his attendants, and his head was 
sent to the prince, who was then at Allaha- 
bad. This event took place on Friday the 
13th of August, A.D. 1602, 4th Rabi' I, a.h. 
1011. Akbar was deeply afflicted by the 
intelligence of this event ; he shed abundance 
of tears, and passed two days and two nights 
without food or sleep. Abul-Fazl is also 
the author of the ' Aynr-Danish, which is a 
translation of Pilpay's Fables in Persian. 

[For a detailed biography, vide A'ln Trans- 
lation, i. pp. 1 to 36.] 

Ahul - Fazl Tahir bin - Muhammad 
Zahir-uddin Faryahi (J..^iiJI y,\ 

•y-isT'), a Persian poet. Vide Zahlr. 

Ahul-Fida Ismail Hamawi {\si.l\ .j| 

i^y^:>- ,J-«-»«j'), whose full name is 
Malik Muayyad Isma'il Abiil-Fidfi, son of 

Malik -ul-Afzal, a learned and celebrated 
prince, who succeeded his brother Ahmad as 
king of Hamat, in Syria, in the year a.d. 
1342, A.H. 743. AVhen a private man, he 
published in Arabic an account of the regions 
beyond the Oxus called Taqwtm-ul-Bulddn, 
which was first edited by Grajvius, with a 
Latin translation, London, 1660, and by 
Hudson, Oxford, 1712. Abul-Fida died in 
1345, aged 72, at Hamat. The principal of 
Abul-Fida's other works is his abridgment of 
Universal History down to his time, called 
Tilrlkh MitlMasir. He is very exact, and his 
style is elegant, on which account his works 
are very much esteemed. 

Ahul-Faiz (j_^^ J\ ^\). Vide Faizt. 

Ahul-Faiz Muhammad bin - Husain 
bin-Ahmad, surnamed Al Katib, or 
the Writer, is better known by the name of 
bin-Ahmad. He was a wazir of Sultan 
Eukn-ud-daula, of the Boyides. He was a 
great orator and a poet, and brought Arabian 
caligraphy to perfection. He died in a.d. 
961, A.H. 360. 

Abul-Futuh Razi Makki ( yiiJl ^A 

ij-^'* cij^)) author of the Arabic 

work called Risfila, or Kitab Samniya, 
which has a great reputation amongst the 
Shi'as, particularly in Persia. It consists of 
an imaginary disputation between a Shi'a 
slave-girl and a learned Stmni lawyer, on 
the merits of their respective doctrines, in 
which, as a matter of course, the girl utterly 
discomiits her opponent. The argument is 
very ingenuously managed, and the treatise, 
taken altogether, furnishes a good and concise 
exposition of the tenets of the Shi'as, and the 
texts on which their belief is founded. This 
work was translated from Arabic into Persian 
by Ibrahim Astarabadi, in a.d. 1551. 

Abul-Ghazi Bahadur (.jLj ^:U!! yl), 

Khan of the Tartars, was descended from 
the great CMngiz Khan. He came to the 
sovereignty of Kliwarazm on the death of his 
brother ; and after 20 years, during which 
he was respected at home and abroad, he 
resigned the sovereignty to his son, Aniisha 
Muhammad, and retired to devote himself to 
literature. He wrote a valuable genealogical 
history of the Tartars, the only Tartar history 
known in Europe, but did not live to finish 
it. He died a.d. 1663, a.h. 1074, and on 
his death-bed charged his son and successor 
to complete his history, which he performed 
in two years after his father's death. This 
valuable work was translated in to German by 
Count Strahlenberg, and a French translation 
appeared at Leydeu in 1726. 


Husain Mirza 

Bahadur. Vide Sultan 




Abul-Haras {.j <)o^^^l l^^J\ ^A 

<UJlii ij-J "t* ji), or Haras, commonly 

called Zul-Rama, son of 'TJqba. He was an 
Arabian poet, and was contemporary with 
Farazdaq. He died in a.d. 735, a.h. U7. 

ATduI - Husain Ahmad bin - 'All al- 

Najashi, author of a biographical 

work entitled Kitdb-ur-JRiJdl, comprising the 
lives of eminent Shi'as. Kajashl died in 
A.H. 405 (a.d. 1014). 

Abul - Husain 'Ali bin - 'Umar al - 
Darqutni L^r ^ ^Lc j^-.*a< Jl ^j\ 

^>Wj .1j), a Sunni traditionist, whose 

collection of traditions, like those of Ahu- 
Bakr Ahmad-hin-al-Hnsain al-BaihaqI, are 
of the highest authority. He died in a.d. 
995, A.H. 385. 

Abul-Husain bin- Abu-Ya'la al-Farra 

(Kazi) (^^^J_;o_yjl i^j ^J^^A\ ^\), 

author of the Tahaqdt-ul- Hanialiya, which 
comprises the lives of the most famous lawyers 
of the sect of Ibn-Hanbal ; it was commenced 
by our author, continued by Shaikh Zain- 
uddin 'Abdur-Eahman bin- Ahmad, commonly 
called Ibn-Eajab, and concluded by Yiisiif 
bin-Hasan al-Muuiaddasi ; these three writers 
died respectively in a.d. 1131, 1392, and 
1466, A.H. 526, 795, and 871. 

Abul-Husain Kharqani (^^»^sm ^\ 
^\ij~~.), author of the 8harh-i- 

Maldizan-ul-Asrdr, and Mir-dt-til-Muhaqqi- 
qln, containing an explanation of the cere- 
monies used on the induction of a Sufi, and 
the rules of the order. He died a.d. 986, 
A.H. 376. 

Abul - Husain Zarrin. Vide Abii - 
Husain Zamn. 

Abul-Hasan ( ...m..'?'! *.i\), author of 

the Siyar Nur Maulud, a heroic poem on the 
wars of the prophet Muhammad. 

Abul-Hasan ( -uu^sM »-j1), a poet who 

wrote a commentary on the Diwan of Anwari, 
called Sharh-i-Dlwdn-i-Jnwari. 

Abul-Hasan (Shah) (il.i ^^y>^\ ^>\), 

son of the famous Shah Tahir, of Ahmad- 
nagar, in the Deccan, and minister of 'Ali 
'Adil Shah I., about the year a.d. 1572, 
A.H. 980. 

Abul-Hasan, the son of I timad-ud- 

daula, prime minister of the emperor Jahangir, 
had three daughters, viz. Arjmand Banu, 
also called Mumtaz-Mahall, married to the 
emperor Shah Jahan ; Sultan Zamarda, the 
second daughter, was married to Sultan 
Parwiz ; and the third, Badr-uzzamaiua, to 
Shah 'Abdul-Latif, the spiritual guide of the 
emperor 'Alamgir. Vide Asaf Khan. 

Abul-Hasan 'Abdullah (Imam) (...jl 

«_.iJL< ^j ^lLIiA.-,^ ^.uiS'l), son of 

Mnqanua'. He translated Pilpay's Fables 
from the Pahlawi language into Arabic by 
order of Abu-Ja'far Mansiir, the second 
khalifa of the house of 'Abbas, who reigned 
at Baghdad from a.d. 754 to 775. The book 
is called Kalila Damna. 

Abul-Hasan 'Ali ( J-c ^^,.-^.J\ j.i\), 

author of the works called Sunan and 'Hal. 
He died a.d. 990, a.h. 380. 

Abul-Hasan 'Ali bin-al-Husain al- 

KUmi (^^iUl fj^;^^ f^, (^^sM yj\ 

iLj..;Ij), commonly called Babwaihi, 

who is said to have died in a.d. 940, a.h. 
329, was the author of several works of note, 
one of which is called Eitdb-ush-Shari'a. 
This writer is looked upon as a considerable 
authority, although his fame has been almost 
eclipsed by his more celebrated son, Abii- 
Ja'far Muhammad Ibn-Babwaihi (p. 14i. 
When these two writers are quoted together, 
they are called the two Saduqs. He is also 
the author of the Kitdb - ul - Mawdrlsi, a 
treatise on the law of inheritance. 

Abul-Hasan 'Ali (^j ^^ i^;-"'^^ y^} 

^^XM^ i^Ua-Lj), the son of Sultan 

Mas'iid I., ascended the throne at Ghaznl, 
on Friday 29th December, a.d. 1049, 1st 
Sha'ban, a.h. 441, reigned little more than 
two years, and was deposed by his brother, 
'Abdmr-Eashid, in a.d. 1052, a.h. 443. 

Abul - Hasan Ash'ari (^*u_^'l yj\ 


il), son of Isma il. 

He was a Mu'tazilite, but afterwards became 
a Sunni. He is the author of nearly 400 
works. He died in the year a.u. 936, a.h. 

Abul-Hasan Jurjani (^j_iu,_sM yA 

Ji\j>- -:>-), a celebrated lawyer, a 
native of Jnrjau or Georgia. Vide Jurjfiui. 




Abul-Hasan Qhan (Mirza) ( 



ijj-^ i^Vd-), Pcrsiaa ambassador to 

the British Coui't in 1809 and 1819. He is 
the inithor of a work called Hairat~}uhnu, or 
book ol' wonders, which title was given to it 
by Fatb 'Alt Shfih, king of Persia. It 
contains a long account of the Klian's travels 
in India, Turkey, Eussia, England, etc. 

Atoul-Hasan QutTj-Shali (^.»^1 »-j1 
hVJ^ t_-iJ), whose literary name 

was Tana Shah, was the son-in-law of 'Ab- 
dullah Qutb-Shah, after whose demise, about 
the year a.d. 1672, a.h. 1083, he succeeded 
to the throne of Golkonda in Haidarabad, 
Deccan. This place was conquered by 
'Alamgir, after a, siege of seven months, on 
the 22nd September, a.d. 1687, 24th Zil- 
qa'da, a.h. 1098, and Abul-Hasan was taken 
prisoner and confined for life in the citadel 
of Daidatabad. Golkonda was then reduced 
to a province of the empire of Hiudiistan. 
Abul-Hasan died in confinement about the 
year a.d. 1704. He was the last Sultan of 
the Qufb-shahi djmasty, and a famous poet 
in the Dakini, or dialect of the Deccan. 

Abul-Hasan Razin bin-Mu'awiya al- 

'Abdari (ijjlx^ ^^ ^^^j ^j^>^\ ^\ 

4_f,A->Jl), author of a collection of 

traditions bearing the same title as the one 
written by Baghawi, namely Jdmi' baina-l- 
Sah'ihain. It comprises the works of Al- 
Eukhari and Muslim, the Muwatta of Malik 
ibu-Aus, the Jami'-ut-Tirmizi, and the 
Sunans of AbH-Daiid, and Al-Nasai. He 
died in a.d. 1126, a.h. 620. 

Abul-Hasan Turbati (^_i*<_.s.M «-j1 

j:^j ,j), entitled Eukn-us-Saltanat, 

an Amir who held the rank of 5,000 in the 
reign of the emperor Jahangir, and died in 
the sixth year of Shah Jahan, a.d. 1632, 
A.H. 1042, aged 70 years. 

Abul-Qasim al-Salira-wi (> ;l.iijl »j\ 

i_/j',.s*^0, called in Lempriere's 

English Biographical Dictionary ' ' Alsaha- 
ravius," an Arabian physician who lived 
about the year a.d. 108.5, a.h. 478, and is 
the author of the Al-Tasrlf, a treatise in 
thirty-two books on medical practice. 

Abul-Qasim Namakin (>_^lJiJi j_il 

i^^^KJ), a Sayyid of Hirat, served 

with distinction under Akhar and Jahangir, 
and became a rich landowner in Bhakar, in 
Sindh. He built the great mosqne in Sakhar. 
His descendants served under Shahjahan, 
'Alamgir, and Farruk-siyar. 

[Vide Ain Tnmslation, i. p. 470.] 

Abul-Qasim Nishapuri (*.«.-l.iLll yi\ 

^jy\jL^), author of a Persian work 

on Ethics, called Guiij-i-Gniij, and of another 
work, entitled Hnl i/at-ul-3Iuttaqln. 

Abul-Qasim 'Abdullah (..^iJLn ol 

<dllj,^£), son of Muhammad Baghawi, 

author of the hook called Mu'jam, and several 
other works. He died in the year a.d. 929, 
A.H. 317. 

Abul - Qasim Isma'il bin - 'Abbad 

(J.-jt*^l *_»:LiiJ\ y^}), wazTr of the 

Boyide prince Fakhr-nd-daula. One of the 
most splendid libraries ever collected by a 
private individual in the East was that of 
this nobleman. Ibn-Asir relates that four 
hundred camels were required to remove the 

Abul-Qasim Mirza, son of Kamran 
Mirza, brother of the emperor Humayiin. In 
the year a.d. 1557, a.h. 964, he was confined 
in the fort of Gwaliar by the emperor Abkar, 
who, when going to punish Khan Zaman, 
ordered him to be murdered. 

Abul-Qasim Kahi (^K ^~=liiJl ^\), 

of Isfahan, though it is usually said that he 
was of Kabul. He died at Agra. Vide 

Abul-Qasim of Hilla( ls!l *-.o'Jj11_jj1), 

commonly called Shaikh Muayyad, author of 
the Shardi' -ul-Idam, a treatise on lawful 
and forbidden things. This book is of great 
authority amongst the Muhammadans pro- 
fessing ShI'a doctrines. He is also called 
Shaikh Najm-uddin Abul-Qasim Ja'far biu- 
Muayyad. He died a.d. 1277, a.h. 676. 

Abul-Qasim 'Ubaidullah bin -'Ab- 
dullah bin-Khurdadbih, died a h. 
300, A.D. 912. He is best known as Ibn- 
Khui'dadbih. He wrote the Eitab-ul-Masdlik 
wal - JUamdlik, the Book of Roads and 

[Vide K]Hirdadbih, and Dowson, i. p. 12.] 

Abul-Khair Maulana of Khwarazm 

vJ^y ^^jj\^=^ j^'\ y\), a physician 

and poet, whose poetical name was 'Ashiq. 
From his native country he went to Hirat 
in the latter part of the reign of Sultan 
Husaiu Mirza, and was there till Muhammad 
Shaibani, commonly called Shahl Beg Khan 
Uzbak, conquered that province, and took 
him to Mawaran-nahr, or Transoxiana, where 
he died in a.d. 1550, a.h. 957. The chrono- 
gram of the year of his death is " Faut-i- 
'Ashiq," the death of 'Ashiq. 




Abul-Ma'ali, whose proper name is 

Muhammad Sadr-uddin, is claimed by the 
Turks as the first of their poets, though his 
labours were not confined to their language 
alone, for he wrote in Arabic also, and was 
in Persian the rival and opponent of Nasir- 
uddin. He was contemporary with Jalal- 
uddin Eumi and liis son "Walad, and died 
about the year a.d. 1270. He is not, how- 
ever, according to Baron von Hammer, 
to be strictly considered a Turkish poet by 
his countrjTnen ; but the mystic tone which 
he adopted from Persian literature, and 
which he was undoubtedly the first to impress 
upon the national mind, gives him an un- 
questionable right to the place assigned him. 
The names of his works, such as the Seal 
of Perfection, and the Kei/ of Mysteries, 
indicate the peculiarity of his taste and 
genius ; but amidst all the confusion of 
style and thought some passages of great 
beauty and even simplicity are found in his 
works. He is lost, however, iu the fame 
of his successor 'Ashik. 

Abul-Ma'ali (j^l s^z^^ JU^ll^O, 

the son of 'Abdul-Majid, the most eloquent 
of the Persians, who flourished in the time 
of Sultan Bahi-am Shah Ghaznawi, by whose 
order, in the year a.d. 1118, a.h. 512, he 
wrote in prose his Ealila Damna (or Filpmfs 
Fables) from a copy which Eudaki, the 
celebrated poet, had formerly used for poetry. 
This version continued iu vogue tiU the time 
of Sultan Husain Mirza, fourth iu descent 
from 'Umar Shaikh, the second son of Amir 
Timur, when his prime minister Amir 
Shaikh Ahmad Suhaili got Husain Wa'iz 
to modernize it, in a.d. 1605, a.h. 910, 
under the name of Anwar Suhaili, or the 
Rays of Canopus. Abul-Fazl, the able 
prime minister of Akbar, compressed this 
work, and gave it the name of ^Aynr-lfani^h, 
or the Touch-stone of KnowUdge. He is 
called by Daulitt Shah, Hamid-uddin Nasr- 
uHah. Vide Nasr-ullah, the sou of 'Abdul 

Abul-Ma'ali (Shah) {Aj^ Ji\x^\ ^i\), 

a chief in the service of the emperor Akbar, 
who having revolted was compelled to seek 
safety in Kabul, where Mirza Muhammad 
Hakim, the brother of Akbar, gave him 
his sister, named Mihr-un-Nisa Begam, 
in marriage, and raised him to the first 
office in that kingdom. The ungrateful 
refugee, however, had not been many months 
in office, before he aspired to the kingdom 
of Kabul, and in March a.d. 1564, Sha'ban, 
A.H. 971, basely assassinated Mirza Muham- 
mad Hakim's mother, his own mother-in- 
law, who was a woman of uncommon abilities, 
and might with truth be said to have ruled 
that kingdom. He then pretended to act as 
regent to the young prince, who was still in 
his minority, with a view to get rid of him 
as soon as he could conciliate the Umaras. 
In the meantime Mirza Sulaiman, prince of 

Badakhslian, attacked him, and slew him in 
a battle on the 13th May, a.d. 1564, 1st 
Shawwal, a.h. 971, and took possession of 
that country, Avhich he held for two years. 
Abul-Ma'ali was an elegant poet, and his 
poetical name was Shahbadi. 

Abul-Ma'ali (Shaikh) ( JU.^1 ^.j1 

•f^^ ^jljT<dll), of Allahabad, author 

of the work called Tuhfat-nl-QScliriya, or 
the life of Shaikh 'Abdiil-Qadir Gilanl. He 
resided in Lahore, and died there on the 6th 
April, A.D. 1615, 16th Eabi' I., a.h. 1024. 

Abul-Mafakhir Razi ( ^LA-*J1 ^\ 
>^yj)j a poet who flourished in the 
reign of Sultan Muhammad SaljUqT. 

Abul-Mahasin (^^U.-^\ ^j\), author 
of the work called Manhal-i-Safl. 

Abul-Makarim bin-'Abdullah. There 

are three comments on the Niqaya of 'IJbai- 
dulla bin-Mas'iid, which are much esteemed ; 
they were written respectively by Ahul- 
Makarim in a.d. 1501, a.h. 907 ; AbH-'Ali 
bin -Muhammad al-Biriindi in a.d. 1528, 
A.H. 935 ; and Shams-uddin Muhammad al- 
Khurasani in a.d. 1534, a.h. 941. 

Abul-Ma'shar (jJij.ji^\ yj\), who is 

called by some older authors Albumassar and 
Albumazar, was a learned Arabian astronomer, 
who flourished in the ninth ceutmy in the 
reign of the khalifa Al-Mamun of Baghdad, 
and wrote a treatise on the revolutions of the 
years. His full name is Ja'far bin-Muham- 
mad bin- 'Umar Abid - Ma'shar. He is 
called the prince of the Arabian astrologers. 
He was bom in Balkh. In his famous work, 
called JJlilf or Kitab -id- Uiuf, which he 
wrote from a Sanskrit work on astronomy, 
he asserts that, when the world was created, 
the seven planets were together in the first 
point of the sign of Aries, and that it will 
end when the same planets shall meet again 
in the last point of Pisces in their exalta- 
tion or Dragon's head. He died in a.d. 885, 
A.H. 272. His works were printed in Latin 
at Venice in 1586, 8vo. 

Abul-Najib al-Bukhari (l_-"-s1]1 ^\ 
^.LsaJl), poetically called also 

'Am'aq, was a Persian poet who flomrished 
iu the fifth century of the Hijra at the court 
of the Sultan Qadr Khan, king or khaqau 
of Turkistan, who made him president of the 
academy of poets which he bad established. 
His poem of the loves of Yiisuf and Zalikha. 
which can be read iu two diiferent metres, 
is much admired. He was particularly 
famous for his elegies. He lived nearly 
100 years. Daulat Shah says, he lived in 
the time of Sultan Sanjar, who requested 




him to write an elen;y on the death of his 
dixu^'hter Malik Kliatun, whiuh he did, al- 
though he was then blind on account of old 
ag-e. He appears to have died some years 
before or after a.d. 1145, a.h. 540. 

Abul - Sa'adat Mubarak Ibn - Asir 

al-Jazari, author of an Arabic Dictionary 
called Al-Xihai/a fi t/hartb-il-Hadls. He 
died in a.d. 1209, a.h. 606. Vide Ibn-Asir. 

Abul-Wafa (Khwaja), one of the 

great saints of Khwarazm, and author of 
several works on Sufism. He died a.d. 1432, 
A.H. 835. 

Abu-Maaz Muslim (..L**^ iU^ jj\), 

an Arabian grammarian, who died in a.d. 
803, a.h. 187. 

Abu-Mansur, surnamed al-Hakim bi- 

amr-illah, succeeded his father Al-'Aziz to 
the throne of Egyjjt in a.d. 990, a.h. 381, 
when only 11 years of age. In the latter 
part of his reign he fancied himself a god, 
and found no fewer than 16,000 persons who 
owned him as such. These were mostly the 
Dararians, a new sect sprung up about this 
time, who were so called from their chief, 
Muhammad Ibu-Isma'Il, surnamed Darari. 
He is supposed to have inspired the mad 
khalifa with this impious notion ; and as 
Darari set up for a second Moses, he did 
not scruple to assert that Abii-Mansiir was 
the great creator of the universe. He was 
assa.ssinated in the year a.d. 1020. His son 
Tahir succeeded him. 

Abu-Mansur (j^^-.^ ^A), author of 

the Kitdb-ut- Taiilud, and several other 

Abu-Mansur 'Abdul-Kaliir al-Bagh- 
dadi, author of a treatise on the law 
of inheritance according to Shafi'i. He died 
A.D. 1037, a.h. 429. 

Abu - Mas'ud, surnamed Shaikh -ul- 
Islam, a native of Constantinople, and author 
of the valuable commentary on the Quran, 
entitled Irshdd-ul-^aqJ^ flourished in the reign 
of Sultan Salim Khan, emperor of Constanti- 
nople, and died in a.d. 1516, a.h. 922. 

Abu-Muhammad {^i.-^ S^^.^^ ^jl), of 

Mecca, sou of Abii-Talib, author of a 
commentary on the Quran, and several other 
works. He died in a.d. 1045, a.h. 437. 

Abu-Muhammad, son of 'Abbas, the 
Hon of a sister of Ahii-Ja'far bin-Muhammad 
bin-Jarir al-Tabari. It is said that he had 
by heart 100,000 versos of different authors. 
Iti' diid in A.D. 993, a.h. 383, and was a 
I'lintuiiiporary of the author of the 'Aijijiir. 

Abu-Muhammad Husain bin-Mas'ud 

Farra al-Baghawi ( ,, 

S.%.s^ J\ 

^y.k.A\ 'Ipj J_j*/*-^ (j-:"^)) author of 

a collection of traditions called the Mamhlh, 
in Arabic; also of the Ma' dlini-ut- Tamil, 
and Shiirh-iis-Sunnat. He died in a.d. 1122, 
A.H. 516. He was a vendor of furs, conse- 
quently he was called Farra. Baghawi also 
wrote a Jdini' haina-l-Sahihain. 

Abu - Muhammad Hisham bin -al- 
Hakim al - Kindi al - Shabani, 

who lived in the time of the Khalifa Harun- 
m'-Eashid, and died in a.d. 796, a.h. 179, is 
famed as one of the first compilers of Shi'a 

Abu-Muhammad Nasihi {s-^s:^ ^\ 

i^^j-s"*U), was a man of eminent 

learning in the time of Sultan Mas'iid I., of 
Ghazni. He wrote a book entitled Mas'udi, 
in support of the doctrine of Abu-Hanlfa, 
which he presented to the king. He 
flourished about the year a.d. 1035. 

Abu - Muhammad Rozbihan Bakali 
Shirazi (^_^-LLj ^\i,j^j A-^^sr* ^\ 

^jiy_._i), author of the Safwat-ul- 

Mashdrib. He died in July, a.d. 1209, Mu- 
harram, a.h. 606. Vide Eozbihan (Shaikh). 

Abu-Muhammad Shatibi (jk.,»„s-^ jjl 
-JsLi), a very learned Musalman 

and author of the Qaslda Shaiibiya. He 
died in a.d. 1194, a.h. 590. His proper 
name was Qasim ; he was born at Shatibiya, 
in Andalusia, from which he derived his title 
of Shatibi. He is also the author of several 
other works. 

Abu - Muhammad Tabrizi, author of 
the Persian history called TdriMi-i-Taban. 
The original of this book was \vritten in 
Arabic by Abii-Ja'tar bin-Jarir Tabarl, in 
A.D. 912, a.h. 300, and was afterwards 
translated into Persian and continued by Abii- 
Muhammad, and dedicated to Abii-Salih bin- 
Niih, about the year a.d. 1118, a.h. 512. 

Abu - Musa Ja'far al - Sufl, whose 
poetical name is Jahar, was the founder of 
the Arabian school of chemistry, flom-ished 
towards the end of the eighth, or the com- 
mencement of the ninth ceutury. Accordino- 
to the majority of authorities, he was born 
at Tiis, in Khurasan. He wrote an immense 
number of treatises on alchemy, also a work 
on astronomy. An edition of his works in 
Latin was published at Dantzic, in 1662, and 
another in English by Kussfl, in 1678. 




Atou - Miisa al - Ash'ari ( c— :;-« t^\ 

f_Sj.xJti'i\), one of tlie arbitrators 

between 'Ali and Mu'awiya I., by wbose 
decision 'All was deposed in tbe year a.d. 
658, A.H. 37. Eigbt montbs after the battle 
of Siffin between 'Ali and Mu'awiya, tbe two 
arbitrators, Abii-Musa and 'Amr, the son of 
'As, met at a place between Mecca and Kiifa, 
where a tribunal was erected. Abu-Miisa 
first ascending it, pronounced these words 
with a loud voice : "I depose 'All and 
Mu'awiya from the Kliilafat (or government) 
to which they pretend, after the same manner 
as I take this ring from my finger," and 
immediately came down. 'Amr then went 
up and said: "Ton have heard how Abii- 
Musa has on his part deposed 'Ali ; as for 
my part I depose him too, and I give the 
Khilafat to Mu'awiya, and invest him with 
it after the same manner as I put this ring 
upon my finger ; and this I do with so much 
the more justice, because he is 'XTsman's 
heir and avenger, and the worthiest of all 
men to succeed him." 

Abu-Muslim, a great general, to whom 

the Abbasides entirely owed their elevation 
to the Khilafat, for which he is commonly 
called !?ahib-ud-Da'wat, or author of the 
vocation of the Abbasides. For his good 
conduct and bravery, he occupied the first 
posts in the service of the Ommaides. He 
was governor of Khurasan, a.d. 746, when 
he proclaimed the Abbasides the lawful heirs 
of the lihilafat, and in a.d. 749 transferred 
the dignity of Khalifa from the family of 
Umaj'j'a to that of the Abbasides. This 
revolution occasioned the death of above 
600,000 men; and when Abu-Ja'far Al- 
Mansiir, the second Khalifa of the race of 
'Abbas, was opposed on his accession by his 
uncle 'Abdullah, son of 'Ali, 'Abii-Muslim 
was despatched against him. This general 
having harassed him for five months together, 
at last brought him to a general action, and 
having entirely defeated him, forced him to 
fly to Basra. Notwithstanding all his services, 
however, Abii-Muslim was soon after, on 
Thursday the 13th February, a.d. 75.5, 24th 
Sha'ban, a.h. 137, ungratefully and bar- 
barously murdered by Al-Mansiir, and his 
body was thrown into the Tigris. Abii- 
Muslim took his origin (as Isfahan!, a Persian 
historian relates) from Hamza, who pretended 
to descend from Gaudarz, one of tbe ancient 
kings of Persia. 

Abu-Na'im (<i,inji-£ ^^ *^ ^\), son 

of 'Abdullah, author of the works ' Uli/d and 
Daluil-i-JSTubtcwwat. He died in the year 
A.D. 1012, A.H. 403. 

Abu-Nasr Farabi (^Kli -uaJ jj\). 
Vide Farabi. 

Abu-Nasr, author of a Persian work 
on Sufism, called Anis-ul- TahWn. 

Abu - Nasr FaraM ( jsl j ^] ^A), 

flourished about the year a.d. 1220, in the 
time of Babram Shah, son of Taj-uddiu, 
ruler of Sistan (also called Nimriiz), who 
began to reign in the year a.d. 1215. He is 
the author of a vocabulary in verse, called 
Nisdh-us-Sihyan. His real name is Mu- 
hammad Badr-uddin, and he belongs to 
Farah, a town in Sijistan. 

[Vide Aln Translation, i. note 41.] 

Abu-Nasr Isma'il bin-Hammad al- 
Jauhari (jL*^ ^^ J-,«^-j1 .-^.3 yj\ 

^..J6._sl\) is the author of the Dic- 
tionary called Sihdfi-ul-Ziii^at. He was 
born at Farah, and died about tbe year a.d. 
1003, A.H. 394. 

Abu-Nasr Khan (Nawab) ( «aJ ^1 

< AJ ^^ii-), an amir of the reign 

of the emperor 'Alamgir. The mosque of 
Jajnagar, in Orisa, "was built by him in the 
year A.D. 1687,' a.h. 1098. 

Abu-Nasr Maskati ( LiCo;.^ -«3J y\), 

■a. native of Maskat, and author of the book 
caUed MaqaimU. 

Abu-Nasr Sabur (Shapur), son of 
Ardsher. He built in the year a.d. 954, an 
edifice at Baghdad, dedicated to scientific 
and literary exercises, and collected a large 
quantity of books, designed for the use of 
Musalmans ; there were, it is said, upwards 
of 10,400 volumes of all kinds, including a 
hundred Qurans, copied by the celebrated 
caligrapher Ibn-Muqla. 

Abu-Nawas ((^-ly y^), al-Hasan bin- 
Hani, a celebrated Arabian poet, born in the 
city of Basra. His merit was acknowledged 
at the court of Hariin-ur-Rashid. His 
principal works have been collected by several 
persons, on which account there is a great 
difference between the copies of bis works. 
His proper name is Abu- 'Ali. He died a.d. 
810, A.H. 195. 

Abu-Raihan al - Biruni (^1=^^ ^\ 

J. _.J1), or Abu-Eaihan Muhammad 

hin-Ahmad al-Biriini, was born about the 
year a.d. 971, in the town of Birun, said to 
be situated in the province of Khwarazm. 
He was astronomer, geometrician, historian, 
scholar, and logician. Besides metaphysics 
and dialectics, he studied, and appears to 
have drawn his chief lustre from, attainments 
in the magical art. Of this the following 
instance is related. One day Sultan Mahmiid 
ordered him to deposit with a third person a 
statement of the precise manner in which the 
monarch would quit the hall where he then 




was sitting. Tlie paper being lodged, the 
king, instead of going out by one of tlie 
numerous doors, caused a breach to be made 
in the wall, by which he effected his exit ; 
but how was he amazed, when, on the paper 
being examined, there was found in it a 
minute specification of the precise spot 
through which he penetrated ! Hereupon the 
prince with horror denounced this learned 
man as a sorcerer, and commanded him to be 
instantly thrown out of the window. The 
barbarous sentence was presently executed ; 
but care had been taken to prepare beneath 
a soft cushion, into which the body of the 
sage sank without sustaining any injury. 
Abii - E-aih an was then called before the 
monarch, and was required to say whether by 
his boasted art he had been able to foresee 
these eyents, and the treatment through which 
he had that day passed. The learned man 
immediately desired his tablets to be sent for, 
in which were found regularly predicted the 
whole of these singular transactions. He 
travelled into different countries, and to and 
from India for the space of 40 years. He 
wrote many works, and is said to hare 
executed seyeral translations from the Greek, 
and epitomized the Almajest of Ptolemy. 
His works are said to hare exceeded a camel 
load. The most valuable of all his works is 
the Tartkh-ul-Sind. Another of his works 
is the QmiuH Mas'Rdi, dedicated to Sultan 
Mas'iid of Ghazui, for which he received au 
elephant-load of silver coins. He lived in 
the time of Sultans Mahmiid and Mas'iid 
Ghaznawi, and died in the year a.d. 1039, 
A.H. 430. 

[For further notes ride Dowson, Elliot's 
History of India, ii. p. 1.] 

Abu-Sa'id (ii!U-£ ^^j A-jt-: ^1), 

the son of 'Abdullah, an Arabian poet who 
flourished in the court of Salah - ud - din, 
(Saladin), and was his prime minister. He 
died in the year a.d. 1201, a.h. 597. 

Abu-Sa'id (^l^ c.-Ji' i^ S^jt^^\), 

the son of Kulaib Shashi, author of the book 
called Masnad Kahlr. He died in a.d. 946, 
A.H. 335. 

Abu-Sa'id 'Abdul-Malik bin-Quraib 

commonly called Asma'i, celebrated for his 
grammatical knowledge and eloquence. He 
was born in the year a.d. 740, a.h. 122, and 
floimshed in the time of Al-Mansiir, khalifa 
of Baghdad (who reigned from a.d. 7S4 to 
775), and died at Basra during the reign of 
Hariin-ur-Eashid, or, as some authors say, 
in A.H. 216 (a.d. 832). 

Abu - Sa'id 'Abdur - Rahman bin - 
Mamun al-Mutawalli , author of the 
Faraiz MutawalVi', a treatise on the law of 
inheritance according to Shafi'i's doctrine. 
He died a.d, 1085, a.h. 478. 

Abu-Sa'id Baizawi {^^\Jui iX-.«-jyO, 

or Qazi Abii-Sa'id 'Abdullah Baizawi, author 
of the work called Kizum-iU-Tau-urikh, an 
epitome of Oriental History from Adam to 
the overthrow of the Kliilafat by the Tartars 
under Hulalm 'K^a.xa, a.d. 1258, a.h. 674, 
written abont the year 1275. Vide Baizawi. 

Abu-Sa'id Fazl-uUah. (J-ij-i J.-««! yl 

<iLlJ\), son of Abul-Khair, a great 

Siifi, of Malina. His spiritual guide was 
Abul-Fazl Lnqmau of Sarakhs. He devoted 
himself to ascetic exercises, and spent fourteen 
years in the wilderness. He is the author of 
the Quatrains, called Euba'iyat-i- Abu- Sa'id 
Abul-Khair. He died at the age 44 in the 
year a.d. 1068, a.h. 440. 

Abu-Sa'id Khan Bahadur (ji„x^ ^\ 

^_)Ls)\ ^) jCkji^j ^i-), a Sultan of 

the family of Hulakii Khan, was the son of 
Oljaitii, commonly called Muhammad Khuda- 
banda, whom he succeeded to the throne of 
Persia in December, a.d. 1316, Shawwal, 
A.H. 716, when he was only twelve years of 
age. In his time Rashld-ud-din, the author 
of the Jdini'-ut-TawdriMi, was put to death. 
This monarch may be termed the last of the 
dynasty of Ilulakii Khan who enjoyed any 
power. The few princes of that sovereign's 
family who were raised to the tlrrone after 
Abii-Sa'id were mere pageants, whom the 
nobles of the court elevated or cast down as 
it suited the purposes of their ambition. 
Abii-Sa'id reigned 19 hmar years, and died 
of fever on tbe 30th November, a.d. 1335, 
13th Eabi' II., a.h. 736. The following is 
a list of the princes of the family of Chingiz 
Khan, who were raised to nominal power 
after the death of Abii-Sa'id Khan : 

Arpa Khan (Mu'izz-uddin) was crowned in 
1335, reigned five months, and was kiUed 
in battle in a.d. 1336. 

Musa Khan was elevated in 1336, reigned 
two years, audwas murdered in a.d. 1338. 

Saki, sister of Abii-Sa'id Khiin, was 
elevated to the throne in 1338. She 
was married to Jahan Timur, who got 
the kingdom as her dowry, but was 
deposed the same year. After him 

Sulaiman Khan was declared Idng ; he left 
the kingdom and went to Diyar-bakr in 

Nausherwan was elevated in 1334. 
Abu-Sa'id Mirza (Sultan) {s-jt^ y.>\ 
ij;LbJ_^ \-j^, the son of Sultan 

Muhammad Mirza, sou of Miranshah, son of 
Amir Timur (Tamerlane). He was bom in 
A.D. 1427. After the death of his father in 
1441, he continued to live with Mirza Ulugh 
Be^, son of Mirza Shahrukh, at Samarqand, 
and served in his army when he was at war 
with his son Mirza 'Abdul-Latif ; but when 




that prince was murdered by his unnatural 
son, in October, a.d. 1449, Eaniazan, a.h. 
853, and he in his turn was slain after six 
or seven months by his own soldiers, and 
Samarqand was taken possession of by Mirza 
'Abdullah, son of Mirza Ibrahim, and grand- 
son of Mirza Shahruldi, Abii-Sa'id, with 
the assistance of Abii-Khair Uzbak, having 
defeated and taken 'Abdullah prisoner in a 
battle, put him to death and ascended the 
throne of Samarqand in a.d. 1451, a.h. 865. 
He also took possession of Khurasan after 
the death of Babar Sultan, son of Baya- 
sanghar Mirza, in a.d. 1457, a.h. 861, and 
greatly extended his dominions, but was at 
last taken prisoner in an ambuscade, and put 
to death on the 8th February, a.d. 1469, 
25th Eajab, a.h. 873, after he had reigned 
18 years. After his death. Sultan Husain 
Baiqra, sirrnamed Abul-Ghazi, a descendant 
of Amir Timtir, made himself master of the 
empire. Abii-Sa'id at his death left eleven 
sons, -s-iz. : Mirza Sultan Ahmad, Mirza 
Sultan Mabmud, Mirza Sultan Muhammad, 
Mirza Shahrukh, Mirza TJlugh Beg, Mirza 
'TJmar Shaikh, Mirza Aba-Bakr, Mirza 
Sultan Murad, Mirza Sultan Khalil, Mirza 
Sultan Walid, and Mirza Sultan 'Umar ; of 
whom foirr arrived to the dignity of kings, 
viz. : Mirza Ulugh Beg to the throne of 
Kabul ; Mirza Sultan Ahmad to the kingdom 
of Samarqand; Mirza 'Umar Shaikh to the 
united thrones of Andij an and Farghana ; and 
Mirza Sultan Mahmiid to those of Kunduz 
and Badakhshan. Abii-Sa'id Mirza, says 
Babar Shah, though brought up in the city, 
was illiterate and unrefined. 

[ Vide Genealogical Table attached to AJn 

Abu-Sina Mubammad, author of the 
Arabic work called Daqdiq-ul-Haqdiq, con- 
taining a collection of traditions. 

Abu-Sina (li^v^ ^1), or AbG- All Sina, 

whom we call Avicenna, was a famous 
Muhammadan physician and philosopher, who 
early applied himself to literature, botany, 
and mathematics. At the age of eighteen he 
began to practise, and with such success that 
he became physician to the court at Baghdad. 
He was born in the city of Bukhara, in a.d. 
983, A.H. 373, and died at Hamadau in July, 
A.D. 1037, A.H. 427, aged 54 lunar years, 
with the character of a learned man, but 
too much addicted to wine and effeminating 
pleasures. His books on Medicine, etc., were 
in number 100, now nearly all lost. He is 
also called Ibn-Sina. The following are the 
titles of his works: Of the Utility and 
Advantages of Sciences, 20 books ; of Inno- 
cence and Criminality, 2 books; of Health 
and Remedies, 18 books; on the means of 
Preserving Health, 3 books; Canons on 
Physic, 14 books ; on Astronomical Observa- 
tions, 1 book ; on Mathematical Sciences ; of 
Theorems, or Mathematical and Theological 
Demonstrations, 1 book ; on the Arabic 
Language, 10 books ; on the Last Judgment ; 

on the Origin of the Soul, and the Kesm-rec- 
tion of Bodies ; of the end we should propose 
to ourselves in Harangues and Philosophical 
Arguments ; Demonstrations of the collateral 
lines in the sphere ; abridgment of Euclid ; 
on Fiuity and Infinity ; on Physics and 
Metaphysics ; on Animals and Vegetables, 
etc. ; Encyclopajdia, 20 volumes. Avicenna 
is also credited with an Arabic redaction of 
some of the works of Aristotle, and with 
some Persian quatrains in the style afterwards 
popularized by Umar Kliajiyam (q.v.). 

Abu-Sufyan (< > c>. 

^i ijLi- 

ji\), the 

son of Harb, the grandson of Umayya, and 
great-grandson of 'Abdul-Shams. He was 
an able and ambitious man, of great wealth 
and influence, and one of the most persevering 
and powerful opponents of Muhammad. He 
was the father of Mu'awiya, the first khalifa 
of the house of Umayya, and one of the 
heads of the tribe of Quraish, to which 
Muhammad also belonged. "WHien Muhammad 
took up arms for the propagation of his faith, 
AbH-Sufyan was made generalissimo of his 
enemies against him ; and after the battle of 
Badr, he stood very fair for the headship of 
that tribe. But he was at last convinced 
(as it seems, by a signal victory gained by 
Muhammad over his enemies) of the truth of 
the prophet's pretensions, and was converted 
in the 8th year of the Hijra, a.d. 629. 

Abu-Siilaimau Daud (jjlo^^U-i-j^l), 

hin-Abul-Fazl bin-Muhammad Fakhr Bina- 
kiti, so called from having been born at 
Binakit, or Finakit, a town in Transoxiana, 
afterwards called Shahrukhiya. He is the 
author of the Tarlkh-i- BinS/citi. Its correct 
name in full length is Sauzatu ull-l-albdb 
ft Taivdrl -il-Akdbir wal-Ansdh^ i.e. the 
garden of the learned in the histories of 
great men and genealogies. It is chiefly an 
abridgment of the J ami' -ur-Rashidl, and was 
compiled by the author only seven years after 
that work, in a.d. 1317, a.h. 707, and is 
dedicated to Sultan Abii-Sa'id, the ninth 
Mughul king of Persia. The author was 
a poet as well as an historian, and was 
appointed by Sultan Ghazan Khan, poet 
laureate of his court. He died in or about 
the year a.d. 1330, a.h. 731. 

[ Tide Dowson, Mliofs History of India, 
iii. p. 55.] 

Abu-TaMr (^-ttiUs y^\), of Tortosa, 

in Spain, author of the Barub-ndma, an 
abridgment of Oriental Biography, contain- 
ing the Lives of Zubak, of Darius, of Philip 
of Maeedon, and of Alexander the Great; 
also Memoirs of Galen and other Greek 
Philosophers, etc. 

Abu-TaMr Khatuni ( lyU^-ysills^l), 

a poet who flourished in the twelfth or 
tlurteenth centuries of our era. He is the 
author of the History of the Saljiiql kings, 
entitled Tdrlkh-til-Saljuqt, and of another 
work, called Mandqib-ush-SJm' ara. 




Abu-Talib (u^lLt ^jO was the father 

of 'All, and the unple of Muhnnimad the 
]iri)])li(!t. Jlv died three diiys before Kliadija, 
the lirat wife of Muhammad, iu August, a.d. 
019, aged 80 years. 

Atm-Talib Husaini, author of the 
TkzkJ: -i- Tuiulrl. This work contains an 
account of the first forty-seven years of the 
life of Tamerlane, written by himself in 
tihaghtiii Turki, and translated into Persian 
by Abu-Talib, who dedicated it to Shah 
JahSn. It has been translated into English 
by Major Charles Stewart. 
[Vide Dowson, iii. p. 389.] 

Abu-Talilo Kalim (^' i_-JlL ^jl 

^JlA,-*J»), whose poetical name was 

Kalim, was a great poet of Hamadan in 
Persia, and came to India, the first time iu 
the reign of the emperor Jahangir, and 
returned home in a.d. 1619, a.h. 1028. 
After some years he again visited India in 
time of Shah Jahan, who employed him, and 
conferred on him the title of " MaUk-ush- 
Shu'ara," or Poet Laureate. He was twice 
weighed against gold and silver, and the 
amount was given to him as a reward for his 
poetical talents. He died at Lahore on the 
19th NoYcmher, a.d. 1651, 15th Zil-hijja, 
AH. 1061. He is the author of a poem 
called Zafar-nifma-i- Shah Jahan, or the 
conquests of Shah Jahan, and of a Diwan in 

Abu-Talib Khan (Mirza) (^LL _jjl 

U— » ^J^s^), the son of Haji Mu- 
hammad Beg Khan, by descent a Turk, was 
born at Lucknow in the year a.d. 1752, a.h. 
1165. He was appointed by Mukhtar-nd- 
daula, the prime minister of Nawab Asaf-ud- 
daula of Lucknow, in a.d. 1775, 'Amaldar 
of Itawa and several other districts situated 
between the rivers Jamuna and Ganges. In 
this situation he continued for two years ; 
but, after the death of his patron, and the 
appointment of Haidar Beg Khan to his 
ofHce, he was superseded, and repaired to 
Lucknow, and was allowed by the Nawab 
60,000 rupees per annum for his support. 
After the expiration of one year, Colonel 
Alexander Hannay, having been appointed 
Collector of Gorakhpiir, requested the Nawah's 
leave to take him as an assistant, in w^hich 
situation he continued for three years. He 
was afterwards employed by Mr. iWiddleton, 
the Resident of Lucknow, iu reducing the 
rebel Eaja Balbhaddar Singh, whom, dirring 
two years, he frequently defeated and pursued. 
At length, the Rajah, being surprised in his 
camp, was killed in endeavoirring to make his 
escape. Abii-Talib, after this falling into dis- 
tress for some yeara, embarked for Europe with 
Captain David Richardson, a British officer, 
and left Calcutta in February, 1799, Eamazan 
A.H. 1213. He visited England and other 

parts of Europe, and was well known in 
London under the title of the Persian Prince. 
During his travels he wrote a Journal iu 
which he daily inserted every event, and com- 
mitted to writing such reflections as occurred 
to him at the moment. On his return to 
Calcutta in 1803, a.h. 1218, having revised 
and abridged his notes, he published them 
under the title of Mailiiir-ut- Talibt ft BilSd- 
i-Ifraiijl. This work was translated hy 
Charles Stewart, and published in London in 
the year 1814. Abii-Talib died about the 
year'A.D. 1806, a.h. 1221. He is also the 
author of the Khnldmt-ul-Afkar. 
[Tide Dowsou, viii. p. 298. J 

Abu-Talib Mirza. Vide Shaista Khan. 

Abu-Talib (Shaikh) {-^-^ i_^lL ^\), 

the father of Shaikh Muhammad 'All Ilazln. 
He died at Isfahan, in a.d. 1715, a.h. 1127, 
and was interred in the cemetery, called 
Mazar Baha Eukn-uddin, close to the tomb 
of the learned Maiilana Hasan, Shaikh-ul- 
Islam of Gilan. 

Abu-Tammam Habib ibn-Aus al-Tai 

an Arabian poet. Having arrived in the city 
of Hamadan, he was received with great 
distinction by Abul-"Wafa bin-Salama. When 
about to depart, a heavy fall of snow made 
the roads for a long time impassable. Ahul- 
Wafa conducted the poet to his library, and 
placed it entirely at his disposal. Surrounded 
with these literary treasures, Aba-Tammam 
forgot his journey, read the precious volumes 
with avidity, and devoted his time to the 
composition of several works. The poetical 
collection entitled Khamsa was the principal 
fruit of these researches, and attests the inde- 
fatigable attention witli which the learned 
writer had ransacked this rich library. 
Amongst the other works that he wrote, one 
is called Fuhid-ush-Shn'ard. He was horn 
in A.D. 804, A.H. 188, at Jasim, near 
Damascus, and died in a.d. 845, a.h. 231. 


Abu-Tayyib al-Mutanabbi (>. 
^i:i^O- Vide Mutanabbl. 



Abu-Turab (Mir) (j-^--^ ^-'\;■j' >^^)> 
a Salami Sayyid of Shiraz, who served, with 
his son Mir Gadai, in Gujrat, and then 
under Akbar. He died iu a.h. 1005, and 
lies buried in Ahmadabad. 

[Vide Atn Translation, i. p. 506.] 

Abu-'Ubaida (jfJ.^^c ^A), a friend and 

associate of Muhammad, who had the com- 
mand of the Moslem army in the time of 
Abii-Bakr, the first Khalifa, but being de- 
feated in a battle against the troops of the 
Greek emperor, he was deprived of the com- 
mand, which was given to Klialid. 'Umar, 




on his accession to the kh'ilifat, replaced 
'Abu-'Ubfiida in the command of the army 
in SjTia, being greatly displeased with the 
crnel and blood-thirsty disposition of Khalid. 
'Abii-'Ubaida extended his conquests over 
Palestine and Sjiia, and drove the Greeks 
out of the whole country extending from the 
Mediterranean to the Euphrates. This con- 
quest was completed in a.d. 639, a.h. 18, in 
which year Syria was visited by a di'eadful 
plague, in which the Moslems lost 25,000 
men, among whom were Abii-'Ubaida him- 
self, Yazid ibn Abii-Sufyan, and many other 
men of distinction. 

Abu-'Ubaida ibn-Mas'ud (;(j,^^ ^A 

J^x^/* ^^A), a general in the time 

of the khalifa 'Umar. He was defeated and 
killed in battle by Farrukhzad, who com- 
manded the army of Turan-Dukht. queen of 
Persia, about the year a.d. 635. 

Abu-'Ubaida Kam bin-Salam, author 
of a work on Qardat. 

Abu-'Ubaida Ma'mar bin-Al-musanni 

{ .jd^Sl ^s jAjcy* » J'^^ V^^ ^ famous 

Arabian grammarian, born in Basra, who 
lived in the time of Hariin-nr-Rashid, and 
died A.D. 824, a.h. 209, aged 99 lunar years. 

Abu - 'Umar Minhaj al - Jurjani 

( jUs-^M 77 ^--^ •'^•^ i'}^' author of 

the Tabaqat-i-Nasirl, a celebrated history, 
written in a d. 1252, a.h. 650, and dedicated 
to Sultan Nasir-uddin Mahmiid of Dehli. 
Vide Minhaj-i-Siraj. 

Abu-Yahya bin-Sanjar ( j1 ^csr^\ 

j-sx^^, author of a Diwan in Arabic. 
He died in a.d. 1234, a.h. 632. 

Abu - Yahya Ahmad bin - Daud al - 
Far azi al- Jurjani (j^^s-l ^^^_ y^\ 

t).!j ^), who was originally a Sunm, 

but became a convert to the Imamiya or 
Shi'a faith, is the author of a biographical 
work, entitled Eitah fl ma'rifat-ir-Rijal, 
containing the Uves of eminent Shi 'as. 

Abu-Ya'qub al-Warra(i (<_jyL«.j ^\ 

^1 .J'). Vide Muhammad bin-Is-haq 

an-Nadim . 

Abu -Yazid (Maktabdar) (A-jJj jj} 

.^Ji-.:i^\ secretary of state in Egypt, 

who rebelled against Qaim, the second khalifa 
of the race of the Fatimites. He was not 
punished for his rebellion till Isma'il al- 
Mansiir defeated him, and confined him in an 
iron cage, where he ended hia days. 

Abu-Yusuf (Imam) (»t,l i 2-.-.J j-j1) 

bin-Habib al-Kiifi, a celebrated Qazi of 
Baghdad, and one of the first pupils of Abii- 
Hunifa, dignified with the title of Qazi-1- 
Quzat, or supreme judge, in the reigns of 
Hadi and Harun - ur - Rashid, khalilas of 
Baghdad. He supported the tenets of Abii- 
Hanifa, and maintained the dignity of his 
office by impartiality. AVhen one day re- 
proached for his ignorance of one of the 
causes brought before him, for the decision 
of which he received an ample allowance, he 
jocosely replied, that he received in propor- 
tion as he knew ; but, said he, "If I were 
paid for all I do not know, the riches of 
the khilafat itself would not be sufficient to 
answer my demands." He was born a.d. 731, 
a.h. 113, and died on the 13th September, 
a.d. 798, 27th Rajah, a.h. 182, at the age 
of 69 years, at Baghdad. The only work 
known to have been written by him, treats of 
the duties of a Magistrate, and is entitled 
Addb-id-Qazl. The reputation of this work 
has been ecHpsed by that of another, having 
a similar title, by al-Khassaf. 

Abu-Yusuf Ya'kub bin-Sulaiman Is- 

faraini (^UJ.-- ^^i L-j^ix^ i d-^ jjl ), 

author of the Sharait-ul-Khildfat. He died 
in A.D. 1093, A.H. 488. 

Abu - Zakariya Yahya al - Nawawi. 

Vide Nawawi. 

Abu-Zarr ( .Ja-^-s .J yi\), the father 

of the Karamatians in Arabia, who not only 
opposed the religion of Muhammad, but 
plundered and insulted the temple of Mecca, 
and carried away the black stone which was 
believed to have fallen from heaven. He 
died A.D. 953, a.h. 342. Vide Qarmat, 

Abu-Zarr Yaq.ut Mausili {ju^\jii^\ 
\^y), a celebrated caligrapher. 

Abu-Zubaid (jw-J; »jO, an author who 

has written on the lion and all its names in 
the Arabic language. 

Achaemenes, old Persian Hakhamanis ; 
founder of the dynasty of kings called after 
hira, viz. : 


Cyrus I. ? \ 

Cambyses I. ? / ^iai Kobad). 

Cyrus II. d. 529 ( ^ ' 

Cambyses II. d. 522 ; 

Darius I. d. 485. 

Xerxes (?), d. 465 {v. Isfandyar). 

Artaxerxes, d. 425. 

Darius II. d. 405 ) , j^- -■. 

Darius III. d. 330 j (^- ^"*'- 




Achanak Begam, one of the concubines 
of the emperor Akbar. She had built a 
garden ou the banks of the Jamuna, at Agra, 
called Achanak Bfigh. Some traces of it are 
yet to be seen. 

Achclihe (c—^-^U, the poetical name 

of prince Baland-Akhtar, a brother of the 
emperor Muhammad Shah of Dehli. He was 
familiarly called Achchhe Sahib, and there- 
fore chose Achchhe for his "takhallus." 
He is the author of a beautiful poem, called 
Krihid-o-.LMitar, i.e. Venus and the Star, 
containing 3.55 verses, which he completed in 
the year a.d. 1726, a.h. 1139. 

Adam, the first man. The Muhamma- 
dans place Adam's Paradise in heaven ; hence 
after the fall Adam and Hawwa (Eve) were 
hurled down to earth. As this event happened 
about 7,000 years before the Hijra, Adam is 
often called haft-hazari. 

Adam Khan Gakkhar { ^ ^~.. * jl ), 

chief of the Gakkhars, who defied the power 
of the emperor Akbar. In 970, at the 
instigation of Kamal Kh."m Gakkhar, Adam 
was attacked, and defeated and captrrred at 
Hilan, south of CMlianwala, near Dangali, 
Adam's stronghold. 

fS'ide Ain Translation, i. p. 457.] 

Adham (>.jtjl), the poetical name 

Mirza Ibrahim, a SajTid of the Safawi race. 
He came to India in the time of the emperor 
Shah Jahan. He died, or was put to death 
in prison, in the year ad. 1650, a.h. 1060. 
He is the author of a Diwiin, and also of a 
Masnawi, called Itafiq - ns - SSlikin, and a 

Adham Artamani {Ji[.a..Jj\ *_&j1), 
author of a Diwan in Persian. 

Adiam (*i)jl). Vide Ibrahim-i- Adham. 

Adham Khan {^\~^ j^^\), the son of 

Mahum Anaga. He appears to have been 
an illegitimate son of the emperor Haraayun. 
His mother Muhum was one of Akbar' s 
nurses [anaga) , who attended on Akbar ' ' from 
the cradle till after his accession." She 
played a considerable part in bringing about 
Bairam's fall. Adham Khan {i.e. the Black 
Khan) was a commander of 5,000, and dis- 
tinguished himself in keeping the rebellions 
Bhadauriya clan, near Hatkanth, south-east 
of Agra, in order. In a.h. 968, he de- 
feated Baz Bahadur- of Malwa, whose female 
favourite was the poetess Rupmati (?.».). In 
the following year, a.d. 1562, he stabbed at 
court his enemy Atgah Klian, Akbar's foster- 


father, and was killed by the emperor's order. 
Mahum Anaga died forty days after from 
grief, and was buried with her son in Dehll, 
in a Mausoleum erected by Akbar. Adham's 
brother Baqi Klmn, or Khan Baqi Klian, 
died in the 30th year of Akbar's reign, as 
Governor of Garha-Katanga (Central Pro- 
Vide Keene's Sistonj of Hindustan. 

Adhan (Shaikh) (^jl), a Chishtl 
saint, who died at Jaunpiir in a.h. 970. 

Adib (i -jjO, the poetical name of 

Abii- Hasan 'Ali bin-Nasr, an excellent 
philosopher, who was a judge in Egypt, 
under the khilafat of Ammar the Fa.timite. 

Adib (i ^JiiO, surnamed Sabir, a poet 

who was contemporary with Asir-uddin 
Futiihi and Anwari. Vide Shihab-uddin 
Adib Sabir. 

'Adil Khan {^jj\-> J^-^ J-^\ 

Fariiqi I., ruler of Khande-sh, who is also 
called Miran Ghani, which see. 

'Adil Khan II, Faru(ii (^\s- Jjlc 
^U ^i}j^), entitled A'zam Huma- 

yiin, son of Hasan, and grandson of Nasir 
Klian Fariiqi by the daughter of Mahmiid 
Shall, of Gujrat. He succeeded to the throne 
of Khandesh after the death of Daiid Sian 
Fariiqi, in August, a.d. 1510, Jumada I., 
a.h. 916, and removed from Talner to 
Burhanpiir, which place he made the seat of 
his government, and died there, after a reign 
of nine or ten years, in a.d. 1520, a.h. 926, 
and was succeeded by Miran Muhammad, his 
eldest son by the sister of Bahadur Shah of 

'Adil Khan (^jU- Jolc), the eldest 

brother of Sultan Islam Shah, king of Dehli. 
He fled to Patna after his defeat in a battle 
against his brother, but he soon disappeared, 
and was never heard of afterwards. 

Adina Beg Khan (^l;>- t— C.J i^j\ ), 

son of Channii, an Arain by caste, was born 
at Sarakp&r, near Lahore. He was brought 
up in a Mughul family, became a soldier, 
but devoted himself to accounts. He was 
Governor of Sultanpiir when ISTadir Shah 
invaded India. Sulosequently, he became 
Governor of the Panjab. In 1758 he defeated 
the Afghans near Lahore. Soon after this 
he died, without heirs, at Khaupiir, near 
Hoshyarpiir, where a fine tomb was erected 
over ills remains. 




'Adli (^sz), the nickname of Mu- 
hammad 'Adil Shall, king of DeUi. His 
name was JIubariz Khan, son of Nizam Khan. 
He succeeded Islam Shah in the very end of 
A.H. 960, defeated with the help of his 
general Himii, in 962, Muhammad Shah of 
Bengal at Chhapparghatta, east of Kalpi, and 
was at last, in 964, one year after Akbar's 
accession, defeated and killed in the battle of 
Surajgarli, near Hunger, by Bahadur Shah, 
Sultan of Bengal. His nickname 'Adli was 
often fm-ther corrupted to "Andhli'," the 
blind woman. 

'Adnan (^^[jsc), one of the descend- 
ants of Isma'il, the son of Abraham, with 
whom the genealogies of the Arabians, and 
also that of Jluhammad, terminate. For 
reckoning up from 'Adnan to Isma'il, the 
descents are very rmcertain, and the best 
liistorians confess that there is nothing certain 
beyond 'Adnan. 

Afi (^0, poetical name of Ahmad 

Tar Khan, author of a small poem in Persian 
called Mttsnawl GidzSr-i-Khayal, containing 
the story of Shahzada and Gada, written in 

'Afif. Vide Shams Siraj 'Afif. 

Afrasyab (t_jL>-!^iO, an ancient, if 

not mythic, king of Turan, the son of 
Pashang. He overcame Nauzar, king of 
Persia of the Peshdadian dynasty, and having 
killed him, ruled over Persia for twelve years. 
He was subsequently defeated in a battle 
against Kai-khusrau, king of Persia, of the 
second or Kaianian djTiasty. 

Afrasyab Khan, adopted son of Mirza 
Najaf Khan (?.«.), became Amir-ul-Umra 
on the death of his master, a.d. 1782. 
Intriguing with Madhuji Sindhia, he was 
over-reached, and was assassinated near Agra, 
October, 1783. 

■A-frin i^jSji^), poetical name of Shaikh 

Qalandar Bakhsh, of Saharanpur, who is the 
author of a work called Tuhfat-us- Satidi' . 

Afrin {^ij:\), the poetical name of 

Shah FaqTr-ullah, of Lahore. He was a 
Gujar, embraced Muhammadanism, and is 
the author of a Diwan, and of an epic, called 
Sir-wa-Rdnjhd. Some say that he died in 
A.D. 1730, and others in 1741, a.h. 1143, or 

Afsah (^-^^0, Shah Faslh, a pupil of 

Mirza Bedil, died at Lucknow in a.h. 1192, 
and left a Diwan. 

Afsari (^_5^iuil), the poetical name of 
a poet. 


the surname of 

Haidar ibn-Kaus, a general of the khalifa 
al-Mu'tasim Billah, of Baghdad. He was a 
Tui'k by origin, and had been brought up a 
slave at the khalifa's court, and having been 
employed in disciplining the Turkish militia, 
had acquired the reputation of a great captain. 
He was, however, executed about the year 
A.D. 840, by the khalifa, being accused of 
holding correspondence with the khalifa's 

Afsos (^..Aijl), the poetical name of 

Mir 'All, son of S. Muzafar Ali Khan, 
claiming descent from Imam Jafar [q.v.), 
born at Dehli, where his grandfather had 
been in the imperial service ; author of the 
Ardish, a sort of Urdu Gazetteer, admired 
for its style. He was first in the service of 
Nawab Is-baq Khan, the uncle of Asaf-ud- 
daula, of Lucknow, , and subsequently of 
Mirza Jawan-Bakht. and was finally recom- 
mended to Lord Wellesley, and appointed a 
Munshi of the College of^Fort Wilham. He 
is the author of the Ardish -i- Mahfil^ in 
Urdu, and of the Gulistdn, translated by 
him into the same language. He died in 
Calcutta in a.d. 1806, a.h. 1221. 

Aftab (L_jL-_iT), the Takhallus, or 

poetical name of Shah 'Alam, king of Dehli, 
who died in the year a.d. 1806. The 
following couplet is a sample of his Majesty's 
poetry : 

"The forenoon with the wine-cup, the 
evening with the wife ; 
The rest is known to God alone ; mean- 
time I Live my life." 

(Shah 'Alam.) 

Afzal, the poetical name of Shah 
Ghulam A'zam, which see. 

Afzal 'Ali Khan (Nawab). Vide 
Afzal Khan (p. 36), whose original name was 

Afzal, the poetical name of Muhammad 
Afzal, which see. 

Afzali ( ^LaJ'), the poetical name of 

Shaikh Muhammad Nasir, son of Shaikh 
Kliiib-ullah, of Allahabad. He died in a.d. 
1730, A.H. 1163. 

Afzal Khan i^J^ J.^Jl), or Mir 

Muhammad Afzal. He flourished in the 
reign of the emperor Muhammad Shah, of 
Dehli, and died in the year a.d. 1735 or 
1738, A.H. 1148 or 1151. His poetical name 
was §abit, which see. 




Afzal Khan (^,L:i- J.^J\), Shaikh 

'Abd-iivraliman, son of the cclebnited Shnildi 
Abul-Fazl, raiuister and socrttary to the 
finpirur Akbar, was Jahang'Tr's governor of 
Bihar in a.d. 1610, and died at Agra in 1613. 
[Vide Aiii Trniishiliuii, p. xxw. (Abul- 
Fazl's Biograpby), and Duwson, vi. p. 205.] 

Afzal Khan (|^l.»- J...^il), whose original 

name was Jlulhi Shnkr-uUah, the son of 
'Abdul -Haqq, eame from Shiraz to the 
Deocan, and was introduced by 'Ahdur- 
Eabim Khan, Klianklianan, to the emperor 
Jahangir, who conferred on him the rank of 
an Amir. In the .second year of Shah Jahan, 
A.D. 1628, AH. 1038, the office of Wizarat- 
i-kull having become vacant by the dismissal 
of Iradat Ivhfiu, the brother of Asaf Khan 
Ja'far Beg, he was honoured with that 
appointment. In the eleventli year of the 
emperor, the mansab of 7,000 and 4,000 
sawar.s was conferred upon him, but he died 
the next year at Lahore, on the 7th January, 
12th Ramazan, a.h. 1048, o,s. 1639, aged 
70 years. His poetical name was ^A.llami. 
His tomb, called Chini Eauza, is in Agra, on 
the left bank of the Jamna. 

Afzal - ud - daula (Nawab), Nizam of 
Haidarabad, succeeded his father, Nawab 
Xasir-ud-daula, in May, a.d. 1857, 15th 
Zil-qa'da, a.h. 1285, and departed this life 
on the 26th February, 1869, aged 44 years, 
leaving an infant son, Avho, according to the 
succession guarantee granted by Lord Canning, 
is now his successor. 

Afzal-uddin (Mir), Nawab of Siirat. 
He died on the 7th August, 1840, at the 
age of 59 years, after enjoying his nominal 
nawabsliip about 21 years. His son-in-law, 
Mir Ja'far 'All, succeeded him. 

Agah (ilil), the poetical name of 
Maulawi Muhammad Baqir. Ilis parents 
were of Bijapur, but he was horn at Ellora 
in A.D. 1745, A H. 1158, and died on the 3rd 
March, a.d. 1806, 14th Zil-bijja, a.h. 1220. 
He is the author of a Diwfiu. 

[He was a Naita (pi. Kawdit, said to he a 
corruption of the Persian nau-diiuid, a "new 
arrival"), a name given to certain seafaring 
Arabs, settled in "Western India.] 

Agah Khan, a eunuch of the emperor 
Shah Jahan, who died on the 9th Rahi' I., 
ah. 1067. His tomb is near the Mumtaz- 
Jlahall, in TajganJ. 

Agha Ahmad 'Ali, poetically styled 
Ahmad, son of of Agha Shaja'at 'Ali, of 
Dhaka, a Persian grammarian of note who 
successfully defended, iu his Muai/yid-i- 

Biirlian, and the Shainshcr -i -Tizlnr, the 
author of the Jliir/uht (ifiti', a Persian 
Dictionar^, against the famous Dehli poet 
Glialib. He also published the Ithdlu-i- 
Iiihiiqfiq, the Ris~ihi-i-Tarfiiiii, Haft AKinSn, 
A History of the Fersian Miixiiaivi, and edited 
.several works for the Asiatic Society of Bengal. 
He was a Persian teacher iu the Calcutta 
Madrasa when he died, June, 1873. 

Agha Husain Khwansari (^^^au.?- lil 
i_c.l*ujl».£i-). T'ide Husain Khwan- 

AghaMir (^,, Ul ), entitled Mu tamad- 

ud-daula, minister of Ghazi-nddin Haidar, 
king of Audh. He was dismissed in a.d. 
182'6, A,H. 1242, and retired to Kfinhpiir, 
where he died on M(jnday 7th May, a.d. 
1832, 5th Zil-hijja, a.h. 1247. 

Agha Muhammad Khan {s^t,^:* Ul 

.il~-). T^ide Aqa Muhammad Khan 

Agha Mulla (L.* Lif), surnamed 

" Dawatdar," " the inkstand-holder," the 
ancestor of the three Asaf Khans who served 
under Akhar and Jahangir. His genealogical 
table is given iu^f/i TransUition, i. p. 369. 

Aghar Khan {^\~^ji.\ ), Pir Muhammad, 

who served during the reignof Aurangzib 
against Prince Shnja', in Asam, and in 
Kabul. He died in a.h. 1102. His son, 
Aghar Khan II., was still alive dni-ing the 
reign of Muhammad Shah. The family 
traced their descent from Aghar, a descendant 
of Yafls fjaphet), son of Nfih. Their villa, 
Agharabad, near Dehli, is often mentioned 
in the histories. 

Ahi ( ^1), a poet ■who was a chief 

of one of the Chaglitai hordes, and had 
assumed originally the poetical name of 
"Nargisi," hut changed it into "Ahi," 
because he found that another poet of his 
time had adopted it. He is the author of a 
Diwau, which he dedicated to prince Gliarib 
Mirza, the son of Sultan Husain Mirza 
Baiqra. He died in the year a.d. 1520, 
a.h. 927. 

-J Jaw, 'the people 
a general name for the 

Ahl-i-Bait (i, 

of the house 

descendants of Muhaiumad, the Sayyids, 

Ahl-i-Kitah (^_-l:i^ Ja-1), "the people 

of the book," a collective name for the Jews, 
Christians, and Muhammadans, who received 
a book, i.e. revealed religion from heaven. 




AMi Khurasani ( ^L^rk jjjt^), a 

poet who died at Tabriz in the year a.d. 
1527, A.H. 934. He must not be confonnded 
with Ahli-i-TurauT, a Chaghtai nobleman of 
profligate eharaeter, who lived at the court of 
Sultan Husain Mirza, and died in a.d. 1497, 
A.H. 902. 

Ahli SMrazi (MaTilana)(^l \^^ ''^^), 

of Shiraz, an elegant poet in the service of 
Shah Isma'il Safawi I. He is the author of 
several poems, amongst which are the Sihr-i- 
Haldl, Sham^ wa Parwdtm, Ris^la~i-Naghz. 
Saqindma, and Fawdid-ul-Fawdid. He died 
in the year a.d. 1535, a.h. 942, and is buried 
at Shiraz, close to the tomb of Hafiz. 

AMia Bai, tlie wife of Madliu Eiio 

Peshwa, built a ghat at Agra, in the time 
of Shah 'Alam, called Bisuan Ghat, or a 
bathing-place for all men, on the banks 
of the river Jamna. It extended from the 
trench of the fort to the house of Dara 
Shikoh, and was in good preservation in the 
year a.d. 1830. On one of the corners a 
large gun of iron was then lying, under the 
Hawefi of Dara Shikoh, called Dhaul Dahani. 

Ahlia Bai (^_pLj i.J_!!>l), the wife of 

Khande Rao, the son of Malhar Eao Holkar 
I., of Indor, after whose death, in a.d. 1766, 
she had a jagir allotted to her, yielding an 
annual revenue of 1,500,000 rupees. Her 
husband, Khande Eao, was killed in battle at 
Dig against Surajmal Jat, in 1754. Her son 
Mali Rao, who had succeeded his grandfather 
Malhar Eao in 1766, died nine months after. 
She was a woman of spirit and ability, and 
reserved in her own hands the right of 
nominating a successor, and elected Tukaji to 
the raj . 

Ahmad al-Makkari (x»,~. 1), author of 

the History of the Muhammadan Dynasties 
in Spain. This work was translated by M. 
Pascual de Gayangos, an erudite Spaniard, 
London, 1810, in 4to. Vol. I. He was born 
in the 16th century, and died in Damascus in 
the year a.d. 1631, a.h. 1041. After having 
composed a very detailed biography of the 
celebrated and learned wazir of Granada, 
Muhammad Ibn-ul-Khatib, he added to it, 
in the form of an introduction, a general 
history of the Arabs in Spain from the 
conquest to their final expulsion. 

Ahmad I. (j„*,.sr* ^ J..^=-1), emperor 

of Turkey, son and successor of Muhammad 
III., whom he succeeded in January, a.d. 
1604, Sha'ban, a.h. 1012. This prince was 
of a good constitution, strong and active ; 
he would throw « horseman's mace, of nine 
or ten pounds weight, farther than any of 
his court. He was much given to sensual 
pleasures, and had 3,000 concabines. He 

died on the loth November, a.d. 1617, 15th 
Zil-qa'da, a.h. 1025, at the age of thirty, 
having reigned fourteen years. He was suc- 
ceeded by his brother Mustafa I. 

Ahmad II. {^^\^i\ ^ A-4.S-0, son of 

Ibrahim, succeeded on the death of his brother 
Sulairaau II., in a.d. 1691, a.h. 1103, to 
the throne of Constantinople, and died in 
A.D. 1695, A.H. 1106. He was succeeded by 
Mustafa II., son of Muhammad IV. 


III. (sa.^^ ^ Jk^=-\), son of 

Muhammad IV., was placed on the throne of 
Constantinople in a.d. 1703, a.h. 1115, by 
the heads of a faction which had deposed his 
brother Mustafa II. He granted a friendly 
asylum to Charles XII. of Sweden, after the 
battle of Pultowa ; and the kindness and the 
hospitality which marked the whole of his 
intercourse with that luifortunate monarch, 
are entitled to the highest encomium. He 
was preparing an expedition against Persia, 
when an insurrection hurled him from his 
tlirone, and exalted his nephew Mahmiid I. 
from a prison to the sovereign power in a.d. 
1730, A.H. 1142. He died of apoplexy in 
1736, aged 74 years, a.h. 1148. 

Ahmad IV. (je^.-^l ^ j>.^«-=^0, (also 

called 'Abdul- Hamid) , son of Ahmad III., 
emperor of Tm'key, succeeded his brother 
Mustafa III. in a.d. 1774, a.h. 1188, He 
died, after a reign of 16 years, on the 7th 
April, 1789, Rajab a.h. 1203, and was suc- 
ceeded by Salim III. 

Ahmad ( ji,*^-!)^ an Arabian author who 

is known as the writer of a book on the 
interpretation of dreams, a translation of 
which, in Greek and Latin, was published 
with that of Artemidorus on the same subject, 
at Paris, by Rigault, a.d. 1603. He lived 
in the 4th century of the Hijra. 

Ahmad Ahu - Tayyih al - Mutanabi 
( _-.^Ji..*ll y_.vjL ».j1 J>^=-1), a cele- 
brated Arabian poet whom none excelled in 
poetry. He is the author of a Diwan. He 
died in the year a.d. 965, ah. 354. Vide 

Ahmad al-Ghaffari (i^j\JlxS\ •i.A.=~\). 
Vide Ahmad bin -Muhammad al - Ghaifari, 
p. 26. 

Ahmad 'All Hashimi (Shaikh) {s.i^\ 

v-:^-^ ^^i_lU> ,_^J-c), author of the 

Bioo-raphical Dictionary, called 2IaMzan-ul- 
Ghardib, dedicated to Nawab Safdar-Jang, of 
Faizabad, who died in a.d. 1754, a.h. 1167. 
His poetical name was Khadim. 




Ahmad 'Ali Khan, Nawab of Eampur. 
T'idc Faiz-uUah Klian. 

Ahmad 'Ali Khan (J[.=^ ^ic A^:^\ 

c_)l J ), Nawab of Karnal. A remission 

of revenue to the extent of 5,000 rupees per 
annum was granted to him in perpetmty by 
the British Government, and a khil'at of the 
value of 10,000 rupees was conferred on him, 
in July, 1858, for his distinguished loyalty, 
and for tlie eminent services rendered by him 
during the rebellion of 1857. In 1806, the 
Pargaua of Karnal consisted of a number of 
villages, yielding a revenue of 40,000 rupees 
per annum. It was conferred by Lord Lake 
in jagir on three Mandal chiefs, named 
Muhammadi Khiiu, Ghairat 'Ali IQian, and 
Is-haq Khan, for their lives, and after their 
death to descend to their heirs, subject to 
the payment of 16,000 rupees per annum in 
perpetuity. Nawab Ahmad 'Ali I£Jan is the 
lineal descendant of Muhammadi Khan, and 
holds 24 entii'e villages, besides a third share 
in four others. These lands are assessed at 
24,000 rupees, on which the Nawab has 
hitherto paid a quit rent of 5,000 rupees, 
payment of which sum the Government has 
now remitted. 

Ahmad 'Ali Khan (Sayyid) {j,.,i.^ \ 

t^-..-; ^Li. ^.l.c), Wawab-JSTazim of 

Bengal, succeeded his brother 'Ali-Jah. He 
died on the 3Uth October, a.d. 1824. 

Ahmad 'Ali Khan, and Walidad Khan, 

the rebel Nawsibs of Malagarh. 

Ahmad Ayaz, Malik Khwaja Jahan, 

served with distinction under Muhammad 
Shah bin-Tughluq, of Dehli. On the death 
of the king at Tatta, in a d. 1352, a.h, 752, 
he tried to set up at Dehli a son of the late 
king, but had to submit to FIruz Shah III., 
who allowed the nobles to execute him before 
he himself entered Dehli. 

Ahmad Bakhsh Khan (Nawah), 

entitled Fakhr-ud-daula. was the jagirdar of 
Firiizpiir and LoharJi, in the district of Dehli, 
after whose death his son, Nawab Sharas- 
uddln Khan, succeeded him. The latter was 
executed for murder in October, 1835. 

Ahmad Barani ( 


A^=^i), author 

of a Persian work called Sifr-us-Siyar. 
Ahmad Beg Kahuli, served in Kabiil 

under Muhammad Hakim, Akbar's brother, 
and later under Akbar aud Jahangir. He 
was for some time governor of Kashmir. He 
died about a.d. 1614. 

Ahmad Beg Khan, a son of (Mu- 
hammad Sharif) Niir Jahan's brother. He 
served under Jahangir in Bengal, assisted 
Prince Shahjahan during his rebellion, and 
was subsequently made, by Shahjahan, 
Governor of Tatta, Simstan, and of Multan. 
He received as jagir Jais and Amethi, iu 
Audh, where he died. 

Ahmad hin - 'Abdullah al Kirmi 

(<),Ulji->j: ^ J>^»-1), author of a work 

on the fundamental points of Muhammadanism. 
Vide Abii- Ahmad, the son of Qasim. 

Ahmad bin-Abu-Bakr, (jj\ .j sa.>-\ 

.^j), an Arabian author who wrote 

the Ifashra^ -uI-Manaqib, a minute account 
of the events of Muhammad's life, with 
memoirs of his successors and companions. 

Ahmad bin - Abu - Bakr bin - Nasir 
Mustafa al-Kazwini (o\ ^ J>x«,=^l 

Xj), author of the Tarikh-i-Guzida, 

which contains the history of the four ancient 
Persian Dynasties, viz. Peshdadians, Kai- 
anians, Ashkanians, and Sasanians, that is, 
from the year B.C. 890 to a.d. 636, and 
memoirs of the several dynasties who ruled 
over Persia, Tartary, etc., during the khilafat. 
and to the year a.d, 1329. See also called 
Hamd-ullah Mustaufi. 

Ahmad bin 'Ali Razi (Shaikh) (Syt^\ 
ir:^-^ ^Pj (j-Li i^'.\ surnamed 

Jassas, a famous la^vyer. He was horn in 
the year a.d. 917, a.h. 305, and died in a.d. 
980, A.H. 370, aged 65 lunar years. 

Ahmad bin-' Ali al-Khatib Kastalani 
(^_-_».k.sil ^£ ^ Ju,*.>l). Fide 

Ahmad bin - Hasan Maimandi 

(Khwaja)(^jki^^^i^^.^,us-j^j j./»j-l), 

foster brother and fellow student of his 
sovereign Sultan Mahmiid, of Ghazni. On 
the removal of Abul- 'Abbas Fazl, two years 
after the succession of Mahmiid, Khwaja 
Ahmad was appointed prime minister, which 
office he held uninterruptedly for a period 
of eighteen years, when Altiintash, the 
commander-in-chief, and a number of other 
Amirs, brought before the court of the king 
charges against him. He was in consequence 
disgraced and imprisoned for thirteen years 
in one of the forts of India. He was released 
by Sultan Mas'iid, sou and successor of 
Mahmiid, and reinstated in the responsible 
office of minister, which he held for some 
time. He died a natural death in the year 

A.D. 1033, A.H. -124. 




Ahmad bin-Idris (.^ijj\ ^ s^\), 

a lawyer of the sect of Malik, was the author 
of many works, and died about the year a.d. 
1285, A.H. 684. 

Ahmad bin-Israil (JJ\jJ ^ ^^:>.\), 

a great astrologer who lived under the 
khilafat of Wasiq Billah, of Baghdad. 

Ahmad hin-Kasir {^±S ^j J.^^1), 

also called Muhammad biu-Kasir and Kasir 
al-Far^aui, is the same person whom we 
caU Alfaraganius, a great astronomer, who 
lived during the reign of the khalifa al- 
Marauu. Vide Farghani. 

Ahmad bin-Khizrawaih (^ A.^.:^l 

<V.3y"^^-==-X a celebrated Muhammadan 
saint, was the disciple of Khwaja Hatim 
Asamm. He died in the year a.d. 854,' a.h. 
240, and is buried at Balkh, 

Ahmad hin-Muhammad al-Ghaffari 
al-Kazwini (^^UaSI s^s.^ ^j j>^^|)^ 

a qazi, and a descendant of 'Abdul-Ghaffar, 
the author of the Hdwl. He is the author 
of the work called NasKk-i-Jahan-ard, which 
he composed in the year a.d. 1563, a.h. 971, 
of which number the title forms the chrono- 
gram. It is also caUed Tdrlkh-i-ifuWitasir, 
an abridged history of Asia, from Adam down 
to Shah Tahmasp of Persia, a.d. 1525. It 
also contains memoirs of the Muhammadan 
kings of Spain, from a.d. 75.5 to 1036. It 
was dedicated to Shah Tahmasp. "We are 
also indebted to him for the better known 
work entitled Nigaristan. We learn from 
the Tdrlkh Baddoni that, having resigned his 
employment in Persia, he went towards the 
close of his life on a pilgrimage to Mecca, 
and that, landing in Dibal in Sindh, for the 
purpose of paying a visit to Hindustan, he 
died at that port in a.d. 1567, a.h. 975. 

l^Vide Dowson, JElliot's Sistory of India, 
n. p. 504.] 

Ahmad bin-Muhammad al-Qastalani 

^A,^'^ ^^ Jk-^«w=^l), an 

author who died in the year a.d. 1527, a.h. 
933. Vide Qastalani. 


lJj}'^ iX/«..S'^ i^j), author of a work 

on jurisprudence, called Qudurl, and several 
other works. He died in a.d. 1046, a.h. 

Ahmad bin - Muhammad bin - 'Ali 

Bakr al - Hanafi, author of the 
Khnziinat-ul-Fntauri , a collection of decisions 
made towards the end of the eighth century 
of the Hijra, and comprising questions of 
rare occuiTence. 


Ahmad bin-Tulun i^^ya ^ S^^\), 

the founder of the Tuliinide dynasty in Egypt. 
Vide Ahmad Ibn-Tiilun. 

Ahmad bin - Yahya bin - Jabir al - 
Biladuri (^jSi^\ or ^j^Jil-JI), sur- 

named also Abu-Ja'far and Abul-Hasan, was 
the instructor to one of the princes of the 
family of al-Mutawakkil, and died in a.d. 892, 
A.H. 279. His Fiduh-ul-Bulddn is one of 
the earliest Arabic chronicles. He also wrote 
a geographical work entitled Kitdb-ul- 
Bulddn, the Book of Countries. 

Ahmad bin- Yahya ( ' 



author of the marginal notes on the Wiqdya 
a work on jurisprudence. 

Ahmad bin-Yusuf ( 



an historian, and author of the AJMar-nd- 
dawal, written in a d. 1599, a.h. which is 
said to be an abridgment of Janabi's Tarlkh- 
iil-Jaiidbl, called also Sar-uzh-Za kJikh dr. 

Ahmad Chap, Malik, was Kaib-Barbak 

under Firiiz Shah II. (Khiljl), of Dehli, 
whom he warned in vain against 'Ala-uddin. 
He was blinded by 'Ala-uddin after his 

Ahmad GhafFari. Vide Ahmad bin- 
Muhammad al-Ghaffari. 

Ahmad G-hazzali. Vide Ghazzali 
(Ahmad) . 

Ahmadi (^ju^r^l), a Turkish poet, 

whose proper name was Khwaja Ahmad 
Ja'farT, and of whom we have the following 
anecdote : The great Tartar conqueror Amir 
Timur (Tamerlane) being on his march 
through Anadoli, halted for awhile at Araasia, 
where Ahmadi lived ; and the poet took the 
opportunity of presenting him with an ode. 
This led to further intimacies, Timur being 
a patron of literary men ; and one day 
when both were in the bath, the monarch 
amused himself by putting crotchetty questions 
to Ahmadi, and laughing at his answers. 
" Suppose now," said he, pointing to the 
surrounding attendants, ' ' you were required 
to value these beautiful boys, how much 
would you say each was worth?" Ahmadi 
answered with becoming gravity, estimating 
one at a camel-load of sUver, another at six 
bu-shels of pearls, a thu-d at forty gold wedges, 
and so made the circuit of the ring. "Very 
fair," said Timirr, "and now tell me, "What 
do you value Me at ? " " Fom- and twenty 
aspers," replied the poet, "no more and no 
less." ""What!" cried Timur, laughing, 
"why the shirt I have on is worth that." 
"Do you really think so ? " asked Ahmadi, 
with the greatest apparent simplicity — "at 
that rate ynu must be worth nothing, for I 




included the shirt in the valuation ! ' ' Much 
to his credit, Tiraur, instead of heing angry, 
applauded and rewarded the wit and boldness 
of the poet. Ahmadi was a contemporary of 
Shaikhi, and is the author of the Kiillii/dt-i- 
KhM'Sja Ahmad Ja'furi. He also composed 
a heroic poem on the actions of Tamerlane, 
and a Sikandar-nama in the Tm-kish language. 
He died in a.d. 1412. 

Ahmadi {^x^\^=-\), the poetical name 

of Mir Sayyid Lutf-ullah, who died in a.d. 
1633, A.H. 1043. 

Alimad Ibn-'AralD-Sliali. 


Alimad Ibn - Hantjal. 

(Imam) . 

Vide 'Arab- 

Vide Hanbal 

Alimad Ibn-Tulun i^j^^o ^\ s^>-\), 

the founder of the Tiiliinide dynasty in Egypt, 
a Turkish slave, who, being entrusted by 
al-Mu'tamid, the khalifa of Baghdad, with 
the government of that country and Syria in 
A.D. 879, set up for himself, and maintained 
his authority notwithstanding all attempts to 
depose him. He reduced Damascus, Hims, 
Hamat, Kinnisrin, and ar-Baqqa, situated 
upon the eastern banks of the Euphrates. 
His mosque in Cairo may he seen to this day. 
He died in a.d. 884, a.h. 270, and was 
succeeded by his son Khumarwaih. Egypt 
continued to he governed by his successors 
for several years, when it was again reduced 
in A.D. 905 by Muhammad, general of the 
khalifa of Baghdad al-Muktafi; the last 
khalifa of Egypt having assassinated his pre- 
decessor, and thereby rendered himself very 
odious. In the year 933, Muhammad, the 
son of Taj, or Tajil, surnamed al-Ashhad, 
seized upon Syria and Egypt in the khilafat 
of ar-Eazi Billah, and his family retained 
the whole of it, except a small part which 
'Ubaid-uUa al-Mahdi, the first of the 
FStimite dynasty (the seat of whose empire 
was at Qairuwan, near Timis) had conquered 
in A.D. 910. His successor, Abii-Tamim 
Ma'd, surnamed Mu'izz li-diu-illah, con- 
quered the rest of Egypt about the year 970, 
by his general Ja'far, who built the city of 
al-Qahira, commonly called Grand Cairo, 
whither his master soon removed his court. 
The Fatimite djTiastj ended in a.u. 1176, 
when, upon the death of the last prince of 
this family, the kingdom was usurped by the 
famous Salah-uddin (Saladin). 

List of the KhaUfas of Barbary. 

'Ubaid-uUah al-Mahdi, first of the Fati- 
mite race. 

Al-Qaim Mahdi, his son. 

Isma'il, sirmamed al - Mansiir, son of 

Mu'izz li-din-illah, son of al-Mansur, who 
conquered Egypt and became the first 
khalifa of the Fa.timite dynasty in that 

Ahmad Ilkani ( jlXi.jl Jv^=-0, also 
called Ahmad Jalayir. Vide Hasan Buzurg. 

Ahmad Jafari (Khwaja) (a_/«,_5^1 
^.iit?-). Vide Ahmadi. 

Ahmad Jalal Bukhari (Sayyid), son 

of Sayjdd Muhammad Bukhari. 

Ahmad Jalayir ( _iL;»- S^.s-\), also 

called Ahmad Ilkani, a descendant of Hasan 
Buzurg, which see. 

Ahmad Jam (Shaikh ul - Islam) 

ifX-^ Sa.^\), entitled Abii-Nasr and 

Zinda-Pil, a celebrated Muhammadan saint 
of Nishapiir, born in the year a.d. 1049, 
A.H. 441. He passed 18 years of his life in 
devotion in wilds and mountains. He sub- 
sequently got married, and was blessed with 
thirty-iune sons and three daughters. At the 
time of his death, besides the three daughters, 
foiu-teen of his sons were living, aU of whom 
became men of learning and authors of several 
works. Ahmad Jam himself was an author, 
and among the different works that he wrote 
are the following : Sisclla Samarqandl, Anis- 
nt-Tdlibin, Miftah - an - Najdt, Bahr-ul- 
Haqlqat, and Sirdj-tis-Sdyirhi. He died in 
the reign of Sultan Sanjar, in February, a.d. 
1142, Kajab, a.h. 536. 

Ahmad Jan (Sultan), of Hirat. He 
died about the 6th April, a.d. 1863, 17th 
Shawwal, a.h. 1279, and was succeeded by 
his son. Shah Nawaz Khan. 

Ahmad Kahir (Sayyid) {j^-S S.a.s~\ 

Ji-wi), a Musalman saint, whose tomb 
is at Uchcha in Multan. He is the son of 
Sayyid Jalal, and the father of two other 
saints, Sayyid Jalaluddin, surnamed Makhdiim 
Jahaniyan Jahan-gasht, and Eajii Qattal. 
Numerous miracles were wrought by these 
two brothers. 

Ahmad Khan (^Us- A^s^l), surnamed 

Nekodar for Nicholas), was raised to the 
throne of Persia after the death of his brother 
Abaqa IChan, the son of Hulakii Khan, in 
April, AD. 1282, Zil-hijja, a.h. 680, and 
was the first emperor of the race of Chingiz 
Khan who embraced the Muhammadan re- 
ligion. He is said to have been baptized 
in his youth by the name of Nicholas, but 
policy, or conviction, led him to abandon the 
doctrine of Christ for that of Muhammad, 
when he assumed the name of Ahmad Khan. 
In the first year of his reign, Majd-ul-Mulk 
Yazdi, a nobleman of his court, being accused 
of sorcery, lost his life. He put his own 
brother to death, and was successful in 
obtaining possession of the person of his 
nephew, Arghiin Khan ; but that prince was 




not only rescued from his violence by the 
Mughvd nobles, but by their aid was enabled 
to deprive him of his crown and life on the 
night of Thursday 11th August, a.d. 1284, 
26th Juraada I., a.h. 683, and become his 


AlLinad Khan Bangash (^\~^ S..a-^\ 

(_^JLi_i), second son of Muhammad 

Khan Bangash, Nawab of Farrukhabad. 
When the Wazir Safdar-Jang, after the 
death of Qaim-Jang, the brother of Ahmad 
Khan, confiscated his estates in December, 
A.D. 1749, A.H, 1163, he (Ahmad Khan) 
collected an army of Afghans, defeated raja 
Nawal Rai, the Wazir's deputy, who was 
slain in the action, and recovered the terri- 
tories lately seized from his family. This 
circumstance took place on Friday the 2ud 
August, 17-50, 10th Ramazan, a.h. 1163. 
After this, Ahmad Khan governed his coimtry 
about 22 hmar years, and died in November, 
1771, Sha'ban, a.h. 1185, when he was 
succeeded by his son, Diler Himmat Khan, 
who received the titleof Muzaffar-Jang from 
the emperor Shah 'Alam, who was then on 
his way to Dehli from Allahabad. 

Ahmad Khan Mewati, one of the petty 
rulers fmuluk-i-tawdifj who had usurped the 
chief parts of the Dehli empire during the 
Sayyid dynasty (beginning of the fifteenth 
century). Ahmad Khan held Mewat, his 
frontier coming close up to Dehli. He had 
to submit to Buhlul Lodi. 

Ahmad Khan (Sayyid), C.SI., of 
'Aligarh, a distinguished Muhammadan re- 
former. He wrote a book on the life and 
work of the Prophet, and f ormded the 'Aliga h 
College. (See Sayyid Ahmad.) 

Ahmad Khan 

Khan Sur. 

Sur. Vide Sikandar 

Ahmad Khattu (Shaikh) itLS ji^a-1 


'^rlr"^), surname of "Wajlh - uddin 

Ahmad Maghribi, who was the son of Malik 
Ikhtiyar-uddin, a nobleman at the court of 
Sultan Kiriiz Shah Tughluq of Dehli, and 
related to him. After the death of his father, 
having squandered his wealth in pleasure and 
dissipation, he became a disciple of Shaikh 
Baba Is-haq Maghribi, and turned very pious 
and Journeyed to Gujrat, where he acquired 
great fame. Dm-ing his residence at that 
place, he obtained such celebrity, that Sultan 
Muzaffar Gujrati became his disciple. He 
died in that country in the reign of Sultan 
Muhammad of Gujrat, on Thursday 6th of 
January, 1446, 8th Shawwal, a.h. 849, aged 
111 years, and was buried at Sarkich, near 
Ahmadabad. Khattu is a place in Nagor, 
where Shaikh Ahmad was born. 

Ahmad Maghribi. (Shaikh). 

Vide Ahmad 

Ahmad Mirza (Sultan) (Uj~-« 

^IkLj), son of Abu-Sa'ld Mirza, after 

whose death, in a.d. 1469, he took possession 
of Samarqand, and died about the year 1495. 

Ahmad (Mulla) {l^ J,.^=..l), the son 

of a qazi of Tatta. His ancestors, who resided 
in Sindh, were Faruqis of the Hanifa sect, 
but he was a Shi'a. He is the author of a 
work called Khalasat-ul-Hayat, the Essence 
of Life. He came from the Deccan to the 
court of the emperor Akbar, in the year a.d. 
1582, a.h. 990, and when that monarch 
ordered the TSrlkh-i-Alfl to be compiled, 
several authors were employed in the compi- 
lation, but subsequently the chief labour 
devolved upon Mulla Ahmad. The compila- 
tion of the first two volumes up to the time 
of Chingiz Khan was just finished by him, 
when Mirza FMad Birlas, during the month 
of January, 1588, Safar, a h. 996, persuaded 
the Mulla, who was always openly reviling 
the first khalifas, to leave his own house at 
midnight on some pretence, and then murdered 
him in a street at Lahore. For this act 
Mirza Fulad was sentenced to death, was 
bound alive to the leg of an elephant in the 
city of Lahore, and dragged along till he 
died. The Mulla expired three or four days 
after the Mirza. After the death of Mulla 
Ahmad, the remainder of the work was 
written by Asaf Khan Ja'far Beg, up to the 
year a.h. 997, or a.d. 1689. Mulla Ahmad 
was bm'ied at Lahore, but being a Shi'a 
who openly used to revile the first khalifas, 
the people of Lahore exhumed his remains 
and bm-nt them. 

[Vide Am Translation, i. p. 206.] 

Ahmad Nizam Shah Bahri (j,.,i_5^1 

s'^ A,\}aJi), the founder of the 

Nizam-Shahi dynasty of the Deccan, was the 
son of Nizam-iil-Mulk Bahri, prime minister 
to Sultan Mahmiid Shah Bahmani. He had 
conquered many places in the vicinity of his 
father's jagir, and was besieging the fort of 
Dundrajpiir about the year a.d. 1486, a.h. 
891, when he received intelligence of the 
assassination of his father, and immediately 
retiu-ned and assumed the titles of the deceased, 
and was generally known by those of Ahmad 
Nizam-ul-Mulk Baliri, to which the people 
of the Deccan added the title of Shah. As 
he had distinguished himself repeatedly as a 
general in the field, though the Sultan wished 
to remove him from power, none of his 
nobility would accept the task of reducing 
him. He, however, on the 3rd May, 1490, 
3rd Rajab, a.h. 895, gained a victory over 
the army of the Sultan, and from that time 
he sat without opponent on the masnad_ of 
royalty, and by the advice of Yiisuf 'Adil 
Shah, who had' already become independent, 
having discontinued to read the khutba in the 
name of the king, put in his own and spread 
a white umbrella over his head. He laid the 




fouudation of the city of Ahmaduagar iu a.d. 
1495, A.n. 900, which was completed in two 
years, and became the hrst of the Nizam- 
Shahi kings of Ahmadnagar. lie died iu 
A.D. 1508, A.H. 914, and was succeeded by 
his sou, Biirhan iS^izam Shah I, The follow- 
ing is a list of the Nizam- Shalii kings of 
Ahmadnagar : 

Ahmad Nizam Shah I., a.d. 1490. 

Burhan Nizam SliSh, 1508. 

Husain Nizam Shah I., 1553. 

Murtaza Nizam Shah, 1565. 

Miran Husain Nizam Shah, 1587- 

Isma'il Nizam Shah, 1589. 

Bmhan Nizam Shah II. 

Ibrahim Nizam Shah, 1594. 

Ahmad Nizam Sliah II., son of Shah 

Tahir, 1594. 
Bahadur Nizam Shah, 1595. 
Murtaza Nizam Shah II., 1598. 

The Nizam Shahi dominions fall under the 
control ofMaUk 'Ambar, 1607. 

Ahmad Pasha (Llli A^^V), a general 


of Sulaimau I., emperor of Turkey, who, 
when appointed Goyernor of Egypt, reyolted 
from his soyereign in a.d. 1524. He was 
soon after defeated by Ibrahim, the fayourite 
of Sulaimau, and his head was sent to 

Ahmad Rumi (, .^,. j..^.£^\), author 

of the Faiq-ul-Haqaiq, a work written in 
imitation of the Masnawi of Jalal uddin 

Ahmad Samani (Amir) ( Jt»L Ji/».=^1 


tl), second king of the race of 

Saman (Samanidesl , succeeded his father Amir 
Ismsl'il in the proyinces of Khm-asan, etc., in 
A.D. 907, A.H. 295. He was a cruel prince, 
and contended with his uncle, his brothers, 
and other relations, for the extensiye posses- 
sions of his father, more by intrigues at the 
court of Baghdiid than by arms. After a 
reign of seyen years, he was murdered by 
some of his domestics on Thursday 30th 
January, a.d. 914, 23rd Jumada I., a.h. 
301, and his son. Amir Nasr, then only eight 
years of age, was placed upon the throne of 
JChm'asau and Bukhara. Ahmad was buried 
in Bukhara, and they gaye him the title of 
Sultan Shahid, i.e. the martyred king. 

Ahmad Sarhindi (Shaikh) (j,.^.s^l 

•^-^ ^s.:,Jt.j.J), entitled Mujaddid- 

i-Alf -i- Sani, a deryish celebrated for his 
piety and learning, was the son of Shaikh 
'Abdul -Wahid Fariiqi, and was born at 
Sarhind in a.d. 1563, a.h. 971. He was a 
disciple of Khwaja Baqi, a celebrated saint of 
Dehli, and is the author of seyeral works. 
He died on Tuesday 29th November, a.d. 

1624, the last Tuesday in the month of Safar, 
A.H. 1034, and is buried at Sarhind. He 
was called " Mujaddid-i-Alf-i-Sani, or the 
' ' Renewer of the second Millennium , ' ' because 
he adopted the general belief that eyery 
thousand years a man was bom who has a 
thorough knowledge of the Islam, and whose 
yocation it is to revive and strengthen it. 
He belieyed that he was the man of the 
second (mnl) Millenuium (alf) . 

Ahmad, Sayyid, of Barha, brother of 

Sayyid Mahmiid Barha, served under Akbar 
in Guj'rat. He was in charge of Akbar'a 
hunting leopards. His son, Sayyid Jamal- 
uddin, was killed by the explosion of a mine 
before Chitor. 

Ahmad, Sayyid, of Bukhara, father of 

the renowned Shaikh Farid-i-Eukhari. Vide 

Ahmad Shah (Ai) A.^^1), entitled 

Muj ahid - ud - din Mxiliammad Ahun - Nasr 
Ahmad Shah Bahadur, was the son of 
Muhammad Shah, emperor of Dehli, whom 
he succeeded on the 15th April, a.d. 1748, 
27th Eabi' II., a h. 1161. His mother's 
name was lidham Bai. He was born in the 
fort of Dehli on Tuesday 14th December, 
a.d. 1725, 17th Eabi' II., a.h. 1138, and 
crowned in Panipat en Monday 19th April, 
A.D. 1748, 2nd Jumada I., a.h. 1161. After 
a reign of 6 years 3 months and 8 days, he 
was deposed and imprisoned, and afterwards 
blinded, together with his mother, by his 
prime minister, 'Imad-ul-Mulk Gliazi-uddin 
IHian, on Sunday 2nd June, N.s. 1754. 
After this, he lived more than 21 years, and 
died on the 1st January, a.d. 1775, from 
bodily disease. He was bm-ied in front of the 
mosque of Qadam- Sharif in Dehli, in the 
mausoleum of Maryam-Makani. After his 
imprisonment, 'Alamgir II., son of Jahandar 
Shah, was raised to the throne. 

[Vide Froc. As. Soc. Sengal, for 187i, 
p. 208.] 

Ahmad Shah Ahdali (iLji J*.^».=-l 
Jlji-jl), commonly called Shah 

Durrani, was the son of a chief of the Afghan 
tribe of Abdal, in the ^deinity of the city of 
Hirat. He was taken prisoner in his infancy 
by Nadir Shah, who gaye him the post of a 
mace-bearer, and by degrees promoted him to 
a considerable command in the army. The 
morning after the assassination of Nadir 
Shah, which took place in the night of the 
12th May, 1747, o.s., he made an attack, 
supported by a corps of Uzbeks, upon the 
Persian troops, but was repulsed. He then 
left the army, and proceeding by rapid 
marches to Qandahar, not only obtained 
possession of that city, but took a large 
convoy of treasure which was coming from 




Kabul and Sindh to the Persian camp. By 
the aid of these means, he laid the foundation 
of a kingdom, which soon attained a strength 
that rendered it formidable to the surrounding 
nations. He not only subdued Qandahar and 
Kabul, but took Peshawar and Lahore ; and 
emboldened by this success, and the weakness 
of the empii'e, he resolved the conquest of 
the capital of Hindustan. In the beginning 
of the year a.d. 1748, a.h. 1161, he began 
his march from Lahore. Muhammad Shah, 
the emperor of Dehli, being at this time too 
indisposed to take the field, despatched his 
only son, prince Ahmad, against the enemy, 
under the command of the wazir Qamar- 
uddin Khan, Safdar-Jang, governor of Audh, 
and several other chiefs, with a great army. 
Tor some days several skirmishes took place 
between the two armies near Sarhind. At 
length, on Friday 11th March, a.d. 1748, 
22ud Babi' I., a.h. 1161, Qamar-uddin 
Khan, the wazir, being killed as he was at 
his devotion in his tent by a cannon baU, a 
panic prevailed in the Mugliul army ; the 
battle, however, continued till a magazine of 
rockets taking fire in the enemy's camp, 
numbers of the troops were wounded by the 
explosion ; and Shah Abdali, either dis- 
heartened by the loss, or satisfied by the 
plunder gained at Sarhind, thought it proper 
to retreat towards Kabul, which he did im- 
molested. In the year, a.d. 1757, a.h. 1170, 
he again advanced as far as Dehll and Agra, 
and after having plundered and massacred 
the inhabitants of Mathnra, he returned to 
Qandahar. About the year a.d. 1758, a.h. 
1172, the Maratha power had spread itself in 
almost every province of Hindiistan, when 
Najib-ud-daula, the Eohela, Shuja'-ud- 
daula Nawab, of Audh, and not only the 
Musalmans, but Hindiis also, joined in 
petition to Ahmad Shah Abdali, that he 
would march and assume the throne of Dehli, 
in which they promised to support him. The 
Abdali, enraged at the seizure of Lahore by 
the Marathas, rejoiced at the invitation, and 
advanced withont delay across the Indus, and 
driving the Marathas before him, he did not 
stop till they reached the vicinity of Dehli. 
He engaged the Marathas in several battles, 
and attained the highest renown among 
Muhannnadans by the memorable defeat that 
he gave the hostile army on the plains of 
Panipat. This famous action was fought in 
January, 1761. After this victory, Durrani 
Shah returned to his own country, Ijut before 
his departure he acknowledged Shah 'Alam, 
then in Bengal, as emperor of Hindiistan, 
and commanded Shnja'-ud-daula and other 
chiefs to submit to his authority. He died 
after a reign of 26 years in a.d. 1772, a.h. 
1182, aged 50 years, and was succeeded by 
his son, Timur Shah. His tomb, covered with 
a gilt cupola, stands near the king's palace, 
and is held sacred as an asylum. 

Ahmad Shall Bahmani II. (Sultan) 

j_i.-*..^_j iLl Jiw»-.j-l). On the 

death of his father, Sultan Mahmiid Shah II., 
in October, a.u. 1518, Shawwal, a.h. 924, 

Amir Barid, his prime minister, dreading that 
the surrounding powers would attack him 
should he assume open independence, placed 
prince Ahmad, son of the late king, upon the 
throne at Ahmadabad Bidar, leaving him the 
palace, with the use of the royal jewels, and 
a daily allowance of money for his support. 
The sum not being equal to his expenses, the 
king broke up the crown, which was valued 
at 400,000 buns, or £160,000, and privately 
sold the jewels. He died two years after his 
accession to the throne, in the year a.d. 1521, 
A.H. 927. After his death Amir Barid raised 
Sultan 'Ala-uddin III., one of the princes, 
on the throne. Two years after he was 
imprisoned, and another son of Mahmiid 
Shah, named Wali-ullah Shah, was placed 
in his room. Three years after Ms accession, 
the minister conceiving a passion for his wife, 
he caused him to be poisoned, and espoused 
the queen. He then placed Kalim-uUah, 
the son of Ahmad Shah II., on the throne. 
This prince enjoyed nothing but the name of 
sovereign, and was never allowed to leave the 
palace. He was afterwards treated with great 
rigour by Amir Barid, whereupon he made 
his escape, iirst to his uncle Isma'il 'Adil 
Shah to Eijapiir, and thence to Bui-han 
Nizam Shah of Ahmadnagar, where he 
resided till his death. "With him ended the 
dynasty of the Bahmani kings of the Deccan. 
In fact, before this event, the Deccan was 
di^'ided into five kingdoms — 'Adil-Shahi, or 
kings of Bijapiir; Qutb-Shahi, or kings of 
Golkonda ; 'Imad-Shahi, or kings of Barar ; 
Nizam- Shahi, or kings of Ahmadnagar; and 
Barld-Shahi, kings of Ahmadabad Bidar. 

Ahmad Shah I. (jLi J>.^a.l), second 

king of Gujrat, was the son of Tatar Khan 
and grandson of Muzaffar Shah, whom he 
succeeded as king of Gujrat. The author of 
the Mimtaldiab-ut-Taivdr'iM states that his 
grandfather placed him on the throne dm-ing 
his lifetime, in the year a.h. 813, a.d. 1410, 
and that he survived that measure five months 
and sixteen days. In the same year he laid 
the foundation of a new city on the banks of 
the Sabarmati, which he called after his own 
name, Ahmadabad, and which afterwards 
became the capital of the kings of Gujrat. 
The date of the laying of the foundation of 
this city is contained in the words " Ba- 
khair," i.e. all well. He died after a reign 
of nearly 33 years, on the 4th July, a.d. 
1443, 4th Babi' I., a.h. 847, and was suc- 
ceeded by his son, Muhammad Shah. 

Ahmad Shah II. (|C-J^ *L^ 


king of Gujrat. After the death of Mahmiid 
Shah III., there being no relation on whom 
the succession might devolve, I'timad Khan, 
the prime minister, resolved rather than see 
the Idngdom in absolute anarchy, to elevate 
a youth, whom he asserted to be the son of 
prince Ahmad Kluin, fomierly governor of 
Ahmadabad, and declared him the legal 
successor to the crown of Gujrat. He was 
forthwith placed on the throne on the 18th 




February, a,d. 1554, loth Rabi' I., a.h. 9G1. 
He reij^ued seven yours aud some mouths, aud 
was found murdered one morning at the foot 
of the palace Avail. This event took place 
on Monday the 21st April, a.d. 1561, 5th 
Sha'ban, a.h. 968. He was succeeded by 
Muzaffar Shah III. 

[Vide Alii Translation, i. p. 333.] 

Ahmad Shah of Bengal (ili J./».=-l), 

succeeded his father, Jalal-uddiu, to the 
throne of Bengal in a.h. 834, or a.d. 1430, 
reigned about 16 years, and died about the 
year a.d. 1446, a.h. 850. He was suc- 
ceeded by Xazir-uddin JIahmiid Shah I., a 
descendant of Shams-uddiu Ilyas Shiih. 

Ahmad Shah, or Ahmad-ullah Shah 

(a Li) iX-*.=»\), commonly called 

"The Maulawi," a prominent character in 
the neighbourhood of Shahj ahanpm- and 
Muhammadi during the mutiny of 1857. He 
is said to have been the inspired Faqir who 
travelled through the upper provinces, a few 
years ago, on a miraculous mission. He made 
a pretty long stay at Agra, astonishing the 
Datives and puzzling the authorities. It seems 
probable that he was even then busy in sowing 
the seeds of rebellion. He held great powbr 
within the city of Lucknow, in March, 1858, 
when the Commander-in-chief entered that 
city and commanded a stronghold in the very 
heart of the city. He was slain at Pawain, 
on the 15th June, 1858, sixteen miles north- 
east of Shahj ahaupur, and the raja of that 
place sent the head and trunk to Mr. Gilbert 
Money, the Commissioner. 

Ahmad Shah Wall Bahmani I. 

(Sultan) {j^y^j^ ]j ilJi Ji^=-1), was 

the second son of Sultan Daud Shah of the 
Bahmani race. He ascended the throne of 
the Deccan on the loth September, a.d. 
1422, 6th Shawwiil, a.h. 825, ten days before 
the demise of his brother. Sultan Firuz Shiih, 
who had resigned the crown in his favoru-. 
He is the founder of the city and fort of 
Ahmadabad Bidar, the foundation of which 
he laid in the year a.d. 1432, a.h. 836. It 
is said that the Sultan, on his return from 
a war at Bidar, took to the amusement of 
hunting ; and coming to a most beautiful 
spot, finely watered, resolved to build upon it 
a city, to be called after his name, Ahmada- 
bad. A citadel of great extent and strength 
was erected on the very site of Bidar, the 
ancient capital of princes, who, according to 
the Hindu books, 5,000 years back, possessed 
the whole extent of Mirhat, Karnatik, and 
Talingana. Eaja Bhim Sen was one of the 
most celebrated of this house, and the history 
of the loves of his daughter and Raja Nal, 
king of Malwa, are famous through all 
Hindustan. Their story was translated from 
the Sanskrit by Shaikh Faizi, under the title 

of Ka! Daman, into Persian verse, at the 
command of the emperor, Akbar Shah. 
Ahmad Shah reigned 12 lunar years and 10 
months, and died on the 19th February, a.d. 
1435, 18th Rajah, a.h. 838. He was buried 
at Ahmadabad Bidar, and was succeeded by 
his son, Sultan 'Ala-uddin II. 

fjjlc A^s-W, 

Ahmad (Shaikh) ( v-^' 

of Ghazni, author of the work entitled 
Maqdmiit-i-S/iaik/i Ahmad, containing the 
Life of Ahmad Jiam, Shaikh-ul-Islam, of 
Xishapiir ; with a minute account of the 
mii'acles performed by him. Vide Ahmad 

Ahmad(Shaikh) (-^-t^ ^^^^ Sa^\), 

commonly called JIuIla JIwan,_ of Amethi, 
was the tutor of the emperor 'Alamgir, and 
author of the Tafslr-i-Ahmadi. He died in 
a.d. 1718, a.h. 1130. Hf^e Mulla Jiwan. 

Ahmad (Shaikh), second son of Shaikh 

Salim Chishti, of Fathpur Sikri. He served 
under Akbar, and died in a.h. 985. 

Ahmad Shihab-uddin Talish (a^^^I 
»l^,^). Viiie Shihab- 

uddin Ahmad Talish. 

Ahmad Suhaili (Amir) ( L^.,^ Sa.^\ 

j-^^\), seal-tearer to Sultan Husain 

Mirza of Hirat, to whom several of the poets 
of his time dedicated their works. Husain 
Waiz dedicated his Anwar Suhaili to him. 
Vide Suhaili. 

Ahmad-ullah Shah, commonly called 
The Maulawi " ; see Ahmad Shah. 

Ahmad Yadgar (.l^jb A^i^l), author 

of the TdrVc-i-Sald/ln-i-Afaghina, a history 
of the Afghan kings of India from Buhlid 
Lodi, composed by order of Daiid Shah, last 
king of Bengal. 

\_Vide Dowson, v. p. 1.] 

Ahmad Yar Khan (^;l_i>- .Li jw*-=>-0, 

whose poetical name is Yakta, was of the 
tribe of the Turks called Birlas. His father, 
Allah Yar Khan, held at different periods the 
siibadari of Lahore, Tatta, and Multan, and 
was afterwards appointed to the Faujdari of 
Gliazui. Ahmad Yar Khan also held the 
Subadari of Tatta in the latter part of the 
reign of 'Alamgir. He was an excellent poet, 
and is the author of several poems. He died 
on the 21st September, a.d., o.s. 1734, 23rd 
Jumada I., a.h. 1147. 




Ahmad Yar Khan (Nawab), of Bareli, 
tlie son of Nawab Zul-fiqar-ud-daula Mu- 
hammad Ziil-flqar Khan Bahadur Dilawar- 
Jang of Bareli. He was alive in a.d. 1815, 
A.H. 1230. 

Ahmad Zarruc[ (jj.j Ji^^l), surname 

of Abul - 'Abbas Ahmad bin - Ahmad bin - 
Muhammad bin-'Isa Barallusi, author of the 
commentary called Shark AsincVil-Husna. 
He died in a.d. 1493, a.h. 899. 

Ahsan (^1), poetical name of 

'Inayat Khan, the son of Nawab Zafar Khan. 
He was Governor of Kabul in the reign of 
'Alamgir, and is the author of a Dnvan. 
Vide Ashna. 

Ahsan-uUah Khan (Hakim) ( .^s'-\ 

M-S.S- <S,u\), so well-known at Dehll, 

died in September, 1S73, in that city. 

'Ain-uddin (Shaikh) (. 

^ ^.^^ uT^ 


of BijapuT, author of the Midhaqat, and 
Xitab-ul- Anwar, containing a history of 
all the Muhammadan saints of India. He 
flourished in the time of Sultan 'Ali-uddin 
Hasan Bahmaui. 

'Ain-nl-Mulk (Hakim) (l1,<UI\ ^^^ 

i,-^Cs~), a native of Shiraz, and 

a weU-educated and learned Musalman, was 
an officer of rank in the time of the emperor 
Akbar. He was an elegant poet, and Ms 
poetical name was Wafa. He died in the 
40th year of the emperor's reign in a.d. 1594, 
A.H. 1003. 

[For further notes, vide Am Translation, 
i. p. 481.] 

'Ain-ul-Mulk (Khwaja) {Cj]^\ ^-si 

i^s^\y.~-), a distinguished nobleman 

of the court of Sultan Muhammad Shah 
Tughluq and his successor Sultan Firuz Shah, 
kings of Dehll. He is the author of several 
works, one of which is called Tarsil 'Ain-ul- 
Mulkl. He also appears to be the author of 
another work called Fath-nama, containing 
an account of the conquests of Sultan 'Ala- 
uddin, who reigned from a.d. 1296 to 1316. 

'Aish (j_^_»_e), the poetical name of 

Muhammad 'Askari, who lived in the reign 
of the emperor Shah 'Alam. 

'Alshi (^^ii.^), a poet, who is the 

author of a Masnawi called Saft Akhtar, or 
the seven planets, which he wrote in a.d. 
1675, A.H. 1086. 

Ajaipal, the raja who founded Ajrair 
about A.D. 1183. 

Ajit Singh, a Sikh chief and murderer 

of Maharaja Sher Singh of Lahore. He also 
slew Dhaian Singh, another chief, and was 
himself seized by Hira Singh, the son of 
Dhaiau Singh, and put to death together 
with Lena Singh and others. This took place 
in September, 1843. 

Ajit Singh (Raja) {i^\. dijwj \^l^.^\), 

a Eathaiui Eajpiit, and hereditary zamindar 
of Marwar, or Jodlipiir, was the son of Eaja 
Jaswant Singh Eathauri. He was restored 
in A.D. 1711 to the throne of his ancestors, 
and gave his daughter in marriage to the 
emperor Farrukbsiyar in the year a.d. 1716. 
He was murdered one night, when fast asleep, 
at the instigation of his son, Abhai Singh, 
who succeeded him. This took place in the 
beginning of the reign of the emperor Mu- 
hammad Shah, about A.D. 1724. 

'Ajiz (Lj=-L.c), the poetical name of 

'Arif-nddin Khan, who lived about a.d. 1754, 
A.H. 1168. 

'Ajiz, the poetical name of Lala Ganga 
Bishn, father of Ramjas Mimshi, wliich see. 

Ajmal (Shah) (J^*^!), or Shah Mu- 
hammad Ajmal, a Pirzada of Allahabad, 
was a descendant of Shah Khab-uUah, and 
younger brother of Shah Ghulam Qutb-uddin, 
the son of Shah Muhammad Fakhir, the 
respectability of whose family is well-known 
at Allahabad. He died in the year a.d. 1821, 
A.H. 1236. 

Ajmiri Khan, an inhabitant of Ajmlr. 

He walked with the emperor Akhar from 
Agra to Ajmir, on which account he received 
the title of Ajmiri Khan from that emperor. 
He had built a_ garden on a spot of 28 highas 
of ground at Agra. This place is now called 
Ajmiri Khan-ka Tila. 

Aka Rihi, of Nishapijr, an author. 

Akharahadi Mahall ( Js'* ^jll^^O, 

A'azz-un-Nisa Begam, was the name of one 
of the wives of the emperor Shah Jahan. 
The large red stone mosque at Faizbazar, in 
Dehli, was built by her in the year a.d. 1651, 
A.H. 1060, at a cost of 15(1,000 rupees. She 
died on the 29th January, a.d. 1677, 4th 
Zil-hijja, A.H. 1087, in the reign of 'Alamgir. 
There is also a masjid inside the city of Agra 
built by her, called Akbarabadi Masjid. She 
had a villa also built at Agra. 




Akbar 'Ali Tashbihi (^_5-i-c j.^\ 
^^^L'j). He is mentioned in the 

KlnilSsiit-ul-Ash'ar to liiivr been the son of 
a washerman. lie went to India, and turned 
faqir, but, as he was an infidel, his ascetic 
exercises cannot have been of much use to his 
soul. He left a diwan of about 8000 verses, 
and a masnawi, called Znrrri ini Khnrslied. 
lie was alive in a.d. 1585, A.n. 993. 

[Regarding this poet, vide Ahi Transla- 
tion, i. p. 956.] 

Akbar Khan, the son of Dost Mu- 
hammad Khan, ruler of Kabul, by his first 
wife. He shot Sir \Y . H. Macnaghten on 
the 26th December, 18-11, when his father. 
Dost Muhammad Khan, was a State prisoner 
in India. "When his father. Dost Muhammad 
Klian, came in possession of Kabul after 
the retreat of the English in 1842, he was 
appointed heir-apparnt in preference to 
Muhammad Afzal Khiin, his eldest son by 
his second wife. He died in 1848, when his 
full brother, G]iulam Haidar lOian, was 
nominated heir-apparent, after whose death, 
in 1858, Sber 'Ali, his brother, was nomi- 

Akbar (Prince) , the youngest son of the 

emperor 'Alamgir, was born on the 10th 
September, o s. 1637, 11th ijil-bijja, a.h. 
1067, raised the standard of rebellion against 
his father, and joined the Maratha chief 
Sambhuji in June, 1681. He afterwards 
quitted his com-t, and repaired to Persia, 
where he died in a.d. 1706, a.h. 1118, a few 
months before his father, and was buried at 
Mashhad, in Khurasan. 'Alamgir, at one 
time, intended to make Akbar his successor, 
and this preference arose from Akbar being 
the sou of a Muhammadau mother, the 
daughter of Shah Xawaz Khan ; whereas his 
brothers. Sultans Mu'azzam and A'zam, were 
born of Eajput princesses. 

Akbar Shah (iLi, ^^iO, the Great, 

emperor of Hindiistan, surnamed Abnl-Fath 
Jalal-uddin Muhammad, was the eldest son 
of the emperor Humayiin, and was born in 
Amarkot in the province of Sindh, on Sunday 
the 15th October, a.d. 1542, 5th Eaj'ab, a.h. 
949, at a time when his father, after being 
defeated by Sher Shah, had taken refuge -with 
Eana Prashad. At the time of his father's 
death, Akbar was at Kfilaniir, where he had 
been deputed by his father with a considerable 
force to expel the ex-king Sikandar Shah 
Siir from the Siwalik mountains. When 
information reached the prince of this mourn- 
ful event, Bairam Khan, and other officers 
who were present, raised him to the throne 
on Friday 14th February, a.d, 1556, 2ud 
Eabi' II., A.H, 963, Akbar being then only 
13 years and 9 months old. He enlarged his 
dominions by the conquest of Gujrat, Bengal, 
Kashmir, and Sindh. Busidus the forts of 

Atak, Agra, and Allahabad, many military 
works were erected by him. He also built 
and fortified the town of Fathpiir Sikr!, 
which was his principal residence, and which, 
though now deserted, is one of the most 
spleudid remains of former grandeur of India. 
He died after a prosperous reign of 51 lunar 
years and 9 months, on Wednesday the 16th 
October, o.s. 1605, 13th Jumada II., a.h. 
1014, aged 6t lunar years and U months. 
The words "Faut-i-Akbar Shah" (the death 
of Akbar Shah), are the chronogram of his 
death. He was buried in the village of 
Sikandra, in the environs of Agra, where 
a splendid mausoleum was built over his 
remains by his son Jahangir, which is still 
in a high state of preservation. He received 
after his death the title of "Arsh-'Ashyani," 
and was .succeeded by his son Sultan Salim, 
who assumed the title of Jahangir. His 
mother's name was Hamida Banii, commonly 
called Maryam-Makanl. The history of 
this potentate has been written, with great 
elegance and jjrecision, by his wazir Abul- 
Fazl, in the work entitled Alibar-nSma. In 
order to keep his tm'bulent Umaras, Turks, 
and Afghans, in check, Hindi! chiefs w^re 
encouraged by Akbar, and entrusted with the 
lughest powers, both military and civil, as 
was the case with Raja Maldeo of Mai war, 
Bhagwan Das of Amber, Man Singh, his son, 
and Riija, Todar Mai. He also connected 
himself and his sons with them by marriage. 
Both Akbar and his successor, Jahangir, had 
amongst their wives several of Hindi! origin. 
Towards the middle of his reign, Akbar 
became dissatisfied with the Muhammadan 
religion, and invited to his court teachers of 
the Christian, Ilindii, and Pars! religions, 
and took an interest in their discussions. 
He adopted, however, none of them, but 
attempted to found a new system of belief, 
called " Dln-i-Ilabi," which acknowledged 
one God, and the king as his vice-regent. 

[Vide Hlphinstone' s History of India, and 
J^aiser Jkhir, by the late Graf v. Noer 
(Prince Frederick of Schleswig-Holstein).] 

Akhar Shah II. (J 15 ili .J\), king 

of Dehll, whose title in frJl is Abul-Nasr 
Mu'in-uddin Muhammad Akbar Shah, was 
the sou of the nominal emperor Shah 'Alam ; 
was born on Wednesday 23rd April, n.s. 
1760, 7th Eamazan, a.h. 1173, and succeeded 
his father at the age of 48, on the 19th 
November, a.d. 1806, 7th Eamazan, a.h. 
1221, as titular king of Dehli. On his 
accession he made some weak attempts to 
increase his influence and power. These were 
properly resisted, but at the same time the 
pledge given by Lord Wellesley, to increase 
the allowance of the imperial family when 
the revenue of the country improved, was 
redeemed by an act of politic liberality. An 
augmentation of 10,000 rupees per mensem 
was appropriated for the support of his eldest 
son, whom he had declared heir-apparent. 
He sat on the throne of his ancestors nearly 
32 lunar years ; died on Friday 28th 




September, a.d, 1837, 28th Jumada II., a.h. 
1263, aged about 80 lunar years, and was 
buried at Dehli, close to the tomb of Bahadur 
Shah. His son Bahadur Shah II., the last 
king of Dehli, succeeded him. Akbar some- 
times wrote poetry, and used the word Shu' a 
for his poetical name. 

Akhfash Ausat (k.-:^! j_^J.s-l), was 

called Akhfash, because he had small eyes. 
His proper name is Abul-Hasan Sa'id. He 
was an author, and died in the year a.d. 830. 
Some say he was born at Balkh, and died in 
A.H. 376. There were three persons of this 
name, all of whom were authors. Akhfash 
Asghar, or the lesser, died in a.d. 845. 

Aklitar Lji_>.0, the poetical name of 

Qazi Midiammad Sadiq Khan, an excellent 
writer of prose and verse. 

Akhtar i^.~^\), the poetical name of 

Wajid 'All Shah, the last king of Audh, now 
of Garden Eeach, Calcutta. 

Akmal-uddin Muhammad bin-Mah- 
mud (Shaikh), author of a commen- 
tary on the Hidaya, entitled 'Inaya, or al- 
'Jnaya. There are two commentaries on the 
Hidaya, commonly known by that name, but 
the one much esteemed for its studious 
analysis and interpretation of the text, is by 
this author ; it was published in Calcutta in 
1837. This author died in the year a.d. 
1384, A.H. 786. 

'Akrima, or more correctly 'Ikrima 
<s_^.JLc), surname of Ahii- AhduUah, 

who was a freed slave of Ibn- 'Abbas, and 
became afterwards his disciple. He was one 
of the greatest lawyers. He died in the year 
A.D. 725, A.H. 107. 

Aksir, or more correctly, Iksir (Mirza) 

(\j_^ ^l^_L^\ _»*^1), of Isfahan, 

author of a book of elegies. He served uuder 
Nawab Nizam-ul-Mulk Asaf-Jah and Safdar- 
Jang, and died in Bengal in n.s. 1756, a.h. 

Alahdad Sarhindi, or more correctly, 

Ilahdad, poetically styled Eaizi, a 

native of Sarhind, and author of a Persian 
Dictionary called Madur td-Afdzil. 

[Regarding this dictionary and its author. 
Tide Jour. As. Soc. Bengal, 186S, p. 10.] 

Al-Ahnaf (i. 

-Ul), uncle of Yazid, 

the second khalifa of the house of tJmajya. 
At the battle of Siffin he had fought on 

the side of 'Ali. Several saj-ings of this 
celebrated chief are recorded in the Bio- 
grapliical Dictionary of Ibn KhaUikan. He 
outlived Mu'awiya. 

Alahwirdi Khan {^\^ ^J)j,iS\), 

or more correctly, Ilahwirdi Khan, 

a nobleman of the reigu of the emperor 
JahangTr. He was raised to the rank of 
5,000 in the time of Shah Jahiin, and held 
several offices of importance. He was ap- 
pointed Governor of Patna, and espoused the 
cause of Sultan Shuja', brother of Aurangzib, 
A.D. 1658, A.H. 1068, and after the defeat of 
Shuja', accompanied him to Bengal, where 
he was slain, together with his sou Saif-ullah, 
by order of that prince, in July, a.d. 1659, 
2;il-qa'da, a.h. 1069. 

[The word wtrdi or wirdi means " a rope," 
God being the habl'i-matin, the strong rope 
which the faithful seize so as not to perish.] 

Alahwirdi Khan {^J^s- ^^j^i^\), 

or more correctly, Ilahwirdi Khan, 

title of Ja'far Khan, the son of Ilahwirdi 
Khan the first. He was raised to the rank 
of an amir by 'Alamgir, with the title of 
Ilah%vardi Khan 'Alamgir- Shahi. He was 
appointed Subadar of Allahabad, where he 
died A.D. 1669, a.h. 1079. He was an 
excellent poet, and has left a Dlwan. 

Alahwirdi Khan, (^^Lri. ,_fj..ijji 
<-J<^ ci^-jl^^), or more commonly, 

Allahwirdi Khan, styled Mahabat- 

Jang, the usm'per of the government of Bengal, 
was originally named Mirza, Muhammad 'Ali. 
His father, Mirza Muhammad, a Turkman, 
an officer in the service of the prince A'zam 
Shah, on the death of his patron in a.d. 
1707, falling into distress, moved from Dehli 
to Katak, the capital of Orlsa, in hopes of 
mending his fortune uuder Shuia'-uddin, the 
son-in-law of Nawab Murshid Quli Ja'far 
Khan, Siibadar of Bengal, who received him 
with kindness, and after some time bestowed 
on his son the Faujdari of Eajmaliall, and 
procured for him from the emperor a mansab 
and the title of Allahwirdi Khan, and after- 
wards that of Mahabat-Jang. After the 
death of Shuja'-uddin, and the accession of 
his son, Sarfaraz Khan, to the government of 
Bengal, Allahwirdi overthrew the Nawab, 
in an action in which the latter was slain, 
in A.D. 1740, a.h. 1153, and ursurped the 
government. He reigned sixteen years over 
the three provinces of Bengal, Bihar, and 
Orisa, and died on Saturday the 10th April, 
N.'s. 1766, 9th Rajah, a.h. 1169, aged 80 
years. He was bm'ied in Murshidabad, near 
the tomb of his mother, in the garden of 
Khush-Biigh, and was succeeded by his 
grand-nephew and grandson, Mirza Mahmud, 

ALAH 43 

lu'ttor known liv his assumed name of Siraj- 
u(l-danla. It docs not ajipear that AUahwirdi 
ever n'niittod any part of the ri'venue to 
Dchli after pajnu'eut of the first instalment, 
of which the 'bulk went to the Maratha 
Government at Puna. 

Alah Yar Klian i:^-^ lol^ i^ '>^^), 
^ <^ ^ ■■ 

or more correctly, Halt Yar Klian 

(Shaikh), son of Shaikh 'Abdus- 
Sahhan, was formerly employed by Nawab 
Jlubilriz-ul-Jhilk Sarbaland Khan, Governor 
of Gujriit, and in the reiji^n of the emperor 
L'arndihsiyar was raised to the rank of ii,000, 
with the title of Eustam Zaman Khan. In 
the time of the emperor JInhammad Shah, 
when Eaja Abhai Singh, the son of Eaja 
Ajit Singii Marwari, was appointed Governor 
of Gujrat in the room of Nawab Sarbaland 
3s]ian, the latter made some opposition to his 
successor ; a battle ensned, and Shaikh Ilah 
Yar, who was then with the Nawab, was 
kiUed in the action. This took place on the 
day of Dasahra, 5th October, o.s. 1730, 8th 
llabi II., A.H. 1143. 

Alah Yar Khan {^^\ ^J^s^ jl-J aJ^ 
^j[.~~. ,Lsa.i^), or more correctly, 

Ilah Yar Khan, son of Iftikhar 

Khan Turkman, a nobleman of the corrrt of 
Shah Jahan. He died in Bengal in a.d. 
1650, A.H. 1060. 

Alah Yar Khan Mir-Tuzuk ( Ij i..]\ 
i S\J _»-« ij^l^), or more correctly, 

Ilah Yar Khan, a nobleman in the 

time of the emperor 'Alamgir, who held the 
rank of 1,500, and died a.d. 1662, a.h. 1073. 

Alamayo (Prince), the son of king 

Theodore of Abyssinia. After the fall of 
Magdala and the death of his father, 10th 
April, 1868, he was sent to England to be 
educated, where he died. 

Al-Amin (^^T), the 6th khalifa of 

the hoiLse of 'Abbas, succeeded his father, 
Ilariin-ur-RashTd, to the throne of Baghdad, 
in March, a.d. 809, a.h. 193. He was no 
sooner seated on the throne than he formed 
a design of excluding his brother, al-Mamiin, 
from the succession. Accordingly, he deprived 
him of the furniture of the imperial palace 
of Khm-asau ; and in open violation of his 
father's will, who had bestowed on al-Mamiin 
the perpetual government of Khurasan and 
of all the troops in that province, he ordered 
these forces to march directly to Baghdad. 
Upon the arrival of this order, al-Mamiin 
expostulated vnth the general al-Fazl Ibn 


Rabi'a, who commanded his troops, and 
endeavoured to prevent his marching to 
Baghdad ; but without effect, for he punc- 
tually obeyed the orders sent by the khalifa. 
Al-Fazl having ingratiated himself with the 
khalifa by bis ready compliance with his 
orders, was chosen prime minister, and 
governed with absolute sway, al - Amin 
abandoning himself entirely to drunkenness. 
Al-Fazl was a very able minister; but fearing 
al-Mamiin's resentment, if ever he should 
ascend the throne, he gave al-Amin such 
advice as proved in the end the ruin of them 
both. He advised him to deprive al-Mamun 
of the right of succession that had been given 
him by his father, and transfer it to his own 
son Musa, though then but an infant. Agree- 
able to this pernicious advice, the khalifa sent 
for his brother al-Qasim from Mesopotamia, 
and recalled al-Mamiin from Khurasan, 
pretending he had occasion for lum as an 
assistant in his councils. By this ill-treat- 
ment al-Mamiin was so much provoked, that 
he resolved to come to an open ruptiu-e with 
his brother. A war soon after broke out 
between them. Tahir ibn-Husain, the general 
of al-Mamiin, laid siege to Baghdad, took it, 
and having seized al-Amin, cut off his head, 
and exposed it to public view in the streets 
of Baghdad. Afterwards he sent it to al- 
Mamiin in Khur-asan, together with the ring 
or seal of the khilafat, the sceptre and the 
imperial robe. At the sight of these, al- 
Mamun fell down on his knees, and returned 
thanks to God for his success, making the 
courier who brought the insignia a present 
of a million dirhams. The death of al-Amiu 
took place on the 6th October, a.d. 813, 6th 
Safar, a.h. 198. He was then 30 years of 
age, and had reigned but four years and some 

'Alamgir I. (jl^jLi .^X^lc), emperor 

of Hindiistan, srrrnamed Abul-Zafar Muhi- 
uddin Muhammad Aurangzib, took the title 
of 'Alamgir on his accession to the throne. 
He was the third son of the emperor Shah 
Jahan, born on Sunday 10th October, o.s. 
1619, 11th Zil-qa'da, a.h. 1028. His 
mother's name was Arjmand Banii, surnamed 
Mumtaz-Maball. In his youth, he put on 
the appearance of religious sanctity, but in 
June, A.D. 1668, Eamzan, a.h. 1068, during 
his father's illness, he, in conjunction with 
his brother, Murad Bakhsh, seized Agra, and 
made his father prisoner. Murad was soon 
after imprisoned by 'Alamgir, who marched 
to Dehli, where he caused himself to be 
proclaimed emperor on the 21st July of the 
same year, 1st Zil-qa'da, a.h. 1068, but was 
not crowned till the first anniversary of his 
accession, a circumstance which has intro- 
duced some confusion in the chronology of 
his reign. Soon after, he put Murad Bakhsh 
and his eldest brother, the heir - apparent, 
Dara Shikoh, to death. He greatly enlarged 
his dominions, and became bo formidable that 
all Eastern princes sent ambassadors to him. 
He was an able prince, but a bigoted Sunni, 
and attempted to force the Hindiis to adopt 




that faith, destroying their temples, and 
levying the capitation tax {jizya) from every 
Hindu. The feudatory chiefs of Eajpiitaua 
successfully resisted the impost. He died 
after a reign of 50 lunar years at Ahmad- 
nagar, in the Deccan, on Friday the 21st 
February, o.s. 1707, 28th Zil-qa'da, a.h. 
1118, aged 90 lunar years and 17 days, and 
was interred in the com-t of the mausoleum of 
Shaikh Zain-uddin, in Kliuldabad, eight kos 
from the city of Aurangabad. After his 
death, he received the title of " Hazrat 
Khuld-Makan" {i.e. He whose place" is in 
paradise). He was married in the 19th year 
of his age to_ a daughter of Shahnawaz Khan, 
the son of 'Asaf Khan, the prime minister of 
the emperor Jahangir, by whom he had five 
sons and four daughters. His eldest son, 
named Sultan Muhammad, died before his 
father ; his second son was Muhammad 
Mu'azzam, who succeeded him with the title 
of Shah 'Alam Bahadur Shah ; the third, 
A'zam Shah, was slain in battle fought 
against the latter ; the fourth, Muhammad 
Akbar, who revolted against his father, took 
refuge in Persia, and died there ; the fifth, 
Kam Bakhsh. who was also slain in battle. 
The names of his four daughters are : Zeh- 
un-Nisa, Zinut-un-Nisa, Badr-un-Nisa, and 

'Alamgir II., 'Aziz-uddln, was the son 

of the emperor Jahandar Shah by Anup Bai ; 
was born in a.d. 1688, a.h. 1099, and raised 
to the throne, in the fort of Dehli, by 
'Imad-uI-Mulk Ghazi-uddln K]iau the wazir, 
on Sunday the 2ud June, n.s. 1754, 10th 
Sha'ban, a.h. 1167, after the deposition and 
imprisonment of Ahmad Shah, the son of the 
emperor Muhammad Shah. He was, after 
a nominal reign of five years and some 
months, assassinated by the same person who 
had placed him on the throne, on the 29th 
November, n.s. 1759, 8th EabJ' II. a.h. 
1173, and was interred in the platform before 
the mausoleum of the emperor Humayun. 
His son 'All Gauhar (afterwards Shah 'Alam) 
being then in Bengal, Muhiy-ul-Suunat, son 
of Kam Bakhsh, the son of the emperor 
Aurangzih, was seated on the throne, with 
the title of Shah Jahan, and insulted by 
the empty name of emperor for some 
months, after which, on the 10th October, 
N.s. 1760, 29th Safar, a.h. 1174, the 
Marathas having plundered Dehli, prince 
MTrza Jawan Bakht, the son of 'All Gauhar, 
was placed on the throne by the Maratha 
chief Bhao, as regent to his father, who was 
still in Bengal. 

Alap Arsalan. Vide Alp Arsalan. 

Alaptigin or Alptigin {^^:^\), 

one of the chief nobles of Bukhara, and 
Governor of Khurasan during the reign of 
the house of Saman. Having, in a.d. 962, 
renounced his allegiance to that court, he 
retired, with his followers, to Ghazni, then 

an insignificant town, to escape the resent- 
ment of Amir Mausur Samani, whose eleva- 
tion to the throne he had opposed, on the 
ground of his extreme youth. He established 
a petty principality, of which Ghazni became 
the capital. He died a.d. 976, a.h. 366, 
when his son, Abu-Is-haq, succeeded him; 
but that weak and dissipated prince survived 
his father but a short time ; and the suffrage 
of all ranks gave the rule to Subiktagin, a 
chief in the service of Alaptigin, in a.d. 977, 
a.h. 367. 

Al-Aswad (iiy^V\), an impostor. Vide 

'Ala-ud-daula (Prince) {i^^s\\l\.£. 

( )^ jj ), tlie son of Baisanghar Mirza, 

and grandson of Shahrukh Mirza, after whose 
death, in a.d. 1447, he ascended the throne 
at Hirat, bnt was soon driven from it by his 
uncle, Ulugh Beg. After the death of Ulu gh 
Beg, A.D. 1449, he was imprisoned and 
blinded by his brother. Sultan Babar. He 
died in a.d. 1459, a.h. 863. 

'Ala-ud-daula (aJjj>IU^£ (._;1^J), a 
JSTawab of Bengal. Vide Sarfaraz Khan. 

'Ala - ud - daula (Mir or Mirza) 


a poet whose 

poetical name was Kafi. He is the author 
of a biography of those poets who fiourished 
in the reign of the emperor Akbar. The 
time of his death is not known, hut he 
was living at the time of the conquest of 
Chitor by Akbar in a.d. 1567, a.h. 975. 
There is some mistake in his poetical name ; 
he appears to be the same person who is 
mentioned under the poetical name of Kami, 
which see. 

'Ala-ud-daula Samnani (a,Jjjk-lUL 


li^-;), one of the chief followers 

of the Siifi Junaid Baghdadi. In his youth 
he served Arghim Khan, the Tartar king of 
Persia, and his uncle Sharaf-uddiu Samnani 
was a nobleman at the court. He died on 
Friday the 8th March, a.d. 1336, 23rd Rajab, 
A.H. 736, aged 77 lunar years, six years before 
Khwaja Kirmani. 

' Ala-uddln ( ,,j jJUi^), a Muhammadan 

prince of the Arsacides or Assassins, better 
known by the appellation of "The old man 
of the mountains." His residence was a 
castle between Damascus and Antioch, and 
was surronnded by a number of youths, whom 
he intoxicated with pleasures, and rendered 




subservient to his views, by promising still 
i^'nattr loluptuousness in tlie next world. As 
tlief-e ^\ere employed to stab his enemies, he 
was dreaded by the neighbouring prinees. 

\_J'iih' Hasan Sabbah.J 

'Ala - uddin (Khwaja) ( .^.^jJULr 

(_>-L^Ua-- A^l»ri-), surnamed Ata 

^Ifilik, was the brother of Shams-uddlu Mu- 
hammad Salub, diwan, and is the author of 
a history called Jahankuslid. 

' Ala-uddin ' Ali al-QuraisM ibn-Nafis 


ll\ Lc .jjJU^i), 

author of the eommentary termed Mtijiz-ul 
i Id nun Jil-T'thh^ being an epitome of the 
canons of Avicenua. He died a.d. 1288. 


'Ala-uddin Ali Shall (1 

il^), king of Western Bengal. He 

usurped the government of that coimtry after 
defeating Fakhr-uddiu Mubarak Shah, and 
was assassinated, about a.h. 746, by the 
instigation of Khwaja Ilyas, who succeeded 
him under the title of Shams -uddin Ilyas 

'Ala-uddin Atsiz (j^Jl ^^jj^j^i), 

the son of 'Ala-uddin Hasan filiori. He 
defeated Baha-uddin Sam in a.d. 1210, and 
reigned foni years in Ghor. He fell in battle 
against Taj-uddin Ildiiz, a.d. 1214, and was 
the last of the kings of GliOr, of the family 
of 'Ala-uddin Hasan. 



'Ala-uddin Hasan ( 

lJj}-^), prince of Gli5r, entitled 

Jahan-soz. His elder brother, Qutb-uddin, 
prince of Ghor, was publicly executed by his 
brother-in-law, Bahram Shah of Ghaziii, in 
A.D. 1119, A.H. 513. Saif-ud-daula, brother 
of the deceased, took possession of Ghazni in 
A.D. 1148, A.H. 543, but afterwards was 
defeated, taken prisoner, and put to death by 
Bahram Shah in a.d. 1149, a.h. 544. When 
the mournful news of his brother's death 
reached 'Ala-uddin, he burnt with rage, and 
being determined to take revenge, invaded 
Ghazni with a great army. He defeated 
Bahram Shah, who fled to Lahore, took 
possession of Ghazni, in a.d. 1152, a.h. 574, 
and gave up the city to flames, slaughter, and 
devastation for several days, on which account 
he is known by the epithet of "Jahan-soz," 
or the bm-ner of the world. He carried his 
animosity so far as to destroy every monument 
of the Gliazni emperors with the exception 
of those of Sultan Mahmiid, Mas'iid, and 
Ibrahim ; but he defaced all the inscriptions, 
even of their times, from every public edifice. 

'Ala-uddin died in the year a.d. 1156, a.h. 
549, after a reign of six years, and was 
succeeded by his son Malik Saif-uddin, or 
Saif-ud-daula, who in liltle more than a year 
fell in battle -with the Ghiza Tiu'kmans. He 
was succeeded by his eldest cousiu, Gliiyas- 
uddin Muhammad Ghori. The following is 
a list of the kings of Glior : 

1. 'Ala-uddin Hasan Ghori. 

2. Malik Saif-uddin, son of 'Ala-uddia 

Hasan Ghori. 

3. Ghiyas -uddin Muhammad Ghori, son 

of Baha-uddin Sam, the younger 
brother of 'Ala-uddin. 

4. Shihab-uddin, brother of Ghiyas-uddin. 
6. Ghiyas-nddin Mahmiid, son of Ghiyas- 

6. Baha-uddin Sam, sou of Ghiyas-uddin 


7. Atsiz, son of Jahan-soz, and last of the 
kings of Ghor of this branch. 

"D _ 

'Ala-uddin I (^L^ 



^.i-^-^-j), Hasan Kangoh Balimam, 

the first Bahmani king of the Deccan. He 
was a native of Dehli, and in the service of 
a Brahmanical astrologer named Kangoh, or 
Giingoh, enjoying high favour' with the prince 
Muhammad Tughluq, afterwards king of 
Dehli. This Brahman assured Hasan that 
he perceived from his horoscope that he would 
rise to great distinction, and be eminently 
favoured of the Almighty ; and made him 
promise that if he ever should attain regal 
power, he would use the name of Kangoh 
and employ him as his minister of finance, 
a request with which Hasan readily complied. 
The Governor of Daidatabad and others 
having revolted took possession of the place, 
and selected Hasan (who had then the title 
of Zafar Khan and a jagir in the Deccan) to 
be their king. On Friday the 3rd August, 
A.D. 1347, '24th Rabi' II. a.h. 748, they 
crowned him and raised him on the throne, 
with the title of 'Ala-uddin Hasan Kangoh 
Bahmani at Kulbarga, which place became 
the royal residence and capital of the first 
Muhammadan king of the Deccan, and was 
named Ahsanabad. Towards the end of the 
reign of Muhammad Tughluq of Dehli, he 
subdued every part of the Deccan previously 
subject to the tlirone of Dehli. The death 
of 'Ala-uddin Hasan happened ten years, ten 
months, and seven days after his accession to the 
throne, about the 10th February, a.d. 1358, 
1st Rabi' I. A.H. 759. He was succeeded 
by his son, Muhammad Shah I. Bahmani. 
The following is a list of the kings of the 
Bahmani dynasty of Kulbarga or Ahsanabad 
with the years of their accessions : 

'Ala-uddin Hasan I. a.h. 748, a.d. 1347. 

Muhammad Shah I. a.h. 769, a.d. 1358. 

Mujahid Shah . . a.h. 776, a.d. 1376. 

Daiid Shah .... a.h. 780, a.d. 1378. 

Mahmiid Shah . . . a.h. 7«0, a.d. 1378. 

Gldya^-uddiu . . . A.H. 799, a.d. 1397. 

Sha'ms-uddiu . . a.h. 799, a.d. 1397. 




Firuz Shah Eoz-afzun a.h. 800, a.d. 1397. 

Ahmad Shah Wali . a.h. 825, a.d. U22. 

'Ala-iiddin Ahmad II. a.h. 838, a.d. 1435. 

Humayun the cruel. 

Nizam Shilh. 

Muhammad Shah II. 

Mahmud II. 

Ahmad ShSh II. 

'Ala-uddln III. 


Kallm-ullah, with whom the BahmanI dynasty 

terminates, and is succeeded by Amir 

Barid at Ahmadabad Bidar. 

'Ala-uddin II. (Sultan) (^_j>JUl= 
^^lki_j ^JU), son. of Sultan Ahmad 

Shah Wall Bahmani, ascended the throne at 
Ahmadabad Bidar in the Deccan, in the 
month of Febniary, a.d. 1435, a.h. 838, and 
died after a reign of 23 years, 9 months, and 
20 days in the year a.d. 1457, a.h. 862. He 
was succeeded by his son, Humajiin, a cruel 

'Ala-uddin Kliilji (Sultan) ( .^jjJUilr 


^U JS.-.J.. 




styled Sikandar-i-Sani, "the second Alex- 
ander," was the nephew and son-in-law of 
Sultan Jalal-uddin Firiiz Shah Khilji, whom 
he murdered at Kara - Manikpur, in the 
profince of Allahabad, on the 29th July, 
A.D. 1296, 17th Ramazan, a.h. 695, and 
marching thence with his army ascended the 
throne of Dehli in the month of October the 
same year, ZU-hijja, a.h. 695, after having 
defeated and removed Eukn-uddin Ibrahim, 
the son of Firiiz Shah. He was the first 
Musalman king who made an attempt to 
conquer the Deccan. He took the fort of 
Chitor in August, a.d. 1303, 3rd Mubarram, 
A.H. 703. It is said that the empire never 
flourished so much as in his reign. Palaces, 
mosques, universities, baths, mausolea, forts, 
and all kinds of public and pri%'ate buildings, 
seemed to rise as if by magic. Among the 
poets of his reign, we may record the names 
of Amir Khusrau, Khwaja Hasan, Sadr- 
uddln 'All, Fakbr-uddin Khawas, Hamid- 
uddin Raja, Maulana 'Arif, 'Abdul-Hakim, 
and Shihab-uddin Sadr-Nishin. In poetry. 
Amir Khusrau and Khwaja Hasan had the 
first rank. In philosophy and physic, Maulana 
Badr-uddin Damishqi. In divinity, Maulana 
Shitabi. In astrology. Shaikh Nizam-uddin 
Auliya acquired much fame. 'Ala-uddin died, 
according to Firishta, on the 6th Shawwal, 
a.h. 716, or 19th December, a.d. 1316, 
after having reigned more than twenty years. 
He was buried in the tomb which he had 
constructed in his life-time near the Manihar 
Masjid in Old Dehli. Amir Khusrau, in 
that part of his Diwan called Baqiya-i- 
Naqitja, says that he died on the 6th 
Shawwal, a.h. 715, i.e. about the 30th 
December, a.d. 1315. After his death, Malik 
Naib Kafiir, one of the eunuchs of the king. 

placed his youngest son. Sultan Shihab-uddin 
'Uraar, who was then only seven years old, 
on the throne. Alter a short time, however, 
the eunuch Kalur was slain, and Sliihab- 
uddin was set aside, and his elder brother, 
Mubarak Ivlian, imder the title of Mubarak 
Shall, ascended the throne on the 1st April, 
a.d. 1316, 7th Muhan-am, a.h. 716, but 
according to Firishta in 1317. It was the 
boast of 'Ala-uddiu that he had destroyed 
one thousand temples in Banaras alone. He 
is best known now by the beautiful gateway 
to the Kutb Mosque, and the unfinished 
tower by which he hoped to rival the Kutb 

'Ala-uddin 'Imad Shah (^.jaJUL^: 

i(l^ L>l-Kc) succeeded to the govern- 
ment of Barar in the Deccan after the 
death of his father, Fatb-ullah 'Imad Shah, 
about the year a.d. 1513, and following the 
example of other chiefs of the house of 
Bahmani, declared himself king of Barar, and 
established his royal residence at Gawal. He 
contracted an alliance by marriage with the 
sister of Isma'il 'Adil Shah, named Khadija, 
in A.D. 1528, a.h. 935, and died some time 
about the year a.d. 1532, a.h. 939. He was 
succeeded by his son Darya, 'Imad Shah. 

'Ala-uddin Kaiquhad (Sultan) (j^J-c 

jL^JL-.^' j^jjJO, a prince of the 

Saljiiqian dynasty. "When Sultan Malik- 
Shah conquered Rim or Anatolia, in Asiatic 
Turkey, he conferred on Sulaimiin, the son of 
Kutlumish, that kingdom, whose descendants 
reigned there tiU the time of Abaqa Khan, 
the Tartar king of Persia. 'Ala-uddin 
Kaiqubad was a descendant of Sulaimau 
Shah, and died about the year a.d. 1239, 
A.H. 637. Vide Sulaiman bin-Kutlumish. 

'Ala-uddin Majzub (Shah) (,,^jJU^£ 

ti\.J^ ^.^A-s^^), a Muhammadan 

saint of Agra, commonly called Shah 'Alawal 
Balawal, son of Sayyid Sulaiman. He died 
in the beginning of the reign of Islam Shah, 
son of Sher Shah, in the year a.d. 1546, 
A.H. 953. His tomb is in Agra, at a place 
called Nai-ki Mandi, where crowds of 
Musalmans assemble every year to worship 
it. The adjacent mosque has sunk into the 
ground to the spring of the arches. 

'Ala-uddin Mas'ud (j'^«.*w» ^jj^Hj^x), 

Sultan of Dehli, was the son of Sultan 
Rukn-uddin Firiiz, and grandson of Shams- 
uddin Iltitmish, was raised to the throne 
of Dehli after the murder of Bahram Shah, 
in May, a.d. 1242, Zil-qa'da, a.h. 639. 
He died on the 10th June, a.d. 1246, 23rd 
Mubarram, a.h. 644, after a reign of four 
years, and was succeeded by his brother 
(or uncle), Sultan Nazir-uddin Mahmiid. 




'Ala - uddin Muhammad al-Samar- 
qandi (Shaikh) (s.a-sz'-' ^^jkJ'jLi 

^JCJ.^4-^!'), author of a compendium 

of Al-Uuduri's i\Iiilihta>ir, which he entitled 
the Tiihfat-i(l-FiikaIin. Tliis work was com- 
mented upon by his pupil Abu-Bakr bin- 
Mas'ud al-lvashaui, ivho died in A.D. 1191, 
A. II. 587. This comment is untitled nl- 
Badai' as-Sanai' 

'Ala-uddin Husain Shah (^j jJU^Jl^ 



), king of Bengal. He 

was the son of Sayyid Ashraf, and after 
defeating JFuzailar Shah at Gaiir in a.h. 
899, ascended the throne of Benn;al. He 
rcii^ned with justice for a considerably longjer 
period than any of his predecessors until the 
year A.n. 1521, a.h. 927, when he died a 
natural death, after a reign of 28 years. His 
son Nusrat Shah succeeded him. 

'Ala-uddin (Sultan) (..AkL ,.v>a!U11£ 

^J^" ^), a king of the race of 

Saljiiq, who reigned in Iconium, and died 
iu the year a.d. 1301, a.h. 700. 

'Ala-uddin (Sultan) (^ILLj ^jJUic 
j,.L&J i(L^jL>), the last king of 

Dehli of the Sayjid dynasty, succeeded his 
father Sultan Muhammad Shah to the throne 
in January, a.d. 1446, Shawwal, a.h. 849. 
Bahlol Lodi, in a.d. 1451, a.h. 855, at 
the instigation of Hamid Khan wazir, took 
possession of Dehli dui-ing the absence of the 
king, who was then at Badaon. 'Ala-uddin 
continued to reside at Badaon unmolested till 
his death, which happened in the year a.d. 
1478, A.H. 883 ; his reign at Dehli being 
about six years, and his government at Badaon 
28 years. 

'Ala-uddin (Sayyid), of Oudh, whose 
poetical name was Wasili, is the author of 
a Tarji'band, commonly called Munniqiinan, 
with which word it commences. He was a 
native of Kliurasan, came to India about the a.d. 1300, became a disciple of 
uddin Auha, and fixed his residence in Oudh. 

'Ala-uddin Takash ((^^j jaIUIc), 
a Sultan of Khwarizm. Vide Takash. 

'Ala-ul-mulk Kotwal (Malik) (iLt 
I $^t« J^y^ CS^\). He served 

under Sultan 'Ala-uddin Khilji, king of 
Dehli, and was the uncle of Ziya-nddin Barni, 
the author of the TiirJkh Firuz-Shahl. He 
was then very old and so fat that he was not 
able to attend the coiurt more than once a 
month. He was living in a.d. 1300, a h 

'Al-Aziz Billah Abu-al-Mansur Tarar 



Jl _jj\ a.Jl.j j^j-xJO, 

of Mu'izz-ud-din-allah, second khalifa of 
Egjqjt the Fiiumite dynasty, succeeded his 
faUier in a.d. 976, and committed the 
management of affairs entirely to the care 
of Jauhar, or Ja'far, his father's long- 
experii'uced general and prime minister. This 
famous warrior, after se:'eral battles with 
Al-Aftakin, the amir of Damascus and the 
Karmatians, died in a.d. 990, a.h. 381. 
'Al-Aziz died on his way to Syria, in the 
21st year of his reign and 42nd of his age, 
and was succeeded by his sou, Abul-Mansiir. 

Al-Baghawi i^jyk-^l\). Vide Ahul- 

Faraj - al - Bagliawi and Abii - Muhammad 
Farrai ibn-Mas'iid al-Baghawi. 

Al-Batani ( iiiJl), commonly called 

by European writers Albategnius, was an 
Arabian astronomer who Avrote a treatise on 
the knowledge and the obliquity of the Zodiac 
of the stars. He died in 929. He greatly 
reformed astronomy, comparing his own 
observations with those of Ptolemy. This 
book was printed at Niiremberg, m 1537, 
4to., and at Bologna in 1645. He died 
a.d. 929. 

Al-Biruni( J. Jl), an Arabian author, 

whose original work, entitled Tdrikh Hind, 
was compiled in India in about a.d. 1030-33. 
See Abu-Eaiban. 

Al-Bukhari (^_j^LiaJO, who received 

this name from Bukhara, the place of his 
birth or his chief residence, was a famous 
lawyer by name of INIuhammad Isma'il. His 
collection of traditions on the Muhammadan 
religion, commonly called Sahih-ul- Bukharl^ 
is of the greatest authority of all that have 
ever been made ; he called it Al-Salnh, i.e. 
genuine, because he separated the spiuious 
ones from those that were authentic. He 
says, he has selected 7,275 of the most 
authentic traditions out of 10,000, all of 
which he looked upon to be true, having 
rejected 200,000 as false. He died at 
Bukhara in the year a.d. 870, a.h. 266. 
Vide Muhammad Isma'il Bukbari. 

Al-Dawani. Vide Dawanl. 

Al-Farghani (^jLi,X!l), surname of 

Ahmad ibn Kathir or Kasir, an Arabian 
astronomer of the ninth century, author of 
an introduction to astronomy. 
\_Vide FarghJni.] 

'Alha and Udal ( JOj\ ; ^~ll ), princes 

of Mahoba. There is a heroic ballad sung 
or recited by the Hindu sepoys in a kind of 


monotonous, but not unmusical sort of chaunt 
accompamed by a sotto voce beat of the dh61, 
Which rise to a constrepito in the pause 

between the yerses. Whoever has resided iu 
a military cantonment must have frequently 
observed the sepoys, when diseng-aged from 
military duty, collected in small knots 
listemng to one of the party reciting some 
poem or tale to a deeply interested audience. 
Ihe subject of this lay is the prowess of 

Alba' the Eaja of Mahoba, a town in 
^undelHiand, of which extensive ruins remain 
•ivi- I '^ described as the terror of the 

Muhammadans ; his triumphs over whom are 
attributed not only to his own valour, but the 
favour of the goddess Kali, whom he bad 
propitiated by the offering of bis life. There 
are many songs, it is said, of this prince, 
and his brother Udal, a warrior of equal 
estimation ; but they are preserved only 
traditionally by the Powars, and their amateur 
students. The verses are in Bhakha. 

Al-Hadi (^ol^O, the fourth khallf of 
the house of 'Abbas, succeeded his father, 
al-Mahdi, on the 4th August, a.d. 7S5, 
23rd Mnharram, a.h. 169, to the throne of 
Baghdad. He reigned one year and one 
month, and having formed a design to deprive 
his younger brother, Hariin-al-Eashid, of 
his right of succession, and even to assassinate 
him, was poisoned by his ijrime minister 
about the month of September, a.d. 786, 
Eabi I. A.H. 170. On his death his brother, 
the celebrated Hariiu-al-Eashid, ascended the 

Al-Hakm, also called ihn Abdiil Hakm, 
an Arabian author, who (according to the 
chronological arrangement of the Arab 
authorities by Howard Vyse and Dr. Sprenger, 
in the former's second volume of The Pyramids 
of Gizeh) lived about a.d. 14.30, or six hundred 
years after the death of the khallf al-Mamiin 
of Baghdad, but by a manuscript note re- 
corded by a gentleman of the British Museum 
1868), it appears that al-Hakm was nearly 
contemporary with that prince, who flourished 
between a.d. 813 and 843. Al-Hakm writes 
that the Great Pyramid in Egypt was built 
by a certain antediluvian king Saurid, and 
filled by him chiefly with celestial spheres 
and figures of the stars, together with the 
perfumes used in their worship ; and that 
khalifa al-Mamiin found the body of a man 
deposited, with jewels, arms, and golden 
writing, in the coffer, when he broke into the 
king's chamber of the Great Pyramid. But 
neither Abii Miishar Jafar bin Muhammad 
Balkhi, who wrote in about a.d. 890, nor 
ibn Khurdalbeh, in a.d. 920, have one word 
about al-Mamfin, or any opening of the 
pyramid. But when we descend to MasaUdi, 
in a.d. 967, he, after an astonishing amount 
of romancing on what took place at the 
building of the pyramids 300 years before the 
Flood, mentions that, not al-Mamiin, but his 
father, JAalifa Hariin-al-Ilashid, attempted 
to break into the Great Pyramid ; and after 
penetrating 20 cubits, found a vessel con- 

53 ALI 

taining 1000 coins of the finest gold, each 
just one ounce in weight, and making up a 
sum which exactly repaid the cost of his 
operations, at which, it is added, he greatly 
wondered. About the year a.d. 1170, or 
340 years after al-Mamiin's age, that prince 
is mentioned by Abii Abd-ullah Muhammad 
bin Abdur Eahim Alkaisi, who states that he 
was informed that those who went into the 
upper parts of the Great Pyramid in the 
time of al-Mamiin, came to a small passage, 
containing the image of a man in green stone, 
and within that a human body with golden 
armour, etc., etc. 

Al-Hasan (^^.Jl), an Arabian who 
wrote on optics, about the year a.d. 1100. 

'All (^ 

ills jjI ^\ ^,1^), son of Abu- 

Talib, was the cousin and son-in-law of 
Muhammad. He was born 23 years before 
the Hijri, i.e., in the year a.d. 599, at the 
very temple itself. His mother's name 
was Fatima, daughter of Asad the son of 
Ha.shim. After the death of Muhammad, 
he was opposed in his attempts to succeed 
the prophet by 'Usman and 'Umar, and 
retired into Arabia, where his mild and 
enlarged interpretation of the Quran, in- 
creased the number of his proselytes. After 
the death of 'Usman, the 3rd Idialifa, he 
was acknowledged khalifa by the Egj-ptians 
and Arabians in July, a.d. 655, but in less 
than five years after he was compelled to 
resign that title, and Mu'awiya was pro- 
claimed khalifa at Damascus. 'AH was 
subseciuently wounded by 'Abdur-Rahman 
ibn-Muljim in a mosque at Qufa, whilst 
engaged in his evening prayers, on Friday 
the 22nd January, a.d. 661, 17th Eamazan, 
a.h. 40, and died four daj's after. 'All, 
after the decease of his beloved Fatima, the 
daughter of the prophet, claimed the privilege 
of polj'gamy, and had 18 sous and 18 
daughters. The most renowned of them 
are the two sons of Fatima, viz., Hasan 
and Husain, as also Muhammad Hanif, by 
another wife. Among the many surnames, 
or honorable titles bestowed upon 'Ali, are 
the following : Was!', which signifies "legatee 
and heir;" Murtaza, "beloved by God;" 
Asad-uUah-ul-Ghalib, " the victorious lion 
of God ; " Haidar, " a lion ; " ShahMardan, 
' ' king of men ; ' ' Sher I£huda, ' ' the lion of 
God." His memory is still held in the 
highest veneration by the Muhammadans, 
who say that he was the first that embraced 
their religion. They say, moreover, that 
Muhammad, talking of him, said, "AH is 
for me and I am for him ; he stands to me 
in the same rank as Aaron did to Moses ; I am 
the town in which all knowledge is shut up, 
and he is the gate of it." However, these 
great eulogies did not hinder his name, and 
that of all his family, from being cursed, and 
their persons from being excommunicated 
through all the mosques of the empire of 
the khalifas of the house of Umayya, from 
Mu'awiya down to the time of 'Umar ibn- 




'Alidul-'Aziz, who suppressed the solemn 
malediction. There were besides several 
khalifas of the house of 'Abhas, who ex- 
pref-M'd a ffn-.ii aversion to 'Ali and all his 
posterity; sueh as Jlu'tazid and Jlutawaklcil. 
On tile other hand, tlie I'Mtimite khalifas of 
E<;>lit caused his name to be added to that 
of Muhammad in the call to prayer fazSnJ, 
•nhich is chaimted from the tuncts of the 
mosques. He is the first of the twelve 
Imams, eleven of whom were his descendants. 
Their names are as follows : 

1. 'All, the son of Abii-Talib. 

2. Imam Hasan, eldest son of 'Ali. 

3. ^, Ilusain, second son of 'Ali. 

4. ,, Zaiu-ul-'Ahidin, son of Ilusain. 
6. ,, Muhammad Biiqir, son of Zain- 


6. Imam Ja'far Sadiq, son of Muhammad 


7. Imam iliisa Kazim, son of Ja'far Sadiq. 

8. ,, Ali Miisa Eaza, son of MJisa 


9. Imam Muhammad Taqi, son of Musa 


10. Imam 'Ali Naqi, son of Muhammad 


11. Imam Hasan 'Askari, son of 'Ali Xaqi. 

12. ,, Mahdi, son of Hasan 'Askari. 

As to the place of 'Ali's burial, authors 
differ ; but the most probable opinion is, that 
he was buried in that place which is now 
called Najaf Ashraf, in liiifa, and this is 
visited by the jMuhammadans as his tomb. 

The followers of 'Ali are called Shi'as, 
which signities sectaries or adherents in 
general, a term first used about the fourth 
century of the Hijra. 

Ali is reputed the author of several works 
in Arabic, particularly a collection of one 
hundred sentences (paraphrased in Persian by 
Eashid-uddin-"\Vatwat), and a Diwan of di- 
dactic poems, often read in Madrasahs. 

In mentioning 'Ali's name, the Shi'a use 
the phrase " 'alaihi as-salam," which is used 
after the names of prophets ; the Sunnis say, 
" karrama allahu wajhahu," may God honour 
his face. 

'Ali (^i//^ ^1 ^ '^'^^'^^. J^\ 

son of Alrrnad bin-Abu-Bakr Kiili, a resi- 
dent of Lch and author of the history of 
Sindh in Arabic called Tiihfat - ul - Ki'ram. 
This work was translated into Persian and 
called Chrtch Ndma, a translation of which 
was made in English by Lieutenant I'ostans 
and published in the Jour. As. Soc. in 1838. 

'Ali (^J^^l ^>j^j^Jl.^\ Sas^\ ^ ^Ic), 

son of Ahmad, commonly called Wahidi, was 
an Arabian author who wrote three Com- 
mentaries, viz. : TT'asit, Zaklr, and Basit, 
aud also Kital KuzTil. He died in a.d. 
1075, A.D. 468. 

'Ali (ij,*,!^ ^^ 15-^X so^ of Hamza, 
author of the Tarlkh Ixfaham. 

^ f^-S^), son of 

'Ali (llrl_, ^.. 

Husain Waiz Kashifi, the famous writer of 
the A)iu-ur-i-iSvhaUi, author of the work 
called Luliiif- 11: - Znnhf, containing the 
anecdotes of JIuhammad, of the twelve 
Imams, of the ancient kings of Persia, and 
of various other persons. He is also the 
author of another work entitled Eiixhhnt, 
containing the Memoirs of the Siifi Shaikhs 
of the Nakshbandi order. 'Ali died in a.d. 
1532, A.H. 939. He is also called 'Ali 

\_Vide Safi-uddin Muhammad.] 

'Ali ( rsn„>jy Sajs^ ^^ is^-^X son of 

Muhammad Qiisanji, an astronomer, and 
author of the Sharh-ul-Jadld, the new 
commentary. He died a.d. 1474, a.h. 879. 

'Ali ((^l^ij: J tX^^t son of 'Usman 

Gilani, author of the Kashf-ul-Mahjiib, 
containing a minute description of the twelve 
orders of Siifis, etc., written in a.d. 1499, 
a.h. 905. He is also called I'ir 'Ali 

'Ali (^^Jl ^jl Aj c_--iii^ L^^' ^^''" 
named Abul Hasan. Vide Abul-Hasan 'Ali. 

'Ali {J^jjj U i^i-i^ ^,.U), the 
poetical name of Mulla Xasir 'Ali, which see. 

'Ali (^Lc\ the poetical name of a poet 

who converted the Ghazals of Haflz into 

'Ali 'Adil Shah I. (ilj^, JoU J-£ 
^^,^jL.^.j), of BijapSr, surnamed 

Abul-Muzaffar, succeeded to the throne of 
that kingdom after the death of his father 
Ibrahim 'Adil Shah I, in a.d. 1658, a.h. 
965. He reigned about 22 lunar years, and 
as he had no son, he appointed in the year 
A.D. 1579 his nephew, Ibrahim, son of his 
brother Tahmasp, his successor ; and the 
following year on the night of Thursday the 
10th April, 1580, 23rd Safar, A.n. 988, 
he was assassinated by a young eunuch. He 
was buried in the city of Bijapiir, wdiere 
his tomb or mausoleum is called by the 
people, " Eauza Ali." 

[Vide Am Translation, i. p. 545.] 
'Ali 'Adil Shah II. (^Li J jl.- Lc 

JIJ), of BijapGr, 

succeeded his father Muhammad 'Adil Shah 
in his childhood in November, a.d. 1656, 
Muhan-am, a.h. 1067, and was unable to 
remedy the disorders which had occurred 
in his kingdom, by the rebellion of the 


celebrated Marhatta chief Sewail, who had 
possessed lumseU of all the strongholds in the 
Aokan country, and erected several new forts. 
Under pretence of making his submissions 
to the Sultan, he bego-ed an interview with 
the Bijapur general, Afzal Khan, whom he 
treacherously stabbed in an embrace. Eustam 
Allan was afterwards sent against him, and 
defeated. 'Ali 'Adil Shah died in the year 
A.p. 1672, A.H. 1083, after a turbulent 
reign of eleven or twelve years. He was 
succeeded by his sou Sikandar 'Adil Shah. 

'Ali Atmad (Shaikh) (>- 

the son of Shaikh Husain NaqshT, a learned 
man and engraver who died suddenly on 
heanng a verse of the poet Ishwaja Hasan 
of DehlT repeated in the presence of the 
emperor JahangTr on the 13th April, o s. 
1609, 18th Muharram, a.h. 1018. 

'Ali Akhar (^_^1 ^U)_ the eldest son 

of Imam Husain, killed in battle together 
with his father on the 10th October, a h 

'Ali Akbar (^\ ^.r), author of the 

work called Maj»ia'-uJ-Ai<!'d, containing a 
detailed account of all the Muhammadan 
saints, dedicated to the emperor Shah Jahiin, 
who was a great admirer of saints, a.d. 1628, 
A.H. 1038. 

'Ali Akhar {^,^>\J\i^^\ ^1 ^^), 

of Allahabiid, author of the Fa.sul Akbarl 
and Usui Akbarl, and several other works. 

X^), proper name 
of Imam Zain-ul-'Abidin, which see. 

'Ali Asghar {Jt^ 

'Ali Asghar {^^^^j^j ^J^ i^-^^X of 

Qanauj , author of a commentary on the Quran 
called Sawdkih-ut-Tiiniil. He died in the 
year A.D. 1727, a.h. 1140. 

'Ali Bahadur (.jL_j 

Nawab of Banda, eldest son of Shamsher 
Bahadur I. and grandson of the Marhatta 
chief Baji Rao Peshwa I. He received the 
investiture of Bundelkhand from Nana Far- 
nawis, the Puna minister, about the year 
A.D. 1790, and accompanied by his brother 
Ghani Bahadur, and supported by a powerful 
army, invaded Bimdelkhand, but was opposed 
by Nana Arjun (the guardian of Bakhat 
Singh, a descendant of Eaja Chatursal), who 
falling in the contest, and Eaja Bakhat Singh 
being taken prisoner, Ali Bahadur acquired 
the whole of that part of the raj of Eanda 
which belonged to Bakhat Singh and all the 
raj of Panna. He reigned about eleven or 
twelve years, and as at the time of his death, 

55 ALI 

which hajipened in a.d. 1801 or 1802, his 
eldest sou, Shamsher Bahadur II. was absent 
at Puna, his younn-est son Zulfikar Ali was 
proclaimed (in violation of the title of his 
eldest brother) as his successor by his uncle 
GhanT Bahadur and his Diwan Himmat 
Bahadur Goshain. GhanI Bahadur, how- 
ever, was soon after expelled by Shamsher 
Bahadur, who took possession of the raj . 

'Ali Bahadur Khan (^^U. ol^^ U)^ 

the last Nawab of Banda and sou of Zulfikar 
Ali Khan Bahadur. He is the author of a 
diwan and a masnawi called Mehrullah. He 
was removed for alleged complicity in the 
rebellion of 1857. 

'Ali Bai (|_jlj X.z), (whose name is 

spelt in our English Biographical Dictionaries 
Ali Bey) was a native of Natolia, sou of a 
Greek priest. In liis thirteenth year he was 
carried away by some robbers as he was hunt- 
ing, and sold to Ibrahim, a lieutenant of the 
Janissaries, at Grand Cairo, who treated him 
with kindness. 'AH distinguished himself 
against the Ai'abs, but when his patron was 
basely assassinated in ad. 1758, by Abrahini 
the Circassian, he avenged his death, and 
slew the murderer with his own hand. This 
violent measm'e raised him enemies, and his 
fhght to Jerusalem and to Ptolemais or Acre 
with difficulty saved him from the resentment 
of the Ottoman Porte, that had demanded his 
head. Time, however, paved the way to his 
elevation. Those who had espoused the cause 
of the Circassian were sacrificed to the public 
safety ; and 'Ali, recalled by the public voice, 
governed the country with benevolence and 
equity. In a battle fought against a re- 
bellious Mamliik to whom he had entrusted 
part of his army, 'AH saw some of his troops 
desert, and unwilling to survive a defeat, he 
defended himself with the fury of a lion, till 
he was cut down by a sabre and carried to the 
conqueror's tent, where eight days after he 
expired of his woimds, April 21st, a.d. 1773, 
in his 45th year, and left behind him a cha- 
racter unrivalled for excellence, for courage, 
and magnanimity. 

'Ali Bai (^_^Lj ^J>-sl)- The titles by 

which he was known in the Muhammadan 
countries were al-Amir, al-Hakim, al-Faqih, 
al- Sharif, al-Haj 'All Bai ibn Usman Bai al- 
Abbas, Khadim IBaitullah al-Haram, i.e. the 
prince, the learned, doctor of the law, of the 
blood of Muhammad, pilgrim, 'Ah Bai, son 
of Usman Bai, of the race of the Abbasidesi, 
servant of the house of God. He was master 
of the Arabic language, and had carefully 
studied the mathematical and natural branches 
of science and knowledge. It was in a.d. 
1802 that he visited England. In June, a.d. 
1803, he sailed from Spain to Morocco, and 
travelled through Tripoli, Cyprus, Egypt, 
Arabia, Syi'ia, and Turkey, and wrote a 
history of his travels, which was translated 




into English and pulilislied in London in the 
year a.d. 1S16, cnlitlwl The Tnivch of ' All 
Btii. In his visit to the isle of Cyiirns he 
surveyed some cmious remains of antiquity 
that Innn been usually overlooked. Having 
been admitted in his character of a Muham- 
madan prince to s^ieep the interior of the 
Ka'ha at Mecca, the most sacred office that 
a Musalman can perform, and to visit it 
repeatedly, he has given, from personal in- 
spection, a more minute and exact account 
of the Temple of Mecca than other travellers 
could lay before the public. His notice of 
the venerated mountain beyond Jlecca, the 
last and principal object of the pilgrimage to 
that city, and his description of the interior 
of the Temple of Jerusalem, which no Chris- 
tian is permitted to enter, is said to contain 
much new information. 

'All Barid I. (jj^ ^L:) succeeded his 

father. Amir Barid, to the throne of Ahmada- 
bad Bidar in the Deccan in the year a.d. 
1542, and was the first of this family who 
assumed royalty. He died after a reign of 
more than twenty years in a.d. 1562, a.h. 
970, and was succeeded by his son Ibrahim 

'All Barid II. succeeded Ms father 
Kasim Barid II. in the government of Ah- 
madabad Bidar in a.d. 1572, and was deposed 
in A.D. 1609 by his relative Amir Barid II. 
who succeeded him, and was the last of this 

'Ali Beg (U-Cj ^_^Lc), a Pole, born of 

Christian parents. When young he was made 
prisoner by the Tartars and' sold to the Turks, 
who educated him in the Mnhammadan faith. 
He rose in the Turkish court, and was ap- 
pointed interpreter to the Grand Signior, and 
translated the Bible and the English Catechism 
into the Tui-kish language. His great work 
is on the liturgy of the Turks, their pilgrim- 
ages to Mecca, and other religious ceremonies, 
translated into Latin by Dr. Smith. He died 
A.D. 1675. 

'Ali Beg (Mirza) (Ij^ t_X^ J^)^ 

a native of Badakhshan who held a high rank 
in the service of the emperor Akbar ; and was 
honoured with the oflice of 4,000 in the reigu 
of Jahangir. He accompanied the emperor 
one day to visit the shrine of the celebrated 
saint. Shaikh Malu-uddin Chishti at Ajmir, 
and happening to see the tomb of Shahbaz 
K]ian Kambii, he embraced it, and crying out 
with a loud voice, that "he, when livino-, 
was one of his oldest and best friends," gave 
up the ghost. This happened on the 11th 
March, o.s. 1616, 2ud Rabi I. a.h. 1025. 

'Ali bin al-Husain al-Masa'udi al- 
Hudaili (^0^^^ ,^;^\ ^i ^Lc), 
the far-famed autljor of the Mariij -uz-Zahab, 

and who has been, with some justice, termed 
tlie Herodotus of the East, was also a writer 
on the Sliia' traditions. He died A.u. 957, 
A.D. 346. 

'Ali Buya or Ali ibn Buya (<^jy ^_^^> 

entitled 'Imad-ud-daula, the first of a race of 
kings of Ears and 'Irak. The flatterers of 
this family, which is called Dilaml or Dialima 
(from the name of their native village, Dilam) 
and Buya or Buyites (from that of one of their 
ancestors named Buya), trace their descent to 
the ancient kings of Persia ; but the first of 
this race that history notices was a fisherman 
of Dilam whose name was Buya. His eldest 
son, 'Ali Buya, was employed by a governor 
of his native country, named Murawij, and 
was in the command of the chief part of his 
army, with which he encoimtered and defeated 
Yakut, the governor of Isfahan, and by the 
immense plunder that he obtained from that 
victory, he became at once a leader of reputa- 
tion and of power. He pursued Yakiit into 
Ears, defeated him again, and took possession 
of the whole of that province as well as those 
of Kirman, Khuzistan and 'Iraq in a.d. 933, 
A.H. 321. This chief was afterwards tempted 
by the weak and distracted state of the Khila- 
fat or Caliphate, to a still higher enterprise ; 
accompanied by his two brothers, Hasan and 
Ahmad, he marched to Baghdad. The Khalif 
al-Eazi Billah fled, but was soon induced to 
return, and his first act was to heap honours 
on those who had taken possession of his 
capital. 'AH Buva, on agreeing to pay 
annually 600,000 dinars of gold, was ap- 
pointed viceroy of Ears and 'Iraq, with the 
rank of Amir-ul-Umra, and the title of 
'Imad-ud-daula. His younger brother Ah- 
mad received the title of Maizz-ud-daula, 
and was nominated wazTr to the khalif. 
Hasan, who was his second brother, received 
the title of Euku-ud-daula, and acted, during 
the life of 'Ali Buya, under that chief. 'Ali 
Buya fixed his residence at Shiraz, and died 
on Sunday the 11th November, a.d. 949, 
16th Jamad I. a.h. 338, much regretted by 
his soldiers and subjects. He was succeeded 
by his brother Ilukn-ud-daula. 

SuHfins of the raee of Buya, who reigned 108 
Imiiir years in Persia. 

'Imad - ud - daula 'All Buya ; Maizz - ud - 
daula Ahmad ; Eukn-u'd-daula Hasan, 
sons of Buya. 

Azd-ud-daula ; Mouyyad-ud-daula; E.ikhr- 
ud-daida Abiil Hasan, sous of Eukn- 

Majd-ud-daula, son of Fakhr-nd-daula. 

Izz-ud-daula Bakhtyar, son of Maizz-ud- 

'Ali Durdazd (Moulana) (o;j Lc 



i_S-JU|^'.;_j1 U)1^^), of Astarabad. 

A poet who was contemporary with Katibi 
Tarshizi, who died in a d. 1435, a.h. 840. 
He is the author of a diwan. He was living 
in A.D. 1436, in which year his wife died, on 
which account he wrote a beautiful elegy. 





Alif bin Nur Kashani ( ^ 
i__^i-iia,y), author of another Matla- 

ul-Antrar, besides the one of the same name 
■written by Mnlla Husaiu Waez. This is a 
complete history of Muhammad, his descen- 
dants, with Memoirs of the khalifs. 

'Ali Ghulam Astarabadi (*il_E. I_c 
^f^Hjl^^.l), a poet who served under 

the kings of Deccan and was living in a.d. 
1565, A.H. 972, in which year Eamraj the 
raja of Bijanagar was defeated and slain in 
a battle against the Muhammadan princes of 
Deccan, of which event he wrote a chrono- 

'Ali Hamdani ( ^lj^.^_fc U). 
Sayyid 'All Hamdani. 


'Ali Hamza {i'^. 


.1_e), author of 

the Jawdhir-ul- Asrar, a commentary on the 
abstruse meaning; of the verses of the Quran, 
etc., being an abridgment of the Miftah-ul- 
Asrar, written in a.d. 1436. 'All Hamza's 
poetical name is 'Azuri, which see. 

'Ali Hazin (Shaikh Muhammad) 
(i^U5- iS^''^)' ViAe Hazin. 

'Aliibn Isa (J^.^.-^ ^\ ^Ic), general 

of the khalif al-Amin, killed in battle against 
Tahir ibu Husain, the general of the khalif 
al-Maniun, in the year a.d. 811, a.h. 196, 
and his head sent as a present to the khalif. 

'Ali ibn ul-Rijal ( JU^Sl ^\ 

author of the Arabic work on astronomy called 
Albdra' ahkdm Najum. 

'Ali Ibrahim Khan (^Ui- f^^j'} is^^' 

a native of Patna, who became judge of 
Banaras. He was the author of twenty-eight 
mans and several other works, and a tazkira 
or biography of Urdii poets, which he wrote 
about the year A.D. 1782, a.h. 1196, and which 
he entitled Guhzdr-i-Ihrahim. His poetical 
name is Khalil. He is called Hal by Ishki 

'Ali Jah (ilj?- t^^), the eldest son of 

the Nizam of Haidarabad. He rebelled 
against his father in June, a.d. 1795, was 
defeated and made prisoner, and died shortly 

'Ali Lala (Shaikh Razi - uddin), 

a native of Ghazni. His father Sayyid Lala 
was the uncle of Shaikh Sanai the poet. He 
was a disciple of Najm-uddin Kubra and his 
title Shaikh-ul-Shaiukh. He died a.d. 1244, 
A.H. 642, aged 76 lunar years. 

'Ali Mahaemi {^aj\^ ^U), a native 

of Mahaem in the Deccan, was the son of 
Shaikh Ahmad, and is the author of the com- 
mentary on the Quran entitled Tafslr liah- 
muiil. He died A.D. 1431, a.h. 835. 

'Ali Mardan Khan (A; 



AmTr-ul-Dmra, was a native of Persia and 
governor of Qandahar on the part of the king 
of Persia, hut finding himself exposed to much 
danger from the tjTranny of his sovereign Shah 
Sail, he gave up the place to the emperor Shah 
Jahan, and himself took refuge at Dehli in 
the year a.d. 1637, a.h. 1047. He was re- 
ceived with great honour, was created Amlr- 
ul-Umra, and was, at different times, made 
governor of Kashmir and Kabul, and employed 
in various wars and other duties. He excited 
universal admiration at the court hy the skill 
and judgment of his public works, of which 
the canal which bears his name at DehlT still 
affords a proof, and the taste and elegance he 
displayed on all occasions of show and festivity. 
He died on his way to Kashmir, where he was 
going for change of air, on the 16th April, 
A.D. o.s. 1657, 12th Rajah, a.h. 1067, and 
was buried at Lahore in the mausoleum of his 
mother. He left three sons, viz., Ibrahim 
Khan, Isma'Tl Beg and Is-haq Beg, of whom 
the two last were slain in the battle which 
took place between Dara Shikoh and 'Alam- 
gir at Dhaulpur on the 29th May, o.s. 1658, 
7th Eamazan, a.h. 1068. He is believed to 
have introduced the bulbous Tartar dome into 
Indian architecture. 

'Ali Mosi Raza (l^ ^■^}-^ ic^-^^' ^'le 

eighth Imam of the race of Ali, and the son 
of Miisi Kazim the seventh Imam. His 
mother's name was Umm Sayyid ; he was 
born in the year a.d. 764 or a.d. 769, a.h. 
147, and died on Friday the 12th August, 
a.d. 818, 9th Safar, a.h. 203. His wife's 
name was Umm Habil, the daughter of the 
Klialif al-Mamun. His sepulchre is at Tiis 
in Khm'asan. That town is now commonly 
called Mash-had, that is, the place of martyr- 
dom of the Imam. To the enclosm-e wherein 
his tomb is raised, the Persians give the name 
of " Eauzat Kizawl," or the garden of Baza, 
and esteem it the most sacred spot in all 
Persia. The chief ornament and support of 
Mash-had is this tomb, to which many thou- 
sands of pious pilgrims annually resort, and 
which had been once greatly enriched by the 
bounty of sovereigns. Na.sir-ullah Mirza, the 
sou of Nadir Shah, carried away the golden 
railing that surrounded the tomb, and Nadir 
Mirza, son of Shah-rukli Mirza and grand- 
son of Nadir Shah, took down the great 
golden ball which ornamented the top of the 
dome over the grave, and which was said to 
weigh 60 maunds or 420 pounds. The carpets 
fringed with gold, the golden lamps, and 
everything valuable were plundered by these 
necessitous and rapacious princes. All Miisi 
Baza was poisoned by the khalif al-Mamiin, 
consequently is called a martyi-. 




'All Muhammad Klian (a.,«w.s^ -Lt 

ijl^), founder of the Eoliila govern- 

meut. It is meulioned in Forster's Triivels, 
that ill the year a.d. 1720 Basharat Khfiu 
aud Dafid Klian, of tlie tribe of Eoiilias, 
aecoinpanied by a small number of their 
advi ndiriius couutrymeu, came into Hindustan 
in quest of military ser\-ie(\ They were first 
entertained by Marian iShah, a Hindii chief of 
Srrauli (a small town on the the north-west 
quarter of Rohilkhand) who by robbery and 
predatory excm'sions maintained a large party 
of banditti. In the phmder of an adjacent 
village, Daud Ivhun captured a youth of the 
Jat sect, whom he adopted and brought up in 
the Muhammadan faith, by the name of 'AIT 
Muhammad, and distinguished this boy by 
pre-eminent marks of paternal affection. 
Some years alter, the llohilas quarrelling 
with iiadan Shall, retired from his country, 
aud associating themselves with Chand Khan, 
the chief of Bareli, they jointly entered into 
the service of Azinat Khan, the governor of 
Moradabad. After the death of I)aiid Khan, 
who was slain by the mountaineers iu one of 
his excursions, the Eohila party in a short 
space of time seized on the districts of Madan 
Shah and 'All Muhammad Klian was declared 
chief of the party. From the negligence of 
government and the weak state of the empire 
of Dehli in the reign of Muhammad Shah, 
he possessed himself of the district of Katir 
(now called from the residence of the Eohilas, 
Kohilkhnnd) and assumed independence of 
the royal authority. He was besieged in 
March, a.d. 1745, Safar, a.h. 1158, in a 
fortress called Bankar and 'Aoula and taken 
prisoner, but was released after some time, 
and a jiigir conferred on him. The emperor 
Muhammad Shiih died in April, a.d. 1748, 
A.H. 1161, aud 'All Muhammad Khan some 
time after him in the same year at 'Aoula, 
which he had ornamented with numerous 
public and private edifices. He left four 
sons, viz., Sa'd-ullah Khiin, Abdullah Klian, 
Faiz-idlah Khun, and Diinde KliSu. Sa'd- 
ullah Khan succeeded to his father's posses- 
sion, being then twelve years old. 
[Vide Sa'd-ullah Klmn.] 

'All (Mulla) (L^ ^.Lr ), Muhaddis or 

the traditionist, whose poetical name was 
"Tari," died in the year a.d. 1573, a.h. 
981, and Mulla 'Alam wrote the chronogram 
of his death. 

'All Murad Khan (J[.^ ^i\^.^ i^-=)> 

a king of Persia of the Zand family. He 
succeeded to the throne after the death of 
Sadiq Khan in March, a.d. 1781, and assumed 
the title of wakil. He reigned over Persia 
five years, and was independent of the govern- 
ment two years prior to this period. I'ersia 
during this time enjoyed a certain degree of 
peace. He continued to confine his rival 
'Aka Muhammad lOian to the province of 
Muzindarau. He died in a.d. 1785. 

'All Murad (Mir), present chief of 
liliairpiir (1869). 

'Ali Naqi (Imam) (*L*1 sJ ^t-Lc) 

was the teuth Imam of the race of 'AlT, aud 
the son of Imam JNIuhammad Taqi, who was 
the ninth Imam. He was born in the year 
A.D. 828, A.H. 213, and died on the 17th 
June, A.D. 869, 3rd Eajab, a.h. 265. His 
tomb is in Sarmani'ae (which is also called 
Samira) in Baghdad, where his son Muham- 
mad Askari was also buried afterwards. 

'Ali NacLi Khan (Nawah) ( Li l^ 

(—j^j-j ^|L:^), the father-in-law and 

prime minister of "Wajid 'Ali Shah, the last 
king of Lucknow. He died at Lucknow of 
cholera about the 1st December, 1871, 17th 
Ramzan, a.h. 1278. 

'Ali Naqi (^iu ^s^), Diwan of Prince 

Murad Bakhsh, son of Shalyahi, whom he 
slew with his own hand. 

'Ali Nawedi (^Jo^J ^c), a poet and 

pupil of Shah Tahir AndjanI, came to India, 
where he was patronized by Abul Fatha 
Husain Nizam Shah I. in the Deccan. For 
some time he was in disgrace with his patron 
and changed his Takhallns or poetical name 
from Nawedi to Na-umaidi (or hopeless). 
He died in a.d. 1567, a.h. 975, at Ahmad- 
nagar in the Deccau. 

'Ali Quli Beg. Vide Shah Afghan 

'Ali Quli Beg of Khurasan ( Jj Lc 

L_^_..j), author of a tazkira or hio- 
graphy of poets. 

'Ali Quli Khan (Nawalo) ( Jj ^I.£ 
^^\s>-). Vide Ganna Begam. 

'Ali Qusanji (Mulla) (^.rcUuJ ^jz). 
Tide MuUa, 'Ali Qusanji. 

'Ali Qusanji (Mulla) {^^^^^ f^!^), 

author of the Sharah Tajrld, and Hashia 
Kashshnf. He cUed in a.d. 1405, a.h. 808. 

'Ali Shahah Tarshizi (t—jL,,^ J_c 
i_5j.-..i _!i), a poet who was a native 

of Tarshish. He flouri.shed in the reign of 
Shah-rukh Mirza, and found a patron in 
his son Muhammad JogT, in whose praise he 
wrote several panegyrics. He was contem- 
porary with the poet Aziu'i, who died a.d. 
1462, a. 11. 8C6. 




• Alisher(Amir) (^^^^^J^), surnamed 

Nizam-iiddin, was the prime minister of the 
Sultan Husain Mirza {q. v.), ruler of Khm-a- 
san. He sprang from an illustrious family of 
the Jaghtai or Chaghtal tribe. His father, 
Gajkma Bahadur, held one of the principal 
offices of government during the reign of 
Sultan Ahiil Qasim Babar Bahadur, great 
grandson of Amir Taimiir. His granclfather, 
by his mother's side, was one of the principal 
Amirs of Sultan Baiqara Mirza', the grand- 
father of Sultan Husain Mirza. 'Alishev, 
who was born a.d. 1440, and educated at 
the same school as his futitte patron, attached 
himself originally to Sultan Abiil Qasim 
Babar Mirza, who was greatly attached to 
him, and called him his son. After his death 
he retired to Mash-had and continued his 
studies there ; which place he subsequently 
quitted for Samarqand, on account of the 
disturbances which broke out in Khurasan, 
and applied himself diligently to the acqidre- 
ment of knowledge in the college of Khwaja 
Fazl-ullah. When Sidtan Husain Mirza 
became uncontrolled ruler of I£hurasan (a.d. 
1469), he requested Sultan Ahmad Mirza, 
at that time ruler of the countries beyond the 
O-xus, to send 'Alisher to him. On his 
arrival he was received with the greatest 
distinction, and raised to the highest posts 
of honour. 'Alisher's palace was open to all 
men of learning : and notmthstanding that 
the reigns of government were placed in his 
hands, in the midst of the weightiest affairs, 
he neglected no opportunity of improving 
both himself and others in the pursuit of 
knowledge. He was not only honoured by 
his own Sultan and his officers, hut foreign 
princes also esteemed and respected him. 
Alter being employed in the capacity of 
dlwan and prime minister for some time, 
love of study induced him to resign, and 
bidding a final adieu to public life, he passed 
the remainder of his days in composing 
Tm'kish and Persian works, of which Sam 
Mirza recounts the names of no less than 
twenty-one. Daulat Shah, the biographer, 
Mirkhund and his son Khtmdamir, the 
historians, dedicated their works to him, 
and amongst other men of genius who were 
cherished by his liberality may he mentioned 
the celebrated poet Jami. His collection of 
Odes in the Chaghtal or pure Turkish dialect, 
which he wrote under the poetical name of 
Nawal, amounts to 10,000 couplets, and his 
parody of Nizami's five poems, containing 
nearly 30,000 couplets, is universally admired 
by the cultivators of Turkish poetry, in which 
he is considered to be without a rival. In 
the Persian language also he wrote a collec- 
tion of Odes, under the poetical name of FanI 
or Fanai, consisting of 6000 distiches. He 
was also a proficient in painting and some of 
the pla.stic arts. 'Alisher died on Sunday 
the 6th December, a.d. 1500, 15th Jamad 
I. A.H. 906, five years before his royal friend 
and master Sidtan Husain Mirza. Khiin- 
damlr has recorded the year of his death in 
an affectionate chronogram : "His highness 
the Amir, the asylum of divine guidance, in 

whom all the marks of mercy were con- 
spicuous, has quitted the thorny brake of 
the world, and fled to the rose-garden of 
compassion. Since the ' light of mercy ' has 
descended on his soul, those words represent 
the year of his departure." One of his works 
is called Majalis-ul-Nafdes, 

'AliTaljar (Prince) (iolj.,^,.i^LL, ^c), 

was the son of prince 'Azim Shah, and grand- 
son of the emperor 'Alamgir. He died in 
the year A.D. 1734, a.h. 1147. 

'Ali Waez Q^\^ ^), the son of the 
famous Husain "Waez Kashifl of Hirat. 
[ Vide 'All, son of Husain "Waez.] 

'Ali Wardi Khan {J^ ^j,^ ^L), 
also called Alahwardi Khan, which see. 

'Ali Yezdi (^_^jjj ^L). Fide Sharaf- 
uddin 'All Yezdi. 

Aljaitu {^j:^yJ\), a Tartar king of 

Persia, who assumed the title of Muhammad 
Khuda Banda on his accession to the throne, 
which see. 

Al-Khassaf (>_}Ui.i:!l). Vide Abu 
Bakr Ahmad bin-'Umar al-Khassaf. 

'AUama Dawani. Vide Dawani. 

'AUama Hilli (Shaikh) (^W ^UiLc 
^"'^), the great Shia lawyer, whose 

full name is Shaikh al- 'AUama Jamal-uddln 
Hasan bin Yusuf al-Mutakhir Hilli, was the 
author of the Khuldsat-ul-Aqwal, a bio- 
graphy of eminent Shias. His chief works 
on the subject of traditions are the Istiksd 
al-Ya'tbSr, the Masdbih al-Anwdr, and the 
Durar-wa al-Marjdn. He died in A.D. 1326, 
A.H. 726. 

\_Vide Jamal-uddin Hasan bin Yusuf.] 

'Allami. Vide Afzal Khan. 

'AUami ( ^Ls), the poetical name of 

Shaikh Ahiil Fazl, the favorite wazir and 
secretary of the emperor Akbar. 

'AUami Shirazi (^jl^.-_^ ^^^Lr), or 

the philosopher of Shiraz, a very learned 
man, so generally called that his proper name 
is almost forgotten. He is the author of a 
celebrated collection of tracts on piu-e and 
mixed mathematics, entitled Durrat-iit-TdJ. 




Al-Mahdi (^-j.^^0, the third khallf 

of the rncc of Abbas, succepflorl his father, Abu 
Ja'lar al-Mausiii-, to the throue of Bas'hdaJ, 
and was iuausurated on Sunday the 8th 
Octnlier, A.D. 775, 6th Zil-hiija, a.h. 158. 
From the accession of al-Mahdi to the year 
A.u. 781, A.H. 164, the most remarkable 
event was the rebellion of al-Maqna (or al- 
Maqanna), which see. All this time war had 
been carried on with the Greeks, but without 
any remarkable .success on either side. But 
after the sujjpression of the rebellion of al- 
Maqna, the kbalTf ordered his son Harun-al- 
Eashid to penetrate into the Greek territories 
with an army of 95,000 men. Harun then, 
haying entered tlie dominions of the empress 
Irene, defeated one of her commanders that 
advanced against him ; after which he laid 
waste several of the imperial provinces with 
fire and sword, and even threatened the city 
of Constantinople itself. liy this the empress 
was so terrified, that she purchased a peace 
with the khallf by paying him an annual 
tribute of 70,000 pieces of gold, which for the 
present at least delivered her from the depre- 
dations of these barbarians. After the signing 
of the treaty, Harun returned home laden with 
spoils and glory. This year {i.e. the 164th 
year of the Hijri or a.d. 781) according to 
some of the oriental historians, the sun one day, 
a little after his rising, totally lost his light 
in a moment without being eclipsed, when 
neither any fog nor any cloud of dust appeared 
to obscure bim. This frightful dai'kness con- 
tinued till noon, to the great astonishment 
of the people settled in the countries where it 
happened. Al-Mahdi was poisoned, though 
undesignedly, by one of his concubines, named 
Hasana. She had designed to destroy one of 
her rivals whom she imagined to have too 
great an ascendancy over the khalif , by giving 
her a poisoned pear. Tliis the latter, not 
snspecting anything, gave to the khalif ; who 
had no sooner eaten it than he felt himself 
in exquisite torture, and soon after expired. 
This event took place on the eve of Thursday 
the 4th August, a.d. 785, 23rd Muhurrara, 
A.H. 169, in a village called Ar Ead in the de- 
pendencies of Masabadan. He was succeeded 
by his eldest sou al-HacU. 

Al-Mahdi (^a.^^1), a khallf of 

Barhary. Vide Obeid-ullah al-Jlahdl and 
Muhammad al-MahdI. 

Al-Mamun ((j^^UH), surnamed 'Ab- 
dullah, was the seventh khalif of the race of 
the Abbasides, and the second sou of Hariin- 
al-Rashid. He was proclaimed khalif at 
Baghdad on the 6th October, a.d. 813, 6tb 
Safar, a.h. 198, the day on which his brother 
al-Amju was assassinated. He conferred the 
government of Khurasan upon Tabir ibn 
Husain, his general, and his descendants with 
almost absolute and unlimited power. This 
happened in the year a.d. 820, a.h. 205, 
from which time we may date the dismem- 
berment of that province from the empire 

of the kbalTfs. During the reign of this 
khalif nothing remarkable happened ; only 
the African Moslems invaded the island of 
Sicilv, where they made themselves master 
of several places. Al-Mamiin conquered part 
of Crete, had the best Greek writers trans- 
lated into Arabic, and made a collection of 
the best authors. He also calculated a set of 
astronomical tables and founded an academy 
at Baghdad. In Khurasan he made Tils, at 
that time the capital of the kingdom, his 
place of residence. Under his patronage 
Khurasan became the resort of learned men ; 
and the city of Tus, the great rival of Bagh- 
dad. He "died of a surfeit on the 18th 
August, A.D. 833, 17th Rajah, a.h. 218, 
after a reign of 20 years and some months 
in Asia Minor, aged 48 years, and was 
biuied at Tarsus, a city on the frontiers 
of Asia Minor. His wife named Buran, 
daugliter of Hasan ibn Sahl, his prime 
minister, out-lived him 50 years, and died 
on Tuesday the 22ud September, a.d. 884, 
27tb Eabi I. a.h. 271, aged 80 years. 
Al-Mamiin was succeeded by his brother 
al-Mo'tasini Billah. 

Al-Mansur (.y^.:,^\), 2nd khalif of 

Barbary of the Fatimite race. Vide Ismail, 
surnamed al-Mansiir. 

Al-Mansur {.^...nJ^^l]), whose former 

name was Abii Ja'far, was called al-Mansiir, 
the victorious, by his overcoming his enemies. 
He was the second khalif of the noble house 
of Bani Abbas or Abbasides, and succeeded 
to the throne of Irak at Baghdad after the 
death of his brother Abiil Abbas surnamed 
al-Saffah, in a.d. 754, a.h. 136. He was 
opposed by his uncle, 'Abdullah, son of Ali, 
who caused himself to be proclaimed khalif at 
Damascus, hut was defeated by al-Mansiir's 
general, Abii Muslim. He laid the founda- 
tion of the city of Baghdad on the banks of 
the Tigris in a.d. 762, and finished it four 
years after. He was a prince of extraordinary 
talent and taste, and an ardent lover of science 
and literature. He got the Pablawi copy of 
I'ilpay's Fables translated into Arabic. In 
the j-ear a.d. 776, a.h. 168, the khalif set 
out from Baghdad in order to perform the 
pilgrimage to Mecca ; hut being taken ill on 
the road, he expired at Bir Maimiin, whence 
his body was carried to Mecca, where, after 
100 graves had been dug, that his sepulchre 
might be concealed, he was interred, having 
lived, according to some 63, according to 
others 68 years, and reigned 22 lunar years. 
He is said to have been extremely covetous, 
and to have left in his treasury 600,000,000 
clirhams and 24,000,000 dinars. He is re- 
ported to have paid his cook by assigning him 
the heads and legs of the animals dressed in 
his kitchen, and to have obliged bim to pro- 
cure at his own expense all the fuel and 
vessels he had occasion for. He was succeeded 
by his sou al-Mabdi. A Christian physician, 
named Bactishua, was very eminent at the 
court of al-Mansiir, who imderstanding that 


lie had an old infirm woman for his wife, sent 
him three beautiful Greek girls and 3,000 
dinars as a present. Bactishua sent hack the 
girls and told the khallf that his religion pro- 
hibited liis having more than one wife at a 
time ; which pleased the khalif so much, 
that he loaded him with presents, and per- 
mitted him, at his earnest request, to retm-u 
to his own country of Khurasan. 

Al-Maqna or al-Maqanna (j.iJL*JO, 

a famous impostor of Khurasan who lived in 
the reign of al-Mahdi the khalifa of Bagh- 
dad. His true name was Hakam ibn Hasham, 
and he had been an under-secretary to Abu 
Muslim , governor of that province . He after - 
wards turned soldier, and passed thence into 
Mawarunnahr, where he gave himself out as 
a prophet. The name of al-Maqua, as also 
that of al-Burqai, that is, the veiled, he re- 
ceived from his custom of covering his face 
with a veil or girdle-mask, to conceal his 
deformity ; he haWng lost an eye in the wars, 
and being otherwise of a despicable appear- 
ance, and a stutterer ; though his followers 
pretended he did this for the same reason that 
Moses did, viz., lest the splendour of his 
countenance should dazzle the eyes of his 
beholders. In some places he made a great 
many prosel)'tes, deluding the people with 
a number of jugghug tricks which they 
swallowed as miracles, and particularly by 
causing the appearance of a moon to rise out 
of a well for many nights together ; whence 
he was also called in the Persian tongue, 
Sazinda Mah, or the Moon-maker. This 
wretch, not content with being reckoned a 
prophet, arrogated to himself divine honours ; 
pretending that the Deity resided in his per- 
son. He had first, he said, assumed the body 
of Adam, then that of Noah, and subsequently 
of many other wise and great men. The last 
human form he pretended to have adopted 
was that of Abu Muslim, a prince of Khu- 
rasan, from whom it proceeded to him. At 
last this impostor raised an open rebellion 
against the khalif, and made himself master 
of several fortified places in Khurasan, so 
that al-Mahdl was obliged to send one of his 
generals with an army against him about the 
year A.D. 780, a.h. 163. Upon the approach 
of the khalifa's troops, al-Maqna retired into 
one of his strong fortresses which he had well 
provided for a. siege. But being closely be- 
sieged by the khalifa's forces, and seeing no 
possibiUty of escaping, he gave poison in wine 
to his whole family and all that were with 
him in the castle ; when they were dead, he 
burnt their bodies, together with all their 
furniture, provisions, and cattle ; and lastly 
he threw himself into the flames. He had 
promised his followers, that his soul should 
transmigrate into the form of an old man 
riding on a greyish coloured beast, and that 
after so many years he would return and give 
them the earth for their possession ; which 
ridiculous expectation kept the sect in being 
for several years. English readers will re- 
member the use made of this story by the 
author of Lallah Eookh. 

61 AL-MO 

Al-Mo'tamid BiUah (^.U^ A-^^i^^O, 
the fifteenth khalif of the house of Abbas, 
was the son of al-Mutwakkil Billah. He was 
raised to the throne of Baghdad by the Turks 
after the mm-der of al-Mulitad! in a.d. 870, 
A.H. 256. This year the prince of the Zan- 
jians. All or al-Habib, made incm-sions to the 
very gates of Baghdad, doing prodigious mis- 
chief wherever he passed. In the year a.d. 
874, Ya'kiib-bin-Lys having taken Khurasan 
from the descendants of Tahir, attacked and 
defeated Muhammad ibn Wasil (who had 
killed the khalifa governor of Fars, and 
afterwards made himself master of that pro- 
vince), seizing on his palace, where he found 
a sum of money amounting to 40,000,000 
dirhams. In the year a.d. 879, a.h. 265, 
Ahmad ibn Tulan rebelled against the khalif 
and set up for himself in Egypt. There were 
now four independent powers in the Moslem 
dominions, besides the house of Umyj'a in 
Spain, fiz., the African Moslems, or Aghla- 
bites, who had for a long time acted indepen- 
dently ; Ahmad ibn Tulan in Syria and Egypt ; 
Ya'kiib ibn al-Lys in Khurasan, and al-H'ab!b 
in Arabia and I'riiq. In the year a.d. 883, 
A.H. 270, al-Habib was defeated and slain by 
al-Muwafiq, the khalTf's brotherandcoadjutor, 
who ordered his head to be cut off, and carried 
through a great part of that region which he had 
so long distm-bed. In the year a.d. 891, a.h. 
278, the Qarmatians first made their appear- 
ance in the Moslem empire, and gave almost 
continual disturbance to the khalifs and their 
subjects. Al-Mo'tamid reigned 22 lunar 
years 1 1 months and some days, and died in 
the year a.d. 892, a.h. 279. He was suc- 
ceeded by his nephew, al-Mo'tazid Billah, the 
son of al-Muwatiq. 

Al-Mo'tasim Billali (iAJL f^-^j^\) 

was the fourth son of Hariin-al-Eashid, and 
the eighth khalif of the house of Abbas. He 
succeeded to the throne by virtue of his brother 
al-Maraiin's express nomination of him to the 
exclusion of his own son al- 'Abbas, and his 
other brother al-Qasim, who had been ap- 
pointed by Hariin-al-Rashid. In the begin- 
ning of his reign, a.d. 833, a.h. 218, he was 
obliged to employ the whole forces of his 
empire against one Babak, who had been for 
a considerable time in rebellion in Persia and 
Persian Iraq, and had taken upon himself the 
title of a prophet. He was, however, de- 
feated and slain. In the year a.d. 838, a.h. 
223, the Greek emperor Theophilus invaded 
the khalTf's territories, where he behaved with 
the greatest cruelty, and, by destroying Sozo- 
petra, the place of al-Mo'tasim's nativity, 
notwithstanding his earnest entreaties to the 
contrary, occasioned the terrible distinction of 
Amorium. He is said to have been so robust, 
that he once carried a burden of 1,000 pounds 
weight several paces. As the people of Bagh- 
dad disturbed him with frequent revolts and 
commotions, he took the resolution to abandon 
that city, and build another for his own resi- 
dence. The new city he built was first called 
Samira, and afterwards Sarmanri (for that 




whicli gives pleasure at first sight), ami stood 
in the Arabian 'Iraq. lie was attached to 
the opinion of the Matazalites wlio maintain 
the creation of the (Juriiu; and both he and 
his predecessor cruplly persecuted tliose who 
believed it to be eternal. Al-Jlo'tasira died 
on Thursday the 5th January, a.d. 8-12, 18tb 
Eabi I. A.H. 227. He reigned eight years, 
eight months and eiglit days, was born in the 
eighth month iShaban) of the year, was the 
eighth khalif of the house of Abbas, ascended 
the throne in the 218th year of the Hijri, 
died on the eighteenth of liabi I. lived forty- 
eight years, fought eight battles, built eight 
palaces, begat eight sons and eight daughters, 
had 8,000 slaves, and had 8,000,000 dinars, 
and 80,000 dirhams in his treasury at his 
death, whence the oriental historians gave 
hira tlie name of al-Miisamman, or the Oc- 
tonary. He was the iirst khalif that added 
to his name the title of Bdlah, eqidvalent 
to the Ilei Gratia of Christian sovereigns. 
He was succeeded by his son al-Walhiq or 
"Wasiq Billah. 

'Al-Mo'tazid Billali (iUl.. 



the son of al-Muwafiq, the son of al-Mut- 
"wakkil Billah, was the sixteenth khalif of the 
race of Abbas. He came to the throne of 
Baghdad after the death of his uncle al- 
Mo'tamid Billah in a.d. 892, a.h. 279. In 
the tirst year of his reign, he demanded in 
marriage the daughter of I£haraarawia, Sultan 
or khalif of Egypt, the son of Ahmad ibn 
Tulan ; which ^\as agreed to by him with the 
utmost joy, and their nuptials were solemnized 
with great pomp in the year a.d. 89.5, a.h. 
282. He carried on a war with the Qarma- 
tians, hut very unsuccessfully, his forces being 
defeated with great slaughter, and his general 
al-Abbas taken prisoner. The khalif some 
time after his marriage granted to Harun, 
son of Khamarawia, the perpetual prefecture 
of Awasam and Kinnisrin, which he annexed 
to that of Egypt and Syria, upon condition 
that he paid him an annual tribute of 45,000 
dinars. He reigned nine years, eight mouths 
and twenty-five days, and died in a.d. 902, 
a.h. 289. His son al-Muktafi Billah suc- 
ceeded him. 

Al-MugMra (i-^_^_A_^_n), the son of 

Sayj-id and governor of Kufa in the time of 
Mij'awia, the first khalif of the house of 
tJmyya. He was an active man, and of very 
good parts ; he had lost one of his eyes at the 
battle of Yersnouk, though some say that it 
was with looking at an eclipse. By the 
followers of Ali he was accounted to be of 
the wrong party, and one of the chief of 
them. For thus they reckon : There are 
five elders on All's side : Muhammad, Ali, 
Fatima, Hasan and Husain ; and to these are 
opposed Abii Bakr, 'Umar, Muawia, Amrii 
and al-Mnghira. He died in the year a.d. 
670, A.H. 50, at Kiifa. A great plague had 
been raging in the citv, which made him 
retire from it; but returning upon its violence 
abating, he nevertheless caught it, and ched 
of it. 

Al-Muhtadi (jj:.\_-_^,_/«.Jl), the four- 
teenth khalif of the Abbasides, was the sou 
of one ol \Vathiq's concubines named Kurb, 
who is supposed by some to have been a 
Cliristian. Al-^Iulitadi was raised to the 
throne of Baghdad after the dethronement 
of al-Muttai'z Billah in a.d. 869, A.n. 255. 
The beginning of his reign is remarkable for 
the irruption of the Zanjians, a people of 
Xubia, Ethiopia, and the country of Caffrcs, 
into Arabia, wdiere they penetrated into 
the neighbom-hood of Basra and Kiifa. The 
chief of this gang of robbers was 'Ali ibn 
Muhammad ibn Abdiil Kahman, also called 
al-Habib, who falsely gave himself out to he 
of the family of Ali ibn Abii Taleb. This 
made such an impression upon the Shias in 
those parts, that they flocked to him in great 
numbers ; which enabled him to seize upon 
the cities of Basra and Ramla, and even to 
pass the Tigris at the head of a formidable 
army. In the year a.d. 870, a.h. 256, al- 
MuhtadT was barbarously murdered by the 
Turks who had raised hira to the throne. He 
reigned only eleven mouths and was succeeded 
by al-Mo'tamid. 

Al-Mukhtar (.Lu_sr*"\), a celebrated 

Muhammadan chief who had beaten all the 
generals of the khalifs Yezid, Marwan, and 
Abdiil Malik, and had made himself sole 
master of Babylonian I'raq, whereof Kiifa 
was the capital. He persecuted all those he 
could lay his hands on, who were not of 
Husain' s party ; he never pardoned any one 
of those who had declared themselves enemies 
to the family of the prophet, nor those who, 
as he believed, had dipped their hands in 
Husain' s blood or that of his relations. He 
sent an army against Ubeid-uUah the son of 
Zayad, who was sent by the khalif Abdiil 
MaUk towards Kiifa with leave to plunder 
it for three days, and slew him in battle in 
August, a.d. 686, Muharram, a.h. 67. Al- 
Mukhtar was killed at Kafa in a battle 
fought with Misaa'b, the brother of Abdullah, 
the son of Zuber, governor of Basra, in the 
mouth of April, a.d. 687, Eamzan, a.h. 67, 
in the 67th year of his age. It is said that 
he killed nearly 50,000 men. 

Al-Muktafi Billah (ilib J>j:S.^\) 

■was the seventeenth khalif of the house of 
Abbas who reigned in Baghdad. He .suc- 
ceeded his father, al-Mo'tazid Billah, in a.d. 
902, A.H. 289, and proved a warlike and 
successful prince. He gained several advan- 
tages over the Qarraatians, but was not able 
to reduce them. The Turks, however, hav- 
ing invaded the pro\'ince of Miiwarunnahr, 
were defeated with great slaughter ; after 
which al-JIuktafi carried on a successful war 
against the Greeks, from whom he took 
Seleucia. After this he invaded Syria and 
Egypt, which provinces he recovered from 
the house of Ahmad ibn Tiilan in a d. 905, 
A.H. 292 ; he then renewed the war with 
success against the Greeks and Qarmatians. 




Al-Muktafi died in a.d. 908, a.h. 295, after 
a reign of about six years and a half. He was 
the last of the khallfs who made any figure 
by their warlike exploits, nis successors al- 
Muqtadir, al-Qahir, and al-Eazi, were so 
distressed by the Qarmatians and numberless 
usurpers who were every day starting up, 
that by the 32.5th year of the Hijri, a.d. 
937, they had nothing left but the city of 

Al-Muqtadi Billali(A_L!U ^cjcjijl), 

sumamed Abiil Qasim Abd-ullah, the son of 
Muhammad, and grandson of al-Qaem 
Billah, was raised to the throne of Baghdad 
after the death of his grandfather in a.d. 
1075, A.H. 467, by orders of Sultan Malikshah 
Saljiiki, who was then the real master of 
the empire. He was the 27th khalif of the 
race of Abbas, reigned 19 lunar years and 5 
months and died a.d. 1094, a.h. 487. His 
death induced Barkayaraq the Saljiiki, the 
reigning Sultan of Persia, whose brother 
Mahmiid had died about the same period, to 
go to Baghdad, where he confirmed al- 
Mustazhir, the son of the late khalif, as his 
successor, and was himself hailed by the new 
lord of the faithful, as Sultan of the empire. 

Al-Muqtadir Billali (i_ULj^_\:;iiJl), 

the eighteenth khalif nf the house of Abbas, 
was the son of al-Mo'tazid Billah. He 
succeeded his brother al - MuktafI to the 
throne of Baghdad in a.d. 908, a.h. 295. 
He reigned 24 lunar years 2 months and 7 
days, and was murdered by a eunuch on the 
29th October, a.d. 932, 25th Shawwal, a.h. 
320. He was succeeded by his brother al- 
Qahir Billah. 

Al-Mugtafl Bi-amr-illali ( j_i_u.A.^jl 

il\^jyi\j), the son of al-Mustazahr, 

was the 31st khalif of the house of Abbas. 
He succeeded his nephew al-Eashid in a d. 
1136, A.H. 530, reigned about 24 lunar years 
and died in a.d. 1160, a.h. 555, leaving his 
kingdom to his son al-Mustanjad. 

Al-Mustaa'li Billah (<d!lj ^■^x^^W), 

the sixth Fatimite khalif, succeeded his father, 
al-Mustanasar Billah, in the government of 
Egypt and Syria. During his reign, the 
power of that dynasty was impaired, and 
its authority weakened, their political in- 
fluence having ceased in most of the Syrian 
cities, and the provinces of that country 
having fallen into the possessions of the 
Turkmans on one hand, and the Franks on 
the other. This people (the Crusaders) 
entered Syria and encamped before Antioch 
in the month of October, a.d. 1097, Zil- 
qada, a.h. 490 ; they obtained possession 
of it on the 20th June, 1098, I6th Rajab, 
a.h. 491 ; the following year they took 
Maaratun Neman, and in the month of 
July, 1099, Sha'ban, a.h. 492, they became 

masters of Jerusalem, after a siege of more 
than 40 days. This city was taken on a 
Friday morning ; during the ensuing week 
a great multitude of Moslems perished, and 
upwards of 70,000 were slain in the Masjid 

al-Aqsa (or mosque of Umar) al-Musta- 

a'li was born at Cairo on the 24th August, 
A.D. 1076, 20th Muharram, a.h. 469, jn'o- 
claimed khalif on Thm-sday the 28th 
December, a.d. 1094, ISth ?i'l-hijja, a.h. 
4«7, and died in Egypt on the 10th 
December, a.d. 1101, IBth Safar, a.h. 495. 
His son Amar bi Ahkam-uUah Abii Ali 
Mansiir succeeded him. 

Al-Mustaa'sim Billali (aiUj^^x:;^^, 

surnamed Abii Ahmad Abdullah, was the 
thirty-seventh and last khalif of the race of 
Abbas. He succeeded his father, al-Mus- 
tanasar, to the throne of Baghdad in a.d. 
1142, A.H. 640. In his time Halakii Khan 
Tartar, emperor of the Mughals and grand- 
son of the great conqueror Changiz Khau, 
besieged B.ighdad for two months, and 
having taken that place, seized al-Mustaa- 
'sira and his foiu" sons, whom he put to a 
most cruel death with 800,000 of its inhabi- 
tants. Halakii Khan was very desirous of 
seizing upon Baghdad, and of adding the 
whole kingdom ot Mesopotamia to his already 
vast and numerous conquests ; but, partly 
on accoimt of his own sci-uples, and partly 
from fear of oiiending the prejudices of his 
Sunni followers, who were all of the same 
faith with the Idjalif, he refrained for a time 
from entering the sacred dominion of one 
who was considered as the head of their 
holy religion, and the true representative of 
their beloved prophet. But the glorious days 
of the house of Bani Abbas had already been 
numbered, the effeminate Mustaa'sim had 
personal vices enough to lead to and excrse 
the final extinction of his race ! Ibn al- 
Qama, his prime minister (who hated him 
more than any other of his oppressed subjects) 
from within, and Nasir-uddin Tiisi, the 
preceptor of the Mughal prince (who owed 
him an old grudge) from without, lu-ged the 
conqueror to the gates of Baghdad. jSTasir- 
nddin had a few years before been at Bo glulad, 
seeking shelter from persecution, and when he 
was introduced to Mustaa'sim, the latter asked 
him to what country he belonged ? ' ' Tus, 
please yom' holiness," answered I^asir-uddin. 
' ' Art thou of the asses, or of the oxen of 
TSs?" said the khalif (meaning the two 
principal branches of the Shia faith — 
Akhbaris and TJsiilis). Mortified as the 
illustrious refugee was at this inhospitable 
insult, he still submissively answered, " Of 
the oxen of Tiis, please your highness." 
"Where, tlien, are thy horns," said the 
insolent buffoon. " I have them not with 
me," replied Nasir-uddin, "but if your 
holiness permit, I will go and fetch them." 
"Make haste, hence, thence, thou deformed 
animal," said the khalif, "and never again 
appear in ray presence in so imperfect a 
state ! " Nasir-uddin kept his promise well, 
for, at the moment when Baghdad was on 




the point of being snrrendered, and the 
klialif driven to the last extremity, he sent 
him a message to the effect tliat the ox 
of TQs was at the gate with his horns, and 
inquiring, when it would please his holiness 
to receive liim ? Nasir-uddin had in the 
city another old offender, whom he was 
anxious also to chastise. This was ibn 
Ilajib, also one of the khalif's ministers, 
and a person of great reputation for his 
learning : but being an Arabian SunnI, and 
a very bigoted one too, he had behaved still 
more cruelly than his master to the distressed 
Persian Shia when he sought protection at 
Baghdad. Ibn Hajib, having been seized 
with depression of spirits, the physicians had 
recommended him (and the priests had 
granted him dispensation) to take, occasion- 
ally, a little wine. This happened when 
Naslr-uddin was at Baghdad. One day, ibn 
Hajib feeling himself particularly melancholy, 
and having, in consequence, taken a larger 
dose than usual, he became unusually merry, 
and requested Nasir-uddin to accompany him 
on the Tigris. Having reached the middle 
of the stream, he stopped the boat, and 
produced the several volumes of NasTr-uddin's 
works, which the learned refugee had pre- 
sented to the khalif — some of them iu the 
original manuscript, and not yet transcribed, 
and in the presence of their anxious author, 
he threw them all, one after another, into 
the river, with such spiteful force, that the 
water was splashed about in every direction ; 
when turning himself, on each occasion, to 
his mortified guest, he exclaimed wdth a 
sarcastic smile of triumph, "How wonder- 
fully it bubbles ! " "When the tui"n of Nasir- 
uddin came he, too, gave full vent to his 
revenge. He ordered ibn Hajib to be cased 
up to his neck, in an ox's hide, just taken o& 
the animal, and, having filled the skin with 
air, be laid it for a few hours in the sun, till 
it became quite dry, and sounded like a drum. 
Tlien the victor advanced close to his half 
exhausted enemy, gave him a kick of triumph, 
and, as he rolled on the ground, exclaimed, 
" How wonderfully it rattles ! " The fall of 
Baghdad took place on Sunday the 10th 
February, a.d. 1258, 4th Safar, a.h. 656, 
from which time Baghdad was added to the 
other conquered provinces of this proud 
emperor. Al-Mustaa'sim reigned 15 lunar 
years and 7 months. 


Al-Musta'in Billali (alllt 

the son of Muhammad, the son of al- 
Mo'tasim Billah, was the twelfth khalif of the 
race of Abbas. He ascended the throne of 
Baghdad in a.d. 862, a.h. 248, after the 
death of his cousin or brother al-Mustauasar 
Billah, but was forced to abdicate the throne 
in A.D. 866, A.H. 252, by his brother al- 
Mo'tiz Billah, who afterwards caused him to 
be privately murdered. 

Al-Mustakfi Billah (iUb ^i<^:^^\) 

was the 22nd khalif of the Abbaside family, 
and the son of al-Muktafl, the son of al- 
Mo'tazid Billah. He succeeded his uncle 

al-Jfuttaqi in a.d. 945, A.n. 333, reigned in 
Baghdad one year and four months, and was 
deposed by his wazir in a.d. 946, a.h. 334. 
After him al-MutIa' Billah was raised to the 


the son of Tahir, was the fifth khalif of 
Egypt of the Fatimite race. He succeeded 
his father a.d. 1036, and with the assistance 
of a Turk named Basasiri, conquered Bagh- 
dad and imprisoned al-Eaem Billah about 
the year a.d. 1054, and for a year and a half 
was acknowledged the only legitimate chief 
of all the Musalmans. Basasiri was defeated 
and killed by Tughral Beg a.d. 1059, a.h. 

[ Vide Basasiri. Al-Mustanasar died in 
1094, having reigned 60 years ; and was 
succeeded by his son al-Mustaa'li Billah 
Abul Qasim.] 

Al-Mustansir Billah I.(aiHj 


the eleventh khalif of the race of Abbas, 
ascended the throne of Baghdad after the 
murder of his father, al-Mutwakkil, in 
December, A.D. 861, Shawwal, a.h. 247, 
and had reigned only six months, when he 
was cut oif by the hand of death in a.d. 862, 
A.H. 248. He was succeeded by his cousin 
al-Musta'In Billah. 

Al - Mustansir Billah II. { ^:,:xm^\ 

<t-i_U_j), surnamcd Abii Ja'far al- 

Mansiir, ascended the throne of Baghdad 
after the death of his father, al-Tahir, in 
A.D. 1226, A.H. 623. He was the 36th 
khalif of the house of Abbas, reigned about 
17 years, and died a.d. 1242, a.h, 640, 
leaving his kingdom to his son al-Mustaa'- 
sim Billah, the last of the khalif s. 

Al-Mustanjid Billah(a,JJlj jisa-UA«-«Jl), 

the 32nd khalif of the race of Abbas, suc- 
ceeded to the throne of Baghdad after the 
death of his father al-Muktafi, in a.d. 1160, 
A.H. 555, reigned 11 lunar years and died in 
a.d. 1171, A.H. 566, when his son al-MustazJ 
succeeded him. 

Al-MustarashidBillah(<d]lj A-iyuuiU, 

the twenty-ninth khalif of the Abbaside 
family, succeeded his father, al-Mustazahr, 
to the throne of Baghdad in a.d. 1118, 
A.H. 512. It is related by ibn KJiallikan 
that when Sultan MasaUd, the son of Muham- 
mad, the sou of Malikshah Saljuki, was 
encamped outside the town of Maragha in 
Azurbejan, al-Mustarashid was then with 
him, and on Thursday the 28th or, according 
to ibn Mustaufi, the 14th or 28th Zil'qada, 
A.H. 529 (corresponding with the 24th 
August or 7th September, a.d. 1135), a 
baud of assassins broke into the khalif's tent 
and murdered him. Al-Mustarashid reigned 
17 lunar years and some months, and was 
succeeded by his son al-Rashid BiUah. 




Al-Mustazhir Billah (<dllj^,!ij;^l), 

the son of al-Muqtadr, was the twenty-eighth 
khallf of the dynasty of Abbas. "He was 
placed on the throne of Baghdad after the 
death of his father in a.b. 1U94, a.h. 487, 
by Barkyaraq Saljiiki, the Tm-kish Sultan of 
Persia. He reigned 2.5 lunar years and some 
mouths, and at his death, wliich happened 
in the year a.d. 1118, a.h. 512, he was 
succeeded by his son al-Mustarashid. 

Al-Mustazi Bi-amr-illali ( ^.:x^^\ 

'dll^b), the thirty-third khalif of 

the Abbaside family, succeeded bis father, al- 
Mustanjad, to the thi-oue of Baghdad in a.d. 
H71, AH. 566. He reigned about seven 
years and died in a.d. 1179, a.h. 675, when 
his son al-Nasir Billah succeeded him. 

Al-Mutaa'zz Billali (^Ij j«::uJl), the 

son of al-Mutwakkil, was the 13th khalif of 
the race of Abhas. He deposed his brother 
al-Mustain in a.d. 866, a.h. 252, and having 
caused him to be murdered privately, ascended 
the throne of Baghdad. He did not, how- 
ever, long enjoy the dignity of which he had 
so iniquitously possessed himself, being de- 
posed by the Turkish Militia (who now 
began to set up and depose khallfs as they 
pleased) in the year a.d. 869, a.h. 25o. 
After his deposition, he was sent under 
an escort from Sarr Manrae to Baghdad, 
where he died of thirst and hunger, after a 
reign of three years and about seven mouths. 
The fate of this khalif was peculiarly hard : 
the Turkish troops had mutinied for their 
pay ; and al-Mutaa'zz not having money to 
satisfy their demands, applied to his mother, 
named Kabiha, for 60,000 dinars. This she 
refused, telling him that she had no money at 
all, although it afterwards appeared that she 
was possessed of immense treasure. After 
his deposition, however, she was obliged to 
discover them, and even deposit them in the 
hands of the new khalif al-Muhtadi. They 
consisted of 1,000,000 dinars, a bushel of 
emeralds, and another of pearls, and three 
pounds and three quarters of rubies of the 
colour of fire. 

Al-Mutia' BiUali (aUU j-Ja^ll), the 

twenty-third Uialif of the race of Abbas, was 
the son of al-Muqtadir Billah. He ascended 
the throne of Baghdad after al-Mustakfi in 
a.d. 946, a.h. 334, reigned 29 lunar years 
and 4 months, and died in a.d. 974, a.h. 363. 
It was in his time that the temporal power 
of the khalifs of Baghdad, after having been 
long sustained by Turkish mercenaries, was 
completely and finally broken by the Byzantine 
Eomans, led by Nicephoms Phocas and John 
Zimisces. [Smith's Gibbon (ed. 1862), vi. 
pp. 106, 422, 427-8.] His son al-Taya' 
succeeded him. 

Al-Muttaqi Billah (ililj j_y--»!0, the 
son of al-Muqtadir, was the twenty-first 

khalif of the dynasty of Abbas. He succeeded 
his brother al-Eazi Billah to the throne of 
Baghdad in a.d. 941, a.h. 329, reigned 3 
years 11 months and 15 days, and died in 
A.D. 945, A.H. 333. He was succeeded by 
his nephew al-Mustaqfi, the son of al-Muktafi. 

Al-Mutwakkil 'Al-allah (Jiyi^l 

i^ulj.i:). This was the name and 

title assumed by Abiil Fazl Ja'far on his 
accession to the throne of Baghdad. He was 
the tenth khalTf of the house of Abbas, and 
the son of al-Mo'tasim Billah. He suc- 
ceeded his brother al-Wathik or Wasiq in 
the year a.d. 847, a.h. 232, and began his 
reign with an act of the greatest cruelty. 
The late khalifs wazir having treated al- 
Mutwakkil ill in his brother's lifetime, and 
opposed his election to the khilafat, was on 
that account now sent to prison, and after- 
wards thrown into an iron furnace lined with 
spikes or nails heated red hot, where he was 
miserably burnt to death. During this reign 
nothing remarkable happened, except wars 
with the Greeks, which were carried on with 
various success. He was very intolerant, 
especially of the Jews and Christians, on 
whom he heaped many indignities. He did 
not stop there. In his imbecility and ferocity 
he forbade the pilgrimage to Karbala, and 
caused the sacred repository of the ashes of 
Husaiti and the other martyrs interred there 
to be razed. He reigned 14 years 9 months 
and 9 days, and was assassinated and cut into 
seven pieces on the 24th December, a.d. 861, 
17th Shawwal, a.h. 247, at the instance of 
his son al-Mustanasar, who succeeded him. 

Al-Muwafflq. Billah (cd!li J.:y^\), 

the son of al-Mutwakkil BiUah, the khalif 
of Baghdad and brother and coadjutor of the 
khalif al-Ma'tamid, to whom he was of much 
service in his battles against his enemies. 
He died of elephantiasis or leprosy in the 
year a.d. 891, a.h. 278, and while in his 
last illness could not help observing that of 
100,000 men whom he commanded, there 
was not one so miserable as himself. His 
son Mo'tazid, after the death of his brother 
al-Mo'taraid in a.d. 892, succeeded to the 
throne of Baghdad. 

Al-Muwyyid(Isma'il)(J^..t^.^l Jj^Jl), 

whose name is spelt in Lempriere's Univeranl 
JBiographicftl I)ictionary *' Alombuadad," 
and in Watkin's Biographical Jjictionary 
" Almuvadad," was an Arabian historian, 
who gave a chronological account of the 
Saracen affairs in Sicily from a.d. 842 to 
904. This MS. is in the Library of ths 
Escurial, in Spain, and a Latin version of 
it is inserted in Muratori's Serum Italicaium 

Al-Muzani ( Ji^Jl). Vide Abu 

Ibrahim Ismail. 
Al-Nasir Billah (^b jAuW), or al- 

Nasir-uddin allah, the son of al-Mustazi, 




succectlc'd his father to tlie throne of Bnghlad 
in A.D. 1179. He profossrd the Shi;i' l;iith, 
and after a long reign of 46 lunar years and 
11 mouths, died in the year a. D. lli'2.5. He 
■was the 3lth khalif nf tlie lumse of Abhas, 
and was sueeeeded by his sou al-Tahir Billah. 

Alp Arsalan (|^\i__;,l i JO, (whioli 

means in the Turkish bingnage "the valiant 
lion "), was a king of Persia of the Seljukian 
dniasty, and the son of Daiid Beg Saljuki. 
He sueeeeded his unele Tughral Beg in a.d. 
10G3, A.H, 455, maiTied the sister of the 
khalif Qaim Billah, and bis name was pro- 
nouueed in the public prayers of the Mu- 
hamraadaus after that of the khalif. He was 
a warlike prince ; and, having spoiled the 
Church of St. Basil iu C'a'sarea, defeated 
Komanus Diogenes, Emperor of the Greeks 
iu A.D. 1068, A.H. 460, who was seized and 
carried to tlie coiqueror. Alp Arsalan de- 
manded of his eapiive, at the first conference, 
what be would have done if fortune had 
reversed their lot. "I would have given 
thee many a stripe," was the imprudent and 
virulent auswer. The Sultan only smiled 
and asked Eomanus what be expected would 
be done to him. " If thou art cruel," said 
the Emperor, "put me to death. If vain- 
glorious load me with chains, and drag me in 
triumph to thy capital. If generous, grant 
me my liberty." Alp Arsalan was neither 
cruel nor vain-glorious, he nobly released his 
prisoner, and, giving all his officers who were 
captives dresses of honour, sent them away to 
their homes. Alp Arsalan after a reign of more 
than nine years was stabbed about the 15th 
December, a.d. 1072, 30th Eabi I. a.h. 
465, by a Khwarizmian desperado whom he 
had taken prisoner and sentenced to death. 
He was buried at Marv in Khurasan, and the 
following is the translation of the inscription 
engraved on his tomb : " All ye who have 
seen the glory of Alp Arsalan exalted to the 
heavens, come to Marv, and you will behold 
it buried in the dust." He was succeeded by 
his son Malikshah. 

Alp Arsalan, who is by some called 

Apal Arsalan, was the son of Atsiz, a Sultan 
of Kliw.arizm, whom he succeeded in a.d. 
1166, A.H. 551-657, and died in a.d. 1162. 

Alptakin or Alptagin 
Vide Alaptakin. 


Al-Qadir Billah (aJLj ^jUJl), the 

twenty-fifth khalif of the Abhaside family, 
was the son of Is-haq, the son of Muqtadir 
Billah. He ascended the throne of Baghdad 
after the dethronement of al-Taya' iu a.d. 
991, .A.H. 381. He was a contemporary of 
Sultan JIahmud of Ghazni ; reigned 4 1 lunar 
years and 3 months, and died a.d. 1031, a.h. 
422. He was succeeded by al-Uaimhi-amr- 

Al-Qadiri or Qadiri (^_c^jliiJO, a sect 
of Muhammadaus. Thesa are a branch of the 

Jlurtazillis, and differ in their opinions from 
tlie orthodox jMusalmuiis, iu that they deny 
(ind's decree, and assert free will ; affirming 
that the contrary opinion makes God the 
author of evil. 

Al-Qahlr Billah (dlj ysUJO, the 

nineteenth khalif of the race of the Ahbasides, 
and the third son of al-JIo'tazid Billah, 
succeeded his brother al- Muqtadir to the 
crown of Baghdad in October, a.d. 932, 
Shawwal, a.h. 320. He had reigned only 
one year, five months and twenty-one days 
when his wazir ibn Maqla deprived him of 
his sight with a hot iron on Wednesday the 
23rd April, a.d. 934, 6th Jamad I. a.h. 
322, and raised al-Razi Billah, the son of 
iMuqtacUr, to the throne. It is said that al- 
Qahir, alter this, as long as he lived, was 
obliged to beg for charity in the mosque at 
Baghdad, calling out to the people that 
assembled there, " Have pity and give 
charity to one, who had once been your 

Al-Qaim (»jUJ\), second khalif of the 

Fatimite race of Barbary ; he succeeded 
his father Obeid-uUah al-Mahdi a.d. 924, 
A.H. 312. During his reign we read of 
nothing remarkable, except the revolt of 
Yezid ibn Kondat, a man of mean extraction. 
Al-Qaira reigned nearly 12 years and cUed in 
a.d. 945, A.H. 334. His son Ismail al- 
Mansiir succeeded him. 

'Al-Qama (<uJii.=), son of Q,ys, was one 
of the pupils of Abdullah bin Masaiid, and 
an eminent man. He died in a.d. 681, 
A.H. 61. 

Al-Qaim Billah or Al-Qaim -bi-amr- 

illah (iULj >_iLiUO, surnamed Abu 

Ja'far Abdullah, the 2''.tb khalif of the house 
of 'Abbas. He succeeded bis father Qadir 
Billah to the throne of Baghdad in a.d. 
1031, A.H. 422, reigned 44 lunar years and 
8 months, and died iu a.d. 1075, a.h. 467, 
which was soon after Sultan Malikshah the 
Seljuki had ascended the throne of Persia, 
and as that monarch was the real master of 
tlie empire, the nomination of a successor was 
deferred till he was consulted. He deputed 
a son of his prime minister Nizam-ul-Mulk 
to Baghdad with orders to raise al-Muqtadi, 
the grandson of al-Qaim, to the (nominal) 
rank of the commander of the faithful. 

Al-Rashid or Harun al-Rashid ( .i, .la 

j.-.jiJU, the celebrated hero of the 

Arabian Nights, was the fifth khalif of the 
race of Abbas and son of al-Mahdi ; he 
succeeded bis eldest brother al-Hadi to the 
throne of Baghdad in a.d. 786, a.h. 170. 
This was one of the best and wisest princes 
that ever sat on the throne of Baghdad. He 
was also extremely fortunate in all his under- 


dominions by conquest. In liis time the 
Moslem empire may be said to have been in 
its most flourishing state, though, by the 
independency of the Moslems in Spain, who 
had formerly set up a khalif of the house of 
LmjTa, his territories were not quite so 
extensive as those of some of his predecessors. 
He possessed, however, the provinces of Syria, 
Palestine, Arabia, Persia, Armenia, Natolia, 
Media or Azurbejan, Babylonia, Assyria, 
Siudh, Sijistan, Khurasan, Tabristan, Jurjan, 
Zabulistan, Mawarunnahr, or great Bukharia, 
Egypt, Libya, Mauritania, etc., so that his 
empire was still by far the most powerful of 
any in the world, and indeed extended farther 
than the Roman empire ever had done. 

In the beginning of the year a.d. 802, a.h. 
186, he diidded the government of his exten- 
sive dominions among his three sons in the 
foDowing maimer : To al-Amin the eldest, 
he assigned the provinces of Syria, Irak, the 
three Arabias, Mesopotamia, Assyria, Media, 
Palestine, Egypt, and all the part of Africa 
extending from the confines of Egypt and 
Ethiopia to the Straits of Gibraltar, with the 
dignity of khalif ; to al-Mamun the second, 
he assigned Persia, Kirman, the Indies, 
Khurasan, Tabristan, Kabulistau and Zabu- 
listan, together with the vast province of 
Mawamnuahr ; and to his third son al-Qasim, 
he gave Armenia, Natolia, Jurjan, Georgia, 
Circassia, and all the Moslem territories 
bordering upon the Euxine sea. As to the 
order of succession, al-Amin was to ascend the 
throne immediately after his father's decease ; 
after him al-Mainiiu ; and then al-Qasim, 
whom he had surnamed al-Mo'tasim. 

The most considerable exploits performed 
by this khalif were against the Greeks, who 
by their perfidy provoked him to make war 
upon them, and whom he always overcame. 
In the year a.d. 803, a.h. 187, the khalif 
received a letter from the Greek Emperor 
Nicephorus, commanding him to return all 
the money he had e.xtorted from the Empress 
Irane, or expect soon to see an Imperial army 
in the heart of his territories. This insolent 
letter so exasperated Hariin, that he im- 
mediately assembled his forces and advanced 
to Heraclea, laying the coimtry through which 
he passed waste with fire and sword. For some 
time also he kept that city straitly besieged, 
which so terrified the Greek Emperor that he 
submitted to pay an annual tribute. 

In the year a.d. 804, a.h. 188, war was 
renewed with the Greeks, and Nicephorus 
with a great army attacked the khalif s forces 
with the utmost fury. He was, however, 
defeated with the loss of 40,000 men, and 
received three wounds in the action ; after 
which the Moslems committed terrible ravages 
in his territories, and returned home laden 
with spoils. The next year Hariin invaded 
Phrygia ; defeated an Imperial army sent to 
oppose him, and having ravaged the country, 
returned without any considerable loss. In 
the year a.d. 806, a.h. 190, the khalif 
marched into the Imperial territories with an 
army of 135,000 men, besides a great number 
of volunteers and others who were not enrolled 
among his troops. He first took the city of 

67 AL-RA 

Heraclea, from which he is said to have 
carried 10,000 prisoners ; alter which he 
made himself master of several other places, 
and, iu the conclusion of the expedition, he 
made a descent on the island of Cyprus, 
which he plundered in a terrible manner. 
This success so intimidated Nicephorus, that 
he immediately sent the tribute due to Hariin, 
the withholding of which had been the cause 
of the war ; and concluded a peace upon the 
khallf's o^vu terms. Charlemagne respected 
his character, and Harun in token of his 
friendship presented to the Em-opean prince a 
clock, the mechanism and construction of 
which were regarded among the prodigies of 
the age. Hiirun reigned 23 years, and died 
iu Kliurasau on the eve of Saturday the 24th 
March, a.d. 809, 3rd Jamad II., a.h. 193, 
and was buried at Tiis, which is now called 
Mashhad. He was succeeded by his eldest 
son, al-Amin. 

Al-Rashid Billah (^Ulj jsJ,\J\)^ the 

thirtieth khalif of the Abhasides, succeeded 
his father, al-Mustarashad, iu August or 
September, a.d. 1135, Zil'kad, a.h. 529, 
and died iu the year a.d. 1136, a.h. 530. 
He was succeeded by al-Muqtafl, the son of 

Al-Razi. See Eazl. 

Al-Razi Billali (aUIj ^-i^O, the son 

of al-Mnqtadir and the twentieth kliallf of 
the house of Abbas, was the last who deserved 
the title of the Commander of the Faithful. 
He was raised to the throne of Baghdad, 
after the dethronement of his uncle al-Qahir 
Billah by the wazir Ibn Maqla in April, a.d. 
934, Jamad I. a.h. 322. In the year 936, 
the khalif finding himself distressed on all 
sides by usurpers, and having a wazir of no 
capacity, instituted a new office superior to 
that of wazir, which he entitled Amir-ul- 
ITmra. This great ofllcer, Imad-ud-daula 
All Boya, was trusted with the management 
of the finances in a much more absolute and 
unlimited manner than any of the khallf's 
wazirs ever had been. Nay, he officiated for 
the khalif in the great mosque at Ba gh dad, 
and had his name mentioned in the public 
prayers throughout the kingdom. In short 
the' khalif was so much under the power of 
this officer, that he could not apply a single 
dinar to his own use without the leave of the 
Amir-nl-XJmra. In the year a.d. 937, the 
Moslem empire so great and powerfid, was 
shared among the following usurpers : 

The cities of Wasat, Basra, Kufa with the 
rest of the Arabian Iraq, were considered as 
the property of the Amlr-ul-Umra, though 
they had been in the beginning of the year 
seized upon by a rebel called al-Baridi, who 
could not be driven out of them . 

The country of Fars, Faristan, or Persia 
properly so called, was possessed by Imad-ud- 
daida All ibn Boya, who resided in the city 
of Shiraz. 

Part of the tract denominated al-Jabal, 
together with Persian Iraq, which is the 




mountainous part of Persia, and the country 
of the ancient Partlrians, obeyed Euku-ud- 
daula, the brother of luad-ud-daula, who 
resided at Isfahan, The other part of the 
countrv was possessed by IFashmakiii the 

Dayar Eabia, Davar Bikr, Dayfir Modar, 
and the city of Musal, acknowledged for 
their sovereign a race of princes called 

Ei,Tpt and Syria no longer obeyed the 
khaiits, but Slu'liammad ibn Taj, who had 
formerly been appointed governor of those 

Africa and Spain had long been indepen- 

Sicilv and Crete were governed by princes 
of their own. 

The provinces of Khurasan and Malvanm- 
nahr were under the dominions of al-Xasr 
ibn Ahmad, of the dynasty of the Samiiuians. 

The provinces of Tabristan, Jurjan or 
Georgia, and JIazindaran, had kings of the 
first dynasty of the Dilamites. 

The province of Kirmiin was occupied by 
Abu All Muhammad ibn Eylia al-Samaui, 
who had made himself master of it a short 
time before. And 

Lastly, the provinces of Temama and 
Bahryn, including the disti-ict of Hajr, were 
in the possession of Abii Tahir the Karmatian. 

Thus the khalifs were deprived of all their 
dominions, and reduced to the rank of 
sovereign pontiffs ; in which light, though 
they contiuued for some time to be regarded 
by the neighbouring princes, yet their power 
never arrived to any height. In this low 
state the khalifs continued till the extinction 
of the Khilafat by Halakii Khan the Tartar 
in the year a.d. 1258, a.h. 656. 

Al-Eazi Billah reigned 7 years 2 months 
and 11 days, and died in a.d. 941, A.n. 329. 
He was succeeded by his brother al-Muttaqi. 

''!). Vide Abiil 

Al-Saharawi (^t^.£ 

Al-Saffah („ljuJO, surname of ATduI 


Abbas, the son of Muhammad, the son of 
All, the son of 'Abdullah, the son of Abbas, 
the uncle of the prophet. He was proclaimed 
khalifa by the inhabitants of Kiifa on Friday 
the 29th November, a.d. 749, 13th Eabl 
II., A.H. 132, upon which a battle took 
place between him and Marwan II., the last 
khalifa of the house of Umyya and Ommaides, 
in which the latter was slain, 5th August, 
A.D. 750, 26th Zil-bijja, a.h. 132. Al- 
Saffah after this victory investing himself 
with sovereign power, laid the foundation of 
the dynasty of the Abbasides, wliich continued 
to be transmitted to his family from father to 
sou for 524 lunar years, during a succession 
of 37 khalifs, till they were dispossessed by 
Halaku Khan the Tartar king of Persia in 
A.D. 1258, A.H. 656. By the elevation of 
the house of Abbas to the dignity of khilafat, 
began that glorious period during which 
Arabic and Persian literature reached its 
highest perfection. 'With some few ex- 

ceptions these khalifas were the noblest race 
of kings that ever adorned the throne of 
sovereignty. Abiil Abbiis died, after a reign 
of more than fom- years, of the small-pox, 
on Sunday the 9th June, a.d. 754, 13th 
/Jil-hijja, A.H. 136, and was succeeded by 
iiis brother Abii Ja'far Almansiir. 

List of the kj all/as of the race of Abbas 
ifho reigned at Baghdad. 

1. Al-Saffah, or Abal 'Abb&s al-Saffiah. 

2. Al-Mausiir. 

3. Al-Mahdi, son of al-Man.siir. 

4. Al-IIiidi, son of al-Mahdi. 

6. Al-llashid, or Hariin al-Rashid, son of 

6. Al-Amin, son of Hariin. 

7. Al-Mamiin, son of Hariin. 
Ibrahim, son of Mahdi, competitor. 

8. Al-JIo'tasim Billah, son of Hariin. 

9. Al-Wafliiq, or Wasiq, son of Mo'tasim. 

10. Al-Mutwakkil. 

11. Al-Mustanasar Billah. 

12. Al-Mustaiu Billah. 

13. Al-Mo'tia' Billah. 

14. Al-Muhtadi Billah. 
16. Al-Mo'tamid. 

16. Al-Motazid Billah. 

17. Al-Muktafi BilUh. 

18. Al-JIucitadir Billah. 

19. Al-Kahir Billah. 

20. Al-RazI Billah. 

21. Al-Muttaki Billah. 

22. Al-Mustakfi Billah. 

23. Al-Mutia Billah. 

24. Al-Tiya BilUh. 

25. Al-Qadir Billah. 

26. Al-Qaim bi-amr-uUah. 

27. Al-Muqtadi Billah. 

28. Al-Mustazahir Billah. 

29. Al-Mustarashid Billah. 

30. Al-Eahhid BillJh. 

31. Al-Muktafi bi-amr-uUah. 

32. Al-Mustanjad Billah. 

33. Al-Mustazi bi-amr-uUah. 

34. Al-Niisir Billah. 

35. Al-Tahir bi-amr-uUab. 

36. Al-Mustanasar BiUah II. 

37. Al-Mu'tasim Billah, the last khalif. 

Al - Tahir \>i - amr - illah Muliammad. 

(jvA^-» (dl^^lj J!)iy\) succeeded his 

father, al-Nasir Billah, to the throne of 
Baghdad in a.d. 1225, a.h. 622. He was 
the thirty-fifth khalif of the house of Abbas, 
reigned 9 months and 11 days, and died in 
A.D. 1226, A.H. 623. His son al-Mustanasar 
II. succeeded him. 

Al-Taya' (or al-Tayi') Billah (j-ilUl 

ailli"), the son of al-Mutla' Billah, 
was the twenty-fourth khalif of Bagjidad. 
He succeeded his father in a.d. 974, reigned 
17 years and 4 months, and was deposed by 
Baha-ud-daula iu a,d. 991, when Qadir 
Billah, the sou of Is-haq, the son of Muqtadir, 
was raised to the throne. 

Altimsh ( .^^Jl). Vide Shanis-uddln 





Al-Walid ixJJi\). Vide Walld. 

Al - Wathik or al - Wasik Billali 


j'^^l), the ninth khalif of the 

family of the Abbasides, succeeded bis fatber, 
al-Mo'tasim Billah, on the 5th January, a.d. 
842, 18tb Eabi I., a.h. 227, to the throne 
of Baghdad. The following- year, he invaded 
and conquered Sicily. Nothing remarkable 
happened during the rest of bis reign. He 
reig-ned 5 lunar years 7 months and 3 days, 
and died in a.d. 847, a.h. 232. He was 
succeeded by his brother al-Mutwakkil. He 
is the Vathek of Beekford's well-known tale. 

'Alwi (^_^jij:), poetical name of Shaikh 
'Waji-uddin, which see. 

'Alwi (^^Lc), poetical name of Mir 

Tahir 'Alwi, who died at Kashmir previous 
to the year a.d. 1723, a.h. 113S. He is the 
author of a diwan and a Masnaw! ; the latter 
contains the story of the blacksmith and the 
cotton cleanser called Qissae Haddad wa 

'Alwi Khan (Hakim) (\>- i_>.ic), 

a physician, who was invited from Persia by 
the Emperor Muhammad Shah, and died at 
Dehli in a.d. 1748, a.h. 1161. His title 
was Mo'tmid-ul-MaKk Sayyid 'Alwi Khan 
Hakim. He is the author ot a medical M'ork 
called Jaina'-ul-Jaica'ma'. 

'Amad (jUc"), 'Amad Shah, 'Amad- 
uddin, etc. Vide Imad, Imad Shah, elc. 

'Ama-'aqorUma-'aqBukhari(, ix,*,^). 
Vide Abul Najib-al-Bukhari. 

Amanat (c^Jl-^U, poetical name of 

Sayyid Agha Hasan, son of Agha Eazwi, 
author of a Diwan. 

Amanat 'Ali (Maulwi) ( Ir u:_-OL«l), 

author of a small work entitled Bcihdr Jjam, 
containing 121 letters written by him to 
different persons, in pure Persian. 



Amanat Khan Mirak {^J^s- lh^j' 

i-Jj^\ title of Mir Ma'in-uddin 

Ahmad Khan jDiwafi, a native of Khwaf in 
Khurasan. He was a nobleman of high rank 
in the time of the Emperor 'Alamgir, and 
died in the year a.d. 1684, a.h. 1095, at 
Aurangabad. He is the author of the work 
called ahariat ul-Islam. 

Amanat Khan (^Is 

L::^jt»l), title 
of Mir Husain, son of Amanat Khan Khwafi. 
He was honoured with the title of his father 
about the year a.d. 1688, a.h. 1100, by the 
Emperor 'Alamgir, and raised to the rank of 
a nobleman. He held different offices under 
that Emperor, and died at Surat a.d. 1699, 
a.h. 1111. 


Amanat Khan (^L^ 

celebrated Nastaliq writer, who in the 11th 
year of the reign of the Emperor Shah Jahan 
wrote the inscriptions on the Taj at Agra. 

Amani (Mir) {^ ^A^\), of Kabul, 
died in A.H. 

81, or A.D. 1573. 

Amani (^jL,l), poetical name of 

Mirza Aman-ullah, the eldest sou of Mahabat 
Khan. He flourished in the time of the 
Emperor Shah Jahan, and died in the year 
A.D. 1637, A.H. 1047. He is the author of 
a diwau. 

[ Vide Khan Zaman Bahadur and Mahabat 

Aman-ullah (Hafiz) (iiiU ^\ J^\), 

of Benares, was an author and Qazi of Luck- 
now in the time of the Emperor 'Alamgir. 
He died in a.d. 1721, a.h. 1133. 

Aman-ullah Husaini (iJ..iJl ^J\-^\ 

^i-.jjj.a- ), author of an Insha which 

goes by his name, Inshae Aimn-iillah 

Ahmad Shah Abdali (il_^ A_.*w=^l 

^j'jui) on his seventh invasion of 

Hindustan arrived at the Satlaj in a.d. 1764. 
Amar Singh waited on him, but was ordered 
to shave his head and beard before entering 
the royal presence. By a nazarana or present 
of a lac oi: rupees, he purchased permission to 
appear bearded and unshorn, and received 
investiture with the title of Maha Eaja 
Eajagan Mahindar Bakashr, which title is 
now borne by the head of the Patiala family. 

Amar-ihn-ohaid. F«'rf«Umar-ibn-ubaid. 

Amar Singh (i(J1:^-j t-^^), Eaja of 

Patiala, was the son of Sardal Singh, who 
survived his father, Eaja Ala Singh, two or 
three years. Ahmad Amar Singh, vide Eana 
Amar Singh. 

Amar Singh Rana, son of Eama 
Pallal Singh of Cliittore, died in a.h. 1028 

Amar Singh {i^^ t-^O, son of Gaj 

Sino-h, a rajpiit chief of the tribe of Eathor. 
Helilled Salabat Khan Mir Bakhshi in the 
17th year of Shah Jahan in the presence of 
the Emperor, on Thursday evening the 25th 
Jaly,o.s. 1644,30th Jamadi I., A.H. 1064, and 
was by the order of the Emperor pursued and 
cut to pieces after a gallant defence near one 
of the gates of the fort of Agra, wMch is to 
this day called Amar Singh Darwaza or Amar 
Sinii-h Gate. An account of this prince's 
early history will be found in Tod's Rdjasthdn . 




Amar Singh (a^^^ ^\), of Benares, 

whose poetical name was Klmslinri, held a 
j^overniuLtit. appointmi'ut in tlir Ivoul district. 
He compiled a short history ot Akbar's ])alace 
and of the Taj of Aura, and put the Bahar 
Danish into verse and called it Tarjiima Bahar 
Danish . This hook is to he distingirished 
from the Izhar Danish, an Urdu translation 
of Bahar Jhhiish hy JlnUazada at Palnar. 

Amar Singh (Rana), son of Eana 
Piirtab Singh. J'ide Eana Saukar. 

Ambaji Inglia, a general of the Gwa- 
liar State who served under Mahadaji Sindhia 
from 1787, and who continued his services, 
both military and political, under his nephew 
Daulat Eao". The last mention of him is 
in Lake's war in Hindu.stan, in which he 
succeeded Gen. Perron [Keene's Butorij of 
Iiir/ia, i. pp. 274, 360, 37'i]. 

Amili ( L. I ), a poet who was the 

author of a Diwan. Thi.s person appears to 
he the same with Shaikh Baha-nddiu 'Amili. 

Amin ( .^^U, the sixth khallf of the 
house of Abbas. T'ide al-Amin. 

Amin (^^1), poetical name of Shiih 
Amin-uddin of Azimiibad, who flourished 
about the year a.d. 1715, a.h. 1127, and left 
a diwan of Ghazals, etc. 

Amina (ii,,l ), the wife of 'Ahdullah, 
and mother of Muhammad the prophet of the 
Musalmaus. She was the daughter of 
Wahab the son of 'Abdul Manaf. She is 
represented as the most beautitirl, prudent, 
and ratuous lady of her tribe, and conse- 
quently the most worthy of such an extra- 
ordinary person as 'Abdullah. She died 
six years after the birth of her son Muham- 
mad, about the year a.d. 677. 

Amina Begum (^.Sl^ i.u^\). Vide 
Ghasiti Begum. ' 

Amin Ahmad or Amin Muhammad 

»0, the author 

of the Biographical Dictionary called Sqfl 
^lllm. (The seven climates.) This book, 
which he finished in the time of the emperor 
Akbar in a.d. 1594, a.h. 1002, contains a 
short description of the seven climates of the 
Temperate Zone, and the Topography of 
their principal cities ; with memoirs of the 
illustrious persons and eminent poets which 
each has produced. 

Amin-uddin Khan, Nawah of Loharij, 
descended from Ahmad Bakhsh, a Minister of 
the Alwar State in If 03-1826. The Nawab 
succeeded his unhappy brother Shams-ul-din 
{(j.v.) in 1835 ; and died on the 31st December, 
A.D. ISGfl, aged 70 years. His eldest son, 
Mirza 'Ala-uddin K_[ian, succeeded to his 
estates at Loharii, on the 11th January, 1870. 

Razi (^\\j ^^s^\ ^^,^.1 

Amini ( ^:^), poetical name of Amir 

Sultan Ibrahim, a contemporary of Khwaja 
'Asati, who died in a.d. 1520, a.ii. 926. 
Amini wi-ote a chronogram on that occasion. 

Amin-uddin (Mir) (^^ 

a poet and a great jester, was contemporary 
with the poets Moulaua Ali Kahi and 
Khwaja Ali Shahiib. 

Amin-uddin (Amir) { ,^\ ^^,J jJ^ ijrr'^)- 
Tide Yeniin-uddin (Amir) and Tughrai. 

Amin-ud-daula AlDul Jin (a!^jJ1 ij^r*' 
^^^V^), surnamed the Samaritan, 
was a physician, and had been wazir to Malik 
Salah Ishia'il. He was strangled at C^alro 
in A.D. 1250, A.H. 648, and there were found 
in his house, amongst other precious articles, 
about 10,000 volumes of valuable works, 
copied by the most celebrated caligraphers. 

Amin-ud-daula Khan (^iLj.!\ ^^-•■•^ 
l^li-), a rebel, was blown from the 
mouth of a gun on the 3rd August, 1857, at 

Amir bi Ahkam Allah (All X.^j^\), 

surnamed Abii Ali Mansiir, seventh khalif 
of the Fatimite dynasty of Egypt, succeeded 
his father, al-Mustaa'li Billah, in December, 
1101. From this time to the reign of 'Azid 
li-din Allah, during which period five khalifs 
ascended the throne of Egypt, the history of 
tliat country affords little else than an account 
of the intestine broils and contests between 
the wazirs or prime ministers, who were now 
become so powerful, that they had in a great 
measure stripped the khalifs of their civil 
power, and left them nothing but a shadow 
of spiritual dignity. These contests at last 
gave occasion to a revolution, by wliich the 
race of Fatimite khalifs were totally extin- 

\_ride 'Azid li-diu Allah.] 

Amir (-»/»!), poetical name of Amir-ud- 

daula Nasir Jang, commonly called Mirza 
Mendhii, son of Nawab Shuja-ud-daula and 
brother to Nawab Asaf-ud-daula. 

Amiran Shah (iLi 
Miran Shah. 




Amir a Singh Tappa (i.Jj <).50wj n..^ 


also called Amar Singh, a Gurkha general. 
He was the in rank and character 
of all the military chiefs of Nipal. In 1814 
during his campaign against Sir David 
Ochterlony in the Kamaon hills, he evinced 
equal valour and patriotism ; but was com- 
pelled to surrender, at Malaun near Simla, 
10th May, 1815. 

[Keene's History of India, ii. p. 21.] 




Amir Barid 1. {siji ^.■.\), the son of 

Qasim Band, whom he succeeded in the 
government of Ahmadabad Bidar in a.d. 
1504, A H. 910. Diu-ing- his rule the king 
Sultan Mahmiid Shah Bahmaui died in a.d. 
1517, A.H. 923, when Amir Barid placed 'Ala-uddTn III. on the throne, and 
after his death Sultau Kalim UUah, who 
being treated with great rigour by the Amir, 
fled from Bidar to Ahmadnagar, where he 
died shortly after. "With Kalim Ullah ended 
the dynasty of the Bahmani kings of Deccau. 
Amir Barid reigned over the ten'itories of 
Ahmadabad Bidar with full power more than 
26 years, and died at Daulatabad in a.d. 
1542, A,H. 949. He was buried at Ahma- 
dabad Bidar, and succeeded by his son All 

Amir Barid II. ( .JU 


succeeded to the government of Ahmadabad 
Biwar after deposing his relative Ali Barid 
Shah II. in a.d. 1609, and was the last of 
the Barid Shahi dynasty. 

Amiri i^j^\), the poetical name of 

Maulana Sultan Muhammad, a distinguished 
man who lived in the time of Shah Tahmasp 
Safwi I. He praised this sovereign in his 
poems, and is the translator of Amir Ali 
Sher's Tazkira, called Mnjalis-ul-Nofaes, 
from Turki into Persian. He is also the 
author of the BoUan ul-Khayal. 

Amir Khan (^l:^ j^\), title of Mir 

Abiil "Wafa, the eldest son of Mir Qasim 
IChau Namkin, was a nobleman in the time 
of the emperors Jahaugir and Shah Jahan. 
At the time of his death he was governor 
of Thatta, where he died a.d. 1647, a.h. 
1057, aged more than 100 years. His former 
name was Mil' KJian, but having made a 
present of one lac of rupees to Shah Jahan, 
he was honoured with the title of Amir Khan. 

Amir Khan {^j.^^ ^^^ ^^l 

surnamed Mir Miran, the son of Khalil -ullah 
Khan Yezdi, was a nobleman of high rank 
in the time of the emperors Shah Jahan and 
'Alamgir, and a great favourite of the latter. 
He died at Kabul on the 28th April, a.d. 
1698, 27th Shawwal, a.h. 1109, and the 
emperor conferred the title of Amir Khan on 
his son. 

Amir Khan (Nawah) (c_j'.J ^^l&- -...1), 

entitled U'mdat-ul-Mulk, was the son of the 
principal favom-ite of the emperor 'Alamgir, 
of the same name, and a descendant of the 
celebrated Shah Na'mat-uUah Wall. He 
was himself a favourite of the emperor 
Muhammad Shah ; was appointed governor 
of Allahabad in a.d. 1739, a.h. 1162, and 
re-called to com-t in a.d. 1743, a.h. 1156. 
He was naturally free of speech, and the 
emperor, foud of his repartee, had allowed 
him more license in his conversation than 
was consistent iVith respect to his own dignity, 

when he was on business with the emperor, 
which by degrees disgusted Muhammad Shah 
and made him wish liis removal from ofBce. 
He was consequently, with the consent of the 
emperor, stabbed with a dagger by a person 
who had been discharged from his service, 
and fell down dead on the spot. This circum- 
stance took place on Friday the 26th 
December, 1747, 23rd Zil-hijja, a.h. 1159. 
He was buried after f om' days in the sepulchre 
of Khalil-uUah Khan his grandfather, which 
is close to the Sarae of Eiih-ullah Klian at 
Dehli. His poetical name was Anjiim. He 
composed logographs, and has left Persian and 
Eekhta Poems. There is a full account of 
Amir Khan in the Sujar-iil-MutiikhariH, 
where he is said to have died in the same 
year as the emperor. 

Amir Khan (^1=- .-^ 

\), the famous 

ally of the Pindaris and ancestor to the 
present Nawab of Tonk. He was originally 
in the service of Jaswant Rao Holkar, who 
becoming insane in 1806 and incapable of the 
administration of bis own affairs, this Mu- 
hammadan chief endeavom-ed to establish an 
ascendancy at his court, but soon left it with 
the army he commanded to piu'sue the separate 
object of his own ambition, and became the 
chief supporter of the Pindaris. A treaty was 
ratified with him by the British Government 
on the 19th December, 1817. He had on 
various pretexts avoided the ratification of the 
engagements which his agent had concluded 
with the resident of Dehli, hut the movement 
of troops to his vicinity, and their occupation 
of positions which left him only the option 
between engaging in an unequal conflict and 
signing this treaty, induced him to adopt the 
safer com-se. He was confirmed in the pos- 
session of all the territories he held from the 
Holkar family, but compelled to siu'render 
his large trains of artillery to the English 
Government, and to disband that great body 
of plunderers which had been for more than 
two years the scourge of Malwa and Eajpu- 
tana. Amir Khan died a.d. 1834, a.h. 1250. 
His Life was written by a Hindu named 
Basawan Lai ; and the Memoir was translated 
into English by the late Thoby Prinsep. 

Amir Khan (^U- •^^)> ^^'hose proper 
name was Mir Klian, hut was changed by the 
emperor 'Alamgir by adchng an alif to it into 
Amir Klian. On a spot of seven bighas of 
ground, he had built his house close to the 
place called Guzm- Tijara, including the ma- 
halla of Chhipitola. In the first year of the 
emperor 'Alamgir he was appointed governor 
of the fort of Shahjahanahad, and m the 
eleventh year of the reign of the emperor he 
was appointed Subadar of Kabul. 

Amir Khan Sindhi (^s:^^ ij^j^\)^ 

title of Mir Abdul Karim, son of Amir Khan, 
the son of Mir Abul USsim Namkin. He was 
employed in various offices dming the reign 
of 'Alamgir, Bahadur Shah and ParruWi- 
siyar, and died some time before the accession 
of Muhammad Shiih to the throne of Dehli. 



Amir Khond {sJ^ j^- 
Kliuud or Kliawind Shah, 

Amir Khusru (, 
Kliusro (Amir). 

Amir Mahmud (^J oJ ^ 

.1). VideM-iT 

*\). Vide 



1^' J J. 

siirnamcd Faldir-uddin, and commonly called 
Ibn-Yemiu, was the son of Amir Yemin- 
uddiu, entitled Jlfilik-ul Fuzla, i.e., the 
prince of the learned. Amir Mahmiid was 
an excellent poet, and died on Saturday 
the 29th January, A d. 1368, Jumad<i II. 
A.H. 769, in Persia. lie is mentioned in Dr. 
Spreno-er's Catalogue, p. 67, to have died in 
749 liijri con-esponding with a.d. 1348, and 
in the Tuzlnra Daidat Sliahl it is mentioned 
that he died in a.h. 745, a.d. 1344. He has 
left a Diwdn. 

Amir Mirza (Nawab) (t. 

Ji)j M^-«^- 


was the son of George Hopkins Walters, a 
pensioned Em-opean officer, who, with his 
family, consisting of a wife, two daughters 
and one son, had established himself in Luck- 
now as a merchant many years ago. After 
his death his family, through the intrigues of 
one Baldish Ali Klian, embraced the Muham- 
madan religion, and the younger daughter not 
long after was consigned to the Seraglio of 
king Xasir-uddTn Hydar and became one of 
the queens of that monarch, under the title 
of "Wilayeti Jlahal, or the King's Em-opean 
consort. The elder daughter also received the 
name and title of Ashraf-un-nisa Begam. 
She remained unmarried all her life. The 
brother, Joseph "Walters, received the name 
of Amir Jlirza. He was brought up as a 
Musalman of the Shi'a sect, and always took 
a pride in showing himself as an orthodox 
follower of the Crescent. After "Wilayeti 
Mahal's death, her elder sister Ashraf-un-nisa 
Legam succeeded to her estate, consisting of 
Government Securities valued at 11,400,000 
rupees besides jewellery, movable and im- 
movable property of considerable value. In 
1832 Ashraf-un-nisa died, and was succeeded 
by Amir Jlirza, her brother, who squandered 
almost the whole property by his reckless 
prodigality. Amir Jlirza diecl on the 10th 
January, 1870, in his 6Bth year. 

Amir Mo'izzi (^j;j*^^^»l), a celebrated 

poet of Samarqand, who served under Sultan 
Malik Shah and Sultan Sanjar Saljiiki, and 
was honoured with the title of Malik-ush- 
Shua'ra, or the Eoyal Poet. He was accident- 
ally killed by an arrow shot by the latter 
prince. His Diwan contains 15,000 verses. 
His death happened in the year a.d. 1147, 
A.H. 542. His proper name was Amir Ali. 

Amir Shahi (^,1.;^^ _&li r--»^), of 

Sabzwar, a poet who flourished in the time of 
Shahrukh Mirza, about the year a.d. 143B. 
Vide Shahi (Amir). 

Amir Taimur (^lyLs-L^ j^^ j^^), 

styled Sahib Qiran, because he reigned more 
than 30 years, or because he was born in a 
conjunction of the planets so called. He is 
also calli d Timurlang (Tamerlane) from some 
detect in his feet ; was born at Kush in ancient 
Sogdania on Tuesday, the 9tli April, a.d. 1336, 
27th Sha'ban, a.h. 736. Some say he was 
the son of a shepherd, and others that he 
was descended in a right line from (iajuli 
Bahadur, son of Tiimana Khan, of the same 
lineage with Changez Khan, the celebrated 
conqueror of Persia. His father's name was 
Amir Turaghai and mother's Takina Kliatiin; 
however, his obscurity was soon forgotten in 
the glory of his exploits. Distinguished by 
his courage and unbounded ambition, he 
gained a number of faithful adherents, and 
seized the city of Balkh, the capital of Khu- 
rasan, and having put to death Amir Ilusain, 
the ruler of that place, whose sister he had 
married, he ascended the throne on Wednes- 
day the 10th April, A.D. 1370, 12th Ilamzan, 
A.H. 771. He then subdued Kandahar, Persia 
and Baghdad, and seconded by an enthusiastic 
army he penetrated to India, took Dehli on 
Tuesday the 17th December, a.d. 1398, 7th 
Rahi 11. A.H. 801, with its immense trea- 
sures, and returned to punish that 
shook off his yoke. The offending city was 
given up to pillage, and 80,000 of her inhabi- 
tants put to the sword. Now master of the 
fairer part of Asia, he interfered, at the request 
of the Greek emperor, in the affairs of Baiazid 
(Bajazet), emperor of the Turks, and com- 
manded him to abandon the siege of Constan- 
tinople. The message roused the indignation 
of Baiazid ; he marched against the new 
enemy, and was defeated by him in Phrygia, 
after a battle of three days, on Friday the 
21st July, A.D. 1402, 19th Zil-hijja, a.h. 
804. Baiazid fell into the hands of the em- 
peror, and was carried about in mockery in 
an iron cage. To these conquests Taimiir 
added Egypt and the treasures of Cairo, and 
then fixed the seat of his empire at Samarqand, 
where he received the homage of Manuel 
Paheologus, emperor of Constantinople, and 
of Henry III. King of Castile, by their 
ambassadors. Taimiir was preparing fresh 
victories by the invasion of China, when death 
stopped his career on Wednesday the 18th 
February, a.d. 1405, 17th Sha'-ban, a.h. 807, 
in the 36th year of his reign, aged 71 years, 
and was buried at Samarqand. He was the 
ancestor of Babar, who founded the dyna.sty of 
the Mughul emperors of Dehli. After his death 
he received the title of " Firdaus Makani," 
i.e., "May paradise be his place of residence." 
He had four sons, riz., Jahangir Mirza, Umar 
Shaikh Mirza, Miran Shah and Shahrukh 
Mirza. Tamerlane on his death-bed named 
his grandson Pir Muhammad, son of Jahangir 
Mirza, the universal heir of all his dominions ; 
but the contempt with which his will was 
treated after death was equal to the venera- 
tion Avhich had been paid to his authority 
during his life. The Sultan Khalil, another 
of his grandsons, immediately took possession 
of the capital of Samarqand, and proclaimed 




himself emperor. Pir Miiliammad did not 
live long enough to assert his rights, but was 
assassinated six months after the death of 
his grandfather. After his death, ShahruKh 
Mirza, the youngest of the two sittviring sons 
of Tamerlane, succeeded to the inheritance 
assigned for Pir Muhammad. 

List of the kings of Samarqaitd of the race of 

Amir Tninifir. 
Khalil Sultan, the son of Miran Shah. 
Shahruldi Mirza, son of Amir Taimiir. 
Ala-ud-daula Mirza. 
Ulugh Beg Mirza, son of Shahrukh. 
Mirza Bahar, who subsequently conquered 

Dehli, and became the first emperor of the 

Mughuls in India. 
Mirza Abdul-Latif. 
Mirza Shah Muhammad. 
Mirza Ibrahim. 
Sultan Abii Sayyid. 
Mirza Yadgar Muhammad. 

Amir Yemin-uddin (^_a!1 ^^,-^j j^\), 

entitled Malik-ul-Fuzla, ie., the prince of 
the learned, was a Turk and an excellent 
poet. He floxuished in the time of Sultan 
Muhammad Khuda Banda, and died in a.d. 
13'24, A.H. 724. IT'ide Tughardi.] 

Amjad 'Ali Shall (ilji, J_^ s.s^\) 

was the son of Muhammad Ali Shah, whom 
he succeeded on the throne of Lucknow as 
king of Oudh, with the title of Suria Jab, 
on the 17th May, a.d. 1842, 5th Rabi II. 
A.H. 1258, and tUed on the 16th March, a.d. 
1847, 26th Safar, a.h. 1263. He was suc- 
ceeded by his son Wajid All Shah, iu whose 
time Oudh was annexed to the British Govern- 
ment on the 7th February, a.d. 1856. 

'Ammar ibn Hissan (^Lu.-^ ^jl .Uc) 

was All's general of the horse, and was killed 
in battle fought by Ali against Mu'awia, the 
first khalif of the house of Umaia, in the 
month of July, a.d. 657, Safar, a.h. 37. He 
was then about 90 years of age, and bad been 
in three several engagements with Muhammad 
himself. He was one of the murderers of 
TJsman, the third khalif after Muhammad. 

Amra-al Qais (^^^-iill '\j^\), the son 

of Hajar, one of the most illustrious poets 
the Arabians had before Mubammadanism. 
He is one of the seven poets whose poems 
have, for their excellency, been hung in the 
temple of Mecca. These poems were called 
Muallalcat (suspended), and as they were 
written in letters of gold, they were also 
called Muzahhibdt. The names of these 
seven celebrated poets are Amra-al-Qais, 
Tarafa, Zuhir, Labid, Antar, Amru and 

[Amra-al-Qais is the same person who is 
commonly called Majniin, the lover of Laila, 
and Labid was his friend and master. Amir 
Khussu's Loves of ilajnun and Zaila has been 
translated into English.] 

Amrit Rao L\ 


i'), a Mahratta 

chief who bad been placed on the masnad of 
Piina by Holkar in a.d. 18U3, but deposed 
by the British, and a pension of 700,000 
rupees was assigned for his su|jpoi-t annually. 
He was the son of Raghunatb Ilao, commonly 
called Raghoba. For some time he resided 
at Banaras and then iu Bundelkhand, and 
died at the former station in a.d. 1824. 

'Amru bin Mua'wia (aj^U^ ^i ,j*z), 

an ancient Arabian poet whose collection of 
poems are to be found in the Royal Library 
at Paris, No. 1120. 

'Amru ibn Al-'As (^L«.l ^\ jj-^^), 

a celebrated Muhammadan, at first the enemy 
and afterwards the friend of Muhammad, of 
whom it is reported by tradition that Muham- 
mad said, " There is no truer Musalman, nor 
one more steadfast in the faith than 'Amrii." 
He served in the wars of SjTia, where he 
behaved withsingular courage and resolution. 
Afterwards Umar the khalif sent him into 
Egj'pt, which he reduced in a.d. 641, a.h. 
20, and became lieutenant of the conquered 
country. Usman continued him in that post 
four years, and then removed him ; where- 
upon be retired to Palestine, where he lived 
privately till Usman's death. Upon this 
event, he went over to Mu'awia upon his 
invitation, and took a great part in the dis- 
pute between 'Ali and Mu'awia. The latter 
restored him to the lieutenancy of Egypt, and 
continued him in it till his death, which 
happened iu a.d. 663, a.h. 43. Before he 
turned Muhammadan he was one of the three 
poets who were famous for writing lampoons 
upon Muhammad, in which style of composi- 
tion 'Amrii particularly excelled. There are 
some fine proverbs of his remaining, and also 
some good verses. He was the son of a 
courtezan of Mecca, who seems to have num- 
bered some of the noblest of the land among 
her lovers. When she gave birth to this 
child, the infant was declared to have most 
resemblance to 'As, the oldest of her ad- 
mirers, whence, in addition to his name of 
Amrii, he received the designation of Ibn- 

'Amru (j,.^.K^ ^.1 ^^A-z), the son of 

Sa'id, was a cousin of the khalif 'Abdul- 
Malik. In the year a.d. 688, a.h. 69, the 
khalif left Dama"scu3 to go against Misaa'b, 
tlie son of Zuber, and appointed Amru to take 
care of Damascus, who seized upon it for 
himself, wMch obliged 'Ahdul-MaUk to re- 
tm-n. After tliree ' or foiu- days the khalif 
sent for him and killed him with his own 

'Amru bin Lais (i.i^-.J ^ ^j-^c), 

brother of Ya'kub ibn Lais, whom he suc- 
ceeded in the goveriunint of Kliurasau, etc., 
in A.D. 878, a h. 265, and ruled over those 
countries for 23 years. He was at last 




seizL'tl by Anilr Isma'il Saraaui in a.d. 900, 
A.H. 288. and scut to Bnglidad, whuro he was 
confined lor some time ; his execution was 
the last act of the Hiallf Al-:\Io'tazid, who 
fjave orders for it a lew months belore his 
own death iu a.d. 901, a ii. 289. He was 
blind nf one eve. AVith Aniru loll the for- 
tunes of his family. His (Grandson Tahir 
strun^led for power in his native province ; 
but after a ri'in;u of six years, during which 
he conquered Ffirs, his authority was sub- 
verted by one of his own officers, by whom 
he was seized and sent prisoner to Baghdad. 
The only other prince of the family of Ban! 
]jais that attained any eminence was a chief 
of the name of Ivhala'f, who cstablishtd him- 
self in Sistan and maintained hia power over province till the time of Sidfan JIahmud 
of Gliazni, liy whom he was defeated and 
made prisoner. 

Amurath, names of several emperors of 
Tm-key, as written by English writers, being 
a corruption of Murad, which see. 

Anandpal (JIiAjJI), son of Jaipal I., 

raja of Lahore, whom he succeeded about the 
year a.d. 1001, and became tributary to 
"Suhan Mahmud of Ghazni. He died about 
the year 1013, and was succeeded in the 
government by his son Jaipal II. 

Anarkali (l<j\j\), the name of a lady, 

otherwise " Nadira Begam," who lived in 
the time of the emperor Jahanglr. Her 
mausoleum is at a place called Anarkali iu 
Lahore, which has been recently used as a 
church. Dilferent stories are told concerning 
the name Anarkali, by which the mausoleum 
as well as the station in its vicinity is known. 
According to some, it was the name of a 
princess in Jahangir's time, while others say 
that An.arkali was a beautiful handmaid with 
whom Jahaugir fell iu love, and who, on 
Akbar hecoming aware of it, was buried alive. 
These stories may not be true ; but this much 
is at least certain, that the woman after whose 
name the building is called, lived in the time 
of Akbar, or his son Jahanglr, that Jahiingir 
or some other prince was madly in love with 
her, and that her death took place under such 
mournful circumstances as broke the heart of 
the foud lover, and led Mm to compose the 
following couplet, still found engraved on her 
tombstone : " Oh ! could I see again the face 
of my lost friend, I would thank my God 
until the day of judgment." 

Anand Rao, Gaikwar (.\X^ A jiijl), 

a Marhatta chief of Baroda, with whom the 
English Government had in 1812 concluded a 
subsidiary alliance. Before the treaty he was 
a nominal dependant of the Peshwa. 

Anas (j^T), a poet of Arabia. 

'Andalib (i -Jj,i£). Fide Khwaja 


Anis (|^3l), poetical name of Mohan 
Lai, which see. 

Anisi Shamlu (.L»Li ju*-JO, a poet 

named Yul Qull Beg. He was an intimate 
friend and constant companion of prince Ibra- 
him Mirza, a grandson of Shah Isma'il Safwl, 
consequently took the takhallas of Anisi. 
AVhen 'Abdullah Khan Uzbaq took Hirat 
he made a proclamation iu his array, that 
the life of Anisi be spared, and treated him 
with great respect. He came to India and 
received a salary of 60,000 rupees and a 
jaglr. He died at Barhanpiir in a.d. 1605, 
A.H. 1014, and has left a Diwan and a Mas- 
nawl called Mtihmild AiSz. 

Ang or Ungh Khan, a king of the Trit 

Tartars, who resided at Karakoram, and to 
whom the celebrated Jangez Klian Avas at one 
time a tributary. He is also called Prester 
John by the Syrian Missionaries. Jangez 
Khan having thrown oS his allegiance, a 
war ensued, which ended in the death of 
Ang Khan in a.d. 1202. 

Anjam (^l^l), the poetical name of 

Nawab Umdat-xd-Mulk Amir Klian. Vide 
Amir Khau. 

Anup Bai (Jb t^y^), the -wife of 

the emperor Jahandar Shah, and mother of 
Alamgir II. king of Dehli. 

Anushtakin (^jLu-i^jl), the cup- 
bearer of Sultan Sanjar, and father of Sultan 
Qutb-uddin Muhammad of Khwarizm. 

Ans hin Malik (i_jCJL» ^^ (j^-j")- 
Vide Abu Hamza bin Nasr-al-Ansari. 

'Ansuri (jjr^^^i^j:), a poet of the court 
of Sultan Mahmiid. Vide Unsari. 

Antar (.l:^'), one of the seven Arabian. 

poets, whose poems were hung up in the 
temple of Mecca in golden letters, and from 
that circumstance were called Mua'llakat (sus- 
pended), or Muzahhibat (golden). The first 
volume of the history of Antar, called The 
Life and Adventures of Antar, was translated 
into English and published in December, a.d. 
1818, in England. 

\_Vide Amra-al-Kais.] 




Anwari i^jyiv), a famous Persian poet 

surnamed Ashad-uddin. He formerly took 
for his poetical name "Khafwari," but he 
changed it afterwards to " Auwari." From 
the superiority of his poetical talents he was 
called the king of the poets of Khm-asau. 
He was a native of Abiward in Khurasan, 
was the favourite of Sultan Sanfar Saljiikl, 
and the rival of the poet Eashid! surnamed 
Watwat, who espoused the cause of Atsiz, 
the Sultan of Khwarizm. Whilst the two 
princes were engaged in war, the two poets 
assailed one another by rhymes sent on the 
point of arrows. He is also said to have 
been the greatest astronomer of his age. It 
so happened in the year a.h. 581 or 582, 
September, a.d. 1186, that there was a con- 
i unction of all the planets in the sign of 
Libra ; Anwari predicted a storm which 
would eradicate trees and destroy every 
building. When the fatal day arrived it 
was perfectly calm, and there was the whole 
year so little wind, that the people were 
unable to winnow their corn. He was there- 
fore accused for his predictions as an astro- 
loger, and was obliged to fly to Balkh, where 
he died in the reign of Sultan Alauddin 
Takash in a.d. 1200, a.h. 596. His death 
is mentioned in the Khulasat-ul-Asha'iir to 
have taken place in a.h. 687, and others have 
written A.H. 592. Anwari, when very young, 
was sitting at the gate of his coUege, called 
Mansiiria in Tiis, when a man richly dressed 
rode by him on a fine horse, with a numerous 
train of attendants ; upon his aslcing who it 
was, he was told that it was a poet belonging 
to the court. When Auwari reflected on the 
honour confeixed on poeti-y, for which art he 
had a very early bent, he applied himself to 
it more ardently than ever, and having flnished 
ii poem, presented it to the Sultan, who ap- 
proved the work and invited him to his palace, 
and raised him even to the first honours of 
the State. He found many other poets at 
court, among whom were Salman, Zahir and 
Eashldi, all men of mt and genius. Anwari 
has left us a collection of highly esteemed 
poems on various subjects, called hiwdn An- 
wari. Verses from his poems are quoted by 
Sa'di in his Gulistan. 

Anwari Khan (I. 

tj-^j.jl), a cor- 
ruption of Abii Raihan, which see. 

Anwar-uddin Khan {^^^ rj-l'^'^ ii'^^' 
Nawab of the Camatic, a soldier of fortune, 
who had attained power by treacherous con- 
nivance to the murder of the legitimate heir, 
a child whose guardian he had been appointed 
by N"izam-ul-Mulk. He at first served under 
one of the emperors of Dehli, and was ap- 
pointed governor of Kora Jahanabad. Ill 
success, or perhaps ill conduct, preventing him 
from being able to pay the usual revenues of 
his government to the throne; he quitted it 
privately, and went to Ahmadabad, where 
Gliazi-uddin Khan, the father of Nizam-ul- 
Mulk, gave him a post of considerable trust 

and profit in the city of Surat, After the 
death of Ghazi-uddin, his sou, who had suc- 
ceeded in the Subadari of the southern pro- 
vinces, appointed him Xawab of the Carnatic, 
or Vellore and Eajmauth-um, countries which 
he governed from a d. 1725 to 1741, and in 
A.D. 17-1-1 he was formally created governor 
of the country. He was killed in battle 
fought against Muzaffar Jang, the grandson 
of Xizfira-ul-Jlulk, on the 2ord July, o.s. 
A.H. 1162, who took possession of the Car- 
natic. Anwar-uddin was then 107 years 
old. His eldest son was made prisoner and 
his second son, Muhammad Ali, fled to Tri- 
chiuopoly. A heroic poem called Anwar 
Noma, in praise of this Xawab was written 
by Abdi, in which the exploits of Major 
Lawrence, and the first contests between the 
English and French in India are recorded 
with tolerable accm-acy. ( J'lde Sa'adat- 
ullah Klian.) His son Muhammad Ali was 
confirmed by Nawab Nasir Jang in the 
government of the Carnalic in a.d. 1750. 

Aohad Sabzwari (Khwaja) (j,.:^.! 

is^ 1 ..ri- ^^u.-^-.j'), poetical name of 

Khwaja Fakhr-uddin. apliysician, astronomer, 
and poet, of Sabzwar. He died a.d. 1463, 
a.h. 868, aged 81 lunar years, and left a 
Diwan in Persian containing Ghazals, Qasidas, 

Aohadi {^S:^^\), the poetical name of 

Shaikh Aohad-uddiu of Isfahan or Maragha, 
a celebrated Persian poet who put into verse 
the JSm-i-Jam, a book full of Muharamadan 
spirituality, which he wrote in imitation of 
the Hadiqa of Sanai ; he also wrote a Diwan 
containing verses. He was liberally rewarded 
by Arghiin Khan, the king of the Tartars. 
He was a pupil of Aohad-uddin Kinnani ; 
died in a.d. 1337, a,h. 738, and was buried 
at Maragha in Tabreiz. 

Aohad - uddin Isfahan! (Shaikh) 
( jj\_.,J.^l |^_) J.JIjk-i>-jl), a Persian 
poet. Vide Aohadi. 

Aohad - uddin Kirmani (Shaikh) 

( jl^,^ ,,,jjJLv;^iU, author of the 
^^3 > ^" ^ 

MUhah-id-Arumh. He flouiished iu the 
rein-n of Al-Mustanasar Billah, khalif of 
Baghdad, and cUed in the year a.d. 1298, 
A,H. 697. His poetical name is Hamid. 
He was a contemporary of Shaikh Sa'di of 

Aohad-uddin ( jaI^J.:^^!), the sur- 
name of the celebrated Anwari, which see. 

Aoji ( c-=r5^^i ^ P"'-'*' ^^'■'^° '^^^^ ^"^ 
A.D. 1640, A.H. 1050. 




'Apa Sahib (,.j^-^L LiT), a nephew of 

Eiiglioji Bliousl;i II. aud ciiusin to Parsaram 
Bhiinsla, commonly called Biila Saliib, raja 
of Nagpur or Uerar. The latter succeeded 
his lather iu March, a.d. 1816, but being: 
au idiot aud unlit fc) rule, 'Apa Sahib assumed 
the cliict authority under the title of Eeucnt, 
and had the sole conduct of the public affairs. 
Althoufjh he was in a great degree indebted 
for his elevation tn the JEnglish Government, 
he early evinced a disposition as inconsistent 
"with the gratitude which he owed to that 
Stall', as with the obligations of good faith. 
It was also discovered that he had secretly 
murdered his predecessor, Bala Sahib (Par- 
saram), in order to obtain that elevation 
which he had so disgraced. He was conse- 
quently seized iu the beginning of the year 
A.D. 1818, and brought to the llesidency, 
where he continued in confinement till directed 
to be sent under a strong csi'ort to the Com- 
pany's territories. "When arrived at llaichora, 
a village within one march from JabalpSr, 
he contrived, by bribing some of his guards, 
to make his escape. It is believed that after 
having for a short period found a refuge in 
Asirgm'h, he fled to the Paujab, where he 
remained a miserable dependant on the charity 
of Raja Eanjit Singh. After the dethrone- 
ment of 'Apa Sahib, the grandson of Eaghoji 
Bhonsla was raised to the masnad of Xagpiir. 
[nv/c Keene's India, ii. 34, f. f.] 

Apa SahilD (i_^:i.Ls IjT), also called 

Shalyi, third brother of Partap Siugh Wara- 
yan, raja of Satara. After the dethronement 
of his brother in a.d. 1839, he was placed on 
the masnad of Satara by the British Govern- 
ment, and died on the 5th April, 1848. 
Before his death he expressed a wish that 
he might adopt as a son, a boy by name 
Balwant Eao Bhonsla. It was, however, 
determined to annex Satara. 

Aq.a Muhammad Khan Qajar (Ijl 

jl_.p-l_i 1^1 s- S—. 

■'*), king of 

Persia, of the tribe of Qajar, and son of 
Muhammad Hasan Khan Qajar, ruler of 
Mazanderan. He_ was made an eunuch iu 
his childhood by 'AcUl Shah, the nephew and 
immediate successor of Nadir Shah. After 
the death of 'Adil .Shah he obtained his 
release, and joined his father, who was after- 
w;irds slain by Karini Klian Zand, king of 
Persia. Agha, or Aqa Muhammad, was 
obliged to surrender himself to him, and was 
a prisoner in the city of Shiraz. He had 
for some time been very strictly guarded, and 
was never allowed to go beyond the walls of 
the town, but afterwards he was permitted 
to go a-hunting. "When the last illness of 
Karim Khan assumed a dangerous ajjpearance, 
he contrived to leave that city on the usual 
pretext of hunting. When intelligence was 
brought to him that the founder of the Zand 
dynasty was no more, accompanied by a few 
attendants, he comnicuced his flight, and, 

favoured bv the confusion of the moment, he 
reached his province of Jlazandaranin safely, 
and proclaimed himself oue of the competitors 
for the crown of Persia. Soon after the 
death of 'Ali Mui'ad Klian, ruler of Persia, 
in A.D. 1785, he made himself master of 
Isfahan without a battle, but had for several 
years to contend with Lutf 'All KJiau, the 
last prince of the Zand family, before he 
became sole master ui Persia. Luff 'All 
Khan was put to death by him in a.d. 1795, 
14th Mubarram, a.h. 12lii. Aqa Muhammad 
Klian was murdered on the lUth July, a.d. 
1797, by two of his attendants, whom he had 
sentenced to death, in the 63rd year of his 
age. He had been a ruler of 2 great part of 
Persia for 20 years, but had only for a short 
period enjoyed the undisputed sovereignty of 
that country. He was succeeded by hia 
nephew, Fatb 'Ali Shah, who died in a.d. 
1834, a.h. 1250. After him, his grandson, 
Muhammad Shah, the son of 'Abbas Mirza, 
mounted the throne, and died in 1847, when 
liis son, Xasir-uddin Ahmad Shah, the 
present king of Persia, succeeded him. 

A(ia Razi (^^ i I-' ' ), a poet of Persia, 

who came to India, and after his return home, 
died in A.D. 1615, a.h. 1024. 

'Aqidat Khan (^l^ LZJsJic.), title 

of Mir Mahmiid, brother of Asalat I<han 
Mashhadi^ He came to India in the 14th 
year of 'Alamgir, a.d. 1670, and was raised 
to the rank of 1,000 and 400 sawars. 

' ( JJir), 'Aqil the brother of 'Ali. 

There is a story of him that being displeased 
with his brother 'All the Khalifa, he went 
over to Mn'awiya, who received him with 
great kindness and respect, but desired him 
to cm-se 'All ; and as he would not admit of 
any refusal, 'Aqil thus addi-essed the congre- 
gation : "0 people, you know that 'AlT, 
the son of AbH-Talib, is my brother ; now 
Mn'awiya has ordered me to curse him, 
therefore, may the curse of God be upon 
him." So that the curse would either apply 
to 'All or to Mn'awiya. 

'Aqil Khan (^^U. JJU), 'Aqil Khan, 

nephew of Afzal Khan wazir, a nobleman of 
3,000, who served under the emperor Shah 
Jahan, and died a.d. 1649, a.h. 1059. 

'AqilKhan(Nawah) (<_jl.3 ^J<S- JjU), 

the title of Jlir 'Askari. He was a native of 
Khawaf, in Khurasau, and held the office of 
wizarat in the time of the emperor 'Alamgir. 
He was au excellent poet ; and as he had a 
great respect for Shah Bui-han-nddin, entitled 
Eaz-i-Ilalii, he chose the word Eazi for his 
poetical title. He is the author of several 
works, among which are a Masnawi and 
Diwan. He died a.d. 1695, a.h, 1108. Vide 


'Aratoshah (iL^,_,^.-), author of a 

history of Amir Taimur (Tamerlane) called 
Ajaeb-ul-Maqdur, and of a treatise on the 
unity of God. He was a native of Damascus, 
where he died in a.d. 1450, a.h. 834. He is 
also called Ibn 'Arabshah and Ahmad Ibn 

Aram Bano Begam (X;' yb *1^T), a 

daughter of the emperor Akbar, who died 
ill the 40th year of her age in a.d. 1624, 
A.H. 1033, during the reign of Jahangir, her 
brother, and is bm-ied in the mausoleum of 
Akbar at Sikandra in Agra. Her tomb is 
of white marble. Her mother's name was 
Bibi Daulat Shad, and her sister's name 
Shakr-un-nisa Begam. 

Aram Shah (Sultan) (^Li /♦U"), king 

of Dehli, succeeded his father, Sultan Qutb- 
uddiu Aibak, in a.d. 1210, a.h. 607, and had 
scarcely reigned one year when he was de- 
posed by Altimsh (the adopted son and son- 
in-law of Qutb-iiddin) who assumed the title 
of Shams-uddin Altimsh. 

Araru (.j^_;l), a zamindar of Kora in 

the province of Allahabad, was of the tribe 
of Khichar, who, taking advantage of the 
weakness of the empire, slew Nawab Jan 
Nisar Khan (brother to the wazir's wife), 
chakladar of that district in a.d. 1731, a.h. 
1144, upon which 'Azim-nllah Khan, the 
son of the deceased, was sent with an army 
to chastise him, but the zamindar took refuge 
in his woods, and for a long while eluded his 
pm-suer, who, tired out, returned to Dehli, 
leaving his army under the command of 
Khwarizm Beg Khan. ArarH, emboldened 
by the Nawab's retreat, attacked and slew 
the deputy; upon which the wazir Qamar- 
uddin Khan applied for assistance to Burhan- 
ul-Midk Sa'adat Khan Subadar of Oudh, for 
the reduction of the rebel. Sa'adat Khan 
marched againist Ararii in a.d. 1735, a.h. 
1148, killed him in a battle and sent his head 
to the emperor Muhammad Shah. The skin 
of his body was flayed off, and sent stiiffed 
with straw to the wazir. 

Ardai Viraf (i_il;^ ^'^j^^ a priest of 

the Magian religion, who lived in the time of 
Ardi.sher Babagan, king of Persia, and is the 
author of the Ardai Viruf Nmna, which he 
wrote in the Zend, or the original Persian 

[See Nousherwan Kirmani.] 

Ardisher Babakan {^^i\i .-iJiU, 

or Babagan, the son of Babak, was, we are 
told, a descendant of Sasan, the son of Bah- 
mau and grandson of Isfancliar. He was the 
first king of the Sasanian dynasty. His 
father Babak, who was an inferior officer in 

77 ARDl 

the public service, after putting to death the 
governor appointed by Ardawan (Artabanes) 
made himsL-lf master of the province Fara. 
The old man survived but a short time. His 
son Ardisher, after settling the affairs of 
Fars, not only made himself master of Isfa- 
han, but of almost all Iraq, before Ardawan, 
who was the reigning prince, took the field 
against him, about the year a.d. 223. The 
armies met in the plains of Hurmuz, where a 
desperate battle ensued, in which Ardawan 
lost his crown and his life ; and the son of 
Babak was hailed in the field with the proud 
title of Shaban Shah, or King of kings. He 
was contemporary with Ale.'Lander Severus, 
the Roman emperor. Ardisher (whom the 
Eoman historians call Artaxer.xes) having 
reit^ned fourteen years as absolute sovereign 
of Persia, resigned the government into the 
hands of his son, Shahpiir, called by the 
Romans Sapor or Sapores, in the year a.d. 

The following is a list of the kings of Persia 
of the Siisaniatt race : — 




Shahpur I. 


Hurniuzd I. 


Bahram I. 


Babram II. 


Bahram III. 




Hurmnzd II. 


Shahpiir II. 


Ardisher II. 


Shahpiir III. 


Bahriim IV. 


Yezdijard I. 


Bahram Gor. 


Yezdijard II. 


Hurmuz, or Hurmnzd III 




Balas or Palash. 






Nausherwan (Kasra) . 




Khusro Parwez. 




Ardisher III. 




Tiiran, or Piiran Dukht. 


Azarmi Dukht. 


Farmzkhad Bakhtiar. 


Yezdijard III. 

Ardisher (^^^j^.l), (or Artaxerxes) IT. 

succeeded his father Shahpiir II. in the year 
a.d. 380, and sat on the throne of Persia 
only lour years, during which period no event 
of consequence occurred. He was deposed in 
A.D. 384 by his brother Shahpur III. who 
succeeded him. 

Ardisher ( .^ J^l), (or Artaxerxes) III. 

a king of Persia, of the Sasanian race, who 
reigned about the year a.d. 629, after 



Ardisher Darazdast (, 

\j:^-^^-SjS), an ancient king of 

Tersia, tlie Arlaxcv^^r*! Loiif;imanus of the 
Orci'ks, hiiruaiiifil lljlimau, was tku son of 
Islandiiir. He succcuJi'd liis graudfather, 
Gaslitasp, as king of Persia in n.c. 464. 
lie is eelebrated for file wisdom he displayed 
in the internal regulation of his empire. In 
the commencement of the reign of this 
monarch, the celebrated Eustani was slain 
1)V the treachery of his brother. This prince 
is supposed to be the Ahasuems of Scripture, 
who married Esther, and during the whole of 
his reign shewed the greatest kindness to the 
Jewish nation. The long reign of this 
monarch incUidis that of two or more of his 
immediate successors, who are not noticed by 
Persian writers. According to them, lie 
ruled Persia 112 years, aud was succeeded 
by his daughter Queen Hnmai. 

Arghun Klian {^~>- ^^LS), the son 

of Abaka Khan and grandson of Halakii 
Klian, was raised to the throne of Persia after 
the nuu'der of his uncle Ahmad Klian, sui-- 
named Xekudar, in August, a.d. 12'<4, 
Jamad I. a.h. 683. His reign was marked 
by few events of consequence. He recalled 
the celebrated Shams -ud-dlu Muhammad 
Sahib Diwan, liis father's wazir, Avho, dis- 
gusted with court, had retired to Isfahan : 
but this able minister was hardly re-estab- 
Kshed in his office, before his enemies per- 
suaded the prince that he had actually 
poisoned his father ; aud the aged wazir 
"was in the same year made over to the public 
execntiouer. Amir Buka, the rival of Shams- 
ud-din, rose, upon his fall, to such power 
that he was tempted to make a grasp at the 
crown ; but he was unsuccessful, and lost his 
life in the attempt. Arghiin Klian died on 
Saturday, the 10th March, a.d. 1291, 5th 
Eabi I. A.H. 690, after a reign of 6 years 
aud 9 months, and was succeeded by his 
brother Kaijaptii or Kaikhatii. His mother 
was a Christian. 

[r. fiiip. Aba Kaau.] 

Arghun Shah Jani Qurbani (Amir) 


reigned in XaLshapiir and Tiis about the year 
A.D. 1337, and was defeated by the Sarbadals 
of Sabzwar. 

'Arif (i s ,lc), the poetical name of the 

son of Ghulam Husain Khan. He was an 
excellent Urdii poet of Uehli, and died in 
A.D. 1852, A.H. 1268. 

'Arifi (Maulana) (, a Persian 

poet who flourished in the time of the wazir 
Ishwaja Muhammad bin Is-haq, and wrote a 
work in his name called Dnh Xcima. He 
lived in the 9th century of the Hijri era. 

'Arifi (Maulana) ( s.Lr:), son of 

JIubarik Maskhara, was a learned Musahnan, 
and was living in a.d. 1580, a.h. 988, when 
he wrote a chronogram on the death of 
Qiisiin Kahl, who died in that year, during 
the reign of the emperor Akbar. 

Arjumand Bano Begam (yb si-as^S 

i^C^i), entitled Mumtaz Mahal (now 

corrupted into Taj Mahal and Taj Bibi) was 
the favourite wife of the emperor Shah 
Jahan, and daugliter of 'Asaf l<liau, wazir, 
the brother of the celebrated NUr Jahan 
Begam. She was born in the year a.d. 1592, 
A.H. 1000, and married to the prince Mirza 
Kjiurrani (afterwards Shah Jahan) in a.d. 
1612, A.H. 1021, by whom she had several 
children. She died in child-bed a few hours 
after the birth of her last daughter, named 
Dahar Ara, on the 7th July, o.s. 1631, 17th 
Zil-bijja, A.H. 1040, at Burhanpur in the 
Deccan, was at buried there in a garden 
called Zainabad, but afterwards her remains 
were removed to Agra, where a most splendid 
mausoleum was built over her tomb, with a 
coating of white marble decorated with 
mosaics, which for the richness of the 
material, the chasteness of the design, and 
the effect at once brilliant and solemn, is not 
surpassed by any other edifice either in 
Europe or Asia. It was completed in a.d. 
164.i, A.H. 1055, and is now called the 
"Taj," or "Taj Mahal," which is said to 
have cost the enormous sum of £3,000,000. 
The chronogram of her death contains the 
date in the word "Gliam," or Grief. She 
was also called Eiidsia Begam and Nawab 
'Alia Begam. 

Arjun Singh (aCu^ i^^J^^ ^^^ "'^'^ °^ 
the three sons of Raja Mansingh. 
[Vide Aln Translation, i. p. 485.] 

Arpa Khan (,^Ui- b ,0, one of the 

princes of the Tartar family, was crowned 
king of Persia after the death of Abii Said 
Ivhiln Bahadur, in November, a.d. 1335, 
AH. 736. He reigned five mouths and was 
killed in battle agaiust Miisi I£lian in a.d. 
1336, who succeeded him. 
[Vule Abii Said Khan Bahadur.] 

Arsalan Khan ( ,l~ 

Ji^j\), title of 

Arsalan Quli, the son of Alahwardi Khan I., 
was a nobleman in the service of the emperor 
Alamgir, and was living about the year a.d. 
1696, A.H. 1108. 

Arsalan Shah (»l^ ^l-^J^), the son of 

Sultan Masa'iid III. of Ghazni. He murdered 
his brother Sherzad in a.d. 1115, a.h. 509, 
aud having ascended the throne, he im- 
prisoned all his other brothers excepting 
Bahram Shah, who fled to Khurasan and 
sought assistance of Sultan Sanjar his uncle. 

AESl ' 

Sanjar in the year a.d. 1118, a.h. 512, 
marched to Ghaziu, and in a battle defeated 
Arsalan Shah, who made his escape to 
Lahore, but was soon after taken prisoner 
and put to death, when BahramShah ascended 
the throne. 

Arsalan Shall (il^ i^'L.Ji), a king of 

Khwarizm, and son of Atsiz. Vide Alp 

Arsalan Shall Saljuki (il_i !„.,! 

1 ^ 

J'r?- ">> the son of Tughral II 

and grandson of Sultan Muhammad, brother 
to Sultan Sanjar. Arsalan Shah died in 
January, a.d. 1176, a.h. 571. His son 
Tughral III. who succeeded him, was the 
last Sultan of the family of the Salju- 
kides, who reigned in Persia. 

'Arsh-Ashaiani (^jL^T ^jj^), the 

title giren to the emperor Akhar I. after his 

'Arshi (^Ji^), whose proper name 

was Mir Muhammad Momin, was a brother 
of Mir Salah Kashifi, the son of Mir Ab- 
dullah Mushkin Qalam Husaiui, who was 
a celebrated caligrapher under Jahangir. 
Arshi is the author of a poem called Shdhid- 
Arslii, composed in the year a.d. 1659, a.h. 
1070, also of another work entitled Mehr wa 
TFafd, and of a Diwan. 

Artaxerxes. Vide Ardisher. 
Arzami Dukht (l::....^^ ^^-^jj^X a 

queen of the Persians, whose general named 
Mehran being killed in a battle against the 
Saracens, she was deposed by the people, who 
placed Tezdijard III. upon the throne in her 
stead, a young man of the royal family. But 
this did not much mend the matter, the 
government of the new king of theirs being 
even more inauspicious than that of the 
queen ; for in her reign the confines of the 
empire were only invaded, but in his all was 
entirely lost, and the whole Idngdom and 
country of the Persians fell into the hands of 
the Mnsalmans. The accession of Tezdijard 
is placed by Sir John Malcolm in a.d. 632, 
a.h. 11, hut Major Price fixes it in a.d. 635, 
a.h. 14. 

[ Vide Taurandukht.] 

Arzani Begam (Xj ^Ij .0 was the 

daughter of Shahriar, who was married, in 
the 16th year of Jahangir's reign, to Mihr- 
un-nisa, the daughter of Nur Jahan. 

[Vide ^OT Translation i. p. 331.] 

Arzu (•;.'), the poetical name of 
Siraj-ud-din Ali Khan, which see. 


Asa Ahir (^\ LT), a shepherd chief, 

who built the fortress of Asirgarh in the 
Deccau in the 14th century ; he had some 
2000 retainers. The hill 'had long before 
been encircled by a wall to protect the cattle, 
and it was to employ the poor that Asa con- 
structed, instead of' the fortifications, which 
still remain, beyond all comparison, the 
strongest native built fortress in India. Asa 
was put to death by Malik Nasir, the Muham- 
madan chief IChandais, who possessed himself 
of the stronghold by treachery, and com- 
pleted the fortifications. Two centiu-ies later 
Asirgarh and all Nimar were conquered by 
Akbar and incorporated with the Mughal 
empires. Itwas taken by the British in 1S17. 

Asad (a— ;\), the poetical name of 
Mirza Asad-uUah Klian, usually called Mirza 
Noushah. His ancestors were of Samarqand, 
but he was born at Agra ; but was brought 
up and lived at Dehli, where he rose to great 
fame as a poet and writer of the Persian 
language, whilst his compositions in Urdu, 
were not less admired. He won the favour 
of Bahadiu: Shah, the last king of Dehli, 
who conferred upon him the title" of Kawab, 
and appointed him royal preceptor in the art 
of poetry. He is the author of a Persian 
Insha, a Masnawi in praise of 'Ali, and a 
Diwan in Persian and another in Urdu. 
Both have been printed. He was in a d. 
18-52, when sixty years of a<^e, living at Dehli, 
and was engaged in compiling a history of 
the Mughal emperors of India. His poetical 
name is Ghalib, which see. He died in the 
year A.D. 1869, a.h. 1285. 

Asadi Tusl i^^^c S~i\), a native of 

Tiis in the province of Khurasan, and one 
of the most celebrated Persian poets at the 
court of Sultan Mahmiid of Ghazni, whom 
the Sultan often entreated to undertake the 
legendary history of Persia, but he excused 
himself on account of his age. His best 
work is supposed to be lost. He was the 
master of Firdausi, who afterwards composed 
the Shah Nama. It is said that Firdausi 
on his departure from Ghazni requested 
him to finish the Shah Nama, which was 
yet incomplete, and that Asadi composed 
that part of the poem between the Arabian 
conquest of eastern Persia under the khalif 
'Umar, to the end, consisting of 4000 
couplets. The year of Asadi's death is un- 
known, but it appears from the above cir- 
cumstance that he was living in a.d. 1010, 
A.H. 401, in which year Firdausi departed 
from Ghazni. The most celebrated of the 
other works of Asadi now extant is his 
dispute between Day and Night, a transla- 
tion of which in English verse is to be found 
in the Hose Garden of Fersia, by Louisa 
Stuart CosteUo, published, London, 1845. 

Asad Khan (Nawati)(( iljj ^[~^ d^\), 

entitled Asaf-ud-daula and Jumlat-uI-JIulk, 
was descended from an illustrious family of 




Turkmans. His fathrr, -n-ho fieri from the i 
oppressions of Shah Ahhas, of I'rrsia, into 
Ilinduslau, was raised to hip-h rank by the 
emperor Jahumjlr with the title of Zulfiqar 
Khan, and married to the dansliter of a new 
relation to his empress Xiir Jahiin. His son 
Asad Klnin (whose former name was Iljralum) 
was very early notieed by Shah JahSn, who 
married him to a daughter of his wazir 'Asaf 
Klifin, and promoted him to the olfiee of 
second ISiikhshi, which he held till the loth 
year of 'Alamg-ir (A.d. 1671), when he was 
iraisi'd to the rank of 4000, and a few years 
afterwards to the office of wazir and highest 
order of nobility, seven thousand. In the 
reif;'n of Bahadur Shah he was appointed 
"Wakil Mutlaq (an office superior to wazir), 
and his son Isma'il made jMir Bakhshi or 
chief paymaster, with the title of Amir-ul- 
Tmra Znltikar K]ian ; but on the accession 
of Farrukhsiar, he was disn-raced, his estates 
seized, and his son put to death. After that 
period, helivednpon a scanty pension in a sortof 
confinement, but much respected by all ranks. 
He died in the year a.d. 1717, a.h. 1129, 
aged 90 lunar years, and was buried with 
great funeral pomp at the expense of the 
emperor, in a mausoleum, erected hy his 
father for the family. 

Asad-ullah al-GliaUli('i_JU!l <d!U-:!), 
the conquering lion of God, an epithet of Ali 
the son-in-law of Muhammad. 

Asad-Tillali Asad Yar Khan (Nawat)) 

( .Iri. ,1) A-jl (Xjjl Ji-jl); lie lived in 

the time of the emperor Muhammad Shah, 
and died in a.d. 1745, a.h. 1158. His 
poetical name was Insan, wliich see. 

Asad-uUali Khan (Mirza) (a_,,J1 ^^\ 
Vide Asad and Ghalib. 

by^'* U^^^- 

Asaf (i 0.^1), a native of Q,umm in 

Persia, who came to India in the reign of the 
emperor Sliah Jahan, and is the author of a 
Diwan. [The name comes from the legendary 
minister of Solomon, who appears to have 
been merely a musician; vide I. Chron. 
c. xvi. 7.] 

Asafi (Khwaja) (ip-l^i. ls^')' ^°i 

of Khwaja Na'mat-ul-lah, was an elegant 
poet. Asafi is his poetical name, which he 
took on account of his father having served 
in the capacity of wazir_to Sultan Abii Sa'id 
Mirza ; for, they say, Asaf or jVsaph of the 
Scriptures, was wazir to king Solomon. He 
was one of the contemporaries and com- 
panions of Jami, and took instnictions from 
him in the art of poetry. He died about the 
month of August, a.d. 1520, 16th Shahan, 
a.h. 926, aged more than 70, and was buried 
at Herat ; but according to the work called 
Khnh'imt-nl-Asha'Sr, he died in a.h. 920. 
He is author of a Diwan or book of Od's 
called Stwiiii Asnft. and a Masnawi in the 
measure of IMakh-iin -ul - Airfir . 

Asaf Jah {i\s^ i^^\ ), the title of the 
celebrated Nizam-ul-Mulk of Haidarahad. 

Asaf Khan I. i^J^ u_£.el ), surnamed 

Abdul JIajid, was a nobleman in the time of 
the emperor Akbar, who in a.d. 1565, a.]i. 
973, distinguished himself by the conquest of 
Garrakota, a principality on the Narbada, 
bordering on Bundelkhand. It was governed 
hy a Queen or Hani named Durgiiwati, who 
opposed the Muhammadan general in an un- 
sueccssful action, and when seeing her army 
routed and herself severely wounded, she 
avoided falling into the hands of the enemy 
by stabbing herself with a dagger. Her 
treasures, which were of great value, fell 
into the hands of Asaf Khan ; he secreted a 
great part, and the detection of this embezzle- 
ment was the immediate cause of Ms revolt. 
He was, however, subsequently pardoned, 
and after the conquest of Cliittour, that 
country was given to 'Asaf Kliiin in jagir. 

Asaf Khan II. i^s^ i_i^'), title of 

Khraj-Ghayns-ud-din Ali Qaiwani, the son 
of Aqa Mrilland, uncle to Asaf Khan Jafar 
Beg. He held the Bakhshigar! in the time 
of the emperor Akbar, and after the conquest 
of Gujrat in a.d. 1573, a.h. 981, in which 
he distinguished himself, the title Abbas 
Khan was conferred on him. He died at 
Gujrat in a.d. 1581, a.h. 989, and after his 
death his nephew Mirza Jiifar Beg was buried 
with the title of Asaf Khiin. 

Asaf Khan III. {.kj<.:>- ^:>- i— iLjI 

C_^j), commonly called Mirza Ja'far 

Beg, was the son of Mirza Badi-uz-Zaman 
and grandson of Aqa Mullil Qazwini. He 
was born at Qazwin, and came to India in 
his youth, a.d. 1577, a.h. 985. At the 
recommendation of his uncle Mirza Ghaias- 
ud-din, who was a nobleman at the court of 
the emperor Akbar, and bore then the title 
of Asaf Khiin, was received with honour, 
and after the death of his uncle the office of 
Bakhshigari was conferred on him with the 
title of Asaf Khin, a.d. 1581, a.h. 989. 
He was an excellent poet, and was one of 
the many that were employed by the em- 
peror in compiling the Tdrlkh Alfl, and 
after the assassination of Mulla Ahmad in 
A.D. 1588, a.h. 996, the remainder of the 
work was written by him up to the year a.h. 
997. He is also called Asaf Khan Mirza 
Ja'far Bakh.shi Begi, and is the author of a 
poem called Shtrhi «■« Khusro. The office 
of chief Diwan was conferred on him by the 
emperor in a.d. 1598, a.h. 1007, and in the 
reign of Jahiingir he was raised to the high 
post of wazarat. He died in the year a.d. 
1612, A.H. 1021. In his poetical composi- 
tions he used the name of Ja'far. One of 
his sons, who also bore the name of Ja'far, 
became an excellent poet and died in the time 
of 'Alamgir, a.d. 1682, a.h. 1094. 




Asaf Khan IV. (^U. ^J"), the title 

of 'Abul Hasan, who had several other titles 
conferred on him at different times, such as 
Ya'tqad Khan, Yemin-ud-daula, etc., was the 
sou of the celebrated wazir Ya'tmad-ud-daula, 
and brother to Nur Jahan Bsgam. After his 
father's death in a.d. 1621, a.h. 1030, he was 
appointed wazir bythe emperor Jahangir. His 
daughter Arjumand Bano Begam, also called 
Mumtaz Mahal, was married to the prince 
Shah Jahan. 'Asaf Klian died at Lahore in 
the 1.5th year of Shah Jahan on the 10th 
November, o.s. 1641, 17th Sha'ban, a.h. 
11151, aged 72 limar years, and was buried 
there on the banks of the Raw! opposite to 
the city of Lahore. Besides Mumtaz Mahal, 
he had" four sons, va., Shaista Khan ; Mirza 
Maslh, who was drowned in a drunken frolic 
in the river Behat in Kashmir ; Mirza Hu- 
saiu, of moderate abilities and little note ; 
and Shahnawaz Khan, who rose to much 
reputation and distinction. 

Asaf-Tid-daula (dJ.jkJl 
of Asad Khan, which see. 

I ), a title 

Asaf-ud-daula (Nawab) (^J.^H i__i.^l 

<_jlj.j), the eldest son of Nawab 

Shujaa'-ud-danla of Audh, after whose death 
in January, a,d. 1775, Zil-qada, a.h. 1188, 
he saccee'ded to his dominions, and made 
Lucknow the seat of his government, which 
formerly was at Faizabad. He died after a 
reign of twenty-three lunar years and seven 
months on Friday the 21st September, 
A.D. 1797, 28th Eabi I. a.h. 1212, and 
was buried in the Imam Bara at Lucknow, 
of which he was the founder. His eldest 
adopted son, "Wazir All Khan, agreeably to 
his request, was placed on the masnad, but 
was after four months deposed by Sir John 
Shore, then Governor of Calcutta, and Sa'adat 
All Khan, the brother of the deceased, raised 
to the masnad. Asaf-ud-daula is the author 
of a Diwan in Urdu and Persian. 

Asalat Khan (.i^\a^ ij:^\y^\), title of 

Mir Abdul Hadi, son of Mir Miran Tezdi, 
was a nobleman in the service of the emperor 
Shah Jahan. He died in the year a.d. 1647, 
A.H. 1057. 

Asalat Khan (^\~ 

JUO, title of 

Mirza Muhammad, son of Mirza Badia' of 
Mashhad. He came to India in the 19th 
year of Shah Jahan, a.d. 1645, a.h. 1055, 
and was raised to the rank of 5,000 by the 
emperor 'Alamglr, in whose time he died, 
A.D. 1666, A.H. 1076. 

Asam or Atham (*Jl), poetical name of 
Hafiz-uUah, which see. 

Asar (yl), poetical name of Akhund 

Shafa'i or Shafia'ai of Shiraz, who died at 
Lar in the year a.d. 1701, a.h. 1113, and 
left a Diwan containing 10,000 verses. 

Asar (pi), poetical name of Nawab 

Husain All Khan, son of Amir-ud-daula 
Haidar Beg Khan. He is the author of a 

Asghar (^^U. ^^_^^>. jJi^\), Husain 

Khan (Nawab) of Fun-ukhabad, in 1874, 
went to Bombay, intending to proceed to 
Mecca on a pilgrimage. 

Asha'ri {^jxJ^\), the surname of one of 

the most celebrated doctors among the Musid- 
maus, named Abul Hasan All bin-Isma'il. 
Originally a resident of Bassora and a teacher 
of the sect which flourished there in the 
tenth century a.d. ; he publicly renounced 
their doctrines and finally removed to Bagh- 
dad, where he died in his 70th year, after 
writing more than half a hundred works on 
the side of orthodoxy. He died about 952. 
[ Vide Mn'tazila.] 

'Ashiq (^J^U), poetical name of Mahdi 

All Khan, grandson of Nawab Ali Mardan 
Khan. He is the author of thi-ee Diwans in 
Urdii, two in Persian, a book called Smnla, 
Haidari, and several works. 

'Ashiq {^j^\s.), poetical name of Shaikh 

Niir-ud-din Muhammad, the author of the 
Masnawi called Aish iva Tarab (Enjoyment 
and Merriment), composed in a.d. 1668, 
A.H. 1079. 

'Ashiq Pasha (l^lj ^^U), a Turkish 

poet, who was born at Hirshari, in the reign 
of Sultan Orkhan, the successor of Othman, 
and died at no very advanced age, in the reign 
of Murad I. He was, says Von Hammer, 
one of the richest Shaikhs of his time, but 
lived nevertheless the life of a simple darvesh, 
from conscientious motives. His Diwan or 
great work, in imitation of Jalal-nd-din 
Eumi's, is a collection of mystical poetry, 
exceeding ten thousand disticbs, and divided 
into ten books, each book into ten parts. 

'Ashiq. (^^Ic), poetical name of Mau- 
lana Abiil Khair of Khwarizm, which see. 

Ashir-ud-din (^J jJ^ yT^-^^)> pronounced 
by the Indians Asir-ud-din, which see. 

Ashk (uJ^^O, poetical name of Mu- 
hammad Khalil-ullah Khan, which see. 




Ashna (L-i>l), poetical name of Mirza 

Muhammnd Tahir, who had the title of luSit 
KliaQ. He was a son of Xawab Zafar Khan 
Ihsfin, and died in a.d. 16f>6, a,h. Iu77. 
His i-omplete work is called Kidlicit 'Aslma, 
in which Kasidas are to be found in praise of 
Shah Jahan and Dara Shikoh. 

Ashna (Li I ), poetical name of Ghaias- 
nd-dln, who died in a.d. 1662, a.h. 1073. 

Ashot) (i_!j-l I ), poetical name of Mu- 
hammad Bakhsh, a poet who ilourished in 
Audh dm-ing- the reign of Asaf-ud-daula and 
his father Shujaa'-ud-daula. He is the 
anther of a Diwan. 

Ashraf (i_J^il), or Darwesh Ashraf. 

He flonrished under Baisanghar's son, and 
has left a Diwan. 

Ashraf All Khan Koka ( Ix , j-ll 

^^ ^^)- Vide Fighan.' 

Asliraf (i_i^_i,\), poetical name of 

Mii-zii Muhammad Sa'id of Mazaudaran, son 
of Mulla Muhammad Qana'. He came to 
India and was appointed to instruct Zebun 
Nisa Begam, the daughter of the emperor 
'Alamgir. He died at Miingair. He is the 
author of a Diwan and several Masnawis. 

Ashraf (t_J^\), poetical name of Mu- 
hammad Hasan, son of Shah Muhammad 
Zaman of Allahabad. He was probably alive 
in A.D. 1852, and is the author of a Masnawi 
called Ma'dan Faiz. 

Asliraf (^il), a chief of the Afghans 

of the tribe of Ghilzai, who was elected on 
the 22nd April, o.s. 172.5, by the Afghans as 
successor of his cousin or uncle Mahmid, 
another chief of the same tribe, who had 
usurped the throne of Persia in the time of 
Sultan Husain Safwl, whom he kept in con- 
finement. Asliraf on his accession murdered 
the latter, and sent his corpse to be interred 
in (Jumm. He was defeated by Nadir Quli 
(afterwards Nadir Shah) in a.d. 1729, a.h. 
1142, who placed Shah Tahmasp II. son 
of Sultan Husain on the throne. Ashraf 
was afterwards seized and murdered by a 
Billoch chief between Kirman and Qandahar 
in January, a.d. 1730, a.h. 1143, and his 
head sent to Shah Tahmasp. 

Ashraf Khan (^^Ui- i_J,.iO, title of 

Mirza Jluhammad Ashraf, the son of Islam 
Khan Mashhadi. In the reign of Shah Jahan 
he held the rank of 1500, and the title of 
Ta'tmad Khan. In the time of 'Alamgir he 
was raised to the rank of 3000 with the title 
of Ahhraf Ivlian, and died five days after the 
conquest of Bijapiir on the 17th September, 
A.D. 1686, 9th Zil-qada, a.h. 1097. 

Ashraf Khan (|_^L=i- i 'ijJ^\), whose 

proper name was Muhammad Asghar, was 
a Sayyad of Mashhad, and held the office 
of Miir Mimshi in the time of the emperor 
Akbar. He wrote a beantifid hand, and 
was an excellent poet. He composed a 
chronogram on the death of Muhammad 
Yiisaf in a.d. 1562, a.h. 970; another on 
the completion of the mosque of Shaikh 
SalTm Chishti at Fathapiir SikrI in a.d. 
1571, A.H. 979; and one on the conquest 
of Siirat by Akbar on the 1st January, a.d. 
1573, 25th Sha'ban, a.h. 980. He accom- 
panied Munaira Khan Khankhanan to Bengal 
and died at Lakhnauti in the year a.d. 1575, 
A.H. 983. At the time of his death he held 
the rank of 2,000. 

'Ashrat {c:JjJUs.). Fide Ishrat. 

'Ashrati (^yuc). Vide Ishrati. 

'Ashrati ( Jji^r), the name of a poet. 
Vide Ishrati. 

'Asi ( _^L£), the poetical name of 

Ghulam Sarwar, author of the Qaf Nama, 
wliich consists of Ghazals, all the verses of 
which end in Qaf, hence the name ; another 
peculiarity is that the first letter of every verse 
of the first Ghazal is Alif, of the second Be, 
of the tliird Te, etc., a ghazal for every letter 
of the alphabet. 

'Asif Khan. Vide Asaf Khan. 

'Asimi (^t.,tflc), an Arabian poet who 

lived in the time of Khwaja Nizam-ul-Mulk, 
and wrote beautiful panegjTics in his praise. 

Asir {j^J\), poetical name of Sayyid 

Giilzar All, the son of Nazir, a poet of Agra. 
He is the author of an Urdii Diwan, and is 
still living in Agra (1878). 

Asir ij^), commonly called Mirza 

Jalal Asir, a celebrated poet of Persia and 
a relation of Shah Abbas the great. He 
flourished about the year a.d. 1600, never 
came to India, and is the author of a Diwan 
in Persian. He died in a.d. 1630, a.h. 

Asir-ud-din Akhsikati (^jjj\ _-_wj1 
i^jiJL»*u^ 1), a native of Akhsikat, 

a city in the province of Farghana, was an 
excellent poet and contemporary with Kha- 
kani. He died in A d. 1211, a.h. 608. 
He spent the greatest part of his life at 
the courts of the Atabaks, and stood in 
high favom- with Arsalan Shah, the son of 
Tugliral, Eldiguz and Qizil Arsalan. 




Asir-ud-din Aomani or Aamani (^-;1 

LS' J (iri'^-^^)' ^ P°®t of Hamdan, 
who was a pupil of NasTr-ud-dln Tusi. He 
is the author of a Diwan in Persian and 

Asir - Tid - din ibn - Umar al - Abhari 

^iJj^'^^j-^ ^^■^^ ^^.•^^^ ^-'^)) author 

of the Eashf, Zubda, and Eiddya, which is 
also called iUddtjet-ul-Sikmat, the Guide to 
Fhilosophy. He died in a.d. 1344, a.h. 

'Asjudi i^s^^), a powerful poet at 

the court of Sultan MahmM of Ghazni, was 
a native of Mary, and one of the scholars 
of 'Unsari. He evinced in his works much 
genius ; but they are scarce, and the greatest 
part of them are lost. 

Askaran (Raja) {i^\j ^^1), brother 

of Eaja Biharl Mai Kachhwaha. He served 
under the emperor Akbar for several years, 
and died some time after the year a.d. 1588, 
A.H. 996. After his death, his son Raj 
Singh was raised to high rank and honours. 

'Askari (Imam) {A^\ ^J^^c.). Vide 
Hasan Askari. 

'Askari (Mirza) (Ij^^ ^^L^), third 

son of the emperor Babar Shah. On the 
accession of his eldest brother, Humayun, to 
the throne of Dehli, the district of Sarkar 
Sambhal was conferred on him as jagir. He 
was subsequently kept in confinement for some 
time on account of his rebellious conduct by 
Humayun on his return from Persia. He 
afterwards obtained permission to go on a 
pilgrimage to Mecca, but died on his way 
across the deserts of Arabia in the year a.d. 
1554, A.H. 961. He left one daugliter, who 
was married to Yiisaf Khan, an inhabitant 
of Mashhad. 

Asmai ( «x.4^l), surname of Abii Said 
Abdul Malik bin Qureb, which see. 

'Asmat (c:,. 

name of Khwaja Asmat-ullah of Bukhara. 
He was descended from a noble family of 
Bukhara tracing his ancestry to Ja'far, the 
son of Abu Talib, the father of Ali. He was 
successful in all kinds of poetical composition ; 
and flourished in the time of prince Mirza 
KhalTl, the grandson of Amir Taimiix, whom 
he instructed in the art of poetry. He died 
in the year a.d. 1426, a.h. 829, and has left 
a Diwan consisting of 20,000 verses. 

1..=), or Ismat, poetical 

'Asmat-TiUah (iJl 

c). Vide 

'Asmat-ullah (Mulla) {i,.A\ L:^«A.>a.j: 

L«), of SaharanpQr, was the author 
of the work called Shurah Khulasat ulSisdb. 
He died in a.d. 1626, a.h. 1035. 

Asoka {iSj.^\), the son of Bindusara 

and grandson of Chandragupta, raja of PataH- 
putra in Magadha. He reigned for about 
forty years, until the year B.C. 223. His 
reign is most important. Numerous inscrip- 
tions made by his order have been discovered 
in various parts of India. In his edicts he 
styles himself "Piyadasi." 

'Assar (jLux) (oil-presser), the poetical 

name of Shams-ud-din Muhammad. He was 
a native of Tabrez, and author of a romantic 
poem called Mehr wa Mushtart, the Sun and 
Jupiter, which he completed on the 20th 
February, a.d. 1377, 10th Shawwal, a.h. 
778, and died in the year a.d. 1382, a.h. 

Aswad (jj^l), or Al-Aswad. Vide 

'Ata (Uic), the poetical name of Shaikh 

Ata-uDah, a pupil of Mirza Bedil. He died 
at Dehli in a.d. 1723, a.h. 1135. 

Atabak (C_Xjb'i), or Atabeg. This is 

a Turkish title, formed from the word Ata, 
father or tutor, and Beg, lord ; and signifies 
a governor or tutor of a lord or prince. 
From the time of the decline of the dj-nasty 
of SaljUk to the conquest of Persia by Halakii 
Khan (wliich occupies a period of more than 
a century) , that country was distracted by the 
contests of a number of petty princes, or 
governors, called Atabaks ; who, taking ad- 
vantage of the weakness of the last monarchs 
of the race of Saljiik, established their 
authority over some of the finest provinces 
of the empire. One of the most distinguished 
of these Atabegs was Eldiguz, a Turkish 
slave, whose descendants reigned over 'Azur- 
bejan. The Atabegs of Fars were descended 
from Salghur, a Turkish general. 

\_Vide Eldiguz and Salghur, also 'Imad- 
ud-din Zangi. There were four dynasties 
of these Atabaks.] 

Atabak Abu Bakr (^j ^\ ( — Cib'l), 

the son of Atabak Muhammad, the son of 
Eldiguz, succeeded his uncle Qizal Arsalan as 
prime minister to Tughral III. Saljuki, in 
A.D. 1191, A.H. 587. He appears to have con- 
tented himself with the principality of 'Azur- 
bejan, and fixed his residence at Tabrez. His 
lono- reign was only distm-bed by one war 
with his brother Qutalaq, in which he was 
victorious. Qutlaq fled into Khwarizm and 
encouraged Ala-ud-din Takash to advance 




af?;<iiiist Tngliral III. whom he defeated aud 
slew in a.d. 1194, a.h. 590. Abu Eakr 
died in a.d. 1210, a.h. 607, and was suc- 
ceeded by liis brother Atabak Muzaffar. 

Atabak Abu Bakr bin-Sa'd bin-Zangi 
(i_jXj; ^ Ax^ ^ jLi ^\ 4_XjIj\). 
Tide Sunqar. 

Atabak 'Ala-ud-daula CLx i $l)ljl 

<l1.jJ\), the son of Atabak Sam, one 

o£ the Atabaks of Isfahan of the race of the 
Dilamites. He died in a.d. 1227, a.h. 624, 
aged 84 years. 

Atabak Eldiguz (jJ^J^Ij i-_<.;ljD. 
J^ide Eldiguz. 

Atabak Muiammad (j,^.sr* ( C;Lj1) 

was the eldest son of Eldiguz, whom he 
succeeded as prime minister in a.d. 1172, 
a.h. 568. When Tughral III. a prince of 
the Saljiikian dynasty (who was a child of 
seven years of age), was placed on the throne 
in a.d. 1176, Muhammad, who was his uncle, 
became the actual ruler of Persia. This chief 
after enjoying power 13 years died in March, 
a.d. 1186, Zil-hijja, a.h. 581, in which year 
the conjunction of all the planets took place. 
He was succeeded by his brother Qizal Arsalan. 

Atabak Muzaffar ( Jji^ LjCJb'l), the 

son of Atabak Miiharnmad. He succeeded 
his brother Abii Bakr in a.d. 1210, a.h. 
607, and not only inherited Azurbejan, but a 
considerable part of 'Iraq. He enjoyed this 
power 15 years; after which 'Azurbejan was 
invaded and conquered by Sultan Jalal-ud-din, 
the monarch of Khwarizm, a.d. 1225, a.h. 
622. Muzafflar shut himself up in the fort 
of Alanjaq, where he died ; and with him 
perished the power of the family of Eldiguz. 

Atabak Muzaffar - ud - din Zangi 
(^JLij _iJa^ L_iolj'l), a prince of 
Shiraz, and brother of Sunqar, which see. 

Atabak Sa'd bin-Zangi. V'ide Sunqar. 

'Ata Husam Khan (^[s~ ..h-.^, 

whose poetical name was Tahsln, is the 
author of the Bautarz Mtirassa', an Urdu 
tran,slation of the Chahar Larwesh. He 
flourished in the time of Nawab 'Asaf-ud- 
daula of Lucknow, about the year a.d. 1776, 
A.H. 1189. As a specimen of the Urdu 
language the Kautarz Murassa' was rendered 
objectionable for students, by his retaining 
too much of the phraseology and idiom of 
the Persian and Arabic. On this account a 
simple version was executed by Mir Amman 
of Dehli in a.d. 1802, a.h. 1217, which is 
styled the Bagh-o-Bahar. 
\_Vide TahsTn.] 

Atal (Jj'l), a name assumed by Mir 
Abdul Jalil Dehli in his poetical composi- 
tions, who gave out that he was by inspira- 
tion the pupil of Ja'lar Zatalll, aud wrote 
poetry in Persian and Arabic. 

'Ata Malik ((_<U Ikii"). Vide Ata- 
ud-diu surnamed 'Ata Malik. 

Atash (/W.J' ' ), poetical name of Khwaja 

Haidar Ali of Lucknow, who is the author 
of two DiwSns or books of Odes ccmsisting of 
Persian aud Urdu verses. He died in a.d. 
1847, A.H. 1263. 

'Ata-uUah (a_J^ l.k_c), surname of 
several Musalman authors, but particularly 
of Taj-ud-din Muhammad bin- Ahmad bin- 
Ata-uUah, who is the authcu- of a book 
entitled Snkmn-vl -Atia, which treats on 
Musalman law, and is to be found in the 
Eoyal Library at Paris, No. 672. There is 
one Ata-uUah who is the author of a dic- 
tionary called FirditHK-id-Liiijhdt. 

'Ata-uUah (iJi Ikr), bin-Muhammad 

-al-Husaiui Xaishapiiri, author of the Raiiznt- 
ul-Ahbab, containing the history of Muham- 
mad, of his companions, and of the twelve 
Imams. This book was written at Herat 
and dedicated to Amir 'Alisher in a.d. 1494, 
A.H. 899. He is also called Amir Jamal-ud- 
din Ata-uUah. He also wrote another work 
on the art of writing poetry, entitled Kitab 
Tal-mtl-us-Satiaa't, dedicated to the same 
Amir, in which he calls himself 'Ata-iillah 
bin-Muhammad-al-Husaini Naishapiii-i. He 
was wazir to Sultan Husain Mirza of Herat, 
and died in the beginning of the year 
A.H. 917. 

At-har or Athar Khan (^l:>- T-ytO, 

the son of Amir Nizam-ud-din Eazwi ; he 
was a native of Bukhara, and came to India 
in the time of the emperor 'Alamgir, where 
he collected his poems into a Diwan. 

Atma' (.U^LU, a poet -whose proper 
name is Abii Is-haq Hallaj, which see. 

Atsiz (l^uJI), one of the Sultans of 

IChwarizm called Atsiz ibn - Auk by Ibn 
Khallikan. Tutush or Turtush, son of Alp 
Arsaliln, who was lord of the countries to the 
east of Syria, caused him to be arrested, and 
having put him to death on the 21st October, 
A.D. 1078, 11th Eabi II. a.h. 471, took 
possession of his kingdom. 

Atsiz (j^j^), a Sultan of Khwarizm 

called by ibn-Khallikan, Atsiz, the son of 
Qutb-ud-din Muhammad, the son of Anush- 
takin. He was contemporary with Sultau 



Saujar Saljiik!, vfiih whom he had several 
battles. lie died in a.d. U66, 6th Jamad 
II. A.H- 551, and was succeeded to the 
throne by his son Alp Arsalan, who is also 
called Apa Arsalan. He died in a.d. U52, 
19th Eajab, a.h. 557. 

Atsiz ( j^j\), son of Ala-ud-din Hasan 

Jahan Soz, king of Glior. He reigned after 
BahS-ud-diu Sam, and was killed in a battle 
against Taj-iid-din Elduz, prince of Ghazni, 
some time ahont the year a.d. 1211, a.h. 
608. He was the last of the kings of Gh5r 
of this branch. 

'Attar ( ,U2_c), poetical name of Farid- 
ud-din Attar, which see. 

Aurang {L-^'jj^\), name of a lover 
whose mistress was Gulchehra. 

Aurangabadi Begam(^Cj ^jLUli ,,\), 

one of the wives of the emperor Aurangzeb 

Aurangzeb (i }\^ijj\), the son of 

Shah Jahan, emperor of Dehli. On his 
accession to the throne, he took the title of 
'Alamgir, agreeably to the custom of the 
Eastern princes, who always assume a new 
one on that occasion. 

[ Vide 'Alamgir.] 

Aurangzeb (i .^jjj .^1), private name 

of the emperor 'Alamgir I. which see. The 
Mughil Emperors changed their names on 
accession, like the Popes of modern times. 

Avank Klian (^l:>- 4__n.>^0, or Ung 

Klian, a prince of the tribe of Karit or Kirit, 
a tribe of Mughals or Oriental Tartars, who 
made profession of the Christiau religion. 
He was surnamed MaUk Yiihanna, or king 
John. From the name of this prince we 
have made John the Priest, who was stripped 
of his dominions by Changez Khan in a.d. 
1202, A.H. 599. They have since applied 
the name of John the Priest or Prestre John 
to the king of Ethiopia, because he was a 
Christian. Avank Khan is by some authors 
caDed Avant Khan. He was a very power- 
ful sovereign, and the greatest part of 
Tartary was tributary to him ; but he was 
defeated and put to death by Changez Khan. 

Aven Resell. Vide Ibn RasliTd. 

Avenzur. Vide Abdul Malik bin-Zohr 

Averroes. J^ide Ibn Eashld. 

Avicenna. Vide Abu Sina. 

Aweis Qarani (Khwaja) ( Jyj ij^jO, 

an upright Musalman of the Sufi sect, %vho 
had given up the world, used to say to those 
that sought him, "Do you seek God? If 
you do, why do you come to me ? And if 
you do not seek God, what business can I 
have with yon ? ' ' He was an inhabitant of 
Yeman and of the tribe of Qaran. He was slain 
in a battle fought by Ali against Mu'awia I. 
in A.D. 657, 17th Shawwal, a.h. 37. This 
man had never seen Muhammad, and yet the 
Musalmans say, that when he heard that 
Muhammad had lost a tooth in battle, and 
not knowing which, he broke all his teeth. 

Aweis Jalayer (Sultan) (.jiL»- ij^}\ 
(_^LkL-i) succeeded his father, Amir 

Hasan Buzurg, as king of Baghdad in July, 
A.D. 1356, Eajab, a.h. 757, and alter a 
reign of nearly nineteen lunar years died on 
Tuesday the ioth October, a.d. 1374, 2nd 
Jamad I. a.h. 776. He was succeeded by 
his son Sultan Husain Jalayer. 

Aweis Mirza {\jj-^ ^^.j^O, a prince 

nearly related to Baiqara Bahadur, was 
nephew to Abul Ghazi Sultan Husain Baha- 
dirr. He was mtu'dered by Sultan Abu Said 
Mirza, between the years a.d. 1451 and 

'Ayani ( ^jLo:), whose proper name 

was Abu Is-haq Ibrahim, probably flourished 
previous to the 8th century of the Hij'rat. 
He is the author of a Masnawi called Anbia 
Natna, a history of the prophets who pre- 
ceded Muhammad. 

Ayaz (jljl), a slave of Sultan Mahmud 

of Ghazni who, being a great favourite of his 
master, was envied by the courtiers ; they 
therefore informed the Sultan that they 
frequently observed Ayaz go privately into 
the Jewel office, whence they presumed he 
had purloined many valuable eifects. The 
next time when the slave had entered the 
treasury, the Sultan followed by a private 
door, and, unobserved, saw Ayaz draw from 
a large chest a suit of old dirty garments, 
with which having clothed himself, he 
prostrated himself on the ground and re- 
turned thanks to the Almighty for all the 
benefits conferred on him. The Sultan, 
being astonished, went to him, and demanded 
an explanation of his conduct. He replied, 
' ' Most gracious Sire, when I first became 
your Majesty's servant, this was my ch-ess, 
and till that period, humble had been my lot. 
Now that, by the grace of God and your 
majesty's favom", I am elevated above all the 
nobles of the land, and am intrusted with the 
treasures of the world, I am fearful that my 
heart should be puffed up with vanity ; I 
therefore daily practise this humiliation to 
remind me of my former insignificance." 
The Sultan being much pleased, added to his 
rank, and severely reprimanded his slanderers. 




'Ayaz (Qazi) (^-ili ijo^^), son of 

Musa, and author of the Shnrah Salnh 
JUifshiii, MasIiurirj-id-Aiiu'd}-, and several 
other works. He died in a.d. 1119, a.h. 

'Ayesha (jL^ioli), daughter of Abu 

Bala-, and one of the most heloved wires of 
Muhammad, though she bore him no child. 
She was his third wife, and the only one 
that was a maid, being then only seven 
years of age ; on which account (some say) 
her father, whose original name was Abd- 
ullah, was named Abii Bakr, that is to say, 
the father of the virgin. An Arabian author, 
cited by Maracci, says, that Abii Bakr was 
very averse to giving him his daughter so 
young, but that Muhammad pretended a 
divine command for it ; whereupon he sent 
her to him with a basket of dates, and when 
the girl was alone with him, he stretched out 
his hand, and rudely took hold of her clothes ; 
upon which she looked fiercely at him, and 
said, "People call you the faithful man, 
but your behaviour to me shews you are a 
perfidious one." But this story is most pro- 
bably one of those calumnies against Muham- 
mad which were invented and found favour 
in the iliddle Ages. After the death of her 
husband she opposed the succession of Ali, 
and had several bloody battles with him ; 
although violent, her character was respected, 
and when taken prisoner by Ali she was dis- 
missed without injury. She was called 
prophetess and mother of the faithful. She 
died, aged 67, in the year a.d 678, a.h. 
68. Her brother Abdur Rahman, one of the 
fom' who stood out against Yezid's inaugura- 
tion, died the same year. There is a tradition 
that 'Ayesha was murdered by the direction 
of Mu'awia I, and the following particulars 
are recorded : — 'Ayesha ha^•ing resolutely and 
insultingly refused to engage her allegiance 
to Yezid, Mu'awia invited her to an enter- 
tainment, where he had prepared a very deep 
well or pit in that part of the chamber 
reserved for her reception, and had the 
month of it deceptively covered over with 
leaves and straw. A chair was then placed 
upon the fatal spot, and 'Ayesha, on being 
conducted to her seat, instantly sank into 
eternal night, and the mouth of the pit was 
immediately covered with stones and mortar. 
There is, however, no trustworthy authority 
in support of this stoiy. 

'Ayn-uddin (Shaikh) (; 



of Bijapur, author of the Mulhiqat, and 
KitSb-uJ- Jnwar containing a history of all 
the Muhammadan saints of India. He 
flourished in the time of Sultan Ala-uddin 
Hasan Bahmani. 

'Ayn-ul-Mulk (Hakim) (i_iCiJl ^^ 
*^x=»-), a native of Shiraz, and a well- 
educated and learned Musalraan, was an 
officer of rank in the time of the emperor 

Akbar. He was an elegant poet, and his 
poetical name was AVafa. He died in the 
40th year of the emperor in a.d. 1694, a.h. 

'Ayn-ul-Mulk (Khwaja) (lJX«J1 ^^s. 

is>-\>^), a distinguished nobleman in 

the court of Sultan Muhammad Shah 
Tughlaq and his successor Sultan Firoz 
Shah Barbak, kings of Dehli. He is the 
author of several works, one of which is 
called Tars'il 'Ayn-ul-Mullcl. He also 
appears to be the author of another work 
called Falha Nama, containing an account 
of the conquests of Sultan 'Ala-uddin Sikan- 
dar Sani, who reigned from a.d. 1296 to 
A.D. 1316. 

'Aysh (jjJi^i), poetical name of Mu- 
hammad 'Askarl, who lived in the reign of 
the emperor Shah 'Alam. 

'Ayshi i^jL^), a poet who is the 

author of a Masnawi called Saft Akhtar, 
or the seven planets, which he wrote in 
A.D. 1675, A.H. 1086. 

Azad ( jlj I ), poetical name of Mir 

Ghulam Ali of BUgram, born about 1703. 
His father Say^'ad Nuh, who died in a.d. 
1762, A.H. 1165, was the son of the cele- 
brated Mir Abdul Jalil Bilgrami. He was 
an excellent poet and is the author of several 
works in Persian and Arabic, among which 
are Qasdid ' Uzzd, Sab - hat -ul - Mirjfin, 
Khazana 'Amira, and Tazlcira Sarv 'Azud. 
He died in the year a.d. 1786, a.h. 1200. 

Azad (jljl), the poetical name of 

Captain Alexander Hiderley, in the service 
of the raja of Alwar. He was a good poet 
and has left a small Diwan in TJrdii. His 
father's name was James Hiderley, and his 
brother's Thomas Hiderley. He died on the 
7th July, 1861, Zilhij, a.h. 1277, at Alwar, 
aged 32 years. 

Azad Khan (^jU- jlj I ), governor of 

Cashmere, of the Afghan tribe, succeeded his 
father, HajT Karim Dad, a domestic officer 
of Ahmad Shah Abdali, and who was at the 
death of that prince advanced to the govern- 
ment of Cashmere by Taimiir Shah, as a 
reward for quelling the rebellion of Amir 
Khan, the former governor. Azad Khan was 
only 18 years of age (in 1783) when he was 
governor of Cashmere, but his acts of ferocity 
exceeded common belief. 

'Azaeri {^jiK^r). Vide Uzaeri. 

Azal (JjU, poetical name of Mirza 

Muhammad Amin, who died in a.d. 1728, 
a.h. 1141. 




'Azam Shah (jU 2as:\), the third son 

of the emperor Alamgir, was born on the 
11th July, o.s. 1653, 25th Shaban, a.h. 
1063. After Ms father's death (his eldest 
brother Babadur Shah being tben at Kabul) 
he was crowned in the garden of Shalimar 
at Ahmadabad in tbe Deccan on the 4th 
March, o.s. 1707, 10th ?il-hijja, a.h. 1118, 
but was soon after slain, together with his 
two sons, Bedar BaWit and Walajah, in a 
battle fought against his eldest brother at 
Jajowan between Agra and Dholpur. This 
took place on Sunday the 8th June, o.s. 
1707, 18th Eabi' I. a.h. 1119, three lunar 
months and eighteen days after his father's 
death. His mother's name was Bano Begam, 
the daughter of Shahnawaz Khan. He was 
bxuied in the mausoleum of Humayiiu at 
Dehli. His two youngest sons who survived 
him were 'Ali Tabar and Bedar DU. 

Azdihak. Vtde Zuhak. 

'Azd-ud-daula (aSjaH J^^^), a Sultan 

of the Boyites, succeeded bis father, Eukn- 
ud-daula, in September, a.d. 976, Muharram, 
A.H. 366, to the government of Fars and 
'Irak, as well as in the office of wazir or 
Amir-ul-XJmra to the khalif Al-Taya Billah 
of Baghdad, in the room of his cousin Izz- 
ud-daula, the son of Maizz-ud-daula, whom 
he killed in battle in a.d. 978, a.h. 367. 
He built the mausoleum of 'Ali at Naj'af 
Ashraf , embellished Baghdad and other places 
by magnificent pubUc buildings, and died on 
Monday the 27th March, a.d. 983, 8th Shaw- 
wal, A.H. 372, aged 47 lunar years. At his 
death the reitjning khalif read the prayers at 
the funeral of this good and great man. His 
name is still fondly cherished in a country 
over which he endeavoured during the reign 
of his father and his own, being a space 
of 34 years, to diffuse prosperity and joy. 
His power and possessions became from the 
moment of his death a subject of contest 
between his brothers and nephews. 

'Azd-Tiddin (Qazi) ( -eli ^.^',J'^ J..flr), 

of Shiraz, author of several works, one of 
which is called the Muwaqif 'Azdia, a, cele- 
brated work in Arabic on Jurisprudence. He 
flourished in the time of Shah Abu Is-haq, 
governor of Shiraz, to whom he dedicated 
the above work. He died a.d. 1355, a.h. 

'Azid la din-allah-TDin-Yusaf-Wn- 

Haflz (^j 1— 2--y. i^.J <>^^ ij^,'^ J^^ 

lailsi-), the eleventh and last khalif of 
Egypt of the Fatimite dynasty, succeeded his 
father, Faez-bi-nasr-allah Isabin-Zafir,inthe 
year a.d. 1158, a.h. 553. But the state of 
affairs in Egypt was now tottering to its fall. 
The descendants of 'AH from the death of Al- 
Musta'ali Billah, a.d. 1101, had become 

puppets in the hands of their wazir or Amir- 
ul-Jayiish (generalissimo), who wielded all 
the regal authority of the state : two Amirs, 
Dargam and Shawar, had contested in arms 
this high dignity ; and the latter, defeated 
and expelled from Egypt, sought refuge and 
aid from Nur-uddin, styled Malik-ul-'Adil 
Nur-uddin Mahmud, the celebrated ruler of 
Syria. The sovereign of Damascus eagerly 
embraced the opportunity of obtaining a 
footing in Egypt, and in a.d. 1163, a.h. 
658, despatched a force under Asad-ud-din 
Shirakoh (the brother of Aiyiib) and his 
nephew Salah-uddTn to reinstate Shawar, 
whose rival called in the Christians of Pales- 
tine to his support ; but ere Amaury (the 
brother and saccessor of Baldwin III.) coidd 
enter Egypt, Dargam had been overpowered 
and slain by Shirakoh, who replaced Shiiwar 
in his former power. But Shawar, faithless 
ahke to friend and foe, now entered into 
arrangements with the Franks in order to 
elude the fulfilment of his engagements with 
Niir-uddin ; and Shirakoh, after maintaining 
himself for some time in Belbes against the 
joint forces of Jerusalem and Egypt, was 
compelled to enter into a convention with 
Amaury and evacuate the country. But he 
was soon recalled by Shawar to deliver him 
from the vengeance of his new allies, to whom 
he had proved as perfidious as to those of 
his own faith ; Cairo was closely besieged 
by the Franks, and the Fatimite khalif, 'Azid 
le^din-allah, sent the hair of his women, the 
extreme symbol of Oriental distress, to im- 
plore the succour of Nur-uddin (a.d. 1168). 
Shirakoh again entered Egypt with an army, 
forced Amaury to retreat, and after beheading 
the double traitor Shawar, installed himself 
in the twofold office of wazir to the Fatimite 
khalif and lieutenant of Egypt in the name 
of Niir-uddin ; but dying the same year, 
was succeeded in his dignities by his famous 
nephew Salah-uddin, who, after the death 
of Nur-uddin in May, a.d. 1173, Shawwal, 
A.H. 669, became the sole master of Egypt 
and Syria. The khalif 'Azid died in a.d. 
1171, A.H. 667, and the name of the Abba- 
side khalif Mustazi was substituted in the 
pubhc prayers tiU the death of Niir~uddin. 

'Azim (,-Ur.)^ the son of Mulla QaidT, 

and a nephew of Mulla Naziri, was a Persian 
poet of Naishapiir. He flourished about the 
year a.d. 1663, a.h. 1074, and is the author 
of a Diwan, and a Masnawi called Fatiz 

[Vide Azim Naishapiiri.] 

'Azim (»licl), poetical name of Siraj- 

ud-daula Muhammad Giiaus Khan, Nawab of 
the Karnatic. 

'Azim ( tUfU, poetical name of Sayyad 

'Azim 'All of Allahabad, author of a Diwan 
in Urdu, composed in a.d. 1865. 



'Azim Ali (Mir) {^^ ^L Jirl), of 

A^ra, autlinr of a Sikandar Xama in Fidu 
verse, translated from tlie one in Persian, in 
A.D. 1844. 

'Azim Humayun {^^\.A.!b Ja.^\). 
Vide Adil Khan Fariiqi II. 

'Azim Humayun Shirwani ( , U A 

j,j'j^-ii i^^UJb), a nobleman of the 

court of Sultan Sikandar Shah Lodi. He 
was imprisoned by Sul.tau Ibrahim and died 
in prison. 

'Azim Jah (i\j>. *.Ji.j:), Nawab of 

Arkat, died 14th January, 1874, ag-ed 74. 
He was the seeond son of Azim Jah, one of 
the Nawabs of the Carnatic, and the uncle 
of the late Xawab Ghulam JIuhammad ffliaus 
Khan. He received a pension of 2500 rupees 
from the Government. 

'Azim Jah 

(Nawab) (l_»1jJ iU- *-.!a£), 

Siraj-ul-Umra, the son of AzTm-nd-daula, 
Wawab of the Karnatic, was installed by the 
British Government as NaAvab on the 3rd 
February, 1820. He died on the 12th 
Xovember, lti2o, aged 34 years. 

'Azim Khan (^l^ (Ui^O, or Khan 

'Azim, an officer of state in the time of 
Humayiin and Akbar, emperor of Dehli. 
He was commonly called Anka Khan, sur- 
named Shams-uddin Muhammad, and was the 
father of Mirza Aziz Koka, who also after- 
wards held the title of 'Azim IChan. He 
was a native of Ghazni, and formerly served 
under Prince Kamran Mirza. It is said that 
he saved the life of Humayun, or had been 
of some service to him after his defeat by 
Sher Shah at Kanau] ; for which service he 
was handsomely rewarded by that emperor 
after his having recovered the kingdom. 
He accompanied the emperor to Persia, and 
as his wife, Jlji Begam, became the wet- 
nurse of Akhar, the emperor's son, he was 
consequently called Atyak Khan. He was 
the first person that was honoured with the 
rank ot " Haft Haznrl," or Seven Thousand, 
by Akbar. The office of Wakil Miitlaq, 
which was taken away from Maham Anka, 
was also conferred on him ; on which account, 
Adham Klian Kokaltash ((?.».), the son of 
Maham Anka, took offence, and assassinated 
Khan 'Azim on Monday the 18th May, a.d. 
1562, 12th Eamzan, a.h. 969, in a room 
adjoining to that occupied by the emperor. 
Adham Khan was immediately bound hand 
and foot by order of the emperor, and thrown 
down headlong from a window of the court 
at Agra, where this circumstance had taken 
place, and cm.shed to death. The remains 
of Khiu 'Azim were sent to Dehli, and 
buried in the vicinity of the Dargah of 
Nizam-uddTn Aulia, where a mausoleum was 

erected over his grave by his son ]\rirza Aziz 
Knka, which is still to be seen at Dehli. 
Maham Anka died with grief one month 
after the death of his sou Adham Klian. 
The tomb of Adham Kliiln, who is also 
biu-ied at Dehli, is called Bbiil Bhulian. 

'Azim Khan (^J^s~■ < ^ '•\) The in- 
habitants of the town of Azimgarh, which 
is near Jauupur, say that the fortress and 
town of Azimgarh was founded by a person 
who belonged to the family of the Eajas 
of that place, and who was forced by the 
emperor Jahaugir to become a Muhammadan, 
and received the title of Azim Khan. 

'Azim Khan (;j_)[s>- /^as:\), commonly 

called Mirza Aziz Koka or Kokaltash, was 
the son of 'Azim Khan or Klian 'Azim. 
He was called Koka or Kokaltash on account 
of his being foster-brother and playmate of 
Akbar ; for his mother, whose name was Jiji 
Begam, was Akbar's wet-nurse. He was 
one of the best generals of the emperor, who, 
in the 16th year of his reign, conferred on 
him the title of 'Azim Klian. He held the 
government of Gujrat for several years to- 
gether, and being absent from the presence 
for a long period, was summoned to court 
by Akbar in a.d. 1592, a.h. 1001, but as 
that chief had always entertained the wish 
to proceed on a pilgrimage to S'lecca, and 
his friends representing to him that the king 
was displeased with him, and merely sought 
an opportimity to imprison him, he placed 
his family and trea.siu'e on board a vessel, 
and on the 13tli March, o.s 1594, 1st Eajab, 
A.H. 1002, set sail for Hejiiz without leave 
or notice. In a short time, however, he 
found his situation irksome in that country, 
and returned to India, where he made his 
submission, and was restored at once to his 
former place in the emperor's favour and 
confidence. He died at Abmadahad Gujrat 
in the 19th year of the reign of Jahaugir, 
A.D. 1624, A.H. 1033. His remains were 
transported to Dehli and buried close to his 
father's mausoleum, where a splendid monu- 
ment was erected over his tomb all of marble. 
It consists of sixty-four pillars, and is called 
by the iieople " Chaunsa'th Khambh." 

'Azim Khan (^l^;. J^A), title of Mir 

Muhammad Baqir, the brother of 'Asaf Kliiin 
Jafar Beg. In the second year of the reign 
of the emperor Jahaugir, a.d. 1606, a.h. 
1015, he was honoured with the mausab 
of 1000 and title of Iradat Khan. In the 
first year of Shah Jalian, a.d. 1628, A.H. 
1037, the rank of 2000 was conferred on him 
with the office of Wizarat KuU ; in the third 
year of his reign he received the title of 
'Azim Khan. He was appointed at different 
times governor of Bengal, Allahabad, Gujrat 
and latterly of Jaunpiir, where he died in 
a.d. 1649, A.H. 1059, aged 76 lunar years, 
and was buried there. After his death the 
title of 'Azim Khan was conferred on his 




eldest son, who was slain in the hattle which 
took place between Dara Shikoh and his 
brother Alanigir in a.d. 1658, a.h. 1068, 
at AgTa. His second son, Mir Khalil, was 
honoured with the title of Khan Zaman. 
During the government of this viceroy in 
A.D. 1634, the English obtained permission 
to trade with their ships in Bengal by the 
emperor Shah Jahan, but were restricted to 
the port of Pipley, where they established 
their factory. 

'Azim Khan {^\s- fX^\), ex-amir and 

a brother of Sher All Khan, Amir of Kabul, 
died at Shah Eiid on the 6th October, 1869. 

'Azim Khan Koka (i.'iS ^As^ f^^^X 

the title of Muzaffar Husaiu, commonly 
known by the appellation of FidaT Khan, a 
title conferred on him by the emperor Shah 
Jahan. His elder brother held the title of 
Khan Jahan Bahadiir Kokaltash, and were 
both foster-brothers to the emperor Alamgir. 
Fidai Khan wa s honoured with the title of 
'Azim Khan by Alamgir about the year a.d. 
1676, A.H. 1086, and appointed governor of 
Bengal in a.d. 1676, a.h. 1087, which 
situation he held for a whole year, and died 
on his way to Behar on the 21st April, 
o.s. 1678, 9th Eabi I. a.h. 1089. 

'Azim Naishapuri (^.^jl^J »li£l) 

author of a Diwan found in the Library of 
Tipii Sultan. 

'Azim-ud-daula (Nawab) (a1.j.J1 ^.lic 

<__)l»j), of the Carnatic, was the son 

of Nawab AmIr-ul-Umra, the brother of 
Umdat-ul-tlmra. On the death of XJmdat- 
ul-Umra, the English resolved to take the 
functions of government into their OAvn hands. 
'All Husain, the next heir, refused to comply, 
consequently Aylm-ud-daula, the nephew of 
the deceased, was placed on the masnad by 
the British Government on the 31st August, 
a.d. 1801. He died on the 2nd August, a.d. 
1819. His son 'Azim Jah was installed as 
Nawab of the Carnatic on the 3rd February, 
A.D. 1820. 

'Azim-ul-Umra (l^^l *-lac), minister 

of the Nizam of Hydarabad. He succeeded 
Rukn-ud-daula about the year a.d. 1794. 

'Azim-nllah Khan (^Ji~>. ^Ul f^'^^), 

says Mr. Sheppard in his Narrative of the 
Mutiny, was a charity boy, having been picked 
up, together with his mother, during the 
famine of 1837-1838, when they were both 
in a djdng state from starvation. The mother 
being a staunch heathen, she woidd not con- 
sent to her son being christened. He was 
adopted in the CaT\mpore Free School under 
Mr. Patan, schoolmaster. After ten years 
he was raised to be a teacher. After some 
years he attached himself to the Nana, who 

sent him to England for the purpose of 
bringing his case before the Home Govern- 
ment. He became a favomite in English 
society, and visited the camp before Sevas- 
topol, returning to India in 1856. He 
intrigued with Dehli, and persuaded the 
Nana to join the mutinous Sepoys in 1857. 
He is believed to have instigated the Cawn- 
pore massacre. He fled on the re-occupatiou 
of the place, and his further fate is unknown. 

'Azimush Shan (^^1^0.31 *;;li-), second 

son of the emperor Bahadur Shah of Dehli. 
He was appointed by his grandfather, the 
emperor 'Alamgir, governor of Bengal ; he 
made Patna the seat of Ms government and 
named it Azimabad. On the news of his 
grandfather's death, leaving his own son 
Farmkhsiar (afterwards emperor) to super- 
intend the affairs of that country, he came 
to Agra, and was present in the battle which 
took place between his father and his uncle 
'Azam Shah, in June, a.d. 1707, a.h. 1119. 
He was slain in the battle which ensued 
after his father's death between Jahaudar 
Shah and his other brothers, in the month 
of February, o.s. 1712, Muharram, a h. 
1124. His second son, Muhammad Karim, 
was taken prisoner after the battle and 
miu'dered by order of Jahaudar Shah, who 
ascended the throne. 

'Aziz (•;•£), whose proper name was 

Abdxil Aziz Klian, was a native of Deccan, 
He is the author of a Diwan, also of a prose 
composition called Guhhrin Sang. 

'Aziz Koka (Mirza) Q\ \ ^ i^A ■< >) 

the foster-brother of the emperor Akbar. 
Vide 'Azim Khan, the sou of Khan 'Azim, 
commonly called Auka Khan. 

'Aziz-ullah Zahidi (^si>\: aill ii j^), 

author of a Masnawi, which he composed in 
the year a.d. 1407, a.h. 810. He is com- 
monly called Aziz. 

'Azmat-ullah (Shah) (oJJl i^:^^!^), 

author of the Mnzhar-ul- Asrdr , being a long 
dissertation on the nature of the divinity, the 
soul, and other abstruse subjects on Siif iism. 

'Azra (l.jii:), name of the celebrated 
mistress of Wamiq. 

Azraq^i (*^=- i_sh'l^^' commonly called 

Hakim Arzaqi or Azraqi, was a physician 
and a poet. He was a native of Mars, and 
flourished in the reign of Tughral III. 
Saljaki, king of I'ersia, in whose name he 
wrote several books. Arzaqi died in a.d. 
1189, A.H. 685. His Diwiin contains nearly 
2000 verses. He is also said to be the author 
of a work called Kildb SindbM. His proper 
name is Abii'l Mahasiu Abii Bakr Zain-ud- 
din, son of Isma'il Warraq. lie introduced 
himself into the society and confidence of the 
Saljiiki prince TughSn Shah I. the seat of 




whose government was Naishapur, by the 
composition of a most obscene book, which 
he called Aljia Shalfia, illustrated with 
pictures. This book appears to be a version 
of the Kok Shashtar. He is called Azraql 
in the Jour. As. Soc. of Bengal for 1844, vol. 
xiii. part ii. p. 510, and stated to be the 
author of a history of Mecca, of which 
ancient work several MSS. are in Europe, 
especially one at Cambridge, formerly the 
property of Dr. Eui'ckhardt, who in the 
preface to his Travels in Arabia professes 
to have largely made use of it. 

Azur (.jl), the poetical name of Lutf 

'AH Beg, author of the Tazkira called 
Ataishkada Azur. He was engaged in the 
compilation of this work in a.d. l76-i, a.h. 
1179, and was alive in a.d. 1782, a.h. 1196. 
He never came to India. 

Azuri Razi (^^jK ufjj'), a native 


Eei in Persia, was a celebrated poet who 
lived at the court of SuJtan Mahraiid of 
Ghazni. On one occasion he received a 
present of 14,000 cUrhams from the Sultan 
for a short panegyric. 

Azuri (Shaikh) (i^--^ i_f; J '), IsfarSenl, 

whose original name was Jalal-uddln Hamza, 
was a pious Miisalman and an excellent poet. 
He came to the Deccau from Persia in the 
reign of Sultan Ahmad Shah Wall Bah- 
mani, a.d. 1432, a.h. 835, and returned 
again to Khurasan, his native country, where 
he died in the year a.d. 1462, a.d. 866, 
aged 82 lunar years. He is the author of 
several works, among which are Jawdhir-ul- 
A.srdr, Tiighrde IlumCnjun, and Samrdt 
Fruits, which consists of four books, viz., 
Abnakri Tama, AJdeb-iid-dunia, AJdeh-ul- 
'Ala and Sa'i-us-Safd. He also lefta Diwan 
of 30,000 verses. He adopted the poetical 
name of 'Azuri, because he was born in the 
Persian month of Azur. His tomb is at 
Isfaraen, and was at the time of Daulat Shah 
so sacred, that convicts found an asylum there 
from the hands of justice. He is also the 
author of another poetical work, called 
Bahman Kama. 

\_Vide All Hamza.] 

'Azz-uddin Abdul Aziz (a^c Mri-^Jl j^ 
JjJ*ll). Vide 'Izz-uddin. 




Baba (uLj), a Turkish imposter, who 

announced himself in a.d. 1260 as the 
messenger of God ; and collected a numher 
of adherents, at whose head he laid waste 
Anatolia. He was at last overpowered and 
his sect dispersed. 

Baba Afzal Kashi (^K Jf^\ lili), 
an author. 

Baba Fighani (^\ki IjIj), a poet of 

Persia who served under Sultan Ta'qiih, the 
son of TJzzan Hasan, and died in the year 
A.D. 1519, A.H. 925, at Khurasan. He has 
left a Diwan containing 6U00 verses. 

Baba 'Isa ( ,_„.u.^_c LiLi), or 'isa 

Langoteshand. His tomh is in Tatta in 
Sindh. The inscription gives the year a.d. 
1614, A.H. 920. 

Babak (,i_^jIj), the father of Ardaher 
Bahakan, which see. 

Babak (i_XjIj), an impostor, who first 

in A.D. 816, A.H. 201, when he 
began to take upon him the title of a prophet. 
What his particular doctrine was, is now 
unknown ; but his religion is said to have 
differed from all others then known in Asia. 
He gained a great number of proselytes in 
'Azarbaijan and Persian 'Iraq, where he 
soon grew powerful enough to wage war 
with the khalif Al-Atamiin, whose troops 
he often beat, so that he was become ex- 
tremely formidable in the beginning of the 
khalif Al - Mu'ta'sim's reign. The general 
sent by the khalif to reduce him was Haidar- 
ibn-Kaiis, sumamed Afshin (?.».), a Turk by 
birth. By him Babak was defeated with 
prodigious slaughter, no fewer than 60,000 
men being kiUed in the first engagement. 
The next year, a.d. 83o, a.h. 220, he 
received a still greater overthrow, losing 
100,000 men either killed or taken prisoners. 
By this defeat he was obliged to retire into 
the Gordian mountains, where he fortified 
himself in such a manner that Afshin found 
it impossible to reduce him till the year a.d. 
837, A.H. 222, when he was forced to sur- 
render to Afshin upon that general promis- 
ing him pardon. But Afshin no sooner had 
him in his power, than he first caused his 
hands and feet, and afterwards his head to 
be cut off. Babak had supported himself 

against the power of the khalif s for upwards 
of 20 years, during wliich time he had cruelly 
massacred 250,000 people, it being his custom 
to spare neither man, woman, nor child of 
the Muhammadans or their allies. 

Baba Kaibhusiz (j~iys:.i Ijb) (Father 

without Anxiety), a dervish who flourished in 
the reign of Miurad III. and was author of 
the ^ Abdullah-Nmiia. 

Baba Lai Guru {^^^ J^ ^VX * Hindu 

of the tribe of Khattris, who was a Hindi 
poet, and flourished in the time of Jahangir. 
He was an inhabitant of Malwa. 

Baba Ratan (U^ ^\ 3j bb), sur- 

named Abii Baza, a pious Musalman, who 
is said, by Daulat Shah, to be one of the 
disciples of Jesus Christ, and that he lived 
to the advanced age of 1400 years, and died 
about the beginning of the 13th century of 
the Christian era. 

Babar Shah {^__sl\ j^^ iLi^b 

tX.^sS'*), sumamed Zahlr-ud-din Mu- 
hammad, the ancestor of the Mughal 
emperors of Dehli, was the sixth in descent 
from Amir Taimiir (Tamerlane). His father 
'Umar Shaikh Mirza, was the son of Abii 
Sa'id Mirza, the son of Muhammad Mirza, 
the son of Miranshah, the son of Amir 
Taimiir. His mother's name was Kutlagh 
Nigar Khanam, daughter of Tiinas Khan, 
king of Mughalistan and sister to MahmUd 
Khan, a descendant of the famous Changez 
or Jenghiz Khan. He was born on the 16th 
February, a.d. 1483, 6th Muharram, a.h. 
888, and. succeeded his father in the govern- 
ment of Far gh ana. the capital of which is 
Andjan, in June, a.d. 1494, Ramazan, a.h. 
899. During eleven years he fought several 
battles with the Tartar and Uzbak princes, 
but was at last obliged to leave his country 
and fly towards Kabul, which place he con- 
quered, without opposition, together with 
Qandahar and Badakhshan. He reigned for 
22 vears over those countries before his con- 
quest of India. He then proceeded to Hindii- 
stan, slew Ibrahim Husain Lodi, the Pathan 
king of Dehli, in a battle at Panipat on 
Friday the 20th April, a.d. 1526, 7th Eajab, 
A.H. '932, and became the foimder of the 
Mughal dynasty of India, which ended in 
1857. Babar wrote his own life — Tuzak- 




i-Biihari — in the Turkish lanjjunge, witli 
such ilfg-auce aud truth, that the purt'ormance 
is universally admired. It was translated in 
the reign nf his ffrandsou Akhar, hy Abdiil 
Eahira Klian I\hankauan into Persian, and 
recently into Kn^-lish from the Jaghatai 
TurkT,'hy Dr. Leyden and Mr. ^Y . Erskiue. 
This monarch ascended the throne in his 12th 
year, and reigned 38 lunar years, i>i:. : at And- 
ean 11 years, at Kabul 22, aud nearly 5 years 
m India, and died in Agra on Monday the 26th 
December, a.d. 1530, 6th Jamad I. a.h. 
937. He was at first buried in a garden on 
the left bank of the Jamna, then called the 
Niir Afshan, and now Eambagh, from Avhich 
place his remains were transported after six 
months to Kabul, where a splendid mausoleum 
was built over his tomb by his great-great- 
grandson, the emperor Shah Jalian, in a.d. 
1646. His tomb on a hill near the city, 
surroimded by large beds of flowers, com- 
mands a noble prospect. The chronogram 
of the year of his death was found to consist 
in the words "Bahisht-rozibad," or "May 
heaven be his lot." After his death, he 
received the title of " Firdaus-Makani." He 
was succeeded on the throne of Dehll by his 
eldest son, the emperor Humayiin. His three 
other sons were Mirza Kamran, Mirza 
'Askari, and Mirza Handal. Firishtii, says 
that Babar, who was much addicted to women 
aud wine, on occasions when he was inclined 
to make merry, used to till a reservoir in a 
garden in the neighbourhood of Kabul with 
wine, over which was inscribed a verse to this 
purpose : 
Bright Spring blooms here, from day to day, 

Young girls stand by, old wine to pour ; 
Enjoy them, Babar, while you may — 

Your Spring, once gone, retui'us no more. 

Babar (Sultan) (|^LkI._j _jU), sur- 

named Abiil Qasim, was the sou of Mirza 
Eaisanghar and grandson of Shahrukh Mirza. 
After the death of Mirza Ulagh Beg and his 
son 'Abdul Latif, he succeeded in January, 
A.D. 1452, Zil-hijja, a.h. 855, in murdering 
his own brother Sultan Muhammad and 
establishing himself in the government of 
Kliurasan and the neighbouring countries. 
A few months before his death, the comet of 
A.D. 1456, A.H. 860, made its appearance 
aud alarmed the inhabitants of Kliurasan. 
He died at Mashhad on Tuesday the 22nd 
March, a.d. 1457, 25th Rabl II. a.h. 861. 
After his death Khurasan was taken posses- 
sion of by Mirza Abu Sa'id, the gTandfather 
of the emperor Babar Shah of Dehli. 

Batia Soudai. Vide Soudai (Baba) 

Babawia (ijylj), or Bin Babawia, 

father of Ibn Babawia. T'ide Abii'l Hasan 
All Bin-al-Husdiu at Kumari. 

BadakhsM ( ^A:>-.vj), a Persian poet 

who was a native of the province of Badakh- 

shiin. He flourished in the reign of the 
khalif Al-Muktafi, about the year a.d. 905, 
a.h. 294. His Dlwan or collection of poems 
is written upon the fortunes of the great men 
of the court ; and he says that the varied 
scene in human affairs ought not to create 
surprise as we see that life is measured by an 
hour-glass, and that an hour is always above 
and tlie other below in alternate succession. 

BadakhsM (Maulana) {[j'iy Ji^SJ 

i^su'ijyt^), of Samarqand, flourished 

in the reign of Ulagh Beg Mirza, the son of 
Shahrukh Mti'za, and is the author of a 

Badan Singh Jat ((_1>1?- <J.$si-o t-j'^X 

the son of Chiiraman Jat, a raja of Bhartpiir 
and the founder of the fort at Dig. He was 
living at the time of Nadir Shah's invasion 
of India in a.d. 1739, a.h. 1152. After his 
death his son Siirajmal Jat succeeded him. 
\_Vide Chiiraman Jat.] 

Badaoni ( Jiljo). Abdul Kadlr of 

Badaon (q.t'.). 


Badi-uddin (^jji!1 f J>j). Vt 

Badi-uddin (Shaikh) {■^'•' „.J J^H cAj), 

of Saharanpiir, was a disciple of Shaikh 
Ahmad Sarhindi. He died in the year a.d. 
1632, A.H. 1042, and lies buried in the yard 
of the masjid erected by him at Saharanpiir. 

Badi'-Uzzaman Mirza (^\^'\\ «_.ij,j 

\ \j^), was the eldest son of Sultan 

Husain Mirza, after whose death in a.d. 
1606, A.H. 912, he reigned conjointly with 
his yoimger brother, Muzaffar Husain Mirza, 
over Kliurasan. He was subsequently com- 
pelled by the victorious Uzbaks, and the 
usirrpation of his brother, to take refuge in 
'Iraq; and in the year a.d. 1514, a.h. 920, 
went to the court of the Ottoman Sultan, 
Salim I. where, after a few months' residence, 
he died of the plague. He was the last of 
the race of Tainiiir who reigned in Persia. 
In a work called Ship of the Time, a Persian 
Anthology, there are to be found verses of 
the royal poet's composition. The following 
is a translation of a few lines — 

Since not for me thy cheek of roses shines, 
My bosom like the fading tulip pines ; 
Who in his burning heart conceals its flame, 
And mine, in absence, perishes the same. 
Pour wine — and let me, as I drink, suppose 
I see the colours of that blushing rose ; 
Pour wine — and let it borrow every hue 
Born in the tuli])'s petals wet with dew ; 
Till I believe thou may'st e'en yet be mine — 
Aud let me never wake, nor that sweet 
ch'eam resign. 




Badr (jjkj), poetical title of Ganga 
Parshad, a Hindu. 

Badr Chachi ( ,~^l~^ ,sj), sumamed 

Faldir-uz-zaman, a celebrated poet of Chach 
(the ancient name of Tashkand), who flourished 
in the reign of Sultan Muhammad Tughlaq 
Shah, king of Dehli, and died some time 
after the year a.d. 1344, a.h. 745. 

Badr Muliammad (^.L*J Sy^s-^ j^), 

of Dehli, author of the Persian Dictionary 
called Addb-ul-FuzaUi, dedicated to Qadr 
Khan bin Dilawar Khan, written in a.d. 
1419, A.H. 822. 

Badr SMrwani (Maulana) {.S-i 

u^.-« jU -»^), a Musalmaa scholar 

and poet, who was contemporary with Katibi, 
who died in a.d. 1435. 

Badr (Pir). Vide Pir Badar. 

Badr-Tiddin AintabiC ^^^ijl ^jjl .jj), 

an historian, who relates that the Qazi Ibn- 
al-Maghiili, who died in a.d. 1231, a.h. 628, 
bequeathed a part of his vast collection of 
books to the library of the college founded in 
Cairo by Malik 'Ashraf Borsabai. 

Badr-uddin (Balbaki) (.j_jjiJl .Jk_j 

^xJotj), a Syriac physician, who 

wrote a book called Musarrah-al-Nafs. He 
Uved in the 7th century of the Hijrah. 

Badr - uddin, Isma'il - al - Talsrizi 

Arabian author, sumamed Bazil. 
Badr-uddin Jajurmi (.._jji_ll .A_j 

ig^r^ W )j ^'^ author who died in 
A D. 1287, A.H. 686, in which year also died 
Majd-uddm Hamkar. He was a contem- 
porary of Shams-uddin Muhammad Sahib 
Diwan, and of Sa'di. 

Badr-uddin Lulu (^J^J ^ja!1 jS:), 

ruler of Mausal, who was living in the reign 
of Halaku Khan, the Tartar, in a.d. 1258, 
and was in his 90th year. 

Badr-uddin Mahmud (^_)jJl .Ji_j 

O^^sL-^), known by the name of 

Ibn-al-Qazi Simawana, is the author of the 
Jmna' -al- Fusulain, a collection of decisions 
on mercantile matters. He died a.d. 1420, 
A.H. 823. 

Badr-uddin Mahmud Bin Ahmad-al- 

'Aini (a^^\ 

>^. ^i- 


^:i-*I'), author of a commentary on 

the Kanz - ul - Daqaeq, called Eamz - ill - 
Ilaqaeq. He died in a.d. 1451, a.h. 855. 
He is also the author of a collection of 
decisions entitled the Ilasael-al-Badria. 

Badr-uddin Muhammad Bin Abdur 
Rahman-al-Dairi {s^t^^ rj-'-^^ i'^ 

,_^,jJJi jjU.1.- JLyr. ^), author of a 

commentary on the Kanz-ul-Daqrteq, entitled 
Matlab-nl-Fucq, which is much esteemed in 

Badr-uddin Shashi SMrwani (,ji_) 
jjjlj^-ii ,4-ijl-ii ^^_o.!0, died in a.h. 

754 or 854. 

Badr-uddin Sufi (^^^ ^^^.jJl jjo), 

author of the Bahr-ul-Haijdt (the sea of life), 
containing many good rules for moral conduct. 

Badr-uddin (^^J^H jSi), of Sarhind, 

author of a Persian work called Hazrat-ul- 
Quds, containing the miracles performed by 
Ahmad Sarhiudi. 

Badr-un-nisa Begam (l_^_i.Jl .a_j 
*l*j), the daughter of 'Alamgir, died 
in March, a.d. 1670, Zi-Qa'da, a.h. 1080. 

Badshah Bano Begam (»Jlj iLijlj 

*-x.;o), one of the wives of the 

emperor Jahangir. She died in a.d. 1620, 
A.H. 1029. 

Badshah Begam (-Xj jsLijlj), wife 

of the emperor Jahangir, died in the year 
A.H. 1029. 

Baghdad Khatun {^pVs-. Cs\ski), a 

daughter of Amir Choban or Jovian, who 
governed the empire of the Tartars in the 
reign of Sultan Abii Sa'id, the son of Aljaitii. 
Her father refusing to give her in marriage 
to that prince, because she had been betrothed 
to Shaika Hasan Jalaiar, was the occasion of 
the Amir's disgrace and death. Hasan, who 
had married her, afterwards repudiated her 
and gave her into the hands of Abii Sa'id. 
The prince publicly married her, and for some 
time was entirely governed by her ; but being 
at last disturbecl, and dying a short time after 
in A.D. 1335, A.H. 736, she was suspected to 
have poisoned him, and Baidii Khan, the 
successor of Abii Sa'id, put her to death. 




BaghTiri (^yt.i), or Baghshuri, sur- 

niime of Muhammad bin Is-hiiq, an Arabian 
author who wroto on mural subjects, died in 
the year a.d. 1280, a.d. 679. 

Baghwi (^,ki). Vide Abu Muhammad 
Farai-ibn-Masa'iid al-Eaghwi. 

Bahadur All Husaini (Mir) (,jL^.j 

,-^ ^i.».uj.=- ,X^\ chief Munshi of 

the college of Fort William, author of the 
Akllciq Hindi, or Indian Ethics, translated 
from a Persian version, also of the Kasir 
Jh')ii(zlr, a i)rose translation of the enchanting 
fairy tale entitled Sehr~ul-Baijan, commonly 
called Mly Hasan^s Jllafinawl. This latter 
work was written by the request of Dr. 
Gilelirist in a.d. 1802, a.h. 1217, and pub- 
lished at Calcutta in 1803. 

Bahadur Khan Faruqi (^Li- jOl..(.j 
1^5,13), succeeded his father, Eiija 

All Klian, iu the government of Khandesh 
in A.D. 1596, a.h. 1005. "When the emperor 
Akbar a few years afterwards arrived at 
Mando, with the avowed intention of in- 
vading the Deccan, Bahadirr Khan instead 
of adopting the policy of his father in relying 
on the honoui- of Akbar, and going with 
an army to co-operate witli him, shut himself 
up in the fort of Asir, and commenced 
preparations to withstand a siege. When 
Akbar heard of these proceedings he sent 
orders to the Khankhanan 'Abdnr EaliTm 
Khan and the prince Danial Mirza to con- 
tinue the siege of Ahmadnagar, while he 
himself marched to the south and occupied 
Bui'haupiir, leaving one of his generals to 
besiege Asir. The blockade of this fortress 
continued for a length of time, till it sur- 
rendered, and Bahadur Khan, the last of the 
FarQql dynasty, humbled himself before the 
throne of Akbar in the year a.d. 1699, a.h. 
1008, while the impregnable fortress of AsTr 
with ten years' provisions and countless 
treasures fell into the hands of the conqueror. 

Bahadur Khan Rohila (i^\.:>. jt^L^ 

is}i.^fj), son of Daria Khan, was an 
amir of high rank in the reign of the emperor 
Shah Jahan. He accompanied prince Aurang- 
zib to Qandahar, and died there during the 
siege, on the 19th July, a.d. 1649, 19th 
Eajab, a.h. 1059. 

Bahadur Nizam Shah (>llij ,t)Lj 

JiLj), tho last of the Nizam Shah! 
kings of Ahmadnagar in the Deccan. On 
the death of his father, Ibrahim Nizam Shah, 
which took place in August, a.d. 1595, Zil- 
hijja, A.H. 1003, several factions arose in 
Ahmadnagar, each setting up a nominal 
sovereign. Mian Manjii who possessed the 
city, and acknowledged the title of Bahadur 

Xizfim Shah, then an infant, being besieged 
by his competitors, invited Sultan Mimid, 
son of the emperor Akbar, then governor 
of Gujrat, to his assistance, for which he 
offered to become tributary to the Mughal 
power. Sultan Murad embraced the pro- 
posal, and arrived before Ahmadnagar with 
a considerable army. Mian Manjii by this 
time, having overcome his rivals, repented 
of his oii'iTs, and prepared to oppose the 
prince. Having committed the city to tho 
charge of Nasir Klian, his deputy, under 
the care of Chand Bibi, great aunt to Sultan 
Bahadur, he departed to raise levies and 
implore the assistance of Qutb Shah of Gol- 
kanda and 'Adil Shah of Bijapiir. Sultan 
Murad besieged Ahmadnagar, on the 16th 
December, o.s. 1695, 23rd Eabi II. a.h. 
1 004, which was gallantly defended. Breaches 
were made, but were immediately repaired 
by the heroic conduct of Chand Bibi, who, 
covering herself with a veil, headed the 
troops. At length in the month of March, 
A.D. 1596, Rajal), a.h. 1004, supplies grow- 
ing scarce in the camp, and the allies of 
Bijapiir and Golkanda approaching, Sultan 
Murad thought proper to accept of some 
offers of tribute from Chand Bibi, and raise 
the siege. Some money was paid, and the 
districts in Berar belonging to the Niziim 
Shabi government were ceded to the Mughals. 
In the year a.d. 1600, beginning of a.h. 
1009, Ahmadnagar was taken by the Mughals, 
and Bahadur Shah with aU the children of 
both sexes of the royal family were taken 
prisoners and sent to perpetual confinement 
in the fortress of Gwaliar. 

Bahadur Shah {^\ki\ il^ j^^\^\ an 
Afghan, succeeded his father, Mahmiid Khan, 
as governor of Bengal in the time of Salim 
Shah, and became independent and reigned 
five years. He was deposed in a.d. 1649, 
a.h. 956, and succeeded by another of the 
nobles of Sallm Shah, named Sulaiman 

Bahadur Shah (iLi ^ijA^ ^ il^ jj[^ 

^\j^), the second son of Muzaffar 

Shah II. of Gujrat. At the time of his 
father's death, he was absent at Jaunpiir, but 
when Mahmiid Shah, his younger brother, 
ascended the throne of Gujrat, after the 
murder of his eldest brother, 'Sikandar Shah, 
Bahadur returned from thence, and having 
deprived Mahmiid of his kingdom, ascended 
the throne on the 20th August, a.d. 1626, 
16th <?i-Qa'da, a.h. 932. He conquered 
Malwa on the 26th February, a.d. 1531, 
9th Shaban, a.h. 937, and the king of that 
place, Sultan Mahmiid II. who was taken 
prisoner and sent to Champanir, was put 
to death on the road. In the year a.d. 1536, 
A.H. 942, Malwa was taken by the emperor 
Humayiin, and Bahadur being defeated was 
obliged to fly towards Cambay, where, on 
his arrival, he heard that a fleet, in which 
there were between 4,000 or 5,000 Europeans, 
had arrived off the Island of Diu. He im- 





mediately repaired tliither with a reinforce- 
ment of troops, and on his arrival there he 
ordered his barge and went to visit the 
admiral with the intention of killing him ; 
but percei^'ing that he was betrayed he arose 
and was attacked on all sides by the Portu- 
guese, when a soldier struck him over the 
bead with a sword and threw him into the 
water, where he was drowned. This event 
took place on the 14th February, a.d. 1537, 
3rd Ramazan, a.h. 943, and has been com- 
memorated in two Persian chronograms, 
comprising the numerals which form the date 
of the year when it occurred. Their meaning 
is this : ' ' The Europeans were the slayers 
of Bahadur," and "The king of the land 
became a martyr at Sea." Bahadur Shah 
was 20 years of age when he ascended the 
throne, reigned 1 1 lunar years, and was slain 
at the age of 31. After his death his nephew 
Miran Muhammad Shah was raised to the 
throne of Gujrat. 

Bahadur Shah I. (u-^.^ 'i jL^ .jL^^^ 
Ic !s\jj ,.fi.^\), surnamed Qutb- 

uddln Shah 'Alam, formerly called prince 
Mu'azzim, was the second son of the emperor 
' Alamgir I. born at Burhanpiir in the Deccan 
on the 4th October, o.s. 1643, 30th Rajah, 
A.H. 1053. At the time of his father's death, 
which took place at Ahmadabad, on the 21st 
February, o.s. 1707, 28th ?i-Cla'da, a.h. 
1118, he being then at Kabul, his younger 
brother, prince 'Azim, was proclaimed 
sovereign of all India in perfect disregard 
of the late emperor's will. Prince Mu'azzim, 
with better reason, assumed the crown at 
Kabul with the title of Bahadur Shah ; and 
both brothers prepared to assert their pre- 
tensions by force of arms. They assembled 
very large armies, and met at length between 
Dhaulpur and Agra. A bloody battle ensued 
on Sunday the 8th June, o.s. 1707, 18th 
Eabi' I. A.H. 1119, in which prince 'Azim 
and his two grown-up sons, Bedar Bakht 
and Walajah, were killed. Bahadur Shah 
reigned nearly five lunar years, and died at 
Lahore on Monday the 18th February, o.s. 
1712, 21st Muljarram, a.h. 1124, in the 
71st lunar year of his age. He was buried 
in the environs of Dehli, near the tomb of 
Khwaja Qutb-uddln, where he had built 
during his life a mosque entirely of white 
marble named Mot! Masjid. His tomb is 
also built of the same stone. He received 
the title of " Khuld Manzil," i.e., "May 
his mansion be in paradise," after his death. 
He left four sons, viz., Ma'iz-uddJn Jahandar 
Shah, Azim-ush-Shan, RafJ-ush-Shan, and 
Jahan Shah, among whom a battle ensued, 
wherein the three latter brothers were killed, 
and Jahandar Shah ascended the throne. 

Bahadur Shah II. (yiiJy\ is Li. ;J^J 

Sa.s:^ ^.jJl ■r\r'^' t^^ ^^^* ^^^s °* 
Dehli, whose title in full was Abii'l Muzaffar 
Siraj -uddln Muliammad Bahadur Shah, a 

lineal descendant from Amir Taimur, the son 
of Akbar Shah II. on whose death he suc- 
ceeded him on the 28th September, a.d. 
1837, 28th Jumada II. a.h. 1253. He was 
born on Tuesday the 24th October, a.d. 
1775, 28tb Shaban, a.h. 1189; and Abii'l 
Muzaffar is the chronogram of his birth. 
His mother's name was Lai Bai. A stipend 
or pension of one lakh of rupees monthly 
M'as allowed him by the British Government. 
He was an excellent Persian scholar and an 
elegant TJrdii poet, and Zafar was his poetical 
name. His Diwan or Book of Odes was 
printed some years ago at Dehli. He was 
supposed to be the principal instigator of 
the mutiny of the native troops throughout 
India in a.d. 1857, and was deposed and 
tried, but his life was spared. In October, 
A.D. 1858, he was sent down to Calcutta, 
from which place he embarked on hoard 
H.M. ship Megara on Saturday the 4th 
December, a.d. 1858, for Rangoon, accom- 
panied by two of his wives, a son and a 
grandson. He died there a few years later, 
and thus ended the royal race of Tairaiir 
in India. His sons Mirza Mughal and Mirza 
Khwaja Sultan, and a grandson named Mirza 
•Abii Bakr, who were known to have taken 
a prominent part in the atrocities attending 
the insurrection, were captured on the 22nd 
September, a.d. 1857, at the tomb of Huma- 
yiin, and shot on the spot by Major Hodson. 
During the mutiny in a.d. 1857, Bahadur 
Shah had struck a new coin with the following 
inscription : — 

Siraj -ud-din, that hero bold. 
Adorned his triumph with this gold. 

Bahadur Singh {i.Cs^ jl)\j^) , the only 
surviving son of Raja Man Singh Kachwaha. 

Bahadur Singh Kuchwaha {jdV^^^ 
Wi^ d.:^), brother to Sakat Singh, 

died of hard drinking in the year a.d. 1621, 
A.H. 1030. 

Bahadur Singh (Rao). Vide Eao 
Bahadur Singh. 

Bahai (^JL^). Vide Baha-uddin 

Bahar (,Uj), poetical name of Tek 
Chand, which see. 

Bahar Banc (jjL X^), Daulat-un 

Nisa, and Begam Sultan, daughters of the 
emperor Jahangir. All of them died in their 




Bahar Bano (ylj j\j), daugliter of 

the emporor Jnliang;ir ; married to Prince 
Talimurns, the son oi' Prince Danial, in their 

Bahar Bano Begam C*^ .jlj ,tj), 

another daugliter of Jahang-ir, was married 
to Tahmur, a son of prince Danial. 

Baha-uddin {^^^\ '^j), a learned 

Arabian, known as a favourite of Sultan 
Salah-uddin (Saladdin) and the historian of 
that prince's life. He flourished about the 
year a.d. 1190, a.h. 586. An edition of his 
work appeared at Leyden in a.d. 1755. 

Baha-uddin (j_^..,w*_i ^ ^^.-^-^^ '^-J 

i^jAlO, the son of Shams-uddln, the 

son of Fakhr-nddin. His father "was the first 
king of the second branch of the Sultans of 
Ghor. Baha-uddIn was the second Idng, and 
is said to have reigned 14 years. Imam 
Fakhr-uddin KazI, who flourished in his 
time and died in a.d. 1210, a.h. 606, dedi- 
cated the work called Sisfila Haiyat or book 
of geometry to him. After the death of 
Baha-uddln, his sou Jalal-iiddin succeeded 
him. He was slain by Muhammad 
of Khwarizm, and appears to have been the 
last of this branch. 

Baha-uddin {^J^jk^\ Ji\p- ^^^W *l^j), 

governor of Isfahan, and author of the Mun- 
takhab-ul-Akhlar , an abridged history of the 
patriarchs and prophets, also of Muhammad 
and his descendants, with a good description 
of the cities of Mecca and Madina. He 
flourished about the year a.d. 1271, a.h. 

Baha-uddin 'Amili (Shaikh) ('L,j 

i^i ^jl-^^-c m;:'.-^!^, a native of Amul 

in Persia, and son of Shaikh Husain. His 
poetical name is Bahai. He is the author 
of several works, one of which is a Masnawi 
or poem called Nun-wa-Salwa (bread and 
pudding) . He floirrished in the time of Shah 
'Abhas the Great, king of Persia ; died at 
Isfahan on Tuesday tlie 21st August, o.s. 
1621, 12th Shawwal, a.h. 1030, and was 
buried agreeably to his request at Mashhad. 
Imad-ud-daula Abu TaHb, the prime minister 
of Shah 'Abhas, found the chronogram of 
the year of his death in the words ' ' Shaikh 
Baha-uddin Wae." Besides the above-men- 
tioned Masnawi and many Arabic works, he 
has left a Diwan and a Kashkol, or Adversaria. 

Baha-uddin Muhammad ( -j j,J\ l_^,j 

•^•^^ J:r)-=r J'.^-s'*), Jalal or Jalil 

(Shaikh) of 'Amil. This person is mentioned 
by H. M. Elliot, Esq., in his Histormns of 
India, and appears to be the same with the 

preceding. He was a Persian mathematician, 
says he, and lived in the reign of Shah 'Abbas 
the Great. He was celebrated among his 
countrymen for a .supposed peculiar power 
which he possessed over the magi and writers 
of talismiius, and was one of the most pious 
devotees of his time. His works on various 
subjects are much read in Persia, particularly 
one entitled Kashkdl, or the Beggar's Wallet, 
being an universal miscellany of literatrire. 
The Ja'ma'-ul-Abbfisl, a concise and com- 
prehensive treatise on Shia law in twenty 
books, is generally considered as the work of 
Baha-uddin Muhammad 'Amili, but that 
lawyer only lived to complete the first five 
books, dedicating his work to Shah 'Abhas. 
The remaining fifteen books were subsequently 
added by Nizam Ibn-Husain-al-Sawai. 

Baha-uddin Nac[shtoand (Khwaja) 

(iCp-Uri. Jc-jliij ijJJill \S), a famous 

learned Musalman, who died on Monday the 
1st March, a.d. 1389, 2nd Rah! I. a.h. '791, 
and was buried at Bukhara. 

Baha - uddin Naqshtiand (Shaikh) 

{'fTf:'^ Ji:>^ijj ^i^\ L.j), a celebrated 

saint and the founder of an Order of Siif is, 
distinguished by the title of Naqshbandi. 
He is the author of the Saiat JS'dmn, an 
esteemed moral poem. He died at Harafa 
in Persia, a.d. 1463, a.h. 857. He appears 
also to be the author of a work on Siif iism 
called Dalil-ul-'Ashiqlii. 

Baha-uddin Sam (^L ^^J jJi \S), son 

of Ghayas-uddln Mahmud, king of (jhor and 
(rliazni. He succeeded his father in a.d. 
1210, a.h. 607, at the age of fourteen years, 
but was, after three months, defeated by Ala- 
uddln Atsiz, son of Jahan SOz, who reigned 
four years in (rlidr and (jhaznT, and fell in 
battle against Taj-uddin Elduz in a.d. 1214. 
Baha-uddin Sam was, after his defeat, taken 
captive by the governor of Hirat, and sent to 
Khwarizm Shah, who at the time of the 
invasion of Chingiz Khan, threw him, along 
with his brother, into a river, where both 
were drowned. 

Baha-uddin Shirazi (^jaJI \-j^-i 
i_S\\j^J^), a celebrated KazI of Shiraz, 
who died in the year a.d. 1380, a.h. 782. 

Baha-uddin Wald (Maulana) (Lj,_j 
\}1iy J>!^ i^jaH), a native of Balkh 

and the father of the celebrated Jalal-uddin 
Maulawi Kiim!. He flourished and enjoyed 
distinguished honours in the time of Sultan 
Muhammad, surnamed Qutb-uddln of Khwar- 
izm. He was an enthusiastic follower of the 
doctrine of the Sufis, and became so celebrated 
as a preacher and expounder that people 
flocked from all parts of Persia to hear him 
discourse. In the latter part of his Ufe he 




left his natire country and went and dwelt at 
Qonia (Iconium) in Asiatic Turkey, where he 
died about the year a.d. 1230 or 1233, a.h. 
628 or 631, and his son succeeded him as 
the head of the sect. 

Baha-uddin Zikaria (Shaikli) (L^^ 

*i""~' Hj-'^j e^:'.'^-^^)> ^ Muhammadan 

saint of Multan, was the son of Qutb-uddiu 
Muhammad, the son of Karaal-uddin QuresliT. 
He was born at Kotkaror in Multan in a.d, 
1170, A.H. 565. After his studies he journeyed 
to Baghdad and became a disciple of Shaikh 
ShahaVuddin Suhanvardi. He afterwards 
returned to Multan, where he became intimate 
with Farid-uddin Shakargauj. He died at 
Multan on the 7th November, a.d. 1266, 
7th Safar, a.h. 665, aged 100 lunar years, 
and is still considered one of the most roTered 
saints of India. He left enormous wealth to 
his heirs. His son Shaikh Sadr-uddin died 
at Multan in a.d. 1309, a.h. 709. 

Baha-uddin (^^]\ \^j) (Badl'-uddm 

or Bogo-neddin), a Muhammadan saint whose 
tomb is in the neighbom-hood of Bukhara, 
called Mazari Bogo-neddiu. During the 
invasion of the Eussians at that place, it is 
said that a book, written in verse in the 
Persian language, was found in the tomb of 
this saint. It is said in this book that in the 
82nd year of the Hijrah, a.d. 1«6o, the 
Christians will rush upon Tashkand like a 
river. In the 84th year, a.d. 1867, they will 
occupy Samarkand, and sweep it away like a 
prickly thorn. In the 88th year, a.d. 1871, 
the Christians will take Bokhara, and con- 
vert it into a level like the steppe. In the 
year 90th hut one, a.d. 1872, the Khwariz- 
mians will run out of their own accord to 
meet them like children. 

BaMsliti (^x^j), poetical name of 

Shaikh Eamzan, the son of 'Abdul Muhsin, 
an author, who died a.d. 1571, a.h. 979. 

Bahjat (ci^^-V), or Behjat, author of 

a Dlwau which contains chiefly Ghazals, and 
at the end a very silly Qasead.a in praise of 
Europeans. He was living in Lucknow in 
A.D. 1797, a.h. 1212. 

Bahiol (J^Jl^j), -wlio lived during the 

reign of the khalif Hariin-al-Eash!d, was 
one of those people who pass amongst the 
Musalmans either for saints or madmen. 
Although sumamed Al-Majniin, or the Fool, 
he was possessed of a great deal of wit. 

Bahloli (]j[^^), a poet, whose Dlwan 
was found in the Library of TipH Sulfan. 

Bahlol Lodi (Sultan) (^fJ^J J^i^-i^^ 
l^lLl^j), a king of Dehli of the tribe 
of Afghans called Lodi. His father, Malik 

Kala, was the son of Ibrahim Khan or Malik 
Bahram, governor of Multan. In the year 
A.D. 1450, A.H. 854, Bahiol, during the 
absence at Badaon of Sultan Ala-uddin, son 
of Muhammad Shah, took possession of 
Dehli. He, however, gave place to the 
name of the Sultan for some time in the 
khutba ; but whin that prince promised to 
cede to him the empire, upon condition that 
he would permit him to live quietly in the 
possession of Badaon, Sultan Bahiol im- 
mediately threw the name of 'Ala-uddin out of 
the khutba and caused himself to be crowned 
on the 18th January, a.d. 1452, 25th Zil- 
hijja, A.H. 855. Bahiol reigned 38 lunar 
years, 7 months and 7 days, and died on the 
1st July, A.D. 1489, 2nd Sha'ban, a.h. 894. 
He is buried at Dehli near the tomb of 
Nasir-uddin Mahmud, smnamed Chiragh 
Dehli, a Musalman saint, and was succeeded 
by his son Nizam Khan, who assumed the 
title of Sikandar Shah. 

The followmg is a list of the kmgs of Dehli of 
the tribe of Lodi Afaltdns : 
Bahiol L5dl. 

Sikandar Shah, son of Bahiol. 
Ibrahim Husain, son of Sikandar, who was 
the last of this race, and was defeated and 
slain by Babar Shah. 

Bahman ( .^j), an ancient king of 

Persia, better known in history by his title 
of Ardisher Darazdast, which see. 

Bahmani, name of a dynasty in the 

Deccan, founded by an Afghan adventurer, 
'Ala-ud-din Hasan Gango, (q.v.), a.d. 1347, 
A.H. 748. 

Bahman Yar Khan (^U- Xi ,^)^j), 

son of Shaista Khan and grandson of Asaf 
Khan, a nobleman of the com't of the emperor 

Bahram I. (*[^j) (Yaranes of the 

Greeks), the fourth king of the Sasanian 
race, was the son of Htrrmuz (Hormisdas), 
whom he succeeded to the Persian throne in 
the year a.d. 273. He was a mild and 
mimilicent prince, and much beloved by his 
subjects. The most remarkable act of his 
reign was the execution of the celebrated 
Mani (Manes), the founder of the sect of the 

\_Vide Man!. Bahram reigned only three 
years and three months, after which he died 
and left the crown to his son Bahram II. 
about the year a.d. 276.] 

Bahram II. (aU^,j), (some authors 

term him the fourth of that name), was the 
son of Bahram I. whom he succeeded to the 
crown of Persia in a.d. 276. He reigned 17 
years, and after his demise was succeeded by 
his son Bahram III. about the year a.d. 




Bahrain III. i*\j^^) succeeded his 

father, Biihriim II. to the Persiim throne alidut 
the year A.u. 293, reig'ued only tour months, 
and was succeeded by his brother, Narsi or 

of Persia of the Sasauian race, succeeded his 
brother Shilhpur (Sapores) {q.r.) about the 
year a.d. 390, and is distinguished from other 
princes of the same name by his title of Kirman- 
shah, which he received from haying, during 
the reign of his brother, filled the station of 
ruler of the province of Kirman ; and he has 
perpetuated it by founding the city of Kirman- 
shah. He reigned, according to some accounts, 
eleven years ; and to others fifteen. He was 
killed by an arrow when endeavouring to 
quell a tumult in his army, and was succeeded 
by Tezdijard I. who is called Isdigerdes by 
the Greek authors. 

Bahram V. iA.^j^,i) (or Varanes V.), 

the fourteenth king of Persia of the Sasauian 
djmastv, who is known, in Persian history, 
by the name of Bahram GGr. He was the 
son of Yezdijard I. whom he succeeded to 
the throne of Persia in a.d. 420. The word 
Gor signifies a wild ass : an animal to the 
chase of which this monarch was devoted ; 
and it was in pursuit of one of these that he 
lost his life ; having suddenly come upon a 
deep pool, into which his horse plungecl, and 
neither the animal nor his roj-al rider were 
ever seen again. The first rhythmical com- 
position in the Persian language is recorded 
to have been the production of Bahram and 
his mistress Dilaram. Bahram visited India, 
was contemporary with Theodosius the 
emperor of Constantinople, and ruled Persia 
eighteen years. He died in a.d. 438, and 
was succeeded by his son Yezdijard II. 

Bahram («L^,j), an author who wrote 

the History of the Parsis of Bombay in a.d. 
1599, entitled Qhsal Surijaii. 

Bahram Chohin (.,-.J«. 


Jovian, a general of Hurmuz III. king of 
Persia, whom he deposed ; he reigned eight 
months, about the year a.d. 590. 
\_yide Hurmuz III.] 

Bahram Mirza Q^\y* f^j^)' ^'^'^ of 

Shah Sama'il Safawi. He was a good poet 
and died in the prime of youth in a.d. IooO, 
A.H. 957. 

Bahram Saqqa {i:i^ r\^)^ » Poet, 

was of Turkish extraction and belonged to 
the Bayat tribe. It is said that the prophet 
Kliizr appeared to him, and a cUvine light 
filled him. He renounced the world aud 
became a water-carrier. 

[Vide A:n Translation, i. p. 581.] 

Bahram Sarakhsi (,j^ri-^^ (*7-W''' ^ 

Prosodinn of Sarakhs, a town between 
Naishapur and Marv. 

Bahram Shah (il-i (♦V-^'-'X son of 

Sultan Masa'iid III. ascended the throne of 
Ghazui by the assistance of Sultan Sanjar 
his uncle, after his brother Arsalau Shah, 
who was put to death in a.d. 1118, a.h. 612. 
Bahram Shah, after a prosperous reign of 
35 lunar years, was defeated in a.d. 1152, 
A.H. 647, by 'Ala-uddin Hasan Ghuri, and 
fled to Lahore, where he died the same year, 
and his son Ehusro Shah succeeded him in 
the government of Lahore. The poets Shaikh 
Sa'nai and Abii'l Majd-bin-'Adam-al-Ghaz- 
nawi flourished in the time of Bahram Shah. 

Bahram Shah (^l^ C^f^^i surnamed 

Ma'iz-uddin, was the son of Sultan Eukn-uddin 
Firoz. He was raised to the throne of 
Dehli after the murder of Sultana Eazia the 
queen, on Monday the 21st April, a.d. 1240. 
He reigned little more than two years, and 
was slam by the instigation of Mahzab-uddiu 
wazir, about the lotli Hay, a.d. 1242, when 
Sultan 'Ala-uddin Masa'ud, another son of 
Sultan Altimsh, was raised to the throne. 
Firishta erroneously sa\s that TJahram was 
the son of Altimsh and brother of Sult.ana 

Bahramand Khan (^^l^^ Jii.^j^j), 

son of Mirza Bahram, and one of the emperor 
'Alamgir's oldest noljility and his friend. 
After the death of Euh-ulhih-Khan, he was 
raised to the post of Mir Bakhshi or chief 
paymaster by the emperor in a.d. 1692, a.h. 
il03, and died in the Dcccau on the 17lh 
October, o.s. 1702, oth Jumadall. a.h. 1114. 
He was buried at his own request in a small 
tomb at Bahadurgurh. He was succeeded 
in his office by Zultiqar Klian Xasrat Jang, 
■\\-ho notwithstanding tliis appointment con- 
tinu' d in the command of the army against 
the Marhattas in the Deccan. 

Bahr-ul Hifz (^kk^\ ^=r), (or the Sea 

of Memory,) is the title of Abii I"sman-bin- 
'.Vmru, who wr(.ite a book on the manners 
and qualities of princes. He died a.d. 869, 
A.H. 255. 

Bahu Begam (^Lj .,^j), the mother 

of Naw.ab Asf-ud-daula of Lucknow. She 
cUed on the 28th December, 1816. She W"a3 
one of the " Begams " on whose ill-treat- 
ment was based a charge in the impeach- 
ment of Warren Hastings. 

Balan (^\.^_j), the poetical name o| 

Khwaja Ahsan-uddin or Ahsan-uUah Khan 
of Agra, who was living at Dehli in a.d. 
1760, A.H. 1174. 




Baiazid I. (Sultan) (^ILL J^jj-jLj), 

whom Tve call Bajazet, surnamed Ililerim, or 
Lightning, succeeded his father, Muriid I. 
(Amurath) in a.d. 1389, A.n. 791, as Sultan 
of the Turks. He caused his elder hrother 
Ya'kiib, his rival for the throne, to be 
strangled, an act of barbarity which since his 
time prevailed as a custom" at the Turkish 
court. He conquered Bulgaria, Macedonia, 
and Thessaly; and after he had made the 
emperor of Constantinople tributary to his 
power, he marched to attack Tamerlane in 
the east. He was, however, totally defeated 
near Augora on Friday the 21st July, a.d. 

1402, 19th Zil-hijja,"A.H. 804, and taken 
prisoner ; and when the proud conqaeror 
asked him \Yhat he would have done with 
him if he had obtained the victory, Baiazid 
answered that he would have confined him 
in an iron cage. " Such then shall be thy 
fate," rejoined Tamerlane, and ordered him 
to be carried about with his camp in an iron 
cage. Baiazid died on the 8th March, a.d. 

1403, 13th Sha'biln, a.h. 805, at Antioch 
in Pisidia during his eouflnement in Taimiir's 
camp. His son Musa, who was with his 
father at the time of his death, brought his 
remains to Brusa and hmied them there. 
During his (Miisa's) absence in the camp, his 
brother Sulaiman had ascended the throne. 

Baiazid II. (Sultan) (JiA~^ -VJ^.^tX 
emperor of Tiu'key, succeeded his father 
Muhammad II. to the throne of Constanti- 
nople in May, a.d. 1481, Rabi I. a.h. 886. 
He extended the boundaries of his kingdom ; 
and obUged the Venetians to sue for peace. 
His reign was distracted by intestine chscord, 
and he fell by the perfidy of his sou Sallm I. 
who caused him to be poisoned in a.d. 1512, 
a.h. 918, in the 60th year of his age and 
31st of his reign. He was a man of un- 
common talents, and did much for the 
imjirovement of his empii'e and the promotion 
of the sciences. 

Baiazid Ansari (^j\^\ Aj JjL), the 

Afghan Apostle, called Pir Koshan, founder 
of the Siiii sect called " Eoshauia," or "the 
enlightened." He had established amid the 
mountains of Afghanistan a temporal power 
upon the authority of his spiritual character, 
which enabled him and his successors to 
distui'b the tranquility of the empire of Dehli, 
when, under the celebrated Akbar, it had 
reached the very zenith of its power. 

Baiazid Bustami (Khwaja) (aj:. jLj 
As>'\aS'- .,»lla^j), the famous ascetic 

of Bustam, whose original name was Taifuri ; 
he is therefore sometimes called Baiazid 
Taifiiri-al-Bustami. His father's name was 
' Isa - ibn - Adam - ibn - ' Isa - ibn - 'Ali. His 
grandfather was a Gabr or magian, but 
became a _convert to Islamism. These two 
brothers, Adam and 'Ali, were, like himself, 
devout ascetics, but in an inferior degree. 

He was born in the year a.d. 777, a.h. 160, 
lived to a great age, and died between the years 
A.D. 845 or 848, a.h. 231 or 234, but 
according to Ibn-lvhalikan his death took 
])lace in a.d. 875 or 878, a.h. 261 or 264. 
lie is said to have been a contemporary of 
Ahmad Khizroya, who died a.h. 240. 

Baiazid Khan (^^U- J^jJjIj), Faujdar 

of Sarhind, who was commanded by the 
emperor Farrnkh-siyar to punish the Sikhs, 
who had risen in rebellion ; he took the field, 
but was assassinated iu his tent when alone 
at evening prayers, by a Sikh commissioned 
for that pm-pose by IBanda their chief, and 
the murderer escaped unhurt. This circum- 
stance took place about the year a.u. 1714, 
A.H. 1126. 

Baiazid (Sultan) (^^ll!l.-j A-iJjLj). 

There is a cenotaph at Chatigaon (Chitta- 
gong), called the Eauza of Sultan Baiazid. 
It is related that he was born at Bustam in 
Khurasan, of which country he was king ; 
but abandoning regal pomp and cares for the 
tranqiulity of the ascetic life, he came with 
twelve attending disciples to Chatigaon. 
Their arrival was promptly opposed by the 
king of the fairies and the attendant genii, 
who desired them forthwith to depart. Sultan 
Baiazid, with feigned humility, entreated to 
be allowed to remain that night and to occupy 
only as much ground as could be illumined by 
a single lamp, called iu Bengali chati or 
chat ; on obtaining their consent, he kindled 
from his mine a lamp of such radiance, that 
its light extended to Tik Naof, a distance of 
120 miles, and scorched the terrified genii, 
who fled from its flame in dismay. In 
commemoration of this event, the place was 
named Chatigram, in common parlance, 
Chatgaon, signifying the village of the lamp. 
This insult and breach of confidence led to 
implacable war on the part of the genii, 
whom Sultan Baiazid, in various confiicts, 
drove from the field ; and in his strenuous 
exertions dropped a ring where the cenotaph 
now stands — his Karanphiil, or ear-ring, fell 
in the river, which thence was named the 
" Karanphiili " ; and a sankh, or shell, 
dropped from his hand into the other stream, 
from which it derived the name of SankhautT. 
Sultan Baiazid then became a Gorchela {i.e. 
did penance in the tomb) for 12 years : after 
endowing it with lands to keep it in repair 
and defray the expenses of pilgrims and the 
twelve disciples, he proceeded to Makanpiir, 
and was succeeded by his disciple Shah, who, 
in the hope of an eternal reward, performed 
the penance of stanchng for 12 years on one 
leg, after which he also proceeded to Makan- 
piir ; leaving the cenotaph under the charge 
of Shah Pir, an attenchng disciple of Baiazid. 
This place was therefore in after ages held in 
great repute, and visited by numerous pilgrims 
from distant parts. It is situated on a hill, 
ascended by a flight of steps, inclosed by a 
wall about 30 feet square and 15 high, with 
mitred battlements, and a pillar rising two 
feet above them at each angle, similar to the 




■buiMmj!;s of the time of Akliar. The tomb, 
about I'i feit by 9, is in the centre of the 
ari'a, with some shells and corals deposited at 
its head. 

Baiazid Taifuri-al-Bustami (aj jjLj 

^lla-uj.Jl ^_^J^iu\i). Vide Baiazid 

Baidu Khan (^;li. ^^^i.Ij), the son of 

Tm-af2;hai and grandson of Halakii Kliau, 
succeeded Kaikhatii or Kaijaptii Khan in 
January, a.d. 1295, Safar,' a.h. 694, and 
enjoyed the crown of Persia only seven 
nnmlhs : he was dethroned and slain by his 
nephew, Gliazan Klian, the son of Arg-hiin 
Klian ; who was compelled to attack his 
uncle and sovereign to preserve himself from 
destruction. This event took place in October 
the same year, Zil-hijja, a.h. 694. In 
English Histories he is called Batu. In 
1235, at the head of half a million of 
Eeptchak Mongols, he conquered the east 
of Russia, destrojing Eiazan, Moscow, 
Vlandimir and other towns. 

Baihaqi ( L^,^), surnamed Abfi'l 

Fazl, and whose proper name is Abii Bakr 
Ahmad, was the sou of Husaiu Baihaqi. lie 
is the author of the works in Arabic called 
Sunan Ktibra and Sughra and of one 
entitled Sha'b-id-Iman, He died in the 
year a.d. 1066, a.h. 468. His collection of 
Traditions is also of the highest authority. 

Baiju (j.s^j), one of the most cele- 
brated songsters of India, besides Naek, 
Gopal, and Fansin. 

Baictara Mirza (Sultan) (1; .-■• l^.iL'L) 

(jjlbLj), the son of Umar Shaikh 

Mirza, the second sou of Amir Taimiir. 
Baiqara succeeded his brother as governor 
of Persia in a.d. 1394, a.h. 796. His 
eldest brotlier, PTr Muhammad Jahangir, 
was slaiu in a.d. 1405, a.h. 80S. Baiqara, 
Mirza was slain by his uncle Shahrukh 
Mirza in a.d. 1416, a.h. 819 ; he left a 
son named Mausiir, who became the father 
of Sultan Husaiu Mirza, surnamed Abii'l 
Gliazi Bahadur. 

Bairam {Aj^i), sometimes erroneously 

written by us for Bahram. It is the T. 
name of the planet Mars. 

Bairam Beg (( ^.^ A^) was father 

of Munira Khiin. The latter was a grandee 
in Humayiin's Court. 

[Vide Aln Translation, vol. i. p. 317.] 

Bairam Khan {J\.~^ c'^j^-')' styled 

Khan Khanan, or Lord of lords, was one of 
the most distinguished officers of the Mughal 

court. He was a Turkman and descended 
from a line of ancestors who served for many 
generatitms iu the family of Taimiir. Bairam 
accompanied the emperor Ilumayiin from 
Persia to ludia, and on the accession of 
his sou Akbar, he was honoured with the 
title of Klian Wianau and the office of prime 
minister ; and had the whole civil and mili- 
tary powers vested in his hands. When 
Akbar in a.d. 1558, a.h, 965, thought he 
was capable of acting for himself, he dismissed 
Bairam Khan from the wizarat. Bairam at 
first had recourse to rebellion, but being un- 
successful, was compelled to throw himself on 
the clemency of his sovereign, who not only 
pardoned him but assigned to him a pension 
of 50,000 rupees annually for his support. 
Bairam soon after took leave of the emperor 
with the design of making a pilgrimage to 
Mecca, and had proceeded to Gujrat in order 
to embark for Jlecca, but was slain by 
one jUubarik Khan Lohani, whose father 
Bairam Klian had slain in battle with his 
own hand during the reign of the emperor 
Huraayun. Tfiis event took place on Friday 
the 31st January, a.d. 1561, 14th Jumada I. 
A.H. 968. He was at first buried near the 
tomb of Shaikh Hisam at Gujrat, but after- 
wards his remains were transported to 
Mashhad and bui-ied there. He is the author 
of a Diwan. 

Baizawi (Qazi) ( ^-ilJi ^^\^S), the 

surname of Nasir-uddin Abii'l Khair Abd- 
uUah-ibn-Uuiar al Baizawi. He wae a 
nati\-e of Baiza, a village of Shiraz, on 
wliich account he is styled BaizaAvi. He 
held the otfice of U'lzi or Judge of the city 
of Shiraz for a considerable time, and died 
at Tabriz or Tauris in the year a.d. 1286, 
A.H. 685, or as others say iu a.d. 1292, 
A.H. 691. He is the author of the well- 
known Commentary on the Quran called 
Tiifsir liaalwi, which is also called Anwdr- 
'ii1-T(iiizll, and Asrdr-ul-Tuinl. Some say 
that he is also the author of a history entitled 
XizrnmU Tairdnkh, but the author of tliis 
work is said by others to be Abu Sa'id 
Baizawi, which see. 

Baisanghar (Mirza) (h^^ jk:.M^\j), 

son of Mirza Shahrukh, the sou of Amir 
Taimiir. He was a learned and noble prince, 
a great protector of letters and learned men. 
He himself wrote six diflerent hands, com- 
posed verses iu the Persian and Turkish 
languagis, and constantly had in his employ- 
ment iorty copjists for transcribing MSS. 
He was born iu the year a.d. 1399, a.h. 
802, and died before his father iu a.d. 1434, 
a.h. 837, at Herat, aged 35 lunar years. 

Baisanghar (Mirza) iSjy, ^i:,^jlj), 

son of Sultan Husaiu Mirza of Herat. He 
was killed by Kliusro Shah, king of Qundaz. 

Bajazet, name of several Turkish 
emperors spelt so in English, being a cor- 
ruption of Baiazid, which see. 




Baji Bai ( Sb -^L), also called 
Bija Bai, which see. 


Baji Rao I. (Peshwa) {\Ji^ 

the son of Biilaji Eao Bishwanath Pesliwa, 
whom he succeeded in October, a.d. 1720. 
He was the ablest of all the Brahman dynasty, 
and perhaps of all the Marhatta nation, except 
Sewajl. He died on the 28th April, o.s. 
1740, 12th Safar, a.h. 1153, and left three 
sons, viz. Balaji Baji Rao, who succeeded him 
asPeshwa; BaghnuathEao, commonly called 
Eaghoba, who was at one time much con- 
nected with the English, and was the father 
of the last Peshwa BajT Eao II. ; and Sham- 
sher Bahadur, to whom (though an illegitimate 
son by a Muhammadan woman, and brought 
up in his mother's religion), he left all his 
possessions and pretensions in Bundelkhand. 

Baji Rao II. O^L-j jlj ^»-W, the 

last Peshwa, was the eldest son of Eaghoba 
or Eaghnnath Eao of ambiguous memory. 
He succeeded JIadho Eao, the infant Peshwa. 
who died suddenly in October, a.d. 1795, 
During the reign of Madho Eao he and his 
brother Chimnaji were confined in the fort 
of Juueir, near Piina, and after his death 
Chimnaji was furtively invested, but he was 
soon after deposed and Baji Eao was pub- 
licly proclaimed Peshwa by Daulat Eao 
Sciudhia on the 4th December, a.h. 1796. 
In May, a.d. 1818, a proclamation was 
issued by Government deposing him for re- 
bellion ; and the Raja of Sitara, Partap 
Singh Narayan released from confinement, 
had a part of the Piina territories assigned 
for his support, and was vested with the 
reality of that power of which his ancestors 
in latter times had enjoyed only the name. 
Baji Eao was compelled to surrender himself 
to the English, and was pensioned on the 
3rd June, a.d. 1818. The pension allowed 
him by Government was 800,000 rupees per 
annum. He died at Bithiir, near Cawnpore, 
in December, a.d. 1852, and was succeeded 
by his adopted son DhondU Pant, commonly 
called Nana Sahib (?.».), who became a 
rebel in the distui-bances of 1867. 
[See Colebrooke's Mountstuart Mphinstone.] 

Bakhat Singh (^i,!^ ci^isr;), or Bakht 

Singh Eafhor, son of Ajit Singh and brother 
of Abhai Singh, Eaja of Jodhpur. He was 
poisoned in a.d. 1752. 

BakhsM 'Ali Khan {^\~>. ^^Ir ^=^), 

whose poetical name was Hashmat, flourished 
in the time of Nawab Salabat Jang of Hydera- 
bad, about the year a.d. 1751, a.h. 1164. 

BakhsU Bano Begam (^l.J ^.H^ 
*0), a sister of the emperor Akbar 
the Great. 

Bakhtaiar Beg Gurdi Shah Mansnr 
(il-1 ^^ I — Cj jl-iir), Turkman, 
was an Amir, and governed (1001) Siwistau. 
[Vide Am Translation, vol. i. p. 474.] 

Bakhtaiar Khilji ( ^-s,^^ ^L^u-ir). 
Vide Muhammad Bakhtaiar Khilji. 

Bakhtari {^j^isr), one of the most 

celebrated Arabian poets, who died in the 
year a.d. 823. According to some writers, 
he was born in a.d. 821, a.h. 208, flourished 
in the time of the khalif Al-Musta'in Billah, 
and died in his 63rd year at Baghdad. He 
is also called Bin-Bakhtari. 

Bakhtawar Khan (, ,l:>- iiliisr), an 

amir who served under the emperor Alamgir. 
The Sarae of Bakhtawamagar, near Dehli, 
was constructed by him in a.d. 1671, a.h. 
1082. He is the author of the work called 
Mirat-ul-' Alain, a history of the first part 
of the reign of 'Alamgir. He died in a.d. 
1684, A.H. 1095. 

\_Vide Nazir Bakhtaiar Khan.] 

Bakhtishu (c j-A-^i-sT), name of a. 

Christian physician in the service of Harun- 

Bakshu (.,, a singer, lived at the 

Court of Eaja Bikramajit Mansiu' ; but when 
his patron lost his throne he weut to Eaja 
Kirat of Kiilinjar. Not long afterwards he 
accepted a call to Gujrat, where he remained 
at the Court of Sultan Bahadur, a.d. 1526 
to 1536. 

[Vide Ain Translation, vol. i. p. 611. J 

Baktash Quli (^i..'i ^\-xS.-j), a 

Musalman writer of the Persian sect, who 
wrote a book called Bostan-al-Khatjal, or the 
Garden of Thoughts . (Watldn' s Biographical 
Dictionary.) See also Amiri, who also wrote 
a book of that name. 

Balaji Rao Bishwa Nath Peshwa 

founder of the Brahman dynasty of Peshwa, 
was the hereditary accountant of a village 
in the Kokan. He afterwards entered into 
the service of a chief of the Jado family, 
whence he was transferred to that of the 
Eaja Sahii, son of Sambhaji, chief of the 
Marhattas. His merits were at length re- 
warded with the office of Peshwa, at that time 
second in the State. He died in October, 
A.D. 1720, and was succeeded by his son 
Biiji Kao Peshwa. 

List of Hereditary Feshwas of Tuna. 
Balaji Eao Bishwanath Peshwa. 
Baji Eao Peshwa, son of Balaji. 




B.ilSji Baji Eao, son of Bajl Kao. 

MSdho lifui Bilal, son of lialaji, succeeded 
under the reu'ency of his uncle Eagliunatll 

Nriiayan liao l\'slnva, brother of Jladho Rao. 

ESghuuath Rao, son of Baji Ran Peshwa I. 

Miidlio Rao II. posthumous son of Xarayau 

Baji Rao II. son of Raghunath Rao, pro- 
claimed himself, and was taken hy Sindhia. 

Chimn.'cji, fui-tively invested at Piina, 26th 
May, 1796. 

Biiji Rao II. publicly proclaimed, -tth Decem- 
ber, 1796. Surrendered to and pensioned 
by the English, 3rd June, 1818, and I'artap 
Sino'b Xarayan, the Raja of Sitiira, released 
from confinement. 



Balaji Baji Rao {V\. -^ „ 

also called BTila Rao Pandit Pradlian, was 
the son of Baji Rfio Peshwa I. and succeeded 
his father in April, a.d. 1740. Hi; was at 
Puna when the battle between the ilarhattas 
and Al'imad Shah Abdrdi took place in January, 
A.D. 1761, but died in the mouth of June of 
the same year, leaving' three sons, viz., Biswas 
Rao, who was killed in the battle of Pauipat, 
Madho Eao, and Xanivan Rao. 

Baland Akhtar ( 

\ Aiij), a brother 

of the emperor Iiluhammad Shah 

Balasli ( J-^Jli). 

Vide Palash or Palas. 

Balkan (^_.._Lj), a king of Delill. 
Tide Gbayas-uddin Balban. 

Baltiliacldar Singh {dS.:^.^ jX^JLi), a 

Raja lineally descended from the ancient 
Hindu monarchs of Audh, who, haviup; 
100,000 RajpDts at his command, considered 
himself as equal to the Nawab "Wazir of Luck- 
now, whose authority he disclaimed. To 
reduce this Raja an army was sent about 
the year a.d. 1780, composed partly of the 
Kawab's troops, aud partly of the Company's 
se])oys ; but owing" to the intrigues of Haidar 
Beg, the minister of the Nawilb "Wazir 
Asaf-uddaula, and the native collectors, who 
extorted large sums from the zamindars, this 
expedition failed of success. During two years 
he was frequently defeated and pui'sued ; and 
at length being surprised in his camp, he was 
killed in endeavouring to make bis escape. 

Baldeo Singh {d^-.^ _jJ.^^^X the Jat 

Raja of Bhartpiir, w^as the second son of 
Ranjit Singh. He succeeded to the Raj 
after the death of his eldest brother, Raudhir 

Baligh (j_Jj), author of the Baluel 

Zaliira, TaJanwan Qi'drnt, and MnJcdlima. 
He was a native of India and was living in 
A.D. 1772, A.H. 1186. 

Balwant Singh {iS~u 

Balin, erroneously written by some for 
Balban, which see. 

Balqini ( ^iJiij), Tide Bikpini. 

Balti ( ^Jlj) {■tide Jodh BaT), the 

daughter of Eaja Tdaia Singh Eathor, 
commonly called Jlotha Eaja ; she «'as married 
to the emperor Jahangir and became the 
mother of Shah Jahan. She died in a.d. 
1619, A.H. 1028. 

Balwan Singh {ixu^ u')^')' (who was 
always called bv the natives of Agra as the 
Kash'l-wala Raja) was the son of the celebrated 
Chait Singh, Raja of Bauaras. Balwan Singli 
was born" at Gwaliar, and after his fatlur's 
death, he and his family lived in the city of 
Agra for many years on a monthly pension 
of'2000 rupees. 'He lost his only son, Kiiwar 
Chakarbati Singh, on the 17th December, 
1871, and after' a few days, on the 26th of 
the same month, he resigned his unusually 
prolonged life. The only surviving members 
of this family were the widow of Chakarbati 
Singh and his children, a boy aged nine and 
a girl aged H years. I'.iilwau Singh was 
the author of a Diwiin in Urdu. 

i.::.^j.lj), a Eaja 

or zaraindar of Banaras. He was the father 
or brother of the famous Chait Singh who 
rebelled against the British, and was arrested 
and deposed by Mr. Hastings in 1781. 
Balwant Singh succeeded his father Mansa 
Ram in a.d. 1740, reigneil 30 years, died in 
1770, and was succeeded by Raja Chait Singh. 

Balwant Singli ((iCi.^ l::^j.1j), Eaja 

of Bhartpiir, succeeded his father, Baldeo 
Singh, in August, 1S24 ; was dis])laced by one 
of bis cou^in^, named Durjan Sal, in March, 
1825 ; but reinstated by the British Govern- 
ment on the 19th January, 1826. Bhartpiir 
was stormed and taken by the Bengal troops 
under Lord Corabermere, on the 18th January. 
The British lost during the siege 45 officers 
killed and wounded, and 1500 men ; the 
enemy lost some thousands, and the usurper 
Diu-jan Sal was seized and sent to AUahabad. 
His father, Baldeo Singh, was the second 
brother of Randhir Singh, the eldest of the 
four sons of Raujit Singh the son of Kehri 
Singh, the brother of Eatan Singh, the 
brother of Jawahir Singh, the son of Siirajmal, 
the son of Chiiraman jat, the founder of the 
principality. Balwant Singh died aged 34 
years on the 16th March, 1853, and was 
succeeded by his infant son Jaswant Singh. 

Banana (<)JUj), an Arabian poet whose 

full name is Abii Bakr-bin-Muhamraad bin- 
Banana. There has been another Bin- 
Banana, viz., Abii Nasr-ibn-ul-'Aziz-bin 
Banana, who was a poet also, and died at 
Baghdad in a.d. 1009, a.h. 400. 




Banda (as:^). Vide EazI (Maulana). 

Banda {usuj), a guru or chief of the 

Sikhs, and successor of Guru Gobind. This 
man obtained great power, and committed 
great depredations in the province of Lahore, 
in the reigu of Bahadur Shah I. and while 
the emperor was in Deccan against his brother 
Kam Bakhsh, Banda collected his followers, 
to revenge the death of his predecessor's sons, 
who were taken prisoners and had been put 
to death some time before. He committed 
the greatest cruelties on the Musulmaus, in 
every advantage shewing no quarter to age 
or^ sex, and even ripping up women with 
child. The emperor found it necessary to 
march in person against him, and he was 
besieged in the fortress of Lohgarh, which 
was taken, but Banda found means to 
escape, and raise new insm-rections. In the 
reign of the emperor Farrukhsiar. 'Abdus 
Samad Khan, governor of Kashmir, was sent 
against the rebels with a great army. After 
many severe engagements, he forced Banda to 
take refuge in a fortress, which was blockaded 
so effectually as to cut off every supply. 
The garrison was reduced to the necessity of 
eating cows, horses, asses, and other animals 
forbidden by their laws ; when at length, 
having no provision of any sort left, and 
being reduced to the extremity of famine and 
disease, they begged for quarter. 'Abdus 
Samad Khan, having planted a standard on 
the plain, commanded them to come out and 
lay their arms under it, which they did. He 
then divided the meaner sort among bis chiefs, 
who cut off their heads; and threw their 
bodies into a river near the fortress. Banda 
and many other captives were sent to Dehli, 
through which he was carried in an iron cage 
upon an elephant, dressed in a robe of gold 
brocade. The Sikhs bore the insults of the 
populace with the greatest firmness, and 
steadily refused the emperor's offers of life 
if they would embrace the Muhammadan 
faith. They were put to death, a hundred 
each day, on the ensuing seven days. On 
the eighth day Banda ancl his son were put 
to death without the city. A dagger was 
put into his hands, and he was commanded 
to kill his infant son ; but refusing, the child 
was slain by the executioner, his heart torn 
out, and forced into the father's mouth. 
Banda was then put to death by the tearing 
of his flesh with red hot pincers and other 
tortures, which he bore with the greatest 
constancy. This event took place in the 
year a.d. 1715, a.h. 1127. 

Bano Begam (Ji^i ylj), the daughter 

of Shahnawaz Khan, the son of the "Wazir 
Asaf Khan, wife of the emperor Alamglr, 
and mother of 'Azim Shah. 

Baqai (^Uij), surname of Ibrahim- 
bin- 'Umar, a learned Musalman, who is 
the author of several treatises on ancient 

philosophers, on divination by numbers, a 
commentary on the Qm'iln, etc. He died in 
the year a.d. 1480, a.h. 885. (Mulla) (Li JUj), a poet who 

lived in the time of the emperor Babar Shah. 
He is the author of a poem or MasnaM'i, which 
he dedicated to the emperor. 

Baqalani (^iS-lj), the author of a 

work called Ai'Jds-ul-Qiinln, or of the diffi- 
cult things in the Quran. See Abii Bakr 

Bacti Khan (^l^ ^'^i\ a nobleman 

of the court of the emperor Shah Jahan, by 
whom he was appointed governor of the fort 
of Agra. In the 24th year of the reign of 
the emperor he was raised to the rank of 
1500. In the 49th year of the emperor's 
reign, he still held the governorship of the 
fort of Agra, and was raised to the rank of 
2000 the following year. He had built in 
the front of the gate called Hathiapol, which 
is situated towards the Cliauk and the Jama 
Misjid, a fine bungalow, which was still 
standing about the year a.d. 1830. 

Baqili (^Uj), surname of Abu'l Fazl 

Muhammad-hin-Qfisim-al - Khwarizmi, who 
from Ills learning has the title of Zain-uddin 
and Zain-ul-Mashaekh, or the ornament of 
the doctors. He wrote a book on the prayers 
of the Musalmans, on the glory and excellence 
of the Arabs, called Salat-ul-Baqili. He 
died in a.d. 1167, a.h. 562, but according 
to Haji Khalfa in a.d. 1170, a.h. 666. 
There was another Baqili, also a Muham- 
madan doctor, who died in a.h. 982. 

Baq.i Muhammad Khan Koka ( j\j 

i^S |0^ J>^^'*), eldest brother of 

Adham Khan, the son of Maham Anka, 
was an officer of 3000 in the time of the 
emperor Akbar. He died at Garh Katka, 
where he had a jagir, in a.d. 1585, a.h. 993. 

Baqir ( 'Lj), the poetical name of 

Muhammad Baqir Ali Khan, who flourished 
in the time of the emperor Muhammad Shah 
and wrote a Masnawi or poem called Sanuiz- 
ut-TShirtn, composed in a.d. 1726, a.h. 
1139, also another work entitled Gulshani 
AsrSr, which he wrote in a.d. 1732, a.h. 
1145. He is also the author of a Diwan, 
and another poem called Mirat-til-Jamdl. 

Baqir Ali Khan (,_jL>. 
Vide Baqir. 

,i.^^Jb). (Imam) (*l.^! j^^)- ^"^» 
Muhammad Baqir (Imam) . 




Ba(iir KasM {^-^^ j-^^i\ wliose 

pnotical name is Kliiriid, was a contemporary 
of Zahuri who flourislied aliout the year a.d. 
1600, aud is the athor of a Diwan. 

Baqir Khan (jjl^ ji\j), a nobleman 

iu the seryice of the emperor Shah Jahan. 
In the latter part of his life, he was appointed 
jjnvernor of Allahabad, where he died in a d. 
1637, A.H. 1047, in which year died also 
Khan Zaman Bahadnr, in Daulatabad. 

Baqir Khan (J Lj *.=r' ^[.^ 

suruamed Najm SSni, an amir of the reign 
of Shah Jahan, He was a very liberal man, 
fond of literature, and was himself a poet. 
He died in a.d. 1640, A.n. lOSO, hut, accord- 
ing to the work iln:ir-id- Umn'i, in a.d. 
1637, A.H. 1047. He is the author of a 
Diwan or Book of Odes. 

Barahman (^.♦Jy), poetical title of a 

Br.ahman whose name was Chaudar Bhan, 
which see. 

BarlDak (i^jjlj), the son of Bahlol 

Lodi, king of Dehll. Tide Hosain Shah 

Barbak Shah (iLi lSjj\j), Purbl, 

the son of Nasir Shah, whom he succeeded 
to the throne of Bengal in a.d. 1458. He 
reigned for a period of 17 years and died in 
a.d. 1474, A.H. 879. 

Barbarassa (a— j^Ij,1.j), the famous 

Corsair. Sulaiman, emperor of the Turks, 
gave him the title of Khair-uddin, and made 
him afterwards Pasha of the sea. He suc- 
ceeded his brother Anich, who conquered 
the kingdom of Algiers, after having killed 
Salim the Arabian king. He took Tunis 
A.D. 1533, A.H. 940, after having chiven out 
the Venetians, but Andrea Doria retook it 
again a.d. 1636, a.h. 943. After this, he 
ravaged several parts of Italy, aud reduced 
Yemin, in Arabia Felix, to the Turkish 
government. Khair-uddln died at Constanti- 
nople in A.D. 1516, A.H. 953, aged 80. 

Barbarassa (Aruch) (d,_.^.l_j .l_j), a 

famous pirate. Being called in to assist 
Salim, prince of Algiers, against the Spaniards, 
he murdered that monarch, and took posses- 
sion of his throne. He afterwards laid siege 
to Tunis, which he took, and caused himself 
to be proclaimed sovereign. He was besieged 
by the Marquis of Gomarez and reduced to 
the greatest distress. He escaped by a sub- 
terraneous passage, but was overtaken with 
a small number of Tm-ks, the whole of whom 
died sword in hand iu a.d. 1518. 

Barbud (a_JjLj), a famons Persian 

musician, master of music to IChusro I'arwez, 
king of Persia. He composed an air called 
jVorangi, and invented a musical instrument 
(a sort of lyre) which bears his name : i.e. 
Barbud or Barbut. 


Barizi (^;^Lj), the son of 

Eahim, an Arabian author who WTote a 
coramentarv on the work called Axrar-i/l- 
Taiizil. He died in a.d. 1337, a.h. 738. 
This author appears to be the same with 
Baziri, which see. 

Barkali ( 1^,j), the name of two Mu- 

hammadan doctors ; the one died in a.d. 
1653, A.H. 960, and the other in a.d. 1573, 
A.H. 982. They are sometimes called Birgili, 
which see. 

Barkat-uUah (Sayyad) {iS2\ lh-.^ 

Ji-^-j), styled Sdhih-ul-Barhdt, was 

the son of Savvad Aweis, the son of Mir 
'Abdul Jalil, the son of Mir 'Abdul Wahid 
Shahidi of Bilgaram. His poetical name 
was 'Ishql, and as his grandfather's tomb 
was in Mahara in the district of Agra, he 
went and lived in that village till the day 
of his death, which happened on the 25th 
July, A.D. 1729, 10th Muharram, a.h. 1142. 

BarkayaracL (Sultan) (|^lkl-) -iJ^Sy), 

the eldest son of Sultan Malikshah Saljiiqi, 
whom he succeeded in a.d. 1092, a.h. 485. 
His usual residence was Baghdad. His brother 
Muhammad ruled over Azur-baijan; while 
Sanjar, his third brother, established a 
kingdom in Khurasan and Transoxiana, from 
whence he extended his conquests over the 
fallen princes of Ghazni. Barkayaraq reigned 
twelve years and died in December, a.d. 1104, 
A.H. 498. His brother Sultan Muhammad 
succeeded him. 

Barmak (i_^^ j), the name of a noble 

family, originally from Balkh in Khurasan, 
and highly celebrated all over the East for 
their generosity, magnificence, and dis- 
tinguished patronage of men of genius. One 
of the most illustrious was governor to the 
khalif Hariin-al-Ilashid, and his son Ja'far, 
afterwards minister to that prince ; but having 
incurred his displeasure, he with several of the 
heads of the family was put to death. Vide 
Ja'far-al-Barmaki. (The "Barmecide" is 
familiar to readers of Gallaud's Arabian 

Baroda (^ J_. .j), Eaja of. Vide PelajT. 

Barq ( v _j), poetical name of Mu- 
hammad Eaza (?.».). 




Basasiri ^^^Lj ("Glutton") was 

the nickname, and afterwards the surname 
of Arsalau, who from a slave became Com- 
mander-in-Chief of the armies of Baha-ud- 
daula, the wazir of the khalTf of Baghdad. 
Having quarrelled with him he fled to Egypt 
and put himself under the protection of Al- 
Mustauasir Billa, the fifth khalif of Egypt 
of the Fatimite dynasty. After some time 
he came to Baghdad. He took Qaem, the 
26th khalif of the Abbasides, prisoner in 
Baghdad, deposed him, and caused Mustanasir 
to be acknowledged the only and legitimate 
chief of all the JIusalmans. He maintained 
Mustanasir in the khUafat for one year and 
a half, after which Tughral Beg, Sultan of 
the Saljuqides, put Qaem on the throne of 
Baghdad again, defeated and killed Basasiri 
A.D. 1069, A.H. 451, and sent his head to 
Qaem, who caused it to be carried on a pike 
through the streets of Baghdad. 

Basiiir-ilin-ul-Lais (lj^JJI ^A^^Jij), 

the brother of the arch-rebel Eafa-ibu-ul- 
Lais, who had revolted against Harun-al- 
Eashid the khalif of Baghdad in the year 
A.D. 806, A.H. 190, at Samarqand, and 
assembled a considerable force to support him 
in his defection ; notwithstanding all Haruu's 
care, the rebels made in a.d. 807, a.h. 191, 
great progress in the conquest of Khurasan. 
According to Abiil Faraj, in the year a.d. 
809, A.H. 193, Bashir was brought in chains 
to Harun, who was then at the point of 
death. At the sight of him the khalif 
declared, that if he could speak only two 
words he would say kill him ; and immediately 
ordered him to be cut to pieces in his 

Basiti ( L-)lj), poetical name of a 

person who is the author of the biography of 
poets called Taz/cii a BdsUl. 

Basus (^„»^U), an Arabian woman, 

from whom originated a war, called Harb-i- 
Basus, which has since become a proverb to 
express, "Great events from little causes." 
Two Arabian tribes fought about 40 years 
because a camel belonging to this woman 
broke a hen's egg ; the owner of the egg 
wounded the camel with an arrow, and the 
two tribes were instantly in arms. 

Batalmiyusi (^^.o^^laj), an Arabian 

author, who died in a.d. 1030, a.h. 421. 
He wrote a treatise on the qualities requisite 
in a secretary and good writer, and another 

Batu Khan {^:>- jj\j), the son of 

JUji Khan, and grandson of Changez Khan. 
He ruled at Kipchak and was contemporary 
with Pope Innocent IV. 

Bauwab (i—i^y) (or Bouwab), surname 

of Ahu'l Hasan 'Ali Kala, who is better 
known under the name of ibn-Bouwab. It 
is he who improved the form of the Arabic 
Alphabet after Ibn-Maqla. He died in a.d. 
Iu22, A.H. 413, or as some say in a.d. 1032, 
A.H. 4^3. After him A'a'kub, surnamed 
Mustaa'simi, reduced it to its present form. 

Baz Bahadur (jOL^j jLj) whose 

original name was Malik Baiazid, succeeded 
his father Shujaa' Khan to the government 
of Malwa in a.d. 1564, a.h. 962, and having 
taken possession of many towns in Malwa 
which were previously almost independent, 
he ascended the throne under the title of 
Sultan Baz Bahadur. His attachment to 
EupmatI, a celebrated courtezan of that age, 
became so notorious, that the loves of Baz 
Bahadur and Eupmati have been handed 
down to posterity in song. He reigned about 
17 years, after which the kingdom of Malwa 
was taken, and included among the provinces 
of the empire of Dehli, by the emperor 
Akbar in the year a.d. 1570, a.h. 978. 
Baz Bahadiur afterwards joined Akbar at 
Dehli and received a commission as an officer 
of 2000 cavalry. Baz Bahadur and Riipmati 
are both buried in the centre of the tank at 

[Tide Eupmati.] 

Baz Khan i^J^ jU), an amir in the 

service of the emperor Bahadur Shah. lie 
was killed in the battle against Azim Shah 
{q.v.) on the 8th June, o.s. 1707, 18th Eabi' 
I. A.H. 1U8, near Dhaulpur. 

Bazil (J jlj). 

Vide Eafi Khan Bazil. 

Bazil (Jjb), the poetical name of 

Badr-uddin, Ismail-al-Tabrizi, an Arabian 

Baziri (^.;l_)), author of a poem 

entitled Koiikah-al-Darriat or the Brilliant 
Star, in praise of Muhammad, who cured 
him, as he said, of the palsy in a dream. 
Every line of the poem ends with an M., 
the initial of the prophet's name, and it is 
so highly valued that many of the Muham- 
madans learnt it by heart, on account of its 
maxims. (Lempriere's Universal Dictionary 
under Bausirri.) BarizI and Baziri appear 
to be the same person. 

Bazmi ( ^-^jj), author of the Padmawat 

in Persian verse. He was a native of Karkh 
and resided for some time at Shiraz. He 
came to Gujrat during the reign of the 
emperor Jahangir, and composed the above- 
mentioned poem in a.d. 1619, a.h. 1028. 
He was living at Dehli in the time of Shah 
Jahan about the year 1634. His proper 
name was 'Abdid Shakur 




Bazzaz ^j^J—i), tlie author of the 

Adrili-nt-]\[iifri(hlt or a treatise on tlio par- 
ticular conditions and properiics of traditions, 
and some other \\orks on the JLuhammadau 


Bebadal Khan {^\s>. Jjo j), a poet 

of Persia ivho caine to India in the rcinn of 
the emperor Jaliiingir, and flourished in the 
time of Sliali Jahan, who conferred on him 
the title of Bebadal Klian. Under iiis sup^r- 
iutendence tlie Peacock throne was constructed. 
Bebadal KJian appears to be the former title 
of AbiiTiilib Kallm, 

Bedar (.l^x^j), the poetical name of 

Sauiith Siutjh, a Hindii, who was living in 
A.D. 1753, A.H. 1166. 

Bedar ( .Ij,^), an author whose proper 

name was Imam Eakbsli, a native of Ambala. 
He is the author of the work called Tdrikh 
Sa'c'idrii, being an account of the progress of 
the dynasty which rided over Andh from 
Shujiia'-ud'danla to Sa'adat 'AH Khan, to 
whose name the title is an allusion. It was 
composed in a.d. 1812, a.h. 1227. He is 
also the author of several JIasnawis, one of 
which contains the praises of Xawab Sa'adat 
'All Kbiin, called Gtih/nhi-i-Sii'i'idnf. He 
was living in the time of Nasir-uddin Haidar, 
king of jriudh. 

^=r j^S^), 

Bedar Bakht (Prince) (v 

son of 'Azim Shah. He was killed in the 
battle fought by his father against the 
emperor Bahadur Shah on the 8th June, 
o.s. 1707, A.H. 1119. 

Bedar Baklit (v. 

^isr^ j^Jj-j), son of 

Ahmad Shah, king of Dehli. He was 
elevated to the throne of Dehli on the 1st 
September, a.d. 1788, 27tb Zi-Ka'da, a.h, 
1202, when Ghulam Qadir imprisoued Shah 
Alam. Bedar Bakht continued to reign until 
the approach of the Marhattas towards Dehli, 
when he fled upon the 12th October, 1788, 
but was subseqtiently apprehended and put to 
death by the orders of Shah Alam. 

Bedil (Mirza) {\jj-^ Jj»_-_j), the 
poetical name of Saidai Gilani, which see. 

Begam Sultan ((jlkLj *Cj), a lady 

of rank, whose tomb is to be seen to this 
day, outside of the gate of Ya'tmad-uddaula's 
mausoleum in Agra. From the inscription 
that is on her tomb, it appears that she died 
in till.' time of the emperor Humayiin in a.d. 
1538, A.H. 945, and tliat she was the daughter 
of Shaikh Kamal. 

Begana (<tjlLj), the poetical name of 
Abu'l Hasan. 

Bekasi (Maulana) (lj^!j_« j..u.^<L-j), 

a poet who lived in the time of the emperor 


Bekasi (Maulana) (Ij^, 


a poet of ShTrSz who was contemporary with 
Ghizali, who died in the year a.d. 1111, 
A.H. 505. 

Bekhabar (^irij), the poetical name 

of Mir'Azniat-uUah, son of Lutf-ullah of 
Bilgram. He died in a.d. 1729, a.h. 1142, 
at Dehli. lie is the author of the work 
called Safhiae Hckliahar. 

Bekhud (jj.saj), poetical name of 

MuUa Jami Lahatu'i; ISTamdar Khani, wliich 


Bekhud (j^..irv.j), poetical name of 

Sajjad Had; 'Ali, son of Sajjad Nasir 'AH 
Sehr, and author of a Diwan." 

Bengal, Sultans and Governors of. 

Vide Muhammad Baghtaiar KhiljT, and Khan 

Beni Narayan. A Hindu by birth, 
but follower of the warlike teacher Sayyad 
Ahmad (?.».). He wrote a sort of biographic 
anthology called Tazhira-i-Jahiin (published 
1812) and many other works in prose and verse. 
(De Tassy, Hist, de la lilt. hind. 115.) 

Berar {i.^\j j\y), Eaja of. Vide 
Eaghoji Bhosla. 

Betal) ((__5a-j), whose proper name 
is Abbas 'Ali Khan, which see. 

Bhagwan Das (Raja) {^j^Xj\^S^^_ 

its^l^), called by Abii'l Fazl Bhagwant 

Daswasthesonof EajaBihSraMalKachhwaha 
Ambhar or Amer, now Jaipiir. His daughter 
was married to the prince Mirza Salim (after- 
wards Jahangir) in the year a.d. 1685, a.h. 
993, by whom he had a daughter named 
Snltan-nn-nisa Begam, and then a, son who 
became Sultan Khusro (<?.».'). Bhagwan Daa 
died five days after the death of Raja Todar 
Mai, i e. on the 15th November, a.d. 1689, 
19th Mubarram, a.h. 998, at Lahore. After 
his death, the emperor Akbar, who was then 
at Kabul, conferred the title of Raja on his 
son Man Singh with the rank of 5000. 

Bhagwant Singh (<(i^i. 

rana of Dhaulpur (1857). 
14th February, 1873. 

Bhanbu Khan (^1:^. i-:^), the son 
of Zabita Khan, which see. 

He died on the 




Bhartriliari, brother of Eaja Vikram 

(Bikramjit). His Century of Sentences has 
been trauslated into English by Prof. Tawney, 
of Calcutta. 

Bliara Mai (Raja) ( J^ ^j^j)- ^«<^« 
Bihari Mai. 

Bliartpur U:>-\j j^l^j,^,j), Baja of. 
Tide Churamau Jat. 

Bhaskar Acharya (Vjl.=-^ ^^*u^,0, a 

most celebrated astronomer of the Hindus, 
■who was born at Bldae, a city in the Deccan, 
in the year of Salivahana, 1036, corresponchng 
with the year A. D. H14, a.h. 508. He was 
the author of several treatises, of which the 
Liluwati and the Bijd Ganita, relating to 
arithmetic, geometery and algebra, and the 
Siroinaiil, an astronomical treatise, are ac- 
counted the most valuable authorities in those 
sciences which India possesses. The Sinjiiianl 
is delivered in two sections, the Gola-Adhyaya, 
or the Lecture on the Globe, and the Ganita 
Adhyaya, or the Lecture on Xumbers, as 
applied to Astronomy. The Lth'twidl was 
trauslated into Persian by Faizi in the reign 
of Akbar, and an English translation has 
also been lately made by Dr. Taylor and 
pubKshed at Bombay. Bhaskar died at an 
advanced age, being upwards of 70 years. 
Lilawati was the name of his only daughter 
who died unmarried. 

Bhau (jL^^), a Mahratta chief. Vide 
Sadasheo Bhau. 

Bhau Singh (a.^.^ ;^^> ^^so called 

Mirza Eaja, was the second son of Eaja 
Bhagwan Das Kachhwaha, Eaja of Amber 
(now Jaipiir) . He .succeeded to the raj after 
his father's death in a.d. 1614, a.h. 1023, 
was raised to the rank of 5000 by the emperor 
Jahangir, and died of drinking a.d. 1621, 
A.H. 1030. Two of his wives and eight con- 
cubines burnt themselves on his funeral pyre. 
Among Jahangir's courtiers the Eajas of 
Amber were the most addicted to drinking. 
His eldest brother Jagat Singh, and Maka 
Singh his nephew, had likewise paid with their 
lives for their drunken habits, but their fate 
was no lesson for Eaja Bhaii. 

Bhim Singh (<lL:^-j ^j.^S), rana of 
Udaipiir, was living in a.d. 1750. 

Bhim (ir=-l . ♦r!ir?^' ^^J^ °^ Gujrat, in 
whose time Sultan Mahmiid Ghaznawi took 
the famous temple of Somnath in a.d. 1027. 

Bhim Singh Rathour (it5li.«i flr^-^. 

..ylj). He usurped the throne of 
Jodhpiir in a.d. 1793, on his grandfather's 

death by defeat of Zalim Singh, and died in 
1803. He was succeeded by Man Singh. 

Bhoj (Raja) (a,? 

■b nr^. 

). Vide Eaja 

Bhori Rani ( jl^ ~-Sjy('), the last of 

the wives of Maharaja Eanjit Singh; she 
died childless at Lahore on the 5th April, 
1872. Her adopted son Kiiwar Bhup Singh 
distributed large suras of money before and 
after her death, as alms to the poor. The 
funeral was very grand. Her remains were 
bui'ut near the samddh of the late Maharaja, 
and the ashes were sent to be thrown into 
the Ganges at Hardwar. She drew a pension 
of 800 rupees per mensem from our Govern- 
ment and held jagirs of upwards of 60,000 
rupees per annum. 

Bhuohchu (jsi'^). Vide Zarra. 

Bhuya ((jL^ ^-.'^^'X ^ nobleman of 

the court of Sultan Sikandar Lodi, who built 
the masjid Math in DelhT, but was afterwards 
assassinated by that prince without any crime, 
only because people used to assemble at his 

Bihi Bai ( ^JLj ,j, ,-j), the sister of 

Muhammad Shah 'Adil, king of Dehli, married 
to Salim Shah Siir, by whom she had a son 
named Firoz. After tlie death of Salim Shah, 
when Firoz, then an infant, was beingmm-dered 
by his uncle Muhammad Shah, she defended 
her son for some time in her arms, presenting 
her body to the dagger, but her cruel brother 
tore the young prince from her embrace, and 
in her presence severed his head from his 
body. Tliis event took place in May, a.d. 

Bihi Daulat Shad Begam ( ^_j j 

j,C^ lAJ^ l.l..-^ll-0, one of the wives 
of the emperor Akhar, and the mother of 
Shakrunnisa Begam, who sm'vived her father, 
and died in the time of Jahangir. 

Bihi Marwarid (Jij,^,^ lS^-^"^' "^^^° 

of the late Amir Afzal Khan, diedin September, 
A.D. 1874. 

BihiZinda Ahadi (,_ccVil sSj: ^'.^jOj 

commonly called Bibi Jind Wadi by the 
people of Uchcha, was one of the descendants 
of Sayyad Jalal. She is birried at Uchcha 
in Multan. The dome in which she rests is 
erected of bm-nt bricks and cemented by 
mortar. The whole of the edifice is ornamented 
by various hues, and lapis lazuli of the 
celebrated mines of Badakhshan. The size 
of this grand building may he estimated at 




Bihari Lai (JjJ ^^l^^O, a celebrated 

Hind! poet, called by Gilclirist the Thou-ison 
of the HiiiJus, aud much ndmircd nmong 
them ; he appears to h[ive flourished ahoiit 
the he<riuuiuf;- of the 16th ceiiliiiy- Being- 
informed that his prince Jaisilh of Jaipiir 
was so infatuated with the lieauiv of a very 
younjj ijirl he had married (so as to ueg-lect 
entirely the affairs of his country, tor he never 
came aliroad, having shut himself up to 
contemplate the fascinating charms of his 
beauteous, though immature bride), Bihari 
boldly ventured to admonish him by bribing 
a slave girl to convey a couplet, which he had 
composed, under bis pillow ; the translation 
of which is thus given by Gilchrist, " When 
the flower blooms, what will be the situation 
of the tree, that is now captivati'd with a 
biid, in which there is neither fragrance, 
sweets, or colom-." This had not only the 
desired effect of rousing the prince from his 
lethargy, liut excited in his breast a generous 
regard for the man, whose advice came so 
seasonably and elegantly disguised. Bihari 
received, ever after, a pension from court, 
with a present of more than one thousand 
pounds, for a work he published under the 
name of Salxai, from its consisting of seven 
hundi'ed couplets. 

Bihari Mai (J^ lJj\^^), also called 

Bbaramal and Piranmal, a Eaja of Amber 
or Ameir, now Jaipiir, Avas a rSjpiit of 
the tribe of Kachhwaha. He paid homage to 
Babar about the year a.d. 1527, and was on 
friendly terms with the emperor Akbar, and 
had at an early period given his daughter in 
marriage to liim, of whom was born the 
emperor Jahiingir. Both he and his son Raja 
Bhagwan Diis were admitted at the same time 
to a high rank in the imperial army by the 
emperor. Bhagwan Das gave his daughter in 
marriage to Jahiingir in a.d. 1&85, who was 
maiTied next year (1586^ to the daughter of 
Eaja Udai Singh, son of Eao Maldeo Eathor. 

Bija Bai i^J>^■> ^■Sl-j), or Biza Bai, 

the Avife of Maharaja Daulat Rao Scindhia 
of Gwaliiir. After the death of her husband, 
who died without issue, she elected Jhanko 
Rao [Scindhia as his successor on the 18th 
June, 1827. She was expelled by him in 
1833, and went over to JhansI, where she had 
a large estate. She died at Gwaliar about 
the middle of the year 1863. 

Bijaipal ( JLj^_=sr), a famous or 

fabulous ESja of Bayana, regarding whose 
power, riches, and extent of dominion, many 
curious tales are still current among the 
Bhartpiir Jat«, who assert their (sjnirious) 
descent from him. In the Bijaipril Ram, a 
metrical romance or ballad (written in the 
Birj Bhakha) the Hindii scholar will find a 
full and particular account of this great 
Hindii monarch, who is fabled to have con- 
quered Eaja Jumeswar, the father of Pirthi 

Eaj, the celebrated cbauhiiu king of DelilT, 
and to have ruled despotically over the whole 
of India. The Karauli Raja too boasts his 
descent from Bijaipal, and if any faith can be 
placed in a " Bausaoll or genealogical tree," 
he has a fair claim to the benefits, real or 
imaginary, resulting therefrom. 

Bijai Singh (aio-j c=^), son of Esija 

Abbai Singh, the son of Jlahriraja Ajit, 
Singh, Eatlior of Jodhpiir, succeeded to the 
raj in a.d. 17o2, a.h. 1167. He became in- 
fatuated with fondness for a young concubine ; 
after having fought the Mughols for 40 years 
he organised a confederacy against them in 
1787 and was defeated by de Boigne [q.v.) at 
Patau and Nirta in 1790 ; his chiefs rebelled, 
his family were iu hostility with each other, 
and he left at his death tiie throne itself in 
dispute. Eiija Jlan Singh at length suc- 
ceeded, in 1801, to the honours and the feuds 
of Bijai Singh. 

Bijai Singh (Axi_j ^^X so^ o^ ^^''^j''' 
Bhagwiin Das. Vide Eamji. 



or more 

Bikramajit (c:, 

properly Vikramaditya, a mythical sovereign 
of Malwa and Gujrat, whose capital was 
Ujain. His era called the Sambat is still used 
in the north of India. Bikramajit died (or 
ascended the throne) in the Kali Jug year, 
3044, according to Wilford, whose essays in 
the 9th and 10th volumes of the Asiatic 
Researches contain information on the history 
of the three supposed princes of this name 
and of their common rival Salivahana. The 
first Sambat year, therefore, concurs with the 
year 3045 of the Kali Jug year, or 57 years 
before the birth of Christ. This prince was a 
great patron of learned men ; nine of whom 
at liis court are called nine gems, and are said 
to have been Dhanwantari, Kshapanaka, 
Amera Siiiha, Sanku, Vetiilabbatta, Ghata- 
karpara, Kalidasa, Virahamihira, and Vira- 
rucbi. His real date is still an open question. 
" To assign him to the first year of his era 
might be quite as great a mistake as placing 
Pope Gregory XIII. in the year one of the 
Gregorian Calendar." — Eoltzmami. 

[Vide Weber's Sansk-Liter. Eng. tr., 1882, 
p. 202.] 

Bikramajit (Rajah)(i)^ 

Vide Rae Patr Das. 

A Khatre. 


Bikrami (^,l^Cj), the poetical name 

of Mir 'Abdur Eahman "VVizarat I£han, 
brother of Qasim Khan, the grandfather of 
Samsam-uddaula Shahnawaz Khan. He was 
promoted in the reign of the emperor 
'Alamgir to the Diwani of Malwa and 
Bijapiir. He was an excellent poet, and has 
left a Diwan composed in a most beautiful 




Bilal (JL), the name of the crier, 

who used to announce to the people when 
Muhammad prayed. He was an African, 
aad a freed slave of Muhammad. He died iu 
the time of Umar, the second Khalif after 
Muhammad, in the year a.d. 6il, a.h. 20. 

Bilal Kunwar {jy,i JL), the wife of 

the emperor 'Alamgir II. and mother of Shah 
'Alam, king of DL'hii. Her title was Zinat 

Bilqaini (^.^JiL), -whose proper name 

was Abu Hafs, is the author of the works 
called Mahdsin-ul-Jstildh, Sliarah Mulchdri, 
and TarancU. He died in a.d. 1402, ah. 
8U5. See Siraj-uddiu, son of Xiir-uddm, 
and Abu Hafs-al-Bakhari. 

Binai (Maulana) (^^\■^). His father 

was a respectable architect at Herat, the birth- 
place ot the poet, and his fakhallus or 
poetical name is derived from Bina or Banna, 
a builder. He is the author of a work called 
Bahiumwa - JJahroz, a story which he 
dedicated to the Sultan Ya'qiib the son of 
Uzzan Hasan. His conceit had roused the 
jealousy of Amir Alisher ; Binal tried to con- 
ciliate his favour by writing a Qasida in his 
praise, but receiving no reward, he therefore 
sub.stituted the name of Sultan Ahmad Mirza 
for that of Alisher, sajing that he would not 
give away his daughters without dowry. 
Alisher was so em-aged at this, that he 
obtained a death-warrant against him. Binai 
fled to Mawarunnahr. He was killed iu the 
massacre of Shah Isma'il in a.d. 1512, a.h. 
918. He has also left a Diwan consisting of 
6,000 verses. 

Bin Ahmad (x*.^\ ^i). Vide Abii'l 
Faiz Muhammad. 

Binakiti ( ^_:;_iLi_,0. Vide Abu 

Sulaiman Daiid. 
Binayek Rao (Raja) (<^-ljjl, ( i-^}^), 

the son of Amrit Eao, a Marhatta chief. 
He died in July, 1853, aged 50 years. 

Bin Banana (^Lj ^j), surname of 

Abu jSfasr-ibn-ul-'Aziz bin-'Amrii, an 
Arabian poet who died at Baghdad iu a.d. 
1009, A.H. 400. 

Bindraban (^jl.Aij), a Hindu author 

who flourished in the reign of the emperor 
'Alamgir, aud wrote a work called Lubhut- 
Tawarikh, a summary history of Hindiistan. 

Birbal (J_j^_-_j), or Birbal, -was a 

Brahman of the tribe of Bhat. His proper 
name was Mahes IJas. He was a man of 
very lively conversation, on which account he 
became one of the greatest personal favourites 

of the emperor Akbar, who conferred on 
him the title of llfija and the rank of 5000. 
He was also an excellent Hindi poet, aud was 
honored with the title of Kabrae or the royal 
poet. He was slain, together with MuUa 
Sheri aud other ofhcers of note, in a battle 
fought against the Ylisafzai Afghans of 
Sawad and Bijor (places between Kabul and 
Hindustan) in February, a.d. 1586, Rabi I. 
A.H. 994. Akbar was lor a long time incon- 
solable for the death of Birbal, aud as the 
Haja's body was never found, a report gained 
currency that he was still alive among the 
prisoners, aud it was so much encouraged 
by Akbar, that a long time afterwards an 
impostor appeared in his name ; and as this 
second Birbal died before he reached the 
court, Akbar again wore mourning as for his 
friend. Many of Birbal' s witty sayings are 
still current iu India. 

Birbhan, founder of the sect of 

Sadhs (Hindust. "Quakers") born near 
Narnaul at a.d. 1640. Date and place of 
death unknown. 

Bir Singh (<^-l ■ a^-~! j^i), a Eaja of 

the Bundela tribe of Eajpiits. He was the 
founder of this family, and from him the 
family of the Urcha chief is descended. The 
greater part of his dominions was wrested 
from him by Itaja Chatar Sal, who was 
the last sole possessor of the Bnndelkhand 
province. At that period its capital was 
Kalanger, but the residence of the llaja was 
Panna, celebrated for its diamond mines. 

Birgili ( Is^), surname of Mulla 

Muhammad-bin-Pir 'Ali, a celebrated Arabian 
author, who Avrote the Sharah Arbajn, 
and died A.D. 1573, a.h. 981. Heisbysome 
called Barkali. 

Birjis Qadar (.^j ^^^.p-^), -whose 

original name was Ramzan 'Ali, was son of 
Wiijid 'Ali, the ex-king of Lucknow. His 
motlier's name was Ma'shiik Begam. At the 
outbreak, he was created king with the unani- 
mous consent of the rebel soldiery in 1857 at 
the instance of Barkat Ahmad, Eisaladar, 
late 15th Regiment Irregular Cavalry, who 
subsequently fell in battle. Birjis Qadar was 
then 10 years of age. Before his accession, 
his uncle Sulaiman Shikoh was much per- 
suaded by the rebels to accept the crown, but 
refused. Birjis Qadar was driven out of 
India and took refuge with his mother at 
Katmandii in Nepal. 

Bir Singh Rao {j\ i^j^^i), other- 
wise written Nar Singh, a Bundela chief 
suborned by Sultan Salim, eldest son of 
Akbar, to slay Abul Pazl, the emperor's 
favourite minister. The Eao was hotly pur- 
sued for his crime but escaped. On Salim's 
accession he was rewarded. 
[ Vide Jahangir.] 




Bisati Samarqandi (^- j,i'^^ c^L^;), 

n poet of Snmarqrmd Avho llourislied iu tlic 
time of Sulfuu Khulil-ulliih, g-randsou of 
Amir Taimur. IIo was formerly a iviaver of 
earpc'ts, and had assumed for his poetical title 
" IlasTii," Imt he changed it afterwards to 
lii^^lli. lie was coutemporary with 'Asmat- 
ullah Lukhari. 

Bishr Haii (^.iL=-yL..O {i.e. Bishrthe 

barefoot), a Muhammadan doctor who was 
bora at JIarv, and broun-ht up at Baghdad, 
where he died ou "Wednesday the lOtli iXo- 
reniber, a.d. 840, 10th IMul.iarram, A.n. 226. 
Different datis are given of his death ; but it 
is certain that ho died scleral years before 
Ahmad Haubal, and the one giveu here 
appears to be very correct. 

Bishun Singh (Kacliwaha) ( .,.A.j 

aLu^), Eaja of Ambliai' or Ameir, 

was the son of Eum Siugh and the father of 
Jlirzu Raja Jaisingh Sewai. lie died about 
the year A.D, 1693, a.h llOo. 

Bismil (J^^j), the poetical name of 

Mirza ^Muhammad Slia'fi of Naishupur, uncle 
of Nawab Safdar Jang. 

Bismil (J^.u^.0, the poetical name of 

Amir Hasan Klian of Calcutta, who was 
living iu a.d. ISto, A.n 1261. 

Biswas Rao (,\j ^jj\^^), the eldest 

sou of Bala EeIo Pesbwa, the Jfarbatta chief. 
He was killed in the battle against Ahmad 
Shah Abdali ou the 14th January, n.s. 1761, 
togethi-r with tiadasheo Bhaii and other 
Marhatta chiefs. 

Bithal Das Gaur ( ,^f j^lo 1,-^'':^^)! 

son of Gopal Das, Raja of Hlieo|)vir. On a 
spot of 10 bhigas towards Tajganj on the 
banks of the river Jamna he had built his 
house and a garden. In the town of Shali- 
ghan he was raised to 3000, and was appointed 
Kiladar of the fort of Agra. He was after- 
wards raised to the rank of 5000, and in the 
year a.h. 1062 went home and there died. 

Bo 'Ali Qalandar ( .Jujjj ,,-!-£ _j-j). 
[r'iV/t Abu 'All Qalandar.] 

Boigne (or le Borgne) Benoit,Countde, 

a Savoyard who, after holding commissions in 
the French and Russian armies, came to India 
and entered the East India Company's ser- 
vice at JIadras, 1778. After some adventures 
he entered Siudhia'sserviceiu 1784, and trained 
four regular brigades. In 1796 he returned 
to Europe with a large fortune, much of 

nhich he devoted to public prnposes and 
charitv at Chamberi, his native town. He 
died ll'iere on the 21st June, 1830. 

\_Vide Eecn's Full of the Jfiighol Fiiipin'.] 

Bughra Khan (|_^ld- l^ij), snraame of 

Nasir-uddin Malimud, the second son of 
Sidtan Ohajas-uddin I3alban, king of Dihli. 
He was made go\ernor of Lakhnauli iu 
Bengal by his faflier, at whoso death in a.d. 
1286, he being then in that province, his 
son Kaiqubad was raised to the throne of 

ll'ide Xastr-uddm Mahmiid.] 

Bukhari (^_jj\sr). Fide Al-Bukhari. 

Bulbul (J-i-O. r«'£/«! ilirza Muhammad 
surnamed Bulbul. 

Bnrandaq. (jj,j^j), the poetical name 

of Maulana Baha-uddin. He was a native 
of Samarqand, and a sprightly satirical poet ; 
much dreaded by his eontcmporaries, ou 
aicount of his wit and caustic hunioui'. He 
was the especial panegyrist of Sultan Baiqara 
Mirza, the son of 'Uniar Shaikh and grandson 
of Amir Taimiir. When Prince Baiqara 
ascended the throne in a.d. 1394, he ordered 
that the sum of five himdred ducats (in Turki 
bish ytiz altun) should be paid to Bnrandaq. 
By a mistake of the Secretary, he received 
only two hundred ; and therefore addressed 
the following lines to the Sultan : — 
" The Shiih, the terror of his foes, 
"\Mio well the soimd of flatt'ry knows, 
The conqueror of the world, the lord 
Of nations vanqiiish'd by his sword, 
Gave, while he prais'd my verse, to me 
Eive hundred ducats as a fee. 
Great was the Sultan's generous mood, 
Great is his servant's gratitude. 
And great the sum ; but strange to say ! 
Pirhaps the words in Turkish tongue 

Convenient meaning may derive ; 
Or else my greedy ear was wrong. 
That turn'd two hundred into five." 
The Sidtan was extremely entertained at the 
readiness of the poet ; and sending for him, 
assured him that the words ' ' bish i/ilz altun" 
signified iu Turkish a thousand ducats, which 
he ordered to be immediately paid [Siihlin 
U)ticcrsity Mi'!ijri-..iiie for 1840). The year of 
Burandaq's death is uuknown. He was 
contemporary with Khwaja 'Asmat-ullah 
Eukhari who died in a.d. 1426, a.h. 829. 

Burhan (^U^.O, a poet of Mazindaran, 

came to Dehli and died there shortly after 
Kadir Shah had ]iillaged that city. He is 
the author of a Diwan. 

Burhan {^Wy), the poetical name of 

Muhammad Hasan, the author of the Persian 
Dictionary called BurhCtn Qiita. 
SJ'ide Muhammad Hasan.] 




Burlian 'Imad Shah (^li, jU.£ ^J^y), 

one of the princes of the 'Imad Shahi dynasty. 
He succeeded his father, Daria 'Imad Shah, in 
the government of Berar when hut a child. 
His minister Taufal Khan became regent ; 
and before the prince was of an age to assume 
the reigns of his empire, Taufal Khan, 
assisted by the mler of Khandesh and by the 
Nizam Shahi court, usurped the governiueut. 
He eventually confined his sovereign in irons 
in the fort of Parnala, and assumed the title 
of king. In the year a.d. 1568, a.h. 980, 
Nizam Sliah marched against Taufal Khan, 
under the pretence of releasing the imprisoned 
prince from his confinement. He took the 
fort of Gawal by capitulation, defeated Taufal 
Khan and made him prisoner with his son ; 
but instead of placing the captive monarch on 
the throne of Berar, sent him with the 
usurper and his son to be confined in one of 
the Nizam Shahi forts, where they were all 
subsequently strangled by the king's order. 
Thus the family of 'Imad Shah and that of 
the usurper Taufal Khan became extinct. 

Burhan Naqid {S:\j ^\jbji), a poet 

■who is the author of the poem entitled Dil 
Ashob, dedicated to the emperor Shah Jahan. 

BnrliaiL Nizam Shall I. (^Uij ^^bs-J 

J Li) ascended the throne of Ahmad- 

nagar in the D ocean after the death of his 
father, Ahmad Nizam Shah, in a.d. 1508, a.h. 
914, in the seventh year of his age. He 
reigned 47 lunar years and died at the age of 
54 in A.D. 1554, a.h. 961, and was buried in 
the same tomb with his father. 

Faz'in, a treatise on the law of Inheritance 
according to Shafa'i's doctrine. He died in 
a.d, 1328, A.H. 729. 

Burhan -uddin Bin Mazah-al-Bn- 

Burhan Nizam Shah II. (^Uii 

ii\j^'), brother of Murtaza JSTizam II. 

ascended the throne of Ahmadnagar in the 
Deccan on the 15th ilay, o.s. 1591, 1st 
Sha'ban, a.h. 999, after deposing and con- 
fining his own son Isma'il Nizam Shah, who 
had been placed on the throne during his 
absence at the court of the emperor Akhar. 
He was advanced in years ; but notwith- 
standing bis age, gave himself up to pleasures 
unbecoming his dignity. His reign was 
marked by an unsuccesslul war with tlie king 
of Bijapur, and a disgraceful defeat from the 
Portuguese, who had seizi.d the sea coasts of 
his dominions. He died after a reign of 
four years and sixteen days, on the 18th April, 
A.D. 1595, 18th Sha'ban, a.h. 1003, in the 
40th year of the reign of Akhar, and was 
succeeded by his son Ibrahim Nizam Shah. 
Maulana Zahhri dedicated his Saqinama to 
Burhan Nizam Shah, containing nearly 4,000 

Burhan-uddin Abu Is-haq.-al-Fazari 

(,ij.^~'\ j>\ i^.jJl ^^/), commonly 

called Ibn-Firkah, author of the FarSez-al- 

khari (^-JJ>. 


.Jb._j), author of 

the ZiiIdnral-id-Fatdica, sometimes called 
Za'A'irat id-Burhania, and of the Jlulicot-al- 

Burhan-uddin All Bin Abu-Bakr-al- 
Marghinani (Shaikh) ( .,JwV,S1 ^'^y 
Y'^ ^^^^1 author of the Ilidaya 

Sharah Badli/a, or the Lawijer's Guide, u. 
very celebrated book of Muhammadan Juris- 
prudence, which during the period tliat Mr, 
Hastings governed the British dominions in 
India, was bv his orders most ably translated 
by Charles Hamilton, Esq., and published in 
London, in the year a.d. 1791. Barhan- 
uddiu was born at JIarghiuan, in Transoxania 
in A.D. 1135, A.H. 629, and died in a.d. 
1197, A.H. 593. The Sulhja, which is a 
commentary on the Badaya-al-JIabtada, is 
the most celebrated law treatise according to 
the doctrines of Abu Hanifa, and his disciples 
Abu Yusaf and the Imam Muhammad. A 
Persian version of the Hiddya was made by 
Maulwi Ghulam Yehia Khan and others and 
published at Calcutta in 1807. He also 
wrote a work on inheritance entitled the 
Faraez-ul- Usmdni, which has been illustrated 
by several comments. 

Burhan-uddin G-harib (Shah or 

Shaikh) (iUb —r'lj^ ^'""^^ u^-V^' 
a celebrated Musalman saint much venerated 
in the Deccan. He died in a.d. 1331, a.h. 
731, and his tomb is at Bn'hanpur in Daula- 
tabad, and is resorted to in a pilgrimage by 
the JIuhamraadans. He was a disciple of 
Shaikh Nizam-uddin Aulia, who died in a.d. 
1325, a.h. 725, 

Burhan-uddin Haidar Bin Muham- 

mad-al-Hirwi ( ..j ^j-JjJi \J^^j-^. 

SyS^s.-'*), author of a commentary on 

the Sirajia of Sajawandl. He cUed in a.d. 
1426, A.H. 830. 

Burhan-uddin Ihrahim Bin All Bin 
Farhun ( Vsl j (»--a>^_;J^ ^l^^ u''-*^^ 

^t^tji ^j), chief biographer of the 

Miiliki lawyers, and author of the Dihuj-id- 
Muzahhib. lie died in a.d. 1396, a.h. 799. 

Burhan-uddin (Qazi) (^.j,i,Jl ^.n^j-i 

^\i), Lord of the city of Sivas in 
Cappadocia or Caramcnia, who died in a.d. 
1395, a.h. 798. After his death Baj'ezid I. 
Sultan of the Tm-ks, took possession of his 




Burhan-uddin Malimud Bin Alimad 

nufhor of a MuhU, ivliich, llimif^h known in 
Indiii, is not so S'l'^'itly estci'incd as the 
]\[iiJnt-as-K<irakhxK The work of Burhan- 
uddiu is commonly known as the Jlit/iU-al- 

Bnrlian - uddin Muhammad Baqir 

(Mir) {j^ ^\i A^.sr» ^^jJl ^^^H 

^'J1, Qazi of Ciashan. He wrote 

a DiAVfin containing abont 6,000 verses. He 
waslivingahout the year A.D. 1585, a.h. 993. 

Burhan-uddin (Shaikh) (.^jaII ^Jb^J 
^""~' ), or Sayyad. VidelvvXo Alam. 

Burhan-uddin (Sayyad) ( ,ja!1 .,lfcj 

Ji--j), surnamed Muhaqqiq. He died 

in the year a d. 1247, a.h. 645, and was 
huried at C;usarea. 

Burhan - ul - Mulk Sa'adat Khan 
(^U. ^'jU-= i_<U\ J^y)- Vi^e 
Sa'adat Khan, and Mirza Nasir. 

Burzuj (^y.j), a Persian physician 

who lived under Nanshirwan the Just, He 
was sent hy that prince to India to procure a 
copy of the book called the TFisdmn of all 
Ages ; which he afterwards translated into 
I'ersian. That which now exists is greatly 
altered from the original version. 

Bus-haq. (jL«:~=^0, the abbreviated 
poetical name of Abu Is-haq Atma', which see. 

Buzarjimeh.r(^,^:s- .jj), the celebrated 

minister of Nanshirwan the Just, king of 
Persia. He is said to have imported from 
India the game of Chess and the Fables of 
rilpay. Such has been the fame of his 
wisdom and virtues, that the Christians claim 
him as a believer in the gospel ; and the 
Muhammadans revere him as a premature 
Musalman. He lived to a great age, and 
died in the time of Hurmuz III. son and 
successor of Nanshirwan the Just, between 
the years a.d. 580 and 590. 

Buzarjmehr Qummi (^^ j^^^jy), 

a celebrated Persian Prosodian of Qumm, who 
lived before the time of Saifi, the author of 
the Vrilz Saijl. 

Buzurg Khanam ( Jl^ i fj"/), the 

daughter of Saif Hian, by Malika Banc 
Begam, the daughter of Asaf Klian Wazir, 
and wife of Zafar Khan, a nobleman of the 
reign of the emperor 'Alamgir. She died 
before her husband in the month of May, 
A.D. 1659, Shawwal, a.h. 1069. 

Buzurg Umaid Khan (j.-»-^l *— ?1H 

,1.;^), son of Shaista Khan, an 

officer of rank in the time of the emperor 
Alamgir. At the time of his death, which 
took place in a.d. 1694, a.h. 1105, he was 
governor of Behar. 

Buzurg Umaid {s^^\ < f^j), or Kaia 

Buzurg Umaid, one of the Ismailis, who 
succeeded Hasan Sahbah, the Old Man of 
the Mountains, in Jime, a.d. 1124, Eabi II. 
a.h. 618, and reigned 24 years. After his 
death his son Kaia Muhammad succeeded 
him and reigned 25 years. 



Caragossa. Vide Qara Ghuz. 

Chaghtai Khan ifA.-^ ''UjL=-), or 

Qaan, the most pious and accomplished of all 
the sons of Changez Khan ; and although he 
succeeded, by the i\ill of his father, to the 
kingdoms of Transoxiana, Balkh, Badakhshan, 
and Kashghar in a.d. 1227, a.h. 624, he 
governed these coimtries by deputies, and 
remained himself with his eldest brother, 
Oqta Qaan, by whom he was regarded with 
the reverence which a pupil gives to his 
master. He died seven mouths before his 
brother in the month of June, a.d. 1241, 
Zi-Ua'da, a.h. 638. Qarachar Nawian, who 
was the iifth ancestor of Amir Taimiir, was 
one of his Amirs, and, at length, captain 
general of all his forces. The djmasty that 
founded the so-called " Moghul, or Mughol 
Empire" of India was namedafter Chaghtai. 
[ Vide Keene"s Turks in India. Chap, i.] 

Cliaglita Sultan (yLki.^ ^-^^f-). a 
handsome young man of the tribe of the 
Mughols and favourite of the emperor Babar 
Shah. He died at Kabul in a.d. 1546, a.h. 

Chait Singh (iXi_^ (.::^.__=-), Eaja, 

son of Balwant Singh, zamindar of Banaras. 
He succeeded his father in a.d. 1770. In 
August, 1781, demands were made upon him, 
by the Governor -General, for additional tribute 
to be paid to the Company, as the sovereign 
power now requiring assistance in its exigency. 
The E,aja declined, pleading willingness, but 
inability. He was arrested by Mr. Hastings' 
order, at Banaras ; a revolt took place in 
his behalf on the 20th August ; nearly two 
companies of Sepoys and their officers were 
destroyed, — and the Eaja escaped in the con- 
fusion. The Governor -General immediately 
assumed control of the province ; and troops 
were called in to oppose the Raja, who now 
headed the numbers flocking to his support. 
He was defeated at Latifpiir, in Bundelkhand. 
where he had taken refuge ; and lastly, his 
stronghold of Bijaigurh was seized, and his 
family plundered by a force under Major 
Popham. His post was declared vacant, and 
the zamindari bestowed on the next heir, a 
nephew of the Raja, a minor. After these 
transactions at Banaras, the Governor-General 
proceeded to Audh, to obtain an adjustment 
of the heavy debts due to the Company by 
the Wazir 'Asaf-ud-daula. The territories 
of the Begams (one, the mother of Shuja'-ud- 
daula, the late Nawab — the other, the mother 


of the Wazlr) were seized, on a charge of 
aiding the insurrection of Chait Singh. The 
Eaja found an asylum in GwaUar for 29 
years, and died there on the 29th March, a.d. 
1810. See Balwant Singh. His estates, 
with title of Raja, were presented to his 
nephew Babii Muhip Narain, grandson of 
Raja Balwant Singh. 

[Vide Warren Hastings ; by Sir A. 
Lyall, K.C.B.] 

Chand (j,3l^), or Chand, called also 

Trikala, from his supposed prophetic spirit, 
was a celebrated Hindi! poet or bard. He 
flourished towards the close of the twelfth 
century of the Christian era. He may be 
called the poet laui-eate of Prithiraj, the 
Chauhan emperor of Dehli who, in his last 
battle with Shahab-uddiu Gliori, was taken 
prisoner and conveyed to Grhazni, where his 
bard, Chand, followed him. Both perished 
by their own hands, after the death of their 
implacable foe, Shahab-uddin. Like the 
Greek bard, Homer, countries and cities have 
contended for the honour of having been the 
place of birth of this the most popular poet 
of the Hindiis. Dehli, Qauauj, Mahoba, 
and the Panjab, assert their respective claims, 
but his own testimony is decisive, whence it 
appears that he was a native of Lahore. In 
bis Prithiraj Chaiihan Rnsa, when enumerat- 
ing some of the heroes, friends and partizans 
of his hero, he says, " jSfiddar was bom in 
Qanauj, Siluk and Jait, the father and son, 
at Abii ; in Mundava the Parihar, and in 
Kurrik Kangra the Haoli Eao, in Nagor, 
Balbhaddar, and Chand, the bard, at Lahore." 

Chand Saudagar ( S'b^^ J>jW), a 

Bangali merchant. 
Chand (jjl^). Vide Teik Chand. 

Chanda Kunwar (.._:»_$' lj,_i_r!^), 

also called Jindau Kour ; the wife of Maha- 
raja Eanjit Singh, of Lahore, and mother 
of Maharaja Dilip Singh {q.v.). She died 
at Kensington, 1863. 

[F«fe Griflin's i?«n7?i! Singh, "Rulers of 
India," also Lady Login's Sir John Login 
and Duleep Singh.'\ 

Chanda (LiL! aX^ \s.:^), also called 

Mah-liqa, a dancing girl, or queen of Haidara- 
bad, was a poetess of much taste and merit. 
She is the author of a Diwan, which was 
revised by Sher Muhammad Khan Iman. In 
the year a.d. 1799, in the midst of a dance, in 




which she horc the chief port, slie presented 
a Britisli otfieer with :i copy of her poems, 
accoaipaniedwith the followinp; complimoutiirv 
observations, in the form of the usual gazal : — 
Since my heart drank from the cup of a 

fascinating' eye, 
I wonder beside myself, like one whom wine 

Thy searching glances leave nothing unseated ; 
Thy face, bright as flame, consumes my heart. 
Thou soughtest u, Nazur : I offer thee my 

head ; 
Albeit thy heart is not unveiled to me. 
My eyes fixed on thy lineaments— emotion 

agitates my soul. 
Fresh excitement beats impatient in my heart. 
All that Clianda asks is, that, in either world, 
Thou wouldst preserve the ashes of her heart 

l)y thy side. 
[Garciu de Tassin informs us that there is a 
copy of her Diwan in the East India House 
Librarj', which she herself presented to 
Captain Malcolm on the 1st October, a.d. 




of Husain Dost Khan, a'relation of Dost 'Ali 
Khan, Nawab of Arcot, whose daughter he 
had married. He had made his way to the 
highest oftiees of the government by the services 
of his sword, and was esteemed the ablest 
soldier that had of late years appeared in the 
Carnatie. He cajoled the queen of Trichi- 
nopoly, and got possession of the city in a.d. 
1736. He was taken prisoner by the 
Mahrattas on the 26th March, a.d. 1741, 
and imprisoned in the fort of Sitara, but was 
released by the intervention of Dupleix in 
1748, and appointed jN'awab of the Carnatie by 
Muzaffar Jang. He was put to death in 
A.D. 1752, 1st Sha'ban, a.h. 1165, by the 
Mahrattas, and his head sent to JIuhammad 
'All Khan, made xv'iiwab of Arcot by the 
English, who reigned for over 40 years. 

Cliandar Blian ( .^Jb 

^^.K^. UM,'f ; 



a Brahman of Patiala, well-versed in the 
Persian langaiage,was employed as a Munshi 
in the service of the prince I)ara Shikoh, the 
eldest son of the emperor Shah Jahan. He 
is the author of several Persian works, i.e., 
Guldnsta, Tuhfat-vl- Anwar , Tuhfat-ul- 
Fits-ha, Majiiu(^-^d-I'uqru, one entitled 
C'lidr Chnimiii, another called Mniishut Ilriih- 
man being a collection of his own letters 
written to different persons, and also of a 
Diwan in which he uses the title of Brahman 
for his poetical name. After the tragical 
death of his employer, he retired to Banaras 
where he died in the year a.d. 1662, a.h. 
1073. He had also built a house at Agra, of 
which no traces now remain. 

Chand Bibi (Sultana) ( ^ -j jkjL=^) 

was the daughter of Husain Nizam Shah I. 
of Ahmadnagar in the Deccau, sister to 
Murtaza Xizam Shah, and wife of 'All 'Adil 
Shah I. of Bijapiir. After the death of her 
husband in a.d. 1580, a.h. 98^, she had 
been queen and dowager-regent of the neigh- 

bouring kingdom of Bijapiir during the 
minority of her nephew Ibrahim 'Adil 
Shah II. and was one of the most able 
politicians of her day. The Mughols uuder 
prince Miu'ad, the son of Akbar, proceeded 
in November, a.d. 1695, Eabi' II. a.h. 1004, 
and besieged Ahmadnagar for some months, 
while Chand Sultana defended the place with 
masculine resolution. At the same time, 
there being a scarcity of provisions in the 
Mughol camp, the prince and lUuin-Klianan 
thought it advisable to enter into a treaty 
with the besieged. It was stipulated by 
Chand Blbi that the prince should keep 
possession of Berar, and that Ahmadnagar 
and its dependencies, should remain with her 
in the name of Bahadur, the grandson of 
Bm-han Shah. She was put to death by a 
faction in the year a.d. 1599, a.h. 1008. 

Chandragupta Qc^.x.^, called by 

the Greeks Sandracottus. He seized the 
kingdom of Magadha, after the massacre of 
the siu-yiyors of the Naida dynasty, whose 
capital was the celebrated city Patiilipntra, 
called by the Greeks Palibotlira. Married a 
Greek Princess, daughter of Seleucus Nikator, 
and was grandfather to Asoka (?.».). 

ChanduLal {^\. J^!^Ax=^), a Hindu, 

who was appointed Diwan to the Niziim 
of Haidarabad in a.d. 1808. His poetical 
name is Shadan. He died in the year a.d. 

Changez Khan (^^L>- 

called by us Gengis, Jengis, and Zingis, 
suxnamed Tamiijin, was the son of Yesuki 
a IChan or chief of the tribe of Mu gh ols. 
He was bor-n in a.d. 1154, a.h. 549, and at 
the age of 13 he began to reign, but the 
conspiracies of his subjects obliged him to fly 
for safety to Avant Khan, a Tartar prince, 
whom he supported on his throne, and whose 
daughter he married. These ties were not 
binding. Avant Khfiu joined against Changez, 
who took signal vengeance on his enemies, 
and after almost unexampled vicissitudes he 
obtained, at the age of 49, a complete victory 
over all those who had endeavoiu'ed to effect 
his ruin, and received from the Khans of 
Tartary the title of Khaqan in a.d. 1206, 
A.H. 602, and was declared emperor of 
Tartary. His capital was Qaraqurm. In 
the space of 22 years he concjuered Corea, 
Cathay (part of China) and the noblest 
provinces of Asia, and became as renowned a 
conqueror as jVlexander the Great. He died 
on Sunday the 29th August, a.d. 1227, 
Eamazan, a.h. 624, aged 75 lunar years, 
leaving his dominions (which extended 1800 
leagues from east to west, and 1000 from 
north to south) properly divided among his 
four sons, Jiiji, Oqtai, Chaghtai and Tiili 

List of the Mughol emperors of Tartary. 
Changez K_han, 1206. 
Tiili Khan, his sou, 1227. 
Oqtai, brother of Tiili, 1241. 
Turkina Kliiitun, his wife, regent for 4 years. 

-), also 




Kayiik Khan, son of Oqtai, 1246. 
Ogulgan-mish, his wife, regent on his death, 

Mangi Khan, son of Tiili Klian, 125S, died 

After the death of Mangu, the empire of the 

Mughals was divided into different 

branches, in Cliina, Persia, in Qapchaq, ete. 
Khnhlai Ivhau, the brother of Maugu Khan, 

succeeded in Cliina, and founded the Yuen 

dynasty, 1260. 
Chaghtai Khan, son of Changez Khan, 

founded the Chaghtai branch in Traus- 

oxiana, 1240. 
Juj'i, son of Changez Khan, founded the 

Qapchaq dynasty, 1226. 

\_Vide Hal&kvL Kjran, Khublai Khan, etc.] 

Char Bagli (cLj jl-=-), name of a 

garden constructed by the emperor Babar on 
the bank of the Jamna, which it is said was 
also called Hasht Bahisht ; it bore all sorts 
of fruits ; no traces of this famous garden are 
left now. 

Chatrapati Appa SaMb (h\ j:j\;is-- 

i_-o»-l-»), Eaja of Sitae, who died 
in, or a year before, a.d. 1874, whose adopted 
son was Eaja Ram. 

Chatr Sal ( JLj .-s^), or, according 

to the author of the Mdsir-ul-XTmrd, 
Satar Sal, was the son of Chait Singh, chief 
of the Bundelas or inhabitants of Bundel- 
kband, of which proyince he was Eaja. To 
secure the independence of his posterity 
against the encroaching power of the 
Marhatfas, he entered into a close alliance 
with the Peshwa Baji Rao I. about the year 
A.D. 1733, A.H. 1146, and at his demise he 
bequeathed him a third of his dominions, 
under an express stipulation that his 
posterity should be protected by the Peshwa 
and his heirs. Chatr Sal died a.d. 1735, 
leaving two sons, Hirde Sah and Jagat Eaj . 
The division of the dominions of Eundel- 
khand, bequeathed to the Peshwa, comprised 
the Mahals of Kalpi, Sirounj, Kunch, Garra 
Kota, and Hirdainagar. Gangadhar Bala 
was nominated by the Peshwa as his naib to 
superintend the collections. Afterwards the 
principal leaders in Bundelkhand having 
fallen in battles, and the ruin of the country 
having been completed by the subsequent 
conquest of the Eaja of Panna by Nana 
Arjiin, the grandson of Bakhat Singh, a 
descendant of Chatr Sal, it hence became 
the object of Nana Famawis, the Piina 
minister, notwithstanding the stipulations by 
which the former Peshwa obtained from 
Chatr Sal one-third of his dominions, to 
annex the whole of Bundelkhand to the 
Marhatta States. For this purpose he gave 
the investiture of it to 'Ali Bahadur, son of 
Shamsher Bahadur, an iUeritimate son of the 
Peshwa Baji Rao, whose descendants became 
Nawabs of Banda. 

[ Vide Muhammad Khan Bangash.] 

Chatur Mahal (J^r^ j^-^")' °^s o^ 

the Begams of the ex-king of Oudh. One 
Qurban 'Ali, who had held a subordinate 
position, and was latterly a Sharistadar under 
the British Government, suddenly became a 
rich man by man-ying her. He formed the 
acquaintance of this yoimg and beautiful 
woman, and they resolved to be married. 
But the Begara did not wish the union with 
a man so inferior to herself to take place 
where she was known, and so obtained the 
permission of the Chief Commissioner to 
leave Oudh on the pretence of making a 
pilgrimage to Mecca. Once clear of Lucknow, 
she was joined by Qm'ban 'Ali, and made for 
his home at Bijnaur in Bundelkhand. 

Chimnaji 'Apa (LjI ^s-Ij..^.;:-), the 

younger son of the Mahratta chief Eagliunath 
Eao (Eaghoba) was furtively raised to the 
masuad at Puna some time after the death 
of Madho Eao II. the son of Narayan Rayo 
II. on the 26th May, a.d. 1796; hut was 
deposed afterwards, and succeeded by his elder 
brother Baji Eao II. who was pubhcly pro- 
claimed on the 4th December following. 

Chin Qalich Khan ( ..U 
Fide QuUch Khan. 

Chin Qalich Khan {^\i- ^Vi i^jr^X 

former name of Nizam -ul-Mulk Asaf Jah 

Churaman ( _<ij^~^), an enterprising 

Jat who having enriched himself by plun- 
dering the baggage of the emperor 'Alamgir's 
army on his last march to the Deccan, 
built the fortress of Bhartpur, fom'teen kos 
from Agra, with part of the spoil, and 
became the chief of that tribe. The present 
Rajas of Bhartpur are his descendants. He 
was killed by the Imperial army in the battle 
which took place between the emperor 
Muhammad Shah and Qutb-ul-Mulk Saj'yad 
'Abd-ullah Klian in November, a.d. 1720, 
Muharram, a.h. 1133. His son Badan 
Singh succeeded him. 

Thefollowinc/ is a list of the Riijas of 
Bhartpur : — 
Churaman Jat. 

Badan Singh, son of Churaman. 
Siirajmal Jat, the son of Badan Singh. 
Jawahir Singh, the son of Siirajmal. 
Eao Eatan Singh, brother of Jawahir Singh. 
Kehi'i Singh, the son of Eatan Singh. 
Nawal Singh, the brother of Eatan Singh. 
Ranjit Singh, the nephew of Nawal Singh 

and sou of Kehri Singh. 
Eandhir Singh, the son of Ranjit Singh. 
Baldeo Singh, the brother of Randhir Singh. 
Balwant Singh, the son of Baldeo Singh. 
Jaswant Singh, the son of Balwant Singh and 

present Eaja of Bhartpiir. 




Dabir-ud-daula Amin-ul-Mulk (Na- 

■wab)(t_jlJ I $^L*!\ ^^-^1 A!_jj>n^-jj), 

title of Hiwaja Farid-uddm Ahmad Khan 
Bahadur Muslah Jaug, the maternal grand- 
father of Sayyid Ahmad Klian, Muusif of 
Dehli. "Whilst the British were in Bengal, 
and the "Wakil of the king of Persia was 
killed in Bomhay in an affray, it hecame 
urgent for the British Government to send 
a Wakll on deputation to Persia. Dahir-ud- 
daula was selected for this high office. On 
Iris return, after fully completing the trust, 
he was appointed a full Political Agent at 
Ara. After this, in latter times, he held the 
office of Prime Minister to Akhar Shah II. 

DagMstani (,j-JL: 

■-^S), a poet of 

Daghistan in Persia, who is the author of a 
Persian work called Eaijac-ush-Shu'ara. 
[Fi* Walih.] 

Dahan (^Ulj), whose proper name is 

Abii Muhammad Sa'Id, son of Muharik, hotter 
known as Ihn Dahan-al-Baghdadi, was an 
eminent Arabic grammarian and an excellent 
poet. He died in a.d. 1173, a.h. 669. 

Dai ( 'rlj), whose full name is Nizam- 

uddin Muhammad Dai', was a disciple of 
Shah Na'mat-uUah Wali, and is the author 
of a Diwau which he completed in the year 
A.D. 1460, A.H. 865. 

Daqiqi ( JLjj), a famous poet at the 

court of Amir N&h II. son of Amir Mansiir 
Samani, by whose request he had commenced 
to write the Shall Nama, but before he could 
finish a thousand verses of the story of 
Gashtasp, he was slain by one of his slaves. 
The year of his death is not known, hut this 
event appears to have taken place dm-ing the 
reign of his royal master, who reigned in 
Kliurasan twenty years, and died in a.d. 997, 
A.H. 387. His proper name, according to 
the Aitashkada, was Mansiir bin-Ahmad. 

Dalpat i^j^^S), Raja of Bhojpur near 

Buxar, was defeated and imprisoned, and when 
he was at length set at liberty by Akhar, on 
payment of an enormous sum, he again 
rebelled under Jahangir, till Bhojpiir was 
sacked, and his successor Eaja Partab was 
executed by Shah Jahan, whilst the Eani 
was forced to marry a Muhammadan courtier. 

Dalpat Sah (iLj i.j:.^l>), the husband 

of Eani DurgawatI, which see. 

Damad (jL<lj), poetical name of Mu- 
hammad Baqir, which see. 

Damaji ( ^U\j), the first Gaeqwar 
of Baroda. His successor was Pelaji. 

Damishq.! ( JLji>.-»j), an illustrious 

Persian poet, named Muhammad Damishqi, 
who flourished in the time of Fazl, the son 
of Ahia or Tahia, the Barmecide or Barmaki. 

Danial Mirza (Sultan) (^j^-^ Jl-Jlj 


llal^), the third son of the emperor 

Akbar. He was born at Ajmir on Wednes- 
day the 10th September, a.d. 1572, and 
received the name of Danial on account of 
his having been horn in the house of a 
celebrated Darwesh named Shaikh Danial. 
His mother was a daughter of Eaja Bihari 
Mai Kachhwaha. After the death of his 
brother, prince Sultan Murad, he was sent 
to the Deccan by his father, accompanied by 
a well appointed army, with orders to occupy 
all the Nizam Shahi territories. Ahmadnagar 
was taken in the beginning of the year a.h. 
1009, or A.D. 1600; Sultan Danial died on 
the 8th April, a.d. 1605, 1st Zil-hijja, a.h. 
1013, in the city of Burhanpiir, aged 33 years 
and some months, owing to excess in drinking. 
His death and the circumstances connected 
with it so much affected the king his father, 
who was in a declining state of health, that 
he became every day worse, and died not long 
after. From the chronogram it would seem 
that the prince Danial died in the year a.h. 
1012, or A.D. 1604, a year and six months 
before his father. 

Danish (^jlj), poetical name of Mir 
Eazi who died in a.d. 1665, a.h. 1076. 

Danishmand Khan (^Ui- S:^!Li\S), 

whose proper name was Muhammad ShafT or 
Mulla Shafi, was a Persian merchant who 
came to Slirat about the year a.d. 1646, a.h. 
1056, from which place he was sent for by 
the empuror Shah Jahan. He was soon 
after raised to the mansab of 3000 and 




paymastership of the army, with the title of 
Danishmand Klian. In the reign of 
'Alamgir he was honored with the mansah 
of 4000, and after some time to that of 5000, 
and appointed governor of Shah Jahanabad, 
where he died in the month of July, a.d. 1670, 
10th Eabi I. A.H. 1081. He used to speak 
much about the Christian religion. Bernier, 
the French Traveller, who accompanied 
'Alamgir to Kashmir in 1664, was attached 
to his smte, and has mentioned him in his 

Danislimaiid Khan (^\s~. J.i-*jUlj), 

whose original name was Mirza Muhammad, 
and poetical, Ali, was a native of Shiraz. In 
the year a.d. 1693, he was honored with the 
title of Na'mat Khan, and the superinten- 
dence of the royal kitchen by the emperor 
'Alamgir. After the death of that monarch, 
the title of Nawab Danishmand Khan Ali 
was conferred on him by Bahadur Shah, by 
whose order he had commenced writing a 
Shahnama or history of the reign of that 
emperor, but died soon after in the year a.d. 
1708, A.H. 1120. 

[ Vide Na'mat Khan All.] 

Dara or Darab II. (<__)1 .Ij U^^X the 

eighth king of the second or Kaianian 
dynasty of the kings of Persia, was the son 
of Queen Humai, whom he succeeded on the 
Persian throne. His reign was distinguished 
by several wars ; particularly one against 
Philip of Macedon. He reigned 12 years, and 
was succeeded by his son Dara or Darab II. 

Dara or Darab III. (t 

.^l^ljl^lj) is the 

celebrated Darius Codomanus of the Greeks. 
He succeeded his father Dara II. as king of 
Persia, and was slain in battle against Alex- 
ander the Great in the year e.g. 331. He 
was the ninth and last king of the 2nd or 
Kaianian dynasty of the kings of Persia. 
[ Vide Achaemenes.] 

Dara BakM (Mirza) (1 : _^ l::. 

son of Bahadiir Shah, the ex-king of Dehli. 
His poetical title is Dara, and he is the 
author of a Diwan. 

Darab Beg(Mirza) {\\y4LjCjL-j\j\j)). 

Vide Joya. 

Darab Ktan (^Iri- <_j|^1l>,) commonly 

called Mirza Darab, was the second son of 
Abdul Eahim Klian, Khan Khanan. After 
the death of his eldest brother Shahnawaz 
Khan in a.d. 1618, a.h. 1027, he was 
honored with the rank of 5000 by the 
emperor Jahangir and was appointed 
governor of Berar and Ahmadnagar in the 
Deccan. He was also governor of Bengal 
for some time, and on his return to the 
Deccan the emperor, being displeased with 

him on some account, ordered Mahabat Khan 
to strike off his head, which he did, and 
sent it to the king. This circumstance took 
place A.D. 1625, a.h. 1034. 

Darab Khan ((^Ui- i^\j\ji), son of 

Mukhtar Khan Subzwarl, a nobleman in the 
service of the emperor 'Alamgir, He died 
ou the 24th June, a.d. 1679, 25th Jumada I. 
A.H. 1090. 

Dara Shikoh {nj^J^ l^lj), the eldest 

and favom-ite son of the emperor Shah Jahan, 
was born on the 20th March, o.s. 1616, 29th 
Safar, a.h. 1024. His mother, Mumtaz 
Mahal (». Arjumand), was the daughter of 
'Asaf Khan, wazir, the brother of Niir 
Jahan Begam. In the 20th year of his age, 
i.e., in the year a.d. 1633, a.h. 1043, he 
was married to the princess Nadira, the 
daughter of his uncle Sultan Parwez, by 
whom he had two sons, viz., Sulaiman 
Shikoh and Sipahr Shikoh. In a.d. 1658, 
during the illness of his father, a great battle 
took place between him and his brother 
Aurangzib 'Alamgir for the tlirone, in which 
Dara being defeated, was at last obliged to 
fly towards Sindh, where he was captured by 
the chief of that country and brought to the 
presence of Aurangzib, loaded with chains, 
on a sorry elephant without housings ; was 
exposed through all the principal places and 
then led ofl: to a prison in old Dehli, where 
after a few days, in the night of the 29th 
August, o.s. 1659, 21st Zil-hijja, a.h. 1069, 
he was murdered by the order of Am-angzib ; 
his body exhibited next morning to the 
populace on an elephant, and his head cut oii 
and carried to the emperor, who ordered it 
to be placed on a platter, and to be wiped 
and washed in his presence. When he had 
satisfied himself that it was the real head of 
Dara, he began to weep, and with many 
expressions of sorrow directed it with its 
corpse to be interred in the tomb of the 
emperor Humayiin. Sipahr Shikoh, his son, 
who was also taken captive and brought with 
his father, was sent away in confinement to 
Gwaliar. Sulaiman Shikoh, his eldest son, 
who, after the defeat of his father had taken 
refuge in Srinagar for some time, was 
subsequently, in a.d. 1670, a.h. 1071, given 
up by the Eaja of that place to the officers of 
Aurangzib and conveyed to Dehli. He was 
then sent to Gwaliar, where he and his 
iDrother Sipahr Shikoh both died within a 
short space. Dara Shikoh is the author of 
the work called Safinat-ul-Atilia, an abridg- 
ment of the Life of Muhammad, with a 
circumstantial detail of his wives, children, 
and companions, etc., also of a work entitled 
Majma' -ul- Bahrain {i.e., the imiting of 
both seas), in which he endeavours to 
reconcile the Brahman religion with the 
Muhammadan, citing passages from the 
Quran to prove the several points. In 1656 
he likewise, with the same intent, caused a 
Persian translation to be made by the 
Brahmans of Banaras, of the Apnikhat, a 
work in the Sanskrit language, of which the 




title sisnifies " the word that is not to be said ;" 
meiining the secret that is not to be revealed. 
This book he named Sarr-i-Jsrdr, or Stcn't 
of Secrets ; but his enemies took adyanta<;:e 
of it to tradnce him in the esteem of bis 
father's ]\ruhammadau soldiers, and to 
stigmatize him with the epithets of Kafir 
and llafizi (unhelieviT and blasphemer), and 
finally effected his ruin ; for Auraunzih his 
brother made a ])retence of that, and con- 
sequently had all his bigoted iluhammadans 
to join him. Auquetil du Perron has given 
a translation of this work, in two large 
volumes in quarto, on which a very good 
critique may be found in the Second Number 
of the Ediiihiirgh Rci'inp. There is also a 
copy of the Persian version of this work in 
the British Jliiseiim, with a Mi^. translation, 
made by N. B. Ilalbed. The authorship of 
other works has been ascribed to this prince. 
His poetical name was Qadiri. Catrou says 
that Dara died a Christian. 
ITiir/is in India. Chap. Y.] 

Dard (Mir) {^^ .j) is the poetical 

name of Kliwaja Muhammad Mir of Dehli, 
a son of Khwiija Nilsir who was one of the 
greatest Shaikhs of the age. Dard was the 
greatest poet of his time. He was formerly 
in the army, but he gave up that profession 
on the advice of his father and led the life 
of a devotee. "When during the fall of Dehli 
everybody fled from the city, Dard remained 
in poverty contented with his lot. He was a 
Siifi and a good singer. A crowd of musicians 
used to assemble at his house on the 22nd of 
every month. Some biographers say that 
be was a cUsciple of Shah Gulshan, meaning 
Sliaikh Sa'd-nllah. Besides a Diwan in 
Persian and one in Rckhta, he has written a 
treatise on Siiflism called Risala IVdridat, 
He died on Thursday the 3rd January, a.d. 
1785, 24th Safar, a.h. 1199. 

List of his Works. 

All Nala-wa-Dard. 
All Sard. 
Dard Dil. 

Diwan in Persian. 
Diwan in Urdii. 

Dardmand {s^^^.S), poetical name 

of Muhammad Taqih of Dehli, who was a 
pupil of Mirza Jan Janan Jlazhar, and 
the author of a Saqinama and of a Diwan. 
He died at Murshidiibad in the year a.d. 
1762, A.H. 1176. 

Daria Ilimad Shall (il^ l>1^.c Vj^), 

the son of 'Ala-uddin 'Imad Shah, whom he 
succeeded on the throne of Berar in the 
Deccan about the year a.d. 1532, a.h. 939. 
In A.D. 1543, A.H. 950, he gave his sister 
Eabia' Sultana in marriage to Ibrahim 'Adil 
Shah, and the nuptials were celebrated with 
royal magnificence. In a.d. 1558, a.h. 
966, he ijavB his daughter in marriage to 
Husaiu Nizam Shah, and reigned in great 
tranquility with all the other kings of the 
Deccan until his death, when he was 
succeeded by his son Burhau 'Imad Shah. 

Daria Khan Rohela {d\^i,,, i^lri- ^ijS), 

a nobleman in the service of prince Shah 
Jaliau, who, on his accession to the throne, 
raised him to the rank of 50(i0. He afterwards 
joined the rebel Ifhan Jahan Lodi. In a 
battle which took place between him and 
Raja Bikarmajit Buudela, son of Eaja 
Chhajjar Singh, he was killed, together with 
one of his sons and 400 Afghans, a.d. 1630, 
A.H. 1040. His head was sent to the 

Daric[ntni ( i.k.ijlo). Vide AbQ'l 
Husain 'Ali-bin-'Umr. 

Darimi ( ^.\S), the son of Abdul 

Eahman of Samarqand, is the author of the 
work called Miisnad JJarim'i. He died in the 
year a.d. 869, a.h. 256. He is also called 
by some authors Abii Muhammad 'Abd- 

Darki (^^ ,5, j), of (Jumm in Persia, 

was a contemporary of Shah 'Abbas. He 
died in the Deccan and left a Persian Diwan. 

Dasht Baiazi { J>\.^^ L::^-i)j). Vide 
Wali of Dasht Bayaz. 

Dastam Khan (|jlri- *'.:— :ti), son of 

Eustam Khan Turkistani, was an Amir of 
3000 in the service of the emperor Akbar. 
He died in a.d. 1580, a.h. 988, of his 
wounds which he had received in battle 
against the three nephews of Eaja Bihari 
Mai, who had rebelled against the emperor 
and were also killed. 

Data Ram Brahman ( ..-♦.Jb^ j aU lj''j), 

a poet who wrote beautiful Persian verses. 

Dattaji Sindhia (<Ui.ju^ ^^p-Uj), 

sou of Eanaji and brother of Jaiapa Sindhia, 
a Mahratta chief who had a cavalry of 80,000 
horse under him, and was slain in battle 
against Ahmad Shah Abdali in the month of 
January, a.d. 1760, Jumada II. a.h. 1173, 
a year before the death of Bhaii, the famous 
Mahratta chief. 

[ Vide Eanaji Sindhia. J 


Daud Bidari (MuUa) (|_^.j,.,o ukh 

a native of Bidar in the Deccan. When 
twelve years of age, he held the office of page 
and seal-bearer to Sultan Muhammad Shah 
Bahmani I. king of Deccan about the year 
a.d. 1368, a.h. 770. He is the author of 
the Tahfat-us-8aldtin Bahmani. 

Daud Khan Faruqi ( J., Is ^.\s>~ Ji^j) 

succeeded his brother Miran Ghani to the 
throne of Khandesh in September, a.d. 1603, 




1st Jumada I. a.h. 916, reigned seven years 
and died on "Wednesday the 6th August, a.d. 
1510. He. was succeeded by 'Adil Khan 
Farqui II. 

Baud Klian QuresM ( ,t^_ji^ 


son of Bhikan Ivhan, was an officer of 5000 
in the reign of the emperor 'Alamgir. lu 
the year a.d. 1670, A.n. 1081, he was 
appointed governor of Allahabad. 

Daud Khan Panni ( aj 



son of KJiizir Khan Panni, a Pathan officer, 
was renowned throughout India for his reckless 
courage, and his memory still survives in the 
tales and proverbs of the Deccan. He served 
several years under 'Alamgir, and when 
Bahadur Shah, on liis departure from the 
Deccan, gave the viceroyalty of that kingdom 
to the Amir-al-XJmra, Znlfikar Klian, as 
that chief could not be spared from court, he 
left the administration of the government to 
Dand Khan, who was to act as his lieutenant. 
In the reign of Farrukh-siyar, when the 
Amir-ttl-TJnu'a Husain 'Ali Khan marched 
towards Deccan, Daiid Khan received secret 
orders from the emperor to oppose and cut 
him off. Accordingly when the Amir-ul- 
Umra arrived at Burhanpur, Daiid Khan, 
who regarded himself as the hero of his age, 
prepared to receive him. The engagement 
was very bloody on both sides ; a matchlock 
ball struck Daud Khan, and he fell doivn 
dead on the seat of his elephant. This event 
took place in the year a.d. 1715, a.h. 1127. 

Daud Qaisari (Shaikh) (^c^^j jjlj 


irS^), author of another commentary 

called Sharah Sadis - ul - Arba'in, besides 
the one written by BirgUi. He died a.d. 
1530, A.H. 761. 

Daud Shah Bahmani (Sultan) (ojlj 

(^^llaLj ^_^-^. ii^), the son of Sultan 

'Ala-uddin Hasan, ascended the throne of 
Deccan, after assassinating his nephew 
Mujahid Shah on the 14th April, a.d. 1378, 
21st Muharram, a.h. 780. He reigned one 
month and five days, and was murdered on 
the 19th May, the same year in the mosque 
at Kulbarga where he went to say his 
prayers. He was succeeded by his brother 
Mahmud Shah I. 

Daud Shah {^\j^ »l^ 'ij^X a king 

of Gujrat, who was placed on the throne 
after the death of his nephew Qutb Shah in 
a.d. 1439, and was deposed after seven days, 
when Mahmiid Shah, another nephew of his, 
a youth of only 14 years of age, was raised to 
the throne. 

Daud Shah (ili t>jb), the youngest 
son of Sulaiman Qirani, succeeded to the 
kingdom of Bengal after the death of his 

eldest brother Baiazid in the year a.d. 1573, 
A.H. 981. This prince was much addicted to 
sensual excesses ; and the propensity was 
rendered more degrading by his inclination to 
associate with persons of low origin and mean 
connections, by whom he was induced to 
attack the frontiers of the kingdom of Dehli, 
He had several sku-mishes with Munaim 
Khan, Khan Khanan, governor of Jaunpiir, 
who was subsequently joined by his master, 
the emperor Akbar, when an obstinate battle 
took place on the 30th July, a.d. 1575, 21st 
Rabi II. A.H. 983, in which Dahd Shah was 
defeated and obliged to retire to a fort on the 
borders of Katak. After this a peace was 
concluded, by which Daud Shah was invested 
with the government of Orisa and Katak, 
and the other provinces of Bengal were 
occupied by Munaim Khan in the name 
of the emperor. The year of this event 
is commemorated in a Persian Hemistich. 
After the death of Munaim Kb an, which took 
place the same year at Lakhnauti, Daiid 
Khan re-took the provinces of Bengal, but 
was soon attacked by Khan Jahau Turkman, 
who was appointed governor, when after a 
severe engagement Daud Khan was taken 
prisoner, and sirffered death as a rebel. From 
that period, the kingdom of Bengal was 
subdued, and fell under the subjection of the 
emperor Akbar. Thus ended the rule of the 
Purbi or independent eastern kings of Bengal. 

Daud Tai (^LL S^S), a Musalman 

doctor who was master of several sciences. 
He had served Abii Hanifa for 20 years, and 
was one of the disciples of Habib Eai. He 
was contemporary with Fazail Aiiiz, Ibrahim 
Adham and Ma'r'uf Karkhi, and died in the 
reign of the Ifhalif Al-Mahdi, the son of 
Al-Mansiir, about the year a.d. 781 or 782, 
A.H. 164 or 165. 

Daulat Rao Sindhia {j\j c:^JjJ 
<l_^_i)Ji_i_^_-!), son of Anandi Eao, 
nephew to Madhoji, by whom he was 
adopted. Made war against the British, 
1803, but was beaten in one campaign ; died 
A.D. 1827. 

\_Vide Doulat Eao.] 

Dawal Devi {^j^,'^ Jj^X or T^ewal 

[ Vide Kaula Devi.] 

Dawani (^Jljj), the philosopher, 

whose proper name is Jalal-uddin Muham- 
mad Asa'd Aldawani, the son of Sa'd-uddin 
Asa'd Dawani. He flourished in the reign 
of Sultan Abii Sa'id and died, according 
to Ha'ji Sialfa, in the year a.h. 908 
(corresponding with a.d. 1502.) He is the 
author of the Sharah Haialcal, AMilSq Jaldli, 
Isbdt Wajib (on the existence of God), Sisala 
Zaura (on Sufiism), Hdshia Shamsia, and 
Anwar Shajia. He also wrote the Sharah 
'Agded, and marginal notes on Sharah 
Tajrld. The Akhlaq Jalali is a translation 




from the Arabic, the original of which 
appeared in the 10th eeutnry under the uauie 
oi jaiab-iit-TahSrat,h-s AW Arabian author, 
minister of the imperial honse of Boya, Two 
centuries after, it Avas translated into Persian 
hy Abu Nasr, and named AMi'i'J A'dsiri, or 
the morals of Nasir, being enriched with 
some important additions taken from Abii 
Sina. In the IStli century it assumed a still 
fru-ther improved form, under the present 
designation, the Akhh'iq Jidali or morals of 
Jalal. This book, which is the most i steemed 
ethical work of middle Asia, was transhitcd 
into Enghsb by AV. F. Thimipson, of the 
Bengal Ciril Service, London, 1839. 

DawarBakhsli (Sultan) {fjLsT^ j^^J 
(jlkLj), surnamed Mirza Bulaqi, was 

the son of Sultan Kliusro. "When his 
grandfather, the emperor Jahangir, died on 
his way from Kashmir to Lahore in October, 
o.s. 1(327, Safar, a.h. 1037, 'Asaf Klian, 
wazir, who was all along determined to 
support Shah Jahan, the sou of the late 
emperor, immecUately sent off a messenger to 
summon him from the Deecau. In the 
meantime, to sanction his own measures by 
the appearance of legal authority, he released 
prince Dawar Bakbsh from prison, and 
proclaimed him king. Niir Jahan Begam, 
endeavouring to support the cause of Shahriar, 
her sim-in-law, w^as placed under temporary 
restraint by her brother, the wazir, who 
then continued his march to Lfdiore. 
Shahriar, who was already in that city, forming 
a coalition with two, the sons of his uncle, 
the late IMnce Danial, marched out to oppose 
'Asaf Klian. The battle ended in his defeat ; 
he was given irp by his adherents, and after- 
wards put to death together with Dawar 
Bakbsh and the two sons of Danial, by orders 
from Shah Jahan, who ascended the throne. 
Elphinstone in his History of India says that 
Dawar Bakhsh found means to escape to 
I'ersia, where he was afterwards seen by the 
Holstein ambassadors. 

Daya Mai (J,, Li j). Fide Imtiyaz. 
Daya Nath (i^i'li L j). Vide Wafa. 

Dayanat Khan (^Iri. cu-jbj), title 

of Muhammad Husain, an amir of 2,500, who 
served under the emperor Shah Jahan, and 
died at Ahmadnagar in the Deecau a. d. 1630, 
A.H. 1040. 

Daya Ram {A^ lij), Pattha, a hero, 

renowned in the west of Hindiistan for extra- 
ordinary strength of body, extraordinary 
corn-age, and extraorchnary achievements. 
lie was a Gwala by caste, and flourished in 
the reign of the empenn- Farrukh-siyar. 
The wonderful feats of this man are sung 
or recited accompanied by the beat of a dhol 
throughout Hindiistan. A full and affecting 
accoimt of this hero is given in the Bingal 
Annual, published at Calcutta in 1833, p. 169. 

Daya Ram (*U LjJ), a chief of 

Hatras, tributary to the East India Company, 
who, about the year A.D 1814, confiding in 
the extraordinary strength of his fort, showed 
a spirit of contumacy and disobedii uce. A 
train of Artillery was brought against this 
place from Cawnpore, under 
Dys(jn JIarshall ; and a few hours of its 
tremendous fire breached the boasted fortifica- 
tion, Daya Ram elfectcd his escape by a 
sally-port, and was never heard of after. 

Deo Narain Singh (aSC^-j i^}j^ yl^^^ 
(K . C . S . I . , Sir, Raj a) of Banaras, diedsuddenly 
on the 28th August, 1870. 

Dewal Devi (^^_jj J_j_jJ). Vide 
Kaula Devi. 

Dhara (1 .L&tj), the son of Eaja 

Todarmal. He was killed in a battle fought 
against Mirza Jani Beg, ruler of Thatta, in 
November, a.d. 1591, Muharram, a.h. 1000. 

Dhola Rao (.1. 1.J6j), the ancestor of 

the Kacbhwaha Rajas of Ambir or Jaipur ; 
he lived about the year a.d. 967. 

Dhundia Wagh {l^^^j i^SJ^&S), the 

free-hooter, who had for several years with 
a formidable band, pillaged and laid waste 
the frontiers of Mysore. This robber assumed 
the lofty title of king of the two w(irlds, and 
aimed, doubtless, at carving out for himself 
some independent principality, after the 
example of Haidar 'Ali, in whose service he 
originally commenced his adventui'ous career. 
Subsequently he ineirrred the displeasure of 
Tipii Sultan, who chained him like a wild 
beast to the walls of his dungeons in Serang- 
apatam, from which "durance vile" he was 
liberated by the English soldiers after the taking 
of Serangapatam. He proceeded to threaten 
Mysore with 6,000 cavalry. The Govern- 
ment of Madras instructed Colonel Wellesley 
to pursue him wherever he coidd be found 
and to hang him on the first tree. His sub- 
jugation and subsequent death (in 1800) with 
the extirpation of his formidable band of free- 
booters, relieved the English Government 
from an enemy who, though by no means 
equal to Haidar and Tipii, might eventually 
have afforded considerable annoyance. 

Dil (Jl>), poetical name of Zorawar 

Khan of Sirkar Kol. He is the author of a 
Diwan and a few Masnawis. 

Dilami {-^liS) and Samanl were two 

dynasties which divided between them the 
kingdom of Persia towards the beginning of 
the 10th century. They both rose to power 
through the favour of the Khalifs of Baghdad, 
but they speedily threw off the yoke. The 




Dilami divided into two branches, exercised 
sovereign authority in Kirman, Iraq, Faris, 
Ivhuzistan, and Laristan, always acknowledg- 
ing their nominal dependence on the Khaliti, 
and during the whole period of their rule, 
one of the southern branch of this faniily was 
vested with the dignity of Amir-ul-Umra, or 
vizir, aud managed the affairs of the Khalif ate. 
Several of the Dilami were able and wise 
rulers, but Mahmiid of Ghazni put an end to 
the rule of the northern branch in a.d. 1029, 
and the Saljiiqs subjugated the southern one 
in A.D. 1056, by the capture of Baghdad, 
their last stronghold. Their more powerful 
rivals, the Samani, had obtained from the 
Khalif the government of Transoxiana in a.d. 
H7i ; and to this, Isma'il the most celebrated 
prince of the family, speedily added Khwarizm, 
Balkh, Khurasan, Sistan, and many portions 
of northern Turkistan. Rebellions of pro- 
vincial governors distracted the Samanida 
monarchy towards the end of the 1 0th century ; 
and in a.d. 999 their dominions north of 
Persia were taken possession of by the Khan 
of Kashghar, the Persian provinces being 
added by Mahmiid of Gliazni to his dominions. 
See Samani. 

Dilawar Khan {^^\6~■ j^S), founder 

of the dynasty of the Muhammadan kings 
of Malwa. The Hindii histories of the 
kingdom of Malwa go back as far as the reign 
of Eaja BikaiTnajit, whose accession to that 
kingdom has given rise to an era which 
commences 57 years before Christ. After 
him reigned llaja Bhoj and many others who 
are all mentioned among the Eajas of 
Hindiistan. During the reign of Ghayas- 
uddin Balban, king of Dehli in the year a.d. 
1310, A.H. 710, the Muhammadans first 
invaded and conquered the provinces of 
Malwa ; after which it acknowledged allegi- 
ance to that croNvn until the reign of 
Muhammad Shah Tughlaq II. a.d. 1387, 
A.H. 789. At this period Dilawar Klian, a 
descendant on his mother's side from Sultan 
Shahab-uddin Ghori, was appointed governor 
of Malwa, previously to the accession of 
Muhammad Takhlaq, and he subsequently 
established his independence. In the year 
A.D. 1398 A.H. 801, Mahmud Shah, king of 
Dehli, being driven from his throne by Amir 
Taimur (Tamerlane), made his escape to 
Gujrat, and then to Malwa, where he remained 
three years, after which, in a.d. 1401, 
A.H. 804, he, at the instance of the Dehli 
nobles, quitted Malwa, in order to resume 
the reins of his own government. Dilawar 
Khan shortly afterwards assumed royalty and 
divided his kingdom into estates among his 
officers whom he ennobled. Dilawar Khan 
on assuming independence, took up his 
residence in Dhai-, which place he considered 
as the seat of his government, hut he fre- 
quently visited the city of Mando, remaining 
there sometimes for months together. He 
only survived his assumption of the royal 
titles a few years ; for in the year a.d. 1405, 
A.H. 808, he died suddenly, and his son Alp 
Khan ascended the throne under the title of 
Sultan Hoshang Shah. Including Dilawar 

Khan eleven princes reigned in Malwa till 
the time of the emperor Humayun, whose 
son Akbar eventually subdued and attached 
it to the Dehli government. Their names 
are as follow : 

1. Dilawar Khan Gh5ri. 

2. Iloshang Shah, son of Dilawar. 

3. Sultan Muhammad Shah. 

4. Sultan Mahmud I. K]iilji, styled the 

Great, son of Malik Mugliis. 

5. Ghayas-uddin Khilji. 

6. Nasir-uddiu. 

7. Mahmiid II. 

8. Bahadm- Shah, king of Gujrat. 

9. Qadar Shah. 

10. Shujaa' Khan, and 

11. Biiz Bahadur, son of Shujaa' Khan. 

Dilawar Khan {^-^ J^^-^X ^ noble- 
man of the reifjn of the emperor Shah Jahiin, 
was the sou of Bahadur Khan Eohila. lie 
diedat Kabul in the year a.d. 1658, a.h. 1068. 

Dildar Aga (UT jU!j\ one of the 

wives of the emperor Babar, and mother of 
Mirza Handal. 

DilerHimmatKhan(^li>. L::^v+Ji .J j), 

original name of Nawah Muzaffiar Jang of 
Farrukhabad, which see. 

Diler Khan {J,^ ^Jj), a Daudzal 

Afghan, whose proper name was Jalal Khan. 
He was the younger brother of Bahadur 
Khan Eohila, and one of the best and bravest 
generals of the emperor 'Alamgir. He held 
the rank of 5,000, and died in the year a.d. 
1683, A.H. 1094, in the Deccan. 

Diler Khan (^L^i- j-^^S), title of 

'Abdul Kauf, the son of ' Abdul Karim, formerly 
in the service of the king of Bij apur. After 
the conquest of that country, he joined 
'Alamgir and received the title of Diler 
Khan and the mansab of 7,000. He died 
in the reign of Bahadur Shah in the Deccan, 
where he held a j agir. 

Dilip Singh {kC,\~^ i -«Jt)), Maharaja, 

often miscalled by Europeans ' ' Dhuleep 
Sing," the son of Eaui Chanda Kunwar (<?.».). 
He became titular ruler of the Panjab a.d. 
1843, but was deposed by Dalhousie 1848 ; 
became a Christian and settled for some years 
in England. Married an Egyptian lady, by 
whom he had issue. Went to India, alleging 
grievances against the Government, hut was 
not allowed to land. Abjured Christianity 
and declared himself a foe to the British race. 
"Was living on the Continent in 1890. 
\Tide Lady Login's book cited above.] 

Dilras Banc Begam ( jlj y b ^)S), 

daughter of Shahnawaz Khan Safwi, the son 
of Mirza Eustam Kandhari, and wife of the 
emperor 'Alamgir. She had another sister 
who was married to Murad Bakhsh, brother 
of 'Alamgir. 




Bilshad Khatun (^j^'Ui- ^{.JiJci), 

diiugliter of Amir Daniisliq, tlie son o£ Amir 
Julian or Jovian, and wife of SiUtan Abu 
8. rid ffliiin. Aimr Hasan Biizuxg, after the 
death uf the Sultan in a.d. 1335, took 
possession of Baghdad and married her, but 
the reigns of goyerument remained in her 

Dilsoz (j^_^Jj), poetical title of 

Khairiitl Klian, a poet who lived about the 
year 1800. 

Din Muhammad Khan (ju,*_s.-^ ,^0 

l^li-), the son of Jam Beg Sultan, 

and 'Abd-uUah IChau Uzbak's sister, was 
raised to the throne of Samarqand after the 
death of 'Abdul MOmin Klian, the son 
of 'Abd-uUah Klian, in a.d. 1S98, a.h. 1006. 
He was wounded in a battle fought against 
Shah 'Abbas the Great, king of Persia, and 
died shortly after. 

Diwan (|_^l^.o), a collection of odes. 

The word is of frequent occurrence in Persian 

Diwana (iJi^^S), poetical name of 

Muhammad Jan, who died in the year a.d. 
1737, A.H. 1150. 

Diwana (<sjLj j), poetical name of Eae 

Sarabsukb. a relation of Raja Maha Narayan. 
He wrote two Persian Diwans of more than 
10,000 verses; most poets of Ijucknow were 
his pupils. He died in a.d. 1791, a.h. 1206. 

Diwana (i.ji^j), poetical name of 

Mirza Muhammad 'Ali Khan of Jahanabad. 
He was employed at the oificeof Mr. Colebrooke 
at Jahanabad. 

Diwanji Begam (^Cj js:^\^_j). She 

was the mother of Arjumand Bano Begam 
Mnmtaz Mahal, and the wife of 'Asaf Khan, 
wazir. On a spot of fifty biglias of land on 
the bank of the river Jamna, close to Tajganj, 
is to be seen her tomb of white marble. 

Dost 'Ali ( J,.£ Lii-^-jjj), Nawab of 

Arkat and a relative of Murtaza Khan. Under 
him the atrocious seizure of Trichinopoly was 
perpetrated by Chanda Sahib. He was suc- 
ceeded by his son Safdar 'All, who, after 
overcominjj the effects of poison prepared for 
him by Murtaza IChan, fell by the poniard 
of a Pathan assassin, hired for the work by 
the same person. A storm was raised which 
he had not the courage to encormter ; and 
disguising himself in female attire, he escaped 
from Arkat to his oivn fort of Vellore. 

Dost Muhammad Khan (a,4..s-"* c:^-;« J 
ruler of Kabul and Qaudahar, was one of 

the brothers of Fatha Khan, the celebrated 
wazir of Mahmud, ruler of Ilirat and chief 
of the Barakzai clan. He was the most 
powerful chief in Afghanistan, and had for 
some years previous to the restoration of Shah 
ShujfiH'-ul-Mulk by the British in 1838, 
ruled that country. He was taken to Calcutta 
during the war, as related below ; but his 
son Akbar Klian (?.».) defeated and for a 
time expelled the invaders and killed Shujaa' 
iq.v.). The following is a summary of the 
Cost's career : — 

On the death of this prince, Host Muham- 
mad again assumed the reins of government. 
On the base and cruel murder of Fatha 
Khan by Mahmiid, at the instigation of Prince 
Kamran, his brothers revolted from their 
allegiance under the guidance of Azim Kliau, 
the governor of Kashmir, and drove Mahmiid 
and his son Kiiraran from Kabul. Azim 
Ivhan in the first instance offered the vacant 
throne to Shah Shujaa', but offended by some 
personal slight withdrew his support, and 
placed in his room, Aiyiib, a brother of Shah 
Shujaa', who was content to take the trappings 
with the power of royalty. On Azim Khan's 
death, his brothers dissatisfied with their 
position conspired against his son, Habib- 
ulliih Khan, and seizing his person, by threats 
of blowing him from a gun, induced his 
mother to deliver up the residue of Azim 
Khan's immense wealth. Aiyib's son was 
killed in these disputes, and he himself, 
alarmed by these scenes of violence, fled to 
Lahore. Dost Muhammad Khan, the most 
talented of the brothers, then took possession 
of the throne and became de facto king of 
Kabiil. Sher DU Khan, accompanied by four 
brothers, carried oil about half a nulUon 
sterling of Azim Khan's money, and seated 
himself in Kandahar as an independent 
chieftain. He and one of his brothers died 
some years ago ; and Kandahar was until 
lately ruled by Kohan DU Khan, assisted by 
his two surviving brothers Kahim Dil and 
Mir Dil. In the year 1839 the British army 
entered Kabul and placed Shah Shujaa'-ul- 
Mulk on the throne on the 8th May, and 
Dost Muhammad Khan surrendered to the 
British Envoy and Minister in Kabul on the 
4th November, after having defeated the 2nd 
Bengal Cavalry, who were disbanded for their 
behaviour in the action of Parwan Dana. 
He was subsequently sent down to Calcutta, 
where he arrived, accompanied by one of his 
sons, on the 23rd May, 1841. He was set 
free in November, 1842, and returned to 
Kabul, where he reigned as before till his 
death, which took place on the 9th June, a.d. 
1863, 31st ?;il-hiija, A.H. 1279; his youngest 
son Amir Sher Ali succeeded him. 

Doulat Khan Lodi {^li^ ij^ c:^. j), 

who, according to Firishti, was an Afghan 
by birth, originally a private Secretary, who 
after passing through various offices was 
raised by Sultan Mahmud Tughlaq, and 
attained the title of 'Aziz Mumalik. After 
the death of Malimiid, the nobles raised him 
to the throne of Dehli in April, a.d. 1413, 
Muharram, a.h. 816. In March, 1414, 15th 




Rati I. A.H. 817, Kliizir Khan, governor oi 
Multau, invaded Dehli, and after a siege of 
four months ohliged Doulat Klifm on the 
4th June, 1414, Jamada I. a.h. 817, to sui-- 
render. He was instantly confined in the 
fort of Firozabiid, where he died after two 

Doulat Khan Lodi ((_rj,! ^A:>- lil-J^o), 

who invited Bahar Shah to India, was a 
descendant of the race of that name, who 
heretofore reigned at Dehli. He was a poet 
and a man of learning. He died a short 
time before Bahar conquered Dehli, i.e. in 
the year a.d. 1526, a.h. 923. 

Doulat Khan Lodi Shaliu Khali 
(J:^^ j&li 4?-^ <J^ Lii^jjj) was 

the father of the rebel Khan Jahan Lodi. 
He served imder Jlirza 'Aziz Koka, 'Abdul 
Rahim Khan Khanan, and Prince Danial 
for several years, and was raised to the rank 
of 2,000. He died in the Deccan a.d. 1600, 
A.H. 1009. 

Doulat Rao Sindhia (Maharaja) 

(a>-i.L^ <tji)jki^»-j ,1, l::_4.j), of 

Gwaliar, a Mahratta chief, was the grand- 
nephew and adopted son of Madhoji Sindhia, 
whom he succeeded to the Eaj of Gwaliar in 
March, a.d. 1794, a.h. 1208. His violence, 
rapacity and lawless ambition, were the main 
causes of the war in 1802 with the confederate 
Mahratta chieftains. Hostilities having broken 
out with the British, Sir Arthur Wellesley 
(afterwards Duke of "Wellington) defeated 
Doulat Eao at Assaye in 1803, while Lord 
Lake drove the Mahrattas from the whole of 
theDoab. He married Baiza Baid, daughter 
of Sberji Eao, Ghatgai, reigned 33 years, and 
died on the 21st March, 1827, 21st Sh'aban, 
a.h. 1242. He was succeeded by Jhanko 
Eao Sindhia. 

Doulat Shah (iL^ ui-^J^t.^), son of 

Bakht Shah of Samarqand, and author of the 
Biography of Poets called Tazkira Dottlat 
Shdhl. He flom-ished in the reign of Sultan 
Husain Mirza of Herat, surnamed Abiil 
Ghazi Bahadur, and dedicated the work to 
his prime minister, the celebrated Amir 
Nizam -uddin 'Alisher. This work was 
written in a.d. 1486, a.h. 891, and contains 
the Lives or Memoirs of ten Arabian, and one 
hundred and thirty-four Persian poets, with 
various quotations from their works, and 
anecdotes of the princes at whose courts they 
resided. It also gives an account of six poets 
then residing in Herat ; two of whom were 
principal ministers of the Sultan ; »jz. 
'Alisher and Amir Shaikh Ahmad Suheli. 
He died in a.d. 1495. 
[ Vide Faizi Kirmani.] 

Dundi Khan (<lL-~&j!, ^S'- cA^j'^)) 

a Eohila chief, and son of Ali Muhammad 
Khan, the founder of the Eohila Government. 

In the partition of lands which were assigned 
to the chiefs, in the time of Hafiz Eahniat 
Khan, Dundey Klifm obtained the districts of 
Bisauli, Muradabad, Chandpur and Sambhal 
in Eohilkhand. He died previous to the 
Eohila war which took place in a.d. 1774, 
leaving three sons, the eldest of whom, Muhib- 
uUah Ishan, succeeded to the largest portion 
of his territories. 

Dunyapat Singh (Raja) (c:,ol— -JJ 

(Lp-i. iS^^. His father died in 

A.D. 1790, at which time he was only 
seven years of age. He inherited from his 
grandfather Eiip Eae the Chaklas of Korii, 
Pathapiir and Kara, but was dispossessed 
by the Nawab "Wazir, and a Nankar allow- 
ance of 24,000 rupees granted to the Eaja 
on his exclusion. This was subsequently 
reduced to 7,500 rupees. The original grant 
amounted to 52,000 per annum, payable from 
14 mahals, but in a.d. 1770, the Nawab 
Najaf Khan acquiring unUmited dominion 
over these provinces, dispossessed his father 
of eleven of the villages, by which his income 
was reduced to 20,000 rupees. In 1787 his 
father was dispossessed of the remaining three 
villages by Zain-ul-'AbidinKhan, the 'Amil, 
but as the Eaja was about to proceed to 
hostilities, the 'Arail agreed to allow him 
10,000 rupees for the first year, and 20,000 
thereafter, but failed in the fulfilment of his 
promise. In a.d. 1792, Zain-ul- ' Abidin 
died, and was succeeded by his son Baqar, 
'All Khan, and from that period up to 1802 
the Eaja Duniapat Singh was allowed 8,000 
rupees per annum, which was confirmed by 
Government in 1805 in perpetuity. 

Dupleix, Joseph FranQois, a French 

officer, governor of Pondicherry. In a.d. 
1750 he was elevated to the rank of a Haft 
Hazari, or Commander of seven thousand 
horse, and permitted to bear an ensign, 
assigned to persons of the note in the 
empire, by Muzaffar Jang, viceroy of the 
Deccan, after his victory over his brother 
Nasir Jang, who fell inbattle on 15th December 
of that year. But the ambitious plans of 
Dupleix were not approved by the French 
Government. He was suspended and sent 
home in 1754 ; and died in disgrace and 
poverty Nov. 10th, 1764. 

\_Vide Malleson's Dupleix, " Eulers of 
India," 1890.] 

Durduzd (jj j^j). Vide 'All Durduzd 
of Astrabad. 

Durgawati (Rani) (^^j ^jl-S^j), 
daughter of Eana Sarika. 
{Vide Silhaddi.] 

Durga-wati (Rani) {^\j ^^\^jS), 

the daughter of the Gond Eaja of Mahoba, 
who was much celebrated for her singular 




beauty. Overtures had been made for an 
union Avith Dalpat Sfih, Raja of Sinf?algui-h 
(which is situated on the brow of a hill that 
commands a pass on the road about halfway 
between Garda and Sangar) ; but the proposal 
was rejected on the ground of a previous 
engagement, and some inferiority of caste ou 
the part of the Garha family, who were of the 
race of the Chandeil rajpiits. Dalpat Sah 
was a man of uncommonly fine appearance, 
and this, added to the celebrity of his fathers 
name and extent of his dominions, made 
Dm'gawati as desirous as himself for the 
union, but he was by her given to understand, 
that she must be relinquished or taken by 
force, since the difference of caste would of 
itself be otherwise an insurmoimtable obstacle. 
He marched with aU his troops he could 
assemble, met those of her father and his 
rival, — gained a victory and brought off 
Durgawati as the prize to the fort of 
Singalgurh. Dalpat Sah died four years 
after their marriage, leaving a son named 
Bir Narayan about three years of age, and 
his widow as regent dming his minority. 
Asaf Khan, the imperial viceroy at Kara 
Manikpur on the Ganges in the province of 
Allahabad, invited by the prospect of 
appropriating so fine a country and so much 
wealth as she was reputed to possess, invaded 
her dominions in the year A. D. 1564, at the 
head of 6,000 cavaby and 12,000 well 
disciplined infantry, with a train of artillery. 
He was met by the EanI at the head of her 
troops, and an action took place in which she 
was defeated. She received a wound from an 
arrow in the eye ; and her only son, then 
about 18 years of age, was severely wounded 
and taken to the rear. At this moment she 
received another arrow in the neck ; and 
seeing her troops give way and the enemy 
closing round her, she snatched a dagger 
from the diiver of her elephant, and plunged 
it in her own bosom. Her son was taken ofi 
the field and was, unperceived by the enemy, 
conveyed back to the palace at Chiiragarh, to 
which Asaf Khan returned immediately after 
his victory and laid siege. The young prince 
was killed in the siege ; and the women set 
fire to the palace under the apprehension of 
suffering dishonour if they fell alive into 
the hands of the enemy. Two females 

are said to have escaped, the sister of 
the queen, and a young princess, who had been 
betrothed to the young prince Bir Narayan ; 
and these two are said to have been sent to 
the emperor Akbar. In this district of 
Jabbalpiir the marble rocks and the palace 
called Madan Mahal are worth seeing. There 
is some doggrel rhyme about this palace 
which is not generally known, though of some 
interest. This building stands on a single 
granite boulder, and was constructed by the 
Gond princess Eani Duragawati at the time 
of the Muhammadau invasion of Central 
India. Years after the cession of the country 
to the British, a wag of a Pandit wrote on the 
entrance door of the palace the following 
lines : 

Madan Mahal ke chhain me, 
Do tangon ke bich, 
Gara nau lakh rapi, 
Aur song ka. do int. 

Translation — 

In the shade of Madan Mahal, 
Between two boulders, 
There are buried nine lakhs of rupees 
And two bricks of gold. 

It did not take long for the news of the 
appearance of tliis writing on the door to 
spread abroad, and the very person to fall a 
dupe to the Pandit's trick was Captain 
Wheatley, at that time a Political Assistant 
at Jabalpur. He mustered some peons and 
labourers, and having proceeded to the spot 
commenced digging for the treasure on the 
part of Government. The native lady, in 
whose possession were the village lands on 
"which the palace stood, came rushing down 
to the Agent to the Governor-General and 
represented that she was being plundered of 
her treasure by Captain "Wheatley. "Pagli" 
replied Sir Wm. Sleeman, " be is as mad as 
you are ; the Pandit would not have divulged 
the secret were it of much value." Many 
years have since elapsed, and many others not 
possessed of Sir William's wisdom have fallen 
dupes to the Pandit's poetical trick ; and, but 
for the very durable nature of the martas, 
there have been euouo;h excavations made ia 
and about the building to raze it to the 




Egypt, Kings of. Vide Moizz-li-dln- 
allah Abi Tamim Ma'd. 

Ekkoji ( j>-Sj), the founder of the 
Tanjore family, was the son of Shahjl Bhosla, 

the brother of Siwaji, but from another 
consort. The principality of Tanjore was 
one of the oldest in the Mahratta confederacy, 
of which province Ekkoji obtained possession 
in A.D. 1678. 

[ Vide Letter Y.] 




Faghfur (jjiks), the general name of 
the kings of China. 

Faghfur Yezdi (*-£^ j^yjjj j^iAJ), 

(Hakim), a physician and poet of Persia, born 
at Yezd. He is the author of a Diwan or 
Book of Odes, and has written several 
panegyrics in praise of the kings of Persia. 
He came to India in a.d. 1603, a.h. 1012, 
and was employed by prince Parwez, and died 
at AUahahad about the year a.d. 1619, 
A.H. 1028. 

Fahmi Kirmani (Maulana Sadr-uddin 

Muhammad) (LiS^^ ^^j-^ ^'*~\-^ 

tX^^s.-"* ^cXILa-s), a poet -who is the 

author of a MasuawT called Surat-wa-Ma'anl, 
and also of some Qasldas, Ghazals, Satires, etc. 
He died in the year a.d. 1584, a.h. 993, in 
the fort of Tabrez, during the time it was 
besieged by the Turks. 

Faiq. (j^jli), or Fayeq, poetical name 

of Moulwi Muhammad Faiq, author of the 
work called Makhzan-ul-Fawued. 

Faiz {^j2iyji), or Fayez, poetical name 

of Shaikh Muhammad Faiz, a pupil of 
Muhammad Sa'id Ayaz. He is the author 
of a short Diwan, and was probably Kving in 
A.D. 1724, A.H. 1136. 

Faiz {^jLS), the distinguished mystical 

philosopher and theologist, MuUa Muhsin of 
Kashan, commonly called Akhiind Faiz. He 
flourished under Shah 'Abbas II. of Persia, 
who treated him with great respect. He has 
written a great number of books, of which 
Kitah 'Asafi, and Kitdb Safi are two 
Commentaries on the Quran. He died at 
Kashan in the time of Shah Sulaiman of 
Persia, and his tomb is a place of pilgrimage. 

Faiz (^^), poetical title of Mir Faiz 

'All, an Urdu poet of DehlT. His father, 
Mir Muhammad Taqi, was also an elegant 
poet, and had assumed the title of Mir for 
iiis poetical name. Both Faiz 'All and his 
father were living at Dehll in the year a.d. 
1785, A.H. 1196. 

Faiz {^.i), a pupil of Mirza Qatll, and 

author of a poetical work containing amorous 
sougs in Persia, called Dlicdn Faiz. He was 
living in the time of Muhammad 'Ali Shah, 
king of Lucknow, about the year a.d. 1840, 
A.H. 1256. 

Faiz (^i), poetical title of Faiz-ul- 

Hasan of Saharanpiir, author of the Rauzat- 
ul-Faiz, a poem composed in a.d. 1847, 
A.H. 1263. 

Faizi ( ^^^Ji) of Sarhind. Vide 

Faizi Kirmani ( jL^.^" ^-^jLs), a 

poet who rendered the Tazkira of Doulat 
Shah in Persian verses in the time of the 
emperor Akbar, and altered the division of 
the original, making ten periods instead of 

\_Vicle Lutfullah Muhammad Muhaddis.] 

Faizi (Shaikh) {;^ l<^\ whose 

proper name was Abu'l Faiz, was the son of 
Shaikh Mubarik of Nagor, and eldest brother 
or Shaikh Abu'l Fazl, prime-minister and 
secretary to the emperor Akbar Shah. He 
was born on the 16th September, a.d. 1547, 
1st Shaban, a.h. 954, and was first presented 
to Akbar in the 12th year of his reign, and 
introduced his brother Abu'l Fazl six years 
later. After the death of the poet laureate 
Ghizali of Mashhad, about the year a.d. 1572, 
or some years after, or, according to the 
Mdsir-ul- UmrS, in the 33rd year of the 
emperor, Faizi was honoured with the title of 
Malik-ush-Slma'rd, or king of poets. In 
history, philosophy, in medicine, in letter 
writing, and in composition, he was without 
a rival. His earUer compositions in verse 
bear his titular name of Faizi, which he 
subsequently dignified into Faiyazi, but he 
survived to enjoy his last title only one or 
two months, and then met his death. Being 
desirous of rivalling the Khamsa or the five 
poems of Nizami, he wrote in imitation of 
them his Marlcaz Adwdr, Suluiman and 
Bilkais, Nal Daman, Soft Kiskwdr, and 
Akbar Nama. The story of Nal Daman is 
an episode of the Mahabharat, which he 
translated into Persian verse at the command 
of the emperor Akbar. He was the first 
Musalman that applied himself to a diligent 




study of Hindu literature aud science. 
Besides Sauskrit works in poetry and philo- 
sophy, lie made a Yersiou of the lilja GcdMS, 
and JJlau-atl of Bhaskar Acharvri, the best 
Hebrew works on Algebra and Arithmetic. 
He Avas likewise author of a great deal of 
original poetry, and of other works in Tersian. 
He composed an elaborate Commentary upon 
the Quran, making use of only those 1 3 out 
of the 28 letters of the Alphabet which have 
no dots, and which he named Sawdta'-nl- 
llhdm ; a copy of this extraordinary 
monument of wasted labour (says Elliot) 
is to seen in the Library of the East India 
House. There is also another hook of the 
same description which he wrote and called 
Maivarid-al- Kal(im._ Faizi suffered from 
asthma and died at Agra on Saturday the 
4th October, o.s. 1596, 10th Safar, a.h. 
1004, aged 49 lunar years and some months ; 
and, as many supposed him to haye been a 
deist, several abusire chronograms were 
written on the occasion, of which the follow- 
ing is one — " The Shaikh was an infidel." 
There is also an Insha or collection of Letters 
which goes after Ms name. His mother died 
in January, a.d. 1590, a.h. 998, and his 
father in August, a.d. 1593, Zeqa'd, a.h. 
1001. He was a profound scholar, well 
versed in Arabic literature, the art of poetry 
and medicine. He was also one of the most 
voluminous writers that India has produced 
and is said to have compo.sed 101 hooks. 
Faizi had been likewise employed as teacher 
to the princes ; he also acted as ambassador. 
Thus in a.h. 1000 he was in the Deccan, from 
whence he wrote the letter to the historian 
Budaoni, who had been in temporary disgrace 
at Court. 


[Vide A'ln Translation, i. 490.] 
Faiz-uUali Anju (Mir) ( ^sT*! <dll 

_^), a Qazi who presided on the 

seat of justice in the reign of Sultan 
Mahmiid ' Bahmani, king of Deccan, who 
reigned from a.d. 1378 to 1397, a.h. 780 to 
799. He was a good poet, and a contem- 
porary of the celebrated Kliwaja Hafiz. 
Once presenting the Sultan with an ode of 
his own composition, he was rewarded with 
a thousand pieces of gold, and permitted to 
retire, covered with honom's, to his ovm 

Faiz-ullah Khan (.^\~- <d)\ j_^-i), 

chief of the Rohelas and Jaglrdar of Eampiir, 
was the son of 'All Muhammad Khan Eohela. 
After the battle of Kutra in a.d. 1774, he 
retired fo the Kamaon lulls. By the treaty 
under Colonel Champion, he had. a territory 
allotted to him of the annual vahie of 14 lakhs 
of rupees. He chose the city of Eampiir as 
the placi' of his residence, and after an un- 
intirrupted and prosperous administration of 
'20 years, he died in September, a.d. 1794, 
iSalar, a.h. 1209, and was succeeded by his 
eldest son Muhammad 'AlT Khan. This 
prince, in the course of a few days, in 1794 

was imprisoned and assassinated by his younger 
brother Gliulam Muhammad, who forcibly 
took possession of the government. The 
En<Tlish, having espoused the cause of Ahmad 
All, the infant sou of the murdered prince, 
dc leatcd aud took Ghulam Muhammad prisoner 
at Bithoiua. He was conveyed to Calcutta, 
where, under pretence of going on a pilgrim- 
age to Jleeca, he embarked on board a ship, 
probably landed at one of the ports in Tipu 
Sultan's dominions, and thence made his W[iy 
to tiie court of Kabul in a.d. 1797, a.h. 1212, 
where, united with the agents of Tipii in 
clamours against the English, he urged 
Zaman Shah, the son of Taimiir Shah, to 
invade Hindustan, promising that, on his 
approach to Dehli, he should be joined by 
the whole tribe of Eohelas. The Nawab 
Ahmad Ali Khan died about the year a.d. 
1839, A.H. 1255. After the death of Ahmad 
Ali Khan, Muhammad Said Khan ascended 
the Masnad in 1840 ; after him Muhammad 
Yusuf Ali Khan succeeded in 1855, who was 
living in 1872. 

Fakhri C^^"), son of iraulana Sultan 

Muhammad Amiri of Herat. He is the 
author of the Jaicdhir-nl-'Jjaeb, Gems of 
Curiosities, being a biography of poetesses. 
He informs us that with the intention to 
perform the pilgrimage to Mecca, he came 
during the reign of Shah Tahmasp Husaini 
to Sindh ; the lailer of that country was then 
Isa Turkhan (who died about the year a.d. 
1566, A.H. 974). Ilahl the poet calls the 
above-mentioned work Tazkirat-ul-Nisa. He 
is also the author of the Tahfat-ul-Bahli, a 
collection of Ghazals from the best authors. 

Fakhri (^^■'), a Persian poet who 

wrote a Diwan of 10,000 verses in which he 
imitated most of the ancient masters, but as be 
had not much education he was not acknow- 
ledged bv other poets. He dug a grave for 
himself outside the Isfahan Gate and made 
himself a tombstone, and visited his grave eveiy 
Friday. He was living in a.d. 1585, a.h. 993. 

Fakhr-Tid-daula (a!^jJ1,s.'), title of 

Ahii'l Hasan 'Ali, a Sultan of the race of 
Boya, was the son of Sultan Eukn-nd-daula. 
He was horn in a.d. 952, a.h. 341, and 
succeeded his brother Mowaiyad-ud-daula to 
the throne of Persia in January, a.d. 984, 
Sha'ban, a.h. 373. He was a cruel prince, 
reigned 14 years, and died in August, a.d. 
997, Sha'ban, a.h. 387. He was succeeded 
by his son Majd-ud-daula. 

Fakhr-ud-danla (<sJ.jJL.s-'), a noble- 
man who was governor of Patna in the rei^n 
of Muhammad Shah, emperor of Dehli ; he 
held that situation till the year a.d. 1735, 
A.H. 1148, when it was taken away from him 
and conferred upon Shujaa'-uddiu Nawab of 
Bengal, in adchtion to that government, and 
of the province of tJrissa. 




rakhr-uddin (^..-jjl^s-), one of the 

princes of the Dnises, who, early in the 17th 
century, conceived the idea of rendering him- 
self independent of the Porte. He was 
betrayed, carried a prisoner to Constantinople, 
where he was strangled by order of Sultan 
Murad IV. in a.d. 1631, a.h. 1011. 

rakhr-uddin Abu Muhammad-bin- 
Ali az-Zailai ( j.^v.^s'* _jj1 ^iS.]\jS^ 

*lJ^J L_S (^^' ^^t'tlO'" °^ * Com- 
mentary on the Xanz-til- Daqdeq entitled 
Ta'ia'hi-ul-Saqneq, which is in great repute 
in India, on account of its upholding the 
doctrines of the Hanali sect against those of 
the followers of Shafa'i. He died in a.d. 
1342, A.H. 743. 

Fakhr-uddin Baliman (Malik) ( s^ 

l_xL« ^^j-*^ i^.-^^^j third Sultaa of 
the dynasty of Kart or Kard, was the son 
of Malik Shams-uddiu Kart II. whom he 
succeeded to the throne of Herat, Balkh and 
Ghazni in September, a.d. 1305, a.h. 705. 
He was contemporary with Sultan Aljaitii, 
sumamed Muhammad Khuda Banda, king of 
Persia, who sent an army against him which 
he defeated. He died about the beginning 
of the year a.d. 1307, a.h. 7'i6, and was 
succeeded by his brother Malik Ghayas-uddin 
Kart I. who died in a.d. 1329. 

Fakhr-Tiddin Ismat-uUah. Bukliari 

(^_^l=< <dl! C^^^i: ^JjJ^:^). He 
died in a.d. 1426, a.h. 829. 
[ Vide Asmat.] 

Fakh.r - uddin Junan (Malik) (^ 

(__$^L» io^^=r rri'^^X eldest son of 
Sultan Ghayas-uddin Tughlaq Shah I. On 
the accession of his father to the tlirone of 
Dehli, he was declared heir-apparent, with 
the title of TJlagh Khan, and all the royal 
ensigns conferred upon him. The names of 
his other brothers were Bahram Klian, Zafar 
Khan, Mahmiid Klian and Nasrat Ivhan. 
After the death of his father in A.D. 1325, a.h. 
725, he succeeded him with the title of 
Muhammad Shah Tughlaq I. 

Fakir - uddin Klia'lidi (Maulana) 

(U^.^ ^jJUi- j^jj^lLs"), who was 

commonly called " Bihishtl," is the author of 
a work called Sharah-jFaracz. He was the 
master of Maulana Mo'in-uddin JawTni. 

Fakhr- uddin Makmud Amir (^- 

j~f^\ S.^.s.-^ ^_)jJ'), son of Amir 

TemTn-uddin Muhammad Mustiifi. He is 
generally known by his Takhallus or poetical 
name, Ibn Yemin, i.e. the son of Yemin- 

nddin. According to Dr. Sprenger's Cata- 
logue, he cUed in a.d. 1344, a.h. 745, and 
left panegyrics on the Sarabdal princes and 
some ghazals, but it is particidarly hia Qita's 
which are celebrated. 
[Vide Amir Mahmiid.] 

Fakkr-uddin Malik (ujl., JcX11.s-'). 
\_Vide MaUk Fakhr-uddin, king of Bengal.] 

Fakhr-uddin Mirza(l- ..^ ^'), 

the eldest son of Bahadur Shah II. ex-king 
of Dehli. He died before the rebeUion, on 
10th July, 1856. 

Fakhr-uddin (Maulana) ( .jjjl .s-* 

U^^-<), son of Nizam-ul-Haq, -was 

styled Saiyad-ush-Shua'ra, or chief of the 
poets. He is the author of several works, 
among which are the following : Nizam-ul- 
'Aqaed, Eisala Marjia and FaMr-ul-Sasn. 
He died in the year a.d. 1785, a.h. 1199, 
aged 73 years, and lies buried close to the 
gate of the Dargah of Qutb-uddln Bakhtyar 
Kaki in old Dehli. His tomb is of while 
marble and has an inscription mentioning his 
name and the year of his demise. His grand- 
son Gliulam Nasir-xtddin, surnamed Kali 
Sahib, was a very pious and learned Musalman ; 
he too was a good poet and died in the year 
A.D. 1852, A.H. 1268. 

Fakhr - uddin Muhammad Razi 

(Imam) {A^\ ^^^ j,,*^-* ^^j^ll^i:-') 

was a doctor of the Shafa'i sect. He stir- 
passed all his contemporaries in scholastic 
theology, metaphysics and philosophy. He is 
the author of several instructive works, among 
which is one called Maduyeh-ul- Anwar, a 
book on different subjects which he dedicated 
to Sultan 'Ala-uddin Takasli, ruler of 
Khwarizm ; and another called Risala Saiijat, 
or Geometry, dedicated to Sultan Baha-uddin 
Ghori. He was horn at Eei on the 26th 
January, a.d. 1150, 25th Eamazan, a.h. 
544, and died at Herat on Monday the 291h 
March, a.d. 1210, 1st Shawwal, a.h. 606, 
aged 62 lunar years. His father's name was 
Ziya-uddin-biu-Umar. The title of Eazi 
attached to his name is because he was born 
at Eei in Tabristan. He is the father of 
Khwaja Nasir-uddin Tiisi. 

Fakhr-uddin Sultan(^lLl._j ^i^Wjjs^), 

also called Fakhra, was the king of Sonargaon 
in Bengal, which adjoins the district of 
Pandiia. He was put to death by Shams- 
uddin, king of Lakhnauti, abotit the year a.d. 
1356, A.H. 757, who took possession of his 

Fakhr-ul Islam i^Cs^ji AJi\j^), of 

Barod, the son of 'Ali. He is the author 
of the works called Usill-ud dm and Usui 
Flqha, and several other works. He died in 
A.D. 1089, A.H. 482. 




Fakhr-ullah Asad Jurjanl (<^.!Li:'» 
_J\._5-._5'- A-x--)'). He flourished 

under the Saljuq princes, and is the author 
of the love adventures of Wais and king 
Eflmin, originally in the Pahlawi language, 
called JFais-wa-Samm. 

Fakhr-un-nissa Begam (l..u^:J\ _i^ 

*JL-..j), the wife of Nawah Shuja'at 

Khan. She is the founder of the mosque 
called " Fakhr-ul-J[asajid," situated in the 
Kashmiri Bazar at Dehli, Avliich she erected 
in memory of her late hushand in the year 
A.D. 1728, A.H. 1141. 

Falaki (^i.ii), takhullus of a Persian 

poet whose proper name was Abri'l Nizam 
Muhammad Jalal-uddin Shirwani. He is 
also commonly styled Sliams-ush-Shuil'ra, the 
sun of the poets, and Malik-ul-Fuzla, king 
of the learned. His poems are preferred to 
those of Khaqani and Zakir. Hamd-ullah 
Mustaufi calls him the master of Khaqani, 
but Shaikh 'Azuri makes mention iu his 
Jawahir-ul-Asrar that Kliaqani and Falaki 
hoth were the pupils of Abii'l 'Ala of Ganja. 
There has been also another Falaki surnamed 
Abu'l Fazl, who was an author. Falaki died 
in A.D. 1181, A.H. 577. His patron was 
Manochehr Shirwani. 

Fanai (^Ui), poetical name of Shams- 

uddin Muhammad-hin-Hamza. He was an 
author and died in the year A.D. 1430, a.h. 834. 

Fani ( Jli) (perishable), the poetical 
name of Muhsin Fani, which see. 

Fani (^jU), the Takhullus of Khwaja 

Muhammad Mo'in - uddin - bin - Muhammad- 
bin-llahmiid Dihdar Fani. He came to 
India and stood in high favour with Abdul 
Rahim Khan the Khan Khiinan. He died in 
A.D. 1607, A.H. 1016, and left several works 
on Siifiism, as Sharah lOnctba, Ha^hia Rdsha- 
hat^ Hdnh la Naflidt^ Hdshia bar- Guhhan Raz^ 
and Albai/an. He is also the author of a 
Diwan in Persian, and a Masnawi or poem 
caWeiHaft Dilbar, i.e., the seven sweethearts, 
dedicated to the emperor Akbar. 

Faciir (_JLJ), poetical name of Mir 

Nawazish 'Ali of Bilgaram. He died in 
the year a.d. 1754, a.h. 1167. 

Faiqr (Mir Shams-uddin) {^,^ ^.Li 

i^jjl i^^fM.yKL), of Dehli, who had 

also the poetical name of Maftiin. From 
Dehli he went to Lucknow in a.d. 1765, 
A.H. 1179, and is said to have been drowned 

about the year 1767. He is the author of a 
Diwan and also of a Masnawi called Taswlr 
Muhabbat, containing the story of Ram 
Chaud, the son of a betel-vendor, composed 
in A.D. 1743, A.H, 1156, and of several other 

Faralji (-jj .j^ ^j\jli), commonly- 
called so because he was a native of Farab, 
a town in Turkey. His proper name is Abii 
Nasr. He was one of the greatest Musalman 
philosophers, remarkable for his generosity 
and greatness of talents, whom we call 
Alfarabixs. He was murdered by robbers in 
Syria in a.d. 954, a.h. 313, thirty years 
before the birth of Abii Sina. Imad-nddin 
Mabmiid and Ahmad-bin-Muhammad were 
two authors who were also called Farabi. 

Faratiurz (j^J^), the son of Kaikaus 
(Darius the Mede), king of Persia. 

FaragM (Mir) ( _..^ ■ c-i^-i), the 

brother of Hakim Fath-uUah Shirazi. He 
was living in A.D. 1563, a.h. 971, in wliich 
year the fort of Eanthanbiir was conquered 
by the emperor Akbar, on which occasion he 
wrote a chronogram. 

Farai ('Kj), whose proper name was 

Abii Zikaria Yehia, was an excellent Arabic 
grammarian who died in the year a.d. 822, 
A.H. 207. 

Faramurz (• ^1 i), son of Eustam, 

the Hercules of the Persians. He was afjsas- 
sinated by the order of Bahman, also called 
Ardisher Darazdast, king of Persia. There 
is said to have also been an author, named 
Muhammad bin-Faramm-z, styled Shadid. 

Farasquri {^jj^S-^j-i), surname of 
Muhammad bin - Muhammad - al - Hanifa, 

Imam of the mosque named Gouride, at 
Grand Cairo, who flourished about the year 
A.D. 1656, A.H. 964, and was an author. 

Fard (j^i), poetical name of Abii 1 

Hasan, the son of Shah Na'mat-uUah. He 
died in the year a.d. 1848, a.h. 1265, and 
left a Diwan. 

Farghani ( jli^i), commonly called 

so because he was a native of Farghana, but his 
full name is Ahmad or Muhammad-ibn-Kasir- 
al-Farghani, a famous Arabian astronomer 
whom we know under the name of Alfragan 
or Alfraganius. He flourished in the time 
of the Klialif-al-Maniiin, about the year 
A.D. 833, A.H. 218, and is the author of an 
introduction to Astronomy, which was printed 
by Golius, at Amsterdam, iu 1669, with notes. 




Farhad (jLa^j), the lover of the 

celebrated Shirin, the wife of Khusro Parwez, 
king of Persia. The -srhole of the sculpture 
at Behstun iu Persia is ascribed to the chisel 
of Farhad. He was promised, we are told 
in Persian Romance, that if he cut through 
the rock, and brought a stream that flowed 
on the other side of the hill to the valley, 
the lovely Shirin (with whom he had fallen 
distractedly in love) should be his reward ; 
he was on the point of completing his labour, 
when Khusro Parwez, fearing to lose his 
mistress, sent an old woman to inform Farhad 
that the fair object of his desire was dead. 
He was at work on one of the highest parts 
of the rock when he heard the mournful 
intelligence. He immediately cast himself 
headlong, and was dashed in pieces. Vide 

Farliat (cu^_s--i), poetical name of 

Shaikh Farhat-ullah, sou of Shaikh Asad- 
ullah. He wrote a Diwan in Urdii and 
died in the year a.d. 1777, a.h. 1191, at 

Farliat Kashmiri (^^^^^iJJi >jl^&-^'), 
a poet who was living in A.D. 1724, a.h. 1136. 

Farid Bukhari (Shaikli) (|_j.lisr jo J 


i), commander of the Agra city 

guards when Akbar died. Great honours 
were conferred on him by the emperor 
Jahangir, on account of his services. He 
received the title of Murtaza Khan, and 
managed the ailairs of the empire till he was 
rendered unfit for business by a stroke of the 
palsy, which opened the way for the promotion 
of Ta'timad-uddaula, the father of the empress 
N\xr Jahan. He died a.d. 1616, a.h. 1025. 

Farid Katib ((_^'l^ Joy). Fide Parid- 
uddTn Katib. 

Farid or Farid-uddin Ahwal (j,_j i 

l}) iji"^^^ i^^^ squinting), a poet 
of Persia who was a native of Asfaraen in 
Khurasan and contemporary with Imami 
HirwI. Khwaja Nizam-uddin Abii Eakr 
the Wazlr of Azd-uddin Sa'd was his patron. 
He died at Isfahan and left a Diwan contain- 
ing 5,000 verses. 

Farid or Farid-uddin (Shaikh) (aj .i 
l^_^ Siji ^ J>J:> j^jJl), a cele- 
brated Muhammadan saint, who is styled 
Shakar Ganj, on account of his having, it is 
said, miraculously transmuted dust or salt 
into sugar. His father's name was Shaikh 
Jalal-uddin Sulaiman, a descendant of 
Farrukh Shah of Kabul. He was a disciple 
of Khwaja Qutb-uddin Bakhtyar Kakf, and 


was contemporary with Shaikh Sa'd-uddin 
Hamwia, Saif-uddiu Makharzi, and Baha- 
uddin Zikaria, all of whom died successively 
a short time after one another. He was born 
iu A.D. 1173, A.H. 569, died on Satiu-day the 
17th October, a.d. 1265, 5th Muharram, 
A.H. 664, aged 95 lunar years, and is biu'ied 
at Ajiidhan, a place commonly called Patau 
or Piik Patau in Miiltau. The anniversary 
of his death is celebrated every year on the 
5tli of Mnbarram, when a great crowd of 
Muhammadans assemble together to pray at 
his tomb. 

Farid-uddin (i_-jl^ ^^jjJUj^j), com- 
monly called Farid Katib, was a pupil of 
Anwari, a good poet and secretary to Sultan 
Sanjar. When that prince was defeated by 
the monarch of Qara Ivhatai in a.d. 1140, 
A.H. 635, and fled with a few followers to 
Khurasan, Farid consoled him by composing 
an ode upon the occasion, in which he says, 
" that every thing must cliange, but that the 
condition of God alone was not liable to 

Farid-uddin Attar (Shaikh) (jo -J 
jLLi-c j^_)J,Jl), surnamed Mu- 
hammad Ibrahim, was a dealer iu perfumes, 
from which he took his poetical name '"Attar." 
He afterwards retired from the world, became 
a disciple of Shaikh Majd-uddiu Eaghdadi, 
and lived to a great age, namely, that of 114 
lunar years. He was born at Shadyakh, a 
village in Naishapiir in the reign of Sultan 
Sanjar in November, a.d. 1119, Sha'ban, 
A.H. 513, and, whenatthe siege of Naishapiir, 
the son-in-law of Changez Khan, the Tartar, 
was killed, a general massacre of the inhabi- 
tants of that place was made by the Muglials, 
among the number that were slain being 
Farid-uddin. This circumstance took place 
on the 26th April, a.d. 1230, 10th Jamad II. 
A.H. 627. He is the author of 40 poems and 
several prose works, amongst the latter 

The following are Ms poems ; — 
Asrar Nama. Ilahi Nama 

Ashtur Xama. Khayat Nama. 

Ausat Nama. Kanz-ul-Haqaeq. 

Besar Nama. Lisan-ul-Ghaib. 

Bulbul Nama. Mansur Nama. 

Gul-wa-Khusro or Miftah-ul-Fatuh. 

Hurmuz. Mazhar-ul-'Ajaeb. 

Haidar Nama. Mantiq-ul-Tair. 

Haft Wadi. Mukhtilr Nama. 

Haqaeq-ul-Jawahir Musibat Nama. 
Hallaj Nama. Pand Nama. 

Jawahir-ul-zat. Sipah Nama. 

Khusro Nama. Wald Nama. 

Kanzan Makhfia. Wasiat Nama. 

Kunt Kauz Makhafla. 

Besides the above, he is also the author of 
a Diwan containing 40,000 verses. 

Faridun (j^.ju-i), an ancient king of 
Persia, the son of Abtin, an immediate 




descendant of Tahmurs, king of Persia. He 
had escaped, it is said in a miracnlous manner, 
from Zuliaq, when that prince had seized and 
murdered his father. At the age of 16 he 
joined Kawa or Gawa, a blacksmith, who 
had collected a large body of his countrymen ; 
these fought with enthusiasm under the 
standard of the blacksmith's apron, which 
was afterwards conyerted into the royal 
standard of Persia, called the Durafsh 
Kawani. Zuhaq, after numerous defeats, 
was made prisoner, and put to a slow and 
painful death. Faridiin, who was a very 
just and virtuous king, had three sous, tiiz., 
Salm, Tur, and Iraj, among whom he 
divided his kingdom ; but the two elder, 
displeased that Persia, the fairest of lands and 
the seat of royalty, should have been given to 
Iraj their junior, combined to effect his ruiu, 
and at last slew him, and sent his head to 
Fariduu. The old man fainted at the sight, 
and when he recovered he called upon Heaven 
to punish the base penetrators of so unnatural 
and cruel a deed. The daughter of Iraj was 
married to the nephew of Faridiin, and their 
young son Mauuchehr proved the image of 
his grandfather. When he attained manhood, 
the old king made every preparation to enable 
him to revenge the blood of Iraj. A war 
commenced ; and in the first battle Salm and 
Tiir were both slain. Faridiin soon after- 
wards died, and was succeeded by Mauuchehr. 
Persian authors assure us that Faridiin 
reigned 500 years. 

Faridun C^^.A-j^J), a Turk who wrote 

a Commentary in the Turkish language on 
the Gliazals ol Haiiz. 

Farigli (c^U), author of the poem 

called Masnawl Faric/h, wlrich he composed 
iu A.D. 1592, A.H. lUOO, iu which year, he 
says. Shah 'Abbas conquered Gilan, and to 
whom it was dedicated. 

Faris Ecchidiak (^_^^lj), an Arabiopoet 

and litterateur, born about the year a.d. 1796. 
In religion he was a Syrian Christian. He 
is the author of several works. "When in 
London he published his revised text of the 
New Testament iu Arabic. His Diwan in 
Arabic is highly spoken of by whose who 
have seen it. He was living in 1860. 

Fariz (^.l_j), or Ibn Fariz, surname 

of Abrt Hafs Sharaf-uddin Umar bin-al- 
Asa'di, bin-al-Murshid, bin-Ahmad al Asa'di, 
a very illustrious Arabian poet. He was born 
at Cairo a.d. 1181, A.ii. 577, and died there 
in the year a.d. 1234, a.h. 632. 

Farkhari {^jV-^.^^), a poet who was 

in the service of Amir Kaikaiis, and is the 
author of the story of Wmniq-wa- Uzra, in 

Farkhunda Ali Khan (Mir) (i(A:>>.y 
^ ^^l-i- (Ar:), Nizam of Deocan. 

He succeeded his father Sikaudar Jah in the 
government of Haidarabad in a.d. 1829. 
[ Vide Afzal-uddaula.] 

Faroghi Kashmiri {^Jj^^aJ^ <^}r^> 
a poet who died in a.d. 1666, a.h. 1077. 

Faroghi (Maulana) (Ij^^^ is^ir-'^' "^ 

Qazwiu in Isfahan ; he was a dealer in 
perfumes, but an excellent poet, and lived iu 
the time of 'Abbas the Great. 

Farrukhi (^5=- y), or Farkhi, a poet 

who flourished in the time of Sultan Mahmiid 
of (jhazni, was a pupil of TJnsari the poet, 
and a descendant of the royal race of the 
kings of Sistiin. He is the author of a work 
called Tarjiumn - id - Balaghat, and of a 
Diwan in Persian. He wrote several pane- 
gyrics in praise of Abii'l Muzaffar, the son 
ot' Amir Nasr and grandson of Nasir-uddin, 
ruler of Balkh. 

Farrukh Fa'l ( Jlj ~ji), a son of the 

emperor Humayiin by Mah Chiichak Begam, 
horn at Kabul in a.d. 1555, a.h. 962. 

Farrukh-siyar (Muhammad) {^ -Ji 

^^sr*'), emperor of Dehll, born on 

the 18th July, o.s. 1687, 18th Ramazin, 
a.h. 1098, was the son of Azim-ush-Shan, 
the second son of Bahadur Shah I. and great- 
grandson of the emperor Alamgir. His father 
was killed in the battle fought against 
Jahandar Shah, his uncle and predecessor. 
One of Jahandar Shah's first acts on his 
accession to the throne had been to put all 
the princes of the blood within his reach to 
death ; among those whom he could not get 
into his power was Farrukh-siyar, who was 
in Bengal at the time of his grandfather 
Bahadur Shah's death. But when the 
information of his father's death reached 
him, he threw himself on the compassion and 
fidelity of Saiyad Husain Ali Klian, the 
governor of Behar, who warmly espoused his 
cause, and prevailed on his brother, Saiyad 
Abdullah Khiin, governor af Allahabad, to 
adopt the same course. By the aid of these 
noblemen, FaiTukh-siyar assembled an army 
at Allahabad, marched towards Agra, 
defeated Jahandar Shah, took Mm prisoner, 
and having murdered him, ascended the 
tlirone in the fort of DehlT on Friday the 9th 
January, o.s. 1713, 23rd Zil-hijja, a.h. 
1124. The fonuer Amir-ul-Umra Zulfiqar 
Khan and many other nobles and dependants 
of the late emperor were put to death by the 
bow-strin{^ and other punishments. Raja 
Sabhchand, Diwan to the late Amir-ul-Umra, 
had his tongue cut out : Aziz-uddin, son of 
Jahandar Shah, 'Ali Tabar, the son of 'Azim 




Shah, and Humayun Eakht, younger brother 
to Farrukh-siyar were deprived of their 
sight by a red hot iron drawn over their eyes. 
On Farrukh-siyar's accession, Abdullah 
Kjian, the eldest brother, was made Wazir 
with the title of Qutb-ul-Mulk, and Husaiu 
All Khan raised to the rank of Amir-ul- 
TJmra (Commander-in-Chief) which was the 
second in the State. The emperor's nuptials 
with the daughter of Eilj a A j it Singh of M iirwar 
were celebrated with unprecedented splendour 
in the year a.d. 1716, a.h. 1128. Farrukh- 
siyar had not long enjoyed the throne, when 
a jealousy arose between him and the "Wazir 
Qutb - ul - Mulk ; and upon the emperor 
trying to form schemes for the recovery of 
his independence, he was deposed, blinded and 
imprisoned by the two brothers. This event 
took place on the 18th February, o.s. 1719, 
8th Eabi' II. a.h. 1131, and not long after he 
was murdered on the 16th May, a.d. 1719, 
9th Kajab, a.h. 1131, following, and buried 
in the coiu't of the mausoleum of the 
emperor Humajiin at Dehl!. He had reigned 
6 years 3 months and 15 days. After his 
deposal the Saiyads set up a prince of the 
blood to whom they gave the title of Eafi- 
ud-Darjat. It was from Farmkh-siyar that 
the East India Company obtained their 
Farman of free trade, with leave to purchase 
tliirty-seven districts in Bengal, besides 
various privileges ; little attention was how- 
ever paid to it lay the Siibahdar till the 
English acquired force to give it weight. 

Farmklizad (olj •^), a prince of 

Persia of the Sasanian race. 
[ Vide Tiiran Dukht.] 

Farmklizad (jlj • •), son of Sultan 

Masa'iid I. of Gliaznl, began to reign after 
the death of his brother Sultan Abdul EashTd, 
in March, a.d. 1053, a.h. 444. He reigned 
6 years and died in the latter part of the year 
A.D. 1058, when his brother Sultan Ibrahim 
succeeded him. 

Farsi (.^j\i V. (C-yX o^ FarasI, sur- 
name of Abii'l Fawaris Ibrahim, a Persian 

Farsi ( »j i), poetical name of Sharif 
Khan AmTr-ul-tTmra, wliich see. 

Faryabi. Vide Zahir-uddin Faryabl. 

Faryad (jljy), the poetical name of 

Lala Sahib Eae, a Kayeth of Lucknow. He 
originally had assumed Qurban, for his 
poetical name, but latterly changed it to 
Faryad. He was Kving in a.d. 1782, a.h. 

Farzada Quli (, \j Ij; J), author of a 

Catalogue of books in the Arabic, Persian, 
and Hindi languages, amounting, on a rough 

estimate, to upwards of 2,000 volumes. From 
its mentioning the Diwan of Sanda, it 
appears that it was written within the last fifty 
or sixty years. It also mentions the Mustafa 
Kama, in the metre of the Shah Niima, 
embracing the history of Persia from Muham- 
mad to Tahmasp Shah Safwl, amounting to 
104,000 couplets; also of a Persian trans- 
lation of the Muqamat of Harizi. Jour, of 
the Roy. As. Soc. No. XI. 

Farzadaq (j'^Jy), the son of Ghalib, 

called the master of Arabian poets, was an 
author, and had the whole Quran by heart. 
He died in a.d. 728, a.h. 110, aged upwards 
of 70 years. He flourished in the reign of 
Abdul Malik, the son of Marwan I. who 
imprisoned him because he wrote a panegyric 
" in praise of Imam ' Al! Zain-ul- ' AbidTn, son 
of Imam Husain, but was released, after the 
death of the khalif, by his son Walid. His 
Diwan in Arabic is much esteemed in Hajjaz 
and Iraq. 

FasiM Ansari (i^^jJi> t^LaJl js:\^s), 

of Herat, a Persian poet, who flourished 
about the year a.d. 1595, a.h. 1004. He 
never came to India. He died in a.d. 1636, 
A.H. 1046. 

Fasih. - uddin Muhammad Nlzami 

Maulana (^^^Ui) Jk^*^'* ^^^\ ^^i 

Ij^.^), author of the Sharah Jiighmim. 

Fassi ( ^), surname of Faqih-uddin 

Muhammad-ibn-Ahmad 'Ali-al-Husaini ; he 
was a native of Fass (Fez), on which account 
he was called Fassi. He was an author and 
Qazi of the city of Mecca, and died a.d. 1429, 
A.H. 833. 

Fatha Ali Husaini ( i^*^?- Ic ^'i), 

author of the biography called Tazlcirat-ush- 
Shiia'rde Hindi. It contains the Memoirs 
of 108 Hindi and Deccani authors, with 
numerous extracts from their works. 

Fatha 'Ali Shah (iLi, Is. ^i), king 

of Persia, was a Turkman of the tribe of 
Kajar. He succeeded his uncle 'Aka 
Muhammad Khan to the throne of Persia 
in A.D. 1797, A.H. 1212. He had received 
an excellent education, and possessed some 
literary accomplishments ; was a tolerable 
poet, and fond of the society of the learned, 
whom he generously patronized. He reigned 
nearly 40 years and died in the year a.d. 
1834, A.H. 1260. After him Muhammad 
Shah, the son of 'Abbas Mirza and grand- 
son of Fatha 'Ali Shah, mounted the throne 
and died in a.d. 1847, w-hen his son Nasir- 
nddin Ahmad Shah, the present king, suc- 
ceeded him. It was to the com-t of Fatha 
'All Shah that Sir John Malcolm in 1800 
led the magnificent embassy which Lord 




Wellesley had despatched from Calcutta, -with 
the view of trumping Bonaparte's cards in 
the East, and of playing off a Persian ally 
on our Indian frontiers against an Afghan 
ill-wisher, the ambitious Zaman Shah. 

Fatha Haidar (^A-.=- ^i), the eldest 
son of Tippi Sultan. 


Fatha Khan (J^^ Jj), the son of 

Sultau Firoz Shah Barbalc, king of Dehli, 
and brother of Zafar Khan. 

IVide Firoz Shah Barbak.] 
Fatha Khan (,.,U J.i), Nawab of 



Fatha Khan (^U. J.i), brother of 

Dost Muhammad Khan, ruler of Kabul. 
The celebrated Wazir of Mahmiid, ruler 
of Herat and chief of the Barakzai clan, 
whose family drove away the descendants of 
Ahmad Shah Ahdali from Kabul. 

Fatha Khan (^U. Ji), the son of 

Malik 'Ambar, the Abyssinian chief of Ahmad- 
nagar in the Deccau, who had the Mzam 
Shah; dominions under his control for some 
years. After his father's death in a.d. 1626, 
A.H. 1035, he succeeded to his authority ; 
but Mui-taza Nizam Shah II. being weary 
of his control, took hitn prisoner by treachery, 
and confined him in the fort of Khybar. 
Having made his escape, he rebelled,' but 
was again taken, and confined in Daidat- 
abad. He was released in time, and appointed 
generalissimo by the influence of his sister, 
mother to Xizam Shah. He shortly, to 
prevent another removal from office, confined 
the Sultan under pretence of insanity, and 
put to death twenty -five of the principal 
nobility in one day, writing to the emperor 
Shah Jahau that he had thus acted to 
prevent them from rebelling against him. 
The emperor in reply commended'his attach- 
ment, and ordered him to put the captive 
prince to death, which he did about the year 
A.D. 1628, A.H. 1038, and placed his son 
Husain, an infant of ten years, on the throne. 
Fatha Khan, by offering a present of eight 
lacs of rupees, and agreeing to pay tribute, 
was allowed to keep what territory yet 
remained to the Nizam Shahi sovereignty. 
In the year a.d. 1634, a.h. 1044, Fatha 
Khan was forced to surrender ; and the fall 
of this place put a final period to the Nizam 
Shahi djTiasty, M'hich had swayed the sceptre 
for 150 years. Husain Nizam Shah was 
confined for life in the fortress of Gwaliar, 
but Fatha Khan was received into favour, and 
was allowed to retire to Lahore on a pension 
of two lacs of rupees, which he enjoyed till 
his death. 

Fatha Naek (lLCiIj m^':), the father 

of Haidar 'AH, the usurper of Mysore 
and Seringapatam. He died in a.u. 1738, 
and was buried at Kolar, u capital of seven 
parganas, about 35 miles east of Bangalore. 

Fatha-puri Mahal (As-^ ^,»j .Jij) 

or Begam, one of the wives of the emperor 
Shah Jahau. She was the founder of the 
Fathapiiri Masjid in Dehli. 

Fatha Shah (^^y^ i\^ ^i), Purbi, 

succeeded Tiisaf Shah to the throne of 
Bengal in a.d. 1482, a.h. 887, and after a 
reigu of about eight years was murdered in 
a.d. 1491, A.H. 896, by the eunuch Sultan 
Shahzada, who succeeded him. 

Fatha-uUah Imad Shah (a.JJ1 Jij 

ii.^ jL*.c), originally in the service 

of Sultan Mahmiid Shah II. Bahmani, king 
of Deccau, was made governor of Berar. 
He became independent about the year a.d. 
1484, and died about the year a.h. 1513. 
His son 'Ala-uddiu 'Imad Shah succeeded 

[Vide 'Imad-xd-Mulk.] 

Fatha-uUah Mustaufi {i.AJi\ 


^jy^jjj.^), surnamed Fakhr-nddin, 

was a good poet and served under Khwaja 
Eashid-uddin, Fazl-ullah and his son Gliayas- 
uddin Muhammad, as secretary. He is the 
brother of Khwiija Hamd-ullah Mustaufi, 
who died in a.d. 1349. 

Fatha-ullah Shirazi Amir (d;J_!l 


.^\ ^:l.^), one of the most learned 

men of his time. He came from Shiraz to 
Deccan and passed a few years in the service 
of Sultan All Adil Shah of Bijapiir. After 
the death of that king, he left Deccan and 
came to Dehli in the year a.d. 1582, a.h. 
990, and had an honoiurable ofiice assigned to 
him by the emperor Akbar, near his person, 
with the title of Azd-ud-daula. He died on 
Wednesday, the 3rd Shawwal, 997 Hijri, the 
24th Amardild Mah Ilalii, in the 34th year of 
Akbar' s reign, corresponding with the 6th 
August, o.s. 1689, at Siriuagar the capital of 
Kashmir, where he had proceeded with his royal 
master. The emperor was much grieved at his 
loss ; and Shaikh Faizi wrote an appropriate 
epitaph on the occasion. Fifteen days after 
his death cUed also the Hakim Abii'l Fatha 
Gilani, the brother of Hakim Haman, who 
was then with the king proceeding to Kabul. 
Sarfi Sawaji wrote the chronogram of their 




FatM ( -sfLi), a poet of Ardastan, 
who died in a.d. 1635, a.h. 1045. 

Fathi 'Ali Husaini Gurdezi. Vide 

Fatima {Lt.[,[i), the daughter of Mu- 
hammad and his wife KJiudija. She was 
horn at Mecca five jears hefore her father 
gaye himself out for' a prophet, i.e., ahout 
the year a.d. 606, and died about six months 
after him, in the city of Medina on the night 
of Monday the 23rd November, a.d. 632, 
3rd Eamazan, a.h. 11. She was married to 
Ali, Muhammad's cousin - german, and 
became the mother of the Imams Hasan and 
Husain. She passes for a very holy woman 
amongst the Musalmans, and is also called by 
them Batiil, Tahira, Mathara, and Zahra. 

Fatima bint Asad (ji_jl i.:l^;j iU-tli), 

the daughter of Asah, the son of Hiishim. 
She was the wife of Abii Talib and mother of 

Fatima Sultan (^IkLj <uJsU), one of 

the wives of TJmar Shaikh Mirza, and 
mother of the prince Pir Muhammad 

Fatimites, or kings of Barhary and 
Egj-pt of the Fatimite djmasty. 

[ Vide Muizz - li - din - allah and Obeid- 
iiUah Almahdi.] 

Fattahi Naishapuri Maulana ( -^l:ii 

\j'iy* ,ylJLJ), an author who died 
a.d. 1448, A.H. 852. 

Fauji {j^-^i), poetical name of Mirza 

Muhammad Muqim ; he was born at Shiraz 
but came to India in the time of Shah Jahan, 
and was attached to the service of his son 
Shah Shuja'a in Bengal. After a long 
residence in India he returned to his father- 
land, but died in a short time after his 
arrival there. He was living in a.d. 1649, 
A.H. 1059, and has left a Diwan in Persian 
verse. As he was employed in the army he 
derived his poetical title from i^awy, i.e. army. 

Faulad Khan (Shidi) (^L 



^Ju-.- i), an Abyssinian who was at 

Kotwal in the time of the emperor Muham- 
mad Shah, about the year a.d. 1737, a.h. 
1150, and on whom a satire was written by 
the poet Sauda. He had built a fine garden 
in Agrah, of which no traces are to be seen 

FauracL (jj^J), surname of Abu Bakr 

Muhammad, bin-Hasan, bin-Fauraq, com- 
monly called ibn-Fauraq, was a great 
Metaphysician and Schoolman, for which 
reason he is styled MutkaUim. He was bom 
at Isfahan, and died in the city of Naishapur, 
in Khurasan, a.d. 1015, a.h. 406. 

Fa wad Muhammad Pasha (jU-i 

l-ili Ju^-^), a Turkish statesman 

and litterateur of Constantinople, sou of Izzat 
Midla, and nephew of Laila Khatiin, a 
Turkish poetess. He is the author of several 
works. He was living in a.d. 1870, and has 
been loaded with distinctions by European 

Fayyaz (^Li). 
of Lahijan. 

Fide 'Abdul-Eazzaq 

Fayyazi ( ^^^i). Vide Faizi (Shaikh). 

Fazal Khan ((^Ui- (J^J), governor or 

kiladar of the fort of Agra, was turned out by 
Surajmal Jat, who took possession of the fort 
and plundered everything he could lay his 
hands upon. 

Fazil ( J_iLi), a poet who flourished 
about the year a.d. 489. 

Fazl Ali Khan (^jL^ ic^"^ J-^-*)) a 

poet who flourished in the time of the 
emperor Muhammad Shah of Dehli, and 
was living in a.d. 1739, a.h. 1152. 

Fazl Ali Khan (^U 


.Lc J-^J), 

whose entire title was Nawab Ta'timad-ud- 
daula Zaya-ul-Mulk Saiyad Fazl 'Ali Khan 
Bahadur Sohrab Jang, was the prime 
minister of the king of Audh Ghazl-ud-din 
Haidar, and was living in a.d. 1829. 

Fazl Barmaki (^ |«j J-iJ), brother 

of ' Jafar-al-Barmaki, the minister of Hariin- 
al-Eashid Khalifa of Baghdad. 
{Vide Jafar-al-Barmaki.] 

Fazl Haq. (^i^ J.,aJ), the son of Fazl 

Imam. He wrote prose and poetry as did 
also his father. His Qasidas are much 
esteemed. At the outbreak of 1857, he joined 
the rebel Nawab of Banda and others, and was 
said to have been kUled at Narod in an attack 
made by General Napier on the 1 7th December, 
A.D. 1868, A.H. 1274. 1%el)ehll Gazette, May 
17th, 1859, mentions, however, that sentence 
of transportation was passed on the rebels LonI 
Singh, ex-Baja of Mitauli, and the Maulwi 
Fazl Haq. 




Fazli (^^^i), a poet and author of the 

Loves of 8hdh-wa-Mnh, a poem containing 
12,260 Persian verses, which he completed in 
the year a.d. 1641. 

Fazl Imam (A^\ J^), an inhabitant 

of Kliairabad, who ^\Tote prose and poetry, 
and died in the year a.d. 1828, a.h. 1244. 

Fazl Rasul Moulvi {^^^ Jy^j J^i 

^,\si), of Badaon, son of Maulvi 

Abdul Jlajid, and author of the works called 
Bawarili and Tashih-ul- Masael. He was 
living iu a.d. 1854, a.h. 1271. 

Fazl-uUah {i._\.J,\ J_>ii_i), surnamed 

Khwaja Eashid-uddin, a native of QazwTn or 
Hamdan and a Persian historian, who wrote 
at the desire of his master, the Sultan of 
Persia, a history of the llughals, finished in 
A.D. 1294, to which he afterwards added a 
supplement. He was beheaded in July, a.d. 
1318. His name is spelt in some of our 
Biographical Dictionaries, Fadl-allah. From 
the work of Eashid-uddin, called Jdma'-ut- 
Taioarlkh, and from other materials, Abii'l 
Ghazi, king of Khwarizm, composed in the 
Maghal language his Genealogioal History. 
[ Vide Eashid-uddin. J 

Fazl-uUali Khan Nawab (<UJ1 J,_tf2.i 

j^ls-), an Amir of the court of the 
emperor Babar, who built a mosque in Dehli 
in the year a.d. 1529, a.h. 936, which is 
still standing. 

Fazl-ullah Maulana (ljL-< <dll J.^J), 

Physician to Amir Taimiir, and the most 
celebrated and skilful practitioner of the age 
in which he lived. 

Fazuli Baghdadi (^jIajo ^j^J); 

an author who was a native of Baghdad, and 
died in the year a.d. 1562, a.h. 970, and 
left us a Dlwan in the Persian and Turkish 

Fidai Khan (^l-ri- ^IaJ), former 
title of 'Azim Khan Koka, which see. 

Fidai Mirza (Ij^., ^j\'^), name of a 

Fidwi (cj:^Jki), of Lahore, the poetical 

name of a poet of the end of the 18th century ; 
was son of a Hindu chandler but converted to 
Isjam by Sabir ' Ali Shah ; became a cKent of 
Zabita Khan (q.v.) and died at Moradabad 
about 1780. He is the author of a poem in 

Urdu entitled I'usnf-wa-ZahiMia (the Loves 
of Joseph and Potiphar's wife). Mir Fatha 
Ali Shaida has satirized him in his story of 
the Biim and Haqqdl. 

Fidwi (|_j.ji.j), author of a Persian 

Diwan. He flourished in the year a.d. 1649, 
a.h. 1059. 

Fighan (^\ki), the poetical title of 

Ashraf 'Ali Khan, the son of Mirza 'Ali 
Khan, and the Koka or foster-brother of the 
emperor Ahmad Shah of Debli. He is the 
author of a Diwan in the Urdii language, 
containing about 2,000 verses. He died at 
Patna in a.d. 1772, a.h. 1186, and was 
buried there. 

Fighani ( jUi). Vide Baba Fighanl. 

Fikrat (c^^^i), poetical title of Mirza 

Fikri (^-^„Cj), poetical title of Sa'id 

Muhammad of Herat. He was a weaver and 
is therefore called Jamabaf. He came to 
India in a.d. 1561, a.h. 969, and gained, 
through his great talents for making epigi'ams, 
the favom- of the emperor Akbar. He com- 
posed only Suba'is, and died in a.d. 1665, 
A.H. 973. 

Firaqi ( ^'l^i), poetical title of an 

author named Abii'l Barkat, who died in the 
year a.d. 1507, a.h. 913. 

Firdausi or Firdausi Tusi (b ^-jiJ/ 
ij-ojL ^^,iij}), "the poetical title of 

Abii'l Kasim Hasan - bin - Sharaf Shiih, a 
famous Persian poet, sometimes called the 
Homer of Persia, whose epic poem, called 
Shahaama, written by order of Sultan 
Mahmiid of Ghazni, is justly celebrated. It 
contains the legendary annals of the ancient 
kings of Persia, from the reign of the first 
king, Kaiomurs, to the death of Tezdijard III. 
the last monarch of the Sasanian race, who 
was deprived of his kingdom a.d. 641, by the 
invasion of the Arabs duriag the Khilaiat of 
'Umar, the second KhaUf after Muhammad. 
It was the labour of 30 years, and consists of 
60,000 verses, each of which is a distich. 
The foUowiug circumstances respecting the 
origin of the poem and the life of the poet 
are chiefly derived from the preface to the 
copy of the Shdhnama, which was collated 
A.D. 1426, A.H. 829, by order of Baisanghur 
Mirza the grandson of Amir Taimiir. It 
appears from that preface, that Yezdijard, 
the last king of the Sasanian race, took 
considerable pains in collecting all the 
chronicles, histories, and traditions connected 
with Persia and the sovereigns of that 




country, from the time of Kaiomurs to the 
accession of the Khusros, which by his 
direction were digested and brought into one 
view, and formed the hook known by the 
name of 8iar-ul- Maluk , or the Bastan Ndma. 
When the followers of Muhammad overtm-ned 
the Persian monarchy, this work was found 
in the plimdered Ubrary of Yezdijard. In the 
tenth century one of the kings of the then 
dynasty, directed Daqiqi {q.v.) the poet to 
versify that extensive work, but the poet only 
lived to finish a thousand distichs, having been 
assassinated by his own slave. Nothing 
further was done till the reign of Sultan 
Mahmiid, when a romantic accident furnished 
the Sultan with a copy of the Bastan Noma, 
the existence of wliich was till then unknown to 
Mm. From this work, he selected seven 
stories which he delivered to seven poets to be 
composed in verse, that he might be able to 
ascertain the merits of each competitor. The 
poet Unsari gained the palm, and he was 
accordingly engaged to arrange the whole in 
verse. firdausi was at this time at Tus, 
his native city, where he cidtivated his 
poetical talents with assiduity and success. 
He had heard of the attempt of Daqiqi, and 
of the determination of the reigning king 
Mahmiid, to patronize an undertaking which 
promised to add lustre to the age in which he 
lived. Having fortunately succeeded in 
procuring a copy of the Bastan Nama, he 
pursued his studies vrith unremitting zeal, 
and soon produced that part of the poem in 
which the battles of Zuhaq and Faridiin are 
described. The performance was universally 
read and admired, and it was not long before 
his fame reached the ears of the Sultan, who 
immediately invited him to his coirrt. It is 
related that when Firdausi, on the invitation 
of the Sultan, reached the capital Ghazni, he 
happened to pass a public garden where the 
three royal poets, Unsari, Asjadi and 
Farrukhi were enjoying themselves. The 
poets observed him approach and at once 
agreed that if the stranger chanced to have 
any taste for poetry, which they intended to 
put to test, he should be admitted to their 
friendship, and in order to decide as to his 
merits they settled among themselves to 
repeat each in turn a hemistich, and leave to 
Firdausi to complete the fourth, but at the 
same time satisfied in their own minds that 
there was no other word in the Persian 
language that would rhyme with the three 
which they had taken care to pre-occupy. 
Firdausi joining them and hearing the 
proposal, promised to exert his powers. 
They then commenced each with an extem- 
poraneous line : — 

TJnsari ... The light of the moon to thy 

splendour is weak, 
. . The rose is eclipsed by the bloom 

of thy cheek ; 
Farrukhi ... Thine eyelashes dart through the 

folds of the Joshan, 
Firdausi ... Like the javelin of Geo in the 

battle with Pushan. 

The poets were astonished at the readiness 
of the stranger, and ashamed at being totally 


ignorant of the story of Geo and Pushan, 
which Firdausi related as described in Bastan 
Ndma. They immediately treated him with 
the greatest kindness and respect, and after- 
wards introduced him to Mahmiid, as a poet 
capable of undertaking the Shdhndma. 
Mahmiid considered himself never so much 
honoured as when Firdausi set his foot at 
6]iazni ; he was never more proud than 
that Firdausi was by his command, composing, 
in his faultless verse, a history of the 
monarchs of Persia, his predecessors. No 
reward then appeared to him too great to 
offer, to induce the poet to undertake the 
task, no promise too splendid to excite him. 
"Write, unequalled one," cried he, "and 
for every thousand couplets a thousand pieces 
of gold shall be thine." Firdausi obeyed, 
but resolved to accept no reward till he had 
completed the work he had imdertaken, and 
for thirty years he studied and laboured that 
his poem might he worthy of eternal fame. 
In this he succeeded, and presented an elegant 
copy of his book to Mahmiid, but the patience 
of the Sultan was exhausted, his enthusiasm 
was gone, his liberality had faded away, and 
when the 60,000 couplets of the Shdhndma 
were ended, there was a pause, which brought 
to the poet disappointment and to the monarch 
such everlasting disgrace as has obliterated 
all Ms triumphs. Mahmiid received the book, 
coldly applauded his diligence and dismissed 
Mm. Many months elapsed, and Firdausi 
heard no more of his work ; he then took 
occasion to remind the king of it by the 
following epigram : 

'Tis said our monarch's liberal mind 
Is like the ocean unconfined, 
Happy are they who prove it so, 
'Tis not for me that truth to know. 
I've plunged witMn its waves, 'tis true, 
But not a single pearl could view. 

Shamed, picqued, and offended at this 
freedom, the Sul.tan ordered 60,000 pieces of 
silver dirhams to be sent to the author, 
instead of the gold which he had promised. 
Firdausi was in the bath at the time the 
money arrived, and his rage and amazement 
exceeded aU bounds when he found himself 
thus insulted. He immediately distributed 
the paltry sum amongst the attendants of the 
bath and the slave who brought it. The 
excited poet then relieved his mind by a satire 
full of stiaging invective, and caused it to be 
transmitted to the favourite Wazir who had 
instigated the Sultan against him ; it was 
carefully sealed up, with directions that it 
should be read to Mahmiid on some occasion 
when his mind was perturbed with affairs of 
State, as it was a poem likely to afford him 
entertainment. Firdausi having thus prepared 
his vengeance, quitted the court and was 
safely arrived in Mazandaran, where news 
reached him that his lines had fully answered 
the purpose he had intended they should do. 
Mahmiid had heard and trembled, and too 
late discovered that he had rained his own 
reputation for ever. After his satire had 
been read by Mahmiid, the poet feared to 
remain too long in one place ; he sought 




shelter in the court of the khnllf of Baghdad, 
iu whose honour ho added a 1000 couplets to 
the Slii'ihiiihiui, and who rewarded him with the 
60,000 gold pieces which had heeu withheld 
by Malimiid. Mahmud pretended to hare 
discovered that liis Wazir had deceived him 
in attributiug impiety to Firdausi, and he at 
once sacrificed that favourite, dismissing 
him with disgrace. Thinking, by a tardy 
act of liberality, to repau- his former meanness, 
Mahmud dispatched to Firdausi the 60,000 
pieces he had promised, a robe of State, and 
many apologies and expressions of friendship ; 
but the poet was dead, having expired in his 
native town full of years and honours, sur- 
roimded by his friends and kindred. Firdausi 
died at Tiis (now called Mashhad) his native 
country in a.d. 1020, a.h. 411, aged89 years, 
but Haji Ifhalfa says he died in a.d. 1025, 
A.H. 416. Besides the Shdhmlma, he was 
the author of other poems called AhuU 

Firdausi-al-Thihal (J^^fJl i^J'^y^X 

a Turkish historian, and author of the 
Turkish work called Shahndma, which com- 
prises the histor)' of all the ancient kings of 
the East. Eayazld or Bajazet II. to whom 
the book was dedicated, ordered the author to 
reduce it from its original bulk of 300 
volumes to 80. Firdausi however, felt so 
mortified at this proposal, that he preferred 
leaving the country altogether, and emigrated 
to Khurasan, in Persia. Firdausi flourished 
in A.D. 1500. 

Firishta (itiJIj i), whose proper name 

was Muhammad Qasim, and who was the 
author of the history called Tnrlkh-i-Firishta, 
was born at Astrabad on the borders of the 
Caspian Sea, between the years a.d. 1570 or 
1650, A.H. 978 or 958. His father, a learned 
man, by name Ghulam 'Ali Hindii Shah, left 
his native country when our author was very 
young and travelled into India. He even- 
tually reached Ahniadnagar iu the Deccau 
duriug the reign of Murtaza Nizam Shah I. 
and was appointed by the Sultan to instruct 
his son Miran Husain in the Persian language, 
but he soon died after his selection, and 
Fii'ishta was left an orphan in early youth. 
After the death of Murtaza Nizam Shah, in 
A.D. 1589, A.H. 996, he proceeded to Bij apSr, 
and was presented by Dilawar Khan, minister 
to Ibrahim 'Adil Shah II. by whose request 
he wrote the history which goes by his name, 
in the year 1023 Hijrf (a.d. 1614). The year of 
his death is altogether unknown. Briggs 
supposes that it occurred iu a.d. 1612, a.h. 
1021, making him only 41 years of age. 
M. Jules Molil supposes him to have revised 
his work up to at a.d. 1623, a.h. 1033, 
making his age not less than 73, as he 
supposes him to have been born in a.d. 1560. 
Firishta styles his work Githhan-i-Ihrdhhnl 
and Kanras Ndma. Its former name is 
derived from the king to whom it was 
dedicated ; and hence it is frequently quoted 
under the name of I'arikh lirdhhnl. The 

latter name was given to it iu commemoration 
of the new capital, Nauras, which his patron 
Ibrahim 'Adil Shah, commenced building in 
the year a.d. 1599. The first and second 
books, gi\'ing an account of the Dehli 
emperors down to Akbar, were translated 
into English by Colonel Dow in 1768 ; the 
history of the Deccau by Captain Jonathan 
Scott. But the translation of the entireworkby 
General Briggs iu four volumes 8vo. , 1829, has 
(according to Elliot) thrown others into the 
shade, and is by far the most valuable store- 
house of facts connected with Muhammadan 
dynasties of India. 

{Vide Dowson's Elliot, vi. 207.] 

Firoz {j.j^.i), a celebrated Sufi of 

Agra, author of a Persian work on Theology 
called 'Aqded Sufia, written in 1626, 
A.H. 1036. 

Firoz I. (j.^-,J) (the Peroses of the 

Greeks), a king of Persia of the Sasaniau 
race, was the eldest son of Yezdijard II. He 
succeeded his younger brother Hurmuz, 
whom he dethroned and put to death in a.d. 
458. He lost his life in a battle against the 
king of Transoxiana, after a reign of 26 years, 
in A.D. 484. Balas or Palas or Balasus, his 
son, succeeded him ; and after his death his 
brother Qubad moimted the throne. 

Firozabadi (j_jjljlj^^^), surname of 

Majd-uddin Muhammad - bin - 'Yaqnb bin- 
Muhammad, a learned Persian, so called from 
his birth-place Firozabad, a village in Shiraz. 
The stupendous work called Qdmi/s or Qdmm- 
ul-Lughat, renowned as the most perfect 
Arabic Dictionary, was written by him. Those 
who are acquainted with the peculiarities of 
the Arabic language cannot open this work 
without feeling amazed at the literary services 
rendered by this learned man. He died a.d. 
1414, A.H. 817. 

[Vide Majd-uddin Mnhammad-bin-'Taqub.] 

Firozabadi i^S^Aj.-^i), a learned 

Musalman, author of Al Tanbidh, or Tantiz, 
or general information on the Muhammadan 
law in the 11th century. Lempriere's Uni- 
versal Dietionarij. 

Firoz Jang Khan (^l>- L-fCi^ Ji,J), 

the inscription on the gate of the old fort of 
Patua, dated in the Hijra year 1042 (a.d. 
1633), attributes its erection to Firoz Jang 

Firoz Khan Khwaja Sara ( 


'\j.^ iLp-l^-ri-), who held the rank of 
300 in the time of Shahjahan. 




Firoz Mulla i^^^ ^J l^j,^i), son 

of Kilus, chief priest of the Parsi Qadimis of 
Bombay, author of the George Nuina, a 
history of India from its discovery by the 
Portuguese to the conquest of Puna by the 
English in A.D. 1817, a.h 1233. 

Firoz Shah (^Li j^j^), the son of 

Salim Shah, was raised to the throne of 
Dehli at Gwaliar after the death of his father 
when he was only about 12 \ears old. He had 
scarcely reigned three months (or only 3 days) 
when his mother's brother Mubarik Klian 
mm-dered him on the 2nd May, a.d. 1oo4, 
2yth Jumada I. a.h. 961, and ascended the 
throne with the title of Muhammad Shah 
'Adil. See Bib! BJi. 

Firoz Shah Bahmani Sultan (;,_• 

^LkJ_~) i^^jwK-^pJ ifL.^), king of the 

Deccan, was the son of Sultan Daud Shah. 
After haTing deposed and confined Sultan 
Shams-uddiu, he ascended the throne on the 
15th November, a.d. 1397, a.h. 800, with 
the title of Sultan Firoz Shah Eoz Afziiu. 
He excelled his predecessors in power and 
magnificence, and in his reign the house of 
Bahmani attained its greatest splendour. On 
ascending the throne, he appointed his 
brother Ahmad Khan, Amir-uI-TJmra, with 
the title of Klxankhanan, and raised Mir 
FaizuUah Anjii, his preceptor, to the office of 
Wazir-us-Saltanat, with the title of Malik 
Naeb. He reigned 25 years 7 months and 
15 days, and died on the 25th September, 
A.D. 1422, 15th Shawwal, a.h. 825, ten days 
after resigning his crown in favour of his 
brother Ahmad Khan, who ascended the 
throne with the title of Sultan Ahmad Shah 
"Wall Bahmani. 

Firoz Shah Khilji Sultan {nKjj, j,^ 

"), surnamed Jalal- 

uddin, son of Qaem Khan, ascended the 
throne of Dehli after the murder of Sultan 
Muiz-uddin Kaiqubad in a.d. 1282, a.h. 
688. He reigned about 8 years, after which 
he was obliged to go down to Kara Manikpiir 
in the province of AUahabad to punish his 
nephew and son-iu-law 'Ala -uddin, the 
governor of that place, who had rebelled 
against him. 'Ala-uddln, hearing of the 
king's departure from Dehli, crossed the 
Ganges and encamped near Manikpur upon 
the opposite bank. When the king reached 
the landing place, 'Ala-uddin appeared upon 
the bank with his attendants, whom he 
ordered to halt. He advanced alone, met 
his uncle and fell prostrate at his feet. The 
king, taking him by the hand, was leading 
him to the royal barge, when 'Ala-uddin 
made a signal to his guards, and one of his 
officers struck his head off. 'jila-uddin 
caused it to be fixed on the point of a spear 
and carried through the camp and city. This 
circumstance took place on the 19th July, 
A.D. 1296, 17th Hamazan, a.h. 695, and 

'Ala-uddin ascended the throne of Dehli 
with the title of Sikaudar Sani ("second 
Alexander"). Firoz Shah was the first Sultan 
of the second branch of the Turko -Afghan 
dynasty called Kliilji. 

List of the Kings of the Khiljl dynasty. 

1. Firoz Shah Khilji. 

2. 'Ala-uddin Khilji. 

3. Shahab-uddin Umar. 

4. Mubarik Shah Khilji, the last of this 

dynasty, was murdered in a.d. 1321, 
by Malik Khusro, a favourite slave, 
who ascended the throne, but was soon 
afterwards slain by Ghaias -uddin 
Tughlaq Shah, the first of the 3rd 
branch of Afghan kings of Dehli. 

Firoz Shah Purhi ( 


a king of Bengal, whose former name was 
Malik Audil, an Abyssinian chief, who after 
killing the eunuch Sultan Shahzada, was 
elevated to the throne of Bengal in a.d. 
1401, A.H. 896, with the title of Firoz Shah. 
He repaired the city of Goui', commonly 
called Lakhnauti, where he gave universal 
satisfaction to all classes of his subjects. He 
died in a.d. 1494, a.h. 899. 

Firoz Shah Tughlaq Sultan iuj-^ 

(^IkLo ^JkkJ il-l), called Piroz Shah 

Barbak, was the son of Sipahsalar Rajab, 
the brother of Sultan Ghaias-uddin Tughlaq, 
and cousin to Sultan Muhammad Tughlaq, 
whom he succeeded to the throne of Dehli on 
the 20th March, a.d. 1351, 21st Muharram, 
a.h. 752, at Thatta. He was a just and 
learned prince. His soldiers and his subjects 
were equally happy under his administration, 
nor did anyone dare to exercise oppression in 
his time. He was himself the author of the 
work called Fatdhat Firoz Shdhl, i.e. the 
conquests of Firoz Shah. In August, a.d. 
1387, he abdicated the throne and resigned 
the reins of government to his son Nasir- 
uddin Muhammad, butthe prince giving himself 
up entirely to pleasxu'e, was soon after expelled 
and obliged to fly with a small retinue to the 
mountains of Sirmdur, and Firoz Shah again 
resumed his full authority. He constructed 
numerous buildings and canals, as also the 
fort of Firozabad at old Dehli, and after a 
reign of of 38 lunar years and eight months, 
died on the 21st September, a.d. 1388, 18th 
fiamazan, a.h. 790, aged upwards of 80 years. 
The words " Waf at Firoz " (the death of Firoz) 
comprise the numerical letters of the year of 
his demise. He was birried on the banks of 
the Hauz Khas, n tank built by him in old 
Dehli ; and was succeeded by his grandson 
Ghaias-uddin (the son of Fatha Khan) who 
was slain after five months. After him 
another grandson of the late king, named 
Sultan Abii Bakr, the son of Zafar Khan, 
was raised to the throne. He had reigned 
one year and six months, when his uncle 
Nasir-uddin Muhammad Shah, the son of 
Firoz Shah, deposed him and ascended the 
throne of Dehli in August, a.d. 1390. 




Firoz Shall (s\_ 


Ji), one of the 

sons of the ex-king Bahadur Shah II. 
king of Dehli, and one of the chief rehols in 
the outbreak of 1867. He fought the British 
boldly, and for a time acted with Tantia 
Topi in 1868 ; so that the British GoYernment 
oilered a reward of 10,000 rupees for his 
apprehension. It was reported in 1864 that he 
had made his appearance in the Seronj Jungles. 
Some Arabs who arrived at Haidarahad in 
1866 reported that they had seen him in 
Arabia, and supporting himself by beggiug 
among the rich merchants. [Since this was 
written nothing more has been heard of 
this Prince.] 

Fitrat (cLJ Ja.i), the poetical name 


Mir Moiz-uddin Muhammad Miiswi Khan, 
a mansabdar in the time of 'Alamgir employed 
as Diwan of Siiba Behar. He was a Sayyad 
and lineal descendant of 'Ali Miisi Eaza. He 
subsequently chose for his poetical name, 
Miiswi. He was bom in Persia in a.d. 1640, 
A.H. 1050, and came to India, where he was 
much esteemed for his talents as a poet and a 
critic. He is the author of a Tazkira or 
biography called Gulshan-i-Fitrat, also of a 
Diwau. He died in a.d. 1690, a.h. 1100. 

[Vide Miiswi.] 

Furati ( ^i\,'i). Vide Mulla FuratT. 

Furqati ( ^J^j^), whose proper name 

was Abii Turab, was a poet. He died in the 
year A.D. 1617, a.h. 1026. 

Fursat (».::^_«5^_j), poetical title of 

Muhammad Beg, a poet, who was in the 
service of Shah 'Abbas II. and died under 
Shah Sulairaan, kings of Persia. He has 
left a Diwan of Ghazals. 

Fursi ( ^«-iJ), poetical title of Husaia 

All Shah, author of the Nisbat NSma Shah- 
rnirirl, a history of the Qutbshahi dynasty 
of Golkanda in 18,600 verses, from its com- 
mencement to Muhammad Qui! Qutbshah, who 
died in a.d. 1612, a.h. 1021. 

Fuzail Ayaz (i^Uc ij--ai), a pious 

Musalman, whose native country was either 
Kiifa, Khurasan, or Samarqand. He received 
instructions from Imam Ja'far Sadiq, and 
was the master of Bishr Hafi and Sari Saqti. 
He suddenly fell down and died at the time 
of prayers at Mecca in January, a.d. 803, 
Muharram, a.h. 187. 



Gaj Singh Ratlior ij^]\^ ij,-^ J 

i.Jb\J..^^^) J a E.aja of Marwar or 

Jodpur of the tribe of Eathor rijputs, ivas 
the son of Suraj Singh and the father of 
Jaswant Singh. He reigned ahout 18 years 
and died in the year a.d. 1630, in Gujrat. 
The building caUed Kala Mahal at tipal 
Mandi in Agrah, was constructed by him. 
His son Amar Singh killed Salabut Klian. 
Sultan Parwez married Gaj Singh's sister in 
A D. 1624, and Sulaiman Shikoh, the son of 
Sultan Parwez, married the daughter of Gaj 
Singh in the year a.h. 1065. 

Gakkhar iy^), a tribe whose resi- 
dence is amongst the mountains that lie between 
Bhat and Siadh. 

[ Vide Kamal Khan Gikhar.] 

Ganga Bai (^li \L^), Eani of Jhansi 

and widow of Eaja Gangadhar Eao. At the 
outbreak of 1857 she joined the rebels, and 
was the cause of the massacre at Jhans!. She 
was killed in the battle of Gwaliar on the 
17th June, 1858. She fell with her horse, 
and was cut down by o Hussar ; she still 
endeavoured to get over, when a bullet struck 
her in the breast, and she fell to rise no 
more. The natives hastily burnt her dead 
body to save it from apprehended desecration 
by the Firingis on the night of the 17th 
and 18th. 

Ganna Begam (^Sl^ liS'). Vide Gunna 

Gajpati {lijJ^), a Eaja of Jagdespiir 

in south Bihar, who, with his brother Bairi 
Sal, during the reign of the emperor Akbar, 
defied the Mughal armies for several years, 
though the unequal combat led to their 

Garsliasp (, 

of Persia. Vide Karshasp. 

iL2)j.S ), an ancient king 

Gashtasp {^_^^\:xiS) was, according 

to Persian history, the son of Lohrasp, and 
the fifth king of the Kaianian dynasty of 
Persia. In his time flourished Zardasht or 
Zoroaster, who converted the Persians to the 


worship of fire. Gashtasp, it is said, reigned 
60 years, and was succeeded by Bahman his 
grandson, whose father Isfandaiar [q.v.) was 
a great warrior and was killed by Eustam 
some time before. He is supposed to have 
been the Darius Hystaspes of the Greek 

George Thomas (^jj^lL ^J^-). The 

district of Harriana was once the field of the 
exploits of this famous adventurer. The Jats 
are a stalwart and brave race, and showed 
what they could do under his leadership, 
though when left to themselves they were 
so divided by factions, that Harriana has 
always yielded to every adventurer who had 
been able to attack them. Thus it was over- 
run by the Mahrattas, under Messrs. Bourquin 
and Perron, by the Eohillas under Amir 
Khan, and another leader, and finally by the 
British. George Thomas came out to India 
as a common seaman, and having deserted 
his ship first took service with Madho Eao 
Sindhia about the year a.d. 1782. The 
famous Begam Samni of Sirdhana was then 
in the zenith of her power, and he left 
Sindhia to serve her. Shortly after, having 
collected a body of men, he left her, and 
marched down to Harriana, and in no time 
carved out a kingdom for himself. He made 
the city of Hansi his capital and built a 
strong fort in it. He built another fort 
about 20 miles to the south of the town of 
Eohtak, and called it after his own Christian 
name Georgegarh, which (perhaps from his 
maritime origin) the natives caU Jahajgarh, 
or " ship -castle." After a few years the 
Mahrattas under Louis Bourquin invaded his 
territories. He hastened to give them battle, 
and throwing himself into the small fort of 
Jahajgarh, he fought them for three days, 
though his force was infinitely smaller than 
theirs. His cavabry, which was composed 
principally of Eaughars, having gone over 
to the enemy, and his Lieutenant, an English- 
man of the name of Hopkins, being kiUed, 
his troops at length gave way, and he fled on 
a favomite Arab horse to Hansi, a distance 
of ahout 60 miles. Bourquin assaulted the 
city and Thomas, after a defence of some 
weeks, gave himself up, and was allowed to 
join the British Brigade at Anupshahr. De- 
parting thence, in charge of a Capt. PranckUn, 
he died on his way down the river, as he was 
seeking to return to Europe by way of 
Calcutta. His great-granddaughter was the 
wife of a writer on a humble salary (1867) 
in one of the Government ofiices in Agra. 




There is a Zifc of George Thomas, -n'rittuu 
by Franckliu, of which a copy is to be seou 
in the Dehl! luhtitute Library. [See Keiue's 
Tfill of the Mughal JEmpire] part iii. ch. ii. 

Gesu Daraz (jl^j j-^). Vide 


hammad Gesu Daraz. 

GliaelD (t_..j\i), a poet who died in 

A.D. 1750, A.H. 1163. 

Ghafll {^j\Aj^\ Jili), a poet of 

G-hairat Ktian ( ,l~. 

.O- LUjS. 

-i), title of 
Khwaja Kanfcar, the nephew of 'Abdullah 
KJian, Firoz Jang and son of Sardar Klian. 
In the year a.d. 1631, he brought the head 
of Khan Jahau Jodi to Shah Jahan, and was 
raised to the rank of 2000 with the title of 
Ghairat Khan. He died in a.d. 1640, a.h. 
1050, at Thatta of which place he was 
governor. He is the author of the Jahimfir 

G-haHb (;_^_U_i), the poetical title 

assumed by Muhammad Sa'd, author of a 
Diwan which he completed in the year a.d. 
1690, A.H. 1101. 

GhalilD (i ILc), the poetical name of 

Mir Fakhr-uddin, author of a book of Qasidas 
which he finished in the 6th year of Muhammad 
Shah the emperor of Dehli, a.d. 1734, a.h. 

Ghalib (l_^U), poetical title of Shaikh 

Asad-ullah, son of the sister of Shaikh 
Muhammad Afzal of Allahabad. He died 
in A.D. 1750, A.H. 1163. 

GhalilD (( ^!li.), poetical name of Mirza 

Asad-uUah Khan, author of a Diwau, and a 
history of the Mughal emperors of IncUa. He 
was the son of 'Ali Bakhsh Kliau, the brother 
of Nawab Ahmad Bakhsh Khan of Firozpiir 
and Lohari. He died at Dehli in the month 
of February or March, a.d. 1869, a.d. 1285. 

Ghani ( ^i), the poetical name of 

Mirza Muhammad Tahir. He is commonly 
called Ghani Kashmiri on account of his 
being a native of Kaslimir. He was a 
pupil (if Shaikh Muhsiu-Fani, whom he 
excelled in his learning and became an 
elegant poet. He wrote a book of Odes 
called Diw&H Gham, and died in Kashmir 
two years before his master a.jj. 1668, a.h. 
1079. It is said that the emperor 'Ahimgir 
wrote to Saif Khan the governor of Kashmir 
to send Gliani to his presence. Gliani refused 
to go, telling him at the same time to inform 
the emperor that Ghani had become insane 
and was not worthy to be sent to his presence. 

Saif Khan said that he could not call a wise 
man like him mad ; upon which Gliani 
immediately really went mad, tore his clothes, 
and died after three days. He was a young man 
at the time of his death, having enjoyed a 
brilliant reputation for poetical e.xcellence for 
about eighteen years. He sometimes uses 
Tahir for his poetical name. 

Ghani Bahadur {j^\j ^^\ son of 

Shamsher Bahadur I. and younger brother of 
'Ali Bahadirr, the Xawab of Banda. 

\_Vi(U 'All Bahadur.] 

Ghanimat (t 

-), poetical name of 

Muhammad Akram, author of a short Diwau 
and a JIasnawi containing an account of the 
Loves of Aziz and Shahid, called Nairang 
Ishq, composed in the reign of 'Alamgir 

Gharib (c_^j^.i), poetical name of 

Shaikh Nasir-uddin of Dehli. He is the 
author of a Diwan in Persian. 

Gharib (t_^j^i), poetical name of 
Sayyad Karim-uUah of Bilgram. 

Ghasiti Begam (ii^T ^ *Lj IL.*^^ 

*X-»-j), the wife of Shahamat Jang, 

and Amina Begam, the mother of Nawab 
Siraj-uddaula, were daughters of Nawab 
Mahabat Jang of Bengal ; they were drowned 
iu the river, close to Jahangimagar, by order 
of Miran tire son of Nawab Ja'far 'Ali Khan, 
in June, a.d. 1760. 

Ghaus Muhammad Khan (ijL»»_£ 

/»li>-. d'^sT*), whose title is Mohta- 
shim-uddaula, was (1870) Nawab of Jawara. 

Ghaus-ul-'Alam (..JLiJl tij«-i), a 

famous Siifi. Vide Muhammad Ghaus of 

Ghaus-ul-'Azim (j^zt] i^^), a 

title of the Muhammadan saint 'Abdul Qadir 

Ghauwasi (^JJj ic-a^ji), of Yezd, a 

poet, whose proper name is Izz-uddin. He 
is said to have composed 100,000 verses. 
This fertile poet, in a work which he wrote 
iu A.D. 1543, a.h. 950, says: "The poetry 
which I havewritten amounts to 1 ,950 bocks." 
He made 500 verses a day, and it would 
appear that he put the Eauzat-iish-Sholiada, 
the history of Tabari, the legends of the 
Prophets, Kaleila-wa-Damna, and the Medical 
work called Zakhtra Khwarizm Shahi, and 
many other works into verse. He died in 
A.D. 1553, A.H. 960, at an age of more than 
one hundred years. 




Ghayas Halwai (^I^L=- '^■■f^), of 

Shiraz, was blind and died by a fall from 
the terrace of a bouse in tbe time of Shiih 
Safi. He is tbe autbor of a Diwan. 

Ghayas-uddin (^,a11 CljU~), author 

of a Persian Dictionary called Ghaijas-ul- 
Lughat. Vide JIubammad (ihayas-uddiu. 

Ghayas - uddin Bahmani (Sultan) 

(^UoL) ^_j:^i^^ e;-*^^ i-^'W). the 

eldest son of Sultiin Mabniiid Sbiib I. He 
ascended tbe tbrone of tbe Deccan in bis 
seventeentb year, after tbe death of his father 
in April, a.d. 1397. He bad reigned 
only one month and twenty days, when 
Lalchin, one of tbe Turkish slaves, not 
being appointed prime minister — to which 
office be had aspired — put out his eyes with 
the point of bis dagger, and having sent him 
in confinement to the fortress of Sagar, placed 
Sbams-uddiu, tbe late king's brother, on tbe 
throne. Tliis circumstance took place on 
tbe 14th June, a.d. 1397, 17th Ramazan, 
A.H. 799. 

Ghayas-uddin Balban (Sultaii)(tijLi: 

^^Uai-j (^--i-^ ^j_) JkJ^), king of DehlT. 

In bis youth be was sold as a slave to Sultan 
Altimsh, who raised him by degrees to the 
rank of a noble, and gave bim bis daughter 
in marriage. On the accession of his son 
Nasir-uddin Mahmud to tbe tbrone of Dehli, 
Ghayas-uddin was appointed bis wazir. After 
the king's deposal or death in February, a.d. 
1266, A.H. 664, he ascended tbe throne and 
reigned 20 years. He died in a.d. 12S6, 
A.H. 685, aged 80 years, and was succeeded 
by his grandson Moiz-uddin Kaiqubad, the 
son of jSTasir-uddin Baghra Khan, governor 
of Bengal, who was then absent in that 

Ghayas-uddin Kart I. (Malik) (c^Li 

(_<;L. CiJ^ ii;-;'.-!'JO, fourth king of 

the race of Kart or Kard. He succeeded bis 
brother Malik Fakhr-uddiuKartinA.D. 1307. 
A.H. 706, reigned more than 21 years over 
Herat, Balgh, and Ghazni, and died in tbe 
year a.d. 1329, a.h. 729. He was suc- 
ceeded by bis son Malik Sbams-uddin Kart. 

Ghayas - uddin Kart II. (Malik) 
(i $^L» iCj^ ivri'^^ '-^W^X the eighth 

and last king of the dynasty of Kart or Kard. 
He succeeded his father or grandfather Mdiz- 
uddin Husain Kart in a.d. 1370, a.h. 771, 
and reigned 12 years over Herat, Ghor, 
Sarakhsh, and Naishapiir, and conquered Tas 
and Jam. He was a great t5Tant, and had 
several battles with tbe Sarbadals of Sabzwar 
and tbe chiefs of Jani QurbanT. In tbe year 

A.D. 1381, A.H. 783, Amir Taimur (Tamerlane) 
con-iueredHerat, when Ghayas-uddin, together 
with bis son and brother, were taken prisoners 
and put to death. This dynasty lasted one 
hundred and nineteen lunar years and two 

Ghayas-uddin Khilji (Sultan) (tijl-^i. 

i^\kl«j ^^^^ ivri'^^) succeeded his 

father Sultan Mahmud Khilji on tbe throne 
of Gujrat in May, a.d. 1469, Zi-Qa'da, a.h. 
873. "When be had reigned 33 years and 
arrived at an advanced age, his two sons 
anxiously looked for bis death as an event 
which would secirre to one of them tbe throne 
of !Malwa ; a jealousy arose between tbe two 
brothers, who conspired against each other, 
till Nasir-uddin, tbe eldest, having put his 
brother, Shuja'at Khan to death on tbe 22nd 
October, a.d. 1500, 24th Eabi II. a.h. 
906, assumed tbe reins of government. A 
few days after, his father was found dead in 
tbe Seraglio ; and it was supposed that poison 
bad been administered to bim by bis son. 

Ghayas-uddin Mahmud (^J-vll 


J^,.«-sr<), the son of Ghayas-uddin 

Muhammad Ghori, succeeded his uncle 
Shahab-uddin in the kingdom of Ghor 
and Gliazni in a.d. 1205, a.h. 602. He 
reigned about four years, and was assassinated 
by tbe people of Mabmiid Ali Shah on 
Saturday night, tbe 31st July, a.d. 1210, 7th 
Safar, a.h. 607. He was at first buried at 
Firo/ Koh, but was afterwards transported to 
Herat and buried there. He was succeeded 
by bis son Baba-uddin Sam, who was after 
three months defeated by 'Ala-uddin Atsiz 
(son of Ala-uddin Hasan surnanied Jaban 
Soz) who reigned in Ghor and Ghazni for 
four years, and fell in battle against Malik 
Nasir-uddin Husain AraTr Shikar in tbe year 
A.D. 1214, A.H. 611. After bis death Ala- 
uddin ]\Iuhammad, son of Abii Ali, cousin of 
Malik Ghayas-uddin Muhammad, was raised 
to tbe throne by Taj -uddin Eldiiz. 

Ghayas-uddin Mahmud Ghori (i,^Li 

^.•.i S-^is^ i^jJiJ'), the son of 

Ghayas-uddin Muhammad Ghori, and nephew 
of Shahah-uddiu Muhammad Ghori, whom he 
succeeded to the throne of Ghor and Ghazni 
in A.D. 1206. Mabmiid being naturally 
indolent, remained satisfied with the throne 
of Ghor, and proclaimed Taj-uddin Eldiiz, 
king of Ghazni. He died in a.d. 1210. 

Ghayas - uddin Muhammad Ghori 

(^_f.»ji Sas-* ^ldS\ LljUi), king of 

Ghor and Ghazni, was the son of Baba-uddin 
Sam, the youngest brother of Ala-uddin 
Hasan Ghori. He succeeded to the tbrone of 
Ghor and Ghazni after the death of bis cousin 
Malik Saif-uddin, tbe son of the latter, about 




the yprir A.D. 1157, and conferred the 
K"vfrnr]]eiit of Ghazn! on his brother 
Kliuhillj-uddin surnamed J[o'iz-udd!n Muham- 
iriiid ; tliif) illustrious f^eneral subdued 
KliurSsrin and a preat part of India in the 
name: of his brnlher (jhayfis-uddin, who 
:inne\i;d those countries to his' own dominions. 
Cj[i!iyris-uddin died on AVednesday the 12th 
^larch, A.D. 1203, 27th Jumada I. a.h. 
6;J9, and was succeeded by his brother 

Ghayas-uddin Muhammad (Sultan) 

(i^llaLj ^^♦..s'* t:;:','^^ '-^^X the son 

of :\ralik Shah of the Saljiik dynasty. In 
the time fif his eldest brother Bar'kayaraq the 
empire was divided, Barkayaraq retaining 
Persia ; Ghayas-uddin lluhammad, Syria 
and Azurbejan ; and Sultan Sanjar, Khurasan 
and Mawarunnahr. He reigned about the 
year a.d. 1095. 

[ Tide iluhammah (Sultan.)] 

Ghayas-uddin Purhi (, ojJl i.^L>_c 
ic-^j}j) succeeded Ms father Sikandar 

Piirb! on the throne of Bengal in a.d. 1367, 
a.h. 775, reigned for a period of sereu years, 
and died in 1373. He was succeeded tiy his 
son Sultan-us-Salatin. 

Ghayas - uddin Tughlak Shah I. 

(Sultan) (^.IkL. jlkj ^i^^\ tuLi), 

king of Dehli (also known as Gbazi Malik). 
His father Tughlaq was a slave of Sultan 
Ghayas- uddin Balban. He ascended the 
throne of Dehli after mui'dering Kliusro Shah 
on the 26th August, a.d. 1321, 1st Shaban, 
a.h. 721, reigned three years and some 
months, and was crushed to death by the 
fall of a temporary wooden building which his 
Bon had raised for his entertainment on his 
return from Lakhnauti in February, a.d. 
1325, Eabi' I. a.h. 725. His son Muham- 
mad Tukhlaq succeeded him. The celebrated 
poet Amir Khusro of Dehli, who lived to 
the end of this king's reign and received a 
pension of 1000 tangas monthly, wrote the 
history of this prince under the title of 
Tughlaq Kama. Ghayas-uddm was the first 
king of the 3rd branch of the Afghan dynasty 
which is called Tughlaq Shahi. The follow- 
ing is a list of the Sultans of this branch : — 

1. Ghayas-uddin Tughlaq I. MahmUd Shah 

Tughlaq, last of this family, expelled by 
Amir Tairaur. 

2. Muhammad Shuh Tughlaq I. 

3. Firoz Shah Tughlaq. 

4. Ghayas-uddJn Tughlaq II. 

5. Abii Bakr Shiih. 

6. Muhammad Shah Tughlaq II. Ala-uddm 

Sikandar Shah. 

7. Xn^rat Kliau. 

8. Mahmiid Shah. 

9. Ikbal Kl^iau Mahmiid Khan restored a.d. 


Ghayas-uddin Tughlak II. (Sultan) 

(^ILiL: (AxJ ^^,JoJl 

jLi) was the 

son of prince Fatha Khan and grandson of 
Firoz Shah Tughlaq. He ascended the 
throne in place of Firoz Shah in Dehli on 
the death of his grandfather in a.d. 138S, 
A.H. 790, but giving loose to his youthful 
passions, and neglecting the affairs of the 
State, the chiefs together with the household 
troops revolted, and put him to death on the 
19th February, a.d. 1389, 21st Safar a.h. 
791, after he had reigned six months. He 
was succeeded by his cousin Abii Bakr 
Tughlaq the son of prince Zafar lihan, the 
third sou of Firoz Shah. 

Ghazali {JV^). Vide Ghazzall. 

Ghazan Khan {^\^ ijj-i-), seventh. 

king of Persia of the Tartar tribe and fourth 
in descent fi-om Halakii Khan, was the son of 
Arghiin Khan. He succeeded to the crown 
of Persia after the dethronement of Baidii 
Khan his uncle in October, a.d. 1295, 
Zil-hijja, A.H. 694. He was the second 
emperor of the race of Chaugez Khan who 
embraced the religion of Muhammad, and 
\vith him near one hmidred thousand of his 
followers followed their leader into the pale 
of Islam. He was the first of this race of 
kings who threw off all allegiance to the 
Kliaqan of Tartary, by directing that the 
name of that monarch (whom he now deemed 
to be an infidel) should not in future be 
struck on the coins of Persia. After 
embracing Muhammadanism, he took the 
title of Sultan Mahmiid. He reigned nearly 
nine years and died on Sunday the 17th May, 
A.D. 1304, nth Sbawwal, a.h. 703, at 
Qazwin ; he was interred m a superb mosque 
which he had constructed near Tauris or 
Tabrez. He was succeeded by his brother 
Aljaiti, who took the title of Muhammad 
Kliuda Banda. 

Ghazanfar Khan {^\.s^ Ix^si), son 

of Alawardi Khan I. and brother of Alawardi 
Klian II. a nobleman of the reign of Shah 
Jahan and 'Alamgir. He was three times 
at different periods appointed governor of 
Saharanpiir and afterwards of Thatta in Sindh, 
where he died on the 1st May, a.d. 1666, I'th 
Zi-Qa'da, a.h. 1077. His remains were 
brought to Dehli and buried there. 

Ghazi (^jU), the poetical title of a 

person who served as Kiirbeg! under the 
prince Sul.tan Muhammad Muazzim the .son 
of the emperor 'Alamgir. 

Ghazi (^jli), or Al-Ghazi, the son of 

Ortak, the first of the Turkman Ortakite 
princes who seized Jenisalem and reigned in 




Mardin and Miafarkin in Syria. The follow- 
ing were his descendants : — ■ 

A.D. A.H. 

Hnsam-uddin Taimurtash, son of 

Alghazi, began to reign . . 1122 516 

Najm-uddin Abu'l MuzafEar Albi 

or Alpi, son of Taimurtash 1152 547 

Qutb-uddin Algljazi, son of Albi. 1176 572 

Husam-uddin Yiilak Arsalan, the 

son of Qutb-uddin . . 1184 680 

Malik Almansiir Nasir - uddin 
Ortak Arsalan, son of Qutb- 
nddin 1201 597 

Malik-US- Said Najm-nddin 
Ghazi, son of Nasir -nddin 
Ortak 1239 637 

Malik-ul-Mazafiar Qara Arsalan, 

son of Najm-uddiu .... 1255 653 

Sbams-uddin Daiid .... 1291 691 

Malik -al-Mansur Najm-nddm 

Ghazi 1293 693 

Albl Malik-ul-Adil 'Imad-nddin 

'All 1312 712 

Malik -ns-Salah Shams-nddin 
Salah, the last prince of this 
race ... ... 1312 712 

Ghazi-uddin Haidar (^jjJl i_>j^-= 

.iX»p-), the eldest of the ten sons of 

Nawah Sa'adat 'Ali Khan of Andh. On 
his father's death, which took place on the 
11th July, A.D. 1814, 22nd Rajah, a.h. 
1229, he succeeded to his dominions as 
Nawah "Wazir, and five years after, assumed, 
with the concurrence of the British Govern- 
ment, the regal dignity. His coronation 
took place on Saturday the 9th October, a.d. 
1819, 18th Zil-bijja, a.h. 1234, at Lucknow, 
when he took the title of Abii'l Muzaflar 
Maiz-uddln Shah Zaman Ghazi-uddin Haidar 
Padshah. On ascending the first step of the 
throne, the minister delivered to him a crown, 
studded with diamonds and jewels of great 
value. He then put it on his head and was 
congratulated on the occasion by the Resident, 
who saluted him as king of Audh. Jewels 
and pearls to the value of 30,000 rupees were 
then scattered over the heads of the spectators, 
many of which were picked up by English 
ladies. Ghazi-uddin Haidar died after a reign 
of more than 13 years, on the 19th October, 
A.D. 1827, 27th Rabi' I. a.h. 1243, aged 58 
lunar years, and was succeeded by his son 
Sulaiman Jah Naslr-uddin Haidar. 

Grhazi-uddin Khan I. (^aJI i_f jl-i 



Js ^l-ri-), styled Firo 

Jang, whose original name was Mir Shahab- 
uddin, was the son of Kulich I\han Sadr-us- 
Sudiir, and was raised to the rank of an Amir 
with the title of Firoz Jang, after his father's 
death, by the emperor 'Alamgir in a.d. 1687, 
A.H. 1098. His son was the famous Nizam- 
ul-Mulk 'Asaf Jah whose descendants are 
known to Europeans as Nizams of the Deccan. 
In the reign of Bahadur Shah he was 
appointed governor of Gujrat, and died at 

Ahmadabad in a.d. 1710, a.h. 1122. His 
remains were transported to Dehli, and 
interred in the yard of the college built by 
him outside the Ajmiri Gate. 

Ghazi-uddin Khan II. ( ..jj^Jl ^^-X-i 

i_^1i r-^j-^' (jLri-), Amir-ul-Umra, 

also styled Firoz Jang, was the eldest son of 
the celebrated Nizam-ul-Mulk 'Asaf Jah. 
He was elevated to the rank of Amir-ul- 
Umra after the death of Khan Dauran, and 
departure of Nadir Shah to Persia, in a.d. 
1739, a.h. 1152, by the emperor Muhammad 
Shah. Some years after the death of his 
father, when his brother Nasir Jang, who 
had succeeded him, died in the Deccan, he 
proceeded from Dehli to regain his possessions 
in that country, but died on Ms way at 
Aorangabad on the 16th October, a.d. 1752, 
7th Zil-hijja, a.h. 1165 (new style). His 
remains were brought to Dehli and buried 
there. After his death the office of Amir-ul- 
XJmra was conferred on his son Shahab -uddin 
with the title of 'Imad-ul-Mulk Ghazi-uddin 

Ghazi-uddin Khan III. (^jjJl (_?J^ 

• I i^Lr^), Amir-ul-TJmra, 

styled 'Imad-ul-Mulk, was the son of Ghazi- 
uddin Khan Firoz Jang, the son of Kizam- 
ul-Mulk 'Asaf Jah. His origiaal name was 
Shahab-uddin, but after the death of his 
father in a.d. 1752, a.h. 1165, he was, by 
the recommendation of Nawab Safdar Jang, 
wazir, appointed Amir-ul-TJmra, by the 
emperor Ahmad Shah of Dehli with the title 
of 'Imad-ul-Mulk GhazT-uddin Khan. This 
is that Ghazi-uddin Khan, who afterwards 
became wazir, imprisoned and blinded his 
master the emperor Ahmad Shah, and 
assassinated 'Alamgir II. His wife was the 
celebrated Ganua, or Gunna (<?.».), Begam, 
who died in the year a.d. 1775, a.h. 1189. 
The year of Ghazi-uddin Khan's death is 
unknown, but according to the biography of 
the poet called Gulzar Ibrahim, he was living 
in A.D. 1780, a.h. 1194, in straitened circum- 
stances. His poetical name was Nizam. Ac- 
cording to the work caUed Maair-ul-Umrd, 
he went to the Deccan a.d. 1773, a.h. 1187, 
and received a jSgir in Malwa ; subsequently 
he proceeded to Surat and passed a few years 
with the English, and thence on a pilgrimage 
to Mecca. He composed Persian and Raikhta 
poetry, and left Arabic and Turkish Ghazals 
and a thick Persian Diwiin and a Masnawi in 
which the miracles of Maulana Fakhr-uddin 
are related. Some say he died at Kalpi, a.d. 

[Vide Jour. As. Soc. Beng. 1879.] 

Ghaznawi (|_jjjji). Vide Muhammad 
Khan (Mir). 

Ghazni (^^j_i), Kings of. Vide 




Ghazzal (J^J:) (a seller of thread), 

title of Wasil-bin-'Atfi, a celebrated Musal- 
mun doctor who was thus suruamed. 

Ghazzal (Jlji). Vide Wasil. 

Ghazzali (a^^I ^L,1 ^^J-^), or 

Grjiazali (Imam Ahmad), younger brother of 
Imilm Muhammad (jhazzali. He was a 
doctor of the sect of Shafa'i, aud died at 
Qazwin in the year a.d. 1123, a.h. 617, but 
according to Ibn Khallikan in a.h. 520, 
corresponding with a.d. 1126. 

Ghazzali (s.^^-^ aL*1 {^■^\r^^' °^ 

Ghaziili (Imam Muhammad), who is also 
entitled Hujjat-iil-Islam, is the surname of 
Aba Hamid Muhammad Zaiu-uddin-al-Tiisi, 
one of the greatest and most celebrated 
Musalmiin doctors, and author of a treatise 
on the chfferent classes of science which 
concern religion, called, Eimide Sa'adat, and 
many other works such as the Tdhut-ut- 
Ta«'!*, also called Tcifslr Jamahir-ul-Qnrun^ 
Akdcd(}hazz(dl^^'Unn-id-^ZTlum^ and Tuhfat- 
-uI-Filasafa. He was born in the year a.d. 
1058, A.H. 450, in a village called Ghazzala 
or Ghazali, in Tiis, whence he aud his 
brother derived their names of Ghazzali. He 
died on the 18tli December, a.d. 1111, 4th 
Jumada II. a.h. 505, aged 55 lunar years. 
Some authors say that his name should be 
spelt Gliazali and not Oliazzali, but the 
following verses from the Mukhbir-ul- 
Wasilln confirm the latter. 

He is said to have written ninety-nine works, 
mostly in Arabic, a few in Persian. 

Ghazzali (Maulana) (}jiliy, ^\yS}, 

of Tiis or Mashhad, the royal poet. He 
mentions in one of his Qasidas named Rauzat- 
us-Safa, that he was born in the year a.d. 
1524, A.H. 930. He first came from Mashhad 
his native country to the Deccau, where being 
disappointed in his prospects, he went over to 
Jauupiir, and was employed for some years 
by Khan Zanian 'Ali Quli Khan, governor 
oi' that province, during which time he wrote 
a poem called Naqsh Badl'a, for which he 
received from his patron a piece of gold for 
each couplet. Afer the death of KhSn Zamau, 
who was slain in battle against the emperor 
Akbar in a.d. 1568, a.h. 975, he fell into 
the hands of that monarch, who took him 
into his service, and conferred on him the 
title of Malik -ush-Shua'ra, or the King of 
poets. He was the first poet that was 
honoured with this title in India. He accom- 
panied his royal master to the conquest of 


Gujrat, and died there of venereal disease, on 
Friday the 6th December, a.d. 1572, 27th 
Eajali, A.H. 980. He is buried at Ahmada- 
bad, Gujrat, at a place called SarkiJ. He is 
also the author of a Diwiin, and three 
Masnawls or poems, containing from 40 to 
60,000 verses ; their titles are : Kitfib Asrar, 
Uhhahiit-Hl-IIamt and ilirat-td-Kaendt. 

Ghulam Ahia (J^.csr AS), author of 

an Arabic work on Logic, which goes after 
his name. Its marginal notes written by 
another author are called Shams-uz-Zuha, 

Ghulam 'Ali {^z ^\h), author of the 

work called Shdli 'Alam Ndma, a history of 
the reign of the emperor Shah 'Alam, who 
died in a.d. 1806, a.h. 1221. 

Ghulam 'All Khan {^\^ ^ Ji), 

author of the Lama'dt-uf-Tdhirm, a pane- 
gyric on the actions of Muhammad, and a 
number of mystical poems, dedicated to the 
emperor 'Alamglr. 

Ghulam 'All, Mir (jljT^^ ^1^ Aj,), 

a poet whose poetical title is 'Azad, which see. 

Ghulam Husain Khan (^.^.^^^^ *Lc 

(jl=-), author of the Persian History 

of Bengal called Hayaz-ussalatln, which he 
wrote about the year a.d. 1780, at the 
request of Mr. George Udney of Malwa. He 
was a learned aud respectable character, once 
of great consequence, and afterwards a 
member of the native com-t of judicature 
under the Nawab 'All Ibrahim Khan. 

Ghulam Husain Khan, Nawah Sayyad 

5 LL U? j»^w k 



suruamed Tiba Tibai, son of Hidayat 'Ali 
Khan, Bahadiu- Asad Jang, author of a 
Persian work called Siar- nl-Mutdkhirin 
written in the year a.d. 1780, a.h. 1194, 
and translated soon after into English by a 
French Creole, named Raymond, calling 
himself " Haji Mustafa." He is also author 
of a Poem entitled Hashdrat-ul-Imdnat. He 
was a client of M. Kaza Khan (?.».). 

Ghulam Imam Shahid, Maulana 

(U!3_j_« S^J^i A.t\ (♦S.-i), a poet who 

is the author of a Persian Diwan, and of a 
celebrated Qasida comprising the dispute 
between Love and Beauty. His poetical title 
is Shahed and he is living still, a.d. 1879. 

Ghulam Muhammad Khan ( ji^.s" *^ii 

i^lri.), present Nawiih of the Karnatic, 

whose title is Amir -ul- Hind Wala Jah 
Umdat-ul- Umra Mumtaz-ul-Mumalik. 

Ghulam Qutb-uddin Shah (^ 



t^jbl <d]l ili ^^.a!1), of Allahabad, 

whose poetical name is Musibat, was the son 
of Shah Muhammad Fakhir. He was an 
elegant poet eminently learned and accom- 
plished, and is the author of a work called 
iVSffl Qalia (Cakes and Steaks) which he 
wrote in answer to a work entited Nan Halwa 
(Cakes and Pudding) . He was born ou the 
29th August, o.s. 1725, 1st Maharram, a.d. 
1138, went on a pilgrimage to Mecca, and 
died there in the year a.d. 1773-4, a.h. 

GhTinchacha-i-Umaid (a->^1 ^t^'^^), 

(i.e. a small bud of hope), was one of the 
wives of TJmar Shaikh Mirza, the son of 
Sultan Abii Sa'id Mirza, and mother of Nasir 
Mirza and Mahd Bano Begam. She was a 
native of Andjan. 

Gilan Shah. Vide KabQs. 

Girami ( ^\ S), the poetical name of 

a poet whose Diwan was found in the Library 
of Tipu Sultan. 

GHUL 145 

Ghulam Muhammad Khan, Nawab 

ullah Khan. 
Ghulam Muhammad (Prince) {^U. 

•i'-'*-^^), grandson of Tippu Sultan, 

was installed as a Knight Commander of the 
Star of India ou the 27th February, a.d. 
1871. Seventy-two years before he was a 
prisoner in the hands of the English, and 
since then a recipient of the highest honours. 
He died in Calcutta on the night of the 11th 
August, 1872, aged 78 years. 

Ghulam Qadir Khan (^U^^jli ^ii), 

son of Zabita Khln, and grandson of Majib- 
uddaula, the Kohila chief. This is that 
traitor who, after e.xtorting as much money as 
he could from his royal master, the emperor 
Shall 'Alam of Dehli,' ordered his Rohilas to 
pluck out liis eyes from their sockets and 
placed Bedar B;ikht, son of Ahmad Shah 
and grandson of Muhammad Shah, on the 
throne. This tragic scene happened on the 
10th August, A.D. 1788, 7th Zil-Qa'da, 
A.H.I 202. After this, the traitor endeavoured 
to make his retreat to his own territory 
Ghousgarb, but was pursued by the Mahrattas 
who took him prisoner, cut off his ears, nose, 
arms, and legs, and in this mutilated state he 
was sent to Dehli ; but died on the road in 
the month of December the same year, 
Eabi I. A.H. 1203. His tomb is in Aul, 
Parganna Furrah, Zila Agra. 

[ Tide Keene's Fall of the Mughal Empire.'] 


Girdhar Das (^^jybj,/), of Dehli, 

author of the history of Rjm, entitled 
Mdmayan, translated from the Sanskrit in 
A.D. 1722. This is a very celebrated Hindi 
poem, containing the exploits of the famous 
demigod Ram, who reigned over India for 
many years. His capital was at Audh, and 
his conquests extended to Ceylon, where the 
chain of rocks which nearly unite that island 
to the continent is still called Ram's Bridge. 
Besides this, there are two other Ramayans, 
one translated by Tulshi Das in the Bhakha 
dialect, and another by Khushtar in Urdu. 

Girdhar Singh (iCx^ysj^), or Gird- 
har Bahadur, a Rajpiit chief who was 
governor of Malwa in the reign of the 
emperor Muhammad Shah, and fell in battle 
against the Peshwa Bajl Rao's officers in 
A.D. 1729. His nephew, Daya Ram, who 
succeeded him, and had opposed a gallant 
resistance for some time, was defeated by 
Chimnaji the Peshwa' s brother, and lost his 
life in battle about the year a.d. 1732. 

Gobind Guru (j^f j,j._ij/), a chief of 
the Sikhs. 

\_Vide Guru Gobind.] 

Gopal or Nayek Gopal (■ \ C\\\ JjjS'), 

a celebrated singer of India, who was a native 
of the Deccan, and flourished during the reign 
of Sultan 'Ali-uddin Sikandar Sani. He 
was a contemporary of Amir Khusro, who died 
in A.D. 1325. It is related that when Gopal 
visited the court of Dehli, he sung that 
species of composition called GU, the beauty 
of which style, enunciated by the poweri'ul 
and harmonious voice of so able a performer, 
coidd not meet with competition : — At this 
the monarch caused Amir Khusro to remain 
hid under his throne, whence he could hear 
the musician unknown to him. The latter 
endeavoured to remember the style, and on a 
subsequent day, .sung Qoul and Tartina in 
imitation of it, which surprised Gopal, and 
fraudidently deprived him of a portion of his 
due honour. 

Goshyar ( .LjiX), an astronomer whose 
proper name is Abii'l Hasan. 

Gouhar Shad Begam (*Cj jLl Aj^), 

the wife of Mirza Shahmkh, the son of Amir 
Taimiir. She was slain by Sultan Abu Sa'id 
Mirza for creating disturbances, in a.d. 1467, 
A.H. 861, at Herat, where she lies buried on 
the left bank of a stream called Anjir. The 

§rave is covered by a very high gilt dome, 
he is said to have been the most incom- 
parable lady in the world. Some erroneously 
say that she was the daughter of Amir 
Taimiir and sister of Shahmkh Mirza, and 
that she never married, but devoted herself to 
the perusal of the Quran. 
[Vide Mohan Lai's Journal.] 





Goya (b^), poetical name of Hisam- 

uddaula Kawab Faqir Muhammad Khan of 
Lucknow. He is the author of a Diwan. 

Goya (\_jj^)j poetical name of Mirza 
Kamran, a brother of Joya, which see. 

Goya (L;^), poetical name of Shaikh 
Haiat-ullah of Fuxruthabad. 

Gujar (^.:5-jS ), grandson or son of the 

daughter of the Pesbwa EaghojJ Bbosla's 
daughter. He was raised to the masnad of 
Nagpiir after the dethronement of 'Apa Sahib 
in A.D. 1818. 

Gulab Singli (aXi_, (-^^J?), of Jammu 

(Maharaja), theindependentruler of Kashmere 
and the hills, which were made over to him 
by the British "for a consideration," after 
thePunjabwar (1846). He died 2nd August, 
A.D. 1857, about three months after the out- 
break of the Bengal Army. He was succeeded 
by his son Eanbir Singh. 

Gullsadan Begam (*-5^_^ ^jS^].^), a 

daughter of the emperor Babar Shah, sister 
to Humayun and aunt to Akbar Shah. She 
\Yas married to Khizir Khan, a descendant of 
the kings of Kashghar. Khizir Khan was 
made governor of Lahore iu a.d. 155o, a.h. 
963, and afterwards of Behar, where he died 
about the year a.d. 1569, a.h. 966. 

Gullbarg Begam (*iLj u_^-J-f ), 

daughter of the emperor Babar Shah ; she is 
also called Gulrang Begam and Gulrukh 
Begam, which see. 

Gulchehra Begam ( 

r^"^ ?/~V V '^ 

daughter of the emperor Babar Shah, and 
youugest sister of Humayun, by whom she 
was given in marriage to Abbas Sultan, an 
TJzbak prince, at Kabul iu a.d. 1548. 

Gul MLihammad Khan (ji^^^ ^^ 

^tLj |_^l.~-), a poet of Dehll who 

died in the year of the Christian era a.d. 
1848, A.H. 1264. His poetical name was 
Natik, which see. 

Gulrukh Begam (*il-.j ^jlS), a 

daughter of the emperor Biibar, who was 
married to Mirza Nur-uddin Muhammad, a 
j)ersou of respectable family, by whom she 
had a daughter named Salima Sultana Begam, 
who was married in the beginning of the 
reign of the emperor Akbar, to Balram Khan, 

Khnnkhanau, after whose death in A.D. 1561, 
A.H. 9tj8, the emperor married her himself. 
Gulrukh Begam is called iu the Masir-ul- 
Uinra Gnlbarg Begam, and by some Gubang 

Gulrukh Begam (»i^.--j tj^), a 

daughter of Kamran Mirza, the brother of 
the emperor Humayiin and first cousin to 
Akbar. She was manied to Ibrahim Husain 
Mirza, the son of Muhammad Sultan Mirza, 
a descendant of Amir Taimiir. Ibrahim 
Husain, who together with his other brothers 
had created great disturbances in the couutiy, 
was taken prisoner in a.d. 1573, a.m. 9S1, 
and shortly alter put to death and his head 
sent to Akbar, who ordered it to be pliioed 
over one of the gates of Agra. Gulrukh 
Begam surwed him for several years and was 
living at Agra in a.d. 1614, a.h. 1023. 

Gulshan (|^a1/), the poetical name of 

Shaikh Sa'd-ullah, a mystical poet, who 
resided for some years at Dehli, and left 
nearly 100,000 verses of Ghazals, He was a 
disciple of Shah 'Abdiil Ahad Sarhindl, and 
made with him a pilgrimage to Mecca. He 
died a.d. 1728, a.h. 1141. 

Gulshani ( lulls'), the poetical title 
of Shaikh Sa'd-ullah, which see. 

Gunna or Ganna Begam (*jl-^ U^), 

a princess, celebrated for her personal accom- 
plishments, as well as for the vivacity of her 
wit, and the fire of her poetical genius. 
Several of her lyric compositions iu the 
Hindiistani language are still sung and 
admired, one of which is to be seen in the 
first volume of the Asiatic Eeseareliea, p. 55. 
She was the daughter of Kawab 'Ali (Juli 
Khau, commonly called Chhanga or Shash 
Angushti (from having six fingers on each 
hand), a niansabdar of 5000 horse. Ganna 
Begam was betrothed to Shuja'-uddaula, the 
son of Nawab Safdar Jang of Audh, but 
afterwards married to 'Imad-ul-Mulk Ghazi- 
uddin Klian, wazir of the empire, and this 
rivalship is said to have in part laid the 
foundation of the mortal enmity which after- 
wards subsisted between that wazir and Safdar 
Jang. Adj oiuing to the village of Niirahad 
near Dbolpiir, two miles from Chola, Sarae, 
is a pretty large garden, the work of the 
emperor Alamgir, built in the year a.d. 1688, 
A.H. 1160, over the gate of wluch is an 
inscription bearing the chronogram of the 
year of its erection, viz. " Dida Bagh 
Jamal." Within this garden is the monument 
of Gunna Begam. Her shrine bears the 
following inscription : " Ah gham Gumia 
Begam," which is the chronogram of the 
year of her death, viz. a.d. 1775, a.h. 
1189. The poets Soz, Souda, and Minnat 
corrected her verses. 




Gurdezi Fathi Ali Husaini. Tide 

Guru GoWnd (Aij^f ^/), the son of 

Teg^i Bahadm, a famous chief of the Sikhs. 
After the death of his father, who was 
executed by order of the emperor 'Alamgir 
in the year a.d. 1673, haying collected his 
followers, he gave them arms and horses, 
which till this time they had neTer used, and 
began to commit depredations, but he was 

soon obliged to fly, and two of his sons 
being taken prisoners, were put to death. 
Being desirous of retm'niug to his home, he 
preyailed on some Afghans to conduct him, 
disguised as one of their devotees, through 
the army stationed at Sarhind ; and for tlie 
remainder of his life kept himself retired, 
having lost his faculties in grief for his sons. 
He ordered his disciples to wear blue, and 
leave their beards and the hairs of their heads 
unshaved, which they do to this day. He was 
succeeded by Banda, one of his followers. 
\_Vide Hughes, Diet, of Islam, in voc. 




HalDib Ajmi, Khwaja ( ,.*..s-^ c:..-^-.;^ 

is>- 1 .~-). He was called 'Ajmi or the 

Persian, on account of his not being able to 
read the Quran, or that he could not 
pronounce the words of it dis'inctly. He was 
a pious Musalman and disciple of Khwaja 
Hasan Basri. He died on the 28th August, 
A.D. 738, 7th Earaazan, a.h. 120. 

Habib-ullali (AW 

), author of 

an Arabic work on philosophy cwHeAJSahr-td- 
Mantiq, or the Sea of Logic. 

Habib-ullah, Shaikh {iA^\ (_.>-^^..=- 
i:-:?^), a celebrated poet of Agra. 

Habih-ullah, Shah or Mir (i_.v_^^=- 

iL-i <)J.J\), a descendant of Shah 

Ni'mat-ullab AVali, and an Amir in the service 
of the Bahmani kings of the Deccan. He 
was imprisoned, and afterwards put to death 
in June, a.d. 1460, Sha'ban, a.h. 864, by 
Sultan Huma)-iin Shah II. Bahmani, atjTant, 
who at the same time cast his brother Hasan 
Klian, who had rebelled against him, before 
a voracious tiger, that soon tore the wretched 
prince to pieces. 

Hahshi or Hahashi ( A.->.s-), a poet 

who having last an eye in a scufile, was asked 
by Ibrahim Pasha, '" Where is thine other 

eye?" and making answer, "It grew tired 
of stopping at home in the socket, and flew 
out to see the world f ' ' was imprisoned ten 
years for his wit in the tower of Hero and 
Leandcr, where he daily gave vent to his 
feelings in such verses as the following : — 

I will groan, till every stone in this cold 

prison-tower shall weep, 
I will cry, till earth and sky, and each 

dark rolling hour shall weep, 
I will make, that hearts shall break, and 

even the dewless flower shall weep. 
Yea, for me, the wronged Habshi, both 

Musulman and Gabr shall weep ! 
[So Mr. Beale : "We shall perhaps run no 

great risk of error if we suppose Habshi 

to have been an Abyssinian domiciled in 

Egypt. — Ed.] 

Hadi (|_jj\ji>), a khalif of Baghdad. 
Vide Al-Hadi. 

Hadi (^jljb), poetical name of Mir 
Muhammad Jawad 'Ali Khan, who died in 
the year a.d. 1800, a.h. 1215, and left a 
Diwan in Urdii. 

Hafi ( ^il=-), which means barefoot, is 
the surname of Zain-uddin Muhammad, an 
author, who led an austere life, and who 
always walking barefoot, was thus siirnamed. 

Hafiz Ahru («^jl liil.5^), surnamed 
Niir-uddin-bin-Lutf-ullah, author of the 
history called Tarikh Mafiz Abrii. He was 




born in the city of Herat, but passed his 
infaucy in Hamdan, where he received his 
education. He was fortunate enough to 
secru-e the esteem of Amir Taimiir, who 
sought eyery occasion to do him service. 
After the death of that tyrant, he attended 
the court of his son Shahrukji Jlirza, and 
received from the young prince jUirza Baisan- 
ghar every demonstration of kindness and 
regard. To him he dedicated his works under 
the name of Zuhdat-ut- Tawdrihh Bdimiuihar, 
which contains a complete history of the 
world, and an account of the institutions and 
religious of different people down to a.d. 
1425, A.H. 829. He died five years after- 
wards in the city of Zanj an, about the year 
A.D. 1430, A.H. 834. 

Hafiz Adam (*jT liiW), a Musalman 

devotee and disciple of Shaikh Ahmad Sar- 
hindi, who about the year a.d. 1673, in 
conjunction with the Sikh Gm-u Tegh Bahadur, 
haying collected his followers, levied con- 
tributions with the greatest oppression from 
the inhabitants of his neighbourhood and 
pretended to royalty. He was banished from 
the kingdom across the Indus by order of the 
emperor 'Alamgir. 

Hafiz Halwai (^1^1-^ liil:-), a con- 
fectioner and poet of Herat, who flourished 
in the reign of Shahrukh Mirza, the son of 
Amir Taimiir, about the year a.d. 1430, 
A.H. 834. 

Hafiz, Khwaja (As-l^ri. kjl::^'), whose 

proper name is Shams-uddin Muhammad, was 
the most elegant lyric poet of Persia. He 
was born at Shiraz in thereign of Muzaftarians, 
and was living at the time when Amir Taimiir 
(Tamerlane) defeated Shiih Mansiir, the last 
Sultan of that djTiasty. The language of 
Hafiz has been styled among the Musalmans 
" Lisiin-ul-Ghaib," the language of mystery. 
From his frequent celebration of love and 
Tvine in his odes he has very appropriately 
been denominated, by some Orientalists, the 
Anacreon of Persia. He died in a.d. 1389, 
A.H. 791, at Shiraz, where his tomb is yet 
to be seen at a place called Musalla, and is 
visited as a sacred spot by pilgrims of all 
ages. After his death a collection of 569 of 
his odes was made by Sayyad Qasim Anwar, 
entitled Siwan Hafiz. A few of his poems 
may be imderstood in a literal sense ; but in 
general they are figairative, and allude to the 
Siifi doctrines ; most of them have been at 
different times translated into some of the 
European languages. At the head of the 
English translators stand Sir "W. Jones, 
Messrs. Eichardson and Carlyle. [There 
have been two other Persian poets of the 
name of Hafiz, one of them suruamed Plalwai, 
that is to say, the confectioner, who lived 
in the reign of Sultan Shahrukh, the son of 
Tamerlane, and the other was named Ajan 
Eiimi.] Many zealous admirers of Hafiz 
insist that by wine he invariably means 
devotion; and they have gone so far as to 

compose a dictionary of words in the lanrinage, 
as they call it, of the Siifis; in that vocabulary 
sice]} is explained by iiicditafioii on the chvine 
perfections, and perfume by /lope of the divine 
favom' ; r/ales are illapscs of grace ; kisses and 
embraces, the rapture of piety ; idolaiors, 
infidels, and libertines, are men of the 
religion, and their idol is the Creator himself ; 
the tavern is a retired oratory, and its keeper, 
a sage instructor ; beauty denotes the per- 
fection of the Supreme Being ; tresses are 
the expansion of his glory ; lips the hidden 
mysteries of his essence ; down on the cheek, 
the world of spirits who encircle his tin-one ; 
and a black mole, the point of indivisible 
unity; lastly, wantonness, mirth, miiinehriety, 
mean religious ardour and abstraction from 
all terrestrial thoughts. 

Hafiz Muhammad, author of the 

Hawi Saghir. 

Hafiz Rahmat Khan (i. 



(_^l.s-), a celebrated Eohila chief. 

He joined his countrymen during the adminis- 
tration of 'AliMuhammadKhaa, who advanced 
him to an important station, and Pilibhit 
and Bareily were given to him and Muradabad 
to another chief named Diinde Khan. Having 
attained his office, by military ability and 
genius, he at length wholly superseded the 
authority of Sa'd'-uUah-Khan, the son of 
'All Muhammad Khan, and was advanced to 
the supreme administration of affairs. He 
failed in his engagement to pay forty lacs of 
rupees to Nawab Shuj a-uddaula of Audh for 
the protection of his coimtry from the ravages 
of the Marhattas, was killed in a battle fought 
by the Nawab by the assistance of the English 
on the 23rd April, a.d. 1774, 10th Safar, 
A.H. 1188. His Life has been translated by 

[ Vide Strachey ; Bastings and the BoMk 

Hafiz Rakhna (ii 


lail=-) is the 

name of the person who planted a large 
garden at Sirhiud in the reign of the Emperor 
Akbar and called it " B§gh Noulakh." He 
died in a.d. 1592, a.h. 1000, and a beautiful 
chronogram was written on the occasion. 

Hafiz-uddin Ahmad, Moulwi {]hJ.>- 


,^ Sa.^\ ^JJ.'>10, author of the 
IJnrad Afro:, an Urdii translation of the 
Amr Danish, or Pilpay's Fables, which he 
translated for the use of the College of J^ort 
William in a.d. 1803, a.h. 1218. 

Hafiz - uddin Nasafi ^ hin - Ahmad 
(a.^-=-1 ^^J i^j-l.^ cH-^^ li.^:^), 
author of the commentaries called i!/«''a' «*- 
lit- Tamil mi Hakaeq-ut-Tanaioll,m Arabic. 
He died in the year a.d. 1310, a.h. 710. 
[Vide Xasafi or Al-Nasafa.]j 




Haflz-ullah, Shaikh {-.^ <dll li^A^), 

a relation of Siraj -uddin 'Ali Khan Arzu, 
His jjoetical name was Asam. He died in 
the 21st year of the emperor Muhammad 
Shah of DehlT, a.d. 1767, a.h. 1181. 

Hafs (^. 

). Vide Abti Hafs-ul- 

Hafsa (a_^2_i.5^), a daughter of the 

Khalif TJmar, and wife of Muhammad, in 
whose hands Abu Bakr, the successor of the 
prophet, deposited the original Quran. She 
outlived her husband 33 years and died in 
A.D. 665, A.H. 4.5. 

Haibat Jang (j_^^ cj_.-.-.i,), title 

of Zain-uddin Ahmad, the youngest son of 
Haji Ahmad, and nephew and son-in-law 
of Alahwardi Khan Mahabat Jang, governor 
of Bengal. He was the father of Nawab 
Siraj -uddaula, who succeeded Mahabat Jang 
in the government of Bengal in a.d. 1756. 

Haihat Khan 


the author of the TiiriMi Khan Jahdn Lodt, 
MakhzaH-i-AfghSnl, containing the history 
of Khan Jahan Lodi and of the Afghans. 
Khan Jahan was a general of great reputation 
during the reign of the emperor Jahanglr, 
but rebelling against Shah Jahan, was killed 
in an engagement with the royal troops, a.d. 
1631, A.H. 1087. The above work was 
written in a.d. 1676. There is also an 
abridgment of this work, by the same author, 
called Majnma' Afijhanl. 

Haidar (jJ,-::^), a title of 'Ali, the son- 
in-law of Muhammad. 

Haidar {„^ ^^^=^ L a^sali' jA^=^), 

also called Haidar Kuluj or Haidar Kulicha, 
because he was by profession a baker. He 
was a native of Herat, and is the author of a 
Diwan in Persian and one in Urdu. 

Haidar (^j>^~^), or Mir Haidar Shah, 

a gallant soldier in the service of Nawab 
Sarfaraz Khan, governor of Bengal. He put 
the Diwan of Wall the Deccani into Mu- 
khammas and interspersed that of Hafiz with 
verses of his own. He died at Hugli in the 
reign of the emperor Ahmad Shah, a year or 
two before or after a.d. 1750, a.h. 1164, 
aged 100 years. Garcin-de-Tassy thinks that 
he is the author of a Masnawl entitled Kissai 
Chandar JBadon and Mahyar. 

Haidar Ali, known to contemporary 

Europeans as " Hyder Naik," son of a 
Punjabi adventurer, "bom in the Deccan about 
A.D. 1702 ; distinguished himself in the 

service of the JIaisur (Jlysore) State about 
1740. Deposed the Eaja' and assumed the 
power of the State twelve years later and 
ruled for 20 years. His extraordinary efforts 
and occasional successes against the British 
are matter of history. Defeated by Sir Eyre 
Coote at Porto Novo 1781, he died 7th 
December, 1782. He was succeeded by his 
son Tipu (Tippoo) . 

Haidar Ali Moulwi {^^^^ J.c jj,*=^ 

i_^jIjI (^-i), of Faizabad, author of 

the Mtmtnhl-ul' Kalani and several other 
works. He was living in Dehli a.d. 1854, 
A.H. 1270. 

Haidar Mir (^^^j,^=..). F«V7« Haidar 


Haidar Mirza (!;_^ .j 

-), who 

also called Mir Haidar and Mirza Haidar 
Doghlat, was the sou of Muhammad Husain, 
and his wife was the aunt of Babar Shah. 
He was formerly in the service of Kaniran 
Mirza, brother of the emperor Humayiin, 
but being disgusted with his conduct abandoned 
his standard about the year a.d. 1539, a.h. 
946, and joined the emperor, to whom he 
was afterwards of great service. In a.d. 
1540, A.H. 947, he was deputed by the 
emperor to conquer Kashmir, which he took 
in a short time ; but as that emperor was 
soon after e.xpelled from India by Slier Shah, 
Haidar became the king of that country. In 
the year a.d. 1548, a.h. 955, he invaded 
Little Thibet, and not only succeeded in con- 
quering that country, hut subsequently added 
Great Thibet, Eajora and Pogla to his 
dominions. He reigned nearly ten years, and 
was killed by an arrow in a night-attack made 
upon his camp in a.d. 1551, a.h. 958. 

Haidar Khan, Mir (^^ ^~^ jS.^^), 

the grandson of Mir Haidar, who was the 
author of the Tar'ikh Easliidi. This person, 
on plea of presenting a petition, killed Husain 
'Ali Khan Amir-ul-Umra, at the instigation 
of the emperor Muhammad Shah, on the 
18th September, o.s. 1720, 27th Zi-Qa'da, 
a.h. 1132, and was himself cut to pieces. 

Haidar Malik (LjClL* .lX-.^-), entitled 

Eais-ul-Mulk Chughtai, author of the most 
authentic history of Kashmere down to hia 
own time. He was a nobleman in the service 
of the emperor Jahangir, and was living 
about the year a.d. 1619, a.h. 1028, in 
which year he accompanied that emperor to 

Haidar Muammai, Mir (^U«v» jJi-,=- 

..*.^), surnamed Eafisgi Kashi, a 

punster who flourished in the time of Shah 
Ismail II. king of Persia, and wrote a chrono- 




Srara at his death, which took place iu a d. 
15/7, A. n. 985. He was distinguished by 
his sldll iu makius- chronosTaras and eui;>-nias. 
He came to India iu the time of Akbar, and 
■was drowned when returning by sea to Persia. 
He was iu charge of copies of Faizi's works 
for distribution in Persia, and they were 
also lost, ride Mir Haidar. 

Haidar Razi (o'j^ j-^^r 

-), a Persian 

historian who wrote in the 17th century of 
the Christian Era. 

Haidar, Shaikh or Sultan ( ,jk_^:^ 

(_^LLiJ.--j), father of Shah Ismail I. 

Safwi. He was the son of Sidtan or Shaikh 
Junaid, the son of Shaikh Ibrahim, the son 
of Shaikh or Khwaja AH, the son of the 
celebrated Shaikh Sadar-uddiu Miisa, the 
son of Shaikh Safi or Safi-uddin Ardibeli, 
who was the 21st in a direct line from MiisT 
Qazim, the seventh Imam, He was killed 
in a battle against Ya'kiib Beg the son of 
Uzzan Husan, at Shirwan iu the month of 
July, A.D. 1488, Sha'ban, a.h. 893. 

Hairan (^\^:^)^ poetical name of Mir 

Haidar 'All. He was killed in zillah Bihar, 
but had the assassin put to death before he 


airani, Maulana (IjI..^ 'A..^.a~ 

j\s^tJb), of Hamdan. He is the 

author of several Masnawis or poems, viz. 
Kahrdm-ipa-NaMd. Dispute between Heaven 
and Earth, entitled J/ffHti^ira Arz-iva-Sama ; 
Dispute between the Candle and the Moth, 
called Jlro/tlzifa Shama'-u-a-Parirana ; and 
Dispute between the Roasting Spit and the 
Fowl, named Manazira SiMi-u'a-Murgh. He 
died iu a.d. 1497-8, a.h. 903. 

Hairat (^jaSI *Lj CL^-.?-), poetical 

name of Qayam-uddin, the author of the 
biography called Tuzldra MaqSlut -usli- 
tthua'rd, which he completed in a.d. 1760, 
a.h. 1174. 

Hairat (cuy^s^), poetical title of 

Pandit Ajuddliia Parshad, a native of Kash- 
mere, who resided at Lucknow. He is the 
author of a small Diwan and a few Masnawis. 
He died a.h. 1234, in the 3oth year of 

Hairati ( ^J' ,-=^ ), a poet of Marv. In 

reward of a Qasida which he composed in 
praise of Shah Tahmasp I. Safwl, he obtained 
the title of Malik-ush-Shua'ra or king of 

pools. Besides the work called BaJijat-ul- 
Mnh^ihij, he is the author of a MasuawT to 
wliich he gave the title of Gulzar. ,U1 his 
verses amount to about ■10,000. He was 
mui'dered at Kashau a.u. 1554, a.h. 962. 

Hairati ( 

-) was the greatest 

poet of his time. Ho had studied at Isfahan, 
and was alive when TaqI K iishan! wrote his 
Tazkira a.d. 1685. Though he received a 
liberal allowance from the Persian Goveru- 
raeut, owing to his extravagance, it was quite 
insufficient for his sujjport, and in a.d. 1681, 
A.H. 989, he came to India being attracted 
by the prodigality of the Qutb-Shahi kiuga 
of Golkanda. 

Hajar i..^)^ a very great man among 

the followers of 'All, and remarkable for hia 
singular abstinence, piety and strictness of 
life, his constant purifications according to 
Muhammadan law, and exactness in observing 
the hours of devotion. He was put to death 
iu A.D, 666, by order of Mu'awia I. for 
speaking reproachfully of him, affronting his 
brother Zayad, governor of Kiif a , and affirming 
that the government did not, of right, belong 
to any but the family of 'Ali. 

Hajari. Vide Hijri. 

Haji Begam (»il--J ^:>-\.:^), wife of 

the emperor Humayiin. 

[ Vide Hamida Bano Begam.] 

Haji Khalfa (<LaJ..^ j»-1::>-), a cele- 
brated author commonly called Mustafi Ilaj] 
Iflialfa. He is the author of the work called 
Fazlaka, also of the Biographical Dictionary 
called Kaslif-uz-Zuinl)i, and the work called 
Taqunm-ut-Tawarllsh Rmni. The latter is a 
Chronological Table of remarkable events 
from the Creation of the world to a.d. 1648, 
A.H. 1058, translated from the Tirrkish 
during the reign of Sultan Muhammad IV. of 
Constantinople. The Eashf-az-Zuniin was 
printed for the Oriental Translation Fund in 
1835-50, together with a Latin translation by 
Professor Fluegel. It appears that Haji 
Khalfa formerly'bore the title of Katib Chilpi, 
and if this is correct, he died in a.d. 1657, 
A.H. 1067. 

[In Chambers' EncyclopEcdia the month and 
year of his death are given as September, a.d. 
1658, and he is also said to have been the author 
of the 2'miMi Kablr, the Great Sistory, which 
is a history of the world from the creation of 
Adam to a.d. 1655, containing notices of 150 
dynasties, principally Asiatic ; also a history 
of the Ottoman empire from a.d. 1591 to 
1658, and a history of the maritime wars of 
the Turks, which has been translated into 




Haji Muhammad Beg Khan ( -=-L>- 

U^^ ^—^-^ X*,^'*), the father of the 

celebrated Mirza Abu Talib Kb™, autbor of 
the Maslr Tulibl. He was by descent a Tm'k, 
but born at 'Abbasabad in Isfabftn. Whilst a 
young man, dreadino' the tyranny of Nadir 
Shah, be fled from Persia, and on his arrival 
in India was admitted into the friendship of 
Kawab Abu'l Mansrii- Khan Safdar Jang. 
Upon the death of Eaja Nawul Rae, Deputy 
Governor of Andh in a.d. 1750, a.h. 1163, 
Muhammad Quli Khan, the nephew of the 
Kawab, was appointed to that important 
office, and he (Haji) was nominated one of 
his assistants. On the death of Safdar Jang 
in A.D. 1753, A.H. 1167, his son Shnja- 
uddaula became jealous of his cousin Mnbam- 
mah QulI Khiin, arrested him and put him to 
death. Haji fled mth a few of his faithful 
servants to Bengal, where he passed a number 
of years, and died at Murshidahad in April, 
A.D. 1769, Zil-hijja, a.h. 1182. 

Haji Muhammad Jan {x4.s.-^ <r^^ 

t^^A^ ^J^^), of Mashhad. His 

poetical name is Qudsl. He flourished in the 
reign of the emperor Shah Jahan, who 
conferred on him the title of Malik-ush- 
Shua'ra, or the Eoyal poet. He is the 
author of a poem containing the conquests of 
the emperor, which he named Zafarnama. 
He died in the year a.d. 1645, a.h. 1055, 
and after him the title of the royal poet was 
conferred on Abu. Talib Kalim. He is also 
the author of a Diwan, and an Insha. 

Haji Muhammad Kashmiri Maulana 

One of his forefathers, who was a native of 
Hamdan, came to Kashmere with Mir Said 
'All Hamdanl. Haji was born in that 
province, but came to Dehli in his youth, 
where he received his education. He was an 
excellent poet, flourishing in the time of 
Akbar, and died on Thursday the 22nd 
September, a.d. 1597, 19th gafar, a.h. 
1006, o.s. He was a religious man, and bad 
many disciples, one of whom, named Maulana 
Hasan, wrote the chronogram of bis death. 

Haji Muhammad Khan Sistani 


was at first in the service of Bairam Khan 
Khankhanan, after whose dismissal he was 
honoured with the rank of 3000 by the 
emperor Akbar. He accompanied Munaim 
Khan Khankhanan to Bengal and died at 
GoiH in A.D. 1575, a.h. 983. 

Haji Muhammad Qandahari ( r»-l=^ 

iCjUjiiJ A,*«:'*). He is the author 

of a history which goes by his name, viz. 
TartMi JBdjl Muhammad C 

.iiiiiA-; u;lii- J.^^.-SL'* |^=>-l^-). He 


(^jijLiJi I 5-j^ 

the most vahant Arabian captains, who was 
made governor of Arabia and Arabian Iraq, 
by Abdulmalik the fifth Klialif of the 
Ommaides, after he had defeated and killed 
Abdullah -bin-Zubeir, who had taken the 
title of Khalifa at Mecca. In the year a.d. 
693, a.h. 74, he pidled down the temple of 
Mecca, which Ahdidlah had repaired, placing 
the black stone on the outside of it again and 
restoring it to the very form it had before 
Muhaniraad's time. He was a great tyrant ; 
it is said of him, that in bis lifetime he had 
put to death a hundi'cd and twenty thousand 
persons, and when he died had 50,000 in his 
prisons. He died in the reign of the Klialif 
Walif I. in the year a.d. 714, a.h. 85, aged 
54 years. 

Hakim I. (^=^), the poetical title of 

a person who was a native of Mashhad, and 
was living about the year a.d. 1688, a.h. 
1100. He was an Arabic and Persian scholar, 
and is the author of a Diwan and a Masnawi. 

Hakim II. (^^:s.), the poetical name 

of Shah Abdul Hakim of Lahore. He is the 
author of a work called Mardum Dida-y 
compiled at Aurangabad in a.d. 1761, a.h. 
1175. It contains an account of those poets 
with whom the author was acquainted. 

Hakim-Ain-ul-Mulk (^^.s. *.^^=.- 

t_>.L^l), of Shiraz. He was a 

learned man and a clever writer. He traced 
his origin, on his mother's side, to the 
renowned logician Muhaqqiq-i-Dawanf. The 
Historian Badaoni was a friend of his. Akbar 
also Uked him very much. Hakim was a 
poet and wrote under the Lakbalns of 
IJawani. He died at Handiah on the 27th 
Zil-bijja, A.H. 1003. 

[Vide Am Translation, i. p. 481.] 

Hakim Ali ( jL-^ ^s- *.-JL;^), of 

Gilan, came to India in indigent circum- 
stances, hut was fortunate enough to become 
in course of time a personal attendant and 
friend of Akbar. In the 39th year of Akbar's 
reign, he constructed the wonderful reservoir 
which is so often mentioned by Mughal 
historians. In the 40tb year Ali was a 
commander of 700 and had the title of 
Jalinus tJzzamani the ' Galinus of the Age.' 
He died on the 5th Muharram, a.h. 1018. 

[Vide Alti Translation, i. p. 466.] 

Hakim Muhammad (a.^.s'* ^-^Lc-). 

He was half-brother to the emperor Akbar, 
being horn of a different mother. 
[ Tide Muhammad Hakim.] 




Hakim Nur-uddin SMrazi ( y ^<^ 

•Syjrr^ ^jJAM), who appears to have 

been either grandson or sister' (5 son of Abii'l 
Fiizl, asserts in his preface to the Hcij.U Dara 
S/iikohi, that he commenced his -work in the 
14th year of the reign of Shah Jahan, a.d. 
1(>42, A.H. 1052, the above name of the book 
gives the year of the Hijra, and brought it to 
a conclusion in a.h. 1056. 

Haklm-ul-M:umalik(( Q'U^\ ^Xs-), 

title of Mir Muhammad Mahdl, a physician 
who held the rank of 4000 in the reign of 
the emperor 'Alamgir. 

Halaki (^\s,iji, ^lii), of Hamdan, 

a Persian poet, though illiterate, wrote a 
panegyTic on the accession of Shiih Isma'il 
Safwi II. to the throne of Persia, in the year 
A.D. 1576, A.H. 984, for which he received a 
handsome present from the king, while other 
poets who wrote on the same occasion 
received nothing. 

Halaku Qaan or Khan (^1 \j ^hb), 

also called Ilkhan, was the son of Tiili Khan, 
and the fom-th successor and grandson of 
Changez Klian the Tartar. In the reign of 
his brother Mangii Qaan, king of Tartary, 
he was detached, in May, a.d. 1253, Eabi' I. 
A.H. 651, attended by one huudi-ed and fifty 
thousand horse to subdue Persia, which he 
soon conquered, after which he extirpated the 
power of the Isma'ills, the descendants of 
Hasan Sabbah (?.».), the founder of the 
sect, and destroyed their strongholds in 
November, a.d. 1256, ^il-qada, a.h. 6o4. 
He next intended to march direct to Constan- 
tinople, but was persuaded by Naslr-uddin 
TusI (whom he bad made his prime minister) 
to turn bis arms against Baghdad. He 
marched against tliat capital, and after a 
siege of some months took it in February, 
A.D. 1258, 4th Safar, a.h. 656. The Klialifa 
Mustaa'sim Billab and his son were seized, 
and with 800,000 of its inhabitants were put 
to death. After these successes Halakii was 
desirous of returning to Tartary to take 
possession of the government of his native 
country, which had become vacant by the 
death of his brother 5Iangii Qaan ; but the 
great defeat which the general whom he bad 
left in SjTia suffered from Saif-uddin Firoz, 
the prince of the Mamliiks of Egj-pt, com- 
pelled him to abandon his design ; and after 
he liad restored his affairs in SjTia, he fixed 
his residence at Maragha, in Azurbaijan, 
where he died on Sunday the 8th February, 
A.D. 1265, 19th Eabi' ll. a.h. 663, after a 
reign of twelve yeais from his first coming to 
Persia, and eight years from the death of his 
brother. During his prosperous reign, the 
litcr.itm'e of Persia resumed its former 
flourishing state ; and the illustrious Persian 
Bard Sa'di of Sliiraz was hving in his time. 

Ilahlku was succerdnl by his son Aba Qiian 
in the kingdom of Persia. 

List of Mnghal-Turtar or Ilkhdln dynasty of 

HaLaku Khan, the son of Tiili Khan, suc- 
ceeded his brother Mangii Qaan in the 
kingdom of Persia. 

Aha Qaan, the son of Halakii. 

Nikodar or Ahmad Kjian, brother of Aba 

Arghiin Klian, son of Aba Qaan. 

Kaikhatii Khan, son of Aba Qaan. 

Baidii, grandson of Halakii. 

Gbazan Khiin, sou of Arghiin Khiin. 

Aljaitii, the son of Arghiin Khan. 

Abii Said Bahadur- Klian, son of Aljaptu, 
after whose death the dynasty became 

Halati (^'vj^), poetical title of Easim 

Beg, who was born and brought up in 
Teheran, and spent the greater part of his 
life at Qazwin. He flourished in the reign 
of Shah Tahmasp Safwi, and wrote the 
chronogram of the accession of Shah 
Ismail II. in a.d. 1676, a.h. 984. He is 
the author of a Diwan in Persian. 

Halima (i.^!.?-), the name of Mu- 
hammad's nurse, who, it is said, had formerly 
no milk in her breasts, but immediately 
obtained some when she presented them to 
the new bom prophet to suck. 

Hallaj (_L:^). This word, which 

properly signifies the person that prepares 
cotton before it is manufactured, was the 
surname of Abii MughTs Husain-bin-Mansiir. 
[ Vide Mansiir Hallaj. J 

Hamd-uUah Mustoufi-Wn-Abu-Bakr- 
al-Qazwini, Khwaja (dJJl Jw»,.i^ 

■ 1*^ 

-'jj^'^J^'. )^} ^ ^i^^), 

also called Hamid-uddin Mustoufi, a native 
of Quzwin, and author of the TCirlkh Guz'ida, 
or Selected Sistory, which he composed in 
A.D. 1329, A.H. 730, and dedicated to the 
minister Ghayas-uddin, the son of Eashid- 
uddin, author of the Jama' -ut-Tawansli , to 
both of whom Hamd-uUah had been Secretary. 
The Turlkh Guzlda ranks among the best 
general histories of the last eleven years ; after 
the completion of this history, the author 
composed his celebrated work on Geography 
and Xatural History, entitled JS'uzliat-ul- 
Quliib, The delight of hearts, which is in high 
repute with Oriental Scholars, and which has 
obtained for him from D'Herbelot the title 
of le Geographe Persan. Hamd-ullah died 
A.D. 1349, A.H. 750. He was the brother of 
Fakhr-uddin Fath-iUlah Mustoufi. See also 
Ahmad-bin-Abii Bakr. 




Hamid (j^.^.^^), a poet, ^vho is the 
author of a poem called Isiiiat Xama, contain- 
ing the loves of Satin and Jllna, composed in 
the year a.d. 1607, a.h. 1U16, dm-ing the 
reign of Jahangir. 

Hamid (^U ), or AbdQl Hamid Yahia, 

a celebrated caligrapher, who reformed the 
Arabian characters in the reign of the Khalif 
MuaAvia II. of the house of Umaiya. He 
died in a.d. 749, a.h. 132. 

Hamid Ali, Mirza {\^^ ^ s^\sJ), 

or more properly Prince Mirza Hamid 'Ali, 
son of Wajid 'Ali Shah, the last king of 
Lucknow. He accompanied his grandmother 
the Dowager Queen of Lucknow to England 
to claim his right, in 1856. 
[Vide Jawad Ali.] 

Hamida Bano (yb iA.«.^^), the 

daughter of Malika Bano, the sister of 
Mumtaz Mahal, was married to Khalil-ullah 
Khan, who died in a.d. 1662. 

Hamida Bano Begam (»jl_i iJc.,*,.!^. 

*x-j), styled (after her death) Mariam 

Makani, and commonly called Haji Begam, 
was a great-granddaughter of Shaikh Ahmad 
Jam. She was manied in a.d. 1541, a.h. 
948, to the emperor Hnmayiin, and became 
the mother of the emperor Akbar. She is 
the founder the Sarai called Arab Sara, 
situated near the mausoleum of her husband 
at old Dehli. She had gone on a pilgrimage 
to Mecca, and on her return brought with 
her 300 Ajrabs, for whom she built this place 
in A.D. 15C0, A.H. 968. She died at Agra 
on Monday the 29th August, a.d. 1603, 
17th Shahrewar, a.h. 1012, aged about 78 
years, and was buried in the mausoleum of 
Humayiin at Dehli. 

Hamid Kirmani ( JL*^ A-^Ls-), 

poetical name of Shaikh Aoliad - uddin 

Hamid-uddin Ali-al-Bukhari {>~ 

^j\kA\ Is^ rri'^^)) author of a short 

Commentary on the Hidaya, entitled the 
Fawaed. He died in a.d. 1268, a.h. 667. 

Hamid-uUah Khan (^^l:s- tdH A^^a-), 

author of the AhddU-ul-Khawdnin, also 
called Tdrlkh-i - Hamid, which contains a 
history of Chatgawn (Chittagong) . Printed 
at Calcutta in 1871. 

Hamid - uddin Mustoufi, Khwaja 
[ Vide Hamd-uUah Mustoufi.] 

Hamid-uddin Nagori, Qazi (j,.^.^.s. 

^.^li ^^^XL) |^i>j(), a native of 

Nagor who held the appointment of Qazi, 
and died on the 11th July, a.d. 1296, 11th 
Eamazan, a.h. 695, and is biuied at Dehli 
close to the tomb of Khwaja Qutb-uddin 
Bakhtiar. commonly called (Jutb Shah. He 
is the author of the book called Taicdla-iish- 
ahainus, containing religious contemplations 
and speculative opinions of the essence and 
nature of the divinity, etc., etc. The year of 
his death is taken from an inscription over his 

Hamid-uddin Qazi ( .^Iji ^jjJl li^^ 

i_j^.SbS), of Dehli, Tvas the author 

of the Sharah Hidayat-id-Fiqah and several 
other works. He died in a.d. 1363, a.h. 764. 

Hamid - uddin Umar, Qazi ( ji.-w*-=>- 


tJijJO flourished in the 

time of Sultan San jar, the Salj'iiki king 
of Persia, was a contemporary of the poet 
Anwari, and is the author of a Commentary 
on the Qui'an called Muqamat. 

Hammad (ol_^_s^), the son of Abu 

Hanifa, who was a learned man, and died in 
the year a.d. 792, a.h. 176. 

Hamza, Amir {j^\ ijA.:=- ), the son of 

Abdul MuttaUb, and uncle of Muhammad, 
who gave him the title of Asad-ullah, or the 
Kon of God, because of his courage and valour, 
and put into his hands the first standard he 
ordered to be made, which was called " Raet- 
ul-Islam," the standard of the faith. Hamza, 
who was also called Abii ' Umar, was killed 
in the battle of Ohad which Muhammad 
fought with the Qureshitcs, of whom Abu 
Suflan was chief. After the battle Hiuda, 
the vriie of AbH Sufian, pulled Hamza's 
liver out of his body and chewed and 
swallowed some of it. This battle took place 
in the month of March, a.d. 626, Shawwal, 
A.H. 3. 

Hamza Bano Begam (*il.J y\j ij^s-), 

daughter of Shah Jahan by Kandahari Begam, 
daughter of Muzaffar Husain Mirza of the 
royal race of Shah Isma'il Safwi. She was 
born in the year a.h. 1019. 

Hamza Mirza {\\j^ ^iUj^), the eldest 

son of Sultan Muhammad Khuda Banda, and 
the grandson of Shah Tahmasp I. of the 
Safwi family of Persia. His father, on 
account of a natural weakness in his eyes, 
which rendered him almost blind, had at 




first entrustecl tlie charge of the empire to his 
wazir, JEirza Sulaiman ; whtu that uohlcman 
was slain, he created his own sou, Hamza 
Mirza, regent of the empire. This prince, 
by his valour, extricated liis weak father from 
all his diiiiculties with which he was 
surrounded. But this gleam of good fortune 
soon vanished. This gallant prince was 
stabbed by a barber, in his own private 
apartments on the 2'ith November, a.d. 1586, 
22nd Zil-liijja, a.h. 994. 

Hanbal, Imam(^l,t J--=-), or Ahmad 

Ibu Hanbal, the son of Muhammad- 
ibn - Hanbal, was the fourth Imam or 
founder of one of the four orthodox sects of 
the Surmis called Hanbalites. This sect 
made a great noise in Baghdad in the reign of 
the Khalif Al-Muqtadir in a.d. 929, a.h. 
317. Merauzi, chief of the sect, had asserted 
that God had placed Muhammad on his 
throne, which assertion he founded upon the 
passage of the Quran : " Thy Lord shall soon 
give thee a considerable place or station." 
All the other sects of the Musalmans regard 
the explication of the Hanbalites as a shocking 
impiety. They maintain that this consider- 
able place or station was the post or quality 
of a mediator, which they affirm to belong to 
their prophet. This dispute passed from the 
schools to the public assemblies. At length 
they came from words to blows which cost 
the lives of several thousands. In the year 
A.D. 935, A.H. 323, the Hanbalites became 
so insolent, that they marched in arms on the 
city of Baghdad, and plundered the shops on 
pretence that wine was drunk in them. 
Ahmad was a traditionist of the first class, 
and composed a collection of authenticated 
traditions called Masnacl, more copious than 
those any other person had, till then, been able 
to form : it is said that he knew by heart one 
million of those traditions. He was born in 
the year a.d. 780, a.h. 164, and died on the 
31st July, A.D. 855, 12th Eabi' I. a.h. 241, 
in the reign of the Khalif Al-Mutwakldl, and 
was buried at Baghdad. It was estimated 
that the number of men present at his fimeral 
was 800,000, and 60,000 women; and it is 
said that 20,000 Christians, Jews and 
Magians became Moslems on the day of tis 
death. In the year a.d. 835, Eamazan, 
A.H. 220, some time in the month September, 
he was required by Khalif Al-Motasim Billah 
to declare that the Quran was created, but 
would not, and although beaten and imprisoned 
persisted in his refusal. The eternity of the 
Quran, considered as the word of God, is the 
orthodox Moslem doctrine. [The modern 
Wahhabis are believed to be partly followers 
of this teacher. See Hughes' Dictionary of 
Islam, in voc. " Ibn Hanbal."] 

Handal Mirza iUj.^ JU-i-r^), son of 

the emperor Babar Shah and brother of 
Humayun, was born in the year a.d. 1518, 
A.H. 924. He lost his life in a night attack 
made by his brother Kamran Mirza on the 

emperor Humayun near Khaibar in the 
province of Kabul, on the 19th November, 
A.D. 1651, 21st Zi-Qa'da, a.h. 958. He is 
buried at Kabul close to the tomb of the 
emperor Babar Shah. Humayiiii, out of 
affection to the memory of Handal Mirza, in 
the same year gave the daughter of that 
prince, Eaqia Sultana, to his son Akbar in 

Hani ( :>s-), surname of Muhammad- 
bin- 'AlT, a poet who died in the year a.d. 
1333, a.h. 733. 

Hanifa Imam ( aUI ^i»is- ), also called 

Abu Hanifa and Imam 'Azim, was one 
of the four Jurisconsults of Mecca, 
tiii. Imam Hanifa, Imam Hanbal, Imam 
Shafa'i and Imam Malik, from whom are 
derived the various Codes of Muhammadan 
Jurisprudence. He was one of the most 
celebrated doctors of the Musalmans, and 
chief of the sect of Hanifites ; and though his 
sect is the principal of the four which they 
now indifferently follow, he was ill-used 
during his lifetime. His principal works are ; 
the Masnad, i.e. the foundation or support, 
wherein he established all the points of the 
Mnsalman faith ; a treatise entitled Filkalam 
or Scholastic Divinity ; and a catechism 
called Mua'lli)n-iil-Isldm, i.e. the Instructor. 
Another of his books is entitled the Fiqh- 
ul-Alchar ; it treats of the Ilm-ul-Kalam, 
and has been commented upon by various 
writers, many of whom are mentioned by 
Haji Khalfa. Some say that the Masnad 
was written by Imam Hanbal. By the Shias 
he is as much detested and censured as by 
their antagonists he is admired and exalted. 
For allowing his disciples to drink naiiz, 
which is a wine made of dates, he is accused 
by the Persians of departing from the clear 
injunction of the Prophet against all intoxi- 
cating beverages. [At the time of his birth 
some of the "companions" of the Prophet 
were still living, which adds to his authority 
among the Sunni denomination.] 

Haqiqat (i. 

-), poetical title of 

Saiyad Husain Shah, son of Saiyad Arab 
Shah. He accompanied Col. Sydd to 
Chinapatan in Madras as head Munshi and 
died there. He is the author of an Urda 
Diwan and seven other works, some of which 
are named Tahfat-ul-'Jjam, Kliazmat-ul- 
Amsdl, Sanamkada Chin and Easht Oulgusht. 
[ Vide Husain Shah.] 

Haqiri (j_j_^ii.=-), poetical name of 

Maiilana Shahab-uddin Mua'mmai. 
Harindar Narain Blitip, Maharaja 

Eaja of Kiich Behar, who died at Benares 
on the 30th May, 1839, and was aged 70 years. 
He was of the Eajbausi caste, and a follower 
of Siva, but his style of living was very 




unlike that of a Hindu. He used to marry 
"without any regard to caste, and entered into 
the eounnhial relation with any women he 
took a fancy to. He did not even spare married 
women. Ihe number of Ms wives or ranis 
was no less than 1200 ! 

Hari Rao Holkar ( XJ-a .1 , l_?r-I^), 

Eaja of Indor, was the cousin and successor 

of Malhar Rio III. the adopted sou and 

successor of Jaswant Kao Holkar. He died 
on the 24th October, a.d. 1843. 

Hariri (^^j^.i^), whose full name is 

Abu Muhammad Qasim -bin-'Ali-bin- 
Usman-al-Hariri-al-Basri, was a native of 
Basra. He was one of the ablest writers of 
his time, and is the author of the MuqSmat 
Hariri, a work consisting of fifty Oratorical, 
Poetical, Moral, Ecomiastic, and Satirical 
discourses, supposed to have been spoken or 
read in public assemblies ; but which were 
composed by the author at the desire of 
Aniisherwan-ibu-Khalid, wazir to Sultan 
Muhammad Saljuqi. He died at Basra in 
the year a.d. 1122, a.h, 516. Poets, 
historians, grammarians and lexicographers 
look upon the Muqamat as the highest 
authority, and next to the Quran, as far at 
least as language is concerned. His book has 
been translated either entirely or partially 
into nearly every Eastern and European 

Harkaran {^^jSb), the son of Mathura 

Das, a Kamboh of Multan, was a Munshi in 
the service of Nawab Ya'tbar Khan, and is 
the author of a collection of letters called 
Inshde Karharan, or the Forms of SarJca- 
ran, translated into English by D. Francis 
Balfour, M.D. The second edition of this 
work was printed in 1804. 

Harun - al - Rashid (^ 

Vide Al-Eashid. 

^y^ UX) 


Hasan (J.^,-: ^_ ^^^:>-), son of Suhail 

or Sahl, was governor of Chaldea about the 
year a.d. 830, under the Khalif Al-Mamuu, 
who married Tiiran Duldit his dau^-hter. 
Some attribute to this Hasan the translation 
of the Persian book entitled Jdwedan Ktiirad 
into Arabic. 

Hasan (^^.4*.=-), poetical name of Mu- 
hammad Hasan, who flourished in the reign of 
the emperor Shah 'Alam of Dehli. 

Hasan Aladal ( Jlji_.£ ^^y^^^'), or Baha 

Hasan Abdal, a famous saint who was a 
Sayyad at Sabzwar in Khurasan. He came 
to India with Mirza Shahrukh, son of Anser 

Taimiir, and died at Qandahar, where his tomb 
is rcsDrted to by pilgrims. Jahangir says in 
the Ttl-iik that the place Hm'asadak is 75 kos 
from Kashmere. 

Hasan 'Ali 

(|C-l-c ^^y^^), the poet 

laureate in the service of Tipii Sidtan of 
Mysore. He is the author of a book called 
Hhoghal, or the Kok Shastar. It is a curious 
but obscene satire on women, said to be a 
translation or paraphrase from the Sanskrit 
in Hindi verse. There is another translation 
of the same book in Persian prose called 
Lazzat-im-Nisa, by Ziya-uddin Nakhshabi. 

Hasan Askari, Imam {i^jJL^s. ^au.=^), 

or Abu'l Hasan 'Ali-al- 'Askari, was the 
eleventh Imam of the race of 'Ali, and the 
eldest son of Imam 'Ali Naqi who was the 
tenth. He was born at Madina in the year 
a.d. 846, a.h. 232, and died on the 6th 
November, a.d. 874, 22nd Muharram, a.h. 
261, aged 28 years. He is bmied at Sar- 
maurai in Baghdad close to the tomb of his 

Hasan Basri, Khwaja {^^...aJ rf^^^ 

ii.^\^), a native of Basra and a very 

pious Musalman, who is said to have possessed 
all the branches of science, and was noted for 
self-mortiiication, fear of God and devotion. 
He is the author of a Diwan or book of Odes 
in Arabic. He was born in a.d. 642, a.h. 
21, and died on the 11th October, a.d. 728, 
1st Rajah, a.h. 110, aged 89 lunar years, 
and was buried at Basra. 

Hasan Beg (Khani, Badakhshi) 


~-.j>j ^jLi- L,JL^j ^*/ 

Shaikh Umari was a good soldier. He was 
made a commander of 2,500 for his services in 
Bangash, and was put, towards the end of 
Akhar's reign, in charge of Kabul, receiving 
Fort Rohtas in the I'anjab as jagir. Hasan 
Beg, after making a useless attempt to in- 
criminate others, was put into a cow-hide 
and in this state he was tied to donkeys and 
carried through the bazaar. He died after a 
few hours from suffocation. 

[Vide Am Translation, i. p. 454.] 

Hasan - bin - Muhammad Khaki - al - 
Shirazi ( ^^L^ \.,^~~s.^ ^J ^J-'*>■■='- 
^\\^J^\), who came to India in the 

time of the emperor Akbar and obtained 
different offices under the government. He is 
the author of a history also called Muntakhili- 
ut-Tawdrlkk, besides the one written by 
Abdu Qadir Badaoni. He commenced the 
work before the close of Akbar's reign, i.e. 
A.D. 1010, A.H. 1019, in which year, he teUs 
us, he was appointed Diwan of Patna. 




H asan-lDin-Muhammad Sliarif( ^^ 

I— 2_^.i S.^ts:-' 

^J-;\ author of the 

Auis-iil-'Ushshuq, the loTer's companion, 
containing an explanation of all the metaphors 
and phrases used by the poets ; with nnmerous 
quotations from those held in the greatest 

[ Tide Qhadim.] 

Hasan-bin-Sabah {_\^ ^_, ^^,_u^5-). 
Vide Hasan Sabbah. 

Hasan Buzurg (i__^J-J ^^.^.^), also 

called Sheikh Hasan, Amir Hasan Ilqaui, 
and Amir Hasan Nayiiiu, Kayukai, the son 
of Amir Ilqan Jalayer. He was an immediate 
descendant of Sultan Arghun Khan, king of 
Persia (whose sister was his mother), and 
one of the principal chiefs of the Mnghals in 
the reign of Sultan Ahii Sa'Id. He married 
Baghdad Khatun, daughter of Amir Choban 
or Jovian, but the prince being deeply 
enamoured of her charms. Amir Hasan, after 
the death of her father, was forced to resign 
his consent to him in a.d. 1327, a.h. 7^8. 
A few years after the death of Abu Sa'id, 
Amir Hasan married his widow Dilshad 
Khatun, went to Baghdad, seized that city, 
and became the founder of a petty dynasty 
of princes. His life was passed in contests 
to establish his authority orer the territories 
of Baghdad, and he died before this object 
of his ambition was accomplished, in July, 
A.D. 1356, itajab, a.h. 757. His son Sultan 
Owes Jalayer was more fortunate ; he not 
only succeeded in completing the conquest 
his father had commenced, but carried his 
arms into Azurbej an and Khurasan. Sultan 
Owes died in October, a.d. 1374, a.h. 776, 
and left his government to his second sou 
Sultan Husain Jalayer. This excellent prince, 
who is also alike celebrated for his benevo- 
lence and love of justice, lost his life in an 
action in a.d. 1382, a.h. 784, with his 
brother Ahmad, surnamed llqani, a cruel and 
unjust ruler, whose enormities compelled his 
subjects to invite Amir Taimur (Tamerlane) 
to their relief in a.d. 1393, and almost the 
whole of the future life of Ahmad passed in 
an ineffectual struggle with that conqueror. 
He fled to Kgypt for safety, and when, after 
the death of Taimiir, he returned to recover 
his domiirions, he was taken and put to death 
by Qara Yusaf, a Turkman chief, in a.d. 
1410, a.h. 813. 

Hasan Ganga. Vide Ala-ad-din I. 

Hasan Imam {A^\ j^j^?-), the eldest 

son of 'Ali, the son of Abu Talib, and 
Fatima, the daughter of Muhammad ; was 
bom on the 1st March, a.d. 625, 15th 
Kamazan, a.h. 3. After the death of his 
father in January, a.d. 661, Eamazan, a.h. 40, 
he succeeded him as second Imam, and was 

proclaimed Klialif by the Arabians, but 
percri\iug the people divided and himself 
ill-used, he after six months resigned the 
Kliilafat to Mu'awia, ■who assigned to him 
about 15,00U pounds a year, besides large 
presents. After this Hasan and his brother 
Husain retired and lived privately at Madina, 
where after a few years he died of poison, 
administered to him by one of his wives, 
whom Yazid, the son of Mu'awia, suborned 
to commit that wickedness, on the promise 
of marrying her afterwards ; though instead of 
a new husband, she was forced to he con- 
tented with a good sum of money which 
Mu'awia gave her for her pains; for Yazid 
was not so mad as to trust himself to her 
embraces. Hasan's mm'der took place on 
the night of the 17th March, a.d. 669 or 
670, 7th Safar, a h. 49. He was buried in 
Madina at a place called Baqia. Hasan is 
said to have been in person very like his 
grandfather Muhammad, who, when he was 
born, spit in his mouth and named him 
Hasan. He had twenty children— fifteen 
sons and five daughters. Though his wives 
were remarkably fond of him, yet he was apt 
very frequently to divorce them and marry 
new ones. 

Hasan Kashi, Maulana ( a1^ _^». 

u^j<«), a poet who was a native of 

Kashan. He is the author of many Qasldas 
and Ghazals. The year of his death is not 
known, but he appears to have flourished 
about the 8th century of the Hijri era. 

Hasan Khwaja (a.^1^:>- ^^y^^. 
Vide Hasan Sanjari. 

Hasan Khwaja {i^s^\^ ^^^^s^), a 

darwesh, the son of Khwaja Ibrahim. He 
is the author of a Diwan of Ghazals, in the 
last verses of each of which he has mentioned 
the name of his beloved. 

Hasan Kochak, Shaikh (^_^_5>- 
if""" i— >^5»-^), a grandson of Amir 

Chouban or Jovian. He was one of the 
chiefs who, dm'ing the period of trouble and 
confusion which took place after the death 
of Sultan Abii Sa'id, king of Persia, in a.d. 
1335, rose to eminence. He fought several 
battles with Amir Hasan Buzurg (<?.».), and 
met his death accidentally by the hands of a 
quarrelsome wife, in December, a.d. 1343, 
Kajab, a.h. 744. 

Hasan Maimandi (^JO/*-^.^ ^-u**-). 

It is asserted by some that he was one of the 
ministers of Sultan Mahmud of Ghazni. 
This statement is altogether incorrect and 
unfounded, says Sir H. Elliot, as it is not 
mentioned by any great historian. But his 




son who is commoulycalled Ahmad-hin-Haaan 
Maimandi was a minister of that monarch. 
Hasan Maimandi was, dnring the lifetime of 
Snltan Nasir-nddiu yubaktagin, employed as 
Diwan or Collector of Eevenues at 'Qasba 
Bust ; but Nasir-uddin was led by the secret 
machinations of his enemies to entertain an 
nnfavom-able opinion of him, till he was at 
last, in consequence of his having been con- 
victed of extortion and fraud to a large 
amount, hanged by order of that Sultan ; so 
that the general notion which prevails that 
he was the wazjr of Sultan Mahmiid, is 

Hasan, Mir (^^ ^j^^^^), a Hindustani 

poet of Lucknow, and author of the novel 
called Magna in Mir Snsan, containing the 
loves of Badr-i-Munir and Benazir in Urdu 
verse, which he completed and dedicated to 
Nawab 'Asaf-uddaula in the year ad. 178.5, 
A.H. 1199. It is also called Sahr-ul-Bayan. 
His ancestors were of Herat, but he was born 
at Dehli and went early in life to Lucknow, 
where he was supported by Nawab Safdar 
Jang and his son Mirza Nawazish Ali Khan. 
He is also the author of a Diwan of about 
8000 verses, and of a Tazkira of UrdQ poets. 
HediediuA.D. 1790, a.h. 1204. His father's 
name was Mir Ghulam Husain Zahik. 

Hasan Mirza (1;,.^ _ 

-), son of 

MuUa Abdur Eazzaq of Laliijan. He has 
left some noble compositions, such as Tlie 
True Light on the articles of Faith, The 
ISeauty of good Men in their Works, a pious 
treatise, and some others. He died in the 
beginning of the 18th century. 

Hasan, Maulana {\Siy^ ^-uj-i^), a 

learned Musalman who lived in the time of 
the emperor Jahangir and wrote a chronogi'am 
on the sudden death of Shaikh 'Ali Ahmad, 
son of Shaikh Husain K"aqshi, in the year 
A.D. 1609, A.H. 1018. 

Hasan Mutkallim, Maulana {^^.mj-s^ 

\Jt^ ^JJLx.^), a poet and pupil of 

Maulana Muzafiar of Herat. He flourished 
in the reign of Malik Ghayas-uddin Kart II. 
in whose name he composed a book on the 
art of poetry. 

Hasan Rafl (%--J( i^y^'^), a Persian 

Hasan Sabbah (-.1--- 

^.AiA.5^), the 

founder of the dynasty of the Isma'Tlis in 
Persia. He was styled Shaikh-ul-Jabal, an 
Arabic title, which signifies "the chief of 
the mountains." The name by which this 
ruler and his descendants are indiscriminately 
known in European history is, " The Old 

Man of the Mountain." His followers or 
descendants were also called Hasani, and the 
English word ' ' assassin, ' ' is supposed to 
have been formed from a corruption of this 
term. Hasan Sabbah was at first a mace- 
bearer to Sultan Alp Arsalan ; but in con- 
sequence of a quarrel with Nizam-ul-Mulk, 
the minister of that prince, he retired to Hai, 
his native country, and from thence, to 
Syria, where he entered into the service of a 
chief of the family of Isma'il the son of 
Ja'far Sadiq, and adopted the tenets of that 
sect. The first object of Hasan was to 
possess himself of a stronghold ; and he 
succeeded in gaining by stratagem the moun- 
tain fort of Alahmiit, situated between 
Qazwin and Gilan. The fort was built by 
Hasan-bin-Zaid in the year a.d, 860, a.h. 
246, and Hasan Sabbah took it in a.d, 1089, 
A.H. 482. From this fortress he commenced 
depredations on the surrounding country, and 
added several other hill forts to the one he 
had already seized. That of Eodbar, which 
is also near Qazwin, was next to Alahmut in 
consequence. Malik Shah Saljiiki, the reign- 
ing Sultan, had sent a force to reduce him, 
but without any success. In the month of 
October, a.d. 1092, Ramazan, a.h. 485, 
Nizam-ul-Mulk, who was then following the 
royal camp from Isfahan to Baghdad, was 
stabbed by one of the followers of Hasan Sabbah 
who was his personal enemy. Hasan Sabbah 
died in a.d. 1124, 26th Eahi II. a.h. 618. 
Eukn-uddin, who was the last of this family, 
and who is better known under the name of 
Qiihir Shah or lO'iir Shah, after a weak and 
ineffectual struggle feU before Halakii. That 
conqueror not only made him prisoner, but 
took and dismantled all his strongholds. This 
event took place in the month of jSTovember, 
A.D. 1256, Zi-Qada' ah. 654. It was his 
father Ala-uddin Muhammad who forced 
Nasir-uddin Tiisi to remain with him for 
some years, till he was released by Halakii 
Khan. Vide Ismail and Ismailis. The 
successor of Hasan was Buziirg IJmaid. 
[Hasan Sabbah and the minister had both 
been schoolfellows at Umar Khayyam (j.j;.).] 

Hasan Salimi ( ,«J^ ^j'^.s^). Vide 

Hasan Sanjari, Khwaja ( ._,ul.i_=i^ 
<t5:-l»ii. ^.sXS), also called Khwaja 

Hasan Dehlawi, a celebrated Persian poet 
of Dehli, who was a contemporary of the 
famous Amir I£husro, and had become at 
the age of 50 years a disciple of Shaikh 
Nizam-uddin Aulia. He died, according to 
the author of the Mirat-nl-lihayal, in the 
Deccan in the year a.d. 1307, a.h. 707, and 
is buried at Daidatabad. He is the author 
of several works, amongst which is a Diwan, 
and one called Fawilcd-iil-Fau'dd, a collection 
of letters written by Nizam-uddin Aulia to 
his disciples. Talib says he died in a d. 
1337, a.h. 738. His father name was Alai 




Hasan, Shaikh (; 



0, the 


of Shaikh Xazar-iiUah. He is the author of 
a work called Sarat Jslnkain. He died in 
Mirat in the year a.h. 1078. 

Hasan Khan Shamlu (^L 


_j-)— nL^), governor of Herat under 

Shah Ahhas II. and his son Shah Sulaiman. 
He died in a.d. 1697, a.h. 1109, and is the 
author of a Diwan. 

Hasan, Sayyad (|^Jji A-.~; ^J'^:>■), of 

Gliazni, a poet who flourished in the reign of 
Sultan Bahram Shah the Ghazuavida, and 
is the author of a Diwan. He is also called 
Sayyad Hasan-al-Husaiui. He died on the 
way while returning from Mecca, in the year 
A.D. 1170, A.H. 565. 

Hasham (i — CWi\ A-r ^i fX!^), the 

son of Abdiil Malik, and the tenth Khallf 
of the house of Umaiya or Ummaides, succeeded 
his hrother Yazid It. in a.d. 724, a.h. 105. 
He couc[uered the Khaqan of Turkistan, and 
made war against Leo III. the Isaurian. He 
was always attended by 600 camels to carry 
his splendid warchobe. He died after a reign 
of 19 years 7 months and 1 1 days in the year 
A.D. 7-13, A.H. 125, and was succeeded by 
Walid II. son of Yazid II. In his time 
lived the celebrated Majniiu, the lover of 

Hashim (*^U), a poet who flourished 

at Burhanpiir in the Deccan in the reign of the 
emperor Jahanglr and was a disciple of Shaikh 
Ahmad Faruqi, commonly called Shaikh 
Ahmad Sarhindi. He is the author of a 
Diwan and several other books, and was aUve 
in A.D. 1646, A.H. 1056. 

Hashim (*wiLji), the son of Abdul 

Manaf, was the father of Abdiil Muttalib, 
who was the father of Abdullah and grand- 
father of Muhammad the prophet of the 
Musulmans. He succeeded his father as 
president of the Ka'ba, and raised the glory 
of his people to the highest pitch ; insomuch 
that the neighbouring great men and heads 
of tribes made their com-t to him. Nay, so 
great veneration is the memory of Hashim 
held in by the Arabs, that from him the 
family of Muhammad among them are called 
Hashimites. He died at Gliaza in Syria, 
and was succeeded by his son Alidiil Muttalib, 
who became president of the Ka'ba. 

Hashimi Kirmani i^^^S j<-*^U), 

author of a poem or Masnawl called Itozliar- 
ul-Asur. lie died in a.d. 1541, a.h. 948. 

Hashmat (» 

.^.y^— UA.>~ 

), the poetical 

name of Mir Jlnhtashim AH Klian, whose 
ancestors were of Badakhshan, but he was 
born in Dehli. He died about the year a.d. 
1748, a.h. 1161, and left a DiwJn of 700 


Hashmat (lI-w*.^.*.), the poetical 
name of Bakhshi Ali Khan, which see. 

Hasrat (i. 

-), the poetical name 

of Sajyad Muhammad, who died in the reign 
of the emperor Muhammad Shah. 

Hasrat (1.;:^..*^.=-), poetical name of 

Mir Muhammad Hayat of Patna who had 
the title of Haibat Quli Khan. He was for 
some time attached to the service of Kawab 
Shaukat Jang at Purauia, and for some time 
to that of Siraj-uddanla of Murshidabad. He 
died in a.d. 1800, a.h. 1215, and left a 
Diwan of 20U0 verses. 

Hasrat (l 

^ wWa£ 

-), poetical appellation 

of Mirza Ja'far 'Ali, an Urdu poet who 
flourished in the latter part of the 18th 
ceuturj', and gave instructions in the art of 
poetry to Nawab Muhabbat Khan at Lucknow. 

Hasrati ( J ,m.s~). 

Vide Shefta. 

Hatifi, Maulana i\SJ^^ .i.J'Uk), the 

poetical name of Abd-ullah, the son of 
Maulana AbdiH Eahman Jami's sister. He 
was born in Jam, a city of Herat, and died 
there in the year a.d. 1521, a.h. 927, and 
was buried in the village of Kharjard. He 
was a good poet, and author of several works. 
Having fluished his studies, under the patron- 
age and instruction of his uncle Hatifi, with 
his permission, secluded himself from the 
world. When Shah Isma'il Safwi fought 
the Uzbak Tartars in Khurasan, and slew 
Shahibeg Khan their chiet in a.d. 1508, a.h. 
914, he prevailed on om- poet to quit his cell, 
and come to court. Solely ambitious of 
rivalling the Khamsa or five poems of Nizami, 
he wrote in imitation of them his Laill and 
Majniin, Khusro and Shlrln, Haft Manzar, 
the Taimur Noma, which is also called 
Zafarnama, and in imitation of the Sikandar 
Nama, he undertook a heroic poem in praise 
of his patron, called Fatuliat 8hahl, which he 
did not live to finish. Among the numerous 
Persian poems on the story of Laili and 
Majniin, that of Hatifi seems universally 
esteemed the simplest and most pathetic. 

Hatim ( 51L »jIs>-), commonly called 

H.atim Tai, a famous Arabian Chief of the 
tribe of Tai, celeln-ated for his Uberality, 
wisdom and valour. He flourished before 
the birth of Muhammad, and his sepulchre 
may stUl be seen at a little village called 




Amvarz in Arabia. There is an account of 
his adventures ia the romance entitled Hdlim 
Tin in Persian, which has also been translated 
into Urdu. An English translation of this 
romance was made by Duncan Forbes, A.M., 
fi'om the Persian. 

Hatim (,»_^1 ^jLa.-), surnamed Al- 

Asamm, that is to say, the deaf, was a great 
Musulman doctor, much esteemed for his piety 
and doctrine. He was a disciple of Shaqiq 
Palkhi and master of Ahmad Ivhizroya. He 
died A.D. 851, a.h. 237, in the reign of 
Mutwakkil the lOialif of Baghdad, and was 
buried at Balkh in Khui'asan, his native 

Hatim KasM, Maulana ( Al^ *jl=- 

\)iy), a poet of Kashan in. Persia, 

who flourished in the reign of Shah Abbas 
the Great. 



or Shah Hatim, 

poetical name of Shaikh Zahir-uddin, a poet 
who was a contemporary of Wall (q-v.). He 
was born at Dehli in a.d. 1699, a.h. 1111, 
and was a soldier by profession. He gave 
the first impulse to Urdii poetry in Dehli. 
In A.D. 1720, A.H. 1132, the Diwan of "Wall 
was brought to Dehli and verses of it were 
on everybody's lips ; this induced him and 
three friends of his, jS"ajT, Mazmiin, and 'Abrii 
to apply themselves to litkhta poetry. Up to 
the time of Hatim, it would appear that 
the Dehli poets wrote in Persian. He is the 
author of two Diwans in Urdu, one in 
imitation of Wall, and the other in imitation 
of Sauda and Mir Taqi. The date of Hatim's 
death is unknown. His Diwan Zuda appeared 
in 1750. 

Hatim AU Beg, Mirza (^-i_c /»~J'^=- 

^jy* i^J^)- ^id^ Mehr. 

Hawas (|^«t&), poetical title of Nawab 

Mirza Taqi, son of Xawab Mirza Ali Khan. 
He is the author of the story of Laili and 
Majniin in Urdu, and of a Diwan in which 
every Ghazal contains the name of Laili and 

Haya (L-.»-), poetical title of Shio 

Eamdas, a Hindii, and brother of Eiija Daya 
Mai Imtiyaz. He was a pupil of Mirza 
Abdiil Qadir Eedil, and is the author of a 
Diwan of about 5000 versus. 

Hayat-uUali Alirari {i\}>\ c:^L--=^ 

^j\j\), author of the work called 
Sahata Alarfin, which contains the life of 
Abrsala. He died in a.h. 1061, and his 
tomb is in Agra. 

Hayati MuHa (L 
a poet. 


J'L.=-), of Gilan, 

Hazin ( Lc Sa-^T* ^sy-i 

^V ^j' 


the poetical name of Maulana Shaikh Muham- 
mad 'All, a Persian of distinction, eminently 
learned, and accomplished. He fled into 
Hindiistiin from his native country to avoid 
the persecution of Nadir Shah in a.d. 1733, 
A.H. 1146. He was a voluminous author 
both in prose and verse. He wrote his 
Memoirs in 1741, eight years after his settle- 
ment for life in India, and it contains a 
variety of personal and historical anecdotes, 
excellent observations on men and manners, 
besides an interesting account of his travels, 
and remarks on many modern literary 
productions. A translation of this work, 
entitled The Life of Shaikh Muhammad All 
Saz'in, was made by F. C. Belfour, F.R.A.S., 
and published in 1830. His father's name 
was Shaikh Abu Talib of Gllan, a descendant 
of Shaikh Tajuddiu Ibrahim, commonly 
called Shaikh Zahid Gilani, who was the 
spiritual guide of Shaikh Safi-uddin Ardibeli. 
He was born at Isfahan on the 7th January, 
1692, O.S., 27th Eabi' II. a.h. 1103, was in 
Dehli at the time of Nadir Shah's invasion, 
and died in 1766, according to Sir Wm. 
Ouseley, a.d. 1779, a.h. 1180, aged 77 lunar 
years, at Banaras (where he had built his 
own tomb some time before his death) equally 
admired and esteemed by the Musalmau, 
Hindii and English inhabitants of that place. 
He is the author of several works in Persian 
and Arabic. 

Hazuq, Hakim (**^= 

i^jli.-), son of 

Hakim Humam, the brother of Abii'l Fatha 
Gilani. He was a noble of the reign of the 
emperor Shah Jahan, a physician and a poet, 
and is the author of a Diwan in Persian. He 
died A.D. 1658, a.h. 1068. 

Hessing, Colonel Jolin William, 

of Holland. He came to India and was at 
first employed by the Nawab Nizam Ali Klian 
of the Deccan in the year a.d. 1763, a.h. 
1177, and afterwards by Madho Eao Sindhia 
in 1784, after whose death in 1794, he 
continued in the service of his nephew Daulat 
Eao Sindhia, by whom he was appointed 
a Colonel in 1795, with the command of the 
fortress and city of Agra. He died on the 
21st July, 1803, and was bmied in the 
Eoman Catholic Bm-ial- ground at Agra, 
where a splendid mausoleum of red stone was 
built by his children, with an English 
inscription on his tomb which is of white 

Hidayat (c:.^jlj.-«is), poetical name of 

Hidayat Khan, the uncle of Nisar-uUah Khiin 
Firak. He died in the year a.h. 1215, and 
left a Diwan. 




Hidayat-ullah (a,Ul ui^jIa-a), author 

of a work on arts anil sciences called Hiddyat- 
til-Ramal, written in a. D. 1601. 

Hidayat-ullah Khan (dJJl cl-^JlJ^.-^ 

j;_)lri-), great grandson of Khan 'Azim 

Mirza Koka. He is the author of a history 
called Turlkh Tlidayat-ullah JOidit written in 
the year a.h. 1659. 

Hijri {^j^), the poetical title of 

a poet who was a native of Konhan but lived 
iu Bengal. He is the author of a DiAvan in 
which there is a (iisida of a most wonderful 
composition. If you read the first letter of 
every Misra', yon have a Uita' in praise of 
Kawab Saj-yad Muhammad Eiza Khan 
Muzaffar Jang. Some letters in the dasida 
are written in red, if you read them by them- 
selves, you have a Gliazal, and certain letters 
in the Ghazal form a B,uba'i, and certain 
letters in the Il.uba'i form a ^lisra'. He was 
living in A. D. 1766, a.h. 1180. 

Hilal Qazwini ( 

author who died in a.d. 1527, a.h. 93i. 

Hilali {^j\j\juJ\ J^-i>), of Astarabad, 

was a Tartar of the tribe of Jughtai or 
Chughtai, and author of a Diwau consisting 
of amorous odes. In his youth he travelled 
to Ehurasan, and resided at Herat, where 
the illustrious Amir 'Alisheir conferred on 
him many favours. He was a Suuui by 
religion, and was, by the contrivance of his 
enemies, who were Shias, put to death by 
order of one of the Uzbak chiefs in the year 
A.D. 1530, A.H. 936, but according to a book 
called Tuhfa ShdJn, in a.d. 1533, a.h. 939. 
He is the author of the following works, viz., 
t^hdh-wa-I)arwesh, Latli-wa-MaJm'm, Sifut- 
ul-'Ashiqim, and a Uiwan. 

Hilm (>_L5^), poetical name of Prince 

Mirza Said-uddin, commonly called Mirza 
Faiyaz-uddin, son of Mirza Eayaz-uddiu alias 
Mirza Mahammad Jan, son of Mirza Khurram 
Eakht, son of Mirza Jahandar Shah, sou of 
Shah Alam, king of Dehli. He is the author 
of a Diwan. 

Himmat Bahadur Gushain (^::_.wKJS) 
,^\L^ .jL.j), Dlwan of Ghani Baha- 
dur, Nawab of .Banda, and one of the 
Peshwa's (Baji Rao II.) principal officers in 
Bundelkhand. He joined the British troops 
under the command of Lieutenant-Colonel 
Powell in September, 1803, and gave battle 
to Shamsher Bahadur, Nawab of 13anda, who 
was defeated and compelled to retreat with 
loss. Himmat Bahadur was a powerful 

commander of a large body of horse, and of a 
numerous party of fiushains or, a 
peculiar class of armed beggars and religions 
devotees of whom he was not only the military 
leader, but also the spiritual guide. He died 
at Kalpi in 1804, and his family was pro- 
vided for by the British Government. 

[T'irfc Hunter's //H^o-iai Giizi-ttar, invoc. 

Himmat Khan {^.~>. L::_v*Jb), was the 

son of Khan Jahan Shayasta Klian, the son 
of the wazir Asaf Khan. He built his house 
on the banks of the river Jamna in a year 
with many other buildings such as gardens, 
reservoirs, baths, etc., etc., of which a bath, 
a reservoir, a Baoli, etc., etc., are still to be 
seen. His proper name was Sayyad JIuzaffar. 
Shah Jahan conferred on him the name 
of Himmat Khan. In the 19th year of 
Alamgir he was appointed governor of 
Allahabad. In the '.;4th year of Alamgir, 
the appointment of Bakhigani was conferred 
on him ; and in the 30th year of Alamgir, he 
was again appointed governor of Allahabad. 

Himu (•^♦^Jb), a banian or Indian shop- 
keeper of the caste of Dhiisar, whom Salim 
Shah, king of Dehli, had made superintendent 
of the markets. In the reign of Muhammad 
Shiih 'Adil, he was appointed his wazTr, and 
intrusted with the whole administration of 
affairs. This person in the beginning of the 
reign of the emperor Akbar laid siege to 
Agra, and having reduced it proceeded to 
Dehli which also surrendered, and Tardi Beg, 
governor of that place, who fled to Sarhind, 
was seized by Bairam Khan (?.».), the 
minister of Akbar, and beheaded for abandon- 
ing Dehli, where he might have defended 
himself. Himii was afterwards defeated and 
made prisoner in a battle fought at Panipat 
on Thursday the 5th November, a.d. 1566, 
2nd Muharram, a.h. 964, and brought into 
the presence of the king by Bairam Khan, 
who begged him to kill the infidel with his 
own hand. Akbar {who was then in his 
fifteenth year) in order to fulfil the wish of 
his minister, drew his sword and touched the 
head of the captive, while Bairam Khan, 
drawing his own sabre, at a single blow 
severed the head of HimCi from his body. 

Hinda (jA-i-is), the daughter of Utba 
and wife of Abii Sufian. 
\_Vide Hamza (Amir).J 

Hindal Mirza {\\j^ JIa-oJi). Vide 

Handal Mirza. 
Hindu Rao {^\j ^sui>), the brother of 

Biia Bai [q.v.], the wife of Maharaja Daukt 
Rio Sindhia. His Kothi or Rekka House 
on a hillock is well-kno^vn at Dehli. He died 
in a.d. 18.55. [He was fond of the society 
of Englishmen in India, among whom he was 
very popular.] 




Hira Singh (t_<.:_^ \yt), a Sikh 

Chief and minister of Maharaja Dilip Singh 
of Lahore. He was murdered with many 
others about the beginning of January, 1845. 

Hirpaldeo (^>jjljyi,), the son-in-law 

of Ramdeo, Eaja of Deogir, who by the 
assistance of the other Eajas of the Deccan, 
had recoTered his country from the Musal- 
maus, but Mubarik Shah, the sou of Ala- 
uddin Kliilji, in the second year of his reign, 
A.D. 1318, A.H. 718, marched towards the 
Deccan, took Hirpaldeo prisoner, flayed him 
alive, and hung his body at the 'gate of 
Deogir which is now called Daulatabad. 

Hisam-bin-Jamil ( J-^»- ^^ *\^>.), 

surname of Abu Sahl-al- Baghdad!, who 
passed for one of the best traditionists of 
Musalmanism. He died iu a.d. 722, a.h. 

Hissan (^.n^jli ^j ^U.=>.), the son of 

Sabit, was a poet and companion of Muham- 
mad. He is the author of a Diwan in Arabic. 
When Muhammad overcame his enemies at 
the battle of Khandaq, Hissan wrote a few 
verses on that occasion ; the prophet was so 
much delighted, that he gave him Shirin 
the sister of Maria Qabti, for wife. 

Hissan-al-Hind (jwi_^Jl ^J^^s~), that 

is, the Hissan of India, a title which Mir 
Gulam 'All Azad assumed. 

Holkar. Vide Malhar Eao I. The 
word means "Ploughman." 

Hormisdas. Vide Hurmuz. 
Hoshang' (L-jCuJi,^), second king 


the first or Pishdadian dynasty of Persia, was 
the son of Sayamak, and grand.son of Kyomurs 
whom he succeeded. He reigned 40 years 
and was succeeded by his son Tahmm-s, 
commonly called Deoband, or the Magician 
binder, a title he derived from the success 
with which he warred against the enemies of 
his family. 

Hoshang Shah (iL-i t^i-i;^) (for- 
merly called Alp Khan), was the first Muham- 
madan king of Malwa, and the son of Dila- 
war Khan Ghori who was governor of that 
place from the time of Muhammad Shah, 
A.D. 1401, son of Firoz Shah Tugjilaq, king of 
Dehli. After his father's death, which happened 
about the year a.d. 1405, a.h. 808, taking 
advantage of the times, he became entirely 
independent and assumed the title of Sultan 
Hoshang Shah. He reigned 30 lunar years, 
and died on the 17th July, a.d. 1434, 9th 
gil-bijja, A.H. 837. He was buried in a 
stone vault, and a splendid mausoleum of 

white marble was biult over it which is still 
to be seen at Mando. The date of his death 
is to be found in the three last words of a 
tetrastich translated thus by General Briggs. 
When death had sealed the Hoshang's fate. 

And he prepared to tread on Lethe's shore, 
I asked a poet to record the date. 

Who briefly said, " Shah Hoshang is no 

He was succeeded by his son Sultan 
Muhammad Shah, who was poisoned after a 
reign of one year and nine months by 
Mahmud Khan (the son of his Wazir), who 
took the title of Mahmud Shah and ascended 
the throne of Malwa on Tuesday the 15th 
May, a.d. 1436, 29th Shawwal, a.h. 839. 

Zist of the kings of Mdlwa^ whose capitals 
urt'e Dhdy, Mando or Shldiahad. 

Dilawar Khan Ghori, governor. 

Hoshang Shah Gliori. 

Muhammad Shah Ghori (also called Ghazni 

Mahmud Shah Khilji. 

Sultan Gliayas-uddin Khilji. 

Sultan Nasir-uddin Khilji. 

Sultan Mahmud II. the last of the Kliiljis. 

In his time Malwa was incorporated with 
the kingdom of Gujrat by Bahadur Shah 
(about a.d. 1S23). 

Hoshdar Khan (^l=- SsJ^^st), a title 

of Hidayat-uUah Khan, the son of Iradat 
Khan AVazah. He was honoured with this 
title by the emperor Farrukh-siyar, and after 
his father's death with that of Iradat Khan 
and the Faujdari of Diihipereya in the 
province of Malwa. In the sixth year of 
Muhammad Shah, a.d. 1724, a.h. 1136, he 
attended Nizam-ul-Mulk 'Asaf Jab to the 
Deccan, and after the victory over Muhariz 
Klian, was appointed Diwan of the Deccan 
with the rank of 4000. He was afterwards 
appointed governor of Kulburga in the Deccan 
and died in the year a.d. 1744, a.h. 1167. 
He had many sons, most of whom died in his 
lifetime. His eldest surviving son, Hafez 
Klian, succeeded him in the government of 
Kulbarga which he held at that time. Shah- 
nawaz Khan wrote the Mdsir-id- Umra, or 
Biography of Nobility. 

Hoshmand Begam (..Js-.-J Ai.^»4)), 

daughter of Sultan Khusro, married to Prince 
Hushang, the son of prince Danial in the 
year a.h. 1035. 

Hujjat (c:_^.s^), poetical name of 

Nasir Khusro, which see. 

Hujjat-ul-Islam {AJi\ 


title of Muhammad Ghazzali, a celebrated 
doctor of the Musalman law. 
\_nde Ghazzali.] 

Huma (U.fc), poetical name of Sayyad 

Imtiyaz Kjian, a son of Mo'tmid K]ian, and 
a brother of Say)-ad Ahmad whose takhallus 
was Zamir. He is the author of a Diwan. 





Humai, Queen {^[.^^), was the 

daughter of Bahnian, who is also called 
Ai'disher Darazdast ^Artaxrixes L{iiiy'imanus 
ol the Greils). She succcedrd her lather as 
queen of I'cr.-ia, in the fourth century hefore 
Christ. She built the rity called Simrah, 
which the author of the Lalfli Triuarlkh says, 
bore also the name of Simirem, and is the 
same which is at this day called Jarhadakan. 
The Persian authors state, that when she 
asceuded the throne, she was pregnant by her 
own father. Shame led her to conceal this 
circumstance ; and the child, of which she 
was delivered, was given over to a nurse to 
be put to death. The life of the child, 
however, was miraculously preserved ; and 
the unnatural mother first recof;uised her son 
when his fortune and valour had advanced 
him to the rank ot a victorious general in her 
army- Humai immediately resigned the 
crewn to him, and retired to a private life 
after she had reigned 32 years. Her son 
reigned about 12 years, and is called by the 
Persians Dara or Darab I. 

Humam, Hakim (*Jl^ fX*Jb), brother 

of Hakim Abii'l Fatha Gllani, a well 
educated and learned man in the service of 
the emperor Akbar. He was sent by that 
mouarch on an embassy, in company with 
Sayyad Sadr Jahan, to Abdullah Khan 
Uzbak, ruler of Klnrrasan, about the year 
A.D. 1.589, A.H. 997. He died in a.d. 1.59.5, 
A.H. lOOi, and left two sons, Hakim Sadiq 
and Hakim Khiishhal. 

Humam (^♦L^.ji)), poetical name of 

Kamal-nddm JIuhammad bin-Abdul- \yah- 
hab, styled by Arabshfih, " One of the most 
illustrious doctors of the member of the 
Sadat," that is to say, of the race of Ali. 
He lived in the time of Amir Tainmr 
(Tamerlane) and died in a.d. 14.57, a.h. 861. 
He is author of a C'ommentarv on the Hidaya 
His proper name is Kamal-udclin Muhammail- 
al-Sin'iisi, which see. 

Hnmam Tabrezi, Khwaja (^L^+wa 
^'jij^), a celebrated Persian poet of 

Tanris or Tabrez, and author of a collection 
of Eubais or quatrain verses called Uuhuyat 
Mir Minndiii. He was a contemporary and 
rival wit of Shaikh Sa'di. Meeting Sa'cli one 
day in a bath, Humam, observing Sa'di to be 
very bald, presented to liim a basin with the 
bottom upwards ; asked him "Why do the 
heads of the people of Shiraz resemble this i" 
Sa'di, having turned the basin with the 
empty side upwards, replied, " First tell me, 
why do the lieads of the people of Tabrez 
resemble this?" Many other anecdotes are 
related of them. Humam died in the reign 
of Aljaitii, emperor of the Mughals, in 
A.B. 1313, A.H. 713, and was buriecl at 
Tabrez. He is also called Khwaja Humum- 
uddin Tabrezi. 

Humam-uddin Tabrezi (^J^ll aUj* 
j_>jj.-j). Vide Humam Tabrezi. 

Humayun {s^^^i* ^jjJl^.c3J u^jI^Ui), 

emperor of Hindiistan, surnamed Nasir-uddln 
Muhammad, was the eldest son of the emperor 
Babar Shah, was born at Kabul on the night 
of Tuesday the 7th March, a.d. 1508, 
4th Zi-Ua'da, a.h. 913, and his mother's 
name was Maham Begam. He succeeded 
his father on the throne at Agra on the 
2Cth December, a.d. 1.530, 6th Jumada I. 
A.H. 937, and conferred the government ot 
Kabul, (iandahar, Ghazni, and the Panjab 
on Ms brother Mirza Kamkan ; to Mirza 
Askari he gave the government of Sarkar 
Sambhal, to Mirza Ilandiil, Sarkar Alwal,' 
and the government of Badakh.shan to Mirza 
Sulaiman, the son of Kliian Mirza, the son of 
Sultan Muhammad, the son of Sultan Abii Said. 
Humaytin was defeated the first time by Slier 
Kliau (afterwards Sher Shah) in a battle 
fought on the banks of the Channsa in Behar 
on the 26th Jime, a.d. 1539, 9th Safar, a.h. 
946, and the second time at Qannoj on the 
17th May, a.d. 1540, 10th Muharrjim, A.H. 
967. The capital no longer afforded him a 
place of refuge ; even his brothers became 
his enemies, and M'ould not grant him shelter 
in their provinces. He fled from one place 
to another, subject at times to the greatest 
hardships ; and was at last obliged to quit 
the kingdom and seek an asylum in Persia, 
wdiere he arrived in July, a.d. 1541, a.h. 
951, and was hospitably and honorably enter- 
tained for some time by Shah Tahmasp of 
Persia, who assisted him with troops. During 
the absence of Humayiin, which extended to 
a period of fifteen years, five kings ascended 
the throne of Dehli, viz. Sher Shah, his son 
Salim Shah, Muhammad Shah Adili, Ibrahim 
Khan, and Sikandar Shah. Humilyiin having 
overcome his brothers at Kabul and Qandahar, 
commenced his march from the former city 
in the month of January, a.d. 1565, Safar, 
A.H. 962, towards India. He took the 
Panjab, and advancing towards Dehli defeated 
Sikandar Shah on the 2'2nd June, a.d. 1565, 
2nd Shaban, a.h. 962, in a battle fought at 
Sarhind. Sikandar, after his defeat, fled 
to the mountains of Sewalik, and Humayiin 
having reached Dehli in triumph, became a 
second time emperor of Hindiistan. Bairam 
Khan (<?.».), to whose valour and talent the 
king was principally indebted for his restor- 
ation, was rewarded with the first offices in 
the state with the title of Klian Klianan. The 
year of this victory was found by Bairam 
Klian to he contained in the words, " The 
sword of Humayiin." Seven months after 
this victory, on the January, a.d. 1566, 
as HumavTin was coming down at the time 
of evening prayers from the terrace of the 
Library at DehlT, he fell headlong down the 
steps, and died on the 2oth January, a.d. 1556. 
11th Rabi I. A.H. 963. The words "Alas ! 
my sovereign fell from the terrace," are 
the English of the line recording the year 
of his demise. He was buried at Kiloghari, 




a distance of four kos fi-om the city of 
Shahj anabad on the banks of the river 
Jumna ; and a splendid monument was 
erected over his remains some years after by 
his son Akbar, who succeeded him. Humajiin 
died at the age of 49, after a reign of 25 
years, including the fifteen years of his banish- 
ment from his capital. The foundation of 
his mausoleum was laid in a.b. 1o65, a.h. 
973, was superintended by Haji Begam, 
mother of Akbar, and was finished in 16 years 
at a cost of 15 lakhs of rupees. Farmkh- 
siyar, 'Alamgir II. Dara Shikoh and other 
princes are also bmied in this mausoleum, 
where the last of the dynasty took refuge in 
1867 (see above, in voc. Bahadur Shah II). 
Humajiin, after his death, received the title of 
Jannat 'Ashiani. 

[For Humayiin's character vide Keene's 
Sketch of the History of Hindustan. '\ 

Hrtmayun, Amir (^_^^1 jj^L,^), of 

Isfaraen, a poet who went early in life to 
Tabrez, and was supported by Qazi 'Isa, 
and Sultan Ya'qub, who eaUed him Khusro 
Sam, that is, the second Khusro and Khusro 
Kochak. After the death of his patron, he 
went to Kasban and died there in a.d. 1496, 
A.H. 902. He is the author of a Diwan. 
Humayun Shall, Bahmani, Sultan 

(^U2J_~j j<^'*^.J i^-i (_^«-jl..^J!i), sur- 

named Zaiim, or the Cruel, was the eleventh 
king of the BahmanT djmasty. He succeeded 
his father Sultan 'Ala-uddin II. Bahmani in 
the year a.d. 1458, a.h. 862, and causing 
his brother Hasan Khan's eyes to be put out, 
ascended the throne of the Deccan. According 
to the will of his father, he conferred the 
office of "Wakil - us - Saltanat on Khwaja 
Mahmiid Gawan, with the title of Malik-ut- 
Tajjar and the government of Bijapur. He 
was an unjust prince and a great tyrant, on 
which account he was sumamed " the Cruel." 
He reigned 3 years 6 months and 6 days, and 
was murdered with one stroke of a heavy 
club on the 1st September, a.d. 1461, 28th 
Zi-Qa'da, a.h. 866, during a fit of intoxica- 
tion, by his own servants, who were wearied 
out with his inhuman cruelties. He was suc- 
ceeded by his son Sul.tan Kizam Shah, then 
only eight years of age. See above in voc. 

Hunain ( 


-), surname of Abu 

Zaid 'Abdur Rahman Hunain, son of Is-haq, 
son of Hunain, was a celebrated Christian 
physician who translated many books out of 
the Greek into SjTiac and Arabic. 

Hurmuz or Hurmuzd I. (Li j.^ a 

li'j./* ._&), the third king of Persia, of 

the Sasanian race, was the son of Shahpur I. 
whom he succeeded in a.d. 272. He is the 
Hormisdas of the Greek authors, and is said 
to have resembled, both in person and cha- 
racter, his grandfather (». ArdisherBabegan). 
The mother of this monarch was the daughter 

of Miihrukh, a petty prince, whom Ardisher 
had put to death, and whose family he had 
persecuted, because an astrologer had pre- 
dicted that a descendant of Mahrukh should 
attain the throne of Persia. This lady had 
fled to the tents of a shepherd, where she was 
seen by Shahpur when hunting. This prince 
became enamoured, and married her privately. 
His father Ardisher, going one day unexpectedly 
to his son's house, saw young Hurmuz. He 
was greatly pleased with the appearance of 
the cliild and made inquiries, which compelled 
Shahpur to confess all that had happened. 
The ]oy of the old king was excessive, ' ' The 
prediction of the astrologers," he exclaimed, 
"which gave me such alarm is, thank God, 
confirmed, and a descendant of Mahrukh 
shall succeed to my crown." Hurmuz was 
a virtuous prince, but reigned only one year 
and ten days. He died about the year a d. 
273, and was succeeded by his son Bahram I. 

Hurmuz or Hurmuzd II. ( ^jlj jij,»_&), 

the eighth king of Persia of the Sasanian 
race. He succeeded his father Narsi about 
the year a.d. 303, ruled Persia seven years 
and five months and died a.d. 310. No 
events of any consequence occurred during 
the reign of this prince. At his death he 
left no son ; and the kingdom was on the 
point of being thrown into confusion, when 
it was declared that one of the ladies in the 
harem was pregnant, and that there were 
certain indications of the embryo being a 
male. When the child was brought forth, it 
was named Shahpur, and every care was 
taken to give the young sovereign an education 
suited to his high duties. 

Hurmuz or Hurmuzd III. (j'^.JS 

e:_-!lj), the second son of Yezdijard 

II. succeeded his father, of whom he was 
always the favourite, a.d. 456. His elder 
brother Firoz, though at first compelled to 
fiy across the Oxus, soon returned to assert 
his right at the head of a large army, which 
aided by a general defection of the Persians, 
who deserted his weak brother, obtained an 
easy victory, and the unfortunate Hm-muz 
was, after a short reign of little more than 
one year, dethroned and put to death a.d. 457. 

Hurmuz or Hurmuzd IV. ( j-Ji . iiytjSt>) 

(the Hormisdas III. of the Greeks) was 
declared successor to his father the great 
Chosroes, sumamed Nausherwan the Just, 
and ascended the throne of Persia a.d. 579. 
His subjects revolted against him at the 
instigation of Bahram Chobin or Yaranes, his 
general, whom he had offended by sending 
him a female dress because he had been 
defeated by the Romans. They confined 
Hurmuz and put out his eyes to disqualify 
him from ascending the throne, and soon 
after put him to death a.d. 590. His son 
Khusro Purvez having collected a force to 
oppose Bahram, who with the intention of 
takino- the government into his own hands 
was advancing towards Madaiu, was defeated, 




and with pjreat difficulty effect 'd his e<c:ipc 
to the trrritiirirs of tllr Uonnns .(Jrrrk-.', 
from \vho-;e emoeror, lliurici', he mvt with 
the mo^t i'ricudly ;md hospitiihle reception. 
Eahram Chobiu took possession of the vacant 
gnvcrnmi'nt, hut his rule was short, for 
within eif^ht months from the period of his 
taking po-isession of "Math'iin, he was defeated 
by an army of Romans and Persians com- 
manded hy Khusro, and fled to Tartary. 

Husain (^-^. 

), poetical name of 

IVfnzaffar llusain, an author who is also 
called Shahid or ]Mattvr. lie is the author 
of the work called /un/t'!:-/(s~'^<7iik!iji. 

Husain Ali Khan Bahadur ( ._».», 


■J uLs- |,l_c), second son of 

Alahwirdi Hi an, a nohleman of high rank 
who served under the emperor 'Alamglr, and 
died on the 3rd October, a.d. 1686, 2oth 
Zi-Qa'da, a.h. 1097, a day after the fort of 
Eijapur was taken. See above in voe. Alah- 

Husain Ali Khan, Sayyad ( ,_^.^.-.. 

iX— --J 1^'-=;- ic-'~^\ AmIr-ul-Umra. 

Title Abdullah Khan (Sayyad). 

Husain-bin-Alim (j^Yc 


author of the Xii:liat-ul-Ai-iV('ih, containing 
intrresting anecdotes of the most celebrated 

[ Vide Husain-bin-Hasan-al-Hasani.] 

Husain - bin 

Hasan al - Husaini 
i^yj-'-s- 1^ ^vKT'^^^X ^ native 

of Ghor and author of several works, viz. Kanz- 
lil-Raiiulz, Si JS^ania, Xuzliat-id-Aiwdh, 
Zdd-^il- Miisafarin^ Tarab- ul- 2Iajdlis^ 
Ruh-ul- Arwah, iS/rat-iil- Mustaqim, and 
of a Diwau in Arabic and Persian. He died, 
says Jiimi, in the year a.d. 1317, a.h. 717, 
and is buried at Herat. Firishta calls him 
Amir Husaini Sadat and says that he Avith 
his father Sa57ad Najm-uddin came to India 
as merchants and became the disciples of 
Shaikh Baha-nddin Zikaria at Multan, and 
died at Herat on 1st December, a.d. 1318, 
6th Shawwal, a.h. 718. 

Husain - bin - Muhammad, as - Sa - 
ma'ani ( JU^..^!! J,^s-» ^^ ^^^.uo-), 

author of the Khazannt-al Mu/tiiii, which 
contains a large quantity of decisions, and 
is a book of some authority in India. It 
was completed in a.d. 1339, a.h. 740. 

Husain Dost Sambhali, Mir ( 


r<.^ i^x»-j l;:.-i-;jl>), son of Abu 
Talib of Samhhal. He is the author of a 

biography of poets called TnzHra Susainl, 
which appears to have been compiled a few 
vi'ar.s after the death of Muhammad Shah 
the emperor of Djhli, who died in a.d. 1748, 
A.H. 1161. 

Husain Ghaznawi (^^jj^ ^^.^^^j^:^)^ 

author of the story of Padmiiwat in Persian 
poetry called Qlfi^sal Padmdwat. 

Husain Hallaj , Shailih {—.1.s^ m?*>*'- 
irr~'), the son of Mansiir Hallaj. 

Many fables have been invented to account 
for the imprudence of this wise teacher. One 
of tliese states, that he observed his sister go 
out every evening ; he followed her ; having 
seen her communicate with the Hiiries, and 
receive from these celestial nymphs a cup 
of nectar, he insisted on drinking one or two 
drops that remained of this celestial liquor. 
His sister told him he could not contain it, 
and that it would cause his death. He per- 
sisted ; from the moment that he swallowed 
it he kept exclaiming "An-ul-Haq!" thatis, 
' ' I am the tnith ! ' ' till he was put to death. 
[ Vide Mansiir Hallaj.] 

Husaini ( 

-), author of the 

Asmal Hi^s/fifn and Maktuhdt Susaini. 
Husain - ibn - Muin - uddin Maibadi 

author of a work on religion, entitled 

Husaini Fathi-Ali, a Sufi of Dehll, 

author of a biographical dictionary published 
1750-1. Mentioned as stUl hving in 1806 
by Qasim of Agra {q.v.). 

Husain, Imam (^L»l ^^^-^-u*.:^), the 

second son of 'Ali, the son-in-law of Mu- 
hammad. He was horn at Medina in January, 
A.D. 626, Shahan, a h. 4, and was the third 
Imam of the race of 'All. Having refused 
to acknowledge Yazid the son of Mu'awia 
for the lawful Khalif, he was obliged to 
leave Medina and to fly to Mecca, but was 
overtaken on his way and killed hy order 
of Ubaidullah-ibn-Zayad, one of Tazid's 
captains, on the 10th October, a.d. 680, 10th 
Muharram, a.h. 61. When his head was 
brought to UhaiduUah at Kiifa, he struck it 
over the mouth with a stick, and treated it 
with great contempt. He then sent it along 
with his family, who were made captives, to 
Damascus, where Yazid then reigned. The 
day on which he was killed is still a great 
day amongst the Musalmans. He is bm-ied 
at a place called Karbala in Babylonian Iraq 
or Chaldea near KMa. Some pretend to 
show that Husain' s head was buried near the 
river of Karbala ; others say that there are 




no other traces of it remaiuing. HoweYer, 
the first Sultan of the race of Boyaides built 
on that spot a sumptuous monument, which 
is Tisited to this very day with great devotion 
by the Musnlmans." It is called " Gunbaz 
Faiz," or the dome of grace. 


Husain Jalayer, Sultan (.A: 
^^LhJ — )), grandson of Amir Hasan 

Buzurg, succeeded his father Sultan Awes 
Jalayer to the throne of Baghdad in October, 
A.D. 1374, A. H. 776, and lost his life in an 
action witli his brother Sidtan Ahmad, inA.D. 
1382, A.H. 78i. 

[ Vide Hasan Buziurg.J 

Hnsain KasM i^j.Jt.'^ ^^.^^=^), an 
author, who died in a.d. 1544:, a.h. 951. 

Husain, Kasliniiri (^^^^ 


author of the Persian work entitled Sidayat- 
ul-'Aiul, the Guide to the Blind, containing 
essays on various religious subjects, Suti 
doctrines, etc. 

Husain Khonsari (|_j ,L 

was one of the celebrated philosophers of 
Persia, surnamed from his birth-place Khonsar, 
a town between Teheran and Kashan. He 
flourished in the latter part of the 17th 

Husain Langa I. (IL>! ^^s^), third 

king of llnltan, succeeded his father Qutb- 
udcBu Jlahmiid Langa in a.d. 1469, a.h. 
874. He entered into a treaty of alliance 
with Sikandar Lodi, king of Dehli, and died 
about the year a.d. 904, or according to 
some, on Sunday the 28th August, a.d. 1602, 
26th Safar, a.h. 908, after a reign of 30 or 
34 years. He was succeeded by his grandson 
Mahmud Khan Langa. Firishta says that 
the Tawarikh Bahadur Shdhl, which contains 
the history of this prince, is full of errors, 
and the author of the 2Iirat-Sika>tdttr~i 
declares it to be absolutely unintelligible. 

Husain Langa II. (l^^i 


.), fifth 

and last king of Multan, was, after the death 
of his father Mahmiid Khan Langa in 1524, 
raised to the throne, although a minor. He 
was only a pageant in the hands of his sister's 
husband, Shujaa'-ul-Mulk, who assumed the 
office of protector. Shah Husain Arghun, 
king of Thatta, under the orders of the 
emperor Bahar Shah, soon after besieged 
the place, which was at length, in the year 
A.D. 1526, a.h. 932, carried by escalade, after 
a siege of fifteen months. Husain Arghun 
having nominated one Lashkar Kliau his 
defiuty, returned to Thatta. When Bahar 
Shah, during his illness, abdicated the throne 
iu favour of his son Humayun, the latter 
prince gave the Panjab in jaglr to Mirza 

Kiimran his brother, who on his airival at 
Lahore sent for Lashkar Kliiin and made 
over the district of Kabul to him, in lieu of 
that of Jlultan, since which time the Idugdom 
of Multan has continued a province of the 
empire of Dehli. 

Husain Marwi (^>j^ ^^yu..=-). Vide 
Ivhwaja Husain Marwi. 

Husain Maibazi, Muin-uddin ( .„jjj.-^ 
^ja!1 i^'f^x^ oJ'f^-*)) author of the 

Sajan/'al-iil-Aricah, or Mirror of Spirits, a 
selection from the Persian and Turki poets. 
He flourished in the tenth century of the 
11 ijra. 

Husain Mashhadi {^_js^jL^ ^^^^^.s^), 
a Persian poet. 

Husain Mirza (^J.-^ ^j-^ 
Sultan Husain Mirza. 

.). Vide 

Husain Muammai, Mir ( ._^_^.i5-. 

_,w» ;_jl.^..i.^), a celebrated punster 
who died in the year a.d. 1498, a.h. 904. 

Husain Muin-uddin ( ..^ji^ ^J■fy^^■^ 
^A.10, author of the Fawutah Saba 
on Theology. 

Husain Naqshi, Mulla i^^JJ j^^^u-^s^ 

L«), a learned Musalman of Dehli. 

who was a good poet and an excellent 
engraver in the time of the emperor Akbar. 
He died on the 16th July, a.d. 1581, 14th 
Jumada II. A.H. 989. 

Husain Nizam Sliah I. (aIIo) tj-t^=^ 

il-l) ascended the throne of Ahmad- 

nagar in the Deccan in the 30th year of his 
age, after the death of his father Buihan 
Nizam Shah I. in the year a.d. 1564, a.h. 
961. In A.D. 1566, a.h. 972, an alliance 
was formed between him and the three 
Sultans, viz. 'All 'Adil Shah of Bijapur, 
Ibrahim Qutb Shah of Golkanda and Amir 
Barid of Admadabad Bidar, against Eamraj, 
Eaja of Bijanagar, who was defeated and 
slain. Husain NizSm Shah died eleven days 
after his return from this e.Tpedition, on 
Wednesday the 6th June, a.d. 1565, 7th 
Zi-Qa'da, a."h. 972, and his son Murtaza 
is^izam Shah succeeded him. The death of 
Nizam Shah has been commemorated in the 
following chronogram: "The sun of the 
Deccan has become ohscm-ed." 




Husain Nizam Shah II. (»lliJ ,.,-".=>- 
_jlj i\-i)), a nominal prince of the 

Nizam Shall! dynasty. 

[Jldi: Fatlia ]<hau, the son of JIalik 

Husain Sahzwari (^,1.;^ ^^^s''), 

a native of S.ibzwar, and author of the works 
entitled Lnluef iraziirf and Eiihat-iil- 
Arwah, books on Siifiism, containing the 
best means of obtaining salvation and rules 
for moral conduct. 

Husain Sadat, Mir (..h-'IjUj ^^fi^=- 

._«.^). Vide Husain-bin-Hasan-al- 


Husain Shah (iLi ,^»^=-), of Bengal. 
Tide 'Ala-uddin Husain Shah. 

Husain Shah Lohani, Pir i..^Mj..s>- 

_,>_i ^Ls'J :sL.i)), a Muhammadan 

saint whose tomb is in Mimghir, where both 
Hindiis and jNlnhammadans make offerings 
especially on their marriages and other special 

Husain Shah Sharqi, Sultan {.^jj^t>- 

^Lkl^ ,e^j-^ il-.i), ascended the 

throne of Jaunpiir after his brother Muham- 
mad Shah, who w;is slain in battle about the 
year A. D. 1452, a,h. 856. He fought several 
battles with Bahlol Lodi, the king of Dehli, 
and was at last defeated, and so closely 
pursued that he left his horse and escaped on 
foot. The array of Dehli advanced without 
any other check to Jaunpiir, which fell to the 
arms of Bahlol, while Husain Shah, abandon- 
ing his capital, was obliged to content himself 
with a small tract of country yielding only 
a revenue of five lakhs of rupees. Bahlol 
having delivered over Jaunpiir and its 
kingdom to his ow^n son Barbak, enjoined 
him not to deprive Husain Shah of the small 
tract to which he was confined, terming it 
his family estate. This event took place 
about the year a.d. 1476, a.h. 881, and the 
subversion of the Sharqi dynasty may be 
dated from that year. The reign of Husain 
Shah lasted for a period of 19 lunar years. 
Some years after the death of Bahlol Lodi 
(which happened in a.d. 1489, a.h. 894) 
Hasain Shiih incited the prince Barbak to 
rise up against his brother Sikandar Lodi, 
king of Dehli, and wrest the government out 
of his hands ; but Barbak was defeated in 
the first action and retired to Jaunpiir, to 
which place he was pursued by the king. 
Jaunpiir fell shortly after, and was added to 
the kingdom of Dehli. Husain Shah was 
now induced to seek refuge with 'Ala-uddin 
Purbi, king of Bengal, by whom he was 

treated with the respect due to his station till 
his death, which took place in a.d. 1499, 
a.h. 905. AVith him the royal line of 
Jaunpiir was extinguished. 

Husain Shah, Sayyad (sL 

i), author of the story of Bahram 

Gor, entitled Saslit Gulgasht, which he made 
into prose from the Uasht Bahisht of Amir 
Ivhusro in the year a.d. 1800, a.h. 1215, on 
the requisition of M. Charles Perron, who 
served under Daulat Rao Siudhia. 

[ Vide Hak-ik-at.] 
Husain - uddin 

is said to have been a pupil of Burhan-udd'u 
'Ali, was the first who wrote a commentary 
on the Hidaya, entitled the Nilidtja. 

Husain - bin - Ali 
i^jaJi ^^*»ai.-), who 

Husain Waez, Maulana (kcl. |j--u*>- 
\'Siy), surnamed Kashifl, was a man 

of consequence in the time of Sultan Husain 
Mirza, surnamed Abii'l Ghazi Bahadur of 
Khurasan, and held the office of sacred herald 
in the city of Herat till the Hijri year 910, 
on the last day of which he expired, i.e. on 
the 3rd June, a.d. 1505, 30th Zil-hijja, 
A.H. 910. He is the author of a commentary on 
the Qirran, commonly called Tafsir Hvmini, 
which he entitled MawShih ' Ulidt, also of 
one entitled Jaxi:iihir -td-Tafaslr. Besides 
these, he wrote several other works, amongst 
which are the liouznt -ush- Shuhada, an 
excellent history of Muhammad with a minute 
detail of the battle of Karbala, dedicated to 
Sultan Hasain Mirza in a.d. 1501, an abridg- 
ment of which is called Dah Majlis. His 
Akhlciq Muhsinl is a very valuable system of 
Ethics, treating upon worship, prayer, 
patience, hope, chastity, etc., dedicated to 
the same Sultan a.d. 1494, a.h. 900, the 
title of which gives the year of its completion. 
The Anwar SuheU, Rai/s (if the star Campus, 
is a translation of Pilpay's Fables in 
Persian, dedicated to Amir Shaikh Ahmad 
Suheli, seal-hearer to the Sultan. He calls 
himself in this hook Maulana Husain-bin- 
'Ali-al-Waez surnamed Ka-shifi. He also 
made an abridgment of Moulwi Riimi's 
Masnawi which he called LiM-i-Labnb. He 
is also the author of the works called MakJizan- 
ul-Inshd, Sahq Kdshijia (on astrology), Asrar 
Qdsimi, Matla-'ul-Anwdr, and of a collection 
of Anecdotes called Latdif-tit- Tawdef. This 
author is by some writers called Kamal-uddin 

Huzuri, Mir ( _».^ i_j^..«a.^-), son of 

Amir Sayyid 'Ali Muhtasib. He lived in the 
time of Shah Lsma'il Safwi, and wrote a 
chronogram on his accession to the throne of 
Persia in the year a.d. 1576, a.h. 984. He 
is the author of a Diwan. 



Ita-AW Tai (J, ^\ ^,\)^ author of 
the work called A'itSb Ay Sauzatain. 

Ibn-AT3Tx Usailja, Muwafflq-uddin 
Abu'l Abbas Alimad {\^^^\ ^\ 
iX^^l (_/^ Li! 1^1 ^_Si\^Jiy,), author 

of the Arabic work called Ayim-al-Anhn-fi- 
Tabqrit-ul-Atibba, i.e. Fountains of informa- 
tion respecting the classes of Physicians. 
This book was ti-anslated by the author into 
Arabic from the Sanskrit at the commence- 
meut of the 13th century of our era. In the 
12th chapter of this work, he gives an account 
of all the Physicians who were from India. 
Of one, whom he calls Kanka-al-Hindi, he 
says : He was skilful as a philosopher amongst 
ancient philosophers of India, and one of the 
greatest of men. He investigated the art of 
physic, the power of medicines, the nature of 
compound substances, and the properties of 
simple substances. He was the most learned 
of all men in the form of the universe, the 
composition of the heavenly bodies, and the 
motions of the planets. "An extract from 
the above work is given in the Jour, of 
the Royal As. Soo. IVo. 11, by the Eev W. 
Cureton with remarks by Professor H. H. 
Wilson. Ibn-Ahu Usaiba died in a.d. 1269, 
A.H. 668. 

Ibn-Amin {^^.^\ ^\). Vide Iba- 
Tamln or Amir Mahmud. 

Ibn-'Arabi (^_^ ,^1), surname of 

Shaikh Muhi-uddin Abii 'Abdullah - bin- 
Muhammad-bin -'Ali-al-Tai-al -Hatimi-al- 
Andalusi, a celebrated doctor of Damascus to 
whom, the Muhammandans pretend, was 
dictated or inspired, or sent from heaven, by 
their prophet in the year a.d. 1229, a book 
of mystical divinity, called Fasus-ul-Hakam. 
It contains 27 Hukams or Instructions ; each 
of which is attributed to one of the ancient 
patriarchs or prophets, excepting the last, 
which belongs to Muhammad, and is entitled 
Makam Fardiyat Muhammadiat . The Mnsal- 
man doctors are very much divided as to the 
merit of this work ; for some praise it, and 
others absolutely reject it as being full of 
superstition and falsehood. He is also the 
author of several other works, one of which 
is called Fatuhat Makkia. He died in a.d. 

1240, A.H. 638. — There appears to be another 
Ibn - 'Arabi, who died in Sarmanrae, in 
Baghdad, in the year a.d. 1040, or a.h. 431, 
and who was also an author of several works. 

Ibn-Arabshah (iLljy; ^|), surname 

of Ahmad -bin -Muhammad, a native of 
Damascus, who besides a collection of Tales, 
wrote several other works in a very polished 
style, the most celebrated of which is a 
history of the Life of Amir Taimiir 
(Tamerlane) entitled Ajaeb-ul-Maqdiir . He 
died at Damascus in the year a.d. 1450, a.h. 

[Also called Arab Shah (^ •».)]. 

Ibn-'Asir(^Jl ^i\), al-Shaibani Majd- 

uddin, also called Jazari, a most celebrated 
Arabian author, of whom we have several 
works. He is the author of the Arabian 
work on Jurisprudence entitled Jdma'-ul- 
Tfsul, a work having great authority. 
Another of his works is called Kamil-ut- 
TawarJkh. He is also known as Abii'l 
Sa'adat, Mubarik-bin-Asir-al-Jazarl, com- 
monly called Ibn-Asir. He died a.d. 1209, 
A.H. 606. 

[Vide Jazari. ] 

Ibn-'Askar(^.a^ ^1), an author who 
wrote the history of Damascus. 

Ibn-Babawia (^jjIj ^A). Vide Abu 
Ja'far Muhammad bin-'Ali-biu-Babawia. 

Ibn-Batuta {ijy:xj ^^), the Arab 

traveller whom Muhammad Tughlaq (q.v.) 
made Judge of Dehli, was the author of the 
work called Travels of Ibn -Bat let a, which has 
been translated from the Arabic by the 
Eev. S. Lee, B.D. London, 1829. Ibn- 
Batiita performed his pilgrimage to Mecca 
in A.D. 1332, A.H. 732. His work contains 
few facts concerning Arabia. His whole 
account of Mecca is, "May God ennoble it." 

Ibn-Bauwab (<-_)l_j_J ^^})• Vide 

Ibn-Dahan (<)jUo ^i\). Fide Dahan. 




Ibn-Darastuya (iJ_.i..';^-;,J ,j->0, com- 
monly c:illoil so, but hia iiropcr n;imo is Aliii 
Miili'imiii'id 'Abilalliih, tli>' sou of Ja'tiiv, ;i 
Ti'i-y leiruoil Mii^:ilmrui who died a.d. 9d8, 
A.H. 347, at ]!,ighlad. 

IlDn-Dured (j^j.J |^jO, author of a 

dictiiinnry find of a work entitled njiarlh-iil- 
Qifiihi, whicli is also called Jtuii/nra. He died 
at Baghdad in a.d. 9313, a.h. 321. 

Ibn-Fakhr-uddin Anju ( ^lAlLi'' ^1 

isr*!), author of the Farhang Jahan- 
g'lr'i. Tide Jamal-uddTu Husain Anja. 

Ibn-Farat (i^ljl^j ^^jO, author of the 

Geographical JMcmoirs of Bggpt. 

Ibn-Farghani (^,jU^J ^^\), Shaikh 

Abii 'Bakr Wasiti, a, saint, who died about 
A.H. 320. 

Ibn-Fouraq ( j ,y ^,j1). Vide Fouraq. 

Itin-Ghayas (ui_)L^_i 


i\). Vide 


Kamal-uddin Muhammad (Khwaja). 

Ibn-Hajar, Shahab-uddin ( .s.~ 

^^jJl i__>lj^), son of All Usqalani, 

an Arabian author who wrote more than a 
hundred books, amonc; which are IasiIii-hI- 
Mizan and Asdba. He died in a.d. 14-19, 
A.H. 853. 

[nv/e Shahab-uddin Abu'l Fazl-al- 

Ibn - Hajar Yehsami or Yelithami 
i^^M^j^-sr^ iji\), son of Badr-uddin, 

author of the work called Sawdig ilnhriqa, 
and several other books. He died in a.d. 
1566, A.H. 974. 

Ibn-Hajib (t, 



l), an Arabian 

author of several works. He died at 
Alexaudi'ia in the year a.d. 1248, a.h. 646. 
He is the author of the two commentaries 
called Edjia and Shajia. 

Ibn-Hanbali ( ^1^ 

i^ji), surname 

of Muhammad-bin-IbrahIm Hanbali, author 
of the Uddat - ul - Jlddb - wa - Umdat - ul- 
Masdldh^ a book of Arithmetic. He died 
a.d. 1563, A.H. 971, and is the author of 
several other works. 

Ibn-Hasham (^l^iiib j^O, the author 

of the Slnif-nJ-Rnsul or Biography of the 
I'ruphit. His native place was Old Cairo, 
where he died in a.d. 828, a.h. 213. An 
abridgment of his work was made at Damascus 
in a.d. 1307, a.h. 707, by one Ahmad Ibn- 

Ibn-Hasham (i_£_:_jJ ^^ *\t.i> j1), 

son of Yiisaf, author of several Arabic 
works, among which are Toazih, S/tarah 
Aljia, etc. He died A.D. 1361, a.h. 762. 

Ibn-Hibban (^jL^ ^>\), whose proper 

name was Asir-uddin Muhammad, the son of 
Yiisaf. Was the author of several works. 
He died at Damascus in the year a.d. 1344, 
a.h. 745. 

Ibn-Hilal ( Jijb ^s\), also called ii.lal, 

is the author of a work entitled Minhdj-nl- 
Tdlibin, which is also called Tdrikk ^Ali'il, 
and is dedicated to Shah Shujaa' Kirmani. 

Ibn-Houbal (Jj_jiis ^^i\), a celebrated 

physician and author, who died in the year 
A.D. 1213. 

Ibn-Houkal {J^^ ^\), an Arabian, 

and author of the work entitled Jshtdl-til- 
Bildd^ containing maps and geographical 
description of several countries which he 
wrote in the year a.d. 977, a.h. 367. 

Ibn-Humam (^Ua ^\), author of a 

Commentary on the Hidaya, entitled FalJi- 
ul- Qadlr^ which is also called Sliarah Hiduga. 
He died in the year a.d. 1457, a.h. 861. 
He is also called Humam, which see. 

Ibn-Husam (*l^:>. ^^1), of Khawaf, 

surname of Shams-uddin Muhammad, author 
of an heroic poem in praise of 'All, containing 
the principal events of his life, his disputes, 
wars, etc., entitled Khdicar Ndma. He died 
A.D. 1470, A.H. 876. 

Ibn-Ibad (oLx ^jl), surname of Abu'l 

Qasira Isma'Il, KafI, who Tva.s wazir and first 
minister of state to the Sul.tans Muwaiyad- 
uddaula and Fakhr-uddaula of the race of 
Boya. He died a.d. 995, a.h. 385, and is 
said to have loft a library consisting of 
112,000 volumes, and to have passed for 
the most generous and most lil)eral man of 
his time. He was also styled Kafi-ul-Kafat. 




Ibn-Imad (jL*,_£ ^_jl), a poet of 

Khurasbln who flourished in the latter end of 
the 14th century of the Christain Era. He 
resided in Shiraz, and is autlior of a Diwan 
or a love story, called Sah Xdina, in Persian. 

Ibn-Jiiini (^x=^ lOi'^X whose proper 

name was Abii'l Fatha 'Usmam, a learned 
JInsalnulu, but blind of one eye. He died at 
BaghiadA.D. 1002, a.ii. 392. 

Ibn-Jouzi (oj^^ ^i})- Vide Abu'l 

Ibn-Kamal Pasha (Lib JUi' ^i\), 

surname of !Mufti Shams-uddln Ahmad-bin- 
Sulaiman, author of the Sharah Madis-al- 
^ArialH. He died a.d. 1533, a.h. 940. 

Ihn-Khaldun (^,j>_L~- ^^X), the 

African philosopher. His name and titles are 
in Arabic: " \Vali-uddin Abii Zaid 'Abdur- 
rahman - bin - Muhammad - al - Hazrami - al- 
Isnbili, ' ' but he is better known by the single 
patronymic name of Ibn - Khalduu. His 
father surnamed KJialdiin was a native of 
Amazirg or Berber ^iu Africa), but his wife, 
descending from a family of the Arabian 
province Hazramat, made her son adopt the 
surname of Al-Hazrami. He was born in 
Tunis in the year a.d. 1332, and passed his 
youth in Egj-pt. He then served a short 
time under Taimur, as chief justice at 
Damascus. He returned to Egypt, where he 
became Supreme Judge, and died in the year 
a.d. 1406. His principal and most remarkable 
work is the history of the Arabs, the Persians, 
and the Berbers. The whole composition is 
commonly called Tarlkh~ihn-Khaldun. 

Ibn-Khallikan (^liLU- ^\), whose 

full name is Shams-uddin Abii'l Abbas 
Ahmad-ibn- Muhammad -ibn-Abu Bakr-ibn 
Khallikau, drew his descent from a family 
of Balkh. This very eminent scholar anil 
follower of Shafa'i doctrines, was born at 
Arbela, but resided at Damascus, where he 
had filled the place of chief Qazi till the year 
a.d. 1281, a.h. 680, when he was dismissed, 
and from that time tiU the day of his death 
he never went out of doors. He was a man 
of the greatest reputation for learning, versed 
in various sciences, and highly accomplished ; 
he was a scholar, a poet, a compiler, and an 
historian. By his talents and writings, he 
merited the honourable title of " the most 
learned man," and was an able historian. 
His celebrated biographical work called the 
IFafldt-ul-Aii/dn, or deaths of eminent men, 
is considered the acme of perfection. This 
work was translated from the Arabic by 

Baron McGuckin De Slane, Member of the 
Coimcil of the Asiatic Society of Paris, etc., 
and published in a.d. 1842. The work is 
in four volumes 4to. and in English. It was 
printed in Paris for the Oriental Translation 
Fund of London. This translation is a most 
valuable work to those who wish to gain 
a knowledge of the legal literatm-e of 
the Muhammadans, as the translator has 
added to the text numerous learned notes, 
replete with curious and interesting informa- 
tion relating to the Muhammadan law and 
lawyers. Ibn-Kliallikan was born on Thursday 
the 2'2nd September, a.d. 1211, 11th 
Eabi' II. A.H. 608, and died on Thursday 
the 31st October, a.d. 1282, 26th Eajab, 
A.H. 681, aged 73 lunar years, in the 
Najibia College at Damascus and was 
interred at Mount Kasiyun. 

Ibn-Khurdadbih (<L.o'j..ri. ^^1), an 
historian, who died about the year a.d. 912. 
[Vide Khurdaziba.J 

Ibn-Maja {A^Vt ^A), whose proper 

name is Abii Abdidlah Muhammad -bin - 
Yezid-bin-Maja-al-CiazwIui, was the author 
of a collection of traditions, and of a com- 
mentary on the Quran. The first, which is 
entitled Kitab-us-JSunaHy is the sixth book of 
the Simna, and is commonly called Siinan 
Ihn-Mdja. Ibn-Maja was born in the year 
A.D. 824, A.H. 209, and died in a.d. 886, 
A.H. 273. 

Ibn-Malik ((_^U ^ji}). Vide Abu 

Ibn-Maqla (<dJL* ^^1), wazir of the 

khalif al-Qahir Billah of Baghdad, whom, 
with the consent of other Umras, he deposed 
and having deprived him of sight raised 
Al-Razi Billah to the throne. Not long 
after, his hands and tongue were cut off by 
the order of Bazi, because he had written a 
letter to the Khalif s enemy without his 
knowledge, and he died from the injuries in 
the year a.d. 939, a.h. 327. Ibn-Maqla is 
the inventor of the present Arabic character 
which was afterwards improved by Ibn- 

Ibn-Marduya {u^^yt ^\), commonly 

called so, but his proper name is Abii Bakr. 
He is the author of the work Mustakharij 
JBMdrt and of a commentary and history. 
He died A.H. 410. 

Ibn-Muallim (*,_L.t_^ ^j-'})- Vide 
Shaikh Mufid. 




Ibn-Qattaa (^ix:^- ^j> 1^ clkJi ^\ 
i.ij^,i^\ iJLs), surname of jili- 

bin-Ja'fiir Siqilll, an Arabian author, who 
died A.D. 1121, a.h. olo. 

Ibn-Qutaiba {i.^^ ^\), surname of 

Shaikh al-ImSm Abii JIuharamad AhduUah- 
biu-Muslini Dluwari, author of the Ai/frn- 
nl-Aklihilr, and many other works. He died 
A.D, 889, A.H. 267. 

Ibn - Rajab. V, 


Ibn-Rasbid (a- 

Zain - udclTn - bin- 




Ahii'l "Walid JIuhammad-bin-Ahmad, whom 
the Europeans call Averroes and Aven Kosch, 
was one of the most subtile phiUisophcrs that 
eyer appeared among the Arabians. He was 
born at Cordora in Spain (a.d. 1149), where 
his father held the ofBce of high priest and 
chief judg'e, under the einperor of the Moors. 
His knowledge of law, divinity, mathematics, 
and astrology was yery extensiye, and to this 
was added the theory rather than the practice 
of medicine. On the death of his father, he 
was appointed to succeed him. Falling under 
the suspicion of heresy, he was deprived of 
his posts and thrown into prison, from 
whence he was at last delivered and reinstated 
in his olBce of judge. He wrote a treatise 
on the art of physic, an epitome of Ptolemy's 
Almagest, a treatise on astrology, and many 
amorous verses ; but when he grew old, he 
threw the three last into the fire. He is best 
known as a translator and expositor of 
Aristotle ; his commentaries were published 
at Venice A.D. 1489-1560. He was a 
pantheist, and a despiser of all supposed 
revelations, as to which his opinions were : 
that Christianity is absurd ; Judaism, the 
religion of children ; and Muhammadanism, 
the religion of swine. A further edition of 
his works is that published at Venice 1608. 
He is said to have died at Morocco in a.h. 
595, corresponding with a.d. 1199, though 
Lempriere in his Universal Biography says 
that he died in a.h. 1206. 

Ibn-S'abbagli-al-Sliafaj (cL^..^ .^ 


:.iLiJO, surname of Abu Nasr 

'Ahdiil Said-bin-Muhammad, author of the 
TJddat-ul-'AUm Wat Tarlq-ul-Sdlim. He 
died A.D. 1084, a.h. 477. 

Ibn-'Sad (j,jt^ (J-^Dj author of tte 

Ibn-Shaliab-uz-Zoliri (<_!\_,^^ ^^\ 

^_^_^j.liJl), an Arabian anther who 

flourished during the jKhUafat of 'Umar-ibn- 
'Abdul 'Aziz. 

Ibn-Sina (li^^ ^i\). Vide Abu Slna. 

Ibn-Siraj 0_-o ^j^\), wliose proper 

name is Abii Bakr Muhammad, was an 
Arabiau author, and died in a.d. 928, a.h. 

Ibn-ul-'Arabi(^^.,ll ^\). Vide Ibn- 


'). Vide Ibn- 

Ibn-ul-Hajar {jxsr 

Ibn-ul-Jazari-bin-Muliammad. ( ..A 
,_jij-sl'), an Arabian author who died 
in the year a.d. 1430, a.h. 833. 

Ibn-ul-Khashab (<_>l.^s:h ^^j1), whose 

proper name is Abii Muhammad 'Abdullah, 
was an excellent penman. He cUed at 
Baghdad in a.d. 1172, a.h. 567. 

Ibn-Uqba {i^SLe. ^^\), surname of 

Jamal-uddin Ahmad, author of the Umdat- 
iit-TdUb. He died a.d. 1424, a.h. 828. 

Ibn-Uq.da (*A.JLc ,^\). Vide Abii'l 
'Abbas Ahmad-hin-Muhammad. 

Ibn-ul-Rumi {^-*>)\ f^}), a famous 

Arabian poet, who was contemporary with 
Ayicenna. He is the author of a Diwau in 

Ibn-ul-Warda (b^^l ^\), author of 

an Arabic history called Miikhfasir-Jdma-ut- 
Tawarlkh, a valuable general history from 
A.D. 1097 to 1543. 



...jO, whose 


proper name is Abii 'Amrii 'Usnian-hin- 
'Abdur Eahman-ash-Shahrziiri, author of a 
collection of decisions according to the 
doctrine of Shafa'i, entitled Futuwa-Ibn-us- 
Saleh. He died in a.d. 1244, a.h. 642. 

Ibn-Yemin (^^_ i^^^; ^ celebrated 

poet, whose proper name was Amir Mahmiid, 
which see. 

Ibn-Yunas (jwJy. lyS^t astronomer to 

the Klialif of Eg^-pt, who observed three 
eclipses with such care, that by means of 
them we are enabled to determine the 
quantity of the moon's acceleration sine cthat 
time. He lived about a century or more after 

Ibn-Zohr {j.^ ^jO. Vhle Abdul 
Malik Ibn-Zohr. 




Ibn-Zuryk (t_C)^.ii ^j\), Tanukl, an 

Ibrahim (^_^_jt,l^_jl), the patriarch 

Ibrahim (^^K^, an emperor of the 

Moors of Africa in the I'ith century, who 
was dethroned by his subjects, and his crown 
usurped by 'Abdul Miiniin. 

Ibrahim {^\y\)^ the son of Alashtar, 

killed in a.d. 690, a.h. 71, in a battle fought 
between the khalif 'Abdul M.ilik and Misaa'b 
the brother of 'Abdullah, the son of Zubair, 
whose faithful friend he was. 

Ibrahim (^^l^jl), the son of Ibrahim 

Mahran, a very famous doctor of the sect of 
Shafa'T, and author of several works. 

Ibrahim Adham (^j\ *^1 jl), a king 

of Balkh, who retired from the world, 
became a Dervish and died between the years 
875 and 880, aged 110 years. It is' said 
that he saw in a dream a man on the top of 
a house looking for something. He asked 
him what he was looking for. The man 
replied that he had lost his camel. " What a 
fool you must be ' ' said the king, "to be 
looking for your camel on the roof of a house ! ' ' 
The man rejoined ' ' and what a fool you must 
be to look for God iu the cares and troubles of 
a crowu ! " Ibrahim from that day abdicated 
his throne, and became a wandering Dervish. 

Ibrahim 'Adil Shah I. (Jolt />-^it>\A 

iiLi), Sultan of Bijapur, surnamed 

Abii'l Nasr, son of Ismail 'Adil Shah, 
succeeded his brother Mallii Adil Shah on 
the thi-one of Bijapiir in the Deccan in a.d. 
1535, A.H. 941. He married the daughter 
of 'Ala-uddin 'Iraad Shah, named liabia 
Sultana, in a.d. 15i3, a.h. 950, reigned 24 
lunar years and some months, and died iu 
A.D. 1558, A.H. 965. He was buried at 
Kiiki near the tombs of his father and grand- 
father, and was succeeded by his son 'Ali 
'Adil Shah. 

Ibrahim 'Adil Shah II. (JjU f^S!>\ji\ 

2iLi)), of Bijapiir, surnamed Abii 1 

MuzafEar, was the son of Tahmasp the 
brother of 'Ali 'Adil Shah, whom he 
succeeded in April, a.d. 1580, Safar, a.h. 
988, being then only in his ninth year. The 
management of public affairs was given to 
Kamal Khan Dakhani. and Ghand Bibi 
Sultana, widow of the late king, was entrusted 
with the care of the education of the minor 
monarch. For some time Kamal Khan 
behaved with due moderation in his office ; 

but at length was guilty of some violence 
towards Chaud Sultana, who tiu-ued her 
thoughts to means for his desti-uction. She 
secretly sent a message to Haji Kishwar 
Kliau, an officer of high rank, who caused him 
to be murdered. Atter this event lushwar 
Khan, by the support and patronage of 
Cliand B'ibi, grasped the authority of the 
State, and ruled with uncontrolled sway till 
he was assassinated. Akhlas Khan next 
assumed the regency ; but after some time he 
was seized by Dilawar Klian, who put out 
his eyes, and became regent of the empire. 
He was expelled by the king in a.d. 1590, 
and his eyes put out and himself confined in 
A.D. 1592. Ibrahim 'Adil Shah died after a 
reign of more than 38 years in a.d. 1626, 
A.H. 1U36, and was succeeded by his son 
Muhammad 'Adil Shah. The first building 
of any importance we meet at Bijapiir is the 
Ibrahim Rauza, the tomb of Ibrahim 'Adil 
Shah II. On a high-raised platform of 
stone, separated by a square, in the midst of 
which is a hauz or fountain, stand the raiaa 
and mosque opposite each other, and corre- 
sponding in size and contom-. The tomb is 
most elaborately ornamented, the walls being 
covered with inscriptions from the Qiu-an 
in raised stone Arabic letters, which formerly 
were gilt, on a blue ground, though now the 
colouring has worn away. The mosque also 
is a beautiful building. 

Ibrahim Ali Khan (^^U. Ic j^\y\), 

the chief of Malair Kotla, was a minor of 
about 16 years of age (1872), and was re- 
ceiving his education in the Wards' School 
at Umballa. 

Ibrahim Ali Khan (^l^ Ic j,^Sb\^.j]), 

Nawab of Tonk, grandson of the famous 
Pindari chief Amir Klian. His father Mu- 
hammad 'Ali KJian was deposed by the 
British G-overnment on account of the Lowa 
massacre iu 18B7. He was installed as 
Nawab of Tonk on the 19th January, 1871, 
by the British Government. 

Ibrahim Astarabadi(^j\jl.u^1*^JS)lj\), 

an author who translated the Risala or Kitab 
Hasania of Abii'l Fatiih Eazi Makki from 
the Arabic iuto Persian in A.D. 1551, a.h. 958. 

Ibrahim Barid Shah (iLi J.j y »-,i)ljl) 

succeeded his father 'Ali Barid in the govern- 
ment of Ahmadilbad Bidar about the year 
a.d. 1562, A.H. 970. He reigned seven years 
and died about the year a.d. 1569, a.h. 977. 
His brother Qasim Barid II. succeeded him. 

Ibrahim Bayu, Malik (^^ j,.^\jj\ 

L_>-J-^)- In the province of Behar 

there is a hillock called Pir Paharl, on the 
top of which there is a tomb with Persian 
inscriptions in verse, intimating that Malik 
Ibrahim Bayii died in the reign of Sultan 




Firoz Shah on a Sundiiy in the month of 
>?il-hijja, A.H. 7'')3, whicli comspouds with 
Januarv, a.d. 13o3, but who he was wr are 
not inl'ormc'J. 

Ibrahim - bin - Aghlab (^ >.-^Lj\ 

i._J-il), an Arabian captain -who was 

appointed f,nHemor of E^yjit and Africa by 
the Klialll lIia-iin-al-EasliHl in x.u. 800, 
A.H. 184. The descendants of this governor, 
who settled in Africa, bore the name of 
Aghhrbia or Aghlabites, and formed a dynasty 
of princes who reigned tliirc till the year 
A.D. 908, A.H. 206, when they were driven 
out by the Fatimites. 

IbraMm-bin-Ali ( ^.Lc ^j *_».i>Ljl), 

author of the work called M(ijina^-ul-A>isah, 
or the (jfenealiigv of the diiierent dynasties of 
Persia, till a.d.'1233, a.h. 630. 

Ibrahim - bin - Hariri (^j >_»ji)1 _j1 

,c,_) ,_:>-), author of the Tdrllch 

Ibrrihiim, an abridged history of India from 
the earliest times to the conquest of that 
country by the emperor Babar Shah, who 
defeated Sidtan Ibrahim Hussain Lodi, king 
of Dehli, and became the founder of the 
Mughal d^-nastv. It was dedicated to Babar 
Shah in a.d. i'528, a.h. 934. 

Ibrahim -bin - Muhammad-al-Halabi, 

Shaikh ( J_s!l ^.^.^f ^jJ (^[r^^ 

f^_-^), author of a Persian work on 

Theology called Aqaed Sunnia and of the 
Multdqd-al-Ahhdr. This work, which is an 
universal code of Muhammadan law, contains 
the opinions of the four chief Mujtahid 
Imams, and illustrates them by those of the 
principal jurisconsults of the school of Abli 
Hanifa. He died a.d. 1549, a.h. 956. 
\_Vide Imam 'Alam-bin-'Ata.] 

Ibrahim-bin-Nayal (JLj |^ *^t), 

brother of Tughral Beg's mother, a chief who 
defeated Tughan Shah I. a prince of the 
Saljuqian family, in battle, took him prisoner 
and blinded liim. Ibrahim was murdered 
after some time in a.d. 952, a.h. 451, by 
Tughral Beg, the uncle of Tughan Shah. 

Ibrahim-bin-Saleh (JU? ^^ *-.i)Ljl), 

cousin of Hariin-al-Eashid. A curious story 
is given of him in the Jour. As. Soc. 
No. 11, that when he died Mauka-al- 
Hindi, the philosopher, restored him to life, 
and that Ibrahim lived long after this 
circumstance, and married the princess 'Ali 
'Abbasa, daughter of Al-Mahdi, and obtained 
the government of Egypt and Palestine, and 
died in Egypt. 

Ibrahim-bin-Walid II. ( ^^j >_».>l,_il 
^JU J^j), a KhalTf of the race of 

Umaiya, succeeded his brother Tazid III. 
in A D. 744, A.H. 126, and had reigned but 
seventy days when he was deposed and slaiu 
hy Jln'awia II. who ascended the throne in 


Ibrahim Husain, Khwaja (>,..*_al_jl 



), a celebrated oali- 

grapher in the service of the emperor 'Akbar, 
who wrote a beautiful Nastaliq hand. He 
died in the year a.d. 1593, a.h. 1001, and 
'Abdul Qadrr Badaoni found the chronogram 
of his death to be contained in his very name 
with the exception of the first letter in Ibrahim, 
»jz. Alif. 

Ibrahim Husain Lodi, Sultan (^^1 j| 
i^LLi-Lj i_j-^«-l ^^.^^^jj-p-) , ascended the 

throne of Agra after the death of his father 
Sikandar Shah Lodi in February, a.d. 1610, 
Zi-qa'da, a.h. 915. He reigned 16 years, 
and was defeated and slain in a battle fought 
at Pauipat with the emperor Babar Shah on 
Friday the 20th April, a.d. 1526, 7th Rajah, 
a.h. 932, an event \vhich transferred the 
empire of Dehli and Agra to the family of 
Amir Taimur. From this battle we may 
date the fall of the Pathfm empire, though 
that race afterwards made many efforts, and 
recovered it for a few years in the time of 
the emperor Humayiin. 

Ibrahim Husain Mirza ( „,jm=- *..Jbl ,j1 
ijj..;»-<), a son-in-law of the emperor 

Humayiin, and the second son of JIuhammad 
Sultan Jlirza, who had four other sons besides 
him, riz. 1st, Muhammad Husain Mirza, 
2nd, Ibrahim Husain Mirza, 3rd, Masa'iid 
Husain Mirza, 4th, XJlagh Mirza, who died 
in A.D. 1567, A.H. 975, and 5th, Shah Mirza. 
They were styled "The Mirzas," and were, 
on account of their ill-conduct, confined in 
the Fort of Sambhal by order of the emperor 
Akbar. "When that monarch marched in the 
year a.d. 1567, a.h, 975, for the purpose of 
subduing Malwa, they made their escape and 
sought an a,sylum with Chingiz Khan, a noble- 
man at Baroch. They took Champaner and 
Siirat and also Baroch in a.d. 1569, a.h. 
977, and created a great disturbance in the 
surrounding countries. Ibrahim Husain was 
taken prisoner in a.d. 1673, a.h. 981, and 
shortly after put to death by Makhsiis Khan, 
governor of Multan, and his head sent to the 
emperor, who ordered it to be placed over 
one of the gates of Agra (vide Gulrukh Begam) 
and caused his brother Masa'iid Hasain Mirza 
to be confined in the fort of Gwaliar, where 
he soon afterwards died. 




Ibrahim - ibn - AgMalD (^\ *_»_s,Ljl 

t— — Li.'), a king of Barbary. This 

country was reduced by the Saracens in the 
Khilat'at of 'Umar, and continued subject to 
the Khalif of Arabia and Baghdad till the reign 
of Hariin-al-Eashid, who having appointed 
Ibrahim-ibn-Aghlab governor of the western 
parts of his empire, that prefect took the 
opportunity, first of assuming greater powers 
to himself than had been granted by the 
Khalif s. The race of Aghlab continued to 
enjoy their new principality peaceably till 
the year a.d. 910, a.h. 29S, during which 
time they made several descents on the island 
of Sicily, and conquered a part of it. About 
this time, however, one ObeduUah surnamed 
'Al-JIahdi rebelled against the house of 
Aghlab, and assumed the title of Klialif of 

Ibrahim, Imam (^t*l *-.itLj\). This 

Ibrahim, who bears the title of Imam, or 
chief of the religion of Muhammad, is not of 
the number of the twelve Imams of the 
posterity of 'Ali. He was a son of Mu- 
hammad, the son of 'All, the son of 'Abdullah, 
the son of 'Abbas, the uncle of the prophet, 
and eldest brother of the two first Khalifs of 
the house of 'Abbas ; but was himself never 
acknowledged as a Khalif. He was put to 
death by order of Marwan II. surnamed 
Himar, last Khalif of the house of TTmayya, 
in the month of October, a.d. 749, Safar, 
A.H. 132. 

Ibrahim Khan ( .,li- *jil j\), the son 

of the celebrated Amir-ul-Umra 'Ali Mardan 
Khan. He was honoured with the rank of 
5u00 in the second year of the emperor 
'Alamgir, a.d. 1659, and appointed governor, 
at different periods, of Kashraere, Lahore, 
Eihar, Bengal and other places, and died in the 
reign of Bahadur Shah. 

Ibrahim Khan Fatha Jang ( 


i_KJo»- ^J lo^) 'was a relation of 

the celebrated Nur Jahan Begam, whose 
mother's sister he had married. When Qasim 
Khan the grandson of Shaikh Salim Chishti 
was recalled to court from the government of 
Bihar in the twelfth year of the emperor 
Jahangir, a.d. 1616, a.h. 1025, Ibrahim 
Khan was appointed governor of that province 
with the rank of 4000. He was killed at 
Dacca, a d. 1623, a.h. 1032, in battle against 
prince Khurram (afterwards Shah Jahan) who 
had rebelled against his father Jahangir. His 
wife Riih Parwez Khanam lived to a great 
age, and died in the reign of the emperor 

Ibrahim Khan Sur ( 

^J)'^ u;'=^ (»r^l/^^)> 


son of Ghazi Khan, governor of Bayana, was 
the brother-in-lawof MuhammadShah 'Adili, 

whose sister he had married. He raised a 
considerable army and took possession of Dehli 
and Agra on the 28th February, a.d. 1555, 
6th Jumada' I. a.h. 962. He had no sooner 
ascended the throne than another competitor 
arose in the province of the Panjab, in the 
person of Ahmad Khan, a nephew of the late 
Sher Shah. He defeated Ibrahim Khau in 
a battle, and the latter retreated to Sambhal, 
while Ahmad I£han took possession of Agra 
and Dehli, and assumed the title of Sikandar 
Shah in May the same year. Ibrahim Khan 
was killed bv Sulaiman, king of Bengal, in 
Orissa in a battle fought in a.d. 1567, a.h. 
975, and is buried there. Amongst the 
incidents of the year a.d. 1555, a.h. 962, 
was the explosion of the fort of Agra, when 
enormous stones and columns were sent flyinjj 
several tos to the other side of the Jamna, and 
many people were destroyed. As the whole 
Fort was called Badalgarh, the date was 
found in the words " The fire of Badalgarh." 

Ibrahim Khawas (^Ij.^ *.<>Jiil_;l), 

a pupil of Abu 'Abdullah Maghrabi, who died 
a.d. 911. He was called Khawas, which 
means a basket-maker. 

Ibrahim Qutb Shah (slj 

was the son of Quli Qutb Shah I. sovereign 
of Golkanda. On the death of his brother 
Jamshid Qutb Shah, the nobles of the court 
elevated his son Subhan Quli, a child seven 
years of age, to the throne ; hut as he was 
unable to wield the sceptre Ibrahim was 
sent for from Bijanagar, where he then 
resided, and was crowned on Monday the 28th 
July, A.D. 1550, 12th Rajab, a.h. 957. In the 
year a.d. ISkS, a.h. 972, he, in conjunction 
with the other Muhammadan monarchs of 
the Deccan, marched against Ramraj, the 
Raja of Bijanagar, who was defeated and 
slain, and his territories occupied by the con- 
querors. In A.D. 1671, A.H. 979, the fort 
of Eajamanchi was taken from the Hindiis by 
Rafa't Khan, the general of Ibrahim ; the 
following chronogram commemorates the date 
of its occurrence : ' ' The temple of the infidels 
has fallen into our hands." Ibrahim Qutb 
Shah, after a prosperous reign of 32 years, 
died suddenly on Thursday the 5th June, a.d. 
1581, 21st Rabi' II. a.h. 989, in the 51st 
year of his age, and was succeeded by his son 
Muhammad Qutb Shah. 

Ibrahim Mirza (\j^^ f^i^^j^^), the son 

of Bahram Mirzii and grandson of Shah 
Ismai'l Safwi. His poetical name was Jahl. 
He was murdered by order of his grandfather. 

Ibrahim Mirza, Sultan O-.j-^ *^ji,\ j1 

lj;LkL-j), was the son of Shahrukh 
Mirza and grandson of Amir Taimiir. He 
was governor of Fars during the life of his 
father, and died a few years before him in 




AD. H35, A. II. 839. Afler hi.s death, his 
son 'Abdullah Mirza succeeded him, and was 
killed in hattlc agaiust Mirza Abii Sa'id his 
cousin-german in a.d. 1451, a.h. 855. 

Ibrahim Mirza (Ij^ ,»r?^^0, a Saffavi 

of literary tastes ;_ ^f/j?^?. Shah Jahau ; his 
poetical name was Adham, which see. 

Ibrahim Mirza Cj ,^ *-JsLj1), tie son 

of Mirza Sidaimfm of Badakhshan, was horn 
in the year A.D. 1534, a.h. 941. "When his 
father, with the intention of conquering Balkh, 
went to that country, prince Ibrahim accom- 
panied him, and was taken prisoner in battle 
and put to death Ijy order of Pir Muhammad 
Klian, ruler of BalWi, in the month of 
September, a.d. 1560, Zil-hijj'a, a.h. 967. 

Ibrahim Nayal (JlJ *^ji>I^O. Vide 

Ibrahim Nizam Shah (^UiJ *_^1_j1 

jl_-i)) succeeded his father Burhan 

Nizam Shah II. in the kingdom of Ahmad- 
nagar Deccan in the month of April, a.d. 
1595, Sha'ban, a.h. 1003, and was slain in 
action against the troops of Ibrahim 'Adil 
Shah II. of Bijapiir, after a reign of only 
four months, in the month of August, a.d. 
1595, Zil-hijja, a.h. 1003. Mian Manjii, 
his wazTr, raised to the throne one Ahmad 
a boy, said to be of the Nizam Shahl family. 

Ibrahim Pasha (^Uilj *.^1^1), an 

adopted son of Muhammad 'Ali Pasha of 
Egypt, was born in a.d. 1789, and gave the 
first proofs of his gallantry and generalship 
in A.D. 1819 in quelling the insurrection of 
Vahabls. .He afterwards made several con- 
que.st3. In a.d. 1848, when Muhammad 
'Ali had sunk into absolute dotage, Ibrahim 
went to Constantinople, and was recognized by 
the Porte as Viceroy of Egypt ; after a short 
visit to England, on the 9th November, a.d. 
1848, he died at Cairo. 

Ibrahim Shah Sultan (il_i) ^-j-al jl 

(_^l.kj_-; 'sjj^), called Sharaqi, or 

" Eastern," ascended the throne of Jaunpiir, 
after the death of his brother Mubarik Shah 
in A.D. 1402, A.H. 804. He was famous 
during his reign for the encouragement he 
aiforded to literature ; and we find that in 
those times of anarchy and confusion which 
prevailed in Hindiistan, Jaunpiir became the 
seat of learning ; as appears (says Firishta) 
from several works now extant, dedicated to 
Ibrahim Shah. He died in a.d. 1440, a.h. 
844, after a long reign of upwards of 40 
years. He was beloved in life, and he was 
regretted by all his subjects. His eldest son 
Mahmiid Shah Sharqi succeeded him. 

Ibrahim Shah Pir (^^ iLi ^\j>\), 

a !Muhammadan saint whose tomb is in the 

district of Kach thirty miles above Lakpat. 

Yide Trans. Soy. As. Soc, vol. iii. p. 588. 

Ibrahim Shaikh (irr'-' ^.^.iiLjl), the 

son of Shaikh Musa, the brother of Shaikh 
Salim Chishti. He served Akbar for several 
years in the military profession ; and, 
when that emperor was proceeding to Kabul 
after the death of his brother, Muhammad 
Hakim, Shaikh Ibriihim accompanied him as 
far as Thanesar, where he fell sick through 
excess of drinking and died on the 16th Mehr, 
in the 30th year of Akbar's reign, correspond- 
ing with September, a.d. 1585, Shawwal, 
A.H. 992. According, however, to a later 
work, the Mdsir-ut- Vmn'i, he was left behind 
by the emperor and ordered to take charge 
of the fortress of Agra, where he died a.d. 
1591, A.H. 999. 

Ibrahim, Shaikh, ibn-Mufrij-ua-Suri 

author of the history of Alexander the Great 
and of Khizir in Arabic, called Kitnb Tartkh 
al - Iskinidfir Zulkarnaut - ul - Miiml - wa - 
Waztrat - al - KInzy. This is one of those 
substructures of myth upon which Ea.3tem 
nations have erected a large and romantic 
edifice of fable, much in the same manner as 
the tales of chivalry of the Middle Ages, 
which, though fictitious, were partly attri- 
buted to real characters, as in the romances 
of the Knights of the Hound Table and the 
Peers of Charlemagne. 

Ibrahim Shaibani ( j\, 

of Kirman Shiih, a pnpil of AbS 'Abdullah 
Maghrabl. He lived about the year a.d. 900. 

Ibrahim Shirwani, Shaikh (>_»j!)l^\ 

ji""~' ^1..^), ruler of Shirwan, who 

reigned about the beginning of the ninth 
centxu'y of the Hijra. Maulana Katihi 
flourished in his time and died in a.d. 1435. 

Ibrahim, Sultan (^^ILLj *-JbLjl), the 

son of Sultan Masa'iid I. of GhaznT, succeeded 
his brother Farrukhzad in a.d. 1059, a.h. 
450. He was a pious, liberal and just prince. 
In the first year of his reign he concluded a 
treaty of peace with Sultan Sanjar the 
Saljiikide, at the same time his son Masa'ud 
espoused the daughter of Malikshah, sister to 
Sultan Sanjar, and a channel of friendship 
and intercourse was opened between the two 
nations. He afterwards came to India and 
took several torts and obtained the title of 
conqueror by the extent of his victories. 
Sultan Ibrahim had 36 sons and 40 daughters 
by a variety of women, the latter of whom 
he gave in marriage to learned and religioiis 




men. He died after a reign of more than 
forty years in a.d. 1098, A.n. 492, aged 76 
Innar years, and was succeeded by Ms sou 
Sultan Masa'ud II. or III. According to 
the work called Tarlkh Gtiztda he reigned 30 
years and died in the year a.d. 1088, a.H. 

Ibrahim, Sultan (^jllii.^ 

emperor of the Turks, was the son of 
Ahmad (Achmat). He succeeded his brother 
Mnrad lY (Amarath) in February, a.d. 1640, 
A.H. 1049, and spent a great part of his 
reign in the war of Crete against the 
A'enetians, but without any great success. He 
was assassinated for his debaucheries and 
repeated cruelties in a.d. 1649, a.h. 1059. 
His son, Mohammad IV. succeeded him. 

'Itirat {jUj^), the poetical name of 

Ahmad 'AlT Khan, cousin of Nawab Sa'adat 
Khan Zulfiqar Jang. 

'Ibrat {cLij^^), the poetical title of 

Mir Zaya-uddin, a poet, who wrote the first 
part of the story of Padinauat in Urdu verse, 
and died ; consequently the second part was 
written by Ghulam 'Ali 'Ishrat, and finished 
ia the year a.d. 1796, a.h. 1211, the chrono- 
gram of which he found to contain the words 
"Tasnif Dosha'ir." 

'Ibrat (^j:-* -.£), the poetical name of 
'Abdul Mannan, which see. 

'Ibrat {cLSj^z), the poetical name of 

Ahmad, a musician of Dehli, who from the 
instructions that he receired from Mirza 
'Abdul Ciadir Bedil, became an excellent poet. 
He at first had assumed "Maftun" for his 
poetical name, but afterwards changed it for 
"Ibrat." He was a contemporary of Nasir 
'All the poet, and was liying about the year 
a.d. 1688, a.h. IIUO. 

'Ibrat {cDj^z), the poetical title of 

Mir Ziya-uddin, author of the first portion of 
the story of Fadindwat in Urdu verse. He 
died about the year a.d. 1795. 
[ Vide Padmawat.] 

Idris or Adris - bin - Hisam - uddin, 

author of the history called Tarlkh Sasht 
Bahisht, or the Eighth Paradise, containing 
the Memoirs of the most illustrious characters 
of the Muhammadau religion, who flom-ished 
from a.d. 1451 to 1506. 

'Idrisi ( .^,jl) (Ahu 'Abdullah 

Muhammad-ibn- 'Abdullah Idrls), also called 
Sharif-al-Idrisi-al-Siqill, author of a system 

of Arabian geography, composed in a.d. 1153. 
He is said to be one of the most eminent 
Arabic geographers and to have belonged to 
the royal family of the Idiisites. He was 
born at Ceuta or Sibta [ad septem) in the 
year a.d. 1090. The title of his work is 
Xnzliat-al-Jhtshtaq^ and it has been trans- 
lated into Latin by several authors. 

'Iffat Bano (ylj li^Ac), daughter of 

the emperor Jahangir. Her mother was the 
daughter of Said Khan of Kashghar. She 
died at the age of 3 years. 

Iftikhar Khan (^li. jli\.'l), title of 

Sultan Husain, the eldest son of Mir 'Abdiil 
Hadl, entitled Asalat Khan Mir Bakhshi, 
who died at Balkh in the 20th year of the 
emperor Shah Jahan a.d. 1647, a.h. 1057. 
In the first year of 'Alamgir, Sultan Husain 
was honoured with the title of Iftikhar Khan 
(fr. Arab^iJ = " glory"). Some time before 
his death he was appointed Faujdar of Jaun- 
pur, where he died in a.d. 1681, a.h. 1092. 

Ihsan (j_^Lj.5-\), the poetical name of 

Mirza IhsauuUah, commonly known by the 
title of Nawab Zafar Khan, who at one time 
was governor of Kabul when the poet 
Muhammad 'Ali Saeb of Persia came to see 
him there. He died in a.d. 1662, a.h. 1073, 
and was the author of a Diwan in Persian. 

Ihsan (^^^\), the poetical name of 

'Abdur Bahman Khiiu of Dehli, who wrote 
excellent poetry in Urdu, and died some time 
after the year a.d. 1814, a.h. 1260. 

Ihsan (^\^~,^U, the poetical title of a 

Hindu named Chunui Lai, who flourished at 
Agra in A.D. 1760, a.h. U71. 

Ihtisham Khan {^^^ j,\A>:x:>-\) , title 

of Shaikh Farid of Fathapiir Sikri, the son of 
Qutb-uddin Shaikh Khiiban (q.v.). He served 
under the emperors Jahangir, Shah Jahan 
and 'Alamgir ; and was raised to the rank of 
3000. He died in a.d. 1664, a.h. 1075. 

Ijad (jIstI), the poetical name of Mir 

Muhammad Ihsan, who died in the year a.d. 
1721, A.H. 1133. 

Ijtihad (jWir^i), inspired interpreta- 
tion ; authoritative application of texts. 
[ Vide Mujtahid.] 

Ikhlas Khan Husain Beg (^Li-^ 

C_X»J ^^-"*^ u^^''' ^ nobleman of 

the reign of the emperor Shah Jahan who 
died in the year a.d. 1639, a.h. 1049. 




Ikhlas Khan Ikhlas Kesh ( jsL^ul 
(_A^ (_;i3ji:s-' i^l>-) was a Hindu of 

the tribe callerl Ivhattri of Lfihore. He was 
wi'll-vrr-iid in I'lTsian, and served nndrr the 
emperor 'Alarasir, who confirvrd on him tlie 
above title. In the time of Farrnkh-siyar 
(circ. 1715) he was raised to the rank of 7,000. 
He wrote the liistory of that emperor and called 
it Baftshdh Xuma. 

\_riile Eshun Chand.] 

Ikhwan-us-Safa (li.Jl ,^'»i-l), "The 

Brothers of Purity." A society of thinkers 
and writers about a.d. 990, who lived 
to^^ether in Basra, and produced 51 treatise.s 
on science and religion ; of which the one 
best known is on the relations between men 
and beasts. They arose on the decay of the 
Mu'tuzilas {q.r.)'. 

Ikram Ali (^c |*|/^\ author of the 

Urdu AMiU>i'in-us-Safd , which he translated 
from the Persian in the year a.d. 1810, 
A.H. 1225. 

Ikram Khan {J^^ j*^/'). the son of 

I.slam Klian and Ladli Begam, the sister of 
Abu'l I'azl, prime minister of the emperor 

\_Vide Islam Khan.] 

Ikram Khan {J^~^ (♦Ir^^X title of 

Sayyrad Hasan, an amir, who served under 
the emperor 'Alamgir, and died in a.d. 1661, 
A.H. 1072. 

Ikram-uddaula (a.Jjj,Jl ^^^-^0, the 

brother of 'All Naki Khan, the prime 
minister of "Wajid 'All Shah, king of 
Luckuow, died August, a.d. 1869. 

'Ikrima {d^^), son of Abu Jahl. 

'Ikrima {i^J^z). Vide Akrima. 

Iksir, Mirza {\-^j^\). Vide Aksir. 

Ilahl ( _Ji), an author who, according 

to the work called KJmlSsat-nl-Asha^Sr, 
died in A.D. 1538, a.h. 945. 

Ilahi, Mir {^.^^ ic\^^^' name and 

poetical title of a person who was a descend- 
ant of the Sajyads of Rashidabad in 
Hamadan. He came to India in the latter 
part of the reign of Jahangir, and served 
under his son Shah Jahan. He is tlie author 
of a biography called Khazhia Ganj llahr^ 
and of a Dlwan containing amorous songs. 
The author of the Mirat Jaliun says he died 

in A.D. leiS, A.H. 1057, but from the 
chronogram which GbanI Kashmiri wrote at 
his death, it a])pears that he died in a.d. 
1651, con'esponding with a.h. 1064. 

Ilahi, Shaikh i-^-!:-^ ^^W), a philo- 
sopher of Bayaiia, wlio in the time of Khan, 
or Salim Shah, son of Sher Sliah Sur, made 
a great stir, by introducing a new system of 
religion. He called himself Imam JIahdi, who, 
according to the ShTa tradition, is still living 
and is to conquer the world. Having raised 
a great disturbance in the empire, he was in 
the year a.d. 1547, a.h. 954, scourged to 
death by order of the emperor. 

Ildiguz, Atabak (lJ^jIj'\ y^Ai) was 

a Turkish slave, sold to Sultan Masa'iid, one 
of the Saljiiqi princes. He is said to have 
so completely establislied himself in the favour 
of Ills royal master, that the latter advanced 
him to the highest stations in the kingdom ; 
and the able manner in which Ildiguz 
executed every duty that was assigned to him 
led at last, not only to his being charged with 
the education of one of the young princes, 
which gave him the title of Atabak or Atabeg, 
but to his marriage with the widow of 
Tughral II. (the brother of Masa'iid and 
nephew of Sultan Sanjar), and within a short 
period he became the most powerful noble of 
the Persian empire. He died at Hamdan 
in A.D. 1172, a.h. 568, in the reign of 
Arsalan Shah, and left bis power and station 
to Ills eldest sou Atabak Muhammad. 

List of the Atdba^s of the race of IJdiguz. 
Atabak Ildiguz .... died 1172 

,, Muhammad, son of Ildiguz ,, 1186 

,, (iizal Arsalan, son of Ildiguz, 

slain . . • 1191 

,, Abti Bakr, son of Muhammad, 

died 1210 

,, Muzaflar, son of Muhammad ; he 
was defeated by Sultan Jalal- 
uddin of Khwarizm, and died 
some time after. He was the 
last of the Atabaks of the race 
of Ildiguz who reigned in 
'Azui'baijan . . . . 1225 

Ilham {^\^\). Vide Malul. 

Ilmas 'Ali Khan (^l, 

^ U" 

the celebrated rich and powerful eunuch of 
the Court of Nawab-Asaf-uddaula. He died 
in A.D. 1808. 

Iltitmish {JL^\). Vide Altamish. 

'Imad-al-Katih or Imad -uddin-al- 

Katib (,.,jjJl jUc l) I :l^l jUx 

i_^j l^j 1 ), that is, Imad the Secretary, 

was the surname of Muhammad, the son of 
'Abdullah, the son of Samad, also called 




Isfahani. He -was a celebrated author, and 
has written in Arabic the history of Salah- 
uddin (Saladin) the Sultan of Egypt and 
SjTia, in seven volumes, entitled Barq-ush- 
Shdinl, the Lightning of Syria. He died 
A.D. 1201, A.H. 597. 

'Imad Faqili Kirmani, Khwaja 
(<l,^\^ri. iJ^-^/ ''^ jUr), a Mu- 
hammad doctor who lived in the time of 
Shah Shujaa' of Shiraz. His death is 
mentioned in the Jawdhir-iil-Asha'dr to have 
happened in a.d. 1391, a.h. 793, but 
according to the poets Ilahi and Daulat Shah 
he died in the year a.d. 1371, a.h. 773, 
which appears to be correct. Ilahi also 
mentions having seen 12,000 verses of his 
composition, adding that he is the author of 
the works called Mahabbat Sdma and ilehnat 
Ndma, and also that he wrote in all a Panj 
GanJ, that is to say, five Masnawis or Poems. 
It is mentioned in the Habib-us-Star, that 
Khwaja 'Imad had a cat that would stand up 
to prayers with him, and do what he did. 
This was believed by Shah Shujaa' to he a 
miracle of the Khwaja ; but Khwaja Hafiz, 
who was his contemporary, and would not 
take it for a miracle, but a trick played by 
the doctor, wrote a ghazal on that occasion ; 
the following is the translation of a couplet 
from the same : "0 thou charming bird, 
where art thou going ; stand stUl, and be not 
proud (or think thyself to be safe) because the 
cat of the saint says prayers." 'Imad Khwaja 
was buried at Kirman, the place of his 

'Imadi (|_^jI,kc), surname of Jamal- 

uddin-bin-Imad-uddin Hanafi, author of the 
Arabic work called Fusul-al-' Imddi. 

'Imad Khwaja {i^\^s>. lA^s). 
Imad Faqih. 

'Imad Shah {Aj^ Sk^. Vide Imadul 
Mulk, commonly called Fatha-ullah. 

'Imad-uddin (^^,Ji!l jl^r), surname of 

Qara Araalan - bin - Daud - bin - Sukmau-bin- 
Artaq. Niir-uddin MahmM was his son, to 
whom Salah-uddin (Saladin) the Sultan of 
Egypt gave the city of 'Amid or Qara 
Amid, A.D. 1183, A.H. 579. 

' Imad-uddin Katil)( 
Vide 'Imad-al-Katib. 

l^^JjJl jI,*x). 

'Imad-uddin (,jJa!1 jUx), author of a 

poem called the Ouldasta or the Nosegay, 
which he composed in a.d. 1664, a.h. 1075. 
He was a native of India. 

'Imad-uddin (^JjJl i^Ux), author of 
the historj' of the Saljukides. 

'Imad-uddin Zangi {^^\ ^^^.jJl jUr), 

the sou of Afsaqar, was one of the Atabaks 
or ruling ministers under the latter princes of 
the Saljukian race. He was the first of that 
branch that had the government of Musal. 
He received the governorship of that province 
in a.d. 1127, A.H. 521, from Sultan Muham- 
mad, the son of Sultan Malikshah Saljiiki, 
reigned 19 years, and was murdered by one of 
his slaves in a.d. 1145, a.h. 540. 

The following is a list of the princes of 
this race ; — 



'Imad-uddin Zangi began to rule 

Saif-uddin Ghazi-bin-Zangi, who de- 
feated the French at Damascus 

Qutb-uddin Maudud, son of Zangi, 
A.H. 569 

KHr-uddin Mahmud, son of Zangi ; he 
reigned at Aleppo and formed another 
branch: died a.h. 5 9... 

Malik Salah, sou of Niir-uddin, suc- 
ceeded his father and reigned at 
Aleppo ; died 1174 

Al-Muizz Saif - uddin Ghazi - bin - 

Azz -uddin Masa'iid-bin-Maudiid . . 

Niir-uddin Arsalan Shah-bin-Masa'iid 

Malik-ul-Qahir Azz -uddin Masa'ud- 

Nur-uddiii Arsalan Shah-bin-Qahir 

Nasir-uddin JIahmiid-hin-Qahir 

Al-Malik-al-Eahim Badr-uddin Liilii . 

Al-Malik-us-Salah Isma'il-bin -Liilii 


Halab or Aleppo branch. 

'Imad-uddin Zangi .... 

Niir-uddin Mahmiid-bin-Zangi . . 

Al-Malik-us-Salah Isma'il-bin -Niir- 
uddin ... ... 

'Imad-uddin Zangi -bin - Qutb - uddin- 
bin-Maudiid, delivered Aleppo to 
Salah-uddin (died a.d. 1197) . 

His son Muhammad reigned at Singara. 






'Imad-uddaula (j;.i^j ^c aLjJI jUx), 
Burnamed 'Ali Buya. Vide 'Ali Buya. 

'Imad-ul Mulk ((_jlL«.Jl jL-*,.c) com- 
monly called Fath-uUah 'Imad Shah, founder 
of the 'Imad Shahi dynasty in the Deccan, 
was descended from the Kanarese infidels of 
Bijanagar. Having been taken prisoner in 
the wars with that country when a boy, he 
was admitted among the bodyguards of Khan 
Jahan, commander-in-chief and governor of 
Berar. In the reign of Muhammad Shah 
Bahmani, through the influence of Khwaja 
Mahmiid Gawan, he received the title of 
'Imad-ul-Mulk, and was subsequently raised 
to the office of commander of the forces in 





Berar. After the murder of his patron 
Khwaja Mahmud Giiwan in a.d. 1481, a.h. 
88i), he retired to Ms government of Berar. 
On the accession of Sultan JIahmiid Bahmani, 
he was honoured with the office of wiziirat, 
which he held for some time, but being soon 
after disgusted with the court, he left it and 
declared his independence in the year a.d. 
1485, A.H. 890. Elichpur was his capital. 
He died about the year a.d. 1513, a.h. 919, 
and was succeeded by his eldest son 'Ala- 
uddin 'Imad Shah. 

List of the Icings of the 'Imdd ShdJii dynasty 
of Berar, 

Fath-ullah 'Imad Shiih. 

'Ala-uddin 'Imad Shah, son of Fath-ullah. 

Daria 'Imad Shah, son of 'Ala-uddin. 

Burhan 'Imad Shah. 

Tulal Klian, prime minister of Bm-han 'Imad 
Shah, who usurped the throne, but was 
opposed from Ahmadnagar ; and the family 
of 'Imad Shah and Tulal became extin- 
guished in A.D. 1568. 

'Imad-ul-Mulk (i__^I-Jl jUi), title 

of the Ghazi-uddin Khan who murdered his 
master 'Alamgir II. emperor of Dehli. 

[ riih Ghazi-uddin Khau III.] 

'Imad Zangi i^^^j jl-^.i). Vide 
'Imad-uddin Zangi. 

Imam (^U\) (lit. "pattern" or "ex- 
ample"), a high priest or head or chief in 
religious matters, whether he be the head of 
all Muhammadans, as the Khalifa or the 
priest of a mosque, or the leader in the 
prayers of a congregation. This sacred title 
is given by the Shias only to the immediate 
descendants of 'Ali the son-in-law of the 
prophet, who are twelve, 'Ali being the first. 
The last of these. Imam Mahdi, is supposed 
by them to be concealed (not dead), and the 
title which belongs to him cannot, they 
conceive, be given to another. Their doctrine 
is somewhat mystic ; but among the Snnnis 
it is a dogma that there must be always a 
visible Imam or "father of the church." 
The title is given by them to the four learned 
doctors who are the founders of their faith, viz.: 
Imams Hanifa, Malik, Shafa'i, and Hanbal. 
Of these four sects, the Haubalite and 
Malikite may be considered as the most rigid, 
the Shafa'ite as the most conformable to the 
spirit of Islamism, and the Hanlfite as the 
freest and philosophical of them all. 
Two other Imams, Abii Daiid-uz-Zahiri and 
Sufian-ua - Sauri, were also chiefs of the 
orthodox sects, but their opinions had not 
many followers, and after some time were 
totally abandoned. Ibu - Jarir - ut - Tabarl, 
whose reputation as an historian is so familiar 
to Europeans, foxmded also a particular sect, 
which disappeared soon after his death. The 

following are the names of the twelve Sh'a 
Imams of the race of 'Ali : — 

Imam 'AIT, the son-in-law of the prophet. 

,, Hasan. 

,, Husain. 

,, Zain-ul 'Abidln. 

,, Baqir or Muhammad Baqir. 

,, Jafar Sadiq. 

,, Miisi Kazim. 

,, 'All Musi Eaza. 

,, Taqi or Muhammad Taqi. 

,, 'All Naqi. 

,, Hasan Askari. 

,, Mahdi. 

[Tide Hughes' Dictionary of Islam in doc. J 

Imam ' Alam - 1)111 - 'Ala - al - Hanafi 

(,jAxs:M "is- ^ Jlc aX*\), author of a 

large collection of Fatwas in several volumes, 
entitled Fatdiod TatarMirinia, taken from the 
Muhlt-al-Burhdn'i , the ZakJiirat, the Khnnia 
and Zahiria. Afterwards, however, a selec- 
tion was made from these decisions by the 
Imam Ibrahim- bin - Muhammad - al-Halabi, 
and an epitome was thus formed, which is in 
one volume, and still retains the title of 

Imam Bakhsh, Shaikh {^JLJ^^^ aL»\ 

•^■^). Vide Sahabi. 

Imam Bakhsh, Shaikh (^-sT *L»t 


i). Vide Nasikh. 

Imam Bakhsh, Moulvi (^.js^ aU*' 
j_jj)-^). Vide Sahbai. 

Imam 'Azim, title of Ahii Hanifa. 

Imami Hirwi, Maulana (^.J» ^\^\ 

\ji^^). He is called Hirwi, because he 

was a native of Herat. He was an excellent 
poet and contemporary with the celebrated 
Shaikh Sa'di of Shiraz, whom, in the opinion 
of some writers, he surpassed in the Qasida. 
He died about the year a.d. 1281, a.h. 680, 
and has left a Diwau. 

Imam Malik i^^'A ^^\ ( ^U« /♦t«\), 

son of Anas, one of the four Imams or 
Jurisconsults of Mecca. He died on the 28th 
June, A.D. 795, 7th Eab'i II. a.h. 179, in 
the time of the Klialif Hariin-al-Eashid. 
[ Vide Malik-ibn-Anas.] 

Imam Muhammad (^^A^ ^X^.s.'* j}w*\), 

a Mufti in the reign of Hariin-al-Eashid the 
Khalifa. He died at Baghdad in a.d. 802, 




A.H. 186, and is said to have written 999 
works. He was a pupil of Imam Abu Tiisaf, 
who committed his notes to him, and he 
(Muhammad) made great use of them in the 
composition of his works. 

[Vide Abu 'AbduUad Muhummad -bin- 

Imam-uddin Amir KatiTD-bin-Amir 

Umar (^^\ ^ 


i^ja!1 j«Ul 

y*^), author of a Commentary on 

the Hidaya entitled Kifmja, which he finished 
in A.D. 1346, A.H. 747. He had previously 
written another explanatory gloss of the same 
work, and entitled it the Ghayal-id-Baijan. 

Imdad Ali {^J:i-^ oU.^0, the rebel 

Deputy Collector, who was hanged at Banda, 
together with the rebel Tahsildar of Pailani, 
Muhammad Muhsin on the 24th April, 1858. 

Imtiliaiii ( Jl^^l), poetical name of 
Imam-uddin Beg. 

Imtiyaz ( jL-;,^^), the poetical name of 

Raja Daya Mai, whose father was Dlwau of 
Asad Khan, the "VVazir of 'Alamgir, and he 
of Ghazi-uddin Khan, styled 'Imad-ul-Mulk. 

Imtiyaz Khan, Sayyad (^Iri- 'X^''^ 

j_^!l&- '^,-^, whose poetical name is 

Khalis, was a native either of Isfahan or of 
Mashhad. He came to India in the time of 
the emperor 'Alamgir, was appointed governor 
of Guj'rat for some time, and was slain by 
Khuda Tar Khan in a.d. 1710, a.h. 1122, 
in Sindh. It is said that Qasim Ali Khan, 
the Nawab of Bengal, was his grandson. He 
is the author of a Diwan. 

Ina'amuUah Khan (^;l»- aU\ *UjO- 
Tide Yeqin. 

Inayet Khan ( .U 


whose poetical title is 'Ashna or Ahsan, and 
proper name Muhammad Tahir, was the son 
of Zafar Khan. He was an excellent poet, 
and is the author of the work called Shah 
Jahan Nmna, a history of the emperor Shah 
Jahan. Besides the above-mentioned work, 
he is the author of a Diwan and a Masnawi. 
He died in a.d. 166(3, a.h. 1077. 

'Inayet-uUah, Shaikh (aill L:i.^_)l.i.£ 

^p..J6J f^--^), of DehlT, author of 

the work called Bahar Banish, a collection of 
amusing tales, principally satires on women. 

Several of these tales were published by 
Colonel Dow, under the title of The Tales 
of 'Indyet-ullah, and the whole work was 
translated in the year a.d. 1799, by Jonathan 
Scott, in three volumes, octavo. 

'Inayet-uUah Khan (a1.\\ 


(^l»-), the son of Shukr-ullah Khan, 

a descendant of Sayyad Jamal of Naishapiir. 
.His mother Haflz Mariam was tutor of the 
princess Zeebun Nisa Begam, the daughter of 
the emperor 'Alamgir ; by her influence her 
son 'Inayet-uUah lihan was raised hy degrees 
to the rank of 2500. In the reign of Farruldi- 
siyar the rank of 4000 was conferred on him, 
and in that of Muhammad Shah, of 7000. 
He was the author of the work called Ahkdni 
'Alamc/lrl and compiler of the Kahiiat 
Taiijabdt. He died a.d. 1726, a.h. 1139. 

Indarman Bundela, Raja (^^lSJI 

As»-\. iLtJco), the brother of Eaja 

Sujau Sindh. He died in the Deccan about 
the year a.d. 1675, and his zamindari of 
TJrcha and the title of Eaja were conferred 
upon his son Jaswant Singh by the emperor 

Insaf (, sLaiO, the poetical name of 

Muhammad Ibrahim. His father was a 
native of Khm'asan, but he was born in 
India. He was a contemporary of Sarkliush, 
the poet, was living about the year a.d. 
1688, A.H. 1100, and died young. 

Insan (^^Ljj\), the poetical title of 

jSTawab Asad-uUah Asad Yar Khan. He held 
the mansab of Haft Hazari (7000), in the 
reign of Muhammad Shah, and died in April, 
A.D. 1745, Eabi' I^ a.h. 1158. His remains 
were brought to Agra and buried there in 
the cemetery of his ancestors. 

Insha or Insha Allah Khan (Lj lAj\ 

.iLr=- <lL!L^JO, a poet and son of 
Masba Allah Khan. He is the author of 
four Diwans of different kinds. 

Intikhahi ( jl:^!), a poet -who was 
a native of Khurasan, but was brought up in 
India. He is the author of a Diwan. 

Intlzam-uddaula Khan Khankhanan 

(^LjLri- ^\.~^ il.s]\ *Ui-:i-Jl), the 

second son of Nawab Qamar-uddiu Kh5n 
"SVazir. He was appointed to the rank of 
second Bakhshi on the accession of Ahmad 
Shah to the throne of Dehli in a.d. 1748, 
A.H. 1161, and was honom-ed with the 
appointment of "Wazir in a.d. 1753, a.h. 




1165, after the dismissal of Nawab Safdar 
Jans from the office. He was murdered by 
'ImSd-id-]Miilk Ghazi-uddln Khan on the 
26th Noremher, a.d. 1759, 5th Eabi' II. 
A.H. 1173, three days before the assassination 
of the emperor 'Alamgir II. 

Icta Pandit (cljJ^J t'O, a Marhatta 

Brahman who, in the time of Shah Ahim and 
Miidho Rao Sindhia, held the appointment 
of the Subadarship of the fort of Agra. 

IqlDal Khan (^^U- JlJl) was the 

son of Zafar Khan, the son of Firoz Shah 
Tughlaq. He defeated Nasrat Klian and 
ascended the throne of Dehli about the 
beginning of the year a.d. 1400, a.h. 802, 
and was slain in a battle against Khizr Khan, 
the governor of Mnltan, in November, a.d. 
1405, 19th Jumada I. a.h. 808. After his 
death Sultan Mahmiid Shah, who was 
defeated by Amir Taimiir and had fled to 
Gujrat and then to Qanauj, returned on the 
invitation of Daula Khan Lodi, who com- 
manded at Dehli, and took possession of the 

Ictbal - uddaula Muhsin Ali Khan 

(^U- ^Is:. ^j-^^'* a!_.jJ1 Jl;-*0, the 

son of Shams-uddaula Ahmad 'Ali Khan, 
the son of Nawab Sa'adat 'Ali Khan of 
Lucknow. He sailed for England to claim 
the throne of Audh in January, a.d. 1838, 
and after trying in vain to obtain the 
recognition of his claim from England, 
determined upon passing the remainder of his 
days in a life of sanctity in Tui'kish Arabia. 
He is the author of the work called J(ibal 

Iradat Khan (jjUu CJjljl), the title 

of Mir Ishaq or Ishaq Khan, the son of 
Nawab 'Azim Khan, who held a high rank in 
the reign of the emperor Jahangir. Iradat 
Klian held various offices under Shah Jahan, 
and in the first year of 'Alamgir' s reign he 
was appointed governor of Audh, but died 
after two months in October, a.d. 1658, 
Zil-hijja, A.H. 1068. 

Iradat Khan {^\^ ^J^: 

^jljO, the 

title of Mirza Muharik-uUah, whose poetical 
name was "Wazah. His father Is-hak K]ian 
(who afterwards held the title of Kifayet 
Klian) was the son of Nawab 'Azim I£han. 
lioth bis grandfather and father were noble- 
men of high rank. The former was Mir 
Eakhshi to the emperor Jahangir, and was 
afterwards appointed Faujdar of Jaunpiir, 
where he died in a.d. 1649, a.h. 1059. The 
latter was the subject of the last article ; and 
his title of IradatKhln was conferred on his son 
after his death. In the 33rd year of 'Alamgir 

our present subject was appointed Faujdar of 
Jagna, and at other periods of Aurangabad 
and Mando in Malwa. Was equerry to Priuce 
Eedar Bakht {q.v.) in the short Avar of 1707, 
of which he wrote an account. In the reign 
of Shah 'Alam or Bahadur Shah I. he was 
governor of the Doab, and the intimate 
friend of Mua'zzim Khan, Wazir. In the 
latter part of his days he led a retired life, 
became a Kalandar, and died in a.d. 1716, 
A.H. 1128. His abilities as a poet were great, 
and he left a volume of poems behind him. 
He is the author of the Kalnutt Alwt, 
(Sublime discourses), Mvna Bdzilr and of a 
history of Aurangzeb's Successors, which 
latter Avas translated into English by Jonathan 
Scott, Esq., in A.D. 1786. After his death, 
which happened in the time of Fanukh- 
siyar, bis sou Mir Hidaet-uUah received 
tlie title of Hoshdar Khan, held the rank of 
4000, and died at Aurangabad a.d. 1744, 
A.H. 1157. 

'Iraqi {^\..£.), whose proper name is 

Fakhr-uddin IbrahTm-bin-Shahryar, was a 
native of Hamdan in 'Iraq, and a pupil and 
grandson by the mother's side of the great 
ShaiMi Shahab-uddiu Suharwardi, author of 
a host of mystical works highly esteemed by 
the Siifis. 'Iraqi oiiendea his parent and 
master, in consequence of a love affair, and 
went to India, where he remained some time, 
regretting his native country, and uttering 
his complaints in moving verse. He lived in 
company Avith the Shaikh Baha-uddinZikaria 
of Mnltan, whom he accompanied on hia 
journey and became his disciple. 'Iraqi, 
after a long sojourn in India, proposed return- 
ing to his own master, Shahab-nddin ; but 
the latter had died, and our poet continued 
his wanderings to Syria, where he expired 
after a long life of eighty-two years on the 
23rd November, a.d. 1289, 8th ?i-Qa'da, 
A.H. 688, and was buried at Salahi in 
Damascus close to the tomb of Shaikh Muhi- 
uddin Ibn-ul-'Arahi. His son Shaikh Kabir- 
uddin is also buried there. 'Iraqi is the 
author of a work called Lama' at. 

\_Vide Fakhr-uddin 'Iraqi.] 

'Irfan {^J^^), poetical name of Mu- 
hammad Eiza, the son of Muhammad Jan 
Irfiin, author of the Kdr Nama, containing 
the praises of 'Ali Mardan Khan, the Amir- 
ul-XJmra of the emperor Shah Jahan. 

Irtiza ' Ali Khan Bahadur i^Xs- Lajjl 
^oL^^ 1^1.=^), author of the Fardh 

Irti:ia, a concise treatise in Persian on the 
laAV of Inheritance, which appears to be the 
principal authority of that laAV in the 
Deccan. It was printed in Madras, but 
Avithout a date. 




'Isa Masih (^_^^1 ei^-c), Jesus Christ. 

For Arabic titles of and doctrines regarding, 
vide Hughes' Victimary of Islam, in mo. 

'Isam - uddin IbraMm - bin - Mu- 
hammad Isfaraeni (._iA.ll *Li2.£ 

i__jiJ^.i-il J./i.^s"^ >^1^\), an Arabian 

autlior who died a.d. 1536, a.h. 943 ; he 
is the author of the Arabic note -book called 
Hdshia- Isam- 

'Isa-ibn-Musa {^^y* ^\ Jj^u-^c), 

the cousin-german of the Khalif Abu Ja'far 
Mansnr, after whose death in a.d. 775, a.h. 
158, he entertained thoughts of setting up 
for himself at Kufa, where he then resided ; 
and in order to facilitate the execution of 
his scheme, fortified himself in that city. 
But al-Mahdl, the son of Mansiir, being 
apprised of his defection, sent a detachment 
of 1,000 horse to bring him to Baghdad; 
which being done, al-Mahdi not only pre- 
vailed upon him to own allegiance to him, 
but also to give up his right to the succession 
(he being the next apparent heir to the crown) 
for 10,000 according to some, and according 
to others 10,000,000 dinars. 

'Isa Sawaji {^>-^ J^*"-^), a poet of 

Sawa who was a Kazi. He died in a.d. 896, 
A.H. 291. 

'Isi Turkhan, Mirza ( \~, Jj t._>;j„»x 

I ; y-»), was a Turkman and commander- 
in-chief of Shah Beg Arghun, king of Sindh's 
army, after whose death he took possession 
of Thatta, of which he was then governor, 
and assumed the title of king. He reigned 
13 years and died in a.d. 1567, a.h. 975, 
when he was succeeded by his eldest son 
Mirza Muhammad Baqi Turkhan, who during 
his rule always maintained a friendly inter- 
course with the emperor Akbar of Dehli, 
frequently sending presents, and acknowledg- 
ing fealty to that monarch. He died after 
a reign of 18 years in a.d. 1685, a.h. 993, 
and was succeeded by his grandson Mirza 
JanI Beg. 

Isdigertes (j,;»- Jj_i). Fide Tezdijard. 

Isfahani (^\^J.^\), author of the 
Danish Nama, a system of natural philosophy. 

Isfan or Stephen (.^\iJ\) is the name 

and takhallus of a Christian poet born at 
Dehll. His father was a European. He 
was aUve in a.d. 1800, a.h. 1216. 

Isfandiyar {J^suLj\), the son of Kish- 

tasp or Gashtasp (Hytaspes), the fifth king of 
the Kayanian dynasty of Persia, was a great 
warrior, the son of Darius I. and great- 
grandson of Achaemenes. Isfandiyar answers, 
in some respects to the Xerxes (Sher Shiih) of 
the Greeks, and Ahasuerus of the Jews. He 
is the Ehayarsha of the Cuneiform inscrip- 
tions. [But vide Malcolm's Persia, where it 
is shown that, according to native historians, 
Isfandiyar was never king, but only com- 
mander-in-chief of his father's armies. He is 
said to have been kiUed by the hero Rustam 

Is-ha(i ( ■il.s^l), the poetical title of 

Jamal-uddin, a cotton-carder of Shiraz. He 
was an elegant poet, and has left us a Diwan 
called Akslr-ul-I.^hlihd, the Elixir of Hunger, 
full of amorous songs and parodies on the 
odes of Khwaja Haflz, each verse of which 
contains either the name of a sweetmeat or a 
dish. He lived in the time of Prince Sultan 
Sikandar, the son of Umar Shaikh, who much 
esteemed him. His proper name is Abu-Is- 
haq, which he uses in poetry by abbreviating 
it into Bus-haq. 

Is-haq - hin - ' Ali (^c-i-c j.iJ jLs**"!), 

author of a Diwan in Arabic, and of a work 
called Zichr-ul-'Addb. HediedinA.D. 1022, 
A.H. 413. 

Is-haq-bin-Husain or Hunain ( •A.s.'^] 

^.^i.=^ l) ^-;»AM..»- ^i), an Arabian 

author who translated the Almagest of 
Ptolemy from the Greek into Arabic under 
the title of Tahrir-al-Majastl. This book 
is to be found in the French National Library. 
ShirazT has written a commentary on this 
work, and entitled it Hal Mushkilat-al- 

Is-haq. Khan (^J-:>- ij\.sr'\), styled 

Mo'tamiu-uddaula, whose original name was 
Mirza Ghulam 'Ali, was a nobleman of high 
rank, and a great favourite of the emperor 
Muhammad Shah of Dehli. He was a good 
poet, and used for his political name Is-haq. 
He died in the 22nd year of the emperor, 
A.D. 1740, A.H. 1163, and after his death his 
daughter was married to Shuja-uddaula, the 
son of Nawab Safdar Jang, and the nuptials 
were celebrated with uncommon splendour, 
A.D. 1746, A.H. 1159. 

Is - haq Maulana (Lj^l^.^ jLs"-'!), a 

learned Musalman who was bom at Hchcha 
in Multan. In his youth he dedicated himself 
under the guidance of his uncle Saj-yad Sadr- 
uddin Eaju Qattal, whose sister was his 
mother. He died in a.d. 1456, a.h. 860, 
and was buried in the compound of his own 
house at Saharanpur. 




Is-haq Mousali ( J_^^ jLs-'l), a 

celebrated Araliiau autlior, born at Jlusal. 
It is related in the Kilab Alaghdni tbat 
when he was on a journey he carried with 
him ein;liteen cofiera full of books, though he 
declared that if he had not been anxious to 
make his luggage as light as possible, he 
would have brought double the quantity. 

'Isliq (^JU-i), poetical title of Shall 

Rukn-uddiu, who flourished in the reign of 
the emperor Shah 'Alam. 

'Ishqi ( ii^i), the title of a poet who 

flourished in the reign of the emperor Mu- 
hammad Shah, and is the author of a Dlwan. 
He died in a.d. 1729, a.h. 1142. 

'Ishqi ( iji^j;), poetical title of Shaikh 

Muhammad Wajih, son of Ghulam Husain 
Mujrim of Patna. He was for ten years 
under the English government Tahsildar of 
Kharwar ; was living in a.d. 1809, a.h. 
1224, and is the author of a Diwan. 

Ishrat (^::j^.£), poetical name of 

Mirza 'Ali Eiza, who collected his poems 
into a Diwan under Muhammad Shah in a.d. 
1747, A.H. 1160, and died shortly after. 

_e), author of the last 


'Ishrat ((. 

part of the story of Padmawat in Urdii verse, 
which was completed by him a.d. 1796. 
[ Vide Padmawat and Ibrat.] 

'Ishrati {Jj.jl..c), poetical name of 

a poet who is the author of a small Diwan. 
His name is Aka 'All of Isfahan ; he came to 
India, and on his retm'n died at Mashhad. 

Ishtiyaci ( vL«.ii_i)l), poetical name as- 
sumed by Shah Wall Ullah of Sarhind, who 
was the grandson of Shaikh Ahmad Sarhindi. 
He was a distinguished theologian and Siifi. 
He died in a.d. 1748, a.h. 1161, and left 
several works. Shah 'Abdul 'Aziz of Dehli, 
the most celebrated Indian theologian in 
modern times, was one of his sons. 

Ishurior Ishwari Singh (iSiou.; i_?,-u*J^), 

the son of Eaja Jai Singh Sawai, whom he 
succeeded to the Eaj of Jaipiir in a.d. 1743. 
He died in a.d. 1760, and was succeeded by 
his son Madho Singh. 

Ishuri Parshad Narain Singh 'B&- 
hadur (^ jl^^ AiOw:^^jy jliy^ i-fj-^^ ^' 
Eaja of Benares (1869). 

Iskandar (.^^-L-j^), Alexander the 

Great. Vuh- Sikandar Zidkarnain. 

Iskandar Manishi (^.A^^j^J>JL1), 

whom Stewart in his Catalogue of Tippa 
Sultan's Library calls Sikandar Hamnashini, 
is the author of the Tfirlkh 'Alam 'Arue 
'Abbuii, a history of the Persian kings of the 
Safwi dynasty, from Shah Isma'il to Shah 
'Abbas the Great, to whom it was dedicated 
in A.D. 1616, A.H. 1025. 

Islam Khan (^Iri- A^^), title of Mir 

Ziya-uddiu Husain Badakhshl, whose poetical 
name was "SVala. He served under the 
emperor 'AlamgTr, and was raised to the 
rank of 6000 with the title of Islam Khan. 
He died in the year a.d. 1663, a.h. 1074, at 
Agra, and the chrouogram of his death was 
written by Ghani Kashmiri. He was the 
father of Xawabs Himmat Klian, Saif lOian 
and 'Ahdur Eahim Khiin. 

Islam Khan (^;Ui- a^-- .-0, the son of 

Safi Khan and grandson of Islam Klian Mash- 
hadi, was Siibadar of Lahore in the time of 
the emperor Farrukh-siyar, and was raised to 
the rank of 7000 in the reign of Muhammad 

Islam Khan Mashhadi, Nawah (>L;1 

i-j^j-j ^^^-t ^^^) (he is by some 

called Islam Khan Eiimi, but that is a mistake) . 
He was a native of Mashhad, and his original 
name was Mir 'Abdus Salam. In the time 
of Jahangir he held the mansab of 5000, and 
the Siibadari of Bengal ; and in the time 
of Shah Jahan was raised to the rank of 60(10 
with the title of Motam-uddaula and held 
the appointment of second Bakhshigari and 
governorship of the Deccan. He afterwards 
was again appointed governor of Bengal. In 
the 13th year of Shah Jahau he was raised to 
the rank of Wizarat with the title of Jumdat- 
ul-Mulk. Shortly after he was raised to the 
rank of 7000, and the Siibadari of the Deccan. 
He was wazir to Shah Jahan and held the 
mansab of 7000, with the title of Islam Khan. 
He was some time before his death appointed 
governor of I he Deccan, where he died in the 
21st year of the emperor, on the 2ndNovember, 
A.D. 1647, 14th Shawwal, a.h. 1067, and 
was buried at Aurangabad. 

Islam Khan Rumi, "Turk," i^l^] 

LS^iJ ^-^^' *^^^® °* Husain Pasha, 
son of 'All Pasha. He was governor of 
Basra, but being deprived of that situation 
by his uncle Muhammad, he left that country 
and came to India in a.d. 1689, a.h. 1080, 
where he was received by the emperor 
'Alamgir with the greatest respect, and 
honoured with the rank of 6000 and title 
of Islam Khan. He was killed in the battle 
of Bijapiir in the Deccan on the 13th June, 





A.D. 1676, 11th Eabl' 11. a.h. 1087. He 
had built his house at Agra on a piece of 
ground consisting of four blgas and seven 
cottas, and a garden on a spot of three higas 
and nine cottas, on the banks of the river 
Janina near the Ghat called Tajara close to 
the fort of Agra. Byzantine Turks were called 
Humi in medieeval India ; and officers of that 
race were often employed in the artUlery. 

Klian, Shaikli (;^J, ^[:^ ^Lol), 

styled jSTawah Ta'tzad-uddaula, was a grand- 
son of Shaikh Salim Chishti, and son-in-law 
of Shaikh Mubarik, the father of the cele- 
brated 'Abii'l Fazl, whose sister, named Laclli 
Eegam, he had married. He was appointed 
governor of Bengal by the emperor JahangTr 
in A.D. 1608, A.H. 1017. Nawab Ikram 
Khan was his son, and QSsim Khan his 
brother. The latter succeeded him in the 
government of Bengal in a.d. 1613, a.h. 
1022, in which year Islam Khan died. His 
remains were transported to Fathapiir Sikri, 
where his monument is still to be seen. 

Islam Shall (ili, ^LJ). Vide Salim 

Isma'il (J^jjt^^l), or Ishmael, the son 
of the patriarch Abraham. 

Isma'il (jjU^t^- *U1 (^ J-,n^), 

the eldest son of Imam Ja'far Sadiq, from 
whom the sect of Isma'ilis or Isma'ilias take 
their name. They maintain that Isma'il 
Ihn Ja'far, who was the eldest son, but died 
during his father's life, should have succeeded 
to the dignity of Imam, and not MiisT Kazim, 
who was his younger brother, and became 
the seventh Imam. For their other opinions 
see Hughes in voc, Ismdilii/ah. Hasan 
Sabbah was of this sect. 
\_Vide Isma'ilis.] 

Isma'il I. Safavi, Shall i^^La J-jc*,»jt 

iLi), the son of Sultan Haidar, was 

the first monarch of the Safavi dynasty of 
kings who reigned in Persia (a.d. 1500). 
He traced his descent from Miisi Kazim 
the seventh Imam, who was descended in 
a direct line from 'All, the son-in-law of 
Muhammad. Almost all his ancestors were 
regarded as holy men, and some of them 
as saints. The first of this family who 
acquired any considerable reputation was 
Shaikh Safi-uddin, who had settled at 
Ardible, and from whom this dynasty takes 
its name of Safwia or Safavi. His son 
Sadr-uddin Musa, as well as his immediate 
descendants, Khwaja AH, Shaikh Ibrahim, 
Sultan Junaid, and Haidar, acquired the 
greatest reputationfor sanctity. Contemporary 
monarchs, we are informed, visited the cell 
of Sadr-uddin. The great Taimur (Tamerlane) , 
when he went to see this holy man, demanded 
to know what favour he should confer upon 

him. " Eelease those prisoners you have 
brought from Turkistan," was the noble and 
pious request of the saint. The conqueror 
complied ; and the grateful tribes, when they 
gained their liberty, declared themselves the 
devoted disciples of him to whom they owed 
it. Their children preserved sacred the obli- 
gation of their fathers ; and the descendants 
of the captives of Taimiir became the sup- 
porters of the family of Safi, and enabled 
the son of a devotee to ascend one of the 
most splendid thrones in the world. Khwaja 
'All, after visiting Mecca, went on a pilgrim- 
age to Jerusalem, and died at that city. His 
grandson Junaid, sat on the masnad as a 
spiritual guide after the death of his father 
Shaikh Ibrahim ; and so great a crowd of 
disciples attended this holy man that Jahan 
Shah, the chief of the tribe of the Black 
Sheep, who at that time ruled Azurbaijau, 
became alarmed at their numbers and banished 
him from Ardibel. Jimaid went to Dayar- 
bikar, whose ruler, the celebrated XJzzan 
Hasan, received him kindly, and gave him 
his sister in marriage. He afterwards went 
with his disciples to Shirwan, where he was 
slain in a conflict with the troops of the king 
of that province in a.d. 1456, a.h. 860. His 
sou Sultan Haidar succeeded him, and his 
imcle XJzzan Hasan, who had now by his 
overthrow of Jahan Shah and Sultan Abii 
Said become powerful in Persia, gave him 
his daughter in marriage. The name of 
this princess, according to Muhammadan 
authors, was 'Alam Shao', but we are informed 
by a contemporary European writer that she 
was called Martha, and was the daughter of 
Uzzan Hasan by the Christian lady Despiua, 
who was a daughter of Calo Joannes, king 
of Trebizond. Sultan Haidar also lost his 
life from the wound of an arrow which he 
received in a battle with the troops of 
Shirwan Shah and Ta'qiib Beg in July, a.d. 
1488, Shaban, a.h. 893. Sultan lEaidar 
had three sons by this princess— Sultan 'All, 
Ibrahim Mirza and Shah Isma'il. When 
Isma'il attained the age of fourteen (his 
elder brothers having died some years before) , 
he put himself at the head of his adherents, 
and marched against the great enemy of his 
family the ruler of Shirwan, called Shirwan 
Shah, whom he defeated a.d. 1500, a.h. 
906 ; and soon alter, by another victory 
gained over Alwand Beg, the son of Ya'qiib 
Beg, a prince of the dynasty of the White 
Sheep, he became the master of the province 
of Azurbaijan, and established his residence 
at the city of Tabrez ; and in less than four 
years became the acknowledged sovereign of 
the kingdom of Persia. He was born on the 
17th July, A.D. 1487, 25th Eajab, a.h. 892, 
died after a reign of 24 lunar years on 
Monday the 23rd May, a.d. 1524, 19th 
Eajab a.h. 930, aged 38 years, and was 
buried at Ardibel. Muhammadan historians 
fix the commencement of his reign from the 
year a.d. 1500. He left four sons — Tahmasp, 
who succeeded his father, Sam Mirza, 
Bahram, and Ikhlas Mirza, and five daughters. 
He composed a Turkish Diwan in which he 
uses the Takhallus of Kitabi. 




The folloui'ing is a lixt of the Safav'i kings 
of Persia : — 

1. Shah Isma'il Safavi, first aon of Sultan 


2. Shah Tahmasp Safavi I. son of Isma'il 


3. Shah Isma'il II 

4. Muhammad Khuda Bauda. 

5. Hamza, son of Kliuda Banda. 

6. Shah Isma'il III. son of Kliuda Banda. 

7. Shah 'Abbas I. son of Khuda Banda. 

8. Shah Safi, the son of Safi Mirza, the 

son of 'Abbas. 

9. Shah 'Abbas II. son of Shah Safi. 

10. Shah Sulaiman, son of 'Abbas II. 

11. Shah Husain, son of Sulaiman. 

12. Shah Tahmasp II. last of the Safavi 


Mahmiid, an Afghan. 
Ashraf, an Afghan. 

13. Sh5,h 'Abbas III. Vide Nadir Shah. 

Isma'il II. Safavi, Shah ( J,.^x.^.>^l 

il-i .j'G i^ti-a), second son of Shah 

Tahmasp I. Safavi, whom he succeeded on 
the throne of Persia in May, a.d. 1576, 
Safar, a.h. 984, by the aid of his sister 
Pari Khanam, who sent for him from the 
fort of Uahqah, where he had been contlned 
by his father for 18 years. The short reign 
of this unworthy prince was marked by 
debauchery and crime. Immediately on his 
accession, he directed the massacre of all the 
princes of the blood- royal that were at 
Qazwin, except 'Ali Mirza, whose life was 
spared ; but even he was deprived of sight. 
His eldest brother Muhammad Mirza, who 
had a natural weakness in his eyes, which 
rendered him almost blind, and was during 
his father's life employed as governor of 
Khurasan, was then at Shiraz. Orders were 
sent to murder hiiu and his sou 'Abbas, but 
before they could be executed Isma'il was 
found dead one morning in a confectioner's 
house, supposed to have been poisoned by his 
sister. His death happened at Qazwin on 
Sunday the 24th November, a.d. 1577, 13th 
Eamazan, a.h. 985, after a short reign of 
one year and six months. He was succeeded 
by his eldest brother Muhammad Mirza, 
who, on his accession to the throne, took the 
title of Muhammad Khuda Banda. 

Isma'il (^Lx,4«.j1), surnamed al-Mansiir, 

third or fourth Khalif of Barbary of the race 
of the Fatimites, succeeded his father al- 
Qaem a.d. 945, a.h. 334, and having 
defeated and slain Tezid-ibu-Kondat, who 
had rebelled against his father, caused his 
body to be flayed, and his skin stuffed and 
exposed to public view. Al-Mansiir died 
after a reign of seven years and sixteen days 
in A.D. 962, 30th Shawwal, a.h. 341, and 
was succeeded by his son Abii Tamim Ma'd, 
surnamed Mo'izz-uddiji-allah. 

Isma'il 'Adil Shah, Sultan {^y^^J\ 

iVjj, JjLe), of Bljapiir, surnamed 

Abii'l Fatha, succeeded his father Yusaf 
'Adil Shah on the throne of Bijapiir in the 
Di'ccan in a.d. 1510, a.h. 915, and died after 
a glorious reign of 25 lunar years on Wednes- 
day the 27th August, a.d. 1534, the 16th 
Satar, a.h. 941, and was buried at Kuki 
near the tomb of his father. He was 
succeeded by his son MaUii 'Adil Shah. 

Isma'il-hln-Hasan(^^^5-^j J;**.*^!), 

author of the work called Zakhlra Khwdrism 
Shah. He flourished in the reign of Ala- 
uddin Takash, Sidtan of Khwarizm, who died 
in A.D. 1200, A.H. 596, and was a contem- 
porary of Kliaqaui the poet. 

Isma'ili or Isma'ilia ( _l_-_x_^_«ol 

i),-1».*/«,-j1 ), sect of Ismail-ibn-Ja far 

[q.v.). Their tenets were held by a man 
who had through the means of superstition 
established an influence over the minds of 
his followers, that enabled them to strike 
awe into the bosoms of the most powerful 
sovereigns, and to fill kingdoms with horror 
and dismay for a period of nearly two 
centuries. Their ruler, who became the 
chief of the Assassins, resided on a lofty 
mountain called Alahmiit, and fate was in 
his hands ; for there was no shape which 
his followers could not assume, no danger 
that they could not brave, to fulfil his 
mandates. These were the Isma'ilis or 
Assassins, well-known by the Crusaders, as 
subjects of the Old Man of the mountain. 
They were completely extirpated by Halakii, 
the Tartar king of Persia, in the year a.d. 

[ Vide Hasan Sabbah.] 

Isma'il Haqg.!, Shaikh ( 1~^ Jrr*^-'^ 

ir;?'^), author of a oommentary on 

the Quran called Ruh-ul-Baydn, and of the 

Isma'il Mirza (1- _ 
Isfahan, an author. 

J.^^--\), of 

Isma'il Nizam Shah {A,\aJ J_».*..*-j' 

iL-i). His father, prince Burhan 

Shah, having been defeated in an attempt to 
dethrone his brother Murta'za Nizam Shah, 
had fled for protection to the court of the 
emperor Akbar. On his departure he left 
beliiud him two sons, named Ibrahim and 
Isma'il, who were kept confined in the 
fortress of Laha^urh. On the death of 
Miran Husain Shah, the younger being 
raised to the throne of Ahmadnagar by Jamal 
Khan in the month of March, a.d. 1589, 




Jnmada I. a.h. 997, took the title of Isma'!l 
Nizam Shall. His father Burhan Shah, 
having received assistance from the emperor 
Akbar, marched against his son, but was 
defeated. However, in a short time after this, 
he renewed his attempts, and being joined by 
a great majority of the chiefs and people, 
attacked Jamal Khan the king's minister, 
who was kiUed in the action on the 27th 
April, o.s. 1591, 13th Eajab, a.h. 999. 
Isma'J, who had reigned little more than 
two years, was taken prisoner and confined by 
his father, who ascended the throne of 
Ahmadnagar with the title of Bnrhan Nizam 
Shah II. 

Isma'il Pasha (l.JiLj J.^*.,*^-^, a 

recent Viceroy of Egypt, the successor of 
Muhammad 'Ali Pasha', who died in August, 
A.D. 1849. 

Isma'il Samani, Amir ( ^3l,L- J-jt,4-^l 
j-^i), the first King of Amir of the 

race of Saman, called Samani, traced his 
descent from Bahram Chobin, the warrior 
who contended for the crown of Persia with 
Khnsro Parvez. Saman the great-grandfather 
of Isma'il, is termed, by the European writers, 
a keeper of herds, and a robber ; but this 
merely designates the ordinary occupations of 
a Tartar chief. His father Nasr Ahmad, the 
son of Asad, the son of Saman, was appointed 
governor of Mawarun Nahr by the Khalif 
Mo'tamid in the year a.d. 875, a.h. 261. On 
his death his son Isma'il succeeded him. 
Isma'il, after his conquest over Amru - bin - 
Lais, whom he seized and sent to Baghdad, in 
A.D. 900, became independent. The power of 
the djmasty of the Samanis extended over 
Khurasan, Seistan, Balkh and the countries 
of Trausoxania, including the cities of 
Bukhara and Samarqand. This justly 
celebrated prince died after a reign of twenty 
years in a.d. 907, Safar, a.h. 295, aged 
60 years, and was succeeded by his son Amir 
Ahmad SaraanT. 

The names of the kings of this family, who 
were called Amirs, and who continued to 
reign for a period of 128 lunar years, are as 
follow: — 

1. Amir Isma'il Samani. 

2. ,, Ahmad Samani. 

3. ,, Nasr-bin-Ahmad. 

4. ,, Niih I. son of Nasr. 

5. ,, Abdul MaUk. 

6. ,, Mansiir I. 

7. ,, Nih II. 

8. ,, Mansur II. 

9. ,, 'Abdul Malik II. the last of 

this race. 

Isma'il, Sayyad-bin-Husain Jurjani 

author of two medical works in Persian, 
called Aghrdz-ut-Tibb and KIiiff-i-^AM, 
which he dedicated to Alp Arsalan, Sultan of 

'Ismat (^ 

3.=). Vide Asmat. 

Istaghana {\.-^.kj^J,) ^ poetical title of 
'Abdul Easiil. 

'Istarushi ( 



:). Vide Mu- 

I'tahi ( jkc), a poet, who died in the 
year A.D. 1614, a.h. 1023. 

I'tmad Khan Khwaja Sara (jUxcl 

y-j A:s-l^:>- 1^=^), an eunuch and 

officer in the service of the emperor Akbar. 
He was stabbed by his servant Maqsiid 'Ali 
in A.D. 1578, A.H. 916, and was bm-ied at a 
place called I'tmadpiir, twelve miles from 
Agra, which he had founded in his lifetime. 

I'tmad Khan (^l:i. jUxrl), title of 

Shaikh 'Abdul Qawi, an Amir of the reign of 
the emperor 'Alamgir. He was murdered by 
a Qalandar in a.d. 1666. a.h. 1077. 

I'tmad-uddaula (<i!jj,ll d\x:.s:.\), title 

of Khwaja Ayas or Ghayas the father of the 
celebrated Niii' Jahan Begam, the favourite 
wife of the emperor Jahangir. He was a 
Tartar and came from Persia to India in the 
reign of the emperor Akbar. In the time of 
Jahangir, he was raised to the high rank of 
I'tmad-uddaula, and his two sons to the first 
rank of 'Umra with the titles of 'Asaf Khan 
and I'tqad Khan. He died near Kot Kangra, 
where he had accompaciedjahangir on his way 
to Kashmere in February, o.s. 1621, Eabi' I. 
a.h. 1030. His remains were transported to 
Agra and buried on the left bank of the 
Jamna, where a splendid mausoleum was 
built over his relics by his daughter Niir 
Jahiin. It was completed in a.d. 1628, and 
is still in a high state of preservation. It is 
said, but it seems not to be true, that she 
intended to raise a monument of silver to his 
memory, but was reminded by her architect 
that one of less covetable material stood a 
fairer chance of duration. After his death 
his son 'Abii'l Hasan was appointed "Wazir 
with the title of 'Asaf Khan. No private 
family ever made such alliances with royal 
blood as this Tartar ; for his own daughter, 
his son's daughter and the daughter of his 
grandson, were married to three successive 
emperors of Hindiistan ; and another daughter 
of his grandson, to prince Murad Bakhsh, who 
disputed the throne with 'Alamgir, and for 
some days thought himself in possession of it. 
The place where he is buried was a garden 
planned by I 'tmiid-uddanla during his lifetime. 
There are two tombs of yellow stone under the 
Eauza, or tomb ; one of which is that of I't- 
mad-uddaula, while the other is said to be Ms 




■wife's. It has a vciy large gate towards the 
east, built (if rid stone. It" has two miuars 
on both sides in the same number as there are 
two on the side of the Jamna towards the 
west. There is on the chabiitra towards the 
Jamna a fish made of stone ; if the water 
runs in and rises as far as its mouth, the 
whole of Allahabad will be inimdated. 

I'tmad-uddaula {ii.^\ jUi-1), title 

of Muhammad Amir Kliau, the prime minister 
of the emperor Muhammad Shah. 
l_Ti<le Muhammad Amir Khan.] 

I'tmad-uddaula (^^jjl jlc-cl), son of 

Muhammad Amin Khan, Wazlr. 
[_Vide Qamar-uddln Khan.] 

1' Khan (^^l.ri. jU.u_cl), tlie 

brother of 'Asaf Khan, Wazir, and son of I't- 
mad-uddaula. He was appointed goreruor 
of Kaslimere by the emperor Shah Jahiin, 
which situation he held for several years. He 
died at Agra in a.d. 1650, a.h. 1060. 

I't(iad Khan (^^Ui- jLiLuwrl), the title 

of Mirza Bahman Tar, the son of 'Asaf Khan 
and grandson of I'tmad-uddaula. He was 
raised to the rank of 4000 in the 2.5th year of 
Shah Jahan, a.d. 1651, a.h. 1061, with the 
title of I'tqad Klian, which his father held 
for some time as well as his uncle the brother 
of 'Asaf Khan. In the 5th year of 'Alamgir, 
A.D. 1662, A.H. 1072, the rank of S,000 was 
conferred on him. In a.d. 1667, a.h. 1077, 
he proceeded to Dacca in Bengal, to visit his 
brother Shaista Khan, who was then governor 
of that province, and died there in the year 
a.d. 1671, A.H. 1082. 

I'tqad Khan (j^Lii. i>Lii.xrl), former 
title of Zulfiqar Khan Nasrat Jang. 

I'tsam-uddin, Shaikh (^jjJI f,\^-:^\ 
U:rt-^), author of the Shagarf Ndma- 

i- Wildet, being the travels of the author in 
Great Britain and France, some time before 
or after the year a.d. 1766, a.h. 1180. This 
work has been translated into EngUsh. 

Izid Bakhsh, Mirza (!• ^^=r jjjl). 

His poetical name was Rasa ; he was the 
grandson of 'Asaf Khan Ja'far Beg, who was 
"Wazir to Jahangir. Izid Bakhsh was at 
first employed by the prince 'Azim Shah, and 
then by his father the emperor 'Alamgir in 
the capacity of Munshi. On the accession of 
Farrukh-siyar, he was disgraced by that 
emperor for having cast some reflections 
on his father Azim-ush-Shan on account 
of the battle which took place between 

'Azim Shah and his brother Bahadur 
Shah. By the order of the emperor, the 
hairs of his mustaches were plucked out one 
by one, and afterwards he was cruelly 
murdered. This eveut took place about the 
beginning of the year a.d. 1713, a.h. 1125. 
His tomh is still to be seen in the compound 
of the Agra College. 

'Izzat (vZ-^_£), poetical name of 
(Shaikh) 'Abdul 'Aziz, which see. 

'Izzat (cijj-i), poetical name of San- 
gh am Liil, which see. 

'Izzat (d-'j.c), poetical title of Jaiki- 
shun, which see. 

'Izzat (cuj-c), poetical appellation of 
Shaikh Wajih-uddin. 

'Izzat-uddaula Mirza Muhsin (.jiJLc 
i^^us-* i.y« aIjJ,1I), brother of Nawab 

Safdar Jang. He was sent to Persia on an 
embassy to Nadir Shah after his invasion of 
Hindiistan, by the emperor Muhammad Shah. 

[Vule Najaf Khan and Muhammad Quli 

'Izz - uddaula Bakhtyar (<i;j.jjl' ^ 

^L::>sr), the son of Mu'izz-uddaula- 

ibn-Buya. He succeeded to the kingdom of 
'Iraq the same day on which his father died, 
viz. Monday the 1st April, a.d. 967, 17th 
Rabi' II. a.h. 356. The Khalif-al-Taya 
Billah in the year a.d. 974, gave him his 
daughter in marriage, on whom a dowry of 
one hundred thousand dinars was settled by 
her husband. He was a noble prince, and 
possessed such bodily strength that he could 
take an enormous buU by the horns and throw 
him to the ground. A contest which arose 
between him and his cousin 'Azd- uddaula 
relative to their respective possessions, caused 
a breach between them which led to a war, 
and on Wednesday the 29th May, a.d. 978, 
they met and fought a battle, in which 'Izz- 
uddaula was slain, aged 36 years. His head 
was placed on a tray and presented to 'Azd- 
uddaula, who is said, on seeing it, to have 
covered his eyes with his handkerchief and 

'Izz - uddin Abdul Aziz - bin - Abdus- 
Salam Damishqi, Shaikh ( .jjjjl' £ 

author of the Shajrat-ul-Ma'arif. He died 
in the year a.d. 1261, a.h. 660. 




'Izz-uddin Husain ( 




He was created by Sultan Ibrahim of Ghaznl, 
Amir Hajib (Lord Chiimberlain), in wMch 
station he conducted himself so well, that the 
king gave him a princess of the house of 
Ghazni in marriage. He rose daily in favour 
and estimation, till Sultan Jlasa'ud, the son 
of Ibrahim, put him in possession of the 
principality of Ghc5r. By the princess of 
Ghazni he had seven sons entitled the seven 
stars. One of them, Fakhr-uddin Masa'iid, 
became king of Bamyan. The second was 
Qutb-uddin Muhammad, who married his 

cousin, a princess of Ghazni, the daughter of 
Sultan Bahram Shah. The third was 'Ala- 
uddin Hasan, prince of Ghor, who destroyed 
Gliazni 'circ. a.d. 1152). Izz-uddiu durmg 
his life-time paid tribute to the Saljfiqs as 
well as to the G^iaznavides. 

'Izz-uddin Khalid Khani ( -jjjh. c 

|,jlri- Jilli-), author of the work 

called Dalail Firoz Shaht, which he translated 
into Persian by order of Firoz Shah, from a 
Hindi book which treated on philosophy, 
astrology and divination. 



Jabali ( jL^), the son of Ayham, 

last king of the tribe of Ghassan, who were 
Christian Arabs. He became a Muhammadan, 
and afterwards attempted to assassinate 
TJmar, the second Khalif after Muhammad. 
He died A.D. 673, a.h. 53. 

Jabali ( !L^), surname of Abii 'All 

Muhammad-bin- 'Abdul Wahab, who was the 
master of the celebrated Abii'l Hasan al- 
Asha'ri, chief of the sect of the Asharians, 
and one of the four Imams of Musalmanism. 

Jabali (1^:=-), poetical name of Abdul 

Wasa, who was bom in the mountains of 
Ghnrjistan, hence his takhallua which means 
mountaineer. He found a patron in Bahram 
Shah of Ghazni, and served Sultan Saujar 
Saljiiki fourteen years. He died in a.d. 1160, 
A.H. 555, and left a Diwan of Kasidas. 
[Vide 'Abdul Wasa.] 

Jabar ij^^) 

poetical name of Ahii 
Musa Ja'far-al-Safi, which see. 

Jabila Ram Nagar 


i*\j A 


a Hindu chief who was governor of AUahabad, 
and died there in the commencement of the 
reign of Muhammad Shah in a.d. 1720, a.h. 
1132. His nephew Girdhar was appointed 

governor of Audh after his death, and in 
A.D. 1724, A.H. 1136, the government of 
Malwa was conferred on him, and the 
SUbadari of Audh was given to Burhan-ul- 
Mulk Sa'adat Khan. Eaja Girdhar died in 
Malwa during the invasion of Baji Eao 
Peshwa of the Mahrattas, acting in the name 
of the Raja Sahii, about the year a.d. 1729, 
A.H. 1142 ; he was succeeded by Daya Baha- 
dur his relation, who continued gallantly to 
resist the enemy, and fell in battle about the 
year a.d. 1730, a.h, 1143, when Muhammad 
Khan Bangash was appointed governor of that 

-.£ ^ jI=^), the son of 

'AhduUah, was a companion of Muhammad 
and a traditionist. He was present in nine- 
teen battles which Muhammad fought, and 
died in the year a.d. 692, a.h. 73, aged 94 

Ja'far {.Lx=^ ), poetical title of Asaf 
Khan, commonly called Mirza Ja'far Beg. 

Jabir (aJJIj^-, 

Ja'far ( .c, 

), a soldier hy profession. 

He is the author of a Masnawi, which he 
dedicated to the emperor Shah Jahan. 

Ja'far-al-Barmaki ( j ^S~^jy\ jhts>- 

Xss^), son of Ahia or Tahia and 

grandson of Khalid, the son of Barmak who 
was originally a fire-worshipper. He suc- 
ceeded his father Ja'far as wazir to the 




Klialif Iliiruu- al-Raahid ; his graudfather 
having been wazir to Abdii'l 'Abbas Saffah, 
who was the first of all the Klialifs who had 
a wazlr. This wazir Ja'far, was a great 
favourite of Hariiu-al-EashTd who gave him 
'Abbasa, his sister, in marriano, under the 
condition that he was to have no carnal con- 
nection with her, but he transgressed the 
command, for which the Klialif ordered his 
head to be struck off. He also threw his 
brother Al-Fazl and his father Ahia into 
prison, and there left them to die. Ja'far 
was only 28 years old when he was executed, 
having been in the favour of Hariiu-al- 
Eashid for the space of seventeen years. 
Ja'far was beheaded on Sunday the 29th 
January, a.d. 803, 1st Safar a.h. 187, his 
body was gibbetted on one side of the bridge of 
Baghdad, and his head stuck up on the other. 
He was the ancestor of the " Barmecides." 

Ja'far Ali Khan (^\s>- Lc .kx^), 

commonly called Mir Ja'far, whom the 
English placed on the masnad as Nawah of 
Bengal, Behar and Orissa, after the defeat and 
death of Nawab Siraj-uddjula, in June, a.d. 
1757, Shawwal A.H. 1170. He was, however, 
deposed in a.d. 1760, a.h. 1174, on account 
of alleged negligence in the affairs of his 
government, and was obliged to retire on an 
ample pension, when his son-in-law, Mir 
Qasim 'Ali Klian was raised to the masnad. 
This man after his elevation, intending to 
drive out the Engli-sh from Calcatta, was 
defeated in a battle fought at Udwa Nala on 
the 2nd of August, a.d. 1763, 22nd Muhar- 
ram, a.h. 1177, and expelled, and Mir 
Ja'far was again placed on the masnad by the 
English. He died on Tuesday the 6th 
February, a.d. 1765, 14th Shabau, a.h. 
1178, and his son Mir Phiilwari, who as,9umed 
the title of Najm-uddaula, was elevated to 
the masnad. Ja'far All's cemetery is at 
Murshidilbad, where Ms Begam and his son 
Miran are also buried. 

Ja'far Barmaki ( <^,4.j -a*;^), see 

Ja'far - bin - Abu Ja'far - al - Mansur 

( .^i^\ jSLx^ jA ^^ jkit.>-), the 

Khalif of Baghdad. His daughter Zubeda 
was married to Hariin-al-Bashid. He died 
in the year a.d. 802, a.h. 186. 

Ja'far-bin-Abu Talib (.j1 ^i jkxs^ 

t_^lL) was the brother of 'All the 

son-in-law of the prophet. He was killed in 
a battle fought at Muta in Syria against the 
Eomau army in a.d. 629, a.h. 8. 

Ja'far - bin - Muhammad Husaini 

{^M>.^ S^sr'* ^: Ji.xs>-), author of 

the Mimtakhib-ut-Tau-iinkh, a very judicious 

abridgment of Oriental history from Adam 
down to Shahrukh Mirzii, son of Amir 
Taimiir. This work was dedicated to 
Biiisanghar Bahadur, third son of Shahrukh, 
in A.D. 1417, A.H. 820. Many authors have 
compiled works under this title, one of 
which was written by Shaikh 'Abdul Qadir 

Ja'far-bin-Tufail (J-iiL ^i jAxs>-), 

an Arabian philosopher in the 12th centurv, 
author of a romance, called the history of 
Hai-ihn-YokdImn, in which he asserts that 
by the light of natm'c, a man may acquire a 
knowledge of things and of God. 

[Vide Lempriere's Universal Dictionary, 
under Jaaphar.] 

Ja'far Khan ( .Li, 



^), entitled 

" Umdat-ul-Mnlk," was the son of Sadiq 
Khan Mir BakhshI, and sister's son and son- 
in-law of Yemin-uddaula 'Asaf Khan, wazir. 
He held the rank of 5000 under the emperor 
Sliah Jahan, was appointed prime minister by 
'Alamgir about the year a.d. 1662, a.h. 
1073, and died in the 13th year of that 
emperor, a.d. 1670, a.h. 1081, at Dehli. 
After his death the office of wizarat was 
conferred upon Asad Khan with the title of 
Asad-uddaula. It seems that after the death 
of Ja'far Khan his remains were transferred 
to Agra, where his tomb is to be seen still 
standing on the right bank of the Jamna. 

Ja'far Khan ((jU- ji.x^), whose 

first title had been Murshid Quli Khan, was 
appointed governor of Bengal by the emperor 
'Alamgir in a.d. 1704, a.h. 1116. He 
founded the capital of Murshidabad and 
named it after his original title. He was the 
son of a Brahman, converted to Muham- 
madanism by Haji Shafia' Isfahaui. He 
died in the reign of the emperor Muhammad 
Shah about the year a.d. 1726, a.h. 1138, 
and was succeeded by his son-in-law Shuja- 
uddin (also called Shuja-uddaula). The 
following is a list of his djmasty : — 

Murshid Quli Ja'far Khan . . . 1704 
Shuja-uddin, son-in-law of Ja'far Khan 1726 
'Ala-uddaula Sarfaraz Khan . . . 1739 
Alahwardi Khan Mahabat Jang . . . 1740 
Siraj-uddaula, grandson of ditto . . 1756 
Ja'far 'Ali Khin (dethroned in 1760) . 1757 
Qasim 'Ali ]<han, son-in-law of ditto . 1760 
Ja'far 'Ali Khan, restored in . . . 1763 
Najm-uddaula, son of ditto .... 1764 
Saif-uddaula, brother of Najm-uddaula 1766 

Mubarik-uddaula 1769 

Nazim-ul-Mulk Wazir -uddaula, (died 

April 28th, 1810) 1796 

Sayyad Zain-uddin 'Ali Khan, son of 

ditto 1810 

Sayyad Ahmad 'Ali Khan .... ■ 

HumayiinJah . , 1824 

Mansiir 'Ali Khan, Nasrat Jang . . 1858 




Ja'far Khan (j^il^ ^ (^l^^Jjt^ 

i^U-.), son of Sadiq Khan, king of 

Persia of tlie House of Zend. He was recog- 
nised by the principal noblemen in Fars, after 
the death of 'Ali Murad Khan in 1785, and 
the people were forward in acknowledging his 
authority, but unable to resist his enemy 'Aqa 
Muhammad Khan, who now ventni-ed to 
embrace a more extensiye field for the exer- 
tion of his talents, and commenced his march 
against Isfahan. Ja'far Khan was treacher- 
ously murdered in 1788 ; his head was severed 
from his body, and cast before the citadel, the 
sport of children, and the outcasts of the city. 

Ja'far Khan (jjl:i.^Ax^), a nobleman 

who in the first year of the emperor Bahadur 
Shah was appointed governor of Kashniere 
in the room of Nawazish Klian a.d. 1707, 
A.H. 1119. He proved to be a bad governor 
and a mob set fire to his residence. He died 
in Kashmere of drink and excess a.d. 1709, 
A.H. 1121, and according to the record of his 
death, must be faring badly at present. 



Ja'far Nasiri (|_f _.^ 

author, who completed the work called latctif 
Khayal, in A.D. 1742, A.H. 1153, which was 
commenced by Mirza Muhammad Salah. 

Ja'far Sadiq (jjLs ix=^), or Ja'far 

the Just. He was the eldest son of Mu- 
hammad Baqir, the grandson of Imam Husaiu. 
He is reckoned the sixth Imam ; was born 
at Madina about the year a.d. 702, a.h. 83, 
and died in the same city under the khilafat 
of Abii Ja'far Al-Mansiir, in a.d. 765, a.h. 
148. He was very famous for his doctrine 
amongst the Musalmans, was invited to court 
by Al-Mansiir, that he might profit by his 
counsel: Ja'far returned for answer, " Who- 
ever has a view duly to this world, will not 
give you sincere advice, and he who regards 
the next, will not keep your company." He 
was bm'ied in the cemetery of Al-Baqia at 
Madina. The same tomb contains the bodies 
of his father, Imam Bakir, his grandfather 
'All Zain-ul 'Abidin, and his grandfather's 
uncle, Hasan, son of 'Ali. His mother's 
name was Umm Farwah, daughter of Kasim, 
the son of Muhammad, the son of Abii Bakr 
Sadiq, the first Khalif after Muhammad. He 
is said to be the author of a book of fate 
called Fal Nama. 

Ja'far Zatalli, Mir C-^ Ijj ^i*^)- 

a Sayyad of Narnoul, contemporary with Mirza 
Bedil. He served imder prince 'Azim Shah, 
the son of the emperor 'Alamgir, who was 
slain in battle in a.d. 1707, a.h. 1019, Ja'far 
was the most celebrated humouristic poet of 
Hindiistan : his compositions are a mixture 
of Persian and Urdu. He is the author of a 

Shahnama in Eekhta. He was put to death 
in A.D. 1713, a.h. 1225, by order of the 
emperor Parrukh-siyar, on account of a satirical 
verse he had MTitten on the accession of that 
emperor to the throne of Dehli. 

Jagat Goshaini 

Vide Jodh Bai. 


/ <^U), 

Jagat Narayan (^Uli 

-iss^), a 

Hindii poet who wrote some kasidas in praise 
of Nawab 'Asaf-uddaula of Lucknow, who 
died in a.d. 1797, a.h. 1212. 

Jagannath, Raja (U-L il_^^'l.iJlp-), 

the son of Bhara Mai. He held the rank of 
6000 in the time of the emperor Jahangir, 
about the year a.d. 1605, a.h. 1014. 

Jagat Singh 


•^$>5^), the son 

of Makund Singh Hara, lived in the time of 
the emperor 'Alamgir, a.d. 1659. 

Jagat Singh (<tfi^ lj^5^5>-), Eaja of 

Jaipiir or Jainagar, was the son of Eaja 
Partap Singh, the son of Madho Singh, the 
son of Ishurl Singh, the son of the celebrated 
Eaja Jai Singh Sawai, who lived in the time 
of the emperor Muhammad Shah. Jagat 
Singh succeeded his father in a.d. 1803, and 
is said to have been an effeminate prince; 
though he died without issue, he was succeeded 
by Eaja Jai Singh, a posthumous sou, believed 

Jagnath Kalanwat (c;_).!i^ i^\:^Cp^), 

a musician who was employed by Shah Jahan, 
who conferred on him the title of Maha 

^). Vide Chaghtai 

Jaghtai (^-l 

Jagnath (l^j'l:>^>-), brother of Eaja 

Bhagwan Diis. He distinguished himself in 
the war with Eaja Partap Singh. He slew 
the renowned champion Eam Das, son of 

Jahan. Vide Bern Narayan. 

Jahan Ara Begam (*Cj \j\ i^a^=^), 

daughter of the emperor Shah Jahan, by 
Mumtaz Mahal, daughter of 'Asaf Klian, 
wazir ; was born on Wednesday the 23rd 
March, a.d. 1614, 21st Safar, a.h. 1023. 
One of the most beautiful examples of female 
modesty to be found in the annals of woman 
is recorded of this princess, celebrated in song 
and history as the heroic, the witty, the 
generous, the elegant, the accomplished, and 




the beautiful Jahau Ara Bcgam. One night 
(26th JIarch, a.d, 1644, 27th Muharram, 
A. 11. 1054), as she was retm-ning from her 
father's apartments to the harem, in one of 
the passages which connect the Latter huiltUug 
with the body of the palace, her flowing 
drapery was unhappily ignited by the flame 
of a lamp. Her whole dress, which was of 
the finest muslin, was instantly in flames, 
and of course her life was in imminent peril ; 
but, knowing that she was then within hearing 
of many young nobles of the com-t, she would 
not raise an alarm, lest they should run to 
her assistance, and behold her unveiled, or 
lay their hands upon her in order to extinguish 
the flames. Heroically enduring all the agonies 
which fire could inflict, she withheld her cries, 
and rushed forward until she reached the 
women's apartments, and there sunk upon 
the floor, almost lifeless. For a long period, 
no hopes were entertained of her recovery, 
but she was ultimately restored to health by an 
English physician named Gabriel Boughton 
who was then at Surat, and had been sent 
for by the emperor her father then in the 
Deccan, although her beauty was cruelly 
impaired. The emperor, in reward for Dr. 
Boughton' s services, besides other favours, 
granted him, at his disinterested request, a 
patent for his countrymen to trade free of 
customs throughout his dominions. The large 
inasjid of red stone adjoining the fort of 
Agra near the Tripolia (now demolished) was 
built by her (or in her honour) in the year 
A.D. 1648, A.H. 1058, at a cost of five lacs 
of rupees. She died in the reign of her 
brother the emperor 'Alamglr on the 5th 
September, a.d. 1680, 3rd llamazSn, a.h. 
1092, and lies buried in the yard of the 
mausoleum of .Nizam-uddin Aulia at Dehli. 
The name of Jahan Ara will ever adorn the 
pages of history as a bright example of filial 
attachment and heroic self-devotion to the 
dictates of duty, more especially when we 
view it in contrast with the behaviour of 
her sister Hoshan Ara, who, by aiding the 
ambitious designs of Aurangzlb, enabled him 
to dethrone Sliah Jahan. The amiable and 
accomplished Jahan Ara not oidy supported 
her aged father in his adversity, but voluntarily 
resigned her liberty and resided with_ him 
dm-ing his imprisonment in the fort of Agra. 
Her tomb is of white marble, open at the 
top, and at the head is a tablet with a Persian 
inscription inlaid in black marble letters, to 
the following effect : ' ' Let no one scatter 
over my grave anything but verdure, for such 
best becomes the sepulchre of one who had a 
humble mind." On the margin is written, 
"The perishable faqir Jahan Ara Begam, 
daughter of Shiih Jahan, and the disciple of 
the saints of Chisht, died in the year of the 
Hijra, a.h. 1092." 

Jahan Bano Begam (*SLj y\j uV^^' 

the daughter of Prince Murad, the son of the 
emperor Akbar. She was man-fed to Prince 
Parwez, the son of Jahangir, by whom she 
had Xadira Begam, who was married to Dara 
Sheko, the eldest son of Shah Jahan. 

Jahandar Shah (iLii j\jj\^), sur- 

named Muhammad Mui'zz-uddin, was the 
eldest son of the emperor Bahadur Shah, and 
grandson of '^\-lamgIr. He was born in the 
Deccan on Wednesday the 8th April, a.d. 
1663, 10th Eamazan, a.h. 1073. The death 
of his father, which took place in February, 
A.D. 1712, Muharram, a.h. 1124, was followed 
by the usual struggle among his sons for the 
crown. The incapacity of Jahandar Shah, 
the eldest, had given a great ascendancy to 
the second whose name was Azim-ush-Sh.m. 
He was suppoi-ted by most of the nobility 
and of the anny, but his other brothers joined 
their interests, and were kept together by the 
persuasions and false promises of Zulflkar 
Khan, the Amlr-ul-'Umra. Their concord 
was of short duration, and lasted only until 
the defeat and death of Azim-ush-'Shan ; 
after which a bloody battle ensued between 
the three surviving brothers, two of whom, 
viz., Jahan Shah with Iris son Farkhnnda 
Akhtar, and Eafi-ush-Shan, being killed. 
The subject of this notice, by the intrigues and 
support of the Amir-id-'Umra, remained un- 
disjjuted master of the throne, and was crowned 
at Lahore on Thirrsday the 10th April, a.d. 

1712, 14th Efibi' I., A.H. 1124, with the 
title of Jahandar Shah. He was in himself 
a weak man, effeminately careful of his person, 
fond of ease, indolent, and totally ignorant 
of the art of government. He made the vast 
empire of Hindustan an offering to the foolish 
whims of a public coui-tezan, named Lai 
Kunwar, thus ve.xing the minds of worthy 
subjects loyal to his family. He reigned 
only nine months, being defeated in a battle 
fought near Agra, and afterwards taken prisoner 
and murdered in the month of January, a.d. 

1713, Zil-hijja, a.h. 1124, by order of his 
nephew Farrnkh-siyar (the son of the late 
Azim-ush-Shan), who became emperor. His 
corpse was exposed to public view, and then 
interred in the platform before the mausoleum 
of the emperor Humayiin at Dehli. His 
mother's name was Nizam BaT. 

Jahandar Shah, Prince ( .IaJL^s- 

J(jU^^^ il^), the eldest son of the 

emperor Shah 'Alam. Bom about a.d. 1749. 
Appointed Regent by Ahmad Shah Abdali in 
1761, after the overthrow of the Mahrat.tas at 
Panipat, he administered the remains of the 
Empire imtil his father's restoration in 1771. 
His private appellation was Jawan Bakht 
(Mirza). In April, a.d. 1784, on account 
of the unsettled affairs of his father, he made 
his escape from Dehli and repaired to Lucknow, 
where the British Governor of Bengal, "Warren 
Hastings, had arrived to regulate the con- 
cerns between the wazir, Asaf-uddaula, and 
the Company. He accompanied Mr. Hastings 
to Benares, which place he chose for his 
residence. He had an allowance of five lacs 
of rupees per annum from the Nawab wazir 
at the earnest request of Mr. Hastings. 
He died in Benares on the Slst May, a.d. 
1788, 25th Shaban, a.h. 1202, after an illness 


191 JAHA 

of little more than twenty-four lioui-s ; aged 
about 39 years, and was buried with every 
honour due to his rank near the tomb of a 
venerated Muhammadan in Benares. The 
Euglisli Resident and principal people of the 
city attended his funeral. He left behind him 
three sons, whom, with the rest of his family, 
he recommended to the care of the English, 
under whom they still enjoy a comfortable 
asylum and allowance at Benares. Garcjin 
de Tassy informs us, that there is a work of 
his in the Indian House, which has the title 
of Bayaz Indyet JIurshidzada. The narrative 
written by this prince, was translated by Col. 
Scott, and published in the appendix to Mr. 
Hastings' Review of the state of Bengal. 
[Vide Fall of the Moghul Empire.'] 

Jatangir (^.^L,^^^), a cousin and 

husband of Sikandar (q.v.) Begam of Bhopal. 
His ancestor. Dost Muhammad, about the time 
of Aurangzib's death, declared himself inde- 
pendent at Bhopal. Jahangir's uncle was the 
third jS"awab, on whose death his widow was 
declared Regent by the army, and his daughter 
Sikandar Begam, heir. She married Jahangir 
who died in the year a.d. 1845. 

Jahangir (emperor) (^jjJl^y ^Xl^,;^ 

iX*^^), surnamed JSTiar-uddm Mu- 
hammad, was the eldest son of the emperor 
Akbar the Great ; was born in the village of 
SikrI on Wednesday the 31st August, a.d. 
1569, 17th Rabi' I. a.h. 977, and was named 
Mirza Salim on account of his coming into 
the world, as supposed, by the prayers of 
Shaikh Salim Chishti, a venerable Shaikh and 
dervish who resided in the village of Sikri, 
now called Fathapiir Sikri in the province 
of Agra. His mother, who received the title 
of Mariam Zammam, was the daughter of 
Raja Bihari Mai Kachhwaha. After the 
death of his father, which took place on the 
16th October, a.d. 1605, he succeeded him by 
the title of JSTur-iiddiu Muhammad Jahangir. 
He reigned 22 lunar years, 8 months and 
15 days from the day of his father's demise ; 
and died in camp on "Sunday the 28th October, 
A.D. 1627, 28th Safar, a.h. 1037, on his 
way to Lahore from Kashmere, aged 59 lunar 
years, 11 months and 12 days; and was 
interred in the suburbs of Lahore in the 
garden of bis favourite wife Niir Jahan Begam. 
He was succeeded by his son Mirza Khurram, 
who took the title of Shah Jahan. His 
favourite Sultana Niir Jahan, who survived 
him 18 years, is also buried in the mausoleum. 
Jahangir, after his death, received the title 
of " Jannat Makani." It was to this prince 
that Sir Thomas Roe was sent as ambassador 
by King James I. Sir Thomas has given a 
good description of the grandeur of the court 
of Hindustan ; but very little notice is taken 
of this embassy in the chronicles of the East. 
In 1612, Jahangir permitted the Company 
to establish factories at Surat, Ahmadabad, 
and Carabay. Jahangir wrote his own memoir 
in Persian, called Tiaak Jahanglrl, which 

has been translated by Major David Price, 
London, 1829, 184 pages 4to. It is also 
called Jahangir Ndrna. 

Jahangir Mirza (Ij^^ jj3\^), the 

eldest son of Akbar Shah II. king of Dehli. 
He was, in consequence of having fired a 
pistol at Mr. Seton, the Resident at Dehli, 
sent as a State prisoner to Allahabad, where 
he resided in the garden at Sultan Khusro for 
several years, and died there in a.d. 1821, 
A.H. 1236, aged 31 years; a salute of 31 
guns was fired from the ramparts of the fort 
of Allahabad at the time of his burial. He 
was at first interred in the same garden, and 
subsequently his remains were transferred to 
Dehli, and buried in the court-yard of the 
mausoleum of Nizam-uddin Aulia. 

Jahangir Mirza (1:^^^^^), the 

eldest son of Amir Taimiir. He died before 
his father a.d. 1574, a.h. 776. His son's 
name was Pir Muhammad, which see. 

Jahangir Quli Khan ( Jj _jliL=i- 

j^l-ri-), son of Khan 'Azim Mirza 

'Aziz Koka, served under the emperors Akbar 
and Jahangir, and died in the fifth year of 
Shah Jahan a.d. 1631, a.h. 1041. 

Jahangir Quli Khan, Kahuli {^^ L»- 

iJ.jl^ U^ 15^^' ^^ ^^^"^ °^ ^^® 
rank of 5000, who was appointed governor 
of Bengal by the emperor Jahangir, in a.d. 
1607, A.H. 1016, and died there in a.d. 1608, 
A.H. 1017. 

Jahanian Jahan Gasht, Makhdum 

[ Vide Shaikh Jalal.] 

Jahan Khatun (j^^'L>. ^^^), a 

famous lady, who after the death of her first 
husband was married to Khwaja Amin-uddin, 
minister to Shah Abii Is-haq, ruler of Shiraz. 
She is said to have been a very beautiful 
woman, and a good poet. 

Jahan Shah (Prince) (iLi j^L-p- 
iiJ\\Y^), the third son of the emperor 

Bahadm' Shah. He was slain in the battle 
which took place at Lahore, after the death 
of his father, between his brothers in March, 
A.D. 1712. His mangled body with that of 
his brother Rafi-ush-Shan and his son, was 
conveyed to Dehli and interred without 
ceremony and pomp in the mausoleum of the 
emperor Humaynn, the general receptacle of 
the murdered princes of the imperial family. 




Jahan Shah Turkman (^Lii e^Ur-^ 
^\-*ijj), son of Qara Yusaf Turkman, 

was the brother of Sikandar Turkman, after 
whose death in a.d. 1437, a.h. 841, the 
novcrumcnt of Azurbejau was conferred on 
him by Shalirukh Jlirzii, the son of Amir 
Taimur He held it till the death of that 
prinee in a.d. 1447, a.h. 850, alter which he 
conquered most part of Persia, and carried 
his arms as far as Dayarhilair, and fell in a 
battle which he fought against Hasan Beg, 
commonly called Uzzan Hasan, the ruler of 
that province, on the 10th Noyember, a.d. 
1467, 12th Eabi' II. a.h. S72, aged 70 years. 
He reigned more than 30 lunar years, and as 
he was slain in battle against Hasan Beg, the 
chronogram of the year of his death was found 
to contain the words " Slain by Hasan Beg." 

Jahan Soz (jj_j ^V^,^), a title of 
Sultan 'Ala-uddin Hasan Ghori. 

Jahi ( J)l:>-), the poetical name of 
Ibrahim Mirza (Sultan), which see. 

Jahiz or Aljahiz (li~.-l.s.M Li lis^li^), 

the surname of Abii 'Usman 'Umar bin- 
Mahbiib Kana'ana, a man of great learning, 
but of a very eccentric tendency of mind. He 
wrote a book on the Commerce of the 
Arabians early in the third century of the 
Hijra entitled Kitiib-al-JVazt-at Jil Tajarat, 
which is frequently quoted by Nawari. 
Jahiz died a.d. 868, a.h. 255, at the age of 
96 years. 

Jaiapa (LaJ^i—j liL;^), Sindhia, suc- 

ceeded his father Ranoji Sindhia, the founder 
of the Sindhia family, in a.d. 1750, a.h. 
1163, and was murdered in his tent in a.d. 
1759, A.H. 1172. He was succeeded by his 
brother Madhoji Sindhia. 

Jai Chand {j^>\j ^^-ss- ^^)! the last 

Eathor monarch of Kanauj. He ruled the 
country from Buxar to Kanauj and reigned 
about the Sambat year a.d. 1400, a.h. 1343. 
His favom-ite re.sidence was near the city of 
Jounpiir which he had built in a.d. 1359, 
Sambat 1416. The present city of Jaunplir 
was built by Firoz Shah in the year a.d. 
1370, A.H. 772, in honour of his uncle 
Fakhr-uddin Muhammad JCman, the date of 
which is found in the words " Shahr 
Jaunpiir." According to Colonel Tod, 
Jaichand reigned about the 12th century of 
the Christian era, and one of his grandsons 
named Seoji, with a few retainers, planted 
the Eathor standard in Marwar in the year 
A.D. 1212. 

Jai Chand (j^j^.^- 

_^), a Eaja of 

Nagarkot or Kangra, who lived in the time 
of the emperor Akbar. 

Jaikishun {^jJlS^^^), a Kashmiri 

Brahman whose poetical name was 'Izzat, 
was the agent of Nawab Is-haq KJian. 

Jaimal (J,.^^.^), a H;ija, famous in 

history as "the bravest of the brave." In 
A.D. 1568 Udai iSingh, the son of Eana 
Sanka or Sanga, and the founder of the 
capital Udaipiir in Chittor, came under the 
displeasiu'e of the emperor Akbar. The 
recreant chief fled and left the defence of his 
capital Chittor to liaia Jaimal, who was 
killed by Akbar himself in the course of the 
A.D. 1368. 

Jaipal I. (Jjl JL.5-), son of Hitpal, 

Eaja of Lahore of the Brahman tribe, who 
reigned over the country extending in length 
from Sarhind to Langhan, and in breath 
from the kingdom of Kashmere to Multan. 
He was once defeated by Subaktagin, the 
Sultan of Ghaznl, with great slaughter, and 
again on Monday the 27th November, a.u. 
1001, by his son Sultan Mahmiid, when 
Jaipal with fifteen of his principal chiefs, 
being his sons and brethren, were taken 
prisoners, and 5000 of his troops were slain 
on the field of battle. He was afterwards 
released by Mahmiid, but in compliance with 
a custom which prevailed among the Hindiis, 
that whatever Eaja was twice overpowered 
by strangers became disqualified to reign, he 
ordered a funeral pile to be prepared, and 
haying set fire to it with his own hands, 
perished therein. He was succeeded by his 
son Anandpal. 

Jaipal II. {i.s^\j |jlj JL-.=r), Eaja 

of Lahore, son of Anandpal, whom he suc- 
ceeded in A.D. 1013. He was routed in a 
great battle by Sultan Mahmiid in a.d. 1022, 
on the banks of the river Eavi ; the result 
was the permanent occupation of Lahore by 
a Muhammadan governor, and the appoint- 
ment of a Viceroy of Lahore by Mahmiid. 
Jaipal fled to Ajmir. This has been con- 
sidered the foundation of the Muhammadan 
empire in India. 

Jai Singh I. (Raja) (J^l aj^j,^ ?- 

i-sAj), of the tribe of Kachhwaha, 

commonly called Mirza Eaja, was the son of 
Eaja Maha Singh, the son of Partap Siagh, 
the son of Eaja Man Singh. He served 
under the emperor Shah jfahan, and was 
made governor over the conquered provinces 
of the Deccan about the year a.d. 1664, by 
the emperor 'Alamgir. He was recalled to 
court in a.d. 1666, but died on the road, 
soon after his arrival at Burhanpur, 28th 
Muharram, a.h. 1078. According to Orme^s 
Historical Fragments of the Miic/hul Empire, 
Jai Singh died at Burhanpiir soon after the 
pretended revolt of Sultan Muazzim, the son 




of the emperor, and wag said to have heen 
poisoned by the procurement of 'Alamgir. 
There never was a prince among the Rajputs 
equal to him in accomplishments. He was 
competely learned in Hindi, and understood the 
Turkish, Persian, and Arabic languages. 
He left two sons. Earn Singh his eldest, 
and Kirat Singh. The former was honom-ed 
after his father's death with the title of 
Eaja, and put in possession of his father's 
territories. _ Jai Singh had built several fine 
edifices at Agra, of which no sign remain now, 
but the name and place on which the buildings 
stood is stUl called Jaisinghpura. 

Jai Singh II. Sawai (,Jl^ <!>5ow) j>- 

j_jju), a Eaja of the tribe of Kaohh- 

waha rajputs, was the son of Bishn Singh, 
the son of Kishun Singh, the son of Eam 
Singh, the son of Mirza Eaja Jai Singh. He 
is commonly called Mirza Eaja Jai Singh 
SawaT. He was the zamiudar or Eaja of a 
considerable territory in the province of Ajmir 
named Amer, but since the prince founded 
a new city called Jaipiir the Rajaship has 
also taken that name. Bishn Singh, the 
father of Jai Singh and Bijai Singh, died 
about the year a.d. 1693, Sambat 1750, and 
after his death the title of Raja was bestowed 
on Jai Singh by the emperor 'Alamgir with 
the rank of 1500, and subsequently with that 
of 2000. After the death of that emperor 
he espoused the cause of 'Azim Shah, the son 
of 'Alamgir, whilst his brother Bijai Singh 
aided Bahadiir Shah, who on his accession to 
the throne conferred the rank of 3000 on the 
latter. Bijai Singh quarrelled with his 
brother for the Raj ; and the emperor, 
not willing to displease either, confiscated 
their estate, and appointed Sayyad Husain 
All Khan of Barha, as Faujdar of that place. 
When the emperor marched to the Deccan to 
punish his brother Kambakhsh. a.d. 1708, 
A.H. 1120, Jai Singh, with the aid of Raja 
Ajit Singh Rathor, engaged the Faujdar in 
battle and having killed him took possession 
of the province. In the reign of Farrukh- 
siyar he was honoured with the title of 
Dhlraj Raja Jai Sin^h, and in the time of 
Muhammad Shah with that of Sawai {q.d. 
" exceptional"). In the year a.d. 1732, a.h. 
1145, he was appointed governor of Malwa. 
His love of science makes him one of the most 
remarkable persons of his nation. He built 
five observatories for astronomical studies, 
namely, at Dehli, Banaras, Mathra, TJjain 
and Jaipijr, and published a work on 
astronomy called Zij Muhammad Shahl. He 
also erected a Karavansarai and market in 
every province of Hindiistan for the conveni- 
ence of travellers at his own expense. After 
his death, which took place in September, 
a.d. 1743, 9th Shaban, a.h. 1150, tlu'ee of 
his wives, with many concubines, burned 
themselves on his funeral pile. He was 
succeeded by his son Ishuri Singh, after 
whose death in a.d. 1760 Madho Singh his 
son succeeded him. 

List of KacJihwahd Rajas of Amer or 
Bhara Mai. Jai Singh Sawai. 

Bhagwan Bas. Ishuri Singh. 

Man Singh. Madho Singh. 

Bhao Singh. Pirthi Singh. 

Maha Singh. Partab Singh. 

Jai Singh Mirza Eaja. Jagat Singh. 
Ram Singh. Jai Singh. 

Bishun Singh. Eam Singh. 

Jai Singh III. (Raja) (ajli^ ^.s^ 

c^U), of the tribe of Kachhwaha 

rajputs and Eaja of Jaipiir, was a posthumous 
son of Eaja Jagat Singh, who died in a.d. 
1818. Jai Singh was murdered by his kamdar, 
whose name was Jhota Eam, in the Sambat 
year 1891, or in January, a.d. 1834, and his 
infant son Eam Singh succeeded him. 

Jai Singh (a;5owj ^e>-^, or Eana Jai 

Singh of Udaipiir, a descendant of Raua 
Sanka who lived in the time of the emperor 
Akbar, succeeded his father Rana Raj Singh, 
A.D. 1680, A.H. 1091. 

Jalal Asir (-.-)! J^)- ^'<^« J^sir. 

Jalal 'Azd, Sayyad (-\--j sJi.£- J^^), 

a poet who flom'ished in the reign of 
Muhammad Muzaffiar, ruler of Fars and 
his descendants. He is the author of a 

Jalal Bukhari (^ .l_=sr J^_;»-), or 

Savyad Jalal Bukhari. He came to India from 
Bukhara and became a disciple of Shaikh 
Baha-uddin Zikaria of Multiin. He resided 
at TJchcha in Multan and died there. He 
had three sons, Saj7ad Ahmad Kabir, Sayyad 
Baha-uddin and Sayyad Muhammad. Sayyad 
Ahmad Kabir, who succeeded his father as 
spiritual guide, had two sons, Mokhdiim 
Jahanian, also called Shaikh Jahal and 
Shaikh Sadar-uddin, commonly called Rajii 

N.B. — There is some confusion between 
this man and Shaikh Jalal. 

[ Vide Shaikh Jalal.] 

Jalal Bukhari, Sayyad (|_j;^l=sr JSl^ 

X^S), a descendant of Sayyad Ahmad 

Kabir and son of Sayj'ad Muhammad 
Bukhari. He was born in the year a.d. 
1594, 5th Jumada II. A.H. 1003, and was 
highly respected by the emperor Shah Jahan, 
who conferred on him the ofBce of Sadarat 
(chief justiceship) of all India with the 
mansab of 6000. He sometimes amused 
himself in writing poetry, and had adopted 





the word Eaza for his poetical title. He died 
on the 25th May, 1647, o.s. 1st Jumada I. 
A.H. 1057, and is huried at Tajf^au] in Agra. 
His grandfather Sayyad Ahmad Kabir lies 
hiiried at a place in Dehli called Bijai Maudil. 
Jalal Bukhari left three sons, viz. Sayyad 
Ja'far, Sayyad All styled Eazwi Khan, and 
Saj-jad Miisa, on whom high titles were 
conferred hy Shahjahan, and his eldest son 
Ja'far obtained the place of his father. 

Jalal (Hakim) {^J^ ^|^^^ J^I-^), 

a physician and poet, who was a native of 
Shirwan. He flourished in the reign of 
Muhammad Muzaffar and his son Shah 
Shujaa', rulers of Shiraz, both of whom 
reigned from a.d. 1353 to 1384. He is the 
author of « poem entitled Gul-wa-Nauro:, 
which he wrote in a.d. 1334, a.h. 734. He 
is also called Jalal-uddlu Tabib. 

Jalali or Jalal ( Ji:?- Ll ^l=r^, com- 
monly called Sayyad-i-'AIam Jalal or Jalali, 
was a native of Ahmadabad, and his father 
and spiritual guide was Mir Sayjad Jalal 
bin-Hasan. He is the author of a Diwan. 

Jalali (^Sl?-), poetical name of Badr- 

Jalal, Shaikh (^-^ Jil^). Vide 

Shaikh Jalal, commonly called Makhdiim 
Jalianian. He was the son of Sayj-ad Ahmad 
Kabir, and grandson of Sayyad Jalal Bukhari 
the first. 

Jalal, Shaikh (^^j\y i^-- J^:»-), 
of Thanesar. 

[Vide Shaikh Jalal of Thanesar.] 

Jalal uddin Ahmad Afzal - bin - 
Muwaiyad (J^il S^:^\ ^j,l\ JL>- 

'^ty cT'.^' ^^ author. 

Jalal-uddin Aldawani ( ,_ijJl JL=^ 

^.j'^JJl), author of several works. 
\_Vick Dawani.] 

Jalal-uddin Farahani (-jaJI JSLp- 
^Ijs^), a poet. 

Jalal-uddin Firoz Khilji (^ J.!l Ji^ 

^^^^^ J_j^jJ). Vide Flroz Shah 

Jalal-uddin Mahalli (^jiJt JLis-*), see Jalal-uddin Sayiitl. He 

is sometimes called Jalal-uddin Muhammad 

Jalal-uddin Malikshah (^_jJl J^ 
iljl>^X«). Vide Malikshah. 

Jalal-uddin Khan {^s^ i^.'^^ J^X 

the brother of Mahmiid Khan, nawab of 
Bijnor, a rebel of 1857. 

[Vide Sa'd-uUah Khan.] 

Jalal - uddin Muhammad Akhar 
{j^\ J,.,».jsr* ^^JJJ1 J)L»-). Vide 

Jalal - uddin Muhammad - bin - Asa'd 
Aldawani (^ ji^v.^:^ i^.'^^ J^ 
jJijAIi Ax-oI). Vide Dawani. 

Jalal-uddin Purbi(j^jj ^jjJl J^-^-), 

king of Bengal, whose original name was 
Jitmal, ascended the throne of Bengal on the 
death of his father Eaja Kans in a.d. 1392, 
A.H. 794. He became a convert to the 
Muhammadan faith and received the name of 
Jalal - uddin. He ruled with such justice 
that he became entitled to the appellation of 
the Nausherwan of the age. He reigned 17 
years and died in a.d. 1410, a.h. 812, when 
his son Ahmad succeeded him. 

Jalal-uddin Rumi, Maulana (JiL^- 

\)iy is'*i) (vj^.'^^X commonly called 

Maulana or Maulwi Riimi, was the son of 
Baha-uddin "Wald Balkhi, He is not less 
esteemed as a poet than as -a metaphysician, 
and is the author of the astonishing work 
entitled the Mamawl Maulwi Rumi. He 
founded an order of Derwishes or SiifTs in the 
city of Couia (Iconium) in Asiatic Turkey. 
He was born at Balkh on the 30th September, 
A.D. 1207, 6th Rabi' I. a.h. 604, and died in 
the time of Abka Khan on the 17th December, 
a.d. 1273, 5th Jumada II. a.h. 672. He 
was buried in a monastery at Conia, and his 
tomb was visited for many centuries by his 
devout countrymen, who considered his works 
as the effect of inspiration and only inferior to 
the Quran. His Diwan contains 30,000 
verses, and his Masnawi more than 47,000. 
In his Diwiin, instead of his own title, he 
has inserted the name of Shams Tabrezi his 




Jalal-uddin Sayuti (^^jJl JL>- 
i^)i^X son of 'Abdur Rahmaii bin- 

Abi Bakr, an Egj'ptian author of some merit, 
who died in a.d. 1505, a.h. 911. He is said 
to be the anthor of 400 works, amongst which 
are the commentary on the i3«)-j--^/-J/'(«s/i«)-, 
and the last half of the Tafsh- Jalalain ; the 
author of the other half was Jalal-uddin 
Mahali, who died in a.d. 1450, a.h. 854. 
Another work of Sayiiti is called LuU-ul- 
Liiidb. It is a dictionary of patronymic 
names, and of others under which the Arabic 
authors are much more frequently quoted 
than under their proper names. The con- 
fusion under which the Arabs labour to 
identify men known under different names, 
has induced them to prepare dictionaries for 
obTiating this difficulty. Samani (or Sam- 
nani) in the sixth century of the Hijra 
published one, entitled Fil Ansdb, in which 
he does not only explain the sense and origin 
of these names, but also mentions with regard 
to every word the true names of the authors 
who have had them. This work was abbre- 
viated in the succeeding century by Ibn-ul- 
Aslr, and this extract shortened by SayiitT. 
There is another work of Sayfiiti called 
Eashfus-SaUal a-un- Wasfuz Zalzala, contain- 
ing an account of all the earthquakes which 
took place from the year a.d. 713, a.h. 94, 
to his time. He wrote this work on the 
occasion of an earthquake in Egypt, with a 
view of shewing to his countrymen that 
earthquakes are ordained by God to punish 
men for their sins. This work was translated 
from the Arabic by Dr. A. Sprenger. Vide 
Jour. As. Soc. vol. xvii. part ii. p. 741. 
Sayiiti was also the author of the Jama'-ul- 
Jawama, containing a collection of Traditions, 
of which he afterwards made an abridgment 
and called it Jmna' -us-Saghlr . 

Jalal-uddin, Sultan (^jJl JLp- 

^JCh l...i), the son of Sultan Mu- 
hammad, Bumamed Qutb-uddin, Sultan of 

\_Vide Muhammad (Sultan).] 

Jalayer CjLp-), the name given to a 

race of kings of Baghdad, the first of whom 
was Hasan Buzurg, commonly called Hasan 
Jalayer [q.v.). 

Jalinus (|_^^_i_^Jl_s-), " Galen," or 

Galenus, prince of the Greek physicians after 

Jam Afra (1^1 Aj>-). Vide Nasir- 
uddin Qabbacha. 

Jama Baf (i_iLj l^l.js-). Vide Mir 
Sayyad Jama Baf. 

Jamal ( JL»^), the name assumed by 

Abii'l Fazl Muhammad, the son of 'TJmar, 
the son of Klialid. He is the author of the 
Sarah, a dictionary of Arabic word-s explained 
in Persian by him, being a translation of a 
very celebrated Arabic dictionary, entitled the 

Jamal Faqih, Khwaja ((t_JLi jUs-- 

ij>-\^:>.), a poet. 

Jamali Khalifa (j;iLL>. jUs-), sur- 

name of Is-haq Karamani, another author 
of the commentary called Sharah Sadis-ul- 
Arba'in. He died a.d. 1626, a.h. 933. 

Jamali, Shaikh {:^-t^ ^U^). Vide 
Shaikh Jamali. 

Jamal Kill, Shaikh (ir^ 1^ JUr>-), 

an inhabitant of Qazwin in Isfahan. He 
lived in the time of Sultan 'Ala-uddin the 
Isma'ili, ruler of the fort of Alahmut, who 
highly respected him. It is said that he 
secretly followed the tenets of the Isma'Tlis, 
but the people thought otherwise. He died 
on Monday the 29th September, a.d. 1253, 
4th Shawwal, a.h. 651. 

Jamal Khan (,jl&. JU^), a man- 

sabdar, or commander of 6000 horse, in the 
reign of Shah Jahan. It is related that the 
emperor had ordered that all the ladies at 
court should provide precious stones and 
bring them to a market-place that he had 
erected, and there shew their wares publicly 
to all the noblemen at court, who were 
ordered to buy them at whatever prices the 
ladies put upon them ; and that the king 
himself was to be a buyer, to put the greater 
honoiu' on the new erected market. The 
ladies obeyed, and took their booths as they 
thought fit. On the market day the king 
and the noblemen came to market, and bought 
the jewels and other trifles the ladies had to 
dispose of. The king, coming to the booth 
of a very pretty lady, asked her what she had 
to sell. She told him she had one large fine 
rough diamond still to dispose of. He desired 
to see it, and he found it to be a piece of fine 
transparent sugar-candy of a tolerable diamond 
figm-e. He demanded to know what price 
she set on it, and she told him with a pleasant 
air that it was worth a lakh of rupees, or 
£12,500 sterling. He ordered the money to 
be paid, and falling into discourse with her 
foxmd her wit was as exquisite as her beauty, 
and ordered her to sup with him that night 
in his palace. She accordingly went and 
stayed with him three nights and days, and 
then went back to her husband, whose name 
was Jamal Khan. The husband received her 
very coldly, and told her that he would 
continue civil to her, but would never live 




■with her again but in the same manner as if 
she -was his sister. Upon which she went to 
the palace, fell at the emperor's feet, and told 
him what her husband had said. The Mng, in 
a rage, gave orders to carry her husband to 
the elephant garden, and there haye him put 
to death by an elephant. The poor man was 
soon apprehended, and as they chagged him 
from hia house he begged to have leave to 
speak to the king. A friend of his ordered 
the messengers of death to stop awhile, till 
he had acquainted the Mug with the request, 
which was accordingly done, and he was 
ordered to be carried into the court of the 
palace, that the king might hear what he had 
to say : and being carried thither, the king 
demanded what he would have. He answered 
that what he had said to his wife was the 
greatest honour which he was capable of doing 
his king, because, after he had honoured his 
wife with his embraces, he thought himself 
unworthy ever after to cohabit with her. The 
king, after pausing a little, ordered him to be 
unbound, and brought to his own room, 
where, as soon as he came, the king embraced 
him, and ordered a royal suit to be put upon 
him, and gave him command of five thousand 
horse more, but took his wife into his own 
harem. — As. Jour. vol. xxx. p. 215. 

Jamal-uddin Ahmad, Shaikh (JU.;^ 
'f~^ iX*,s-' i^j J>!0, a celebrated Mu- 

hammadan saint of Hansi, and grandfather of 
Shaikh Qutb-uddin Manawwar. 

Jamal-uddin- Ataullah, 'Amir(Jl^^ 

j~^\ i~iS\ Ua.£ ^A.S1), nephew of 

Sayyad Asil-uddin 'Abdullah. He is the 
author of the work called Eauzat-ul-Ahbab . 

[ Vide Ataullah bin-Muhammad al-Husain! 

Jamal - uddin - hin - 'Ahdul Razzaq 

(jMlj,.£ c^ cri'^^^ J^'«>^)) a cele- 
brated poet of Isfahan, and author of a 
Diwan. He is the father of Kamal-uddin 
Isma'Il and Mu'in-uddin 'Abdul Karim, both 
of whom were also poets. Jamal-uddin died 
in A.D. 1192, A.H. 688. 

Jamal-uddin Hasan bin Yusaf hin- 
al-Matahhir al-Hilli (,.,jjJ! JU^^ 

'ii izP- u;^ 

- ), entitled Shaikh 

al-'AUama, is called the chief of the lawyers 
of Hilla. He is the author of the KJmlamt- 
nl-Aqu-cll. His legal works are very numerous 
and frequently referred to as authorities of 
undisputed merit. The most famous of these 
are — the Talkhls - til - Mai dm, the Ghdet-id- 

AhJcdm and the Tnlirir-ul-Ahlcdm, which 
last is a justly celebrated work. The Mukhr. 
falif-iix/i-Shiq is also a well-known composi- 
tion of this great lawyer ; and his IrshSd-al- 
Azlian is constantly quoted as an authority, 
imder the name of the Irshad-i-'Allama. 

[ ride Allima al-Hilli.] 

Jamal-uddin Husain Anju (Jl 

yf^\ ^^.^s^ i^.-^^)) soil of Pakhr- 

uddin Kashmiri, author of the Persian 
Dictionary called Farhang Jahdnglri, which 
he dedicated to the emperor Jahangir in a.d. 
1605, A.H. lOU. The author of the Mdsir- 
lil-^Vtnra calls him Mir Jamal-uddin Anjii, 
and says that he is a descendant of the 
Sa)7ads of Shiraz, and came to the Deccan 
and thence to Agra a.d. 1585, a.h. 993, in 
the time of Akbar, who raised him by degrees 
to the rank of 3000. In the reign of Jahangir 
the rank of 4000 was conferred on him with 
the title of 'Azd-uddaula. 

Jamal-uddin-ibn-Malik ( . .jjJl JUj- 

(_wl^ ,.,j1) author of an Arabic work 
on philosophy, called Alfia. 

Jami (^\,*^J\^s^ i^j jJl j^ i^W\ 

the poetical name of NUr-uddin 'Abdur 
Eahman, a celebrated Persian poet, the son 
of Maulana Muhammad or Ahmad Isfahani ; 
was born on the 7th November, a.d. 1414, 
23rd Shaban, a.h. 817, at a village in Herat 
called Jam, from which he derived his poetical 
name " Jami." He was remarkably polite, of 
a very gentle disposition, and endued with 
such extensive learning that it was supposed 
there was not throughout the empire of 
Persia so complete a master of the language 
as himself. Even princes who were them- 
selves men of erudition and exalted talents 
have lavished upou him the most unbounded 
praises and the highest honours. He was very 
intimate with Sultan Ahii Sa'id Mirza of 
Herat, who continued the friend of Jami so 
long as he lived. After his death, our poet 
enjoyed the same favours from his son and 
successor Sultan Husain Mirza. He was a 
contemporary of the esteemed biographer 
Daulat Shah, who recorded his fame in the 
Lives of the Persian poets, called Tazkira 
Daulat Shdhl. Jami was the author of more 
than 44 works. His poem on the Loves of 
Joseph and Zalikha is one of the finest 
compositions in the language ; it contains 
about 4000 couplets. He is also the author 
of the book called Kafuhdt-ul-Im, a very 
celebrated abridgment of the Lives of the 
Siifi Shaikhs, translated from the Arabic 
Tabkat-us-Sdfla, and dedicated to the 
celebrated wazir 'Alisher in a.d. 1476, a.h. 
881. It may be here observed that the 
celebrated poets, as Hafiz, Sadi, Jami, etc., 




-*^ CD K 

were professed SufTs. The folio-wing are the 
works cominoiily known composed by Jami : — 

^1. Sllsilat-uz-Zahab, dedicated to 
Bayazid II. 

2. Salaman-wa-Absal. 

3. Tuhfat-ul-AhrSr. 

4. Sabhat-ul-Abrar. 

5. Yusaf - wa - Zalikha. 

6. LailT-wa-Majnun. 
.7. Khirad-nama. 






Lawaeh Jami. 


Jami died at the advanced age of 81 lunar 
years, on Friday the 9th Noyember, a.d. 
1492, 18th Muharram, a.h. 898, mourned by 
the whole city of Herat ; his funeral expenses 
were defrayed by Sultan Husain, and a 
magnificent train of the most illustrious 
nobles accompanied his body to the tomb. 
'Alisher his friend laid the 'first stone of a 
monument which he caused to be raised to 
his memory, and liis fame became immortal 
in the minds of his countrymen. He was 
also the author of a TafsTr or commentary of 
some note. [_Saiaman and ^bsdl has been 
translated into English verse by the late 
Mr. Edward Fitzgerald.] 

Jamila (aL»-K?-), tte poetical name of 
a Persian Poet. 

Jamil-ibn-Mi'mar (.U*.* ^A J^^), 

a celebrated Arabian poet who lived in the 
time of the khalif 'Abdulmalik, and died in 
the year a.d. 701, a.h. 82. He was contem- 
porary with two other famous poets named 
'tJmar the son of 'Abdullah and Kathir Azza. 
Jamil was the lover of Shauba, one of those 
pairs of lovers whose constancy and fidelity 
the orientals praise in their histories and 

Jamil-uddin Kashi ( ._jj,Jl JL^_5»- 

^^1^), author of tlie history called 

Zubdaf-ut - Tawarikh- A work of the same 
title is mentioned under Shaikh Niir-ul-Haq 
of Dehli. 

Jamil - uddin Muhammad Abdul 
Razzaq (^_jjiJ\ Aw^-s.-* Jl_/«,_s=- 

'Abdul Eazzak. 

Vide Jamal-uddln hin- 

Jamshed (s^Ji^:^) (also called Jam) 

was one of the ancient mythic kings of Persia, 
and the fourth of the First or Pishdadian 
dynasty. He is celebrated as the founder of 

Persepolis, which is to this day called Istakhr 
and Takht Jamshed. He is said to have 
introduced the solar year and ordered the first 
day of it, when the sun entered Aries, to be 
celebrated by a splendid festival. His country 
was invaded by Zuhak, a Tiuranian king, and 
the unfortunate Jamshed was obUged to fly 
before the emperor. He was pursued by the 
agents of Zuhak, through Sistau, India, and 
China, and was at last seized and carried 
like a common malefactor before his cruel 
enemy, who ordered him to be placed between 
two boards and sawn asunder with the bone of 
a fish. "VVe are told by Firdausi that his reign 
lasted 700 years. He is supposed to have 
flourished 800 years before the Christian era. 
His goblet, called Jam Jamshed and Jam 
Jam, was wondrous. A hundred marvellous 
tales are told of this celebrated cup, which 
used to dazzle all who looked in it, and has 
often been employed by the poets to furnish a 
simile for a bright eye. 

Jamshed (j,;J^p-), this title is some- 
times given by the Musalmans to king 
Solomon the son of David, and they say that 
his magic ring and throne possessed extra- 
ordinary powers, and his control was absolute 
over genii and men. 

Jamshed Quth Shah (t_^Jaj ,i,^^s^ 

il:i), son of Qui! Qutb Shah I. 

ascended the throne of Golkonda in the 
Deccan after the death of his father in 
September, a.d. 1543, Jumada 11. a.h. 950. 
He reigned seven years and some months, 
and was succeeded by his brother Ibrahim 
Qutb Shah in a.d. 1550, a.h. 957. 

Jan (i^^^[^ lo^'^X or Jan Sahib, 

poetical name of Mir Tar 'Ali, who is the 
author of a Diwan. 

Janahi ( jU;>-), the surname of Ahii 

Muhammad Mustafa bin-Sayyad Hasan-al- 
Husaini, a celebrated historian and author of 
a work called Tdrtkh-al-Janabl, of which the 
correct name is supposed to be Bahr-uz- 
ZakhJAdr, the Swelling of the Sea; it com- 
prises a general history from the beginning of 
the world to a.d. 1589, a.h. 997. It was 
originally written in Arabic, and translated 
by the author into Turkish. Janabi died in 
A.D. 1591, a.h. 999. 

Jan Fishan Khan Bahadur (^;l_5^ 
L-j\tJ (iJ^-v^ tij^>- i^^^~^), Nawab of 

Sardhana. A Cabuli of Persian extraction 
who for his conspicious loyalty during the 
mutiny of 1857, was ordered by Government 
to be rewarded with a pension of 1000 rupees 
a month in perpetuity to his male heirs, and a 




grant of confiscated villages of 10,000 rupees 
per annum to be conferred upon him with 
remission of one half of revenue for his life, 
and a quarter for two generations. 

angez Khan (^U. j^^). 
Changez Khan. 

■ani (^3U-). 

There have been three 

authors of this name. The first, 'Ahii 'Abdullah 
Muhammad ibn - Malik AtaT, a native of 
Damascus ; the second, Basar Jani ; and the 
third, Mansiir-bin'Umar-al -Adib, a native 
of Isfahan, who died a.d. 1025. 

I^ani (jjjW-), the poetical name of 
Mirza Jan, the father of Mirza Jan Jauan. 

rani Begam (^l£j ^jl^-), daughter 

of 'Abdul Eahim Khan, Khan-Khanan, who 
was married to prince Danial, the son of the 
emperor Akbar in a.d. 1599, a.h. 1007. 

rani Beg Sultan (^^IkLj ( Cj ^^U-), 

son of 'Abdullah Khan TJzbak's sister. His 
sou. Din Muhammad Khan, was raised to the 
throne of Samarqand after the death of 
'Abdul Momim Khan, the son of 'Abdullah 
Khan Uzbak. 

rani Beg Turkhan, Mirza ( jL^- 

\jj^ ijj\s-Ji C— Cj), ruler of Thatta, 

succeeded his grandfather Mirza Muhammad 
Baqi, in the government of Thafta, the remain- 
ing prorince of Sindh, in a.d. 1584, a.h. 
993. Akbar Shah who before the death of 
Muhammad Biiqi had gone to Lahore, and 
had remained there for some years, expected 
a personal visit from Jani Beg ; but being 
disappointed he proceeded to take measures 
for the subjugation of that country. He 
therefore in the year a.d. 1591, a.h. 999. 
directed his commander-in-chief 'Abdul 
Eahim Khan, the son of Bairam Khan, to 
proceed and occupy the place in his name. 
The first action took place on the 3rd Novem- 
ber, A.D. 1591, 26th Muharram a.h. 1000, 
when the Siudhis were totally defeated. 
Notwithstanding, daily skirmishes took place 
between the two armies ; at last Mirza Jani Beg 
offered to acknowledge "fealty to the emperor 
and to proceed to the presence. Shortly 
after 'Abdul Eahim Khan . celebrated the 
nuptials of his son Mirza Irich with the 
daughter of Jani Beg, and after the rainy 
season of the year a.d. 1592, a.h, 1001, 
accompanied Mirza Jani Beg to the presence 
of Akbar, who created the latter a noble of the 
realm ; and from that date the whole kingdom 
of Sindh reverted to the sovereignty of the 
empire of Dehli. Mirza Jani Beg died at 
Burhanpiir in a.d. 1599, a.h. 1008, and the 
government of Thatta was coirferred on his 
son Mirza Ghazi. 

Jan Janan, Mirza (^-^ U^^T' uW")) 

son of Mirza Jan, a learned Musalraan and a 
good poet, distinguished no less for the grace 
and spirit of his compositions than for the 
independent spirituality and anti-idolatrous 
nature of his sentiments. His poetical name 
was Mazhar ; was born at Agra about the 
year a.d. 1698, a.h. 1110, but resided at 
behlT. In the month of Muharram or 3rd 
January, a.d. 1781, 7th Muharram a.h. 
1195, having expressed his contempt for a 
superstitious ceremony — the commemoration 
of the death of Husain — he was shot on the 
terrace of his own house, by a vindictive 
partizan of that martyr, and died on the 6th 
of that month, 10th Muharram, a.h. 1195. 
He was the author of a Diwan. 

Jan Muhammad, Munshi (j,,*^-» ^.l-.- 

^^Ai^), author of an Insha or col- 
lection of letters which goes by his name. 

Jannat Ashani ( J 1^1 

-), the 

title given to the emperor Humayiiu after his 

Jannati ( ,_:;_i_;s-), a poetical name. 
[From Jannat = " Paradise."] 

Jan Nisar Khan (^l^ .liJ ^J^), 

title of Kamal-uddin Husain, an Amir of 
3000 rmder the emperor Shah Jahan. At the 
time of his death he was governor of Sistan, 
and died there a.d. 1639, a.h. 1049. [The 
word is the same as Janisary.] 

Jan Nisar Khan, Nawah (j\':j ^^U- 
<__)\.j ^Uu), was brother-in-law to 

the wazir Qamar-uddin Khan who had 
married his sister. He was appointed 
Chakladar of the districts of Kora Jahanabad 
in the province of Allahabad, and was 
assassinated by Ararii Bhagwaut Singh, a 
zamindar of that place in a.d. 1731, a.h. 

Jan Nisar Khan, Sayyad ( .lij 


li^-; (^1=^), son-in-law of the wazIr 

Qamar-uddIn Khan, was put to death, 
together with several others, by Nadir Shah, 
on account of the resistance shewn by them 
in endeavouring to protect their family in the 
general massacre. This event took place in 
March, a.d. 1739, ZO-hijja a.h. 1151. 




Janoji Bhosla (a^^j ^^\s>-), the 

second Eaja of Berar, succeeded his father 
Eaghoji^ Bhosla in a.d. 1749, and died in 
A.D. 1772. He was succeeded by his younger 
brother Madhoji Bhosla. 

IVide Eaghoji Bhosla the first Eaja of 

Jansipar Khan Turkman ( .L-^U- 

iJ^J> u^^)) an Amir of 4000 in 

the reign of the emperor Jahangjr. He was 
appointed governor of Allahabad in the first 
year of Shah Jahan a.d. 1628, a.h. 1037, 
and died there the same year. 

Jansipar Khan (^U. ^l^^^U), 

second son of Mukhtar Khan Sabzwari, an 
amir of the reign of the emperor 'AlamgTr. 
At the time of his death he held the siibadari 
of Haidarabad, and died there in a.d. 1701, 
A.H. 1113. 

Jannbi (^li^jo ^}U=^), of Badakh- 

shan, a poet and punster who flourished about 
the year a.d. 1521, a.h. 927. 

Jannni (^y^). Vide Jununi. 

Jarbardi (^j^.j^L-^), surname of 

Fakhr-uddTn Ahmad bin-Husan, an author 
who wrote the Sharah Shafia, and the 
marginal notes on the KashshSf. He died 
A.D. 1345, A.H. 746. 

Jarir (y js-). Vide Jurir which is the 
correct pronunciation. 

Jarjis ((jjuw_»_.p-^_?-), George, and in 

particular St. George the martyr, very well 
known in the East, and even by the Muham- 
madans, who put him amongst the number of 
the prophets, and confound him with Elias. 

Jarj Tamas {^J,^\h ttJ^T^- ^*^^ 
George Thomas. 

Jarraz (jLsj-), the surname of Ahmad 

bin - Ibrahim - al - Tabid - al - Afriki, who is 
often cited under the name of Ibn-Jarraz. 
He was a physician and an author, and a 
native of Africa. He died a.d. 1009, a.h. 

JaruUah Zamakhshari (ii;_l_!Kl_;>- 

^.Ai.s'j), surname of Mahmiid bin- 

'Umar-al - Zamakhshari, the Ma'tzalite of 

Zamakhshar, a village in Khwarizm. He was 
the author of an excellent commentary on the 
Quran called Kashshcif, which he \vrote in 
the name of one of the princes of Mecca. He 
obtained the surname of Jarullah (or neigh- 
bour of God) on account of his residing for a 
long period at Mecca. He was born in a.d. 
1074, A.H. 467, and died in the place of his 
nativity in the year a.d. 1142 or 1144, a.h. 
637 or 539. He was also the author of many 
other works, such as^ 

Kitab Fasl-dar-Nahr. 

Asas-ul-Bala gh at-dar-Loghat. 


Fasiis - ul - Akhbar - wal - Faraez - dar - Ilm 

Sharah Abiat Sebiiya. 
Mustaqazi-dur-Amsal 'Arab. 

Manhaj -dar-Usiil. 

Jassas ((_^l^-s-), surname of Shaikh 
Ahmad bin- 'Ali Eazi, which see. 

Jaswant Rae {^\. 


Hindii who was a poet and the author of a 
Diwan, a copy of which was found in the 
Library of Tipii Sultan. 

Jaswant Rao Holkar (.1. ■^^^uj.p^ 

Slit), the son of Takoji Holkar, and 

brother of Kashi Eao, whom he succeeded 
as chieftain of Indor about the year 1802. 
He made a rapid incursion into the Doab 
and committed some ravages, but was defeated 
and pursued by Lord Lake to the Sikh 
country as far as the Bias in 1803, and all 
his territories occupied by a British force. The 
whole was restored to him at the peace. He 
became iusame in 1806, and Tulshi Bai, his 
wife, was acknowledged regent. He died on 
20th October, 1811, and was succeeded by 
Malhar Eao III. his son, by a woman of low 
birth. Tulshi Bai, however, continued to 
act as regent. On the 20th December, 1816, 
a company of armed men seized Tulshi Bai, 
conveyed her forcibly to the neighbouring 
river of Sipra, and cutting off her head on 
the bank, threw the lifeless trunk into the 

Jaswant Singh 

Eaia of Jodhpiir Marwar, succeeded to the 
gaddi after the death of his father Takhat 
Singh in February, a.d. 1873, a.h. 1289. 




Jaswant Singh {itj^ 

>-), son 

of Balwant Singli Maharaja of Ehartpur. 
He was born on the 28th February, 1S61, 
and succeeded his father on the 16th March, 
1853, when he was but two years old. 

Jaswant Singh Bundela (cu0...a^ 

<)Jjii:j iS.-^^), son of Eaja Indarman. 

He held a suitable rank in the army in the 
reign of the emperor 'Alamglr, and died about 
the year a.d. 1687, a.h. 1099. After his 
death the zamindari of Urcha was conferred 
on Bhagwant Singh his sou, au infant of four 
years, with the title of Eaja, but he dying 
about the year a.d. 1693, a.h. 1105, there 
remained no one of the family of Eajas 
Shujan Singh or of his brother Indarman, 
to succeed him ; upon which the Eani Amar 
Kunwar, grandmother to the deceased prince, 
placed on the Eaja TJdaut Singh, who was 
descended from Madhukar Sah, father to 
Eaja Bir Singh Deo, which was approved by 
the emperor, who conferred on him the title 
of Eaja with a suitable mansab. 

Jaswant Singh, Kunwar {^J:^^J.^~^ 
jyS iS:^. Vide Parwana. 

Jaswant Singh, Maharaja (tjuJ,^^ 

^^\)\^ Aj-i_j), the celebrated Eaja 

of Jodhpur or Marwar, of the tribe of Eathor 
Eajpiits, who acted so capital a part in the 
competitions of 'Alamgir and his brother 
Dara Shikoh whose cause he espoused, and 
was guilty of great impropriety. He was the 
son of Eaja Gaj Singh and a descendant of 
Eao Maldeo. Jaswant Singh, subsequently 
became one of the best generals of 'Alamgir, 
and held the rank of 7000 for several years. 
He died near Kabul about the 11th December, 
A.n. 1678, 6th 2il-qada a.h. 1089. He had 
built a fine house at Agra on the hanks of 
the Jamna, the surrounding walls of which 
are still standing, and his followers brought 
his infant children and his women who did 
not bum -nith him, towards their native 
country. Orders were sent by the emperor 
'Alamgir to conduct them to court, where, on 
their arrival, he insisted on the children being 
made Musalmans. Upon this the rajpit 
attendants determined to die rather than 
submit to this order, fled with their charge 
towards the Eaja's territories, and being 
pursued by the emperor's troops fought 
valiantly, and were mostly cat to pieces, but 
the women and infants arrived safe at 
Jodhpiir; they were, however, compelled to 
take refuge in the hills and the woods, and 
on the death of 'Alamgir in a.d. 1707, 
regained their former possession. Ajit Singh, 
his son [q.v.), was restored to the throne of 
his ancestors in the year a.d. 1711, by the 
emperor Farrukh - siyar who married his 

Jat (i_l> !;>-), a tribe of Hindii labourers 

who made no figure in the Mughul empire, as 
a nation, tiU the reign of 'Alamgir, iu whose 
expedition to the Deccan, they were first 
heard of as a gang of banditti, under an 
intrepid leader Chiiraman. They were then 
so daring as to harass the rear of the 
imperial army. After the death of that 
monarch they took advantage of the growing 
imbecility of the empire, and fortifjing 
themselves, spread their depredations to the 
gates of Agra. Mukham Singh, who after 
the death of Chiiraman commanded the Jats 
and took upon himself the title of Eaja, but 
their power increased under Badan Singh and 
Siii'ajmal (q.v.). 

[ Vide Chiiraman Jat.] 

Jawad 'Ali, Mirza (Ij^ U d\.s^), 

or more properly Mirza Muhammad Jawad 
'All Sikandar Hashmat Bahadur, son of 
Amjad 'Ali Shah, and brother of Wajid 'Ali 
Shah, the ex-king of Lucknow. He accom- 
panied his mother, the dowager Queen of 
Audh, after the annexation of that country to 
the British possessions in 1856, to England, 
and died there after the death of his mother, 
on the 25th February, 1858, aged 30 lunar 
years. The body of the prince was trans- 
ferred from London to Paris, to be buried on 
French soil beside that of the Queen his 
mother. An immense crowd assembled to 
witness the procession, attended by Mirza 
Hamid 'Ali, the nephew of the deceased. 

Jawahir Singh (4$0wj Jblp-). 

Jawahir Singh {ii:^ jii\^s^), the Jat 

Eaja of Dig and Bhartpiir, was the son of 
Siirajmal Jiit. He succeeded to the Eaj after 
his father's death in December, a.d. 1763, 
A.H. 1177, was secretly murdered in 1768, 
and was succeeded by his brother Eao Eatan 
Singh, who did not escape suspicion of having 
been accessory to his brother's murder. 
Eatan Singh reigned ten months and thirteen 
days and was stabbed by a faqir named 
Eiipanand, who pretended to transmute 
copper into gold. 
{Vide Eatan Singh.] 

Jawahir Singh {i^^ ji,\^^), a Sikh 

chief who became the minister of Maharaja 
Dilip Singh after the death of Hira Singh, 
and was murdered by the troops at Lahore 
on the 21st September, a.d. 1845. Eaja 
Lai Singh succeeded him. 

Jawahir Singh, Maharaja ( ._i)L_:3- 

i^s^\j\jif^ <Usi^), son of Dhyan Singh 

and nephew of Maharaja Gulab Singh, 
ruler of Kashmere. 




Jawan (^^^ 4»-), the poetical appellation 

of Mirza Qazim 'Ali, a Hiutlilstani lyric poet, 
attached to the college of Fort William. He 
is the author of an Urdu Diwiin and also of 
a Barah Masa, which he composed in a.d. 
1802, A.H. 1217. He was alive in 1812. 

Jawan Bakht, son of Shah Alam. 
[Vide Jahanda Shah II.] 

Jawan Bakht, Mirza {i^:^^ i-}i=^ 
\\j^)> the youngest son of Bahadur 

Shah, the ex-king of Dehli, who accom- 
panied his father to Rangoon in 1858, where 
he resided under surveillance at that place 
till his death in September, a.d. 1884. The 
British Government sanctioned the grant of 
a separate pension and an allowance of 250 
rupees to his wife Zamani Begam in a.d. 

Jaweni (jAlj^), whose proper name 

was Abii'l Ma'ali 'Abdulmalik bin- 'Abdullah, 
was a doctor and a very celebrated meta- 
physician, who bore the title of "Imam-ul- 
Haramain." He flourished in the reign of 
MaUk Shah the Saljiikide, and professed the 
doctrine of Shufa'I at Naishapiir, where the 
famous Ghazzall {q.v.) was his disciple. He 
was the author of several works, amongst 
which are the two following : TdriM Jahdn 
Kushde and Aqidat-ul-Nizdmiat. He died 
in A.D. 1085, A.H. 478. 

Jawera (i^j^-), one of the wives of 

Muhammad whom he married in the sixth 
year of the Hijra a.d. 627. She is said to 
have been a woman of great beauty, and was 
brought among the captives after a tight. 
She died about the year a.d. 670, a.h. 56. 

Jawid Khan (|_^Ui- tXJ.Us-), an eunuch 

and a great favourite of the emperor Ahmad 
Shah and his mother, who raised him to the 
rank of an Amir with the title of KTawab 
Bahadur. Nawab Safdar Jang, who was 
much digusted at the influence he had over 
the emperor, invited him to an entertainment, 
and murdered him during the banquet. This 
event took place on the 28th August, o.s. 
1752, 28th Shawwal, a.h. 1165. 

Jawini (^^^j^.; 

Jayesi ( ^^jU-). 

hamraad Jayesi. 

-). Vide Moin-uddin 

Vide Malik Mu- 

Jazari (|_j.:r>-), surname of those who 

were born at a city called Jazarat-ul-'Umar, 
situated on the Tigris, to the northward of 
Nineveh and Mausal. One of the most 
illustrious amongst the men of letters this 
city has produced, was Ibn-Asir ul-Shaibaui 
Majd-uddin, who died a.d. 1209, a.h. 606, 
and of whom we have several works. 
[Vide Ibn-AsIr.J 

Jenghis Khan (^U 
Changez Khan. 

Jent Parkas, Lala 




author of a poem called JDastftr Ishq, contain- 
ing the story of SassI and Paniin in Persian 
verse. It is believed that his correct name 
is J5t Parkash. 

Jhankoji Sindhia ( 


<UJfcAi-._j), son of Jiapa or Jyapa 

Sindhia, was killed in the great battle which 
took place between Ahmad Shah Abdall and 
the Marhattas on the 14th January, n.s. 
1761, at Panipat. 

Jhanko Rao Sindhia {,\. ..^i. 


ii;.Jij,i-,-j), also called Mukkl Eao, on 

the death of Daulat Rao Sindhia, was elected 
by his widow Baji Bai as Eaja of Gwaliar, 
and was put on the masuad on the 18th June, 
A.D. 1827 ; but being then only nine years of 
age, Baji Bai acted as regent. He assumed 
the reins of government in a.d. 1828, reigned 
15 years and some months, and died on the 
4th February, a.d. 1843, aged 24 years. 
He was succeeded by his adopted sou Jiaji 
Sindhia the late Eaja of Gwaliar, with whom 
Bija Bai appears to have resided until the 
time of the mutiny. 

Jiaji Rao Sindhia (.1. _.p-L^_p- 
iUA..Xi^»-j), the late Eaja of Gwaliar, 

whose name in full is, Maharaja 'Ali Jah 
Jiaji Eao Sindhia, was the adopted son of 
Jhanko Eao Sindhia, on whose death he 
succeeded to the government on the 4th 
February, a.d. 1843. His installation took 
place on the 20th January, a.d. 1844, when 
Lord Ellenborough visited the fort. He was 
made G.C.B. and a British General, and died 
in A.D. 1888. 

Jiji Begam (Xj ^jsx^), the wet- 
nurse of the Emperor Akbar, and the mother 
of Mirza 'Aziz Koka, who was raised to a 
high rank by the emperor with the title of 
Khan 'Azim. She died in the year a.d. 
1599, A.H. 1008. The emperor carried her 
coffin on his shoulders and shaved his beard 
and moustache. 




Jiwan, Mulla (L« ^j^.-_^). Fide 
IVtulla Jiwan. 

Jodha Rao (^t^ LaJ^.;^), Eaja of 

Marwar, and a descendant of Seojl, the 
grandson of the celebrated Jaichand, the last 
Kathor monarch of Kauanj. He, in the 
year a.d. 1432 fonnded the modern capital 
of Jodhpiir, to which he transferred the seat 
of the government from Mandor. 

Jodh Bai (^JL i(J^>-) (whose maiden 

name appears to be Jagat Goshaini and also 
Balmati), was the daughter of Raja Udai 
Singh of Jodhpiir or Mtlfwar, the son of 
Eaja Maldeo. She was called Jodh Bai, 
becanse she was a princess of Jodhpiir. She 
was married to Mirza Salim (afterwards 
Jahangir) in a.d. 1585, a.h. 994, and 
became the mother of the Emperor Shah 
Jaliau, who was born in a.d. 1592, a.h. 
1000, at Lilhore. She poisoned herself at 
Agra in a.d. 1619, a.h. 1028, and was 
buried in Sohagpiira, u Tillage founded by 
her, where her palace and tomb are still to 
be seen in a ruinous state. 

Jogi, Sultan (^M-o i«^=r)- 
Muhammad Jogi. 

Josli (^*^), poetical title of Ahmad 

Hasan Khan, who is familiarly called Achchhe 
Sahib. He was living in Lucknow in a.u. 
1853, A.H. 1269, and was the author of an 
Urdii Diwan. He was the son of Nawab 
Muqim Khan, the son of Nawab Muhabbat 
Khan, the son of Hafiz Rahmat Khan (q.v.). 

JoshislL (^JuJ:,^:^), poetical title of 

Muhammad Hasan or Muhammad Roshan of 
Patna, who flourished in the time of the 
Emperor Shah 'Alam. 

Jot Parkasli, Lala (SI ij-^j) CJ.=^), 

a Hindi! Kayeth and an author. This 
appears to be the correct for Jent Parkas, 
which see. 

Jouhar ( J^.^), the poetical appella- 
tion of Jawahir Singh, a Hindii, who was 
the pupil of the poet Mulla Natiq of Naisha- 
piir. He was the author of a Diwan in 
Persian and Urdii, and was living in a.d. 
1851, A.H. 1267. 

Jouhar ( .j».^), the poetical name of 

Munshi Sewa Ram of Shahjahanpur, who 
fionrished in the time of Akbar Shah II. 
and was the author of several works in 
Persian, such as Jouhar-ul-Tallm, JouJiar- 
ul- Tarklb, etc. ; the last-named work he 
wrote in a.d. 1820, a.d. 1235. 

Jouhari Farabi ( j\\i ^_f J^.s-), sur- 
name of Ahii Nasr Isma'il bin-Hammad. 
jilthdugh he was a Tm-k, yet he made such 
progress in the Arabic language, which he 
studied in Mesopot imia and Egyjit, that he 
was stjded " Imam-ul-Lughat," or master of 
the language. He is the author of a very 
large Arabic Dictionary entitled 8ahah-ul- 
Iiicih'it, the purity of the tongue. He is 
often called after this work, " Sahib-us- 
Sahah," or the author of the Sahah. He 
is commonly called Earahi or Fiirabi-al- 
Turkl, because he was a native of Farab 
in Turkistiin. He died a.d. 1002, a.h. 
393. Some authors say that his death took 
in A.D. 992, A.H. 382. 

Jouhari Zargar (^j ^jSt^s^), a poet 

who flourished in the time of Sulaiman Shah 
and Arsalan Shah of the house of Saljiiq. 
He is the author of a poem containing the 
story of "Amir Ahmad and Mahasti." 

Jounpur ij^^), kings of. 
Kh'waja Jahan. 

Jouzi (^j^s-). Fide Ahu'l Faraj 

Juban Choban or Jovian, Amir 

(j^\ (j_)U »;»-), the tutor and general 

of the armies of Sultan Ahii Sa'id Khan, 
son of Aljaitii, king of Persia. He was 
put to death by Malik Ghayaa-uddin Kart 
in November, a.d. 1327, Muharram, a.h. 
728, by order of the Sultan, because he 
refused to give him his daughter Baghdad 
Khatiin in marriage. 

[ Vide Baghdad Khatiin.] 

Juber (^_^_.*_;»-), a companion of Mu- 

Judat (cUJu?-), a poetical appellation. 

Jugal Kislior (j^.Ai' jX.^), an in- 
habitant of Dehli whose poetical name was 
Sarwat. He was wakil to the Nazim of 
Bengal for several years. 

Jughtai i^hJts^). Fide Cha^tai. 

Juji Khan (^^U- i_5=r;=r) was the 

eldest son of Chingiz Khan the Tartar, from 
whom he had received for his share the wide 
regions of Qapchaq ; but this prince died a 
few months before his father in a.d. 1226, 
and left his territories to his son Batu 
Khan, who conquered Russia and Bulgaria, 
ravaged the countries of Poland, Moravia, 
and Dalmatia, and had marched into Hun- 
gary in order to attack Constantinople, when 
death ended his victorioxis career. 




Junaid Baghdad!, Shaikh (ji_^_:>_-»- 

^**' i_?Oii>.xj), a celebrated ascetic 

whose father wag a glass-blower, of Naha- 
wand. He was born and brought np at 
Baghdad, and became one of the best disciples 
of Shafa'i, but followed the system of Siifian 
Sonri. He made thirty pilgrimages to Mecca, 
alone and on foot. He died at Baghdad in 
the year A.n. 911, a.h. 298, and was buried 
near the tomb of his master and maternal 
uncle, Sari Saqti. 

Junaid, Shaikh or Sultan (A_^_i_^- 

(^Ibiw), third in descent from the 

celebrated Shaikh Safi-uddin Ardibeli, and 
grandfather of Shah Isma'il I. of Persia, 
founder of the Safwi dynasty which was 
extirpated by Nadir Shah. He was a Siiii 
or mystic philosopher, but being expelled 
from Azurbej an by the Turkman ruler Jahan 
Shah, established himself in Dayarbikar. In 
the latter period of his life, he went to 
Shirwan with his disciples, and was killed 
in A.D. 1466, A.H. 860, in a conflict with 
the troops of Amir Khalil-ullah, ruler of 
that province. 

\_Vide Isma'il I. Safwi. The book called 
Nukkat Bedil, written by Mirza Bedil, con- 
tains his Memoirs.] 

Juna Shah (id^ lj^=r), a brother of 

Muhammad Tu|hlaq Shah, king of Dehli, 
who built the city of Jounpur, which goes 
after his name. 

Jununi ( J^^), author of a poem 

called Zataef Shouq, a collection of enter- 
taining and witty tales, which he composed 
in the year a.d. 1689, a.h. 1100, and 
dedicated to the emperor 'Alamgir, but 
many were rather obscene. 

Jununi, Maulana (lj!)lj^ ^y^), a 

sprightly satirical poet of Herat who flourished 
in the time of Amir Ghayas-uddTn Sultan 
Husain, son of Firoz Shah, about the 9th 
century of the Hijri era. 

Jurat ((. 


-), poetical title of 

Kalandar Bakhsh, a son of Tehia Aman 
and pupil of Hasrat. He was first supported 
by Nawab Muhabbat Khan, but in a.d. 1800, 
a.h. 1215, he was in the service of prince 
Sulaiman Shikoh at Lucknow. While still 

in the prime of life he became blind, but 
became a good musician and an excellent 
player on the guitar. It appears that Jurat 
and his family had the family name of Yehia 
Man, because they said that they were 
descended from Yehia Eai Man, who resided 
in a street at Dehli which is close to the 
Chaudui Chonk, and is still called the Rai 
Man Street. It is also stated that this Hai 
Man was executed by Nadir Shah. Jurat 
died in the year a.d. 1810, a.h. 1225. He 
was the author of an Urdu Diwan and two 

Jurir (j ->-), or Abii Hazra Jarir ibn- 

Atiya, was one of the greatest and most 
celebrated poets. He flourished in the reign 
of the Khalif 'Abdulmalik of the house of 
Hmayya, and received from him a handsome 
salary. He was once rewarded by the prince 
for a single panegyrical ode, with 100 camels, 
18 slaves, and a silver jug. Abii'l Faraj 
ibn-ul- Jauzi places the death of Jurir in the 
year a.d. 729, a.h. HI, aged 80 years. 


Jurir - ibn - 'Abdullah (j^-Ji 

<d!lj>-.r), a general of the army in 

the time of 'Umar, the second Khalifa after 

Jurjani ( jU-^r>-), which see. 

Jurjani ( ^\s^.s>-), a native of Jurjan 

or Georgia. Al-Sayyad-ush-Shar!f Abii'l 
Hasan (or Husain) 'Ali was thus sumamed 
because he was born in that country. He 
was one of the most celebrated Musalman 
doctors ; was born in a.d. 1339, a.h. 740, 
and died at Shiraz ad. 1413, a.h. 816. 
There have been several other authors of this 
surname, as Al-Sharif-al-Husaini, a son of 
the flrst, who was a famous physician and 
lived in the time of Atsiz, Sultan of the 
Khwarizmians. Also Abii'l "Wafa, a mathe- 
matican, Abii Bakr bin- 'Abdul Kahir, a 
grammarian, and Muhammad Jirjani, a 
vaUant captain of the Sultan of Khwarizm, 
and governor of the city of Herat, who was 
killed in defending that place against Tiili 
Khan, son of Changez Khan. 

Juya (lj»p-), poetical appellation of 

Mirza Darab Beg, a poet whose native 
country was Kashmere. He died in a.d. 
1706, A.H. 1118, and is the author of a 
Diwan. The poetical name of his brother 
Mirza Kamran, was Guya. 




Ka'b (^Aj ^\ t_^), or Eaa'b ibn- 

Zahir of Mecca, was an Arabian poet, and 
author of the Qasaed Banat Sci^dd^ a poem 
in Arabic held in the highest estimation, 
containing a panegjTic on Muhammad. A 
translation of part of it may be found in 
Sir WLlliam Jones's second Tolume of the 
Asiatic Mesearches. The author was a Jewish 
Eabbi, contemporary and opponent of Mu- 
hammad, and had written some satirical 
verses upon him ; but afterwards being 
desirous of a reconciliation with the prophet, 
he wrote the aboye poem, which had the 
desired effect. Some authors say that he 
died in the first year of the Hijra, that is, 
A.D. 622, A.H. 1. But, accordiugto Ockley's 
llislory of the Saracens^ " Kaa'b came in the 
ninth year of the Hijra, and made his peace 
with Muhammad with a poem iu his praise." 
By this it appears that he was liyiug in a.d. 
631. He is said to have assisted Muhammad 
greatly in the compilation of the Quran. 
Vide Wilkin's Biographical Dictionary binder 

Ka'to-al-'Alibar (^->.^1 L_-^.xi'), a 

famous traditionist of the tribe of Hamyar, 
who embraced Islamism iu the reign of 'Umar, 
and died a.d. 652, a.h. 32, during the reign 
of 'Usman. 

Kabir (j-.-^), a celebrated Hindi poet, 

by trade a Musalman weaver, who, according 
to the Akbar-nama, was contemporary with 
Sikandar Shah Lodi, king of Dehli. Kablr 
Avas a Sufi or Deist of the most exalted senti- 
ments and of benevolence unbounded. His 
poems, which are still universally esteemed, 
inculcate the purest morality, good will ancl 
hospitality towards all men, and breathe so 
fine a spirit of toleration that both Hindus 
and Musalmans contend for the honour of his 
having been born of their religion. From 
the disinterested, yet alluring, doctrines his 
poems contain a sect has sprung up in 
Hindustan, under the name of Kabir Panthi, 
who are so universally esteemed for veracity 
and other virtues, among both Hiudiis and 
Musalmans, that they may be with propriety 
considered the Quakers of the country. The 
time of Kabir' s death seems involved in equal 
obscurity with the manner of his decease and 
burial. They relate that he Kved a long time 
at Kasi (Benaras) and Gaya, and sojourned 
also at Jaganath, where he gave great ofl;ence 
to the Brahmans by his conduct and tolerant 
doctrine. When stricken in years, he departed 

this life anions a concourse of his disciples, 
both Musalmans and Hindtis. He is buried 
at Eatanpur, where his tomb is said to be 
seen to this day. 

Kabir, Shaikh {-^-^ j^), surnamed 

Bala Pir, was the Shaikh Qasim Qadiri, 
whose tomb is at Chunar. Shailch Kabir 
died at Qanauj on Monday the 4th November, 
A.D. 16i4, 12th fiamazan, a.h. 1054, where 
a splendid mausoleum was built on his tomb 
by one of his sons, named Shaikh Mahdi, who 
died a.d. 1677, a.h. 1088, and is also buried 

Kabir-uddin ( jjiH _lj' 

>jJ^ r^J, 

^\j^), son of Taj-uddin 'Iraqi, 

lived in the time of Sultan Ala-uddin, king 
of Dehli, and wrote a book on his conquests. 

Kabuli Mahal ( Js-» ^,}i), a wife of 

Kachhwaha, the title of the Eajas of 
Amber or Jaipiir. Vide Bhara Mai. 

Kafi ( ^K), surname of Taql-uddin 

'All bin- 'All, an Arabian author who died in 
the year a.d. 1355, a.h. 756. His name is 
spelt in some of our biographical dictionaries, 


Kafi or Kami (j^J^^), poetical name of 

Mirza 'Ala-uddaula, who flourished in the 
reign of the emperor Akbar. 

\_Vide Ala-uddaula (Mirza) and Kami.] 

Kafi ( io), whose proper name was 

Kifiiyet 'Ali, was a poet of Muradabad, and 
author of the Bahur *-Khuldj which is a trans- 
lation of the Shimael. 

Kafi-ul-Kafat (l 

\s^\ , il^). Vii 


Kafur, Malik ((.jCUj^l^), a favourite 

eunuch of Sultan 'Ala-uddin KhiljT, king of 
Dehli, probably of Hindi! birth, who was 
raised to the high rank of wazir. After the 
kings death the first step which the traitor 
took was to send a person to Gwaliar, to put 
out the eyes of Khizir Khan and Shadi Khan, 
the two sons of the deceased Sultan. His 




orders were inhumanly executed. He then 
placed Shahab-uddln, the king's youngest 
sou (a boy of seven years of age) on the 
thi-oue, and began his administration ; but 
was assassinated thirty-flve days after the 
ting's death, in January, a.d. 1317, a.h. 
716, when Mubarik, the third son of the 
king, was raised to the thi-one. 

Kahaj Tabrezi, Shaikh (^^_ ^ ^ 

^"^J, a learned Musalman who held 

the office of Shaikh-ul-Islam at Tabrez during 
the reign of Sultan Awis and Sultan Husaiu 
of Baghdad. He was the author of a Diwan. 

Kahi (^i.1^). 

Vide Qasim Kahi. 

Kaikaus (^j'C,^), second king of the 

Kayanian djuasty of Persia, was the son of 
Kaiqubad. He was vain and proud ; and 
appears to have been in continual distress 
from the unfortunate result of schemes that 
his ambition led him to form, but which he 
wanted ability to execute. His life is con- 
nected with a thousand fables, which though 
improper in this place form excellent materials 
for Firdausi, who has given, in his history of 
this period, the extraordinary and affecting 
tale of the combat between llustam and his 
unknown son, Suhrab, who is killed by his 
father. This part of the Shah-nama has been 
translated in English verse by J. Atkinson, 
Assistant Surgeon on the Bengal Establish- 
ment, and member of the Asiatic Society in 
1814. Kaikaus, when grown old, resignedhis 
crown in favour of his grandson Kaikhusro, 
the son of Siawalchsh (corresponds to Cam- 
byses I. ; vide Achaemenis). 

Kaikaus, Amir (^^\ ^j^), grand- 
son of Qabus, prince of Jurjan, and one of 
the noblemen who lived at the court of Sultan 
Maudiid, the grandson of Sultan Mahmiid of 
GhazuT. He is the author of the work called 

Kaikhusro {^^^^-6), the third king 

of the Kayanian dynasty of Persia and the 
grandson of Kaikaiis. He ascended the throne 
in the lifetime of his father, who resigned the 
crown in his favour. He had several battles 
with Afrasiab the king of Turan, who was 
at last defeated, taken prisoner, and slain. 
Soon after these events Kaikhusro resolved to 
devote the remainder of his life to religious 
retirement : he delivered over Kabul, Zabu- 
listan and Nimroz to Enstam, as hereditary 
possessions ; and resigned his throne to 
Lulirasp, the son-in-law of Kaikaus and his 
own son by adoption and affection. After 
these arrangements, he went, accompanied by 
some nobles, to a, spring which he had fixed 
upon as the place of his repose. Here he 
disappeared, and all those that went with him 
were destroyed on their return by a violent 
tempest. He lived 90 years and reigned 60. 

Kaikhusro (^j.^.^^^), the son of 

Sultan Muhammad J£han, governor of Multan, 
who was the eldest son of Sultan Ghayas- 
uddin Balban, king of Dehli. After his 
father's death in a.d. 1286 he was made 
governor of Multan by his grandfather, and 
after his decease in a.d. 1286 was murdered 
at Rohtak by Malik Nizam-uddin, wazir of 
Kaiqubad, who ascended the throne as king 
of Dehl!. 

Kaiomurs {^^j^^^), the first monarch 

of Persia, according to all Muhammadan 
writers. This king is stated to have re- 
claimed his subjects from a state of the most 
savage barbarity. They say he was the grand- 
son of Noah, and the founder of the first 
dynasty of Persian kings, called Pishdadian. 
His son Siamak was killed in one of the 
battles with the barbarians or Devs ; and 
when that monarch carried Hoshang, the 
infant son of Siawak, to share in the revenge 
he meant to take upon his enemies, his army 
was joined by all the lions, tigers and panthers 
in his dominions, and the Devs were routed 
and torn to pieces by the auxiliaries, who 
had left their native forest to aid the just 
king. After this victory, Kaiomurs returned 
to his capital Balkh. He reigned 30 years, 
and was succeeded by his grandson Hoshang. 

The following is a list of kings of the first 
or Pishdadian dynasty : — 

1. Kaiomurs. 

2. Hoshang. 

3. Tuhmurs, sirrnamed Deoband. 

4. Jamshed, reigned at Persipolis. 
•5. Zuhak, surnamed Alwani. 

6. Faridun, restored by Kawa. 

7. Maniichchr. 

8. Naudar or Nauzar. 

9. Afrasiab, king of Turkistan. 

10. Zab, brother of Naudar. 

11. Garshasp. 

Kaiqubad (jljli"), the founder of the 

second or Kayanian d)'nasty of the kings of 
Persia, was a lineal descendant of Maniichchr, 
according to some accounts he was his great- 
grandson. This prince had retired to the 
mountain of Alburz, from which place he was 
brought by llustam the son of Zal and pro- 
claimed king of Persia. He committed the 
administration of government into the hands 
of Zal, whose son Rustam was appointed to 
lead the Persians against the dreaded Afrasiab, 
who had again passed the Oxus and invaded 
Persia. In this battle Eustam overcame 
Afrasiab, and afterwards a peace was con- 
cluded, by which it was agreed that the Oxus 
should remain as it had been heretofore, the 
boundary between the two kingdoms. Kai- 
qubad lived some time after this in peace : he 
is said to have reigned 120 years, and to have 
left four sons — Kaikaus, Arish, Eum and 
Armen. To the former he bequeathed his 
throne, and enjoined all the others to obey him. 




Legendary list of lings of the second or 
Koyanitni dynasty. 

1. Kaiquliad. 

2. Kaikiius. 

3. Kaikhusro. 

4. Luhrasp. 

6. Gushtasp or Darius. 

6. Isl'audiar. 

7 . Baliman or Ardislier Darazdast(Xerxes). 

8. Humai, daughter and wife of Bahman. 

9. Darab or Dara, sou of Baliman. 

10. Daril, sou of Darab (Darius orercome 

by Alexander the Great) . 
\_Vidc Achaemenes.] 

Kaiqubad (jlji..^), surnamed Mu izz- 

uddln, the grandson of Sultan Ghayas-uddln 
Balban, whom he succeeded in a.d. 1286, 
A.H. 685, on tlie throue of Dehli in the 
absence of his father Nasir-uddin Biighra 
Khan, who was then in Bengal. In the year 
A.D. 1287, A.n. 686, his father, having heard 
the state of affairs at Dehli, marched from 
Bengal to visit and advise his son. They met 
on the banks of the Ghagra at Behar, and the 
whole scene was so affecting that almost all 
the court shed tears. On this occasion the 
celebrated poet Amir Kjuisro wrote the poem 
called the Kiran-us-Sadain ^ or the conjunc- 
tion of the two planets. Kaiqubiid was 
assassinated in a.d. 1288 through tire instiga- 
tion of the Firoz Malik Khilji, who ascended 
the throne by the title of Jaliil-uddin Firoz 
Shah Khilji, and became the first Sultan of 
the second branch of the Turk dynasty called 

Kaiuk Klian (j_jL»- 

Kakafi {JiS^). Vide Ahmad bin- 

Idris. He is mentioned in some of our 
Biographical Dictionaries under the name of 

i_J^). Vide 

Vide Ahmad bin- 

Kakafl ( iil^). 

Kalb Ali Khan (^U^ ^z i_^li), 
Nawab of Rampiir in 1869-70. 

Kalb Husain Khan, Mirza (i L^ 

\]y* M^^ ivp-^^-^^X Deputy Collector 

of Etawah, the sonof Ahtaram-uddaula Dahir- 
ul-Mulk Kalb 'Ali Khan Bahadur. He is 
the author of four Diwans and a biography 
called Shaulcat Nadirl. He was living in 
A.D. 1864, A.H. 1281. 

Kalhana (itjL^_Li), a Brahman and 

author of a history of Kashmere, called Majd- 
tarangiui. There are four chronicles of the 
history of Kashmere written in Sanskrit verse ; 
the first by Kalhana, bringing the history of 

Kashmere to about 1148 after Christ; the 
second, a continuation of the former, by 
Jaiiaraja, to a.d. 1412; the third, a con- 
tinuation of the second, by Srivara, a pupil 
of Jaiiaraja, to a.d. 1477 ; and the fom-th, by 
Prajyiibhatta, from that date to the conquest 
of the valley by the emperor Akbar. The 
author of the work, the Pandit Kalhana, of 
whom we merely know that he was the son 
of Champaka, and lived about a.d. 1150, 
under the reign of Sifiha Deva of Kashmere — 
reports that before entering on his task he 
had studied eleven historical works written 
previously to his time, and also a history of 
Kashmere by the sage Nila, which seems to 
be the oldest of all. Kalhana begins his 
work with the mythological history of the 
country; the first king named by him is 
Gonarda, who, according to his chronology, 
would have reigned in the year b.o. 2448, and 
the last mentioned by him is Siuha Deva, 
about 1150 after Christ. 

Kali Das {^d i}^\ ^ celebrated 

Hindi! poet traditionally said to have lived 
towards the commencement of the Christian 
era, and to have been one of the nine splendid 
gems that adorned the court of Raja Bikar- 
majit (Viki-amaditya) . Some say that he 
flourished in the time of Raja Bhoj (1040-90 
A.D.). He wrote the Nalodia for the purpose 
of exhibiting his unbounded skill in alliter- 
ation. In four' books, containing on the 
average fifty-four stanzas each, he has given 
such illustrations of this art as can never be 
surpassed. This work has been published in 
Em-ope, with a Latin translation by a con- 
tinental scholar, Ferdinandus Benary. No 
reason can be imagined why Kali Das should 
again write the history of Nala and Damayanti, 
after it had been so elegantly written in 
flowing verse by Vyasa Deva, except that he 
intended in this simple story to shew forth 
his ingenuity in alliteration. He is also the 
author of the poem called Kiimdra Sambhava, 
and of another called Maha, Ndtalc. 

Kalim (*_^_1_$^), the poetical name of 
Abii Talib Kalim, which see. 

Kalim-uUah (ad.!l>.-JJ'), a title of 
Moses the prophet. 

Kalim-Tillah (<d!l*-LO, the last king 

of the Bahmani dynasty of Kulbarga or 
Ahmadabad Bidar in the Deecan. He was 
expelled in a.d. 1527 by Amir Barid his 
wazir, who mounted the throne and took 
possession of that kingdom. 



author of a 

work called Kaslikol Tasauwaf an exposition 
of the mystical phrases of the Siifis. 




Kali Sahilj (l_^-^L ^1^), surname 

of Ghiilam Nasir-uddin, the son of Maulana 
Qutb-uddin, the son of Maulana Fakhr- 
uddm. Although he was the Murshid or 
spiritual guide of the king of Dehli, he 
preferred the hahit of a Derwish. He died 
in A.D. 1852, A.H. 1268. 

Kamal ( JU^), a poet of Isfatan. 

Kamal (Jl^), poetical title of Mtr 

Kamal 'Ali of Gaya Manpiir. He -wrote 
Persian and Eekhta verses, and is the author 
of a large work called Kamal- til- Kikmat, on 
philosophy, and one called Chahardah Darud, 
i.e. the fourteen blessings, containing an 
account of the Imams. He died in a.d. 
1800, A.H. 1215, and the chionograra of the 
Hijri year of his death is contained in the 
word Daregha. 

Kamal G-liayas, Maulana (Jl_»_^ 

^•Sj^ UlSl^ i;.„Li), of Shiraz, a 

poet and physician who flourished in the time 
of Ibrahim Sultan. 

Kamal Khan, Gikhar (^Iri- JU^^ 

j\SS) prince of tlie Gikhars, was the 

son of Sultan Sarang, the son of Malik Kalan 
II. the son of Malik Kaliin I. the son of Malik 
Khar, who was the founder of the principality 
of the Gikhara. Their country lies among 
the mountains between Bhat and Sindh, which 
formerly belonged to the goTernment of Kash- 
mere. Malik Kalan II. had several battles 
with Sher Shah, but was at last taken prisoner 
and put to death by that monarch, and his 
son or grandson Kamal Khan imprisoned in 
the fortress of Gwaliar. He was, however, 
after some years released by Salira Shah the 
son of Sher Shah, but during his confinement 
his uncle Sultan Adam had taken possession 
of the country. In the first year of the reign 
of Akbar he was introduced to that monarch 
and was employed in his service. He by 
degrees rose to the rank of SOCO, and was 
afterwards put in possession of his dominions 
by that emperor, and Sultan Adam his uncle 
taken prisoner and made over to Kamal Khan, 
who put him in confinement, where he died. 
Kamal Khan, who became tributary to Akbar, 
died in a.d. 1562, a.h. 970. 

Kamal Khujandi (^A-i-sf^ JL»i^). 
Vide Kamal-uddin Khujandi. 

Kamal Qazi ( ^_jlJ Jl.^). Vide 
Abiil-Fath Bilgrami. 

Kamal-uddin 'Abdul Razzaq, Shaikh 

(.^_-i JijJ>\s^c |^^jj\ JU^), is the 

author of several works, among which are the 
following : Tafsir Tdw'tldf, Kitab Istilahdt 
Sufla, Sharah Fasils-td-Hikam, Shark Ma- 
iirizib-fcl-Sdl)irtH, etc. He was a contemporary 
of Shaikh Eukn-uddin 'Ala-uddaula. He 
died in a.d. 1482, a.h. 887. 

[ Vide 'Abdul Razzaq.] 

Kamal-uddin Isma'il ( -jjkjl JL»-^ 

J.-ji,*--j1), son of Jamal-uddin Mu- 

hummad 'Abdnl Eazzaq, of Isfahan, a cele- 
brated poet of Persia, styled Malik-ash- 
Shu'ara, that is to say, king of the poets, 
and is the author of a Diwan. In the year 
a.d. 1237, 2nd Jumada I. a.h. 635, on the 
21st December, when Oqtai Khan, the son 
of Changez Khan, invaded Isfahan and 
massacred the inhabitants of that city, he 
also fell a martyr. It is said that he was 
tortured to death by the Mughuls, who 
expected to find hidden property in bis 

Kamal - uddin Khujandi, Shaikh 

i^-ii ^Aijs 

^jix!ljL»i), was a 


great Shaikh and IjTic poet, and a contemporary 
of Hafiz, who, though they never saw each 
other, much esteemed him, considering him 
and Salman Siiwaji as amongst the first poets 
of their time. He is commonly called Kamal 
Khujandi, bom at Khujand, a town situated 
in one of the most beautiful and fertile districts 
of Persia. After having made the pilgrimage 
to Mecca he settled at Tabrez, a place which 
he foimd extremely agreeable during the reign 
of the princes of the family of Jalayer. The 
principal personages of Tabrez became his 
pupils, and he led a life of literary ease and 
enjojTnent; but when Tuqtamish Khan sur- 
prised Tabrez, Shaikh Kamal was made 
prisoner, and was carried to Serai in Kapjak 
by order of Manga lihun the grandson of 
Changez Khan, where he remained four years, 
after which he was permitted to return to 
Tabrez, near which city the Sultan Awes 
Jalayer built him a house. Kamal did not 
sing the praise of princes in Qasida, nor did 
he write Masnawis, but only Ghazals and 
fragments. He died in the year a.d. 1390, 
a.h. 792, and was buried at Tabrez. A MS. 
of the Diwan of Kamal, which had been the 
property of a Sultan, is possessed by the 
Imperial Library at Vienna, and is a great 
treasure as a specimen of splendid writing, 
and also for the superbly executed miniattures 
which adorn it, illustrating the poems. These 
pictures are not more than a square inch in 
size : there are two on each side of the con- 
cluding verse ; and though so small, represent 
with the greatest correctness, either alle- 
gorically or simply, the meaning of the poet. 
— Dublin University Magazine, 1840. 




Kamal - uddin Masa'ud, Maulana 






of Shirwrin, a celebrated logician aud author 
of the marginal notes ou tlie Shurah llilcmat 

Kamal -uddin Multammad-al-Si-wasi 
( ^U*J\ iX*^-* ^JjJlJl^), com- 
monly called Humam and Ibn - Humam, 
author of a commentary on the HidSiia 
entitled Fath-til-Qadir HI 'Ajiz-al-Faqir. It 
is the most comprehensive of all the comments 
on the Hidciya^ and includes a collection of 
decisions which render it extremely useful. 
He died in a.d. 1457, a.h. 861. 
[ Tide Humam and Ibn-Humam.] 

Kamal-uddin Muhammad t)in-' Abdul 
Muna'im Jujari, Shaikh ( y jj^ JL*^ 

an author who died in a.d. 1484, a.h. 889. 

Kamal-uddin Muhammad, Khwaja 

{i^^\^^* ^)_sl\^\.^<), ibn- 

Ghayas -uddin Shirazi, was a physician and a 
poet, and flourished in the time of Sultan 
Ibrahim Mirza. For his poetical title he 
used Ibn-Ghayas. 

Kamal-uddin Musa hin-Yunas bin- 
Malik (^jJ ^^ J^^-* i^l'^^i}^ 
I $sL* ^j), name of an Imam, who 

was one of the most celebrated Musalman 

Kamal-uddin Shah (il^ .ja!!, lU^) 

fide Lutf-uUah. 

Kam Bakhsh (prince) (/>L_sn,_^K 

liJ\U^), youngest son of the emperor 

'Alamgir, a Tain and violent young man, 
who had received from his father the kingdom 
of the Deccan, but as he refused to acknow- 
ledge the sovereignty of the emperor Bahadur 
Shah, his eldest brother, and struck coin in 
his own name, that monarch, after attempting 
in vain to win him over by concessions, 
marched against him with a powerful army to 
the Deccan, and defeated him in a battle near 
Haidarabad, where Kam Bakhsh died of his 
wounds on the same day in the month of 
February or March, a.d. 1708, ?il-hijja, 
A.H. 1119. His mother's name was Udaipuri 
Muhal, and he was bom on the 25th 
February, a.d. 1667, 10th Eamazan, a.h. 

Kami ( ^^), whose proper name is 

Mirza Ala-uddaula QazwTni, was the son of 
Mir Yahya bin-'Abdul Latif, and is the 
author of the work called y<ifSis-ul-Masir, 
a Biographical Dictionary of Persian poets. 
It contains notices of about 350 poets in 
alphabetical order. Jlost of them nourished 
in India during the reign of Akbar, to whom 
the book is dedicated. It was iinished in 
A.D. 1571, A h. 979, but there occur much 
later dates in it. He is supposed by some to 
have died in a.d. 1563, a.h. 971, and by 
others in a.d. 1673, a.h. 981, but the latter 
date appears to be correct. The discrepancy 
arises from the chronogram of his death, in 
which the number of the last word is con- 
sidered by some to be 60 and by others 70, 
a diiierence of ten years. 

[ Vide Yahya bin-'Abdul Latif.] 

Kamil (J.-»l^), author of a poetical 

work, entitled Chhrlohfmma. It consists of 
Ghazals all of which rhyme in Chiragh 
(lamp), and the first letter of every verse of 
the first Ghazal is I or A, of the second ^J or 
B, and so on. 

Kamran Mirza (!• ^ ^\j^^), second 

son of the emperor Babar Shah, and brother 
to the emperor HumayHn, who, after his 
accession to the throne in a.d. 1530, a.h. 
937, conferred on him the government of 
Kabul, Qandahar, Ghazni and the Panjab. 
He was deprived of his sight by Humayun 
when at Kabul in the year a.d. 1553, a.h. 
9B0, on account of his repeated offences, and 
continually raising disturbances in the govern- 
ment. The operation was performed by 
piercing his eyes repeatedly with a lancet. 
Kamran bore the torture without a groan 
until lemon-juice and .salt were squeezed 
into his eyes, when he called out " Lord 
my God ! whatever sins I have committed I 
have been amply punished in this world, have 
compassion on me in the next." Kamran 
eventually obtained permission to proceed to 
Mecca, where he resided three years and died 
a natural death in a.d. 1556, a.h. 964. He 
left three daughters and one son, named 
Abii'l Qasim Mirza, who was imprisoned in 
the fort of Gwaliar, and put to death by 
order of Ihe emperor Akbar, his cousin, in 
the year a.u. 1565, a.h. 973. 

Kamran Shah (jiL-i> ^Jij-^^), the 

present mler of Herat, is the son of Mahmiid 
Shah, the son of Tiraur Shah, the son of 
Ahmad Shah Abdali. On the death of his 
father, Mahmiid Shah (in- a.d. 1829), he 
succeeded him on the throne of Herat. 

Kapurthala Rajah. Vide Nihal Singh. 

Karam l*^), author of the Harhae 

Sttidarl, a history of Ali and his son Husain 
in verse, composed in a.d. 1723, a.h. 1135. 




Karim (*J.^0, poetical name of Mir 

Muhammad Kazim the son of Filer. He 
flourished in the time of Kuthshah of the 
Deecan, and is the author of a Dlwau. 

Karim Khan ( \ 

^-ij-i), the 

raui-derer of ilv. AV. Eraser, Commissioner of 
Dehll. Sec Shams-uddin Khan (nawab). 

Karim Khan (^U. ^J)^ a Pindari 

chief, who surrendered himself to the British 
Government on the loth February, 1818, and 
received for his support the Taluqa of 
Burhlapar in the Gorakhpiir district, which 
was held by his descendants up to the 
mutiny iu 1857. 

Karim Khan Zand (jjj ^U- f^'S). 

The history of Persia, from the death of 
Nadir Shah till the elevation of 'Aqa Muham- 
mad, though it occupies nearly half a century, 
presents no one striking feature, except the 
life of Karim Khan, a chief of the tribe of 
Zand. He collected an army chiefly composed 
of the different tribes of Zand and MafI, 
defeated the Afghans in several engagements, 
finally drove them out of the country, and 
secured to himself the kingdom of Fars, or 
the southern division of Persia, while 
Khurasan partially remained in possession of 
the descendants of Nadir Shah; and the 
countries bordering on the Caspian Sea were 
retained by Muhammad Hasan Khan Qaj'ar, 
ruler of Mazindaran, the great-grandfather of 
'Aqa Muhammad Shah Qajar. Karim KJian, 
after subduing his enemies, enjoyed inde- 
pendent power for twenty-six years; and 
during the last twenty, viz. from 1759 to 
1779, he had been, without a competitor, the 
acknowledged ruler of Persia. His capital 
was Shiraz. He died at an advanced period 
of life on the 2nd March, a.d. 1779, 13th 
Safar, a.h. 1193, being nearly 80 years of 
age. After his death Zaki Khan assumed the 
reins of government, and was assassinated two 
months after. Sadiq Khan, brother of Karim 
Khan, took possession of Shiraz after the 
death of Zaki Khan, and was put to death on 
the 14th March, a.d. 1781, 18th Eabi' I. 
A.H. 1195, by 'All Murad Khan, Avho now 
became the sovereign of Persia, and died on 
the 11th January, a.d. 1785, 28th Safar, 
A.H. 1199. After his death Lutf 'Ali Khan 
reigned for some years at Shiraz. He was 
defeated in 1794 and slain afterwards by 
'Aqa Muhammad Khan Qajar, who took 
possession of the throne of Persia. 

Karim - uddin, Professor in Agra 

College, published in 1845 an Urdii Anthology 
which became very popular. It is prefaced 
by a dissertation. 

Karshasp (t_,wjl^_^0, or Garshasp, 

the son of Zti, and the last Icing of the first 
or Pishdadian dynasty of Persia. 
[ Vide Zii.J 

Kart (CJ^), kings of the dynasty of. 
Vide Shams-nddin Kart I. 

Kashfi { iJui), the poetical name of 

Shah Muhammad Salamat-uUah. He is the 
author of a DTwan in Persian, which was 
printed and published before liis death iu 
A.H. 1279. 

Kashfi i^i.^'i), takhiillus of Mir Mu- 
hammad Salah, who flourished iu the reign 
of the emperor Jahangir, and is the author of 
a Tarjihband called Majmua' Eaz, which he 
composed in a.d. 1621, a.h. 1030, containing 
270 verses. He died in the year a.d. 1650, 
A.H 1060, at Agra, and Kes biuied there. 

Kashi, MuUa 1%^ 15-^''^). surname of 

Kamal-uddin Abdii'l Ghanam 'Abdul Eazzaq 
biu-Jamal-uddin, a celebrated doctor, placed 
amongst the Musalman saints, was author of 
several works. He died young about the 
year A.D. 1320, a.h. 720. 

Kashi Rao Holkar ( Hit .! , .. 

the eldest of the four sons of Tukaji Holkar, 
after whose death in a.d. 1797 disputes arose 
between Kashi Eao and his brother Mulhar 
Kao, and both repaired to the court of the 
Peshwa at Piina, where, on their arrival, 
Daulat Rao Sindhia, with a view of usurping 
the possessions of the family, espoused the 
cause of Kashi Eao, and made a sudden and 
unexpected attack in the month of September 
on Mulhar Eao, whom he slew with most of 
his adherents. After this, Sindhia pretended 
to govern the possessions of the Holkar family 
in the name of Kashi Eao, whom he kept in 
a state of dependence and appropriated the 
revenue to his own use. A long contest 
ensued between Daulat Eao and Jaswant Eao 
Holkar, the brother of Ka,shi Eao, and con- 
tinued till the year a.d. 1802, when Jaswant 
Eao appears to have taken possession of Indor, 
the territory of his father. 

Kashifl ( J-.i,l^), the poetical name 

of Manlana Husain bin-Ali, also known by 
that of "Waez or the preacher. He wrote a 
full commentary on the Quran in the Persian 
language. He was a preacher at the royal 
town of Herat in Khurasan. He died in 
A.D. 1505, A.H. 910. 
\_Vide Husain Waez.] 





Kaslimere, kinn-s of. Vide Shah Mir. 

Kasir {]•: _^), or Kathlr Azza, one 

of the celebrated Arabian poets of the court 
of the Khalif 'Abdul Malik. J'iJt: Jamil. 

Kathlr (_»lO. Vide Easir. 

Katihi (^-.^^J c'f-'^^), poetical name 

of ]\[aulana Shams-nddin Muhammad bin- 
'AbduUah-al-Xaishapuri and Tarshlzl. He 
wrote a very beautiful hand, on which account 
he assumed' the title of " Katibi." He came 
to Herat iu the rei^ir of liaisanghar Mirza, 
and afterwards became one of the best poets 
of the courts of the prince Sultan Mirza 
Ibrahim of Shirwiiu, in whose praise he once 
wrote a panegyric, and received from that 
prince a present of 10,000 dinars. Wc have 
several of his works in the Persian language. 
In the latter period of his life he fixed his 
residence at Astrabad, and died there in a.d. 
liSo, A.H. 839. His works, which contain 
five poems, are called MuJma'-ul-Bahraiii, 
the story of Nasir and Mansiir, which may be 
read in two difiierent metres ; Bad jidh, 
Hnsinca Isliq and Bahrain and Gulandiim. 

Kaus. Tide Eaikaus. 

Kayuk Qaan {^ \i i_5j-.^), or Kayuk 

Khrm, was the son of Oqtal Qaan, the son of 
Changez Khfiu. lie succeeded his father in 
January, a.d. 12J2, a.h. 639, to the 
kingdom of Tartary, and his uncle Jaghtai or 
Chaghtai Qaan to the kingdom of Trans- 
oxiaua, Badakhshan and Kashghar. He 
reigned one year, and died about the beginning 
of A.D. 12t3, A.H. 640, when Mangii Qaan, 
the eldest son of Tiili Ifhan, the sou of 
Changez Khan, succeeded him and reigned 
nine years. 

Kazim Ali Khan (,^L^ ^\.z »Jil^ 

*_..x.;>-). A physician of the Lodi 

period, who made n garden at Agra on the 
banks of the Jamna opposite Eam Biiglt. 
Some traces of this garden still remain called 
Hakim ka Bagh. It was made in the year 
A.D. 1651. 

Kazim, Hakim (*.^$L=- *-b'^), a 

physician who had the title of Haziq-ul-Mnlk 
and was the son of the ^Injtahid Haidar All 
Tushtari Xajafi. He is the author of the 
Avork called Farah-n'inia I'lltima, AA'hich he 
composed in A.D. 1737, A.ii. 11.50. 

Kazim, Hakim (*_-.^-: 


"€). Vide 

Kazim Zarbaya (<);_il_jjj >._1jK), a 

Tersian poet who died at IsfahSn in the year 
A.D. loil, A.II. 948. 

Kerat Singh (aSI-j ic-^-:;^), second 

son of Mirza Eaja Jaisingh. He served 
under the emperor 'Alamgir, and after his 
father's death -nas honoured with the rank of 
3000. He was living in the Dcccan a.d. 
1673, A.H. 1084. 

Kesari Singh (axx-j ^j^S), Eaja of 

Jaipiir who lived in the time of Muhammad 
Shiih, emperor of Dehli. 

Kesho Das Rather, Raja (^J ^t:.S 

i.:Ajj<^\jl, who gave his daughter 

in marriage to the emperor Jahangir, by 
whom he iiad Bahar Bano Bcgam. 

Khadija (ter.Vo-), Muhammad's wife. 

Although this is the correct pronunciation of 
the name, yet see under Khudyja. 

Khadim (^jli-), the poetical name of 

Nazar Beg, a poet. He was a pupil of 
Muhammad Azfal Sabit, and died some time 
before the year a.d. 1760, a.h. 1174. 

Khadim (*l>1»-), 

the talvhallus or 

poetical appellation of Shaikh Ahmad 'Ali 
of Sandila and son of Muhammad Haji. He 
is the author of several works, amongst 
which is one called Anls-ul-'Vshshaq, an 
anthology. He flourished about the year 
A.D. 1752, A.H. 1165. 

\_yide Hasan bin-Muhammad Sharif.] 

Khaef Kashmiri, Maulana (i_i_)ls- 

\iiyt ^..^^^J^), a poet. 

Khafl (,^:\=^), poetical title of Mir 

Abiil Hasan Klran, author of a poem called 
Vhahdr Dervish. 

Khafi Khan (^Ir 


ilrU), whose 

original name is Muhammad Ilashim, was 
the author of the work called TarlMi KMfi 
Khan, which is also called MuntaUnb-ul- 
Liihah, an excellent history of llindiista.n, 
commencing with the invasion of the emperor 
Babar Shah, a.d. 1519, a.h. 925, and 
continued to the accession of Muhammad 
Shah ; comprehending the whole of the reign 
of the emperor 'Alamgir, also those of 
Bahadur Shah, Jahandar Shah, Farrukh- 
siyar, and Eafi-ud-darjat; all of which, 
except the first ten years of 'Alamgir's reign, 





Colonel Dow was obliged to pass over, for 
want of documents. There are few works in 
the Persian language (says Stewart) so 
worthy of being translated. "The author was 
a person of good family, who resided at 
Dehli during the latter part of the reign of 
'Alamgir, where he compiled his history ; 
but in consequence of the well-known pro- 
hibition of that monarch he was obliged to 
conceal his intentions, and for some other 
causes did not publish it till the Uth year of 
the emperor Muhammad Shah, a.d. 1732, 
A.H. IHo. The work was well received, and 
the author was honoured with the title of 
Khafi Khan, or the " concealed." 

[English extracts may he found in Dowson's 
Elliot, vol. vii.] 

Khair - uddin Muhammad, Maulvi 
((_jy_j^ iX*.^''* ^■Xi\j^~>-)j author of 
the history of Jaunpiir. 

Khair-un Nisa Khatun (L«.iJI 

^jyl^), a poetess, who was the 

daughter of the QazI of Samarqand, and 
lived at Khurasan. 

Khaju (^5-U-). Vide Khwajii. 

Khaki (^li.), author of the Munaqib- 

uW Arifin. This book contains the memoirs 
of three very celebrated Siifi Shaikhs, viz. 
Khwaja Baha- uddin, Burhan - uddin, and 
Jalal- uddin. The former of these was 
reputed a great saint, and was the founder of 
an Order of Siifis, distinguished by the title 
of Naqshbandi. He died at Harafa in Persia, 
A.D. 1453, A.H. 857. The two others were 
authors of commentaries on the Qnran, and 
were held in much veneration. The above- 
mentioned book was dedicated to Baha-uddin. 

Khaki Shirazi (^j