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Full text of "Hawaiian antiquities (Moolelo Hawaii)"

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Hawaiian 
Antiquities 



By 
DAVID MALO 



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HAWAIIAN ANTIQUITIES 



(IWOOLELO HAWAII) 



BY 



DAVID MALO 



Translated from the Hawaiian 

BY 

DR. N. B. EMERSON 

HONOLULU, HAWAIIAN ISLANDS 
1898 



HONOLULU 
HAWAIIAN GAZETTE CO., Ltd. 

1903 . 



^504^1^1 



:Kernice pauabi :©i0bop 
^be /abotber ot Ibawatian UnDustrial ^EDucatforr. 

t Debicate tbls tDolume in appreciation of ber efforts to keep alive a 
hnowlefegc of tbc Jlntiquities an6 /DiieBteries of 

Ibawailan Ibistor^ 



BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH OF DAVID MALO. 



It is a commentary on the fleeting character of fame and human 
distinction that, even at this short remove from the life of one of 
Hawaii's most distinguished sons, it is with no httle difficulty that 
one can obtain correct data as to the details of his career; it is 
also an index of the rapidity with which the plough-share of evo- 
lution has obliterated old landmarks. 

The materials from which this sketch of David Malo's life is 
pieced together have been derived from many sources, both oral 
and written, as will be indicated in the course of the narrative. 

Malo was the son of Aoao and his wife Heone, and was born 
at the seaside town of Keauhou, North Kona, Hawaii, not many 
miles distant from the historic bay of Kealakeakua, where Cap- 
tain Cook, only a few years before, had come to his death. The 
exact year of his birth cannot be fixed, but it was about 1793, the 
period of Vancouver's second visit to the islands. It was the time 
of a breathing spell in the struggle for military and political su- 
premacy over the entire group in which the chief actors were 
Kahekili, the old war-horse and veteran of Maui, Kalanikupule, 
his son, the weak and ill-fated king of Oahu, and Kamehameha, 
the oncoming conqueror of the group. 

Aoao, the father, was attached as a follower in some capacity 
to the court and army of Kamehameha and moved west with the 
tide of invasion; but I have found no evidence that his travels 
took him so far as Oahu, which was the western limit of his 
master's operations. 

During his early life Malo was connected with the high chief 
Kuakini (Governor Adams), who was a brother of Queen Ka- 
ahu-manu, and it was during this period specially that he was 
placed in an environment the most favorable to forming an inti- 
mate acquaintance with the history, traditions, legends and myths 
of old Hawaii, as well as with the meles, pules and oils that be- 
long to the hula and that form so important and prominent a 
feature in the poesy and unwritten literature of Hawaii. But his 
attainments in these directions are even more to be ascribed to his 



happy endowment with a shrewd and inquiring mind as well as a 
tenacious memory, which had to serve in the place of writmg ana 
of all mnemonic tablets. If we may trust the authority o>f the 
writer of a brief sketch of Malo (See The Polynesian oi Nov. 5, 
1853), it was largelv from association with one Auwai, a favorite . 
chief of Kamehameha I, who excelled in knowledge of Hawaiian 
lore, including an acquaintance with the genealogies (kuauhau) 
of the chiefs, the religious ceremonials under the tabu system, and 
the old myths and traditions, that Malo was enabled to acquire 
his knowledge of these matters. Tn ancient Hawaii it was at the 
king's court that were gathered the notable bards, poets, and 
those in whose minds were stored the traditional lore of the 
nation. 

Brought up under circumstances well fitted to saturate his mind 
with the old forms of thought and feeling, it would be surprising 
if he had not at some time given evidence of ability in that form 
of composition, the nielc, which represents the highest literary at- 
tainment of the old regime. Such a production by him we have, — 
a threnody celebrating the death of the beloved regent, Queen 
Kaahumanu, who died June 5, 1832. It is entitled, He Kanikau 
no Kaahumanu, a poem of real merit that combines in itself a 
large measure of the mystery of ancient pagan allusions with a 
tincture of such feelings as belong to one newly introduced to the 
stand-point of a Christian civilization. (A copy of this poem will 
be found in The Friend of Aug., 1859, together with a translation 
by C. J. Lyons.) 

Such good use did Malo make of his opportunities that he came 
to be universally regarded as the great authority and repository 
of Hawaiian lore. 

As a natural result of his proficiency in these matters, Malo 
came to be in great demand as a raconteur of the old-time tra- 
ditions, meles, and genealogies, as a master in the arrangement of 
the hula, as well as of the nobler sports of the Hawaiian arena, 
a person of no little importance about court. In after years! 
when his mind had been impregnated with the vivifying influ- 
ence of the new faith from across the ocean, his affections were 
so entirely turned against the whole system, not only of idol- 
worship, but all the entertainments of song, dance and sport as 
well, that his judgment seems often to be warped, causing him to 



confound together the evil and the good, the innocent and the 
guilty, the harmless and the depraved in one sweeping condemna- 
tion, thus constraining him to put under the ban of his reproba- 
tion things which a more enlightened judgment would have tol- 
erated or even taken innocent pleasure in, or to cover with the 
veil of contemptuous silence matters, which, if preserved, would 
now be of inestimable value and interest to the ethnologist, the 
Jnstorian and the scholar. 

It is a matter of vain regret from the stand-point 
of the student that this should liave been the case, and 
that there should not have survived in him a greater toleration 
for the beauties and sublimities, as well as the darker mysteries, 
of that unwritten literature, wdiich the student of to-day finds 
dimly shadowed m the cast-off systems of heathendom. But it 
is not to be wondered at that David Malo should have been unable 
to appreciate at its true value the lore of which he was one of the 
few repositories. It could be expected only of a foreign and 
broadly cultivated mind to occupy the stand-point necessary to 
such an appraisal. The basis of this criticism will be evident to 
e^/ery attentive reader of this book. 

The attitude of David Malo's mind toward the sys- 
tem of thought from which he was delivered, "the pit 
from which he was digged,'' as some would put it, 
was, from the circumxStances of the case, one of complete alien- 
ation not to say intolerance, and gives ground for the generaliza- 
tion that it is hopleless to expect a recent convert to occupy a po- 
siton of judicial fairness to the system of religion and thought 
from which he has been rescued. While this may be reckoned as 
a tribute to the depth and sincerity of his nature, it cannot but be 
deemed an index of the necessarily somewhat narrow view of the 
mystic and the convert. The application of Malo's energies to the 
task of setting forth in an orderly manner his knowledge of the 
history and antiquities of his people was due to the urgent per- 
suasions of his teachers, and show^s their broad-minded appre- 
ciation of the value of such information. 

While still a young man and before leaving Hawaii, Malo was 
married to a widow-woman of alii blood, by the name of A'a-lai-oa, 
who was much older than himself and said to have been a daugh- 
ter of Kahekili, the great king of Maui ; but it seems hardly prob- 



8 

able that she was so closely related to that distinguished monarch. 
The marriage with this woman was in the language of the time 
called a ho-ao. This, though not according to Christian rites and 
forms, was none the less a regular, honorable and legitimate form 
of marriage, according to the ideas and customs of the time. One 
may conjecture, however, that in this case the union was one in 
which the husband was the chosen rather than the chooser. Such 
marriages were not at all uncommon in ancient Hawaii, it being 
considered that the, woman made up by her wealth and position 
what she lacked in physical attractiveness. There was no issue, 
and the woman died while Malo was still at Keauhou, on Hawaii. 

The date of Malo's removal to Lahaina, Maui, marks an im- 
portant epoch in his life ; for it was there he came under the in- 
spiring influence and instruction of the Rev. William Richards, 
who had settled as a missionary in that place in the year 1823, at 
the invitation of the queen-mother, Keopuolani. Under the teach- 
ings of this warm-hearted leader of men, to whom he formed an 
attachm.ent that lasted through life, he was converted to Christ- 
ianity, and on his reception into the church was given the baptis- 
mal name of David. There seems to have been in Mr. Richards' 
strong and attractive personality just that mental and moral stimu- 
lus which Malo needed in order to bring out his own strength 
and develop the best elements of his nature. In the case of one 
of such decided strength of character and purpose there could 
be no half-way work ; in whatever direction the current of will 
turned, it flowed as one full and undivided stream. 

From his first contact with the new light and knowledge of 
Christian civilization, David Malo was fired with an enthusiasm 
for the acquisition of all the benefits it had to confer. He made 
efforts to acquire the English language, but met with no great 
success : his talents did not lie in that direction ; one writer as- 
cribes his failure to the rigidity of his vocal organs. His mental 
activity, which was naturally of the strenuous sort, under the 
influence of his new environment seemed now to be brought to a 
white heat. 

In his search for informiation he became an eager reader of 
books; every printed thing that was struck off at the newly estab- 
lished mission press at Honolulu, or afterwards at Lahaina-luna, 
was eagerly sought after and devoured by his hungry and thirsty 



soul. He accumulated a library which is said to have included all 
the books published in his own language. In taking account of 
David Malo's acquirements as well as his mental range and ac- 
tivity of thought, it is necessary to remember that the output of 
the Hawaiian press in those days, though not productive of the 
newspaper, was far richer in works of thought and those of an 
educational and informational value than at the present time. It 
was pre-eminently the time in the history of the American Protest- 
ant Mission to Hawaii when its intellectual force was being di- 
rected to the production of a body of literature that should include 
not only the textbooks of primary and general education, but 
should also give access to a portion of the field of general in- 
formation. It was also the time when the scholars of the Mission, 
aided by visiting friends from the South, were diligently engaged 
in the heavy task of translating the Bible into the Hawaiian ver- 
nacular; the completed result of which by itself formed a body of 
literature, which for elevation and excellence of style formed a 
standard and model of written language worthy to rank with the 
best. 

On the establishment of the high school at Lahaina-luna in 1831, 
Malo entered as one of the first pupils, being at the time about 
thirty-eight years of age, and there he remained for several 
years, pursuing the various branches of study with great as- 
siduity. 

It was while at Lahaina, before entering the school at Lahaina- 
luna, that he for the second time entered into marriage; and as 
before so on this occasion, it was with a woman of chiefish blood 
and older than himself that he formed an alliance ; she was named 
Pahia. The marriaoe ceremonv was conducted in accordance 
with the Christian forms by his friend and spiritual father, Mr. 
Richards. Like his former union, this was non-fruitful ; and after 
the death of Pahia, Malo married a young woman of Lahaina 
named Lepeka (Rebecca) by whom he became the father of a 
daughter, whom he named A'a-laioa, in memory of his first wife. 
To anticipate and bring to a close this part of the narrative, his 
union with this young woman proved most disastrous ; her dissi- 
lute ways were a constant thorn in the side of her husband, driving 
him well nigh to distraction, and ultimately proved the cause of 
his death. 



10 

Having been ordained to the Christian ministry and settled over 
a church in the district of Kula, Maui, David Malo made his home 
at the forlorn seaside village of Kalepolepo, on the lee of East 
Maui, where he continued in the duties of the Christian ministry 
and in the pastorate of the little church there located during the 
remaining few years of his life. The shame and disgrace of his 
wife's conduct told upon him, and at length came to weigh so 
heavily on his mind that he could not throw it off. He refused all 
food and became reduced to such a state of weakness that his life 
was despaired of. The members of his church gathered about 
his bedside, and with prayer and entreaties sought to turn him 
from his purpose, but without avail. His last request was to be 
taken in a canoe to Lahaina, that thus he might be near the site 
which he had selected as the resting place of his body, which 
he had indicated to be Pa'u-pa'u, on the hill called Mount Ball that 
stands back of Lahaina-luna. It would, he had hoped, be above 
and secure from the rising tide of foreign invasion, which his 
imagination had pictured as destined to overwhelm the whole 
land. 

His request was fulfilled, and after his death, which took place 
October 21, 1853, his body was deposited in a tomb on the sum- 
mit of Mt. Ball, where for nearly half a centur}^ it has remained 
as a beacon to his people. 

Lahaina appears to have been the continued place of residence 
of David Malo from the time of his first coming thither — on 
leaving Keauhou — probably some time in the twenties — till he 
went to the final scene of his labors at Kalepolepo, a period that 
must have extended over about twenty-five years and included the 
most useful activit"es of his life. 

*lt was during the period of Malo's stay at Lahaina that certain 
lawless spirits among the sea-rovers collected in that port insti- 
tuted attacks on the new order of civilization that was winning its 
way, which were directed — most naturally — against its foremost 



"Here Dr. Emerson refers to the outrages perpetrated by lawless sailors 
from the whaleships at Lahaina during the years 1825, 1826 and 1827, and 
to the trial of Mr. Richards held at Honolulu in November, 1827, for the 
crime of having reported the facts in the United States. 

During this trial, David Malo on being consulted by the Queen- 
Regent, Kaahumanu, said "In what country is it the practice to condemn 
the man who gives true information of crimes committed, and to let the 
criminal go uncensured and unpunished?" 

See Dibble's History p. 225. W. D. A. 



11 

representative, Mr. Richards. The resuU was an investigation, a 
trial, it might be termed in which the issue practically resolved 
itself into the question whether Mr. Richards was in the right and 
to be defended or in the wrong and to be punished. Malo was 
present at the conference and it was no doubt largely due to his 
native wdt and the incisive common sense displayed in his putting 
of the question that justice speedily prevailed and the cause of 
law and order triumphed. 

While at Lahaina David Malo also occupied for a time the po- 
sition of school-agent, a post of some responsibility and in which 
one could usefully exercise an unlimited amount of common 
sense and business tact ; there also was the chief scene of his labors 
for the preservation in literary form of the history and antiquities 
of his people. 

To confine one's self to that division of David Malo's life-work 
which is to be classed as literary and historical, the contributions 
made by him to our knowledge of the ancient history and antiqui- 
ties of the Hawaiian Islands may be embraced under three heads : 
First, a small book entitled ''Moolelo Hawaii," compiled by Rev. 
Mr. Pogue from materials largely furnished by the scholars of the 
Lahaina-luna Seminary. (The reasons for crediting Malo with 
having lent his hand in this work are to be found in the general 
similiarity of style and manner of treatment of the historical part 
of this book with the one next to be mentioned; and still more 
conclusive evidence is to be seen in the absolute identity of the 
language in many passages of the two books.) Second, the work, 
a translation of which is here presented, which is also entitled 
Moolelo Hawaii, though it contains many things which do not 
properly belong to history. The historical part brings us down 
■only to the times of Umi, the son of Liloa. There was also a third; 
a History of Kamehameha, a work specially undertaken at the 
request of the learned historian and lexicographer. Rev. Lorrin 
Andrews, and completed by David Malo after a year's applica- 
tion, during which he made an extended visit to' the island of 
Hawaii for the purpose of consulting the living authorities who 
were the repositories of the facts or eye-witnesses of the events 
to be recorded. This book was side-tracked very soon after its 
completion — even before reaching the hands of Mr. Andrews — 
and spirited away, since which time it has been hidden from the 
public eye. 



12 

David Malo Avas a man of strong character, deep and earnest: 
in his convictions, capable of precipitate and violent prejudices, 
inclining to be austere and at times passionate in temper, yet kind 
and 4oving withal, with a gift of pleasantry and having at bottom 
a warmth of heart wliich not only made friends but held him fast 
to friendships once formed. Though nurtured in the supersti- 
tious faith and cult of old Hawaii, and though a man of tenacious 
opinions, when the light reached him, the old errors were dissi- 
pated with the darkness, as clouds are dissolved by the rising 
sun, and his whole intellectual and moral nature felt the stimulus 
and burst forth with a new growth. Judging from frequent ref- 
erences to such matters in his writings, there must have existed 
to a more than usual degree in Malo's nature and spiritual make- 
up that special hunger and thirst which was to be met and more 
or less assuaged by what was contained in the message of Chris- 
tian civii'zatinn from across the water. So great was the ardor of 
his quest after knowledge that it is said to have been his custom 
to catechize the members of his family not only on points of doc- 
trine and belief, but along the lines of general information, on 
such points as were of interest to himself : the whale, the lion, the 
zebra, the elephant, the first man, the wind, the weather, the geog- 
raphy of the world — these were some of the topics on which he 
quizzed the young men and women, as well as the older ones, wha 
gathered in his family. There was room for no educational 
laggards under his roof. 

Malo was one of that class to whom the prophetic vision of the 
oncoming tide of invasion — peaceful thought it was to be — that 
was destined to overflow his native land and supplant in a measure 
its indigenous population, was acutely painful and not to be con- 
templated with any degree of philosophic calm ; and this in spite 
of the fact that he fully recognized the immense physical, moral 
and intellectual benefits that had accrued and were still further ta 
accrue to him. and his people from the coming of the white man 
to his shores. And this sentiment, which was like a division of 
councils in his nature, controlled many of his actions during his 
life, and decided the place of his burial after death. 

David Malo was not only a man of industry, but was able so 
to shape his enterprises as to make them serve as guides and 
incentives to a people who stood greatly in need of such leading. 
At a time when a movement was on foot looking to the industrial 



13 

development of the resources of the islands, he entered heartily into 
the notion — it could not be called a scheme — and endeavored to 
illustrate it by his own efforts, to such an extent that he went 
into the planting of cotton — on a small scale, of course — pur- 
chased a loom and had the fibre spun and woven by the members 
of his own family under the direction of Mrs. Richards and Miss 
Ogden. Afterwards, when walking about arrayed in a suit of his 
own homespun, on being asked where he had obtained the fabric 
— it was not of the finest — with beaming satisfaction he pointed 
to the earth as the source of its origin. At the time also when 
the sugar industry was yet in its earliest infancy in this country, 
he turned his hand in that direction also, and so far succeeded as 
to produce an excellent syrup from sugar cane of his own 
raising. 

In the "Narrative of the United States Exploring Expedition," 
by Charles Wilkes, U. S. N., while commenting upon observa- 
tions made during the year 1840, Admiral Wilkes, apropos of the 
book-making work under the care of the American missionaries 
and the writers of the various publications, says, "Some of them 
are by native authors. Of these I cannot pass at least one with- 
out naming him. This is David Malo, who is highly esteemed 
by all who know him, and who lends the missionaries his aid, 
in mind as well as example, in ameliorating the condition of his 
people and checking licentiousness. At the same time he sets 
an example of industry, by farming with his own hands, and rnan- 
ufactures from his own sugar cane an excellent molasses." 

In physique Malo was tall and of spare frame, active, energetic, 
a good man of business, eloquent of speech, independent in his 
utterances. He was of a type of mind inclined to be jealous and 
quick to resent any seeming slight in the way of disparagement or 
injustice that might be shown to his people or nation, and was 
one who held tenaciously to the doctrine of national integrity and 
independence. 

The real value of David Malo's contributions to the v/ritten his- 
tory and antiquities of ancient Hawaii is something that must 
be left for appraisal to the historian, the critic and student of Ha- 
waiian affairs. The lapse of years will no doubt sensibly appre- 
ciate this valuation, as well as the regret, which many even at the 
present time' feel n^iost keenly, that more was not saved from the 



14 

foundering bark of ancient Hawaii. If the student has to mourn 
the loss of bag and baggage, he may at least congratulate him- 
self on the saving of a portion of the scrip and scrippage — half a 
loaf is better than no bread. 

The result nf Malo's labors would no doubt have been much 
more satisfactory if they had been performed under the imme- 
diate supervision and guidance of some mentor capable of looking 
at the subject from a broad standpoint, ready with wise sugges- 
tion ; inviting the extension of his labors to greater length and 
specificness, with greater abundance of detail along certain lines, 
perhaps calling for the answer to certain questions that now re- 
main unanswered. 

As a writer David Malo was handicapped not only by the char- 
acter and limitations of the language which was his organ of liter- 
ary expression, but also by the rawness of his experience in the 
use of the pen. It was only about half a score of years before 
he broke ground as a literary man that scholars, with serious 
intent, had taken in hand his mother tongue and, after giving it 
such symbols of written expression as were deemed suitable to its 
needs, clothing its literary nakedness with a garb, which in homely 
simplicity and utility might be compared to the national holoku — 
the gift of the white woman to her Polynesian sister — and then, 
having sought out and culled from many sources the idioms and 
expressions that were pertinent and harmonious to the purpose, 
had grappled the difficult undertaking of translating the Christian 
Bible into the Hawaiian language. The result of these scholarly 
labors was indeerl a book, which in fitness, dignity and sublimity 
of expression might ofttimes be an inspiration to one whose 
mother tongue is none other than the Anglo-Saxon speech. But 
this work was not fully completed until 1839, at which time Malo 
must have been several years at his labors ; and though its effect 
is clearly discernible in the form in which he has cast his thought, 
yet it would be too much to expect that its influence should have 
availed to form in him a style representing the best power and 
range of the language ; certainly not to heal the infirmities and 
make amends for the evolutionary weaknesses of the Hawaiian 
speech. 

N. B. EMERSOX. 



PREFACE BY THE AUTHOR 



I do not suppose the following history to be free from mistakes, 
in that the material for it has come from oral traditions ; con- 
sequently it is marred by errors of human judgment and does 
not approach the accuracy of the word of God. 




OHU^C 




INTRODUCTION 

The trustees of the Bernice Pauahi Museum, by pubhshhig 
Dr. N. B. Emerson's translation of David Malo's Hawaiian 
Antiquities, are rendering an important service to all Polynesian 



•I -i.: — — i. ^„1,r f/-. TT 



o \sraiian 



EIRRATA. 

On page 48, Chapter X, Sect. 4, beginning with the second word of the 
second line, read : "and outside of the kua-au was a belt called kai-au, ho- 
au, kai-o-kilo-hee, that is, swimming deep or sea for spearing squid, or 
kai-hee-nalup that is, a surf-swimming region. jVnother name still for 
this belt was kai kohola.^" 

On page 68, section 12, first line for "pi-u," read : "pi-a, in Hillebrand's 
Flora of the Hawaiian Islands called piia," etc. 

On page 103. section 12, for the 4th line read : "go about eating from 
place to place (pakela ai), to be a shift." 

On page 152, section 17, first line, after the word "people," insert the 
word "oio." 



kind.'' Its vSue is very much enhanced by the learned notes and 
appendices with which Dr. Emerson has enriched it. 



INTRODUCTION 

The trustees of the Bernice Pauahl Museum, by publishhig 
Dr. N. B. Emerson's translation of David Malo's Hawaiian 
Antiquities, are rendering an important service to all Polynesian 
scholars. 

It will form a valuable contribution not only to Hawaiian 
archaeology, but also to Polynesian ethnology in general. 

It is extremely difficult at this late day to obtain any reliable 
information in regard to the primitive condition of any branch 
of the Polynesian race. It rarely happens in any part of the 
world that an alien can succeed in winning the confidence and 
gaining an, insight into the actual thoughts and feelings of a 
people separated from himself by profound differences of race, 
environment and education. But here another difficulty arises 
from the rapidity of the changes which are taking place through- 
out the Pacific Ocean, and from the inevitable mingling of old 
and new, which discredits much of the testimony of natives born 
and educated under the new regime. 

In the following work, however, we have the testimony ot 
one who was born and grew up to manhood under the tabu systen., 
who had himself been a devout worshipper of the old gods, who 
had been brought up at the royal' court, and who was considered 
by his countrymen as an authority on the subjects on which he 
afterwards wrote. 

His statements are confirmed in many particulars by those 
of John li of Kekuanaoa, of the elder Kamakau of Kaawaloa, and 
of the historian, S. M. Kamakau, the latter of whom, however, 
did not always keep his versions of the ancient traditions free 
from foreign admixture. 

Although David Malo evidently needed judicious advice as to 
his choice and treatment of subjects, some important topics hav- 
ing been omitted, and although his work is unfinished, yet it 
contains materials of great value for the "noblest study of man- 
kind." Its value is very much enhanced by the learned notes and 
appendices with which Dr. Emerson has enriched it. 



18 

The following statement may serve to clear away some mis- 
apprehensions. The first ''Moolelo Hawaii" {i e., Hawaiian 
History), was written at Lahainaluna about 1835-36 by some 
of the older students, among whom was David Malo, then 
42 years of age. They formed what may be called the first 
Hawaiian Historical Society. The work was revised by Rev. 
Sheldon Dibble, and was published at Lahainaluna in 1838. A 
translation of it into English by Rev. R. Tinker was published 
in the Hawaiian Spectator in 1839. It has also been translated 
into French by M. Jules Remy, and was published in Paris in 
1862. 

The second edition of the Moolelo Hawaii, which appeared 
in 1858, was compiled by Rev. J. F. Pogue, who added to the 
first edition extensive extracts from the manuscript of the present 
work, which was then the property of Rev. Lorrin Andrews, for 
whom it had been written, probably about 1840. 

David Malo's Life of Kamehameha I, which is mentioned by 
Dr. Emerson in his life of Malo, must have been written before 
that time, as it passed through the hands of Rev. W. Richards 
and of Nahienaena, who died December 30, 1836. Its disap- 
pearance is much to be deplored. 

W. D. ALEXANDER. 



Hav\laiiai\ |f\i\tiqaities 



CHAPTER L 

GENERAL REMARKS ON HAWAIIAN HISTORY. 

1. The traditions about the Hawaiian Islands handed down 
from remote antiquity are not entirely definite ; there is much 
obscurity as to the facts, and the traditions themselves are not 
clear. Some of the matters reported are clear and intelligible^ 
but the larger part are vague. 

2. The reason for this obscurity and vagueness is that the 
ancients were not possessed of the art of letters, and thus were 
unable to record the events they witnessed, the traditions handed 
down to them from their forefathers and the names of the lands 
in which their ancestors were born. They do, however, mention^ 
by name the lands in which they sojourned, but not the towns and 
the rivers. Because of the lack of a record of these matters it- 
is impossible at the present time to make them out clearly. 

3. The ancients left no records of the lands of their birth, of 
what people drove them out, who were their guides and leaders; 
of the canoes that transported them, what lands they visited in' 
their wanderings, and what gods they worshipped. Certain oral 
traditions do, however, give us the names of the idols of our 
ancestors. 

4. Memory was the only means possessed by our ancestors 
of preserving historical knowledge; it served them in place of 
books and chronicles. 

5. No doubt this fact explains the vagueness and uncertainty- 
of the more ancient traditions, of which some are handed down 
correctly, but the great mass incorrectly. It is likely there is 
greater accuracy and less error in the traditions of a later date.. 

6. Faults of memory in part explain the contradictions that 
appear in the ancient traditions, for we know by experience that 
"the heart* is the most deceitful of all things." 



20 

7. When traditions arc carried in the memory it leads to con- 
tradictory versions. One set think the way they heard the story 
is the true version; another set think theirs is the truth; a third 
set very Hkely purposely falsify. Thus it comes to pass that the 
traditions are split up and made worthless. 

8. The same cause no doubt produced contradictions in the 
genealogies (nioo-kuauliau) . The initial ancestor in one gene- 
alogy differed from that in another, the advocate of each gene- 
alogy claiming his own version to be the correct one. This cause 
also operated in the same way in producing contradictions .n 
the historical traditions; one party received the tradition in one 
way, another party received it in another way. 

g. In regard to the worship of the gods, different people had 
different gods, and both the worship and the articles tabued 
differed the one from the other. Each man did what seemed to 
him right, thus causing disagreement and confusion. 

10. The genealogies have many separate lines, each one dif- 
ferent from the other, but running into each other. Some of the 
genealogies begin with Knviu-lipo^ as the initial point ; otherti 
with Pali-ku ; others with Lolo'^ ; still others with Pn-amtc^ ; and 
others with Ka-po-hihif' This is not like the genealogy from 
Adam, which is one unbroken line without any stems. 

11. There are, however, three genealogies that are greatly 
thought of as indicating the Hawaiian people as well as their kings, 
These are Kinini-Upo, Pali-kii, and Lolo. And it would seem 
as if the Tahitians and Nuuhivans had perhaps the same origin, 
for their genealogies agree with these. 

NOTES TO CHAPTER I. 

(*Naau, literally bowels, is the word used for heart or moral nature. 
To commit to memory was hoopaa naaii.) ''^ ^ 

(i) Sect. 10. Kumu-lipo, origin in darkness, chaos. RipO'-ripo is 
a Polynesian word meaning vortex, abyss. In Hawaiian, with a change 
of the Maori and Tahitian r to /, it was applied to the blackness of the 
deep sea. Origin by Kumu-lipo may by a little stretch of imagination be 
regarded as implying the nebular hypothesis. 

(2) Sect. 10. Pali-ku meant literally vertical precipice. There is 
in the phrase a tacit allusion to a riving of the mountains by earthquake— 
cataclysmal theory of cosmogony. "Pali-ku na mauna" is an expression 
used in a pule. 



21 

(3) Sect. 10. Lolo, brains in modern Hawaiian parlance ; more an- 
ciently perhaps it meant the oily meat of the cocoanut prepared for mak- 
ing scented oil. (See Maori Comp. Diet., Tregear.) 

I have taken the liberty to omit the article o, which Mr. Malo had 
mistakenly incorporated with the word, thus leaving only the bare sub- 
stantive. 

(4) Sect. 10. Pu-anue; Mr. S. Percy Smith kindly suggests, Pu, 
stem, root, origin. Anuc, the rainbow. Cf. Samoan account of the 
origin of mankind from the Fue-sa, or sacred vine, which developed 
worms (iloilo), from which came mankind. 

(5) Sect. 10. Ka-po-hihi: The branching out or darting forth of 
pOj i. e., night or chaos. Po was one of the cosmic formative forces of 
Polynesia. H%hi\ to branch forth or spread out, as a growing vine. 
Po-hi-hi-hi means obscure, puzzling, mysterious. In Maori, Tahitian and 
Marquesan hihi means a sunbeam, a ray of the sun. N. B. The cosmo- 
gony of Southern Polynesia also included Kore, void or nothingness, as 
one of the primal cosmic forces. (See Kore, Maori Comp. Diet., Tregear.) 



CHAPTER 11. 

L. 

FORMATION OF THE LAND, 

{Cosmogony.) 

1. It is very surprising to hear how contradictory are the 
accounts given by the ancients of the origin of the land here 
in Hawaii. 

2. It is in their genealogies {moo-ku-aiihau) that we shall 
see the disagreement of their ideas in this regard. 

3. In the moo-kuauhau, or genealogy named Pu-anue^ it is 
saici that the earth and the heavens were begotten {hanau inaoli 
iiiai.) 

, 4. It was Kiiniitkujiiu-ke-kaa who gave birth to them, her 
husband being Paia-a-ka-lani. Another genealogy declares that 
Ka-mai-eli gave birth to the foundations of the earth {mole ka 
homia), the father being Kiniiu-homia. 

5. In the genealogy of Wakea it is said that Papa gave birth 
to these Islands. Another account has it that this group of 
islands were not begotten, but really made by the hands of Wakea 
himself. 



22 

6. We now perceive their error.. If the women in that an- 
cient time gave birth to countries then indeed would they do so 
in these days ; and if at that time they were made by the hands 
of Wakea, doubtless the same thing would be done now. 

7. In the genealogy called Knmn-lipo it is said that the land 
grew up of itself, not that it was begotten, nor that it was made 
by hand. 

8. Perhaps this is the true account and these Hawaiian islands 
did grow up of themselves, and after that human beings ap- 
peared on them. Perhaps this is the best solution of the mis- 
taken views held by the ancients ; who knows ? 

9. In these days certain learned men have searched into and 
studied up the origin of the Hawaiian Islands, but whether their 
views are correct no one can say, because they are but specu- 
lations. 

10. These scientists from other lands have advanced a theory 
and expressed the opinion that there was probably no land here 
in ancient times, only ocean ; and they think tnat the Islands rose 
up out of the ocean as a result of volcanic action. 

II Their reasons for this opinion are that certain islands are 
known which have risen up out of the ocean and which present 
features similar to Hawaii nei. Again a sure indication is that 
the soil of these Islands is wholly volcanic. All the islands of this 
ocean are volcanic, and the rocks, unlike those of the continents, 
have been melted in fire. Such are their speculations and their 
reasoning. 

12. The rocks of this country are entirely of volcanic origin. 
Most of the volcanoes are now extinct, but in past ages there were 
volcanoes on Maui and on all the Islands. For this reason it is 
believed that these Islands were thrown up from beneath the 
ocean. This view may not be entirely correct ; it is only a spec- 
ulation. 

13. It is possible, however, that there has always been land 
here from the beginning, but we cannot be sure because the tra- 
ditions of the ancients are utterly unreliable and astray in their 
vagaries. 

NOTE TO CHAPTER II. 

(i) Sect. 4. Paia-a-ka-lani: Paia was a Maori goddess, daughter of 
Rangi and Papa, sister of Tane, Tu, Tanga-loa and Kongo. 



23 
CHAPTER III. 

THE ORIGIN OF THE PRIMITIVE INHABITANTS OF HAWAII NEI. 

1. In Hawaiian ancestral genealogies it is said that the earliest 
inhabitants of these Islands were the progenitors of all the Ha- 
waiian people. 

2. In the genealogy called Kuimi-lipo it is said that the first 
human being was a woman named La'ila'i and that her ancestors 
and parents were of the night {he po wale no), that she was the 
progenitor of the (Hawaiian) race. 

3. The husband of this La'ilai v/as named Ke-alu-zvahi-lani 
(the king who opens heaven) ; but it is not stated who were the 
parents of Ke-aJii-wahi-lani, only that he was from the 
heavens; that he looked down and beheld a beautiful woman, 
La'ilai, dwelling in Lalazvaia; that he came down and took her to 
wife, and from the union of these two was begotten one of the an- 
cestors of this race. 

4. And after La'ila'i and her company it is again stated in the 
genealogy called Lolo that the first native Hawaiian {kanaka) 
was a man named Kahiko. His ancestry and parentage are given, 
but without defining their character ; it is only said he was a 
human being {kanaka). 

5. Ktipulanakehau was the name of Kahiko's wife; they begot 
Lihauula and Wakea. Wakea had a wife named Haumea, who 
was the same as Papa. In the genealogy called Pali-ku it is said 
that the parents and ancestors of Haumea the wife of Wakea 
were pali, i. e., precipices. With her the race of m.en was definitely 
established. 

6. These are the only people spoken of in the Hawaiian gen- 
ealogies ; they are therefore presumably the earliest progenitors 
of the Hawaiian race. It is not stated that they were born here 
in Hawaii. Probably all of these persons named were born in 
foreign lands, while their genealogi'^rs were preserved here in 
Hawaii. 

7. One reason for thinking so is that the countries where 
these people lived are given by name and no places in Hawaii are 
called by the same names. La'ila'i and Ke-alii-wahi-lani lived in 
Laiowaia ; Kahiko and Kupu-lana-ke-hau lived in Kamawae-lua- 
lani; Wakea and Papa lived in Lolo-i-meham.'^ 



24 

S. There is another fact mentioned in the genealogies, to-w it : 
that when Wakea and Papa were divorced from each other. 
Papa went away and iwelt in Xuu-!'mha-laHi.- There 15 no place 
here in Hawaii called Xuu-meha-lani. The probability is rliat 
these names belong to some foreign coimtrv*. 

>-OrES TO CHAPTER HI. 

(i) Seer. 7. Lcl:>-i-mehani: It' .V.%k:«{ in Raiatea was the Tahitian 
Hades. 

^j> Seer. S. Xuu-mcha-l^ni I undoubtedly the same as Xuu-mea-lani- 



CHAPTER IV. 



OF THE Gr:XERATIOXS PH^CEXDED FROM WAKE-\. 

1. It is said that from Wakea down to the death of Haitnic^ 
there were six grenerations, and that these generations all lived 
in Lolo-i-mehani : but it is not stared that they lived in any other 
place: nor is it stared that they came here to Hawaii to live. 

2. Following these six generations of men came nineteen 
generations, one of which, it is supposed, mig^ted hither and 
lived here in Hawaii, because it is stated that a man named 
Kapawa, of the twentieth generation, was bom in Kukaniloko. in 
Waialiia, on Oahu. 

3. It is clearly established that from Kapawa down to the 
present time generations of men continued to be bom here in 
Hawaii : but it is no: stated that people came to this country- from 
Lolo-i-mehani: nor is it stated who they were that tirst came and 
settled here in Hawaii : nor that they came in canoes, -ivaa; nor at 
what time they arrived here in Hawaii. 

4. It is thought that th.is people came from lands near Tahiti 
and from Tahiti itself, because the ancient Hawaiians at an early 
date mentioned th.e name of Tahiti in their ; .clcV, pravers. and 
legends. 

5. I will me::: ion son:e of th.e geographical names given in 
meles : K^'iiki-Jwnitci-kcW: A ::.:^:.:-:-;>:j:ii,- Holani,^ r/.z;.\?-;/, 
Xuii-hki'a: in legends or .^.:v:.o. Upc::t, Waz^v.u, Kuk^ru^iki^, 
A':<.::^;r.\:;ii: in prayers. U'.iua. Mcic^>:c^c, Po/a/*o.\:. Hack.::, 
.Vao kiiuhtJii, Hana k<ua u u :'. 



or. 



0. Torhaps thoso names beloui;' to lands in Tahiti. Where, 
indeed, are they? Very Hkely our ancestors sojourned in these 
lands before they came hither to Hawaii. 

7. Perhaps because of their affection for Tahiti and Hawaii 
they applied the name Kahiki--nui to a district of Maui, and 
named iliis group ([>iic-iU)ia) Hawaii. If not that, possibly the 
names of the lirst men to settle on these shores were Hawaii. 
Maui. Oixhu, Kauai, and at their death the islands were called 
by their names. 

S. The following- is one way by which knowledge regarding 
Tahiti actually did reach these shores: A\\^ are informed (by 
historical tradition) that two men named Paao and i\Iakua- 
kaumana. with a company of otliers, voyaged hither, observing 
the stars as a compass ; and that Paao remained in Kohala. while 
IMakua-kaumana returned to Tahiti. 

o. Paao aiTived at Hawaii during tlie rei^n of Lo}}o~k\i-:<'ai,* 
tlie king of Hawaii. Pie (Lono-ka-wai) was the sixteenth in that 
line of kings, succeeding Kapawa. 

10. Paao continued to live in Kohala until the kiui^s of Hawaii 
became degraded and corrupted (//t^rci;) : then he sailed away 
to Tahiti to fetch a king from thence. Pili'' (Kaaica) was that 
king and he became one in Hawaii's line of king's (popa alii). 

11. It is thoug-ht that Kapua in Kona was the point of Paao's 
departure, whence he sailed aw ay in his canoe : but it is not stated 
what kind oi a canoe it was. In his voyage to Hawaii, Pili was 
accompanied by Paao and Makua-kaumana and others. The 
canoes (probably two coupled together as a double canoe — Trans- 
lator) were named Ka-fuilo-a-mu-iiL We have no information 
as to whether these canoes were of the kind called Pain. 

12. Tradition has it that on his vovace to this countrv Pili 
W'as accompanied by tw o sclvxMs of fish, one of of^chi and another 
of ahu, and when the w*ind k"icked up a sea. the aku would 
frisk and the oh'hf would assemble toi:ether, as a result of which 
the ocean would entirely calm down. In this way Pili and his 
company were enabled to voyage till they reached Hawaii. On 
this account the of^clu and the okn were subject to a tabu in 
ancient times. After his arrival at Hawaii. Pili was established 



26 

as king over the land, and his name was one of the ancestors in 
Hawaii's line of kings. 

13. There is also a tradition of a man named Moikeha, who 
came to this country from Tahiti in the reign of Kalapana, king 
of Hawaii. 

14. After his arrival Moikeha went to Kauai to live and took 
to wife a woman of that island named Hinauulua, by whom he 
had a son, to whom he gave the name Kila. 

15. When Kila was grown up he in turn sailed on an expe- 
dition to Tahiti, taking his departure, it is said, from the west-^ 
ern point of Kahoolawe. for which reason that cape is to this day 
called Kc-ala-i-kahiki (the route to Tahiti). 

16. Kila arrived in safety at Tahiti and on his return 
to these shores brought back with him Laa-mai-kahiki.'' On the 
arrival of Laa was introduced the use of the kaekecke^ drum. 
An impetus was given at the same time to the use of sinnet in 
canoe lashing (aha hoa waa), together with improvements in the 
plaited ornamental knots or lashings, called lanalana^ The names 
I have mentioned are to be numbered among the ancestors of 
Haw^aiian kings and people, and such was the knowledge and 
information obtained from Tahiti in ancient times, and by such 
means as I have described was it received. 

17. The Hawaiians are thought to be of one race with the 
people of Tahiti and the Islands adjacent to it. The reason for 
this belief is that the people closely resemble each other in their 
physical features, language, genealogies, traditions (and leg- 
ends), as well as in (the names of) their deities. It is thought 
that very likely they came to Hawaii in small detachments. 

19. It seems probable that this was the case from the fact 
that in Tahiti they have large canoes called pahi; and it seems 
likely that its possession enabled them to make their long voyages 
to Hawaii. The ancients are said to have been skilled also in 
observing the stars, which served them as a mariner's compass 
in directing their course. 

20. The very earliest and most primitive canoes of the Ha- 
waiians were not termed pahi, nor yet were they called iiiokit 
(ships) ; the ancients called them zvaa. 



27 

21. It has been said, hov/ever, that this race of people came 
from the lezva^^^ the firmament, the atmosphere ; from the wind- 
ward or back of the island {kua o ka inoku). 

22. The meaning of these expressions is that they came from 
a foreign land, that is the region of air, and the front of that land 
is at the back of these islands. 

23. Perhaps this was a people forced to flee hither by war, 
o;" driven in this direction by bad winds and storms. Perhaps by 
the expression lewa, or regions of air, Asia is referred to ; perhaps 

^this expression refers to islands they visited on their way hither ; 
so that on their arrival they declared they came from the back 
(the windward) of these islands. 

24. Perhaps this race of people was derived from the Israel- 
ites, because we know that certain customs of the Israelites, were 
practiced here in- Hawaii. 

25. Circumcision, places of refuge, tabus (and ceremonies of 
purification) relating to dead bodies and their burial, tabus and 
restrictions pertaining to a flowing woman, and the tabu that 
secluded a woman as defiled during the seven days after child- 
birth — all these customs were formerly practiced by the people 
of Hawaii. 

26. Perhaps these people are those spoken of in the Word of 
God as "the lost sheep of the House of Israel," because on in- 
spection we clearly see that the people of Asia are just like the 
inhabitants of these islands, of Tahiti and the lands adjacent. 

NOTES TO CHAPTER IV. 

(i) Sect. 5. Kahiki-honua-kele : In Hawaiian the root kele is part 
of the word kele-kele meaning muddy, miry, or fat, greasy. In Tonga 
the meaning also is muddy. It is a word applied to the soil. 

(2) Sect. 5. Anana-i-malu : Mr. S. P. Smith suggests that Anana is 
the same as ngangana, an ancient name for some part of Hawa-iki raro, 
or tlie Fiji and Samoan groups. 

(3) Sect. 5, Holani: It is suggested that this is the same as Herangi, 
the Maori name for a place believed to be in Malaysia. 

(4). According to the ULU GENEALOGY, given by Fornander, 
"The Polynesian Race," Vol. I, p. 191, Lana-ka-wai is the seventeenth 
name after Hele-i-pawa. It seems probable, as implied by Fornander, 
loc. cit. Vol. II, p. 21, that Hele-i-pawa and Ka-pawa were the same per- 
son ; also that Lana-ka-wai is an erroneous orthography for Lono-ka- 



28 

wai. Granting these emendations, the problem of reconciHng the tangled 
skein of Hawaiian genealogies is made a little easier.) 

(5) Sect. 10. Pili (Kaaiea) : Pili is an ancient Samoan name. 

(6) Fahi is the Tahitianor Paumotuan for boat, ship, or canoe. In* 
Mangarevan pahi means ship.) 

(7.) Laa was a son of Moikeha who had remained in Tahiti. 
.^ (8.) The harkccke was a carved, hollow log, covered with shark- 
skin at one end and used as a drum to accompany the hula.) 

(9.) Lanalana is the name applied to the lashing that bound the auio 
or float to the curved cross-pieces of the canoe's outrigger. These lash- 
ings were often highly ornamental. One of them was called pa'ti-o-lnukia,. 
a very decorative affair, said to have been so styled from the corset, or 
woven contrivance, by which Moikeha' s paramour, the beautiful Luukia, 
defended herself against the assaults of her lover, when she had become 
alienated from him. Aha is used substantively to mean sinnet, or the 
lashing of a canoe made from sinnet, Lanalana is not used substantively 
to mean smnet. 

(^10.) According to Wm. Wyatt Gill the Mangaians represent all ships 
as breaking through from the sky. This expression is in strict accordance 
with the cosmogony of the time, that the earth was a plain, the sky a 
dome, and the horizon a solid wall — kukulu — on which the heavens 
rested. 



CHAPTER V. 



NAMES GIVEN TO DIRECTIONS OR THE POINTS OF THE COMPASS. 

I The ancients named directions or the points of the compass 
from the course of the sun. The point where the sun rose was 
called knkuhi ^ hikina, and where the sun set was called kukulu 
komohana. . ' , 

2. If a m.an faces towards the sunset his left hand will point 
to the south, kukulu liema, his right to the north kukulu akau. 
These names apply only to the heavens (laui), not^ to the land or 
is\2Lnd(mokupu)ii). 

3. These points were named differently when regard was had 
to the borders or coasts (aoao) of an island. If a man lived on 
the western side of an island the direction of sun-rising was termed 
uka, and the direction of sun-setting kai, so termed because he had 
to ascend a height in going inland, uka, and descend to a lower 
level in going to the sea, kai.^ 



29 

4. Again, north, kukuln akau, is also spoken of as lima, or 
i-lnrw, up and south is spoken of as lalo. down, the reason being 
that that quarter of the heavens, north, when the (prevaihng) 
wind blows is spoken of as up, and the southern quarter, towards 
which it blows, is spoken of as down. 

5. As to the heavens, they are called the solid above, ka paa 
iliiua,^ the parts attached to the earth are termed ka paa Halo, the 
solid below ; the space between the heavens and the earth is some- 
times termd ka lewa, the space in which things hang or swing. 
Another name is ka hookiii, ^ the point of juncture, and another 
still is ka halawai;' i. e., the meeting. 

6. To a man living on the coast of an island the names applied 
to the points of compass, or direction, varied according to the side 
of the island on which he lived. 

7. If he lived on the eastern side of the island he spoke of the 
west as uka, the east as kai. This v/as when he lived on the side 
looking east. For the same reason he would term South akau, be- 
cause his right hand pointed in that direction, and north he would 
term hciiia,^ i. e., left, because his left hand pointed that way. 

9. In the same way by one living on the southern exposure of 
an island, facing squarely to the south, the east would be called 
liana, left, akau, the west. • 

10. So also to one living on the northern face of an island the 
names apphed to the points of compass are correspondingly all 
changed about. 

\ I. Here is another style of naming the east: from the coming 
of the sun it is called the sun arrived, ka-la-hiki, and the place of 
the sun's setting is called ka-la-kau, the sun lodged. Accordingly 
the\' had the expression mat ka la hiki a ka la kau from the sun 
arrived to the sun lodged; or they said viai kela p((a a keia pau,"^ 
from that solid to this solid. 

12. These terms applied only to the borders, or coasts, of an 
island, not to the points of the heavens, for it was a saying "O Ha- 
waii ka la hiki, o Kauai ka la kau," Hawaii is the sun arrived, 
Kauai is the sun lodged. The north of the islands was spoken 
of as "that solid," kela paa, and the south of the group as "this 
solid," keia paa. It was in this sense they used the expression 
"from that firmament— or solid— to this firmament." 



30 

13- According to another way of speaking- of directions 
{kukulu), the circle of the horizon encompassing the earth at the 
borders of the ocean, where the sea meets the base of the heavens, 
kumu laniy this circle was termed kukuJu o ka honua, the compass 
of the earth- 

14. The border of the sky where it meets the ocean-horizon is 
termed the kukv.lu-o-ka-lani, the n-alls of heaven. 

15. The circle or zone of the earth's surface, w^hether sea or 
land, which the eye traverses in looking to the horizon is called 
Kahikimoe. 

16. The circle of the slc\- which bends upwards from the hor- 
izon is Kahiki-ku : above Kahiki-ku is a zone called Kahiki-ke- 
papa-nuu; and above that is Kahiki-ke-papa-Iani ; and directly over 
head is Kahiki-kapui-holani-ke-kuina. 

I/. The space directly beneath the heavens is called lezi'a-lani : 
beneath that, where the birds fly, is called Iczca-n u u : beneath that 
is lewa~lani-lczx:a ; and beneath that, the space in which a man's 
body would swing were he suspended from a tree, with his feet 
clear of the earth, was termed Icz<a-hoo)}iakua. By such a termi- 
nolog>' as this did the ancients designate direction. 

(i) Sect. I. Kukuht was a , wall or vertical erection, such as was 
supposed to stand at the limits of the horizon 3.nd support the dome of 
heaver. Hikina is the contracted form of hiki ana coming, appearing. 
Komjhana is the contracted form of komo and hana. which latter is rep- 
resented in modem Hawaiian by ana, the present participial ending. 

(3) Sect. 3. The explanation ^iven of this terminology is a 
complete begging of the question, and is no explanation at all. 

(4J Sect. 5. Ka paj iluna is literally the upper Urmament, taking 
this word in its original and proper meaning. 

(6) Sect. 5. Ka halaziai. This last expression is probably applied 
to the horizon, the line where the walls of heaven join the plain of the 
earth. 

I 2) Sect. 2. I think Malo is mistaken in this statement. The terms 
Jiihina, or kuktdu-hikina, komohana, etc., as designating East, West, 
Xorth, South, were of general application, on sea and on land*; whereas, 
the expressions uka and kai, with their prefixes ma and i, making makai 
and ikai, mauka and iuka, etc., had sole reference to position on or ten- 
dency towards land or sea, towards or away from the centre of the island. 
The primitive and generic meaning of the word uka, judging from its uses 
in the Southern languages, was that of stickiness, solidity, standing 



31 

ground. Where a man's feet stood on solid ground was uka. Nowhere 
in the world more than in the Pacific could the distinction between terra 
Hrrna and the continent of waters that surrounded it be of greater im- 
portance, and the necessity for nicely and definitely distinguishing it in 
language be more urgent. The makers of the Hawaiian tongue and speech 
well understood their own needs. 

(5) Sect. 5. Hookui is undoubtedly that part of the vault of heaven, 
the zenith, where the sweeping curves of heaven's arches meet; the hala- 
wai was probably the line of junction between the kukulu, walls or pillars 
on which rested the celestial dome, and the plane of the earth. The use 
of these two terms is illustrated in the following : 

PULE HOOLA 

Na Au-makua mai ka la hiki a ka la kau, 
Mai ka hoo-kui a ka halawai! 
Na Au-makua ia ka-hina-kua, ia ka-hina-alo , 
la kaa-akau i ka lanij 
5 O kiha i ka lani. 
Owe i ka lani, 
Nunulu i ka lani, 
Kaholo i ka lani, 

Eia ka pulapula a oukou, Mahoe. 
10 E malama oukou iaia., etc., etc. 

Ye ancestral deities from the rising to the setting of the sun ! 
From the zenith to the horizon! 

Ye ancestral deities who stand at our back and at our front ! 
Ye gods who stand at our right hand ! 
5 A breathing in the heavens. 
An utterance in the heavens, 
A clear, ringing voice in the heavens, 
A voice reverberating in the heavens ! 
Here comes your child, Mahoe. 
10 Safeguard him ! etc., etc. 

(7) Sect. II. Mai kela paa a keia paa, literally from one firmament 
to another firmament, direction in a vertical line. 

I should be remarked that the Hawaiian of today is utterly and en- 
tirely unacquainted with these terms. He may have heard them used by 
his grandmother, or some wise person, but not one in a thousand can ex- 
plain their use or meaning. 

(8) Sect. 8. There certainly has been no such confusion in the use 
of these terms among the Hawaiians of the present generation as to lead 
one to think that David Malo's statements are not mistaken. The Hawai- 
ians as a race of navigators from their earhest traditional recollection, 
are now and must have been eminently cle^-headed in all that concerned 



^ 



32 

matters of direction. I do not believe their terminology of direction was 
quite so confused as would appear from Malo's statements. The Hawai- 
ian, in common with other Polynesians, was alive to the importance of 
marking the right-handed and left-handed direction of things relative to 
himself, and it is easy to believe that for temporary and supplemental 
purposes he might for the moment indicate a northerly direction by refer- 
ence to his left side, but that it was more than a temporary, or incidental 
use I do not credit. It is true that his term for North was Akau, the 
same as was used to express the right; but it must be observed that in 
designating the points of the compass they coupled with the Hema, or 
Akau, the word kukulu. 



CHAPTER VI. 



TERMS USED TO DESIGNATE SPACE ABOVE AND BELOW. 

1. The ancients applied the following names to the divisions of 
space above us. The space immediately above one's head when 
standing erect is spoken of as luna-ae ; above that luna-aku; above 
that luna-loa-akn ; above that hina-lilo-aku ; above that luna-lilo- 
loa; and abbve that, in the firmament where the clouds float, is 
Inna-o-ke-ao; and above that were three divisions called respect- 
ively ke-ao-nhi, ka-lani-nli and ka-lani-paa, the solid heavens. 

2. Ka-lani-paa is that region in the heavens which seems sO' re- 
mote when one looks up into the sky. The ancients imagined that 
in it was situated the track along which the sun travelled until it 
set beneath the ocean, then turning back in its course below till it 
climbed up again at the east. The orbits of the moon and the stars 
also were thought to be in the same region with that of the sun, 
but the earth was supposed to be solid and motionless. 

3. The cloudS; which are objects of importance in the sky, were 
named from their color or appearance. A black cloud was termed 
cleele, if" blue-black it was called tiliuli, if glossy black hiwahiwa, 
or polo-hiwa. Another name for such a cloud was panopano. 

4. A white cloud was called keokeo, or kea. If a cloud had a 
greenish tinge it was termed luaomao, if a yellowish tinge lena. 
A red cloud was termed ao ula, or kiawe-iila or onohi-ula, red 
eye-ball. If a cloud hung low in the sky it was termed hoo-lewa- 
leum, or the term hoo-peJni-pehu, swollen, was applied to it. A 
sheltering cloud was called hoo-jnahc-mohi, a thick black cloud 



33 

hoo-koko-lii, a threatening cloud hoo-zveli-zveli. Clouds were 
named according to their character. 

5. If a cloud was narrow and long, hanging low in the horizon, 
it was termed opua, a bunch or cluster. There were many kinds 
of opua each being named according to its appearance. If the 
leaves of the opua pointed downwards it might indicate wind or 
storm, but if the leaves pointed upwards, calm weather. If the 
cloud was yelloAvish and hung low in the horizon it was called 
newe-newey plump, and was a sign of very calm weather. 

6. If the sky in the w^estern horizon was blue-black, uli-uli, 
at sunset it was said to be pa-uli and was regarded as prognosti- 
cating a high surf, kai-koo. If there was an opening in the cloud, 
like the jaw of the au, (sv/ord fish), it was called ena and was. 
considered a sign of rain. 

7. When the clouds in the eastern heavens were red in patches' 
before sunrise it was called kahea (a call) and was a sign of rain.. 
If the cloud lay smooth over the mountains in the morning it was. 
termed papala and foretokened rain. It was also a sign of rain: 
when the mountains were shut in with blue-black clouds, and this 
appearance was termed pala-moa. There were many other signs 
that betokened rain. 

8. If the sky Avas entirely overcast, with almost no wind, it 
was said to be poi-pn (shut up), or hoo-ha-Jm, or hoo-ht-luhi; and 
if the wind started up the expression hoo-ka-kaa, a rolling to- 
gether, was used. If the sky was shut in with thick, heavy clouds. 
it was termed hakiima, and if the clouds that covered the sky 
were exceedingly black it was thought that Ku-lani-ha-koi was- 
in them., the place whence came thunder,- lightning, wind, rain,, 
violent storms. 

9. When it rained, if it was with wind, thunder, lightning and 
perhaps a rainbow, the rain-storm would probably not continue 
long. But if the rain was unaccompanied by wind it would prob- 
ably be a prolonged storm. When the western heavens are red 
at sunset the appearance is termed aka-ula (red shadow or glow), 
and is loooked upon as a sign that the rain will clear up. 

10. When the stars fade away and disappear it is ao, daylight,, 
and when the sun rises day has come, we call it la; and when the 
sun becomes \varm, morning is past. When the sun is directly 
overhead it is azvakea, r\oon\ and when the sun inclines to the 



34 

west in the afternoon the expression is ua aui ka la. After that 
comes evening, called ahi-ahi (ahi is lire) and then sunset, napoo 
ka la, and then comes po, the night, and the stars shine out. 

11. Midnight, the period when men are wrapped in sleep, is 
called aii-inoe, (the tide of sleep). When the milky way passes 
the meridian and inclines to the west, people say ua hnii ka i'a, 
the fish has turned, Ua ala-ula mai o kua, ua mokii ka pawa o ke 
00 ; a kcokco luaiika, a ivelie ke ala-v.la, a pua-le.na, a ao loa, i. e., 
there comes a glimmer of color in the mountains, the curtains of 
night are parted; the mountains light up; day breaks; the east 
hlooms with yellow ; it is broad daylight. 

12. Rain is an important phenomenon from above; it lowers 
"the temperature. The ancients thought that smoke from below 
turned into clouds and produced rain. Some rain-storms have 
their origin at a distance. The kona was a storm of rain with wind 
from the south, a heavy rain. The hoolua-storm was likewise at- 
tended with heavy rain, but with wind from the north. The naidUf 
accompanied with rain, is violent but of short duration. 

13. The rain called aiva is confined to the mountains, while 
that called knalait occurs at sea. There is also a variety of rain 
termed a-okiL. A water-spout was termed zvai-piii-lani. There 
Avere many names used by the ancients to designate appropriately 
the varieties of rain peculiar to each part of the island coast; the 
people of each region naming the varieties of rain as they deemed 
fitting. A protracted rain-storm was termed ua-loa, one of short 
duration ua poko, a cold rain ua hea. 

14. The ancients also had names for the different winds.^ 

15. Wind always produced a coolness in the air. There was 
the koiia, a w^ind from the south, of great violence and of wide 
extent. It affected all sides of an island, east, west, north and 
south, and continued for many days. It was felf as a gentle wind 
on the Koolau — the north-eastern or trade-wind — side of an island, 
but violent and tempestuous on the southern coast, or the front of 
the islands, (ke alo o na moknpuni) , 

16. The kona wind often brings rain, though sometimes it is 
rainless. There are many different names applied to this wind. 
The kona-ku is accompanied with an abundance of rain ; but the 
kona-mae, the withering kona, is a cold wind. The kona-lani 
hrings slight showers ; the kona-hea is a cold storm ; and the kona 



35 

hili-inaia — the banana-thrashing kona — blows directly from the 
mountains. 

17. The hoolua, a wind that blows from the north, sometimes 
brings rain and sometimes is rainless. 

18. The hmi is a wind from the mountains, and they are 
thought to be the cause of it, because this wind invariably blows 
from the mountains outwards towards the circumference of the 
island.- ■ 

19. There is a wind which blows from the sea, and is thought 
to be the current of the land-breeze returning again to the mount- 
ains. This wind blows only on the leeward exposure or front 
{do) of an island. In some parts this wind is named eka (a name 
used in Kona, Hawaii), in others aa, (a name used at Lahaina and 
elsewhere,), in others kai-a-ulu, and in others still imi-wai.^ There 
was a great variety of names applied to the winds by the ancients 
as the people saw fit to name them in different places, 

20. The place beneath where we stand is called lalo ; below 
that is lalo-o-ka-lcpo (under ground) ; still below that is lalo-liloa 
(the full form of the expression would be lalo-lilo-loa) ; the region 
still further below the one last mentioned was called lalo-ka-papa- 

21. A place in the ocean was said to be maloko ke kai, that 
is where fish always live. Where the ocean looks black it is very 
deep and there live the great fish. The birds make their home in 
the air; some birds live in the mountains. 

(i) Sect. 14. It would be a hopeless task to enumerate all the names 
use din designating the winds on the different islands. The same wind 
was often called by as many names on the same island as there were capes 
and headlands along the coast of that island. See the legend of Kama- 
puaa for a list of names of winds about Oahu, also the story of Paka'a. 

(2) Sect. iS. Hall. Evidently the land-breeze. 

(3) Sect. 19. Inu-wai, water-drinking, is a name not frequently ap- 
pHed to a rainless Avind that wilts and dries up the herbage. 

(4) Sect. 20. "The general support of tradition is given to the idea 
that Papa is the same person as Papa-tu-a-nukti (earth standing in space) ; 
but White gives legends affirming that Papa-tu a-nuku was really the wife 
of Tangaroa, and that Rangi and Tangaroa fought for her possession 
(mythically ocean and sky claiming and warring for earth.) Tangaroa 

was the victor," etc. Maori Comp. Diet., Edward Tregear. Article on 
Papa J Papa-tu-a-naku (mythological.) 



36 

(5) Sect. 20. In a song of rejoicing by Kukaloloa, celebrating the 
escape of Keoua-kuhauula and Keawe-mauhili, after the battle of Moku- 
ohai, in which Kamehameha I was victorious, I find the following : 

Moku ka ia i ka papa-ku o Wakea, 
O Wakea hauli i ka lani, 
Hauli i ka papa-ku o Lono. 

MSS. Notes on the Waa p. 14. 

This ancient mele has two meanings, like very many Hawaiian meles. 
The archaic meaning I cannot yet make out. Polikapa gives me the fol- 
lowing, which seems to me ingenious, but modern. 

Torn is the fish from the embrace of Wakea,. 
Wakea who has fallen from heaven, 
Fallen to the level of the hard world. 

The phrase moku ia is generally used to mean the turning of the 
milky way towards the west at midnight, and papa-ku the underground 
stratum that would have to be passed before one reached Milu or Hades, 
if any one can tell which that is. In the modern meaning, which is the 
one I ]la^ e given, ia (literally a iiph) means a wonian, while papa-ku o 
Wakea means the breast, i. e., the embrace of Wakea, 

Hauli i ka lani, literally has fallen from heaven, may mean has been 
robbed of his paradise, that is, his companion. Papa-ku Lono, I am 
told, means the back of a man, a slang phrase, archaic slang, i. e., a figura- 
tive form of expression, such as abound in the wilderness of Hawaiian 
poetic phraseology. But into plain speech, the meaning of this poetical 
fragment is, the woman has been torn from the embrace of Wakea; Wa- 
kea has lost his paradise; his consort has been carried away on the back 
of another. 

The interpretation of the passage has apparently led me far afield and 
landed me in unknown territory. I can see in it a possible allusion to the 
separation of Wakea from his wife Papa, which according to Southern 
Polynesian myth was the lifting up of the vault of heaven from the plain 
of the Earth, Papa ; but in Hawaiian tradition was often spoken of as the 
divorce of the woman Papa by the man, her husband, Wakea. 



^ CHAPTER VII. 

NATURAL AND ARTIFICIAL DIVISIONS OF THE LAND. 

I. The ancients gave names to the natural features of the land 
according to their ideas of fitness. Tv^^o names were used to in- 
dicate an island ; one was mokuy another was aina. As separated 
from other islands by the sea, the term moku (cut off) was an- 



37. 

plied to it ; as the stable dwelling place of men, it was called aina, 
land, (place of food). 

2. When many islands were grouped together, as in Hawaii 
nei, they were called pae-moku or pae-aina; if but one moku or 
aina. 

3. If one (easily) voyaged in a canoe from one island to an- 
other, the island from which he went and that from which he 
sailed were termed moku kele i ka waa, an island to be reached by 
a canoe, because they were both to be reached by voyaging in a 
canoe. 

4. Each of the larger divisions of this group, like Hawaii, Maui 
and the others, is called a moku-puni {mokiif cut off, and puni, 
surrounded). 

5. An island is divided up into districts called apana, pieces, or 
moku-o-loko, interior divisions, for instance Kona on Hawaii, or 
Hana on Maui, and so with the other islands. 

6. These districts are subdivided into other sections which are 
termed sometimes okana and sometimes kalana. A further sub- 
division within the okana is the poko. 

7. By still further subdivision of these sections was obtained a 
tract of land called the ahu-piiaa, and thf ahu-puaa was in turn 
divided up into pieces called ili-aina. 

8. The ili-aina were subdivided into pieces called moo-aina, 
and these into smaller pieces called pauku-aina (joints of land), 
and the pauku-aina into patches or farms called kihapai. Below 
these subdivisions came the koele} the haku-one^ and the kuakua.^ 

9. According to another classification of the features of an 
island the mountains in its centre are called kua^hiwi, back-bone, 
and the name kua-lono^ is applied to the peaks or ridges which 
form their summits. The rounded abysses beneath are (extinct) 
craters, lua pele. 

10. Below the kua-hiwi comes a belt adjoining the rounded 
swell of the mountain called kua-mauna or mauna, the mountain- 
side. 

11. The belt below the kua-mauna, in which small trees grow, 
is called kua-hea, and the belt below the kua-hea, where the larger 
sized forest-trees grow is called wao,^ or wao-nahele, or ufao-eiwa. 



38 

12. The belt below the wao-eizva was the one in which the 
monarchs of the forest grew, and was called wao-maukelc, and 
the belt below that, in which again trees of smaller size grew was 
called ivao-akua,^ and below the wao-akiia comes the belt called 
zvao-kanaka or ma'u. Here grows the am' au-ievn and here men 
cultivate the land. 

13. Below the mau comes the belt called apaa (probably be- 
cause the region is likely to be hard, baked, sterile), and below this 
comes a belt called iliina'' and below the ilima comes a belt 
called pahee, slipper}^^ and below that comes a belt called ktila 
(plain, open co^mtry) near to the habitations of men, and still 
below this comes the belt bordering the ocean called kahakai, the 
mirk of the ocean (kaha^ mark, and kai, sea.) 

14. There are also other names to designate the features of the 
land : The hills that stand here and there on the island are called 
putij a lump or protuberance; if the hills stand in line they are 
designated as a lalani puu or pae puu; if they form a cluster of 
hills they are designated kini-kini puu or olozvalu pun. 

15. A place of less eminence was called an ahua; or if it was 
lower still an ohu^ or if of still less eminence (a plateau) it was 
termed kahua.^ 

16. A narrow strip of high land, that is a ridge, was called 
a lapa or a kua-lapa, and a region abounding in ridges was called 
olapa-lapa. 

17. A long depression in the land, a valley, was called a kaha- 
wai; it was also called aivaiva or owazva, 

18. Those places where the land rises up abrupt and steep like 
the side of a house are named pali; ^^ if less decided precipitous 
they are spoken of as opalipali. 

19. A place where runs a long and narorw stretch of beaten 
earth, a road namely, is turmed ala-nui; another name is kiia-moo 
(lizard-back). \Nhcn a road passed around the circumference 
of the island it was called the ala-loa. A place where the road 
climbed an ascent was termed pii'na; another name Avas hoopivna: 
another name still was koo-ku, and still another name was aukit. 

20. Where a road passed down a descent it was termed iho'na, 
or alu, or ka-olo (oh-kaa, to roll down hill), or ka-hia or hooL 



39 

ho'na. The terraces or stopping places on a (steep) road where 
people are wont to halt and rest are called oi-o-ina. 

21. A (natural) water-course or a stream of water was called 
a kahazvai (scratch of water) ; its source or head was called kuiiiit- 
wai; its outlet or mouth was called miku-zmi. An (artificial) 
ditch or' stream of water for irrigating land is called aw zvai 
When a stream mingles with sea water (as in the slack water of 
a creek) it is termed a mnJi-ivai. A body of water enclosed by 
land, i. e., a lake or pond, is called a loko. 

NOTES TO CHAPTER VII. 

(i) Sect. 8. A koelc was a piece of land seized by an alii while 
under cultivation by serf or peasant. The peasant was required to keep 
it still under cultivation, but the land and the crops went to the alii. The 
work devoted to its cultivation was called hana po-alima, because Friday 
v/as the day generally given ^ip to work for the alii. 

(2.) Sect. 8. Haku-onc was the small piece of land under cultivation 
by the peasant which the konohiki seized for his own use, though the 
peasant had to continue its cultivation. A peasant, for instance, had six 
taro-patches ; the alii appropriated the best one for himself, and that was 
called koele. The konohiki, or haku-aina, took another for himself and 
that was called hakii-one. 

(3.) Sect 8. The kua-kya was a broad kuauna or embankment be- 
tween two wet patches which, was kept under cultivation. 

(4. Sect. 9. I am informed on good authority that a kua-lono was 
a broad plateau between two vallies, while a kua-lapa was a narrow ridge. 

(5) Sect. II. IVao is the name of any kind 'of a wilderness or un- 
inhabited region, the abode of gods, spirits and gho=t?. 

(6) Sect. 12. Wao-akua. In this phrase, which means wilderness 
of gods, we have embodied the popular idea that gods and ghosts chiefly 
inhabit the waste places of the earth. 

(7) Sect. 13. The leis or garlands of beautiful chrome-yellow 
flov/ers which the flower girl of Honolulu on "steamer day" offers to you 
for a price, are from the iliuia or Sida fallax. 

(8) Sect. 13. Pahee, slippery. Probably because of a peculiar 
species of grass that grows in such places. 

(9) Sect. 15. Kahua is also the term used to denote a foundation. 

(10) Sect. 18. According to Lieutenant Younghusband, author of 
an interesting book of travel, entitled "Through the Heart of a Continent," 
the word pali is U'^ed in North India as in the Hawaiian Islands, to 
designate a mountain wall or precipice. 

(11) Sect. 21. MuU means remainder, and muliivai therefore means 
remainder of the water. The explanation is that at' the mouth of many 
Hawaiian streams is a bar of sand or mud. At low tide water still re- 
mains standing within this retaining bar, and this water caused the whole 
stream to be called inuUivai. 



J 



40 
CHAPTER VIII. 

CONCERNING THE ROCKS. 

I The ancients applied to various hard, or mineral, sub- 
stances the term pohaku, rocks or stones. A rocky cliff was caUed 
a paU-pohaku; a smaller boulder or mass of rock would be termed 
pohaku uuku iho. The term a^a was applied to stones of a some- 
what smaller size. Below them came iluH or pebbles. When of still 
smaller size, such as gravel or sand, the name one was applied, 
and if still more finely comminuted it was called lepo, dirt. 

2. A great many names were used to distinguish the different 
kinds of rocks. In the mountains were found some very hard 
rocks which probably had never been melted by the volcanic fires 
of Pele. Axes were fashioned from some of these rocks, of which 
one kind was named uli-uli, another ehu-ehu. There were many 
varieties. 

3. The stones used for axes were of the following varieties : 
ke-i ke-pue, ala-mea, kai-alii, humu-ula, pi-wai, awa-lii, lau-kea, 
mauna. All of these are very hard, superior to other stones m 
this respect, and not vesiculated like the stone called ala. 

4. The stones used in making ht-hee for squid-fishing are pe- 
culiar and were of many distinct vareties. Their names are 
hiena, ma-heu, haii, pa-pa, lae-koloa, lei-ole, ha-pou, kawau-puu, 
ma-ili, au, nani-iun, ma-kt-ki, pa-pohaku, kana-iila, zmi-nnim-kole, 
hono~ke-a-a, kiipa-oa, poli-poli, ho-one, no-hu, lu-au, wai-mano, 
hide-ia, maka-zvela. 

5. The stones used for maika^ were the ma-ka (maka-af), hin- 
pa iki-makiia, kumu-one,'^ ma-ki-ki, kumu-mao-mao, ka-lama-ula, 
and paa-kca? 

6. Volcanic pa~hoe-hoe is a class of rocks that have been melted 
by the fires of Pele. Ele-ku and a-na, pumice, are very light and 
porous rocks. Another kind of stone is the a-la^ and the pa-ea. 

7. The following kinds of stone were used in smoothing and 
polishing canoes and wooden dishes, coral stones {puna), a vesic- 
ulated stone called o-ahi^ o-la-i or pumice, po-hiiehne, ka-wae-zi'aCf 
c-i-o, and a-na. 

8. The kinds of stone used in making poi-pounders were a-la, 
Ina-u, kohe-nalo, the white sand-stone called kumu-one, and the 



41 

coral-stone called koa. There is also a stone that is cast down 
from heaven by lightning. No doubt there are many other stones 
that have failed of mention. 

(i.) Sect. 5. Kamit-one : A white sand-stone composed of sea-sand 
It cuts and works up well. 

{.2.) Sect 5. Paa-kea is volcanic sinter, A maika of this species of 
stone which is in the writer's collection had been used as a fetish or medi- 
cine-charm. 

(3.) Sect. 6. A-la is the hardest and densest kind of basalt to be 
found on the islands. It is the stone from which the best axes are made. 
It seems unaccountable that Mr. Malo should omit this most important 
of all the stones from his rambling and very unsatisfactory list. If any 
stone might be considered to have escaped the melting action of Pele's 
fires by reason of its hardness it would certainly be this one. 

In the Maori language the same dark, close-grained basalt is named 
ka-ra and is used in making the finest axes. 



CHAPTER IX. 

PLANTS AND TREES. 



. The ancients gave the name lami, to every plant that grows 
in the earth of which there are a great many kinds (ano). The 
name laait was, however, applied par eminence to large trees; 
plants of a smaller growth were termed laa-lau; the term nahele 
(or nahele-hele) was used to indicate such small growths as 
brush, shrubs, and chapparal. Plants of a still smaller growth 
were termed weu-zveu; grasses were termed mauu. 

2. The pupu-keawe^ (same as pu-keazve) , another name for 
which is mai-elif is a sort of brush, nahehy that grows on the 
mountain sides. It was used in incremating the body of any one 
who had made himself an outlaw beyond the protection of the 
tabu. 

9. Further down the mountain grows the ohia (same as the 
lehua), a large tree. In it the bird-catchers practiced their art of 
bird-snaring. It was much used for making idols, also hewn into 
posts and rafters for houses, used in making the enclosures about 
temples, and for fuel, also from it were made the sticks to couple 
together the double canoes, besides which it had many other uses. 



42 

4- The koa^ was the tree that grew to be of the largest size m 
all the islands. It was made into canoes, surf-boards, paddles, 
spears, and (in modern times) into boards and shingles tor 
houses. The koa is a tree of many uses. It has a seed and its 
leaf is crescent-shaped. 

5. The ahakea^ is a tree of smaller size than the koa. It is 
valued in canoe-making, the fabrication of poi-boards, paddles, 
and for many other uses. 

6. The kawan was a tree useful for canoe-timber and for tapa- 
logs. The manoiio and aiea were trees that also furnished canoe- 
timber. 

7. The kopiko was a tree that furnished wood that was useful 
for making tapa-logs {kiia kitku kapa) and that also furnished 
good fuel. The kolea was a tree the wood of which was used in 
making tapa-logs and as timber for houses. Its charcoal was used 
in making black dye for tapa. The naia was a tree the wood of 
which was used in canoe-making.^ The sandal-wood, ili-ahi, has 
a fragrant wood which is of great commercial value at the pres- 
ent time. The naio also is a sweet-scented wood and of great 
hardness. The pua is a hard wood. The kaiiila is a hard wood,, 
excellent for spears, tapa-beaters and a variety of other similar 
purposes.^ 

8. The mamane and iihi-uhi were firm woods used in making 
The runners for holua-s\t6.s and spades, 0-0, ?/sed by the farmers. 
The alani v^^as one of the woods used for poles employed in rigging 
canoes. 

9. The olomea was a wood much used in rubbing for fire; 
the kii-kui a wood sometimes used in making the dug-out or 
canoe; the bark of its roots, mixed with several other things, 
was used in making the black paint for canoes, and its nuts are 
strung into torches called kn-kmS' 

10. The paihi is a wood useful as fuel and in house-making. 
It has a flower similar to that of the Iclviia and its bark is used in 
staining tapa of a black color. The alii is a solid wood used for 
house posts. The koaie is a strong wood useful as house-timber 
and in old times used in making shark hooks. 

11. The ohe, or bamboo, which has a jointed stem (pojia- 
pona), was used as fishing poles to take the aku — or any other 
fish — and formerly its splinters served instead of knives. 



I 



43 

12. The zt'ili-zvili is a very buoyant wood, for which reason it 
is largely used in making surf boards ( papa-he e-nahi), and out- 
rigger floats (am a) for canoes. The olapa was a tree from 
which spears such as were used in bird-liming or bird-snaring 
were obtained. The lama is a tree whose wood is used in the 
construction of houses and enclosures for (certain) idols. The 
azi'a is the plant whose root supplies the intoxicating drink 
(so extensively used by the Polynesians). 

13. The tdu or bread-fruit is a tree whose wood is much used 
in the construction of the doors of houses and the bodies of 
canoes. Its fruit is made into a delicious poiJ The ohia — 
so-called mountain apple — is a tree with scarlet flowers and a 
fruit agreeable to the taste. The hazvane, or loulu-palm, is a tree 
the wood of which was used for battle spears ; its nuts were eaten 
and its leaves are now used in making hats. 

14. The koii is a tree of considerable size, the wood of which 
is specially used in making all sorts of platters, bowls and dishes, 
and a variety of other utensils. The fiiilo'^ and the pna were 
(useful) trees. The nhi — coco-palm — is a tree that bears a deli- 
cious nut, besides serving many other useful purposes. The 
(fleshy) stems of the hapim fern, and the tender shoots of the 
a-ma-u fern and the i-i-i fern afforded a food that served in time 
of famine. 

15. The waiike is one of the plants the bark of which is 
beaten into tapa? The zvauke had many other uses. The hibis- 
cus, called hau,^^ furnished a (light) wood that was put to many 
uses. Of its bark Avas m.ade rope or cordage. The ohe-tre.c 
produced a soft wood, similar to the kukui (or American bass — 
Translator), and was sometimes used in making stilts, or kuku- 
luaeo. 

16. The olona and the hopue were plants from whose bark 
were made lines and fishing nets and a great many other things. 
The mamaki and the maa-loa were plants that supplied a bark 
that was made into tapa. The keki and the pala fern were used 
as food in times of famine. The (hard leaf stalks) of the ama'u- 
mau fern were used as a stylus for marking tapa {mQa palu hole 

kapa). 

17. The ma'o was a plant whose flower was used as a dye to 
colored tapa and the loin cloths of the women, etc. The noni was 



44 

a tree (the bark and roots of) which furnished a yellowish- 
brown dye (resembling madder) much used in staining the tapa 
caleld kita-uia. Its fruit (a drupe) was eaten in tinie^ oi 
famine. The (yellow) flowers of the ilima?-'^ were much desired 
by the women to be strung into leis or garlands. 

t8. The hala — pandanus or screw pine — was a tree the drupe 
of which was extremely fragrant and was strung into wreaths. 
Its leaves were braided into mats and sails. The ulei was a tree 
whose wood was highly valued for its toughness, and of it were 
made thick, heavy darts — ihe-pahee — for skating over the ground 
in a game of that name. It also furnished the small poles with 
which the mouth of the bag-net, upena-aei, was kept open. The 
a-e and the po-ola were trees the wood of which was used in spear- 
making. The wood of the wala-hee was formerly much used in 
making a sort of adze (to cut the soft wili-zmli wood); it also 
furnished sticks used in keeping open the mouth of the paki-kii 
net. 

19. The banana, maia, was a plant that bore a delicious fruit. 
There were many species of the banana and it had a great variety 
of uses. The mmia was a tree suitable for timber (literally boards 
or planks papa). The haa, ho-awa, hao, and many other trees 1 
have not mentioned in this account were no doubt good for fuel. 
Besides there were many more trees that I have not mentioned. 

20. The pili — a grass much used for thatching houses — the 
koo-koo-lau — an herb used in modern times as a tea — these and 
various other plants in the wilderness, such as the i-e, the pala fern, 
the kiipu-knpu, mana, akolea, am^a-u-ma'u-fern, etc., etc., were 
termed vahele-hele}^ i. e., weeds or things that spread. 

21. The hono-hono, wandering Jew, the kukae-pnaa, ^'^ the 
kakona-kona, the pill, manicnie}^^ the knlohia, puu-koa, pili-pili- 
ula, kahiha, \he moko-loa, the ahu-azva, the mahiki-hiki, and the 
kohe-kohe were grasses, maun. 

22. The popolo, the pakai, the azveo-weo, nau-nan^ haio nena 
and the palitla were cooked and eaten as greens (luau) . llie 
gourd was a vine highly prized for the calabashes it produced. 



45 
NOTES ON CHAPTER TX. 

(2) Sect. 4. Koa. In ancient times the koa found its ch chief use 
In making the canoe. In these days its greatest usefulness is found as a 
cabinet wood. It is capable of a very high polish. 

(3-) Sect. S. Ahakea. It furnished the material chiefly used in 
making the carved pieces that adorned the bow and stern of every old- 
time Hawaiian canoe, also the top rail on the gunwale of the canoe. 

(4) Sect. 7. Naia Not for the body of the craft, but in trim- 
ming it. 

(5) Sect. 7. Kauila. Kamehameha I armed his legions with spears 
of kauila wood. 

6) Sect. 9. K'likui. The Samoan name for this tree is tui-tui, to 
sew or to thread or to string, as to string beads or flowers. Tui is needle 
and tui-tui is to sew or to string. The name of the tree and of the 
torches or candles produced from its nuts, as indicated in both the Ha- 
waiian and Samoan word-forms, was undoubtedly derived from iui, a 
needle or thorn. 

(7) Sect. 13. Poi in the great majority of cases means the article 
of food made from taro; but the Hawaiians also applied that name to 
the product of the breadfruit and of the potato as well, when cooked, 
pounded, and mixed with water. 

(8) Sect. 14. The milo hke the kou, made excellent dishes. The 
wood of the pua, which was very hard, burned with a hot flame, like 
hickory, even when green. Every woodman or mountaineer will know 
what that means. 

(9) Sect. 15. Kapa or tapa. In the form of sheets used as a blan- 
ket to cover one at night, or as a toga for dignity and comfort by day, 
or made into the malOj the garment of modesty of the men, or the pa-u, 
which v^as the garm.ent of modesty of the women. 

(10) Sect. 15. Hau. It was the favorite wood for making fire- 
sticks, and was much used at handles for axes. 

(11) Sect. 17. Ilima. At the present day it is cultivated by the 
Hawaiians. 

(12) Sect. 20. Nahelehele. From hele, to go? As to the derivation 
of lliis word, in Maori nga-herc-kcre means the forest, not the creepmg 
plants in it. This is certainly not the case in the Hawaiian language. 
In Hawaiian the word is applied to weeds, brush, under-growth, chap- 
paral, whether that is found in the woods, beneath the forest trees, in 
the open, standing alone, or in cultivated fields. 

U3) Sect 21. Kukae-pitaa. A rich and delicate grass, said to have 
sprung up wherever the great pig-god, Kama-puaa, left his mark. 

(14) Sect. 21. Manienie. A modern grass, probably introduced by 
Vancouver from Mexico or South America. It makes a fine lawn grass. 
(15) Sect. 21. Mokoloa. Also known as Makaloa, a small rush used 
in making the famous Niihau pawehe mats. 



46 

(i) Sect. 2. Pu-keawe. When a kapu-chief found it convenient to 
lay aside his dread exclusiveness for a time, that he might perhaps mmgie 
with people on equal terms without injury to them or to himself, it was 
the custom for him — and according to one authority those with whom^ he 
intended to mingle joined with him in the ceremony — to shut himself into 
a little house and smudge himself with the smoke from a fire of this same 
pu-keawe. At the conclusion of this fumigation a priest recited the fol- 
lowing : 

PULE HUIKALA. 

/ Kane ma, laua o Kanaloa, 

O kahi ka po, 

O lua ka po, 

kolu ka po, 
5 O ha ka po, 

O lima ka po, 

O ono ka po, 
- O hiku ka po, 

O walu ka po, 
10 O izva ka po, 

A umi ka po, 

Holo aku oe i kai, 

Noa aku oe i kai, 

Pau ko'u kapu ia oe, Lono. 
15 Amama. Ua noa ia Umi. 

PRAYER FOR A DISPENSATION. 

To Kane and his fellow Kanaloa, 

For one night, 

For two nights. 

For three nights, 
5 For four nights, 

For five nights, 

For six nights, 

For seven nights, 

For eight nights, 
10 For nine nights, 

For ten nights, 

You shall sail out to sea, 

And the tabu shall not rest upon you at sea. 

My tabu shall be done away with by you, o Lono ! 
15 It is lifted ! There is freedom to Umi ! 

(Informant Waialeale of Waimanalo, O.) 

Apropos of this same shrub, or small tree rather, the following story 
has been communicated to me (by J. K. K.) 



47 

In the time of Ulu-lani, who was then the king in that part of Hilo — 
the northern part — which was called Hilo pali-ku, a certain woman caused 
him to be very angry, so that he threatened to put her to death, for the 
simple reason that she had stepped on his bathing stone. He was re- 
strained from this purpose, however, by his kahuna, who had spiritual 
insight, as a makaula, and recognized the woman to be of royal lineage. 
This woman had come down from the interior and, reaching the ocean, 
went in to bathe. Having finished her salt water bath, she entered the 
river for the purpose of cleansing her body of the salt, and wishing to 
assert her royal blood, on coming out of the water she deliberately occu- 
pied the flat stone on which the king was accustomed to stand after bath- 
ing in the same stream. When the king learned of this insult he felt 
greatly enraged and determined to put the woman to death. His priest, 
however, said to him, "You can't kill her for this." "Why not?" asked 
lie. "Because she had an alii on her back." "Who was that alii?" asked 
the king. "It was Mai-eli-lani, king of pupu keazve (ka lani o pupu 
keawe.) When a man dies what wood do you use to make the fire to con- 
sume his body with?" 

"No, you'd better not kill that woman," said the priest. 

"Why?" persisted the king. "As you know, I am the king of Hilo 
pali-ku, a native of the land, a descendant from the very earliest line of 
kings (he kupa au a he apaaknma.)" 

"Yes, and for that very reason, because you are an apaakuma, an 
autocthon, you will be put to death." The king was silenced and could 
make no further answer, because he knew that only with this sort of wood 
was a human body reduced to ashes. The kahuna then repeated the fol- 
lowing ancient mele: 

O Mai-eli, lani o Uli, 

O Uli ku huihui lau, lau o Ikuo, 

O Iku-lani"^ naha; 

Naha ke poo o Pupu-keawe, 
5 O Keawe ia a Ka-lani-Hilo , hilo e make. 

A make! a make i ka Hilo pali-ku. 

Eia la o Mai-eli! he alii no A, 

A Uli! a make! 

A make o ia Pupu-Keawe! 
Mai-eli, king of Uli, 

Uli, the active, the multiform, offshoot of Iku, 
Iku, king of kings in heaven, broken for others; 
Broken was the body of Pupu-keawe; 
5 It is Keawe, king of Hilo who must die. 
He dies! Lo he dies in Hilo-pali-ku! 
'' Here too is Mai-eli, king of fuel. 
Burn Uli! Burn to death! 
You are consumed by Pupu-keawe. 



48 

(*) The term Iku is used by the Nauwa Society in the modern word 
Iku-hai. Iku-lani, the ancient word, means the highest, head of all. 

•'So it io by the Mai-eli that I am to die and the Mai-eli is a king, 
command that henceforth no man, woman or child gather this shrub on 
my land or use it to make a fire for common purposes." 

Then the king ordered all the men in seven ahupuaas to go up into 
the mountains and bring a quantity of this brush to make a fence of. The 
fence when first made was called ka pa o na Hiku. But they had great 
difficulty in finding any of the brush long enough to be used in making a 
fence, and they had to go repeatedly; consequently they changed the 
name to ka pa o na hiku ai-kukae, i. e., the fence of the seven wjtio eat 

dirt. 

N. B. — It is not an uncommon thing for Polynesian yarns to wallow 
like a hog in the mire at the end of their journey. 



CHAPTER X. 



DIVISIONS OF THE OCEAN. 



1. The ancients applied the name kai to the ocean and all 
its parts. That strip of the beach over which the waves ran after 
thty had broken was called a e-kcu} 

2. A little further out where the waves break was called 
poina-kai.^ The name puc-one was likewise applied to this place.^ 
But the same expressions were not used of places where shoal 
water extended to a great distance, and which were called kai- 
kohala (such as largely prevail for instance at Waikiki). 

3. Outside of the poi-na-kai lay a belt called the kai-hele-kiiy 
or kai-papau, that is, water in which one could stand, shoal water ; 
another name given it was kai-ohita^ 

4. Beyond this lies a belt called kua-au where the shoal water 
ended; and outside of the kua-au was a belt C3.\l&d kai-au, ho-a 11, 
for this belt was kai-kohala.^ 

5. Outside of this was a belt called kai-uli, blue sea, squid- 
fishing sea kai-lu-hee, or sea-of-the flying-fish, kai-malolo, or sea- 
of-the opelu, kai-opelu. 

6. Beyond this lies a belt called kai-hi-aku, sea for trolling 
the aku, and ouiside of this lay a belt called kai-kohola, where 
swim the whales, monsters of the sea; beyond this lay the deep 
ocean, moana, which was variously termed waho-lilo, far out to 



.49 

sea, or lepo, under ground, or lewa, floating, or lipo, blue-black, 
which reach Kahiki-iuoe, the utmost bounds of the ocean. 

7. When the sea is tossed into billows they are termed ale. 
The breakers which roll in are termed naht. The currents that 
move through the ocean are called an or wili-au. 

8. Portions of the sea that enter into recesses of the land are 
kai-hcc-iniiit,^ that is a surf-swimming region. Another name still 
kai-o-kilo-hec, that is swimming deep, or sea for spearing squid, or 
called kai-kuono; that belt of shoal where the breakers curl is 
called pii-ao; another name for it is ko-aka. 

9. • A blow-hole where the ocean spouts up through a hole in 
the rocks is called a puhi (to blow). A place where the ocean is 
sucked with force down through a cavity in the rocks is called 
a miniili, whirlpool; it is also called a mimiki or an aaka 

10. The rising of the ocean-tide is called by such names as 
ka-pii, rising sea, kai-md, big sea, kai-piha, full sea, and kai-apo, 
surrounding sea. 

11. When the tide remains stationary, neither rising nor fall- 
ing, it is called kai-ku, standing sea; when it ebbs it is called kai- 
mokii, the parted sea, or kai-eini^ ebbing sea, or kai-hoi, retiring 
sea, or kai-make, defeated sea. 

12. A violent, raging surf is called kai-koo. When the surf 
beats violently against a sharp point of land, that is a cape, lae, it 
is termed kai-ma-ka-ka-lae. 

13. A calm in the ocean is termed a hi or a inalino or a 
pa-e-a-e-a or a pohu. 

NOTES ON CHAPTER X. 

(i) Sect. I. A'e-kai. In the N. Z. aki-tai means ihe dash of the waves. 
A well known tribe, now extinct, was named Aki-tai, because their ancestor 
was dashed to pieces on the rocks of the sea-shore. Mr. S. Percy Smith 
of New Zealand, remarks that if this word is actually a'e in the Hawaiian, 
it forms an exception to the rule of vowel-changes. As stated by Mr. 
Smith, this rule is as follows, "vowels change in the Polynesian language 
according to the following law, a, e, form one series which may inter- 
change without altering the meaning of the word. / and u form another 
series. Very rarely do the two series change with each other." The 
phrase a'e-one was also used when it concerned a sand-beach. 



50 

{2) Sect. 2. Poana-kai is the expression in the text. But I ^'^^ ^^' 
formed from many sources that poi'na-kai is .the correct expression, that 
poana-kai is appHed to the place where the breakers scoop out the san 
near the shore. 

(3) Sect. 2. I'jir-oiic, sand-heap, from the heaping up of the sand by 
the action of the waves. 

(4) Sect. 3. Kai-ohua. Because there was found a small fish called 
ohua. 1 am informed it was also termed kai-o hec, because the squid is 

there speared. 

(5) Sect. 4. Kai-hec-nalu. Because there the rollers from the ocean 
look head and it was there that the surf-rider lay in wait for a big wave 
to carry him in on its back. 

(6) Sect. 4. Kai-kohola. This is clearly a mistake. Kohola is ap- 
plied only to the shoal water inside the surf -where it reaches out in a 
long stretch as r.t Waikiki. (See Sect. 2.) 



CHAPTER XI. 

• EATING UNDER THE KArU SYSTEM. 

1. The task of food-providing and eating under the kapu- 
system in Hawaii nei was very burdensome, a grievous tax on 
husband and wife, an iniquitous imposition, at war with domes- 
tic peace. The husband was burdened and wearied with the 
preparation of two ovens of food, one for himself and a separate 
one for his wife. 

2. The man first .started an oven of food for his wife, and, 
when that was done, he went to the house miia and started an 
oven of food for himself. 

3. Then he would return to the house and open his wife's 
oven, peel the taro, pound it into poi, knead it and put it into 
the calabash. This ended the food-cooking for his wife. 

4. Then he must return to miiaj open his own oven, peel the 
taro, pound and knead it into poi, put the mass into a (separate) 
calabash for himself and remove the lumps. Thus did he prepare his 
food (a/, vegetable food) ; and thus was he ever compelled to do 
so long as he and his wife lived. 

5. Another burden that fell to the lot of the man was thatch- 
ing the houses for himself and his wife; because the houses for 
the man must be other than those for the woman. The man 



51 

had first to thatdi a house for himself to eat in and another 
house as a sanctuary Qicimi) in which to worship his idols. 

6. And, that accomplished, he had to prepare a third house 
for himself and his wife to sleep in. After that he must build 
and thatch an eating house for his wife, and lastly he had to pre- 
pare a hale kua, a place for his wife to beat tapa in (as well as to 
engage in other domestic occupations. — Translator.) While the 
husband was busy and exhausted with all these labors, the wife 
had to cook and serve the food for her husband, and thus it fell 
that the burdens that lay upon the woman were even heavier 
than those allotted to the man. 

7. During the days of religious tabu, w^en the gods were 
specially worshipped, many women were put to death by reason 
of infraction of some tabu. According to the tabu a woman 
must live entirely apart from her husband, during the p<"riod of 
her infirmity : she always ate in her own house, and the man ate in 
the house called mua. As a result of this custom, the mutual 
love of the man and his wife was not kept warm; the man might' 
use the opportunity to associate with another woman, likewise 
the woman with another man. It has not been stated who was 
the author of this tabu that prohibited the mingling of the sexes 
while partaking of food. It was no doubt a very ancient practice ; 
possibly it dates from the time of Wakea; but it may be subse- 
quent to that. 

8. There is, however, a tradition accepted by some that 
Wakea himself was the originator of this tabu that restricts eat- 
ing; others have it that it was initiated by Luhau-kapawa. It is 
not certain where the truth lies between these two statements. 
No information on this point is given by the genealogies of these 
two characters, and every one seems to be ignorant in the mat- 
ter. Perhaps, however, there are persons now living who know 
the truth about this matter; if so they should speak out. 

9. It is stated in one of the traditions relating to the 
gods that the motive of the tabu restricting eating was the desire 
on the part of Wakea to keep secret his incestuous intercourse 
with Hoo-hoku-ka-lani. For this reason he devised a plan by 
which he might escape the observation of Papa; and he accord- 
mgly appointed certain nights for prayer and religious observ- 
vance, and at the same time tabued certain articles of food to 



52 

women. The reason for this arrangement was not communicated 
to Papa, and she incautiously consented to it, and thus the tabu 
was estabhshed. The truth of the story I cannot vouch for. 

ID. If it was indeed Wakea who instituted this tabu then it 
was a very ancient one. It was aboHshed by Kamehanieha II, 
known as Liholiho^ at Kailua, Hawaii, on the third or fourth day 
of October, 1819. On that day the tabu putting restrictions on 
eating in common ceased to be regarded here in Hawaii. The 
efifect of this tabu, which bore equally on men and women, was 
to separate men and women, husbands and wives from each 
other when partaking of food. 

11. Certain places were set apart for the husband's sole and 
exclusive use; such were the sanctuary in which he worshipped 
and the eating-house in which he took his food. The wife might 
not enter these places while her husband was worshipping 
or while he was eating; nor might she enter the sanctuary 
or eating-house of another man; and if she did so she must suf- 
fer the penalty of death, if her action was discovered. 

12. Certain places also were set apart for the woman alone. 
These were the hale pea, where she stayed during her period of 
monthly infirmity — at which time it was tabu for a man to as- 
sociate with his own wife, or with any. other woman. The pen- 
alty was death if he were discovered in the act of approaching 
any woman during such a period. A flowing woman was looked 
upon as both unclean and unlucky Qiaiimia, poino). 

13. Among the articles of food that were set apart for the ex- 
clusive use of man, of which it was forbidden the woman to eat, 
were pork, bananas, cocoanuts, also certain fishes, the ulua, kuniii 
(a red fisJi used in sacrifice), the f/i7//zi-shark, the sea turtle, the e-a. 
(the sea-turtle that furnished the tortoise-shell), the pah^t, the na- 
ia, (porpoise), the whale, the nuao, hahalua hihinianu, (the ray) 
and the hailepo. If a woman was clearly detected in the act of 
eating any of these things, as well as a number of other articles 
that were tabu, which I have not enumerated, she was put to 
death. 

14. The house in which the men ate was called the mita; the 
sanctuary where they worshipped was called heiau, and it was a 
very tabu place. The house in which the women ate was called 
the hale aina. These houses were the ones to which the restric- 



53 

N 

tions and tabu applied, but in the common dwelling house, hale 
noa, the man and his wife met freely together. 

15. The house in which the wife and husband slept together 
was also called hale-moe. It was there they met and lived and 
worked together and associated with their children. The man, 
howevet, was permitted to enter his wife's eating house, but the 
woman was forbidden to enter her husband's mua. 

16. Another house also was put up for the woman' called hale 
kitku, the place where she beat out tapa-cloth into blankets, into 
pans for herself, malos for her husband, in fact, the clothing for 
the whole family as well as for her friends, not forgetting the 
landlord and chiefs (to whom no doubt these things went in lieu 
of rent, or as presents. — Translator.) 

17. The out-of-door work fell mostly upon the man, while the 
in-door work was done by the woman — that is provided she was ^ 
not a worthless and proflig'ate woman. 

18. I must mention that certain men were appointed to an 
office in the service of the female chiefs and women of 
high station which was termed ai-noa. It was their duty 
to prepare the food of these chiefish women and it 
was permitted them at all times to eat in their presence, for which 
reason they were termed ai-noa — to eat in common — or ai- 
fuhiu. 

* . ■ ' 

- *• 

CHAPTER XII. 

THE DIVISIONS OF THE YEAR. 

1. The seasons and months of the year were appropriately 
divided and designated by the ancients. 

2. The year was divided into two seasons Kau and 'Hoo-ilo. 
Kau was the season when the sun was directly overhead, when 
daylight was prolonged, when the trade-wind, makani noa'e, pre- 
vailed, when days and nights alike were w^arm and the vegetation 
put forth fresh leaves. 

3. Hoo-ilo was the season when the sun declined towards the 
south, when the nights lengthened, when days and nights were 
cool, when herbage (literally, vines) died away. 

4. There were six months in Kau and six in Hoo-ilo. 



54 

5- The months in Kaii were Iki-iki, answering to May, at which 
time the constellation of the Pleiades — hiihui hokii set at sun- 
rise. Kaa-ona, answering to June, — in ancient times this was 
the month in which fishermen got their a-ei nets in readiness for 
catching the opelu, procuring in advance the sticks to use in 
keeping its mouth open; Hhia4a-eleele, answering to July, the 
month in which the ohia fruit began to ripen ; Mahoe-miia, an- 
swering to August, — this was the season when the ohia fruit 
ripened abundantly; Mahoe-hope, answering to September, the 
time when the plume of the sugar-cane began to unsheath itself; 
Ikuwa, corresponding to October, which was the sixth and last 
month of the season of Kan. 

6. The months in Hoo-ilo were Wcleehn, answering to Novem- 
ber, which was the season when people, for spor.t, darted arrows 
made of the flower-stalk of the sugar-cane ; Makalii, correspond- 
ing to December, at which time trailing plants died down and the 
south-wind, the Kona, prevailed; Kaelo, corresponding to Janu- 
uary, the time when appeared the enuhe} when also the vines 
began to put forth fresh leaves ; Kaulua, answering to February, 
the time when the mullet, anac, spawned ; Nana, corresponding to 
March, the season when the flying-fish, the malolo, swarmed in 
the ocean ; Welo. answering to April, which was the last of the 
six months belonging to Hooilo. 

7. These two seasons of six months each made up a year of 
twelve months, 2 equal to nine times forty days and nights — ^but 
the ancients reckoned by nights instead of days. 

8. There were thirty nights and days in each month ; sev- 
enteen of these days had compound names (inoa hnhni) and thir- 
teen had simple names {inoa pakahi) given to them. 

9. These names were given to the different nights to corre- 
spond to the phases of the moon. There were three phases — ano 
— marking the moon's increase and decrease of size, namely, (i) 
the first appearance of the new moon in the west at evening : 

10. (2) The time of full-moon when it stood directly over- 
head (literally, over the island) at midnight. 

11. (3) The pe_riod when the moon was waning, when it 
showed itself in the east late at night. It was with reference to 
these three phases of the moon that names were given to the 
nights that made up the month. 



55 

12. The first appearance of the moon at evening in the west 
marked the first day of the month. It was called Hilo on account 

^of the moon's slender, twisted form. 

13. The second night when the moon had become more dis- 
tinct in outline was called Hoaka; and the third when its form 
had grown still thicker, was called Kii-kalii; so also the foutrh 
Avas called Kii-lna. Then came Ku-kolu, followed by Ku-pau 
which was the last of the four nights named Ku. 

14. The 7th, when the moon had grown still larger, was 
called Ole-ku-kahi; the 8th, Ole-ku-lua; the Qth, Olc-ku-kolu; the 
loth, Olepatt/' making four in all of these nights, which, added 
to the previous four, brings the number of nights with compound 
names up to eight. 

15. As soon as the sharp points of the moon's horns were 
hidden the name Htina (hidden) was given to that night — the 
nth. The T2th night, by which time the moon had grown still 
more full, was called Mohalu. The 13th night was called Hna, 
because its form had then become quite egg-shaped {hiia an 
^^g) ; and the 14th night, by which time the shape of the moon 
had' become distinctly round, was called Akiia (God), this being 
the second night in which the circular form of the moon was 
evident. 

16. The next night, the 15th, had two names appHed to it. If 
the moon set before davlisfht ke ao ana — it was called hokii 
palemo, sinking star, but if when daylight came it was still above 
the horizon it was called hokti ill, stranded star. 

17. The second of the nights in which the moon did not set 
until after sunrise — i6th — was called Mahea-lani. When the 
moon's rising was delayed until after the darkness of night had set 
in, it was called Kulua, and the second of the nights in which the 
moon made its appearance after dark was called Lami-ku-kahi 
(i8th) ; this was the night w^hen the moon had so much waned 

.in size as to again show sharp horns. 

18. The 19th showed still further waning and was called 
Laaii-kii-lna ; then came Laau-pan (20th), which ended this 
group of compound names, three in number. The name given to 
the next night of the still waning moon was Ole-ku-kahi. Then 
in order came Olc-kn-liia and Ole-pau, making three of this set 
of compound names, ('21st, 22d and 23rd). 



56 

19- Still further waning, the moon was called Kaloa-kn-kahi; 
then Kaloa-kn-lua ; and lastly, completing this set of compound 
names, three in number, Kaloa-pan, (24th, 25th and 26th). 

20. The night when the moon rose at dawn of day (27th) 
was called Kane, and the following night, in which the moon rose 
only as the day was breaking (28th), was called Lono. When 
the moon delayed its rising until daylight had come it was called 
71/f^;///_fainting ;^ and when its rising was so late that it could 
no longer be seen for the light of the sun, it was called Muku — 
cut off. Thus was accomplished the thirty ^ nights and days of 
the month. 

21. Of these thirty days some were set apart as tabu, to be 
devoted to religious ceremonies and the worship of the gods. 
There were four tabu-periods in each moon. 

22. The first of these tabu-periods was called that of Ku, the 
second that of Hiia, the third that of Kaloa (abbreviated from 
Kana-loa), the fourth that of Kane. 

2^. The tabu of Ku included three nights ; it was imposed on 
the night of Hilo and lifted on the morning of Kiihia. The tabu 
of Hiia included two nights ; it was imposed on the night of 
Mohahi and lifted on the morning of Akua. The tabu of Kaloa 
included two nights; it was imposed on the night of Ole-pau 
and raised on the morning of Kaloa-hi-hia. The tabu of Kane 
included two nights; being imposed on the night of Kane and 
lifted on the morning of Maiili. 

24. These tabu-seasons were observed during eight months 
of the year, and in each year thirty-two^' days were devoted to the 
idolatrous worship of the gods. 

25. There were now four months devoted to the observances 
of the Makahiki, during which time the ordinary religious cere- 
monies were omitted, the only ones that were observed being 
those connected with the Makahiki festival. The prescribed 
rites and ceremonies of the people at large were concluded in the 
month of Mahoe-hope. The keeoers of the idols, however, kept up 
their prayers and ceremonies throughout the year. 

26. In the month of Ikuzm the signal was given for the ob- 
servance of Makahiki, at which time the people rested from their 



57 



prescribed prayers and ceremonies to resume them in the month 
of Kau-hia. Then the chiefs and some of the people took up again 
their prayers and incantations, and so it was during every period 
in the year. 

NOTES ON CHAPTER XIl. 

(r) Sect. 6. Enuhc, a M^orm very destructive to vegetation, 

(3) Sect. 14. Ole-ku-hau is the full and correct orthography, the one 
also given by W. D. Alexander in his History, p. 315. 

(4) Sect. 20. Mauli. ''To faint in the light of the sun."— Tennyson. 

DIVISIONS OF THE MAKAHIKI. 

(2) Sect. 7. There were considerable differences in the nomenclature of 
the months and divisions of the year of the Hawaiian people. The differ- 
ences attached to the different islands, as will be seen by reference to the 
following table : 

MONrHS AND OTHER DIVISIONS OF THE HAWAIIAN 

TEAR. 



Hawaii. 



o 

s i 

w 



< 



1. Welehu. . . .Nov 

2. Makalii Dec 

3. Kaelo . . Jan 

4. Ea'u-lua,. ..Feb 

5. Nana Mar 

6. Welo .... Apr 

7. Ikiiki May 

8. Kaaona . . . June 

9. Hina-ia-eleele 

.July 

1 0. Mahoe mna.Aug 

11. Mahoe-hope.Sept 

12. Ikuwa . . ..Oct 



MOLOKAI. 



1. Ikuwa ..Jan 

2. Hina-ia eleele. . 

Feb 

3. Welo Mar 

4. Makalii Apr 

5. Kaelo May 

6. Ka'u-lua . . ..June 

7. Nflna July 

8. Ikiiki Aug 

9. Kaaona Sept 

10, Hili-na-ehu . . Oct 

11, Hili-na-ma. . .Nov 

12, Welehu . Dec 



Oahu. 



1 Nana Jan 

2. Welo Feb 

3. Ikiiki Mar 

4. Kaaona Apr 

5. Hina-ia-eleele. 
May 

6. MahoG-mua..June 

7. Maboe-hope.July 

8. Ikuwa Aug 

9. Welehu Sep 

10. Makalii Oct 

11. Kaelo. . . -Nov 

12. Ka'u lua Dec 



Kauai. 



1. 


Ikuwa .... 


Apr 


2. 


Welehu . . . , 


.May 


3. 


Kaelo .... 


..June 


4. 


Ikiiki, . 


•July 


5. 


Hina-ia-eleele. 






. .Auer 


6, 


Mahoe-mua 


.Sept 


7. 


Mahoe-hope 


.Oct 


8. 


Hili-na-ma. 


.Nov 


9. 


Hili-nehu. . 


..Dec 


10. 


Hili-o-holo. 


. Jan 


11. 


Hili o-nalu . 


.Feb 


12. 


Huki-pau . . , 


.Mar 



The year was divided into two seasons, Mahoe- 
mua and Mahoe hope. J he former included the 
six months from the beginning of Ikuwa, corres- 
ponding to April, to the end of Mahoe-mua, cor- 
responding to September. Mahoe-hope included 
the other six months of the year. My informant 
obtained this statement from an old man of Wai- 
mea, Kauai, who was a famous Kaka-olelo. 



58 



HAWAIIAN NAMES OF MONTHS. 

FROM W. D. ALEXANDER'S HISTORY. 



1, Makalii . . . 


. Nov. 


2. Easlo . . - 


. Dec. 


3. Kaulua . . 


. . Jan. 


4, Nana 


. Feb. 


5. Welo 


Mar. 


6. Ik.iki 


. Apr, 


7, Kaaona . . . 


. May. 


8. Hinaieleele 


). June 


9, Hilinaehu 


. ,Jul.v 


10, Hilinama. 


Aug. . 


11. Ikuwa 


.«ept. 


V2. Welelm . . 


. . Oct 



Dec 
Jan 
Feb 

Mar 

Apr 
May 
June 
July 

Auo; 
Sept 

Oct 

Nov 



After considering this radical diversity that 
obtained among the peoples of tbe different 
islands that made up the Haw iian group as- 
to the nomenclature of the divisions, and 
the initial point, of i he year, it would seem. 
as if the only generalized statement that 
could be made in regard to it was that it 
was divided into twelve months. 



(5) Sect. 20. The Hawaiians evidently hit upon the synodic month 
and made it their s'tandard. Their close approximation to it can not fail 
to inspire respect for the powers of observation and the scientific faculty 
of the ancient Hawaiians. It was an easy matter to eke out the reckonings 
by omitting the last day in every other month, the synodic lunar month 
being 2gV2 days. 

NAMES OF THE DAYS IN TBE MONTH. 



( 


1. H1I0. 


16. Mahea-lani. 


The /re/ tabu, i 


2, Hoaka. 


17. Ku-lua. 


l 


3, Kukahi. 


18 Laau-ku-kahi. 




4. Ku-lua. 


79. Laau-ku-lua, 




5. Ku-kolu. 


20. Laau pau 




6. Ku pau. 


21. Ole-ku-kahi. 




7. Ole ku kahi. 


22. Ole-ku-lua. 




8. Ole-ku-lua. The KANALOA or 


j 23. 01*^- ran. 

/ 24. Kaloa-ku-kahi. 




9. Ole -ku- kola. KaLOA tabu. 




10. Ole- pau. 


25. Kalo-ku-lua, 




11. Huna. 


26 Kaloa-pau. 


The HUA tabu, j 


12. Mohalu. Tbe KANE tabu. 


. 27, Kane 
28 Lono. 


13. Hua. 




H Akua. 


29. Mauli. 


15 Hoku. ' 


30. Muku. 



As if to prove that even on the same island there might be more than 
one nomenclature, a Hawaiian well skilled in the ancient lore of his coun- 
try (Kaunamano) gives me the following list of months in the Hawaiian 
year: 



HOOILO. 



MAKAIjII. 



1. Iku^'^a Oct-Nov 

2. Kaulua iSov-Dec 

3. Nana Dec-Jan 

4. Welo Tan-! eb 

5. Ikiiki . . Peb-Mar 

6. Kaaona Mar-Apr 

7. Mah e-mua . . Apr-May 

8. Mahoe-hope. .May-Jniie 
9 Hina-ia-eleeie..June July 

10. Welehu- July-Aug 

11. Makalii Aug-8ept 

12. Kaelo Sept-Oct 



Ikiiiva — The noisy month, clam- 
or of ocean, tbuuder. storm. 

I\(i-iil>ht.~'ihe two stars called 
Ka-ulua then rose in the East. 

Navn — The young birds then 
stir and rustled about {iinna- 
ti'i) in their nests and covertb. 

Weill — 1 he leaves are torn to 
shreds by the eindw, 

ILiiLi — WdTm and sticky from 
beiutr shut up in doors, by 
weather. 

h'nnou'i.— CD r y) 9 u g a r-cane 
flower-stalks, etc.. put away 
in the top of the house have 
now become very dry. 



59 

An old woman of Kipahuki, Maui, gives me the following as the 
names of the months of the Hawaiian year according to Maui-nomencla- 
ture : 



1. Ikiiwa 
2 Welebu 

3. MakMlii 

4. Kaelo 

5. Ka-ulua 

6. Nana 

7. Welo 

8. Ikiiki 

9. Kaaona 

10 Hiaa-ia-eleele 

11. Hili-nehu 

12. Hili-na-ma 



She volunteered the information thrt each 
month had thirty days, save that four months, 
two in Hooilo and two in Kau, had thirty-one 
days apiece, thus givinir three-hundred and 
sixty four days in each year. This is the first 
time I have heard this important statement 
made by a Hawaiian. The name of thi^ intel- 
ligent old lady, whose neck and head, when I 
called upon her, were encircled with fillets of 
ti leaf, deserves to be recorded — Nawahineelua, 
of Kipahulu, Maui, the place where the hero 
Laka made the canoe in which to sail in search 
of his father's bones. I omitted to t-tate that 
the four supplementary days were called na Mahoe, the twins. Ikuwa was 
the same as January. Whether by this she meant merely that it was the 
first mouth in the year, or that its place in the sei^aons was the same as that 
of January I could not make out. 

The above statement cannot be correct, for such months would not 
be lunar months, and the days would not correspond to the phases of the 
moon. 

(6) Sect. 24. I'he arithriTetic of this calculation is all out. By refer- 
ring to the table showing the days of the month and the tabu periods it 
will be seen that there were nine tabu days in each month. There must 
have been therefore seventy-two regular or canonical fast-days in each 
year, not to mention the days appointed from time to time by the king or 
priests. 

(7) Sect. 20. In considering the ancient Hawaiian calendar, it must 
be remembered that the synodical lunar month equals 29.53 days. Hence 
it is necessary in any calendar based upon the moon's phases to reckon 
alternately 29 and 30 days to a month, which was done by the Hawaiians, 
as is correctly stated in Dibble's history, p. 108. For the night of Hilo 
always had to coincide with the first appearance of the new moon in the 
west, and that of Akua or Hoku with the full moon. 

Again, as twelve lunar months fall about eleven days, (more exactly 
10.87,5 days), short of the solar year, it was necessary to intercalate three 
lunar months in the course of eight years, in order to combine the two 
reckonings, as was done by the ancient Greeks. 

To intercalate four days in each year, as stated by the old lady of 
Hana mentioned above, or five days at the Makahiki festival, as suggested 
by Mr. Fornander, would have wholly disarranged their monthly calendar, 
so that the names of the several days would no longer have corresponded 
to the varying phases of the moon. Besides, the shortage of the so-called 
lunar year, which had to be made up, was not four or five but eleven days, 
so that neither of the above explanations meets the case. 



60 

The Polynesian year, as stated by Ellis, Fornander, Moerenhout and 
others, was regulated by the rising of the Pleiades, as the month of Ma- 
kalii began when that constellation rose at sunset, i. e. about Nov. 20th. 
The approximate length of the solar year was also well known to the an- 
cient Hawaiians. 

The fact that they did intercalate a month about every third year, is 
well established, but we are still in the dark as to what rule was followed 
by their astronomers (Kilo-Jwku) and priests, and what name was given 
to the intercalary month. 

Mr. Dibble's statement is that the "twelve lunations being about eleven 
days less than the sidereal year, they discovered the discrepancy, and cor- 
rected their reckoning by the stars. In practice therefore the year varied, 
there being sometimes twelve and sometimes thirteen lunar months" (in 
a year.) 

The Tahitians had names for thirteen months, but, as Mr. Ellis states, 
"in order to adapt the moons to the same seasons, the moon generally 
answering to March, or the one occurring about July, is generally omit- 
ted." 

The method referred to above of intercalating three moons in every 
eight years would cause an excess of one moon in 145 years. 

By the Metonic cycle, however, according to which seven moons are 
intercalated in every nineteen years, the excess is only 2h, 4m. 33s. in a 
cycle, which would amount to one day in 220 years. 

W. D. Alexander 

(8) Sect. 7. I am informed (by O. K. Kapule of Kaluaaha, Molokai) 
that on the island of Molokai the vear was divided into three seasons, 
Maka-lii, Kau, and Hoo-ilo. Maka-lii was so termed because the sun was 
then less visible, being obscured by clouds and the days were shortened. 
Kau was so named because then tapa could be spread out to dry with 
safety, kau ke kapa, and kau ka hoe a ka lawaia. Hoo-ilo meant change- 
able. 

Makalii the period included the first month of the year I-kuwa, cor- 
responding to January. It was so named from the frequent occurrence 
of thunder-storms. Wa-zva to reverberate, to stun the ear. Hina-ia- 
eleele, the second month of the year, corresponding to our February, so 
called from the frequent overcasting and darkening — eleele — of the 
heavens. 3rd. Welo (March), so named because the rays of the sun 
then began to shoot forth — zvclo more vigorously. 4th. Maka-lii, April, 
ivhich ended the season. 

Then came the season called Kau, made up of the 5th month Ka-elo, 
May, so named by the farmers because the potatoes burst out of the hill, 
or overflowed from the full basket (ua piha ka hokeo a kaelo mazvaho) ; 
Kau-hta, the 6th month, corresponding to June, so called from coupling 
two canoes together — kau-lua. 7th, Nana, July, so called from the fact 
that a canoe then floated — nana, lana — quietly on lhe calm ocean. 8th, 
Iki iki (August) the hot month {ikiki, or ikiiki, hot and stuffy.) 



61 

Then came Hoo-ilo, the changeable season, made up of Kaa-ona (Sept.) 
so called because then the sand-banks began to shift in the ocean. Ona 
is said to be another word for one, sand; Hilinehu or Hili- 
na-ehu, October, so named from the mists, ehii, that floated up from the 
sea.; Hili-na-rna (November) so called because it was necessary to keep 
the canoes well lashed (hili). Closing with Welehu, (December) so 
named from the abundance of ashes (lehu) that were to be found in the 
fireplaces at this time. Other variations might be mentioned. The names 
as given by Malo do not represent the usage on all the islands. 



CHAPTER XIII. 

THE DOMESTIC AND WILD ANIMALS. 

1. It is not known by what means the animals found here in 
Hawaii reached these shores, whether the ancients brought them, 
whether the smaller animals were not indigenous, or where indeed 
the wild animals came from. 

2. If they brought these little animals, the question arises why 
they did not also bring animals of a larger size. 

3. Perhaps it was because of the small size of the canoes in 
which they made the voyage, or perhaps because they were panic- 
stricken with war at the time they embarked, or because they were 
in fear of impending slaughter, and for that reason they took with 
them only the smaller animals. 

4. The hogi was the largest anim.al in Hawaii nei. Next in 
size was the dog; then came tame fowls, animals of much smaller 
size. But the wild fowls of the wilderness, how came they here? 
If this land was of volcanic origin, would they not have been de- 
stroyed by fire? 

5. The most important animal then was the pig (puaa) , of 
which there were many varieties. If the hair was entirely black, 
it was called hiwa paa; if entirely white, haole ; if it was of a 
brindled color all over, it was ehu; if striped lengthwise, it was 

olomea. 

6. If reddish about the hams the pig was a hulu-iwi; if whitish 
about its middle it was called a hahei; if the bristles were spotted, 
the term kiko-kiko was applied. 

7. A shoat was called poa (robbed) ; if the tusks were long it 
was a pu-ko'a. A boar was termed kea,^ a young pig was termed 
ohi. 



62 

8. Likewise in regard to dogs, they were classified according 
to the color of their hair ; and so with fowls, they were classified 
and named according to the character of their feathers. There 
wre also wild fowl. 

9. The names of the wild fowl are as follows, the nene (goose, 
Bcniicla Sandvicensis) . The nene, which differs from all other 
T)irds, is of the size of the (muscovy) duck, has spotted feathers, 
long legs and a long neck. In its moulting season, when it comes 
down from the mountains, is the time when the bird-catchers try 
to capture it in the uplands, the motive being to obtain the feathers, 
-which are greatly valued for making kahilis. Its body is excel- 
lent eating. 

10. The alala (Corviis hazvaiiensis) is another species, with a 
^smaller body, about the size perhaps of the female of the domes- 
tic fowl. Its feathers are black, its beak large, its body is used for 
food. This bird will sometimes break open the shell of a water- 
gourd [hue-zvai). Its feathers are useful in kahili-making. This 
bird is captured by means of the pole or of the snare. 

11. The pueo, or owl, (Brachyotus gallapagoensis) and the io 
resemble each other; but the pueo has the larger head. Their 
bodies are smaller in size to that of the alala. Their 
plumage is variegated (striped), eyes large (and staring), claws 
sharp like those of a cat. They prey upon mice and small fowl. 

Their feathers are worked into kahilis of the choicest descriptions. 
The pueo is regarded as a deity and is worshipped by many. 
These birds are caught by menas of the bird-pole (kia), by the 
use of the covert,-"^ or by means of the net."^ 

12. The If] oho ]s a bird that does not fly, but only moves about 
in thickets because its feathers are not ample enough (to give it 
the requisite wing-power). It has beautiful eyes. This bird is 
about the size of the alala; it is captured in its nesting-hole and its 
flesh is used as food. This bird does not visit (or swim in) the 
sea, but it lives only in the woods and coverts, because (if it went 
into the ocean), its feathers would become heavy and water- 
isoaked. 

13. I will not enumerate the small wild fowl, some of them 
'Of the size of young chickens, and some still smaller : the o-u is as 
large as a small chicken, with feathers of a greenish color; it is 
♦delicious eating and is captured by means of bird-lime. 



6 



o 



14. Another bird is the ouwo, in size about hke the o-u. Its 
feathers are black, it is good eating and is captured by means of 
bird-Hme or with the snare. 

The 0-0 and the niamo are birds that have a great resemblance 
to each other. They are smaller than the o-ii, have black feathers, 
sharp beaks, and are used as food. Their feathers are made up 
into the large royal kahilis. Those in the axillae and about the tail 
are very choice, of a golden color, and are used in making the 
feather cloaks called ahn-itla which are worn by (the aliis as well 
as by) warriors as insignia in time of battle (and on state occa- 
sions of ceremony or display. — Translator.) They were also used 
in the making of leis (necklaces and wreaths) for the adornment 
of the female chiefs and women of rank, and for the decoration 
of the makahiki-ido\. (See Chap. XXXVI.) These birds have 
many uses, and they are captured by means of bird-Hme and the 
pole. 

15. The i-i-zvi — the feathers of this bird are red, and used in 
making ahii-ida. Its beak is long and its flesh is good for food. 
It is taken by means of bird-lime. The apa-pane and the akihi- 
polena also have red feathers. The ula is a bird with black feath- 
ers, but its beak, eyes, and feet are red. It sits sidewise on its 
nest {he punana moe aoao kona). This bird is celebrated in song. 
While brooding over her eggs she covered them with her wings, 
but did not sit directly over them. The ii-a is a bird that resem- 
bles the o-u. The a-ko-hc-kohe is a bird that nests on the 
ground. 

The mil is a bird with yellow feathers. 

The ama-kihi and akihi-a-loa have yellow plumage; they arc 
taken by means of bird-lime. Their flesh is fine eating. 

16. The ele-pado^ (chasiempis) : this bird was used as food. 

The i-ao resembles the moho ; in looking it directs its eyes back- 
wards. In this list conies the kaka-wahie (the wood-splitter). 
The ki is the smallest of these birds. They all have their habitat 
in the woods and do not come down to the shore. 

17. The following birds make their resort in the salt and 
fresh water-ponds. The alae (mud-hen, Gallimtla chloropus) 
has blue-black feathers, yellow feet, red forehead, — but one species 
is white about the forehead (Fulica alae.) This bird is regarded 
as a deity, and has many worshippers. Its size is nearly that of 



64 

the domestic fowl, and its flesh is good eating (gamey, but very 
tough). Men capture it by running it down or by pelting it with 
stones. 

i8. The koloa (muscovy duck, Anas superciliosa) , has spotted 
feathers, a bill broad and flat, and webbed feet. Hunters take it 
by pelting it with stones or clubbing it. It is fine eating. The 
aiikitn, (heron, Ardea sacra), has bluish feathers and a long neck 
and beak. In size it is about the same as the piieo, or owl. This 
bird makes great depredations by preying upon the mullet (in 
ponds.) The best chance of capturing it woukl be tO' pelt it with 
stones. 

19. The ktiktilnaeo (stilts — one of the waders), has long legs 
and its flesh is sweet. It may be captured by pelting it with 
stones. 

The kioea (one of the waders) is excellent eating. 

The kolea (plover^ Charadrius fnlviis). It is delicious eating. In 
order to capture it, the hunter calls it to him by whistling with 
his fingers placed in his mouth, making a note in imitation of that 
of the bird itself. 

20. The following birds are ocean-divers (hm-kai) : The ua-u 
(Procellaria alba). Its breast is white, its back blue-black; it has 
a long bill of which the upper mandible projects beyond the 
lower. It is delicious eating. Its size is that of the io. The 
kiki^ the ao and the lio-lio resemble the ttau, but their backs are 
bluish. Their flesh is used as food. They are captured with nets 
and lines. 

21. The o-u-o-u: This bird is black all over; il is of a 
smaller size than the uau and is fair eating ; it is caught by meajis 
of a Hne. The puha-aka-kai-ea is smaller than the o-u-o-u; its 
breast is white, its back black; it is caught with a net and is good 
for food. 

22. The koae (tropic bird, ''boatswain bird," ''marlin spike," 
Phaeton rubicaiida) . This bird is white (with a pinkish tinge) all 
over ; it has long tail-feathers which are made into kahilis ; it is of 
the same size as the ii-a-^i, and is fit for food (very fishy). The 
o-i-o (Anous stolidtis) has speckled feathers like the ne-ne; it is 
of the same size as the u-a-u and is good eating. All of these 
birds dwell in the mountains by night, but during the day they 
fly out to sea to fish for food. 



65 

23. I will now mention the birds that migrate (that are of the 
firmament, mai kc lewa inai lakou.) The ka-upir. Its feathers 
are black throughout, its beak large, its size that of a turkey. 

. The na-u-ke-wai is as large as the ka-upu. Its' front and wings 
are white; its back is black. The a is as large as the ka-it-pii, its 
feathers entirely white. The moli is a bird of about the size of 
the ka-u-p'U. The iiva is a large bird of about the size of 
the ka-u-p'it; its feathers, black mixed with gray, are used for 
making kahilis. The plumage of these birds is used in decorating 
the Makahiki idol. They are mostly taken at Kaula and Nihoa, 
being caught by hand and their flesh is eaten. The nolo is a small 
bird of the size of the plover, its forehead is white. The kala 
{Sterna panaya) resemble the noio. These are all eatable, they are 
sea-birds. 

24. The following are the flying things (birds, manu) that 
are not eatable : the o-pea-pea or bat, the pinao or dragon-fly, the 
okai (a butterfly), the lepe-lepe-ahina (a moth or butterfly), the 
pu-lele-hua (a butterfly), the nalo or common house-fly, the nalo- 
paka or wasp. None of these creatures are fit to be eaten. The 
tihini or grasshopper, however, is used as food. 

25. The followmg are wild creeping things: the mouse or rat, 
{iole), the iiiakaiila (a species of dark lizard), the elelu, or cock- 
roach, the poki-poki (sow-bug), the koe (earth-worm), the lo (a 
species of long black bug, with sharp claws), the aha or ear-wig, 
the piina-wele-wcle or spider, the lalana (a species of spider), the 
nuhe or caterpillar, the poko (a species of worm, or caterpillar), 
the nao-nao or ant, the nm (a brown-black bug or beetle that bores 
into wood), the kua-paa (a worm that eats vegetables), the uku- 
poo or head-louse, the ukn-kapa or body-louse. 

26. Whence come these little creatures? From the soil no 
doubt ; but who knows ? 

The recently imported animals from foreign lands, which came 
in during the time of Kamehameha I, and as late as the present 
time, that of Kamehameha III, are the following: the cow {hipi, 
from beef), a large animal, with horns on its head; its flesh and 
its milk are excellent food. 

27. The horse {lio), a large animal. Men sit upon his back and 
lide; he has no horns on his head. The donkey (hoki), and the 
mule (piula) ; they carry people on their backs. The goat (kao), 



66 

and the sheep (hipa) , which, make excellent food. The cat (po- 
poki, or o-cniY^ and the monkey (keko), the pig (puaay and the 
dog {ilioy. These are animals imported from foreign countries. 

28. Of birds brought from foreign lands are the turkey, or 
palahu, the koloa^, or duck, thd parrot or green-bird {manu 
'Omaomao), and the domestic fowl {moa), which makes excellent 
food. 

29. There are also some flying things that are not good for 
food: such as the mosquito (makika), the small roach {elelu 
liilii), the large flat cock-roach {elelu-papa) , the flea (uku-lelc, 
jumping louse). The following are things that crawl: the rabbit 
or iole-lapaki, which makes excellent food, the rat or iole-nui, the 
mouse or iole-liiliiy the centipede {kanapi), and the moo-niho-aimi 
(probably the scorpion, for there are no serpents in Hawaii). 
These things are late importations; the number of such things 
will doubtless increase in the future. 

NOTES ON CHAPTER XITI. 

(i) Sect. 4. Kea-kea, to tease, therefore literally a teaser. 

(2) Sect. 4. Hazvaii iiei, this Hawaii ; literally Hawaii here. Its use 
is appropiiate only to those who are at the time resident in the Hawaiian 
Islands. 

(3) Sect. II. The covert was to ambush the hunter. 

(4) Sect. II. A net with a wide mouth was laid in the track in which 
the biids walked to reach their nest, 

(5) Sect. 16, Elepnio. By its early morning song it was the fateful 
cause of interruption to many a heroic midnight enterprise in ancient 
song and legend, 

(6) Sect. 27. Po-poki is an imitati^"e word from "poor pussy;" oau 
is imitated from the call made by the cat itself. 

(7) Sect. 27. The pig, puaa, and the dog, ilio, were here in Hawaii 
long before the first white man landed on these shores ; they are not 
modern importations. The same is true of the domestic fowl. This can 
be proved by old prayers and mrles. The word moa applied to the 
common fowl is the same as the Maori word. 

(8) Sect, 28. Koloa is the name generally applied to the wild mus- 
covy duck. To the tame fowl which the white man did bring across the 
sea is generally given the name ka-ka. 



67 
CHAPTER XIV. 

ARTICLES OF FOOD AND DRINK IN HAWAII. 

1. The food staple most desired in Hawaii nei was the taro 
{kalo, Arum esculentum). When beaten into poi, or made up into 
bundles of hard poi, called pai-ai, omao^ or holo-ai} it is a delicious 
food. Taro is raised by planting the stems The young and tender 
leaves are cooked and eaten as greens called ln-aii, likewise the 
stems under the name of ha-ha. Poi is such an agreeable food that 
taro is in great demand. A full meal of poi, however, causes one 
to be heavy and sleepy. 

2. There are many varieties of taro.- These are named ac- 
cording to color, black, white, red and yellow, besides which the 
jiatives have a great many other names. It is made into kulolo 

(by mixture with the tender meat of the cocoanut), also into a 
draught termed apii which is administered to the sick ; indeed its 
uses are numerous. 

3. The sweet potato (tiala), (the Maori ktimara), was an im- 
portant article of food in Flawaii nei ; it had many varieties^ which 
were given names on the same principle as that used in naming 
taro, viz: white, black, red, yellow, etc. 

4. The uala grows abundantly on the kula lands, or dry plains. 
It is made into a kind of poi or eaten dry. It is excellent when 
roasted, a food much to be desired. The body of one who makes 
his food of the sweet potato is plump and his flesh clean and fair, 
whereas the flesh of him who feeds on taro-poi is not so clear and 
wholesome. 

5. The u-ala ripens quickly, say in four or five months after 
planting, whereas the taro takes twelve months to ripen.* Animals 
fed on the sweet potato take on fat well ; its leaves (when cooked) 
are eaten as greens and called pahila. Sweet potato sours quickly 
when mixed into poi, whereas poi made from taro is slow to fer- 
ment. The sweet potato is the chief food-staple of the dry, upland 
plains. At the present time the potato is used in making swipes. 
The sweet potato is raised by planting the stems. 

6. The yam, or uhi (Dioscorea) is an important article of food. 
In raising it, the body of the vegetable itself is planted. It does 
not soon spoil if uncooked. It is not made up into poi, but eaten 



68 

while still warm from the oven, or after roasting. The yam is 
used in the preparation of a drink for the sick. 

7. The iihi or bread-fruit is very much used as a food by the 
natives, after being oven-cooked or roasted ; it is also pounded into 
a delicious poi, pepeiee. It is propagated (by planting shoots or 
scions.) 

8. The banana {niai'a) was an important article of food, 
honey-sweet, when fully ripe, and delicious when roasted on the 
coals or oven-cooked, but it does not satisfy. It was propagated 
from offshoots. 

9. The ohia — or ''mountain apple" — was a fruit that was much 
eaten raw. It was propagated from the seed.^ The squash is eaten 
only after cooking. 

10. The following articles were used as food in the time of 
famine: the ha-pit-ii fern (the fleshy stem of the leaf -stalk) ; thfe 
inaii and the i-i-i (the pithy flesh within the woody exterior). 
These (ferns) grow in that section of the mountain-forest called 

zvao-maukelc. (See Chap VII. Sect. 12.) The outer woody shell 
is first chipped away with an ax, the soft interior is then baked in 
a large underground oven overnight until it is soft when it is 
ready for eating. But one is not really satisfied with such food. 

11. The ti^ (Cordyline terminalis) also furnishes another arti- 
cle of food. It grows wild in that section of the forest called wao- 
akua (Chap. VII. Sect. 12.) The fleshy root is grubbed up, baked 
in a huge, underground oven overnight until cooked. The juice 
of the ti-root becomes very sweet by being cooked, but it is not a 
satisfying food. 

12. The pi-u (a kind of yam, Dioscorea pentaphylla) is a good 
and satisfying food when cooked in the native oven. It is some- 
what like the sweet-potato when cooked. The ho-i (Hdinia hiilh- 
ifera) : this is a bitter fruit. After cooking and grating, it has 
to be washed in several waters, then strained through cocoanut- 
web (the cloth-like material that surrounds the young leaves. — 
Translator) until it is sweet. It is then a very satisfying food. 

13. The pda-fern {Marattia) also furnished a food. The 
base of the leaf-stem was the part used ; it was eaten after- being 
oven-cooked. This fern grows wild in the woods. 

14. The pia (Tacca pinnatiUda) is another food-plant, of 
which the tubers are planted. When ripe the tubers are grated 



69 

while yet raw by means of rough stones, mixed with water and 
then allowed to stand until it has turned sweet, after which it is 
roasted in bundles and eaten. The wild pea, papapa, the nena, 
the koali^ (Ipomoea tuherculata^ were all used as food in famine- 
times. 

15. Among the kinds of food brought from foreign countries 
are flour, rice, Irish potatoes, beans, Indian corn, squashes and 
melons, of which the former are eaten after cooking and the 
latter raw, 

16. In Hawaii nei people drink either the water from heaven, 
which is called real water (zvai maoli), or the water that comes 
from beneath the earth, which is (often) brackish. 

Awa was the intoxicating drink of the Hawaiians in old times ; 
but in modern times many new intoxicants have been ijitroduced 
from foreign lands, as rum, brandy, gin. 

17. People also have learned to make intoxicating swipes from 
fermented potatoes, watermelon, or the fruit of the ohia."^ 

NOTES ON CHAPTER XIV. 

(i) Sect. I. Hard poi, that is, pounded taro unmixed with water, is 
made up into bundles, which on Oahu and Molokai were round and cov- 
ered with the leaves of the ti plant. On Hawaii and on Maui they were 
lonjT and cylindrical and were covered with banana stalks or the leaf 
of the pandanus, and were called omao or holo-ai. 

(2). Sect. 2. The names ?iven to the different varieties of taro might 
be reckoned by the score. In spite of Mr. Malo's assertion, color seems 
to have had but little to do with the determination of the name. To 
mention a few representative names, the ka-i, which made the very best 
of poi, was of firm consistency, of a steel-blue color, and of an agreeable 
sweetish taste; the hao-kea of a light grey color, softer consistency and 
more neutral flavor ; between these two, which may be taken as represent- 
ing the extremes, are ranged a multitude of varieties representing all 
the intervening shades of blue and grey. The ipii-o-lono and apu-wai 
are of medium blue-grey color and consistency, representing a mean be- 
tween the extremes mentioned. The pii-alil (king's desire) is of a pinky- 
purplish hue and makes a delicate poi that is regarded as the most 
choice of all varieties. 

^Z) Sect. 3. This remark does not do justice to the facts. The names 
given to the different species of uala and of taro as well show accurate 
observation and good powers of description. One variety was named lau- 
lii, small leaf, another piko nui, big navel, another hua-moa, hen s egg, 
etc. 



70 

(4) Sect. 9. By some mistake the author says that the ohia is prop- 
agated from branches or cuttings. Only the seed is used. One might as 
well expect a branch of oak to grow as a branch of ohia. 

(5) Sect. II. The action of this famine-diet is well described in the 
following triplet : 

"I ka zva wi, ivi, wi, 
Ai ka tij ti, ti, 
A hi, hi, hi." 

(6) Sect. 14. Koali. The juice of the leaves and stems of the koali was 
used as a cathartic in Hawaiian medicine. Its effects are powerful. 

(y) Sect. 17. Okole-hao' — so called from the small round hole of the 
iron pipe from, which the liquor dripped — is a liquor distilled from the 
fermented juice of the ti-root. It is said to be of excellent quality, 
resembling New England rum. 



CHAPTER XV. 

THE FISHES. 



1. There are many distinct species of fish in Hawaii. All 
products of the ocean, whether the}^ move or do not move, are 
called fish {i'ct)?- There are also fish in the inland waters. 

2. The mosses in fresh and salt water are classed with the 
fish (as regards food). There are many varieties of moss, which 
are named from their peculiarities, from color, red or black, or 
from their flavor. The o'-o-pu (a small eel -like fish), and the 
shrimp (opae) are the fish of fresh water. 

3. The fish from shoal and from deep water differ from each 
other. Some fish are provided with feet, some are beset with 
sharp bones and spines. Some fish crawl slowly along, clinging 
to the rocks, while others swim freely about, of which there are 
many different kinds, some small, some peaked (o-e-o-e; this 
is also the name of a fish) ; some flattened, some very flat, soiffe 
long, some white, some red, many different species in the ocean. 

5. The following fish have feet with prongs: the 
hihiwai, el'epi (a four-footed sea-animal), ele-mihi^ the 
kukuma (a whitish crab), the kumimi (a poisonous crab), 
the papa, the pa-pai (a wholesome crab), papai-lanai, the 
lobster or ula, the alo, the popoki, the ouitauna^ and the shrimp 
or opae. These are all good food save the kumimi. That is poi- 
sonous and is not eaten. 



71 

6. I will now mention some fish that are beset with spines: 
the ma, hazuae, and wana,^ the ha-uke-uke, and the hakue. These 
fish are all fit to be eaten; their flesh is within their shell. The 
kokala, oopu-hiie and keke are also fish that are covered with 
spines; they move swiftly through the water and are eaten as 
food. Death is sometimes caused by eating- the oopu-hue.^ 

7. The following fish are covered with heavy shells : the pipipi 
(one of the Nerita, which is excellent eating. — Translator), the 
alea-alea, the aoa, the kuanaka, the pupu (a generic name for all 
shells at the present time), the kuoho, the pu-hookani or 
conch, the pnpu-awa, the olepe (a bivalve), the ole, the oaoaka^ 
the nahana-ivcle, the uli, the pipi, the maka-moe, the opihi, the 
cowry or leho, the pana^pana-puhi, the pupu-loloa. This is of 
course not the whole list of what are called fish. 

8. The following are fish that move slowly: the naka, the kii- 
alakaij the ku-nott-nou, the kona-Ielezva, the loli or beche de mer, 
the mai-hole. the kna-naka, the mini-ole, the lepe-lepe-ohina. 
These are not fish of fine quality, though they are eaten. 

9. The following small-fry are seen along shore — they are 
swift of motion: the young (pua or flowers) of the mullet or 
anae (when of medium size it is called ama-ama), of the ama, 
aholehole, hinana, nehu, iao, piha, opuu-puit ohua-palemo, paoa, 
oluhe-liihe, ohune, nwi-lii, and the akeke. All of these fish are 
used as food. Doubtless I have omitted the mention of some. 

10. The following fish have bodies with eminences or sharp 
protuberances {kino oeoe) : the paeaea, paniho-loa, olali, hinalea, 
aki-lolo, amif mananalo, azfjela, maha-zvela, hoiiy hilii, omalemale, 
o-niho-niho opule, lau-ia^ ulae, aoao-zvela, upa-palu, iihii-eleele, 
Iao, palaOj oama. and the aazi/a. No doubt I have omitted some 
of them. These fish are excellent eating. 

11. The following fish have flattened bodies: the aloi-loiy kii- 
pipiy ao-ao-mii, mai-i-i, kole, maninij mamamo, mao-inao, lau-hau,^ 
Iaui~pala_, mai-ko. maao, huimi-hiinm, kihi-kihi^ kika-kaptt, ka-pu- 
hili, oili-lapa, pa-kii, paa-paa, tizxji-ZA^i, imiauma-lei, zvahi; and 
probably these are not all of them. These fish are good eating. 

12. The following are fish with bodies greatly flattened: the 
kala, palani, nanue, piha-zi'eu-zveu, pa-kiikui, and the api. 

13. The following fish have bodies of a silvery color: the 



72 

ahole (same as the ahole-ahole) , anae (full grown mullet), awa, 
uoa, o-io, opeln, iiw-ij ii4na, ulua-mohai, a-kii, ahi, omaka, kawa- 
kazm, inokii-le-iay la-i, and the hoana, all of which are good eating. 

14. The following are fish with long bodies: the ku-pou~pou, 
aha, nnnu, an-a'ii, ivela, wolu, onoy anlepe, ha-uli-uli; these fish 
are used as food. 

15. The following fish have bodies of a red color: the a-ala- 
ihi, ii-Uj moanOj zveke (of a pink, salmon and fawn color, a fine 
fish), a-zue-o-'we-o,^ ku-nm, pa-ko-le-ko-le, ithu-ula, pa-oii-ou, 
o-pa-ka-pa-ka, ida-ida, ko-a-e, piha-zveiL-weu, o-ka-le-ka-le, muku- 
muku-zmha-nui. These fish are all wholesome food ; though prob- 
ably my list is not complete. 

16. The following fish are furnished with rays or arms (azve- 
azve) : the octopus (he-e), and the mtt-he-e (squid?) which are 
eaten ; also the he-e-ma-ko-ko which is bitter. 

17. The following sea-animals have a great resemblance to 
each other: the sea-turtle or hoiitt, from whose shell is made an 
instrument useful in scraping olona bark, also in making hair- 
comps in modern times ; the e-a, a species of sea-turtle, whose 
shell was used in making fish-hooks. The honu is excellent eating, 
but the flesh of the ea is poisonous. 

18. The mano or shark has one peculiarity, he is a man-eater. 
His skin is used in making drums for the worship of idols, also for 
the hula and the ka-eke-eke drum. The ka-ha-la and the mahi' 
mahi are quite unlike other fishes. Their flesh is excellent eating. 

19. The following are fish that breathe on the surface of the 
ocean: the porpoise or na-ia, nuao, pa-hu, and the whale (ko-ho- 
lo). The koliola or whale was formerly called the pa-lao-aJ These 
fish, cast ashore by the sea, were held to be the property of the 
king. Both the honu and the ca come to the surface to breathe. 

20. The following fish are provided with (long fins like) 
wings: the lolo-au ma-lolo (the flying-fish), the puhi-kii (ptihi-ki , 
is a mistaken orthography), lupe, hihi-manu, haha-lua, and the 
hai-lepo. These fishes are all used as food, but they are not of 
the finest flavor. No doubt m.any fish have failed of mention. 

NOTES ON CHAPTER XV. 

(i) SecL. I. Fa, from this word the k, which still remains in its re- 
l?.ted form i-ka of the Maori language, has been dropped out; its grave 



73 

is still marked, however, in the Hawaiian by a peculiar break, the result 
of a sudden glottic closure. It means primarily fish; also any kind of 
meat or animal food., and in the absence of these, any savory vegetable, 
which as a relish temporarily takes the place of animal food, is for the 
time spoken of as the i-a for that meal. Thus it is common to say, luau 
was our I'a on such an occasion. Even salt, paa-kai, is sometimes spoken 
of as the I'a for a particular meal or in time of want. In the Malay 
language the word for fish is ikan. 

(2) Sect. 5. Alaviihi A small crab, also called the ala-mihi, spoken 
of as the corpse-eating alamihi, ka alamihi ai kupapau. In spite of its 
scavenging propensities this crab is eaten, and it was undoubtedly one 
of the means of spreading cholera in Honolulu in 1895. 

(3) Sect. 6. All of these are echini. The spines of the zvana are very 
long, fine and sharp as a needle. 

( 4) Sect. 6. In the oopu-hue the poisonous part is the gall. By care- 
fully dissecting out the gall-bladder without allowing the escape of any 
of its contents, the fish may be eaten with impunity. Its flavor is de- 
licious. 

(5) Sect. II. Laic-haii. Its patches of gold and dark brown, resem- 
bling the ripe leaf of the hau, it give this name. 

\ 6) Sect 15. AtveozvcOj also called ala-lau-a. The appearance of this 
fish in large numbers about the harbor of Honolulu was formerly re- 
garded as an omen of death to some alii. 

(7) Sect. 19. The palaoa i9> the sperm whale. 



CHAPTER XVI. 

THE TAPAS, MALOS, PAUS AND MATS OF THE HAWAIIANS. 

I. Tapa was the fabric that formed the clothing- of the Ha- 
waiians. It was made from the bark of certain plants, wauke^ 
mamake, maaloa, and poiilu, the skin of young bread-fruit shoots.^ 
Wauke (Broussonetia papyrifera) was extensively cultivated and 
the preparation and manufacture of it was as follows : It was 
the man's work to cut down the branches, after which the women 
peeled off (uhole) the bark and, having removed the cortex, put 
the inner bark to soak until it had become soft. 

2. After this it was beaten on the log (kua) with a club called 
i-e (or i-e kuku. The round club, hohoa, was generally used in 
the early stage of preparation) until it was flattened out. This 
was continued for four days, or much longer sometimes, and 
when the sheet (being kept wet all the time) had been worked 



74 

until it was broad and thin, it was spread out and often turned, 
and when dry this was the fabric used as blankets, loin-skirts 
(pa-iL) for the women, and, when made into narrower pieces, as 
loin-cloths (inalos) for the men. 2 

3. The mamake {Piptiiriis albidus) was another of the plants 
whose bark was made into tapa and used as blankets, malos and 
pa-us. This was a tree that grew wild in the woods. It was col- 
lected by the women who stripped off the bark and steamed it in 
the oven with pala-a, (a fern that yielded a dark-red coloring 
matter). If not steamed and stained with pala-a the tapa made 
from it was called kapa-kele-wai. 

4. Like ivauke, it was first soaked until pulpy, when it was 
beaten on the tapa-log with a club until it had been drawn out 
thin — this might require three or four days — aftei which it was 
spread out to dry in the sun, and was then used as sheets or 
blankets, clothing, malos, paus. The mamake made a very dur- 
able tapa and could be worn a long time, 

5. The bark of the maaloa and po-ulu, the bark of tender 
bread-fruit shoots were also beaten into tapa. The method of 
manufacture was the same as that of zvauke and mamake. There 
were many varieties of tapa, sheets, blankets, robes, malos, pa-us, 
etc., which the women decorated in different patterns with black, 
red, green, yellow and other colors. 

6. If, after being stained with the juice of kukui-root, called 
hilif it was colored with an earth, the tapa was called pu-lo'u; an- 
other name for it was o-u-holo-wai. 

7. If the tapa was colored with ma'o (Gossypimn tomento- 
sum)il was called ma'o-ma'o, green. If stained with the hoolei, 
(Ochrosia sandwicensis) it took on a yellow color. If unstained 
the tapa was white. If red cloth was mixed with it in the beat- 
ing, the tapa was called pa'i-nla, or red-print.^ 

8. There was a great variety of names derived from the 
colors (and patterns) stamped upon them by the women. 

9. The loin-skirts {pau) of the women were colored in many 
different ways. If stained with turmeric, the pan was called kama- 
lena, if with cocoanut, it was called hala^kea^ Most of the names 
applied to the different varieties of pan were derived from the 
manner in which the women stained (and printed) them.^ 



75 

lo. In the same way most of the names applied to varieties 
of the malo were Hkewise derived from the manner of staining- 
(and printing) them. If stained with the noni (Morinda citrifolia) 
it was a kua-iila, 3. red-back, or a pu-kohu-kohu, or a pua-kai, sea- 
flower. A pau dyed with turmeric was soft, while some other 
kinds of pau were stiff. The names applied to paus were as 
diverse as the patterns imprinted on them ; and the same was the 
case with the malo, of which one pattern was called pitali and 
another kupeke. 

12. These were the fabrics which the ancient Hawaiians used 
for their comfort, and in robing themselves withal, as loin-girdles 
for the men, and as loin-skirts for the women. 

13. They braided mats^ from the leaves of a tree called the 
hala (pandanus). The women beat down the leaves with sticks, 
wilted them over the fire, and then dried them in the sun. After 
the young leaves {muo) had been separated from the old ones 
(laele) the leaves were made up into rolls. 

14. This done (and the leaves having been split up into strips 
of the requisite width) they were plaited into mats. The young 
leaves (mu-oy made the best mats, and from them were made 
the sails for the canoes. Mats were also made from the makaloa, 
a fine rush, which were sometimes decorated with patterns in- 
wrought (pawehe) . A mat of superior softness and fineness was 
made from the naku^ or tule. 

15. These things were articles of the greatest utility, being 
used to cover the floor, as clothing, and as robes. This work was 
done by the wom.en, and was a source of considerable profit; so 
that the women who engaged in it were held to be well off, and 
were praised for their skill. Such arts as these were useful to the 
ancient Hawaiians and brought them wealth. 

16. From the time of Kamehameha I down to the present reign 
of Kamehameha III we have been supplied with cloth imported 
from foreign lands. These new stuffs we call lole'^ (to change). 
It has many names according to the pattern. 

NOTES ON CHAPTER XVI. 

(i) Sect. I. Many other fibres not mentioned by Mr. Malo were used 
in making tapa, such as the olona and the hibiscus (hau), not to men- 
tion the mulberry since its introduction in modern times. 



76 

(2) Sect. 2. The Hawaiians had no means of cutting their tapa cor- 
responding to our shears. They knew nothing of the art of the tailor. 
As a piece of tapa was designed, so it remained to the end of its his- 
tory, whether it were to serve as a cover at night — sheet or blanket — a 
toga-like robe of warmth and etiquette, kihei, or the democratic malo or 
pan. The malo was of more pliable material as a rule than the kihei; 
its width was generally nine to ten inches, its length from three to four 
yards. The patterns used on the malo were different from those used in 
decorating the pan; and the same remark applies to the kihei 

(3) Sect. 7. In modern times foreign cloth, especially turkey-red has 
been used as a source from which to obtain dye. Red or yellow earths 
and ochre, as well as charcoal, were used in the make up of pigments. 
The Hawaiians did not use a glaze or varnish, after the manner of the 
Sanjoans, in finishing their tapas. 

(4) Sect. 9. The oily juice of the fully ripe cocoanut meat, mixed 
with turmeric and the juice of a fragrant mountain vine, kupa-o-a, was 
used to i'npart an agreeable odor to the malo of an alii. It also gave 
it a yellowish color. Mamake tapa was often treated in this way. Sandal- 
wood and the fragrant mokihana berry were also used to impart an agree- 
able odor to tapa. 

(5) Sect. 9. No mention is made by the author of the art of print- 
ing tapa by n?eans of stamps, which were generally made of bamboo. 
They were very extensively used and were in great variety of pattern. 
These printing blocks were named laan-ka-pala-pala. 

kG) Sect. 13. Mats were made from a dozen other things besides the 
hala-leaf, Miihau was famed for producing the most beautiful mats. 
Tlie mats of the Micronesian and Gilbert islands, the people of which 
belong to the class of weavers, are superior to those of the Hawaiian 
archipelago. 

(7) Sect. 16. The Hawaiians distinctly belonged to that class of the 
Polynesians which rr:ay be called the iapa-beatcrs, in distinction from the 
wea\ers. When soiled or dirty, tapa was thrown away. 



CHAPTER XVII. 

THE STONE AX AND THE NEW AX. 

I. The ax of the Hawaiians was of stone. The art of making 
it was handed dov/n from remote ages. Ax-makers were a greatly 
esteemed class in Hawaii nei. Through their craft was obtained 
the means of felling trees and of cutting and hewing all kinds of 
timber used in every sort of wood-work. The manner of making 
an ax was as follows: 



77 

2. The ax-mal<ers {poe ka-ko'i) prospected through the 
mountains and other places in search of hard stones suitable for 
ax-making, carrying with them certain other pieces of hard stone, 
some of them angular and some of them round in shape, called 
haku ka-koi, to be used in chipping and forming the axes. 

3. After splitting the rock and obtaining a long fragment, 
they placed it in a liquor made from vegetable juices (zvai-laau)^ 
which was supposed to make it softer, and this accomplished, they 
chipped it above and below, giving it the rude shape of an ax. 

4. The lower part of the ax which is rounded (e polipoli ana) 
is termed the pipi; the upper part which forms an angle with it 
is termed the hau-hana. When the shape of the thing has been 
blocked out, they apply it to the grind-stone, hoana,^ sprinkled 
with sand and water. The upper side and the lower side were 
ground down and then the edge was sharpened. The joiner's ax 
{koi kapili) had a handle of hau, or some other wood. 

5. The next thing was to braid some string, to serve as a lash- 
ing, to fit the handle to the ax, to wrap a protecting cloth (pale) 
about it (in order to save the lashing from being cut by the 
chips), and lastly, to bind the ax firmly to the handle, which done, 
the ax was finished. The ax now became an object of barter with 
this one and that one, and thus came into the hands of the canoe- 
maker. 

6. The shell called o-le'^ served as an ax for some purposes, 
also a hard wood called ala-hee. There were a few axes made 
from (scraps of) iron, but the amount of iron in their possession 
was small. It was with such tools as these that the Hawaiians 
hewed out their canoes, house-timber and did a great variety of 
wood-work. The ax was by the ancients reckoned an article of 
great value. How pitiful! 

7. Now come new kinds of axes from the lands of the white 
man. But iron had reached Hawaii before the arrival of the for- 
eigner, a jetsam iron which the chiefs declared sacred to the gods. 
(He hao pae, na hai na 'Hi i na 'kua kii.) 

8. There was, however, verv little iron here in those old times. 
But from the days of Kamehameha T down to those of Kameha- 
meha HI, iron has been abundant in this country. 

9. Iron is plentiful now, and so are all kinds of iron tools, in- 
cluding the kitchen-ax, the hatchet, the adze, broad-ax, chisel, etc. 



78 

These are the new tools which have been imported. The stone- 
ax (koi-pohaku) is laid aside. 

(i) Sect. 3. I am informed thai this wai-/aaw was composed of the juice 
•of the pala'e fern mixed with green kukui nuts. After keeping the stone 
in the liquor a few days it was thought to become softer and more easy 
to nork. 

(2) Sect. 4. In spite of the resemblance of the word hoana to our word 
Tione, it seems to be a genuine Hawaiian word of ancient origin. In N. Z 
it is hoanga, in Raro-tonga oanga. 

(3) Sect 6. "O ka ole ke koi Jmi 

O ke alahe'e ke koi tika/* 

The ole is the ax of the shore, 
The alahe'e is the ax of the inland. 

The ole is a sea-shell, the akihee a hard wood found in the up- 
land. The adzes made of these were not equal to the stone axes, but 
were useful in cutting soft woods, such as the wili-wili, kukui, etc. 

N. B. On Mauna-kea — and probably such places have been found 
^elsewhere — has been found a quarry, from which must have been taken in 
^.nci ent times the material for stone axes. Judging from the quantity 
of chips and debris the amouni; of material removed from the place was 
Tery great. Broken axes and axes in various stages of finish and partial 
completion were also found. An ax-quarry anciently existed on Mauna 
Loa at the western end of Molokai, at a place named Ka-lua-ka ko'i. 

The term ala is generally applied to the material, the kind of stone of 
which the Hawaiian ax was made, and the ax was often called koi ala: 
-Ala is a dark, heavy, close-grained basalt. 



CHAPTER XVIII. 

THE ALUS AND THE COMMON PEOPLE. 

I. The physical characteristics of the chiefs and the common 
-people of Hawaii nei were the same; they were all of one race; 
alike in features and physique.^ Commoners and aliis were all 
descended from the same ancestors, Wakea and Papa. The whole 
people Avere derived fro^m that couple. There was no difference 
between king and plebeian as to origin. It must have been after the 
time of Wakea that the separation of the chiefs from the people 
took place. 



79 

2. It is probable that because it was impossible for all the peo- 
ple to act in concert in the government, in settling the difficuhies, 
lifting the burdens, and disentangling the embarrassments of the 
people from one end of the land to the other that one was made 
king, with sole authority to conduct the government and to do' all 
its business. This most likely was the reason why certain ones were 
selected to be chiefs. But we are not informed who was the first 
one chosen to" be king; that is only a matter of conjecture. 

3. The king was appointed {hoonoho ia mai; set up would be 
a more literal translation) that he might help the oppressed who 
appealed to him, that he might succor those in the right and pun- 
ish severely those in the wrong. The king was over all the people ; 
he was the supreme executive, so long, however, as he did right. 

4. His executive duties in the government were to gather the 
people together in time of war, to decide all important questions 
of state, and questions touching the life and death of the common 
people as well as of the chiefs and his comrades in arms. It was 
his to look after the soldiery. To' him belonged the property de- 
rived ivoxn. the yearly taxes, and he was the one who had the 
power to dispossess commoners and chiefs of their lands. 

5. It was his to assess the taxes both on commoner and on 
chiefs and to impose penalties in case the land-tax was not paid. 
He had the power to appropriate, reap or seize at pleasure, the 
goods O'f any man, to cut off the ear of another man's pig, (thus 
making it his own). It was his duty to consecrate the temples, to 
oversee the performance of religious rites in the temples of human 
sacrifice, {na heiau poo-kanaka, oia hoi na luakini) that is, in the 
hiakini, to preside over the celebration of the M akahiki-iQ:si{Y2l, 
and such other ceremonies as he might be pleased to appoint. 

6. From these things will be apparent the supremacy of the 
king over the people and chiefs. The soldiery were a factor that 
added to the king's pre-eminence. 

It was the policy of the government to place the chiefs who were 
destined to rule, while they were still young, with wise persons, 
that they might be instructed by skilled teachers in the principles 
of government, be taught the art of war, and be made to acquire 
personal skill and bravery. 

7. The young man had first to be subject to another chief, that 
he might be disciplined and have experience of poverty, hunger. 



80 

want and hardship, and by reflecting on these things learn to care 
for the people with gentleness and patience, with a feeling of sym- 
pathy for the common people, and at the same time to pay due 
respect to the ceremonies of religion and the worship of the gods, 
to live temperately, not violating virgins {aole lima koko kohe)!^ 
conducting the government kindly to all. 

8. This is the way for a king to prolong his reign and cause 
his dynasty to be perpetuated, so that his government shall not be 
overthrown. Kings that behave themselves and govern with hon- 
esty, — their annals and genealogies will be preserved and treasured 
by the thoughtful and the good. 

9. Special care was taken in regard to chiefs of high rank to 
secure from them noble offspring, by not allowing them to form 
a first union with a woman of lower rank than themselves, and 
especially not to have them form a first union with a common or 
plebeian woman (wdiine noa). 

10. To this end diligent search was first made by the genealo- 
gists into the pedigree of the woman, if it concerned a high born 
prince, or into the pedigree of the man, if it concerned a princess 
of high birth, to find a partner of unimpeachable pedigree; and 
only when such was foinid and the parentage and lines of ancestry 
clearly established, was the young man (or young woman) allowed 
to form his first union, in order that the offspring might be a great 
chief. 

11. When it was clearly made out that there was a close con- 
nection, or identity, of ancestry between the two parties, that was 
the woman with whom the prince was first to pair. If the union 
was fruitful, the child would be considered a high chief, but not of 
the highest rank or tabu. His would be a kapu a no ho, that is 
the people and chiefs of rank inferior to his must sit in his 
presence. 

_^ 12. A suitable partner for a chief of the highest rank was his 
own sister, begotten by the same father and mother as himself. 
Such a pairing was called a pi'o (a bow, a loop, a thing bent on 
itself) ; and if the union bore fruit, the child would be a chief of 
the highest rank, a ninau pi'o, so sacred that all who came into his 
presence must prostrate themselves. He was called divine, akua. 
Such an alii would not go abroad by day but only at night, be- 



81 

cause if he went abroad in open day (when people were about their 
usual avocations), every one had to fall to the g"round in an atti- 
tude of worship. 

13. Another suitable partner for a great chief was his half- 
vSistcr, bom, it might be of the same mother, but of 
a different father, or of the same father but of a different 
mother. Such a union was called a 7iaha. The cliild would be a 
great chief, niau-pio; but it would have only the kapu-a-noho 
(sitting tabu). 

14. If such unions as these could not be obtained for a great 
chief, he would then be paired with the daughter of an elder or 
younger brother, or of a sister. Such a union was called a hoi 
(return). The child would be called a niau-pio, and be possessed 
of the kapit-moe, 

15. This was the practice of the highest chiefs that their first 
born might be chiefs of the highest rank, fit to succeed to the 
throne. ' 

16. It was for this reason that the genealogies of the kings 
were always preserved by their descendants, that the ancestral 
lines of the great chiefs might not be forgotten ; so that all the 
people might see clearly that the ancestors on the mother's side 
were all great chiefs, with no small names among them ; also that 
the father's line was pure and direct. Thus the chief became peer- 
less, without blemish, sacred {kuhau-hta, ila-ole, hemolele). 

17. In consequence of thisruleof practice, it was not considered 
a thing to be tolerated that other chiefs should associate on famil- 
iar terms with a high chief, or that one's claim of relationship with 
him should be recognized until the ancestral lines of the claimant 
had been found to be of equal strength (jnanoanoa, thickness) with 
those of the chief; only then was it proper for them to call the 
chief a maka-maka (friend, or intimate — maka means eye). 

18. Afterwards, when the couple had begotten children of their 
own, if the man wished to take another woman — or the woman an- 
other man — even though this second partner were not of such 
choice blood as the first, it was permitted them to do so. And if 
children were thus begotten they were called kaikaina, younger 
brothers or sisters of the great chief, and would become the back- 
bone {iwi-kua-moo), executive officers {ila-muku) of the chief, 

' the ministers (kuhina) of his government. 



82 

19. The practice with certain chiefs was as follows : if the 
mother was a high chief, but the father not a chief, the child Avould 
rank somewhat high as a chief and would be called an alii papa (a 
chief with a pedigree) on account of the mother's high rank. 

20. If the father Vv^as a high chief, and the mother of low rank, 
but a chief ess, the child would be called a kaii-kau-alii. In case 
the father was a chief and the mother of no rank whatever, the 
•child would be called a kiilu, a drop ; another name was ua-iki, a 
.slight shower; still another name was kukae-popolo. (I will not 
translate this). The purport of these appellatives is that chiefish 
rank is not clearly established. 

21. If a woman who was a kaukaii-alii, living with her own 
husband, should have a child by him and should then give it away 
in adoption to another man, who was a chief, the child would be 
an alii-poo-liia, a two-headed chief. 

22. Women very often gave away their children to men with 
whom they had illicit relations.^ It was a common thing for a chief 
to have children by this and that woman with whom he had en- 
joyed secret amours. Some of these children were recognized 
and some were not recognized. 

23. One of these illegitimates would be informed of the fact of 
his chiefish ancestry, though it might not be generally known 
to the public. The child in such case, was called an alii kuauhau 
(chief with an ancestry), from the fact that he knew his pedi- 
gree and could thus prove himself an aiii. 

24. Another one would merely know that he had alii blood in 
his veins, and on that account perhaps he would not suffer his 
clothing to be put on the same frame or shelf as that of another 
person. Such an one was styled a clothes-rack-chief (alii-kau- 
holo-papa) , because it was in his solicitude about his clothes-rack 
that he distinguished himself as an alii. 

25. If a man through having become a favorite (piamhele) 
or an intimate (aikane) of an alii, afterwards married a woman of 
alii rank, his child by her would be called a kau-ka/ii-alii^ , or an 
alii niaoli (real alii.) , 

26. A man who was enriched by a chief with a gift of land or 
other property was called an alii lalo-lalo, a low down chief. Per- 
sons were sometimes called alii by reason of their skill or strength. 
Such ones were alii only by brevet title. 



83 

27- The great chiefs were entirely exclusive, being hedged 
about with many tabus, and a large number of people were slain 
for breaking, or infringing upon, these tabus. The tabus that 
hedged about an alii were exceedingly strict and severe. Tra- 
dition does not inform us what king established these tabus. In 
my opinion the establishment of the tabu-system is not of very 
ancient date, but comparatively modern in origin. 

28. If the shadow of a man fell upon the house of a tabu-chief, 
that man must be put to death, and so with any one whose shadow 
fell upon the back of the chief, or upon his robe or malo, or upon 
anything that belonged to the chief. If any one passed through 
the private doorway of a tabu-chief, or climbed over the stocknde 
about his residence, he was put to death.*^ 

29. If a man entered the alii's house without changing his wet 
malo, or with his head smeared with mud, he was put to death. 
Even if there were no fence surrounding the alii's residence, only 
a mark, or faint scratch in the ground hidden by the grass, and a 
man were to overstep this line unwittingly, not seeing it, he would 
be put to death. 

30. When a tabu-chief ate, the people in his presence must 
kneel, and if any one raised his knee from the ground, he was put 
to death. If any man put forth in a kio-loa^ canoe at the same lime 
as the tabu-chief, the penalty was death, 

31. If any one girded himself with the king's malo, or put on 
the king's robe, he was put to death. There were many other tabus, 
some of them relating to the man himself and some to the king, 
for violating which any one would be put to death, 

32. A chief who had the kapu-nwe — as a rule — went abroad 
only at night ; but if he travelled in daytime a man went before 
him with a flag calling out ''kapu ! moe !" whereupon all the peo- 
ple prostrated themselves. When the containers holding the 
water for his bath, or when hi^clothing, his malo, his food, or any- 
thing that belonged to him., was carried along, every one must 
prostrate himself; and if any remained standing, he was put to 
death, Kiwalao was one of those who had this kapu-moe. 

33. An alii who had the kapii-wohi^ and his kahili-heavev, who 
accompanied him, did not prostrate himself when the alii with the 
kapu-zvohi came along; he just kept on his way without removing 
his lei or his garment. 



84 

34- Likewise with the chief who possessed the kapit-a-noho, 
when his food-calabashes, bathing water, clothing, malo, or any- 
thing that belonged to him, was carried along the road, the person 
who at such a time remained standing was put to death in ac- 
cordance with the law of the tabu relative to the chiefs. 

35. The punishment inflicted on those who violated the tabu 
of the chiefs was to be burned with fire until their bodies were 
reduced to ashes, or to be strangled, or stoned to death. Thus it 
was that the tabus of the chiefs oppressed the whole people. 

36. The edicts of the king had power over life and death. If the 
king had a mind to put some one to death, it might be a chief or a 
commoner, he uttered the word and death it was. 

37. But if the king chose to utter the word of life, the man's 
life was spared. 

38. The king, however, had no laws regulating property, or 
land, regarding the payment or collection of debts, regulating af- 
fairs and transactions among the common people, not to mention 
a great many other things. 

39. Every thing went according to the will or whim of the 
king, whether it concerned land, or people, or anything else — not 
according to law. 

40. All the chiefs under the king, including the konohikis who 
managed their lands for them, regulated land-matters and every- 
thing else according to their own notions. 

41. There was no judge, nor any court of justice, to sit in 
judgment on wrong-doers of any sort. Retaliation with violence 
or murder was the rule in ancient times. 

42. To run away and hide one's self was the only resource for 
an offender in those days, not a trial in a court of justice as at the 
present time. 

43. If a m.an's wife v/as abducted from him he would go to 
the king with a dog as a gift, appealing to him to cause the return 
of his wife — or the woman for the return of her husband — but the 
return of the wife, or of the husband, if brought about, was caused 
by the gift of the dog, not in pursuance of any law. If any one 
had suffered from a great robbery, or had a large debt owing him, 
it was only by the good will of the debtor, not by the operation of 
any law regulating such matters that he could recover or obtain 
justice. Men and chiefs acted strangely in those days. 



85 

^ 44- There was a s^reat difference between chiefs. Some were 
given to robbery, spoUation, murder, extortion, ravishing. There 
were few kings w^ho conducted themselves properly as Kameha- 
j-neha I did. He looked well after the peace of the land. 

45. On account of the' rascality (kolohe) of some of the chiefs 
to the common people, warlike contests frequently broke out be- 
tween certain chiefs and the people, and many of the former were 
killed in battle by the com.moners. The people made war against 
bad kings in old times. 

46. The amount of property which the chiefs obtained from the 
people was very great. Some of it was given in the shape of taxes, 
some was the fruit of robbery and extortion. 

Now the people in the out-districts {kua-aina) were — as a rule 
— industrious, while those about court or who lived with the 
chiefs — were indolent, merely living on the income of the land. 
Some of the chiefs carried themselves haughtily and arrogantly, 
being supported by contributions from others without labor of 
their own. As was the chief, so were his retainers {kanaka). 

47. On this account the number of retainers, servants and 
hangers-on about the courts and residences of the kings and high 
chiefs was ver}^ great. The court of a king offered great at- 
tractions to the lazy and shiftless. 

48. These people about court were called pu-ali^ or ai-alo 
(those w^ho eat in the presence), besides which there were many 
other names given them. One whom the alii took as an intimate 
was called ai-kane. An adopted child was called keiki hookamta. 

49. The person who brought up an alii and was his guardian 
was called a kahu; he who managed the distribution of his prop- 
erty was called a puii-ku. The house where the property of the 
alii was stored was called a hale pa-pau (house with strong fence). 
The keeper of the king's apparel (master of the king's robes), or 
the place where they were stored, was called hale opeope, the 
folding Iiouse. 

50. The steward who had charge of the king's food was 
called an 'a- i-pim-puu, calloused-neck. He who presided over 
the king's pot de chamhre was called a lomi-lomi^ i. e., a masseur. 
He v/ho watched over the king during sleep was called kiai-poo, 
keeper of the head. The keeper of the king's idol was called 
kahu-akiia. 

51. The priest wlio conducted the religious ceremonies in the 



86 

king's heiaii was a kahuna pule. He whO' selected the site for 
building- a heiau and designed the plan of it was called a kuhi- 
kuhi puu-oneA^ He who observed and interpreted the auguries 
of the heavens was called a kilo-lam. A person skilled in strat- 
egy and war was called a kaa-katia. A counselor, skilled in state- 
craft, was called a kalai-mokii (kalai, to* hew; moku, island.) 
Those who farmed the lands of the king or chiefs were kono-hiki. 

52. The man who had no land was called a kaa-07ve.^^ The 
temporary hanger-on was called a kna-lana {lana, to float. After 
hanging about the alii's residence for a time, he shifted to somie 
other alii. — Translator) ; another name for such a vagrant was 
kuewa (a genuine tramp, who wheedled his way from place to 
place). The servants who handled the fly-brushes kahili, about 
the king's sleeping place were called haa-kue; another name for 
them was kiia-lana-puhi ; or they were called olii-eke-loa-hoo- 
kaa-nioena.'^^ 

53. Beggars were termed auhau-puka,^^ or noi (a vociferous 
beggar), or makilo (a silent beggar), or apiki.^^ 

54. One who was bom at the residence of the king or of a 
chief was termed a kanaka no-hii-ala, or if a chief, alii no-Ivii-alo 
(noho i ke alo). A chief who cared for the people was said to 
be a chief of aau-loa^^ or of mahu-kai-loa. A man who stuck 
10 the service of a chief through thick and thin and did not de- 
sert him in time of war, was called a kanaka no kahi kaiia, a man 
for the battle-field. This epithet was applied also to chiefs who 
acted in the same way. 

55. People who were clever in speech and at the same time 
skillful workmen were said to. be noeau or noian. There are many 
terms applicable to the court, expressive of relations, between king 
and chiefs and people, which will necessarily escape mention. 

56. As to why in ancient times a certain class of people were 
ennobled and made into aliis, and another class into subjects 
{kanaka), why a separation was made betweeen chiefs and com- 
m.oners, has never been explained. 

57-58. Perhaps in the earliest times all the people were alii^^ 
and it was only after the lapse of several generations that a di- 
vision was made into commoners and chiefs ; the reason for this 
division being that men in the pursuit of their own gratification 
and pleasure wandered off in one direction and another until 
they were lost sight of and forgotten. 



87 

59. Perhaps this theory will in part account for it: a hand- 
some, but worthless, chief takes up with a woman of the same 
sort, and, their relatives having cast them out in disgust, they 
retire to some oiut of the way place ; and their children, bom in 
the back-woods amid rude surroundings, are forgotten.!'^ 

60. Another possible explanation is that on account of law- 
lessness, rascality, dishonorable conduct, theft, impiousness and 
all sorts of criminal actions that one had committed, his fellow 
chiefs banished him, and after long residence in some out of the 
way place, all recollection of him and his pedigree was lost.^s 

61. Another reason no doubt was that certain ones leading 
a vagabond life roamed from place to place until their ances- 
tral genealogies came to be despised, {ivahazmha ia) and were 
finally lost by those whose business it was to preserve them. 
This cause no' doubt helped the split .into chiefs and commoners. 

62. The commoners were the most numerous class of people 
in the nation, and were known as the ma-ka-aina-na; another 
name by which they were called was hu. (Hn, to swell, mul- 
tiply, increase like yeast.) The people who lived on the wind- 
ward, that was the back, or koolau side of any island, were 
called kua-aina or back-counti-y folks, a term of depreciation, 
however. 

63. The condition of the common people was that of sub- 
jection to the chiefs, compelled to do their heavy tasks, burdened 
and oppressed, some even to death. The life of the people 
was one of patient endurance, of yielding to the chiefs to pur- 
chase their favor. The plain man {kanaka) must not complain. 

64. If the people were slack in doing the chief's work they 
were expelled from their lands, or even put to death. For such 
reasons as this and because of the oppressive exactions made 
upon them, the people held the chiefs in great dread and looked 
upon them as gods. 

65. Only a small portion oif the kings and chiefs ruled with 
kindness ; the large majority simply lorded it over the people. 

66. It was from the common people, however, that the chiefs 
received their food and their apparel for men and women, also 
their houses and many other things. When the chiefs went 
forth to war some of the commoners also went out to fight on 
the same side with them. 



88 

6^. The makaainana were the fixed residents of the land; 
the chiefs were the ones who moved about from place to place. 
It was the makaainanas also who did all the work on the land; 
yet all they produced from the soil belonged to the chiefs ; and the 
power to expel a man from the land and rob him of his pos- 
sessions lay with the chief. 

68. There were many names descriptive of the iimkaainanas. 
Those who were born in the back-districts were called kanaka 
no-hii-kiia (noJw-i-kua) , people of the back. The man who lived 
with the chief and did not desert him when war came, was called 
a kanaka no hia-kana, a man for the pit of battle. 

69-70. The people were divided into farmers, fishermen, 
house-builders, canoe-makers {kalai-waa) , etc. They were called 
by many difi^erent appellations according to the trades they 
followed. 

71. The (country) people generally lived in a state of chronic 
fear and apprehension of the chiefs ; those of them, however, 
who lived immediately with the chief were (to an extent) re- 
lieved of this apprehension.^ 9 

y2. After sunset the candles of kiikni-rmis were lighted and 
the chief sat at meat. The people who came in at that time 
were called the people of lani-ka-e,'^^ Those who came in when 
the midnight lamp was burning {ma ke kui aii-nioe) were 
called the people of pohokano. This lamp was merely to talk by, 
there was no eating being done at that time. 

73. The people who sat up with the chief until day-break (to 
carry-on, tell stories, gossip, or perhaps play some game, like 
konane. — Translator) were called ma-ko'n-^ because that was 
the name of the flambeau generally kept burning at that hour. 

74. There were three designations applied to the kalai-moku, 
or counselors of state. The kalaimoku who had served under 
but one king was called lani-ka'e. He who had served under 
two kings was called a pohokano, and if one had served three 
kings he was trcmed a ma-ko'u. This last class were regarded 
as being most profoundly skilled in state-craft, from the fact 
that they had had experience with many kings and knew wherein 
one king had failed and wherein another had succeeded. 

74. It was in this way that these statesmen had learned — ^by 
experience — that one king by pursuing a certain policy had met 



89 

with disaster, and how another king, through following a differ- 
ent poHcy had been successful. The best course for the king 
would have been to submit to the will of the people. 

NOTES ON CHAPTER XVITI. 

(\) Sect. I. Much has been said ahont the physique of the Hawaiian 
ahi class, its quahty, the probability that they were of a different and su- 
perior stock, &c., &c. ■ Such talk is a mixture of flattery and of bosh. 
One might as well talk of the superiority of the breed of aldermen. When 
one considers to what extent the blood of the lower classes found its 
way into the veins of the a/it-class, in spite of all tabus and precautions, 
and 7Jice rjcrsa, all attempts to accomit for the rotund athleticism of the 
Hawaiian alii by any such theory are off the track. Feeding and groom- 
ing are sufficient to account for all the facts. 

(2) Sect. 7. ^ole lima koko kohe. The literal translation of this 
would be ncn manibus sanguiie vaginae pollutis. To lie with a woman 
at the time of her infirmity was a greater offense than to comm.it a rape. 

(.1) Sect. 22. Kau-kau-alii: A Hawaiian explains the use of this 
phrase as meaning a step, stepping up to be an alii. Kau means a step- 
ping place, or a foot-rest 

(4) Sect. 22. Such relations might be known and approved by the 
husband. The unfruitfulness of a marriage relation was a frequent cause 
of this practice. 

. (s) Sect. 25. The figure in this appellation is that of a flight of steps, 
J?ciU, kau, step, step. Such is the explanation given of it by an intelli- 
gent Hawaiian. 

(6) Sect. 28. When Umi went to the court of Liloa to claim that 
king' as his father, following his mother's instructions, he climbed the 
outside pa and then entered into the king's presence by the king's private 
entrance, thus by his defiance of tabu asserting his rank. See Chap. 
XLIX. 

(7) Sect. 30. The kioloa was a long, elegant, swift canoe, used for dis- 
play and for racing. If any one were to show himself in one of these 
while the chief or king was also on the water, he would be chargeable 
with arrogance, lesc majeste, in vying with him in display and thus de- 
tracting from tiie honor due the chief. This tabu did not apply to an 
ordinary fishing craft. It was in force until the chief had returned to 
his residence. 

(8) Sect. 2)?>- One informant says the kapu-wohi was possessed by a 
young chief who had not yet known carnal intercourse. I do not trust 
this statement. Kanipahu, a king of Puna, is said to have been a very 
kapu-chicf, to have combined in his own person kapu-moe, kapii ku and 
kapu-hde at the same time. How this could be I cannot see. His son, 
Kalapana, is said to have had the same range of kapu. 



90 

(g) Sect. 48. In the original the word is ptialii, but that is evidently a 
mistake and it should be puali, the literal meaning of which is band or 
cohort or company. Pualii is a term speciall}' applied to orphans who 
were adopted by a chief or the king. 

(10) Sect. 51. Kuhikuhi-puu-one. One who pointed out the sand- 
heaps. The design for a heiau was first shown rudely in sand, 

(11) Sect. 52. -An allusion to the rustling of his paper-like robe or 
blanket of tapa as he turned irom side to side while lounging on his 
mat. 

( 12) Sect. 52. The author has not mentioned the class to whom was 
given the expressive name hoopili-mea-ai, hangers-on-for-something-to- 
rac. 

(13) Sect. 53. Full form anhau-pnka-a-pae, a slang phrase meaning 
to send one on a fool's errand, that being the way in which some of these 
gentry were treated. 

(14) Sect. 53. Apiki. Tricky; one, for instance, who, on receiving food, 
perhaps from several places, instead of taking it to his family, shared it 
with his pals. 

(15) Sect. 54. Aau-loa, literal meaning long shanks, derivative long- 
snftering. 

( 16) Sect. 57. The development of this thought would have explained 
the whole mystery of why one became a king and the others remained 
commoners, kanaka or makaainana. 

(17) Sect. 59. The tacit theory on which this explanation rests is 
that the passport to recognition as having a standing in the papa alii, 
or as being entitled to recognition as of the alii class, was that one's ped- 
igree should be vouched for by the genealogist. One's pedigree being 
forgotten he must fall to the rank of the commoner. 

(tS) Sect. 60 6[. It seems impossible to suppose that in the narrow 
limits of any of the Hawaiian islands any one could have wandered far 
enough to have become lost to the knowledge of the genealogists. 

(19) Sect. 71. That may have been because they had nothing to lose. 
The terror of death was passed perhaps. The people in the out-districts 
also were more timid hnd retiring in their manners. 

(20) Sect. 72. Lani-ka'e, or lara-ka'e'e'e. Later and towards the mid- 
dle of the night, light was given by the pohokano, which was simply a 
hollowed stone containing oil and a wick. 

(21) Sect. 72)- Ma-ko'-u. This flambeau was for the accommodation 
of the fishermen who returned from the sea at this early hour in the 
morning. The ma-ko'u was generally a torch of three strings of kukui- 
nuts, ikoiho. Ma-ko-ii is the name also given to the castor oil bush, 
whose seed was sometimes in later times used as lamp-oil. 



91 
CHAPTER XIX. 

LIFE IN THE OUT-DISTRICTS AND AT THE KING's RESIDENCE. 

1. The manner of life in the out-districts was not the same 
as that about the residence of the chief. In the former the peo- 
ple were cowed in spirit, the prey of alarm and apprehension, in 
dread of the chiefs man. 

2. They were comfortably off, however, well supplied with 
everything-. Vegetable and animal food, tapa for coverings, gir- 
dles and loin-cloths and other comforts were in abundance. 

3. To eat abundantly until one was sated and then to sleep 
and take one's comfort, that was the rule of the country. Some- 
times, however, they did suffer hunger and feel the pinch of 
want The thrifty, however, felt its touch but lightly; as a 
rule they were supplied with all the comforts of life. 

4. The country people were well off for domestic animals. It 
was principally in the country that pigs, dogs and fowls were 
raised, and thence came the supply for the king and chiefs. 

5. The number of articles which the country (kua-aina) fur- 
nished the establishments of the kings and chiefs was very great. 

The country people were strongly attached to their own home- 
lands, the full calabash,^ the roasted potatoes, the warm food, 
to live in the midst of abundance. Their hearts went out to the 
land of their birth. 

6. It was a life of weariness, however; they were compelled 
at frequent intervals to go here and there, to do this and that 
work for the lord Oif the land, constantly burdened with one 
exaction or another. 

7. Tlie country people^ were humble and abject; those about 
the chiefs overbearing, loud-mouthed, contentious. 

8. The wives of the country people were sometimes appropri- 
ated by the men about court, even the men were sometimes 
separated from their country wives by the women of the court, 
and this violence was endured with little or no resistance, be- 
cause these people feared that the king might take sides against 
them. In such ways as these the people of the kuaaina were 
heavily oppressed by the people who lived about court.3 



92 

9- vSome of the country people were very industrious and 
engaged in farming or fishing, while others were lazy and shift- 
less, without occupation. A few were clever, but the great ma- 
jority were inefficient. There was a deal of blank stupidity 
among them. 

10. These country people were much given to gathering to^ 
gether for some profitless occupation or pastime for talk's sake 
(hoohia niii), playing the braggadocio (hoo-pehn-pehu), when 
there was nothing to back up their boasts (oheke wale). The 
games played by the country people were rather different from 
those in vogue at court or at the chief's residence. Some people 
preferred the country to the court. 

11. Many people, however, left the country and by prefer- 
ence came to live near the chiefs. These country people were 
often oppressive toward each other, but there was a difference 
between one country district and another. 

12. The bulk of the supplies of food and of goods for chiefs 
and people was produced in the country districts. These people 
were active and alert in the interests of the chiefs. 

13. The brunt of the hard work, whether it was building a 
temple, hauling a canoe-log out of the mountains, thatching a 
house, building a stone-wall, or whatever hard work it might 
be, fell chiefly upon the kua-ainas. 

14. Life a1)out court was very different from that in the 
country. At court the people were indolent and slack, given to 
making excuses (making a pretense of) doing some work, but 
never working hard. 

15. People would stay with one chief awhile and then move 
on to another (pakanlei). There was no thrift; people were 
often hungry and they would go without their regular food for 
several days. At times there was great distress and want, fol- 
lowed by a period of plenty, if a supply of food was brought 
in from the country. 

16. When poi and fish were plentiful at court the people ate 
with prodigality, but when food became scarce one would satisfy 
his hunger only at long intervals (maona kalazmlazva. Kawa- 
lawala is the received orthography). At timies also tapa-cloth 
for coverings and girdles, all oi which came from the country, 
were in abundance at court. 



93 

I/. At other times people about court, on account of the 
scarcity of cloth, were compelled to hide their nakedness with 
rnalos improvised from the narrow strips of tapa (hipuupuu)^ 
that came tied about the bundles of tapa-cloth. A man would 
sometimes be compelled to make the kihei which was his gar- 
ment during the day, serve him for a blanket by night, or some- 
times a man would sleep under the same covering with an- 
other man. Some of the people about court were well fur- 
nished with all these things, but they were such ones as the 
cdii had supplied. 

i8. Of the people about court there were few who lived in 
marriage. The number of those who had no legitimate relations 
with women was greatly in the majority. Sodomy^ and other 
unnatural vices^ in which men were the correspondents, forni- 
cation and hired prostitution*^ were practiced about court. 

19. Some of the sports and games indulged in by the peo- 
ple about court were peculiar to them, and those who lived 
there became fascinated by the life. The crowd of people who 
lived about court was a medley of the clever and the stupid, a 
few industrious workers in a multitude of drones. 

20. Among those about court there were those who were 
expert in all soldierly accomplishments, and the arts of combat 
were very much taught. Many took lessons in spear-throwing 
{lono-maka-ihe^ ,) spear-thrusting, pole-vaulting (ku-pololu^), 
single-stick (kaka-laauy^, rough-and-tumble wrestling 
(kaala),^^ and in boxing {kui-alua)}'^ All of these arts were 
greatly practiced about court. 

21. In the cool of the afternoon sham fights were frequently 
indulged in; the party of one chief being pitted against the 
party of another chief, the chiefs themselves taking part. 

22. These engagements were only sham fights and being 
merely for sport were conducted with blunted spears, (kaua kio) 
or if sharp spears were used it was termed kaua pahu-kala. 
These exercises were useful in training the men for war. 

23. In spite of all precautions many of the people, even of 
the chiefs, were killed in these mock battles. These contests 
were practiced in every period in the different islands to show 
the chiefs beforehand who among the people were warriors, so 
that these might be trained and brought up as soldiers, able to 



94 

defend the country at such time as the enemy made war upon 
it. Some of the soldiers, however, were country people. 

24. One of the games practiced among the people about 
court was called honuhonii}^ Another sport was lou-loii}-'^ 
Another sport was iima.'^^ Hakoko, wrestling; kahaiiy^ hia^''. 
The people who attended the chiefs at court were mOire polite 
in their manners than the country people, and they looked dis- 
dainfully , upon country ways. When a chief was given a land 
to manage and retired into the country to live, he attempted to 
keep up the same style as at court. 

25. The people about court were not timid nor easily abashed; 
the}^ were not rough and muscular in physique, but they were 
bold and impudent in speech. Some of the country people were 
quite up to them, however, and could swagger and boast as if 
they had been brought up at court. 

26. There was hardly anybody about court who did not prac- 
tice robbery, and who was not a thief, embezzler, extortionist 
•and a shameless beggar. Nearly ever)^ one did these things. 

2/. As tO' the women there was also a great difference be- 
tween them. Those who' lived in the country were a hard-work- 
ing set, whereas those about court were indolent. 

28. The women assisted their husbands ; they went with them 
into the mountains to collect and prepare the bark of the wauket 
mamake, viaaloa and bread-fruit, and the flesh of the fern-shoot 
{pala-holoV^ to be made into tapa.. She beat out these fibres 
into tapa and stamped the fabrics for pans and malos-, that she 
and her husband might have the means with which to barter 
for the supply of their wants. 

29. The country women nursed their children with the milk 
■of their own breasts, and when they went to any work they 
took them along with them. But this was not always the case; 
for if a woman had many relations, one of them, perhaps her 
m.other (or aunt), would hold the child. Also if her husband 
was rich she would not tend the child herself ; it would be done 
for her by some one hired for the purpose, or by a friend. 

30. The indolent women in the country were very eager to 
have a husband who was well off, that they might live without 
work. Some women offered worship and prayers to the idol- 



95 

gods that they might obtain a wealthy man, or an alii for a hus- 
band. In the same way, if they had a son, they prayed to the 
idols that he might obtain a rich woman or a woman of rank 
for his wife, so that they might live without work. 

31. It was not the nature of the women about court to beat 
tapa or to print it for pans and nialos. They only made such 
articles as the alii specially desired them to make. 

32. All the articles for the use of the people about court, 
the robes, malos, pans, and other necessaries {mea e pono ai) 
were what the chiefs received from the people of the country, 

33. One of the chief emiployments of the women about court 
was to compose meles in honor of the alii}^ which they recited 
by night as well as by day. 

NOTES ON CHAPTER XIX. 

(i) Sect. 5. "Ipu ka eo, or unteke ka eo" was an epithet applied to the 
fill] calabash. An empty calabash was umche pala ok" i. e., an unripe 
calabash. 

(2) Sect. 7. This remark does not apply to the people of the Kau 
<!H strict on Hawaii. They had a repiiUtion for being quick to assert their 
rights. Kau was called the rebellious district. 

('3) Sect. 8. If an insolent courtier were to see that a country clown 
had a beautiful woman for a wife he would say to her, "You come 
along with me," and the country clown would be too spiritless to make 
Tiny resistance. Or one of the women about court., meeting a handsome 
young countryman whom she fancied, would turn his head with flattery 
rjnd try to win him to herself, saying, "Why does such a fine fellow as 
you condescend to live with such a fright of a creature as that wife of 
yours? You'd better come along with me." 

(4) Sect. 17. These hipuu-pitu were only two or three inches wide, 
•and it took several of them knotted together to go about a man and 

r 

■cover his nakedness. 

(5) Sect. 18. Aikane, now used to mean an honest and laudable 
iriendship between two males, originally meant the vice of that burnt-up 
<^ity.- 

(6) Sect. 18. Hoo-ka-maka, a bestial form of vice in which man 

confronted man. 

(7) Sect. 18. Moe hoo kuli-hoo-kuli, to shut one's mouth with a 

bribe. 

(8) Sect. 20. Lono-maka-ihe — In this the spear was discharged from 

the hand. v. 



96 

(9) Sect 20. Ku-pololu — In this the assailant used the long spear, po- 
lolu, as a vaulting-pole with which to pursue his opponent. The same 
weapon served him both offensively and defensively. 

(10) Sect. 20. In Kaka-laau a short staff or sword-like stick was 
used to strike, thrust, and parry, as in single-stick. 

(ii) Sect. 20. Kaala was a rough and tumble form of wrestling, in 
which each man sought to down the other. 

(12') Sect. 20. Kui-alua was a most savage form of combat, combin- 
ing, in addition to wresthng and boxing, bone-breaking and maiming. 

13) Sect. 24. Honuhonu. Two men sat a la Turc facing each other, the 
hands of each resting on the shoulders of his opposite, knees touching. 
The game consisted in rocking alternately backward and forward, thus 
causing each player in turn to be placed now above an4 now below the 
other. 

(14) Sect. 24. Louloii. Two men sat facing each other with legs in- 
tertwined and attempted to tip each other over sideways. 

(15) Sect. 24. Uma. Also called kulakula'i. The two players kneeled 
facing each other, right hands grasped elbows of the same side firmly 
planted on the ground. Each one now strove to tip the fore-arm of his 
opponent over and bring the back of his hand onto the ground. 

(16) Sect. 24. Kahau. A wresthng contest between two persons 
mounted on stilts. 

(17) Sect. 24. Liia. A famous style of contest which combined boxing 
wrestling, rough-and-tumble tossing and gripping, maiming and bone- 
breaking. 

(18) Sect. 28. Palaholo was mixed with the fibre of mamake in making 
tapa after being steamed in the oven. 

N. B. The language of this as well as the preceding chapter is full 
of technical expressions which few Hawaiians of the present day know 
the meaning of. 

(19) Sect. 2)2)- The mele inoa was a mele in adulation of a prince or 
king, reciting the glories of bis ancestry. 

*The title of this chapter might have been translated with no breach 
of fairness, LIFE IN THE COUNfTRY CONTRASTED WITH LIFE 
AT COURT. Any one who wishes is at liberty to make the substitution. 
If it were true that the place where the king lives is always to be called 
courl, then by all means let us make this verbal substitution ; and not 
only that, but also the necessary mental and imaginative substitution 
which shall make the thing fit the name. 



CHAPTER XX. 

CONCERNING KAUWA.^ 

I. There was a class of people in the Hawaiian Islands who 
were called kamva, slaves. This word kauzva had several mean- 



97 

ings. Tt Avas applied to thoise who were kauzua by birth as well as 
those who were alii by birth. 

2. Kauwa was a term of degradation and great reproach. But 
some were kauwa only in name; because the younger brother 
has always been spoken of as the kauwa of the elder brother. 
But he was not his kauzva in fact. It was only a way of indicating 
that the younger was subject to the older brother. 

3. So it was, with all younger brothers or younger sisters in 
relation to their elder brothers or elder sisters, whether chiefs or 
commoners. 

4. Those who had charge of the chief's goods or who looked 
after his food were called kanzau. Their real name was \i-'i-pu'u- 
pii'u and they were also called kauzva; but they were kauzva only 
in name, they were not really slaves. 

5. There were people who made themselves kauzva, those who 
w^ent before the king, or chief, for instance, and to make a show 
of humbling themselves before him said, "We are your kaitwaj^' 
But that was only a form of speech. 

6. Again people who lived with the rich were sometimes 
spoken of as. their kauzva. But they were not really kauzva; that 
term was applied to them on account of their inferior position. 

7. Mischievous, lawless people (poe kolohe) were among 
those who were sometimes called kauzva, and it was the same 
with the poor. But they were not the real kauzva; it was only an 
epithet applied to them. 

8. When one person quarreled with another he would some- 
times revile him and call him a kauzmi; but that did not make 
him a real kauzva, it was only an epithet for the day of his wrath, 
anger and reviling. 

9. The marshals or constables {ilamuku) of the king were 
spoken of as his kauzva, but they were not really kamva. There 
were then many classes of people called or spoken of as kauzua, 
but they were kauzim only in name, to indicate their inferior rank ; 
they were not really and in fact kauzva. 

The people who were really and in fact kauzva were those 
who were born tO' that condition and whose ancestors were such 
before them. The ancestral line of the people (properly to be) 
called kauzjva from Papa down is as follows : 



98 

TO. Wakea had a kaiizm. named Ha'akanilana. We are not 
informed in what way Ha'akauilana became a kauwa to Wakea. 
He may have been obtained by purchase — we don't know how it 
came about. After Wakea deserted his wife Papa, she lived with 
their kauwa Ha'akauilana. 

11. In time there was born to the couple a son named Kekeii. 
Kekeu lived with Liimilani and they begot Noa. 

Noa lived with Papa the second and they begot Pueo-mii- 

^velu-zvehi. 

Pueo-nui-welu-welu lived with Noni. Their first bom was 

Maka-nom, their last K , and these were the ancestors of the 

.actual and real kauzva in the Hawaiian Islands. 

12. The descendants O'f Makanoni and of K were the 

real kainva in Hawaii nei. If persons of another class, a chief 
perhaps, married one of these people and had children, the chil- 
dren were real kauzva.'^ 

13. The name kaiizva was an appellation very much feared 
and dreaded. If a contention broke out between the chiefs and the 
people and there was a fracas, pelting with stones and clubbing 
Avith slicks, but they did not exchange reviling epithets and call 
-each other kaiizva, the affair would not be regarded as much of a 
quarrel. 

14. But if a man or a chief contended with his fellow or with 
any one, and they abused each other roundly, calling one an- 
other kauzva; that was a quarrel worth talking about, not to be 
forgotten for generations. 

15. The epithet kauzva maoli, real slave, Avas one of great 
offense. If a man formed an alliance with a woman, or a woman 
with a man, and it afterwards came out that that woman or that 
man was a kauz&^a, that person would be snatched away from the 
kauzva by his friends or relatives without pity. 

16. If a chief or a chief ess lay with one who "was a kauzva, 
not knowing such to be the fact, and afterwards should learn that 
the person was a kauzva, the child, if any should be born, would be 
dashed to death against a rock. Such was the death dealt out to 
■one who was abhorred as a kauzva. 

17. The kauzva class were so greatly dreaded and abhorred 
that tliey were not allowed to enter any house but that of their 



99 

master, because they were spoken of as the aumaktia of their 
master. 

1 8. Those who were kauzva to their chiefs and kings in the 
old times continued to be kauz<i'a, and their descendants after them 
to the latest generations ; also the descendants of the kings and 
chiefs, their m.asters, retained to the latest generation their po- 
sition as masters. It was for this reason they were called aa- 
makua, the meaning of which is ancient servant {kauzva kahiko). 
They were also called akua, i. e., superhuman or godlike (from 
some superstitious notion regarding their power). Another name 
applied to them was katizva lepo, base-born slave (lepo, dirt. 
''Mud-sill") ; or an outcast slave, kaiiiva haalele loa, which means 
a most despised thing. 

19. Those katizva who were tattooed on the forehead were 
term.ed kamva lae-puni, slaves with bound foreheads ; or they were 
called kanzva kikoni, the pricked slave ; or kmtwa makazvela, red- 
eyed slave. These were most opprobrious epithets. 

20. If a person of another class had a child by one of these 
au-makuas or kaiizvas, the term no'n was applied to it, which 
meant that it also was a kauwa to the same master. 

21. Some people of other classes, and of' the alii class as well, 
formed connections with kaiiwas, either through ignorance or 
through concupiscence, or because they happened to have met a 
fine-looking woman or man of the kauzva class. In this way 
some aiiis, as well as others, became entangled (hi hi a). Children 
begotten of such a union were termed ula-nla-ili, red skin (from 
the sun-burn acquired by exposure through neglect and naked- 
ness). 

22. Men and women who were kauzua were said to be people 
from the wild woods (nahelehele), from the lowest depths no 
lalo liio Jo a). 

23. It was for this reason that the rank of the first woman 
or man with whom a great chief or chiefess was paired, was so 
carefully considered beforehand by those skilled in genealogies 
(kuauhau), who knew the standing of the woman or man in 
question, whether an alii or a kauwa. 

24. For the samiC reason great chiefs were — sometimes — ^paired 
with their elder sisters (or elder brothers, as the case might be), 



100 

or with some member of their own family, lest by any chance 
they might unite with a kmnm. 

25. It was for this reason also that the genealogies of the aliis 
were always carefully preserved, that it might be clear who were 
free from the taint of kauwa blood, that such only might be 
paired with those of alii rank. 

26. It w^as a matter likely to cause the death of a high chief 
to have it said of him that he was an alii kauwa. In such a case 
the most expert genealogists would be summoned to search the 
matter to the bottom. Genealogists were called the wash-basins 
of the aliis, in which to cleanse them. The kamua class were re- 
garded as a defilement and a stench. 

2y. A female kauwa was an outcast and was not allowed to 
enter the eating house of a female chief. 

NOTFS ON CHAPTER XX. 

(t) The word Kauivn in the title as it stands in the original has been 
deliberately mutilated and an unsuccessful attempt made to make it il- 
legible with pen-strokes. In its place, i. c, following it, has been in- 
i-.ertcd the word kanaka. The same crude and unsuccessful attempt to 
cover up the word has been made in sections 9. 10, 11, 12, and 13, and in 
some places there has been substituted for it the word ai-kane. The 
same thing has also been done to the proper names Haakauilana, Maka- 

noiii and one other name, the initial letter of which, K — , is all that 

can be made out. 

This attempt to obliterate these words was evidently not done by the 
author himself. What motive could the author have had to undo his own 
darker tint. What motive could the atrthor have had to undo his own 
work? The theory that seems to me most probable is that the culprit did it 
from shame, being himself a kaiiiv'a. 

I am informed by an intelligent Hawaiian that he once knew in Kipa- 
h.ilu, Maui, a man named Moo, who had in the center of his forehead 
a small, round tattooed spot as large as the tip of one's finger. He 
now believes him to have been a kauwa. "I am strongly of the opinion 
tJiat he was undoubtedly such. He lived on friendly terms with the 
people about him, apparently creating no aversion or fear. He had a 
wife who had no signs of being a kauwa. He died at Kipahulu some 
lime in the sixties. He was a fine-looking, well made man, intelligent 
and. self-respecting, able and ready to stand up for his own rights. I did 
not know anything about this man's history, but I believe him to have 
been a kauwa. I would have been ashamed to have questioned him on 
the subject, or to have gone about seeking information from others in 
regard to him," said my informant. 



101 

The Hawaiians are still very sensitive about this matter of the kauw'a. 
To this day people in reviling each other will occasionally fling out 
the epithet kati-zv'a. The institution itself, however, has gone by. 

(2) Sect. 19. I am informed that kauzv'a were marked by means of the 
tattoo on the parts of the face about the eyes and on the forehead, as 
indicated in the accompanying cuts. 






No I is a round spot in the middle of the forehead. 
No. 2 is a curved figure arched over the root of the nose from one 
eye to the other. 

No. 3 represents two curved figures which are placed like two halves 
of a bracket-mark outside of and so as to include the eyes. 

Kapule of Molokai informs me that in his childhood he knew a fam- 
ily on Molokai in which there were several fine girls, but as they were 
.'^aid to be kauiv'a no one wanted to marry them, and they were neglected 
in the matrimonial market, in spite of their attractions. His grand- 
mother explained to him the reason for Lheir being so much avoided 
and despised. He said that he used to be ijiformed that a kauw'a was 
thought to be the offspring of a bestial alliance. The same informant 
said he never had heard of such a thing as a kauzv'a's being marked or tat- 
tooed in any way. 



CHAPTER XXI. 



wrong conduct and right conduct, 
(na hewa me NA pono). 

The Ancient Idea of Morality. 

1. There are many kinds of wrong committed by men, if their 
number were all told; but a single stem gives birth to them all. 
The tliought that proceeds from the mind is the parent that 
begets a multitude of sins.^ 

2. When the heart proposes to do wrong then doubtless it 
will commit a sin ; and when it purposes to do right, then nO' doubt 
it will do right; because from the heart {naan, bowels) comes 



102 

good and from the heart also comes evil. But some evils light 
down of themselves (lele zvale niai), and so do some good things. 

3. If the eye sees a thing, but the heart does not covet it, no 
wrong is done. But if the eye observes and the heart covets a 
certain thing, a great many thoughts will arise within having inor- 
dinate desire (kuko) as the root, a restless yearning (/ia), a ve- 
hement desire (uluku), and a seizing (hookaha) ;or duplicity {hoo- 
makaidii) and covetousness (iini), which make one look .upon a 
thing with deep longing and the purpose to take it secretly and 
appropriate it to one self. These faults are tO' be classed w^ith 
theft. 

4. Coveting the property of another has many aspects to it, 
a spying upon another, lying in ambush on his trail, plotting, 
treacherv', deceit, trickery with the intent to murder secretly in 
order to get someone's goods. All O'f these things come under 
the head of robbery and are of the nature of murder {pepehi 
wale ) . 

5. If one has determined to enrich himself at another's ex- 
pense the evil has many shapes. The first thing is covetousness 
(pakaha), filching, thrusting one's self on the hospitality of-one's 
neighbor (kipa zuale), stripping another of his property {hao 
wale), appropriating his crops (iihiiki wale), theft, robbery and 
other wrong deeds of that nature. 

6. If a man wishes to deal truthfully with another and after- 
Avards finds that things have been misrepresented to him, there 
are many things involved in that. In the first place there is 
deceit (hoo-piniipuni), lying (waha-he'e), slander (alapahi), 
falsehood (palau), the lie jestful {ku-kahe-kahe) , the lie fluent 
(palolo), the lie unclothed, (kokahe), the lie direct, (pahilau), 
and many other things of hke sort. 

7. If a person seeks to find fault with another there are many 
ways of doing it, the chief of which is slander {aki, biting), de- 
famation (ahiahi), making false accusations (niania), circulating 
slanders {holoholo oleo), vihfying {makauli'i), detraction {kaa- 
mchai, belittling (^w^n^), tale-bearing {poupou-noho-ino), en- 
snaring {hoozmiezmle), misleading (hiahele), treachery (kn- 
makaia), fault-finding {hoolawehala) , mahce (opti-inoino) , scan- 
dal-mongering (lazve-olelo-wale) , reviling (paonioni) and a host 
of other things of the same sort. 



103 

8. If one has evil thoug-hts against another there are a great 
many ways in which they may express themselves. The first is 
anger {hithii) , indignation (inadna), sarcasm (a-aka), scolding 
(keke), fault-finding (nana), sourness {kukona), bitterness {na- 
hoa), fretfulness (jnakona), rudeness {kalaca) , jealousy {hoo- 
lili), scowling {hoomakue), harshness hookoikoi), intimidatioa 
(hooweliweli) and many other ways. 

9. If a man wished to kill an innocent person there are many 
ways in which he can do it, first to simply beat him to 
death (pepehi wale), by stoning (liailuku), whipping {hahau), 
knocking him down (ktdai), garroting (umizmle), pounding 
with his fists (kuku'i imle) , smiting (papa'i), wrestling (hako'o- 
ko'o), stirring up a fight (hookonokono), and many other sim- 
ilar ways. 

10. These were all sins, clearly understood to be very wrong, 
but those who did these things were not suitably punished in the 
old times. If any one killed another, nothing was done about 
it-— there was no law. It was a rare thing for any one to be pun- 
ished as at the present time.^ 

11. It should be remarked here that in ancient times indis- 
criminate sexual relations between unmarried persons (moe na 
■mea kaawale), fornication, keeping a lover (moe ipo), hired pros- 
titution (moe kookuli), bigamy, polyandry, whoredom (moe hoo- 
kama-kama), so-domy (moe aikane), and masturbation were not 
considered wrong, nor were foeticide and idol-worship regarded 
as evils. 

12. The following things were held toi be wrong, hewa, both 
in men and women, to change husband or wife frequently (ko- 
aka), to keep shifting from place to place, to be a glutton or to 
in men and women: to change husband o^r wife frequently (ko- 
less gossip (palau-alelo) , to be indolent and lazy, to be an improv- 
ident vagabond (aea, kuonoono-ole) , to^ be utterly shiftless (lima- 
lima-pilau),to go about getting food at other people's houses 
(koalaala-make-hezva) — ^these and other like actions were really 
wrong, hezva. 

13. The following practices were considered hezva by the 
landlord, that one should give himself up to the fascinations of 
sport and squander his property in pnhenehene, sliding the stick 
(pahee), bowling the ulu-maika, racing with the canoe, on the 



104 

surf-board or on the holiia-sled, that one should build a large 
house, have a woman of great beauty for his wife, sport a fine 
tapa, or gird one's self with a fine malo. 

13. All of these things were regarded as showing pride, and 
were considered valid reasons for depriving a man of his lands, 
because such practices were tantamount to secreting wealth. 

14. If a landlord, or land agent, who farmed the land for an 
alii {kono-kiki) had to wife a woman who did no work, neither 
beating out or printing tapa, doing nothing in fact, but merely 
depending on what her husband produced, such a non-p.roducer 
was called a polo-hana-ole, and it would be counted a hewa, and 
a sufficient reason why the man should be turned out of his lands. 

15. Mere complaining and grumbling, with some other mis- 
fortunes are evils that come of themselves. There are other ills 
of the same sort which I have not mentioned. 

16. There was a large number of actions that were consid- 
ered essentially good (pono maoli) , and the number of persons 
who did them was very considerable, in spite of which there 
lighted down upon them the misfortune that when they looked 
upon the things belonging to another their heart lusted after them. 
Tile right course in such a case is to resist the temptation, not 
to pursue the object of one's desire, tO' cease thinking about it 
and touch it not. 

17. To act justly without trespassing or deceiving, not fre- 
quenting another's house, not gazing wistfully upon your neigh- 
bor's goods nor begging for anything that belongs to him — that is 
the prudent course. 

18. The following actions were considered worthy of appro- 
bation ; to live thriftily, not to be a vagabond, not to keep chang- 
ing wives, not to be always shifting from one chief to another, not 
to run in debt. 

19. It was reckoned a virtue for a man to take a wife, to bring 
up his children properly, to deal squarely with! his neighbors 
and his landlord, to engage in some industry, such as farming, 
fishing, house-building, canoe-making, or tor^ise swine, dogs 
and fowls. 

20. It was also deemed virtuous not tO' indulge in sports, to 
abstain from such games as pnhenehene, pahee, bowling the 
'Qnaika, running races, canoe-racing, surf-riding, racing on the 



1U5 

holua-slcd, and to abstain from the tug-of-war and all other 
games of such sort. 

21. The practice of these virtues was a great means of better- 
ing one's self in this life and was of great service. 

22. The farmer and the fisherman acquired many servants and 
accumulated property by their labors. For this reason the prac- 
tice of these callings was regarded as most commendable. 

23. The worship of idols w^as regarded as a virtue by the 
ancients, because they sincerely believed them to be real gods. 
The consequence was that people desired their chiefs and kings 
to be religious (haipule) . The people had a strong conviction that 
if the king was devout, his government would abide. 

24. Canoe-building was a useful art. The canoe was of ser- 
vice in enabling one to sail to other islands and carry on war 
against them, and the canoe had many other uses. 

25. The priestly office was regarded with great favor, and 
great faith was reposed in the power of the priests to propitiate 
the idol-deities, and obtain from them benefits that were prayed 
for. 

26. The astrologers, or kilo-lani, whose office it v-^as to :>b- 
serve the heavens and declare the day that would bring victory 
in battle, were a class of men highly esteemed. So also were 
the kiihi-kuhi-piai-one, a class of priests who designated the site 
where a heiau should be built in order to insure the defeat of 
the enemy. 

2y. The kaka-olelo, or counsellors who advised the alii in 
matters of government, were a class much thought of; so also 
were the warriors who formed the strength of the army in time 
of battle and helped to rout the enemy. 

28. Net-makers {poe ka-upena) and those who made fishing- 
lines (hilo-aha) were esteemed as pursuing a useful occupation. 
The mechanics who hewed and fashioned the tapa log, on which 
was beaten out tapa for sheets, girdles and loin-cloths for men 
and women were a class highly esteemed. There were a great 
many other actions that were esteemed as virtuous whether done 
by men and women or by the chiefs ; all of them have not been 
mentioned. 



10() 

NOTES ON CHAPTER XXI. 

(i) Sect. I. What did the ancient Hawaiians seriousl>' regard as 
wrong ? 

First — Any breach of tabu or of ceremonious observance. 

Second — Failure to fulfill a vow to the gods or to make good any re- 
ligious obligation. 

Thiid — Any failure in duty towards an aliij especially an alii kapu. 

Fourth — For the kahu of an idol to have neglected any part of his 
duties, as feeding it or sacrificing to it. Under this same head should be 
put tiie duties of the keeper of the bones of the dead king; to have neg- 
lected such a duty would put a terrible load on the conscience. It is 
o^^ing• to the fidelity of the kahit that the hiding place of the great Ka- 
mehamelia's bones is to this day a profound secret. The fidelity with 
which such obligations as these were kept is proof enough that this people 
had all the material of conscience in their make up. It will be seen that 
the duties and faults that weighed most heavily on the conscience of the 
Hawaiian were mostly artificial matters, and such as in our eyes do not 
touch the essense of morahty. But that is true of all consciences to a 
large extent. It should be remarked that the Hawaiian was a believer in 
the doctrine of the divine right of kings to the extremest degree. His 
duties to his alii, or laiii, as the poets always styled him, was, therefore, 
on the same footing with those due to the ahuas. 

Fifth — I believe that the Hawaiian conscience would have been seriously 
troubled by any breach of the duties of hospitality, 

(2) Sect. 10. The lex talionis was the rule. Friends often took up 
the matter and enacted something like a vendetta. 



CHAPTER XXII. 

THE VALUABLES AND POSSESSIONS OF THE ANCIENT HAWAIIANS. 

1. The feathers of birds were the most valued possessions of 
the ancient Hawaiians. The feathers of the mamo were more 
choice than those of the 00 because of their superior magnificence 
when wrought into cloaks (ahu). The plumage of the i'izm^ apa- 
pane and mitakihi were made into ahu-ida, cloaks and capes, and 
into mahi-ole, helmets. 

2. The ahti-tila was a possession most costly and precious 
(makaiJiae), not obtainable by the common people, only by the 
alii. It was much worn by them as an insignia in time of war 
and when they went into battle,. The ahu-nla was also conferred 



107 

upon warriors, but only upon those who had distinguished them- 
selves and had merit, and it was an object of plunder in every 
battle. 

3. Unless one were a warrior in something more than name 
he would not succeed in capturing his prisoner nor in getting 
possession of the ahii-ula and feathered helmet of a warrior. 
These feathers had a notable use in the making oi the royal bat- 
tle-gods.^ They were also frequently used by the female chiefs 
in making or decorating a comb called huli-kua, which was used 
as an ornament in the hair. 

The lands that produced feathers were heavily taxed at the 
Makahiki time, feathers being the most acceptable offering to the 
M akahiki-idoX. If any land failed to furnish the full tale of 
feathers due for the tax, the landlord was turned off (hemo). So 
greedy were the alii after fathers that there was a standing order 
(palala) directing their collection. 

. 4. An ahu-ula made only of marno feathers was called an 
alaneo and was reserved exclusively for the king of a whole 
island, alii ai moku; it was his kapa wai-kana or battle-cloak. 
Ahu-ulas were used as the regalia of great chiefs and those of 
high rank, also for Avarriors of distinction who had displayed great 
prowess. It was not to be obtained by chiefs of low rank, nor 
by warriors of small prowess. 

5. The carved whale-tooth, or niho-palaoa, was a decoration 
worn by high chiefs who alone were allowed to possess this or- 
nament. They were not common in the ancient times, and it is 
only since the reign of Kamehameha^ T that they have become 
somewhat more numerous. In battle or on occasions of ceremony 
and display (hooka^hakaha) an alii wore his niho-palaoa. The 
lei-palaoa (same as the niho-palaoa) was regarded as the exclu- 
sive property of the alii. 

6. The kahili,— 2i fly-brush or plumed staff of state— was the 
emblem and embellishment of royalty. Where the king went there 
went his kahili-hea^rer (paa-kahili) , and where he stopped there 
stopped also the kahili-heSircT. When the king slept the kahili 
was waved over him as a fly-brush. The kahili was the posses- 
sion solely of the alii. 

7. The canoe with its furniture was considered a valuable 
possession, of service both to the people and to the chiefs., By 



108 

means of it they could go on trading voyages to other lands, en- 
gage in fishing, and perform many other errands. 

8. TJie canoe was used by the kings and chiefs as a means of 
ostentation and display. On a voyage the alii occupied the raised 
and sheltered platform in the waist oi the canoe which was called 
the poloy while the paddle-men sat in the spaces fore and aft, their 
number showing the strength of the king's following. 

9. Cordage and rope of all sorts (na kaiila), were articles of 
great value, serviceable in all sorts of work. Of kaula there 
were many kinds. The bark of the haii tree was used for making 
lines or cables with which to haul canoes^ down from the mount- 
ains as well as for other purposes. Cord — aha — made from co- 
coanut fibre was used in sewing and binding together the parts 
of a canoe and in rigging it as well as for other purposes. Olona 
fibre was braided into (a four or six-strand cord called) lino, 
besides being made intO' many other things. There were many 
other kinds of rope {kaula). 

10. Fishing nets {upena) and fishing lines (aho) were valued 
possessions. One kind was the papa-waha, which had a broad 
mouth; another was the aei (net with small meshes to take the 
opelu) ; the kawaa net (twenty to thirty fathoms long and four 
to eight deep, for deep sea fishing) ; the ktm net (a long net, oper- 
ated by two canoes) ; and many other varieties. 

11. Fish-lines, aho, were used in fishing for all sorts oi fish, 
but especially for such fine large fish as the ahi and the kahala. 
The aho was also used in stitching together the sails (of mat- 
ting) and for other similar purposes. 

12. The ko'i, or stone ax, was a possession of value. It was 
used in jiewing and hollowing canoes, shaping house-timbers and 
in fashioning the agriculture spade, the 00, and it had many other 
uses. 

13. The house w^as esteemed a possession of great value. It 
w^as the place where husband and wife slept, where their children 
and friends met, where the household goods of all sorts were 
stored. 

14. There were many kinds of houses: the mua for men 
alone, the noa, where men and women met, the halau for the shel- 
ter of long things, like canoes, fishing poles, etc., and there were 
houses for many other purposes. 



109 

15- Tapa was a thing of value. It was used to clothe the 
bod)', or to protect the body from cold during sleep at night. The 
malo also was a thing of great service, girded about the loins 
and knotted behind, like a cord, it was used by the men as a cov- 
ering for the immodest parts. 

1 6. Another article of value was the pan; wrapped about the 
loins aiid reaching nearly to the knees it shielded the modesty of 
the women. 

17. Pigs, dogs and fowls were sources of wealth. They were 
in great demand as food both for chiefs and common people, and 
those who raised them made a good profit. 

18. Any one who was active as a farmer or fisherman was 
deemed a man of great wealth. If one but engaged in any indus- 
try he was looked upon as well off. 

19. The man who was skilled in the art of making fish-hooks 
(ka-makati) was regarded as fore-handed. The fish-hooks of the 
Hawaiians were made of human bones, tortoise shell and the 
bones of pigs and dogs. 

20. The names of the different kinds of hooks used in the 
ancient times would make a long list. The hoonoho^ was an ar- 
rangement of hooks made by lashing two bone hooks to one 
shank (they were sometimes placed facing each other and then 
again back to back). 

21. The kikii (in which the bend of the hook followed a 
spiral; the hia-loa (sometimes used for catching the akxi) \ the 
nukit (also called the kakaka. It consisted of a series of hooks 
attached to one line), the keaa-ivai-leia (for uhia. The bait was 
strewn in the water and the naked hook was moved about on the 
surface) ; the aii-kn'u (a troll-hook, having twO' barbs, used to 
take the ulua) : the maka-ptihi (about the same as the au-ku'ii, 
but with only one barb) ; the kai-anoa (used in the deep sea — com- 
posed of two small hooks, without barbs, arranged as in fig. 4) ; 
the Oman (about the same as the keaa-zuai-leia but more open, 
with no barb, for the deep sea) ; the mana (a hook for the eel) ; 
the kohe-lua (also called kohe-lua-a-pa'a, a hook with two barbs) ; 
the hidu (having a barb on the outside) ; the kue (a very much 
incurved hook, used to take the oio, etc.) ; the hui-kala (a large 
hook with two barbs, one without and one within) ; the hio-hio 



no 

(a minute hook of mother o' pearl, for the opeki) ; the lazva which 
was used for sharks. 

22. Such were the names of the fish-hooks of the ancients, 
whether made of bone or of tortoise shell (ea). In helping to 
shape them the hard wood of the pna and the rough pahoehoe 
laA^a rock were used as rasps. 

23. The 00 (shaped like a whale-spade) was an instrument 
useful in husbandry. It was made of the wood of the ulei, ma- 
mane, omolemolc, lapalapa (and numerous other woods includ- 
ing the alahe'e). 

24. Dishes, ipn, to hold articles of food, formed part of the 
wealth, made of wood and of the gourd ; uineke to receive poi and 
vegetable food; ipu-kai, bowls or soup-dishes, to hold meats and 
fish, cooked or raw, with gravies and sauces ; pa-laau — platters or 
deep plates for meats, fish, or other kinds of food ; hue-zim — bot- 
tle-gourds, used to hold water for drinking. Salt was reckoned 
an article of value. 

25. A high value was set upon the cowry shell, leho,^ and 
the mother o' pearl, pa,^ by the fishermen, because through the 
fascination exercised by these articles the octopus and the bonito 
were captured. 

26. Mats, mocna (moe-na), constituted articles of wealth, be- 
ing used to bedeck the floors of the houses and to give comfort 
.to the bed. 

2y. A great variety of articles were manufactured by dif- 
ferent persons which were esteemed wealth. 

28. At the present time many new things have been imported 
from foreign countries which are of great value and constitute 
wealth, such as neat cattle, horses, the mule, the donkey, the goat, 
sheep, swine, dogs, and fowls. 

29. New species of birds have been introduced, also new kinds 
•of cloth, so that the former tapa-cloth has almost entirely gone 
out of use. There are also new tools, books, and laws, many new 
things. 

30. But the book that contains the word of Jehovah is of a 
value above. every other treasure because it contains salvation 
for the soul. 



Ill 

NOTES ON CHAPTER XXII. 

The Hawaiian 5 had no money, nor anything that stood as an accepted 
rcpresoitative of value to take its place. In the barter carried on be- 
tween them and the ships in the early days of intercourse with the for- 
eigner, the value of the pig was reckoned by the Hawaiian in proportion 
to his length, so much for the pigling of the length of the forearm, so 
much hoop-iron for the three-foot porker, and so much for the full-grown, 
fathom long {anana) hog. (N. Z., zvhanganga.) 

The one barrier that stood in the way of the invention and adoption 
of some tangible representative of value was the selfish and exclusive 
policy of the chiefs, which allowed the poor kanaka to possess nothing 
he might call liis own, not even his malo or his wife. . 

(1) Sect. 3. Akua kaai, literally a god with a sash. This was a 
carved staff with a tuft of feathers at the top. The color-bearer who 
carried this emblen>. into battle was called its kahn. The image, or staff 
already mentioned, was bound to the body of the kahu by this kaai, or 
sash, and the kahu wore upon his own head the mahiole or helmet which 
w^as said to be worn by the idol. This substitution of the kahu, or 
man who carried the idol, for the idol itself, was not an uncom- 
mon thing in Hawaiian cult. It was looked upon as an act of 
infamy to take the Hfe of the kahu of an akua-kaai in battle. 

Kv.-kaili-inokii, the war god of Kamehameha, was a feather god, akua- 
hiilu-manii. 

(2) Sect. 5. Kamehameha in his wars of conquest took a large num- 
ber of these things as spoils of war, thus causing them to seem more 
plentiful. But it was merely that they were brought out of their hid- 
ing places. It cannot be that they were manufactured in any number 
•during the troublous times of his reign. 

(3) Sect. 9. The koa tree, felled in the depths of the forest, after being 
ludely shaped, was hauled up hill and down dale to the ocean, its real 
.home, by means of strong lines of haii bark. This hauling was termed 

ko luaa. See Chap. XXXIV. 

(4) Sect. 20. Hoonoho ; there seem to have been two varieties of this 
Icind of arrangement as represented in the two cuts. 

(5) Sect. 25. A stone-sinker, carved in the shape of the cowry, was 
lashed with the shell to a straight staff to which was attached a hook. 
When this apparatus was let down intO' the ocean the squid, attracted 
hi' the rich color of the shell, wrapped his arms about it and was drawn 
up. 

(6) Sect. 25. The pa was a plate of mother o' pearl with a hook of 
Ijone attached. It was used as a troll for the aku. The color and sheen 
»of the pearl seemed to have some sort of fascination for the fish. 



112 

CHAPTER XXIII. 

THE WORSHIP OF IDOLS. 

1. There was a great diversity as to cult among those who 
worshipped idols in Hawaii nei, for the reason that one man had 
one god and another had an entirely different god. The gods of 
the aliis also differed one from another. 

2. The women were a further source of disagreement ; they 
addressed their worship to female deities, and the god of one 
was different from the god of another. Then too the gods of 
the female chiefs of a high rank were different from the gods of 
those of a lower rank. 

3. Again the days observed by one man differed from those 
observed by another man, and the things that were tabued by 
one god differed from those tabued by another god. As to the 
nights obseiwed by the alii for worship they were identical, though 
the things tabued were different with the different alii. The same 
was true in regard to the female chiefs. 

4. The names of the male deities worshipped by the Hawa- 
iians, whether chiefs or common people, were Kuy Lono, Kane, 
and Kaiialoa; and the various gods worshipped by the people 
and the alii were named after them. But the names of the fe- 
male deities were entirely different. 

5. Each man worshipped the akiia that presided over the oc- 
cupation or profession he followed, because it was generally be- 
lieved that the akiia could prosper any man in his calling. In 
the same way the women believed that the deity was the one 
to bring good luck to them in any work. 

6. So also with the kings and chiefs, they addressed their 
worship to the gods who were active in the affairs that con- 
cerned them ; for they firmly believed that their god could de- 
stroy the king's enemies, safeguard him and prosper him with 
land and all sorts of blessings. 

7. The manner of worship of the kings and chiefs was different 
from that of the common people. When the commoners per- 
formed religious services they uttered their prayers themselves, 
without the assistance of a priest or of a kahu-akua. But when the 
king or an alii worshipped, the priest or the keeper of the idol 
uttered the prayers, while the alii only moved his lips and did 



113 

not say a word. The same was true oi the female chiefs ; they 
did not utter the prayers to their gods.^ 

8. Of gods that were worshipped by the people and not by 
the chiefs the following are such as were worshipped by those 
who went up into the mountains to hew out canoes and timber : 
Kit-pulupulu,^ Ku-ala-na^vuao ,^ Kii-moku-halii,'^ Ku-pepeiao-loa, 
Ku-pepeiao-poko, Kn-ka-ieie, Ku-palala-ke , Ku-ka-okia4aka.^ 
Lea,^ though a female deity, was worshipped alike by women and 
canoe-makers.. 

9. KH'huUihulu-mami was the god of bird-catchers, bird- 
snares .{poe-ka-mami) ,'^ birds limers and of all who did feather- 
work.. 

10. Kn-ka-00 was the god of husbandmen. 

11. Fishermen worshipped Ku—ula,^ also quite a number of 
other fishing-gods. Hina-hele was a female deity worshipped both 
by women and fishermen. 

12. Those who practiced sorcery and praying to death or 
anaana worshipped Ku-koae, Uli and Ka-alae-nui-a-Hina.^ 

Those who nourished a god — an nnihi-pili^ for instance — 
or one who was acted upon by a deity, worshipped Kalai-pahoa. 

(13.) Those who practiced medicine prayed to Mai-ola. Kapti- 
alakai and Kan-ka-hoola-mai were female deities worshipped by 
women and practitioners of medicine. 

14. Hula-dancers worshipped Laka; thieves Makua-aihue; 
those who watched fish-ponds Hau-maka-pu'ii ; warriors worship- 
ped Lono-maka-ihe ; soothsayers and those who studied the signs< 
of the heavens (kilokilo) worshipped the god Kuhimana. 

15. Robbers worshipped the god Kui-ahia; those who went; 
to sea in the canoe worshipped Ka-maha-alii. There were a great: 
many other deities regarded by the people, but it is not certain that: 
they were worshipped. Worship was paid, however, to sharks, 

^to dead persons, to objects celestial and objects terrestrial. But 
there were people who had no god, and who worshipped nothing ;: 
these atheists were called aia. 

16. The following deities were objects of definite special wor- 
ship by women: .L(77^-/77i/ei was the object of worship bythe women 
who beat out tapa. La'a-hana was the patron deity of the women 
who printed tapa cloth. Pele and Hiiaka were the deities of cer- 
tain women. Papa and Hoohoku/^ our ancestors were worship- 



114 

ped by some as deities. Kapo and Pua had their worshippers. 
The majority of women, however, had no deity and just wor- 
shipped nothing. 

17. The female chiefs worshipped as gods Kiha-zvahine , Waka, 
KaJaniaiviii, Ahimn (or Wahimii), and Alimanoano. These dei- 
ties were reptiles or Moo. 

18. The deities worshipped by the male chiefs were Ku, 
Lono, Kane, Kana-loa, Kumaikaiki, Kti-maka-nui^ Ku-makela, 
Ku-maka'aka'a, Ku-holoholo-i-kana, Ku-koa, Ku-nui-akea, Ku- 
kaili-moku,'^^ Ku-waha-ilo-o-ka-puni, Ulu, Lo-lupe — this last was 
a deity commonly worshipped by many kings. Besides these 
there was that countless rout of (woodland) deities, kini-akua, 
lehu-akuaj and mano-akua?-^ whose shouts were at times distinctly 
to be heard. They also worshipped the stars, things in the air and 
on the earth, also the bodies of dead men. Such were the ob- 
jects of worship of the kings and chiefs. 

19. The following gods were supposed to preside over dif- 
ferent regions: Kane-hoa-loni (or Kane-wahi-lani) ruled over 
the heavens; the god who ruled over the earth was Kane-lu- 
honua; the god of the ifiountains was Ka-haku-o ; of the ocean 
Kane-huH-ko'a. 

20. The god of the East was Ke-ao-kiai^ of the West Ke-ao- 
halo, of the North Ke-ao-loa, of the South Kc-ao-hoopua. The 
god of winds and storms was Laa-mao-mao. 

21. The god of precipices {pali) was Kane-holo-pali, of 
stones Kane-pohaku, of hard — basaltic — stone Kane-moe-ala, of 
the house Kane-ilok' a-hale^^ (or Kane-iloko-o) , of the fire-place 
Kane-mo e-lehu,^^ of fresh water Kane-wai-ola. 

2.2. The god of the doorway or doorstep was Kane-hohoid^^ 
(Kane-noio according to some). The number of the gods who 
were supposed to preside over one place or another was count- 
less. 

2T^. All of these gods, whether worshipped by the common 
people or by the alii, were thought to reside in the heavens. 
Neither commoner nor chief had ever discerned their nature; their 
coming and their going was unseen; their breadth, their length 
and all their dimensions were unknown. 

24. The only gods the people ever saw with their eyes were 
the images of wood and of stone which they had carved with 



115 

their own hands after the fashion of what they conceived the 
gods of heaven to be. If their gods were celestial beings, their 
idols should have been made to resemble the heavenly. 

25. If the gods were supposed to resemble beings in the firma- 
ment, birds perhaps, then the idols were patterned after birds, 
and if beings on the earth, they were made to resemble the 
earthly. 

26. If the deity was of the water, the idol was made to re- 
semble a creature of the water, whether male or female.^"^ Thus 
it was that an idol was carved to resemble the description of an 
imaginary being, and not to give the actual likeness of a deity 
that had been seen. 

27. And when they worshipped, these images, made after the 
likeness of various things, were set up before the assembly of the 
people; and if then prayer and adoration had been offered to the 
true god in heaven, there would have been a resemblance to the 
popisli manner of worship. Such was the ancient worship in Ha- 
waii nei, whether by the common people or by the kings and 
chiefs. There was a difference, however, between the ceremonies 
performed by the common people at the weaning of a child and 
those performed by a king or chief on a similar occasion. 

NOTES ON CHAPTER XXIII. 

(i) Sect. 7. There were important exceptions to this general state- 
ment by Mr. Malo which should be noted. The prayers offered in the 
Hula were, as a rule, uttered by persons, kahunas, specially consecrated 
or appointed for that ofHce. The consecration of a house or of a wa'a, 
canoe, was done with the aid of a kahuna; and the common people did 
resort to kahunas of different classes. As regards their private worship 
and devotions, however, the statement of Malo as regards the common 
people is undoubtedly correct. 

(2) Sect. 8. These are all different forms of the god Ku. Pulupulu 
is a name applied to anything cottony ; derived from the fibres that cover 
the fern; applied to any vegetable wool. 

(3) Sect. 8. It seems as if there were a play on the word ku, which 
primarily means to stand. Ku-ala-na-wao may be translated, there stand 
the wildernesses. 

(4) Sect. 8. Ku-moku-halii, Ku i? here personified as the one who 

"clothes the island." 

(5) Sect. 8. Ku-ka-ohia-laka. The epithet laka is the part of the name 
that is difficult of explanation. The epithet ohia is evidently from the 



ii6 

tree of that name. The tree was said to have a human voice, and a 
groan was audible when it was cut into. Mr. S. Percy Smith informs 
me (Dec, 1897.) that Raia, the same as Laka, was the Tahiti, Rarotonga 
and N. Z. name of the ohia {Metrosideros lutea.} The whole mystery is 
thus explained. 

(6) Sect. 8. Lea was said to present herself at times in the form of the 
eU'pnio bird, a deity that greatly concerned canoe-makers. 

(7) Sect. 9. Poe ka-manw, the word ka is used in a great many mean- 
ings, to catch, smite, etc., as in the following, "He uahi ke kapeku e hei 
ai ka ia-n-anu o Puoalii." The reference is to the fact that the people of 
Puoalii, Hamakau, Hawaii, were wont to make a smudgy fire at night on 
the coast, and as the birds flew in from the sea, coming into the reek 
of the smoke they became bewildered and were easily caught in scoop- 
nets. 

(8) Sect. II. The idols of Kuula were numerous, most of them being 
uncarved stones. 

(9) Sect. 12. Hina was the mother of the mythical hero Maui, who, 
according to one legend, learned the art of making fire from the red-headed 
mud-hen, alae, who was a brother to himself. 

(10) Sect. 12. An unilii pili was a familiar spirit, or infernal deity, which 
was made resident in some object, very often the bones of an infant, 
through the agency of the persistent prayers and offerings of a sorcerer, 
who became its kahu, keeper or patron, and to whom the unihi pili held 
the relation of a benefactor, protector and infernal agent, ready when 
called upon to do any errand of vengeance, murder of body or soul, to 
which his kahu might commission him. (For the full explanation of this 
subject see Papers of the Hawaiian Historical Society, No. 2. "The 
Lesser Hawaiian Gods," by J. S. Emerson : read before the Hawn. Hist. 
Sec. April 7, 1892: Honolulu, H. I.) 

(11) Sect. 16. Papa was the wife of Wakea, and Hoohokukalani their 
daughter. With the latter he committed incest and broke up the peace 
of the family. 

(12) Sect 18. Kn-kaili-moku — Ku-the-land-grabber ; this most appro- 
priately, was the war god and favorite deity of Kamehameha I, the one 
who aided him in his expeditions of war and conquest, plunder and 
murder. 

(13) Sect. 18. Kini, lehu and mano meant respectively 40,000 and 400,- 
000, and 4,000, this being a set phrase used to indicate that countless 
multitudes of elves, sprites, gnomes and fairies with which the imagina- 
tion of the Hawaiian peopled the wilderness. They were full of mischief 
and had their hands in every pie. See the story of Laka of Kipahulu, 
son of Wahieloa, the canoe-builder. In addition to these must be men- 
tioned ''Ka puku'i ke akua, ka pohai o ke akua, ke kokoolua ke 
akua, ke kokookolu o ke akua, ka ikuwa ke akua." It may be 
difficult to describe the different notions expressed by these words, but the 



117 

ikuwa, the mysteroiis voices and murmurings of the gods in the wilder- 
ness — these can be heard at almost any time in the woodlands. 

(14) Sect. 21. Kane-ilok'a-halc is no doubt a contraction from Kane- 
iloko-o-ka-Jiale. The man who built a house did well to make an of- 
fering to him. 

(15) Sect. 21. Kane Avho lies in the ashes: Kane-moe-lehu. 

(16) Sect. 22. The door-step was a very tabu place and it was looked 
upon as highly improper to sit or stand on it. This is also an Asiatic 
superstition. 

Apropos of the title placed at the head of the chapter, the question 
arises, did the Hawaiians worship the idol? or did they rather use it as an 
emblem of the spiritual being back of it? Does the communicant believe 
that the bread, or wafer, placed on his tongue is the real body of his 
Saviour? Does the pietist believe that power, virtue, reside in the con- 
secrated image and rosary that hang from his neck? Human nature is 
much the same at all times ; answer the one question and you answer 
the other. I do not share with Mr. Malo the belief that the imagination 
and thoughts of the ancient worshipper went no higher than the image 
before which he bowed. Very naturally in the enthusiasm of deliverance 
from idolatrous superstition, Mr. M. was unable to do justice to the sys- 
tem from which he had escaped. The influences that moulded his opinions 
were not favorable to a philosophic view of the whole question. In spite 
of everything, however, the fact that the ancient Hawaiians kept in view 
a spiritual being back of the idol makes itself manifest in Mr. Malo's ac- 
count, cropping up from time to time in his statement of their worship 
and beliefs. Consider, for instance, the account of Wakea's deliverance 
from the perils of the ocean, and the manner in which his kahuna di- 
rected him to build a heiau and perform a sacrifice to the deity, while 
swimming in the ocean. (See the story of Wakea, pp. 247-8.) The 
Hawaiians spoke of akua-kii, akua maolij akua-kino-olej etc. What was 
an akua inaoh, if rot a spirit? 

Kemarks. — "The Hawaiians usuallv worshipped their gods by means of 
idols, believing that by the performance of certain rites power, mana, 
was imparted to the idols, so that they became a means of communica- 
tion with unseen divinities. They imagined that a spirit resided in or con- 
\'eyed influence through the image representing it." — Alexander's Haw. 
Tiist., p 41. 

The above is probably true of all idolaters, of whatever race or name. 

W. D. A. 

THE LEGEND OF KAUA KAHI-A-KAWAU. 

(17) Sect. 26. The following legend has been related to me apropos 
of the statement n-ade by Mr. Malo: 

Kauakahi-a-kawau was an ancient king on Kauai who had his home in 
the mountains. One time when down at the coast he saw a deity in the 



ii8 

form of a woman who, after disporting herself in the ocean, climbed upon 
a rock and began to braid and comb her hair. The charms of her per- 
son made such a vivid impression on him that on returning to his home 
in the mountains, he laboriously carved a figure in stone portraying the 
person of his goddess whom he called Ono'ilele. The real name of the 
woman, who was a kupua, creature of supernatural power, was UH-poai-o- 
ka-moku. The woman was most beautiful and voluptuous, so that Kaua- 
kahi fell dead in love with her. He devoted himself with great attention 
to carving the figure, and succeded in making a very perfect representa- 
tion of the human body, even to the hair on the head, the figure being 
that of a woman. 

When the work was done he brought the image down to the shore, 
and at the time of day when he thought she would be likely to appear 
he carried it down and placed it at the water's edge in a sitting position 
on a rock, the attitude being that which a woman would assume in mak- 
ing her toilet after the bath, Kauakahi himself crouched behind the 
figure and awaited the appearance of the goddess. She soon showed 
herself in the midst of the waves, and climbing upon a large rock, busied 
herself in combing the sea-weed out of her long hair with her fingers. 
Kauakani immediately imitated her motions, passing his own fingers 
through the hair of the image in front of him. "It's nothing but a sham, 
an image," said the goddess disdainfully. Kauakahi at once shifted the 
position of the graven figure before him, and in a manner so lifelike, that 
the goddess, thinking she had been mistaken, said, "It is a woman after 
all, "Come over here and give me your company," said Kaua- 
kahi, and she, thinking it was the woman who addressed her, swam over 
and climbed upon the rock on which Kauakahi and the image were sitting. 

As she came up out of the water, Kauakahi, using his magic power, 
caused the image to disappear and standing before her, a man, put his 
arn)s about her, and made hot love to her, saying, "Come with me and be 
my wife." The goddess consented to his proposition, and allowed him to 
lead her up into the mountains to the mystic region of Piha'na-ka-lani. 
Entering the house they found the place full of beautiful birds of gay 
plumage, one bird standing uopn another four tiers in height all about 
the apartment. In wonder Uli-poai turned to her lover for an explanation 
of the bewildering sight, but he had disappeared, having assumed the 
shape of an image. Thereupon the goddess, true to the woman in her, 
burst into tears and was in great distress. Presently an old woman 
came in and kindly asked her what was the matter, and she told her 
story from the beginning. "I will find your husband for you," said the 
old dame, and she took her into an adjoining house and showed her a 
large number of images ranged along the side of the apartment. "Which 
of these images would you choose for a husband, if you were to take 
one?" asked the old witch. After looking at them all she selected the one 
that pleased her and going up to it found it very heavy to lift. She then 



119 

kissed it affectionately, and that which had been but an image smiled 
upon her— it was a human being, her husband. "Who was it directed 
you to my place of hiding?" asked Kauakahi; "it was probably a kamaa- 
ina, was it not?" "Yes," said she, "it was an old woman named Kahi- 
lii-kolo/' "An ancestor of mine," said Kauakahi, "but now let us return 
to the house." Their bed that night was quilted with bird's feathers. 

Soon after this Kilioe, the god of precipices, na pali, sent an invitation 
to Kaua-kahi to come and visit him at Haena. Having accepted the in- 
vitation, Kauakahi and his bride were conveyed thither by the multitude 
of birds. Their stay at Haena was prolonged to the end of the anahulu, 
a period of ten days, after which taking their departure, they essayed to 
return by way of the region of Wailua. following the precipitous trails 
that go inland to Kalalau. Now Kilioe had warned his friend Kauakahi, 
saying, "See to it that you keep your image at hand; for you must know 
that this wife of yours belongs to the ocean, and will ere long return 
.thither ; and when she does so she will seek to take you with her, in which 
case you will of course be drowned." By and by, having reached the Wai- 
lua river, while thev were sitting on the bank of the stream talking to- 
gether, of a sudden the woman seized him and plunged into the depths of 
the river. But Kauakahi, mindful of his friend's advice, succeeded in sub- 
stituting the image in place of himself, and escaped from her embrace, 
half dead from his prolonged stay under water. 

No sooner did the birds from the mountain note his disappearance, 
than they flew to his aid, reaching him just in time to pluck him out of 
the water as he rose exhausted to the surface. They bore him on their 
wings back to his mountain home, where Kauakahi was content to remain, 
enjoying the society of his good friend, Kilioe. 



CHAPTER XXIV. 

RELIGIOUS OBSERVANCES RELATING TO CHILDREN, 

I- 

1. Here is another occasion on which worship was paid to 
the gods. After the birth of a child it was kept by the mother at 
the common house, called noa, and was nursed with her milk^ 
besides being fed with ordinary food. 

2. When it came time for the child to^ be weaned, it was pro- 
vided with ordinary food only, and was then taken from the 
mother and installed at the mua, or men's eating house. In re- 
gard to this removal of the child to the mua the expression was 
ua ka ia i mua. The eating tabu was now laid upon the child,. 



120 

and it was no longer allowed to take its food in the company of 
the women. 

3. When the child was separated from its mother, a pig was 
offered up by the father to the deity as a ranson (mohai pana'i) 
for the child, in order to propitiate the favor of the deity for 
the little one. The pig that was used as an offering was baked 
in an oven in the presence of the worshipping assembly, and 
being sacred, only those who went in to take part in the cere- 
mony ate of it. 

4. When the pig had been consecrated, its head was cut off and 
set apart for the deity, — though still it was eaten by the peoples- 
being placed on the altar or kua-ahu,^ (kuahu is the accepted or- 
thography at the present time) where always stood images 
in the likeness of the gods. 

5. This image had suspended from its neck a gourd, ipu, 
which was perforated to receive a wooden bail. This was called 
^pu Lonor or Lono's gourd. 

6. The ear of the pig was now cut off and placed in the 
gourd that hung from the neck of the image, and at the sams 
time a prayer was recited. 

7. This prayer, however, was not an extemporaneous suppli- 
cation, dictated by the feelings and intelligence of the man, as in 
the case of a prayer addressed to Jehovah, but was comimitted 
to memory, as if it had been a mele, a song or poem. Such was 
the nature of the prayers offered. to their deities by the aliis as 
Avell as by the people. 

8. When all was ready for the recital of the prayer, bananas, 
■cocoanuts, awa-root, and awa prepared for drinking were set 
before the image. The father then took the awa-bowl and of- 
fered it to the idol with these words, "Here is the pig, the cocoa- 
nuts, the awa, O ye gods, Kn, Lono^ Kane and Kanaloa, and ye 
Au-makiiasf At the close of this address he offered the prayer 
•called 

PULE IPU. 

9. Ala inai, e L.ono, i kou haina^ awa, haina azoa nui nou, e 
Lono. 

He^ villi niai, e Kea^ he pepeiao piiaa, he pepeiao^ ilio, he 
pepeiao aina nui — nou, e Lono! 



121 



Halapa i he manli! Kukala^ ia hale-haul mau, maleim 
i ka po; niolia ia hat ka po. 

O kn'u kaipit^; o ku'n hiia i ka-ipu; hua i kakala^ ka ipu 
kakala; he kalana^^ ipu. 

5. O hua i na mo'o a^ HiH / au i'a ko^^ ia, 

Ahia la anoano a ke ahi-kanu,^^ a kanu la, i piia i Harcvaii? 
A kanu la ka ipu nei; a ulit; a lau; a pua; a hua la ka 
ipu nei. 

Hoonoho^'^ la o ka ipu nei. Kekela ka ipu nei. 

ithafi ka ipu nei. Kalai la ka ipu nei. 

10. O oki, o kua i ka piha ka ipu. 

ka ipu ka honua^^' nui nei; o po'i ka lani Kuakini. 

A hou i ka hakaokao;^^ kakai i ke anuenue.^'^ ' 

nhao^^ i ka lili; nhao i ka hala; uhao i ka la niano- 
Iclc'^^ I oua! 

ka ipu o ka lua mu-a-Iku/^^ o ka ipu a makani koha, a 
kau ka hoku^^ a'ia'i. 

15. Ozmhi!'^^ kani niai, a hea ka uka inanu!^'^^-^ 

Ka lalau a ha'a^^ ka nianu; ka lalau kuli'a i Wawau.'^'^ 

He nialino -^ a po, e Lono, i ka haunaele; 

hJa lili la i ka haunaele, na hala la i ka haunaele mau 
kahima^^ ke makala ulua.^'^ 

Ulua'^^ mai, Lono, ulua kolea ino Ma'a-ku-nezva^'^ awa 
lilelile! 

20. makia, Lono, a hano, a hano zvale no! 

Kila i nei; muli hala, nuili ke kani Waioha! 

Arise, O Lono, eat of the sacrificial feast of av/a set for 
you, an abundant feast for you, O Lono ! 

Provide, O Kea, swine and dogs in abundance! and of 
land a large territor}^ — for you, O Lono ! 

Make propitious the cloud-omens ! Make proclamation for 
the building of a prayer-shrine ! Peaceful, transparent is the 
night, night sacred to the gods. 

My vine-branch this; and this the fruit on my vine- 
branch. Thick set with fruit are the shooting branches, a plan- 
tation of gourds. 

5. Be fruitful in the heaped up rows! fruit bitter as fish- 
gall. 



122 

How many seeds from this gourd, pray, have been planted 
in this land cleared-by-fire ? have been planted and flowered out 
in Hawaii ? 

Planted is this seed. It grows; it leafs; it flowers; lo! it 
fruits — this gourd-vine. 

The gourd is placed in position ; a shapely gourd it is. 

Plucked is the gourd; it is cut open. 

10. The core within is cut up and emptied out. 

The gourd is this great world; its cover the heavens of 
Kuakini. 

Thrust it into the netting ! Attach to it the rainbow for a 
handle ! 

Imprison within it the jealousies, the sins, the monsters 
of iniquity ! 

Within this gourd from the cavern of Mu-a-Iku, calabash 
of explosive wind-squalls, — till the serene star shines down. 

15. Make haste! lest the calabash sound, and the mountain 
bird utter its call ! 

Take hold of it and it crouches; take hold of it and it 
displays itself at Vavau. 

It has been calm and free from disturbances into the 
night, O Lono, free from the turbulent enmities and bickerings 
of the kahunas, hunters after men. 

Arrest them, O Lono ! arrest the malicious sea-birds of 
Maa-kiL-nezva, with their flashing wings ! 

Confirm this and make it sacred, wholly sacred, O Lono! 
20. Bind it securely here ! The faults will be put in the back- 
ground ; the babbling waters of Waioha will take a second place. 

TO. The reference in this ^pule-ipu are to the gourd suspended 
from the neck of the idol and to the articles which had been put 
therein. 

11. On the completion of this prayer the father took the dry 
awa-root a.nd sucked it in his mouth. This was said to be the 
idol's drinking of it. It was not really imbibed (by the idol.) 
Then he took the strong awa (awa wai anu), and, mixing it with 
water, drank of it and ate of the vegetables and meats until he 
was satisfied; and, this done, he declared the ceremony noa, no 
longer burdened with a tabu, using these words: "Installed is 



123 

the child, the awa smitten against the brain. Free is the awa ; 
there is freedom to come and go; the tabu is entirely lifted. One 
is free to travel to the ends of the earth." 

12. Then those who had taken part in the service ate the 
pork and the vegetables until they had satisfied their hunger, 
and thus the ceremony was accomplished. In this it was shown 
that the child had come under the eating-tabu, and would no 
longer be allowed to eat with the women. Such was the mean- 
ing of this service. 

NOTES ON CHAPTER XXIV. 

(i) Sect. 4. This kua-ahu, or ku-ahu was a rustic framework of 
wood, decorated with flowers and leaves. 

(2) Sect. 5. ipu-o-lono is also the name applijed to a variety or species 
of taro. 

(.3) Sect. 9. Haina awa: There have been numerous conjectures as 
to the meaning of the word haina. After considering them all, I have 
come to the conclusion that it means the feast (aha-aina), or what 
amounts to almost the .same thing, the assembly gathered to sacrifice and 
do honor to the god. (It has been suggested that it might have its origin 
in the Maori "wahainga kawa/' the act of repeating certain prayers, called 
kawa, connected originally with offerings of awa;' hence haina might 
mean "the offering." The Maori expression ''tvhai i te kawa" means to 
recite the kawa (prayer). Whai is itself a noun-form of prayer, also 
used in taking the kapu off houses, healing a. burn, &c.) This suggestion 
serves to mark to what an extent meanings of words in Hawaii have 
drifted away from that of their originals in southern Polynesia. 

(4) Sect 9. He iilu mai: He is the equivalent of the causatives, ho, 
ho'o, ha, ha' a, all of which forms are found in the Hawaiian, or it may 
be an unusual, archaic, form of the imperative prefix, which is usually e. 

(5) Sect 9. Kea: This is probably the same beneficent goddess, or 
kitpna, whose full name was Nua kea. She was the goddess of lactation. 
The name was also applied to the woman who acted as wet-nurse to a 
young prince or princess, and whose breasts were therefore sacred to that 
duty, kapu to others. I am told that when the time came for a woman 
to wean her nursling, she would some times call upon Nua-kea to staunch 
the How of milk in her breasts, using perhaps the following prayer: 

E LonOj e Kane, e Nua-kea, ka ivahiiie iaia ka poli-waiu ke keiki. 
, Tia ke ukuhi nei o Me a. 
E lawe aku oc i ka wain ka makuahine. 
la oe e ka la, ka mahina, ka hokuj 
E lawe oc a kukulu Kahiki! 
Haalele aku i ka oinimo, ka uzve wale Mea, 
A e hanai oe i ka i'a kapu a Kane, 



124 

Oia ka hiluj^ ka noho malie, 
Ke ola ia oe, Kane! 
Ainama. Ua nna. 

O Lono, O Kane, O Niia-kea, the woman with a breast of milk for 

the child. 
We are about to wean Mea. 
Staunch the tlow of milk in his mother. 
Yours are the sun, the moon, the stars. 
Carry away to the pillars of Kahiki 

And there leave the emaciation, peevishness and waihng of the child; 
Feed him with the sacred fish of Kane, 

That is repose (hilu) and quiet. 

This is your blessing, O Kane. 

Amen. The prayer is ended. 

(*) Hilu: This word is used in a double sense. It is the name of a 
fish that is variegated with bright colored spots, and also means quiet, 
reserved, dignified in a commendable sense. 

(6) Sect. 9. Pepeiao, puaa, pcpeiao ilio, etc. : The reference is to the 
ear, or ears put into the gourd, which was suspended about the neck of the 
image. The ear is used as a symbol of ownership, as well perhaps as 
of abundance. When an alii cut off a pig's ear he marked it as his own. 
The petition is that an abundance of this world's goods be granted to the 
child. 

(7) Sect 9 kukala ia hale-hau: kukala seems to be used in the 

sejise of making proclamation ordering a thing to be done. Such was the 
custom even after the coming of the white man. J a should probably be i. 
.... hale-hau : It has been a long hunt to trace this word to its burrow. 
I am informed that it means a house thatched with the leaves of the hau 
tree, the well known hibiscus of Polynesia. The hause was of a tem- 
porary character and was used by the king and high chief for religious 
purposes. I am informed on the best of authority that the hale-hau of 
New Zealand — cf. fare-hau of Tahiti — was a council chamber, the house 
of the //aw, or government. In Polynesia hau or sau means the powers that 
be. This is another instance aof Hawaiian departure, drifting, from 
what was probably the original meaning. 

(8) Sect. 9. Ka-ipu : The stem or stalk of a gourd-vine, 

(c) Sect. 9. Kakala: From the same root doubtless as kala, or kala- 
kala, rough, bristling, in this case meaning beset with shoots. 

(10) Sect. 9. Kalana, a small division of land; kalana ipn, therefore a 
field of gourd-vines. 

(11) Sect. 9. hua i na moo a Hi'i: The expression moo a Hi'i seems 
to have almost the vogue of a proverb. Who this man, hero or god Hi'i 
was is more than I have been able to discover. I am informed that 
there was a god Hiki — something' in the Maori pantheon. The best ex- 



125 

planation I can give of the passage is that the reference here is to the 
snake-like ridges in which the earth is heaped up about the vines. 

(12) Sect. 9. Au i'a; fish-gall. The best calabashes were from gourdi 
that were exceedingly bitter. 

(13) Sect. 9. Ahi-kanu, a probable reference to the use of fire to clear 
land for planting. There is probably a reference in the expression to the 
ravages of war, a war of conquest. 

(14) Sect. 9. Hoonoho, to place, to put the immature gourd in a 
position favorable to symmetry. 

(t3) Sect. 9. O ka ipu ka honua, etc.: This comparison of the world 
and the sky to the body and cover of a calabash is a piece right out of 
Polynesian cosmogony. The seeds of the gourd, when scattered through 
the sky, become stars, and the pulpy mass inside the clouds, the cover 
belikened to the solid dome of heaven, ka lani. As to who was Kua-kini 
I have not been able to discover. 

(16) Sect. 9. A hou i ka hakaokao: I am told that hakaokao is the 
name applied to the net that enclosed a calabash that was used as a kind of 
clothes trank. The name is said to also hrive been applied to the net itself. 
Exactly how this kind of calabash differed from the ipu holo-holo-na, in 
which the fisherman was -wont to stow his hooks, lines and small appur- 
tenances, I am unable to say. 

(17) Sect. 9. Kahai i ke annenue: This might be more literally trans- 
lated, make. the rainbow a handle. By a bold and beautiful figure the 
poet cojnpares the arched bail or handle of the net about the calabash to 
the rainbow. 

(18) Sect. 9. uhao i ka lili. in this is the prefix of the impera- 
tive mood. Ka in the phrase ka lili is the singular form of the article 
which is here used instead of the plural. Such practice was specially com- 
mon in archaic Hawaiian. 

(19) Sect. 9 mano Icle i ona: In the text the words are fused into 

one continuous length manoleleiona much to the perplexity of the trans- 
lator. Disentangled they array themselves thus. The mano lele, literally 
a flying shark, is doubtless figurative of a big sinner. 

(20) Sect. 9 ka lua ma a Iku: This would probably be a more 

correct reading than ka lua Mu-a-Iku. In the original the words are run 
together kaluamuwaiku, with the addition of a ■^'. It is impossible to 
make sense out of such a formless string of letters. Obedient to the 
duty of an editor, as well as of a translator, I have arranged the letters into 
words in such manner as to make the sense best agree with the context. 
The literal interpretation of ka lua mu a Iku would be something like the- 
haunted cave of Iku. There is an interesting story hidden under this al- 
lusion to Iku's cave, which I have only partially uncovered. Iku was. 
a ku-pua who lived at Kuai-hc-lani in the southern region called Kululu- 
oKahiki, having for wife Ka-papa-ia-kea, by whom he had twelve chil- 
dren who were always designated as So-and-So-a-Iku (a-Iku means the 
child of Iku). Iku inhabited an under ground cavern, in which grew 



126 

famous gourds. These gourds, or some of them., are said to have had a 
voice, capable of emitting an explosive sound, "an explosive wind-squall" 
cis put in the translation. It is useless to inquire or conjecture what nat- 
ural phenomenon gave rise to this peculiar legend, of which I have been 
able to obtain only a fragment. There is, I think, no reference in this 
legend to the famous ipn a Laa-mao-mao. 

(21) Sect. 9 a kau ka hoku aiai: It seems as if the shining of 

the star was so as to look into, the mouth of the cave. The meaning is 
not evident. 

(22) Sect. 9. Oivahi, a word not to be found in the dictionary, and 
which I had never met until by inquiry I learned that it meant to hasten, 
be in a hurry, be.stir one's self. 

{22V2') Ka ttka nianu\ A possible reference to the call of the sacred 
elepaio, a bird whose early note is often interrupting the works of heroes. 

(2^) Sect. 9. Ka lalau, a haa manu; &c. The figure is that of 
the hunter putting his hand on a bird — probably in this case the uau^ a fat 
bird, which, though frequenting the sea, nested in the* mountains — on which 
the bird instantly squats down, crouches ; again he puts his hand on the 
bird and it stands forth, shov/s itself, (kuli'a) in.... 

(24) Sect. 9. WaivatL, the ."^ame as Vavau, an island in the northern 
part of the To7igan group. (In the Hawaiian W represents both the sound 
^coay and the sound vay.) Mr. S. Percy Smith, than whom there is 
no better authority on such points, says: "In his prayer VVaivau {Va- 
vaii) : Porapora:=Polapola — Havaii=^Lani-akea/^ In his opinion Wawau, 
i. e.j Vavau, is a sacred name for Havaii or Lani-akea, the proof on this 
point is round about and cumulative. 

(25) Sect. 9. Malino : A clear sky was an omen of favorable significance 
in connection with the performance of any religious rite, or the utterance 
of any prayer. 

(26) Sect. 9 haunaele mau kahuna: We have here an interior 

view of the wranglings and bickerings that went on among the body of 
kahunas. 

(27) Sect. 9. Makala ulna'. Makala, a trail made by wild animals; 
makala ulua, a place frequented by those who fished for ulua : ulua, the 
name of a fish, was also a euphemism for a human body used in sacrifice. 
(See the account in Chap. XXXVII, p. 173.) 

^28) Stxt. 9 Ulna viai, e /-c'no. .This repetitious use of the word 
uhia in an entirely new sense, of which the present example forms a 
capital instance, is one of the artifices that marks Hawaiian poetry. 

(29) Sect. 9. ...kolea ino Maa-ku-newa: Mo-i, a kupua, or king 
of Molokai, sent Maka-ulili, the ruler of the ko-leas, to Vavau to bring 
ah assortment of those birds, i. e., the plover. He returned with one lau 
C400) kolca ulilij one lau of mischievous kolea, and one lau of good kolea. 
The birds were located on the hill Ha-upu, near Pele-kunu valley. It was 
then noticed that the hill at times sank below the surface of the ocean, 



127 

and then as mysteriously rose from beneath waves. Mo'i sent a flight of 
the plover to learn the cause of this unusual phenomenon. They returned 
and reported that it was caused by the uneasy motions of a huge turtle, on 
^A'hich the hill was based, and they urged him to put an end to the dis- 
turbance by killing the turtle. Mo'i declined their advice and in revenge 
the )solca ino stole upon him while asleep, and tore his face with their 
talons; the hero, or wizard, Mo'i, then had all the mischievous birds, 
kolea ino, who had sought to tear his eyes out, banished to the barren 
bill of Maa-ku-nezva. 

In a pule anaana, i. e., an incantation to cause the death of some one, 
occurs the following passage: 

Kela kolea ino ulili o Ma'a-ku-ne7va; 
Newa i ha ulu kai a Kahiki, c Lono! 

That teetering plover of Ma'aku-newa that portends foul weather ; 
Ruffling the sea on its way from Tahiti, O Lono ! 

It is a common sa^ang that the seesawing of the plover on the shore 
is a sign of coming storm. 

As an instance of the mention of the kolea in ancient poetry, I quote 
from an old mele, as repeated to me: 

A luna au o Akani-kolea, 
A nele i ka hokahoka. 

T stood on Akani-kolea, 
My hopes entirely bankrupt. 

The allusion in this fragment is to the story of Hii-aka (i-ka-poli- 
o-Pele.) 



CHAPTER XXV. 

CONCERNING THE CIRCUMCISION OF CHILDREN. 

1. After installation in the imia, when the boy had increased 
somewhat in size, was the time suitable for his circumcision. It 
was a religious rite and the ceremony resembled that of installa- 
tion in the mua (ke ka ana i mua). 

2. This rite of circumcising the foreskin was conducted in 
the following manner : A pig was offered to propitiate the deity 
and the friends of the child's parents were gathered in a relig- 
ious assembly to celebrate the event. 



• 128 

3- When the pig that was used as an offering* was baked 
to a turn, the operation of circumcision took place, and the man- 
ner of performing it was as follows : 

4. Four men held the child fast. One was at the back of the 
child with the child held against his breast ; at the same time 
the man held the little one's arms folded against his neck so that 
it could not move. 

5. The length of the foreskin was measured from the extrem- 
ity of the prepuce to its junction within, and at this point a black 
line was marked with charcoal. The length was also measured 
within to the point where the prepuce was reflected, and com- 
pared with the length indicated by the black mark made on the 
back of the penis. 

6. Then one man held a thigh of the child with his left hand, 
and with his (right) hand seized one side of the preputial skin, 
and another man on the other side of the child did likewise, pull- 
ing the stretched prepuce taut. 

7. Then the kahuna stood forth with his bamboo {ohe in place 
of a knife), and uttered the following hookiki, prayer or blessing: 

E kii ka ohe, i ho inai ka ohe, he ia ka ohe laulii a Kane, kia i 
ke maka ka maij ua moku.'^ 

(E kii ka ohe i Homaikaohe. Eia ka ohe lauliia Kane,)^ 
(Oki a i ka maka ka mat Ua moku.) 

Bring the bamboo from Ho-mai-ka-ohe. Here is the small- 
leafed bamboo of Kane. Cut now the foreskin — It is divided. 

8. Then the kahuna gave the bamboo to the one who was to 
perform the operation, and he thrust the bamboo into the preputial 
orifice until it reached the head of the penis, as far as had been 
measured with the bamboo within, and had been marked with the 
charcoal on the outside. 

9. Then the foreskin was separated from its adhesions to the 
gland below and split lengthwise.^ The blood was now removed 
by sucking, the foreskin was dressed with a medicinal leaf, and 
the child was arrayed in a white malo. 

10. After this, a pig having been baked, worship was per- 



129 

formed in a manner similar to that performed when the child 
was taken to the mita. Such was the worship and the prayer, 

11. This was the way in which were treated the sons of the 
religionists, of the solid people, people of distinction, of the 
kahuna-class, and the sons of the lower ranks of chiefs. 

The rite was different (more elaborate) when it touched the 
sons of high chiefs ; there were also certain people who had no 
such ceremony performed at the circumcision of their sons — 
the}^ were merely taken to the mua and circumcised with no^ re- 
ligious ceremony whatever. 

12. The children of kahunas and of aliis were not allowed,, 
however, to partake of common food (ai noa) while they were 
being nourished on (their mother's) milk in the noa house. After 
being installed at the mua house they were allowed this common, 
food, but while still at the noa they were fed only on (breast)- 
milk. It was after this manner that some people acted towards^ 
their children. 

NOTES ON CHAPTER XXV. 

(i) Sect. 7. The text of this ancient prayer, like that of several others 
reported by Mr. Malo. is in a very unsatisfactory state. In the identical 
form reported by him it is impossible to make sense out of it, and in 
the translation 1 have followed an amendment proposed by an eminent 
Hawaiian scholar (J. K. K.). I am not altogether satisfied with the 
amendment, which is that enclosed in the brackets and numbered (2). In 
place of this I would propose what seems to me a simpler way out oi 
the difficulty, namely, that shown in the following: 

E kii ka ohe! Homai ke ohe! Eta ka ohe laulii a Kane. 
Oki'a i ka maka ka mai! Ua moku. 

The translation of this will differ but little from that given. 

Bring the bamboo! Give me the bamboo! Here is the small-leafed". 

bamboo of Kane. 
Cut now the foreskin ! It is cut. 

('^) Sect. 9. The Hawaiian operation is, strictly speaking, not circum- 
cision at all. The prepuce is merely slit up from its free edge or lip to the 
line of its attachment to the penis. The operation is still occasionally 
Dracliced by the Hawaiians. , 



130 
CHAPTER XXVL 

RELIGIOUS WORSHIP FOR HEALING OF THE SICK. 

1. When a husband, a wife, a child, or a beloved friend be- 
came ill it was an occasion that called for religious ceremonies 
\{hoomana) . 

2. The offering — mohai — of the sick person — it might be a 
pig, a fowl, or set of tapa sheets {kuina kapa) was laid before 
the gods. 

3. It was some friend of the sick man who took the offering 
and presented it to the gods and at the same time he uttered 
this petition: 

4. "O God, be kind to the one who is afflicted with illness ; 
freely pardon his sins and impurities, his ceremonial faults, his 
faults of the heart, his faults of speech and his non-fulfillment of 
vows to thee. 

5. "Let your anger be appeased by these offerings. Look with 
favor upon him and prosper him all the days of his life. Keep in 
liealth his body, until he shall have passed the age of walking 
upright, until he shall crawl or shall walk bent over a staff, until 
lie shall be blinked-eyed {haii-nmka-iole) , and then bed-ridden 

( pala-laii-hala) . Keep him in health until the last trance-vision 
(a kau i ka piia^ane-ane) . That is thy benefit to us, O God, and 
thus do I worship thee."^ 

6. Now this was because there was a strong belief that animal 
sacrifices were the right means with which to propitiate the deity 
and obtain his forgiveness for the sins of men, and healing for 
men's bodies — not for their souls. 

7. If the malady did not abate, a house was erected to the 
deity and a pig was sacrificed and exposed as an offering on a 
■frame-work, called a lele^ where it was allowed to remain (untill 
it mouldered away.) Another pig also was oven-baked and its 
head offered in sacrifice, but the body of this one was eaten. 

8. Supplication was again made to the deity to heal the sick 
•one, and if he recovered that ended the ceremonies and the 
worship addressed to the deity, and if he died, then also was 
there an end to the praying and worshipping. 



131 

NOTES ON CHAPTER XXVI. 

(i) Sect. 5. E ke Akua, e aloha mai oe i ka mea i mal ia. E kala wale 
mai oe i kona hcwa ana, a me kona haumia, a me kona ai-ku, a me kona 
ai-a, a me kona waha-hcwa, a me kona hoohiki ino ana ia oe. 

E na mai kou lili ma keia m.au mohai. E maliu mai oe; c lioola tnai 
iaia ma ke kino ,a hele ku, a hele koto, a hele nee, a kolo pupu, a hau- 
maka-iole, a pala-lau-hala, a ola loa a ka pua-ane-ane. Kau ola ia, e ke 
Akua. Pela ka'u waiha aku a me ka'u waipa aku ia oe, e ke Akua. Pela 
ka'ii hoomana ia oe. 

N. B. — Kane and Lono were the deities most commonly addressed. by 
those who offered prayers for the restoration of any one to health. The 
practice of medicine — and the Hawaiians had some proficiency in certain 
branches of the healing art — was always accompanied by religious cere- 
monies of some kind. 



CHAPTER XXVII. 

CONCERNING DEAD BODIES. 

1. A corpse was a very tabu thing in Hawaii nei. It was the 
ancients themselves who imposed this tabu ; but the reason for it 
and the author of it have not been made known. The mere fact 
of the tabu was all that was known in Hawaii nei. 

2. Th^ tabu that appHed to the dead body of an alii continued 
in force longer than that which concerned the dead bodies of 
others; it might be ten days or even longer before the ban of 
uncleaiiness would be removed. If it concerned the body of a 
person of more than ordinary distinction, perhaps it would be 
three days before the ban of uncleanness would be removed ; but if 
it were a person of low class it would be only a day or two before 
the tabu would be lifted {noa). When the corpse was buried out 
of sight then the period of tabu came to an end. 

The modus operandi of the tabu that concerned corpses was as 
follows : 

3. On the death of a person in a house in which other people 
were living, those who were not blood-relatives of the deceased 
were driven out {kipaku ia), but relatives were allowed to remain 
with the body. 

4. Those who remained with the corpse were considered de- 
filed, haumia, and must not on any account enter another house, 



132 

eat of the food of other people, touch any one else, or do any 
work, during the days oi their defilement. 

5. If the deceased had other friends outside, they were per- 
mitted to come and mourn, but other people might not enter the 
house in which was the dead body, nor eat of the food, nor touch 
any one within, lest they should be defiled, 

6. The ceremonies for the dead were as follows : If the dead 
person was much beloved, or had died in full vigor and health, i. e. 
suddenly, the ceremony of kuni^ would be performed on the body 
by the kahuna anauna, on the supposition that (in such a case) 
the death was from natural causes (make rnaoli no). 

7. Again if the body was that of a person much beloved, hus- 
band, or wife, it was the custom to keep it a good many days 
before burial. 

8. The body was first cut open^ and the inner parts removed, 
and it was then filled with salt to preserve it. A body treated in 

.this manner was termed I'a loa, long fish. It was a common thing 
to treat dead bodies in this way. 

9. The manner of arranging a corpse for burial I will describe. 
A rope was attached to the joints of the legs and then being 
passed about the neck was drawn taut until the knees touched the 
chest. The body was then done up in a rounded shape and at 
once closely wrapped in tapa and made ready for burial. 

10. Sepulture was done at night, so that by morning the burial 
was accomplished. Then in the early morning all who had taken 
part in the burial went and bathed themselves in water, and on 
their return from the bath seated themselves in a row before the 
house where the corpse had been. 

11. The priest was then sent for to perform the ceremony 
of hmkala, or purification. A sorcerer or kahuna anaana,^ could 
not officiate at this service of purification. It was only a temple- 
priest, kahuna pule heiau, who could purify one from the un- 
cleanness of a corpse or any other source of defilement. 

12. The kahuna brought with him a dish filled with sea- water, 
which also contained a sea-moss called limu-kala and turmeric; 
and standing before the people who sat in a row, he prayed as 
follows : 



4 

133 ^ 

13. Lcle Uli e! Lele wai el 

He Uli, he Uli, he lifai. he zvai! 
Lele ail, i ke ahtia e Kane me'hani. 
O Nehelani, nehe ia pika'na ka lani. 
A lama. He mu oia.^ 

Hasten, O Uli ; hasten, O water. 
Here is Uli, Uli ; here is water, water. 
I fly to thy shrine, O Kane, the approachable one. 
A rustling in heaven — it rustles with the sprinkUng. 
Light appears. The deity is silent. 

Then the people respond : He mu. 

The deitv is silent. 

The Kahuna resumes : He-mu ka aiku 

He-Ill u ka aia, 
He-mu ka ahula, 
He-mu ka paani, 
He-mu koko lana, 
I koko pua'a! 
I koko iliol 
I koko kanaka make! 
He niu oia! 

Silent and attentive are the rude and unceremonious, 

Silent are the wicked and unbelievers, 

Silent are the hula-dancers, 

Silent are those given to sports and games, 

Silent are the hot-blooded ones. 

Give us now the blood of swine ! 

Give us now the blood of dogs ! 

The blood of the human sacrifice ! 

The deity is silent. 

The people respond: He mu. 

The deity is silent. 

The kahuna says : Elieli. 

Profoundly. 



'134 

The people respond : Kapu. 

Tabu. 

The kahuna says : Elieli. 

Entirely, profoundly. 



The people 


No a. 
Free. 


The kahuna 


la e! 
O la! 


The people 


Noa honua. 

Freedom instant and complete 



The kahuna then sprinkled the water mixed with turmeric on 
all the people, and the purification was accomplished, the defile- 
ment removed. 

14. After this each one departed and returned to his own house. 
When a corpse was buried in such a secret place that it could 
not be discovered it was said to be huna-kele. 

15. Sometimes a person would secretely exhume the body of 
a beloved husband or wife, and remove the four leg-bones and the 
skull, washing them in water until they were clean. 

16. They were then wrapped up and enclosed within the 
pillow, and the friend took them to bed with him and slept with 
them every night. The number of corpses treated in this way 
was considerable among those who were fond of each other. 

17. Instead of the bones just mentioned, perhaps the palm of 
the hand would be cut off, dried in the sun and taken to bed 
with one. Or, if not the hand, the hair of the head, the teeth, 
or the finger nails. 

18. These parts of the corpse were preserved by the fond 

lover until such time as the love came to an end, when ,they 
were neglected. 

NOTES TO CHAPTER XXVII. 

(i) Sect. 6. Kuni, an incantation and sorcery for the purpose of re- 
vealing and bringing to punishment him who prayed to death (anaana) 
the person concerned. For full description see Chap. XXVIII. 



135 

(2) Sect. 8. Access to the cavities of the body was gained through a 
transverse cut made just below the ribs. 

(3) Sect. II. The kahuna anaana was feared and shunned as an assassin 
would have been. He was from the nature of the case disqualified for 
performing such a beneficent ceremony. It would have been like setting 
the wolves to guard the sheep. 

(4) Sect. 14. This was the favorite way of dealing with the bones of 
a very high chief — by sepulture in caves and secret places. These were 
known only to the kahu, and it was an act of perfidy for him to betray 
the secret. 

(5) Sect. 13. Mu. I am not sure that I have found and expressed the 
true meaning of the word mu. As ordinarily used it means either a bug 
that lives in wood or an odious official whose duty it was to procure hu- 
man victims to be used as sacrifices in the dedication of a heiau or other 
important building. Neither of those uses will suit the meaning in this 
case. The language is evidently quite archaic, and it seems probable that 
the word is no longer used in the same meaning. Such was my conclusion: 
after much searching for a clue as to the probable meaning of this term. 
On referring the matter to a learned Hawaiian, one who had giver me 
many useful points, he expressed it as his opinion that the word meant 
to be silent. The generic meaning of the word agrees well with my 
friend's opinion. Mumule is to sulk in silence; Kamumu is to murmur, 
the gentle, breezy inarticulate sound that comes from a multitude. Mumu 
is to hum, to make an indistinct sound ; to be silent ; etc., etc. In an an- 
cient story I find the word mu to be applied to the buzzing of the flies 
about, a dead body. 

The meaning of the verse "He-mu ka aiku' ," is that the one who had 
been unruly, eating in an unceremonious manner, had now become quiet, 
i. e., the assembly is now in order, attentive to the service in hand. 

In Maori mu-hore means unlucky; mu-tie silence. (S. P. S.) 

In Hawaiian mu-ki' expresses the action of kissing, and is used to- 
signify the act of sucking a tobacco pipe. 

See also p. 141, 2nd line. (W. D. A.) 



CHAPTER XXVIII. 

CONCERNING THE CEREMONY OF KUNI.^ 

I. On the death of a rich or distinguished person, or of one 
greatly beloved, it would (very frequently) be said that he came- 
to his death through anaana, that is through being prayed to death, 
for the reason that he was envied for his property, or hated on 
account of his distinction. Under such circumstances the cere- 



136 

mony of kimi would be performed on the body of the dead person. 

2. The affair, was conducted in the following manner : The 
friend or interested party, having provided himself with a pig, 
went before the kahuna kuni and offered it to the deity with 
these words : 

3. ''Here is the pig, o Uli^ in the heavens. This pig is of- 
fered to purchase the death of him who prayed to death my friend. 
It devolves upon you, o Uli and upon MakO'-kii-koae,^ and upon 
Ka-alae a-hina'^ to perform the funeral of this man." 

4. 'Ts this the pig to procure anaana?" asks the kahuna. "Yes." 

5. ''Then let him go, and observe in what direction he moves." 
The pig was then released, and if he went to rooting in the earth, 
the kahuna declared that the one who had anaanaed the man was 
himself a doomed one, and it would not be long before he would 
meet with his death ; "because the pig roots in the earth." 

6. If it did not act in this way, but went to the left side of the 
kahuna, he would declare, "it seems the death was caused by your 
wife's relatives ;" and if the pig went to the right of the kahuna, 
he would declare, "so it seems the death was due to the younger 
brother's people." 

7. If, again the pig passed behind the kahuna he declared 
the deceased came to his death through the agency of some out- 
ride party, or, if the pig raised his snout in the air, the kahuna 
declared that the death was chargeable to some alii; and if the 
pig came and stood before the man who brought him, he declared 
the responsibilitv for the man's death lay with the man's hoa ai, 
his table-companions. This was the gist of the remarks made 
iDy the kahuna. 

The kahuna thereupon instructed the man to prepare the 
kukui nuts, gourds, and all the other paraphernalia of kuni. 

8. Then the man who took the offering returned and reported 
the prediction of the kahuna kum, that the one who had caused 
the death of the victim by anaana would soon die himself. 

9. The friends of the deceased rejoiced greatly when they 
heard that the one who had anaanaed their friend was himself 
soon to die, and they went to work with alacrity to execute the 
commands of the kahuna kuni, so as to have everything ready 
to hand before his arrival. By the time the kahuna arrived, 
everything was in readiness. 



137 

10. The kahuna conducted his operations as follows: 

A stone, wrapped in a tapa of the kind called ae-o-kaha-loa,^ 
having been set before him, the dead body was laid with its 
head close to the stone. 

11. The kahuna then stood up with the cluster of kukui nuts 
and the gourd in his hands and repeated an incantation called the 
pule hui which runs thus : 

"Tis cluster, sacred cluster, utters its meaning, and it is this: 
the cluster this with which the aumakua invokes death upon him 
who anaanaed this one, praying that his destruction be turned 
"back upon himself. Behold this cluster breaks up and scatters, and 
so it symbolizes its meaning. This is the compact of Uli, Ka- 
alae-a-Hina, and Ku-koa'e; it pledges death to the one who ana- 
anaed him ; his incantation shall be turned back upon himself. 

'^Behold the cluster breaks up and utters its meaning thus — the 
sacred cluster!" 

12. Then the kahuna struck the bunch of kukui nuts against 
the table of stone which was called the papa ka hui, and the kukui 
nuts and gourd were broken and scattered in all directions. 

13. From the direction in which the kukui nuts flew the kahuna 
again pointed out the locality of those who caused the death, it 
being indicated by the direction taken by the nuts. Thus ended 
this office of the kahuna kuni. 

14. Then a fire-place for the kuni ceremony, called a kapuahi 
kuni, was constructed. It was of large size and when built was 
wreathed with auhuhu'^ and gourds and a flag^ was displayed at 
•each corner of it, after which a fire was lighted in the fire-place. 

15. Then a number of fowls and dogs were brought as kuni 
offerings. Men, probably two in number, selected and detailed 
for the purpose, then opened the dead body and having cut the 
liver into small pieces, stuffed them into each fowl and dog as a 
manii-kuni,^ that is a charm to bring the victim under the spell 
of the incantation. 

16. The two men who dissected the dead body were (of 
course) utterly defiled, anl were therefore not permitted to touch 
food with their hands, so that it was necessary for others to feed 
them. 

17. As soon as the body of a fowl or dog had been charged 
with its portion of liver it was thrown into the fire in the fire- 



138 

place; at the same time the man called aloud, "Here comes John 
Doe,^ seeking the one who caused his death by anamvaf 

1 8. After that the kahuna stood up and offered his kvmi prayer^ 
using great fervor and continuing until sunset without eating or 
drinking. The prayer might come to and end only when the 
sacrifices were reduced to ashes. 

19. While the fire burned the kahuna prayed and his prayer 
ran thus : 

A-a ke Oihij ke ahi a ka po Lani-pili}^ 

A i hea ke ahi, ke ahi a ka po Lani-pili? 

A i ka lani; make i ka lani; 

Popo i ka lani; ilo i ka lani; 

Punahelu i ka lani. 

Hoolehua i ka lani ka make o kahuna anaana^ 

Me ka la^me-maunu, e Kane. 

Ahi a Ku ke ahi. 

Kupu malamalama o ke ahi ka po a, 

Ahi a Kulu-alani e a ana. 

Ku Wakea, a ke ahi, he ahi no keia pule. 

The fire burns, fire of the night of Lani-pili. 
Where burns the fire, fire of the night of Lani-pili ?' 
It burns in the heavens. 

Death in the heavens ; corruption in the heavens ; 
Maggots in the heavens ; mildew in the heavens. 
Heaven speed the death of the kahuna anaana, 
And of the one who got for him the maunu, o Kane- 
It is the fires of Ku that burn. 
Flash forth light of the burning night, 
The fires of Kulu-a-lani are burning. 
Wakea stands up and the fire burns, fire for this prayer. 

20. By the time the kuni offerings were reduced to ashes it 
was night. The ashes were then carried down tO' the ocean and' 
thrown into a spout-hole together with all the appurtenances of the 
fire-place ; the fire-place itself was buried. 

21. The next morning a boy and a girl were made to walk 
naked about the fire-place, not covering their parts of shame as 
they walked. 



139 

22. As they made their round about the fire place the kahuna 
kuni stood and prayed, and when the kahuna had finished his 
prayer the ceremony of kuni was completed. Then it was that the 
kahuna declared the name of the one who had aima-naed the de- 
ceased one. 

23. ''I have seen," said he, ''the wraith or kahoaka of him who 
anaanaed this man coming this way, his head down, his eyes 
closed, as good as dead. And it will not be long before this one 
also shall die. 

24. The death to which I consign him is a swelling, a dropsy, 
a bloody flux, a vomiting of blood, a broken back. That is the 
manner of death I predict for him. Take you note of this." 

25. The body was then buried and a different kahuna came — 
the one previously spoken of to whom belonged the ceremony of 
purification. After this the kahuna kuni received his pay, and 
it was a large amount. 

26. If after this, any one died of one of the diseases mentioned 
by the kahuna, the kahuna in question would be in great demand 
and at the same time much feared for his power {mana). 

The number of alii that were prayed, to death was about the 
same as of the common people. As to kuni sacrifices, the number 
of those that were required of an alii was greater than what was 
required of an ordinary person, because this function of kuni, 
{anaana in the text) was a ceremony of worship (hoo-mana). 
Ordinarily the number of dogs required for a sacrifice was forty, 
with .double tnat number o^^ fowls, but an alii was required to offer 
a lati, four hundred dogs, and of fowls an immense number. 

NOTES ON CHAPTER XXVIII. 

(i) Sect. I. The subject of this chapter is kuni, not anaana, and I have 
accordinglv substituted the word kuni for that of anaana in the title, and 
the same has been done as necessary throughout the chapter, as for in- 
stance in Sect. 2, where kahuna kuni has been substituted for kahuna ana- 
ana. It goes almost without saying that a kahuna anaana would not be 
the one to avenge the foul work of his own craft. 

(2) Sect. 2 e Uli i ka hoolewa, which is the reading in the text, 

I have ventured to amend so as to read e Uli ke aolewa, or olewa. Ao- 
lewa is the atmosphere, the space beneath the solid dome {ao paa) of 
heaven. Uli may be described as the judicial spirit, as well as the detec- 
tive one, fitted therefore to discover the one whose incantations had ana- 
anaed and brought death to the deceased. Uli was addressed in prayer: 



140 

E Uli nana pono, O Uli that discerns the right, 

E Uli nana hewa. ... O Uli that discerns the wrong. . . . 

(3) Sect. 3. Maka-ku-koae, or Ka-maka-ku-koae as it is in the text, 
was a male deity who induced craziness (pupule), raving insanity (he- 
hena), or palsy and imbecility (lolo), he was therefore a very appropriate 
being to call upon for aid in such an emergency as this. 

(4) Sect. 3. Ka-alae-a-Hina, the mud-hen of Hina, a deity who induced 
sudden death. Hina had a numerous family of sons, all of them kupuas, 
i. e., supernatural beings. Maui, the discoverer of fire, was one of them. 
So also was the mud-hen, from whom Maui forced the secret of fire. 

(5) Sect. 10. A' e-o-kaha-loa, a wauke tapa of pinkish color. 

(6) Sect. 14. These were of white tapa. 

(7) Sect. 14. Auhuhii, Tephrosia piscatoria, a small shrubby plant 
which is used as a fish-poison. 

(8) Sect. 15. Maunu-kuni: this might be a shred of clothing, a bit of 
hair, finger — or toe-nail, or any exuviae from the victim's body. Maunu 
literally means bait, but originally it meant something moulted or sloughed 
off, like feathers, etc. 

(9) Sect. 17. In the original prayer of the kahuna the name of the 
postulant would be given. 

(10) Sect. 19. Lani-pili was the name of a deity; it meant literally a 
close, dark, night, a night when the heavens shut down close over the 
earth as before they were luted up and separated from the earth, a clear 
reference to the ancient mythology. 

The following is communicated to me as a kimi pule used by Wailiilii, 
a distinguished kahuna in the old times on the Island of Mplokai : 

la Awaiku* ka ua i Lanikeha** 
Ka ua maawe au e Kane, 
E Kane pakanaka, 
Kane pamahana, 
5 Mahana kaua ia oe, e Kane. 

E make ka mea nana i kolohe i ku'u keiki, 
Make emoole, naha ke kua, eu ka ilo, 
' Popopo a helelei, 
Kau make, e Kane. 
The spirits Awaikau send rain from the heavens of Lanikeha, 
The fine rain of you, o Kane, 
Kane who touches humanity. 
Who warms us by his presence. 
5 You and I warm to each other Kane. 

Send death to him who dealt mischievously with my boy. 
Let his be a speedy death, a broken back with rapid decay, 
Rotting and falling to pieces. 
This is the death I ask you to inflict, o Kane. 
(*) Awa-iku : These were spirits that acted as the messengers, spies, 
and agents to do the bidding of Kane. They were also guardian spirits, 



141 

shielding and warding off from people the malign influences of the mu,. 
who were a mischievous set of sprites, up to all kinds of minor deviltries 
according to their power. These Awa-iku managed the rain, the winds 
and the weather and a great many other things, and were beneficent in 
their conduct. 

(**) Lani-keha: an epithet applied to some part or district of heaven^ 
the soHd heaven. The residence of Kamehameha III at Lahaina wa? 
called Lanikeha. 

N.B. The first part of this prayer has the marks of greater age than, 
the remainder of the prayer. It was a common trick of the kahuna to. 
impose on people as well by high-sounding phrases as by other tricks. 



CHAPTER XXIX. 

CONCERNING THE CEREMONIES ON THE DEATH OF A KING. 

1. On the death of a king, one Avho was at the head of the 
government, the ceremonies were entirely different from those 
performed on the death or any other alii whatsoever. 

2. When the king was dead his heir was removed to another 
district, because that in which his death took place was polluted 
by the corpse. 

3. The kuni^ priests took a part of the flesh of the dead king's 
body to be used as niaunu in their incantations against those who^ 
had prayed him to death. The body was then taken to the mua^ 
house in the presence of the multitude and laid in the heiau, that 
it might be deified and transformed into an au-makua. 

4. The ceremony was performed bv the kahuna hui working 
under the rite of Lolupe,^ who was the god of the kahuna hui. It 
was believed that Lolupe was the deity who took charge of those 
who spoke ill of the king, consigning them to death, while the souls 
of those who were not guilty of such defamation he conducted 
to a place of safety {ola, life). 

5. The service of the deity Lolupe was in one branch similar 
to the ceremony of kuni {or anaana). The deification of the corpse 
and imparting godlike power to it was another branch of the 
priests' work, and was accomplished in the following manner. 

6. The dead body was first wrapped in leaves of banana, wa-- 
uke and taro, a rite which was called kapa lau, garment of leaves,. 



142 

7- The body being thus completely enveloped, a shallow pit 
was dug and the body was buried therein about a foot below the 
surface, after which a fire was made on the ground the whole 
length of the grave. 

8. This was kept constantly burning for about ten days, dur- 
ing which time the prayer called pule hid was continually recited. 
By that time the body had gone into decay and that night 
the bones were separated from the flesh and worship was per- 
formed to secure their deification after the following manner.^ 

9. After disinterment the bones were dissected out and ar- 
ranged in order, those of the right side in one place, those of the 
left side in another, and, the skull-bones being placed on top, 
they were all made up into a bundle and wrapped in tapa. 

10. The flesh which had gone tO' decay (pala-kahuki) and all 
the corruptible parts were called pela (pelapela, foul, unclean) 
and were cast into the ocean. 

11. It was by night that this pela was thrown into the ocean, 
on a tabu night. On that night no one from the village must go 
abroad or he might be killed by the men who were carrying forth 
the pela to consign it to the ocean. 

12. After this was accomplished, the bones were put in posi- 
tion and arranged to resemble the shape of a man, being seated 
in the house until the day of prayer, when their deification would 
take place and they would be addressed in prayer by the kahunas 
of the nma. The period of defilement was then at an end; con- 
sequently the king's successor was permitted to return, and the 
apotheosis of the dead king being accomplished, he was worship- 
ped as a real god^ (aktia maoli.) 

13. His successor then built for the reception of the bones a 
new heiau, which was called a hale poki^ for the reason that in it 
was constructed a net-work to contain the bones, which, being 
placed in an upright position, as if they had been a man, were 
enshrined in the heiau as a god. 

14. After this these bones continued to be a god demanding 
worship, and such a deity was called an au-mukua. Common 
people were sometimes deified,^ but not in the same manner as 
were kings. 



143 

It was believed that it was the gods who led and influenced the 
souls of men. This was the reason why a real god, an akua 
maoli,^ was deemed to be a spiiit, an uhane — (or) this is the 
reason why it was said that the soul of the king was changed into 
a real god, {oia ka mea e olelo ai ka uhane i akua maoli.) 

NOTES ON CHAPTER XXIX. 

(i) Sect. 3. The functions of the kahuna kuni and kahuna anaana bore 
a strong outward resemblance to each other, but the purpose was different. 
The meaning of this passage is that the ceremony of kuni was performed 
on the king's body in order to find out who had compassed his death by 
sorcery (anaana.) 

(2) Sect. 3. David Malo uses the terms mua and heiau almost as if fhey 
were interchangeable, and meant the same thing. The miia was the men's 
eating house, tabu to women. The family idols were probably kept there, 
and it seems as if some part of it was set apart as a shrine or heiau. 

(3) Sect. 4. Lolupe, seems to have been rather a kupua than a full 
fledged deity. This deity was represented by a kite made in the shape 
of a fish, with wings, tail, etc. ; when made the figure was sent up the 
same as any kite. Its special function was to go in search of the spirits 
of the dead and bring them before the kahunas for identification, interro- 
gation and judgment. Prayer and offerings were used at the time of 
its being sent up. The errands committed to it were never of a criminal 
nature. A suitable errand to commit to Lolupe would have been the re- 
covery of the soul of a dear one from the land of shades, as Hiku brought 
back the soul of his bride or sister, Kawelu, after it had gone into the 
shades of Milu. If a man wanted a big piece of land, he might pray to 
Lolupe and commit the job to him. 

Apropos of Hiku, the following beautiful kanaenae"^ has been told me 
which comes in not inappropriately at this time. Hiku is represented 
as cHmbing the mountain side in search of the shade of his bride : 

Pi'i ana Hiku i ke kualono, 

Pi'i ana Hiku i ke kualono, 

E ka lala e kaukolo ana, 

Ua ke'eke'ehi ia e Lolupe ka pua, ua haule Halo. 

Ka pua kui lei au, e Malaikanaloa. 

Homai ana kahi pua, e Lolupe, 

I hoolawa ae no ko'u lei. 

Hiku is climbing the mountain ridge. 

Climbing the mountain ridge, 

The branch hangs straggling down, 

Its blossoms, kicked off by Lolupe, lie on the ground. 

Blossoms to be strung into a lei by Malaikanaloa. 

Give me also a flower, o Lolupe, 

That I may piece out my wreath. 



144 

Long before Franklin made use of the kite to draw electricity from 
the clouds the Hawaiian kahuna, following the rite of Lolupe, used it to 
ensnare ghosts in the heavens. 

*A kanaenae is a complimentary address which stands as a prelude to 
the more serious matter of a prayer or mele. (In Maori tangaengae is the 
prayer used at the cutting of the umbilical cord. S. P. S.) 

(4) Sect. 13. Hoaha ia a pa'a i ka aha, as it is in the text, would be 
better expressed hoa ia a pa'a i ka aha. I am informed that when, as in 
this case, the bones were those of a king, or chief of high rank the 
fitting expression was kama ia a pa'a i ka aha, the meaning being in each 
case the same. Each limb and the trunk, neck and head were separately 
bound with sinnet, and the parts being then placed in position were joined 
together to resemble the shape and appearance of a human figure. 

(5) Sect. 14. The deification of a common person could be accom- 
plished, but it was more burdensome and took longer time to accomplish 
than that of a king. 

(6) Sect. 14. Akua maoli: The gods Ku, Kane, Kanaloa and Lono, 
though making themselves visible to men occasionally in human form per- 

.haps, were conceived of as spirits, iilianc, and as such were spoken of as 
akua maoli. Mr. Malo unwittingly, probably as the result of the new 
theology which had come for the enlightenment of him and his people, 
was inclined to do scant justice to the discarded ideas of his heathen 
ancesteor. An akua maoli was, as he says, an uhane. The person of the 
dead king was by hoomana, prayer and incantation made into an akua 
maoli. Theologic disapproval of the use of images, eikons and relics as 
aids to a devotional frame of mind must not blind us to the fact that 
while the culture of the ancient Hawaiians had advanced so far as to 
have attained the idea of a spiritual deity, it had not gone far enough to 
be able to dispense with that old time crutch of superstition, the image 
and the effigy. It is one thing for a people in the natural course of 
religious evolution to make use of the image, as an aid to the imagina- 
tion, in the attempt to form a definite concept of the unseen, but quite 
another thing to relapse from a higher plane of religious evolution and 
take up again with the defunct and discarded emblem. Such a retro- 
gression is a sure sign pf mental and moral degeneracy. 



CHAPTER XXX. 

THE MEDICAL TREATMENT OF THE SICK. 

I. The medical treatment of the sick was a matter that be- 
longed to the worship of the gods. When any one was seized 
with an illness a messenger was despatched to the kahuna who 



145 

practiced medicine, kahuna lapaaii, taking with him an offering 

for mai-ola,^ the god of medicine. 

2. When the messenger came before the kaMma tht latter in- 
quired regarding the disease, and having learned about it, before 
beginning the treatment, he forbade certain articles of food to the 
sick man. 

3. The sick man must not eat the squid, moss, beche de mer, 
loli, a certain fish called kualakai, nor the wa_, ivana, or hmikeke, 
echini, nor the pipipi,^ — the small sea-shell, Nerita, which is much 
eaten; all of these were forbidden, together with such other fish 
as the kahuna saw fit. 

4. When the sick man had agreed to these restrictions, the 
kahuna began his treatment by administering some sort of potion.- 

5. After the treatment had continued a while, if the kahuna 
saw that the disease was about to let up he went and slept for a 
night in the mua,^ that he might worship the god of medicine and 
so he might obtain a sign from the deity whether the sick man 
would recover or die. 

6. He took with him to the mua a certain kind of moss (Ihnu 
kala probably), also some pipipi shells, such things in fact as he 
had forbidden the man to partake of. If rain fell during the night,. 
he regarded it as an unpropitious omen, in which case he spent 
another night there. 

7. If, however, there was no rain that night the kahuna accept- 
ed the omen as favorable, and at daybreak he lighted a fire and 
performed the ceremony called pu-Iiinu^ He also baked a fowl,, 
as an offering to the au-makua, of which only the kahuna ate. 
Two dogs also were baked, one for the nitia, or men's house, and 
one for the noa or common sleeping house. Five sheets of tapa- 
cloth were used to cover the oven^ for the mwa, and five to cover 
the oven for the noa. When the animals were baked, the men 
assembled at the mua and ate their portion of the sacrifice in com- 
pany with the sick man, at the same time paying their worship' 
to the god of medicine. Likewise the women in the noa house 
at the same time worshipped the female god of medicine. (On 
Molokai this was La'a-uli.) 

8. After the ceremony of the pu-limu fire was over, the medi- 
cal treatment of the patient was resumed. For a cathartic the 



146 

juice of the koali (a convolvulus) was used; as an emetic was 
administered a vegetable juice called pi'i-ku (obtained from the 
fresh green stems of the kii-kiii nut. ) The enema was sometimes 
employed. Another remedy was the popo kapai.^ To reduce 
fever a draught of raw taro- juice or yam- juice, called apu-kalo or 
aipu uhi,^ was found to be of service. 

9. The next thing was to make a hut called hale hau, which 
was done with sticks of hau wood and was arched on top. The 
sick man was removed to this little hut and given a steam-bath, 
after which he was bathed in sea-water and then nourishment 
was administered. After this the ceremony of the pipipi fire was 
performed which was very similar to the pii-limu fire. A fowl 
was then sacrificed to the aumakua; a dog was baked for the 
mua and another for the noa. Five tapas were used in covering 
the oven for the mua and five to cover that for the noa. When all 
this had been done the prognosis of the sick one was again con- 
sidered. 

10. If it was seen that the patient was somewhat relieved 
(maha), the kahuna took the next step, which was to put the 
patient to bed and perform the ceremony called hee mahola.^ 
If rain fell that night it was a bad omen and the kahuna then in- 
formed the sick man that he must die, because the omens derived 
from the hee inahola ceremony were adverse. 

11. If, on the other hand, no rain fell that night the kahuna 
assured the man he would live. "The hee mahola has been attend- 
ed with favorable omens. You will surely recover." 

12. The following morning a fire, called ahi mahola, was light- 
ed, the squid was cooked, and the prayer called pule hee, having 
been offered by the kahw^a, the patient ate of the squid and thus 
ended the medical treatment and the incantations (hoomana.) 

13. The treatment of a sick alii was different from that de- 
scribed above. Every time the alii took his medicine the kahuna 
offered prayer. 

E Kii, e Kii ma Kalapua, 

E lapu ke kii aku. 

Oioi ka maau akua, 

Lana'i au i ke anaana, 

A ka la papa i ke akua i laau waiola. 



147 

image, o image at Kalapua, 

What if the god-image plays the ghost? 
What if the vagrant ghosts act with insolence? 

1 am secure from the anaana, 

By the day which the deity has made clear, 
Deity with the water of life. 

Only after the repetition of this prayer did the alii swallow his 
medicine. 

14. The hee maholaP ceremony was thought to be the thing to 
disperse (hehee) disease and bring healing to the body. When 
an alii had recovered from a malady he built a heiau, which was 
called either a Lono-puhd^^ or a kolea-muku}'^ 

Such were the incantations in connection with the treatment of 
disease. When the work of the kahuna was done he was reward- 
ed for his professional services. 

NOTES ON CHAPTER XXX. 

(i) Sect. I. I can gain no information about Mai-ola. Among the 
several deities that are represented as presiding over the healing art is 
Mauli-ola. Mauli-ola seems to have been an akua maoli and not to have 
had any visible representation, so far as can be learned. The word had 
a considerable variety of applications. As, for instance, the breath of life, 
or the first inspiration, after the close call of death, were called mauli-ola. 
A physician, or his art, when successful in prolonging life was called 
mauli-ola; also a prayer or vow which brought life was called mauli-ola. 
The above statement is in accordance with the views of an expert in such 
matters from the island of Molokai. He also communicates to me the 
following : 

PRAYER TO MAULI-OLA. 

/ Hiiaka^ paha oe, i Hiialo,^ i kakahiaka nei. 
I ka laau a ke kaukau alii, i nui ke ahoj 
A hiki ia Mauli-ola, i ka heiau i Mahina-uli, 
I ola ia Mauli-ola. 
Perhaps thou are in Hiikua, perhaps in Hiialo, this morning. 
Give virtue to the chief's medicine; 
Grant him great vigor, and let him attain health, 
To worship at the heiau of Mahina-uli. c 

Life through Mauli-ola! (The Maori mother savs to her child, when 
it sneezes, "Tihe mauri ora!" sneeze, Uving heart!) 

(a b) Hiiaka, Hiialo, unknown places, remote and mystical. There is 
a suggestion in this of the ironical speech of Elijah to the priests of Baal. 



148 

(c) Mahina-uli, a hciau in Kohala, at Kipahulu. 

(2) Sect. 3. The list of things forbidden is, I am told, such as in 
accordance with Molokai practice would be denied to children and young 
persons. If it were an adult male the red fish, kumu, and the i'a kea, 
mullet, would be denied to the patient. If it concerned a woman the 
things denied would include such articles as ananalo and olali. 

(3) Sect. 5. The mua must have been the place where the family- 
idols were kept, where was the family shrine. 

(4) Sect. 7. Pu limti : Into the fire were thrust a number of the 
forbidden articles of food, and while these were burning, two men, with 
bunches of twigs, fanned away the smoke and flames, and then the ashes 
and coals, until the hearth was clean and bare. This was done as a 
symbol of physical and spiritual cleansing and pardon. 

(5) Sect. 7. The Hawaiian imii, oven, was a hollow in the ground 
lined and arched over with stones. Live steam was the cooking agent. 
To retain this the food was covered with leaves, mats and earth. In the 
case of this particular oven, tapa was substituted for leaves. 

(6) Sect. 8. Popo kapai: The bruised leaves of the popolo were 
made into a ball and rubbed over the abdomen of the sick man. The 
juice of popolo was also effective as a laxative. 

(7) Sect. 8. Apu kalo — The juice of the taro, being very irritant in 
its raw state, was mixed with the milk and juice of the cocoanut, and with 
sugar cane juice to make it more agreeable. The juice of ahuazva was 
sometimes added as a. corroborant. It was given to relieve the malaise 
and distress which accompany fever. _ 

(7) Sect. 8. Apu hui. This was given as a febrifuge and mild laxative. 

(8) Sect. 10. Hee uiakola. Hoouioe Jwii i ha hee mahola. In this 
peculiar ceremony a squid, which was taken while lying spread out on 
the ocean bottom, was offered to the deity in the same attitude. 

(9) Sect. 14. Hee mahola. This is an instance of that confusion 
which prevails in the savage mind by which the name of a thing is ac- 
credited with the powers and attributes of the thing itself. Thus hee 
means squid (i. e., octopus) and it also means to dissolve, disperse, put 
to flight. Hence its use to put to flight a disease. We find the same 
process of thought in enlightened minds. 

Cio) Sect. 14. Lono-puha, an ancient god of healing. To him be- 
longed particularly chronic diseases. Puha was an ulcer or abcess. 

The following story is told me of the origin of Lono's power in medi- 
cine : In remote antiquity, Lono took upon him the human form and Avas 
a great farmer. One day while Lono was busy with his 00 in his culti- 
vated fields, Kane called to him, "Oh, Lono, what are you doing?" Lono 
stood up and, looking at Kane, thought to strike the 00 into the ground, 
but instead wounded his own foot. 'T have hurt my foot," said Lono. 
"Take of the leaves of the popolo," said Kane, "which you will find grow- 
ing at hand and apply them as a remedy." He did so and his foot was 
at once made whole. From that time Lono became a skilled physician. 



149 

He knew at once that the one with whom he was talking was Kane. 
"''Yes, I am Kane, to whom you have prayed," said he in answer to the 
question of Lono. Kane then taught Lono the properties of medicinal 
plants. Lono then became the great patron of kahuna lapaau. Kane went 
away; but there were set up the pohaku o Kane, monoliths, which are 
still found from one end of the group to the other, 

(ii) Sect. 14. Kolea muku, a god who healed acute diseases. 

(12) Sect. 10. Whatever concerns the treatment of the sick by means 
of sorcery, prayers to supernatural beings, and all the mystic parapher- 
nalia of savagedom, is of such interest that I feel compelled to add the 
following note regarding he'e mahola, apropos of the Hawaiian text, ala- 
ila hoomoe hou ke kahuna i ka he'e mahola, found in section 10. This 
note is based on fuller information (gained from O. K. K. of Molokai). 

The patient is put to bed without medicine and that night towards 
morning the fishermen seek to obtain a he'e mahola. That is an octopus 
which is lying on the sand, outside of its hole, with its legs extended on the 
ocean floor. While letting down his leho for the creature, the fisherman 
repeats the following prayer. The same prayer is likewise used by the 
kahuna when he puts the sick man to bed : 

PULE HEE. 

E Kanaloa, ke akua o ka he'e ! 

Eia kau ma'i Kalua. 

E ka he'e kai uli, 

Ka he'e ka lua one, 
5 Ka he'e i ka papa 

Ka he'e pio! 

Eia ka oukou ma'i, Kalua, 

He ma'i hoomoe ia no ka he'e palaho. 

Eia ka leho, 
10 He leho ula no ka he'e-hoopai. 

Eia ke kao, he laau, 

He lama no ka he'e-mahola, no ka he'e-palaha. 

E Kanaloa i ke ku! 

Kuli'a i ke papa, 
15 Kuli'a i ke papa he'e, 

KtiH'a i ka he'e kai uli! 

E ala, e Kanaloa! 
- I-Ioeu! hoala! e ala ka he' el 

E ala ka he'e-palaha! E ala ka he'e-ninhola! 

O Kanaloa, god of the squid! 
Here is your patient, Kalua. 
O squid of the deep blue sea, 
Squid that burrows in the sand, 
5 Squid that inhabits the coral reef, 



ISO 

Squid that squirts water from its sack, 

Here is a sick man for you to heal, Kalua by name, 

A patient put to bed for treatment by the squid that lies flat. 

Here is the cowry, 
10 A red cowry to attract the squid to his death. 

Here is the spear, a mere stick, 

A spear of lama wood for the squid that lies flat. 

O Kanaloa of the tabu nights. 

Stand upright on the solid floor ! 
15 Stand upon the floor where lies the squid! 

Stand up to take the squid of the deep sea ! 

Rise up, O Kanaloa! 

Stir up ! agitate ! let the squid awake I 

Let the squid that lies flat awake, the squid that lies spread out. 

The former part of this pule is evidently that which is repeated over 
the sick man, the second part is that which is repeated when the cowry is 
let down into the ocean for the squid. 



CHAPTER XXXI. 

NECROMANCY. 



1. Necromancy, kilokilo iihame, was a superstitious ceremony 
very much practiced in Hawaii nei. It was a system in which 
bare- faced lying and deceit were combined with shrewd conjec- 
ture, in which the principal extorted wealth from his victims by 
a process of terrorizing, averring, for instance, that he had seen 
the wraith of the victim, and that it was undoubtedly ominous of 
his impending death. By means of this sort great terror and 
brooding horror were made to settle on the minds of certain per- 
sons. 

2. The sorcerer, kahuna kilokilo, would announce that the 
wraith or astral body of a certain one had appeared to him in 
spectral form, in a sudden apparition, in a vision by day, or in a 
dream by night. 

3. Thereupon he called upon the person whose wraith he had 
seen and 

• 

4. Stated the case, saying, "Today, at noon, while "^t my place, 
I saw your wraith. It was clearly yourself I saw, though you 
were screening your eyes. 



151 

5- You were entirely naked, without even a malo about your 
loins. Your tongue was hanging out, you eyes staring wildly at 
me. You rushed at me and clubbed me with a stick until I was 
senseless. I was lucky to escape from you with my life. 

6. Your ctii-makua is wroth with you on this account. Per- 
haps he has taken your measure and found you out, and it is 
probably he who is rushing you on, and has led you to this action 
which you were seen to commit just now. 

7. Now is the proper time, if you see fit, to make peace with 
me, whilst your soul still tarries at the resting place of Pu'u-kii- 
akahi} Don't delay until your soul arrives at the brink of Ku- 
a-ke-ahu.^ There is no pardon there. Thence it will plunge into 
Ka-paaheo,^ the place of endless misery." 

8. At this speech of the kahuna kilokilo, the man whose soul 
was concerned became greatly alarmed and cast down in spirit, 
and he consented to have the kahuna perform the ceremony of 
kala, atonement, for him. 

9. The kahuna then directed the man whose soul was in dan- 
ger first to procure some fish as an offering at the fire-lighting 
(hoa ahi ana.) The fish to be procured were the kala, the weke, the 
he'e or octopus, the maomao, the palani, also a white dog, a white 
fowl, awa, and ten sheets of tapa to be used as a covering for the 
oven. 

10. When these things had been made ready the kahuna pro- 
ceeded to perform the ceremony of lighting the fire (for the 
offering) that was to obtain pardon for the man's sin (hala.) 

11. The priest kept up the utterance of the incantation so long 
as the fire-sticks were being rubbed together; only when the fire 
was lighted did the incantation come to an end. The articles to 
be cooked were then laid in the oven, and it was covered over 
with the tapa. 

12. When the contents of the oven were cooked and the food 
ready for eating, the kahuna kilokilo stood up and repeated the 
pule kala, or prayer for forgiveness : 

E Ku i ke kala, 
E lono i kau weke kala, 
Weke puha ia, 
Kalakala i Ahuena. 



152 

Kapu ka aha o ke makala- au e Kane, 

Kala weke puha ia. 
Oh Ku, the forgiving, 
Oh Lono who grants pardon, 
Giving full pardon, 
Undo the knot of our sins at Ahuena. 
Tabu is the ceremony presided over by you Kane. 
Pardon is wide and free. 

13. After this prayer the one in trouble about his soul ate of 
the food and so did the whole assembl}. This done, the kahuna 
said, *T declare the fire a good one (the ceremony perfect), con- 
sequently your sins are condoned, and your life is spared, you 
will not die." The kahuna then received his pay. 

If one of the chiefs found himself to be the victim of kilokilo, 
lie pursued the same plan. 

14. House-building was a matter that was largely decided by 
incantation (hooiloilo ia) , there were also many other matters 
that were controlled by the same superstition, enterprises that 
could not succeed without the approval of kilokilo. 

15. The makaula, or prophet, was one who was reputed to be 
able to see a spirit, to seize^ and hold it in his hand and then 
squeeze it to death. It was claimed that a niakaiila could discern 
the ghost of any person, even of one whose body was buried in 
the most secret place. 

16. The makaula made a spirit visible by catching it with his 
liands ; he then put it into food and fed it to others. Any one 
who ate of that food would see the spirit of that person, be it of 
the dead or of the living. The makaula did not deal so extortion- 
.ately with his patrons as did the kilokilo nhane. 

ly. The niakaulas termed the spirits of living people.* The 
■oio comprised a great number (or procession) of spirits. A single 
spirit was a kakaola. The spirit of a person already dead was 
termed a kino-zvailua. 

18. The kaula,^ prophets or foretellers of fututre events, were 
supposed to possess more power than other class of kahunas. It 
was said that Kane-nui-akea was the deity who forewarned the 
kaulas of such important events as the death of a king [alii ai au- 



153 

piini), or of the overthrow of a government. These prophesies 
were called zvanmia. 

19. The kaulas^ were a very eccentric class of people. They 
lived apart in desert places, and did not associate with people or 
fraternize with any one. Their thoughts were much taken up 
with the deity. 

20. It was thought that people in delirium, frenzy, trance, or 
those in ecstacy {poe hezvahewa) were inspired and that they 
could perceive the souls or spirits of men the same as did the 
-kaiilas or the makaulas, i. e., prophets and soothsayers. Their 
utterances also were taken for prophesies the same as were those 
■of the kaida. 

It was different, however, with crazy folks {pupule) and mani- 
acs (hehena) : they were not like prophets, soothsayers and those 
in a state of exaltation, i. e., the hezvahezva. Crazy people and 
maniacs ate filth, and made an indecent exposure of themselves. 
Those in a state of exaltation, prophets and soothsayers did not act 
in this manner. There were many classes of people who were 
regarded as hezvahezva, (i. e., cranky or eccentric.) This was 
.also the case with all those who centered their thoughts on some 
fad or specialty — (some of them were perhaps monomaniacs) — 
.some of them were hezmhezua and some were not. 

NOTES TO CHAPTER XXXI. 

(i) Sect. 7. A lele aku kou uJiane ma Ka-paaheo, ma kahi make 
mau loa. The notion implied in the expression, make mau loa, ever- 
lasting death, would seem to be an imported thought, not at all native 
to the Polynesian mind. It seems as if Malo had allowed his new theo- 
logy, to creep in and influence his statement at this place. 

(2) Sect. 7. Apropos of Puu-ku-akahi, Ku-a-ke-ahu, and Ka-paa- 
heo: If, on account of some fault or sin (hala), the uhane hele, wand- 
ering soul, became at variance with its aiiuiakua, the aumakua would 
conduct it to the resting place or tarrying place of souls called Puii-ku- 
•akahi, at which reconciliation and pardon were still possible, and if this 
were obt'ained the aumakua conducted it back to the body and restored 
it to the joys of earth. Souls frequently wandered away from the body 
-during sleep or unconsciousness. If reconciliation was not made, it 
travelled on to Ku-a-ke-ahu, the brink of the nether world of spirits 
(Hades, Sheol), whence it plunged {leina uhanc) into Ka-paa-heo. This 
was an insubstantial land of twilight and shades, a barren and waterless 
-waste, unblest by grass, or flower, or tree, or growing herb. Here the 
famished ghosts of men, who fled each other's presence in fear and sus- 



154 

picion, strove to appease their hunger by eating butterflies, moths and 
Hzards. This region was under the sway of Milu, and hence was called 
ka lua Milu. It was from this place that Hiku rescued the ghost of 
his sister or bride, Kawelu (Legend of Hiku and Kawelu). Entrance to 
Milu was supposed to be gained through a pit situated in the mouth of 
Waipio valley, on Hawaii, also in some other places. 

(3) Sect. 15. The art or action of soul-catching is generally spoken 
of as po'i-uhane. 

(4) Sect. 17. Oio — this is generally used to mean a procession of 
the souls of the dead. Such processions are claimed to have been seen 
by persons now living on the road between Waimea and Hamakua 
("mudlane"), on Hawaii. Apropos of the spirits of the night and of 
ghosts, it is said that if luau be cooked after dark it is liable to be eaten, 
or defiled by the touch of the foul spirits of the night, lapu ka po. 
To guard against this it was the custom to wave a lighted candle about 
the dish to drive them away. The term kino~ivailiia was also applied to 
the second soul, which, it was alleged, sometimes wandered nway from 
the body during sleep and got into trouble to the peril of its owner. 

(5) Sect. 18. Kaula. There seems to be some doubt whether this 
word is of equal antiquity with the word makaula* Kapihe was a noted 
kaula of the last century, living in Kona, Hawaii, at the time when 
Kamehameha was a general under Kalaniopuu. To Kapihe was ascribed 
the following oracular utterance (zvanana) which is of the nature of a 
prophecy : 

E iho ana luna; e pii ana lalo ; 
E hui ana na nioku; e ku ana ka paia. 
That which is above shall be brought down ; 
That which is below shall be lifted up; 
The islands shall be united ; 
The walls shall stand upright. 

i 

Opulupulu of Waianae was another famous prophet or makaula. He 

uttered this oracular expression, I nui ka mama, a pa i ke kai. No ke 

kai ka aina. This prophecy, if so it may be called, was uttered in the 

time of Kahahana, and referred, perhaps, to invasion from abroad. 

According to another account, or version of this same prophesy it was 
as follows : *'E hoomanawanui a pa ka ili i ke kai ; no ke kai ka aina." 
Like an utterance of the Delphic or Pythian oracle the meaning of this 
saying is not apparent.** 

*By some scholars the word maka'ula is compounded from maka'=tyt, 
and M/a=red. 

**The term Kaula was used by the scholars who made the Hawaiian 
translation of the Bible to signify prophet. 



155 
CHAPTER XXXII. 

CONCERNING OBSESSION. 

(Akua Noho}) 

1. A spirit that enters into a person and then gives forth 
utterances is called an akua noho, that is an obsident deity, be- 
cause it is believed that it takes possession of {noho maluna). 
the individual. 

2. If, after death a man's bones were set in position along with 
an idol, and then his spirit came and made its residence with the 
bones, that was an akua noho, though specifically termed an unihi- 
pili^ or an aumakua.^ 

3. There was a large number of deities that took possession 
of people and through them made utterances. Pua and Kapo 
were deities of this sort. What thev said was not true, but some 
persons were deceived by the speeches they made, but not every- 
one. 

4. Kiha-wahine, Keawe-nui-kauo-hilo , Hia, and Keolo-ewn 
were akua noho who talked. 

5. Pele and Hiiaka also were akua noho, as well as many other 
deities. But the whole thing was a piece of nonsense. 

6. There were many who thought the akua noho a fraud, but 
a large number were persuaded of its truth. A great many people 
were taken in by the trickeries of the kahus of these obsident 
gods, but not everybody, 

7. The kahus of the shark-gods would daub themselves with 
something like ihee-kai (turmeric or ochre mixed with salt water) , 
muffle their heads with a red, or yellow, malo, and then squeak 
and talk in an attenuated, falsetto tone of voice. By making this 
kind of a display of themselves and by fixing themselves up to 
resemble a shark, they caused great terror, and people were afraid 
lest they be devoured by them. Some people were completely 
gulled by these artifices. 

8. The kahus of the Pele deities also were in the habit of 
dressing their hair in such a way as to make it stand out at great 
length, then, having inflamed and reddened their eyes, they went 
about begging for any articles they took a fancy to, making the 
threat, 'Tf you don't grant this request Pele will devour you." 



156 

Many people were imposed upon in this manner, fearing that Pele 
might actually consume them. 

9. From the fact that people had with their own eyes seen 
persons bitten by sharks, solid rocks, houses and human beings 
melted and consumed in the fires of Pele, the terror inspired by 
this class of deities was much greater than that caused by the 
other deities. 

10. The majority of people were terrified when such deities 
as Pua^ and Kapo"^ took possession of them as their kahii, for the 
reason that, on account of such obsession, a person would be 
afflicted with a swelling of the abdomen {opu-ohao) which was 
a fatal disease. Many deaths also were caused by obstruction of 
the bowels (paui) , the result of their work. It was firmly be- 
lieved that such deaths were caused by this class of deities. 

11. HiiakaP caused hemorrhage from the head of the kahu of 
whom she took possession. Sometimes these deities played 
strange tricks when they took up their residence in any one ; they 
would, for instance, utter a call so that the voice seemed to come 
from the roof of the house. 

12. The offices of the akiia noho were quite numerous. Some 
of them were known to have uttered predictions that proved true, 
50 that confidence was inspired in them ; others were mere liars, 
being termed poo-huna-i-ke-aouli, which merely meant tricksters, 
(heads in the clouds.) 

13. Faith in the akua noho was not very general; there were 
many who took no stock in them at all. Sometimes those who 
were skeptical asked puzzling questions (hoohuahiia lau) of the 
akiia noho, at the same time making insulting gestures {hoopuu- 
kahua) — such as protruding the thumb between the fore and 
middle finger, or swelling out the cheek with the tongue — doing 
this under the cover of their tapa robe; and if the aktia noho, i. e., 
the kahnna, perceived their insolence they argued that he was a 
god of power {niana) ; but if he failed to detect them they ridi- 
culed him. 

14. Others who were skeptical would wrap up some article 
closely in tapa and then ask the akua noho "what is this that is 
wrapped up in this bundle?" If the akua noho failed to guess 
correctly the skeptic had the laugh on the akua noho. 



157 

15- There was a large number, perhaps a majority of the 
people, who believed that these akua noho were utter frauds, while 
those who had faith in them were a minority .^^ 

i6. The consequence was that some of those who practiced 
the art of obsession, or hoonohonoho akua, were sometimes stoned 
to death, cruelly persecuted and compelled tO' flee away. 

17 It is said that some practiced this art of hoonohonoho akua 
in order to gain the affections of some man or woman. 

18. The practice of hoonohonoho akua was of hoary antiquity 
and a means of obtaining enormous influence in Hawaii nei. 

19. Some of these miserable practices of the ancient Hawai- 
ians were no doubt due. to their devotion to worthless things, 
(idols?) 

NOTES ON CHAPTER XXXII. 

(1) It would be an equally correct expression in Hawaiian, and would 
at the same time better convey to the foreign mind the idea intended, 
to say hoonohonoho akua instead of akua noho. Because according to 
the theory of obsession held by the Hawaiians themselves the role of the 
akua was ofttimes an entirely passive one, the kahuna, or sorcerer being 
the active agent ; it was he who put the spirit or akua into the human 
body or bundle of bones by means of his incantations and hoouianauiana, 
afterwards feeding him with offerings and with flattery, until he had 
grown powerful. 

(2) Sect. 2. Unihipili, Aumakua — While it will not do to hold 
too rigidly to lines of definition in dealing with such matters as unihi- 
pili and .auuiakua, yet it is evident that Mr. Malo does not give a clear 
idea as to the differences between the unihipili and the aumakua. In 
general an aumakua was an ancestral deity, whose worship and mutual 
service was handed down from father to son. It was, as a rule, an akua 
without an image. Ku, Kane, Kanaloa and Lono were aumakuas, as 
were a host of lesser gods. A man might have several aumakuas. This 
was a useful and necessary precaution, that a man might not be left in 
the lurch at a critical time because the aumakua to whom he appealed 
for help might be giving ear to the prayer of some one else. The gods 
of Hawaii did not seem to have been able to be and do in two places at 
the same time. 

As a safeguard against the possibility that his aumakua, the one on 
whom the kahuna depended to bless the herbs and simples which he 
gathered for use in his medical practice, might fail him the kahuna was 
wont to keep on hand a supply of these needed things on which the 
blessing of the aumakua had already been secured, Thus the kahuna was. 
not left in the lurch at a critical juncture— wise man! 



^ 



158 

To speak now of the unihipili, that was purely an artificial deity or devil 
rather — the work of the kahuna or worshipper, created by hoomanamana, 
the miraculous effect of his prayers and sacrifices. 

The same person might consistently have two, or more, uiiihipilis at 
the same time. If one oracle was dumb he might be able to get voice 
from anotlier. 

The Unihi-pili then was a deity that was supposed to have been in- 
duced by incantation to take up its residence in an image, a dead body, 
or bundle of bones, and that was endowed with malignant power, mana, 
as a result of the hoo-mana-mana, prayers and sacrifices, that were of- 
fered to it. When the worship and offerings ceased its power and sub- 
serviency to its kahu, care-taker and author, came to an end. But such 
neglect on the part of the kahu was likely to result in his death from the 
vengeance of the offended Unihi-pili. 

(3) Sect. 10. Pua was a female deity, principally observed on Mo- 
lokai. 

(4) Sect. ID. Kapo was also a female deity largely worshipped on 
Maui. 

(5) Sects. 8, 9, 10, II. All of thQ akua noho mentioned by name 
are of the female sex. 

(6) Sect. 15. There were probably very few Hawaiians in ancient 
times who did not look with awe upon_ the manifestations of the akua 
3'who, whatever may have been their misgivings as to the genuineness of 
all their pretensions. 



CHAPTER XXXIII. 



' THE HOUSE — ITS FURNITURE AND ITS CONSECRATION. 

1. The house was a most important means of securing the well- 
being of husband, wife and children, as well as of their friends 
and guests. 

2. It was useful as a shelter from rain and cold, from sun and 
scorching heat. Shiftless people ofttimes lived in unsuitable 
bouses, claiming that they answered well enough. 

3. Caves, holes in the ground and overhanging cliffs were also 
used as dwelling places by some folks, or the hollow of a tree, or 
a booth. Some people again sponged on those who had houses. 
Such were called o-kea-pili-mai} or unu-pehi-iole.^ These were 
names of reproach. But that was not the way in which people 
of respectability lived. They put up houses of their own. 



159 

4. Their way was to journey into the mountains, and having 
selected the straightest trees, they felled them with an axe and 
brought them down as house-timber. The shorter trees were 
used as posts, the longer ones as rafters. The two end posts, 
called pou-hana,^ were the tallest, their length being the same as 
the height of the house. 

5. The posts standing alongside of the ponhana, called kukuna, 
rays, were not so high as the hana^ The kaupaku, ridge-pole, 
was a rafter that ran the whole length of the house. On top of 
the ridge-pole was lashed a pole that was called the kua-iole. The 
upright posts within the house were called halakea. The small 
sticks to which the thatch was lashed were called alio. This com- 
pletes the account of the timbers and sticks of the house. 

6. The house-posts, or pou, and the roof-beams, or o'a, were 
jointed to fit each other in the following manner. At the upper 
end and at the back of each post was fashioned a tenon (mahi 
oioi), and just below it and also on the back of the post, was cut 
a neck, leaving a chin-like projection above, called an auwae 
(chin.) Corresponding to this at the lower end of each rafter, 
or roof-beam {o'a), was fashioned a mortise in the shape of a 
prong to receive the tenon of the post ; likewise at the same end, 
and at the back of the rafter, was cut another chin-like projection, 
or auwae. (Fig. 2.) 

The corner posts having been first planted firmly in the ground, 
a line was stretched from one post to another at top and bottom 
to bring the posts in line with each other. 

The corner posts having been first planted firmly in the 
ground, a line was stretched from one post to another at top 
and bottom to bring the posts in line with each other. 

8. Then the spaces between one post and another were 
measured and made equal, and all the posts on one side were 
firmly planted ; then those on the other side ; after which the 
plate, or lohelaii, of the frame was laid on top of the posts from 
one corner post to another. 

9. The posts were then lashed to the plates, lohelau, after 
which the tall posts at each end of the house, poithana, were 
set up. This done, the kau-pakti, ridge-pole, wa,s laid in its 
place and lashed firmly with cord, and then the posts called 
halakea, uprights that supported the ridge-pole, were set in 



i6o 

place. After this the rafters, or o'a, were laid in position and 
measured to see at what length they must be cut off. 

lo. The rafters were then taken down and cut to the proper 
length. A neck having been worked at the upper, end of each 
rafter, they were lashed firmly in position, after which the 
kua-iole, a sort of supplementary ridge-pole, was fastened 
above the real ridge-pole. 

IT. The different parts of the frame were now bound together 
with cord, and the small poles, called aho,^ on which to bind the 
thatch, were lashed in place. This done, the work of putting on 
the thatching was begun. The thatch was sometimes of pili grass,, 
sometimes sugar-cane leaves, and sometimes the leaves of the ti 
plant, according to circumstances.^ 

12. The next thing was to thatch and bonnet the ridge-pole,, 
after which the opening for a doorway was made, and the door 
itself was constructed. In making a door the top and bottom 
pieces were rabbetted along the edge, and then the ends of the 
boards were set into the grooves. 

i.'^. Holes were drilled through the end along the groove with 
a drill of human bone, into which holes wooden pegs were then 
driven. The middle part was sewed together with cord. The 
door-frame was then constructed, having a grooved piece above 
and below in which the door was to slide. After this a fence, 
or pa, was put up to surround the house and its grounds. 

14. On the completion of this part of the work, the kahuna 
pule, or priest was sent for to offer the prayer at the ceremony 
of trimming the thatch over the door. This prayer was called 
the pule kuzva,'^ and when it had been recited the man entered 
into his house and occupied it without further ado {uie ka ohioht). 

15. It was the custom among all respectable people, the chiefs, 
the wealthy, those in good standing (koikoi) and in comfortable 
circumstances to have their houses consecrated with some re- 
ligious ceremony before living in them. 

16. People who were of no account {lapuiuale) did not follow 
this practice. They went in and occupied their houses without 
any such ceremony. Such folks only cared for a little shanty, 
anyway ; the fire-place was close to their head, and the poi~6.\sh. 
conveniently at hand ; and so, with but one house, they made shift 
to get along. 



i6i 

17. People who were well off, however, those of respectability, 
of character, persons of wealth or who belonged to the alii class, 
sought to do everything decorously and in good style; they had 
separate^ houses for themselves and for their wives. 

18. There was a special house for the man to sleep in with his 
wife and children (hale noa), also a number of houses specially 
devoted to different kinds of work, including one for the wife to 
do her work in (hale kua). There was the halan, or canoe-house, 
the aieo^ a kind of garret or upper story, in which to stow 
things, also the amana, consisting of three houses built about a 
court. 

19. This way of living corresponded with what the Hawaiian^ 
regarded as decent and respectable. 

20. The bowls and dishes, ipu, used by the ancient Hawaiians. 
in house-keeping were either of wood or of gourd, (pohiie). 

21. Those who were skilled in the art carved bowls and dishes^ 
out of different woods ; but the kou was the wood generally used 
for this purpose. After the log had been fashioned on the out- 
side it was either deeply hollowed out as a calabash, or timeke, 
or as a shallow dish or platter, an ipukai, to hold fish — or meat. A 
cover also was hollowed out tO' put over the ipukai and the work, 
was done. 

22. The dish was then rubbed smooth within and without witht 
a piece of coral, or with rough lava (oahi), then with pumice, or 
a stone called oio. After this charcoal was used, then bamboo- 
leaf, and lastly it was polished with bread-fruit leaf and tapa — 
the same was done to the cover, and there was your dish. Some- 
times a koko or net, was added as a convenient means of hold- 
ing and carrying, and the work was then complete. The iinieke 
was used for holding poi and vegetable food (ai), the ipukai to- 
hold meats and fish (ia) . 

23. The calabash, or pohue, was the fruit of a vine that was 
specially cultivated. Some were of a shape suited to be umeke, 
or poi containers, others ipukai, and others still to be used as hue- 
zvai or water-containers. The pulp on the inside of the gourd 
was bitter; but there was a kind that was free from bitterness. 
The soft pulp within was first scraped out ; later, when the gourd 
had been dried, the inside was rubbed and smoothed with a piece 
of coral or pumice, and thus the calabash was completed. A cover 
was added and a net sometimes put about it. 



l62 

24. In preparing a water-gourd, or hiie-wai, the pulp was 
first rotted, then small stones were shaken about in it, after which 
it was allowed to stand with water in it till it had become sweet. 

25. Salt was one of the necessaries and was a condiment used 
^vith fish and meat, also as a relish with fresh food. Salt was manu- 
factured only in certain places. The women brought sea-water 
in calabashes or conducted it in ditches to natural holes, hollows, 
and shallow ponds (kaheka) on the sea-coast, where it soon be- 
came strong brine from evaporation. Thence it was transferred 
to another hollow, or shallow vat, where crystallization into salt 
was completed. 

26. The papalami was a board on which to pound poi. 

2y. Water, which was one of the essentials of a meal, to keep 
one from choking or being burned with hot food, was generally 
obtained from streams (and springs), and sometimes by digging 
wells. 

28. Vegetables (ai), animal food (i'a), salt and water — these 
are the essentials for the support of man's system. 

29. Sharks' teeth were the means employed in Hawaii nei for 
cutting the hair. The instrument was called niho-ako-laiioho. 
The shark's tooth was firmly bound to a stick, then tlie hair was 
bent over the tooth and cut through with a sawing motion. If 
this method caused too much pain another resource was to use 
fire. 

30. For mirrors the ancient Hawaiians used a flat piece of 
wood highly polished, then darkened with a vegetable stain and 
some earthy pigment. After that, on being thrust into the water, 
a dim reflection was seen by looking into it. Another mirror was 
made of stone. It was ground smooth and used after immersion 
in water. 

~ 31. The cocoanut leaf was the fan of the ancient Hawaiians, 

being braided flat. An excellent fan was made from the loulu- 

palm leaf. The handle was braided into a figured pattern. Such 

were the comforts of the people of Hawaii nei. How pitiable! 

32. There are a great many improvements now-a-days. The 

new thing in houses is to build them of stone laid in mortar 

mortar is made of lime mixed with sand. In some houses the 
jstones are laid simply in mud. 



i63 

33. There are wooden houses covered with boards, and held 
together with iron nails ; there are also adobe houses (lepo i moo- 
mo ia) ; and houses made of cloth. Such are the new st^des of 
houses introduced by the foreigners (haole). 

34. For new dishes and containers, ipu, we have those made 
of iron, ipuhao^ and of earthenware or china, iptt keokeo. But 
some of the new kinds of ware are not suited to fill the place of 
the iijiieke or calabash. 

35. The new instrument for hair-cutting which the haole hsis 
introduced is of iron ; it is called an upa, scissors or shears (liter- 
ally to snap, to open, or to shut) ; a superior instrument this. There 
are also new devices in fans that will open and shut; they are 
very good. 

36. The newly imported articles are certainly superior to those 
of ancient times. 

NOTES ON CHAPTER XXXIII. 

(i) Sect. 3. O-kea-pili-mai, sand that collects about a thing. 

(2) Sect. 3. Unu-pehi-iole, a stone or shard to throw at a rat, a 
thing of no consequence. 

(3) Sect. 4. Pou-hana, the name applied to the two upright posts 
situated one at each gable of the house, which supported the ends of the 
ridgepole. Pou-hana was used almost as a title of distinction in ancient 
meles and pules, indicating that it was regarded with almost supersti- 
tious reverence, probably at one time being looked upon as a hupua, or 
deity. Like the other posts of the Hawaiian house, they were firmly 
planted in the ground; they also inclined slightly inward. 

The pou-hana stood detached from the other sticks in the frame of the 
house, save that it was lashed at its top to the kaupakii and kua-iole. 

(4) Sect. 5. When the two hana posts had been set in the ground, 
one at each end of the house, the next thing was to lash the ridge-pole, or 
kaupaku, from the head of one hana to the other. To facilitate this 
lashing, a neck was cut at the top of each hana as well as the kaupaku. 

(5) Sect. II. Aho, small sticks, sapHngs, which were bound across 
horizontally on the outside of the posts and rafters of the house, and 
to which the thatching was lashed. 

(6) Sect. II. The best thatch used by the Hawaiians was pili 
grass; next came the leaf of the pandanus, lau-hala; then the leaf of the 
sugar-cane, and lastly the ti leaf, and a number of inferior grasses. 

(7) Sect. 14. Of the prayer called kuwa there were undoubtedly 
different forms used on the different islands and by the different priests. 
I'his remark is true not merely of this service but of nearly every service 
and prayer that can be mentiioned. 



164 

The kahuna stood on the outside of the house, ax in hand, and hold- 
ing a block under the thatch to obtain a solid object on ^vhich hi- blow 
should fall, he timed the strokes of his ax to the cadence of the prayer. 
Having inquired of the house-owner if everything was ready, and if it 
was his wish to proceed with the ceremony, and having received an 
affirmative answer, the kahuna began the utterance of his prayer, and at 
the same time let his ax fall on the thatch, suiting the time of his blow 
to the cadence of hi? utterance. 

Ku lalani ka pule a Keoloalu i ke akua, 
O Ku'dua wahifa i ke piko o ka hale o Mea. 
A ku! A wa! A moku ka piko,"* 
A moku, a moku iho la! 

Orderly and harmonious is the prayer of the multitude to God. 
Kuwa cuts now the piko of the house of Mea. 
He stands ! He cuts I The thatch is cut ! 
It is cut! Lo it is cut! 

*Thi5 beautiful ceremony, as indicated in the prayer itself, was gener- 
ally known as ka oki ana ka piko ka hale, the cutting of the navel 
string of the house. It is more easy to imagine than to describe the 
analogy between the cutting of a child's umbilical cord and the trimming 
of the thatch over the doorway of a new house. The completion of 
this symbolical ceremony was the signal for feasting by the whole com- 
pany. 

(8) Sect. 17. Every self-respecting Hawaiian who desired to live 
up to the system of tahu was obliged to build for himself and family a 
number of houses, the chief motive being to separate the sexes entirely 
from each other while eating, as well as to provide suitable places for 
carrying on the various occupations incident to a self-sustaining savage 
life. First may be mentioned the mua, which was the men's eating house 
and was tahu to females; second the hale noa, which was the one place 
where the family mingled on familiar terms during the day and where 
they slept at night ; third, the hale ai'na, the women's eating house, which 
was tabu to the men. If the woman of the house was given to that sort 
of thing, she must have. 4th, a hale kua. which was the place in which 
she would beat out tapa, braid mats, and carry on a variety of domestic 
arts. 5th, the hale pea, a place where the women isolated themselves 
during their monthly periods of impurity. To these might be added. 
6th, a family chapel or heiau, the place of which was in most cases prob- 
ably filled by the mua. The family heiau seems in some cases to have 
been a simple enclosure, unroofed, open to the elements. The practice 
in this regard evidently differed in different places. Xo fixed and fast 
rules can be laid down. If the man of the house were a fisherman, he 
would naturally have a halau, a long house or shed in which to house 
his canoe and fishing tackle. 



i6s 

(9) Sect. 18. Alco : Hawaiian houses were built with but one story, 
but a sort of garret was sometimes made by flooring a certain space with 
some sort of lattice-work {hiilili ia) in the upper part of the house. This 
was called an aleo and here it was that a man might keep his treasures, 
spears, weapons and family heir-looms. 

The ceremony of oki ana ka piko ka hale was performed only after 
the house was completely furnished and ready for habitation. On the 
Island of Molokai the following prayer was used on such an occasion, 
being repeated while the priest was cutting the long thatch that overhung 
the doorway, and which was called the piko or umbiblical cord: 

A mokii ka piko i ele-ua, i ele-ao, 
I ka wai i Haakula-manu la. 
E moku! 

A moku ka piko kou hale la, 
5 E Mauli-ola! 

I ola i ka noho-hale, 
I ola i ke kanaka kipa inai, 
I ola i ka haku-aina, 
I ola i na 'Hi, 
ID Ota kc ola kail hale, e Mauli-ola; 
Ola a kolo-pupu, a haumaka-iole, 
A pala-lau-hala, a ka i koko. 

A mama, ua noa. 

1 

Severed is the piko of the house, the thatch that sheds the rain, that wards 

off the evil influences of the heavens. 
The water-spout of Haakula-manu, oh! 
Cut now ! 

Cut the piko of your house, Mauli-ola! 
That the house-dweller may prosper. 
That the guest who enters it may have health, 
That the lord of the land may have health. 
That the chiefs may have long life. 
Grant these blessings to your house, Mauli-ola. 
To live till one crawls hunched up, till one becomes blear-eyed, 
Till one lies on the mat, till one has to be carried about in a net 
Amen. It is free. 

(a) Line 1— Ele-ua: The root- word ele means to protect; hence to 
shed ua, rain. The outside, protecting leaf that covered the pai-ai, bundle 
of hard poi, was called la-ele (la is a contraction from lau, leaf). 

(b) Line 1— Ele-ao : Warding off the (evil) influences of the clouds, 

V 

ao. 

(c) Line 2— Haakula-manu, a water spout, a cloud-burst, a destructive 

fall of rain, idealized into a demi-god, a kupua. 

(d) Line 10— Mauli-ola, a kupua, i. e., a superhuman power, a personi- 
fication of health, something like Hygeia. 



1 66 



FIG. I. 



Interior View of Gable of Hawaiian House. 




GROUND- 



A, Poukana, the important post of the house. 
Bj Pou-kihi, corner post. 

C, Kukuna, or Poti-kukuna. (kukuna : :T2iy) . 

D, O'a, rafter. 

e, Aho-pueo, the aho were small sticks to which the thatch was lashed. 

At short intervals an aho of a somewhat larger size than the aver- 
age was introduced. This was called an aho-pueo (pueo::owl). 

f, Aho-kele, an alio of the average size, generally spoken of as an aho. 
h, Aho-hu'i, an aho lashed on outside and vertically, to hold the ahos 

fast. 



i6y 



FIG. 2. 



Showing Tenon and Mortise joining Rafters, oa, of Roof to the Uprights^ 
Poii, of the side of the house, also Ridge-pole, etc., in section. 



h- 




— ^A 



A, Pou, side post, planted in the ground. 

B, Oa, Rafter, or Roof-beam. 

C, Lohelau, Plate (in section) 

D, Kaupaku, or Kaulmhu, Ridge-pole ( " " ) 

E, Kua-iole, Supplementary Ridge-pole. .( " *' > 

F, Lolo-iole, small pole to hold Thatch. .( " " ) 
g, Pauakaaka, neck in the rafter. 

h, Kohe, mortise, or fork, in which to receive tenon.. 

i, Vie, tenon. 

j, Au-wae, to facilitate lashing. 

The front of the house was called alo, the back 
kua, the gable was called kala. The doorway was 
generally situated in the middle of the house and in 
front, that was the principal entrance. To the rear 
and opposite to this was a smaller doorway. 



. i68 
CHAPTER XXXIV. 

THE HAWAIIAN CANOE. 

1. The Hawaiian waa, or canoe, was made of the wood of the 
koa tree. From the earliest times the wood of the bread-fruit, 
kiikui, ohia-ha, and zmliwili was used in canoe-making, but the 
-extent to which these woods were used for this purpose was very 
limited. The principal wood used in canoe-making was always 
the koa. {Acacia heterophylla.) 

2. The building of a canoe 'was an affair of religion. When 
a man found a fine koa tree he went to the kahuna kalai zua'a and 
said, 'T have found a koa tree, a fine large tree." On receiving 
this information the kahuna went at night to the mna,^ to sleep 
before his shrine, in order to obtain a revelation from his deity 
in a dream as to whether the tree was sound or rotten. 

3. And if in his sleep that night he had a vision of some one 
standing naked before him, a man without a malo, or a woman 
without a pau^ and covering their shame with the hand, on 
awakening the kahuna knew that the koa in question was rotten 
(puha), and he would not go up into the woods to cut that tree. 

4. He sought another tree, and having found one, he slept 
again in the mua before the altar, and if this time he saw a hand- 
some, well dressed man or woman, standing before him, when he 
awoke he felt sure that the tree would make a good canoe. 

5. Preparations were made accordingly to go into the mount- 
ains and hew the koa into a canoe. They took with them, as of- 
ferings, a pig, cocoanuts, red fish (kumn), and azva. 

Having come to the place they camped down for the night, 
sacrificing these things to the gods with incantations (hoomana) 
and prayers, and there they slept. 

6. In the morning they baked the hog in an oven made close 
to the root of the koa, and after eating the same they examined 
the tree. One of the party climbed up into the tree to measure the 
part suitable for the hollow of the canoe, where should be the 
bottom, what the total length of the craft. 

7. Then the kahuna took the ax of stone and called upon tlie 
gods: 



169 



tt , 



'0 Ku-pulupulu,^ Ku-ala-na-zmo,^ . Ku-moku-halii,'^ Ku-ka- 
ieie/' Kii-palalake,^ Ku-ka-ohia-laka/'"^ — These were the male de- 
ties. Then he called upon the female deities : 
■ ''O Lea^ and Ka-pua-o-alakai,^ listen now to the ax. This is 
the ax that is to fell the tree for the canoe." 

8. The koa tree w^as then cut down, and they set about it in 
the following manner: Two scarfs were made about three feet 
apart, one above and one below, and when they had been deepened, 
the chips were split off in a direction lengthwise of the tree. 

9. Cutting in this way, if there was but one kahuna, it would 
take many days to fell the tree; but if there were many kahunas, 
they might fell it the same day. When the tree began to crack 
to its fall, they lowered their voices and allowed no one to make 
a dfsturbance. 

10. When the tree had fallen, the head kahuna mounted upon 
the trunk, ax in hand, facing the stump, his back being turned 
toward the top of the tree. 

11. Then in a loud tone he called out, ^^Smite with the ax and 
hollow the canoe! Give me the maloT^^ Thereupon the kahuna^s 
wife handed him his ceremonial malo, which was white; and, hav- 
ing girded himself, he turned about and faced the head of the 
tree. 

12. Then having walked a few steps on the trunk of the tree, 
he stood and called out in a loud voice, "Strike with the ax and 
hollow it! Grant us a canoe !"^i Then he struck a blow with 
the ax on the tree, and repeated the same words again ; and so 
he kept on doing until he had reached the point where the head of 
the tree was to be cut off. 

. 13. At the place where the head of the tree vvas to be sev- 
ered from the trunk he wreathed the tree with ie-ie. Then having 
ered from the trunk he wreathed the tree with ie-ie, {Freycinetia 
Scandens) , Then having repeated a prayer appropriate to cutting 
off the top of the tree, and having again commanded silence and 
secured it, he proceeded to cut off the top of the tree. This done, 
the kahuna declared the ceremony performed, the tabu removed ; 
thereupon the people raised a shout at the successful performance 
of the ceremony, and the removal of all tabu and restraint in view 
of its completion. 



170 

14- Now began the work of hewing out the canoe, the first 
thing being to taper the tree at each end, that the canoe might be 
sharp at stem and stern. Then the sides and bottom (kiia-moo) 
were hewn down and the top was flattened {hola) . The inner 
parts of the canoe were then planned and located by measure- 
ment. 

15. The kahuna alone planned out and made the measure- 
ments for the inner parts of the canoe. But when this work was 
accomplished the restrictions were removed and all the craftsmen 
took hold of the work {noa ka oihana c ka ima), 

16. Then the inside of the canoe was outlined and the pepeiao,. 
brackets, on which to rest the seats, were blocked out, and the 
craft was still further hewn into shape. A makn'u}^ or neck, was- 
wrought at the stern of the canoe, to which the lines for hauling 
the canoe were to be attached. 

17. When the time had come for hauling the canoe down to 
the ocean again came the kahuna to perform the ceremony called 
pii i ka zva'a, which consisted in attaching the hauling lines to the 
canoe-log. They wxre fastened to the iiiaku'u. Before doing this 
the kahuna invoked the gods in the following prayer: 

''O Kii-pulupulu, Kit-ala^na-wao , and Kn-moku-halii! look you 
after this canoe. Guard it from stem to stern until it is placed in 
the halau/' After this manner did they pray. 

18. The people now put themselves in position to haul the 
canoe. The only person who went to the rear of the canoe was the 
kahuna^ his station being about ten fathoms behind it. The whole 
multitude of the people went ahead, behind the kahuna no one 
was permitted to go ; that place was tabu, strictly reserved for the 
god of the kahuna kalai zva'a. 

Great care had to be taken in hauling the canoe. Where the 
country was precipitous and the canoe would tend to rush down 
violently, some of the men must hold it back lest it be broken;: 
and when it got lodged some of them must clear it. This care 
had to be kept up until the canoe had reached the halaiij or canoe- 
house. 

21. In the halau the fashioning of the canoe was resumed.. 
First the upper part was shaped and the gunwales were shaved 
down ; then the sides of the canoe from the gunwales down were 
put into shape. After this the mouth (zvaha) of the canoe was 



171 

turned downwards and the iwi kaele, or bottom, being exposed, 
was hewn into shape. This done, the canoe was again placed 
mouth up and was hollowed out still further (kupele maloko). 
The outside was then finished and rubbed smooth (anai ia). The 
outside of the canoe was next painted black (paele ■ia)^^ Then 
the inside of the canoe was finished off by means of the koi-ozvili, 
or reversible adze (commonly known as the kupa-ai ke'e). 

22. After that were fitted on the carved pieces {na loan) made 
of ahakea or some other wood. The rails, which were fitted on to 
the gunwales and which were called mo'o (Hzards) were the first 
to be fitted and sewed fast with sinnet or aha. 

The carved pieces, called manu, at bow and stern, were the next 
to be fitted and sewed on, and this work completed the putting 
together of the body of the canoe {ke kapili ana o ka waa). It 
was for the owner to say whether he would have a single or double 
canoe, 

2^. If it was a single canoe or kaukahi, (cross-pieces), or iako 
and a float, called aina, were made and attached to the canoe to 
form the outrigger. 

The ceremony of lolo-ztjaa, consecrating the canoe, was the next 
thing to be performed in which the deity was again approached 
with prayer. This was done after the canoe had returned from 
an excursion out to sea. 

24. The canoe was then carried into the halaii. where were 
lying the pig, the red fish, and the cocoanuts that constituted the 
offering spread out before the kahuna. The kahuna kalai-waa 
then faced towards the bows of the canoe, where stood its owner, 
and said, "Attend now to the consecration of the canoe {lolo ana 
ka zvaa), and observe whether it be well or ill done." Then he 
prayed : 

25. I KiL-zva^'^ ka lani, Kn-zva ka honua, 

2 O Kii-zua ka maiuia, o Ku-zva o ka moana, 

3 O Kti-zva ka po, Ku-zva ke ao, 

4 Malualani ke Ku-zva, Malna-hopu ke Kn-wa, 

5 Aia no ia ko'i la ke Ku-zva. 

6 Ka zva'a nei ka luahine makua. 

7 Ka luahine! Ozvaif 

8 O ka luahine Papa, zvahine a Wakea. 



172 

9 Nana i kiiwa}^ fvana i hainu, 

10 Nana i hele, nana i a'e, 

11 Nana i hoonoanoa. 

12 Noa ke kiiwd^'^ ka wa'a Wakea. 
26. 13 O ka wa'a nei ka luahine inakua. 

14 Ka luahine! Ozuaif 

15 Ka luahine Lea, umhine a Moku-halii. 

16 Nana i kuzva, nana i hainu, 

17 Nana i hele, nana i a'e, 

18 Nana i hoonoanoa. 

19 Noa ke kuwa ka wa'a Mokuhalii. 

20 Hinu helelei aku, 

21 Hinu helelei mai. 

22 He miki oe Kane, 

23 He miki oe Kanaloa. 

24 Kanaloa he a oe? 

25 O Kanaloa inu awa, 

26 Mai Kahiki ka azva, 

27 Mai Upolu ka awa, 

28 Mai Wawau ka awa. 

29 E hano awa hua, 
3cJ' E hano awa pauaka. 

31 Halapa i ke akua i laau wai la. 

32 Amama, ua noa. 

33 Lele zi/ale aku la. 

25. I Uplift er of the heavens, upHfter of the earth, 

2 Uplifter of the mountains, upHfter of the ocean, 

3 Who hast appointed the night, appointed the day, 

4 Mahialani is the Kuwa and MaUiahopu, 

5 That ax also is a kuwa, 

6 This is the ax of our venerable ancestral dame. 

7 Venerable dame! What dame? 

8 Dame Papa, the wife of Wakea. 

9 She set apart and consecrated, she turned the tree 

about, 

ID She impelled it, she guided it, 

11 She lifted the tabu from it. 

12 Gone is the tabu from the canoe of Wakea. 

13 The canoe this of our ancestral dame. 



/ 
/ 



^7Z 

14 Ancestral dame ! What dame ? 

15 Dame Lea, wife of Moku-halii; 

16 She initiated, she pointed the canoe ; 

17 She started it, she guided it; 

18 She Hfted the tabu from it, 

19 Lifted was the tabu from the canoe of Wakea. 

20 Fat dripping here; 

21 Fat dripping there. 

22 Active art thou Kane; 

23 Active art thou Kanaloa. 

24 What Kanaloa art thou ? 

25 Kanaloa the awa-drinker. 

26 Awa from Tahiti, 

27 Awa from Upolu, 

28 Awa from Wawau. 

29 Bottle up the frothy awa, 

30 Bottle up the well strained awa. 

31 Praise be to the God in the highest heaven (laau) I 

32 The tabu is lifted, removed. 

33 It flies away. 

28. When the kahuna had finished his prayer he asked of the 
owner of the canoe, ''How is this service, this service of ours?" 
Because if any one had made a disturbance or noise, or intruded 
upon the place, the ceremony had been marred and the owner 
of the canoe accordingly would then have to report the ceremony 
to be imperfect. And the priest would then warn the owner of 
the canoe, saying, ''Don't you go in this canoe lest you meet with 
a fatal accident." 

29. If, however, no one had made a disturbance or intruded 
himself while they had been performing the lolo^'^ ceremony, the 
owner of the canoe would report "our spell is good" and the 
kahuna would then say, "You will go in this canoe with safety, 
because the spell is good" (maikai ka lolo ana). 

30. If the canoe was to be rigged as part of a double canoe 
the ceremony and incantations to be performed by the kahuna 
were different. In the double canoe the iakos used in ancient 
times were straight sticks. This continued to be the case until the 
time of Keazve^^, when one Kanuha invented the curved iako and 
erected the upright posts of the the pola. 



174 

3T. When it came to making the lashings for the outrigger of 
the canoe, this was a function of the utmost solemnity. If the 
lashing was of the sort called kumu-hele, or kumii-pou it was 
even then tabu ; but if it was of the kind called kaholo, or Luukia 
(full name pa-u o Luukia), these kinds, being reserved for the 
canoes of royalty, were regarded as being in the highest degree 
sacred, and to climb upon the canoe, or to intrude at the time when 
one of these lashings was being done, was to bring down on 
one the punishment of death. 

32. When the lashings of the canoe were completed a covering 
of mat was made for the canoe (for the purpose of keeping out 
the water) which mat was called a pa-tt^^. 

The mast (pou or kia) was set up in the starboard canoe, 
designated as ekea, the other one being called ama. The mast 
was stayed with lines attached to its top. The sail of the canoe, 
which was called la, was made from the leaves of the pandanus, 
which were plaited together, as in mat-making. 

33. The canoe was furnished with paddles, seats, and a bailer. 
There were many varieties of the maa. There was a small canoe 
called kioloa}^ A canoe of a size to carry but one person was 
called a koo-kahi, if to carry two a koo-lua, if three a koo-kolu, 
and so on to the the koo-walii for eight. 

34. The single canoe was termed a kau-kahi, the double canoe 
a kau-lua. In the time of Kamehameha I a triple canoe named 
Kaena-kane, was constructed, such a craft being termed a pu-kolu. 
If one of the canoes in a double canoe happened to be longer than 
its fellow, the composite craft was called a kn-e-e. 

35. In' case the carved bow-piece, manu-ihu, was made very 
broad the canoe was called a lele-imi.'^^ (See fig. 2.) A canoe 
that was short and wide was called a pou. Canoes were designated 
and classified after some peculiarity. If the bow was very large 
the canoe would be termed ihu-nui f'^- one kind was called kiipeuln. 

36. In the reign of Kamehameha I were constructed the canoes 
called peleleu.-^ They were excellent craft and carried a great 
deal of freight. The after part of these crafts were similar in 
construction to an ordinary vessel (i.e. was decked over). It 
was principally by means of such craft as these that Kameha- 
ineha succeeded in transporting his forces to Oahu when he went 



175" 

to take possession of that part of his dominion when he was 
making his conquests. 

37. In these modern times new kinds of sea-going craft have 
multiphed, large, fine vessels they are, which we call moku (an 
island, a piece cut off). 

38. A ship was like a section of the earth quietly moving 
through the water. On account of their great size, when the 
first ships arrived here, people flocked from remote districts to 
view them. Great were the benefits derived from these novel 
craft, the like of which had never been seen before. 

39. Some of these vessels, or moku, were three-masted, some 
two-masted, some schooner-rigged, and some had but one mast. 

40. The row boat, or zuaa-pa (waa-pa'a), is one of this new 
kind of craft. But even some of these new vessels, including 
row-boats, sometimes perish at sea. 

41. It is not, however, so common an occurrence for this to 
happen to them as it used to be for canoes to founder in every 
part of this ocean. 

■ 42. Many blessings have come to this race through these new 
sea-going craft. It was by them the word of God was conveyed 
to these shores, which is a blessing greater than any sought 
for by the ancients. 

43. What a pity that the ancients did not know of this new 
blessing, of the word of God and the great salvation through 
Jesus the blessed Redeemer. 

NOTES ON CHAPTER XXXIV. 

(i) Sect. 2. Hele oia i mua ma ka po e hoomoe ma kona heiau. 
This passage confirms the statement made in the notes to Chap. XXXIII, 
p. 123, that the family heiau, or shrine, was probably in some part of the 
fiiua. The references made by Mr. Malo in this book to the mua as a 
place to which the kahuna, or any one desiring to consult his aumakua, 
or to receive warning or council from heaven in a dream, would go to 
spend the night, these references, I say. are so numerous that there seems 
to be no doubt that the mua and the heiati were integrally one. At the 
same time I am. assured that the family heiau was ofen an open-air, un- 
roofed enclosure. No doubt the practice in this matter was as various 
as in some others, in regard to which uniformity has been claimed. It 
must not be forgotten that two swallows do not make a summer. 

(2) Sect. 7. Ku-pulupulu, Ku, the rough one or the chip-maker, 
one of the gods of the waa. 



176 

(3) Sect. 7. Ku-ala-na-wao , Ku-ae-la-na-wao, there stand the for- 
ests, a woodland deity, one of the gods of the waa. 

(4) Sect. 7. Ku-moku-haWi, Ku that bedecks the island. 

(5) Sect. 7. Ku-ka-ieie, — leie was a parasitic evergreen much used 
in decorating. 

(6) Sect. 7. Ku-palala-ke, or Kupa-ai-kee, the reversible ax, used 
by the Hawaiians in hollowing the canoe. 

(7) Sect. 7. Ku-ka-ohia-laka, — The ohia tree was used in making 
idols. '^'Laka was the mythical hero who made the famous canoe in which 
he went in search of his fathers bones. He was one of the gods of the 
zva'a. 

*This derivation is incorrect. See note 5, Chapter XXIII. Laka=^the 
Tahitan name for the lehua tree. 

(8) Sect. 7. Lea, wife of (Ku) Moku-halii, was a patroness of the 
canoe. She was supposed to appear in the form of the wood-pecker, 
clepaiOj whose movements when she walked upon the newly felled tree 
were attentively observed, and were ominous of good, or ill, luck. Lea. 
seems to have been the same as Laia. 

(9) Sect. 7. Ka-pua-o-alakai: The more correct orthography is 
probably Ka-pu-o-alakai, the knot of guidance, i. e., the knot by which- 
the hauling line was attached to the maku'u, q. v. sect. 16. 

(10) Sect. II. ''E ku a ea! Honiai he malo!" A Molokai author- 
ity informs me that on that island the variant to this prayer was : 

E ku a ea! Eia ka waa, he iho-ole pau-lua. 
E ala, e ku, e hume i kou malo! 

Stand up in your strength ! Here is the canoe., a solid log without pith- 
Arise, stand up, gird on your malo ! 

His wife then gave him his sacerdotal malo, with the words : 

Eia kou malo la, he malo keokeo. 
Here is your malo, your white malo. 

(11) Sect. 12. According to the same Molokai practice the words- 
uttered by the kahuna when he struck up the tree were: 

Homai he wa'a, e ku a i'a! 
He zva e ulu** 
Ulu i ka aoao a ntti. 

Grant a canoe that' shall be swift as a fish ! 

To sail in stormy seas, 

When the storm tosses on all sides ! 

**CJlu: literally to grow, derivatively to kick up a storm. 

(12) Sect. 16. Maku'u: This was also called the moamoa, or mo- 
rn oa, and on the island of Molokai it was called pau-alzaaka. The momoa: 



177 

was at the stern of the canoe. In every genuine Hawaiian canoe of the 
old fashion the maku'u is still clearly visible. 

(13). Sect. 21. This Hawaiian paint had almost the quality of a 
lacquer. Its ingredients were the juice of a certain euphorbia, the juice 
of the inner bark of the root of the kukui tree, the juice of the bud of 
the banana tree, together with charcoal made from the leaf of the pan- 
danus. A dressing of oil from the nut of the kukui was finally added to 
give a finish. I can vouch for it as an excellent covering for wood. 

(14) Sect. 25. The meaning of the word kuiva, or ku-wa, here 
translated by uplifter, is involved in some doubt and obscurity. In oppo- 
sition to the orthography of Mr. Malo, which, as often remarked, is any- 
thing but orthodox, and cannot be depended upon, I have ventured to 
unite the two parts and make of them one word. 

In chapter XXXIII, section 14, the prayer uttered by the kahuna at 
the finishing and consecration of the house, symbolized by the trimming 
of the thatch over the doorway, was called pule kuiva. See note to Chap. 
XXXIII.) As explained, the term kinva is applied to that prayer because 
while performing the act and reciting the prayer the kahuna stood — ku — 
in the space — zva — of the doorway. 

The opening words of the prayer, according to David Malo, are, 
G ku wa ka lani, ku wa ka honua. 

After dihgent study and inquiry I am convinced^ that the correct or- 
thography is kuwa or perhaps ku-wa, if one pleases, and that its meaning 
has reference to the lifting up of the heavens, the putting of a space be- 
tween the heavens and the earth. This is a matter that is very prominent 
in the mythology of southern Polynesia. 

Note. — The word wa in many of its uses is evidently intended to ex- 
press the idea of interval, and ku-zva probably means in some instances tO' 
set in order, to place at orderly intervals. Another meaning is an echo. 
A derivative, secondary meaning is to set apart, consecrate.. — N. B. E. 

(15) Sect. 25. Nana i kuwa. . . .kuwa is here used as a verb. Among 
the various hypotheses that have been considered in the attempt to define 
the meaning of this multi-meaning word was that of hollowing out the 
canoe, thus putting a wa between one side and another of the canoe- 
(zva'a). It seems, however, as if the most reasonable and obvious mean- 
ing — when once it is pointed out — is that of consecraating and setting apart 
the iva'a, making it ready for its use. 

(t6) Sect. 25. Noa ke kuwa ka wa^a a Wakea. The meaning of 
the word kuwa in this connection is slightly different in this passage from 
the one previously assigned to it. Here it evidently refers to the function 
of consecration now being performed by the priest. I have endeavored 
to express that meaning in my translation. 

(17) Sect. 29. Lolo ceremony: The expression in the text is maikai 
ka lolo ana. When a priest, or canoe-maker, or /zw/a- dancer, or practi- 
tioner of any profession or art has acquired the greatest preliminary 



178 

skill, before beginning the practice of liis new art, or profession, be is 
by means of certain incantations and peculiar rites put to a test, ana i 
he comes out successfully it is said tia ai lolo, that is, he has eaten brainb, 
acquired great skill. The hlo ceremony is not merely a bestowing of good 
luck on the craft, it is rather an inquiry of heaven as to the fate or luck 
in store for the canoe. 

(iS) Sect. 30. Keawe II, whose son Kanuha built the hale o Keawe, 
was of the last quarter of the i/t'h century. See "Brief History of the 
Hawaiian People" by W. D. Alexander, p. 46.) 

(19) Sect. 33. The kio-loa was a long, narrow canoe, principally used 
for racing. 

(20) Sect. 2)3- The classic model of the manu, the carved piece which 
adorned the bow and the stern of every worthy Hawaiian ivaa, a form 
which has been handed down to modern times, was as shown in Fig. i ; 
the model of the Iclc-ra'i is as shown in Fig. 2. The lele-iwi canoe was 
principally for display, lianonaiio. 




(21) Sect. 31. Fa-u Luiikia: This wa^ a highly decorative lashing 
Tjy which the iako was bound to the canoe. Luukia was a famous beauty, 
who, though wife to another man, so fascinated Moikeha, a king of Ha- 
waii, that he sailed with her to Tahiti. One of her would-be lovers, 
hoping to win her favor by alienating her against Moikeha, cunningly 
slandered that prince to Luukia. He so far succeeded that he aroused 
in her an aversion to the young man. As a consequence she sought to 
defend herself against the further approaches of her royal lover bv wear- 
ing about her loins some sort of woven corset or pa-^i. Hence the term 
pa-u o Luukia, corset or skirt of Luukia, applied by the old salts, canoe- 
men, of the sixteenth century to the most aesthetic and decorative style 
of canoe-lashing employed. 

(22) Sect. 35. In this kind of a canoe the bow, contrary to usual 



179 

practice, was made at the butt end of the log. It was usually put at 
the small end. 

(23) Sect. 36. The peleleu were a fleet of very large war-canoes 
which Kamehameha I had made from koa trees felled in the forests back 
of Hilo, Hawaii. Their construction was begun about the year 1796. In 
spite of the fact that the Hawaiian historian, Malo, speaks of the peleleu 
with a certain pride ^and enthusiasm, they are to be regarded rather as 
monstrosities, not belonging fully to the Hawaiiian on whose soil they were 
made, nor to the white men who, no doubt, lent a hand and had a voice 
in their making and planning. 

{2^) Sect. 32. Pa-u: Some times the pa-u covered the opening of 
the canoe from stem to stern, each paddle-man putting his head and body 
through a hole in the same. This would be in stormy weather. In 
ordinary times only the waist of the craft, where the baggage and freight 
were stowed, was covered in this way. The following was the manner of 
fastening the mat : A number of holes, called holo, were made in the 
upper edge of the canoe. By means of small cords passed through these 
holes a line, called alihi pa-u, was lashed in place. Through the loops of 
this alihi was run a line that criss-crossed from one side to the other 
and held the pa-ii or mat in place. This last line was called a haunu. 



CHAPTER XXXV. 



RELIGIOUS CEREMONIES PERFORMED BY THE ALUS TO SECURE OFF- 
SPRING. 



1. The efiforts of the kings to secure offspring wore associated 
with the worship of the gods ; but these religious performances 
related only to the first born/ because such held the highest rank 
as chiefs. 

2. In the case of high chiefs the affair was conducted as 
follows; a high chief of the opposite sex was sought out and, 
after betrothal, the two young people were at first placed {hoo- 
nohoY under keepers in separate establishments, preparatory to 
pairing, for offspring, the purpose being to make the offspring of 
the highest possible rank. Worship was paid to the gods, because 
it was firmly believed that the genius, power and inspiration 
(mana) of a king was like that of a god. 

3. When the princess had recovered from her infirmity and 
had purified herself in the bath, she was escorted to the tent made 



i8o 

of tapa, which had been set up in an open place in the sight of 
all the people. 

4. To her now came the prince, bringing with him his aktia 
kaai.^ This akaa kaai was set up outside of the tent, where were 
keeping watch the multitude of the people, and the assembled 
priests were uttering incantations and praying to the gods that 
the union of the two chiefs might prove fruitful. 

5. When the princess has returned from her bath, the prince 
goes in unto her and remains in her company perhaps until even- 
ing, by which time the ceremony called hoomau keiki is com- 
pleted. Then the prince takes his leave, the princess returns home, 
the people disperse, the kahunas depart, the chiefs retire and the 
tent is taken down. This ceremony is enacted only in the case 
of the very highest chiefs, never those of inferior rank. 

6. If after this it is found that the princess is with child, 
there is great rejoicing among all the people that a chief of rank 
has been begotten. If the two parents are of the same family, 
the offspring will be of the highest possible rank.* 

7. Then those who composed meles {haku mele^) were sent' 
for to compose a niele inoa that should eulogise and blazon the 
ancestry of the new chief to-be, in order to add distinction to him 
when he should be born. 

8. And when the bards had composed their meles satisfac- 
torily (a Jiolo^ na niele), they were imparted to the hula dancers 
to be committed to memory. It was also their business to decide 
upon the attitudes and gestures, and to teach the inoa to the men 
and women of the hula (i. e. the chorus). 

9. After that the men and women of the hula company danced 
and recited the mele inoa of the unborn chief with great rejoicing, 
keeping it up until such time as the prince was born ; then the 
hula-performances ceased. 

10. When the time for the confinement of the princess drew 
near the royal midwives (themselves chief esses) were sent for to 
take charge of the accouchement and to look after the m.other. 
As soon as labor-pains set in an offering was set before the idol 
(the akua kaai named Hidu), because it was believed to be the 
function of that deity to help women in labor. 

11. When the expulsory pains became very frequent,"^ the 
delivery was soon accomplished; and when the child was born, 



i8i 

the father's akua kaai was brought in attended by his priest. If 
the child was a girl, its navel-string Avas cut in the house; but if 
a boy, it was carried to the heiau, there to have the navel-string 
cut in a ceremonious fashion. 

12. When the cord had first been tied with olona, the kahuna, 
"having taken the bamboo (knife), offered prayer, supplicating 
the gods of heaven and earth and the king's kaai gods, whose 
images were standing there. The articles constituting the offer- 
ing, or mohai, were lying before the king, a pig, cocoanuts, and 
a robe of tapa. The king listened attentively to the prayer of 
the kahuna, and at the right moment, as the kahuna was about to 
sever the cord, he took the offerings in his hands and lifted them 
lip. 

13. Thereupon the kahuna prayed as follows : 

0*ka ohe keia ka piko ka aiwaiwa lani. 
This is the bamboo for the navel-string of the heaven-born 
chief. 

The kahuna then took the bamboo between his teeth and split 
it in two (to get a sharp cutting edge), saying, 

O ka uhae keiq ka ohe ka piko ka aiwaiwa lani. * * * 
O ka moku keia o ka piko ka aiwaiwa lani. 

This is the spliting of the bamboo for the navel-string of the 
heaven-born chief. * * * This is the cutting of the navel- 
;string of the heaven-born one. 

14. Thereupon he applies the bamboo-edge and severs the 
•cord; and, having sponged the wound to remove the blooH 

(kitpemi), with a pledget of soft olona fibre, oloa, the kahuna 
prays : 

Kupenu ida, 

Kupenu lei, 

Kumu lei J 

Aka halapa i ke akua i laau wai la. 

Cleanse the red blood from the stump ; 

Cleanse it from the cord ; 

Bind up the cord ; 

It is for God to safeguard this child, 

To make him flourish like a well-watered plant. 



l82 

15. When the prayer of the kahuna was ended, the royal father 
of the child himself offered prayer to the gods : 

O Ku, Lono, Kane and Kanaloa, here is the pig, the cocoanuts, 
the malo. Deal kindly with this new chief; give him long life; 
protect him tmtil the last sleep of unconsciousness. Long m,ay 
he reign and his kingdom extend from the rising to the setting 
of the sun. 

Amen; it is free: the tabu is lifted. 

The king then dashed the pig against the grotmd and killed it 
as an offering to the gods, and the ceremonies were ended. 

16. The child was then taken back to the house and was pro- 
vided with a wet nurse who became its kahu. Great care was 
taken in feeding the child, and the kahtis were diligent in looking 
after the property collected for its support. The child was subject 
to its kahus until it was grown up. The young prince was not 
allowed to eat pork until he had been initiated into the temple- 
service, after which that privilege was granted him. This was 
a fixed rule with princes. 

17. When the child had increased in size and it came time for 
him to undergo the rite of circumcision, religious ceremonies were 
again performed. The manner of performing circumcision itself 
was the same as in the case of a child of the common people, but 
the religious ceremonies were more complicated. 

18. When the boy had grown to be of good size a priest was 
appointed to be his tutor, to see to his education and to instruct 
him in matters religious; and when he began to show signs of 
incipient manhood, the ceremony of purification (huikala) was 
performed, a heiau was built for him, and he became a temple- 
worshipper (mea haipiile) on his own account. He was then 
permitted to eat of pork that had been baked in an oven outside 
of the heiau, but not of that which had been put to death by 
strangulation, in the manner ordinarily practiced, and then baked 
in an oven outside of the heiau without religious rites. His initia- 
tion into the eating of pork was with prayer. 

19. Such was the education and bringing up of a king's son. 
The ceremonies attendant on the education and bringing- uo of 

the daughters were not the same as those above described- (At 

this point there is an ambiguity in the language of the manuscript 
and it is not clear whether it is of the daughters alone or of the 



i83 

younger sons also that he speaks, when he says) — E hana ia no 
nae ke oki piko ana, a me kekahi matt mea e ae, aole no e like 
me ko ka mua hana ana — ) but the ceremony of cutting tEe navel- 
string, as well as some other ceremonies, was performed on them. 
The ceremonies, however, were not of the same grade as in the 
case of the first born, because it was esteemed as a matter of great 
importance by kings, as well as by persons of a religious turn 
of mind, that the first born should be devoted to the service of 
the gods. 

20. The birth of a first child was a matter of such great ac- 
count that after such birth chiefish mothers and women of dis- 
tinction, whether about court or living in the back districts, un- 
derwent a process of purification (hooma'ema'e) in the following 
manner. 

21. After the birth of the child the mother kept herself sep- 
arate from her husband and lived apart from him for seven days ; 
and when her discharge was staunched she returned to her hus- 
band's house. 

22. During this period she did not consort with her husband, 
nor with any other man ; but there was bound about her abdomen 
a number of medicinal herbs, which were held in place by her 
malo. This manner of purification for women after childbirth 
was termed hoopapa. 

23. While undergoing the process of purification the woman 
did not take ordinary food, but was supported on a broth made 
from the flesh of a dog. On the eighth day she returned to her 
husband, the discharge (walewale) having by that time ceased to 
flow. 

. 24. The woman, however, continued her purification until the 
expiration of an anahidu, ten days, by which time this method of 
treatment, called hoopapa, was completed. After that, in com- 
mem.oration of the accomplishment of her tabu, the woman's hair 
was cut for the first time.^ 

25. Thus it will appear that from the inception of her preg- 
nancy she had been living in a state of tabu, or religious seclu- 
sion, abstaining from all kinds of food that were forbidden by her 
own or her husband's gods. It was after this prescribed manner 
that royal mothers,' and women of rank, conducted themselves 



1 84 

during the period of their first pregnancy. Poor folks did not 
follow this regime. 

26. The women of the poor and humble classes gave birth to 
their children without paying scrupulous attention to matters of 
•ceremony and etiquette (me ka maewaezva ole). 

NOTES ON CHAPTER XXXV. 

(i) Sect. I. This hoomau ceremony, as st'ated, was generally per- 
formed only apropos of the first child, but there were exceptions to this 
rule. 

(2) Sect. 2. Hoonoho la, put in an establishment, placed under the 
care of a guardian or of a duenna. Such an establishment was surrounded 
by an enclosure, pa, made of the sacred lama, a tree whose wood in color 
and fineness of grain resembles boxwood. Hence this special care or 
guardianship was called palama. It is said that an establishment of this 
Tcind was anciently placed at that suburb of Honolulu which for that 
•cause to this day bears the name of Ka-pa-lania. The word pulama, to 
-care for, to guard, to foster, to cherish, is akin to palama in meaning, 
but it is generally used in a physical sense and applied to inanimate ob- 
jects. A child would be palama'd, the care bestowed on one's spears, 
weapons, ornaments, etc., would be expressed by the word pulama. 

(3) Sect. 4. The akua kaai was represented by a short staff, on top 
■of which was carved a figure representing the deity. The lower end was 
sharp to facilitate its being driven into the ground. Hulu was the name 
of one of the kaai gods whose special function it was to assist at child- 
birth. 

(4) Sect. 6. It is said that when the union was fruitful, neither party 
was allowed to have furfher sexual intercourse until the birth of the child 
and the purification of the mother had been accomplished. 

(5) Sect. 7. Haku inele, literally to weave a song. A mele for the 
-glorification of a king, born or still unborn, was called a inelc inoa. 
This was a eulogy or panegyric of the ancestral and personal virtues, real 
or fictitious, of a king or princeling, whether full fledged or still in his 
mother's womb, Ko-i-honua was not, as mistakenly supposed, a particu- 
lar kind of mele. If related to the tone or manner of utterance of the 
viele inoa; it meant that the iiioa was to be recited in an ordinary con- 
versational tone, and not after the manner called oli, that is applied to 
a singing tone. The ko-i-honua manner of reciting a mele inoa made it 
more intelligible and therefore more acceptable to the king, who might 
be an old man and hard of hearing, whether it was uttered in praise of 
bimself or of some child or grand-child. The conversational tone, at any 
rate, made the words and meaning more intelligible. In making out the 
origin of the phrase ko-i-homia, the ko seems to be the causative, as in such 
words as ko-ala, ko-pi, ko-kua; i, to utter, as in the sentence / mai ke 



i8s 

cHi; honua, the earth, earthly, as distinguished from an inflated, or stilted, 
manner of speech used in the singing tone of the oli. Following is an 
•example of a 

MELE INOA, 

O ke kulei^ ula ce; 

O ke ahua lana moku, 

Ka ohe land^ a ke Kanaloa, 

Ke Kanaloa a Kane,''- 

O Kane Ulu-hai-malama,^ 

Malama ia o Kaelo.^ 

A garland strung of red flowers thou, 
The bank on which rests the island. 
The bamboo buoys of the Kanaloa, 
The Kanaloa of Kane, 
Kane of the fruitful growing month, 
Month that of Kaelo. 

(a) ku-lei: The full form of this word would be kui-lei; kui, a needle 
or sharp stick, used in stringing flowers for a lei, garland. 

(b) ohe lana : Bamboo joints were used as floats or buoys. As to the 
floats of Kanaloa, I cannot learn what they were. 

(c) Kanaloa a Kane: Kanaloa was the son of Kane, or according to 
some, his younger brother. 

(d) Ulu-hai-malama, said to be the kahu, or keeper, of the image of 
the god Kane, the man himself being oftenest spoken of as Ulu. The 
whole phrase seems to have the meaning given in the translation, 

Ce) Kaelo was the month corresponding to October or November, the 
beginning of the rainy season, when vegetation began to freshen. 

The mele inoa of which this is a fragment, was, I am told, an heirloom 
composed in honor of Liloa, handed down by him to Umi, and passed on 
to Kalani-nui-a-mamao. 

(6) Sect, 8. When the bards, poe haku mele, had composed their 
meles, they met at the ni-o, a house where were assembled also the critics, 
poe loi, the wise men, literati and philosophers, kaka-olelo, who were 
themselves poets; and the compositions were then recited in the hearing 
of this learned assembly, criticized, corrected and amended, and the au- 
thoritative form settled, 

Ni-o Cpronounced nee-o), and lo-i ^pronounced (low-ee) are nearly 
synonymous, meaning to criticize, Nema or nema-nema is to be partic- 
ular or finicky in criticism. 

{/) Sect. II. Kua-koko, literally bloody back. 

C8) Sect. 24, I am informed that virgins and young women before 
marriage wore the hair at full length on the head ; but that all respectable 
women, who regardcjd, the conventions of good society, and especially 
women about court, after marriage and the birth of their first born, had 



1 86 

the hair trimmed short over the back-head, while over the forehead it 
was allowed to grow long enough to be gathered into a tuft, in which shape 
it was retained by a dressing of the mucilaginous juice of the ti root 
mixed with ku-kiii gum. It was also the fashion to bleach and change 
the color of the hair by the application of lime mixed with the same ii 
juice. (Such is my information; but in rgeard to the prevalence of such 
a fashion I am very skeptical. There is surely no sign of it at the pres- 
ent day among the Hawaiians. It may have been local; I do not believe 
it was general.) 

(It is fully described by M. Choris, artist of Kotzebue's first voyage in 
1816, and shown in some of his portraits of Hawaiian women. The fash- 
ion still prevails in Samoa and other southern groups. — W. D. A.) 



CHAPTER XXXVI. 



CONCERNING THE MAKAHIKI. 

1. The inakahiki^ was a time when men, women and chiefs 
rested and abstained from all work, either on the farm or else- 
where. It is was a time of entire freedom from labor. 

2. The people did not engage in the usual religious observances 
during this time, nor did the chiefs ; their worship consisted in 
making offerings of food. The king himself abstained from work 
on the makahiki days. 

There were four days, during which every man, having pro- 
vided himself with the means of support during his idleness, re- 
posed himself at his own house.. 

3. After these four days of rest were over, every man went 
to his farm, or to his fishing, but nowhere else, (not to mere 
pleasure-seeking), because the makahiki tabu was not yet ended, 
but merely relaxed for those four days. It will be many days 
before the makahiki will be noa, there being four moons in that 
festival, one moon in Kau, and three moons in Hooilo. 

4. The makahiki period began in Ikuzva, the last month of 
the period called Kau, and the month corresponding to October^ 
and continued through the first three months of the period 
Hooilo, to-wit : Welehu, Makalii and Kaelo, which corresponded 
with November, December and January. 

During these four months, then, the peopel observed makahiki, 
refraining from work and the ordinary religious observances. 



i87 

5. There were eight months of the year in which both chiefs 
and commoners were wont to observe the ordinary religious cere- 
monies, three of them being the Hooilo months of Kauhia, Nana, 
and Welo, corresponding to February, March and April ; and five, 
the Kau months of Ikiiki Kaaona, Hinaiaeleele, Hilinaehu, and 
Hilinama, which corresponded to May, June, July, August and 
September. 

6. During these eight months of every year, then, the whole 
people worshipped, but rested during the four Makahiki months. 
In this way was the Makahiki observed every year from the 
earliest times. 

7. Many and diverse were the religious services which the 
aliis and the commoners offered to their gods. Great also was 
the earnestness and sincerity (hoomaopopo maoli ana) with which 
these ancients conducted their worship of false gods. 

8. Land was the main thing which the kings and chiefs 
sought to gain by their prayers and worship (hoomana) , also that 
that they might enjoy good health, that their rule might be 
established forever, and that they might have long life. They 
prayed also to their gods for the death of their enemies. 

9. The common people, on the other hand, prayed that the 
lands of their aliis might be increased, that, their own physical 
health might be good, as well as the health of their chiefs. They 
prayed also that they might prosper in their different enterprises. 
Such was the burden of their prayers year after year. 

ID. During the tabu-days of Ku (the 3rd, 4th, and 5th of each 
month), in the month of Ikuwa (corresponding to October) flags 
were displayed from the heiaus (temples), to announce the 
coming of the makahiki festival ; the services at the royal heiaus 
were suspended, and the chiefs and people who were wont to 
attend the worship, betook themselves to sports, games and 
the pursuit of pleasure. But the priests, the kahus (keepers) 
of images and the ruler at the head of the government pursued 
another course. 

II. There were twelve months, consisting of nine times forty 
days, in a year ; and four tabu-periods, or pules, in each month. 
Two nights and a day would be tabu, and at the end of the 
second night the tabu would be off. 



i88 

12. During the tabu of Hua, (the 13th, and 14th days), in the 
month Ikuwa, was performed the ceremony of breaking the 
coco-nut^ of the king. 

This was part of the observance of Makahiki and was to 
propitiate the deity. When this had been done he went to his 
pleasures. 

13. When the X'w-tabu of the month of Welehu had come it 
went by without rehgious service ; but on the Hua- tabu of that 
month the commoners, and the chiefs of lower ranks performed 
the ceremony of breaking the cocoanut-dish. The temples were 
then shut up and no religious services were held. 

14. In the succeeding days the Makahiki-taxes were gotten 
ready against the coming of the tax-collectors for the districts 
known as okanas, pokos^ kalanas, previously described, into 
which an island was divided. 

15. It was the duty of the konohikis to collect in the first 
place all the property which was levied from the loa for the king; 
each konohiki also brought tribute for his own landlord, which 
was called waiwai maloko. 

16. On Laaiikukahi (i8th day), the districts were levied on 
for the tax for the king, tapaSj pa-uSj malos, and a great variety 
of other things. 

Contributions of swine were not made, but dogs were con- 
tributed until the pens were full of them. The aliis did not 
eat fresh pork during these months, there being no temple service. 
They did, however, eat such pork as had previously been dressed 
and cured while services were being held in the temples. 

17. On Laaupau, (20th day), the levying of taxes was com- 
pleted, and the property that had been collected was displayed 
before the gods {hoomoe ia) : and on the foUowng day (Oleku- 
kahi), the king distributed it among the chiefs and the companies, 
of soldiery throughout the land. 

18. The distribution was as follows: first the portion for the 
king's gods was assigned, that the kahus of the gods might have 
means of support; then the portion of the king's kahtmas; then 
that for the queen and the king's favorites, and all the aialo who 
ate at his table. After this portions were assigned to the re- 
maining chiefs and to the different military companies. 



i89 

19. To the more important chiefs who had many followers 
was given a large portion ; to the lesser chiefs, with fewer fol- 
lowers, a smaller portion. This was the general principle on 
which the division of all this property was made among the 
chiefs, soldiery (puali) and the aialo, 

20. , No share of this property, however, was given to the peo- 
ple. During these days food was being provided against the 
coming of the Makahiki, preparations of cocoanut mixed with 
taro or breadfruit, called kulolo, sweet breadfruit-pudding, called 
pepeiee, also poi, bananas, fish, awa, and many other varieties 
of food in great abundance. 

21. On the evening of the same day, Olekukahi, the feather 
gods were carried in procession, and the following evening, Ole- 
kulua, the wooden gods were in turn carried in procession. Early 
the following morning, on the day called Olepmi, (23rd), they 
went at the making of the image of the Makahiki god, Lono- 
makiia (See sec. 25). This work was called kn-i-ke-pa-a. 

22. This Makahiki-idol was a stick of wood having a cir- 
cumference of about ten inches and a length of about two fathoms. 
In form it was straight and staff-like, with joints carved at in- 
tervals resembling a horse's leg; and it had a figure carved at its 
upper end. 

23. A cross-piece was tied to the neck of this figure, and to 
this cross-piece, kea^ were bound pieces of the edible pala^ fern. 
From each end of this cross-piece were hung feather leis that 
fluttered about, also feather imitations of the kaupii^ bird, from 
which all the flesh and solid parts had been removed. 

24. The image was also decorated with a white tapa^ cloth 
made from wauke kakahi, such as was grown at Kuloli. One 
end of this tapa was basted to the cross-piece, from which it hung 
down in one piece to a length greater than that of the pole. The 
width of this tapa was the same as the length of the cross-piece, 
about sixteen fett. 

25. The work of fabricating this image, I say, was called 
kuikepaa.^ The following night the chiefs and people bore the 
image in grand procession, and anointed it with cocoanut oil. 
Such was the making of the Makahiki god. It was called Lono- 
makua (father Lono), also the aktia loa. This name was given 
it because it made the circuit of the island. 



190 

Captain Cook was named Lono after this god, because of the 
resemblance the sails of his ship bore to the tapa of the god. 

26. There was also an akua poko (short god) ; so called be- 
cause it was carried only as far as the boundary of the district 
and then taken back; also an akua paanP (god of sports), which 
accompanied the akua loa in its tour of the island and was set 
up to preside at the assemblies for boxing, wrestling, and other 
games. 

By evening of that same day (Olepau), the making of the 
akua loa was completed. (See sect. 21). 

27. On the morning following the night of Olepau, fires were 
lighted along the coast all round the island, and every body, 
people and chiefs, went to bathe and swim in the ocean, or in 
fresh water ; after w^hich they came to bask and warm themselves 
about the fires, for the weather was chilly. The bathing was con- 
tinued until daylight. This practice was called hiuwai.^ 

28. The Makahiki tabu began on sunrise of that same day, 
Kaloa-knkahi, (the 24th). Every body rested from work, 
scrupulously abstaining even from bathing in the ocean or in a 
fresh w^ater stream. One was not permitted to go inland to work 
on his farm, nor to put to sea, for the purpose of fishing in the 
ocean. They did no work whatever during those days. Their 
sole occupation was to eat and amuse themselves. This they 
continued to do for four days. 

29. That same day (Kaloa-kukahi) the Makahiki god came 
into the district — it had to be carried by men, however. The 
same day also the high priest at Kaiu (said to be a place in Wai- 
mea, where was a famous shrine) began the observance of a 
tabu which was to continue for five days. His eyes were blind- 
folded with tapa during that whole time, and only at its expira- 
tion were they unbound to allow him to look upon the people. 

30. By the time the Makahiki god had arrived, the konohikis 
set over the different districts and divisions of the land, known 
as kalanas, okanas, pokos, and ahu-puaas, had collected the taxes 
for the ^Makahiki, and had presented them as offerings to the 
god ; and so it was done all round the island. 

31. This tax to the Makahiki god consisted of such things 
as feathers of the 00, mamo, and i'iwi, swine, tapas and bundles 
of pounded taro, paiai, to serve as food for those who carried the 



idol. ( )ii llic l;ii|M' (lisdirlH ;i liciivy (;ix w;is iniposcci, .nid on llic 
Hiii;illi'i ones .1 li^:lil(M- lux. If llic l.ix of ;iny dislricl was nof 
rt'.'idy in lime, lln* konoliilvi was piil oil his land by IIh" I:ix »<>1- 
Icclor. The Konoliiki was rxpCilcd lo li.ivi' all tlic taxes of llic 
dislt'i< 1 ("oll(-clcd lK'f(»r('lianil and dcposilcd :il llic hordcr of llic 
itlitil^ihi'd, vvlii'tc was hnill an allar. 

^{2. In niaMn},; ili; oiivnil of tlir island tin* tikiut Ion always 
nii»v<'d in snrh a <linMMion as lo k(M-|) (he inlcrior of the island 
lo il.s rij^lil ; llic (tkita futko so as l<i \\vv\) il on llic Icfl ; and wIkmi 
llic l.iKcr had reached Ihe hoi'der of Ihe dislriel il Iniiied haek. 
iMirin^' Ihe |)fo^;i*ess (d' Ihe Makahiki f^nd Ihe eonnliy on ils 
l<d'l, I.e., lowards Ihe* oee.an, was lahn; and if any one Ires 
passi'd on il he was eondennied lo pay a line, a pi^- of ;i f.ilhoni 
lonj; ; his life was spare(l. 

^\^\. As IIm' i<lol appi<ta<lied IIk' .allar thai niark<'d the honnd- 
ary of ihe dim juiiia a man weni ahead hearing Iwo poles, or 
^■in<lons, ealled alia. 

J|^,\. The man planled (he alia, and Ihe id»il look ils slalion 
hehind lluan. Thr spaee helwetai Ihe <///</ was tahn. an<l lure 
Ihe konohikis pile(l Iheir hookaj^it, or offerings, and Ihe lax I'ol 
lee|ors,.who aeeompanied Ihe akua aiakahikiy made their eom- 
plainls re^aidinj;* deliipieni tax payers. ,MI onlside of tlu" alia 
was eomnion pjdiind ( wiut ). 

,^5. Wheii enon^'h propialy h.ad heen i-olleded from the land 
lo salisfy llu' <|eniands of Ihe lax eolleelor, the kahnna who ae- 
eompanied Ihe idol ranie forward and nllered a prayer to s<i 
(he land fiiv. This prayei' was called Haiiiaki an<l ran as fol- 
lows: 



\^{\. \'onr iHidies, () I .ono, an" in iho heavens. 

A lon)^' idond, a short olond, 
A waU'hfid tdond, 

Ati ovtM'lookinj; cloiul in Ihe heavens; 
5. I'Vom I dinii, from Melemele. 
iM'om lN»lapola, from 1 l.i'eh.i'e, 
h'nMii i )mao kn-nln-ln, 
iM'oni Ihi' land ihal i^avc hirlh lo Kono. 
Ilcliold I jino plae(\s the stars 



192 

10. That sail through the heavens. 

High resplendent is the great image of Lono; 

The stem of Lono links our dynasties with Kahiki, 

Has lifted them up, 

Purified them in the ether of Lono. 
15. Stand up! gird yourselves for play. 

The people then responded : 

Gird yourselves ! 
The kahuna says : 

Lono — 
The people respond : 

The image of Lono ! 
The Kahuna says: 

Hail! 
The people respond : 

20. Hail to Lono! 
And thus ended the service. 

PULE HAINAKI. 
36. The kahuna said : 

Oil kinoi Lono i ka lani. 

He ao loa, he ao poko, 

He ao kiei, he ao halo, 

He ao hoo-pua i ka lani; 
5 . Mai Uliuli, inai Melemele, 

Mai Polapola, iiiai Ha' ha'e, 

Mai Omao-kic-uhi-hiy 

Mai ka aina Lono i hanaii mai ai. 

Oi hookiii akit o Lono ka hoku e iniha'i ka lani, 
10. Amoaino ke akua laau nui Lono. 

Kuikui papa ka hia m-ai Kahiki, 

Ha paina, kukaa i ka haii miki no Lono! 

E kn i ka lualo a hi'u! 
People respond : 

Hiu ! 
Kahuna says : 

15. O Lono — 



193 

People respond: 

Ke akua laau 

Kahuna says: 

Aulu! 

People respond: 

AulUj e Lono! 

37. By this ceremony the land under consideration was seal- 
ed as free. The idol was then turned face downwards and moved 
on to signify that no one would be troubled, even though he 
ventured on the left hand side of the road, because the whole 
district had been declared free from tabu, noa. But when the 
idol came to the border of the next ahu-puaa the tabu of the god 
was resumed, and any person who then went on the left hand- 
side of it subjected himself to the penalties of the law. Only 
when the guardians of the idols declared the land free did it be- 
come free. 

38. This was the way they continued to do all round the 
island; and when the image was being carried forward its face 
looked back, not to the front. 

39. When the Makahiki god of the aliis came to where the 
chiefs were living they made ready to feed it. It was not, how- 
ever, the god that ate the food, but the man that carried the 
image. This feeding was called hanai-pu and was done in the 
following manner. 

40. The food, consisting of kulolo, hau, preparations of ar- 
rowroot, bananas, cocoanuts and awa, (for such were the articles 
of food prepared for the Makahiki god), was made ready before- 
hand, and when the god arrived at the door of the alii's house, 
the kahunas from within the house, having welcomed the god 
with zxi aloha, uttered the following invocation: 

41. Welcome now to you, O Lono! {E well ia oe Lono, ea!) 
Then the kahuna and the people following the idol called out, 
Nauane, nauane, moving on, moving on. Again the kahunas from 
within the house called out. Welcome to you, O Lono! and the 
people with the idol answered, moving, on, moving on (Nauane, 
nauane.) Thereupon the kahunas from within the house called 
out. This way, come in! (Hele mai a komo, hele mai a komo.) 



194 

42. Then the carrier of the idol entered the house with the 
image, and after a prayer by the kahuna, the dii fed the carrier 
of the image with his own hands, putting the food into the man's 
mouth, not so much as suffering him to handle it, or to help him- 
self in the least. When the repast was over the idol was taken 
outside. 

43. Then the female chiefs brought a malo, and after a prayer 
by the kahuna, they proceeded to gird it about the god. This 
office was performed only by the female chiefs and was called 
Kai-olo-a. 

44. By this time the god had reached the house of the king, 
the means for feeding the god were in readiness, and the king 
himself was sitting in the mystic rite of Lono (e noho ana ke alii 
nui i ka Ini o Lono) ; and when the feeding ceremony of hanai- 
pii had been performed the king hung about the neck of. the 
idol a niho-palaoa. This was a ceremony which the king per- 
formed every year. After that the idol contintied on its tour 
about the island. 

45. That evening the people of the villages and from the 
country far and near assembled in great numbers to engage in 
boxing matches, and in other games as well, which were con- 
ducted in the following manner. 

46. The whole multitude stood in a circle, leaving an open 
space in the centre for the boxers, while chiefs and people looked 
on. 

47. As soon as the tumult had been quieted and order estab- 
lished in the assembly, a number of people on one side stood 
forth and began a reviling recitative: "Oh you sick one, xou'd 
better lie abed in the time of Makalii (the cold season). You'll 
be worsted and thrown by the veriest novice in wrestling, and be 
seized per lapides,^'^ you bag of guts you." 

48. Then the people of the other side came forward and, 
standing in the midst of the assmebly, reviled the first party. 
Thereupon the two champions proceeded to batter each other; 
and whenever either one was knocked down by the other, the 
whole multitude set up a great shout. 

49. This performance was a senseless sport, resulting in 



195 

wounds and flowing of blood. Some struggled and fought, 
and some were killed. 

50. The next day, Koloa-kiilua (25th), was devoted to box- 
ing, holua sledding, rolling the rnaika stone, running races 
(kukini), sliding javelins {paliee)}^ the nod>^ — or piihenehene — 
and many other games, including hula dancing. 

51. These sports were continued the next day, which was 
Kaloa-pau, and on the morning of the following day, Kane, the 
akua-pokOj reached the border of the district, traveling to the 
left, and turning back, arrived home that evening. The akita-loa 
kept on his way about the island with the god of sport {akua- 
paa-ni.) 

52. The return of the akua^poko^^ was through the bush and 
wild lands above the travelled road, and thev reacehd the 
temple sometime that evening. Along its route the people came 
trooping after the idol, gathering pala fern and making back- 
loads of it. It is said that on the night of Kane the people 
gathered this fern from the woods as a sign that the tabu was 
taken from the cultivated fields. 

53- The keepers of the god Kane, whether commoners or 
chiefs, made bundles of luaii that same night, and having roasted 
them on embers, stuck them up on the sides of their houses, 
after which their farms were relieved from tabu, and they got 
food from them. * 

54. The kahus of Lono also did the same thing on the night. 
Lono (28th), after which their farms also were freed from tabu 
and they might take food from them. Likewise the kahus of 
the god Kaitaloa did the same thing on the night of Maitli (29th). 
This ceremony was called o-luau, and after its performance the 
tabu was removed from the cultivated fields, so that the people 
might farm them. But this release from tabu applied only to the 
common people; the king and chiefs practiced a different cere- 
mony. 

55. With the aliis the practice was as follows : On the return 
of the akua-poko, which was on the day Kane (2yth), pala fern 
was gathered ; and that night the bonfire of Puea^^ was lighted — 
Puea was the name of an idol deity — and if the weather was fair 
and it did not rain that night, the night of Puea, it was an omen 
of prosperity to the land. In that case, on the following morning. 



196 

on the day Lono (28th), a canoe was sent out on a fishing 
excursion ; and on its return, all the male chiefs and the men ate 
of the fresh fish that had been caught; but not the women. 
On that day also the bandages, which had covered the eyes of 
-the high-priest were removed. 

.'56. On the morning of Mauli (29th) the people again went 
'after pala-fern, and at night the fire of Puea was again lighted. 
On the morning of the next day, Muku, the last of the month, 
the fishing canoe again put to sea. The same thing was repeated 
on the following day, Hilo, which was the first of the month, 
the new month Makalii, and that night the fires of Puea were 
again lighted, and the following morning the fishing-canoe again 
put to sea. 

57. The same programme was followed the next day, and 
the next, and the day following that, until the four Ku (3rd, 
4th, 5th and 6th), as well as the four days of the 0/^-tabu, 
>(7th, 8th, 9th, and loth) were accomplished. On each of these 
•days a fresh supply of pala-fern was gathered ; each night the 
isignal fires of Puea burned, and on each following morning 
the fishing canoe put forth to get a fresh supply of fish. This 
was also done on Huna (nth) ; and that day the queen and 
all the women ate of the fresh fish from the ocean. This 
observance was termed Kala-hua.^^ 

58. On the morning of Mohalu (12th), the tabu set in again 
and continued through the days Hua, Akua, and Hoku, during 
w^hich period no canoe was allowed to go afishing. On the follow- 
ing day, Mahealani, the Makahiki god returned from making 
the circuit of the island. 

59. On that day the king for the first time again bathed in 
the ocean. It was on the same evening that the Makahiki god 
was brought back to the luakini.^^ 

60. That sarpe evening the king sailed forth in a canoe ac- 
•companied by his retinue and his soldiery, to meet the Makahiki 
god on his return from his tour, a ceremony which was called 
ka-lii 23 

61. When the king came to where the Makahiki god was, 
behold there was a large body of men, with spears in their 

'hands, drawn up at the landing as if to oppose him. 



197 

62. The king was accompanied on this expedition by one 
of his own men who was an expert in warding off spears. 
This man went forward in advance of the king. And as the king 
jumped ashore, one of the men forming the company about the 
Makahiki god came on the run to meet him, holding in his 
hands two spears bound at their points with white cloth called 
oloa. 

63. One of these he hurled at the king and it was warded 
off by the one who went in advance. The second spear was not 
thrown, the man merely touched the king with it. 

64. That same afternoon they had a sham-fight with spears, 
which was termed a Kane-kupua. After that the king went 
into the temple of Waiea^^ to pay his respects to the Maka- 
hiki god Lon-o-makua, as well as to the akua-poko. 

65. When the king came into the presence of these gods he 
offered a pig as a sacrifice. It was put upon the lele before the 
idols, and then the king went home for the night. 

The next day was kuhi (17th), and that evening a temporary 
booth, called a hale kamala, of lama wood, was put up for 
Kahoalii,^^ directly in front of the temple, Waiea, and in it 
Kahoalii spent the night. This hut was called the net-house of 
Kahoalii (ka hale koko o Kahoalii). 

66. That same night a very fat pig, called a picaa hea, was 
put into the oven along with preparations of cocoanut, called 
kulolo, and at daybreak, when the process of cooking was com- 
plete, all the people feasted on it; and if any portion was left 
over, it was carefully disposed of. This was on the morning 
of Laau-kukahi, and that same day the following work was done : 

67. Namel)^, the entire dismantling of the Makahiki idols, 
leaving nothing but the bare images; after which they and all 
their appurtenances were bundled up and deposited in the 
luakini. The men who carried the idols were then fed, and the 
kahunas closed the services of the day with prayer. 

68. A net with large meshes was then made, which, being 
lifted by four men supporting it at the four corners, was filled 
with all kinds of food, such as taro, potatoes, bread-fruit, bana- 
nas, cocoanuts, and pork, after which the priests stood forth to 
pray. 



([^lift^ the :r.on litKxi the nc: ;^T\d shvvk \\ \\\ck "Mxd UMth. lx> 
niake ihc fvwi iii\>p thivui^h the nioslu\<, i^uch boiiti; ihe puqwc 
V^t the coixn^vin. This \v;\,< o;^lK\l ihc lu^l oi Jl*»}<'i^t^?w.''^ It tl>e 
Kvxt vlul noi dix^p mMii the no:, ihe kahnn,\ vUvLuwi :he^x^ wonK! 
bo a tawii)o m :he land; bm it ii all ti^l v>\u he }>rv\li ou\? that 
the ,<in,<on worJd W frv.uh^I 

7v\ A <inioniro ot Iwskci-work. oalUxi !ho u.^.) .jj^^^.^ifs'^^ w,^^ 
theii ni,\vA\ \\1iioh was Ss\u1 u^ represoiu ihe c;^iw in wluch 

Fhe ,<,\nio day also a oaiv>o ot unpaiuuM Wvxvk oaDox^ a :\u>) 
i^<\\ was pill lo soa and v"onrsc\! back anvi lonh. Aiior th^^t th^ 
rx">i run-ons of ihc Makahiki wore onurolv n^nvwcM auvi everv 
O)\o oni^a^^wl in nshni^* fan^iiiic. v^r an\ vMhov work. 

ru On Thai .<;^nu" Jav onlors werv i^avou Thai iho tunbor tor 
a new^ b.ouni. oallovl a ^w«-oj<\-^ sh.^^dd he v\MUvu\1 with aU hasu\ 

Tbo nox: viav was Laau-kub:a, and on The ovoinui; of the 
foUowinc day, laan-^wu, ilu^ AMh, tho kinc; anno\nuvd the tabu 
of \\^V^s\: m.rjt'ii-vjjc,), wh;oh was iho name of tbo ovaxor or 
service. This pnk\ or sorvioo. v'onihnux^ nnnl Kakw-kuhu, ibe 
j?5th, when u oaino lo an on.k was j.wj, 

7-^, On the morninj^ ot Kak\\-\\ni, ^Mh, tho kh\o, pert\>rnu\i 
tbo oeretnony of puntvauon, Ho had bnib for binisolt a Hule 
Kx^Tb. cabovi a ';j*>f ;,?v-f /vM-.^iia--^ porfornnni^ its ooronu^nv of 
<\>nstvrai\on ai^d endint; it that dav ; tlion anot)\or small honso. 
or Kx^th, caUovi o^wx^"^*^ ihon a Kvth Ov>vorv\\ with pohtte \\no; 
then one called fji?t;jj;^^^ and last of all a boian called ^}<^<\}\^ 
oyrj#:v»>i\^' b\\ch of ihoso wa> consecrated with pravor and dt^ 
clareii »k\) ^\it that same day by the kinj^, in order to purify 
}\imself tron\ the pleasures, in which ho had indnli^ed, bofoiv 
he resmnod bis ivliiiions observances. 

/^V i.>r. the mv^ruiui; ot the tioxt da\, which was Kane i^-7th), 
tho kini; declared the tabu of the boiau ho bavl bnilt, which was 
of the kind ealkxl kul\\)\^^ Ixvaiise it w?^s the place in which 
he was to cleanse himself fixMu all intpuritios, h.)ui}iuu and ttt 
wluch ho was to oat pork. Phis hotau was accor^iitVi;l\ calU\l 
a ku{\\:^ in which to ea! pork, Ixvanse iu it the kit\i^^ resnuKxl 
tho nso of that moat. 



199 

74. During the tabu periofl of Ku, in the month of Kaelo, 
people went their own ways and did as they pleased; prayers 
were not offered. During the tabu period of Hua in Kaelo the 
people again had to make a hookupu for the king. It was but 
a small levy, however, and was called the heap of Kuapola. 
(Ka pu'ii Kuapola.) 

75. It was in this same tabu-period that Kahoalir''' phtcked 
out and ate an eye from the fish aku/'^ together with an eye 
from the body of the man who had been sacrificed. After this 
the tabu was removed from the aku and it might be eaten ; then 
tbe opelu in turn became tabu, and could be eaten only on pain 
of death. • A, 

j6. During this same tabu or pule the king and the high 
priest slept in their own houses. (They had been sleeping in 
the heiau.) On the last day of the tabu-period the king and 
kahuna-jiui, accompanied by the man who beat the drum, went 
and regaled themselves on pork. The service at this time was 
performed by a distinct set of priests. When these services were 
over the j^eriod of Makahiki and its observances were ended, 
this bein^^ its fourth month. Now Ijegan the new year.^-"^ 

'^y. Jn the tabu-period of Ku of the month Kaulua, the king, 
chiefs, and all the people took up again their ordinary religious 
observances, because religion, i. e. haipule,^^ has from the very 
beginning of Hawaiian history been a matter of the greatest 
concern, 

78. In tlie tajni-ijcriod Ku, of the month Kaulua, or it might 
be of the month Nana, the king would make a heiau of the 
kind called a liclau-loulu, or it might be, he would put up one 
of the kind called a ma'o. He might prefer an ordinary luakini; 
or, he might see fit to order the building of a temple to pro- 
pitiate the gods for abundant harvcts, that would be a luakini 
houululu ai; or he might order the building of a war-temple, 
a luakini kaua}^'^ It was a matter which lay with the king. 

NOTES TO chaptj:r xxxvt. 

(\) TIic word Makahiki mcjins a year of twelve months. In ad- 
dition to this it was used to designate tlie festival-period which it is the 
purpose of this chapter to describe. 



200 

III order to understand the matters treated of in this chapter it is nec- 
essary to consider the calendar and the divisions of the year in use among 
the Hawaiians. 

The Hawaiian year had in it three hundred and sixty days, and was 
divided into twelve months, or moons, mahina, of nominally thirty days 
each. The mahina was supposed to begin on the first appearance of the 
new moon in the west, which day, or night rather, was named Hilo, a 
filament or twist. 

It should be noted that apparently in order to piece out the twenty- 
nine and a half days of the lunar month into the thirty days of the 
Hawaiian calendar month, either the first day Hilo, or the thirtieth, Muku, 
must, as it would seem, have been counted in alternate months. 

In each month there were four fabu-ptriods, called kapus, also called 
pules (by David Malo), which were named the ist Ku, 2nd Hua, 3rd 
Kanaloa or Kaloa, and the 4th Kane. The first three of these came at 
intervals of ten days ; that of Ku on the 3rd, 4th and 5tli ; tTiat of Hua 
on the 13th and 14th; that of Kanaloa on the 24th "and 25th. The kapu- 
Kane was appointed irregularly on the 27th and 28th. The general dispo- 
sition and arrangement as to time of these sacred periods pciints to and 
argues strongly in favor of a decimal scale and a division of time into 
periods of ten days, anahuhis, three of which constituted a mahina. The 
word anahidu (ten days) is of frequent occurrence in the old meles, pules 
and kaaos. See Chap. XII. 

The names of the days in the month differed somewhat on the different 
islands. The following table is based on the authority oi W. D. Alexan- 
der, who differs slightly from David Malo, as will be seen in the fable : 

1. Hilo. ) 16. Mahealani. 

2. Hoaka. > Kapu Ku, 17. Kulu, or Knlua, in D. Malo. 
( 8. Ku-kahi.) D. Malo. 18. Laau-ku-kahi. 

Kapu-Ku I 4. Ku-lua. 19. Laau-ku-lua. 

( 5. Ku-kolu. 20. Laau-pau. 

6. Ku-pau. 21. Ole-ku-kahi. 

7. Ole-ku-kahi. 22. Ole-ku-lua. 

8. Ole-ku-lua. 23. Ole-pau j Kapu Kaloa. 



9. Ole-ku-kolu. Kapu-Kaloa (24. Kaloa-ku-kahi \ in D. Malo, 

10. Ole-ku-pau, (or or Kanaloa /25 Kaloa-ku-lua, 
Ole-pau, D. M.) 26. Koloa-pau. 

11. Huna. Kapu) 27. Kane. 

12. Mohalu.| Kapu Hua Kane J 28. Lono. 

Kapu Hua ij?* ?i^,^- i in D. Malo. 29. Mauli. 

*^ J 14. Akua. 30. Muku. 

15. Hoku. (Hoku- 

palemo, or Hoku-ili. ^ 

(2) Ka niu a ke'lii nui. I am informed that this was a carved cocoa- 
nut dish of rare workmanship, highly polished, which contained a num- 
ber of choice things, 

(3) Sect. 23. Pala fern, (Maratlia alata.) This was obtained from 
the butt-end of the leaf-stalk, at its attachment to the stem. It was much 
eaten in times of famine. The extent to which the Maoris of New Zea- 
land depended upon the fern as a means of sustenance suggests the ques- 
tion whether there is not a reminiscence of that fact in the mystical and 



20I 

religious use to which the fern is evidently put in this ceremony, as well 
as in other ceremonies to be described later. 

(4) Sect. 24. The Makahiki idol. The accompanying sketch is a rep- 
resentation of the Akua loa, Akua makahiki, or Lono makua, as the Ma- 
kahiki god was called. The figure follows the descriptions given by ex- 
perts in Hawaiian antiquities and tallies with that given by David Malo. 




The resemblance of the tapa-h^nntr to the sail of a ship, remarked by 
Malo in Sect. 25, is evident. 

(5) Sect. 2Z. The kaupu was a sea-bird. It was spoken of as kaupu 
auhai ale. It was the gannet or solan goose. 



202 

(6) Sect. 21 and 25. Ku-i-ke-paa : t'o halt, to stand still. The applica- 
tion of the word to this use is due to the fact that in going after the 
tree from which to make the akua loa, when the procession, at' the neaa 
of which was the high priest, bearing a feather-idol, came to where the 
tree was growing, the priest halted, and, planting the staff that bore 
the idol in the ground, gave the order Ku i ke paa, and the whole company 
came to a standstill. During the felling of the tree and the carving of 
it to make the idol, the feather-god was always present, the staff that 
supported it' being planted in the ground. 

(7) Sect. 26. Akua paani: there are said to have been two of these, 
consisting of spears, the heads of which were surrounded with a sort of 
basket-work intertwined and decorated with leis and streamers of white 
and yellow tapa. It is said that the games of the festival were directed 
by gestures made with these poles. 

(8) Sect. 27. The Hawaiians of the present day have a sport which 
both sexes engage in while bathing together in the water. It is called 
hitiwai, and consists of dashing water at and splashing each other. 

(8^) Sect. 28. According to Kamakau of Kaawaloa, during these four 
days all things were kapu t'o Lono-nui-akea, land and sea and sky, — W. 
D. A. , 

(9) Sect. 2>Z- Alia, meanitig to wait, hold on. 

(to) Sect. 36. Ou kino — In archaic Hawaiian the form of the singu- 
lar number is often used in place of the plural, as in the present instance. 
David Malo himself shows a fondness for the use of the singular form 
of nouns when the plural evidently is meant. 

Mr. S. Percy Smith informs me that ou kino, which in Maori would be 
ou tino, is a plural form, ou being the plural form of the second personal 
adjective. Thus in Maori ton whare is thy house, ou whare is your 
houses. This argues in favor of the view that the form ou in the passage 
is a survival from the old Maori. 

(11) Lines 5, 6 and 7. — Uliuli, Meleniele and Omaokuululu are said to 
be the names of places in Puna, Hawaii ; but as used here they stand 
for mystical places in the far off Kukulu Kahiki. 

Mele-rnelc : Of these names Mere-mere is known to Maoris and is con- 
nected with very ancient myths, located, say, in Malaysia, or India. 
The above I have from S. Percy Smith of New Plymouth, N. Z. 

(12) Line 13. — E ku i ka malo a hiu. These words are addressed to 
the people. The religious services of the Hawaiians w^ere to a large ex- 
tent responsive, being heartily entered into by the people, as instanced in 
the service here described. 

There are difficulties in the translation of this line. A malo bifurcated 
at its end was called, it is said, he malo a hiu; such a malo belonged to 
a kahuna. 

(13) Sect. 41. JVeli, or welina, as more often found in modern Ha- 
waiian, is a form of greeting of earlier usage than the present aloha. 

(14) The invitation to enter and have food is eminently Hawaiian. In 
a viele Hiiaka occur the following verses : 



203 

' E kipa maloko e hanai ai, 

A hezva ae ka waha. 
A eia ka uku, ka leo. 

*>♦ 

Come in and have food, 
And loosen the tongue. 
And the pay, — your voice. 

(15) Sect. 43. Kaioloa, said to be a choice kind of malo made from 
wauke. 

(16) Sect. 47. The epithets which the champions and their partisans 
hurl at each other. I venture to give, as a sample of heathen billingsgate, 
in spite of their coarseness. E mai nui, moe wale i ka zua ka Makalii! 
Moe ae oe ia ka ai kauai, huki'a ka pauaka ko meaniea, e he mai nui e! 

(17) Sect. 47. Per lapides: This was a favorite hold with the con- 
testants in the savage game of lua, one by means of which they sought 
to take the life out of a man and make him cry "mercy." The Hawaiians 
as a rule had no sense of fairness. No blow was foul, no advantage unfair 
in their eyes. 

(18) Sect. 50. This is but an imperfect" list of the games played. 
Pahc'e was played with short, blunt darts of wood, or even with sugar- 
cane tops, which were darted along the ground. 

Noa was the name given the pebble with which the celebrated game of 
puhenehene was played. It was held in the hand of the player who in the 
view of the other side and of the spectators that were assembled passed 
his hand successively under the different bundles of tapa, five in number, 
that were ranged in front of him, hiding it under one of them. It was for 
the other side t'o guess correctly the bundle under which the noa was 
hidden, failing to do which, they must pay the forfeit. It was of course a 
betting game, like all Hawaiian sports. The forfeits of puhenehene were 
often of an immoral nature. (For further account of fhe games see Chap. 
XLI, p. 220-240.) 

(19) Sect. 52. Akua poko. Among the unnamed idols I have met 
with is one which I believe to be the-a/ewa poko. This is a staff of kauila, 
having a small figure in the form of a man arrayed with the mahi-ole, 
feather helmet. The lower end of t'he staff is sharpened, as if for thrusting 
into the ground. About midway of the staff is an opening with a head in 
relief adorning each aspect of the fenestra. The length of the staff is about 
three feet four inches. 

(20) Sect. 55. Puea. These bonfires of Puea were lighted on an 
eminence, so as to be visible to all the fishermen far and near along the 
coast. They were beacons, and guided their actions. If the night was 
rainy, it was accepted as an inauspicious omen, and the fires were alllowed 
to go out as a signal that no fishing canoe was to put to sea; but if the 
weather was fair, the fires were kept burning brightly, and at day-break 
the canoes were to be seen at their fishing grounds. 



204 

(21 ) Sect. 57. Kala-hua, the removal of tabu from the fruits — of the 
sea apparently, as well as of the land. 

(22) Sect. 59. Lua-kini — A heiau of the highest class, a war-temple, 
in which human sacrifices were offered ; named from a pit, lua, and kini, 
many ; into which the mouldering remains were finally cast. 

{22,) Sect. 60. Ka-lii. — This might be interpreted, doing the king-act, 
or acting the king. It' is said that Kamehameha I, disdaining the assistance 
of another, as he jumped ashore caught the first spear in his hands, and 
with it warded off the others tliat w€re hurled at him in quick succession. 

(24) Sect. 64. The luakini of Waiea was unique. It was, I am in- 
formed, the abode of the akua Makahiki, Lono-makua, the akua poko, the 
akiia paani, and of no other gods. On Hawaii this temple was located in 
Puna, on Maui at Kipahulu, on Molokai at Kaunakakai, on Kauai at' Maka- 
weli. 

(25) Sect. 65. Kahoalii was a mythical hero who, according to one 
tradition, occupied the subterranean regions through which the sun 
travelled at night during its passage from West to East. (See the story 
of Maui). He is represented as having a very dark complexion, and 
stripes or patches of whit'e skin, perhaps painted, on the inside of his 
thighs. He was personated by a man entirely naked. "Nudity is the 
sacred garb of deity." (Lady Beaulieu.) 

(26) Sect. 69. Koko a Maoloha, the net of Maoloha. The expression 
is used Ke koko a Maoloha i ka lani. Tradition says that the first appear- 
ance of tlie koko of Maoloha was in a time of famine, when Waia was 
king on Hawaii. In view of the famine that distressed the land, Waia, 
who was a kupua, possessed of superhuman powers, let down from heaven 
a net whose four corners pointed to the North, South, East and West, and 
which was filled with all sorts of food, animal and vegetable. This done 
he shook the net and the food was scattered over the land for the benefit 
of the starving people. 

(27) Sect. 70. Waa auhau. This was a wicker-work crate, or basket, 
made out of peeled wauke sticks, which having been filled with all kinds 
of food, was lashed between the two iakos, or cross-beams that belong to 
the out-rigger of a canoe, and being taken out to sea, was cast off and 
allowed to drift away. It was also called ka waa Lono, Lono's canoe. 

Waa' Auhau, or Waa Lono. 




Apropos of the net of Maoloha (Sect. 69) at the time the net filled with 
food was lifted and shaken, the following responsive service, called ka 
Pule koko, the prayer of the net, was celebrated. 



205 

The net is lifted and the kahuna opens the service saying — 

1. E uliuli kaij e Uli ke akua e! 

2. E uli kai hakoko! 

3. Koko lani e Uli! 

4. Uli lau ka ai a ke akua. 

5. Pi ha lani koko; e lu — / 

Then the people respond — 

6. E lu ka ai a ke akua! 

7. E lu ka lani! 

8. He kau ai keia. 

9. E lu ka honua! 

10. He kau ai keia. 

11. Ola ka aina! 

12. Ola ia Kane, 

13. Kane ke akua ola. 

14. Ola ia Kanaloa! 

15. Ke akua kupueu. 

16. Ola na kanaka! 

17. Kane i ka wai ola, e ola! 

18. Ola ke alii Makahiki! 

19. Amama, ua noa. 
Kahuna — A^oa ia zvai? 

People — Noa ia Kane. 

1. Oh deep-blue sea, Oh god Uli ! 

2. Oh blue of the wild, tossing sea! 

3. Net' of heaven, oh Uli. 

4. Green are the leaves of God's harvest fields. 

5. The net fills the heavens — Shake it ! 

Then the people respond — 

6. Shake down the god's food ! 

7. Scatter it oh heaven ! 

8. A season of plenty this. 

9. Earth yield thy plenty! 

10. This is a season of food. 

11. Life to t'he land ! 

12. Life from Kane, 

13. Kane the god of life. 

14. Life from Kanaloa ! 

15. The wonder-working god. 
16. Life to the people ! 

17. Hail Kane of the water of life ! Hail ! 

18. Life to the king of the Makahiki ! 

19. Amama. It is free. ' ' 
Kahuna — Free through whom? 

People — Free through Kane. 



2o6 

Then the kahunas stand up holding t'heir hands aloft, and the people ex- 
claim : "Ua noa. Ua noa. Ua noa/' At the same time holding up the 
left hand, and at the utterance of each sent'ence, striking with the right 
hand under the left arm-pit. 

When the kahuna utters the words "E lu"—\n the 5th line— those who 
are lifting the net shake it and make its contents fall to the ground. 

{2d>) Sect'. 71. The Ku-kca'e was a temple for purification. The mean- 
ing of the word seems to have reference to a standing apart, by itself. 
For an anahulu, ten days, the king must not enter into any other heiau. 

(29) Sect. 72. The hale puu-puu-ove was a round thatched hut of 
such a shape as a pile of sand would naturally assume when heaped up 
into a mound. Hence its name. It was for the use of the kahuna only. 
No one might partake of food, or allow himself to sleep while in the 
place. The entrance of a woman would have been an unspeakable defile- 
ment, punishable with death. One of the ceremonies performed in this 
sort of a heiau was the purification of the king or a chief, in case he had 
perhaps been defiled by the touch of a corpse, or other impurity. 

{:^2>) Sect. 75. Ka-hoa-lii — literally the peer of the king; personated, 
before stated, by a man entirely naked. This man was for the time a 
god in the eyes of the people and therefore of course peer of the king. 

(34) Sect. 75. The aku and the opelu are said to have come with Paao 
from Samoa centuries before the white man came, and from that time to 
have been regarded with superstitious favor. 

(35) Sect. y6. Ka makahiki hou. I believe the meaning of this state- 
ment to be that tbe Hawaiian new year began with the month Ka-uhia, 
pretty nearly corresponding with our February, and not with MakaliL 

(35H) Sect. yj. Kamakau of Kaawaloa makes the following state- 
ment : "These are the names of the five war months, viz : Kaelo, Kaulua, 
Nana, Welo and Ikiiki," i. e., approximately from the first of January to 
the end of May. 

Again he says : "These are the names of the months in which there 
could be no war, seven in number viz : Kaaona, Hinaiaeleele, Hilinaehu, 
Hilinama, Ikuwa, Welehu and Makalii, filling out the remainder of the 
year. W. D. A. 

i^C) Sect. yy. Hai-pule. The repeating of prayers. The same word 
continues to be in use today to mean religious devotion, prayer, and the 
external rites of religion, even the thing itself, 

(.d?) Sect. y%. This was the beginning of the year, the time also when 
men went to war, if so disposed. The complexion of the king's purpose 
and plan for the year on which he had entered, was to be seen in the 
manner of heiau he ordered built; whether a war-temple, whose reeking 
sacrifices were as significant as the open gates of the Roman Janus, or one 
of the peaceful sort, of which several are m.entioned. 

The heiau loulu was a temporary structure like a lanai thafched with 
leaves of the loulu palm. It was mostly open at the sides, but a part 
of the space, that at the top and bottom of the sides, was filled in with the 



207 

same material, the broad leaves of the loulu. The roof was flat and was 
intended only to shelter from tlie rays of the sun. It could not shed the 
rain. The object of this sort of heiau was to propitiate the god or gods 
who presided over fishing that the people might have plenty of food. 
There was of course great need of fhis when for four months the pro- 
ductive industries of the land had been dried up, or diverted from useful 
channels, and the accumulated bounty of field and ocean had been lavished 
in religious offerings and feasting. The following prayer is one that was 
used at such times. 

1. E Kane i ke au hulihia, 

2. Hulihia i ke ale ula. 

3. / ke ale lani, 

4. / ke pu-ko'a, 

5. / ka a'aka, 

6. / ke ahua Lonomuku. 

7. Moku ka pazva ka po e Kane. 

8. Eia ka alana la, e Kane, 

9. He puaa, he moa uakea. 

10. E ku ka i'a mai Ka-hiki mai, 

11. He opelii, ka i'a hele pu me ka la, 

12. He aku koko ia, 

13. He uwiuwi, he i'a lana kai, 

14. He aweoweo ku i ke kaheka. 

15. E Kane, e ku ka i'a, 
16. E ai ka maka-pehu. 

17. E ola ka aina. 

Amama. Ua no a. 

1. O Kane of the time of overturning, 

2. Overturn the bright sea-waves. 

3. The high-arching sea-waves, 

4. The coral reefs, 

5. The bare reefs, 

6. The cave-floors of Lono-muku, 

7. Severed is the milky way of the night, Oh Kane! 

8. Here is an ofi^ering, Oh Kane, 

9. A pig, a white fowl. 

10. Drive hither the fish from Tahiti, 

11. The opelu, fish that travels with the sun, 

12. The aku pulled in by the line, 

13. The uwiuwi tTiat swims near the surface, 

14. The aweoweo that haunts the pools; 

15. On Kane send us fish, 

16. That the swollen-eyed may eat it. 

17. Life to the land. 
Amen. It is free. 



208 

It was a kahuna houluulu i'a who performed this service, the prayer 
would not be known to an ordinary kahuna. The feast" was then par- 
taken of. "Let us eat this feast," said the priest, "and the bones and 
remnants we will bury in the ground." If any one, man, woman, or child, 
came ne^r and looked in upon the scene of the feasting he must come in 
and part'ake with them of the feast. It would be an ill omen to allow 
liim to turn away empty. A dog, however, was driven away ; but it was 
a good omen to have the domestic animals frisking about and uttering 
their cries within hearing. If rain fell at the time of tlie feast, it was a 
good omen. When all were seated and ready to eat, the kahuna prayed 
as follows : 

1. E Kane i ka wai ola, 

2. E ola ia makou kau mau pulapula. 

3. Eia ka mohai, he puaa, 

4. He moa uakea, he niu, 

5. He uala, he kalo mana. 

6. E mana ia oe Kane, 

7. E houlu i ka i'a, 

8. / ola ka maka-pehu ka aina. 

9. E komo, e ai, 

JO. Eia ka ihn ka puaa, 

11. Ka huelo ka puaa, 

12. Ke ake niau ka puaa, 

13. Ka puu o ka moa, 

14. Ka wai ka niu, 

15. Ka limu koko, 

16. Ke kalo mana uakea. 

17. Amama. Ua noa. 

1. Oh Kane of the water of life! 

2. Preserve us, thy offspring. 

3. Here is an offering, a hog, 

4. A white fowl, cocoanuts. 

5. Potatoes, a mana faro, 

6. The power is thine, Oh Kane! 

7. To collect for us the fiish, 

8. And relieve the gauntness of the land. 

9. Come in and eat of the feast. 

10. Here is the snout of the pig; 

11. The tail of the pig, 

12. The spleen of t'he pig, 

13. The neck of the fowl, 

14. The juice of the cocoanut. 

15. The red sea-moss, 

16. The white-leafed mana tare, 
T7. Amen. It is free. 



209 

The articles composing this alana, or offering, were done up into five 
parcels and distributed about the posts that sl'ood at the four corners and 
in the centre of the heiau. If in the next anahulu, ten days, an abundant 
haul of fish was not taken, th^ere was something wrong with the service 
and it must be repeated. 

Heiau ma'o. This sort of heiou was a temporary structure of small size 
for the use of the aliis only, any when its purpose was over, it was taken 
down. It was a slight structure covered with tapa cloth stained with 
tna'o, of a reddish color. 

The heiau niao might also be used to perform the ho-uluulu-ai 
service, in which prayer to propitiate the gods of heaven and induce them 
to send abundant harvests of food. The following prayer is one that was 
used on such occasions : 



1. E Kane auloli ka honua! 

2. Honu ne'e pu ka aina. 

3. Ulu nakaka, kawahawaha ka honua, 

4. Ulu ka ai hapu'u, e Lono, 

5. OIri maloo, kupukupu, 

6. Ohi aa na uala na pali, 

7. Pali-ku kawahazvaha ka ua, 

8. Ka ua haule lani, 

9. He haule lani ka uala. 

0. He aweu kc kalo, 

1. He lauloa pili kanawao. 

2. O wao-akua ka ai, e Kane! 

3. E Kane! e Lono! na akua mahiai, 

4. Hoola i ka aina! 

5. A poho ka ai, 

6. A ulu kupukupu, 

7. A ulu lau poo-ole ; 

8. A ka nui ia ka ai 

g. Au, e Kane a me Lono. 

20. Amama. Ua noa. 



O Kane, transform t'he earth, 

Let the earth move as one piece. 

The land is cracked and fissured. 

The edible fern yet grows, oh Lono, 

Let kupukupu cover the dry land, 

Gather potatoes as stones on the side-hills 

The rain comes like the side of a pali, 

8. The rain falling from heaven. 

9. The potato also falls from heaven. 
10. The wild taro is the only taro now, 



I. 
2. 

3. 
4- 
5. 
6. 

7. 



210 

II. The taro of the mountain patches. 

The only food is that of the wilds, oh Kane ! 

Oh, Kane and Lono ! Gods of the husbandmen, 

Give hfe tb the land ! 
15 Until the food goes to waste. 

Until it sprouts in the ground; 

Until the leaves cover the land; 

And such be the plenty 

Of you, O Kane and Lono. 
20. The burden is lifted. We are free. 

This service was performed in the open air; it was for the public weal. 
(Communicated by Polikapa of Auwai-o-limu, Honolulu, who obtained it 
from Rev. Kapohaku of Kula, Maui, who was a missionary to Nuuhiwa.) 



CHAPTER XXXVTi. 



CONCERNING THE LUAKINI. 



1. It was a great undertaking for a king to build a heiau 
of the sort called a hiakwi, to be accomplished only with fatigue 
and redness of the eyes from long and wearisome prayers and 
cerem4)nies on his part. 

2. There were two rituals which the king in his eminent 
station used in the worship of the gods; one was the ritual of 
Ku, the other that of Lono. The Ku-ritual was very strict 
(oolea), the service most arduous (ikaika). The priests of this 
rite were distinct from others and outranked them. They were 
called priests of the order of Ku, because Ku was the highest 
god whom the king worshipped in following their ritual. They 
were also called priests of the order of Kanalu, because that 
was the name of their first priestly ancestor. These two names 
were their titles of highest distinction. 

3. The Lono-ritual was milder, the service more comfortable. 
Its priests were, however, of a separate order and of an inferior 
grade. They were said to be of the order of Lono (moo-Lono), 
because Lono was the chief object of the king's worship when 
he followed the ritual. The priests of this ritual were also said 
to be of the order of Paliku. 

4. If the king was minded to worship after the rite of Ku, 



211 

the heiati he would build would be a luakini. The timbers of 
the house would be of ohia, the thatch of loiilu-p3\m or of uki 
grass. The fence about the place would be of ohia with the 
bark peeled off. 

The lananu'ii-mamao^ had to be made of ohia timber so heavy 
that it must be hauled down from the mountains. The same 
heavy ohia timber was used in the making of the idols for the 
heiau. 

5. The tabu of the place continued for ten days and then 
was noa ; but it might be prolonged to such an extent as ta 
require a resting spell, hoomahanahana ;^ and it might be four- 
teen days before it came to an end. It all depended on whether 
the aha^ was obtained. If the aha was not found the heiatt 
would not soon be declared noa. In case the men took a resting 
spell, a dispensation was granted and a service of prayer was 
offered to relax the tabu, after which the heiau stood open. 

6. The body of priests engaged in the work stripped down 
the leaves from a banana-stalk — as a sign that the tabu was 
relaxed : — and when the Ku-tabu of the next month came round, 
the tabu of the heiau was again imposed. Thus it was then that 
if the aha was procured the services of prayer came to an end ; 
otherwise people and chiefs continued indefinitely under tabu^ 
and were not allowed to come to their women-folk. 

7. The tabu might thus continue in force many months, pos- 
sibly for years, if the aha were not found. It is said that Umi 
was at work ten years on his heiau before the aha was found,, 
and only then did they again embrace their wives. This was 
the manner of building a hciau-luakini from the very earliest 
times ; it was noa only when the aha had been found. 

It was indeed an arduous task to make a Inakini; a human 
sacrifice was necessary, and it must be an adult, a law-breaker 
(lawe-hala). 

8. If the king worshipped after the rite of Lono the heiau 
erected would be a nmpele ; or another kind was the unrt Lono 
The timber, in this case, used in the construction of the house, 
the fence about the grounds, and that used in constructing the 
lananiiu-mamao was lama, and it was thatched with the leaves 
of the // plant. (Cordyline terminalis) . There were also idols.. 



212 

The tabu lasted for three days, after which the place would be 
moa, provided, however, that the aha was found. If the aha 
were not found the same course was taken as in the case of 
the hiahini. 

9. The viapele was a thatched heiau in which to ask the 
■god's blessing on the crops.* Human sacrifices were not made 
at this heiau ; pigs only were used as offerings. Any chief in 
rank below the king was at liberty to construct a niapele heiau, 
an unu Lono, a kiikoae, or an aka, but not a luakini. The 
right to build a hiakini belonged to the king alone. The mapele, 
however, was the kind of heiau in which the chiefs and the 
king himself prayed most frequently. 

10. The luakini was a war temple, heiau-wai-kaua, which the 
king, in his capacity as ruler over all, built when he was about 
to make war upon another independent monarch, or when he 
heard that some other king was about to make war against him ; 
also when he wished to make the crops flourish he might build 
a luakini. 

11. It was the special temple in which the king prayed to 
his gods to look with favor upon him, and in the services of 
that heiau he obtained assurances of victory over his enemies, 
or received warnings of defeat at their hands. 

12. If all the ahas of his luakini were obtained, then the king 
felt assured that he would have victory and rout his enemies, 
and he went into battle with good courage. But if the ahas 
were not found, it meant his defeat, and he would not go out 
to attack the other king. 

The building of a luakini for the king to worship in was 
•conducted in the following manner. 

13. The king in the first place inquired of his high priest 
in regard to building a luakini, whether he thought the old 
luakini would answer, provided the house and the fence were 
renewed ; whether the old stone-wall should be allowed to re- 
main, and whether the old idols should still continue to be used. 

If the king's proposition was agreed to, the first thing was to 
perform the ceremony of purification — huikala — on the heiau, 
:and make it inoa, i e., free, to enable the workmen^ to enter it 
that they might put a new fence about it, and newly thatch the 
house with loulu-palm, or with uki. 



213 

14. If the king, the priests and others agreed that it was best 
to build an entirely new luakini, the kahuna kuhi-kuhi-pttu-one^ 
was sent for. It was his function to exhibit a plan of the heiau 
to the king; because this class of persons were thoroughly edu- 
cated in what concerned a heiau. They were acquainted with 
the heiaus which had been built from the most ancient times, 
from Hawaii to Kauai; some of which had gone into ruins. 
These knhi-kuhi-pun-ones knew all about these old temples be- 
cause they had studied them on the ground, had seen their sites 
and knew the plans of them all. 

15. They knew the heiau which a certain ancient king had 
built, as a result of which he gained a victory over another king. 
That was the heiau, the plan of which the knhi-kuhi-puu-one 
explained to the king; and if the king was pleased, he first made 
a sort of plan of the heiau on the ground and exhibited it to 
the king with an explanation of all its parts, so that he could 
see where the fence was to run, where the houses were to stand, 
and where was the place for the lana-nuu-mamao with the idols. 

16. Then a levy was made of people who should build the 
heiau from among those who ate at the king's table — the aialo 
— and the chiefs ; and the work of hauling the ohia timber for the 
lana-mm-mamao, and for making the idols themselves, was begun. 

The work of carving the certain images was assigned to 
special chiefs. A stone wall was then put up which was to 
surround all the houses. 

17. The plan of the luakini was such that if its front faced 
West or East the Lana-nuu-inauiao would be located at the 
northern end. If the heiau faced North or South, the lana-iuiu- 
mamao would be located at the eastern end ; thus putting the 
audience either in the southern or western part of the luakini. 

18. Within this lana-nuu-inainao was a pit called a Ina-kini,^ 
or hia-pa'ii. In front of the lana-uim stood the idols, and in 
their front a pavement, kipapa, and the lele on which the offer- 
ings were laid. 

19. In front of the lele was a pavement of pebbles, or frame- 
work, on which the offerings were deposited until they were 
offered up {hai)y when they were laid upon the lele. In front 
of the lele was a house called hale-pahu with its door facing the 



/ 



214 

lele, in which the drum was beaten. At the back of the hale- 
pahii stood a larger and longer house called manaj its door also 
opening towards the lele. To the rear again of the hale-pahu 
was another house which stood at the entrance of the heiau. In 
the narrow passage back of the drum-house, hale pahu, and at 
the end (kala) of the house called mana was a small house 
called Waiea, where the aha-cord was stretched. 

20. At the other end (kala) oi Mana was a house called 
hale-itmii, in which the fires for the heiau were made. The 
space within the pa, or enclosure, was the court, or kahua of the 
heiau. Outside of the pa, to the Noith, was a level pavement, 
or papahola, and to the South, and outside of the pay stood the 
house of Papa.^ At the outer borders of the papahola crosses 
were set in the ground to mark the limits of the heiau. 

21. After the stone-wall of the heiau was completed they 
proceeded to build the lananuii;'^ first setting up the frame and 
then binding on the small poles, or aho ; after which they set up 
the idols of which there was a good number. Some of them 
were makaiwa,^ images of great height. In the midst of these 
images was left a vacant space, in which to set up the new 
idol that was to be made, called the Moi.'^^ 

22. After all these things were done — the erection of the 
houses being deferred until a tabu was imposed — the kahiiiias, 
aliis, and certain other religious persons made preparations to 
purify themselves, which they did in the following manner. 

23. During the days when the waning moon was late in 
rising over the island, that is during the nights of Laaiikukahi, 
etc., they* made for themselves temporary booths called hale- 
puu-one,^^ next booths covered with pohue vine, then an oe-oe 
hooth, then a palima, then a hawoi.^^ Each one of these was 
consecrated and made tabu, its ceremonies performed, and the 
place declared no a on the self -same day. After doing this the 
purification of the priests, chiefs and others was completed and 
they were fit to enter the heiau. 

24. The next thing was to purify the whole island. On the 
day Kaloa-ku-kahi the mauka road that extended round the island 
was cleared of weeds from one end to the other, each man who 
had land (abutting?) doing his share and all making a day of 



215 

it about the whole island. They set up an altar of stone at the 
boundary of every afm-puaa. 

25. Then they carved a log of kukui wood in imitation of 
a swine's head. This image, called piiaa-kiikiii, was placed on 
the altar, together with some pai-ai, i e., hard poi. 

26. This done, every man went his way home and the road 
was left vacant. Then came the priest, smeared with red clay, 
alaea, mixed with water, accompanied by a man, who per- 
sonated the deity and whose hair was done up after the 
fashion of Niheu?^ 

27. On coming to the altar on which was lying the pig's head 
carved in kukui, the priest having uttered a prayer^* and having 
bedaubed the carving with alaea, they ate the pai-ai and the 
priest then declared the land purified, the tabu removed. 

28. Then they left this land and went on to another, be- 
daubing with alaea the carved pigs' heads as they passed from 
one land to another, all that day — and the next day (Kane), and 
the next (Lono), and still another day, Mauli; — until the whole 
island was purified, and this ceremony relating to the luakini 
was performed. The ceremonies that remain were for other 
priests to perform. 

29. On the evening of the next day, Muku, all those who 
were to attend the heiau, king, chiefs and commoners, came to- 
gether in one place for purification, and when they had all 
assembled, a special priest, whose function it was to perform 
purification, came with a dish of water and a bunch of pala fern 
in his hands and conducted the following service : 

30. The priest said, 

A 

Lele Uli c! Icle wai e! 

He Uli, he Uli, he wai, he wai! 

A lele an i ke an, e Kanc-uiehane Nehe-Iani. 

Nehc ia pika'na ka lani. 

A lama J he mu oia. 



B 



The people responded. 

He inn oia. 



2l6 



The priest said, 







He inn ka ai-ku. 






He 11m ka aia. 






He mu ka a.h'ula. 




ID 


He inn ka paani. 

He mil koko lana. 

I koko puaa, 

I koko ilio, 

I koko kanaka make. 




15 


He mil oia. . 


People — 




He mu! 

C 


Kahuna — 




Elieli! 


People — 




Kapu! 


Kahuna — 




Elieli! 


People — 


20 


Noa ! 


Kahuna — 




Ja e! 


People — 




Noa honiia! 



30. The priest said : 

Fly, O Uli ! fly, o water ! 

Here is Uli, Uh ! here is Avater ! water ! 

I fly to the realm of Kane, the benevolent, noiseless in 

the heavens. 
Heaven is appeased by the sprinkling. 
5 Light comes, he is gracious. 
People respond : 

He is gracious. 
Priest : Awed into silence are the unceremonious ones, 
Awed into silence are the atheists, 
Awed into silence are they who gather at the hula, 
10 Awed into silence are those who sport, 
Awed into silence are the hot-blooded ones. 
Give the blood of swine ! 
Give the blood of dogs ! 
Give the blood of a human sacrifice ! 
15 These are of godlike power. 



217 

People: Of godlike power. 

Priest : F'inished — 

People: The tabu. 

Priest : Finished — 

People: 20 It is free. 

Priest: O (god) la! 

People: Freedom complete and instant! 

The priest then sprinkled the water upon all the people, and 
the ceremony of purification was accomplished ; after which every 
man went to his own house. 

31. On the evening of the next day, Hilo, the first of the 
month — possibly on Welo — a tabu was laid on the luakini, and 
the king, chiefs, and all the people entered into the temple and 
were ordered to sit down by ranks and to make no noise. 

32. Tiien another priest came forward to preside at the 
service, holding in hisi hand a branch of ieie; and standing in the 
midst of the people he offered a prayer called Liipa-lnpa. When 
the priest uttered the words, E ku kaikai na hikia Stand up 
and hold aloft the spears, all the people responded, Hail ! Then 
the priest said la! and the people responded, Hail, Hail, o Ku f 
{Ola! ola, Ku). When this service was over all the people 
slept that night in the heiau under the restrictions of 
tabu. Not one, not even an alii, was allowed to go out secretly to 
sleep with his wife. If any one were detected in such conduct, 
he would be put to death. 

33. On the morrow, which was Hoaka, the people were again 
seated in rows, as in the service led by the kahuna on the pre- 
vious evening, and now another Kahuna stood forth to conduct 
the service. He repeated a pule called Kan-ila Huluhuht 
(rough kauila stick.) 

34. That night, Hoaka, still another kahuna conducted the 
service which was called Maht-koi, in which they consecrated 
the axes tliat were to be used in hewing the timber for the new ^ 
idols, and laid them over night (in the little house Maim). A 
fowl was baked for the use of the kahuna, another for the king, 
and a third for the deity ; and then they slept for the night. 

35. The next morning, Ku-kahi, the king, chiefs, peo- 
ple and the priests, including that priest who conducted 



2l8 

the service of Malu-koi, started to go up into the 
mountains. The priest who performed the Malu-koi service 
with the ax was called kahuna haku ohia, because Hakii ohia 
was a name applied to the idol which they were about to carve. 
Another name for the idol was Mo-i. That day the kahuna 
haku ohia began a fast which was to continue for six days. 

36. In going up they took with them pigs, bananas, cocoa- 
nuts, a red fish — the kmnu — and a man who was a criminal, as 
offerings to the deity. 

37. A suitable ohia tree had previously been selected, one 
that had no decay about it, because a perfect tree was required 
for the making of the haku-ohia idol ; and when they had reached 
the woods, before they felled the tree, the kahuna haku-ohia 
approached the tree by one route, and the man who was to cut 
the tree by another; and thus they stood on opposite sides of 
the tree. 

38. The kahtma having the axe, and the king the pi^ — -the 
people remained at a respectful distance, Tiaving been com- 
manded to preserve strict silence. The kahuna now stood forth 
and offered the aha^^ prayer called Mau haalelea?-^ 

39. On the completion of the prayer the king uttered the 
word aniana, (equivalent to amen), and then killed the pig by 
dashing it against the ground ; after which he offered the pig 
as a sacrifice. This done, the kahuna inquired of the king, 
"How was this aha of ours?" If no noise or voice, no dis- 
turbance made by the people had been heard, the king answered, 
"The aha is good." Then the kahuna declared : "To-morrow your 
adversary will die. The incantation — aha — we have just per- 
formed for your god was a success. On the death of your 
adversary, you will possess his lands, provided this business 
is carried through." 

40. The kahuna, having first cut a chip out of the tree, the 
criminal was led forth, and the priest, having taken his life by 
beheading, offered his body as a sacrifice. The tree was then 
felled; the pig put into the oven, and the work of carving the 
idol was taken up and carried to a finish by the image-carver. 
The pig when cooked was eaten by the king and people; and 
what remained, after they had satisfied their hunger, was buried, 
together \\'ith the body of the man, at the root of the tree from 



219 

which the image had been made. The man used as a sacri- 
fice was called a man from mau-Haalelm. Thus ended this 
•ceremony. 

41. The people then went for pala-iern, making back-loads 
of it, and they gathered the fruit and flowers of the mountain- 
apple, the oliia, until the hands of every one were filled with 
th« bouquets. Then, some of them bearing the idol, they started 
on their way down to the ocean with tumultuous noise and 
shouting. 

42. Calling out as they went, ''Oh Kuamu.20 Oh Kuamu- 
mu. Oh Kuawa. Oh Kuawa-wa. I go on to victory, u-o/' 
Thus they went on their wild rout, shouting as they went ; — 
and if any one met them on their way, it was death to him — 
they took his life. On arriving at the heiau they put the image 
on the level pavement of the temple-court, and, having covered 
it with iVzV-leaves, left it. 

43. That evening they measured off the foundation of the 
house, mana, and determined where it should stand, where should 
be its rear, its front, and its gables. A post was then planted 
at the back of mana, directly opposite its door of entrance. This 
upright was termed a Nanahua post, and it marked the place 
where the image of Luamu was to be set. A post was also 
planted between the Makaiwa — images of Lono — at the spot 
where the image called Moi was to be set up. This post was 
called the pillar of Manu — ka pou Manu. 

44. The ensuing night stakes were driven to mark the four 
corner posts of Mana, after which the king and priest went to 
carry the measuring line, {e kai i ka aha helehonua) . The priest 
stood at the corner post of Mana while he repeated the prayer, 
and by him stood the king holding the sacrificial pig. When the 
prayer was over the kahuna stooped down and took the end of 
the line in his hands 

45. Then he ran from that stake to the next, gave the line 
a turn about the stake, then to the next and did the same thing 
there, thence he returned and rejoined the king at the spot where 
the prayer had been made. Then, having said Amana, the king 
despatched the pig by beating him against the ground. 

46. This done, the priest inquires of the king, "how is our 
incantation — our ahaf and if no voice, no noise had been heard. 



220 

the king answered, "the ceremony — the aha — was good." There- 
upon the kahuna assured the king that his government v/as 
firmly established, "because," said he, "the land-grabbing cere- 
mony (aha hele honua) has just been successfully performed."" 
It was a special priest who officiated at this ceremony. 

47. On the next day, Kulu, the people came in multitudes, 
iSringing timber, cord, leaves of the /c/w/w-palm. and ?/^/-grass, 
with which to build and thatch the different houses, the drum- 
house, the zi'oiea, the mana, and the oven-house. When the 
frames of the houses had been set up, the thatching vras left 
to be done after the kauila ceremony had been performed. 

48. On the day Kulua, the Kauila niii celebration took place. 
It was conducted in this manner: The king and a compan}- of 
men were stationed a short distance away at a place called 
Kalezi'a, the kahuna and the bulk of the people being by them- 
selves and not far awa}'. 

49. This was on the level ground — papahola — outside of the 
hciau, the whole multitude of people being seated on the ground 
in rows. 

50 Then the keepers of the kaai-gods came, each one bearing 
the kaai-god'cji his chief — ^the ^aa/-god of the king also was 
there. The number of these idols was ver\' great. The god 
Ka-hoa-Ui also was personated by a man in a state of nudity. 

51. At this juncture, the ^aai-gods being held aloft, each on 
his spear decorated with a banner, the kahu of each sat in front 
of the god of his charge, waiting for the signal to run in a 
circle about all the kaai-gods. If any kahu, however, made a 
mistake in this circuit-running he was put to death, and the 
duty of the running then devolved upon the alii to whom be- 
longed the idol. 

52. AA'hen all the people were ready, the high priest of the 
temple came forward, arrayed in a large, white malo and carry- 
ing in his hand a bunch of pala-iem. He w^as accompanied by 
a man carrying a human skull containing sea-water (ka:). Kai- 
a-po-kea also v.as the name applied to the prayer which the 
kahuna now repeated — a very long prayer it was. 

"^2. Silence was ordered and the high priest stood forth to 
conduct the service; and when he uttered the words, "a hopu! 
a hopu I'' aU the kahus of the idols stood up and taking hold of 



221 

their idols, held them to their front, standing the while in a 
well dressed line. 

54. At the same time Kahoalii, the man-god, stood forth in 
front of the kaai-gods, his nakedness visible to the whole multi- 
tude, and the moment the priest uttered the following words of 
invocation : 

55* I Mail hoe e, ihe a Luakapu! 

2' E Lukaliika e^ he man hoe e! 

3 Ihe a Luakapu, e Lukaluka, e Liika! 

4 O hookama ko haalauele, e Liika! 

1 Strange paddles, spear of Luakapu ! 

2 Robed one, curious are your paddles! 

3 Spear of Luakapu, oh Lukaluka, 

4 Adoption will be to you a house, O Luka ! 

. 56 Kahoalii then started on the run in all his naked- 
ness, and all the kaai-gods followed after in regular order. They 
took a circular course, all the time paying close attention to the 
prayer of the kahuna; and when he came to the words, A mio i ka 
lani omarnalu/^'^ 

57, Kahoalii turned to the left, and all the ^aai-gods follow- 
ing turned also and came back. On their return they came to 
where was standing a man with a staff in his hand, who joined 
their company, and they all came back together. 

58, When the priest in his prayer uttered the words of in- 
vocation : 

Kuku'i Kahiko i ka lani, 

A uwa i ka make Manalu. 

Kahiko assails heaven with petitions, 
An uproar at the death of Manalu, 

all the kaai-gods with their kahus halted and stood in well 
dressed ranks facing the kahuna in profound silence, and the 
kahuna and all the assembly stood facing them. 

59. The man whom they had met then took his station in 
the space between the people and the kaai-gods, still holding his 
staff in hand. 

60. Then the high priest asked him in the words of the 



222 



prayer, "To whom belongs the earth? To whom belongs the 
earth? {Nozvai honuaf Nowai honna?) 

6i. "The earth belongs to Ku," answered the priest; "a priest 
has ratified the transaction." (Hana mai a mana ke kalmna). 
Then the kahuna again asked the question of this man, Avho was 
himself a kahuna, and he answered, "To Ku belong the small 
pieces of land." {No Ku ka ha'i makaokao.) 

62. The kahuna then went through with a long service of the 
Pule kai, the full name of which was Kai-o-po-kea; but on ac- 
count of its wearisome length it was nicknamed Unuhi kai po- 
kca; and when their prayer was completed they sat down. 

63. After that a priest of the order of Lono stood forth ; he 
was called a kahuna kuhi-alaea — the kahuna bedaubed with clay. . 
He held in his hand a staff bound with a white cloth called 
olo-a, and recited a service of prayer. 

64. This was also a tediously long service, and was called 
Kai Kauakahi, salt water of Kaua-kahl, Toward the close of 
this prayer the kahuna uttered the words. Oh Ku! remove our 
perplexities ! — E Ku ka'ika'i nu hihia! 

65. At this the whole assembly exclaimed. Hail ! The priest 
then said, la. Thereupon the people responded, Hail, hail, Ku! 
(Ola! ola! Ku!) With these words came to an end the part 
taken by this priest, also that portion of the service denom- 
inated kauila (kauila ana). 

66. After this all the chiefs and the people returned to their 
own houses to refresh themselves with food. The material was 
now made ready for thatching the houses in the luakini, and 
when the arrangements were all completed, certain men climbed 
upon the houses, taking with them thatch-poles (aho), of a 
special kind called auau. 

6y While this was going on the priest stood and recited a 
service for these aho, in which he used the expression, kau na 
anau/^'^ — put the thatch-poles in place. When all these thatch- 
sticks were lashed on, the priest concluded his service. 

68. The houses were then thatched, the drum-house, the 
oven house, zvaiea, and mana, after which the people brought 
presents of pigs, cocoanuts, bananas, red fish, also oloa to serve 
as malos for the idols, braided sugar-cane for the thatch of the 
amCu-maniao (same as the lana-nuu-niamao) as well as for the 



222, 

mana. This accomplished, all the people returned to their 
houses. 

69. That same evening, Kuhia, the haku-ohia idol, was 
brought in from the paved terrace, papahola, — (See sect. 42) — 
and set in the place which had been specially reserved for it, 
that being the spot where the pillar of Manu had been planted. 
(See sect. 43.) 

70. The posL-hcle in which this idol (Haku-ohia) was «et 
was situated between the Makahva^^ images, directly in front 
of the lana-nun-mamao , and close to the lele, on which the 
offerings were laid. There it stood with no malo upon it. 

71. At this time none of the idols had malos girded upon 
them ; not until the evening, when this image, the Haku-ohia 
idol, had been arrayed in a malo, would the rest of them, be so 
covered. While in this unclothed state, the expression used 
of them was, the wood stands with its nakedness pendent — 
Ma ku lezvalewa ka laau. 

72. Then a priest stood forth and conducted a service for 
the setting in its place of this idol, which service was styled 
ka Poupouana. A man who was a criminal^^ was first killed, 
and his body thrust into the hole where the idol was to stand. 
The man was sacrificed in order to propitiate the deity; and 
when the service was done the chiefs and the priests returned 
to their houses, keeping in mind the work to be done that night. 

73. That evening all the people, commoners and chiefs, made 
themselves ready to pray to their own special gods for the 
success of the service, the aha, which was to be solemnized that 
night, being continued until morning. 

74. The special burden of their prayers was that it might 
not rain that night, that there might be no wind, or thunder, 
or lightning, that there might be no heavy surf, that no fire 
should burn, that there should be no sound or outcry from 
voice of man or beast, that whole night until day; for thus 
would the conduct of the service be perfect. This was the 
character of the luakini-service from ancient tim.es down, 

75. That night some of the people left their houses and lay 
in the open air, for the purpose of observing the heavens; 
and if a cloud appeared in the sky they prayed that everything 
that could mar the ceremony of the night might be averted. 



224 

y6. When the milky-way was visible and the sky became 
clear overhead, if it had perhaps been overcast, and all sounds 
were hushed, 

'jy. Then the king and the high priest went into the house, 
Waiea, and were there together by themselves to conduct the 
service — the aha. The multitude of the people remained at a 
distance in front of Mana, listening, lest any noise should be 
heard to make the ceremony nugatory, (o lilo ke kai aha ana). 

78. The king stood and held the pig and the priest stood and 
recited the service, which was called hulahnla.^'^ Until the close 
of the service, the king hearkened if every noise was quiet, and 
then he perceived that the aha was perfect. 

79. The king then dashed the pig against the ground until 
it was dead and offered it to the gods, saying, ''Oh Ku ! Oh 
Kane ! and Kanaloa ! here is a pig. Keep and preserve me and 
safeguard the government. Amen. It is free. The tabu flies 
away." 

80. Then the kahuna asked the king, ''How is the aha you 
and I have performed?" He repeated the question, "How is 
the aha you and I have performed?" Then the king answered, 
"The aha is perfect." 

81. The king and priest then went out to the people waiting 
outside, and the king put the question to them, "How is our 
ahar 

82. Thereupon they answered, "The aha is perfect; we have 
not heard the smallest sound (kini)." Then the whole assem- 
bly broke out into a loud shout, "Lele zmle ka aha e! Lele 
wale ka aha eT with frequent reiteration. "The aha is com- 
pletely successful." ( Literally — the aha flies away.) 

83. Then the news was carried to the people outside of the 
temple, and every body rejoiced that the king had obtained his 
aha, and all believed that the government would enjoy great 
peace and prosperity during the coming years. 

84. The next morning, Kukolu, the high priest who had 
conducted the ceremony of hulahula, and who was the head- 
priest of the luakini, took it upon himself to join the priest of 
the haku-ohia^idol in a fast — that priest was already doing a 

fast in honor of the god. So they fasted together during those 
days. 



225 

85. During the days of fasting they sustained themselves on the 
honey of banana-flowers. The high priest was fasting in pre- 
paration for the ceremonies still remaining, the haku-ohia^priest 
in order to make the idol into a real god {akua maoli) .^^ 

86. On that same day — Kukolu — {hai ka hainaY^ — the people 
were called together and a feast declared. (This reading is 
somewhat conjectural). Four pigs were baked. One pig was. 
laid upon the lele as a sacrifice, one was devoted' to the use of 
the kaliuna. one for the use of the kahu-akua^ and one for the- 
king and his men. The one for the king was said to be the pig 
for the iliilij i. e., for the pavement of pebbles. 

87. On that day also a few men climbed up on the roof o£ 
the house, Mana, taking with them bundles, makiiu, of white 
tapa, four in number perhaps, which they fastened to the ridge- 
pole, while all the priests, gathered beneath them, were reciting 
prayers. These two men were at the same time gesturing in 
pantomime as if performing a hula-dance. This ceremony was 
termed Hoopii na aha limalima.^^ 

88. Then came the kahuna who was to trim the thatch over 
the door of Mana. The name of the service which he recited 
was Kuwa. After that an idol, named Kahnanu'u-noho-nHo-n'io- 
i- ka poii-kua, was set up in the back part of the house, just 
opposite the door, at the spot where the post called Nanahiia had 
been planted, and thus ended this ceremony. 

89. That night all the priests assembled at this place to- 
perform a service of prayer, in which they were to continue 
until morning. This service was of a uniform character through- 
out. It had been committed to memory, so that, like a mele,. 
the prayers and responses were all recited in unison. It was 
called Kuili.^^ 

90. That night a large number of hogs, as many as eight 
hundred — elua lau — were baked; and — the priests being separ- 
ated into two divisions, one on this side and one on that side 
of Mana— each division took part in the service alternately. 

91. The pork also was divided into two portions, four hun- 
dred of the hogs being assigned to the priests seated at one end 
of the building and four hundred for the priests seated at the 
other er^l (kala). The priests and their men ate the flesh of the 
swine and continued their prayers without sleep until morning. 



226 

92. The next morning which was Kupau, the Kuili service 
was kept up and continued without intermission all day. That 
day four hundred pigs were served out to the worshippers, two 
hundred (elima kanaka) to those at one end of the temple and 
two hundred to those at the other end. 

93. The service was still kept up during the ensuing night, 
two hundred and forty pigs being baked and served out — one 
hundred and twenty to the priests of this end of the temple 
and one hundred and twenty to those of the other end of the 
temple. The service continued all night. 

94. During the next day, Olekukahi, the Kuili-service still 
went on, and four hundred pigs were baked and divided out 
equally between the priests at the two ends of the temple. Only 
the priests ate of this pork, not the chiefs; and that evening 
the Kuili-service of the kahunas came to a conclusion. 

95. In the evening the king and high priest went, as they 
liad done before, to hold a service (aha), called Hoowilimoo.^^ 
If this alia was successful it was a most fortunate omen for 
the luakini. The kahuna, having first besought the king for 
a piece of land for himself, then addressed the king in a hope- 
ful and confident strain, saying: 

96. "Your heavenly majesty, (Eko lani,) you have just ask- 
ed the deity for a blessing on the government, on yourself and 
on the people ; and, as we see, the god has granted the petition ; 
the aha is perfect. After this if you go to war with any one 
you will defeat him, because your relations to the deity are 
perfect." (Ua niaikai ko ke akiia aoao.) 

97. That same night a priest conducted a ceremony called 
Ka-papa-iLhia.^^ It was in this way: the priest, accompanied 
by a number of others, went out to sea, to fish for nlua with 
hook and line, using squid for bait. 

98. If they were unsuccessful and got no ulna, they returned 
to land and went from one house to another, shouting out to the 
people within and telling them some lie or other and asking them 
to come outside. If any one did come out, him they killed, and 
thrusting a hook in his mouth, carried him to the heiau. If 
there were many people in the house, they resisted and thus es- 
caped. 



227 



99- The next morning they put a long girdle of braided co- 
conut leaves about the belly of the haku-ohia-ldol, calling it 
the navel-cord from its mother. 

100. Then the king and the priest came to perform the cere- 
mony of cutting the navel-string of the idol ; and the priest re- 
cited the following prayer : 



lOI. 



4 



3 
4 



O ka ohe keia o ka piko o ke Aiwaizvalani. 

O ka uhae keia o ka ohe o ka piko o ke Ammwa- 

lani, 
O ke oki keia o ka piko o ke Aiwaizvalani. 
ka inoku keia o ka piko o ke Aizvaiwalani. 

This is the bamboo for the navel-string of the 

-wonderful idol. 
This is the splitting of the bamboo for the navel- 
string of the wonderful idol. 
This is the cutting of the navel-string of the won- 
derful idol. 
This is the severing of the navel-string of the won- 
derful idol. 



The priest then cut the cord, and having wiped it with a 
cloth, made the following prayer: 

1. Kiipenii tila, kupenu lei, 

2. Aka halapa i ke akua i laau ivaila. 

1. Sop the red blood, wear it as a wreath, 

2. To the grace and strength of the deity. 

Compare Chap. XXXV, Sect. 14. 

The king then uttered the amama and the service was ended. • 

102. The next day, Ouekulua, took place the great feast. 
The chiefs contributed of their pigs, as also did the people. The 
contributions were arranged on the following scale. The high 
chiefs, who had many people under them, gave ten pigs apiece; 
the lesser chiefs, with a smaller number of followers, provided 
fewer. 

103. In the same way, the people gave according to their 
abilitv. When all the pigs had been contributed and oven- 



baked the king and all the priests assembled for the ceremony 
of girding the malo upon the haku-ohia-idol {c hoohumc i kci 
}?ia!o o kc kii hakit ohia). 

104. The whole body of priests recited in imison the pule 
nuvo, a prayer relating to the malo of the deity : 

Hume, hunit ua )nalo c Lofio! 
Hat kc katta. hatka, hailotw e. 

Gird on, gird on the malo oh Lono! 

Declare war, declare it definitely, proclaim it by mes- 



sengers 



f 



At the conclusion of the prayer they arrayed the idol in a 
malo, and a new name was given to it. Moi, lord of all the idols. 
After that all the idols were clothed with malos, and each 
one was given a name according to the place in which he stood. 

105. \Mien the pigs ^ve^e baked, a fore-quarters of each pig 
was set apart for the kahunas, which piece was termed hainaki. 
Bimdles of pai-oi were also set apart for the kahunas, that 
having been the custom from the most ancient times. 

106. When the chiefs and the people had finished feasting 
on the pork, the king made an offering to his gods of four hun- 
dred pigs, four hundred bushels of bananas, four hundred cocoa- 
nuts, four hundred red fish, and four hundred pieces of oloa 
doth ; he also offered a sacrifice of human bodies on the lelc 

107. Before doing this, however, the hair and bristles of the 
pigs were gathered up and burned, and the offal removed : then 
all the offerings were collected in that part of the court about 
the IcIl which was laid with pebbles, after which the offerings 
were piled upon the lcU\ 

108. Then the Ka-papa-ii!ua priest (Sect. 97) entered the 
lana-uuu-niaDiao witli the ulua — (This might be the fish, ulua, 
or it might be the man whom the priest had killed in its stead, 
as previously stated) and recited an aha \\hich was of a different 
rite but belonged to his special service. When he had concluded 
his service he put to the king tlie question, how was our ahaf 
The king answered, "It was excellent." "Most excellent in- 
deed," said the priest to the king: the hook did not break: your 



229 

government is confirmed." Then the uhia was laid as an offer- 
ing upon the lelc, and the kahuna went his way. 

109. After that the lana-nuu-inamao was dressed with white 
oloa. That day was called the day of great decoration {la kopili 
nm)y because of this decoration of the lana-nun-inaiuao. 

no. Towards evening that same day the priests and the peo- 
ple, together with Kahoalii and the idols, made an excursion 
up into the mountains, to procure branches of the koa tree, In 
reality the koa-branches had been brought to a place not far 
away. When they had gotten the branches of the koa-tree they 
returned with great noise and uproar,^''' just as when they 
brought down the haku-ohia-idol. 

111. On their return from the expedition, that same evening 
they made the koa branches into a booth and at tlie same time 
the papa-ka-hui was let down. That night they sacrificed the 
puaa hea for the consecration of the booth of koa branches '{hale 
Ida koa). 

112. In the morning all the people assembled to eat of the 
hea pig. The fragments that were left over when they had 
finished their eating had to be carefully disposed of. It was 
not allowable to save them for eating at another time. On 
this occasion Kahoalii ate an eye plucked from the man whose 
body had been laid as an offering on the lele, together with the 
eyes of the pig (puaa hea). 

113. By the following morning, Olekukolu, these solemn ser- 
vices were concluded, whereupon all the people, priests, chiefs, 
and commoners went to bathe in the ocean. They took with 
them tlie kaai-gods, which they planted in the beach. When 
they had finished their bathing they carried with them pieces 
of coral, which they piled up outside of the heiau. 

114. On arriving at the luakini a number of pigs were baked, 
and all, chiefs, priests and people, being seated on the ground 
in an orderly manner, in front of the drum-house, they per- 
formed the service called Hono. 

115. When every body was in place tlie priest who was to 
conduct the ritual came forward and stood up to recite the 
service called Ho}w ; and when he solemnly uttered the words, 
O ka hoaka ka lima aia iluna, the palms of the hands are 



230 

turned upwards, priests, chiefs and people, all, obedient to the 
command, held up their hands and remained motionless, sittmg 
perfectly still. If any one stirred, he was put to death. The 
service was tediously long, and by the time it was over the pigs 
were baked; the people accordingly ate of them and then went 
home to their beds. 

1 1 6. On the morning of the morrow, which was Olepau, all 
the female chiefs, relations of the king, came to the temple 
bringing a malo of great length as their present to the idol. All 
the people assembled at the house of Papa, to receive the wom.en 
of the court. One end of the malo was borne into the heiau, 
(being held by the priests), while the women-chiefs kept hold 
of the other end; the priest meantime reciting the service of 
the malo, which is termed Kaioloa.^^ 

117. All the people being seated in rows, the kahuna who 
was to conduct the service — {nana e papa ka pule) — stood forth; 
and when he uttered the solemn word, E/z>/j,— completed,— the 
people responded, Noa. The kahuna said, la e! Oh la! and 
the people responded, Noa honua, Freedom to the ground ! The 
consecration of the temple was now accompHshed, and the tabu 
was removed from ii, it was noa loa. 

With such rites and ceremonies as these was a hiakini built 
and dedicated. The ceremonies and service of the luakini were 
very rigorous and strict. There was a proverb which said 
the work of the luakini is like hauling ohia timber, of all labor 
the most arduous. 

118. The tabu of a luakini lasted for ten days, being lifted 
on Huna, nth, and on the evening of the following day, Mo- 
halu, began another service of a milder cult — a hoomahana- 
hana service. This continued for three days ; and with it term- 
inated the special services of the king. 

119. When the people and the priests saw that the services 
of the luakini were well conducted, then they began to have 
confidence in the stability of the government, and they put up 
other places of worship, such as the Mapele, the Knkoea, the 
Hale-o-Lono. These heiaus were of the kind known as hooulu- 
ulu (hoouluulu ai=to make food grow), and were to bring rain 
from heaven and make the crops abundant, bringing wealth to 
the people, blessing to the government, prosperity to the land. 



231 

120. After this the king must needs make a circuit of the 
island, building heiaus and dedicating them with religious ser- 
vices; traveling first with the island on his right hand (ma ka 
akau o ka mokupuni e hele fnua ai). This progress was called 
nlu akau, growth to the right. When this circuit was accom- 
plished another one w^as made, going in the opposite direction, 
to the left. This was termed ho'i hema, return on the left. It 
was likewise conducted with prayers to the gods, 

121. All the aliis below the king worshipped regularlv each 
month and from year to year in their heiaus. 

122. If an alii ai moku, the king of an island, was killed in 
battle, his body was taken to the luakini and offered up to the 
gods by the other king {hai ia). 

12^. In such ways as these did the kings and chiefs w^orship 
the gods in the ancient tmes until the time of Liholiho, when 
idol worship came to an end. 

NOTES TO CHAPTER XXXVII. 

(i) Sect. 4. Lana-nuu-mamao, a tower-like frame, made of strong- 
timbers, covered with aho, i. e. poles, but' not thatched. It had three 
floors, or kahuas, of which the lowest was named lana, the next nu'u, and 
the highest niamao. The lowest, the lana, was used for the bestowal of 
offerings. The second, nu'u, was more sacred ; the high priest and his 
attendant's sometimes stood there while conducting religious services. The 
third, the mamao, was the most sacred place of all. Only the high 
priest and king were allowed to come to this platform. When worship 
was being conducted at the lana-nu'u-mamao all the people prost'rated 
themselves. It seems probable that the lana-nu'ti-mamao was used as a 
sort of oracle. 

(2) Sect. 5. H 00-mahana-hana, a relaxation of the rigor of iabit, a 
resting spell in which the priests and workmen took it easy and indulged 
in some informalities. It was analogous to Refreshment- Sunday in Lent. 
The following form of prayer is communicated to me as one that was 
used in entreating fhe gods to grant the dispensation for a period of 
hoomahanahana. 

Pule Hoomahanahana. 

1 E Ku i ka lana mai nuu, 

2 E Ku i ka ohia lele, 

3 E Ku i ka ohia-lehua, 

4 E Ku i ka ohia-ha uli, 



232 

5 -^ -^w ^ k^ ^^^^0. moewai. 

6 i: Ku mai ka lani, 

7 Ku i ke ao, 

8 E Ku i ka honua, 

9 E ka ohia ihi, 

10 E Ku i ka lain-ka-ohia, ka haku-ohia, 

11 A ku, a lele, ua noa. 

12 A noa ia Ku. 

13 Va uhi kapa mahana, 

14 ■ Hoomahanahana heiau. 

15 E noa, e noa. 

16 Amama zvale. Ua noa. 

O god Ku, of the sacred altar ! 

O Ku of the scaffolding of ohia-iimhevl 

O Ku carved of the ohia-lehua! 

O Ku of the flourishing ohia-ha! 
5 O Ku of the water-$easoned ohia timber! 

O Ku, come down from heaven ! 

O Ku, god of lighf! 

O Ku, ruler of the world! 

O magnificent ohia-tree ! 
10 O Ku of the ohia-tree carved by a king, lord of ohia- 
gods ! 

It lifts, it flies, it is gone. 

The tabu is removed by Ku. 

Robed are we in warm tap as, 

A warmth that relaxes the rigors of the heiau. 
15 Freedom ! freedom ! 

The load is lifted! there is freedom! 

(3) Sect*. 5. Aha, often used to mean a prayer, an incantation, a 
service, or the successful performance of a service, — the slabness and 
goodness of it, in the present instance rheans a cord, or mat, braided 
out of a sea-tangle, which was found in the deep ocean far out to sea. 
Cocoanut fibre was combined with the sea-weed in braiding this aha. The 
sea-weed was perhaps more generally called ahaaha. This aha was used 
in the decoration of the shrine of Ku. The finding of the sea-tangle, 
with which to make the aha, was, of course, more or less a matter of 
good luck. Hence the uncertainty as to the length of the kapu. 

(4) Sect. 9. Hoouluulu ai, to bless the crops. Here is a sample of 
a prayer used on such an occasion. 

Pule Hoouluulu ai, or Pule Hoomau. 

I E Lono, alana mai Kahiki, 
2 He pule ku keia ia oe e Lono. 



233 

3 E Lono lau ai niii. 

4 E ua mat ka lani pili, 

5 Ka ua houlu at, 

6 Ka ua houlu kapa, 

7 Popo kapa wai lehua 

8 A Lono i ka lani. 

9 E Lono e! kuu'a niai koko ai, koko ua. 
10 Ulua mai, 

10 Houlu ia mai ka ai e Lono! 

12 Houlu ia mai ka ia. 

13 Ka moomoo, kiheaheapalaa e Lono! 

14 Amama. Ua noa. 

1 Oh Lono, gift from Tahiti, 

2 A prayer direct to you oh Lono, 

3 Oh Lono of the broad leaf, 

4 Let the low-hanging cloud pour out its rain, 

5 To make the crops flourish, 

6 Rain to make the tapa-plant flourish, 

7 Wring out the dark rain-clouds 

8 Of Lono in the heavens. 

9 Oh Lono shake out a net-full of food, a net-full of rain. 

10 Gather them together for us. 

1 1 Accumulate food oh Lono ! 

12 Collect fish oh Lono ! 

13 Wauke shoots and the coloring matt'ers for tapa. 

Amen. It is free. 

(5) Sect. 14. Kahuna kuhi-kuhi-pu'u-one, literally the kahuna who 
•pointed out' the piles of sand. Sand was the material used in making a 
model, or plan of a heiau. 

(6) Sect. 18. Lua-kini, Lua, a pit, and kini 400,000. It was this un- 
doubtedly which gave the name to this kind of a heiau. Into this pit 
it is said, that t'he decayed bodies of the offerings were finally thrown. 
It is a singular thing that the name luakini should often be used to mean 
a Christian church, or temple, whereas the word heiau is never, to my 
knowledge, so applied. It seems to prove, however, that the luakini was 
the highest grade of heiau. 

(7) Sect. 2T. Lana-nuu, t'he same as lana-nuu-mamao. 

(8) Sect. 20. The house of Papa. — Papa was a mythical character, wife 
■of Wakea. — See Chap. XLV. The Hale Papa was the place where the 
women-chiefs had their services. 

(9) Sect 21. Makaiwa: Images with eyes of pearl. 

(10) Sect. 21. Mo-i, sovereign, a word used in the days of the mon- 
archy to designate the king or queen. 

(it) Sect. 23. Hale-puu-one: so called because it was of the same 
•shape that sand would take if piled evenly in one spot. i. c, of a conical 



234 

shape, like the old-fashioned Sibley tent, used in the army of the Potomac 
in the early years of the great Civil War. 

(12) Sect. 23. Hawaii a long gabled house in which the women 
priests of the order of Papa, assembled wifh the king and priests to 
perform a service of purification, — Pule huikala, — after which they sepa- 
rated, to remain strictly apart until the luakini was 7toa. The prayer 
used on such an occasion was probably of the Moo-Lono, rite of Lono, 
as follows : 

1 E Lono i ka oualii, 

2 E Lono ull moe, 

3 E Lono uli lani, 

4 E, Lono ka lana mai nuu, 

5 E Lono i ka makaiwa, 

6 E Lono i ke one lau ea, 

7 E hiili e Lono, 

8 E kala e Lono, 

9 Kala ia na hala ke alii kane. 

10 E kala i ka hala ke alii wahine. 

11 E kala I ka hala o na kahuna. 

12 E kala i ka hala o ka hu, ka makaainana„ 

13 He pule kala keia ia oe Lono. 

14 Kuu'a mai ka ua pono, 

15 Ka wai ola, 

16 Ka alana pono. 

17 Pono i kukini ia Lono, 

18 Lono-a, ke akua mana. 

19 Am ana. Ua noa. 

Response — 20 Ua noa ke kino. 

21 Kapu ia kou heiau, e ke akua. 

22 Hu a noa. 

23 Aha, noa, ua lele, 

24 A lele ia Lono, ke akua mana. 

25 Amana. 

1 Oh Lono, tender offshoot of deity, 

2 Oh Lono, consort of Uli, 

3 Oh Lono-Uli, the heavenly pair, 

4 -Oh Lono, comforter of this fleshy temple, 

5 Oh Lono, the discerning one, 

6 Oh Lono, who abides with one to the last sand, 

7 Turn t'o us, o Lono. 

8 Forgive, oh Lono, 

9 Pardon the sins of the men chiefs, 

10 Pardon the sins of the women-chiefs, 

11 Pardon the sins of the kahunas. 



235 

12 Pardon the sins of the boor, the plebeian, (hu). 

13 This is a petition to you for pardon, oh Lono. 

14 Send gracious showers of rain, oh Lono. 

15 Life-giving rain, a grateful gift, 

16 Symbols of Lono's blessing, 

17 Lono-a, the mighty god. 

18 Amen. It is noa. 
Response — 19' The bodies are purified, 

20 Your temple is tabu, oh God. 

21 Purification for the multitude. 

22 Purification, purification. 

2Z Salvation by Lono, the mighty god. Amen. 

(13) Sect. 26. Niheu: The hair was mixed with red clay — alaea — 
and skewered on top of t'he head. The hair of another person, it is said,, 
was sometimes added to the natural hair. 

(14) Sect. 27. Pule huikala no ka aina. A prayer to purify the land. 

1 E Lono ma ka uli lani, 

2 Eia ka ai, eia ka ia, 

3 He alana, he mohai, 

4 He nuhanuha, he alana ia oe e Lono. 

5 Houlu ia ka ai i keia ahupua'a, 

6 E ulu a maka-ole ke kalo, 

7 E ulu a muaiwa ka uala. 

8 A eia ka puaa, 

9 He puaa kukui nau e Lono. 

10 E kui a ko ahu puaa, 

11 A palahu ka ai i waena, 

12 A kau ola ia e ke akua. 

13 E Lono, nana i kou pulapula. 

14 Amana. Ua noa. 

O Lono of the blue firmament! 
Here are vegetables, here is meat, 
An offering of prayer, a sacrifice. 
An offering of fat things to you, o Lono I 
5 Let the crops flourish in this ahiL-puaa! 

The taro stay in the ground till its top dies down. 
The potato lie in its hill till if cracks. 
And here is the pig, 

A pig carved in kukui wood for you, o Lono, 
10 Let it remain on your district-altar 
Until the vegetables rot in the fields. 
Such is thy blessing, o God. 
■ O Lono, look upon your offspring! 
The burden is lifted! Freedom! 



236 

(A/ S-zcz. 'fj. Vli^ zm au-makudi, the disef ag^eat g& "doe kahmma 
c.z.zy.a, 2 ^oQj^s:^ dibexk sjidres^^d s^ '''Oc %aKa ;::?!.:. CTi jkjim hewaf 
She w2^ alio esis^of^ £0 <i.z ozhtr^ cmmoal isror> In die es^ressioa 
i>fe ^,7: ' Tha:: goddess £5 ^»pealed tj to speed cwi foer esranA. 

(B> SacL. .jG- The wcri J/n here refer?, it wOioJd iecm, to Kane 
srtv:', -ilj zieni^tied. The mrayisng 15 noC TCfv dear, bat afler -ifurig 
the raricTLi coKfcicrtires tlm ira-Tc beesi c^ered^ I thirhc the tno&t fiztaaiAe 
is tbsa. It adheres to the ^eoeric measmag of nsM, a.i I ta.ke it to- be, i. e. 
fflerrt. and hj zHmct ^stissg coasent. In the ii-jllomiag Terse, H^ jric 
ez ai-hm, and :- those i^'Lrs^.vjz to the nth. verse indts^re the word 
iw« £= tised in a ^zTr.ewbst di5^erent £en5e. I take iL tiz^ that the ai-km, 
those ^h: eat standing, srt isnceretncniOTirlj : the at-^^ i^d^ls, sinners; 
and all the other bad oees are now qmet, awed into menct. In coo- 
snlfing Mzw^aa sdbdzn as ti:r the laesmng cf this word I hare f'^uni 
tha:! thej either had n- '/^itd g' abont it or that nc two of them agreed. 
I ha-e also f vtm-i that the same persctt Jield a cfijferent o^imoa at ^- 
ierem l^Sme?. It sh otrld be added that «a also irT^ans a gende raxsniKir, 
Hfce the \mznsi%, of insect^s, as in the following extract froin i&i 01^ o 
kz }''Zl% mat Kehiki ynaif whic^ is said to be an old snde T&^asnptd 
hj an Old bard nsnred ilantx who fired in the time of Kabkana: 

3/k ^i^j^ j^ &w <7 Kukia; 

Ke '^zMz wsGi kt Ja i ka k'2.z-lz<jii, 

A l&he ka hmxkai hde Prntdoa, 

F?.frr nnrrtrnrs iibe ocean at Kwhiff, 
^^ftzjm^ tipcti the shnAs, 

Heard b-j- the traveller? to Pt 



CfZ) Sect. 301 Eli^liz EH i- to 6i%. The ^^Kowir^ in^ance of fts 
u-se :n a rr^rzsrs-izjz c^rt rhjme sometimes nsed bf chUdrea is qsioted tc me: 

Eli--:tl, km-faia-iti! 

JiczL'zi? n:r:z:-zi 

Ka lima i hzzuz-haseaf 

_V,j kzk'Af'k'Z. 

Tlie ahcre is repeated in coonedion with a P'-aj. or tri<& more pro- 
ber.- tnar i5 plajed en sone notice. A ntnnb^' of pel^ of ^nd are 
'.ezT-rd tip. :n tne of -vhicn is Irlddsa something fool rr disagreeabk:. To 
each or tne jia-jers i~ assigned a heap of sand, the osie containing tfse 
'"•^ti^ giren tt the green-hr^rn or ^mple ooe, and at the word eadi 
g, >rh£Ie one repeat^ the ditty. When the tmfoftnnafe one 
soils nis hpn d ^, his T^zr.± is af once called in the 6nal Hne. 

:S) Sect. 32, Ltrpalnpa. full of kaves, shaggj, flomislm^; having 
ref fence also tc. the h.:mich :r. the hand of the pirie^ 

^rQ Sect- 32L /:: : Hawaiian anthorities are able to throw n^ li^^ and 
otniecttrre ht:t; Iitde light ^n the tme meanif^ of ttas word. It is evi- 



'f -T 






237 

dentJy the name, or ^pellatiaii, or stands to represent some deity. 
The only name of a deity corresponding in form to this is the Hebrew 
JAH. Ps. 68:4. 

(17) Sect 54. Malu koi: After a prayer the axes were laid ^.-idiiii 
the lintels of the door of Mana and a sacrifice was offered of three fowls . 

The following is a Pule malu koii 

1 £ Kane uakea 

2 Eia ka alana, 

3 He moa ualehUj 

4 He moa uakea, 

5 He moa ulntikva^- 

6 He alana beia ia oe Kane, 

7 Xo ke koi kaltn, 

8 Koi kua, 

9 Koi kikoniy 

10 Koi lou, 

11 He koi e koi e kalai zi ke kii, 

\2 He koi ou e Kane, ke akua ola, 

13 Ke akua mana, 

14 Ke akua noho i ka iuiu, 

15 Ke akua i ke ao polohksm, 

16 E ike i au ia 

16 Ke kahuna kalai kU, 

17 A ku ke kit o LantukaaBai, 
t& O ka "ssti ola loa a Kane. 

19 E Kane eia kou hale la, o MauUola, 
30 E ola ia ke alii heiau, 

20 E ola i f^u ia , ke kahuna, 

21 E ola i na kahuna kapu heiau a pan, 
" 22 He ai kapu ka moa o ke alii. 

23 Em noa ka moa o ke akua me ke kahuna. 

24 A lele, ua noa. 

25 A noa i ke akua. 

26 Amama. 

1 Oh Kane the blond one, 

2 Here 15 an offering of prayer to you, 

3 A snuff-colored fowl for you, 

4 A fowl of a Kght-yellow color, 

5 A fowl of a r^ color. 

6 These are offerings for you oh Kane, 

7 For the benefit of 0ie caipenter's adze; 

8 The woodnian's adze, 

9 The little adze, 

10 The reversible adze. 



238 

11 An adze to finish off the image, 

12 The image of you, oh Kane, the god of life. 

13 The God of power, 

14 The God who dwells in the unapproachable heavens, 

15 The god surrounded with clouds and darkness. 

16 Look upon me, the kahuna Kalai-kii. 

17 Until the image of Lanaikawai is set up, 
' 18 Water of eternal life of Kane, 

19 Oh Kane, here is your house, Mauliola. 

20 Etc., etc. 

(18) Sect. .38. Pule aha: This was one of that class of prayers, 
for the ceremonial perfection of which absolute silence and freedom 
from disturbance was essential. The worshippers and the spectators, or 
listeners, whether within the same enclosure or outside of it, must pre- 
serve the most profound silence and attention. The charm of the 
service would be broken by the crowing of a cock, the barking of a dog, 

-the squeaking of a rat, or the hooting of an owl. The intrusion of a 
woman was strictly forbidden and was punishable with death. An aha- 
prayer was a direct appeal to heaven to indicate by certain signs and 
phenomena the answer to the petition. Rain, thunder and lightning were 
generally regarded as unfavorable omens. 

(19) Sect. 38. Mau-haa-lelea: An entire turning away, repentance. 

(20) Sect. 42. Kua-mu, Kua-wa and Kua-wao were gods of the 
woodlands. It was I^ua-'inu who felled a tree in silence. Kua-wa did 
it with noise and shouting. Kua-wao, not mentioned in this prayer, felled 
a tree anywhere and everywhere and as he pleased. This tumultuous 
and joyous rout down the mountain was a farewell to these woodland 
•deities. 

(21) Sect. 52. The following is a prayer such as is called 

PULE O KAI-A-POKEA. 

E Kane, e Lono i ke kai uli, 
Ke kai kea, ke kai haloiloi, 
Ke kai nalu-poi, 
Ke kai, c Ku, e latm i Kahiki. 
5 E Ku i ke kai i Kahiki! 
He kai kapu, 
He kai a Po-kea. 
E apo i ka Jiua. 
Oia ke kai c lolo ai, 
10 Ka ohia, ohia Kua-mu, Kua-wao, Kua-zva, Kua-lana, 
E kaa ai ke akua kaei 
O ke kahua aha-ula kuhonua, 
O ka ohia haku-ohia, 
Ke kii e lele ai a pau ka aina, 



239 :, 

15 Nana e kulai ka hoa paio. 

E Kane, eia kou kai ola, 

Ai ia, inu ia, penu ia. ■'■ .«^ 

E ola i ke alii, e ola i na kahuna, 

E ola i na mea a pau i nioe-kapu i ka heiau! 
20 A lele! A no a! 

A mama! Ua noa! 

Noa ia Kane, ke akua ola ! 

Oh Kane, oh Lono of the blue sea, 

The white sea, the rough sea, 

The sea with swamping breakers. 

The sea, oh Ku, that' reaches to Tahiti, , 

5 Oh Ku of the ocean at Tahiti, 

The sacred ocean, 
7 Sea of the bleached skull. 

Take of the sea-foam 

That is the brine wherewithal to consecrate, 
lo Consecrate the ohia, ohia of Kuamu, 

Of the woodland deities, Kua-wao Kua-wa, and Kua-Iana, 

That the kaei god may make his circuit 

About the pavement guarded by the aha ula obedient 
only to royalty. 

The ohia, god-image of ohia, 
15 God-image that shall fly to the conquest of the whole land. 

That shall overthrow all enemies. 

Oh Kane, here is your life-giving brine. 

To be mixed with food to be drunk, to be sopped up. 

Long life to the king ! Long life to the kahunas. 
20 Long life to all true worshippers in the temple ! 

It is lifted, there is freedom ! 

The load is removed ! Freedom ! 

Freedom through Kane, the life-giving one ! 

(a) Pokea: probably from poo kea, white head, i. e., a bleached 
skull. The dish that held the brine was-^a skull. 

(b) Aha ula : the kind of aha here meant is the cord braided with " 
much art, of many colored strands — one of them red, ula — which was 
stretched as a mystic protection about the residence of an alii with a U 
kapu. It was claimed that if a tabu chief came to it, the aha would of 
itself fall to the ground, out of respect due to the tabu of the chief; but 
the strength of the chief's tabu must be such as to warrant it. Of course 

it would be death to any one who laid unconsecrated hands upon it. 

(c) Haku-ohia: this was a name, applied to the idol called Moi, 
spoken of in section 21. which was carved from ohia wood. Haku means 
lord or head. 



240 

N. B. It \vill be perceived that I have divided line lo into two. T he- 
exigencies of translation made this necessary. 

(,22) Sect. 53. Hopu, seize, a word of command tittered by the 
officiating priest, the meaning being, take, gods, as in a military command, 
such for instance, as carry arms. 

{2:^) Sect. 55. Mau hoe e, ihe a Luakapu, etc. Needless to say, the 
difficulties of this passage are doubled by the inaccuracy of the etymology 
and absurdities of punctuation. The language is highly figurative, the 
key to its meaning being found in the veiled allusions to the nakedness 
of the man-god, Kahoalii. Ihe, a euphuism for niembrum virile of 
Kahoalii. Luakapu, synonym of Kahoalii. Lukaluka, a fold of tapa 
cloth, worn by priests and others about the loins in a manner similar 
to the pau worn by the women. Hookama is to adopt as a son. Haa- 
lauele means a house, an archaic word. 

(24) Sect. 56. A mio i ka lani omamalu (ia Kahiko). The words 
in parenthesis are not quoted by Malo, though they belong to the verse, 
as I am informed. 

(25; Sect. 58. Kuku,i Kahiko i ka lani, &c. The text is in the literal 
form quite meaningless. It is as follows : "Kukui, kahiko, i ke lam au, 
zvai'la make nianalu/' Kahiko was a king, of Ha\yaii in ancient times. 
Tradition says of him that he was at first a good king. A head showed 
itself in the ..heavens and a voice was heard 1 from it asking the question, 
"What man is there on earth .who is just 'and upright in his life?" — (Owai 
ke kanaka ulalo i pono ka noho ana?) The people answered "Kahiko" 
Later in his reign, wheui he had taken to evil ways, the same head ap- 
peared and asked the questioin, "What man is there on earth who leads 
a bad life?" Again -the people answered, "Kahiko." "What is his fault?" 
asked the voice. "He commits murder; he robs the people of fheir hair; 
his life is corrupt, and now he instructs the people to pray to him, that 
all power is his." Manalu is said to have been the high priest of Ka.'hiko. 
He is described aS a very selfish person, not contented to suffer another 
priest to conduct a service without his interference and impertinent dis- 
turbance, grimacing and making insulting gestures. His fellow priests 
finally raised heaven and earth and besought the king that he might be 
put to death. 

Apropos of this the following pule has been communicated to me: 

1 Make Kane ia hH, 

2 Hii luna i ka lani Kane, 

3 Hii ka honua ia Kane, 

4 Hii ke ao opulepule, 

5 Pule ola i Kane e. 

6 O Kane ke akua ola. 

7 A mama Kahiko ia Kane. 

8 E ola Kane. 

g A mama. Ua noa. 



241 

Response ( ?). lo Noa o Kane, ke akua o ke kupulau, 

11 lo welo Kahiko o Kane, 

12 O Kane i o Manaele. 

13 Maeleele ka lani, 

14 Ka lani, ka honua, ua kapu no Kane. 

15 Amama. Ua noa. 

1 Kane wearies himself to death with care> 

2 Care for the government of his own heavenly kingdom, 

3 The earth is governed by Kane, 

4 Kane cares for the mottled scirrus clouds. 

5 Pray to Kane for life. 

6 Kane is the god of life. 

7 Kahiko said amama to Kane. 

8 Hail Kane! 

9 Amama. It is noa. 

Response— 10 The freedom of Kane, God of t'he shooting herb. 

11 Through Kahiko, successor of Kane, 

13 Darkened were the heavens. 

12 Kane transmitted it to Manaele. 

14 The heavens, the earth, are sacrei^ to Kane. 

15 Amama. It is noa. 

(26) Sect. 61. The phrase, Hana, niai a mana ke kahuna, which I 
have translated, a priest ratified it, is so ungrammatically put in the text 
that some ingenuity is necessary to make any sense at all of it. The writ- 
ing of the words is in a different hand from the rest of the text, I am 
told that it was the custom, when land was made over to any one, for a 
priest to ratify the transaction by some appeal to heaven. 

(27) Sect. 6t. The response made by the man puts one in mind of 
the passage, "The earfh is the Lord's, and the fullness thereof." 

(28) Sect. 64. Hihia literally means entanglements. Perhaps in the 
present instance it might better be translated burdens. The word ka'i, 
or its reduplicated form kaikai, as here, literally means t*o bear, to carry. 

(29) Sect, 66. The expression, ''kau na aiiau," is said to be very 
old. 

The following example of its archaic use is communicated to me: 

1 Aulana auau ka aha! 

2 Hoa kupukupu ka uki wailana! 

3 Lanalana, hauhoa ka aha, 

4 I ke kua o ke oa o ka hale Lono! 

5 E Lono, eia ko hale la, o Mauliola, 

6 He hale ka-uki 

7 E hoano, hoano e Kane! 

8 Hoano i ko hale! 



242 

9 He luakini kapu, 

10 He ana nau c Kane. 

11 E ola! c ola! e ola Kane! 

12 Hoanol Ua noa! 

Above the level of the ground floats the thatch-pole, 

Lash with a tight loop the uki leaf to this thatch-pole \ 

Bind and lash the cord firmly 

To the back of the rafters of Lono's house! 
5 Oh Lono, here is a house for you, the house Mauliola ! 

A house finished with uki leaf. 

Consecrate ! consecrate, oh Kane ! 
8 Consecrate this house ! 

A sacred temple, 
10 A cave-temple for you, oh Kane ! 

Life! Hfe! life through Kane ! 

Consecrated ! The work is done ! 

(30) Sect. 70. Makaiwa, pearl-eyed, a t'erm descriptive of the images. 

(31) Sect. 72. That a criminal was chosen for this sacrifice is not 
to be credited. In order to fulfill this function worthily, the victim must 
be perfect and blameless. An infant, or an aged person, a female, or one 
in anywise deformed would not' fill the bill. 

iz^) Sect. 78. The following is communicated to me as as a 

PULE HULAHULA. 

1 Kai-ku ka lani, kakaa ka honua, alaneo ke kula.^ 

2 Ua moe ka ia, ua alaneo ka lani, 

3 Hoomamahi ka lani la, 

4 E Ku! e Kane! e Lono! 

5 E Lono i ka po lailai, 

6 Kuu'a mai ka alaneo ! 

7 Eia la he ftiohai, 

8 He puaa no ka aha ntaka,^ 

9 He aha hula no ke alii, 

10 A'o ka hale ke akua. 

11 Ea ka lani, ea ka honua, 

12 Ea ia Kane ka waiola, 

13 E ola i ke kini ke akua! 

14 Hoano! hoano! ua ola! ola! 

15 Ola ke alii, ola na akua. 

16 •Eia ka niohai la, he puaa, 

ly A make ka puaa, nau e ke akua. 

18 A noa! Ua ola! • 



243 

Resplendent the heavens, crystalline the earth, mirror-like earth's 
plane, 

The milky way inclines to the West, refulgent are the heavens. 

The heavens are guarded by the milky way. 

Oh Ku ! Oh Kane, Oh Lono ! ' 

5 Oh Lono of the clear night', 

Keep the brightness of the heavens undimmed ! 

Here is an offering, 

A swine sacrificed for this performance in public ^ 

The celebration of a hula, a hula in honor of the king.. 
10 In honor of the house of the god. 

The king comes forth, the people gather together, 

Kane comes with the water of life, 

Life through the multitude of the gods ! 

Sacred ! sacred ! Life ! life ! 
15 Life through the king ! life through the gods t 

Behold the sacrifice, a pig ! 

Sacrificed is the pig, it is thine O God ! 

It is done ! We are saved ! ■ . ' 

(a) When tlie heavens were clear and free from clouds it was a good 
omen. 

(b) This performance was called aha maka, a performance for the 
eye, maka. All previous performances had been in secret and for re- 
hearsal. 

{2'2>) Sect. 85. Akua maoli: The carving of an idol did not produce a 
real god, akua maoli. To accomplish this sacrifice, worship, prayer, hoo- 
mana, were required. It was a work of time, patience, and faith. 

(34) Sect. 87. Aha linaliv.a : said properly to be aha limalima : so 
called from the finger-like tassels or points which hung from it. It was- 
a decorative, net-like arrangement of cords, fringed with tassels {lima- 
lima). This was hung over the ridge-pole. The prayer which was ut- 
tered was said to be as follows, and was called 

PULE KUIVA. 

E Ku i ka laniy 
Ke aha makuu-halala* 
E Ku i kaupaku Hanalei, maktiu oloa, 
E pu, e hikii, c paa ia oloa, 
5 O oloa hulihia ka mana. 

He mana puki no ka aha oloa, 
E mana i ke akua. 
E oki i ka piko Mana. 
Ua mana, mana ka aha linalina 
10 / ka hale ke akua o Kane. 
Oki' a ka piko! 
A noa! ua noa! \ 



V 



244 

O Ku in the heavens! 

Behold the cord done into the all-induding knot! 
'Oh Ku of tlie mystic, wonderful ridge-pole of Hanalei ! 
Bind, tie with the knotted oloa 1 
5 If is the oloa that shall overturn the power. 
Power is wrapped up in the oloa cord. 
Let power go forth to the god-image I 
Cut now the navel-cord of the house Mana ! 
Virtue, virtue resides in the knotted oloa cord 

10 That decorates the house of gad Kane. 

11 Cut' now the navel-string! 

Done ! It is done ! 

(*) Ke aha o makuu halala. Mr. S. Percy Smith finds in this a ref- 
erence to the ancient Maori saying, "Here ki te here o Matuku-tako-tako, 
te taca te ijuewete" "Bind with the binding of Mat'uku-tako-tako, which 
cannot be undone." It is a long story. 

(35) Sect. 89. Kuili: this word means, I am told, that everyone talks, 
or prays at once. In this case the reference is to the fact, so said, that 
all utter their prayers at the same time. Whether this applies only to 
the priests, or also includes the people, I am not able to say 

PULE KUILI. 

Kuili ka pule lani Ku, 

E Kane, e Lono i ka ouli lani. 

Lani kuwa, e Kane, 

Kane ke akua mana, 
5 Mana e hehi ka aha hulahula. 

Kuili ia ka leo paa, 

Ka leo wi, ka leo ohe, ka leo ohia, 

Haku-ohia uka el 

Kuili ia i paa, 
10 E. paa i ka lani, 

A mana i ka lani 

A ulu i ka lani, 

A lu i ka lani, lani ku. 

Oili ka pule. 
15 Kuili! kuhano! 

He lani pakaua kukahi. 

Ua noa! — E hui ka pule! 

Unite now in the prayers of the king to Ku ! 

Oh Kane, oh Lono of the portent-showing heavens, 

Heavens that have been lifted up O Kane, 
TKane the god of power, 



245 

5 Power to foot it in the assembly of the dancers. 

Restrain now the voice and suppress it, 

The voice of hunger, the sound of the bamboo, the sound of th^> 
ohia trees, 

Ohia-god of the mountain forests. 

Lift up your prayers that they may be approved! 
10 Approved in the heavens ! 

Have power in the heavens ! 

Flourish in the heavens ! 

Scatter blessings from the heavens, the upper heavens! 

The prayer unrolls itself. 
15 The prayer is uttered; Kane reigns over all. 

A heaven t'hat is a walled stronghold. 

The prayer is finished. — Let all pray ! 

(36) Sect. 95. In this ceremony a long line of sinnet made of coco- 
nut fibre was hung about the inside of the house Mana, from which were- 
suspended a number of strips of tapa of the sort called mahuna. The literal 
meaning of the phrase hoozvili-moo is to twist the serpent or lizard. But 
symbolical expressions that have made departures as far from the orig- 
inal starting point as the serpent-land of Asia is from serpent-free Ha- 
|4v,;§ waii, have as a rule precious little of the original literalism left in their 
meaning. The following is communicated to me as a 

PULE HOOWILIMOO. 

m 

Hauli lani ka aha ka apipi Kane, 

O Kane ulu lani, hakoikoi ka lani, 

Lani ku, ka alana aha ula Hoowilimoo^ 

Moo lani, moo lani aukuku ka honua. 
5 Ua wela ka hoku Kaelo ia Makalii, 

Ka auhuhu paina, 

O Hoowilinioo ka aha nani, 

Nani Kukulu Kahiki, 

Ua nani ka aha, 
10 Ua fnoe kaoo ka leo kanaka. 

E kai ka aha no ke alii, 

He aha noa, he aha lele. 

He aha kapu, he aha ku, 

Kulia ka aha no ke alii, 
15 A make ka hoa paio. 

Kulia ka aha, ola no ke alii. 

A lu, a ola, ola ka aina 

la oe Kane, ke akua ola. 

E ola ia'u, ia (Mahoe) ke alii. 
20 Ua noa! Ua ka'i ka aha! 



246 

From heaven fell the aha to the spot favored by Kane, 

Kane who arched the heavens, mottled with clouds the whole 

heavens. 
Gift" of the sacred red aha of Hoowilimoo of the upper heavens. 
Heavenly portent! heavenly portent! that fills the earth with 
blessings. 
5 The star, Kaelo, blazes in the season of Makahi, 
The bitter auhuhn scorched to brittleness, 
Hoowilimoo is the beautiful service. 

Beautiful is Tahiti, 

Favorable are the omens for the service. 
ID The voice of the multitude is at rest. 

Now must we perform the service for I'he king. 

An acceptable service, one that reaches its end, 

A sacred service fhat shall not fail. 

The assembly stands before tlie king. 
15 His enemies shall m.elt away before him. 

Pour abundance ! life ! life to the land 

Through you Kane, the god of life ! 

Life to me, to (Mahoe) the king! 
20 It is accepted ! The service is accomplished ! 

(36^/^) Sect. 97. Ka-papa-ulua: This peculiar custom, seeming relic, 

■surviving echo perhaps of old-time, South-sea cannibalism, was called by 

this name because in going out' the rowers who occupied the forward part 

of the canoe were in the habit of striking (ka) vigorously against the 

side (papa) of the canoe, at the same time the one who held hook and 

line sat in the stern. The name ka-papa-uhia was also appHed t'o the 

^kahuna who hooked the human ulua. In going through the village the 

•kahuna used the same means to wake up and bring out the human prey 

as he did in the ocean. He struck with his paddle on the door of fhe 

house at the same time calling out some blind phrase perhaps, as haha 

ulua, haha mano/' signifying a big catch of that kind of fish, on which 

'the occupants of the house, would, if green, run out t'o see the sight, and 

'thus give the murderous priest his opportunity. A dead man, not a woman, 

with a hook in his mouth answered very well as an 7ilua. In fact it was 

'more desired by the priests, though it was euphemistically called by the 

■same name. 

(37) Sect. I TO. The occasion of bringing down the koa tree, like that 
•of fetching the haku-ohia-idol from the mountains, was a scene of riot and 
tumultuous joy, like the procession of a Bacchic chonts, or shouting fhe 
harvest-home. The following is communicated to me as a sample of the 
Avild song and chorus shouted by the multitude on such an occasion: 



247 



MELE HOOKANIKANI-PIHE. 



One — / kii man man! 

All—/ ku wa! 

One — / ku mau man! 

I ku liuluhulu! 

I ka lanawao! 
All — / ku wa ! 
One — / ku lanawao! 
All — I ku wa! 

I ku wa! huki! 

I ku wa! ko! 

I ku wa a mau! 

A mau ka eulu! 

E huki, e! 

Kuli'a! 

Umi'a ka hanu! 

A lana, ua holo ke akua! 



Stand up in couples ! 

It moves, the god begins to run! 

Stand at intervals ! 

Stand in couples 

Haul with all your might! 

Under the mighty trees! 

Stand at intervals ! 

Stand up among the tall forest trees ! 

Stand at intervals ! 

Stand at intervals I and pull ! 

Stand at intervals ! and haul ! 

Stand in place ! and haul ! 

Haul branches and all ! 

Haul now ! 

Stand up my hearties ! 

Hold your breath now ! 

It moves, the god begins to rifn ! 



(38) Sect. 116. Kai-oloa: Any tapa that was bleached with sea- 



water was called kai-oloa. 



The following is communicat'ed to me as a 



PULE KAIOLO'A. 

Mala lani kailolo'a, 

Ka male ke akua, Uli. 

Uliiili kai, e Hina! 

Hinaluuloa ka malo Hina. 
5 He ua tele ka malo Ku, 

Ku i ka lalani heiau. 

Aulaiia ka malo Lono! 

Htmie! hume ka malo Lono-kaiolohia! 

E lei ana ka malo Lono-honua. 
10 Honua-ku-kapu ka malo lo-uli. 

Ka malo puhano, kukapu, e Kane-auhaka, 

Hume ia ko malo! 

Eia la he malo kapu, he olo'a. 

Oloa lani ke ola o na 'Hi wahine. 
15 Hikii ia a paa i ka heiau, 

Heiau ku, heiau lani, 

No ke alii, no Unii a Liloa. 

E ola ke alii! 

E lanakila kee alii a make ka hoapaio! 
20 E hume ke kii i ka malo! 

Ua noa! a noa ka maka, maka aha ke alii! 



248 

Malo of the king, bleached in the ocean, 
Male of god UH ! 
Dark blue the sea, oh Hina ! 
Bright red the malo of Hina. 
5 Lace-like as a mist-scud the malo of Ku, 
Ku, the god of many temples. 
Pass between the thighs the malo of Lono ! 
Gird ! gird on the malo of Lono, the variegat'ed ! 
They are bearing on their shoulders the malo of Lono-honua. 
10 Decorated at its ends is the malo of the bird-god lo-uli, 
Leaf embroidered the malo of long-limbed Kane, 
Gird on your malo ! 

Lo here is a sacred malo, bleached by the ocean ! 
The sacred malo of the king is life to the women chiefs. 
IS Bind it fast to the heiau ! 

An ordinary heiau, a royal heiau, 
A heiau for the king, for Umi, son of Liloa. 
Long live the king ! 
■ May he be victor, and put down all his enemies! 
20 Array now the god-image in the malo 1 

It is accepted, the ceremony, the ceremony of the king is ac- 
cepted. 
(39) Sect' 86. Hai ka haina : made a report to the king that everything, 
including the omens, was going on well, and was favorable. 



CHAPTER XXXVIII. 

THE CIVIL POLITY. 

T. The word kalaimoku related to the civil polity/ or govern- 
ment, of the land. The government was supposed to have one 
body {kino). As the body of a man is one, provided with a 
head, with hands, feet and numerous smaller members, so the 
government has many parts, but one organization, 

2. The corporate body of the government was the whole 
nation, including the common people and chiefs under the king. 
This is seen to be the case from the fact that in a country where 
there are no people there is nO' government, as on Kaula and 
Niihoa.* The king was the real head of the government; the 
chiefs below the king the shoulders and chest. The priest 
of the king's idol was the right hand, the minister of interior 
{kanaka kalaimoku) the left hand of the government. This was 
the theory on which the ancients worked. 



(*) Two rocky islets inhabited only by sea-birds. 



249 

3- The soldiery were the right foot of the government, while 
the farmers and fishermen were the left foot. The people who 
performed the miscellaneous offices represented the fingers and 
toes. The unskilled and ignorant mass of people were some- 
times termed hu, sometimes makaainana. 

4. There were two strong forces, or parties, in the govern- 
ment ; one the kahunas, who attended to the idol-worship, the 
other the kalaimoku, or king's chief councillor. These two were 
the ones who controlled the government, and led its head, the 
king, as they thought best. If the head of the government de- 
clined to follow their advice, the government went to another, 
on account of the fault of its head, that is the king. The high 
priest, — kahuna o na kii^ — controlled the king in matters of re- 
ligion — haipule — (He was keeper of the king's conscience.) The 
kalaimoku, chief councillor or prime minister, guided him in 
regulating the affairs of administration, and in all that related 
to the common people. 

5. In time of war the high priest — kahuna kii — was the first 
one to advise the king through his spiritual offices. The 
high priest would instruct the king that it was necessary to 
erect a heiau-luakini, in order that he might first learn by the 
services at the heiau whether it was advisable, or proper — 
pono — to go to war. If the priest perceived that it was not best 
to make war, he would tell the king "it is not best to go to 



war." 



6. The high priest had many methods by which to obtain 
omens for the guidance of the king ; there were also many priests 
under him, and each priest had a different function, the vvhole 
service, however, was under the direction of one priest. 

7. Many were the duties entrusted to the priest under the 
king's government, the temple-service of the hiakini, (a war- 
temple) and that of the kukoa'e, (a temple to propitiate heaven 
for food), and the Makahiki celebration, also the distribution of 
the piles of goods from the taxes as well of the things given 
as sacrifices, the conduct of religious services and the uttering 
of suitable prayers — kau mihau ana^ — in the day of battle; in 
fact everything that touched the worship of the gods. 



250 

8. It was the duty of the high priest to urge the king most 
strenuously to direct his thoughts to the gods, to worship them 
without swerving, to be always obedient to their commands 
with absolute sincerity and devotedness ; not to be led astray by 
women ; not to take up with women of low birth ; but to serve 
only the gods. 

9. One thing which the priest urged upon the king was to 
kill off the ungodly people, those who broke tabu and ate with 
the women, or who cohabited with a woman while she was con- 
fined to her infirmary, and the women who intruded themselves 
into the heiau. 

10. Another thing he urged was that the woman who beat 
tapa on a tabu day, or who went canoeing on a tabu day should 
be put to death ; also that the man who secretly left the service 
at the temple to go home and lie with his wife should be put to 
death; that the men and women who did these things, whether 
from the backwoods — kuaaina — or near the court should be put 
to death. 

11. That any man, woman, or child, who should revile the 
high priest, or a keeper of the idols, calling him a filth-eater, or 
saying that he acted unseemly with women (i ka ai mca kapu), 
should be put to death, but he might ransom his life by a fine of 
a fathom-long pig. 

12. Again, that if the king by mistake ate of food or meat 
that was ceremonially common or unclean — noa — the kmg 
should be forgiven, but the man whose food or meat it was 
should be put to death, if the king was made ill. In such a 
case a human sacrifice was offered to appease the deity, that 
the king might recovei from his illness. 

13. Again that certain kinds of fish should be declared tabu 
to the women as food, also pork, bananas and cocoanuts ; that if 
any large fish — a whale — or a log strapped with iron, should be 
cast ashore, it was to- be offered to the gods, (i. e... it was to be 
given to the priests for the use of the king). 

14. Again, in time of war the first man killed in battle, who 
was termed a lehua, and the second man killed, who was termed 
a hia one, were to be offered as sacrifices to the gods. 

^ There were a great many ceremonies and services ordered by 



251 

the kahuna, in order to establish the best relations with the gods, 
as the kahuna averred. 

15. For six months of the year the opelu might be eaten and 
the aku was tabu, and was not to be eaten bv chiefs or com- 
•moners. Then again, for other six months the aku might be 
<eaten, and the opelu in turn was tabu. Thus it was every year. 

16. Again during the observance of Makahiki the services at 
-all the heiaus of the chiefs were omitted for two months and 
twenty-six days ; after which all the chiefs returned and worship- 
ped the idols. 

17. After the aliis resumed their religious services the king 
■must build a luakini, that is a large heian. It was a common 
saying that this caused a famine^ in the land, due to the fact 
that the inner bark of the ohia was red. For that reason the 
king after that built a mapele, it being believed that this sort of 
a heiau would bring prosperity to the land, because the bark of 
the lamxi, which was the wood used in building every mapele 
heiau, was black. 

18. After these heiaus were built, the king went on a tour 
about the island, putting up heiaus as he went. This circuit 
was called a palaloa^ Next the king made an unu Lono, and 
each of the chiefs erected an ezveai, which was a heian to bring 
rain. 

19. At this time a light was kept burning all night in the 
house of the king while prayers^ were constantly recited to the 
gods, beseeching that the misfortunes of the land might be re- 
lieved and averted, that it might be cleansed from pollution, its 
sins blotted out, the blight and mildew that aflfected it removed, 
that it might be protected from decay, destruction and bar- 
renness. Then instead one might see the shooting forth of the 
buds, the weeding of the ground, the earth covered with the 
growing vines, the separation of the vines from different vines 
interlocking with each other as they grow together, the offering 
of the first fruits to God. 

20. If all these matters relating to the worship of the gods 
were attended to, then the king was highly commended as a 
righteous king. And when the people perceived this, they de- 
voted themselves with diligence to their farms and Their fishing, 



252 

while the women-folk industriously beat out and printed their 
tapas. Thus it was that the king worked away in the worship 
of the gods year after year. 

21. It was on these lines that the high priest constantly used 
his authority and influence to guide the king; and when he 
saw that the king followed all his instructions, he took courage, 
and some day when they were conducting a service together suc- 
cessfully, he ventured to beg of the king a piece of land. 
\2.2. If the people saw that a king was religiously inclined 
(haipule), strict in his rehgious duties, that king attained great 
popularity. From the most ancient times religious kings have 
always been greatly esteemed. 

23. From the earliest times down to the time of Kamehameha 
L, not one of the kings who has subjugated under his rule an 
entire island has been irreligious; every one of them has wor- 
shipped the gods with faith and sincerity. 

24. If the services of religion under any king were conducted 
in a slack or slovenly manner, it would be the general opinion 
that that government would pass into the hands of a king under 
whom the services of. religion would be strictly and correctly 
performed. It was firmly believed that a religious king was 
possessed of mighty power, because it was matter of observation, 
that kings who were attentive to their religious duties conducted 
all their affairs in a becoming manner, while irreligious kings 
neglected the affairs of their government. 

25. There were many matters in regard to which the high 
priest used his office to lead the king in such ways as he thought 
right. 

26. The high priest was a man whose father had also been 
a priest. While some of the priests were of priestly parentage, 
others were chosen tO' that office by the priest himself. The 
son of a priest was not allowed to be nourished with comm.on 
food — the kalaimoku alsO' was not allowed to be nourished w^'th 
food that was common. 

2y. The principal duties of the Kalaimoku' s'^ office were com- 
prised under two heads ; to look after the king's interests and to- 
look after the people's interests. The one who filled the office of 



253 

kalainiokxi made it his first business to counsel the king in the 
regulation of these two departments. 

28. The Kalaimoku's manner of procedure was as follows: 
He first made secret inquiries of the keepers of the genealogies — 
poe ktiauhau — and informed himself as to the pedigree of all 
the chiefs. Because the Kalaimoku believed that the king w^as 
to be compared to a house. A house indeed stands of itself, but 
its pa, or stockade, is its defence. So it was with the king; the 
chiefs below him and the common people throughout the whole 
country were his defence. 

29. The office of an independent king (Alii ai moku, literally 
•one who eats, or rules over, an island) was established on the 
following basis : He being the house, his younger brothers bom 
of the same parents, and those who were called fathers or 
mothers (uncles and aunts) through relationship to his own 
father or mother, formed the stockade that stood as a defence 
about him. 

30. Another wall of defence about the king, in addition to 
his brothers, were his own sisters, those of the same blood as 
himself. These were people of authority and held important 
offices in the king's government. One was his kuhina nni, or 
prime minister, others generals (pii-kana), captains alihi- 
kaua), marshals (ilamukti) , the king's executive officers, to car- 
ry out his commands. 

31. Again the king's uncles and aunts and the male and 
female cousins of his immediate line also formed part of this 
wall of defence. 

32. Besides this the king's own brothers-in-law% the husbands 
of his sisters or of his cousins, also constituted a part of this 
defence about him. 

33. The distant relatives of the king's parents and grand- 
parents also were a protection and re-enforcement to his strength. 

34. A Hale Nana" was then built for the king, and when 
this was accomplished an investigation was entered into at the 
house as to what persons were related to tlie king. The doings 
at the house were conducted in the following manner. When 
the king had entered the house and taken his seat, in the midst of 
a large assembly of people including many skilled genealogists, 



254 

two guards were posted outside at the gate of the pa. ( i he 
guards were called kaikuono.) 

35. When any one pfesented himself for admission to tbe 
Hale Nana, or king's house, the guards called out ''here comes 
So-and-so about to enter." Thereupon the company within 
called out, "From whom are you descended, Mr. So-and-so 
Nana? Who was your father Nana? W^ho was your father 
Nana?" To this the man made answer, *T am descended from 
So-and-so; such and such a one is my father." 

36. The question was then put to the man, "Who was your 
father's father, Nana?" and the man answered, ''Such an one 
was my father's father, he was my grand-father." "Who was 
the father of your grand-father, Nana ?" and the man answered 
"Such an one was my grand father's father." Thus they con-, 
tinned to question him vmtil they reached in their inquiry the 
man's tenth ancestor. 

37. If the genealogists who' were sitting with the king 
recognized a suitable relationship to exist between the ancestry 
of the candidate and that of the king he was approved of. 

38. When another candidate arrived the outside guards 
again called out, "Here enters such an one." Thereupon those 
sitting with the king in a loud tone made their inquiries as to 
the ancestry on the mother's side. "Who was your mother? 
Nana?" And the man answered, "I am descended from such 
an one; So-and-so was my mother." Again the question was 
put to him, "Who was the mother of your mother? Nana?" 
Whereupon he answered, "Such a person was my grand-mother."' 

39. The questions were kept up in this manner until they had 
come to the tenth ancestor in their inquiry. When the genealo- 
gists had satisfied themselves as to the closeness of the man's 
pedigree to that of the king, special inquiries having been made 
as to his grand-father and grand-mother, the candidate was 
approved of. 

40. On the satisfactory conclusion of this investigation the 
the commoner, or chief, was admitted as a member of the Hale 
Nana, another name for which was Ualo malie."^ 

41. In this way they learned who were closely related to the 
king, who also were in his direct line, as well as the relative 
rank of the aliis to each other and to the king. 



255 

42. A plan was then made as to what office the king 
should give to one and another chief or commoner who were re- 
lated to him. 

43. To the chiefs that were his near relations the king 
assigned districts ; to others kalanas, okanas, pokos, ahupuaas 
and /7/^. 

44. To the commoners were given such small sections of 
land as the ahupuaa^ or the Hi. 

45. The heavy work on the lands fell to the chiefs and their 
men, to the makaainmia. The king did no work; his food was 
brought to him cooked. It was a rare thing for an alii to 
engage in agriculture. 

46. One thing which the Kalaimoku impressed apon the 
king was to protect the property of the chiefs as well as that of 
the common people; not to rob them, not to appropriate wan- 
tonly the crops of the common people. 

47. If the king made a tour about the island, when night 
fell, the proper thing for him to do was to camp down by the 
highway, and the next morning to proceed on his journey. It 
was not right for him to enter the house of a commoner to pass 
the night; that was all wrong and was termed alaiki^ the short 
way. 

48. The wrong lay in the fact that when the king entered 
the house of a common man his men entered with him. They 
ate of the commoner's food, helped themselves to his goods, se- 
duced or ravished the females, acted disgracefully, and raised 
the devil generally. 

49. Their counsel to the king was that when, in traveUing 
along the alaloa, he came to a branch-road, he was not to follow 
the branch, because that was a bad practice. The branch- road 
was called a mooa, or a meheii. {Mooa, a bending of the grass; 
nieheu, a trail, a trace.) 

50. The evil lay in the fact that when the king left the 
beaten way, the people followed along with him. The path led 
probably to a little farm — mahina ai — and as soon as the king's 
men saw it they pulled the crops, helping themselves to the 
sugar-cane, etc., and the blame for the outrage fell upon the 
king. 



256 

51. Another reason why the king should not turn aside to 
follow a by-path was because it might lead to a house where 
women were beating tapa — hale kuku — and if the king's men 
found her to be a handsome looking woman, they might ravish 
her, in which case the king would be blamed for the deed. 

52. The proper course for the king was to camp at night 
by the highway. If the people put up a house for him, well and 
good. If not, let his own retinue set up for him a tent, and 
let him eat the food he brought with him. The king who would 
follow this plan would not have to issue any orders to the dis- 
tricts for food ; he would be called a king of superior wisdom. 
{Alii noeau loa) , a prudent king. 

53. Again when the king went on a canoe- voyage around 
the island, he should not let his canoes tack back and forth, off 
and on, in towards the land and out to sea again, lest, by so 
doing, they should come across a fleet of fishing cano.es, and the 
fishermen, being robbed of their fish, should lay the blame upon 
the king. 

54. The right plan in sailing would be to keep the canoe 
on a straight course from the cape just passed to the one ahead, 
and when that was doubled to steer directly for the next cape, 
and so on until the destination was reached. 

55. When the people bring presents of food to the king, 
the best course for him to pursue is to eat of the food then and 
there, so as to make it easy for the people. It were a wise 
thing for the king to invite all of the people to partake of the 
food, that they might not go away fasting. 

56. The king might well take as his own the ahupnaas on the 
borders of the districts, such an one, for instance, as Kaulatia- 
mauJia, on the border of Kona, and Manuka, which lies on the 
border of Kau: (These were very rocky and rather sterile tracts 
of country,) and when the king had found a suitable man, let 
the king put the lands in his charge. 

57. It would also be a wise thing for the king to keep as 
his own the ahupuaas or districts in which the kauila,^ ^"^ or the 
aala, or the aiiau^ is plentiful; together with any rocky and in- 
hospitable tracts of land. He might entrust these lands into 
the hands of good men to farm them for him. 



257 

58. It is proper for the king to make frequent circuits of 
the island, that he may become well acquainted with the young 
people in the out-districts, that he may be able to choose from 
among them suitable ones to be taken into his train as inti- 
mates (aikane),^^ and to be brought up at court. Thus he will 
increase the number of his followers. 

59. It is well for the king to gather many people about him. 
Both he and his queen should deal out food and meat, as well as 
tapas and nialos with a liberal hand. Thus he will dispose the 
men to be as a shield to him in the day of battle. 

The servants {kanakay^ of the king were known under the 
following designations: malalaioa}^ uli,^'^ ehii}^ kea,^^ lazvay^^ 
kapii}^ kae}^ kalol /^ niho-mauole, puali, uka-kakau, haiiiohajno-^ 
haakiialiki, olu-kelo-aho-o, kanioena, knala-pehu, luakai, kanoc.^'^ 
Probably other names should be added. 

60. The chiefs below the king also' should gather men about 
them, the same as the king himself; and these men should be 
constantly practiced in the arts of war, with the short spear, ihe^ 
the long spear, pololu, the club, lami palau, the kuia, in the use 
of the sling, ka-ala, in boxing and in the practice of temperance. ^^ 

61. If the Kalaimoku should see that the king's people were 
becoming stout, so as to be clumsy, he would urge the king 
to have the men run races, roll the maika, practice the game- 
called pahee, drink awa, go to where food was scarce, in order- 
to reduce their flesh. ^•'^ 

62. The largest districts were not generally assigned to the- 
highest chiefs, lest they might thus be enabled to rebel against 
the government. Kamehameha I., however, entrusted the largest 
districts to his highest chiefs. 

6i^. It was the practice for kings to build store-houses in- 
which to collect food, fish, tapas, malos, pa-us, and all sorts of 
goods. 

64. These store-houses were designed by the Kalaimoku as- 
a means of keeping the people contented, so they would not de- 
sert the king. They were like the baskets that were used to en- 
trap the hinalea fish. The hinalea thought there was something 
good within the basket, and he hung round the outside of it. In 
the sanie way the people thought there was food in the store- 
houses, and they kept their eyes on the king. 



258 

65. As the rat Avill not desert the pantry {kumu-hakaY^ 
where he thinks food is, so the people will not desert the king 
while they think there is food in his store-house. 

66. The king had the right to select for himself fleet run- 
ners, men to paddle his canoes canoe-makers, and spies to keep 
watch of the law-breakers and criminals in all parts of the 
land. 

67. It is the king's duty to seek the welfare of the common 
people, because they constitute the body politic. Many kings have 
been put to death by the people because of their oppression of 
the makaainana. 

68. The following kings lost their lives on account of their 
■cruel exactions on the commoners: KoihaJa^^ was put to death 
in Kau, for which reason the district of Kau was called the 
weir, (Makaha.) 

69. Koha-i-ka-lani^^ was an alii who was violently put to 
•death in Kau. Halaea was a king who was killed in Kau. Ehu- 
nui-kai-nialino was an alii who was secretly put out of the way 
Tdv the fishermen in Keahuolu in Kona. Kamaiole was a king 
who was assassinated by Kalapana at Anaehoomalu in Kona. 

70. King Hakau was put to death by the hand of Umi at 
Waipio valley in Hamakua, Hawaii. Lono-i-ka-makahiki, was 
a king who was banished by the people of Kona. Umi-o-ka-lani 
also was a king who was banished by the Konaites. 

71. It was for this reason that some of the ancient kings had 
a wholesome fear of the people. But the commoners were sure 
to be defeated when the king had right on his side. 

y2. In every district, okana, and poko, certain pieces of land, 
called koelc, were set apart for the king. The pigs in these lands 
had their ears mutilated in a certain fashion to designate them 
as belonging to the king. 

73. It was to these lands that the king looked for his sup- 
ply of pork and not to the common people. But som.e of the 
kings seized the pigs belonging to other people and appropriated 
them to their own uses. 

74. In the same way the kings sometimes appropriated the 
fruits of the people's farms. The makaainana were not pleased 
with this sort of conduct on the part of the king. They looked 
upon sucli work as acts of tyranny and abuse of authority. 



259 

75- The kalaimoku did not usually live with the king, but 
quite apart from him. If he wished to speak with the king he 
went to the king's hale manaiva, whence he sent a messag-e to 

o 

the king by the king's lomi-lomi, requesting an interview. On 
the arrival of the king their interview was kept entirely private. 
This secret consultation was called kuka main, and when it was 
over each one went his way. 

76. If the lesser aliis desired to consult with the king on 
some important affair of government, it might be war, the king 
would send a message to the kalaimoku to come and hold a 
privy council with him ; and, having given attention to what they 
had to say, the king dismissed them. 

72. When the king met the whole body of his chiefs in con- 
ference it was his custom to give close attention to what each 
one had to say ; and if he perceived that the counsel of any one 
of them agreed with that which his Kalaimokus had given him 
in secret, he openly expressed his approval of it. 

78. If, however, the king saw that what the chiefs advised 
was in disagreement with the counsels of his Kalaimokus, given 
him in secret, he openly expressed his disapproval. This was 
the manner in which the assembly, — parliament of the chief s^' 
(aha olelo na 'Hi) conducted their deliberations. 

79. The kalaimokus were well versed in the principles of war- 
fare. They knew how to set a battle in order, how to conduct it 
aright, how to adapt the order of battle to the ground. 

80. If the battle-field was a plain, level and unbroken, {malae- 
lae) the order of battle suitable was that called kahului}^ If it 
was a plain covered with scrub, the proper order of battle would 
be the nwkazmhi.^^ 

81. The Kalaimokus were also acquainted with the famous in- 
stances in which ambuscade (poi-po) had been used; what sort 
of a terrain was suited to the battle-order called kukulu,^^ to that 
called kapae,^^ and to that called moemoe.^^ 

82. The kalaimokus were versed in all the manoeuvres of bat- 
tle. They were called kaakaua,^^ defenders, also hm-aua,'^^ strat- 
egists. 

83. A small army or body, of men should not be marshalled 
or brought into battle in the makazvalu-ordev of battle, nor in 
the kahului.'^^ 



26o 

A small force which would not be able to stand before a force 
of larger size in a battle by day, might be able to make its escape 
if the battle were at night. 

84. In making the dispositions for battle, the vanguard was 
composed of a small body of men and was called huna-lewa.^^ A 
larger body was placed to their rear, which was called htma-pa'a, 

85. To the rear of them were stationed the tvaakauaj^'^ the 
pu-ulu-kaua,^^ the papa-kmiaP and the poe kaua.^^ The king 
took his station in the midst of the poe kaiia. Immediately in 
front of the body of soldiery that surrounded the king were sta- 
tioned several ranks of men, armed with a long spear called a 
pololii. Now the pololu was called a powerful weapon of defense, 
a kuau paa. 

86. The king stood in the midst of the poe kaua, with his wife, 
his kaai-c^ods, and his dearest friends. But if the order of 
battle was the makawalu the king would be stationed in the midst 
of the htina-pa'a. 

87. When the forces were in position the kilo-lanl, or astrolo- 
ger, was sent for, and on his arrival the king asked him what 
he thought about the battle. Thereupon the astrologer made a 
study of the heavens to see whether the indications were favor- 
able for the battle. 

88. If he found the appearances favorable, he said to the 
king, "This is a day of clear vision (he an keia no ka la), a day 
in which your enemy will be delivered into your hands for de- 
feat ; because," said he, ''this day is apum, 3. day inauspicious to 
your foes." He thereupon urged the king strenuously to give 
battle. 

89. But if the kilo saw that the day was unpropitious, he 
warned the king not make the battle against the other king. 

90. When the armies drew near to each other, the priests 
were sent for to offer sacrifices to the king's gods, for the king 
himself could not ofifer sacrifice at such a time. 

The ceremony was done in this manner : Two fires were built, 
one for each army, in the space between the two armies. The 
pig, having been killed by strangling, was offered to the idol- 
deities by the priest, the king uttering the amama. The pig was 
called an umihau pig. 



26t 

91. When this ceremony was over the battle was begun. The 
kalaimokiis were the principal advisers of the king in the conduct 
of a battle. 

92. These kalaimokus were a class of people who did not care 
much for luxury and display, nor for distinction, wealth, or land. 

93. They had no desire for great emoluments from the king. 
They were only intent on serving the king by their secret councils. 

94. If the kalaimokus saw that the king had too many people 
about him they led him into the wilderness where food was scarce, 
that the king might be the only one supplied with food, and all 
the people then would set their hearts upon the king. 

95. If the kalaimokus saw that the king was eating too much 
soft poi they advised against it, because hard^^ poi is better and 
taro best of all to make one fleet of foot if defeated. 

96. All the chiefs in the government were trained in military 
exercises until they had attained greater skill than was possessed 
by any of the common people. 

97. There were two great reasons why a kalaimoku had supe- 
rior ability as a councillor to others. In the first place, they were in- 
structed in the traditional wisdom of former kalaimokus, and in 
the second place their whole lives were spent with kings. When 
one king died, they lived with his successor until his death, and 
so on. Thus they became well acquainted Avith the methods 
adopted by, different kings, also with those used by the kings of 
ancient times. 

98. Some of those who were skilled in the art of government 
were people from the back country. For while living in the 
outer districts they had been close students of the ways of some 
of the kings and had become thoroughly acquainted with them. 
The people of the country districts were really shrewd critics of 
the faultsas well as the virtues of the kings. 

99. If the common people after observing a king, disapproved 
of him, it was because he was really bad ; but if, after studying 
him, they believed in him, it proved him to be a good man. 

100. Great fault was found with a king who was a sluggard, 
or a pleasure-seeker, or who was contentious, used reviling lan- 
guage, was greedy, oppressive, or stingy. 



262 

loi. The king who was gentle and quiet in manner, con- 
descending and gracious, was the king who was greatly desired 
and beloved by the people. 

102. Kings who were unjust in their government were not 
beloved by any of their subjects ; but the king who ruled honestly 
was ever regarded with affection. 

103. The alii who lived an honest life had great authority 
merely because he was right. The alii who slandered another 
alii was convicted of wrong out of his own mouth. 

104. If one king speaks evil of another king without cause, 
he committs a wrong. 

105. The king who lives righteously will be blameless. So it 
has been from the most ancient times. 

NOTES ON CHAPTER XXXVIII. 

(i) Sect. 7. Kan viihau ana. I am informed that when an ^rmy 
went forth to battle a priest went on ahead bearing a branch of the 
hau tree. This was set upright in the ground by the priest and guarded 
in that position by him as a favorable omen or sign for his side. Each 
side religiously respected the emblem of the enemy, and did not in- 
terfere with their mihau. So long as the branch was kept erect it 
meant victory to its side. If the battle finally went' against them the 
hau was allowed to fall. There was a proverbial expression "Ua puali 
ka hau nui i ka hau iki." The great hau is broken by the small Jiait, 
meaning the large force is defeated by the small. The kahuna who 
performed this mihau service was in reality the chaplain of the army. 
While he was doing this service on the field of battle, the^ great body 
of the priests were in the heiau beseeching the gods by prayers and 
sacrifices for victory on their side. 

(i) Sect. 4. Kahuna na kii: This is not a legitimate expression. 
The high priest is undoubtedly meant by the writer. There is, however, 
no warrant in Hawaiian usage for the employment of such an expression 
to designate that functionary. 

(3) Sect. 17. There might well be a famine in the land after such 
a prolonged interruption of all fruitful industries and so great a misuse 
of all its resources. (See sections 90-94, Chap. XXXVII.) 

(4) Sect. 18. Palaloa, the same in meaning as polala, to give gifts 
to the king. These gifts were not' a regular tax. But they were none 
the less a burden, though supposed to be entirely voluntary offerings. 

(6) Sect. 27. In spite of the somewhat ambiguous language used 
by the author, a king had but one kalaimoku at a t'im.e. 

(7) Sect. 34. Hale Nana: There has been much discussion over 
the meaning of this word naua. It may throw some light on the subject 



263 

to state that "Naua?" was the word of challenge which v/as addressed 
to every one who presented himself for admission to this society, the 
meaning of which it being a question, was, whence are you? what is your 
ancestry? To this the answer might be. "Anivae pili," meaning a 
relative; or it might be, "Auzvahi la/' meaning that the relationship 
was more distant; or, if the relationship of the candidate to the king 
was close and undisputed, as in case he were the king's brother, or other 
near relative, he would answer, "Pilipili ula," referring to the red ula that 
was common to the veins of each. Answer having been made, as 
above indicated, the candidate was admitted, and was then put through an 
examination as to his ancestry; the first question asked him being, "Owai 
kou papa?" what is your line of ancestry? The candidate thereupon 
recited his ancest'ral claims in the form of a melc inoa. This mele inoa 
was not a thing to be hawked about at every festival, nor to be recited 
in public when the notion seized one to make a display of his claims. 
On the contrary, it was a sacred legacy from one's ancestors, to be 
recited only in the audience of one's peers. It is, therefore to be dis- 
tinguished from that otlier mele inoa, which might be given forth in 
public. The whole matter has been cheapened and made ridiculous in 
modern times. The following has been communicated to me as a fragment 
from a true mele inoa belonging to Kakuhihewa, an ancient king of 
Oahu, or rather to one of his descendants. 

1 Aohe au e loaa i ka ui mai, 

2 He ipu aholehole, 

3 Na Kuliihewa, ka moi Oahu nei, 

4 A MeeJianau, 

5 Mai lalo mai a luna nei, 

6 Moe ia Kanui-a-panee, 

7 Puka Ka-ua-kahi-a-ka-ola, 

8 He akua-olelo, 

9 A loaa ka I, 

10 A Kukaniloko 

1 I am not one to give my name to every challenger, 

2 A calabash of aholehole fish, (for the king) 

3 Descended from Kahuhihewa, king of this island of Oahu, 

4 And from Meehanau, 

5 He was the first king of his line 

6 Paired with Ke-a-nui-a-panee. 

7 The issue Ka-ua-kahi-a-ka-ola, 

8 A god eloquent in speech. 
8 To him was born tlie I, 

10 At Kukaniloko 

The Hale Naua is represented to have been a non-partisan, peaceful, 
organization. Its purpoj-e was to prevent bloodshed by uniting tlie chiefs 
under the bonds of kinship, friendship, and rank. It was strictly an 



264 

aristocratic society. The assertion made by Malo, in section 40, that' a 
candidate might be a commoner -as well as a chief, is in my opinion, and 
in it T am supported by intelligent Hawaiian critics, entirely erroneous. 
The doings of the so-called Hale Naua, instituted in the reign of King 
Kalakaua, are not to be regarded as an argument to be considered in the 
■question. The Hale Naua did not sit as a court to discipline or expel 
its members. Once a member, always a member, was the rule. The 
most perfect and decorum must be observed at all the meetings. This 
canon of polit'eness was expressed in the phrase given in Sect. 40, as 
another name for the Naua Society. *'Ualo inalie," the meaning of which 
is the gentle entreaty. Before leaving this matter, it should be remarked 
that membership in the Hale Naua was by no means confined to the 
relatives of the reigning family, as is implied by the statements of David 
Malo. It was open to every high-rank chief of whatever line. 

(5) Sect. 19. The text in the Hawaiian is as follows: " A ma ia mau 
po hoa mau ia ke kukui o ko ke alii nui hale, me ka pule mau i ke 
akua kii; he pule ia o holoi ana i ka poino o ka aina, ame ka pale ae 
i pau ko ka aina haumia ; he pule ia e hoopau ana i na hewa o ka aina 
•a pau ; i pau ke ae^-, me ke kawaut> ; i pau ke kulopiac, a me ka peluluka^ ; 
i pau ka hulialana^ ; alaila nihopeku^, hoemu&, huikalah, malapakaii, 
kamauli hou i ke akua."J There is much difficulty in making out the mean- 
ing of this passage. By some it is regarded as having a figurative mean- 
ing, to be taken in a spiritual sense. I prefer to fake it literally as 
referring t'o the crops, (a) Looked at it in this light, ae means blight: 
kawau means mildew, mould : (c) kulopia means decay, a condition 
worse than the one before mentioned: (d) peluluka a st'ill worse 
condition, destruction of the entire crop by decay: (e) hulialana 
represents the resulting barrenness of the fields. Now comes the con- 
trasting description of a luxuriant harvest, (f) nihopeku, the bud shooting 
from the soil Hke a toot'h from the gum : (g) hocmu, the weeding of 
tTie tender plants: (h) huikala, the ground is covered with the herbage, 
leaves and vines: (i) malapakai, the interlacing vines have to be 
separated and turned back to their own hills, so rank is the growth: 
(j) kamauli hou i ke akua, the prayer being answered, and an abundant' 
-crop secured, the first fruits of the land are ofiiered as a thank-offering 
to God. 

(8) Sect. 34. I am informed that the two outer guards were called 
Jzaikuone. The head of the hale naua, the king, was styled Ikulani. 
I am also informed (by J. K. K.) that there were four officers called 
uhialono, who acted as kuauhau, or keepers of the chronologies. They 
were also called the kakaolelo. The same one also says that when a 
candidate was introduced an officer called an uluamahi threw at him an 
ipuaho, which was nothing more or less than an ornamental ball of 
twine If this struck the candidate squarely, it was a sign that he was 
worthy. It is clear that the ideas of J. K. K. are too much influenced by 
the hale nana which Kalakaua founded. 



265 

(9) Sect. 57. Auati, the straight light' poles of the haii. These 
were very useful in training men in the spear practice. The head of 
the spear was blunted and wrapped with tapa to make its impact 
harmless. The young soldiers began practice with these. When they 
had acquired skill and proficiency with these harmless weapons, they 
were allowed to try their hand at the heavy, sharp-pointed, kauila spears, 
which were those used in battle. 

(qV^) Sect. 57. Kauila. The Kauila was a famous wood for spears; 
its color like that of mahogany. Aala is said to be fragrant. Perhaps the 
Ala-a is t'he tree in question. Auau was a tree specially useful for the 
ahos or small poles that it furnished. 

(10) Sect. 58. The aikane meant primarily a male intimate of the 
most disreijutable sort, but it came to mean also a male friend in a 
respectable sense. I take it that the word is used in the latter sense in 
the present instance. 

(11) Sect. 59. The following list of servants and people or attendants 
about the king's court has tlie double disadvantage, first, of being in- 
complete, confessedly so; second, of attaching itself to no principle of 
classification, besides which if is merely a list of names without signi- 
ficance or explanation. The following translation or explanation is given 
as the best I can do towards elucidating the subject. 

Malalaioa, people who had acquired skill in any trade or occupation. 
It probably did not include soldiers, though it' is claimed by some that 
it did. 

Uli, people with straight black hair. Black was the acceptable color 
for hair. 

Ehu. Persons with reddish or blond hair were not considered so 
comely as the former and were not retained about court. Though fhey 
might be employed about the menial offices, such as making ovens and 
cooking food. 

Kea, a class of persons with unusually light skins. They were 
favorites, much desired at court. 

Lawa, a name applied to a class of men of great strength. It was 
said that' there was but a slight interval between their ribs and their 
hips. 

Knpii. Persons with curly hair. These were regarded as strong 
bodied and were greatly desired in this regard. 

Kae. This was a term applied to the old and worn-out. 

Kalole. Persons who were stupid and inefficient. They could not 
get married because they could not support a wife. 

Niho mauole, persons of either sex who had outlived their usefulness. 
So named from the loss of most of their teeth. 

Puali This applied to soldiers. They were tightly behed" with the 
malo which they wore rather higher than was the custom among the 
common people. Hence the name puali, cut in two, from the smallness 
of the waist. It was regarded as a sign of readiness for any enterprise 



266 

to have the malo tightly girded about one. The expression was "ku 
ka piiali Jiica;' such an one has his loins girded, he's ready for the 
fight. 

Uha-kakau This is probably a wrong orthography, and should be 
tihaheke. The meaning is with thighs bent, consequently on the alert. 
They are contrasted with those who squat down on the ground. They 
generally carried some weapon concealed about them. 

Hantohanio, I am told (by Kapule) that in Muolea. in the district 
of Hana, grew a poisonous moss in a certain pool or pond close to the 
ocean. It was used to smear on the spear-points to make them fatal. 
These men were the ones who did the job, hence they were called 
hamohamo, the smearers. This moss is said to be of a reddish 
color and is still to be found. It grows nowhere else than at that 
one spot. Kapule thinks it was about the year 1857 that he was in 
Hana and saw this moss. It was shown hjm by an old man named 
Peelua, the father-in-law of S. M. Kamakau. This is a revelation and 
a great surprise to me. I never heard of such a thing before. Manu 
covered it with stones. 

Haa-kua-liki. The meaning is probably the same as the word haa- 
kua-lii, which is a later form. This class of people were dwarfish in 
figure, but of great strength and approved valor. 

Olukeloa-hoo-kaa-moena. These were those who were highly skilled 
in the art of lua and haihai, in which wrestling, bone-breaking and 
dislocating joints were combined in one art. They were a very important 
part of the army. 

Kuala-pehu. These were men who were very powerful with the 
fist. They fought with fhe naked fist. Extravagant statements are, of 
course, made of their prowess. 

Maka-L Persons who were skilled detectives, who were quick to 
interpret detective signs. They were valuable as spies. 

Ka'u-o. Probably the same as ka'u-koe, persons who went as spies 
into fhe enemies' country. They carried no weapons with them. Ka'u 
meant fearful, unwilling; koe meant requested, bidden; persons therefore 
who went reluctantly, and only because they were commanded. 

(12) Sect. 60. The ihe was a spear to be thrown from the hand. 
According to my present informant, who is a very int'elligent man from 
Molokai, tlie ihc was a long spear. A spear in my collection, which 
measures about 12^2 feet is, he says, an ihe to be thrown. 

The pololu was a spear of less length than the ihe and was not 
to leave the hand. It was generally wielded with both hands. It was 
generally a little longer than the man. 

The laau palau was a club of various length, a yard or a fathom. It 
of course' was intended to remain in the hand. 

The kuia was a short sharp pointed stick, a dagger. It might be 
carried tbrust into the girdle. 



267 

Ka ah meant to ^]ing. It ^va? a very important weapon in v.arfare. 

(The Molokai man was certainly mistaken. The long spear was the 
polulu, the short spear or javelin was the ihc. See Sect. 60 and Se:: H-. 
above. W. D. A.) 

(13) Sect. 61. Awa drinking is not known to be an efficient means 
of reducing tlie flesh. Xo wise stateman, kaiai-moku, even in ancient 
times would be likely to give such a foolish piece of advice as this. 

(14) Sect. 65. The kumuhaka was a shelf on which to keep provision-. 
It was either suspended by cords, or supported on legs. 

(15) Sect. 68. Koihala. I have two different statements in regard 
fo this king. Which of them, or w^hether either, is correct. I know not. 
One of them is that Koihala was the successor to Keoua in Kau, who Avas 
the opponent of Kamehameha I., and was murdered at Kawaihae with 
the conqueror's connivance. According to that account the worl:^ with 
which he made tlie people of ICau to sweat and groan were the building 
of the hea-xy stone-walls about several fish ponds, of which are mentioned 
those at the coast of Hilea, at Honuapo, and Ninole. He also robbed 
the fishermen of their fish. The story is that he compelled his canoe- 
men to paddle him about here and tliere where the fleets of fishir.g canoes 
were. The wind was bleak and his men suffered from, the wet and 
cold, he being snugly housed in the pola. One day he had his men take 
his canoe out towards the So\ith cape v. here was a fleet of fi-hing canoes. 
His own canoe, being filled with the spoils of his robbery, began to sink, 
and he called out for help. The fishermen declined all as-i stance; hi= 
own men left him and swam to the canoes of the fishers leaving him 
entirely in the lurch. He was drowned. 

The other account represents him as a king of the ancient times. Where 
lies the truth of history in regard to this man, I am at a loss to ^ay. 

(16) Sect. 69. Koha-i-ka-lani. The account I liave of this king is 
that he kept his people ground down by hard work. It i= said that he 
would start his people off on a long tramp into the mountains t"o cut 
ohia timber for iniages ; and before the work was done he ordered them 
at the work of earning stone images in some other direction. But no 
sooner had they got settled to the new job than he sent them back 
to finish their uncompleted work in the mountains. Finally he set ^M 
on a tour with all his wives and retinue, and ordered the serf-, hi- 
common people, to meet him at a specified place with a supply of fcod. 
When the people came to the appointed place with their burdens of 
food the king and his party were not there: they had moved on and 
the king had left word directing the people to carr>^ the food to a 
place many miles distant. On arriving at the place now indicated the 
people, who had been smarting under the affliction, found themselve- 
again ordered to bear their heavy loads to a place many hours' joumet 
distant- Their patience was now exha.isted. They con^nnie: the fcod. 
filled the bundles with stones and on arriving at lenfti in the presence 
of the king, with feigned humility laid the bundle- at the king's feet. 



268 

But when the bundles were opened the man that was in them broke 
forth. The king and his court were killed and covered under the stones. 

(Bot'h of the above traditions are given by M. Jules Remy, in his "Recits 
d'un Vieux Sauvage." They are undoubtedly very ancient.) W. D. A. 

(i;) Sect. 78. Aha olelo na 'Hi. Very little is known about this 
aha olelo na 'Hi more than this statement. There is no doubt, how- 
ever, but' what the king did consult with his chiefs as to certain import- 
ant matters of policy, perhaps as to the waging of war. But the latter 
was more likely decided by the King in consultation with his Kalaimoku, 

(18) Sect. 80. Kahv.lui. The Kahului was a disposition or order 
• of bat'tle, in which the main body of the soldiers were drawn up in the 

form of a crescent, with the horns pointing forwards. This name was, 
undoubtedly derived from the place of the same name. The region of 
Kahului was flat and treeless, 

(19) Sect. 80. Makaivalu, an order of battle in which the soldiers 
were irregularly grouped into bands or companies to suit the ground. 

(20) Sect. 81. The Kukulu was a battle in which the opposing forces 
were formally drawn up in line against each other. It is said that in 
=uch cases the opposing forces would consult each other's convenience 
as to tTie time for beginning the action; and it was even postponed 
to accomodate one or the other. This reminds of the days of chivalry 
when men fought for "Honour," when the captain of one side would 
step to the front, and, adressing the other side, say "Are you ready, 
Gentlemen?" and, being answered in the affirmative, turning to his 
own men, said "Prepare to Fire.." "Fire !" 

(21) Sect. 81. Kapae was not an order of battle, but a truce, or 
cessation of hostilities. It might be found out, for instance, there being 
no urgent' reason for battle, that the two forces were led perhaps by 
men who were near relatives, or who had been at one time great 
friends ; or, after a prolonged and bloody contest, in which the two 
forces were proven to be so nearly equal in strength and valor that neither 
party could hope for victory, prudence and a more reasonable view of 
things suggested the desirability of bringing the trial of strength and 
endurance to a close. In such a case there would be a general shaking 
of hands — the right hand, as with us, or both hands, might be used, if 
there was strong emotion, sometimes embracing and touching noses, 
though that was not the general custom. 

(The custom of shaking hands was first introduced here by white men, 
in modern times.) W. D. A. 

(22) Sect. 81. Moemoe, a night attack. The Hawaiian? were not! 
given to placing sentinels and keeping watch at night in their military 
campaigns in ancient times. Possibly Kaniehameha followed a stricter 
rule in t'hi.-^ regard, for which reason a night attack must have proved 
verv successful when it was tried. 



269 

(23) Sect. 82. Kaakaua is said also to mean one who stimulated 
the men to brave deeds and enthusiastn by gesticulations and shouts, 
especially perhaps by brandishing or twirling a spear in the front of 
battle. Such -actions were as legitimate as one of Napoleon's war pro- 
clamations. 

(24) Sect. 82. Lau-aua also means one who concealed his strength 
or skill until the time of battle. Is not that strategy? To hide one's 
power from one's enemies, even if one's friends are kept in the dark at 
the same time, Avhat is that but strategy? 

(25) Sect. 83. A sound observation. Naturally it would not do to 
divide a small force, as would be done in makawalu, nor tb draw up such 
a force in the form of a crescent, as in kahului. 

(26) Sect. 84. The huna-lezva were what might be called the skirmish- 
ers, those furthest in the advance and who were in very open order. 

(27) Sect. 85. Waa-kaua. In this an army was formed into bodies of 
men numbering perhaps 1000 each. 

(28) Sect. 85. Puulu-kaua, a close body, a phalanx. 

(29) Sect. 85. Papa-kaua, probably a body of picked men. chiefs 
and men of rank, who were armed with the pololu. which was probably 
the best offensive as well as defensive weapon employed by the Hawaii- 
an€. It seems probable to me that these were the men who surrounded 
the king, and I am informed that such was the case. 

(30) Sect'. 85. Poe kaua, said to be the half-trained, light-armed 
soldiers. 

(31) Sect. 95. In order fo make sense out of what would otherwise 
be an evidently foolish passage, I have found it necessary to substitute 
soft for hard, and hard for soft, poi, in this passage. 



CHAPTER XXXIX. 

AGRICULTURE. 



1. Agriculture was a matter of great importance in Hawaii, 
because by it a man obtained the means of supporting himself 
and his wife, his children, friends and domestic animals. It was 
associated, however, with the worship of idols. 

2. In the Hawaiian Islands agriculture was conducted differ- 
ently on lands where there were streams of water and on dry 
lands. On lands supplied with running water agriculture was 
easy and could be carried on at all times, and the only reason 
for a scarcity of fo®d among the people on such lands was idle- 



270 

iicss. Sometimes, however, the water-supply failed : but the 
drought did not last long. 

3. On the kiila^ lands farming was a laborious occupation and 
called for great patience, being attended with many drawbacks. 
On some of these were grubs, or caterpillars, or blight, hauoki, 
(frost), or kahe, (freshets), or the sun was too scorching; besides 
which there were many other hindrances. 

4. On the irrigated lands wet patches were planted with 
kcilo (taro, the Arnin csculentum, or Colocasia antiqiiorum of the 
"botanists.) Banks of earth were first raised about the patch and 
TDeaten hard, after which water was let in, and w^hen this had be- 
come nearly dr)-, the four banks were re-enforced with stones, 
coconut leaves and sugar-cane tops, until they were water-tight. 
Then the soil in the patch was broken up, water let in again, and 
the earth was well mixed and trampled with the feet.^ 

5. A line was then stretched to mark the rows, after which the 
huli, or taro- tops, were planted in the rows. Sometimes the 
planting was done without the rows being lined in. Water was 
then constantly kept running into the patch. The first two leaves 
appear called laupai; the taro attains full size, but it is not until ' 
twelve months are past that the tubers are ripe and ready to be 
made into food. 

6. If potatoes were to be planted, the field was furrowed and 
Avater let in. after which the potato-stalks were set out, or, it 
might be, bananas, yams, or some other things. 

7. When the land has become dry after the first w^atering, 
water is turned on again.^ The plants are kept weeded out and 
hilled, and water is turned on from time to time for six months, 
by which time the potatoes are ripe and fit for food. Such is the 
cultivation of all irrigable lands. 

8. Ihe cultivation of knia lands is quite different from that 
of irrigable lands. The farmer merely cleared of weeds as much 
land as he thought would suffice. If he was to plant taro (tip- 
land taro), he dug holes and enriched them with a mulch of ku- 
kui leaves, ashes or dirt, after which he planted the taro. In some 
places they simply planted without mulch or fertilizer. 

9. Taro was constantly weeded until it had grown to be of 
good size, when it was fit to be made into poi or used as food in 



271 

some other way. It was twelve months before it was mature and 
ready for pulUng to be made into food. 

10. If a field of potatoes'* was (iesired, the soil was raised 
into hills, in which the stems were planted; or the stems might 
merely be thrust into the ground any how, and the hilling done 
after the plants were grown ; the vines were also thrown back upon 
the hill. In six months the potatoes were ripe. Such was the 
cultivation of kida land. 

11. On the knla lands the farms of the aliis were called koele, 
Iwkuone, or kuakua, those of the people, mahina-ai. 

12. The island of Niihau was mostly ktda and the principal 
crops were accordingly sweet potatoes, yams, and sugar-cane. 
There were, however, some taro patches at Waiu, on the wind- 
ward side, but their extent was small. The people of that island 
were energetic farmers. They would clear the land and mulch 
it for many months, until the ground was thickly covered and 
the mulch had rotted, after which they planted such crops as 
sweet potatoes, yams, or sugar-cane. 

13. There is kula land on parts of Kauai, Oahu, Molokai, and 
Lanai, just as on Niihau. The chief crops of these lands are 
sweet potatoes. There is wet taro-land, however, at Maunalei — on 
Lanai — and an abundance of taro. Kahoolawe is made up of 
kiila land, and the principal vegetable is the potato, besides which 
yams and sugar-cane are produced, but no taro. 

14. There is ^2//a-land on parts of Maui and Hawaii. Kona 
is the part of Hawaii most exposed to the sun. Because of the 
prolonged dryness of the weather they frequently suffer from 
famine in that district. In time of famine the people of Kona 
performed religious ceremonies with great diligence, and care- 
fully reckoned the months in which to plant. 

15. There were different kinds of farmers. Those who really 
made a business of it and worked until sunset were called ili-pilo. 
Those who kept at it for only a short time and did not do much 
at it were called ili-helo, (dry skin.) 

16. Some husbandmen were provident of the food which they 
raised, while others wasted it. Those who raised an abundance 
of food, but used it improvidently, soon came to want because of 
their wastefulness. 



272 

ly. The farmer who raised but little, but was economical in 
the use of his food did not soon come to waiit. Thase who were 
economical in the use of their food were nicknamed hoopi — 
stingy ; they did not often come to want. 

1 8. One reason why people soon ran out of food was be- 
cause they planted it all at once, so that when it ripened it ripened 
all at one time. While they were eating of one part another 
part also was ripe, so they invited their neighbors to help them- 
selves to the food. This was one of the causes why some speed- 
ily came to want. 

19. Some farmers did not plant a great deal at a time. They 
would plant a little now, and, after waiting a few months, they 
planted more land. So they continued to plant a little at a time 
during the months suitable for planting. The food did not all 
ripen at once, and by this plan the supply was kept up for a 
long time, and they had no lack of food. The necessity of fur- 
nishing: food to the landlord was a reason for not taxine" the 

land, and it was a means of averting famine from the farmers. 
Food was a child to be cared for, and it required great care 

20. Farmers were well acquainted with the seasons, the dry 
and the rainy season, the months suitable for planting potatoes, 
and those suitable for planting taro. 

21. It was the custom with all farmers, when a crop of food 
has ripened, to peform a religious service to the gods. Those 
who worshipped Ku built their tire during tlie tabu peri'xl of Ku ; 
those who worshipped Kane, built the fire during the tabu of 
Kane. Tf Lono was the god they worshipped, they built the fire 
on his dav, and if Kanaloa was their God they built the fire in 
Kaloa, 

22. While they were rubbing for fire and kindling it, no noise 
or disturbance must be made, but this tabu was removed so soon 
as fire was obtained. The contents of the oven were made up 
of vegetables and some sort of meat or fish as well. 

23. When the food was cooked, the whole company were 
seated in a circle, the food was divided out and each man's por- 
tion was placed before him. Then the idol was brought forth and 
set in the midst of them all, and about its neck was hung the ipu 
Lono. (See Chap XXIV, Sec. 5.) 



^3 

24- Then the kahuna took of the food and offered it to heaven 
(lani), not to the idol ; because it was believed that the deit^- was 
in the heavens, and that the carved image standing before them all 
was only a remembrancer. 

25. When the priest had offered the food all the people ate 
until they were satisfied, after which what was left was returned 
to the owner of it. Such was the practice among those who were 
religiously inclined; but those who were without a gc-i just ate 
their food without lighting the sacrificial fire and v,-ithout per« 
forming any service of worship to the gods. 

26. After this ceremony of fire-lighting the man's farm was 
noa, and he might help himself to the food at any time without 
again kindling a fire. But ever\' time the farmer cooked an oven 
of food, before eating of it, he offered to the deity a potato or a 
taro, laying it on the altar, or putting it on a tree. 

2y. Every farmer with a god worshipped him at all times, but 
the farmers who had no gods did not worship. 

NOTES ON CHAPTER XXXIX. 

(i) Sect. 3. Kula was the name applied to such land^ a 5 were dry 
and inaccessible to water except from irrigation. The greater part of" 
every one of the Hawaiian Islands i? made up of what i? called kula land. 
The word kula has been adopted by the English-speaking people of the 
Hawaiian Islands. 

Kula, X. Z.. tura. means bald. A long norv- h told of a man named' 
Tura, who was said to have been the first bald-headed man. 

(2} Sect. 4. The trampling was fo make the ground water-proof, i. e.. 
so that the water would not soak entirely away. 

(3) Sect. 7. It seems unaccountable that Malo should give no descrip- 
tion of, nor make direct allusion to, the method of irrigation by ditches 
with the Hawaiians used with great success, and in which they displayed! 
not a little engineering skill. The course of old. historic irrigation canals 
can still be pointed out across lands that are dry at the preser.t day. and 
that for generations have not received a supply of water from any such 
source. 

(j) Sect 10. The Hawaiians were not acquainted with the so-called 
Irish potato, which is in reality an American potato, until it- introduction 
bv the white man. Their potato was the sweet potato, the kumara of 
Maori-land, the uala of Hawaii. 

(N. B.) Lono was the god whose benignity chiefly commended him to 
the con.idence of the fanner. The great god Ku, whose name and charac- 
ter suggest a resemblance to Zeus, was also a frequent object of worship 
by the same class. There were also many other gods worshipped hy 
farmers. 



^74 
CHAPTER XL. 

COXCERNIXG FISHING. 

1. Fishermen, or those skilled in the art of catching fish, were 
called poc lazcaia. Fishing was associated with religious cere- 
monies, or idolatrous worship. The heiaus or altars, at which 
iishemien performed their religious ceremonies, were of a class 
different from all otliers. 

2. There were many different methods of fishing: with nets: 
with hook and line : with the pa, or troll-hook ; with the leho, or 
cow TV : with the hifuri. or basket ; the method called ko^i;^ and 
wnth the hand thrust into holes in the rocks. 

3. The lieiau at which fishermen worshipped their patron deity 
for good luck was of the kind called Kuula:''^ but as to the gods 
worshipped by fishermen, they were various and numerous — each 
one worshipping the god of his choice. The articles also that 
were tabued by one god were different from those tabued by 
another god. 

4. The god of one fisherman tabued ever>'thing that was 
black, and that fisherman accordingly would not allow anything 
colored black to appear in what he wore : his wiie would not put 
on a :apa or a pj-u that had black in it. nor have an}i;hing black 
about her house. A line would be stretched about the house to 
prevent anyone who was robed, or maloed or pa-tted, in black, 
from entering the enclosure about their establishment. Nor would 
he allow any black to appear upon his fishing tackle. 

5. Turmeric was an article that was tabued by some fishing 
gods, a red earth called alaea by others. Accordingly fishermen 
who looked to these gods as their patrons would not suffer the 
prohibited articles to appear in the apparel of man or woman in 
their family, and they stretched a line about their establishments 
to keep from entering therein anyone who had these things about 
them : nor would they suffer these things to be about their tackle. 

6. The gods of this craft then were of many kinds and their 
tabus \-arious : but they were all alike in the fact that they always 
worshipped before going forth to fish, and in a manner appro- 
priate to the kind of fish. 



7. The rclijt;iuiis coiTinanics centered specially about the opclu 
and ah'u, ami wore repeated at every fishing season. There were 
reli.nioiis rites relalini;' lo other fishes also, but they were iio( so 
siriet and rigorous as tlioso that related to tlie opelu and the aku, 
and this will appear from the fact that their rite formed part of 
Ihe ohservanees of the Makahiki. (See Chap. XXWI.) The 
ttsh eaten during the summer months of Kau were difl'ercnt as to 
kind from those eaten during the winter, flooilo. During Kau 
the opelu was taken and used for food, during llooilo the aku — 
honito or albieore. 

S. In the motUh of llitia'iaeleele (corresponding to July) they 
look the opeUi by means of the A'(//7/'' net aud used it for food. 
The aku was then made tabu, and no man, be he commoner or 
alii, might eat of the aku; and if any chief or commoner was 
detected in S(^ doing he was put to death. The opelu was free 
aud might be used as food until the month of Kaelo or January. 

o. Kaelo was the mntUli in which was performed the cere- 
mony id" plucking out and eating the eye of the aku. (Chap. 
WXVl: /$.) After that was done the aku might be eaten and 
the opelu in its turn became tabu and might not be eaten, save 
uuiler pain of death. 

10. liot'ore slaiting out to fish for the opelu the fishermen 
would assemble at the hnnia hcitui in the evening, bringing with 
tluiu their nets, of the sort called (/(*/, ]>igs. bananas, coconuts, 
poi, and their sleeping apparel, that they might spend the night 
and worship the iX<>^\ of fishing. 

11. While engagetl in this ceremony all the people sat in 
a circle, and the kahuna, bringing a dish of water that had in it a 
coarse sea-moss, limn kala, and turmeric, stood in their midst and 
uttered a prayer Um- purificatiim {(>ulc huihala). At the close 
of Ihe service the kahuna called out. 

Iltinir oia. 

Defend us fmm them. 

Tile people responded: 

IlCffUi, 

Defend us. 



276 

The priest said: 

Hemu na moe inoino, na moemoea, 
na punohunohu,'^ na hmimia. 

Hemu oia. 

Save us from night-mare, from bad-luck-dreams, 

from omens of ill. 
From such deliver us. 

The people responded : 
Hemu! 
Defend us! 

The priest said : 
Elieli! 
Speedily and entirely! 

The people responded : 
Nod! 
It is free! 

The priest said: 
la c! 
Oh, la ! 

The people responded : 
Noa honiia. 
Freedom complete, absolute. 

With this the ceremony of purification was ended. 

12. All the people slept that night about the sanctuary (imiia). 
It was strictly forbidden for any one to sneak away secretly to 
his own house to lie with his wife. They had to spend that 
night at the sanctuary in the observance of tabu. 

13. When this service was performed the canoes could put to 
sea, and the pigs were then laid into the ovens for baking. On 
the return of the men with their fish, the kahunas having oflfered 
prayer, the pork, bananas, coconuts and vegetables were laid 
upon the Jeh, and the function of the kahuna was ended. 

14. After that the people feasted themselves on tlie food and 
religious services ^vere discontinued by express command (papa), 
because the prayers had been repeated and the whole business 
was }ioa, fishing was now free to all. 

15. Thus it was that fishermen, whether those who took the 
aku with the troll-hook, the pa, or those who used nets, performed 



277 

their ceremonies of worship. But the godless, i.e., the irre- 
ligious or skeptical ones went to their fishing without any re- 
ligious ceremony whatever. 

1 6. There was a great variety of implements, apparatus and 
methods employed by fishermen ; large nets and small nets, large 
baskets and small baskets ; some used nets and some used hooks. 
Those who used nets sometimes dived under water with them 
while fishing, but those who used hooks did not dive, unless to 
clear the hook when it had caught in the reef, and then only if 
the water was shallow. 

17. The following kinds of fish-nets were used: the papa- 
hului, to surround a school of fish, in conjunction with a net 
called an-niai-czm,^ the aiilau, the pakuikiii, the papa-olewaJewa, 
the laau m^lomelo and possibly the kahckahe. 

18. Of nets there was also the kupo,^ the ka-zvaa, the kuu, 
the aci, the ponono, the akiikii, the lu'elu'c, the kaihi, the liano- 
malolo, the hano-iao, the kaccohua, the kaeepaoo, the kaili, the 
pahu, and the liaoa-puhi. Then there was lawaia npalupalu (or 
ordinary angling), and the upcna nlnnlu. 

19. Of arrangements of fish-hooks, there was the kaka}^ 
used in taking the ahi, the kahala, the method called kiikaula, the 
luhc'c, the Iii-akii, -the ka-mokoi, the ku-mano, lazmia-palu, the 
haoa-puliij and lazvaia-upapahi. 

20. Of methods of basket fishing there were the kala basket, 
the eel basket, the hijiai-houluulii/^ the basket for taking hinalea, 
the kazvaa basket, the paiohna basket, and the pai-o'opu. Prob- 
abl}^ some of the baskets have failed of mention. 

21. Some fish were taken by diving for them. Of such were 
the turtle, the lobster, the mauini, the kala, and others for which 
the fishermen dived when they saw them entering holes in the 
rocks. 

22. There were some who engaged in fishing on a large scale, 
and were called Laivaia nnl, while those who worked on a small 
scale were called lawaia liilii. 

23. The professional fisherman, who worked on a large scale 
and was in comfortable circumstances, carried such tackle as 
hooks, lines, etc., in a calabash or ipu, (the full name of which is 
ipii-holoholona) ,yyhi\e the petty fisheniian who worked on a 



278 

small scale, carried his tucked away in the bight or knot (hipn'u) 
of his malo, and such fishermen were called lawaia-pola-malo, 

24. The name ko'a or ko'a-lawaia was applied to certain places 
in the deep sea where fish haunted. Thus the place where the 
ahi were wont to be found was called a ko'a-ahi, and that where 
the akii or the kahala or opelu were to be found, was called a 
ko'a-aku or a ko'a-kahala or a ko'a-opelu, and so on. 

25. These ko'a-laziaia were so deep under water that the eye 
failed to perceive them, nor could the fish be seen Avhen swim- 
ming over them, nor when they seized the hook. In order to 
find them it was necessary to take one's bearings from the land. 
Two bearings were required, and where these were found to in- 
tersect, there was the ko'a, and there the fisherman let do\vn his 
hook or his net. 

26. When the fish took the hook, a quiver ran along the line 
and was communicated to the hand of the fisherman, whereupon 
he at once pulled in the line. Such was deep sea fishing. 

27. When the fish were in shoal water their presence could 
be detected, if it were a sandy bottom. Among the fishes that 
haunted waters with a sandy bottom were the zveke, oio, zvclea, 
akule, and manv other kinds of fish. 

28. If it was on a bank that the fish were seen, then they were 
probably of the kind known as ma'oma'o or palapala. 

29. Some fish played about on the surface of the water, as 
did the flying fish, malolo^ the puhikiij ua'u, iheihe, kehee, aha, 
and many others. 

30. Some kinds of fish haunted caverns and holes, as did 
the shark, eel, lobster, squid and many others. There were fisher- 
men who took every kind of fish except the whale; that was not 
taken by Hawaiian fishermen. 

NOTES TO CHAPTER XL. 

(i) Sect. 2. Koi* : This was a method of fishing in which a long, 
stiff pole was usel, with a strong Hne and hook attached. The hook was 
baited by preference with a tough fish such as the paoo. The baited 
hook was then drawn back and forth over the surface of the water to 
attract the prey. From this word comes no doubt the familiar word 
mokoi', to angle with pole, hook and line. 

(2) Sect. 3. Kuula: this was generally a mere rude pile of stones, 
often placed on a promontory or elevafion overlooking the sea. Coral 
or some sort of limestone was preferred to any other variety of stone. 



279 

The altar itself was commonly called a ko'a, Ktiula being the name of 
the chief patron deity of fishermen. The number of gods and godlings 
worshipped by fishermen is too numerous for mention. 

Remark, Altars of stone were erected and Tisible until a recent date 
at MaHko, Honuaula, Oloalu. and Kaupo on Maui ; on the island of Ka- 
hoolawe; at Kaena and Kaohai on Lanai; at Waimea, Ka-lae-c-ka-oio, 
Kua-loa and Waimanalo on Oahu; at Hanalei. ]ilana, and Moloaa on 
Kauai; and at \ery many other places. A notable place v. a; at the prom- 
ontory south-east of Waimea, Oahu. 

(3) Sect. 8. Kaili: a name applied to the fine-mouthed net used for 
taking the opelu. It was also called oeL The mouth of the net v.-a, kept 
open by means of two sticks of the elastic ulei wood. After the net had 
been let down under water, it's mouth was made round by means of two 
lines that were attached to the ends of the Eticks. On pulling these lines 
the sticks were bent, and the rrouth of the net was drawn into a circular 
form. 

(4) Sect. 5, Alaea; the Hawaiian word shows the Ioes of consonants. 
The Tahitian word is araca, the Mzori, Karamea. 

(5) Sect. II. Punohunohu: clouds, especially the bright piled up 
cloads seen in early morning, which were looked upon as ominou; of 
sofnet!hing. 

(6) Sect. II- This prayer is ver3' similar to that given in Chapter 
XXVII, Sect. 13, and it seems to me that "He mv^' should be written 
here as two separate w^ords, as it is in that' passage. Its meaning is dis- 
cussed in the note (No. 5) follownng that chapter. See also Chapter 
XXXVII, Sect. 30, note B. W. D. A. 

(7) Stct. 20. Oopu — ^the New Zealand ]^Iaori Kokopu. 

(8) Section 17. Att-mai-ewa. This net had a large mouth, and was 
placed at the wings of the papa-hului to receive the fish that were 
gathered by the former. The aulau consisted of leaves thickly strung to 
a long line, used to pen up the fish and drive them to the net. 

Pakuikui: in this a net is laid in a hollow or ravine in the coral 
through which the fish must pass in their retreat sea-ward, the -^vater 
being at the same time beaten to drive them towards the net. 

PapOr-olewalewa; a net used in much the same way as the pa-kuikui^ 
but in deep water and in conjunction with the laau inelo-melo. 

Laau fivelo-melo; a clublike stick, which after being charred, was 
anointed with oils whose odor was attractive to the fish, and then thrust 
intb the water Xo draw the fish by its fragrance. 

Kahekahe; 2l method in which a large net was placed in deep water, in 
a place where the current or some opportunity for feeding caused the 
fish to assemble. 

Another method called by tbis same name, was that in which the fish 
were attracted to the net by bait artfully strewn in the water. 

(9) Sect. 18. Kupo; a long net stretched across the track of fish, one 
end being anchored in deep, the other in shoal water. 



28o 

Ka-wa'a; a net used in the deep sea, the fish being driven in by thrash- 
ing the water or pelting it with stones. 

Kiiu; a generic name for almost' any kind of net that was let down into 
the water. . The aei, said to be the same as the kaili described in Note 
(3). 

The mouth was held open by long sticks of ulei, the fish being attracted 
with bait. Pouono; a long net that' was stretched across an ocean ravine 
or gully, while men beat the water with sticks. 

Akiikii; a net of moderate size used in ambuscading fish. The rocks 
in front of the net were upturned to give tlie fish a new feeding ground. 
After waiting awhile, the water was beaten to drive the fish towards the 
net. 

Lu'clu'e; a net of moderat'e size, in which bait having been placed, it 
was let down into deep water, out of sight of the fisherman. At the point 
of juncture of the two lines which cross the mouth of the net, where is 
attached the line that' leads to the fisherman's hand, is also attached a short 
line with bait at its free end. When the fisherman feels the line quiver 
from the entrance of the fish or from its pulling at the bait, he hauls up 
the net. 

Kaihi; said to be a fine meshed net that takes all kinds of fish, similar 
to the kaili. . 

Hano-malolo; a long net held by two canoes, while two others drove 
the fish into its open mouth. 

Hano-iao; a fine meshed net for taking small fish, to be used as bait. 

Kaee-ohua; a small net that was held open by means of two sticks held 
in the hands of the fisherman. It was used in shoal water. 

Kacc-paoo; the same as the kae -ohiia, only that it had but one stick 
for a handle. The kaili, already mentioned and the same as the aei. 
By some it is said to be a net with fine meshes, used only in shoal water 
and over a sandy bottom, and to take all kinds of fish, a grab-all. 

Pahu; a net two or three fathoms long, used by two men in shoal water, 
who at tlie same time thrashed with long sticks at the wings of the net 
to drive in the fish. Haoa-puhi; a short piece of hard wood tapering to 
a sharp point at each end. with a line attached to its middle; it was 
baited and lashed to the end of a stick that served as a handle, by means 
of which it was thrust into the hiding places of the eel. On being 
swallowed by the fish, the line was drawn taut, and the haoa was turned 
crosswise in the gullet of fhe fish. Upalupalu, ordinary angling. When 
the baited hook was thrown as in fly fishing, to a particular spot on the 
surface of the wafer, it was called pa aeo. The iiluulu is described as a 
small net having two sticks to open its mouth, one of which was held in 
each hand. With this the fisherman dived deep down under water. 

(lo) Sect. 19. Kaka, in which a number of hooks are attached to a 
single line, much used in a deep-sea fishing. 

Kahala, in which a net made of very strong cord is used to take the 
shark, called also the hihi-mano. 



28l 

Kukaula. In this method the canoe was anchored in water said not to 
exceed ten fathoms in depth, that being about' the length of Hne at which 
the pull of a fish taking the hook could be detected at once by the hand 
of the fisherman. They did. however, fish at greater depths fhan this. 

Luhe'e; a method of squidding in which a large cowry, coupled with 
a stone sinker, is attached to the hook, the color and lustre of the shell 
offering an irresistible fascination t'o the octopus. The instrument itself 
is called Icho-he'e, the method luliee. 

Hi aku; the use of the pa in trolling for the aku, (pa hi aku) being 
the full name for the instrument. It consists of a hook of human bone 
fixed to a plate of mofher of pearl. Various modifications of this troll- 
hook are found in the different islands of the Pacific. 

Ka-mokoi, ordinary fishing with hook, line and rod. 

Ku-mano', taking the shark with bait and a noose. 

Lawaia-pahi, attracting fish by means of bait scattered on the water. 

Lawaia-upapalu. In this as in fly fishing, the hook is thrown to a de- 
sired spot. 

(ii) Sect. 20. Hinai houluulu, a basket with which a fisherman would 
dive down under water to fake certain fish. 

Hinalea, a small fish much esteemed for its flavor. 

The pai-o'opu was a hat-shaped basket used to take the oopu, a sweet 
and delicate fish found in mountain streams and fresh water ponds. 

(12) Sect. 28. Ma'oma'o or palapalai; the fishes of tliis or allied 
species of fish were marked with stripes or patches of bright color, like 
ripe autumn leaves, one being the lauhau. 



CHAPTER XLL 

SPORTS AND GAMES, UME. 

1. From the most ancient times down to the reign of Liholiho, 
Kamehameha II, there was a great variety of games practiced 
by the people. In the month of Ikuwa} October, the coming of 
the Makahiki season was indicated by the display of flags,^ and 
the people left their ordinary^ worship of idols, and jomed with 
the chiefs in the practice of games and sports. 

2. Ume was a pastime that was very popular with all the 
Hawaiians. It was an adulterous sport and was played in the 
following manner. A large enclosure/ or pa, was made in the 
midst of or close to the town. 

3. This done, all the people took hold and helped to collect a 
large quantity of faggots ; and when it came night a bonfire was 



282 

started, which made it as Hght as day, and all the people gathered 
together. 

4. When all were seated in a circle within the enclosure, a 
man stood forth as the president^ of the assembly and called them 
to order. Another man also came forward and chaunted a gay 
and lascivious song, waving in his hand the while a long wand*^ 
which was trimmed at intervals with tufts of bird-feathers. He 
waved this to and fro as he moved about, repeating at the same 
time the words of his song. 

5. As he made his circuit, passing in front of the people, he 
selected^ the fine-looking women and the handsome men, and the 
man and woman whom he indicated by touching them with his 
wand went out and enjoyed themselves together. 

6. A husband would not be jealous of or offended at his own 
wife, if she went out with another man, nor would a wife be 
angry with her own husband because he went out to enjoy an- 
other woman, because each of them would have done the same 
thing if they had been touched with the time-stick. 

7. During the nights while this game was being played the 
man consorted with the woman that pleased him, and the woman 
with the man that pleased her; and when daylight ^ came the 
husband returned to his own wife and the wife tO' her own hus- 
band. 

8. Owing to these practices, the affections of the woman 
were often transferred to the man, her partner,^ and the affections 
of the man to the woman who was his partner; so that the man 
would not return to his former wife, nor the woman to her 
former husband. This was the way ume was played. Another 
name for this sport was pili^=^ioviched by the wand. 

NOTES TO CHAPTER XLI. 

(i) Sect I. I-ku-wa, the month corresponding to Ocfober or No- 
vember, said to be so called from the thunder often heard at that time. 

(2) Sect. I. This display of flags was a natural expression of joy 
and enthusiasm. 

(3) Sect. I. The stat'ement that the people at the time of Makahiki left 
their idol-worship and indulged in games, is misleading in more than one 
respect. 1st. The assumption that the worship of the Hawaiians was 
mere idol-worship is not for a moment to be credited; one has but t'o 
consider the prayers they offered to be convinced of the opposite. 2d. 



283 

The same spirit of worship inspired the ceremonies of this Makahikx 
festival as pervaded the other tabu-periods of the year. , N. B. E. 

The Makahiki festival was sacred to Lono, and the worship of the 
other gods was suspended for the time. \V D A 

See Chap. XXXVIII, Sect. i6. 

isH) Sect. I. Ume was a plebeian sport. Xo chief of high rank, or 
who greatly respected himself, would think of being present at the per- 
formance of this game. Not because of its immorality, not that, but be- 
cause it was not a place where he would meet his peers. Chiefs of low- 
rank went, because they were of low rank and did not greatly respect 
themselves. The sport of this nature at which the chief should attend 
was kilu, which will soon be described. 

(4) Sect. 2. It is an error to assert that ume was generally played 
in an open court or enclosure. It was in a house that it was chiefly 
played. In Honolulu — which by the way was in ancient times called Kou — 
the kale ume was situated where Bishop s Bank now stands. 

(5) Sect. 4. The president of the assembly was called the ano-hale^ 
i. e., the one who kept the house quiet, orderly. 

(6) Sect. 4, The one who carried the wand was called the man, and 
the wand itself was called the maile. 

(7) Sect. 5. The selection was not left to the uninfluenced judgment 
of the mau. The man indicated his choice to the mau, the wand-bearer, 
at the same time putting into his hands some thing of value as an induce- 
ment, to be given to the woman, perhaps to be passed on to her husband 
in return for his complaisance. Sometimes, when the pair got outside, 
the woman would refuse to have anything to do with the man, and they 
returned at once to the hale ume. 

(8) Sect. 7. The word ho-ao, which was the ancient word that meant 
the most legitimate form of marriage, was derived from this staying to- 
gether until day-light, ao. For a man and woman to make a night of 
it together and to stay with each other until ao, morning was equivalent 
to a declaration of marriage. This temporary union for a night was 
termed omau, in distinction from hoao. 

Virgins and unmarried women did not as a rule attend at the hale-ume. 
Ume, as said before, was not a game for the aliis, but for the common 
people. The woman could of course do something in the way of manage- 
ment, but she could not actually refuse to go out with the man who had 
chosen her. 

(9) Sect. 8. If the man took his new wife to his home, it was for the 
new favorite to say^ whether the former woman might stay on the 
promises. The children belonged to the man. 

The meaning of the word u-me is to draw, to attract. "E ume mai 
ia'u; e hahai makou mamuli ou/' Draw me; we will run after thee. 
Song of Solomon, 4:1. 



284 
CHAPTER XLII. 

SPORTS AND GAMES. 
KiLU. 

1. Kiln was a very favorite sport with the ancient Hawaiians. 
It was played in the sanie enclosure as nine. One night unre 
would be played, another night kihi. They were both licentious 
sports. The manner of playing kilu was as follows : 

2. The company were seated in a circle within the enclosure. 
On one side were set a number of pobs, (broad-based, pointed 
cylinders), and opposite to them, on the other side, about ten 
fathoms away, an equal number of pobs. 

3. The players sat immediately behind these pobs or posts, 
five or more on each side, together with the tally-keepers of the 
game. Then the one who acted as president of the game stood 
up and called aloud ''Puheoheo" ; and the whole assembly an- 
swered, "Puheoheo-heo." 

4. Order was at once established ; and if any one made a dis- 
turbance they set fire to his clothing. Silence having been secured, 
the kihcs, with which the game was to be played, were placed in 
front of those who were to play the game. 

5. The kilu was a gourd (or cocoanut shell) that had been cut 
obliquely from one end to the other. Before beginning the play, 
the tally-keeper, or helu-ai, holding a kihi in his hand, addressed 
the tally-keeper of the other side in a low tone of voice, and 
stated the name, or purpose of the kilu, saying, for instance, 
"this kiln is a love-token; it is a kissing kilu {kilu honi.)" 

6. The tally-keeper on the other side then replied in a low 
^tone giving the name of some person on his side. ( ka mea 

aloha kapa mai.) 

7. This done, the tally-keepers gave the kilns into the hands 
of the two players. Each of the players chanted an oli before he 
began to play. If the kiln thrown by one of the players hit the 
pob on the other side at which he aimed, his tally-keeper in a 
loud tone said. 



285 

A tiwetizire ke ko'e a ke kae, 
Puehuehu ka la, komo inoino, 
Kakia, kahe ka ua Halo. 

Now wriggles the womi to its goal, 

What a towselHng : a hasty entrance : 
Pinned: down falls the rain. 

8. The successful player then crossed over and claimed a 
kiss in payment for his success, because the forfeit of the kiln was 
to be kissing. They continued to play till one of them scored ten 
and that one was declared the winner. Sometimes one side would 
celebrate the victory by dancing. The play was kept up till 
morning and resumed the following night. 

NOTES TO CHAPTER XLII. 

Notes. Kiln was a select and aristocratic game to which none but aliis 
were admitted. The king and queen were not above participating in the 
pleasures of this sport. Any chief of recognized rank in the papa alii was 
admitted. Once admitted to the hall in which the sport was indulged in, 
all were peers and stood on an equal footing as to the privileges and rules 
of the game. King nor queen could claim exemption from the rules of 
the game, nor deny toi^ny one the full exercise of the privileges acquired 
under the rules. 

There was a greater outward propriety and a certain show of regard 
for etiquette in the playing of kilu. which must have been wanting in 
unic, but the motive of the game was in each case the same. 

The men sat grouped at one end of the hall, the women at the other. 
The players, five or more in number of each sex, sat facing each other 
in advance of the spectators, separated by an interval, which must have 
been less than the "ten fathoms" at which David Malo places it. The 
floor, at least that portion of it which lay between the players, was cover- 
ed with matting. (In the game of time it was strewn with rushes). The 
players were probably select'ed by the president (Sect. 3), who was termed 
the la-auoano, i. c., quiet day. In front of each player was placed, what, 
for lack of a better name, I have termed a pob (following the terminology 
of the game of quoits), which was nothing more or less than a conical 
block of heavy wood broad at the base, to keep if upright. The kiln. 
with which the game was played, was a dish made by cutting in two an 
egg-shaped coconut shell obliquely from one side of the point to the eyes, 
thus making a somewhat one-sided dish. The object of the player was 
to cast his kilu so that it should travel with a sliding, and at the same 
time a rotary, motion, across the floor and hit' the pob that stood in front 



286 

of the woman of his choice. The woman also took her turn in playing 
after the man. A successful hit entitled a player to claim a kiss from 
his opponent, a toll which it was cust'omary to demand the payment of at 
once. The successful making of ten points in the game entitled one to 
claim the same forfeit as in the game of ume. But such rights were often 
commuted for, — on grounds of wise policy, at' the request of the victor, — 
by an equivalent of land or some other possession. Still no fault could 
be found if a player demanded fhe full payment of the forfeit. The two 
did not, however, retire for that purpose at the time — that would have 
been contrary to etiquette — but did so later in fhe night, after the company 
had separated. 

A game of kilu was often gotten up by one alii as a compliment to dis- 
tinguished visitors of rank. It was a supreme expression of hospitality, 
and was not an empty phrase, as when the Spanish don says to his guest 
^'all that I have is yours." I have succeeded in obtaining the following 
specimen of an oli which is such as might have been recited by a contest- 
ant in kilu before playing (Sect. 7.) 

1 Ula Kala'e-loa* i ka lepo a ka makani, 

2 Hoonuanua na pua i Kalamaula, 

3 He hoa i ka La'i-a-ka-manu,t 

4 Manu ai ia i ka hoa laukona.^ 

5 / keke'e lauaua ia e ka moe 

6 E kuhi ana ia he kanaka e. 

7 Oau no keia mai luna a lalo. 

8 Huna ke aloha, pe'e nialoko, ^ 

9 Ike'a i ka uwe ana iho. 

10 Pela ka hoa kamaliij^ 

11 He liwejwale ke kamalii. 

I Ruddy glows Kalae-loa* through the wind-blown dust. 

2 Plump and lush are the flowers at Lamaula, 

3 A partner in the songs of the birds, 

4 A sea-bird that spoils the beauties, spite of the duenna, 

5 His stinginess is that he is jealous of his protege's bed. 

6 He was thinking me to be a stranger. 

7 I am myself from crown to sole. 

8 Hidden has been my love, pent' up within, 

9 Shown by my weeping over you. 
10 That is the way with a child-friend. 

II A child weeps for a trifle. 

N. B. In old times the site on which now stands Bishop's Bank was 
•occupied by a house in which kilu and ume were wont to be played. 

"^Kala'e-loa was the full name of the place on Molokai ordinarily known 
as Kalae. 

%La'i-a-ka-manu is the name of a land near Kala'e-loa. In the use of 
this word a double meaning is evidently intended, i. e., a reference both 



287 

t'o the land so-called and to thd song of the birds. Hawaiian poetry de- 
pended upon this trick to produce its chief effects. 

"^Laukona, appUes to one who is jealous and watchful of one under his 
care. 

Remark. In justice to the ancient Hawaiians it should be stated that 
there existed a more respectable class among them, who disapproved of 
the debauchery of the ume and kilu, and endeavored to keejD their chil- 
dren away from tlie places where those games were played. 

W. D. A. 



CHAPTER XLIII. 

PUHENEHENE, OR PA-PUHENE. 

1. Puhenehene was a game that was played at night. The 
people were seated in two rows facing each other. 

2. Then a long piece of tapa, made perhaps by stitching 
several pieces together, was stretched between one party and the 
other. 

3. When the assembly had been brought to order the president 
whistled a call on the puheoheOj or called out "puheoheo," and 
all the company answered "puheoheo". This done a man stood 
forth and chanted a gay and pleasing song. 

4. Then three men lifted up the long tapa, already described, 
and with it covered over and concealed from view one of the 
groups of players. 

5. One of the men of the number who were concealed then 
hid the pebble which was called a no'a} The tapa which cur- 
tained or covered them was then removed, and the men, one of 
whom had the no'a, then leaned forward and looked down.^ 

6. Then the other side made a guess where the no' a was. If 
the guess was correct it counted for them, if not for the other 
party. When either side scored ten it had the victory ; somebody 

would then start up a hula-dance. 

•I 

NOTES TO CHAPTER XLIII. 

(i) Sect. 5. The no' a was a small pebble, and it was hidden on the 
person of one of the players. 

(2) Sect. 5. The purpose of leaning forward was to conceal the coun- 
tenance as much as possible, because it was as much by the study of the 
countenance as in any other way that one was to judge which of the 
players had the no'a about him. 



288 
CHAPTER XLIV. 

KUKINI — RUNNING FOOT-RACES. 

1. Foot-racing, kukini, was a very popular amusement. It 
was associated with betting and was conducted in the following 
manner : 

2. The kukini, or swift runners, were a class of men who were 
trained^ with great severity and made to practice running very 
frequently, until they had attained great speed. When the people 
wished to indulge in betting a number of the fastest of this class 
were selected and two of this number were chosen to run a race. 

3. Those who thought one man was the faster runner of the 
two bet their property on him, and those who thought the other 
was the faster, bet their property on him. 

4. When people had made their bets, the experts came to judge 
by physical examination which of the two runners was likely 
to win, after which they made their bets. One man, after staking 
all his property, pledged his wife and his own body {pili hihia)y 
another man bet property he had borrowed from another {piU 
kana). When all the pledges had been deposited {kieke, literally 
bagged) the betting was at an end. 

5. The runners {kukini) then took their station at the start- 
ing point and a pole with a flag was planted at the goal The 
race might be over a long course or a short one : that was as the 
runners aggreed. 

6. It was a rule of the game that if both runners reached the 
goal at the same instant, neither party won (aole no eo), it was 
a dead heat {pai ivale). It was when one reached the goal ahead 
of the other that he was declared victor. In that case the winners 
made great exultation over their victory. 

7. Sometimes a runner would sell out^ the race to his opponent 
and let a third person stake his property on the other runner. 
This was the practice in kukini. 

NOTES TO CHAPTER XLIV. 

(i) Sect. 2. Koi, ko'h-ee. Aceording to other authorities if should 
be ka'i, ka'h-ee, to practice, train, exercise. The runner was first exer- 
cised in walking on his toes, without touching the heel of the foot t'o 



289 

the ground. Then he was set to running, at first for a short distance and 
at a moderate pace. Finally he was made to run at full speed for great 
distances. While in training they were denied poi and all soggy, heavy 
food, but were fed on rare-done flesh of the fowl, and roasted vegetables, 
taro, sweet-potato, bread-fruit, etc. 

Kaohele, son of Kumukoa, a king of Molokai who was cotemporary 
with Alapai-nui of Hawaii, was a celebrated kukini. It is related of him 
that he could run from Kaluaaha as far as to Halawa and return before 
a fish put on the fire at the time of his starting had time to be roasted, 
"E kui ka mama' i loaa o Kaohele." You must double (literally piece 
out) your speed to catch Kaohele. 

Uluanui of Oahu, a rival and friend of Kaohele, was a celebrated foot- 
runner. It was said of him that he could carry a fish from the Kaelepulu 
pond in Kailua, round by way of Waialua and bring it in to Waikiki 
while it was still alive and wriggling. ' 

Makoko was a celebrated runner of Kamehameha T on Hawaii. It 
was said of him that he could carry a fish from the pond at Waiakea, 
in Hilo, and reach Kailua before it was dead. The distance is a little 
over a hundred miles, making it, of course, an impossible story. But 
it would be unkind to take such statements with utter literalness. 

(2) Sect. 7. The Hawaiian text reads. "O kekahi poc, nolunolu na hal 
ke eo, a na hai e lipi ka lakou waiwai, pela ka hana ana ma ke kukini." 
Only by removing the comma after poe and rearranging the letters in the 
word lipi, which should evidently be pili, is it possible to make sense out 
of this passage. It is curious to note the same corrupt practice, of selling 
out a race, in ancient Hawaii, as prevails in the civilized world to-day. 



CHAPTER XLV. 

THE GAME OF MATKA. 

1. Rolling the maika stone was a game on which much betting- 
was done. The manner of conducting the game was as follows : 

2. When people wanted the excitement of betting they hunted 
up the men who were powerful in rolling the maika stone, and 
every man made his bet on the one whom he thought to be the 
strongest player. 

3. The experts also studied the physique of the players, as 
well as the signs and omens, after which the betting went to 
ruinous lengths. 

Now the maika was a stone which was fashioned after the 
shape of a wheel, thick at the centre and narrow at the circum- 



290 

ference — a biconvex disc. It was alsc called an tdu, this thing 
with which the game of maika was played. 

4. The Jilu-niaika (by which name the stone disc, or the game 
itself was called) was made from many varieties of stone, and 
they were accordingly designed after the variety of stone from 
which they were made. 

5. The game of maika was played on a road-way, or kahua, 
made specially for the purpose. When all had made their bets 
the w/aiA'a-players came to the inaika-co\XYSQ. 

6. The uhi which the first man, hurled was said to be "his 
kuniu, muaj i.e., his first basis or pledge; in the same way the 
uln which the second player hurled, or bowled, was called his 
kumu. 

7. If the second player outdid the first player's shot he scored. 
If they both went the same distance it was a dead heat. 

8. But if the second player did not succeed in out-doing the 
first man's play the score was given to the first player. 



NOTES TO CHAPTER XLV. 

The meaning of the language in sections 6, 7, and 8 is such that I 
•can make no sense of it; and after diligent inquiry of those who are Ha- 
waiian scholars and skillful in unraveling puzzles, I can find no one who 
'Can do anything with it. I give a literal copy of the original : 

6 O ke kanaka i pehi mua i kana ulu, oia kana kumu mua, he kana- 
naka i pehi hope mai, oia no hoi kana kumu, 

7. O ke kanaka i pehi mua, pehi oia i ke kumu, a ka mea i pehi hope mai, 
ina pau iaia ke kumu a kela mea, helu oia, a pela nohoi kela mea, a i pa 
nohoi ka kekahi, ua pai maika. 

8. Aka, i pau ole ke kumu a ke kahi, i kekahi, eo, kekahi i kekahi, pela 
kc ano ka Maika. Such is the Hawaiian as written by a Hawaiian. 

The first thing in translating this is to utterly disregard tlie punctuation. 
That is entirely wrong and misleading. 

The game of maika was a most worthy and noble sport. It is not 
an easy matter to obtain definite information as to some points in the 
-game, whether sometimes the play was not to drive the ulu between two 
stakes set up at a distance, whether the ulu-vtaika of the first' player was 
-removed from the course as soon as it came to a standstill, by what 
means the point reached by the ulu was marked, if it was removed ffom 
the course in order to clear the track for the next player. These are 
some of the questions to which I have been able to obtain only partial 
and unsatisfactory answers. There was no doubt a great diversity of 

-1 

practice as to these points on the different islands, and even in the different 
parts of the same island. 



291 

The principal point to be made was, so far as I can learn, to send 
the ulu to as great' a distance as possible. When an ulu had come to a 
standstill it was probably removed from the track and the place of its 
fall marked by a Httle flag, or stake, set in the ground opposite and out- 
side of fhe track. According to some, however, the ulu was allowed 
to remain in the track as it fell, thus adding an obstacle to the success 
of the player who had the next throw. But this method is so clearly op- 
posed to all fair play tliat I cannot believe it was the general practice. 

The ulu, maika, or ulu-maika (for by all these names was the thing 
called) was of various sizes, being all the way from two and a quarter 
to six inches in diameter. The size most ordinarily used, if one may 
judge from specimens seen in museums and private collections, was per- 
haps from three to four inches. It was in some cases made one-sided to 
enable if to follow the bend of a curved track, one of which description 
I remember to have seen on the plains back of Kaunakakai, on Molokai. 
There is said to have been another of the same kind kt Lanikaula, also 
on Molokai. There is said to be a kahua-maika at Ka-lua-ko'i, on the 
mountain of Maunaloa, at the western end of Molokai, which to this 
day remains in a fair state of preservation. There must also be many 
others scattered through the group. 

N. B. — The half-grown bread-fruit, which is generally of a globular 
shape was much used in playing this game, and undoubtedly gave its name, 
ulu, both to the thing itself and to the sport. Spherical stones, evidently 
fashioned for use in this game, are object's occasionally met with. From 
the fact that the stone ulu is of spherical shape — in evident imitation 
of fhe fruit — as well as that all the specimens met with have been 
fashioned out of a coarse, vesicular stone that is incapable /of smooth 
finish or polish, while the material from which the maika is made, has in 
the majority of cases been a close, fine-grained basalt, leads to the con- 
clusion that the ulu was tlie early form, and the maika the product of 
later evolution. 

Mr. S. Percy Smith suggests that the word ulu probably meant origin- 
ally "round," "spherical," as in the word for "head." 



CHAPTER XLVI. 

THE GAME OF PAHEE. 

1. The game of pahee was one which people played at odd 
times, whenever they were so inclined, and it was associated with 

betting. 

2. A short javelin, made from the hard wood of the tdei or 
kauila, was the instrument used in playing pahee. It was made 
thick at the forward end, the head, and tapered ofif towards the 



292 

tail-end. One man cast his javelin, and when it had come to a 
stand still, the other man cast, and whichever javelin went farther 
than the other, it counted for him who threw it. 

3. After each one had made his bet the players went to the 
tail-end. 

4. He who first scored ten won the game. 

NOTE TO CHAPTER XLVI. 

The pahee or javelin was cast on a roadway or piece of sward, in such 
a way as to slide or skip along, over the ground. It was a very inter- 
esting game. Betting was no doubt a very common fault of old Hawa- 
iian life, but it is not exactly true that bett'ing was an accompaniment 
to every game that was played in ancient Hawaii. 



CHAPTER XLVH. 

CANOE-RACTNG. 

1. The ancient Hawaiians were very fond of betting on a 
canoe-race. When they wished to indulge thi* passion, people 
selected a strong crew of men to pull their racing canoes. 

2. Each man then put up his bet on that crew which was in 
his opinion composed of the strongest canoe-paddlers, and, the 
betting being over, they started out for the race. 

3. If the canoe was of the kind called the kioloa (a sharp and 
narrow canoe, made expressly for racing) there might be but 
one man to paddle it, but if it was a large canoe, there might be 
two, three, or a large number of paddlers, according to the size 
of the canoe. 

4. The racing canoes paddled far out to sea — some, however, 
staid close in to the land (to act as judges, or merely perhaps as 
spectators), and then they pulled for the land, and if they touched 
the beach at the same time it was a dead heat ; but if a canoe 
reached the shore first it was the victor, and great would be the 
-exultation of the men who won, and the sorrow of those who 
lost their property. 



293 

CHAPTER XLVIII. 
he'e-nalu, surf-riding/' 

1. Surf-riding was a national sport of the Hawaiians, on 
which they were very fond of betting, each man staking his prop- 
erty on the one he thought to be the most skilful. 

2. When the bets were all put up, the surf-riders, taking their 
boards with them, swam out through the surf, till they had 
reached the waters outside of the surf. These surf-boards were 
made broad, and flat, generally hewn out of koa;'^ a narrower 
board, however, was made from the wood of the wilizvili.^ 

3. One board would be a fathom in length, another two 
fathoms, and another four fathoms, or even longer.^ 

4. The surf-riders, having reached the belt of water outside 
of . the surf, the region where the rollers began to make head, 
awaited the incoming of a wave, in preparation for which they 
got their boards under way by paddling with their hands until 
such time as the swelling wave began tO' lift and urge them for- 
ward. Then they speeded for the shore until they came opposite to 
where was moored a buoy, which was called a pna. 

5. If the combatants passed the line of this buoy together it 
v/as a dead heat ; but if one went by it in advance of the other 
he was the victor. 

6. A i ka an lion ana, o ka mea i konw i ka pna hoomawaena 
iiiai oia, aole e hiki i ke kulana, ka eo no ia nana; pela ka he'e 
naln^ '•■ 



NOTES TO CHAPTER XLVIII. 



■ i / i 



(i) Sect. 2. Kou, the same wood as that of which the canoe was 

generally made. 

(2) Sect. 2. Wili-wili, a light, cork-like wood, used in making floats 
for the outriggers of canoes, for nets, and a variety of other similar pur- 

poses. 

(3) Sect. 3. The longest' surf-board at the Bishop Museum is six- 
teen feet in length. It is difficult to see how one of greater length could 
be of any service, and even when of such dimensions it must have re- 
quired great address to manage it. It was quite sufficient if the- board was 
of the length of the one who used it. One is almost inclined fo doubt the 
accuracy of David Malo's statement tliat it was sometimes four, or even 



294 

more, fathoms in length. If any thinks it an easy matter to ride the 
surf on a board, a short trial will perhaps undeceive him. 

(4) Sect. 6. I am unable to give a satisfactory translation of this 
section. 

It has been suggested to me that? the meaning of Sect. 6 is that 
the victory was declared only after more than one -heat, a rubber, if 
necessary. The Hawaiian text should be corrected as follows : 

A i ka au hou ana i ka mea i komo i ka pu-a i ho-o mazuaena mai oia aole 
e hiki i ke kulana ka eo ia nana. Pela ka hee-nalu. 

(5) Surf-riding was one of the most exciting and noble sports known 
to the Hawaiians, practiced equally by king, chief and commoner. It is 
still to some extent engaged in, though not as formerly, when it was 
not uncommon for a whole community, including both sexes, and all 
ages, to sport and frolic in the ocean the livelong day. While the usual 
attitude was a reclining on the board face downwards, wifh one, or both 
arms folded and supporting the chest, such dexterity was attained by some 
that they could maintain their balance while sitting, or even while standing 
erect, as the board was borne along at the full speed of the inrolling 
breaker. Photographs can be given in proof of this statement. 



CHAPTER XLIX. 

HOLUA-SLEDDING. 



I." Sliding down hill on the /70/wa-sled was a sport greatly in 
vogue among chiefs and people, and one on the issue of which 
they were very fond of making bets, when the fit took them. 

2. The holua was a long course laid out down the steep incline 
of a hill and extending onto the level plain. 

3. Rocks were first laid down, then earth was put on and 
beaten hard, lastly the whole was layered with grass, and this 
was the track for the holua-sled to run on. 

4. The runners of the holua-sled were made of mamane, or of 
uhiuhi wood, chamfered tO' a narrow edge below, with the for- 
ward end turned up, so as not to dig into the ground, and con- 
nected with each other by means of cross-pieces in a manner 
similar to the joining of a double-canoe. 

5. On top of the cross-pieces boards w^ere then laid, as in 
flooring the pola of a canoe. This done and the runners lubric- 
ated with oil of the kukui-nut, the sled was ready for use. 



295 

6. The bets having been arranged, the racers took their sta- 
tions at the head of the track ; the man who was ranged in front 
gave his sled a push to start it and mounted it, whereupon his 
competitor who was to his rear likewise started his sled and 
followed after. He who made the longest run was the victor. 
In case both contestants travelled the length of the course, it was 
a dead heat and did not decide who was victor. 

7. The victory was declared for the player who made the best 
run. 

NOTES ON CHAPTER XLIX. 

The course of an old-time holua slide is at the present writing clearly 
to be made out sloping down the foot-hills back of the Kamehameha 
School. The track is of such a width,— about 18 feet — as to preclude the 
possibility of two sleds travelHng abreast. It is substantially paved with 
flat' stones, which must have held their position for many generations. 
The earth that once covered them has been mostly washed away. The 
remains of an ancient kahua holua are also to be made out at Keauhou,. 
or were a few years ago. 

From the sample of the holua sled to be seen at the Bishop museum^ 
it seems a wonder that any -one was able to ride the sled down such a 
descent as either one of the fwo just mentioned, or to keep on the thing 
at all. The two runners are — in the specimen at the museum — twelve 
and a half feet long, are set about? two and a half inches apart at the 
narrow, sliding edge, and about six inches apart on top, where the body 
of the man rests. A more difficult feat by far it must have been to ride 
on this tipsy affair at speed t'han to keep one's balance on the back of 
a horse, a la circus-rider; yet it is asserted that there were those who 
would ride down hill on the holua-sltd at break-neck speed maintaining 
at the same time an erect position. It hardly seems credible. The swift 
rush of the toboggan is as nothing to this. 



CHAPTER L. 

NOA. 



1. Noa was a sport that was extremely popular with people 
and chiefs. The number of those, including chiefs, who were 
beggared by this game was enormous. 

2. I'he people are seated in two groups facing each other, and 
five bundles or tapa are placed (on a mat) between the two groups. 



296 

These bundles are to bide tbe noa under, and beginning with the 
Kihipiika^ which completes the Hst. 

4. Two well-skilled persons were chosen to hide the noa. This 
was a small piece of wood or of stone. Bets having been made, 
one side — by their player — hid their noa under one of the piles 
of tapa. 

5. This done, the player sat still and shut his eyes. 

6. The opposite side, who had attentively watched the man 
while he was hiding the noa, made a guess as to its position. If 
they guessed correctly, it counted for them. The other side then 
made their guess, and that side which first scored ten won the 
game. 

7. Sometimes a man, when he lost his property and was re- 
duced to poverty, took it so greatly to heart that he became bitter 
and desperate. He would then, perhaps, risk everything he had 
and become beggared, or actually go crazy through grief. 

8. After losing everything else,^ people would sometimes stake 
their wives, or children, speaking of the former as an old sow, 
and the latter as shoats. These were some of the results of noa. 

NOTES ON CHAPTER L. 

i 

(i) Sect. 3. A Hawaiian who says he used to see the game of noa 
played in his boyhood on the island of Molokai, informs me that accord- 
ing to his recollection, the piles of tapa were named in this order: Kihi- 
puka, Pilimoe, Kau, Pilipuka, Kihimoe. He gives me the following, which 
he heard recited by the man who was hiding the noa: 

Aia la, aia la, 

I ke Kau, i ke Pili, i ka Mae, 

Ilaila e ku ai ka noa a kaiia. E ku! 

There it is, there it is. 

Under the kati, under the pili, under the moe, 

There is lodged our noa. It's lodged ! 

See also Andrews' Dictionary under the word kau. 

(2) Sect. 8. It was not an unknown thing for a man, having ex- 
"haust'ed other resources, to stake his own body, pili iwi as it was called. 
If he lost he was at least the slave of the winner, who might put his body 
to what' use he pleased. If put to death by his master he would be called 
a moe-puu, i. e., he joined the great heap, or majority of the dead, "ka 
puu nui ka make.'' Death was the puu nui. There was evident allusion 
to the same thought in the expression "moe puu," applied to the human 
sacrifices that were in ancient times made at the death of a king. 



297 
• ';. CHAPTER LL 

PUKAULA, JUGGLING. 

1. Pukaula or juggling was a great betting game. It was 
played by experts, through whose skill a great many people were 
taken in and victimized. An outsider stood no chance of win- 
ning from the slight-of-hand-performer, unless the juggler saw- 
that the audience was too small, in which case he let some one 
win from him. 

2. And after people began to think they had a show for win- 
ning they gathered in crowds about the jugglers and staked all 
their property, thinking they were sure to win. When the 
jugglers saw this and that the betting was heavy, they changed 
their tactics and managed it so that they themselves should win. 
In playing the game of pukania an olona line several fathoms 
long was used (The author says a fathom long; but that is clearly 
impossible.) which is braided very closely and smoothly and was 
about the size of a watch-guard. 

3. When the jugglers came on to the ground where they 
were to exhibit, they started in by repeating some sort of jingle 
(kepakepa^) which tickled the fancy of the people, and they ac- 
cordingly crowded up and' filled the place. - 

4. The performers very cunningly gave one end of the line 
into the hands of one man and the other end into the hands of 
another man to hold, and then did their tricks with the middle 
part of the line.^ 

5. The juggler artfully tied the middle part of the line up 
into a knot and then asked the people ''what do you think about 
the knot ?" 

6. Being sure from their own observation that the knot was 
a tight one, they bet that it would hold. Then the juggler and 
the ones, who made bets struck hands and pledged^ themselves 
to stick to their bargain. The ends of the rope were then pulled, 
and according to whether the knot held or no, did the jugglers 
or the others win. 

7. Men and women as well in large numbers were driven to 
desperation at their losses in this game. A woman would some- 
times put her own body at stake and lose it to the juggler, in 

1^ which case she became his property. 



W 
f- 



298 

8. Men were affected with the same craze and likewise be- 
came the slaves of the jugglers. They were let off only when 
they paid a heavy ransom. 

NOTES TO CHAPTER LI. 

(i) Sect. 3. Kepakepa. The meaning of this word is to amuse^ 
amusement. 

(2) Sect. 4. The statement that the juggler allowed outsiders to- 
hold the ends of the line is on the face of it absurd and improbable. Sa 
I am told by those who have seen something of the game. 

(3) Sect. 6. The pledge was, no doubt, in the form that was very 
commonly used in connection with solemn affirmations, "Paw Pele, pau 
fnano," as much as to say, Let me be destroyed by Pele, or by the 
shark, if I do not keep my oath. 

My informant says the rope he once saw used in the play was three 
fathoms long. 

(4) Sect. 3. The following is communicated to me as a sample of a 
Kepakepa, recitative, it could hardly be called a jingle — such as was used 
by the pu-kaula or juggler in baiting and fascinating his audience. It 
is to all intents a prayer to Kana, the god of jugglery and of jugglers. 

,- ' I. £ Kana. E Kana. . , 

2. E mahulu-ku, e kii lalau, t 

3. E kuhi a leo, e ka nioe, ' 

4. Ka hanai a Uli. 

5. Kuu'a mai kou kapa kaula. 

6. Hoalu mai kou kapa kanaka, 

7. I ka pu a kaua, e Kana. 

1. Oh Kana. Oh Kana. 

2. Rough line of hala-root, or bark of hau. 

3. Point and declare as to the sleeper, 

4. The foster child of Uli. 

5. Put on your rope-body, 

6. Lay off your human form 

7. In this trick of yours and mine, oh Kana, 

Kana was a kupua — a word which has no exact' equivalent in our 
language, though perhaps the word demi-god comes nearest to it; it was 
a being more than human or heroic and less than divine. His father was 
Hakalanileo, his mother Hina-ai-ka-malama. The scene of his nativity 
and chilhood was Hilo, on the island of Hawaii. His birth was remark- 
able. His little body at its first appearance seemed only a small piece 
of cord and was put one side as of no account. The goddess Uli, how- 



299 

ever, recognized the nature of the being and put him in a place of safety. 
The nutriment suitable for the sustenance and growth of a kupua are 

, < hoomana, i. e., adoration and worship, and aiva. Through fhe care of 
Uli, his foster mother, the spiritual and physical necessities of Kana were 
well supplied and he grew apace. His growth was only in length, not in 
circumference. Under the stimulus of hoomanamana and azva, the growth 
of Kana was so great that affer a time the house in which he had been 

I 1 placed grew too narrow for him and another one had to be built for his 
I j [ accommodation. To all appearance Kana was merely an enormous length 
of line; but he was a demi-god of tremendous power. 

The following is a sample of the spiritual, or worshipful, incense, 
which was daily offered to him (without it any kupua must dwindle and 
fade into nothingness) and which was an Inoa, i. e., a name: 

1. la moku kele-Kahiki i ke ao ua o Haka, 

2. Hakalanileo hoowiliwili Hilo, 
2. Hookaka'a ka lani, kaka'a ka iloli, 

4. Wehiwehi ka opua, palaniao^ Kahiki, 

5. Wai-kahe ka maunaj kaikoo ka moana, 

6. / ka hanau ana ka ui a Haka. * 

7. Hanau ae Kana he lino, 

8. He aho loa, he pauku kaula, 

9. He kaee koali, he azve pu-maia, 

10. He punawelewele. 

11. Hanoi ia Uli a ka ihu pi, • 

12. Ka ihu nana, ka mano hae, * 
^3. Ka ilio hae, keiki alala, keiki omino. 

14. Ku i koholua,^ ku iki a Kana. 

15. Naue na koa,c ka elawa i kai, 

16. Ka pu-koa i kai, ka puoleolei, 

\y. Ka nihi^ moe lawa, kor auna^ lele kai. 
18. Kou inoa e Kana. 

1. To the craft voyaging to Tahiti amid the rain-clouds of Kana, 

2. King of Hilo, land of cloud-portents, 

3. Portents in the heavens, commotions in fhe womb. 

4. Open and clear are the heavenly signs, a mottling that reaches to Tahiti. 

5. Freshets in the mountains, wild surf in the ocean 

6. At the birth of fhe child of Haka. 

7. Kana was born a four-stranded rope, 

8. A long fish-line, a piece of cord, 

9. A line of koali, a thread of banana fibre, . 

10. A spider's web, ' ' 

11. Adopted by Uli, the cross one, 

12. She of the up-tilted nose, a ravenous shark, 

13. A barking dog, a puny wailing thing he, 

14. To be lanced most delicately, this Kana. 



:. :. I. 
1 i I 



I I 
I ! I 



I I 



3O0 

15- The ocean-spearmen rally about him, 
i6. The ocean-reefs, the conchs of ocean. 

17. The black shark, the sword-fish. 

18. An ascription this to yon, Oh Kana. 

a Palamoa, mottled, mackerel scales in the sky. 

^Koholua, a bone from near the tail of certain fishes, that was sharp 
and used as a lancet. # 

c Koa, soldiers of the ocean, the hihimanu. A sharp bone near the tail. 
^Nihi, a contracted form of hiuhi, a monster shark. 
e Auyia, sword-fish. 

Kana had a younger brother named Niheu. When his mother was 
abducted by Kapepeekauila, a powerful kupua of Molokai, who had his 
seat in the inaccessible cliffs of that island, he concealed her at a place 
called Haupukele high up in the mountains. Hakalanileo mourned the 
loss of his wife so bitterly that Niheu made ready to st'art on an expedi- 
tion for her rescue. Uli insisted that he must take his brother Kana with 
him. So they wrapped his body in a mat and put him in fhe canoe. On. 
the voyage the sea-turtle did his best to overwhelm the canoe. Kana 
was the first one to call attention t'o the monster in the ocean that was 
threatening them, "ka ea nui, kua-wakawaka," Kana pierced the monster 
with his spear and he troubled them no more. Opposite the point of 
Halawa was a dangerous reef called Pu'upo'i. Warned in time by Kana 
Niheu turned the canoe aside and this danger was passed. Arrived at 
Pelekunu, the inaccessible heights of Haupu-kele-ka-pu'u towered above 
them. It was there Pepeekauila lived in security with his stolen bride. 
From this elevation he commanded a bird's-eye view of the party in the 
canoe, but to assure himself of their character and probable errand, he 
sent as messengers and spies the Ulili and Kolea birds to learn the truth. 
On their return they reported that it was not a war-canoe, there were no 
arms or warriors visible. The principal thing to be seen was a large roll 
of matting which occupied the waist of the canoe. The party on the 
hill were consequently off their guard. 

At the request of Niheu Kana climbed the hill to bring away their 
mother. Hina-ai-ka-malama recognized her son and willingly went with 
him down to the canoe. Keoloewa, the king who had been keeping her as 
his wife or paramour, at first offered no objections to her departure; 
when, however, she had boarded the canoe, the sense of his loss came 
over him and he ordered the birds, Ulili and Kolea, to fly and fetch 
her back. When Kana saw that his mother was gone he took the form of 
a man, and standing with one foot in one canoe and the other foot in the 
other canoe, his tall form at first reached above the highest point of the 
mountain cliff, thus enabling him to seize the body of Hina-ai-ka-malama 
and restore her to the canoe. But in the effort he found that the hill kept 
growing in height and getting away from him. Keoloewa and his men 



301 

hurled down great rocks upon those below. Kana's eyes were as big as 
the moon. As the hill grew in height Kana also stretched himself up, 
but the hill kept growing higher, and Kana wondered why. But feeling 
in the ocean at fhe roots of the mountain, he found that it was the turtle, 
ka ea, that was lifting it. Then he tore the ea in pieces and scattered 
them in the ocean, where they became sea-turtle of many species. From 
that moment, the mountain ceased to grow in height. This ended the 
fight. Niheu and Kana sailed away in the canoe with their mother, who 
was thus restored to her husband, Haka-lani-leo. 



CHAPTER Lli. 

PA-PUA, OR KEA-PUA. 

1. Ke'a-pua was a pastime which was engaged in by great 
numbers of men, women and children when the Makahiki period 
came round, because that was the season when the sugar-cane 
put forth the flowers that were used in this game. 

2. When the tassels were ripe the flower-stems were plucked 
and laid away to dry. The lower end of the stem was tightly 
bound with string, after which the point thus made was wetted 
in the mouth and then thrust into the dirt tO' become coated with 
clay. 

3. Matches were then gotten up ]:)etween different players, 
and bets were made in which the arrows themselevs might be the 
wagers, but it might be anything else. 

4. A knoll of' earth or sand was chosen from which to skate 
the arrows. One of them would project his arrow and then 
the other, and so they took turns. 

5. The one who first scored ten points was the winner and 
took the bet. 

NOTE TO CHAPTER LII. 

A description is necessary to make this beautiful pastime intelligible. 
The arrow, made from the lighf and elegant stem of the sugar-cane flower 
was about two feet long. Posting himself so as to take advantage of a 
knoll or any slight eminence, the player, holding the arrow well towards 
its tail-end, ran forward a few steps in a stooping position, and as he 
reached the desired point, with a downward and forward swing of his 



302 

arm, projected the arrow at such an angle that it just grazed the sur 
of the ground, from which it occasionally glanced with a graceful rico 
movement. It is a rare sight to see this game played nowadays, 
twenty or thirty years ago, in the season of it it was all the rage f 
Hawaii to Niihau. It' is a pity to see this elegant and invigorating past 
supplanted by less worthy sports. 

The mythical hero Hiku, who, with his mother lived on- the topn 
parts of Hualalai, is said to have had the faculty of calling back to 
the arrow he had sent' to a distance. He uttered the call "pua 
Pua-ne." And the arrow immediately returned to his hand. 

I am informed that the expression used to denote the pastime is / 
J>ua, ka-pUQj or. pa-pua. 



CHAPTER LIIL 

HOO-HAKA-MOA, COCK-FIGHTING. 

1. • Cock-fighting (haka-moa) was a very fashionable sp 
Avith the aliis, and was conducted in the following manner, 
person who was a good judge of fowls would secure one wh 
he thought to be a good fighter. 

2. A roost was then made, on which to place the cock, a 
•every night a small fire was started under him, tO' make h 
lively.^ 

3. Each game-keeper trained his fighting cock in the sa: 
manner, until they were paired for a fight. 

4. The day having been set for the match, a multitude of p< 
pie assembled to witness it, and to bet on the result. When 1 
-experts had studied the twO' cocks and had made up their mir 
which would fight to the death, they made their bets, betting 
their own property, as well as all they could borrow. 

5. When the betting was done, the president or luna hooma 
of the assembly stood forth, and a rope was drawn around 1 
cock-pit to keep the people out. Any one who trespassed witl 
this line was put to death. $ 

6. The cocks were then let loose and the multitude flock 
about the cock-pit. If the cocks were equally matched it was 

<lrawn battle (pat ".vale) ; but if one of them ran away from t 
•other, that gave victory to the latter. 



303 

7- The winners always reviled those who lost with insulting 
and offensive language, saying ''you'll have to eat chicken-dung 
after this," repeating it over and over. 

NOTE TO CHAPTER LIII. 

Note I. Sect. 2. It was imagined that the motions made by the cock 
in thrusting his head to one side and the other, in his efforts to escape 
the heat and pungent smoke, were just the exercises needed to fit him 
for his duties as a fighter. 



CHAPTER LIV. 

THE HULA. 



I — 2. The hula was a very popular amusement among the Ha- 
waiian people. It was used as a means of conferring distinction 
upon the aliis and people of wealth. On the birth of an alii the 
the chiefs and people gave themselves up to the hula, and much 
property was lavished on hula dancers. The hula most frequently 
performed by the chiefs was the ka-laau (in which one stick was 
struck against another). 

3 — 4. The children of the wealthy were ardent devotees of the 
hula. Among the varieties of the hula were the pa'i umaumaj 
(beating the chest), hula pahu (with a drum accompaniment), and 
the hula pahu' a, besides which there were also the ala'a-papa, the 
pa'ipa'i, the pa-ipu, the ulili, the kolani, and the kielei. 

5. It was the custom of hula dancers to perform before the 
rich in order to obtain gifts from them. 

NOTE TO CHAPTER LIV. 

The hula, like all other savage, Polynesian institutions degenerated and 
went on the run to the bad the moment the white man appeared on the 
scene. The activity and heat" of his passions started a fire that burnt up 
all the properties at once. The hula in the ancient times was no better, 
no worse than other of the Hawaiian, Polynesian institutions. 
♦ The modern hula is no more a fair and true representative of the savage 
Hawaiian, or Polynesian dance than the Parisian cancan is of a refined 
and civilized dance. 



304 

jgret that I cannot entirely concur with the view expressed above, 
eve that thtf hula in Hawaii-nei, like the Areoi society in Tahiti, 
led largely to the baser instincts of fhe people, and had a debasing 
nee on them. 

I admit that fhere were different kinds of hula in ancient times, 
lat the worst form of it, (which had always been the most popular), 

one tbat has survived, and furthermore that foreign influence has 
i to keep this relic of heathenism alive. W. D. A. 



CHAPTER LV. 

MOKOMOKO OR BOXING. 



During the Makahiki season, when the Makahiki god made 
Hinds, the people of different districts gathered at one place 
leld boxing matches. 

The multitude being seated in a circle, the backers of one 
pion stood forth and vaunted the merits oi their favorite,, 
thereupon came forward and made a display of himself, 
gering,' boasting and doubling up his fists. 

Then the other side followed suit, made their boasts, had 
man stand forth and show himself ; and when the cham- 
came together they commenced to beat and pummel each 
with their fivSts. • 

If one of the boxers knocked down his Opponent a shout 
ultation went up from those who championed him, and they 
ly reviled the other side, telling him perhaps to "go and 
licken-dung." 

The one who fell was often badly maimed, having an amr 
n, an eye put out, or teeth knocked out. Great misery was 
d by these boxing matches. 

NOTE TO CHAPTER LV. 

Hawaiians do not seem to have used the fore-arm, after the manner 
dern practitioners of the **noble art." Each boxer sought to recei'^e 
ponent's blow with his own fist. This meeting of fist with fist was 
ikely the cause of the frequent broken arms. 



CHAPTER LVI. 

HAKOKO — WRESTLING. 

1. Hakoko or wrestling was a very popular sport in ancient 
Hawaii. It was generally done in the midst of a large assembly 
of people, as the boxing game, mokomcko, was. 

2. The multitude formed a circle, and the wrestlers took their 
stand in the centre, and then, having seized hold of each other, 
they struggled to trip each other with the use of their feet, striv- 
ing with all their might to throw each other to the ground. 

3. The one who was thrown was beaten. A man who was 
a strong and skillful wrestler was made much of. Wrestling 
was much practiced about court, very little in the country districts. 



CHAPTER LVn. 

SUNDRY MINOR SPORTS. 

I. In addition to the games mentioned, there were a great 
many little informal sports. One of these was koi (a child's 
game, played with a crooked stick, with which one dug into the 
earth or sand, at the same time repeating some word-jingle or 
other.) 

Panapana (a child's game played with a nian, the small midrif 
of the coconut leaf. This was bent into the fonn of a bow in 
the hand, and, being suddenly released, sprang away by its elas- 
ticity.) 

Honuhomi (a game in which one boy sat astride on the back 
of another boy who was down on all-fours.) 

Loulou. (Two persons would hook fingers together and then 
pull to see who would hold out the longest, without letting go or 
straightening out his finger.) 

Pahipahi (played by slapping hands together, as in the game 
"bean-porridge hot, bean-porridge cold," etc.) 

Hookakaa (in which boys turned over and over or turned 
somersets on the grass or in the sand.) 



Lelc-koall (swinging on a swing suspended by a single line, tor 
which purpose the strong convolvulus vine, koali, was most otten 
used. When permitted, youths of both sexes delighted to enjoy 
this sport together, the girl seated on the lap of the boy and 
facing him.) 

Lcle-kazi^a (jumping off from a height into the deep water.) 

Kaupiia (swimming or diving for a small, half-ripe gourd that 
would barely float in the water.) 

Pana-iole (shooting mice with bow and arrow. This was a 
sport much practiced by kings and chiefs. It was the only use 
which the Hawaiians made of the bow and arrow. A place some- 
what like a cockpit was arranged in which to shoot the mice.) 

Kuialua, (This was an exhibition of Ina for amusement. Lua 
was a murderous system of personal combat which combined 
tricks of wrestling with bone-breaking, the dislocation of limbs, 
and other thug-like methods that put it outside the pale of civil- 
ized warfare. It was used by robbers.) 

NOTES TO CHAPTER LVII. 

It' seems remarkable that David Male should make no mention 
of a large number of games that were of established vogue and popularity 
among the ancient Hawaiians. Such as — 

Konane, a game played with black and white pebbles on a checkerboard 
laid out in squares at right angles to each other, the squares being 
represented by hollows for the pebbles to rest in. The game consists in 
moving one's pieces in such a way as to compel the opponent to take 
them. The number of squares on the konane board was not' uniform. I 
have seen them with nine on a side, making eighty-one in all ; I have 
also seen them with such a number that the board was longer in one 
direction than the other. 

Hci, cafs cradle, is a game that deserves mention. There were many 
figures into which the string was worked. It was a game at which the 
genius of the Hawaiian was specially fitted to excel, for by nature he was 
a born rigger, skilled in manipulating and tying ropes and knots. 

Kimo, jack-stones, a game at which tlie Hawaiian boy, and more espe- 
cially the Hawaiian girl excelled. 

This list might be greatly extended. 

Hoolcle-lul^c, kite-flying, deserves special mention as a pastime that was 
dear to the Hawaiian heart, and the practice of which recurred with the 
regularity of the seasons. 



307 
CHAPTER LVIII. 

THE FLOOD, 

1. Long before the coming of the white people to Hawaii n 
the Hawaiians had heard about the deluge. The strange thi 
about it was that the Hawaiian kings did not know when tl 
deluge {kai-a-ka-hina-lii) , occurred, whether or not it was earl 
than their arrival at the Hawaiian shores. 

2. The story was as follows : There was a woman of the s 
who lived in a land called Lcdohana, which was far awav in t 
ocean, for which reason she was called the woman of Laloliai 

3. There are two versions of this story given by the ancien 
One tradition has it that the place where the woman lived \^ 
on a reef, named Manna, situated in the ocean outside of Ke? 
hou, in Kona, and that Lono was the name of the king w 
reigned over the land at that time. Other ancient authorit 
aver that this woman lived in the ocean outside of Waiak 
Hilo, and that Konikonia was the reigning king at the tir 
But this Lono and this Konikonia, where did they com.e froi 
Their names do not appear in the genealogies of the kings. 

To take up the story of Konikonia, leaving that of Lono : 

4. When Konikonia's fishermen 00 their excursions out 
sea, let down their hooks to this fishing reef (koa lawaia^) 
pulling up the lines their hooks were gone. They had not i 
the tremor of the lines ; the hooks had evidently been remo\ 
by this woman of the sea. 

5. The fishermen returned and reported to Konikonia, sayii 
"The disappearance of our hooks was mysterious. The qui^ 
of the line was not perceived; the hooks were cut away just 
if there were a man down below on the reef." Now, t\v 
was at this time with Konikonia a man, named Kuula, 1 
brother of Lalohana, who had come out of the ocean. But Ko 
konia w^as not aware that Kuula was from the ocean. 

6. This Kuula explained to Konikonia and his fishermen tl 
their hooks had been cut away by men, "Because," said he, "1 
place where you were fishing is a large town, in which m.en a 
women live under the ocean." 



3o8 

7—8. Then Konikonia asked Kuula, '^A.re you from that 
place?" "Yes, I come from there," said Kiiula. "Have you a 
sister in the ocean?" said Konikonia. "I have a sister/' answered 
Kuuja, "and she it was v^ho cut away the hooks of your fisher- 
men." "Go and ask your sister to be my wife," said Konikonia. 

9. "She has a husband, a carved image, (Kane kii) named 
Kimialuahakii,^ and she loves him," replied Kuula. "Tell me 
of some way by which I can have that woman for myself," said 
Konikonia. 

10, II, 12, 13. "If you wish to get that woman for yourself, 
now, just carve a large image; smooth it oft nicely and paint it 
of a dark color ; let it have eyes of pearl ; cover its head with 
hair and finally dress it in a malo. This done, lay this one im- 
age in the corner of the house with some tapas. Two other im- 
ages must be placed at the door of the house, one on either side ; 
two at the entrance of the pa (enclosure) ; other figures must be 
placed in line from the entrance of the pa down to the beach. 
This done, you must have trumpets blown on the canoes from 
the bay clear out to the fishing reef. Put an image in each boat 
in the line extending from the bay to the reef. Tie an image to 
a line and let it down into the water a fathom; then tie on an- 
other, and so on." 

14. "Now this woman's husband, Kiimaluahaku, is absent just 
now at Kuku-lu-o-Kahiki* and it is likely that, when she sees 
the image coming down, she will think it is Kiimaluahaku, her 
husband, and she will accordingly go out to meet him, and thus 
she will come ashore here ; for she is very fond of images." 

15. Konikonia immediatel}^ set to work and made the images 
according to Kuula's directions, and when completed they were 
set up from the house to the reef, as directed. 

16. All being ready, they sent down an image to the fishing 
reef, and when the woman saw it standing at the door of her 
house under the ocean, behold, said she to herself, it is my hus- 
band, Kiimaluakahaku. 

17. Then she called out, "O Kii, O Kiikamalual<:ahaku, so you 
have been to Kukulu-o-Kahiki and returned, and here you are 
standing outside of our place. Come, come in tO' the house." 
But no; the image did not enter. 



309 

i8. Then she approached the image to kiss it; and when she 
saw there was another image above it she left the first image and 
went up to kiss the second. So she went on, kissing one image 
after another, until she had risen from the bottom to the surface 
of the ocean, where the canoes were floating. 

19 — 20. When the woman saw the images stationed in the 
line of canoes, she went along kissing one after the other until 
she came to the shore ; and then she went on to kiss the images 
in succession that stood iii- line until she had reached the house. 
Then seeing the image that was lying in the corner of the house 
she went and lay down alongside of it. 

21. The woman then fell into a deep sleep; and, the image 
having been taken away, Konikonia moved up close to her and 
lay by her side. When it came evening the woman awoke and 
seeing Konikonia lying at her side, they embraced each other. . . 



22. Then the woman said to Konikonia, *T am- hungry. Send 
a man to fetch my food. Let him go toi my fishing reef and bring 
it. He must dive down and, having opened, he must enter the 
house that stands by itself, thence let him bring the coconut 
dish that he will find at one side of the house, but he must not 
open the dish." The man went and did as he was bidden. 

2^. On his return the woman opened the coconut dish — and 
instantly the food that was therein flew^ up into the heavens, and 
it was the moon of twO' days old. The crescent of the moon 
which shone clear and bright above, was kena; and that part that 
glimmered below was atta.^ When the woman saw that her food 
was gone she was filled with regret. 

24 — 25. On the fourth day of that same month the woman 
said to Konikonia, "I have been ashore here four days. My pa- 
rents are now looking for me. They will search for me in the 
ocean, and, not finding me there, will proceed to hunt for me on 
the land." ''Who are your parents?" asked Konikonia. "Ka- 
hina-lii is my father, and Hina-ka-alu-alu-moana is my mother," 
said she. "Will your parents come up here onto the land?" asked 

Konikonia. 

26. "They will not come up in person," said she, "but this 
ocean that swims before us, that will come in search of me. 



310 

This ocean will rise up and flood the whole land. In what place, 
pray, shall I be hidden, and you saved from this destructive del- 
uge that is coming?" 

2^. "Is it the ocean itself that will seek you?" asked Koni- 
konia. ''It is my brothers, the paoo iish, that will come in search 
of me," said the woman, "6ut it is the ocean that will rise in 
order to lift them and enable them to advance and search for 
me." ''Let us flee to the mountains," said Konikonia. 

28. Then they fled to the mountains. "Let us take to the 
tallest trees," said the woman, whereupon they climbed the tall- 
est trees and built houses in their tops. 

29. After ten days had passed Ka-hina-lii sent the ocean, and 
it rose and overwhelmed the land from one end to the other. 

30. The people fled to the mountains, and the ocean covered 
the mountains; they climbed the trees, and the waters rose and 
covered the trees and drowned them all. 

31. The ocean kept on rising until it had reached the door 
of Konikonia's house, but Konikonia and his household were not 
drowned, because the waters then began to subside ; and when 
the waters had retreated, Konikonia and his people returned to 
their land. 

32. This is the story of the deluge which has been handed 
down by tradition from the ancients. Traditions are not as relia- 
ble as genealogies. Genealogies can be trusted to some extent. 
The ancients were misinformed. This we know because we have 
lieard the story of Noah, and that does not tally with our tradi- 
tion of the Kai-a-ka-hina-lii. For this reason this tradition of 
the Kai-a-ka-hina-lii can not be of Hawaiian origin. It was heard 
l^y the ancients and finally came to be accepted by them as be- 
longing to Hawaii nei. 

NOTES TO CHAPTER LVIII. 

(i) Sect. I. There is no doubt but that the Hawaiians, like all the 
other Polynesian tribes, had traditions regarding a flood. The conclu- 
sions properly to be deduced from this fact are well worthy of considera- 
tion ; but not here and now. 

(2) Sect. 4. Ko'a lawai'a; Ko'a, was the same applied to any reef; 
a reef on which fish were taken was called a ko'a lawai'a. These Jw'a 
lawai'a were generally quite a distance from land and were located by 
two cross ranges from points on land. Lawaia, from lawe-ia, i. e., to 



311 

take fish. In the Maori this would be toka-razvc-ika. The change from 
r to a is, I think for euphony, a matter which very much concerned the 
Hawaiian ear; the Maori r has become / in Hawaiian; the t a. k: and the 
k in the Maori form toka and ika has been dropped, gnawed away by 
the tooth of time. 

(3) Sect. 9. Kii~ma-luahaku : There is a god named Ruahatu men- 
tioned in the Tahitian and Marquesan legends. 

(4) Sect. 14. Kukulu Kaliiki: In regard to this geographical ex- 
pression, Mr. S. Percy Smith says "Kukulu-o-Kahiki is in my opinion 
the Fiji group. It would take too long to explain. In N. Z. we have 
Hituru-o-Hiii, (or Whiti) and Te-maii-o-Hiti, which mean the same, i. e., 
the original, permanent, true Hiti. 

One cannot doubt the correctness of so eminent an authority in his 
exposition of the Maori view and meaning of the expression ; but I can- 
ont escape the conviction tliat the phrase kukulu- o-Kahiki, like so many 
others which the Hawaiians brought with them from fhe South, im- 
posing, however, their own linguistic modifications, came in time to have, 
as it evidently now has, a different meaning from that of_its original use. 
I believe fhat it came to have a general reference to the region about 
Tahiti ; even Tahiti came to be applied to almost any foreign land ; but 
that was in comparatively late times, long aft'er the period of communica- 
tion, when it was not an uncommon thing for voyages to be made between 
Hawaii and the groups to the South. (See chapter V for what' Mr. Malo 
has to say on this subject.) Kukulu meant an erection, applied therefore 
to a wall or vertical support, the pillars that supported the dome of 
heaven, according to the cosmogony of the ancient Hawaiians, as well as 
the Polynesians. Criticism of Hawaiian tradition must stand firmly on 
Hawaiian soil and take fhe Hawaiian point of view. 

(5) Sect. 2^. Kena, means the satisfying of thirst, ana to drink suffi- 
ciently, to satiate, as with food. There is a myth — Hawaiian — of an old 
woman who, to get rid of her troubles, went' up to the moon; but I do not 
see that this story has any reference to that, nor can I find any story that 
bears on this kena and ana. 



CHAPTER LIX. 

TRADITIONS REGARDING THE ANCIENT KINGS. 

I. The histories of the ancient kings, from Ke-alii-wahi-lani^ 
and his wife, La'ilai^ down, from Kahiko^ and his wife Kupu- 
lana-ka-hau* down, and from Wakea^ and his wife Papa^ down 
to the time of Liloa, are but scantily and imperfectly preserved. 
We have, however, it is true, a fragmentary, traditional knowl- 
edge of some kings. Of the kings from Liloa to Kamehameha I 
we have probably a fair historical knowledge. 



312 

2. GENEALOGY OF THE KINGS FROM IVAKEA 

TO LILOA : 



I 


Wakea, 


31 


Hema, 


2 


Haloa, 


32 


Kahai, 


3 


Waia, 


33 


Wahieloa, 


4 


Hinanalo, 


34 


Laka, 


5 


Nanakehili, 


35 


Luanuu, 


6 


Wailoa, 


36 


Pohukaina, 


7 


Kio, 


S7 


Hua, 


8 


Ole, 


38 


Pau, 


9 


Ptipue, 


39 


Huanuiikalailai, 


10 


Manaku, 


40 


Paumakua, 


IT 


Lukaliakoa, 


41 


Plaho, 


12 


Luanuu, 


42 


Palena, 


.^3 


Kahiko, 


43 


Hanalaanui, 


H 


Kii, 


44 


Lanakawai, 


15 


Ulu, 


45 


Laau, 


i6 


Nanaie, 


46 


Pili, 


17 


Nanailani, 


47 


Koa, 


i8 


Waikulani, 


48 


Ole, 


19 


Kuheileimoana, 


49 


Kukohou, 


20 


Konohiki, 


50 


Kaniuhi, 


21 


Wanena, 


51 


Kanipahu, 


22 


Akalana, 


52 


Kalapaua, 


23 


Maui, 


S3 


Kahaiirioelea, 


24 


Nanamaoa, 


54 


Kalaunuiohua, 


25 


Nanaktilei, 


55 


Kuaiwa, 


26 


Nanakaoko, 


5^ 


Kohoukapu, 


27 


Nanakuae, 


57 


Kauhola, 


28 


Kapawa, 


58 


Kiha, 


29 


Heleipawa, 


59 


Liloa. 


30 


Aikanaka, 







We have some traditional knowledg-e of these kings, but noth- 
ing very definite. 

3. WAKFIA. We have the following traditions regarding 
Wakea. He was the last child of Kahiko, the first born of Ka- 
hiko, and the elder brother of Wakea being Lihau-ula, to whom 
Kahiko bequeathed his land, leaving Wakea destitute. 



313 

4- After the death of Kahiko, Lihait-uhv made war against 
Wa-kea. The councillor of Lihau-ula had tried to dissuade him, 
saying, '•Don;t let us go to war with Wakea at this time. We 
shall be defeated by him, because this is a time of sun-light ; the 
sun has melting power {no ka niea he an keia no ka la, he la hee.) 

5. Lihau-ula, however, considered that he had a large force 
of men, while Wakea had but a small force, his pride was up 
and he gave battle. In the engagement that followed Lihau-ula 
lost his Hfe, killed by Wa-kea, the blond one, {ka ehii), and his 
kingdom went to Wa-kea. 

6. After Wa-kea came to the government he had war with 
Kane-ia-kumu-homta,^ in which Wa-kea was routed and obligved 
to swim out into the ocean with all his people. 

7. Tradition gives two versions to the story of this war. Ac- 
cording to one the battle took place in Hawaii ; Wakea was 
defeated and Kane-ia-kumu-honua pursued him as far as Kaula, 
where Wakea and his followers took tO' the ocean {an ma ka mo- 
ana. ) 

8. Another ancient tradition has it that the battle was not 
fought in Hawaii, but in Kahiki-ku ; and that Wakea, being 
routed, swam away in the ocean with all his people. 

9. From swimming in the ocean Wakea and his followers 
were at length reduced to great straits, and he appealed to his 
priest {kahuna-pule), Komoawa, saying, "What shall we do to- 
day to save our lives?", 

TO, IT, 12. "Build a heiau to the deity," answered Komoawa. 
"There is no wood here with which to build a heiau, noa a pig 
with which to make a suitable offering to the god," answered 
Wakea. "There is wood and there is a pig," said Komoawa. 
"Lift up your right hand ; hollow the palm of your hanrl into a 
cup, and then elevate the fingers." Wakea did so, and Komo- 
awa said, "The house is built. Now pinch together the fingers 
of the left hand into a cone and put the finger-tips into the hollow 
of your right hand." When Wakea had done this, Komoawa 
declared, "The heiau is now completed; only the prayer is want- 
mg. 



314 

13- ''Gather all your people together," said Konioawa, and that 
was done, and the charm, or aha, of the ceremony was perfect. 

14. Then Komoawa asked Wakea, "How was the aha of our 
ceremony?" ''It was good," answered Wakea. ''We are saved 
then," said Komoawa; "let us swim ashore." 

15. Then Wakea and his people swam ashore with great 
shouting; and, on reaching the land, they renewed the battle 
with Kane-ia-kumu-honua, and utterly defeated him. In this 
way the government was permanently secured to Wakea. 

There is a fanciful tradition that has come down from the an- 
cients that some of those who went a swimming with Wakea 
are still swimmJng about, and that the name of one of them is 
Kamanioe. 

t6. There is a doubtful story about Wakea and Hoo-hoku- 
ka-lani/^ A venerable tradition has it that Hoo-hoku-ka-lani was 
the daughter of Wakea and Papa, but that Wakea incestuously 
took her to wife. 

17. Another tradition says that Hoo-hoku-ka-lani was the 
daughter of Komoawa, by his wife, Popo-kolo-nuha, and that 
Wakea was justified in consorting with Hoo-hoku-ka-lani, see- 
ing she was of another family and not his own daughter. 

18. It is asserted by tradition^** of Wakea that he was the 
one who instituted the four seasons of prayer in each month, and 
that he also imposed the tabu on pork, coconuts, bananas and 
the red fish (kiimii), besides declaring it tabu for men and women 
to eat together in the miia. 

19. Because of Wakea's desire to commit adultery (incest) 
with his daughter, Hoo-kohu-ka-lani, he set apart certain nights 
as tabu, and during those nights he slept with Hoo-hoku-ka-lani. 
On Wakea's over-sleeping himself, his priest, seeing it was al- 
ready daylight, called to Wakea with the following words of 
prayer to awake him : 

20 I E a!a-au akii, e ala-au inai, 

2 E ala o Makia, o Makia a Hano}'^ 
A hano ke aka,^"^ ke aka knhea, 
O kc aka kit i Hikina, 



313 

5 Ku ka Hi kill a iJuna ha lam 

Ka opua itlu nui, ka opna mikolu^ na ha ua, 
Kahc hoa wai, muhcha, 
Oilu oJjfa i ka laiii poni^ 
Poni hau i ka mea. 
lO J/o'i3 ka pazca, Icic ka hoku, 

HauJc ka lani?'^ Moahaka i kc ao maJamalama. 
Ala mai, ua ao c! 

I call to 3'ou, answer me! 
Awake l^Iakia, Malda son of Hano ! 
Portentous is the shadow, the shadow of him who calls. 
Shadow rising from the East, 
5 Morning climbs the heavens. 

The piled up clouds, the gloomy clouds, down pours the 

rain, 
A rush of waters, a flood ; 

Lightning darts and flashes in the dark heavens ; 
Bound with a strong covenant to that one, 
lo The curtains of night are lifted, the stars flee away. 

The king's honor is dashed, all is visible in the light of day. 
Awake! Lo the day is come! 

21 Wakea did not awake, his sleep was profound. So the 
kahuna prayed more fervently, repeating the same prayer ; but still 
A\ akea did not awake. 

22. AMien the sun had risen, Wakea arose and wrapped him- 
self in his tapa to go to the iniia, thinking that Papa would not 
see h im . But Papa did see him, and, coming on the run, entered 
the jfiua to upbraid Wakea. Wakea then led her back to her own 
house, doing what he could to pacify her, and after that he di- 
vorced her. 

(This poem has the ear-marks of great antiqnit}-, to be seen 
both in its language and in the thought.) 

^rOTES TO CHAPTER LIX. 

The ?nbject tnattfer of this chapter, in so far at least -a? it deal= with 
Wakea and Papa, is almost wholly m^-thical. The names of the dramatis 
pcrsonac are, a?i I take it, figurative, such as are applicable to, or ex- 
pre?f]ve ol the wonder-working convulsions, or the quieter, but equally 
m^-sterious. oi>eration?. of nature; a= for instance: 



3T.'i 

(i) Sect. I. Ke-alii-wahi-lani, literally, the king who rends or breaks 
the heavens. The ancient Hawaiians conceived of the heavens, the visible 
sky, as a solid dome. The exact meaning that lies back of this figurative 
expression, the hyponoia, as Max Miiller would say, is open to different 
interpretations, and of course presents insuperable difficulties to any one 
who would try to define it; but' it clearly refers to some heavenly pheno- 
menon or phenomena. Diligent comparison with the myths of Southern; 
Polynesia might help to clear up the intent of this expression. That 
Wahi-lani was, or came to be, regarded as a verit'able personage is evident 
from the following ancient mele : 

"O cvahi-lani, o ke alii o Oahu, 
I holo aku i Kahiki, 
I na pae-moku o Moa-ulanui-akca, 
E keekcehi i ka houpu o Kane a uie Kanaloa/' 

Wahi-lani, king of Oahu, 

Who sailed away to Tahiti, 

To the islands of Moa-ula-nui-akea, 

To trample the bosom^ of Kane and Kanaloa.^ 

a By the bosom of Kane and Kanaloa was probably meant the land and" 
the sea; to trample them was therefore t'o travel by land and by sea. 

t> Quoted to me as from a mele published in the '60' s in "Ka Hoka 
ka Pakipika", a Hawaiian newspaper of Honolulu, edited by the late 
John M. Kapena, and issued under the management of Prince David,, 
later King Kalakaua. 

(2) Sect. I. Lai-lai. (i) physical, calm and peacefulness : (2) joy 
and light-heart'edness. 

(3) Sect. I. Kahiko, the ancient one. It is to be noted that in this 
account we find no mention of Po, Night, the original Darkness and 
Chaos that enveloped fhe world. Ku, Kane, Kanaloa, Lono and perhaps 
some of the other deities are said to be no ka po inai, to date back to the 
night, a time far antecedent to history and tradition. 

(4) Sect. I. Kupu-lana-ka-hau, a phrase difficult of interpretation. 
To my mind it conveys the idea of fogs and floating mists, perhaps also* 
of ice-masses. Hau at fhe present time means ice and snow. It is said 
to be a female element, receptive rather than active therefore. A Hawaiiair 
of intelligence as well as of considerable critical faculty gives it as his 
opinion that in this word is typified the formation and development of land,, 
though still in a wild and inhospitable condition, perhaps covered with- 
ice and snow. He informs me that ice was formerly termed zvai-puolo- 
i-ka-lau-laau, water-wrapped-up-in-leaves ; the reason being that when ice 
or frozen snow was first' met with the people who came across it in the 
mountains wrapped it up in leaves, and, finding it reduced to water on 
reaching home, gave to it this name descriptive of their experience^ 
Ke-hau is the name given to dew, it having absorbed the article ke. It l3- 



3^7 

clear, it seems to me, that kupu-lana-ka-liau is expressive of some form 
of phenomenon due to water, either in the form of clouds or mists or 
frozen into ice and snow. 

(5) Sect. I. fVa-kea, modern aiva-kea, means noon, undoubtedly fig- 
urative of the sky, the light of day, the vivifying influence of the sun. 
In Sect. 5, Wakea is spoken of as the ehu, the blond, the bright',, the 
shining one, an epithet that conveys the same idea as the Sanscrit deva. 
Wakea, it seems needless to remark, is represented to be the vivifying 
male element, which, as hinted at' or plainly stated in the myths of Poly- 
nesia, was in the remote ages of Po torn from the close embrace of Papa, 
Earth, and placed in its present position, 

(6) Sect. I. Papa, the female element, the generatrix, the plain or 
level of tlie Earth's surface, hence the Earth itself. Papa is the name 
applied to a stratum, a level form.ation, a table; it is a name frequently 
met with. 

(7) Sect. 4. Lihan-ula: The exact meaning of this word is not clear. 
It seems to refer to some effect' of light shooting through the drifting 
clouds that remain undissipated. Wa-kea, the bright one, is still repre- 
sented as being at war with the unsubdued elements of darkness and 
coId(?), which he finally overcomes, routing and driving out Lihau-ula. 
He thus gains possession of the kingdom of his father, Kahiko. His 
victory is ascribed to the fact that "it is a time of sunlight, the sun Has 
power to melt" — no ka mea he au keia no ka la, he la hee. 

(8) Sect, 6. Kanc-ia-kumu-honua, Kane the founder of the earth, or 
Kane at' the foundations of the earth, sometimes spoken of as Kane-lulu- 
honua, Kane the shaker of the earth, the one who causes earth-quakes. 
Having gained the victory over darkness, clouds and cold, Wakea is for 
a time routed and put to flight by the deity that shakes the foundations of 
the earth, which may be naturally supposed to be a volcanic eruption, 
accompanied with earth-t'remors and a darkening of the heavens, obscur- 
ing the light of the Sun on the land but leaving it bright at sea. It is 
well to remark that the religious services, incantations some would call 
them, which are performed to relieve the situation, are of the simplest 
form, suited to the occasion, a lifting of the hands, a prayer, a lesson to 
all formalists. 

(9) Sect. 16. Hoo-hoku-ka-lani, to bestud the heavens with stars, the 
starry sky, the stars of heaven, the offspring of Wakea and Papa, i. e., of 
Heaven and Earth. The action of the drama reaches its summit of in- 
terest in the passion of Wakea for his own daughter, Hoo-hoku-ka-lani, 
Star-of-heaven. It is to be noted as a proof of the simple faith with 
which David Malo accepts this tradition as based on a historic foundation 
of fact, that he actually seeks to extenuate Wakea's offense by ascribing 
the paternity of the maiden, Hoo-hoku-ka-lani, t'o the old prie.st, Komo- 
awa. This story is evidently an after-thought, gotten up to save Wakea's 
reputation. To admit such evidence would be the spoiling of a fine solar 
myth (aside). The dalliance of the lovers is kept up to an unsafe time 



in the morning; daylight comes and they are still in each other's compan 
—the stars of morning continue to shine after the sun is in the heaven 
The priest comes with a friendly warning; Wakea sleeps on; Papa come 
forth from her chamber and discovers the situation and the row is pr< 
cipitated at once. 

According to one version the divorce of Papa was accompHshed b 
Wakea spitting in the face of the woman whom he turned away; accordin 
to another account it was Papa herself who did fhe spitting— who ha 
more occasion? — and it almost seems as if something of the sort wa 
indicated in the word mukeha in the 6th line. Having poured on Wake 
the scorn and contempt which he deserved. Papa bet'ook herself to th 
remote regions of Kukulu-o-Kahiki, while Wakea continued his intimac 
with Hoo-hoku-ka-lani, by whom he had Molokai and Lanai as off-sprinj 
Papa, according to the same version, had already given birth to Hawa: 
and Maui. But in the case of Papa blood proved thicker than water; sh 
could not bear the thought of a fruitful rival taking her place in the affec 
tions of her husband, "her womb became jealous;" she returned to he 
husband: 'the result was the birth of Oahu, Kauai and Kauai's littl 
neighbor, Niihau. 

1. Wakea noho ia Papa-hanau-moku, 

2. Hanau o Hawaii, he moku, 

3. Hanau Maui, he moku 

4. Hoi hou Wakea noho ia Hoo-hoku-ka-lani, 

5. Hanau Molokai, he moku, 

6. Hanau Lanai ka ula, he moku, 

7. Lili-opu-punalua Papa ia Hoo-hoku-kalani, 

8. Hoi hou Papa noho ia Wakea, 

9. Hanau o Oahu, he moku, 

10. Hanau Kauai, he moku, 

11. Hanau Niihau, he moku, 

12. He ula-a o Kahoolawe. 

1. Wakea lived with Papa, begetter of islands, 

2. Begotten was Hawaii, an island, 

3. Begotten was Maui, an island, 

4. Wakea made a new departure and lived with Hoo-hoku-kalani, 

5. Begotten was Molokai, an island, 

6. Begotten was red Lanai, an island. 

7. The womb of Papa became jealous at its partnership with Hoo-hoku 

ka-lani, 

8. Papa returned and lived with Wakea, 

9. Begotten was Oahu, an island, 

10. Begot'ten was Kauai, an island, 

11. Begotten was Niihau, an island, 

12. A red rock was Kahoolawe. 



319 

There are numerous variants to this story ; one of them seeks to give 
a more human and historical turn to the narrative, and explains the op- 
portunity by which Wakea gained access t'o his daughter's couch, or 
rather by which he smuggled her to his own cottage, by stating that, 
advised by his kahuna, he had imposed a tabu which separated him from 
his wife's bed at certain seasons of prayer in each month. 

But tlie real significance of the narrative, as I understand it, lies not so 
much in the special human incidents which make up this sun-myth, as 
in the fact that there is a sun-myth at all, that the heavenly phenomena 
which daily and nightly unrolled themselves before these Polynesians, 
were at one time in the remote past translated by their poets and thinkers 
into terms of human passion. Granted the myth-making faculty at all— 
and most races seem to have possessed it at some time, the form the myth 
shall take and the human incidents with which it shall be clothed, will 
be determine by the habits and ruling propensities of the people them- 
selves. 

This solar myth from Polynesia reads as if it had been taken straight 
from Aryan head-quarters. Is this similarity to be explained, as in the 
case of the Hellenes, from their having rocked in the same race-cradle, 
aye sucked at the same paps, or, because they carried with them out into 
the Pacific the memory of those old myths tliat they learned from their 
masters, or from those who drove them forth from the plains of India? 
or, is it that being human, they had the same myth-making faculty that 
shows itself in the other races of the earth? The question whether the re- 
semblance is the result' of historical contact, or a coincidence of inde- 
pendent growth is a question beyond our power to answer. Whatever 
view one takes of it, there can be no doubt that the ancient Polynesians 
were the equals of the Aryans or the Hellenes in the art of projecting 
the lies, thefts and adulteries that embroidered their own lives into the 
courts of heaven. 

(lo) Sect. i8. The assertion that the tabu-system originated in the 
concupiscence of Wakea is merely equivalent to saying that the origin of 
the system is not known. 

(ii) Sect. 20. Makia a Hano : Makia is evidently a special name for 
Wakea, and Hano, a name belonging to some ancestor. 

(12) Sect'. 20. A hano ke aka: There may perhaps be an intentional 
antithesis between hano and kuhea. Hano primarily means silent, while 
kuhea, a compound word from ku, to stand, and hea, to call, therefore to 
proclaim, to herald. Such antitheses are in fine accord with the genius 
of Hawaiian poetry. 

(13) Sect. 20. Mo, an elided form of moku. 

(14) Sect'. 20. Lani, literally sky, a title frequently applied to a king 
or chief. 



^20 



O 



CHAPTER LX. 

HALOA, THE SON OF WAKEA. 

1. We have a fragment of tradition regarding Haloa. The 
lirst born son of W'akea was of premature birth (keiki ahtalit) 
and was given tlie name of Haloa-naka. The little thing died, 
however, and its body was buried in the ground at one end of 
the house. After a while from the child's body shot up a taro 
plant, the leaf of which was named lau-kapa-lili, quivering leaf; 
but the stem wasgiven the name Haloa. 

2. After that another child was bom to them, whom they 
called Haloa, from the stalk of the taro. He is the progenitor 
of all the peoples of tlie earth. 



CHAPTER LXL 

WAT A. THE SON OF HALOA. 

1. Tradition gives us some account of JVaia, the son of 
Haloa. 

2. According to the traditions handed down by the ancient 
Hawaiians, the government of Waia was extremely corrupt. He 
was so absorbed in the pursuit of pleasure that he disregarded 
the instructions of his father, to pray to the gods, to look well 
after the affairs of the kingdom, and to take good care of his 
people, so that the country might be prosperous. 

3 — 4. It is said that during Waia's reign a portent was seen in 
the heavens, a head without a body, and a voice came from it, 
uttering the words, "What king on the earth below lives an hon- 
est life?" The answer returned was ''Kahiko,"^ Then the voice 
came a second time from the head and asked the question, ''What 
good has Kahiko done?" 

5. Again came the answer from below, "Kahiko is well skilled 
in all the departments of the government; he is priest and dixiner; 
he looks after the people in his government; Kahiko is patient and 
forbearing." 



32 f 

6. Thcrc-upon the voice from the portent saif1, '•'fhen it is Ka- 
hikn who is the righteous, the benevokiit man." 

7. Again the head asked, "What king on earth hves corrupt- 
ly ?" Then the per.])le of the earth answcrorl with a slir>ut, "Waia^ 
is the wicked king." "What sin has he comm,itt( rl ?" asked the 
hearl. 

H. "He utters no prayers, he employs no priests, he has no 
diviner, he knows not how to govem," said the people. 

(J "Then he is th(^ wicked king," said the head, and there- 
U|)on it withdrew inlf> the heavens. 

10. During Waia's reign. Hawaii nei was visited l>y a pesti- 
lence, iiia'i ahuldu, which resulted in a great mortality among the- 
jK'ople. Only twenly-six ]>ers()iis were left alive, and these were 
saveil and cured hy the use of two remedies, pilikai and loloL. 

ir. This pestilence was hy the ancients called JkipiLahola. 

12. Kama, the Hawaiian medicine-man (kahnna-lapaaii)\ 
gave it as his opinion that the ikipnoliola was of the same nature 
as (lie oku'u, the pestilence whieh appeared in 1804 in the reign 
of Kamehameha f. 

13. Kama made this statement to his grandson Kuauau, and 
one year hefore the appearance of this pestilence Kama foretold 
its arrival. The circumstances wer'e as follows: 

14. Kamehameha was at Kawaihae making preparations for 
his rcJclcti expedition toi r)ahu. At that time Kama was taken 
siek imto death when he made the fo'llowing statement to Ku- 
auau. 

15. "I am about to (h'e, biU you will witness a gn-at pestiletice 
tlial is soon to make its appeanmce among us. Yon will doubt- 
less he weary and worn out with your labors as a physician, be- 
causi' this is the same disease as that whieh raged in the time of 
Waia. Tkipuahola is the name of it. It is the same as that 
pestilence whicli slew all but twenty-six of the i)opulation of 
Hawaii." 

iTi. "Mow do you know that this disease is the same as Iki- 
pnahola?" asked Kuauau. T(> this Kama answered, "My in- 
stfuetnr onee told me that if a distemper associated with buboes-' 
ilwhal), and a skin eruption (iiicraii), were to show its(>If, a 
short lime thereafter this disease would make its appearance. So 
the ancients told him, and so my piweplor Kalua told me." 



322 

17- After that Kamehameha sailed for Oahu and the pesti- 
lence in truth made its appearance, raging from Hawaii to Kauai. 
A vast number of people died and the name Okuii was applied 
to it. 

1 8. After Waia's time another pestilence called Hai-lcpo in- 
vaded the land and caused the death of a large number of the 
people. Only sixteen recovered, being saved by the use of a medi- 
cine which was composed of some kind of earth (lepo). The 
name of the king during whose reign this epidemic occurred has 
escaped me. 

1 8. I have not heard the traditions of the kings that succeeded 
Waia, until we come to the time of Maui. The traditions that 
have come to me of Maui are false (zvaha-hee), lies, and I re 
peat no falsehoods. 

20. The traditions of the kings that succeeded Maui, until 
we come to Kapa\ya, are not known. But tradition informs us 
with certainty of the place of birth and death of the kings from 
Kapawa to Paumakua. 

NOTES TO CHAPTER LXI. 

(i) KahikOj the remote past. This answer smacks of the notion whicl 
locates the golden age in the remote past, a time when men were good anc 
true and pure, a sentiment not confined to Hawaii. 

(2) JVai-a' : This word is now used in the sense of foul, polluted 
Its use here is probably figurative. 

(3) Sect. 16. This symptom resembles the chief feature of buboni( 
plague. 



CHAPTER LXn. 

KAPAWA. 

1. Kapawa was a chief who was born at Kukaniloko.^ dis 
trict of Waialua, island of Oahu. He died at T^ahaina, on Maui 
and his bones were taken to lao valley. 

2. Hele-i-pazca was a chief who was born at Lelekea, Kaa 
pahu, in Kipahulu on the island of Maui. He died at Poukeh 



323 

and his bones were deposited at Ahulili. (Fornander-The Poly- 
nesian Race, Vol. 2, p. 2i,~regards Heleipawa as another name 
for Kapawa.) 

3. Aikanaka was a chief born at Holonokiu, Miiolea, Hana, 
Maui. He died at Oneuli, Puuolai, Honuaiila, and liis bones ^^■ere 
laid to rest at lao. (According to the Ulu genealogy Aikanaka 
v\as the grand-son of Heleipawa.) 

4. Puna and Hcmo^ were chiefs who were born in "Haivaii- 
kua-ula/' at Kauiki, Maui. Hema died in Kahiki, i. e., foreign 
lands, and his bones were left at Ulupaupau. 

5. Kaha'i^ was a chief who was born at Kahalulukahi, Wai- 
luku, Maui. He died at Kailikii in Kau; his bones we're de- 
posited in lao. 

6. Wahicloa was a king who was born at Wailau, in Kau, 
Hawaii; died a: Koloa, in Punaluu, Kau; buried at Alae, in 
Kipahulu, Maui. 

7. Loka^ was a king who was born at Haili, Hawaii ; died 
at Kualoa, Oahu: was buried at lao. 

8. Liia-nun was a king who was born at Peekauai, in Wai- 
mea, on Kauai; he died at Honolulu, Oahu, and was buried in 
Nuuanu. 

9. Pohnkaina, a king, was bom at Kahakahakea, in Kau, died 
at Waimea, Hawaii, and was buried at Mahiki. 

10. Hua was a king, who was born at Kahona, Lahaina, Ma- 
ui ; died at Kehoni on the same island, and was buried at lao. 

11. Pan, the son of Hua, was a king who was born at a place 
in Kewalo on Oahu ; died on Molokai and was buried at lao. 

12. Hiia (mii-i-ka-lailai) , the son of Pau, was a khig who was 
born at Ohikilolo in Waianae, on Oahu. He died on Lanai and 
his bones were deposited at lao, 

13. Pamnakita^ was a king of Oahu who was born at Kua- 
aohe, on Oahu. He died on Oahu and his bones were laid to 
rest at Tao. 

14. HahoJ Traditions regarding this king are scanty. 

Of Palcna tradition says that he had two sons, of whom the 
elder, called 'Hana-laa-nni, was in the line of the Hawaii kings, 
and the younger, Hana-laa-iki, was of the line of Maui kings. 



324 

15. Puiia-imua was one of the ancestors of kings on Oahu 
and on Kauai, Hema of kings on Hawaii. 

16. Of traditions regarding Lanakawai, Laau, Piliy Koa, Ole, 
Kukohou, Kanhthi, I have heard none. Of Kani-pahu we have 
this : 

17. Kani-pahu was from Hawaii, but, the kingdom being 
seized by Kamaiole, he left Hawaii and took refuge at Kalae on 
Molokai, where he Hved incognito. He took to wife a woman of 
Kalae, and by his father-in-law was so frequently set to the work 
of carrying burdens — water and other things — that he contracted 
callosities on his shoulders. 

18. Kani-pahu had two sons on Hawaii named Kalapana and 
Kalahiiimoku. Alaikaiiakoko was the mother of Kalapana and 
Hua-lani the mother of Kalahiiimoku. 

19. Now these two boys had been brought up in retirement 
in the country, without the knowledge of Kamaiole, because if 
Kamaiole had known them tO' be the sons of -king Kanipahu, he 
would have put them to death. 

20. At that time Kamaiole reigned as king over Hawaii. It 
happened that while Kamaiole was making a tour of that island 
some of his boon companions abducted and seduced the good 
looking wives of certain country folk and took them for them- 
selves. 

21. These people whose wives had been taken from them 
came before Kamaiole and appealed to- him to have their women 
returned to them. But Kamaiole took the part of his own favor- 
ites and the women were not returned to their husbands. 

22. Thereupon these men became greatly incensed against 
Kamaiole and they secretly consulted Paao that they might put 
Kamaiole to death. Paao's advice to them was, ^'Yes, he should 
be killed; but first secure another king." 

23. Paao accordingly sent a messenger to Kanipahu, who was 
living at Kalae, on Molokai. On his arrival at Kalae the messen- 
ger went before Kanipahu, bearing in his hand a pig as a gift, 
and coming into his presence he said, "I have come to ask you 
to return and be the king of Hawaii. The people of Hawaii have 
rejected Kamaiole as unworthy.'^ 

24. Then Kanipahu considered the callous bunches on his neck 
(kona liokua, ua Iche) , and he was ashamed to return to Hawaii. 



325 

His answer to the messenger was, ''I will not return with you; 
but go to Waimanu; there you will find my peeping fledgeling 
(wio moa) Kalapana. He will be a king for you. He is my own 
offspring, in the care of his mother Alaikauakoko, who lives at 
Waimanu. Make him your king." 

NOTES TO CHAPTER LXII. 

(i) Sect. I. It was held to be a most' distinguished honor to be born 
at Kukaniloko. Queens in expectation of motherhood were accustomed 
to go to Kukaniloko in advance that' by undergoing the pains of labor in 
that place they might confer on their offspring this inestimable boon. 
Kapawa is mentioned in legends as ''Ke alii o Waialua," indicating that 
he may have passed his youth in that district. Tradition informs us that 
for some fault, whether of personal character or of government, we are 
not told, Kapawa was deposed from his government. A chief named Pili 
Kaaiea was prevailed upon by the king-maker Paao to come to Ha^yaii 
and assume kingly authority. Kapawa was undoubtedly a weak and de- 
graded character. The fact that in spite of having been deposed from the 
throne he died at Lahaina, in peace so far as we know, and that his 
bones received the distinguished honor of sepulture in the royal burying 
place in lao valley, argues that his unfitness for rule depended upon his 
own personal weakness and debasement rather than upon outbreaks of 
violence and cruelty. Kapawa was the last of his line, the Nana genealogy. 

(2) Sect. 4. It were a shame to allow this barren, truncated state- 
ment to pass current in its present form. It was the period of communi- 
cation between Hawaii and the archipelagoes of the South Pacific. Great 
navigators, guided by the stars, steered their canoes and successfully 
voyaged from Hawaii to the lands, principally in the South, known to 
them as Kukuhi-o-Kahiki. 

Hawaii-kua-uli is a poetical expression meaning "verdure-clad-Hawaii." 
The following niele celebrates the deeds of Hema. 

Holo Hcma i Kahiki, ki'i i ke apo ula, 
Loa'a Hema, lilo i ka Aaia, 
Haule i Kahiki, i Kapakapakaua, 
JVaiJw ai i Ulu-pa'upa'u. 

Hema voyaged to Kahiki to fetch the red coronet, 
Hema secured it, but he was caught by the Aaia, 
He fell in Kahiki, in Kapakapakaua, 
His body was deposited at Ulu-pa'upa'u. 

The descendants of this old-time navigator Hema reigned over Hawaii 
and Maui, those of Puna over Oahu and Maui. 



326 

(3) Sect. 5. Kaha'i also was a great navip^ator. If we can believe 
the legend he voyaged in search of his father, perhaps to avenge him. In 
Samoa, in the heroic period. 

O ke anuenue ke ala Kaha'i; 
Pii Kaha'i, koi Kaha'i, 
He Kaha'i i ke koi-ula a Kane; 
Hihia i na maka Alihi. 
5 A'e Kaha'i i ke aiiaha, 

He anaha ke kanaka, ka waa; 
Iluna Hana-ia-kamalama, 
O ke ala ia i imi ai i ka makua Kaha'i. 
O hele a i ka moana wehiwehi, 
10 A haalulu i Hale-kumu-ka-lani, 
Ui mai kini ke akua, 

Ninau Kane, o Kanaloa, 

Heaha kau huaka'i nui 

E Kaha'i, i hiki mai ai? 
15 / imi mai au i ka He ma. 

Aia i Kahiki, aia i Ulupaupau, 

Aia i ka aaia, haha mau ia e Kane, 

Loaa aku i kukulu Kahiki. 
The rainbow was the path of Kaha'i, 
Kaha'i climbed, Kaha'i strove. 

He was girded with the mystic enchantment of Kane, 
He was fascinated by the eyes of Alihi. 
5 Kaha'i mounted on the flashing rays of light. 
Flashing on men and canoes. 
Above was Hana-ia-kamalama 

That was the road by which Kaha'i sought his father. 
Pass over the dark-blue ocean, 
10 And shake the foundation of heaven. 
The multitude of the gods keep asking, 
Kane and Kanaloa inquire. 
What is your large travelling party seeking, 

Kaha'i, that you have come hither? 
15 I come looking for Hema. 

Over yonder in Kahiki, over yonder in Ulupa'upa'u, 
Yonder by the Aaia constantly fondled by Kane, 

1 have travelled to the pillars of Tahiti. 

(4) Sect. 7. He is generally spoken of as '"Laka, of Kipahulu, the 
son of Wahieloa." There is a very interesting legend about him relating 
to tlie building of a canoe, in which he sailed to discover the bones of his 
father. 

(5) Sect. 7. The names of Aikanaka, Puna, Hema, Kaha'i Wahieloa, 
Laka and Luanuu are celebrated in the New Zealand traditions. W. D. A. 

(6) Sect. 13. There was a Maui Paumakua, with whom Malo has 
evidently confounded this one of Oahu. They belonged to different lines. 



3^7 

The deeds of the Oahu king seem to have been appropriated by the bards 
who in later times sang the praises of the Maui man. As claimed by 
Fornander— ''The Polynesian Race," Vol. 2, p. 24-27,— the Oahu Pau- 
makua was a great traveller. His exploits are embellished by the bards 
in high flown language. 

O Paumakua, ka lani Moetiaimua, 
O ke alii nana i hele ke Kahiki^ 
A Kahiki i ke kaiakea, 
O wimo, monii, ka mamio, 
O ka ia mailoko, ka Auakahinu, 
O Auakamea ia lani. 
Paumakua, the divinity of Moenaimua, 
The king who voyaged to Tahiti, 
Tahiti in the great ocean. 
He the superb, the select, the magnificent. 
The fish he brought away with him were Auakahinu 
And Auakamea, the high born. 
These captives (fish, i-a) whom Paumakua brought with him were 
said to have been white men and priests. They are described as ka haole 
nui, maka alohilohi, ke a aholehole, niaka aa, ka puaa keokeo nui, maka 
ulaula, foreigners of large stature, fat cheeks, bright" eyes, ruddy and 
stout. The introduction of circumcision is by some ascribed to Pauma- 
kua. 

(7) Sect. 14. He wa^ the son of the Maui Paumakua, and is distin- 
guished as the founder of the Aha- Alii, College or Assembly of Chiefs, 
admission to which was very strictly guarded, and was granted only to 
those who could prove their royal ancestry. 



CHAPTER LXTIT. 

KALAPANA. 

1. We have tine following scanty traditional information re- 
garding Kalapana. The messengers above mentioned returned 
from their visit to Kanipahu ; they reported to Paao, the com- 
mands of Kanipahu. 

2. And when Paao had received the message he went in 
<;earch of Kalapana. On his arrival at Waimanu valley, Paao 



3-S 

inquired of Alaikauakoko, "Whereabouts in ^^'aimanu lives the 
son of Kanipaliu?" 

3. Alaikauakoko, however, kept Kalapana in hiding, and 
AVi^uld not reveal \^here he was. fearing that searcli was being; 
made for him to kill hini, and she replied to Paao, "Kanipahu 
has no son here." "He has a son," said Paao, "where is Alai- 
kauakoko?" "I am Alaikauakoko," said the woman. Then Paao 
explained, "Kanipahu has advised me that his son, Kalapana, is 
here with you." 

4. Thereupon Alaikauakoko pelded and presented Kalapana 
to Paao. 

5. Then Paao took Kalapana away witli him into Kohala, and 
there they lived secretly togetlier, and they and the people sought 
for an opportunity to put Kamaiole to death. 

6. Bv and bv, wlien Kamaiole was about to vovagfe bv canoe 
to Kona, they thought they saw their opportunity to kill him 
while he was boarding his canoe. The nature of tliis opportunity 
will be evident from the fact that it was a principle of royal eti- 
quette in ancient times tliat the canoes bearing the royal party 
should tarry until the canoes of the people had started out to sea 
before the king's canoes left the beach. 

7. So the people and Kalapana secretly waited the king's 
movements. Arriving at Anaehoomalu, in Kekaha, Kona. they 
speut the night, and at day-break the next day all the canoes 
started oft, leaving those of Kamaiole behind. 

8. Thereupon Kalapana and his people set upon Kamaiole and 
put him to death, and the government passed to Kalapana. Ka- 
lapana was nicknamed kuii ioio Jtioa, after tb.c expression used by 
his father, Kanipaliu. No further tradition has been preserv^ed 
in regard to Kamaiole (sic). 



CHAPTER LXIV. 

KALAUXUIOIIUA. 

I. It is said that in the reign of KaJannuiohua there lived a 
prophetess, or haul a, of great power named W^aahia, 



329 

2. Kalaunuiohiia had frequentl} sought to put her to death, 
but without success. She had been thrown mto the sea, beaten 
with rods, rolled down steep declivities, but still slie survived, 
and the king's patience had become exhausted because she would 
not die. 

3. Thai this prophetess said to Kalaunuiohua, "Do you really 
wish me to die?" "Yes, that is my wush," said the king. 

4. "I shall not die if you attempt to put me to death at any 
other place save one," said the woman. **If you are in earnest in 
your wish to kill me, thrust me into the heiau and burn me up 
with the temple, then I shall die,*" The heiau she meant was 
at Keck II in Kona. ... - 

5. "On the day you set fire to the heiau to destroy me you 
must stay quietly in the house from morning till night and by no 
means go out of doors. If the people make an outcry at some 
portent in the heavens you must not go out to look at it. 

6. **Xor must you open the doors of the house in order to 
observe the heavenly phenomenon. If you do so you will die. 
You must wait patiently all day in the house, and onl\ when night 
comes mav vou eo out of doors. In this wav will you and vour 
kingdom be saved from destruction. But if you do not obey 
my injunctions, disaster will fall upon you and your kingdom. 

7. "•\Iv god Kauc-ope-nui-o-alahai will afflict you and your 
kingdom because of vour disobedience to his wishes ( e like me 
ke akua). He has granted your desire. I die by your hand." 
Thus ended her speech. 

8. Then Kalaunuiohua had the w^oman burnt with fire, and 
the smoke of the burning heiau wxnt up to heaven and took the 
shape of two gamecocks tliat fought together in the heavens. 

9. AMien the people saw this portent tJiey raised a great shout, 
and Kalaunuiohua asked, "AMiat means this great uproar?^" The 
answer was 'Tt is a cloud in the heavens that resembles two 
cocks fighting." 'T will look at it," said Kalaunuiohua. 

10. "The prophetess strenuously conmianded you not to look 
lest von die," said his men, and the king yielded. Then that 
appearance passed away and another portent made its appearance. 



330 

11. The same smoke-cloud assumed the shape of a pig which 
moved about from one place to another in the heavens. Again 
the people raised a great shout, and again Kalaunuiohua declared 
his ^\ish to look; but his people entreated him not to look out un- 
til the thing had disappeared from the heavens. 

12. After this the clouds took on a singular appearance^ 
some were white, some glistening, som-e green, yellow, red, black, 
blue-black, black and glistening, and the sky sparkled and flashed 
with light. Again the people raised a shout and again Kalaunui- 
ohua wished to look, but his men restrained him. 

13. When it came evening and the sun was about to set two 
clouds resembling mud-hens flew down from the heavens, and,, 
having alighted close to the end of Kalaunuiohua's house, stood 
and fought with each other, at the sight of which the people 
again raised a tremendous shout. 

14. Kalaunuiohua had now become greatly excited and could 
no longer master his impatience. He reached out his hand to 
the side of the house and tearing away the thatch gazed upon 
the mud-hens (alae) of cloud. 

15. Then the prophetess took spiritual possession of Kalaunui- 
ohua's hand. The deity that inspired was Kane-nui-akea. Ka- 
launuiohua became very powerful, he had only to point with his 
hand and direct war against another country and that country 
would be at his mercy. 

16. Kalaunuiohua pointed hither to Maui (kuhi niai^), and 
began to wage war against Kamaluohua. kins' of Maui, and he 
defeated him and added Maui to his possession. 

17. Kamaluohua was not put to death, but appointed governor 
of Maui under Kalaunuiohua. 

18. After that Kalaunuiohua pointed to ^lolokai ; and he made 
war on Kahaknohua, and, having defeated him, he appointed 
Kahakuohua governor of Molokai under himself. 

19. The hand of Kalaunuiohua next pointed at Oahu, and 
he made war on Hua-i-pon-Ieilci and overcame him, after which 
he made that king governor of Oahu. 



331 

20. His hand pointed next towards Kauai, and he waged war 
against that island, a war which was called Ka-wclezvelc-iivi. 

21. When Kalaunuiohua sailed on his campaign against Kauai 
to wage war upon Kukona, the king of that island, he was ac- 
companied by Kamaluohua, Kahakuohua, and Huakapouleilei, 
(kings subject to him). 

22. After the arrival of Kalaunuiohua at Kauai the deity 
(good luck) deserted' that king's hand and took possession of 
Kauli'a, a man of Kauai. The hand of Kalaunuiohua lost the 
magic power it once had when it pointed. 

23. In the battle with Kukona, king of Kauai, Kalaunuiohua 
was defeated, but his life and the lives of his allies, the Huas, 
were spared. 

24. Kalaunuiohua and the other Huas lived peacefully on 
Kauai with Kukona and were treated by him with all kindness. 

One time when Kukona was spending the day apart from his 
own people with these captive Hmis about him, he was taken 
with a desire for sleep. He rolled himself in his blanket and lay 
down, but did not fall asleep, — he was setting a trap for them, — 
and was all the time alert and watching them from beneath his 
covering. 

25. Kalaunuiohua and his fellow captives supposed that Ku- 
kona had really gone to sleep, and they began to grumble and 
find fault with Kukona and to plot against his life, at which they 
of OaJiu, Molokai, and Hawaii nodded assent, agreeing that they 
should turn upon Kukona and put with to death. 

26. But Kamaluohua, the king of Maui, said, "Let us do no 
hurt to Kukona, because he has been kind to us. Here we are 
in his hands, but he has not put us to death. Let us then treat 
him kindly.'' 

27. Just then Kukona rose up and said to them, ''What a fine 
dream Fve just had while sleeping! I dreamed all of you were 
muttering and plotting my death, but that one pointing to Kama- 
luohua, defended me and preserved my life." 

28. They all acknowledged the truth of his accusations. "Be- 
cause however, of Kamaluohua's kindness,'* continued Kukona. 



332 

**anc becau-e of hh dettrnJnarion that no evU should be done 
to nie: because he appreciated that h'fe and the enjoyment of 
p^r^ce V. ere great ble.^singr... I will not trouble you." 

29. * Because Kamaluohua did right, I now declare all of you 
free to return to your hornet with the honor? of war (w^ i^a 
kmakiia), taking your own canrxrs with you. Do not thmk 1 
^hal! ooi/re^5 vou in vour own lanrl = . Your lands =:hall ?>e vour 
own to live in a- lyrfore/' 

.30. So Ka-lau-nui-o-hua returned home to Hawaii, Huaipou- 
leilei to Oahu. Kahakuohua to Molokai, Karnaluohua to ^^vlaui; 
sril they hved peacefully in their own homes. This peace was 
called fea /^r'i /^a la Kamaluohua, the long peace of Kamaluohua, 

31. Ka:r ehameha I- had thi=; affair of Kukona's in mind when 
he alio^ved Kaumualii to live at the time he met him in Honolulu, 

52. I'here is a lack of traditional kno'.vledge of Kuaiwa and 
/>f Kakoukapu ; but of Kau-hola-nui-mahu tradition gives us some 

:r: formation. 

KCTTES TO CKAPTZJf LXIV. 

(i) Sect. 16- It m;iv fje inferred from the uie of this word wia* 
'-::her> tr..?^: Dzivid M:?^!''-' him-di lived on ilaui at the time of v/riting 



thi^. 



2) -Sect, ^r, Th:^ -t^ternent of David Malo i^ entirely contrary to the 
-:.-":?„ K^'.eh^^r.eh^ ba-elv plotted to tiake the life of Kaumtialii ty 

>.hor.:r:g him v-hile s.t a fea.-,t given in hi 5 honor when that noble king 
( Kjc-'jirr/i^y. ) had come to Honolulu on an errand of rjf::>ji> . The Hit of 
Kaarr."a'f: *A'a^ -.aved only jbv the interference of Isaac Davir, who warned 
the king of Jl^-a: of hir danger. For thi-. act I-aac Davis wa- after- 

-vard-. L/-::voned- . - 



CHAPTER LXV 



f : - ■- r' fr OL Axu r zr .v h u. 



T- There -vas a king named Kahoukapu, whose wife being 
harren. they had no children. 

2, But being ver} desirous of offspring, she vent to consult 
v;ith Paao, the priest, about it. "Here I am," said Paao. "What 
shall I do to beget a child? a-ked La'akapit. 



333 

3- "You must go and fetch a fish as an offering to the deitv 
for yourself/' said Paao. Then she went away, and having ob- 
tained a fish, returned' to Paao, saying, ^'Here is a fish for the 
deity." ''What sort of a fish is it?" asked Paao. 

4. "A weke/' said La'akapu. "Throw it away,"' said Paao, 
"the deity will not eat such a kind of a fish as that. It is like a 
rat. It's full of bones ; so is a rat. It has a beard ; so has a rat. 
It is lean ; so is a rat. Go and fetch another fish." 

5. Laakapu then brought another fish to the priest. "What 
fish have you?" asked -Paao. "It is a moi/' answered she. 
"Throw it away," said he. "It is a rat, the rat Makea. It lives 
in sea foam (Jiu'a-kai) ; the rat makes his- covert in the house- 
thatch (hua-hale) ; the iiioi has whiskers ; so lias mister rat. Bring 
another fish." 

6. Then Laakapu got another fish and brought it to Paao, 
who asked, "What fish have you?" "A squid." "Fling it awav," 
said he ; "it is the rat Haunazuelu. He lives in holes under the 
ocean. Mr. Rat lives in holes in the rocks. Mr. Squid has arms 
(awe); Mr. Rat also has a tail. Fetch another fish." 

7. La'akapu then brought a maomao; but Paao again declared 
it also was a rat. Laakapu, now discouraged and out of patience, 
said to Paao, "Tell me what sort of a fish you want." "A pao'o; 
that is no rat," said he. 

8. Then Laa'kapu brought a pao'o to the priest, and in answer 
to his question as to what the fish was she answered, naming the 
fish, and then, obedient to his demand, gave it to him. 

9. Then Paao offered the fish as a sacrifice to the idol diety 
with the prayer, "Grant a child unto La'akapu." And in due 
season La'akapu gave birth to a child. But it was of doubtful 
sex, and she named it Kaii-Hola-nui-mahn } 

10. On the death of Kahoukapu the kingdom passed into the 
hands of Kauholanuimahu. After reigning for a few years Kau- 
holanuimahu sailed over to Maui and made his residen.ee at 
Honiia-ula. He it was that constructed that fish-pond at Keonc- 
oio. 



11. The wife of Kauholantnmahii remained on Hawaii and 
took to herself another husband ; his kingdom also revolted from 
him but Kauholanuimahu returned to Hawaii and recovered it by 
Avar. 

(i) Mahit means a hermaphrodite. 



CHAPTER LXVT. 

LILOA. 



1. Liloa, the son of Kiha, had the reputation of beingf very 
religious, also of being well skilled in war. His reign was <i 
long one. I have not gained much information about the affairs 
of his gx>vernment. 

2. Tradition reports the rumor that Liloa was addicted^ to 
the practice of sodomy (moe-ai-kane) ; but it did not become 
generally known during his lifetime, because he did it secretly. 

3. During Liloa's reign there was much speculation as to why 
lie retained a certain man as a favorite. It was not apparent 
what that man did to recommend himself as a favoriie {puna- 
hclc) in the eyes of the king, and it caused great debate. 

4. After the death of Liloa people put to this man the ques- 
tion, "Why were you such a great favorite with Liloa?" His 
•answer was, ''He haua nufi jiiai ia'u ma kn'ii iiha." 

5. When pieople heard this, they tried it themselves, and in 
this way the practice of sodomy became established and prevailed 
down to the time of Kamehameha I. Perhaps it is no longer 
practiced at the present time. As to that I can't say. 

6. Liloa lived most of the time at Wai-pio,^ and it was in that 
Talley he died. When near to death Liloa directed that the go\*- 
ernn>ent of Hawaii should go to Ha-kau.^ 

7. As for Umi, he was unprovided for by Liloa. though during 
the lifetime of the king he had been his great favorite. 



335 

8. The result was that Hakau acted very insultingly towards 
Umi, and constantly abused and found fault with him, until 
finally it came to war between them, and Hakau was killed by 
Umi. 

NOTES ON CHAPTER XLVI. 

(i) Sect. 2. The language is such as to make it appear that' Liloa 
was the first Hawaiian inventor of this form of vice, and the one through 
whom it finally became popularized. As to its prevalence at the time 
when Mr. Malo wrote, it is safe to say that, like such a veget'able pest 
as the lantana, the introduction of a vice is more easy than its eradication, 
to forget is more difficult than to remember. 

{2) Sect. 6. Liloa is represented as an affable, pleasure-loving mon- 
arch, of easy manners, but a st'rict disciplinarian. He was much given to 
touring through the districts of his kingdom, by which means he acquaint- 
ed himself with the needs of his people and was able to repress the ar- 
bitrary encroachments of the chiefs on the rights of the land-holders under 
their authority. In this way he gained popularity with the common 
people. The romantic incident relating to t'he parents and birth of Umi 
are related in the following chapter. In explanation of David Malo's 
statement that Liloa was counted a person of great piety, it' may be re- 
marked that in his reign the temple-service of the famous heiau of Pa- 
kaa-lana, situated in the valley of Wai-pio, was maintained with great 
care and strictness. The sacred pavement, — of which Mr. Fornander 
speaks — and which perhaps formed a sort of roadway between the royal 
residence, called Hau-no-ka-maa-hala, and the heiau above mentioned, 
though built long anterior to Liloa's time, became so closely associat'ed 
in mind with the glories of Liloa's reign, that it was thenceforward known 
as ka Pae-pae-a-Liloa. The celebrity of Waipio as a royal residence and 

the capital of the kingdom of Hawaii — tlie island — went into a decline at 
the death of Liloa ; and the incoming of so narrow-minded and despicable 
a monarch as Hakau, was the finishing stroke to its primacy among the 
towns and places of the island-kingdom. There was peace on Hawaii 

during the long reign of Liloa. 

(3) Sect. 7. This statement conveys a wrong impression. It is true 
the territory of the kingdom was not divided, but provision was made for 
Umi — after a fashion — in that he was appointed the kahu of the idol, a 
fact which had an important' influence over his life and fortunes. There 
is a certain similarity between the position occupied by Umi^ after the 
death of Liloa, and that in which Kamehameha found himself after the 
death of Ka-lani-opu'u. Kamehameha, like Umi, was tlie kahu of the idol 
{akua) probably in both cases the same, Ku-kaUi-moku, Ku. the land- 



336 

grabber; but Umi was left without resources with which to maintain his 
proper self-respect or to support the service of tlie idol, or divinity that 
was entrusted to his care. But in both instances genius, ability, was able 
to take care of itself. 



CHAPTER LXVIL 



UMI. 



Umi was the son of Liloa, but not his first son. The name of 
his first son was Hakau, whom he begot by Pinea, the regular 
wife of Liloa. Hakau was considered a very high chief, because 
Pinea was of the same ahi-rank as Liloa, owing to the fact that 
Liloa's mother, Waiolea, was the elder sister of Pinea. 

2. Umi was the child of Liloa by a woman whom he seduced 

named Akahi-a-kuleana. She has often been spoken of as a 

person of no alii blood, but the fact was that she was of the same 

alii line as Liloa himself. They were both descendants of Kani- 
pahu. 

3. The genealogies of Akahi-a-kuleana and of Liloa from 

Kanipahu are as follows : Kanipahu first took to wife Ala-i- 
kaiia-koko, as a result of which union was born Kalapana, the 
ancestor of Liloa. Afterwards Kanipahu took to wife Hualani, 
who gave birth to Ka-la-hu-moku. who was the ancestor of 
Akahi-a-knleana. 

4. Kalahumoku took to wife Laamea, and begot Tkialaamca. 
Ikialaamea took to wife Kalama, and begot Kamanawa-a- 

akalamea. 
Kamanawa-a-akalam.ea took to wife Kaiua, and begot Ua- 

kai-ua. 
Ua-kai-ua took to wife Kua-i-makani, and begot Ka-nahae- 

kua-i-makani, 
Ka-nahae-kua-i-makani took tO' wife Kapiko, and begot 

Kuleana-kapiko. 



/ / 



337 

5- Kuleana-kapiko took to. wife Keniani-a-hoolei, and begot 
Akahi-a-kuleana, who was wifed by Liloa, aiid gave 
birth to Umi. 

6. Here is the genealogy from Kalapana : 

Kalapana and Makeainalaehanae, begot Kahaimoeleaikai- 
kupou. ' 'y 

Kahaimoeleaikaikupou and Kapoakauluhailaa, begot Ka- 
launuiohua (k.). 

Kalannuiohua and Kaheka, begot Kuafwa. 

Kuaiwa and Kainuleilani, begot Kahonkapu. 

Kahoukapu and Laakapu, begot Kauhola. 

Kauhola took to wife Neulaokiha and Waiolea, and begot 
Liloa. 

Liloa took to wife Akahiakiileana, and begot L^mi. 

7. The story of the birth of Umi is as follows : Liloa, the 
father of Umi, was at that time the king of all Hawaii and had 
fixed residence in the Waipio valley ,Hamakiia. 

8. The incident happened while Liloa was making a journey 
through Hamakua toward the borders of Hilo to attend the 
consecration of the heiau of Manini. This heiau, which Liloa 
had been pushing forward to completion, was situated in the 
hamJet of Kohola-lele, Hamakua. 

9. When the tabu liad been removed he waited for a while, 
till the period of refreshment {hoomahanalianoY was over, and 
then moved on to the North of that place and staid at Kaawiki- 
wiki, where he gratified his fondness for pahee and other games. 

10. While staying at this place he went to bathe in a little 
stream that runs through Hoea, a land adjoining Kealakaha. It 
was there and then he came across Akahi-a-kuleana. She had 
come to the stream and was bathing after her period of impurity 
in preparation for the ceremony of purification, "after which she 
w^ould rejoin her husband, that being the custom among women 
at the time. Her servant was sitting on the bank of the stream 
guarding her pa-u. 



338 

11. When Liloa looked upon 4ier and saw that she was a 
)fine looking woman he conceived a passion for her, and, taking 
liold of her, he said, 'lie with me." Recognizing that it was 
Liloa, the king, who asked her, she consented, and they lay 

together. 

12. After the completion of the act, Liloa, perceiving tliat the 
"woman was flowing, asked her if it was her time of impurity, 
■to which she answered, ''Yes, this is the continuation of it." 
'^'You will probably have a child then," said Liloa, and she an- 
swered that it was probable. Liloa then asked her whose she 
was and what was her name. "I am Akahi-a-kuleana," said she, 
''and Kuleanakapiko is the name of my father." "You are un- 
doubtedly a relation of mine," said Liloa. "Quite likely," said 
she. 

14. Then Liloa instructed her regarding the child, saying, 
"When our child is born, if it is a girl do you name it from your 
side of the family ; but if it is a boy give to him the name Umi." 

15. "By what token shall I be able to prove that the child is 
yours, the king's?" 

16. Then Liloa gave into her hands his malo^ his niho-palaoa, 
and his club {laoM palau), saying, "These are the proofs of our 
child, and when he has grown up give these things to him."^ 
To this arrangement Akahiakuleana gladly assented, and handed 
the things over to her maid, to be taken care of for the child. 

17. Liloa then made for himself a substitute for a malo by 
knotting together some ^i-leaves, with which he girded himself. 

18. On returning to the house the people saw that he had 
a covering of ti-leaf, which was not his proper wa/o and they re- 
marked io each other, "What a sight ! Liloa is out of his head. 
That isn't his usual style ; it's nothing but a ti-leaf makeshift for 
a malo.'' 

19. Liloa remained at this place until the period of refresh- 
ment (hoojnahanahana) was over and then he went back to 
W'^aipio, his permanent residence. 

20. A short time after this Akahi-a-kuleana found herself to 



339 

be with child, tlie child Umi. Her husband, not knowing that 
Liloa was the true father of the child, supp^ised it to be his own, 

21. When the boy was bom his mother gave him the name 
Umi as she had been bidden to do by Liloa at the time cf his 
conception. 

22. And they fed and took care of the boy until he was grown 
of good size. The stor\- is told that on one occasion, when his 
foster-father, the husband of Akahi-a-kuleana, returned to the 
house, after ha\-ing been at work on his farm, and found that Umi 
had eaten up all the food that had 6een prepared, he gave the 
lad a beating. 

23. Umi was regularly beaten this way ever\- time it was 
found that he had consumed the last of the fish and poi, or any 
other kind of food. This was the way Umi's foster father treated 
him at aU times, because he in good faith took the lx>y to be his 
own son. 

But Umi and Akahi-a-kuleana were greatly disturbed at the 
treatment he received. 

24. Then Umi privily asked his mother "Have I no other 
lather but this one? Is he my only mahitaf'"^ 

2^. "You have a father at Waipio,"' answered his mother, "his 
name is Liloa.'* "Perhaps I had better go to him," said L'mi. 
"Yes, I think you had better go,'' said his mother. 

26. After that, on a certain occasion when Umi had consumed 
the food and his foster father (makua kolca)^ had given him a 
drubbing, Akahi-a-kuleana expostulated and said, "Z^Iy husband, 
it is not your own son that you are all the time beating after this 
fashion." 

2/. Then her husband flamed into passion and sarcastically 
said, ''Who, pray, is the father of this child of yours? is it King 
Liloa?" -Yes/" said she. "Liloa is the father of my child." 

28. "Where is the proof of the fact that this son to whom you, 
mv wife, have given birth, belongs to Liloa?" demanded he. 

29. Then Akahi-a-kuleana called to her maid-servant and 
ordered her to bring the things which Liloa had left for Umi. 



340 

30. "You see now/' said she, ''who is the real father of the 
boy," and the man was satisfied that he could not claim the pater- 
nity of the child. 

31. Sometime after this explanation Akahi-a-kuleana care- 
fully instructed Umi as to his going tO' Waipio tO' Liloa. 

32. She girded him with Liloa's malo, hung about the boy's 
neck the lei-palaoa, and put into his hands the club, after which 
she carefully instructed Umi how he was to act. 

33. ''Go down into Waipio valley," said she, " and when you 
have reached the foot of the pali swim to the other side of the 
stream. You will see a house facing you ; that is the residence 
of Liloa. 

34. ''Don't enter through the gate, but climb^ over the fence; 
nor must you enter the house in the usual way, but through the 
king's private^ door. If you see an old man, and some one wav- 
ing a kahili over him, that is your father, Liloa ; go up, to him 
and sit down in his lap. When he asks whO' you are, tell him 
your name is Umi." Umi assented tO' all his mother's instruc- 
tions. 

35. Akahi-a-kuleana ordered her brother, Omao-kamau, to 
accompany Umi and to wait upon him. Omao-kamau readily 
agreed to this and followed him as a servant. 

36. She also directed that Omao-kamau should take charge 
of the club which had been Liloa's, saying, "Keep this stick 
which was Liloa's." 

37. When all the arrangements had been made, Umi and 
Omao-kamau started off on their journey by themselves. 

38. On reaching Ke-aha-kea they came across a little boy 
named Pii-mai-waa, who asked them whither they were going. 
"To Waipio," they replied. 

39. "I will adopt you as my boy, and you may ge along with 
us to Waipio," said Umi. "Agreed," said the lad, and they pro- 
ceeded in company. 

40. On reaching Waipio they descended into the valley by 
way of Koaekea, and coming to the foot of the pali they all swam 
across the Wailoa stream. 



341 

41. Gaining the other side they saw before tliem the residence 
of Ldoa at a place called Hau-no ka-ma'a a-JiaJa, with the entrance 
to the house facing them. 

4^. On nearing the house Umi said to the others, "You two 
tarry here and wait for me. I will go in to Liloa. If in my 
going to him I am killed, you must return by the wav we came; 
but if I come back alive to you we shall all live.' With these 
words Umi left them. 

43- In his going Umi climbed over the fence that surrounded 
the residence of Liloa and entered the house by Liloa's private 
door, as his mother had bade him do when he left her. 

44- When Liloa's officers (that stood guard about him) saw 
that the lad had forfeited his life {Im^ because he liad climbed 
over the fence, which was a sacred and tabu thing, they gave 
chase after him to kill him. Then Umi ran up to Liloa and made 
as if he would sit down in his lap: but Liloa spread his tliighs 
apart so that L"mi sat down upon the ground. 

45. As he did so Liloa saw the niho-palao on Umi's neck, 
and his own malo about L^mi's loins, and he asked, "What is 
your name? Are you L^mi?'' "Yes." answered he, "I am L^mi, 
your son." 

46. Then Liloa took L'mi upon his lap and embraced and 
kissed him and inquired of him, "Where is Akahi-a-kuleana ?^" 

47. "She it was," answered Umi, "who directed me to come 
to you.*' Then Liloa showed to the people the -things of his 
which Umi had, saying, "This is my malo and my palaoa — but 
v/here is my club?'' "It is outside, in the hands of my compan- 
ion," answered the boy. 

48. Then Liloa sent for Omaokamau and Pi'i-mai-wa'a. 

49. And he said to all his people, "When we went to conse- 
crate the hciau you called me a crazy one, because I wore a malo 
of //-leaf. 

^o. "But here is that malo of mine, and that uiho-halaoa, also 
that club. I left them for this one, He is my son, Umi.'" 

31. Then all the people saw that Umi was the son of Liloa. 
The king then ordered to bring his idols that the ceremony of 
oki-piko might be performed on Umi, and it was done. 



342 

52. When Hakau, Liloa's first son, heard the sound of the 
drum, he asked what it meant, and the people answered, "It is 
the drum at the oki-piko of Liloa's new-foimd son, Umi/' 

53. On hearing that Liloa had a new son, Hakau was full of 
wrath, and he came to Liloa with the question, ''Is this your son ?" 
To this Liloa ayed assent and at the same time tried to placate 
Hakau, saying, ''You will be king, and he will be your man. You 
will have authority over him." With words like these Liloa tried 
to soften ilakau's anger towards Umi. Hakau was outwardly 
appeased, but there was a hypocrkical reservation within. 

54. While Umi lived in the court of Liloa he gave the strict- 
est obedience to his father's commands, and Liloa on his part took 
the greatest care of his son, Umi. This was noticed by Hakau. 

55. And the very fact intensified the hatred of Hakau to Umi, 
so that he always treated him with rudeness, and thus it \vas so 
long as Liloa lived. Hakau's anger aiid constant hectoring of 
Umi continued through Liloa's life, and caused the king much 
pain and sadness, 

56. When Liloa drew near to death he announced it as his will 
that Hakau should inherit all the land, but that the idols and the 
house of the gods should be given to Umi, to be under his care. 



57. After the death of Liloa, Umi submitted dutifully himself 
to Hakau. Hakau, however, hated Umi cordially and treated 
him with great contempt and spitefulness (hookae.) 

58. Once when Umi rode upon Hakau's surf-board, Hakau 
said to him, "Don't you use my surf-board. Your mother was 
a common, plebeian w^oman of Hamakua. My board is tabu. 
I am an alii/' 

59. When Umi chanced on one occasion to put on a "nialo 
belonging to Hakau, Hakau insulted and upbraided him, saying, 
"Don't vou wear mv nmlo. I am an alii. Your mother was a 
low-class woman of Hamakua." 

60. Thus it was that Hakau insulted and actuallv offered vio- 
lence to Umi so that finally he made up his mind to leave the 
court of Hakau secretly, his two companions, Omaokamau, and 
Pi'imaiwa'a, who came with him from Hamakua, keeping him 
company in his fiight. 



343 

6i- The road they followed in their departure was the same 
as that they took in their coming^. 

62. After climbing Koae-kea and reaching Kukui-haele they 
found a boy iiamed Koi, and Umi having adopted him as his own, 
son, he travelled along with them. 

63. On reaching Kealakaha, which was Urn i's birth-place, they 
did not put up w^ith his mother. Their inclination was rather to 
wander still farther. 

64. For that reason they travelled on in a northerly direction, 
and reaching the western bounds of Hilo, they entered a land 
called Wai-puna-lei. 

65. It being now near the close of day they selected a place 
to camp down and spend the night; but at day-break they re- 
sumed their journey, for Umi had conceived the idea of living 
a vagabond life in some unknown and out-of-the-w^ay place, be- 
cause he was ashamed at having been so insulted by Hakau. 

66. When it came bed-time the young women of the place 
saw that they were clean and wholesome-looking youths, and 
they chose them for husbands, and they spent the night with 
them, (a hoao ae lakou.) 

6y. There was a young woman to each of them, but Umi was 
such a handsome fellow that he had two. 

68. While they stayed at this place they (the young men) 
agreed among themselves, after consulting together, that Umi's 
name should be kept secret; and on talking it over with each 
other again, they still further agreed that Umi should do no 
work. Umi accordingly performed no labor. 

69. After they had been there awhile Pi'i-mai-wa*a. Koi and 
Omao-kamau went out to work in the farms of their fathers-in- 
law ; but Umi did not go.® 

70. When the young men came home at night from their farm- 
ing, their fathers-in-law were delighted with their vigor as farm- 
ers. 

71. But Umi's father-in-law was greatly disappointed that 
Umi did not work to help support his wife. 

^2. On one occasion they went down to the ocean at Lau-pa- 
hoe-hoe, and engaged in surf -bathing (kaha-nalu) . in which Umi 
w^as of superior skill ; and Umi raced with one Paiea. 



344 

73. And as tliey were coursing, Paiea rudely crowded over 
onto Umi, so that his board came violently in collision witli Umi's 
shoulder and hurt him severely. This w^as the fault, on account 
of which Umi aftenvards put Paiea to death, he having then suc- 
ceeded to the government of the island. 

74. \Mien it came to tlie season for aku, Pi'i-niai-wa'a. Omao- 
kamau and Koi x^ent a-trollinp- for aku alono- with the men of 
the place. 

y>. Their fatliers-in-law were delighted, when they got the 
fivSh, but the fathers-in-law of Umi were very much put oiit 'be- 
cause he did not go for aku with the fishermen of the region. 

76. Umi's fathers-in-law said to Umi's wives, "If this fat hus- 
band of yours were only a fisherman now, we would have some 
aku to eat, but as it is, you are wasting yourselves on this man." 

yy. On one occasion when the fishermen saw that Umi was 
a strong fellow they invited him to go a/?//-fishing with them, and 
he consented. They did not know that he was an (7///, though the 
disappearance of Umi had become notorious : nor did they know 
that his name Avas Umi. 

/S. AMiile the)' were fishing, Umi noticed that when a fislier- 
man took in a fish he passed it between his legs (poho-IalG) in 
putting it into the canoe, and when it came to the division of the 
fish, he would not use as food for himself such as had been 
treated in this way.'^ 

79. But he exchanged the fish thus obtained for those of an- 
other fisherman, whose fish had been passed over the fisherman's 
shoulder, saying to him, "Give me your small fish, and take in 
exchange these large fish as yours;" to which the other readily 
■agreed. 

So. Umi would not .eat of these fish, but took them as an 
ofi'ering to his god Kaili, which he kept in a secret place near 
the residence of Ho-kuli. 

81. \A'hen Kalei-o-ku, the prophet, noticed that as often as 
Umi Avent a-fishing, which was very frequently, a rainbow-' ap- 
peared over the patch of calm water in the ocean that surrounded 
liim (malau), and he said to himself, "Perhaps this is Umi," — 
for he had heard of Umi's disappearance. 



345 

^2. Accordingly Kalei-o-ku came down to where Umi was 
living-, bringing with him a pig, as an offering. And when he 
arrived at Umi's place of residence he found him living in a 
lordly fashion, and he said to himself. 'This man is an qUl' 

83. He immediatel}- offered the pig, at the same time repeat- 
ing tills prayer, ''Here is a pig. o God, a pig for the purpose of 
tietecting an alii/' Then Kalei-o-ku released the pig, and it went 
and stood before^'* Umi: after which it came back to Kalei-o-ku. 

84. Kalei-o-ku then put to him the question, "Are you Umi ?" 
"I am he," said Umi. "Let us go then to my place." said Kale- 
ioku, and Umi consented and went with him. Thereupon his 
fathers-in-law and all the people of the neighborhood said, "So 
then this man is an cJii. and his name is Umi, the son of Liloa. 
He is that one of whorn we heard some time ago that he was 
lost." 

85. Then Umi and his wives, and Pi'i-mai-wa'a, Omao-ka- 

mau, and Koi, and their wives accompanied Ka-lei-o-ku to his 

residence. 

THE EXD. 

NOTES TO CHAPTER LXVU. 

(i) Sect. 9. Hoo-mahana-hana. lit'erally to warm, to cause to be 
warm. In this connection it probably refers to that relaxation from the 
rigors of temple-worship spoken of in connection with the lua-kini. See 
note 2, Sect. 5. Chap. XXXVII. It is probable that Liloa had been en- 
gaged in the pious work of consecrating some newly built temple. 

(2) Sect. 16. From the point of view of the time, the conduct of 
Liloa in this whole affair was not only non-reprehensible, but was at the 
same time marked with a fine sense of honor. The eiving of the pledges 
into the hands of Akahj-a-kuleana, so far as they go, give color to this 
view. 

(3) Sect. 24. The term makua was applied to an uncle as well as to 
one's own father. It was a common thing for children to roam from one 
viakua to another for the most trivial reasons. This was a vice, a weak 
point in the Polynesian social system. 

(4) Sect. 26. Makua^kolea. A very significant' phrase, literally a 
plover-father. Apropos of the uncertainty of the parentage on the male 
side the Hawaiians have the sa>-ing. "Maopnpo. ka inakuahine, niaopopo 
ole ka makuakane," one can be sure of the mother, but not of the father. 

(^) Sect. 34. This daring act was intended as a rightful assertion of 
hio-h alii rank. In Maori stor}-, says S. Percj' Smith, when a child goes 



346 

to visif a heretofore unseen parent he does not enter by the main gate- 
way, but over the fence of the pa. 

(6) Sect. 66. A ho-ao ae lakou. The study of the word ho-ao sheds 
a flood of Hght upon the manners and customs of the ancient Hawaiian?. 
To remain with a woman until morning, broad dayhght, was equivalent 
to declaring her one's wife. Apropos of this subject see note- 7, Chap. 
XLI, on the game ume. In the Wakea sun-myth Wakea's relation to 
Hoohoku-ka-lani was regarded as one of marriage onl^ when he had re- 
mained with her until day-light. (See Chap. XLIII, Notes.) 

(7) Sect. 69. "But Umi did not go." Polynesians were not behind 
some other races in that sort of devotion to aristocracy which thought it 
belittling to noble blood to soil the hands with labor. Umi did not, how- 
ever, consistently live up to this notion. Kamehameha also broke away 
from tnis tradition, and set an example to husbandmen by farming it 
with his own hands. 

(8) Sect. 78. It was a race-trait of the Polynesians — and still is — to 
have unaccountable squeamish notions as to food, not merely superstitious 
ceremonialisms, but personal, finicky, disgust's. In this case, however, it 
would seem as if it was something; more than a personal whimsy, perhaps 
a delicate scruple as to the respect due his god, Kaili. 

(9) Sect. 81. The rain-bow was looked upon as one of the signs of 
royalty; so also was a thunder-storm, a heavy surf, or any unusual mete- 
orological disturbance. In this attempt to weave into the story of Umi, 
a purely historical character, these omens and portents, we can, if I mis- 
take not, detect a myth-making effort in its early stage, 'ine attempt in 
this case is so well within the historic period, so close to modern times, 
as to spoil the effect by raising the suspicion of self-consciousness. 

(10) Sect. 83. The pig had the reputation of being a capital detective 
of royalty. During the reign of Ka-la-kaua the "Board of Genealogy," 
of historic fame, employed the detective power of this animai to search 
out and reveal the hiding place, and establish the identity, of the long lost 
bones of the great Kamehameha. The effort was claimed to have been 
successful. 



OONTEINTS 



CHAPTER. 

I. 

II. 
III. 
IV. 

V. 

VI. 
VII. 
VIII. 
IX. 
X. 
XI. 
XII. 
XIII. 
XIV. 
XV. 
XVI. 
XVII. 
XVIII. 
XIX. 
XX. 
XXI. 
XXII. 
XXIII. 
XXIV. 
XXV. 
XXVI. 
XXVII. 
XXVIII. 
XXIX. 
XXX. 
XXXI. 
XXXII. 
XXXIII. 
XXXIV. 
XXXV. 
XXXVI. 
XXXVII. 
XXXVIII 
XXXIX. 
XL. 
XLI. 
XLII. 
XLIII. 
XLIV. 
XLV. 



PAGE. 

General Remarks on Hawaiian History 19 

The Formation of the Land 21 

The Origin of the Primitive Inhabitants of Hawaii-nei. . 23 

Of the Generations Descended from Wakea 24 

Names Given to Directions, or the Points of the Compass 28 

Terms Used to Designate Space Above and Below 32- 

The Natural Features of the Land 36 

Concerning the Rocks 40 

The Plants and the Trees 41 

The Divisions of the Ocean 48 

Eating Under the Tabu-System 50 

The Divisions of the Year 53 

The Domestic and the Wild Animals 61 

Articles of Food and of Drink in Hawaii 67 

The Fishes 70 

The Tapas, Malos, Pa-us and Mats of the Hawaiians 73 

The Stone-Ax and the New Ax y6 

The Aliis and the Common People yS 

Life in the Out-Districts and at the King's Residence 91 

Concerning Kauwa 96 

Wrong Conduct and Right Conduct loi 

The Valuables and Possessions of the Ancient Hawaiians 106 

The Worship of Idols 112 

Religious' Observances Relating to Children 119 

The Circumcision of Children 127 

Religious Worship for the Healing of the Sick 130 

Concerning Dead Bodies 131 

The Ceremony of Kuni ^ 135 

Ceremonies on the Death of a King 141 

The Medical Treatment of the Sick 144 

Necromancy (Kilo-kilo) 150 

Obsession ( Akua Noho) 155 

The House — Its Furniture and Its Consecration 158 

The HaA^aiian Canoe 168 

Religious Ceremonies Performed by the Aliis for Offspring 179 

The Makahiki-Festival 186 

The Lua'kini 210 

The Civil Polity (Kalai-moku) 248 

Agriculture 269 

Fishing 274 

Sports aAd Games — Ume 281 

" — Kilu 284 

" " " — Puhenehene 287 

" — Kukini (Running Foot-Races) 28^ 

" — Maika 289= 



348 

CHAPTER. PAGE. 

XLA'I. Sports and Games — Pahee 291 

XLVII. '• " " — Heihei-Waa (Canoe-Racing) 292 

XLVIII. " " " — Hee-Nalu (Surf-Riding) 293 

XLIX. " " " — Hee-Holua (Holua-Sledding) 294 

L. " " " — Noa 295 

LI. " " " — Pu-kaiila (Juggling) 297 

LII. " " " — Kea-Pua, or Pa-Pua 301 

LIII. " " " — Haka-Mo-a (Cock Fighting) 302 

LI V. " " " —The Hula 303 

LV. " " " — I\Iokomoko (Boxing) 304 

LYI. •' " " — Hakoko (Wrestling) 305 

LVII. Sundry ]\Iinor Sports — Panapana Honuhonu, Pahipahi, 
" " " — Hookakaa, Lele-koali, Lele-kawa, 

" " " — Kau-pua, Pana-iole 305 

" " — Kui-alua, Konane, Hei, Kimo, 

" " — Hoolele-lupe 306 

LVIII. The Flood 307 

LIX. Traditions of the Ancient Kings, and Genealogy 311 

*■ — Kahiko, Lihau-ula, Wakea, Kane-ia-kumu- 

'■ — honua , 311 

" — Wakea, Papa, and Hoo-hoku-ka-lani 312 

LX. Haloa, the Son of Wakea 320 

LXI. Waia, the Son of Haloa 320 

LXII. Kapawa, Hele-i-pawa, Ai-kanaka, Puna and Hema 322 

Kahai 323 

Wahie-loa. Laka, Lua-nuu, Pohu-kaina, Hua, Pau, Hua- 

nui-i-ka-lai-lai, Pau-makua, Haho 323 

Palena, Hana-laa-nui, Hana-laa-iki, Puna-imua, Lana-ka- 
wai. Laau, Pili, Koa, Ole, Kuko-hou, Ka-niuhi, Kani- 

pahu 324 

LXIII. Kalapana 327 

LXIV. Ka-lau-nui-ohua 328 

LXV. Kau-hola-nui-mah'u 332 

LXVI. Liloa 334 

LXVII. Umi 336 

Table of Contents 347 

Index 349 

Title Page i 

Dedication 3 

Biographical Sketch of David Malo 5 

Preface by David Malo 15 

Introduction by W. D. Alexander 17 

LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS. 



4- 

5- 
6. 

7- 



PAGE 

Frontispiece. Portrait of the Author. 

Interior View of Cable of Hawaiian House 166 

Tenon and- mortise joining rafters, o'a, of roof to the uprights, poii, 

of the side of the house, also ridgepole, in section 167 

Manu. figure-head of Canoe, ordinary style 178 

Lele-iwi. figure-head sometimes used for display ; . . . 178 

The ^lakahiki Idol or Akua loa 201 

}^Iarks on the face indicating a Kauwa rank lOi 



INDEZX 



A 

PAGES 

Adoption of children 82 

Agriculture 269-273 

Aha. a sacred cord 232 

Aha, a prayer 211, 218. 224, 226. 238 

Ahu-pua'a. ///. ))io'o. etc. as lesser divisions of a district' 37 

Ahu-ula. as regalia and insignia 106 

Ai-alo, courtiers 85 

Ai-kane, an intimate (of the king) 85, 257, 265 

Ai-noa, an office in the old times 53 

Aku, a fish, tabu, relating to it 25. 199, 251, 275 

Akua loa. Makahiki god 189 

Akua maoli, a real god, a spirit 144 

Akua noho 155. 156 

Akua paani 190. 202 

Akua poko 190, 203 

Alae, mud-hen 63 

Ala-mihi. or ele-mihi, a crab - y^ 

Alii and common people, their physical characteristics 78, 89 

Alii, king or chief, his dut'ies and powers 79 

Alii, kuauhan, pedigree 80, 82 

Alii, lalo-lalo, a brevet title 82 

Alii, kapus belonging to chiefs 83, 84 

Aliis employed a priest in their worship, the people did not 112 

Alalaua, or azveoweo, an omen of death 7Z 

Altar, -in the ceremony of child-weaning 120, 123 

Altar, or Jieiaii, of the fisherman, termed ku-ula 279 

Ancestors worshipped as deities 113 

Animals of Hawaii, domestic and wild 61-66 

Animals imported from abroad ^6 

Apana, okana, kalana, etc. as divisions of land 37 

Apteryx, the moho 62 

Army, divisions of 260 

Arrival of people at Hawaii from windward 27 

Arrow- darting, ke'a-pua 301 

Astrology and war 260 

Atheists, aia' 1 13 

Athletic contests among court followers 93, 94, 257 



350 

PAGES 

Attendant's of a chief 85, 86, 265 

Au-makua 31, 142, 157 

Awa 69 

Axes yj 

Axes, consecration of, for making the haku-ohia idol 217 

Ax-makers an esteemed class yj 

Ax-quarries 78 

B 

Ban of uncleanness 131 

Battle 86, 259, 260 

Beggars and tramps, terms to designate them 86 

Beginning of traditions, Kumu-lipo, Paliku, etc 20 

Beginning of new year 199, 206 

Beliefs of the ancient Hawaiians about right and wrong 104, 105 

Betrothal of young chiefs 179, 184 

Betting in old times 295 

Birds of the firmament, migratory birds 65 

Birds that are ocean-divers 64 

Birds trapped with nets 62, 66 

Bird; whose flesh is used for food 62, 64 

Birds who^e plumage was used in decorating the Makahiki idol 65 

>Eirds whose plumage was used in feather- work 6$ 

Birth at Ku-kani-loko a thing to be prized 322, 325 

Blow-holes and whirlpools 49 

Bones and relics of the dead often preserved by friends 134 

Bonfires of Pttea lighted 195, 196. 203 

Bowls and dishes for household purposes 161 

Boxing, mokomoko 304 

Bringing up of a prince or princess 182 

Builders of a temple must purify themselves 214, 234 

Building a heiau caused famine 251, 262 

Building of a new temple 199, 206, 210 

Burial in lao valley an honor 325 

Burial rites 132, 142 

C 

i^Calabashes of gourd 161, 162 

Candles, lamps and flambeaus used at court 88, 90 

Cannibalism, traces of it in certain rites 199, 229, 246 

Canoe-gods, male and female, invoked 169, 170 

"Canoes of the Hawaiians in the earhest times 26 

Canoe-lashings , .26 174 

Canoe, hauling of, to the ocean 170 

Canoe, fashioned in the halau 170. 171 



7,Zl 

m 

Can -.±'T^c:'2 .89, 292 

Canoe; coosecratioa : f 17:. : -2. : -^ 

Cance. z rtirrir^ry i-^fnTigs in ms^'-di^^ ii. 168 

Canoe, co" trr.g f : r. - j-i^ 174. 175 

Cs^ry:^. p_ir: ir. 1 jr.-t:t,y:i7€:ni€nts iir i5^ 

Csi-i-t. rigger. t :n3prcTe^ ly Ksjitiha in rtigr. : Kt^ j/e 17- 

Cai-Jinfc. fe<:;::;« 7: 

C51- tf. boles :n the ground, fccHc-w- tree=. etc, as houses ifi 

CcrtTr.c-rv sjiid prsiyer ^i the conse.-rraifc-n of a hcose i:::rd:r.g to 

Molokai rite 165 

Ctrtr: cut 5.1 ihe "^.t^Li::- g of a child "3S 

Ceremonies by the king -trr-initing ]*?^'-iihiV: r€as^c2 :» 

Ctrerr.ci]- : cutting the navel-cord iS: 

Certrr :iiT, i-tzirt felling a tree f :r a canoe i^. 169 

CtTtTT.i'y of Ijreakirg the cocc3tt:t ci^h cf the king 188, 20:- 

Ceronou y h-tf ore rrhi' g 27= 

Ceremony '. : bringing dc-ivn a kcia tree for the /:jfea-:^";.j fcol 218. 219 

Cc-trr.oav ct-rected with the aJtii and -jpelu zzXni ;90. 251 

Ceremony of cirinisicision among the liigh chiefs, highly elaborate. . i^S 

Cereirt'Ot;;.- of con5«n:ating a canoe, /: Jr-a-Tj 171, 172. 173 

Cererrtctrr cf ■': :: kj: : :>. i—ftJLiz Lc-i!0 :o^ 

Ceremc^;. : r he-.'-g the .kk 130 

Cerert onv cf /ir't tojv'i j^/j 14.6. 148. 149 

Cere~ony of hoo-mahanaluxna 2:1, 2.J0. 2j : 

Cercmoay of hoomau keiii, pr>r-ir:r_g oSsprlng 180 

Cerentmy of A^fl- ^/I'l, in the Mak^^hik: 196, 197. 204 

Cerer^toDj" of ^jj-cJc-jI, girding the akua Makahiki 194 

Cererr-iny of sa-pjfj-ulua 226. 24.6 

Ceremony cf kuni 135-138 

Ceretrony of kuni at a king's death 141 

Ceremoriv of trimming the thatch over the do'tr kita:fa 164, itf 

Cere— 01:7 of oki-piko, c-nT.i-ng na-rel rtrltig i>i 

Ceremonv if oki-piko for the hzku-i^rlj :dtl 227 

Ceremon:. of &-luau •■ I95 

Cerenoiiy of pu-limu in the cure of the sicl-: :zf 

Ceremomv of purification for those defiled h;. a corpse : j2. 133, 1^4 

Ceremony of yiri&cation f t r fshermen 225. 276 

Chief 5 anparel tabu ^3 

Chiefs, excli:siveTje=s of 81 

Otief with a pedigree, a/ii pfl^a ^- 

Cmef with an ancestry, aJii kuauhau ^2 

Chiefs, character of :n ancient times 85 

Otief s destined to fill official portions 81 

Chi: dren of alii* often given a^ay 82 

Children of kau-v. a" SC-* 



35^ 



PAGES: 



Circuit of the island by the akua loa, in !Makahiki ^^ 

Circuit of the island by the king -^^' ~-^' "^' 

Circumcision, a religious rite ^ ^^' 

Cock-fighting. Jioo-hjka-))ioj "^°" 

Civil polits^ , 2^269 

Class called kait-wa, slaves QJ-IOI 

^lofhing made from tapa / 3- 74 

Clouds as weather signs and their designations ZZ 

'Colors used in staining tapa 74- JS^ 70 

Combats between patries of men for exercise 93. 96, 2}s7 

Commoners, mahaainana, and hu. their condition ^7 

Conquests made by Ka-Iau-nui-ohua 3^^- 333 

Contrast between manners of the countW people and the court folks. -91-94 

Corpse-eatinsT crab, ala-mihi ai-kupapa u , 73 

Cordage, rope, etc loS 

Corpses, their presence produced ceremonial defilement 131 

Country- life, comforts of. pastimes 91. 92 

Country people, contrasted with tliose about court 85, 91. 92 

'^Cowry. the leho. deemed an article of wealth iitx 

Cultivation of the kula lands 270. 271 

Cultivation of taro 270 

Customs of fhe Hawaiians. their resemblance to those of the Israelites 27 

Cutting of a woman's hair after the birth of the first child 183, 186 

Cutting the navel-cord of a child 181 

' Cutting the navel-cord of the haku-ohi'a idol 227 

Cutting the thatch over the door 164, 165 

D 

Days called na Maltoe, said to be added to certain months of the year 59 

Days (po) of tTie month, the names for them significant 55 

Death for infringing chiefish tabus S3 

Death penalty for various offence? 250 

Death of a King, ceremonies observed 141. 142 

Death, the probable penalty for a chief found to have kaiiwa' blood. . . 100 

Deep sea fisliing grounds and fisliing banks 278 

Defilement attached to persons who came near a corpse 131 

Deities presiding over different occupations 113. 

Deities worshipped by farmers 272. 277^ 

Deities worshipped by women for a special purposes 113 

Deluge, story of 307-310 

Descendants of ^lakanoni and K . the first real kau-wa 98 

Destim- of the guilty soul after death 153. 154 

Deification of a king after death 142. 143 

Directions named from prevailing winds 29 



353 

PAGES 

Direction or position downwards, lalo, terminology t,s 

Directions, and points of the compass 29, 31 

Diseases caused by akua noho, obsident deity 1=6 

Dishes, ipu no, 161 

Distribution of goods obtained by taxation 188, i8g 

Distribution of kula and wet lands on the islands 271 

Distribution of lands by the king 2;- 

Distribution of trees and plants on the belts of land zj, j8 

District's and their lesser divisions 2>7 

District in which a king died polluted for a time 141 

Diversit\- in idol worship, multiplicity of gods 112 

Division of labor between man and wife 55 

Divination. Kilo Kilo 152, 260 

Divisions of the ocean : 4S 

Divisions of the island ^y 

Divisions of time, of the year 53-54 

Dogs and pigs in Hawaii before the arrival of white men 66 

Dome of heaven it? supports, kukulu 28 

Door and doorway of a house 160 

Doorstep, the god of 114. 117 

Drum, kaekccke. of Laka 2G. 2H 

Duennas 184 

Dye-stuff? from plants 43-44 

E 

Eating tabu applied to children no 

Eating time of tabu chief sacred 83 

Eating under the tabu system ; 50. 51, 53 

Edible sea-shells 73 

Edicts of the king controlled by whim 84 

Education of the young chiefs 79. 80 

Embalming 132 

End posts of a house, pouhana, tabu 163 

Exclusiveness of the chiefs -Si. 

F 

family heiau, or shrine, probbaly part of the mua 5i- 1G4 

Famine-food 68 

Famine likely to follow the building of a hciau 251, 2C2 

Fans of the Hawaiian s 162 

Fate of an alii ai-moku killed in battle 231 

Fear and apprehension in which the common people lived ^7 

Feathers, objects of the greatest value 106, 107 

Feeding the Makahiki god i94 



354 

PAGES 

Fertilizers used in agriculture -70 

Fibre-plants for cord-making 43 

Firmament ka pa' a iluna, and earth ka pa' a Halo -9 

First bom children of cliiefs held the highest rank I79 

First daj^ (or night, po) of the month, Hilo 55 

First man, Kahiko -3. 3^- 

Fishes -70-7- 

Fishing 274-2S1 

Fish Baskets 2/j, 2S1 

Fishing hooks, a list of tlieir names 109. 277 

Fishing nets 277, 279. 280 

Fishing tackle, lines, nets, hooks, etc. articles of value 108 

Fishermen, their gods 113, 274 

Fishermen, their altars 270 

Flood, story of 307- 310 

Flying things that are not used as food 65 

Food and drink in Hawaii 67-69 

Food of child after weaning 119 

Food of new-born child 119 

Foods used in famine 68 

Foods denied to women under the kapu system 52 

Foods forbidden to the sick 145. 148 

Foot races 2S8. 289 

Formation of the land according to the genealogies {uio'o-kuauhau) . . 21 

G 

Game of /lo/wa-sledding 294 

Game of maika * 289-291 

Game oi no'a 195. 203, 295. 296 

Game of pahcc ^ 291. 292 

Games at Makahiki time , 194, J95 

Garret or loft of a house, aleo 16^, 165 

Genealogies from Kumu-lipo, Pali-kii and Lolo 20 

Genealogies treat of land-formation 2i 

Genealogies preservation of 80. 254 

Genealogy from Wakea to Liloa 312. 337 

Genealogy of Akahi-a-kuleana, mother of Umi 336 

Genealogy of Wakea and Papa 23. 51 

Generations descended from \\'akea 24, 312 

Geographical names given in melcs. in legends, in prayers 24 

Gifts to obtain justice 84 

Goddess of lactation, Kea, or Nua-kea 123 

Gods of various professions 113 

Gods of medicine 14:;, 147 

God of the doorstep 114 



355 

PAGES 

Gods, real, spiritual akua viaoU, and gods with a body, akua kino 143 

Gods were unseen, only their images \TsibIe 11;. 117 

Gods who presided over different regions 1 14 

Gods who were worshipped by men, and by women, respectively. .113^ 114 

Gourd (i/>« > of Lono 120 

Gourd-prayer at weaning a male child 121 

Government, the two powers. c\y\\ and religious 249 

Grasses ^^ 

Guardianship of young princess, after betrothal 18 j 

H 

Hainaki prayer to Lono 191. 192 

Hair-cutting done with sharks' teeth 162 

Hakau 2-^S>. 335, 342 

Hakoko, wrestling 305 

<Haku-ohia idol 21S 2^7 ^^2% ^^0 

Haku-one and Koele 39, 258 

Hale naua, its organization, and proceedings 2^2>' 254. 26^ 

Hale pe'a, the infirmary for women -,2 

Hale poki, a heiau for the enshrinement of a king's skeleton 142 

Haloa, a progenitor of the Hawaiian people 320 

Hana-la'a-iki and Hana-la'a-nui, kings 323 

Hangers-on-about-court, epithets applied to them 86, 93 

Hau, the land breeze 35 

Hawaiian people, origin of, related to the Tahitians 24. 25. 26 

•-fTawaiians 10 be classed as tapa-makers. not as weavers ^6 

Hawaii-nei made by the hands of Wakea 21 

He'e-nalu, surf-riding . . . . : 293. 294 

Heiau built by a chief after recovery from sickness 147 

Heiau loulu 206, 207 

Heiau mao 209 

Hele-i-pawa, a chief 27, 1,22 

Hema, andent mclc about liim ^^2^ 

Herbs used as greens 44 

Hiiaka Ii3- I55 

High priest, his functions, hereditarj' 249. 250. 252 

High priest, blindfolded at Makahild 190. 196 

Hiku and his bride I43 

Hilo, the first night (day) of the month 55 

Hiu-wai, a sport in bathing 190. 202 

Hoana, a grind-stone. A genuine Hawaiian word 78 

Hog. its varieties 61 

Holua-sledding 294 

Hono ceremony 22Q 

Hoo-hoku-ka-lani. daughter of Wakea .51. 314. 317. 3rS 



356 



PAGES 



Hooks for fishing 109, 277 

Hoo-mahana-hana service 211, 230, 231 

Hoo-uluulu prayer for the crops 232 

Ho'o-wili-moo service 226, 245 

House, its manner of construction i59> 166, 167 

House-making under the kapu system 51 

House of Papa, the women's temple 214, 230, 233 

Houses required to form a Hawaiian home 5i> 161, 164 

Houses that were common and those that were tabu 52 

Hula dancing 303. 304 

Hula, deify of 113 

Human sacrifices at the dedication of a temple, etc. .211, 218, 223, 226, 250 
Huna Kele, secret burial I34 



•^dol-gods, carried in procession 189, 221 

/Wol-worship, its great variety 112, 115 

Ihe, javelins 257, 291 

t^mages patterned after the imagined form of the p'ods 115 

Immoralities among the hangers-on about' court 93 

Imprecation in the kuiii ceremony 138 

Incantation in the kuiii ceremony 137 

Infirmary for women during monthly periods 52 

Intoxicating drinks 69 

Intercalary months 60 

Intermarriages favored among chiefs 80 

Irrigation in agriculture 270 

Island, its artificial divisions 37 



Jetsam iron used for axes 77 

Juggling, pii-kaula 297 

Justice purchased with gifts 84 

K 

Kaha'i, a voyager, a iiiclc about him 323, ^26 

Kahiki-moe, Kahiki-ku, etc., zones in earth and sky 30 

Kahiko, first man 23, 312, 316 

Kahiko, a good king 240, 320, 321 

-kahili, an emblem of royalty 107 

Ka-hoa-lii, a man personating a deity 197, IQ9, 204, 206, 215, 220, 221 

Kahoukapu and his wife Laakapu 2)^^ 

Kahuna anaana, disqualified for the performance of the ceremony of 

purification 135, 139, 143 

Kai and uka, terms of direction 28 



357 

PAGES 

Kai-a-Ka-hinalii, or deluge 307-310 

Kai-olo-a, a malo for the mo-i idol 230, 247 

Kalaimoku, office and functions of 88, 253, 259, 261 

Ka-lau-nui-ohua, and the prophetess 328 

Kalapana, king of Hawaii, tradition about him, how he became 

king, etc 327, 328 

Kalo, or taro, as a staple article of food 6^ 

Kama, predicted a pestilence ^ 321 

Kanaenae, the eulogistic preface t'o a prayer 144 

Kana, the god of jugglery 298 

Kane and Lono, the deities principally addressed in behalf of the sick 131 

Kane-ia-kumu-honua, his war with Wakea 313, 314, 317 

Kani-pahu, a king, traditions concerning him 324 

Kapawa, born at Ku-kani-loko, the same as Hele-i-pawa. .24, 27, 322, 325 
Kapu-a-noho, a tabu belonging to the offspring of consanguineous aliis 80 

Kapus possessed by aliis 83 

Kapu, penalty for violation of 83. 84, 250 

Kapu system, its restrictions on eating 50, 53 

Kapu, applied to everything belonging to a Kapu chief 83 

Kau and Hooilo, the two seasons of the year 53 

"=^3€'aua-kahi-a-ka-wa'u, legend about him, apropos of idols 11.7, 119 

Kau-hola-nui-mahu, story of his birth, etc 332, 333 

Kauila ceremony 220-222 

Kau-kau-alii, a chief of mixed rank 89 

Kaula, a prophet i53- I54 

Kau-wa', a term applied to a degraded class of people 96-100 

Kau-wa, tattoo marks of loi 

Kauwa, mutilation of the word in the text 100 

Ke'a-pua, arrow darting 301 

Kila, son of Moikeha 25 

Kilu, a game 284. 285 

Kings deposed by their people 258 

King's residence, tabu • • 83 

King's functions ._ 79 

Kini akua, woodland deities 1 14, 1 16 

Koa, the principal wood in canoe making 42. 1O6 

Ko'a lawaia, sunken fishing reefs, or deep sea fishing grounds 278 

Koele, a division of land 258, 271, 39 

Ko'i-hala, and Koha-i-ka-lani, bad kings who were killed by their sub- 
jects ' 258, 267 

Komoawa, Wakea's priest 313. 3I4 

Kuili service ^^S^ 220 

Ku-kani-loko, birth-place of Kapawa 24, 325 

Kukini, running foot races 288 

Kukoae, temple for purification 198, 206, 230 

Kukona, his merciful action 33.I. 2>Z2' 



358 

PAGES 

Kukui nuts for torches 42, 45> ^ 

Kukulu, fhe supports of heaven's dome 3° 

Ku-lani-ha-ko'i, the source of thunder, lightning and storm 33 

Kumu-lipo, an initial point of genealogy 20, 22. 23 

Kuni, an incantation to reveal one guilty of anaana I34, ^37 

Kuni, prayers 138, 140 

Kuni, priest, different from a Kahuna anaana I39 

Ku ritual and Lono ritual in building a temple 210 

Kuula, god of fishermen, also his altar 114, 279 

Ku-wa. tTie meaning of this archaic word ^ 177 

Ku-wa prayer 160, 164, 165 

L 

La'a came from Tahiti 26 

Labors, division of, between man and wife 53 

La'i-la'i, progenitor of the Hawaiian people 23 

Laka, a king 323, 326 

Lana-nu'u-mamao, or lana-nii'n, the oracle in a hiakini. .211, 214, 231, 233 

Lamps, of stone 88, 90 

Land breeze, Hau 35 

Land, its natural divisions 37, 38 

Lashings of the canoe, a sacred matter _^ . . 174 

Law lacking in ancient system of government 84 

Law of vowel changes in the Polynesian languages 49 

Life at court and in the country contrasted 91-94 

Lihau-ula, brother of Wakea, his fate 23, 312 

Liloa, his story 334-342 

Liloa recognizes Umi as his son .^. 341 

Lolo ceremony for a canoe .-•••• I71-I73 

Lolo-i-mehani, a mythical place, residence of Wakea and Papa 23, 24 

Lo-lupe, god of the kahuna hui, a kite-god 141, 143 

Lono 112. 192, 202, 210 

Lono-ka-wai, a king of Hawaii 25, 27. 324 

Lono-puha, a god of healing 148 

Lono, reason for giving tliis name to Capt. Cook 190 

Lono's canoe, zva'a auhau 198, 204 

Lono's gourd, ipii 120 

Luakini, proverbs regarding its service 230, 251 

Luakini, origin of the name 233 

Luakini, plan and measurements for 213 

Luakini, a war-temple 211, 212 

Luakini, consecration of 210-247 

Lua-nu'u, a king 323 

Luau and haha, greens from the t'aro 67 

LuhaUjkapawa, said to have been originator of kaou svstem 51 

Lu'ukia, paramour of IMoikeha 28, 174 

Luna^ or iluna, terms for North 29 



359 
M 

PAGES 

Maika, game 289. 

Maika stones, material for making them 40. 

Makaainana or common people 87, 88 

Makahiki festival and period 56, 186-209 

Makahiki, feeding the god, hanai pu 194 

Makahiki observance 56 

Makahiki idol 189, 201 

Makahiki idols, their dismantling 197 

Makaula, a prophet or seer and his powers 152 

Makua kolea 339, 345 

t—Malos, varieties of, named from their manner of printing and staining 74 

Man and wife ate separately under the kapu system 50, 51 

Manu, the curved head piece or stern piece of a canoe 174, 178 

Maoloha's net, legend of 204 

Mapele hHau , 211, 212^ 251 

(•HWarks tattooed on the lace of the kau-wa loi 

Marriages of chiefs 80, 82, 89^^ 180 

Marriage with a kau-wa abhorrent 99 

Mat's, materials from which they were plaited 75 

Matting used as canoe-sails 75, 174 

Medical treatment of the sick, a department of worship 145-147 

Medicine men, their gods 113 

Mele inoa, manner of its composition, recitation, etc 

95, 96, 180, 184, 185, 265 

Migrating birds called "birds of the firmament" manu ka Iczva.... 65 
Migration to Hawaii, its causes 25, 27 

>-Mirrors of ancient Hawaiians 162 

Moho, an apteryx 62 

Moikeha, tradition of him 26 

Mokomoko, or boxing 3(^4 

Monfhs and divisions of the year 57-60^ 

Ivlonlhly tabu seasons observed during eight months of each year...,. 56 

Months of the year, their characteristics 54 

Month, the number of nights (and days) it included 55- 5^, -0 

Moon's phases 55 

Mo'o, a reptile, a witch, or a monst'er, worshipped by female chiefs. . T14 

Morality, ancient idea of 101-105 

Mu, meaning of the word I35. 236 

Mua, one of the houses in a domestic establishment 50, i43» M^ 

Mythical places, Lalo-waia, Ka-mawae-lua-lani, Lolo-imehani, Nuu- 

mea-lani ••^ ^^ 



36o 

N 

PAGES 

Naha rank 8i 

Namin.s: the Hawaiian Islands • 25 

Natural divisions of the land 37, 38 

Navel cord, cutting of 181, 182 

Navigation by the stars :. "2.^ 

Necromancy 150-153 

Net of Ma-olo-ha, legend j.. . 204 

Nets used in trapping birds 66 

Nets for fishing 108, 2^7, 279 

New Year, began in Kaulua, 199, 206 

Niau-pi'o rank 80 

Night time in a chief's house 88 

Niheu 215, 235 

W<Niihau mats famed for beauty and delicacy 75, J^i 

'<i^f^[iho-palaoa, an ornament 107 

Noa, a game 203, 295,. 296 

North sometimes called luna, etc 28 

Northerly wind, Hoolua 35 

Nuakea, goddess of lactation 123 

Nu'u-meha-lani, a mythical place 24 

O 

Obsession, (akua noho) 155 

Obsident deity, an unihi-pili or an au-makua 155, 157 

Occupations and professions that were held in honor 104, 105 

Occupations of the common people 88 

Ocean, its divisions 48 

Ocean-tides 49 

Offerings made at the ceremony of circumcision 127 

Offerings made before battle 260 

Offerings made for a sick person 130 

Offering of first fruits 272, 273 

Offerings to idol during child-birth 180 

Offerings to Lono at the ceremony of weaning a child 120 

Offerings to procure pardon for sin 151 

Offerings to the gods preliminary to canoe-making 168 

Offerings to the gods at the consecration of a canoe 171 

Office and functions of kalai-moku 88, 253, 259 

Office of ai-noa 53 

Office and duties of high priest 249, 250 

Official positions to be filled by chiefs 81 

Official titles held by king's officers 86 

Official titles held by the king's personal attendants 85, 86 

Offspring of brother and sister 80 



36i 

PAGES 

Offspring of high chief, means taken to preserve their rank 80 

Oio, a procession of ghosts 152, 154 

Okole-hao, a distilled intoxicating liquor 70 

Oku'u, the pestilence in Kamehameha's time 321 

Omens propitious in sickness and at other times 145 

0-0, an agricultural instrument 108 

O'opu-hue, a poisonous fish ^2^ 

Opelu and aku of Paao 25, 199, 275 

Oppression of the country people 91, 255, 256 

Origin of aVu class, theory as to it 78, 79 

Origin of Hawaiian Islands volcanic 22 

Out-rigger of canoe 171 

Oven, imu 148 

Owl, pueo (i2. 



Paao Makua-kau-mana and Pili come to Hawaii 25 

Pahe'e, a game 291 

Pahi, a large canoe 26 

Paint for the Hawaiian canoe 42, 171, 177 

Pala, a sacred fern 68, 189, 195, 200, 219 

Pali, a precipice or mountain-wall, same word used in N. India.... 38, 39 

Pandamus, hala, its uses 44 

Papa and Wakea begot Hawaii nei 21 

Papa and Wakea 311, 314- 3i5, 3i7, 3i8 

Papa, the deification of eart'h 35. 3^ 

X— Papa's house, the women's temple 214, 230, 233 

A^aper-cloth, kat>a, its manufacture and uses yz^ 74 

Pau-makua, a king of Oahu 323. Z^l 

Pa-u, varieties of 74 

Pa-u, covering of a canoe 174. I79 

Pele and Hiiaka worshipped 113 

Pele-leu, a large canoe I79 

Penalties for violation of Kapu 83, 84, 250 

Period of refreshment by suspension of tabu, hoomahanahana. .. .211, 230 

Periods of separation of husband and wife under kapu 51, 211, 250 

Pestilence in Waia's reign 321 

Pestilence predicted by Kama in Kamehameha's reign 321 

Phases of the moon and names of the nights in a month 55 

Physical characteristics of the alii and the common people 78, 89 

Pig, its varieties 61 

Pig, as a detective 136, 345, 346 

Pili Kaaiea comes to Hawaii 25, 28, 325 

Plants and trees, loou. their uses 41-47 

Plover, kolea, method of catching 64 



362 

PAGES 

Pohokano, stone lamp 88, 90 

Poi-making 49 

Points of the compass 29 

Policy of the government 79 

Pololu, long spears 96, 257, 260. 267 

Pork, forbidden to women 52 

Pork, abstained from by chiefs during Makahiki 188. 198 

Posts and timbers of a house, their names, etc I59, 166, 167 

Pou-hana, end posts of a house, t'abu 163 

Prayer at a hoo-uluulu feast 207, 208, 209 

Prayer at child-weaning 121, 122, 123 

Prayer at circumcision 128, 129 

Prayer at consecration of a canoe 171, 172, 173 

Prayer before taking medicine 146, 147 

Prayer by a priest' at ceremonial purification of the unclean 133, 134 

Prayer for a full harvest 209 

Prayer for plenty 207 

Prayer for the cure of fhe sick 130 

Prayer for the forgiveness of sin, piilc kala 151, 152 

Prayer for rain 209, 251 

Prayer of purification at the dedication of a luakini 234, 235 

Prayer of purification before fishing 275. 276 

Prayers at the ceremony of oki-ka-piko, cutting the umbilical cord. 181, 182 

Prayer termed ku-wa, at the consecration of a house 164, 165 

Prayer to ancestral deities 31 

Prayer to remove tabu, "To Kane and his fellow Kanaloa" 46 

Prayer to Lono, to set the land free after tax-paying 191, 192 

Prayer to tlie goddess of lactation, Nuakea 124 

Priests, different orders of 210 

Priestly office of the alii 79 

Property of the alii, jetsam whale and porpoises 72 

Prophecy of Kapihe 154 

Prophecy of Opulu-pulu of Waianae 154 

Prophecy of Kama, as to the coming of the pestilence, okun 321 

Puea, "bonfires 195, 196, 203 

Pu-henehene, a sport 203, 287 

Pu-kaula, juggling 297 

Pu-keawe, its peculiar use 41/46 

Pule ipu at weaning of a male child 121 

Puna and Hema, chiefs 323, 325 

Punahele and aikane 82 

Pu'uku, manager of an alii's property 85 

Purification from defilement by a corpse, only by a temple priest. .132, 133 

Purification of a mother after child-birth 183 

Purification of the King after Makahiki festival 198 

Purification of an island, before temple-building... .214, 215. 216, 234, 235 
Purification of fishermen, before set'ting out 275, 276 



!■;■ 

fv'. 



363 
R 

PAGES 

Rain and rain-storms 33. 34 

Rank of the aliis 81, 82- 

Removal of the tabu in canoe-making 165^ 

Removal of the Makahiki restrictions 199 

Removal of male child to the mua house 119 

Removal of the heir of a King from the district on the King's death. . 141 

Responses by the people at ceremonies of purification 134, 276 

Responses by the people at the ceremonies of dedication 222, 230, 234 

Restrictions imposed by kapu as to houses and articles of food 52 

Retaliation the rule in ancient times 84, 106 

Right and wrong in the view of the ancient Hawaiians 104, 105, 106 

Right hand and left hand circuits of the islands by the King 231 

Roads and trails, their nomenclature 38 

Rocks and stones, their nomenclature 40 

t-^opes, cordage, etc 108 

Route to Tahiti 26 

Runners, celebrated in tradition 2S9 

S 

Sacrifices before battle . 260 

Sacrifice to oropitiate deity for the sick * 130 

Sacrificial feast at the installation of a weaned son in the mua 120 

See also Offerings. 

Sail of tlie canoe made of matting 75, 174 

Salt, manufacture and use of 162 

Samoan name for kukui 45 

Sea-breezes in different places 35 

Seasons, Kau and Hooilo, etc 53, 60 

Sea-turtle, its varieties 72 

Secret burial (huna kele) 134, 135 

Separation of bones from the flesh of a dead body 14-2 

Separation of the sexes during certain periods 51, 211, 250- 

Sepulture done at' night : 132 

Sepulture in secret caves for the body of a chief i35 

Sham fight called Ka'lii 196, I97 

Sharks' teeth employed in trimming the hair 162 

Shell-fish . . .'. 71 

Shoals in the sea as fishing places 278 

Significance of the names for the days of the month 55 

Signs of clearing weather 33 

Silence required in fhe consecration of a canoe 173 

Silence required during an aha prayer t 218. 224, 238 

Similarity of Hawaiian customs to those of the Israelites 27 



364 



PAGES 



Six months tabu on opchi, and on aku I99) 251, 275 

Slaves, or kau-wa 96-100 

Slings 257, 267 

Soldiery back of the king, their classes 79, 260 

Sorcerers I50j I57 

Sorcery in treatment of the sick, the he'e inahola I49 

Spear-woods 42, 43» 45 

Sport's and games indulged in about court 93, 94 

Sports and games described 284 to 306 

Squid-fishing 40, no, 281 

Staining materials used for tapa 74? 75 

Stamps for printing tapa 76 

Stars as aids in navigation 26 

Steam-bath used in medication 146 

Stones used in ax-making 40 

Stones used in making maikas 40 

St'ones used in making sinkers for squid-fishing 40 

Store-houses 257 

Sun's course and the orbits of the heavenly bodies 32 

Supplementary days given to certain months to fill out the year, 

according to some 59 

Surf-riding, hc'e-naln 293 

Sweet potat'o, a staple food 67 

T 

Tabu periods, four in each month 56, 58, 200 

Tabus relating to dead bodies ' 131, 132, 142 

Tabus on certain houses Si 

Tabus that hjedffed a chief 83, 84 

Tabu-system said to have been founded by Wakea 51, 319 

Tahitians of the same race as the Hawaiians 26 

Tahiti in mele, etc 24, 25, 26 

i^apa, bark cloth 73, 74 

Taro, its cultivation 269, 270 

Taro, legend of its origin 320 

Taxes collected at the Makahiki period 188, 191, 193, 199 

Tenon and mortise used in house-joining. ^ 159 

Thatching a house, materials used 160, 163 

Tides of the ocean 49 

Ti root, an article of famine-food 68 

Titles held by the king's officials 85, 86 

Titles of chiefs of different rank 81, 82 

'Torches of kukui nuts 42, 44, 88 

Tour about the islands made by the king to put up temples 231, 251 



365 



PAGES- 

. . 257 



Training of soldiers 

Treatment of the sick 145-14/ 

Trees and plants, their distribution on the various belts of land yi, 38 

U 

Ualo malie, another name for the Hale-naua 254 

Uka and kai, terms of direction 28 

UH, a deity 113^ 13^^ 1^0 

Ulu genealogy and Lono-ka-wai zy 

Ululani, tradition about him 47 

Umi, story of 336-346 

Unihipili 155, 157, 15S 

Unions, matrimonial, various names of 80, 81 

V ■ ■'- 

Valuables and possessions of the ancient Hawaiians 106, iii 

Vegetables introduced from foreign countries 69 

Vermin and wild creeping things 65 

Volcanic origin of the Hawaiian Islands 22 

Vowel-changes in Polynesian languages, law of 49 

Voyage of Paao, Pili and Makua-kaumana to Hawaii 25 

Voyage of Moikeha 26 

Voyage of Hema 325 

Voyage of Kaha'i 326 

Voyage of Paumukua T^2y 

W 

Wahie-loa, a king 323, 326 

Waia, son of Haloa, a bad king 320, 321 

•^aiea, temple 19^^ 204 

Wakea. meaning of the myth 317 

Wakea and Hoo-hoku-ka-lani, myth of 314, 317, 318 

Wakea, the generations descended from him 24 

Wakea made the land with his own hands 21 

Walls of heaven, kukulu o ka lani 30 

Wao, wilderness, different' kinds 37, 3S 

War, science of, and strategy 259, 260 

War mont'hs 206 

Water and turmeric used in purification 132 

Wauke, maniakc and other materials used in tapa-making 43, 73 

Weather-signs of the clouds 33 

Weli, or welina, old form of greeting 103, 202 

Whales and porpoises, when cast ashore, the property of the alii. ... 72 

Whirlpools and spouting-holes 49 

Wife separated from husband during certain tabu periods 51, 211, 250^ 



366 

PAGES 

A^'ild birds of Hawaii, and methods of catching them 62 

Wilderness of different kinds, wao, wao-akua, etc 27, 3^ 

\\'ili-wi]i, a wood 43- 293 

Winds and their varieties 34, 35 

Woodland deities. Kini akua, etc. worshipped 114, n6 

Women resume fish-eating, after Makahiki-tabu 196 

W'omen forbidden to eat certain foods by kapu 52 

^^'omen, the mat-makers and tapa-makers 74, 75 

V^^'oods and their uses 40-44 

Woods, the kinds used in spear-making 42. 43, 45 

l^Vorship of idols regarded as a virtue 105 

Worship paid to sharks and to other objects terrestrial and celestial. . 113 

Wrestling, hakoko 305 

Wrong conduct and right conduct r04> 105 

Y 

Year, beginning of 60, 199, 206 

Year, division into seasons 53, 60 

Year, the number of days it included 54 

Young chiefs, their education and discipline 79, 80 

Z 

Zenith, ka liooku'i, and the horizon, ka halawai 28 



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